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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Illllllllllllil 

3 9999 06542 022 4 



/3^ 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



WORK MATERIALS 
No. 32 

FOREIGN TRADE STUDY OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES 



Prepared by 
ARTHUR BEVAN 




Foreign Trade Studies Section 
Industry Unit 
February, 1936 



i 



F E E f -R 1> 



This "Poreij^iTi Trade Study of the Forest Products Indurs-fc^i^c,!! 
\7as prepared by l.ir. Arthur- Sevan of the Poreigii Trade Studies Section., 
Mr. H. D. Gresharn in charge. It is one of three reports prepared hy 
the Industries Unit of the Foreign Trade Studies Section -under the 
direction of James G-. Burke, Unit Chief. Originally this unit planned 
to examine a considerahle nunher of industries, dealing particularly 
with the effect of the operation of codes on foreign trade. Reductions 
in personnel and other limitations of activities prevented the ful- 
fillment of the original plan. 

The Unit was able to prepare preliminarj^ manuscripts in three 
fields: forest products, automotive, and cotton textile. The manu- 
script on forest products is presented in the following pages; the sub- 
stance of the manuscript on the automotive industry will he incorporated 
in the study of the automobile industr^^ which is being made under the 
auspices of the Industry- Studies Section; the material on cotton 
textiles will be turned over in tyi^ewritten forai to the Department 
of Commerce for such use as later nay be deemed appropriate. 

A few words are appropriate concerning the content of the material 
on cotton textiles which is to be filed in manuscript form with the 
Department of Commerce. Tliis study presents a considerable mass of 
factual data in the following fields: the relative importance of the 
industr;'- in foreign trade; trends in cotton textile foreign trade; 
commodities moving in such trade; world competition; geographical 
distribution of the cotton te::tile industry; sources of raw materials; 
relative importance in the trade of various producing countries; changes 
in tariff rates; trade agreements; exchange; and quota restrictions. 
The effects of the operation of the code on foreign trade in cotton 
textiles is not covered. 

As indicated above the "Foreign Trade Studjr of the Forest Products 
Industries," presented herein, was not carried to the point originally 
contemplated. Nevertheless, mimeographing of the material which was 
prepared is justified as an aid to further v;ork in the field. A con- 
siderable amount of data is thus made available in conv.enient form. 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review. 



January 31, 1936 



9613 



13 My 36 s 



TA3LE OF COMTEiraS 

Page 

SuiQinary. ......... r, ... ..r i . . .. 1 . 1 

Conclusions. . . . •• ■ 2 

Chapter . I ■-: Introdmction. . .-.•. 5 

■Defining -the Industrj'-. . . . . . , 5 

. . ■ Helative Importance in U. S. Commerce 5 

Location of- Principal Manufacturing Areas 5 

Importance in Industrial Operations in the U. S 6 

Location in the U. S.- of Prin.>cipal Porest Stands 7 

.... Porest Eesources of -the World.-. . ..■....■ 7 

Scope of -the Study-.-. ,■.■.■...•...•.•.•....•.■.. 12 

Manner in which Export Trade is Conducted 12 

Other Porest Products Studies which should be made.... 12 



Chapter II - Importance of Export Trade to the Lumter Industry 14 

Chapter III - Hardwood Exports 19 

Chapter IV - Softwood Exports 22 

United States Share of World Trade 22 

Chapter V - Principal Importing Countries. 25 

United Kingdom ...'.... 25 

Influence of. Russia aiid Baltic Shipments in United 

Kingdom Market 29 

Competition with Can.ada 29 

China 31 

Australia 34 

Japan 34 

Other Large Importing Countries. 34 

Chapter VI - Effect of the Code on U. S. Lumber Export Market 39 

Production. Control, of Exports. t 39 

Price Control of Exports , 44 

Chapter VII - Other Forest Products 45 

Douglas Eir Plywood E>g3orts 45 

Douglas Eir Door Exports 45 

Chapter VIII - Imports 47 

Introduction 47 

Chapter IX - Effect of Section 3 (e) of the National Industrial 

Recovery Act on the Lumber Industry 48 

Code Provisions Affecting Imports 48 

Mahogany 48 

Philippine Mahogany 54 

Chapter X - Pulpwood, Woodpulp and Paper 57 

Introduction. .-. .■ 57 

Pulpwood Industry Never Codified , 57 

9613 -i- 



TaTjIe" of Contents (Cont'd ) 



Fa^e 



Chapter -XI — The llew^'r'irit Industry 59 

Changes in TTorld Production, 1329-1933. . . 59 

The Industry in the United States 59 

The Industry in Canada • • • ,. 59 

United' States Consumption ■. 59 

United' Stafes' Production and Trade. 60 

■ The Effect of the Nerrsprint Code. 60 

Important Competitive Pa.ctors 61 



Chapter 



XII - Shingles 52 

E.xport ..:.'..;...... 62 

Import .■.:..•;;,...■.......'..■ 62 

Gentlemen' s Agreement nith Canada 62 



Appendix I 65 

Bihliography 67 



LIST 'OP' TABLE'S 



Ta'ble 1 - Lumber Production of the U. S. hy States - 1934, 8 

Table. • 2- --U. ■ S-.'Export6'6f' Lura"ber' ah5.' Timher Products "by Prin- 
cipal Producing Regions -. 10 



Table '3 - Forest Area§ of the World by Principal Divisions and 

• ■ ■ Countries 'in Aires. ; . . . 11 



Table • .4 - Softwood: ■ 'Wdi-ld 'Trade by 'iPrincipal Countries of 

■Planed and ■Sav.'h Lumber - 1929-1934 15 

Table ■ 5 - U. S. Production and iJxpo'rts of L-umber and Timber 

P-roduct'g. ■.■.".'. ■.'.'.■. 16 



Table 6 
Table ■ 7 
Table 8 
Table 9 

Table 10 



U. S. Ejqjorts of Specified Lumber and Timber Products 17 

Hardwood' Imports of the United Kingdom, 1929-1934 20 

Softwood exports: U. S. Share World Market 23 

■U. S. Exports of Specified' Lumber and Timber Products 

(1933-1934) 26 

Exports from British Columbia and Oregon-Washington 

to the -United Kingdom 27 



Table 11. - U. S. Share of- Unitdd IQngdom Softwood Market 30 

Table 12 - Expo-rts from- British 'Columbia and Oreigon-Washington 

• to China. '.•.•.•.•.•.'.■,".'. ...■..'.■.'.'. . . .'.".'. .'. 32 



9613 



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List of TaMes (Cont'd ) 

Page 

Tatle 13 - Silver: Monthly Average Value at New York and 

London 36 

Table 14 - Exports from British Columhia and Oregon-Washirigton 

to Australia. .- 37 

Tahle 15 - United States Imports of Specified Lumter and Timber 

Products 49 

Tahle 16 - Hardwoods and Softwoods: United States Imports of 

Specified Lumber and Timber Products 50 

Table 17 - Domestic Imports: Hardwoods and Softwoods from 

Canada and all other Countries 51 

Table 18 - United States Imports of Lumber and Timber Products 

from Canada 52 

Tabic 19 - Pacific Coast Waterborne Ltunber Shipments from 

Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia to the 

Atlantic Coast and California , 53 

Table 20 - Shingles: U. S. Imports, total and from Canada 63 



CHARTS 

Chart A - Map: Principal Producing Regions of the U. S , 9 

Chart B - Hardwood Imports of the United Kingdom 1929, 1932, 1934.... 21 

Chart C - Softwood Exports: U. S. Share of World Market 24 

Chart D - U. S. and Canada Share of U. K. Softwood Market 28 

Chart E - U. S. Share China Softwood Market ,.....♦ 33 

Chart E - U. S. Share of Australian Softwood Market 38 



9613 



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-1- 

SIMMARY OF FINDIN&S 

Description of the Industry with Reference 
to Foreign Trade 

In s'oite of the many estimates that have heen made of the world 
lumlier and timher resources, very little is known about even the approid--- 
mate stands F.va.ilahle for commercial exploitation. A recent private* 
esti:.iats of the forest areas by grand divisions gave 7,488,000,000 acres 
as the as the world total, of which 1,390,000,000 acres, were located 
in the ITorth American Continent, This same estimate nentlonad the re« 
sources of the United States and Alaska to be 49'0' , 000 , 000 and 106,000,- 
000 acres, respectively, and those of Canada to be approximately 597,- 
000,000 acres. 

In 1929 there were more than 35,000 manufacturing concerns located 
in the United States, which used lumber and timber as primary raw mater- 
ials. The industry was fourth in the number of "'age earners, and ninth 
in the value of its products, the latter being estimated at $2,000,000,- 
000, 

Domestic production and exborts of softwoods originate from forests 
located principally in the Pacific lorthwest for Douglas Fir and Western 
Pine, Spruce, and Hemlock, and in the Southeastern and G-ulf states for 
long and short-leaf yellow pine. Hardwoods are produced and exported 
largeily from forests, located in the Appalachian moimtains and in the 
south-centra.1 states. 

The Foreign Trade of the United States in Lumber 
and Sawn Timber 

The United States ships sawn lumber and timber to 84 different coimt- 
ries. Of these, 8 countries regularly take over 70 per cent of the tota.l. 
In 1929, the United States led all other exporting countries in the total 
board feet of sawn lumber and timber exported to world markets. By 1934, 
the, United States had dropped to fifth place, being surpassed by Finland, 
Russia, Sweden and Canada. 

The principal causes for the considerable ctirtailment in exports of 
sawn lumber and timber from the United States during the past five years 
have been the artificial trade restrictions imposed by foreign countries. 
Especially important have been preferential tariffs (particularly in the 
British Empire) , heavy customs duties, import quotas, exchange control, 
monetar3'- manipulation, and virtual embargoes. Other factors seriously 
affecting the trend have been the general reduction in consumer buying 
power, increased foreign com.petition, and wealaiess in United States ex- 
port merchandizing methods. 

Softwoods I 

Wliile l-umber exports were 11 per cent of comestic production in 
1929, the same exoorts sup^olied 20.7 per cent of the world consuming 
market. In 1932, e:cports were 13 per cent of the domestic production, 

* "Forest Resources of the 17orld" by R. Zon and W. N. Sparhawk, 
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.-,,.. -2-.. 

a high point in the industrj/, out applied onl7 10,8 per cent of the 
vrorld iiarket for the year. In 1934, exports rrere again 11 per cent of 
domestic production, and supT?lied 12,3 per cent of the world market, 

, TTliile the volume of soft'.vood lumher ex'jorts has fallen c onsiderably 
since 1S29, domestic production hp.s like?,'ise declined. Domestic produc- 
tion in tliat year amounted to approximately S, 345, 000 thousand "board 
feet, and in 1932 to ahout 12,735,000 thousand, or a. decrease of ahout 
55 per cent, Soft^^ood exports from the United 'Str.tes declined from ap- 
proximately 3,285,000 thousand hoard feet in 1928, to approximately 
1,387,000 thousand in 1934, or a decT-ease of not quite 57 per cent. The 
ratio of exoorts to domestic prodiiction, therefore, remained suhstan- 
tially unchanged - 12 per cent in 1928, and 11 per cent in '1934, 

In 1929, soft-TOod lujnher imports amounted to 1,643,232 thousand 
hoard fe-.-it, or 5-g- per cent of the soft-rocd domestic production of ap« 
proximately' 20,000,000 thousand hoard feet. By 1934 softrrood imports Imd 
fallen to 295,149 thousand hoard feet, or 2-1/5 per cent of the approx- 
imate 13,000,000 thousand hoard feet of domestic production. The 1934 
imports nere less than 18 per cent of the softv'ood imports in 1929, 

Hardrroods 



Tlie United States is the largest ^orld exporter of temperate zone 
hard\."oods - the principal item of which is oak. In 1928, the domestic 
production of hardwoods amounted to some 5,798,000 thousand hoard feet, 
of T7hich e-pproximately 509,000 thousand, or 9 per cent, were exported* 
In 1934- the domestic ;oroducti3n totaled ah~>ut 2,758,000 million board 
feet, and the exports some 300,807 thousand hoa,rd feet, or 11 per cent 
of the do'.uestic production, 

Hanufactured hardwood lumher imioorts into the United States consist 
almost entirely of insignificant quantities of tropical and suh-tropical 
hard^70ods' f rom Central America, and the Carihhean, and some maple, hirch, 
and similar species from Canada. The principal hardwood lumher imports, 
however, are in the form of logs and squared tirahers of mahogany and other 
cahinet --oods from the Carihhean, Central America, the Philippine Islands, 
and the Orient, 

Foreign Trade in Other Lumher Products 

Of the remaining ma.nuf act\ared and semi-manufactured lumher pnd tim- 
her products important in the foreign trade of the United States, cooper- 
age, hox shooks, hardwood flooring, ply-woods and veneers, and T)ly-wood 
doors, are leading escports. Box shooks and cooperage exports have de- 
clined considerahly since 1929, on accoujit of the exchange control re- 
gulations and other restrictions imposed hy the leading purchasing nations, 
Ply-T/ood e-g3orts increased from 33,381,000 sq-uare feet, valued at $1,- 
642,000 in 1929, to 61,621,000 square feet, valued at approximately 
$1,700,000 in 1934. The er-gports of manufactured doors declined from some 
2,140,000 vjiits, valued at $3,:i87,000 in 1923 to 1,475,000 doors, valued 
at $1,670,000 in 1934, 

Leading imports of manufactui'ed and semi-manufactured lumher and tim- 
ber products consist of poles, pnlp vrood, pulp, paper, and shingles, 

9613 



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Shingles inports, which consist mainly of red cedar shingles from British 
ColujnTDia, declined slightly from 167,288,000 board feet in 1929 to 110,- 
094,000 in 1934. 

The Liomlier. GoS.e and Foreign Trade 

Article VIII of the Lrunher and Timher Products Industry -Gode provi- 
ded for the allocation of cornhined domestic and export quotas to donestic 
producers hy the divisional and sub-divisional code authorities. The inr- 
dustrjr tliroui;;h a^mendments sought revisions of the code to estahlish ex- 
port prices, and the NBA sought to modify the inclusion of export pro- 
duction in domestic quota allocations; "but differences in opinion prevent- 
ed the approval of these proposals. 

In the case of divisions or subdivisions the raw material of which is 
imported, Article YIII of the Code provided for the establishment of 
quotas a.nd allotments in terras of imports. In accordance with this pro- 
vision a system of import control was set up for the mahogany and Philip- 
pine mahogany subdivisions. In this connection proposals were made for 
modifications - \?hich, however, were not adopted because of differences 
of opinion, . , 

In view of the general ihcrease in the United States export trade in 
sawn lumber and timber since 1932, and particularly during the period of 
production-esqaort control, and "cost production" reg-ulations, it might be 
concluded tha.t the operations in the industry were not affected by the 
code. It should be recognized, on the other hand, ths-t this control was 
mainl;^ effective "because the domestic market was so highly protected 
against competition from imports; and on the other, that there was a 
minimum of control over tlire saiiie industry as regards the substantial pro- 
portion of its production destined for eicport. 

At the same time it should be equally recognized, nevertheless, that 
the domestic industry did not increase its exports to world consuming 
markets to the extent of its foreign competitors, so. that there remains 
the possibility that the sta'bilizing factor- of code control, particular- 
ly in viev; of increasing costs, may have created a competitive disadvant- 
age, which would not have been encoimtered but for the limitations im- 
posed b;- the code. . 

In contrast to sawn lumber and timber, with its limited export quota 
allocation, the case of -douglas fir doors was indicative of the problem 
arising in- subdivisions without any export control, 'Douglas fir doors, 
under the subdivisional code-,^ had a highly protected domestic market, 
but no control in any form over exports. There follo^^ed cut- throat com- 
petition for export business, and price-cutting v/as freely indulged in 
in order to' reduce the overhead of "both domestic and export producers. 
This culminated in^ the imposition of dumping duties in several foreign 
couatries» 

■Pulpwood, Woodpulp, and Paper 

A study of the foreign trade in jDulpwood, woodpulp, and paper is 
of vital importance in the consideration of conservation and sustained 

9613 



_4- 



yield management of our forest resources. Wood comprises about 85 iDer 
cent of the raw material used for j)aper making. Approximately 44 per 
cent of our domestic use is' based on foreign pulpwood, and of our entire 
pulp and paper requirements, more-th.B,n 50 per cent has for some years 
-■been imported in the form of either paper pulp or raw pulpwood, 

Pulpwood was not included as one of the original products under the 
Lumher Code. Although numerous attempts were made to bring this industry 
under the Code, the proposed provisions, particularly with reference to 
hours and wages, were never satisfactorily adjusted, 

Newsprint Paper 

From 1929 through 1932, the world production of newsprint ' decreased 
14 per cent, due mainly to sharp declines in the production in Canada, 
the United States, and Germany, 

Some 25 companies, with an estimated aggregate capital of $300 
million, oj^erated newsprint mills in the United States. In 1934 there 
were approximately 24 companies engaged in the manufacture of newsprint 
in Canada, with a total estimated investment amounting to $794 million, 
of which $400 million was believed to' be . capital from the United States, 

In June 1933, there were 6,550 workers employed in the newsprint 
mills in the United States. The annual payroll for that year was calcu- 
lated to be $7,150,000. ' . 

The consumption of newsprint paper in the United States reached its 
peak in 1929, but then detlined progressively through 1933, dropping 29 
per cent during the 5-year period. Production in this country has de- 
creased c^ch year since 1926. Tlie total decline from that year through 
1933 was 44 per cent. Imports increased approximately 30 per cent from 
1926 through 1929, and' in 1932 and 1933 they were about 3 per cent less 
than for 1926. 

The domestic Newsprint Industrie's Code was approved November 17, 
1933, Data submitted by six individual companies to the National Recovery 
Administration indicated that the total cost of production increased 
approximately 22 per cent in the period between June-November 1933, and 
December 1933 through May 1934. It was likewise indicated that the per- 
centage of labor to total cost was about 12,9 per cent after the code 
became effective. Over the snjne time interval, employment was sho\'m to 
have increased 13 per cent; average hours per week to have decreased 12 
per cent; the average '-'eekly wage to have increased about 1 per cent; and 
the average hourly wage to have increased 1.5 per cent. 

While the base price of newsprint in the United States declined 65 
per cent from 1929 through 1935, the average unit value of imports over 
the same period declined less than 42 per cent. 



9613 



-.5- 

CHAPTSH I 
INTEODUCTION 



DEFINING THE Il^DUSTRY 



Tlie S'orest Products Industries, which are the subject of this study, 
in cornrion parlance are IrnoTm a,s "The Ltunher Industry". In general, this 
industry includes all thosej industries dra'>7ing their ravir materials from 
the forest. It also includes some fabricating industries, hut such in- 
dustries are a part of or subsidiary to the primary manufacture and 
utilization of the tree, or in competition therewith. The "Lumber Indios- 
try" will be used in this report in the sense of including all such 
industries. 

II. aSLATIATE ILIPOaTAITCE IK UKITES STATSS COH.IEaCE 

The Lumber Industry, a national natural resource industry, is one 
of the basic industries of the United States and rahl<:s high in the scale 
of relative importance as is illustrated by the fact that over 35,000 
sepe^rate aamxCacturing .concerns were registered by the agencies of the 
L-uiaber Code Axithority. The decennial census: figures for 1929 show 
"Forest Products" as fourth in the list of fifteen general industrial 
groups in number of wage earners, and ninth in value of products. In 
1929, the same authority gives the number of wage earners in the "principal 
1-Ujaber industries" as 539,772 and the value of products as $1,962,082,000. 
By 1935 these figures had fallen to 246,508 wage earners and $529,693,000 
val'Lie of products. 

III. LOCATIOIT OE PEI:'CIPAL' LIAiroFxiCTIRINCr APJLA.S 

¥liile primary manufacturinj;,' is loca.ted largely in the South and 
West, substantial quantities of liomber and timber products are produced 
in the East and Horth. The amount of lumber and timber products produced 
from farm woodlots is a ver^r considerable factor. Of the standing timber 
in the United States it is estimated that 153 billit.n feet are in the 
hands of public agencies and industrial owners, while that contained in 
farm woodlots is estimated at 123 billion feet. {*) ilo figures are avail- 
able as to the total cut of lunber and timber products from farm woodlots, 
but it is knovm to be substantial. In the South the output of both hard- 
wood and softwood lumber from farm woodlands is variously estimated at 
30 to 40 per cent; in the Northeast at 60 to 95 per cent; in the North 
Central states at 90 to 100 per cent; in the ITorth at 25 to 30 per cent, 
aJid in the Uest at 5 to 15 per cent, of the output of these sections. 
Other timber products a,re produced from farm woodlots in even greater 
percentages, approximatel;^! 85 per cent of all hewn railroad crosst.ies, 
80 per cent of all domestic pulpwood production, and a very large part of 
cord\70od (fire\?ood), mine props, posts and poles. The production from 
these faxm woodlots is a dominant and iciportant factor 'in the industry 
and contributes a material income to a large part ^ of the 6,000,000 farms 
of the United States. 

(*) Senate Document :'0. 12 (Copeland report). On Senate Hesolution 175, 
72nd Congress. 

