(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Work materials ..."

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY j A Ql 

lllillllllllililliliillll '^^ 
3 9999 06542 018 2 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



WORK MATERIALS 



No. 28 



TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, FRANCE, 
GERMANY, ITALY AND JAPAN 



By 



Ivan V. Emelianoff 



, J 1 3 ' 'j J 

> J > > > 




Special Studies Section 
February, 1936 



• • •• 



• • • .' •••••• ,, 

V • •.•*•.. .: • ••♦.'.; r 



; .* 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 



DIVISION OF REVIEW 



TEXTII:E INDUSTRY IN THE Ul'IITED KINGDOM, 
FRAl^CE, GERI'm^Y, ITALY AND JAPAN 

by 

Ivan V. Ernelifmoff 



Special Studies Section 
FelDruary, 1936 



9643 



m 



TEXTILE INDUST RY IH THE UNITED KI ITGDOM, FRANCE, GEmiANY, 
• " • •" ITALY AND JAPAN 



■ ■ ' Table of Contents 

Pages 
Textile Industry in the United F.ingdom 1-30 

A. Textile Industry in the Manufactriring System of the 
Country 1- 2 

1. Re'lative importance of Textile Industry 1 

2. Cotton and Wool branches most important 1 

3. Dependence upon Imported Ra\"f Materials 2 

4. Textile Goods in. British- Imports' and Exports .. . 2 

5. Mo^t part of Sritish Cotton Goods Produced for 
Export 2 

6. Principal countries importing the British 
Textile Exports 2 

B. Organization of British Textile Industry 3-4 

1. Sectionalism of Industry and lack of 
Integration 3 

2 . Ho'or s of Work. . , , , 3 

3. Multiple ■ Shift System 3 

4. Cartelization of Textile Industry 3 

5. Price Movenicnts - 4 

C. Government and Or;;^a:':ized Industry !"'easures 

Relating to the Textile Industry 4- 6 

1. Protective Policy 4 

2 . Preferential Tariffs 5 

3, Rayon Industry a:.d Internatioiial Cartel 5 

4, Restoration of Gold Standard in England 5 

5. Measures intended to control Domestic Ma,rket... 6 

6, Planned ScraT;ping of Cotton SpindleS-ge in 
England 6 



'■CJ'' 



Ai::pendices : 7-30 

Appendix l. Raw Cotton Retained in the 

United Kingdom 7 

Appendix 2.' Value of Imports 9f Textile Goods 

of Tne United Kingdom 8 

" 3, Percent of Value of Textile Goods Im- 
ported 'oy the United Kingdom 9 

" 4." I'uinber of Employees in Textile Indus- 
tries of the United Kingdom 10 

" 5. Percent of Unemployed Insured Workers 
in Principal Textile Inaustries of 

The United Kingdom; 11 

9643 i 

13 l«j/3M 



Pages 
Appendices (Continued) 

Appendix 6. IT-umlDer of Cotton Spindles, Classified 

"by Principal Coiintries 12 

" 7. liiimber of Cotton Looms, Classified by- 
Principal Co-untries 13 

" 8, Estimated Number of Insiired Employees 
in Principal Textile Industries of the 
United Kingdom, 1923 - 1934 14 

" 9. Value of Foreign Trade and of Textile 
Imports and Exports of The United 
TTingdom 15 

•^ 10, Percent of Textile Goods, Exported from 

The United Kingdom, Classified by Kind 16 

" 11. Value of Textile Goods Exi^orted by The 

United Ki..gdom, Classified by Kind 17 

" 12, Percent of Value of Textile Goods Im- 
ported by The United Kingdom, Classi- 
fied by Kind 18 

" 13. Value of Textile Goods Imported by The 

United Kingdom, Classified by Kind 19 

" 14. Percent of Value of Textile Raw Ma- 
terials Imported by The United Kingdom, 
Classified by Kind 20 

" 15. Value of Textile Rav/ Ivlaterials Im- 
ported by The United Kingdom, Classi- 
fied by Kind 21 

" 16, Cotton Imi?orts of The United Kingdom 

Classified by Principal Countries 22 

" 17. ^^ool Imports of The United Kingdom 

Classified by Principal Countries 23 

"• 18. Value of Textile Goods Ex^^orted by 

The United Kingdom 24 

" 19, Exports of Cotton Goods bv the United 

Kingdom, 1913 - 1934 25 

" 20. Exports of Woolen-Worsted Goods by The 

United Kingdom 26 

" 21. E.xports of Wool Textile Goods by The 

United Kingdom 27 

-ii- 
9543 



Appendices (Continued) 



Page ! 



Appendix 22. Wholesale Prices of Textile Goods in 

. , The United -Kingdom 28 

" 23, Indices of Wholesale Prices of Tex- 
tile Goods in The United Kingdom 29 



" . 24, Wholesale Price Indices 'of Cotton 
Goods in Great Britain, France and 
Germany 30 

1 1 . Textile Indu st ry, in France 31-44 

A. Textile Industry in General Economic System of 

France '. 31-32 

1. Relative importance of Ii.dustry 31 

(a) The Volume of Production 31 

("b ) The Volime of Employment 31 

(c) The Volume of Industrial Equipment 31 

,.- (d) Role of Textile Industry in Foreign Trade 

of France 32 

B, Organization of French Textile Industry 32-37 

1. Decen.tralization- of Textile Industry 32 

(a) Cotton Industry 33 

(h) Wool Industry 34 

(•Q ) Silk. Industry. ..•....■ 34 

(d) ^ayon branch 34 

(e) Linen section 35 

(f ) Jute section 35 

2. Labor .in .Textile Industry 35 

5, Normal .Working Week 35 

4, Cartcllzation of I'rench Textile Industry 35 

C» Government and industry Measures Relation to 

Textile Industry in France 37-39 

'1. Tariffs 37 

2. Restrictions of Imports 'by quotas 38 

5, Reciprocal Trade Agreements 38 

4, French .Rayon Industry 38 

5, Measures Intended to Adjust Production to 
Demand- : 38 

6, Bounties 39 

Appendices ' . . ." 40-44 

Ap]:)endix 1. Value of Exports from France; 19.23 to 

. . 1935 • ■.'. . . 40 



2.. Value of French Imports; 1928 to 1935 41 



9643 



-111- 



Page 5 
Appendices (Continued) 

At)pendix 3, -Relative Importance of Haw Materials, 
Semi~f inished and Finichcd Textile 
Goods in French Textile Imports and 
• Exports ; 42 

" 4, Establishments in the French Textile. 
Industry, Classified hy I'-oraber of 
- • Workers Employed, 1926 43 

•• 5k ■ riamber- Employed in French Textile In- 
dustry,. Classified 'by Various Branches; 
1926 43-A 

■ ■ . . . , 

" 6. Wholesale Prices of French Textile 

Goods 44 

III. Textile Industry i n Germc'iny 45-56 

A. Importance of Textile Industry in General Economic 
Structure of Germany 45 

1. Industry/ of- lon;;^ standing 45 

2, Iinportance of German Textile Industry as it 
is revealed "Dy its 

(a) Volume of Employncnt 45 

(b) Volume of Industrial Equipment 46 

B, Role of Textile I.idustry in German Foreign Trade.. 46-47 

1. Share of Textile Goods in Foreign Trade 46 

2. Importance of Cotton and Wool Branches 46 

3. Dependence upon Imported Raw Materials 47 

4. Textile Exports 47 

C. Organization of Textile Indus-try 47-49 

1. Cartels in Textile Industry 47 

2. Factors explaining the lac^c of Cartelization. .47 

3. Sweeping Or^-anizational Changes usider 

present regime 48 

4. Hours- of Work 49 , 

5. Shift- System 49 

D, Government and- Industry Measures Relating to 
Textile Indsutry 50 

1. German Textile Inc-ust-ry vas essentially Com- . 
petitive 50 

2. Industry u.:der Cora^olete Control at -orese;iit « , . .50 
3« Restrictions of Iirrports. 50 

4, Substitutes for Hav/ Materials 50 

5, Measures intended to Adjust Production to 
Demand on Domestic Market 51 

6, Control of prices* 52 

9643 ^iv^ 



Page s 
Appendices- •(•Coiitinued) .-. . 

7, Prohibitioii of- -Exports of Used Machines 52 

8. -Oontrol Measiires in Jute -Industry 52-53 

• 

Ap"oendices .• . . .■.■.■.■.'.•••.•.•. . . 54-56 



Appendix 1. -Value of German foreign Trade; 1932 

and 1933. 54 . 



Ji 



" •2.- ■ Vo.lue„of Textile Goods in German 
• Foreign Trade; 1928 and 1933 ,55 

• -3, • Indices of Production in German ' . .- _. . 
Textile Industry 56 

IV. Textile I ndustry in Italy 57-75 

A, Importance of Industry in the General Economic 

Structure of Italy.* .57 

1. Volume of Employment in Textile . Industry. .,.,. .57 

2. Entrepreneurial capital invested in the 

Textile Trades 57 

3. Industrial -Equipment 57 

B« Importance of Industry in Italian Foreign Trade,... 58~64 

1. Textile Industry is ranking first amiong all 
Italian Industries "by its sliare in the Value 

of Imports and Exports in the Kingdom 58 

2. Textile Industry Expanded in Italy in the 

Last Three Decades 58 

3. The Yarns and Fahrics are leading in the 
Exports. . . .■ 59 

4. Italian Textile Exports are World-Wide 59 

5. Italian Imports "by countries importing 59 

6. Raw Textile ^iaterials - •aln Item of Italian 
Textile Imports 60 

C. Organization of Textile Industry 60 

1 • Growt-h of- Te-x-t i-le -Indus-try, 60 

2, Concentration in the Industry 60 

3, Diversity of the Industry 61 

4, Stock companies- -in the Cotton Industry 61 

5, Trade Unions in Italian Textile Industry 62 

6, Fascistic transformation of Textile Industry, . .63 

7, Profits' movements in Textile Industry 64 

D, Government and Industry measures relating to 

Textile Industry •......'■..... 64-67 

1. Textile -Industry -on -a framev/ork of CorjDorate 
State 64 

2. Measures affecting the Foreign Textile Trade: 



9643 



Textile Industry. in Italy (ContinuGcL) 



3. 



ea 



(a 
(b 
(c 

(d 
(e 

(f 

H 

(a 

(C 

(d 
(e 

(f 

(g 
(h 
(i 
(j 



j^ectriction of Imports 64 

Tariffs ,,,.,,.,....... 65 

Siibstittites for Rav; Materials 65 

State ' s Credit for Exporters' 65 

• Bilateral Trade A^Teements . , 66 

Rayon Industry 66 

lures for Adjustment of Production 66-69 

■ Tile . "Institutes" as Controlling Asoncies . .66 

Regulation of the Hours of Work 66 

Th.e Minimum Wage Schedule .66 • 

The. Measures to Distrioute Available Work. 66 

Reduction of Costs 67 

Restriction of . Construction. of Hew Plants 

and of Extension of Existing Mills 67 

An Elirai".-.ation of the Redundant Equipment 67 

Heeulation of Silk. Production. . ,. 67 

Regulation of Jute Production 68 

• Control of Trade Practices 68-69 



Appendices. ,<. 



Appendix A, Production and Co:is"umption of 

- - • Cotton Yarns in Italy 70 

Appendix 1. I'lomher of Spindles and Looms in 

Italian Cotton Industry 71 

" 2, IT-um'Der of Spindles and Looms in 

. Italian WqoX Industry 72 



70-75 



It 



3. Relative .Impo.rt:^nce of Value of 
. • . . Textile Goods in Foreign Trade 
of Principal Countries 



73 



4, Italian Foreign Trade in Cotton 

Goods; 1871 - 1934..". 74 

.5. Value .of . It^alian Foreign Trade; 
.Classified by Products; 1933 and 
.1934 , 75 

6-. Value of Textile Imports of Italy; 
1933-1934 76 

7, Percent of Textile Goods in 
Italian Foreign Trade, Classified 

by Principal Countries, . _. 77 

8, Value of Textile Goods, Exported 
from Italy, Classified "by Kind, 
1933 and 1934 . . 78 

9, E:q)ort5 of Rayon Goods by Italy, 



9643 



-VI- 



Page ! 
A;ppendices (Continued) ..,..••,•••.••.••,•. 

Appendix 9. Classified "by Principal Coimtries; 

1934 '. 79 



H 



10. Principal, Coiui.trip^ Importing «. 

Italian Cotton and Woolen Fabrics; 
1934, ....,...,.,,, ..,....,,.., 80 

ll,_ImpprtG of.Rav; Cotton Into, Italy, 
* 1929 to 1934, Classified by Prin- 
_ cipal Co-ontrics 81 

12» . I;T-um"Der of .5s tabli^hm^Xits in Weaving 
and Spinning Branches of Italian 
Cotton Industry, in 1930, Classi- 
■ . . .fied.by Size ' 82 

13, Profit and Loss of Cotton Textile 
Companies iu Italy with Capital of 
■ _ More. than Qne Millioi?. Lira; 1927 
' " ' ' to 1933 83 

V • Texti le Indu str y in Japan 

A, Importance of Textile Industry in Ce'^ieral 

Economic Structure ,rf Country. , 84 

1, Expansion .of Textile Industry in Japan 84 



tt 






Its outstanding role in the National 



Economy, ^ 84 

5, Cotton and Silk - m.ost important branches .. .88 

4, Dependence upon Imported Rav' I>feterials . . . , . .86 

5, Japanese Textile Imports 88 

6, Japanese Textile Exports 86 

7, Rayon Industry in Japan v»83 

B« Organization of Japanese Textile Industry 5? 

1. High Concentration of Industry, .^ 87 

2» Industrial and Inter-Industrial Inte- 

gration-TvvvT .87 

3, Lack of Organization among the Workers 87 

4, Hours of Work. 88 

5, Output per Worker .89 

6, Remuneration of Labor. 89 

7, Shift System gg 

8, Price Movements; 1824 to 1934 ••■^••89 

9, Price Fl^ojctuations 89 



C, Government and Industry Measures Relating to 

the Textile Industry ■ .90 

1. Efficiency of Japanese Textile Industry is 

uni que .90 

9643 -vii« 



« 



Textile Industry in Japan (Continued).. 



Pages 



2, Unoeata"blG Comipctitive Position of Japan 

on- the- internatior:a,l Market. 9C' 

3,. protective Policies ^0 

4,. Preferential Tariffs,.^ Br 

5,. Reciprocity Principle in Japanese Trade 

AfTcements-.-. •. •. ...•.•.■.■..-..•. .■.•••..... gi 

6,. De-oreciation of Currency gi 

7, 3oyc«ott gl 

8, .Measures of Production Control ••92 

9, . Govemmen-ta-l- Con-t-ro-1 -of Exports 92 



Appendices 



93-108 



Appendix 1. juraoer of Spindles and Looms in 

■ -Japanes-e -Cotton Industry. . 93 

" 2, Value of Products in the Various - 
Branches of the Textile Industry 
in Japan ; .94 

" 3. Value of Textile Products in Japan95 

" 4, Percent of Increase in the Value 

of Japanese Industrial Production; 
1909-to 1S29 gs 



5; Value of Japanese Factory Pro- 
ductr. , Classified by Industries; 
• • • 1929-. .-..•.... s .. » g? 



6-, Cotton Piece Goods Output and 
• ■ • ITumber- of Operatives in Japan 98 



7, Number' of- Sp-indles, Cotton Yarn 
Production, and Average plumber 

• of Workers Per Day in Cotton 
Spinning Industry of Japan; 1923 

• • to- 1934 99 



8« . Number of Employees in Textile In- 
dustry in Japan loo 



9,- Indices of the -Number of Cotton 

Spindles in -Various Countries. ... IQI 



•10. 



Value of Textile Goods in the 
Japanese -roreign Trade; 1924 to 
1935 



102 



11 » Hours Per Day Worked by Full-Time 
Employees in various Japanese In- 
dustries in October 1927 103 , 



9643 



Vlll 



Appendices (Continued 

Appendix 12. Average Hours Per Day and Output per 
Worker in the Textile Industry of 
JapaJi; 1922 to 1932 104 

" 13. Estimated Number of Cotton Spindles 
and Looms, Classified by Principal 
Countries; 1934 , 105 

" 14. Wholesale Price Indices of Textile 
Goods in The United Kingdom and 
JapsJi 106 

" 15. Indices of Wholesale Prices and Pro- 
duction of Textile Goods in The 
United Kingdom and Japan; 1925 to 
1934 107 

" 16. Indices of Production in Textile 
Industry, Classified "by Principal 
Countries; 1926 to 1934 .108 



9643 



IX 



FOEEWOHD 



Thio study of "The Textile Industry in the United 
Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Japan", has "been pre- 
pared "by Mr. Ivan V. Eraelianofi of the Special Studies 
Section, Mr. G. G, Gainhle in general charge, as a joint 
project with the Textile Fabrics Unit of the Industry 
Studies Section. 

This ma,terial is in rea.lity a preliminary draft, 
althou£;h limitations of personnel prevent further work be- 
ing done. It is made available because of its significance 
in connection with the .Tiajor study of the Textile Industry 
in the United States. 

At the back of the report a brief statement of the 
studies •'jndertaken will be found. 



L. C, Marshall 

Director .Division of Review 



February, 1936 



;643 



I. T EXTILE. I iroUSTSY IN .THE, milT SI) KING-DOM 
A. Textile Industry in the Manu fact-grin;^ S ystem of the Cor-ntry . 

Since remote times the United Kini-^dom has held and still 
retains the leading -position in the world's textile production 
and trade, 

1, The relative importance of the Textile Industry in the 
economic structure of the United Ki:v;:doiii ir- host illustrr.ted by: 

(a) The Voluae of e nTPloyiiipn t , which ajnountcd to 7,4 per 
cent in 1911 and 6,2 per cent in 1931 of the total number 

of gainfully occupied persons in the United Kingdom; the 
Textile Indus t?:'y being second' to only the me tal-inr chines 
group v/hen laeasurod 'o'j vol-;i::ie oi enplo;\'Tacnt. 

(b) I ts prodi^ctive capa.cit y, which i;-; a.^i?roxi..iately 
onc~third of the '■'orld*': total in nuixiber oi sPindles and 
one-fifth of the number of loovis in the cotton branch - 
the most important section of inJ.ustry, 

(c) Its place in foreign tr8-de_ - where the value of 
Imported textile goo./.s avera._,ed, during 19?0-1933, 17.1 
per cent of the tota.l va.lue of British imports. Textile 
exports amoimted to 36,5 per cent of the value of total 
British exports for the same period, 

2. The cotton and woolen branches^ are^ the most important 
of the textile trades in Great Sritain, they absorb roi^^ghly 
t',70-thirds of the total volu^n^ of employment in the Textile 



9643 






Industry and c: iitniQute ap;ca'oxl>riitol_; fjjp^ of th.o total 
value of th? British foreign trado in textiles. 

■ 2« lUn ^^land Ao'-onds uoon the i.:.v;ortcd ra^; toxtilo: h>itoria l_s 
in all textile trades either entirely" as in the case of cotton, 
sil-z, jute and hemp or ^reeriiinently as in the case t f the vroel 
industry where the home grown wool fills 8 per cent onl;" of the 
total need < i the British Wool Indvistry. 

" '■^"« T^. Britis h iiTi'ports o f toxtiles consist mainly of rav; 
materials which avcra-^'ied 7J per r-.ent ci total textile imports durinf^ 
1'32(' to 1933; and ex^.-.orts, i.iainly of piece ir;oods. Piece ;.;oods 
avoraced 83 per cent of all textile exports for the period 19.30 to 
1933 and yams 13.7 per cent. 

■ * • I-jL. the most irai^or tant branch of the Brit ish Textile 
Industry - the oottc n trad-: - since the 'War about tvo-thirds rf 
the total output of ;. arnn and oTor six-soYonths cf the output 
of fabrics has been proc'ucf^d for e:r:'ort, 

^« The v>rinci::3al C'.'TJj.itrios exfortintr; co t ton to Sn;;:land are 
the United States and Egj'^ot wJ-ch nu:ply abr^it three-fciu'ths ('f the 
total raw cotton censutned in Great Britain, Jibout four-fifths cf 
the British consiamption of rav^-- v/ocl j.s iinported from the British 
Dominions (Australia, Kev/ Zealand, Seuth Africa ano British Inoia) . 

The Br itis h exoorts in both tnose branches lia.ve a,lways been 
vorld-wide. 



9643 



-3- . .. 

B, Organization oi" the Br itish Textile Industry. 

1 . The British Textile Indust ry in alm oct all its "branches 
is hi^'hly sectionali/.cd an^. is lackin,-?; in industrial inte.'u-a-ti on. 
Firms of different types and of varyin;'^ sizes exist in the Cotton 
Inc'ustry of 5n{;^land. The outntancin^., ciiaractcrictic of her vool 
incustry is the prevalence of the snie.ll unit. T^^^o sections of the 
Textile Industry, however - the finishing trades and the rayon 
"branch - are highly concentrated and represent strong monopolies. 

2. The labor conditions in tlie British Textile Industry are 
not subject to any statutory regulations. T he normal hours of v^orlc 
prescri'Dcd "by the Ifetional Agreer.ient of t:ic incur. try anr la,hor in 
1919 were forty-^ight hoi:)Ts per veek. After many attempts h" the 
manufacturers to exten>: the y;orking time to fifty-tivo and one half 
hours weekly d-u-ring 1938-1952, the original noriiial v/eek of forty- 
eight hours was restored "by the National Agreement and is still in 
force. 

5, No multiple sh ift syc-t em is al lov^ed in Lancashire - a 
very small group of the employers, no^'ever, ( vomon and jiuiiors- 
total momber about 20,000 persons) is ^-'orking in the rayon industry 
on a tvra shift "basis, 

4. There are numerous cartel s , ''agreements" a,nd "understandings" 
among the British textile manufacturers in almost all nections of 
the industry. All those organizations, ho^-evor, are i^rominently 
■unsta"ble and inef Tic lent, due to (a) the high sectionalization 
of the industry (b) the ^"ide diversity of the -uiiits and (c) the 



964 



— 4'- 

partial character of the or£;aiiizations. Hence, v-ith the except ion 
of the vertically intei23:"a-teG. and actrrJly nonopolir.tic finishing 
and ra^on trades the British Textile Industry as a wliole still 
remains substantially competitive, 

5. The price move in ents in the British textiles perfectly 
coincide with the trends traceable in the chan.:';es of the foreign 
trade of Lancashire, in the vol-ume of employment a.nd in the state 
of the industrial equipment employed in the post-v.-ar period. After 
the boom ~ the p r i c^ £ boom of 1930 - there follo^ved a decline 
in textile prices vith a s^^ia.rp drop after 1933; after the slif^ht 
detention of the decline under the influence of the 1930-1929 
industrial boom th^ fall in T>rices of textile goods v;as precipitate 
jand uninterrupted -ontil 196 ';. The coiurse of price trends in 
textiles v/as not identical. As an illustration prices in jute 
and hemp branchec vary .._,reatly v.'h-/.i comparei ^Ith thc^^e of cotton, 
wool and linen. 

C , Government and Or;":ani2ed Industry Llcasures Relatin-; to ■ the 
T extile Industry . 

1, A protective policy started in England in 1913 and v/as 
finally a.dopted in 1933, The restriction of- imports by the pro- 
tective tariffs, ho^-ever, could not influence materially the 
imports of textiles, since three-fourths of the imported textiles 
v/ere rav/ materials, also the imported semi-finished a,nd finished 
textile goods did not cor.ipete directly with t.-e Lancashire industry. 



9643 



2. The preferential tarifr a .ri-anf;eiTirntG adopted in 1933 
(Ottav/a Conference) were, accordi:i,_; to tne prevailing opinion 
amon^ British maniifacturers, more "beneficial to the Dorainions 
than to England, though the voliaine of biisiness '-ithin the 
Empire in 1933 increased slij,htly, vdiile the trade of England 
v/ith the Foreign cowitries v/as still in recession. In 1934 
the grov/th of the Imperial trade ?;as more rapid than that vdth 
foreign countries, 

3. The artificial silk section is the onl';^ branch of the 
Textile Industry in the United Kin/^-do m re^^ ^lated by th e mighty 
international cartel. In this Co^ortauld Company has been from 
the start one of the most influencial pe.rticipants. Courtauld 
Company controls over foiir-fifthr: of the rayon production of the 
United Kingdom. The loc.'.; of vertical integration and of cartelliza- 
tion on a national scale in all other textile brcinches prevents a 
possibility of international industrial agreements, 

4. The restoration of t'/ie gold stande-rd in England in 
192.3 aggravated raarkedly the conditions of foreign trade in the 
Textile Industry ano. v/as consic.ered to be a po^"'erful faxtor a.t 
that critical moment by the Lancashire manufn.cturers. The 
desertion of the gold standard in 1931 did not act as a stimulus 
to expansion of foreign tra,de, since the other countries fol~ 
lo^-'ed England in devaluiition of their currencies a.nC the chief 
British competitor - Japan- depreciated her yen still more and 



9643 



•o- 



became an even greater competitor than "before. Thiir;, the temporary 
"benefits from depreciation vere soon earjil;- destroyed "by counter- 
attacks, 

6 . Amonp^ th e mea s ures intendec'. to adjust 'oroduction to 
demand , besides the establishet'. normal vrorhin,;; \7eej: of 43 hoijrs 
(See B-3) and the one-shif t-ivystem principle ( See 3-5) there 
were nunberless attempts in the United Kin^idom to regulate 
Industry through the cuota agreements, price fixing, terms of sale 
and minimun price "arrangements. ' Ho'-ever, none of these attempts 
could justify the e:oectations, and the cartels altho-'jgh created 
under the "oressure of a most dire necesrrity could not exist ^.'ue to 
the high dispersion, extreme sectionalism e.nC. '-;ide diversit^^ of 
the business unitL within the industry. 

6. The most recent a.nc. fc.r rec?iching measiu'e of the adjustment 
of production to demand in the Unitec. I:in^,dom is the planned 
scrapping of 10,000,000 spindles by the Cotton Industry ^-'ith 
compensation for the scra-pped ( and sealed) spindles. This plan 
is still in need of necessary approval oi" tne Industry (90 i3er 
cent of manufacturers must aaopt it). Ho'/ever, this is only a 
palliative measure a,iming to eliminate the gigantic surplus of 
productive capaxit y in order to as^tue a full utilization of the 
remaining industrial equipi-ient and in the long run means a.n 
economic, retreat of the British Textile Indu!~try before her power- 
ful rival Japan. 



9643 



-7- 



Years 



1913 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1923 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



APPLITDIX I 



RAV; COTTOi) SETAIIIED I.il Till] UlTITl,!) I[Ii::ijO..I 
(in Thousands of Po"anG.s) 



Ai.iouiit 
Im':^ortec. 



3 


174, 


1 




1 


203, 


1 


490, 


1 


357, 


1 


OOO J 


1 


950, 


1 


802, 


1 


,630, 


1 


,559, 


1 


,509, 


1 


275, 


1 


loo. 


1 


326, 


1 


487, 



229.5 
655.7 
528.8 
370.7 
407.7 
3?5.0 

or.s.o 

42G . 5 
515.4 
558.6 
375.6 

7&.:.l 

961. 5 

059.0 
027.5 



Amount 
?.e-ex or eel 



257 
233 
155 
o8 
112 

140 
1-8 
134 
70 
80 
74 
'_-2 
55 
55 



545.2 
913.9 
515.1 
483.1 

527 . 7 

349.1 
504.4 
..;09 . 5 
308.1 

AC C / 

423.4 
330.8 
581.9 



ArnouP-t 
Retained 



1= 


315, 


1, 


TOO 

I..' ^ ~J J 


1, 


047, 


1, 


^..01, 


1, 




1 




1 


319, 


1 


55 -: , 


1, 


502, 


1 


-■99, 


1 


529, 


1, 


201, 


1 


111. 


1 


272, 


1 


431, 



654.7 
747.8 
013.7 
o32,o 
948.5 
953.8 
540,3 
177.4 
209.0 
1---9 . 1 
057.5 
317.7 
533.1 
238.2 
455.7 



SOURCE: StatistiCcil aostract for the United Kin.'>Lom. 
London, 1935 



9643 



-g- 



CM 
X 

B 



O 

P 

l-H 



EH 



fe; 


tuO 


pn 


i^! 




•H 


pr"! 


iH 


g 


^1 
0) 




-P 


rH 


w 


M 






Q 


CO 


rd 


n 


rf 


o 


^ 


8 


o 

p. 


H 


'!-! 


H^ 


o 


l-H 




P^ 




H 


CJ 


R 


aJ 




w 


F»H 


::i 


O 


o 




^ 


C/3 


•p 


R 




Ph 


p; 


o 


n 


& 


■ — ■ 


r^ 




t-1 




Ph 




O 




g 




^ 





i-H 

0) -P rci 

^ |x! O 

•P CD O 

O EH CL) 



o 

-p iH n 

-P o ^ 

O O K) 

O t3 >H 



CD 

rH Cfl 

•H rH 

•IP Cj 

><; -H 

CD ^ 

EH O 

o ; 

O cj 



r3 o 
P=l ^ 



Pi 
o 

E: -P 
o 
o 



\s 



to 
o 

H 
H -H 

Cu -P 
-P 

O CD 
EH EH 



•p 

H ?H 

Cu O 

-P O 

O 

EH n 



CD 

>H 



H c\j r— o o r^ LT^ CO o o^ h c^^ k^ r— -::t 

O Lf^ajVDK^Cr\0 Cl^r-i C\J HVJD KM^rH 

rovx) t^ K^^ ^ LO t^^ ^- ^ r^ r'-^ iH i-s 



LfM^ rO to LOi r— vXi r^ CM bO O^ O CJ ^-rj- rH 
UDOI — r^C\JCVlO^:J-rHLr\rHI — HV£>C\J 



CTvO 
H 



LTM^ to C7> bO bD Cr\ C!^ O tO h- rH r--! 



