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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

IlllllII 

3 9999 06317 391 6 

OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 






DIVISION OF REVIEW 



SHELTERED WORKSHOPS UNDER NRA 

By 

V. J. Clarke 

and 

Leo G. Cyr 



WORK MATERIALS NO. 59 



I 



N.R.A. ORGANIZATION STUDIES SECTION 
March, 1936 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



SHELTERED WORKSHOPS UNDER NRA 

By- 
V, J. Clarke 

and 

Len G. Cvr 



NRA ORGANIZATION STUDIES SECTION 
March, 1936 



9798 



F R JS il 2 I 



This study of Shelterpd Workshops under 
IRA was prepared by Messrs. V. J. Clarke and Leo G. Cyr 
of the HRA Organization Studies Section, Mr. William W, 
Bardsley in charge. 

The fact that certain charitable insti- 
tutions (referred to as "Sheltered Workshops") whose 
industrial activities are for the purpose of providing 
remunerative employment for physically, mentally and 
socially handicapped workers, and not for profit, sold 
their products in competition with private industry, 
brought them within the purview of the National Re- 
covery Administration, Thin report deals with the 
origin and objectives of such institutions and dis- 
cusses the activities of the ISA in connection with 
them. 

The Summary, immediately following the 
Table of Contents, sets forth the scope of the study, 
briefly summarizes the report and states certain con- 
clusions. Statements of the methods follovred in de- 
veloping the report and with respect to further re- 
search are to be found in Appendix I, 

At the back of the report will be found 
a brief statement of the studies undertaken by the 
Division of Review. 



L. C. Marshall, Director 
Division of Review 



March 11, 1935 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

SUMMARY 1 

CHAPTER I. Introduction 4 

I. Origin 4 

A. Definition 5 

B . Kinds 5 

C. Types of Trainees 6 

1. The Mentally Handicapped 7 

2. The Socially Handicapped 7 

3. The Physically Handicapped 8 

II . Objectives 9 

A. Rehabilitation of Workers 9 

B. Remunerative Employment 10 

C. Operation For Training and Not For Profit .... 11 

CHAPTER II. Scope of Study 13 

A. Definition 13 

B. In Private Industry 13 

1. Executive Order No. 6606-F 13 

2. Special Committee Report 14 

C. Handicapped Workers in Sheltered 

Workshops 15 

CHAPTER III. Sheltered Workshops Under The N.R. A 16 

I. Problem Confronting N.R. A 16 

A. Inclusion of Sheltered Workshops Under 

Code Provisions 16 

B. Richberg's Interpretation of August 30, 1934.. 17 

C. Proposals by Sheltered Workshop Officials .... 18 

D. Appointment of Special Committee 20 

E. Report of the Special Committee 

(February 1, 1934) 21 

II. Solution of the Problem 

A. Section 3(a) of N.I. R. A 23 

B. Issuance of Administrative Order X-9 23 

C. Appointment of National Sheltered Workshop 

Committee 24 

D. Authorization of National Sheltered 

Workshop Committee to Issue Labels 26 

E. Administrative Order X-81 27 

F. Administration and Use of Identification 

Labels 29 

G. Normal Production Agreement During Strikes ... 30 

H. Fair Selling Price Resolution 30 

I. Ulman Committee Report on Sheltered 

Workshops 30 

J. Administrative Order X-lll-1 31 

III. Evaluation 33 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) 



CHAPTER IV. 



Conclusions 



Page 
36 



APPENDIX I. Methodology and Future Research 

Revised Outline 

Sources of Materials 



NUMERICAL APPENDIXES . . 
Appendix 



Appendix II. 

Appendix III. 

Appendix IV. 

Appendix V. 
Appendix VI . 
Appendix VII. 
Appendix VIII. 
Apoendix IX. 
Appendix X. 
Appendix XI. 
Appendix XII. 
Appendix XIII. 



Executive Order Proposed by 

Special Committee (2/l/34) 

to Govern Relationship of 

Sheltered Workshops to 

The National Recovery Administration. 

Pledge of Cooperation and 

Pertinent Letters and Forms 

Sheltered Workshops 

Questionnaire 

List of Approved Sheltered 

Workshops 

Administrative Order X-9 

Administrative Order X-28 

Administrative Order X-59 

Administrative Order X-73 

Administrative Order X-81 

Administrative Order X-lll 

Administrative Order X-lll-1 

Administrative Order X-lll-2 

Administrative Order X-lll-3 



37 
37 
38 



37 

40 

45 

50 
56 
58 
60 
63 
64 
68 
69 
72 
73 



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SUMMARY 



A "Sheltered Workshop" is defined as a charitable institution, or 
activities thereof, conducted not for profit but for the purpose of pro- 
viding remunerative employment for physically, mentally and socially 
handicapped workers. 

This study is a review of the errperiences of the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee created under the National Recovery Administration with 
respect to certain industrial activities of such institutions. 

All of the Administrative orders pertaining to sheltered workshops 
and the national Sheltered Workshop Committee, including those dealing 
with the delegation of authority and the appointment of members to the 
Committee, are discussed, with the exception of Administrative Order 
X-lll-3. (*) This Order terminated the National Sheltered Workshop 
Committee on December 20, 1935. 

Particular pains have been taken to treat the origin- and objectives 
of sheltered workshops in order to indicate their relative position and 
importance in the American industrial scheme. The designation "sheltered 
workshop" is comparatively little known, and the time and space devoted to 
this exposition seems warranted. It is pointed out that the activities of 
sheltered workshops came within the purview of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Administration only incidentally but this brought to light the 
distinct identity of sheltered workshops and developed a method of cooperative 
procedure (through a National Committee), the benefits of which no authority 
on the subject will deny. 

There are public and private workshops. They can be classified into . 
two great systems, with much overlapping, these systems care for the tuber- 
culous, crippled, aged, wayward, cardiac and blind and provide; for the 
necessary physical, vocational and physchological rehabilitation. 

The NRA activities applied to all private agencies, and to those public 
agencies which signified their desire to cooperate. Handicapped workers in 
private industry, as distinguished from those in sheltered workshops, were 
covered by Executive Order 6606-F, da.ted February 17, 1934, 

The problem confronting the National Recovery Administration upon its 
inception was to do justice both to the labor standards for regularly em- 
ployed workers being built up in Codes of Fair Competition, and equally to 
do justice to the handicapped workers in sheltered workshops, 

. The policy adopted in the beginning by the Administration was that 
charitable institutions in general '•■■ere not covered by permanent codes, as 
they do not engage in inductr;? - or trade. However, when charitable insti- 
tutions did engage in industry or trade (sheltered workshops came under 
this classification), even though not organized for profit, "they should 
sign the PRA, and they may come within the terms of permanent codes." 



(*) Administrative Order X-lll-3, December 80, 1935. 
Appendix XIII 

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A recommendation of a special committee req\iested to study the 
sheltered workshop situation reads as follows: 

"The Committee recommends the issuance of the following 
Executive Order enabling sheltered workshops to'comoly 
with the spirit and intent of the national Recovery Ad- 
ministration and to have the benefit of the Hue Eagle, 
without being required to conform with the various trade 
and industrial codes." 

As a result of this recommendation the Administration issued Adminis- 
trative Order X~9 r (March 3, 1334) which might well be called the charter 
of sheltered workshops under ERA* 

Administrative Order X-9 granted a conditional exemption to sheltered 
workshops on three condit. icns, This was not an, agreement oursuant to Sec- 
tion 4 (a) of JIM. It provided for the establishment of a National 
Sheltered Workshop Committee and for the use of an appropriate insignia. 
The Committee was named May 11, 1934, and the appropriate insignia de- 
signated. 

Hules and regulations for the use of labels were formulated in Ad- 
ministrative Order X-59 (July 3, 1934), and revised in Administrative 
Order X-81 (September 1, 1934.). 

The Ulman Committee, in accordance with the terms of Executive Order 
of October 12, 1934, conducted an investigation into the activities of 
sheltered workshops in the. cotton garment field, and reported that the 
National Sheltered Workshop Committee was making a sincere and determined 
effort to administer, in such a way as. to insure fair competition, the 
provisions of Administrative Order X-9, giving the sheltered workshops a\ 
special status. 

Regardless of what may be said with respect to the success of the 
National Recovery Administration in its main objectives, it a roved to be 
a most important milestone in the advancement of sheltered workshops. 
For the first time, the cause and problems of these institutions '"'ere 
accorded adequate representation in the industrial forum. For the first 
time, their aims and objectives were nationally promulgated in a manner 
which reached the ears of industrial and governmental leaders. For the 
first time, the leading, non-profit charitable systems of the country 
merged to find themselves identical in outline. For the first time their 
combined voices attracted the attention of the Federal Government, whereas 
they had separately been inaudible. For the first time, sheltered work- 
shops impressed on authorities the distinctiveness of their identity, as 
apart from prison institutions. For the first time there existed a 
liaison between private industry and sheltered workshops, between govern- 
ment and sheltered workshops and between the sheltered workshops them- 
selves. For the first time, a well-formulated program endorsed by the 
majority of institutions affected and executed by a central agency was 
put into effect in behalf of sheltered workshops. 

The entire program as administered by the National Sheltered Work- 
shop Committee spells an excellent beginning to an important task. A 
review of the Committee's achievements under the National Recovery Ad- 

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ministration compels the re commendation that the Committee, or its 
equibalent, he continued. If a new Act is proposed, it should embody 
specific orovisions with respect to sheltered workshops -.Thich would 
provide for the administration thereof in the some manner as formerly 
effected pursuant to the powers delegated to the President. Assuming 
that the code system he used in a new Act, It is recommended that the 
ahove provisions establish a Sheltered Workshop Co.. itt?s of . L:: i bors- 
and exempt sheltered workshops from codes upon conditions similar to the 

following (as contained in Administrative Order X-9) , " that 

pny sheltered workshop in order to become entitled to such exemption 
shall sign a pledge that it will not: 

(1) employ minors under si::t Q en (15) years of a : "e, except such 
as are there for instructional purposes as approved by a 
Regional Committee (hereinafter provided for). 

(?.) engage in destructive price cutting or any other unfair 
method of competition. 

(3) wilfully hamper or retard the purposes of said Title of 
said Act; and that so far as possible will cooperate with 
the national Recovery Administration -nd will carry out the 
intent and spirit of said Title of saici Act." 

If the use of labels is approved for industries, it is recommended 
that it be so author! ze-d with respect to sheltered workshops, subject to 
their compliance with the -hove conditions. 

If no ne T - legislation for industrial recovery is proposed it is re- 
recommended that measures be taken to continue the Hational Sheltered 
Workshop Committee, or its equivalent, under the supervision of the 
Federal Government, either as a separate .agency or under and established 
department. 



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CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 



I. ORIGIN 



The handicapped members of society have not always received assistance 
from the a.hio c Civilization in- i ts fwolution has entertained toward the 
deficient a series cf attitudes which have ranged progressively from cruelty 
to the more huoian: tarian concept of const rue. Live rehabiliation. One auth- 
ority considers the ages cf man as having e" olved, -pith respect to the af- 
flicted, six distinct moods, characterized by cruelty and elimination; 
indifference and neglecc; pity ai:d pauperism; charity and individual re- 
sponsibility; social responsibility and" experimentation and finally con- 
structive rehabilitation,, (*) The concept of "help to relieve" nermeated 
the formative periods of social service* The modern trend, however, is 
more comprehensive; it seeks not only to give relief, hut to rehabilitate 
where prevention has failed. It seel'3 to substitute self-help for deoend- 
ency, thereby removing social discontent among the less fortunate. 

The source of the nresent day -oLilosophy of rehahil itation can he 
found in five distinct movements ranging from the post-Civil TTar period 
onward. The first was a movement known as the Charity Organisation 
Societies which .spread to this country from England in 1877, and had as 
its purpose the coo. -d: not ' on of charitable endeavor-. The growth of this 
effort was simultaneous with that in behalf of crippled children. In 
1911, the first Workmen's Compensation Act was passed. The "orld War 
brought about the fourth factor to strengthen the trend - the reclamation 
of disabled veterans, Added iirroetus was lent by the growth of vocational 
education which became a national system in 1917 as a result of the 
passage of the Smith-Hughes Act. 

Social work had begun to assume a scientific aspect and had become 
national as well as local in scope. Private and public effort provided 
not only immediate relief but permanently curative measures, such as medical 
attention, which in many cases was needed during long periods of physical, 
mental or social rehabilitation, 

Empirical observation of discharged patients after periods of inter- 
nement proved beyond a doubt that the transition from sick-bed to private 
industry was too great a gap to he bridged in one step. The salvage of 
human lives effected by proper treatment was undone by thrusting the 
patient into a competitive atmosphere in which he was unable to survive. 
The obvious problem was to provide the subject with employment suitable 
to his condition during a period of readjustment in his -previous occupation, 
or during an adequate period of unrerauneratn ve training in a new occuoation 
which he otherwise could not enjoy, or, in the case of the blind and aged, 
during the remainder of their lives where adequate rehabilitation for 
placement in private industry be impossible. 

(*) "Disabled Persons, their Education ana Rehabilitation," Oscar M. 
Sullivan, Introduction, Page IX, by C. A. Prosser. 



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Several solutions of the above problem have been attempted, such as 
the marketing of home products, underwriting of small businesses, the use 
of law-created advantages and sheltered employment. (*) 

The solution with which this study is concerned is that of sheltered 
employment proffered to internes of charitable institutions in their work- 
shops set up for that purpose. 

A. Definition . 

A "sheltered workshop" is defined as a charitable institution, 
or activities thereof, conducted not for profit, but for the purpose 
or providing remunerative employment for -ohysically, mentally or 
socially handicapped workers. (**) 

B. Kinds . 

It is possible to set forth sheltered workshops in two cate- 
gories: public and orivate. In an effort to establish proper stand- 
ards of efficiency in vocational rehabilitation, the Federal Govern- 
ment passed the Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act on June 2, 
1920, (amended June 5, 1924) in which it agreed to make substantial 
financial contributions to its support. The Federal Government did 
not propose to organize or immediately direct vocational rehabilita- 
tion in the States, but simply sought to foster the movement therein. 
The administration of this Act became the duty of state boards for 
vocational education set up pursuant to the Vocational Educational 
Act of February 23, 1917, which were to cooperate with the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. (***) As a result of the Federal 
Government's sponsorship, institutions were created in the several 
states, many of which took on the characther of sheltered workshops. 
While these state institutions did not come within the purview of 
N.R.A. codes which made it unnecessary for them to avail themselves 
of the conditional exemption afforded by Administrative Order X-9, 
yet it was felt by the Sheltered Workshop Committee that they should 
be allowed to use the N.R.A. Sheltered Workshop label in order to 
prevent discrimination against them. (****) Many readily availed 
themselves of this opportunity. 



(*) Disabled Persons, their Education and Rehabilitation, 
Pages 480-481 

(**) Administrative Order X-9, March 3, 1934. Appendix V 

(***) Bulletin No. 113, Federal Board for Vocational Education, 
Pages 42-43. 

(****) Minutes of National Sheltered Workshop Committee Meeting, 
July 12, 1934. 



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-6- " 

While the lines of demarcation "between the several 
groups are not absolute, private as well as public in- 
stitutions dispensing sheltered employment may be classi- 
fied with respect to the types of afflicted which they 
serve, There are those for the crippled and disabled; 
the tuberculous'; the blind'; the waywa-'&t and i he aged, 
The majority of pm.sate agencies, though generally mem- 
bers of a national network, are lo^al in scopa rather 
than state or national. The kind of service rendered 
affords another elassif icat Lqn though . in the main the . 
general aims, of the , various agencies ?:r& the .same The 
objectives of sheltered workshops will be taken ud later. 

As any combination of the above characteristics 
may be effected, it is obvious that the field is a very 
heterogeneous one. 

Mr , Qscar .Sullivan differentiates between the 
functions of the public and the orivate' agencies, (*) 
It in his conviction that Ihe nature of the services 
rendered by the two classes warrants the cencurrent 
existence of both, the one acting as a complement to 
the other,. According to I T r; Su31ivan, ore province of 
the public agency .consists of; (l' providing author ita- 
tive leadership; (2) demonstrating the possibilities of 
rehabilitation in every pht.se and as regards every type 
of caser (3) to gj"«e such services as are most feasible 
for a p-ublic agency op to tie limit of its appropriation; 
and (4) conducting research that has a direct bearing upon 
the efficiency of the public work, or that involve? the 
interpretation of the data collected by. it in the regular 
course of administration. 

The province, of the private agency he describes as 
being (l) to secure publicity; (2) 'to Promote legislation 
and. seek to secure an increasing" support for the public ^"ork; 
(3) to give all services not feasible for the 1 public agency, 
or for which the publich agency has'no legal authorisation 
or is financially unable tp---comtn.ct; and (4) to conduct sur- 
veys and re s. .arches' designed to disclose desix-able extensions 
of the won:, or of so intensive and protracted a nature as to 
make the nubile conduct of them subject to question. 

* • 

C. Tyro^s of Trainees , 

The weight of authority leans definitely towards the 
conclusion that to classify rehabilitants in a satisfactory 
manner borders on the impossible. "Each rehabilitation case 

(*) "Disabled Persons, their Education and Rehabilitation", 
Pages 457-458. 



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presents its o^n physical, economic, training, and em- 
ployment problem, and must be 'considered individually 
in the light of all factors affecting it for complete 
success of a rehabilitation program". (*) Looked at from 
the viewpoint of their outstanding deficiency, trainees 
in sheltered workshops may be divided, with much over- 
lapping, into .three groups: the mentally, socially or 
physically handicapped. 

1. The Mentally Handicapped. 

It is quite obvious at first blush that the insane 
suffering from any marked degree of lunacy do not fall 
within the province of the sheltered workshops. Nor are 
there workshops specializing in the rehabilitation of the 
mentally handicapped. The type of mental handicapned in 
which sheltered workshops are interested is that found 
in the wayward and in the aged - in those who have suffered, 
so to speak, more than their share of the "thousand natural 
shocks "hich flesh is heir to". 

The Goodwill Industries which rehabilitate many aged 
persons throughout the country perhaps most nearly approach 
specialization in mental cases. Though it is the underlying 
hope of such institutions to afford their charges the great- 
est future placement, yet it is realized that due to age, 
the most for which they can hope is to provide panacea for 
lowered morale during the remainder of the worker's life. 
Tnese industries effect three praiseworthy results simul- 
taneously by employing handicapped persons in the salvage 
of waste, and the restored article is sold to the poor at 
low prices, 

2. The Socially Handicap-oed. 

The boundary between the realm of the socially handi- 
capped and that of the mentally handicapr.ed is not distin- 
guishable on most fronts. Social handicap usually results 
from a complexity of considerations arising out of age or 
immorality. In such cases, the cause of rehabilitation is 
best served by mental occupation and new environment sup- 
plemented by the necessary vocational and moral guidance. 
The Houses of Good Shepherd, scattered throughout the 
country, well exemplify the fine type of work being carried 
on in behalf of the socially handicapped. Courts are wont 
to commit girls charged with immoral conduct to such in- 
stitutions on a probationary sentence when it is felt that 
there is some possibility of reform. 

(*) Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
Volume CXXI II, Ho. 212, Page 25. 



9798 



3. The Physically Handicapped. 

Under the Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act 
of 1920, disabilities are defined as any "physical de- 
fect or infirmity, whether congenital or acquired "by 
accident, injury or disease 11 . It is among the physically 
defective that -sheltered Workshops find their most fertile 
field, Loth from the viewpoint of number and of -possible 
rehabilitation.. The crippled and 1 disabled, the tuber- 
culous, the wayward, the b.i ind, the aged and the cardiac 
groups are afforded by sheltered employment an avenue 
to self-sufficiency which otherwise would be closed to 
them. These groups vary with respect to the serious- 
ness of the affliction and the curative measures re- 
quired. 

An orthopedic surgeon, He. Winette Crr, classifies 
the crippled and disabled as follows, (*) Those suffer- 
ing from - (l) fractures or joint injuries both simple 
and compound; (2) effect" of infantile paralysis; (3) 
spine injuries: (4) joint inflammation (arithitis); (5) 
soft oart injuries (muscle or nerve injuries, burns, etc.); 
(6) acute monarticular joint disease; (7) amputations. 

