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Paul Hutchings 

(A Section of Part D: Control of Other Conditions 

of Employment) 

i\0 .f 


Work Materials No. 45 falls into the following parts: 

Part A 
Part B 
Part C 
Part D 
Part E 


Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Control of Wages 

Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 

March, 1936 

.'•* ' : W i*v,VT ; ] f J 

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,u .an: 




Paul Hatchings 

March, 19G6 

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Tliis study of "Posting of Labor Provisions Under 1IRA." was 
prepared "by Mr. Paul Eu.tch.ings, Labor Studies Section, Mr. Solomon 
Bark in in charge. 

This study is an examination of the procedure used in the prepa- 
ration and distribution of posters containing the labor provisions 
of NBA codes. These posters were the principal method used to 
inform the great mass of employers and employees of the actual con- 
tents of the labor provisions applicable to their industry. It 
will be remembered that enforcement of labor provisions of codes 
was based primarily upon complaints made to IJRA. concerning non-com- 
pliance with code provisions rather than upon factory inspection. 
The posting of labor provisions was therefore an important device 
in the administration of these provisions. 

At the back of this report will be found a brief statement of 
the studies undertaken by the Division of Review. 

L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 

March 35, 19S6 


posting cp labor provisions under the nha 



I. Introduction: The Importance of Posting Labor Provisions.. 3 

II . Policy of Posting 3 

A. Early Frecedent s 3 

1. The PSA 3 

2. Early Codes 4 

3. Model Code 5 

3. Definitive Regulation of Policy 6 

Executive Orders 7 

Administrative Orders 7 

III. Froblems of Foster Preparation 8 

A. Responsibility for Posting Assumed "by MA.. 8 

I. The Posting Committee , 8 

C. Estimates of Fosters Required 8 

D. Procedure on Complaints 8 

E. Procedure for Preparing Fosters 10 

P. Special Problems of Preparation 11 

1. Technical Lay-out 11 

a. Special Devices 12 

i . Rearrangement 12 

ii . Rewriting 12 

iii. Briefing 13 

iv. Simplifying 14 

b . Supplementary Materials 14 

i . Area Agreements 14 

i i . Wage Schedules . 15 

iii. Lists of Hazardous Occupations 15 

2. Amendments and Modifications IS 

a. Modification Stickers 16 

b. The Problem of Keeping Up to Date 16 

3. Safety and Health Booklets 16 

4. Translation 17 

C-. Time Lag 18 

IV. Problems of Administration of Foster Provisions 21 

A. Issuance of Unofficial Posters by Code Authorities 21 

B. Distribution Difficulties 22 

C. Compliance and Inspection 25 

D . FRA ro sting 26 

V . Summary and Apprai sal 28 

Appendix I. Suggestions for Further Study 29 

Appendix II . Samples of Fosters 33 

9842 -ii- 


This report deals with toe National Recovery Administration's 
experience with the problem ■ sreparation and use of posters contain- 
ing the labor regulations set forth in toe code'; of fair competition. 

Labor provision posters were important as a device to aid in 
obtaining compliance with code labor previsions. They performed this 
function by informing employees of the exact terms of the code provi- 
sions and of where and how to make complaints o T " violations. They 
were also helpful to toe Ad-ministration in securing compliance by in- 
licating good procedure to employees in establishments which were not 
operating in conformity with the code labor provisions. This operated 
to benefit competing employers as well as the employees of the non- 
c o.npl yi ng e s tabl i shraen t s . 

No well defined posting policy existed for many months. Some 
trade associations, of their own volition, suggested various types 
of provisions which' required that industry members display the labor 
provisions of tie code in toeir plants. The Labor Advisory Board 
urged, its staff members to work for the inclusion of a posting provi- 
sion in each proposed code under toeir jurisdiction, and a model 
posting provision was contained in the first draft of that Board's 
model code. The numerous model codes of both the Labor Advisory Board 
and the Administration contained various types of regulations on posting. 
Since many of the large industries which were codified earl/ in the 
code making period did not have posting regulations in their codes, 
it was necessary toat some .action be taken to obtain this inclusion. 
An Executive order made posting of code labor provisions mandatory. 
It delegated to the Administrator the right to formulate rules and 
regulations to insure such posting. These rales and regulations were 
established by a series of Administrative orders, adjustments in 
policy being made as experience warranted. 

Various points of policy had to be determined relative to such 
details as the establishment of a procedure for filing complaints, 
obtaining estimates of the number of posters required in each industry, 
preparing posters, and many other less significant problems. 

Many unusual problems of preparation of posters were encountered. 
T-iese covered such difficulties as unusually lengthy code provisions, 
how to handle supplementary codes, the rewriting of unusually complex 
provisions so as to make them intelligable to workers, how to handle 
the problem of code modification, classified wage scales, area agree- 
ments, hazardous occupation lists, safety and health standards, and 
other matters. The necessity of translating code provisions for cer- 
tain industries into Spanish, Yiddish, and otoer languages gave rise 
to difficulties which slowed preparation considerably in those cases. 

A number of code authorities objected to toe poster supplied by 
the Administration and some refused to distribute the official labor 



posters, which refusal constituted a violation of the President's order, 
and a violation of the KIHA. Each case was handled individually. An 
attempt was always made to reach agreement with the objecting group. 
In some inctances tne Administration did not insist on poster distribu- 
tion and display (as in the cases of the Daily Newspaper industry and 
the Iron and Steel industry). 

The second source of distribution difficulty lay with the inability 
of code authorities in some large arid widely scattered industries to 
build up adequate mailing lists of industry members. In one or two 
cases the- Administration handled distribution either through its state 
offices or from Washington. The suspension of all code authorities 
for the Service trades necessitated the Administration's talcing over 
the distribution of these posters. 

Various modifications of the method of handling the posting pro- 
blem were being considered at the time of the code invalidation. These 
included a method of verifying compliance with posting provisions of 
codes, several proposed methods of simplifying poster content, exi . 
attempt to require posting of PRA substitutions still in effect, and 
other changes to make the posting program function more smoothly and 





Th- ~ff -^tiv^n-ss of displaying L-bor posters containing la"bor 
regulations in industrial establishments has long b^en recognized by the 
more progressive State labor departments! It familiarizes employees, as 
"ell as employers, rath the requirements (minimum regulations) of the law, 
and provides a factual oasis for the settlement of controversies. Com- 
pliance with the law "as found to "be cor sid^rably assisted by such posting. 
The NPA utilized the experience of these State labor departments in its 
dissemination of th° -provisions of codes to industries. 

Th» success of the NRA -program in regard to re-employment depended 
on obtaining compliance with the labor provisions of codes. Posters con- 
taining the labor irovisions represented the most efficient as well as 
the cheapest method of informing =mploye°s and th»ir employers nf the 
conditions governing employment. In order that employees might become 
familiar with the employment conditions prescribed by codes of fair com- 
petition applicable to them, they were provided through the labor posters 
with the code standards. They were, moreover,, informed by the posters 
what action might be taken to secure compliance with the code, if their 
own terms of =mploym Q nt were at vrriance with those prescribed. 

The posting of labor provisions was also of considerable value to 
employers. Responsible employers "ho complied with the code were assured 
that the employees of less responsible operators would be informed of th°ir 
rights and the methods of protecting themselves* In establishments comply- 
ing with the code the posters served to keep employees informed of th"> fact 
tha.t tbpy p^r^ working- in accordance with the approved provisions of the 
applicable code. Cooperation between employees a.nd employers "as thereby 

Labor posters wer° of s*rvice to the National Recovery Administration 
as they -wer» the only means of transmitting official information to em- 
ployees. Th a large number of approved cod°s and their complexity made it 
physically impossible and financially impractical to supply each worker 
with a oop t ' - of the code provisions governing his employment. This problem 
was further complicated b ,r amendments, exemptions, modifications, stays, 
and Administrative orders which kept changing the code context. A labor 
poster was therefore devised for each code, to b° displayed in all estab- 
lishments and kept up to date, thus furnishing the employeed with the 
necessary information. . 

These posters were indispensable to NBA compliance, since compliance 
was founded on th° premise that complaints were to be the major if not the 
exclusive means of detecting violations. Investigations of ray-oil wero 
not to be used, except where undertaken by individual code authorities on 
special occasions. Posting, therefore, was the major means of eliciting 
complaints and knowledge of non-compliance -ith code labor provisions. 


A. Early Precedents 
1. The PPA. 



The President's Reemployment Program, announced on July 20, 1933, 
placed industries under pressure immediately to eff ectuate the terms 
of the President's Agreement. The drive behind the program and the' 
prevailing public approval of this novel method of meeting the unemploy- 
ment problem placed the PEA on the front page of newspapers for Yreeks. 
The display of the Blue Eagle was notice to employees and to all that 
the empl03 r er had signed the PRA and was obliga.ted by its termr,, 
Newspaoers broadcasted to the employee the conditions under wi ich he 
was to work if his employer displayed the Blue Eagle. . 

The effectiveness of this method of informing employees of their 
rights continuously decreased as PRA substitutions were approved, in 
large numbers. As the industrial coverage of the substitutions was 
vaguely defined, workers found great difficulty in determining the 
conditions 'applicable to their employment. The press displayed 
relatively little interest in the specific substitutions to the PRA. 
Gradually all matters concerned with the PRA were relegated to the 
inner pages. PRA. substitutions were not required to be posted in 
individual establishments. 

2. Early Codes. 

The first code v/hich contained a provision for posting of labor 
provisions was that for the Corset and Brassiere industry, approved 
August 14, 1933. (*) This industry, largely centered in industrial 
states, had. been made familiar with the use of posters by State labor 
departments. It is for that reason that they required the posting of 
labor provisions. (**) Labor codes, following this example, required 
that labor provisions be posted in establishments. 

The cede for the Hosiery industry was the second to conisain a' 
provision requiring the posting of labor provisions. (***) This code 
provided that the code authority would determine the manner in which 
such notices should be displayed. In addition the code authority 

(*) Code ITo. 7, national Recovery Administration Codes of Pair 
Competition, Vol. I, p. 6Sj, Government Printing Office. 

(**) Code for Corset and Brassiere industry, National Recovery 
Administration, Codes of Pair Competition, Vol. I, p. 72. 
Article IV _ (c): 

"Each, person shall post in a conspicuous place 
in each work room of his factory, Sections 3 and 
• 4 of this Code." 

.(***) Code ITo. 16, Approved August 26, 1933. 



interpretations of code provisions vere also to "be posted. (*) 

3. iiodel Codes. 

Soon after the approval of the two codes mentioned above, the 
staff of the Labor Advisory "board "began aggressively to seek the 
inclusion of a, posting provision in codes. Its model code of 
mid-September, 1953 included a clause requiring the posting of code 
labor provisions. At the same tine a staff memorandum urged that 
the poster include addresses of authorities to whom employees might 
send comlaiiits. 

The need for a posting clause was soon recognized by the Adminis- 
tration. The model cod.e of October 1st included a specific provision 
for the posting of the full copy of the code. This recommendation was 
developed out of a desire on the part of the representatives of various 
advisory units to have the employees familiarize themselves with the 
trade practice -orovisions as well as labor. To the representatives of 
the Lahor Advisory "board this appeared unobjectionable so long as the 
principle of posting labor provisions was recognized.. A model code of 
the Labor Advisory "board issued on September 30th for the use of its 
staff included, a. -orovision identical with that in the ISA model code 
of October 1st. A more complete clause was developed "by staff members 
of the "board for use in special cases. This prescribed the size of 
type, the number of posters to be dis-olayed, and such languages in 
addition to English as vere necessary to assure understanding by 
the employees. This draft clause likewise called for the inclusion 
on the poster of all changes in the code itself. 

The- first code to raako -orovision for the posti?ig of the code in 
languages in addition to English was the code for the Ice industry, 
approved October 3, 1933. (**) The code for the Throwing industry, 

(*) Cock- for the Hosiery industry, National Recovery Administration, 
Codes of Pair Competition, Vol. I, p. 247. Article IX, 
Section 3 (a) : 

"3. It shall be the duty of the Code Authority to: 

a. Issue and distribute to all persons in the 
industry, from time to time, such posters or 
notices as, in its judgment, shall be displayed 
in the slants of the industry for the purpose 
of bringing to the attention of all emoloyees, 
-orovisions of the code which affect them, and 
interpretations thereof by the Code Authority. 
The Code Authority may specify the manner in 
which such notices or posters shall be dis- 
played. Failure to comply with such instruc- 
tions shall be an infraction of the code." 

(**) Codes of Pair Competition, Vol. I., p. 52-1. Government Printing 



approved October 11, 1333, introduced for the first tine the principle 
of noting on the poster information as to where and how employees were 
to report violations of code provisions and acknowledged the need for 
standardized, printed, official posters by requiring the Throwsters 
Research Institute to furnish employers with copies of a printed 
notice. (*) Representatives of the Institute were permitted to verify 
the fact that such notices were posted and state labor departments were 
to be requested to cooperate in inspection to determine whether such 
notices were posted and kept posted. 

The. model codes of October 25th and ITovember 6th both provided for 
the posting of the entire code without, however, specifically taking tip 
the more detailed questions of the manner of posting. The unanimity of 
opinion that, a posting clause was necessary ms reflected increasingly 
in the growing number of codes with posting provisions. Of the first 
fifty- codes approved by NRA only six reauired the posting of labor pro- 
visions; among the next ten codes approved four required such provisions 
and codes numbered 60 - 69 contained six codes with such provisions. 
Almost all codes approved after ITovember, 1933 included a provision 
requiring the posting of -either the labor provisions or the entire code. 
These clauses varied substantially in their context and several new 
types of provisions were introduced. Several codes reaffirmed the 
provision that posters would be supplied to employerse The code for the 
Concrete I.Iasonry industry called for the posting of the labor provisions 
on each job as well as at the office. The provision adopted in the Haw 
Peanut Hilling industry code more nearly complied with the recommendations 
of the Labor Advisory board staff than any other code. It set forth 
the size of type to be used, the number of posters in each shop s,s well 
as the requirement that posters be set forth both in English and in the 
foreign languages spoken by the employees, end also called for the posting 
of changes in the code. The Chewing Gum industry made novel use of 
labor posters for enforcing its averaging provisions on hours by requiring 
that the hours of each employee be posted along with the general code. 

B. Definitive Regulation of Posting. 

Though progress was being made in the introduction of the posting 
provision into the various codes, several shortcomings were e'v'dentu 
In the first place, fe" of the early codes contained such a provision. 
Among these were some of the largest industries including electrical, 
shipbuilding, iron and steel, lumber and timber, automobile, cotton, 
silk, and wool. In fact, only 33 of the' first one hundred codes had 
a posting clause. In addition, the provisions varied greatly among the 
codes, some prescribing the posting of the entire code and others the 
posting of the labor provisions only. Some codes required reproduction 
in other languages in addition to English, others made no reference to 
this point. Tor was any determination available on the procedures for 
furnishing copies of the codes for posting. In these circumstances, to 

(*) Cooes of Pair Competition', Vol. I., p. 649. Government Printing 



avoid the difficulties and delays which would occur in amending each 
code to comply with a uniform standard, the administration decided to 
standardize the whole subject by moans of a general executive order 
applicable to all code::, 

1. Executive Order of February 8, 1934, 

Members of the Compliance division took the initial steps toward 
drafting the order. After several revisions, the order was presented 
to the President end signed by him on February 8, 1934 r (*) The order 
authorized the Administrator to prescribe rules and regulations govern-, 
ing the posting of provisions of approved Non-compliance with 
these rules and regulations made one liable to the penalties of the Act. 

2. Administrative Orders. 

On the basis of the authority thus delegated to the Administrator, 
an Administrative order was issued on February 12, 1S54 prescribing 
rules and regulations governing the posting of labor provisions. (**) 
This order provided the following: (l) Each person subject to a code 
shall "register the full name of his enterprise together with a statement 
of the number of shops, establishments or separate units thereof and 
their location with the code authority"; (2) each registrant is to be 
furnished with an official copy of the labor provisions of the code 
which is to be conspicuously posted at all times in all units of the 
business so as to make them freely accessible to all employees. Further- 
more, the order provided that the "official copies of such provisions 
will contain directions for filing complaints of violations of such 
provisions"; (3) each employer granted an exemption from the code labor 
provisions permitting him "to pay lower wages or work his employees 
longer hours or establish conditions of employment less favorable to 
his employees than those prescribed by the provisions contained in such 
official code would be given a certified copy of the exemption; (4) only 
correct copies of the code might be displayed; (5) employers subject to 
more than one code would be required to post all such codes. 

