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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 370 



\ 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



\ft *-y 



EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT, 1929 to 1935 

By 

Anne Page 



(A Section of Part B: Control of Hours and Reemployment) 



WORK MATERIALS NO. 45 
THE LABOR PROGRAM UNDER THE NIRA 



Work Materials No. 45 falls into the following parts; 



Part A 
Part B 
Part C 
Part D 
Part E 



Introduction 

Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Control of Wages 

Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 

LABOR STUDIES SECTION 
MARCH, 1936 



OFEICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ATI IKISTBATIOK 
DIVISION 01 REVIEW 



EMPLOYMENT AND UNaiPLOYkMT , 1929 to 1935 

By 
Anne Page 



LABOR STUDIES SECTION 
MARCH, 1936 



9852 



CUf< A if 57 



FOREWORD 

This study "Employment and Unemployment, 1929 and 1935" ras pre- 
pared by ivirs. Anne Page of the Labor Studies Section, kr. Solomon Bar- 
kin in charge. It is one of a series of statistical studies prepared 
for the purpose of examining the status of labor under the NRA. 

The material as presented ende-vors to depict the unemployment 
situation in the United States before the ERA, during the period of 
the NRA., end since the FEA, as measured by the best available statis- 
tics. Because the NIRA ras directed to meet the unemployment problem, 
these measures are of especial value in furnishing one gauge for the 
evaluation of the effects of FRA. The st- tistics presented are for 
the most part not official, and have not been verified in all detail. 
They are, moreover, based on data rhich the estimators of unemployment 
and employment figures freely admit are but rough approximations. 

At the back of this report rill be found a brief statement of the 
studies undertaken by the Division of Sevier. 



L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review 



March 25, 1936 



-l- 



9852 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page_ 

Foreword ! i 

Introduction. 1 

Chapter I. Methods of Estimating Unemployment and 
Employment . 

A. Unemployment 3 

3. EmDloyraent 5 

Chapter II. Prc-NBA Period 

A. Estimated Number of Unemployed in the 

United States (Table l) 10 

Table 1 12 

B. Estimated Industrial Employment, Total, NEA 
Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture 

(Table 2) 14 

Table 2 15 

C. Indexes of Industrial Employment by Total, 
NEA Industries, Other Industries and Agri- 
culture (Table 3) 16 

Table 3 17 

D. Estimated Number Employed in all Industries 

and in Selected NBA Industries (Table 4) 19 

Table 4 

E. Indexes of Industrial Employment in all In- 
dustries and in Selected NBA Industries 

(Table 5) 21 

Table 5 22 

F. Indexes of Employment in Manufacturing In- 
dustries "by Total Workers, Entrepreneurs, 

Salaried Enroloyces and Wage Earners (Table 6) 23 

Table 6 24 

G. Indexes of Employment in Manufacturing by 

Geographic Districts (Table 7) 26 

Table 7 27 

H. Employment Changes in NBA Industries, Average 

1929 to Average January to June, 1933 (Table 8). ..28 
Table 8 29 

I. Proportion of Full-Time Operation of Plants in 
Manufacturing Industries by Establishments Be- 

porting (Table 9) 30 

Table 9 , 31 

J. Proportion of Full-Time Worked in Specified In- 
dustries, Week of March 15, 1932 (Table 10) 30 

Table 10 32 

K. Part-Time Employment by Industry and Locality 

(Table 11) 33 

Table 11 34 



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Page 

Chanter III. NM Period. 

A. Estimated Number of Unemployed in the United 

States (Table 12) 35 

Table 12 36 

B. Estimated Industrial Employment, Total, NHA 
Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture 

(Table 13) 35 

Table 13 37 

C. Indexes of Industrial Employment by Total, NBA 
Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture 

(Table 14) 38 

Table 14 39 

D. Estimated ITumber Employed in all Industries and 

in Selected HHA Industries (Table 15) 38 

Table 15 40 

E. Indexes of Industrial Smoloyment in all Indus- 
tries and in Selected UFA Industries, by Month 

(Table 16) , 41 

Table IS 44 

E. P.E.A. Census - Tabulation by Industries and In- 
dustry Groups, June and October, 1933 (Table 17)... 45 
Table 17 46 

G-. Indexes of Employment in Manufacturing Industries 
by Total Workers, Entrepreneurs, Salaried Em- 
ployees and Wage Earners (Table 18) 51 

Table 18 52 

H. Employment Changes in UFA Industries from Average 

for January to June, 1933 (Table 19) 54 

Table 19 56 

I. Smoloyment Changes, MM Industries and all Indus- 
tries, by Selected Dates (Table 20) 57 

Table 20 58 

J. Changes in Employment from the Month of October 

to January, by Year, 1929-1936 (Table 21) 59 

Table 21 60 

Chapter IV. Post—NBA Period 

A. Estimated Number of Unemployed in the United States 

(Table 22) 62 

Table 22 63 



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Page 
3. Estimated Industrial Employment, Total, KRA 
Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture 

(Table 23) 64 

Table 23 64 

C. Indexes of Industrial Employment by Total, NBA 
Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture 

(Table 24) 64 

Table 24 65 

D. Estimated Number Employed in all Industries 

and in Selected NRA. Industries (Table 25) 66 

Table 25 67 

S. Indexes of Industrial Employment in all Indus- 
tries and in Selected K3A Industries (Table 26) 66 

Table 26 68 

F. Indexes of Employment in Manufacturing Industries 
by Total Workers, Entrepreneurs, Salaried Employ- 
ees, and Wage Earners (Table 27) 69 

Table 27 69 



9352 - IV - 



-1- 



SUMMARY 

The job famine which became cumulatively worse from October, 1929, 
to March, 1933, ^as of deep and growing concern to oublic officials. 
The miser; 7 of the thousands which had increased to millions by the early 
part of 1933 focussed the attention of the public and officials alike on 
the necessity for a solution of the problem. 

It vas recognized that the problem had a two-fold aspect - its effect 
on individuals and its efiect on industry. The lack of employment es- 
timated variously from 13,300,000 to 15,000,000 persons in March, 1933, 
meant that come 37,500,000 nersons (averaging 2§ dependents to each 
worker) were without the normal means of livelihood. The vithdrawal of 
that sane 37,500,000 persons from :he normal conrumption market was dis- 
rupting industry* 

One of the first results of the degression i_, as widespread curtail- 
ment of production and the consequent reduction of employees in industry. 
The reduction of employees caused a deci''ea.se in purchasing power '-'hich 
in turn remlted in further curtailment of production and a. further re- 
duction of employees. The downward spiral of production reached its low- 
est points- in industry in the summer of 1932 and the spring of 1933 (*) 
and ras reflected in the lowest point of employment in karch, 1933. 

Upon the purchasing power of the workers in a highly industrialized 
economy such as prevails in the United States depends much of the pros- 
perity of the nation. Industry, as well as the vast bulk of the popula- 
tion, is supported largely by the ^e.ge and salary returns to the employed, 
TThen employment is reduced by over £5?i, as was the case by karch, 1933, 
relative to average monthly employment, for 1929, the effect on workers 
and industry assumes the proportions of a national disaster. 

Ac, one of several emergency means of dealing with this national dis- 
aster, the ICational Industrial Recovery Act ras evolved. It ^as presented 
by the Admini strati on to the Congress in Lay ana "as made law in June, 
1933. The first sentence in this act reads: "A national emergency pro- 
ductive of -idespread unemployment and disorganization of industry, which 
burdens interstate and foreign commerce, affects the public velfare, and 
undermines the standards of living of the American people, is hereby de- 
clared to exist." The policy of Congress in passing the Act is declared 
in the same paragraph to be "to provide for the general T-elfare" by cer- 
tain measures, and "to increase the consumption of industrial and agri- 
cultural products by increasing purchasing po^er, to reduce and relieve 
une~.pl oyment, to improve the standards of labor, and otherwise to reha- 
bilitate industry and to conserve natural resources." 

Concerning the National .Industrial Recovery Act, President Roosevelt 
made the iolloving statement on June 17, 1933: 



J*) See article on the "National Income Produced, 1929-1934", in the 

November, 1935, issue of the Survey of Current business, published 
by the Department of Commerce. 



9352 



.o_ 



"Throughcmt industry, the change from starvation rages and starvation 
enrol oyraent to living wages and sustained employment can, in large part, 
"be made by an industrial covenant to 'hich ell employers shall subscribe. 
It is greatly to their interest to do this because decent living widely 
spread among our 125,000,000 people eventually means the opening up to 
industry of the richest market which the world has knonm. It is the only 
way to utilise the so-called excess capacity of our industrial plants.,.. 
On this idea, the first part of the Act proposes to our industry a great 
spontaneous cooperation to put millions of men back in their regular jobs 
this summer. The idea is simply for employers to hire more men to do the 
existing work by reducing the work-hours of each man 1 s week and at the 
same time pay a living wage for the shorter week." 

Until such time as the formal covenants to which the President re- 
ferred could be drawn up as codes of fair competition, he called upon 
industry to sign voluntary reemployment agreements. Using the average 
employment for the first six months of 1933 as a base, it is estimated 
that by October, 1933, approximately 3,459,000 persons were reemployed. 
This period in normal tiroes is accompanied by a seasonal upturn in various 
industries, those employing the largest number of persons being agricul- 
ture, manufacturing and wholesale and retail trade. Industrial production 
did not, however, follow the usual seasonal pattern in 1933. According 
to index figures published by the Federal Reserve Board in its Monthly 
Bulletin, industrial production declined from 100 per cent of the 1923- 
25 average in July to 77 in October. The extent of industry's coopera- 
tion with the President may be measured by the large increase in employ- 
ment at a time vhen the physical volume of production in basic industries 
was declining. The industries subscribing to the President's Re-employ- 
ment Agreement showed an estimated increase in employment of 2,757,000 
persons out of an estimated total increase in employment of more than 
3,000,000 non-agricultural workers. 

Comparing the estimates of average employment in 1929 Fith the aver- 
age for the first six months of 1953, it is found that 81> of the increase 
in unemployment was accounted for by the industries which later came under 
the National Becovery Administration. By October, 1933, 75.2$ of the re- 
employment had taken place in those same industries. Average employment 
figures, including agricultural ejmploymenti,-' . , for 1934 indicate that 86.5$ 
of the total re-employment from the average of the first six months of 
1933 occurred in NBA industries. The proportion of MBA industries in l.iay, 
1935, was 81.8;"o of the total re-eraployment. 

The material which follows is a compilation of statistical tables 
based on the best available unemployment and employment data, and with 
a short analysis following each table. It has been presented as a section 
in a comprehensible analysis of the effects of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act on employment in industry. 



9852 



-J 

cap?] 



: j:t:t)DS q^ ~sti:ati:t- it r ?lct : i::rT AU3 e: plot. :ttt 

A. Une-nloymeiit 

The following five estimates of ■ uhemoloy ment have been set \m in a 
comparative table, those of: the President's Committee on Economic 
Security; the American Federation ?f Labor; the ITational Industrial 
Conference Board; the National Research League; and the Cleveland Trust 
Conoan: . 

In examining these estimates, it is found that there are wide 
div es in the number of estimated unemployed. The National Re- 
search League gives 17,000,000 unemployed as of : larch, 1933, and the 
National Industrial Conference Board gives 13,500,000 for the same month. 
It is found on the other hand, that all five estimates follow the gen- 
eral trend taken over a period of time, and that they all show 1-feirch, 
1935, as the highest oeak of unemployment.. 

The same general procedure has been followed by all the estimators* 
thus accounting for the similarity in trend. However, the use of dif- 
ferent jata ?:id technioues in the application of several variables 
accounts for' the vide differences in individual results. 

All of the estimates are based on the .1930 Census of Unemployment 
which shoved 3,138-,90f T>eor>le- unemployed in Classes A and 3 as of April 
in that -ye. r. The National Industrial Conference Board and the Cleveland 
Trust- Company accepted the Census figure's as accurate. 

The Committee on Economic Security, whose estimates '-ere compiled 
under the direction of hr. Robert R. Nathan acting as consultant on un- 
employment statistics, the American Federation of Labor, and the National 
Research League did not accent the 1930 Census of Unemployment as being 
accurate, "lien the Census figures '"'ere announced, considerable ouestion 
of the findings was voiced. A number of students of unenroloyment stated 
that the number unemployed had been underestimated'. They claimed, more- 
over, that if the Census data were carried bach to 1929 on the basis of 
reasonably accurate employment indices, there would, be certain months 
in 1929 -.-hen more needle Were employed than there were employable workers 
in the United States. To check en the accuracy of the Census figures, a 
Special Unemployment Census covering 19 cities was made in 1931, reveal- 
ing more vnemvloyment than could be accounted for by the decline in em- 
ployment between the t^o_ census dates. 3y using this latter Census, 
special studies and local censuses, the Committee on Economic Security, 
the Ped.era'tion of Labor, and the National - Research League revised upward 
the figures of the A-oril, - 1930 Census of Unemployment by approximately 
one million persons, or nearly one- third. 

Monthly unemployment in all of the estimates has been computed by 
the using the indices of employment of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
the Department of Agriculture, the Interstate Commerce Commission and 
other agencies. These indices, most of which p.re considered, reasonably 
reliable, represent industries including about 503 of the employed gain- 
ful workers in this country. Ror the remaining 40|o, the methods of com- 

9852 



putation vary. The National Industrial Conference Board assumes that em- 
ployment regains constant in agriculture, forestry and fishing, public 
service and professional service since the Census of April, 1930. The 
1930 Census showed approximately "296,000 unemployed in these groups which 
totalled around 7,000,000 workers. The national Industrial Conference 
Board has carried the figure of 396,000 unemployed in these industries 
without change to date. The American Federation of Labor uses a com- 
bination of the indices of .employment in the known industries to apply 
in the same ratio as in 1933-34 to specially constructed indices for 
transportation, service, amusements banking, real estate and insurance, 
and fisheries. (*) The Committee on Economic Security uses scattered 
and admittedly inadeouate data based on State and local unemployment 
surveys to estimate unemployment in the unknown industries. The national 
Research League uses a similar but even more complex method. The method 
used by the Committee on Economic Security and the national Research 
League allows for more flexibility in the results than that of the Am- 
erican Federation of Labor. The Committee on Economic Security, the 
American Federation of Labor, and the national Research League estimate 
changed in entrepreneurs, salaried employees and wage earners. 

