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FOUNDED 1846. 








; ...:. vol;' ."?; 







' Afil 20 1377 


LONDON CA.ri.TT* orriCE, IT. MAftTXJl'l LABI. 


Ethylene-series (continued.) 


Acetone, C«H 5 2 -C<H J 0'' ( CH 1 .... 1 

Formation and Preparation 1 

Propertiae 3 

Docoro poaition a : 

1. By a red heat .... .... 4 

2. By combustion 4 

S. By chlorine 4 

Pentachlorinated and Hezacblorinated Acetone 5 

4. By Bromine & 

5. By Phoapborua 5 

Acephoric acid ; Phofphacetic acid 6 

Acepnoafcnic acid 7 

InsoStfUo' Compound cenUining Cbrbon and Phosphorua 7 

6. By Nitric acid. — 7. By Iodic acid\ -^- 8. By Oil of Vitriol.... 8 
9. By PhoaphorSc-an'r — 10/ fly Hydrochloric acid. — 11. By 

Pentachloride of ltwapbaros. — 12. By Iodine and Phoa- 

pbonu ' .— . ..., 9 

13. By Bich^n^UV^ot*"'- — 14. By Bichloride of Platinum. 

— { 15. By Ammonia 10 

16. By Ammonia and Sulphur : 

Thakcetone. — Akcethine. — Therythrine 12 

Helatbine. — Brown Reainoua Body. — Elathine IS 

T[ 17. By Ammonia and Sulphide of Carbon 14 

18. By Ammonia and Sulphuretted Hydrogen : 

Thiacetonine 14 

19. By Hydrate of Potaah 14 

20. Decomposition of acetone-tapour by hot hydrate of potaah .... 15 

21. By Potaaaram and Sodium 16 
T 22. By Quick lime 16 

Combination! .. 16 

Memtylenc or Meaitylol, CW-C'W-C'W 17 

Iodide of Pteleyl or Teriodomeaitylene 19 

f Ttorbiomometitylene, C u H fl Br» 19 

TOT*. XX. 6 



Chloride of Pteleyl, CrPCl, or Terchloromeaityleoe, C»H«C1» 19 

Nitromesitylene, C ,8 H»NO* = C IS H»X 20 

Binitromesitylene, C M H*N«O a -C w H w X' 20 

Nitromesidine, C u H ,5 N*O* = C u H 10 AdX 21 

Teroitromesitylene, C w H»N«O u -C lB H»X* 22 

Mesitic Ether or Oxide of Mesityl, CHW)* 25 

Pyroacetic Oil or Dumoain 25 

Meaitic Aldehyde, C»H 4 0»-C u H B O l 26 

Iodide of Mesityl or Hydriodate of Meaitylene 26 

Chloride of Mesityl or Hydrochlorate of Meaitylene 27 

Mesitic Chloral, C«H«CP0 8 27 

Mesityl-bypophosphorous acid 28 

Baryta-salt, BaO,C"H«0*,PO 28 

M eat tylo- phosphoric acid : 

Soda-aalt,NaO,C«H«0 3 ,PO , + 5Aq 29 

Mesi tylo -sulphuric acid : 

Lime salt, CaO.CWO.SO 1 29 

Permesitylo- sulphuric acid : 

Lime-aalt, 2(CaO,SO») + CWO* — 30 

f 8ulphomeaitylo -sulphuric acid : 

Lead-salt, PbO,SO*,C u, H u SO J 30 

AcecUoride of PUttaum, C«H*Cl,PtO 31 

Platinum -resin „ .... » 35 

Aceplatinous Oxide , 37 

« Acetonic acid, C'H»0'->HO,C 1 HrO a 37 

Acetal, C u H"0« ..„ .... . „.„. _. ; 38 

Lignone •!*:*"£■• : V» \&C •3-> : . 41 

Methol, C*H* or C»H M ?.... " :..*.* "C * ...: * ..'..*""; 47 

Xylite-oll, C u H*0 :.''. j ...": ill L; : ! : *8 

Brown Xylite-reain, C"H«0» .... •-%.»•« V** •**£ . « 

Yellow Xylite-resin «•*•»*■ »V I* •«.*..** ." - 50 

Xylitic Naphtha, CWOH - C»H"qr .<£/* \ &£ %, *i- ■ I 50 

Weidmann & Schwelxer'a Mesite, C 8 H*O s »C a H u 4 51 

Mesitene, C«H«0*-C u H"0« 52 

Reichenbach*a Mesite .... 53 

Bosnian's Liquid • 55 

•f Volatile Oils produced by the dntillation of Wood 

V Conjugated Compound* containing Ammonia, 

Ethylamine, OWN 56 

Carbonate. — Sulphate. — Hydroeulphate. — Hydriodate. — Hydro- 

bromate „ ..« 59 

Hydrochlorate, PHW,HC1 - C 4 H'NCL — Nitrmte. — Chloromer- 

curate, C*H"NCl,HgCl. — Chloro-eurate, C«fl*NC],AaCl> .... 60 

Chloroplatinate, C*H B NCl,PtCP .... SI 

Compounds of Ethylamine with Protockloride of Platinum : 

a. 2(PtCI,C«H'N). — o. 2(CWN),PtCl «. 61 



PUtinMolpUtr, 2Cni.\\\PtSO» „ (I 

lUotof$SOu t C'!l»NC1»WCt - M 

Hydnxhk>r»tc of KtbjUmtnc wfch Cyirdde of Mrtmry. C*l: 

^llgCy . ._ 42 

Aocute ... ... _ _ _ ... <S 

Biaiokajltoiine. C'll'I'N ... _ _ <3 

B«hr»mrlhylii»m«.. ^H'lU-.N _ _ ._ C3 

Bio^, CW'CI'N . • ._ C3 

BIkIijImiIi*. Cir'N-'C*!!' .!!-.- : li — ... - M 

TnftM .l J N = i *H\i.MI'S=''C«tl» »N (3 

iWvtbvlinm. C»H*X-<C*m}'.H'' _ _ 6* 

Njdr«i*dttf^. UIO — - GG 

is- ■«!._..... - 67 

T*ri»lide,MD*IVNi' . . .. 6? 

toHfc — ludu-mcnrurit*. (C li 1. — CUofW 

i n, ii-a. — C:M,»ro.«ur»te(C*HVNCI.Au(.P.— Qilaw- 

pULrut., (OH^'Na.PtCII . . -.. ... ... — W, CMPN-CCtWCIiyN - « 

^ C*u)ugatt4 Cw*poun/tt contatmm? Artmtr; AuiffSTBTi.* ... ttf 

Anenbic'.b,! or VtoocmwItI (CHAMPA.- (CH™ *• 7* 

ftftlfclft, [CH'/AiI J3 

Ar»ro«nrih : :.'A«-(C*H*) I A» — - - JS 

Mb, iCU')»AjO> .- ;i 

ie. iCtlVAtfP. — lodid* (Cl! b )>Aal* ... 7* 

CWondf.— Nii«t» 76 

ArtcnctbYlinm (C'UV.'II'A. -(€*«*)«*■ - 76 

Chide.— lodMf. (Ctyiil — Chloride, (CIWAftCi -. ... ;7 

Stlphit*, (C*ll»/*i.H,WO« 7% 

\ CmiuvaUd Cvmpvuntti rtm/eiviitf Amtrm*n $ . 

ilUb-tOU^b _ _ _ » 

Obdit, am JftJM* _ «1 

>Sotf ..._.__ BT 

Salfbate. (CH'fSbO', 2SO* „. ... t-2 

SclaiiUr. - Iodide. (CWPSbP I i 

Bromide, (CWyNbfti*. — Chloride. (CH^bC* «1 

.re, (CW^bO.SNO*. - Ar.Umo*i(#, (CW)*bO> ft&O ... $4 

| tttMJrafll iVliVtSbS>,2Sb&*. — Cyealde (OW)***^'. » 

5UbrtbjlIum, (OH ■« ... 81 

WbiMthybtbrlnn, (< niV(l- N H»)Sb „ M 

5 OmiugUfd Compound* etniainirtf Aiftmrfi. 

Kwrbyl. fC*HVH , Bi-';* ,, i! 8* 

8uIpbor-*oT.. P oa..d. it'liyBiS* 2Blf ... 87 

ludiiM'Coaipvund. <CTIVD'M> ... 86 

Bro*, I M*)*Bi,BlBr ... *9 

K'mu . 89 


Bteihyi, OH'.HBi=C*HUU „. 09 

Oxide, C*H>BiO».- Sulphide — Sulplute. — Iodide, C*H*Bil* ... B9 

ChVorldf. — Nitrite _ ... _ 90 

r.iiwlhyl or /mr^rhjlinm, CII./m ... W 

r ,.,,>, f/ftteti CompOHmtU mntatniny Tin: BeMIMHUw 91 

Sunortliji or Suunelhylium, CU'.SoU =C 4 H',Sd ... . .... »« 

OiU^CWfeO M 

Mf&U* C*fl*&8, — Cwbouxte. — Phosphate. — Sulphate, 

C'li . -Iodide, Client .... 97 

■OBUbJ MlSnKr. — Chlond*. CWfeGI 98 

Kitmt* ( CMI'SoO.NO*.. « ... „ 99 

ForiBlaie. — Acetat* 99 

Metnjlene-itonnrtfcy'. i i! v, „ 9V 

0». -Iodide. (C*U')*Sa'l W 

i :.!■>, idr. «"H ; ,WCl ~ ... 100 Ml' ■,'Sn* 100 

(».,!.. <:«ll*)'Sn*i>. -Iodide. (C*H fc )'Sn«I. — Bromide (C'lPj'Sn'Dr 100 

CMuudf.- Mntfl ( ( 'II ;.'Sa*O,N0* 101 

Ac«ouir,iieth»l. (t'HVSft 1 101 

Oxide.- Iodide <C'H»)*Sn*l „ 101 

HVSn'Br.— Nitrate (C*U')'Sii«0,NO t 102 

Melhyholaiirifihvl. (I Ml>)*8ir .._ _ .... 102 

0. l d,.(C'H- I 's I1 -C) .. 102 

SulpUU. (C«ll')»S<r'0,$0>. — Iodide (ClI^Ss'I. — lodnt*. — 

liromidr, (r^M'/'SnUr It) 

Bromrt*. — Chloride, (CWP&i'Cl. — Nitrite, (CMl^Sc/O^O*.... 10* 

Ethylu.laiiuclbyl. (C*HW M .... 104 

MjitnlMMJxiil.-. (l Mi') -Wi) ( H(l 104 

Sulphate, (CHYSn'O.Sf* 1 . — Iodide, (C'H'/Snl. — Bromide, 

«-'M ')■ M 105 

lorfati-.— Hromate — I blonde (CW)*Srt I — Siting (C*B»)W i. 

NO* , *. 106 

Slx-fouitlii StaiiueLliyl, (CWpSirV* .. 100 

<[ JVfjm*u/tt <tf Blhyt or PlumMkyla. 

M.tlijloplombethyl, (CMx 4 /rV 106 

Oxide, (C'H'J'Pb-O. — (Ebonite. <C'H')WO v CO*. — Suliilutc, 

fpwftw>js& ... 107 

foUl irHiVWl: — Bromide (C'H'PlVBf . •- Chlpride, (C'll'}' 

FtrCl— Nilnate. (C'U'/iVO.NO* 108 

\ Ifydnrgrthjl. t'lllig* - 109 

1 , 1 'll'Hc*!.— Cblorido, C«UHl^a— NitraU,C«H , lli/O l WO i 109 

f llyilfMjLoiaeOift, CU'Uk' 110 



SscriKnABT Niictri. 

ft. G*frm*mtk%4 PIPO>. 


Okkli«ftci4 l C*HiO>-C l IP0 3 ,O t _. 



Hi*QtJ,— &UUICC* ... .... wm *m mm mm 


KomaTion.— Pr»pay»hnn _ _ _ 


PropmiM „ ... N- 


Dfwatpo»ition» m _ _. _ 




Unrated Oxxlle arid 


Ai|uea«* <)x«lic acid ..,. ,._ . H „ M _ 


OtohCM - „ _ 


Ontat* of Ammonia • 

«. N..„ u .l.< VNII'/'Ci abo.idi2A M _. mm 



». Add. C\H,NH«)0»; alio ■HaVSaV] 



*. IWjxracWJ. C« .H.Mr M *C'HH>>: ikotilhlA* 



O&tUt* 0/ Potaah . 

«. Nomal. OWl alao with 2 ind G Aq 



*. a,„i _., >,ir o/sorr*!. C'HKO^zAq.— f /X90WK0 1 

+ Av — T T-f»lKO».A M 



c. Hfprneld. C11KO- CU't/ ; aUo with 4 A* 


OxaJite of Pntath and Ammonia ? .... — M 


Oxalate of Soda 1 

«. KhmV (WO 1 .-*. Aeid.cilNaO'-t n* -~ 



Oxalate of .Soda and Potaib ' 


Oxalate of Liltta: 

«- Normal, — £» Acid ... .... _ 



Oralis* nf 1 Ian la 

0. Normal".--. C>Ba*0*+2A4._5 fi. CBW + A^ 



*. Add, CUtUO*-2Aq and +4An, .... 



Oxalate of StrontU : 

•- Normal. — 0. (WO*|x&| — fl. C^I*0»4«Afl 



*. A pI 



Oxalate of Llraf , C'C»'0"i al?n with 2A*j ami LA" 



■reorHmpwiThi loiid ■•! 1 •.l.-imn.C<Ca J - .2CaCUl4Aa; 

1 u 

Oulate«rMafanix ( C'M«r*r t 1A, 



Oxalate irf MacncaU and Ammonia 1 

a. J'< rsMc.MI < lO*»4Au .... 



A. CM!' M, 11 < >)Ja*0*+£Aq 



Ceroti. Oxalate, C*CaW* GAq 



Cerle Oxalate ... - 



P w Oxalate. t-KIXT 


Oxalate Of Lantl.iimm .- 



t Oxalate of Ditijrmlam. CDl^O* * 2Au and + 8A4 



Outateof Yttrii C'TfO** flAq 



Oxalate of Yitria Had PolaaU 


Oxalate of Glartua . ■ 




Oxalate of Alumina : 

a. Normal.—*. Acid - ™ 135 

Oxalate of Alumina and Potash 135 

Oi ah to of Alumina and Soda ... „ .... SH . 136 

Oxalate of Alumina and Baryta, C"Ba" ATO* + 1 Aq tad + 30Aq 135 

Oxalate of Alumina and Strontia, C u Sr»APOw + 1 8 Aq .... 135 

Oxalate of Thorina _ .... „, 135 

Oxalate of Thorina and Potash 136 

Oxalate of Zirconia 136 

Oxalate of Titanium, 12TiO , ,C*Ti0 8 + 12Aq „ ..„ 136 

Oxalate of Tantalom ... .... ... 136 

Oxalates of Molybdenam H .... 136 

Oxalates of Vanadium „. 137 

Chromic Oxalate: 

a. Insoluble. — b. Soluble, Ci*0»,3C*0»-C»Cr«0* .... 137 

Blue Ammooio-chromic Oxalate, C u (3NH«,Cr*)0*« + C or 5Aq 138 

Red Ammonio-chromic Oxalate, C fl (NH*,Cr a )O w + 8Aq .... 138 

Blue Potassio-chromtc Oxalate, C"K*Cr«0»*; and with 6Aq .... 138 

Red Potassio-chromic Oxalate, C s KCr 3 O u + 8 or 1 2 Aq .... MO 

Blue Sodio-chromic Oxalate, C»Na*Cr»0* 1*1 

Baryto-chromic Oxalate, C^Ba^CrK)** + 12Aq and 18 Aq .... 142 

Strontio -chromic Oxalate, C'Sr^C^O" + 18 Aq U2 

Calcio-chromic Oxalate, C^Ca^CrK)* + 18Aq and 86Aq .... 142 

Maguesio- chromic Oxalate 143 

Uranous Oxalate, ClW+fiAq 143 

Uranic Oxalate : 

a. Basic, U*0» + C<(2U'0»)0» + 5Aq ..- 143 

*. Normal, C 4 (2U , S )0» + 2 Aq and 6Aq 144 

Ammonio-uranous Oxalate, C*(U,NH*)0» 144 

Ammonio-uranic Oxalate, C*(NH*,U , 0»)O B + 4Aq 145 

Potassio-ursnous Oxalate 

Potassio-uranic Oxalate, (^(K.U^O^O" + 3Aq 145 

Manganous Oxalate, CMirH) 1 * 4 Aq „ .... „ 146 

Manganic Oxalate 146 

Ammonio-manganous Oxalate, C 4 (NH 4 ,Mn)0 B + 4Aq 147 

Potasiio -manganous and Potassio- manganic Oxalate .... 147 

Oxalate of Arsenious Acid ? 147 

Aotimonic Oxalate, C^H.SbO^O*. 148 

If Ammonio-antimonic Oxalate, 5(NH«O l CO^ + 2(SbO l ,3C l O i ) 

+ 2Aq 148 

Potassio -anti monic Oxalate: 

a. 5(KO,(?0») + 2(SbO»,3C J 0») + 7Aq 149 

ft. 3(KO,C*0») + (SbO>,3(?0*) + 9Aq 149 

e. 2(KO,2C'0 J ) + (SbO*,3C , 0*) + 4Aq 150 

Telluric Oxalate 

Oxalate of Bismuth, 2BiO a ,C<0» + 3Aq 150 


Onlut* of Zinc, &Zn>0* + 4 4q 

,>..m«Omc Oufct* 2[l'(NilyO\ » MrfOI ♦ t*ft 

Ziiii-o-pulAuic Oiilnlc M ... p* ->' Cadflntaot, f:'f:<FO»4 4An 

8tanao«i Oi»Ut* i 

a. C'*n»0\ — 6. Acid felt 
Htannlc l)**l << H.i:*lK» ♦ 12Aq 

^ AmmonU-iUniiiMu 0**bt*. C*Mi(NU*)0»* Aq 

1 PoUuM*Unauu» Ox.Uu, C'bnKO't Xq ... 

1 >.--Ilrt_«fjrnn: (IxiUta 

OuUt# of trfmi j 

a. r*w, 4PbO,C>PbW 

». Nurm.!,< ril," ... ... -. 

Ox*lonitret* of Lend : 

a, Mft 4 PbO.CWO* f 6rPbO.N0*) f GAq 

6. CWO»>2(rb< •■>(>•) ~4Aq 

FoUwo-plumbie OiiliU. — Plauibo dironiie OjaUtt, 

Ferrou» OinUt*. a. Normal, <. 1 ^ 

*. AoIdSdt* ... 

Ttrrw Qralnt« i 

g. Nonml. — ». A«id 

AiniMDio.ferrlc 0**1 M«,kV)O w | «J» + OA., 

Prtiwo.ftfripnwUk,< 1 Kl.;'M 

Sodio-fcrric 0«i«tc. C ryx'PcO* t 6, 9 mud lOAq... 

lUn >-. md '''ili-jn-firric Ottlalc* .... 

OtbtfemOafttte— I ■•«> » H '«. (P+AAq. — *. Normti. 

«XVO»**A* . 

Cftbtllow-oobjItkOinlilc. C*Co>0'* .... 

CotalMui Ottlntf mth Knnon^n 

,»<mio<©b»ltou* Ojl.Uic, NH'.CKJoW f 6Aq? 

Anmoriio-colnlUr Oi" lf*0"-r-6Aq 

i ■■ubiIo iiiilnltimi i iHilnlfin Onlif* 

B*»W I*oUi«o-<oWlt4iu Os*.Ul*. — Pc-Uuio.cobaltofo- 
Qtttel* of Malcd 

Oi*U« of KicUl trilU AmuoriU, NH'.C'NrO* . OAcj 

Am"" Ot.Uu. — PotMila-flickf] Oiilttv 

Cfeproai Onlntf . .... ••* 

C«prlc Ouhlc *ritb Ammonal; 

ft. 2NH\0*OrO»4 2Aq.— *. MttMMMP ... 

Amnionio cxiprie Qaalitt, ( G*+fl \>\ . 

Pob.. | -.,. - On \qaad4Ac] . 

Kwlianiprv C» ft Aft . 

ftbfcwui OiaUU, ClI^N? ♦ XAq 













1 6a 















Mciouiio Oxalate, C 4 HrO*-f2Ai| 

Italic Ann mnnin.nwrrn rout (►mUtr 1 — Amrnoiiin. mercuric 
Orolntf i boric and normal * .... — • ■• 

PoUsato- mercuric Oxalate? ... .... 

(,. ..f SiUtr. L'XtfO* 

Potaniu-iilvcr Oxalate, — Artrntw-iiHroni'tc Oulalr, CAgK-VO* 4 

+ *Aq , 

Plotinoui and rutlnle Oxalate* 

Amuiotiio-cblucupliitiuum Oxalate-, lNU , ,C , {PlCI) 1 0' .... .-. 
ArainoMo.fttypUilnoui Oxalate, ^NII'.C^ PtO) , O a *4Aq ... 

FallodiouB Oxtlata « 1 .p«llAiliouB Oxalates C'iNHMM)0» * 2\<j and 9Aq 
Oxalate* of Urn, I<?W il'O.fll ff 
t Ovalato of M«thylam»ne. — a. Neutral, C«(C*1I 9 N)*0\ — a. M4 

C-(U,C*U'N)0» „ 

t Oxalate of Etliykmlno, C\C«H«N)»0» ... 

Aquooui Oxalic acid wkli PniMtan Blmi ... ~ 

Oxalate of Methyl, t*HM>»~2C*H»0,C 4 , -C*Me s O* 

Chlorouctl.jlic Oxalate, C"ira , 0* = 2C=lICl-0,C*O ft 

PwehloromeUiylle Oxalate. CKTO* ... 

Otomctliylane, C'.N UH^- C^HUd.f'O* .... 
Oxabtg «f Ethyl or Diafe Btfaar, C l -H w 4 «C , At?0- 
1 Ymninrtliylir Onilalc:. C^HW =CV \Tr.*.e)0* 
Oxolorinifl acid, CH^C^O" .... 

ft, IfcfrUn MHUftMl r-lt->:. 
Kianlphuirtto't Viiii.: litlicr, QWM l*t 

r. TjiiKm imfif 

«. flftlf MWftW C*Ht lodidoof Acetyl, CHI 1 ! IS3 

(>■ Jo rf to — tf wOTO. lotlal,C*l'H,0» 186 

if. Itrouiine-Hvchi, 
«. JoV©wwif-*fcc/ft<# CWBr. Bromide of Aoetjl. CWft 
/*. IfcinwiM WlifHI PBrW. Bromal, C*(lr J ll,<i ; _ 

CV»yaya/*W Brtm*ne-compw*J i lleomoxftfonn, C*Br»HO< .„, 

t. Cfilorbf-tiHclet. 
n. CMorint.nwlcta C'IML 

llilnn.lecrf Aotyl, C'HH'I 

Monochlorinntra Vinie Ether. (WOO -C'im.HO 

MoDoclilonicetic add, i/*irr:.o- . 

BtaUntanttd HydrocttMto BtJMt> fti'ri.u- 

fachlotf* »f \,,<.i, cirnxr-c'criiMii'i? 

«1 Chloride cfOthjl, CWUO-'^C'U'O-.U 





CONTEM3. x'ul 

P. r 

0. CMhrine-mKku* C*CPir. 

TW n-adUA Chloride of *onoj*. C*Cl'li* ... _. . . 194 

Mitilwlilil Tlnlii mm. niTTn 1 * H J mm ... ._ _ if7 

TrnfebriMtal HyJrocblohc L\Ur, <.'H--tr-C«CWP l CP _ - 199 

Thc«u^>lkdr«cvb1arulvQrPurn T l.C'll s a« _ 1M 

y. Cii<r<M-aM?[nuC ( Cl»t!. 

CU»ral, CWH.O' - _ _ .. ... W# 

!l 7 dnto«f Chloral. CMICW + SAq — - - ~» 2*6 

in- nuoora^o" _-_-.„ — .... «, *•* 

<M>-ili.i* M ._ .... ... t*7 

Thr tfcfawatto aaH, OtWjCH — «. — .... _ aw 

AtBmua'u-uU. CNCIVNIIVO-; alio ♦ lAq — — ... til 
RrtwlMlt. OCHKO'4 A^. — B*f,t. um) LtaM-Mlu. — Utv*mU, 

C*CPA«0« ... _. — „ ~ tit 

Qntdnchtoriiiatttl HydrodJorW EU*r. CHXKXXmCCt.Ha _ ii: 

llydrnoblor*t* of C.'htorKfcMr. I.:H/»H,0 ... - 715 

QMlrfcUoiiMted HyJrWpW* E*W, CHCW ... ~ _ 714 

;. CU.r*w-»»*fcM CO 1 . 

Vme«hlortdeofCifbon. < *U< ._. ._ _ .._ 211 

PcreMerk»t«l Vtafa EtW, C«U»0 - CH^.CO _ — 114 

CUwiUAjdc, ccw ,.._.. m 

Bremofhloraso/Cjrhon.CXV.Bf* — — -... tit 

S^«ichk«Mi«orUrbM.(Xa*»C«Cr,CP..- ... tt* 

t. O^cA/trMtf-Mf/nu C*CW. 

tilorowtkm, C*C*0 ...„___ 22J 

:. puy*«* faw w — h— c«(PHyy. 

ChlonotjfUic.OtPHnCP.O"^- — ... ~. ~ - »i 

Etber i C*U , ClSO-C 4 att'SwUO — — - 22) 

C**f*fri*4 C*m f *wm i i tftki r»/inw.«*//w. 
fik»W«jb**W E*e/. CC?li*O t CO» „ _ « 

ruiA *w» XM » o ttk EAct. CCyo.CO* — _ _ _ — tM 

CUoroart^WiHi, C7*?PB«CrO*-C»A*CHy H . „ 728 

Clfe«K*fb«««bMU,C^HKT43»-C»AdH*TO» - - 229 

r«n*k*. cmc-o.cnio" —«.«.«■ «* 

r«mhu, ctifro.min* - »i 

mia. c*HCi«o.cni»o» n\ 

Ant**, CO'O.CU'O' _ ... „ 231 
AMte-PmMomtnfe FcrmUte. f.«C*0--f?C*0. 

CM*o»-e"CK>.c=ao» — — — — — 233 

ftthlarattek Aaratf*,C'HK^O--C*IPC«)X'H>0» _ I 4 

T«iW W i«A-«t4^C-H'CTHr.i:'H<W f C'H'U. _ „ _ 232 



Q»*Irishloro*ioic AoeUW, CH'Cl'O'-OHa'O.OIPO* 

QflU le AeeuicC'll'C] O&tiW 

->.-hlonmnio AcKUto. CWCTO^CaaK^GWCM* 

ftcrtuii lak fc M*< W :l I WV WW - 

PerchloroTlnic A«Ute, GWO*-C< W,CW 

hreblorovimo OiaUie* r"i ["<>' KftPOjCQI 

Chloni»ctLiac,eCl , 0--< , .'Cl»0 1 C'O fi ? .... „ 

Chlorot tlnrinin idd, CHCIW-WICW.CW — 

AmoiODU-Mlt I Mini,c'<v,. '«>' ., _. 

y. AtHufoffm.mirlft. 

1 -»gon -nuolrae C'Adtl*. 

AetUmidc.C , NH*0 3 «C*MH',O' = NH'(CMi 

5 ElbjfeccUmldt. C"NHHV = CM<iH (CWJO" \ H<rMI»i(r«ll'09 

% Ethjlodmcctnmide, C*NH»0*= N(C>ll>)(C«JPOy 

Oljcocol. CNH'O'-CMdlP.O* 

Compounds of Gljcocol with tact 

H. Avmloytit-nucto* CAdHO*. 

OiMnictciJ. C'NUW-C'AdllO'.O' 

J,, i.mle Mid, C«N11»0»-ON\H>Me)0" 

| BU^lonHh MU, 0KItfO>-»CW(ffi4»)& 

y. A'liiif'ftrcu-nucJctH C 4 Ad?0*. 

OMmidtf,C 4 NvU«0*-C*A v «0>,0> 

ObubUb will. Hen eric Oatfe. BACNVO 1 

U MrthjIftxiiinUlu. CWHWm - H*M< .«" 

•I BtfewIoMaidfj N ■ii'-0«-C , N J (H-Ai : ;0 4 ... _ CWIIW-CAdW.O* 

AOopbrniie Ether, D -VH'O^t <ll O.i 'N'll'O* .... 

t. Amidotifw-mufteu C'AdU 1 . 

ChtortcetMiidc. C-NirCW-C'AdC^O' 

Chiorioolflmieiichl. i:«NIICI*0» _ 

i. imU9§m mmhn ffillfflfffH 

Cktoro.aeciUmid^C«NU«CI*0»-C*AdC , »*0» 

CUoroauocilic ucid - 

Cunjuyatnl CumyjUniU uf fir .imltlupen-nurlrl, 

Cait»mtc Ether or OnOuo, CNOW cwdUYjrn- ... „ 
% Bt)n/luHfau*,C*f(JI*,A< " 

ii- 1> i ■•v.nh,C45 > aco>-xa 

Xmiitliiuiiile with CuprOM I' 

r. x- Da L— I. vi' i I 

Xantinmidc »i»!i Cuj»rouj Chloride i 

«, N<CvC! -' -c. StfCsKt-**. WLVCft 









351— 2S4 

2M— 359 












XantkamliJe with Cuprous Sulplim-viniilr: 

ft. XJ.10lVfjS». — *. JUHOftJCfO.— *. Xd.CulC** _ 2*2, H3 

PUlinum-tomtwimcl, XtTlYCF „„ ... - 2*4 

Taurin. C*NIF3 l O i «C , A«tH\2SO a UA 

Biralptm.* nf ^tHrhTiU^mmnnu. Ml'.l W£KP .._ 3S7 

Car*. r^H s S*-< ■' I LB 288 

0«Oiclli*,ir 1 C'Mrf>"-C'A.IH'.<«l>' 2*8 

ChIorox«mf(h«no # C'NHK:i J 0*-C l AtiC|»,C*0< . . 

U Compound I'nui 

■urn, CW(ll»A*)0»,— Mcthylcthylurae, C*N*(U'MtAe)0*. 
— DiNkjUarvM. * -\-.ll-\r- .1 •• - IfctNl ',> i.m », ( >VA««0- _. 291 

Otbyl-«rw, OXWO--1 0,0- ,. 292 

% Cyanic Auiiflc* : 

CyantflijUmldt, CH«N,C*N.— iTyanodlcrbjlimldr, CH^N.tfN. — 
CyanomothjUdijlMD.d.. < 'UN I -N - 893 

<f. Xitroytn'tiucUi. 

... fWfrf— fnlWw OWH*. 

Aortonitril*. CWP [=Cjwiid«>of Methyl. C f U*,C f N] 2>l 

p. *fflwpa»a* rfm r«Nt ft 

CUorsoftonitrilfl, CNCl" -. 29* 

Neotral Fuifolnntc. nf7.m, . ('•NXZn' 

Acid Pali ■ Bah -- 

Fulmiiiifr of / ami \ mmmiiiim, &c . . ... ... „,, 

KulmlnoU of Copptr, CNXCa* • 

Fulujinotc uf Cupper »utl Ammonium, C*NXC«(N1I^.— Pal* 

Riiiwir of Topper and FotAitiutn. C*N!IOaK Fulmiinto. C«NXHg> 

Ncutml Fulminate «f Silver, CNXAg" M 

Add FolrainMe of Ktar, CNXAffl 




Kuimiii'iii* of SUvffl nd I <nu. 1 ■■■■■■I'M. PfrttMlfllHj fcti 309 — 311 

Ccifjvyattd Cortiftjunrlt tf thr Wttrttgtn-nvelri. 

fl%mln irtiT. nirilTl' I "n- \ n--,<i 4 sil 

ThUUinv, CNH^S* 313 

:t - ■ . . 3U 

A. Arti'foj/en-nucifi. 

a. Arndoyn-*mcU*M CMirtV .... 315 

AntUtr, OXtW - ftArH- 316 

Ul-u.IV I »ArH MI 316 

r Cacody I or Aliunde. C'A»r.\0-C:Ar!l\I!<> 320 

Attune -Hi MtfMrfa i aid*, WfBr.l '* H«0 

AlfanfavfafaMi . *M 

Alkonlnnlib Nitrate of Mlvrr. AfNO'.aC'AiU'O 325 


P«rto«eeJylie Oiidc, C*.UH°0 .... „. ... „ 325 

Cacodyllc *i* "r Alkarg«n, C*A»lFO».« - 327 

C*wdjUt»OAitliMO< ... xto— ah 

Proloiulpbide of C.codyl, C<A>H«S 332 

BUulpl.idt ufCiiruci,!, C'\.H"S» ... „.. .,., _.. 334 

Solj.h«an«!jUtM,C'Aitl*V!S* ... Jl4 

Autlioohy-Mlt, C»A*'H"Sb9*. -Bi.routWIt, CAaM'UBIS' .„ 337 

Lcid-Mli. C*MB*nd*, - Utprow-wh, ftkaVCftW 33$ 

Gold-wU, C'AilPAuS 1 „„ « 3J8 

SrlcnUc Q fC:*cod T l,C'\»H l, ac 339 

lodldftofCaimrlyl. C'AiH'J ... „. 33* 

Cfcylodtdaof Caeodyi. 3t>A«HM,C*AiH*0 - 340 

Zlrun.i.lcofCaeodyl, CA.H'Ur? 341 

O.jl-mmUi ufCMCOdyl. 3C*Asll*Dr,C'AiII*0_ - 341 

Buic P«rbromide of L'acodyl - 342 

Cfal laofCfcOOty, C'A»H*C1 343 

D^riAnMtOfOModyl, 3C 4 AbH*C1,C*AaH«0 » - 344 

Honied Chloride of Cw-odj) ) ... - ... 345 

Cacodrlnlc of (V-odjlic Chloride? 3l6 

IWrM.ri.L-nf < .-.nxlyl? .. 3*6 

Bwto Pftohloridc of t'aeodjl .'U7 

l'luyiiJc of Cftpodyl 3*H 

Basic tVrfluomic of Cicodyl.. — .... 348 

CjuiidcofCModyl.O.NVjU^ „. 349 

Armdogmn xmc/tiu C'*At*,0. 

Kryt.hMnifi,C-*AnH 6 O s -C'Af a O,ns 350 

H Aj'jmiftir in t'atfuiyl. 

Arn-nlrimrth>!. {C'lPVAn. ami ArM-imirLlirllmu iCH'VA* 331 

Anrnm«thyUthyliam. (CW^OHyA* 35S 

■J Apfumihx tn Iht Klkyltnr^mti. 

laidegf Ethyl. (C'll s ) : FcC,» 3M 

l lilumfcfTOcyiinitlr uf F.lhyl, (C*H»7r*«^r s * f -'* H * rl 3i< 

Fflrrieywiide of Ethyl? ... 311 


Acetic acid, CU',$H>'- V |J v }s« 

Anhydrous Thlicctle arid. Sulphide of Othyl, Thlaeetato of Orhvl, 
C*H»SO«-f % C«H*Oys» 




TUaeMateof K'.hyl, , 

Mrthyltirunioe . C'NUl* 

CUonplaitaata, ON>H',Ha,nCP. — Osalata, 2C*NW,c«H*o»; 

•lio ♦ 4 \>\ 

Tritwlc PhoqpMta of Kihjl, 3C l HK>.PO J ' - 

r;„.. M .i,.< ■ "■ Ktfcyl «n.i it. i. 

a. IUO,SC0K>,F(W, ». 2BaO.C*rt*0,PO> 

TribaaloFoniiiatvorEtlnl. SCil'O.CniO 1 ... 




