(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Work materials ..."

rJiSmm 



9(-937/. I A 33 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



WAGE TRENDS IN PROSPERITY AND DEPRESSION 
PRIOR TO NRA 

By 

J. M. Hunter 



(A Section of Part C: Control of 'Wages) 



WORK MATERIALS NO. 45 
THE LABOR PROGRAM UNDER THE NIRA 



/)^t^ 



Work Materials No. 45 falls into the following parts: 



Part A 
Part B 
Part C 
Part D 
Part E 



Introduction 

Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Control of Wages 

Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Section 7 (a) of the Recovery Act 



LABOR STUDIES SECTION 
March, 1936 



mvn:B^z..--u.:^- 



mis.s^m& 



^^pg-jV^ir' "to to 



.tiHr-H 



s.tisq gst^'St't^' 



■.|fi?4SS!/0i';35. 






Sn&m>pl^pS> "'^' -so 



fCJ.Jj ■!?"i6Y'-;-, 



0""7ICI1 O:? ":-^TIO XL -^.XG' ^:^r.Y ADIillllSTPATIOIT 
Division C7 KSVim 



"7AC-S T?>E:-DS I" ?-^.0SPi:5ITY ^dTD DEPBESSIOl 
P^IO~: TO IT^ 

J. I-.'. Eunter 



LA:Tj?. STUDIES SECTIOi: 
;;?rcli, 1936 



9851 



0. 8. UBR/WY OF OONQRESI 
NOV 30l95'a 



r :v :^ "■' c :~: D 

T^"ie "Stiic'y of ^Irr.e Trencs in ProPT?rity ^nd De-oression Prior 
to ITRA" war. -oTeiPre/A 'oy ,Ir. <J. 'i. "imter of t>-e LaL)or Studies Section, 
Mr. Solomon Bf.rlcin in ch^.rce. It ir; a. critical svi'aa'-rj^ oased on 
secorAcv:/ rr.ther than -orinr.r';'' sources aiid is intended to serve as a, 
"bac'c'.TOimd to the extensive and detailed "oresentation of conditions xmder 
t-ie I'IRA. in V/orh l>terials To. Nine, "-Tages and T'otirs in American Industrj''"i 

Dr ta for the -leriod 1909-1923 are com-oara'ble onlj' in li.nited re- 
s-Tectr. v.'ith t'~.ose available for the -ocriod^ 19?9-19"3 so that ChaT)ters I 
pnd II rre essenti.^lly inde~)endent studies. In A-opendix II cnich of the 
availahle .^aterirl necessrrj'' for a detailed ezaini nation of conditions e".- 
isti;. _■ -Tr.-or to the iT"LA are -^resented for the ijur'oose of furnishing a 
com-oreh.ensive inde" of conditions as revealed fi'om -ouLlished sources. 

At the oach of th.is re-'jort "'ill "be found a hrief statement of 
the studies undertaken hy the Division of Review, 



L. C. harshall 
Director, Division of Heview 



March 35, 1956 



-1- 



Table g? cgptehts 

page 
CHAPTER I. Wage Movements - 1909 to 1928 1 

I . Average Earnings Per Hoiir 3 

II. Average Full.1 Time Enrnings Per Week 4 

III. Average Annual Enrnings 8 

IV, Cost of Living 11 

V . Heal Ea rnings 18 

CHAPTER II. Wage Movements - 1929 tc 1933 21 

I. Average Earnings Per Hour 21 

II. Average Earnings Per Week 26 

III. Average Earnings Per Year 30 

IV. Uneraijloyraent 32 

V. Earnings "by Industries, States, and 

Classes of La tor 32 

APPENDIX I. Metncdology and Additional Research Needed 33 

APPENDIX II.— TABLES •. 34 

PART I — GENERAL TABLES 

Tatle 1 Trend of Average Earnings per Hour, "by Industry 

and Sex 35 

Table 2 Trend of Average Full-time Earnings per Week, "by 

Industry and Sex 38 

Ta'ble 3 Trend of Average Actual Earnings per Week, by 

Industry and Sex 40 

Table 4 Average Annual Earnings of Full-time Workers only: 

Retail Trades, by Kind of Business, 1929-1933..,. 42 

Table 5 Unskilled Street Labor - Wage Rates per Hour, by 
City Number Distribution; October 1928-December, 
1932 43 

Table 6 Federal and High^vay Projects; Common Labor - Aver- 
age Wage Rates per Hour by Region; 1929 to 1931, 
and Jamiarir to Qctober, 1932 44 

Table 7 Average Entrance Wage Rates per Hour for Adult 

Male Common Labor, in 13 Industries; July of each 
Year, 1926 to 1933 45 

Table 8 Louisiana; Common and Semi-Skilled Labor; Wage 

Rates per Day by Class of Labor, 1929 - 1931 46 

9851 -ii- 



Page 
Tatle 9 Minnesota: Average Wages iDer Week, "by Industry; 

Years Ending June 3C, 1931 and 1932 47 

Ta"ble 10 New York State Factories; Average Earnings xjer 

Week; 1929 to 1933 T 49 

Table 11 Ohio; Average Annual Earnings of ViTago Earners (a), 

by Industries; 1929 to 1932 50 

Table 12 Ohio; Average Annual Earnings in 14 Manufacturing 

Industries; 1929 to 1932 56 

Table 13 Ohio; Average Annual Earnings in Non-Manufacturing 

Industries; 1929 to 1933 57 

Table 14 Virginia: Q,uarries - Average Wages per Hour, by 

Occupation and Hace , 1931 58 

Part II- INDUSTRY TABLES 6® 

Table 15 Air Transportation Industry - Ground Personnel 

Average Earnings by Sex, 1931 - 1933 61 

Table 16 Anthracite Coal Mining; Average Earnings, by 

Occupation 1924 - 1931 62 

Table 17 Autoracbile Tire Industry; Average Annual Earnings; 

1929 - 1931 63 

Table 18 Bituminous Coal Mining, Allegheny District; Average 
Earnings per Half Month, by Occuoation; last half 
of May, 1931, and a T:rnical Half Month in 1929 64 

Table 19 Bituminous Coal Industry: Trend of Average Earnings 

per Hour, by Occupation; 1929-1931-1935 65 

Table 20 Bituminous Coal Mining: Earnings per Hour, Miners 

and Non-Miners; Nu-nber Distribution; 1929 - 1933.... 66 

Table 21 Boot and Shoe Industry; Trend of Average Earnings, 

1928-193C-1932 67 

Table 22 Bus Transportation Industry; Average Earnings, by 

Sex J"uly, 1933 68 

Table 23 Cane-Sugar Refining Industry; Earnings per Ho^lr, by 

Sex, Percent Distribution, 1930 69 

Table 24 Cane Sugar Refining Industry: Average Earnings, by 

Sex - 1930 70 

Talile 25 Average Earnings Per Hour in New England and South 
Atlantic States, by Occupation and Sex - 1928-1930- 
1932-July, 1933. Cotton Goods Manufacturing 71 



9851 



-111- 



Page 
Table 26 Electric Rail'Tavs nnd Motor Busses; Average Annual 

S=?rnings by Cccunations - 1927-1333 72 

Table 27 Po^jndries: Averr:?:e Ef^rnin^s, by Sex; 1929-1931-1933. 73 

Table 28 P-urniture Industry; Avernp:e Z'^rninfTS, by Sex; 

1929-1931 ^ 74 

Table 29 Purniture Ma nuf picturing Industry: Distribution of 

Earnings per Hour, 7 Occupation, by Sex; 1929-1931... 75 

Table 30 Gasoline Filling Station Industry: Average Earnings - 

1931 76 

Table 31 Glass Industry: Average Earnings, by Department of 

Industry, and by Sex, 1932 77 

Table 32 Gray Iron Foundry Industry: Average Vifa^e Rates per 
Hour by Occupation; February, 193^; August, 193*^; 
Febr-'JrTry, 1931; and October, 1931 78 

Table 33 High'^ay Construction: Average Wage Rates ner Hour 

on Emergency and i\[on- emergency Projects by Occupation 

and Geographic Division - August, 1933 79 

Table 34 Hosiery Industry: Average Earnings, by Sex; 1930- 

1932 83 

Table 35 Iron and Steel Industry; Average Earnings, by Depart- 
ments: 1929 - 1931 - 1933 84 

Table 36 Iron and Steel Industry: Earnings Tjer Hour, Male 

Laborers and all Wage-Earners: Number and Per cent 
Distribution; 1931 85 

Table 37 Laundries: New EaraTJshire: Average Wage Rates and 
Earnings of Women and Minors, by type of Laundry, 
June, 1933 37 

Table 38 Leather Industry; Average Earnings, by Sex; 1932 88 

Table 39 Machine Shops; Average Earnings, by Sex; 1929-1931- 

1933 89 

Table 4'^ Metalliferous Mining Industry: Average Earnings; 1914 

- 1931 90 

Table 41 Men's Clothing Industry: Average Earnings, by Sex; 

1930 _ 1932 91 

Table 42 Motor Truck Transportation Industry: Average Earn- 
ings by Sex; July, 1933 92 

Table 43 Motor Vehicle ManuJ'acturing Industry: Average Earn- 
ings, by Sex; 1928 - 1930 - 1932 93 

9851 -iv- 



Page 
Table 44 Motor Vehicle Re-oair Gerf^ge Industry: Average 

Eprnin^s, 1931 94 

Table 45 pctterj Industry; Aver^^re E'U'ninj;::s -ocr Hf^ur by Sex 

and Kind cf W-- re - 1925-1333 95 

Table 46 Portlpnd Cement Industry; Avern^e Earnings, by 

Sex; 1929 - 1932 96 

Table 47 Petroleum Industry, Pipe-Line Branch; Average 

Tifage Hates per Hour, liy Occupation; May, 1929 - May, 

1933 97 

Table 48 Eailroads; Average Annual Earnings of all Enrolcy- 

ees, excluding Executives; 1929-1931-1932-1953 98 

Table 49 Hailroads; Earnings ner Week up to $21.94 _ Number 

Distribution, November, 1933 99 

Table 50 Rayon and Other Synthetic Yarn Manufacturing; Aver- 
age Earnings , by Sex; 1930-1932 100 

Table 51 ShiT)ping, iunerican Steam and Motor Cargo Vessels of 
5000 Gross Tons and Over; Average Monthly Wage 
Rates, by Position; January 1, 1929 - January 1, 
1932-Jsnusry 1 , 1933 101 

Table 52 Silk and Rayon Industry: Earnings per Hour, by Sex 

and Region; Number Distribution; August, 1933 102 

Table 53 Silk and Hayon G-oods Industry; Average Earnings, by 

Sex; 1931 - 1933 103 

Table 54 Slaughtering and Meat-Packing Industry; Average 

Earnings, by Sex; 1929-1931 134 

Table 55 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry; Average Earn- 
ings , by Sex; 1930 - 1932 105 

Table 56 Underwear Industry: Average Earnings, by Sex; 1930 

- 1932 106 

Table 57 Women's Dress Industry; Connecticut; Earnings per 
Week; Number and Per cent Distribution; 2 Selected 
Weeks, 1933 107 

Table 58 Woolen and Worsted Goods Industry; Average Earn- 
ings by Sex, 1928 - 1930 - 1932 108 

Table 59 Woolen and Worsted C-oods Manufacturing Industry; 
Earnings per Hour, by Sex; Number and Per cent 
Distribution; 1930 - 1932 109 



9851 



-v- 



page 
Tatle 60 Hourly Wage Rntes cf Ferasle Snpiloyees Shortly Before 
Addition of Codes Under the Ilational Industrial 
Recovery Act in StPte cf Minnesota Ill 

Table 61 Hourly Wage Hates of Male Emoloyees Shortly Before 
Adoption of Codies Under the Notional Industrial 
Recovery Act in State of Minnesota 112 

Table 62 Weekly Earnings of ]?emale Em;oloyees Shortly Before 
Adcntion of Codes Under the National Industrial 
Recovery Act in State of Minnesota 113 

Table 63 Weekly Earnings cf Male Employees Shortly Before 

Adoption of Codes Under the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act in State of Minnesota 114 



9851 



-VI- 



GEL:ti:zi I 



■;VAGE I:0V3I.:S:iTS - I909 to 192S 

In order to psti;irte tlii^ e:"fects o.: core va^'e provisions and 
evaluate the na';;e trends of the code periods, it is necessar;,' first 
to r.ra~ as clear a picture as possible of prior rrrfe noycnents, 00th 
du.rin;; the depression "ears of 1929, 1930, 1931 » ^932 and 1933 1 ^'■^- 
d-urin;; the period of erpansion fror. I909 to 192c. ' It is -dth the 
earlier "oeriod that this cha'oter is concernec". . 



The picture for this period 
nents of avera-':c hourl" earnir.'-G, 



.in 



viil oe dr:v7n 03^ tracing; the iiove- 
., avera::e full-tine -'sehl^r earnin^-s, 
and average annual earnin,":s. These fi.-ures of none;/ earnin-s '^ill 
then be corrected for chani:;^es in the cost of livin,';, in order to she-.? 
changes in the real incone o:"^ lahor andin la-oor's pxirchr.sin-^' po'"'cr. 



The ririncinal sou:.ces of the vi^.ta on avera.';;e none;' earnin,, ;? to 
'be presented aro "::ieal :Ja-es in the United States, 13v6-lS2b" by Paul 
:I, Dou£:laG, (*) anc". ""'he hovoncnt o: hone;" and 2ea.l Ha-rnin^js in the 
United States, 192o-2G", by Pa-J.1 ". Dou.'vlas and JTlorence T. Jennison, 
The cost of livi-;V inde:: fif.Tiros Uf:-o: for the ^/csx prccedin;;;; 1913 3-re 
those of DoU:7las, anc., for subseouent :'oa.rs, those of tne 3u.rea\x of 
Lr.bor Statistics, revised aso:^ Se ;-■'••■:: fjer, 1933* 



TAILS I 

AVE2AG-3 HOUfLY I^AniTIlJGS (a) 
or -.IJLOYZI) ^ACrS-EAElJEHS III ALL IlSUSTllT (b) 
1903 - 1923 



•■■ ■^ • •• —-' 


Av 


era^e Iloiir] 


- . 


P.elative 


Avera^ye Eourl;- 


Re 


lative 








Sarnin:":s 




Ilarninr.'fi 




EaaT.in^s 


Ee 


rnings 




irAR 


(in dollars") 


(1 


^]_;j^QO 


X iliA. A 


( 


in 


dollars) 


(1 


91U-IOO 




1909 




.2S2 




gf; 


1919 






.55s 




177 




1910 




r\rli- 




SI 


1920 






;6ss 




21s 




1911 




.293 




>-* 


1921 






.SI40 - 




203 




1'12 




.302 




55 


1922 






.60G 




192 




1913 




.313 




9S 


1923 






.6S2 




209 




I91U 




,3lo 




100 • 


r^^2U 






:6S3 




215 




1915 




•313 




101 


19 2 f^ 










220 




1916 




.3'4S 




110 


1926 






.6s3(.c)(d) 




219(e) 




1917 




.39^ 




125 


1927 






.703(0 




225(e) 




1^13 




. U22 




153 


in2C 






.710(d) 




227(e) 





(.'■■')', Doa";las' conputations are believed to be bp-3ed upon nore coupre- 
hensive data than are any otliers a.va,ilable. 



9S5I 



(a) As corvDutet". for the -es-i-s ISOC^ to' Iff? ^5, i'lclv-r.ive, 'oy Paul :T. 

Dou-las ("Real -.Trees i:i tlic ^'nitec-. States, 1S50-1926" - pa^^e 2O5), 
and, for the j^ears ISSS, IS"^'?. ^-i^^'- lS2o, by Paul H. Douglas and.^ 
ITloronce T. JenniRon ("The hove'icnt of lione"/ anc" SeC-l Larninfjs in 
the United Statec, I32S-2C;" pr':e 'jj). 

(0) The ter^i "--a-e earners in all inc-rastr;-" as usee", here, includes: 

(1) enployees in the follQvin.; nanufa-cturin-; imVo.s trier.: slau^-jh- 
tcrin.^- and neat-pachin.;:; Woolen; cott:)n; hosier:'- anc' hnit cook's; 
Lien's cDothin;'-; iroii and steel; lu.doer an(, tinoer products (sa\7- 
mills anf. planin : riills) ; hootn anc", s:iOGr, ; "booh and job printini^-; 
nevrspaper printin,;;; ;:.:ranite and stone; bahin^'-; netal trades; (2) 
emplo3^Ges in the buildin-' trades; (3) enrolo-ees In the anthracite 
anc" bitu-i incus coal ininin;-: industries; ('l-) unE^-:illed labor in 
general; and (5) federal f-overn^ent e-roloyeos (in e::.ecutive de- 
• part'tents in Trrshin^itor-, D. C. , and postal -.'orh-ers) . 

(c) The a.vera-:e hourl" earnin;-;p :"nr this year ^.7ere oricinall"- .^iven 
b;- Dou:;las as $.712 ("heal TTa- es in t"ic United States, 1C;S0-1S26", 
paj-^o 205). The difference bet-'een this fiparc and the revision 
is explp-ined by Doufias and Jeniii^on an arisin-; fror.i the fact 
that the latter T.'as obtained b;" interpolation- -frou the 152? 
Census data, ^'hereas the for;:ier rar; constrncted by erctrapolation 
fron data collected prior to I525 ("hove:iont of hone'; and Heal 
Earnincs in the United States, I52S-2S", paf^je 1, footnote). 

(d) Despite the s.pecific stateuont in the T^reface to the article by 
Dourjlas and Jennison the.t "the fiijures presentee! here p.re compa- 
rable to those in Paul 11. Douylas' booh "P.e.'il 'Jp'^-es in the United 
States, lS50-1^2o", there a;opears to be soue possiblity that this 
fii':;'are is not strictly conparr.ble -vith the estinates of earnings 
given for the years I903 to IS25. In conbininy the average hourly 
earnings per '^age-earner in erch of the selected industries and 
classes of labor into conpositc averages for each of the years 
from lv03 to I32I;, inclusive, -iven in this Table, Douglas '-'eigh- 
ted tne earnings in each industry and class according to the 
number of employees in ■ each in loSO, but in conpf.ting the a,verage 
"for all incustry" for I926, 1527^ and 192o, the -.-eights \7er.e .. 
based on 192S emplej^ient. The popsibility of error in the series 
as a \7hole resulting froi.i this disparity of method is evident. 

(e) It v,'ill be noted that this inderc number (i.7hich is as given by 
Doxiglas and Jennison) , surori singly/, is not quite the quotient of 
the hourlj- earnin'js :"or the srne :year divided by the hor!.rly eexn- 
in:gs for .19"'-'-!-, e-s given in this Table. It is used none the less 
for the reason that there is no "yay of kno'iing erzactlj'' ho'.7 the 
hourly earnings for 191^ used in this calculation uere not those 
of the Table, perhaps being co;iputec', ''o-j use o.~ '7ei"hts based on 
152s employ.nent (see footnote (d) above). 

A '7ord o"^ '7P.rning is necessary '-'ith re.gard to the reliability of 
the statistics presented in this cha,-oter and in all otiiers of this 
paper. The basic data used, i.7hile the most accurate obtainable, are 
so disconnected and frarcnentary, based on such unre-^resentative sa-.Tol- 

9S5I 



-3- 

iiif] and inconclusive r.ssvi:ptionn am". req-a.irin' such qucstion?."ble splic- 
in.;; and interpolation to piece tlie. i tor;atn£i', th?.t allo'jance for error 
nust constantly je :irde. Tliir. ir :a;.-ticalarl;,- trae o" cost of livinr^ 
inde:-es, More especial'.;- prior to 1C13> s.:vl, conser^^uentl;', of data on 
real na^ec e.nd e.p.rnin"f. "jaced t'lcreun. 

Des-oite thepe statisticrl deficiencies, the conclusions readied 
are oelieved to "oe of definite vrlue ar. reflecting the changes in the 
wnll-being of Inljor. 

I. AvsnA-G-E Eii2iyi::c-s p::::^ ^loun 

Ta.hle 1 sho-r'z the p.'.-erar;e hoarl;/ earnings (*) of 'vage earners in 
selected ■•nanufactii.rin'': and no n-nanafacturing industries as a 'Thole for 
each 2-ear fro.n l^^CJ to IS^E, inclusive. In addition, the inderr nunliers 
or" chan'ies in average hoiirl;' ear:"..in .-r- , oa a Ipl'r Ijase, are presented. 

Accordin • to thin Ta"jle, the averrge none:/ earnings per hour for 
rrage-earnfei'.-s in a representative sa.i.ile of all Industry increased fron 
$,2S2 in 130s to O.3I0 in ISl^!-, a gain o;' 12. U^, and tiien more than 
doubled durin'.; tne "Jo rid T7ar and the years i i;:ediotel,-r folio-ring, ris- 
ing fro-i $.516 in 151>4- to O.SSS in 1:'20, a gain of liy.y^l. 

This advance -.'ap, hrdted raoncntarily "r- the I32I depression, 
hourly earnings frllinj off slightly fr;a the 1520 high, to $.60S in 
1922, a loss of 11.6;i. After 1922, the ac':vance \fas resuned ?.nd conti- 
nued steadily to 15-'-"» thoU; ;h at a noderrte pace. The total gain for 
this -oeriod, fron the O.'oOS firure in 1^22 to $.710 in 1922, nas lo.y^ 

Co'nsidering the oerioc. of e;:pa-nsioh as a v;hole, it is found that 

avera.ge co.rniugs per hor.r of ■'.:.ra,-e~earners in I32S vere over tv70 and 

one-half tir.ics as great as they -Tcre in 1905' " a total gain of 151.S^. 
( ¥**'^ ■ . . ■ 

Before acce'cting tliese conclusio'ns, the critic;is:is levelled at 
thci "b;- Leo w'olijan (****) shoiild he- e:va;;iinsd. 

Wolman suggests, among other th.i-ng?. , that e::aggerated -reight has 
"been atte,ch-Gd hy Douglas to unio'n '.'age rates in the ccaputation of 
average earnings in manufacturing industries, thus shoeing such earn- 
ings aliove their tm.e levels and conceaJ.ing the a.ct-aal nagnitude of 
their novenents. 

(*) j?or the nost pr.rt the drta avrilahle are in the forri of hourlj'' 

earnings rather than ho^arly •vage rrtes. 

(**) Atte-ntion is called to th.e use- of slightlj;' different nethods in 

compiitin^; the I909-I925 fifTires and those for 192o (see foot-note (d) 

to Tahle l). 

(***) See footnote inuediately preceding. 

(****) See his "Anerican 7ages" in the "Q^arterl"- Journal of EconB- . 

nics"", .•'5'c'brar.ry, 1932. 



gg^i 



-4- 

The validitj- of this critici:'.u r.ia^ je tested Iv' conparing the 
computations of averaj-je earni^-^is per hour in all Industries for the 
year I92I to I52S nade ''D^^olnan -ith those of Do-aG'las. These are 
presented in Ta^ole II. So far as levels of average earniiY;s per hour 
are concerned, Dou::las' averc;:^-es are sonchat hi.-;]',er tha»n 'Tolnan' s, liut, 
vith respect to the- nr^^ni'tude of the novener.ts of these levels, the 
difference intae inde:: mr.foei-s of chr.n;^:e frou 1?21 to I92S, as estima- 
ted "by these t-'o authorities, is relatively ne.';li."-i Jle, onlj' 1.3 points. 

II. AVSSAG2 FULL TIiII] SAIIrlllTaS PZ2 I7EEI; 

Taole III fjives the avera2,'e full tine earninfjs per -^eelc of •aa-rje- 
-earners in selected nanufacturinfj and non-r.ianuf£i.ctii.rin;'y industries as 
a vhole (*), for each year f ron iQCg to 1925, inclusive, and shows in ad- 
dition, the percentage changes from a 191H "base in index num"bers. 



coi.iPAiiiso:: o's ^''iiSAZ-i: EAiJiiirG-s pes houz data 

01 DOUGLAS A; ID UOLiA.::; 

1921 - 152s 







• 








YEAR 


Douglas (a) 


VJolnan Co) 


Douglas 1 


i T/olman 




1921 


$.6Uo • 


$. oOS 


100.0 : 


100.0 




1922 


.60s 


. 5S2 


SKC : 


35-1 




1923 ■ 


.662 


.62^ 


103. U : 


102.6 




I92U 


.683 


.6UG 


106.7 : 


106.6 




1925 


.696 


.652 


lOS.S : 


107.2 




1925 


.686 


.660 


107.2 : 


■ 10S.6 




1927 


.703 


.669 


109. U : 


110.0 




1922 


,710 


.5g2 


110.9 : 


112.2 





(a) Talien fron Ta"ble I. 

("b) Ta]:en fron Leo Uolnan's report to the liay, 1930 Conference on 

Iternational \7age Conparisons at Geneva, contained in "Interna- 
tional 'Jage Coiiparisons, " 3u.lletin IJo. 22 of the Social Science 
Research Council, June, 1932, pages 2Ul ~ 262. 



(*) This sa.iple of all Indus try, ht?>s a "broader scope fnan that used 
in determining average hourly earnings, since it includes fam la"bor, 
seamen, rail^a-'- employees, puolic school tea,chers, and Cohgregational 
and I.;etho6.ist ministers. 



JS51 



-5- 

Tliese avera^^es are weighted combinations of avera^-e hourly earn- 
ings in 25 manufacturing industries coral) ined (National Industrial 
Conference Board: "Wages in the United States"), average hourly 
earnings in Class I, steam railroads (Computations of National 
Industrial Conference Board, based on the montlily reports of the 
Interstate Conunerce Commission: "Wage Statistics of Class I 
Steam Eoads in the United States"), avei'age wage rates per hour 
in 17 building trades in 23 cities (National Industrial Conference 
Board: "Wages in the United States", based on rates published 
monthly by "The Merican Contractor"), and average hourly earnings 
in bitiuainous coal mines (United States Department of Labor Bureau 
of Labor Statistics: "Special Bulletins" and "Monthly Labor Re- 
view" - September, 1929). 

TAoLE III 



AVERAr^E FLTLL.TIMS WEEICLY EAPJTTITOS (a) 
OF EMPLOYED 7AaE-E;j&IZRS IN ALL INDUSTRY (b); 
1909 - 1928 







Average Weekly 


Relative 


> 


Averag 


e Weekly 


Relative 




EaiTiings 


Earnings 


I 


Earn 


ingu 


Earn ing s 


YEAR 


(In dollars) 


(1914-100) 


: YEAR 


(In dollars) 


(1914-100) 


1909 


13.41 


90 


1919 


26.29 




176 


1910 


13.68 


92 


19;-jO 


• 31.67 




212 


1911 


13.89 


93 


1931 


,28.63 




192 


1912 


14.34 


96 


: 19 22 


28.07 




188 


1913 


14.79 


99 


• 1925 


30.39 




: 204 


1914 


14.91 


100 


1924 


30.96 




208 


1915 


15.14 


.102 • 


1925 


31,72 




213 


1915 


16.45 


110 ■ 


1926 


31.38 


(c) (d) 


210 


1917 


18.78 


125 


1927 


32.10 


(d) 


215 


1910 


23.13 


155 


: 1928 


32.45 


(d) 


218 



(a) As computed for the years 1908 to 1925, inclusive, 'oj Paul H. 
Dotiglas ("Real Wsges in the United States, 1890-1926", page 2ll), 
and, for the years 1926, 1927, and 1928, by Paul K. Douglas and 
Florence T. Jennison, ("Kie Movement of Money and Real Earnings in 
the United States, 1926-28," page 44). 

(b) The term "wage earners in all industry" as used here, includes: 
(l) employees in the foUowinv; manufacturing industries; slaugh- 
tering and meat-packing; woolen; cotton; hosiery and loiit goods; 
men's clothing; iron and steel; lumber and timber products 
(sawmills and planing mills); boots tmd shoes; book and job print- 
ing; newspaper printing; granite and stone; balcing; and metal 
trades; (2) employees in the building trades; (3) employees in the 



9851 



-e- 



These averages are weighted combinations of average hourly earnings 
in 25 manufacturing industries combined (National Industrial Conference 
Board: "Wages in the United States"), avera.^e hourly earnings in 
Class I, steam railroads (Computations of National Industrial Con- 
ference Board, "based on the monthly reports of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission: "Wage Statistics of Class I Steam Roads in the 
United States"), average wage rates per hour in 17 "building trades 
in 23 cities (National Industrial Confer, once Board: "Wages in the 
United States", "based on rates pu"blish8d nonthly ty "The American 
Contractor"), and average hourly earnings in "bituminous coal mines 
(United States Department of La"bor, Bureau of La"bor Statistics; 
"Special Bulletins" and "Monthly Later Review" - September, 1929). 

TABLE III 



AVERAGE FULL - TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS (a) 
OF EIvEPLOYED WAGS-EARNERS IN ALL INDUSTRY (b); 
1909 - 1928 





Average Weekly 


Relative 




Average Weekly 


Relative 




Earnings 


Earnings 




Earnings 


Earnings 


YEAR 


(in dollars) 


(1914=100) 


YEAR 


(in dollars) 


(1914-100) 


19C9 


13.41 


90 


1919 


26.29 


176 


1910 


13.68 


92 


1920 


31.67 


212 


1911 


13.89 


93 


1921 


28.63 


192 


1912 


14.34 


■ 96 


1922 


28. C7 


188 


1913 


14.79 


' 99 


1923 


3C.39 


204 


1914 


14.91 


100 


1924 


30.96 


200 


1915 


15.14 


102 : 


1925 


31.72 


213 


1916 


16.46 


110 : 


1926 


31.38(c)(d) 


210 


1917 


18.78 


126 


1927 


32.10(d) 


215 


1918 


23.13 


155 : 


1928 


32.45(d) 


218 



(a) As computed for the years 1908 to 1925, inclusive, by Paul H. 
Douglas ("Real Wages in the United States, 1890-1926", page 
211), and, for the years 1926, 1927, and 1928, by Paul H. 
Douglas and Florence T. Jennison, ("The Movement of Honey and 
Real Earnings in the United States, 1926-28," page 44). 

(b) The terra "wage earners in all industry" as used here, ' includes: 
(1) employees in the following manufacturing industries: 
slaughtering and meat-packing; woolen; cotton; hosiery and 
knit goods; men's clothing; iron and steel; lumber and timber- 
products (sawmills and pinning mills); boots and shoes; book 
and job printing; newspaner printing; granite and stone; baking; 
and metal trades; (2) employees in the building trades; (3) em- 
ployees in the 



9851 



-7r- • 

antl.racite and DituainouG coal uinin,':- inciustries; (U) unskilled 
laDor in -eneral; (r) federal r"overnnent employees in the execu- 
tive departments in ■Jasliin/;'-ton, D. C, and postal rrorkei-s; (6) 
tro.nsportation ''or'-.ers (seanen a-nd vsAVne-y employees); (7) fam 
latior; (S) puolic school teachers; and (9) ninisters (Congrega- 
tional and Ilethodist). 

(c) The averap^e full-tine T/eekl;- earnini^-s for this year nere origina- 
lly given Ly Douglas as $32.39 ("Heal Wages in the United States, 
1230-1326", page 211). The difference "oet^veen this figare and 
the revision is explained lij Douglas and Jennison as arising from 
the fact that the latter v/as Detained "by interpolation fron the 
1327 Census data, -jherea-s the foruer ras constructed liy extrapo- 
lation fron data collected prior to 132b ("iiovenent of Honey and 
Heal Earnings in t"ie United States, I326-2S" - page 1, footnote). 

(d) Despite the specific statement in the preface to the article "oy 
Douglas anc'- Jennison that "tlie figures presented here . . . are 
couparalile to those in Paul H, Dougla--,' "book, "Real 'Jages in the 
United States, IS3O-I32S," there aopears to "be sone pos5i"bility 
that this figure is not strictly co"ros.ra"ble ^-dth the estimates 
of earnings given for the ye?.rs I303 to 132 5. In conliining the 
average full-tine \7eekly earnings per v:age-carner in each of the 
selected industries and classes of la"bor into the co-'iposite aver- 
ages for eacn of the yearc froia I303 to I325, incl^^^,ive, given in 
this Tr"ble, Douglas y;eig"-ited the earnings in each industry and 
class according to the n"cj!i"bsr of enplo3''ees in each in each year, 
"but in conpuitin-; the averages for "all industry" for I926, 1927» 
and 132s, the weights -'ere "based on I52S enploTtient. This dis- 
parity of method is not so great as that involved in the deter,.ii- 
nation of the relative importance of industries and cls.sses of 
la"bor during the I309 - I325 period "by the use of IS90 emplo^Tnent 
veights (see footnote (d) to Ta"blc l), for the reason- that there 
rras less- shifting of employees fron inrustr'r to industry and 
class during the three year pcriof from 1325 to 1928 than during 
the thirty-eight year perioc frO;! iSqO to I32S. 

According to thii-, Ta"ble, average, full-tine 'Teekl' earninr';s in- 
creased 11.2fj fron 1903 to ISlU (fron $13. Ul to $li:-.5l) and 112. Uf^ from 
131U to 1320 (fron $lU.Sl to $31.67), decreased 11.^)^ fron I32O to 1322 
(fron $31.67 to $2o.07), and, finally, increased I3.65J fron I922 to the 
end of the perioc- (fron. $2G.07 to $32. U5). So far as the period as a 
v'hole is concerned, the total gain fron I5O3 to 132o vras lUl.9/0. 

In each perioc., tlie i'lcrease in average full-tine 'jeekl;' earnings 
Tra.s slightly sms-ller tha/n the corresponding increa..se in average hourly 
earnings. (*) Other things "being erual, this is e:jgpla-ined loy the rapid 
driinutio;! in the period as a ^7:'iole in tlxe a,verage length of file 
full-time i/orking v/eek fron 3U.3 hovirs in I909 to U5.2 hours in I92S - 
a reduction of 9.3^. (**) 



(*) See Tal)le V. 

(**) See Douglas' "Real Wages in the United States, IS3O-IS26", 

page 20s. 



)251 



III. AVEEAGE AlfimAL EAHi^INGS 

Taole IV presents a third measure of changes in the material 
rrealfare of labor, average earnin,-js per uace-ea-rner in selected uanu- 
facturin./y and non-nantifacturin;; industries as a whole, (*) for each 



T.OLElj/. 



A7S3ilG-E AiCIUAL EARiTIHGS (a) 
OE Ei-IPLOYED iTAGE-EAIffiEllS IJT ALL liSUSTSY ("b) 

I9O9-I92S 





Jiveragc Annu.al 


EelPtive 




Average Annual 


Helative 




Earnin'i;s 


Earn in.- 


;s 




Earnings 


Earnings 


YEAR 


(in dollars) 


(1Q1U;=] 


.00) 


YIAR 


(in dollars) 


(191U.^100 


1303 


5^3 


S7 




1313 


1201 


192 


1510 . 


57U 


9? 




1320 


1U07 


22U 


1311 


575 


32 




1921 


1233 


197 


1312 


592 


9U 




1922 


1201 


192 


1313 


621 ■ 


99 




1923 


1239 


207 


I31U 


627 


100 




IS2U 


1303 


20 s 


1315 


633 


101 




1925 


1336 


215 


1916 


70s 


■113 




1326 


1375(c) (r) 


219 


1.917 


• S30 


132 




1527 


1375(d) 


213 


I5ig 


10U7 


157 




1325 


lU05(d) 


22U 



(a) As computed for the years I903 to 1925, inclusive, . 1)7 Paul H. 
Dou-glas, ("IlGal T7ages in the United States, IG3O-I920", page 
332), and for the years I92S, 1927, and 1S2S, li:,- Peul 11. Doxiglas 
and Elorence T, Jennison^ ("The Ilovciient of Ilonej'' and ?ueal Earn- 
ings in the United States, 132o - 132o", pa/;e 27). 

(h) The term "\7age- earners in all industry", as used here, includes: 
(1) employees ,in the follo^7ing manufacturing industries: confec- 
tionery; "bread and ot>-er l)ahery products; 'dairy prodtict::; ('outter, 
cheese, and condensed milk); fxn:.it and vegetarole canning and pre- 
serving; slaughtering and neat-pac]:ihg; '-'ooleii and rrorsted; cot- 
ton; silh; hosiery and hnit goof^s; men's clothing; shirts; '-/omen'f 
clothing; iron and steel ("blast furnaces, steel -jorlts, rolling 
mills, foundries, pjid machine shope) ; fo.rm ec_uipment; electrical 
machinery; "brass, "bronze, and copper; silver ano -olated r;are; 
lum"b5r and tim"bcr products (sa^-Tiiils and planing mills) ;_ f'Arni- 
ture; ta.nned, curried and finished leather; "boots and shoes; 
tr-gjilcs and valises; saddler"'- and harness; 'oa-o er and -qix I-q; pa-oer 
(*)This sample of all industr-r is a :-.uch more representative one than 
that used in determininf; averr,;e fall-time -jeehl;'- earnings, due to 
inclusion of en-oloyccs in many more industries. (See footnote (o) 
to Ta-cle IV). 