It "as the unanimous opinion of specialists s.t a 
meeting of the Federal Board for Vocational Rehabilitation 
held at Colorado Springs, in 1920, that any individual who 
had had a definite clinically .active, moderately advanced 
pulmonary tuberculosis, -ill have a permanent handicap in 
any occupation during the remainder of his life, (**) This 
may well apply to the more malignant cases among the wayward 
where there are likely to be recurrent outbreaks of disease. 

Obviously, less hope can be untertainec 1 for the -physical 
rehabilitation of the blind and the aged than for the various 
other classes. This in part accounts for the numerous in- 
stitutions for the blind engaged in -producing annua ly 
$2, 000, 000 worth of goods and approximately one tenth ($1,000,000) 
of this country's total out-out of brooms, as "ell as the many 
goodwill institutions engaging the aged, in the restoration of 
old shoes and clothing for resale to the -poor. In such cases, 
vocational rather than physical rehabilitation is stressed. 

(*) Bulletin 93, Federal Board for Vocational Education, Page 
83 and Sullivan's "Disabled Persons, Their Education and 
Rehabilitation." Page 376. 

(**) Sullivan's "Disabled Persons, Their Education and Rehabilitation", 
Page 392. 



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It is stated by Ola G. Hylton of the University of 
Michigan Hospital, that' • ' ■ 

"heart disease is no' 1 ' the greatest single 
cause of death in the United States. ... 
of all serious and ultimately fatal diseases, 
those of the heart are of the longest duration, 
and. . . . they cause the most -persistent chro- 
nic handicap to self-support". (*) 

The first step in the cardiac case is obviously medical 
examination to establish his precise status. Occuoations 
of a sedentary nature are most suitable to the cardiac. 

Though the sheltered workshops are well adapted to solv- 
ing the problems of these various types of handicapped, their 
chief short-coming consists in their inability to accommodate 
all the crippled, the aged, the tuberculous, etc. Sheltered 
employment has not as yet been sufficiently promulgated as a 
system of charitable endeavor to command the required space 
and finances for its proper functioning. This is simply a 
matter of time. 

II. OBJECTIVES. 

The three outstanding . objectives of sheltered workshops are the re- 
habilitation of workers, the provision of remunerative employment to the 
handicapped and the dispensing of vocational training rather than operation 
for profit. 

A. Rehabilitation of Workers . 

Rehabilitation, in the Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Law 
of June 2, 1920, is construed to mean the rendering of a person dis- 
abled fit to engage in a remunerative occupa.tion. There are two 
general aspects to rehabilitation: the physical and the vocational. 
They may be effected simultaneously, as neither is essentially re- 
pugnant to the other. Obviously, physical rehabilitation is accom- 
plished wherever possible, and vocational rehabilitation wherever 
necessary. The former consists of "continued and- complete medical 
and surgical treatment until the greatest possible restoration of 
the disabled parts have been secured." (*?') 

(*) Sullivan's "Disabled Persons, Their Education and Rehabilitation". 
Page 385.' 

(**) Harry B., Hock, ! "Industrial 'Medicine' & Surgery", Page 776.. 



9798 



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The latter consists in training a handicapped -oerson along 
given lines suited to his infirmity under such conditions 
which will permit him to industrially convalesce to the 
point where he can survive in private industry. 

Of the solutions applied to the handicapped person's 
problem, the sheltered workshop is the best suited to effec- 
tuate rehabilitation. It affords an ideal place for the union, 
in proper proportions, of treatment and training; it shields 
the rehabilitant by means of occupational therapy, from un- 
favorably psychological. reactions brought about by idle con- 
valescense, and it gives him the advantage of competent super- 
vision. 

The Altro Workshop of New York City illustrates the new 
hope held out to a class of afflicted, the 'tuberculous, by the 
increased interest shown in handicapped persons as a result of 
modern trends. Operations not requiring conditions unfavorable 
to tuberculous are selected. 

B . Re munerat ive Employment . 

Maintenance during physical or vocational restoration has 
been long recognized as one of the most serious obstacles to the 
proper rehabilitation of handicapped persons. Led by Few Jersey 
in the early days of rehabilitation legislation, several states 
passed laws creating maintenance funds for the assistance of 
rehabilitants. Such measures have not been very effective. It 
is argued that maintenance funds are essentially the granting of 
relief and that therefore the whole service is branded with a 
stigma which ^ill keep away deserving but self-respecting ap- 
plicants. Furthermore, chronic paupers will seek training for 
the sole purpose of the accompanying subsistence, and all train- 
ing cases would have a tendency to become maintenance cases. (*) 

It can well be contended that the system of sheltered em- 
ployment is as attractive to self-respecting rehabilitants as 
the maintenance fund is repugnant. An essential feature of the 
former is providing remunerative employment in an atmosphere 
conducive to physical recuperation and replete with facilities 
for industrial convalescense. Because the affected person thus 
has the opportunity to earn while learning, his morale is spared 
the shock of dependency superimposed on disability. He also 
earns while recuperating, which spares him from the physical dis- 
tress with which he would be confronted in private industry. 

Remunerative employment, in the early days of MRA, was 
understood to mean a living wage paid in the coin of the realm. 
The experience of the Administra.tion had a broadening effect on 
this definition, to the extent that it has grown to mean a living 

— . , , ., — i i ,, — — 

(*) Sullivan's "Disabled Persons, Their Education and Rehabilitation", 
Pages 311 - 317. 



9798 



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wage paid in the coin of the realm or its equivalent. Thus 
the Houses of Good Shepherd are "brought within the definition 
of a sheltered workshop, for although their beneficiaries are 
not paid in money, they nevertheless receive its equivalent 
in lodging, food and training. This practice is in keeping 
with the character of the Good Shepherd institutions, which, 
although not emphasizing the penal aspects of their mission, 
yet more nearly resemble prisons than any other group classi- 
fied as sheltered workshops. 

C. Operation for Training and Wot for Profit . 

The most distinctive feature of the sheltered workshop 
is the fact that its primary purpose is never profit. Such 
an establishment may be restricted to a certain type of handi- 
capped person, but its primary purpose is always that of pro- 
viding such a group with a living wage and the proper working 
conditions. A sheltered workshop may be operated on as strict 
a production basis as any commercial enterprise, yet its pri- 
mary purpose will be, not profit, but the welfare of the handi- 
capped. Many establishments of sheltered employment resign 
themselves to operation without profit. 

It has been said that rehabilitation has two aspects - 
the physical (including social and mental) and the vocational. 
In some institutions, either one or the other is stressed, but 
to be a sheltered workshop within the meaning of the definition, 
they must be conducted for physical or vocational training and 
not for profit. 

The Institute for the Crippled and Disabled in New York 
City is an example of specialization in vocational training. 
Crippled and disabled persons are received after their disease 
has been arrested or the wound of amputation completely healed. 
The trade best suited to the particular disability is chosen 
after a survey of the case, and training is then given until 
the beneficiary has attained a degree of speed and accuracy which 
will insure gainful occupation in private industry. The In- 
stitute supports an agency which has as its purpose the place- 
ment in private industry of all rehabilitants who have been 
"graduated" from the Institute. 

Colonel John II. Smith, (*) Director of the Institute 
points out that: 

"1. The crippled person is unemployable in any 
gainful occupation when the Institute re- 
ceives him, or her. 

(*) Letter to General Johnson, September 11, 19.33. 



9798 



"2. As soon as the crippled person ... becomes 
employable placement is sought and obtained 
and the vacancy is filled by another -unemploy- 
able cripple. 

"3. Where relief either in the shape of money, 
shelter, or food or clothing is needed, the 
Institute itself and with the assistance of 
other charitable organizations provide the same." 

The Institute, founded in 1917, is an organization supported 
entirely by voluntary subscription and recognized by the Federal, 
state and city governments as such. 



9798 



-13- 

CHAPTSH II ' 
SCOPE OF 3TUDY 

A. D- fi nit ion. 

"A person disablei :i is de ined in the Civilian Vocational 
Rehabilitation Law. .• ived Juni 2, 1920, as a person who, by reason 
of a physical defect or infirmity, whether congenital or acquired by 
accident, injury or disease, is, or may be expected to be, totally or 
partically incapacitated for remunerative occupation. (*) This definition 
falls short as a description of all handicapped workers inasmuch as it 
does not cover the mentally and socially afflicted. In delineation of 
the group in which this study in interested, handicapped persons may be 
defined as persons whi reason of .. mtal, social or physical defect 
or infirmity, whethe i \ jenital or acquired by accident, injury or 
disease, are, or iaa;, be ejected to be, totally or partially incapaci- 
tated for remunerative occupation, Further defining the limit? of this 
study, disctinction is nade betweer thoss mentally, socially and phy- 
sical! idicapped persons described aboi employed in private industry 
and those employed in sheltered wor is, -t is the latter group which' 
constitutes the subject matter of this study. 

B. In Private Industry , 

I i r are at • ... ii'c no figure .... available on the number of handi- 
capped workers employed in private industry. Suffice to say that the 
number is substantial and that bhe question early arose as to whether 
the minimum wage and maximum hour provision.; of approved NRA codes world 
preclude those handicapped by physical or mental defect, age or other 
infirmity from their former opportunities of obtaining employment, not 
only in private industry but also ir. sheltered workshops. 

1. Executive Order No. : 6C .--?., 

By way of clarification, the President issred on February 17, 1034, 
an Executive Order prescribing rules and regulations for the interpreta- 
tion and application of certain labor provisions of codes of fair com- 
petition as they might affect handi capped workers in private industry. 
It was provided thereby that no provision of any code of fair competi- 
tion, agreement, or license prescribed or issued pursuant to Title I 
of the national Industrial Recovery Act should be so construed or 
applied as to violate the following rules and regulations: 

"1. A person whose earning capacity is limited because of 
age, physical or mental handicaps or other infirmity, may 
be employed on light work at a wage below the minimum 
established Vj a Code, if the employer obtains from the 
state authority, designated by bhe Un ted States Depart- 
ment of Labor, a certificate authorizing such person's 
employment at such wages and for such hours as shall be 
stated in the certificate. Such authority shall be guided 
by the instructions of the United States Department of 
Labor, in is suing certificat es , t'o . s uch persons. .JLafih 

i : - v ■■.: -■:. " ■ •. i : • 

(*) Bulletin No. 113, Federal Board for Vocational Education. P. 42- 43. 
9798 



-14- 

employer shall file monthly with the Code Authority a 
list of all such persons employed by him, showing the 
wages paid to, and the maximum hours of work for such 
employee. 

"2. Any approval order of a Code of Fair Competition, 
agreement or license heretofore approved, prescribed or 
issued pursuant to Title I of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act, if any necessity exists therefor in order 
to make these regulations effective, is hereby modi- 
fied so as to permit and be conditional upon the full 
applications and operation of these regulations. " 

These regulations were to be effective immediately and thereupon 
become binding upon all industries and members thereof unless, and only 
to such extent as, prior to that date good cause to the contrary should 
bo shown to the Administrator for Industrial Recovery, by any affected 
party or parties with reference to any tra.de, industry, or subdivision 
thereof. 

2. Special Commit t^e Report. 

Upon entering into the investigation and conditions among the 
handicapped workers in sheltered workshops, in December 1933, the 
•special committee appointed o-j the Administrator for that purpose 
decided that a similar investigation should also be made among the 
handicapped employed in private industry. 

This task was undertaken in the early months of 1934. The problems 
which were repeatedly arising were investigated through the medium of 
a comprehensive questionnaire sent to all vocational rehabilitation 
supervisors, both state and district, to private placement agencies for 
the handicapped and to a selected list of social service agencies. Re- 
turns were received from sixty- si:: of thes^.. Follov.-ing receipt of the 
questionnaire, a field study was made in some of the localities which 
seemed to merit special attention, or where .lore specific iniYrmation 
was obtainable. 

After duly analyzing the answers and suggestions ma.de pursuant to 
the qucstionnair. , the special committee made several recommendations. 
It suggested, that the instructions governing the issuance of sub- stand- 
ard certificates for employment of the handicapped be broadened as a,s to 
allow more flexibility as to the percentage of of the minimum wage that 
may be paid. It objects to the limitation of the benefits of the sub- 
standard certificate to the handicapped who were at least seventy- five 
p<-rc^nt efficient, and recomm. nded that industry be allowed to employ 
thoso who are not more than fifty percent off iciunt , if it so desires. 

It was further recommended that code regulations which forbade 
homework should be so modified so a.s not to apply to home work for the 
s.riously handicapped who a.re not able to go to a place of employment 
or adapt themselves to the conditions thcr^. 



9798 



-15- 

Thc next rnd last important recommendation mp.de was that the 
N.R.A. crll to the attention of all coded industries the desirability 

of including as socirlly desiraole measures for their codes, cither 
in a manckitorj way or as rccoi.ime-.c.ed practices, the following: 

"a. -very employer should, whenever the nature of the 
Usability or the individual personality does not nega- 
tive -.uck a step, rehire in suitable employment persons 
rho ...avo received permanent injuries in their employ. 

"b. Employers should in the orelinary course of e:rpan~ 
sion fell back on an equal basis with other handicapped 
workers v,ho have been in their employ within the past 
four years. 

"c. hmploycrs shoulr". eneleavor to have a sui table pro- 
portion of handicapped workers, whether sub-standard or 
fully efficient, in the ranks of their employees, in 
order to make certain of a fair distribution of oppor- 
tunity to work. This proportion in all probability 
would be as large as two percent and might even be 
close to five percent. Failure of any given employer 
to follow the practice her... suggested throws upon 
other employers in the same industry the '.-/hole burden 
of employing the proportion of handic; pped workers 
that properly belong to tha.t industry. Re—employment 
will not be successful and purchasing power will not 
be restored until substantially all of the employable 
population is taken up in gainful occupations. " 

C. Handica-'Tood '"'orders in Sheltered "workshops . 

It has oeen seen that the concern of the IT. R. A. in handicapped 
workers in private industry gave rise to the issuance of Executive 
Order 5G0G-F, February 17, 1935, and to "an investigation thereafter 
by the special committee appointed December 5, 1933. 

The. issuance of the above Executive Order and the report made 
by the Special committee on July 23, 1S34, in no way ameliorated the 
lot of the handicapped worker in sheltered workshops. It is with 
measures taken by the IT. R. A. in behalf of persons, who ~o:j reason of a 
physical, social or mental defect or infirmity, whether congenital or 
acquired, injury or disease, are totally or partially incapacitated for 
remunerative employment, and who have had the privilege of entering a 
charitable institution, conducted not for profit but for the purpose of 
providing remunerative employment for such lersons, that this review 
is interested. 

A-; has already been mentioned, many sheltered workshops did not 
come within the purview of permanent codes, due to the fact that they 
received financial rid from state, country or municipal funds. Such 
workshops were extended the privilege of using the h T RA insignia and 
of workin ; along with the President, so that those which accepted, 
properly came within the scope of the National Recovery Administration, 
and hence within the scope of this review. 

9798 



-16- 
CHAPtBGa III 

SHELTERED WORKSHOPS UNDER THE N.R.A. 

I. PROBLEM CONFRONTING N.R.A, 

The high degree of regimentation finally attained under the 
National Recovery Administration beclouds realization in the retrospect 
of the many classification problems confronting the Administration on 
June 16, 1935. Fhereas it was obvious to authorities that the scope of 
the Act was delimited in law by the boundaries of industrial activity, 
yet in the early days this was, at least in the mind of the average 
American citizen, a question, ? o whom does the NR6. apply V Whom does 
it affect? The immensity of the undertaking staggered the mind of the 
average layman* Hundreds of le1 ters a aay were received in Washington 
from all over the country,, asking if ;he NBA applied to housemaids, 
government employees, doctors, chircpractbrs ; farm hands, schoolteachers, 
nurses, etc Such- queries were carefully tabulated and -placed before 
the Administrator each week at his specific request as an item of infor- 
mation and importance* To these inquiries the reply was made that the 
Act was one for ind ustrial recovery, aid that therefore it has no 
jurisdiction over workers purely professional; dom'estic t agricultural 
or governmental. 

A* Inclusion of Sheltered Workshops Under Code Provisions . 

The problem was not so easily solved on all fronts, for although 
officials of the Hecovery Administration realized that the Act and 
codes were legally confined to persons, firms ; associations or cor- 
poration engaged in trade or industry, yet the question of fact was still 
a difficult one in borderline cases. 

The line of demarcation between social and industrial activities 
was the scene of conflict with respect to the classification of hospit- 
als and charitable end social institutions in general. Within the ranks 
of charitable or social institutions, a distinction had to be made 
between those which,, in some phases of their undertaking, were not en- 
gaged in industrial, activity, and those which were so engaged. The 
latter group could again be divided with respect to those which engaged 
in industrial activity for profit and those which did not carry on such 
activity primarily for profit. Finally, as the Act did not aptly to 
federal, state, county or municipal activities, one further division 
had to be eonsidered t namely, that between those charitable and social 
institutions receiving state, county or municipal aid and those which 
did not* 

Sheltered workshops, as charitable institutions engaging in in- 
dustrial activities appeared to fall within the jurisdiction of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act, and the Industrial codes, provided 
they were not. in receipt of aid from governmental sources. (*) 

(*) In cases where such aid was received, workshops could elect 
to come within the purview of NRA,. as many did. This per- 
mission was granted by the National Sheltered Workshop Com- 
mittor at its meeting on July 12, 1934. 

9f98 



-17- 

B . RichDer^'s Interpretation of Aug ust 50, 1953 . 

The launching of the Blue Eagle drive on August first, 1933, : ave 
renewed impetus to the need for determination of the status of various 
groups under the Rational Recovery Administration. The wave of enthu- 
siasm which sweot the couitry mace it judicious for all establishments 
dealing in industrial commodities t: proclaim themselves as supporters 
of txie movement. 

Many communications passed between charitable institutions and 
National Recovery Administration. Finally., on August 30, 1933, Donald 
R. Richberg, General Counsel for the NRA, formulated these various 
communications into a concise statement, (*) which though categorical on 
some p Dints, was then considered the general policy of the Recovery 
Administration with respect to charitable institutions, i.'.r. Richberg 
stated as follows: 

"In response to your inquiry I will try to clarify the interpre- 
tation of various communi cat ions which have emanated from the 
national Recovery Administration regarding the application of the 
national Industrial Recovery Act to hospitals, charitable or 
social welfare organizations. 

"At the outset, let me stress that the President's Reemployment 
Agreement is a voluntary measure and may be signed by anyone 
who desires to sign it, including hospitals, charitable or social 
we 1 fare o rgani zat i ons . 

"So far as permanent codes are concerned, it .is not expected that 
codes will cover hospitals, charitable or social welfare organi- 
zations in general, as they are .not engaged in trade •or industry. 
There is nothing to prevent any of these organizations from sign- 
ing the President's Reemployment Agreement and conforming to its 
provisions. This does not mean, however, that subject to the 
following paragraph, they are under any compulsion to do so, other 
than %si&.t resulting from a desire to cooperate wherever appropriate 
anc so far as possible with a general program of reemployment at 
shorter hours and higher wages. 

"Whenever hospitals or social welfare organizations, even if not 
organized for profit, actually engage in a. trade or industry, they 
should sign the President's Reemployment Agreement, and they may 
come within the terms of permanent codes. 

"There is a procedure set up by which individual institutions that 
would incur unavoidable hardships may sign the President's Reemploy- 
ment Agreement and obtain the Blue Eagle with the white stripe by 
conforming to procedure prescribed." 

By reviewing that which transpired since the issuance of this letter, 
it can be seen that it did express the actual policy adopted by the 
National Recovery Administration with respect to those hospitals and 

social o rgani za t i o ns not e n gaging in industry or trade. 

(*) Letter dated August 30, 1933, from Donald R. Richberg to Allen 
, T. Bi!i?r_py Ejects* f.v*i Direct or ;>£:. v .pommuii tg Chests and CouiciLi; 
' Inc. , Tow" York C ity. n 

9798 



-18- 

The status of charitable organizations actually engaging in 
trade or industry, however,, such as sheltered ■workshops * 
was left vague and variable: 

"They shoul d sign the President's Reemployment Agreement, 

and they may come within the permanent codes." 
There was naturally no problem under the P.R.A., as no organi- 
zation, regardless of its nature, was under any obligation to 
sign it. With respect to the status of sheltered workshops 
under permanent codes, however, a clearer definition of policy 
v/as necessary. In order more clearly to define its position, 
the Administration required a more comprehensive knowledge of 
sheltered workshops. To this end, a special committee was 
appointed on December 5, 1933. 