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3 :::,;-^cS- 

IV. BJPORgJlTCE IK I^]DUST5IAL :GFEMTJ0 ES^Iir THE UEllim STATES 

In addition to the important position that-- the. iTunTD'ef industry oc- 
cupies in the agricultural regions of each state, it may he conclusively 
sho^7n that a ver^^ important pai't of many men-'afacturing and industrial 
-Operations are dependent tipon the .use of ?;ood;-. either in the production 
thereof as, an integral part or as a preparator-f. operation,; in the produc*- 
tion- of the .finished articie., .' 

■The following are approximate, percentages, of l-qmheri consumption in 
-the yarioiis" 'trades and/or industries: ,. ',., 

(1) Construction and "building consumes normally ahout 40 per 
cent of the total annual production; .- 

(2) Planing mill products, .including flooring, . sash, doors and 
finish consume ahout 25 per cent of the total annual output; 

(3) In recent years lumher cons-'oraption on the farm lia,s materially 
decreased to ahoLit one-third of that, used, in 1929. In that year it 
was estimated hy the National Lurnher ifenufacturers '. Association that 

40 per cent of the total production was used on the farm. It is noted' 
that not onlj does farm woodland own and cut a sizahle proportion of 
our total each ye aj", but that the said farms are one of ' the largest 
.consumers in normaJL times. 

(4) The railroads in 1929 purchased 15.9 per cent of the total 
prodiiction for that year. The majority of this figure consists, of cross 
ties; approximately 2,538,752 M feet; vAereas, switch and hridge ties 

aiid timher and lumher contained 289,215 and 1,419,804 M feet, respectively. 

(5) Boxes and crates consume annually ahout 15 per cent of the total, 
or 4,550,000 M feet. This arao-'ant does not include cigar hoxes. 

(6) The Forest Service reports that in 1928, 1,020,000. M feet of 
hardwoods and 349, 000 M. feet of softwoods v/ere used in the automohile 
industry. Hovrever, in 1932' these figures had decreased to 220,000 a.nd 
104,383 M feet respectively. It is estimated that in 1933 this industry 
used 14 per cent of the total hardwood cut. 

(7) The furniture industry used 1, 249,599 M feet in 1929, of which 
77 -per cent was lia,rdwoods. 

(8) The casket industry consumes approximately 150,000 M feet a 
yeajr.. 

(9) The newsprint and paper industr'^ consumed in 1931 6,722,766 cords 
of pulpwood, of which 5,890,812 cords were produced In the United States. 

(10) 6,384 esta'blishments of the mining industry cons"umed in 1923, 
507,359 M feet of tim'ber. 



9613 



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(ll) Other indnstries consumed l-ujal)er as follows:* 

Hat di- Industry: ' 1928, 114,511 M feet 

Patterns and flasks: 1928, 27,065 M feet 

Pencils and Penholders: 1928, 38, 372' M feet 

Ship 8Jid Boat Building: 1328, -98,423 and 
, ,19,578 L feet of softwoods and hardwoods, 

respectively. 

Toy Industry: ' 1928, 37,000 LI feet 

. TTood Turning and Shaping: 1928, 100,000 M feet 

Construction and Repair: 1928, 1,007,417 M feet 

. • Dscelsior: 1931, 14,573,368 cuhic feet 

In its various ramifications the;_ products of the Lumter Industry 
enter into the industrial life of every state in the Union, comprising 
a-s high as 50 per cent of the total payroll of a particular state down 
to a very small percentage in a few of the Great plains States, where 
there is little or no primary manuf acti\re , and where "businesses in- 
cluded under the code were largely fahri eating plants, such as millwork 
and hox factories, L'tn-iter and other products of our forests are an 
integrsi part or used in every manufacturing process, and while substi- 
tutes ha.ve , increasingly replaced wood for many uses, it is still an 
indis^pensalde material, 

V. LOCAT-IQH 111 THE UNITES STATES OF P RII-ICIFAL FOREST STMD.S 

The South and West contain most of the Comraercial Timher Stands, 
"bu-t the aggregate of standing timlier of saw timber size in other areas, 
inclviding farm woodlots, is suhstantial. All classes of ownership are 
represented, from the large holdings of the Federal G-overnment in the 
National Forests, State Forests, and large corporations to the woodlot 
on the farm. The forest area of the United States is given as 495,879,000 
acres, with total standing saw timber of 1,568 "billion feet "board measure. 
It is estimsited that the forest lands of this country under proper su"b~ 
stantial yield management, are adequate to supply its needs in peipietuity. 

The list of comnodities which go to make up the Lum"ber Industry 
are legion, and no good purpose will he served as far as this report is 
concerned in atterirpting to enumerate them. All originate from the 
forests in. the form of logs, poles, piling, "oolts and cordwood, and 
these products are the primary drain on our forest resources. 

VI. FOREST RESOURCES OF THE WORLD 

The f.orest resources of the world are largely an unlalo^Tn quantity, 
the only availahle figu.res are given in total acres of forest lands. 
Such fi.2-Lir.es really convey little, if any, information as to the world 
supply of sa.w tira:lDer. fhile it is known that Russia, Africa, South and 
Central America contain vast forests, not even estimates in "board feet 
measure have "been made of the amount of sa,w tim"ber availa'ble in these 
remote regions. 



* The a^oove 1928 figures are taken from the Forest Service Survey. 
Other figures are from the Bureau of the Census. 

9613 , . 



-8- 



TA3L5"! 
LuiffiSR PROniCTIOlT OF THE UlIITEI) STATES BY STATES - 1934 



STATE 



TOTAL 



SOrTWCODS 



HAEDWOODS 



Alaibsjaa. 

Arizona, 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Comiecticut 

Delavrare 

Florida 

G-eorgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiajia 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucl'iy 

Louisiana 

liaine 

i.ar-/land 

liassa.chusetts 

liichigsai 

r.innesota 

liississi j"_Ti 

liissouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Haj.Tp shire 

Hew Jersey 

ITfew iiexico 

i'lew York 

iTorth Carolina 

Ohio 

Okls-h-O} la 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Shode Islrnd 

South Carolina 

South Dalcota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utali 

Ver..iont 

Virginia 

Washinriton 

TTest Virginia 

!7isconsin 

WoLiing 



659 


,152 


73 


,180 


627 


,647 


1,014 


,747 


49 


464 


11 


412 


5 


,415 


475 


,343 


476 


,221 


457 


089 


14 


928 


64 


,553 


2 


938 


2 


669 


122 


776 


774 


646 


178 


,497 


24 


,095 


57 


,103 


235 


560 


95 


350 


875 


206 


100 


,546 


171 


841 


154 


646 


7 


410 


101 


409 


58 


576 


57]. 


452 


82 


792 


110, 


936 


2,379, 


642 


146, 


752 


4 


315 


341, 


061 


OtJ , 


467 


299, 


398 


594, 


479 


. 10, 


360 


50, 


213 


406, 


174 


3,064, 


270 


223, 


921 


264, 


991 


18, 


837 



Thousand feet h.ni.) 
544,583- 
73,180 
413,858 
a/ 1,014,580 a/ 
49 , 370 
5,79'6 
3,820 
428,206 
417,610 
455,963 
250 
30 



u 



£j 



85 ^ 



5,159 

490,635 

158,623 

9,436 

49,368 

5Q,316 

67,908 

664,692 

27,587 

171,690 

135,434 
1,030 

18,848 

438,158 

337 

95,512 

2,360,714 

39,095 

261,173 
33,466 
56,237 

514,585 
10 , 237 
26,357 

285,541 

3,045,929 

37,835 

123,456 
18,837 



£j 



114,569 

208,789 

167 a/ 
94 

■ 5,616 
1,595 

45,137 

58,611 

126 

14,678 

. 64,523 

■ 2,938 
2,534 t/ 

116,617 
248,011 

19,874 

14,659 

7,735 

177,244 

27,452 
210 , 514 

72,959 
151 



19,182 
.6,380 

39,828 
133,294 

82,405 

15,474 

18,928 

107,657 

932 

79,888 

1 

233,161 

79,894 
123 

23,846 
120,633 

18,341 
186,086 
141,535 



TOTAL 



15,493,539 



12,735,358 



a/ Includes Tevada h/ Includes Nehraska 

Source: Biireau of the Census. 

9613 



2,758,281 
cj Included with Kansas 



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9613 



-1(V 

!CABU 2 

United States Exports of L\:D:aber and Timber Products a/ ty 
Principal Producing Eegions 



Couuuodity 



19 2 

-:3- 



8 



M ft. "b-n. : -^ of : $1,000 
: total : 



1 9:2 9 



M ft. 13.0. 



Tof 



$1,000 



SOFTWOODS 



TOTAI SOFTWOODS 


• 
• 


3,285,254 : 


100 


: 91,^40: 3,202,521 


: 100 : 92,635 


Douglas Fir 
Southern Pine 
Western Pine 
Eedvi'cod 
All Other 


• 

«■ 
•• 

: 

•- 
• 

• 
• 


1,358,733 : 

891,444 : 

32,976 : 

59,815 : 

942,?;36 : 


41 
27 

1 ! 

2 ! 

29 : 


: 28,401: 1,507,623 
. 36,843: 833,601 
: l,911t 41,482 , 
3, 347 J 62,280 ! 
21,038: 757,5^5 : 

HAEDWCODS 


47 : 32,416 
26 r 35,461 

1 t 2,392 

2 : 3,575 
24 : 18,791 



TOTAL EAHDV/'DODS 



509,310 : 100 : 32,383: 525,334 : 100 : 34,220 



Oak' : 


236,257 


47 


: 14,025: 


231,024 


44 


14,324 


Gxua '. 


69,850 


14 


! 3,640: 


60,517 


! 12 . 


2,953 


Ash ! 


30,083 


6 


: 2,003: 


41,974 


8 ! 


2,950 


Poplar 


38,985 


7 


. 2,324: 


40,383 . 


8 . 


2,520 


All Other ! 


: 134,125 


26 


10,391: 


151,436 


I 28 


11,463 




1 '. 


? 3 3 


• 
• 




1 9 


3 4 



19 5 : V 1 9 3 1 

I' ft. t-TT^. : ^ of : $1,000 : M ft. b.m. : ^ of : $1,000 



: total : 



: total : 



19 3 2 

M ft. "b-m. : ^ of : $1,000 
: total : 



SOFTWOODS 



2,246,258 


. 100 


; 59, 897 ! 


1,574,289 


100 


: 34, 749 : 


1,065,230 


100 : 


18,988 


1,012,639 


45 


: 19, 159 : 


807,368 . 


48 


:1 1,486 


505,578 


47 


5,700 


658,606 


30 


: 27, 202 


410,686 . 


25 


: 13, 928 : 


336,555 


32 : 


9,100 


31,733 


1 


: 1,556 


24,079 


1 


: 916 


14,353 ! 


1 


. 519 


28,412 


1 


: 1,512 


5,999 


I 1 


: 347 


8,219 


. 1 


311 


514,858 


: 23 


: 10, 458 


! 425, 157 

H A B D 


: 25 

WOO 


: 8,072 
D S 


! 200,525 


: 19 


3,358 



458,393 : 100 : 28, 364 



354,714 : 100 : 17, 933 



256,597 : 100 : 10, 341 



216,671 


47 


12, 537 


181,292 . 


51 : 


8,678 • 


132,347 


51 : 


5,211 


55,314 


12 


2,486 


41,524 


: 12 


1,522 


29,679 


12 


881 


47,866 


. 11 


3,250 


33,551 


9 


1,739 : 


27,849 


11 ! 


1,046 


28,157 


5 


1,667 


: 21,073 


6 


972 


16, 2o5 


: 5 


516 


110,375 


• 24 


! 8,324 


77,274 


! 22 


• 5,022 


50,457 


• 20 


I 2.587 



S FTJLO D S 



TOTAL SCFTWCC'DS 


. 1,197,916 : 


100 ! 


22,372: 


1 


,385,498 ; 


100 : 


32,254 


Douglas Fir 


: 512,995 : 


51 


7,591: 




673,584 . 


49 : 


10,383 


Southern pine 


343,815 : 


29 


10,447: 




455,571 


34 : 


15,241 


y,'e stern Pine 


18,113 : 


2 


581: 




28,409 


2 : 


1.101 


Redwood 


. . 14,185 : 


1 


495: 




18,945 


1 : 


802 


All other 


208,803 : 


17 

1 


. 3,158: 

a A H D W 


_0 


198,789 

D S 


14 : 


4,727 



Source: Foreign Commerce and Kavigation of the United States 



TOTAI. ".ASDnCCDS 



312,073 : 100 : 13.525: 300,887 



100 : 1£,477 



Calc 


155,549 ! 


50 


5,831: 


120.092 . 


40 


5,356 


Gun 


!• 37.993 ; 


12 


1,185: 


34.293 


11 


. 1,430 


Ash 


: 38,697 


13 


: 1,5-4: 


17,695 


15 


. 2,444 


Poplar 


: 21.979 


7 


923: 


23,903 


8 


J. , i A/O 


All Gf.-er 


: 57,855 


1. 


: 3,003: 

• 


74,903 


25 


: 5,124 



a/ I::cluder logs, savm ti-Tber, "boards, pianlcs, scantlings, tcx shooks and 
railroad ties. 



9613 



"11- 

'2hc folloviiv; ta"ble givec tlie 011I7 availaMe infom.ation: 

TA3LS 2 
FOF.SST A2EAS OF THE WORLD BY PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS AND COUNTRIES IN ACRES 



Division and Coxintry 

Total TTorld 

Asiatic pjussia ' : 

India : 
China 

Dutch East Indies 
Japan , . 

Asia . 

Brazil 

Argentina 

Peru 

Colui.i'bia 

Bolivia. 

Venezuela 

South Ainerica ■■ 

Canada 

United States 
Alaska 
Ilexico 

North Aiaerica 

Belgian Congo 
Rhodesia 
Nigeria 
French Congo 
Cameroon 
Ivorj^ Coast 
Africa 

European Russie. 
Sweden , 
Finland 
Germsny 
France 
Poland 
Rouina;iia 
Norway 
Europe 

New Guinea 

Australian Commonwealth 

New Zealand 

Australia and Oceania 



Forest Area 



7,487,696,770 



1,136 


153 


150 


260 


139 


520 


190 


000 


,000 


154 


.339 


,000 


90 


484 


,640 


2,096 


014 


,590 


1,000 


000 


000 


264 


000 


,000 


224 


000 


000 


150 


000 


,000 


128 


000 


000 


103 


840 


000 


2,092 


690 


,000 


596 


745 


,000 


494 


898 


000 


106 


000 


,000 


74 


100 


000 


1,389 


,855 


000 


180 


000 


000 


170 


304 


000 


139 


775 


000 


80 


000 


,000 


35 


000 


000 


30 


000 


000 


797 


458 


000 


445 


473 


000 


55 


550 


000 


49 


410 


,000 


30. 


905 


840 


25 


508 


420 


21 


881 


140 


21 


758 


000 


17 


037 


570 


774 


118 


460 


160 


020 


000 


90, 


291 


500 


17 


073 


920 


283 


458 


720 



Source: "Forest Resources of the World" "by R. Zon and W. N. Sparhawk. 



9613 



-12- 

Tnxe to the availatility of its products, the United States enters 
doiiiinajitly into supplying the timher needs of the world. This is par- 
ticularly time of Temperate Zone hardwoods. ■■ • ■ ■■' 

VII. SCOPS OF THE STUDY ^ 

In vieiT of the shortage' of time available for this study, and 
because of their dominant position in the field, it has teen decided to 
restrict the preliminary study of exports and imports in the lumher in— 
dustr;- to those constituting the most important primary products, namely, 
logs, tiahers and all sa?ni lumber, "both of hardwoods and softwoods. 
Hardwoods and softwoods are not generally competitive, and the proDlems 
involved are distinct and different, so this report will, in general, 
deal with these two broad classifications sepa.rately. Further, there 
"being no direct connection between exports and imports, they will be 
discussed separately. 

VIII. MjaniER IK WHICH EXFOHT TRADE IS COJIDUGTED 

The lumber export trade of the United States is conducted through 
several channels, the most important of these being through cooperative 
associations organized under the Webb-Pomerene Act. Such associations 
are controlled by ajid the stock oraied by the manufacturers, members of 
tile orgojiizations. The Douglas Eir Exploitation and Export Company of 
Seattle, ':'aGhington, and the ipierican pitch pine Export Company of New 
Orleans, are tjpiical of these organizations. Export brokers, or whole- 
salers, also account for a substantial percentage, and direct shipments 
from the manufacturer to the foreign buyer are a very minor factor in 
the trade. 

The balk of the business in foreign countries is handled through 
foreign brokers. Other methods of lesser importance are through commis- 
sion salesmen, and in a fev; instances through foreign buying agents in 
this country. 

Shipments are sold 0. I. E. and p. A. S. In the former case the 
goods are sold to the foreign buyer, including the cost of handling and 
loading, insurance and ocean freight, so that the quotation is the de- 
livered price in ship's sling at the foreign port of delivery. In the 
latter, the price includes only those costs to deliver the goods freight 
alongside ship, within reach of ship's sling at the port of loading in 
this countrj'', 

IX. OTHER FOREST PRODUCT STUDIES WHICH SHOULD BE MADE 

Other important forest products which should be studied and reviev/ed 
in respect to their foreign trade aspects so as to have a reasonably com- 
plete pictiire as far as the forest products industries are concerned, 
are woodpulp, pulpwood and paper; plywood, doors and shingles. A very 
complete study of the yroodpulp and paper industry and the effect of im- 
ports on the domestic industry is in progress by the United States Tariff 
Commission, under the provisions of Senate Resolution 200, and this re- 
port mil be available at a la.ter date. 



9 613 



-13- 

PulpwoocL is not included, in the proposed study of the United States 
Tariff Corxiission, and 'because of its importance and the effect of im- 
ports largely from Canada or the conservation of our forest resources, 
it should "be -the suTi.ject of an exliaustive study, partictilarly in respect 
to domestic production, which is largely from farm woodlots, often pro- 
duced with poorly paid lator. The effect of large imports bri domestic 
production is of extreme importance, and such a study should consider 
the f^^t^^.re consumption needs of our country. "A recent puhlication "by 
the Forest Service, "National Pulp and Paper Requirements in .Relation 
to Forest Conservation" (Hale Report) , covers certain phases' of the 
pulpijood' supply of the United States and its relation to imports. 

The ejcoort of plywood, particularly Douglas Fir plywpo'd and Doors, 
is of growing .importance. The proMems involved include factors differ- 
ing from those of other forest products. Douglas , Fir Doors in partic- 
ular present the opportunity of a comparison in contrast with lumter, 
in that these doors were not produced under the provisions of Article 
VIII, Production Control, of the Lumber Code, while Article IX, Cost 
production, ¥;as established covering prices in the domestic market; A 
study of these problems pres.ents further opportunity to analyjse con- 
ditions irhich would be of value in establishing future foreign trade 
relations 'for these and other products. 

In respect to shingles, the problem is largely one of iinports. 
The ucjiner in which this perennial problem was handled under Section 3 (e) 
of the Sectional Industrial Recovery Act, a study of this trade is fully 
warranted and should be completed. 

The reason for outlining l^he forest products, which should by all 
means be included in any final study and report on the foreign trade of 
the forest products industries, is because each specific item presents 
a different phase, particularly as to the effect of the Lumber Code on 
foreign trade. 

The woodpulp industry ti&s never codified. 

The Douglas Fir plywood and Door Industries operated under cost 
protection, but had no production control. 

Shingles were produced under both cost protection and production 
control, and importations were controlled by a quota agreement with 
Canada, 

Definite conclusions should only be made when the study of the 
influence or lack of influence of code provisions on these subsidiary 
products is completed. It is particularly desirable that the reader 
should realize the limitations of this preliminary report, due to ' 
shortage of time and personnel. 

It is believed that this report will, however, illustrate the 
importance of the project and serve as an outline of the complete study 
which should be comoleted. 



9613 



-14- 

CHAPTER II 
Il'iPORTANCE OF EXPORT TRADE TO THE LUMBER IKDUSTRY 



TTith. an average of 10 to 12 per cent of the iDroduction of soft^TOod 
1-ujnber and 11 to 18 per cent of the -oroduction of haj:'dwood liimter ex- 
ported to foreign coiintries, the importance of this market to the 
industry is ohvious. While the total volume of exports has fallen 
consider alDly, it is significant that its position in relation to 
total domestic production has "been generally maintained. 

On the other hand, exports have not shown the same favorahle 
relationships to the '^orld market (consumption) as represented "by 
the total imports of all importing countries. From a Iott point in 
1932, the rorld market shov\'s a decided increase which has not "been 
reflected in our export trade. In 1929 lum"ber exports were 11 per 
cent of domestic production and 20.7 per cent of the v^orld market. 
In 1932 exports were 13 per cent of domestic production, a high point, 
"but this represented only 10.8 per cent of the world market. In 
1934, the latest availa"ble figures, exports were again 11 per cent 
of domestic production, "but this only represented 12.3 per cent of 
the world maxket. 