9S5I 



-9-. 



lio::es; 1:ool: r.nd jjo") printin,;;; ne-vspapei' and periodical printing; 
petrole\r.i refinin^:;; dr^ij'j^jiats' preoarations (patent nedicines, 
perx\iier-..', cos/ieticr,, and toilet preparations) ; r'a.l)l)er fjoods; 
r.iarl.)le cnc. stone; clay pr;;cuctG; -^'lass; oevera,-;es ("beer and soft 
drinl:?.) ; tolDacco (cigars and cii'arets) ; ca,rria;'jes, na::ons and 
nrterials; railroad rollin;; stocl:; notor vehicles, (oodios and 
pprts); and (2) enployeen in the follovin'; p-a'olic utilities indus- 
tries: steaii railroads; street raili./ays, telephone, telei^raph, 
f'p.s, electricit;'; (3) '".'orh'err;, in the anthracite and hit"Lininov.s 
coal ninin/j industries; (U) salaried employees in inanufactixring 
and clevhs in rail'.-ays; (5) federal ;'^;overnr.ient enployees (in the 
executive departnents in TTashin^ton, 3. C, , a.nd nosta.1 norkers) ; 
(5) puolic. school teachers; (7) ninisters (liethodists and Con-yre- 
f-ational) ; and (c) fam lajor, 

(c) Avers.--e annual earnings for thi;' year -.Tere originally given hy 
Dour;las as $l,37b ("Heal Ua-es in. the United States, IS3O-IQ261', 
page 3S2). The difference liet-een t'lis fi::u.re and the revision 
is erplained lay I)ou/rlas and Jennison as a-risinr; from the fact that 
the latter ^7as oltained hy interpolation fron the 1527 Census da,ta, 
\7hereaE the former ra.s constructed "by c::trrpolation frci data 
collected prior to I92G ("i.Iovencnt of Honey and Real Earniiv:s in 
the United St.atcc, 1526-?u52S", pace 1, footnote). 

(d) Unlike the firurc for this year on avera^-e hourly carnin(-;s (see 
Trole I, footnote (d) and avei-a-ie full-tiue ueekly earnincr. (See 
Tahle III, footnote (d), this fi-urc does appear to he cornparahle 
vith the estiraates .::iven for the yearc VyO'y to I925. In conhin- 
ing the rverp.ge ennual er,rnin";s per vjaje-carner in each of the 
selected industries anf classes of laoor into the conposite 
averages for each of the years "ron 1S'09 to 132S, inclusive, 
given in this Tahle, the earniii,';s in each industry and class in 
each year, the sa.je method thus hein- used throughout. This uiii- 
fomity of method materially/ reduces any possioility of error in 
the series a.s a 'jhole. 



9251 



-IfU 

TA3LE V . 

CIlAiTGES IK HOUriY, rJLL-TIIH; ITEEIILY, 
AED ANITUAL lAIillUGS, C0iPA3I2); 
I9OS-I32S 



Percentage GhanQe Perceruage Change Percentage Change 
Period in Average in Average in Average 

Hourly Earnings Fall-Tine Ueel;!^- Annual Earnings 

(a) Earnings ("b) (c) 



1303-14 
lSlU-20 
1320-22 
1S22-2S 
1999-28 



-11.60 



-11, u^: 
/lUi.qf. 



-15. 5f^ 

/12U.U0 

-lU. Gfi 

/17.O0. 

/I59.lf^ 



(a) Conputed from Taljle I. 

(b) Conputed fron Talile III, 

(c) Conputed fron Taole IV. 



9S5I 



-11- 

yee-r fron 1SQ9 to lS2o, inclxisivG, r.nc slio''r>, in arV-ition, the "oercenta,ge 
changes frou a 191^+ jone, in incler: nii!i"oers. Tliene •■fi/p.irep. are as detemin- 
ec. V-- Paul H. DoT.V;:las for the I'ears ISO5 to 1525> inclv.sive, and "by the 
s',:ie r.iithority, in collaLoiT tion "ith li^^oroncc T. Jonnison, for the years 
lS2o to 192s, inclusive. 

The increases in annual earnin;-;s sho"/n "by this Table -'ere in each 
case greater than the corresponding increases in "both hotirlj' earnings and 
full-tine 'jeekly earnings. (*) It is found that average annual earnings 
per ■vage-earnor increased steadily fro'i $5'''"3 i^ IS^S to $6^7 in 191^ (a 
gain of 13. ^-f), to $1,U07 in I92O (a gain of 12^1.1+',:; over 191U) , and, 
after a decrease of lU.o^j to yi,20l in I922, to Ol.'lO^ in l^ZE (a gain of 
17',: over 1522). 

Looking at the period as a "jhole, it is seen that average actual 
annual earnings -per rra.ge-earner in Industry as a whole increased 159*^^ 
fro-J 1909 to 192s. 

IV. COST or LIVIITG 

iiOvenents of noney earnings curing this period of "business expansion 
and increasing prosperity are sho^n in suiaary forrl in Taole V, rrhich 
'.ial-:e3 it clear that the noveient is ;:eneral and whether .measured "by 
changes in average ho'o.rl:'', avcra,ge full-tine 'jeehly, or average annual 
earnings per wage-earner, was one of trei'icndous increase. Ho\;ever, due 
to changes in the purchasing po-:;er of the foliar, this increa.se in money 
wages and earnings cannot be considered as accuratel;'' reflecting the 
material progress of enployed labor. To avrive a.t a true appraisal, 
none3'- wages and earnings n\ist be defla-ted into dolla.rs of a constant p\ir- 
chasing power by the application of indez: n^jiibers representing changes in 
cost of living as neasured by retail p rices of consuners' goods. 

Studies of changes in the cost of living having been nade by several 
agencies a.nd indivicxials, it is necessary to ezcolain the choice as the 
basis for this conputation for tiie ;-ears after 1913> of the revised series 
of cost of living incex nuibers recently released by the Bureau q f Labor 
Statistics of the United States Depart lent .of Labor (**) and for the 
period froi'-i I9O9 to I913 of a series conpiled ''oy Paul H, Douglas. 

So fa.r a.3 choice of a. series for the 3-ears after I913 is concerned, 
the findings of Paul 11. Douglas vrere used to narrow the field to sone 
e::tent. (**♦) Doiiglac f.iscardcd the series prepared b;r the llassachusetts 
Co/Viiiission on the I):ecesr,arie5 of Life as too local in chara,cter and as 
possibly based on too lo\7 an estinate of prevailing prices, (****) and the 

(*) See Table V. 

(**) See publication of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, United. States 
Departnent of LCobor, entitled "P.evision of Inde:: of Cost of Goods 
Purcha,sed by ITa.ge- Earners anf. Lower-Salaried TJorkers," or a,rticle 
i-'ith sane title in the "Ilonthly Lcabor Peview", Septeuber, 1935* 

(***) See pages U£-R9, "Peal ",7ag;es in the United States, Ig90-192G. " 
(****) Ibid, page 50. 



-12- 

series determined "by the National Inc.ustrial Conference Hoard as suscept- 
Vole to error because "based on: (l) oata secured "bj the questionnaire 
netliod.; (2) orice' qixotations on too few articles in the clothing and mis- 
cellaneous groups; (3) reports ftpn different cities in differ jnt years; 
and (U) pre-nar'Mdgets (*). He chose the series of the Ihirea,u of Labor 
Statistics in preference to these series stating; that it "is pro'ba'bl;r the 
best for our purposes of any nou bein;;,' coupiled", 

Honever, Doiiglas recognized several deficiencies and ^leaJmesses in 
this seriep. He pointed out: (l) that the basic statistics nerc gathered 
fron comparatively fei7 cities; (2) that the, sundries index nas not based 
on direct quotations; (3) that the clothing index vras not deteniined'by 
use of r/eights based on actual exoenditiires; (U) that it 'jould be :.iore 
accurate to find the all-iten indexes for the country as a xrhole by com- 
bining the all-item indexes for each cit'/, than to do so by deter.iining 
indexes^ for ea.ch connodity group for the country as a v/hole and then 
combining these indexes, the method follced hj the 3u.reau; s-nd ([5) that 
it would certainly be better to combine the indexes for each city by 
v^eighting them according to the relative population of the cities, than 
to combine then arith.ietice-lly, as the I>.ircau did (**). 

The last t'TO of these flavs in t]ie !3u.resu'n series arisiiiiT; merely 
in the methods in vhich collected material had. been -ased, DotLglas -ujider- 
took to compute a series of his o\7n, based on that of the Sareau, but 
avoiding these t\7o errors. The resixlt v/as a series of cost of living 
index numbers (***) of i^hich most -yero found, vspoh reduction of the tvro 
series to a common' base jes.r, to be froLi fovir to six points higher than 
those of the Bureau. This' relation of the tvro series is sho^jn by Table 
VI. 

This series of Douglo-s has been improved iijDon, in turn, by a recent 
revision by the j>areau of Labor Statistics of its series, nhic.i introduces 
not only the refinements made by Douglas ov-t others as Tell. 

As in Douglas' series, the relative exoendlture upon each of the 
major groups of cojin.odities in different cities is' tai:en into account 
and the budget experience of each city is weighted according to relative 
population (****) ^ /q^^ ^.^ addition, the food cost inciexes have been 



(*) Ibid,, pages 52 and |53 

(**) Ibid., pages 52 rnd 3^4 

(***) Ibid, page 37 - , 

(****) Sen publication of ISureau of Later Statistics, United 

States Department of La")or, entitled "Prevision of Index 
of Cost of Goods Purchased by Tfage Earners and Lower- 
Salaried ITorkers", pages 2, ,10, and 12, or article with 
same title in the ":ionthly Labor ?:cvie\7i', September, 1335, 



3S5I 



. -13- 

greatly improved, chiefly 'o.y inclusion of additional foods (84 after 
1920 and 104 tefore), (*) pnd the all-item indexes have "been consider- 
ably tettered by computation (**) of the percentage distribution of ex- 
penditures for the various budgetary items in 1913, the base year, and 
the use of weights based on this distribution rather than that of 
1917-19, the quantity bud:';^etary period used (***). 

The effect of these last two improvements is a series more closely 
in accord with the original Bureau series than is that of Douglas. 
T;Ihereas, most of Douglas' indexes were from 4 to 6 points higher than 
those of the original Bureau series, as has been seen, the numbers re- 
vised by the Bureau are somewhat lower during the years prior to 1921 
and only about 1 to 3 points higher after that year. The relation of 
the two Bureau series is shown by Table VII, and that of the revised 
Bureau series and the Douglas series by Table VI.- 

It is obvious from these Tables that use of -the Douglas cost of 
living index numbers in coiirputing real vrages and earnings would consid- 
erably underestimate the gains in purchasing power during the period 
from 1915 to 1928, just as use of the original Bureau series would over- 
estima.te such gains after 1320 and u.ndcrestimate them from 1914 to 1920, 

Unfortunately, the Bureau's revised series does xiot cover the years 
from 1909 to 1913, necessitating use of some ctner, and possibly less 
accurate, series for this period. However, the one- chosen, that con- 
structed by Douglas from Bureau of Labor Statistics indexes of the move- 
ment of wholesale prices of the various main groups of commodities, ex- 
cept rents, weighted according to 1901 relative expenditures, (****) 
is believed to be more accurate than any other now available. 

The indexes given by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the years 
1913 to 1934 represent the cost of living in particular months of those 
years (usually June and December), while Douglas' indexes for the years 
1909 to 1912 indicates the average cost of living throughout each of 
those years. It is obvious that indexes of the latter type are preferable 
for use in translating yearly average money earnings into yearly average 
real earnings. For this reason, cost of living indexes for each month of 
each year from 1913 to 1934 have been computed by straight-line inter- 
polation from the series of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and an aver- 
age found for each year. The results, combined v;ith Douglas' 1909 to 
1912 series, are given in Table VIII. 



(*) Ibid, pages 2-7. This correction involves a highly complicated and 
interesting computation, made necessary by the fact tliat data on 
purchases of the additional foods were available only in terms of 
quantities, not of expenditures. In brief, all 126 foods were ar- 
ranged in groups according to similarity of price movement, average 
ejcpenditures for the 84 or 1''14 being estimated from average prices 
determined by the office of Home Economics of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and from total food expenditures orig- 
inally calculated by the Bureau. Food cost indexes were then com- 
puted by weighting expenditures for these groups of foods rather 
than expenditures for the 42 to 22 specific foods priced. 

(**) From the distribution in 1917-19 and changes in costs of equivalent 
goods between 1913 and that period. Ibid, page 8. 

(***) Ibid, page 7-9. 

(****) gee "Real Wages in the United States, 1890-1926", Chapter II. 

9851 



-14- 

TABLE VI 

COLIPARISONSOF VAEIATIOIIS PHOM ORIGIUJUL 
BUPJSAU OF LABOR STATISTICS COST OF LIVIITG I1€)EX NUTfflEES 
OF DOUG-LAS' DATA A2'D OF 313HEATJ OF LA:30H STATISTICS REVISION: 

1915-1926 



Helation of B.L^S. Relation of Doia('2;las ' 

u'ontli and Yes^v revised series to series to 3LS oririnal 

3. L. S. original series (!in Toints) (l:) 

, . __j__ series (in -points ) (a) __j_ . ._ 



Decem'ber, 


1915 


.11 


1916 


II 


1917 


II ' 


1913 


II 


1919 


■ ti 


1920 


II 


1921 


II 


1922 


It 


1923 


II 


1924 


11 . 


1925 



-0.4-, -0.5 

■-1.7 -1.0 

'"-4.1 ^4,5 

-7,5 . H.3,6 

-7.9 "-1.4,4 

-4.8 -*3.8 

■-^0.5. H-5,2 

•+0.8 .• 45.4 

-♦•I. 5 • -»5.8 

.. -tl-.S . ■ t6.1 

■ ■t3.4 ' -r6.6 
1926 .■ -,:].7 '46.5 



(a) Ta:cen from Ta"ble VII. . '. ■ 

(b). Ta::en from Tatle XI, -oage 55, "Fieal Wa,-es in tlie United States 1890- 
1926" - '07j Paul i:. Do-uglaS'. 



9851 



Month f.ncl Yer.r 

1913, (r.verai^e) 
December, 1914 
" 1915 





1916 




1917 




1918 




1919^ 




1920, 




1921* 




1922 




1923 




1934 




1925 




1925 



1927 



1928 



-15- 



TJ1J3LE VII 



coapARisoii OF origi:tal a.:d iCAnsED 

3irJEAi; 0? LOO?. STATISTICS COST OF LIVIITG II3EX ilUIIBIRS; 
1913-1928 



Ori^^'inr.l Series 
Ci913-10a)_lal 


r.eviped Series 
(19135100) Co) 


100.0 


100,0 


103.0 '■ 


102,7 


. 105.1 : 


104,7 


. 113.3 : 


. 116,:5 


142.4 : 


133,3 


174,4 ; 


165, .9 


■ 199,3 -. 


. 191,4 


' 200.4 : 


• • . 195,5 


' 174,3 . 


174.3 


^169.5 : 


170.3 


. 173.2 ■■ 


174.7 


172.5 ■■ 


174.3 


■ 177.9 ; 


■ 181.3 


175.5 ; 


17G.3 



172.0 



.171.3 



175.1 



173.3 



..rielation of Revised 
to Ori.?inal Series 

;^ cc:! . 



-0,3 
-0,4 
-1,7 
-4,1 
-7,5 
-7,9 
-4,3 
-^0,5 
+0.8 
-^1.5 
-fl.8 
-t.3.4 
+2.7 
+3.1 
42.0 



(a) "riontlily La-Qor Review", Aiigrast, 1934. 

(b) "iiontlily Labor Review", September, 1335, or the excerpt therefrom entitled 



"Revision of Index of Cost of Goods Purchaced by 
salrricd ^orlcers". 



Wage-Earners and Lo^Ter- 



(c) Difference between original series colTX':;m and revised series col"'ji:m. 



9351 



-16- 



TABLE VIII 



COST OF LIVIHG- 1S09 to 1938 BY MONTHS 



1909 


Cost of 




Cost 0-' 




Cost of 


Month 


Living 


: Month 


Living 


: Month 


Living 


and 


Indexes 


: and 


Indexes 


a,nd 


Indexes 


Yf?ar 


1913-100 


: Year 


1913-100 


Year 


1913-100 




. (a) 




(a) 




(a) • 


1909 


88.0 


1916 


111.2 


1919 


176.2 


1910 


93,0 


Jan. 


105.7 


Jan. 


167.6 


1911 


96.0 


Fe"b. 


106.7 


Fe-b. 


168.3 


1912 ■ 


97.0 


Mar. 


107.7 


Mar. 


169.0 


1913 * 


100.0 


Apr. 


108.7 


Apr. 


169.7 


■ July 


100.0 


May 


109.7 


May 


170.4 


Aug. 


100.2 


June 


110.7 


June * 


171.1 


Sept. 


100.3 


July 


111,6 


July 


174.5 


Oct. 


100.5 


Aug. 


112.6 


Aug. 


177.9 


Nov. 


1*0.6 


Sq-nt. 


113.6 


Sept. 


181.3 


Dec. 


100.8 


Oct. 


114.6 


Oct. 


184.6 


1914 


101.8 


Nov, 


115.6 : 


Nov. 


188.0 


Jan. 


101.0 


Dec..* 


116.6 


Dec. * 


191.4 


PelD. 


101.1 


1917 


128.4 


1920 


202. 6 


Mar. 


101.3 


Jan. 


118.4 


Jan. 


iri.7 


Apr. 


101.4 


Pel). 


12C.2 


Fet. 


1C8.0 


May 


101.6 


Mar. 


1S2.0 


Mar. 


201.4 


June 


101.8 


Apr. 


123.8 


Apr, 


204,7 


July 


101.9 


May 


125.6 


May 


208.0 


Aug. 


102.1 


June 


127,4 


June * 


211.3 


Se-pt. 


102.2 


July 


129.3 


July 


208.7 


Oct. 


102.4 


Aug. 


131.1 


Aug. 


206.1 


Nov. 


102,5 


Sept. 


132.9 


Se-nt. 


203.5 


Dec. * 


102.7 


Oct. 


134.7 


Oct. 


200.0 


1915 


10-^,8 


Nov. 


136.5 


Nov. 


198.2 


Jan. 


102.9 


Dec.t 


138.3 : 


Dec. * 


195.6 


Pet. 


103.0 


1918 


153.0 : 


1921 


180.6 


Mar. 


103.2 


Jan. 


140,7 


Jan. 


192.3 


Apr. 


103.4 


Fet. 


143,1 


Fel). 


189.0 


May 


103.5 


Mar. 


145.5 


Mar. 


185.7 


June 


103.7 


Apr. 


147.0 


Apr. 


182.4 


July 


103,9 


May 


150.2 


May * 


179.1 


Aug. 


104.0 


June 


152.6 


June 


178,6 


Sept. 


104.2 


July 


155.0 


July 


178.2 


Oct. 


104.4 


Aug. 


157.4 


Aug. 


177.7 


Nov. 


104.5 


Sept. 


159.8 


Sept. * 


177.2 


Dec. * 


104.7 


Oct. 


162.1 


Oct. 


176.4 






Nov. 


164.5 


Nov. 


175.6 






Dec. 


* 166.9 


Dec. * 


174,8 



9851 



-17- 





Cost of 




Cost of 




Cost of 


Month 


Living 


' Month 


Living 


Month 


Living 


and 


Indexes 


and 


Indexes 


: and 


Indexes 


Year 


1913-100 


Year 


1913-100 


Year 


1913-100 




(a) 




: . (a) 




(a) 


1922 


169.4 


"May 


172.4 


Oct. 


178.4 


Jan. 


172.8 


June * 


172.3 


Nov. 


178.4 


Pe-b. „ 


170.8 


J-aly 


172.5 


: Dec. * 


178.3 


Ubt. * 


168.8 


Aug. ■ 


172.7 


: 1927 


177.1 


Aiir. 


168.9 


: Sept. * 


172.9 


: Jan. 


178.2 


May 


168.9 


Oct. ■ 


173.4 


: Pet. 


178.1 


June * 


169.0 


Nov. 


173.8 


: Mar. 


178.0 


July 


168.7 


Dec. * 


174.3 ■ 


: Apr. 


177.9 


Aug. 


168.3 


1925 


177.5 


: May 


177.8 ■ 


Sept,*-* 


168.0 


Jan. 


174.7 


June * 


177.7 


Oct. 


168.8 


Pet. 


175.1- 


July 


177.3 


Nov. 


169.5 • 


Mar. 


175.5 


Aug. 


176.8 


Dec.'y 


170.3' 


Ai^r. 


175.9 


Sepf. 


176.4 


1923 


172.4 


May 


176.3 


Oct. 


176.0 


Jan. 


170.2 


June * 


176.7 


: Nov. 


1.75.5 


Feb. 


170.1 


July 


177.5 


Dec. * 


175.1 


Mar. * 


170.0 


Aug. 


178.2 


1928 


173.5 


AiDr, 


170.6 


Se-nt. 


179.0 


Jan. 


174.7 


May 


171.2 


Oct. 


179.8 


Fet. 


174.4 


June * 


171.8 


■ Nov. 


■180.5 


Mar. 


174.0 


July 


172.7 


Dec* 


181.3 


Apr. 


173.6 


Aug. 


173.6 


1926 


179.1 


May 


173.3 


Sept. * 


174.5 


Jan. 


180.9 


June * 


172.9 


Oct. 


174.6 ■ 


Fe-b. 


180.4 ' 


July ■■ 


173.0 


Nov. 


174.6 


Mar. 


180.0 


Aug. 


173.0 


nec.l^ 


174.7 


Anr. 


• 179.6 


Sept. 


173.1 


1924 


173.0 


May 


179.1 


Oct. 


173.2 


Jan. 


174.0 


June *■ 


178.7 


Nov. 


173.2 


FrId. 


173.2 


July 


178.6 


Dec. * 


173.3 


Mar. * 


172.5 


Aug. 


170. 6 






Apr. 


172.4 


Sept. 


178.5 







(a) Data for the years 1909 to 1912 are taken fro'n Paul H. Douglas 

"Real V/ages in the United States, 189'^-1926," page 60, transferred 
fron a 1914 to a 1913 tase; the data for the months and years marked * 
are from the Septen"ber, 1935, "Monthly Lalior Review" of the Bureau 
of Lator Statistics; and all other data are computed from the in- 
dexes of the Bureau of Lator Statistics hy means of straight-line 
interpolation, as exiilained in the t'^xt, the index for July, 1913 
"being assumed to he the same as tha.t for the vear, 1913. 



9851 



-IB- 
While it is highly irrroro"ba"ble that changes in the cost of living 
Tuyere evenly distrit-ated over the months intervening "between measurements, 
the assuirrotion that the rate of change was constant is "believed justified 
for this coraoutatinn of yearly averages. Douglas' cost of living series, 
which he hased on the assumption tliat the series' of the Bureau of Lahor 
Statistics, if extended to cover missing months, -would "foll'-w the same 
■general relative movement" -as the monthly series' of the Masr.achusetts 
Commission on the Necessaries of Life and of the ITationa.1 Industrial 
Conference Board, sho'^^s a variation of more than ^ t'-ro 170 ints "between the 
average index numh^sr for each year and the index, num'ber for July of the 
corresponding j'-^ar, in only one instance, (*) . , . 

The varia.tion in this instance the year 19P0, was only six -ooints, 
resulting from a sharp: increase of the cost of living to the raidAle of 
the year and a QOrres'oonding decrease thereafter. 

The conclusion to: "be dra.wn from this correspondence of yearly a.ve- 
rage and July ind.ex^'s, ; since such indexes if o"btained iDy- straight-line 
interoolation for the months ^"tween December and Decemter of the fol- 
lowing year must closely corresiDond, is that th^. latter method will give 
sufficiently accurate yearly average cost_.of living indexes. So' far as 
1920 is concerned, there is no necessity to interr-.olate for the J\ily 
iijdexm this ■bei:fig one of the indexes given in the series of the Bureau 
of Lahor S-t;atis};ics. : , ; 

Before -oroceeding: to the _ measurement of real earnings, a word of 
caution should, again he given_mth regard to.- the. use of cost of living 
indexes (**). .Those used here, while themost accurate available, are 
fpr a number of reasons unjdoubtedly f ar^ f rom Torecise. 

As Alvin H. Hansen has saidj , r . " , - 

"If someone should discover tomorrow the materials from which 
a really accurate cost of living index; could be constructed 
. . for 189.0 to 1914, it would be a .miracle if it did not vary con- 
siderably from the Douglas index."' (**f). 

This unreliability also ao-olies, thoxigh -orobably to less degree, to 
the indexes of . the Bureau of Labor Statistics. . ' •■ ' ' 

V. EEAL EAENINaS ] ■] ' '. ' ' . 

Using the cost of living index nupiber series given in Table VIII, the 
average money earnings r^er hour, full-time week, and year, shown in Tables 



(*) See Pau] K. Douglas' "Real Wages in .the United States, 1890 - 1926" 
- pages 56 and 57. • . . ... \ . 

(**) See.-nagel of this Cha-oter^ 

(***) See Hansen's review of Pa\il H, Douglas' "Real 7ages in the United 
States, 1890-19?6," in the December, 1930 issue of "The American 
Economic Review, nage 749, 



9851 



-19- 



I, III, and IV, have liep.n trnnslsted into 1913 dollars, or real earnings, 
thus providing a measure of the material orogress of lalDor during the 
period of exoansion, in t-^rms of gains and losses in ^ourchasing power. 
Such real earnings are rresented in Tahla IX. 



TABJZ IX 

AVEMGE HEAL EARRINGS OP EirFLOYED T7AGE-EABNERS 
IN ALL IIIDrSTEY; 1909-19P8 









Average Real 


Average 


Real 




Average 


R-al 


Full- Tine 


Annual 






Hourly Earnings W 
In dollars Hate of 


eelclv EarninfTs 
In dollars Rate of 


Earninss 






In doll 


ars 


Ra.te of 




of 1913 


Change 


of 1913 


Change 


of 1913 


Change 


Year 


Purchasing 


( 1909-100 ■) 


Furchssing 


(1909- 


Purchasing 


(1909-100) 




Power (a) 




Po'-'er (h) 


lOO) 


Power ( 


c) 




1909 


.320 


100,0 


15. 24 


100.0 


617 




100.0 


1910 


.310 


96.9 


14.71 


96.5 


617 




100.0 


1911 


.305 


35,3 


14.46 


94.9 


599 




97,1 


1912 


.311 


97,2 


14.78 


97.0 


610 




90.9 


1913 


.313 


97.9 


14.79 


97.0 


621 




100.6 


1914 


.310 


96.9 


14.65 


96.1 


616 




99.8 


1915 


.307 


95.9 


14. 59 


'95.7 


610 




98.9 


1916 


.313 


97.8 


14.80 


97.1 


637 




103.2 


1917 


.307 


95.9 


14.63 


96.0 


646 




104.7 


1918 


.313 


97.8 


15.04 


98.7 


68] 




110.4 


1919 


.317 


99.1 


14.92 


97.9 


662 




110.5 


1920 


.340 


106.3 


15.63 


102.6 


694 




112,5 


1921 


.354 


110.6 


15.85 


104.0 


683 




110.7 


1922 


.359 


112.2 


16.57 


108.7 


709 




114.9 


1923 


.384 


120.0 


17.63 


115.7 


753 




122.0 


1924 


.395 


123.4 


17.90 


117.5 


753 




122.0 


1925 


.392 


122.5 


17.87 


117.3 


753 




122.0 


1926 


.383 


119.7 


17,52 


115.0 


768 




124.5 


1927 


.397 


124.1 


18.13 


119.0 


776 




125.8 


1920 


.409 


127. P 


18.70 


122.7 


810 




131.3 



(a,) Cormuted from Tatles I and VIII 
(t) Comr)uted from Tahles III and VIII 
(c) Comouted from Tahles IV and VIII 



9851 



-20- 

The cost of living increp,s<?d t'^tween 1909 pind 1917 at stic.h a rapid 
rate that the -Durchasing loowqr of an hour' s earnings and that of a fiill- 
tine-'Wf?'=?k' s earnings act-aally decreased sonex'what, while the -nurchasing 
yovrer of a year's actual earnings gained slightly. Average real earnings 
■oer hour decreased 4.1^, and^'tine earnings -oer week 4,0f^. On the oth^r 
hand purdiasing rjower, in terns of average real annual earnings, increased 
4.7^/ 

From 1917 on, however, the gains in money earnings outstriuried the 
adr-ance in the cost of living, considerahly irxrea.sing nurchasing "oower. 
The gains in average real earnings ner hour, per full-time weeV, anfl ner 
yes.T, from 1917 to 1928, were, resnectively, 33.2:^, 27.8, and 25. 4^^. 



9851 



-21- 

c;iAP?]-it II 

WAGI! MO"l~:ML"i'TS - 19.39 to 1933 

Tl:^ et-tif tic .1 'm t>_,'-i .1 \v il "blc- for use in this ctepter in 
tr cin^":, g-cxicr'.l vr-rc r.ioveuicnts ^':\Tov^'a the depression yc .rs of the pre- 
codc -nerioG is even more me .,r;rc nd hetGro.:renous th .n th .t used in Clia'oter 
I in j ,j- rjurint'^ trcncU- c.-uring the "leriod of ciq?Mision, In this jieriod 
the d-,t re liiP.ited for the most iTrt to m^nrf ctin-ing industries. Trends 
in '11 incA^stry nust he in p,u-t esbira^tel. Attention is "g-,in (*) directed 
to thv f ct tii'.t conclusions regardirig w\g trends must he intoi'^reted 
vatn duo reg'.rc to th: g ,ps in- the evidence -.nd to th, errors in the 
m- tc ri .is. 

I. MZ'TJ.Gn LAEillllGS Fill. AdUR ■ ■ 

Tulc I,:h ,sed on -.'i, of the Lure u of L hor St.tistics, rroscnts 
the onlv :.i tcri d availahlc on -.vcr ge c •-■nings-pcr hoiir in Industry ,s 
". whol^ c-urizg the ycarr, 19.39 to 193o. It indic.tcs the trend of -.verge 
money., ndrc. Ic rnings..''er hour i:i 1 rge s'-m-^le of .11 Industry, incl"ading 
m-ny innuf cturizig, miiiipg, ]uiu'lic utility, service, "id other industries, 
rilro fs, nS. vi'holcs-.lc nd ret .il tr de 

This iiiaterial is net .■■:. vhol-.y s.'.tisf-i.ctory measure of the trends 
during the de-oression. Since hn.sed jn the yearly averages for 1929 and 1933, 
this :C.'^,sure lessens tlie sharpness of the flucti,-,ation v^hich is revealed "by 
a cor.iparison hetveen the highest point reached in 1929 and the lov/est point 
reachc;.. in 1933. The c.'tent of this source of error c-n he illustrated 
.ty data based on aver'.ge e rnings in iur.nufacturing inr'ustries sho;™ in Tahle 
III,, This i.ief,su;i--e is valiiahle as s ;->oiMt of reference for iise in con- 
juact.'.on •■,itli the tatc. given in the A ■ endix for aver\ge annual earnin's 
and trends i.r indiviniv.l inJustrios , -class -s for- labor, and States, 

So far as all Indii.stry. is c?-ncerned, average no-ney earnin s "Ter hoiu' 
decreased 23.&/} from the 19 '2 avera^^e to blia.t of 1933, -v^/hile the purchasing 
jjov/er "f such e-.:rnings or s.ver;;-;e i-cal earnings per hovr, act^a-l-j'' go.i'ned 
4,6;.j thro'-Lg^'h 1931, decreased sl-:£i.r-:>l-" then, iai 1933, S.l^o, and finally rose 
slightl; to ,a 13Z3 level O.S-' above t'.iat of 1929, T'ne disparity between 
these -p.ovements of money and real earnings is e:q-ilained by the 23. S^ fall 
in the cost of living dirring the s;--me -eriod, also shomi in Table I, 

111 coi.rparison with the trejid of average earnings per hour in ma.nu- 
factxir-ng industries, based on dat.. derive-.' from a. different source, this 
decrease ^.n the trerid in al . Industry a"o-'ears subst3.ntially greater th?xi in 
maui-uf '.cturi-.v; alone. Average earnings "-)or hoi;.r in manufact-uring a.lo-ne , as 
determined by the national Industrial Confe ence Boarc, , shown in T .ble III, 
fell Q-ii 16, o [.:> fror.i 1929 to 195;^,Y;hlle average re".l earnings per hoi-jr in 
man-Lif.actiiri-.ig ap- sa-e-'. aC'-.-..a.lly to have i/.creased 9.4 i c.-uxirg the same 
period. 

In considering the validity of the corr.iarison of these tv.'o sets of 
data .as p(,irtraying the r. •" roxinate diflc ence bet-«veen v/age movements in 



(*) See Cha-ter I, page 1 . 
9851 



-22- 

. TiGLS i 
AVEHAGH EAB^TINGS P::]R HOUR 0? Ei.'IPLOYIinS liT ALL IlirUSTRY (a); 

1929 - 33 





■ Year 
1929 


Index numbers ( average 1929 - 100 ) 




Average 
Money Earnings 
Vp.v TTrmr Ch"! 


Average 
Real Larnings 
> Ppt- Kmir (r. ) 


Cost 
of living 




10 1.00 


100.00 


100.0 




1930 


98.28 


10^.7 


97.6 




1931 


93.13 ! 


104.6 


89.0 




1932 


79.82 ' ! 


99.3 


80.4 




1933 


76.39 : 


100.3 


76.2 



(a) Including wage -earners in a.ll rn,?.n-uf?.ct-aring, anthracite and 
■bit-urninoiis coal mining, metalliferous mining, qiaarrying, 
crnc.e petroleum refining, public utilities (telephone, tole- 
grapn , electric light and power, --.nd electric and motor "bus 
transportation), Class I steam railro-ds, vmole'sale and re- 
tail trade, laundries, dyeing and cleaning", and hotels, 
union la"bor in the building and printing trades, and union 
c"na,uff e\irs, teamsters, and longshoremen, 

(b) Prom the "Monthly Labor Review",. A-og-ust, 1935. TransiTorod from 
a 1913 base. 

(c) The quotients of the m^ney earnings indexes given in column 2 
divided by the cost of living inc".exes shovm in column 4. 

(d) Constructed from the indexes given in Ta^'^le II by reduction 
from a 1913 to a ig.ig base. 



9851 



-23- 



TA"E LT II 
COST OIT LIVi:'G-; 1939 to 193:, BY ir^-T-iS AlID QUAliTEl^S. . 



Year , 
Month, 
and 
Quarter 



COSt of ; 

living 
indexes . 
(1?13~1C'0 
Lai 



Year, 

l.Ioiith, 

o.nd 

Quiirter 



^st o'f 



-ivm;' 



(191[ 



-lO:) 



Ye-.-r, 
Month, 
and 
Q,i.iarter 



Cost of 
living?; 
indexes 
(1913-100) 
(a) 



1929 ! 


175.2 


: 1931 


154.3 : 


1933 


132.0 




Ist. Q,ii£i,rter ' 


: 173.1 


:1st Quarter • 


: 160.4 


January 


: 132.9 




Jan-uu;.ry 


: 173.3 


. : Jantiary 


152.0 : 


Pebruary 


132.3 




Pebi-aar2^ 


: 175.1 


. : Febr-.t-ry , 


150.4 


March 


131.7 




llarch 


: 175.1 


: ",;irch , 


158.8 . 


A-ril 


: 131.0 




.2n<i '[iuc-rtci- 


: 172.9 


. :2nd Qiip-i^tcr 


155.5 : 


: ay 


130.4 




April 


: 173.0 


' : April 


1 157.1' • 


Juiie * 


129. E 




Hay 


: 172.9 


'.: rl;y 


155.5- ! 


Jtiiy 


130. 6 




Jimc * 


: 172.3 


. : J\-oie * 


1 --7 O ■ . 


Aw^i-i-s t 


131.4 




3rd iQiicirter 


: 173.1 


,:Srd Qur.rter ^ 


;. 15:;.l ■ : 


Septei-iber 


: 132. 2 




July 


: 173.0 


'.: July 


153.0 ■■ ! 


October 


: 133. 




Au^;ust 


:■ 173.1 


.; Au^^us t 


152.1 • 


Nove::iber 


! . 133.8. • 




v'Jept ember 


: 173.3 


.: Septer.ibe.r 


151.2 • 


Decem'oer* 


: " 134.6 




4th Q,uo.rter 


:■ 173.6 


:4th Quarter 


:• 149.3 . 