C. Proposals by Sheltered Workshop Officials . 

prior to the formulation of the special committee, several 
constructive suggestions were made by outstanding officials 
of sheltered workshops. Colonel John IT. Smith, Jr., Director 
of the Institute for the Cripple and Disabled (:"ew York City) 
pointed out (*) that although charitable agencies (not being 
members of trade or industry) were not generally covered hy 
permanent codes, it appeared that provisions were being inserted 
advertently and inadvertently, in certain codes which limited, 
restricted and even prohibited certain activities of such in- 
stitutions. He cited provisions from the Commercial Printing, 
the Waste Material, and the Artificial Limb Manufacturing Codes. (**) 

H© -stated further that the interests of profit making indus- 
tries and those of charitable institutions v/ere diametrically 
opposed, and that theref ire, justice could not be done charit- 
able institutions oy ilacing their activities under the juris- 
diction and administration of the trade associations submitting 
codes. The best solution lay, he continued, in cooperation 
between trade and industrial groups with charitable institutions 
in arriving at fair prices and practices for the several trades. 
To this end, he suggested the promulgation of an Executive Order, 
which in substance provided for: 

(a) exemption of sheltered workshops from minimum wage 
provisions of all codes; 

(b) exemption of sheltered workshops from any restrictive 
provisions in codes, such as provisions prohibiting 
discounts in sales to them, restricting them from 
selling goods to others, prohibiting then from giving 
discounts or giving away goods of the needy or any 

other prohibition affecting their free and full operation; 



(*) Letter to General Johnson, dated September 11, 1933 

(**) These provisions were not included in the above Codes 
as subsequently approved. 



9798 



-19- 

(c) voluntary subscription by charitable insti- 
tutions to the FRA provided iva t ,es and hours 
of the permanent staff and employees of such 
institutions were in accordance with the terns 
thereof. 

(d) appointment of a five-member Advisory Board for 
Charitahle Institutions, one to he recommended 

by the Secretary of Commerce, one 'by the Secretary 
of Labor, and the remaining three to he chosen 
from among the leading executives of charitable 
institutions ; 

(e) preparation, issuance and administration of rules 
and regulations governing only such of the activi- 
ties of charitahle institutions as involved their 
engaging in trade or indxistry -- such rules and 
regulations to include those governing fair price 
for the products mam if actured or sold by such 
institutions. In arriving at fair prices, the 
Board was to take into consideration the fact 
that the products were manufactured by handicapped 
workers, and the consequent possibility that the 
product might not be the standard of the trade or 
industry. Likewise in arriving at such fair prices 
the Board was to confer with the Code Authority of 
the particular industry affected. 

(f ) the application of the above mentioned provisions 
of this proposed Executive Order to only those 
charitable institutions which abide by the rules 
and regulations promulgated by the Board; otherwise 
their trade and industrial activities were to be 
governed, so far as IIIBA was concerned, by the approved 
codes of the industries and trades involved. 

Peter J. Salmon, Secretary of the Industrial kome for the 
Blind, Brooklyn, H. Y. , speaking in behalf of fovar thousand 
blind industrial workers, declared that the products of these 
workers, as inmates of institutions which could not display the 
Blue Eagle, were being discriminated against. 

He expressed the belief, as previously expressed by Colonel 
Smith, that the solution to the sheltered workshop's problem lay 
in the establishment of basic principles which would make it 
possible to work in cooperation with the various industries in 
which the blind engaged. 

Mr. Salmon doubted that the institutions for the blind would 
generally undersell members of an industry, but if scattered cases 
of underselling should occur, they might as well be handled by 
the administration comnii ttee of the industry affected working in 
conjunction with the committee proposed for the organization for 
the blind. 



9798 



r 



-20- 

He was of the opinion that to place the bliixd under the same 
restrictions as the seeing, wo Id necessita/te the discontinuance 
of the occupational group, which comprises a. large proportion of 

the people in workshops. (*) 

As a remedy of this situation, he proposed that the following 
provision be inserted in all c des governing the industries in 
which blind workers are used : • 

"To effectuate the purpose of the National Recovery Act 
in connection with Codes of Fair Competition, a committee 

is hereby created for the purpose of adjusting all matters 
arising out of the competition of the products of the blind 
as they affect this industry. This Committee shs.ll confer 
v/ith the Authority set up. in this Code for the purpose of 
adjusting all problems one 1 in particular shall by conference 
arrive at the lowest reasonable cost of the production of 
products of this Industry, and shall make rules and regulations 
insuring that 'the products of the blind will not be sold be- 
low the lowest reasonable cost of production of identical 
products in this industry, and shall have in respect to the 
blind the same authority as is vested in the authority 
created for this industry. 

"The Committee shall be made up as follows: 
Chairman of the Code Committee of the American Association 
of Workers for the Blind, President or his representative 
of the American Association of Worlrers for the Blind, and a 
representative from the American Foundation for the Blind. 

"The minimum wages and maximum hours provisions shall not 
apply to institutions for the blind which comply with the 
rules and regulations of the above Committee.". 

D. Arm ointment of Special Committee . 

The special committee was composed -of Dr. Stanley P. Davies, 
Director of the Charity Organization Society, ilew York City, 
who acted as Chairman; Professor Frederick Woodward, of the 
University of Chicago, and Oscar Sullivan, President of the 
National Rehabiliation Association. 

The purpose of the report to be made by the special, committee 
was, as stated by Alvin Brown, NBA Assistant Administrator and 
Executive Officer: 

"to sec 1 : assurance that we or doing justice both to the 
labor standards for regularly employed workers being built 
up in codes of fair competition, and equally to the handi- 
cappi otner special classes of r ers» n (**J 



(*) Letter to John "'. Id,- ting From Peter J. Salmon, Dated 

Oct ;bcr 9, 1933. 
(**) Letter to Dr. Stanlcj P. Davies from Alvin Bruvn, dated 

Di cember 5, 1933, >r 'BRA Release No. 2093, December 5, 1933, 



9798 



-21- 
E. Report of T he Special Cor-mi t tce (February 1, 1954) 

After two months of investigs/tion effected. Toy means jf 
questionnaires and personal visits, the special committee 
made its report. Replies to questionnaires came from sheltered. 
workshops employing 5,014 people. Thirty-seven answers came 
from the Goodwill Industries group, and of the remainder, 
thirty-five came from institutions for the blind. The types 
of industries represented were as follows: (*) 

Manufacturing: Brooms, Brushes, Mops, Clothing, and 
fancy-work, Novelties, Toys, Wookwork, Weaving. (Rugs , Hats, 
Basketry), Reed and Rattan Work, Mattress and Bedding, 
Furniture (reed.), Hospital Supplies. 

Repairing and Reconditioning: Furniture, Mattresses, 
etc., Clothing, Shoes, Misc., including waste material. 

Printing, Bookbinding - Braille. 
Fruit Raising, Poultry, Eggs. 

The mediae, wage paid by those reporting was $10. per 
week. The highest weekly wage was from $15. to $17.99, and 
the lowest from $5.00 to $5,99. The weekly hours were thirty- 
seven and one-naif, (37.5). There were five (5) establish- 
ments operated for forty-si:: (4-6) hours per week. In their 
methods of marketing, thirty-two (32) of the establishments 
sold at wholesale, fifty-three (53) of them had retail out- 
lets, tventy-five (25) conducted special sales, fifteen (15) 
made house to house canvasses, o,nd eighteen (IS) used still 
other methods, nail orders, etc. Replies with respect to the 
effects of IRA aligned themselves as follows: nine (9) 
called the effect harmful?- four (4) listed benefits while 
the remaining thirty-seven (37) denoted fear of the ultimate 
effects but cited nothing specific. 

The Committee was of the opinion that the above returns 
from the questionnaire unsupported by field inquiry would 
not be such as t" v/arrant action looking toward special treat- 
ment. Field inquiry disclosed that those of the workshops 
which were suffering adverse effects were under a very genuine 
and very marked hardship. It also brought out that any of the 
establishments which had not thus far been affected had 
simply profited by the tolerance and charitable attitude of 
their trade c ;mpetit ors . The report continues as follows: 

"The leaders in the field of sheltered employment 
were unanimous on two points. First, that the 
shelte-ret. workshops, being operated with an entirely 
different purpose than private business, namely, the 
welfare of physically and mentally Cisabled persons 
and others handica-vrpod ''oy personality difficulties and 



(*) NBA Release No. 3307, dated February IS, 1934 



)798 



social maladjustments, and not in en-j sense for private 
profit, cannot meet the full conditions of the NBA codes 
in the respective trades and industries in which they 
are engaged. The so-called wage given to their "benefi- 
ciaries is often subsidized b : r donations even to produce 
the meager amounts that ere paid, payment of mini- 
mum wages would 'therefore be impossible. E' r 3n as to 
hours of work the application of the code provisions 
would be undesirable. Many of the handicapped, and in 
particular the blind, require longer to turn out pro- 
ducts than do the physically efficient. Since the work- 
ers are in reality charitable" beneficiaries collective 
bargaining would ; j .lso be inapplicable,. To put these 
workshops under fche codes of the respective trades and 
industries in whicli they are engaged would subject them 
to conditions with which they could not comply and render 
it possible for competitors to put tr.era out of business. 
Second, unless there is some ■•'-.;., by whicli the sheltered 
workshops can secure' tlu j Blue Eaglq uhey wi.il bo at a 
great disadvantage in marketing bheif products. Some 
of then are bidders for city, state and Federal contracts 
and will automatically be excluded unless members of the 
NBA. 'To the extent to which merchandising establishments 
and the general public insists unon the Blue Eagle, pro- 
ducts of sheltered workshops not having the emblem would 
meet severe discrimination" (*) 

As a result of this survey, the special committee recommend- 
ed that an executive order, (**) which it had drafted, be issued 
enabling sheltered workshops to comply with the spirit and intent 
of the National .Recovery Act and to have the benefit of the Blue 
Eagle, without being required to conform with the various trade 
and industrial codes. 

II. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM' 

As a result of increased knowledge and of contact with the various 
groups dealing with the handicapped, 

"NBA became conscious of the fact that there was a larger 
problem involved in these various handicapped groups engaged 
in industry than just the mere fact of tneir being a part 
of the industry itself. This was because these agencies 
were dealing with a large social problem and that their in- 
dustrial program was only a phase of it and very often 
a small part of the larger urogram." (**). 



(*) NBA Release No. 3307, dated February 18, 1P34. 

(**) Appendix No. I. 

(***) Letter from Peter J. Salmon to Vernon J. Clarke, dated 
October 19, 1935. 



79J 



-23- 

At all events, the )bjcctives of these charitable programs, under- 
taken long before the conception of " T RA, were most commendable and 
founded on the same .principles undi r lying the new Administration; 
hence, it naturally followed that hEA would do nothing to impede 
the progress being made in the industrial phases of- these charit- 
ab 1 e undc r t aki ngs . 

A. Section 5(a) o^ IJ.I.R e A . 

All agreements under Section 4 (a)- of the Act were made 
on condition that such agreement? were not designed to promote 
monopolies or to eliminate or oppress small enterprises and 
would not operate to discriminate against them, and would tend 
to effectuate the policy of the Act. 

Though sheltered workshops would a^iear to be the type 
of industrial organisation referred to in Section 4 (a) as 
being eligible to enter into an agreement with the President 
for the regulation of their kuvnstrial activities in accord- 
ance with the policy of the Act, get it was recommended by 
the Legal Division of U.E.A.: 

"That sheltered workshops be exempted 1 from all require- 
ments of codes which exceed these upon which the Order 
(X-9) can be conditioned. These can be substantially 
those contained in the proposed Executive Order". (*) 
This recommendation was accepted by the Administration, 
the result being that sheltered workshops were granted 
a conditional exemption under that part of paragraph 2 c 
of Section 3 (a) of H.I.R.A., which gives the President 
the power to "provide such exceptions to and exemptions 
from the provisions of such codes, as the President in 
his discretion deems necessary to effectuate the policy 
herein declared". Such conditional exemption is to be 
distinguished from the agreements made pursxiant to 
Section 4 (a) which were conditioned on the lack of 
monopolistic practices, lack of oppression of and dis- 
crimination against small enternrises and a tendency to 
effectuate the policy of Title I of the Act. 

B . Issurncc of Adm.inistra.tivc Order X-9 . 

The recommendations made by the special committee in 
the issuance en March 3, 1934, of Administrative Order X-9 
as a measure looking toward the proper adjustment of trades 
and industries in their competitive relation with sheltered 
workshops. By this Crctr, the Administrator for Industrial 
Recovery, pursuant to the authority vested in the President 
by Title I of the Act and delegated to the Administrator by 
Executive Order go. 6543-A (December 30, 1933), and others, 
exempted sheltered workshops from codes covering activities 

(*) Code Record Section, Volume of Administrative Order 
X-9, Legal Division (Blackwell Smith) Memorandum, 
dated February 14, 1334 - NRA Piles, 

3798 



-24- 

ir. which they .were engaged on the condition that any sheltered 
workshop in order to become entitled to such 'exemption should 
sign a pledge (*) that it would net:- \ 

1. employ minors under sixteen (10) years of age, 
except such as are there for instructional 
purpose as a^viroved by a ?iegior.a.l Committee ..... 

2. engage in destructive price cutting or any 
other unfair method of competition, or 

3. wilfully hamper or :-etard the purposes of 
said Title of Sale 1 Act; and that so far as 
-oossible it "'ill cooperate with the National 
Recovery Administration and will carry out the 
intent and spirit oi said title of raid Act. (**) 

This Order defined the status quo of sheltered workshops, 
which hitherto had been vagpely ind variably described. 
Sheltered workshops were to sign a pledge to conduct their 
industrial activities according to the above mentioned condit- 
ions or be subject to the provisions of permanent codes. Com- 
pliance with the pledge entitled the institution to the use 
of appropriate insignia of the national Recovery Adminis- 
tration. 

C . Appointment o f the il-atio-vial Sheltered Uorkshop Committee. 

In order to effect compliance with such pledges, Admin- 
istrative Order X-9 provided for the appointment of a National 
Sheltered Workshop Committee' o'f six (6V members , to be selected 
from the boards or administrative staffs of sheltered work- 
shops and such other sources as might be deemed advisable. 
The term of service of each member was fixed at six months. 
Provision was m^dc for the establishment of regional commit- 
tees, but this was never done ( as it was deemed unnecessary. 
The National Committee was to report to the Administrator 
for Industrial Recovery the disposition of all cases and, if 
satisfied that any sheltered workshop had violated its pledge 
and if unable to obtain satisfactory adjustment, should 
certify .such case to the National Recovery Administration 
for revocation of' the right to use the National Recovery Ad- 
ministration insignic and such other a.ction as might be 
d e erae d advi sable • 

On Hay 11, 1934, the National Sheltered Uorkshop Commit- 
tee was appointed by General Fuyh.S. Johnson. (***) The 



(*) Appendix No. II _ . 

(**) Administrative Order X-9, March 5, 1934. Appendix No.V. 

(***) Administrative Order X-23 dated May 11, 1934. 
Appendix VI. 



9798 



-25-' 

following three members were appointed for the term of six 
months fror. that date: 

Mr. Oscar N. Sullivan, President, 
National Rehabilitation Association, Inc., 
311 State Office Building, 
St. Paul, Minneso-ta. 

Mr. Oliver A. Friedman, Director, 
Milwaukee Goodwill Industries, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Peter J. Salmon, Secretary, 
Industrial Home for the Blind, 
520 Gates Avenue, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

and the following three members for the term of three months 
from that date: 

Col. John N. Smith, Jr., Director, 
Institute for Crip-oled and Disabled, 
400 First Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Edward Hockhauser, President and Executive ■ 

Secretary* 

Altro Workshops, 

1^21 Jennings Street, * 

Bronx, New York; 

Father John 0' Grady, 

Secretary of the National Conference of 

Catholic Charities, 

Washington, D. C. 

On August 9, 1934, the last three mentioned appointees 
were reappointed for a period of six months. (*) 

On June 14, 1934, the National Sheltered Workshop Commit- 
tee, assembled in regular meeting, appointed Miss Effie Lee 
Moore as Executive Secretary to the National Sheltered Work- 
shop Committee. Miss Moore served in this capacity until 
the time the Committee was dismissed without additional com- 
pensation to that which she received as Executive Assistant 
to Acting Division Administrator, Linton Collins, Public 
Agencies Division. 

The Administrative Order (X-28) appointing the Committee 
also provided that Sheltered Workshops desiring to enjoy the 
exemption granted by Administrative- Order X-9, must pledge 



(*) Administrative Order X-73 dated August 9, 1934 Appendix No. VIII. 
9798 



-26-. 

themselves to comply with the conditions upon which the 
exemption was (..ranted that the Blue Eagle, covered by Design 
Pattern I? o. 90793 l/2, being that reproduced on the insignia 
issued under the President's Reemployment Agreement, would 
constitute the appropriate insignia, substituting, however, 

the distinctive words "S. T7. Permit Ho, " for "Member" 

ant! retaining the letters "U.S.", and the words "We Do Our 
Part" below the said Blue Eagle. The number v/as to be as- 
signed bo each sheltered workshop 'oy the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee, provided the said sheltered workshop had 
signed the pledge mentioned above. This insignia was to 

-.ear on all products made by sheltered workshops v hcre they 
entered into competition with similar goods privately manu- 
factured under codes, except that, if sold by a sheltered 
workshop or other charitable institution, no insignia was 
necessary. (*) 

In addition to signing the pledge of fair competition, 
sheltered workshops "■ re required to complete a questionnaire 
prepared by the Committee, calling for information regarding 
number, type and age distribution of- handicapped workers, 
finished products or services sold, amount of operating in- 
come and expense, and average hours worked by individual 
handicapped workers, as well as wages paid. 

D . Auth or i z a t ion of II ■'• t i onal -Sheltere d Workshop Committee to 
I ssue Labels . 

Within two months after its appointment, that is, on 
July 2, 1934, the national Sheltered Workshop Committee was 
authorized by General Johnson, in Administrative Order X-59 (**) 
to print and! issue the ERA insignia as described in X-28. 
The Committee v/as also charged with the duty of determining 
whether institutions applying for exemption granted in X-9 (***) 
or for NBA insignia d scribed in X-23 were or were not "a 
sheltered workshop" within the meaning of this term as it 
was used in Administrative Order X-9. This decision was 
subject to "ratification or disapproval" by the DBA; pending 
such .notion, a favorable decision by the Committee was con- 
sidered as making the institution eligible for labels. An 
institution might continue to use NBA insignia and labels 
so long as it complied with the- conditions stated in the 
Pledge. It was required that 1I.R.A. labels be placed on all 
products made by sheltered workshops where similar goods 
privately manufactured were required by an a iplicable code 
to bear the insignis issued under that code. Articles and 
products bearin, t i hi ltered workshop DBA insignir night 
be dealt in' without violating the Detail Code. Do other 



(*) mini st rat ive Order X-23, dated Hay 11, 1934 

Appendix No. VI . 
(**) x No. VII. 
(***) !To. V. 



9798 



-27- 

label was required except in certain cases, namely ," owners, the title 
to the products die not reside i:;_ the sheltered workshops, or 
where additional processing was performed on the article 
bought from the sheltered workshop. In such cases, labels 
were to be attached only if the titleholcler or the processor 
had a certificate from the code authority to which such 
person was subject in the production of a given article. 
These certificates were to be made available by all code 
authorities to members of their respective industries so 
long as said members complied with the provisions of their 
respective Codes in all matters except those within the 
management of the sheltered workshops. The national Shel- 
tered Workshop Committee was made the judge, and not the 
code authorities, in the question of whether or not an in- 
stitution was a bona fide sheltered workshop or was comply- 
ing with the "Pledge of Cooperation and Pair Competition". 
ITo code authority, therefore, was to refuse on the basis 
of its own opinion on the above question, a certificate to 
an applicant dealing with a given institution. In cases, 
however, where the code authority believed that its applicant 
member had violated a part of the code which did not come 
within the purview of the sheltered workshop, the code 
authority might refuse to grant a certificate, subject to 
the approval of the Administration. 