H ^ o r— oM£^ Lr\Tt ^ ^- cj r— C!^ u-^ ro 
o-^ H rH c -=!■ ^ o r-'. cr^ o r- cvi ,-.;- to in 
^ ri vo r— t) v.o CA^H- CO [-- o to v^o o o 



o 

CO 



I — rH ^i- C^J r— c^ l-r^ to 

t^rHiHHHHrHH 



H H 



r— r- to 



vjD ^- H H r— CM r- r— ^ u") r-^ L^^ r--^ ^r^v 
CM oj LnL^^ r^ o o^ t o i — Cj~\y.o h- h to h 
CJ vD ir^ to v_o o~^ r— lo* r— ^ r— -^ r— ,=1- mi) 



-rf h- rH 

ro to ^ 



to >^ Cr» iH CM 



o■^ o 



0>OJ CM CM Lc■^ 
LTN-zt r^ r^ r^ 



vo ^ o *-£> a^ ^-^^ H rH UM-- 1^ ou r^ o 

O0JCT\r— tOCMK^CvJO r^^ to C7> CM r-- 
U.'\ LTN CJ CJ- r^^ LTn C\J ^-j- LO H tO O O ' U'\ 



o "^o ho r— r"^ rH 

r^ UTM^ to 0"> CM 
CJ rH 



CJ r.o vo bo 

1-4 



^ r— ^-:}- (T\GM^lC\-LO ^ h-^ 0~^ CJ O rH C^^ 
to c^ cr^ H -=f to o~M to to H Ln o ro c^ 
a! 0"^ to G~\ LOi H ^'-^ u^v.o to ^-^ ir\v:o cj ^'- 

invjo^^ intovD o '-o to^ r^to lok^, 
'^ U~NVO O O VJD r— M o^ O O -::t o to c^ 
iH^-HCJCJCMCMCMHCJCJrHH 



Lf> C^ O OaVO 0~^, LC"-\ rH iHtO LnLTM^O'^ 
rO^" O O^ CJ t^ rH U5 .rt C^VO ^- LC^ >- H 

i^^^o ur\ o CJ ^ r- r--^ K^ u^ r— cj^ CM vjD o 



to CJ LO r>^VD r— C:) iH to 
Ui) r^ to O CTM^ CJ ^ H 
r- 0"A to O O CM 1^ CM CM 



L^^ o K^ r— rH u'^ 
o"^ CJ ^ vx) o r- 
H CM o to r— vx) 



rH rH i-l iH 



rH rH r { r-\ 



r^ o H CJ ro^ lOiViD r— bo cj^ o r-i cj r-^ 
H CJ CJ CJ CM CM CJ CJ CM CM CJ r^ r^ r■'-^ K^ 

C!^ Cr^ O^ O ^ 0'> CTi O ^ O^ Cr« O^ 0> CTi G> o^ o^ 
fHrHHrHrHiHHHHHHHrHHiH 






S4 
o 



o 

1-^ 



o 

•H 

-ri 
o 
•p 

•H 

r; 

CD 



o 

w 
-p 
o 
cj 

^1 

•p 

CO 



o 

•H 
-P 
0:1 
•H 
-P 

•P 



o 

p:i 

O 
C/3 



96U3 



-9- 



APPENDIX 3 



PEHCENT OF VALUE OF TEXTILE GOODS IMPORTED BY TliE UNITED KINGDOM 



Years 



1913 



1920 



1921 



1922 



Total 



In-norts 



100 ..0 



100-0 



100,0 



100,0 



1.923 S 100,0 



1924 



1925 



1926 



1927 



1928 



1929 



1930 



1931 



1932 



100.0 



ino,0 



100,0 



100.0 



100.0 



100.0 



100,0 



100,0 



100,0 



3 



1933 : 100,0 

: 



Total 

Textile 

Imports 



21.5 
23.6 
15.2 
20.4 
18.7 
21.0 
20.9 
17.0 
16.1 
17.4 
16,7 
13.8 
12.5 
12.1 
13.8 



Textile Imports 



Cotton 
Yarn 



9,9 
13.4 
7.1 
-9.1 
9.0 
10.0 
9.9 
7.1 
6.0 
7.2 
6.8 
4. 8 
3.7 
4,6 
5.6 



^ool 
Yara 



4.9 
4.8 
4.1 
6.2 
4.6 
5.0 
5,7 
5.3 



L;.2 



5.4 
5.3 
4.4 



4.1 



4,6 
5.3 



Other 
Yarns 



2.6 
1.9 
1.1 
1.4 
1,1 
1.4 
1.5 
1,2 
1,5 
1.3 
1.3 
1.0 
0.9 
1.0 
1.2 



Manufac- 
tured 
Textiles 



4,1 
3,5 



2,9 



3,7 

3,0 
4,6 
3,3 
3.4 
3.4 
3,5 
3,3 
3,6 
3,9 
2,7 
lo7 



SOURCE: statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom, London. 



9643 



«io~ 



APPENDIX 4 



milBER OF EMPLOYEES I!I TEXTILE liTDUSTRIiLS 07 TIIE IT::ITED KIITODOM 



(in Thoucands) 









TEXTILE i:n3USTIlIES 
















t 1 




■Dyeing 




Other 




All 


' 




Woolen ' 


Kemp, 


■& Bleach- 




T^extile 




. Indus- , 






and 


Jute , 


ing Pro- 




Indus- 


Year 


tries 


Total • 


Cotton 


\7orsted 


Etc. 


ducts 


Silk 


tries 


1881 


12,73.9' 


• 1,191 " 


520 .' 


252' ■ 


85 : 


65 


.' 64 


204 


1891 


. 14,500 


1 , 253 • 


552 


275 


■ 93 •: 


56 


53 


114 


1901 


16,312 


1,159 • 


. 544 . 


235 ■ 


99 •: 


79 


. 37 


175 


1911 


18,354 


1,359- 


646 . 


261- 


105 


111 


53 


203 


1921 


19 , 357 


1,293- 


621 . 


250 ■ 


88 


117 


' 34 


173 


1931 


21,055 


1,317- 


591 


248 


86 • 


116 


72 


204 



SOime?'/: statist icc?.l Al^stract for The United 
Xingdom, London, 1935. • 



9643 



in 



^ 


1 w 


a 


05 Q) 
o p, 


o 




H f^ 




H-f O 




Ph O 




P4 p 





w 



pH 


EH 


r< 


n 


o 


g 


l-^ 






H 


.Ji. 


tH 


Ph 


f^i 


CO 


O 


1— < 




t-H 


to 




w 


^ 


t-H 


>^ 


EH 


o 


W 


h^ 


r3 


^ 





to 

•H 



•H 



^1 m 

o I 0) 

+3 O -H 

O EH 4--> 



O 



I 

•H 

W 

o 



^■3 



P: 


(D 


• 


;h 


P^ 


o 


o 


q 


■p 


W 


O 
-P 


<D 
(D 


H 




•H 


.Co 


rt 


1-1 


•H 


fn 




o 


c,5 




•H 


>H 




tH 






•H 


1 — 1 




+^ 


iH 




!h 


•H 




<!j 


CQ 


j:: 


^ 




o 


1 ! 




>. 


•H 
to 




S 


$^ 


CD 




QJ 


+3 




rH 


tn 




O 


Jh 




O 


o 




Is 


o 

-p 
o 
o 

u 

C55 
CD 





-11- 



CrM?0^*^rHr^COHCOr^ Lf^O"^ 



rH rH ^ rH 
iH iH rH CO 



iHrHiHK^K^OJCVJOJ 



^ r— VD LOi rH LTMOvH Cr^VD>-u:j- 
• •• •• •' «■ •■ •■ ••••••• • • 

^ O cH VO bO to tA3 to CV! r— r^ H 
rHHr-iH iHOJHHiH 



c^Jc\JC^Ja^HC\Jr^^-o^o:^c^^ 



iH CO H 



-t- o o m 

CVj tH rH 



ur\ r— Lr\^ rM r— co cT^.=}- ^o ud to 

• •■•••■••• e. •■•••• •. a • 

LO. to a^ r-H h- to Cr\KO K^ bO ir^r^ 
CO H H CV) iH CJ H iH rH 



CT> r^ O to CO to rH CnvjD Lf^ IXVJ- 
■ •• •■ •• •• •• •• •••.•••.• • 

r— LOv O LTxvO O Vi) LT-i H ^- O OJ 
iH H H OJ H H rH 



o LOi CO LrMr\ r'-^ to 

. •■ •. •. ». •• •■ ». 

■LC\ ro^ to G> cr^-.i--^ C\} 

r-\ r^ r-^ r-^ r-\ r-\ 



to O CO o^o^ 

•■ *• «. • • 

o to r— o to 

CO CVI CO CO iH 



I-! 

I — ! 
rH 



roH 



cr^-^i- • Lf-, c\j 

•■ •' •■ •• •' •■ 



O rH O COMD 

a •■ •. • • 

H r— tO-rt CO 

LPsr-- r — i-TM — 



to Q-^T-^^ Lr> K>> r— rH ,-:t- tO H tO 
' «. •■ «. •■ «. •. •.«■««.• • 

ctn rH Lo cr» o H ^ V.O CO o rH r— 

rH rH I^ CO rH 1^ rH 1-^^ 1^^ CO r-\ 



CO 
VO CO rH.VJD • 
.••••• • r-\ 

O V^ VJD- o H 
CO CJ r^ H 



0"^ cr^ CO h-vjD 
• •• •■ •■ » *. 
>v£) r^ Vi5 rH VD 



■ Lr^ r^ r— irMr> 
•• •• •■ •• • 

CPv h- rH r^ c^■ 

C\l C\J 




rH to rH K~S CO O r^ 
a- ■■ ». •. «. • • 

ir, LT^VjD vjD r- r^^rj- 
rH rH CO |v->, C\J H O.! 



a^^ j^\^ CO ^ r— LP» o cr*'^ 

• •• 0- •. 3- • «. O. «. •• ■ • 

LC^ rH to o^ ii~\^- ,tt OJ r'-^VO LO. 
HrHOJ HH,=t-^r^^OJC0 



K^,-:f LPiMD 1^ to a^ O H OJ K>»^ 

(AJ CO CO CO CO CO OJ ^^ r^ ro r^ r^ 
<J^ G^ 0"> o^ CA cPi o> cr\ G> o^ o^ cr^ 

HrHrHrHrHrHr-<HHrHHrH 



H 

I 



o 

•H 

-d 
(D 
-P 
•H 

CD 



O 
h-l 

Ui 

-p 
o 
c^ 
U 
■P 

o 

•H 
■P 
tjl 
•H 
-P 

cv3 
-p 

CO 



B 

CO 



9643 



-12- 

fjklbzir of cotto.-' s?i:~yLzs classified by 

PRINCIPAL CC.Ji:,TRIES 



APPSKtDIX 6 



(In tliOiis-iiO.s) 





1913 : 


1930 : 


1931 : 


1932 : 


1933 : 




All Countries : 


143,449 1 


164,108 : 


152,278 : 


161,002 ! 


157,755 : 




Europe : 


99,505 1 


103, 83o : 


102,712 ' 


101,417 

1 '* 


98,140 ' 




I. Great Britain : 


55,652 


55,207 ; 


54,246 


51,891 


: 49,001 




France ; 


7 , 400 • 


10,250 ! 


10,350 ' 


10,144 


10,144 




Ge rmany ; 


11,185 : 


10,070 ■ 


10,591 : 


10,233 


9,850 




Russia : 


7,533 : 


7,612 i 


7,512 ■ 


9,200 


9,200 




Italy 1/ 


4,500 : 


5,342 : 


5,397 


■ 5,384 


5,338 




Czechoslovakia 




3, 636 : 


3, 638 


3,622 


3,627 




Belgi^ara : 


1,492 : 


2,172 ' 


2, 164 


2,156 ' 


2,087 




Spain 


2,000 : 


1,875 : 


2,070 


: 2,070 


: 2,070 




<• ' Pol?nd ; 


1,322 : 


1,554 : 


1,555 


1,705 


1,818 




S'^atzerland : 


1,398 : 


1,445 : 


1,381 


1,346 


1,303 




ITetherlancl 


479 : 


1,167 


1,215 


1,213 


1,224 




Austria 2/ : 


4,909 : 


817 


768 


767 


758 




Sv/eden 


■ 534 


617 


: 613 


596 


595 




Portugal : 


480 


503 


503 


453 


: 446 




Finland : 


2-2 ; 


262 


262 


263 


253 




Hungary l/ ; 




199 


■ ■ • 190 ' 


■ ■ 217 


258. 




Denmark : 


89 


99 


: 94 


100 


: 100 




Norway 


74 


... 60 


:. • 58 


56 


r 58 




II. Asia 


9.393 


19,808 


• 20,491 


21,395 


: 22,300 




China 


1,009 


5,829 


: 4,054 


4,285 


: 4,585 




India 


6,084 


• 8,907 


: 9,125 


9,512 


: 9,505 




Japan 


2,300 


7,072 


7,312 


7,798 


: 8 , 209 




III. America 


I 34,260 


: 38,850 


: 37,433 


: 35,474 


: 35,586 




Unitec' States 


: 31,505 


: 34,031 


I 32,576 


: 31,709 


: 30,894 




Canada 


: 855 


: 1 , 277 


: 1,275 


1,245 


1,240 




Brazil 


: 1 , 200 


: 2,775 


: 2,690 


! 2, 690 


: 2,620 




Mexico 


: 700 


: 767 


: 791 


830 


832 




IV. Other Countries 


: 219 


! 1,562 


: 1,542 


: 1,716 


: 1,729 





SOURCE: International Cotton Bulletin 
Notes: l/ Included v/ith Austria 

2/ Including Czechoslovakia and Hungary, 



9643 



-15- 



MJI.3ER 07 COTTOl: LOC:;S CLASSIFIED BY 

PEi:-ci?.jL coTri:TRiEs 



J^PHIILIX 7 



All countries 
Eu.rop_e_ 

England 

Russia 

Germany 

Prance 

Italy 

CzechoslovaJcia 1 

Spain 

Hetherlrnd 
Belgium 
Poland 
Switzerland 
SiTeden 

Austria 2/ 
Hungary 1/ 



Asia 

Japan 
India 
China 

Americ a 

United States 
Brazil 
Mexico 
Canada 

Other Countries 



1913 



1,875,103 
805,452 
213,1'?'9 
250,200 
108 , 000 
140,000 



55,000 
59 , 800 

24,000 
31,000 
21,555 

12,443 
170,000 



120,622 

20,634 

94,136 

5,582 

804,080 

696,387 

50,000 

27>019 

30,674 

7,049 



1930 



1,914 

692 
159 
• 224 
200 
146 

125 
81 



54 
54 
41 
25 
■18 
13 

12 

400 

188 

179 

29 

842 

698 

77 

31- 

21 



326 
899 
100 
077 
100 
500 

000 
035 
839 
385 
086 
835 
643- 
915 

060 



1,734 



1933 



1,846,630 
587,964 
250,000 
222,500 
198,200 
146,500 

104,591 
.66., 536 
55,960 
54,800 
38,611 
23,096 
16,103 
13,078 

12,500 



534 


: 515,469 


466 


277,343 


682 


189,678 


502 


44,000. 


184 


766,065 


955 


613,635 


946 


: 81,892 


440 


55,197 


618 . 


25,487 



1,755 



SOURCE: International Cotton i^lletin. 



Fotes: 1/ Included with Aust,ria*" 

2/ Includes Czechoslo^vrkia and Hungary, 



9645 



-14- 



P 



PL, 

5! 



P W 



O 



EH 

^ o 

» — I 

p 

en 



•H 

•H 

•H 



-4^ 

0) 
EH 



+3 

O 



O CD 



^ 



«M 



ft 
O 



o 



<D 
•H 
W 
O 



O 



Q) 
-P 



o 

•H 



a. 






I'D 

. . o > 
■H d O 

CO rt ts 



M 



O 

o 



o 
-p 
-p 
o 
o 

• • 

to 
u 



OOOOOOOOOOCD 
O^UD OJ rH CT^ViD C\J 0"^V£) O 



•• m 


A 


•« 


•»•*•«•% 


m «k 


- 05 


^ o 


CO 


fcO 


O MD VsD VD 


Lr> OJ 


r^ 


r-\ (\J 


rH 


rH 


OJ rH rH rH 


r^ ,-\ 


rH 


•• •• 


i-H 

«• 


• • 


r-\ r-\ r-\ r-{ 


r-i r-\. 
• • •• 


• • •• 



o o o o 

rH^ CM^ 
OM.0 rH 3- 



o 

OJ 

o 



o o o 



CD O O 

CO o-> o 

rH Tx) CO 



OJ 









rt 



OOOOOOOOOOO 

CO Ln r^ CO '.: o \~^ a-^ cr\vD rH ^~-~ 
r^ rH o en I — -:d- OJ o OJ r^ i^ d 

LO I — MD \r\^ ^ LTWX) VJD r— r^- 
OJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJ 



OOOOOOOOOOO 
OJLTvOCOI^-CVJOJVOO OJLTn- 
C\Jh^LP»COrHrHO>l — OJVDl^ 

rH O CPi CO CO r— MD VJD r~— VD u:5 



O O O O 

60 LTn t^ OJ 

CO K> Lr> r^ 



O O O O o o o 

CnB^CO Lnj- O LT^ 
rH CO r-- O^ OJ OJ o ■ 



C7> r^ r^ t — rH 
CO a^ CTk cr\ o 



OJ 

o 



Q\0 

r-^ OJ 



r-{ cr\ o^ CO 0>, o^ CA 1 t.O 
CJrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 



OOOOOOOOOOO 
O r^ OJ K> o K^ G^ o^ u~N o^ L^^ ■ 

O OJ OJ MD CnvD -=r OJ rH rH 0"> 
\r-\C\ir^O^(J\<y\r-\C) V— ^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ r^ ro f^^ ^ KM?»3\ 



r-"rH VX) O 



-^ O ro 



a 



(D Q r-\ r-i r-\ 

r-\ r-\ r~\ ^\ r-\ 

» ''^ 



«3 



OOOOOOOOOOO 

K> CO ?0 CO h"^. r-— rH OJ ^ r-\ L^^ ■--. 

o^ r^ rH vo LjT. r^ O cr> J LO rH rj 



c3 



OOOOOOOOOOO 

^-r— rH r-^ t^r-i"^ r^rHVOVX)" , 

r>- rH Lr\ in rH O! \r\j:t cj lo> co cti 

rH r^VD CTi LO, rH CTv rH CO ^- OJ 

cociococococoi — coi^^-r-- 



O O Q O 

^ c^ 1 — r^ 
vx) ^ r^ m --«. 
OOOOOCO •» •• •• "rt 
O m ltn r^ r- t — KO vD r — vjd ^ 

K>^ U■^ CO O OJ CO OJ OJ OJ OJ 



O O O o 
^J3 OJ LO r^ 
-zt- O O^ rH - 

CTN IX^ K> LO 

^ ^ ,Tr ^ 



O 

OOOOOOOOOOO o- 

OJ r^ OJ LO CO o^ r^vx) i — iH co ir , 

^»X» r-\ LO>rH L^^O-=^ CO VXD CO 

cr\rHVDhr>,cnojo^ocor^O o. 

vx) vo LO ir^^ ^ r^-=t- ^'^ r^ ro cv 

OJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJOJO.' 



O O o o 

LO OJ r^ o 

UD^ r^rH 



o 

rH 



o o o o 

r- O^. en rH 
en r—O rH 



O O O^ 
ix> r^ ,-:? 

cr> en ^ 



r-- OJ ro LTN o t^^ ^ O r— o^ r~-- 
vx) r — r—r^-r — miovi? LOvrH en vx 



^0-=^ LOiVX) r— CO o^ o rH OJ ^<-^ 
cvic\jc\joje\jojojK>jrnK>K> 
o"A o^ en en en o"^ en en a^ o^ o~^ 

,-\r-\r-\r-\r-\r-\r^r-\r-\r-\r-\ 



ON . 



en 



o 
o 



O 

•H 
• ^ • 

^ : 

o 

-p ■ 

•H 



u 




o 




«H 






• 


W 


0) 


•P 


rH 


o 


rO 


cC 


Cti 


^H 


rH 


-P 


•H 


w 


d 


rCl 


> 


oJ 


cC 


rH 


-P 


Cti 


o 


o 


p: 


•H 




-P 


g5 


n 


-p 


•H 


d 


-P 


P 


C 




-P 


>~^ 


CO 


d 


• • 




w 




o 




g 




o 




w 





96U3 



-15- 



Apoendix 9 



VALUE OF TOTAL "OIIEIGII TRADE MD TEr.TILE Il.IPORTS AKD 
EXPORTS OF THE UImITED KINGDOM 

(In Thousands of Pounds Sterling) 











Textiles' Percent- : 




Imports : 


Exports 




a.pe of 


Total : 






• 




Inp- : 


Ex- : 


: Years : 
: 1913 ; 


Total : Text lies' : 


Total : 


Textiles : 


orts ; 


ports : 


, 768,734.7 : 165,249,1 : 


525,293.6 : 


199,803.5 : 


21.4 : 


38.1 : 


: 1920 : 


.'1,932, $48. 9 : ■.456,997.'l 1,334,469.3 i 


628,909.4 : 


23.6 : 


47.1 : 


: 1921 : 


:i, 085, 500.1 : 'l64,895.3 : 


• 

703,399.5 i 


271,602.2 : 


15.2 : 


38.6 : 


: 1922 . 


1,003,098.9 : 204,920.1 : 


• 

"719,517.4 j 


293,368.2 : 


20.4' : 


40.8 : 


: 1923 


.1,096,226.2 : ',205,280.1 : 


• 

767,257.8 j 


294,646.5 


18.7 : 


38.6 : 


: 1924 


: 1,227,439.1 :! 268,186,0 - 


• 

'800,96^.8 • 


330,714.4 


21.8 


41.3 : 


: 1925 


: 1,320,715.2 : 1276,394.9 ; 


773,380.7 : 


318,397.1 


• $6.9" 


41.2 " : 


: 1926 


:■ 1,241,361.3 :' 210, 588^0 


• 

' 653,046.9 ': 


260,856.1 


: X7.n 


: 40.0 : 


: 1927 


!: 1,213,341.2 :"l95",45ll6 


* 

' 709,081.3 ; 

1 • 


262,908.0 


: 16.1 


: i57.1 . : 


: 1928 


:' 1,195,598.4 : '. 208', 890. 6 


',' 723,579.1 • 


261,749.8 


: 17,4' 


: 36.1 ■ : 


: 1929 


i; 1,220,765.3 : 204,319.5 


: 729,349.3 : 


246,111.5 


: 16.8 


: 33.7 : : 


: 1930 


:' 1,043,975.3 :'. 143,552,3 


• * • 

: 570,755.4 ,: 


160,060.5 


: 13.7 


: 28.1 : 


: 1931 


:.. 867,252.6 :' 108,599.5 


: 390,621.6 .; 


108,716.3 


: 12.5 


: 27.8 . : 


: 1932 


:= 701,670.1 :. 85,251.2 


• • •• 

r 365, 024.0 .: 


112,599.2 


: 12.1 


: 30.8 : : 


: 1933 


: 675,015.1 :' 93,498.5 


:' 36!?, 909.1 ': 


110,242.1 


: 13. 7 


: 30.0 , : 


: Average 
:1920 - 




• « 

• • 








: 1933 


• — I — . 


t • 

• • • 

• t 

• * 


- 


: 17.1 


: 36.5 : 















SOURCE: 



Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom - 1913,1920-1933. 



9643 



-16- 



APPEIDIX 10 



PERC21.-T OF TEXTILE GOODS EXPOETED FROlu TIIE UlIITED KirC-DOM, 

CLASSIFIED 3Y KliTD. 













• 








• 






















; 






:Year 


: Cotton 


: Wool 


:Silk 


: Rayon: 


: Linen 


; Jute 


: Others 


: Total 






:1913 , 


: 63,3 . 


: 19,9 


:: la 


I —^ 


:.4.7 


: 1.9. 


• ?.l . 


rlOO.O 






: 1920 


64 »3 


! 22.7 


:: 0,3 


\. 0.5; 


:.3.8, 


• 1.5. : 


^ .4 ,, 


[100.0 






:1921 . 


S6.1 


: 2;. 9 


:' 0,8 


:. 0.6- 


!.3,8. 


: i.l. 


' 5.7 . 


:100.0 






fl922 : 


64.2 


. 22.3 


'.. 0,7 


5, 0.9; 


:.4.3. 


: 1.3. 


: 6.3 . ' 


! ioo.o 






1923 : 


60.8 


• 24.2. 


;■ Of 7 


:. 1.2.' 


:.4.3, 


: 1.3. 


t 7.5 . 


: 100.0 






•1924 ; 


50.3 : 


, 23.8. 


'. 1.-6 


: 1.3. 


1.4.5. 


: 1-2. 


: 7.8 


1 100 .0 




: 


:1925 ! 


63.1 


21.6 


'.'. 0.6 


: 1.7^ 


;,3.6 


; 1.7.- 


: 7.7 


: 100.0 


■ 


•_ 


!1926 : 


59,6 : 


• 22.4 ! 


!; 0.7 


: 2.7^ " 


: 4.2 


• I'S. 


; 8.6 


:100.0 J 


> I 


11927 : 


57,4 


25.0 : 


0.7 


: 2.9; 


!_4.2 


: 1,7. 


: 8.1 


:100.0 


» 


< 


1928 : 


5s!o : 


25.0 : 


. 0.9 


: 3.9. 


• 4.0_ 


: 1-3. 


• 8.4 


:100.0- 




/ ' 


11929 J 


5514 1 


25.2 1 


: Or^ 


: 3.4. 


!_4.2_ : 


• 2.2. 


8.7 . 

• 


[I90..O 




« 


,1930 J 


55,1 ; 


25.7 - 


: ^:^ 


'. 2-'^: 


. 5.2 . 

t 


1.5 


; 7.9 : 


ilOO.O: 




• < 


1931 : 


52 ,3 ! 


25.8 : 


: 1?0 


:, 3.1. 


:.5.4 ; 


1.3 ! 


11.1 : 


•100.0 ; 




; . ' 


•1932 : 


56 .2 : ; 


24.1 : 


: 0.9 


3.5; ! 


5.1 : 

r 


1.2. I 


9.0 ' 


•100.0 




; I 


1933 ; 


53.9 : 


27.4 J 


; 0.8 ; 


3 .4 : 


5.9 ; 


1.4 


• 7.2 


[100.0 






• < 

1920- 












■ i 








* 


1933 : 






















Av! : 


58.9 : 


24.1 : 


0.8 : 


2.3 : 


4.5 : 


1.5 : 


7.9 ; 


100.0 : 

























SOURCE: Statistical abstracts for the United Kingdorn, Lsndon, 1935, 



9643 



o 




o 




cb 








t^i 




t-H 




t- .-* 


.„^-^ 




^ 


P 


C4 


>1 


•H 


n 


?H 


g 


0) 




C/3 




cn 


EH 


'O 




r; 


f3 (3 


[I> 


o 


n 


p. 


O M 




^■^ 


O 


p; n 




o 


W 


ftg 


-d 
^ 


H t-H 


r-; 


CO 


in h-i 


;^ 


n CO 


o 


o en 


-C 


es 3 


-4J 



EH 

» ^ 

r -. 

EH 

o 



o 





-17- 






• • •• 










o to c^ rH iH o Lp\ ir>^ ^ lr^ r-- CO iH r— 

A A ft A A S tt A A ft ft A tt ft tt 






O O C\J rH to OJ lr^^ rH Vn CM ^ ^ viO^.vT) 






o 


^ ^f^ Oo' o^ to LO o r^ ix^,-:i- t^ a> rH rH r— 






^c 


rH- O'J- C\J-rH* r--- u^ Ln>o5' W- r^Ar) O O r .^ ■• " 






-p 

o 

1 


\.0 G Lo! to* o" Li^^" c7 r^ r-\ r-T C'T (A? o" I^ 
nH -ri- rH rH OJ CV) C\J OJ OJ OJ OU rH rH rH 


I 




* • * * 
1 

t 


rH O O O ^- vi£)\V£) VD to r^vO LO» roMD LTN 




' 




• •' •■ s^ k •' • • • k • '•' • '•' '• * 


- ^ 




0) 


r^ J- OI^K^LC^rH OJ C\JK>iLr> t^^^ (T\ rH 






+3 


.■^ OJ to rH lJr^ r>rN,uD r-i ir, r— to vd c\j lo pH 














K^ cn r^ r^ ^^-z^ L^^^ ^ .;d- m oj rH rH rH 


• 




• • • • 

0) 


^ ^h-t^-CO O-^-O 0%=t"0-0^ r^UD to lt; ■ " 






,ttrHCOOJrH'^r>t^OJO.IOJOJt<OOrHLf^ 






s:^ 


VD I-— KM^, r'^^ to m OJ ^•- J- ^ r^ O r^ 






•H 


^ to iv-, ix^"^ r— ^ too^r^oo(T\to^ 






G> t^ cT o? oT^" rH*" o" r-T cT cT t.'.r ir\ Lr^UD' ■ 








OlrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHr-l 


• 

in 




• • • • ( 








r— o^t^to CM a!bo r— t)OOJ-cr^ ojto ltn 


.. . 




K 


• •• ••••••«• ••• 


pj ■ 




O 


'^ i.r^,^- o^o^i-^vD ;-to^ r^o*^ 


o . 






1 O O OU LC-^ rH VO ,H C"A U-^tO t^ vjD ^ o^ 


. Ti ■ 




Cv 




PJ ■ 




r-l 


1 MnMM^AAA^WjMnnn 

K> rH OJ r^^ Lr^ r^ r^ o t5 LO« r^ r^ r^ 

r-\ , 


' o 










• • •• 




o 






• • • • • 


.V- !■- 


• • « 






fj . 






• ••••••••••«••• 


fU 




I, /I 


r-^- OJ O.I ai vx) CM r^^-O vjd r— lo r— r^ lo 


•H 




S 


m C-^ tC C>^^ to ^ LOi 1 OKD LO, r^ CM IC\ 


W 




•H 


rH rH OJ OJ O rH tO Cj>^ ^"t rH LTN O O tO 






c;:) 




• t:^ 






oT LT^ CM OJ OJ CM rH rH CM* OJ Cv" rH* rT r^ 


0) 
•H 










K^, OJ o c^^^-cT^t)0 k^o r^^ to r^vD cm 


<D 
+3 






r— ■) (7^[r\^£> LOvVJD MD LO O^ ,rt MD ^-^ tO 




iH 


OJ rO r--- OJ OJ >^ V^O CVI ^ r^ to r-- rH rH oo 






o 


r- w r^ J- J- u^vj-j ^ r— L!r> c^^ o o r-\ oj 


^ 




o 


•««kMM«k«« •-«•(■(««•»•«««•» 


■ O 




t- 




«H 






r^^ Lr>v^o h- r— VD loiUj vo vjd ^ cvi cm i^ 

r-i 


-p 






OJ to ^•^^-r^ to r^ G^-=t- o t^ o r-->vD r— to 






f; 


• •••••••*■• »••• 


rQ 




o 




< 




j^ 


vjd a^cr\to^ r-^ r--to rH bo o ■ t-o ■ oo ^- crs 






-p 


-r^ ^ t^ r'> O O r-\ r^. O "^o MD rH G'^ r^ t^ 


rH 




o 


•.•>M«.^»nM<«»..o«.n«. 


n5 




o 


U3 ,ri- cr. to cn rH rH m o '^ MD to vjd hT^ cn 


o 






oj o h- to r— o o Ln ir>^ r^. to unvrj \r\ 


•H 






r-{ ^ r-i r-\ r-i CM CM r-i r^r-i r-^ 


-p 
w 

•H 

-p 

-p 

CO 


► • • 


• • • • 


Ur\^ CM OJ {r\^ rHrHOtOLTMrxtOCOrH 






• •■ • • • • • •' t* • •' •' •' •' • 






^ 


^^ cn CM XX) vo ^ r— U5 to CT\r-^ ovo cn cm 






•OOOV,0^rHCTM-r\0^ rHVX) rH Cn^ 


• • 




4-:> 


to o>^^ r^>^o r^ K> to cn 1 — r-i o r— Lr> cvi 


F^ 




O 




o 




E-i 


0^ to rH t^J=i- O to O Oj" rH VO o" to OJ O 
O^ <M ^— cn CT'i K^ rH VD VO ^O -^-viD • O • M- H 


•§ • 






rHVDOJCMCMl^r^CVJCMOJCMrHrHrHrH 


o 

CO 






r^ o rH OJ t^^rt LTNvr) r-- to cn o rH CM r-n 






CI 


rH CM o J CM c\; OJ OJ OJ CM cj ro ro W\ r^ r<n 






<D 


o^ CA G^ o^ cn G> cn o^ o^ cn cn cn CJ^ cn cn 






>H 


cHnrHlrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHr-lrHrH 







9543 



CVJ 



X 

I H 



o 

o 

n 

EH 



B 



EH 



!>^ 




pq 




PI 


;:il 


w 




EH 


g 


c^ 


\-t 


Uh 


M 


l-H 


fS 


w 




O 


;-- 


c:) 


HH 


o 


F^ 




l-H 


a 


CO 


HH 


■^i 


EH 


f-q 


s 


o 


EH 




r^ 




o 





F=H 

O 

O 





• ' •' ,. -IS- 




o 


OjlrH h- CM r-\ O LOO LOj" CO KMjfMnMD 
1 •••••••••••••• 

1 OOrHCVOJ(\J(Mr^KM^MO.r— lO^ 


CJ 

• 


CD 
■P 


^ ir\w c\j v.£) vD r^ f-- CO to o --i- lo. o r^ 
• •••••••••••••• 

r~--4- ro r^ f-^ r^-d" ^ j=i- ^ ir\^ ^ LO^ 


» 

J- 








LOv^ LOi r^ lO LOUD v^ CT^ LO LOVn lO 1^^ 
ajOJHrHrHrHrHrHiHrHiHHHHrH 


• 


rH 


OJrHrHrHrHrHrHiHiHiHrHrHrHOJrH 


• 


rH 
• H 


CT\ O rOVjD O rH bO CTv CV! CT^ J" CJ^ CT^ rH CO 
• •••••••••••••• 

crAcr\C\jrH c\)ococo€rvf^h-tocov£)^ 

pH r-H rH iH 


O 

• 

en 


O 

o . 