The American Federation of Labor estimates the monthly additional 
workers to the total employables as about 50,000, casing its figures on 
the estimates of the population by' age groups, as of January, 1935, of 
the Scripps Foundation for Research in Population Problems. The ratio 
of employables to the total population, which is normally 39.3 f 'j, is 
slightly reduced because of the large number of young people remaining 
in school, but allowing for the additional numbers seeking employment 
due to the economic degression. A further adjustment for immigration 
has been made for 1935. The Committee on Economic Security based its 
estimated monthly increase on the normal increase which would have 
occurred if there had been no depression. The Auril, 1930, ratio of 
gainful workers to total population was applied to annual population 
estimates of the Census Bureau 1 , giving a monthly average of approximate- 
ly 37,500. Of this monthly increase, 5,000 were added to employed 
agricultural workers, consistant with- Mr. Nathan's policy of regarding 
all farm operators end. family farm laborers as being employed a.s long 
as the3 r remain on farms, end. 22,500 were .added to the urban or industrial 
unemployed, since they were considered as representing a. net gain in the 
number of persons seeking jobs. The National Industrial Conference Board, 
arrives at its estimated increase by using as a base the growth of 
population since 1930 instead of the higher birth rate of 16 years pre- 
vious multiplying the increase by 39.8^ (the average ratio of employables 
to total population)-. It is obvious that these methods give conservative 
results. The Committee on Economic Security a.nd the National Industrial 
Conference. Board, base their estimates on a normal increase, assuming no 
degression, thus showing a lower estimate than that of the Fed.eration. 
The national Research League, while conservatively using as a base the 
conditions which existed, in 1930, computed its increase in gainful workers 
by applying to the net difference between total births and deaths in the • 
working population, the ratio of employables 16 years of age and over to 
the total population, or 57^ instead of the 39 ...8' 3 used in other estimates. 
The result gives an estimate of auuroxima tely 74,000 monthly, as oinosed 
to the 50,000 of the Federation of Labor, and 27,500 of the President's 
Committee on Economic Security. Since the ratio of gainful workers to 
total population has been increasing since 1930 due to the decreasing 
birthrate, and since none of the estimates makes any considerable 

(*) Cf. "The Federation's Revised Unemployment Estimate", published in 

the January, 1936, American Federationist. 
3852 



-2* 

allowance for the increased number of workers forced on the market due 
to the de-oression, nor for increased length of school attendance among 
younger persons, and the relatively more rapid growth of rural population 
it is difficult to determine which of these estimates most really ' 
•approach actual conditions. 

The national Research League and the Committee on Economic Security 
give consideration to the population movement to and from farms, "loth 
agree that by the end of 1934 the farm- to-city population trend of 1933 . 
and. 1934 had. offset the city-to-farm population shifts of .the preceding 
three years. 

The American Federation of Labor considers certain emergency workers, 
including those under the Public Works Administration, as unemployed, as 
does the Cleveland Trust Company. The National Industrial Conference 
Board, the Committee on Economic Security, and the National Research 
League consider P.W.A workers as employed-, and. all other emergency workers 
as unemployed. 

All estimates are on the -totally unemployed. Known part-time workers 
are considered as employed,, and the loss of labor time has not been com- 
puted. 

A distinction between part-time employment, even when consisting 
of only -a few hours a week, and full-time employment is difficult. The 
definition of full-time employment rests in general with the individual 
employer. It varies not only from industry to industry, but from company 
to company within that industry. Estimators have, therefore, placed 
part-time employees in the same category as full-time employees. 

The estimates, although the result of thoughtful consideration by 
those compiling them, are freely admitted, to be but rough approximations. 
Basic data are reasonably accurate in only QO\ of the industries, and in 
the remaining 40fj where data is incomplete or totally lacking varied 
assumptions have been made to fill in the gaps. One of the primary 
causes for the variations in these estimates is due to" different treat- 
ment of the approximately 40^ on which there is inadequate information. 
The many minor differences in the treatment of each industry has been 
omitted from this analysis, and. only those of major importance have been 
summarized. 

3. Employment 

The estimates of unemployment give the number of persons who have 
been contributed. by each industry to the total- pool of unemployment. In 
addition they include the estimated accruals of new available workers to 
the labor market. These new workers can not, of course, be allocated, to 
the group of unemployed in any. given industry. It is quite possible, more- 
over, for large numbers of unemployed to be qualified for work in several 
industries. Since the purpose of this study is to appraise as far as 
possible the effect of the administration of the 1 T IHA on reemployment in 
the various industries which came under the codes, as estimate on employ- 
ment rather than unemployment has been chosen for analysis. An estimate (*) 

(*T The estimate comoiTed by Robert 3. ITathan for the President 7 ^ 
Committee on Economic Security. 

9852 



-6 - 

of employment, while computed on tlie same bases as the estimate of unem- 
ployment, -ives different results. Total employment, for example, in 
: larch, 1953, is given •- s 34,716,030 persons, and in September; 1935, as 
39, 6 39, 000- persons, or s total gain of A,'973.,000 persons. Total unem- 
ployment as of March, 1933 is given as 15, 071 j 000 persons, and in 
September, 1935 as 10,915,000 persons, or a total 'drop in unemployment of 
4,155, "00 persons. The difference is due to the constant addition in 
new workers to the labor market, plus the farm-to-city shift, which taken 
together result in the drop in unemployment being- .considerably less than 
the gain in employment. 

Ihe elimination of the farm- to-city shift and the accrued new work- 
ers .lakes for a clearer presentation of the part played by the various 
industries in improves, employment. The estimate on employment chosen 
for analysis is' that of Robert ?.. ITathan prepared for the President's 
Committee on Economic Security. It was selected because of the careful 
method of compiling the data and because of its comparability with the 
industries whi ch functioned under E3A codes. A short summary of the 
methods used in compiling the estimate follows. (*) 

In order that there might be a complete-' industrial breakdown, the 
Censuses cf Occupations and Unemployment were usee 5 in. estimating the 
number employed in April, 1930, which was used as the base period, host 
estimators of. employment use the various industrial censuses, such as the 
Biennial Census of Manufactures', and the Censuses; ox Distribution, Con- 
struction, '.lines, Agriculture, Public Utilities and Service. Employment 
figures are then projected forward and. backward to the Census date of 
April, 1950, by the pplication of employment indexes. While the 
industrial censuses- and the Censuses of Occupations and Unemployment are 
classified in the same. general manner, they are not exactly comparable 
and the figures vary considerably. This is in large measure due to the 
methods of enumeration. The house-to-house .enumarrti on system used by 
t.iie Censuses of Occupations and. Unemployment shows different results from 
that of a census of industrial establishments, A nurse or a doctor, for 
example, may be listed as in the professional group in the Census of 
Occuortions, whereas this same nurse or doctor, if working for an industrial 
concern, 'may be listed under that concern, in the Census of Manufactures. 
Tae nature of the work is - emphasized, even in the industrial classifications 
of the Census of Occupations, whereas the industry alone is emphasized 
in the returns from industrial censuses. 

In order to avoid the inconsistencies which are involved in using 
both types of Censuses, hr. ITathan decided to use only the Censuses of 
Occupations and Unemployment in estimating, the number employed in April, 
1930. "is industrial classification is that used in Chapter 7, Vol. 7 
of the U.S. Census of Occupations for 1930. . 

T.:e Census of Unemployment, which was adversely criticized by 
statisticians and economists who stated that it understated unemployment 
by a considerable amount, was adjusted by h'r. ITathan for upward correction. 



(*) See also Chapter I. a. 5. 



985' 



-7" 

Unemployment as f ovind in the 19 cities which made u~> the special 
enumeration t rea in the Special Unfembloyment Census for January, 1931, was 
coraoared. with the results of applying employment indexes to the figures 
for the same 19 cities as shown by the Unemployment Census of 1930. A 
further check by means of como- rison in several of the cities, individually 
was m; de. This check indicated that the correction ratio for the few 
cities combined was almost exactly the same as that of the entire special 
enumeration area. The assumption was then made that the understatement 
of the number unemployed was uniform throughout the country and the up- 
ward adjustment factor for all industries was set at 29.5159 percent. 

Neither the Census of Occupations nor the Census of Unemployment 
.. r e a count of these employed. From the former is obtained the number 
of gainful workers by. industry, and from the latter the number of those 
unemployed by industry. The number of gainful workers was taken from 
the 193) Census of Occupations and classified into 24 major industrial 
groups as given in the industrial classification of the Census. The 
number employed in each industry was obtained by subtracting from the 
gainful workers the corrected number of unemployed. Employment indexes . 
were then appli-ed to the number employed in April, 1930, to estimate the 
number employed hy months backward to January, 1929, and forward to date. 

Indexes of employment were available or could be constructed to 
give reasonably satisfactory estimates for the following industries: 
Agriculture; forestry and fishing; coal /nines; oil and gas wells; other 
mines and ouarries; manufacturing; construction raid maintenance of roads; 
postal service; street railroads; steam railroads; telephone and tele- 
graph; wholesale end. retail trade; laundries; cleaning and dyeing and 
■Dressing; and hotels, boarding houses and restaurants. These industries 
account for 14 of the 24 industries used, and for over two-thirds of all 
gainful workers. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics employment index for manufacturing 
excludes salaried workers. The Uisconsin manufacturing salaried workers ' 
index "cs, therefore, used, as an adjustment factor in formulating a com- 
bined index for the industry. This combined index was further adjusted for 
manufacturing entrepreneurs' by the use of an additional index which 
allowed for one-half the variation in employment of the index for salaried 
workers. 

A seasonably adjusted combined, im ex was prepared, consisting of the 
manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail trade, steam railroad, street rail- 
road, telephone and telegraph, and postal service industries, which in- 
clude d-Oyj- of all gainful workers, The index thus formulated was use- as 
a means for estimating employment in the following seven industries: 
Jarages and auto repair shoos; hanking , brokerage, insurance and real 
esta.te; public service, not elsewhere classified; recreation and amuse- 
ments; other professional service; other domestic and personal, service; 
and industry not specified.' The combined index was varied for each in- 
dustry recording to available lata on the extent of decline in employment, 
and on general knowledge of the varying incidences of unemployment among 
the various industries during the depression as gati rod from available 
state and city o:7rolo ; ...tent surveys. 



3852 



~s~ 



Tile remaining three industries - independent hand trades, other 
transportation and communication, and building - receive.' different 
treatment. Due to the large number of oroprietor.s in independent hand 
trades, fluctuations in employment are less wide than in wholesale and 
retail trace. An index, therefore, was constructed, based on one-half 
the change in the index for wholesale and retail trade, and assuming 
half the seasonal variation. 

over half of the gainful 'workers in the other transportation and 
communi cation industry were engaged in the motor transportation branch, 
including buses, taxi cabs and motor trucks. A combined index was made 
on the steam railroad, street railroad, telephone and telegraph, and 
■oostal service industries, and the deviations from the base weriod re- 
duced by one-third, because of the greater stability of employment in 
the other transportation and communications industry. 

Building construction offered the greatest difficulties in forming 
an index. Since the industry is made up of a lars'e number of small con- 
tractors from whom employment reports can be obtained only at great cost 
and with Questionable res\xlts, no index is available which reflects 
emrolo?/ment 'changes with even a fair degree of accuracy. lir. Nathan, 
therefore, constructed an index based on the Dodge Corporation figures 
on contracts awa,rded. Contracts awarded for highway construction were 
subtracted from the total value of all contmcts awarded, a.s estimates 
on employment on highway construction were made separately for the con- 
truction and maintenance of roads industry. The dollar volume of con- 
tracts awarded was deflated by the Engineering hews Record's index of 
construction costs to arrive at an index of the 'ohysical volume of con- 
struction. 3y means of a four-month moving aggregate an index was made 
f or t he trend of enrol oynent. Mr. ha than joints out that there are ser- 
ious limitations both in using a 'deflated index of contracts awarded and 
in assuming that an average of four months to comolete a construction 
project is accurate. 



From the analysis given above, it may be noted that there are marked 
variations in a/ieauacy of the ba.ses on which the estimates of employment 
conditions a.re made in the various industries. The estimates are, how- 
ever, the best that can be obtained for a study of em-loynent changes by 
industry, and in general may be considered, as fairly indicative of the 
true situation. 

The following sixteen industries were- selected from Lir. ilathan's 
study as being roughly comparable with the industries which came under 
the h?A codes; forestry and fishing; coal mines; oil and gas wells; 
other' mines and ouarries; manufacturing; building; construction and 
maintenance of roads; garages and auto re-oair shops; street railroads; 
telephone and telegraph; other transportation and communication; banking, 
brokerage, insurance and real estate; wholesale and retail trade; re- 
( crea.tior. and ammsements; laundries, cleaning, eyeing and -Dressing; and 
hotels, boarding houses and restaurants. 

Of these sixteen industries, the estimates are reasonably accurate 
in tie following ten: Coal mines; oil and gas wells; other mines and 
quarries; manufacturing; construction and maintenance of roads; street 
railroads; telephone and telegraph; wholesale and retail trade; 
laundries, cleaning, dyeing and m-essing; and hotels boarding houses and 

9852 



_ _ 



restaurants. Employment in these, industries at the base -period of April, 
19 r "\ totalled e.ryoroximately 19,145,000. Estimates on the following five 
industries are somewhat less accurate: Forestry and fishing; garages. 
and auto repair shops; banking, brokerage, insurance and real estate; 
recreation and amusements; and ether transportation and communication. 
These .industries at the same. period allowed approximately 3,435,000 em- 
ployed workers. The estimates of employment in the building industry are 
most d.cubtful as to accuracy. Employment in this industry as of April, 
1930, ~as estimated to be approximately 1,091,000 -persons. 

Domestic and -personal service was not included among the industries 
used in this study of the industries coning under -3A cedes. It was im- 
possible to separate domestic workers from -personal service. The number 
of workers in this industry coming under the codes -'ere, in any case, of 
relatively minor importance in numbers. 