Compounds containing 6 At Carbon. 

A. flUHAUT SU1B9. 
t'rimaiy.nurlrwt r Acrenr, tr*H*. 

OtidcoiAtii1,C*llK)~C'lI',llO.... _ .... ._ _ ... 363 

N tnll of SllTrt and Alljl, CWO, AgO.NO* ... 3«4 

Awl or Acrofcio, C ! H\0* m 30> 

I*««erjl — ... - 3'"»8 

Attylmtm „., ... 3fl8 

Ihmcrj^r^m _ 3fl9 

Awylie tctd, CH'.O' 3G9 

Aer>U4r»urSod«,Banu,u>d Slim: CH»MO* 371 

Arrjrlic Killer. C*H>O*-C»ll»O r CW0»? 372 

OilofCarlic, Oll»S-OU',HS , „ 372 

M«rmry-wmj»«qnd, C , H 1 S.2H|8 + C , H»Ci I 2ll«Cl 37> 

Sllw ■nrfftoM lomponndi 37» F ou»d.i a. 3(OWS,Pl82> ♦ (CWKXPlCfy — 

*.CH«a,P»S» ... 370 

Pihadiam.«itnportna, Ut+H'S.SPdS ... 377 

?tWr,hi<)oof AlljW ... « ... 377 

A>f<'-(o'jeH-H*eteHt OAdll*. 

f Alkali prodacod by oiidationcf Cmii&a, MOT -C«AdH 3 . .. 37* 

X'trttget-nucteti* C*N'. 

XttOMbCW Ml 

CjwMluricMid, C' 5 NMi'0« 3S'2 

llidrouifllonc or INdromelkmk acid 390 

Mellon Ida or llydronarlloiiu« m 388 

Melloaideor Potassium. CWK - .... 388 

KqBnUm of Sodium, Barium, Strontium, Calcium, and M>(tic* 

■lum .- .... ■ Ill 

Midlrtntito ff Ladj C^N'I'h f»HO 393 

Mellou>dc« of Cupper, Mtrcury, »nd Rtlter 391 

AffJcnJu tv \feilunc : Sulphide uf Alpbcac, flu.' 394 

1'norvLBNP or Tbitylixb Siaua. 
Primary AWtM C*U*. 

1 Rrepytm* C«H» 39» 

Iodid* of Propylene, OUn*. — Bromide, tWBr 3 . - Udorid*. 

< BHV M 307,398 

1 Pmpylic or Tritflio Alrubul, Ciro l -CWH'0'- C * l> j r J0' .... 398 

Mptofnp|UaMbJ t Cffl | O' r tB0< ... ._ .... M9 

:J io«nlaw»oiJ,C fl ll«OJ,2tS' .... .... 399 

rVopjUcorrrupionifiAltliJe, C ft ll".0' 409 




Propionic add, C*H 6 ,0« 402 

Propionate of Ammonia, C*H'(NH 4 )0*. — Propionate of Potash, 

C*H*KO*. — Propionate of Soda, CWNaO' + 2Aq .. 405 

Acetopropionate of Soda, CH'NaO* + C^TOaO 4 + 9Aq 405 

Propionate of Baryta, C'H*BaO* ; also + Aq 405 

Propionate of Lime, C'H'CaO 4 ; also + Aq 406 

Propionate of Copper, CWCuO* j also +Aq - .... 407 

Propionate of SUrer, CWAgO* .... 407 

Acetopropionate of Silrer, C'WAgW 408 

Propionate of Ethyl, C^H'W-CWO.^H'O 1 409 

Propione, CWNP 409 

■j Propylamine, CWN-C*H B ,H*N = C*H',H*N .... .... 411 

■fl Arsenide of Propyl 413 

Pseudoeoeticacid, CWO^CWO^tCHH) 4 « 414 

Sscondabt Ssbuu. 
a. Oxyy en-nuclei . 
a. Oxygtn-nucletu C*H*0». 
Pyrnrlc add, C*H 4 0<-C'H<0> > O< 

Pyruvates, C«H»MO« 

(3. Qjwen-nucieuM Cll'O*. 

MeioxaHcadd, tfHKP-CWOSO* .... 

k. Bromine -nuclei. 
a. Bromine-nucleut CTBrW. 

Bromopropionic, C^Br^H'.O 4 

&. Bromine-**eleu* C«Br»H». 

Tribrouoprc^ylsJdide, C c Br>H l ,0> 

C. Chlorine-nucleu* &C\*IV. 

Chlorowtedoadd, CCHH*^ 

d. Nitrogen-nucleui CXH*. 

Nitropropionic add, C*NH & 0*-C a XH>,0* 

e. Amidogen -nuclei . 
a. Amidoffen-nucleuB CfiA&H*. 
Propionamide or Metacetemide, C*AdH',0* 

Sarcoaine, C*NB'0 < -C*AdH i ,O < 

«ff Alanine, C*NH?0*. 

Cystine, C«NH'S»0*-C«AdH*,2SO» 

/3. Amidagcn-nuclcut CAdK) 4 . 

Oxtlaric acid, CWH 4 a -C>Ad'O«,O* 

a. Nitrogen-nuclent CNAdO*. 
Parabenic acid, CWrW-C*NAdOSO"? 










/3. Nltrogn-nwleiu CWH*. 


AQHnric acid, C*N*H«0* ? 443 

Lencotoric tad, CIWO* 444 

LtnUnoric acid, C 8 N*rVO a ? 445 

Allantarkacid,C«N'H 4 0*-C«NAdHH)»,0 4 ? 447 

Diffluan ., 448 

7. Nitrogen-nude™ C*N a H*. 
Cyanuricacid.CWH^O* 449 

Hydrate*! acid, CWHK)« + 4Aq 452 

Combinations with Mineral acids .... 452 

Cyanurate of Ammonia 452 

Cyanu rate of Potash t 

a. CWHIP.O 8 . — 4. C>N*H s K,0* 452 

Cyanurate of Soda 453 

Cyan orate of Baryta : 

a. C*N»HBa*0«. — *. CWHIP.O 1 453 

Cyannrate of Lime „.. 454 

Cyanurate of Lead, CWHPb*0 > ,PbO + 2Aq 454 

Cnpric Cyanurate HH .... 455 

Bicnpric Cyanurate with Ammonia 455 

Cyannrate of Silver : 

a. Ag^OTPHAgW — -5. CWHAgK) 8 456 

Cyanurate of Silver with Ammonia, 2NH» l C f NHA$*O i .... 457 

Cyanurate of Silver and Ammonium M 457 

Cyanurate of Silver and Potaaaium. — - Cyannrate of Silver and 

Lead 458 

Cyannrate of Urea ? - 458 

Cyannrate of Methyl, C'WH»0*-3C 5 H*0,C*N*0» 458 

Cyannrate of Ethyl. C»N*H 1 »0»-3C 4 H«0,C«N s O« 459 

CyanyUc acid, CWHK*-CWH*0*,0* ? 461 

Cyamelide, CWH a O*-C*N*H'OSO>? 462 

8. Nitrogen-nudem CWBl* 

Bali Bromide of Cyanogen ? .... HH .... 462 

t. Nitrogen-nuclna OTWPH. 

Calorhydride of Cyanogen, CWCPH 463 

Z. Nitrogen-nude** C«N»C1 3 . 

Solid Chloride of Cyanogen, WTO 1 463 

Componndi allied to Solid Chloride of Cyanogen 466 

1. Liquid Chloride of Cyanogen, CWCP? 466 

2. Chlorocyanic Oil 466 

ij. Nitngen-nudetu CWAdH* ? 

Product from Urea, C«N*H<0«-C«N"AdH»,0<? 470 

Hydroeolphomellonic acid, C«N<H 4 S*-CWAdH»,S* 472 

Sulphomcllonidca, C«N*H*MS* *73 


0. Nitrogen -nucleus C«N a Ad J H. 


Ammeline,C«NWO*-C*H*Ad*H,0'? .. .„. 474 

Ammelide, C»N»H»O i -C«N s Ad»H r O> + CW>AdHK)* .„ .... 476 

i. Nitrogen-nucleus &WA&CL 
Odorocy«namide I C«N*H«Cl-C«N , A<PCl « .... 478 

r. Nitroom-nucleus CN< Ad 1 . 

Melamine, CHW-CN'Ad'.H' .... 479 

Appendix to Melam inc : 

1. Melam, C U N»H» - 482 

2. Poliene, C»NW „. 484 

Unknown Primary Nucleus & H a . 

Glycerine, C?H"0«-C 8 H»O«,0» 486 

Photphoglyceric acid, CWC.HO.PO 1 492 

Snlphoglyceric acid, C*U 8 0*,2SO' 494 

f Biethylin, C"H«0 8 -(C«H<)2,C«H 9 0«-C«(H (1 Ae>)0* 495 

1 Acetin, C»H^-Cnin)V>H B 0«=OTH'Oe*)O i „ 496 

1 Biacetin, C»HaO w =(C*H J , ) a ,C«H«0«-C«(H«,Oe«)0« 496 

UTriaoetin, C u H l H) u -(OHK) I ) a ,C 8 H*0 > -C l (H*Oe 1 )0 B 497 

Chlorine-nucleus CH'CICK 

% Cnlorhydrin, CWCIO* » „ .... 498 

Acrtochlorhydrin,C»H»C10 8 -C«fcPC10 4 ,(>H I O s 498 

% Bichlorhydrin, C*H*CPO» 499 

f Epichlorhydrin, C 6 H*CiO* ? 499 

H Iodhydrin 500 

Nitro-nucleus PH'XK) 4 . 

H Nitroglycerine, C 6 N«H'0»-C«H«X a O*,O s 501 

Compounds probably derived from the nucleus CWX'H*. 

1. Nitacrol 502 

2. Nitrc*hoUcadd, CWH'Oa-CWXW.O 8 ? « .... 503 

3. Cholacrol, CWWO"? ..... 603 

Nitrite of Methyl „ .... 505 



Imparity in Chloroform 
Hydroferrocyaatc acid 
Cyanide of Cadmium 



Cyanidra of Copper and Cadmium 

Cyanide of Mercury and Cadmium 

Salphocyanide* of Platinum .... 
Solphocyanoplatinatea .... 


Nitroprauidee, preparation of, 

Nitropraaaide of Potaaaiam 

Olenant Ga», preparation of. 

Oxide of Ethyl 

Formation of Alcohol from Ether .... 


Carbonate of Ethyl 

Rioaphatft and Pyrophosphate of Ethyl 

Cyanate of Ethyl 

Cyanate of Mathyl 



EthyUcetamide . 
Ethy lodiaceta mide 
Ktby lo formiam ide 





Page Line 
79 — 23 from top ; for a;iintme, read aniliue. 

576 — 4 „ ; for 1850, read 1351. 

194 — 1 from top : for N*, read H 4 . 
454 — 10 ,, ; for CWKO^S 1 , read OH a K()-,C-S*. 

466 — 2ij from bottom ; for sulphur, read oxygen. 

— 15 „ ; for oxygen, read sulphur. 

438 The compoiition of cyanic ether is incorrectly .ralculuted ; it should be 

6C 36 ... 50-70 

5H 5 704 

N 14 19-72 

2 16 22 54 

CWNO* 71 100-00 

490 — 16 from bottom 

491 — 9 from top 
— 2, 10 from bott. 

xviii — 10 from top ) 

491 _ 2?l f ?from P bottomh /0rOX78UlpboCyanidc, rwrf ox r" 1 P hoc y* n » ,e " 


50 1 The formula of nitroglycerine should be : 

CWrTO" - CWX^.O? ; 

and the calculation of its composition : 

6C 36 15-80 

3N 42 2-20 

5 H 5 18-51 

13 144 63-43 

CWXSO" 227 10000 



Acetone. C*H«0'=CH < 0\C , H\ 
BmmZBB Derosivie. Ann. CM*. G;>, 94 

IT. / Pkfr 5*1, 200; nl... A.V*h 

8S, 1 01 

N tCAiBi & H S '"■ iOj 948. l. I Phy$, 10, ■!.">. :il ||9,; /fur*. /*/.// i 

DVKA* Amu Chun Pkjf*. \\S, 208; ftbo N. if. ..:. 1 ':iri. Kaxk A^. 4 4, #78; the J \ m I j. 120. 

'", 299 :;.■ 1 1/ / 1 Ck n, .'», 54. 
Platinum: /'o^/. 41, », m ami 312: tin 
PWn. 11. W 43, i;:i; also J 13, _ IVitii 

Pfeotafco "-m. 41, *JT; 43, 69; al K ' .. ■■>: Chin. 28, 

*ud 17$. - v - il u and Ammonia 1 An*, Phwm, 47, 24 j 

mIm 8TI. 

Sumli h A'a**r. wk tier GeMfihck. tier WUt. ru GMingm, ($59, H 
|>. 1*1; C«r» OdK 1853, 341 

Pftttte Ktkrr, Pyn+c+tic Spirit. M'tilic Jlco/tol, Av»i/.rA»r JBw.. 
ArasArSw Kmipfwf, )tr**tt%riygtni, BntppMSf, JtfflUlaiAoAS/, .i^tvm. h'tter 

Lemcry. I Btalil, KuiiIkI, and other*, in the dry dittilUtii 

.ted by the »l" 
rawi afu-r iln< inn eompoilttuii had l> .) out hy 

Lfskitf nrnl Dumas. 

Fonmati-.n. I In lt)l -i> 0003] • ■tumi (if ACOtle ftcid and it* RbltS by 

fcs*t (pp. 29I, 2'ri). — 2 In: tillatiun of I. (BoUqa 

Alwi in ific try rtifttilfaitiHi of i ■ : 1 r . rum, ur starch with tujrjil lime.* iu 
w»i^ 1 1, dim C'Aisi Pky$. 59, 7); *ls< 

(Luhsg, Ca.s*. «ij.) 

rrrjsXfiti**. Ilv ih.. dry <li-liil;i',n)ii aflU) BCOUt*. — Til.' SCttetM 4fif 

Wryta and lime uw the In-.i adapted fa] tins purpose; beosun fchaj 

a«t '•■>. . . 1 fiijjli » tt-i- ■ ■. of 

pota*li Ami *<*'%, m ifcv di Guipo lion of v |-i. 1 * »t i- 

iir is resolved uatosropjretimaiio oil, dsc. (Pt-louxc). and l>c<maso 

ktsyta 11 n lbvBC4i to allow 

Ao4M mere or less from iu DQattnUloill 




with many licavir uicUllir oxidi**. *Uoh BOItvver often d<?compoao port 
of tho acetone by giving up nzrgmi In it. Tim murr mduallv 1 1 ■ •* 
beat in mined during tttt JjotillnM Ion ih* grentur i* tlm yicM u! m !«>rn\ 
when I < nil. rod to rieo too liifcb, tho acetone if ronolved 

into i ■ni|iyn-iii»4lic oil, &c. 

1. IVrfcctly ilry acetate of luryU in dibt:lh-d at a gradual!;. 

I >ui!i:iA.) Acetate of baryta wlion very pum and dry j 
a colourlou distillate, which U Dot acid, tut consul* wholly *>f ncclonc. 
(Liobijr.) 100 purl* ofnootnto of h;.r\i » irlod La viir.uoarc mofrred Ly 
lillftiion l&tQ ",2"l ptt OOnt Of 'uruouaieof baryta, 1"2 charcoal. 
1* I ■flolono, <; <i wutcr. aud 1-? gnn (with low). The diotillal. 



from wkUt by reelincatlon over rhhiride of flnJofmn. 

_. Pom pound* of neutral neotato of loud arc intimately mixed 
2 paunda of lime, which i« alnked faring the trituration ej 
omtalliati ' '!"• londieJtj the dmm iotroduoed, while itDI hot from 

tall hydration of the lime, into nn iron naiaknilroi bottle (if left l*ujer 

il ■ %. II ■ iij. [in*l i' nt t<i introduce-); the boil i n.-arly 

I, i niiial poaJUon in a furnace, hut with iU mouth nightly raued; 
a abort downwnrd-bont iron tubo ecrewod into tho mouth; tlio joint* 
luted with a miitur ol ' ..' piti Iiiir. 1 \>\, aand, aud a ituall qOM&tlty 
ctoniii.nri -ill tod tlir hi, i; t nix routed. .1 v.illi :i 1m:i ■ .:\ 

which if kept cool by nn nsecndinjr currant of coM vraU ». ml |. 

n receircr Hiirr*niii'it"l with ico, The bent u gradually mi* :ia*e. 

Tin- crude dinli!hit.\ OOBtMttllig tCOtonO leather With " in.. 11 (| 

water and two volatile cmpyrcuinatio oiU, in ahakea up with chloride of 
culeimu Mill diatilled in tlici water-loth. The ditttilhiU 1 m mixed wit! 
eoaracly*! lime, lot nrido for a few day* and !>- xjuently agitated, 
nod three fi>urtli> of the liquid ditftillcd off: this dietilluto generally 
cou*i»u "f pure nootenn. Toe remaining portion of th< inim 

further purification. By Uua proccai, I pounds "I* acetate of lead yield 
from 9 to .*$ ounces of acetone (Zeino); — Gottlieb (Ann, /Vt<ira. 
■ ■!■ hi ft similar manner, bol rinhtly oaoi only i poonil o/ 
limo. vbtroby the procena ia nooolorfttod and a much muro abundant 
Bfoduol ebtninod, 100 ptn. (1 At.) of acetate of lend require to decom- 
p.r.c boon Into acetate of lime ami oxi«lo of lead only 20 ]»U. (I At.) of 
lime; laatnai oflSnjB dooompoica part of the acetone. If the process 

■ » 'ly. lfl» pU. of acetate of load ahotth! yield "' j>* 
neot'inc, or I ponudy atiouM yn-ld :», ./u!n*--.-, 

Formerly aoctono wnn obtain. I bj dtntUling xicctate of lend 
1'' i: i ,M4uir.iir.l ill.- l:i-( portioni of the dietiflatc thereby oLl 
I '■■!..■• h. nnd recti find if, aJ atlng tb« etnpyronmatSc oil I 

ii i i-i 1 Bieme. - Cbeuerlx, Kid Ukowiuc Macairo & Mnrcct, nuxntl 
Ciitir^ ilitttillato ..1.1:1m.. I I com tho ncctato of lead with potnxh; 
off tlir more volatile port'mii; .11. .K <<d carbonate of putaeli in the 
Into tbua obtained, thereby onoaing tho acetone to ecpurntn and 
r.jiinl lln'ii notified it over chh>ridi<of calrium <>'ii 
loe -li-tillnte obtained from acotato of load, over milk of lin 
nnd - l!y t in order to renin ize the cinpyrcurnatic oil, over ebli 

of lime (which, nowtror, •ooordlng to Liobiff, may oos 
m to other producta). then i»it-.i! over chloride of cnlciuMj 
tinlly» becnuM; liiwanlx ih(» itiH nn impure npirit puase* over — t.icf.., 

dlatuinao^acaUte of lead, chm-v I the hwimt -iw «ou a* tbe water 
am tie iieid wbioh fir«t poniod over were replaced by ft combuatikle 
bUe wbioh wn» ucorly colourlew, and Lid ocareuly any acid 



I«ii1!ato in the wfttwlmili r. li tilled tli« rcctinVl product 
aoTcral tinjoa, aluayi odditis in oi|nul Yolumu of water, fill llm mfeiual 
watery line id, on tin -mrfiw uf Wnkal drop* of oil WOV vMUb Oil tlio 

0r»t liiMii . [«tr teat«d of «m|i^rauin»Uc oil tad Ibl Ai liilnt© 

no longer exhibited Ltiy ucri reaction; and finally, not lira 4i.-.tjllal<> a*ido 
is n Moppcrcd bottlo. to^llicr with n ri c 'jiuutity of dil»rMc of 

rewfe euloriih of oaJctim. 
htathen D m prepared acetone from tha last portloin 
laqciil obtained by thr- (fattthtm «*f cryaUllitod T«i*iigri«; Tronimadorff 
obtniacd it by of arefste of wide, 

• obtain aootone ^uito freo fmm empyrrainatic oil, an 
imparity *Iiu«t9 proaroc* ma/ bo nxuLtiicvd by its odour. 

Propers**. — TrafiMttrmt. colon r lee*, Terr thin I 
i.O-7fl04(Clieiicv x.u ?:«:.• UtlsWLicbi,- 
»* BiiKor;i!ioiitO-782( u-M -hi :ii n H. Kopp, 7 

■ iinily won nt — IS n). BoitwgpOJDtJ 

(Lf( . pr««iro(i)omai)j 5fi-9i (Gm "); 

bach); 59* (Cbeoerix); 56 3 ; at 0-7C mot. prowuro (H. Kopp). Era 
rau* ia tin- air f prodocia i ■■n* • <»i' nil . | u-ff.) 

Vapour-"' (Duma*}; 2*02t i K wi< >. — Hu a pungent odou 

iliuf of otbar, and low 
Ibai of garlic; according to (honcvix, it rcaouihloi tliuao oF the oil* 
f»cpf*cnnmt and bitter ilmouda; according to Cm,, it ia ewrwli-li. like 
lb*; uf BO0ti< I'lbt-r. Id UipIo ia bitillg likv tlmt of QaOlplior, ;i"'i I' i 'I 
inf iTroannudcrffj; burning at first, afterwards conling and son 

itroDjrfy refreshing, I ul 
cbaracur; the after- lee* >nl. (Giu.) — Xoutral: 

ill 6 

to _ 11 

i i. i 

... w-w 


._ 6.' i • 
i*4i .- 

Marfllrv A 

Puma. Kane. M 
. 61U .. feVfl . 
. 10-20 .... 10^ .... 8 20 . 
. 2T'3fl ..- at* - 36-50 . 


- M ■ ■ 

fi 10 

- 337a 

CM** — M 

O «- ...... 

.... 10000 


._ 6 « 

._ 6 ... 
.- 1 - 

-. 100-00 .. 



. 10000 -. 100*0 .... 100*00 .. 
Or: TaL 

AWrlmlr-iapDur — I 

M<t»/lmr.«a« 1 

- 100-00 

... 1 


1 . 



- 2-0104 

Ac=U*cto la r«(raJ*dod by Cbancol m a 00njo£t4od oompovnd of iba 
matLTfcuc-Acrim. - OH'CP.CW (VII, 21 4), andbv an an alo 

Kin- i.i.i I ia C*H' and = CmMPO 5 . fn -\ 
* and «auin»i Kane'* view, ir may ha aUftgnd in tlir dfloom* 

■-I" OOniJ'OllT.'i rmtd ''""I uiruLT 

acrylic acid, I 
in. I iim -Uiyl./.i. &cb art .iconic and formic 

I); that I uro formed fxcim iiticb.'i i 

■Ubn mi. I I. toma, ■-■ y. OTP, <''![•. and 

C*!! 1 ■! :i( tbo product" wfaioli Kono obininc-l ir< ra 

.-rwi<ndin^ to elbcr, oliluri<lo of elbyl, 4to-, »how, by 

EriiTUNE: riUMARY KUCLEl'3 < 'Ml 1 . 

their «ligbt rolatUity, and by » i riem other oluarecteii that tm»y «hi 

bo regarded M compound' .niit.-iniiii^ 12 it limn- utmii "I .■iirlmii. (Hi 
the other hand, if Chancel'* vita Ik: adopted, it it dittirult to assign any 
rational formula to Kiuh-'s product*, mofa fur example ue chforv/ 

tl civa. ami afcn <'ip\o' = (--ii i x (v& d. 9*> 

Such being the uncertainty which exist* respecting the ten I Don 

of U1-1O product*, it will bt '^-I to DOa in th.» form Ol 

appendix, imimdiatciy after «■ i iimr. 

•J According to the more rcccut views of Chancel and Ocrtia 
acetone iiihv Ih- a aldehyde in vtitah l Ai.. EJ U Eetriaoed Ira. 

toothy]; in fact, nldouydoand acetone are formed up'«n the typo hydrogen, 
illli'juat no noetic acid and aootato of Diethyl are formed from the trpo 
wa-.or(HH)0 ; thu« (VII. 17); 


■ ■> ilyurugctii 



CH» * 


[|J0 Vaicr. 

'Jo fceattoeeW. 

4* 11*0 I 

^IP JO Acetate of mcll.Tl. 

Sl;ulrh-r likrwinr n-<.'ii.rdft rnvtonn it* aldrli yd<\ n P !i ilt HI i- n«pl; 
l.y w.-ihylj thu-- .1,1. l,;/.lo = C* [[f^*} '; « coton 0=C j C^i*! "' 


Dt<frmp(irili</n*. — 1. Acetone piiuicd through a red hot tube U 

%'ert'wi, vStb depOiUlon f( eharooeJ and formation »■( a antall qaentity of 
water into tbo oil (dumiuiu), which t*ouemlly £00e over with no* 
produced by the dry distillation of acetate*. 

2. AoetODt re Mailrad 9% §n than -Iniliol, and burn* compl 

away, frith \ bright uhito flame, which in blue .at the odffiM, and doftl 

tuimwhiriT Cbanevti ) The i'< Id ih yellow, 

faintly blue at the lower part; it ha* the nun* ■ !<■■■ h.-iyhtHo— m 

I il.'-r. and only nnQKCfl a little when a pice. i* held 

ihoi jl I'Ih oombueUoO produota nothing hut carbuuic i:id n.»lcr 

(ThuiiiiimIoiij'i. in) .I'-clir add. (Lieblf.) - Ail inivrd with v:ipour of 

ac«*tono ii likewise EoSanimabta — rXeetooa aprlnklcd in th< dan 
r.'.l ha! ir. 1-1 i-\ltil.K- :i Klu* llunio (alcohol doea not). (Brawnier, 
of Sc % i. I IO'i. -- Aeeronc mny bo preserved without alu 
bottle contatnirin air. (Liebif ) 

8. Dry dWeWief y.< paaaod into dry hivIihii- i* nlmn : 
with rieaef temperature and BTolutioii of hydrochloric acid ni, wlthoafl 
r the appaatance ol the aeetoai < • f . howovcr, water be pr<«cnt, 

rlilondotiii j- j c. t ifiiliiti-.l ill the form of mi oil). If th i of the 

clilorim be OOBlUned, and Ute liquid at the mum: timi- IumIimI from 
without fill (lit 1 nrtinii i n c llu- :n -. I hii i I'c.niid ro Ih< mn vt*rti 

:. heavy oU oootaiainj ohlorina (Liebig.) Tbla oil i* Kan»'a mevitie 


But it Is tape 'i'* I to mplacfl fho wholo of the hydrogen by ohl 
even at 1UU" ami in siin«binc. ^Dunuw & Kane, A an, Oim". /Viy#. 73, 

94.) — UiiMtikficUirT cxpcfitiiciit» -illt eUoclui lir.ii lx.11 pn . .ii-!y ma<te ty Mauiirt 

au, md by Mattevari. — When aeotoni ai 

chloride of lime, chtoiofurui io choired utid I' of lime 



•J. Sornrt] n nro olitaincd hy the. *r*fon nf * 

mixture of chlorate hydfOoblorifl ""I OH !- ■ i -tie. Thcta 

cnanpouad* nr ■ ■> inflammation 

»L<ii tin ■■. Ui At «Lin, thc«c rHccU 1 In cad 

is grc»U-t in; the OOIApOWdfl CUOtAlDIIlg tbo HiiiMllest pro- 

S| ,m i.' etl i ]» Ktfl r in rlil-ir:i m at* 

ivii, »rjit production „f a brown colour and -cpara- 

ti -ti KM lit* a>1< lil iuii of poUuli to lli-;c which 

are richer in cnl« mo^o in lit" coloui Tbe OOin- 

■ in mm i -.vitli strong Mil|ilmric Mid. Tin-yarn 

Inlili- in cold rliiiu in hoi Kitumitul cnM 

-<ltii rlit'l even with tbo heut of tlio hand, whiUt a liivit of 

40*'— CO' mntiM tbo great* r portion of the dic*olved compound in 

beary colour l?w drupe, 1 1 • d by the ncliun 

n i othi i organ i boJio*; i-jpi-iinlh h\ tin- m-iimi ofa 

mtvfiira of rhVmiTp fif potato aad l.ydmrlili rir acid on kiltie, citric, or 

i ii.- i- !..,.. ir.-.i io affect tha r*pla«c»»ai of 
■oof* tk.%ti fl At, II ty CI 

/Vn- .» lolorabt j mobile, ooloorloai 

liquid li.tiirtL' a Imi . anil :i |mhmi! jj« r odoUl PBWlofc 

tbal of ehlorul. I it — J0* t volatilize ut.hIub! 

Ik* air, ftod tolli at al-om 190 Sp. gf ' B U M 1 fl ilk 

* Ar || forma a compound wbioli eryHuUiaoa in rli ddci, 

and uielu at i.U--i \*S . I to aqueous oolutiou ha* a distinct acid nBMtioiL 

roUortMOfcvi Affiant, C*CTO\ in obtained by lha action of chlorine 
i 'lo» the prooodiog corn- 

pea:. With 2 At. orator \% formi ■ eryttaJtiai iiydrutn 

i 13 nd 10 . IV uUniouv, who discovered tins 
compound, assigned in it tbe fowml » * "' d>0Wi lliat ita 

.-Hum ayr.'c* equally wall with dici abovi formula. fStftdclar.) %. 
4. A<-:t-ioo in contact with i/rommr mi. I c:i ii- 1 1. 
tore, i. 31, — 

i a rod from citric nid likewise yield* brouioforra. When a jmall 

Inddv I In tli'' acutoufl i I MM of 

roan '.iratci in tha form of a reddish oil, which may 

U d« L by ■ taaall quantity ni |totaitIi [Cahoara, .V, Ann. t'/.%m, 

J*kyK ]0, IfKJ.) — 1$ aovtio acid a] t, •oconiina Io Lite oniAtlfra: 

<>» * (Bi ♦ 3110 - cniBc" * C'il<u« » SBBr, 

or rather aortato of |c!a»li, ncocmlin^ Io tbe fvllo« 

6Bi . 3K" < in.;' + C1PKO' + IKBt - HBr - BOI 

rl y^./in/ xnl «■; -i. ;ii- i«»n«- <l . -i not form ioilnform or iodalo 

•f |>' iita a blackioli ptt<L like ouU- Q 'nupoaoa 

wLrtt It • nafter, nat diaioUo* in alcotol. (iiniiciwrdat, 

J n*rm 

■o of /**aojj r aeetonn tarn* acid whan Iti pt fo? 

aOBM WM I ily when lioatcd, ovon in perfectly air-tight 

V**- i>«»jfe OOOVi'tiBg in BCidl, nil o>n- 

Uini ■, hydrogen en and pbo«pti< PAo^A-i- 

iloblc i pound oj 

eari-*B b- Inn in nut aitondnd with tbo 

log that of ucetoii* •■• hid 


compound ftmsfau undromiipoised, mid nia) ha distil lud off as a neutral 

Actftoric Acuf. 


Pun acetou« U boated nearly to the boiling point for 24 hours with 
a rvry largv execus of phosphorus in u ll:i>k winch ia lilted witL a loug 
Hue ■.nun; Tii'..- Si.ii!.: ' bulb !|1 ''"• middle and Lhi pari bayond thi 

bulb bent downwards, tho bulb being surrounded with ooM water, so that 
tho acetone which rioea into it in vapour may bo condensed ami flow tack. 
Tli- ewtigtf of tin thru dircontiaaed and tho uiule com posed 

acotonu distilled over; tho thin syrupy residue poured off from (ho 
nmiftlug |ili(i.|.lmni.. :ui l i -iiK'n'iiv.f quantity of acrtono distlllad ■ 
it to convert it into a thick »ytup; tail syrup diluted with nix time* iu 
lull; of writer, wherrupua it beC-OXQOI milky from |>»r.-itioa of a lij^ht 
yellow lmdv r-muiiiiii. ;»linsj.lmrii», the filtrate mixed with oxido of 
lead. 3tt Mhfa in a close nam, im frequently agitated till it bvooiuus 
iH'iiiral or retains bol ;i rflght u*gr**j of acidity; nnd the solution of 
acopbernto of load separated by nitration from tho fftitc powder con*i«t- 
LOC • •! |dio4|>bucoUte, aoephos^enato, and a M&ftU <|u:uii:iv <•! pin. -[iluito 
of lead. The lend is PWcSpttoOd &ODI the filtrate by sulphuif-ttcd 
hydrogen; the liquid filtered. :,:itnmted with lime; and tho Acephoratc of 
lime |ii:: i I I by -< lotion ill alootol (whudi le:i*i - behind u vnr.ill i|ii:iitr:1 y 

of odmixod acophoajpnaU of lime), and by DNQipitatinff the riltnito with 
ii'itT (any phoaphaoctatc of lime that may bo promt then I Bi iltftg in 
solution). To obtain tho acid in the free Mate, it is to separate it 
from the aqueous solution of its loud-salt by sulphuretted hydrogen. 
T!ii! iii|ii.-(iii:. nnd Inret when 8V»|>or.tti-d :i Ii^ht. vrllm 

ng a «our tasto. In this atata it give* off, when heated nearly to 
rod 11 aw, ;i go* (whirli not tal-" fiffl ipoatantOUlly) and LaiOC white 

funics, leaving after tin- i-uiti i carbonacooua mnsfl from which w 

Cxtra-I' ph< icid, while floeculcut ohftfOOiJ EUnaj 

Til.- :ii t(lj tii -uhiM Mldltlv Ul «:iliT. Il^ »:.ll< :i:.' cillirl ;;im:, 

Elwuhrat; do not give oil' paojphnrettod hydrogen wh< 
solve readily tn WftU-i iiud ul*o iu aloohol. TImmt :ii|ii» eolation il 
(UpitatOd I a bj nhatotalQ of load, but only by nitrate of lllvWi 
which nit r a whilo (immediately, with tho uid of heat) produces 
bruuu-LUuk precipitate. 

The Amnrot'i'i tail bcoontoi add when it* lolution i* Mvnpnnited in 

VX/'IIO. — Tho .\ftlti-- ■-•'/ .li-. .1- . . I in iilrcliol Ii-ih -x hlight nlk.ii I 

Limt-MU iu perfectly neutral. When subjected to dry distillation. 
it jiolds pTodaota urioff u mU ntctixu. I' h i»!i«wpbocui which it 

cou tains U not OOID|dot«gl 03ddii0d by 0UO1UJ nii.iii j«i«l, but readily by 

li f.irbfuinu of nthUi and nitrate or chlorate of potadi. — The 

.7 .»|,<ii ii. :»ijiu*on* «olutioii iv evaporated, i« partly com : i & 

tBiC an immjIuMo residua. (Zeiso.) 


w ur 






i I .• whitn pal* ml »0l DaixtOra of phoonhacetntc, nccnhoBBcnatO, 

Eho4)>liuto of ku'l, la difluftcd in waivr and docouipoavd by sulpUuret4«d 
ydrojfcn; the IJltrntc Mttttftled with linn-, thfl ibIhOOO "f iihowpharctato 
of limu evpuratod by tlhration from il.< i;ndi*iolred acephoxgetute and 

hi<h would be liable to •Jocompoaition by CTajHr- 

i p i • 'i-i|ii':i! B iIm- |iliti*|ili:uTlH' :irid /)• 

ft lanl-«ftlt ; thv paOftpbftCfltftte of lead d -r, and dec > in poind 

phosphate; tlic fihrat©, 

limi'd wtlli iu£ru.U' 

by iulphu ■. . the bltrnto evaporated. 

liio puOffpUacetic fteid llioa K*im:(u » ftUoV fM9U having 

a very bout tvte. When heated, it gives off a Ur-fc auaotity of pM, 
;» take* tiro and Imihm lYtl'ly, aw! thick white fu ultra. 
Waving pbnaipliorie i<id mi\ol with floocnlftBl Qftffa 

If ri water, it* galr% do not give olf 
i whoa henled, — Tin nbcOu wil!i 

ii 101 cryaual- 
f|0«'>: iifcUIIatn an. I pftphi. ; ■ *i«Iuo :i!iil .Imv; nor. 