On publication of this order objections were immediately raised to 
certain of its provisions. Provision No. 2 which left it to the-^employ- 
ers to determine the places where the posters would be posted was 
criticized, as well as Provision No, 3 which might be interpreted as not 
requiring the posting by employers of any improved labor conditions 
(higher wages, shorter hours or conditions of employment more favorable 
to employees) which might be established through code modifications. 

(*) Executive Order No. 6590-B, Vol. VI, Page 655 Printed Codes 
(**) Administrative Prder X-6. 



A revised Administrative Order X-7 (*) was issued February 28, 1954. 
This ne\; Order eliminated the weaknesses of its predecessor and in 
addition gave more specific instructions in regard to applications for 
official copies. It also emphasized the Administrator's right to "remove 
all Blue Eagles from any -oersQn who fails to comply" "with these regula- 
tions". TTith the issuance of this revised order, policy may "be said 
to have crystallized into definite form. The only important change 
subsequent to this' order of IJebruary 8, was a modification of the first 
paragraph "by Administrative Order X-82, dated Seat ember 1, 1934, which 
authorized the ERA to determine in its discretion what the official 
labor posters should contain. This removed all doubt as to the right 
of the Administration to pass on the content of all posters." (**) 
Further problems took the form of administrative questions in carrying 
out the general policy thus adooted. • 


A. Responsibility for Posters Assumed by I3RA. 

By a decision taken in late February or early in March 1934, the 
KRA assrxied responsibility for areaaring and printing all labor posters. 
This decision was in the interests of -orotecting labor by having the form 
of poster itself satisfactory to the IffiA, and by eliminating delays in 
their preparation. It also made the IIRA responsible for the translation 
of the post-ers in other languages than English where it was deemed desir- 
able and placed upon the IIRA the decision on the qiiestion whether posters 
in such other languages were necessary in -oarticular industries. 

B. The Posting Committee 

On February 22, 1934 a costing committee comoosed of representatives 
of the Comliance and Legal divisions, Administrative office, and the 
Industrial end Labor Advisory boards was organized. 

C. Estimates of Posters Required. 

The first task of the committee was to estimate the number of 
posters required in each industry. The nroblem was -olaced before the 
group conferences of code authorities in early Marsh, 1934 and the 
consensu.s of opinion favored having estimates made "by the code authori- 
ties and transmitted by them to the A6.ministration. 

B. Procedure for Filing Complaints. 

A second aroblem was to determine a -orocodure for employees to 

(*) Administrative Order X-7, February 28, 1934, Regulations G-overning 
the Posting of Labor Provisions in Codes of Fair Comnetition, 
NBA Office manual, V-P-4. 

(**) ERA Office Manual, V-IV-53. 


• •" -9- 

follow in reporting i r.d adjusting complaints of .alleged violations 
of code Irbor provisions. Considerable difference of opinion was voiced 
on this problem. The 1 representative of ths -Industrial Advisory "board, 
among others, maintained that employees' complaints could best be ad- 
justed by direct negotiation fre'tween the employee concerned and his 
employer and hence should be report ad directly to th-3 employer. Repre- 
sentatives of the Labor Advisory board objected vigorously to this 
proposal . They urged that the complaining employees might thus be 
subject to dismissal for making complaints* (*) 

Instructions on filing of complaints were finally agreed upon 
as follows: 

"Inquiries or complaints may be addressed to your 
employer or to your State N3A Compliance director whose 
address is below.'" 

In the opinion of the Labor Advisory board this form of statement 
was not satisfactory and further efforts were made toward altering it. 
A new form was finally approved by the Advisory Council, July 18, 1934, 
as follows: 

" Kow to File r m Complaint 

"Don't act hastily. Make sure you are right. An 

unjust complaint is unfair to -?-our employer and does 

you no good. 

"Remember that many grievances can be best 

settled by ?;oing direct to your employer. 

"But you nayinstead send pll the facts to one of 

the following: 

1. To the prober Industrial delations Board, 
if any (See addresses on this poster or ask 
the State ERA Compliance Director for the 
proper addr e s s , ) 

2. To your State ERA Compliance Director (See 
addre s s e s on thi s po s t er . ) 

3. Or (if not satisfied) to the Compliance 
■ Division of the ERA, Washington, D. C. 


(*) This objection was met- by the issuance of Executive Order No. 6711, 
on hay 15, 1934, which prohibited the dismissal or demotion of 
"any snployee' for malcing a complaint or giving evidence with 
respect to an alleged violation of the provisions of any code of 
far! coup tition approved, under said Title". 


E. Procedure for Preparing Posters. 

To expedite .the preparation of posters a definite procedure to "be 
followed was soft., up. On February 24, 1934, a member' of the Compliance 
division was designated to handle all, requests for information on the 
posting of labor -orovisions and all other correspondence relative to 
carrying out edxiinistrative regulations. (*) 

The Labor Advisory board was given charge of preparing poster 
material and designating which clauses . were to be included. The Legal 
division reviewed, the selection of clauses a.nd their accuracy,' Pinall3-' 
the drr.ft posters, or dummies, n oro transmitted to the Compliance division, 
which prepared the material for printing and sent it to the Gk vernment 
Printing Office. The Compliance division advised the Printing Office as' 
to the number to be printed and gav. 1 instructions for forwarding the 
printed posters directly to the Code. Authorities for distribution to 
industry members. 

jfeeeutive Orders on handicapped, workers, prohibiting dismissals of 
employees for filing complaint, Apprentice training, and homo work were 
attached, to the prepared dummy. The Corral ia.;.ice division prepared a 
standard dummy poster' which contained., 

1. The title of the poster (Tame of approved code) 

2. Aooroval date and. number of code •■ 

3. The directions for filing complaints of violations 

4. The list of ETtate ERA Compliance officers with ' '' 
their addresses. 

Among the duties of the Labor Ad.visory board was the inclusion on 
the draft, poster of amendments "or Administrative orders approved subse- 
quent to approval of the code. All -oertinent provisions of amendments 
were included in toto. To conserve many of the Administrative 
orders were printed in summary only. 

The procedures were modified as occasion demanded. The functions 
performed. ~oi~ the Compliance division were delegated to the Insignia, 
section of the Cenmunications division in the summer of 1934. The 
standardisation of policy on tyoes of material to be included made it 
possible to speed-up the work of -coster preparation. Posting procedure 
as operating in early 1935 was 'off icially recognised through its in- 
clusion, with slight modification, in the Office lianual of the 
Administration. (**) 

(*) Office .hem.orandum, February 24, 1934. 

(**) ERA Office Lianual, Enforcement - III - 4511 through 4524*22. 



F. Special Problems of Preparation. 
1. Technical Layout. 

Poster stock was ordered in four sizes, 14x19, 14x22, 14x23-1, 
and 20x28 inches. The size of tyoe selected was ten-point. To be in- 
cluded on the -ooster were the name and definition of the industry, the 
labor provisions of the code, and in addition, Executive orders on 
handicaooed v/orkers, and apprentices, prohioiticn of dismissal of em- 
ployees for making complaints for violation of code provisions", and 
when a home work prohibition existed, the executive order on home work. 
In many Cases, special administrative orders might also be necessary 
and notices regarding stays, etc. In addition, provisions had to be 

for lists of hazardous occupations, safety and health regulations, 
wa^.e achedules and wage agreements. 

Provisions in the majority of codes were too lengthy to be nlaced 
on the smallest size stock. . In a considerable numoer of cases even the 
largest size was too small if ten-^oint tyioe was to be used. In these 
cases either the size of tyoe had to be, reduced or the material divid- 
ed so as to appear on two or more posters. In some cases .the type used 
was too small to be satisfactory. 

The great length of the code for the G-rapnic Arts industry made 
it impossible to include all the labor provisions or all its subdi- 
visions on a single poster. Four posters were prepared, each cover- 
ing a sub-industry grout? of grouos .as follows: (l) relief printing, 
(2) grrvure intaglio printing, (3) steel and copper plate engrav- 
ing, securities and banknote engraving and printing, and (4) litho- 
graphic printing and tra demounting and finishing. 

.X*n the case of the ^jumb'-r and Timber Products code and its 
numerous industry subdivisions the definition of each division had to 
be incltided on the -ooster. This crovvd^d the s~>ace allowed for post- 
ing of labor -irovisio^s. As a result they were -orinted in very small 
type, which was particularly unsatisfactory in this instance because 
of the diversified wage rates established. 

The supplementary codes of the Machinery and Allied Products in- 
dustry, the Fabricated ketal Products industry and most of ohose of 
one "wholesale, and Distributing trade, merely adopted by reference the 
laoor TJiovisions of the basic codes: these divisional industries were 
therefore supplied with the l^bor oosters applicable to their basic 
industry. In txie cases of the Construction industry md the Fishery 
industry, ho-.vever, the divisional groups h^d to have separate l^bor 
posters because of S'oecial nrovisions applicable to the divisions. 
Labor oosters for the supplements of the Construction industry v/ere 
prepared by ^l^cing the provisions of the basic Construction code in 
the unoer part of the poster and those of the supplementary code in 
the lower part. The General Contracts division of the Construction 
industry xiad three approved subdi visional codes which modified the 
labor provisions of the General Contractors code. In these cases a 
single poster was prepared for subdivision-'! industry which 

combined the applicable nrovisions from all three the Construction 

industry, the ^.eneral contractors , and tne subdivisional codes. 3ut 
this pl-^n involved reorganizing or modifying 

J 342 

the -orovisior.s; an agreement r.s to the m thod of posting those "provisions' 
had not l> ..<- reached on May 27, 1935. In case of each subdivision of 
th - Fishery industry tho applicable provisions from the basic and -oe'r~ 
tinent supplementary code were combined into a single poster prearranged 
to bring the provisions on the sane 'topic together. 

(a) Special Devices. 

Certain devices were utilized or -planned to 
make the results more readable and effective. 

i . Rearrangement . 

The code for the cotton textile industry — the 
first code — -did not conform in style or method of -presentation rith the 
later standardized forms, and many provisions "ere added in amendments. 
For purposed of the labor poster, material pas rearranged so that all 
the. Pertinent provisions and orders were placed under the general 
headings " HOURS" , " UAC-ES" . " ITZPIiimOhS 1 ' and " G-RTZRAL ^IFLOTri^TT 

ii. Rewriting. 

Separate posters wre prepared for each division-* 
production, exhibition and distribution — of the Motion Picture industry. 
The -provisions established for the production division reauired that 
rules and regulations, and interpretations governing employment of 
extras "be adapted"* (*) These interpretations and rules and. regulations 
nroved to be of such length that an additional poster vas required. In 
order to make them comprehensible it was necessary that they be slightly 
rewritten for posting purposes. Permission for this rewriting was 
obtained from the deputy. (**) 

(*) Motion Picture industry, Codes of Fair Competition, Volume 3, 
t?age 528: 

"Section 3 - Provisions regarding 'extras' - 1. Th? code authority 
provided for in this code shall undertake and -provide for 
rules and regulations to be adapted bj- all casting agencies and/or 
producers with respect to extras and shall appoint a standing 
committee representative of employers, 'extra players' , ' "d the * 
public, to effectuate the foregoing -poster and to interpret the 
terms of any provisions made for 'extras' and to supervise 
the same, receive and -pass on complaints and grievances and to 
otherwise aid in effectuating the foregoing provisions, subject 
to review "oy the Administrator." 

(**) But see below, p. 24,' The poster was never distributed. 



iii. Briefing, - 

Another device was that of briefing the pertinent 
facts in regard to wages and hours and placing this summary at the 
head of the poster. This sort of modification was approved "by the 
Advisory Council rf the Administration in the Spring of 1935 to ap- 
ply to all new labor -posters to be prepared under the proposed amend- 
ed National Industrial Recovery Act. (*) 

(*) Advisory Council Decision, Vol. IV,?. - .reads as follows: 

April 3, 1935 
Office Manual Posting 

Detailed recommendation on tentative Office Manual. 

The following recommendation relates posting: 

There is a definite feeling in the Council that both the 
customary labor posters and the routine of preparing them are over- 
elaborate. There is no need for reconsidering the poster problem at 
the moment, but if codes are revised, new posters will be needed. 
Consequently the suggestion made below are aimed at developing pro- 
cedure for the new posters, if any. 

The amount of detail crowded into the typical poster is so 
great as to render it incapable of being understood by the average 
workman for whose assistance and protection it is provided. Even if it 
it means the sacrifice of legal information necessary for the pros- 
ecution, of an occasional law suit, the form should be greatly reduced. 
Specifically, the Council questions whether it is necessary to in- 
clude the definitions of the industry, all of the ponderous language 
concerning stays, exemptions, interpretations, extensions, and adminis- 
trative orders except insofar as they bear on wages and hours of labor 
and are capable of intelligent contraction. 

Sample of such a condensation of the official poster of the 
Pump Manufacturing industry is attached, prepared by the Labor Advis- 
ory Board. It is extremely brief, but even so includes the essen- 
tials. The council offers it, not as an approved document, but as an 
exhibit of the sort of skelton which might be developed. Some of the 
information that it does net include may on rare occasions be import- 
ant to the maintenance of good working conditions, but the increased 
extent to which what is posted will be read and understood is certain 
to out-balance merely speculative losses on that score. Possibly, 
some such skelton could be presented in large type, and the exact de- 
tails of the code printed in small type. Of course, if revision leads 
to simplification of labor provisions, the problem becomes less signi- 

It should also be possible to simplify procedure. The council 
believes that the process of preparing and securing approval of posters 
can be shortened without risk of serious error or improper emphasis. 
Instead of the present procedure of having a poster prepared and then 
referred to the Advisory Boards, it might be prepared in a single 
meeting with the code advisers. 



iv. Simplifying. 

Another -plan was for simplification by rewrit- 
ing the labor provisions in "briefer form; The^code authority for the 
restaurant industry authorized the acting Administration Member to draw 
up a proposed simplified poster for thai industry. At the time of the 
Supreme Court decision the preparatory work on the simplified poster 
had been completed and it was' ready for •submittal to the Code Authority. 

(b) Sxipplementary Later ials 

i. Area Agreements 

The basic Construction code provided for area 
agreements between employers and employees covering hours, wages, and 
employment conditions which when approved became binding upon such groups 
in the area. (*) In anticipation of these agreements a boxed statement 
was included on each Construction labor poster which read as follows: 

"There must be inserted here by the code~ authority 
reference to any applicable mutual or area agree- 
ment made under provisions of Section 1 of Arti.cle 
III, chapter 1, quoted above. The copy of this 

. agreement must be posted, along with each copy of 
this official poster." 

A space was nrovided immediately below this box for a listing of the . 
area agreement number and the date of NEA anoroval of such. agreement. 
Posters for approved agreements were modeled after official labor 
posters. (**.) 

(*) " Construction industry, Codes of Fair Competition, Vol. V., 
Article III, 'Section 1, p. 

"Section 1 - In each division or subdivision of the 
industry j as defined in the chapter incorporated in 
this code relating thereto, truly representative 
associations or groups of employers and employees 
respectively .concerned, after proper 1 notice and hear- 
ing and as a result of bona fide collective bargaining 
may by mutual agreement .(when approved by the Presi- ■ 
-dent as provided in Section B of the code), for a 
specifically defined region or locality the standards 
of hours of labor, rates of pay, and such other 
conditions of employment, relating to occupations or 
types of operations in such division or subdivision, 
as may be necessary to effectuate the policy of Title 
I of the Act." 

(**) See appendix for examrle: Electrical contractors, Cook County, 



- 15 - 

ii. Wage Schedules. 

Sone codes required that special wage schedules for skilled 
employees "be submit tec to the Administration for approval. (*) When '. 
these special wage schedules -vers a v^rov -.0 it was necessary' - that they be 
posted along with ether provisions, The wage scales for skilled labor 
in the Leather and Woolen Knit Glove Industry required three posters in 
addition to the one containing coco labor provisions. While the disad- 
vantages of quadruple posting were recognized, no other method was avail- 
able to make these provisions accessible to employees. Operations were 
grouped according to actual grouping in industrial plaits so far as 
possible, and each wage-scale poster was prefaced with the statement 
that it should be conspicuously posted alongside the labor provisions 
poster for the industry in work rooms where cutters, sorters, trimmers, 
(or other types of operators covered by the poster) were employed. 
This eliminated the need for posting all four at one place unless all 
types of skilled operators "ere employed in the same work room. 

iii. Hazardous Occupations. 