Octo"ber 


•■ 173.4 


: October 


150.2 •; 








Kovember 


:• 173.6 


: ITovember- 


149.3 "•; 








December* 


: • 173.7 


: December* 


148.4 *: 








1930 


■ 169.1 


1 o-?-) 


159.3 •; 








Ist Q,uarter 


: 172.6 


:1st Qmirtcr 


■ 145.-; •: 








January 


:■ 173.1 


: Jan'Lk'.ry 


. 146.8 ': 








Fe^r-uary 


: • 172.6 


: 5'ebruary 


145.2 ': 








I.iarch 


: '172.0 


: . March 


143.7 ■; 








2nd quarter 


: "170.9 


:2nd Quarter 


• 140.5 ■; 




' 




April 


: 171.4 


; ■. April 


145.1 : 








May 


: 170.9 


: : ifey 


• 140 . 5 : 








Juiie * 


: 170.3 


: . June * 


• irfi . 9 : 








3rd Q, loarter 


: 168.1 


:3rd Qiji£i.rtHr 


• 137.1 : 




, 




July 


: 169.1' 


: July 


• 138.0 ! 


■ 






Au;;uGt 


: 168.1 


: Aiv'^ast 


■ 137.1 : 








September 


: 167.0 


: Septem.ber 


155.2 








4th Q,-U3.rter 


: 164.7 


:4th Que.rter 


■ 134.4 : 








October 


: 165.9 


: October 


135.3 : 








iTovember 


: 164.7 


: ilovembfi-r 


134.4 ! 








December* 


: 163.5 


: Dece'-iber* 


133.5 • 









(a) The do.ta for the months mar'-ed :* a.rc from the September, 1935, "Monthly 
Labor 2eview" of the Bureau of Labor St j^isfcics , the indexe^: for inter- 
venin;;^ months beini^, constructep-there from by straight-line interpolation. 
In cOi.vputing the indexes .for the -first five months of 1929 , the index 
used in connection iilth tliat for June, 1929, v/as that for Decem"foer, 1928. 
shovm in Table VIII of Chapter I. The yearly and quarterly index numbers 
were obt/.ined by averaL;ini2, the liionthly data. 



^851 



:r.-";LE III 
.^EfT-AGE E.JJ^IHGS PER HOUR OE SViPLOYSES lU .OLL 
:::AFUEACTU}"JiMa (a); 1939 - 1933 











Avera,i:e r 


■ Average 






Money Earnings : 


Real 


Earnings 


■ Date 




, ; 


:Per Hour Co) '■ : 


■ P 


3r ?Iour 


: 






' • ■ 


■(1913 = 100) (c) 


Aveiati-e, 1989 






.539 ■ : • 




.340 


1st Quarter, 


1929 


.586 •■ : • 




.339 


2nd Q;aarter, 


1929 • : 




.589 ■ : ■ 




.341 


3rd Quarter, 


19 '9 ■ : 




.590 : • 




. 341 


4th Quarter, 


1929 




.592 • : • 




.341 


Avera^je, 195C 


I 




.589 ■ ■ : • 




.348 


1st Quarter, 


1930 




.591 •■ : • 




.3-i2 


2nd Quarter, 


1930 




.592 • : ■ 




.3^.6 ■ . 


3rd QMa/rter, 


1950 




.591 ' : • 




.352- 


4th Quarter, 


193Q 




.o82 ■ ■ : ■ 




.353 


Average, 1931 








.565 : • 




.366 


1st Quarter, 


1931 






.575 ■ : - 




.359 


2nd Quarter, 


1931 






.571 ■ : • 




. 567 


3rd Quarter, 


1951 


. 




,555 ■ 




.372 


4th Quarter, 


1931 






. L)^i 6 : 




.366 


average, 1932 








: .496 ■■ : 




.355 


1st Quarter, 


1932 






: ,526 ■■ : 




.362 


2nd Quarter, 


1952 






; .505 : : 




.360 


3rd Q\aarter, 


1932 




.48^-: : 




.353 


^th Qu?orter, 


1932 




.469 : 




,349 


Average, 1933 




\ , 


: .491 : 




.372 


Jaxmary, 1933 


; 


: .465 : 




.351 


February, 1933 




: ■ .462 : 




.349 


March, 1935 


• 


: : .459 ' : 




.349 


April, 1955 




: .460 : 




.351 


May, 19o3 


• 


: ■• .453 : 




.347 


June, 1953 








.451 : 




.348 



(a) 24 industries are included in 1929 and 1930, and after that, ^5 
industries. 

(■b) These d^.ta are from ouhlicitions of the i'ational Industrial Con- 
ference Board. The data for 1929 and 1930 are from "Wages in the 
United States, 1914-1930", tot 4-i, 47 , -^nd o4, the 1931 data from 
"Wages in the United States in 1931", -i 52, the 1932 data from the 
Su^oleraent to the "Conference Board Service Letter" of Anril , 1933, 
.ind the 1935 data from the Supplement to the "Conference Board 
Service Letter" of l-iay, 1934. 

(c) Obtained 'oy dividing the money earnings figures appearing in the 

Preceding coliunn by the corresponding cost of living index l"os. givaa 
9851 in T-ble II. 



-25- 
TASLE III 
AFfJRilGS Siffill'GS PSn H0U11 OP ZLPLC'reES 17 ALL 
iArUi'ACTURirG (a); IJ'29 - 1933 



Date 



Average, 19 29 

1st Q-ua.rt-cr, 1929 

2nd Qxiarter, 1929 

3rd CiV£>.rter, 1929 

4tli Q:i'.arter, 1929 

Averr;;e, 1930 

1st Quarter, 1930 

2nd Quarter, 1930 

3rd Qiiarter, 193(» 

4th Qus-rter,. 1930 

Avera-e, 1931 

1st Quarter, 1931 

2nd Quarter, 1931 

3rd Quarter, 1931 

4th Qiiarter, 1931 

Average, 1932 

1st QvLarter, 1932 

2nd Quarter, 1932 

3rd Quarter, 1932 

4th Quarter, 1932 

Averr^e, 1S33 
Januar-/, 1933 
Pebri.ia.r^'-, 1933 
March, 1933 
April,. 1933 
Llajr, 1933 
Jime, 1933 



Average 
Honey Sarnings 
Per Hour (b) 




Average 
Real Earnings 

Per HoT-T-r 
(1913=100) (c) 



.340 
.339 
. :341 
. 341 

. 341 

.348 
.342 
. 346 
.3b2 
.353 



.367 
.572 
.356 

.356 

.362 
.36<! 

r-T rr r2 

.349 

.372 

.351 
.349 
.349 
.351 
.347 
.348 



(a) 24 industries a.re included in 1929 and 1930, and after that, 25 indus- 
tries 

(b) Hiese data are from publications of tlie I>.tional Industrial Conference 
Board. The data for 1929 and 1930 are from ":;a,?es in the United Stctes, 
1914-1930"-, r/o 44, 47, and 54, the 1931 data from "Wages in the United 
States in 1931", p 32, the 1932 data from t}ie Sui^plement to the "Coii- 
ference Board Service Letter" of A"oril, 1933, and t/ie 1933 data from 
the Sup'olement to the "Conference Board Sei'vice Letter" of ha"', 1934, 

(c) Obtained by dividing the none-'- earnings figxires apTea.ri:ig in the pre- 
ceding column by the corresponding cost of living index numbers given 
in Table II. 



9851 



-.16- 

me:anif.:ctv.Tin..^ anc in nanufrcciiri: ^j r,nd non-.:u.nuf,\ctui"i:-ie combined, tie 
clifier.3nce i:'- tne sovj-ces shoilc. •'be .ta^-e:i iato o.ccoimo. One ii.Tiortant 
difference ■.nd'-op.-i'i^ility of error arisep f -'O/- the f?,ct th .t ;lie volun- 
tary qufistion/i.c.ire nethod of coriecting dat ■ 'as used "by the National 
Industrial Conference loard anc the fieldsurvey rriethoc, 'by the Bureau 
of Labor Sv^ati sties. 

Inasauch as concerns -^ayinfj-very lov; \-'a.;^e rates rnirht presuriialily be 
disinclined to reveal their ;^ayroll statistics, use of the latter u.ethod 
undoubtecly [p^re lo-'er levels of earnings in nianuf act tiring as a whole than 
did the former, (*) anC may jiave resulted in some variance in the .nove- 
rnents of the levels. ; ' 

So i:.,r as hourly earninf;s 'ire c:)ncerned, • Table III shoves that the 
average morey earnin^^s v.er hour of employees in inR-nufacturinif. , accor'.-ing 
to the Hati onal -In'ustrial Conference Ba^ re , were reduced from $.j90 in 
the third quarter of 1?29 to $.':-L)9 in March l9Z:i , a recuotion of 22.2^. 
On the other liaad, avera.ge real earnings r^er ho\ir in manufacturing, as a 
resixlt of ^:ains-due to the lowering?; of the cost of living, act3.Tal'.y rose 
9.1-^ fron the third quarter of 1929 to " the third ourarterof 1931, falling 
only 6./; '^0 thereai'ter, to tferch, 1933, The level at this date was, 
ciccor:.ingly, 3.3'''' higher thaii the mid- 1939 level, 

II. A'\r:HAGr EAHlIIilGS ?TS. W"£,K ' ' ] 

Li; ht can 'be throvrn on the depression trends of avercage money and 
real earnin s j:>er week in all Industry frop data available for manvi- 
facturing onlj'* (**) This .nate rial titlien fron National Industrial TSor.- 
ference Board so-.ices, is the most inclxisive available on v/ee2rly e'.rhings 
during the depressiin period. It is presented 'in Table •I"' , 

Proju S33.63 in the third quiirter'of 193S , 'the average money earnings 



(*) A coi.iparison of I'ationsJ industrial Conference Board, Bureau of 

Labor Statistics, and Census Bureau average hourly v/age rates in the 
Boot a,ndShoe Industry shows the' following resultsfor January 1935, 
.51,1 for the National Industrial Conference Board, .504 for the 
Bureau of the Census Se'iorts. The first mentioned v/as based on 
a CO. iparatively small proportion of the 'industry, the second on a 
sajaple of ap;-iroximatel7 50 per 'cent, whxle the Census reports were 
ba.sed 3n a coverage . of -qiwards ' of 90 per cent. See ?inal Report, 
Survey Committee on. the O;oera.tion of the Code for the Boot and 
Shoe Manufacturing Industry, (July 15, 1935) p. 63, IIRA. Division 
of Hevic?/, . ■ ■ 

(**) It should be notec that these r.ieasurements a,re of average earnings 

per average v/eeh actually wor!':er , whereas, in Ciiopter I, the nearest 
comparable jiayrol.l period used was the average nonnal full-ti.ne weeh 
Por trii- reason, the two series are unfortunatel." not comparable. 



9851 



per v/eel: of emploj^ees in na-.iufactm-i:ig incustries dropped 49.3':. to $14.53 
in Harch 1933. (*) Average reo,l earnings per wee]: (in 1913 dollars), 
or porchasini^: pov;er, on the otiier mnd, diminished 35.3^3 fr'->ni the third 
qu.:irter of 1929 to March, 193: , 

Comparing thi3se trends rith those of average money and real earnin s 
per hour in manufacturing shova ahove, the loss in the purchasing povrer 
of a week's earnin^ s, exioerienced by employed lahor in m^mufacturing 
during the depression, was princi ■ally due to shortening of the time vrorhed 
-per v/e ;h. Table V furnishes grapnic evidence th.-.'.t ohe decrea--.e in the 
cost of living of employees in manufactu:''ing from the micdle of 1929 to 
March, 1933, v;hile cufficient approxiraatel''' to of set hourl;^" vrage cuts, 
was far outv/eighed hy reduction of the nuiiher of hours v.'02'j:ed per week. 

The decline of tne cost of living during the depression, 23. 9^^ 
was pr<:.ctically the same -as the 22. 2p drop in average money earnings per 
ho'jj: in rruiniifacturing, one of the two facto-'-s in the determination of . 
avera. :g money earnings per weeh. This left the rcraainin factor, average 
hoursper weel':, as practically the sole cauje of c'nange in the level of the 
purchasing -oower of average money earningr:- r)Srv;eek in manufacturing. The 
33,8,0 redxiction of rverage hours ;ier vTeel: was almost exactly equal to 
the 33,3^ decline in average real earnings per v/ech, 

(*) These points of measurement are" the thir'.'. quiirter of 1929, raariting 

the heginning of steady recession of average earnings, per weeh in 
manul ^'.cturing, a,nd March, 1933, mar]:ing the lowest point reached 
hy such avera^.e e.; rnin^js per we'ek, Letv/een Lia,rch andjune 19^:.3 a 
suhstantial incre;~se took place, ov/ing lo.rgei}> to the pre-H?Jl 
industrial "boom crused 'by iia-iending cost .',nd: prion increases un'ler 
HEA. Average hours --'eT week in man^jfacturing, according to the May, 
1934 "Sup-donent to Conference 'Bor-.-c Letter" of the llational 
Industrial Conference 3oar;:' , increased 29.3'^j from 52.1 hours in March 
to 41.5 hoLirs in Juiie. 



9851 



-,-ib- 



TA3LL IV 

i^raHAG-z SAprji:"G-s pzr '.'jIe:: o? e-ployses 

li: ALL ilAruTACTinilllff (a); 19 2*^- 19 33 



Date 



r.onei'' Earnings 
Per '.."ee]: (b) 



Real' Earnings 
Per 'feek 
(1913«100) (c) 



• Average^ 1939 

1st Quarter, 1929 
2nd Q;aarter, 1929 
3rd Quarter, 1929 
4th Qaarter, 1929 

Average, 1930 
1st Quarter, 1930 
2nd Quarter, 1930 
3rd Quarter, 1930' 
4-th Quarter, 1930 

Average i 1931 
1st Quarter, 1931 
2nd iTuarter, 1931 
3rd Quarter, 1931 
4th Quarter, 1931 

Average, 1932 

1st Quarter, 1932 

2nd Quarter, 1932 

3rd Quarter, 1932 

4th Quarter, 1952 

January, 1933 ■ 
Fetruary, 1933 
i.iarch, 1933 
A-oril, 1933 
Ha7, 1933 
June, 1933 
Average, 1933 



28.52 
23.58 
28.70 
28.53 
28.06 

25.34 
27.39 
26.71 
25.07 
24.17 

22. 64 
23. 83 
23. 33 
22:23 
20, 68 

17.07 
19.05 
15,38 
15.69 
IS. 67 

16.22 
16,23 
14.53 
15.49 

XU. -JO 

IC.GO 
17.71 



15.47 
15.57 
15.60 
16.54 
16.16 

15.28 
15. 87 

IT r '~' 
J. CO 

14.91 



14. 57 
14.86 
15.33 
14.62 
13.85 

12.25 
15.12 
12.01 
11.44 
12.40 

12.21 
12.27 
11.03 
11.82 
12,91 
14.33 
13.42 



(a) See footnote (a) to Tatile III. 
(h) See footnote (b) to Table III. 
(c) See footnote (c) to Table III, 



9851 



-29- 



TA3LZ V 



CO'TAHISO," Cr C:i41'53S DmirG TK2 DEPPJISSIOi: 
Hi THE LEI/ELS O:'' A'/EHAC-E i:0:.!EY AltD 
ZEAL EAPiTI^GS PEP HOUH AID PSH 
'.TEEK HI ALL ; .'AlTUPACTirpJl'G 





Cost 
of 


Average 
Hotirs 


Avera.ge 
V.onej 


Average 
Heal 


Average' 
; :onei- 


Average 
Heal 




Living : 

(1913=100)' 

: (a) : 


Per 

T/eek 

(^) 


Earnings 

Per I'oiir 

(c) 


Earnings 
Per Hour 
(1913=100)' 
(c) 


Earnings 

Per T'eel: 

(d) 


Earnings 
Per '..'eek 
•(1913=100) 
(d) 


Third 
Quarter, 1929 


173.1 


48.5 


■ .590 


.341 


20,63 


15.54 


I.Iarch, 1933 


131,7 


32.1 


.459 


.349 


14. 53 


11.03 


Percent 
Chaj.i:Se 


-23.9 


-55. C 


""'O o 


42,4 


-49.3 


r7 r? (-7 



(a) Erora Talile II. 

(b) 1929 data fro'.n "Uagos in the United Str.tes, 1914-1930% 
national Industrial Confere'ice Board, -oage 44; 1953 data 
fron "Sup-oleinent to Conference Board Service Letter", 
national Industrial Conference Board,- l.;a/', 1934, 

(c) Eron Taole III. 

(d) Erom Table Iv. 



9351 



-SO- 
UL- aVEEAGE Ma^HL EaRIIIKGS PEE EiviPLOYED WOEKEE 

The average amounts actually earned per year ty vage earners since 
the de-oression are not knovrn. Some approximation to the ;-novement of an- 
nual earnings may "be obtained for manufacturing industry by dividing the 
total nages paid by the average number of errployed y^age earners, as shoi.m 
by the Census of hanuf acttires. The results of such divirions, as pre- 
sented by the Bureau of Labor Statistic, ai'e f-iven in Table VI for the 
years 1929, 1931 and 1S32. It is iripor tant to note that these results 
measure the average araounts received by those Fc;.ge earners T'ho vers em- 
ployed for the average length of time rhich ^'as Forked 'hy those whose 
names appeared on the oayrolls. The annual earnings given in Table VI 
are not coi-roarable vith those described in Chapter I for tv-o reasons: 

(1) The figures available since 1929 apply onlv to manufacturing 
industry. 

(2) llo a.ccount is taken of loss of earnings by reason of unemploy- 
ment, except such tmemolo5''ment as is re'oresented by the pay- 
rolls. The annual earnings given for the nre-depression per- 
iod had been oeflated to take a.ccount of all unemployment. 

On the other hand, these census results fall to measure the annual 
earnings of rull-time i-'orkers. Just because they do include loss of earn- 
ings of v'orkers vhose neames appear on the payroll but ^'ho have left em-'. 
plo;;'ment before the end of the payroll period r'hich is taken. (*) 

In spite of all their defects, there figures on annual ea.rnings are 
north some notice, since they furnish a measure of the decline in earn- 
ings of the average employed I'orker. As a result of the depression, the 
annual earnings, even of these employed i/orkers, declined by "'3,9}^ from 
$1315 in 1929 to $869 in 1933. Table VI also shov/s a decline of 13.3^- 
vhen these annual earnings of average ennloyed vorkers are computed in 
dollars of constaiit Durchaising pover. 



(*) Co-mprre Douglas, "Beal T/ages in the United States" , p. 218 and 
■j.ionthly labor Eeview, Aagu.st 1935, p. 431. 



9851 



-31-- ■ 

TJfflLS VI 
AVEIUGE E.JlillNGS PER YEiiT: OF E1.TL0YEES Hi ALL 
HiinjE ACCUSING; 1929 - 1931 - 1953 





Avcra,:;o 


Average 


Year 


inoney 


Real Earnirii^'s 




• Earnineis Per 


• Per Yeex- 




Ye;ir (a) 


(1913=100 (1)) 


1929 


:i;l,31.5 


$759 


1921 


1,110 


719 


1933 


869 

— — ■ 


658 



(a) Eroia trie "Monthly Later Heview" , August, 1935, op 431-432. 

(b) For uethod of conoutetion see footnote (c) to T; "ble III. 



9851 



-32- 

IV. Ul":EiEPLOyi>jiEHT 

In order that a proper perspective may "be kept on the effect of the 
doTDression on lahor, its effects on eimoloye d la'oor noted in this Chapter 
mutt 'oe considered in connection v-ith the tremendous increase in unem- 
plojTment during the period. (*) 

Kot only vas there a 35 l/3^J decrea.Ee in the -ourchasing povfer of the 
average earnings per week of employees in manufacturing (**) hut also the 
numher of employees in manufacturing, receiving the earnings indicated, 
ras over 4-',- million less in March 1933, than in the third quarter of 
1929. {***) So far as all Industry, raanuf,?cturing and non-manufacturing, 
is concerned, the numher of employed decreased 43.1;1, from an estimated 
47,749,000 to 34,716,000 during the same period. 

V. EARNINGS BY INDUSTEIES, STATES, AMD CLASSES OE LAPOR 

The movements of earnings during the depression in specific indus- 
tries, certain classes of lahor, anc individual . states, shc^vn in the ap- 
pendix tables, while ^"idely varying, in the main hear out the conclusions 
reached ahove as to trends in all Industry end. in all manufacturing. 

These tahles may he grouped by subject matter, as follows: (l) 
average eprnings in individual industries in more than one yesr; (2) 
average earnings in individual industries in a single year; (3) actual 
earnings in individual industries in more than one ye.nr, showing the 
"frequency" oistribution of employees receiving classified amounts; (4) 
actual .eaxnings in individual industries in a single year, shovring the 
"frecuency" disuribution of employees receiving classified, amounts (****); 
(5) average erjrnings in individual states in more than one year, by in- 
dustries; (6) average earnings in individu.al states in a single year, by 
industries; (7) actual earnings in individual states in more than one 
year (freqtiency distributions); (8) actual ecxnings in individual states 
in a ringle j^^ear (freauency distributions); (9) average earnings, mis- 
cellaneous, in more thgji one year; (lO) average earnings, miscellaneous, 
in 8, single yeax] and (ll) actual earnings, miscellaneous, in more than 
one year (frequency distributions). 

(*) This is treated at length in the study "Unem-oloyment and Reem- 
plojTnent, 1909 to 1935", now being 7-)re-oared by Anne Page of the 
Reemployment Unit, Labor Studies Section. 

(**) see Table V 

(***) All data on employment are from the stud^r, "UnemolojTnent rjid 
Heemplojonent, 1909 to 1935" by Anne Page of the ReemiDloyraent 
Unit, Labor Studies Section, and arc based on estimates made 
by the President's Committee on Economic Security. They reiD- 
rcsent the number of individuals eraplo3^ed ra.ther than the num- 
ber of mcUi-hours worked. 

(****) Freqtiency c ir-tributions are given not only to show trends of 

earnings, but to show the actual low levels to ^^'hich such earn- 
ings descended. 



9851 



-33^ 
APPMDIX I. 



I. METHODOLOG-Y 



The methods used in the present report are limited "by reason of 
lack of time and money to an eiculorption of already existing materials. 
It has been possible, however, to bring new recent data on cost of liv- 
ing to bear upon the subject of chnn!^'Gs in real wages. For the second 
chapter dealing with wages during- depression, time has been lacking even 
for a comprehensive survey of existing materials available in scattered 
reports of federal ;ind state bureaus. 

II. ADDITIOiiAL ESSSARCH HEEDED 

Additional analysis is required for a full treatment of the course 
of wages during the period of prosperity to show the trends in wage rates 
for particular industries, occupations, and other significant subdivisions. 

Additional data needed for Chapter II are as follows: 

(1) Analysis of the trends of wages and earnings 
according to industry, occupation, sex, race, geography- 
ical area, and unionization, 

(2) A discussion of the effect of unemployment 

on average annual earnings, based on Chapter 26 of 
Douglas' "Real Wages in the United States, 1890-1926", 
and other sources. 

(3) A summary of additions to working-class 
incomes other than increased real earnings. This 
would be based on Douglas' "Real Wages in the United 
States, 1890-1926", Chapter 27, in which it is esti- 
mated that the total gain in the purchasing power of 
the employed vvorker from 189C-99 to 1926 was 55fo, made 
up of gains of Z5fo in real earnings, Sfo due to de- 
creased unemployment, 5fj from a decrease in the number 
of dependents, and 7)j in free income from additional 
social services provided by State and local govern- 
ments, increased charitable and private donations, 
and added benefits from welfare work, pensions, and 
workman's compensation (minus a possible increased 
cost of urban life and greater use of public services 
by the middle class). 

(4) A comparison of Douglas' coniputations of average 
annual earnings with those of Paul E. Brissenden, 
contained in his "The Earnings of Factory Workers", 

a Census Monograph, based on Appendix A to Douglas' 
"Real Wages in the United States, 1890-1926". 

(5) A comparison of money and real earnings, per hour, 
full time week, and year, in index numbers. 



9851 



-34- 



APPH'inx II 



PART I 
C-ZIT':PAL T.-.7L3S 



^;85i 



-35- 
Tgble I 

Trend of fversx'f e? rnin^r-- vct Iiour, 
by iiicufctry e.ncl sex. 



Industry Aver^te e- ruin£,s r.er hour 
and sex 



T^efore i9''9 lsT:> 1930 1931 19rs2 1953 





Zoots c: Shoas 


















ii?les & i'cmales 


.530 


(192B) 





.510 





. 41 3 







-•'-?. les 


.625 


(192^) 





.604 





.493 







1 Females 


.■^-7 


(1:^2^^) 





.332 





.308 







Coal i.'ining-, &ntiiT?cite 
















liinsi's & ininei's' 


















laborers, irf les 


1.063 


(1924) a 








.924 


a 







2 All othars, m-"-los 


. 637 


(1924) 








.660 








Coal minin^, ■citvjninou& 


















fiiners c: I'jao.ers, 


















males 







.687 a 





.599 


n 


.395 a 




3 All others, males 







. 605 





.5 -'5 


— 


Ll'Z 




Cotton ^oods 


















nales c: Females 


.334 


(l..;8) 





. '"^^.j5 





.266 







iviales 


. 345 


(1928) 





. "46 





.284 







4 Feap.les 


. S ?6 


(1930) 





.293 


— - 


. 234 







Textile dyein,- e; finisix- 


















ing 


















L.a les ^ Tomales 










.452 





.400 







iviales 










.473 





.418 







5 FenB.les 










. 335 





.291 







Joiinarios 


















kales i-. Females 







. 624 - 





.600 





.482 




;..al;3S 







.625 ■ 





.601 





.483 




6 J emales 







.451 





.422 





.314 




Furni ture 


















iv.ales ic Females 


■ 




.■490 




.411 










i:aies 







.499 


. 


.416 










7 Females' 


. 




.345 





.314 










Ho s i e ry 


















iv.ales ci; Females 


.438 


(1928) 





.497 




."76 







kales 


. 724 


(1928) 





. 707 




. 494 







8 Females 


.360 


(1928) 





.366 




O To 







Iron ci Steel 


















Males 







. 674 





.663 










9 



















9851 



-3C- 



efore 19^:9 195S 1930 19^1 19^2 1933 



Midline Shops 

iiales & lomalos 

f..==les 
10 Ter-iales • 







. 638 
.641 
.393 




. 634 :. 
. 637 
.408 





. ^^1-0 

■ . 545 

.351 


iv.en'f Clothiiig 
















Lsles i: Fcinalor. 


.731 


(1928) 


__.:. 


.701 





. jQ& 





i.iales 


.924 


(1928) 





. 385 





.641 




11 Females 


.534 


(1928) 





.->04 


— — _ 


.351 





Motalliferous mining 












12 Males 


.059 


(1914) 








. 'jS- 








Motor Vehicles 












Males ■& Fcmelos 


.7o0 


(19 28) 





.7 34 





. 628 





Males 


. 756 


(1-28) 





. 733 




.638 





13 Females 


.437 


(1C2S) 





.^-^s 





. 361 





Portland Cement 
















ii.ales & Females 


. — 




...IV 








.4('i] 





.ales 


— 




.ul8 








.401 





14 Females 


— 




. 3' :: 








.386 





Pottery 
















Semi-vitreo\is 
















iVales t- Females. 


.596 


(19:>.) 


— 








. 4.;.0 





Males 


.VOo 


(1^'^-) 


— 








...''D 





Fema.les 


. 38-i 


(19 ^L,) 


— 








. 2'-' 2 





Vitreous 










- 






iwales Hz Females 


. J U 


(19J.0 


— 








. 438 





Males 


.638 


(1925) 


— 








. ".)46 





lo Females 


. "29 


(192.) 


— 








. ":64 





E?yon & Syntnetic Yarn 
















Males- & Females 







— 


. 441 





. 359 





i, tales 







— 


...04 





.408 





16 Females 







— 


. "4-1: 





-1 .r* 





SaFmills- 




. 












17 Males 


.371 


(1 28) 


— 


. ■ -J • 





. 256 




Slau^ i.terini- i-, meat- 
















-■:ac".ine 
















jiales &. Femples 







. o04 





.449 








iv;ales 







. 9-;5 





. 470 








18 Femiales 







. r-69 


-. — 


.321 









9851 



-37- 



seiT'i'e 



1"'29 lc.7-0 19?! 



Undorvear, knitted 
Hales & Females 
i.ftlep 

19 Females 



."54 (1P23) 
.<5:'. (1938) 
.339 (1928) 



.r,57 

. 458 

. "TO 



1932 1933 



. 292 
.403 
.260 



YjoGlen cc VJcrsl"ed &oods 

kales f'^ Femeiss 
..ales 
20 Females 



, -:60 

51^^ 



.."94 
. '.-47 
."27 



Air Transport: 

Ground. Fersor/iel: 

Males o; Feinalos 

kales 
21 Females 



.640 
. 645 
.4'."7 



.608 
.613 
.457 



"koiithly Labor Feviev:" (J.uiy, l'- 3) of tna -'ureau of Labor 
Statistics, U. S- i,GO'~it„ent of Labor. 

a Fascd on ir^oure.at i^ ce or i s- - of coal in mine, mciuoin^ timo 
for. lunch. . 



'851 







Trend of avei 
per wee^c, 


■ -38- 
Tatle II 

'age full-time 
If;- indur.trv 


earning 
FJid sex. 


3 








Indaistr]/- 
and. sex 






Average £■' 11- 


time earnings ] 


)er v/eek 








Before 1929 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 




1 


25.02 
30.63 
19.53 


(1928) 
(1928) 
(1928) 






24.94 
29 , 48 
18.38 




20.15 
24.11 
15.05 






4 


17.30 
13.60 
15.66 


(1928) 
(1928) 
(1928) 






17.35 
13.53 
15.50 




14.20 
15.25 
12.40 







5 










23.01 
24.12 
16.92 




20.52 
21.49 
14. JO 







6 








31.32 
31.88 
22.41 




30.13 
30.23 
20. 35 




23.31 
23.86 
15.17 




7 








25.43 
25.00 
17.42 




21.29 
21.59 
15.64 









8 


25.42 
37.94 
18.68 


(1928) 
(1928) 
(1928) 






25.94 
37.05 
19.07 




19.51 
25.79 
15.10 






9 









35.48 




34.53 




— « 




10 








32.09 
32.24 
19.67 




31.57 
31.72 
20.07 




25.19 

25.43 
15.64 




11 


32.16 

40.75 
23.44 


(1928) 
(1923) 
(1923) 






31.05 
39.21 
22.28 





22.47 

28.40 
16.06 






12 


29.63 


(1924) 








28.34 








IS 


37.05 
37.35 
24.50 


(1928) 
(1928) 
(1928) 






35.70 
22.06 




30.40 
30.82 
18.23 





9851 



-39- .. 
Talsle II (Coiitiimed) 

Trend of average full-time eaTningi? 
-oer '"^eek, 07 irdii^.ti-" and sex. 



Industry Average full-time earnins:s per veel: 
0.110. se:: 



Before 1929 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 



31.43 CS.Go 

14 31.49 23.70 



20.23 13.76 



32.14 17.30 

IS 2^3.75 19.83 



15. 8G 13.47 



17 21.00 (1928) 20.28 14.28 



• • . . 24.80 22.09 

18 25.88 23.12 



18.04 15.70 



17.70 (1928) 17.96 14.80 

19 • 22.92 (1923) 23.31 20.85 

16.33 (1928) 16.57 13.16 



22.82 19.82 

20 ■• ■■ ■ 25.65 22.62 

19.40 16.35 



■ 31.56 30.25 

21 31.89 30.35 

23.05 21.39 



"llonthl:" Labor Review" (July, 1933) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
U. S. Ee-partment of La,bor. 

a Srr.ed on hours at face or zean of coal in mine, including time for lunch. 



9851 



-Aru 



Table III 

Trend of average actual earnings 
per week, by industry and sex. 



Industry 
and sex 






Avera,ge 


actual earnings per 


wee?: 






Before 1929 


1929 


1930 


1951 


1932 _ 


1933 




1 


23.75 
28.14 
17.64 


(1928) ■ 
(1928) • 
(1928) • 





21.62 
25.79 
16,04 




16.62 
19.73 
12.58 




2 


81.82 
67.23 


(I924)a 
(19 24) a 






73.57a 
66.02a 







3 






49.85a 

52.57a 




33.82a 
41.58 a 






4 


13.56 
14.76 
11.99 


(1928) 
(19 28) 
(1928) 





13.83 
15.19 
11.98 





11.78 

12,91 

9.87 





5 








22.29 

23.99 
14.20 




19.99 
21.37 
12.65 





6 






'30.39 
30,50 
19.08 




20.05 
20.13 
12.40 





14.25 

14.28 
9.51 


7 







24.52 
25.12 

16.03 




16.88 
17.22 
11.40 






8 


23.01 

36.28 

• 16.46 


(1928) 
(1928) 
(1928) 


32.06 
32.30 
18.41 


20.83 
31.85 
14.66 




15.53 

21.80 
11.54 





10 


24.22 
24. 3S 
15.85 





18.71 
13.87 
11.93 


11 


29.64 
38.51 
2107 


(19 28) 
(1928) 
(1928) 





26.48 • 

34.84 

18.24 




18.87 
24.75 
13. 01 





9851 



-41- 
"Before 1929 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 



35.14 (1923) 25.01 20.00 

13 35.56 (1923) 25.40 — 20.36 

20.04 (1923) 13,86 11.09 

29.25 18.35 

14 29.33 18.39 

18.12 10.52 

43.27 (I925)b 25.93t 

52.44 (I925)b 31.741) 

15 26.54 (I925)b — 15.9513 

42.23 (1925)1) 19.15b 

53.25 (I925)b 25.03b 

25.47 (I925)b 10. 72b 

19.76 16.64 

16 23.53 19.51 

14. 55 12.55 



17 19.03 (1928) 17.46 10.25 



24.18 20.38 

18 25.45 21.57 



15.54 13.61 



15.36 (1928) 14.50 11.08 

19 21.76 (1928) 20.65 17.72 

13.89 (19 23) 13. C4 9.56 

18.73 16.13 

20 21.97 19.26 



15 . 19 12.59 



31.05 30.25 

21 31.89 30.55 



23.85 21.48 



Source: Ibed 

a) Per half month rather than one week. 

b) Per two weeks rather than one week. 



9851 



TABLE 4 
UTAIL lERAIB: AVERAGE AITNUAL EA51TINGS OF FDLL-TIME TORKERS ONLY 
By Kind of Business - 1929 1933. 



Kind of Business 



J Average annual 
i earnings of fioll- 

J time employees 



Percent of Change 



1933 



1929 



UNITED STATES {, 

Food group 

Grocery stores 

Combination stores 

Meat markets 

Candy & confectionery stores 

Dairy products stores 

(including milk dealers) 
Bottled Beer & liquor stores 
Otner food stores 
Resta'uraaty& eating places 
Eating places 
Drinking places 
Farmers Suj^lies & country gen'l store s 
Country general stores 
Fanners' supply stores 
General uerenandise group 

Dept. stores, including laail order 
Dry-goods stores 

Variety stores, S^lO'ts'l. 00 stores 
Other gen'l, merciiandise stores 
Apparel Groxtp 

Men's stores 

Wo.-.en's ready-to-wear spec. stores 

Fani'iv clotning stores 

Snoe sLnres 

Acc«ssorlt^ „4. ,^«„„„i _i 



Automotive group 

Motor-venicle dealers 

Accessories tire, battery dealer: 

Filling stations 

Gai-ages & repair shops 

Other automotive stores 
Furniture & Household Group 

Furniture stores 

iiousehoJ^ >-^<i appliance stores 

Hadio stores 

Other furniture & h.hold stores 
Limber, Suildinie: & hardware ^r oup 
iiusber dealers 

Hardware stores, incl.fara "implemsiits 
Heating & Plunbing stores 
Other building 

(paint. glass, & electric) stores 
Cigar stores 
Coal A Wood yards 
^ru^ stores 
Jevfelry stores 
Nev.-sdealers 
Other Retail Storer 
Second-hand stores 



$986 



1,074 
1,019 
1,035 
1,133 
748 

1,478 

984 

944 

573 

669 

781 

846 

788 

978 

935 

990 

383 

750 

894 

1,10.4 

1,291 

991 

1,141 

1,188 

1,011 

1,041 
1,113 
990 
936 
1,070 
1,152 
1 223 
l,'o65 
1,107 
1,1C6 
1,143 . 
1,19C 
1,068 
1.125 

1,156 

873 
1,130 

985 
1,576 

678 
1,200 

896 



t $1.312 



1,284 
1,197 
1,250 
1,440 
895 

1,804 



1,189 
909 
909 

1,089 
1,025 
1,235 
1,126 
1,243 
1,078 
706 
1,092 
1,480 
1,769 
1,293 
1,450 
1,595 

1 ,. AfSO 

1,461 

1,585 
1,471 
1,208 
1,354 
1,408 
1,593 
1,531 
1,526 
1,559 
1,513 
1,579 
1,623 
1,430 
1,696 

1,370 

1,181 
1,463 
1,260 
1,783 

342 
1,562 
1,303 



-25 



-16 
-15 
-17 
-21 
-16 

-18 



-21 
-26 
-26 



-22 
-23 
-21 
-17 
-20 
-18 
+8 
-18 
-25 
-27 
-23 
-21 
-26 
-as 

-31 
-34 
-24 
-18 
-31 
-24 
-27 
-25 
-30 
-29 
•>C8 
-28 
-26 
-25 
-34 

•*36 

-26 
-23 
-22 
-23 
-19 
-23 
-31 



SOURCE: Monthly Labor Review, U.S.B.L.S., April. 1935. 
9851 



TA"3LS 5 

LuvTSKILLED ST-JIS? LOOP. 