The only industry in which a change in this study was made from the 
estimates of -those made by Mr. Nathan for the President's Committee on 
Economic Security was in Wholesale and retail trade. This change.- was 
made only in those tables, as noted in a footnote on the tables, which 
show indexes of employment by month in selected industries and their 
supporting tables of total numbers employed. The change was made in 
order to eliminate the. estimated number of entrepreneurs who occur in 
large numbers'- approximating 1,500,000 - in that industry and who show 
little fluctuation in employment, and -who, therefore, would otherwise 
decrease the sensitivity of employment trend indexes. The -percentage 
ratio between entrepreneurs and total workers in. wholesale and. retail 
tr ie was obtained from the Income Section of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic 'Commerce for the years 1929 to 1934.. The average for each 
year was subtracted from the monthly estimates of employment for each 
year. 

Entrepreneurs have not been deducted from the workers in other KRA 
istries, as. they are negligible in ouantity. 

Part-time - workers are included among the employed., ho adequate and 
all-inclusive definition of oart-time work has .ever been made, as an 
arbitrary decision on what constitutes part-time work has overwhelming 
limit; tions and fifficulties when applied on a national scale, ho 
attemat, therefore, was made in Mr. Nathan's estimates to segregate -part- 
time workers from those employed full-time. 



?S52 



-10- 
CHAPTER II 

P RE - ?T 3 A "PERIOD 

A. Estimated. IIur.be r o f Une mployed in the United States. ( Table 1. ) 



The different estimates of unemployment start as a reference ooint 
from April, 1930, -.Then the Federal Unemployment Census yas taken. The 
National Industrial Conference Board and the Cleveland Trust Company use 
3,183,000 as the figure of unemployment for April, 1930. This number 
vas the total of Classes A and B *n the Unemployment Census. Class A 
was defined as "persons oxit of a job, able to work and looking for a 
job"; Class B was defined as "Persons having jobs but on lay-off 
without pay, excluding those sick or voluntarily idle". The President's 
Committee on Economic Security, the American Federation of Labor, and 
the national Research League corrected the Unemployment Census figures 
upward by from approximately 800,000 to 1,200,000. 

The President's Committee on Economic Security shows the' T>eriod of 
least unemployment as October, 1929, with 492,000 unenmoloyed. The 
American Federation of Labor and the National Research League show 
Sept ember, 1929 as the oeriod of lca.st unemoloyment, their estimates 
being 614,000 and 1,250,000 respectively. The average un employment for 
1929 is given as 1,813,000 by the President's Com ittee on Economic 
Security and as 1,864,000 bybthe American Federation of Labor. 

Unemployment increases steadily in all estimates excent for the 
uinor seasonal fluctuations, to a peak in march, 1933. Each estimate 
shows an increase in unemployment between December and January of over 
a million persons for 1930 - 1931. and 1931-1932. The largest increase 
is shown by the Cleveland Trust Company for the 1930-31 December to 
January period of about 2,400,000. 

The National Research Leagaie shows throughou 4- the period a figure 
on unemployment consistently higher,- than that of any other estimate, 
although it follows the same trend. At the highest peak of unemployment 
in March,1933, its estimate is 17,000,000, a figure 3,700,000 higher 
than that of the National Industrial Conference Board. 

The average une,ployraent for the six mrnths immediately preceding 
the passage of the NIRA is -shown in each of the estimates as 12,700,000 
or higher. Because of the methods used in making these estimates, as 
outlined in the analysis of methods previously given, the figures of 
14,457,000 shown by the President's Committee on Economic Security, 
of 14,953,000 shown by the American Federation of Labor, and 15,429,000 
shown by the Cleveland Trust Company, are undoubtedly most indicative 
of uno?i-Dloyraent conditions during that period. It ir; to be noted that 
all estimators show a decrease in unemployment between Macon and June, 
1933, of 1,300,000 or more persons. The improvement can be accounted for 
by various factors, the most important of which "'ere increasing produc- 
tion, the usual seasonal increase iri employment in agriculture and other 
OSS' 3 



-11" 



outdoor occupations, and in Manufacturing, and the desire on the part of 
industry to produce as nany connodities as possible "before the foreseen 
governmental regulation "as put in force. During this ^eriod industrial 
production increased sharply. The fact that factory enroloynent did not 
increase in proportion is largely the result of a narked increase in a 
average hours worked, since plants had previously boon operating very 
short schedules. 



: i5'- 



-12- 



TABLD 1 



3stiaated Hunber of jneuilo-ed. in the United States 
January, 1325 to June, 1533 (In. "Thousands) 





President 's 




IT tional 








Co i ittee 


American 


Industrial 


National 


CI ev eland 




on Dcononic 


federation 


Conference 


Research 


Trust 




Security 


of Labor 


Board 


Leasee 


Co' roany 


1929 








J- :--. 


2,531 


3.0o0 








r -o. 


2,913 


3.119 








... ¥ • 


2,860 


2,550 








A;?r. 


2,217 


2,043 








:ay 


1,817 


1,754 








Jv.ne 


1,520 


1 , 447 








July 


1 , 042 


1 , 214 








Au G . 


349 


1,064 








Sept. 


907 


614 




1 , 250 




Oct. 


492 


910 








llov. 


1,853 


1,949 








Dec. 


2,851 


.,,629 








1929 Av. 


1,513 


1 , 364 








1930' 












•J 8,11 • 


4,065 


, ~j .- v 






n D rr c> 

a, 00b 


?eb! 


4,424 


-±,385 






3,295 


.-■--# 


4 , 544 


4,523 


3,1880-) 




• , 447 
3, 183 1 1 ) 


Apr. 


4,386 


4,049 




~_li,~ 


4 , 389 


3,756 


3 , 245 




3,315 


June 


4,161 


3,905 


3,673 




5,531 


Jul; - 


4,196 


4,441 


1..321 




4,138 


Aug' • 


4,782 


4,919 


4,590 




A r> 
-, JO J 


Sept. 


5.040 


4,983 


4,502 




4,513 


Oct. 


5,431 


5,525 


<x,777 




4,311 


•> ^ • 


6,507 


6,293 


5,404 




5,735 


Dec. 


6 , 95 o 


6,841 


5,u74 




5,732 


1930 Av. 


4,921 


4,770 


4,373(2) 


• 


4,1; ' 


1931 












Jan. 


3,049 


8,159 


5,567 


9,800 


8,115 


Deb. 


8 , 334 


8,274 


, 794 




8,354 


. i^ -'-"" . 


8,280 


8,133 


5,799 




8 , 301 


Apr. 


8,075 


7,815 


6 , obi 




8,059 




3,024 


7,811 


u,S42 




7,982 


June 


3,02- 


7 , 894 


7,153 




, ±00 


Jul- 


7,971 


8,367 


7,573 




8,672 


:..,:. 


8,4 4 


3,760 


7,53- 




9,090 


Sept. 


u, ( -J 


3,345 


8,044 




8,964 


Oct. 


5 , 133 


9, 484 


8 , 473 




■J , O «/ Q 


llov. 


■J , '. 2b 


10,410 


9 , 001 




1 ,212 


Dec. 


10,614 


10,039 


9,182 




2,995 


TO 1 ?! i\ ,- 


8,^43 


3,738 


7 605 




8,777 



9852 



-13- 



TABLI 



(Cont'd) 



President » s 




Rational 








Committee 


American 


Industrial 


National 


Cleveland 


on Economic 


Federation 


Conference 


He search 


Trust 




Security 


of Labor 


Board 


League 


Company 


1932 






Jan. 


11,462 


11,926 




12, 880 


11,798 


Feb. 


11,834 


12,169 


10,105 




12,714 


i.I?r. 


12,180 


12,387 


10, 293 




12,468 


Apr. 


12,420 


12,519 


10,754 




12,729 


M P y 


12,837 


15, 004 


11,090 




13,080 


June 


13,119 


13, 373 


11,596 




13,553 


July 


13, 425 


13,793 


12,152 




14,243 


Aug. 


13,608 


13,968 


• 12,207 




14,378 


Sept. 


13,118 


13,458 


11,850 




13,819 


Oct. 


12,834 


13,415 


11,691 




13,693 


ITov, 


13, 204 


13,925 


11,996 




14,119' 


Dec. 


13,587 


14, 240 


12,115 




14,392 


1932 Av. 


12,803 


13,181 


11,320 




13,416 


1953 












Jan. 


14 492 


15,166 


12,755 


16,750 


15,355 


Feb. 


14,597 


15,319 


12,782 




15,585 


Mar. 


15,071 


15,853 


13,300 


17,000 


15,119 


Apr. 


14,714 


15,125 


12,993 




15,628 


May 


14, 341 


14,615 


12,699 




15,337 


June 


13,528 


13, 843 


12,034 




14,548 


1933 Av. 













(6 no s.) 14,457 



14,95c 



12, 761 



15,429 



(1) U. S. Census of Unemployment, Classes A and 3. 

(2) 9 Months. 



9852 



-Ik- 



USTIiAT'.T IID'JST.-IIAL " :,. PLOr- ::TiTT , total i:..ia 

i: DuSTrjES, otksl-i i:.jus^r:5 a o AG-ic l~;:ii 

(Table 2. ) 



Total industries shows s drop in e:i jloy >e:it "fro i an average for 
1C-C9 to an average for the first si:: lonths of 1933 from 46,770,000 to 
35,343,000 markers. 

Agriculture shows the slightest loss in employment, although there 
is a drop in'1930 end 1931. However the estimates for this industry are 
highly questionable because of inadequate basis' data and diff icj.lt_ con- 
oeptu 1 problems. ' - 

Other industries/ not included in the PBA-categary^sbow ,a greater loss, 
...with a steady drop in employment of approximately 2,100,000 persons. 

1JEA industries — those v/Kich "later cane under ■code administration - 
— show a loss 'of almost 10,000 workers* ■ - . 



9852 



"in- 



5?A3L: 



stiu&te^ Industrial ent, lot 1 , 1'HA I:ic .stries, Other 

Inc ■• A ;ricvJ ': r , 1. ". to first sir. months 1933(-J 

(in Thousands) 



Ave: Total 1THA Other 

Industries Industries Agriculture 

IS: L5.77 6, 9,i75 1:.',5S3 

1330 9 15 34,14 I 3,510 10,351 

1931 ,593 21,364 6,c 10,385 

1932 3a, 753 18,105 8,127 10,520 
Jr_i. to J -lis, incl. 1933 35, 4C 15,371 7,861 10,311 



(1) fro e - t _o Li3"\ r y the !? side-it's C itt c o 

SC CUT it"". 



10 10 11C 



3 



-16 



c. iizr-ins or iiiDUSThiAL hh?LO ..:zc:t iy total, : h i -zxsT_.r:s , 

OThIP, IT'DhST^.I-IS All) AC2xgJLTUaS . (T cole 3.) 

Total Industries slier, s a st ady decline in the inde:: of employ ie:it 
with minor seasonal fluctuations, fro ; an average of 100 in 1923 to .. i ,.-.-- 
erags of 75.6 in the first six months of 1933. 

Agriculture sho'/s little change e::c:jt to seasonal activity-, oaring 
this ieriod. The averages for 1330 and 1931 are slighly lower than those 
of 1S32 i-nc. the first si:: months of 1S33. 

Other industries than those in the 17RA.fi che -or' show less loss in 
e i -ilo-- :er.t than Total Industries"!' and far less? then the selected IL.U. In- 
dustries, There is, ho/ever, a pro^res ive decline in ave:.a-;e emr-lo--- 
ment to a low of 78.3 for tie average o-r the first si:: months of 19 ". 

ISA I ni cstries during this period uro is t:) a point ™v;.::h indicates 
a loss oi enolovment :f over , third of those employed in these indus- 
trie:, in 1923 — an inde:: of 34.8. 



ybj:-j 



-IT- 



TABLE 3 



Indexes of Industrial Employment by Total, 
I3A Industries, Other Industries , nG Agriculture, 
"Jr.-tir.ry 1929 to June 1933 1/ 
(avera :o 1Q29 = 100) 



Total 



NBA 
Industries 



Other 
Industries Agriculture 



1929 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



1929 Average 
1930 



1930 Average 



37.9 
Sl.k 

.97-5 
.99.0 
q o 

100.6 

101.6 

102.5 
102.1 
103.0 
100.1 
9S.1 

100.0 



9 ; '.0 



1931 


January 


87-7 




February 


57.2 




March 


27.3 




April 


S7.S 




May 


□0 . 




June 


. 1 




July 


SS.2 




August 


S7.3 




Septenber 


S6.7 




Octooer 


09.9 




November 


8U.3 




December 


32.9 


1931 


Average 


06. 8 


9S52 







98.1 
97. s 

96.9 
93.0 
93-3 

100 . 5 
101.5 
103.8 

103.3 

102 . 2 

100.3 

98.1 

100.0 



January 


op; r 


.' 94.9 


February 


y-i.s 


9U.2 


March 


Sk.h 


93.2 


April 


95.o 


. 93. 4 


Hay 


35.3 


93.7 


June 


35.6 


. 93-5 


July 


35.6 


93.5 


August 


34.4 


92. 4 


Septenber 


93-9 


92.0 


October 


33.0 


90.5 


November 


50.9 


87.6 


December 


90.0 


86.9 



92.1 

S3. 7 
83.O 

82.7 
83.1 

33.1 

33.0 

82.6 

31.7 

31.0 
73.7 
77*7 
77.0 

31.5 



S3. 

93 


5 


S3 


5 


S3 


6 


100 


,4 


100 


,8 


101 


• 3 


101 


,u 


100 


• 7 


100 


r 


CO 


.3 


C'.' 


• 3 



L00 



97. 


r' 
O 


97. 


5 


37. 


1 


3? 


2 


37. 


2 


37. 


4 


35- 


4 


9^. 


4 


33- 


6 


92. 



^ 


32. 