Practically every approved code contained a provision prohibiting 
the employment of persons under 18 years of age in any occupation hazard- 
ous by nature or detrimental to health. These provisions in addition 
usually required the Code Authority to "submit a list of such occupations. 
It was necessary that these lists be posted with the labor provisions in 
order to inform employees of the regulations on hazardous employment. If 
the list had been approved by the Administration before the poster for 
the industry concerned was printed, the list was incorporated in the offi- 
cial labor poster immediately following the provision prohibiting employ- 
ment in these hazardous occupations. If the poster for the industry had 
been printed prior to the approval of the list, the list was held until 
sufficiently important modifications were made to the labor provisions to 
warrant a poster reprint, or the list was set up on an official modifica- 
tion sticker (**) which was transmitter to members of the industry through 
their Code Authority to be attached to their official labor poster. The 
length of many of these lists required the use of smaller type than the 

stan da rd ten point which had be en agreed uoon. 

(*) Example: Leather and Woolen Knit Glove Indus-try, Article IV, 
Section 6 and 7, p. 577, Vol.2, Codes of Fair Competition. 
"Section 6- The minimum ratos of wages of skilled workers provided 
for in paragraph 1 of this article shall be proclaimed from time 
to time by the code authority, after approval by the Administrator. 
The aforesaid minimum scales of wages shall be based upon the 
Fulton County wage scale, with any revisions, additions, amendments, 
or adjustments approved by the Administrator to meet original con- 
dition;: and to maintain fair competition in the industry. 
Section 7 - Employers shall post' in their work rooms such copies of 
wage schedules in effect from time to time that may be distributed 
by the code authority." 
(**) See b^low, p. 16. 



2. Amendments and Modifications. 

Keeping posters up to date was. difficult , especially in cases where 
the codes were - frequently amended. 

In cases' where changes were not sufficiently long to warrant re- 
printing of the entire poster, modification stickers were printed and 
distributed. This modification sticker was to be pasted at the bottom 
of the labor posters in the space provided for modifications. Some of 
the first stickers printed failed to mention the name of the code to 
which they applied. The later stickers contained directions for posting 
as veil as code name, number, .and the notice that the sticker constituted 
an official copy. The official stickers were distributed 'oy the code 
authority in franked envelopes in a manner similar to the distribution 
of official labor posters. 

The experience of the lumber and timber products code illustrates 
the difficulties of keeping up to date when numerous amendments were 
offered and approved. 3y hay 37, 1933, there were 3: approved amendments 
to this code, many of them making significant changes in labor provisions. 
It was impossible to make' the necessary changes in the posters by use of 
modification stickers because of the complex .nature of both the amendments 
and the original provisions. The j si-e of the industry made it financ- 
ially impracticable for the Administration to reprint the entire poster 
every few months. At the time of the Supreme Court decision a completely 
revised poster for this industry was being prepare'. 1 . 

The official labor posters for the textile and apparel industries 
were among the most -difficult to -prepare because of continual changes in 
the code' provisions and the jurisdictional problems between these indus- 
tries. Amendments were proposed, heard and approved. Code provisions 
were stayed. Changes were so frequent that a poster correct when printed 
would be out jf date within a few weeks. The Cotton Garment industry 
code had approximately twenty-five modifications and nine amendments to 
the labor provisions approved. The Jres. ; Lanufacturers code presented a 
similar problem. 

• 3. Safety and Health Booklets. 

More than three hundred approved codes contained provisions for the 
formulation of safety and. health standards, which standards, when, approved, 
were regarded as parts of the codes. Late in Larch 1935, by which time 
nine sets of safety and healtn standards had been approved, consideration 
was given to methods b," which these, standards'- could, best be made available 
to the employers and employees of these industries. It wac decided that 
the booklet form would be preferable to the poster form, since the book- 
lets could be prepared by rotb-printing, and thus avoid the'delays en- 
countered 'in the Government Printing Office. These -oamphiets would con- 
sume less y/all space than posters and, therefore-, would encounter less 
opposition to posting from employers. 

A sample safety and health pamphlet was preoared for approval, in 
order to test the advantages of this method of reproduction. But the in- 
validation of the act cut short any further development of this program. 



4. Translation. 

In a number of cases codes had to be translated into the languages 
in comr.ion use among employees. in certain industries which employed large 
numbers of non-English spea' ing workers. The responsibility for trans- 
lotion fell to the Labor Advisory 3oara. The . RA Puerto Mean office 
supplier 1 Spanish translations of the -Puerto Rican codes. In order to 
assure the posting of both posters whenever necessary a statement in 
Spanish to the effect that a Spanish translation of the poster must be 
poster 1 in plants employing Spanish speaking workers was placed in a 
conspicuous box in the upper right-hand corner of the English poster. 

The code for the Needlework industry in Puerto Rico presented spe- 
cial problems not only because of the necessity of translation in Spanish, 
but also because of the continuous modifications which were made in the 
wage rates established by the code. Each approved modification had to 
be translated and the appropriate changes made on the poster copy.(*) 

It was decided oy the posting group, after consultation with the 
deputy and labor advisers concerned, that the Retail Kosher Heat trade 
code should be translated into Yiddish for posting purposes .( **) A 
Yiddish translator was employed, and the translation was sent to New 
York for printing. 

The code for the Handker.shief industry provided by amendment 7r2, 
approved October 31, 1934, that "posted copies of. the labor provisions 
of this CO' e and. of the said interpretations shall be in English and in 
any other necessary language or languages". .(***) The code authority re- 
quested t .<• t owing to the large percentage of Polish workers, labor 
pesters be translated into Polish. In this case the cede authority was 
authorized to have the translation made, subject to the approval of the 
Administration . 

In the case of the Coat and Suit industry, the. code authority pre- 
pared a tri-language poster (English, Yid ish, ana Italian) which was 
approved b; r the Administration s the official labor poster for that in- 

(*) The Labor Advisory board had no adequate facilities for checking 

the accuracy of these translations. Certain errors in translation 
were found to have crept into the Spanish poster for the Needle- 
work industry . 

(**) Retail Kosher Heat Trade, Schedule A, of the Retail Meat code, 
approved December 21, 1934, No. 540. 

(***) Handkerchief industry, Amendment -,r2, codes of fair competition, 
Volume XVIII, Section 10, amended, p. 439. 


-18- ' 

G-. Time Lag. 

The time lag was a serious problem. Many criticisms were voiced 
both within the Administration and "by code authorities on the delays in 
getting nosters printed and distributed. But undsr the conditions pre- 
vailing, delays could not be avoided." From three to five weeks were 
usual!"' required for the printing operations alone, (i.e., from the 
time the prepared copy was sent to the G-overnment Printing Office to 
the time the finished copy was sent from the Printing Office to the code 
authority for distribution) . The work of preparation was performed under 
great handicaps. In the first piece, no full time personnel was assigned 
to poster preparation work. The persons to whom the work was assigned 
added it as extra. work to their other full-time responsibilities. Much 
of the posting work had to be done by overtime work on evenings and Sun- 
dyas, This condition was only remedied after a number of months by 
taking 6n more personnel. 

A second difficulty was caused by delays in securing copies of the 
numerous Administrative Orders affecting labor provisions of codes. 
Though all that was necessary was to have a typist copy the content of 
the original orders as filed in the Code 3ecord section, because of lack 
of typists available to the Labor Advisory board, upon which this work 
devolved, it frequently took a week or more to obtain copies. During the 
last few months of poster activity, an arrangement was made that as new 
orders were approved, the Code 3ecord section would supply copies of the 
pertinent orders to the personnel in charge of poster preparation. 

An important cause of delay was due to amendments and modifications. 
In some cases lengthy amendments to labor provisions were pending at the 
time the posters were being prepared; these 'were often so long that modi- 
fication stickers could not be used but the entire poster had to be re- 
printed. This condition was especially true of the codes in the textile 
and apparel groups. When tne cotton textile labor poster was finally 
ready for printing the modification sticker of September, 1934 was already 
needed. In case of the cotton garment code, the north and south wage 
differential remained indeterminate for months while temporary stays and 
exemptions ware issued. Under such conditions, printing the posters 
seemed, almost of doubtful value since by the time the printed poster 
reached the code authorities, numerous changes needed to be incorporated 
and. the poster revised and reprinted.. 

A further source of delay was the failure or inability of code auth- 
orities to furnish estimates Qf the number of posters required. Though 
preparation of labor posters was commenced immediately folio- ring the ap- 
proval of rules and regulations governing posting of labor provisions in 
February, 1934, (*) printing of the posters did not begin until May, when 

(*) Administrative Orders X-6 of February 12, 1934, ana X-7 of February 
28, 1934. 


— 1 o. 

the first estimate xvas received from a code authority. (*) 

(*) History of the Insi. nia. Section, Connraiii cat ions Division, IT. M. 
Davall, Chief, August 28, 1935 (filed with "HI3S03Y OF HON- INDUS- 
331 DIVISIONS .-iTD BOARDS" , H3A) p. 11: 

"Since the first step in the procedure set up "by 
Aministrative Order X-7 required the making of 
application "by employers for official copies of labor 

revisions, and application form was prepared and 
made available for distribution at an early date, 
copy annexed. 

A general distribution of this form through post- 
offices, however, was found impracticrble since the 
Administrative order required employers to make ap- 
plication for labor posters through the proper code 
authority. Code Authorities were advised on February 

, 1034 in e letter issued by William H. Davis, the 
then National Compliance director, of their duties 
and obligations in connection with Administrative 
Order X-7. 

Publicity was prepared and issued to the press and 
other agencies in an attempt to acquaint employers 
with responsibilities under the Executive order of 
February 8 and the administrative order of February 
28 and every attempt was made to put pressure on 
code authorities i. order that they would effect a 
distribution of the application form o~j April 14, 
1934, the expiration date of the 45 day period for 
employers to make application. At the code authority 
conference held in Wj shington during the week of 
March 5, code authorities were again urged to co- 
oper ate . 

By Larch 30, some two hundred and fifty code author- 
ities had obtained application cards and either had 
completed distribution or were in the process. Ap- 
pro xin-t .ly 100 code authorities had failed to re- 
quisition supplies of these forms and determined 
efforts were made in a last minute drive to secure 
results. Their continued delay required issuance 
of Administrative order X-21, dated April 14, ex- 
tending the tine in which employers might make 
application until May 15." 



Prom this tine <"m applications for posters were received almost daily 
from code authorities, but the Government Printing Office was unable 
to keep up with the poster work supplied by the Administration. As a 
result, in many cases months were required to fill the applications. (*) 

(*) A detailed record of tine required in poster preparation was ke^t 
by the Labor Advisor;: board personnel in charge. 'J?A Archives. 




A. Issuance of Unofficial Fosters by Code Authorities. 

One of the problems of administration of the poster provisions 
was the issuance of unofficial posters by the code authorities and 
action by code authorities beyond or in violation of the poster prov- 

Certain code authorities insisted upon including unofficial 
material on the labor poster. The code authority bof the Radio Broadcast- 
ing industry sought to have its own, unofficial, interpretations of 
certain labor ore-visions of the code placed on the official labor 
poster, ',/hen informed that the interpretations could not be so included 
unless and until they were given official approval and made effective by 
means of an Administrative order, the code authority printed and distri- 
buted its own labor poster containing these interpretations and listing 
the code authority as an agency for receiving complaints of labor viola- 
tions. This unofficial code authority labor poster was distributed to 
members of the industry along with the Administration's official labor 
poster for the industry. At the sme time members of the industry were 
supplied with Bulletin #20 of the code authority of this industry which 
severely criticized the Labor Advisory board of the national Recovery 
Administration for refusing to allow the inclusion of the unauproved 
interpretations and suggested that industry members comply with the 
Administration posting requirements but also post the notice of code 
authority origin. (*) 

The case of the Hosiery industry may be discussed here, though 
in this case the code contained a provision delegating to the code 
authority the determination cf the material to be included on the post- 
ers, the issuance and distribution as well as the method of posting. (**) 

(*) The procedure of the code authority in this regard was challenged 
on the ground that the code authority in issuing its poster was in effect 
violating the rules and regulations effectuated under the Executive, 
order of February 0, 1934, dealing with the posting of labor provisions. 
The case was brought before end discussed ~oy the posting committee with 
the result that the Industrial Advisory board member of said committee 
asked for the opportunity to handle the problem informally. This was 
granted and the situation was in the process of rectification at the 
time of the Supreme Court decision. 

(**) Codes of 'Fair Competition, Vol. I., p. 247. Article IX, Section 

"3. It shall be the duty of the code authority to: (a) Issue and dist- 
ribute to all persons in the industry, from time to time, such posters 
or notices as, in its judgment, shall be displayed in the plants of the 
industry for the puroose of bringing to the attention of all employees, 
provisions of the code which affect them, and interpretations thereof by 
the code authority. The code authority may specify the manner in which 
such notices or posters shall be displayed. Failure to comply with such 
instructions shall be an infraction of the code." 



This provision also allowed the code authority to post any interpretations 
they deemed necessary.' The poster was therefore issued by the Hosiery 
Code authori ty prior to the issuance of the official IRA. poster for the 
industry. The code authority objected to replacing their poster with the 
official poster "both because of the difference in size, — which night 
necessitate new poster cases — and "because the Administration was un- 
willing to include the (unofficial) code authority interpretations and 
explanations on the official poster. In addition, the code authority had 
included its name and address as an agency for receiving labor complaints. 
But this code authority had never been officially authorized to handle 
labor complaints and therefore could not be so listed on the official 
labor poster. Several conferences were held on this matter. The Admin- 
istration agreed to expedite the proposed plan for a labor complaints 
committee and the code authority agreed to submit its interpretations 
and explanations to the Administration for approval. Action was also 
instituted to nodifjr the provision in the Hosiery code, Article IX, Sec- 
tion 3(a) to bring it in line with Administration policy. These steps 
had not been completed by May 28, 1235. 

B. Distribution Difficulties. 

Certain code authorities refused to distribute posters "because 
they were not listed on the posters as an agency to which labor complaints 
might be directed, Code authorities .could not handle labor complaints, 
unless they had been specifically so authorized. ( *) Upon explanation 
these difficulties and misunderstandings were usually cleared up. 

Some code authorities refused to distribute the labor posters to 
industry members because of specific objections to some of the included 
material and references. The posters for the Daily newspaper Publishing 
industry, printed and sent to the code authority on August 20, 1934, were 
never distributed. The principal objection of this "body was to the inc- 
lusion of any of the conditions outlined in the Excutive order approving 
that code. These conditions concerned child labor and workers in the 
news departments. These code authorities also objected to the inclusion 
of additional comments on these subjects made by the President to the 
Administrator in a letter immediately following his order of approval 
of the code.(**) The code authority insisted that its name be listed on 
the poster as an' agency with which labor complaints could be filed. As 
it had never "been authorized to handle complaints this inclusion could 
not "be allowed. An agreement on these differences was never reached and 
the posters were never cLLstjjibu^ed"'. by the code authority. 

(*) See Administrative Order X-69 . 

(**) Cede for the Daily Newspaper publishing Business, Codes of Fair 
Competition, Vol. VII., p. 59 through 71. 



Printing of the Iron and Steel labor, poster was "begun in June, 
1934, tut was never completed. Representatives of the Iron and Steel 
Institute filed objections, on behalf of the institute, to the inclusion 
of that; part of the Executive order approving the code which provided 
for elections by employees in the industry of representatives for pur- 
poses of collective "bargaining as provided .in Article VI of the code 
and section 7(a) of the 1TIPA (*) Because of this inclusion, the code 
authority refused to accept the official labor poster and to make dist- 
ribution of the spme to menbers of the industry. The Administration was 
unsuccessful in attempting to overrule the objection of the code auth- 
ority which flatly refused to be subject to established posting policy. 
The Labor Advisory board vigorously objected to the compromise which 
was finally made between the industry and Administrator. As a result of 
this objection by the L a t>or Advisory board the compromise poster was 
neVoe printed. 

Ths, Code Authority for the Railway Car Building industry refused 
to make distribution of the labor posters for that industry until an 
amendment was approved removing the shorter work week allegedly imposed 
on the industry h r the order approving the code .(**) There was also 
a disagreement as to the effective date of this code, — a controversy 
which also affected the labor poster as each poster reported the code 
approval date. These differences with the code authority were never 
satisfactorily resolved, and, as a result, distribution of the official 
labor poster was never achieved. 

(*) Executive Order approving the code for Iron and Steel Industry, 
Codes of Pair Competition, Vol., p. 328: 

"2. In order to insure the free exercise of the 
rights of employees under the provisions of Section 
7 of this Act and of Article IV of this code, I will 
undertake promptly to provide, as the occasion may 
demand, for the election of employees in each industrial 
unit of representatives of their own choosing for the 
purpose of collective bargaining and other mutual aid 
and protection, under the supervision of an appropriate 
governmental agency and in accordance with suitable rules 
and regulat ions . " 

(**). Code for the Railway Car Building Industry, Codes of Pair 
Competition, Vol. VI, p. 552. 