Uxko tiro *. -b the air. It ii inrtantly tumod bi 

by it. !, and Mack if hem! be apnliod, 

ut very »I" d precipitatoa 

it fruiii the ■•■ -, ■ ution Inn nqui nun Bolntton of the boryta-enJt 

rli nitrate of lead; n gnimiah 
rwBj gthfttiaon* pi with protocklorufa of o< ppfti ■ ■ »l too bulky 

prt* i "I with nitrate oF «il v-;r n iv.jhoii* 

whiu> pi- ■ I fa ■■ I- Mmi bit it ordinary tciupo- 

raturt* »n>J immediately when Ik i ..) 

rule) ia a odourlc 

I nrlnu distiilaro and i*ftrrir»nai*ff»iifc w»*i 

Acq>ho*$cn\c Acid, 

ion of phf>«)ihnoot*tc of lime h.u In 
rvcepliotgttata and "'/i.'i ili- limi two 

*alU it> replaced by »odfc; ll* j I - ■ - j J ' 

i the aeoplKeuftMi.iT . tfco . ■■!* the hitter prccipitniod by 
• tlic i«ephoMrenAM of lead treated wiib sulphur* I 
bydp?£en t<> wparntr lb* foe Midi 

0» crnpftrntiiiir tr<- Mini D, the acid remain* in the f"nn 

of t I i U ft*olv*d by dj i| btoft 

vf jf4^» rfro» from pi ' .1 hydrogen), white fumce, 

ftftd I mixed with charcoal. 

Aoepragoau ;ly in voter. Iu i»Jt* do not 

*ir* ttod hydrogen whan boated. Many nf i 

m«'' pwringly : aeophoifleftfttft of *oda 

. witb nitrntc of lilvof i' EoflDU * 

\Vo (ro«i> i - Irer) wbloh Inrai b* 

l/UcV, fi!»w|y . !y when heated. (^oi«e.) 

Tn*>i v.iu Compound wntamiag Carton and Ph&p&vrWt 

:irtio poi lioo of |>Uojphorud ii rcj Mftlftd with frwh 

Santitirw of i' I in i -. li.i>i:i^ 

aline. If tbft acid liquid bo poured off £nan tb& 

m *». •. ri.iu.."i- Ihr I 

le of ration t<> tnk-j up tho froe pIioAphoruji which 
Iim nrl l*oe& a<i«d on, a dnric yellow powdor rcuwiaa b«b(Ad Thi» 
ejelwUuco us out ftJtcr««l when really beftitd >n oonUct with air, but if 
•ftbjeotoU to ft *ir»n ( n;r brat, yioiiLi putapuoru* and a aaruoaacuoud ru*nlut. 



■ mains to be determined whether litis compound 
from hydrogen -* ■* « J oxygen.] 

fonoi with ieanOM p rod u c t ! similar to tbo»o obtained wi 
pbopphcwwi but net* more (lowly — .SuipMdr of pho*pfwv$ farm* with 

r mi. I, umt an oil which lia* a powerinl odoUl bat tip acid 
reaciion. (Zri»c.) 

fl. Btnag Xiitk add .1 ■••■inpoMsi acetone with violent BToloti 
bnnfl and piirie -.iJ. b i aad fbrniatloo o( meant ir »ldi-hy 

nitrite ol ploloti (CH*SO*)| acoUc ooid, oxalic acid, ami eyanur - 

— Acetont beaten ritl citric acid of i off nitno oxido wi 

I leaven ■ -vrup from which oxalic acid (.'ryalnllise*. (TrotDntf- 
dorff.) — Dfatflled uttfi 1 ml Itrong nitric acid, it dopofitl a drop of oil 
in the rotort, and finally lcnvex lu< lt<* neid ami u carbnnaceoui 

ihfl diotiUate tbordbv obtained, if reduHtUed after neutral 

v id pota li. IcftTCfl acetate and nitrite of potash, and yields a distil 

jliiii CAaraetar. (Cht'iivvix.) — Acetone olaod iu a test-tube abo 
an equal Volnme of Stroilff nirric arid, Roon ncoomoi. boated to viol 

!>crou-. rj l >■ -in litioo, which liuu n lonjj time, giving off nilric nxi 
igvinn; h bitter ethereal odoot and teeming ■ wnall quantity nf a Liqal 
which contain* oxalic :.t id, i* scmlm-d turbid l\ the preeencc of droju >f 

oil. am! yields more --il when ii-Mt- I with water. Tins oil in yellow. 

thicViab, Ihih n taete which li aionntlontb iweei nl Brat, bul aftorwarda 

Hlmrp iiikI burning, nnd leave* for an bour n burning noma t inn <*n t 

s .i. : m.. 'irn.) rvbon ■ mixture of .'i v..i. m-oiiHm and 3 toI. mi 

add i- inir.' fftntly bitted Is a retort, ti J it \* brought into a kind 
f : mentation, bol BTOivfli no JpUt or nitrous fumw, and Imlf (lie luixtoro 
orer at a gentle Seal the realdao in the rotort coosSats of o 
liquid which thrown aown a lar>;o qunnity of cvunnte of silver [probably 
<-y:ii:nr:ifi»] from tbo nitrate; nnd two (Sietillltee are nhtwiied, via., a 
watery li'ji ;id, whirli 1iL.-syi.-c g\w* a eopiouH precipitate witb nitrate of 
silver, and ■ trtMpOIOIll Coloorleea OUT liquid, whtOO lin-» nn aroni.itic 

m loll I, botl* f I miii Mi t »* | (10 , fornix lIC'i'l ic :ii".l ttlnMI kl'|i| for -nllir ! 

miH, n m; i:: p . .- carbon, 10*84 hydroj d ind 22*73 oxynan, sad in. 

i foro -= C'H'O.H = Jfptrttrt tTA'l-irhyi*. Tbi4 oil, wben tree 
irilb d, witb foruuition of bydroeblorrio ncid, into 

nn..tlior uil n liiohooDtaioi 85*2 i>or cent, of OUOOD, A S of bvdroffen. and 
0€ 9 + CI, nud is tbereforo OHMDX'l- Vhfarurt xtAldtkjpk (Loom*, 
Ann f/'nn PAyi fin", .'{is) A mixturo of 2 vol. acetone and 1 rol. 
•trong nil nvoa off when bcntcl u lorge quantity "l altrooi fa D 

and ffothfl up nOaxb to breab the retort if the lieat be continued, 

if the Ji.juid be beatod only 131 it begin* to frollt, the frotbior checked 

by imnieneog ilie venae] in oold watflTi too liquid again boated till 

Hie %.■...') :i;':i n fir dad, and thifl troatinant fretjucruly repeated, il 

iniMnro, when mbn-quontly treated with watrr yleldl m pale yllow oi 

oon«{atuag "i tih Mo aldehyde nod nitrate of ptoleyl, in whi< 

the rneaiUc aldehyde pfadonBiriatr: in f-i ■•! «-.r! i> n to the extont to whJ 
tbe deconi|Kieitiou I trried Dilute nitric acid e>erUaeareely an] 

;i( i !i<.ii, oven wlicn heatadj bnl loti As nert<iin r unaltered (Ki 

i I M-itlj iinucoufl hdic iir'nl foi-iiw u priniliai oil, with- 

8. Acetone mixed with OC "f Vitriol, cvolren great bent and forma a 

brawn, or if ri<« t>f r.'mpir:itnro lir pn ( M*rili il, a lij.dil hniwn liquid. 

Anootding to *'" i""! ortJona In « inch tbe lnjuida aro mixed and the nn 




mptfitara which take* plneo, the product may bo Btoftio Otfaaf 

:'io4ilylcmulphuric,or uil|)i.ijr».ii ' vol. acotom- boitfld 

with 1 rol, oil i vitriol, loir* a <.irl ■ jrwJd two 

.(.-.* >iurllniv of onlpburooo :nnl. the upper yellow, and Lhafowofj 
whieh w thfl largest in c|a«nuty v wink- v)— A a nee- 

tnctv anil tn*t a*hOn hi lb I bill whflfl 

i *ter and noutraUjuid witU baryta, i vi- M. alpbati oi 
Urvln aod aoolubleUiryti-rcit, prohaMv tiulpliuvinate. (Licbig ) — If tho 

li<J9idt DO . mi «■ id ;i OQjUaJ VoJnBMM end kepi 1 ri >l.i r k tiruwn 

miilur* in formi ityloue, ■ wnxy inaltrr. iiiitl n Miiml! 

quantity of rnesitic etbei which ■utatanoao rite lo tho tup hi n thickiih 
La n on tl»" addition oi '■ •>. ■ r. V.'ii.n 1 pt. of acotono and '2 pta. of 
oil of vitriol an mixed rapidly nnd without cooling, nul|ihuroui aciJ U 
ctoWciI, an>i i own mixture foaaodj containing penDoeityla 

phtiric Mci-1. lojfotlici with ■ iniall i(iiantit) "I mealtyloNalpnuflo MuL 
i rd4 i t..i -iiljilnirir aeid prounei mostly lose fphnrio i 

Tb* Isllcr mixture evaporated at a gOOtlo bOoAg jifldfl a dMDati of 
aauco>ss enlpburoiio a«id, and a yellowish oil Beating DpOl it, thttj - il, 
wuioh ainvunt« tu } of il ■ ."il mixture of ant i-.l. . montyWoO. 

iri nil )i .m ; .; ■■ l highoi t>f >ll IM" Jl'iilil 1 1 ill I, IM«v i! ; Ini>- (Kill') 

— The* I whieh panel oror bogetfcei with -Im- mixture of 

picf*iiylciu' *»<i :i ■■■ "li ' lling ft mixture of i Vol acetone nnd 

1 iiMi sulphurous acid and aeetw uri<l. whieh i 

in tin retort there remains n greenish waxy 
vritli fnxltibur. (PliutMRiour.) 
P. A with facial / , evolving heat, and 

brown maM .-■ -ni'iil jiinfiiv of iue»itylo- 

phoepbartc and. (Kane.) 

10. ■ large quantity of IFptrodUofic »> id pan. 

form CbencvU / rhii brown, tblcktsb, heavy, ana 

verr acid ltij*M eontnini a largo quantity of ehlorldl of rttoofty] 

itrli may In* prvnpiUted l>y water l.nt likewise 

■I -#*---t i I. MM . 1 Tho lit-TTTl 

liquid dbtillod orei c.-irlmnntc of |mtn-li yield* t»o di liliut «, thr ouo 
tranvparrat t> ■•■«, (I i ml;i r, wlm-li i- lln; Itchier of tin- two, 

i ! Irtturr ha* an ■romuio u.Ionr, and * DOt, 

■. niMCihlo arlth in iU puru of 

wai> I 11 • i i 1 « ilion <«f bvdroohl<>ri< m rjftj Imt 

idntit precipitate wuh mtrntoof m\\ < hen burni on the 

is i .v,im..i . liviJturiil. i »• ;i.-i.i fonne with ncetono n 

tUrk brown mixtarv. from which the acetone may bo raeoi 

: Kane.) 

1!. Atxtono 'mixed with twice ite woi^ht of &mt4N/if'<rnfr of 
Piotp*+rttJ ic iiL-n mi- . i ililoridc of meeityl. (Kane.) 

I?, Whoa » tjruiitfht in contact with /</<.. mil f'/iofpftoru$ 

al ilir mdo timr. lar^'e quantlliea of hydrioiiio icid pu :n«' rv(.h*il p 

-My c "•I1"T i i- l.'t :i . ■■. and maj bo dUtillod over; 

also t . I .1 ■' | per bo pi CH*I) which rcmaim wnponded in Clio 

midual 1 i-hI.'i; am! . -bypophoa- 

ftK't h »cponiteai in »ilky needle* a» the liipnd unr.) 

•juaut'iy ot acetooo pauca over, and only ■ nmaU 

• if i' l-.tiK- iii iin-iiyl, tin* rcaiiliial nyrnp euntniiw do nundtTlo- 

hyfNfpba-pl»oroiMi add, but when mixed with water, acparatca ioto two 



layers, iIm: ii] i" r of which ftppoan to Ihj Iodide "I" meaity], while tlw* 

lower QM>1 LUM pbtafhoSMH ncM an io acid. A yello* t 

ddjvont of phosphorous oxide m likewise fornix J (i'Untumour, Ann. 
i^irw. 31,327.) 

13, Acetone L— tod »ilb a^ucou* Ricknmate of totuX Faml >u 
pburic acid?], yirlda larpe quuutitioa of acetic and carbvuic acid*, hut no 
formic acid ( ;>iiiii <m to Si**, Ann ft&«m. /'Ay*. 73, 1*1); aki jfftfl Wd 
:;.',, n;o ; 

C«H«0» f »0 = C'H'O* + ICO 1 • IHO. 


Gottlieb olio (.Inn. PhojTH. 58, 130) obtained by this uiearia neither 
Id ooi propionic Mid C*H"0*. — Acaiooc dlfoilled witb paroxlda 

«( nia^aiiMfi ami dilute sulphuric arid pniKcs over andnrMa; bat 
nlpburUJ tmd I"' BMa, the products formed arc the tsuno as wh 
"." « i: U l|CailC«« ll piv-i-nf. (K.i: 

14. AfiDtOM hum: I .»itli lit/ IlicMorvIe of J'luUmfm becomes heated. 

.1 lilnrh lm>wn enhitir, and yu'ltbi hydrochloric :i«'iJ, a 

rofettto auUtaueo ahich attack* tbo eyus poworfulJy. ueocblorido of 

platinum, aceplatinouo oxide, and crude platinum rvnn If 

pulverized bichloride of jjI.-h iiunit he mixed with a renal I ojuaottty ol 
which baa a blaek-browu colour, the mixture WIN 
kept in a bottle fur a <!■■,•. nil hydrochloric, id i -nM inr* 

which : 1 1 1 ; i ■ - 1 . - iln .>yw, and Imcoincs gritty in coucooncuco of the forum- 
lion of oryatalluod uccebloridc of platinum [ftmoant&U to 2») percent, of 
the bichloride of plituvn aatd . A Mivtioa ol i jit, bioblorido of 

iilaiinnm is LO i-t. lOtl * is red-brown at n' i»t, nxm bmodiu i 

'i colour, no .hrk H tQ rOOdw H OpAqoej yn'IiN liy ■lUtilln- 
tioaaeotono and a largo quantity of hydrochloric acid (ft pM 

.k.i emitted), and taaroi a tyrant Iu treating thie syrup wi ' 
■ MtJM UaU oltrod ii. ll.. I. ►mi of ft black -l « 
tarry matter. whJcL is ertfttfl y i In- ivutny'- 

:iii. i i- ii niiiiiifi'- i,i dapoail m chloride •<( platinum m * yellow 

line powdor, which after *omo tiny-. unotUltl to - Ml eOOl »( t 

bichloride af pi itinc.m mod. When ilio •lark brown liquid j 

lb] li'i'.ti . -Ii. to on.« -lnilf, it vi M-, with uiiimi ' 
but «ithout crolutiun of ga«, u liquid cont.iiuing hydrochloric aci 
ncvU>:i ami a poooliar •uli-lr.nce; while the li'|iiiil wit i? in t 

I becomes dooolori^od, an«l <U poail I :i very lar^tf dbi nut y ol ;» '»' 
pOWiWl ?iiig of accplutinoua oxido, altim ttwy nlm I vilh ft 

DOtallifl phUlBWn. If, On IIm OBHtrarv, iUrL lnc»',vii liijiii.l J -»iil. tj 
LtOtS tboi ecUoridfl Ol pin l< ft to evaporate at urdinary tcni- 

\i r.idnv- lin.i oi) of vitriol ;tiid bydralo of potash, tlicro rviuaiiut a syrn 
rirh in hytlrochl'iric acitl, and n^solvml by wftftftT intti BTftda plnilm 
nain and a brown )i.| ml. vhiot, oft HftDdniff, dopcaiti o<'cclilorido 
plaiiiiuiu (Zoiao: aaa Umn ptodoof un ■n/: iii ' '"«»-, p. 3 1 ,/ 

51 IS. A aouitiofl of -lOTmonea in uootonc, exposed to fpr.ntaaoow 
■ hi*. ii, leaves a> c ovrupy t> -talliw 

by exposure to grifat cold. It Ifl nionlfl ID Wfttftft ftlcohol, an*! .:!>: 

ftm not turn brown vlieti boQod Titii totfttb, ad rchioo* s>iW«r-salu 

like aldchyile-nmuiuiiiii. Tliia coitiiioiin.l, wl.wi k-pt. gnidCftJIy nadftf 

ition, ninl ir couvcftad " lUlC boae. to 

iv« the niimi: KM Tbio hftM I Bftfl rajiidly 

.: oceUmo saturated uitli ammonia Li hratod to 100 ll a 

scaled Lube. TUo composition of iuni!<hiiiim agn>e« with the formula 





C*IP , N I , to Uiat it bears to aci'Umo lb* Mtutt; iv1:j kim il::il mnarluu 
b«a» to oil of lin.-T atmcndj 341.)— I'uro 

■oetoorin* in a colour!*** all I peonb&T, •ouio- 

what urinuuu odOQXj Ifid ■ barninC itutc. It Jiaaolva* in other, and 
aJcoliol, aud al*o in water; potash added to tbo aqueous solution separate* 
Uw acctoniuc in oily ilrup-i mrue u milky 

thro i ghont whan graitly lirated, Like aquaoua conilua, — -lu 
platioimcoDij ' Ji"N ; CI. Tt(." «» in onnge-yollow, 

ni , with obliqua :. It iti in- 

•olublc iu eiii itci mm in alcohol containing a mhuII 

uaaiitity acid. (Sultde; i — Bmoaaiato ©/ AotUmine, 

frora [to boiling saturated akohafa 
•olution in delicate »1ut which di«nlv<< readily in u* liter but not 

in clacr. <i;v -<ll I .\ ■•. IQ0», mid u dorompowd at it «omo- 

» hij;Ker Uwp*r*lun . ) IT 

IU. TIi a nbiof products forxnod by tbo simultaneous action of 
Am* fikurou *> !.. TuaVowUni*, Akottulna, Th 

tLrine. JUUtii.ii*, » brown ream, ami Kluthino. (Zoiao.) 

acttooo its with J pas, tb.-n with 

jT»ili wiUl .uiiimuii.iral (DM, mid llt<:i tgoifl t .ir — 

whereby it becoinoi liaatod mid ■mimrw l lir-i i ^uvu, iheu ■> brail 

mil :i hmwri OOloQf — than II u!liiii:i!;-Iy ulit n im-il i r«d- 

lh>" I only alkulino mow, having a very ol door, like 

Uii.t i'f «alpburottoa hydrogen. This ma*-, \»li;<-li dianlrM <-<>ini>loUly 
in alcohol or acetone, i* rtxolvcd, wbafl trc.itod with ether, into an 
insoluble brown resiu. and u brown oolulum from wbiob water throw* 
down 7%*kcc*' 

the rad-hroan, transparent ma»- i iti a 

distillatory apparatus (rem 5U to 05*, aud ouxofullv excluded I 
ntctrtarc, UDBionU and 

d'uitlv b .. light yellow Liquid pa--*cn ow, ounBaintBg 

■ : in, * ntw d iiwiinw, 

nail a nnnll quantity of ,i .1 olvod oil. 

Between 94* and i 20 '. two di 'illatos ore obtained, tho lower 
watery all tbu Upper ly and brown. 

'0 C and 201 I I kunyd fi i an Mufi 

of / ised uf hydroruluhu-tu of 

iiImt |-r • i 

it sou-, ud lb i n 'i bUolc 

Maidur, *!ii-:!» u|> lo tint U m ill % Mtata of itm Bj bo 

trftt.' nd it Crovn roitious 

■.li:iu-Lr>l wilb *lcob»I, it rc-uluv I* lrll. I 
of ifdaikime; ihe alcoholic cxtmn contoia« 77^ whidi u i 

l . I n brown r-.l iiowrl.T liy mmIit. Tin- * tliOItal 
kI cxi«o*oil to a gradually incrcawii/ ii«-.i' yn-M . lir-t. pure Otbor, 
■ -, lli-a a browu oil :iml from 

170' lo 200*, a crT«ullii;r •aUim biofly ol .1 

/. \( ■■ in ih-iiil i;i-m of the nth o rail extract (<) \v itafmd at SOfl ^tnfl 

Una in tl.. '.m i.'1-..i- .[, ,i!„i iii>] affurwanlN wilb 

ak'-i liolic oxtraeU nro obtoiuod reaoDiblio^ ilia 

rami axtmot an Mm 

id if U»q attentat iManooeaarvoljTi 

ILv i ill llic aino. 

$. I. Ij;un! ( ilio anatflhlioa of (.i ( i bo faltfaoi OMKltiWsl 



fp.m '200' in _'?-. , tbe brown-Mack residue froth* op stn oldo a 

IW robAJIa products; and ihmi solidifies in * greyish I • l ■» 

l.i -til . - mL', mi h roe-fourth* of which con»: • ni \/*UtiKin* < •■ 
remains behind after the ohmm lia« been MckAttfUd with olcoVnl), 
■■nr. •iilplii'l*' of i .iil«'li. and * l!n*r. 

TUabofloiu. - OU ihiDd a- in \<D in tlie forin of a yellow | 

Or 001(41 in 1 1 .<■ fallowing mi-iiiii.t J 1 l;f :• .1-liniWTl. vUrlil 010*1 \$ 

iit-ii(r.ilix<*<l with OXeliO in-ill 'lt»>H»lvi»<l in other; tlio liquid fillored from 
oxnl ilc of aiinii rotn, theryihrio matter, Mid n faoOB muiler; the til train 

mixed wilfc water; 11m 0x0000 erf oxalic mM uroorpitated by meenn of 

■■\ pBQmj i In* I' licit ■• 01 ipoi ■ • «-*l the rniduc oxIiiuisIimI wilil .llcnhol; nod 
tin* solution filtered fr.n. MjphetO Of rmininnri. :iinl I « ■ I f |Q »•. :i MTftM 0001 
oil Tin IhaxootOBO than wma n* in the form of al>ro\«n h 

y.llnw. unorphoiie, ncutrnl varnish. When I bo dry diitilbtiMij 

it frotlu up •!■< iilIv. yields bydronalribnte of otaimottia and ■ dark brown 
nil smelling like oil of h.ii i bonij Mia form .« largo quantity of olraroonl 
in mirri^oD and sulphur. Heated with p«>l i»h, ii given off ■ large 
quantity or imiiii<-iii:i. It diBOOltfJI abundantly in wat-r forming a 
strongly <<>lonrod -"Itiiiim. readily also iu alcohol, sparingly in ctnor. 

Tin- eoocnoirated ai|ucutu solution forms with nHrato of Miter, n 

yrllnwi-h nlnlc pTOC (iltltC wblch llirn* lirnnti wlurii Iht&UmI, If lit duo* 

not Mitt* I or bnVir :n it iu- of lend. 

Aboethinv. Tho oublimale obtained M ha (<*) and (J) io .ii^-nlred in 
tli ■ i ni!. .( poealbic- Quantity ni hoi alcohol; the solution left to evaporato 

t<> I tiii.Lin i .\t'iil in tin- ni; and the resulting crystals pressed between 

(uper, mnl punlim] \>; I'cn-iiilh/.ii'ii.ii. — [.ninni-vnllnii', I r-.iM»|uireilt, 
lijiblv lustrous, laodeeoui rhorabohodroni. Tboysoall at ahoni 150° ton 

- 1.-..T. inlphtir v.-llnu lnjm.1. wlurh Ikt. mi.-- n«l Knmn huJ viii'hl At ■ 

BtroMer in^t, tut *olitlifii»» in a yollov mdUtln^ nam en coollDg. At a 

ntill lii ■ . i-rrnture, the akecthine is cornorlcti into a yell< 
v;i[i'iu. iiinl Mili!inn> iv illnml. ilir position ID llio font! tif * yellowivh 

rry-t-'illiiu- li.iy if tIio nook uf tho retort bf iHownd I" '-f too tint, % 

kmi.'iII apMtity of liy'!n»viilplmto of aniiiK.rn.i w cvnUnl willi dopOfiCioa of 
rharenal. W'lio.n lit>.i(<-i| hi tin* iiir, it fti»r tn n Ii n.-l I :-\rn niti»s with- 
out previously taking lire. It is ilccuniposcl by hot nitric nciil i tl 
wpn mtton of lolpburooi Unci-, ;hi«i tMo inlpbnnn uid when hoiled. 
■\Yitlt cniHcutr.iUMl potash at n botlinv bant, it yiohU aiiiitmnU It 
iii-«<.i\»«M ipaiingly In wacaTi nun i" cold allnti bydronbloiini mlnburiC) 
niirii* nia; oion raaislly in ttbarj still more in aloohol »na mi 
'II- iiu'luly alkaline colution^i mar be boiled wtthoul dooompo* 

tltion; ili.-v «!■■ uul i-r. < Kii.itr lini Bolts Ox Iron or Icvl, but yield with 
nftista nf rJlver, (after a ibn« only, if it bo dituto i ■ roplonf b 

II ■:!!! -..I oW ]•'■ rij.ii .I'-, vhlob oolleotl i" lv« nlnntai into * snow.whil 
— The brown-ro>l powder precipitated by water rVon ifc 
I io extract, ae mentioned In (<■). foaM like resin somewhat abort 
• ntTb\ditiMii j'liatt- n f ii nia and a brawn i aiellfni 

OK) :it R Pltron ■." IiO:i! in, I Iivim- :i li:-liniiv . bOstibU till 

l' b neariv in olnbla in water, but .ln-<»h iv ibniinatitrT, witbont dct 
Bfitb I ]. I i. ■. i red eoloor, in oil of I i trio I, also h 
ion, It disMtlvr.« ahundantly, wfitb brown-red i lour, fa 
Bnlpbide ol ta lot alcohol, ond neetona, BporinaJjr in Btbar. The 
m- inltilion, when fVHpnrated, Icm^ iln- herythrme in Ihe form 
adark-fed^ brittle, BmoqdiouB resin; it Joi-4 nnt " acetate 



but forms a dnrk*rfd precipitate » iili nitrate of silver. — When 

the thick, red brown ma** produced In the preparation of I -. it 

■iiuolvcd in ether, there rcma n§ a idom from 

which alcohol extracts a aulxitau-.v rervmhlimj thofjthtlofj which may U) 

nfoaipitated tbexofron bj *jt«-r. 

process de-scribed in (5/). Black. When 
Mitj. e '•>• -li'tilUi Li vifliuiif i gat rM IjisaJ- 

pkur> n--i !>■. -i: with a trace of oil, and Em i I lUftottltly 

Lite charcoal. When ignite*! with bydmtoof potash, it gm 
a Urge quantity of untaooia I N klM rioh ID sulphide <>f pot&s- 

rompound 'w hImi formed, but in nnall quantity, irboa mrU- 
thine i* boiled ''-' pota*l bin* bciUtf itriOMld, 

form* a brown •atatlan, from which water thrown down a tar^t* a nan 
of bn ruUo flocks, while the Liquid rotMini brown. With oil of rhl 
iUi it fmins a bffOWU »oluliou, from which wnitr throw down i-iowa 
ilubln in hydrochlnrio and in wain a:nl dhiolvaf, 
paringly in enlphide of cwbon, alcohol, ether, and acetone. 

"* too*y. — Produced in barge 'jnunnty eimultuncoualy 
wilU the pre.-. May bo ubuiucd in (he p oil of 

lb ■knot erne by moane of oxalic acid d •olred 1 1 ethci (p. 1 _■ . Whm 1 In- 
dark • rd in ti ih pi • ii ml Bed 

with * n Ac em quantity uf wurrr. it dt pitchy subetaaee, which 

matt be l i by wuter, and dtv.olved in 

aUobul; tko alcoholic M.hitn.n. il!<r boil from ;i hi 

■ *ted in ra< oil ox 1 in "1. the 1. lidao •! ■• ol * 

-. end tha solution again avapuratcd in raouo By thii pepeafd 

■ ; !i. ail ' 1: I J With lh*« n-iji ih ultima t< )y dl 

ovaf*-mti»a al r tcwpcintuio iinjjht produce decomposition. — 

iod of ootaininr th< n inoeu bodr is to oxhanat with ether 

the 1 1 -tilling tho lliick rod-broil a mm* le) at 

; prodpitato ihn filtrate with n Inr, which b wea ekcethlne la »oln> 

tior- the J M«-i]>it ii.- inuh. r ami >wiporatfl the solution, first 

at a K**tl< heat, then in racui over oil ol vitriol The roinouti body 
by cither of tU&*e processes ia unorpboca, dooompo ible by 
beat, 1. alcohol, and ncct<> 

ji'a/. — Orcur- principally in the nil which pi 1 iver (U in </), 
in 1 1 innM betw l'Jf.' and 1>U Mm 

Oil' : . il.r li.'rnf ■ mi . |; n >i "ilu i hied, 

»q a^'hu mixture ia produce*!, cbtelj oootaiarog ikoed 
and an oily, alkaline Liquid, which mi umli/c.l «n.mii 

••vim 1 11 11 iii 1 * Tlu» ln| u id la Uieu illf tT.-.l : 1 lie 1 : - r r- 1 r - * h Jtaa up 

with witer as l<-nff as the wut'T acquires a Vallow Oolottfj tn-n dtlOel hv 
■gitatn 1. with ehlnrulr ■! diatillod with it I 

recrirer. Bthtfl |OI»m over nr>t, linn, betweeo IH Uld 1 " . t !i-- 
elaihiac, mid fiually a br- irn turbid oil. — BlalhlZN jx -1 broa aUr*oellow 

baTlofja pecalfarand 'try offlmiTv odours 

• ufTort partial dacompo akta Sft wild <u!li,:ultv, 

a»i ky flanio, produednji lulpfaoRmi aoid. M 

; uliition und i^iuteO, it p ^ Loleraidy 

\*r$c <|ifcuiuty of tulphidc uf putassium. It* aolutiou in ilroholie pot- 
ash - tit Gn\, gradually deposiu n v<h ta pOVcUr. It u 
IcjaIqU*- I 

A* iiHiig&Mtt'. Mifeetnl ledy conic- hw, umy likewise bo 

obtaist-d (rom the thicki.-b, red-brown mass, (^ciw) 



%. 17. Actio* rf Ammonia and BiswtyhiiU of farfau en A&Hmw,— 
WL'ii i Mir i? acetone a mixed with an equal volume of sulphide of carbon 
and abort twice it I :hiiiih'mi:i, •vr«tnls, resembling 

ice, aro formal after u few day« in the lower »lrntum id liquid; hut I 

disappear after a while, iiufl in nooeeded tarjmw&i of ■ follow 

colour 11 ...• yellow rrv*l!iti are io*olubl« m water, >ii:.ringly solublo 
in ether, ami .Ii . ol*e with decomposition in warm nUohoI ana boihltig 

:L*iJ. After d; icao Ihej exhibit a eotiiim 

OOTT PW, Mid may be [I i 

bound "■ Sulphcfttrfton «/" Acetonyl tsi'fe Sutpht" 

A'z ii 9,1 WNS »(C H r v >M. A cold alcoholic ■ 

Oil ompoud nixed ritfc t linihu eolation of bichloride nf 

[no :i btOwlttafl Tollow, non-crystalline precipitate eumiKnvl <<f 

C'lP'X ■>■'.:; Pf. Errand edtne *-*»l- J tloohoiic volution «*f cormiTc raolimatoa 
wIhn prwcipiUt*eont«taiBgO*H*N , 8 ■.'. rfgB,lBHnCl (HlajoNretc, ./. pr. 
tfteM.H.:tf5;.4jin. i'Aane. Ttf.U 1 I 1850,391). rheeoDDpoM 

C'lPNV bolted witli 0M*tfa DOtAtb, ftvee MTumnoaio and forma oxi~ 
of meeHyl (p. ?*). VTben boate d to iu melting point, ii \\-M> n lower 
stratum of n ret one iui<1 bumliibUe of carbon, and an upper stratum, 
containing ii l:»r L -... i|u:»nfii\ "I -ulpliiile of nmmonln; a small rjtiautity 
of ooUimatO OOnfMting of white need let it formed at the Mini* time. 
'I'll- BOnTeonod Soiled with alcohol ffivc* off ammonia and carbonic acid, 
■fid brum sulphide of nmiiioijiuii ici wiili \ tunal! ijuauiity or a 

cryvi i Una 'omponnd, which when dried in vneno, hrt« the oorapoi tloe 
C* I U*N*S*. nnd u regarded >>y HlaeSwett a< I compound of doston .-.' . 
tttf .!rrf^V=2(C»H\NH') 4 fr< HIV ^.— *>*■> 

nufpk'itt '/'=3C*n°.S,HS + 8110 is obtiiin< 1 it, tin funu of 

• ioarlcM oil, by the dry distillation of a mixture of mcsityhuiulpha 
of llmoand BOD el potoMium. 

According to 8t Ifilet (Cmm 0i i .'.:i, 341), tbo yrdlow cry- 
l>or|y formed bj Ihe action ol ammonia ami sulphide of carbon upon ncc- 

tone, ha* imt the oompo Ition ■■< ifnod to it by BheiweU, but i.» tlio 

IlydfMilphutf i't't'>i!>">t/d\acctonint, a baffocomju-.-.i! of C:"H , *.N V S'. wblcb 
agKMi pnMt\* vrv\\ wiili tl» '/ivfn liv HluiwotS. The plntinam- 

eoumound of thi* Intto \m C -t H le N , S* T PlS l r and t!i" meTCnrial |-r 

led by illrudwcts i* nothing but tLcCl^HejB, ba\vla| a Rntll 
qnantitj «f liv-ln-ililorate of eJvrbotKiaoetOollH Mheriag to it. 

1H. Thiwtomur ; prnhnhly C^H^NS*. Tliiy Iiumi-, » biofa em6MS 
he idenr.ienl with ZeWl nkeethim*, Ql I?), m formed by tho nimulta- 
neotiv action of ttvwionia and ftdp hur M$d k fdrcfm upon ncetono; appo- 
aUo by boiling an Alcoholic solution of DjdlroeulpbaOB of caroo- 
tbiaortoniao : 

CWH^WS^US i IHO « &&V& % MP ♦ SCO 1 * 2HS? 

rrv«tallixcN in «tronc;ly luttrom, yollowioh rhombobodroni; has ruo 
alkaline react ion; and diK*olve« rcadilr ■" dilate aoi«ia, Other, alootral, 

ant] ecctf-n--, but " i itber dimeuJl of solution ia water. (StAdder.) 51 

i /fyJrute of Potash mixed wiili anhrdrous ueton 
beoomc atronvly heated; eolom It Hthl y''How;an*l mli up wifhin it to 
a dark brown maw, which, on ■ddJtm of wmt«T, \$ revolved into on oJ^y 
mixture of xyin-'il and Ejlite-rrsin, and an aqueous solution, contain- 
ing wood'Spirit nnd ncetate of poLwli, together »itli undeooiuposod 
aoctono. If 2 MU-ts "f btdnUe of potash bo sradually adfied i I I pi oj 
ace ton o cooled from without, nml the mass, after itanding for S day*, 




nixci with water, a brown oil tin* to Iho surface. — a. The oil when 
4iati)lrd with water, frwfc portions of vrklofa tH Mr* 

oil paw ** ore i . naolved into Xyitr t>iV, a1ii.Ii j. .■ . 