.2 


on 


6 


35 


-3 


30 


.6 


30 


-3 


90 


.4 


30 


.4 


90 


.2 


39 


-5 


89 


.2 


S3 


.1+ 


37 


.1* 


nr 


f— 


00 


• ■j 


35 


.7 




ti 


VJ 





c r* -7 
00 • ( 



96.8 
95.0 

97-3 

100.7 
100.7 

100.6 
102. 4 
100.4 
100.3 

107.3 
100.0 

97-5 
100.0 

9H.9 
93. 3 
95-0 
97-1 
97.5 
99-3 
101.1 

99-4 
93.8 

99-5 
97.8 
96.O 

97.5 

95.0 
9U.5 
95.9 
97-2 
98.0 

99-3 
101.2 
100.1 
100.2 
100.8 
99-1 
95.1 

98.0 



-15- 



TABLE 3 Continued 



Total 



USA 

Industries 



Other 

Industries 



Agriculture 



1932 



January 


81.1 


74 . 1 


34.5 


February 


80.4 


72 . 8 


84.0 


Liar ell 


79.7 


71.3 


33.3 


April 


79.2 


70.2 


82.8 


May 


73.4 


63. 5 


■ 82.0 


June 


77.9 


67.6 


' 80 . 3 


July 


77.3 


66 .3 


79.9 


• Augns t 


75.9 


65.4 


79 . 2 


September 


73.0 


68.1 


79.9 


October 


78.7 


63 . 5 


80.5 


November 


73.0 


67.9 


• 80 . 3 


December 


77.2 


67.3 


80.0 



1932 Average 



1933 



January 

February 

March 

April 

Hay 
June 



78.6 

75.3 
75.2 
74.2 
75.0 
75.9 
77.7 



1933 Average 6 months 75.6 



69.1 



64 


.7 


64 


.6 




2 


64 


.0 


64 


.9 


67 


.1 


54 


.8 



31.5 

79 . 1 
78.8 
77.8 
78.3 
78.8 
80 . 1 

78.8 



95.3 

95.6 

95.5 

93.2 

99.6 

100.5 

101.9 

100.8 

101.0 

102.3 

100.7 

99.1 

99.3 

98.0 

98.0 

98.0 
oo o 

100.4 
101.6 

qo p 



(1) Based on estimates compiled by the President's Committee on 
Economic Security. 



9852 



-19- 

jj. ESTIMATED NUMBER Zi TL0Y E3 IN ALL INDUSTRIES AND IN SELECTED NRA 
IlTD rs'jl-.ILS (Table 4) 

Total Industries, including NBA industries. Other Industries, and 
Agriculture, sho 1 " a steady decline in em iloyraent from an average for 1959 of 
46,770,1 OC to an avers e for the first six la'onths of 1933 of 35,343,000 
workers. 

The decline in e I lent in the industries which later came under 
NRA codes is shown by individual industries. Greatest declines in number 
of employees come in manufacturing, with e drop from 10,' : , to 

,311, - ; in building, with a drop from 2,604,000 to 472,000; and in 
•lesale and retail trade, with a drop from 4, 41,00( to 3,361,000. 

In wholesale anc retail trade entrepreneurs have been eliminated by 
the method described in the section dealin ; with Estimate of Employment. 
The number of entrepreneurs subtracted in the various years is as follows: 
in 1929, 1, 298,0 0; in 1930, 1,311, 00; in 1931, 1,333,000; in 1932, 
1,360,000; and in 1933, 1,369,000. 



9852 



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-21- 

E. INLLXLS OF INE T 's ; v .IA T ^iPLOBfoN T IK ALL I FLU^TKILS ANI) IV 

o.- lLCTLT 13 A I "- 1 . "' "'", " ". " ," (T- bi--- 5) 

The monthly average for 1929 has Dee-n used as a base of 100 for 

each index of employment. 

Total Industries, including NBA Industries, Other Industries, and 
Agriculture, snow r- decline in employment to 7> . 6 for the average employ- 
ment in the. first six months of 1933. The low ooint of 74.2 was reached 
in March, 1933. Although employment increased from the low point of 
March, the ind< nonstrates that approximately one niarter of the 
number who were working in 1929 had no jobs by the first half of 1933. 

Considerable variation occurred in the trends of employment in 
the industries which later came uncer the NBA cotes. 

Only one industry showed an increase in employment -- construction 
fne maintenance j* roads. This is largely due to the fact that the un- 
employment problem ■ as relieve-' to a great extent by national, state, 
city and local projects for construction ana maintenance of roads. 

NBA industries which showed least decline in employment were 
garages and auto repair shops, with a drop to 83.0, and. h nking, 
brokerage, insurance ano. real estate, with a drop to BO. 4. 

A greater decline was shown by launaries, cleaning, dyeing and. 
pressing, with a arop to 76.1; by wholesale and retail trade with a drop 
to 74.0; by telephone ana tel<. ;raph, with a drop to 72.2; by other trans- 
portation ana communication, with a drop to 76.5; and by hotels, boarding 
houses ana restaurants, witn a arop to 72.9. 

A still greater decline was s own by street railroads, with a 
drop to 69.8; recreation ana amusements, S7.3, con-l, mine's, SI,' 
60.5; and oil and gas wells, 57.1, 

The industries which suffered the worst decline in employment 
were other mines and Quarries with a drop to 34.6, forestry ana fishing 
33.0, and building 18.1. 

Seasonal low employment in the early months of the year accounts 
for a small percentage of the low employment in the building industry. 

The increase in employment from lierch to June, 1933, was oresumably 
caused in large measure by the usual seasonal increase in employment, 
various state laws passed for the purpose of relieving unemployment, 
and the exceptional increase in the volume ano. production caused by 
a number of factors. 



9852 



-22- 



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P. II3DSXBS OP EIPLOYIENT IN 1 L4FJPACTU5i:!G- IKD US TItiaS 3Y TOTAL 
E3S. EI:T3I£ '. . ■ • 'JAGS Exxl&SBS . 

JilUAIg. 1929 to . ' 31. (Table i) 



The index en total workers in the manufi cturing industry is a com- 
bination of three indexes: that of the Uureau of Labor Statistics for 

:e earners, the only comprehensive series of reports; that computed 
from the chain series of percent; e elvnges in en loyment of salaried 
workers in Wisconsin (used by !Ir. Nathan as the best series reflecting 
national conditions) for salaried workers; ahc" an index computed on a 

sis of one-half the variation in the percent;- anges in employment 
of salaried workers in Wisconsin for entrepreneurs. r hie indexes used in 
Tables S, 18 and 27. ?-^ r those c.evelo ed 
average for the year. 



Nathan, converted to an 



Throughout the period of 1930 to June, IShv', there 



steax.; 



downward ti rat in employment, exce t for sli'ht seasonal variations, 
ng entre - reneurs, sal >ried <:>■ lo; ees, anc 1 vr. e earners. 



3y June, 1J33 1 it -- estimated that the employment among wage 
earners had declinec" 4l<3',>; among entrepreneurs l>-.3;"-, and among 

Laried emplo'^ees 3°. • 3ecau.se of the preponderance of wage ear: 
for which reports arc lost reliable, total employment hac decreased 

3S-: • 



::- 



-?u~ 



i'ABLi. 6 



IF FXSS OF HvFlOYMFFT FOR TOTAL './OEEIES, EFTKi.PBE'i.T'RS, 

3ALABILD F FLOYFLS, f-FD '.V.ftGE FAEELRS, IF :..4F"FACT : "R- 
ING INDUSTRIES, TAEUAEY 1929 TO IUEb 1933 
(Average 1929=100) 







: Total 






:7orKf -rs(l 


1929 


Jan. 


96.6 




Feb, 


98.2 




:,if r. 


99.2 




Apr. 


100. 2 




May 


• 100.4 




June 


100. 6 




July 


101. 1 




Aug. 


102. 5 




Sept. 


103. 3 




Oct. 


102. 3 




Nov. 


99. 1 




Dec. 


96.2 



Entre- : Srlaried 
or en eur s( 2): Emul oy ee s( 3; 



V; E ?e 
Earners (■ 



99.5 

99.4 

99.4 

99.6 

100. 3 

100.0 

K 0. 2 

1C i. 2 

100. 2 

1 0. 3 

100.3 

100.6 



93.9 
Si. 7 
98.8 

100.6 

100. C 
K 0. 5 
100.4 

1.0 . 5 
1( C . 6 
1' I . 7 

101 . 2 



■ 96. 1 

98. 1 

99.3 

10 .4 

100.4 

100.7 

101.2 

102.9 

] . 

L . 7 

98.8 

95. 2 



1929 Average 



II ' . ( 



100. C 



100.0 



100.0 



19o r 



Jan. 


94 . 2 


100.3 


100.6 


92. o 


Feb. 


94.4 


100. 6 


101.3 


92.9 


wlar. 


94.1 


IOC . 9 


101. 8 


92.4 


Apr. 


93. 4 


100. 3 


ICO. 7 


91.6 


May 


92.2 


IOC. 2 


ICC . 4 


90. 4 


June 


90.6 


99. 9 


99,8 


86. 6 


July 


87.8 


99.6 




85. 4 


Aug. 


87.3 


99.5 


99. 1 


84.7 


Sept. 


87.5 


98.3 


96.6 


85. £ 


Oct, 


85. 7 


97.5 


95.0 


83. 6 


Fov. 


83. 2 


97. 2 


94. 3 


80.7 


Dec. 


81.0 


96 . 2 


92.4 


78.5 



1930 Average 



89.3 



99.2 



98.4 



87.3 



1931 


Jan. 


78.7 


95.4 


90. 8 


75. 9 




Feb. 


79.4 


95.8 


91.7 


76. 6 




Mar. 


79.6 


95.6 


91.3 


77.0 




Apr. 


79. 5 


Jk) • *-J 


90.6 


77.0 




lley 


78.9 


94.9 


89.8 


76.4 




June 


77.4 


94.4 


88.7 


74.8 




July 


76. 2 


94. 1 


8 8.2 


73.4 




Aug. 


76. 1 


93.5 


37,0 


73.5 




Sept. 


76. 2 


9.3. 1 


86. 2 


73.8 




Oct. 


73.8 


93.0 


85.9 


73.3 




Fov. 


71.4 


92.0 


83.9 


■ 3. 5 




Dec. 


70. 6 


91.7 


83.2 


67.7 


1931 


Average 


76. 5 


94. 1 


.88.1 


74. C 


98o2 













- - 







To • 


l-.ntrc- 


Salaried 


Wage 






"or -c rs (l) 


■ i r. urs (2) 


Employees( 3) 


i'^rners (4) 


1032 


•Tin. 


68.5 


.8 


81.5 


65. 5 




Feb. 


60. 1 


90.5 


81. C 


66.3 




■ r. 


5.0 




79; 9 


65.2 




Aor. 


': . 8 


.8 


,7.5 


63.0 




. 


•• .3 


87.? 


E . 3 


60.5 




T une 


61.2 


36.4 


72.7 


58.4 




Inly 


59. ] 


85. 5 


70.9 


56. 2 




Au -. 


59.8 


55. 


70.0 


57.3 




Sept. 


•62.4 


15.1 


70.1 


60.4 




Oct. 


• ■'. 3 


!5. 3 


7C . 5 


61.4 




Nov. 


• ' ;. b 


85. 3 


70.4 


60. 5 




Be c. 


:. 3 


84.7 


69. 2 


59.2 


10o2 Av : 


•-, 


63.7 


87 . 1 


74. 1 


61.2 


1935 


Jsn. 


59. b 


83. 8 


67.4 


57.4 




Feb. 


c . 1 


83. 6 


67. 


08. 3 




i ar. 


. b. 2 


83. "2 


66.3 


56. 1 




Apr. 


59.1 


83. 3 


•66. 5 


57. 1 




May 


61.3 


63.5 


66.9 


59.7 




June 


6c. 


84. 5 


68.9 


G3. 8 



1935 Average 6 m^s. 



60. 



63. ? 



67. 2 



58.7 



(1) Inaex computed from aeta ceveloped oy the Presicent s Committee 
on Economic itcurity. 

(2) index computed, on s basis ȣ' one-half the variation in the per- 
centage changes in employment of salpriee- workers in Wisconsin, 
(Monthly labor Market published by the Indus trial Commission of 
Wisconsin. ) 

(3) Incex comoutec from chain series' of percentage changes in employ- 

nt -f soi pried vorkers in Wisconsin. (Monthly Labor M : rket, 
publish? c by the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.) 

(4) Bureau of Tpbor "totistics incex, converted to a 1329 base. 



9852 



-26-'" " 

&. indexes of L,;riOY„ii:. i n: ma 1 "' 'fact'}j: t o -,y gd:v,Iv-~ic 

DISTRICTS, 1529 - 13 33. (Table 7) 

Neither the indexes n^r the totals given in this Table (*) sre 
strictly comparable- with the figures given in other tables cf this 
study. Mr. G-ivens based his table on the incorrected figures given 
in the 1930 Census nf Unemployment. For all uractical purposes, how- 
ever, the general trend is the same as it woulc be in the fibres as 
corrected upward uy Mr. 7a than. The percentage decline to the aver- 
age for 1932 in the total for all districts is 36.1 in Mr. Givens' 
T°ble, and according to Mr. Nathan's figures is 36.3. 

From 1929 through the first three months of 1953, the emoloyment 
shrinkage i.n manufacturing was unevenly distributed among the indus- 
trial districts. The Mountain States, altnough there were less em- 
ployees in manufacturing than in any of the other districts, suffered 
more than any other section, with a drop of almost tw^-tbirds of the 
number of workers. The Pacific States cropped vr, half the number of 
employees working in 1929. 

The Sruth Atlantic and Vest North Central districts held up better 
than did the other sections. The Mia-Atlantic, New England, ana East 
North Central sections, where the greatest number of manufacturing 
plants exist, showed a. shrinkage to little over half the number of 
workers employed in 1929. 



(*) The states included in the geographical districts are as follows; 

So uth A tl ant ic - Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, 
Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia; 

'nest North Central - Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, 
North Dakota, South Dakota; 

Middl e Atlantic - New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania; 

New England - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island, Vermont; . . 

Eas t South Ce ntral - Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee; 

West Sou th Central - Arkansas, Doulsiana, Oklahoma, Texas; 

Pacific - California, Oregon, Washington; 

East North Central - Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin; 

I front e in - Arizona, Colorado, Iaaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, 
Utah, 'Wyoming. 



9852 



■27- 



IABLE 7 
Indexes of Employment in Manufacturing dj - graphic Districts, 1929-1933 

(Monthly Average 1929 = ICO) 



(1) 



District 

South Atlantic 
West North Central 
Mid- Atlantic 
i T Pw Engl end 
East 6-) ith Centra] 
.Vest South Centrpl 
Pacific 

Last Forth Central 
mtain 



1029 
10C.C 

• . 
li o.c 

1' . ■ 

. 