TTa:;:e ^vates Per :Iour, 'oy City; 
IT'Uin'bei- Distrittition; October, 
19^8 - DeceulDer, 19G2 



CITIES 



''.''r'. ",'e ^.iptes Per IxOu.r 

Tot:a 

Uno e r 1Z(}: 

15^ end under 20 ip 

20(f; and undf; r 35^ 

.35^ and unr!' er 30r'' , 

30'i} and iinder Z-^:': 

o5'h r nd tine' er 40.^ 

40-^ r nd under 45c' 

■l-S-^ iv^d. r.nder "Oc: 

50-!^ rndv ■uuid er 55f*. 

5Zi ; nd under 60 } 

50i^ and vnd er 70rf 

70^ -nd imr''=r 80-^ 

■30^ and v--it'er C5;} 



Octooer 
1938 



.1. 

54 
119 
195 
301 
313 
fv93 
193 
353 
134 
194 

35 



Dec ember 
193 2 

8,733 

156 

133 

123 

346 

365 

389 

485 

193 

406 

90 
135 

13 
1 



;:or--tal7 Labor 3eview L. S. V'iS. Jul:,.', 1933 



■.51 



_A4._ 



TA.1LE 5 



C0~" or LA-30P. 

AveiVTe ".'c'"'.~e Hates Per '^oiir 

l3j^ ~e:jio.n; 1929 to 19.:;.l,r.nd 

J-imx".ry to Octqosr, 1933 



Year am? Tng- 
/ionth l•^nd 



1929 

1930 

1931 
1933: 



yj 



::id- 

die 
At- 
Lfvntic: tral: 



?",: s t : 
"ortli: 
Gen- : 



43 
37 



36 



'■'est : So\.it:i :I!-st 
"ort:.: At- : Soutli 
CeM-: l:>ntic: Cen- 
tral: :trfil 



37 
37 



?;j 



.36 
24 
■.20 



Test : Hotm-: ?p,C' 

SoutlT : tain : if- 

Cen- : : : ic- 

trnl : : 



31 47 
23 ■ 47 
■13 



/! 




6o 



.>•■ 



51 



39 
39 
36' 



Janua,ry 41 
Pe"jru/-r.3'' .'.-o 
I.'iarca -.'/■; 



April 

Hay 

Jime 

July 

Aii.:::us t 

Sentemoer 

Octoaer 



39 
34 



37 
40 
33 
40 
36 
35 
34 
34 
3/. 



40 
40 
40 
37 
36 
36 



42 
37 



31 
31 
31 



13 
21 
19 
20 
20 
20 
13 
18 
19 
19 



19 


24 


■ '45 


17 


23 • 


'44 


16 


27 


' 45 


19 ■ 


,24' 


44 


19 


'25 


'44 


19 


25 


/'.*''. 


19 


26 


44 


19 


2S 


■ 43 


1^ 


26 


44 


19 


27 


■^■4 



50 
49 
47 
42 
47 
47 
46 
47 
47 

AT 



33 



32 



32 



SCU2CL: :;o-;it:ily Lc-Tjor ?.evie',7 U. S. ':-LS. ::a::cn, 1933 



9351 



AV:^TAC-S EiTT?u4 'C", V'AGE TATES ?EH "01-?. 1^03 ADjI^T :iALE 
CO:.iMO'/ LA30?., Ill J3 ICTUST'^JES; 
JULY OF EACH YEAR, 19^?6 to 1933 



Avera 'e entrance ;7a:-'e rate -per hour (in cent5)_ 



Indus tr 3' 



1925 1937 1923 1929 1930 1931 1933 1933 



All Indus triee 4-2.3 .^!:?.6 <■•:!-. 9 43.7 43.1 41.2 38.1 35.0 

Autonooile 46.1 .45.5,, 57.2. 49.9 48.2 37.7 62.0 46.5 

3riclc, tile and •• •• , , . 

terracotta 40.7 42.2 39.4 57.8 58.0 33.9 23. 9 24.7 

Cement , 40.1 39.2 37.2 37.8 ^7.9 57.2 30. S 39.5 

Electrical machinery ._.. 

aToaratus, and su-'^plies43.1 .44.2 ,45.0 . 45.9 44.3 42.9 39.5 '37.1 

Eoundr:/ and machine- . . . ... 

shor) -oroducts.... , 37,1 37.8 38.4 39.8 39,0 53,2 34.3 31,3 

Iron and Steel .•^^2.7 43,2 42,5 42.5 42,1 41,8 31,3 33,6 

Le.ather , 40,9 41,4 42,3 42.2 41,9 39,1 33,9 31,5 

Lwaber (sa-nills 33,6 33.2 31,7 32,0 31,6 27.7 31,5 30,8 



SOU.iCE: ""ionthly Laoor "eview", U. S. :3.L.S. Dece.mher, 1934 



Pa.-oer Tid pulTi ,,....42,3 42,5 44,3 44,0 43,2 37,2 35,5 53,6 

Petroleun refining 47.9 -A.O 45.4 45.7 48.1 47.5 43.1 40.7 

Slsxi^htering and 

meat-T5Scl;ing 41,5 41.7 42,2 ^:3.0 41.8 41,7 34,5 32.3 

Puhlic utilities.. ., '':3.0 59.3 43.9 42,8 44.5 44,6 41.5 :.C.7 

Creneral contracting'; 47.1 43.2 47.4 43.3 47.0 42.6 39.9 33. 3 



)851 



ta;3LE d 
lot: IS I A" 'A: JO' -.or a.:d sz::i-3iaLLro laioi: 

Wa^e "" tes Per Dp,y 
3y Clans of Lc.iDor 
1?39 - 1931 



Class of Lr'jor 



Builri.iiiv L.-^oorers 

Canners ' ■ 

Clotxiinj-frctoi-y v.'or :ers 

ComiTion la"bor. 

Cottonseed— -^roc"^iict i-'orlcers 

Ice, li:\ t, rnc' liottlin:; workers 

Liimljerin:- nlant ^^orkers 

ilaval s bore'^ vorlrers 

Oil f iel'.' "'orkers. 

Pace ;;ill -'orkers 

Soj-ar can flelr' and far'n laljoj; 
S"ugar mill ^ orlrers 



Wage Hate 
Per day 



IS 39 



l.?5 
1.2b _ 

2,25' 
1.50 
1,75 
1,75 
^^.00 



1,15 
2.dO 



1951 



1.00 
1.00 
1,50 
2,00 
1,25 
1,50 

1,50 

o •-.; ■", • 
-,' • -J 

1,50' 

1.00 

*-> r\~\ 



. ours 
Per D ay 



1929 



1951 



10 


10 


10 


10 " 


- - 


' 10 " ■ 


12 . ^ 


• I?-. . . 


10 . . . 


■ ■ . .lO 


10 


10 


10 


10 


1'-^ 


. . 10 


•13 . 


. 12 


12 . 


12 


12 . 


. 12 



Scru.rce: "Monthly Labor "^.eview"U. S. BL3 Seite.ioer, 1932 



9851 



-47- 
TAZnS 9 

::ii:_i:soTA 

Avero.fe Wages Per TTeek, "by 
Industry; 'ler^rs Ending Jvne 
,30, 1931 and 1932 



Ind^istr;/ 





Avera.je Wages Per 





■ • • -iTeek 




Year Ending Year 




• ■ ■ Jime 30, Ending: 




1931 ■ June 30, 


• . 


1932 




..■.■-• '' ■^.7.ni ■; J5.D1 


.•.'..•... 


. .. ■ 'll.7>7 13-69 




M-..07 23.06 



All In(i".s try. 

Earnin;'; , 

Operating p.^ricriltiir^l .nacliinery.. . . . 

liininj. , ; '. ' oOi'il 

Qaarryin:; , 28. 50 

Stone Products ; ■ ■ ■29.34 

Clay Prof nets. . . , i • "';.50 

Brick r,nd tile ; . . . . i ' 2:3.34- 

■^-lass -iroriicts. . . . < i . . . ' 31; S5 

Ore reduction ?n6 sivielting .■ • . ; . ■ ■ 27.60 

'iiollin ; nills f~nd steel works. .■..•....•.:.••• 30,94 

Stractui-'l iron rnd steel ...•..■•' ' ' 30.44 

HetPl -^rocucts ■ ■■■ 27,33 

Eoundr i e s ■ . . ' ' 28 , 49 " 

i.iacl'.inery end instr'onents •■ •....•....■. ' 23,4-3 

Agriculturol mackiner;'' and irroleraents 23,19 

Vehicles 22,03 

Loggir-. 17,99 

Sa-.iT!ills, . . 24,59 

Plaiviiiv: rnd lath nills , 25.91 

Toodirrorkinj 25. 'il 

Leatker and fur 25,59 

Boots and s2.oes 22.28 

Puo'jer anc" conr^osition (]:oods ""5.35 

Chemicals rnc allied -nrodv.cts 26.07 

Paper and "oaper ;nroducts 34.52 

Printin,-: ard -nuoliskin^ 28,33 

Textiles ' 22.31 

Clotliin:, and f-arnishings 24, 14 

laundering, cleaning, and dj/eing 24.28 

Floii-r and grist mills 23.75 

Bakeries 25. 54 

Dairy Prodi^cts 50. 22 

Sla,uglitering and ine^ t ■■oacking -25. 79 

Brov-ing and "bottling o6. 51 

Other food products 24. 30 

I'iiscellaneoiis aanuf acturing 26. 87 

Wrecking and moving 22.95 

G-radin ,, excavating, f ounda.tions 26.05 



^5.70 
^5.61 
23.27 

26.20 



29.53 

•■:'2,77 

33. 77 

32.36 

25,86 

26,68 

27.22' 

■^5.43 

27,^.1 

20I43 
-^3.75 
23.03 
25.04 
19.51 
24.51 
24,17 
23.37 
25,11 
19.40 
21.15 
22,15 
25.48 
23. "^7 
23.53 
23.98 
25.56 
33.95 
27.16 
2'^. 55 
25.06 



9851 



_4!j- 



MIKTESOTA (-?) 



InrtLstry 



AverFi--:e '>.ges Per 
'.Teek 



Year Ilndin; 
Jiine 30, 
1931 



Year Ending 
J-une 30, 
1932 



Erecting .') "i. 29 

PinisMa: , eaui-yoinj, and installing 36.73 

Electric r^il'v^ys..^ ] 35.11 

Bus and truck lines 35. 36 

Garages :39 . 63 

Grain elevators 30.47 

Carta.ge and storage , • ■ ^5.67 

Stockyards , 34 . 14 

Teler)none rud telegratik. , ^e. 18 

Trans-oortrtion Id-^^ -"jTater. , 31.00 ■ 

Pulilic utilities , 33^34- 

Offices - "0.43 ■ 

Stores , '=3.56 

Yards not otkei'-rise classified ,?6.74 

Lunber vg^rds 3!^. 69 

Salesmen and outcide agents ■ ■ 31 .-78 

Domestic service...., 31.69 

Personal service ,. . . , •. . . 21.16 

Professional service. .■. . . . 23.98 

liuiiicioal anc" "oublic service 39.96 

;.ii seel lane o\is in^'ustries 30. 30 

Avirtion . . 3C.41 



iiOiirce: 



30,23 

26,10 

29.56 

27.36 

27.56 

23.55 

37.92 

27.04' 

27.60 

31.28 

25.36 

23.34 

25.72 

27.22 

37.39 

19'. 60 

22, 6 8' 

22.11 

23 . 55 

27.21 

31.70 



"■'ontkl^'- Labor ^.eview" U. 3. 'ZLS. August, 1933 



9851 



-49- 

ta:^^le 10 

:nEW YOEIi STATE JACTCHIES: AVZRAC-E EAHITIiTCr-' S 
PER ^•'EE!^; 1-.929 to 1933 



Year 



1929 
1930 
1951 
1932 
1933 



Average 
Earnings 
Per Ueek 
(a) 



$ 29.99 
28»81 

26»42 
22,73 
21.53 



Source: "I'lontlily Ija"bor ^evieyr'S U.. S. -B.-L.S. liarch,- -1934. 

(0 JTor all eiiroloj'-eBS in -ootj cJffic^ and slio-o, in re-oresent-'-tive 
Hew York St-te ■fact.or.ics. : • • • • 



-50- 
Taol e II 
Oiiio 



Average annutxl errnia^s of vfa,3e-eprners (a), 
by industries; 1929 to 197)2 



I n cur. try 



1929 1930 1931 1932 



All m:'.nu.facturing industries 

Leather c" Leather Products 
Boots, shoes, cut stock lc findiiig 
Tanned, curried & finished leathe 
Other leather & leather products 
Liquors c: Beverages 

Distilled liquors 

Llalt liquors 

Soda c, mineral waters. . . . 

Other liquors & bevera-;es 
i.Ietal c; Jietal Products 

(errcept iron Ez steel) 

Brass, hron^ie £z aluminum products 

Clocks, rratches c: ras.terialB 

Copper, tin 2c sheet-iron products 

Furniture cj office fixtures 

G-as c: electric fixtures & lamps & 
reflectors 

Jer/elry (including reducing & 

refining 

Other metals cS: metal products.... 
Paper J. printing.... 

Paper hags 

Pane;- fj paper bone 

Envelopes 

Lr.bels 8z tags. .... 

Paper, including stationery. 

Photo-eng^-aving 

Printing & publidiing 

Stereot-'-ping &. electrotyping 

Other paper & printing 

Rubber jjroducts 

Druggists' sundries & toj'-s 

Tires ci tubes 

Other rubber products 

Stone, Cla;^ &. Glass Products 

Cla.7, brick & tile 

Cement 

Concrete -oroducts 

Glass 



s, & arimcmg cup 



Marble c: stone work, stone yards. 
Pottery, terra cotta & fire-cla'"- 
■oro ducts. 



■ ••••< 



7all "olastcr, including h^'drated li 
Otner stone, clay & glass' products. 



,499 



1,096 
1,050 
1,430 
1,132 
1.275 



1,456 
1,559 

1 , 434 
1,564 
1,535 
1 , 401 
1,535 

1,247 



1 , 507 
1,518 
1,153 
1,111 
1,237 
1,035 
1,147 
1,386 

2, SIO 
1,522 
2,001 
1.331 
1,552 
1 , 215 



1,600 
1,306 
1 , 319 
1,291 
1,739 
1,333 
1,346 
1,953 



1,365 
922 
859 
1,344 
1,022 
1,178 



1,227: 

1,527: 
1,332: 



434 
654 

355 
456 
470 
239 
330 

336 

482 
376 
151 
099 
149 
061 
16V 

384: 

530 

915 

431 

450 

101 



492 
152 
137 
154 
620 
225 
190: 
838 



035 

443 
293 



1,185 
854 
816 

1 , 242 
882 

1 , 047 



1,365 
1 , 521 

1,155 
1,258 
1,305 
1,058 
1,200 

1,232 

1,212 
1,270 
1,160 
1,038 
1,103 
1,011 
1,317 
1,240 
2,158 
1,436 
2,000: 
1,338: 
1,254 

968 
1,294 

973 
1,096 

947 
1,455: 
1,©61: 
1,109: 
1,536: 

• 

1,123: 

1,302: 
1,092: 



960 
690 
650 
999 
177 
834 



1,151 
1,331 

973 
997 
1,113 
906 
956 

1,095 

1,079 

1,049 

1,139 

874 

900 

907 

1,204 

1,027 

1,950 

1,289 

1,730 

1,018 

1,011 

308 

1,040 

801 

908 

693 

1,136 

916 

959 

1,335 

734 

901 
776 



9851 



-51- 
Tab le II (Cont'd) 

Ohi 

Aver?.is;e annual ea-rnings of rrage-earners(a) , 
■b" industries; 1929 to 1952 



Indixsti^A 



1929 1030 1931 1932 



Vehiclef^ ■ * 

Aii^:)lpnes and part.s , 

Automobiles and parts « 

Children' s carriages &. sleds 

Carriages, wagons, & materials, & 

repairing 

Steam and street railroe.d ccrs... 

Ship and boat building 

Other vehicles ; •■ 

Iron i: Steel an,d their prouucts.... 
Blast furnace products. 
Boilers & tajijis. ...:.... 
Bolts, nuts, washers, & rivet.s.. . . ■ 
Calcula,ting machines. . . 

Cutlery cb tools 

Door cj sluitters (steel) 

Forgings 

Foimdrj- c: machine shop -iroducts. 
G-as engines & tractors. 

Ptiraps C-. windmills 

Safes & 'yatiltg 

Steel works c"; '.rolling mil 
Stoves & furna^ces. . .,. . . 
Tin plate & turn plate. 

TJire. . . . '. 

TTire v.'orlc, including wire, rope c; 

cabl? 

Other iron & steel & .their pro- 
diict S.J..... ■ 



Chemicals & Allied Products. 

Chemicals, " E.cids & wood dis:til^„a- 

tion ■ 

Fertilizers, tanka.je. 

Paint €: vf mi sh. ..-....,. 

Patent medicines & driag compoiands 

Petroleum refining .;..... 

Salt 

Soap, candles, grea,se & tallow... 
Other chemicals & allied ijroducts 



L'^junber and Lumber Products. 
Boxes & packing 'crates. . . 



504:1 
621:1 
272:1 

236:1 
725:1 
628:1 
58^:1 



7'^'5 
804 
639- 
336' 
569 
451 
651 
635 
598 
548 
455 
602 
928 
463 
876 



525 

442 

475 

595 
291 
486 
090 
548 
236 
401 
411 



■275: 

104: 



331: 


1, 


174: 


718: 


1, 


751: 


309: 


1. 


153: 


133: 


1. 


143: 


144: 




943: 


605: 


1, 


254: 


549: 


1, 


305: 


344: 


1, 


282: 


541: 


1, 


250: 


•940: 


1, 


855: 


514: 


1. 


329: 


160: 




947: 


531. 


1> 


197: 


133 




924: 


422 


1 


312: 


401 




993: 


599 


1 


15n: 


585' 


1 


532: 


415 


1 


204: 


345 


1 


155: 


762 


r 


395: 


291 


1 


094: 


G08 


1 


501: 


595 


:1 


549: 


558 


!l 


165: 


,359 


; 1 


104: 


,462 


:1 


370: 


,553 


:1 


,577: 


,268 


:1 


,089: 


,445 


:1 


,350: 


,114 


:1 


,119: 


,533 


:1 


,401: 


, 422 


.'1 


,453: 


,415 


:1 


,323: 


,391 


:1 


,290: 



•173:1,047: 
052: 957: 



934 

1,527 

916 

845 

759 
1,076 
1,2-0 

981 

959 
1,297 

1,068 
693 
954 
556 
795 
819 
895 

1,044 
899 
855 

1,088 
877 

1,223 

1,142 

1,340 

904 

1,220 

1,433 
929 
1,175 
971 
1,315 
1,359 
1,131 
1,130 

834 
743 



9851 



"52- 



Ta ble II (Cont'd ) 



OIil o 

Average annual errnin,5s of i.-'r^-ge-earners (a), 
"b^r industries; 1939 to 1932 



Industr-/ 



1929 1930 1931 1932 



Coffins c: underta';ers' suoplies ■ 

Cooperr/je &. related j<;oods. . . ;' 

Furnitu.re, including upholstering;.'. 
l'!atc-.ies ■• 

Sax/mill & planing mill prodnqts. . . . . 
TJood bending, turning & carving. ... . 
Other l-ui-n'oer ci lumber produc.ts. .:.".. 



Pood (T-. r.indred Products ■. • 

Bal'er " product s 

Cani'.ing & preserving ;' . . 

Coffee, spices Z^ peanuts (roasting & 

grinding) '. . .' 

Confectioner:/ , . . . 

Dair"- products c?: ice cream .' . . . 

Plour-nill & grist-mill products.... 

Food preparations 

Slaiv'htering & meat-paclcing 

Other food & Idndred oroducts 



Tobacco 

CheT'ing & smoking tobacco & snuff. 

Cigars & cigarettes 

Tobo.cco rehandlers .' 



Teirtiles ' 

Av/inings, tents, sails & aufo ifabric 
Cordage, tr/ine, jute Cc linen goods.. 

Custom tailoring ; 

Flags, banners & regalia. '. 

Cloth f:love s '. ._. 

I-Iosier''" Cc l:nit goods ' 

Mattresses, pillov:'s, & cotton felts. 
Lien's clothing, including shirts.... 
ililliner'"" C- lace goods, including ar 

cial flov/ors &.f eathars. . 

Silk & silk goods, inG?-Uding thro\vin. 
TTomen' s clothing, including corset 
TToolen, worsted & wool-felt goodsj i 

ing fur and felt hats 

Other textiles 



Miscellaneous Manufacturing. . 
Agricultural implements.... 



■ci 



■&» 



nc 



u 



1,369 
1,195 
1,290 
1,195 
1,311 
1,X51 
1,272 



1,331' 

1,509 

'839 

1,041- 

o93 
1,617 
1,323 
1,418 
1,480 
1,270 

360 
987 
617 

530 



1,026 

1,203 

■ 862 

1, 335 

1,037 

642 

886 

1,144 

995 

1,018 
1,;:^6 
1,091 

1,013 
1,110 

1,379 
1,358 



:1,343: 


1,271: 


:1,095. 


928: 


: 1 , 149 : 


1,013: 


: 1', 146 


1,171: 


: 1,231 


1,070: 


:' 1,052 


923: 


:l;r54 


1,017: 


:lV3-53 


1,212: 


: 1 , 380 


1,216: 


:• 699 


527: 


J 1-110 


. 924: 


:• 380 


797: 


: 1,335 


1,461: 


: 1,309 


1,159: 


1 1 , 336 


1,290: 


: 1,491 


1,340: 


: 1,294 


:1,057: 


: 327 


599: 


: 1,011 


1,003: 


: 579 


: 518: 


: 519 


: . 573: 


: 954 


• 355: 


: 1,106 


: 950: 


: 856 


: 807: 


:1,081 


• 985: 


: 963 


: . 894: 


: 545 


469: 


:■ 900 


• 755: 


: 1,133 


■ 979: 


: 925 


- ,870: 


: 994 


• . 936: 


: 1,193 


•1,027: 


: 1,010 


, 368: 


: 919 


792: 


:1,070 


• 987: 


: 1,235 


!l,196: 


: 1,275 


•1,150: 



1,054 
759 
753 
987 
855 
602 
343 

1,057 

1,095 

494 

957 

' '3^1 

1, 266 

1,153 

777 
1,139 
1,073 

507 

811 

■ 413 

493 

705 
769 
841 
824 
599 
346 
382 
798 
537 

7r-tr7 
OO 

905 
753 

' ' 544 
854 

940 
079 



9851 



-53- 
Table II (Cont'd) 



Ohio 

Average annual e3,rninjs of -jage-earners (a), 
V industries; 1329 to IS 32 



I.-dlk^tr-: 



1929 



1930 



1951 1952 _ 



;tor?^e "batteries. 



Dr^"- 

Coke 

Dentists' supplies 

Electrical machinery'-, apparatus &. supplies 

House furnishings, miscellaneous.. 

Manufactured ice. . .■ .' 

Llodels 1?: patterns (otner than pape 

i.iuni ti oh s . . . • 

Musical' insti-uments(9xcept pianos • 

Pianos, organs & materials 

Hadi s <?; part s. •. 

Hoofing materials ■ ■.'.... 

Signs €z advertising novelties..... 
Sporting & athletic goods.;....... 

To5'-s Cz games. . .'•'• • • 

Other miscellaneous manTifacturing. 



organs 



Construction 

Brich, stone & c.cment r-or':. .' 

Electrical' contr^-cting-. ' 

Erecting- (f; installing machiner;'''. . . 
G-eneral contrg-cting, including rrecking 
Oil, gas a: vrater,. drillin," or producing 
Painting & decorating. .■........."....... 

Plastering (including lathing c:; stucco ' 

Plumbing & steam fitting ; . . . 

Sand ti gravel excavating _. . . 

Slieet metal work &. roofing....'... 
Street, road' & scr/er contracting. 

Ventilating & heating. 

Other construction '. . 



70 



Service industries. 
Advert i sing. .... . 

3ah::s .' . . • 



Barbers & hair dressers...'.. 

Bowling alley's' & parks 

Churches 

Clubs (ccontr-j'-, golf, D.thletic & yacht 
Garages (including auto repairing).... 

Hospitals c; sanitariums 

Hotels • 

Laundries, dry cleaners & renovators. . 

Of f i c e s' ,•.;..... \ 

Office ■buildings( including windovir cleaning) 



rk 



504 
864 
338 
552 
633 
539 
111 



789 
558 
877 
855: 
247 
297 
065 
308 

568 
571 

941 
727 

'242 
825 
895 
051 
425 
557 
543 
-^57 
402 



ICO 

306 

008 

336 

045 

928 

067 

532 

904 

818 

1,066 

2, 4P4 

l,lr4 



333 
979 
213 
257 
493 
515 
592 



513: 
241 
928 
516 
239 
268 
990 
207 

545 
499 
739 
055 
625 
252 
?52 
951 
795 
339 
559 
258 
804 
5'r^l 

123 
192 
054 
135 
977 
874 
114 
502 
909 
858 
016 
742 
119 



183 
537 
379 
147 
382 
613 
720 



459 
109 
855 
540 
073 
034 
879 
082 

328 
306 
700 

,:910 

375 

058 
518 

533 
5.20 
105 
448 
010 
567 
320 



066 
050 
942 
059 
855 
024 
025 
280 
859 
779 
934 
1,708 
1,071 



992 
1,504 
1,205 

870 
1,004 
1,407 
1,253 



382 
702 
744 
1,115 
895 
930 
592 
881 

932 

936 

1,335 

1,509 

1,008 

917 

1,111 

1,154 

1,067 

905 

942 

356 

1,026 

328 

959 

• '844 

924 

877 

307 

948 

822 

1,014 

810 

584 

773 

1,659 

936 



9851 



-54- 
Table II (Cont'd) 

Ohio 

Avero.3e n/i-mial' ea.rnings of v/af;G-eo.rners (a), 
b^ incVj." tries; 1029 to 1932 



Industry 



1929 



1930 1931 1932 



Eestsxirants. . . •■ '. . .;. 

Schoo-ls c: aollegete. . . . .'. • . / 
Servants in- priv'rte homes'.'. 

Social agencies '. . • . 

■Ehea.ters. , .\ . . , 

TuCA <;. TiJCA-. 

Otlier • service. . . 



Tjiolese.le and.-retail tr:;de, 

Txioleqale .£; .retail store's. .'.■.. 
Iiwabcr, coal & scrap yards.". ■..' 
5.e,ti?-i:l; delivery (milk, ice fj vjatcr) 

Tra3}.R;;^:)or;t:ati.on-..& Public Utilities 
Drr^yage & storage..... 

Electrcic light & pfcwer 
Electric railroads:... 
l^iatiiral gas. ...... . '. . . . 

Pipe lines (petroloi^in) 
T8;::i co.Ta & "bus servi c e . 
Tel e/jrajoh £, ■ t el epho-ii e . 
Tr.a;ns;oD;rtatiQh b;-. 'Tater (-includinf; 

■%7'(i :: "' . 'Stevedoring)-. .■.-.■ 

Othe-r^ •t:r?'nsp'o:rtc(.tion & public utilities 



Agrieultiire. 



876 
1,655 
1,].14 
1,026 
1,605 

938 
1,277 

1,281 
1,258 
1,274 

1,050 

1,406 
1,407 
1,589 
1,589 
1,338 
1,255 
i,'354 
1,195 



All industries (manufacturing-, • construction, 
service industries, .■'.•/holesale'and retail 
trade, tr^'.nsportation, public utilities, and 
agri culture) . . . ; .■...;....., 



;,93i 

1,710 
957 



: 842 


. .. .920.: 


:1,773 


-1,745; 


: 1,107 


1,051: 


:1,087 


1,073: 


:1,:.30 


1,593: 


: 327 


792: 


: 1,382 


1,167: 


: 1 , 259 


1,217: 


: 1,216 


1,217: 


: 1,418 


1,053: 


: 1,782 


1,528: 


: 1., 402 


1,343: 


: 1,506 


1,365: 


: 1,380 


1,538: 


: 1 , 600 


1,498: 


: 1 , 307 


.1,358: 


: 1,501 


1,518: 


:1,072 


1,057: 


: 1,206 


1,194: 


: 1,855 


1,527: 


: 1,551 


1,500: 



1,457 



937 



1,343 



804 



1,137 



. 555 

1,57'S 
893 
967 

1,345 
738 

1,040 

1,054 

1,077 

852 

1,410 

1,199 
1,190 
1,413 
1,344 
1,159 
1,595: 
760 
1,114 

1,256 
1,213 

550 



978 



(a) rot including bocJldneepers, -gtenographers,' "office clerks, salespeople, 
superintendents, and. managers. ' ' 

Sources: 

A]-l .industries:" lionthly Labor '?-eviev..-, U. S. 3LS., J.-ariuarj'-, 1934 and 

A-.jril, 1935.' : ' ' ' 

All r.ian-ofacturing: .!'Ibid-. '', May, 1935. 
Leather,, liquors & m.etal_s;_ "Ibid. '", December, 1934. 
Paper^ rubber, . stone. i?/ vehicles: "Ibid.'", iviovember, 1934,' 
Iron: "ibid. ", 4,pi-ii, 1934; •'• 

Chemicals: '"Ibid, ",j Se]5tcmbbr, ' 1934. - ' 

(Footnote' continued oh ne:;t page.) 



9851 



-DD- 



(Footnote continued from -orevio".s 'oa;;;e) 

Limber: "Ibic.. ", Aivtirrb, :'PC4. 

Food: "Ibid.", J'Uie, 19o4. 

Tobacco, textiles, J; mi-ri^'.lr-.riGO'i!": "Ibid.", Janur.r", 1935. 

Service ind-urtries: "Ibid.", October, 1934. 

Trade: "Ibid.", ir.y, 1'3'i. 

Trrnsportrtion: "Ibici. ", ; ovenoer, 1934. 

Construction: "Ibid.", Octobar, 1935, 

Agriculture: "Ibid.", April, 1955. 

(i'ote - 1P33 crta cliould. be striven for some of these industries v/here marhed 
II-- ir") 



5851 



-56- 



«r\ 



■4 



M 






I 



0\ 


















^1 

4> at 



HrH 













W f»MO 






o 






>5 'B iH iH oMr> 






r-t ^ 



\rH CVi to 



K\ CVI 10 

cvi 3 K\ 



I ^^1 
(vj iH M in 



SO h-ff^ p OJ* 1^ 
a\ CM 09> <A <ueo<r> 



h- »o K\ so jf Jt cr 

iH 3F o to tr\V> a- 

to o Co h- r^vo <r 

vo VX> O >-4 vo ITiVO 



0^r-l to ic^t-^ Q 
rH o o> r-iri<r><r 






CM 

to 



CVI 

5 



r4 



CM 



to o> i-i r-o3 



O^ to h-KMTvQ 

C6 o O to r<^vp IT 

iH rH r- ir\rH CM ( 



CM^ r^ 
Q cv ir> 



K^CM On 
ITNVj 



^S& 






rH K\ Jm(6 to 



•2l CM 



VO i~-ir> 
g\^ in 

K\0 rH 



o to in in tAi-i 

t-vo in3- i-t t~ 

to o r^CM vo cr 

(TttO to ^ f~-ffv^ 



^^o to 
f^f^vo 
en to o 



O^vO inQ>.:tvo 
voinCTx vOCTvt~cr 

•-I CM O to inrH iH 



H ^ I-I in iH vo cri^ 

O 3 t— f— 1-1 rH IH in 



InrH^ CM 3- CTS . 
1-1 rH r— vo rH Ri «r 



vo Q 



r^cj 


o^ 


KVCTi 


in 


CVI l>- 


cr> 



jH-vp rH 
CM W VO 



O r~<0 vo CM rH O 



^ 



to sO I'A 1^ H 9\CM 
M K\cn rH iH K\ 



O to tn 



^S'K 



to to r* ^ 



in CM l<~>rH CM _ 

vo vo ■Ji^ CM i~-r-in 



<r> ;* rH (^ 



Invito "JiRTroto 

rH 3- rH <r>VO fO CM 



in r^ vo in vo 

l«> in KMw CM 

O a- vo r^ rH 



to 
o 



S 8 



J* in 



^ 



rH CM in 



i-i •<M^ 
CM ro 



to t-o 
mKi 1^ 



rH to to 
l^in CM 
to r^rH 

rOCM fH 
^VO J* 



^€'^ 



vo rH ri^O- 



?1?v{mS 
CM ONr^ >^ 

* • •» • 
K> to CM J3 

J* r-vo 



(Tt in rH in vo j^ in^ to cm on vp q s> < 

(T> h- r«-\0 cr> tor— fo inv4 r^ CM vo o r 

jt ^ K\h- O JFcm^ rH lis k\ ovovBi 



9851 




la u 

II 



t 




rH H • 



d 



„ ... >< rH 

4 41 i> PirH CO.. 

iHrH • m -ta -f ■** a S 

(•■d«ar-ia,04>«>o°>>H^ 






htiSSh^HOO 
iHt^ a P,H» *>r» 



M »4;qhQerHP(<>4e«h«H 

op d ^ i ** ^J''S ° - 

^ 3 a £« 









O O • rH 

i-t O r* i-t 

■■ o a 

•H O 

A • 

^ a 



in 






p 



CO 

t3 



pi 
o 
>4 



a 



IB 

o 



-57- 






H 









CVJ 



W 



I 









9 
g 



o 



H 



■4 






8? 







ITv 
CM 
O 



5 © 



rH BO 



CM 

CM 



5 3 



iH r~. o g> 
CM <r> i~- ;* 
eo r— o^ '-< 






OJ 
10 









to 
o 



5> 



CM 



O 



<r> J* 2> 
K^ 3> ON 
CTi o H 



CM 

CM 

to 

s 

o 



CO 

(M 



CM cH 

J* eH 






t % 






O 



^ 



^ t^ ro 
^ rH ;3- 



(M d CM (H 

r- -* CM J* 
vo CM o r- 






I 



to 






cr\ 
cr> 



lO to 

J- iri 

hi *0 

in vjo 



as 

CM 



t^ ITi ^ J* 
to K\ CM i>- 
(H ^«^ ir> vo 



O 



1-4 CM 
I*— -D 

S) (r> eo 



^ 



8 



00 o 
^ CO 

•a rH 






CM 



{? 

^ 



iri 



OS 



eo 

CM 

iri 






o 



^ 

s 



S5 






CTi 






.1} 



O rH 



■P +> 



ir. 

CT\ 



9851 



g 


• 






u 




Z /a 


■f 




o 


n 


t 


■% 


9£ 


o 


,S 


6^ 


6^ =8 



I 

o 



-58- 
TISLE 14 

viiaiuiA: qjj^^iazs 

Averfu.e H 'iv.ts V'-.r r-Iour, 
By Occa^a'oion iiia S.n.ce^ 
1951 



Occu-oation 



Stone Quarries: 

Blacksmiths 

Carpenters 

Crusuer plant Cien 

Drillers 

Drivers 

Electricians 

Engineers, firemen, brakefflen, 
motormen, cranemen, shovel c 

operators 

Foremen 

Laborers , 

Mechanics and machinists .... 

Pov/dor irfnn 

Power plant men 

iiope men and signal hoys 

Other occu'oations 

Slate Quarries: 

Blacksmiths 

Carpenters 

Crusher plant men 

•iJrillers 

Engineers, firemen, hrakemen, 
motormen, cranemen, shovel 

operators 

Eoremen 

Laborers . . . . , 

Machinists and mechanics .... 