Is 


^ >^0 ^ to VO Lni^MO o^ CM CO LO^ rH CM 
4^ CJ O hO PO rH rH V.O W P— r— 0> CJ rH rH 

CM CM i---^ r>^\ CM ro ro ro KM^ K^ K^-rf ^- ^ 


• 


o 

-p 
o 
o 


CMbO^ K-nO P—h-P— rH rH LO^ r- Cr\ tO 

• •••••••••••• •• 

O Cr\ en h- rH CP> CT^^- O ^ rO CO rO to rH 

LO LO>^ ^ LO^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ro ro t^^^ 


CJ 

• 

LO 




• • •• •• •• ■• #• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• • •• •• •• 


O 

• 

O 

o 

r-{ 


1 Total 


ooooooooooooooo 

• •••••••••*•••• 

• ooooooooooooooc 
ooooooooooooooo 

r^r-\r-ir-\r-ir-\r-{r-\r-it-ir-ir-ir^r-ir-i 


CD 

>H 


■ • r^'-^ O rH CW tt-'^jt LOVO f>- t© O^ O rH CM- r^ O K> 

rH CM CM CM CJ CJ CVJ CvJ CM Cv.1 CJ ^-^ h-^ 1^ ro OJ K-'. 

en cr\ o en cr> cr\ cTv c'^ C7^ c^ en C3^ o^ ca c3a Ctn en 



lO 


• 




ro 


CO 




o> 


'tI 




rH 


o 
o 




*% 


W) 




o 


rd 






^ 




o 


CO 




Hi 


•d 




M 


•H 




F 


«H 




o 


T:i 




fin 


C 




c: 


cd 




•H 






t^ 


'd 




lb 


.a 




CD 


CO 




-P 


•H 




•H 


C? 




p! 


•rt 




!=) 


«:h 




CD 


*4 




^ 


(D 




+3 


CO 




!h 


*> 




O 


t: 




tH 


ij 






fn 


• 


cn 




O 


•p 


CO 


H 


C) 


CD 


,a 


fj 


-d 


C\J 


t-> 


pi 


rH 


•p 


rH 


•H 


en 


O 


cd 


,Q 


JH 


> 


<i! 


•H 


Cti 


r-{ 


- 


c^J 


Cfl 


CO 


-p 


o 


rd 


C\J 


•H 


o 


rd 


-P 


o 




W 


e 


o 


•H 




^ 


-P 






a: 






-p 


■ — 




CO 


rH 


OJ 


• « 






W 






CJ 













C5 






CO 







96U3 



~iq- 



r^ 



X 
n 

n 

i 

Si' 



^ 



6 




n 




•C'3 








1^-1 




H 




iv^ 








Pi 




iA 




:h 




i-i 




i--« 




13 




la 




r- H 




EH 




\« 


o 


rq 


!2; 




n 


w 


w 




>H 


pc; 


pq 


o 




!^ 


s 


n 


M 


1 


r-H 




n 


C/3 


C/3 


n 


C« 


o 


^ 


o 


H- 


-^ 


o 


rq 




1-4 




n 




rn 




• y< 




; N 




r-^ 




'_-i 




f^ 




o 




g 




^ 




> 





•H 
rH 

%^ 

0) 
4^ 
CO 

ft 

o 
o 

r-' 
■ - -t 

+^ 

d 



O 



0) 

4-5 



CD 



rH 



•H 
CO 



rH 

O 

o 



o 

o 
o 



O 






o o^vjd Lr>© crwt.o^.'LOro oo t^ 

O l.r\ O iH O rH O.I t^ rH -:d- rH IX^ O 

C\J IX>^ ir^ cr^ CVI rH O bO Lr\ rH I — CO 

i-i" c\T^j Lr>^~o"^ VD I — r^ r-^ to ^- ^ 



r-^ uj V.O r-- LTs^t LT. o^ r— CO oj t^ w r— 
r^ r— CO hrN r^ r-->, rH k^ ^r^ CJ^ O lo.^ CjO co 
rH Lr^ cvi Lr\^ t^ rH o>iVD r^ OJ K^ a> CM a> 



C'j o vjD «^ . r— cT> ^<^ cr\ cr> cr\ o ^ o ^ ^ 

• H-CVI ' H r-l 



K> 



a^-::t OJ CVJ .-^ CT^VO O^ |-~ 
rH O U^'^.D rH rH .=:- OJ tO 



CU CTi r— CU O LCA 
r-{ e-^ h^^JD rH ^~^ 



r-{ 



c CM rc^-d" ^;- K^, r'-\ r^, k-, oj rH iH 



o \r\^ to OJ LOv CO ^'. oo 

CO r-- OJ a! LTn rH ' -O K-, CO 
rH (v-N rH r^VD K> t^ r^ rH 



cr-. Lr> OJ cr\MD ^ 
cr\ a.' vD CO o'>,:d- 
CO r^,v.o ir^*^ bo 



^ I — (^ r^ OJ ^ r^ K>>K> (M J^CM rH r-< r-i 



r— K^co r^LTNH^^r* q i — lr^v£> oj co ^ 

I C"^^— O r-{ r-\ IC\ r-HKO h-f^ r^-.VD ^J3 

CTi rH >^0 LO. O r^ CO O r^ O r— VX) r-\ ^ 



V.0 
. rH- 



O O 

^;-- c." 



?}( 



CJ, 



OJ c. 



rH 



to V.O 
rH rH 



L^^ OJ cr\ Lr^,-;- 



Vvjd r^ o ir\ OJ o"^ h^vx? vjd > c\j oj r^^ o oj g^ 

r— O^VO OJ O ^l ^' O to rH ^ KM — r-\ >--0 
I"-^ O rH ru LO LOi LCn CO o to o r^ o o lO. 



^ o 



O 0> CO ^ U3 VX1 VJD I — VX) VJD K£> 

Lf>>vD LO. CO CO i^- r— i^ r— ijn,^- 



1I~\C0 



.Q.CU-0.^rH"J- CV) 
Lr> CTv r-i t^^ VX) 
(JA OJ ^ cr\MD OJ 



(T\^ rH LCn rH VI3 O ^ r— 
OJrHir\rHr~~-rH'X»rHO 



OJ r-o rH u? ^ K> r— ^ CO OJ CO u"nvx) k> cr\ 
bo h— CO o> o .K>. r^-cre r~- cr> co m r^ h'^ k~\ 

.OJ- ■ 'rH r-{ rH 



a>r— LOvO o^^^co "Ha o^>oj c^^^^ co 
^ o^ CJ^ OJ CO CO o> CO ir\ cr. r-^ to en r^ en 

Ol CTv t)0 CA OJ rH C'^ U^^ CO KMO LTN OJ ^ 



I.C>,V.D ,r;- ^ 
VJD ir^vjD o 

rH ^ rH C ] 



LTv CO VD O 

o *^:^ r-r- rH 
Cvi 0..' CVJ cv; 



ir\W -^- r^ CO ltn r'-^ 

en O O ^- O CO .,.;A 
rH O! OJ H rH 



r-^ O rH CJ r^^t unvx) h- co 

rH C\J CVI OJ OJ CJ CJ a! CJ CVl 

o■^ a> < ■ cr\ cn.cn»cn- c> f /v oS 

rH rH -rH ■r-'.'rH rH rH r-'. rH rH 



0"^ O rH OJ hn 

CV! . c^ r^> r-n k^ 
c ^ Ly^ c^ o~> en 

r-I rH rH rH- rH 



un 






r^, 






en 






rH 






•» 






<::! 






o 






-d 






rt 






o 






.^ 






•* 






e 






o 






Tii 


• 




t(n 


CQ 




^ 


Tii 




•H 


O 




1^ 


O 

^0 




Ti 






(U 


^ 




-p 


(D 




•H 


^ 




rt 


w 




13 


•H 




O 


•H 




.c! 


tH 




4-3 


r '' 




fH 


r-l 




o 


Cf. 




^H 








•» 


• 


Ui 


^ 


Q) 


43 


o 


rH 


o 


.c| 


rQ 


Cb 


en 


C\) 


fn 


•H 


H 


-f3 


Pi 


•H 


W 


•H 


cvi 


rQ 


«H 


l> 


<1 


•H 


a 


n 




CO 
-4J 


o 




Cti 


•H 


•» 


X) 


■4J 


t^ 




Cfl 


'cvi 


o 


•H 


Pi 


s 


+3 






cr; 






43 


--.,^ 




CO 


rH 


OJ 


• • 






r^ 






o 






;^ 






6 






c:) 






CO 







96U3 



r-i 



e 



HH hi 







:: , -2(^, , , 




4 


1 . 


j±^^ t^ir>vD ovjD c\j o.^^^^to•tr^cvl 

4 • • • • •.,•>'•'•''* • ^ • 4 • 

, r— r^ ^^ AJ' tvi'OJ J- i^LO^ ^ r<^ ^"^ KM^ 

i.^ i. •- •. .. >. »• .A AA ^I, <A >^ 4k <A 1. >i ii 


4 
rH 

• 

OJ 




<••*'< • • • • • • • • • • • 

■ r^C\JrHrHC\JC\JC\JC\JC\JCJOJ(\JC\!rHrH 


iH 


t^ CTv-it iH r— .rH .to -iH f\J C^^ (\J 1 — r^^ r^ 

• •••'••••••••••a 

K^rHOjaJrHOJrHC\J(\lrHCMC\JOJC\J0J 


OJ 

• 

OJ 


1-1 
•H 


O O r-LTNpHtObO OJ K^OO CM LCNCTNCTM-^ 
rH iH O iH rH OO rHiHiHiHrHrHrHiH 


• 

rH 


•H 

^ •■ 
o 


r^ r^ cr\ r<^ rH (T\ r^uD oj ctn h- o O v£) rH 

rHobiHiHOOOiHOOrHrHOiH 


cn 

• 

o 


rH 
O 
O 


^'>^ a^ r— vx> Ljn> Lo,r-i ir\ o «^ h ^'S^ o ^ 

• • «••'•'• • • • • • • « • • 

OJ c\j 1^ r^ ^-^ ro r^ k\^ t^ K^-:=^ -rt ^ ^ 


• 


o 

+^ 
+^ 
o 
o 


^ LOi O r^ rH rH en Cn^ ^ ^ CO OJ CPiVD 
MDr^tO-::J-rHtOl — rHMDrHOLOOr^-MPi 


• 

OJ 
LO. 


Cti 

o 

EH 


CO 

'^ 

•H 

Q) 
-P 

1 


• -o "o o*'o ooooooooooo 

• •••••••••••,••• 

ooooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooo 

rHrHHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHMrHrH 


O 

• 

o 
o 

rH 


■ d 


** '* ** ** *' '* " ** " " " ** " l> ' 

K-N o i-H OJ N^^ irSvjD r— tocno rH ojr^o i^ 

rHCVIOJOJOJC\)OJ(\JOJOJOJr^M^r^r^C\Jh'-\ 

o^ o> c^^ o^ 0'^ cr^ (T\ c> CTN CTv a> (jN c^ CA o^ en cr> 

iHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 








1 



LP> 



o 

o 

Hi 



o 

•H 

o 

-(-5 
•H 


+3 



o 

W 
O 

nJ 

CO 



o 

•H 
+3 
W 
•H 
+3 

CO 



o 



o 

CO 



96U3 



-21- 



(-1 
XI 



8 



$. 




HH 




t^' 








P 




pa 




&H 




H-t 




g 


'w 




c: 


f^ 


•H 


X 


rH 


E-i 


u 




o 


?H 


+3 


n 


CO 


Q 


ti 


g@ 


c 

^ 


" M 


o 


p w 


PL, 




Ch 


n >-• 


o 


pq 




CA) 


TO 


^p 




n W 


3 F-H 


CO 


E^ n 


o 


<< m 


x: 


■2 CO 


+» 


.= 3 


s:: 


3" 


n 


pq 




1-1 




n 




I;1 


-• 



1^ 

o 



> 



96U3 





fr 






* • « • « 

v^or— tocJ^^r^Lf^o^Hlr^o^b^^' o-fS 
• ••••••••••■• •• 

^ c-> r- r— j'^xs c ' rH rj o^ 00 -::J- ircj 
CO r- c\j fx- J- *o Vj ir. oj 'j:> r^ ir .zjvo 


OVro h«-,.::3- ro LT^CO X\ r^V£) --X) hO CJ CUCJ 





• 'v** *, • • • • • • • • •• 

r^ r-K 0-.J:t r-i ^ '^ r-r XJ^ r-i <T^ t^ OJ C^T^ 
r-i lr^VO rH rH ^3- C\J CO rH iH I^VD rHf^ 


^ rH c\j cu ro^ ^ ^'^ r^ r<^ r^ c\j 

r-i 


fH rHiH 


S 

rH 
fin 




rH W) C\J M3 rH OA lOVD rH LTl rH O Vr> CTv^ 

^ ^ r~ cu ^ r '/ r^. luD cmt^- c\J "-C' ir.,;d- 
to r— c\j' cj LTN rH MD ro CO cr» nj vD 00 o>-xt 

rH r^ rH r^VO r<rN h- :<>» rH 15C f^.VX* ir\ X. TO 


^^-r<Nr>c\(rj^K\r^r«OCJroOJ 


r-{ 1-H r-i 


•H 
CO 


r-vo IT". r^rHvjD to ^^lr^cr^o,zl- 
• ••■•••••••• 

ir\ r— or\v.o G"N r^ c^ c\j to cr\ rH \r\ 

AjD ,::J- ^ ^^ cj oj C\J rH 
OJ Z~: r^.^JD -0 VD to to LTx 


• • • 

'.0 OJ rx) 
.y^ : — r^ 
^J r^, r^ 


f-: .r^ r J rH r-t r-i CJ rH iH r-, rH 


rH r-^ rH 





' * * 

OJ r— t^s '-O tC rH rj LT, CVJ f— rH Ci> t.0 
^ C> 0. t^vo r^, r>^^ rH 0"^ r^\ rH rH o■^ 
LT Lr\ ol' rH v^ % r^ en to ^ rH a>.vo ,zr t>0 

i-i r-i r-i CJ r-i t-\ r-i r-i r-i i-H 


rH 






r-{ CK ^-' OS r^- CO-^JD- rH- O- to- OJ 
• •••••••••■a 

'~D ^ VJD rH r^^^ ^ VJD '-X> ^ 
0: OJ lO IT . r— G^ W 1 — G>VJD r-- 

oj vD Lr\ CO v^ o^ r*- LTv (---,r^ i-- jd- 


rH r--VD 

• • • 
U^. OJ OJ 
rH ^jO rH 


jd-h-rHtOU3Cr»rHOJCr»OC5>CJ 

r^ oo ^ lr^Jd- vo r-'-^ ir.v£> ir\j=t 


OJ OJ Lr\ 

r^ r^ r^ 







• « • • « t ''»'■»• -m . m . » • 

r•'^0 Loo^v^ T'-^rH ir> ^-'^ 

• < — .C ! Q-^.t—lO C\] r--N CJ i-A,rt to 

irMr>> OJ ai t^:=t Lr\ c j .ci- ir> rH to 


t->. IS-iO 

• ■ a 

C'J OJ 

o^ CJ r— 

LT-i 


C '-0 r'-s I-- ro r^ ir>^ r— r— ^ 
r-- Lcxr— to en oj OJ t/O v^o to r—^ 

OJ -rH rH 


r— rH >0 

OJ h<nr^ 


rH 


EH 


iH 

ci 

•H 


C OJ r~^ c CJ ^ LTN t— c7^ to cvi 

^ rH r^> Lr\ CJ Lr\ CJ to,:::^- ir. to 
'oO V.O m. K-', rH 1 — K> r\j U: iM-> rjo to 

OJ OJ ^ x>j en en c ; cu ,zj- r— en rH 


• • • 

LT. cn u>> 

rH 'Xj r-n 
LfMr. CJ 


ir. iH vD OJ to r^ CJ 'jr^xo cj t/:. r— 

rH r/^ rH rH .H OJ OJ rH rH rH rH 


U 

C 
(D 


t^ rH c: T^.^ unvD r— to cr. h oj r-n 

rH CJ a: OJ C: CJ eCh --J CJ 0^ OJ |Nr>, r^ r^ |^r^, 

o~-. o^ en er^> o^ o^ o^ .:^. en en cr. c^ en en en 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrHiHrHrHiHrHrHrHiH 






c 
o 

o 
1-^ 



B 
o 

•H 



o 

+3 



G 

w 

O 

t- 

TO 

JD 

ti 

•H 
4-> 
TO 
•H 

rJ 
4^ 
to 



o 



o 

CO 



vo 



l-l 

i 
I 



n 
w 

CO 



c:) 





01 




'd 


o w 


c 


n w 


;:J 


C^ h-\ 


o 


s Pi 


Pk 


HH EH 




^g 


c 


o o 




H O 


u. 


&H 


'Ti 


g^ 


^ 


13 P-H 


m 


n 


7^ 


M O 


c 






.^ l-l 


, -, 


Bi HH 


-p 


r 




r-i fiH 


r; 


o 


hH 




^^..^ 


00 




EH 




rV 




o 




Pj 




HH 








.-* 




o 




EH 




EH 




O 




O 









-^,?- 




1 

O 
EH 


^-0 r-- to r^ ^- O O LOi^ vo VD r-i ir> o *vD 


iH 


0>VD C)0 1 — O CJ VD CV rH LT r-- CO V£) VJD CV' 
CJKD \r\ ^'^-::t t^O ^ ITNU) r--> ^- CTv O O 




j^ to t^O 1 — r^o ojvD CTiOMO r^^X) r^ 
r~~-^ O OM-T ^'-^vo o r^vo c r^ lo oj to 

r-\ CTv OJ ^ r^VO O^ txl vo LO,VO CO rH K^-Zt" 




CMrHrHrHrHiHrHrHiHrHtHiHrHrHiH 


,i1 
•H 
•H 


o 

•H 

o 

rH 
O 

o 
o: 

CD 
•H 

g 
O 

•H 
0) 

o 


O C\! rH O rH ro to r^^VD O LTn tO O -=f f— 

Lr^^^toa^rHO^c\JVD^OK^ o->,^ ltn o r^ 

r-{ CM OJr^v.-C: CM CMVOCr>rH r~-LOLr>rHtO 

CTM^^vo ^- to CT>vo r^vo r^ rH r~ to vo oj 
r-^ CM cTvVO J- ^ to r^^vo" r- r^ r^ J- to 

r- O to 0>VO r— O CT\ LTn CTv rH rH ir\^ o 
■ ^OJr^rHrHCMrHrHrHCVCMiHiHCM 


O 


rH rH LO r— VX> rHtO^-C^JCM^C^J(J^rHC7^ 
« •■1I'*«-« «• •-••« •• ■ 

vo r^ r^ t j Lf^ to ltn r— o o> cm r— t-- o cm 
r^ to to to rf> OJ r^ rH to o> CO ir>^ i — to 
r-- c> to o o^ CV rH to c en r—^'- vo vo vo 

^ 0■^ tCKO 0>. to GM^ CM vo r-H"^ ^^ ^ r-^ 

rH K> cv.1 r^^ ^ VO r— VO r— to to 1 — o vo 

r-i rH 




rH 
•H 

N 

ct 
U 


VO r— to rH L'^^ K> Lf^ rH to I^ K^VD Lr> LO 




r^^LOirH crMr\r^. i^rH OJ r— t^K^>-rH r~ 
O U3 vo o u^ r^ o r--^ ^ r-i i^ J- J- ^ 

tO^*- r^CTvtO CMCncntO r^CMO LTNVO CT^ 




f-i r^VO VOrHh-h-CMrH^r— Ot--rHf^ 
^-C. CM rH r^ OJ <H t^>i r^ CM iH vo r— r^ r-{ 




o 

Ph 


O cj o -:J- >oo ic\^ vo r^ H fH OJ c\j r^ OJ 
V.O c^ CO h-^ rH o h-^ r— cTi r— h-^ r— r— ^ to 

O r-- G■^ O rH OJ LT". C> t^\^ t-r-^ CM rH CTv P— 

^- ltnvo k^ c\yD T—^ ic\ LC^ to o r--^ cn O 




to L-^ o'M^ r— vx) ~:- r--h-o O-r^vo L^^o 
^-,vo L^^, r~- r~- h- to to o to to to vo vo to 

rH 




-P 
H 


J- to m ir^vo CM cr^ o> itnvx) vo to oj r- o 




cr\r— rHto CO rHovo i^vx) o 1^ o Lr> to 
vo cj r— omtnoj cr^r-oj r-i rH^ unr--r- 

V-D r--COrH rOrH rH CPvLTnOJ CTNl^tOVOtO 




CO rH rH vo c^Mr^lr^ r^-^vo ^ lo* o ir> o ctv 

OtOrOrH^^OrHrHOC3>rH \S^^ r-^ 

^ CM cor<~\r^r^r^r^K^r^cv! ojCMCor^ 




• 

• 

t5 


L^^ LT^,^ Lr\KMjnvto ir>r--o>r^tovo o r^ 

O^rH ^-O r-i (M r^^£> CT\^ COf^r^I^r^ 
vo rH rH r^ r— (J>VO CS> CO f^ LO CM ^ h— LO 

T-- r^ O r^, ^--rH ^ r-- to to ^ t^ r— ;Zf- r-i 




J- r— LnK>r^rH^vo r^vc vo O ^~nvo r^ 
lr^ J- to CTvvo o-> CM o cr» tc to vo ^ ^- to 




rj 

• • 


\^^0 r-i (M K^^ Lr\VO r-- tO rr\0 r-\ OIK-,' 
rH CM OJ CO CO OJ CVl OJ CJ CV.' CO >'> K", r<~\ r^ 

c^ cj> c^ cr\ O"^ o"> en o\ c^ cr\ en o^ c~^ o> en 

i-\r-\l-: r-ir-\r-ir-ir-ir-^i-irHs-ir-it-ir-\ 



Lxn 




Nn 




en 




iH 




* 




c 








O 




tJ 




^ 




•H 




i:4 




ti 




<D 




4J 


• 


•H 


C 


S 


o 


:=) 


-O 




H-3 


o 


o 


1 — t 


O 


+3 






■J 


^H 


o 


O 


4^ 


-;-H 


^< 




o 


CO 


p" 


-p 


k 


o 


CD 


cti 


1 


^ 


o 


+3 


^-1 






CO 
•H 



o 



o 

C/D 



TJ 



CO 

J-l 

(D 
-P 



CO 



O 



:5i 



961+3 



-23- 



(—1 
9 

P-, 
Pi 



t— I 

Pi 
E-i 

o 
o 

Ph 

o 



m 
n 

I— I 
1^ 



CO 

o 



R 



IQ 



s 



■^' 



o 
o 






r' 

4^ 



• • •• 

o 


o K^ r— b J rT> o 

O^^ U5 ^ ^ C 


Lo>r~-cr>to^ OJ rH oj^ 

^-rH^^ O LTM-TNrH O^ 

r^vo ^- rH r—^ LTN cr* t-- 


O [^VX) i-H^TT^-r^rHCVIt-OrHbOLnCMLO* 


w 

+3 

o 


• 

CO o"> C7> C7> r-- rH XD r— <T\^ o cr\ r-- ir\ to 

t<D 0^ to h- O CM 0>^-D VJD LO CT-. rH OJ MD O; 


r— K^ cvj ^ ^ r— ^ r^ Lr^lr^Lr^ r^^ r^ ir\ 


o- 

•H. 

• 

o 

02 


^ C> LnU3 CV' rH 

o ^'- o roo to 
o i-— &^ o to o 

r-\ r-i <-\ 


(XJ bD OJ li^VD O^^H roG^ 

tXD rH to r— ^ o: LX-^^ LOv : 

r4 CTv O OJ O LOi Lr\ O"^ rH 

liA to I — o roMD ir\ to KD 
tp 0"^ OJ rH to OJ v,o K^ ro ■- 

r-{ r-{ r-\ r-i t-A r-^ _ 

• 


•H 

-ri 

pq 


■ "^ u) r— bo rH to a> to ^ ^ o> i^ud to r^ : 
^ iH LrMr>r^crNr~-to r^oj Od\s) ovx?^ 
o> cr^vD ^ OJ o ^. ^ OJ rH cr> OJ tq lovo : 


^ rH ^ Lr> o ^■- cr^ <H LTMri r-^^ lo^ o 
Lr>^ ro m LTMOi lov^ lo,lo m k> r^ f^^^ 


o 

•H 
fn 
«H 

• 

O 

in 


^ ^ LO O^.tO VD r^rH r— f «) ^ LO LTSVO bO 
OJ t0"O O r^LP>tO^ OU5 ir. (^rH ^-LTN 

o>j MD ^ o>^ o irxr— o ro,.^- oo o oj oj 


K^ r^ OJ UD OJ to 
K>i ITnVD ^- 'H OJ 
rH r-1 rH rH rH 


O '.r^ Cr> OJ ^-- to rH ' rH ^ 

^-:;- ^ utavjd >^ Lr> k^ rH i— 

rH '.rH rH rH rH rH rH OJ rH 


<-< 




: 



o 
to 


rHVDLTMrNrHOOJtOtO r^VX) U> OJ LT^ O^. 

to o> r-i r— o r-'^ o^ to aj o to vo to lo^ 

r-\ rH r^V,0 rH VD ^ "H -=J" I^ CJ^VD r^ O r~- 


rH ^ to ^ rH to od ^ OJ OJ ro^ to rH ro 
; to Lo.^ o w r^ r— to o> to o> 1 — to o ^ 

rHrHiHr^rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHiHOJOJ 


•H 
'^ 
■4-5 


to CTN LTN^ H^ r^Lncno o>o o LOir-- 
r-_ r^ r--vD o r-^^ rH oj r^. cn^ r-- o r— 
o LP, o to K-^. to rH ^- '-o a\ to o en O UD 

Lo to rH r-U5 to ■lT^^ t^ CV o> r- a>i OJ to 
V0OrHLr\r--cJ0JOr^. oj-v-OLOtooo 
OJ m r^^ OJ OJ cj r^x OJ CV! OJ OJ OJ r^ ro 


• • 

u 


t^ o rH cu r^^^ LfAvo r- to o^ e> rH OJ r^, 

rH OJ OJ CJ OJ OJ OJ OJ OJ OJ OJ h-^r^ t^ r^ 

o> o~\ o^ c^ o^ o^ en o •. o^ cr> c^ en en en o>, 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHr-lrHrHrHrHrH 



en 



e 

o 

•H 

o 

•H 

CD 



O 



+3 

o 

03 
u 
-p 

CO 

rH 

O 
•H 
4-3 

w 

•rt 
+3 
CO 
43 
C/3 

• t 

O 

O 



rH 
O 
O 

a : 



■c2 



o 
ft 



,Q 



w 

Q) 
?! 

rH 

O 



rH] 



96U3 



-O^I- 



AP?IiriX 13 



Y.^jjz 0? t:3:tiiz rcors "XPCRizr zy ~z iviti? ki:"c-dom 



(in TIicuskT-iics oi" -roainc Sterling-) 



Years 


: Rav/ I'aterials 


: Serrd-finished 


Piece C-oods 


: Total :■ 




» "" 


: Goods 






1913 


: 5,987.5 


! : >J:. 973.4 . ; 


170,3^.-2.8 


: 199,803,5 : 


1920 ! 


I 10,7-.2.7 


! 69,-^14.4 i 


548.752.3 


: £28, 909 .'x : 


1921 ! 


! 5,017.0 , 


i' •• o^--;iao-.-4 : 


• 23^,484.5 
245,175.1 


: 271,502.2 : 


1322 J 


8,215.8 


! 59,97^.3 ! 


: 293,563.2 : 


1323 ! 


t 10,451.3 ! 


1 53,402.5 : 


250,792.7 


f 294,545.5 : 


1924 : 


• 

12, .24.1 : 


43,305.9 : 


274,333.4 


• 550,714.4 : 


1925 i 


11,41-98.9 ; 


!• ••45;035.4 : 


"■ 261 ,874 .-8 ■ 


: 518,597.1 : 


1926 : 


8,15-^.0 ; 


52,-_-07,5 : 


. 220.294.5 ! 


! 2c0, 856.1 : 


1927 j 


10,205.9 ! 


: 57,7-^7.5 : 


214,953.5 ': 


r 2:2,908.0 I 


1928 J 


10,014.8 i 


'•• "35 ,'945 .'9 ■ ■■ : 


■ '214. '7 89.1 ■ ■■ : 


2l 1,749. 8 : 


1929 : 


9,351.9 i 


i . 35, .103 ..8 . . : 


301, 1 55 .-8 i 


• 246,111.5 : 


1930 : 


4,714.2 : 


23,404,4 ^ : 


131,941.9 : 


160,060.5 ; 




• . « • « • 


! - • ; 




1 


1951 : 


, 3,198.5 J 


! 17,244.9 : 


88,273.-= ; 


108,716.8 : 


1932 ! 


3, £07.1 ! 


' 17,038.2 : 


91,953.9 ; 


112,599.2 : 


1935 : 


5,109.9 : 


17,^.39.5 : 


87,692.7 : 


110.242.1 : 



SCURCi: Statistical Abetraots for the Unrte'd laTii^ddin,' Lbriadh," 1955, 



3543 



-2S- 



APPEinDIX 19 



EZPOETS GI 



1915-1934 



(In Thoiisaiicls) 





YJ^<i 




rx- 


?.ICS 




Ano-ont in 


Index 


AjTiOVuit in 


Index 


_years. 


Po^juids 


1913-100 


linear Yards 


1913-100 


1915 


210,a99.0 


100.0 


7,075,252.0 


100.0 


1914 


178,527.8 


85.0 


5,735, 


854.7 


81.9 


1915 


188,1-78.7 


90.0 


4,748, 


904.6 


67.7 


1915 


172,192.8 


82.0 


5,255, 


503. 9 


75.0 


1917- 


133, 1-53. 5 


53.4 


4,979 


,075.9 


71.1 


1918 


101,793.7 


48.5 


3,695, 


,772.1 


52.7 


1919 


162,655.5' 


77.4 


3,528, 


,755.5 


50.4 


1920 


147,432.4 


70.2 


4,760, 


,000.0 


68.0 


1921- 


145,894.9 


' 69.5 


5,038, 


, 246. 2 


43.4 


1922 


201,953.0 


96.1 


4 31 *^ 


,667.0 


61.6 


1923 


145,017.4 


59.1 


4,323, 


,855. 6 


61.7 


1924 


163,055.4 


77.5 


4,585, 


095.4 


65.4 


1925- 


189,531.2 


90.7 


4,656, 


,720.2 


66.1 


1926 


168,525.8 


80.2 


5,922, 


,795.7 


56.0 


1927 


200,464.7 


95.4 


4,189 


,109.6 


59.9 


1928 


169,206.9 


80.6 


3,968, 


,193.3 


56.7 


1929 


166,637.7 


79.3 


5,764, 


,852.4 


52.3 


1930 


136,987.5 


55.0 


2,490, 


549.4 


55.6 


1931 


133,515.1 


53, 5 


1,790, 


157.0 


25.6 . 