Xylite- r/$it\ -nh'wU remain*! behind 

lio« with 6U4 Joiain acd dtaifialioi In ieh 1 

!_T rqrnlftrly at 200*. It coi.tninfl U 39 percent. C Hill* H, 
and 8-47 O. it m therefore =C , H , I and ) -rcr*. botb in ■ 

outo, boiling point, and la if- lolobfliti hi ether 
I alcohol, with lb* xylHo*oi1 obtained farm lijcnnruv — JyMe* mafM 

C'fod ' -m in :ilr .|iM tad 0Tap< rod- 

rti ami brittle; boooittti tottfb between 1 6 and BO . tiwoTaUt 
in caaatii potaah; nnd contain* 7 1 1 ■. C 9*6* II. ami I0-H7 0, 

ret in 1 ■Ilium. -1 Crota ' . Tin- 

So****, rollow, ulkalin^ HqnM i" doeolariiod Ira EMDttmunllofl with -nl- 
10 acid, a truce of iwd being wpur.ited nt the «nme time; nnd 

-ii.- nod wood plrlti (whi'-li may bo 
Mwufttol front tho acet'^no by dutillii ixtaro of il"- Iwo from 

ckluride of calcium . the* wuod-npirii being thereby retained), then nt a 

fcfffker 1 ."in pff in . n-, a law* ^nnnttty of srrt.rr :i-'!<l Wtt6 !i-m\ <•» a revidiie 

quite froo fr*m organic nmtler. fLdwic eV Waidmonn.) *i »..- eaavtNN 

wU* tfcter ehcaHfti (m for the forettrian oftnt fcfcore eoin|«ouiiil» arw tacfobabl* 
ily.Inno of nntaab mowtoncd with neotono nnd cxpnied to tho nir, aUorba 

.:«», ana fnnna a nut] onactitvof aottata ol r<-i -h, .in, h v. how- 
i»«ly, when tbe acetone comaum anpmamatao oil 

SO. Anetone pa)u*d in tin* Hat* ftf ratttDf OVaf -' rati QfjMfr 

«m», if rwolvcxl into rnumb-gai and carLjiiiita of po ■' eltOj 

probably wacn tho beat is not very groat, into ncctate and foriuialc 
of jMiUeL ; 

0W + «(IIO.KO) - CH* ♦ I(KO.CO*) ; 

IBO +■ KO - C'rPKtV + C»HK(V 

Vapoar ©f acetone, panted thronjr.ii a>£&Mi -tnaA in which 

lib ir> hcatod tn fusion, yields marah*fpu nii\nl with a naall 
onaatity of 1 old (P«i ■ •■ Rm Mimft^ I, 51.) — Similarly, 

acatotifi-vftjiojr pucoil ovor a lieiLtod mixturool In 1 • :,uA hydraU I po) 
aafa — wbtcr. firot bcoomca yellow, then njrain wUite.and uUcsnp cutImmho 
aii'i — yndda uamb'ga* nir. • ly 2 01 3 percent, of n 

(|i*m**"ftS: vif/i. PA|«, 7d,l49L)< w ban aoftWBa Tipoar Ii 

p*a»c<l orer t hc4 tnixdirv of lime and hyilrito of potash, a Urgo 
ttaaatity »f 10 i»t<'<.| poUuli i< produced. (Gottlieb, Ann. 

H*nn. ' 

t\. Pttouitim ant! Sodium in contact with acetone, become m- 
Uiif>*Iy br»bn], and yWd pTOtUiriU -ituilar t<» tlmw wbirh tl by 

kydrat« of potaab. — PiUa«dnin in eoatacl witb nr^tono pWo* off proat 
Mai, and form a tliKii<li, yellowieb bfown liijni -I, containing acolato ol* 
palaab, t« ilic tapof wh ii. i:..:i!m ii „i nalHog Jik« aUolptppaTi 

atinL (MatUc*ai.i «— Tint oil U tbf aalotlon of ■ riaeid mluoaj tuattor 
ta aootona (Diinnu. Ann ' .-W PAy«. 4S*. SOS.)— Sodium fbnni vhb 
awton* a Ui«l: yeUoff-browfl maaa, tlo Mtloo b< 

.n*i ri»* of lornporaiarc, (Gm.) Woon poto ram Mi* ii 
aidrmtdc i|UauUtr, it can«o orolution of c/oj, and a tiso of temper.iluro 

II . u- 

*' id tin 


sufficient to set ihc liquid en (ire. whereupon charcoal is separate*!. 
\).< potu Eon '" k =« - 3 - = * ■ gn4l to oevtono, each i»ic« being intro- 

duced oj the former diMppoafa. tod til*- UaoJd oooM Iron wiili.m: 
decomposition tukes place >juieily, with gintU ebullition, bat wit 
tfalnUoB • f any psYIBOMBl a,ti?«. A biowoitil, strongly alkaline p< 
is deposited at first, 1>nt subsequently iIixkiIvc* The ultimate- product 
dissolves in water, with Reparation or nn nil. This oil is a mixture of 
H In ...I mi -i b fc Ci UW» Hg lad kWO), and xylite rwin (eon- 
tninuijr 7l»7i p. cC, OH II, and 12 11 O). — Tho red, aoueou*. alka- 
line solution. s*lurute«l with sulphuric aciil, deposits a tin red DO 

lldi'l-, aSO Vndd* hy distillation, Ir.-I :i..l illl*, and ]h rln j<i il 

apirit, and then a small quantity of acetic acid. (LdWIg BOO ^ « 
ppm, also Lowig, /*oyy. 42, 410.) 

^ 22. Ovaflf isOW acta DO aOOtano tl the »sme mauuer as hydrate 

potash, i it into xylite-oilj 

tCWO* - 3IIO ■ C**B"a 

When acetone it mixed with finely pounded lime, no action takes pli 
at lir-t; baff in the cour*o of a few weeks, tlio acetone disappears. fonatBi 

I \\\r linn- :l solid mass, which yields hut llttll aOOtODO nbflQ ilrttilh 
in the water-bath. On the addition of sTOlcr. the lime rial 

wlnrli n .in:ili ijinnMy of 14 f .:i.' niny he ili-tilled off; u»d if ibo beat 

Im- ron'uiif il. tli': *:it«-r which i»**se* over it nccnrnpum ■ I bl » aJSjrbtJy 
yellow oil, which begins to boil j IttU*. ibore 100*, but dimiin ovof fa 
tli-' must jjurt belWMB WO" Mid -'-<>. Tim twdBaJ DRM of liine treated 

widi hydrochloric oak), vi-ld- n -mull tpualttj of coloured r««So. 

(Vulckcl, Ann. Wurrr*. 82, $$.) 5. 

ObeapiWo^sonf. — Acetone mixw in all proportions with Wultr. (CI 
ut'vix. Om . i EeUg ) 

At onfinan u nn pf li B r aa. it dissolves a small cpiantlry of Pkorpkox 
and a still •Mull I qttsUllHl Off Su'/.tmr. (Clionevix.) 

II ahtwly dfaoolfOO kyOTOtO ol pi>t:i li. Rimini:; a deep yellow ■olutii 
(''!.■ nrvixN [<i- -n takoi place at the mine time]; it is oi 

nioaiMa with strong pota*b-lo*« (Lnbi 

Mnni salt* are soluble in alcohol, nro Inac-labl* in'-ieetone : sqi 
for example, i* the cn-*e with K'f'f»ruU xf Cokium. (I.u«ln^.| — Bl 

m.|c .if cal.iiiiii iiniti-.l with acetone Hwrlli up and forms n while 

(On.) Wbl ii .in MQAOai aolulion oi cb tor ids of cileium is 

shaken up with iicctone and then left at real, two layer* nf lnjiiicl are) 

fitrnii-d, (lie Oppor <>l wlucli i- :i<:nUHU% thr Iuait, 'iriUCOUl ch 

'■Til.-jiim font-lining acetone; but a portion of the ncot«>no aeuarntea Iroio 
the lower stratum, and ri'CK !•■ tin top wfctoorar it w healed. (I.icbij;A 
Petouse. .-//;/'. PftarM \9, 287.) Tin- M>luiion of chloride off aU* . 
in kh-nhol or v ood i >|iirit i* c.i|»abIo of taking up n lar;-r qaoxotitjof 
acetone (Roichenlmch.) WIn<n 1 •»*•!. urrtoii-* in added to 3 vol. of a 
satumtod oolutiMi •■! • I I w . : . off « alci inn. tho acetone is die»n|red, 
clil'.r nun is at the «am« time precipitated; on ■ 

art-tone to : i:. . nil Ul4 chlnride of CoJclOsn separate* 

iustead <«f the acetone, a few dlDOO of « "iter be adtlcd. the OjOCtoni r n 
Mirfaen hiuI forins a M'|iiinUsjotiatiiiii MMsl >' lilt BOOOOOO H nd nl« 
bolic solution of tboehlorida of ealcinm. (Liobig, Ann fhoifn. 10 
— • According to Hlnsuwou {Ann. i'htirm aciU^no forms 



Wjnit* cinp "ii il with chloride of mldam and wati?r. A mixing of 
pu1vir>-> eMotidfl »l calcium nq a**umei a |>»*ty 

coa<i*teneo at flirt. t\ • u beeomoi bo*i i'i"l fbmi tdrj ■»•*, whk'h at 
100* £itc<- off mcro traces of ■ liquid haying an ethereal i»l i| I mure 
Water he* udu* >.-d. pan aaeUwi dijtild o*cr (iron 80 t" 89 ' 

Acetonemia* uniformly with UHMOl V- rthUni,fe nf Until- hut on 
adding to lh« aoliition a furtber (prSOtTtT of dry t< r.-li: ffoWi 

MMM bavfog a v.iIIiav colour and OOHtainrng tcrvhloridc of j-old ri*e* 
to tbe inrfnco of ibe watery liquid, (1)«h'mi> > 

Acetone mixes with £tAtr utni A lw/<U, ami with iu:uiy tmu,- 

. it «ll jiTi|t<.rlnvn. 

It niixo* with VotatiU oili, and di&tulvei many C-rmpJi»r/, Fats, and 


D*coPipe*itivn-produ<U of Actt*ne t t*Wi do *+t at prtttnt <*Imit «/ AMKf 



Ani»! i Acetohk. 

Mcsitylcac or Mcaitylol. CW^C'Ml^Cil" 

/Vtfjr. 44, 474 alto -'' / r ' ; .. .. 131. 

n.w. ( y u j. a. nil; inn. Pharm. 71, 191; abatr. 

f'h.irm. Ctnir. 1M CompL rend, M, 130; /**/& 

184S, Xj; JV. 7. rW 10, 310; Jakrmbr, 1640! -i 

■ n 2 vol. acotnu* aro dittillcd at n jrcntl© heat with 1 vol. oil of 

vitriol, tb< liOjt Uightlji i^ttooui tntphttrotu acid dhftfll oTOT] 

aad nith it a yallowiih oil wLicb floal •"! :'" '<«|» and amount! i<> about 

acrtooo. Tbii product in a i*bcd with water, distilled in tint 

water-Wtli nil i't.« -idmiv-d acetous i* volatilised, and then »t ;» ittungat 

h<*t to obtain th* TTWwtyJonJ, which iiiuwl W collected in a #oi>arate 

;i. di tUlati -n not, however, bo carried on to dryneaa, 

rvri** tbe dk;tiJl»tc will he mmttRlioatod with IB oil "' holier lx>ilnur 

point. The UMitylnaj Ubi obtained !>• purified by Icavioj it for 24 

htymn in contact with chloride of calcium, then decanting and distilling 
again. (Kane.) 

Tr.»ii.-|:arvrii. colourlcaf, very light oil, linvin^ a tlightly nUincoouo 
tOoai, ar.O boa II n g at about IQ&'Or. (Kane. ■ ■ i.n.- to HofaaM a 

BOO/1 :■ r-HTijiIi-lrlv :w |x>»xiMu hy tejK'ated recti 

flrati . nd I'^'i ;— aceordlngtaCBlimm.hetw.'iMi ii;-- 

and K4 . Vapour denHty = 2U14. (Cuhoiir-, Ann Ghi*. t'hyt. 19, 
J01; nof. infra.) 

Kaaa, Vol. tlea*llf. 

Hi' .. 72 _. W ... 89-*] C-tonoar \t 4VM0 

H _.. 10 . 10-34 H-|« 8 .. 0-5544 





1 hUU 

l . 7-7 7ZZ 

Kab« a»iuun Urn formula C'H 1 , rn^inling the tuuiiKunid u tho 



nucleus which with H'O* fofM noetono, j l] vl<un\ OW, 

11 r O" forme aU«di<d. Oa&oira, in »r"ni.|; n.. wl'Ai hit determination of 
tUr raoNU prefers tlic formuli C"li*; bul the b*iliu£ point 135* 

li.jpr i.iiii-d hj Kane, i< Inn hyh '\in for tii:M. (Schroder, Pojfff. ft7, 49.) 
Aernrdmi; tn'i'i'tirlinnlt'c calcufxtion [VII, '»), tliin boiling point corre> 
«|K>ndj exactly with tbe formula (_'"H". Perhaps Kane'* rnesitylem) 
was contaminated with a toiull quantity of the Ice* volatile oil which ho 

mi i ' mi ::- |i:j. iny i,.i LWUlll llir rlnl uf tli(: dulillution; ftlpl tlfCTtf* 

faro exhibited too lii'li I hniline; point. ■"■^ 'I'ho boiling point found l>y 
) I of m Mm ik \k9W I I i litjlir -fill, vh . bvtw.-en I ,.'i :iml 16ft; moreover. 
tin' jirtiou of uiiric oeid on nicMtylcm'. m lurh jjivc-a rise lo tho three 
OOmmdt, ("'IPX, CWPl HiOr*jn a (pp. 20, 22) clearly .aowa 
tliut tin; formula ,to 1 1 ' * i* Oil* correct one. 

Bl i (oniinvr to tho vapour-density auovo given (J'HU) m deter- 
mined by Cahour*. the formula C"H U would represent tho vupour as 
bri ftltnnm Lofttc&d of diatomic, nincli ...ik nv i • ill* usual coaraoltt 
of organic compound*. Il'ii'ui.dii. therefore I '■«. J. 

2, 11- i th;u the vapour demity iui#ht be mibjeet to variations MUiil&r tu 

tii.> h ni>*<'i\ii] ii DJpfcur, and in itiihh of rim volatile faity arid*. 
( ( 1!. 14.) — The dithoulty hn», however, boon completely removed by 
a Blfi—HlifiTti determination of the vapour density nude by Cnh*un 
{Chttn. SoC« ','". J >h 17), from which it appear? that the tapour i» 
really diatomic. Th* t-pecimen nf moaitylenc iw* 1 En thi* 1 1 I meni 
determination wri« purified by wv*n] rectifications and final dlttlllal 08 
from UN pho*phono ncidj it boiled between lo*U° and III*"", and 

exhibited exactly the thcuii:t',«;ul composition of iii.-mI .ylmie. The vapour- 
iy vu fouud in one experiment, to be 4343; in mother, 4 

Thr iMIIIjMihitiiill > if Hi" i!\ li'lir 1.- lln-rrforeU follow** 

Vol. Pecwitr 

18 C 108 ... 00 C-wpour. IB -.. 7 4880 

17 » li Hi II. E m |2 . 0-MI6 

C*U n .... 120 ..., 100 

Vapour uf Oil' 2 .. 8 3190 

1 ... 4-H98 f 



Meeitylene burn* villi n brigbl but very smoty flame. It »b©irbi 

; in larn quantity and with weal •volution »f boot, aJ 

ward; i.-i 1 -!- i iff livdrooblorie acid, and Milidifica to im acicnlar maw of 

chloride of jitcloy], CMI*C1 [ox tervliloromcoitylouo. C^Ill'l 5 ]. — Builio* 

<■ :uid rm;%:|. il n:l>i mesitlc iildi'livlr (hain-)- A mixture « 

I parti of fuming nitric and fiiininjr *nlphnrie acid oonvena it unnie- 
■ ■! . .it n.-i- ol lompentturo, into the crystalline compound 

ill $<y (Cfchoun, Cbmei >xn<l 24, 555.) [TLU oAmpoand differ* 

from Kulte'i nillitc of pk-lryl, vtliu-li h»> thr a.liih: riiiii|>ii*'itii>u, bu 

liquid; Cuboar»*8 eompound -iliould, perhaps be rrgnnled a* C IS H'>' 
C'^M'X 1 ]. — Mositylono i* likewise doeoin]»*«>d by oil of >iirn>i, iir.t not 

ty noueoui nlkulia. tKime.) 

Mc#ii -i dSaaolvea lodmt, forming n deep brown liquid, wit 
nu( altered bjeapoonn- i-. .thi.-I,i;i,-, (Kudu.) — Brw*\m cuuveru it il 
a while crystalline compound. (Hofmann ) 



Iodide of Pteleyl (« Tcriodomesitylene). 
JUkb. Pc^o. 44, 487; tdtoJ. pr. Ma*. 15, 146. 

Km* r«e lite name uf Plciri/t (from Tr/Xia. llic elm) to tlie radical C*H\ 
becssM be l» n— i lj eap|to««(I it to m «id. 

U'ln-ii ncetOOfl i- <:::li!!<-il viilli inJiiiir and aljncpbonu, tin- rc-MiIiinl 

Im| i | ning golden yellow k*1m of iodine nf pteleyl; jIichh, 

01) ■>! water, may In" thrown upon :i nlttT, and 

wanliol ami <Iric*J, whereupon they lono their lustre, ami form a 

|o« powder Tliw substance, when heatcii nearly to rctlneoB, 

i- iinlfli.-i'- in the foTBI Of ft -llli|:n::ilc. 

Iiiir irbes ii' ripnar il pnAted 1 throuj-li a rooVhol lubo, lodlst is net free 
It u insoluble in water, but dissolve* in other, 
ami Dtioa in iliiuing uposL-Ioe. \U formal* i* 

OTPl <Kaue>, [orC u H*r]. 

U Tertromomesitylene. c-WBr*. 

Hor«*>* Chtm. $x. Qu. J. 2. I Oh. 

■<■■: limmln* u sdilad drop by drop !•» DM itylono, waiiiiiff each 

till iIkj heal ovolvo'J lixu aubsidotl, cu«l taking caio to kc*p til* 

mc«ul)lroc in 020685, a white crystalline com pound ie fnmic-1, winch miry 

be frc*r«l frufu nvJrouroaik »wJ by mublng *llh rotor, in wbldi it u 
Two or three cry«nll from boiling alooUol 

remlcr it nt«eluttf)y pur*. — White nccillei, which vtilaiilixe without 
, nad »rr not clanged by boiling with potonfc or ammonia. 

villi ) 




.. 30>2S . 

.... 30'JO 




W7 - 

- 100*00 . 

... 1001? 

A ctimpcuiid of "potJtton tad urouertlco au previously obtained l>> 

CaUar*. wLo tarda he fieinuU C u H*Br*. 1 

Chloride of PteleyL cnrci, («. P TerchlororaesityleBe. C"H'< ti 

K*»a Pc^ 44, 486; lUo CArm. 13, I «5 

■-•n« i* r«M<-d through . I) ih.- \\< v >\<\ »oli<iilic* In 

ma oriruUr him. wtiidi i* then itiatoKcJ in lint other, ami crvrUllixnl 

- ifcfl ll(|i!i -iiliipo ftfi<] RIG ttylfll ; '".* id lb« IIHitl|.'r-l;i|li;il. 

ibm p ro JiM t i« purified UyMcryatallizatioOj ami Lho aryvtftli driod botwocn 
p*f<f f Uat not ta conluct wit'u Ibu air. 

c S 



Whito. limine.'. fmir-Mided prism*, rwwmWJng Mjlplmtn of qnlni 
Toblilaisc rah "t » itVOOfl licit, bnt without dooomjH'iition. They may 

without Alteration in dry atumoniacal gae, and 
dccompoMNl by alcoholic potash. (Kane.) 

i I 



... 4S'.W 

.... 4 03 
,... 47-58 

..„ 49-91 


M'4 .... 10<K» 

«: Nitromceitylcno. cir'NO^C'll 11 *. 

Caiiour*. Cotnpt. rvW. J10, 3 1 5>; Cherts Sue. <'•■/. ./. i 185. 

Formed Uy treating mcmtyleue with fuming nitric ucid, tw-t hi oimm, 
anil cum fully c^lin; tin liiixlnn •! U Dg the action. 



11 II . 





— , - 


4 O - 



C*H ll X lt 143 


Tin .pound, whoa treated with an alcoholic solution of iiotiudi, 
bcoomco hented and evolve* two product-? on distillation. One of those 
ie a ]ii|iiid, which ie produced in very *in»ll uumitily only, and cxliibita 
tin- properties of an alkaloid; tint other, whton El solid, 'di**olvo« I 
ft All J i" alcohol mil npi mi" from ii bj IpontttMOin evaporation id 
tabular crystals of great beauty; it U Uomoxic with DJtronanijittM 

U Binitromesitylene. C , -li ,fl N , 0»=C»H w X». 
Hdpmanx. Chcm. Soc. <Ju. J. 2, 110. 

Obtained by boiling moftitylono with modcrutoly fitronj> nitric aad. 
After a few diatillntions, the wnolo of the moaitylene i« converted 
Crystalline COmpOOod, which may be purified by wneliiug nitli water and 

raorffUlIIntloii bum ftioohol. with Male nftrto mM. • i«f* Malta r»«it 

,.«l. tit* mrtiijlrne LcUr converted, alter rtprattd dutilUtion, into t yrll 
nliu'li ihOwl * tendency to cryitullixr, but »ppr»r« to l»r a niiitunr. 

Thin mnipufiiid CryStaHi*.<- in linn nrrdhw, often w*vem] inche* lon*fc 
ntnl in uppAArunco rwomblirij* those of tftrnitriiiiietitylens (tnd 
V,>lutiliau« without decomposition. JJiwulve* with Rr * 1 fttcilitjr 
alcohol. (Hofmoxiu.) 



18 C 




10 u 


.... I7C 

,.*..- 4*98 



... 1333 





.... 1001)0 


% Nitromesidine. C , 'H'X ! 0=c u h , «a 
Maple. Ckm. S*. ^ J. 9, 1 Mi J«». /'Adm. 71, 137; abrtr. i>-Ur*t. 

Onfr. 18-50, 6l>; Jakrulcr. I&t, 101 

Obtained by tbo action of Bulpburuttcd bydrogca on biuitroaitttlylcnc: 
C»H»WO» t 6HS - C»H»\\0%\Hv + *HO * 6S. 

Wbcn an alcoholic solution of binitromeoitylcoo i? submitted to the 

StlMQ l>f HllpliurclS.I h\ i irnvni, tin- IkjuiiI :i>*otnc :i dnrk mlniir und 

drpouU gradually a lar^e quantity of milpliur, the odour of tho auiphti- 

re<tcd hyilrotfon beinff at the Mime tiino d wtc owi This treatment i* 

mi. J for MTcraJ Jay*, till Iho rulpliurcttcd liy«lr» ^'<n n no lOQglE 

hqIhmimI On flu- MaitioD "f bydwobliWH -i-il. Miljilmr iik agiiin, 

I " tin* \i\ Utmtion, ;i clcmr liquid u obta 

-. ■ o "i 'o 'i vita !>'>!:■ >ouia., yiflldk u . ^ki ;- |ir«'Cipitato 

of human pK r ottt ri diaa. By repeatedly diaaolvin? tbw impnrc product 

in by 1: .cid and rcpr'opUutinj; by an alkali, eumll (in.intitiea 

•tilJ ailbtriru' *uljiliur arc m 'paraUali and l In- nbtlAQOI <nidu:illy u*Mimc* 

a Kfi^lit yellow colour Onn or two cryitall initio n» from ■feoliol now 

«ufli<* to render it afaaolaUty pure. 

prrffa. Long no IU Imped errata}* of a golden yellow coloui 
Mi'li* Mow 1(H)", and aolidific* on cooling in a man of musted needle*. 
Volatilior* wil ; IO0 m 1 - ■ | off « vapour winch 

barn* wilb a bluub dame. Duiaolraf Tory rondily in aloobol and oilier, 
and ffpar>nK<y in wiur, to which it mipnrUa Faint yellow colour. TIio 
«oU(ii>n3 bare an unpleasant loiter tMto, and an) neutral to t**l p 

If H 






._ **; . 

.... IV»A ... 


.... Co-oi 
.... ft"4 


... 16 Ml 




.... 100-00 .. 

... 100-00 

fitt<mpQ$'tioas. Broaiino acta riolenlly on nitriiiiioidiiK 1 , funning a 
dark oily liquid. — An alcoholic solution of DitrotDCBiditus yieldi with 

diUrSoe a pinVij-h solid -... >liih)o in boiliug •mImt. 

C*t»&**«**-w#. Nitromo-idine duvolveo rent lily in nc\>U, 

. u. mlu,wl; rran wiy mutable; all those yet obi 

rxcptiag tho pluiKjilmti' and the plittiimtn «*lt. being demmpowtd by 
tn*re roola<n ■ I I. \ i ■ luMo in alcohol, and thoir wolutioi 

hai« an a-r.-l r<oot 

r**4pjt*t*. — a — A •ololioQ of uitruuinidiuu in aqaeot 

, Mjiburic acid yiclli tliin milt in br.ify eryntaU of a bMHtSfbl I«iQOO> 
jr^low eoJour, wNCfa may be WttSluM'with wutor without doootnj»aii- 



64 C 

C N .. .. 

DritJ at IOtr. 


mi , ii *■'<■ 

.... 5975 


_. 24-07 


..-_ 60-5* 
-.-. 63i 



M ! 1 


3C ,l U l1 N f OM»0*t3A«|..« 659-4 .... 100-00 

I. Atrmrixmtit Tf -i large excess of pkontaric mM W u*ed, an 
nail is obtained, which nppcara to contain only 1 At. of nitroroosidtno. 

Salphalr, While silky rrysUls dceciii|KrJcd by water. 

lii/ilMtchlorate. A solution of nitromotidiuo in dilute nydrochl"' 
acid, evaporated and left to cool, deposits this Milt in colourless needles 
which are decomposed by water. 

/>,,-,! of 100°. 

WC ... . iiix-d 

13 II 13 .... 

2 N 2*0 ._ 

a in . 

< (< 58-0 ._ 

C»H U NH)«.HC1 - 2164 .-. 100*00 

X Urate, Formed by dissolving nitromesidiao in -Mute nitric acid. 

The solutiMii rv.i]H.r., , .<-,| »iih :m « ■•: ■•. ■ -I frn nitric arid, is dccoi 

Gwd when the evaporation reaches n certain puiut, rad uitrous fui 
in - .Ii -i i gaged mul a rud oily product remaining. 

!'^(ttnum~Mit When nn excels of bichloride of platinum is addo> 
to n hot saturated solution of hy<| uf rntr-niiwidinev tut? liquid 

Ung depoatl the double uili in group* (\t yellow cry tula, m 

may lie purified by wuxlimg nith wuter and crystallisation from alcohol. 

Ms tic. 


. 4V*2 

SOfl .... 

.... 6-01 

12 03 

14 70 

IG'39 .... 

_ 16-22 


1»C „ _ 

1080 .... 27-96 

U M 

13 II 

U-0 . 

,. 2-36 



r 21 



. •>: m 





nil .... 


vouiu.ivcT nyG-2 ... 100-00 

1 Tcrnitroincaitylcac. (WNWrCP'iOT. 

CAtiocR*. A. Ann. CAirn. Pky*. 25, 30. 
Hor*A;*.v. Chan, Sot. Qu. J, 2, 110. 

Formed by the action of a mixture of equal part* of fuming nitric nod 
fuming sulphuric ncid (CohouM), or of fuming nitric acid nJooe (Hi 
■mini j, ..ii BMsiCjIeoe. 

Vrbtfl p n :•• mi ■■'ilyieue ia added drop hy drop and with agitation, 
to the mixture of fuming nitric and sulphuric acid, a white fluccul. 

nitrite or m 


it*riac*l n 

liirli whrn *lrr i« HO) to bo an apfreflfttion of 
tlcodur iRUtrTftead ncoUle*. If th* procr*« 1>« car* fully f .• r! rm< d, scarcely 
any riae of temperature ia perceptible. Wb©0 a RutGcSeot nja 
the product ia obtained, the liquid murt bo dilated wild wutcmnd waaln 
an ft lUti-r, (ill the w:wh-ttat/T ni> laqgOI flxblbllfl ID" ftdd PMOtloi 
predict i« then drio-l by pmiUM b#t<» iv:. bibaloa 10*1 Iflfltl" 

treat*! with alcohol, w I. \yh A but T<.itio«ce a vubetnuco 

wlicU fire* it ft roj«-colour. A* Unix prepared it i? colourlcve, ami 
cryMullizea ia delicate* uccaIW Il ninv bo obtfljntd io a *Lit«- of Mill 
gr**Irr parily by KebNination ftl ft gentle best. It n then pprfcetly 
wnito ftn«l auumot ih« form of Tory dallofllO, rnJorDg i :i ..[!>>» rv^mbliiiff 
flow an ©f ontiinoiir. It may alto bo obtained Ifl .m noil MbM 
prvmutic needle* by ftddin;; M drop by drop to the mixture of 

•vlpemnc an>i Id lill i\ir liq^ild bflgioi to oxolbil UxrbUlity, and 

Waving h to araporata in a very *fntnp atino.pherc. Tbo product then 
a»a*rat«« >to«ly m Rtalfl. 

Volfttilssoewillioui l4alo»M(OklM 

rorr apurio^ly aoluMe, c*en io tailing * I coin! (Ilufuuuiu) ; diwolrea 
readily iu air-tuue. (MooJfll) 

C#li<t«f». nan. 

| II 

| n 


1W .. 

t _ 

IS .. 



Ifl <H 

\r <,i 





.... itU 
.... S*7 

cnw tii 


truraewtyleae Ifl llowly deOoO-pOflfld by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
A bftMC cunipeauJ being funned. (Mnulo.) 

I - I fin i«id uniri »rJ *illi »ul(»Uurtt icid, 

CftWvir* uhttiitoj merely ■ n d »» Oil, 0*1 A| * UroO| ['Iiim-- ii ...i.-.iir. hut nut 

eiaMHag i fid, also K .ih\ H '»>i. »n ih* other hint 

rrrtfjllitta «eraitr«uir*o-ylciie, juil u with the BdlUUl vt niim «ml >ul- 

Nitrite of Ptoleyl. CH»NO*=C»n»X. 

PQ99. 44, 43$; ai*o J. pr. C'Am, !S t 14ft* 

Obtained by bcntiu^ a mixtvrfl i-f '-' v.»l. anetone ftiid 1 t«I. 
nHrie aflAd till ft !>• • <ii: ooolfag tbo rtflflel bj Inn i IoiSb**1 

wmt#f, till Ue «ET«n««c«nc« finUidr^j bflHtoag 't »*«»>" t'H ibfl ' 
Tooooitco recoftMnca>:ca, then moling it once luorc, — and oo repeatedly, 
Lut net toy often; Utcn iJilatiug the mixture nitli (1 tutu-n it* bulk of 
W*I« ! Qfj thn J«li* VflUoK 1 1 * | ti i* i a! nli links to tin- bflfltOUl »iHi 

»*i*r, |S] i-. nqaite free from aeid: rind finallv rfloiovinK thfl »»ter by 
snoatM of rliUride of calaum. I J. * - prvc rtU <>1 jteleyl 

coataraiaaied »ilL anewtue ftKb-l .•■ ■■ lanltti of -Incli if ^i«Ater aa 

'ipOMtioej lifts ulceu \<\ • ..pitily; too- inpid *l tiuii ■ 

writ a» there Ifl do tuoanu of jtj.i rating 
-iliy*l*t r»i 
linn bfljftid, liraTiet than water. Doca not rolatiiizc at 100*. Hafl ft 
paft^rcot, MKacwhat tartc. 



5 H _ 




,« «-.0 ... 44-W 

s; t a ... 
if. i; 

4 0* 





According to Kane, this oompoiind ^C'H'O.NO 1 ; according to tho 

Mil i Miti.M.-tluMfty, it is C*U , (N0*) = C , H , X. It in polymeric m 
toniltrorac^itykiie. - Tho exoou of carbon ami hydrogen found in 
UTinlv^i*. w attributed by Kan* to the presence uf im-siiir shlt-hyl" 

'1 In' compound, w\vn htroiijrly heated, explodes violently, ovon small 
qnantiticn ah uttering tho containing elnw vowel ; lionet? it cannot bo 
purified by distillation. The oxphi'ion i- .io<-<uiipntiird by evolution of 
Oltrottl I'luiic- Mini |p it:iiiMii of :i CMiiMdrniMi! i|iitiutil\ >>( t -hairuftl which 
cover* tho bottom of tho reweh Paper <atiimted with the compound 
burns Ulco tinder when dried [how i» it dried!) — Tin.' compound ^nwlu- 
nlly dcoompww whvn lamOTIld in water. — It dissolve* in alkali*, 
fiiiiinuy ii dark blown solution. (Kane) 

Thii compound, when aJMorwd In absolute alcohol, nd heated with 

fulfil. :iji[,i<:irH to yn-ld acetic other. (ClmiiCol, S\ Ar,)l. < t,u,i . f'hyt. 

Mesitic Ether or Oxide of Mesityl = 0"H«O». 

Kjixb. Fogg. *«, «75j olao J. pr. C^m. 15, 188. 

r reparation, 1. Acotono and oil <»f vitriol aru gradually mixed 
•qod volume*, in n rossol Immoraod in oold prater, »» a* Id praml to* 
great ri«e of temptfatttN ■ which would oau*o the abntroction of all Uio 
water and formation of uiCMtylcim, and nJ#> to avoid evolution of sul- 
phurous acid. Tho dark brown mixturr. cuutainiiiK a muuII quantity "I 
mem tic atbot LoratLer with nieaiiyleuc and a wnxvr juilutanee, U h-ft 
to cool coin j.lrtely, and tlion mixiil with twin it4 InilW 'if water; after 
which the mixture is cot aside, tho thiokiwh upper »fnituut removed by 
BIMIU "' I |"j»< 'tt.o, and tho entailer portion of it distilled off from <! 
tin- monitic ether then ptNM over firH, but the process doe* not yield it 
quite pure. 

2. The impure llsobolla solution of chloride of mosityl if mixed with 
a sufficient quantity of alcoholn- |>*(n-h t.. render it sEronglj rtlkaline: 
then warmed for some time; diluted with H time* it* bulk of water; 
yellow i| which separates out in small quantity dried 0T»J i-hlnml • oj 
Calcium ;unl d'uiiltiil into two rvrotvcrM, tin- icetone which had remained 
ni'iM.I with tho mosityl used in the nrepuratiou jm.-ini: .mr first, and 
then tho ino*itio otlo-r, while the meaitylene being l<:«* volatile remain* 
behind. The eUorida »i nmStjl io decomposed by the potunh iu »uch a 
manner ins to yield mwitic etboi ami t bid i«M tti ]»'i-t^-ium. 