9613 



-15- 
TASLS 4 



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9613 



"le-^ 



TABLE 5 

UNITED STATES PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS OP LUlviBER 

AND 
TIMER PRODUCTS 

PRODUCTION 



Year 



Total 



Hardwoods 



Soft'-Toods: 



(M ft. TD.m.) 



1928 


34,141,915 


5,797,820 


28,345,095 


1939 


36,886,052 


7,072,687 


29,813,345 


1930 


26,051,473 


4,728,687 


21,322,786 


1931 


16,522,643 


2,670,692 


13,851,951 


1932 


10,151,232 


1,405,596 


8,745,636 


1933 


13,961,134 


2,062,261 


11,898,873 


1934 


15,493,639 


2,758,281 


12,735,358 


1935a/ 


8,575,000 


1,675,000 


6,900,000 



EXPORTS, AND RATIO OF EXPORTS TO PRODUCTION 



Year 



Total 



Hard^'oods 



Softwoods 



Exports : Ratio to : Exports : Ratio to : Exports : Ratio to 
IvI ft. "b.m. :Production:M fti 11.111. :Production:M ft. "b.m, :Production 
: Per Cent . ; Per Cent ; . per cent 



1928 


3,794,564 


11. 


509,310 


9. 


3,285,254 


12. 


1929 


. 3,727,855 


10. 


525,334 


7. 


. 3,202,521 


11. 


1930 


: 2,704,651 


10. 


458,393 


10. 


2,246,258 


11. 


1931 


2,029,003 


12. 


354,714 


13. 


1,674,289 


12. 


1932 


1,321,027 


13. 


256,597 


18. 


1,065,230 


12. 


1933 


1,509,989 


11. 


312,073 


15. 


1,197,916 


10. 


1934 


. 1,687,385 


11. 


3t0,887 


11. 


1,386,498 


11. 


1935a/ 


963,163 


11. 


• 186,843 


11. 


776,320 


11. 



a 



/ 



8 months, - Source: National Lumter Manufacturers Association 



Source: Forest Service - United Sta,tes Department of Agriculture, and 

Bulletins of Census of Manufactures. 



9613 



-17- 



\ 



fMSlS 6 
UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF SPECIFIED TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTS 



1 9 2 « 



Total 

Logs and Hewn Timber 
Haxdwoods 
Southern Pine 
Douglas Fir 
Cedar 
Other Softwoods 

Sawed Timber 
Southern Pine 
Douglas Fir 
Cedeir 

Other Softwoods 
Hardwoods 

So. Pine (Creoeoted) 
Other ( Creoeoted) 



Mft.bd.m. ll.OOO 
3,799,1^32 126,776 



431,013 

16, im 
2,463 

34.483 
261,520 
116,136 

756.966 

160,740 

556,224 

2,499 

30,999 

l,6lg 

4,133 
753 



B oards. Planks, Scantlings , 
( Softwoods ) 



Cypress 
Douglas Fir (Roiigh) 
Douglas Fir (dressed) 
Southern Pine (Rough) 
Southern Pine (dressed) 
White, Western, Sugar 

Pine 
Cedar 
Redwood 
Spruce 
Hemlock 

Sm. So. Dim. Stock 
Other Softwoods 



1, 



«97,o43 

7,53s 
703, 4o4 

64,672 
625,213 

33,522 

32,976 

25,645 

59,gl5 

29,004 

256,143 

^.576 

1^,535 



9,516 

1,297 
101 

515 
5,953 
1,670 

19,443 

6,751 

11,262 

106 

895 

106 

284 

39 



59,179 

492 

l4,9l4 

1,710 
25,533 

3,^71 

1,911 
1,184 

3,347 
1,223 

5,101 
l4o 
153 



1929 



1930 



1931 



1932 



19 ? ? 



1934 



Mft.bd.m. tl.OOO 
3,727,632 126,896 



379,038 

16,989 

10,286 

57,508 

176,379 

117,876 

699,219 

127,351 

541,269 

854 

21,849 

1,988 

4,389 

1,519 



1,923,372 
11,087 

846,349 

62,497 

597,472 

21,570 

41,482 
16,629 
62,280 
27,166 
166,548 
,337 
,955 



I 



7,842 
1,236 

425 

3,934 
1,534 

17,531 

5,551 

10,955 

28 

498 

124 

291 

84 



62,073 
638 

18,950 

1,798 

25,137 

3,519 

2,392 

881 

3,575 

1,391 

188 



Mft.bd.m. 
2,707,904 

305,526 

16,750 
1,%4 

43,4«8 
115,968 
127,866 

491,623 
i4o,430 

330,75s 
634 

14,817 

1,235 

3,283 

4l2 



1,365,984 

6,099 

592,719 

45,674 

440,262 

60,703 

31,733 

9,836 

28,4l2 

25,74s 

118,288 

1,430 

5,080 



89,084 

5.544 
1,162 

602 
2,542 
1,171 

12,636 
6,156 
5,80J 

76 

217 

20 



4o,244 

356 

11,556 

1,204 
17,760 

2,431 

1,566 
561 

1,512 
991 

2,076 

66 

143 



Mft.bd.m. $1.000 
2,019,492 52,893 



265,411 

19,149 

762 

23,135 
115,972 
106,393 

407,290 

88,243 

302,939 

203 

12,852 

864 

1,379 
810 



921,301 

4,479 

410,930 

70,364 
272,666 

37,464 

34,079 

9,074 

6,999 

12,033 

71,020 

190 

2,003 



4,306 

769 

30 

25s 

2,162 

1,087 

7,609 

'It 

66 
25 



2i,io4 

221 

6,233 

1,133 
8,908 
1,217 

916 
439 
3f7 
540 
1,094 

"56 



Mft.bd.m. tlfOOO 
1,322,710 29,320 



Mft.bd.m. ^1.000 Mft.bd.m. 



133.930 
15,012 

9,870 
34,943 
73,734 

295,409 

66,922 

222,582 

1,010 

2,497 

352 

1.7S9 

257 



603,099 
2,847 

241,237 
31,889 

230,894 
31,660 

If. 353 
4,267 
8,219 
8,301 

29.287 

65 
SO 



1.729 
339 

117 
606 

667 

4,321 
2,020 
2,077 

}l 

117 



12,271 

l42 

3,080 

425 

5,9S5 

85s 

166 

?^^ 
431 
354 



1.509,225 35,764 1,687,383 



168,362 
18,043 

151 
3S,49l 
3S,599 
73,07s 

319,762 

76,510 

239,491 

802 

95s 

285 

1,5S6 

130 



662,763 

3,764 

301,968 

33.045 
228,790 

35.03s 

17.35s 

14.185 

7,613 

15,825 



151* 



4i4 
654 
681 

2,362 

77 

"85 



l4,682 
, 179 



6,805 
1.056 

663 

1S7 
495 
302 

ISI 



240,702 
16,805 
4oi 
82,282 
46,602 
94,612 

315,157 

88,584 

221,462 

607 

1,672 

1,800 
599 



741,035 

4,611 

322, R05 

1^7,^35 

251,043 

42,588 



28,409 
5,27s 

18,611 
8,419 

11,986 

180 



fo.PW Mft.bd.m. il.OOQ 
47,462 963,163 26,300 



H 

17 
917 

773 
798 

3,946 

2,871 
28 

'2 
18 

106 
33 



20,691 
254 

1,101 

244 

793 
388 
165 



160,022 
9,538 

39,642 
2l,4«i 
89,311 

170,933 

54,090 

113,418 

779 

1,760 

2?3 
540 

53 



390,043 

2,762 

164,601 

20,281 
136,611 

20,504 

20,239 
2,055 
8,973 
4,929 
9,055 

"33 



2,069 
543 

349 
368 
809 

3, 
2, 

39 
35 

10,176 

2,604 
4i8 

4,818 
722 

760 
98 
4io 
189 
120 



I 



9613 



(Continued) 



-18- 

lABLB 6 (CoBtlnned ) 

UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF SPECIFIED TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTS (Continued) 



19 2 



1929 



1930 



1 931 



1932 



1933 



1 9 3 *^ 



1 9 3 5a/ 



Mft.bd.M. il.OQO Mft.bd.a. tl.OOO Mft.bd.a. tl.OOO Hf^tMt"' <1.QQ9 Ifft.bi^tgt tLQCQ Mft.bd.a. tl.OOO Mft.bd.a. il.OOO Mft.bd.B. ti.oon 



Boards . Planks. Scantlings 
(Hardwoods) 
Ash 

Birch, Beecb, Maple 
Chestnut 
Cottonwood 
Gun, Red and Sap 
Gobi, Tupelo and Black 
Hickory 
Oak 

Poplar 
Walnut 
Mahogany 

Wagon-Oak Planks 
Sm. Hd. DiB. Stock 
Other Hardwoods 
Other Sawed Lumber 

Box Shocks 
Southern Pine 
■'^mlock 

oe 
Gum 
Other Hardwoods 

Hardwood Flooring 

RftllroRd Tiea qJ 
Hardwood 
3oftwood 
CreoBOted 



,i/ 



461, «47 


29,625 


'^55.137 


30,476 
2,762 


400, 4i5 


25.218 


30,083 


2.003 


3«,78l 


'H,196 


2,857 


11,449 


846 


11,746 


723 


5,^16 


320 


589 


11,258 


560 


7,022 


3^3 


5,560 


3l« 


5,020 


281 


441954 


116 


52,2«5 


2,556 


46,015 


2,274 


2,071 
247 


7,796 

4,51s 

229, 4o4 


^. 


7,889 


423 


6.982 


3.980 


3.956 
202,947 


F5 


13,600 


221,323 


13,739 


11.833 


38,9«5 


2:324 


»K),3«3 


2,520 


28,167 


1.667 


15,019 


1,623 


13,781 


1,781 


10,099 


1,260 


16,010 


'•^ 


16,153 


^■^i? 


12,661 


1,73^ 


6,«53 


9,701 
5,407 


13,724 


804 


5,391 


550 


627 


4,109 


621 


'm 


1,375 
252 


'If^ 


1,315 

2?8 


780 
190 


107,515 


>^,H53 


98,696 


3,490 


77,801 


2,902 


15,373 


1,992 


12,533 


577 


12,474 


571 


67,611 
4,322 


125 


64,881 


1.903 


42,151 


1.222 


300 


1,597 


66 


i.»^3 


69 


5.261 


661 


6,613 


359 


14,844 


169 


1^,933 


1,375 


13,056 


585 


871 


15,300 


986 


16,139 


1,150 


12,518 


899 


124,^94 
«.S73 


281 


151,366 
17,^1 


^,33*^ 
470 


49,928 
4,753 


1.641 
161 


g«,469 


2,0«« 


108,405 


2,579 


29,269 


683 


27,552 


1.205 


25,519 


1,285 


15,907 


797 



5iZ'5?3 
30,043 

3.355 
5,908 
1,764 

33,551 
6,005 

175,348 
21,073 
8,792 
7.53^ 
5,944 
6,728 

2 1 424 

27,660 

10,172 

1^^.351 

1.169 

1,968 

9,637 
13.892 

63.961 

1,288 

46,194 

16,480 



16,297 

1,555 

174 

264 

1,2^6 

187 
187 
8,354 
972 
783 
939 

323 
651 

469 

117 

1,409 
^33 
4iO 

39 

88 

439 

801 

in 



233,632 
27,8% 

1,425 
2,312 
l,ll4 

22,966 

5,810 

1,866 

127,888 

16,265 
5.^^76 
3.285 

4:91? 

7.933 

890 



17,301 

7.079 

5,537 

776 

903 

7,933 

5,654 

32,816 
1.057 

25,365 
6,393 



65 
^4' 

68^ 
156 
182 
5,009 
616 
4l4 
392 
202 
362 

38 

490 

237 
142 

33 
39 
39 

299 

291 
235 



285,511 

35,995 

1,204 

2,332 

1,564 

25,917 

11,079 

, 2,999 

1'*9,717 

21,97? 

5,684 

3,048 

5.832 

6,600 

11,561 



5.364 
2,084 

'997 
11,561 

7,079 

60, 3*^3 

158 

52,527 

7,698 



59 
85 

845 
297 

6,563 
923 
438 
390 
269 
463 
'^71 



168 

4i8 
824 

567 
257 



274,450 

k:38i 

l.57'^ 
3.991 
1,856 
23,833 
9,167 
3,879 
120,092 

22,903 
^'783 
3,086 

10,032 

9,^15 
12,458 



7,335 



1,293 
12,458 

7,569 

97,655 

335 

78,132 

19.188 



1*^,969 

2.276 

92 

6,556 
1,123 

523 
568 

798 

650 



311 
181 

f7 
63 

566 
1,773 

^•975 
685 



m,»w7 

20,752 
1,106 

1,833 

IW 

14,663 

6.559 

2,054 

84,692 

16,376 

3.504 

6,687 
•^,903 
8,213 



6,122 
1,098 
2,331 

8,213 

830 

61,636 

54,098 
6,507 



8,807 
907 

79 

559 

206 

204 

•^,057 

735 
354 

323 

ill 
421 



166 
40 

44 

"41 
4i 

64 

1,082 

38 

790 

254 



aJ Seven Months, January to July 1935, InclUBive. 

b/ Boards, Planks, and Scantlings (Hardwoods) Includes Mahogany. 

c/ Railroad Ties converted at 30 bd.ft. per tie. 

Source: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 



9613 



-19- 

CHAPTEE III 

IIAEDWOOD EXPORTS 

The United States is the largest exporter of Temperate Zone Hard- 
woods, the principal item of which is oak. Efforts have teen made to 
accumulate the necessary date to compile a tatle showing the world hard- 
wood export market, similar to that compiled for softwood, table ^r 4. 
Due to the short time available and the problem of collecting and trans- 
lating all the information from the various importing countries, only a 
start has been made on this compilation which, therefore, ca,nnot be in- 
cluded in this report. However, the table on imports into the United 
Kingdom, the largest market, illustrated the dominant position of this 
country in the hardwood trade, Fnile some trade has been lost to Canada 
because of the British preferential tariff, which became effective in 
1332, the loss was not nearly as serious s.s with softwood, primarily be- 
cause Canada cannot supply the species and quality of hardwoods which the 
Unit^ Kingdom demands. The only other countries entering into competi- 
tion with the United States are Poland and Japan, The amount of oak 
available in Jappn is limited and should not be a large factor for any 
long period of time. 

Practically all hardwoods shipped in export come from the Appalachian 
and Southern regions of the United States, Differing from softwoods, 
there is no material difference in cutting hardwoods for the domestic 
market or for export and until the product is shipped there is no way of 
knowing whether the hardwood lumber will be sold in the domestic market 
or shipped as export, , 

Statistical data would indicate that exports of hardwoods were not 
definitely affected by code provisions. Production control was in effect 
in all hardwood producing areas and in estimating consumption, the probable 
amount of export shipments was included in the quota. Just what effect 
this had on export trade is uncertain, altho-ugh it is generally conceded 
by the manufacturers that it was a stabilizing factor. As it is impossible 
to segregate domestic production and cx;oort at hardwood mills, the product 
being identical, any other course would have been impossible of admin- 
istration. 



961S 



•20- 

gJHJ 7 

HARDWOODS: IMPORTS INTO UNITED KINGDOM, TOTAL, AND BY COUNTRIES 





: 1«2<9 


: 1930 


: 1931 


1932 : 


1933 J 


1934 


Country 


: M ft. b.ffi. 


:Per cent 
: of 
: total 


:M ft. b.m. 


:Per cent 
: of 
: total 


:M ft. b.m. 


'Per cent 
of 
total 


M ft. b.m.i 


Per oent: 

of : 

total : 


M ft. b.m. • 


Per cent: 

of : 

total : 


M ft. b.m.: 


Per cent 
of 
total 


Total 


1 J|66,043 


: 100 


456,501 


: 100 


359,309 


: 100 


: 350,911 ] 


100 


_ 351,7^ 


100 : 


434,645 ' 


100 


United States 


! 232,1^39 


'. 50 


: 235,109 


* 5^ 


" 131,309 


I 50 


'. 164,435 


^7 


: 154,663 


': 44 


159,456 


37 


Canada 


: 57,662 


12 


• 47,166 


: 10 


' ^3,395 


• 12 


: 51,930 


' 15 


: 60,720 


: 17 


" 7«,703 


' 13 


Poland 


: 29,3«2 


6 


31,gl4 


' 7 


: 29,105 


: 3 


: 23,262 


3 


' 39,904 


: 11 


: 50,3^ 


! 12 


British India 


23,6g2 : 


5 


20,^37 


5 


11,7^2 


3 


: 10,217 


3 


: 10,336 


; 3 


: 16,464 


: 4 


Africa (Fr. Poss. ) : 


10,20g 


2 


10,332 


2 


: 7,077 


: 2 


5,512 


: 2 


■ 3,099 


: 0.9 


: - 


: 


Irish Free State 


9,176 • 


2 


5,132 


1 


: 2,946 


: 0.3 


: 2,632 


: 0.3 


: 1,336 


: 0.5 


: 


: 


Nigeria : 


sMi • 


2 


6,544 


1 


3,961 


1 


: 4,937 


1 


: 4,452 


: 1 


: 


: 


Japan ! 


g,i+65 : 


2 


10,394 


2 


7,04l 


2 


• 15,634 


4 


; 15,169 


: 4 


15,103 


; 3 


Australia : 


7,900 ' 


2 • 


12,044 ' 


3 


10,313 


3 


: 13,399 


4 


: 7,696 


: 2 


: 3,256 


: 2 


Yugoslavia : 


6,095 : 


1 ' 


g,593 ' 


2 


9,233 


: 3 


• 7,517 


: 2 


1 11,120 


; 3 


; 2,736 


: 0.6 


France : 


U,099 : 


0.9 ' 


2,722 


; 0.6 


2,442 


0.7 


: 1,1^5 


0.3 


: 1,132 


: 0.3 


' 


: 


Russia : 


3.056 i 


0.7 : 


2,396 


0.5 


^,193 


1 


. 4,093 ' 


1 


: 1,995 


: 0.6 


»• 


! - 


Latvia ! 


1,713 : 


0.4 • 


1,231 


0.3 ' 


1,030 


0.3 


135 


0.05 


: 190 


: 0.05 


- 


; - 


All others i 


63,119 


14 


61,532 < 


13 


^5,972 


13 


• 40,303 


12 


: 39,423 


: 11 


103,577 


: 24 



"The Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Countries"- 1929 - 193^ inc. 
Note: Converted from cubic feet at 12 bd. ft. per cubic foot. 



9613 



-21- 

HARDWOODS 
TOTAL EXPORTS TO THE UNITED KINGDOM 
BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 

1929, 1932, AND 1934 




1929 

SOURCE "TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 



1932 



1934 



N.RA. 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 

STATISTICS SECTION 

NO 436 



9613 



-22- 



CHAPTER IV 



SOFTWOOD EXPORTS 



UlI'TED STATES SHAKE OF WORLD TRADE 



In 1929, the United States led the world in total Yoliime of Ixunber 
and sawn timT3L-r softwood exports. By 1934 it had fallen_to fifth place. 



Year 



Lea^dins Softvrood L'amber E>q3orts Countries 
1 2 3 4 ~' 



1929 


U, S. 


Svreden 


Finland 


Russia 


Canada 


1930 


Russia 


U. S, 


Sv/eden 


Finland 


Cana,da 


1931 


Russia 


U. S, 


Finland 


Sweden 


Canada 


1932 


Russia 


Sweden 


Finland 


TT q 


Canada 


1933 


Russia 


Finland 


Sweden 


U. S. 


Canada 


1934 


Finland 


Russia 


Sweden 


Canada 


U. S. 


S^ 


ource: See 


Tahle - V/orld 


Imports and I 


Exports - Of 


c, 15., 



United States exports of softwoods -^nd their maniif a(»ture s , exclusive 
pulp and pulp products, rose steadily in value during the year 1926 to 
1929, declining 29 per cent from 1929 to 1930, and 67 per cent from 1930 
to 1932. From this low point it had gained 60 per cent "by 1934, still a 
loss of 30,5 per cent the peak in 1929. At the same time the T/orld mar- 
ket, as represented hy total imports, fell 36.5 per cent from 1929 to 
1932, hut by 1934 had risen to a point 27,5 per cent "below the 1929 fig- 
ures. The accompanying chart shows the United States' share of the soft- 
wood trade of the principal importing countries in rela.t-ion tr the five 
principal exporting coiontries for the years 1929, 1932 and 1934, In 
addition, table # C gives the total quantity of United States' soft- 
wood exports and the percentage of that quantity in the. world trade. 



9613 



-23- 



TABLE S, 



SCFrraCD EXPORTS: UlIITED STATES SHARE CE WORLD IIARICET 



: Per Cent: : Per cent 

ye3.r : United : of : All other : of 

: States : total : countries : total 




(H ft. Id, m.) 