1932 


141,662.7 


67.4 


2,302, 


612.5 


52.9 


1933 


135,111.4 


64.3 


2,116, 


,720.0 


50.1 . 


1934 


130,425.7 


52.0 


2,067, 


421.0 


29.4 



SOIRCE: International Cotton Bijlletin 



9643 



-.2G>^ 



AP?::]rjix 20 



EXPORTS OF •VOCLEIC-WORSTFL GOODS BY THL UlMTLD KIl^GDOli 

(in thousands of Poland Sterlin;.") . . 



Years 


: Tops 


> 

: Woolen 
; Fabrics 


: Worsted 
: Goods 


• Car->ets 


Other 
; Woolen <?;• 

vYorsted • i 
; Goods 


! Total 

• 


1913 


: 3,651.8 


: 14,4C6.6 


: 6,286.5 


:. 1,557.0 


: 1-, 827.8 - 


\ 27,769.5 ;: 


1920 .. 


J. '5, 036.6 

• 


! 75,165.3 


: 25, 383.1 ; 


! 4,530.2 


: -•,401.2 


r 117, 817 .4 : 


1921 


r.^,.401.7 


: 24,652.5 • 


11,227.7 


» . , 00 r • »7 


5 3-, 035. 9 : 


. 46,525.7 : 


1922 ; 


: 4,424.9 


! 25,055.5 ; 


•11,775.4 : 


, . 2, 845.5 ' 


! 2»699.5 : 


45,799.9 : 


1923 


: 5,264.0 


: 28,280.9 ; 


11,399.6 : 


, 5,322.5 : 


' 3,685.5 


51,950.5 : 


1924 


:. 6,465.2. 

« ■ 


: 30,141.7 


10,055.5 : 


' . 3,397.2 : 


4,279.0 : 


54,558.6 ; 


1925 


• .5,313.6, 


: 26,247.4 . 


! 9,029.-i : 


. 3,104.5 ! 


1 ' ' 

! 3,394.1 : 


47,088.0 J 


1926 


: 4,755.4 


25,624.4 


; 0,120.7 : 


3,063.4 ; 


5,-2^0<8 : 


42,794.7 : 


1927 : 


5,648.9! 


. 25,741.1 . 


. 7,334.5 ! 


2,958.2 ; 


3, .401.8 : 


45,084.5 


1928 ; 


' 4,807.6: 


25,528.4 ' : 


8,438.2 : 


. 2,888.'-- : 


5, -559 .-4 : 


45,022.0 : 


1929 


4,208.4: 


22,206.9 : 


9,425.5 : 


2,904.7 : 


5,-107 .-6 : 


41,851.1 : 


1930 ; 


2,828.2: 


16,041.1 ' 


5,710.5 : 


2,014.4 : 


3,95:.l : 


51,550.5 : 


1931 1 


2,022.4: 


10,192.4 : 


5,100.6 : 


1,051.1 : 


1,575.7 : 


19,740.2 : 


1932 i 


3,077.&3 


8,483.4 : 


! 

4,406.3 : 


1,150.9 : 


1,175.9 : 


18,295.1 \ 


1933 : 


3,424.1: 


8,842.3 : 


'::,590.4 : 


1,251.5 : 


1,206.5 : 


19,514.6 : 



SOUHGS: Statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom, London, 1955. 



9643 



;j^?e:"dix ^i 



EXPORTS OF V;C0L TZXTILZ 00 CDS L7 THl UJ'ITILD KIi'CDOM 
(Ycirnc ir.' tliouKi.nc-S' «)f •ooiii'ids) 

(Fabrics in .tliousands of, ...... 

s qu are yards) 





1 ■ 

'1909-1S15 


.13-34 


1935 


' 192., 


: 1327 : 




Kavera'cc) 






1 
















Wool Tops 


1 . 










to Foreign Countries 




: 33,521 


: 25,896 


: 25,353 


: *-- : 


to British Colonies 




; 7,608 1 


! 6,145 


: 8,269 


I — • ! 


TOTAL ; 


! 4i.,8i;a - 


' ^.1,129 , 


, 32,0^--l. , 


. O o J C o .o 


— : 


Wool en- Worsted Yarn j 










1 : 


to Foreign Coimtries 


! 81,0,?C ! 


• 56,565 : 


50,031 ! 


! 38,778 


1 •-•fc.^ • 


to British Colonics ; 


t 5,965 : 


9,327 


If'- oO 


8,553 


— — 5 


TOTAL ! 


86,991 •; 


m, 892 . 


57,414. , 


•-7,331 


— • 


Woolen Fabrics I 












to Foreign Countries < 


76,417 ! 


'106,514 < 


• 85,3.51 


; 72,375 


«-•*-« • 


to British Colonies \ 


51,077 : 


58,426 , 


j^ o J O /^ o 


: 49,981 


» ^^ J 


TOTAL ; 


127,494 : 


154,740 ! 


132,174 ; 


•119,357 : 


r 130,916 : 


Worsted Fabrics ; 












to Foreign Countries j 


58,434 J 


32,364 J 


. 27,421 ! 


...23,530 : 


——'-.J I 


to British Colonies ; 


39,971 : 


24,479' "; 


19'; 381 ■; 


19,4.30 : 


_— • 


TOTAL : 


98, '.05 : 


56 , 843 - 


47,302 ! 


' 42,950 


: 39,979 : 



SOURCE: A. Balfour, Survey of Tortile Industry. 



)5^i:0 



-28- 






r. 



d 







w 




KMTMn r-H liA^ O V£) CP>*X) ^ LOO r— COl 




U CD "^ 




r—J-^viDCViroOOCTvOJCTMHCULOvCOCO 


c 


CO CD O »H 




• ••••••••••••»• 


0) 


c 


Ph O ro 




j-cr>t~-i^^oc\jrHr^K)C)Ocoi — ltmoiLOi 


c 


^1 


??. .. 




t^'N rH rH iH rH rH 


•H 






r^t^taO I — O O r-{ LOCO O rOLTxto^ r^ 




fs 


u ri 


• • 


^ 


r-i LOi o i^o r-^ r^vjD K> KM — r~-vr> co to lo 


• • 




Ph Eh 




r^,vD ^ r^ t^^ ^ ^i- J=t t-'~\ t^ CM r-{ t-i r-\ 




LOv LO rH h-U) O^ CJ U3 ^ U3 tO h--Zt- ^tT LTN 
^ C\J g^ rH KMO rH LO^^ r— OM^ O (J^V£) 


• " • • 


J-. ri 


• • 


CD 


!s 


Q) O 




• •'••••••••••••a 




c^ 


* ft &^ 


• • 


O MD rH rH r^ rH to O rH ro O rH f— >^ LOi 

r>o u-^ K-^ K> CM ro^ ^ K-A r^, r^ oj rH rH rH 


^5 




CO 

ri 




• • 




+3 W 


•H rd 




,-{ CM ^ r>or— r— r--rH to^^ r^vxi k> lo 




W iU 


M f^ ri 




bG r--^ OJ CM Lf> CM rH LO^ I — r--VlJ rH O -^ 




in Jh 


i-i (D ^ 








O 03 


•H ft O 




rov ITMOU) VD ^-VXI LTMO LOi^ f^ hO 1^ t^ 




o 


x: Ph 


• « 


■ '-' 


i-i 


vjDOt)OK>tOOV£>CrvCVvX)CM r~~-^ ^ 1 — 


o 


a w 


^ ri 




rHrHhOr— rHCMbOrHirMTNOLOiOrHrO 


o 


•H ft 


0) ;j 






^ 


^ o 


ft O 




o' cA OJ ^ CD CM ^ r-^ bO rH (3^\>D rA OJ to 




S EH 


• Ph 




CM O ^ LOiUD r— LO^ ^ LTN r<> OJ CM CM OJ 






-ri 




rH 


• • •• 

o 




f 




'xi 




Td 






<D 




ri 


Lf>'<£) CM ro^VD rHCMLOCTvrHrOtOtOCM^ 




^ 


Vi 


pi 


LOi to r^ cu c7^v^ o ,tl- r- LP»..t}- CM km — cm 




w 


<D 


b 


• •••••••••••••• 




03 


P. 


Ph 


Lf> LO. rH O -:-+ CM r-- rH K-\ tO ^ "OD CM O rH 




& 


• 




rH LTN CM OJ CM K> OJ OJ CM CM CM rH rH rH rH 

• 




:s) 




• • 


• • •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •* •• i*^ •• •• 




m 


ri 




OJ U5 CnVO '<D t—l — LTMX^^ r— t/D OJ r-i K^ LO 




O 


•H 


tJ 


K^ to OJ CM r— O CM rH K^i tO r-\ tO r-i '^ lO 




•H 


rH 


ri 






!h 


rH 


^ 


O o-^ CM rH CM ^ rH r- r— r-- r—^ cm rH rH 




rQ 


•H ^H 


5 


rH^CMCMCMCM CM rHr-lrHrHrHrHrHrH 




r: 


.'-; CD 


Pm 






F-H 


CO Pi 










ri 
a 

•H 

+3 


• • 


tor— Lor-bo-tOrHtotoLOtoo LrNC3>^- 

VtCMCM^CJSOVDOCMJ-CMtO^OrH 






rd 


'AA AAaS ASA ^fc A A A A fl 

to ^--K^cr\0 r--c^^CT^^— to Lr\CP>LrMrNLr> 






P^ 


ri 


r-iO~\t<~\CMt^t<^t^CMCMCMCMr-{r-\r^r-\ 




ri 


fe 


g 






^1 


• • 


^ 






>- 


ri 


CD 








c\3 


ft 


to O O CM V£) K> rH K>, CM ^-ij- CM h-^ Lf> LC^ 






o 

•H 




rH ir>MD CMtoi — (T^^vJK^CMK^K^CT^c^\rH 






^ 


O r~- r^ GO CM LO. o i-0» lomd lc^ rH co to cr» 






CD 




r-{^i-\r-{CMCMC\ir-ir-{r-ir-\i-\ 




• • •• 


• • •• 






ri 




ri 


nd 




o 




Cl> 


ri 


a 


+3 




•H 


^ 


4J 


-p 




+3 


O 


Ci CT^.Q^ K^, a>i CM O to ^ LO K->, CM LO LO 


o 


Uj 


ft 


p. 


■Xi CM CJ> rH rH H CM K-, ^- CM O O to CM m 


o 


tj: 


>v> 




• •*••••»«•■••• 




ri 


f^D 


>-i 


• ^o to to to -zf cn>X) ^o (3^ r— CM r~— r— h- 




•H 


H 


CD 


OrHrHrHrHajCMrHrHrHrHrH 




i-l 




P^ 


52; 




■xi 










•H 


•• •■ 


• 






I 












rH r^CTiCM CJ\0 rHVX) O K^CJ^h- O UOLO 








rH K^ K^^ K^ r^ OJ Lf^ Cr-. cm ^ rH CVJ LO 










^-K^o^cMvr)vo cm ct\o~>0 C i^ltmcmo 




< 




CM rH rH rH rH r-\ r-\ 




U 




K^ 




a 




rH rH CM K-^^ LTxVX) F— CO Cr> O rH CM K^ 




(U 




0■^CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCJCMCMK^K^K^K^ 


• • 


M 


• m 


rH 0■^ CTN C^ 0^ Ci^ O^ 0"\ CTv C> CTs Cr\ Cn a^ CT> 

rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH. rHr^^^rHrH 

*. •• •• •* «• •• •• •■ •• •• ^. •• •• t* •• •• 



Ll"^ 

KN 
r-H 



o 

^d 

ri 

o 



o 
■o 

•H 

CD 

•H 

g 

(D 



fH 

O 

tfH 
CO 

o 



rH 
03 
O 
•H 
-P 
CO 
•H 
4J 

a 

-p 

CO 



g 

o 



CO 

ri 

o 
ft 

CM 



(D 
O 
CD 
•H 

Ph 

• 

CD tJ 
fd !H 

03 cti 

EH 

O 
O 

-d tiE 

03 -H 
O -P 

pq ^H 

•H 

CD ,ri 
/:; CO 
-p - 

t: to 
; AJD K> 



CO 



vi) ri 



CD 



ft 
s 
o 
o 



•• K^ 

CO 

o -d 

CD 






CI 

a 



>-- 

CD 
Fh 
C!5 



r»^ x >^ 



.^n_ APPETTDIX 23 

1/ 

INDICES OF ^iCLESALE PPJCES OP TEXTILE 
G-OODS III TIIE Ul^ITED KIIIC-DOM 
1913=100 



Years Cotton Other Textiles 

15 Items Included 15 Items Included 



1913 100.0 

1920 480.2 

1921 192.3 

1922 182. 2 

1923 201.9 

1924 227.8 

1925 209.8 
1925 158.3 

1927 154.7 

1928 154.2 

1929 154.4 

1930 121.2 

1931 96.8 

1932 95.8 

1933 96.2 



100. 


,0 


358. 


,9 


171, 


,6 


155. 


,5 


171. 


,1 


195, 


,8 


185, 


,4 


150, 


,4 


156, 


,4 


154, 


.9 


151. 


.0 


113. 


.6 


91, 


.5 


85, 




88, 


.5 



SOURCE: Statistical Abstracts for the United 
Kingdom, London, 1935. 

1/ Compiled "by British Board of Trade. 



9643 



-30- 



AP'PMDIX 24 



WHOLESALS PRICE IIOICES 07 COTTCN GOODS 



IN GDJ.J^ 3RITAIiJ, FRANCE AilD GERi.XTY 



19.35=100 



YEARS 



GREAT BRITAIli 1/ 



7RA:TC£ 
Cotton Yarns 



GERlAilY 
Cotton Yarns 



64.6 



■ " < 






• ..- > . . 


1921 


121.5 


■ V V 


- 


1922 


115.1 


- 


- 


1923 


127.5 


- 


- 


1924 


143.9 


— 


153.4 


1925 


132.5 


- 


141.5 


1926 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 


1927 


97.7 


71.8 


101.8 


1928 


103,7 


76.6 


105.8 


1929 


97.5 


74.4 


100.4 


1930 


76.6 


62.8 


80.9 


1931 


61.1 


44.0 


56.3 


1932 


60.5 


34.2 


45.5 


1933 


60.8 

t ■ 


35.5 


48.0 


T / rp Vi Q -iv^/^Ti^cic n 


briTn->-\T 1 c^r\ >nr -HVici "Hy*-! 't' n 


cV» ■Rri'^-r'rl n-P Tl 


v><->/^Q T (^ -i +omo 



of cotton goods included. 
SOURCE: 1. Statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom. 1935 p. 222 

2. Annuaire Statist'ique, 1934.- p. 143 

3. Vierteljahrshef te zur Statistik des deutschen Reichs. 
1925-1934 



9643 



-51- 



II. TEXTILE ivm^'jjvi i:i ?::iA;'C5 ' 

A. Textile Indugtr:/' in G-eneral Econo raic S:/stei . i of 7rc:nce. 



1, The Textile Industry occupies the predominant position 

Tioth in the internal economy and in the lorei^jTi trade of France . 

Its outstanding place in the ^^I'^oral econohiic str'-ctuxe of the 

country is evidenced "by: 

(a) Its v olu i Tie of -production , v:hich aniounts in 
value to .?3.4 per cent of all tne industrial production 
of France ( Textile 7Jeekly, September 1, 1933). 

("b) Its yolune of emp loym ent - In 19 '^5 (the most 

u '"'-..■ recent available Cen;:^us of Industries) the textile trades 
employed 933,853 "oersons out of 20,919,000, the total 
iTOrkinj;;^ population in I^'rance , or 4.5 per cent. (Out of the 
total n-uunher of French textile ^/orkers 37G,301 or 40.6 per 
cent -vere mr.lcs ?nd jJ4,3.;7 or ■;9.4 per cent ■'-'ere females), 

(c) Its v olunc of Industrie 1 equi'r.-ipnt - In the 
numher of cotton s-^in.les, (lO,14'l-,000) France ranlred as the 
third largest textile ruanufact-uxin;'^ country in the rorld 
and in 1933 v^as cunjassed only ty Great Britain and the 
United States. In the nui.iber of loo.aR ( 198,300) France 
ranlied fourth amenta other European co-ujitries. The recovery 
of Alsace added considerably^ to the French Textile Industry 
(about 1,730,000 cotton spin. Ics r^rAC 38,000 cotton looms). 
The '.TojI Industry \'as practically annihilated in the Great 
War since it v/as located mostly in the regions occupied by 



9643 






G-oritan arrniss, Aftor tho TJar, ho\7evor, it -rnxr^ restored 
and lardernized, France is the first covontr:/ in Surcpc in 
Sir'--: manxif act-urin: ; and is far ahead of fc-'or other impor- 
tant sill: nianmact-urin^ Enrcx^ean ccuiitries - Gcncany, Italy, 
Switzerland and Czochoslovalria. Thus, in 1526 the n-umber 
of looms in the sillc v/eaving sections was 55/'G0 in franco, 
47,0^C in Germany, ?8,00^- in Italy, 1:j,0^C^ in Switzerland 
and 14, OCT in Czochcslavaiiia. (Annuairo Statistique, 1933) 

(d) Its role in the fcroi/.yi trade of France ~ Textiles 
avera^jcd 21," per cp*nt of the total value of all iDioorts 
for the first q'oarter c^f each /or.r during 192?' to 193 j and 
19.3 per oent oi the value -^f the total French exports for 
the same perird. ^'.-r the same period, the imiports and 
exports of textile ra^.■ materials v/ere respectively.' 34,2 per 
cent and 19,4 per cent of tne imports and ex;!Dorts of all raw 
materials. Yarns .o.nc. fabrics con^>riuutod 10,2 per cent of 
' ' total value of all imported semi-finished and finished manur- 
factured c;;oods anl 33.2 per cent of all oxpoi- tec. /7rench 
m^anufactured ^(•ods (A;''pendiccs 1-4-) . 
H, -.-Orf^a nization of the Trench T-^xtile Indust ry 

1, The ITrench Textile Industry is hi,f;hly decentralized. 
Accordin^j; to the Census of 193v'> a little more than 15 per cent 
of the establishments employed 20 or more workers. Almost 14 
per cent emplcyed bet'.'/een 6 and 2"", and more than oo per cent 



9643 



rv rj 



employed 1 to -3 v/orlcerr:; 18 per cent of the establishments were 
of the "cottai2,c inuustry" t^rpe v/hich omployecl no labor outside 
of the members of the family. 

It is also hi;..hly sectionalized. At least 17 different 
lines of textile production are discerned by the indur.-trial 
Census of 19 DG (Appendix o) . Many of these lines are farther 
subdivided into sta/:;es of manufacturin,;:' and ma^rhetin^; the French 
Textile Industry is more c.iffused teclinically and economically 
tha,n that of any other industrial country of 3ui-ope, includins;^ 
Great Britain. 

The more important separa.to branches of tlie .Trench Textile 
Industry may be characterized as folio- s: 

(a) The Cotton Industry is relativel;,- r small 
scale inc-ustry in France. The avera;"e nMinbcr of operatives 
in 19.-6 vas 310 '-orhors per cotton spin^iin , mill and only 
l.oS cmplo'/ees per i/eavin;;; ijnit. The family character of 
the Cotton In-ustry remain;-- v-'.ry- -iriajifi.zcd despite r continuous 
transformation for fiscal purposes of t::e legal ^:,tatus of 
firms into companies. The recover,/ of t.ic iiiyhly developed 
Alsatian Cotton Ih:'u!:try subaeouent to the v;ar added about 
25 per cent to French Textile Equipment and more tlmn doubled 
itr priritin/T capacity. 



-^io'i*-* 



(b) The Wool Indurtr;^- iu S'ranco, compared with tiiat of 
Germany, the United States and G-roat Britain, is organized • 
on a small scale "basis and retains like the other French 
Textile Industries, its essentially family character. It 
should "bo noted, however, ths.t the inuus trial equipment of 
the French Wool Textile Industry ir; extremely modern as a 
result of the replacement in 1919-19.'3J of the machinery 
destroyed durixi/^ the War. 

(c) The Sill: In^nistry is next in importance, France 
holds the loading- position in Etijrope in the manufacture of 
silk {joods. Althout'ih 11:?, 395 employees v;erc re{^'istored in 
the silk and rayon, spinnin;; and vreavlnr divisions in Fra.ncc 
in 1036 ( Annuiire Statistique,193o) the exact numhor of • 
v/orkcrs in the silk indivjtry can not he ascertained, since 

a considerable proportion of this trade is still in the 
"cotta^:e industry" sta/;e. This siti-Lation mckes it difficult 
to trace the prOi^Tcss of economic rationaliz£.tion in the 
industry as a whole, 

(d) The Rayon Indu<^.try , unlilce the other textile trades 
in Franco, is hij^hly concentra.ted. Tv'o ■'groups control the 
Tsulk of the French rayon output ~ the Givet-Isicux and the 
Carnot {groups. They represent about 90 per cent 6f the 

na t i nal viscose capac i ty . The Eay o n Indu!^ t r;^ is par t i c- 
ipatin^;; in tiie international rayon cartel and mainly because 



9643 



"CiO-' 



of that, the out-put of rayon h^^.s he en relatively static 
in i"'ra.nce in the ln.Et fev; years. Since 1930, hov/cver, 
the Rayon In^luntry 's poeition luis been coaiplicated hy 
the instability of cotton t-nd wool prices, 

(e) The Linon Industry, with 24,973 operatives 
employed in flax preparation anC spinnin;,- and 56,503 
oj-.'oratlvus In linen weaving, wac; in 1936 one of the most 
important branches of the French Textile Industry. How- 
ever, since 1931 the i'rcnch home raar]cet for linen goods has 
suffered from competition v.-ith the cheaper fabrics and from 
the withdrawal of forcic^n visitors and foreign residents, 
who v.'ere very la,rge bu;y''ers of the fine linen products. 

The scale of uno.ertaJcin; s in the linen trade is not very 
large, thou{;;h concentration lias developed to some extent, 

(f) Juto_ prodjictjLon in France in comparison with the 
Scottish or Indian Jute Industries is snail but has made 
considerable projr-recs. The size of the units in this 
branch is relatively large compared with other textile 
industries of the country, 

2. Lp-bpr p r_gan_i Zci t i^qnc in the French Textile Indiistry 

are in the initial stages. Loss than 15 per cent of the v/orkers 
in the Industry -pa:y dues to trade unions. 

3, The no rmal v.rorking w e el: of 48 hour s was introduced in 
the French Textile Inclu-try by the Act of April ,33, 1919. The 



-36- 

Act also contains very detailed prcvii^ions on the rG;;;;:alation of 
hours of v/ork in the Industry, The decree of Janimry 16, 1933 
restricted the facilitie3 for inal:in^ u\"5 the lost time. The order 
of December 27, 1933 a,"boli7hed overtine to meet an exceptional 
pressure of rork. There arc no data availatilo on the shift-system 
in use in the JTrcnch Textile InO-untry, 

. 4. The trend tov.erd cartilisation of Industry "be^an rela- 
tively late in comT^arison vith the ncirj-hborin?; countries and inadc 
but little progress until 1924, Only tne coa,l, iron and tube 
industries v^ere c-a'telizod in France before the wjir. This v/as due 
largely to the lack of concentration in most Trench Indur tries, 
to the great diversity of business units and to the survival of a 
large number of the "cottac;e plrntc" — particularly/ in the Textile 
Industry. Cooperative activities have niade little hea>.dway among 
French industrialists. The French cartels, "Comptoirs", generally 
represent a very loose orymiKation a.nd the ijjreat majority of them 
are highly unstable, ineffective and short lived. 

Within the Textile Industry some regiona.1 cartel-like agreements 
wore achieved under the pressure of the current depression. The 
most notable amon//; them is the cartel of the cotton spinners in 
Alsace. The discussions held in the various geographical regions 
of the French Cotton Spinnin/^ Industry proposed that the regional 
agreements should be combined into a. national agreement to regulate 
production in its relation to demand. About 80 per c?^nt of the 



9643 



—•Of—* 

cotton spinners vcre said to "be in favor of tlic plan in 1934. An 
arrangement on similar lines vas regarded as -urgently necessary'- 
for the cotton weaving "branches and a plan t^s formulated to in- 
voke the aid of the State to nis.l:e agreementc- in cottoii spinning 
more effective "by neans ox a special .-50 per cent ad valorem tax 
on raw cotton consruTied "by the firrm vrhich refused to Join the 
national cartel, v'hile all the r-iembers of the cartel "ere to he 
exempted frc;n the tax. Tlie Cartel Lav^ of Jeoriie.rv 1935 prescribes 
that v/herever tv/o-thirds of the com23anies v:ho control 75 ■:)er cent 
of the cutT:ut agree to the limitation of production, such an agree- 
ment m?y be legalised by the Minister of Comiierce. A ca.rdinal 
feature of this lav/ is th-t once the csrtel has co^ne in'to being, 
its restrictions an'^ rules become compulsory for all the members 
of the Industry. Uncer the specific conditions of the French Tex- 
tile Industry as it exists tod^y a cartelization of the entire 
Industry seems to be iixipossible unless strong governmenta.1 pressure 
is used.. The finishing branches of the Textile Industry — as is the 
case in other industrial couitries— are better organized, 

C. Gpverniiient and Indus trilJ-Ica-sures Helating to Textile Industry 
in France . 
Among the governmental measures relating to the Textile Industry 

in France the follo^-ing deserve to be mentioned: 

1, Tlie restrictions of imports by the tariffs, which ha,s been 

a feature comi;ion to rll European countries in ^3est-v;ar years. 



9643 



.--38- 

2, The rostrictions of imports "by quote.s. By a decree 

in April 1932, the importatio-is of cotton yarns anC. piece goods 
for exai-iple, v/ere subject to the quota system accordin/^* to which 
the imports from the countries concerned were limited on a monthly 
hasis to one-twelfth of their respective imports in 1931, In 
January, 1934, these q^.iotas vrere reduced 73 per cent, for several 
classes of goods "but in certain cases ^"cre shortly thereafter 
restored to the 1932 baris, Q,uota.s on imports of cotton ,':oods 
were also introduced in all the i^'renhh colonies (Textile ?/eehly, 
August 10, 1934), 

3, In addition to the ^ reciprocal trade a,-,rcements , the 
government also used other mear;iires to stimulate the e^qports of 
textile goods such as governraent credit to the exporting cartels 
of the French textile ras-nufacturcrs; thus, in 1934 the "Coraptoir 
Cotonierc Jrancaise", composed of 54 producers and finishers of 
the exportable cotton goods, received a state loan of five million 
francs, 

4, The French Hayon Industry is in a, unique position among 
the textile industries, since t'-'o ;;roups (Givet-IsieiTx and Carnot 
groups) control the bull: of French rayon output and the Industry 
is connected v/ith the international rayon cartel. Although French 
domestic consiJimption of rayon has decreased sli htly in the years 
of the depression, its production has changed little and exports 
have even increased slightly in the last five years - from 7,937 



9643 



-39- 

metric 4Jons in 1950 to 8,717 metric tons in 1934 (international 
Cotton Bulletin,' April 1935). 

5. Amon;'^ the meas-ores intended to adjust production to 
demand in the domest-ic market Very few effective steps may be 
recorded. The maladjustment of production and demand is due to 

i 

a lack cf organification among. the textile manufacturers, to the 
extreme decentralization of the in^lustry and to the precarious 
character of the industrial associations and agreements. However, 
in addition to the strictly controlled and integrated rayon 
"branch, organized cur tailiaent.. of production v/as successfully 
achieved "by the Alsa-tian cartel of cotton spinners throu{.;h re- 
stricting the number of hours in Alsace in 1934 to 40 hours per 
week. In a number of mills the work week v;as further reduced to 
32 hours. Generally, hov/ever, no othor effective agreements of 
importance have been made 'in the"5'rench Textile Industry! 

6, The French ra.w silk production has suffered particularly 
from the depressing forces. of the economic crisis, since average 
prices for rav: silk, which were 435 francs in 1926 and 255 in 
1929, dropped to 175, 125 and 90 francs resj)ectively, in the years 
from 1930 to 1932. In order to relieve tho disastrous conditions 
in raw silk production, the government paid a b ou.nt y in 1930, 
1931 and 1932 to silk producers, hopin,{; thus to arrest the sharp 
fall of raw silk prices. 



9643 



-40~ 



P 



P4 

£3 



IC\' 




t^ 




a> 




iH 







,-, 


+3 






W 


to 





CM 


P: 


CT\ 


l^ 


rH 






l+H 


• •% 




H 


«H 


C3 





1-^ 




t^ 




^ 


r! 


N 







•H 


s 


rH 


Q 


i-H 


e^ 


•H 


S 


S 


cc 


C 


FH 


H 


rt 






<^_x 


^ 




h 




p^ 










to 

CM 
rH 



OJ 



o 

rH 



rH 









C3^ 
rH 



G^ 

rH 



w 
-■d 
o 
o 

e> 

o 

o 

o 

Sh 














rH to r^vx) 





K^ 


r — 


• 


• • • • 


• 


• 


• 


rH 


VO U) C> OJ 




UD 





<D 


>^ J LTi bO rH 


o^ 


LO 


V? 


r- 


r— cr\ to' 


UA 

«» 






m 

CM 


cv) r^ 


rH 

• • 


•• 


r — 


rH 






H 


c\j ^X> CO 


ir\ 


VD 





■ 


• • • 


• 


• 


• 


U^ 


0^0^ 


rH 





K> 


CO 


t^^ LP\ to 


C\J 


rj 




C!^ 


r--MD t^ 


^ 


fH 


•« 


#k «« 


~ 


X 


.. 


rH 


CM [v-N 


rH 

• • 


• • 


r — 


rH 









rH CO rH 


r^ 


VX» 


■ rH 


• 


■ • • • 


• 


• 





<X) 


L^^ CO CM vo 


CM 


CO 


IC\ 


CO 


^ CVJ t— 





LOi 


CM 


MD 


L^VD CTN 


VX) 


1^ 




0% 

rH 


rH r^ 


rH 


cm" 


[•-- 


rH 


pfMO ltn r^ 


I^ 


rH 


CO 


CM 


• • • • 


• 


•• 


• 


• 


O^ M C^J 


^- 


^ 


C\J 


I — 


C7^*^ 1-- 


rH 


CM 


LTN 


cr> 


r^ t«<-N r^o 








r^ 


r-o 


rH CM 


rH 


0" 


ir\ 


co" 




• • 


• • 


• • •• 


•• 


c'j rH r" 


rH 


m 


r^ 


1 — 


• • • • 


• 


• 





s 


r—^ r- f.o 


CO 


CO 


U3 


CM 


rH MD C\J 


VD 


[- — 


^ 


0"^ 


CM CM ^0 rH 


I^ 


CVI 


C\J 


CM 


n 




•* 


M 


#» 


rH 


• • 

rH 


rH 

• • 




h-> 


U"N 


CO r^U3 rH 


H 


CM 


■ • • • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


c ■> r^ to 0^' 


— u 

-—1 


r^ 


rH 


• J 


r- r^ m r— 


tx3 


1 — i 


MD 


IC^, 


rH CV! L^^ (7> 


LTn 


rH 


CO 


U^ 






rH 


CM 


•* 

J- 


K^ CM CO K\ 


^ 


IC\ 


ur\ 


^ 


• • • 


• 


m 


m 


• 


vjD r— ^ 


rH 





rH 


r^ 


rH I>rN, UTN 


r^ 


CM 


LO 


H 


r^ CM Lf-\o 


^X) 


r^ 


VD 


in 


«k 




M 


•* 


«^ 


rH 




rH 


CM 


^ 


CM CM ^ t>0 








^ 


^ 


• • • • 


• 





• 


• 


r— CTv vD 


r^ 


CO 


r^ 


CO 


rH r-- 0^ 


CM 


r^ 





LO 


cj aj K^ r— 


VX) 


iH 


r^ 







• • 


rH 

• • 


CM 


• • 



CM 



•H 
to U 

o 4^cv; 
o cj 



CM 



CD 

rH 
•H 

X 
(U 
EH 



Cj 



to 

Co 



o 

•H 



P' >-i fi< 



CQ 

(D 
H 
•H 

O 

EH 

'^ 

O 

EH 



a 
-p 

O 

EH 



w 

O 
o 



o 

EH 



CO 
rH 

05 

•H 
0) 

-p 






o 



w 
-p 
o 

o 
Ti' 

Qi 

-P 
O 

a 



o 

EH 



tj 



© 















CO 


fl 






a 








s 


ptl 






!" 