Difficulty was encountered in preparing the official labor posters 
for the I/Iotion Picture industry. This was due to the fact that the code 
authority had set up committees to hear labor complaints. As these 
committees had never been officially approved by the Administration as 
agencies for the handling of labor complaints they could not be listed 
as such on the official labor posters. When the posters were printed 
and sent to the code authority, that body refused to accept' -them, claim- 
ing that it had the' right to set up such committees in accordance with 
Article II, Section 4 of its code.(*) This controversy was never sat- 
isfactorily settled and no distribution was made of official labor post- 
ers. ■. 

In various instances code authorities were unable to effect com- 
plete distribution because of their incomplete registration lists of 
industry members. This was especially disturbing in the Betail trades,; 
where the problem was met' by having the local Retail code authorities- 
make distribution to the' best of their ability and by supplementing 
this distribution by the use of the HEA State Compliance offices. 

The budget for the Restaraaat code authority was not approved until 
the spring of 1935, at which time a reorganized, code authority attempted 
to function. Owing to the large size of the industry, the small budget, 
and the fact that assessments in accordance with this budget were never 
made, it was a financial impossibility for the code authority to handle 
the distribution of its official labor posters. In addition, the avail- 
able list of industry members was most incomplete. The Administration 
threfore took over the distribution of these labor posters. Owing to 
the inadequate lists of industry members, only a small percentage of 
the membership received them. 

Perhaps the most difficult distribution problem was encountered 
in the Service trades. The code authorities for these trades were susp- 
ended by en Executive order which removed all provisions except those 
governing child labor, hours, wages and employment conditions .(**) ' 
The trades ultimately affected by this order were: 

Advertising Display Installation Cleaning & Dyeing 
Advertising Distributing Hotel 

Barber Shop Laundry 

Bowling & Billiard Operating hotor Vehicle Stor-ige & Parking 

Shoe Rebuilding 

Because of the misunderstanding and confxision which. followed the Pres- 
ident's service trade it was important that the employees in these 
trades be correctly informed as to the status of their code "orovisions. 

(*) Code for the Motion Picture industry, Code of Pair Competition, 

Vol. Ill, Article II, Section 4, p. 222. 

(**) Executive order #6723 of I.Iay 26, 1934. 



Newspapers had been carrying headlines announcing that the Administrat*- 
ion had virtually dropped all service trades. As the code authorities 
had ceas:?d to function and as incros tr;' memberships lists were unavail- 
able, it r ras necessary for the Administration to formulate a new method 
of distribution . On August 15, 1934, a notice was sent to each estab- 
lishment in the nine service trades listed above. These notice? were 
distributed through all first, second and third class post-offices in 
the United States. They informed trade members as to which provisions 
of their respective codes were still in effect and supplied them with 
the necessary application cards, which, properly filled out and return- 
ed to the Administration, would bring them their Code Eagles and labor 
posters. As a result of a suggestion by the Labor Advisory board to 
bring about increased compliance with posting requirements in these trades, 
a statement was added to all service trade code eagles to the effect 
that the display of the eagle should be accompanied by the posting of 
the official labor poster in the establishment. 

C. Compliance and Inspection. 

Another problem was the question of compliance. It was difficult 
to obtain definite knowledge of the extent of compliance with labor 
poster "orovisions. In numerous instrnces violations of the rules and 
regg&iAticnc governing posting were known to exist. These vioLatioaaiS! 
varied from mere cases of posting in places not accessible to all empl- 
oyees, to non— posting. The Compliance division established a rule that 
in all investigations of reported violations of any code provision, 
inquiry should be made as to posting of the official labor posters. 
Although many cases of inadeauate posting were discovered in this man- 
ner, it was impossible to thus secure complete complaince since compl- 
aints depended upon the employee's being informed (usually through the 
poster) of the code provisions and -here to report violations of them. 

During the early months of 1935, a routine procedure was adopted 
requesting all code authorities to submit to the Administra.tion, within 
two weeks after receiving the labor posters for their industry, a report 
on the progress made in the distribution of these posters. The e«tesfeli«h~ 
•.. i% ': of this procedure helped to correct only one angle of the problem. 
It was known that in a number of irkhistries, of which the code authorit- 
ies had been supplied with posters, members' were not complying with the 
posting requirements. This wp.s probably due both to the code authorities' 
inability to make complete distribution to industry members, .^nd also to 
the unwillingness of some industry members to display posters . 

To aid this poster compliance situation, a plan of inspection was 
proposed. However, expense of employing field inspectors to verify comp- 
liance with posting requirements in individual establishments was pro- 
hibitive. The possibility of usin~ EERA employees for a number of weeks 
to make country-wide check-up on all establishments was considered. The 
plan was not adopted because of difficulties in detail ajid the possible 
transportation exoenses involved. 



D. PRA Posting 

In December, 1934, it "became evident that many small and several 
important large industries intended to continue operating under Presi- 
dent's Reemployment Agreement substitutions as all attempts at cede 
negotiation had failed. The need was recognized of informing the two 
to three million workers in these uncodified industries of the provis- 
ions of the PEA substitution applicable to their employment if the Blue 
Eagle was "being displayed. ( *) 

A posting meeting, attended "by representatives from all advisory 
"boards, and the Compliance and Legal divisions was held in the office 
of the chief of the Communications Division on January 18, 1935. The 

(*)The importance of the Blue Eagle ( signifying compliance) in 
certain of these industries should not "be underrated. Executive 
Order 6246 of August 10, 1933 required that every contract entered 
into by the United States provide and require that: 

"1(a) - The contractor shall comply with all pro- 
visions of the applicable approved- code of fair 
competition for the trade -or industry or subdivi- 
sion thereof concerned, or, if there be no approved 
code of fair competition for the trade or industry 
or subdivision thereof concerned, then with the 
provisions of the president's Reemployment Agree- 
ment pronmlgated -under authority of section 4(a) 
of the foregoing act, or any amendment thereof, 
without regard to whether the contractor is him- 
self a pa,rty to such code or agreement: 
Provided, That where supplies a,re purchased that 
. are not mined, produced, or manufactured in the 
United States the special or general code of fair 
practice shall apply to that portion of the contract 
executed within the United States." 

Ivlany of the sta„te and municipal governments enacted 
similar requirements. The repercussions of these orders 
were felt especially by the uncodified public utility in- 
dustries, telephone, telegraph, and electric light -and 
power; all of vfhi&h. do considerable business with govern- 
mental units. 



problem of labor posters for JSA sub-gtitutIc-:&& ,; " s presented "by the 
Labor Advisory board representatives, and it was unanimously decided 
to seek to secure new Executive and Administrctive orders to amend the 
P?JL so that the display of the Lluo Eagle after a specified date would 
require the posting of the - ropriate p A or substitution provisions. 
The Legal division was requested to prep* re rough drafts of the neces- 
sary orders to alio*:' for this posting, sad the representative cf the 
Compliance division was requested to -prepare a list of the PEA substi- 
tutions in effect. 

On January 25, 1935, the Legal Adviser transmitted the drafts to 
the Labor Advisory hoard with a memorandum expressing doubt as to their 
legality. On April 7, 1955, the general coordinator of the Legal divis- 
ion sent the Labor Advisory board a revised draft of the proposed Exec- 
.utive order. An accompanying memorandum stated in part that, 

"This is submitted to you on the understand— 
ing that it has not received final Legal div- 
ision approval but is in reasonably decant 
shape for you to discuss. •" 

A new : ■mempr.andum, received A -"il 20, 1955, upheld the legality of the 
proposed modification of Executive order 6590-E so as to require the 
posting of PEA substitutions. (*) 

Plans were made for taking -oreliminary steps for preparing PEA 
labor postern to be ready for issuance if the hational Industrial 
Recovery Act war; extended b"- Congress and if the PEA were extended under 
the amended Act. 

(*) Letter from L .1.1.0. Smith to II .II . Collins, April. 20, 1935. 
■USA Archives. 



The experience gained through tlie posting program of the National 
Recovery Administration shows clearly that any effective urogram of post- 
ing! labor regulations must "be oremised on the existence of clearly worded 
and easily 'understood labor provisions. The necessity, for "comprehensive 
industry nailing lists should not he understimated, as adequate distri- 
bution is a vital consideration in any posting program. These consider- 
ations "olus an adequately trained, costing staff with easy access to the 
necessary files and records are essentials to the successful accomplish- 
ment of any labor posting -orogram. 

The outstanding criticism was that they i ,r ere too comlicated; this 
is essentially a criticism of the codes rather than of the posters them- 
selves. A second difficulty wa,s the time lag which was a very serious 
handicap to prompt compliance; its remedy lay in increased personnel 
and development of expediting -procedures. 

A special difficulty was the nroblem of special exemptions applicable 
to individual establishments. ■ These exemptions were not noted on the 
official labor posters unless they applied to at least a sizable portion 
of the whole industry. The majority of these exemptions were not of this 
type, atnlying usually to one ^lant. only. The confusion resulting gave 
non-cooperative employers the o-ooortimity to o eviate from cole labor 
provisions ~ay alleging an exemption. Many employers woulo petition for 
exemption and then immediately modify code labor provisions in anticipation 
of favorable action by the Administrator on their -olea,. The validity 
of the employer's contention in this regard could not readily be ascertain- 
ed by his employees as the official labor posters to.olc no cognizance 
of approved exemptions. This condition could have been rectified by the 
adoption, by the Administration, of' a standard condition to be included 
in all, exemption approvals, stipulating that the exem-otion was granted 
on the condition that employers affected would post and keep posted com- 
plete official comes of the exemption order a<?ja,cent to each official 
labor roster. This tyoe of clause was inserted in several exemption 
orders ~.rj the Labor Advisory 3oarri, and negotiations were under way 
for its ado-otion as general Administration -oolicy at the time of the 
exmra.tion of Code Administration on Ha?/ 37, 1955. 




A s\xrvey of exist in;-; state posting orocedure (covering State 
labor legislation) would be of great value. For this purpose a question- 
naire has been developed to be submitted to State Labor Departments. 
As the states very greatly in such activities, the questionnaire might 
be transmitted with an e::~olanatory letter to the following 21 industrial 

Arkansas Michigan Ohio 

California Missouri Pennsylvania 

Colorado Montana Rhode Island 

Connecticut New Jersey Virginia 

Delaware Hew York Washington 

Illinois North Dakota Wisconsin 

Massachusetts Oregon New Hampshire 

She following group of industrial states should be reached by means 
of individual letters with specific references to those sections of their 
laws whici make reference to posting. Specific questions snould be asked 
pertinent to varying state conditions; 



Maryl and 

North Carolina 


West Virginia 


It is doubtful whether any pertinent information in regard to post- 
ing could be obtained from the following 17 states: 

Arizona Minnesota South Carolina 

Idaho Mississippi South Dpkota 

Iowa Nevada Utah 

Louisiana New Mexico Vermont 

Kansas Nebraska Wyoming 

Maine Oklahoma 

It is doubtful if more taan a. few states have fully recognized the 
potential value of labor posters, setting forth the -oertinent regulations 
of state la.w. Thorough inquiry among states concerning methods and 
advices to acquaint employees with regard to employment conditions would 
bring together information of great value. 



Posting of Labor Laws 

1. Ohock types of laws posted in your State; 

__ Time for meals. 
, Starting and finishing time. 

Wages (including Minimum 'Wages). 

Child Labor. 


Any laws governing employment conditions (hours -wages) 

in a. specific industry. 

2. List laws which specifically require posting of provisions: 

(if no posting requirement is made in the law itself, has 
there been an order to this effect by the State Authority?) 

3. Check method used in posting: 

(if different methods used for various posters, place name 
of specific la.w in parentheses after check) 

___ Laws posted in full. 

Was the language of the la.w of such nature as to be 
understood by employees? 

__ Laws abstracted or modified in some manner. 

Check reasons: 

Easier to understand. 

Smaller and more concise posters. 

Easier posting. 

Other reasons 

Check basis of simplification: 

Discretion of Commissioner. 
Authorization by Law. 

List Legal difficulties encountered in simplification! 


4. Record regulations ox- staxidards governing the following: 

Size of type for printing 

'.type of material used for posters (paper or cardboard) 

Location of posters in establishments 

Number of oosters in each establishment 

b. Check if roster indicates with regard to filing of complaints: 

__ Place for filing cornploint . 

Iviethod of filing conrolaixxt. 

Describe method of filing coriralaint 

List other methods used for encouraging employee compliance 
activi ty: 

5. Cueck method of distributing posters: 

-n.11 establishments unaer the jurisdiction of the law. 
How were the addresses of the establishments obtained? 

Posters furnished only u on request. 

Means used to publicize the need for displaying a -particular 

Other methods 


7. Check method of poster modification when amendments to laws were 


Errata sheets or "stickers" containing the necessary 

modifications attacned to posters. 
_____ Other methods. 

List tuem 


8. During plant inspection what check was made on poster compliance? 

9. Had it been possible to ascertain whether posting of laws has aided 
in obtaining better compliance w ith the laws? 

10. What was the employer's attitude in regards to posting of laws? 



On what were the objections based? 

Fill out and return to: 
Labor Studies Section, 
National Recovery Administration, 
Washington, D.C. 



;"■?"•; -.' ix ii 


Ihuvjer 7r.;..r. , ile of In 'us try 

1 Early method of handling sit-ril omental codes " 7 ooo. Floor Contracting 

Area agreement reference jo:: (Div. of Construction) 
r ;-yl;: type instructions on coml; int filing 

?,. Final method of handling supplemental codes Midwest Fish ?j Shellfish 

Revised instructions on comolaint filing Preparing or Wholesaling 

(Div. of Fishery Ind) 

Method of marking revised 1 editions of ~>osters Used. Textile Bag 
Inclusion of Hazardous Occupation List 
Extract from Order Approving Code 

Foreign language t)Oster (Yiddish) ?.etail Kosher Meat Trafii 

5 Construction area agreement -ooster .Electrical Contracting 

(Cook County, 111.) 

6 Rearrangement of arrolicaDle provisions Cotton Textile 

7 Special exemption -ooster (with map) Country Grain Elevator 

3 Statement used to insure costing of foreign Needlework in Puerto 

language poster when necessary Rico 

9 Modification sticker Air Transport 







,.,*.« Labor Provisions 


Wood Floor Contracting Division of the Construction Industry 


i of this i ode ..(nil tppli in the ■ 

a Codt Apply iinli i 

h chapter In the ease of 
cvooin oetwcen .urn chapter provisions and lhr general pra- 
rUions ol Iras lode. I hi chapter provisions -hall ,.,wm If any 

oe hereafter appro, ed b. Iht PrwHua, shall conflict with this 

»oeh hr*!inir> u he m»] den necessary and thereafter may. IT 
In his judgment lu-lirr requires, rreni such -tai esrepllon. or 
eiemption or miir .11. h olhrr drlerminsllon as he may deem 
id*t«tir to effectuate .he policies of the Art. 


try " as u-ed herein ..hall mrludr Ihe designing and Iht rem- 
atrurl,ng of (and (he installing and the tpplnnr including tha 

Hilar projects or servicta; lad 
dons thereof as mar be defined 
hprcundrr with Ihe approval of 

nf lhr indiflry which has bfrt 
particular chapter of this Lode. 
subdivision*' shall 

. S Th« te-m " 



used h train, shall 1 

Sst- 6. The ttrm "employee", as used herein. Includes any- 
ooe by whom any such employee Is compensated or employed 

Set II. Population, lor purpose* of thb) Code. ahsJJ be de- 
lemilned by reference to tht I '< 10 Federal i ram. 

is ion of the Industry. I 

orb division or sub 
apter incorporated n 
lltt aanoetalions or groups of tmployers and ra 
itly concerned, alter proper notice and benrie 
Df buna bde ™lleeli.e bariumnii nay atablli 
.meat (when approved by the Presides! aa pr 
J (bl of ihc Act), for a apeeibesUi defined r 

on* In -orb divl-ion'or -ubdlels.on, n- may I 
■riuste Ihe polir, of Title 1 of Iht Act For II 
-mi»n ihe entire I oiled Stale* may he dtfln. 

I, pee. of oper.ll-.-.. 
loitrto d«i-t fron 
ir police and uppi.r 




tola Code. 