1 . 

V J 

I . 

1 I . 



or. 4 

9C . 4 
87.1 
83. 3 
83.3 
85. -- 
85.0 
82. C 
88.8 



1931 

8( . 9 
77.0 
76.7 
7 7.4 
69.4 
67.1 
70. C 
69.1 
ho. 4 



1932 

72. 8 

66.0 

61. 3 
58. 7 
57 . 6 

56. 7 
56. 1 

45. 



(2) 
1933 



72.1 
62. r 
57. 8 
57.1 
54 . 3 
55.9 
50.0 
51.4 
36.8 



Estimated Total 
Number Employed 
(in thousnnflAl 
1929 : 1932 

912 655 

^74 313 

2562 1611 

1099 679 

378 222 

298 172 

471 267 

2542 1427 

102 46 



(1 Taole compiled bj . eredith 8. Givens for the National Bureau 
of Economic Research, and based on the 1930 Census of Un- 
empleyment and Employment indexes of the Bureau of Labor 
St a tistics. It c ies not induce recuctions in working hours 
among those still employed. 

(2) Three months onlj. 



9852 



H. .__ -. ,.,., -.- ■ j- .- ?A T",y-,r ) . .:.iy:; i AVhhAGG 19 29 TO AV^ . AGS 

JA1TAEY TO JTJjTI, 19 ^'. (Table 8) 

The average employment in all K'xA industries for the first six 
months of 1933 s Loved a crop of 9,331,000 r orkers or 3i5. 7 per cent 
from the average for 19 9. ;■';■ nufrctr t in - contributed 4,114,000, 
building '2,132, OOi , and '"holesale am retail- -trade l,109,0u0, to 
this total. In percent? ;es manufacturing contributed 1-3.9, building 
22.8, end holesale and retail tr? de 18.3 per cent to the total decline, 
8;.). 5 per cent taken to ;ether. 

The only industry which showed an increase in em iloyment was 
construction and maintenance of roads. 

'The bailciny construction industry was fiercest hit by the depres- 
sion as indicated by the fact that employment in that industry decreased 
'by 81. 9 .per cent. Both forestry and fishing and other mines and quarries 
shrank in employment by about two- thirds. 

manufacturing and coal mines declined by almost 40 per cent. Re- 
creation anr amusements, a:lc. street, railroad.s cropped almost 30 per cent 
of their employees. The other NHA industries shoved a lesser decline 
from 17. per cent in ;< r e's and auto repair shops to 27.3 per cent in 
telephone and tele-'-ra h. 



9352 



IS 






s r 
-<5 



5 a 



r 




-30- 

I. EBQF03IHC3 GF FUIL-TI | "IQh OF PLANTS IN KANUFACTURING 
IESUSTKILS BY ESTJG LISHLZJTa PC 3TI3TO (Table 9) 



The table on the percentage of establishments working y>art-time be- 
tween January, 19?9, and June, If' , was compiled from data published by 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its i.'onthly Labor Review. It shows an 
increasing number of reporting establishments working part-time, until a 
Beak is reached in July and August, 19C-2, or 56 per cent. The greatest 
number of factories reporting idle is shown in this same period. 

In its publication of the t'onthly Labor Review of December, 193?, 
(p. 10), the Bureau of Labor Statistics makes the following statement: 
"A number of establishments supplying data concerning plant operation 

e reported full-time operations, but have qualified the hours reported 
with a statement that, while the plant was operating full-time, the work 
in the establishment -as being shared and. the employees '--ere not working 
the full-time hours operated by the plant." It is to be noted that there 
is no information relating to the number of workers or size of plants af- 
fected by riant shut-downs and. part-time operations. 

The tabulation of time worked in manufacturing industries was dis- 
continued after January, 1934. In the ; onthly Labor Review for April, 
19S4 (p. 3,;), the Bureau of Labor Statistics made the following state- 
ment: "Allowances under various industry codes for changes in hours of 
plant operation according to peak seasons in the industry make it increas- 
ingly difficult to accurately compute the percentage of full-time opera- 
tion in a number of reporting establishments. This situation together 
with staggered-hour arrangements in other establishments complicates the 
computation of the percentages of full an: 1 part-time plant operation and 
the Bureau has decided to discontinue the presentation of these data for 
the -resent. " 



J. ?BB GEIIT OF hECRB ASB Ih E.Jh LCYh hhT Ahh PAY BOLLS. AhT PROPORTION 
OF F ULL TL B. X 3CL IF SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES Ih 7 PAY ROLL PERIOD 
Dh- Ihh, "EAEL.5T I C 15. 1933 . (Table 10) 



Using as a definition of lull time t ie arbitrary figure of five 
working days or ere, the Bureau of Labor Statistics oublished a table 
on the proportion of full time worked in specified industries as of 
:"&rc- 15, 193". 

According to this table only ?5..1<$ of all companies, and ?6.5^ of 
manufacturing companies only, -orked SI"' or more of full lime. Of the 
twenty industries shown, over 50"' of the companies in the following three 
ororked "hi or more of full time: Chemicals, 53.?'-; commercial, 70.3^; and 
electric railways, 56.7 . The lowest uercentag.es are sho-n in stone, 
clay and gl ss it: 1 .' . 7" , iron <?rc steel --it"- 15.0'', machinery with 
lh.S , and steam railroads with 11.?-. 

In all industries 56.1 of t e workers, erJ. in manufacturing only 
65.0'' of the workers, were smoloyed lart ti-ne. Industries showing the 

935~ 



-31- 

T1BLX » 
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highest percentages of part tine employment are rubber with 04.9'-, iron 
and steei with 79.?''., nonferi >.s met; Ls with 7".r*-, and machinery with 
84.9^. Electric railways shows only of it? workers o 1 '. part time. 

The average • ouni oJ full time worked b part time workers in all 
industries is shown to be " . 7 . and in manufacturing only 58.7-. No in- 
dustry shows less than 50'.' nor more tlisn 75i of full time -orked on the 
average of part time workers. 

Employment in all industries declined 36.7-v, and in manufacturing 
only "6.6<$, between 19^9 and arch 15, 1932. The only industry increas- 
1 . employment was tobacco, with a 1 gain. Food with 3.6^, leather with 

, and electric railways, had the least decline in employment. Eor- 
estrv -it;- 36.5'"-, store, clay end glass with 38.8^, machinery with 56.2$, 
end steam railroads with 36. Go had the greatest decline in employment. 

K. i-a-. T-TLE, E. PLOYi.EhT EY IXEUSTEY AEO IO CALITY. 197:9-1951 (Table 11 ) 



-0 ade uate definition of part-time employment has ever been made, 
and no accurate figures on this subject are available. In an endeavor 
to measure the amount of oar t- time employment existing by 1933 and 1954, 
the National Research league compiled what material was available by in- 
dustry or locality. As a result of this study, the League estimates 
that for every 10 unemployed workers, there were 5 part-time employed by 
193" and 1934. This estimate seems over-conservative, not only from a 
knowledge of general business experience, but from the league's own table, 
The average as shown in the table over the period 19 "9-1934 is 382 total- 
ly unemployed to 568 part-time emolove?. Because of the prevalence of the 
policy of sharing-the-work end the cutting of factory time to a part-time 
basis, it is probable t t th< estimate on part-time employment by 1935 
should! be ? part-time workers to every 5 unemployed. 

At the peak of unemployment in the first six r.onths of 1933, there 
-ere on the average 14,457,000 unemployed, and 33,070,000 employed. If 
the assumption is made that there -ere : ' part-time workers for every 3 
unemployed, approximately 9,538,000 or approximately -5 per cent of the 
33,070,000 employe-" 1 were working iart-time. 



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CHAPEE Ill 

ir a r ' iqd 

A. ESTIUATED EULSfia. 0? UKSJHiO TGSD I ~:I£E WITSD STATES . (Table 12) 

Unemployment estimates for t i nths ore ceding the passage of 
the 1TIHA are shown in I; hie 12, as ■ .11 as the period covering the life .. . 
of the Act. Through this period th st-imators show the same trend, 
hut t] Lr divergencies are :reater ' Lr. the seriod between April, 
■ in . 1933. 

itional Research League shows a figure again consistently 
higher than that of the President's Committee on Economic Security, 
the difference heing greater by approximately 2,400,000 persons. 

Cleveland Trust Company estimates are higher than those of 
t ie American Federation of Labor for 1933 until December, lower through 
1954, and again higher in the first five months of 1935. 

While ether estimators show an increase in unenployment between 
December, 1953, and January, 1934, of 700,000 to 1,000,000, the 
National Industrial Conference Board shows an increase of only 200, U00. 
Pro.: 1 , this Sate en, the national Industrial Conference Board shows a 
consistently lower figure on unemployment than any other estimator by a 
million or more. 

The ClevalanO I: ast Company, the national Industrial Conference Board, 
the American Federation of Labor, and the President's Committee on 
Economic Security show an average decrease during this period. 

All estimators slier? a higher figure of unemployment for the average 
between January and I lay, 19:5, than the monthly average for 1934. A large 
part of this increase is accounted for by t. e fact that employment normally 
builds up from a low point in January each year, and would therefore show 
its reverse in a high unemployment figure in the early part of the year. 

B . ESTIMATED IIDUSTh lAh EI.IFLOYil hTT,- TOTA L, 1I5A IhDUSTBIES, OTHER III- 
DuS TRIES AITD Ah-OXPLTUI-S , (Table 13) 

During the period of 1T?A code administration, Total industries show 
a gain of approximately 3,000,000 persons from the average of January to 
June, 1933, to the average of January to Hay, 1935. 

The figures on Agriculture are somewhat distorted due. to seasonal 
fluctuations. June is a month of increased activity in agriculture. 
Addin this month to an average for the previous five months in 1935 would 
show increased employment. In general, however, agricultural employment 
suffered little change. 

Other industries show a steady increase of approximately 2,650,000 
persons from an average of the first six months of 1933 to an average of 
the first five months of 1933. The average for 1934 was higher than for 
the first five months of 1935. The decrease in 1935 is due partially to 
a normal seasonal low in employment in the early months of the year. There- 
was, however, a small decrease in employment in the first five months of 
1935 as compared to the same months in 1934. 

9352 



-36- 

TABLE 12 



Estimated Number of Unemployed in the United States 
January, 1933 to May, 1935 
(in thousands) 





President 's 




national 








Committee 


American 


Industrial 


national 


Cleveland 




on Economic 


Federation 


Conference 


Research 


Trust 




Security 


of labor 


Board 


League 


Company 


1933 






Jan. 


14,492 


15,166 


12, 755 


16,750 


15,355 


Feb. 


14,597 


15,319 


12,782 




15,585 


Mar . 


15,071 


15,653 


15,300 


17, 000 


16,119 


Apr. 


14,714 


15,125 


12,993 




15,628 


May 


14,341 


14,615 


12,699 




15,357 


June 


13,528 


15,343 


12,034 




14, 548 


1933 Ave 


. 











1L 



hi OS 



,) 14,457 



14,953 



12.760 



,429 



1933 



July 


12,839 


13,458 


. 11,584 


Aug . 


12,111 


12,662 


10,731 


Sept. 


11,448 


11,354 


9,920 


Oct. 


11,176 


11,842 


9,924 


Hov . 


11,738 


12., 374 


10,398 


Dec. 


12,046 


12,760 


10,334 


1933 Av. 









(6 mo s.") 11,893 



12,492 



10,482 



13.-330 



14,189 
15,251 
12,238 
11,976 
12,391 
12,554 

12,767 



1934 



Jan . 


12,599 


13,382 


10,538 


15,110 


13,253 


Feb. 


12,072 


12,964 


9, 873 




12,744 


Mar. 


11,577 


. 12,420 


9,394 




12,134 


" Apr . 


11,161 


12,004 


9,318 


13,430 


11,824 


May 


10,897 


11,711 


9,201 




11,330 


June 


10,743 


11,714 


9,252 




11,227 


July 


10,967 


12,222 


9,826 




11,919 


Aug. 


11,382 


12,352 


9,390 




12,117 


Sept . 


11,908 


12,429 


10,217 




12,276 


Oct. 


11,597 


12,213 


9,-908 




12,011 


Hov . 


11,996 


12,581 


10,065 


14,420 


12,391 


Dec . 


12,085 


12,359 


3,740 


14,380 


12,269 


1934 Av. 


11,582 


12,363 


9,777 




12,130 


1935 












Jan. 


12,561. 


13,058 


10,142 


14,950 ; 


13,183 


Feb. 


12,358 


12,764 


3,898 


14, 690 


12,987 


Mar . 


12,183 


12,608 


9,760 


14, 450 


12,348 


Apr. 


11,807 


12,379 


9,623 


14,075 


12,409 


May 


11,618' 


12,382 


3,711 


14,035 


12,400 


1935 Av. 












(5 mos . ) 


12,105 


12,638 


9,827 


14,440 


12,765 



9352 



TABLE 13 

Estimated Industrial Employment, Total NRA Industries, Other 
Industries and Agriculture;, 1933 to Liay 1935 ^ ' 
( in Thousands ) 



Aver- ;e 



Total 



TffiA Other 
Industries Industries Agriculture 



Jan. to June 1933 

July to Dec. 1933 

Jan. to Dec. 1934 

Jan. to ;> • 1. . 



35,54-3 
38,070 
33,621 
58, 335 



16,971 
19,100 
19 , 803 
19,624 



7,861 10,511 

8,284 10,686 

3,368 10,450 

8,444 10,267 



(1) from estimates compiled by the President's Committee on Economic Security. 



9352 



JOT 

0, IEDEXES OF IN DUSTRIAL EMPLOYME NT BY TOTAL, ERA INDUSTRIES, OTHER 
IN DUSTRIES Aim AGRICULTURE , (Table 14) 

Total industries, during the period of TIRA. code administration, 
shows an increa.se in the index of employment (average 1929 = 100) 
from 75.6 for the average of the first six months of 1933 to 31.4 
for the average of the last si:: months of the same year. There is 
an increase in the average for 1934 over the average for the last six 
months of 1933. Employment during the first five months of 1933 is 
slightly lower than the average for 1934 and also slightly lower than 
during the same months of 1934. 