0} 








rH 






• 
CO 


Q) 




• 


rH 


'd 




^1 


03 • 






03 


•H ^*i 


^H 




0) 


0) rc 


fiJ 




>5 


5} 






-p -p 


•H 




^ 


o3 


!^ 







X^ EH 


0) 




d 


v_^ 


+=. 




0) 


t= 


r 1 






Co 


M 




tH 


« w 









+i 


a> 






rH 







CO 


o5 p; 


u 




^ 


-P 'B 


<D 




-p 





g 




c 


EH fH 


g 







pL, 







S 


d _^ 









•H t:) 






0) 


<u 


pJ 




0) 


nd ^H 


'S 




^1 


<D ^ 






^ 


nd +5 







+^ 


Id 


iH 






rH 03 


rH 




+2 


«(-! 


<D 




w 


f^ ;::< 


^ 


• 


J-. 


•H c! 


03 


t^ 


•H 


c^ 


P! 


Lr\ 


Vl 


to ^3 


<D 


• 




rH 


•^ 


ft 


c 


03 s:: 






•H 


•H -H 


<D 


w^ 




u 


?:( 


IC\ 


to 


c -d 


o-" 


ro 


■<J 


+3 (U 


•H 


CTv 


fH 


r: -J 


+3 


rH 





a pi 


Cfl 




ft 


r^ 


•H 


^ 


r 1 


5 " 


-P 





CD 


c! rt 


C^ 


f-l 




Jh .h 


+J 


c3 


«tH 




CO 


S 





Q) to 
rH 






CD 


•H -H 


•• 







-P f-i 


(D 








0) c3 


M 




> 


EH pR 



















W 




-^.^ 


-— -^ 



CM 



96U3 



-41- 



OJ 

X 






H 

o 

H 



CO 

o 



o 



o 



H 



CO 

o 
p; 

o 

w 
o 

•H 



Pi 



r-i 



CA 
H 



VX) 





C\J 


CO 


rH r- 


-pt- 


^ OJ to 


to 


UD 


OJ- 


• 




«. 


•' 


. • . «. ■ 


•' ' 


• •-•,'»■■ 


• ' 


.• ' 


• ■ 


in 


to 


^i- 


o 


rH cn 


t^ 


LT^r^^ 


CVJ 


to 


^ 


LT^ 


C\J 


<^o 


iH 


t^K\ 


^AJD^ 


cr\ 


to 


r- 


cn 


a^ 


iH 


OJ 


H 


&\ 


to rH Cr\ 


tsO 


K> 


V.JD 


r* 


H 


*k 






M 


«% #t 


n 


«« 


M 


aj 




^ 






K^ 


H rH 


OJ 


to 


H 


rH 




VD 


OJ 


^ to 


Ji- 


r^*JD LTN 


o 


OJ 


O 


00 




•' 


•' 


• •' 


• 


' •- • • 


• 


• 


•■ 


• 


o^ 


r-- 


rH 


OJ to 


U3 


to to CTN 


rH 


LPi 


^ 


o 


OJ 


o 


VD 


r— to 


^ 


K^ CU h- 


H 


rH 


rH 


^ 


0^ 


U5 


OJ 


rH 


f^ 


D^^ cr> 


U^ 


LOi 


OJ 


OJ 


H 


•« 






m 


•t m 


•* ' 


. *> 


r* 


•» 




^ 






* 


rH rH 

• 


K>» 


(T\ 


OVJ 






OJ 


^ 


L^^cr^ 


bO 


M3 UD UD 


OJ 


<T\ 


^ 


LOi 




• ' 


•-. 


• . ■• 


• ' 


• ' • • - 


■ 


• ' 


•■ 


• 


o 


OJ 


LP* 


h- h- 


\r, 


K^ h-^ cr» 


VJD 


VD 


t<~\ 


U) 


ro 


rH 


VJD 


bo r— 


^ 


1-^ o o 


cry 


LOi 


LO 


o 


0-^ 


^ 


r^ 


rvj 


O 


KA OJ LOi 


ur\ 


^ 


cr> 


o 


H 


Pk 






•% 


•• •! 


«k 


'•V 


•k 


9* 




r^ 






K>, 


rH r-\ 


OJ 


to 


OJ 


^- 


• 










' 








H 




^ 


o 


o o 


^ 


\£>K£> <M 


OJ 


VD 


-=t- 


CVJ 




a. 


• . 


• ••. 


• 


•■ ■ « 


• 


• 


• 


• 


H 


Lr\ 


iH 


OJ o-\ 


^ 


to r^to 


CO 


rH 


r^ 


I^ 


K^ 


OJ 


to 


Lr^oJ 


^ 


0~^ to LTN 


a\ 


r^ 


to 


o 


cr> 


o 


OJ 


OJ 


h- 


lr^v£)^ 


t^ 


o^ 


. ^ 


to 


iH 


< •« 






n 




•»' 


»» 


M 


•k 




OJ 






H 




ro 


LO 


CvJ 


H 
H 




LO> 


r— 


OJ LO 


LO, 


VD O O^ 


r^ 


to 


H 


CVI 


ai 


• • 


». 


- • » 


•• 


■ •■ • «. 


•' 


• 


•' 


• 


r'-N 


r— 


KD 


^ OJ 


O 


vo vo r~~- 


1^ 


o\ 


r^ 


VJD 


a\ 


to 


r-'^ 


OJ iH 


u"^ 


r— CM^ 


V-O 


r— 


H 


m 


^-^ 


•-0 


H 


iH 


r— 


r^ CU rH 


••> 

OJ 


OJ 


VJD 

iH 






OJ 


O 


r^ f^ 


OJ 


O o^r^ 


to 


^ 


VX) 


to 




• - 


•* 


• •• 


•■ 


•' • •. 


.•■ 


• 


• 


• 




^ 


o 


^ in 


^' 


VD VO rH 


o 


Ln 


in 


rH 


r^ 


o^ 


iH 


tvi to 


5^0 


rH VD O 


h- 


r— 


VD 


rH 


^■-^ 


OJ 


iH 




H 


\r\^ OJ 


vjO 


r— 


r^ 


to 


o^ 


* 






•% 




A 


9\ 


*v 


•V 


iH . 


iH 






iH 


• 


OJ 


r^ 


iH 


r^ 



to 


cr* 


VO hi->y 


• 


•• 


• •' 


OJ 


o 


o o 


r^ 


o 


r^ h- 


CVI 


iH 





in 

•• 

viD 

to 



CO 

Q) 
rH 
•H 
4^ 

r . 

Q) 
EH 

H 

c\i 

o 

EH 



1^ 



to 
o 

•H 

■§ 



m 

>a 

(D 
H 
•H 
•P 

O 



Lr^to 

■ • •• 

O VJD 
C^J LOi 



to 

o 

CO -H 

Pi u 

cO oJ 



0"> 



r^ 



CVI 
rH 

to 



CO 
H 

•H 

0) 



Q) 
r-^ 
•H 

EH 



r— ^ to 


o 


r- 


to 


LTN 


•' • •' 


• 


•. 


• ■ 


• 


h'A cr\ to 


cr^ 


^ 


to 


OJ 


h- r— h- 


H 


V.O 


VJD 


u^ 


U> 1 .-^ r-i 


O 


^ 


rH 


KO 



^ o to 

•• • %. 

I J I^ t"~- 

ir^ [^ lo 

r^ CVJ rH 



OtJ 



o 
o 

OJ 
VO 

rH 



O fH 

rH -P CD 

O -P ^ 

o o +^ 

r-: O O 



c6 
-p 

o 



o 
o 



t-o 



• 
LC^ 

to 

OJ 



-p 

o 

EH 



CO 

iH 
Cj 
•H 
in 
CD 
-P 



H 



o 
^1 

-p 

o 

CIS 
ch 

cd 



•H rci 

n O 

CD O 



VJD 



o 


o 


• 


• 


CVJ 


o 


r^ 


rH 


(T\ 


^ 




9* 




Lr\ 



rH 

a 
-p 

O 
EH 

Jh 
Cj3 



P^ 



ir> 




r^ 




C7> 




H 




^ 




o 




h 




cd 




•^ 




•^ 




•« 




(D 




O 




Pi 




c3 




^ 




Fh 




c6 




iH 




CD. 


• 


-ci 


^( 




C] 


U 


(1) 


^ 


>-t 


CD 




•H 


.':1 


^ 


o 


-P 


^ 


« 




H 


ch 




o 







O 


C/3 


JH 


^ 


CD 


-P 


g 


p; 


£ 


,o 


O 


f — 4 


o 






<D 


;i! 


a 


rS 


u 




,-H 


(D 


EH 


H 




rH 


-P 


0) 


w 


^ 


Jh 


CO 


•H 


Pi 


P-4 


CD 




*^ 


p; 




•H 


(D 




?:{, 


C/) 


c;' 


-P 


•H 


u 


-P 


O 


CO 


P-i 


•H 


E 


+^ 


n 


Ctf 




-P 


«H 


CO 


O 




0) 


• » 


r:5 


H 


rH 


o 


ci 


rt 


> ro 


D 


^ 


o 


-^ VJD 


CO 


rHi Cn 



.43- 



ro 






Vl 



CH 



EH 



r — 1 


CO 


o 


C-H 




rt 


TA 


o 


pH 


ft! 



O M 

H to 

EH O 
Pi 
O W 

^ M 
f-H 



@ 



n 



to 
en 



CJ 

en 



O 

rH 



H 



OJ ■ 
H 









iH 



o 
o 






•■ 
en 
to 



to* 



to 



in 

H 



•H 

0) 
+-■> 



iH 
•H 
-P 

EH 



« 

rH 






•• •• 
cn 



•■ 

OJ 



rH 



OJ 

4 

a 



C\J 






00 



M 

OJ 



en 






to 


^ 


to 


o 


•• 


•■ 


• 


• 


H 


. C\J 


LC 


o 


CT\ 






o 

rH 



;d- 


t^ 


Ki 


O 


•• 


•■ 


• 


• 


H 


OJ 


VJ3 


o 


cn 






o 



CO 

u 



w 
o 

•H 



O 

o 



o 

c 
o 

H 



O 

• 

o 
o 

tH 



O 
O 
H 



O 

e 

o 
o 

H 



O 

o 

o 

H 



-P 

O 

1 P 

e 



o 

H 

•H 
■P 

CD 

EH 



Co 

O 

EH 



CO 
O 



to 

8<- 



cn 

OJ 
rH 



o 

iH 



iH 


iH 


to 


O 


• 


•' 


• 


• 


o 


LP> 


^ 


O 


OJ. 


O^ 


LT 


o 



cn 



OJ 

^n 

cn 



rH 



cn 

rH 



H 



w 

o 
o 



o 

OJ 






O 
iH 



cn 

iH 



O 



rd 
o 
o 

e> 

Q) 
iH 
•H 

-P 
X 
(U 

§ 



o 



bo 



H 
CO 



cn 



to 

•• 

OJ 



VJD 


cn 


•■ 


•■ 


to 


r^ 


H 


OJ 



CO 



IT 

. • 
OJ 
VJD 



LT 






IT 

. • 

LT 



LOv IT 

OJ r^ 
CO ^ 



r^ CO LT 

•. •■ • 

r— MD v,o 

CO OJ ^ 



w 
o 

•H 

u 



o 

• 

o 
o 



o 

• 

o 
o 

H 



o 
o 



o 

• 

o 
o 

H 



O 

• 

o 
o 

H 



O 

• 

o 
o 



o 
o 

iH 



o 

e 

rn 

(1) 
iH 
•H 
•P 

M 

O 

EH 



03 
-P 
o 

EH 



0) 

o 



u 

flj 
H 

0) 
fd 

♦H 
!h 
O 

I .4 

Pi 

O 

o 
o 

o 
o 



0) 
0} 



g-. 

•H 
•P 

tn 

■H 
-P 

d 

to 



o 




u 


• 


c« 


ir> 




r^ 


^ 


cn 


G) 


H 


•P 




?i ^ 




o 


j3 


>-* 


o 


d 


o 


S 


»• 




W 




o 




p:1 




& 




O 




CO 





cn 



APrKT}IX 4 






ESTABLISHI'Hil-TS Ii^ TH?] Fi^TIC}^ TEXTILE T'^VS'TTf 
CLziSSIFIEI' BY ".rPIBEH OF TfCaT.-v.is EITPLOYED, IS'^B 



Size of Units 'by 
]:T umber of EiirployeeB 





J 


1/ 




1 


- 


5 




c 


- 


10 




11 


- 


20 




21 


- 


100 




101 


- 


200 




201 


- 


500 




500 


and mor 


e 



Total I^Tumber 







c- 


uimalative Percent 


a-:^e 


"Jiirnber 


01 




of 


Total 






Er:- tablishrner.ts 


Erroloyees 


Est, 


tblishinents 


Emol 


oyees 


5,907 






18.0 






0.0 


17 ,1394 


31,132 




71.2 






3.7 


2,r;70 


1S,2S6 




78.4 






5.9 


2,101 


31,169 




84.8 






9.7 


3,:5G6 


153,468 




94.9 






28.1 


895 


124,783 




97.6 






43.0 


680 


110,649 




99.7 






68.3 


2S0 


364,^92 




100.0 






100.0 


3c,lB4 


831. , 829 













SOimCS: An;vjs,ire Statistique, 1933 

1/ The "Cottati;e Industry" (EaiTiily) in v/hicii no hired labor is 
emio loved 



9643 



-':0-A'' 



APPEroiX 5 






rrnc,:.os 



TO ::'AL 

Cot to:: '-"■■iniii;;^;: rM":d 

Sill, r.i'.; Iio^'on 

Soi— Jn;; and 'J-cxing 

Hosiery 

'Tool Spi:/r.in;; end 

\Jervinr-; • ■■■ 

Fini s :dn;, Trr c' e s 
Linen u'epvin- , ?r.:}le. 

31.0 g". g, K and ' ler chief t 
Clotli 

^:^\nd Zcoroid'^ries 
r.i } -J o x'. s , C '• :) s , Co ic" s 
i.Iachi: e i'Tde-Lrcss 
■^i^e; .rr ^ion ^. S- iLuin^- 

of Linen, ■Jv:.ci-:,-^V(i 
3lu._, -> , Lr: n o r i en; , e t c . 
Hanc):nr.de L frees 
?.o-oes, rets, etc. 
^.iacriine iicde. . 

I];acroid'^ries 
Velvet, Plush., etc, 
Sni :; in;^, ev.u \'^i;p^rln{^ 

3.on Specified 



Totr.l 



c • , p '^ 



,C58 






li%895 
i:;i.n.:4 



Oi 






i:: 

15 



1 ■'5 



SOURCE: jtomsvire: .St.atistique, .19.ri3 



■397 
548 

373 
095 
570 

S35 

059 
602 
S32 
511 



1^1 

503 



i/'fo."- : 
cent of 
Tot^\l: Lirles 



100.0 



100. 0_ 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100. d 

100,0 

100,0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 



^00.0 



.KJ\ 



378,501 



75,635 

36,579 
•■^8,217 



45,159 
47,919 

30,827 
29,044 

'l ,9^:5 

14,146 
15,701 

11,9-5 

12,5^.4 

319 

9,046 



r '■^ ^ 



<r/ ,o 



6^.A 



11 



,2^4 



Per— 

ce;.'.t cf 

Tot 0,1 



100.0 



33.9 



27.5 

52,9 
73.3 



d2,5 
50.0 
'4.5 
30.0 
45.5 



56.3 
59 .5 



38.2 
51.0 



o8,9 



Pei^'iales 



n^4,357 



119,730 

75,316 
73.227 

40,538 
17,629 

27,546 
29,052 
50,625 
32,198 
18,184 

19,114 

10,058 

15,513 

6,465 

7,416 
537 



2 



8,209 



Per- 
cent of 
Total 



100.0 



31.1 

37.5 
72.5 

47.1 
26.7 

47.5 
50.0 
95.5 
70.0 
53.4 

51.5 
43.7 

98.0 
40.4 

51.3 
49.0 

41.1 






':^" 



w 
o 











»■ 


•uu^ 












t 


vo 




*.o 




r- 




r^ 


to 


ro 


to 


1^ 


o 




o 




r^ 




iH 


O 


to 


to 


^''^ 


• 




• 




• 




• 


• 


• 


• 


cn 


r-i 




o> 




rH 




r— 


LH 


LTN 


(\\ 


rH 


OVJ 












1^ 




1^ 




OJ 


o 




r^ 




• • • < 




rH 


O 


Lr> 


to 


K^ 


o 




r— 




CO 




t^ 


r-\ 


to 


o 


c^ 


* 




• 




• 




• 


• 


• 


9 


■ iH 


rH 




i.-O' 




iH 






OJ 


rH 


r^ 


rH 


o 




ION 


• • • 


9* • • 


• • 


• • 


• •• 


• 99 • 

OJ 


9 99 • • 

O 


r^ 


<^ 




CO 




^ 




a> 


rH 


rH 


h- 


GT* 


V 




M 




• 




9 


• 


• 


9 


rH 


rH 

CO 


• • • 


rH 




rH 






CO 


ro 


t^ 


O 






• • • 

/4- 


• •♦ 


99 9( 

to 


99 


99 \ 


9 99 1 


9 99 

O 


9 99 99 


r^ 


to 




O. 




O : 




ro 


CO 


LOi 


O 


o^ 


■ 




* 




« 




• 


• 


• 


• 


rH 


to 

OJ 


# 99 


rH 

9% 9 


* 99 


OJ ; 

99 91 


9 ^ 


#9 ( 




to 


9 99 99 


o> 


■ CM 




VD 




Lr>- 




O 


P WW ■ 


♦ 99 1 

O 


LO> 


OJ 


^ 




O 




^ ■ 




LOi 


»JD 


^ 


ITn 


cr\ 


• 




• 




• ■ 




• 


• 


• 


9 


iH 










OJ ■ 






A. 


o 


>^ 


to 


iH 




to 


• , • • 


to ■ 




ur, 


o 


o 


to 


.00 


r^ 




LTN 




ro; 




K^. 


o 


^ 


r-- 


en 


• 




• 




• 




• 


• 


« 


• 


«H 


lO 




rH 




<^ . 




to 
to 


to 


00 


VX) 


r~- 


; ^'^ 




f^ 




iH- 




LTN 


O 


o 


LOv 


CO 


(^^ 




r'-N 




K^ 




O 


rH 


h'^ 


to 


c^ 


• 




• 




• ' 




• ' 


• 


9 


• 


iH 


un 




■'.0 




CO 




r-- 

cO 




Co 


9 #9 99 


U) 


' •• •• • 

iH 


• •• 


CO 


9 99 


99 ■ 91 


99 


99 ■ 

o 


9 99 1 

in 


9 9 9 9 

O 


LOi 


OJ 


K^, 




LT', 




K".. 




cr\ 


KO 


OJ 


^ 


o^ 


• 




'• 


• 


• ' 




9 


■• 


• 


• 


iH 


iH 




CO 








cr^ 


o 


o 


to 


r^ 


CP\ 




^ 


• • • 


r^. 


• # 


cr> 


• •• ■ 

o 


• 9* • 


o 


rH 


00 




^ 




r^- 




o 


t— 


^ 


rH 


cn 


• 




• 




* 




• 


• 


« 


* 


rH 


<£> 




C\i 




O 




to 


to 


OO 

o 

rH 


rH 


















o 


(D 






• 








1 






1— 


t: 






W) 


»H 




U 




Ph 




C 


f1 


• 




^ 


Cl3 




d) 








pi 


H 


f^ 






>H 




ft 




m> 




^ 


rO 


M 




^. 










rt 












o 


fl 




«» 




^ 




?-. 


u 


u 




p^ 


c 




w 




Cj 




0) 


G) 


o 


w 




+3 




o 




>-< 




Pi 


P-i 


Pi 


T; 


9% 


-l-^ 




•H 














O 


r-l 


o 




f^ 


u 


iH 




» 


•> 


M 


o 


O 


CJ 




r'3 


o 


O 




w 


w 


C2 


es 


O 




• 


c: 


-JJ 


O 




rf 


rf 


r; 




I- 


P! 


■',J 


r-H 


o 


! ; 




$H 


u 


^1 






(^ 


M 




c 






fi3 


cd 


cJ 




■J 


o 




p: 




o 




>H 


?H 


>-« 




Q 


•H 


u 


o 


• 


Pi 












,Q 


Th 


o 


+5 


c'- 


•H 


• 


ii 


Ph 


o 




f* 


o 


Pi 


4-5 


Ul 


fH 


!:>J 


cJ 




4^ 




b 

o 


r-1 




o 
o 






r— ^ 


^ 




4 





m 




0) 




W) 




ct 




u 




a) 




> 




cti 




>5 




iH 




^ 




4J 


r^ 


ill 


r^ 


o 


a^ 


J~' 


i-H 






Q) 


«« 


i> 


o 


iH 


-; 


O 










•H 


+3 


-P 




CO 


QJ 


•H 


^ 


+3 


-P 


r" 




-P 


«H 


W 


o 


O 


Q) 


U 


t;.-^ 


•H 


CO 


r;. 


»H 


;:i 


Q) 


§ 


> 

Cl" 


-^rf 










>3 




rH 


• • 


^1 


W 


aJ 


o 





F^ 


>-' 



8 -irn 



Req. No. 96U3 



—4 J— 

III. TEXTILE IITDJSTRY III ffS^IAlTY 

A ♦ Importa nc e of Textile Industry in G-eneral Economic Structure 
of C-err.iany 

1, Textile manufacturing is an industry of lonf; standing 
in G-erman;/ and was well estatlisxied there oven prior to tlie 
Industrial Revolution. Tlie G-eriuan Textile Industry is charac- 
terized by tlie same features as tlie British Textile Industry, 
such as economic in..ividualism of iiianufacturers, their conser- 
vatism, and wide dispersion of plants v/ith numerous small units 
resemblin/j the fatuily type of industrial organization. Generally 
spealzing, economic rationalization made little headv/ey in most 
"branches of the German Textile Industry before the beginning of 
the 20th century, 

2, The relative importa,nce of the Textile Industry in 
the ITation^l Econoiijy of Germany is best revealed from the 
foil owing I 

(a) Volume of employment - Over 9 per cent of the 
total industrial ei.iployment in German^^ was absorbed by 
the Textile Indistry, It ranl;:ed fifth among all the 
industries - being exceeded only by Metal (26,2 per cent), 
Building (12,9 per cent), Clothing (12.0 per cent) and 
5'ood (10,2 per cent). The number of textile workers in 
1925 was 1,206,731 of which 689,594 or 57,0 per cent 
were females. (Statistik des deutschen Heichs, B, 4C'-? 
S. 220), 



-4-6- 

(b) Vol-ULie of industr ia l ociuipinen t - With over 
10,4o6,000 (average imiuber for 1950-1935) cotton spindles 
and 2,489,000 wool spindles, G-eriaany rarJ.:s as fne tliird 
(after Great Britain and the United States) lar^^est 
textile producing country in tlie world, (international 
Cotton Bulletin, 195C-1933) , 
B, RoIg of Textile Indu stry in I'oreiffli Trade of jer..iany 

1. Tlie cliare cf tlie Textile Industry in the G-erinan 
foreign trade is sij^nif icant , The value of textiles imported 
aiuounted in 1955 to 20.4 per cent (20.7 per cent in 1923) of 
the total value of all G-er^ian ii-rports; the Textile Industry 
was second only to the Food Oroup and far ahead of each of 
the other manufactured products on the Ist of G-er;:ian imports. 
Ten and t\70- tenths per cent of total G-eraan exports in 1933 
were textile goods anJ. the industry holds third place ainong 
all German exporting- industries, rahl:inp_^' Second only to tne 
I.Ietal (35.6 per cent in 1935) and the Chemical '(17,2 per cent 
in 1955) Industries, (Appendix l) , 

2. Cotton and wool m.anufacturinr: are most i..iportant - Among 
all the German textile industries, these two contribute about 
four-fifths cf the total value of textile imports and over two- 
thirds of textile expgrts. (statistiscae Jalirbuch fur das 
deutsche Reich, 1935). 



-47" 

3 . G-ermany is highly deT)cr. den t on forei^'^^n SQ-grces for 
textile raw materials - Atout 45 per cent of the raw materials 
•ased in all branches of G-ernan industries are iniported from 
abroad. The textile industry in tMs respe ct ranlis first 
among all G-erman industries by iinportiniq 90 per cent of all 

' i' ." . • . . 

• '•..*-■ 

raw materials, (Wirtschaf tsdienst , July 29, 1934). Raw 
materials contributed 77,3 per cent of the total vdLue of 
textile imports in 1932, v/hile yarns represented 16,1 per 
cent and fabrics 6,5 per cent, 

4 . TIiQ largest share of G-eruan. textile exports consists 
of finished textile goods w". ich represented 63,5 per cent of 
the total value of textile exports in 1932 (appendix 2) , v/hile 
the yarns were 18,4 per cent and raw materials amounted to 18,1 
per cent, 

C, Organization of G-erman Textile Industry 

1, Though there were numerous cartels and cartel-lihe 
associations and agree^uents among the G-erman textile manufac- 
turers before the advent of the National Socialistic G-overnraent, 
the G-erman Textile Indistry as a whole was not effectively or- 
ganized. Tt;o highly integrated branches - rayon and jute- were 
however completely cartel-controlled, 

2, The lach of successful cartellization of the G-erman Tex- 
tile Indistry has been mainly due to a diversity of business units 
within the Industry and to a relatively large number of small- 
scale establisliinents, which rese...blG in their structure, the 



9643 



-46- 

family type of enterprise. About one-fourtli of tlie total 
nuL-nber of operatives in tlie G-eroan Textile Industry' were 
working in business units ejirployin^; less than 50 persons each 
and 11,4 per cent (138,556 persons) were er.roloyed in business 
units with less than 5 v/age earners per unit. 

3, Under the National Socialistic regime a complete re- 
construction of German Industry has • tal;:en place involving 
both sweeping organizational change and the creation of a new 
business code. The purpose of such reconstruction ~ according 
to official declarations - was to do av/a^T- with the over- 
complexity of Industry and replace it with an all~embracing, 
rigid anci unitary organization of tiie various business asso- 
ciations. Thus certain organizations were designated as the 
sole representatives of entire branches of the Industry. Some 
new organizations Mere created, others merged or dissolved. 
The G-overftment assuiued the po\/er to dictate or change the 
by-laws of associations, appoint or remove their leaders, 
force individual outsiders to join associations and submit 
to their regulations. Severe punishments were provided for 
violation of governiuent orders. The textile, leather and 
clothing industries were combined into one of twelve indus- 
trial groups covering all the stages of economic activities 
in Germanj^# ' 



9643 



4. Hours of work in tlie German Textile Industry, accor- 
ding to the agrearaent si/^ned on January 22, 1919, "by tlie 
National Employers' and Worlzers' Organizations, were linited to 
46 per week for all manual workers and salaried groups. In 
1923, due to a serious economic and financial crisis, it was 
found necessary to roake the 8-hour day rule more flexible 
and "by the Order of December 21, 1923, extension of hours 
of T/ork "by collective agreement or \rf decision of the autho- 
rities was allowed up to a maxir.iUa.i of 10 hours per day. Under 
the National Socialistic G-ov erni.ient the collective agreement 
principle was abandoned and collective regulations were sub- 
stituted. Thus, the Order of July 19, 1934 decreed that working 
hours in certain branches of the Textile Industry might not 
exceed 36 hours unless there were special and exceptional 
reasons, such as carrying out orders for exports. In the T/ool 
Industry, due to a slicr tage of available supplies or raw 
materials, the maxirmui working time has been fixed at 30 hours 
per week since 1934, 

5, Tendency to introduce the mul t i-p 1 et=f shif t system in the 
German Textile Industry in post-war years seemed to have been 
slight, although there is no statistical evidence available as 
to the extent of this trend. Under the present regime, double 
shifts are limited by a decree of August 6, 1954, to plants 
which obtain from the Government special permission to operate 
extra shifts. 



-50- 



D» G-overir-:ent and Industry Measures Helatin ^ to the Textile Industry 

1. Before tlie advent cf tlie "Jational Socialistic G-overn- 
nent - despite a consideralDle nuiaber of cartels an: f aT-reacliing 
industrial intej^ration in single "branclies of textile production 
(jute and rayon) - the G-erman Industr;,- was, in most of its 
branches, priiiiaril^ coiiipetitive, 3.ie associations, composed of 
a heterogeneous membership and representing in most cases 
sectional rather tlian na.tional groups, were as a rale inefficient, 
unstable and short-lived. This state of affairs is particularly 
instructive v;hen one considers that Germany is considered tlie 
classical country of industrial cartelization. 

2. Under the present re;:;ime, the Textile Industry like 
nearly every other branch of G-erman economic life has been talcen 
under the strict and co.nplete control of the State (Special 
decree, July 19, 1934) , 

3. Germany in recent years ..as suffered frou an adverse 
trade balance, hence sh^ar-g restriction of the im'oorts of raw 
textile materials was deemed necessary and was embodied in a 
decree by the Government in 1934. 

4. Since German;;'' always ".lad been greatly dependent on imported 
raw materials for its Textile Industry, she was now forced to solve 
the problem of textile raw materials by the introduction of sub- 
stitutes , particularly in the cotton and wool branches. These 
attempts are, however, still in the experimental stage and the 
substitutes available are far inferior in quality to the natural 
textile raw materials. Hov;ever, in August 1934, an admijstiu'e cf 



-51« 



textile substitutes v/as decreed obligatory by the G-overnment 
on all textile manufacturers. THie control of purchases of 
textile materials is also extended over the serai-finished goods. 
After October 13, 1934, the purchase of cotton yarns for exaijple 
whether G-eruan or foreign spun were subject to so-called "pur^ 
chase permits". Even those concerns which spin and also weave 
axe not allowed to make deliveries to their weaving sections 
without such permits. 

5. Among the measures intended to adjust productian to 
demand and to combat unemployment in the Textile Industry were 
the following decrees issued by the Government; 

(a) Hoursof work were limited to 36 hours pB* 
week (Order July 19, 1934), In some cases (wool branch) 

a maximum of 3C hours per week -.ras^prencribp''. in case of a 
shortage of raw material s. (Refer to C-4) , 

(b) Operations on a double-shift basis are controlled 
and limited, (Hef er to C-5) . 

(c) The dismissal of v;orkers is taken under governmental 
control and was prohibited for four \7eeks after the decree 

of August 6, 1934, unless the number of shifts was decreased 
under the law, 

(d) Construction of new plants and enlarging of 
existing factories is allowed by special governi-nental per- 
missions only. 



9643 



\ 



-J.?- 



■ (q-^: Organization of new oail. order firms is prohilDited 
after July 1934. ,; ■. 