Ti.ii:>p.:!i in. isilourlo-ft, very thin li'jnll. which boils at V2i\ , Im- an 
arotnntic odour like of peppermint, arid burns with a bright tkune 
and very little smoke, (Kane.) 

10 II 10 ... 10' 20 

16 ... U-33 

K DM. 


C w H"0» 9* 100-00 IAMB 

roMBi lo Konr. it I- 0*11*0, whicb would tniU It idtfotlnl with oilJt of itlrl. 

Pyroacetic Oil or Dumasiu. 

Kivi, Pom II, 404; nlro J. r>r. Chtm. 1.3. GO. — R. Murehand, 
J. pr. CW 13, 89. — Hcinu, Aa/- <J> S . *T7. 

KuniK-l hy piminx i 01 iCOiODfl >i rfc A rcil>hot till*, ami 

by tin [illation ol tKoM aootatev wli- BOflOMi MpOaWly 

!v DXpOJod tii u itrouj* ltr»C, wrhcroli? tli J'" 1 

dcced at fir.t ia subsequently dcoomfMMO ! - 

Tlir o I cannot b« rximjilvtoly leparau*) from the aiLmixed teotOM bv 

fntetiooal diNtillaiion. If to *acU * rnmiirv tlmm Im< added oil of vitrinl, 
then water, then cnrbniintc of lime, drop* of the empvreumatic oil riw 
to tki *urf»r*, ami mur bo (rood by <M--tiII»tion from tlio |»itch v n.«ni 
formed at tm> »*mo time. (Mau'luitil .) H.iuU a«jiutr-*. llie cni|; 
■natic oil obtained liy tuo dry distillation of 1 pi.v mvtafj of Imu and 
I pt li in*-, rv\*GAim\\y will, orator, to ruDova ifeo at*'""*'; driwiti for a 

luOff timo •vcr clilonUe <>f cnlciuui, lima docunU, mid boiU it for sotiio 

tateo in ooatoet with the ail itttiae (Ik- Ncoaindor of tlio 

or«'i ■ Ia, till tlio I ilii - j - nit. which ia 130 Jit lint, hii* riooa ti> 

loo", wbtMvapoa a Mitel. i>li tar ramaltM bohlndj and aon&ratM from din 
distillate the more roUtilo portion, which is tho pure- pjroatflttio oil 

Tliiti *wooa 

120 I (UoinU.) Vapoui doiuailjr •"'-"< (K«m-), liaM.n acinuatio 


CatasUBum. irmrdiiif to Kan*. Kan*. 

SO 7U-Q4 

• It n HI ..A 
ft li>.i.t 


■ "If 



i - 

4* I Mill 
M || 11 

D>ftfl 14 

enro ?fi ._ loooo 


0O>mli»r. (■• HriuU 

fT47 ... 
in Hl'20 .... 
Itl 14-33 

... 100 00 

n to .... 

10-30 . 



; i 'ii 

1 1 M 

Oil-*»pour ... 



. n ■ 

... 10-34 
. 14-10 

1 ._ 


9 Hi 


iaoooW_.. «JH l«KVOO 




. 100 00 

a lath* iiuljiU ofthr |iupd oil «.),.. i. t,..,:. !.,| M(ffa isn' srnl 13d 9 , the diitili.*u* 
i t . . ..- . ... u .... ay a bi i liaj • !.. AkdllMlMi vfia ■ rfaiag aoBlf aehtt b«<ome 

||«/ tiiUtt in mrhon «nd |*oc>rvr in liydr»fv\ »n*J oivgrn. <ll«nti.) 

■ iiniit lur« in*>li> a **i»lok»- c.l if <u/hon, w» 

looa ii I kppcar ii 

Aa« nnr **yyt*%*m> > d frooi Lottie add or urimir, a nppoolcloa wUcfe 

k»canAe*m4 hj lac «iaIj m« 6. < 

TK« puw oil a analysed ty llcinti, in by him cousidt'ivJ U/ l« 



identical with KV tie ether. It burns witli a bright, Miioky 

flame. When treatiMi with nitric acid. It solidifies and ii converted into 
an acid winch dissolve* in potash, forming a dark-rod volution, and if 
precipitated therefrom by the otruo^cr acid*, 

Mesitic Aldehyde. c*H'0 , =C u H'O fc . 
Kaxk. Poqq. 44, 491; aUoJ./jt. Chrm. 15, 150. 

Thin compound is formed by carefully heating 3 toI. acetone 
1 \<>\. pftXOQf mtric acid, arid dilating with water; but a* ihut obtained, it 
!• alwiiyn cuniiiiiiiux!.- il with nliriu "f ptcUvl (</ a.). To obtain it jiur% 
mityiena - boilad villi Dftrk acW, iravn quaflikioi of which are con* 

J i. Jr. I (ill BO lurth..! :irl...r; :;|>["':u. I., rd.r |dOM &l product 

\u thou wacliod with w :»(■•!-, and dried over chloride of calcium, 
Heavy yellow liquid of sweetish a*triii£out laato. 

i ii « 

10 15 

.... ««'*» 
~ Ml 
- 2847 


.. 7 11 

. 18 0C 

Cm*0» - - 56 

.... 100-00 

i 1 

Di^nlvrv > mu)> io water, but readily in alkaline liquid*, E 
a yellowish brown rcdutinn. — It ubtiorliM ■mmoniunil fan with great 
nvi.iiu-, Ik ruling :i lituwn resinous niawi This compound of 
aldi hydo with ammonia may be obtained iu tho crystalline »t 
tola turn in wuurand careful OVBpOlvtiOBi It* mittcous solution mixed 
wiih nitrate of sd»ci\ iwiifdiniclv forojfl ;t TWO* precipitate wliicb 
blacken* when heated; the rrsiuctinri i.* however incomplete. Uut oxide uf 
silver precipitated from tin* nitrite by a small quantity of pot*«li, i« imnie- 
<l i.-it- ly rOnOtd OB addition of luctutic ahbdiy La, sOBOOtlnofl to a black 
pomlcr, M>iii<-tiiiie.> l» a metallic and somewhat specular coAttajr. (Kaoo.) 

Iodide of Mesityl or Hydriodate of Mesltylene. 

Kaxe, Vog>j. 44, 47S; aUo J. pr. Vhm. 15, 137. 

1. Acetone mixed in a retort witb iodine and phosphorus, 
heated, give* off a latere ijuautity uf liydriodic acid gas, and vielda 
distillnto coloured dark" by u»l ; i: «■ and smelling of bydlfodlc BUMP, If 
tin -lihtillu-tc bo treated with water to remove hy Iriudie acid aud with 
potash to remove free iodine, and thereby dccoloriiod, it becomes 
coloured a^aiu, both when left lc Itttlf n»>l wh-n numei <•■] in « : 
rnii.-4'i|iit ■iht i if tlte separation of free iodine. which if dciaisitcd. together 
with cliarcual, at a later stage of the cUoOfflpofiUon. At all ovonu. Iodide 
of mwilyl tlm- i-n-parad i« vei v inj nio, l.em^ contaminated witb *ary- 
2l)A niKindlic of /icctonc, roeaitic ether, and frequently nUo of mctitylene, 
MM CQBVOgmcDUT ^'i^t.? vny variable result* on aualyrie, It i« partially 
decompo '"I hy di-ldhiimii 

2. A purer iodid* of maiityl ii obtained by introducing into a tul 


a umall quantity of iodine, tkeu acetone and a piece of phosphorus, and 
ihatin- ip lh« mirtnr* with water, nft«r g«utly heating it. It* cobijhj- 
aitiuu » probably C*Ii a l. (Kane.) 

Chloride of Mesityl or Hydrochlorate of Mesitylenc. 

KiXB, P"$<j. 44, 47fl; alio 7. j>r. CA/i». IS, 135. 

!. Acetone is tutu rated with hydrochloric M$d by pawing the nfl 
through it fur M-tctnl day*, during which time *" :iliiiiidiinl ;ili.u.-p inn 
tokft* place., Anil the reauliinf? dark brawn, very acid liquid, is mixed 
with viter, whirli uktw op tho hydmehlorir :u-ii|, all J pri-ipitai** the 
cblnn.l ■■!' in-- lityl. Thn product i*» tlien dieted witli litbawgU And 
cbl.-ndo of calcium; but it »till remain* contaminated villi rachitic 
etLcr and acetone — It ia a dark brown Liquid, nuob ln-uvier thou water, 
neutral wIiph rwvnily prepared, Hat oven on tlin folliiwinif day, hnruniraKo 
atrcfiuly acid, that il exhale* denao fume* of hydrochloric arid. When 
diatiU ^v*0 off hydrochloric- acid an i distillate, wim-ii, 

froiu meaitic otb« aii'i : o prodooad in the 

proa**, i> lighter than water. Wueo di-aillcd with aqueous aulphide of 
potRHinm it yield* a yellow liquid which contain* a turgti naanuty 01 

MompeaM crilondo of nuuiityl, together with ■ little mcvitic ether, hnr 
boa a very repulsive odour ami gradually deposit* uulphur, vhouoo it 
probably alro contains aulpbidc Dime lityl ( Kane.) 

2. WInMi a mixture >i \ pt anbydrom acttont and 2 pta, poiit*- 

cMofbti. • f phosphorus, k r - j • t nool by InnnoTatag the containing vessel in 

water, ii mixed a. ;ii tout liznoa it* bul ic >if vrtUr, and tb> urooipStaWd 

pair quid washed with a small quantityaf wat-r, xuA titan dried 

- f oulcium> from nrtiich it must be merely decanted, not 

.->' ili-ini:it .m would decom|Nmt? it — a much purer obJoride 

i -<ityl U obtained, mixed howovi«r with small quantities of DU :i- 

etbor and acetone [Kane.) 

PrrptrtJ »y (2). 

UC 720 .... 47 12 _.. 

10 H 10 .... 6'64 

»ci to*: 

r ' ll'<l» 


ntu tin 






According to Kane, tUe formula \* C 4 H 4 CI. 
Cbloridc uf mceityl treated with hydrate of potash, does not yield 
acetone. (L6w»g ft; Wciduuiiii.) 

Hesiiic ChlortJ. 0W0KK 

auto (18W) inn. PAarm. 1, 228. — Kavh, /. pr. Ckm. 15, 152. 

Formad by paasins dry rhlorine gw through anhydroui acetone, 
kmtiajj ibo liquid n#arly to the Imiiiii^ imii. i tfl UOillCftM ihe tAwipCSofl 
when it bogiaw to alackeo. and iopar»UM tho rcaultinr oil from U»c 
bydrocUvrW acid whkb adhere* to it, with wator. (Licbig.) Tho oil 


if dchydrat*! by placing it or«r dhlBlMf of raleiiim and decant In 

(Kane. I 

Oily liquid, of *p. *r. 1*331. Its odour it faint at firat, twcmbling 
Unit of <M<»r"f'irm and Dutch liquid, but after a few tocuuda become* so 
pung*nL tut nnarly to tako aw:iy tlm fifmae*, ami oxeitm a copious flvw of 
tours (Licbijf); acts vary atronflly on the now nnd */*•» ihfl affect con- 
tinuing for eonio dayv; prodaoM Po4n*M Mad bllftrttl on the hand, like 
cniillnirtJi-, but the wyuoda which it BUak* BfO much raoro difl 
Leal. (Kane). 

Utfbif. Kin*. 

6C 3C-0 .... 2R-39 28 .. Sthlg 

4 II . „ .. 4-0 .... 3-lS 2H V00 

• i 79-fl .V.M ftSII Mrsj 

2D ItVO ... Ift*6) I'Vii 11 -M 

ifiiVCPO 9 -136-8 .... 100-00 1000 100 00 

Tho oil boil* at about 71% but during ebullition give* off hydro- 
chloric mj tooomci duk lad opftaae, (Kane*) It is decomposed 

by oil of vitriol and potiudi with tin n'nl ul (mat, ( Licbig. ) When 
mix ft! uithu quantity »f po fundi sufficient to disaohc only half t ho oil, 

tin- nadiarolTea portfoi daw not nppretr <" 1"' tltcted: '"it n larger 

onintity "I potash ili»*olvn- tlm ml n.mplotoly, forimrtK a d« op ri>d-bi ■ 
li ( ii;.l, »vhitii ; Ixvudcjt chloride of potovium, continue a peculiar pouuh- 
aalt, whose acid, PteUic add, is probably composed of 0*11*0*; all tbo 
miltrt of tint acid art." ttolubK*, thow of llio alk:tli.< IXC i »«l -1 t ■ • ■- n . and 
not reduce tbo *alt* of the heavy mctaU. (Knee.) 

Mesityl-hypophosphorous Acid. 

When ncctono ia distilled with phoapliora* and imlim\ iinpun 
of iiicaityl j'Oaoco over, and thin acid ronntina in the form of a thick 
liipiid which, on conl'mir, MilidinY* in jin ipdwHttiK-likt) ina - DiaCOaTCI 
readily in water, producing a bittor and Btronjjly acid liouid, und foflN 
with carbonate of baryta, a eolublo and insoluble salt. If tbo filtrate bo 
(lu-n I'vn p-- rated nearly to drynows oo that it BOlidifiol m ■ crystal) i no 

mBjMi on cooling, and uli oryslalliiM maw be freed from iodide ol harittXD 

Ity repMted hmliii-r with nlcohal, noMtyl-liy]uiplioiijdiite> of baryta 

i<ii;:m.i- mi \*lnf. ur:i!t:.l ry\ ■- 1 1 II 1 1;, gfftiU wlnrli luk- Br* wluyil heat 

producing a pboaphoru.i tin mo uu-1 d<-n i: fiiiui: ofpooi pbArieaeid, utol Im 
inx plioiphatc of bartya mixed with charcoal; whonmoinlcnod with udi 
acid ami llii-n h.-ati'il, iltrv mv lUmowjinmiil with rn,':it \ mli-nn*, pi 
of (lit- maaa being ccaittitrod ftbont. The* cpy*tala, whon on<-.- :. mi. i, 
take % lon/( time to diuolvo coinplctoly in wator. (Kane, J. pr. Chm. 
\r., 141.) 

B»o . ;<,* 14*01 13-90 

r M-4 .. 18 04 

6C 360 ... 20?0 . JOOO 

■ H«- ... 345 3'M 

SO 210 .... 1579 

lkO,t*H°CH,W> 174-0 ... lOO'OO 



Mesitylo-phosphoric Acid. 

I pi, of aeoeoae mix* 1 *! with 1 pt< of facial phoiphorio ncM, Wcomca 
beaten and yields % dark brown mixta re, which wbco MOtnlflMjd with 
kit alV«Ii, (omnia falfgB quantity orf phoBphatfl :i'i<l :i 0Dttll •|n;intitjr of 

Too «o.U *ull ihuisw Uio form of thin rhombic table*, which offlo- 
r ■■ n the air, und fure ill llmir water of crystallisation when hcutcd, 
leaving a aofl RM4M whirli, a* the beat Sdotmw, >u« 1U up, bltcLonaj 
anJ finally lente* u m idkM td pboapbatfl of aula. (Kudu, ./. or. «7A«m. 

*4 > 


N-O.rO* I0f*« .... 49-90 ...- 48* 

B\<i 45 .. U-M 20-0 

Meeitylo-sulphuric Acid. 

K UTS. i^. 44. 471'; alio /. fw. Chtm. 15, 138. 

"i»©J by tuixiag % vol. acetone with 1 vol. ofl of vitriol, witfiovt 
rtHiliBf! *bu mi*- are artificially; (Hinting it with wuUr when cold. **lu- 
rati*-: the acid with carbonate of baryta or lime, ati<l evaporating llM 
fiKru rjyaffttfsiop point 

Tkt B*ryt*t wait decMiiipo*rd hy * ill pi ark acid yicltl* n li'|iiid, whi.-h 

«nrlU atrough of DMtitii ether, cuiitainn aulphovinia acid, and when 

.it rotxratatoJ \>y evaporation, ^ivea off lalpbarOU Mid Ifid Kim 

The Lint nU aasamoi tho form of email crystal*, which, when 
hc*<< • ff TS n. «. or 1 At. water (or 2 At, if tbc *alt be lappo—d 

i. \\ lu-ii moistened with nitru acid and bcatcd, it 

dlecwinpoacs with alight ■ (donation-, dm tol [(Itb DfTaalpbaric add ivmb 
more atrongly boated, but leave* perfectly uuutral awBafttt of I"" 


SO 1 40 

«C .. - 30 

j H -. a 


23 93 

. . 2.VT0 


3077 .. 

.... 30» 

4 27 .. 



fati.Mi ■ ; ■ .i 



(rVtfc.w* m.« earn*!;. - 2{C-O.S(> ) - I'MW. At all rrrt.U, tfc< atlt 
ifafoa* a pccalart* M< nW#n*4 in the ulti of oili.-r HOtallad llat tim 

/ >r«ir|«aic aaac conUmtd tn H it tuncteat le aaturau the nholr o4 t[„ 
IptMhc arid.] 




70-10 ..„ 

... M-'.u 


_ ||-»1 

3-09 .... 

. *M 

H-to .... 

... Tto 

Permcsitylo-sulphuric Acid. 

Kan?:, ityy. «, 479; also J. ^r. Chtm. 14, 138. 

On* p:nt of acetone iw mixed with 2 ptt, of oU of vitriol, without 
cooling, to that tho imxiur. Utoiikm v*ry hot, turn* brown m.) citTet 
o(l sulphurous aetd; the liquid, when ool'd, is dilated vttb nvUff, ■ata- 
ratcd villi GftrboOKta of barvtu, lime, or load, Had tho filtrate crapontlcd. 

The flnrvtti jfift fnataJlfoo In nasi] pearly ubh**, turns browu when 

lt*«l. iind Ipivct "M --4 |..'i-rciii of iwii trnl rolpfcatti of Imryta. Hcalod 
with nlpburiO Mid. it behave* like riif*itvloHiilph:ito of baryta. 

The L\mr tolt BfYStalliiea in doliuuofccont ^runnJcB and »mall t>rixni»; 
mar bo deprived of ita 1 At. water oi crystallisation without Mnekvninr, 
baft MjH-hi.-iK* mid Ukei lire at a *li •w^\ bent, and leave* a slightly 

■IkiHoa nddotj without giving off *»lphuric acid, The «alt moistened 

with nitric neid decomposes quite quietly when hunted. (Kam\) 

SCsO,S(T .... 136 

«C M 

6H IS 

tO - 18 

2(tnO,S<V) + CWO' .. 194 .... 100-00 ...,-. 100-00 

[By doubling this formula, wo obtain 4(CaO,SO*)- r C I, H ,a O , + 2HO. 

% Sulphomcsitylo-sulphuric Acid. 
IIorMAffx. Chan. Sc*o. Q*. J, 2, 113. 

AfrtHjilo-Aj/pOMulptivrlc acut, Mnityh sulphuric odd. 

| IbtftltM 1 liy treating weaitylcne with (timing culphurio ncid, u I.. 
a roddUh brown liquid is produced, which, wood exposed to a uioni 
atmosphere, becomes gradually crystalline. The application of heat 
niu.t bo avoided a* it carbonize* the compound, ami give* rise to the 

IntiOD of ■alphlirolld acid. The In-own liquid lirnmir- nduiirb' > wlim 
diluted with water, mid on adding carbonate of lend in ctocus, a soluble 
l»d Mil i> formed, together with insoluble sulphate of lend. The lead- 
•alt of thin acid crystallite* in white noodle*; it in vrry noluldo both iti 
alcohol and in water. (Uofinann.) 

Lrtitl-fiult . Ili'fiimtm. 

rb 101 .... 3423 34 05 

18 C 108 .... 3,') 09 35 66 

11 H It .... 3(13 381 

3S .32 ... 105* 

tO 4* .. 13U8 

Pl.i>,*0\C' , |sol} 303 .... 100 00 

Tl* feraatl uf thU salt may alio be written VbO.CWffO*. f . 



Awchloride of Platinum. 

Zcnc (IB40). ropj. M, 6, 1«, and 312; olio Jun. J J Aami. 33, 29; 
• £W 20, 100. 

\irativiu Dry bSoIitorid* <*' platinni] in mind with n unnll 

ij«-jh laMont only to fortJ •' Into h i«i*ty mutM; iho 

ttira ph«'l in a stoppered bottle, nnd ]cft to ttaclf i«-r ftij boojtj and 

Haw, which law then b«0oni« Maoll brora, cmtallino, and friftUc, 

Ifcuovn ou a filter, wjiaruti-.i from th< portio i whico still ramiM Kqnjd, 

anil irjutiUxlly wa>lu-d with omul! nr, uhervhy a black* 

brown »Uf-tnnr.i ;- iliawkh .•<!, :iul the r» -i.Inr< turned velloir.— Tlio 
<l I... tll.\ ■!. [oMtt, hi the 0OCUTM of "24 hour*, na 
a-lditttmul ouantity Ol MCfl li lo t HU of platinum, vhi.-li mu.-t lil.<wi*« bo 
woaticd vita I 9. To ofctaifl the rent of the ifiooalorido of platinum 

fn*n tlw flltrali! (and rah -Honor), thvr grwutrr part of the MeUMM ll 
. ili.' thick lymp poured into ,i budo; tlm portion 

remaining in the r< ■ b#d oul with ;* little MttOBVj tlio whom left 

t» craporalc in n alowlv producod raoanna ri\M .>il ..f .in I 
of it- dual brittle »c*inou» maaa rnilveriicil and washed 

wlui acetone, -rhicli I « ■ * » si il.i ■oeohlorido <•( platinum toltinUjr punt 
All t ilorida of platinum thai a li -t:ll eontaxufoatod 

witli a I--U wbu-h i« in.olublc iu aoetotio froo from acid. It inuct, thoro- 
Irfd in warm wri.,:!. - ouioJnod in a- lon£-ncekcd flask, and 
the warm rod from ili:« into a wide-iieekcd bottle, 

wliv!i |i then t"» be clowd : pure ocechloriur* of platinum thou aopanUc* 
aw the liqnid C . Imwavor, OMOlllOfkU Of pUatlnoill i* muoh morn 

lublc in h*l titan in cold acetono, the purification mur alio bo «-ITcetod 
ng t lie hot-filtcrvd aolutioa nearly to dtyucaa, and 
t i |f iIm reaiduc Prom Hub brown rob tawoe by nwdiing with acetone. 
In (I. irido of pUtinum \ii>M uln»ui 20 paru 

cd MM 

thstJ, rfrVftl in f«e*« oeer «N tftHrW, Ztmc. 

oC M"« 10 0.1 l<»«3 

! li 5*0 ... *T3 2 90 

\\ OS i) a*M &.V60 

ii .V, i 10-JO 19-10 

B-0 4-36 ._ 4-98 

CtfCt-tO 103-4 .... 100*00 10000 

„C*J-0 i' I ii'.ium'ki (Zdje,; 

£V«o««pW»' n* I. Acoohlorldo of pUtlDUU .1 in the oil-bath, 
««Pt«ik< "■" a tempem'uto of I0J . Iron »0U° to 

lil.ick and pvw off a tout puueent odvur, at 21.'» n , it 

t+fftt «n ^i^e nl lie.h «'m-i|m'« vrry ubuiul nniv ;it .-to. and 

in* of hy«lrorlilnrio nctd nnd a poihIuimAiIp g**, wiili a 

tra<» o*" ll V '■•' "" ■ "" S" '< aocomjmniod ny a ranoOTj 

wbirh cuudonoro to » Irowu liqoidj and there rcuum* a black rooidao, 



which, when heated to rednwut, girt** off a liulp Don of thr ••"I 
gas, hut no liquid, and i» covertcd into (JOMti p. c. of bienrbido 
linum (%i, 2H5). Tho brown distillate hereby obtained ha* n j 
acid odour; fuince in the iiir in r<<ii>*'i ( iii-ii<-< .1 1 "£ a large quantity 

of bvdfoeuloffa iddj Ippn to contnin iHvtmic; unl on mblirioti of 

w*tar, yiold« an oil, which rfaai to the ■arfao*, and ha* n re* f nous and 

cthcrcul odoUTi Tliv itOWBpOMilioii take* jil.i.«o mi lln. nt lilNjoti Of 1 
ico, Win 11 Accchlumh- of pint ilium ifl i^nitrd with potash, 
ic-idim [fl liktVtM forim i >:**u t 111 my Pit 1 . 

t. When ueehluHcIe of plallnntn b taroened Ld water, bofl 

yellow eolation formed (tt fir»t and tho undissolved portion turn bro 
in a few bourn at ordinary temp ntiorMg and imnoaxatoly on the appl 

cation of beat If thi liquid In ii uou»l> boiled, tbo water rcncwi 

:l> il rvii|iiinitr> r tint solution becomes Cob tilt ]w, ami tbr rrtidui' i* en 
ftrted into 58*38 p« Bent of a bUol powder, OOBslitmg of ruvplaiiuu 

.. . 

it mi n| |K.-c tlmt aecplntinoua oxidc = CPtO, anil that 
chloric irtlior is produced simultaneously with it, (in- aquation 
CWPtClOsCJPtO + C'HVi. Mid ameequeoUjr, 1834 p ahtortde 

d |>l:iiiniiiii mint yi.dd 10!) pt*. of aoeplntinoua ox id* =100: 5S>'4, 
which Bfrrocn well cnoujrh with Z«W* experiment. Thin iplittmg OB 
an acetone compound into a compound of tbo Othyl-seriea ou>I one ->f t 
BWtUyl-oerie*, is favourable l<> Chancel's theory of Uk4 COaetllaiioa 

3. Aeecbloride of platinum l« dmiiiipowd whon baited wit& pO 
*odn, baryta, or lime, either in tbo dry or in tbo humid w»y. It dis- 
solve* slowly in cold potash, funning a brown solution, whirl! indicates 

iiirncncemciit of atCOT U POOttlOD, MUed with a solution of hydrate 
of potash In ft!) percent, alcohol, it form* a brown pasty ihi-a. which 
tiiniB Mnck when heated in a retort; mid after \ of tho Rleonol has 

(unwed over, ifl found to be converted into u Murk powder, surmounted 
y a bnmniwli yellow liquid. If tin- distillation bo euntS&ned with frwu 
portion* of alcohol. .1 di>tillute Mnellinir -if livdrucidorie i-llirr 1* finally 
obtained, nml the block powder, Hiirinoiinted by an almost docolorijuMl 
liquid 1 *< oVaraeten of acoplutiuoui oxldej thmigli with a few 

peculiar rlmrncUn. 

4. Accch loride of platinum stirred up with a small quantity *f aOjOBOOi 
ruiinn.iii;!, iIi-.- (1 |wK |inrti:illy, fiiriuintf llrnt a y.dlon . tln-n a rrd -brown 
nllcnlino liqnid which miioIU of ncctonp. T)ii* liquid bollad In the retort 

with tho undiMolv-ed reddish povdaf (daring which preecaa, tbin etrciuna 
oi an ethereal liquid appear hi tin - : neck ol il"- retort) di". kr* cea> 

tli'trlv, f« >i 1 11 ! 1: lt ^ lii-owiiwli yrlluw liquid, whuli. Ii< »■ .. i. if the boiling 
i' iMUtiniied, becomes darker mul deposits it snuitl ijiiiiiitity of blank 
powder. When «c pa rutin) fmin tin- |n»\vd«T liy filtr:ition, and evaporati-d 
in vacuo over oil nf vitriol, it dries up to a dark brown, brittle moat, 
which di.«*olveJ but partially and sparingly in nlcohul. — Wb«n dry 
Hiuiiiouiacul gn* is pussed through a *olutiou of accebloride of pl.itinuin 
in ncetono, a li^ht yellow jiowdrr Minarataf, nrobftMy eonsiwt'ng of 
nceebloroplatiuate of ammonia, ulijrh. if the jwngQ of tbo fc%a be Oon- 
tiaaod, [1 r.'iii olred and Ebnofl » deal btow»< i> yellow liqoidi in con*** 
nuenci- of tho formation of nn oil, which increoK* tho oolvctil power 
thf ioi Eone on the aoecbloroplaunat* of ammonia, (it the niui 

formi'd be tolled » lilt n fmh volution of »ceehlorklc of plutlnum In uensa*, tbr fnrm#r 
peolpitsui t« n-prndnrra). Ou distilling this clear brown liquid, seet' 



•eat pa MM OW tO£«lW with mmnoaia; thou a colon rlcw distillate, 
which Uccomcs milky w!: with wilt*.*, Lumi, :i1 niHtniliim 

of a nf cafe inn i bath, a yelloirtan Itaoid, which on addition of 

W»lcr, ylrl-U :in ml rlinf mh -, .» t ; • ■ ■ui-l.ic. . n.I laMly, at ft fttU hi 

tempo rat uro, a thick, brown i*li yellow liquid from v\ hiofi I *ri»© 

ocparatc? a large quantity of oil. THo honey-yellow, viacid reaidoa io 
lb* '• red- brow a gnu alai of mcUb <■'<■<>/" 

anam tiah rtmnini f»oriin<l after the r-d-hnnvu tjtnpj not! 

i>irexl by menu* of other or oootono. The woth liquid 
lhu» obtftittd, xt DllX*d with Wat«V afl •■ r pftrl "I* 1 1"» Other Of 

aootooo li*s been diattllcd oil*, yicldi t large additional •{(lantity of Utft 
ftbeve-fuuulioncd oil, which. Imwotcr. if NBtani Im; present, renmina 

i ■iihxitli-iMlilc .j intil rv m Hm> -.v.ilMry* liquid Thin nil i* 

• .-Mly volatile, ba* an nlk;il '.colt to net on firo, I ftd 

faanuwitli a awoky Home. — Accehloridc of platinum dusolvol in !)M 
p*w cent :• I u rated with amaiOBisoftl jris, vidua at lirst mcrt'lv a 

aetaiiua of aoaofriorapietifiate >( ammonia preeipitftblc bi Bth#r; oat 

aaoa (prol»alily .»n tin- addition of moro imwouiaeaJ alcohol), there h 
f'tnooJ. U.iuV- -li- ...iiJ.I.' B00ohlorop]«tloat4 »i .Mimi-mia, n dark rod 
l/ody which rcuiaim umlisfedtcd. hut no oil U formal when ileohoJ is 
u*ci The dark red body is ponuunciil in tin: air, hut dec npOftM when 

■■;. vii I I ii" H t ■ .ii-rd.- hhlO «|ii:irilily of -iihlriinl -:i)-niiimi»- 

■Mfl «mall quantity of c»1ou?1pm dittill&to which u)no1It of acetone, 

ami Jteying; a Mack eutmanec winch burn*; in the mr nnd Ira von met i lia 

inum. The dark n i body U eiwily vol on fire in the air, ami bare* 

with a rtrongly lantiiiou* umno tinged with green* It blaQjCCDi when 

booleil witJi waier, bnl doea ool diawlve io it. It is eearody inhibit Eo 

i .11! diaaoWai *|.|f!.'ly in l)i:it :tci»l :i( n boiling 

Iteatf » yolloir lolation. It in insoluble in ether; dimotroa opar- 

iftgljr i:, bofLog alcohol; eomowhat moro abundantly und with yellow 
colour, in mxtuua 

3. I'ko«|dioru* inuncnml in tin* yellow solution of aeechhirido of 

11 :n 1 .n.«. mini lin'i Iv COV*rod With :i Utok *Oatinff| 

I ft (Utrk brown, lli^n in hull an boar a hlaok- 

uad n'aally toeing all iu colour and yielding a rod h row n. 

• Jvnocat. 

tf. Aoodilcriiio of platinum di*nolvod in .irofono immmliatoly forma 

■ of ocotono and aquoouo nitrate of -ilvor, a yoUow pTOci" 

pitslO, » to thick ,.; .1 

remaining turbid even afka lonj •landing, 

lotion of icochloride of platiuuin iu acoUrno covers metil ho 
coopar in aiz hoora vltb a hlac 1 J ;» urn all quantity of hydrocblorio 

arwl be wl'i<-l, thin effwl Inlcci plaoo itnmodiatoly, and w attesdad with 
•rolatMui 'V:tii mercury it lir^t fornu an atimljmn»t hut :iftor 

Moadinc fot aoi ilai '■■ powder, whereupon the mercury 

partly rccot en iu fluidity. 

CvW.iV.jfWj. — Accchloriilo of platinum diaaolyoi iparlUglo in nattr, 
ug a yellow aolution, which changes by gradual -kvump^. itivn to 

Ufftircdt 1 '- '- 11 when I'imri-ui rated, dooa not disaolvo it 

arhi>nt the aid of licut; but aolution then takes place without deOODH 

IX. l> 



AtocAforvphuinntr vf Ammonia. — I. Formed by \r.u \u:> <li 
nincil ^^^^* ovur dry. flnnlv i'Oi)tnlo«i rida of platinum, tho obll 

of v huh is tiot thereby altered. Tit' OMDjHHttd J'i»14i a large qnm-.ti 
of eal*mmoiiinc by dry distillation. It diwelvo* for tho ino»t yntt in 
I tli >ko1> iO'l .*|»ftiinicly in acetone; its arjucous solution is not 
dccoTnpiwfd by boiling. 

t. vviu>n inmoniite) pi* Is pa**cd thmtiou a oolotlou of uoojoli 
of platinum in acetone, tho «imo compound in formed ami separate* at 
fit t. but afterwards rcdi»oIvce in tho acetone through the medium of 
l!>. • *i 1 xv h i'li Ikiimh :utlic Kioie time; but wlwn evaporated, at la*t in tho 
i-lili.riili'iif « -. 1 1 ■ - i 1 1 1 1 1 li.t'li. it aipiin separate* in thrfrramihii form, :iinl whsn 
tlie liquid it completely cooled, rimy be M ' •" thf Isiek brown 

liquid by id* hi dI stlMt 01 aOftouu, (?»'</. #w/>.) J !■<■ N tduo il yellow, 
;ui.l bocouM bt> * a an I bum I at bho Oofi ■• in n r>|Ki;ci i. tin- .lit. nioro 

trobauly by osidution than I • v .ilvrption of water. It iloconrpoaon ot 
t^'li tiTnpi'rntiiMv. iml bum away with (Uinc whim -trim 
tho air. It dlaaolvoi rory readily in water, fanning a browin-li vo!l«w 
liquid, which line a atrcog alkaline reaction, bat doc* not smell of 
ammonia; may bo evaporated to dryno>« without decomposing; and when 
1i.-:i;m! mkh * roll quantity of pOtotb, fornix a wriall quantity of y*J- 
lowidi precipitate, which on tho addition of more potash. rodijaolv.- with 
. hi: ii I niiiiOflM, UdiwoWe* VOrJ ahaumintlv in nlcmrd, 
au-J i. on l>*i>m tho solution by ether, Tho •»luti«.n hat a very 

strong alkaline reaction, and whon mixed with nn alcoholic solution of 
bieblorida of plntin am, Contu I BopJottt grccniub yvilow prccipitatO) which 

is rich in carbon; if other ho then addon to the fiitmto, a »mali quantity 
of lijrut yellow precipitate is formed, winch, after feeing dried on tho 
filler, oovvmHo4 by o*pnaur» to tho air, laU I l»r»wn tar. Il 

in acetone aJ ordinal.) : uqH-mturv*, moii: nhmidun 
at n bailing bent; the mid: BOlVod portion U unilistin^niiahablu from 
wliieh dlasnlrofl 

Aeeohlnrido of platinum in diasolvod in ammoniacnl alosbol 
(p. 69) in ouch proportion that the red-brown liquid still rcmnius eli 
alknlino; tho rotation filtered from the eiunl) quantity of nndiwolvcd 
aubrtsnoe ; tho arivhlnrnphitiiialQ of amnion :l praohntatod fam thr fil- 
tmto by igil ttion with a largo quantity of other, in targe yoJknv iliVw; 
mid the ..lU.lut ofl ;i Dlt* r (tho fillr.ii.' I | affoloat -jHao- 

tiry of rt l.« t oil bott oddl -1. in coli.mlr-:, mid ivl.un.i t&tn&J aiiv 
i -ii- Thio proceso yieldo ■occhlorophit 

0J :i i DIOI la in tbn form of :i lijflit a \rllnw xiiKxI.Hlirti — hr..uni.)i v'li>W 

ndmniiv at tho edge* only — 'which dhoolvoi very roodrly in \ 

bat in nleohol only partially, and much more slowly than tho subetnneo 

Aooobloridfl of platinum dl ,-r, mm 

in aloobol, *-:-pccially in hot alcohol, from "huh it rry»'.uUi»a 

and Mill more reudilr, in the proportion of 1 :3>). in 
wlnili solulioa duCs uvt tahibit any acid reaction till uiiacd with water. 