E . Administrative Order X-31 . 

On September 1, 1934, Administrative Order X-81 (*) 
was issued striking out paragraphs one to fourteen inclusive 
of Administrative Order X-59, and substituting new paragraphs 
amendatory and supplemental to those rescinded. The new 
Order emphasized the exclusiveness of the Committee's power 
to issue labels to sheltered workshops (paragraph 1). The 
Committee continued in its duty of determining whether in- 
stitutions applying for exemption granted in X-9 or for NBA 
insignia described in X-28, were or were not a "sheltered 
workshop" within the meaning of this term as it was used in 
X-9 (Paragraph 2)» The application of the exemption granted 
in X-9 was restricted to those institutions which had been 
determined to be sheltered workshops by the Committee, such 
determination being subject to the ratification or disapproval 
of the Administration, ponding the issuance of which the 
Committee's determination would remain in effect (paragraph 
3). The purchase, manufacture, transfer and dealing in 
labels issued to sheltered workshops were made subject to rules 
and regulations provided in the case of labels issued by code 
authorities so far as such rules rind, regulations were applic- 
able (Paragraph 4). 3efore being allowed to use labels, a 
sheltered workshop must have been determined to be a sheltered 
workshop and must have signed and complied with the provisions 
of the Pledge of Cooperation (Paragraph 5). Competitors of 
sheltered workshops were riven the right to complain to the 



(*) Appendix No. IX. 



9798 



-28- 

Cornmittce concerning the violation of conditions of the 
pledge "by r shcltercc" workshop (paragraph 6). If a violation 
were proved, the Committee should suspend the issuance of 
labels to such viol tor (paragraph 7). Articles and products 
bearing the sheltered workshop ITRA insignia might "be dealt 
in without violating the Retail Code, No other label was 
required except ir. certain ~ases, namely, where the title 
to the products did not reside in the sheltered workshop! 
or where additional proce ising was performed on the article 
"bought from the sheltered workshop. In such cases, labels 
were to be attached only if the titleholder or the processor 
had a certificate from the code authority, to which such 
person was subject in the production of a given article 
(Paragraphs S, 9 anc 1 10) These certificates were to be 
made available oy all code authorities- to members of their 
respective industries so long as said member complied with 
the provisions of their respective codes in all matters 
except those within the management of sheltered workshops 
(Paragraph 11) e The procedure for the issuance, cancellation, 
or suspension of certificates was to correspond as nearly 
as possible t? the procedure for the issuance, cancellation 
or suspension of labels bearing I S TKA insignia to members of 
a given' industry e jTkr. code authority was forbidden to deny 
any certificate upon the around that the applicant member- 
was dealing with an institution which was not entitled -. ? , 
a sheltered workshop to the exemption heretofore grantee -by 
.Administrative urdor X-9 , or upon -the ground that such in- 
stitution was not complying with its pledga (Paragraph 12). 
All complaints with reference to, and all applications for, 
certificates were to be handled by the executive secretary 
of the Committee (Paragraph 13). 



3798 



-ay- 



P . Administration -and Use of Identi f ication Label s • 

At an early informal conference held on Hay 16, 19,34, the National 
Sheltered Workshop Committee opened the Question whether or not a special 
laoel should be usee, on products manufactured oy sheltered workshops, or 
rhether ex effort should be made to obtain label? of individual indus- 
tries. The former courso was final 1" adopted. In this connection, it 
was pointer out by the Research and Planning Division that the following 
codes --ere affected by sheltered workshop products: Cotton Garment; 
Laundry; Underwear and Allied Products; Graphic Arts; Art Needlework; 
Millinery (wholesale and Retail); Plorist; Broom, Wet Mop; Mattress 
Renovating; Toys; Basketry; he; Rug Weaving; Powder Puff; Baby and Doll 
Blankets; Leather; Paper: Cellophane; Embroidery; Woodwork; Furniture 
Renovating; Paper Excelsior; Willow Purnit"ure; Shoe Rebuilding; Beauty 
Shoa; Jewelry Manufacturing; Pirno 3?uning; Scrap Iron; ITonferrous Scrap 
Metals; and Waste Materials. (*) 

Prior to the signing of Administrative Cro.er X-59, and as a result 
of objections raised by the Cotton Garment Code Authority to the issuance 
of a questionnaire and a pledge of cooperation by the Sheltered Workshop 
Committee, a meeting was held in Hew York City on June 9, 1934. The ob- 
jections entertahned. were alleged by Major R. B. Paddock, Executive 
Director of the Cotton Garment Code Authority, to be cue to competition 
with the Houses of Good Shepherd. The desire of these institutions to 
cooperate was expressed jy ?r. John 0' Grady, but he added that the Code 
Authority refused, to give this group labels. 'Thereupon, Mr. Truehoff 
was appointed by Major Paddock to negotiate with Father O'Grady with 
reference to labels. As a result of this conference, The Cotton Garment 
Code Authority agreed to remove its objection to the pledge and to the 
questionnaire which the National Sheltered Workshop Committee proposed 
to send out. (**) 

On September 8th, 1934, the iktional Recovery Administration an- 
nounced the designation of fifty-two institutions qualifying as sheltered 
workshops. Less than one month la.ter, on October 2nd, ninety-three ad- 
ditional workshops were designated, (***) asking the total one hundred 
and forty-five. .3- October 35, 1934, the total had risen to one hundred 
and sixty-one. (****) The number of officially recognized sheltered 
workshops had, on the eve of the Schechter Decision b~ the United States 
Supreme Court, May 27, 1933, mounted to two hundred and eight'-- three. 

A regular meeting of the Committee took place on September 18, 1934, 
and action was taken with resaect to labels for workshops manufacturing 
garments of various kinds. 

(*) Minutes of Meeting of rational Sheltered Workshop Committee, May 16, 
1934. 

(**) Sheltered Workshop Piles; Public Agencies Division, Industry Sec- 
tion 5, hotter to Linton K. Collins, sighed b~ r Major Paddock and Na- 
tional Sheltered Workshop Committee — hRA files. 

(***) NRA Release No. 3054 dated October 2, 1934. 

(****) HHA. Release ho. 8469 dated October 26, 1934. 

9798 



-30- 



G . Normal Production Agreemen t During S t rike r. . 

On October 2, 1.934, the National Sheltered Workshop Committee, 
representing approximately 200 institutions and 25,000 mentally or 
physically handicapped workers, agreed that sheltered workshops doing 
contract work for manufacturers involved in labor disputes would not in- 
crease their production during strikes to more than their average nor- 
mal production for a comparable period, and would deal onlv with the 
manufacturers with whom they dealt at the beginning of the disputes. (*) 

H . Pair Selli ng Price Re solution . 

A resolution was also adopted 'relative to the cost .T.d selling price of 
sheltered workshop products, to the effect that inasmuch as sheltered 
workshops rre non-profit organizations engaged in training handicapped 
people whose earning crppcit - was small, it was the opinion of the Com- 
mittee that any relief paid ; s ages in excess of wages actually earned 
should not be considered a part of the cost of manufacturing said pro- 
ducts vrhen determining a fair sellirg price. Airthermore, that when 
establishing selling prices, sheltered workshops were requested to give 
consideration not only to duality of workmanship and material, but also 
to direct cost of raw material, earned wages and other direct and in- 
direct costs which constitute a part of the cost of manufacturing shel- 
tered Workshop products, except that the "Tices of products manufactured 
and sold to meet relief needs might be established in accordance with 
the economic abilities of tae persons to whom they were sold. (**) 

On October 26, 1934, a. statement was issued by the rational Sheltered 
Workshop Committee distinguishing between sheltered workshops and prison 
workshops. The former were described as representing the charitable 
activities of large numbers of persons who are engaged in the work of 
reclaiming the socially and physically handicapped persons. 

I . Ulman Commit bee Report p.. She iter -jc 7or : shops . 

By the latter part of 1934, the desire of sheltered workshop of- 
ficials to impress on the oublic mind the difference between sheltered 
workshops and prison labor rve rise to the issuance of a statement by 
the Sheltered Workshop Committee setting forth the same. (***) 

In accordance with the terms of the Executive Order of October 12, 
1934, which had prompted the promulgation of the above mentioned, state- 
ment, the Ulman Committee was appointed to make- the two studies regard- 
ing competition between products of the Cotton Garment Industry and the 
products of sheltered wor 1 snaps, and between products of the industry 
and those of jrison labor. The National Industrial Recovery Board", on 
November 5, 193.4,. .named Judge Joseph IT. Ulman, of Baltimore, Maryland, 
Prank Tanrieribaum of Washington, "D. C, and W. Jett Lauck, of Baltimore, 
Maryland, as members of the Committee. James -P. Davis, of the National 

(*) LlRa Release No. S054 dated October 2, 1934. • 
(**) BRA ael0c.se Ho. 8469 dated October 26, l'J . 

(***) NRA Release No. 8439 dated October 26, 1934. 

9798 



•Zl- 



Recovery Ac mini strati on, was made Executive Secretary. 

Based or, an analysis of the questionnaires filled in by sheltered. 
workshcos engaged In the -production of cot tor. garments either for sale 
or on contract basis, it was found by t.ie Uliaan Committee that only 
about thirty such accreditee snops are engaged in work of this kind, 
and that the total value of all cotton ~. rment production of these 
shops including contract v-'ork uas, in 1933, o:nl" about half a million 
dollars. 

From testimony received from witnesses representing the various in- 
terests, at a hearing held ir Washington on November 13, 1034, the Com- 
mitter found, that the National Sheltered Workshop Co. mittee was making a 
sincere and determined effort to administer Administrative Order X-9 in 
such a way as to insure fair competition. 

Furthermore, in view of the fact that the difficulties between the 
cotton garment manufacturers and sheltered workshops seamed about to be 
solved, the Committee recommended that no ction be taker, at that time 
with respect to said situation. It i- as recommended that authorities 
closely supervise the activities of "orkshops in order to prevent them 
from abusin • the privileges accorded them. Finally, the Committee en- 
couraged the continuance and strengthening of the ties of cooperation 
between sheltered workshop and cotton garment authorities. (*) 

On November 12, 1934, Administrative Order X-lll was approved ap- 
pointed Oscar N. Sullivan, Oliver A. Froe&man enC. Peter J. Salmon for a 
term of si:: months from that d.ate to succeed themselves as members of 
the National Sheltered Workshop Committee. (**) 

J . Admin i st ra t ive Or de :■- X-l n 1-1 

On February 9, 1935, it "as deemed advisable in the light of mast 
experience, to amend and modi—- the terms of jc st order- to the extent 
that a term or tenure of office he provided ~or members of such committee; 
that it be left to the discretion of the Committee whether or not Regional 
Sheltered. Workshop Committees should be estaolished; and. that there be 
prescribed a procedure to oe followed as to the hearing of complaints of 
violation of pledges of fair competition signed oy sheltered workshops 
and the suspension or withdrawal of labels to and. d.enial of the right to 
exhioit the insignia of the NRA by such sheltered, workshops. Through 
the medium of Administrative Order £-111-1 (***), Administrative Order 
X-9 (3/3/34) mas amended and modified bo provide that: 

I. The. term and. tenure of office of the members of the National 

Sheltered Workshop Committee should be at the will and plea.sure 
of the National Industrial Recover^ hoard.. 



(*) Minutes of Sheltered '.'or' shorn Committee Meeting, dated December 17, 

1934. 
(**) Administrative Order X-lll, Appendix No. X. 
(***) Appendix No. XI. 

9793 



-32- 



II. Administrative Orders X-28 (5/11/34), X-73 (3/9/34) and X-lll 
(11/12/34) were modified to provide that persons named in 
such orders as members of the National Sheltered TTorkshot) 
Committee, i.e., 

Col. John 1". Smith, Jr. 

Mr. Edward Hochhauser 

7t. John 0" Grady 

Pete" J. Salmon 

Oliver A. Friedman 

Oscar Li. Sullivan. 

were appointed as members of such Committee to and including 
June 15, 1935, or until such time as might "be subseouently 
ordered bv the rational Industrial Recovery Aorrc^ . 

III. Administrative Orders X-9, X-28, and Section 7 of X-81, were 
amended and modified to provide that the rational Sheltered 
Workshop Ccmmitbee, subject to the approval of the rational 
Recovery Joarc, 'as authorized, to establish anc appoint the 
members of Regional Sheltered Workshop Committees; that the 
rational Sheltered '".orkshop Committee would notify a sheltered 
workshop of any cor.mlaint that it had violated an-' provision 
of its Pledge of Cooperation and. Fair Competition, or any 
rule or regulation adopter oursuant to N.R.A. in order that 

it might have an omortunit - " to be heard. If there seemed 
to be sufficient evidence of violation to justify such action, 
the National Sheltered Uorkshot) Committee should suspend the 
issuance of labels thereto. In reviewing the case, the X.R.A. 
had the power to overrule the decision and to restore to the 
sheltered workshop the right to use labels. Ho publicity was 
to be given an alleged violation until an adjustment had been 
made or until the National Industrial Recover-- Board had 
acted on the case. 

IV. All other provisions of Administrative Orders X-9 and X-81 
dealing with the procedure to be followed, br the rational 
Sheltered Workshop Committee and the NRA in cases of alleged 
violation of the Pledge of Cooperation and Hair Competition 
signed by a sheltered workshop "ere revoked anc cancelled by 
this Order. (X-lll-l) . 

On June 17, 1935, Administrative Order 2-111-2 (*) was signed by 
Acting Administrator James L. O'Neill, appointing the following members 
to succo themselves and, pursuant to Administrative Order X-lll-l, to 
continue in office until further order of the Administrator: 



(*) Appendix No. XII 

9798 



-33- 
Col. John N. Smith, Jr., 

Edward Hochhauser, 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. John 'Grady, 

Peter J. Salmon, 

Oliver A. Friedman, 

Oscar H. Sullivan 



The factions of the Committee were described as being to develop 

SS -S riet as a refSt of the National Industrial Recovery Act 
ana the activities of the National Sheltered Workshop Commxttee. 

III. EVALUATION 

Charitable institutions upon the inception of 1T.3.A. were of the 
opiniof Sat the H.R.A. was not primarily intended for them. Colonel 
John H. Smith stated in a letter to General Johnson: 

..The purooses of charitable institutions are identical with those of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act. This was apparently the view 
of both the President and Congress since no provisions ^re inserted 
L the legislation regarding such institutions. The need for the 
Measure ^ow oeing undertaken by the National Recovery Adm-xstratxon 
was not occasioned by the acts of charitable institutions. They mam 
lalnedYo swLt-shops nor cut-throat competition, ^y placed « 
in the ranks of the unemployed. To the contrary, on them was placed 
tne burden of caring for those cast out of employment by trade and in- 
dustry." £*) 



Though the activities of charitable institutions were in no way 
responsible for the passage of recovery legislation, it -s obvious that 
while orivate industry was readjusting itself m its new setting, tho 
rigWof charitable institutions in the industrial field had to oe safe- 
guarded and represented by competent authorities. Someone had to look 
out for the interest of miscellaneous groups on the fringe of private 
industry, lest the forces revolutionizing it engulf them to their great 
detriment. Sheltered workshop officials from the very beginning, ex- 
pressed their willingness to cooperate with the Administration. 

The method of cooperation selected was the establishment of the 
national Sheltered Workshop Committee, and there is much evidence to _ 
attest to the f-nct that its efforts have been most successful, ine six 
members, originally anointed for temporary periods, were made permanent 
members of the Committee because of their competency and efficacy. 

(*) Letter from John M. Smith, Jr., to G ■ -n^rnl Johnson, dated September 
11, 1933. 



9798 



—JM— 



Through this Committee, were brought together agencies dealing with the 
"blind, crippled, tubercular, cardiac, wayward and the aged. Mr. Peter J, 
Salmon, Secretary for the Industrial Home for the Blind, Brooklyn, "few 
York, states: (*) 

"As a member of the National Sheltered Workshop Committee, 
fully familiar with the results obtained thus far, I can 
say frankly that there is roiiiing which has been done 
hitherto that approaches in value the bringing together 
these various groups dealing with the handicapped in a 
common meeting ground provided by the Federal Government. 
It was the first time in history that such a group was 
brought together to develop an industry program for the 
benefit of the handicapped. That this is true might be 
easily gleaned from the fact that there were no definite 
statistics (**) available regarding any of these groups 
and onl-r wild guesses could be obtained as to just who 
they were and the extent cf their operations and nrogram. 
The National Sheltered Workshop Committee has found that 
basically the problems confronting all those dealing with 
the handicapped v/ere very much the same. It was a auestion 
large!- of an educational program both within, and without 
the agencies dealing with the -hand! capped. 

"After a gear and a half of ^ork by the national 
Sheltered Workshop Committee, it is hard to realize why our 
groups hac" not been brought together before,, but of course 
there was no vehicle or no urgent need. Both of ' these. , ■ .. 
v/ere supplied by N.R.A. Since the Committee commenced its 
wor!;, it has bsen able to formulate a program, the chief 
points of which are the following: 

1. Bringing closer together the various agencies doing 
work for the handicapped. 

2. Interpreting the work of these agencies to the various 
code authoi-ities and particularly to the governmental 
agencies and the public. 

3. Segregation of the problem of the handicao-?ed from that 
of the orison group. 

4. Effective work in a more intelligent approach to the 
difficult problem of marketing. 

5. Adjustment made on complaints and in every instance of 
such complaints a favorable outcome of the problem was 
arrived at. 

6. Statistical information hitherto unavailable was obtained 
from the various rger.cics dealing with handicapped re- 

garding the extent of their incur, t ^irl ^ro -ram, extent of 

(*) Lette- to Vernon- J. Clarke, dated October 19, 1935. 

(**) Appendix No. III. 

9793 



-35- 



plant, t^ r "pe of handicapped persons served, and man - .' other 
items of vital interest to a ^ell rounded program. " 

The National Sheltered Workshop Committee had as its purpose the 
.coordination, under governmental supervision and guidance, of the acti- 
vities of charitable instittitions and for the firsb time in the history 
of organized charity in America, brought together in a common endeavor 
diversified programs of work which "ere apportioned eauitable to the 
benefit of the respective charitable institutions. Markets '.".'ere secured 
for standard products made in accordance with fair trade practices and 
sola in fair competition v 'ith products made and sold by private industry, 
thereby greatly contributing to the rehabilitation of the handicapped 
workers and at the same time reducing relief unemployment. 

For the first time, a central source of reliable information was 
open to private industry and the public from which could be learned the 
purposes and methods of sheltered workshops. Data *-'ith reference to the 
number, location, production, . output, etc., of sheltered workshops be- 
came available through the efforts of the Committee. Checks on un- 
scrupulous contractors of the sweatshop t~ne were effected as well as 
the elimination of dumping of products on the open market at prices be- 
low which the scrupulous part of industry could manufacture and market 
similar products. 

The relief rolls of .the nation have been relieved by the activities 
of sheltered workshops of supporting forty- two thousand (42,000) handi- 
capped, workers, clients or trainees being currently served. The annual 
turnover of the two hundred and seventy-nine (279) charitable institu- 
tions (*) which have volunteered' to cooperate with the Administration is 
one hundred and twenty thousand (120,000). 

The mutual satisfaction and effective collaboration prevalent during 
the life of the Committee in its relation with Administration officials 
is ample proof that the most desirable and effective method to administer 
and coordinate all efforts. in behalf . of the handicapped is through a com- 
petent committee which is representative of all types of institutions 
concerned, and guided under government supervision, by a well formulated 
plan. The present Committee has such a plan in its marketing program 
which will require physical facilities for two hundred and fifty thousand 
(250,000) handicapped persons, if it is approved. (*'*) 

It is therefore recommended that any .contemplated legislation, exe- 
cutive orders, or other action in connection with the future continuance 
of the aims and purposes of the National Industrial Recovery Act give 
careful consideration to the cause and problems of charitable institu- 
tions, in order that regression to the status auo prevalent prior to 
the establishment of the Committee be avoided, and the continuance of 
the present progress be possible.- 

( *) Append!:; I«o. IV. 

(**) It is worthy of note that every member of the Committee rendered 

his services gratis, being reimbursed only to the extent of expenses 

incurred. 