Tht lilBiini-lr-l,,, .1 

env cumptainls of unfi 
Each such Board ahaj 
empl.n'r- and 

liule a violation of tht requirements af 

ill establish one or mora Boards for each 
.( lb. indu-lrv concerned lo Investigate 

I of tht division or aubdivisloo affected. 

employer i 
Each Boar 

mployee r 

eolvini b 

■■mi. TH and thertai ler notify said parties of 
Its findings and report Ihrm (o tbt Administrator, as a basis for 
appropriate action lo enforce lhr requirements of Lhli Code. 
Tht provisions of thin Section shall ool be construed lo Unit the 
power of Ihe President, in tht absence of such a mutual ttm- 
rarnL to eirrrlsc any aulhohly conferred upon him under Set- 
Uon 7 (c) of Iht Act. 

Sec Z. H here m. applicable mutual agreement u provided i> 

Seel ion 1 or Ihis Article, shall have been approved, employers 

' r following pro>uuona s " 


mpkn-e deluding accounting, oOrt. and clerical em 

provided, however. Ihal the provlsioeta of this para- 
ihall not be construed as establishing a minimum rata 
■ olhtr lhan common or unskilled labor, and provided 

No accounting. oRlrt. or clerical employees nhaU be paid at lea 
than Iht ratt of ! 1 1 UO per ureea in any city of over 500.000 popo- 
lalion or in Iht Imm-dialt Iradt area of mlrh city; IIIM per 
*r*h in any cily of bttwttn tSt.SM and Sliu.OOO population or 
In ih- immrdialt trade area of -ucb cily; 111 00 per wtth lu any 

trade area of such citv. and 112 W per week in (owns of leaa lhan 
Z.S00 populatloo. 

Tht f.ire-nmt pro* .-ions of Ihla pararraph A nlablLsh a min- 
imum rate of pay which shall apply, trrt-iprclive of whtthtr an 
employee Is actually rompensaltd on a time ratt. pltetworh. or 
othrr banls, 

B No tmployee shall be permitted to woek In eiona of fort) 
(101 hour-, per week or In etctrai of eight (K| hours In any 
od. with the following eictfUoaa and 

Interested parties and after approval 
on Planmnr and Adjuslmrnl board 
thed by it. an tmployee may be per- 
: (48) hours IB any one week wbea 

It la aoi. however, tht Intent of Ihla nroftalon that any «ocn 

redoctloD -ill b* re«oa*Dended by the Natiotutl Board to be put 

Into tfleet If II appeara probable that undue hardship might ba 

ocea-Joned thereby to either employers or tsnployees. 

3. Tha foUowtng elaaata of tmployeea art eiempt 

(a) Employers, tncafrej In prvftaaloaal, eireuU»e. or «nper- 

Ib] Emptoyre* in tsiabushmeou empkiyinf nol moet lhan 
lam IZ) person. In towns of anas lhan Z.S0XI population, which 
town, in nol part of a larger trade area 

(c) Eaployeesi engaged in tmergency 
downs oe protection of life or pnayerty. 

fd) Walchaaen. 

i - ■ Other ecnplorrea who may be tienpleel In chapter* of ibia 
Code apeclBeaUy applicable only lo the dlruuoauj or •ubdivlaiooa 
of the Indostry Lbereus deBned. 

I Actounling, clerical or olBce rnipk-i ees may be ptraaltLed to 
work not in rieeaa of forty ( 10 ) boors per week averaged over a 
period of four roosecolivt weeks. 

C- No employer -hall knowingly permit any employee to work 
for a total oumbrr of hours In eicc-n of Ihc hoora herein prr- 
acrlbed. whether tmploytd by one or more employers. 

Sac 3. Wsere proeLsions coocernlng hours of labor or ralea of 
pay hara been ealabliahed for specific projerta. by compeleat gov 
tmmentaJ authority or agtntiea (whether FedtraL Slate, or 
poUlitaJ aubdivlalons acting la accordance with law. ui 
employer required lo comply and complying with the provision* 
ao ealabliahed •hall be relieved of compliance with any conQictlng 
provisions or this Artlrle or of any actions taken in accordance 

Any emptoytr recjnired lo comply and comply Inn wlih the pro- 
vtslons of a valid labor agreemtnt In force on Ihe edertlet dale 
Is legal obligations tl 

of Regional Boards e-lablu 

milled lo work forty-eight (48) hours 

the lollowing conditions obtain 

) On projerls loraled al points so 

Bjority of II 

boarding ol 

■ week, il 

!r) On prn)ects in Iocs 

> labor employed. 

On such rrmole projerta. wHta working time 

of in. It men' weather or unainvdahlt dtla 

be made up In Ihe following four week 

2. The fnrtgo 
rued a- a mln 

group- of rmplnyee-i 

to their rmploytr or 

ubdiilMon, the number of t-oon. «r wor 

nu.uai agreement between -urh rmpl 

and Ihtir tmploytr or 

mpk>>ers In lhr rvrnt of inabilily lu a 

• hirh will not in<olvt undur hard-hip ,. 

tither employee* or 

mploier- Ihrn such with Ihe 

B mlcre-l. mi, b, -ubmllted to the Nallo 

1.1 i .m.lruclu.n I'lan 

the period of such 

agreement with 

any ran- 

f Ihla Artlrle. or 

of any arllons 

nreordanre therewith. 

Sac 4. Minimum 

aball rmpby an 

inder lhr age or 

(18) years In nay o 

to health 

'upsiion haurdo 

- in nature or dangerous 

justmtnl Boards 


sbail be 

within mini (Jfl 

dale of this Code, a 

Ssiionai tonslruc 

ion Planning aw 

hall be selected b 

the Industrial Advisory 

ui Recovery Ads 

by Ihe Labor Advisory Board of the N 

llonal Rreovtry 

Bsan to be aelerled 1 

> Iht Prealdtnl upon the rre 

tbt Administrator. 

The National roeulrurltoo Plannm 

and Adjuslmrn 

1 Board 

undamenlot purpo-e Ihe planning 

development of poll 


to Ihe promotion ol 

belter relations be 

ployre* ailhin the 1 

all lac lor- iniolvrd 

in lhr indnslry 

id regulations fo 

It -hall in it- owe 

discretion. foUowl 

ng Ihe aubmlsalo 

by ma- 

II be held In n 
has been given by Iht Ad 
The National Construri 
shall hart Iht anthority, i 
La properly defined areas 
Adjustment Bos 

i Planning aaaj Adr 

■ aaall ea 

loyer grnsma and employe* 
ia< there shall ba no dialn- 
d Regional Hoards. It being 


i Da 


Regional Board 
of Iht National Board be a 
gtonal Boards ahall b. 
National Board. 

To thane Hrgtnnal Conatrortlon Planning and Ad]onlmeal 
Boards msy be submilted msllere froan their nspeetlre arena us 
dlspaltn having the same re 1st lore hip as mailers to be submitted 
to the National Board, and every effort oo their part ahaD ha 
made lo reeoartle snch existing differences, with the regainment 
instances be submitted lo the Na- 

a shall be c 

lional Board for una! a 

Nothing lo this sect 

plover, snd employees 

dusiry. aa defined lo Ih 

lag (her-et... from sabmltling to the Boards pi 
Article III. Serlioa I. or olhrr Boards similarly re 
sekeied for considers I loo and determination, dlffi 
elating to wagm. houra of emplorm 
' of tfae 

The raaaUas 

- of f, 

labjerl I 

this Code rtlnl 


I Board for Its Information. 

Tht mat of conducting the National and Regional Boards 
herein provided for, -h»" be borne by Iht Conslrnrllon Code 
Authority, aubjrrt lo s budget submitted lo and approved by 
It. provided, however, thai tht coat of th* scrvtrea and the 
ripen.— of Ihc members or said Boards, shall nol be paid by 
sorb Authority. 


See. 1 No derision, rule, rrgulslion. order, or finding shall be 
aand* by any Code Anthority or other administrative agency, 
deluding the Boards 

lhr foregoing • 

groups of err 
disputes, any 

ploy tea as to 

opera lions. In 
Nona! dispute 

■ Haw 

M Of t .. 

tlween tmpnyera and employe 

I any dispute hel- 
lo perform specific 
e, commonly Vnow. 

-wise, of or li 

radt lurindle- 

Section I. Employees snail have I 

lurpCHc of mUtelivt bargal 

the designation of such 

ganlialion of his own choosing: employers -hull 
he mailman hours of labor, minimum rnles of 
conditions of employment approved or prescribed 

pay andolhei 
by the Prealdi 

Set 1 Employers ahaD nol rechvaalfy employees or duties of 
" nntd by employees wilb trie latent or for the 

purpose of dcfcallng Ibe porpoaes of Iht Art 

Sec. 3. No provtiions of this Code -hall sup 
or Federal Isw imponlng more stringent requ 
ptoycrs regulsiing Ihe agt ol tmployeea, wage: 
or health. Ore. or general working conditions 
talned In this Cod*. 


■ NOT. , -HI.IVIH r H f f Ptoviiioni OW CKirlK I *■! IK CONPLICT STtTH THOU Of rM.'IH Xll. TMg wanvigiOH 



r r*trU)lFf.« Fv.k mjiitnsr. 


i mnoTHKIT 

esc :• 

Cieeallvr OrSrr >e 440S > 





U1JU1I innr-is luarrt IlliHll Utl -i i .it 
UiIMt rhwii lUhirllnilaj 
lUtCU MM lUiMififTltiiiiti 
i ]»J Iw Iructui am. r Ml 1 1| ill litii I' 
l.tasrt.C 'H lie" : i|R't. ''Tl InslW 
UH.U30 DtiwE iriuiitlluir. IHiMii batlsiilui 
MWtU.. Hl't'l. Ml 'iHmliiKai 
NJIUI g>:a«fiH Drutiii trr' I'Mlat 

nam j«iis.«i* mih simt rtwtnl 1.111*1 

UOtfH KM IJS«) Cilirto 1 SiHsiiTj Hill Imi Hr[ 

'OUC b<;i i tain' BMif 

HUIO'I ['.fifl trllwl llU'iil IH «.rtl li-!i|a »a 

tIDlUt Ht'BiH-n KflliiilifiMt J M ■ ftaa • Si 

Kit OnhM'. all «l« f*(*r*l mplllarl 

UUtl li»Hi !II-.'.:."':r '.nisi 

Ui'Utu im-niit lU'rwiibii'wi 

.fmlHH ItsCrifti nitMsaaahai 
■1111 lair'i rililuSVHI 

IUT1U0 li'i'Sin IMC 

usucmrm hm iMiitniiwi 
licmui Otirtu ihiiM.tiainiai 

ilHi:C'l lintintl: !H linsU (. („ 

■rJSfJSiffi JiUui UlliMlif uiihliiai 

IHUDU SI lama Sell lilt Set Cllw ItiMi 
Hiuil ItiMl IH few IM tan.aa 

If Mm- Daili ill (.(tnlhWat 
itiu*. km dh (mm »w oiia isntai 

fTHF HHntT SPAI I l> l'i>R offh HI i 

■niuniiu i»-ii>ksib<i 

njItUT i..n iu uitnrlii Dim hlif-i 
nag i-i .hi i, pm tiiiit iiinhi 

tfYTOII lr> '11 IS n,fen 

'■■I" I.': il'aji Vjenr- Urn b' 
t."ia filti hi't'it IN 111 Stitft 

mil Ciiniu tnmitra. n I ha tliKj sHilbt 

■fill OUCH Irujsrri JITJ, Tlirf Jinr 
Hit Cealkil Milstit'liKlai 

OIIIIOU Bintni Cirt If) Ciaann* Utaarri laiMiat 
Oil Ml Nrilal. httsmae hfl ■< Ilk' SlrHD 
■HCIKUIII nillMlplil IJKotMit'ti'rrihiifiai 
'itr.irp 111 In at Saci Isillkri 
110.1. QUUie rrtrlaNCt. Inasi , tilarp lam Ir (aw. 

UOtl UlfltU Qiritrtm JM rean hlllaw 
JOlU OHDlt l»p Fat. UN loffi IraMtni imm 
llllllill lidniN 111 Cttlm JliQi Isillai 

lilll bKM IhM stlilsa 

hlln, 1JI1 ta| a)lg W kiigb| 
I1U Itmaitirt nlllrtmlslilai 
niawfl litUM tM radanl hallfan 
TaWFJIUL tgaasil l» Usn Ui-. I 
■UIB(TH liflK I'Iklsnh 
ITO IIK1U CaimtW Imrtai tiitti 
.'.'.'XI ■ tm.i HlllMl ii ■-■ 
flUHI '.I*' rW (UK) Wllat 

»Mi ».nniTti»vsi 

• I IX. <.«»•••• Ce«.m 

Copies of this official l-abor 
Poster niust b4? posted con- 
spicuously in all onVes, 
shops, and on all construc- 
tion jobs cominft under the 
jurisdiction of this Code 







Labor Provisions 


Midwest Fish and Shellfish Preparing 
or Wholesaling Industry 

olmr Indus 


o( a 

d .hrllfrJi b 

Mill nullel. a 

hi ■ pernon or cni 
•wllei in Ihr raparll 

Arture ..I produrl- oh Lined riMi -hrll-, h-h 

t, h.(lr- ... bOIWH. 



APPROVED CODE No. 308 Supplement No. 9 


Section 1. Whrmrr a turn far u-ed in tht* di>i-ional rodr 
Hhlrh i- drhned m said rulKHUil rod*. it., drllnillun thereof 
conlaJned in -aid luituiul tod. .hall. Turpi u herein provided 
in Ihe tw of srlnlruilinc;. Apply to Ihe Midori h-i, and shrll- 
ti-h pr.parini' oi ~ hole-jilini: dm-ion of Ihr Ruben indu»tr> 

- MUml b.h And shellli-h Birpnnn" or - hok 

. . r ol huh And nhrllbh in thr V|id»r-t *ien, nrrpl 
in-tolar u Ihc an art nubi«i lo *n) loh-ter | Honiara, 
ajnrrlfsniu) rod* in oricinnl or amended form Raid ItTJB in 
rlude* also Ihe combination ol ~.n<1 funrlinn-.. IWIh rr-ipecl 
lo Ihr dulrlbulinn of canned hih and rnnned -hrllh»h said 
Irrn lochidr onli Ihr pnman nal*: with rrnpeel lo Ihc 
dt-iitbuiion of dried -jHrd and -moked fuh, aaid teim .hall 
not inrludc an< *ale efTerled hi a person 01 enleiprtue -how 
prinrlpaJ line of bu»inr-» i- ih,i< ol u v.holr«nlt erocer 

Id The term ' Mid-r-t aiea" mean' the RltlO of Ken 
tut*. Ohio, IndiAiu. Illmoi- Mlrhtaan. VYkjwonsin, Minne-ola. 
lo«a Nebranka. Kinu-. Mi«outi. Norlh DakoM and South 
Dakola and Ihr l-rral lake- pari* of St* York And I'enn 

Id) The lerm ' prcparim- meuru M tolro»»; (1) I'nrkin 
In in. ROclini:. rutlinc. I -mint h« olhei than public timer. 
Mlnnr -moiini dryMat. .aakinc. Tannine or olhei»i.e mampu 
hllne. (2) It don not inrludr Ihc manufacture of product-, 
oblaiard from .hell*. Sab — »lr~ -wund- -kin... hide- or bonct 
I 'I It docx not inrludc thr parkina in ire n He I in., rutting 
freeiinc saJtinn unohine. dulnj;. tannine or olhn mnnipula 
lion of rLih or -htim-h peiformrd b> Ihr catcher. Ihnrof ... 

trl The term- « .mri - ..hnlr-jilmt 
diatribullon of h .h rind -hrllnsh lo irlnil i [Incl 
1 1 pc of undertaking In ahlrh food i- prepared .mil - 
roiLiuaer) whrthrr oi nol Ihr retail oulleta are ovtii 

hticinaflrt in thin paraiiiaph referred to as thr di 
and Inrludr -air- of tL-h ;md -h-Uti- h bcloetn M .1 
iul.ui,.:-. Said ItnH I" mil. inrludc -.urh fui 

(2) Oulnldr wilr-mi 

•ncy rcpjilr work. Pioildrd 
leajl lime and on* I hud I 

nhall '■■■■ li .i.i 

■ c-perloelv 

ittav ar»r >hrrrb> the produrl of Ihr employer ma) be spoiled 

or .!■-■■ ■<! nhile in 11 pemhahlc rendition ohrn addiimnjil 

workm of Ihr aaretajari qunlifiraliona arc nol available lo 
perform ihr op*r«lcon- reyuired tn «urh nan, Ihe empluiei 
shall be empoKeied lo prore-» -urh produrl into a non peiwh 

■kill be paid at leaa! UaH and onr-thlrd Ihr normal rntr for 
them reaperlliel). 
Scelion 2. I.fh emplo>er -hull makr a monthly icporl lo Ihe 

lime and one-lhird rates under Ihe pmu-un. of Serlion 1. 
parairraphA (n) and (b) of Ihis Vrtirlr. 