192S 


: 3,213,325 : 


20.7 


: 12,285,805: 


79.3 


: 15,499,130 


: 100 


1930 


: 2,268,855 


19.9 


: 11,398,150: 


80.1 


: 14,667,005 


: 100 


1931 


: 1,564,778 


15.6 


: 8,998,078: 


84.4 


: 10,662,856 


: 100 


1932 


: 1,066,100 


10.8 


: 8,301,326: 


39.2 


: 9,867,426 


: 100 


1933 


: 1,197,152 ; 


10.8 


: 9,380,130: 


89.2 


: 11,077,282 


: 100 


1934 


: 1,386,498 : 


12.3 


: 9,863,893: 


87.7 


: 11,250,391 


: 100 



Source; See Tatlc - World Imports and Exports, page - 15. 



961C 



-24^ 

SOFTWOODS 

WORLD EXPORTS BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
1929.1932 AND 1934 



PER CENT 
100 



ON PERCENTAGE BASIS 



----- .- 




-^1 




wmmfmm 








- — - 










f 1";^ " 


1 


7 3 





i 


■ •••••••• 


j-- 




*•".' 


•M-I'^sM-!'!-! 


1 


'!!.;■ 14 


1 








■ -- ^ 




i :ii 

vo ■:';!! 


" 







1 
1- ■ 


i'-i 






:' 3 " 


^"^^^— i6 ? 




:''>^>>y:-'^'^.*^-^ ■:■:■:■:-■'■■- 




— — 




e 


|>'-''"'^'=::;'-'--'^ 









PER CENT 
100 



UNITED STATES 



4LL OTHERS 



IN THOUSANDS OF FEET BOARD MEASURE 



mil!}. 



WiiiMiiiiii^ 



' "-■-■■ 




7^a,72o 


-^>> 




•'l^54,[00 


• • 


li 


iiiiiikiifci 


iiii 



=1.510.740 = — 



S I,066,I00«C*'H 




TOTAL 
16.499,130 

1929 



TOTAL 
9.867,426 

1932 



TOTAL 
11,250,391 

1934 



SOURCES^ FOREIGN COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND SIMILAR OFFICIAL STATISTICAL PUBUCAT10NS OF SWEDEN, 
FINLAND, RUSSIA, CANADA, ETC. 



NRA 

DIVSION Of REVIEW 

STATISTICS SECTION 

N0.406 



9613 



-25- 

CHAPTER V 
PRINCIPAL IMPORTING COUNTRIES 



Statistics of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce covering ex- 
ports reveal that Itunher is exported from the United States to eighty- 
four countries, A detailed analysis of these same statistics indicated '. 
that the shipments to eight of these countries constituted 67 per cent of 
the total United States' softwood exports. As the limits on time and 
personnel available prohihit a detailed report on each of these coiontries, 
it has "been decided that an analysis of our softwood trade with these 
eight principal importing countries would give a fair perspective of our 
export trade and its prohlems in the world market. While undoubtedly this 
does not present the entire picture, as many different factors affect each 
market, an analysis of these eight markets will illustrate the problem. 

These eight major markets are the United Kingdom, Japan, China, 
Canada, Argentina, Italy, Belgium and Germany,. Of these, the United 
Kingdom and China have "been selected for various reasons hereinafter 
disclosed. In addition, the Australian market will also he reviewed be- 
cause of a particular problem affecting that market. These selections 
were made because these three countries ^^resent three distinct types of 
problems as follows: 

1» T he United Kingdom - the largest import country in the world. 

2, China - a free market; that is to say, open to our competitors 

on the same terms as ourselves, 

3, Australia - because of the influence of the British preferential 

tariffs on this m.arket. 

United Kingdom 

Softwood im.ports into the Uriited Kingdom in 1934 constituted 39 per 
cent of the world market, e::cceding the next largest importing country, 
Holland, which latter country represented 7 per cent of the world market, 
by the large fig-are of 32 per cent. The accompanying chart, # D, gives 
the total softwood imports in the United Kingdom and the United States' 
share for the years 1929, 1932 and 1934, Great Britian has little com- 
mercis,l forest and it is necessary that practically a,ll of her require- 
ments must be impcrtcd-j 

The principal countries competing for the softwood market in Great 
BritipTi are the United States, Canada, Russia, Pinls.nd and Sweden, The 
increase in the United Kingdom market in the last three years is due to 
the government sponsored and encouraged building and rehabilitation pro- 
gram which ha,s been going on at the rate of about 35,000 domiciles annually. 
The current program of the Board of Trade for the next five years is 
50,000 domiciles annually, which would indicate a further increase in 
imports in this primary market.. 

As far as softwood shipments are concerned, it would appear that the 

9513 



-26- 
JEABUC 9 
UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF SPECIFIED LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS TO PRINCIPAL IMPORTING COUNTRIES, 1933 ~ l^jk 



UNITED KINGDOM 
M ft.bd.M $1,000 



JAPAN CHINA 

M ft.bd.M |1,000 M ft.bd.M ll,000 



CANADA ARGENTINA 

ft.bd.M $1,000 M ft.bd.M $1,000 



ITALY BELGIUM GERMANY 

ft.bd.M $1,000 M ft.bd.M $1,000 M ft.bd.M $1,000 



1 9 ^ k 
Total 

Logs-Hewn Timber 

Hardwoods 

Softwoods 
Sawed Timber 

Hardwoods 

Softwoods 
Boards, Planks 
. and Scantlings 
' Hardwoods 

Softwoods 
Other Sawed Lvunber 
Box Sbooks 
Hardwood Flooring 
Railroad Ties 

1 Q ^ 3 
Total 

Logs-Hewn Timber 

Hardwoods 

Softwoods 
Sabred Timber 



& Hardwoods 



Softwoods 
Boards, Planks 

and Scantlings 
I Hardwoods 

Softwoods 
Other Sawed Lumber 
Box Sbooks 
Hardwood Flooring 
Railroad Ties 



283,227 

1,150 

1,150 
26,232 

26,175 

250,258 

191^,307 

55,951 

"60 

5,W 
«3 



2,1^59 
2,002 

^^57 
31,171 

152 
31,019 

266,5^4 

202,425 

64,159 

l4i 
5,161 



I4,l69 

2« 

2g 

l,2lg 

2 

1,216 

12,491 

10,411 

2,080 

1 

430 

1 



305,516 12,105 



13»^ 
111 

1,006 

5 
1,001 

10,643 
g,g44 
1.799 

3 
319 



302,779 3,665 



2,265 
134,833 
135,«»^3 



. 313 
26,7«5 



2,740 



99,309 

2,350 

96,959 



m,639 

39,395 

132 

39,263 



.^5 
1,^^95 
1.636 



135. «^3 1,636 



78 
397 



44 



313,3^7 3,504 



1,37^ 

17 

1,357 

1,636 

1,634 

494 

25 
H69 



301,246 



2,546 
32,411 



48,898 



8 
149,528 

4 

IS 

67,«33 



225.931 

8,170 
7.170 
1,000 

37,923 

37,923 

123,271 

123,271 



f.^ft?^ 



3,^^15 



17 
190 



595 

2 

1,729 

1 

2 

879 

1,883 

5 
327 

327 

1,032 

1.032 



^73 



98,123 3,085 



42,358 

253 
1,920 



28,860 
24,530 

"89 
113 



13,011 

263 

12,748 

1,272 

81 

1,191 

3«.939 
24,782 

14,157 

102 

115 
1,889 



578 

10 
46 



1,601 
839 

" 4 
7 



55.328 2,118 



217 

8 

209 

'I 

55 

1,696 

1,2W 

456 

3 
5 

138 



97,55s 2,896 



2,175 



2,524 
92,859 



79 , 842 

300 

300 
910 

910 

78,610 

2,602 

76,008 



22 



93 



'-SI 



2,646 



1,752 
5 

5 
17 

17 

l48 
l,5Sl 



56,260 2,4l8 42,849 1,583 29,947 1,366 



188 

20,449 



S,115 
27,463 



^^5 



439 
169 
270 

22,335 
8 

22,327 

34,258 

9,505 

24,753 



4 
745 

402 
1,265 



57.032 1,818 



30 
20 
10 

610 
1 

609 

1,178 
316 
862 



103 

1,865 



5.553 
35.223 



30 
75 



628 

28 

600 

1.846 

l"846 

49,7*H 
11.599 
38,1^2 



107 



56 



263 
1,248 

2 
6 



25 
2 

23 
37 

37 

l.5;i3 
426 

1.087 



1,281 
1,577 



1.869 
25,022 

3^ 



164 



1,449 
2,348 
1.045 

1.045 

28,305 

1,?30 

27,075 



20 



38 
'68 



186 

1,062 

3 



52,322 1,583 33,167 1,202 



190 
147 

32 

"32 

979 
98 

881 



Source: "Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States" 1933-1934 - Department of Commerce. 



9613 



-37- 



jgjBLl 10 



SoftvDods: Brports from British Oolumbia and Oregon-WasUngton to 

United EingdOB 



Ifontk 



Total 

January 
February 
Mazeh 
ipril 

May 

June 
July 

August 
Septeober 
October 
Norember 
Deo ember 



Total 

January 
February 
Maroh 
April 

June 

July 

August 

September 

Oetober 

Hoyember 

December 



19 5 



10 8 9 _— • ■ -_ 

British: % of: Oregon- i ^ of: British : % of: Oregon- : % of 

Columbia: total: Washington; total: Colombia ;total: Washington : total 



(In thousand board feet measure) 



69,904 

5,494 
2,066 
7,132 
S,422 
5,227 
3,975 
10,487 
6,179 
9,786 
6,094 
7,205 
4,837 



20 



284,384 

14,611 
8,414 
25,611 
17,451 
23,470 
30,237 
26,516 
30,458 
27,992 
25,449 
26,272 
27,093 



1 9 3 4 



455,696 

b/42,565 

e/42,543 

40,234 

e/34,921 

^30,266 

32,329 

^45,614 

38,714 

29,581 

38,978 

40,454 

39,497 



92 



37,116 

b/ 3,553 

o/ 3,682 

3,900 

e/ 3,785 

t/ 1,373 

228 

k/ 1,119 

5,742 

4,897 

2,512 

3,503 

3,421 



80 



8 



98,038: 24 

• 

4,742: 

6,751: 

5,121: 

6,185: 

10,390: 

h/ 10,406: 

5,278: 
12,816: 
12,952: 

9,913: 

7,070: 

6,415: 



305,007 : 76 



21,419 
17,386 
26,023 
41,739 
34,867 
h/ 38,645 
22,168 
25,011 
22,962 
16,817 
19,487 
19,103 



19 3 6a/ 



280,498 

33,451 
26,611 
28,130 
32,835 
'.£/ 49,520 
30,005 
36,065 
43,881 



94 : 16^922 



s/ 



1,972 
2,406 
3,312 
3,119 
1,958 
217 
755 
2,883 



19 3 1 



19 3 2 



1933 



British : % : : Oregon- : % : British : % : Oregon- : % : British : % : Oregon- i% 
Colombia ; tolC: Washington: totl: Colittmbia :totl: Washington: tota: Colombia ;to-tfl: Washington; tol 



(In thousand board feet measure] 



81,356 

3,190 

6,277 

6,179 

2,240 

9,232 

10,133 

14,951 

10,059 

5,313 

1,948 

3,913 

/ 7,921 



45 



98,397 

10,161 
7,045 

10,075 
9,347 
9,837 
8,971 
7,725 
8,082 
Of 040 
5,938 
5,897 
n/ 6,774 



55 



108,315 

2,442 

3,926 

d/ 6,634 

12,295 

11,506 

i/13,002 

14,751 

4,225 

9,168 

10,297 

a/ 7,264 

12,805 



71 



*/ 



S/ 



3,339 : 29 : 


271,072 


• < 

5,368 : : 


6,869 


2,663 : ; 


8,553 


4,039 : 


: 11,118 


4,395 : 


11,620 


4,240 : 


: 16,763 


4,359 : 


( 24,918 


3,161 : 


: J/22, 426 


2,539 : 


! 1/28,061 


1,865 : 


: 29,326 


3,651 : 


I 27,181 


3,441 : 


! 39,670 


3,618 : 


: 45,585 



83 



55,535 

4,466 
3,199 
3,967 
5,290 
5,070 
6,439 
J/ 7,010 
1/ 5,012 
3,191 
4,924 
2,671 
4,290 



a/ January to August, 1935, inclusiye. 

b/ United States off gold standard on January 31, 1934, 

0/ Loggers of British Columbia were on strike during February, 1934 

d/ British Empire Preferential Tariff became effective on March 15, 1932. 

% Poind SteSing started an upward trend in November. 1932. reaching and exceeding the 

normal rate in April, 1934, in which month it rose to 5.1342. 
t/ Strike of Longshoremen began May 9, 1934. 
b/ Code abandoned on May 27, 1935. 

W Hawley.-Smoot Tariff became effective on June 18, 1930. 

i/ Revenue Act of 1932 became effective on June 21. ^^^hing its noanal value, 
j/ Canadian Currency started an upward trend in July. 1933, reacning ixs noin^x 
k/ Strike of longshoremen ended July 29, 1934. 
1/ Code approved on August 19, 1933. 

Z/ Pound Sterling reached a low of 3.2752 in ^^«^^«^' ^»f^. 
t/ Canadian Currency reached a low rate of .804558 on December 16, 1931. 

Source of Statistics: Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau 



17 



9613 



-28- 
CHABT P 



PER CENT 
100 



SOFTWOODS 

EXPORTS OF LUMBER AND SAWN TIMBER TO THE 
UNITED KINGDOM, BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
1929. 1932 AND 1934 

ON PERCENTAGE BASIS 









: 








^ '■" I 




.,c -: 









- 


.6 3 V 


•.•.'.'3 


6 


i':-!': 


19 6 


241 




* 


!"I*!'I 


- 23 5 




li •;■ '■■■■*' 


?;':';'; :;,!,;';;:'!'■ ' 11"" 

26 C ,„i,; 

:';■ '■ ■;,f 
»'i ,' 1 •• . .■•i-i'-i 




I; ■ SB4, ■ , ,:| 




ii:::,.'.' ::.:>-: 




■■■!';■■■•■•'■■■?. 9 ■■■■■■ ■■•-■■ 


;;;;.:. ;i,S.;;;;:,; 



PER CENT 
iOO 



1929 



19 32 



1934 



CD in 



UNITED STATES 



Uu^ - * 



ALL OTHERS 




OTAL 
4,419,619 

1934 



SOURCES' BRANDT, LONDON 

FOREIGN COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION OF THE UNITED STATES 
COMMERCE OF CANADA 

FOREIGN TRADE OF U.S.S.R.FOR FIRST 5-VEAR PLAN 
SVERISES OFFICIELL* STATISK 



N RA 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 

STATISTICS SECTION 

NO. 411 



9613 



-29- 



United States has relatively lost ground in the last few years. 

The acconpanying table, # 10, vriiich gives the monthly shipments 
from the States of 17ashington and Oregon, and the Province of British 
Coliimhia, illustrates the coupetitive situation during the past six and 
one-half years, and indicates the principal factors affecting the market 
for American species in the United Kinghom, 

Influence of Russian and Baltic Shinraents in the United Ivinp-dom Market 

Other factors have ha,d their influence, particularly Russian ship" 
nents from the ¥hite and Kara, Seas. Following the estahlishment of the 
five-year plan in Russia, softwood shipments %o the. United Kingdom in- 
creased hy leaps and hounds, at prices which were largely now competitive 
as far s,s the United States and Canada were concerned. On representations 
from the Cans^dian Crovernnent, ,and in retaliation for Comm.unistic activities 
in the United Kingdom, an emhargo was placed hy G-reat Britian on lumher 
shipments from Russia in 1935, which was later ameliorated to permit the 
import of Russian Irunher on a quota "basis. Contracts have heen made 
annually subsequent ther-pto^ which has definitely predeternined the amoimts 
of softwood luiaher to bo admitted to the United Kingdom from Russia. The 
exports- of Finland to the United Kingdom have; risen materially through 
pressure to maintain its trade balance, by the sale of this one readily 
convertible natural resource. The production of Swedish lumber is on a 
national sustained yiel.d basi.s and there is little chance of a substantial 
increase in production in that country, hence an increase in its export, 

: Comipetitioja with Canaxla 

: Shipment-s to the United Kingdom from the- United States have not main- 
tained their -relative position, the prinpipaL change coming at the time 
the British pref erentia;l tariff became effective in March, 1932. Total 
shipments frojm the West; Coast in 1932, 1933 and 1934, however;, aggregate 
far in excess, of any i3r;eviously reeorded shipments, so that whatever the 
cause,, obviously th,e increase in shipments from British, Columbia were not 
a;ll at the exrpense of the United States' manufacturers. Such factors as 
e:xchan_ge rates, the. establishment of quo;tas for Russian lumbe;r,'and active 
trade promotion through a. British Columbia lumber trade commissioner in 
the Unitt-d Kingdom, all had their effect. Prom every indication the swing 
to Canada had comiienced before the Lumber Code or IffiA and monthly ship- 
ment figures would not indicate any material change following the abandon- 
ment of the code in May, 1935.* - 

Another important factor in the United Kinghom market has been the 
trent by that country towards using cheaper gra,des of liomber in building 
construction and the significance of this trent should be kept in mind. 
The bulk of the lumber used today for building construction in the United 
Kingdom is so-called "fifth grade". This grade of chea,per lumber is more 
readily available in quantity in Russia, Sweden and Finland and more re- 
cently Poland and Latvia than in either the United States or Cans.da, as 
the type of timber manufactured into lupber in North America runs on the 



See Chapter X, discussion of the effect of code provisions 
Page 57 on export trade. 



9613 



-30- 



TABLE 11. 



SOFTWOOD EXPORTS: 



IMITED STxVTES ME CUTADIAU SHAJffi OF UNITED 
KliTGDOM I,J\5I'CET 





: : Per Cent : 




: Per cent: Total 


; Per cent 


Year ' 


- : United States : of : 


Canada 


: of : U.K. 


: of 1 




: ' ! total : 




: t otal : Import 


: total 



(Li ft. 13.™.) 



1929 


: ■ 221,760 


6.3 


157,410 


. 4.5 


3,525,390 


100 


1930 


: 253,440 


■ 7.7 


■ 153,350 


5.0 


3,276,500 


100 


1931 


: 158,400 


5.2 


108,900 


3.6 


3,018,510 


100 


1932 


: • 85,140 


2.9 


152,460 


5.2 


2,920,500 


100 


1933 


95,776 


2.5 


4-^9,860 


11.0 


3,804,316 


100 


1934 


83,419- 


l.S 


311,800 


18.0 


4,419,619 


100 • 



Source: See Tatle - World Imports and Exports page - 15.. 



9613 



-31- 



cverage to a much higher grade. As this is a more or less new develop- 
ment, its ultimate effect on this important narhet can only he conjectur- 
ed. 

The effect of exchange rates and tariff provisions should receive a 
great deal more detailed study, as unquestionably they are the dominant 
factors in this competitive market. 

CKIM 

In terras of softwood lumber imports, China, in 1934, was the sixth 
largest market in the world, China obtains practically all its needs 
from the United States, Canada and Russia. In 1934, China was our second 
largest customer, being only exceeded by Japan, and it purchased more soft- 
wood Iximber from the United States than from any other nation. 

It is a market which has remained open on a competitive basis and as 
such is a clearer index of the effect of code provisions on export trade 
than that of almost any other co-untry. Shipments from Washington, Oregon, 
and British Columbia to China, shoma in table # 12,. represent the bulk 
of the business and are, therefore, indicative of the trent. The in- 
crease in total shipments from British Columbia in 1952 9.nd 1933 is proba- 
bly attributable to more favorable exchange rates. 

Also attached is a bar chart, f E , revealing the percentages and 
trends of our competitors in this market. 

Up to November, 1935, China's monetary system was based on a silver 
standard, and therefore subject to fluctuation in a,ccordance with the 
price of silver. Statistics of Chinese foreign trade bears evidence that 
the value of such trade fluctuates inversely to the price of silver* 

With the low prices of silver in 1929 to 1933, trade in and with 
China had a boom, wholesale price indices of commodities rising as the 
price of silver fell, lerding to speculation in commodities and real estate, 
Tflhen silver prices in the world market started to rise in 1933, this trend 
was reversed in China and wholesale price indices started to fall, with 
the resultant tendency to convert commodities and real estate into money 
(silver). Deflation set in and, as the price of silver rose, the country 
was plunged into depression, values falling so that eventually frozen 
assets in the form of lop.ns on high values established during the boom 
caused the failure, early in 1935, of many important banlcs, 

\?hile internal conditions in China are chaotic and ujicertain, com- 
plicated Idj Japanese penetration into Manchuria and North China, there is 
little doubt that silver has oeen and is, one of the dominating factors 
affecting commerce and foreign tr.-^de. Obviously, a detailed study of 
silver and its relationship to the China market would take more time than 
is warranted in the short time available. Hov/ever, as previously pointed 
out such factors .affect all countries selling to China, and thus study of 
the Chinese lumber trade throws more light on the effect of external factors, 
such as the Luiaber Code provisions than study of the trade of any other 
important lumber importing country. 