9798 



-36- 

CHAPTER IV 

CONCLUSIONS 

Regardless of what may "be said with respect to the success of the 
National Recovery Administration in its main objectives, it proved to 
be a most important milestone in the advancement of sheltered workshops. 
For the first tims { the cause and problems of these institutions were 
accorded adequate representation in the industrial forum<, For the first 
time, their aims and objectives were nationally promulgated in a manner 
which reached the ears of industrial and governmental leaders. For the 
first time.p the leadings non-profit charitable systems of the country 
merged to find themselves identical in out-line* For the first time, 
their combined voices attracted the attention of the Federal Government, 
wherea.s they had separately been inaudible* For the first time, shelter- 
ed workshops impressed on authorities the distinctiveness of their identi- 
ty, as apait from prison insti tufcions* For the first time, there existed 
a liaison between private industry and sheltered workshops, between the 
sheltered workshops themselveso For the first time, a well-formulated 
program, endorsed by the majority of insti tutions affected and executed 
by a central agency was put into effect in behalf of sheltered workshops* 

The entire program as administered by the National Sheltered Work- 
shop Committee spells an excellent beginning to an important task. A 
review of the Committee's achievements under the National Recovery Admin- 
istration corn-pels the recommendation that the Committee, or its equiva- 
lent, be continued. If a new Act is proposed, it should embody specific 
provisions with respect to sheltered workshops which would provide for 
the ad-ministration thereof in the same manner as formerly effected pur- 
suant to the powers delegated to the President. Assuming that the code 
system be used in a new Act, it is recommended that the above provisions 
establish a Sheltered Workshop Committee of six members and exempt 
sheltered workshops from codes upon conditions similar to the following 

(as contained in Administrative Order X-9), " that any sheltered 

workshop in order to become entitled to such exemption shall sign a 
pledge that it will not: 

(1) employ minors under sixteen (16) years of age, except such as 
are there for instructional purposes as approved by a Regional 
Committee (hereinafter provided for). 

(2) engage in destructive price cutting or any other unfair method 
of competition. 

(3) wilfully hamper or retard the purposes of said Title of said 
Act; and that so far as possible will cooperate with the 
National Recovery Administration and will carry out the in- 
tent and spirit of said Title of said Act." 

If the use of labels is approved for all industries, it is recommend- 
ed that it be so authorized with respect to sheltered workshops, subject 
to their compliance with the above conditions.. 

If no new legislation for industrial recovery is proposed, it is 
recommended that measures be taken to continue the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee, or its equivalent, under the supervision of the 
Federal Government, either as a separate agency or under an established 
department. 

9798 



-37- 

APPENDIX I 

METHOD OF TREATMENT 

This study was develooed by the following method: First, a oreliminary 
review of the sheltered workshop files of the Public Agencies Division of NBA 
was made, after which a tentative outline for the guidance in developing a 
study was prenared. 

Secondly, considerable time was devoted to examining and assembling data 
necessary for this study. In addition to securing such information as was 
available from current fil°s of the National Recovery Administration on 
sheltered workshoos, the books and bulletins referred to in the Source of 
Materials attached to this Apoendix were received. 

After assembling the material and information believ=d necespary in the 
oreoaration of this report, the authors then oreoared a oreliminary draft whir 
was submitted to the Director of the Division of Review, December 9, 1935. 
Finally the reoort was revised to its oresent form with the objective of 
relating in a way oarticularly adaoted to the possible needs of future 
legislation, the accomolishments and opinions of leaders in the sheltered wor' 
shoo field. The revised outline for this study is attached to this reoort as 
a oart of the Apoendix. 

FUTURE RESEARCH 

If in the future industrial legislation is contemolated wni-ch would 
affect the ooerations of sheltered workshoos, it would seem desirable that a 
comolete review of the activities of these institutions with resoect to their 
manufacturing and orocessing ooerations as well as the disoositi^n of their 
oroducts should be made. 

Detailed information with resoect to the coraoetition of products of 
sheltered workshoos entering the public market with similar oroducts manuf- 
actured by industry for orofit can be secured by re-examining the national 
sheltered w^rkshou files of the National Recovery Administration. 

SHELTER ED WORKSHOPS UNDER NRA 

Revised Outline 
I« Introduction • : , 

I. Origin 

A. Definition 

B. Kinds 

C. Tynes . - -.■;.-: i; 

1. The Mentally Handicaooed 

2. The Socially Handicaooed 
?. The Physically Handicapoed 

II. Objectives 

A. Hehabilitation of Workers 

B. Remunerative Emoloyment 

C. Oueration for Training and Not for Frofit. 



97QR 



-33- 



II. Scene of Study 

I. Eandi earned Workers.' 

A... Definition 

E. In private Industry.'. 

1.. Executive Order No. "606-F 

2„ Special Committee Report. 
C, Handicapped Workers in Sheltered Workshops 

III. Sheltered Workshops Under the N.R.A. ; 

I. Problem Confronting;. N.R.A. 

A. Inclusion of Sheltered Workshops Under Code Provisions 

B. Riphberg's Interpretation of August 30. 1933. 

C. Proposals by Sheltered Workshop Officials 

D. Appointment of Special Committee 

?, Report of the. Special. Committee (February 1, 1934) 

II. Solution of the Problem 

A., Section 3(a) of %I, R,A. 

B, •• Issuance, of AJfiai histl ative Order X-9 

C. Appointment of SatTonal Sheltered Workshop Committee 
Do Authorization of National Sheltered Workshop Committee 

to Issue Label'Sc 

E. Administrative Crder X-81 

F. Administrabior and Uee of Identification Labels 

G. Normal Production Agreement During Strikes 
H. Fair Selling Price Resolution 

I. ITliiian Committee Report on Sheltered Workshops 
J. Administrative Order X-lll-l 

III. Evaluation. « 

A. Justification of Continuance of the National 
■■■' Sheltered Workshop Committee' 

IV. IV. Conclusions 

SOURCE OF MATERIALS 

"Disabled Persons, their Education and. Rehabilitation" , by 
Oscar M) Sullivan and Kenneth 0. Snortnm. The 
Century Co., Ne 1 * York and London. 1926. 

"Sheltered Employment for the Tuberculous in the United States," 
by National Tubercular Association. New York, 1927. 
Technical Series No. 7. 

"Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Series", Federal' Board of 
Vocational Renabilitation, Bulletins Nos. 57, 64, 
70, 72, 7G, 77, 80, 93, 96, 104, 110, 113, 120. 

Sheltered Workshops Files, Public Agencies Unit,' Industry 
Section 5. ' 

Natio al Recovery Administration Central Files. 

Code Record Section Documents. 



Q79R 



-39- 



Minutes of Meetings of National Sheltered Workshop Committee. 

Volumes of Codes of Fair Competition., U. S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, 1934. 

National Recovery Administration Pre^s Releases. 

PROPOSED EXECUTIVE ORDER GOVERNING 

RELATIONSHIPS OF SHELTERED WORKSHOPS 

TO THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

"No ^revision in any code of any industry heretofore or hereafter ap- 
proved shall he construed to a-ooly to sheltered workshops as herein defined. 
A sheltered workshop, however, may hecorae a member of the National Recovery 
Administration hy signing a pledge that it will not employ minors under 16 
years of age, except such as are there for instructional purposes as approved 
hy regional committee, that it will not engage in destructive price-cutting 
or any other practice which is classed as unfair competition, that it will not 
wilfully hamper or retard the purposes of the National Industrial Recovery 
Act, and that so far as possible it will cooperate with the National Recovery 
Administration and will carry out the indent and spirit of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act* 

"For the purpose of enforcing pi edges the National Recovery Ad- 
ministration will appoint a National Committee of six memhers. The membership 
of the Committee shall he rotating and shall he selected from the hoards or 
administrative staffs of sheltered workshops. Except at the time of ap- 
pointment of the initial committee when three memhers will be anointed for a 
term of three months and three memhers for a term of six months, the term of 
service of each member shall be for a period of six months. No member shall b 
eligible for reappointment until six months from the expiration of any term 
of service on the Committee- The National Committee shall supervise the 
establishment of Regional Committees, the members of which shall be selected 
bv the sheltered workshops in the region from their boards or administrative 
officers and approved by the National Committee. The sheltered workshops 
will be exoected to report any case of non-compliance to the Regional Committe 
The' Regional Committee shall hear all complaints of alleged non-conroliance and 
shall endeavor to make satisfactory adjustments. Cases in which the Regional 
Committee is not able to make satisfactory adjustments shall be referred for 
appropriate action to the National Committee. The National Committee, if 
satisfied that a sheltered workshop has violated its pledge, may in its 
discretion revoke the membership of such workshop in the National Recovery Ad- 
ministration. 

"A sheltered workshop is defined for purposes of this order as a 
charitable institution, or an activity of a charitable institution, conducted 
not for profit, for the purpose of providing remunerative employment for 
physically, mentally, or socially handicapped workers. 



Q7QR 



-40- 
APPENDIX II 

SKELTERED WORKSHQPa 

PLEDGE 
Off ... . 

Cb-OPERATIOR.ATD. FAIR CO^PETITIOn 



The 



being a charitable institution or activity of a charitable institution, 
and not being conducted. for profit, but being conducted for the pur- 
pose of providing remunerative employment or rehabilitating activity 
for physically, mentally, or socially handicapped workers, and so 
coming within the meaning of ,: 5heltered Workshop 11 as defined in the 
Order of the Administrator, for Industrial Recovery, dated March 3, 1934, 
hereby agrees, promises, and pledges that it will not: 

(1) Employ minors under sixteen years of age" except such 

as are there for instructional purposes and employment being- 
approved, by the '-Regional Sheltered Workshop Committee" of 
this region; ..." 

(2) Engage in destructive price cutting or any other unfair 
method of competition; 

(3) Wilfully hamper or retard the purposes of Title I, of the 
Act of Congress of June 16, 1933; 

(4) And that so far as possible the 



jwill cooperate with the 



national Recovery Administration created under the aforesaid Act, 
and will carry out the intent and snirit of Title I of said Act. 



■By 



Dated: 



9798 



-41- 



4828 Commerce Building, 
Washington, 2. C, 



Dear 

I am pleased to advise you that, based upon your Pledge of Co- 
operation and Pair Competition, and completed questionnaire, the 
national Sheltered Workshop Committee has approved your institution 
as a "Sheltered Workshop" , entitled to conditional exemptions. This 
removes your workshop from the jurisdiction of the Code Authority to 
thi s Comma 1 1 ce . 

We are authorized to issue labels or stickers which may be used 
in place of those issued by a Code Authority. Our labels have all 
the values of the Code Authority emblem. 

If you make garments of a.ny kind, may we have your assistance in 
computing the number of labels that will be required for the Sheltered 
Workshops? We v?ould appreciate an estimate (this of necessity will be 
an approximation and cannot be an exact figure to which you are 
committing yourself) of the number of garments you will manufacture 
during the next six months. 

These Sheltered Workshop labels may be purchased for $1.50 per 
thousand labels, but not more than a three months' supply may be or- 
dered at a time. Your order with check made out to "Treasurer, National 
Sheltered Workshops Committee" should be mailed to Executive Secretary, 
National Sheltered Workshops Committee, Room 4838, Commerce Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

If your shop is doing contract work on garments or any other type 
of merchandise; that is, if a manufacturer sends you materials, cut or 
in bulk, which you make up or assemble and return to him, it is 
necessary for the manufacturer to write his Code Authority for a 
Certificate of Compliance, if he is in good standing. The workshop is 
not authorized to work for a manufacturer or use any labels on his 
merchandise until a certificate has been issued. The letter, re- 
questing a certificate, should give the name and address of the work- 
shop, as well as that of the manufacturer; a copy of this letter should 
be mailed to me. If there is any delay in the Code Authority issuing 
a certificate, we will be glad to follow it up, but it is important 
that we receive the cony of the manufacturer's letter promptly. 

A commercial manufacturer of garments is required to use labels 
which he purchases from his Code Authority on all garments which he 
manufactures. If your workshop acts as his contractor the sheltered 
workshop may use our sheltered workshop) label, ?/hich saves the manu- 
facturer the price of code labels, which incidentally is higher than 
our labels. The cost of this sheltered workshop label is therefore 
to be refunded ".by the manufacturer who should be billed for all labels 
used on his garments at your cost price, namely $1.50 per thousand. 



9798 



-42- 

Your cooperation and suggestions will be appreciated. Will you 
please acknowledge the receipt of this letter. 

Sincerely, 

National Sheltered Workshop Committee 

:.'■• Sy 



Executive Secretary 



4828 Commerce 31dg. , 
Washington, D. C. 



Suggested forms for application for labels, and for certificate of 
compliance for your manufacturer, are hereto attached. 



0O0 - 



Address 



Date 

Executive Secretary, 

National Sheltered Workshop Committee, 
Room 4828 Commerce Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear "ladam:- 

Please send us thousand labels, which we estii-.ia.te 

will be a month's supply, and will be used in accordance 

with your instructions. Check at the rate of $1.50 per thousand, and 
made payable to the order of [Treasurer, rational Sheltered Workshop 
Committee, is enclosed. 



ame of Institution 



Address 



9798 



-43- 

Address 

Date 
From 

Code Authority 



To 



rational Sheltered Workshop C onmi 1 1 e e , 
Room 4828 Commerce Building, 
Washington, D. C. 



We have this date issued to the manufacturer listed below a 
certificate of comoliance under the provisions of Administrative Order 
X-81. The Sheltered Workshop with whom the manufacturer is doing 
business is also listed below. 



Manufacturer 



Sheltered Workshop 



( Si ; .nature of Code Authority) 

- 0O0 - 

Address 



Date 
To 



Code Authority 
From 



ilame of Manufacturer 



Fmier the provisions of Administrative Order X-Sl, I hereby apply 
for a Certificate of Compliance in order that the Sheltered Workshop 
listed below may manufacture, process or assemble goods for me. 



Sheltered Workshop 



Address 



(Signature of Manufacturer) 



9798 



-44- 



Address 



Date 



JJTOIU 

Code Authority 
To 



Member of Industry (or 
LSanufacturer) 



This is to certify that 
is a aieniber of the 



Industry and is complying with the Code of Fair Competition for 

said Industry. 

This certificate is issued in accordance with 

Administrative Order X-81, upon your application to do business 

with 

(Sheltered Workshop) 

Code Authority 

By 



9798 



-45- 

APPEHDIX III 

COHFIDEJTAL <X)VESfflGjHT REPORT 

THE "JATIONA1 RECOVERY ADMI HI STRATI OH 

Washington, D. C. 

********* 

SPECIAL REPORT OH SHELTERED WORK SHOPS 



In accordance with Sections 3a and 6a of the national Industrial 
Recovery Act you are requested and required to fill out the following 
schedule. The information is being requested "by the national Re- 
covery Administration in order to obtain an adequate factual "basis 
for the proper administration of special privileges, including a 
special label, granted to Sheltered Work Shops. Reports must be 
made for all Sheltered Work Shops. A separate report is required 
for each Shop and each branch thereof. 

Answer all the in^uiri-is in detail , supplyin g estimates if 
records are not availabl e. The report should be returned promptly, 
in the enclosed envelope, requiring no postage, to the Executive 
Secretary of the national Sheltered Work Shop Committee, na- 
tional Recovery Administration, Washington, D. C. The additional 
schedule is for retention in your files. 

This report will, be available only to sworn employees of 
the Bureau of the Census, the Bstireau of Labor Statistics, and the 
National Recovery Administration, Any summary statistics which 
may be compiled from this and other similar reports and -jublished 
will be grouped according to the usual Census rules, so that it 
will be impossible for any one to identify your figures or separ- 
ate them out of the aggregate. 

Hugh S. Johnson 



Administrator 



THIS IS TO CERTIFY that the information contained in this report is 
correct and complete to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Date 



(Signature of person supply the information 



(Official title) 



9798 



-46- 



Irig,UITtY I - GJ^PAL 



1. Legal Name of Local Organization, 

2. Location of Local Organization 



(State) (County) 



(City, town or village) (Street Address) 
3. Date Local Organization was established 



4. Hame and address of National Organization or Affiliated Group (if any) 



5. Size, type, and condition of building. 



6. Number, type, and age of machines 



7. Is work let on a contract or other basis to other organizations 
(not branches or affiliated organizations)? . If so, give 

(Yes or Ho) 
names and addresses of such organizations and the conditions and 
control under which the work is done. (Give this information on the 
reverse side of this page.) 

8. If this report covers the central office, list controlled (local) 
organizations on the reverse side of this '.a L e. 

9. Principal raw materials used (specify whether new, used, second- 
hand, or waste materials) . 

(List in order of importance) 

10. Check (x) the principal methods of obtaining raw materials 

a. (Purchase of new materials ». rj 

b. Solicitation of donations of new materials q 

c. Purchase of used, second-hand, or waste materials... q 

d. Solicitation of donations of used, second-hand, 

or wast materials Q 

o. Others (specify) £j 

11. Principal products or services sold (specify whether new, used, 
second-hand, or waste materials are sold) 

(List in order of importance) 



9798 



-47- 



12. Check (x) the method of selling used to dispose of products 
and services. 

a. Out sic 1 e salesmen: 

i. Sheltered or handicapped workers p 

ii. C thers & 

b. Retail r.tores operated in conjunction with work-shop: 

i. Primarily by sheltered or handicapped workers. ... Q 
ii. Primarily by others ~ 

c. Retail stores or departments of' stores operated as 
independent sales outlets • • /7 

d. VJork sole, on a contract basis tj 

13. Check (x) the principal classes or purchasers to whom products 
are sold: 

a. Wholesalers Q c. Consumers Cf 

b. Retailers Q d. Others (specify) Q 

14. For what types of institutions or businesses, if any, is work done 
on a contract basis? _____ 



15, Check (x) the disposal of profits (if any) from the operation of the 
workshop covered by this report. 

a. Reinvested to extend to workshop facilities [J 

b. Given to parent organization £7 

c. Used for social service activities (other than sheltered 
workshop s) « O 

d. Used for religious activities O 

e. Others (specify) Q 

16. Check (x). the principal needs of handicapped or sheltered workers 
which are supplied 

a. Livelihood _7 d. Vocational _7 

b. Mental [Therapy, U e. Others (specify) p 

c. Physical Therapy Q 



9798 



-43- 

INQUIRY II - EMPLOYMMT, 1933 

Report each person on ly o nee according to the most applicable classification 

■ • • ■ . . . Jfumber of different persons in the specified age 
• • groups who were . employed in the production of goods 

and ser v icer, fo r s: le fla ri ng 1933 

• • • • Under 16 to 40 to 60 and Age 

■ • • • • . ■ -16 ... 59.9 53 „ 9 over ' Unkno wn Total 

Fe- Fe- Fe- Fe- Fe- 
■•_: Male male Male male Male male Male male Male male 



1. Humber physical- 
ly handicapped: 

a. Aged _ 

b. Blind " 

a. Deaf and dumb' 



d. Orthopedic. . . 

e. Others 

2. Number mentally 
handicapped ^_ 

3. Number socially 
handicapped: 

a. Committed 
under- court- • • 
order-.-. . . .-. .-.-. .■•____ 

b. Penal-dis- 
charge-. 

c. Others-. v.-. .-. 

4. IJuraber not ■handi-< 

capped and engaged 

in production work. xxx xxxx x:r: nx::x xxx x xxx xxx:; xxx x xxxx xxxx 

5. All other persons 

employed. ,\ .-.v.. .-.-.vxxxx xxx xr;x xxxx -:xo;xx xxxx x::xx xxxx ::xxx xxxx 
TOTAL ITUi.BZft xxxx xxx x:tx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxroc xxxx xxxx x_xxx 



6. Number of persons (covered under Items 1, 2 and 3 above) requiring 
permanent sheltered work 

7. Average length of employment of persons (covered under Items 

1, 2 and 3 above) who do not require permanent sheltered work 



INQU IR Y III - HOURS AND WAGES, 1935 



1. Sheltered or handicapped workers employed in the work-shop: 

a. Average number employed 

b. Average wages paid per worker per week 

c. Average hours worked per worker per week 

d. Average hours worked per worker per day 

2. Sheltered or handicapped workers doing work at home: 

a. Average mimber employed 

b. Average wages paid per worker per week 



3. Basis \ipon which wages were paid (hourly rate, weekly rate, 
piece work rate, etc. ) 



9798 



I1TQUIRY IV - INCOME AND EXPENSES, 1933 

Give your "best estimates of the items requested helow. VJrite "none when ap- 
propriate 

1. Operating Expenses of Sh-ltered work-shop: 

a. Cost of purchased materials used 

b. Yfeges paid to' sheltered or handicapped workers 

c. Wages paid to other production workers 

d. Maintenance (hoard, lodging, clothing, etc.) for 

sheltered or Iiandicapped workers 

e. Other operating expenses 

2. Administrative Expenses: 

a. Administrative salaries 

b. Other administrative expenses 

3. Operating Income: 

a. Total selling value of products produced 

b. Total receipts for r;ork done on a contract 

or contract labor basis 

<■ c. Other operating income , 

4. Other Income: 

a. Endowments 

b. Collection of donations 

c. Chari table organizations 

d. Parent Organizations. 

e. State or Governmental subsidies 

f. Estimated value of new materials received as 

donations 

g. Estimated value of used, second-hand, and 

waste materials received as donations 

h. Other income 

5. Net profit or loss on operatio/i of work-shop 

RSI/ASICS: 



9798 



-50- 

APPENDIX IV 

Approved Sheltered Workshops " 
Dpceriber 17, 1934 

Alabama Assn. for the 3lind, Inc., 4244- 3rd .Ave. , So,, Birmingham, Ala. 