Srelion I Na emplo- ei in Ihr mduiiry shall knoHitiEli p*i 
mil any rmptoyee to mill If r a number of hour* In exrew 
of the nomber of hour* abate pre->rribed for him. vhethcr em 

(a) No rlenrul. 
□Aid Jew Ihan Ihr follo-inir mlr* of wai-e- : (l"l etuhleen dul 

Irade area [hereof, r.rrpl Ihnl tdr .krk- .,• ,.rTi.,- !-.« , na) he 
emploied al Ihr lair of nol len Ihan firieen dollar-, pei >eek. 
(2) alvleen doltar> pei »rck in olhrr place-, cvrepl ih..i hk 
rlerks or olTirc bo;- may be emploted al the rale or nol le*- 
Ihan fouitrtn dolUr- per oeek 1'iovided hn.nri. IhaJ <>nl> 

(b) >o other empkn rr Khali I.' paid leiw Ihnn Ihr i.»li L 

tn rMkr* pr," .rek .1 

1 places: rtrer. 

■li -II he u U ,drd b 

*mplo« ment 
lAled in the « 
liuclion- of II 

■ Kxtralhf 1 

■-■ I I hi. rodr tu.'i-.inlre- .1 mmimum rat 

H W l allf- ol ^hrlhn thermplotr. i« rompen-alrd or 

.ipph In mdlMdurtl- wnikint on a ■ Iji* ~ or olhei pro 


-wiluMi 1 Su 1nd1u1l11.1l under 7>i\tcen ieai. of .it 
rmproird in Ihr indu-ln 

■im- ol Ihi- rode. 

rlu.n « Kmploin. -hall 

,r|...i - of Ihb rod*. 

'lion >. r'tn-h rmphitr 

. ;ifln Ihr pffeTlll 

l.ifCr- ind drilu. 

. ihh-iiw .11 Ih'ihIi Krrui 

-*ct.on 1 Th.. 

^^ mk MKTH1111- 
1 shall he' ,1 t-tafala 

hi- ...Ir fo 

1H-1-- -I,. ,rl U -r VI 

.,. Ihc prie. ., 1 

r I'ir-idrnt -11.1 

il'I'Kr Mhl III kl.MM, I'Kin.H IM- 

romprnwiled oi empluird. 

of lh 

Ihe x 

md olhei publi 
produrl 1- from 



M Plare-. *hen 



> Ihr 


Inide a 


tn) lupu 

•»ml rode 
federal In 






c ira for Ihe p 
imlned hi refe 






lion- iind »ho d 




n D ih 

The tern 
o>ee> -h 

e property 

of ■ 


VKTH I.I ill— HtH KS fit I VROR 

- iwirl iherefni Thl- 

dlil>mn*l rodr -.hall irporl 


DON'T act hastily. Mah« fur* you art right. An un|uit complaint 11 unfair to your employer and 

do«4 you no good. 
REMEMBER that many iriavanca* can 6a bait tattled by going direct to your employer 
BUT you may Inttoad Mnd all th« fact* to on* of fha following: " 

1. To lha prapar Induitrlal Ralatlont Board, If any. (St« addrvtMf on thlt potttr or aih tha SlaU 

NRA Compllanca Dlroctor for tha proper addmi.) 

2. To your State NRA Compliance Director. (Saw addrotaas on this poitor.) 

3. OR (If not tatliflod) to tha Cempllanca Dlvlilon of tha NRA, Washington, D.C. 


I!) Ihr It 

i,n ol al In 

dr. fur 

r. Milhlnc 'N ihi- fui. . ihull 1- , >.<i 

-illiKrl Ihrii'ln m I 

■I.. ■ 

>iw-\i <>y kMI'1 111 n- kYtH 

I-. or dc..„>. r mi, ,„,„ 1.,, ,„, k 

ruilrinr -lit. 11 .... 

. ,.f anj 1 ,-(,. u| 1. 1 pet II ton 

inluiiiuil lh,,i „ in, , . ,,( h 

11 \n pi.-, ilbr. r n..| iu ,,,ee.l 

i.p.1-..,, r ■, ll -,.H .1, 

he nolnlinn ..( nn> iuk 01 rteutalran 

uuui limarua. innn in hi lili biilat 
uiau. ivtiii ill mil binut 
UiABU ItRIl llU. l« [tMiiUi laillHl 
cjuifun im hatha m-uir Iwt im . m iiin B 

lr. lifiu-. lit itil rimrw Slml iMt 1)1 
CKtUDD. Onm in bill lfitu Ritllul l*al Itilui 
CMIICtlCHT lirlttrl HI IjiKU, 
KUIUi.frlaarM Oiliam lir.i IhKiii 
IBtliCl Oi COiUlln Ir-arM It;] 1 11 ■« 
UMIDa. JaAiantm. Mill Lliiii I1H11I biilat 

UOKII lllaru. US I)! CriBir I latthit in 1 Ihi |l|| UlftllD. Iiinaon 110 CntiaHr-J 

IDUO. bm Fidini hlllui 

ilillOa ClKip. «'i|i" biilai. IH brtl IKlit« lit 

l!i»U <l...n Initial till 111 . HI ■ tall 11 
■Oil Ml liur. Ill Oil IHi'l kmai 
UIOU. Iwtki. Ill lit! Ol'ict ti iai 

HRIUCIf Itir.rilK III lllltll billai 
lOVSIUI hi (rum 111 «<Hi" IMt hilldf 

UIK UftUi, HI liin Slmi 

lUUCHUSittV BoilH ID lilril Sinn 
IICIIUI Diirair tli fiKiil hiltlii 

■ IMiUll llMII|ll>V ICO >)MBt| In 111! 

ira.urf. JitiiM. IllUiiliiliiii Iiiujhi 
msiouii Si mlt. Mi 1711 sot aim sinti 
■Oillll mini. Ill h*n lioa Iiiiiim, 
«Hlsu Dmm til fiiim bniu, 

IfUOl liM. Dll llMril Pin Uliti |, l||a| 

■CI Jflilt Kurt IM Dllici luilni 
III II Ht (Ml fl h-: Ollxt Igildni 
III TOII lit Tori (1 Irgjtui 

Olllltlll. DlliMaiCiM 171 Caawnt [tchM|i laiidiat II lU Imin Ima |,ii|ii| 

011(01 rimiil. Nrl kllOar rirt ill Airier Still 1 1 Ocr. DHUl IIUHK tin! I<nlii t 

PIMDKIIU. Ptiliilililli. Ill Coaanciil Inn I.mimi U1IH. it 11 1 Hi Eltl 1 103 h'.iw Urttl 

Mlilitl 101 lit atl Inner ImijiM XIISK lltHtl »0S It ltd I hl!lil| 

im If: •mini bdhfl Im laiilni INuOt QlUt. rnnltici Iiiiwii (tchH|i Imi Imifni HKIIil UOaMM 111 BMfei IiimiiI bit In 1*1 

bflili. Ultt « ■' 11 ;» Im :■ ><■ IT (KliHti Still ■Ullllin lUtlH 1 : jf ht»»|t hiiln, 

I0I1H CimililH (rtlltlDrg. OS Pet Wu„ lu.icmi J0UIN CU0IIW CUMniat 7B4 rraini Imldnt «IJI HICMII EallUffll latMl »ll(t Ink hJlhVJ 

HltlOUIll Ir.ainl 1W-, thrro Sural SOUTH DUOtl Sun FnH, IHI lull lau-.iii Ihih ItlCDUit tUutu till IkW. UltHf tlHf hitl«| 

0110 C mini Mi hliti biliai inilllll UA HO CiiiH Itmi b>il«| "HilC tlBJu lUl Oitin bnfii| 


(Tilt ABUVI. Wh( f I 1 - UIK OFPII 1*1 1 "I'll III AMI.MiMINTS a\Ii UH1ITIOV 






Labor Provisions 


MARCH IS, 1935 

Thlt poster sufMncdM and Is to 

be pottod In place of ell N R A 

Labor Poster* for thlt Industry 

previously Issued 


Used Textile Bag Industry 



the Hied Textile 
lidrnl of 


Approving Code of Pair Comprlllloi 
Hag Industry 
• • • NOW, THEREFORE, on behalf of 
the Unllrd Slates, I, Hugh S. John-win. Admi 
du-lrlal Recovery. • * do hereby order lhat said 1 odi 

Fair Competition be and il is hereby approved, provided i 
the Code Authority shall appoint a committee which shall m 
a Mod) at minimum wages in Ihe Industry looking (oh 
measures which oil) enable an Increase in -oth minima, i 
Khali report iiurh -iud». wilh recommendations, to the Adn 
Ulrator prior to Deremher 11, l<m. 

Administrator for Industrial Recover 



I. The term ~ I'aed Textile Dag I , ■. " ,is u 4 ,1 herein, is 
drBned (o inrlude the hu; ins. handling, grading, processing, for 
rr-jle purposes md /.i selling c>[ iwd burlap and roKon hag. 

Dealer- handling wd burlap ind rolton ban- i wilh other 

commodilie. ,md operating undrr Ihe code tor Ihr " Scrap Iron, 
Non-Errrous Scrap Metal, and Vault Materials Trade - , are 
not included within (he nhoxr definition of the tnduslrx (IX fur 
■a Ihe rollecliun .nil grading of u-ed trxlilr hag. Br* eonrrrnrd. 


6. The term - 

li used hi r. in include, hul i 

r hi-. services, irrespective 
•nl of -ueh compensation. 

i rnmpcnsatrd or employed 

RttK OF 

I Taro 

. l-'tei 

Alabama. ML-wLssippi. Irkansis, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas. 
Maryland. Tennessee, and Kentucky. 

7. Thr term " North " a* uvd herein includes all of I be terri- 
tory of the I'niled Si a if- exrrpl that porlion included under 

the l< 



I. No emplojer. except en hrrrinnltrr pi 
milled to work in exrrss of fori) ( 10) hours in ai 
or elghl W hour- in any twenty four (21) hour 
xidrd 1ha( during peak -ri-m- nol (o exceed ■ lv hi 

d. -hall Ik- per- 

* than 

forty-eight |IS) hoar™ per week and provided furthrr (hal all 

various claw of rmploirr. -hall he compensated at nol les. 

than lime and one-third thr normal rail of pay I \- amended 

August JS. 1911. effeclive Sepl.-mWr N, 1931.) 
± The maximum hour* fixed in Ihe fnrrgoine section -hall noi 

apply to- 
la) Office employer*, who -bill he prrmiltrd to work forty- 

rlghl ( 

any < 

week, i 

(h) Truck d 


and .hipp 

nt! r 



be pt-rmittri 

lo work not in 


sof forty-* 




nv on, w»k 

(c) Employ 


cluKitrl) e 



engineers, elrtlneians. 

firemen, or m 


r-ry repair 




permitted lo 

■aril nol in nnw of forty-feu 

r II 

) hn 



one week 

(d) Employ 


nn rxreul 



il r 

piiril*. recu 

tnrl) rrrrliin 

• no 

low th.m 



e dollar. 

(53SJMI1 per 

• r.k, w.ilrhm 

oul.irir -a 



le) Kmplo) 

n erorrgrnc) 



e n 

r (Wrgrncy 

repair .erk, 


InH brrakd 





of life uni 

properly, hut 

-urh spec 1 

1 case al 



nd one third 

limes hi- nurn 

nl r, 

v -hall he 





,rd In exce- 

of the maximi 

m ho 

or- herein 



X No rmpln 


all work <> 

he prim 

lied 1 


rk for n lola 

number of ho 

rs in 

rxress nf 


umber o( 


rs pre-criU-a 

for each wee 


dai. <• hi- 





one or mnn 

applyinf belts to pulleys in I 


lhan one individual of such partnership -hall work on any of 
the operations of ihe Industry, except office function*, in excew 

of (he maximum hour, provided herein. (Added by nmrndment 
approved Auf-u-l :*», t«ll. rrTrrtive S>p(emher x, t»J|.) 


1. The following minimum wace ratca are established for 

Males per hour .. 

.12' i cents. 
27', cent-. 

mplO)mrn(. and 

-hull i- Kurd on 

Prmale employer. 

performing -ub. 

i This Arlirlr eslublishes a minimum tatr of pay, regardless 
■.f whriher an rmplon-r i. rompm-siled on ■ lime rnlr. piece 
work, or olher 

X Ulfferenlial- *xi-l.n K on July 13, 1933, belween «..«, rate- 
paid variowelnNatKet ncritlna more than Ihe mini- 
mum wngi .p,-rifivd iilwvr -h.ill be mainl;uni-d ■ w-aftK' nf em 
ploiee- rerriiinic more than thr minimum wane, .perilled ahei* 
-hall not he reduced below the nles rsblinn on Juli !"■. 1*11, 
nolwilh-.|anding pn) reduclion in (he number of aiirklnK hour. 
of .i.-h rmplovers. 

sRTIt IE \- 

f \f-: 


Minn I'Ktn r 

n rfethlern [U| yei-rt- 

if> -hall -uhmit to In* 

1. No person undrr sivtcen (IK) 
ployed in Ihe Industry, nor anyoni 

drtrimrnUl to health. The (ode A 
Administrator before May |.t. It! I 
In any State an employer shall he deemed to base compli.-d 
wilh this proiLsion, if he shall have on file a rrrtibcale at per- 
mit duly Lssurd by the authority in surh Stat*, rmpowi-ri-il lo 
i»ur employment or uge ccrlilicale- or pi-imll- -ho»ini- |hn< 

9. Ah drivers or assistants to drivers of molor >ehiclrs, or 
as helper- or drlixry boys on motor vehicle*. 

10. In or KMuHlne. in the operntion of R»s, oil or sleam 

11. In Ihe rare, ,■■:.. .1. operation or repair of elemlors, 
cranes drrrick-s, or other hnlaliBR apparatus except in the 
operation (II of dumhwnitrrs an deSnrd by Ihe American 
-Und.ird. A>.so«blian. or li) of elrvalurs equipped onl» for 

12. Eirlne of alr.-im or arelei lioilers (rvcepl lioiler- of nol 
mure lhan I* |r^_ pressure u-ed -oleli for heallni; purpose-. 

rolterliiely Ihinuth rrpresentativrs of (heir own rhou-ine ..nd 
-hall hr free f mm the inlerfrrenre. re-lr.unt. or rorrciun of em- 
uloyers of liihor, "r Iheir airi-nts in the d'-i)fn:ilioii of -urb 
rrpr. -rniatiK-. or in -i-lfotL-aniiation or in o(hrr concertrd 
actiiitirs for [he purpose of collecliir harjraininK or other mu 

uuurd rn .' tendlllon of i-mpli" mrnl In join anv company union 
or lo refrain from Joining, OTKanlilng, or ai*d>(tinj{ a lahnr or 

I. Kmplnii-i - -h.ill rompli »nh Ihr mnvlmum hour- nf lahnr, 
minimum rale- of pn>', and olher condition, of rmplnimrnl. 
.ipproieil or prr-crils-d h) Ihe I'le-nlinL 

».th .in> laws nf -urh Stall Imposini; more -Irincrnt ns|ulre- 
mrnl. tin imiiloiei. rt«alatlRf Ihr ,ite o( emploi.-es wages 

h ' «ork, o. health, Tire proleetlim. or cenrrnl working eon- 

dllleiw lhan under this Code. 

and conlii 

Imp r- .).,)! n 

,1 reriawif) rmplo» 

res or ilulu - of orru 

on- urrfurmrd by . 


olher subterfuge -o 

rirfml the pu.po- 

rs of the Ael. 

■ far of II 

In accordance with this section, \dmini-truti\rOrrirr 267-1. 1, 
Seplrmber S, I ill, approied the follow .n L - li-I of occupations as 
being hazardous in nature and/or drlrimrntul to health, and 

ft eluded. 

I. Operating vacuum cleaning mnrhinr-. 
L Operating printing prewes 
1 Operating electric or hand baling prMMK 
1. Operating mechanical culling knive-s 
".. Opi-rnliaii of bag tumblers 

6, Operalions imoliing evces.-»r rvpv-urr to dn-l. (Work 
on (he nhovr specified machines may not inrlude all the ocru- 
i -hould hr prohibited because of thr excessive 
posurr to dust.) 

. cleaning or wiping macninrri or -hulling in 

* ::: 

ipl-.irr -hall po-t in a con-piruou- place of eu.i 
ju- arrrse* to employees the Articles dealing wilh 
hours wages ami grnrral lahnr prnn-ion- nf (hi- ( ode 

K No homework -hull be permitted in the Industry. 