ZWWL Ann. Pharm. 33, 34, and €6; alao X isr. C*m. 20, 107, and 

A Jolueion <A I )>(. bichloride of platinum in 10 pen. too lone Udutillod. 
after it b*4 bnoOBU -IjitL ; the wo inutcd with water ; and 

tW< blackbrowu tur which : i . -I irilh water* an 

Umjj n* tln« Wfltur con limits In Iks eolou; lt!og 

ma? I* dried in vmmomi Ubm ororar oil of 

urn I hydrate of pota L 
;.i pletiaam-renin a '/lack l.rown, unctuous, brittle *t oi ! 
tenperntorot, Uit wbea goaty U-ntod, ooft, btSACJOUB, nod capable oi 
•lr*wu out into lhnud*. 
Wb»>n -n' aii.n, it giTta "ffgai from 20U" upwnrdi; 

■»<*' original bulk; tdinnki together aain 

at $? iitC Umfl ;!■'!■■. ■, ii.iiilii v ')l ;; | tod \ dlflti 

1at«s y< it, then brownish, e ■ Uoii/1 

of bjndroct i which it ubtn ned In thn divtj 

lorida of platinum. Prom 300 to incipient redness, 
cent I i larro quantity of cui and dieti lata Tho brittle 

DBr%MMMa roatdoe, which bad a fatty luttre ItJtewuM _■!>■»•.., v In n 
banted to whJtencaa in n porcelain retort, a large quantity of £*i . 
fruaa n^ydfftchloric acid and burning with n utrengiy Inunnoui fl 

Thii rcsidart -till itOOimU to 4285 pet 001 Dl 'I"' 8rJ « - r 1 1 ■ ! . • platfa 
r«BiD, and leaven, when ijruitol in tlic nir, i/i Oi per coot of iu weight >>( 
pletiuuni, whence it mil 19 or 20 At <arbon to 1 At. platinum. 

Ace ihh rvanlti crude |>l;uiuuui-mm containi IS 53 pec eejtl of 

In bo raixad with hydrato of potash 

icldi between S00 and 300°, wilbonl ririe 
off any n; | :t pale yellow, turbid, InJokj 

dw til I *tc ; . rcainou and otkci mr; and Cram 300 Up to 

rnd bant imuta Dbanactar, nzooi d L) btnum 

eonaiaaaJly liruwiur :in<l thicker iJilmi ieom 

. and bonu with a more nmoky HWBIi< — The 

dry di>t.lU!iiin <1 p latino to-ree in with powdered ajiioklima inJu | 

without iutsiiii-MVu 

m-roaio i* a mixture of ■CTCfnl prmlucU of dnorj 
tio*. If it In' tatted, ai ord narv • <•' m nnntli <'f tb 

••erwwive liquid* bccoo< ad, first "itli spirit of 80, then of i»3 

pnrcfat, thrii wiIm alcohol, tfaoo with other :-»-l lastly with 

art^one, 6m cold and then boilia inidao in left, nnd various 

tnlnticm arc •fbuined l •! having A dark brown oeloui ■■• vttOD| u :■> 
rrtnfur tiii-;n <iji;ti|n.', »n : ig iiinrc m ihttinnm. 

Tba aloolio)ie «xtruct^ xt*> pnitly praciniUWo bv want, rutlding gr* 

yvllow j * the ethereal lolution mixed with nloobol ) 

Mi U*el .l.rV i.r.»wn, ainl black prnoij '■ tb»aca1 m n>jn- 

. :Imi I! <ms all yield by evaporation 

• that vliii-h remainB from tin alconoUo aolutionj 
dnamlvaa roadily in pjU^h ley; tb« reaidug of tho lolntiona In other or 
aartonc, *|*niiily St not at all. All tbooc reaiduon, when «uljcuUd to 

^ | 



dry dbtfihtftan fthtm CBly from the alroholfa ax tract* swellin flip) yield 
a $a», |K»rt of which u highly combustible, n ebJeritttod dUtlUale, eon- 
HiMtjurof n Colotirlcwf and a y Dei Off brown li-|tii<l mixod together^ xud 

a residue of carbide <>f platfanm, 

When dry aiiinmniacnl gas i* peiwcil through a very dark > 

■Jooliollo soluf inn of rniili- plaJ In i:iii- r 1. till ihe liquid herd I uliirhtly 

alknlinc, a larojo i|u:i!ilitv of peBeif <*> nnfdfluil powder it precipitated, 
r < i rnbJ DC t'hloroplatinote of ammonium, Tliia precipitate, niter bt 
Washed, l'u-(. uili froth *i-ii;i till thfl tittle uyetal* i.f ;»I .ammoniac 

mixi-tl with it are dissolved oat mill tin- wasb-liquid bo longer forma & 
olcnd in lUvwscaatiop, — and RftorwtjHi wHb spirit <>f M per r«m, 

SfOM'iita tin* nppminirnvi ol :■ ynll>w crvKUllinn p»wdi*r, Subjected to 
ry distillation, it yield* ftl his;li temperature* a jublirnnte of ral-urnmo- 
dIiOi a colourless distillate, uid n osrboni r-i«l«o «»■• I '■ ■■•• « 

jditiiiiiim when owned ii duvolra ■•< :i BAfUlo extent ia alcohol, 
farming » yellow solution, and in rM decompound whan this Bolatli 
boiled ox oTspontoJi The volution doe* ""t precipitate MeMorlde of 

platlautn ni nitrtt I E&Verj l'ii t, waSD heeled will i.ltc latter, it becomes 

clouded by a .11 precipitate, witch, on addition of nitric acid, 

bivouu'A rnlnnrlf*- ni<l m converted rnlo chloride of silver Tin- sic 
solution hi. ■ v. I- u pKx-ijiiraii* <>\ chlnridfl of oilver when miiod 

with Ditrlo Retd and then with nitrate of silver, the precipitate being 
famed Bndnaltj .it ordinary lemperatoree, and more -illicitly oq 
application of beat The yellow cn-M-tlline poudn >« \ 

ingly in acatonfl but more freely wlion nsl-wmmoniao in present. 

if Hi.' sloobolic Liquid 1 Altered from the yellow orrsttUlM powder 
distilled till two thirds havo piurMid ovor, the rcnidun deposits bro 
crystals which mny be collcctcu on n filter; Inert Arc much more solublo 
in alcohol than tin- yeUo* crystollhne powder. — If the wasniDj vrttt 
alcohol lie eontinasd till toe ponter part lg aHnw)lToh\ tho residue nhtu 

; eofaol gieei ~* <Ir.ii^ jiroeipiti»tP willi BJtftiC of 

bnt does fiit prodnoc the frown tolonr wnen heated 

XI - dark brown motlioi li>itit*i run otT (mm these brown 
ledl -'l rnesi id iheohioriaeof cjdaiuDibatb»yieJ<lsaresiduo wh 
when treated witbether, lenvesan hisolnble Mark- cryjtrtUlfu l>*Ir/. Thi« 
. i • , - treated with boiling spirit nf US per cent, yield* a yellowish 
brown UonSdj wbietli when >. learne a brown rt*iduo jarrly 

soluble »itU yrJlowi»h-brown colour in tv«| i nml lmvinu: n bin- I 
!■ i»lue. The yrlN-wi-l; browu itlcobolic tolntion is not precipitated 
cold iretefj bui when boiled with water nil the alcohol 

|i n broe n turbid Squid. This liquid yi»ldi i browoUb Rltratowbich 
i reeip tat< o solution ni nitrate of nlTor, but not with rc«l brown --"l^nr, 
and deposid red brown Bakes, both with hydrochloric- tu-id 

li. the 'ulmiiiii in the latter ease beinjg decolorised; tlieso flakes are 
produced ia portioalar abundance on bolting tho liaufdj In which <-:imv if 
pnta^h Ik* osed. a Irudo ofanrmonfai fi rieen efl 

The dark brown ethereal Haaid liliercd from Iho black eryatallino 
body, lemveSj when ■■-.:»]■< mi.. 1 m v.u-im nv.-r nil nf viiriol, t'irvt a r^rl- 

browiii transparent trrnp, then a red brown, solid p«*it!nc, TbeuleoboUo 

siiliiii.Mi of i!n> if - ill in- iii'iitrulizwl or MiiMT-ciminited wi 


iue %rhen 

ft| H,i.. 


pniuiuu hi nil* ic-iijun nciiir;in;'-n nr ^ujH'r<ii wun nnuiinnra, 

-its a small additional Ojnantltv c4 the yellow crystalline powd r. » 

en 'it ubi.-ii -till r< in un« when tho liquid in evaporated to ihryneae 
lad the residue ex Imii-U-il with ether; tbia red-brown ethereal 

solution Icjvcooii CYji]'oratiou,arcsiduccoii*i-lini;nf iioit/ttxntptutin 

acewmc acid. 


retin. Thb *ab<Unco «l«v*>1ve? completely with red-brown colour, in 
ctbcr and alcohol, ami i> jirvc . rom Ine lattur wlutioii by »*f»»rii 

Ur^r hrowti n-ik**. I( . iifiitpil. By dry diitillntion it yield) 

tux ami ittflbeatlog rape : iw, rc«inoui sublimate (no mi>*ii< 

nine), and a ctrboaftono flame of » ♦pint- 

lamp with » bffubl bill WW} tm\y fl.unr. |i-:i . DC .1 m:ii:iII UnwUlly of 

iJiiiiomii. li 1 ccnolfc Dwtion m aomewhat darke-ond by addition o! 

Lydrwbloric acid, and wlion mixed with nitn :l h»ft 10 

«4*mi for some time, yioldl a copious frreyitb yolluw preeipilAto. 

Qm BXtl ■ lv |'l;ii mrn i-i. iin prepared with acetone likowiao 

yields a yellow crystalline prwiniute with aruuioitiu. (Zob 

Aceplatinous Oxide. 
Zkisil Am. /Mann. .13, .*ii; J. pr Chem. 20, 21.1. 

d Hi. form of a black powder oa boiling Mtc&loricfe of 

Ktli t. xUi . also in ci li 1 i|iiAiitity on boiling tlic dnrk 

VD Uqnid from whicli accihlurido of platinum lias been <!■ ; 
<p « 

!: powder. <:<-i!i lining fl:MM por cent of platinum. — [1m 
I 'tO rojuiroi 00*88 p.C. r stinuin. | 

1 (re wjien be ited for some 1 tile turn, with br»l doettpHntioa 
and tolerably loud report, often <"i morolv admitting the air lo it after it 
fc*« dned in vacuo, inroirntieli a* it thru abaorbl tin- ;tir anil b8C0tn< 

A tl fhe powder planed OB pa-ptr »«"i-i* ■!■« ■■ 

llOl t *!-•-■. Mi' ii; ill. lUIC nmiuii r :iinl gl ikiuII v ! li if to the dlooliol. 

icu or nceb ilu< •<!. Nitric 

exert imarli action ibatanotf, but aqiuvn^pi wfattfl digested vritli 
it for ».. i diaaolviM ;* port .» it h colour, lenvfiura 

•ame colour. <— Strati.; livdt*.<ehl'.>ric n-.i'l 'I'::' '"'I wnb lh«' 
•pu» .m Wilt « m-nll portion of it, forming a rod brown solntion. 

— Acttoao iu U»e course "I -* hour* diwulviM a small portion of it. 
aeqeiring a browuiih oolnur. 

A«e»l »'>!' |m>p-in'il by ni.-un* nf :ilrn1m1ii! [iOtnJ.ll tl libewlxo 

% coeJ Unrk |K<wilor. ire** from metallic particle . and DKhibitina tn4 

above re«<tiona with alcohol. But it dissolve* road mptotoly 

aoma-rtgia, and ^ very tittle attacked by hydrochloric acid, (Zcise.) 

1 Acetonic Acid. rJiv=H0,C*H T 0». 

Sriiirxaji Ckc*. (to. IMS, 941. 

Forme*! from aeotono in tbo «niO manner a* formobenroilic »oi»l from 

•«) n imotKla. CryM-» lie* m pri m«j Has a strongly neid t*^t«t 

mi nt»: i lily iu wntor, nlooliol, an I :ani fiwes 

■ a eolourlm* oilv liquid, whiob ajpiin anlidifina in (he 

trjni ;iruj. By fusion with an rv. . n| tiydraU fll 

I yic!*l« acetone. Wbon boated with strong ixtlplmric acid, it is 

■ :..|H^d » .tli aUnisnt OTolulion of pa. Korms oryslailiwblo salU 



with ttoM*. Tho n'iic.*TfA CH : ZnO, closely rammldaa laetnto of nm 
talvu aparlngly in valor even *t a boiling boat; it to inwdobl 
in alcohol and Bib*! J (Jtbb off it* Wltai i IHth MWTa I0(T. — Tli . 

barvta-*>iit, C"H BaO«, di raadtlr In w*ta* and in alcohol, but i* 

invollUi in«lW. I '.-v*uUiw!» only from »■ n$ aolotioii, f<> 

mall vrhiti prima, « boa : l,:i1 ' 

\nin ibafr wmNt dI 111 MIbIImmIIkI BVBB "hi vacuo. — On tdiior mtrutoof 
• to fttolanMv -"'■"«'.' aolutkraoftltf " ,; 'l m-utraliied wituauiinour 
metallic silver U efowly deposited in <inrk flakeo.5 

Acctal. C"n u O*. 

LiRhffl. Ann. Ph'tnn. 5, 25; aU> Fajp. 27, «0». inn. 

14, ISO. 
Sta*. iK -inre. 0SUvk /%«. 10, Mfl; also J. pr. Ckem. 40, WO. 

f/Mi'v Otysm-ttt/icr, Schwerer A'aNerttv^dthrr. — For tin- bbtorj Bf tU* 
poand, M* vim. J74. 

Formation. By r 'i" imprrfect eomhiMtloil ">f olcobal la COl t*ct witlt 
i] um black. (DdbonfilMr.) — 2, In tlio decomposition of alcohol by 
ohlorinc, so 1 - - ■ > _r M no aubetitution produola mo formed, notftul U " l 
principal proihicl (StaaJ : 

3C» a CF *■ act = OTW + 2iici * ana 

[Tlii- formation of BOeU] from Liydrntotl alcohol appear* to 
rmationof iildi'hyde VIII, "214): 

I li'U' * IHO 4 4CI - 3C«H«0» * 4HCI.J 

Prtpartfi'm, A iiumW of watch-glaaeofl containing swift pUtlD! 
btofc ftrc placed on a Mamt above a quantity of spirit of 6t) to 80 
jm-i otbt. ooutaiucd in n shallow dieh; the: whole covered with » bell* 

j;ir i 1 hci in ;illii\v :i iTft.;;ni -niv.. <>l nir, I lie Inpiid, which 

become* acid in two or throo weeka, and then conaiaU of water, alcohol, 
aoctiy acid, uootic ether, aldehyde, and ftoot»l, neutralised with chalk, 
»u<] ill. (ill .-(J, .imI tB4 diltUlaift wiliinite*! with chloride *•( calcium, ,v 
the .dilution of which there rise* a. thin mixture of AOQUO oihej. uhWdiydo* 

»nd nr** If t)\i< Liquid ba dliillled, »ldokyda ud icotic cih^r wag 
. . ■ firstj hut nt 04 to !*■> , at whWi polol th# raooivi-r iboaAa ba 

chanjjod. tlio chief product in ocetal, which niu?t bo parified b' 
roctificition, the portion wliiob KO06 owr from Oi' to 95 being nJwuje 

daUaotad la a> aopanla* raodrar* Ii niaj b< I ud from lira rauundi 
the aldehyde hy pauing nmmoninrul fit* through it and onuhing with 
nudr; 1ml m puriiy ii •-■.n: jil-»t ••: v Oiiiii :ic#'lii: ethor if inorodinioult. Iftla 

rt<cifiod product ba rapaaladlv »it» s »to*i \uth obloridB al oaJoiam, a while 

i.ul.erulcnt Piccipitnte io deposited after all the Wktct and olccbol I 

i riiinmd, probably <;i>u8i»tiu^ of the compound of chloride of ralcium 
ami acetic riln»rnlrr*4ydeporil»ed (VIM. «9ft) — If ihadlntillati 
ofiiT Dautndlxing «rlui cbalk be repeatedly treat**! with chloride of 
calcium, till thai mbata&oc »■< ".. bagar luoiotcocd; the liquid then dia- 

b ]*^aea orcr at 0-4° collected a|«rt, thw 
<m exhibit? a b»iliu^-puiiit rising from *S to 1 1» , Id BOOM 
Inixtura of a lw£o qinntity of toHio ether; boneo if Uie 




h [am ctct »t US* be ifcakou up wit!i strung potudi, it rllmiiiUlie* 
in A fww. l»our* to l*— th mi !ri f h- NOMM of Oio formation 

of ajoobol aud acrtato of pouufa. (ft 

fi. Piece* of } nr% washed ond ignited, art moistened with 

nearly at on tlii bottom of o atari and wl 

■aekod glias globo ol iOorsolhnM mpacdtj; i nunVer of capfulca, as 

xn&ny xi tho jrlobo will hold, each covered with a thin layer ol ]■; i; 
nam-bla<k, arc plo«d ou the pumice-atones; nnd iLc globo, n ■:■ i 
ft wel .-i.i-* plait, it Kt a-ido at a temperature of at least 2u'\ 

Ull all tin; al Ixtcomo arid. Ono nr fcWO litrrn ol GO p6f ■ ■<• I 

aJcob*) are then poured upon tin* bottom cf the globe, tlio quantify being 
bovavor not -unit-lent t" iMVfjff. tat nwnloo OtonOI o i ipl'.i-Iy: tic globfl 
covered ai. 1 lefl for two or ibrixi wi-rk< :U 20°, the- air bolog fcftqftOntlY 

reacac*!; tin; iluekian; liguid anda tbt ptirntooalonoi dnWB off ami 
iwalMod by n equal quantity of frwn nloonol and thfi proo ray tod 

rvml lit if> ol tbioklah mi I IiijiikI liuvi- lir.'ii tliaa obtaioad TUl 

i neutralised with carbonate of jtot.uh and tlu-n «ttK»tod 

witi of Miriam, or neutralized with carbonate of potn/di and 

afttaiuti-'i villi <lr_v :i<-ii.ih- of potaalij pi saturated will na fata In 

ofpotnuli witbuut pnrrlotu neutralijution, — nfter wl.i.-h II i- dial 

II d fourth hut pouod over. On vatiiruung 

li»tilUt«' with cblorido of calcium, a pun^out niixUri <•! <\d< li v.d-, 
aoeul, actiio ether, and alcohol ocparutca nut, and may be rcmored u i tli 
< pipette. A furl! Xy of this mixture muy be obtftiood by 

aibiinff water to dun romaioloo, chloride of calcium lolutioni u loo 
any of it continue* to aoporatej nnd tho dilute e trior ido of calcium 
tion vichia a litdo more by distillation. Cblorido uf calcium in then 
*Jilt*l to (be alrxriio!i>- niixture, aj it i.- therein liipirlied 

■ixturo doroiitol from tha «-lt1 c*r i <lc? m ralciun aohiti .u. mil dirtillad 
will or i rlistiUalO DO longer roduci :in uiiiiiiotiuioal wd«- 

ti<-n <>J* a co Li to of :>t li tn gay till i Iron from 

aldehyde; :li ■ di* mixed with a v. ,• v lai ■■<■ execia of »trt>n^ potaoli, 
aMaaMr, aud fn^uently thakcii, to docompoaB all Ibu afclic cllicr; (liu 
oVcu' id wwtw-il on * in* with :m i*iin;il * till RT (0 

r»inoTe tha alcohol; tben digoatcd with chloride of calcium, and dia- 
tUM fn-m awall rotoru iu contact with platinum »**rt» or moi 
oacrcury. (Staa.) 

3. C "'d ttiffuu^'li HO |n r ci'iil I cooled to 

10* or li , till noalitntMin-prodaota urn formed, which may 1"' known bjr 
I ilia alcohol becoming tin- ml <-u tb<* n-blniou of wntor. I I 
•trwnxly UOid liqtrid i^ tb«" !i i ' oil'; the -ii tillite 
BcuUxlir' 1 th aunin distilled otT; the dlatiU 

Uaatrd w tl rto ium, wltervii|HUi » rnixtm '. oci't'n: 

atWr, aU«by<lM and a««>tal riooa to th* mrfaco; thii atfatofl] *.l Dqafd 
trvtd m eoaiplcteJy m poatiblo from alcoliol and - UM «4 flUl 

of cakiuai; and |>uriliea in tho nunc manner »a in (2). (Klna). 

.<rtia.— Tran>yairr'nt ccloorleas liquid as thiu a^ otlior (Licbiif); 
mors Urn HvrI (Staa). Sp. gr. <»"•'"' »' " '. I.i-l'-ir.i : <*«21 nt SS \ 
(Hu >5-a lit: 1 'i (Liobig); 104° to 108° at 0-768 

ran. (Staa). Vaimur -dcrmity 4 Ml (Stn«). bmoll- likti boaty bj 
cnJirrir ntlnW (I ulinr a^rvvnilo odour, and a re£rcahid|| 

Uatff, with an niter- U«t4 bko thai of h:i»l-nuU (Staa). 





Vol. Dually. 




. MAS . . 


C-oponr... , 11 ... «-9»0 

u 11 



11 91 

li-^u ti „ oo:« 


.. « . 

t;-u ., 

, w;a . 

27 50 

o. K .. a ... a-au« 

c u n»o* 

.. tu ... 




AaUl-Mu»r 2 .... 1! HO* 

I i mm 

Litt.ii!, fi"-"» the n>«U»Uof kU lOCta) (wUeA W« p«W'A no! .,nr 
Out . follKCi tlic formula (WO*. — Attttl i» m fa Mb] 
mcllivUI. C : U'0' (VII, HO), it in Hit mct*yl*it«-««itt.- If »... . ■• •'< 

■ i tofSJU #thM»nh I Ar,**liU-i...i. - '.'< H'".i'II'm i 

Imi u Mutimir Vita Bid alltfer-iolatbin* rni<trr» tlie pre«*nr 

iinpmhahlr. •>■*«.) [Or U i. • nmju gated rrimpoumJ uf 1 At. mvtlo ether with * 

alcohol pifnm t At. water i 

c-no' r 4C*u«o» - c*u*«y 1 4iio 

(•c« ihi» obt-rmturnnnmrtUylBl. VII, /i".3 to 163) | but tli? brtiarloarof Ihr rompom 
tthli alcohol I* uiih»uumIi1c lliia 1j tins .iu|i|»uwUoU.] 

DpjMmjMtftCofu Act't.-ii i- AoabtloH Inflauntbta — It i* pcrmam 

■Toon along, Im.iI in mob! :iii«l in dry uii , bol in contact with air I 
platinufn-Mnck. it i< quickly OO tt TO rt o fl into nldehjuV', and than [l 
alrong acetic acid (Sla*) : 

C«ll«0» + «0 -. SC'iroe t 2110. 

Thr* mriTrrVmrt lata arctic- |flW) wm prrviniwly mentioned hr l.iul»ig Clilorino 

ahotrnoto hvdroffcn and forma chlorine-prodnetB boI yet examined. 
(Statf.) — Dilute nitric :n:<l iir -I foTOM sMl D 1 I' . I bon acetic acid; (-hmniic 

■old \ ii-l'l- only tin- l.n n i— Oil of vitriol dlaMavoa aortal, a 

dtfionpOMI it with blackening. (Sim.) — AcPlnl. either alone OT <UmqJ 

Sn nlchliol, doo* pot reduce >i; . i ;i (Liobit), not oven tool 

of silver mixed villi ammonia. (810*.) — WbOB U- ■ j -t from contact of air, 
it ie not deeompoecd by strong potaah or »odn-loy, by hydrate of potash 

in ■ »e>du. i»i -by fiyilixlr of li:in\ iv. n with the uiil uf beat. (Sla*,) — ll* 

mixture witn ueohaHfl potaaa HIUBlOfl I brown colour Wattl <"i:noaad 
it. from format inn of :il i- ihjdti i • in. tlic colour prococlin^ from 

to boltoin, and becomint; continniilly darker; but when baUod out 
ut of ;ui, .1 niiiiiiti.. uuuhorod, ncjuiriiiL' bouuvi'l an lltipll ■ 

nuapy odour; if it U' tbnn poured into :i wido vckw! containing air f 
• •oxygon jpu.. (Lldb%.) 







bmakant* Acetol Jiwclvca in 6 or 7 |»ait» of Water (Lifbi^); 
nt'JO , il k<[uii < a it- volume of wau-r Uidiiaolvc it, it« oolubilUy 

inorauing an tbo temporatara rltMi (Staa)j chloride t\i raldnm nod notf 

valU tbitt an Mlllfalo in water, e ncotol from irmUfl 

Aoeiul inixoM with Alcohol and IVHW in nil proportiona (I-ieb^. 

Ffom il- r«niiliiii:ilinii ^ nil"!, i riiiuiut l>o bcporatc-tl by cbtorido 
calcium, uidcu vaU'i be likowiao addod. (Sut*.) 




L. Omaw. if.indk. Aufi. 3, S. $44 .—,!«*. /Ho-me. 25, «7. 

LpVIO, '•■/•/. -4'-?. 404. The properties there attributed ta i 

.11 v belong, neconttog to*/. ;"• 0A*m SO, * 15, lo Llg I 
idk*s> AScnwtucJi. /'..->. 13, (03; I 103 ami 323; Jo, >*$i 

al»o */. ;./. Ghm. 83, 1 ft. Tin whole logalkar i Ji /»;-. ( M en*. 19, 1 1. 

-iy«- i ), — For • t t)>ti 

nMuc, n./. HI, W». tto<hr..».».lj {Srlw. CV, I'll) u»iutiiitcil Um ligiion- 
■ linrn* of •S.-mIimI And hm NMvi'/r, wbi.-h latter tw rvfnrdwl u acetone fa, !>2). 
lift 4 f (jfan, i'htrm i I nt»d nut th/* intY<rr»f tnr«* ai (Ml lieW, lfeo*In| that 

to* |tuj»irtl« of a mtttMP of il >«*tone «re r^ry diffifvnt fron 

Ucooor. Wciiiimun • Uf huvr tuuilc Lhr m»l cliborxli: imrcilifitiim uf 

MfBOM, u«l ciuauwd nun* of iu ptQlibl DpOcUSao. 

♦no it fonno'l in id ■ dry -li i i! lut'mii «»f wood, and occur* in credo 
wood-vuii-rnr together with other Ipiritnoui liouida, ri*\, wood*.-] 

nootouc :n-lt I \il<- U- ■■rin-iii :n !,- i metlmie aoetmtel) unl v. 

maun & Scbwoiior't mr*iu>. The wood I rnothyllc no 

generally pre* I ;lie latter being leoolvod, *bea Che en, 

into in. idyl i uloohnl and n itine 

(VII. In crude v m \V.k Iwyl. ( imclm f-uml 11 lar^o 

/uouu, and iu umplra from » wood-yiiiegur tnti 
nt / inv(»iyiT found in one in pure 

in* ili i. ia another, chiefly litfn 

/*#v ; ir»t portien* of dltUIl»le ol( uti ( .,i in i ) . 1 1 -. t : ! 

i of cruJ'J wihkI i .n-^'ir am ff«ed Ir.un the -:i;p 0] •■immhIt 

float* on the •urfuc<% and repeatedly rectified o>oi lime, the more fixed 
purlivn I* i'niit? thrown naiaa 'I he resulting distillate, a 

0*5 Wi'<.<:.^|4r.f. li/iiiinn. W $t SdlV.'fl m.-.itr. " "1 :» RLUll i|ii:intiry uf 

[*nd a littlo water] ia nturuted with abloride of 

rmJriom; thie solution ■! itillod in the water bntli, without adding t'reah 

Chloride uf calcium, wliirh wonM rOUlli a |mri.imi of tho lifoOOe U m«II 

n# lb* wood-sjii: ; nnd J inxiuing of lipiionc, mcMto, ompy- 

natift oil, nod n •mill n-ihti\l [ruti'v.,! hn.xl- |,nit ir.c.l fmm 

r**»du« by r»-| 1 1 nil on, in ■lticb orueciai n nuinll <|ii.nitity of 

a* it nbo retniiK i l>. the oblorido of cnlcium. The liquid u Tucn 

ilcd nJune till the diatillntc, when mixed wiih wat< t, i "■• < - lurhid 

fmw th» n r*«wnioe d aoiatiooilj tho diuillnto nixod vitb iin<-ly 

Eiui i [do of cnlcuiiii, with which it forms » tamofiod BUM and a 

jvid, miuinini; many ifflpuritiM <liw*olv*w| in iln> tlfDOBO; tLi liquid 

nltornfevdnj d to ron off byn liter: nnd t£a rceidao on tho 

otniuiclilciridc of caI-. mn u: oinbiuation widi \<ui 
■>•* the watcr-hath, whereapoc the latter paeon* ov«r. (WoiajnUB 

i '/no tftnUxl with bydrnte of potufa ehonld nihUntly yiold 
while thiLuu^ lam in ta of n peculiar ;»»tn«li— .Of; if tin • 1 1 . < ■ i t:il,.-.- placo 

after -oil' tin ulr, the lignone oonte w ■ 1 -|"iii nhidi rc-tnine the 

■■it In Milatir.n.Mi tliir it dooi not icoparntn till n larger uumitity of potacli- 
hydmlo w ndilnil r wbkfa it t ' doeOffi] 

tho lignone. — If tin- lignone contuin* motito, eren in iniaJl 
y tamed brown by poiiah, «tcu during tho 
neparntluii ofUie iherTO-mantioaed {toia-h-nlL 

U. i'nro vood-npifit U KCtiaodj fhf di>tillato snturntod with chloride 



* frceu 


of calcium; tho nnTNIMh oil wMcfa icpnmtes from ibo solution 
iwnov-i. il..- romaimng liquid distilled in tlic water-bath; and tho fir* 

Knion vliicli mm over collected aopsrately, because it U only the 
'i r ponknM »TaW] eoatfthl tlio purer liguene, which must tbcii be freed 
from wator by rectifying it several time* ov !■* «»l milium, 

Uio boi lull 

9. c : n rift, lit i bring mefcutaUy freed from em^ 

m.itic oil, fa rt'ctilii-1 HTOTml lltBM OVOI milk r» lime, Ok-ii repeatedly 
with ;in Mad i-u-ui-ily «.f wnti-r, 1 1«»- <iil whu I [••« mi tint nildil 

of WtXH Datag **oh r one set aaidn, ami the distillation interrupted mi 
soon as all tho alcoholic portion dm posted over. The product is tli"ti 
distilled several times OTtr small quantities of cUotUfl o4 lime, lo rc^inieo 
tiiu miiMniui- i-n-t inn nf oil and render it im-nt fiacocl [which LowOffX 
may bo injurious from tlio nrtion which oUorido nf lime is apt to exert 
mi']; Jin. I Lastly thi -pinf El food 1mm water nnd methyl- 
1 !.y Npoftttd dUUllotioo in t mm vaiiT bolb, first oror & small 

Sunntity, ami (hen over a lnrge quantity of chloride of calcium. Thrj 
rnoue ilm- poriAed ?- 1 1 1 1 however rewiiiut & trace of ND£jroUQSi!t oil, 
vnich limy lie ilofrr*><l by the nduur (Gin.) 

/Vo/)»rr*V*. Thin, trnnAT«iront, colourless liquid. Sp. £T. 0-K15 
(W< i 1m. & Schwoiier), 0HU4 at 18" (Liobig). &*&? ( L.^wi K *). 0-83(1 M 

12'5' <Otn.) Boils nt 81-V. Aooording to Lewis; and loWitdaiuA 
BbbwtaaaT, it. hails :ir 00 wiih tho haTometsr at 2H* (Ltobig : C 1*1 3 iti 
ST t> ' (Gm). Vapour dmsity =2-177 fW. cV Schw.); IV* (Kane). 
Has a pleasant .tlnn il odoor(W At BcsW.1: penetrating ami etnsrosj 
(Liclii^i. somen ii it lib- iluii >if ui-rtir » llirr (iiui.) Its toatc is burning 
(W. it Skih v.); bitiugnud nrcimuic (I/n-big, Gm.) I)oe» not ruddeD litmus. 

Vt. a Vnl. DmUji At. 

C .... * .... 44 .... 33 33 ... II ._. 3-32*0 12 . 

U . io ... io . ii <i ... io ii 0BM H . 

O... 4.-52 3.V.'.6... «... r2lHG ..... 6 .. 

*. Vnl. IK-n.i-j. 

72 .„ I&V93...1I ... 49920 
1« „ 10 45 _. U ... 0-»7ul 
(« . 33*93 .. 3 . 3-3479 

SW .-.100 00 .... ._. 0-2396 _.... 

134 .. 100 00 _„ 4 . 9-X90I 

1 . 23221 


e. Vol. TVntitT. 

At. rf. Vnl. Ilnttcy. 

G i i -. ;* - 

« ftH-06 .... J 2 _ 4)4990 ...... 

10 ... 00 _ 38 82 _ 10 ._ 4 lr.iMI 

II ,„ 12... 1? 

h 9-66.... 12 .» 0R3I0 .... 

10 «.. 10 ._ 9 81 ... 10 . . O-fllWO 

O... t ... to. 

H 32-20 .... 21.., 27732 

4... 32.._ 3137 „ 8 .. 1*199 


„100*00 ..- 4 .. . 94989 — 

102 ... .10000 ._ 4.« 74WI0 

l .... I'149fl .... 

1 1-W9 


vr. & &**. 

la.-'iiu- Kani'. 

L. GiwIIil 

a. 4. 

s. b. c. A 

c , *«*o... 

1811 .... 14-19 .... &V89.... 

53-25.... U-77 ... 65-37 .- &T71 

II .. 1004 .. 

11-81 .... 11-11 .... 11-JT ... 

10r,2... 1012 .... 0-(rt.... 10-31 

O 31-46.. 