9613 



Softwoods: 



-3&- 
TMSat 12 

Exports from British Colombia and Oxygon- Was Mngtoa to 
China 



Honth 



19 2 9 : 19 3 

British : % ofi Oregon- : % ott British: %'6t: Oregon- : % 6t 
Colxaabia ; total: Washington : total; Colaabia; total; Washington: total 



J 1 9 S 1 : 1 9 S 8 ; 

: British ; % J Oregon- : ^ : British : % : Oregon- : % : British : % 
Colombia ; tot, : Washington: tot, : Colombia ;tot«t Washington; tot.: Colombia ; tot.; Washington; tot 



1 9 S_3 

Oregon- ; % 



•otal 

January 
Fcbraary 
Uaroh 
^pril 

ifay 

Jane 

ffuly 

iugust 

September 

October 

HoToaber 

December 



Ototal 

Jaaoazy 

February 

Ifeirdh 

i&pril 

Ifey 

June 

July 

Augnst 

September 

October 

November 

December 



(la thousands M ft. b.m. ) 



43,323 : 11 


: 334,652 : 89 


: 55,224 : 21 


: 212.285 : 79 


• 

2,529 : 


• e 

: 11,636 ; 


• • 

: 5,664 : 


: 12.694 : 


1,407 : 


: 15,236 ; 


! 1,726 : 


: 15,352 : 


2,826 : 


: 47,245 ; : 


: 3,962 : 


: 11,281 : 


1.453 : 


: 29,859 : 


. 3,921 : 


1 18,153 : 


2,099 : 


: 31,069 : ! 


4,708 : 


21,180 : 


1.122 : 


: 28,170 : 


i/ 3,766 : 


: 1/ 21,462 : 


3,736 : 


! 31,614 : : 


10,511 : ! 


35,401 : 


7,277 : 


1 45,783 : i 


5.616 : i 


U,642 : 


7.414 : i 


41,323 : : 


7,052 : 1 


t 19,473 : 


5.433 : : 


29,782 : : 


3,846 } 


9,801 : 


2,031 : : 


15,927 : : 


1,231 : : 


12,228 : 


5,996 : : 


6,994 : 


3.222 t ; 


23,618 : 



19 3 4 



(In thousands U ft. b.m.) 



53,854 

1,594 
2,683 
2,276 
6,576 
5,622 
5,486 
7,467 
4,908 
3,679 
5,870 
3,979 
.2/ 3,714 



15 



:i!/ 



314,477 

15,847 
23,884 
19,761 
20,513 
35,979 
43,473 
38,467 
31.210 
24,335 
27,740 
17,595 
15,683 



85 



53,341 : 29 



: 



3,201 

10,062 

d/ 801 

1,115 
J/ 2,663 
3,942 
6,657 
4,021 
8,646 
n/ 4,198 
8,035 



131,652 

19,620 
6,785 
:d/ 7,620 
5,419 
: 12,971 
:J/ 10,443 
6,979 
17,136 
11.886 
12,439 
/ 9,659 
10,605 



71 



130,597: 34 : 253,518 :66 



8,823: 
8,115; 
8,103: 
8,145; 

12,512: 

11,206: 
9,451: 
it^ 18,036; 
8,585: 

16,228: 
!jo/ 12,131 

11,160 



9,430 
15,807 
27,396 
28,266 
29,651 
35,737 
24,406 
/ 25.634 
18,121 
. 12,948 
!0/ 12.921 
12,999 



19 3 5a/" 



b/16,265 
b/12,363 
: if^LO 
^10,543 
e/ 7,776 
]^10.040 
1/ 8.015 
6,640 
1.655 
11,898 
9,703 
4,071 



BH 



:b/ 12,861 
;c/ 29,118 
i , 38,099 
it/ 44,085 
^J 15,466 
l^ 1,545 
:l/ 5,490 
53,342 
23,340 
22.372 
45,677 
51,546 



76 



56,250 

7,244 
15,313 

e/ 8,277 
6,368 

h/ 7,054 
2,019 
3,646 
6.339 



24 



174,289 

29,656 

55,641 

e/ 19,282 

34,664 

h/ 14.746 

5,521 

12.205 

2.574 



76 



9613 



a/ Januairy to August. 1935. InclusiTs. 
V United States off gold standard on Januaiy 31, 1934.^ 
c / Loggers of British Columbia were on strike during February, 1934, 
d/ British aapire Preferential became effectlTC on March 15, 1932. 

e/ Failure of several large banks in China, 

i/ Pound Sterling started an upward trend in November, 1932, reaching and exceeding the 

normal rate in April, 1934, in which month it rose to 5.1342 
£/ Strike of Longshoremen began May 9, 1934. > 
h/ Code abandoned on May 27, 1935. ' 
i/ Hawley-Smoot Tariff became effective on June 18, 
j/ Revenue Act of 1932 became effective on June 21. 
W Silver Purchase Act became effective on June 19, 
1/ Strike of Longshoremen ended July 29, 1934,*- 
a/ Code approved on August 19, 1933, > 

§ Pound Sterling reached a low rate 0^3^^'^^^!^ ^rS^J^eif ^53, 
0/ Canadian Currency returned *° ^^^ J^^^ aSs^ on Dl^bei 16, 1931. 
£/ Canadian Currency reached a low rate or ,eu4ooo 

Source of Statistics: Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau 



1930. 
1934. 



fiHAUTi 



PER CeNT 
100 



SOFTWOODS 
EXPORTS OF LUMBER AND SAWN TIMBER 
TO CHINA, BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
1929,1932 AND 1934 

ON PERCENTAGE BASIS '^'' "^"^ 

100 




1929 



1932 



1934 



f.y^'^ 



UNITED STATES 



^P^ 



'«■■■«■»■ 

U,S S R 



MILLIONS 

OF UBM 

0.5 - 



IN THOUSANDS OF FEET BOARD MEASURE 



MILLIONS 
Of MSM 




932 



TOTAL 
436,096 

1934 



S0I/RC£S < FOREIGN COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION OF THE UNITED STATES 
THE FOREIGN TRADE OF CHINA- MARITIME CUSTOMS 
COMMERCE OF CANADA 
FOREIGN TRADE OF USSR. FOR FrRST S-YEAR PLAN 



NRA 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 

STATISTICS SECTION 

NO. 4 09 



9013 



-34- 

Tatlo #13, on page 36, , gives the monthly average value of silver 
in cents per ounce for the years 1953, 1934 pnd 1935 at New York a,ncL London. 

AUSTRAXIA 

Although Australia is not one of the eight principal important coun- 
tries, it ha.s been included in this report, ;orimarily, "because it illustrates 
the effect of the British Preferential Tariff on Empire trade. Statistics 
covering softwood shipments to Australia from Ifashington, Oregon, and 
British Columhia, the chief suppliers of softwood luraher, illustrate the 
effect of the British preferential tariff which caused a decline in our 
trade from 82 per cent of the total shiioped from Horth America in 1929 
to 5 per cent in 1933. 'Tlaile, "ondouhtedly, exchange rates and other factors 
caused minor fluctuations in the competitive situation, the dominant factor 
was the preferential ta.riif. A similar study and analysis of shipments to 
other British Dominion markets would prohahly reveal a similar trend. 

Tahle # 14 , given on page ITo. 57, gives the exports of softvroods 
hy quantity to Australia from Washington, Oregon and British Columhia dur^ 
ing the years 1929-1934 inclusive, and the first eight months of 1935, 

A har cha,rt given on page 38 shows the trend of the lumher exports 
of the ahove countries in the Australian market prior and suhsequent to the 
preferential tariff of 1932. 

JAPM 

Japan for many years has "been our best customer for softwoods, rang- 
ing from 765 million feet in 1929 to 297 million feet "board measure in 
1934, All imports of softwoods into Ja,pan originate from the "United States, 
Canada and Russia. Imports from Russia have fallen very materially in the 
past few years from a, high point of 399 million feet in 1930 to only 13 
million feet in 1934. 

In recent years, Japan ha,s "bought less and less sawn lum"ber and 
squares, "but has increased her purchases of logs and "bolts. A detailed 
study of this important market should he made an important part of any 
final report on foreign trade of the lumber industry, because it is one of 
the few major markets in which we have not lost our relative position dur- 
ing the past six years. Onl^'- recently, in retaliation for ta.riff restric- 
tions on Japanese good into Canada, an embargo was placed on Canadian 
lumber, with the result that shipments from Washington and Oregon, the 
principal region of supply, materially increased.* This is probably a 
teniporary condition -and Canada is eicpected to settle its current contro- 
versy with Japan and then normal trade rela.tions will be resumed, 

OTHER LARCrl, mCETIITG CCUITTRIES 

HollaJid, Germany, Italy, France and Denmarjt -are all large importers 
but the percentage shipped by the United States to these European countries 



* Table # 9 , Page 26. 
9813 



-35- 



is relatively small. Russia, Sweden and Finland supply the bulk of the 
softwood shipments to these countries. Lack of time to study these major 
markets does not permit any comment on the controlling factors. In 
France, import quotas, established with the idea of helping to stabil- 
ise the franc, have rediiced total imports* 



9613 



-36- 



T^LE 13. 



SILVER; MONTHLY AVERAGE VALUE AT IlIEll YCRK AID LGffi)CN 



(Cents Per Ounce) 





1933 


19; 


34 


1935 




Domestic 


London 


Domestic 


London 


Domestic 


London 


Yearly Average 


' 34.73 


31.98 


47.97 


44.53 


64.78 


59.71 


Janiia.ry 


25.40 


23.64 


44.19 


40.78 


54.40 


50.11 


Eetruary 


26.07 


24,08 


45.23 


4?.. 09 


54.60 


50.39 


March 


27.93 


25.16 


45.88 


43.04 


53.05 


54.49 


April 


30.73 


27.50 


45.18 


42.39 


67.79 


62.45 


May 


34.07 


31.21 ' 


44.23 


41.01 


74.36 


68.97 


June 


35<.66 


32,87 


45.17 


42.03 


71.94 


66.51 


July ! 


37.63 


35. 5C 


46.31 


43.14 


68.22 


53.00 


Auijust 


36.07 


33.54 


48.99 


45.12 


65.62 


61.04 


Septerater 


33.44 


35,52 


49.48 


45.55 


66.00 


60.40 


October ! 


38,19 


35.41 


52.38 


48.55 


_ 


_ 


Woveml)er ; 


42.97 


39.51 


54. 26 


50.43 


- 


— 


Decem'ber 


43.55 


39.31 


54.39 


50.29 


— 


— 



Source: Federal Reserve Board Bulletins 



9613 



-37- 



TABU 14 



Softwoods: Exports from British Columbia and Oregon- Washington to 

Australia 





: 19 2 


9 




: 


1 


9 3a 




Itcntla. 


: British : ?6 of: 


Oregon- 


: % of: British 


: % of 


: Oregon- 


: % of 




: Columbia : total: 


Washington 


: total 


: Columbia 


: total 


: Washington 


: total 






(In thousands M ft. b. 


m. ) 






Total 


: 41«494 


: IS 


: 224,632 


: 82 


: : 33,017 


: 40 


: 81,903 


: 60 


January 


: S47 




: 22,965 




: 7,745 




: 12,275 




February 


: 305 




: 9,774 




: 855 




: 15,165 




Uaroh 


: 1,598 




: 21,290 




3,807 




: 4,700 




April 


: 3,795 




: 15,551 




: 4,415 




: 9,344 




May 


1 2,431 




: 14,935 




: 4,461 




: 3,403 




<Jun« ; 


2,253 




: 21,122 




: h/ 558 




: h/ 2,836 




July J 


817 




! 11,871 




: 1,228 




: 7,804 




August ; 


4,464 




: 25,208 




; 5,616 




5 11,093 




September : 


6,463 




15,546 




: 1,263 




: 10,340 




October : 


9,359 




i 28,229 




l 1,254 




; 4,374 




NoTember : 


4,271 




I 25,756 




864 




2,417 




December : 


6,391 




I 14,385 




: 951 




3,152 






19 3 4 




1 i 


) 3 5 a/ 




Total : 


128,140 • 


90 : 


11,658 J 


. 10 i 


88,762 


: 82 : 


: 16,196 . 


. 18 


January : 


c/ 9,999 : 


100 : 


c/ ; 


: 


8,017 


: 60 : 


5,314 : 


40 


Fdbruaiy : 


d/14,368 : 


96 : 


d/ 607 : 


4 : 


8,081 


; 84 : 


1,536 : 


16 


March : 


10,183 : 


96 : 


450 : 


4 : 


7,988 


! 77 : 


2,335 : 


23 


April : 


e/10,720 : 


90 : 


e/ 1,127 : 


10 : 


12,563 


89 : 


1,550 : 


11 


May : 


^10,816 : 


95 : 


t/ 593 : 


5 : 


_^12,900 ! 


83 : 


g_/ 2,649 : 


17 


June : 


8,910 : 


96 : 


395 : 


4 : 


13,945 : 


93 : 


970 : 


7 


July : 


j/ 7,006 : 


97 : 


201 : 


3 : 


7,612 : 


99 : 


84 : 


1 


Augxist : 


16,730 : 


76 : 


5,322 : 


24 : 


17,656 i 


91 : 


1,758 : 


9 


Septeniber : 


8,479 : 


97 


249 : 


3 : 


: 


- : 


: 


- 


October : 


9,730 : 


100 : 


- : 


: 


- J 


- ; 


: 


- 


November : 


11,494 : 


91 : 


1,040 : 


9 : 


: 


- : 


: 


- 


December : 


9,705,: 

• 
• 


83 : 


1,674 : 


17 : 


* 


• 

• 
• 


— J 


— 



,^__^,_^ 1 9.3 2 

Oregon- : % : British : f> : Oregon- : 
Columbia : tot. :Washington; tot; Columbia : tot. ;yfeLahington; tot.: Columbia ; tot.; Washington; ttfe 



19 3 1 

: British : "/b 



19 3 3 

: British : ^ : Oregon- : % 



(In thousands M ft. b.m. ) 



50,803 

1,555 
946 
1,744 
2,131 
2,572 
4,323 
7,260 

±/ 4,667 
8,261 
3,957 
4,868 

a/ 9,119 



53 



26,724 

3,542 
684 
3,473 
3,401 
3,989 
3,961 
2,192 
'.k/ 1,641 
1,484 
1,811 
533 
/ 13 



47 



125,551 ; 


92 : 


4,372 • 


100 : 


5,979 ■ 


98 : 


14,262 


100 : 


7,389 


. 86 : 


7,948 


: 71 ; 


i/11,341 


: 88 : 


17,938 


: 96 : 


12,115 


:100 : 


7,487 


: 83 : 


. 11,459 


: 89 : 


^15,554 


: 96 : 


: 9,707 


: 94 : 



10,986 



117 

1,162 

3,239 

i/ 1,590 

780 

1,508 

1,392 

m/ 592 

606 



8 : 123,734 




2 

e 

14 

29 

12 

4 



17 

11 

4 

6 



b/ 7,371 
3,806 

15,062 
7,331 

15,631 

15,569 

6,511 

1/13,270 

7,505 

15,948 
8,969 
6,761 



95 : 6,913 



: 



90 
78 
95 
86 
96 
99 
89 
99 
99 
99 
91 
96 



i/ 



776 : 


10 


1,068 ! 


22 


857 


5 


1,211 


14 


568 


4 


152 


; 1 


787 


11 


176 


! 1 


56 


: 1 


119 


: 1 


869 


: 9 


274 


: 4 



1934. 
1934. 



a/ January to August, inclusive. , . t iq^« 

b/ Australian Pound Sterling starts an upward trend to normal in January, 1933. 

o/ United States off gold standard on January 31, 1934. 

V Loggers of British Columbia were on strike during February, 

^ Australian Pound Sterling returned to noimal value in April, 

f/ Strike of Longshoremen began May 9, 1934, 

g/ Code abandoned on May 27, 1935. ,„ -.o^n 

W Hawley-Smoot Tariff became effective on June 18, 1930. 

f/ Bevenue Act of 1932 became effective on June 21. 

j/ Strike of Longshoremen ended July 29, 1934. 

§ British En5.ire Preferential became effective on August 31. 1951. 

1/ Code approved on August 19, 1933. November, 1932. 

^ Australian Pound Sterling '«f ^^^^^^^^J ^^J^g o^^ceSer 16. 1931. 

n/ Canadian Currency reached a low rate of .804558 on l^cemo 



Source of Statistics; Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau 



9613 



-38- 



PER CENT 
100 



SOFTWOODS 
EXPORTS OF LUMBER AND SAWN TIMBER 
TO AUSTRALIA. BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
1929.1932 AND 1934 

ON PERCENTAGE BASIS 




UNITED 5TfiTE3 



ALL OTHERS 



0.4 I 



IN THOUSANDS OF FEET BOARD MEASURE 




TOTAL 
349,470 

1929 



A \m ~ 




1932 



TOTAL 
159390 

1934 



^u^ 




SOUffCE' BRANDT , LONDON 

FOREIGN COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION OF THE UNITED STATES 
COMMERCE OF CANADA 
SVERIGES OFFICIELLA STATISK 



NRA 

DIVISION OF REVIEW 

STATISTICS SECTION 

NO. 410 



9613 



-39- ■ 

CHAPTLa VI 

EPPECT or THE GODS OK U. S. LUt/iBSR EXF05T MAHKET 

The Lirnber Code as aiDoroved "by the President on August 19, 1933, 
in ac-.dition to labor ajid fair trade practice provisions, provided for 
production control under Article VIII sjid cost -orotection (minimum 
prices) ujider Article IX. (Heference; Approved Code No. 9.) The 
possible 'effect of such provisions on export r'as a matter of conjecture, 
Actup.lly, as far as specific provisions of the code were concerned, 
export trade was specifically mentioned in only one instaJice. 

P HODUCTION COWTaOL OE- EXPORTS 

Article VIII, Production Control provided; 

"(a) To effectuate the declared purpose of this code 
in respect of maintaining a reasonable balance between 
the production and the consumption of lumber and timber 
products and to assume adequate supplies thereof, the 
Aiithority shall determine, and from time to time revise, 
not less frequently than each three months, except as 
. hereinafter otherwise provided, estimates of expected 
consmaption, including expo rts, of lumber and timber 
products of each division and subdivision; and based 
thereon it is empor-ered to establish, and from time to 
time revise, production quotas for any division or sub- 
division of the lumber and timber products industries." 

The thou^-ht of the committee representing the industry in including 
prodiiction for export in quotas was that, with the domestic market 
protected, by quota restrictions pjid minimum prices, and without some 
control on e:q3ort, those mills equipped and in a Toosition to engage in 
export trade would enter into a mad scramble for such business, even at 
extremely low iprices, in order to increase production and thereby obtain 
the resultant lowering of overhead costs of all production, including 
that sold in the protected domestic market. Any such action taken by 
the manufacturers, with prices considerably below those in the domestic 
market, might occrsion reprisals by importing countries and the invocation 
of dujnping act provisions. 

However, in order to insure any operator having a large enough 
allotment to fill any export order, the code further -orovided in 
Article VIIIS 

"(h) TTiienever in the case of any eligible person it 
shall be necessary in order to accept and execute orders 
for export, to have an addition to his regular allotment, 
provision for such necessary excess shall be made by the 
Division or Subdivision agency, provided that any excess 
above his allotment shall be deducted from his subsequent 
allotment or allotments," 

Almost inmedia-tely following the approval of the code by the 
President on August 19, 1933, one large operator on the Pacific Coast 

9613 



-40- ■ 

raised o"bjection to the inclusion of export in quota allotments and, 
follorring representations to NBA., the Luinter Code Authority was 
requested ty MEA to talce some steps to alleviate the situa,tion. At 
a meeting of ■ the Control Comiiiittee in Portland, Oregon, in Eeceraher, 1933, 
follo^7ing a hearing at which the preponderance of the manufacturers 
present op-iosed any change hut, faced with the possihility that exports 
would be excluded from production quotas if no action was taken, the 
committee approved an amendment to the code known as Amendment No. 35; 
(Reference: Minutes of National Control Comnittee Meeting, 
Deceraher 12, 1933.) 

"Strike out Section (h) of Artic],e VIII and insert in 
lieu thereof the following: 

'(h) In addition to allotnients to eligihle persons under 
other sections of this Article, any such person shall- he. 
entitled to a special allotment equal to 50 per cent of 
his ercoorts during any allotment period as determined hy 
evidence of actual shipment in export trade , and such 
special allotment may he used during the actual or next 
sticceeding allotment period; Provided, hoi^ever, that 
ivhenever it shall he necessary for any eligible nerson, 
in order to acce^Dt and execute orders for exriort, to have 
an ac.c.ition to his regular and special allotments, 
provision for such necessary excess for exportation 
shall he made by the Division or Subdivision agency, 
and such excess shall be deducted from his subsequent 
allotment or allotments over a period of not to exceed 
six L.ionths. ' " 

The opposition to this provosed amendment was so vigorous that 
the viatter wa.s held in abeyance and laid before the full meeting of 
the Luiiber Code Authority, The principal objection to the -proposed 
amendjient was that it "ould -oermit any nanufacturer selling in export 
to produce and sell stock in the domestic market in excess of his 
quota. As the code provided that all mills must be given an equitable 
allotment based on a definite formula for all mills in a division, 
such a provision as proposed in the amendment would be inequitable. 
Following discussion, a special committee on. export was appointed by 
the Cho.irnan of the Authority which, after several extended open 
meeti-ngs, submitted proposals to the Authority v/hich led to the 
approval of an amendment to the code, later submitted to NBA for 
aporovrl and hnovm as amendment No, 54, a,s follows: 

"In Article VIII, strike out Section (h) and substitute 
therefor the follov/ing: 

" (h) (l) Wlienever in the cs-se of any eligible person 
it slir,ll be necessary, in order to accept and execute 
orders for export to have an addition to his regular 
?..llotnent, provision for such necessary excess shall 
be -.-.lade by the Division or Subdivision agency, provided 
that ajiy excess above his allotment shall be deducted 
from his subsequent allot;:ent or allotments over a 
period not to exceed six -^lonths. 