Powder men 

Power "olcint men 

Rope men and signal boys 

Other occu-'?ations 

Sand and gravel: 

Blacksmiths ..,«.^ 

Carpent ers 

Crusher plant men 

Drillers 




Average Vvage, Per Hour 



$0A7 
.46 
• oo 
.36 
.29 
.47 



.44 
.58 
.29 
.51 
.40 
.34 
.50 



.o4 
.30 
.35 
.35 



.45 
.50 
.25 

.45 
.35 
.50 
.20 

.30 



.57 

.50 
.29 
.26 



Colored 



$0.31 
.28 
.32 



.34 
,45 
.29 

.54 



.55 



.50 
.28 



.25 

.23 

.25 

.23 
.20 



.40 

.35 
.39 



9851 



-59- 



ir,^;ini ■ 



■'^■ 



^■6' 



'UP.ri-ies 



(2) 



Aver.«;ie 'i'--.^,e Per Hour 



Occupation 




Colored 



Engineers, firemen, braic^.men, 
Motormeii, cranernen, shovel operators 

Foremen 

Laborers 

MachiuistB. and mechanics 

Powd;-r .nen 

Cth^'r occupations 



.35 

.31 
.50 

.30 



Source: iionthly Labor Heview, U.S. August, 1933 



9851 



-60- 



PA3T II 

i::dustt: tabljs 



9851 



-Gl- 







K^, 


J t 


U.I 


,-'-> 


rt 




rr-, 


1 H 


n 


rH 


t'J 


•rl 




n 


r; 


1 


n 


fH 




rW 


t^ 


rH 


HH 


w 






CD 


iH 


C3 


is 




H 


ci5 




FH 


U 




i! 


Ol 




LJ 


>, 




r ' 


•=lj 




o 






w 






■i 






1 













.* .. •• •• 


■ 




!'"> 


ir-. 


u-\ 


r ■ 




1-'^. 


CO 


CO 






o> 


rH 


rH 






rH 


.. 






Ri 






_ 




— ' 










rH C-^ 










Cj -P 










O -H 










O C 










^t. 


rH 










l'-^ 


^H- 


Jd-.. 


vjj 




o-\ 


'h 


rH 


'ro 




H 


•• •• •• •• •• 


C\J 






1^. 


'■£> 


r-- 


d ^ 




i "^ 


^ 


^ 


o^ 




C3^ 


'^ 


<T\ 




m 


iH 


•s 


•s 




CD 




I^\ 


CM 




CD 










>-, 










O 










r-{ 










P, 










r; 




-.^ 


rH 


i 1 


n 


r. 


0-^ 


.■H 
(_■' . 


V J 




O^ 


n 


»» 







H 





CO 









U \ 


.. .. .... •. 


... ^ 


rH 


!r^', 


CM 


ir-! 


K"\ 


c^j 


^o> 


• 


• 


• 


d tu >-■; 


rH 


o 


o 


rH 


+> !i'' (D 




t^ 


r^ 


Tvl 


o rt Q) 










•^ -H t- 










C! 






. 




(D Jh fH 










f,. C. -X) . 










<^ pq Pi 










^^ 




--X) 


■ en. 


IT: 


(D 


rH 


vr. 


to 


. D 


> 


^■<-^. 


• 


• 


. 


•=■1 


o> 


t—i 


rH 


K-, 




rH 


r^> 


K", 


CJ 


1 K 










iH tjj 


i^~\ 


n\ 


r— 


.10 


rH r; 


r'\ 


cv 


,tj' 


.--]■ 


'J -H 


■.^ 


» 


• 


% 


■.1 J."i 


rH 


o 


o 


r-! 


fi ^: 




r'--, 


r^> 


(•>! 


CD fj O 










i? r-1 o 




■ 






u o 




ir> 


' vo 


1^ 


a r' u 


rH 


-o 


c 


>,0 


> .H O 




• 


• 


• 


-Jl -:--■ m 


c- 


rH 


r-l 


I', 




,H ■ 


" 


KA 


OJ 






•• •• ^ '• •• 


K^ 


r-- 




K^, • 


o 


rH 


l.f^ 




r^. 


U3 


. . '^ 


^-j- 


CU ^^ 


C". 


• 




• 


CD w ;:i 


r-\ 








i. i^ o 










C-- -H W 










^^ C 










>1J f-1 ^ 










> Ct, (D 


rH 


c 


LPi 


r— 


^ t-l Ph 


r^, 


^ 


^ 


C1^ 






Vi.1 


VT) 


.zt 




rH 


" 


• 


• 






CD 




o 


r-t 




CD M 




r-\ 


ID 




rH '.0 


CD 


'■A 


to 




cfi '-.. S 


r-\ 








; n <D 


rC 


b 






' c. Ph 




i'H 



+^ 
u 
o 
P-i 
^1 



•s-\ 



4^ 




Cj 




Ti 




CD 




ti 


• 


•H 


CO 


cn 


tA 


+= 


m 


r; 




■H 


• 


C,i 


C/3 


H 


• 




t) 


o 




CD 


.. 


CD 


-tt- 




r^. 


O 


o^ 


r-H 


m 



,J 


CD 


r I 


-.H 


o 


> 


Vh 


CD 


, 


.cii 


r-^" 


^H 


01 


O 


•r^ ■ 


,a 


h 


Cb 


O 


1-1 


o 






J. -., 


r-\ 


iH 


crt 






4J 


•tM 


P! 


•rH 


O 



CD 
O 

CO 



-fi.?- 



i 



O 



o 
o 
o 

>H 

p-l 



9S51 

























iH 


r— 


I^ 




r — 








r-r- 


J- 


^ 




J- 


02 






('T^ 










Ql 






rH 










•H 
















r^ 
















•H 






t 










r-i 
















r-H 






.=)- 










O 






OJ 










O 






cn 


'Xi 


VD 




UD 








r-l 


Lr:-\ 


ITN 




ir> 










o--. 


O 




a\ 








rH 


CO 


o 




U.i 








K- 


vo 


o 




V.O 


CO 






(T- 


•. 






•k 


U 






cH 


OJ 


irl 




1^- 


(D '0 








, — J" 


(^ 






t.: fl 






















1 














' 
















^' 




"•D 




^ 








OJ 


3 


K' 




v:i 








o- 


LCi 


O 




^- 








rH 
.. .. 


"'' 


K^. 




rH ■ 













h- ■ 




to 








r-H 


r^, 


,■:!■ 




OJ 








(^ 


• 


• 












cr 


Q 


rH 




LPv 






^^^ 


rH 


P- 


r- 




vn 


M 




-P 




■to 








(D El' 




<■ ' 












0, -H 


fn 


o 


1 



















u fl 


0) 






rH 


LT. 




VC: 


0) fn 


p 


<H 


^ 




en 




^ 


^r^ 




rH 


OJ 


• 


• 








ri 


O^ 


LP> 


t — 




Lr\ 






^(7j 


rH 




r— 




VJ3 


05 
















^.T 


(D 






^- • 


•^o ■ 




OJ 


ri 


^ ' 


* — ■ 


r-[ 


o: 


v-J 




r-l 


T ! 


•H 


,^' 


t-"' 


l3 


IJ 




<--0 


•r', u 


•fJ 


6 


O'^ 


• 


» 




• 


f-i ''-1 




;'J 


rH 










i: o 


t , 


r J 




.<■ -'. 








r-i -^ 


r' 
•H 


,-l 


I 










(D N 




Th 


1 










; ; (D 


P> 


o 












Oj ft 


i-l 


t;H 




1 — 


LOi 




to 


u 


O 




J- 


LO, 


V£) 




a^ 


(D 


)" \ 




00 


fo 


O^ 




■ ur, " 


t> 


w 




o> 


• 


• 




• 


•al 






iH 


-K> 


















0) 














- I 


U 














Ul .p 


W o 




01 


S 








o o 


O ~ -H 




b <D 


O 








•H 


•H Oi C 


». 


•H S 


•H 








4^ rj 


-p r; 


w 


4^ -H 


■) = 








n f! Q) 


Ci3 -H !£- 


^ . ,. 


ci '■^ 


rj 








P, ffii a 


Ph E C 


CD K 


Oj 


p. 








;::* -H 


fi -H 


c u 




^ 








O Q) S 


o (1/ 't:! 


•H CI 


O 








o oJ 


O tH ;d 


r. f-i 


O T-l 


o 








O -H Q) 


O -H rH 


o 


O I'i 


o 








01 'd 


o; o 


'd r-O 


-p 










>H P-l -H 


.-H G ;■-; 


C c: 


1 — ' T- 










r^.H C. 


^ •-' -^ 


CS r-l 


r-; o 



en 

PI 
1/3 



rH 



-A 



> 



o 

,a 
cti 



o 



0) 

o 

^^ 

O 
CO 



-63- 

TJffiLE 17 
AUT OiXB ILE TIPJ: ItlDUSTRY 
Average Aimtial Earnings; 1929 - 1931 



Average 
Year Annual T.'age-e?rners EGtablinhraent: 

Earnings 



1929 $1,526 83,263 91 

1931 1,290 48,341 54 



SOURCx.: "■.-onthly Lator Review", Bureau pf La.oor Stati^.tics, U. S. 
Department of Labor, December 1932. 



9851 



_:34- 

TiiBLE 18 
BITUHINOUS COAL HIUIHG-, iLLEGIIEFi DISTRICT: 



Average Earnings Per Half-llonth., 
"by Occupation; last Half of Hay, 
1931, and a Tj'pical Half-Lionth 
in 1929. 



Typical Last 

Occupation half-'ionth half Percent 

in Ma;^, Decrease 

1939 1931 



Pick i;ining $52.91 $ 34.39 34.1 

Cutting <3: Scraping 87.67 58.08 22.3 

Lotoruen 65.79' 50.25 : 23.6 

Traclrla-^ers 52.92 44.29 29.5 

Drivers 57.89 42.22 27.1 

Timberiien 64.66 42.39 34.4 

La'borors, inside mine 51.56 35.91 30.4 

Carpenters aiid car repairmen 59.10 43.25 26,3 

Laborers, outside mine 45.95 29.92 35,3 



Source: "Iionthly Labor Review", U. S. B.L.S., December, 1931. 



9851 



-65- 

TiBLE 19 

EI TUIvilKOUS COAL INDUSTRY 

Trend of Average Earnings Per Hour, 
bv OccOTc-tion; 1929-1931-1933 



Year Lines t'a^;;e 

Earners 



Liiners and Loaders 



V/age Earners Other Than 
Miners ajid Loaders 



AvergrTG Earninfi's yer Hour 

Based on Based on Wo^e Average 

Time Time Earners Earnings 

at Pace in Mine Per Hour 



1929 535 99,405 
1931 469 90,063 

1933 444 78,695 



.687 
.599 
.395 



.626 


53,806 


.605 


.546 


47,725 


.595 


i357 


41,438 


.439 



Source: Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S, Departnent 
of La'bor, Septeinter, 1933. 



9851 



-66- 



i-i 
I 

CM 
r-1 



o 

•H 
-P 

•H 

?H 
4^ 

ra 

•H 



,5 




•H 



O 

03 



•H 

s 



^1 









o 
o 



o 






r— o u'>J- <M i-H K. OJ 



I rH 



I I I I 



I I 



I I 



CO 



H 



lo r^, r-i 



■H 

e 
I 

o 



OJ 



r-i 
C\J 



rH r-l J- O O VD j4 r^^-d- r-; ^ ^J" 
CTv^ O -=h OJ r-l bO >v.O 1^, M 

Lr^>^o Lr> iH ir\ to w;) o.i 



I rH I I I I I 1 I 



c-t 



-I 



U 



CT 

ej 
■cr 



rH 
1 — 



U) 

m 






LC^ 1 — 
r-l 



D .J ;d ir 

-■, OJ r-l H 



rH H K> I-", I I 



to r- 1^ o~A"i ~i ;"J r-\ r-l .~r 
l-.-^yjj yo ^ r-- OJ fr. r-i .zt 

^ Lo to o.! t J r^ r^ Lr> OJ 

ir\ O r-\ ^D y.O (M r-{ 
(X: O'l rH 



Cr\ 0"\ H H L^^VD I — OJ >.£) o ..^ i^ ,^ v,o o CTi to (J^ r^\ \r^^ 

bO UO O"^^ ITS I-— K■^^ r^ rH rH r^ ^ - cr> CTi WD i^ Ln,^- CO rH 
VD rH l'^ rH «3 ,:t J ^^ ^D -.O r^ P— J" CVI rH rH 



P 






O 



K> 60 r'^'-D ,--i OJ cr\ cxD r^^ oj r'{ 

r-{ r-{ ,-A r-i 



OOOOOOOOOOO 
OJ tv>i,:d- Lf>>.D r-- to o"^ o lr^ o 



'•■-- -••.}, -e. -t-v -t-,. 
o o o o o 
^- ir\U) r— to 




rH r I rH rH rH r-l r-< rH rH 

w -te- -t©- <-/> -f '> CO- -wh -to- -iO 



fH fl fl ^1 



U U 



0) (D 0) O d) 1) a. (D CD 



■d 'd 



d 'd ■.:! 'd 'd 'd ori 



ri ^ 



rJ >:: rt 



f1 s 
1^^ d 



o' OJ r<^ 

-C«--09--«>- 

^ lU fH 

O « 0) f-H 

^d 'd -d <u 

fi rt d ;■> 

rd ri j-i o 



a o o o o o 



'd ""d 'd t' 'd 'd Tj 'd 'd 

fi f! ri p! r; C S ;:: f? 

K nJ id i; r.. Cu tC cti ci 

O O O 11 ;'> o o o o 

O rH 0,1 K^^ lO^D r— to 

• ••«#•••■ 

rH rH . H rl r-H H r-; rH iH 

■y> -CO- !&?■ t"- -tx-o- -c/> -CO- -to- 



nd I'd 'd I'd 

sj rt a n 

i: K" c r: 

o o o o 

C^ O l.C^ o 

• • • • 

rH cv CO ^-^ 
-o>-.',o--e'>-o> 



rH 

o 

■ H 
4^ 



,-i 
o 



I 



c3 
o 



u 
o 

•rl 
CO 

f: 

•H 
•rl 






O 
!H 



m 

o 

HJ 
pi 

o 



•rt 

e 
I 

o 
d 

fn 
O 



U3 



•H 

o 



^1 

o 



o 

'CO 

r-^ <D 

to to 

fH -P 

<D d 

> b 

•H 

u c 



-I o 



cj 
0) 



ai o 



> o 

•H -H 

0? Q, 

o o 

*^ ^ 

<U '■d 

•• cd 

•d a:1 



o 
-d 
to 



n; 

p' Td 
•P rt 





^ rT 

d; ct 

O Oi 

•rl d 

+i U 

-P -rt 

tti Cu 

fH P, 

,o o 

(1) ri 

S o 

(U 
kj 

"nJ to 

u fH 

pq Oj 



,^ o 






O 
VD 



s:1 

H 



tn 
O 

0'! 

fl 
•H 
•4J 

<D 



^ 




O 

fH 

f/3 



9851 



-57- 

TA3LE 21 

Boot & Shoe Indu'.try: 

Trend of average earnings; 

1928 - 1930 - 1932 



Average 
Year earnings 
per hour 



Average 
full-time 
earnings 
per week 



Wage-Earners 



Estatlish- 
ments 



1928 .530 

1929 .510 

1930 .412 



26.02 48,658 
24.94 55,158 
20.15 49,666 



157 

161 
164 



9851 



-OS- 
TABLE 22 
BUS TPAxISPOl'TATIQi: IlIDUSTRY 

Average E-srnings, 'b;'- Se:: 
J-uly 1933 



SEX 



Average 
Earnings 
Per Hour 
Cn Eaty 



Average 
Ac tiial 
Earnings 
Per T7eek 




Males and 

Females $ .533 

Males .541 

Females 379 



$ 25.72 


8,911 


27.25 


8,349 


17.20 


562 



SOUHCS: Monthly Laoor Review U. S. ELS. J'one , 1934. 



9351 



-69- 



TABLE 2? 

CAIIS-SUGAR SEFirirC- IlIDUSTRY 

Earnings Per Hour, b^ Sex; 
Percent Distribution; 19o0 



Percent Distribution 



Earnings Per Hour 



Hale 

and 

Penal e 



Male 



Feraale 



9851 



Total 100 100 100 

8 and under 9 cents * * 

11 and under 12 cents * •* -^ 

12 and •'onder 13 cents * * 

13 and under 14 cents 1 ^ ''' 

14 and under 15 cents * * ~ 

15 and under 16 cents 2 3 

16 and under 17 cents 1 1 ^ 

17 and under 18 cents 1 1 " 

18 and under 19 cents 2 2 

19 and under 2C cents * * ^ 

20 and under 21 cents 1 1 ^ 

21 and -ander 22 cents 1 1 

22 and un.der 23 cents 2 1 13 

23 3n.d -onder 24 cents * * 

24 and under 25 cents * * 5 

25 and under 27-g- cents 2 1 ^ 

27-g- and under 30 cents 2 2 9 

30 and under 32^ cents 5 4 12 

32-|- and under 35 cents 3 3 7 

35 and under 37t cents 4 4 5 

37|- and under 40 cents 3 3 7 

40 and under 42|- cents 5 6 3 

42-|- and under 45 cents 3 3 4 

45 ajid -onder 47-| cents 7 8 4 

47^ and under 50 cents 5 5 3 

50 and under 55 cents 25 27 

55 and under 60 cents 7 8 

60 and under 65 cents 7 7 

65 and under 70 cents 3 3 - 

70 and under 75 cents 2 2 

75 and under 80 cents 1 1 " 

80 and under 85 cents 2 2 " 

85 and under 90 cents 1 1 "* 

90 end -under 95 cents * * " 

95 and under 100 cents * * 

100 and under 110 censt * * 

110 ajid under 120 cents * * 

140 and under 150 cents * * 

170 and under 180 cents !l! * 1 

* Less tlian 1 percent. Source: Monthly Labor I^eview U.S. BLS 

February, 1931 



-70- 

TAELH: 24 
CAKE SUa.AI. "SFirilTG Il'DUS^i 
Avorage Zarnin;:s, dy Se:: - 1930 



Avcra.'^e 
Sarnin.'Ts. 



Ili,les 
p.nd' 
JTerndes 



Avera.-^e EarningE 
Per II our 



Averai^;e .i\ill- 
Time t/eekljr 
Earni/ir:s 



Ullage-Earners 



$ .1-51 



27 .06 



11,890 



Male 3 



07. no 



Female s 



$ .472 $ .289 



11,027 



14*38 



863 



Estal)lishiiients 



21 



•21 



Source: I.Ionthly Labor Heviev; U. S. liLS.',' Fetriaary, 1931 



19 



9851 



-71- 







K^ 








K% 








rr\ 








c-l 






C/D 


>^ 






1-1 


rH 






H 


p! 






4! 


f^ 






I-H 


I 






CO 


CM 


C*! 






r'-\ 


J2; 




o 


cn 


1-1 




(-H 


.-1 




n 




1 
O 


o 


hrv, 


U 


w 


H^ 


cr. 


•i 




t^ 


r-H 




rt 


-^ 


1 


w 




NJ 


Pi 


ra 


CVJ 


<S 




H 


0^ 




Lr\ w 


^D 


r-l 




OJ o 


C5 




o-j 


1 — 1 


W 


I 


PI 


fa 1— 1 






I. J 


g § 


t:) 




8 


^ F>q 






t'i 




n 


Ti 


CJ 


W 


■^ 


d 


1-H 


C'J 


crt 


1- 


^ 


1-) 


fl 


o 


W 


;2; 


o 




> 


:^ 


•H 




<4 




-U 






■5: 


01 






S 


§• 






r^ 


o 






l-H 


o 








OJ 



o 

• H 

rH ni 

-p ^ 

<>! ri 
i-i 

. <ii 
o 

CO o 



s 

r-l 



o 
cr 



to 

CM 



+3 
•a! ni 

o 






-p d 
to 






-p ni 

f1 a 

-P 

• <! 
o 

to c8 



'-if 
PR 



o 
o 



O rH CO i-H IP\ rH ><0 rH C\J IC^ O '^O ^ CO ^ tO rH CT, 



OJ »^ I — rOrH.-HO"^CTM — cr^ 

r^ OJOJOJCVjCMrHrHrHrH 






K>i o OJ cn U) vo CO o vo o^ o vx) o^.rt v,o o vo k^^ 



^o » ir^,-f- en o iT^ CO t~— to Lr\ 

^ r^rOCMK^OdCVJCMOJCO 



CO r^ J- to r^^ .rt cvi rH 
cviroojcMcurocoojaj 



Lr> o~^ o ^ CTi^ o«jLr\ir^. l^^ i-^oojcn Ln,-j- oj co c\j 



Lr\ r— rH rH bO >~.CD '^O rH rO O rH 

r*^ OJ r^-M-^ cu CM OJ OJ ovj c\J OJ 



I^^ J- OJ to r^ CTi CO 60 
OJOJCNJOJrHrHrHrHrH 



vo r-l rH l-T, r^ r.iiO CO to .rj- t-^ rH O H CO t^'-X) CTi OJ r<^ 



( n r<-. C3 "oo m r— LTi OJ r-i o ca 

^ ;it J- l-O l-r^ KM^ to t~o r^-. OJ 



1^ OJ OJ en r- ir\^ lOv cvj 

I^K^r^OJOJCMOJOJCVJ 



:> ^- rH CM ij-i rH D ^ I'— o^ rH a^ to f^yo irM^ ro r— o . 

OJ C\i t-~-' O ^ CMOJVXJCO r-OUS rHCT^COtOOJrHK^rJO 

J:t^^K^^^^<~^r^^^^OJC\JOJOJ r^oJCU. CMCMCMCMCMOj 



ml — O CO OJ ^-D OJ OJVO OJ rH ^OKD \-r\0 CTiJ- O OJ o^ 



to en 0"^ r^'^.o '^ lp\ ."> to vo its 



CM o >-o >x> J- CO a^ en r- 
^J- r^r^r^r^CM OJ oj 



cT\ t^ cr. to ,-( ^- r— o O OJ OJ to r— Lr> rH to ^ rH en to 



0~^ CM LO unjrj- rH rH ^-O to r<-^vo 
K^r<^KM^ror^f<^oj CM CM oj 



o en to t— OJ o OJ o o 

h<^OJCMCMCMCM0J0JOJ 



o OJ CO J- r— to LTMrM^ oi rH co t^ o r^ en tovD r— o 



O r^ (T\ en J- V.O J- o en r-- Lr> 



01 

.rvi. 

EH 



rHOroi — ir^rHCoor— 



0) 

E3 







o^ 


xi 


w 




U 


o 


fl1 




O 


nJ m 


r-i 




Ti 


a f-i 


m 


tn 


r; 







^1 


0) 


yi 'O 




C) 


F-i 


r1 rt 




X 




•H -rl 




•H 


fH 


!>r fH 




'H 


a) 


+= d3 




F! 




f"?. ■■<:( 




o 


a 


h fH 



CD 



en 

ID 

ST' fl 



Fh 



C 

0) en 

EH © 



:h o 
cj r'H 



t/i 
p. 

0) 
-n! 

CD Ch 

-.1,0 



^1 (ii 



O rH O CS 

k4 c« r- c:: 



0) 

M ':■■ 



-{ 



Pi r^ O -H Fh 

to o n <-u n 



rj 



I/) tn 

^ B 

Oj Cj 



CO 
in 
0) 

-J 
fi 
(D 

EH 



D3 
Fh 



-d 
Pi 

(D 

m EH 

a 

a <D 
tn a 

o 



o 
-p 

o 

(D 

W Ul 
f-i (=1 



U CT f-^ 

0) f^i a; 

d « :1 



--: CO n 



'd 

CD O 

IH 

en tn 

U U U 

CD 0) 0) 

H rH E 

o g 

O -rl 



^^ 



CO 



in 
en 



^ 






o 

i 

CO 



en 
u 

CD 
> 

CD 



CD 
(D 

'd 

r-t 
O 



Eh 



9B51 



-72- 



o; 
r 1 





K> 




n-A 




H 




i>L 




OJ 




m 




iH 


M 


K 


P"i 


M 


u) 


C 


CO 


•H 


13 


-P 




C^ 




■f| 


r " 




c 


c 


n 


f . 


c^ 


c 


n 




■-^ • 






c 


K., 


r. 


,^ 




hT 


u 


1-1 


c 


^ 


M 




i-i 


o 


TO 


n 


r< 


r 1 


fc; 


n 


pi 


o 


•3j 


I'-l 




1-1 


0) 


, 1 


'\' 




n 




fH 




o 




!> 




< 



1 












0) 












u 


CM 










a 


f<^ 










c: 


r^ 










' ^ 


H 










1 ^■' 




r-^ 


^ 


I^ 


OJ 


1 


O 


• 


t 


• 


• 


1 tlH 


4J 


r- 


t-C 


a' 


r^\ 


1 O 


t— 


1 


1 


rH 

1 


1 


i -^ 


OJ 










! s 


■T- 










a^ 


r-l 




, 






1 o * 












. ^ 












1 ® 












1 Ph 

L 


.. 










1^ 

1 

I 

i 




h'^ 


r-H 


K^ 


1 






Cj-\ 


' . , 


c: 


~', 




c: 


._■. 


LO. 


, !<■"' 


^' 




■ ^- 


n 


M 


vt 


»» 




O" 


rH 


H 


H 


r) 




i-H 


</:■ 








.--! 












1 CT^ 












1 ^ '■•> 












1 /-I '■-' 












Pl t.L 












<1 Pi 












t. •. .H 


• ■ .. 










Tl 












a> f-i 












t.. trt 












rii M 












Pi 












g: 












> 












; -'"-i 














r-n 


o 


'vO 


r - 


C'J 




C' 


rH 


^ , 


f-^ 


-'.•^ 


i 




\-0 


r — 


f'— 


^i' 


i 


rH 


•* 


•» 


•* 


»» 


1 i 


1 


rH 


r-'. 


H 


1 — 1 














m 












r^ 




a 






L'i 


CZ 




o 

Eh 






u 


I— 










Pi 
Pi 


c- 












<3 






tn 




0) 


P- 






h 




UD 








o 


Pi 


Cu 


!^ 






4J 

o 




t^ 


r_ 






pi ■ 


f-< 


Pi 








x) 


o 


o 


C 






PI 


-p 


^rH 








o 


q 


+3 


c 






o 


',-.; 


o 









CO 

iH 



13 
I 



o 

■H 
> 

Pi 

O 

,o 
ni 



0) 

o 

Pi 

pi 

o 
m 



\S~\ 

to 



-T6- 



CM 

EH 



to 

w 

1—1 






r-l 
J 

CVI 

^^ 

r-f 



0) 

to 






•H 

u 
M 
0) 

^- 

c 

0! 





K-, 




r^ 


CD 


c)-i 


-tJ 


H 


rt 




Q> 




s 


rH 






OJ 


o^ 


•H 


rH 


rH 




," 




ni 


t.v '. 


-u 


CM 


o: 


rr, 


\A 


rH 



W 


0-^ 


U 


rH 


(1) 




sa 




fn 




erf 


r-^ 


H 


r^. 




CA 



+3 

o w 



^H d 0) 

oj n ph 



-H 
I 






_p -M i^ 

ft s 

O fj o 

, ;-i Ph 



o 



03 

s 

•H 

nj & 

0) ^^ 

Ah 

U 



^1 



rH 
r-l 









r-i 












H 



CD 



Oi 
C ■^ 
H 



C/v I 



VD \o r^ 



to 

CO 


t.o 








r^l 


1 — 




H 



Cj^ 



ri 




Pi 


to 


a 


OJ 




r-l 


Vi 


C. 


0) 


'"-"1 




O 


GV 


t* * 



O"^ 



o^ 


cr^ 


o 


CTN 


^5 


r^N 


'S) 




OJ 


•ft 


•k 




to 


iXJ 




OJ 


CJ 




rH 


CO 


o^ 


0•^ 


r-^i 


L'. 


1^1 


o 


!^\ 


«t 


n 




o 


o 




LO 


to 


rH 


Cd 


CVJ 


\r\ 



c\ 



^o 


r-'> 


Q 


o 


rH 


^z 


• 


• 


■ 


o 


o 


OJ 


CM 


C^J 


r-l 


CA 


o 


to 


^^^ 


LO, 


O 


• 


• 


• 


o 


o 


o~\ 


r^ 


r^. 


rA 


H 


'.0 


r— 


50 


to 


rH 


• 


• 


• 


r^ 


r-~i 


li"> 


OJ 


C\! 


H 


to 


r^ 


Lr\ 


r-\ 


OJ 


Lf> 


a 


• 


• 


o 


o 


o 


h~l 


r^ 


OJ 


rj 


^ j 


r-'. 


to 


tj 


~'' 


■ 


• 


• 


r-4 


rH 


CJ 


t^ 


r-" 


rj 


CV' 


r-^ 


_■- 


to 


to 


7h 


^ 


J- 


^'^ 


• 


• 


• 


--^ 


rH 


OJ 


Q 


O 


CM 


<sC) 


U3 


^ 


• 


• 


• 


^ 


LO 


H 


C\J 


OJ 


tr\ 


'^ 


>0 


;=t- 



I^-i 



u 




o 




rO 




CS 




f-1 




«H 




o 




rj 




Ci5 




CD 




Fh 




,'1 




^ 




OJ 




OJ 




Lr\ 




• 




o 




fe 




s 




•H 




■4J 




m 




rH 




H 




d 




f'l 






« 


f-c; 


\'\ 




1 "l 


QA 




H 


■a 




w 


M 


o 


^1 


■H 


ai 


+= 


,o 


Cfl 


P 


•H 


«u 


■P 


o 


Ct 


CD 


-P 


P 


W 






«k 


?H 


u 


o 


o 


/:j 


^ 


n; 


c 


1^ 


h=i 


tH 


Ch 


o 


o 


p! 


+^ 


Cj 


r^ 




p 


O 






T-H 




p. 


-P 


\\ 


r) 




c.; 


t% 


p-i 


^: 


b 


0) 


R 


•H 




> 


• 


CD 


C/3 


Pi 








!h 


t> 


O 




,Q 


«» 


CI, 


en 


l-q 


O 




■H 


>5 


+3 


d 


•H 


+3 


-P 


C 


C^ 


o 


H-^ 




to 



8 
B 

o 
to 



rH 

to 



-74- 







r-l 






N^ 






CA 






r 1 






I 






c^ 






rj 






, 1 




■ -1 


t 1 




rt 


• n 




!H 


I"! 




ro 


o 




I:::-! 


in 


to 


n 




OJ 


s 


r"^ 




1— i 


,-0 


pi 






5 


H 
d 


m 


EH 


1;H 


s 




HH 


•H 










m 





CD 



H 



ai 



rH 
H 



rH 






a ^1 
•H tn 



H Ph OJ 



H 

o > 



o 


n 


!h 


■-.J 


s' 


f) 


rH 


•H 


:ti 


W 






> 


'h 


rH 


< 


Co 


(D 




w 


J^H 



OJ 



r-l 



OJ 
r-i 






<;^ 


cr- 


K> 


C'-\ 


o^ 


VD 


OJ 


OJ 


H 



OJ 



J- 



o 






00 



^ 






O 

to 

rH 





CO 


to 

1 — 




to 

OJ 


h" 


o 
^- 


OJ 
r-l 


to 

0■^ 



(\J 



r 1 


00 


o 


M 


OJ 


-"1" 


• 


• 


• 


y<~) 


r-- 


H 


H 


r-\ 


rH 


OJ 


OJ 


r^ 


L Ti 


(—1 


o 


• 


• 


• 




b-^ 


^-.O 


oil 


00 


iH 


ri\ 


cr. 


_1. 


OJ 


Lf>, 


^D 


• 


• 


• 


r-\ 


<-H 


Lr> 


C\i 


OJ 


rH 


cr> 


o 


OJ 


^j' 


o 


,^ 


• 


• 


• 


b~. 


uo 


r-- 


OJ ■ 


OJ 


rH 



r-l 






c' 


rH 




0} 


Vi 


V. 


C2 


r-^ 


(1) 


O 


<D 


lu 


rH 


l=i 


iH 


C 


cri 




05 


f,) 








N 



u 
o 

tfH 

o 

13 



n 

|3 



o 

•rH 

-P 

m 

•H 

-u 

4J 

VI 

u 
o 

^§ 

(^ 

o 



r?l 






•H 



O 



o 



rH 

to 
cn 



-75- 



CO 



r-'^ 



CO 

c 
o 

•H 

I 

o 
o 






«H 


rH 


o 


r<^ 




CA 


s 


rH 


o 




•H 


I 


-P 




r:! 


<y\ 


^ 


(M 


•H 


<n 


u 


r-^ 


4J 




H 




■H 




W 





o 



u 

CD 






C7-. 
0-^ 



•j> 



0"^ 

0"^ 



""O 


m 




s:; 


o 




Cj 


r", 




li 






o 


O 




iH 


f.H 




c, 




(i^ 






0-^ 



t-H 
rH 



^1 
g 

Pi 

CO 

■cC 



ri 



rH 



r.O 
to 



o 

C\J 
CO 

rH 



rH 

OJ 



O . ^'^ CM IjO ^- rH rH ^- &A 0^,-r to ^- ,-J- K^ 
K\ r^ rH OJ ^- VO LTi O t-^\ O^VD h— h^ 
rH CVI O J rH 



I I I I 



VO ^ U^ O t-'~^ ir>M3 OJ r^,vx> rH to to ^jd ^ 
r^ J- r^ O' ^ o Lr\ 0"% h- ^- rH ui' lo, r^ 

C\J t^ OJ OJ rH rH r-H 



rH I I I 



ai U-^ r— L^^ C^ rH to r-l 0"^ r-t <-A r-i LP>'-r> r-- rH to rH OJ 

rH CM CJ^^X) (3> O O rH to to rH O 1^^ K^, ^-^ OJ rO rH 

rH to r^ to O rH to 0"^^ LTN OI rH rH 



rH fM OJ H OJ r-H 



o.: K>rH ir>^'- r-— vD '^Q o"^^J- cj o mvD k\Vo k-^ lov^ 
OJ ^'- rH h- H r.^ r— r- o l;~^ G^,-:t- r^ r^ o^^ 



H H c: oj^'- 



, o; 



O 

I — 



OJ 

o 

rvi 



rH to 0-\KNK^CMCTMr\tOOLC~NC3^CrsOOrHtOrHCM 

LTMn O Cj>^ VD lo rH Ol to r— r--MD LOi^ r-> CM t^ rH 

rH rH rH 0"l Lr\ O CVI CVI to O"^^ LO OJ rH rH 



rH OJ OJ CVJ rH OJ H 



^4 



to r— vo ir> r- oj oj lo cj o h-\ to rH oj r-— r~- rf^ \-C\,. 

t•~■^^ LOVJD LTi to r— to LO LC^ rH r-i LPv tO K> OJ O VD CVI 
LC^ H to rH VO Lr> H VD O C^^ " 

rHrHOJCMCVILOK^CM 



m 



rH r-; 



OJ 
rH 



CD 



o 

CM 
U 



o 
o 

OLC^OOOOOrH 
J- ^J- LOUD h- bO Ci^ -<■:«- 

CDOCUCDfflOJCDCD 



O 



rH r 









~ „ -■ -■-.-- -.-«-- f/j.. -y -i;- -"i.. -'<■, -c- -C^ -^iv -i;- 

oj ^- v',/ C.-0 !.-■! Lc-^our^o'oooooot 

H rH rH r--; i'J OJ |. .I-^,-"- :" Lr\V.O t^ tO 0~> -: 



O 
•O 



O O 

OJ j- 



r-{ rH 
-1>-C.' 



W 
O 
•H 

b 

•H 

rj 
+2 
to 

o 

o 

a; 
f^ 



H 



VD 

OJ 



to 
o 

•H 
CD 




O 

u 

g 

CO 



rH 

LO 

to 
0^ 



-76- 

TA^iLE 30 
C:i.SOhiZ :?1LL1W'- ST..TIOH INDUSTZ::: 

A"\r:aiiC^E EAJllv I NG S ; 



Bulletin iJo . 573, U.S. 3LS. 



AvBTS-.'^e Earnings per liov.r -393 

Averr.iS'e full-time enrninf.'c :ocr 'jeel: ....." 23,^2 

Average Actual epminijjc per '.vecl: 23-39 

T7age Earners 296O 

Establishments 73^ 



9S51 



-77- 







iH OJ 






CD ^-^ 






!r! C\ 






■i-^ rH 






^^ 






rj ~ 






f~, 1 




V _; 


<D (U 






(=1 in 




CI 




M 


w 


,- ' , 


K> 


1— 1 


,o ^o 


a 




'•ti 




Elf; (ii 


rn 


c! 


r-< 


CO 


•H 




^ 


S I' 




o 


(D 'h 

> o 



9251 



I 

,0 


y 


LI 


o C- ^^^ 


O'l, l'\ 


^ :- .rj- V^' 


'^0 v,r) 0.; 


^ 


(^ 


A 


-P 


c\! ai ti). 


>.- :- u:' i.Oi 


Ai-.-^- a! 




rH 


A^ 


a 


rt 


i^-I r- ! 










oi 


•H 


0) 












l^-' 


iH 


[-' 














05 




" 












U 
















^J 




rH K-vM 


^0 ui r 1 


.>MJ~,-:t- 


r— r-H U) 


0^ 


0) 


>-; 




r^ OJ ^r 


r~\,-t to 


bo 'r) c:. 


c^^-D r^ 


J- 


■ ). , 


'h 




O^O CT> • 


OJ vD L!:> 


KO |V-, [^f>, 


CA (ri 











««»••« 


n «k « 


n *• •. 