9. Ever) rmploirr .hall make rea-onalilv pron-ion. for Ihe 
sifrly and heiillh of hi- employees at Ihe place ond during Ihe 
hours of Ihcli i-mploimenl. furnishing a -afe. --inilari. h rated i 
and properli i ratlin led -urk plare. Six month, after Ihreffer- 
(l\e dn(e of Ihi. I ode. the < ode Authoriti -hall .uhmit recom- 
mrndalion- fur -riling up .laniard- of health and safrti for 
rmelvncxw in ihi- Indwttr) 


Kxrruthf Order \o G(in6~E (teb.u.irx 17 1931) provide) in 

' • • • No prOYtsion of an] Code of Fair Competilion 

shall be -o con-liued or applied as lo violate Ihe fnl. 

h.-int Mile- whirh are hereby promulgated and prr-rubed. 


DON'T act hastily. Make sure you are right. An unjust complaint It unfair to your employer and 

does you no good. 
REMEMBER that many grievance* can be best settled by going direct to your employer. 
BUT you may Instead send all the facts to one of the following: 

1. To the proper Industrial Relations Board, II any. (See addresses on this poster or ask the State 

NRA Compliance Director for the proper addrrsi.i 

2. To your State NRA Compliance Director, (See addresses on this poster.) 

1 OR (If not satisfied) to the Compliance Division of the NRA, Washington, D.C. 


on Ughl work at a wage below Ihe minimum rstablLshed by a 

Code, if 1 

ir employer ohtain- from Ihr Stair autho 

it), desig 

nnled by 

he 1 niled Slate- I'rp .ulmenl of 

labor, a 


authurtfini: such person'- employment al - 

uch wages and for 

-urh hour- as -hall be .laird in Ihr cerlifica 

e. Sue 

aut horily 

shall be g 

aided bi the Instruction* of ihr ( 

iled Sta 

rs Depart 

mrnl of 1 

ibor in issuing rrrtlfirnlr- lo -urh 


Each em 

plover -n. 

II file munlhli wilh Ihe Code Au 

horily a 

li-t of al 

such pers, 

n. employed !■■ him. -hosing Ihe 

wagrs paid to. ant 

Ihe maximum hours of work for .uch emplui 

ee. - 



. i. .1. ..r H ,. |j. 1111. •ro.ldf- 

n pari t 

No prov 

■.ion of anv Code nl Eair ( ompelit 



be so run 

■ ■...! in applied as to < ioblr thr 

folio* in L 

rule- anc 


--hichareheiehv piomuliraled an 

p.esr.ibcd. lo-il 

1. A p. 

-«n may be permilled (a engage 

n home- 

nk at Ihe 

or wai-r- as is paid for Ihe -ami 

i«pe of 

» oik per- 

formed in 

thr fa. Ihvi irgutii pb 

re »f liu 

im— if a 


i. obtained from the Stale aulhe 

ill or a 

hn u flier i 

designated bi Ihr 1 ailed States IM-uaiiniint 

ef i.i bo 

-urh eer 

lifieale lu 

be granti-d m Btrortlanrt wilh in 


i-surd bv 

the 1 niled slule- Depart nl of Ijbo. ptu 



such prison ■- (i hi -leu IK inrapiieil .le.1 fu 

work in a 

i.i-i..., oi olhri letukii pkirr 

ol hu-in 

is. and is 

(b) Surh person i- lo Irair hunir hrmu-r hi- oi hrr 

srrvirrs air absolulrl> rs-ential foi nllendanrr on a 

person who I- hedridden or nn inialid and both -urh 

person, air free from an> ronlagiou- di^ase. 

2. An» emaJuyer engaging -urh a prison -hall keep surh eer- 

Icatc on file and -hall lib- » ilh thr Code xulhuril) f or Ihe Iradr 

indusln or -uhdm-ion iherruf ronremed Ihe name and 

Kxeeullve Order \o. K7 _ jl-( (Junr ."7, iu.1l, elTerlive 

i IS, 

I'M I i prutidr- in part lhat 
"■ • ■ No prevision of any Codr of Fair Compeiiiioa 
-hall be *o ron-liued or applied as lo violate (he fol- 
lowing rules and rrgulalion- whirh arr hrrrhy prnmulgaled 

(1) A person may be emploied a- an apprrnlire hj ani mrm- 
ber of an indu-lr> -uhjcrl (o | (ode of Fair Competition nl a 
Huge lower (nan thr minimum wage, or for anv limr in rxre-n 
of (hr maximum hours of labor, r-lahli.hrd In such Code, if 
such member -hall hair fir-l nblained from an Agrnry lo he 
dr-ignalrd or established b) Ihr Secrelari of l.ihor. a rrrllfi- 
catr permitting -uch prr-on lo be .-mploied in conformiti wilh 
a training program approied h> -uch Agenr>, unlil and unless 
surh certiflcalr i- revoked. 

{'it Thr lerm "Apprentice", as u-ed herein shall mean a per. 
son of at least 16 yeam of age "ho has rnlered into a written 
contract with an employer or an association of rmployers which 

ploiment for -uch person and hi. partiripalion in an nppioved 

l-rovidrd, however, thai nothing in Ihi- Order -hall he con 
-trurd a- modifilng an) 1 ode of Fair Competition rxrepl Inso- 
far as an emploier subject thereto may elect In hreomr -uhreel 
to the provision- of Ihi. Order. 


i IV 19 

ition npproxed 

" .So emplnier -uhj«t lo a dale of Fair 
indrr -viid lille shall dia mi— m demote nn< emplove 
i complain! or gnlng evidence «ilb re-perl loan alleged nulalli.n 
if Ihr proii.ion. nf unt t'ndr of Fair I MaBelUioa appmn-d unriri 
aid lille. 
"Ml peis,in- or* hereby informed that -eellim 10(a) of (lie 
(rial Reenter} Vrl pre-erlbe- a line not lo exceed 
.Ham (*:,nu) or impna-mnirnl nol laeaeeed -ix {«» 
h. for Ihr iiulalinn •■( an> rulr or rrgulalion pre 

he authuril) el .ai.i.eciion 16(a)." 


tLUUU. timer.]!. LOtin lllltlil lilt tHllaoj 
Ui/Ois. ru;cen. ID ■■• Itlll*! 
UlACU Little IDC). 00 DMIIttl tu :M[ 

UilltUlA. in \imku, KinbiKi tin BUI . Hi liit it Si 
Hi tiii 111. 'X -"<" h l* ,n » fiW- '•»■ it 
CJXOUCD. OiHtr, IJO IfiiUS Suits HIIMil tin IjiIIui 
COIIULllClll. KiiTiinJ. Jill fciltnl Ilm f'i| 
MLlItU, lilniiflal. Otimn Iml fnUai 
DQ1IICI OF (ClVHIt. ei'-HuTu. 1<!1 1 Si. AT. 
RDIIQV JdwmiU. EBlliI Suns llknl hIIIbi 

tUUlf, lliani. II) 111 BUM I Stflitrt U'l tail lir| 
IDAHO bin. Feeetal li soi 

UUMii. Cbitip, «m|K) t.lidii[ 105 hru ■n-i(u tn 
IHIMt IMiaujilii, lirilni till 8K| . Ill I Ptui. B 
int. On iinit. 411 Old Iilin! Biilliil 
lUUCUS. Tspoe. Ill pestoirice Beiidiit 

IIITUCIf. [fii'.n.lf. 101 FtJidl 1(,!J.[ 

LODSIaU. In Oiltaii, 710 "ilinii lisl Uiilef 
■ABU. tflBU, UlBittriuTiL 

I1ITUID. Llliaen IMCrldebgni 
lUWCIiWIII. bilM. UitMnlSlmi 
■ICIIUV Onrtil. llilc«rj:B..-;-i[ 
IllirUll. luitiiellv W Ismti hiidni 

Hsmim Juiaii. imtiiiiniiii tuiiiitt 
-mourn, it itiii. s,in 1211. sob oiin stnn 

atfTUU. him. IM htti Hod liilliti 
■lUUiAOaiU, ill fibril lillliit 

IftllV. law Old fibril FW Ollm billlaj 

lie m«?3Hiii. tBU'd. ftti-.i rn.ui 
»H JItStT. tdift. Ill HgrMil OHiii lilldai 
111 bUICO. lull f(,Pt:lOHi« bill J|. 
MY TORt. »(i Ttfl. IS IreiJil] 

omiHOU. OliiMai Cm. ID battrci miiip eatlliiat KU1. but*., line bllW|. 
OlttOI. renut'. hi l>. in| hi m tint Streets turn. Onin liiuiic Clrt ini:tit 

rtllUimri. Ill Cdaetrcui irui bi'liej ITU Sail Lite tflj, lit] kiln Iglliiii 

"■I'-lLrih 401 III HI fume ■uiKiag TEMOIT. Inlud 101 Iiiiral hilllai 

inter. 612 UliNil Sinir. bit biliiei RH-COE lUtUD PftnKiti. liheiii (tfiiiH bel blilei WtMit. IKbeiil. IM Ctilnl JUlreeu Ul tiitiei 

btliie. Vhiu bi.diui tit Hi.] Stml 1) f diifi Slml IUJI1ICT0I. biltli. 11)0 lnln[i biillii 

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La>W Poster for tb# Elactric*] 

CwrtracUnc Dtvteton erf Hm 

C wn b t M.U w> Industry 




Regional Collective Bargaining Agreement 


Electrical Contracting Division of the Construction Industry 


Cook County, Illinois 

AGREEMENT No. 1 -APPROVED CODE No, 2*4 F. (Supplement No, 6) 


WHEREAS Tllle I. Section T{bt of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act and the Code of Fair i iimptinion lor the Con- 
alrtctlon Industry provide for agreements to be approved by 
Uie Prealdenl, providing for standards of hours, wages, and 
olhrr conditions of rmplo. mrnt, such agreements to be made by 
truly representative groups of employers and employees: and 

WHEREAS the Electrical Contractors' Association of the 
City of Chicago la a truly representative association of em- 
ployer* of electricians In the Area hereinafter defined; and 

WHEREAS Local Hi. International Brotherhood or Electri- 
cal Workers. Is o truly represents live association or electrician 
employee) In the Area hereinafter defined; and 

WHEREAS Burn truly representative groups of employers 
'■nplovcen in (he Area below definrd, having compiled with 

all I 

tin* I 

vlded In such Act ai 
Agreement and lo obtain the approval 
In order that the standards of hours, 
lions or employment shall bind all emc 
of the Division as herrinarier deSm 
employees and no others In the 
WHEREAS such i 

•tided li 

d their electrician 
natter defined: and 

I or the National 

_ .C _ 

Industrial Reeoierv Act In said Area 


That in consideration of the premises, and or the mutual 

agreements herein contained, and In order to accomplish the 

objects and purposes hereinabove set forth, the parlies hereto 

agree each with each other and with all the others as follows: 

Section L Member I 


PI 111- Area. — The term "member in the 
Area' as used herein means any member of the Division as 
hereinafter defined who Is an employer engaged In any phase 
of undertaking to perform any function of a member or the 
Division in the Area herelnarter defined. 

Section 2. Mtmber ol the DJriiion^-The term " member of the 
Division* Includes any individual or form of organliatlon or 
enterprise encaged in any phase or undertaking to perform any 
functions of the Electnral Contracting Division. 

Section 1 Elitlrieai Contracting Dii-iaion. — The term " Elec- 
trical Contracting Division " or " this Division " ss used herein 
means the erecting. Installing, altering, repairing, servicing, or 
maintaining electric wiring, devices, appliances, or equipment, 
including the purchasing from suppliers and the selling of 
manufactured parts and products Incorporated In such Installa- 
tion, provided lhal: 

(a) The provisions of this Agreement shall not apply to work 
lor telephone or telegraph service where aoch work is an Inte- 

a telephone or telegraph company In rendering il 

lied service as a telephone and telegraph compa 

The provisions of this Agreement shall apply li 

of telephone and teleirrnph cables and wires In ra 


Ls performed by uth 

telexraph operating 

Iroirrsir* shall be 
Notional Recovery 
he. designated by 

permiinrnt I 
ing. devices 

d! this Agre 
•. burglari o 

slncd by an Indl 
nlerpn.f engager 
Id) The prou-i 

r repairing of rl 

onsoflhis »gr,-en 
I rlrctrlral work > 
uried in this defln 

establishment em 

shnll apply to Ihe installation of a 
emploii-r." us u>vd in Ihis paragr* 
been »o employed hi nn> such uw 

jrposes of this paragraph. 

I lass A Jnurnei ( 
nfice.-- ClM R 
Class B Journe>r 

Section 6. Fore 
leyman appoint* 
other electrician . 


a rollo 


" Foreman " la deflaed to mean a Jour- 
v Foremen shall be divided into two 

i i last A Foreman — - Class A Foreman * Is one who super- 
vises thr work of CIub A Journeymen and Apprentices. 

lb) ('tan It Foreman. — " Class B. Foremen " Is one who super- 
> ' ■■ ■ the work or Clam B Journeymen and Apprentices. 

Section 7. Electrieian—An -Electrician" is defined to mean 
and Include Class A Foremen, Claaa B Foremen, Class A Jour- 
neymen. Class 8 Journeymen, Class A Apprentices and Clan B 

Section -. Ir/o.— The Area In which this Agreement is effec- 
tive Is took County, Illinois. 


Section 1. Sou re.— No electrician shall work or be permitted 
to work In excess of forty <1()| hours In any one (1> week, eight 
(S) hours In any twenlv-rour (21) hour period, or five IT.) days 
in any seven (7) day period, evcepl as provided herein. Regu- 
lar hours or work shall be right (») 

Section 2. Uoltdayi.- 

pc I ri nor 

days: New Year's Day, Decoration Day, Indepi 
labor Day, Thanksgiving Dny or Christmas Dai 
celehrated lor the foregoing, except as providec 

'r and Property*— 
i to work on hull 
work that cannot 
>r without serious 

auch permission shall he valid for more than seven 

7, ,),,», 

(bl Corufrurfion Wninfrnanre — Eleclrlrians mat 

may be permitted to work at any time on ronstru 

lenance work. Where a job i- being maintained 

foar (£1) hours continuously on a shirt basis, shif 

s shall 

night, and from IE: (W midnight to H: 1X1 a. n 
are regular hours except from I ; im p. m >. 
Sunday Monday, and hours on holidays. 
(e) Operating Maintenance and Repair. 

rmployed on this work 
(dl S'hul-dou n. I If 

to midnight 
'n-un- may 

lidays. Members In I 
ten permission Tor e 
iproved hi the i on-i 
■ rnnded for in Seclioi 

irlion Plan- 
:. or Article 

I ll<i.<n 


) Nothing in this 

id Tor more thi 
lit anv elrrlrirt< 

.oreighti ism 

■lion shnll permit 

-nod evcepl on o 

f bit 0fnerir_No 

iv lime which. - I- 
rr member o[ the 

■ of wages of Ihe class or journeymen 

lass A Journrimnn: *] Ji per hnur.' 
1. 1-- II Jnurneimnn: BUM per hour 

pprenllres: r ir-i hi contract; s> 
ir rule ol wage- or their class of joi 
le-half Ihe rule or wages of their class 
lenr, two-third- Ihe rate of wages of I hi 

o thr lime 
or we*Mj 

, Thanksglvlr 

' I limes Ihr' 

,r,.ling m., 
I rate nf w 

raclmg Division. 

lo - ild work, or 
shall be divided 

journrv man 

Ins* of Jour- 
any lime spent work- 

o( wages for regular 

regular hours hul on 
Inn n.i«. Independence 
nstmns Day, or dais 

luding Identinc.i 

inhle on Friday 
r up-lo I: Ml p.m. 
or Thursdai he 
• hereof, wages 

shall be due and 

avable on Thursday or Friday, respectively, 

. but not later than 4 : 30 p. m. tor work done 

Ihe preceding Tuesday. Wages shall be pay- 

at the oHlr* or the emploilng member In the 

ins shnll be allowed neee-aary lime to reach 

the office or the e 

mploying member in the Area ir payment is 

(c) I nut"' and DUcharae.—U electricians are indefinitely 
laid Off or discharged, all accrued wages shnll be due and pay- 
able Immediately. 