Agriculture shows a decrease in employment in 1934 from that of 
the last six months of 1933, presumably due largely to the drought. 
The average for the first five months of 1935 is less than for the 
total of 1934, and also for the same five months of 1934. 

Other industries show a gain of 8.1 points, partially due to a 
seasonal increase, in the average for the last six months of 1933 com- 
pared with the first six months of the same year. The average for 
1934 shows a smaller increase. The average for the first five months 
of 1935 shows an increase from the average of 1934, and also from the 
average for the five same months of 1934. 

ERA Industries show,, a 12.5 per cent increase for the average of 
the last six months of 1933 over' the average for the first six months 
of the same year. There is a further increase in the average for 1954. 
The first five months of 1935 show a slight decrease in the average, 
and also in comparison with the same months of 1934, 

D . ESTIMATED NUM BER UMPLOYED II! ALL INDUSTRIES AND SELECTED ERA 
INDUSTRIES . (Table 15) 

Total Industries, including KRA, Industries, Other Industries, and 
Agriculture, show an increase in employment during the life of the 
ERA code administration from 35,343,0°0 for the average of the six 
months immediately preceding the ERA to 38,070,000 for the average for 
July to December, 1933. The latter period covered the months during 
which the President's Re-employment Agreement was in force « There is 
a further increase to 38,621,000 for the monthly average for 1934, 
The average for January to May, 1935, shoivs a decrease from the average 
for 1934. The decrease is largely accounted for by the normal drop in 
employment for the early months of the year, which showed employment of 
38,041,000 persons in January and 39,086,000 in May. It is estimated, 
however, that approximately 70,000 more persons were employed i n the 
first five months of 1935 in 1!RA industries than in the corresponding 
five months of 1934. 

Among the USA. industries a steady increase is shown in each period 
for the following industries: Coal mines, manufacturing, street 
railroads, wholesale and retail trade, and hotels, boarding houses and 
restaurants. 

Telephone and telegraph shows a drop in employment from the first 
six months of 1933 to the last six months of the same year. The average 

9852 



-39- 

TABLE 14 



Indexes of Industrial Employment b; r Total, 
1T3A Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture, 
January 1933 to May 1935 (l) 
(average 1929 = ICO) 







Total 


Industries 


Other 
Industries 


Agriculture 


1933 


January 


75.3 


64.7 


79.1 


98.0 




February 


75.2 


64.6 


78.8 


98. r 




March 


74.2 


63.2 


77.3 


98.0 




April 


75.0 


64.0 


78.3 


99.2 




May- 


75.9 


64.9 


78.8 


100.4 




June 


77.7 


67.1 


80.1 


101.6 



1933 Average 6 months 75.6 64.8 78.8 99.2 
1933 



1934 



July 


79.2 


63.0 


81.6 


102.2 


Angus t 


80.8 


71.9 


85.0 


100.9 


September 


32.3 


74.3 


83.7 


100.9 


October 


83.0 


74.7 


03.8 


102.6 


Kpvember 


81.8 


73.8 


33. 3 


100.2 


December 


81.2 


73.7 


82.8 


98.3 


6 months 


31.4 


72.9 


83.1 


100.0 


January 


80.1 


72.5 


82.5 


97.0 


February 


31.3 


74.1 


32.9 


97.5 


1 larch 


82.4 


75.5 


84.4 


97.4 


April 


33.3 


75.7 


84.7 


98.6 


May 


34.0 


77.6 


85.3 


93.6 


June 


84.3 


77.5 


85.1 


100.6 


July 


85.9 


76.6 


84.5 


101.5 


August 


83.1 


76.1 


84.5 


99.1 


September 


82.0 


74.9 


82.8 


99.0 


October 


82.7 


75.3 


83.0 


100.8 


November 


82.3 


74.9 


83.1 


98.4 


December 


31.8 


75.4 


83.7 


95.9 



1954 Average 82.6 75.6 85.9 98.6 

1955 



January 


. 8r.9 


75.6 


85.8 


9G.0 


February 


81.4 


74.5 


84.5 


95.4 


March 


81.8 


74.3 


85.0 


96. C 


April 


82.6 


75.7 


85.0 


97.6 


May 


85.1 


75.3 


34.9 


99.6 



1955 Average 5 months 32.0 74.9 84.7 96.9 

(l) Based en estimates compiled by the President's Committee on 
Economic Security. 



!S52 



-Ro- 
table 15 

Estimated Eumber Employed in Al 1 - Industries end in Selected 

ERA Industries', 1933 to Kay 1035 (l) 

(in thousands) 



Average 
Jan. to 
June , incl , 
1933 



Average 
July to 
Deo. incl , 
1933 



(2) 
Total 

Total ERA Industries 

Forestry and Fishing 

Coal i.lines 

Oil and Gas Wells 

Other ilincs and Quarries 

I.ianuf ac tur ing 

Building 

Construction and Maintenance Roads 

Garages, Auto Repair Shops 

Street Railroads, ' 

Telephone and Telegraph 

Other Transportation and Comuunicat 

Banking, Brokerage, Insurance and 

Real Estate 
Wholesale and Retail Trade (3) 
Recreation and Amusements 
Laundries, Cleaning, Dyeing and 

pressing 
Hotels, Boarding houses and . 

Restaurants 



35,.343 

15,602 

38 

336 

111 

90 

6,311 

472 

480 

532 

136 

404 

ion 636 

1,154 

3,361 

279 

310 

902 



38,070 
17,733 
117 
361 
132 
115 
7,657 
547 

■ 580 
57S 

■ 137 
385 
645 



,197 

,693 

312 

324 

953 



Average 
Average Jan. to 
1934 May, incl , 
1935 



38,621 


38,335 


12,445 


18,297 


115 


115 


507 


398 


152 


146 


117 


112 


7,872 


8,114 


679 


520 


677 


416 


573 


563 


139 


139 


394 


392 


649 


640 


1,195 


1,229 


3,781 


3,789 


326 


338 


327 


321 


1,052 


1,065 



(1) from estimates compiled "by the President's Committee on Economic Security. 

(2) AH industries, including ERA industries, Other industries and Agriculture . 

(3) Estimated entrepreneurs eliminated by reductions based on percentages used 
in the national Income Study being made in the Division of Economic Re- 
search of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



9852 



-Hl- 

for 1934 is larger than for the last six norths of 1933, "but the 
average for the first five months of 1935 shows a decrease from the 
average for 1954. 

Becaus3 of the normal seasonal fall peak of employment, the follow- 
ing indust: ies show a drop in employment between the average for the 
last six months of 1935 and the average for 1954; Forestry and fishing,, 
garages and auto repair shops, and banking., insurance and real estate. 

Due presumably to low seasonal employment in the early months of 
the year, the following industries show a decline in the average em- 
ployment for January to hay, 1935, from the average for 1934: Other 
mines and quarries, laundries, cleaning, dyeing and pressing, and 
garages and auto repair shops. These industries show larger employment 
in liay, 1955, than for the average for 1954. 

The following industries show a drop in employment between the 
average for January to "ay, 1935, and the average for 1934; Building, 
and constructions end maintenance of roads. They show also a decrease 
in employment fox the first five months of 1955 from the employment 
shown in the same months of the previous year. It is in these two 
industries that the -reatest number of P 7 JA workers occur. 

In wholesale and retail trade entrepreneurs have been eliminated 
by the method described in the section dealing with Estimate of Em- 
ployment. The number of entrepreneurs subtracted in the various years 
is as follows: in 1S33, lj 369,000; in 1954, 1,358,000; and in 1935, 
1,326,000. 

E. INDEX5S 0? IIDUSTI-JAL SIPLOYIIEITT III ALL IITDUSThlSS AtTD IH SELECTED 
IDA IIDTJSTQIES, by hQ-'TE, JANUARY, 1933 TO MAY , 1935. (Table 16) 

Total Industries, including : r xlA industries, other industries, and 
Agriculture, show an increase in the employment indexes (average 1929 
- 100), with minor seasonal fluctuations, from the average of the first 
six months of 1933 to 75.6 to 82.0 for the average for the first five 
months of 1955. This period covered the life of the code administration 
of the ITI2A. 

With the exception of the month of I larch, 1935, the index on con- 
struction and maintenance of roads keeps well over 100. A peak period 
of over 200 is seen between June and October, 1934. In 193'", the PWA 
financed a large part of the work of road, building with the Bureau of 
Public Eoads in charge. The work undertaken for cities and towns under 
the PT7A program accounts in large measure for this increase. 

Jn general, the greatest acceleration in employment took place in 
industries between June and October, 1933. In some measure this was due 
to the seasonal upturn which takes place in most industries during this 
period. The major factor, however, was the cooperation by industries 
with the president in his re-employment agreements in reducing hours 
and spreading work. The chief exceptions were; Construction and main- 
tenance of roads, which showed its greatest acceleration - over 100;o - 
between January and July, 1934; building, which showed a greater increase 
for 1934 than for the last six months of 1933: Hotels, boarding houses, 

9852 



_U 2 - 

and restaurants, .which, showed tlie. same trend as "building, as did also 
coal mines and oil and gas veils; and telephone and telegraph, which 
showed a considerable drop in the last sir months of 1933 as compared 
with the January average of that same year. 

. . Forestry and fishing showed considerable increase in the last six 
months of 1933 over the first six months, hut a slight drop to the 
average of 1934. The average for the first 'five months of 1935, due to 
seasonal, low employment, shows a slight drop fro : the average for 1934, 
although employment from January to April was "better than it was in the 
same months of 1S34. 

• The increase in employment in coal mines in 1934 was due in large 
measure to the code provision for shorter hours put into effect in the 
early part of 1934. The increase in employment in oil road gas -'ells 
was pre stoafchly due to increased production in addition to employmexfe 
provisions in the codes. 

Other mines and quarries show a gain in employment in 1934 over 
the average for the last si;; months of 1933. The average for the first 
five months of 1933 shows a slight drop from the average for 1934, due 
to seasonal fluctuations, "but shows -reater employment than for the 
same' months in 1934. 

I Manufacturing shows a consistent increase, with minor fluctuations, 
for every period to may, 1935. Between Decemher, 1934, and January, 
1935, manufacturing shows ah increr.se instead df the normal seasonal 
decrease. The increase was presumably due to increased production' 
during this period. 

Garages and auto repair shops show a slight decline in the average 
for 1934 compared with the average for the last six months of 1933. 
Although there is a high pea].: of employment in July and August of 1934, 
the next four months are somewhat lower than the; r "ere in the same 
period of 1933. The first five months of 1934 show slightly higher 
employment, however, than in the corresponding months of 1934. 

Street railroads show comparatively little increase in employment, 
although the average for the last six months of 1933 is slightly higher 
than the average for the first six months,- it is less than it was 
during the same period of 1932. A slight improvement over the same 
period of 1933 is seen thoudiout 1934. The first five months of 1934 
show slightly less employment than in the same period of 1934. 

Telephone and telegraph shows a decline in employment in the last 
six months of 1933, as compared with the first six months. The first 
six months of 1934 show less employment 'than the first six months -of 
1933, hat the last six months "of 1934 show greater employment ' than in 
the last six months of 1933. The average for the first five months of 
1934 shows slightly less employment than do the first five months ȣ 
1934. 

Wholesale and retail trade, shows a great acceleration of employment 
in the last six months of, 1933 over the first six months. With minor 



9852 



-1,-3- 

fluctuations, it, shows r consistent v in through 1934 and through the 
first five nonths of 1935. Each nonth is higher than it was in the 
cor _-e spending s.ionth of the previous year. 

Recreation nd auvt.se lents follows the sane trend as that of whole- 
sale ,?.n< L] trade, except that the vain is greater. 

L . ■•; aning, y Lng and ■ ressing shows a gain in the last 
si-- lonths of 1933 over the em] loyment in the first sir months of that 
r. • aver&ge for 1934 is again greater. Employment in the first 
five -lonths of 1934 is slightly less t i in the sane -oeriod of 1934. 



9352 



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fhA c:ii:sus - "j.^:ul.-.tio:: ~~r i jes a:.3 iidustiiy 

GQOUPS . JOBS AilD OCTOir:::. 1°Y) . (Table 17) 



In the latter part of 1933 '■'■ special c '.s ■:; tahen of indus- 
tries subscribing to the President's Se-Smployment Agreement, the 
returnee cuestio Latec by the !>areau ' the Census. 

table of the P?A Census is : summary cf the questionnaire return 1 :;, 
analyzed! in the fall of 1733 by ha:: Sasuly In the Division of Zevie 1- .- of 

. (*) The oU3,oS._ establishments r ■ 'ting are classified in 
lo7 industries under seven non-nanufn.cturiivj anc sixteen manufacturing 

te United Str J s , - -hole P3A reporting establishments in- 
die-' ■ in e lent bet-e 1 Ji ne cr.'. October of 15»^',- or 
1, V, 1 srsons. In -arnufacturir: ; empi >yment incr* see IS.G^'J, end in 
non-manufr.ctii.ring 12.7' • Increases in employment in the non-manufrctur- 
ing industrial gr ; ner s : r ollo :s; Agriculture, forestry rnd animal 
husbandry, .7 lining am ■■ in-", R1.3 , construction, l4.0',t; trans- 
portation end other public utilities, "-.h.; distribution, 15«9£; service 
10. £ ; finance, 3< 






In the non-manufacturin Lj tstries t ie gre; best increase in 
enployrient occurred in 1 am lsi lents group ".-ith . , s u hie leai ' 
increare in the finance ■ , ith '^.' . 

In manufacturing, Lucre: e in employment occurred in 

the iron end stee] ro-o mith 2$. 7 : "~ -"- machinery e:-:t -/ith 2 r >.'J^. The 
lovrest increase occurred in railroad repair shops "ith l+.0£. Slightly 
higher -.ras the 7«5f> increase in er.ploy.ient in leather anc 1 its manufact- 
ures, rnd ne::t °. '' ? r textiles mid the products. 



For a comparison of employment changes shown in this table with the 
Bureau of Labor Statistic: sample and the Census of Manufacturers for 
the s'-me period, indicating similar conclusions, see report of Max 
Sasuly on the Analysis of the FRA Census of Employment for the 
Division of Review of the NRA. 