(f) i^er.iale er.iployees ziiast be replaced wherever possible 
•by male worliers in tlie inte];est of equitable distribution 
of tlie ava-ilable volume of employment. (Decision of the 
Board of Federation of Eiriployers, October .1933) . 

(c;) Overtime worl^, for the sa^-ie reasons, is reduced 
to tlie lowest possible Level. 
■ 6. Strict con tr ol of prices '^rc vided b:^' the Go.vernfnent « 
The Llinistry of national Scoiiora^'^ issued a decree, late in 1933, 
to 'the effect that neither wage nor price increases on t>-e home 
marhet are to b'e permitted. It was thought that the raising 
of prices would nullify. the measures talcen by the governiaent to 
create worh and to bring about economic stabilization. The 
llinistry of ITational Economy has' the power to enforce its instruc- 
tions. In the Ccxse of violations of the rules by the cartels, thi 
Minister has authority to order, their dissolution, A later 
adaptation of domestic prices to the world mar]iet was anticipated 
by the Government, , , * . 

7 • The exportation of used textile Liachines is actually 
prohibited by hir-h tax es, « •' 

0. "■ Iri- the hirfi-lr li^te'-:rated aiyl successfully cartelized Gcri 



jute industry , the Federation of Jute, Manufacturers was f ormed 
August 1933 and provided for. restrictions of output in jute 



)543 



«53« 
spinning and Y/eaving plants, viz., up to 30 per cent for tlie 
large units, 20 per cent for the medium sized units and 10 
per cent for the sm£?-ll establiskaents. These measures have "been 
strengthened by the decree of t]ie Minister of national Economy 
prohibiting: 

(a) ITev/ factories being established for the manufacture 
of Jute yarns and fabrics, 

(b) Any increase in the nuixiber of jute spindles and 
looms in existing under tal^iings, 

(c) Any change over from the manufacture of jute yarns 
or fabrics to the manufacture of yarns and fabrics cf other 
fibres. 

Any violationsof the decree are liable to fines of an 
un limited amount , 



9643 



-5U- 



iH 
X! 



1^ 




t>r> 




cr 




rH 








'v^ 




§ 


^ 




CO 


to 


M 


OJ 


u 


CT 


nS 


iH 


fc-r— 


« * 


4J 


F^ 


c 


y 


CD 


rt 




EH 


«H 




O 


^ 




CJ 


w 


I— 1 


fl 


pti] 


o 


Ph 


•H 


O 


rH 


:-H 


r — 1 




•H 


►— ■ 




f-i 


1 — 1 


*-s 




* —1 


fl 


rn 


•H 


t- 




c'; 


<D 




;^ 


l-H 


r-< 


o 


Cv 




> 


^ 




> 





rH r^ 


O 


OJ rH 


rH 


VD 


CJ 


LOi 


Ln 


K> 


CO 


(T 






a K> 


• 


• , • 


« 


• 


• 


• 


• 


ft 


• 


• 






+3 0> 


o 


O ro 


Lr> 


LTN 


r~- 


J- 


VX) 


CT\ 


r^ 


^- 






O CQ rH 


o 


rH 




r^ 


r-\ 
















EH -P 


rH 
























fH 


























«H O 


























o g... 






• •• • 






• •• % 


• • • 












+3 H 


























C 


























0) 


o 


r^ ur\ 


o 


U^ 


<T\ 


rH 


OJ 


r— 


iH 


r- 






O bO 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


m 


• 


• 


ft 


ft 


t 






Jh ai 


o 


^- OJ 


h- 


OJ 


r^ 


^ 


VX) 


bO 


VJD 


J- 






0) CP 


o 


r-\ 




r^ 


rH 
















F4 rH 


r-t 
























LQ r<-v 


O 


r-i r^ 


' Jt 


• • • « 


LOv 


• • • 4 

O 


• • • ■ 


rH 


' O 


* CM 


OJ 


-p ho 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


» 


ft 


• 




LPv 


!-i o^ 


o 


o o 


VJD 


r^ 


CO 


C\J 


CJ 


^ 


CO 


ur^ 




t-K 


O rH 


o 


OJ 




fH 










ro 






I 


Ph 


rH 






















rH 


E 
























in 


»— 1 
























rH 


rH 




• 




















• 


ri 
























C/2 


+5 
























• 


O 
























HH 


C^ •• 






• •• ' 


• W • 


* VS 1 


# 9ft 


ft #ft 


ft #ft 


• •• 


A •• 




w 


«H 


























O 
























^ 


+3 
























r^ 


a 
























C5^ 


o 


O 


1^.^ 


CO 


r— 


OJ 


OJ 


r^ 


rH 


CJ 


CO 




rH 


o bo 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 






!m OI 


o 


o o 


vx> 


OJ 


UD 


r-\ 


rH 


KD 


o 


^ 




•• 


a rr 


o 


Cl' 




rH 










^ 






CO 


Ph rH 


r-i 






















o 

•H 
(D 


W K^ 


Jt 






















-+J r^ 


• 






















rt 


f^ cr> 


rH 


vx) o 


o^ 


>^ 


cn 


r— 


r^ 


r^ 


I^ 


r^ 






O rH 


r~- 


G>^ 


^ 


^^^ 


r^ 


rH 


T-\ 


ir> 


CO 


r^ 




C 


P) 


t!0 


^ rH 


OJ 


r— 


CO 


00 


r^ 


^ 


rH 


CVI 




CD 


« 


•. 






« 
















A 


H 


^ 






r-l 
















O 


C_j •• 






• •• 4 














• •• 




CO 

4^ 


o 


to 

• 






• •• 


• •• • 


• •• • 


• •• * 




ft ftft 






g 


o 


-■- 


^ CVJ 


LO 


^ 


r-- 


rj 


vp 






VX) 




■•d 


fj to 


m 


CJ o 


...I. 


iH 


r— 


CA 


-^' 


LOv 


I^ 


MD 






rH OJ 


o 


1 — h"^ 


CO 


cr\ 


v_o 


^ 


r^ 


o 


r— 


LCi 




CO 


C cr 


„ 


0* 




«« 


r* 














^ 


> -H 


?;. 


rH 




^'^ 


rH 






rH 








■■d 


w rv-, 




• •• •* •• ■ 


• • • • 


• • • i 


• •• • 


• •• 1 


• •• 1 


• •• ft 


ft ftft i 


ft •• 




•H 


+3 r^ 












• 












-p 


?-< n^ 


^ 


CO or\ 


r^ 


o 


MD 


K> 


to 


^ 


r-- 


CO 




to 


O rH 


o 


-=t- 


r— 


U) 


LTv 


CO 


CO 


r— 


CTi 


rH 




•H 


Pk 


r ' 


to 


OJ 


Lr^ 


I^ 






rH 


m 


CJ 




-P 


r^ 


•« 
















m 






C^ 


HH 


^j" 
















r-K 






-P 
C/3 


o 


K^ 
























o 


• 






















N 


;=i xc 


r-\ 


V.O r^ 


CTv 


CM 


KO 


(3^ 


cr> 


O 


ff~\ 


LO 






r-{ OJ 


ir\ 


U^ LT. 


^ 


CO 


VD 


VjD 


C)0 


u:) 


^ 


CO 




CD 


cti c^^ 


o 


CO 


o^ 


r- 


bo 


rH 


r-K 


CO 


\s> 


KD 




+:> 


> -H 




o? 














LO 


• III 




CD 
CO 












• •• • 


• • • 


% ft • 






-P 




^1 






w 






y 


Ih 








CJ 




^ 






'd 








Q> 








;i 




ctf 






o 








84 








■o 




•■-3 






o 








W^ 








o 




rH 






c3 


w 


r-\ 




fL, 








Ah 




CD 
-P 


w 




a 


r: 


C\) 




'd 












U 


•p 




Vi Jm"j 


•H 


-P 




q 








TJ 




CD 


o 




0) rl 


r-H 


CO 




3 








CP 




•H 


^ 




rH -H 


CO 


■ 4 












•H 




>> 


'd 




•H ^-r:; 






w 


CD 








tH 






o 




U2 -i-:" +3 


f% 


'■'j 


rH 


&~ 




ti) 




•H 






fn 




Q) r-\ C 


u 


^ 


cj 


O 




f:J 




W 




• ft 


Ph 




rH Q) rH 


Q) 


ci; 


o 


rH 




•H 




w 




w 




^ 


■H &H O 


^ 




•H 


pi 




tlJ 


m 


cJ 




o 




-P 


,o 


fi 


r-* 


rH 


rH 


rH 


nrf 


rH 




S 




EH 


r 1 • • 


Cj 


o 


ii) 


rH 


c\5 


•H 


O 


O 




[ID 




O 


rj ^ 


G) 


u 


A 


O 


o 


^ 


o 


f^ 




o 




FH 


Fi 


H^l 


HH 


o 


O 


o 


F-N 


t3 




CO 



ileo . i:0. 



6U3 



o 



-55- 



C\J| 

m 



fH 
Tit 



OJ 



^ 






o 

P>4 



c5 



n 
o 
o 

c.'.; 



EH 

» -I 

Eh 
O 



w 

^ 



I,' 
05 



o 
o 
o 



W hr> 










+3 r^ 










f-i O"^ 


O 


iH 


^ 


ir\ 


O r-i 


• 


• 


• 


• 


-P Ph 


o 


to 


to 


rx-^, 


C J^ 


o 


iH 


iH 


^ 


CD p--; 


rH 








c 










u 

fi> mm 




















cd 










+3 










O 


O 


OJ 


to 


o 


Eh to 


• 


• 


• 


• 


CVi 


o 


^ 


ir. 


o 


Vf cr 


o 


CO 


r-\ 


VJD 


O fH 


iH 








to IM^ 


o 


r<^ 


r-i 


VD : 


-p r^ 


• 


• 


• 


• 


u cr- 


o 


r^ 


V£5 


MD • 


O rH 


o 


r^ 


iH 




Q, 


H 




. 




(-; 










HH 










""i 






. 




c: 










4J 










EH 






• •• < 




Cm 










O 










+^ 










sn 










Q) 


O 


CJ 


cr\ 


C^^ 


O t)C 


• ' 


• 


• 


• 


Pi CV! 


o 


ViD 


OJ 


o 


(D rr 


o 


KD 


CJ 


rH 


As rH 


rH 








W (V- 




• •• « 


• •• • 


• 


-p r^ 








' 


Pi cr 


ir\ ■ 


C>. 


rH 


^ 


O r^ 


^ ■ 


to 


C7^. 


rH 


r < 








; 


o 








'. 


o 


.~j 


r-- 


OJ 


LTn 


^ w 


CJ 


rH 


h- 


K> 


r^ OJ 


[- — 


J^ 


Oi 


o ; 


p3 cr 


•» 








> rH 


rH 






rH 


w t^ 










-P K 










Pi cr 


r— 


U> 


VX) 


ir\ 


O iH 


-:d- 


■ LTn 


r^ 


ITS 


P. 


W 


VX) 


rH 




s 










n 










f[ 1 « a 










o 










<D 


lr^ 


O 


r<^ 


r-i 


p! to 


LT^. 


CTv 


ITN 


rH 


rH C\j 


to 


to 


UD 


r^ 


c;^ C^ 




m 






> -H 


oT 


rH 














CO 


W 




CO 




-d 


( ^ 




rH 




o 


o 




lo 




o 


o 




•H 




e 


ci) 




Ph 
O 




'd 


CD 




H-> 




(D 


tH 




CT^ 




^ 


•H 


•i 


•^ 


CO 


CO 
•H 


r 1 


EH 


!"; 


u 


J^ 


Q) 


o 


CG 


d 


•H 


FH 


FH 


p:^ 


>- 


fi< 






CO 

o 

•H 
CD 
p:5 

$^ 
<D 

O 
CO 

-p 

pi 

CD 

-d 

CO 

(D 



-p 

CO 
•H 
-P 

C 
-P 
CO 

Pi 
pi 

CD 
-P 
^H rH 

CD Lf> 
^ rH 

CO 

Pi 

CL- 
•O 
iH • 

CD H 
-P 

P< -P 

<M 

•H CD 
> W 



I 

CO 



o 



o 

CO 



Reo. Fo. 96U^ 



-57- 



17 . tzati le- i!3:sr?.r ir iii. 






CI I'^ly 



Tlie Textile In&istrj iiad Iseen well establiiSied in Italy long 

befcre tl^e war srid in tbe post-iirar rears it "becaze an intriistrj 
of outstanding iijpcrtance in tlie general manufacturing ^stem cf 
the coxmti^', 

1. Ycl-gzie cf ezjplcj-ev.t - ri:«e Indrastry witli its 1C,355 
estiiishnents ez5)loyed 5^'b,537 persons in 1927 (Sncvclopedia 
Britannica) and rcj-ied first anong all manaf actruring indastries 
of t'^e S.n^do::a. Tliis rr::~oer cf eqplcvees aiiounted tc 16,0 per 
cent of t]ie total nuiiber of tir'-ers in all tlie Italian laanufactTiring 
imiiistries. In 1929 tlie llinister of Corporations reitorted 
252,000 "srcrliers in tO^e lT.aiian Cot": en IncrjLSTirv alcne (107,000 

in tlie Ej'inr.in:" soction, 1C-7,000 in weavin-^ and 8,0Cv in finisMng 
oranclies) ef ~-ii3_ 71,0 per cent were feziales and 29,0 per cent 
iiales (L*In."astria Cotoniera Italiana, 1935), 

2. "^e OUT- standing- capital s •loc> cf 299 ccuicnBtocli coia- 
panies in Italy in 1902 amcmnted to 1:,04C iiillicn lira cr 2,7 
per cent of t'-ae total entrepreneurial capital cf all Italian 
industries. T-e total caiital irivestnent in t:ie Italian Cotton 
Indiistr^' ~as at t_^at -iue fr-r Dilllon lira (L'lnL^^Lstria Dotcniera 
Italiana, April 19o5) . It is es~inp.ted that aiout 10 tillion lira 
vere invested in all oranches cf the Italian Textile Industry, 

5, Z..-e industrial e-u.ipmentof the cotton "oranch of the 
lentile Ir.d-:.strv i- Ital;,' includes 5,Co0,00O srindles (1933) or 



9643 



—58— 

3,4 per cent of tlie ivorld's spindleaige and 146,500 looms or 4,7 
per cent of tlie v/orld's total number of cotton looms. This equip- 
ment is sufficient to supply the domestic needs for textile goods 
and to produce a considera.ble and growing exportable surplus of 
yarns and fabrics (Appendix l) . The wool section employed over 
1,150,000 spindles and 21, COO looms in 1925 (Balfour ^s Report). 
During the post-v;ar years there iias been particularly rar^id grov7t 
of ra^'on production and export. 
B. Importance of the Textile Industry in the Foreign Trade of Italy 

1. As in majiy other incJustrial countries textile goods repre- 
sent the most irjportrjit item of Italian foreign trade. They 
represent almost one cfu^rtur of the total Italian iLiports and 
approximately one tliird of the value of the total Italian exports 
(Appendix 3) . The Textile Industry rahL:s first amo-ng all the 

. industries in the total value of its imports and exports (Appendix 
and is the only industry, v.'ith the exception of the Foods Group, 
in which the v?.lue of e:rports exceeds that of imports in Italy, 

2, At the turn of this century, Italy v/as considered a con- 
suming country in t-ie international textile market, Bhe has develc 



h er textile production to cuch an extent during the last tliree 
decades that she is able to produce a considerable e xportable sui^ 1 



especially in tlie cotton and rayon branches (Appendix 4), The 
iLiport of yarns anc fabrics practically disappeared from the Italian 
trade balance in the last tliree decades. 



9643 



.59- 



3, Italian exports of textile goods consist largely of 
yarns and fabrics while lienip is tiie only raw material exported 
from Italy (Appendix 0). Yarns represent almost one half of 
the total value of all exported textile goods (Appendices 7-8), 
Cotton, silk and rayon yarns are the leading items of the group. 
Among the fabrics exported from Italy, 'cheap cotton goods are 
most irnportant . Italy, next to Japan, is considered "by the 
Lancashire textile manufacturers as the most successful con^etitor 
of the British Textile Industry in the international market, 

4, Italian textile exports are world-wide . The principal 

agricultural,, such as 
countries "buying Italian fabrics ar^/Turhey, British India, 

Ceylon, Egypt, Eritrea, Ilorocco, Tripoli, Argentine, Uruguay, 

and the countries of the Balkan peninsula. Italian rayon yarns 

and fabrics are exported to agricultural and industrial c ountries 

alike, G-ermany, British India, China and Switzerland head the list 

of consumers of the Italian rayon yarns (Appendices 9-10), 

5, The principal countries exporting raw cotton to Italy are 
the United States (68,4 per cent of total cottom imports in 1929- 
1934), British India (16,7 per cent fr the same period) and Egypt 
(12.0 per cent of the total quantity of cotton imported in the 
last six years) . (Appendix 11) . 

6, Italian imports of textile goods consist mainly of raw 
matetials with raw cotton and wool leading the list, I^abrics 
(4.4 per cent of textiles imported in 1933) and yarns (2.6 per 



9643 



.60- 



cent of iiaports in the same year) do not play any irnportant 
role in tlhe Italian foreign trade (Appendix 6) . 
0. 0r,2:anization of Italian Textile Inuistry 

1. The Italian Textile Industry lias uade rapid progress 
hand in hand with the grov/txi of the B^rdroeleStric Industry in 
Italy. This progress iias "been hoth quantitative, measured ty 
the nuiuber of manufacturing units dixq. the vo luine of production, 
Bjnd qualitative reflected "by technical and edonomic rationaliza- 
tion. 

2. Though the statisticgil evidence of the degree of economic 
concentration in the Italian Textile In^lustry is insufficient 

the relative c oncentration in different textile "branches is 

reflected in the following talDle hy the average numher of 

workers per establisliiaent calculated from a partial survey 

of the textile industry, 

MJIiBEH OF ESTABLISmiShT:S AM) WI.IBEH OF WORKERS IN 
VARIOUS 3RA1TCHES OE ITALIAN TEXTILE ILinJSTRY - 1933 



Cotton 


675 


143,125 


212 


Wool 


372 


73,167 


197 


Silh Spinning 


G68 


42,846 


116 


Silk Weaving 


112 


21,438 • 


191 


Linen , Hemp , Jut e 


163 


26,418 


162 


Rayon 


41 


19,189 


468 


Finishing Trades 


304 


26,994 


89 


Others 


433 


25 , 533 


60 



BEAITCHES 


Number 


Number 


Average No. of 


OF 


of 


of 


Workers per 


INDUSTRY 


Establisliments 


Workers 


Establishi-ient 



SOURCE: Bolletino di Notizie Economiche, April 1935 



9643 



-61- 



Tims it appears that with ths exception of the rayon 
section the textile factories in Italy are of moderate size. In 
addition to textile production in factories txicre are numerous 
home producing textile units in Italy;. — In the Cotton Industry 
alone there are about 2,000 so-called "cotton cottages" (aziende 
cotoniera) scattered tliroughout tiie Kin, ^om (L'Industria Cotoniera 
Italiana, No. 4, 1935) . ■ 

3. There is a. great diversity in the size and character of 
the business units and establislii.ients in the Cotton Industry 
(Appendix 12) since more tlian half of ^ the spinning mills operate 
less than 20,000 spindles each and approximately half of the 
weaving establishments liave less than 100 looms per unit. The 
large number of "cotton , cottages" tends to increase the diversity 
almost to infinity. 

4, The process of economic integration in Hi e Cotton Industry 
may be traced by the increase in the number of stock companies and 
in the grcv;th of their entrepreneurial capital, Tliis is shown 

for the last three decades in the following tablefe. 



Utmiber 


of Italian Stock Companies in the Cotton 


Industry and Their 




Capital stock 




Years 


Number of Total Stock Capital 
Stock Companies (Millions of Lira) 


Reserves 

Per Cent 

Of Capital 



1905 


23 


1915 


102 


1920 


104 


1923 


203 


1932 


299 



225 0,8 

303 6.0 

748 19.0 

1,264 17.3 

1,346 a/ 



a/ Data not available 

SOURGE: L'Inciustria Cotoniera Italiana, 1935 



964: 



[fliere are relatively liuge "business in the Italian Cotton 
Industry. Seven cotton stocl: corporations liave a capital over 
30 r.iillion lira eacli and the largest among them is Oucirini 
Coats Compaiiy v;ith capital of 72 million lira, ITo exact informal 
tion is available as to the coralDinations anu cartels among the 
Italian textile manufacturers. At present all textile units 
in Italy are organized in an inc^strial group v/orliing under 
strict supervision of the State » 

5, Trade unionism had been v;ell developed in Italy prior 
to the Fascistic regime and all essential provisions relating 
to labor, including normal hours of worli and mininiom wages, were 
decided by collective agreements between the trade unions and 
organizations of employers, Tne 48-hour normal week in the 
Textile Industry was introduced by collective bargaining in 
Italy long before the general legislation that came into force 
in 1923. As early as February 20, 1020, the Cotton and Wool 
Industries adopted the 43-hour week through national collective 
agreements and these provisions remained more or less unchanged in 
the national agreements, concluded subsequently. In November, 1934, 
however, the Confederations of Industry and Labor agreed upon 40 i 
hours per week as a luaximam with the aim rf distributing the jl 

existing volume of employment among the maximum number of employees 
Hourly wages remained unchanged and weekly earnings of labor have 
somewhat diminished; overtime work was explicitly abolished. 



< 



41 



9643 



-63- 

6. The fundamental declared xDrincipies of the Fascistic 
transformation of voluntary organizations of employer s and 
er.iployees into Syndicates and Corporations were: 

(a) An alDolition of strikes and lockouts and the 
settlement of industrial disputes by the Courts; 

(b) Maxiraam hours of work; 

(c) Living wages and 

(d) The t;eneral regulation of industry. 

Though originated and backed by the dictatorial govermaent 
and inspired by the v/ise-spread. entiiusiasm for a new order, the 
Italian corporate system is .essentially'- different from the German 
pattern, Tlie fundoxiental idea behind the State policy in Italy 
is to facilitate reorganization cf industry from the in-^ide and 
to put its activities on the basis, of self-control and _self- 
re.sralation - hence, the parliamentary structure of corporations 
in place of the national Socialistic idea of "leadership". The cart 
and trusts are not prohibited in Italy, but the Corporations are 
created as a part cf the machinery for economic rationalization 
on the assmmption that the previously-existing monopolies misused 
their power to satisfy group aspirants of cartels and trade unions. 
This power can be safely entrusted only to ;,roups with over- 
lapping interests which have been coordiinated in the CorporationB4« 
free from the inherent narrov/ness and selfishness of any single 
group, Fascism's claim is that the danger of economic rationaliza- 
tion furthering the interests of eiiiployers against those of labor 
is eliminated in Italy, 



9643 



1 

II 



-64- 

7, There is not aderuate inforiiiatlon available on prices, f 
costs, profits and loss r.icveuents in all "brandies of tlie Textile 
Industry in Italy, "but tlie data on profits of larf;e coinpanies in fi 
cotton branch for 1927-19o3 (Appendix 13) reveal clearly the sl:is.rp 
recession of 1930-1932 and the conspicuous recovery of the Cotton 
Industry since then, 
D . GovernLient and Industry Measures Relatin^"^ to Textile Industry 

1. The Council of Corporations was establislied in Italy 

"by the Lav; of March 30, 1930 as the supreme coordinating body for 
all the National Corporations. The vd rdinj of the Law is very 
general and {^ives theCo'^^ncil power to control a very ydde range 
of problems such as the reAulaUon of -production, the control of 
markets, and the rec:alaticn of the relationships betv/een the 
different groups. 

The Textile Industry in the general framework of the corporate 
State may most accurately be defined as a self-controlled Indaastry 
under close State supervision. This supervision is in general 
liardly distinguishable from rigid regmlation. 

2, Among the measures affecting the foreign textile trade in 
Italy, tiiere should be mentioned: 

(a) Complete control and drastic restrictions of im'ports 
of all textile raw :-3,terials, yarns and fabrics • The 
special "institutes" (Cotton Institute, Wool Institute, etc.) 
I are empo\7ered to regT-late, restrict or prohibit all impor~ 
tation of textile materials and goods and to iiave absolute 



9643 



I 






control (since the end of 1934) of all textile importations. 
All textile imports are EulDJect to the quota fixed quarterly 
"by the Minister of Pinance and inroortations of textiles oay 
"be Liade onl^r ty firms obtaining permits from the "institute" 
concerned. After October 1954, for example, all importation 
of raw silk vv9,s prohibited in Italy, 

(b) Increa s ed tariff protection ~. This plan was used in 
Italj'" in 1952 to relieve the grave conditions in the hemp and 
linen branches, 

(c; E:ctensive experimentations are made in Italy with 
the use cf substitutes in place of t"ie natural textile raw 
materials, in order to rSmi ni sli the dependence cf Italy upon 
other couAtries for ra-w materials. The production of the 
"lanital" (an artificial wool manufactured from the casein 
of milli) was recently started on a commerical basis and about 
15 tons of lanital are produced monthly, vii ich i s said to be 
sufficient to clothe about SO, 000 persons, 

(d) ?inr,ncipl assistance was provided by the State to 
s tinalate export g ef many needly firms. In 1932 the "institute 
LiObiliaro Italiano" was organized to offer a credit for 
Industry, Up to I.Iarch 1, 19o3, the de.oands for the capital 
assistance I'-ave totaled 2,C billions of lira - of this amount 
the Textile Industry's applications amounted to only 129,5 
million lira. The fact tliat such a small volume of credit 



9543 



-^D— 



was needed iDy the largest indi stry in Italy niast "be regarded 
as a symptora indicating the healtliy condition of industry 
in general, ■ ' 

( e) Tixe "bilateral trade agreements and the "barter arrange* * 
ment s were important weapons of the State in export stimulation, 

(f) The Italian Rayon Industry " is working under the 
arrangeuents of the International Rayon Cartel, 
3. A very co;.Tprehensive program of 'ueasares to adjust production 

t_p. demand and to sta'biJ.i;ig__priC9S in the domestic r.iarlcet lias "been 
inaugiiratcd. 

(a) The national "Insti tut es" play a rather iniportant role 
in the new organization. In the Textile Industry they are 
autH'orized: 

(1)- To supply "business information, 
(2) To regulate production, 
(3)To control the terms of sales, 
• • (4) To facilitate the supply of raw materials. 
They supervise, therefore, not only' for cjign trade in 
the Textile Industry, "but. are also responsi"ble for the (control ] 
of domestic' product ion and markets (Textile Weekly, August 10, | 
1934), ■" • 

(b) Tlie maximum hoims of work in' the Textile Industry 
Indistry were reduced to 40 per week (paragraph 5 of C) and 
©vertime work was a'bslisiied. 

(c) Txie national miniimii.i wage schedule was adopted to 
remedy grievances in regard to inequalities in internal coiiipetitic 

(d) An equitable distri"bution of available work among the 



I 



I 



-67- 



cotton naniifacturers was provided for in 1934 by tlie intro- 
duction of tlie quota principle in supplies of raw rnaterials. 

(e) Reduction of costs was attei-ipted tlirough the 
introduction of automatic machinery and technical reorganiza- 
tion of production. These measures were particiilarly 
drastic in the rayon branch, 

(f) T he construction of nev/ establishments and l33e 
extension of existin;^ mills are made subject to approval by 

> a competent governmental agency. (Textile Weekly, 

November 23, 1934). 

(g) An elL.iination of the redundant obsolbte plants 
and ::iachinery was brought about by scrapping - providing 
compensation for the owners concerned from a special fund 
of thirty million lira. Tlie price payable for purcliased 
machines could not exceed more tiian three times their 
scrap iron value, (Textile I.Ianixf acturer , Hay 1933). 

(h) In the sill: branch a decree maizes it compulsory 
to mix raw silk with wool and cotton and the outDut of raw 
silk is regulated accordin;-^ to demand. The price of raw 
cocoons is also stabilized . Quotas are set up to control 
the output of sill: by means of a restriction on the opera^ 
tions of the members of the Cocoon Breeders' Association. 



9643 



i 



. . •-•68*-* 

(i) Tlie national consortiiuu of jute luaiiof actuers was 
formed in 1935 (Textile Manufactiirer , DecemTDer 1933)to re- 
fc-ulate production and sta"bilize prices * Siivdlar price 
consortiums were the.a organized amon^ the lienip and linen 
manuf ac tur er s , 

(j) Rircid sale contracts were introduced in the Cotton 
Industry, 'Hie -jjrovisions of the textile trade agreement be- 
tween the associations in the Cotton Industry and the cotton 
goods trade (1932) are an attempt to reconcile the trading 
interests of two 0]pposing groups. 

Every sales" contract effected under it inast specify 
quantity, nature, quality'' and price. The holding of stocks 
at the di sposal of a "buyer - or similar agreements in ai^ 
form, as nellas sales v;ith provisional prices or with prices 
unspecified 'are prohibited. Every agreement mast state the 
agreed discount, the date of shipment and the latest date 
and form of payment, whether in cash or in the form of a bill 
of acceptance. If the latter, the accepted bill mast be 
attached to the account and returned with the buyer *s sig- 
nature T/ithin 30 days at the latest. 

Accounts m'o.st not be antedated or postdated. The time 
allowed for payment of raw materials mast not exceed 90 days 
without cover or 120 days with cover, Tlie corresponding 
period for bleached and colored goods is 120 and 180 days. 



1 

III 



9643 






All dclivorios m"Uf5t ho made v\rith carta/;© paid to fo.ctf.ry, 
'out delivory Lia.]'' "te made intn the ouyors' i-)remiscs against 
payineiit of cost. 

Manv other such detailed rej^ulaticns of trade 
practices are fonjid in the prcYisicns of the trade agrocmcnts 
rcj-^ardinA' saloc crntracts. 



-70- 



1 



APPE.TDIX A 



PROI/UCTIOi: AiJE CC:'SUI.iPTIOi: or CCTTOI; YAHiTS Ir: ITALY 



(in t:iouc'i,nls of o-iintc..ls) 



Years 



1901-1910 



1911-1930 



1921-1950 



1931-1934 



Avera:-:o Production 



1504 



1747 



1315 



1695 



1/ 



Avera^^^e Consinrrotion 
1419 

.1591 

1607 

1423 



Source: L'lcluctria Cotoniera Italiana, April, 1935 

l/ Production plus iiaports minus ex.-)orts equals 
consunr^tion 



COlISUlviPTIOiT OF GGTTOiT FABHICS IN ITALY; 1929-1933 



Years 



(in Tliousands of oaintals) 

' 1/ 

Gins"Li;irotion 



1926-1929 av. 



1,294 



1950 1,111 



1951 916 



1932 1,071 

1953 1,408 

SOURCE* L'Idustria Contoniera Italiana - 1955. 

Xj Production "jlus iniports minus ex )orts equals 
consuLi'iotion. 



1643 



AFPSiJDIX I 



iTUiaER OF SPIilDLES AID LOOIIS IN ITALIAII COTTOi-. IlIDUSTRY 



Year 


: Niimber 


: Indices '. 


L325-100 




: SDinc-les 


: Lo oras 


: Spindles 


: Looms 


1876 


: 745,000 


• • 

• • 

: 37,000 


: 15.2 


: 13.4 


1896 


: — 


: 65,000 


: • — 


: — 


1898 


: 1,910, 000 




: 33.0 


J 46.7 


1300 


;2, 111, 000 


: 70,000 


! 43.1 


: 50.3 


1903 


:2, 933, 000 


! 73,000 


: 53 , 9 


: 56.1 


1908 ! 


J 3, 928, 000 


: 30,000 


: 81.1 


: 60.8 


1912 


14,532,000 


: 115,000 


! 93.3 


! 82.7 


1914 ; 


:4,e20,000 


! — 


[ 34.4 




1921 i 


[4,514,000 


; 122,000 : 


i 92.2 


; 37.7 


1923 J 


[4,620,000 , 


! — ! 