I0-08, 14*11 W*«5 

3613 . 3511 .... 34-90 .. 31 -9» 

100 00 ... 10000..-100-00_.. 100*00.... 100-00 .... 100(10 ;. 100*00 1U0-U0 

Tho lignono a snnlyxod by Liohij* had brn Creed from wator and 
al<olu'l bv Ivo. nod £ by four rcottrlcntious over OnJOfidfl >f csJcium.^ 
Kstoo !-I»:i/.. /'Jf.:/,ti. id, 180,) e\.t mined a nssiduc oi I.;. In;-'* ligtume* 
— Tin' li^noue a i-otuininou! by GmeUo nu ohulned by (3), ha«l a dsnskjr 
•I boiled nt 61*25'; 4- was puririod by wovernl rectiS«itions 
do of cnJcitiiii, and c by one more; it lad a density i>f 
43; and boiled at 50". Tho Jijcoono d was obUtntU bj rcpeaUd dstil- 


latinn nt Pari* inn wood-tpirit in tho wator-bath, orar large) qnantitica of 
cft)h>rido of <:i t it* odcur, an 4 it* boiling poml, which wai 

ffoaeaee of *c*?tonc. 

Botb the analyses and (ions of vapour-dcnsity, tlifTcr 

toon .ii. another i. the detlurtinn of an oxaet frirmtilct 

::-i ■ . U i woutl-vui _-:ji foiiUiiiifi but a am nil quantity 

of acotono, tfcis impurity will, in nil probability, rcmaiu attached to 

ibc lifftOfi | by iln- nrtnl proooww awOYe del If we 

attempt to deb; ■• llgnoBf, IU Hindi :i« |iii>*iblr, by repented distil- 

lation ia the water-bath over ekloride ©I ivileimn. a portion of tho 
ttgnone ia alway* retained by the chtoriJd of calcium, while all tbo 
acetone, which doe« not appear ti> unite will the chloride of calcium, 
p ai wou oror; hence the lignono moat become e»ntiuually rinher in acetone, 
and • .on Bali edra titan the validity of Ibl* expla- 

nation, with Toward fii Graelln'* anal [aonoaJ it mnat utill bo 

with re*|wct I' Wcidmaun & Sohwoizor* unalyii*, iunrmuch aa 
K poml found !»• lb« ■-. ohemiata w.w by no means below that 
which I. '..■!■; : and Othcn bad obeerved I IWBOM <i»uuining 

lew curbon. whereas tba presence of aeetono, which boiln at 3fi . would 
kivv lowered tho boiling point ©I the lignone. Can tbc dWerenw ho 
die to tho pretence of a ltvw volatile OOinpou&d, similar ia other respect* 
to acetone I 

ui.iy ■ tilts tnia formula of lignone, it up peart to boa 
ecsjoerirri] compound pi!iij. of I,: li<r order, and oanta&niqg^ m 
inarm A Sehwci*er mppoio, a compound of tho methylene acrica 
aad another of Hie ethylene »cnw, Pot it-. boUbg point H loo low to 
aBuw it to bo regarded a* » pi iouu f compound of a nucJcu*, containing 
8 or i ik) re atonic of Oarbon; moreo 1 rding to Weidinann A 

rVa-* yfeld*, «it. rioni a*aji on the mm I 

■roci .i methyl, and <mlphoin*)tliviir aaM, 

«4 • ii the otorrr, nMehvdc, acetic acid, and aootio ethor. 

Wcadmatn A. Scfcweiscr aangn to lijraooa the formula CHK)**, accord- 
:i coinpiniiid I'tluT nf the thin! eJaa*(VII, 190), 
Ijjh-v. il oC'HVi 1 But this hypoa&tylott 

We id menu »<■■ Sehwelaer cull it), which, in tbo 
synthetical aahydront stale, would l«- composed <A' OHo" m un- 
kan. Dalced iraposaibtc, < in account of the diviaion of UkOAtBOh 

— At all eriMita, we hmouM have to double tho formula of lignono and 
aaako it C U H H) 1 . in orih>r to tt»>t rid of the half-atom; but «von ihm 
*ao forrnuU i« rmprolmbU by'roaaou of tbo uneven number of atoms 
vfarich it Equally improbable are tho highly oompli- 

S«d li.rli tbi-M- »lnuii>!> rook to explain aoma ui tin* it.niK.ui 

IWamnis wkrrdn tbevara driven to adroit Lho oxiauntoe of aoDtylou 
ItfthMyvlK aaid^'HHF, or m the liypotboticaJ :mhydMueauta f CrlH) 1 ), 
%t wall a# «'f too aboro-nientidncd hypoaootTloue neid. 

.coordiujf &. H). tf t &77; abatr. Jakmbtr. ISSf, 

U'cidrr. '-veiztfre aylile i» a mixture of methylic actt.ite. 

aartMir, aad another aubatanca p*dym*»ric «ith the laitrr, t.i uhn-h 

propo«c« to tr»u«fcr tho numo of xylite. He find* that tho 

aaaid obtained by rrpcntcdly treating crude wood-rpirit with chloride of 

U-toin and dialilliuK frartioiially, vw . point from 55" !•• 

portion which piuoci over between ,'i^ nun 71° nXAibhti tho 

PfupcrtiM of U r i-i.l xylite but do< 

potot, ..r yield :i:i v -l. i tit i prodm i by DfoaUnenl witli diloviae) 
tf calcicax. The puro xylite u obtained by repeatedly rectifying tbo 



2 CI 


.-.lilcli pantos ovnt batween 01 and TO - ItUa colourloM li 
of nanulnv odour and burning (nana, Sp irr. 803. It di (Tom* 

f*.iiiiil.-i.-i\ u-iui-vn SI and 68*: mixta in all popottioni arttn watte, 

alcohol, and Otlw, and Ifl prvatnal I lU aqueous solution by 

water or by an alkali. Ita formula H C'U'HI*. U. 

Dttcm pontiom. I. Li^nono ftvrM villi a flame which is re.ldwh 
yellow nbovo und blue below; doee not einokc; girei more light 
that »if alcohol but low than I 

2. Dry chlorim </"■■ |ui •> 'I hrnugn linODfl given rlSO U) a tolttlMy 

atmug action ind avolntioa of hydrochloric mid na, :■ t%. i feral* two 

layer*, iIh'Ioiwp <| irln.h i- m.'v, :uid continually tuoraaata at tlio ex- 
peii.e of Llic upper. T I i"l of la* |>uiocf^ the action niuat bo 

increased by the application of a jfeutlc beat, after which, the resulting 

oil (ullttc cblOTfti) M II ;.' !•' v.:; dud Willi milrr. :uitl ilcli ydruCed by 
chlorine of calcium, which doe* not duaolva in it. 

fan Xylitk Cklorai contain* 20-24 per eon t C, 3"5I H, 08*33 Q 
and a-w* <), iu formula us thereto C^HHJIW. [Probably form.. I 
£bii iii. inner ; 

c u iimi> * SO ri.iiri'u' » IBO * SBC13] 

Xviiiir- rtilnnil Ikih a wij pungent odour, glrei off hydrochloric 
whan difftlllodj and yields a distillate of rarions volatile compounds, 
while n quantity of Btdid niattc-r remain* behind, VYbon dUtilltd vha 
water, it first patera over udooonipoeod then fcSvea off nYdroCA 

jiri'l. and Ea Doavnrted Into anothei componad. I W idmatm & Schwciivr.) 
;i Lignons placed In i tast-tnhe with an equal volume of utrong 

. M in fi.rm :i layer above it, b lieatod, aud .|iii< 

pauea in to u itato of violent [otumaeoenoe, and ii thrown out of tlio 
tube by jerks, giving off nitric oxide go* which has an ethereal odour, 
ami h'.-iviu^' :i. )i<(unl clouded irEta oily drope, which cnereaea oa Ilia itddi- 
tion nf water. The yellow wntory Injuld oontnllM oxalk) add, and turn* 
bcoVB HI the iililitiiin of ammonia ; the oil ia yellow and rlaoid. tartee 
sweet mid iiroiiuitie ui lir I luit :i!ti-\» ;inli nharp and bunting, lc*iin^ 
for hour/ a lmriiin>j ?f imutiun mi tfn- lOD^IOi i<Im.) 

4. Licuone slowly mixed with an cijukL volume of oil of vitriol, 
Ibfma H li'Oii brown -yrnp. (fim ) Whan quickly talxad with all of 

vitriol, it hecomoi iitroii^ly heated, and forma a thick -lurk brown mix- 
ture, W utcr added to thus mixture tnkea up acetic and tuiphoiuctliylio 
jin.l-, and M par.ite* a black-brown oil k OOUBlstill^ of lifOOnc, m« - i* ••. 
xylitir iiaptli:i. xyllto-oiL uiul ftBTQVn ainl \i11hw xylitic main. With 
2 rrt*. lignone to 1 pt. oil of vitriol only n »rmill ijuuutify of oil eonsut- 
ingehii -\\\ ■•' 'im lallanfid xyl:ti«* n:i]-l.tli-i. -'pural<«'m tln> aiiiiitumof wat«r; 

,i |ba Ltqoid lire mixed in e'piul voIiiuick. the produoti BTC U I «|uutititir>; — u iib 1 pt. uf li^uoiie to 3 pin. of oil of vitriol. tlt< I lu 

Sluota am xylilo-oil and xylite w ;,, li» ) — I 

Batillad umIi an aqvnl treantlty of <»il *»f rkriol ^rvoa off suliihuro 

acid from the lint, but m continuully inoreuaing quantity. Tlio fint 
products which colloet in the receiver are lijrnone and iuc«iUoe» — then 

i, mi luycra of liquid, the Iowa oonanUln^ of aqunoui aoatlc acid, die 

rjn ii i i-f tuaotc and nietiml; lastly, a snmll <pmntity of uiethylir *nl- 

.,i<r. — When i ;.i .,( lignona Ea dlattllad 

vil of \itriil. t!n> mixtun imilr. up imti^Iv, and ^ivc* off a Inrea 

ojnanfiiy of eulpltuiouA acid, tountna with aaaiic acid, acetate of methyl, 
Bttlpuaie of methyl, and a amaf] quautitj *>f mcatbann, hut uu metliol. — 
With li ;n rlolj tho dUtUlation taken plara juicily, mid a very 





Urr willi much I il|i'mront 

arid .-\n>i i ' rmtnetliol.— 

In all thtoo diatillfttlofM nni bob in d (M i I 

naann ^ Sobwoiior.) — U'hini 1 pt of LigQuno u difttdled willi 2 lit*, of ,l ritriol -«id 1 pt. of Mid -raili, sulphurous arid n cou- 

i I, li ;*u ww ipd inuMleoe px« over fir**; UlOO nutate of 
methyl, »r*tir acH, And ninthcd; and nl !a*t s mnnll quantity of methyHo 
into. [ Wi -.) — - AcconliiiL' [ " V.-lckol. tho pm- 

doot* obtniiK-ii by th if nil of t ii- ,. I .. i li,' mno, aro tuo wmo a* 

of li^niiur OW3 distilled with S ptl of pfn>r/fllf o/" 

nut:*^!fiir»y. .'I |i% «.f '„! oi tttriol, and 3 pi* of VI n* [«*•«<•* 

orar fiwt, U-jrothcr with a Urge quantity of aldoliv till tli« 

rod -• acid. (Wcidmann & 

6. Winn FiyJratt of poind* x* gradually added in nmall pioofl 

SnbV'i niii', t.']i( fipOm inn i.l uif!) llit- :ir. (lie [>i.T<* (ivcllup 

on otiojt immoral, n.n-1 in a few mill at-', wlnio *ttr«fj lamina M*p,irato 
on!. If tho addition of lb: ; iitoonthined, a*i ooon a* tlio liquid 

begin* to turn bn>*< ■ I llirrc, ami (lie lipoid bo tli?u *tt Mvdfl fin 

a *|ii'»-. tho r.ryjiiaN, tOfltthtt *v i i li 1 1 it - i.lni I ■!.. EBAj DO iJOOUIttd Q 

the hydrate of potash it tin- bottom of tho ritatH, tad thrown on a 

filter; tin I on bo loft oat of contaol oj »Sr, nil tlio ItanJd boo 

gh, after r may bo wtihod * . and dliod in 

to over oil of vitriol. Tin- byponcotylito of xylito and i>ota«h thus 

li lilt- t«M|cll :itl'l Vi-rV iIi-|m|IM .('i-llt ll> AEtUCOUfl 

sohitimi alooArapoacn in tho %\r, from forrantioa oi ncetata ol potaon ami 
M-|*nitiuii of dniono. When - 1 1 - • p i - i «\nii dihito lalphanc laid, it 

• r.-iliK in nnbydronj roodeplHi) but in 
nootrly inaolublo iu Auhydiuu* lignonc. In tl.«. arjatAUino tatt N OOflfc- 
bain 4M0 !•«• KO, 33'$7 C, 4 02 H, nad I* »1 0; ii i» tbtreforo 

i o.<-n <>■ i thai 
a .bvaU" *Alt, in wbicb 3 At. hyrx.neotyhto of potnab ar« united with 
1 At. liTPOttoHj : ■-- 1 Vt lirnono I i ; iuoo 

oh thojoo cry#t*U Arc dopo*iu-il ixuituiu.-* lix'«""*o, tlio 
fijiin i ir format iou murt bo : 

If tin'' quantity of potn--li hydra to added (•> \hf li>:noac bo larger 
tkai ' I xylite snd j baII 

ri»'l nlrea, and lln; li'jni'l arijuin-^ u brown, whicli 

mtr oai " *• * f I ti"' •("''' 'i»Ii. :mil tho Citno doriug vhtofa If hi 

loA. Walor addod after lumo - down :i -!:irk brown. 

■ ite, xyliti'-' nopbtba, xyliU-oil, and brown xriil 

vbi'di iaro forniol ono ofior ibo otb« in he onloi In wbico On* v are 

h*fr eanratT^ti-i. K-*f, :»-•■ it' irinnll/ BOto froo moiC wood* 

ai the hyp lOthyl (Hgnoni .-of 

! t tli:ii *■ ancf inorc fomplotoly djoWlvoa, TbJi 

•Alt. under Uk> »imnItAn«on» inHucneo of tho froo potaib, thon abitrnou 

i tin- froo lirnouo, nod i* tborebrv 
4C0tat« of ■ .iud th« [hypoti. I [a of bj riyl, 

011*0. prftJiAood by thii redu ho by[»oaooty)oui acid romnin 

cvm'waati^u i\ > ^li^nonj.foriu 'i'|: 

KO.C-ii'O 11 - 4CHH3M - KO,OH>0» ♦ 3C*H*0». 

4rt rTiirttm rniMABT HOCtBtA c*U«. 

Tho meat to tuna formed h> then reduced by further o/Miiti'.ico of QCCtylilO 
of potash to xylitic naphthn. (Wcidniaun A ; ; i bwtaar.) 

W'iiri: HgOOM i- Tfrtlffwl «if!i i'<>r:isti-li y. WOod^gdrlt ]WW« or or, 
and toafi mxtllH aefttato of pouuli, together with a noaU iprwitity of 
rosin and oil, proceeding chiefly from the decomposition of (he ajrood -pirit 
by the poUflb. (Weidmnnn & fcehweuer I 

T According to V.'lrkol, ako, llw? products obtained by tr rati 115 

lijrnone *ir xyfitfl with n versa of potash are xylitie naphtha, xyllur-oli, 

and xYlitf-tiujibtlia, the last chi n the air ho* accost. To zjlitio 

i.ttho atrigrji tho formula ( / "H l, o 1 , ud to IIm oil PWO; bo cup- 

j'< -.i both tn l.r f<n ItgaOM by abstraction off water: 

C'-II^O' - C*U»0* * MO - C*H«0 < 3110. t 

Potaaalum thrown unnn lignoins beeom«H -o <roTijrly betted, that 

tin- Ji'jiiu!. if Q01 OOolOQj may takn firo. At first, acetyl! t< of potash 

separates out, without any evolution of gas; afterward* the liquid ta 

brown, and i* uUimatcly oonTortod Into • thick blaok-brown uix», f 

v, In' ihwntar lOTMUmtai I "lark brown oilyiniiturrof lru'sito, xyHtlc n-ril 
vvlih nil, niid I I diwolvo* a lurv*- k tjnnntiry of acetate 

( n:niti:v oi xyhto rasjet, a vry ■Mil piontity of an 
odd body [wlii.Ii pi. rijiitntc* lead and »ilvor »alts], and probably alao 
wood -pint. The potassium first takes oxygon from a portion of tin* 

in-, nlii-ri'l.y mcMti* nnd potiixli up- pmduri-d , 1 In* polish Mi in formed 
doiMmpOMi another portion «f tho lignonc, yielding bypO&eolTtit* of 
potash and incthylic ether; and tbolnUvr, fading HO wuter witS which 
to fbns 11 ''!i>lic alcohol, combine* with another portion of the po 
forming mi (iij.itc of |H>tAHh; 

tCWO* + SK - KO.OlW t C'H'KO* t ICWO*. 



no off 

By the further action of tho potsir. mm, the mwite i« rcduecd to xyli 
im]tlithn, then to xylite-oil, and finally to xvlite-rc*in. On tho W 
of vmlur, tin.' luutlivlaic ( -'l |'"t;i*!i <li tot Kami of .M|uron- j.iiu-li 

and woml-'-pirit. 1 WMmoBK & Bobmixsr.) —■ lu«i»!«ing On wt«n o» ih>im. 
kiuin mi rkBfffH, WW BWI 'I I.o*ig. (f*oyp 42, 404.) 

ComcVnaftonfc Lii^none mixu« in oil |tmrmrtioDx with WcUf. 

It ilifltolvcfi fin:.!l OOftOtlliM Of /V('m/>Aom» 4ml Sttl f </.nr f the Sol U- 

bkwi arc colour]*')* mid bctxnM niBky when mixed vrltli vatdr. 1 1 
The phoj^hormi Aoliitiun, kept in ■ '■l«' fc »'<l rovp), d iet not form uny i'"-! 
liirii,' :i- tin- w.lution of phoAphoru* in MVtaBfl d 

Lignono diooolvoe a I.irgo i|iinnl(ty of iQilin*, loittilU] =' dl 
solution 1 

Tr dOM not dionlri ChloritU 0/ Calcium, hut sinks into it, umkhnv 
boft, and iwolling it tip to a wUlO tiia», which giVfw "tl' IftQ II .-noun hut 
v ,u.. I inoomploUly ;»t l"t> - It may he niixc-l with n Mrnlaoi 
I ca)< i inn in wood npirit; but on nddin^ more chloride of cnlciatn 
and a^itiitin^r. two layer- 01 li'jui-I arc f-.mic.l, : ol ■ I: I li con- 

iMino the greater port of tho lignone. fQw ) Aceordtng na l.iobig 

iChim or?.) lignOTJ lil.nido Of dUOtoJfl iii '!i proportion*, 

DrunoK 11 i.iti.1 ol >yrnp 

:jnc mixes in all proportioxie with JZeofloJatid tftkrr;from the 
mixture m itcsr wparxto* the ether, which tlion ri»« to tho *urf.^« 1 

Li'ioiu- mi v;-. iu nil* nitlioil of tin pout iur it dSMOiTOi vrrj 

BUgO qonvtitioa of camphor, rpannaOoUj i&d cholertcrin, and a nnoil 

live oil. Jt likowuu di«8olve« oolophony and shell-lac. (tin/ 






I'ruUncti of tf* titcmpeniian o/ fjprtone. JZekAeu&ack** JJttitc and 

Scantvns L*-, 

Mctbol. PH> or 0"W»1 

Fori;: Nation of li ito, uiC*Uouc> Xylitic naphtha, 

gyirto-oil nr xylitr-r^in, with n-l of vitriol. 

Om pari Of luEDOZtC i« dirtiHc-d wdh I pi. "foil of vitriol; the 0[_ 
IftW of lb« dattiflalO OODtannn;.' i"« thol together wiib «■. "-id, 

Mlpbatc of methyl, ami aXOitOGO, dc<nntt*l off, aLnkca up with water and 
afterward* with weak pot-tali. and subjected Ui fractional diatitlution, tho 
firM :iihJ lM portion*, wbfca OODt&Jo Btt&Hofli and nulphaia «f in.-lhyl, 
beiojf out aaidc; thi* fractional distillation bcveral time* repeated till tho 
dartillate no Joiij^or smoltn of sulphate of methvl; ami the* diotillato then 

Mt ■ w\th chloride <»f oalciura, tod roetifiod over burnt Umo, 

Thin, coiouili-ju liquid, IBM w.m-r. UuiU at about 175', 

without any doeompOuUoQ* I Si oQ of turpentine and haa a 

log Cum, 

Weifltn. & Schvtticr. 

IC 2i .... 88-B9 f* 

3H 3 _ JIU 11-02 

CW .. 27 ... 100-00 tt"09 

[Tl* h«*IIr)$ foiat ii man In aMerdirxw witb ifcr formula t ^H".] 

Meihoi nv be kept without alloriiioa n rotuula containing air. 14 

dott ii 'I mix Wilt <il Of wIik-1. 1ml £ 1m- twg liquid* MBallrfM up tog* 

th ■ "II of vitriol h!;u ikeni .siilpharcai licit! i* y 
off, ami tho motho] lUaanwai If wntorbo 

Ui*c aiftded, thr<c » train oi liquid nro formed: f 1j - - towtf i. \* blob w noarlr 
rltA, onUum oalphnroua, sulphuric, nnd Bulphoracthvlic adds. If 
therefore it be sat mated vr itl» limo tbu GltraUi ovafHiraledj the dry 
rrwtdso oxlinnAbni witli alcolto], which toarai nrptnrn andlflmlvod 

■ uponitod, a white < J qo in l*ft, oooaiatiDfi "t" 

nJfJ>>imftAof>*U of liar, which, when lioaled, l!r..t giv** off ji.,.ih».l, UXN 
hU* 1 toroni aoia; it coDtnio* i 1*02 pel coot of 

nd H 5 ! ilphui « ;n.iil. wLenoc it? formula i« 
f>». — Tho middlr ftiratiim of I .|iii.l i- UhrV and til 
CL« upp^T, yellowicb. On dirtiDing thow two liquid*, which aanaot wAJ 
bo aopMratoi, with water, taotbol pAoao over, and Ihtr.- rcm:n:i ifii-iii»l 

inia, whirli tu:i« Q0 fw I fcOTO too iviiiuiiui) / portion of rjutlml \,y 

uWvJhJ, and tlicn purified by diaaolviog in ctlior aod OVB^Krl 

filtnit«ovi<r tbo w:U'T-li:iil t . MrtKoLrain tbaa etitaJood In 1-1:hV.. boo 

than water, nil kl agvntlo hour, i-ul ■ -i ctlioraud li^uono, 

hut not la vood-4pirit or nloohol. l( oonuini SG'OOp.c (J, 9'SJU, mad 

ihrrcfoco CUl'^O. — When mctkol i» diHillod witb oil of 

icoos over nadotonrpooeJ; oulphuroun acid is likewise 

witJi % ?rry email i|iwntlrj rn aoetioMld, aod lboT« 

rtaaarna % eaitoniccom moat. (Wcidumiin ic Schwcizor, /. pr. Chan. 


aUwJar iU 

lu u&*c p 

Xylite-oiL O'H-Q. 

Prodawi ky tk* a*ti*« of oil of vitriol, karate of pota**, or 
•tam on liftK€M^ ■eaalc, or xvlttic — filthy mJ by tka* of oil of 
or kyjnlc uf putacfc on taewU-ue. llo f> filiation frvaa lienor*, moil*, 
iwiinn u alvay* i rifftW kj ihai of xylitit aaphika. — TV ane oil 
n pr*daecd in tke doooagaoaitktt of met/Una by potaanoxo, hydrate of 
potaak, or iicick lime (p. 15). 

Hydrate of potttk in Urgt exreat w left te act for aornc tis>c on 
Hjpaone; water iLra added; the oihr mu tore of xylJto-oil and xilite-rr»wi 
wliicfa wpaniM, ili.til!p<l with water, tte» ream lh*a rv^aSninjrwtkiad; and 
llo xylite oil wfeieh (tax p a»o d ©tot, atroral tiawa roctiM aloM, the 
port ton e*lbcted below SCO', which may contaia xyliiic napktha, ton* 
each liwje ort af 

Culail— oil. lighter tkan water; boUi »!■>*■«• *oo\ ami (aoatum 
■ni lwoa p oaod. Hbj a peculiar odour, and a bitter burning taate. 

iff r. 



W«itmana ft Sd.vctett. L**%. 
4. A. r. 
M :W* t0~l7 . .... 9004 

9 II 

lOirt Kir |»t7 

O -^- 


M8 nil 3J» 

WTO .. 19 



1M 00 

■ wa« *atv»ed frooi I(ikwi hy oil of tiuiU, I by hydnu of potewj, ft* 

Tlw oil bums wUL a bright, «- — Expoted for tome 

if bl '<-iuf«ratunM Iwtwrwo 50 and SO 1 , i; i> yfcolly cmiv 
brown xylito-rodn: 

xO"HH> i- o - tyhV-O*. 



It xnixe* in all rirripnrtion* witli oU of fUftotj irolvlng jsnlphnrima ad I, 
and Tormina; a dark br»«ni liquid, from which Wo ffnuV 

Mp&nitrr * .Uric blown .lure of >. -\ xylite n-.dn, and 

Itaaj sulfdiaric and raJpllUVU Midi [AgtUltl with Lmk BoJ tC < acid 
Uh! xylitr-r«win. lionet it appo'-ir* that tint rirtion of oil of vitriol on tW< 
body I entirely in oxidiiing action. — Qtal with 

Oil of vitriol yielda «ulphurou* acid, ncetio iind, ami BOthd Mul lenvcis 
a oarbooaocuiift niaxi, — Hydi xjrKteoil Imi tad turn* 

It fir*! btOWn, then l>1uck,nnd gradually cuiiwrta it-, with formation of 
aenta:* of jhituh unil ^ i;<-* lii\ tig In- hajitflenH of ItOM 

— |. - . ii.m i My on i OTtO wfcien hoatod, and *Iowly di-aolvee 

without evolution of goa, tho oil nt tho ramo tiino boooadxu| 
liruwn And ..rci'l. W,v ll.;d to it diaaolrea tueacotat* of ootuali 

nad i.i! •-;■.■ pate ■ bn ■ a illy nil ctn • ol i ■. lite 1 1] and 
a rati on a* that which Informed by tha notion 

of hydrate of potaeb, It contain* Bt'tt p t i_v r.m-'iH. Hid BWOj 
iti formula tfl C^H^O 1 . 

nearly iosoluMo in wat<*r. hut dissolve* readily In (rood - 
■pint, ethr*. aleolwl, and lignooo. (VTeidmtuio A BoLweUar, J. jit. Ch>.n. 

Brown Xylite-resin. c*u l, o*. 

■.rit.ii of oil of ritriol hydrate of potaeo, w potttaixmi 
on Li or xylitic naphtha, ind of ofl ol rltriol or hydruto of 

l>obvili 0] ill Eormattoi iog always preceded by that of 

; . ■ (orm( 'I *■• hen I • ■■• ■'. 

cither b/ oil of vitriol or by expoaora to tin; air, also m (be docompo- 
Mtkm o* artlutw by jtotaaaum or hydrate of pnta«li (p. 15). 

I -*!■ .1 nrtla»h il f*i :n*t in < \>> mi nuhydrOOfl lipnono, 

till the mixture Doeomofl hrov-n, v, i . dd. -.1 !■> it. (It tho 

aetmn \-c sult'ored to ir-* on too I »uc;, tho xylite oil produced at the •anio 
tiw-r it converted by tho potash IOU1QI rc--m (v£d >"}■• > wUcb [fl 

difficult toanpamtn from IKo-reain.) Tuaolly iiij\tnr*iacp«rat*d 

l.r tba add on ol led, with frequent renewal of the wntefj 

u loii^ii xrlii" "i! |>iimin nv<r with tbt ditftMnto; lh« ronduo in 1 1 ■• -t t 
dissolved in alcohol ; the ■oJtttion evaporated in the watci batbj and the 

food residue left ibavi fo sons tin;*, lev 

road-brown li . n watrr, hritilt- .it r..>!u|Kiraliirea balow ijio°; 

aoft and laoaoSoQJ (K-tu-oon ! V and 90 ; melt* balow lua ? . lu nqueou* 
wo\ 4t:-.ii bat an a-- d r..--»< i« n. 

1 11 

141 . 
18 . 

. VIM 

• BO 

fliaaaiil^Wii iwfc FUlai JE^h'fr rtala 


0-M 10-ot 

I1M 0-94 

(rui>* i-.. niiido 


UU*o1to> :» . il ■■ t vitrr-.l mi omrly all pTOp'>rti in< ri^e of 

iperalur<' arxf orolitiuti of fulpliurooj acid, nnd forming a hlnok ^ttnny 

If tiii- mi saiod with water after none thno, Um 

tu*< a rfwiaoui r.ii-. Dpi nlphtrriaat»d nul|ihiir»ii4 acidt, 

ttlMa* with traeoa of aoatie acid and a rcain; from the reoinoiui mixture! 

roL ix « 


ETIP'i km - r.tiMArr MICI i 

e »!i«*clvw ont «n*h -csta, 

nbruun pulverulent vol hi vhiOQ doM nut -«fte« at 100. but fa«-* at n 
atrooger luiit into ft bhok tnaj ooataSo* fcV27pc.C, fl *3* Ff , aor! 

O; hence it* formula wCHVH. — Brown xylite-renin tifttJEM with 
cil of vitriol violdii sulphurous acid, acctie acid, a mnnll quantity of 
mot hoi, and a black NMIftj 

I1n>uu i V ::i mfal does not dissolve in >.:i!irr .iinl |*tfcasl»-ley, I mI 
readily in alrohol, ether, ami Ir^nrmr: tho alcoholic nohition doc* not 

lata neutral acetate of lend. (Weiilmann & Sehwcuor, 
Man. 83, 45.) 

Yellow Xylite-resin. 

Produced by tho notion of nil uf vitriol ipaq Il^nonc, mrailo, xnrl 
Ejlttlc Tiij'lilli^. prt&aMj l»jr a catalytic action on the iwmcric brown 

Xylttfr-rwiu fir*t prvdiifmi. 

The oil walot) Ai?|»an»M on adifinjr water a/tor the decomposition of 
lijruoriu by oi! of vitriol, in distilled with water; the rceiduiit mixture of 
yellow mid hrnwn xyliie-nwni ili-.«»Ui'«l m Mrnn^ aleohol; tin* -ilution 

mixed with nlrohol of 70 per cent, which pr*>cipitate* tho yellow roam; 
and the precipitate freed from tho brown rosin thrown down at tho coma 
tun-, try repeated woaninj; with -i:»n; alcohol and precipitation with 

wr.ik iIi-omL Kt i i!;ni rxttltod ftfl mm tiraaon (!"• craloi bati [•*nl]« 

The resin i< reddish yellow*, brittle, ami (low not become s<»ft h 
fn. lion liUo th 9 brown tik\n. It* malting point U much above I 

For the aiuljrai*, which pcrhfcpi »huws it to be Uomerie with the browo rrrin, 
rid. p. 49. 

Yfllow x', if- i" -in ItohaVM lH I' oil "I I if i i"l li!.»- •!;<■ tKWI rtofa 
It doe* not diasolvo in water or poto-ih-ley. It in nearly inaolah'- 
weak spirit, hut dim-lveo in strong alcohol and iu ether, forming a yellow 
Nltthnii llftslsobnlic rtohiiioii iIihm nut jimnlpltate an ejoobolw dilution 
•f acetate of lead; ammonia added to llio solution throws down 
flakes. (Wcidrnaiiu ft Sehweiacr, J. pr, CMem. 83, tf,1 

Xylitic Naphtha. OH'O^C'll^O 1 . 

Produced by the action of oil of vitriol, potash, or potnAsinm 
liguonc, mOa)te> or nu'Mtnii', 

A nail quantity of hydrate of polish b plaeod for Rome time 
contact with lignonc; water addod; tin- ilr m:Mni.- d xylitic nnphtha, 
mceite, xylite oil and vyhto renin •oparatod from tho watery ■oral 
tit- 1 til lot rectified i lone, whereupon the xylitic naphtha poatee QTtM 
chiefly betwoeu 100 ' and 120"; aud this prvtfuvl rectified several time* 
tn uTH It from the nMnaJuirfg portion of aioallA -and xyUt.e-*iil, tin- p tt 
wh»eh pOMM o«<t bttwftfl 100 Ittd 190 being always collected apart 

t exhtbiti » bolarabhy ooi d ml beSlaj poiBI <•'. I IU'. 

irL-s mobile liquid, lighter than water, IhmIIu;: at 110' 
oatabla uf beSn <d without decoiupoeition. Smciht liko oil of 

peppermint, and ha* n burning ta-ito. 


1 ... 

ME$m:. (I 

Wiidm. A Scfav. 


« ( 

._ 3d 


....... a** «... 



ii ii 

, . ll'IW ... 


II O — 

. V2 

.... 1WI 

. n n» 

2.1 13 



Tin- ii;i jili tlii analyzed by Ldwig wild obtained by treating ligtiouc 
wil. potjuuiimv — XyUtir. naphtha It rogRrdftJ aa innilivtti* #*llir»r + exidi 
of acetyl = r'!PO + C 4 I! : <>". V. ilokel n*«iifn« 1o xvlitio naphtha tho 
formula C"H u O\ and eupposo* it to be formed from xylite bynl 
of water. 

Thi» li.|uiil horns with a smoky flume. Blind with oil of Titriol, ie 

i,r >wr .ml ihic1c*ti«; w. . r from it an oil consisting 

of aylitie nuiihtL:i, xyhto-oil, and yellow and brown xvlitA-rvmn Tim 
aqoeoai eolation contain* acetic aoiu, aulphomcihylic nod, and & trace of 
rosin. — Wbj?ii xylrtic napbtba i» dmtillcd with oil ••( -• 1 1 1 i ** I . 'iilphuroue 
aril, acetic acid, RMaftaDO, ami m-Llml ilUlil OVOXj Ua\1 i:i : I CVbsaMWHU 
residao. — Hydrate of potath in oxco« form* with xylitic uinhtlm a 
black-brown rntus from which water wpiraU* ;i ■ tare of XjUtO- 

rosin ftod lyhtc-oil, and take* B] . togothef with a Baal] 

qaan'Jty uf wood-»pmt. — Potaaaium MlU violently on xylitie nanutuii, 

'■in vrits>oni Bvoloikffl 'if gas, forming * bUaa>orowa viaoid mill 

annta>!iiti£ the *cum» product* a* that which is obtained by tl" i'Imii 
'-jlfti'li. [F.»r the a>i™ji!i<at«<| <i|iuti*n« *iicn for Uk«c reaction*, 
rbL/.pr. (Arm. 23. :»7 

naphtha diaiolvce very sparingly in wntor, but r&adily in 
1 I tllni. autl liguouc. (\S\idmaun tV Scuweitor, /. pr. Cncr*. 

Wcidmann & Schweizcr's Mesitc. c»ipn»=c w H»o«. 