^ M 




\ '. 


i -1 




^0 t^^ r^i 


'■- rj 


l-O r- rH 


CVI CM 


(\J 








C\J 0.: . 


rH .-i 









03 




^"v 


CD 


c'l 


rH 


r 


CD 


x;, 


f) 


■H 


1 


!h 


■-i 


(:; 







^0 


^_, 


I'l 


h> 


fl 


[ 




'rij 


.A 

'-4 


M 


P, 



o 



?^ 



■• 

r: o 

cj : -H r- 

^1 rH p; 

cl) rH f-^ ;-., 

I> d R 0) 

■=« Fh r-i Ph 





'.0 


tj 





0,1 


r-' 




it; 





f^ 


•H 


l-'-l 


["-i 






r) 


1h 


Ih 


1> 








rH o ir> 



r^ to 



a o o 

« • • 
i.r> r— c/-, 

rH rH 



M ^-i c\i 



rH H 



CT^ LO, .i---\ 

cvi ^" o' 

Ol OJ H 

:.0- 



"c;i o W 

to LI-' C'J 



rH ,^ OJ 

o,! '•vi l-^ 



OJ r^-to 

• * • 

OJ K> O' 

oi rO rH 



n 



tH 











tJ 








sq 


CD 




+-> 


^j 






a 




;:,_ 




aj 


\ ^ 


;^: 




n 


m 




il: 


+2 


-ij 


Vl 


?H 


!H 


-') 





fl) 


CS 


ri 




n 


p-> 


'.,i 


J ' 


u 


(D 


fl 


CD 


'.V 



Pi H CO 



o 

rH 
CC 



OJ 

0| 03 CO rH 
O 05 CD I 



<D 



0) 



u 
fl 



o 
o 



02 
(D 
rH 



(D 
r"I 



CD 
H 



—1 



rH CM J- 

u:~> r— LPi 



L'^ Ln>.XD 



r"-> to bO 
VX) I-— LO, 

• • • 
v^'- -^ - C\J ■ 

C\.l CVI rH 



CO 

CD 

!- , 

<D 






CO 
O 



03 01 

ffl CD 



Ph 



LO 



oj 






to 
01 



^ o\ 


, h-^, >- l>- 


O'^Jif 


CM \r\ OJ 





LO. OA^" • 


, •' ,-t c-.^ 


^ VD L^-, 


bO to VO 


-t 


J-Y ::j- OJ 




^ J=X- 01 


X: ;i- 0: 


Lr^ 



CO 
•J: 



C^ 



CO 
CD 



-78- 
TA3LS 32 

G-P.AY-IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY 

Avsrcge Va^e Rates Per Hoiir, 
0" Occupation; Februar;, lS3'^i 
iU:v-ct, 1930, Fcoruary, I93I oiid. 
October, 1931 



Occupation 



February 
1930 




AUfiast 
1930 




October 
1931 



iiolders: 
Bench 
Floor 
Loam 
I.Iachine 



Coreraalcer 
Men 
TJomen 

Patternmal 
^ood. 
Iletal 

Chipper s 

Com-non laborers 



0.79^ 
...SUl. 

.711 
.709 


■ I n.7?3 
■ .Sis; 

■ .7S2 
• 0^0 


.Ilk 


. 70 fj 

.i;.i9 


.SU7 
.767 • 


.765 
.726 


.526 


.519 


.U71 . 


.^■7^ 



■" 0.762 

' .S33 
.661 
.6U2 



.b92 
.U2I 



,752 
,690 



.511 
.U57 



Source: Monthly Lrbo:: Rcvie'v, December, 1931, U.S. IjLS.. 



9S5I 



-79- 



1^ 

EH 



C-l 
O 
l3 
P-*l 
EH 

, — I 

O 

o 



ci> 



9S5I 



o 

0) 
fl ■'-:> 
o o 

!h 
M Ph 
P ^ 
o t^o 

[1-.; o 

rj 

0) CO 



o 

■H 
W 

•iH 
> 

■H 

n 



p-t 



0) 



U K^. 

'.^ 0'^ 
O H 

■ "-^ 

o 



>3 fii -H 






S 
1^1 



•A 
o 



r-t 



•a] .r-i 



o 

00 



1> 

n 



o 



I 

K 

CD a 

O O 

^ W 

!h ^ 

O tH 

r-1 n 

cj Th 



rH 



•H 



o 

■H 
OQ 

•H 
> 

■H 



i: b 

>-l -H 
•H 

t-. n 

CD 



CD 

r rH w 

U U -P 

CD pi Oj 

> o u- 






1 

•H 



i t; O O -iH 



O 

r: r-t Q) 

f-i r-i +j 

© r:i cf. 

> o fn 



o-\ 1-1 10 r— 



o- 



l-O r-i 






O 



I ^ ch .H r; UD J- 

; t^ O CD O IfMTN 

k1 §:-^r^ 



ID 

I CO rH CD 

I fi fH 4J 

CD ;.i ■ a 

I f • O !h 

1 < ^:^ 



iO 



(D t "I 

■^ o " oKi3 o 
o .H rj o^ 



■r] 



t-; rH <D 

fi fn -P 

« ;:i cc 

> O fH 



O 

^ tiH 

i. o 



t/3 O 
O -H 
P-. 4J 



CD 

to >5 

fj rH CD 

Ti Jh HJ 
o pi ■ r.', 
> O U 






O 



CD I W 

^O Ch -rt fi 

n O CO O 

p! O -H 



o 

•H 

O 

. r-t. 

d 

o 






\.o Lo. I — r^ [r\yjD 
x-\ ^- ^r o I-- o 



t--^ Co 



>aD ^- OJ I — 



O 0^ (XI K\Lr. I — 
>.J3 O Ol .^ O rH 

CNJJ- m a> tc\ ro 



ro LO. 


»,_D 0' 


j^J- O^ CJ bO 


>X3 uo 


vo u:^ 


J- r^ ijo 1^- 



0"-.'v.O 
L^^L-^ 



G^ rH O O^ 
"^O L.;-\ ^- to 
CTv r— rH m 



OJ 



(XI 

•r1 



rH r'^\ o^ cj r— o^ 

to LO, J- J- LO l^^ 



rH rH 


t)0 


UD 


LO to 


>-.o 


C\J I-- 


'^0 ai 


rH 


r— '~£) 


r- 


rH LO 


C\J.J- 


OJ 


VD 


0-^ 



C'^ tT -jr >v-0 

l-D LT-, to IJ.O 



jt ,J^ 1-0 o 



o 



^-r-l LOrH I rHCOtO 

LOU:) O O'^ (\j O^ Lf > 



H U 

L;J O 
•P 



• 


• 


g' 


1^ 
f-i 


• 





• 


• 


■ 


• 


m 


• 


•H 


CD 


m 


4-' 


• 


• 


• 


• 


-p- 




."-J 


f-i. 


^1 
















• 


'." 










• 


• 


U 




CD' 




> 




-|J 


^^ 









!h 


'"'"> 


• 


toy 


C"' 


c', 


-,■-■> 


• 


• 





(-1 


^H 






fl 


Ih 








cr; 


,0 


!i; 


• 




'Ji 


(1) 


'.-> 


VI 


Vi 


r— 1 


M. 


■+-■> 








r , 




U 


i-i 




tH 


r.l 




«» 


a 





c-,, 


0) 





T! 




■H 


Q 


r-H 








>• 


-1-' 


CD 


ll 


Th 


r ■* 


r^. 


i„ 


f) 


':J 


■H 


CJ 


iH 


C) 


0) 





l> 


rt 


Cj 


6 


u 


■^'l 


1—1 


'-■ 


•^-^ 


r-! 


c:" 


c 


,^.\ 


r' 


nrJ 


r; 


•H 


' ' 


r-1 





■ J 




•:-^ 




0) 


! ' 





</i 




CO 







C-l 




El 


Uj 






fO 

^o 



^1 

CD 

(3 
> 
o 



m 

rH 



OQ 
13 



CD 
•H 
t> 
CD 

vi 
o 

rH 
r^ 

-P 

o 



o 

LO 



-80- 



^]E^1 



f'^ 









S 










to 


o 










■p 


•H 










o 


CO 










<D 


•H 








r-! 


•-D 


> 








o 


o 


•r-l 

n 








f-i 


PM 










^ 




CJ 








b 


>^ 


•H 






C ) 




O 


r-'H 






1- 1 




a 


r , 




GQ 


r-H 


Th 


a 


I' J 


h-^ 


-4-3 


o 


0) 


V" "^ 


J.^ 


^'~^ 


O 


i^ 


f^ 


!^ 


C '> 


C ^ 


(D 


1 1 




o 


tJ 


iH 


•o 


r-i 


w 


■ ^ 


CJ 




O 


in 


o 


(U 


,-'. 


« 


u 


'' ^ 


-p 


t 




-p 


lU 


o 


K) 


e 


-d 


D') 




n 


fV 


o 


C 


^ 


^. 






t^H 


ff 


tin 


o 


>H 









^ 


pj 


^ 


f»i) 1:3 


c; 


■=i5 


CD 




rrt 


c; 


n 




t.i 


!i! 


& 


k! 


■r-i 




u 


(-■i 






+3 




0) 


n 


ffi 




tT, 




R 


h-H 


!.Vi 


o 


Pi 




!--) 




CVi 


Pi 


g 








p 


0) 








0) 


t);; 


o 








>, 


^ 


o 








<; 


6 


























USj 


f-. 










cti 


r-i 


CD 




w 




?H 


Fh 


■JJ 




(D 




CD 


p! 


cd 


i 


+= 




> 


O 


U 




nJ 




^ 


^ 






-ij 












w 




• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


ij 




r-i 








C' 




(0 




t 


w! 


-p 




rC^ 


ch 


-,-% 


■■^ 


•H 




r1 


O 


CT 


o! 


p! 




■3 




o 


•HI 


• • •• 


• • 


• • 

cu 


• • 


c:.i 


-p! 

1 
i 






Ij 


rH 


o 








rH 


?H 


-p 


1 






CD 


pi 


cf. 


I 




S 


!> 


O 


Pi 


■ 


O 


o 


<J) ^ 




j 


•H 


■ H 








1 


■^H 


L) 


• • 


• • 


«• 


• • 


•H 


•H 










o 


1> 


r-H 








c6 


■H 


CD 




1 


to 


PL| R 


r^ 


Ct-I 


•H 


s 






a 


O 


tl 


o 






3 




O 


•H 










Pi 


•P 


• • •• 


• • 


• • 

CD 


»• 


• • 


"! 






5P 


J^-j 










a 


r-i 


CD 








M 


u 


-P 








CD 


r-i 


K 




f! 


fl 


> 


O 


F-1 




•H 


o 


--3! 


,-* 






Cj 


■H 










-P 


VI 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


cj 


•H 










■=! 


|> 


M 








5 


•H 


CD 




I 


m 


■ 


n 


,o 


tH 


•H 


pj 






^' 


O 


W 


o 






rj 




O 


•H 






.— 1 




P-i 


-p 


• • •• 


• * 


•• 

CD 


• • 


• • 


• • 






y 


>:. 










1.1^, 


i-i 


CD 








f-: 


U 


-P 






■ 


<X> 


pi 


ct" 




^ 


> 


> 


5 


^1 




-p 


•H 


■=i! 


^ 






r^ 


n 


































W 


I, 


u 








-P 


f-( 


(D 




I 


05 


to 


-P 


,n 


«H 


•H 


Cl' 


ffl 


p; 


r_1 


o 


m 


b 




<D 


i"J 




o 


•H 


■ • •■ 


O 
•• 


• • 

CD 

C^ 


K 


C ! 

• ■ 


-P 








H 









• 


T-f 


?-| 


-P 




f-l 


!> 


p 


P 


( J 


1 


^3 


■H 


1j> 


O 


f-i 






f'j"i 


-I 


H 








1 i 


1 






1 


o 












r/2 


iH 


• • 


• • 


• • 


"i 


-p 




rn 






1 


a 


-t^ 


CD 




t 


m\ 


ci 


P! 


rO 


fH 


•A 


■-•I 


i ! 


<D 


•-1 


o 


o: 


<=•{ 




O 


3 




o 


•H 






1 -^ 




Ph 


..1 



to Lr> 



o 



cT\ r— 



-to- 






o 



■o 



^- LTi 






to to 


i-~- o-\ 


to 


H -::j- VO 


to ^ 


>.0 V.O 


! ) 


IX'\ H LC^ 


K> ro 


CM (^ 


'^O 


O r^ i~— 


«* •» 


■• *» 


•* 


ffk #« « 


H lO. 


OJ ^', 


T". 


LO, l-^O 






r-i 


in 



o m. 

• • 


o cb 


^ ^ to c 
■viD ijr\^JD ir\ 




• • 
rH 


• • • • 



^o 


l^ 


^ to 


ir-i cno r^ 


r^^ 


If^ 


OJ r-'-; 


(j-^ IC\ H KN. 


rH 


L(^. 


f^^ 


VO rH t^ .~~\ 



r-i 



r-] r^i 



O >-o 



rH C VD OO 
'0 U^^X)^ 



to t^ 


tD ■.£) 


t<-^ Oj iv>i OJ 


t^.:4- 


r ^ CO 


.d- to r-> CM 


r-l t^ 


CJ^ 


r'-^^ to o^ 



o J- 



H 



,-t to CJ 1^- 

K^ CVI ^ OJ 



rH lc-^ 


H '.rN 


r— *-D (TN o 


L-, rH 


^JD r-- 


to OJ^^ 


rH m 


rH OJ 


o CO to cr> 






to OJ OJ H 

OJ o ' K^ OJ 



I — to r- c^^ 

r^ OJ I— rH 

rH U3 tH O.' 



OJ rH '^ rH 

O rH O rH 

rH LTi to |V^ 

H ■ •■ vxT 







Pi 
















• 




CD 


• 


• 








• 




• 




Cli 

Pi 


CO 

Pi 


• 








• 




• 




M.;.' 


o 
-p 


• 








« 




• 




Pi 


'A 


• 


Pi 

o 






• 




CO 




•H 


a 


w 


-p 






• 




-1^ 




■P 


f-i 


Pi 


o 










p) 




Cl 


5 


o 


r ; 






Pi 




CD 




> 




p 


Pi 






c-i 


tH 


tH 




Qj 


6) 


CTl 


-P 






,Q 


O 


t-f 




rH 


g 


P< 








cr! 


,£1 


cu 




OJ 


o 


T, 


y 


cc 


rH 


ai 


•p 






T-M 


Ml 




P 


p 




r-i 


^"^ 


PJ 


•• 


O 


O 


cl 


Cl 


c 






•H 


CD 


1—1 








> 


-i- 


CD 


C 


Th 


; ' 


CD 


' V 


Pi 


' ' 




c 


rH 


n 


CU 


CD 


t> 


p: 


CD 


c; 


P 


r 


rH 




Pl 


Pi 


O 


i-j 


,^ 


T' 


1^ 


r, 


•H 


^' 


-j 


O 


r''-! 




-P 


U 




r, 




o 


io 


I-i 


xn 




O 


r-i 




c- 


o:! 


o 






u 

CD 

0) 
> 

o 



rH 



t/3 
t3 



■ > 
CD 

Pi 

o 

cti 



-p 

p; 
o 



o 



-81- 





t^> 




t^, 




o-\ 




.-( 




>^ 




o += 




n c" 




« r!. 




^'1 




CD -5) 








0) .- 




I c 




$:: o 




O -H 




1- CI2 




•H 




-d > 




fl -H 




r- n 




V ' 1 — I 




O (J 


.— ) 


n o 


(J 


O -rl 


1—1 


c.'j .-tl 


I-l 


rn T: 


>1 


O rj 


!~> 


r; fn 


i-'-i 


n :-- 


IH 


o 


CO 


rt <u 


:t^ 


O Cl) 


o 




c-) 


U XJ 




pi C 


H 


O ft 


-^ 


'^ ^ 


g 



u o 


r>5 


CL> 'f-l 


n 


Ph +^ 


ra 


ct 




0) fl. 




;i 




-P c 




ci o 




CA o 




a ■ 




: ", , ^ 




Cj 




i : •" 




U .-' 




« O 




cJ o 




U ■'-3 




Q) O 




l> u 




<J P4 






o -H 
CO +2 



CD S 
f.3 O 



4^ 
O 



43 ,-! 
CD U 



O O 

•H 

.•-! tti 

-P -H 

Vi > 

O -H 

; ■. n 

■P H 

:i 4J 



rH 



CD -H 

r-^ n 

rC^ O 

•H 

LJ 4-3 



^1 ^1 Ci) 

O CD p:! 4-"' 
> flU O Cj 



C/) 

I rt 

o o 

p.. -H 



f ; o 



I 

Qj CD 



>■ 

U CD 
P -^ 

o k: 

^ ^4 



pi tH 



o o 

4^ 



t/; 



U H 

CD (D f4 et> 

■=i! cu o ct;' 



« o o 

,Q P4 -H 

c: -p 

d '.I -H 

; , o vi 



U U C: 

O CD 0-1- 

!> ;■ o r' 



CO 

f-i 1 C 

0) o o 

^ Pi -H 
^. +^ 



rH 

J4 <D 

0) .-J 4-5 

.. ', o r; 



: ; •-! 


u 


i- 




t> 


c;i 


o 


VI 


•rH 


,o 


Ot 


a 


CD rn 


'^ 




o 




H 


'H 


•r-) 






o 

*• 


•P 
• • •• 



o 

•H 



o 
o 



ly: o 












J r^ r-j CXI r<-\ cvi r4 



UD ^;- vjd rn^ r■'^ J- cv' 
o c\j c ; uD ^ cvi Lr\ 



o 
c«- 



rH jd- 



ro 0,1 



cv J- 



CTi o 1 - I — o irN I 

Lf^ IC\^ K> lI-\ K-\ I 



cr.vx) ,-r, rH CJ Lo, 

rH r^,--::r- r~- Lr\ CO 



'XI UD o ^ O ro I 
r— Lo Lr> J- i^D ,-; i 



o 
-eo- 






■H I- 



o'v o ' vo to r— ,-i- 

r^^ h-\ r-H LP, r'^ rH 



t\J 



rH O^^ 



-^- irM — o ir, 
. L(~N.--:i- .ri- VO i"^. 



•W- 



■AJ fcj l~^ W) C.I •£' >vD r-i 

V.O .^ r-- 1 — '^.o CM Lr^ rH 
r-i ^ t\' r^ o o K-\ 



H^ 



CO w. :— li >,-)- ,^- u^ rr. 



:> 



I .~.. \< . li^ o ^ i — r-: Lr\>. -'-) 
i->r^ . 1— J- I-- r^\V.o r/, 

rH r^, rH r-\ ■ .■'. J" :— I 



r^ 



I 



9851 







f-i 


* 












• 








« 




(D 
> 








• 






i'i 


c/; 




■H 








• 






^4 


o 

4-3 




.!3 








• 






ff 


CD 

f4 




.4 

o 








• 


U) 




-H 


Ci> 


UJ 


+3 








• 


+3 




+3 


p- 


^-1 


o 










fi 




cri 


o 


o 


cy 




fl 




• 


CI) 




> 




43 


T-i 




o 


^H 




-H 




« 


« 


p 


43 




/-> 


c; 


• 


p; 




rH 


ri 


^^ 






cfl 


.Q 




CD 




0) 


f,' 


0- 


'd 


W 


H 


ni 




43 






Jh 


Pi 


M 


!-i 




H 


C/J 


(H 


fi 


«« 


O 


o 


ri 


CD 


■J 




4-3 


•H 


Q) 


rH 








43 


C' 


S 


C-i 


!H 


F 


>D 


Ti 


r-i 


'.j 


tJ 


r-l 


c-> 


•H 


« 


Q) 


t> 


ft 


o 


o 




r-i 




> 


Pi 


!H 


O 


C'^ 




EH 


c. 


•H 


^* 


'r-i 


^ 


^. 


b^ 




4-> 

o 


O 
EH 


K 


o 

CJ 


CJ 

o 



CO 
Hi 



CO 



CTv 



(D 
> 

o 



(D 
Pi 



O 

-Q 

'a 

rH 
4-3 

o 



CD 

o 

pi 

o 

CO 



„P2_ 



9851 











ni r-l (D 
















Lr>r— 


H O^ to CO LTMi^ 










w 


H ?H -P 


bO U*" 


r— ir-,^ r^ lr^ r^rH 










w 


o p! rj 


• 












+J 


> O f-i 


o 












cj 


I--; ^ 


-ea- 












■4J 














i 


t.o 


:-i i M 


O^'^O 


• CJ cv OJ o Cvj irMO 








1 


S 


1 O -H :^ 


r^ ..:--;■ 


1.^. O^ 1^- OJ XXD H r^ 








) 


-p 


' , -J Ch 0-; O 


H H 


u:> Q !-^ ix^ur. r^ h 








' 


•H 


i ;; o o -H 


n •* 


«« •» •« ** •* •» . •^ 










rf 


1 r' f^-i -•= 


iH r"^ 


rH C\j to C\J ,r;- 0■^ L^^ 










6 


i . -i 




CO 






c 


1 o 










o 

•H 


1 ^-'rH (U 


cr\ o 


U3 o ^X) h- r<-\ o >-£> 










OQ 


1 Jh ?H +^ 


rH to 


o r--v£) ir> r— LO> OJ 










■^ 


i o d c; 


• • 












i > b fn 


r^ 


r-\ 










•H 


•^ ^ 


■iB- 












n 


1 
1 














o 


1 1 

1 














•H 


■ U I tfl 














C;_^ 


CD -r-l fV, 


r— o^ 


to H OJ H ^ 0'^V.0 










•H 


i.'J Ch O O 


>X! r— 


O'-O LCv OJ VX) ^'- CJ 










o 


I r. O O -r-f 


iH 


H rH in K"i O O.I 












i p: P^-P 




•* 








j 


fii 


I:-, 




rH 






• •• 

o 






I 












" 


" ^* 










• *• T'l 


Ul 




•0 >-. 










w w 


+:> 




.■.; r-i O 


t^t^ 


CJ VX) o to O r'A 1 






-P tI 


O 




u u +- 


CO 'X! 


r- L^^ U^^ V£) ^ I 






o > 







1 o ;i K 


« a 


• ••••• 






Q) -H 




ri 


f1 > O 'H 


o 








S -OR 


o'l 


•d 


o i .<-: 


■■u> 








O O 


M 


aJ 


•h! 










!h r-J. 


r-i-i 


-p 


W| 










fH (Is r;. 




3 












^ o 


oi 


'>\ u 








,_, 


b ;-^ -H 


-:-•>; 


p 


•H <U I W| 








b 


p! Pi 


.c,, 




pi! r-^ tn .H '^^ 

i r; o w o 




LT-, u^ C \ LO. rH tj >--0 


\ 


EH 


r-f Q) (0 


r--> m! 




fi O -rl 




CJ H rH Un 




O 


<B t.' U 


r^ ,' 




. ;-: P. -^^ 








I— ^ 


c; o 

M ':' >■.; 






1 












•• •• •• •• •• 








P 


o ia Ji 


v« 




'■"!■ J !- i 










-p I 


-P H 




• ij rH QJ 


r— c\j 


l.f^a>^- O to TD I 




b 


ce i -d 


W CT^ 




> Jh fH -P 


r— i.c'N 


li-^ r^, K> hr> l-O OJ 1 




o 


Ph O S-, 




.-4 
.-H 


■H Cl) d tt 


• • 


• ••••• 






P-5 c^ 


+3 


n !> o ^1 " 


• o 


» 


• 


1>^ 


(1) 


-J Ti 


;::J 


< ^::! 


o 




.1^ 


^ 


tj]<rj a 


••Jj 0) 


n 


rj 






N-N 


e3 


d C o 


r^i 


m 


rt 






<T\ 


w 


rn c6 -H 






'^i r 






. rH 


rlj 


4^ 


^^. 


+= 


-P u 








l-H 


<D >. Cj 


6 


CO 


CO I w 






■ " 


K 


c5 d r^ 


ri 


p 


0) T <+H -H 1^ 


--0 ^•.'^ 


to :-\ f-^a^ 0-^ I -^>•X) 


!-i 




a- 




O .VI O K O 


v,o i-- 


t-— ,--:i- o^to r — r— ,^ 


<D 




!^ CD O 


tu 




Lp O -h 


rH 


rH ^- r^ rH ^- O, 


1 -2 




<D &: o 


?H 






•• 


s 




> 'M o 






! 




rH 


<D 

> 

O 






■' o 








H .^" 


.c: 




-J >a 






t=— 1 






p 




> ri fn -P 




^- a' to to ^ o 
lr^ h---, OJ OJ r^ cj 


,, 








,-'"! 


-w, o -^ t; 


• • 


■ ••'»«« 


• 








[p 


,'■; > o r-i 


o 


■ 


to 








l".j 


i ■ : /^ 


<'j- 




r-^ 








o 


'-I 






;^ 








CO 


^•: 






• 








+5 


4^ ." 1 






w 








u 


rf O : K! 




• 


■ 








fd 


O ,0 ^H -H P! 


H to 


H O.' to r-H O r— LC 


^ 1:3 








n 


o ': o M o 

ir! O -H 

l-H Ph -P 

1 


G> Lt■^ 


OJ \r\ Lr\K£> r^ o ^ 

H H LO r— Lr> to r- 

oT 


> 


























• • 


- •« • • CO • • • < 


Q) 














fn U 


rt 












• • 


0) ' • • 0) • • • 
















no > 


u 












• • 


c: CO • .rH • • • 
P4 !h U 


o 












• • 


tiC O . rd . • . 


03 












• 


-P 


H^ 












• • 


t". 0. • ■ Im • • • 

Cl M O 


>> 












w • 


•H O to +3 . . • 


. r-i 












-p 


4J !:)i U o 


^ 












f • 


Ci O O Cu • ^-1 


•P 












0) 


t> +3 fH O fn 


C 












TTl . 


(D <a n. +3 • _c' o 


o 












s: 


rH d !h , Cj rO 














o • 


(1) Cj 0) 'C? 05 rH C^ 














•p 


J.| ft S f-l rH U- 














rt f. 


« O O Cj (D "p +- 


• • 












■ri O 


rH -P 0) rt C 


M 












^ n: 


Q) 'O Th ' ; 02 rH O .r 


CJ 












(D Q) 


!> r-! Q) o q rH n > 


b' 












P-: fn 


o c: ,c! z.: t: -H •;: r 


T 










p) O 


^-r! -p fn o ,: : o c 


) o 


1 










f!? r-i 


CO o EH r.H fo o c 


) CO 



-83- 





h~, 




0■^ 




r->. 




J 




<^' 




h"! 




TA 




rH 


'r-< 




r-i 


.- 


l-H 


1 : 


(/; 


0) 


t3 


c/:> 



EH 



l-H rO 



F- 


CO 


W 


tu.i 


1-1 


C 


t/) 


•H 


O 


C 


tn 


Jh 




TO 




w 




(U 




tj] 




c) 




^^ 




(D 




> 



CO 



C ' to 

'rH 4J 

0) O 

!> .al 



a 


K-; 




lU 


r-< 


ni 


H 


t= 










U 


Th 


■ J 


l-J 


-1 





o 
^'^ 
en 

rH 






O 



OJ 

r-H 



Cd += 

Jh I 

O i-l 

> rH 



w 


!.^ 


c ', 


<IJ 


r-; 


m 


•H 




ri 




^ 


u 




0) 


N 


p-1 



o 


^:! ^^ 




■ -J r^ 


f.i 


r^ b 




• H ' -. 


o 


r^ 


> 


U U 


«; 


r: ri 




H Ph 






C'_' 
rH 



1^ 

r^ 



SS51 






o 



r^. 


l-o 


!-'•■- 


CM 


CJ 


C\i 


rH 


rH 


^-^ 



OJ 


OJ 


OJ 


OJ 


rj 


OJ 


H 


iH 


rH 


I^ 


t-0 


C(^ 


OJ 


—1 


H 


OJ 


C ^ 


^'■■l 


«« 




«t 


t•■'^ 


CM 


O 


K^. 


r-\ 


CvJ 


Vc\ ■ 


•[<_• 


t/j 


OJ 


K\ 


1'-, 


CO 


r-'. 


UJ 


M 


*• 


•k 


r^. 


•OJ-- 


rH 


r^ 


H 


rv.1 


r-^ 




^ 


Ln 


to 


lx^ 


• 


■ 


• 


LTx 


rH 


rH 


r-t , 


OJ 


rH 



^'^ 


l-> 


•vO 


lD 


\ )" 


Vj 


• 


• 


■ 


o 


rl 




O! 


r-'-\. 


r-l 



r— 


1 — 


U3 


CTi 


'^1 


u:^ 


jd- 


r— 


r<^ 



rd in 






fi 0) 






Cj r-i 




W 


rt 




OJ 


w S 


w 


r-\ 


O 0) 


CD 


C. 


rl F^ 


r-i 


K' 


r; 


ITj 





u 
o 

1^ 



<(H 

o 

+^ 

Pi 
o 







r^ 



O 



rH 



O 



-84- 





w 




-p 




r! 




0) 




S 




■p 




fH 




CtJ 




P^ 




<D 




Ti 












r^ 




^ 




w 




t.o 




s r^ 




•H r.-^ 




p; c^ 




•'. f-* 




OJ I 


LPi 


O H 


r-"\ 


■ ; f-'^ 




o o^ 


N 


Th r-l 


^ 


<u 



SI 






CD 
O 
+^ 

CO 



s 



CVJ 



:ji 







K^ 












t^ 


O t^ 


bO I-^ 


to CM r— UD CM ^ r— 






cr;- 


O r^ 


r^ 


rO rH ^ rH 






1 — 1 
*• 


OJ 






CO 












-p 




rH 


^^^J:i■ 


r-^ LOi 


to fv^ r- to r^ LT^ CJ^ 






c. 


rH r.--> 

CVi 


H K^. 


t^ rH ^ r-{ 






H 










G-- 




to r— 


r-! r-'-> 


r-l o r- i~— cj> Lf^ to 






Ou' 




H ro 


rH r^ r-; r^ rH 






r-H 












r<^ 


ur\o-\ 


rH rH 


C-A J- Lr> to rH VX> rH 






h" 


'X> ^ 


r^ O 


t"— r-i ^~\ J- to h". rn 






0~> 


Ki r— 


h-^,^ 


0"Mr\ to v_Q i--Uj ^-t- 


lii 




r-\ 


K^,^-D 


rH iH 


J- r^ rH LT-, to to 








Lr\ 


rH 




" 


ir^ip\ 


O Lf> 


O LCs c r^Jt vi' r^ 


Th 




H 


UD CM 


OACT, 


to CO 0-\ a-\ O rH CO 


cj 




r~f^ 


CO CO 


OM^ 


cr\ a; o to rH t^) o 


(-1 




r 


uj .o-^ 


rH OJ 


t^^ OJ r-- rH o 






r-H 


UD 


rH 


r-{ -H 






C7> CM 


H M 


O VX) J- i^O ir~, t£l ^J3 


.'^ 




O"^ 


O CM 


Lr\r~- 


O VO OJ rH ^— G"v t-0 






CM 


O C\J 


OJ rH 


to OJ o to ^ LT, r-^ 






c.'^ 


r-f CJ 


O! ^-^ 


r-l U3 ^i- CM h- O.' to 






t-l 


^- rH 


r-i 


rH 




ii 




• • 








CD 


t-r- 


r-l t— 


(T\a^ 


VD O^ W h- CM OJ ^ 


rH 


?, 


K^ 


1— r— 


t^- l--> 


^ O t>0 ,-H- CM OJ to 


k3 




O-N 


* • 


• • 


• •••••• 


;:l 




rH 


rH CVJ 


O rH 


J- rH U5 to r— r-H r~ 


-P f^ 

o cu 




r-i rH 


rH r-\ 


rH rH rH rH 


*• 












rH 








CD 


Xil 


h'' 


I I 


I 1 


I I 1 1 I I 1 


'■ 'I 


^ 


ri'~ 








crT 


•H 


r-l 








CD 


•• 








> 


s 


o- 








.A 
'-4 


c: 


a! 

rH 


1 I 


1 I 


I t 1 I I I I 







r-/^ 


tou::) 


OJ^ 


r^ OJ OJ rj r.-, co loi 


•H 


(D 


r^ 


(j^^ 


to r^ 


O vu o to CT> rH OJ 


LH 


^^ 


o^ 


• • 


• 


• •••••• 


1 




H 


^^ 


iTv r— 


^•^ ur.^ t— OJ cm ,-7 


rH 






CM o; 


CM OJ 


CM OJ OJ OJ CM OJ CM 




XX) rj 


OA CM 


to .'■■^ Lr\ Ur\ J- rH VO 


I'^l 




H 


Lr\ LTA 


1^. to 


^'-^ a\ ir\^D km"— ij;"> 




CQ 


K^ 


• • 


• • 


• ••••■• 


QJ 


^- 


CT" 


J- H 


ur\r- 


rH J- IT . 1---, OJ [r\ r^ 


'of 
u 


•H 


rH 


r^ro 


r^t^ 


^-^ r^ K^ (^ r^ r^\ 1-0 




" to tr\ " 


t^i O 


r-{ i^,vD r— ir> to 


o 


f^ 


O" 


^ o 


LC: CM 


u^AX) rH 1^ h- r— 


> 


cri 


rvi 


• • 


• • 




-Tl 


f^l 


o^ 


'^D OJ 


J- rH : 


J- VO h- L^ J- txj .rt 






rH 


r^> i^ 


r^^ 


h"^ t^ ^~^ r-'-, .r^^ f^ \ ^'^, 


H 




r^ 


ir->^-t 


O r--^ 


^t ! CA h--\ LC^ r^ r— 


*.'j 




^- 


to^- 


>/- \ H 


r— 13 j=:- c: CM I-— rH 


; '1 




;.> 


^- ^--j- 


^- LC\ 


^- ^ X- L^^^'- ^- m 


•! 1 




rH 


• • 


• • 




^ ' 


5 










■ ' 










1 ; 


\~\ 


rH 


K 1 H 


^- 1^ 


OJ ^ 1— r--^ "lO r--^- 






h-^ 


'^^ LOv 


v_0 o 


O^VO OJ rH to a!" r-l 


(D 


u 


CT 


^D LC~s 


VO t-- 


ir\>.o v,o VO lr^ 1 — r-~ 


r " 


CD 


H 


• • 


• • 












« 




CT 


^ to 


1^^ 


VD >X) o'l to Lr^ r^\ oj 


> 




OJ 


r^ OJ 


,-J- rH 


to > r^ CM CM 0"M^ 


-i! 




rH 


• • 




VO VD VD VO VD r— r-- 










CO 












C/J 0) 


tfl 










fH O 


r-i 










CD Oj 


pH 










HJ C 


•H 










^H f-( 


e W 










O Jj 


02 CO pH 




-P 




CO 


> ^H 


rH rH rH rH 




S-1 




4^ CO 


!^I . 


rH rH -H -H 




CD 




r: 0) 


o ^ to 


•H .H to C3 CJ E 




a 




CD o 


C:> +3 rH 


S E rH 5h ,-1 




+■> 




'• eg CO 
•p d ^ 


^ r-^ 


rH W rH (D 




u 




U CS .rl 


^i) y; -H tj rH -H +> 




Cv 




u u u 


CD CD :j: 




p. 




ni d o 


B ^ 


■H -H CO .H rH 




0) 




1 :>, 'M . ..: 


CD I kj] 


rH G CD rd E += Pi 
rc! -P r:; CD I 




PI 




o 


M rt R 








'J -P rH 


to fij .rH 


TJ CJ C\J fH 0) .Ci 








Ul Q) 


<u Pi r-: 


jpl H rH -P C^. ^, -H 

fi r-^ P-i W ,cq 0-i LH 








>H r". CD 


n O rH 








r-l H -'J 


o 










1 n t'-' 


r;' 





to 



01 
•H 






o 

a 

Ch 

o 






l3 






OJ 



CD 



CD 
•H 

> 

Pi 

o 

■P 



VD 



cti 

rH 

in 



to 
o 






4J 

CD 



^ 



1^ 

tL> 

o 
zn 



-85- 

TASLS -5 

IP.OII ALTD STZI3L DIDUST'^.Y 

i;arnin:;s Per Knur, Lialo 
Latorers and all Wagc- 
Sarncrs: ITv.n'b'-.r and Per- 
cent Distribution; ISS"" 



: Male La-'oorcrs 



Earnings Per 



: v-ranbcr 



Percent 
DiTti-iort:' 



All le-^c Eai^ers 



ITiirfjcr 



Percent 

Distribution 



13 under 


14 


cents . 






14 under 


15 


cents . 




- - 


15 under 


IS 


cents . 




_ „ 


17 under 


18 


cents ■ 




2 


18 \indcr 


19 


cents 




17 


19 under 


20 


cents . 




1 


20 under 


21 


cents 




2 


21 liiider 


22 


cents 







22 under 


23 


cents 




2 


23 \\nder 


24 


cents 




35 


24 under 


^5 


cents 




148 


25 uider 


27 


l/2cen1 


;s. 