961C 



-41- 

'(2) JJ'or the p-urpose of maintaining as far as practicable 
the use of American lin-aber in foreign markets and to carry- 
out the p-ua-;ooses of the National Industrial Recovery Act, 
ea.ch Division or SuMivision may, at its option, elect in, 
respect of the control of exports within such Division or 
SuMivision one or more, or none, of the following options: 

'A. No eligible person shall he considered to have 
exceeded his allotment'for any period or if the excess 
aoove his regular allotment does not exceed 50';o of his 
exports as shown "by actual shipment in export trade during 
the same allotment period, 

•B, Any eligible person, at his option, may make 
application to the agency and be given a classification 
as an e:cport operator. Such person who is willing to 
forego any specific portion of his regular allotment, 
based on the total export and domestic quota, shall 
be permitted to produce and export twice the portion 
.of this allotment which he has foregone, and no such 
person shall be considered to have exceeded his 
allotment if the excesa above such allotment does 
not exceed the amount of export production so registered 
with the agency, 

'C. Any Division or Subdivision may, subject to the 
special conditions herein, designate certaan qualities 
or items of lumber and timber products, which qualities 
or iteus may be ;>3roduced by any eligible person in excess 
of his allotment, provided that he furnish satisfactory 
evidence to the agency of the Authority that such items 
have actually been exported,' 

"TTlienever and when under any of the options of this Section 
any additional allotment is granted to siij eligible person 
for export purposes, such eligible person shall make such 
reports as the Agency may require periodically, or as often 
as 'it iiay direct to prevent evasion of this Section, 

"On Application of a Division or Subdivision, the Authority 
ma.y authorize the aioplication of any one or more of these 
options in respect to the ex;port of lumber and timber 
products." 

A hearing was held on this aj-aendnent on March 27 and March 30, 1934, 
(See transcript of hearings on the Lumber and Timber Products Industries, 
Modification Proposal - March 27, 1934 and March 30, 1934.) 

Hiile supported by the large majority of the manufacturers, it was 
opposed by a small group of large manufacturers on the Columbia River 
and Coos Bay regions of Oregon. It was charged 'hy these objectors that 
the code as written acted as an embargo on exports and asked that exports 
be excluded from quotas, (Transcript of Hearing on Ltimber and Timber 
Products Industries' Amendments, March 30, 1934, page 401.) 



9613 



-42- 

A "brief filed by one of these conipaxiies (Transcript of hearing on 
the L-uu-ioer and -Timber Products Industries, March 27, 1934, Sup-oleraent 
No. 4), contains a statement and figures covering competition with 
Canada in the China market purporting to show that the provisions of the 
code vrere swinging the China l-umber trade to Canada: 

"In the nine months to Septe^nher 30, 1933, Canada percentage 
of the China Fir trade v/as 29,8;o. 

"From October 1,' 1933 to January 31, 1934 (that is before 
affected by the Canadian loggers' strike), Canada had 51.8fo, 

"The United States' share had declined from 70.2^/o to 48. 2^/0. 

"Sinilarly, as to all Douglas Fir ex'^ort to all countries, 
before the embargo Canada, had 445oj after the embargo 64.4^. 
The decline in the United States' share after the embargo 
was from 55,2/o to 35,6^. 

"The briefs of the t\70 gentlemen are filed i='ith discussion 
of the British tariff, the U. S. tariff and the greater 
depreciation of the Canadian dollar. They fail to mention 
that the British and American tariffs were in full force 
long before January 1, 1S33, and had a neglL-^ible effect 
as betueen the nine months before the four months after 
our embargo on export. More significant, they fail to 
state that '.vhile the decline in the American dollar was 
in full effect after the exnort embargo, yet the business 
and enployment shifted to Canada thereafter, 

"Tlie detail of the above fij?ures is 'as fallows; 

Loss of China Fir export business from 
Oregon and Washington to British Colunbia 
After export embargo 



B. C. Oregon-Wash. 



January 

February 

March 

Aijril 

May 

J"une 

July 

August 

September 



8,923 


9,430 




8,. 115 


15,807 




8,, 103 


27,398 




8,145 


28,266 




12,512 


29,851 




11 , 203 


35 , 737 




9,451 


24 ',406 




16,036 


25,634 




8,585 


18,121 


Both 


91,078 


214,650 


305,7; 



9613 



-43- 



"Slii;o;ients and ..per- ) 

centage .until exp.ort ) 

euopxgp affected .orders) 
- i .",.'■■ ■• 

October 
November 
DecemlDer 
January 



) 


29.85^ 


,70.2^ 


lOOfo 




16 , 238 
12,131 
11,160 
16,265 
55,784 


12,948 
12,921 

12,999 
12,861 
51,729 


Both 
107 , 5: 


) 

) 
) 


51,8^ 


42.2fo 


lOOfa 



516,951 


136.54fo 


55,2fi 


lOOfo 


166,150 


464,133 


35,6fo 


IOO5J 



"Shipments and per- 
centage from embargo 
to B, C. strike 

"Loss of total Fir 'business to all countries from U. S. to 
Cenada. after export embargo; 

Jan. 1 to Sept, 30) 419,596; 

effective date em—) 

bar go ) 44.8^0 

Oct. 1, 1933 to ) 293,983 
Jan. 31, 1934 to ) 
Canadian strike ) 64, 4^0 

"It is arguable that the higher wages and shorter hours of 
the United States mills are factors in the above shift of 
e:r)ort trade 'from the United States to Canada. Then there 
is still less excuse for denying freedom to the really com- 
petent lov.' cost exporters to save such remnants of the 
ikusrican ex-oort trade to China, and else^^rhere, for them- 
selves and for United States labor, as their ;nore effici- 
ent fighting power enables them ta do," 

It is interesting to note that this araend.ient I'ps never airoroved 
by ICLA. because the Legal Division i.TOuld not auorove further discretions.ry 
powers being gra.nted to t'he Authority and the Division- of Research and 
Planning held the opinion that export should be specifically excluded 
from quotas. To these proposals the Authority time and again refused 
to accede. The result of this long dra\';n out controversy was that the 
provisions of the code regarding export remained unchanged up to the 
time the code was abandoned in May, 1935, An ex.?raination of the 
shipments to China from Washington and Oregon, and British Columbia, 
during all this Tjeriod and subsequently (See Table # 12, page 32) 
proves the daiiger of using statistical data covering a short period of 
time as bji index of a definite trend. 

The subsequent fi,gures do not substantiate the claims of the 
objectors to these code provisions, as in 1934, after Canadian currency 
returned to a-iyoroximately its normal exchange rate with the U. S. dollar, 
the conpetitive situation sv-iong in favor of the United States, 

Of the total business, in 1S33, British Colunbia secured 34^ and 
Washington and Oregon 65^; in 1934, British ColuTibia secured 24^ and 
Washington and Oregon 76)^. In the first nine months of 1935, British 



-44- 

Golinn'bia shipraents constituted 24^ of the "business, ^Thile Washington and 
Oregon shipped 76)o, . ;..^^ 

From the fi.eures availaMe, it is not possihle to reach a irire^cise 
conclusion as to the extent to which the provisions of the lupilDer -code 
affected the volume of trade, apart from other factors, such as tariffs, 
emhargoes, quotas and exchange rates. 

PRICE CONTaOL OF EXPORTS 

Faile it was the "belief of the Lumher Code Authority that it rjas 
empowered under the code to estalilish export prices, no such rjrices -ere 
put into effect, because the necessity of meeting foreign competition 
required rapid adjustment and change, which were not possible under the 
code provision requiring ten days' notice of change. An attempt was 
made to reuedy this object ionable feature and permit the establisliment 
of aininujn erqoort prices. An araendiiient , kno^m as Amendment No, 49, quote.d 
beloiT, Mc.s submitted to IJRA: 

"Ar.ienc'^.ient i"o. 49. In Article IX add the following 
nev' Section after Section (j): 

*(k) Any Division or Subdivision may, siibject to 
the disapproval of the Authority, establish, re- 
vise and modify minimum prices and differentials, 
and rules and reg-olations pertaining thereto, ap- 
plying, to export sales, sales for export and sales, 
for resale for ex^port, for any or all of the prod- 
ucts -under its jurisdiction, to become effective 
at the expiration of 48 hours or no re, as specified, 
from date of issuance of notice thereof to "oersons 
stibject to the jurisdiction of the Division or Sub- ., 
division; -orovided that the Division or Subdivision 
issuing such notice to persons subject to its jur- 
isdiction shall at the same ti le and by the same 
method issue similar notices to the Authority, to 
, the Divisional Adiainistrative Agency (if issued by . i 

a Subdivision), and at the expense thereof' to any 
other Divisions and Subdivisions or persons request- 
ing such notice,'" 

On f-orther consideration, the industry never pushed the 'passage of 
this amendment and it was never approved by MIA, 



9613 



-45- 
CHilPTER YII 

EXPORTS OF OTHER FOREST PRODUCTS 

Douglas Fir Plywood Er:ports 

The export of plywood, particularly Douglas Fir Plyi70od, is a grow- 
ing tusiness. In 1933, Douglas Fir Plywood was approxinately 99^ of the 
total exports and in 1934, approximately 9dfo, In the last few months a 
sales org-.nization has been created - the Pacific Forest Industries of 
Tacoma, Vfeshington. * This was organized and incorporated under the Wehh- 
Poraerene Act for the purpose of stabilizing the export raarket and the 
promotion of sales. 

In view of its growing importance, .a detailed study of this trade 
should he made, 

"iftllTED STATES EXPORTS OF PLYWOOD 



' 1 ' 

Year 




Square feet 




$ Value 


1929 




33,381,913 




1,642,219 


1930 




37,890,534 




1,542,435 


1931 




33,531,139 




1,084,783 


1932 




31,735,799 




755,014 


1933 




68,114,411 




1,509,720 


1934. ■ 




. 61,421,913 




, 1,700,076 


Source: 


Foreign Comnerce 


and Hai 


ligation of 



the United States 

The Douglas Fir Plywood Industry was organized under the Lumber Code 
as a subdivision of 'the West Coast Division, No provisions of the code 
applied to exports, as Douglas Fir Plywood Inaustry did not apply for 
and operate under a quota "ontil the last month the code remained in 
operation. The quota, as applied, covered total production of domestic 
and export for each operation. Inasmuch as the code was- ab-^ndoned be- 
fore any conclusions could be reached as to the effect of n^roduction con- 
trol on the export market, it is idle to speculate or attempt to drawa 
comparison with the lumber export trade. It is sufficient to state that 
the market was demoralized to the extent that this industry sought a 
means of stabilization and applied to the Luraber Code Authority for pro- 
duction control, including export production, in the quota as a means of 
accomplishing that purpose. It is unfortunate that the abandonment of the 
code shortly thereafter precluded any possibility of determining the 
efficacy of the program, 

DQUGLx^S riR DOOR EXPORTS 

The export of Douglas Fir Doors, while not a very large percentage 
of our total exports of forest products, is, nevertheless, important and 
particularly so as it .presents an opportunity to draw comparisons with 



* "Facts about Douglas Fir Plywood" - Pacific Forest Industries 
9613 



-4? 



a93i 

1932 
1933 



the e;cperience of l\xm'ber under code provisions, Doiiglas Pir Doors for 
e:cport are sold in a highly competitive market, the major one "being the 
United Kingdom where, in addition to competing with other foreign 
countries, it must compote with a large donestic production fabricated 
from impo:r;ted woods. ■ ■ . 

UHITED STATES EXPORTS C? DOPES 

Year II-ajn"ber " . $ Value . 

1929 2,140,414 . 3,987,081 

1930 1,806,160 3,027,341 

1,987,071 2,718,949 

1,009,755 1,023,433 

2,091,711 2,014,699 

1934 1,476,205 1,677,580 

Source: Foreign Coranerce and Mr'Vigation of 
the United States, 

The Douglas Eir Door Industry "as .organized under the LiMil^er Code 
as a subdivision of the West Coast Division, Minimum prices were estab- 
lished for the domestic market hut production was not -olaced under control 
through the provision of Article VIII (Production Control). No prices 
\iere established ,:5or export, vrith the result that the domestic market "be- 
ing protected "by minimum 3riccs was a scramble for foreign trade to ah- 
sorh the overproduction which occurred through lac]-: of control and aliility 
to unload surplus stocks in the dolucstic market at cut prices. 

The usual procedure to ohtain "business w^s followed, with extremely 
low prices, considerably below those set for the domestic market, being 
offered foreign buyers. The ultima.te result of"" this price cutting was 
that the British Gove rnrnL-nt , in order to protect the domestic producer, 
invoked the anti-d-omping laws '-jid imposed additi-onal duty on Douglas 
Pir Doors. Too late, the industry decided to remedy the situation and 
took steps toward applying to the Lumber Code Authority for production 
control, but the Schechter decision halted this attempt to stabilize 
exports of Douglas Pir Doors, . ' ' 



9613 



-47- 



CHAPTEH VIII 



IIviPORTS 



IMRODU€TION 



.Imports of sawn liimter and timber into the United States have 
"been principally softwoods from Canada. As long as lumher was on 
the free list the amounts ship'oed into this country were substantial, 
but following, the imposition of $1.00 per M board feet tariff under 
the Hawley-Sm-Oot Tariff Act, passed by Congr^s in June, 1930, and 
$3.00 per M board feet under the Revenue Act of June, 1932, the 
amount of imports dropped to an insignificant tota.l in comparison 
with totcl domestic consumption. 

Imports of hardwoods into the United States, with the exception 
of maple from Canada and small quantities from Japan and Russ.ia, are - 
largely made up. of .tropical hardwoods such as mahogany, PhilipDine 
mahogany and so.^called fancy woods such as rosewood, oriental wood 
and Spanish cedar. Most of .these trot)ical hardwoods are used for 
special purposes or go into the furniture industry, mostly in the 
form of veneer and plywood. • 

Table #15, on page 49, gives the impoTts by board foot mea.sure 
of our principal kinds of woods, which woods constitute a vast majority 
of totai imports. 

In addition. Table #16, on page 50, and Table #17 on page 51, 
give peruhient information of lumber and timber imports into the United 
States. (See also Table 18, p. 52 and Table 19, p. 53). 



9613 



-1-3- 

CHA?T?1R IX 

EFITECT 0? SBGTIOF 5(Ej Ori^ HE .ILJIOITAL IJIDUSTPJAL E3C0VSIIY 
AC7 o: : THZ LUiR ZZ IM)USTIIY 

While Section 3 (c; of the JTabioual Industrial Itecovery Act provi- 
ded means for restrictiiag imports of products in competition with domes- 
tic products produced under code prcvicions, no conjjlaint v;as filed 
i,7ith iJHA. in respect to l"an"ber and sa^rn timber. The problem of imports 
in their influence on domestic production, labor and conservation is 
largely a question of tariff, -^s such l-omber imports have from time to 
time been the subject of investigation by the United States Tariff Com- 
mission, reference is made to Heport to the President on Lumber, ITo. 32, 
Second Series, - United States Tariff Commission - 1952, 

IThen lumber prices \7ere lo:; the $4,00 tariff acted as a virtual em- 
bargo and only following a rise in prices, such as occurred during the 
strike in the luiuber industry of the Douglas Pir region, did imports of 
softwoods sho\? any appreciable amounto^ 

The trade agreement bet-veei the United States and Canada was signed 
on i\Tovem.ber 15, 1935, (State Departn.'nt ajid Commerce Department docu- 
ments). This agreement reduced the rate on Dumber 50^i, so that the com- 
bined tariff and revenue charges'will be redi'.ced to $2,00. The only 
reservation is that the reduce'd tariff vnll onl;?^ applj- to 250,000,000 
feet of Doii^las Fir and western hemlock annually. This limitation is not 
a quota restriction but a tariff limitation. Any amounts in excess of 
the 250,000,000 feet will enter rt the old rate of $4.00. -The new rates 
in the agreement 'will become effective January l,' 1936, and the effect 
on imports caai onl3'- be conjectured. The reduction in ra"fees' applies to 
any quantities of other soecies and will probablj'- lead to increase in 
shipments, pa,rticularly s^^race, into the United States eastern market, 

CODF ■ •'B 0-/TSI01I3 " iI'? nGTI2T& 'IKFOHTS 

Tlie only provisicni affecting im-ocrts were those set up under the 
Ivlahogany and the Phili-^pine f'ahogany Subdivisions., the ouroose of which 
was to provide for con-.ro'i of the quantity'- of imports as no other form 
of production coatrox ■. -^s feasible, 

MAHOGAlff 

Under Schedule "A'' Jf the Lumber Code and Lahogany Subdivision: 

"COiTTEOL C? PHODUCTIOK (iLDr'ORTS) AP-TICLE VIII: Quotas of 
imports or production est.-.blished for the Mahogany Sub- 
division, and allotments thereof to eligible persons there- 
in, in the discretion nf its Administrative Agency/ and with 
the approval of the Lumber Code Authorityj may be for per- 
iods greater than three months and may be b3,sed on ship- 
ments, provided that no such person shall be precluded 
tliereby from imports or production sufficient to maintain 
at the end of any allotment -oeriod an inventory of logs 
and lumber eqi\al in footage to the volune of his shii^ments 
during the preceding calendar year." 
9613 



-49- 

TABLE 15 
UinTED STATES II\l[PORTS OP SPECIFIED LUMBER iED TIIvBEl PRODUCTS 





1929 


1930 : 1931 




M ft. h.m. 


$1,000. 


M ft. h.m. 


$1,000:M ft.h.m. 


$1 , 000 


To.tal - . ; : 


1 , 848 , 863 


54,382. 


1,396,865 


• 

37,321:-'932,860 ; 


20 , 421 


Logs ■ ' ■ ; , 


192,176 


3,456 


101,868 


2,925:151,036 


. 2,442 


HardiTOod's _ /, 


- 


- 


1,687 


. 511:1-2,662 


725 


Softv^ood's ' ■ ■ ' ' [ ' 


192,176 


3,466 


100,181 


2,414:148,374 


. 1,717 


Cabinet: t;oo&.s in' log' \ ; 


'81,264 


6,633 


50,507 . 


3,493:- 21,994 


1,390 


Cabinet' Troods saffed ; 


'38, Hi ' 


' 1,907; 


31 , 387 


1,677: 22,315 . 


1,057 


Railroad ties a/' '_ ! 


27,630 


736 


21,288 


581: ■•11,842 ' 


291 


Sawed iDoards & lUmlDer '_ : 


1,504,075 


41,395; 


1,185,903 


28,267:722,736 ; 


15,080 


Hardwoods '_ ! 


85 , 656 


4,875 


39 , goo 


■2,051; :24,.458 


1,019 


Sof t'-'oods ' : 


1,418,419 


36,520 


1,146,103 


26,216:698,278 . 


•14,061 


Box shocks ]b/ ! 


5 , 007 


255 


5,912 


378: 2,937 


161 




19: 


52 


. 1933 : - 1934 


Total : 


494,594 . 


9 , 705 


516,681 


10,610:350,416 


. 9,896 


Logs 


87,358 


919 


119,404 


• 1,199: 37,540 


t 422 


Hardwoods 


522 


78 


250 


32: 52 


! 10 


Softwoods : 


86,836 


841 


119,154 


1,167: 37,488 


! 412 


Cal)inet woods in log 


12,901 


761 


7,374 


527: 11,845 


! 915 


Cabinet woods sav/ed : 


12,263 


527 


21 , 281 


815: 22,415 


. 1,012 


Railroad ties a/ 


12,762 


302 


13,542 


! 357; 12,938 


! 326 


Sawed "boards & lumlDer ; 


367,059 


7,080 


336,410 


, 7,413:264,472 


! 6,715 


HardxTOods 


15,276 


550 


26,923 


! 912: 20,875 


: 881 


Softi-Qods 


. 351,783 


. 6,530 


309,487 


. 6,501:243,597 


! 5,834 


Box shocks h/ 


2,251 


! 116 


18,670 


: 299: 1,205 


! 506 


Source: Per sign Comraercf 


3 and Navigc 


^.tion of 


the United 


States, 




a/ Ties converted ? 


at 30 hd. f 


b. per t; 


Le. 






b/ Box shocks convc 


3rted at 3 1 


3d. ft. ] 


:er shook. 







9613 



-50- 



TABLE 16 



HJffiDWQODS MD SOFTWOODS: . UKITED STATES li/IPORTS OF 
SPEICIFISD LUlviBEE MB :TI]\CBER x°ROEUCTS a/ 



,: . :Softr,'Oods 


Har.d\70ods 


Total 


Year ■: M ft. 