Birmingham Goodwill Indv.s ti ies, Inc., 334 S. 19th St., Birmingham, Ala. 

Salvation Army, 1513- 5th Ave., North, Birmingham, Ala. 

Little Rock Goodwill Industries, 1207 W. 7th St., Little Pock, Arkansas 

Good Shepherd Convent, 1125 Malvern Ave., Hot Springs, Arkansas 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 705 E. Washington St., Phoenix, Arizona 

Assistance League of So. California, 1301 N. Western Ave., Holl./wood, Cal. 

Goodwill Industries of San Francisco, 915-13 Howard St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Goodwill Industry of So-. Cal.--, 899 T n i-d St., San 3ernadi.no, Cal. 

Goodwill Industries of So. Cal., 342 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Goodwill Industries of San' Diego, 402-24 Fifth Ave., San Diego, Cal. 

Goodwill Industries of Cen. Cal., 1113-6th St., Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Assn. for the Blind, 1097 Howard St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 730 M St., Fresno, Cal. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 376 Harrison St. , San Francisco, Cal. 

Salvation Army Woodyard, 876 Harris 'h St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Salvation Army Social Service Dept. , 28-34 N. Delacey St., Pasadena, Cal. 

Salvation Army Social Service Center,' 573 S. Market St., San Jose, Cal. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 214 IT. Sycamore St. , Santa Ana, Cal. 

Salvation Army Men's Social Service Cen., 503 L St., Sacramento, Cal. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home', 735-2nd Ave., San Diego, Cal. 

Salvation Army Men's Social Service Dept., 160 S. Stoddard, San Bernardino, Cal. 

Salvation Army, 227 S. California St., Stockton',' Cal. 

Salvation Army Social Service Dent. , 1370 Alamitos Ave. , Long Beach, Cal. 

Salvation Army Industrial," 3'6'6- 6th St., Oakland,- Cal. 

Salvation Army Men's Social Service, 127-130 Weller St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Adult Blind Home & Assn. for the Blind, 710 Kalamath St., Denver, : Col. 

Goodwill Industries of Denver',' T130-31st St. , Denver, Colorado 

Half Way House, Inc., 12 F. Boulder St., Colorado 3-nrings, Colorado 

Colorado- Industrial Workshop fo- "the' 'Blind,' 618 E. Arizona St., Denver, Col. 

Goodwill Industries of Grand Junction, 1021 S. 5th St., Grand Junction, Col. 

The Pueblo Goodwill Industrie's ,' '1 15 S.' Albany St. , Pueblo, Colorado 

Salvation Army Industrial Store, 223 S. Union Ave., Pueblo, Colorado 

The Salvation Army, 15 E. Cucharras St. , Colorado Springs, Colorado 

Convent of the Good Shepherd, La. Ave. & Colorado Blvd., Denver, Colorado 

Denver Salvation Army Industrial Dent.',- 1200-08 Larimer St., Denver, Col. 

Bridgeport Christian Union, Inc., 786 Main St., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Conn. Institute for the Blind, Ridge Road, Hartford, Conn. 

Fairfield Co. Goodwill Industries, Inc.' ,' '10 'Commerce St., Norwalk, Conn. 

House of the Good Shepherd, 170 Sisgon Ave., Hartford, Conn. 

New Haven Goodwill Industries",' "Inc. , 60 Beach St. , New Haven, Conn. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 19 Ed-'ards St., Hartford, Conn. 

Salvation Army Social Service 'Center,' 243 Ma in St., New London, Conn. 

Salvation Army, 362 Exchange St., New ^aven, Conn. 

Goodwill Industries, Inc. , 214-316 'Walnut St. , Wilmington, Delaware 

The Delaware Commission for the Blind, 305-7 W. 8th St. , Wilmington, Del. 

Salvation Army Social Service Center, SE Cor. 2nd & French St., Wil. , Del. 

Columbia Polytechnic Instutute for the Blind, 1808 H St., NW, Washington, D. C. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 102 Constitution Ave. , Washington, D. C. 

9798 



-51- 



Florida School for Be? f & Blind, St. Augustine, Florida 

Salvation Army, 118 Clay St., Jacksonville, -STorida 

Atlanta Comi.iunity Shon, Inc., 364 A Jcnes Ave., NW, Atlanta,, Georgia 

Salvation Army, 345 Luckie St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Salvation Army Industrial Heme, 38?! N. Vineyard St. , Honolulu, Hawaii 

Angel Guardian Ornhanage, 2001 Devon Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Lighthouse for the Blind, 3333 W. Cermak Road, Chicago, Illinois 

■Goodwill Industries of Chicago, 1841 Congress St., Chicago, Illinois 

House of the Good Shepherd, 1126 Grace St,, Chicago, Illinois 

Home of the Good Shenherd, 517 Faraday St., Peoria, Illinois 

Industrial Forkshons of Chicago, 833 W. Jackson 31\r\, Chicago, Illinois 

Vocational Society for Shut-Ins, 700 F. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois 

3oard of Industrial Aid. for the Blind, 536 '" r . 30th St., Indiananolis , Ind. 

Calumet Goodwill Industries, Inc., 130 State St., Hammond, Indiana 

Goodwill Industries of Fletcher Place, 702 Fletcher Ave., Indiananolis, Ind. 

House of Good Shenherd, 111 W. Raymond St., Indiananolis, Ind. 

Wabash Valley Goodwill Industries, 126 N. 5th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 

Convent of the Good Shenherd, 2325 Court St., Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux City Goodwill Industries, 312 Wall St., S. , Sioux City, Iowa 

Convent of the Good Shepherd., 2214 Bank St,, Louisville, Kentucky 

House of the Good Shenherd, 933 Highland Ave., Ft. Thomas, Kentucky 

Kentucky Farm For the Blind (Anchorage, KR#3) Middletown, Kentucky 

Kentucky Workshop for the Adult Blind, 2007 Frankfort Ave., Louisville, Ky. 

Louisville Goodwill Industries, 210-18 S. 8 th St., Jefferson, Kentucky 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 330 E. Chestnut St. , Louisville, Ky, 

House of the Good Shenherd, Broad & Bienville Sts., New Orleans, La. 

Lighthouse for the Blind, 743 Canto St., New Orleans, Louisiana 

Salvation Army, 2911 Magazine St., New. Orleans, La. 

Shrevenort Goodwill Industries, 1708 Texas Aye., Shrevenort, La. 

Biddef ord-Saco Goodwill Industries, 251 Main St., Biddeford, Maine 

Portland Goodwill Industries, Inc., 131 Middle St., Portland, Maine 

Baltimore Goodwill Industries, Inc., 171" S, Pratt St., Baltimore, Md. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 925 S. Fremont Ave., Baltimore, Md . 

Convent of the Good Shenherd, Wilbrahain ' c i< , Snringfield, Mass. 

Central New England Sanatorium, Miles Road, Rutland, Mass. 

Coonerative Workrooms, Inc., 36 Washington, Boston, Mass, 

Goodwill Industries, Haverhill Branch, Merrimack Valley, 14 Essex St. , 

Haverhill, Mass. 
Goodwill Industry, Amesbury Branch, Merrimack Valley, Friend St. , 

Amesbury, Mass. 
Lowell Goodwill Industries, Inc., 85 French St., Lowell, Mass. 
Goodwill Industries, Lawrence Branch, Mer. Valley, 119 Essex St. ,Lawr, .Mass. 
House of the Good Shenherd, 841 Huntington Ave., Boston, Mass. 
Morgan Memorial Coonerative Industries & Stores, 39 Shawmut Ave., Boston, Mass . 
Perkins Institution for the Blind, 549 E. 4th St., S. Boston, Mass. 
Salvation Army Industrial Hone, 23 Emery St., Springfield, Mass, 
Salvation Army Industrial Home for men, 87 Vernon St. , Rcxbury, Mass. 
Salvation Army Industrial. Home, 29 Charles St. , Worcester, Mass. 
Salvation Army, 252 Crescent St. , Brockton, Mass. 

Snringfield Goodwill Industries, 139 Lyman St., Springfield., Mass. 
Forkshon for the Blind, Cambridge, Mass. 

Workshop for the Blind, 413 Second St., Fall Hiver, Mass. 
Convent of the Good Shenherd, Villa Maria, 1315 Walker Ave, , Grand Rapids, 



Mich. 



9798 



Detroit League for the Handicapped, 316 E. Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Flint Goodwill Industries, 1127 Leith St., Flint, Michigan. 

Convent of the Good Shepherd , 2550'Fort St.. West; Detroit, Mich. 

Goodwill Industries of Detroit, 979 Monroe,. Detroit, Mich. 

Goodwill Indus tries -of Saginaw, 309 Tu?co"Ja, Saginaw, Mich. 

Mich. Employment Inst, for Blind, 904 Houghton Ave. , Saginaw,. Mich. 

Duluth Goodwill Industries, 1730 71. Superior St., Duluth, Minnesota, 

House of the ^-ood s aepherd, 951 Blair St., St. Paul, Minnesota 

Minneapolis Goodwill Industries, 413-15 Washington Ave. , Minneapolis, Minn. 

Minnesota Assn. for Criuoled Children. 302 Hodgson Bldg. , Minneaplis, Minn. 

Mutual Aid Blind Assn. of St.- "Paul, 1.75 W 4th St., St. Paul, Minnesota 

St. Paul Goodwill Industries, 'SOS W 6th St., St. Paxil, Minn. 

The Salvation Amy,. 64 E. Hennepin St.-, 'Minueapolis, Minn. 

Victor Broom Shoo, "335 li.'.coj let Ave.!, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Convent of the Gcod Shepherd. 3801 Gravois '.vf., St. Louis, Mo. 

Goodwill Industries of Greater Kansas 'City, 1915 Main St,, Kansas City, Mo. 

House of the Good Shepherd, 6724 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Missouri 

Illinois Goodwill Industries, inc., 1730 Y,'. 13th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Missouri Goodwill Industries, Inc., 317 Felix St,, St. Joseph, Mo. 

St. Louis Broom Shop for the Blind. 2^.32 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Occupational Therapy Worksho-o-, 4.567 S' ott Ave. , St. Louis, Mo. 

Soringfield Mc, Assn. for the Blind, C40 E. Brewer St., Springfield, Mo. 

Salvation Any Industrial Home', 205--20? S. Main St., Butte, Montana 

House of the Good Shepherd; 40th & Jones St., Omana, Nebraska 

Lincoln-Lancaster Co, Goodwill Industries, 1C10 Q, St., Lincoln, Nebraska 

Nebraska Goodwill Industries, Inc., 906 IT. 16th St., Omaha, Nebraska 

Collier Foundation for the Care Cc Training of Girls, Rest Hill, Wickatunk, 

New Jersey 
Goodwill Home & Rescue, fission, 34-44 Eagles St. , Newark, N. J. 
Goodwill Industrie- of N. J-. , 574 Jersey Ave . , Jersey City, N. J. 
Our Lady of Grace Training- School , 126 Sussex Ave., Morristown, N. J. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 12 N. Ohio Ave., Atlantic City, H. J. 
Salvation Army Men's Social Service Center, 72 Tichenor St., Neward, N. J. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 248 Frie St., Jersey City, N. J. 
Salvation Army, 200 Wes-t St. , Camden, N. J. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 513 Perry St., Trenton, N. J. 
Salvation Army, Main St. , Hackensack, N. J. . . 
Salvation Array Industrial Home, 42 Mill St., Paterson, N. J. 
Albany Assn. of the Blind, Inc. , 20S State St., Albany, New York 
Altro Workshops, Inc., 1021 Jennings St., Mew York, N. Y. ■ 
Junior Lea -rue Shoo of Rochester, 240 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
Rehabilitation Clinic, 23 Erst 21st St., New York,, IT. Y. 
Assn. for the Blind of Rochester, 439 Monroe Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
Blind Industrial Workers Assn. of NYC, Inc., 1072 Bergen St., Borough 

of Brooklyn 
3uffalo Assn. for the Blind, '180 Goodell St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Buffalo Goodwill Industries, Inc., 372 Michigan Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Central Assn. for the Blind, Inc. 32 Bank PI ce, Utica, ". Y. 
Elmira Assn. for the Blind, 717 Lake St., Elmira, N. y. 
Goodwill Industries of New York, 254 *. 174th St. , New York, N. Y. 
Goodwill Industries of Brooklyn, Inc., 369 Dekalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
House of the Good Shepherd, "Villa Loretto", Peekskill, N. Y. 
House of the Good Shepherd, 250 Ropkinson Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
House of the Good Shepherd, 1275 Peonies Ave., Troy, N. Y. 

9798 



-Ris- 



ing titute for the Crimled & Disabled, 400 First Ave., New York, N. Y. 

New York Assn. for the Hind, 111 E. 59th St., New York, N. Y. 

New York Assn. for the Blind, 338 E 35th St., New York, N. Y. 

N. Y. Guild for. Jewish Blind, 17? E. 96th St., New York, N. Y. 

The Livingston Press (Potts Memorial Hospital, Inc.) Livingston, N. Y. 

St. Germaine's Home, Mt. St. Florence, Made Ave., Peekskill, N. Y. 

Prov. Convent of the Good Shepherd, St. Germaine's Home. Peekskill, N. Y. 

Syracuse Assn. of Workers for the Blind, 505 Catherine St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

The Industrial Home for the Blind, 520 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The New York Catholic Protectory, 190<~ E. Treraont Ave. , New York, N. Y. 

Troy City Mission-Goodwill Industries, 155-157 River St., Troy, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 965-967 Albany St., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Salyation Army, 11?. Exchange St., Rochester, IT. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 12 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. 

The Salvation Army, 1109-1115 S. State St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 224 Tonrokins St., Stapleton (S.I.) New York 

Salvation Army, 63 Liberty St., Albany, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Social Service Center. 536-540 W. 46th St., New York, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, I'll Front St., Hempstead, N. Y. 

The Salvation Army Social Service Centre, 1-3 Grove St., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Ken's Social Service Inst., 97 Seneca St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 28 Ashland Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 6 State St., Binghamton, N. Y. 

Salvation Army Industrial Home, 4109 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Goodwill Industries, Inc., 727 E. 5th St., Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

Guilford Co. Assn. for the Blind, Inc., 210 E. Sycamore St., Greensboro, 

North Carolina 
Assn. for the Crippled & Disabled, 2233 E. 55th St., Cleveland, Ohio 
Cincinnati Goodwill Industry, 9th & Freeman, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cincinnati Assn. for Welfare of the Blind, 1548 Central Parkway, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio 
Chris't Mission-Peclamaticn Service, 330 E. Boardman St., Youngstown, Ohio 
Clbve'rnook Home for the Blind, Mt. Healthy,- Ohio 
Dayton Goodwill Industries, 501 E. Fifth St. , Dayton, Ohio 
Goodwill Industries of Cleveland, 2416 E. 9th St., Cleveland, Ohio 
Goodwill Industries of Akron, 119 N. Howard- St., Akron, Ohio 
Goodwill Industries of Toledo, 614 Jackson St., Toledo, Ohio 
Goodwill Industry, 4 Hazlett Court, Zanesville, Ohio 
Lorain Goodwill Industries', 1745 Elyrir Ave. , Lorain, Ohio 
Ohio Commission for the 3lind, Oak St. at 9th, Columbus, Ohio 
Prov. Convent of the Good Shepherd, N. Bend Ed., Elmwood, P.O. Carthage, 0. 
Salvation Army, 500 Cherry Ave., SE, Canton, Ohio 
The Salvation Army, 1514 Freeman Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 
House of the Good Shepherd, Broad & Sandusky Sts., Columbus, Ohio 
Cleveland Society for the Blind, 2275 E. 55th St., Cleveland, Ohio 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 403 E. Main St., Springfield , Ohio 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 2179 E. 55th St., Cleveland, Ohio 
Social Service Dent. Salvation Army, 650 S. Main St., Dayton, Ohio 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 27 John H St., Toledo, Ohio 
Salvation Array Social Service, 54 IT. Howard St., Akron, Ohio 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 584-594 S. T7 igh St., Columbus, Ohio 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 254 E. Federal St., Youngstown, Ohio 
Youngstown Society for Blind & Disabled, 608 Dollar Bank Bldg. , Youngs- 

t own , Ohi o 

9798 



Greater Tulsa Goodwill Industries, 1915 S. Phoenix St., T u i SP> Oklahoma 

Salvation Army Men's Social Service Center, 315-323 Broadway, Oklahoma City 

Goodwill Industries of Oregon, 1729 .-IIE 6th Ave., Portland, Oregon 

House of the Good Shepherd, 597 Y. Pekum St., Portland, Oregon 

Salvation Army Industrial, 212 S 1 " 1 Union, Portland, Oregon 

Goodwill Industries of Fenna. , 1427 Catharine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

House of the Good Shepherd , Clerks Summit, Pa. 

House of the Good Shepherd, Chev & Penn Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

House of the Good Shepherd., 35th St. l'_ Pi irrnount Ave., Philadelphia, Fa. 

House' of the Good Shepherd, Msrymourt-on-Schuykill, Heading, Pa. 

Troy Pill Laundry (Good Shepherd) 1615 Lo^rie St., Pittshurgh, Pa. 

Penn. Assn. for the Blind, Lackawanna Br. , 717-19-21 Mulberry St. , 

Scranton, Pa. 
Penn. Working Home for Blind Men, 36 th St. Cz Lancaster Ave., Phi la. , Pa. 
Penn. Assn. for Blind, Dauphin Co. Br., ' OB Y. Second St., Farrisburg, Pa. 
Pittsburgh Assn. for I. of Poor, 42P Duauesne Way, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Penn. Br. of the Shut-in Society, 2100 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 4637 Plunmer St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 1224 Pa.rrish St., 'Philadelphia, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Hone, 1514 ITixon St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 163 Hazle St., rr ilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 427 Penn. Ave., Scranton, Pa. 
Salvation Army, 410 "'. 5th Ave., McKeesport, Pa. 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 1422 Eighth Ave., Altoona, Penn. 
Philadelphia School of Occupational Therapy, 419 S. 19th St., Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 1501 Sassafras St., Erie, Pa. 
House of the Good Shepherd, 189 Eaten St., Providence, Rhode Island 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 483-5-7 S. Main St., Providence, P. I. 
Salvation Army (Central Jails, R. I.) Industrial T T me, 25 Central St. 
Association for the Blind of S. C.Bo:..2, Confederate Ave., Columbia, S.C. 
Chattanooga Goodwill Industries, 1415 Market St., Chattanooga, Tennessee 
Memphis Goodwill Industries, 673 N. 2nd St., Memphis, Tenn. 
Tenn. Commission for the Blind, 42nd c Ch -lotte Aves. , Nashville, Tenn. 
Convent of Our Led;, of Charity of Refuge (Home Steam Laundry) Ft. 8,1 Box 

359 Dallas, Texas 
Convent of the Good Shepherd, 1410 Richmond Ave., Houston, Texas 
Goodwill Industries of Dallas, 2527 Elm St., Dallas, Texas 
Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, 1900 Montana St., San Antonio, Texas 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 1724 N. Akard, Dallas, Texas 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 1405 Commerce St., Ft. Worth, Texas 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 915 ..icKee St., Houston, Texas 
Salvation Army, 311 E. Commerce St.,- San Antonio, Texas 
Salvation Army, 137 F. First 3t. S. , Salt Lake City, Utah 
Goodwill Industry & "Gospel Mission, Inc., 27 & 29 E. Norfolk Ave., Roanoke, 

Virginia 
Norfolk Goodwill Industries, Inc., 306-308 Bank St., Norfolk, Virginia 
Richmond Goodwill Industries, 1814 E. •Gr'-ce St., Richmond, Virginia. 
Salvation Army, 506 E. Leigh St.', Richmond, Virginia 
Therapeutic Workshop of the Junior League ^f Richmond, InC , 1001 F. Clay 

St., Richmond, Virginia 
Grays Harbor Goodwill Industries, 322 E. "rro.n St., Aberdeen, Washington 
House of the Good Shepherd, N. 50th & Sunnyside Ave., Seattle, Washington 
House of the Good Shepherd, 4319 N. Lidgerwood, St., Spokane, Washington 

9798 



Seattle Goodwill Industries, 1400 Lane St., Seattle, Washington 
Tacoma. Goodwill Industries, 2356 Tacoma Av._ . , Tacoma, Washington 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 20 W. Hiverside Ave., Spokane, Wash, 
Salvation Army Industrial, 109 S. 13th St., Tacoma, Washington 
Salvation Army Industrial Home, 914 Virginia St., Seattle, Wash. 
Good Shenherd Heme, 913 Porlier St., Green Bay, Wisconsin 
House of the Good Shepherd, 89th & Blue Mound Poad , Wauwatosa, Wise. 
Milwaukee Goodwill Industries,. 900 S. Fifth St., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Sheltered Workshops atyoroved by the 

Committee since Dec. 17, 1934. 