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- 51 - 

&• INDEXES OF EM LOY:flENT IN '. ..'"T-'ACi'lTRIIIG HTOUSIRIES BY T OTAL 
WORKERS. EHTE :_ RETOIE ,S ~ ~£xLliif£J '1 PLOYS 3 S J ' AIID t ?A(lI i;.rtiiZRS , 
JANUARY. 19TO. to MAY. 1935. fTabls 18)" " 

Prom the average of January to June 1933, the greatest acceleration 

in employment occurred during the following three months, rising from 
60.5 to 76.4. The peak of employment in 1S33 occurred among wage earners 

in September, and among salaried employees and entrepreneurs in October. 

There followed a downward trend in all groups until February, 1934, 
when employment increased and continued upward until May. Employment 
among wage earners decreased generally until the end of the year. Among 
salaried workers and entrepreneurs the decline "began in July and con- 
tinued until November. The employment average in 1934, however, was 
higher for all groups than the average in the last six months of 1933. 

The peak of employment in 1934 for wage earners was in May, and for 
salaried employees and entrepreneurs in June. 

Instead of the drop in employment which had occurred in previous 
years between December and January, there was an increase in employment 
in all groups between December, 1934, and January, 1935. In the first 
five months of 1955 the peal: of employment among wage earners was reached 
in April, and among entrepreneurs and salaried employees in i.iay. The 
average employment during the first five months of 1935 was higher in all 
groups than was the average for 1934. 



9852 



-52- 



TAI-LE ]8 



.HIT OZ EMFL6YM3NT 

ElTT3Er T C:iIK1JE3 , 



r: janufactufjitg ikdustrtes by total workers, 

JUEB EiTIOYEES, A?D WAGE EAIujERS, 
to MAY 1935 (Average 1929= loo) 



Total 
T or i>p rs (i 



Entre- : Salaried 
Toren^urs {?'• Eirroloy^es (3 



Wage 
Earners (4 



1933 



Jan. 


59.5 


83.8 


67.4 


57.4 


E^Td. 


60. 1 


er<.6 


67.0 


58.3 


Mar. 


58.2 


83.2 


66.3 


56.1 


Aor. 


59.1 


83.3 


66.5 


57.1 


Hay 


61.3 


83.5 


66.9 


59.7 


June 


65.0 


84.5 


68.9 


63.8 



1933 Average 6 mos. 
1933 



6^.5 



R3.7 



1933 Averase 6 nos. 



73.4 



87.6 



1935 Average 5 mo: 
9852 



77.8 



89.5 



67.2 



75.1. 



78.8 



58.7 



July 


69.0 


85.7 


71.2 


68,2 


Aug. 


73.3 


87.0 


74.0 


72.9 


Sept. 


76. 4 


87.8 


75.5 


76.3 


Oct. 


76.3 


88.5 


76.9 


75.9 


Nov. 


73.6 


88.3 


76.5 


72.7 


I^ec. 


72.2 


88.4 


76.7 


71.0 



72.8 



1934 


Jr n . 


71.1 


87.8 


75. 5 


69.9 




Ep D . 


74.4 


87.4 


74.8 


74.1 




Mar. 


77.0 


83.0 


75.8 


77.1 




Aor. 


78.3 


88.1 


76.1 


78.5 




May 


78.5 


88.7 


77.2 


78.6 




June 


77.6 


89.2 


78.4 


77.3 




July 


75.5 


88.4 


76.7 


75.0 




Aug. 


76.0 


88.2 


76.2 


75.7 




Sept. 


73.2 


88.1 


76.1 


72.3 




Oct. 


75.1 


87.9 


75.7 


75.1 




Nov. 


74.0 


88.3 


76.5 


73.2 




Dec. 


75.2 


88.7 


77.2 


74.5 


1934 Average 




75.5 


88.2 


76.4 


75.1 


1935 


Jan. 


75.6 


88.3 


77.4 


75.1 




Feb. 


77.8 


89.1 


78.2 


77.4 




Mar. 


78.8 


89.5 


78.9 


78.6 




Apr. 


79.9 


89.9 


79.7 


78.6 




May 


78.0 


90.0 


80. n 


77.3 



'.4 



- 53 ~ 

(1) Index comouted from data developed by the President's Committee on 
Economic Security . 

(2) Inde:: computed on s basis of one-half the variation in the percentage 
changes in employment of salaried workers in "Vic- con 5 in. (Monthly 
Labor Market, -oublished ~oy the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin), 

(3) Index commuted from chain series of percentage changes in employment 
of salaried workers in Wisconsin. (Monthly Labor Market, published 
by the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin). 

(4) Bureau of Labor Statistics index, converted to a 1929 base. . 



9352 



- 54 - 

H . EMPLOYMENT? CHANGES I H NBA INDUSTRIES FROM AVERAGE FOR 

JANUARY' TO JUNE, 1953. ~ "Table 19) 

The total for NBA Industries showed an increase in employment from 
the average for January to June, 1953, to October, 1933' — the peak month 
of the President's Reemployment Agreements — of 2,615,000 persons. 
There was a. further increase to 2,343,000 workers as an average for 1934, 
and a still further increase to 2,900,000 in May, 1935, over the average 
for the first six months of 1933. October is normally a seasonal peak 
period. of employment in NBA industries. The increase in October, 1933, 
must, therefore, be considered as partially due to the normal seasonal 
peak. 

The largest number of the employees put back to work came in manu- 
facturing and in wholesale and retail trade, which together contributed 
2,076,000 to the 2,615,000 total increase to October, 1933. The only 
industry which failed to show an increase was Telephone and Telegraph, 
which dropped 19,000 employees by October, 1933, or 4.7 per cent of its 
workers. 

Of the total increase to October, 1933, manufacturing contributed 
62.8 r>er cent and wholesale and retail trade 16.5 "oer cent, or together 

79.3 per cent. 

Other i'iines and Quarries increased in employment by 34.4 per cent. 
Manufacturing shov/ed an increase of 26 per cent, and wholesale and retail 
trade 9.1 per cent in number of employees. 

Of the 2,343,000 increase in the average employment for 1934 from 
the base period of January to June, 1933, manufacturing contributed 
1,561,000 and wholesale and retail trade 409,000. In both eases the 
increase was less than the increase to the peak month of October, 1933. 
Manufacturing contributed 54.9 per cent, and wholesale and retail trade 

14.4 per cent, to the total increase — together accounting for 69.3 per 
cent. 

Manufacturing employment improved 24.7 per cent, and wholesale and 
retail trade 3.6 per cent. 

Telephone and Telegraph shows a decrease, but less than in the period 
between October, 1933, and the average from January to June of that year. 

May, 1935, was chosen for the next period of comparison, both because 
it was the last month of NRA code administration, . and because May presents 
a nearer point to the average for the year than does an average of the 
fifth months in any year. 

Of the 2,900,000 increase by May, 1935, from the base period, 
1,820,000 persons were re-employed in manufacturing and 410,000 in whole- 
sale and retail trade, or a combined total of 2,230,000. These two indus- 
tries contributed 62.7 per cent and 14.1 per cent respectively to the total, 
or a combined total of 76.8 t>er cent. 

Telephone and telegraph showed a greater decrease than for the aver- 
age of 1934, with a drop of 2,000 more employees. 



9852 



- 55 - 

Employment in fore-try and fishing, in .oil arid gas -'ells, ana in 
other mines and quarries, increased by over 30 per cent. Manu- 
facturing employment increased 2S.S per cent, and rrholesale and re- 
tail trade 2.7 per cent. 

Other KivA industries varied in employment increase from 1.2 per 
cent in other transportation ant? communication to 21.5 in recreation 
and amusements. 



Q352 






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I. s .?loy;,-£ict c" : t v:, "^ i."T3~~r':-. a:::: a .ll ripusi-n^s . 

3Y SELECTED DATES. (Table 20) 

In 192? employment in EBA Industries vvrs 56;.' of the total employ- 
ment, including E?A Industries, Other Industries and Agriculture. 

The average for the first six months of 1933 showed that em- 
ployment in iOA Industries m-deai 4 ! of the total. 3y October, 1933, 
it had increased to 5C ? 4£ of the total. The average for I93U indicated 
employment in ITEA Industries as 51. 3 and in May, 1935i almost the 
; ■ ; percent- ^j, ^1.1 • of the tot/ 1. 

Of the decrease in employees between the average of 1929 and the 
average from January to June, 1933, 9,361,000 workers, or Sl,o came 
from the 56''- occupied in ITHA Industries in 1929* 

In October, 1933, 75»2$> of the increase in employment from the 
pver-ge for the first six months of 1933 crme in the EBA Industries. 

As October is a t>eak seasonal month of employment in Agriculture 
and in Other Industries, as -veil as in EBA Industries, the annual aver- 
age is - more complete presentation than is one month. Of the increase 
to the annual average for 193^, from the first six months of 1933. £6»5/° 
took place in NBA Industries. 

In May, 1935, a month of less employment th n in the average for the 
yerr, S1.S> of the increase from the average for January to June, 1933. 
came in the ;"3A Industries. 

The total number employed in NBA Industries increased in these 
periods, October, 1333> showing a gross increase of 2,615,000 from the 
average of January to June, 1333; the average for 153^ showing a gross 
increase of 2,2*13,000; and Lay, 1335, s gross increase of 2,900,000. 



9S52 



-5 3- 

TA3LE 20 

EMPLOY?®!! CHANGES, MA IILOITSTPJES AND 

ALL INDUSTRIES, BY SELECTED DATES 

(1) 
(in Thousands) 



Average 
Average J?n, to Oct. Average I'fey 
1929 June 193? 1934 1935 
1933 



Employment 

All Industries 
KRA Industries 
Percentage NBA of 
all Industries 

Total Gross Decrease 
from Average 1929 

All Industries 
NBA' Industries 
Percentage ! T RA of 
all Industries 

Total Gross Increase 
over Average Jptl. to 
June, 1933 

All Industries 
1IRA Industries 
Percentage NRA of 
all Industries 



46,770 35,343 38,802 38,621 38,877 
26,204 16,971 19, ^68 19,803 19,859 



56. 



48.0 



11,555 
9,361 

81.0 



50.4 



3,478 
2,615 

75.2 



51.3 



51.1 



3,288 3,546 
2,843 2,900 



86.5 



81.8 



(1) from date oonroiled "by the President's Committee °n Economic S<=curitv. 



9852 



r! 3- 

J. CHANGES I! 1 EIIPLQY E NT FROM I '_ » 0? OCTOBER TO 
JANUARY, 3Y r.SAR." 192.9 - 1936. (Table 2l) 



The period between October and January each year shows the greatest 
change in enrloyn=nt. An annual comparison has been nade, although it 
is in'-oimlete, as no analysis ha s been na de of the se asona l, cyclica l 
an: 1 exceptional factor s o ccurring duri ng these -o°riod s_. 

In all HBA Industries ther a '-as a progressively smaller d.ron in 
number of workers bet'-een l Q r9-30 and 1 ! -■ 3 from 1,899,000 in th° first 
vear to 302,000 in th" last. Th° oercentage drOT) ranged ^ron 7.1^ to 1.5$. 

In 1929-30 only one industry showed an increase in th° four no"th 
period - coal nines, this being a normal seasonal incr°ase. In 1930-31 
and in 1931-32 nn industry showed an increase. In 1932-33 one industry - 
oil and gas wells - showed an increase of 1,000 workers. In ] n 33~34 five 
industries showed an increase, as folio* lI Coal nines; oil and gas wells; 
"building; t°le-nhone and telegraoh; and hotels, boarding houses and restau- 
rants. In 1934-35 six industries increased in employment as follows: 
Coal nines; manufacturing; t°leuhone and telegraoh; hanking, brokerage, 
insurance and real estate; recreation and amusements; and hotels, hoarding 
houses "nd restaurants. (*) 

Manufacturing showed s ^rn£rr°ssively smaller shrinkage in °moloyment 
in this four month n-riod from 849, HOC in 1929-30 to 397,000 in 1932-33, 
then an increased, shrinkage of 538,000 in 1933-34. In 1934-35 "janufactur- 
ing showed an extraordinary reversal ~b' r increasing in °nr>"io- r nent hy 54,000 
w n r:°rs ( banking, brokerage, insurance and r°al estate shows the same 
reversal. Hotels, boarding houses and restaurants shows an increase in- 
stead of the isual decrease, in both 1933-34 and 1934-35. 

0th°r Industries show less sensitivity to seasonal employment changes 
than do the NBA Industries, but they, too, show a progressively smaller 
drco in °raploym Q nt in the four-month neriod through 1933—34* In 1934-35 
there is en increase of 81,000 workers* A gain in 1935-36, an increase 
in the san= industry of 63,000 is reflected in the increase of 66,000 
employed. 

Eliminating building and the construction and maintenance of roads, 
both of which industries include PTCA employees, the shrinkage in employ- 
ment in 1934—35 in "TA Industries is shown as 39,000, or 2$, compared '-ith 
670,000 in 1933-34, and 1,178, CC0 or 5.0$ in 19^9-30. In 1935-36 the 
shrinkage is increased over seyen y'isiftw, that of 1934-35, and reaches a. 
drop in a moloyraent of -82,000. The greatest change is indicated in manu- 
facturing, where an increase of 54,000 in employment is shown for 1934—35 
and a decrease of 177,000 is shown for 1935-36. 

(*) In 1935-36 five industries showed an increase as follows: 
Coal nines; building; banking; trn 1 nr r -, insurance, and 
r~al 'state; r-cr'a.tion and. amusements; and hot^l, boarding 
houses and. restaurants. 



9852 



-60- 



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-62- 
Chapter IV ■ j 

Post - HRA Period , 



A . ESTIMATED Ntnidl: 0" 1 IT-Tgi IPLOYED IH THE UNI 
(Table 22) 

For purposes of comparison, estimates on tlie first five months of 
1935 are given vdth those of the seven months following hay, '.Then the 
code authority of the flff. ceased to exist. 

All estimators shov: a decline in unemployment from January through 
April, 1935. The National Research League sIiotts a continued decline 
through June, an increase in July, and a decrease in August. The 
Cleveland Trust Company sl;o\7s a decrease through June, an increa.se in 
July, and a steady decrease to November . The ITational Industrial Con- 
ference Board shovs an increase in May, again in June, again in July, 
and then a decrease for each month to the end of the year. The extended 
estimates of the President's Committee on Economic Security shov/s a de- 
crease for every month from January through October, an increase in 
November and a decrease in December. 