$1,000 


M .ft. 


$1,000 


M ft. 


$1,000 


1.929 :l, 643,232 

1:930 .: 1,273, 484 

1931 : 861,431 

1932 ■■: 453,632 

1933. .:: 460,:853 

1934 ■: 295,229 


40,967 

29,589 

16,230 

7,789 

8,324 

7,378 


205 , 631 

123,381 

71,429 

40,962 

■ 55,828 

55,187 


13,415 
7,732 
4,191 
1,916 
2,286 
2,818 


1,848,863 
1,396,865 

932,860 
494,594 
516,681 
350,416 


54,382 
37,321 
20,421 

9,705 
10,610 

9,896 



Source:. Foreign Comnerce ajid Nav-igatlon of the United States, 



a/ Includes logs, luiiber and cabinet, sawn 

and "bux siiooks. 



boards, railroad ties, 



9613 



-SI- 



TABLE 17 



a/ 

DOMESTIC IMPORTS: EAHDWOODS AND SOFTWOODS FSOM CAblADA 
AND ALL OTHEE COTJ-HTRIES : 





, 1929 




■ 1930 : 


1931 




: Caaada 


All other 


s: Canada :A11 -others 


Canada 


All others 


Total : . 


.l,645i854 


203,009 


(] 


in M ft. t.!!!,) ■ ; 
.1,216,695: 180,170 . 

• • 


851,257 


81 , 603 


Soft'-'oods ; ! 


1,5 63:, 29 9 


79,933 




1,178,560: 94,924 . 


829 , 811 


31 , 620 


Hardwoods ' 


82,555 


123,076 




. 38,135: 85,246 

• 
• 


21,446 


49,983 




: 1932 


, 1933 . 


1934 


Total' ; 


425,139 


69,455 




:433,774 


82,907 


288,438 


61,978 


Softwoods ; 


. 410,778 


42,854 




'■409,114 


51,739 


272,449 


22,780 


Hardwoods- 


: 14,361 


, 26,601 




.' 24,660 


31,168 


15,989 


39,198 



















Source: Foreign. Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 

a/. Includes softwood, teak ajid cabinet logs, sawed cabinet woods, 
hoards and luinher, railroad ties (co-hverted at 30 hd. ft. per 
tie) and hox shocks (concerted at 3 hd. ft. per shook). 



9613 



-52- 



TIBLS 18. 
UNITED STATES ILIP011TS OF LTLIBEIl AID TIIvIBEE PRODUCTS 

FEOil CAKADA 



1929: 



19 ?0 



1931 



M ft. -b.m.: $1.000:1'-:: ft. '.^.m, ;$1.0G0:!. ft. 13.111. ;$1, 000 



Total 

Logs 

Ceda.r 

Eir-S-oruce: 
Other (exce-pt 
Cabinet) 

Teak 



Cabinet ttoo 
log , 

Catinet "ood 

Savred l)oard 

Sof trroods 
Hardijoods 

Eailroad ties 

Box Shooks ;6/ 



.-Hemlo ck 



s in the 

s - sabred 
and linnhe 

s a/ 



1,645,854 

184, 552 

33,437 
86,994 



43,092 

2,777 

524 
1,257 



64, 12'1 



19 



1,435,133 

1,352,597 
82,536 

'25,124 

' ■ 1,026 



996 



1,216,695 

100,181 

• 25,461 
■ 74, 720 

20 



28,808 

1,973 

335 
913 

725 
5 



39,588 

35,083 
4, 505 

' 703 

^ 20 



851,257 

148,374 

20^, 718 
127, 656 



16,435 

1,654 

188 
1, 299 



1,098,094 

1,059 ,'982 
38,112 

18; 154 

•243 



26,243 

$4,405 
1,867 

549 
37 



14 


167 
4 


: 9 


1 


; 23 


: , 1 


692,989 


14,470 


671,589 
21,400 


' 13,474 
996 


^,680 . 


270 


. 168 


: 35 



1932 



1953 



1934 



Total 

Logs 

Cedar y' 
Eir-S::iruce-Heinlo ck 
Other (e::ce-ot Caliinet) 
Teak 

Cahinet voods in the l3g 

Cahinet noods - sawed 

Sawed hop.rds and luraher 

Softwoods 
Hardwoods 

Eailroad ties a/ 
Box Shooks h/ 



•425-, 139 

,86,836 

27,903 
■ 58, $33 

o 
30 

r-7 
O 

328,056 

313,731 
14,325 

10,166 

45 



7i705 

. 808 

244 

464 

100 

1 

3 

1 

6,603 

6,093 
510 

273 

16 



433, 774 

,119,154 

■■32^,575 
■ 86 , 579 



2 

302,902 

278,286 
24,616! 

11,443 
231 



8,008 

1,164 

309 

762 

93 



1 

6,501 

5,699 
802 

333 
1 



288,438. 

42,484 

20,148 

17,338 

4,998 

6 

88 

237,076 

221,181 
15,895 

8,659 
125 



6,733 

408 

172 

155 

81 



1 
7 

5,877 

5,299 
578 

297 
143 



Source! Foreign Commerce find Navigation of the United States, 
a/ Ec?,ilroad ties converted at 30 "bd. ft. per tie. h 

h/ Shooks converted at 3 hd, ft. -ner shook. 



9613 



i 



-53- 



TAJBLt 19 

PACIFIC COAST WATER-BORNI LUMBiE SHIPMENTS FROM OREGON-WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLOMBIA 

TO THE ATLANTIC COAST AND CALIFORNIA 



: 19^ 


1910 


1911 


iqi2 


From 


* * 

: OrsKon-Washlncton : British Columbia 


Oreeon-Waehineton : British Columbia 


* 

OrsKon-WashinKton : British Columbia 


OrsKon-Washinffton: British Columbia 


To 


• • * * 

: Atlantic ! Call- : Atlantic ; Cali- 
: Coast : fornia : Coast : fornia 


• » • 

• f • 

Atlantic : Cali- : Atlantic : Cali- 
Coast t fornia : Coast : fornia 


• • • 

Atlantic : Cali- : Atlantic : Cali- 
Coast : fornia t Coast • fornia 


! Atlantic: Cali- : Atlantic: Cali- 
! Coast : fornia : Coast : fornia 



In thousand feet board measure 



Total 


l,593,5l« 


January 


13^,785 


February 


ll'+,7S9 


March 


120,196 


April 


157, 25'+ 
143,902 


May 


June 


146,659 


July 


132,979 


August 


151,972 


September 


121^,825 


October 


129,1^+5 


November 


103,645 


December 


• 133,367 



i,i^20,37'+ 

79,178 
117,785 
117.50? 
132,85*+ 

158,^5 
138.371 

118,401 

109.71+3 
109,404 
122,658 
113,624 
102,462 



276,438 



21,481 
15,410 
21,296 
30,186 
40,314 

19,357 
22,353 
18,208 
17.390 
20,131 
20,732 
29,580 



'+1,375 

1.843 
1,975 
2,086 
4,085 
2,911 
5.664 

f+,'453 

4,128 
3,559 
3,126 



1,342,070 

106,180 

135,411 

77.277 
112,023 

113.990 
a/ 47,^53 
102,859 
97.276 
196,762 
109,532 

113.477 
129.630 



l,l43,04i 

92,230 

76,784 

99,333 

111.455 

119,359 

116,488 

97.319 
100,253 

861649 
87,941 

83,111 
72,119 



208,409 

17,207 
21,652 
14,097 
18,863 
20,858 
a/12,986 
14,257 
15.429 

12.175 
15,788 

24,981 
20,116 



50,079 

1,428 
1,312 
3,428 
2,192 
3,940 
3,900 

5.577 
9.450 

8.751 
4,888 

2,948 



1,236.315 

130,821 

92,452 

90,508 

95,246 

108, 342 

101,314 

127,139 

128,423 

130,087 

87. 1+35 

, 73,573 

c/ 70,975 



824,153 

58,829 
71,467 
83,629 
84,539 
100,493 
77,462 
59,237 
55,354 

60,287 

54:584 



c/ 



139,724 

15,653 
12,698 
I2,i47 

36,713 
11,067 
10,669 
20,893 

9,793 
15,639 
10,263 
408 

3,781 



36,770 

2,136 
4,105 
4,100 
4,005 
5,396 
3,908 
420 
2,808 
2,402 
1,628 

f'759 
4,063 



723,475 


512,240: 


84,483 


32,244: 


77.761 


36,974: 


61,204 
52,738 


^"^^ 


50,186 
b/ 49, 763 


43,547: 


39.755: 
4i,778: 


53,293 
54,032 


42,917: 


63,665 
64,821 


46,145: 


49,106: 


63,117 


48,485: 


48,412 


33.48S: 



38.516 
8,865 

10,987 

7,186 

4,167 

4,880 

b/..3J7 



10,458 

1,154 
1,576 

1,523 
1,352 

2,123 
1,860 



50 

514 
228 



From 



To 



1933 



iqi4 



Oregon-Washington 



Atlantic 
Coast 



Cali- 



British Columbia 



Oregon-Washington 



British Columbia 



Atlarrtic : Cali- : Atlantic : Cali- : Atlantic : Cali- 
Ooast ! fornia : Coast : fornia : Coast : fornia 



JL255- 



Or ego n- Washington : British Colum bia 
■ I ■ ' 



Atlantic 
Coast 



Cali- 
fornla 



Atlantic 
Coast 



In thousand feet board measure 



Total 


848,556 


621,837 : 


12,474 ; 


1,800 


600,942 


499,720 


452 


1,307 


d/ 591. 449 


578,557 


d/33,062 


January 


58,947 


33,026 


48 : 


_ • 


1/58.500 
55.066 
54.663 


27,463 


5/, J} 


_ 


im 

■ 76,203 

, 87,755 

y 35,477 


51,708 

86,127 


32 


February 

March 

April 


63.957 
54,587 
63,469 


40^994 
•+7,736 


107 
30 


117 
322 


39,015 
45,874 
51,790 


1/ 64 

58 

£/ 40 


200 


J? 


May 


67.161 


50,821 




108 


g/17,629 


24,830 


' - 


•h/52,221 


^ .- . 


June 


95,040 
104,766 


83,829 


. 97 


373 


855 


2,179 


— 


167 


20,020 


30,580 


6,755 


July 


76,887 
59,004 


6,856 


361 


1/12,487 


11,599 


i/ - 


300 


23,070 


: 56,865 


12,315 


August 


i/l24,i49 


1/4, 005 


247 


122,076 


74,579 




96 


• 99,405 


104,827 


9,295 
4,602 


September 


82,857 


55,431 
46,800 


858 


- 


65,519 • 


. 61,091 


31 


22 


107,252 


84,613 


October 


48,773 


231 


- 


47,299 


i 55,611 


31 


173 




- 


- 


November 


49,098 


48,046 


k/ 183 


83 


k/ 68, 653 


49,709 




17 


- 


- 


- 


December 


: 35,552 


59 


189 


65,962 


55.980 


— 


332 


— 


— 


^ 



Cali- 
fornla 



Pacific Lumber Inspedtlon Bureau. 



3.'+'+3 
66 

*^ 
374 

1,770 
x5l 



Footnotes 



:a/Hawley-Smoot Tariff effective June 18,1930- 
b/Revenue Act of 1932 effective June 21. 
c/Canadian currency reached low of .804558 

Dec. 16, 1931. 
d/January to September, inclusive. 
e/U.S. off gold standard on Jan. 31, 1934. 
f/Loggers of British Columbia were on strike 

during February 1934. 
g/Longshoremen's strike began May 9, 1934« 
h/Code abandoned May 27, 1935 • 
i/Long shoremen's strike ended July 29, 1934. 
i/Code approved August 19, 1933' 
^Canadian currency returned to normal value 

in November, 1933' 



9613 



-54- >. 

Under this provision, the Mahoganj^ Subdivision attempted to place 
the import and production of mahogany -under control hut no attempt T7as 
made to restrict the import of other "fancy vroods". It was not found 
feasible to administer the control set up "because of the difficulty in 
checking imports on arrival at port of entry in this country. The Ma- 
hogany Suhdi vision Agency requested the Customs Bureau of the U. S« 
TreasurjT- Department to furnish it with or to give it access to the papers 
covering entrj^ of tropical woods, or to furnish it with the name of the 
importer, date of entry, species and quantity. The Customs Bureau re- 
fused to supply such information on the ground that it was confidential. 
The result was that without some means of checking shipments, other than 
the reports of known imports, administration of control of imports \7as 
impossihle ajid no serious effort was made hy the Mahogany Subdivision 
Agency to enforce the allotments given to importers of record. 

PHILIFFII^IB likEOGAM 

Under Schedule "A", 5, Philippine Mahogany Subdivision: 

"(a) The Execu.tive Committee of the Philippine Mahogany Sub- 
division is empowered, with the approval of the Authority 
and within the limits of the total subdivision quota, to 
assign a maximum import allotment to each eligible person 
registered with the PhilipiTine Maiiogany Subdivision and 
subject to its Jurisdiction. The Subdivision quota and 
individual allotments shall be m3.de for jjeriods of six months 
and as provided in this Articles 

"(b) Any person complying v/ith the labor and other provi- 
sions of this code applicable to this S'ubdi vision, who 
brings Philippine Maiiogany or Philippine hardwood into the 
United States from the philipoine Islands in quantities 
su.fficient to ejiiount to wholesale distribution for resale 
to v/holesalers, retailers or industrials as defined in this 
code, shall be deemed an eligible person for purposes of 
allotment, 

"(c) Any eligible person may obtain an allotment 'bj making 
applice,tion to the said Executive Committee, designating 
the Philippine mill or mills from which he has arranged 
to obtain his supplies. The allotment to said eligible 
person shall be determined by the follov/ing formula: 

Milling capacity / 60^^ of Subidvision Quota 
Total capacity / 

plus 

Mill shipments to U» 5 . / AOjh of Subdivision Quota 
Total shipments to U. S. 



9613 



• ■ ■ -55- 
" "DEFINITION OF TEEMS 

'"Mill Capacity' means the actual capacity at the tijne of 
the application for allotment of the Philippine mill or . 
mills designated "by an eligible person. 

"'Total Capaicity' means the actual total capacity of all 
Philippine mills designated hy eligible persons. 

"'Mill shipments to U. S. ' -mean the average yearly shipments 
to the United States from, the Philippine mill or mills 
designated "by eligiole person, calculated, upon any three 
calendar years since 19iS4, ' ■■ ." 

"'Total shipments to U. S. ' mean the average yearly ship- 
ments to the United States from all mills in the Philippine 
Islands, calculated on ca.lendar years since 1924* 

"In respect to mills which have not "been in operation for 

,as much as three calendar years since. 1924, the 'mill 

shipments to the United States' shall .he the .yearly aver- 
age of actual shipments, ' ^ '• f:. 

"In. the case of logging operations in which the logs were 
sold Slid- shipped as logs and not majiufactu.red into Ixmiher 
or timher products by the logger, the actual production of 
such logs during calendar year shall he considered the 
'mill capacity' of such operator.. ■ 

"(d) If two eligible persons designate' the same mill as 
their source of supply, the total shipments to the United 
States therefrom shall not exceed the -amount determined 
hy the application of the formula prescribed in this 
Article, and the said person .shall divide the said total 
in such proportions as they are ahle to effect purchases 
from such mill, 

"(e) If any eligihle person to whom an allotment has heen 
made advises the Subdivision agency that he will not use 
all or part of his allotment within the allotment period, 
or if in three months after the date of the allotment any 
such person fails to use a substitute portion of his allot- 
ment, and fails to show to the satisfaction of the Executive 
Conimittee that he has ordered shipment of a substantial por- 
tion of his allotment, the said Committee man, after public 
hearing on all the facts and circurflstances, a.nd subject to 
the sujjervision of the Authority, reduce the allotment of 
such person for the balance of the existing quota period by 
such amount as may be fair and equitable, in order to save 
to the Subdivision as a whole the iDrivilege of bringing into 
the United States the whole of the Subdivision quota. 
In the event of such reduction of allotment, the amount 
thereof shall be divided among other eligible persons 
in proiDortion to their existing allotments upon appli- 
cation to the said Executive Committee, 



9613 



-56- 

"(f) In deterraining compliance ?ritli individual allot- 
ments, date of lo-iding on shiplDoard in the Philippine 
Islands for shipment to the United States shall 'he deemed 
arrival of shipment in the United States. 

"(g) No person suhject'to the jurisdiction of this Sub- 
division shall import products without an import allot- 
ment, or in excess of such allotment, as herein provided. " 

The. Philippine Mahoganjr Subdivision instituted control of imports 
shortly after the approval of the code, issuing import allotments' to 
registered importers of Philippine mahogany in accordance vrith the pro- 
visions of the code. In contrast to the iviahogany Subdivision, they 
were eminently successful in the administration of this controls 

An arrangement was made with the Philippine Islands Government to 
report to the Agency, by cable every shipment of Philippine liahogany 
to the United States, 'the name of the ship, and of the mill making the 
shipment, the qu£.ntity, to whom consigned and the port of entryo This 
information was in the hands of the Agency at least three weeks before 
the shipment arrived in 'the United States, giving plenty of time to 
check against allotments issued to importers. This method of control 
disclosed that one importer was intending to import one-half million' 
feet in excess of its allotment. The company refused to cancel the 
shipment and stated its intention of violating the code in this res- 
pect. 

Through its attorneys, the Agency invoked a tariff regulation 
denying entry to goods which are declared to be in contravention to 
laws of the United States, chajging violation of the National Indus- 
trial Recovery Act. Upon arrival of the shipment in Portland, Ore- 
gon, the customs officials seized the parcel and impounded it in a 
bonded warehouse. Following negotiations between the importer and 
the Philippine Mahogany Agency, it was agreed with the customs of- 
ficials that the shipment would be released on posting of a bond, 
provided that the importer would reconsign the shipment to registered 
importers whose Philippine Mahogany allotment for the current period 
had not been filled. Thereafter, this Agency of the Lumber Code 
Authority had no trouble administering the control of imports in 
accordance with the previsions of the code* 

Philippine Mahogany importers verbally state that they would 
like to have the right and power to reestablish this control, which 
resulted in stabilization of their business. 



9613 



-57- 

,;■■' CHAP1IER X ■' 

PULPWOOJ, WOOD PULP Aim PAPER 

IWTRODUCTIOM 

A. study of the foreign trade in i^-ulpvrood, pvilp and paper is of vital 
importance in the consideration of conservation and sustained yield 
manage-.uent of our forest resources. It largely involves the question of 
imports of these forest products. Wood comiDrises about 855^ of the primary 
fibrous raw ma.terial used for paper making. Approximately 44^0 of our 
domestic use is based on foreign pulpwood, and of our entire pulp and 
paper requirements more than 50^0 has for some yea.rs been imported in the 
form of either paper pulp or raw pulpwood. Converting all domestic 
pulpnood, pulp and paper consumptions into cords of pulpwood, the total 
pulpvraod requirements of the United States ha,s been aiDproximately 
12,000,000 cords for the, past several jeavsa (Reference; JIational 
Pulp and Paper Requirements in Relation to Forest Conservation - Senate 
Document No. 115.) 

As previotisly stated, under Senate Resolution No. 100, 74th Congress, 
first session, the U. S. Tariff Corariission is engaged in an investigation 
of pulp and paper imports into the United States, but it is understood 
that this report will not be available until after Janu^^ry 1, 1935, 

Douestic pulpwood is largely prodiiced from farm wood-lots and small 
operators and is contracted for by buyers or concentrators who represent 
cr sell to the large pulp and paper mills. On the West Coast (Douglas 
Pir region), prior to the depression, practically all -oulp was produced 
from logs or sarmiill waste, but production of cord wood in this region 
subseqiiently greA¥ rapidly because of the cheap labor available during 
the depression, 

PULPWOOD IivIDUSTHY l-IEVSR CODIPIED 

PtO-pwood was not included as one of the original products under 
the Drjiber Code and folloi.Ting nu'ierous co/rolaints and protests, charging 
exploitation of labor and extremely low wages and long hours, an atte:rot 
was made to include pulpwood and other Driraary forest products under the 
Lumber Code, An amendment was ^ro-oosed to and acce^ited by the Lunber 
Code Authority, known as "The President's Amendment", (Reference; 
Transcriiot of Hearings, Liunber and Timber Products Industries, 
March 12, 1934.) This amendment was fought vigorously by the pulp and 
paper industry and an organization called the American Pulpwood 
Associa-tion, The latter \?as not in existence prior to the ena,ctment of 
the Ns^tional Industrial Recovery Act. 

The American Pulpwood Association, the membership of which was 
never analyzed later submitted a proposed pulpwood code. This proposed 
pulpvrood code contained Tirage and hear nrovisions substantially below 
those a'oproved in the Lumber Code, These wage and hour provisions 
were iincicceptable to NRA, and ina.smuch as they were never satisfactorily 
adjusted, no code was ever approved for the pulpwood industry. 