Brooklyn A.I.C.P. - 401 State St., Brooklyn, H. Y. 
House of Good Shepherd, Kenwook, Helena, Montana 
Charity Organization Woodyard, 516 W. 28th St., Hew York 
Houses cf the Good Shepherd (Colored Girls) Calverton Road and Franklin 

Street, Baltimore, Md. 
Stats ' ■: rsho-o for the Blind, 31 School St., Concord, Ah tt. 
House :'.,? Good Shenherd, E. 30th and Carnegie, Cleveland, Ohio 
Junior League of Honolulu, Inc., Pensacola St., Honolulu, T. H. 
The i' ar.fi ii Shtro (Scalding School) 1628 Washington Blvd. , Chicago, 111. 
Penn. Assn. i or the 31ind, Inc., 308-16 S. Craig St. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
St. Xaiier'3 Manual Technical Institute for Boys, Box 179, Blm Grove, 

flew Wheeling, W. Va. 
Maniewood Academy, 700 Main St. , Hutchinson, Minn. 
Presbyterian Orphans Home, 3arium Springs, E. C. 

Evansville Asen. for the Blind, 621-623 Ingle St-, Evansville', Ind. 
The Bureau for the Handicapned, 9 Thomas St., Providence, P. I. 



9798 



-56- 
APP3HDIX V 

• GRANTING- SHELTERED tfCEKSHOPS CONDITIONAL EXEMPTION 

• ' • ' RROLi 

' CODES 01' FAIR COi PETITION 

Admi ni s t rat or's rder Ho . X-9 

It appearing; to me that charitable institutions or activities there- 
of conducted not for profit, but for fehe'purpose of providing remunerative 
employment for physically, mentally or socially handicapped workers, 
which institutions and aetivities are, herein referred to as "sheltered 
workshops" , are entitled to a conditional exemption from co6.es of fair 
competition approved under Title I of the, National Industrial Recovery 
Act covering activities in which they ?xe engaged, and that s\ich an ex- 
emption as herein granted is in furtherance of the public interest and 
will tend to' effectuate the. policies of said Title of said Act; 

Pursuant to authority vested in me under said Title of said Act by 
Executive Orders' of ; the" President of the United States, including Exe- 
cutive Order Ndy 6543-A, dated December. 50, 1953, it is hereby ordered 
that sheltered workshop's Subject to such codes be and they are hereby 
exempted therefrom; on the condition, however, that any sheltered work- 
shop in order to become ent-itler go such exemption shp.ll sign a pledge 
that it will, not: (l) "employ minors under sixteen (IS) years of age, 
except such as are there for instructional purposes as approved by a 
Regional Committee (hereinafter provided for) ,. (2) engage in destructive 
price cutting or any other unfair method of competition, (3) wilfully 
hamper or retard the purposes of said Title of said Act; and that so far 
as possible it will cooperate with the National Recovery Administration 
and will carry out the intent and spirit of said Title of said Act. 

Any sheltered workshop who signs and complies with such a pledge 
shall, while so complying, be entitled to use any appropriate insignia 
of the national Recovery Administration. For the purpose of effecting 
compliance with such pledges the National Recovery Administration will 
appoint a National Sheltered 7/orkshop Committee of six (6) members, to 
be selected from the boards or administrative staffs of sheltered work- 
shops and such other sources as may be deemed advisable. Except at the 
time of appointment of the initial committee when three members will be 
appointed for a term of tnree months and three members for a term of 
six months, the term of service of each member shall be for a period of 
si;; months. Said National Committee shall supervise the establishment 
of Regional Sheltered Workshop Committees, the members cf which shall be 
selected by the sheltered workshops in the region and approved by said 
National Committee. Each such Regional Committee shall hear all com- 
plaints of all • non-compliance and shall endeavor to make satisfactory 
adjustments. Cases in which the Regional Committee is not able to make 
satisfactory adjustments shall be referred for appropriate action to said 
National Committee. Said National Committee shall reoort to the Ad- 
ministrator for Industrial Recovery the disposition of all cases and, if 

9798 



-57- 



satisfied that any sheltered workshop has violet ed its pledge and if 
unable to obtain satisfactory adjustment, -shall certify the full record 
in such case to tl . fcioiial Recovery Administration for revocation of 
the right to \i.se the ':'■ bional Recovery Administrrtion insignia and such 
other action as 



cnay seen advisable. 



This Order shall not become effective for a psrio of thirty (30) 
days in order that consideration may be given to the objections thereto, 
if .any, of interested parties. At the expiration of such period this 
Order shell become effective unless I, by my further or r, otherwise 
deten line. 



'_ Hupfo S. Johnson 

Administrator for Industrial Recovery 



Washington, ~. C. 
March 3, 1334. 



9798 



-58- 
APPEITDIX VI 

OSIER ' 

appointing national sheltered workshops committee 

aiid 

providing for tie design and use of 
all appropriate insignia aid specify- 
ING ike foe:; or pledge to be signed 

BY NATIONAL SHELTERED WORKSHOPS. 

ORDER 110. X-28 

WHEREAS on March 3, 1934, in Order ITo. X-9, I, Hugh S. Johnson, 
Administrator Tor Industrial Recovery, defined "Sheltered TTorkshops" , 
and granted to then conditional exemption fron Codes of' Pair Compe- 
tition; and likewise provided for the ap ointne.it of a Committee of 
six to he known as the "National Sheltered Workshop Conraittee", speci- 
fying the duties of such committee; 

NOW, THEREFORE, acting under the powers conferred on the President 
of the United States by Title I of the Act of June 16, 1933, pursuant 
to authority vested in me by Executive Orders of the President of the 
United States, including Executive Order Eo. (5543- A, dated December 30, 
1933, and supplementing the aforesaid Order X-9, I hereby APPOINT as 
members of the "National Sheltered Workshop Committee" for the term of 
six months fron this date: 

Mr. Oscrr II. Sullivan, President, 
National Rehabilitation Association, Inc., 
311 State Ofice Building, 
St» Paul, Minnesota 

Mr. Oliver A. Friedman, Director, 
Milwaukee Go 'id Will Industries, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Mr. T n te-? J. Salmon, Secretary, 
Industrial Homo for the Blind, 
520 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

And I APPOINT as members of the "National Workshop Committee" for 
the term of three months fron this date: 

Col. John N. Smith, Jr., Director, 
Institute for Crip led & Disabled, 
49u First Avenue, Hew York, IT, T. 



9798 



-59- 

Mr. Edward Hochhauser, President and Executive, 
Altro Workshops, 
1021 Jennings Street, 
Bronx, New York. 

Pa the r John 0' Grady, 

Secretary of the National Conference of Catholic Charities, 

Washington, D. C. 

And I hereby direct that the attached form of pledge he printed, 
distributed to and signed by the "Sheltered Workshops" desiring to 
avail themselves of the exemption granted in the aforesaid Order Ho. 
X-9. 

And I further direct that the "National Sheltered Workshop Con- 
mi t tee" shell forthwith designate the several geographical regions of 
the United States which are mentioned in paragraph three of the said 
Order ITo. X-9, end shall call for the immediate selection of the mem- 
bers of the several "Regional Sheltered Workshop Committee" by the 
"Sheltered Workshops" in each region desiring to avail themselves of 
the exemption from Codes of Pair Competition heretofore provided for 
in the said Order ITo. X-9. 

WHEREAS, in the said Order Ho. X-9, it is provided that "any 
sheltered workshop; who signs and coir dies with such a pledge shall, 
while so complying, be entitled to use any appropriate' insignia of the 
National Recovery Administration", I nor. 1 decide that the aforesaid "ap- 
propriate insignia" shall consist of the Blue Eagle, the sane which is 
covered by: Design Patent ITo. 90793 l/2, being that reproduced on the 
insignia issued under the President's Re employment Agree lent, with the 
letters "IT. R. A." above the said Blue Eagle, however without the \70rd 
"Member", with the letters "U, S. ," and rrith the words "We do our part" 
belo" the said Blue Eagle, followed by "3. T 7. Permit ITo. , " the 
number to be assigned to each "Sheltered Workshop" by the "national 
Sheltered Workshop Committee", provided the said "Sheltered Workshop" 
has signed the Pledge" mentioned "'here in. 

And this insignia, shall appear uoon all rod i.cts iaa.de J by such 
"Sheltered Workshop" , 77here similar 'goods privately manufactured or 
made are required by an applicable Code to boar the insignia issued 
under that Code, except that such goods, if sold by a "Sheltered Work 
Shop", or other charitable institution, need not bear such insignia. 

/s/ Hugh S. Johnson 

Administrator for Industrial Recovery 

May 11, 1934 

Approval recomended: 

/s/ Linton H. Collins 

Acting Division Administrator 

Washington, D. C. 
9798 May 11 , 1934 



APPEIUDIX VII 

CRUZ': 

AUTHORIZING THE NATIONAL SHELTERED WORKSHOP 
COMMITTEE TO ISSUE I'HE N.R.A. INSIGNIA 

A" dni strati ve Order ITo, X-59 

■ -T^'o the National Sheltered Workshop Committee on Lay 31, 1934, 
submitted an amplication requesting the -Administrator for Industrial Re- 
covery to issue on Order authorizing the Committee to print and issue the 
already described "appropriate insignia" heretofore granted to "Sheltered 
Workshops, " 

And Whereas, a questionnaire entitled "Special Report on Sheltered 
Workshop" has oeen issued together with the "Sheltered Workshops Pledge 
of Cooperation and Pair Competition* " 

The Division Administrator having rendered his report uoon this ap- 
plication and it appearing to me that the grant of such power and authority 
is in furtherance of the public interest and would tend to effectuate the 
policies of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act: 

Pursuant to authority vested' in me under Title I of said Act by 
Executive Orders of the President of the United States, including 
Executive Order No. S545-", dated December 20, 1933, and otherwise, I now 

ORDER: 

1. The Hational Sheltered Workshop Committee, noting through its 
chairman! secretary, or ether ;. :;ent duly appointed oy the said Committee, 
is authorized to print end issue the iJ.R.A. insignia heretofore described 
in Administrative Order So. X-28; said, when the insignia is reproduced by 
stamping or apon labels, and 'stickers, xs authorized to charge not more 
than an amount necessary to cover the cent of said reproductions and the 
reasonable cost of the administration and supervision of the use thereof; 

2. It shall be the duty of the Com ittee, acting through its chair- 
man, secretary, or other agent duly appointed by sold Committee, to examine 
the above mentioned questionnaire when it is retume'd, and upon the basis 
of the information furnishpd in reply to the questionnaire,, together with 
any further information which the Committee de?ms essential to determine 
that the particular institution applying ^or the exemption granted in Ad- 
ministrative Order ITo, X~;, J G is, or is not, a "Sheltered Workshop" within 
the meaning of this term as it is used in Administrative Order Wo, X-P. 

3. '»7hen the Committee has determined that a particular institution 
is a "Sheltered Workshop" as defined in Administrative Order l 7 o. X-9, its 
decision, together with the reply to the questionnaire and the other in- 
formation upon vhich the decision is based, shall be forwarded forthwith 
to the National R p co-v »ry Administration for ratification or disapproval* 

4. The decision of the Committee shall be operative pending the 
action of the National Recovery Administration, and if the decision has 
held the particular institution to be a "Sheltered Workshop", rnd if the 

9798 



-61- 

particular institution has signed and returned the "Sheltered Workshops 
Pledge., of Cooperation - :id Pair Competition", the Committee may forthwith 
irrue to the institution the F.R.A. insignia reproduced upon placards or 
la Dels; 

5, '.Then the National Recovery Administration has approved the deter- 
mination of the Committee that a particular institution is a "Sheltered 
Workshop" or has reversed the Committee and so determined, a certificate 

in -oroper form shall be issued to such institution to evidence its character 
as a "Sheltered Workshop." 

6, A "Sheltered Workshop" nay continue to display the ".R.A. insignia 
or to use the N.R.A. insignia upon labels so long as it is complying with 
the conditions stated in the Pledge; 

7. Labels bearing this h.R.A. insignia issued to a "Sheltered Work- 
shop" must be placed upon all products made by "Sheltered Workshops"' 
where similar goods privately manufactured or made are required by an 
applicable Code to bear the insignia issued under that Code; 

8. Articles and products bearing this ".'.R.A. insignia may be pur- 
chased, sold, or exchanged by retailers, who in so doing will not violate 
Section 2, Article IX of the Code of Fair Competition for the Retail Trade; 
and no Code of Fair Competition heretofore or hereafter approved shall be 
construed or interpreted to require any other II. R. A. label or insignia 
upon articles and products herring an h.R.A. label or insignia issued under 
the authority granted in this Order; 

S. Provided, however, that in all cas°s where the "Sheltered Work- 
shop" does not have title to the articles or products this 27. It. A. insignia 
shall not be placed on such articles or products unless the person having 
title to such articles or products holds a certificate from the Code 
Authority of any Code of Pair Competition to which such person is subject 
in the production of such article or product; 

10. And also, provided, that where a person subject to a Code of Pair 
Competition does further manufacturing work upon an article or product 
purchased from a "Sheltered Workshop", no "Sheltered Workshop" shall place 
their 1I.R.A. insignia, upon such articles or products unless the person by 
whom the product will he finished holds a certificate from the Code Authority 
of any Code of Fair Competition to which such person to subject in per- 
forming such work. 

11. The certificate required under certain conditions by the two pre- 
ceeding paragraphs shall be issued to all members of an industry subject 
to the Code by the Code Authority so long as the applicant member is com- 
plying with the provisions of the Code in all natters except those within 
the management of the "Sheltered Workshop"; 

12. No Code Authority shall refuse the certificate mentioned in the 
preceding paragraph upon the ground that the applicant member is dealing 
with an institution which is not entitled as a "Sheltered Workshop" to 
the exemption heretofore granted in Administrative Order No. X-9 or upon 
the ground that such institution is not complying with the "pledge of Co- 
operation and Pair Competition", the National Sheltered Workshop Committee 

9798 



-62- 

having "been heretofore authorized to decide such questions, 

13. "Whenever the Code Authority shall have cause to believe that a 
member holding: or applying for a certificate has violated the provisions 
of the Code in any matter except chess mat vers within the management of 
the "Sheltered Workshop" it shall giv? due notice of the charge against 

him and shall afford adequate opportunity to be heard. _A substantial record 
of all hearings shall be made. If afoer such hearings, in the judgment 
of the Code Authority there is sufficient evidence of violation to justify 
such action s the Code Authority may suspend the certificate granted or 
refuse to grant the certificate to such person. Iimredi ately, and in no 
case later then the day following this action, the Code Authority shall 
file a summery of the record of the hearing with such recommendations as 
it may deem proper with L'bf* Ha clonal Recovery Administration. The National 
Recovery Administration shall have powers', upon the record or after further 
hearing, to withhold or withdraw the certificate, to affirm, suspend or 
modify the action of the Code Authority. The Code Authority shall be given 
an opportunity to participate in such conferences and hearings as the 
National Recovery Administration may hold in such matters. 

14. This Order shall not become effective for a, period' of ten (10) 
days in order that consideration may be given to the objection's thereto, 
if any, of interested parties. At the expiration of such period this 
Order shall become effective unless I, by my further order, otherwise de- 
termine. 



HUGH S. JOHNSON, 
Administrator for Industrial Recovery 



Washington, D.C. 
July 2, 1334 

Approval Recommended: 



Linton M. Collins, 



9798 



-63- 
ADMINISTRATIVE OHDER HO. X-73 

. I... I" I.r3;I.."I.'.S 

OP THE 

!] IL . 7 25 .0" X3 V :0? COMMITI H- 

V/HEBEAS on March 3, 1934 in Order X-9, I, Hugh S. Johnson, 
Administrator for Industrial Recovery, provided "or t e ere; tion of a 
National Sheltered Workshop Committee, trie term of service of whose 
members should be for a period or" six months except the first committees, 
half of the members of which should be for a term of three months, and 

WHEREAS on May 11, 1934, in Order X-28, I did appoint the members 
of the said National Sheltered Workshop Committee in accordance with 
said Order X-9 , and 

WHEREAS the terms of three members of said Committee expire on 
August 11, and it is necessary that appointments for their successors 
be made forthwith; 

NOW, THEREFORE, acting under the powers conferred on the President 
of the United States by Title I of the Act of June 16, 1933, pursuant 
to authority vested in me by Executive Orders of the President of the 
United States, including Executive Order No. 6543-A, dated December 30, 
1933, and supplementing the aforesaid Orders -X-9 and X-28, I hereby 
appoint as members of the National Sheltered Workshop Committee for the 
term of six months from this date to succeed themselves: 

Col. John N. Smith, Jr., Director, 
Institute for Cripnled & Disabled, 
400 First Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Edward Hochhauser, President and Executive, 
Altro Workshops , 
1021 Jennings Street, 
Bronx, New York. 

Father John 0' Grady, 

Secretary of the National Conference of Catholic Charities, 

Washington, D. C. 

Hugh S. Johnson 

Administrator for Industrial Recovery 
Approval recommended: 

LINTON M. COLLINS, 
Acting Division Administrator. 
Washington, D. 0. 
August 9, 1934. 

9798 



-64- 

appekdix i:: 

ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER 110. X-81 
AMENDING AND STu^PLFHEl'TI ITG- ORDER X-59 

'./HE" : EA3 r the National Sheltered '..ork^hcp Committee on Hay 31, 1934, 
submitted an apolic .ticn reauesting the Administrator for Industrial 
Recovery to issue an Order authorizing the Committee to print and issue 
the already described "appropriate insignia' 1 heretofore granted to 
"Sheltered) 'iorkshops"; , " , ..." 

And wTiereas, a questionnaire entitled "Special Report on Sheltered 
Workshop" has been issued together with the "-Sheltered Workshop Pledge 
of Cooperation and Fair Competition." '.-... 

The Division Administrator having rend.ere.cL his report upon this 
application, and it appearing to me that the grant of such power and 
authority is in furtherance of the -public interest and \70uld tend to 
effectuate the -policies of Title I o " the National Industrial Recovery 
Act; 

Pursuant to authority vested in me under Title I of said Act by 
Executive Orders of the President of the United States, including 
Executive Order l T o- S543.A. dated December 20, 1953, and otherwise, it 
is hereby ordered that Administrative Order No. X-59 of July 2, '1934, 
be and the same is hereby amended and supplemented by striking out 
Paragraphs 1 to 14, inclusive, thereof and substituting therefor the 
following: : •■' •-.: 

(1) The National Sheltered Workshops Committee, (hereinafter 
referred to as the Committee) acting through its chairman, secretary 
or other agent, as it shall have duly appointed, is vested with ex- 
clusive •po'-'er to issue to sheltered workshops laoels bearing the in- 
signia of the ' T .R,A. with accompanying letters, ^ords and figures as 
provided for in Administrative Order X-28, of" May 11, 1934. The Com- 
mittee is authorized to charge for such labels not more than an amount 
necessary to cover the actual and reasonable cost thereof, including 
actual printing, distribution and administration and supervision of the 
use thereof. 