[ 34.4 




1925 


[4,835,000 ! 


[ 139,000 : 


• 

100.0 ; 


• 100.0 


1926 i 


J 


143,000 : 


— , J 


[ 106.4 


1927 i 

I 

1928 J 


5,100,000 ! 


149,000 : 


104.2 ! 


107.1 


5,250,000 : 


150,000 : 


107.2 : 


1C7.8 


1933 : 


5,338,000 ! 


143,500 i 


103.0 : 


105.4 


193- 1 


5,-90,000 ; 


1^8,000 ; 


112.2 : 


106 .4 



SOURCE: L'Industria Cotoniera Italiana, April, 1335. 



964; 



A:^rE"T)ix 3 



-7J- 



:Tr..fflER OJP SPI^"DELS A:^^ LOC-'IS I^'T ITALIAJT 



Years 


':T"UiTiber of Spirxdles 




'T-omber -of Power 
Looms 






- ""oolen 


:Worsted 


• Total 




1694 


251, SS.? 


94, 2;^ S ; 


3^; 5, 550 


6 , 507 




1907 


230,000 


259'., 796 


439,796 


10 , 567 




1913 


520,795 


377,558 


398,333 


17,029 




1923 


• 550,000 


500,000 


"1,050,000 


: 18,000 




1925 


600,000 


550,000 


1,150,000 


21,000 





SOURCi:: Balfo^or Report. Survey of Textile Industry. 1928 



QC 



643 



-73- 



APPEiroiX 3 



RELA.TIVE IIviPORTMCE OF VALUE OF TE:ITILE GOODS IN 
FOREIGN TRADE OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 





: W 1/ 

rEnt^land 

:av.l920 

-33 


: 2/ 

: Germany 
I 1933 


: b/ 3/ 

r France 
: av. 1928 
-35 ; 


. 4/ 

Italy 

: 1933 


5/ 

1 Czecho- 
: slavakia 
' 1931 


I 6/ ■ 
; Japan 
: 1933 


' 11' 

: China 

; 1933 




Il^ORTS: ! 
Textile Goods ! 

All Other Goods i 


17.1 
82.9 


20.4 
79.6 ! 


21.0: 
, 79.0 


23.9 
76.1 


: 23.3 
76.7 : 


47.6 
52.4: 


! 16.6 : 
83.4 : 




TOTAL I1.1P0RTS: : 

EXPORTS: ' ! 
Textile Goods : 

All Other Goods : 


100.0 . 

36.5 : 
63.5 1 


100.0 

13.3^' 
86.7 ! 


100.0: 

1 

19.3: 

80.7: 


100.0 

33.1 

66.9 


100.0 . 

28,5 
; 71.5 : 


100.0 

62.9 
37.1 


.100.0; 

: 40.0 
. 60.0 




TOTAL EXPORTS: : 


100.0 : 


■ 100.0 ; 


100.0: 


100.0: 


100.0 I 


100.0: 


100.0 





SOURCES: 1/ Statistical Abstracts for the U.K. 1920-1933; 

2/ Vierteljahrshefte ziir Statistik des deutschen Reichs 1934, 
K. 1. S. 151-152; 

3^/ Statistique Mensuello du Commerce Exterieur de la France, 
III. 1935; 

4/ Bolletino Mensile Statistica, II, 1935; 

5/ Rapports de L'Oifice de Statistique de la Republique 
Tchechoslava,que, 1932; 

&I Resume Statistique de 1 'Empire du Japon, 1935; 

7/ The Chinese Economic Journal, 1934. 



a/ 
t/ 



Including 3.1 per cent of cloth exported. 
Average for the period. 



9643 



-■74- 



AFPMDIX 4 



ITALIJU^ FOREiaj T'^J^D'E IIT COTTO!T GOODS, 1S71-1934 



(A- 



1.& 



ear 
eraf e ) 



71-18?^ 



80-18G9 



^0-1399 



(in Thousands of' 



Quintals ) 



1900-1909 
1910-1919 • 
1920-1924 
192;3-1929 
1930-1934 



IMPORTS 



■m 



lOl.P 
70.6 

14'. 1 

11.9 

p •, 

10.9 

11.^: 



7^'tiTics 



11:^.0 

117.7 
41.2 
37.3 

45.4 
40.7 
20.5 



Y;-5rns 



0.9 



1.9 



•"JR A- 
o< ' . D 



87.6 



159.2 



152.4 



192.0 



270.3 



fabrics 



0,6 



5.7 



50.8 



?50.8 



409.2 



437.4 



547.6 



510. S 



SOURCE: L'InduGtria Cotoniera Italiana, April, 1935. 
if Data not available 



9643 



-7:.3- 



VALUE 0? ITALIAIT "'n^.EIGJ T3LALS. CL^SSIFI-t^L BY 
F'-^OLXJCTS , 19.';3 and 1.934 

( In millions of lira) 



APrS^I'IX 5 



Products 


• 

I' ■ -0-^.T : 


« t 
* • 




1934 


19:;? : 


r 1934 •• 


1933 : 


FoocLg , 
Tobacco 

2. Fruits , 
etc« 

3. Textiles 

4. Metals 

5, Stones ,etc 

6. Wood, etc. 

7. Chemicals 

Others 


1,123.0 . 

36-. 4 , 
1,667.1 
1,320.8 ■ 
1,106.5 . 
352.7 
' '■ 724.1 
' 1,006.6 . 


1.107.0 : 

377.7 t 

1.7.7.1 : 
" 1,239.8 : 

341.2 : 

' 719.6 : 

' ,943.9 : 


:. 1,650.7 

:• 89.8 ■ 
:: 1,759.8 
I ; 585.7 
: . 221.9 
: 95.5 
: 202.9 
: ■ 616.0 


l,9o3.S : 

129.1 : 
• 1,936.2 : 

697.6 : 

256.7 : 
95.3 : 

: 230.6 : 

655 . 8 : 


TOTAL 


• 7,636.6 ~ 


7,431.3 : 


: 5,225.3 


: 5,990.6 : 



SO^.'RCE: BolletiYio ' 'ensile di Statistica ^el Institute 
Ccntrale di Statistica del Regno d' Italia 
February, 1935. 



9643 



-76- 



APPENT^IX 6 



VALUE OF T5XTIi:S IMPO.RTS OF ITALY; 1933 and 1934 

( In millions of liras) 







1934 




1933 


Groups of G-oods 


: Amount 


.Per. of Total 


: Amount 


: Per. of Total 


I. Raw Mrite rials 










RaT7 Cotton 


: 721.3 


: 43,3 


: 840.1 ! 


! 47.8 


Raw 7/0 ol 


594.8 


25.7 


: 360.1 


: 20.2 


Rar Wool washed 


: 73.6 


: 4.4 


! 64.1 


: . 5,6 


Raw Wool comoed 


7.4 


: 0,5 


: 4.8 


: . 0,2 


Jute 


48.8 


: 3,0 


: 48.6 


! 2,7 


Cue Coons dried 


6.8 


0.4 


: 5.1 - 


: 0,3 


Silk : 


37.1 


2,3 . 


: 25.6 


f .1.4 


Total rat7 materials 


1,292c 8 


77,6 


- 1.354,4 


: 76.2 


II. Yarns - ; 




' . • 






Linen yarns : 


25.6 


1,5 


27.9 


: . 1,6 


Rayon yarns ; 


18.0 


! . . ■ la , . 


17.8 


: . 1,0 


Total yarns 


43 6 


2. 6 . 


45.7 


2,6 


III. Fa^brics • : 


, f 


* \ * 






V/ool fabrics : 


50.2 


• .. 2-0 ' ' 


; 78.4 


4.4 


IV. Non-specified ; 


. 


• 






goods : 


280.5 : 


16.8 ,: 


298„6 


: . 16.8 


Total Textile goods : 


1,667.1 : 


100.0 : 


1,777,1 ; 


100.0 


Total iranorts j 


7,666.6 ' 




7,431,8 ; 




Percent of textiles : 










To total iiiiports ; 


21.8^b: 




23.95^< 





^643. 



■i/r 



X 



IP? 



*-t 09 
p « 



s 



O 

is; 
»-• 

PS 



o 



pf 



»• »• •• 


• • •« •« *• »« •« »« 


m^ m^ »«*«•• 


. .. — •^. ^ 














ra c^ 


o 


r^ CW I*- 


O 


-* • 


• 


- •> • « 


• 


~^ ^JT" 1 


o 




o 


^ r-i 


,»^ — 


o 


p 


o 




■^^' 






•«••»« 


9m mm mm •• •• •• mm 




. •. rnj, M M 


•« mm 


^— V 










3 r^ 










^ i^-o- 


o 


^ .HI IT 


^ 


PiiC7 


» • « 


• 


»• • * 


• 


«S H 


^^ r-B rH 


o 


ff^CUl-:* 


O' 


►:> 


o> 


s 


lO \fl 


»-H! 


•.•••. 






» •• ,nj , 1 J , J 


— .. 


^,^ 






, 




iTv a 
















^ 




























> 
o 

r-fl 










iKr.,3r — 1 


o 


r^-=r o" 


o 


CO 


• • • 


• 


- •- • • 


• 




^ -".'WJ 


o 


r-fl p r^ 




o 


u 


o 


on r* 


p 


3 




r-8 




r^ 


o 










as 










o 










! 






• - — - - 


— — 


>*^ 


\3 riff 


o 


1K%\0 H 


o 


t-i J*' 


•- • ■ 


- • 


--•■•■ 


■ 


«£ O" 


■-S j<Mr 


o 


crtrior 


p 


-B* H 


c^ 


o 


IT*!*' 


p 


»-• 




■-I 




r< 












— 


^^-x. 










t^ 










o 










OK" 


S\-a>i\D 


o 


SO o^ir 


o 




•- • 4 


• 


HI Ol IT 


• 

p 


tL "^ 


■ 




p 


- 


-r^l 




r-« 










- 


e 










r> 


t«^r4IV3 


o 


Hl^ IT 


P 


«, IK 


- •• • • 


• 


- •• • fl 


■ • 


C .T^ 


»— -- - - 


o 


t& CO) IK' 


P 


£S 


B^.-^ 


c 


ri bHVO 


P 




r-« 




rH! 


€» 










ris 






, .. r ,1 .. .. 


•. •* 


W" 












tc irvr^ 


o 


\o <7\ir 


P 


"^ 


' - • • « 


» 


• --•-•« 


- • 


1 s; If' 
as v^ 


K>r-« (Rl 


o 


,=fi- BT^cr 


P 


OO rH 


o 


rHi 1^ 


P 




r« 




ir-f 


^f-« 








•^ 


(B 


a 





O 




— 


-•» 


rfl 


-»=- 




T. ^ 


9« 


«£ B 


Sr 




— ■_ 


o 


■w* O 


o 




M fi -K-B 


i 


f* SS t^ 




1 


G a U 


•ti C J« 


^ 




r' ^ *» »H JO 


>^ ol 


^ _= ;. ^ 


IPS 




^ 5 £ c ^ 




C r _:C ^ 








ir|+ ^ 




_J. 




— 


ui of 




— 




Z-^ » • » 


-AS est 


» • • 


■ ' 


1 


^ - 


IE4 Pi 


— Gb f*^ 


&I 



Jij HI «w C^ C? 

•r« v« •«-l •rl 

•v> m o ■*> •*» 

m ^^ ^ fOt m 

•rri '. — "H! 



•_ 5S 



.jq; o iiTVirHi 


• 


C O ffO, 


>* 


^T^ c\ © 


H 


H :S e-f "w! 


«: 


©■ >^ 


o 


HP • S£ 




3S l&VS' -IP 


>» 


<a rrJ »« 


^ • 


•r* H- «E O HP-ZS- 


*s. © o a. 


fir 9*\ 


;3! ^ Sf, 


•^ CTfc 


•^ C -»* 31 


■^j; r-« 


Ci; $: ss « 


s: 


a- ^. 


I*-? • 


"~^ -S* y—^ 


H 


— . c: Lr> 


c oi 


CUJ G -e^ 


o « 


fK% ^ KJ 


■^ u 


iITt C • 


*» ;;S 


H •'^ ■'Hi SI 


c o 


*> -^ Xt 


O »-3. 


• 8S 3^ 

;:4; ir* Hi. (C 


c o 


O *» ir-f -(P 


O -Hf 


'<:5 St ^ C 


"t 


^ -ft* ® c 


fii a 


Grace* 


*i c 


tHI <^ u 




M^-*:^ CD 


_ »^ «i«- 


» 


•^ o 




© iS «H. 


• CP 


HIS M. .^ O <^ .B 


•r* Hf -»* 


»*> © 


$; ar^ o s; cri s: 


t^ r% t^ O HI -«^ 


• r^ -rf 


^ 


® TO O *» 


• o 


.r: .frq, «E 


av 


-•3> »-« H* 


;:S cc 


•^^ ::S 


ir^ 


U S:;^ €J 


a£ E+. 


O Hf 


> 


'_ — -^ 


'^ _■-■_ 




•»> ^ ^ 


' - .• C 


rH I>- 


M ' Mv ^' 


31 


-ti^ sH! B"^',. •*=■ 


G. 


©- • i. 


G • 


«J • Pt, 


e s: 


^ S£ «=> 


.*• — ■■'O- 


*» X • C 


^ " 


VL O Bini-*!' 


^ r. 


^ ^ IK% C 




«4 O S:\. C 


C 


p; H ^ 


— ■ ..-■ 


H» g 


•r■^C 


aS C ^ -<-+ 


— * 


O lO. C fl— 


— -D 


IT* ^ 5* E. 


ji ;!«- 


■#»©«£ 


^ — ■ 


as o i:^ ax 


Z . ' 


-ff* Hi* r 


■^ T 


-»* ?S • :- 


'_" '_ 1 


at ax 'C' 




-»=■«'"- 


'^. — 



ra 



ra 

g 
p 

ID 



-73- 



VALUE 0? TrJCTILZ OOCDS'-UiC-PGR-Tir ..i"'?wOi; IT'Sd^J CIAS 3 IF IZp BY liTSD 

19oo anu 1934 

(in millionji of lira) 



.iy34 1933 



Goods Ai'iiOLint : per.oi Total Ai.ioniit' :' Per.' of Total 



I . Raw ^.iaterials 

Hemp, raw and fibers ICO. 9.1.. 154. 7.8 

Cotton 4 0.3 3'.' "' * ' 0.1 



Total raw materials 164 9.4 157. 7.9 

II. Yarns ' ' " ■ ..... 
Cotton Yarn 188 • 10.7 

Silk 155 8.8 

Rayon 410 23.3 

Hemp ..19. 1.1 



220 


11.1 


282 


14.1 


553 


17.9 


21 


1.0 



Total senii-finisl:ed772 -^..3.9 876 44-. 1 

III. Fabrics 

Cotton FaTjrics 2G0 14.9 

Wool Fabrics "iSs t3.9 *■ : 

Silk d Mixed Silk 

fabrics 2S 1,4 

Rayon and mixed ' " ■ ■ . , 

fabrics • 128 7.2 



347 


17.5 


125 . .. 


.. .. 5.5 


34 


1.7 


158 


8.0 



rx— r-T- 



Total Fabrics 536 "SO.^-" 654 •• 53.5 

IV. Non Specified Textile. 

Goods " 285 " ■ 16.3 • ^ ■• 287 14.5 



Total Export of Textilesl, 759 100.0 1,986 100.0 



Total Export - 5,323.3 ,\ ^ 5,990.5 

Percent of textiles 33.7;., ' ' 33.1)^ 

SOURCE: Bolletino Mensile di Sta.tistica Jiine 1935. 



9043 



-79- 



^PFZEDIZ 9 



S?G?TS GF RA?C:T C-OCOS 3Y ITALY CLASSIP I£D IT PRi:'CI?AI. OL'^H'^.IES, 1954 



(In kilograms) 



British India, Cejlqn 

China 

Switzerlani 

Spain 

Austria 

Argentine 

England 

Belgiun 

Czechoslovakia 

Egypt 

Fort'ogal 

Holland 

Holland India 

Prance 

United States 

Bumania 

Other Countries 





Percent 




Percent 


Yarns 


of 


Finished 


of 




Total 


joods 


Total 




100. c 


2,214,155 


100.0 


3,560,52? 


31.1 






1,909,233 


9.9 


125,903 


5.7 


1,595,103 


7.3 






1,223,540 


* 5.4 


129,163 


5.8 


901,645 


4.7 






589,464 


3.6 


" 




627,467 


r-7 ry 


53,463 


2.4 


500,234 


2.5 


338,921 


15.3 


445,436 


2.3 


151,456 


6.8 


451,460 


2.2 






408,800 


2.1 




4.2 


555,634 


1.9 










554,294 


16.5 






14,326 


. 6 


369,756 


1.9 


% 








100,247 


4.5 


67,855 


... ^4 






6,024,976 


31.5 


345,120 


53.2 



SOLxlCE : ^olletino di St-.tistica G Jime 1935 



9645 



-8C- 













' 


IPFEIITIX in 


PRINCIPMj COUIT 


TRIES 


IIvIPOR 


TIITG I TALI 


All COrTOIT A 


:d \T00T,7,r 


E^RICS, 1934 








cc: 




U0( 


:l 






Per cent 




Per cent 










of 




of 


Countries 






Amoujit 


Total 


Amount 


Total 


Albania 






1,C3& 


0.9 






Argentine 






54,832 


27.3 


1,634 


2.4 


Austria 






» 


— 


530 


.7 


British India, 


Ceylon 


2,191 


1.1 


55,778 


50.9 


Canada 






^^ 


~ 


135 


.2 


China 






^ 


~~ 


2,904 


4.1 


Egypt 






27,576 . 


13.7 


2,728 


3.9 


Eritrea • 






15,338 . 


7.6 


■ ~ 


•-• 


Great Britain 






1,688 


0.9 


'2,356 


3.4 


Great Britain' 


3 Colonies 










In Africa 




- 


>. 


1,402 


2.0 


Greece 






7,098 


3.5 • 


>. 


~ 


Hongkong 






— 


— 


3,156 


4.5 


Jugoslavia 






10,149 


5.0 - 


— 


— 


Morocco • 




( 


11,258 


5.6 


— 


- 


Rumania 




" 


2,862 


1.4 


— 


» 


Tripoli • 




• 


9,815 


4.9 


~ 


— 


Turkey- 






5,239 


2.6 


— 


~ 


Union of South 


Africa 


» 


~ 


3,891 


5.5 


Uruguay- 






5,237 


2.6 


>- 


— 


Others 




■ 


45.985 


22.9 


15,738 


22.4 



Total 201,206 100.0 70,302 100.0 



SOURCE: Bolletino Mensile di Statistica, June, 1935 



9543 



-81- 



APPENDIX 11 



IIvIPGHTS OF RA'J COTTOIJ INTO ITALY, 1929-1934 
CLASSIFIED BY PRIx^CIPAL COlTiTRlJiS OF 

ORIGIN 

( In thousands of quintals) 



Years 



United 
States 



India 



: Other 
Efyyt ; Countries 



Total 



1928 ■ 

1930 ■ 

1931 : 

1932 : 
1933 
1934 ■ 

Average 



1,662 
1,328 
1,047 
1,456 
1,649 
1.155 



1,388 



480 
479 
355 
146 
263 
310 



240 : 


62 


185 : 


55 


216 : 


77 


230 : 


60 


255 : : 


30 


335 •: 


73 



341 



244 



SOURCE: Industria Cotoniera 



60 



Italin-na, April, 1935 



2,444 
2,047 
1,705 
1,902 
2,197 
1.871 



2.053 



9643 



-82- 



APPSIDIX 12 



NUlvBER OF ESTABLISffiiENTS IIT LEAVING AITD SPIICIILTG 
BRAilCHSS OJy ITALIA!^ COTTON INDUSTRY, IN 
1930; CLASSIFIED BY SIZE 



Spinnin^^ 




: Tfeavin^ 




Number 

of 
Spindles 


NujTiber of 
Establish- , 
ments 


Cumula-: 
tive : 
Percent: 


: Nijunber 
: of 
: Loom.s 


Number of : 
Establish-' 

ments 


Cumula- 
tive 
Percen' 


10.000 and less ! : 

10.001 - 20,000 : 
20,001 - 50,000 
50,001 -100,000 

100,000 ajid over 


62 . ; 

45 
68 
29 

1 


30.2: 
52, 2: 
85,3: 
S9.5: 
100.0: 


: 50 njid less • 
: 51 - 100 
: 101 - 200 
: 201 - 500 
: 501 - 700 
: 701 1,000 
: 1,000 ajid over 


265 

131 : 
120 
113 
140 
36 
; 29 


31.8 
47.5 
: 61,9 
: 75.4 
: 92.2 
: 96.5 
100.0 


Total 


205 


— : 


: Total 


! 834 


- 



SOURCE: L'Industria Cotoniera Italiana, April, 1935. 



-33- 



AP^'ETDIX 13 



PROFIT J\!ID LOSS OF COTTON TEXTILE C0I4PAi>IIES IN ITALY 
MTH CilPITAL 0? M05E THiN OITE lilLLIOL' LIRA; 1927 to 1933 



PROFIT JUID LOSS 



Years 



Capital and 
Reserves of 

Stock Corn'oanies 



iinount 



Per Cent 
of 

Gaipital 





(Mi 


.llions of Lira) 


1927 




1,592 


1928 




1,746 


1929 




1,792 


1930 




1,822 


1931 




' 1,744 


1932 




1,597 


1933 




1,538 



('Millions of Lira) 
Plus 1C3 6.5 



Plus 57 



Plus 72 



3.2 



4.0 



Minus 


29 


1.6 


Iv'Iinus 


103 


5.8 


Minus 


36 


2.2 


Plus 


23 


1.5 



SOURCES: L'Industria Cotoniera Italiana, 1935 

Bolletino di Notizie Econorniche, Aoril, 1935 



9643 



^34- 



Y,... t:EXTILS IlIDUSTRY IN JAPAN 
A, Imporla iice of Tcxtil o Indus^r.7' in Gone ra l Econoinic Stnictiirc 
of Coixntry . 

1, Having "been esta"blished orij^'inally to satisfy domestic 
needs, the Japanese Textile Industry "began to grow in importance 
after 1S90 -under the imioiilse of tlirec wars ( Sino-Japanese, Russian- 
Japanese and World-war) and made a strikingly rapid progress in 
the post v/ar period, particularly after 1931, At present the 
Textile Industry of Japan in the midst of ^.'orld wide dislocations 
in the international Textile Trade appears to hold a position of 
undisputahle competitive superiority in the textile v/orld, 

2. In no other country has the Textile Industry played such 
an outstanding role as it does today in the economic structure 

of Japan, This is evidenced oy: 

(a) The va l ue of te: : tile production v/hich amounted to 
38,8 per cent of the value of the total industrial production in 
1929. Since 1909 (when textiles amoi.uitod to 49,7 per cent of 
total industrial production) , the relative importance of textile 
goods in the total value of industrial output has declined con- 
siderably, due primarily to the greater expansion of the other 
"branches of Japa.nese Industry. Among them may "be mentioned the 
chemical-^ Industry which increased the value of its output as much 
as 1,200 per cent, machinery - 1,600 per cent, repairing "branches 
3,700 per cent and the metal industry as much as 4,000 per cent. 



_-85- 



whilc in the last two decades the value of textile production 
expanded only 770 per cent since 1909, 

(b) The volume of industrial equipment which expanded 
uninterruptedly and on a gigantic scale (for example the 
number of cotton spindles increa-sed t.hirty times since 1390) 
of which one ha.lf is sufficient to satisfy the domestic 
demand. In addition to the quantitative ;';;rov;th of the 
industrial cq^iipment of textile industry in Japan, it has 
become technically perfect and absolutely up-to-date. 

(c) The volune of cmploymont ever one-Iialf of the total 
number of factary crrrployees in Japan are found in the textile 
industry (03.2 per cent in 1926). Tlic cotton and silk-cotton 
weaving sections alone have absorbed over thirty five per 
cent of the total nijmber of factory v;orkers in Japan, 

(d)' The role of Textile Industry in the foreign trad e 
of Japan . The value of imported te::tile ^^^'oods (ma.inly raw 
materials) averaged for the period from 1924 to 1933, thirty 
eight per cent of the total ..value of Japanese irai^orts and 
the share of textile goods (largely fabrics) in the Empire's 
exports average sixty— five and six-tenths per cent for the 
same period. The relative importance of textile goods in the 
Japanese imports for the same decade increased 12,7 per cent 
while in the exports it declined about 12 per cent. Tlie 
decline in the value of textile exports was absolute, due 



—8^ 



to general contraction of international trade; axid relative, 
due to the more rapid growth of ex^^orts in oth^r 'branches of 
Japanese industry, 

3, The cotton and sillz "branches are most important . In 
the Japanese Textile Industry, measured by the volune of employ- 
ment, they represent about t".'0-thirds of the total number of 
employees in the Textile Industry; in terms of value of output 
the Cotton and Silk Industry account for approximately four-fifths 
of the total value of piece goods produced in Japan. 

4, The Japanese Textile Industry depends entirely^ on 
imported raw materials in all branches of textile production ex- 
cept raw siUc of which she (Japan) is the ^"orld's largest producer 
and exporter, 

3. Japanese textile imports consist almost exclusively of 
raw materials which represented ninety-six and tliree-tcnths per 
cent of total value of textile imports in 1933. 

6, Raw silk and textile, fabrics are the principal items in 
Jrpanese textile ex;oorts. They averaged about 98 per cent of 
the total value of textile goods exported during 1929 to 1933. 

7 . The development of the. rayon industry was p artic ularly 
spectacular in Japa.n both in production and exports. "While the 
rate of grovth in the world production of rayon from 19.26 to 1933 
averaged 280 per cent and in no country more tlian 330 per cent 
("United Kingdom) Japan increased its rayon output 1810 per cent 



9643 



durir^ zhlz •;>cricd snL r^rk^el Ecc?3i irly Ic tlis '^rJ.z-e^i. Stat-is 



•~<tl~IfV 






' • ■* — ■ - 



-■ — -:^^/ 






- s. * - *■- 





















I^ TJl.? l.gT C_ ' Jl^' 



^. 





















^ 'f rs-r 



-_» 






cr z: 












-- — - -y *-'S-- »Tr— -.--r- - - — _>_: 



starT" 1~ 111 






:s ^ 






_ -k.-r-— 






:-T — . 



•~ r-y 



-88- 
labor in Japanese industry is notably lackiiiig: in organization . 
Modem trade unionism did not come into existence in Japan until 
shortly "before the world war and is still in its initial stages. 
In-'the Textile Industry, particularly, there were in 1930 only 
forty-five trade unions with a total membership of 14,640 or 
less than 1.5 per cent of the total number of textile employees. 
The legal restrictions on strikes, the predominance of female 
employees and the temporary character of their employment in the 
textile mills, are probably the most important factors retarding 
progress of trade unionism in Japan. 

4, The hours of work were not regulated by the First Factory 
Act of 1911 in Japan. The Act of 1926 was actually enforced in 
1929, limiting the daily working hours to ten - in some branches 
eleven - hours per shift. In 1929, maximum hours were legally 
further reduced to eight and one-half hours per shift and night 
work was abolished. After 1930, a maximum of eight and one- half 
hours per shift was actually adopted by the cotton spinning and 
weaving sections and the ten-hour shift was introduced in the silk 
spinning branch. 

In most sections of the Textile Industry the daily rest periods 
are from fifty-one minutes to one hour and the monthly rest allow>- 
ances are from two to four days, since Japan has no Sunda;y or weekly 
day of rest. The overtime allowances are negligible in Japan, 
both as to the number of workers involved and the hours actually 
worked. 



9 643 



-89- 



5, In spito of reductions in the normal daily working 

hours C)f 13/6 per cent in the cotton spinning and weaving branches 
and a decline of 16,7 per cent in silk spinning "branches during 
1923 to 1933, the average outp u t pe r worker, thanks to the impre- 
vcd industrial equipment, increased 250 per cent in the weaving 
branch, 170 per cent in cotton s^pinning and IGO per cent in the 
silk spinning branches, 

6, H emuneration of textile labor is low . Daily wages in 
1928 to 1931 in the Textile Industry averaged 1,58 Yen for males 
and 0,84 Yen for females, which are lower than the general average 
daily earnings for Japanese factory labor for the same period 
(2.53 Yen for males and 0.91 Yen for females), 

7, The system of two shifts which is commonly used in the 
East and predominates in Japan is regarded as one of the important 
factors in lowering the costs of production in the Japanese Textile 
Industry. 

8 , The price movements in the J ap anes e Textile Indu stry show 
a do7m.;vard' trend nsince 1924. Their sluiap during 1929-1931 v/as very 
rapid and their lov/est level in 1931 in terms of indices was 
below that of Great Britain. The upswing of prices started earlier 
and v/as also more rapid when compared v;ith the indices of British 
wholesale prices of textile goods, 

9, It is of special interest from the economic angle, that 
in spite of high ajnplitude in the price fluctuations, the Japanese 



-90- 



Tcxtilc Industry ahov/s an astoimdln,;.- rosistance to the dc-orcssing 
influe nce s olf^ price dis turbancos. There v;as a sliarp decline of 
production in 1930; but the industry as a whole expanded its 
production more tlian 40 per cent from 1931 to 1934 under generally- 
depressed prices of this period, 

C. Government and O rganiz ed Industry Measures Relatin,": to the 
Text ile Indus try. 

1 . The Indus trial_ and^ commercial eff iciency of the Japanes e 
Textile Industry i s ,^uiiQ3ie_5 due largely to the great degree of 
vertical integration accompanied "by the effective cartelization 
of the industrial magnates controlling all the vital branches of 
Japanese i ,ndustry and trade, 

2, The gigantic e^r-^ansion of tc::tile production in Japan 
since 1931 is due to __it s_ supreme ori:i;aniz ation which helped to 
meet the impoverished purc lm sing pov/er o f the consuming countries 
in the years of the depression. TJie industry made tremendous 
efforts to bring down further the costs of production by the ex- 
penditure of enormous amounts of capital in reequipment and modern- 
ization and by the m.obilization of all available huma.n energy. Thus, 
J apan achieved a,n unbeatable competitive position which explains^ 
the offensive rather tha fi defensive cha racter of hc_r prp_sp.nt__ 

.economic po licies both at home and, in the inte r^tional market.^ 
^» Frotective tariffs in Japan, with her imports consigt"i4j^ 



9643 



-21- 



aliEcst ozcliisiTcly ci raw and serii— finished raterials (ever 95 
per cent CI the total value of tezrtile irrports) wcrold be illogical. 
On the ccntrar/V rigid protective measures vere undertaken, in 
1934 b;- tTrentysiccvcn cc^m^ries 5:g:iir.:t trpcrts ?; J&j.ar.'E^ "-"-11- 
goods. Since the rrox=ctiY-5 tariffs -crc f:i..c. ', £0 ir-oi- :.- '; 
iiii manj of these ccxmtries a sjsten ':f qiictas t.-bs adcxtcd and 
directed prirarily a^inct Japanese ira?orts. The mst recent deTel:??- 
nent in this fieli is the a^ec-ijent hct-jrcc-n the gcTeninents -rf the 



United S:^r.*o- ani cf Japan en the' iir^rts of textile 
Philippines, (Octcher, 1955) 



3 to the 



4, _ne xref crr-r.^i'l "r^-r: 



li?T is -ractically abandoned in 



Jai>?.n. 



5. 



recent trend of Japanese camaercial policies is to 



conclmc neir trade a^eeisents on. t he basis, of reciproc ity instead 



ci "usin^ tne o 



1 r. s*^.^ c r T ?i-i 



st favcured natio:::" clause. 