9613 



-58- 



ITithout a code, N3A coiild not have had any effect on the foreign 
tra.de of this 23artic-ular industry. An intensive study would "be necessarjr 
to r<6ach an;- conclusion as to Trhat would he i^roper regulations and their 
suhseq_uent effect on imports and exports. Of extreme interest is the 
fact that the trade agreements \7ith Canada and Sweden agree to continue 
pulpr/ood, pulp and paper on the free list for the terms of the agreement. 



961c 



■ -59" 
- CHAPTER XI. 

Tim musmrsT imnsTRY 

Changes in World Production, 1929-1933 

ProB 1929 to 1932, the world production of ne^Tsprint decreased 
14.1 jier-cent, due chiefly to a sharp decline in Canada, the United 
States, and Germany, Production in S'7eden and Japan during the same 
period declined a relatively small ainount. On the other hand, prodiiction 
showed a remarkahle increa,se in England, Finland and Erance, and 
substantial increases occurred in WeT/foundland and Norway. Ho'?7ever, 
the coiintries showing increases constituted only 20.6 per cent of world 
production in 1929, and 28.5 per cent in 1932. The United States and 
-Canada, -rhich together produced in 1929 56.4 per cent, and in 1932 46.6 
per cent of the world production, lost during the neriod 2.9 per cent 
and 5,9 per cent, respectivelj^^, 

. . The Industry in the United "States 

The newsprint industry in the United States in 1934 was composed 
of t""enty"f ive companies operating principally in the States of Maine, 
New York, Oregon, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Washington, with an estimated 
aggregate capital investment of about 300 million dolla^rs. In June, 1933, 
it enplo3~ed 6,550 persons, with an annual payroll of $7,150,000, In 
1929 production was 1,409,000 short tons; while imports, mostly from 
Ca-naxla, were 2,423,000 short tons. Domestic consumption in 1933 
approximated 2,729,000 short tons, of which the United States riroduced 
946,000 short tons, and of which 1,794,000 short tons were imnorted 
principally from Canada, 

The Industry in Canada 

In 1934 there were a "jproximately 24 Cs-nadian comDanies engaged in 
the }ia,nufacture of newsprint. Production in 1929 was 2,729,000 short 
tons, of which 2,195,000 short tons or 80.4 per cent, were exported to 
the United Stateso In 1933 Canada produced 2,017,000 short tons, of 
which 1,545,000 short tons, or 76.6 per cent, were exported to the 
United States, Although no official fig-ares are available, the 
Department of Commerce has estimated that in 1930 over 400 million 
dollars of United States capital was invested in the Canadian paper 
and pu-lp industry as a whole. This is over 50 per cent of the 794 
million dollar capital investment in that industry. 

United States Consumption 

In 1S29, the United States consumed ahout 52 per cent, or 3,813,000 
short tons, of the total ^-'orld production of 7,308,000 short tons; and 
in 1933 it constimed 2,831,000 short tons, or 45 per cent of a world 
production of 6,275,000 short tons. 

In 1S29 the domestic ;nroduction constituted 36,7 per cent of the 
domestic consumption, v?hereas imports were 63.3 per cent. Of this 
latter, Canada and Nevrfoundland 'suiDplied 2,327,000 short tons, or 
96 per cent. Domestic production in 1933 was 34.7 per cent of tote.l 



9613 



-50- 

constmiption, while imports rose relatively to 65.3 per cent, with Oanada 
and i'le'-foTXiic-laiid sup:olying 91,4 per cent. 

The consujnption of newsprint rose sterdily to 1S29, when it reached 
a pealr of 3,813,000 short tons. It then declined x>rogressively to a 
total of 2,711,000 short tons in 1933 - a drop of 29 per cent during 
that period. End of the year stocks at the mills, at publishers and in 
trsjisit in 1930 were 3,399,000 short tons, For 1933 the same figures 
were 2,567,000 short tons, a reduction of 24,5 per cent, 

Por 1928, the latest year for which data are availahle, the 
distriDution of newsprint consumption araong states was; New York, 22 
per cent; Illinois, 12 per cent; Pennsylvania, 9 per cent; Massachusetts, 
6 jer cent; California, 6 per cent; Ohio, 5 per cent; Michigan, 5 "oer 
cent; llissouiri, 4 ler cent; I'ennessee, 3 per cent; iiinnesota, 2 per 
cent; Indiana, 2 per cent; Texas, 2 per cent. The consiTjiption in this 
group of 12 states amouated to over 75 per cent of the total consurption 
in the United States. Although the total consumption of newsprint in 
1933 was less than that of 1928, it is probable that the percentage 
relationships ha.ve not greatly changed. 

United States Production and Trade 

E:rports of newsprint from the United States are negligible, amoimt— 
ing to 19,000 short tons in 19,29, and to only 11,000 short tons in 1933, 

Production in the United States "since 1926 has declined each ^^ear. 
The total decline froi 1£25 to 1933 ^ras 44 per cent.' Imports, on the 
other hand, increased aroroximat'ely '30 vex cent from 1326 to 1329, ■ 
Thereai'ter they declined, and in 1932 and 1933 were about 3 per cent 
less than imports in 1925, Nevertheless, with the ezcceution of the 
year 1332, the ratio of imports to domestic production, based on annual 
figures, increased steadily throughout the period 1926 to 1833, It 
rose from 110 uer cent in 1926 to 175 per cent in 1929, to 178 per cent 
in 1332, and to 190 per cent in 1333, 

Standard newsnrint is imported into the United States free of duty, 
under the Tariff A^t of 1330, In recent years Canada has supplied 85 to 
90 per cent of the total imioorts. Prom 1929 to 1333 there was a slight 
increase in the relativelj'- small percentages coming from Sweden, Finland, 
and Germany, Based on 1928 statistics, about 90 per cent of the newsprint 
produced in Canada was exported, and 80 ^^ler cent of this was shipped to 
the United States, Eighteen per cent of the newsprint exported from 
Sweden cjio. 15 per cent of the exports from Finland were also shipped to 
this country. 

Effect of the Nevjs-nrint Code 

The domestic Newsprint Industry's Code was aroroved November 17, 
1933, Data submitted 'oy six individual companies indicated that the 
total costs of operations increased a"OT)roxinately 22 ^ler cent in the 
period between June-Nove;nber 1933, and December 1933, through May 1934 - 
before a.nd dui-ing code operation. It was ITcewise indicated that the 
percentage of labor to total costs was 12.85 before the code, and 13.6 

9613 



-61- 

after the code "became effective. Over the same interval employment was 
sho\Tn to have increased 13 per cent; average hours per vireek to have 
decreased 12 per cent; the average weekly v/age to have increased ahout 
1 per cent; and the average hourly i^age to have increased 1.5 per cent. 

Important Competitive Factors 

Of pa,rticular significance in the competitive relationship hetr-een 
the United States and Canadian newsprint industries has "been the rapid 
expajision in the latter country. This has "been nainly due to the fact 
that extensive tracts of tim'ber and an abundance of advantageous water 
power sites ha.ve been available to producers in Canada, under Governvient 
lease and. at a comparatively lovir capital cost. The situation in the 
United States, on the other hand, has been that substantially all sites 
affording sufficient supplies of timber and water power have been avail- 
able only at a capital cost considerably greater tha,n in Canada. 

iTron 1S26 through the first three qua.rters of 1932, newsprint prices 
fell less than the general wholesale 7;3rice. After the first quarter of 
1933, however, nev/sprint d.id not share, in the general rise in "holeso.le 
prices. The average unit values of i'Hrjorts were only slightly below 
domestic prices, and the addition of transportation and selling costs 
wpuld apparently have brought the net price to the consumer up to or 
above the; .level of the domestic price. While the base price of newsprint 
in the. United States declined 65 per cent from 1929 to 1935, the average 
unit value of imports over the same .interval declined less tha,n 42 per 
cent. 

The competitive position of the domestic newsprint industry, insofar 
as it was affected by the currency situation, was substantially better 
after the Code went into effect than it was from September, 1931, to 
April 1933. The dollar value of the currencies of Canada, Sweden, DJid 
Pinlsjid a.veraged about 12. per cent, 30 per cent, and 40 per cent, 
respectively, below the par for the year 1932. Later in 1933, however, 
the cxirrencies of Canada and Sweden returned almost to par, and that of 
Finland to within 10 per cent . of par. 



9613 



-52- 
CHAPTER :CII 

E:rpoi-t 

The exToort of shingles has alv/ays "been in'signif leant In comparison 
with domestic consujuptlon. A tev shingles have "been exported to the 
West Indies, Australia., South Africa and. Hew Zealand. More recently, 
the United Kingdom has Imported some shingles and this trade Is growing 
quite rapidly. However, the "business Is all going to British Columhla 
"because of the British preferential tariff. 

, Im-Qort 

The Import of shingles, all of which come from Canada, has "been an 
Important factor in the shingle Industry. Of all shingles manufactxirecl, 
9&fo are red cedar and are produced in the States of Washington and Oregon 
and the adjoining Province of British Col-um"bia. Imports from British Co- 
lum'bia have risen as high as 42/o of domestic consumption, which they did 
in 1952 and 1933, .just larior to the esta"bllshment of the code. 

At the request of the industr;,^, shingles were Included origi- 
I'iMly under the Lum"ber Code and were constituted a division thereof with 
a separate agency tO' administer it. "i7o special provisions were esta"bllsh- 
ed pertinent thereto, "but the indiistiy applied for and was granted prodiic-' 
tlon control and minimum prices under Article IX, 

GEhTLU'IEH ' S ACREY.SITT YJITH CAl'IADA 

Shortl3'' after the a'^"oroval of the code, the Industry filed with MA 
a complaint itnder Section 3(e) of t"hc national Industrial Recovery Act 
asking that imports from British Col\Tm"bla he restricted. On the t-ecora- 
mendation of InIEA the President instructed the U.S. Tariff Commission, in 
accordajice with the provisions of Section 3(e) of the National Recovery 
Act, to make an investlgptlon and to recommend such action as It deemed . 
necessary. After hearings and investigation by the United States Tariff 
Commission, it was recommended to the President that imports from Canada 
(the only importing country) "be restricted to 23;o of domestic shipments. 
The fig-ure of 25^o was "based on the average Imports from Canada of red cedar 
shingles for the previous ten years. Su"bsequently, the State Department 
Issued an announcement that a "gentlemen's agreement" had "been entered Into 
with the Canadian manufacturers. This agreement was to the effect that 
Canada, wotild restrict its shroments to the United States to 25fo of the 
domestic shipments. 

At first, considera"ble difficulty was e:ooerlenced "by the Canadians 
in carrying out the agreement, due to the impossibility of chec^'ing the 
shipments of the individual manufacturers, there being recalcitrants In 
Canada as there were in this country who refused to cooperate, shipping 
quantities of shingles to the United States without regard to the export 
allotment assigned to them. In order to overcome this difficulty, the 
Canadian Government \7as -persuaded by the British Colwibla manufacturers 
to invoke the Dominion's Marketing Act and to establish an agency to con- 
trol e:cports of shingles in accordance i/lth the provisions of this Act, 

9613 



-63- 
TABLE 20. 

SHIFGLSS: OTITED STATES liviPOETS, TOTAL AMD FROM 

CAMADA 

Year Total Oanada 

(in M ft. B. M. ) 

1929 a/ ■ 167,288 b/ 167,288 

1930 a/ . 124,448 120,448 

1931 a/' 98,820 98,820 

1932 a/ 123,915 123,915 
1933c/ 125,626 125,626 
1934 c/ 110,094 110,094 

Source: Poreign Corarnerce and Navigation of the United States. 

a/ Converted from shingles at 1,000 shingles equal 100 td, ft. 

b/ Also 300 td. ft. from Mexico, 

c/ Converted from squares at 1 square equals 80 "bd. ft. 

The regalations imposed ty the 0tta\7a Government required that a 
quota certificate te attached to consular invoices, and ftirther provided 
a severe penalty on the carriers for transporting any shipment to the 
United States unless the required quota certificate was attached to the 
■bill of l0,ding. The agency was empowered "by the government to issue the 
quote, certificates and to administer the regulations imposed. There- 
after, the agreement functioned v/ith fair success and the averages which 
had acciirnulated prior to the establishment of this control were teing 
rapidly assorted utd to the time of the strike in the shingle mills of 
Washington and Oregon, which occurred on May 9, 1935, 

In view of the cessation of shipments from the mills in the United 
States, and the necessity of maintaining the markets for shingles, the 
Canadian manufacturers were released temporarily from the "gentlemen's 
agreement", which release remained in effect until the code was aban- 
doned following the Schechter ca,se decision on May 27, 1935. 

There was no doubt in the minds of the manufacturers of shingles as 
to the "benefit to the industry accruing from the agreement. It was this 
agreement alone which prevented a wide-open disregard of the code oc- 
casioned "by the internal dissention caused "by disagreement "between the 
small operators (a su'bstantial factor) and the large operators as to the . 
method and "basis, of esta"blishing allotments. 

The only difficulty which arose in administration was the complaint 
of the Canadian manufacturers that the figures on domestic shipments were 
incomplete and inaccurate. The figures were collected and su"bmitted by 
the Washington and Oregon Shingle Association, the agency of the Lumber 
Code Authority in the Red Cedar Shingle Division, This method of secur- 
ing domestic shipment figixres was not entirely satisfactory and, in the 
future, when argragreement is made, predicated on domestic shipments or 
production, means of determining the amounts of such factors or factor 

9613 



-54- 

shoiild not "be left to, the industry benefitting, but provision should "be 
made for compilation and certification of the figures by a disinterested 
party, preferably under government sanction, 

TiiB Canadian trade agreement reserves to the United States the right 
to impose a limit on imports of red cedar shingles to 25^^ of domestic 
production, thereby providing the mesn.s of continuing the agreement orig- 
inally made possible by KSA. It vill be interesting to see if the ex- 
perience under W3A will be used to' eliminate the possibility of dis- 
satisfaction with such an agreement in this respect and thus promote 
international harmony and cooperation within this important industry. 



9613 



-65- 



APPENDIX I. 

I, The method employed in developing the foreign trade aspects of 
the Forest Products "''ndustry Study in itself "brings out the necessity for 
further research if any conclusions are to be reached as to the effects 
of the Code as regards either the relative importance of export markets 
to domestic industries, or the extent and competition in the United States 
from the products of foreign industries. 

II. The ultimate purpose of the completed study was to determine: 

(1) the trends in the import and export trade in specified forest products 
before and during the period the industry operated under the Code; and 

(2) the extent to which these trends were influenced'by divisional a,nd 
subdivisional code authorities acting under provisions in the Lumber and 
Timber Products Industry Code. 

Ill* While the Industry Steadies Section was analyzing the effects of 
the Code on the domestic industry, the Poreign Trade Studies Section was 
engaged in collecting and assembling data with respect to the trends in 
the trade of the principal products of the industry. 

rV. The present draft report represents onljr the first segment of the 
work to be completed; it now remains to bring together the two independently 
completed studies into a report or study in a form which v/ill allow the 
experience under the Code to be of full service. 

V. The propriety for further research is indicated in the rules, 
regulations, and orders promulgated by divisional and subdivisional code 
authorities under the powers granted or assumed by them under Article 
VIII of the Lna,mber Industry Code. The record of experience (both general 
and statistical) should be undertal^cn for divisions and subdivisions where 
there were quotas and allotments in terms of imports, or where production- 
export control or "cost protection" regulations were more vigorously put 
into effect. The preliminary study particularly recommends that attention 
be given to the following: 

(a) The efforts of the industry, through proposed amendments 
to the Code, to establish production-f or-export auotas and 
the establishment of export prices, and the differences of 
opinion within the industry'- and the Recovery Administration 
which prevented the approval of such proposals. 

(b) The activities of the Philippine Mahogany and the true 
Manogany subdivisional code authorities in controlling im- 
ports through their respective administrative agencies; and 
especially the court actions pressed by the MIA. Litigation 
Division against several importers of Philippine Mahogany 
who were alleged to ha,ve exceeded their import quotas, 

(c) The attempts to control the price of newsprint paper by 
voluntary agreements between the Association of Newsprint 
Manufacturers of the United States (Code Authority) and the 
Newsprint Ercport Mamafacturers Association of Canada. 

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(d) The Pacific ITorthwest Loggers Association's agreement with 
British ColumLiia timber e:^cporters wherehy the latter agreed 
to limit shipraents to a quota assigned "by the Association. 

(e) The efforts of the domestic wood'^ulp industry to reach a 
price agreement or understanding vjith Scandinavian shippers,, 
while pressing for the approval of their code. (This code 
was never approved). .' 

(f) Tiae operations of several lumher export associations ijnder 
the Weht-Pomerene Law or E^OJort Trade Act, 

VI. A careful analysis of the statistical records with respect to 
"cost protection" and production control when properly correlated with 
the data available regarding the volume and value of imports and exports 
v/ithm the several divisions -and siihdivisions of the industry should 
provide a valuable record of experience. 



561S 



,: -67- 

BIELIOGHAPHY ' 

"A National Plan for American Forestry," Forest Service - Dept. of Agri- 
cvl tixre 

"Americajia and the World's Woodpile," liy Zon and Sparhawk 

""Americana," Forest Service - Department of AgricuXt-ure 

"Anmoal Tables of World E^rports SJid Imports,^' Tsy ~m. Srandt's Son & Co, 

Bulletins of Census of Manufacturers - Census Bureau' 

"California Lumber Merchant," Forest Service'- Department of Agriculture 

"Canada Lujnberman , " Forest Service - Department of Agriculture 

"China's L'um'ber Trade," Foreign and Domestic Commerce - A. B. Colder - 
1935 

"Commerce of Ca^nada." 

Commerce Yearbooks, 1928-1934 

Committee Internationale du Bois - Vienna 

"Coniferous Forest Sesources of the ¥orld," "by Thornsten Streyffert 

"Douglas Fir Export Trade," by L. S, Force, Gen, ivigr,, Douglas Fir and 
S'roloitation and Exoort Coo 

Sstadistica del Comercia Exterior de Esoana 

"Europe as a Harket for American Lumber," Trade Information Bulletin 

"European Timber E-irports," 'by Committee Internationale du. Bois 

"Facts about Douglas Fir Pljnvood," Pacific Foi^est Industries Tacoma, 
Washington 

Federal Reserve Boa,rd Bulletins 

Files of the Lumber Code Authority " ■ ' 

Files of the National Recovery Administration 

"Forest Resources of the World," by Zon and Sparhawk 

Foreign Comiiierce and Navigation of United States - Department of Commerce 

Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Bureau of - Department of Commerce 

"Foreign Tariffs and Trade Regulations," by Division of Foreign Tariffs - 
U. S, Tejriff Comjnission 

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"Poreign Trade of China," Maritime Customs 

"Foreign Trade of Japan," - Department of Finance 

"Foreign Trade of the United States in Forest Products," hy Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

"Foreign Trade of U. S. S. R. for First Five Year Plan" 

"Foreign Trade. Problem of the United States," hy G. W, Peek - 1935 

"Forestry'- Almanac," American Tree Association 

"French Luraher Market," U. S. Department of Commerce - A. H. Oxholm -1925 

Hale Heport - National Pulp and Paper Sequirements in.Helation to Forest 
Conservation • ' 

History of Code of Fair Competition for the Lumber and Timber Products 
Industries 

"Journal of Forestry," by the Society of American Forester's 

"Lumber Trade of China," Forest Service - Department of Agriculture 

Movimento Commercial Del Regno D' Italia- 

National Limber Manufactturers Association' ' ' ... 

National Pulp and Paoer Heq-airements in Relation to Forest Conservation 

National Wooden Bo:; Association 

"North Ai-.ierican Lumber E>rports and World Total," by C. I. 3. ITorges Handel 

Pacific L"umber Ins'oection Bureau 

Pacific northwest Loggers Association, Report of - 1934 

"Practice and Procedure under the E:qport Trade Act," 195r< (Webb-Pome re ne 
Law) Federal Trade Comraission 

"Report to the President on Lumber," - United States Texiff Commission - 
1932 

"Southern Lumberman," Forest Service - Department of Agriculture 

Statistical Abstract of the United States 

"Statistical Bulletins of the C.I.S." - 1932-35 

Sveriges Officiella Statisk 



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"69- 

"Swedish. Forests," "by A. H, Oxholm, Biireau of Poreign and Domestic Commerce 

Timter Conservation Board Quarterly Reports - 1931-35 

"The Erport Trade of the United States," Bureau of Foreing and Domestic 
Commerce - Miscellaneous Series #67 - 1918 

"Trade of Tariff Relationships "between Canada and the United States," 
"by Joint Canada - United States Committees 

Transcript of Puhlic Hearirgs on Proposed Pulpwood Code - Code Record Sec- 
tion - National Recovery Administration 

Transcripts of Puhlic Hearirgs on Proposed Lumher Code and its Amendments 
folloxring Approval - Code Record Section - JffiA 

"United States Resources," Forestry Almanac - American Tree Association 
- Uc S« Tariff Comm.ission 

"West Coast Lumberman" Forest Service - Department of Agriculture 

"World Lumher Digest," Forest Products Division - Bureau Foreign and 
Domes;tic Commerce 

World Almsnac - 1935 



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