(2) It shall be the duty of the Committee, .acting through its 
chairman, secretary or other agent 'so' appointed, to examine the above 
mentioned questionnaires and replies thereto ;rhen returned and upon 
the basis 0+' the information furnished together viiih such other in- 
formation as the. Committee deems relevant, to determine whether the 
institutions applying for the exemption granted in Administrative Order 
X-9 of March 3, 1934, or applying for the ! T .R.A. insignia described in 
Administrative Order No. X-28 of May 11, 1934, are. or are not sheltered 
workshops, within the meaning of that term as it is used in Administra- 
tive Order No. X-9. 

* 

(3) \fhen the Committee has so determined that a particular in- 
stitution is a sheltered workshop its decision, together with the reply 

9798 



-65- 

to the questionnaire and other information upon Hiich the decision is 
based, shall he forwarded forthwith to the National Recovery Adminis- 
tration and may be disapproved by the Administrator on review. The 
determination of the Committee shall be. effective from the date there- 
of until anil unless disapproved by the Administrator. The exemption 
provided for in Administrative Order X~9 shall apply only to institu- 
tions that have been so determined to be sheltered workshops and shall 
be effective as of the date of such determination, and only such 
institutions shall be entitled to use the insignia of Ef.R.A. . as provided 
for by Administrative Orders X-9 and X-28. 

(4) The -purchase, manufacture, transfer and dealing in the la- 
bels authorized by this Order to be issued to sheltered workshops, or 
labels similar thereto, shall be subject to the rules and regulations 
provided in the case of labels issued by code authorities, so far as 
such rules and regulations are applicable. 

(5) TJ-oon amplication to the Committee, the labels authorized by 
this Order to be issued to sheltered workshops shall be issued for 
use on their articles or products, which but for the exemption granted 
by Administrative Order X-9, ™ould be required by a Code, to have 
affixed to them a label bearing NBA insignia upon the following con- 
ditions: 

(a) That such sheltered workshop has been determined to be 
a sheltered workshop in the manner above provided. 

(b) That such sheltered workshop has signed and returned to 
the Committee the sheltered workshop Pledge of Coopera- 
tion and Pair Competition provided for in Administrative 
Order X-28, 

(c) That such sheltered workshop is complying with all the 
provisions of the aforesaid Pledge and of this Order, 

Use of such labels on such articles or products shall be manda- 
tory. 

(6) Any sheltered workshop or any member or code authority of an 
industry with the sale of the articles or products of which the sale 
of a sheltered workshop's articles or products competes,, or any party 
whose interests may be affected, shall be entitled to complain to the 
Committee of the violation of any of the conditions of its pledge, or 
of any order applying to it, by a sheltered workshop. 

(7) Upon receipt of any such complaint, or whenever the National 
Sheltered Workshop Committee shall have cause to believe that any 
sheltered workshop has violated any provision of its pledge or of any 
order applying to it, it shall give such sheltered workshop due notice 
of the charge against it and shall afford an adeauate opportunity to be 
heard. A substantial record of all hearings shall be made. If, after 
such hearings, in the judgment of the Committee there is sufficient 
evidence of violation to justify such action the Committee shall 
suspend the issuance of labels to such sheltered workshop. Immediately 
and in no case later than the day following the .suspension of the 

9798 



. -rS6~ 

issuance of labels, the Committee shall + "ile a summary of the record 
of the hearing with such recora lencL-tions as it may deem proper with the 
N.R.A. Compliance Division. The N.R.A. Compliance Division shall 
proceed and shall have such powers arid duties as are provided in the 
case of the suspension of the issuance of labels by a code authority. 
The Committee shall not give or authorize to be given any publicity in 
case of alleged violation until an adjustment has been effected, or 
until the : T .R.A. Compliance Division or a designated branch thereof 
shall have acted uoon the case. 

(8) Articles or -oroducts bearing the labels above authorized may 
be purchased, sold or exchanged by retailers who in so doing will not 
vi-olate Section 2, Article IX, of the Code of Fair Competition for 
the- Retail Trade; and no code of fair competition heretofore or here- 
after a-o-oroved shall be construed or interpreted to require any other 
N.R.A. label or insignia uoon articles or products bearing the label 
authorized above* 

(9) Provided, however, that in all cases where the sheltered work- 
shop does not have title to the articles or products it shall not be 
entitled to obtain and it shall not -place such labels on such articles 
or products unless the person having title to such articles or -oroducts 
holds the certificate hereinafter provided for, which certificate has 
not been cancelled, withdrawn or suspended. 

(10) And, provided, that where a member of an industry subject to 
a code of fair competition partly manufactures or processes articles 
or products manufpctured or processed by a sheltered \7orkshop, the 
sheltered workshop shall not be entitled to obtain and it shall not 
place -such labels on such articles or products unless the. said member 
of the industry holds the certificate hereinafter provided for, which 
certificate has not been cancelled, withdrawn or suspended. 

(11) Hembers of an industry subject to a code of fair competition 
under which the use of labels is re<-uire<i shall be entitled io obtain 
from that code ai 1 trior i;y : , u"oon application to it, and that code au- 
thority shall issue immediately the certificate referred to in the 

two preceding paragraphs if they are complying with all provisions of 
that Code and of the Act and ^ith all rules and regulations duly adopted 
pursuant thereto, in all matters er^pept those within the management of 
a sheltered '-orkshop. Such ce-tificate shall state that the applicant 
member is a member of the industry in good standing under the Code. 

(12) The procedure for the issuance of such certificates and for 
the cancellation, Withdrawal or suspension of such certif icates shall 
be the same, or correspond as nearly as may be to that provided for 
the issuance, and the suspension of the issuance, of labels bearing 
N.R.A. insignia to members of that industry. No charge shall be im- 
posed for the issuance of such certificate. No such certificate shall 
be denied, cancelled, withdrawn or suspended for any matter within the 
management of a sheltered workshop, no 1 " upon the ground that the 
applicant member is dealing with an institution which is not entitled 
as a sheltered vrorkshop to the exemption heretofore granted by 
Administrative Order X-9, nor uoon the ground that such institution is 
not complying -with the pledge of cooperation and fair competition, so 

9798 



-67- 

long as such institution- displays the U.JUA. insignia provided for 
sheltered workshops. 

(lo) Due notice of every application for certificate and of every 
corrolaint and of every hearing with reference to any such certificate, 
sha.ll he given to the Committee at the office of its executive 

Bcretary (Care of the Uational Recovery Administration, Washington, 
D. C.) and the Committee shall be entitled to he heard at such hear- 
ings, and shall be entitled to participate in proceedings of the 
N.R.A, with referenqe to the issuance or denial or cancellation, with- 
drawal or suspension of any such certificate in ' the same manner as the 
code authority may deem. 



Hugh S. Johnson 

Hugh S. Johnson, 
Administrator for Industrial Recovery. 

Washington, D. C. 

September 1, 1934, 

Approval Recommended: 



Linton M. Collins, 

Acting Division Administrator, 



2294- 



. . -58- 

* 

APPENDIX X 

ADrHNISOIRATD/E ORDER Ho. X-lll 

Appointing Members of the National 
Sheltered Uorkshop Committee 



WHEREAS, by Administrative Order llo. X-9, approved on March 3, 
1934, provision was made for the creation of a national Sheltered Worh- 
shop Committee, whose members were to serve for a oeriod of six nonths, 
excepting the initial committee, three of whose members were to serve 
for a period of three nonths; and 

WHEREAS, by Adninistrative Order Ho. X-28, approved on May 11, 
1934, and in accordance with the said orovisicns of Administrative Order 
Ho. X*-9, a Hational Sheltered Workshop Committee was appointed; and 

WHEREAS, the terns of three members of such Committee expire on 



llovenber 11, 1934 and it is necessary thf 
forthwith; 



their successors be appointed 



HOW, [PHEREEORE , acting under the powers conferred upon the Presi- 
dent of the United States by Title I of the national Industrial Recovery 
Act, approved on June 1G, 1933, and pursuant to the authority .vested in 
it, the national Industrial Recovery 3oard, by the Executive Orders of 
the President of the United States, including the Executive Order Ho. 
6543-A, approved December 30, 1933, and the Executive Order Ho. 6859, 
approved September 27, 1954, and otherwise; and further, for the purpose 
of carrying out the provisions of and supplementing the aforesaid Admin- 
istrative Orders Ho. X-9 and Ho. X-28, the following menbers of the 
national Sheltered Workshop Committee are hereby appointed for a tern of 
six months from this date to succeed themselves as members of such Com- 
mittee: 

Mr. Oscar IT. Sullivan, President, national Rehabilitation 
Association, Inc., 311 State Office Building, St. 
Paul, Minn. 

Mr. Oliver A. Friedman, Director, Milwaukee Good Will 

Industries, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Mr. Peter J. Salmon, Secretary, Industrial Home for the 

Blind, 520 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, II. Y. 



Approval Recommended: 

Linton M. Collins , 

Acting Division Administrator 

Washington, D.C. 

November 12, 1934. 

9798 



National Industrial Recover].'- Board 

/ z/ W. A. Harrlman 
3y: W. A. Harriaaa, 

Administrative Officer. 



APPENDIX XI 
ADMININISTRATIVE ORDER NO. X-lll-1 



Amending and modifying certain terms and provisions of Administra- 
tive Orders number 3d X-9, X-28, X-73, X-81, and X-lll, referring to the 
membership and functions of the National Sheltered Workshop Committee; 

WHEREAS, in the light of experience of the National Recovery 
Administration and the National Sheltered Workshop Committee in the ad- 
ministration of their duties and functions, as defined in Administrative 
Orders numbered X-9, dated March 3, 1934, X-28, dated May 11, 1934, 
X-73, dated August 9, 1934, X-81, dated September 1, 1934, and X-lll, 
dated November 12, 1934, it is deemed advisable and necessary to amend 
and modify the terms and provisions of such orders to the extent that 
they provide a term of tenure of office for the members of such commit- 
tee, that they require the establishment of Regional Sheltered 'Workshop 
Committees by the National Sheltered Workshop Committee, and that they 
prescribe a procedure to be followed as to the hearing of complaints of 
violation of pledges of fair competition signed by sheltered workshops 
and the suspension or vithdrawal of labels to and denial of the right to 
exhibit the insignia of the National Recovery Administration by such 
sheltered workshops; and 

WHEREAS, it appears to our satisfaction and We find that the amend- 
ments and modifications hereinbelow set forth will tend to effectuate 
the policies of the National Industrial Recovery Act by eliminating un- 
fair competitive practices between sheltered workshops and members of 
industries subject to codes of fair competition. 

NOW, THEREFORE, acting under the powers conferred upon the President 
of the United States by Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Aot^ 
approved on June 16, 1933 and pursuant to the authority vested in the 
National Industrial Recovery Board by the Executive Orders of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, including the Executive Order No. 6543-A 
dated December 30, 1933, and the Executive Order No. 6859 dated Septem- 
ber 27, 1934 and otherwise, it is hereby ordered as follows: 

I. Administrative Order No. X-9, dated March 3, 1934, is hereby 
amended and modified to provide that the term and tenure of office of 
the members of the National Sheltered Workshop Committee shall be at the 
will and pleasure of the National Industrial Recovery Board. 

II. Administrative Order No. X-28, dated May 11, 1934, Administrative 
Order No. X-73, dated August 9, 1974,, and Administrative Order No. X-lll, 
dated November 12, 1934, are hereby amended and modified to provide that 
the persons named in such orders as members of the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee, namely, to wit, Col. John N. Smith, Jr., Mr. Edward 
Hochhauser, Father John 1 Grady, Peter J. Salmon, Oliver A. Friedman 

and Oscar M. Sullivan, are appointed and shall continue in office as 
members of such Committee to and including the 15th day of June 1935, 
or until such other and further date as the National Industrial Recovery 
Board may subsequently order. 

9798 



-70- 

III. Administrative Order No. X-9, dated March 3, 1934, .'dminis- 
trative Order No. X-28, dated Hay 11, 1934, and Section 7 of Adminis- 
trative Order No. X-31, elated September 1, 1934, are hereby amended and 
modified to provide that 

(a) The National Sheltered Workshop "Committee", subject to the 
approval of the National Industrial Recovery Board, is authorized to es- 
tablish Regional Sheltered "Jerk shop Committees, when such regional com- 
mittees shall be deemed necessary for the furtherance of the purposes of 
administration of the above named orders or any subsequent orders relat- 
ing to Sheltered Workshops under Title I of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act by the National Industrial Recovery Board. The members of 
such regional committees shall be appointed, and their terms of office 
shall be determined by the. National Sheltered Workshop Committee, sub- 
ject to the approval of the National Industrial Recovery Board. 

(b) Upon receipt of any complaint or whenever it shall have 
cause to believe that any sheltered, workshop has violated any of the 
provisions of its Pledge of Cooperation and Fair Competition, or any 
rule or regulation adopted, pursuant tc the National Industrial Recovery 
Act, the. National Sheltered Workshop. Committee (or any regional commit- 
tee, where such sheltered workshop is -located within its designated re- 
gion") shall give such sheltered workshop due notice of the charge against 
it and shall afford it an adequate opportunity to be heard. A substan- 
tial record of the hearings shall be made. In the case of hearing held 
by any regional committee, the record thereof shall be forwarded forth- 
with to the National Sheltered Workshop Committee, If, after any such 
hearings, in the judgment of the National Sheltered Workshop Committee, 
there is sufficient evidjnee of violation to justify such action, the Na- 
tional Sheltered Workshop Committee shall suspend the issuance of labels to 
such sheltered workshop. Immediately, ana in no ca.se later than the day 
following the suspension of thn issuance of labels, the Nati oral Sheltered 
Workshop Committee shall file a summary of the record of the hearing with 
such recommendations as it may deem proper as to withdrawal of the right 

to use labels and to exhibit the insignia of the National Recovery Admin- 
istration with the National Industrial Recovery Board. The Board shall 
have the power to review the determination of the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee and to overrule its orders as to the suspension of the 
issuance of labels or to approve and carry into effect its recommendations 
as to the withdrawal of labels and the exhibition of the insignia of the 
National Recovery Administration. When such sheltered workshops shall 
have satisfied the National Recovery Administration that it is in full 
compliance with its Pledge of Cooperation ana Fair Competition and any 
rule or regulation applicable to it adopted pursuant tc the National 
Industrial Recovery Act, or when the National 'Industrial Recovery Board 
believes such action is in the interest of compliance administration, it 
shall have the power to restore the right to use labels and insignia of 
the National Recovery Administration and to direct the National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee to resume the issuance of labels to such sheltered 
workshop. The National Sheltered workshop Committee and the said re- 
gional committees shall not give, or authorize tc be given, any public- 
ity to the case of any alleged violation of the pledge of Cooperation 
and Fair Competition until ant' adjustment has been effected or until the 
National Industrial Recovery Board shall have acted upon the case. 

9798 



-71- 



IV. All other provisions of said Administrative Orders No. X-9 
and No. X-81 dealing with the procedure to be followed by the National 
Sheltered Workshop Committee and the National Recovery Administration in 
cases of alleged violation of. the Pledge of Cooperation and Fair Compe- 
tition signed by a sheltered workshop are hereby revoked and cancelled. 



NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY BOARD. 



By: W. A. Harriman 
Administrative Officer. 



Approval recommended: 



Linton M. Collins , 

Acting Division Administrator 



Washington, D. C. 
February 9, 1935. 



9798 



APPI&DIZ XII 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER iTO. X-lll-2 

Appointing members of the 
"■ MTIOIiAL SEVERED "ORKSHOP CGHiilTTEE 

WHEREAS, Administrative Order Ho. 111-1 provided that the terra and 
tenure of office of the Members of the national Sheltered TTorkshop Com- 
mittee should "be at the will ; . and pleasure of the national Industrial 
Recovery Board; and 

WHEREAS, the said Administrative Order No. X- 111-1 appointed the 
members of the said National Sheltered Workshop Committee to continue 
in office as members of such Committee to and including the 15th day 
of June, 1935, or until such other and further date as the National 
Industrial Recover;/ Board might subsequently order; and 

WHEREAS, it is desirable and necessary that the members of the 
said national Sheltered Workshop Committee continue in office in order 
to develop and administer a program which will result in the 'contin- 
uance of the benefits which have heretofore accrued to sheltered work- 
shops and to competing industries as a result of the national Indus- 
trial Recover}*- Act and the activities of the said National Sheltered 
Workshop Committee: 

NOW, 32HEREFORE, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Execu- 
tive Order No. 7075 dated June 15, 1935, and other-use, it is hereby 
ordered that the following members of the National Sheltered Workshop 
Committee are appointed to succeed themselves as members of such committee 
and are to continue in office until my further order, and are to per- 
form such functions and duties as I may hereafter designate: 

Colonel John N. Smith, Jr. 

Edward Hochhauser 

Rt. Rev. Hsgr. John 0' Grady 

Peter J Salmon 

Oliver A. Friedman 

Oscar II. Sullivan 

James L. O'Neill 
Acting Administrator of the 
National Recovery Administration. 

Aoproval Recommended: 

Linton ii. Collins 

Acting Division Adninistr- tor 

Washington, D. C. 
June 17, 1935. 



9798 



-73- 
APPSiTDIX XIII 

ADklllTISTHA E"E 02T" ',. X-lll-3 
]eri.dnati_. ; ; the national Sheltered Workshop Committee. 



Pursuant to the authorit; vested in me 'by Executive Order ITo. 
7159, approved August >1 , 1935, and Executive Order "Jo. 7075, approved 
June 15, 11'., and otherwise, the national Sheltered Workshop Committee, 
create. 1 , pursuant to Ad-mi mstrative Order X-9 , approved March 3, 1S34, 
and Administrative Order X-2S, approved Hay 11, 1934, is hereby termin- 
ated and said Administrative Orders and all Administrative Orders 
issued pursuant thereto are hereby revoked and the terms of office of 
the members of the said ?Tational Sheltered Workshop Committee, appointed 
by Administrative Order ITo. X-lll-3, approved June 17, 1935, shall cease 
as of the date oi t.ie arraroval of this order. 



L. J. "art in 

Acti :g Administrator of the 

Tational Recov< r~ r Administration 



Approval Recoramende ~: 



LEIGHT03I H. PEEBLES 

Deputy Director, Division of 

Business Cooperation 



Washington, D. C. 
Dec. .iOth, 1935. 



9708 # 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus : 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations cf the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate revies of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Revie*. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of cede his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
g raphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which ,vere held, and 
the activities in connection aith obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-conpliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
c;ie provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Co-amerce in typewritten fona. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed.. This 
number includes all of the approved cof :3 cr.J some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
rials No. 18, Contents of Code Histories , will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material ofiicially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768—1 . 



- li - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, gr:uped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work M aterial s No. 17, T entative O utlines and Summaries of 
Studies in Process , these materials are fully described). 

Industry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France. Germany. Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 

9768—2 



- iii - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

Trade Prac tice St udies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study cf NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 
Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 
Production Control in the Ice Industry 
Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 
comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labor Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wa^e Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-1935 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report or. Wa-os and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Adm inistrative Studies 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codec 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approve Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part E. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—2. 



- iv - 

Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 

Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 

Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 

Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studie s 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



1HE EVIDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studi.es were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project *as continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number ol workers under codes. The list ol those studies 
folio its: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 

Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 

Mason Contractors Industry 

Men's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Venicle Retailing Trade 

Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 

Painting and Paperhanging Industry 

Photo Engraving Industry 

Plumbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Lumber Industry 

Retail Trade Industry 

Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 

Rubber Manufacturing Industry 

Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 

Shipbuilding Industry 

Silk Textile Industry 

Structural Clay Products Industry 

Throwing Industry 

Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Industry 

Wholesale and Retail Fcod Industry 

Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus. 

try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study cf 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768 — 5. 



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Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trcde Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be cared for under other 
auspices. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessiDio 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 
9768—6 . 



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