41 


27 1/2 unc^.ei 


• 30 cci 


-its 


75 


30 under 


32 


1/2 cei 


its 


158 


32 1/2 under 35 coi 


its 


73 


35 under 


371 


./2 ceni 


ts. 


252 


37 1/2 undei 


■ 40 COT 


its 


87 


40 under 


42 


l/2ceni 


tsjl 


,154 


42 1/2 Uiidci 


' 45con^ 


b.s„l 


,561 




47 


1/2 cei 


Its 


149 


47 1/2 under 50 cc; 


its 


154 


50 under 


O J 


cents 


...1 


,160 


55 under 


60 


cents 




- ■ 


60 under 


65 


cents 




- - 


65 under 


70 


cents 







70 under 


75 


cents 




- - 


75 under 


80 


cents 




_ _ 


80 under 


85 


cent s 







85 undL,r 


90 


cents 




c - 


90 mndcr 


95 


cents 







95 Li.ndcr 


$1 


• 







$1 under 


$1 


.10 







$1.10 under 


$1.20 




- - 


$1.20 under 


$1.30 




_ _ 


$1.30 \\nder 


$1.40 







$1.40 -under 


$1.50 




«>• •-* 



ICf^ 



(1) 
(1) 

(1) 
(1) 

(1) 

1 

3 
1 
1 

rt 

1 
5 
2 

23 

31 
3 
3 

23 



> I 3oo 



1 

1 

8 
31' 
12 

22 

OQ 

19 

112 

20C 

288 

337 

555 

5G4 

720 

1,034 

2,818 

3,201 

2,875 

2,443 

10,957 

7,206 

5,219 

5,CS3 

4, 273 

3, 501 

2,754 

2,15G 

1, 5'';G 

1, 226 

2,110 

1,385 

803 

525 

386 



100 



(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 



1 
1 
1 
2 

4 

5 

4 
4 
15 
11 
9 
8 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
2 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 



9851 



-86- 



i.,a, 



If; Laborer: 



Al]. "Ta.?- J Earners 



Eamin.'^s Per 
Hour 



: ITum'bor 



Percent 
Distribution 



ITunTDor 



Percent 
DiGtribntion 



$1,50 under $1.60 
$1.60 under $1.70 
$1.70 rjidcr $1.00 
$1.80 mder *1.S0 
$1.90 under $2 . . . 
$2 under $2.25 .. 
$2.25 under $2.50 
$2.50 rndcr $2.75 
$2.75 under $3 . . . 
$3 . iindcr $3.25 . 
$3.50 under $3.75 
$3.75 under $4 . . . 



357 

284 

218 

153 

129 

215 

72 

37 

15- 

13- 

2 

1 



1 



(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 



(1) Less than 1 oer cent. 

Source : Bulletin Ho. 567, U. S. Bureaii of Lator Statir.itcs 



SO 51 



-37- 



T.OL": 'i'l 



LATJ:TD?J]]S: 



HEW EAiPS--I2E : 



Average Wage Hates and 
3-' rninss of TJonen and 
Minors, lay t^'pe of Laundry 
Jiane, 1SG3 







Average 


Av'.rp.{.;e 


: Av -ra,50 


Type 


of Laujitiry 


Ua,go a-ates 


f-u.ll-timc 


• Actual 






PL:r ""otir 


Earnings 
Fcr "Tccli 


: Earnings 
: Per 7ock 



Conr.icrcial 

General 

TJet Wash and roT-u";!! dry .... 

Mi sccllaneous ( ia cliidin;'', 
. . hand, and hovjc latuidrics) . 



$ ,?6? 




11.41 


.:^so 




ir^.ic 


.285 




9.50 



.230 • 



7.66 



8,93 






'.93 



5.41 



Institutional ( including 

hospitals, school?, and 
endoncd honor,) 



. 23:-J 



8.9? 



9.33 



Source: lionthly Lahor pLevien U. S. PLS. Jl"t.w,1934. 






-8R- 
TA3LL 3S 

Average Earnings, 0^ Sex; 1?32 



Sc:: 



s-r 



Avcrarr^c Averag-c 

Average Full-time Actua.l 

Earnings Earnings Earnings 

Per Hour Per Mesk Per Week 



Wage 

Earners EstaliliGhmonts 



Males and 




Eeinalos 


.471 


Mai e s 


.493 


Eeinales 


.303 



23.74 .15.74 21,399 

24.85 .-30.78 IP, 7^5 

15.15 12.41 2,644 



114 

114 

57 



Source: Bulletin llo. 589, Burcpu of L-bor Statistics, U.S. 
Depart nont of L-^'bor. 



^851 



-89- 






EH 



CO 
P-i 
O 

CO 



o 



r^ 

CTs 

H 

I 

r-i 

CTi 

1-1 

t 

CV 



to 






w 

■rl 

W 

CD 

CO 
Fh 



ov 


r^ 


+^ 


r-^ 


fl 


'.'■■> 


o 


r-l 


•t^ 




r\ 


H 


'Vi 


I'^ 


•ri 


O^ 


i-l 


rH 


fi; 




n, 


O^ 


•4^ 


OJ 


K 


O^ 


P-i 


fM 




h-^ 




r^ 


W 


O^ 


fn 


t-1 


O 




c 


1-1. 


f^ 


r-<-\ 


c:* 


o-\ 


W 


rH 


Q) 


C^ 


t; 


OJ 


CO 


0^ 


ts 


l-f 



C ' . 

pi 
b 



03 


% A 


C : 


OJ 


s 


Q) 


H 




fl 




T-H 


fH 


nl 


a) 


^'j 


^i^ 



I 



I^ 



GO 


M 


^.li 


CLI 


c 


Q) 


•H 


C^ 


n 




u 


fH 




CD 


t-i 


(J-l 



W 




'■\S: 




^: 




•H 




fU 


u 


fn 


pi 


(x: 


b 


w 


W 


(D 


f-< 


&i; 


<D 


cti 


Ph 


u 




Qi 




> 




< 








rH 

rH 









r-l 
rH 



OJ 






rH 
rH 



OJ 
CA 



9851 



CJ 


cu 


TO 


en 


CTv 


. J 


.=>- 


^ 




nj 


cu 


cn 


rH 


H 


J- 


ir\ 


!!>. 




w 


to 


VD 


O 


O 


Lr\ 


ir> 


U-^ 




o 


r-^ 


r— 


^ 


O 


l^^ 


OS 


o 


CTv 


9* 


» 




rH 


rH 




. — 1 


,-i- 




bO 


rH 


r— 


r^ 


CJ 


rH 


o--, 


cr> 


o 


«« 


•« 


•k 


Lr^ 


J- 


rH 


<a3 


vo 




r-i 


LO 


>^o. 


O"^. 


rn 


11^ 


^ 


CTi 


lih 


» 


m 


f» 


rH 


(X\ 


rH 


cr> 


lO 




rH 


h- 


C<) 


!■-- 


TO 


O-s 



to 



rH 



CJ 


V:T 


L^ 


c 


r'^ 


to 


« 


• 


• 


— t- 


^ 


ITA 


'OJ 


OJ 


H 


-ID 


--^ 


rH 


a 


1^ 


J- 


■ 


« 


■ 


OJ 


CJ 


to 


K> 


t^x 


rH 



a^ 


^-^ 


^ 


rH 


^■t- 


"-X) 






• 


^X> 


VX) 


^O 


CJ 


OJ 


rH 


r— 


CJ 


h- 


u^ 


r— 


o 


■ 


• 


■ 


r-l 


H 


o 


r-~i 


ro 


CJ 


o^ 


-i- 


r- 


o 


"CJ 


V.O 


• 


• 


• 


aj 


OJ 


c ^ 


r^. 


r•~^ 


rH 


O 


LO 


rH 


J- 


^ 


ir^ 


LO 


Ln 


r^ 


• 


• 


• 


^ 


r~- 


to 


r^ 


KN 


o 


^Xl 


vo 


^ 


• 


• 


• 


to 


rH 


c> 


r^. 


jr-i- 


cn 


ViD 


»JD 


t<^ 


■ 


• 


• 


cn 






Tj Cy 






fl rH 








CO 


k=^ 




CD 


CO 0) 


m 


rH 


w Ph 


CJ 


("u 


H 


H 


a 


Cj 


cJ 


o 






[H 



I 

rj 
Pi 



lo 



CO 

o 

•H 
+:> 
CO 
■H 

to 

O 

C(H 
O 

pi 



I^ 



C\l 
CJ 



O 

1 H 



0) 
r-H 

H 

r. 






o 
o 
a 



> 

u u 

o o 

c^i ci 

>^ 1-^ 

rH O 

O 0) 



o 

o 

CO 



-00-. 

TABLE 40 

liETlXLIFIlROUS Mill DIG- niDUSTHY: 
AVEMGE ZAEinTC-S; 1SS4 -1931 





1924 


IP 31 


Averaf^G earnings ^Tcr Yiovr 


.55S 


.553 


Average full-time comings per xroc]-. 


20.53 


28.84 


Wage earners 


38,155 


32,155 


nines 


1'57 


139 



Source : Bulletin ITo. 573 - U.S. E.L.S. 



985} 



-91- 







OJ 






t^, 






a^ 






r-l 
1 






1 

e 






r--\ 




>-> 


cn 




p; 


iH 




e^ 






. f-O . 


■ •. 




;— 1 


X 




@ 




1-1 


1—1 


>■ 




e. 


,^ 


P'T 


!sy 




H^l 


HH 


* 


^ 


El 


to 


EH 


O 


a 




1-^ 


•rH 




tJ 






CO 


CTi 




— 


W 




•--^ 






i^-- ^ 






t' 


CD 

o: 

(D 



^51 



m 


C\J 


+3 


f<-\ 


ri 


<T\ 


<D 


rH 


B 




^ 




CO 




■ rH 




iH 




^ 


O 


Cj 


r-^ 


+3 


n^ 


w 


r-\ 


W 









OJ 






r*^ 






CTA 




to 


r-l 




^ 




(U 


ffl 




!iO 


rt 




03 


f.- 




fr: 


03 


o 




W 





a a) 



^1 -p id 

CD o h f-H 

> i; n3 o 

•=1 M Pi 



0) 

t.J -tH 



to 


i: 


t'JJ 


0) 


d 


0) 


• H 


f-- 


ej 




fn 


u 


(Ji 


m 


P3 


Ph 



O to f-. 

ta r; b 

> fn ;h 

<; iri 0) 

W P, 






o 

1-1 



OJ 



O 



CJ 



O 



K 

(D 
t/3 



r^ 


CvJ 


r^^ 


^ 


^■ 


|N-, 


OJ 


cu 


Ou 



r^ 


Oj 


1-^ 


1—1 


iH 


iH 


OJ 


CU 


OJ 





iH 
r-l 


5 


o 


Lr^ 


LO 


•« 


«> 


•« 


r^ 


^-0 


^D 


r^ 


rH 


1-1 


^-± 


iH 


r^ 


o 


r- 


K^, 


J- 


LO 


■IVCl 


•• 


•t 


*t 


r-^v 


UD 


■j:. 


KA 


H 


r-\ 



r— 


u-^ 


rH 


M 


1 — 


O 


• 


• 


• 


to 


^ 


K' 


r-< 


OJ 


I— i 


ro 


~-\- 


J- 


J- 


TO 


O.' 


• 


• . 


• 


'JD 


^ 


T'.'i 


CVI 


7<'-- 


r-f 





o 




• 


• 


• 


OJ 
O.I 


^0 

rvj 


rH 


o 


OJ 


CO 


• 


• 


• 


rH 




o 

O! 



o 



rH 


Lr^ 


^ 


O 


ro 


o 


1 


ro 


LT 



Td to 






fl a 






n3 rH 




to 


cd 




(U 


CO K 


to 


rH 


CD 


(D 


03 


rH (ii 


rH 


E 


n3 


n3 


CD 



o 
ci3 

tH 

o 

a 

e 
+j 
u 
a 
p 



CO 



ci3 



O 

,D 

Hi 

o 

;^ 
fj 
a) 






O 



4J 

CD 



W 
O 

fi: 

o 
to 



-32- 

!10T0H T^.'^CK TRM3P0RTATI0N INDUSTRY: 

Average Eprnin.^s, by Sex; 
Julv, 1933 



SEX 



Average 
Earnings 
Per Hoar 
On Put/ 



Average 
Actual 
Earnings 
Per ''eelc 



Wage EaTners 



''^ales 

aiicV Females. 

Males 

Females 



$ .U52 


■■ 2?. 73 


7,129 


.U57 


2"';. 16 


6,729 


.367 ■ 


16.1+3 


Uoo 



SOURCE: "1 onthly Labor Heviev" Bm-oaiA 0." Lr-bo.' Statistics, U. S. 
Department of Labor, June, 1934. 



9351 



rjj 





S5 


rvT 




l-H 


c 


r^, 


F-^i 


o 


;::!- 


'-3 


r 




R 




W 


CJ 


• - 


H^ 


t; 


i-, 


I^J 


!? 


a' 


•=11 


m 



Eh 



3 



OJ 



O 



^ 



\A 


» 


vA 


m 


O 


tJ3 


l-H 


r. 


h^ 


•H 


^ 

!> 


u 




Co 


w 


W 


C) 




r-i 


Q) 


S 


^i 




u 




0) 




> 




'3? 








r~, 


ra 


K> 


(D 


0\ 


r-l 


t-i 


(V 




t^ 




a) 




P', 






ro 




i\j 




CA 



K 
CA 



o 

0-. 



OJ 



U3 



-93- 









ro 





ai 




1^ 




CT\ 


to 


1— i 


<U 




1-^ 








E.- 




(1) 




I^ 


o 




i-^- 


.-^ 


ex. 


C 


,-H 


ri 




to 




u) 




t~^ 




r 


NJ 


;:.. 


IX! 






•H 
t!1 

!^ 

-J 



^0 



O 



O 
I — 






O 



. — i 
.rf" 






3 
C\J 



r— 

o 






U3 






en 




l'^ 


^X) 


VD 


r^ 


1 — 


,-:( 


o 


Mn 


J- 


ir> 


• 


• 


• 


» 






OJ 


i-o 


^ 






C\J 


r-^ 










O r^ 

.r o cr> 



ro 






C\J 




rvj 


o 


^-> 


,-t 




^,0 


^1- 


o 


OJ 


f^ 


• 


• 


• 


" 


cn 




^-1 


, ' 


J- 






t^, 


OJ 


r-l 




^ 






OJ 




C\J 


r^ 


r-\ 


rH 




1- 


ro 


O 


CA 


<£) 


• 


• 


• 


•• 


CT\ 




LP. 


u~. 


^ 






I-O 


'■ -' 


rH 




o 






OJ 




\.C\ 


LO. 




V^ 




t— 


o 




m 


.^ 


• 




1 


LTi 


a> 









kJ 




.V 












'O) 




<D 












® 




CO 






m 




01 


^ 




IT. 






M 




p 












C 




•H 


u 




M 






H 




+■> 


w 


i-l 


0) 




m 


c 






P 


Cj 


P' 




+j 


u 


^1 


r-l 




pi 




M 


fl 


a 


r^ 


rH 


w 


+^ 


m 


fn 


Q) 


CD 


o 


7i 


til' 


O 


£»Ii 


O 


S 




,c! 


tH 


a 


r! 


C! 


d 


Xi 


o 






■ri 




• H 


(h 


w 


^ 


^1 


0) 


C 


r) 


d 


oj 


• H 


<u 


^ 


fH 


t(j:j 


Ih 


0) 


rH 


u 


P 


'V, 


CS 


fj 


rt 




^ 


i.n 




u 


(D 


f-, 


(D 


(D 


cd 


i> 




l» 




(D 




E*D 


-p 


^ 




> 




!> 




i-j 


M 






<>! 




'i! 




!" 


W 









CO- 

PQ 

t3 



> 

o 



r-i 

c: 
o 



6 

o 

CO 



9851 



-94- 

MOTOP VEHICLE HEPAK GA'UGE INDUSTHY 
AVERAGE EAR IJGS; 
1931 



Average earninfs tdgt hour 579 

Average full-time e-^.rnings per wee'v 30.3? 

Average actual earnings Der week ..... 23.56 

Wage earners 6,053 

Gpj-ages , 3UU 



Bulletin No. 573 - U.S. 3.L.S. 



9S5I 



-95- 







OJ 


g 


(D 




o 


fH 


rH 


H! 


ni 


I 




t2 


u-^ 


ri 




CVJ 


tH 


G> 


Ph 


o 


rH 


m 


n^ 


1 


c5 


PJ 




.■^ 


• H 


M 


n 


t-.-^ 


rt 


g 


'd 


CO 


^ 




§ 


R 


« 


n 


ci 


CD 




«3! 


W 


>H 


^ 


>^ 


F^ 


> 


m 


EH 


•=< 




EH 
O 



>:! 



O <li 
•H >H 

!> rq 
I PI 

•H EH 
V. EH 

0) O 
to (1, 



rH 
05 



'■d I r\j 

r-i| f— 
CD 1; 

ni Pi LP 

OJ 

a 

rH 



0). 
C\J 

o- 

r-H 



ni 




S 


m 


nl 


t 




.- 


UJ 


Cf 


0) 




rH 


Q) 



<A ^i 



m 


I 






to 


0) 






S 


f\3 




OJ 


•rl 


t6 




+■> 


r! 


P 




p: 


fl 




ttJ 


o 


rf 


• » 


ri 


r' 


(U 


n 


Cl' 


.-' i 




fn 




'w 


(U 


pi 


d:i 


•rH 


^.0 


o 


U 


r' 


d 


.!:; 


flj 


rO 


^ 




p 


cj 


ffl 


'"'..* 




4^ 


> 


n 


Ui 


U 


-d^ 


cS 


o 


O 



CVJ 



C\J 

« 



OJ 



VD 

-to- 

to 



1^ 



<■> 



r-1 
OJ 
\1\ 



OJ 
OJ 






in 



m 
o. 
r—. 

•co- 

o 

HBi 
VJD 
LO 
■CJ- 



M 








t,T 




fd 




1^ 




fn Q) 




■H 




w /-■; 




fl 




.'^ !h 




Th 




n O 




ci; 




P f" 




0) 




r] 






fH 


m 




(D 


d 


CD 54 


t ^ 


^0 


o 


c-.o r^ 


CO 


<jj 


r] 


fj o 


'd 


Th 




Th X\ 




? 


fn 


a 


U 


I-; 


o 


;- 'it 


a) 


** 


Ph 


-J. o 


o 



ai 


o 


• 


o"^ 


r- 


o^ 




Lr\ 


r— 


v_o 


• 


O 


r— 






r-\ 




o^ 


C\J 


OJ 


• 


-:d- 


r- 






iH 




o^ 


co 


rH 


• 


'^O 


CO 


•% 




r-i 




CX\ 


C\J 


rH 


• 


,-t 


r- 


»» 




rj 




^ 


o 


to 


• 


vo 


to 


#• 




CVJ 




H 


I— 


TO 


• 


r^ 


r— 






C\J 




r— 


10 


ir\ 


• 


^1 


r— 


** 




1^ 




UD 


r— 


to 


■ 


O 


!■— 


r> 




^ 




<D 


rH 


<JD 


• 


yo 


w 


•* 




VD 




h- 


r~~ 


VD 


• 


^ 


t — 






>JD 


o 


ro 


• 


O.' 


to 


1^ 



o 



K. 



tiO 



OJ 



I — 



OJ 



I^ 



OJ 
rH 



r— 



OJ 






OJ 






OJ 






m 









H 
•H 

m 
(i 

• 

CO 

t3 



O 
•H 
> 

<D 

f4 

o 



4^ 
O 



P-1 

o 

B 

to 



-96- 



1ABLZ 46 
PORTLAM) CEMSIJT'IMSUSTHY; AVERAGE 
EAHITINGS, BY SEX; 1929 - 1932 



Average 
Earnings 



Males and 
Females 




Females 



1929 1952 1929 1932 1929 



1932 



Average earnings 
per hour 

Average full-time 
earnings per week 

Average actual 
earnings per week 

Wage earners 

Establishments 



.517 



.4'U -.518 .401 .389 



.386 



31.-43 23.66 51.49 23.70 20.23 18.76 

29.25 18.35 29.33 18.59 18.12 10.52 

20,701 13,677 20,544 13,609 157 68 

102 103 1(^2 103 , 28 18 



"Monthly Labor Review", U. S. B. L. S., March 1933. 



9851 



r,-u;> 



.E 47 



hiay, 1929 - Lqy, 1933 



Occu-oation 



Average Vifafce rates 
per houi^ 



Engineers . . . , 

Fireman 

Gagers . 

Laborers 

Line liVp,ll:ers , 

Oilers , 

Roustabouts . , 
Telegrapliers , 
Truck drivers 



May, 1929 


I'Aay, 1933 


.7-^2 


.693 


.697 


.618 


.701 


.581 


.418 ■ 


.390 


.ol'^v 


.509 


.3dS 


.652 


.588 


' .505 


.710 


.590 


.563 


.608 



Source: "I-iontlily Labor Review", U.S. 3.L.S. Se-)tember, 1935 



9851 



TABLE 48 

'■ RAILI.O.JS 

Average Annual Earnings of All Employees, 
excluding executives; 1929-1931-1932"19o3 



Year 

1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 



AV 


■irage Annual 
Earnings 




¥ 


1 


,627 






1 


,575 






1 


,470 






1 


,245 



SOURCE: "Monthly L?bor Heview, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, July, 1935. 



9851 



-59- 



J1AII.]"10ADS 



E-:rniii:::^5 P;)r .fee^: "i-> to $21,94 - 
."■urn'oer Distrieution, rovember 1933 



dr.i-i lings Pei- 


Em'olovees 


C-uinula.tive Percent 


7eek 




of Total 
Emplojmient 


Total 


154,692 


15.3 


$6.48 and trnder 


8,758 


0.9 


Over $6.48, to $3.64 


20,415 


2.9 


Over $8.64, to $10.30 


34,831 


6.4 


Over $10.80, to $12.96 


50,306 


11.4 


Over $12.96, to $15.12 


35,774 


14.9 


Over $15.12, to $21.94 


4,553 


15.3 



Source: "iionthl^'- Labor Eevi en", U. S. BLS. , Ss-ptem"ber, 1935. 



9851 





ci 






t^- 






t^ 






M 






r.'i 


CVI 




h'j 


r~^. 




R 


cr. 




'^l 


rH 




1^ 


C^ 




15 

.—1 


0-^ 




^1 


rH 




i-j 






•i 


CD 




CO 




'"■■ 


»^ 






C3 


o 


o 


rO 


Lr> 


1—1 






CH 


M 


r-'i 


W 


W 


^ 


g 


^ 


<A 


JTJ- 


•H 


C-^ 


\>-i 


fl 




C/U 








f-n 




w 


Q) 




E-' 


M 




O 






1^ 


!> 




•< 


-A 




' "i 






o 






h 






":■( 





0) rH 

o 
>. -1 



3531 



m 


OJ 


^j 


t^ 


fl 


Ti"! 


s 


rH 






ja 




w 




•H 




rH 




,-'^ 




Co 


o 


-t^ 


^'■^ 


CQ 


cr> 


F-1 


rH 







Cvl 




r--> 




O"-. 




w 


rH 




u 




m 


05 




h!) 


C 




crt 


u 




1=^ 


r". 


o 




o> 






rH 



• H 



fl) 






e 


C/2 


k-' 


•H 


Wr 


"UJ 


-P 


i^ 


0) 


I 


•H 


! — 














r-l 


In 




r-; 


01 


Q) 


f-H 


r^ 


P-l 





to 


C) 


■o<, 


t.'; 


s 


Pi 


•H 


f-4 


C! 


tl) 


f-^ 


l> 


tTi 


^ r-l 



g 

H K 



CO 

^"^ 

rH 



o 

rH 



OJ 



o 

rH 



rH 



O 



cyl 



-100- 



o 



tH 

OJ 



CO 

ir\ 
OJ 



OJ 



OJ 



■^ 



rH 



\£) 



o 



H 



^ 



OJ 

0.1 



:? 



'^ 



o 

OJ 



r-H 

OJ 



to 



to 

rH 









OJ 



to 



C^^ 






rj 



e 




0) 




t'H 




Ti 




ti 




d 




tn 


w 


•s 


CD 


rH 


>H 


Cj 


tj 



o 

CX' 



rH 
OJ 






o 

rH 















r-t 



to 



r-1 



CA 


to 


^'^ 


1^ 


O 


CO 


r^\ 




C\J 



J- 


-1 


o 


^ 


li^ 


KA 



(D 

d 






o 

cU 






CD 
•H 
> 

p=; 

o 

,Q 
Clj 



o 



o 
o 



EH 



e 






o 

•H 
-P 
•H 

O 
Ph 



r^ 



,Q o 

(D 

-P ■% 

d r-i 



pi 






>s •-:) rH 



.i3 - 
-P O^ 

O CTi >s 



U 
(D 

i> 



rH 5 

i 






o 

•H 
-P 

■H 

CO 

O 



9S51 



-101- 



iH i-t r-; r-! 



LO C\J I — to J- UD H U5 

TO ^X) ^- oj h- r~-vo ^- 

r-H rH rH rH 



u^ in o 1 — ^ a^ ro I — 

rH rH iH r-l 
-tQ- 



Lf> LOi ci^ o ir , o aj r^ 
to MDjj- OJ r^ to ^,0 ^ 

rH H iH rH 

-CO- 



LlA K^ O to LT-. O OJ 

CO VD LT-i OJ I — to U3 
:-t <-i i-\ r-^ 

-eo- 



i — 



,-T ^ h- to ,-d- VJD OJ to 
KO ^ 02 CT^VD ^.0 LOi r^\ 
r^ r-i H 



^' o -=i- o ciA r'^uo rH 
I-— ir-, r^ rH >-£) I — LTN^ 

rH rH rH rH 

■ee- 



O to i^ O -^ r- O LO 

to LTi J- OJ t-- ^-VD ^ 
r-t r-\ r-\ <-{ 

■te- 



O O^^ rH J- r— rH ir\ 

CO Ln J- OJ t-- r~-<^ ^ 

rH rH rH rH 



OJ o r^ H A-f- to J- ur> 

r VT) ^- OJ I^A.0 MD ^- 
rH rH H H 



O t^ LOv O O I — LPi 1^^ 

(\S r-{ r-i r-^ 



CO rH rH rH rH 



LO. CO CO J- U3 OJ C\J OMO, 

UD CO v£) Lr\*JD r^ [^- Lr> o 

OJ rH rH rH r-i 



rHt^r~-r-H>>orjajcoLr\ 
'-.o CO UD ir^KO r— r~- lo o 

rj rH rH H r-\ 



rH t — CO OJ LOi 00 OJ to I 

^-D to <-o Lr\^JD- r-— I — LTx I 

CJ rH rH iH 



"JD ir^jt to ^- H OM-O, rH 
LTiVD ^ CXI LOVJD tF\,z;- a> 
OJ rH H rH 



OJ LOi rH i^ o^ t^^jD a^vD 

^JD r~~ LC\t^ l.OiVJD UO ^- CTi 

C\J rH rH rH 



Qr^rHLni-^OrHK>0 

CO CO v_o J- vjo h- I — Lr> o 

OJ r-l rH rH rH 



CO OJ rH ir^^ o O Lr\o 
r— covo^uo I — I — LOlO 

00 rH rH rH rH 



OrOrHLOr^rHrHL':^ J 

to to ^^ jij-^^ r~-\ — L'^, I 

CV! H rH 1-1 



+5 

2 tt> 

-U' fij 
u e 

(D « 
•H 



-P O -1-^ 

cC -p f J 

S c3 E 

■d 



«! 



■■d 

O ^1 
0) 



r; c 



a fH 

H O 

ri -(J < 

ia o cr: 



& o rj Q) 
w LH Th H u '/i 



to 

I?; 
0) 



Cm 

•H 






•H 

s 

0) 



VJO to 

rH to 






o r— o> o>vx> 

OJ o■^ 0> I — j:t . 



O LTn LTA O t^- t~^ 
OJ CTv CPi t/0 J- ^ 



rH o O o r^ OJ 
OJ o^ c to ^ ^ 



rH O O O rH 1^ 
OJ O O to LT^^ 
rH rH rH 



rH ^JD OJ O^ O >^0 
rH to crWO ^ t^ 



v£i ^ c^^ ru o cp 
rH cr\ cTN ^-^ r^ 



O I — 'C^'i — CO r^ 
CJ a^c^^ r-^ J- 



r^ h- O rH cr> OJ 
00 CTi O CO ^- ^ 



00 t^O rH O^ OJ 
00 O O CO^^ 
r-\ r-i r-i 






© w 
a, m 
•H rci 

■3 rH •• 
O -P 

O O fci fn 

' n u 1^ 

-p nJ & 

!h e <u 



<x> o 






Pi tn +3 (ii 0) +3 



0) 



(I) M cv; 
p.i 0) 



vi O 



•H 

o 



l"J o 



O -H 



r'l 



■-o to 



Q) CO 

'<i o o 

U -H O 

rJ ,::: 0) 

O CO 






N 

o 

en ^ 



0} 

o 

•H 
-P 
01 
•rl 

1? 

O 
■% 

y^ 

O. 
03 



?, 



CPi 



CTi 



0). 






Pi 
o 



-p 
o 



O en 05 

O w cn 



O Q) C3 CD 

o CO :3 ;z- 



g 

o 

CO 

























-10^- 












m 




r^ 


OM^LrNOK>tOrHCVjr~-r- 










t 


CO 




r-i 










d) 


rH 




OJ 


rH rH CTMX^ ir\ LTN rH 










r-H 


Cti 




•« 


•» ' 






rd 






t3 


t 


■ J- 


r-i 1 




** 


** 


m 


••I 


lO 


" rH V_0 rH LCM^ tO O^ LTMCn LO r^ 






rt 






o 


1 


rH 


LO^" OJ ro r-l ro hO^" ^ <^X) rH 




t 


r: 






rH 




O 


Jit ^-;- ro ro LO ro^ 




^Q) 


H 






,ri 




r 


. 




i-H 


't 


•• 


■• 


• • 


• • 


• • •• 


i 
»• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• #• •• •• 


I — 


1 




p 


w 






w 


^X) 


LO OJ U3 bD OJ h- OJ VX) r— ^ to 


'o 








<D 


•zj 


I 


G) 


OJ 


M 








r^ 




0) 


iH 


C\J 


H rH LO ro C5^ bO O LO^- 


EH 








A 


c5 


fi-i 


Cj 


r 


•» •» •» 


!3 
















r^- 


r-i r-\ r-{ 




** 


" 


** 




w 




'• " 




(•;; 










I 


(B 




UD 


o roi — oun tOMD ovo roh-- 


M 










i 


r-H 




lO 


^ t^\ CJ >X) LO CTvUi r- OJ 


m 










F-H 


OJ 




o^ 


^ H 


^ 




g 








t" 












" 




M 




o 


to LO'.xi to to r^^ LO to (,j^ lOi lo 







M 








(D 




r^ 


OOOJ Hr— rHrHtOCTN CTikD 




fn 








r^ 




O 


rH rH rH rH rH 






(in 








,c3 




r 








t/2 


" 




M 


U3 


to to r^> to ^ rH rH t/J LO to OJ 










Q) 


'd 


I 


m 


r-{ 


VX3 LO H ro J- r— H J- 1— rH t-- 










rH 


s:! 


(U 


H 


3 


LO OJ OJ OJ OJ rH rH 


•• 








_C« 


cS 


fl-l 


Cu 






id 














c" 


1^ 




** 








w 




rH 


'.D O^ Lr> rH ^ to rvJ LO O O rH 


o 










I 


CJ 




r- 


ro^X) VD ro OJ ro OJ cu ro O ro 


[3 












■^ 






roOJ HJ-r'^LO0Jr\JrH 


@ 






o 










VD 


ro H 

*& *a AA AA A* An AA #A •■ ## Aft #ft 


** 




Ul 




to 


VV WW ■• *• VV WO •» ^» •» •^ WW ^ w 

hO OJ l:T^ to rH OJ ro rH VXI CTl^- 


»j| 




(D 


•H 






o 




OJ 


ro ro LT^ OJ Q-^ o rx) o v.o >X3 vx) 






H 


-P 






rH 




H 


r-o rH rH to >X3 to LO r--^ r'^ 


C/3 


!-/> 

r^ 


1 
i 


"4 
■H 


g 






^tj 




lOv 




r— 1 
-P 








1 


o^ o> rH ^i- CA Lr\ o lcnV-O >^ o~mo, ! 


iH 


cr 






e-"!, xn 






03 


0-^ VjD O OJ Lr\ 1-1 ^-j- O OJ G^>vO o^ 


l^ 


H 






QJ 


n=! 


i 


CD 


r— >.o ^ rH OJ K-, c^,-1- r— G■^ lr^ r--^ 


r 


» 








:g 


3 


7^ 


rH ^^ rH rH | 


o 


EH 














•-i' 


r- 


11 






" 


** 




O 




o 


r-A lo^j- V.O r^N^x) r- o to CPi rH ! 


w 


Ci) 










1 


C; 




r— J- !xj K^o■^J- rH OJ r— ,-d- || 




tn 










0) 


H 


1 i-i 


H OJ rH OJ H 1 


r^' 


«J 










Ph 


ri 




- 


Ah 












G 




rH 








w 




" Oj' 


O ^ rH Q-^tO^t OJ-I--^ h-^ 


CO 




^ 








Q) 




H 


O ^ r^ r^ o^ to ro to rH ro J- 


ci) 




+= 








rH 




ir 


rH C\J rH OJ rH OJ rH 


k-i 




p! 








rt 




* . i i 


S 




5 
to 








l*^ 




i-t 








m 


** 


*' 


w 


a 


rH rA LO LO H O G^ r— 00 '^D tO 








Q) 


Ti 


I 


0) 


ro 


^ rovD r^N, J- o lo Lo.vx) ^ jd- 








H 


a 


Q) 


rH 


yjD 


OJ rH LO OJ -i- ro OJ OJ rH 










,^ 


fii 


t-H 


n? 


II 










ri-i 






;^1 


OJ 




>H 


" 












i.O 


^;- to O 0"» rH to O O OJ H LO 


N 












Ul 




tr^ (M'^D lr^ o^^- ^- i-"\i^t'J H rH 11 


n-i 










i 


O 




o 


UD ,T H ^ rH '^O ro to to ro rH 


to 










rH 




•> „ .. ll 


t3 










r^i 


cJ 






\ LO OJ rH 


P 




u 


t/3 






•-1 




i .. H 




h-f 


** 




t/3 


" 


1 IX^ CM 0^ I^ O .zl- t^ G~^ H ,■? <J5 "^O | 






•fi 


a 






O 




lQ 


rH J- H OJ to rO^O O.I CM VO to 


1 i 




5 


o 






rH 




'..Q 


lo CM rH -Jr ^ ro LO cu r— o o^ 


Q 




Fh 


•H 






tTi 






It n •* n M «t «« 


>^ 






tr 






1 ; 




Q 


rH ,-i rH rH rH rH 


^ 




H 


(i3 










r- 






w 






w 


I^ VD I— 1^ Q-MTM-O Cr\ rH >--0 r— rH 1 











Q) 


Td 


I 


a) 


CV 


ro rH u:) r-H OJ t)0 o^ o■^ o r- o 








rH 


s 


o 


rH 


r— rH r— OJ tTiVX) Q> to O VX) ro rH 1 


•3, 








& 


ci3 


tH 


c\3 




•> - 
















e 


K> rA U3 r<-A OJ Ol OJ rH r-l 1 


^^ 




• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


C\ 


-• .. ^ -ibi„-<i, -fe, -t>. -fe- f- . ~t>, -ei i 


1— 1 


















r\M Hi"- . 


to 


















• t^O^JLOOLOOOO • 


















ovj ro i-o rojt- J- lovx) r— • 

Cli 


- 












1 


' 


















, -p 














1 


-<. 


>- 






W Jh 










h' 


'^ C« J-, 






SP P! 










OJ CD O 






« 5 










OJ(D= = = = n = = = > 






•H rj 








j 


rH O 






r; 










(3 'O TQ 






!-i u 














a 0) 










• '^Crint: — ui^^n ji; 


















H ,gl 








! I 


HJ w Cj 

cT -c:. -a. -o- 1;. ';i- '.■--;:. -J, -0. 