Section 1. Change in Hope Scale*- The wage scale effective 
on ihr date ot Ihr award or a ronlracl shall preiail to the com- 

sidered with the award or viid contract- 
In order io obtain Ihe benefits of Ihis Section, members In Ihe 
Area musl rilr list or conlraris nwardrd to I hem »rter Ihe effec- 
tive dale of Ihis Agreement with a Iccal agency approved by 
the Construction I'lannint* ,-ind Vdjustment Board provided tor 
in Section E or Article III of Ihe (ode of Competition for 
the Construction Industry, or any agency of that Board having 

n fay.— Vat 

report. Not 

work be stopped hi a 

■n engaged on jobbing main- 
e spcnl going lo and from 


lion 1 
I) apprentice or 

apprentices (on II 

ir or his apprenttcr 
The rmploving mrn 

i joh lo each five ["•! journeymen 
irrnlicesi on any joh, ctrepl on insl 
I occupancies Ihe ratio of joui 

ing member in tl 

e Ar 

en or to 

hvr purpose-- he 


vut mil nrderrd 

.n.r reporting, 



nliil building construction, mrmhers in (he Vera and Iheir rmploier. shall cooperate with Ihe A dminlsl ration 
the furtherance al such a plan it dnrloped for Ihe promo- 
nof living standards. 


pltals. and opi'raling mjinutucluring and I 

building trades; and (1) i-vlrriiir work in 
and C>) of ornnnwntal lighting, lighting oi 
und rvlenslon of rlcrlriral wr.itr from pub 

Itasir trades are as milows: 
(I) t arpenters; (Jl lied rlctans: (11 Bm 
TrrralU Layers Slnne Sellers, Marble S 

and Cement Finishers (as one trade): and (S) Steam Filters, 
numbers. Gas Fitters and Sprinkler Killers (as one trade). 

The plan will not be Interpreted to include work or Ihe Elec- 
trical Contracting Dliislon in new buildings. 

Section 2. {JuoJinrafioiu oad I Imil at ion : —The exemption 
from conflicting provisions of other articles of this Agreement 
by virtue of operation under (his I'lan shall nol aantj to any 
member in Ihe Area who does not file w.lh the Joint Commute* 
established under Section 3 of this Article his agreemrnt in 
writing: lo comply wilh Ihis I'lan. and who does nol comply 

with Ihi- Plan shall promote il nrli.rlv hi solicitation, udicr- 
tlslng. and endeavoring lo arrange (or deterred payment ror 
this work, if necessary. 

Member- in Ihe Area who make n business or soliciting and 
estimating, and who secure business from Ihe general puhlic, 
mav qualify undr-r Ihis Plan provided lhc> emploi not lrs-s lhan 
onr -..lesman who had a knowledge of Ihe work co- -— • ' "■ 
Plan, whose sole dulv shall he to solirit. eslimal 
such work. Member in the Area shall keep ■ daily 
Ing work saliriled and conlrnrls re 

o the Joli 
ly qualif' 

>rd show- 
e or Ihe 

Inl Com- 

will not be require 
ily -ilh the proiisioi 

terrd with the Joint 

dale or signing 
ditional amlts 

ber- of mrr 
personnel, r 

valenlof twi 

shall keep a 

electrician .. 
■ shall be ai 
iie upon reqi 
led in a Joint 

i< Hi...! of eleclinn or si 
nil he subject to the i 
Planning and Adjustment Board 
Article III or Ihe ( ode or Fair ( 
tion Indusirv: or anv agrnci or Ih 
ua the Area. The total memberwhi 

* l sWtlo'n K i. B „..,., and' Hour*.- The 

s under 

or jiiurnevmen 

s foil 
cents per dai in ■ 

M.M'i per hour. 
Fir-t >ear hi cont, 

petition Tor Ihe ( onslruc- 

li..i:J having Jurisdiction 
f il... Committee -hall not 

r of wages for elec- 

: second <esr, one- 


rally* hul mthi 
raare-1 or modir 

plication lo 
all -pedf. ; 

-\ 101 VTIONS 

u.,-.v lt,..,rd l.iMh'i'i,', 




Act and 

vMl II 
1. 1 hi- 

d Bin* 

rl and 
a .■mole 

date Ih 
ng lliv 
. shlrh 

K \I-Prll 


InciulrtM or complaints living all Ihe tacit should b* •ddreived to on* ol th* roHowlngi 

1. To tha Rational Collective Bargaining Agiawriwnt Complalnrs Board, Mr. John R. McSwoonoy, Chairman 

Washington Street, Chicago, llllnoli. 

2. To your StaU NRA Compliance Director. Wrlglay Building. aOO North Mlchlian Avanu*, Chicago, llllnoli. 
]. Or (it not win Had (o the Compliance DlXtloei ol lha NRA, Waihln|toei, D. C. 


hill terminate on Mav 


r 1 ampatltlan fur (hi- r 






Labor Provisions 


Cotton Textile Industry 



S*ttlor L— (a) TV 

r September 

ler fih,r- (:. 

«[W ' 'or 
f*bnr. -ho i 

Olhtr -inlh.i 

r -o.rn of r, 

. nm.hin 


t I 

and /or dar 
.ind rltrrl.-r >oi 
thai all blankrt. up to ind inrludiriK £i% of 

b. Ihr TMtM TrU.le rode Ml oihr. Ma 
>) ih, i\.„,i t*i 
xtudlnf EH, "I 

n al -- 

r Wool Tr.nlr 

Textile ( 

ptr-™>- rmplnied in 

Ihr r 

n.r ,,r „.rd f<,, If,, n, .,,.„ 
llM blrarhrd ai oni.i. .. i,.-tl 

II (6) all machiner} u-rd for 

srhmr. u-*d m Ihr prmtudmn of mrmrl 
I.. 7 i.ddrd h. .mirndmrnl jppro..-d So. 
<•* Noiembrr IJ. I9.H; ilr.n I f.j.lhei 

• »e» th-ii 
Indu.h. In .ins 
•Ik awHuf ji>i> 

mum ■ et -h'll nnl I* Ir. 
wig* Krr-in.,1... -. I fort) 
rtlrrliie JaBMr) I. mil. 
(el An rmploiee »ho«e 
of are. pbjnieal or mrnlnl 
emplo-edon hehl »ork || 

T-Hl. In.lHulr. 

er- in ihr (ail 

_, ( rpi Imrnrn d „■ , 

.ind oul-id. rmplntre — 

-t -hen rmp n id, 

■ I II,. , .r, 01 -Hurr -,-rW 

ion far l« hour- ol labor, 
e -r>u|hrrn wttfao of Ihr 

- nnrt r 

mi-- ■" IBS .,"nd 

employed h) hlfn. ibo-ln* Ihr ».i[r. 
hour* nf «ork for «u(h rmjilni,, I 
Jul) «, 1*11.1 

See < Ion Sill, — The nmnunl nf dilTr. 
17. I*U brlarrfU ih, ■ ■«* I itr> i" 
plow rUuodara' .-.rc-rdinc to we 

-urh further la rft-r 
I i.n. . of Jul. 

flrn,, hul ,. ,, ,nlr.l In the hrl 

lama . la -. , t , pa, menu arm 

■Man || ihi. lime inithl .r.„t 


I It b ih-,1 the ; 

I rompli »ilh Ihr maxi 
f p.,- and ulhrr tondi 
.iM h, Ihr 1'rr.ldrnl 

r Ihr 


[to|| hour 111 pirrraorfc ruin. * 

n III — (si I m .ind aftfl Ihe efleeli.r dale, en 

Seehon \l. — It .h ,11 Ir onr of Ihr lun.tion of Ihr 1'lanning 
and Fall Prajcflr* ArrflCI pronded for in Serlmn II of Ihr 

ounrr.hip of home- in mill rlltnce* -.nd -ubm.t In Ihr Keroirry 

Admim-lrntion prior lo Jnnu..i. I, 1931. il- report in the 

mailer |.t. ..m.nd.d b) I ..tot...- Ord. t of Jar] I* Isni \VM_| \> ,mrnrl-d .,f-d rlfrrliir, Ifi Hill 

(Ij Thr lr,tilr I ,.hor Krl.i.nn- lioafd -h.ill appoint* lollon 

Tr.iiir \\o,l i., l[nmP1 ,i Itaarri. to hr nimpo-i of an Impartial 

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I numbri uf hnur. lo lini.h ihr I; 

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DON'T act hntlly. Make sur* you ara rl(ht. An un)u*t complaint if unfair to your employer and 
do** you no |fx>d 

REMEMBER that many |rle»ance* tan be b*tt tattled by folnj dlrett to your employer. 

BUT you may Intttad send all the facts to one of the following: 

1 Tastfla Labor Relation* Board, 910 Seventeenth St.. NVV., VVaihlntton, O.C. 

1. To your Slate NRA Compliance Director. iSee addraiiet on this potter, i 

3. OR (If net m lifted, to the Compliance Division ol the NRA, VYashlniton. D.C. 


Ser. .1. Thr Hoard ■« herein nuthur<.-rd .ind dir 

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oppi ciai c opy 





Administrative Order L. P. 14-6 

lArmoviD ummiii 24, uui 

Country Grain Elevator Industry 


(Granting Application for Exemptions from Provisions of Article IV, Sections 1 to 7 of Said Code) 

WHKKEAS, an application has been made by 
the Code Authority established pursuant to the 
Code of Fair Competition for the Country Grain 
Elevator Industry on behalf of various employers 
engaged in said industry, for ;i temporary exemp- 
tion from the provisions of Article IV, Sections 1 
to 7 of said Code: and 

WHEREAS, the Deputy Administrator has re- 
ported to me that an emergency exists in s;iid 
industry b\ reason of drought conditions, and it 
appears to my satisfaction that the exemptions 
hereinafter granted are necessary and will tend 
to effectuate the policies of Title I of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act; 

NOW THEREFORE, pursuant to authority 
vested in me as Division Administrator, it is here- 
by ordered that any employer in the drought area, 
as shown on the attached map published by the 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the Inited 
States Department of Agriculture and titled 

" Emergency and Secondary Drought Counties as 
of September 8, 19.'M", shall be exempted from 
said provisions as to all employees in towns and 
cities of less than ten thousand population, for a 
period often (1(1) months or until my further order, 
on the following conditions: 

1. That such employer shall submit to NRA, 

through the Code Authority, an agree- 
ment to pay his employees on a reason- 
able commission basis and a statement 
from any employee of his, hereby 
affected, that such basis is acceptable; 

2. That this exemption may, as to any- 

particular employer or employee, be 
terminated In the Division Adminis- 
trator, if. in his opinion, the foregoing- 
evidence fails to establish that the con- 
tinuance of such exemption will tend 
to effectuate the policies of said Act. 

Division Administrator. 


Emergency and Secondary Drought Counties 
Tt— — _^^ AS OF SEPT. 8. 193^ 


^^? ^&ffiffifflffiffl&i2fc' 

V **"*¥ s-fs 



%}M&Zffl(&& ^ — 



EH3 SectMcfary 


(This supplementary 

Poster must be displayed In addition to the officio, copy of labor pmMom for this Industry In all establishments 
located In the areas defined by this order) 




La traduction oflclal da acta aviso 

daba fljarta an alto vlslbla 

an lot 

tallara* donda las amplaadaa 

•on da 

haMa aspanola 

from the proper Insular Authority, a certificate authorizing hi* em- 
ployment at Much wages and for such hours as shall he stated in the 
certificate. Each employer shall file monthly with the Code Authority 
a list of all such persons employed hy him, showing the wages paid to, 
and the maximum hours of work for such employee. 

ARTICLE V — C.eneral I.abor Provisions 

1. No person under sixteen (IB) years of age shall he employed in 
the industry. No person under eighteen (1*) years of age shall be 
employed at operations or occupations which are hazardous in nature 
or detrimental to health. The (ode Authority shall submit to the 
Administrator not later than sixty (60) days after the effective date 
hereof, a list of such operations or occupations. An employer shall 
he deemed to have complied with this provision as to age if he shall 
have on file a certificate or permit duly issued hy the Authority in 
Puerto Rico empowered to issue employment or age certificates or 
permits showing that the employees are of the required age. 

2. (a) Employees shall have the right to organize and bargain col- 
lectively, through representatives of their own choosing, and shall be 
free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of labor, 
or their agents, in the designation of such representatives or in self- 
organization or in other concerted activities for the purpose of col- 
lective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection. 

(b) No employee and no one seeking employment shall be required 
ax a condition of employment to join any company union or to refrain 
from joining, organizing, or assisting a labor organization of his own 
choosing, and 

(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum hours of labor, mini- 
mum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment approved or 
prescribed by the President. 

3. No employer shall reclassify employees or duties of occupations 
performed or engage in any other subterfuge so as to defeat the pur- 
poses or provisions of the Act or of this Code. 

4. No provisions in this (ode shall supersede any law of Puerto 
Rico which imposes more .iringent requirements on employers as to 
age of employees wagco, hours of work, or as to safety, health or 
sanitary conditions or insurance, or fire protection, or general work- 
ing conditions, than are imposed by this Code. 

."». Each member of the industry shall be furnished by the Code Au- 
thority with official copies of the provisions of this (ode relRtine to 

8. The Administrator shall appoint a Commission, on or after the 
effective date of this (ode, to study the Community Work Room plan, 
and if that plan is not adjudged to he feasible to propose an alternate 
plan the object of which shall be to take from homes to Community 
Work Rooms or Factories as many homeworkers as practicable. The 
Commission shall report its findings on the Community Work Room 
or alternate plan within ninety (W) days after its first meeting. 

ARTICLE VI— Contractors 

1. No member of the Industry shall cause any goods to be manu- 
factured or processed in any factory not registered with the Code Au- 
thority in accordance with regulations to be issued by the Code Author- 
ity subject to the approval of the Deputy Administrator. 

2. All members of the Industry causing any goods to be manufac- 
tured by contractors or sub-contractors shall pay to such contractor 
or sub-contractor for such products, rates at least sufficient to enable 
such contractor or sub-contractor to pay their employees working on 
such goods the minimum wage provided for hy this (ode and all such 
payments received by such contractor or sub-contractor shall be first 
applied in the payment of wages to the employee working on such 

ARTICLE VII— Administration 

Organization, Powers, and Duties of the Code Authority 

8. Subject to such rules and regulations as may be issued by the 
Administrator, the (ode Authority shall have the following powers and 
duties in addition to those authorized hy other provisions of this Code: 

(f) To recommend to the Administrator any action or measures 
deemed advisable, including further fair trade practice provisions to 
govern members of the Industry in their relations with each other or 
with other industries; measures for industrial planning, and stabiliza- 
tion of employment; and including modifications of this Code which 
shall become effective as part hereof upon approval by the Adminis- 
trator after such notice and hearing as he may specify. 

(h) The Code Authority shall obtain from manufacturers lists of all 
contractors sub-contractors or delivery agents to whom they supply 
materials for processing or manufacture into products of the Industry, 
whether by such contractors, subcontractors or delivery agents or 
others; from contractors, lists of all sub-contractors to whom they sup- 
ply materials for such purposes; and from all members of the In- 
dustry, list* of every homeworker to whom they supply materials for 
such purposes including the address or best location possible of each 







Section 3 of Article III has been changed to read as follows: 

"3. The term ' Industry' includes all public carriers for hire by aircraft for passen- 
gers, and/or mail, and/or cargo on scheduled operations and services incidental thereto ,J, 
within the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the terri- > 
tories of Alaska and Hawaii, and such branches or subdivisions thereof as may, from 
time to time, be included by the President under the provisions of this Code, but does not 
include scheduled operations and/or services incidental thereto not within the several 
States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the territories of Alaska and 
Hawaii. (As amended and effective February 26. 1935.)" 

(Thin ntirkfl in to he attached to the ofnrial labor pnMcr for the Air Tran'rarl 1ndu«1rv in the «pnrc provided for official >.r> „)!<■• of amendment* 
am! addition*, t S. C.OMinmcnt Printing Office: 1?3».) 




Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Review. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 


The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
rials No^_ 1§, Con tents of Code His to ries , will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768 — 1 . 

set forth the origination of the codes, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planninf on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 


In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of ..ata (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work Materials No . 17, Tentativ e Ou tlines and Sum m arie s of 
Studies in Proc ess , the materials are fully described) . 

In dustry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Ecnomic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 


- Ill - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade P ractic e S tudies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 

Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 

Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 

Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 

Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 

Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 

Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 

Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 

Price Control in the Coffee Industry 

Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control in the Ice Industry 

Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 

Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 

comparision with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labo r Studie s 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-35 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homewor<.ers Survey 

Administrativ e S tudie s 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exeaptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 


- IV - 

Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 
Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the MRA in the Territories, The 
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 
Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Roemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltsred Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 



- V - 


The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of those studies 

Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 
Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 

Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
Wool Textile Industry 


This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768 — 5. 

- VI - 

Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Suprly Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing- Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Paint, Varnish, ana Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 


The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
so] idate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be carec for under other 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review.