All estimators shov; a decrease in the average unemployment for the 
remainder of the year folio-Ting Lay from their averages for the period 
from January through hay. It must be borne in mind, hov/ever, that the 
rend of employment ■ is normally greater for the sunnier and fall months 
than for the early part of the year, largely because of the seasonal 
upturn in agriculture, manufacturing, snd .trade.. 



9352 



TABLE 22 

Ei-.i.- i i ' LTni'.Jcr of Uheinploj'ed In I : eel St- tes 

Jj :■ l- ', 1933 to Dec. , 13 
( in Thousands) 





1 -esident's 




Rati 1 








Committee 


_. :erican 


Industrial 


Moral 


Cleveland 




on Economic 


eration 


Conference 


?.ece, rch 


Trust 




Security 


of Labor 


Board 


Le 


Comnany 


1W 






Jan. 


l?,3ol 


13,033 


10,142 


1'!, ! .50 


13,133 


Feb. 


12,3 p S 


12,764 


9,898 


14,690 


12,937 


Liar. 


12,183 


12, 60S 


9,760 


14,450 


12,348 


Apr. 


11,507 


12,379 


9,6°3 


lU,075 


12,409 


May 


ll,6lS 


12,382 


9,711 


14,035 


12,400 



1935 Av. 

(5 EOS.) 



12,105 



12,1 



9,827 



14,440 



12,765 



1935 






June 


11,446 


12,339 


July 


11,373 


,475 


Aug. 


11,103 


12,219 


Sept . 


10,915 


n,739 


Oct. 


10,606 


11,449 


Nov. 


10,738 


11,672 


Dec. 


10,640(3) 


11,401 


1935 Av. 







(7 mos.) 10,37^ 



11,313 



3,804 
10,015 
9,352 
9,466 
9,133 
9,197 
8,979 



9,500 



14,000 


12,370 


14,110 


12,633 


13,935 


12,423 


13,720 


11,998 


13,370 


11.671 


13,850(1) 


11,399 


14., 205(1) 




13,320 


12,167 



(1) Preliminary 

(2) Averp.~e 6 raos« 

(3) Computed by same Method as that used by The President' s Committee 
on Economic Security, 



3352 



-6H- 

B. ESTIMA TED INDUSTRI AL EMPLOYMENT, TOTAL, NRA INdUST'dlBS . 
OT HER INDUSTRIES, ~A1ID AC- R I CULTURE . (Table 23) 

Total Industries shows an increase in eiaploynent in the average of 
June to December over the average for the first five months of 1935 of 
approximately 1,300,000 persons. 

Agriculture, due largely to seasonal increase, shows a gain of over 
600,000. 

Other Industries shows a gain of about 65,000 in employment. 

NBA Industries shows a gain of approximately- 700,000. Over half of 
this amount, or 3SS,000, is shown in bail ding and construction and main- 
tenance of roads, both of which industries are affected by government 
contracts. 



TABLE 23 
ESTIMATED INDUSTRIAL EMP, LOYl.'iENT , TOTAL NBA INDUSTRIES, 
INDUSTRIES AND AGRICULTURE, 1 9 3 ■ fr* 







N.R.A. 




OTHER 




AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


INDUSTRIES 


11 


IDUSTRIES AGRICULTURE 


January to May 1935 


33,335 . 


19.62U 




s,kkh . 


10,267 


2/ 

June to December 1935*" 


39,629 


20,32*4 




2,509 


10,796 



1_/ Prop estimates co: roiled by the President." s Committee on Economic 
Security. 

2/ December estimates computed by same method as that used by the 
President's Committee on Economic Security. 



C. INDEX ES OP INDUSTRIAL EI.iPLOYMENT BY TOTAL. NRA INDUSTRIES. OTHER 
INDUSTRIES AND AGRICULTURE . (Table 2k) 

Total Industries, Agriculture, NRA Industries, and Other Industries, 
show an average increase in e moloyment for the months of June to December, 
1935, over the average for the first five months of the same year. 

A continued increase is shown in Total Industries and in NRA In- 
dustries throughout the year, except for the month of November. In 
Other Industries an employment increase is shown until April, a drop in 
May and June, an increase in July and August, a drop in September, and 
then a steady increase through December. Agriculture, with seasonal 
variations, shows an increase, with employment during the last seven 
months of 1935 above die average for 1929* 

9S52 



a l:: 2k 
isnnzis o:; iirwsiaiAL employ i e ft' total, 

: A IIDUSTRIES, : I10JST2IES AH - ICU1TUKE 

; ,.Y 1935 to dece; : 1/ 

(avera ;e 1929 = 100) 







HRA 


ot: be 






TOTAL 


INDUSTRIES 


industries 


AGRICULTURE 


1935 January 


so. 3 


73.6 


S3.S 


96.0 


February 


81.H 


7^.5 


sU.5 


35.h 


March 


81. '8 


74. S 


G5.0 


96.0 


April 


S2.6 


7 r >7 


89.0 


97-6 


Hay 


r— 1 

Sj).l 


7T.S 


k.$ 


99-6 


1935 










5 months 


•82.0 


74.9 


gU.7 


96.9 


1935 June 


p 7 r- 


75. s 


sU.g 


101.5 


July 




75.9 • 


55.0 


102.1 


August 


su.u 


76. s 


S5.0 


102.7 


Septeriber 


sU.s 


77.9 


Eft. 9 


102.0 


October 


S5.6 


7S.S 


£5.3 


102.6 


November 


85. H 


78.5 


S5.S 


101.9 


December 


S5.S§/ 


79.32/ 


GG.3^ 


100.62/ 


1935 --. 










7 nonths' 


Si!-. 7 


77.6 


S5-3 


101.9 



1/ Based on estimates conpiled by the president's Ooiuttee on 
Economic Security. 

2/ Conputed by scr.e method as that used \>y the President's Committee 
on Econonic Securit . 



3S52 



-ss- 



D. ESTIMATED iTUHEER Ei PL OYE D IN ALL INDUSTRIES .YEP IE SELECTED NEA 
INDUSTRIES. (Cable 25) 

Total Industries (including NBA Industries, other Industries, and 

Agriculture) show r.n increase in employment from the average of January 

to Liay, 1935. to the average of June to December of the same year, an 
increase from 3.8,335,000 to 39,629,000. 

A drop inenployment is shown in coal nines, and in hotels, boarding 
houses and restaurants. 

In wholesale and retail tr-de entrepreneurs have been eliminated by 
the method described in the section dealing with Estimate of Employment, 
The number of entrepreneurs subtracted in the year 1535 is 1,326,000. 

E. INDEXES OE IKDUSYEIAh EMPLOY MENT IN ALL IEEUSYRIES AED IE SELECTED 
NRA INDUSTRIES . ( Cable 26) 

Total Industries (including NEA Industries, Other Industries, and 
Agriculture) gained in employment in the seven remaining months of 1935 
after ERA code a&mini strati on went oat of existence. 

Coal mines, due partly to the normal seasonal decline, shows a drop 
in employment. Employment was, however, considerably less than it was 
during the same months of 193 1 !. 

Wholesale and retail trp.de shows an average decrease of approximate- 
ly 54,000 and in each month is lower than during the same month of I93H. 

Hotels, boarding houses and restaurants shows less employment in 
the three months of June to August, 1935, compared with the same months 
in the previous year, but an increase over the previous year during the 
remaining four months. Average employment during the last seven months 
of 1935 wa s less than the average during the first four months. 

Street railroads, telephone and- telegraph, and other transportation 
and communicant ion sho' - : no change or a slight increase in employment in 
the last seven months of 1935 compared to the first four months. 

All other NEA Industries show an average increase in employment 
during these seven months. 

A continued employment increase is shown in the- following industries: 
Recreation and amusements; wholesale and retail trade; banking, brokerage, 
insurance and real estate; hotels, boarding houses and restaurants until 
December; building (which includes FWA contracts) ■ and coal mines, except 
in November,. A decrease is shown in the following industries: from July 
in Laundries, cleaning, dyeing and pressing.; from August in oil and gas 
wells,, construction and maintenance of roads, gara.;es and auto repair 
shops, and telephone and telegraph; from October in forestry and fishing. 
Other mines and quarries, manufacturing, and other transportation and 
communication. 

9852 



— "7. 



25 

ESTL.ATZC II. ALL IHDUSETJES AMD 

IH 3hL: a : s, Ja .. 10 EC. 1 s 3 5 I / 

( i ids) 



AVERAGE 
:Jan.-Kay, (incl) 

19 3 5 



AVERAGE 
June-~)ec. (incl.) 
19 3 5 



Total 2/ 

Total HRA Industries 

Forestry & Fishing 

Coal Mines 

Oil & Gas Wells 

Other Mines & Quarries 

Manufacturing 

Building 

Construction & Maintenance of Roads 

Garages, Auto Repair Shops 

Street Railroads 

Telephone & Telegraph. 

Other Transportation 

and Communication 
Banking, Brokerage, Insurance 

and Real Estate 
Wholesale & Retail Trade ~$] 
Recreation & A msements 
Laundries, Clearing, Dyeing & Pressing 
Hotels, Boarding Houses ?, Restaurants 



32,335 


39,629 


IS, 297 


18, 999 


115 


121 


39S 


37S 


ikS 


ikB 


112 


127 


S,llH 


8,297 


520 


790 


Hi 6 


53^ 


563 


590 


133 


139 


392 


393 



GkO 

1,229 

3,789 

33S 

321 

1,065 



6U6 

1,21+3 

3,S59 
3U2 

33^ 
1,058 



1_/ from estimates compiled by the President's Co:\-:i J ;tee on Economic 
Security. 

2/ All Industries, including MBA Industries, Other Industries and 
Agriculture. 

3_/ Estimated entre; 1: ne irs eliminated by redactions based on percen- 
tages used in the National Income Study being made in the Division 
of Economic Research of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



9S52 



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r— on to ^O on 

3 3* 3 £ 3 



on \o 

S 3* 



ITN O f- O On kn r*~i 

• •••»• • 

^ r— eo «o *u f*N cu 

r*~ i— r- i— r^ I s - r— 



3 3 



3 3 



3 * 



■3 I 



« " 



I 1 





a 3 



o 







"S 






n> 












*s I 






2 • "> 


■J 






f 

5 


5 


•si S 

D3 6l 


o 

1 


a. -h O 

1: . 












& 




(4 o g 



i 


3 

a 


■ 
5 -^ 








o 




S^! 




3 


S3 


a 
i 


o 


S 9 



a to 

m 



i .- 
2 5 a. 



is 



- - 



P. INDEXES OF ELD 0" :: }[ ] ! :; y^IES EY TOTAL WORKERS . 

MT3BPRENEiIlS . SAL,' .■, J ANUARY TO 

DECZT1Z -:, 1- ■>. ( "ole 

Employment, ac inc.icr.ted . ■ - , i n • all groups 

every month in 1955 until Sr r. Among \:?; c earners there was a 
further increase in October, then a irop in November and a further de- 
crease in December. Among salaried n.trepreneurs there 
was a decrease in employment in October, then an increr.se in thp folio*, 
ing two months, 

TABLE 27 

INDEXES 07 EliPLO' . IE LiANUPACTURING INDUSTRIES 3Y TOTAL WORKERS, 
IS, SALARIED EMPLOYEES, A "'.".•_■ E EARNERS 
JANUARY TO. DECEMBER, 1935 (Average 1323 « 100) 









• 
• 


Total : Entre- 




: Salaried 


j 


Wage 








: 1 


. r orl:ers(l) rureri 


i(2) 


:En ''■>', ■. 


(3: 


Earners(H) 


1935 




Jan, 
Eeb. 
" r. 
-. r. 

: ' 




75.6 SS.S 
77.3 S9.1 

.s S9.5 

79.0 30.9 
7S.0 90.O 




77^ 

(3.2 

7o.9 

79-7 
SO.O 




75.1 

77.U 
7S.6 
7S.6 
77.3 


1935 


Ave: - - 


5 nos. 




77. s S9.5 




7S.S 




77.^ 


1935 




June 
July 

AlV . 

Sept . 

Oct. 

IIov, 




76.9 9O.3 

76.9 90.5 
7^.6 91.2 
SO.U 91.3 
si.s 91.0 
Si. 3 91.1 




SO. 5 
S1.0 
S2.3 
S2.6 
S2.1 
S2.2 




75-9 

75. s 

77.9 
79.7 

si.u 

SO. 9 






Dec. ( 


5) 


SI. 2 91.3 




S2.5 




so. 7 


1935 


average 


7 -OS. 




79.6 91.0 




si.s 




78.9 


(1) 


Index computed 
Economic Securi 


f-- 


data developed 


the 


pre si dent 1 


>8 


Committee on 


(2) 


I ndex c onput e d 


on a 


basis of one— half 


the 


variation 


in 


the percent- 



age changes in employment of salaried workers in Wisconsin. 

ithly Labor llarlret, published by the Industrial Commission of 
Wisconsin.) 

(3) Index computed from chain series of percentrge changes in employ- 
ment of salaried workers in Wisconsin, (Monthly Labor Market, 
published by the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.) 

(k) 3ureau of Labor Statistics index, converted to a 1529 base. 

(5) Computed by same method as that used by the President's Committee 
on Economic Security. 

9S52# 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Review. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
rials No^ 18, Contents of Code His tories, will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 



(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768—1. 



set forth the origination of the codes, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of ..ata (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work Materials No. 17, Te ntative Outlines and Summaries of 
Studies in Process , the materials are fully described) . 

In dustry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Ecnomic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 

9768 — 2 



Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade P ractic e S tudies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 

Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 

Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 

Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 

Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 

Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 

Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 

Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 

Price Control in the Coffee Industry 

Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control in the Ice Industry 

Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 

Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 

comparision with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labo r Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-35 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Administrative Stu dies 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—3. 



- IV - 

Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 
Cjde Compliance Activities of the NRA 
Code Making Program of the MRA in the Territories, The 
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 
Content of NIP.A Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Roemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltsred Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries; A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Leg.al Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



- V - 

THE EVIDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of those studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 
Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768—5. 



Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturinp Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Paint, Varnish, ana Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage cf other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be carec for under other 
auspices. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 
9768—6 .