O OJ ^- O CM LO O LC-, O O O 1 


53 


















c 

1 E- 


) 1- 

i 


1 OJ CM ro ro rojt jiJ- Li^'-.o r-- 



LO 

ro 







CO 

n 



D 



0) 
• H 
> 

o 
1-^ 



o 



B 

o 
to 



T.MT::; 59 

siLi; AIT :u";"- .-^'os i:T)iJS"^:t: 



Avern.^e lllar-^i-rv"«, Id-'- -Se-x; 1931-1935 



' I 'al e s 

■and ■ • 

Averrge Scj-riiiigs females i.!ales Jsmales 

1D31 1933 1931 1933' 1931 1933 



Avera-^e Errnixv;s per 

Hour ' .406 .269 .485 .319 .335 .221 

Avera.^e ZT'-xll-time Errn- 

iiijs Per ^.eelc 20.53.. . 13,6.9 . . .54... 9.8 . 16.46 15.75 11.09 

Avera<'\e Actual Sara- 

ingr, per "eel- 18.47 11.35 23.45 14,82 14.46 9.24 

TTs^e-errners 49,036 ' ■-41,71o ' ■21,885 19,500 27,151 . 22,213 

Sstaolisiiments 340 . 291 340 291 340 291 



SOUHCS: "L.'onthly Labor lleviev/", Bu.reau of Labor Statistics, U. S. 
Depa.rtment of Labor, ITovenber, .1935. 



9851 









CO 






-< 





• • 


fH 




1>H 


1^ 


^-J 


ffi 


O^A 


Li% 




iH 


g 




I 


pcj 




o> 


<ij 


t-H 


CM 


M 




(l-\ 




ri 


r-i 
















1— 1 


















o 






<«! 






PM 






EH 





1^ 





r-1 



9S51 











-1.04- 




CO 












+= 


rH 








CM 




PI 


K-' 


o"^ 


en 


to 




(D 


0-- 










1 


H 










CO 












rH 


** 






.. ..j 




,a 












C J 

-p 


0- 








r^ 




CO 


(Aj 


CTn 


CTi 


tyj 




w 


0~' 














ir^ 


h'A 


0.1 






rH 


Lf^ 


CVI 


(^ 






r^ 


l.c^ 


Lr\ 









CP 


»« 


•V 


•0 




to 


rH 


K^ 


Lf^ 


bO 




u 




L^^ 


jJr 




1 


CD 


















t:; 


CC 


CT 

(XI 


OS 


U3 


1^ 




M 


o-\ 


cn 









.ir\ 


1^- 


CO 






0^ 


■> 


n 


■» 






H 


VI3 


OJ 


to 






H 


r.o 


r— 


rH 






r^ 


r^ 


Lr^ 


U3 




CO ^i 


CT 


• 


• 


• 


CD 


flO CD 


r-] 





rH 


^'^ 


E^OrH 


c; CD 




CM 


CM 


H 


■ c: a 




















-P 


Th ?^ 










> o 


cj CD 










■a; r: 


0) Ph 


(T\ 


T.0 


I— 


^- 






CM 


rH 


jrr 


un 






C^ 


• 


• 


• 






r^ 


J- 


li"i 


VX) 








CVI 


CM 


rH 






r-{ 


en 


OJ 









r^ 





r-i 


r— 


® 




CT- 


• 


• 


• 


CD G 


CO ^ 


rH 


C\J 


.r-'> 


LTn. 


tl) -H 


tiC; CD 




CVI 


OJ 


rH 


CD iH 


S CD 




• • 














i> f-H 


M r-i 










<i; .^ 


cij ai 


0-- 





to 


^ 


tH 


CD P-i 


OJ 


to 


to 









c 


• 


• 


• 






rH 


_1_ 


U"-> 


to 








'CJ 


CM 


H 






H 


0'> 





rH 






(V-N 


.:d- 


I^ 


CM 






en 


-l- 


J- 


t^ 


CO 


in 


rH 


• 


• 


• 


CD ^,0 




















J-l !-1 












0) ^1 


^1 










> nJ 


CD 


a^ 


^ 


ir\ 


CD^ 


•=aj 0) 


Pi 


Cd 





CM 


U3 






CJ> 


LCi 


LT^ 


r^ 






r-H 


• 


• 


• 








CO 

























rH 












fS 





































'H 








w 




n::! 








(1) 




a 








w 




cti 




CO 

CD 








CO 


LI 


i-i 








CD 


CD 


Cj 








1-1 


H 


1^ 








cj 


Cj 


CD 








I — 1 


► -f 


r-i 



CO 

m 

* 

I 

[^ 



o 
Is; 



CD 

rH 
r-i 



o 



o 

CO 



M 

EH 



CO 

I 



to 

1— I 

h— ■ 

I— t 

Fr.| 

s 

l-H 

n 

I— I 

EH 



H 

ci 






c 

•H 

nJ 

Q 

tlfl 

n5 
> 



m 


CM 


-p 


r^ 


fi 


o^ 


Cl) 


rH 






5 




ra 




•H 




iH 




rQ 




crt 




-p 


c:> 


TO 


r^ 


w 


CT\ 




H 







K> 




cr\ 




w 


f-1 




^H 




Q) 


0) 




tin 


C 




cri 


f-i 




is 


CO 


O 




W 


CTA 






CV! 
!:J3 O rH 






03 



F--1 Ah 



O 
^^^ 






U 
CD 
> 



OJ 

tifl CD iH 



fc W Ph 



9S51 





w 


0) 


bn 


bf) 


s 


c;1 


•H 


Th 


fl 


Q) 


l-l 


> 


Cti 


«! M 



o 

CTi 



^■"^ 

r-H 



O 
0"^ 



0) 
CD 



cr\ 



0■^ 
o 






cr> 

OJ 



CVl 



rH 

o 






o 
o 



CM 



w 

T-l 

S 
© 

r- 






0"^ 
O 






CO 



c■"^ 



C\J 



CJ 



CO 
H 



-105- 



to 



t^ 



<» 



(M 


O 


o 










rH 


K", 


OJ 

to 


CTi 

^- 


J- 


M 


«, 


r» 


rH 

CVl 


r->. 


K^ 






0.1 



O 

C^J 





c-^. 

^ 


o 

0^ 


• 


» 


• 


o 

CM 


r-H 

OJ 





OJ 



rH 






i~o 



rrl 






rt 






cd 




w 

CD 


ta 


« 


rH 


a: 


Q) 


'.'■^ 


rH 


H 


pi 


Cl. 


ri 


O 






I---I 



o 



o 



CD 



tJ 



o 

•rH. 
-P 

M 
•H 
■\-^ 

CC 
+^ 

CO 

O 

rO 
C; 

H^ 

'H 
O 

CD 



to 
to 



-p 

(D 



r-j 



o 

in 







CM 






hO 






0-^ 






H 






cS 






1^ 






a^ 






H 




pi 






p-4 


• •V 




EH 


r 1 




C/3 


CD 




t3 


tn 


U3 


B 


r 5 


L'r\ 


1-1 


,Q 


a 


^ 


CO 


PP 


w 


UD 


<^ 




fi 


E-H 


1 


■H 




n 


fn 




g 


n3 



•rl 
H 
,□ 

■P 






O 





CO 


- 


^ 


(D 


Q) 


M 


P^ 


rt 


f-i 




a 




pq 



CM 
0"^ 



O 











CM 










K^ 






tn 


I t 


CJ^ 







oC 


"© 


rH 


'\5 


r-1 


<i; 


(D 




rt 


fj 


■ H 


t^ 




Th 
03 


^ 




Th 




> 


O 


cS 


a-> 


o 


< 


<< 


M 


P-r 


r-l 











CM 




0) 






t^ 


(D 


S 


m 


,y 


a\ 


tu) 


•H 


tu3 


0) 


r-\ 


cti 


+= 


fl 


Q) 




in 


1 


•H 


trr 




CD 


iH 


S 






> 


rH 


fH 


!^ 




< 


f^: 


cd 


O 


o 




M 


Ph 


h'^ 










(y\ 










r-H 





t-J 


r^, 


07 U 


G^ 


CD to pi 


H 


tj fl o 




C .H W 




fH S 




(£i U U 




1> CS CD 


O 


•a! I-q Ph 


^-^ 




O-N 



9o5i 



M 

0) 
C/2 



-lOG- 



»^o 



^ 



rH 



11^ 
H 

rH 



to 

O 



O 



, — J 









CM 



LCA 



o 

CM 



VJ3 



bO 


^ 


^t 


1^ 


r- 


V_0 


1 — 


1-1 


ic-> 



O LTS 

rH ^- 

ci^ aj 

CM OJ 






o^ 



O 



rH 



o 


L^^ 


'UD 


to 


M 


rH 


• 


• 


• 


,-t 


O 


r^ 


rH 


CM 


T-\ 


vo 


rH 


,_ 


o-\ 


r'^ 


Lr% 


• 


• 


• 


r- 


r^ 


yo 


rH 


CO 


H 



OJ 


to 


o 


O"^ 


o 


VT) 


OJ 


^ 


CM 



t— 


m. 


O 


ir\ 


\r\ 


t■'-^ 


r<^ 


^ 


r^ 



w 






(D 






H 






nS 






a 






CD 






rn 






■xl 






S 






cd 




to 

CD 


w 


CQ 


rH 


CD 


CD 


c3 


Cu 


^ 


q5 




t H 


r-H 



u 
o 

cj 
o 



r" 

r; 

CD 

n 



t3 



CO 

o 

•H 
-P 
67 
•H 

+3 
C3 
■P 

CO 

u 
o 
.-^ 

Cl> 

1-^ 



Cj 
CD 



m 



rH 
CT\ 



• H 
CD 



w 

o 
o 

CO 






EH 





to 

Pi 



.^3 



o 
n 

EH 
O 

i 

I 1 

O 

o 



CD 


fl 






^ 


o 






,i 


•H 


^ 






P 


w 






,Q 


1 1 




an 


•H 


ffi 




' ' 


P-l 


0) 




'w 


4J 


T- ■ 




(D 


CQ 






■^-r 


•H 


ti 


^'-^ 




p 


CD 


^-> 


^ 




-p 


o^ 


0) 


4J 


o 


rH 


Ph 


a 


(D 






Q) 


r-i 




en 


O 


CD 




f\£) 


U 


CO 




C 


(U 






•H 


Ph 


CM 




S 








rH 


^' 






n3 








H 


nS 







o 
to 

0) 
M 



O 
CS 
rH 
CO 

r! 

•H 

^! 

CD 
d) 



9S51 



-p ,o 



5h 

CD 



-107- 



fl -H 


o 








0) fn 


o 


to 


H 


o 


o -p ph 


• 


• 


• 


• 


^1 m o 


. o 


J- 


l-<^ 


o 


CD -H .H 


o 


^ 


^ 


rH 


Ph Pi +^ 


--1 









I^ 



rH 
0,1 
CM 



CM Ln rH 

LC < C\J C\l 

L^^ . ir\ rH 



LO 



60 



^ 
















•P r^ 
















r' -H 




- CD 


c. 


. O^ 


bo 


l^"', 


O 


CD !h 




o 


w 


O 


rH 


r~- 


ai 


O +1 


e! 


•• 


• 


• 


• 


» 


• 


;-i m 


o 


O 


r^ 


IC\ 


J- 


Tvl 


^ 


CD -H 


•H 


o 


rH 


r^ 


l~C\ 


H. 




PhQ 


+^ 


rH 

















to 

rH 



O LOi 



• 
• 


• 


• 
• 




• 


• 


fl 






L^ 


o 




o 


H 


w 




r-i 


-e^ 


■£> 




>j. 


Sh 


Th 


^•L 


u 


CD 


<±> 


u 


CD 


Ti 


n:i 


CD 


TV 


fl 


^ 


> 


Ej 


;^ 


o 


J3 










-^CJ 


Ti 


^cj 


d 


fl 


rt 





fi 


ri 


a 


Cj 


d 










o 


!.CA 


O 


: ■*, 


r-i 


r-l 


ai 


T' 


<.'> 


,^'V 


-£> 



CT\ 



rH 
•H 
!h 



C/1 



aj 



o 

CD 

u 
o 

Qi 



o 



o 
o 

CO 





fej 








Ph 








C-i 








C/3 


• • 






|3 


r-1 






■ 1? 


Q) 






i — 


CO 






HH 










r"j 


OJ 




m 


r^' 


t^ 




n 




0"\ 




o 


«• 


H 


to 


o 


W 




Ln 


Cli 


•H 


1 


PI 


O 


o 


1-1 


w 


EJ 


K^ 


% 


IH 


f^ 


Gl 


C/2 


n5 


rH 


EH 


o 


r^ 


I 




!3 


CD 








ha 


t.' ,• 




e 


cd 


CJ 




s 


?H 


c. 




<! 




r-i 




\^ 


«! 






a 








o 








Q 








l^ 







9231 





1 

CVl 




rr> 




CP 




iH 




•• 




o 


m 


f^ 


<D 


O"- 


r-H 


r-t 


Ci3 




s 




<D 


• • 


^-^j 




r i 






CO 




OJ 




H 




CM 




h-- 




CT 




H 




• * 




O 




K^ 


M 


O^ 


05 


iH 


r-i 




.5 






• • 




CO 




OJ 




CT 




rH 




C\J 




r^ 




CT 




■H 


W 


*• 


(1) 




1-1 




Cj 




|][; 


o 


P 


K^ 


^•■I 


■■^> 




iH 


•^ 




e; 




Cj 






• • 


en 




(D 




H 




c6 


CO 


^ 


C\J 




cr 




iH 



OJ 



H 






O 

VJ 






-108- 






<D 



OJ 




o^ 


o 


1-^ 




• 


• 




c^ 




r-i 



VI3 



in 

OJ 



CO 




VD 


KO 


Lf^• 


o 


• 


• 




CO 




OJ 



CO 



OJ 
CO 



OJ 



OJ 






OJ 
H 



cn 



CPi 



OJ 



rH 



f'^ 
r^ 



to 



OJ 

o 



C 1 
iH 



CT> 



cn 

CO 



O 



OJ 



o 

Co" 



o 
o 



iH 



o 

CO 
CO 



w 


a) 






'•D 








rt 


•H ;h 


iH Ph 




•H 


-P <D 


C3 <D 




a 


iH Ph 


,^ ft 


m 


fn 


rH 


■P 


U 


ri fH 


.-j to 


O .M 


05 


W pi 


tin UO 


03 IJ 


f! 


o 


d 


fi 


!-l 


0) ^ 


Q) -H 


05 .H 


03 


'<P r 


tuO S ^ 


(£ u o 


PI 


fo U 


rf ^1 05 




r-i CD 


f^ ni CD 


!h C^ 05 


G 


O P, 


tt> o r; 
> 


G 05 ;: 


1 


■^ 




^ 


I ' 



o 

CTi 



O^ 


LJ:^ 


( 5 


C 5 


t-'J 


rH 



CO 






r-i 


CVl 


fry 


LPv 




O 


o^ 


^1- 


m 


1 


to 




• 


• 
rH 
CJ 


I 




r-t 


r— 


CJ 


>JD 


O 


CT> 


^ 


>jn 


CJ 


J- 




^ 


• 


• 






• 


ai 


CA 


o 






CJ 


1-^ 


OJ 





o 

H 



OJ 
CTi 



o^ 



LOi 

o 

rH 



C\l 
CJ> 



CO 
-P 

G 

CO 
•H 
rH 
,^, 

Cu 
-P 

CO 



to 
CO 

LOi 






to 



c/j- 
o 



CO 

•H 
4J 

G 
rH 
r-i 






o 

CO 





OJ 




1^ 




CTi 




iH 




<^ 




r^ 




CT> 




rH 




•• ^" 




>H O 




rt H 




t/3 b 




5 m 




R i-H 




13; p^ 




HH EH 




w 




ti 1-) 




r-A l-i 




M •• 




^[^ 




EH M 




o o 




r^ r-l 








30 






S 


to-^ 


rc\ 


R Ph 


< 


O W 


H 


o m 




"P 




^ 




CO .. 




P^ ><! 




B^- 




S^ 




<: 








Hg 




^-l O 




O t=! 




p . 








r-^i 




Ph 




W 




ci 












I-H 




(^ 




'5 




H 



9S51 







03 




-1C3- 




d 


I cu 


o 






o 

■H 
•H 


■ E 


o * 

rH 


t » * * * * * » ♦ # rH» rHrHC\J(Mr\Jr^(\ljLj-0<AJOC\JCr> 

r-\ r^ r-\ rA 












^ 


tQ 








+3 


CD 


o 


****»**;;-****** rH***rHi-^i^l— r^O 




CO 


d 


O 1 


I H 




•H 


c: 


l-l 






P 

d 


. . , " 






1 


CO 








0) 


M 








o 


CD 'Ti H 


o * 






Pi 


d S "* 


o 


1 r-\ r-{ 




CD 


cd c\3 C 


rH 






Ph 


a CD 






OJ 




Ph 






cr 










fH 






(A.I rA 


U3 to ,-:t r^VD cr> O KN 0> C\J ^ rH >vO LfMTv Ol cr\ O CO LTx CD^ rH O CM 






CO 


O 


rH CM cvi iv-\ tr^uD r— 'vO to cr. j- h i^ rH .h .id- (^J lo rH VD u) to 






I CD 


rH 


M H rH r^.^ .r.'- ir~i J- r— to rH to CVVD 






CD r-\ 


*• 


1 . . . . » 






Ph tj 


TO 


rH C\l rH CM H 




' 


1- , 


rH ■■ 






[■_ 








Vj 


O 






fn 


CD 


^ 


, rH H H ^m U3 1^ J- O 




CD 


tH 


" I 


I > . .. 




^ 


Pj 


o 


iH rH aj 




,P 

Is; 


• s 


OJ -• 






w 


C3^H 


r— o ir^ ir , r-i vx) r^ o cj^iod to ud cj rH lti o> rH rH c^i^ en CJM^ LPi 






M (D 


O 


rH rH OJ fry,~Y lo tO O r-( CAJ ^ 60 0"^^ Cn CM KM.CA CM I^ hO O U■^ 






CD -d H 


Lr> 


, vH oi rH ..CM ,H r^:M:A.^ VD l^^ to Lo r-- CM r^ I-- 






rH d CO 


•K 








cS cS E; CO 


CM OJ K> t^ r^ 






^ CD. r^ 

.. w| ■- ■- 








'w 








d 


I <" 


o 


* * * * * * * * * * * * * * -Xf rH r^ rH CM CM LT, I-— rH CTv rH 




o 


CD iH 


O I 


rH H 


■ 


•H 


F-H Cj 


rH ■■ 
















•H 




" 






Ph 


03 








-P 


a) 


o 


********** ********rHCMOj 1^ r^.zi- 




CJ 


rH 


O I 


1 




•H 


• -J 


rrl 






d 


S 








io 








nt 


m CD 








o 


o t:^ rH 


O 






Pi 


rH d ce 
i^ nJ g 


O 1 
■H ■• 






Ph 


:3 CJ 






o 

rr 




F^i 






" 




O^ 


.::t-r^, irAOOOrHr~-Lr\LO0JrH,tfvX)or— oor— r^ i^-vo o r^ r^ 


rH 




v> 


C\J 


r-^ rH Mr^OJCM.rl-r-r^tlOr--tO^U'A O^^ LC^ O . CT^ rH o to 






X © 


10 


CM 1-1 rH 1-^ l-^.0~i.:3- OJ I~— O 






CD H 


- t 


•*»<*«> w 






F-H o 


cr\ • 


._ rH C^J r-l OJ 








r-\ 






r-{ 


^--^ rH rH OJ r— o t—^ h- o^'-x) .J- .rf o jit h ^-O vd rH ..=1" to r^vn) i^ 






c^ 


C^ 


r-\ rHrHCMr^rHOU-^r— r^rHto o^^ CM i-n 




Pi 


CD 


ur\ 






® 


H 


'■ I 






,Q 


■ • -ii; 


rH 






!§ 


S 


OJ 




O'! 


o 


.:J-ivOvr),HCMr^H..=l-CrvCMrHr— COOOrHrHUD K^^ iH .rt r^ CTi O 






m o 


C\J 


rH rH rH J" 1^ CM m Cri.J- O rH OMr> O MD tO *^0 bO CT^ LO O) LPi 






1) 'O rH 


^ 


rH rH >^ CM CM h^ J- r^ to r— r^ o 






H d c:5 


- I 


r. M •« n •» 






ni c3 B 


rH 


rH rH CM CM t^ 








^ 






.. 


03 03 03 03 CO 
















03 






+= 


HJ4J.HO4JdCDOCDOCDOJCD(DCDCDCDCD0CD''DOOOOO 


U 


d 


ddr-idcDOoooocjooooooooo 


g 


CD 


CD CD O CD O Hi: •O r:;?-LnHi,a' 


O 


o o o c3 rH OJ f-.-f ix^^xi r— ■ CTi o H c^J K^^ Lr> r— r^ OJ k^ r— 


w 




O ri H rH rH rH rH rH rH H CM CM OJ tM al OJ CM t^ K> 




LOUD t^ to 0-\ r-\ _ Pi . Pi _ 


fn 




r_i u U U U Pi Pi U U U Jh t( Th Ph Pi Pi CD Ph CD Pi 


CD 


Pi 


f., ^ fn J.i Pi CD Q ■:; O CD O O. CD O .O CD O CD CD CD CD Td CD TJ (D 


Ph 


CD 


CD CD CD CD CD 'd rd nj 'Cj tJ '•.:) ^d 'd Tj 'd ^d "d ^d 'd t:! 'd pl t:! d t:! 

./ ■(-; ^.■ Id d d d rl f^! d rt r-l d d g p| p cj g c] p, r^i g p g 
d d d d d p; ;•■; p ;^ ri ri P p! P p '/■ p' P P r! P , ;d 5 

'i P P 'J '1 ''^' ^cd 
' "^ ■" ' '- ,ci .c; 'd 'd 'd 'd 'd 'd.rd 'd ^d tJ ■-d aJ 'd 'd pi 'd d nd 


(-1 




P 


•H 
P! 


-Si:; 


rd '■o re; r,:j -vj d ;-: d d d d d d d r-l pj d d pI d d r. d ro d 
;;; pj d d d C C C C C Cj cj c' C cj CvJ rj K, c5 rj c„ , Cj . ri 

Cj lo C Cj C _^ ^^ ^^^ ^_ _^ LOC'.-l |--tO ^A O rH CM ^r\^- ir^T^o'oj U^ 


, - . r-H 


I -p. r," 
o 






r-^ 


&^^■ 


lOVD r—tD o . H M i-i, rH rH r-i H H rH rH OJ r J OJ OM rj CM CM r--^ t^\ K> 





OJ 




r^ 




OA 




r-{ 




o 




r^ 




O^. 




r-\ 


,, 


P^H 


^ 


<-5 


rt 


1— 1 


H 


M 


C/J 


T'- 


Jd 


m 


^'H 


1— 1 


1-1 


H 




t/; 


Cj 


1-1 


i-H 


M 


n 




r4 


M 


^ 


M 


r ) 


c:i 


r^ 


^ 


r? 


flH 


:'-^ 


Q 


~* 


■^ 


ro 




PI 


Pi 


Cl 


N 


c ) 




O 


^' 


M 


k 


-1 




r/j 


• ■ 


rt 


[^ 


( ) 


l-r- 




t/i 




pq 


^ 


[^ 


1-1 


C3 


CJ 


a 


C ) 




r- 


m 




w 




(Jh 




r/5 




Clj, 




:j5 




1-1 








1- 




^ 



9851 





o 


tn 


-110- 




•H 


I to 


^V-OVOr^OJCMf^rHrH*********** t 1 I 1 I« 1 




•P 


rH 






p! 


Ph 0) 






•H 

in 

.-P 


E 












• H 


in 






n 


0) 


r-\ r— LO^ _:f cn r~-UD ,^t^rHrH««»**-»* 11 1 1 1 I 1 






rH 


rH 




-p 


Oj 






1^ 


'^'^ 






U) 






0) 


m 






Ph 


: Male 
and 


OM— ^ J- r^VD ^ ^ r^rHrH******** 1 1 I 1 l» I 


Ol 


• •• •• ■ 


'■**■|i^■fc^;^ 6'a-'<>:oa-'o'^i*'i:n"6^'oto'^*'tRH:it \ '!']'{ V rH V 


r^ 




m 


VX> ^ VO rH O^^ 'v-D '^ LO OJ rH rH 


en 




1 a) 


rH Lf> J- (\J LC-> OJ rH 


rH 




0) rH 


«• *» 






1.4 c] 


rH rH 












M 






u 


0) 


r-iLOcnc\Jtofo^K-\cr>Lr,oJrH 




Q) 


r-t 


a« ak » •»•«•« 




rg 


,«i 


CM rH rH rH rH rH 




/-^ 


01 Q) 


^£1 r--i^ r^.zt- ro ;-! r— o'i^'O oo-^f^'i\i'0 r^^Xi ir^ 1 r I i i rH i 






0) tJ rH 


LTM^ rH VD LTM-— r0>.0 r-- mVjD LPv r— ^ rH (M 






rH cl nl 


K-\ Lr\ ir^'-.o rH t^ r—^ cT^u^^ cm rH 






.j3,d G 








S CD 


r^OJrHrHrHOJrHrH 






\^ 






' ' "w 






1 1 <D 


r— LOVO ro Lf^^ rO0drHrHrH«*«-» 1* \ I* 1 | I I | 




e' CO rH 


rH 




C 


ptM r- 






-P 


s 






. . . .VI 


I--OJ CTiVX) ifSWiO CO'CD'lrS^ ro,cMH*«'*:«*«** j^t*^ 




^ 


rH 


rH 




P 


n; 






•H 

n 








M 






■p 


en a) 






i=i 


<D Td rH 


bo CPl f^'^ ^ >.D CD In'J- Jd-"(MC\J"rHrH*****^*» |### 




0> 


rH C Cri 






o 








fn 


a OJ 






0) 
Ph 


r-r-i 








OJ I — Cr\ J- 0"^ Lr^ LCM — rH rH 0^ rH MD rH V.O 1 OJ 1 I rH 1 1 I 1 I 


O 


' 


CO 


.K\rH.,-tVD,|--.0, C\J.J- >D M CD OV,D^ OJ rH 1 ■ r-i 1 1 1 1 1 


1-^ 




1 1) 


^J^rocT^cMv,oor~-Lf^ro(^Jc^JrH'■ 


O"" 




(D rH 


•* «• w •» 


rH 






rH rH rH rH 






■ C\l J- IX^ CT^ ai rH VD CT^ ^15 ^.0 L^^ bO to r-- r-I CD rH Li^ CM CM Oj" V tH rH rH 






. w 






1 




rH 






rHOJrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 




Cfl 








CO . .0) 


cM.v,o CM EO,>..o tj ^ J- r— r-- >-j- .ct\J- ^iO^-o^OLr^c^JrocM ir-i,HrH 
vjD r— iM K- rH cj^'^ r^M3 C7M>— o'tr, 0"cr> ro rH - ■ 






Tj rH 






■^ S ?1^ 








ci CO e 








- ^^, 


rorOCMCMrHCMSMCMrHrH 




' 

" CO" ' CO 










Ph 


SS^SH^^'-'f^f^'^i^^f'p' '-'<^ 1^^ LPi'^ r^ CO cj> CM 


Pl 


CDOCUOcDa. CDCDCDCDCDCU(D(1;!h • 


o 


0000000000 QlrHrHMrHrHrHrHrHrHCMCM 


W 


h|C\) r,\Cv rd -e/> ^^Q..^.t^-yj--€0- -e«--M- ■««■■««■ -W3- 




Oc^JL^^r-Olc-^OLc^o•^^OLr^OLr^d 

.Tt- J- ^ ^ Lo mu) '^i--r~-cotoo^cT\3iHfHfHfH^ifHh^fi^i!-i 


Fh 


CD 


Cl)r)(D(D(B(i)(U(U(i)(i)(X) 


Pi 


f-, u U !-i f< U U f-i u U M u U J-f'd'ti'cl'cl'rl'bTd'ci'dTd'dT:! 


tn 


Q)a)Q)(l>CD-Da)CDCDa)CDCDa)CUf^C'(Hrtr<p!rJrtr1c!rJri 




3;^p3PfJ3f^P;"^3p3pu3rd'Tdnd'd'dTd'ri'dT:)'c:i'r) 


■H 


Tb'dTd'dTd'd'rJ'cI'd'd'diiJTdTd-fl^SSS^dSrtSS^ 


CTj 


cticvicflcOnidcdcticdcijcOctinJctiOOOOOOOOOOOO 


' T 


, . • rH OJ ro^ LO^D (-— CO o^ 




n,./ rljcv r'lOl •••••••#••» 




r— OCMlX^r~-OLr%OmOLf^OLO,OmrHr4rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHCM 








ro^ ^ J- J- irMnu3>^ r--r~-6o bo ctv cj^ -w- «^ -y> -«?- ^ee- -to- -te- ■«»■ -eo- •<«- -ee- 



-111- 



153 



o 
to 



3 
5 






O 

u 



fa { 

O V 



s 



o w 



CO 

CA 

u 

>- 
o 

c 

N 

H 

-J 
<! 

U 
b, 

U, 
O 



« W 

M g 
^1 



a * 



CO 

3 
•O 
C 



OS 
H 



ss^ 



o 



So* 

^3« - 
«» 2 

2 » - 
1-^ ^ ■ 
•• •» 

o o _ 



— « us — ■ »0 A • ■ ^ 



^ CO « 



■-« M N X ^ ^ ■ 



«^c^»^ ^ — «— ^ 



^ « — 



p« ?:c«^ 



r- a»t- c 



*j ^^ -• 



N ec « 



ajS-y * . . . 

u 

OS 

® »o CJ • 



*f 0J ^ ©4N 

"-• — c: N 

« C4 



5 . ^N CC Oi — « ^ < 






5— -^^^x — o>o>^•-•l-«^r^x^-•x:'r.■TC^-•v^^'^^^^?*ft».•^^c ■—« r- r- — x 



" w rj rr ri - 



"T ^^ r? i- 



1 = 3 5;;-?j- 



3 = 5 S 



n — r* 



B 
O 
CO 



O £ "a ^ — ■ ri — —" cT 



3 

•V 
B 



■ 
C 

~ . - 2 - 
S .t i i i 

a ^ ^ r , 



£ >> 



■55 

5 " 



£Z i-^ -^ ~ -i 



r — t- - 



ir r ■'■ *" _ *• •■/ » 



4^ 

a 

^5 

fl o 
t-i n 

o 

^^ 
O «H 
P4 O 

a> 

PI d 
o 

03 CO 

•H (S 

(D 3 

pq o 

43 
'^ 

w 



a> 
o 

o 

01 



? 

f 



'<>;;;SiS<>i.:S — i:;": 






-112- 



147 



•• S 

Sa'' •aoMt-osst 



«t- ' ' ■eie-<-<M «eeo>iaM« « 



•»3P 



« MC4^ ^ 



r;««««>«ia MNte 



M — m •« M IS a> «> M •• •"> 

— CO •* 



-2 a : — 






r-l 



i 



oqoM^ eo • ^ ••«c 

I ^ . _; «k OC^tO OlA^M ^4000 ■ ^ flO » 04MM ^ 30 r- * »0 « « « ■* * ' »• "i tO*^*-**^^ 

a -■ 

^ ^^ jr M X 9 O (X>'^C»C4iaNlO lO O 04 V f lO W5 »n « X N — « « *© CO «0 O ^N <« « tO 

WeS 3 i^'^MtO MkA iO »t-M CO C« ^V eC €4 « W9 W '^ •* OC 

t» ** r_3 OD ^^ N eO -^ ^* v^ 



w t 



= 2 5 wejNX >no> — 



^2nC4C>IXkAOI ^ 00<^ OX<<r CDX'^Stet^kOM-^ •« -V at 

O " 

jS . e«_inn>nu3i-'wexiaia«xiae4r-'W>a — Nx — ^tfxn-v — '-, ?'»r'2'«2*i 

as 

m^^wwn ^«io mio , eoNn «N«-*--«inN w — ^ « 



■3 



2 . •*a»»ftWNXwaN^«t-»cj^w»»'*xxt*ej£2x: 
t'oaBC4-«C4eook« ©noeO'«#-*-M»«oc*eotON»xi3C«c>»-< 

3-s*«mMOO>'«eo'^aoeoe4^^ciu?<et0e4'^oa»akto^c<ix^e4 uuo ^t- i-30> 

_S3^« — aoe^w ^■^-hco c- n ■« ok«a a N'to ^o c4 9> ncoc4 — eo r- *o « ^ 



eo *© r- 



io2 
--o 

2U3 



V ^ cJ c* .^" ^ ei M «*-'—■—' -^' V *-" — ' ci •** <© 



— n c^ec 3> t- * 

^ X ten X «o 



a 
d o 

M « 

O Vi 
P« o 

4> 

" 8 

•H a 



CO 




-113- 



155 



M > 

oo 

c • 

2 

2JS >» N »W -.M 

"2 ■ ■ 



oie4ia o o^ ^N 



a gs* - 
3 2 2 



^ X — »-• 



.5 S**© 



a 2 -■ 
g 



«o r^ ^ -2 • 






i 



**3 


*o t- X av -» X u3 

* a> o — ffo 

2- " " 




r- irt -H -^f to <o 


o 


■* 



N-H.-( X— •OJXa»<CiAX.C0M— t>-cc M 



xxc-r-o^eoxMc. c- --fu^co 



«o ha eo 

« O^ 50 

eo »-■ 






fc. * Oi-ojcoxtoacojxee— ia>tocstoi-'«rwv'*^t-'-xrt-*D«-'* 

— liS^ffi-^Cgi-^^ W^[-« "■-■« — 0>OiftWXt-XCX»HX 

*rt^O-«-* CM tp ro ^J wcs — c 0»e»J^Jx•v^£ ^ 



c 6'c, ^* 



9 



:§ 






■SE 



3 

3 » 



.'S 



-2 ■= = 3 = 



si It* Si 



*" fc. ** c " 

Jf r >■ << i_ 

c if Ji fc 



5-1 ■£ 

£ c 






£ go t. 0; 

y i. s- 1> 



C u c 

■- c "^ 

•' * ^ 

<-^ - 

C . St 

* - 

.5-S 

X c 



E| 

C Q 

2 ax 
St. ■5 



5 
c" 

3 C 



F 6 ■- , 



tf. 7 Oi w O 



V- r * W 

« («^ J. 
sQccca 



I •£ 

~ 5 •£ .i 



X « 



& . V 



X^g C_a; 

c's£u 



4 J,.. 

c : 

r. " 3 ' 
f to- 

cc rt V : 



s * * 



^ c -n •■ 

; >- c b I 

S C O O' I 



0) 

o 

CO 



-114- 



149 



4 





5 









SOOMN^M -«0 -laMtO 



«J 



M^ •* eo lo to 1-1 1- 00 • ^a»o« io^otoc»^eo MONt-'^tooo t-o^ ■•■*25 59 

3-3 -- 



W ' (••» 



w 

(2 



^ £ oteeoc«oo coxnov laie^ o> Oi^oooo tac 

w»2 „- 

Sh 

HiJJ** e4 r-i M ^ ^^M i-i ea 01 eo lo rt -^ oo ■ '^ »o 

« 2 « 

_<o ^•tDOlM•-40co^•-lC>le4a»oo^eooo^e4ttacte^•-lXle^4too»'xeMu3^'4•l'-v-^ Mio 
O Ok P-T M 

Z;E!"*^^oDO>co^ N<xt->r-F-«0>^o>aooMiar-Naoaoaocoi»oe4 nc™ o> ^ »o i'^ 

5 * - « r* 

_^ 0^'V^iA(OeoaO^TOlOaOi-tOCK)t*iaOk<-iQDC4'<rt>*COW<DtO<-«t*^^()0 00 
_^ ^fc ■^ lO M U3 O —• kO»OJC-C- CJ t- 0> O* O 0> t- t- OD •-« lO lO TO -^ 00 •-» C • O* 

li***!^ N^co »o d^ '«ao<-i rt M>-4 to •« ^ o 

•^•♦M m«C4 eO r-lOO> rlTO 

6 

Li 






03 - 10. . 
N la 



la • I— I 



^ s ^ 



5<d 



,0 Ea V 
^|E' 



CIS 
+> 
o 

00 

c 



o 

o 



en 




= ; « i i d ^ 



QR514 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Revie* of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate reviev/ of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Review. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas; industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
rials No^ 1§, Contents of Code His tories . will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 



(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768 — 1 . 



-ii - 

set forth the origination of the codes, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Plannin? on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondince, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review, ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of ..ata (other than those noted below an the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work Mate rials No. 17 . Tentative O utlines and Summaries of 
Studies in Process , the materials are fully described). 

I ndustry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminciis Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Ecnomic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study. The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 
Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 
9768—2 



- iit - 

t? omen's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade P ractic e Studies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 

Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 

Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 

Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 

Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 

Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 

Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 

Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 

Price Control in the Coffee Industry 

Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control in the Ice Industry 

Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 

Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936) : A classificaticn for 

comparision with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labo r Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-35 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrie:! Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Administrativ e Studie s 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—3 . 



- iv - 

Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 
Cjde Compliance Activities of the NRA 
Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 
Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The.: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades. 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltsred Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studies 



Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



THE EVIDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of those studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 
Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qaalifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768—5. 



- VI - 

Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Paint, Varnish, ana Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and N'RA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hop© that the files may yet be carec for under other 
auspices. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 
9768—6 . 



1