''"" coiLEJercial 



policy of Japan is esxptesized particularly in her relations irith 
the Tjnited States, China and Eritish India. 

€. Depreci ation of Jaisanese currency ir. 1^31 played an irp>ort— 
a'~ r: 1" in the ozpansicn cf Jan&ne-oo forei-^n trade in the Tears of 



tho depression, The ingML-rtance of this factor, bowever, is soiueTrha 



exaggerated ahroad. 



7. 



Ja-oaneso Textile Indiistr" rif f er ; ■'- 



"'il:' froifl the 



Chinese Boycott cf her tezoile go'ds ^'r: she in t-„".'. i.-. 






the sazrie do-vico in h:. ojrchases of raur cctton in .jri 



"S3- 



0. Aniong tho measiii'os iiitcnoe^. to sta>-ilize prices fhe.t 
of r •jj^.-ulat in,'; y^mcUic t i . n playod an GiicG^Dticnal Rnd decisive 
rolo in Japan. In the Cotton Int'-ustry particular !:;■', it was 
enforced iLc-iinly tliroii h the oiuipctent crrtf^l - The Japancne 
C-^tton Spinners Associati-in, The first prcjrpi.i c f restriction 
of production vas put iiito effect i:'! lo9C . Since IQ^*"', there 
■//ere eleven revisions of the rates of cotton yarn production 
curtailuents. The curtailment rates in torins of porcenta^o 
of capacit/ varied froin 11.2 per ce:it tr r>4.^ i3or cent. The 
rej2,u].ati(:n cf prrcluctirn 'o'j moans of cijxtail.nont of productive 
cajjacity has teen adopted in a.lmos.;t all Japanese Industries 
and in so.iio car.os the rates ff cuj.'t.-'iliMcnt are r-s hi{;h as -'P' ■> 
per coat of capacity. 

9 . Govern i :i':^ntr 1 girvrvisi "n rver o:~efrtc' ^ ont.s ho.T; been 
fjaint ained in Japan in va r i r u s de - ,r o o s _f(\r a: exit fiv e dec ades .. 
It was ori;2;inally put in effect t;.iro\v,h the t2r^\ilds cf Japa,ncse 
e:cportcrs. In the years of the do;"^ressi'"n this ou-ocrvision 
was strengthened considerably by controllixir- the cfoality of 
^•ooi-o exported, thoir ..u^ioes, the (.'•.irtribution of exi-oorts amoxig 
v.-'.rious couLitries, etc. Hecontly, the /-.iiild la^v •.■as c\iv.ended tn 
2,'ivo the 2f vorninent c.^ntrrl over the vrnvuH'" n.iic. direction of 
the cfjiitry's foroifjn trade in order to harmonize that trade vith 
national interest. E:c:oorts are bein;_, controlled priniaxil-- to 
meet object-ions abroa,d., espocially tho'-e from the United States 
and G-roat Britain. 



9643 



-93- 



APPENDIX 1 



1IUII3EH OF SPINDLES AlTD LOOMS IN JAPANESE COTTON INDUSTRY 



Year 



S"oindles 



Looms 



1881 
1885 
1890 
1895 
1900 
1905 
1910 
1913 
1914 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 





16, 


204 




65 


,420 




277 


»895 




580 


,945 


1, 


267 


,872 


1, 


426 


,594 


2, 


099 


,764 


2, 


414 


,499 


2, 


657 


,174 


3, 


227 


,678 


3, 


488 


,262 


3, 


313 


,580 


4, 


151 


,126 


4, 


517 


,612 


4, 


455 


,798 


5, 


125 


,695 


5, 


/Id? 


,184 


5, 


597 


,852 


6, 


115 


,256 


6, 


457 


,713 


6, 


835 


,516 


'?, 


214 


,001 


7, 


535 


,146 


V, 


954 


,350 


8, 


525 


,204 



a/ 

a/ 

a/ 
34,200 

d 

a/ 

44,401 

50,533 
54,994 
60,765 
64,460 
68,579 
73,332 
77,047 
78,352 
81,201 
77,393 
79,466 
77,732 
79,277 
82,034 



SOUHCES: International Cotton Bulletin, 1933 (Number of Spindles 
in 1381-^1925, number of Looms in 1913-1925); Japan's 
Yearbook, 1934 (NuiTiber of spindles and looms in 
1926-1933). 



a/ No data available. 



9643 



-9<U , 

AFPEITDIX 3 

VALUE OF PRODUCTS 1:^ TIIE VARIOUS 3RA1TCKES 
OF THE TEXTILE li'DUSTHY IN J,J>AN 

(l.'i mi Hi one of yen) 



Year Yarns Fabrics 



_ Silk JioKin 

Cotton Silk Jute Cotton Si-C. Juto Wool Bleached D^red. Knitted 

1914 203.7 5.2 2.9 r - - - -' . _ - 

1919 760.4 43.2 16.4 - - _ - « _ - 

1920 676.5 25.4 18.8 - - - - „' . - - 

1921 484.8 29.0 19.9 -. - - - _* .- 

1922 537.0 32.5 17.2 639.2 525.6 29.9 136.5 5.7. 93.4 

1923 569.8 45.1 17.8 694.3 497.0 28.4 180.5 6.6 81.4 

1924 644.9 40.1 21.5 745.8 517.3 54.6 202.4 6.4 76.1 

1925 781.4 62.0 24.6 774.4 490.3 30.9 182,5 7.0 93.9 

1926 660.0 63.1 17.1 743,3 494.4 23.3 205.3 9.2 . 89.1 55.1 

1927 546.2 61.8 15.3 725.4 469.4 21.1 238.7 9.2 101.4 67.6 

1928 572.4 60.0 17.6 784.6 540.7 18.7 220.4 9.3 101. 2 65.8 

50U?.CE: The Statistics of the Department of Commerce 1928. Tokj^o, 1930. 



9643 



-95- .^TT 






(Value in thr>.i£aiidc of ven) 



■^-jiT' 



r'€:TC6.''- 


^-. * 


-^-j,e c 




"' ^ r\ 


4.^^.^ - 


roi^t 


—^ 


— -—^^ 


^ -^ ^ . • vo 






4S.7 








45.2 








45,9 








40.8 








42.5 








44.0 








43.3 








44.2 








45.7 








40.1 








35. E 








35.6 





1309 353,008 

1914 52f^,260 

1913 3,295,500 

1930 2,464,513 

1921 2,336,905 

1922 2,451,227 

1923 2,556,773 

1924 2,925,254 



n. pi =; ps o 

19^ 2,572.115 

1927 2,576,659 

1928 2,545,353 



rXrrSSl Ini.-j.strial La'-or ir. J^T^ar— Geneva 1"'^-'' 



-96- 



AlfpSIIDIX 4 



PERCENT OF lilCRiASE I.I THE V;JL1IE 01 JAPANESE 
lilDUSIT^IAL FT(Ol)UCTIO:i 
1909 to 1929 



< 
< 

Industrial Groups 


Percent Increase 

4 


Textile 


' 773 


Metal 


4,059 


Machines - Tools 

Cerpjiiic 


1 , 663 
880 


Chenical 

Woodwork 


1,255 
972 


Printing 


"! ,143 


Foodstirff 


: 764 


Pe'opirinfi: 


: 3, "70 


Miscellaneous 


: 741 











ALL IiII)UST:iIi:S (Average) 



988 



SOURCE: Industrial Labor in Japan, 
Geneva 1935, p. 25. 



9643 



fiJr'x^-i^' — »— ^'* t^ 



VALUE or j.;?Ai:£S£ ?actl?y frcstjcts, classi?ih) 

BY liDJSnilES; 1929 



• 
• 




* a_a.'.ic Crl z'TC1^'2~2'. , 




- 


: Ir-iiEiries 




In Yens 


, "~ _ ,^ . . . _ ~ - — 


*~ * • 


Textiles : 


: 2 


,937,825,000 : 


L . • « 




Foodstuffs : 


: 1 


,124,a>a:,000 : 


: 14.5 




Cheraicals 


: 1 


,077,608,00n ; 


: 13.9 




Metals 




689,505,04m 


: 8.9 




Machines - Tcols 




582,152,0(iO : 


: 3.8 




Repairs of toats, 




301,533,^00 : 


: 3.9 




aiachines, etc. 










Ceranics ; 




219,801,000 


: 2.8 




Woodwork i 




194,5S9,00r. ; 


: 2.5 




Printing 




182,954,000 : 


: 2.3 




Gas, electrical 




50,002,000 : 


: 0.6 




Hi scellaneoiis 




245,740,000 ; 


: 3.0 




— --— 


, 


,~1 5,774, r^nn 


: 100.0 



SOLLiCi.: Inliistrial LzIot ir. J'-j)aii, je-^T= 13 



21 



9643 



-38- 



COTTON PIECE n-CCDS OUTPUT a1:D l]Ui,i3:-'..il O'F 
OPSRi^TIVES I.i JAIAII 



Year Production of Piece G-oods 
(OOP's Yc.rds) 



Daily Operatives 



1907 




135,253.0 


1910 




226,313.9 


1913 




416 , 725 .4 


1914 




454,901.7 


1915 




502,076.6 


1916 ; 




560,181.1 


1917 




59'.,649.4 


1918 I 




656,935.4 


1919 




739,590.0 


1920 ! 




762,037.4 


1921 : 




700,697.9 


1922 




869,327,7 


1923 { 


1 


,000,708.9 


1924 J 


1 1 


,030,905.9 


1925 ! 


1 


,l,79,;j?4.7 


1925 : 


1 


,277,72^.9 


1927 : 


1 


.294,668.8 


1928 


1 


,332,054...- 


1929 


! 1 


,538,2-9.0 


1930 


1 


,588,425.0 


1931 : 


1 


,404,668.0 


1932 1 


1 


,532,851.0 


1933 J 


1 


,673,381.0 


1934 ! 


1 


,793,3^x5.0 



10, 


,252 


16, 


090 


25, 


25-. 




028 


CO, 


477 


26. 


S83 


23, 


767 


35, 


245 


<A, 


675 


47, 


053 


39, 


2.0 


45, 


959 


-3, 


511 


51, 


235 




726 


57, 


393 


50, 


527 


-3, 


705 


43, 


471 


lie 


eatc. 


II 


n 


I'o 


Data 


tl 


II 



SOUHCE: The Monthly Report on Current Economic Conditions- 
May 1955 (1930-193^-0 

Ch. K. Moser, the Cotton Industry of Ear Eastern 
Count ries-19 30 (1907-1929) 



9643 



-99- 



APPZIOIX 7 



IJUMELR 01 S?Iin)LLS,CCTIO:; YABll PilOLUCTIOij.m) 
Ai^ AVIILAC3 i:Ui3LS OF ¥0?.KE?.S ?EH 

DAY ii: coT:roi: spii7:ui'G ii:dustry 

OF JAPAi:, 1925 to IS 34. 



Year : 


! timber of 


: Cotton Yam Produced 


, Average Kimibei 


• of 




: S":)ind.les l/ 


(OOO's -joinds) 


"i't'crliers Per 


Day 


1923 


: 4,079,855 ; 


I • « 

! 106,950.4 1 


: 159,970 




•19 J4 


: '-::,115,692 I 


! 101,756.0 ! 


155,322 




■1925 


' 4,568,253 : 


: 119,794.2 J 


; 173, 60-^ 




' 1926 . 


: 5,002,932 • ; 


! 128,153.3 ! 


: 132,5.22 




• 1927 ! 


. 4,831,'^0 


J— -124,.:j93.0 . i 


1 170,.197 




1928 ; 


' 4,8-3,592 


: 120, ^01 .-8 -. . : 


l.:.3,843 




1929 


: 5,784,070 


157,515.8 


! 159,672 


, 


1930 ; 


5, 33 7, .894 


: 127,989.7 . : 


159", 185 




1931 


: 5,9r^4,343 


125,-8?8.1 


121,570 




1952 .' ; 


e, 307;, 884 : 


137iCOS.O -, ; 


1-26,805 




1933. : 


5,757,621 : 


151-, 717.7 : 


129,425 




1334. ; 


•7,502,^ai- ; ■- 


: 170, 252 .'7 . ; 


•141 , ^.08 





SOUFuCE: The ; Monthly 'Report on •'C^arrent ScorxOinic Conditions - May 1955 

Tpkyo ' •' .'•'■. 

1/ ITumher o^f spindles-' in use "onder the preduction curte.ilinent 

program. •' : •" • . . 



9643 



-100- 



APPEKDIX 8 



MJivIBER OF EI'/rPLOYEIS IH TIIE TEXTILE lilDUSTRY 

IN JAPAN 

( In thousands ) 





: SPI-JFIHG 


' 


T/EAVING ' 


AilD 


FINISHING 




Years 


:Gotton:Silk 


: Jute, etc. 


•Cotton 


iSirc-Cotton 


:Hem-p-Jutc 


: Wool en 


'Bleached 


Dyed 




1 • 

• 

* • 




:Fa"briGs 


: Fabrics 


jFabrics 


: Fabrics 


iFabrics: 


Fabrics: 


1914 


• 

• 112.9: 5.0 


2.2 


; ^a/ 












1919 


187.7:16.7: 


10.4 




I — — 


— — 


_— 


> — 


— — : 


1920 


161.3:16.9 


: 13.1 


'— _. 


— — 


• — 


~ 


_— 


— : 


1921 


183.3:13.7 


: 8.6 : 


■— — 


I —-' 


I ~"* 


J __ 


• — 


I — — I 


1922 


209.4:17.7 


• 11.4 


' 3-33.8 


: 267. 6 


; 38.9 


' 40.2 


: 5.5 


:52.4 : 


1923 


' 182.3:26.2 


8.9 


' 335.4 


: 262.0 ■ 


: 43.2 


' 47.1 


: 5.6. 


'56.1 : 


1924 


■ 185.1:25.3! 


! 9.8 


: 318.2 


: 244.6 


! 41.0 


: 52.8 


6.5. 


:54.9 : 


1925 


: 211.0:29.0. 


7.5 


1 305.3 


237. 1 


; 37.2 


; 45.6 < 


! 5.1, 


:55.1 : 


1926 . 


235.2:30.3! 


6.6 


' 296.2 


: 219.0 ! 


1 32.6 


! 36.2 . 


I 4.8 


:47.2 


1927 . 


180.2:29.4! 


7.4 


: 288.6 . 


217.8 


: 27.6 


; 40.9 ! 


1 5.7 


59.5 : 


1928 ; 

* 


157.6:31.2! 


7.2 ! 

.1 


' 281.4 . 


217.6 


: 24.8 


: 40.3 


5.4 


•55.2 : 



SOURCE: The Statistics of the Department of Commerce 1928 

Tokyo 1930 

a/ Data net available 



9643 



-101" 



APPZTDIX 9 



INDICES OF 



THE 



IIUIvEEH 0? COTTON SPINDLES 
IN VARIOUS COITNTPJES 
1913-100 



Coiintries : 


1913 : 


1930 : 

• 


• 

1931 : 


1932 : 


1933 . 


1934 : 




United Kingdom : 


100.0 


• : 99.2 


: 97.3 


: 93.2 : 


88.1 


. 82. 5 




United States ■ ' 


100.0 


: 103.0 


: 103.7 


: 100.7 


: 98.1 


: .98.2 




France 


: 100.0 


: ; 138.5 


: 139.9 


: 137.0 


: 137.0 


: 137.4 




Germany 


: 100.0 


: : 99.0 


: 94.7 


: 91.5 


: 88.1 


: , 90.4 




Italy 


: 100.0 


: • llS.l 


: 117.1 


: 117.0 


: 115.0 


: 119.4 




Japan 


: 100.0 


: 307.5. 


: 313.0 


: 339.1 


: 355.6 


: 395.3 





30URCE: 



International Cotton Statistics 

London, March, 1935. International 
Federation of Master Cotton Spinners 
and Manufacturers Association, 



)643 



-1013 



APPENDIX 10 



VALUE OF TEXTILE GOODS DI JAPAiIESE ?G?JEICtN 
TRADE, 1924 to 1933 

(in millioiiG of yen) 



• 
• 

• 




II'PORTS 






e:cports 




Years 


: Raw : 
















• 
• 


Materials: 


Yarn : 


Fabrics ' 


Total : 


: Eaw Si He : 


Yarn : 


Fabrics : 


Total 


1933 


: 802.8 


14.5 


15.8 


: 833. 1 : 


: 390.9 


. OR O 


755.7 


: 1,171. 8 


1932 


: 552.1 


: 5.1 


: 14.6 


: 571. ^ : 


: 333.6 


: 21.5 


: 437.9 


: 843.0 


1931 


: 396,1 


: 12.4 


: 14.4 


: 42.3.9 : 


: 357.8 


: 8.5 


: 309.2 


: 575.5 


1930 


: 453.4 


: 14.1 


: 13.4 


: 496.7 : 


: 423.2 


: 15.0 : 


414.9 


: 853.1 


1929 


: 7C0.9 


: 18.7 


1 45.5 


: 748.1 : 


: 794.1 


: 26.8 


: 615.1 


: 1,435.0 


1928 


: 686.0 


: 32.1 


: 33.6 • 


: 755.7 : 


: 745.2 


: 25.9 


: 5.34.3 


: 1,305.4 


1927 


: 749.. 9 


: 43.6. 


: 41.8 


: 335.3 : 


: 754.1 


: 38.1 


: 566.0 


:1,358.9 


1926 


: 836.9 


: 32.5 


: 35.5 


: 904.9 : 


: 750.4 


: 70.7 


: 539.2 


:1,410.3 


1925 


: 1,073.0 


: 56.1 


: 67.8 


: 1196. 9 : 


: 910.0 


: 133. 1 


: 598.0 


:1, 531.1 


1924 


: 718.7 


: 53.5 


: 73.5 


: £55.7 : 


: 706.2 


: 109 . 6 


: 437.4 


: 1,303. 2 



SCURCSS : :-lesune Statistique de I'Einoire dy Japon, 1933 
Wirtscliaftsdienst, March 9, 1934 



9643 



-io;3- 



/JPFilDIX II 



HOURS PER DAY WORKED BY FJLL-TIME E'IPLOYEES IN VARIOUS JAPAIESE 

I'.IDUSTRIES 

October, 1927 





No. of Full- Time 


Averni^-e riours of Fij.11- 


Industries 


Ernployees 


Tirrie Ernoloyees 


AGGREGATi:. TOTAL 


1,020,803 


10. 


Textile 


697,097 


10.5 


a) Silk Spinning 


280,949 


11 


b) Cotton Spinning 


202,716 


i 10 


c) Cotton Teaving ; 


63.096 


10 


d) Silk ;7eaving 


35,520 


•10.5 


e) Wool Teaving 


25,021 


10 


f) Others 


89,795 


. 


Ceranics 


28', 599 


9 


Metal 


37,737 


9 


Machine and Tool 


37,-745 


9 


Cherni cal 


37,17b 


■9 


Paper 


16 ,'560 


9 


Leather, bone, etc. 


2,515 


9 


iYood and Baraboo 


16,178 


9 


Food and Drink 


43,867 


9 


Clothing 


19,846 


9 


Construction 


10,129 


9 


Printing and book';indint; 


13, 144 


9 


Artistic, etc. 


4,938 


9 


G-as and electricitv 


2,221 


9.5 


Others 


2,752 


■ 8.5- 



SO'-llCr.: Industrial Labor in o'apan, '^-eneva 1933. p. 176 



9643 



-104- 



i\PPMDIX 12 



AVERAGE HOURS PER DAY AIID OUTPUT PER rOi'iCER li' THE 
TEXTILE IlIDUSTRY OP JAPAJT, 1922-1952 



Year 



Weaviri;^ 



Cotton S Tinnin.?- Sill' S"~dnnin:^ 



Average ProcT--ict ion Avora^^e Proc'iiction Avera.-.'^e Prodi.cti~'n 

hours Per v;orl:er hoars per ^'cr"':er hours ^er •'OTlzer 

per day ( 1000 ya.rds) 'ter day ("bales )l/ -oer day (laian)?/ 



1922 : 


11 : 


18 


: 11 : 


12 


: 12 : 


18 : 


1923 : 


11 : 


20 


: 11 : 


13 


I 12 : 


19 : 


1924 : 


11 : 


20 


: 11 : 


13 . 


: 12 : 


22 : 


1925 : 


11 : 


21 


: 11 


14 


: 12 : 


23 


1926 : 


11 : 


22 


: 11 : 


14 


: 12 : 


23 : 


Jiily 1926 


10 : 


— 


: 10 : 


— 


: 11 : 


— . 


1927 : 


10 : 


25 


: 10 : 


15 


: 11 : 


24 : 


1928 : 


10 : 


31 


: 10 : 


16 


: 11 : 


24 


1929 : 


10 : 


35 


: 10 : 


17 


: 11 : 


24 : 


1930 : 


10 : 


39 


: 10 : 


18 


: 11 : 


26 : 


July 1930 


8.5 : 


— 


: 3.5 : 


— 


: 10 


— : 


1931 : 


8.5 : 


49 


: 8.5 : 


20 


: 10 : 


27 : 


1932 : 

• • 

• • 


8.5 : 


50 


: 8.5 : 


22 


I 10 : 


31 : 



S0URC3 ^» i'iaurette. Social As-oects of Industrial Development 

in Japan, Geneva 1934, p. 26, 

1/ A oale is eci .roxinately 227 k^* 
2/ A kvan is 3750 grans (3, 7 kg.) 



Req. llo. 9643 



-105- 



APPEtlDIX 13 



EST HATED ITUIiBEH OP COTTOII SPIII3LES AI'D LOO::S 
CLASSIPIED lY P^irCIPAL COLiT^rtlES, 1934 



Count r:/ 




Sp indies 


Per Cer 
of 
Total 


Lt 

Looms 


Per Cent 
of 
Totnl 


TOTMj 


157,539,000 


100.0 


3,129,969 


100.0 


Great Br 


itain 


" 47»95§,000 


50.5 


537,964 . 


18.8 


U. S. A. 




30,959,000 • 


19.7 


613,533 


19.6 


Frcnce 




10,170,000 • 


5.5 


138., 200 


6.3 


Germany 




. 9,935,000' 


0.5 


223,500 


7.1 . 


India 




9,572,000- 


o.l; 


139,678 


5.1. 


U. 3. 3« 


R. 


9,200,000' 


5.8^ 


250,000 


8.0 


Japan 




8,451,000- 


5.4- 

« 


277,343 


: 8.9. 


Italy 




; 5,373,000' 


■7 4.: 

• 


146,500 


- 4.7 


China 




■ 4,640,000 


2.9' 

• 


44,000 


• 1-4 


Czechoslj 


?jv8lzla. 


5,668,000 


2.3 


104,591 


: 3,3 


Brazil 




.' 2,698,000 


1.7 


81 , 892 


2.6 


Belginm 




2,094,000 


1.2 


54,800 


1,7 


Spain 




2,070,000 


1.5 


66,586 


2.1 


Poland 




1,819,000 


1,2 

* 


38,611 


1,2 .' 


Neth3rlands 


1,228,000 


•8 


55,960 


1*8 : 


Mexico 


* 


a/ 


^: 


33,197 


1.1 . 


Canada 




1,209,000 


.8 


25,437 


.8 


S'jitzerlc 


=nd 


1,206,000 


.8 


25,096 


,7 


Other Co- 


:ntries 


5,270,000 


r-t r-» 


115,931 


3.8 



SOUP.CE: International La'oor .-levierr, Decen'ber, 1934, p. 763 
a/ Data r.ot available 



Req. Ko. 9543 



-106- 



appE':di:{ 14 



'^TEOLESALE PRICE INDICES OF TEXTILE OOOLS IN TEI UNITED KI^DOM 

Al'TD JAPAN 
1924-100 



Yer.r 


: 'United 


K i n IP; d m^ 


Japan : 




: Cotton Goods 


', Other Textiles 


Textile Goods : 


' 


: (I6 items) 


: (15 items) 


(9 itemE) 


1921 


: 84.3 ! 


87.5 ; 


97.3 : 


1922 


: 79.9 


t 84.4 ! 


87.8 : 


1923 


: 90.0 


! 87.3 . 


: 91.0 : 


1924 


: 100.0 


: 100.0 


: 100.0 : 


1925 


92.1 ! 


! 95.2 1 


88.1 ^ : 


1926 


69.5 : 


! 81.9 ! 


75.2 : 


1927 


67.9 ; 


! 79.9 ! 


70.0 : 


1928 ! 


72.1 ; 


84.2 


70.5 : 


1929 : 


67.8 


77.1 ! 


68.9 : 


1930 : 


53.2 ! 


! 58.0 i 


48.5 : 

: 
40.5 : 


1931 ; 


42.5 ! 


! 45.8 : 


1932 


42.1 ! 


! 43.7 ! 


45.6 : 


1933 ; 


42.2 _ ; 


! 45.2 


55.0 ; 


1934 


*- _• 


! — — 


! 57.4 : 



SOURCE : a) Statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom; 
b) The Ilonthly Report on Current Econornic Con- 
ditions, Tol^o, 1935. 

1/ Compiled by Board of Trade, London. 



9643 



-107- 



APPMLIX 15 



INDICES OF WHOLE SAIE PHICSSAi-iD PEOLUCTIOLI OP 
TEXTILE QOODS III UiHTED KINi^DOM AIJD 
JAPiUT; 19P5-19.34 

1928-100 



:YGar 


Wholesale 


Prices 


Production of 


Textile Goods ; 


: Uxii-tcd 




United 






: Kiriedom 17 


! Jap'an 2/ : 


Kine'dom 


Ja/ij8n . : 


:1£)25 . 


: 128'. • 


:• 125.0 ^ ;: 


.... 


. ;• . . '. » 


:1926 . 


: 99,3 ■■ 


" 106.7 ;: 


• • • 

. * * * • 


• '. ' 106. 4' ; : 


:1927 • 


: 94»3 ■ 


r 99.3 ;: 


'101.7 ; 


• '. ' 103.2 : : 


:1928 . 


100*0 ■ 


'' 100;0 J 


•IGO.O ■ ■ 


: : 100.0 ; : 


:1929 


94.2 ■■ 


97;8 ': 


••• ; 98.6 ' ■ 


! : ' 113.9 ■ : 


:1930 . 


: 73.9 • , 


!•■ 68.-8 : 


• ■ ■ ; 79.6 ; • 


! \ 103.0' , : 


:193i . 


: 59.0 ::: 


t . ■ 57 .'4 ! 


- 77.1 ■ ; 


' ■ ■ 104.1' ' : 


:1932 ; 


58.4 : ; 


64.'7 : 


' • 85.2 ; ■ : 


- ; • 114.6 ■ : : 


:1933 ; 


5.8.6 . ! 


7.8.0 : 


■ ■ 89.9 ; 


; 126.. 4 ' : 


:1934 : 


... 


CI. 4 : 


92.1 


141.5 : 



1/ Prices of cotton goods (I6 items) only are ta.ken in calculation of 
indices, 

2/ Index is calculated on basis of 9 items of textile goods for Japan. 

SOUR'CE • !• Statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom. 

2. The Monthly Report on Current Economic Conditions 

TolQTo, 1935 



9643 



•108- 



AFFEKDIX 16 



INDICES 0? PRODUCTION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY CL.^SIFIED 
BY PRINCIPAL COUlTvRlES, 1926-1934 

1928=100 







rUnited 












• Cana- : 


Czecho- : 


Years 


: England 


'States 


: Germany 


: Prance 


Italy: 


Japan : 


Bclgiiim. 


da : 


slaval:ia : 


1926 


: 97.2 : 


— ; 


82.8 


: 98.0! 


t — '. 


106.4! 


82,7 : 


99.3: 


79.8 : 


1927 


: 105.6 


' 101.7 


• 108.5 


: 89.9 


; 


103.2: 


95-. 4 


IOC. 2 


104.8 : 


1928 


: 100. . 


100.0 


I . 100.0 


: 100.0: 


100. D: 


100.0: 


100.0: 


: 100.0: 


• 100.0: : 


1929 


: 107..5 . 


' 98.6 


I . 92.4 


: 92.9: 


101 .7. 


113.9. 


96.6 : 


: 97.1- 


98.9 : 


1930 


• 85.0 < 


79.6 


• .' 90.0 


: 85.9: 


91."4: 


103.0. 


78.4 


• 73.7 


89.8 : 


1931 

• 

9 


: 87.9 , 


' 77.1 


! 87.7 


: 71.7 


81.9 < 


104.1: 


72.0 


' 71.9 


: "81.6 : 


1932 

» 


: 77.6 


• 85*2 


:' 80.0 


J 60.6: 


• 67.4: 


114.6- 


' 61.3 


72.9 


: .'67.2 : 


1-933 


: 91:6 - 


89.9 


:' 90.7 


: 74.5- 


76.3. 


: 126.4- 


• 6-1.8:- 


• 96.6: 


' ." 62.6 : 


1934 

• 
• 


• 79.4 ; 


92. 1 


98.8 


: 63. 6 


• 73.6 


141.5- 


46.0 . 


•110.8 


75.1 : 


; 














, 







SOURCE: Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, N.Y.,'1935 



9643 # 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such cedes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
ot.ier related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review cf the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and tne principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
nis functions under the said Title. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these secti.ns are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned belcw are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1956. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. Thsy contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof: the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of cede formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were aeld, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration cf the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories cf certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes ail of the approved cedes and seme of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate - 
rials No 18 . Contents of Code Histories , will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case cf all approved codes and also in the case of seme codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which c nstitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the reccmmendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9675—1 . 



- 11 - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Materials Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work M aterials No_ 17. Tentative Outlines and Summaries ol 
S tudies in Process , these materials are fully described). 

Industry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Construction Industry and NRA Construction Codes, the 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in Internatfonal Trade 1927-29 through 
1934. 

Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 

Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 

Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 
Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 
Iron and Steel Industry, The 
Knitting Industries, The 
Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 
Men's Clothing Industry, The 
Millinery Industry, The 
Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Income, A study of. 
Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 
Retail Trades Study, The 
Rubber Industry Study, The 
Statistical Background of NRA 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Gernany, Italy, and Japan 
Textile Yarns and Fabrics 
Tobacco Industry, The 
Wholesale Trades Study, The 
9675. 



- iii - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

Trad e P ractice St udies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of KRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: A Study of Trade Practice Provisions in Selected 

NRA Codes 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control Under NRA Codes, Some Aspects of. 
Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules cf The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 

comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labor Studies 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-1935 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B, Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Administrativ e Studies 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 
Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 
Part D. Code Authority Finances 
Part C. Summary and Evaluation 

9675. 



- iv - 

Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 

Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 

Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 
National Recovery Administration, The: A Review and Evaluation of its Organization and 

Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship f NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with other Federal Agencies 
Relationship of NRA with States and Muncipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries; A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal St udies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce Provisions of 

ommerce Clause. Possible Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Econ mic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9675. 



I 



- V - 

THE EV IDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection v/ith the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate cooiaerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of these studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 

Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 

Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 

Bottled Soft Drink Industry 

Builders' Supplies Industry 

Canning Industry 

Chemical Manufacturing Industry 

Cigar Manufacturing Industry 

Coat and Suit Industry 

Construction Industry 

Cotton Garment Industry ' 

Dress Manufacturing Industry 

Electrical Contracting Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. Industry and 

Metal Finishing and Metal Coating Industry 

Fishery Industry 

Furniture Manufacturing Industry 

General Contractors Industry 

General Contractors Industry 

Graphic Arts Industry 

Graphic Arts Industry 

Gray Iron Foundry Industry 

Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 

Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9675. 



— VI - 



Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry 

Business Furniture 

Candy Manufacturing Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry 

Cement Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade 

Coffee Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

9675. 



Fertilizer Industry 

Funeral Supply Industry 

Glass Container Industry 

Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Salt Producing Industry