TliU uwmu? ilioVr* from Krirhi'iiUiehY It ut-cim, in ainall 0,0101 "it v 

in wood-vinegar; it in formed by the action of oil of vitriol, poouri, 

or (otiisi'uni -mi !i.'n..iie, irld by Ibfl aOtlOO -f <»il of vitriol or potatdi 

. -irtih'.w l. AfUr llfTlOOa ha0 bo«n aftparatnd from wood-»|.irit 
by distillation or«r ehl tin (VII, a .►!•.». (hero .till remains 

with it a trrUin portion cf uiositc, which, by raw on of itc^mull quantity, 
caniKrl be separated by Valor. Too greater |"' 

for* lli im mix tun , lill tin- licjniu which puMP* over Imeomus 

tmhhl on llit? of water; the retiduv in 'In- r*l">ri, rmitiUlInn; 

ansr'i lit, frwi from l»y ropoatod agitntion with water; 

the* iiiatiHc-1 or<r lh« waUr-botU. with chango of rocoivor, bvonn>« tho 

■Mirtioo wliWh first |ino» oT»r may wtill contain lijjw 'i>- r-nn: 

aonilc lrhic!, jhvnw over towaroV the aofl of tho procoaaj fiaaJIy ih-l.j,- 

llatioa ot#r chloride of calcium. 

V, l.i.-P-.-ae a» placed in contact witb liydmto »f i»ot:».li (n-t m 

loo great ^uniitily lUI to tarn kun, n in while 

uid vi letch aeiairatee, till rejia thcu 

tvaaain nj Uhiml; toe oatfillalc, roiifintiug of meaito, xylLtlo naphtha, 

Bad xylit Bad; aod tbe m««at#, uhich jca**oi» ovor till tho torn- 

fwmtero riace u> 8Q d ajiare, an d ty eovcral diatillutiou*, 

tU U»i pi rtiatai dI -li rtthk btttMj Uwavri anl leidaN 

x 2 

ETHYLENE: rMM.\ftT SCClBirS C'll'. 

1( iKTfirf. CoIoutKx*. mobile liquid, I filter tluui WttMi BoG 
aomcwluit ubi.vr Ti> . \ up, .nt In ! to !2'853 [which do©* o< 

vitb Lite assumed formula]. ILu a plcoaaut ethereal odour and 

burning taste. 

Wvidinna 3k SchwoUter . 

6C _ 3G 

i. B 

10 w 

(1) (2> 

.... 6207 62 31 ™ (12-26 

.. low fco-jj ions 

.. 27-.w aj-ia JT-09 

i H.i 


100 DO 100-00 ._ 100-00 

{ Viilt'ltl ||n And* that mcnlc ui iiornoric nith acetone and lytiti*. TW 
MlfttiU i'"'' » of III** H*|ui*1 nht»mM by fitting irndr wood ••pint «irh rhlnrwte, j. t: ht (mil. to mouln Aeatopojttnwpredocti foma3 from 

ahitrsotlBB of w.»trr. f 

M»*ito hnrna with ft bright haf sooty flamo. — It mixe* with oil «( 
ritriol, pfodaoiM mal OTolution of heat. Water added nftor a whilo 
to tlio dark brown mixture, taken up eulphotnetli^ I" Mid MOtfc acid, and 

!i:i»i«- ;i thick browa ml. Doonutinj <>l andixmnpuNMl im-xitc, xvlitio 
naphtlu x vliii* .,,ii. and brown tod Jt Bow \ylitr-ro%iii. MttilC diitilled 

wilh <-il "f vtirml Ci.uiliiiiiriMv K-\t- "11" oihjdiim.n :in<l :in.| Ilk* Hg- 
ii'iin-. vicl iiOfUonOh MM Bftthol nfl MOtk wW| ami leaves a 

■i. ; -: i- r.M-l.n- II. ii..'. .jt' put.i.ih. ii ciriilncC with motlt*, 

iiiiiiK-ili-ni'l y "t'[i;wa(tw a iKittnli-Nilt, whim yields OOOttt bold uhrn dlt* 

tUlod with ntnhorlo oofdj mod, hemvar, It nnd^r^oc* farther dooom* 

pociti>>u, Kid yioMi xylitic naphtha, xylito-ail, uml xvlite-roain. [Th« 

| <.of wntortodiwolv© it, (Wcidmnnn Si Soliwoicor, 

Mcsiteno. ciro^cwo 6 . 

Produced liy distilling lignouc^ nioaico, or xylitk n .phtha with oil of 

v ;t: in i. \):y ||km,.|im | Ii ii . fl. :iU A yii'hl* but :i -lli:ill ijiri it :ly Ol mi'.if«?nO. 

because tlio greater part of it in soon OODWrtod t-flK) lulphometlivho ami. 
and tluri-by eacnpo* oxitlution; but hydrntcd ticDOBCL wllieb is not 00 

M/.i'lilv OODTOCtod iuto aulpli'iim thylir ;i.;i>l, violdd » largo mj;mti< 

mi I on*. 

Kqunl part* of lipnon© mid "il <-( vitriol nr« diltiQod with a small 

miantitt "i vttW, and tho mcoivor obMgffd »« «>o» ** tb« dmiillalo 

ICfNkffttO into two layera, befatuo from that time, tho quantity 

of montana which uiusos OTW \o but •ninll. ite ]>Iuc« being token by 

liii'tln ! : lid ;.rtlti: :nii| I lie !ii:-l ili>t i ll;tf v, wliir.Ii cuimihIji (if Ull'VltOrtO 

aud mlmixed lipnone, u chaken up with chlorido of calcium, wh .. 1. 
d ilvoi in lb" I gnoov; 'Ii. d r bioh floatc on tho ^urfuoo, iuhco 

iicx-il from th<: t» iii:i';iiiii^ port i<tii of livn<»nr by ri )>• . 
with a «inatl tjutintity of water; and distilled, lint over rhlurido of cal- 
.•'.mm :iinl ilirn hut ipiir'K littif. \\u hisf poriiim nf tll<? di*tiluitt*, whn 

may rontmtn mttbol, bdng «wb tint Ml u!4i 

liquid, of »p. )rr. 0*805; boila conetantly at £>' 
Vapou 2 o?o\ Han a pleae»nt, othcrtal odour. 

RCiciie.NftAcu'& mint. 


6 11 







h. regarded a« acetyl it o [— nMc1iX'i!stto]of nt< -ilivl 
= 1 .ilia CHt/, tbo ■ 

. would be 3'0\5US: bul according to the fbrmola V" : . 
the calculate*! den- -(ill inure wideh from tfaatC found by <"* pr- 

ill-*, fdpfl lln- liV'pof licin of :itl rilic-ii-tl ihnJc of COD- 

tttonl — 5. According ' I (-lam. Wanh 80, :fll) 'A 

BftOa "iacr'n laositoao U a mixture of puro xylite (p. -1.1} 

■i » I. 51 

Hon vitaa-Oli :i-»kv flume. Mivi-'l nidi nil il't Itriol, 

!'il mul iwumcH n blown colour, light at first, 

tot beeomiufi 1 darker, W u«i uKk-<l t«. th< ...■■. tnrv after eouio 

r*fri*aratci an oil couointiiiif of mc .. . . rwHtc-uil, 

r. -in a;idUkcs up acetic and snip ic ioid — Ktalteoe 

illod with on pijual quantity of Oil <■!' vitriol, pn..--i'*< orMrundrminp. • I 

at fint ? and then yw-bh ralphorona uid.oeotlo aoid,ftnd mothol. — wuoo 

II-I '*iih *xco«b of oil of vitriol, mily a •mall 'innntitv of mothoJ 

.r i an I wholly of ntpnaroua tad 

»«xti< ncM, — Diitillod with »il ««.* ritrlol and acid oxalafc i 

f methyl. — Hydrate of poUafa iu oxci 
wit! i .■.■iiiiiiiuin dmi wuloo mdoalKj tarni brown \* 

addod altar ton >pota b, a large |c&atttyol ■ 

potobb-ealt which vicl'Ii aotlie add by <l :-t illation With sulphuric acid, 
it awly] u :i mixture of mesitOi xylitio 

I. and xylit^ remain* bnhlnd. — Potaratam En 
• ■< with tnwil rent licit hut no evolution of /ra*, and 

:■ | wblU) * : t , which yi<lil; ricotir :hm<| liy <ii-ulla- 
l| boric .»--•! ami rnu i ' - n - ■ - i » ■ i n :i< ttytite "f j 
(K0,C4I on addition of walon i oolourloai uily mixture 

vf nil in) xytitir nnphflia Maturating ul 1 1 ■ into, [Thatou* 

- laoatuaiM iboutd )»< Innfctd !o.) 

part* of wfttor (Weidm.imi & Scon 
i. j;i. 30). 

Beicheulmch's Mesite. 
Produced iu all d lationa, and tbmfon oooun la booon, 

and animal tar (Bi ••l*t:iin«--I from hem] 

hi* rucita ii mm i uIjIo iu wator which behave* liho rncvilc. Hi 

•trait**. COD iih^rmmraM of beech tar aro distilled at :. 

pem U only tho wort Tolatflo portion li iImh por- 

tioa oju«i*T« of nbotil tO Hi . ilfl ycllon oil utd a watery 

. J t whiHb, ut . . ■ '.-. of flu- distillation rail togolbei V*A 

Bml«a < f t)w ""■ il* 1 h< • ^ - uJaod 

wilii eArbooato of pnta^'i an ' ■ "'"" tb< oil bath, a» long n* oil 

eocaliaoaj to pas otot; aud tl ■ pok yellow oil id freed from Ibo •mall 


(jicmiitv nf watery liquid which Kim paaaad arai irttfi ii. and *li^i« I1»--l in 
tin* w*t«T-bnth ovor a lnrf/o qmntitv of slaked limo, which retains 
nvnitottt picanmr, nml u vellnw colouring principle, If tin* dt -itllata 

Ihv.:k<' -it Itinllv vtlli.H \}\ •'.-, . iin- to r 1 1*1 nir, it luuM b»: oneo uioro 
distilled o>cr lime, after which it will remain unaltered. Liwtlv, to 
Separate lli B eupioue, the distillate is briskly agitated willi 15 time* its 
bnlk cif wjitf-r; the aipinotiA rotation nf rln i. Its -oparau>d from tlie 
iin. fieeolved anptonc, which flouts on the top; the fi.nii.T dunlin! in a 
gOMly hontod w:iti'P-!>:i!li, flic <li>,MI:ihon homg stopped a* noon ftfl tha 
wntcr in tho both begins to Ikm 1; anil the met-ito winch has posed over, 
purified from water ami wood -aj>irit by repeated distillation over chloride 
i if i :il< i ii in 

Trnmpnrcnt, colourless, very mobile liquid, of sp. gr 0*805; boill at 
0i**°; hit* a pleasant aromatic and spirituous odour, und a slightly burning 

M&Mto burns villi a clear whitish yellow flame somewhat bluish 
below, and without smoke. — It absorbs chlorine g,vt with moderate ri«> 

Of trmporatiin*, aeoiiinng aflor :i whiln, a very powerful odour wliieh 

excites team. It dissolves bromine, with heat and decoloration. Mi 
with strong nitric acid, it intuitu < trongly after a while; and with 6a 

of vitriol it boci M heated in --mlddi •hulliiioti, 1 ut without yielding an 

other; water then added to the mixture separates oil* liaring the odour 
of coffee ami of strawberries. 

Bfatltfl is sometime in a condition to Lake up J pi of water, soimv 
t$DlM to dissolve in 2 pis. of water. Tho volution of phosplmru* in mcitd 
d..i- not . Inn * in the air. Haifa li - .olve*" sulphur an I large uuanlilioe 

of iodise. It arise* in all pronortioat with culpa ide of carton. Dissolve* 
buracic acid when heated. Mixes with dilute ammonia ami potaefa, but 
m.f. with *tn.ti;r i>'»iaA, mix) |i tmi decomposed thereby. T)iwnlvMuranfo 
nitrate and ehloronurato of sodium, but not ehlorido of calcium. MlXCJ 
in all proportions with other, alcohol, volntilc ami fixed oils, nml dieeolvai 

in.'inv • nnpbore, in!*, reatai and organic aril:' (Hrichcnhooh, ScAw. 6*0, 
in;, ■ //■■/.. in*. rh>mn. io. 208). 

According to Bcrceliua, Itcicliciibuch's inestte is acetate of met] 

t hal oasB, there must baa lighter Itnnfd mixed with It; f<»r the ip. ; r ,r of 

scetnte of methyl is Oi»0*i; that of Kviehoubacb'e mosito 80S— Coupon 
.ig .1.*. 'I'horm. 1W, Sl»). 

Scanlan's Liquid. 

Crude wood-vinegar Etf di-tilled till 15 per cant bai patted over; tho 
lue neutralised with LJDKj tin pitch which it thereby separated, 
taken oil'; tho liquid distilled as long as the distillate eoutinuco V 
lighter than water, and this distillate repeatedly rectified. A Mi 
oolotirnl liqaid of ap. gr. G!) then paw»es over fli>t, afUrwardil a lUiala of 
t. 0*83, than water and .in eaipyiouuiutic oil which blackens by 
kaepnff. The flrataad atoal volatDe liquid, »i «p. gr. o* H . i» -■►! N.^-t^i 
apart, aaooloritod by ftnituaJ c&arcealj and roetiflod ovor the wateNbath. 

Xholiaoid thai obtained it colourlcaa; hae a density of 0*011 
at o5C°; has a strong and a-puloive odour; reddens htuiue only when 
mspoml i" the air; is highly c unbuttlble; i- bntnedtately decompoaad by 
potirfi or limp, Hj'rh tom*tioa of an acotato ot \Vo oaVaV, au\ wvvxt* 

voLATRK cm is oiuur WOOD-SIISIT. 


with water in all pIOp rtiaw r*|i.>a boinc nUetvIo I with ii*o of 

inn; -canlan, /'Xf/. Way. ./. 7. MS, «Ibo 

J VeUuik OtU, proJ-ctd h the duiitUtion of Wood. 

n oil* form tin Hi i portion nf ilir liquid which rowan over in tlior 
«ii«iiilntii>n of wood (:ir. tln«v nro igl U t than vit-r. Tha crude oil ii 
yellovruh, &11J lurtu brown by koapinir. If iv:i 1 i.U.-d ii.-.r with water 
and iIk'U alone. In the lat! boiling point Wat Iron 

75 hi 2©3 . U» tiwatiog Um di-tillalcn wild LAb-solution or 

-licni ovBf ■ollaVftii^cJe notftfth than mulling, ilrym" * mi I i < > n 
*ohj< fractional difitillittiou.n Inrj-c number of oolourlc*i liquid* 

w<»ro obtained, of different but not com 'too point-, thena Hrpjida 

WOTC mixtort* wliicli eouM iml be M*jurut«d into tli':i ciKi |m !i[ pjiitj, — 

The i-c'itiuu which distilled ovrr liriw<-tii !<*.» :,u<\ 1 10 e ' had ademntv of 
O'MI anJ roiitntfMMl aboni 78'2 p < md >'8 liv.i.. muofc 

paved ot*t 1* : and 205 bfcd a d. Baity "1 S'aTTj :IU '^ OOBtt '"'d 

1 p.c. carbon nnd 07 hydro-jen: the propectica and composition of the 
o>:krr Uqoidl ; I etweaa there littiite. In general the atomic proportion of 
irljotiKi'llijrdrojfen wa* ihrrKiin n tln-n. ill, vl /.. 3C tO 2H lit .iinnuut 
of oxygen Hecrcnxod ax tbo boiling point row. The nil* which rfirttlled Offf 

muofc teat powerfully otUokod bj -iiIpIiuho 
and *Uri< acid than iboa whiofa bo-Hod at Iowm* Mmpctfttoro*. U'h.n 
tb* oil* Laving the higher bulling points were ngitau-d with sulphuric 
there rvtnaimd an oil/ I lorn id, which. nf: nubed ud di-hlh-d vKfe 

watrr, wi4 colonrtoai nu nobUt It* boiling point roao from 15V to 
itioa of the various portion! which passed over nt di He-rent 
temperature* between tlicfo Ihuita ranged from 0*804 to 0*8*1; but in 
ii di.-v . iduiitical, (li<- fn.i|H>i ini of i -i.JH.n ran 

oaly frotn Bdfii to 99*911, and that of nydr.»£.«n 'I-'IM to In 

■owbati which aooord vary nearly with lh« n- — From tlmM« 

facta, Volekiil info thai Lho ln*hl - il- nhtuim I in the distillation of 

bona having the composition CM I 1 , or corn- 
not tc liydrucirbouu with oxygen. Of the eiimu cOBJUQaitioa i» 
,i.*' tin- K .- ruhm!. bOTtl-on of th* Pinpyrenniiitir; oil which «*|inratrj 
Dft mturatiag wood-viDQ^ur with lime • that pOTtlODj h.humI;.-, whioh 
*b->*re 10f)'. — OiI« of the oamc com; obtmlMCl bf 
di wtlb "il of -»ii i'il pp II, 45: (Vulukel, Pogy. 
400, «. /'Aam. «0, .lOrt; Jukrmber, IMI, .'^24). 

otoatHtdfrom > > ' v: >-'» '- |!ii! '' '■• I- 

n>irii>*n.iv t I tor, ■ pale vtJIuw oily li-jind rn«-- to the turmoo. 

Tlw foiling |*. nlqnid rum Irow "0 to S00°. and it 

doo- able into iU compoDcnl porta by fnKtlo 

a thiiken uji with oil of -.und, it ylalila a> nrowii«nra 

I maaa, tbort which floato a Imnapftronl] aromftlk ttqnfd. Thia 

■. :i>ln-l with ftlkftUoo water, driod oi i I I id oblorJda 

i anhy-lroui pho | 1 ■ \* -.liilit* ft 

Co I7u r ; iIm' lariat portion! howeror, 

liKia^ of ajrarocarbona, i rtain imaJI 

'^ro, mx I from 1^8" io I3(> • ta 

^°; and £rom ICf to IW*. — The povtioa which dirtila orer betwaea 


i :i I- vr.i \r.: PRIMARY XUCIXU3 Oil'. 

108 nnJ 115 OOMUfe of toluol C"ll\ from 12^ to 130\ ef xyfW v C"H >; 

■ndfrwr 148 i" I : tO w H B »U nario with mcwiilul. 

']'}>.■ portion of if.- iiiMiihu* oitafoad between km" and las'" has the 

Kiran oornpoftitinii and»n*ity u ramol or iin'-ti ilul, hut i* not 


n more v» 

mi. ;n ir of mi i h \ Ik iii euio wilt new) 

'. rend. 30, 318, Cftrm. £b<\ Qu, J. 3, IS3;./ttArCT&rr. 1850,41* 

injur 1 1 w .ii <in<i vnjiour-.iitnviy \a rnimn or memiiKu, uut ■ m 
with either. BomO cumjil •• of OOBOWfcW ■ 1 1 .. . v j. -l.l 

ttUlila oily* liquid, which bold from W to 100 . tly * 

uf m.ihJir .i. .-it r v,;;|i Kc n»/o nouKctone, C 1:f H u 2 (Calioar«, 

Conjugate Compound* obtaining Ammonit. 

11 1 


% Etbylamine. C'U'N^cmiviw 

Wxww. CTonptf rtnd 2\ 22.1 and 323; .-{»». Pfcorak 71. »30; ftem. 

C?m. JI 3. MO.— More full; l'!<>j* 30, 443. 

i o author tte» oiled V'li, '313.) 

r.:hi/t«mUIe. grtrf muamfai FMylU. Eltiavtine. Etfyttoqmt, Act*yl«*k. 

Fount 1 bt U.t <■■'■' - ■'< .'»■"•• ■'-■ f)>)if»!i<. , V.i.1 (v,i»,) 

Formation. I. Hy tlioacti'ui of potafll uu cyauato or cyxnuratc 
rtl vi (Warts): 

< tiaOVO *- ^MMIOj - SfKO.CO*) * CM1-.. 

2. By ihc action uf potash on cthyl-urm (VVurU); 

i'ii \ i KKO,BO) - tpCOjCO 1 ) t Ml 1 * ca-N. 

0. By the action of bromide or iodide of ethyl on ammonia (Wu 
I Foftnaau); 

NH> I OWfe - C'H'N* r HBr. 

4. By the action of cfclorid* or lodjdo af ammonium on alcohol or o 

When aal-»imnoniac lo hcaU'd witli ab»ultitr alcohol ""» scaled tubes, o 

i:- lo.-iiif -1. II.- pi mIuoUou boginaing ;it 800 . and at 400 . when IhadcOQ 
j. (iifii uf ilir nlrvthnl U nmi'ly eumpteu^ tin* lliiuid *ftj»inufti into an 
St hiTi-nl and i watery ttrntum, the latter containing the i > -It-,,. li!<>ratOf 
ol OMtaiD athyl-boao*, tho molt abundant of which i« othylanUDOi 

< 'no .. nh\hu - ch^m.ho * bo. 

[odido of nmmoninm net* in a wiimlur manor (Hortholot, -V. J 
CMm, /"Ay*. 38, 68)i — 3. By tho -!• ti<m uf iul|ihcthnmie act 

1 •)•, undei tin Inflaaaoe of acids o i that 

Ci«ni|in(i[iil i^ mm.ImiI into L'tbyhiintiu 1 , sulphuric rn-nl an-1 |>rul>al»Iy al»e 
aloonol Uld i ■■ ihionic ncid (Strocker, Ann. Pharm. ?.'», 601 ! 

•XOM80 1 ♦ 4 HO -= tmm 4- 2\HC).SO«) + 2C^UKH 4 CH^.tSO 1 . 

0. Sul|il.idc of .ildehyde-oinmonia heated with lime in awilvod i 
aulphuric acid ami Btb^IunfaM :<i.i*«iii:iiiii, dnm Pkam VI, 141): 

Cll'O'.Nii'.sbO^ - |5<y t OWN 

Preparation. 1. n» dacoinpoving cyanic ether witfc ]>ota*lt, 
n ukM pU« at cidiuarr taniferaiun* and w attended with 






•volution of hwU; bane. I M mil tin Vpii.l- in i boMll NU 

-ro-aad atopper, wbi ■ tightly aocurod, ami to cod tho 1 ottJ« 

oxternally. The decomposition is complete in about five niinuwe. tlic 

Taaaol lltci ; but etkylajnirao and carbuuate of potash, 

The liquid i» thou distilled, ami the vapour of rthylamino imummI into* 

rr containing i little water and cooled externally. To obtain tlio 

1«n>u* Wo, tho a^ueou* aoltttfoo thtt foRAtd i 

hyarochluiic add; ami tlio bydrochtarai* of otnylaAitaa crTataUisod by 
evaporation, thoroughly dried, anil gently heated with twice iu weight of 

* giaaa iniu- .-!•■-> I iii mi. and the rnlxtareoooBpi 
tnc lower half of the tubo. while the upper half i» filled with fragment 
caustic potash to dry the vapour of cthvlnminc iu it is evolved. I he dry 
- tin j . ■ tl rim ory-tubo into a rami I flank or U-tiibo 

MDrniundrd n fmEting mixture, and i* iln-n- OO&tUn >d h> I liquid 
(Wnrlr.) — 2. Hy tin action of ammonia on bromide or iodide of ethyl. 
— i Mr..,.. nMDoaki b) oticloiod together will . i r-n d* of 

*tLvl iw a combustion tuU: two teel lonj;, and the acalcd tnlic imin. r.<<| 
in liuilin^ water. Decomposition tikeo place quickly, with el -nil w o B, 
and in cooipMe in about a <| nailer of an hour, it- oomplatioo bein^ indi- 
cate*! roltnna of the bromide of ethvl remaining constant Inataad 
of diminishing. "I he tube then eontaina hydrobromnte of ataylamiBOj 

frocn whioh tie baae mm **• obtained >>>• distillation viih potato 01 limn, 

r. J; 300.) — 6 Iodide (oi hiuiiiide) of athy] 
ia aaixrd with un equal volume of alwnlute alcohol, the mixture kept in a 
*tal» nf gentli ebullition i-i :i tnhulated relori the neck of wlii< i 

tod upwards and well cooled, nnd dry nmnionineal go* pomed into 
il fur a eoasidemble time. After cooling it is ■£■ « ti » .1 with •imcao- 
itiacal |fxa arid tin n I ft (<• stand for torn* daya, ' - unplctu the cou»er- 
jioei id t\, I athjl into hvdriodntn of luhylaminn tnoeonrpli 

. known by ih" '"1" '' lln '"Ti^r hcc<<minL' lurl.i-l when 

mixed with wat««r. the toiutiuD li •vaputatad in dryotfl avat tlio 

Water-bath, and the mlino maaa , - t.iI \- I. .it. I nilh airoog aollktioi of 

paiiaaa iu a aniull flunk or retort vapour of ethyUumno ii t lit u arolxcd 
and it-iT ba f'uh'T inp^ed hilo wad-r. or drlod bjf paaalsij it ow brdnUa iu a tube BUrroundod with loo uiid *alt. (Wvblor, 
Ann. l*fitrM. 8tl, 374.) — 3 By lalpbftbaJOtfl n-:i'l with 

pata«k. VuiK'ur of ant- ulphorii add *■• paafli to OthoTi tlio 

ilphuric ether. VI11. 413,1 frvod from ethoi by agltal on 
»ith wateT, nrwl n itream of ammonioeaJ eaa paaaed throoffh it. Tin- 
Tmt- i»l uminoriia i» boilvil with rarhonut nl l< ml or 

baryta till all the ammonia i« expelled; potaab«thoD :i>LiV<l; and tho 
♦thvlamine wfeich ifl eet free by the deeompoaition of tho AOlplicthotnie 
acii?. ' uiT n* al >ckvr.) — 4. Hv difitiUiiij; oulpliito of 

iTnVaint! ■ -fcinnnn : for dotaiN vi.l ,4mm. Fhurm. 

91, > 

i. uiiiiic ia a tranxjiarcnl, ooloi 
aaob I L>oci ru.r lolidify at tiic 

taaapenvtur^ '.* r.iiii carl»onic add and ethw Belli al ik*"?*. 

(Wort*) Vapour denaity al 13 a&d nndoro prownroof 7 ~:>o i mm.= 
Laam ) Una a very pungent nmuioniacal odour, a strong alkaline 
rwtl'iii. and it hi^My ciu-ik', a RDall drop of lln .< DtntM a'| ■ 

aalntion plawvl cpua tli prodneinj; a biimin^ jiain ami aonfa 

■lion. Korn.t very deaaa white fume* wit!) hydrochloric aeid 

BTIir. BNB: "UIMART h '■ 'I!*. 

pw, anil mnkc* % liuuiiijt: nnUe when strung liTdrachlnric aeid i» dropt 
into it. (Wurti.) 

W urts. Vol Density. 

4C U .„. MM ... Wfil C-tspoar 4 .... 1*«S40 

V ii J ._ IAAA .« 15-60 II- c» 7 - 0'4»l 

N .._....-. 14 ... 5112 .... Si -4H J . 0-WOI 

Cni*X_ 43 



2 .... 8-1IW 
I — VWftS 


May be regarded: (I) a* OH'N.II 1 , i. c* as a compound of 211 with 
a MOWN C 4 ir, »n whii-h 1H ll rrphrv.l by N;—(2). a* C*H'Ad 
as th« bum« nucleus in winch 1H i* replacod by Ad; — (3), as C*H*Ad 1 ;-, 
U ui compound of 211 with ethylene, C'H*. in which I H ii replaced 
ly Ad; — (4\ ae C*ll' f NH\ i.«. as ajumoniu coupled with «thylcue; or 

lastly, a* H JN, <L «. as amnion in in which lH is replaced by ethyl. 

(Ceaipar* VU. 16, IT and 186). 

Do> ■'.. 1. Eihylaniioo vapour pawed through a red bat 

|H>ivi:l:iiu tube in n-.-olv.-d into ainnmma, hydrcieyaiiin acid, hydrogpii. I *l 
a small <|iiantity of a eomponnd of hydrojren and carbon. — *i. On the 
approach of a burning body, it tokos tiro and burn* witli % yellowish 
flaino, 3. Iodine doeOSapOOM Lbs" ftffMOOJ aolutimi of « tli\l mioi . R 
inj hydriodatr ■ and a *ub»titution product, UmukUt/tyiu 

which cannot be distilled without diTii»ip»*ilinu; 

StC'hVN + 41 - til 1- I MI'S. Ill a Pffl'tyK. 

fircmlne and Chlorine product- similar reactions. ( YVurU.) — 4. When 
crystal of nitraU of potash is introduced into a eolation of bydrocldorato 

ul <(livl:un ni' acidulated with liydrooUorio acid, Mifretfj other is et tilted 
in considerable quantity, uml if set on fire ut the nuiiith of tho tube, burns 
witli :t tlamu coloured light-green at the odgos ; 

At the. Kjnir liimv :i mi ml I <|ii;intJty of foOoH IW BOllC oU is produced, 
having a iwoet, biting ta*to, anil u hitfh boiling point. I Hofmann, Chttt. 
Sue q u , ./. ;t, 131 ) — 3. Oil ■/ mustard tonni wiih stby un oily 

base called Thi>is*ii<thiit.\min>\ having tho composition C l *H a N*a\ 
(Hintcrbcrjccr. Ann. Pkn id.) 

Cfr*il>unt:i<uis 1 Ethyluiwitit- mfaftM Willi Watrr In all proportions, 
ft* act of mixing bcinjr attended w-ith evolution «f boat. Tho oolutiou 
has a certain dcjrrco of riecidity which di m it Eron ioiucous 

aiiiunmia, the wholu of tho OthjUmlDfl mny bo cxjiollctl by continuud 


I'.tliylnniiic has a powerful nflinily for Jcitfs, noutmlixing tli 
aemplotoly :i» oniuionia: it e\pel« :iiuinuniu from ammoniacal saiU. 
rVbn ii mixture, of elhylnininc and uiuiinuiiii i» mixed with half th* 

ittfti' 1 Iptinria scia required to ncutralixc it and di»iillnl, Miiuuosia 

^iirn i I!, and Jo- ri";ir oonalsti of -nljilKiir of •'tliylamino containing 
traces of sninionia. — Kthylamino pn »piUt«o aotaJlii a its nearly 
hi tl majDOOT as mcthylominc ^VII, 816); IvdraUd oxi-i^ 

copper is however lew «olublo iu ctbyluuiine than in mctuylauiiu*^ With 



salts of ii 1 . tc whirl- di»»>lvo* iu 

fxreaa of ethrliunine a* easily &* in potash. (Wurtx.) 

TW rtltvUmtiH -<Ktl|« may t**Hpp**od fountain a mrtallniUl mdtta) 
itfy/i'bth ( 'Ji*\, uialogous to anunanium: thus hvJwofthrtt* of c&yi+ 
■uw = C"H t N ( HCl = C J ll s N i Cl = Glfo/M/0 0/ rriyiW 

GnrtfMfit* of Jtthytmnint. — a. Anhyjrmu. Anhydrous etbylnmina 
aVtoTha dry carbonic acid gas, forming a snow-white pulverulent maaa, 
soluble in water. The solution doe* not nwipit.iie chloride of bftriUO 

(Wu :■: 

M "i'ly after ■ while, nod with the aid of boat* 

r u 

30 _. 

; .... 

u .... 

.... 10 ... 



23 ua 




• sxxy . «7 .... 100-00 

AnUnfom I* anhvlfou* rartmnalr of Riftthvlamlnc (VII, 31 C>, nnd to Rose'a carbtmati 

femmm (11, 4» 

£. &ydrat"i, A mixturv <»f hydriH-hlomto of ttthylamiiii? iiml i*:<r- 
■ •• of soda, both thoroughly dry, distilled in a siimll retort, cave off 

wluto rapcorr, which cwm|.mi.-<«I i- :i white "powder, aftunvardw, thin 

stream* no Jow« tho node of tin: rotort, and •oltdinod is 

\lm mow v or to a cryaUliMi-- naM aaturated with a very thick liquid. 
The (r\ft»U wrre rapidly preucd betwuM IbMa of pftfMr to fftu Mfllfl 
from tl>* !ii|iiiil, hut did not. yiold definite romlts when analyzed. — Tbli 
ittlt in atrtiCx'ly alkaline, ha* an ammoniac*] odour, rid ovon it ordinary 
temperatures gives «(t vapours which turn nd litmus paper biOA '• 
irlKjotwceuL DusxtUta the liydmled cnrbunatuti ol due Ittd 1 
(Wurtx ) 

< J,ote<f Etkf?*intrf. Delfqueecent; aocryttolHxable; reiy Boluhlo 

up in vacuo to a transparent gummy m*«. (Wnrtr.) 

.//«/••' r oirriiif Obtained In eoUurltn eryttalf by 

p*»i livdrogen eta into a flask containing »i:hy«lroua 

ue, surrounded with ice nnd pnviouulv tilled with hydrogen. — 

• fosihlt' and volatile Th' m- 'lh - «tn <«>oling, iu hoau- 

tifuf cry«enli, tin- form u{ which appcttJl t*i bl .1 rhombic prtatu uith 
rvrtangular base and Uminaled by four-sidci] luuimiU. The vupniir U 
in flu- The call, when OtpOQUd lo thn air, turn -.»rba 

saoietarr 1 jfilow drops, Jta solution dinsolvos hydra ted 

iuIpL»d<- uf antiiai dj funning a colour Iom liquid, which wbeu evaporated 

poviler. (\Vuri/..j 

fffdriodaU '>/ i iJiHlfiatm. Penned: 1. By the direct coinbi 
♦ art*.) — 2. fly tbo artinn nf imlmo 

•a a<|U**il* Hliyhini'ii* ( W \ttt, |>. "i> ■ ). — 'A, X\y Tin- aeti-m ■>! i-« ■ la-I*- id 
1 11 oa aiixbol or ether i |». 58). — 4. By tho action 

of m 'lidc uf rUivl 1 Wohlcr). — fw As pitaantioa hjr 

tl» M iirtiuA. see |«£< 37. — tiy Mhuc. Gi»e* off OthyiatUM WOOD 
dUtil «h. 

/T^fraoroniu.V ^ f'r.\y?<imiNr. Stnilar to tho hydriiKlat*. 


Hydrochlarxtic of rxhyhimln* or Chloride of Ethyftunu— 
similar ti> tliut Of the hjwMatfti [*re|»r*d by wturatin;* with hydro- 
chloric acid tlio iiQUCoui eolution of rthylaiiiinc, which u obtained by 
dj tilting cyanic acid with ]*oUi>l» (p, 54). On OTnporatiaf to iryueae, 
dmoWing ibe nuidui? in ntrang oofling nlooihol. ud waling too eolation, 
iln« -jiir i. deposited in tiff toe laraine?, Proa the aqueous 

solution it nrjlfnllim in htriaUfl jiti.uiH. Fumui hotweon 76° and 
and solidities on cool in? in n scmitninoparcnt, cryttnlliuc maos. (jix* 
oil* vapours at a higher temperature, boiu ttlvnu 31 V and 320 ; ami if 

tin i Itfl I" OOOl, holiililir. ill ;i Uiillv- while, .mini | ilna::- BUM, wIlOAB 

moiling point it above SAO*. Tlio cry 'tills aro very deliquescent. On 
if i! m. ! . ,.< solution villi uuialgam of potassium^ hydrogen id 

^'ivrii »\X ;ili'i :i ..idiltiuli "f 1 1 1 y Li hum ■ lVrm^-l . ( \\ urt./.. > 


4C •.'*■() . -j$-u \'s-V3 .. 2902 

I* II *0 .... «■»! 9-94 .-. t'W 

('» 35-4 .... 4.1'io 43J8 

N HO _ 17-20 


,.rf Ml N < I | M1 - l000 ° 

titrate of Ethytamiut. — Obtained by ssturntinc cthylamiu* 
oStricaoid. — Very deliqueaeont; Brjrtlnllfmi frum the miueuu* eolation 

in ihin Inmlnm. Tim >.\ '''I'V DOtnaT-liqnOT ITBtn lulled, giro* off R*mm 
which bum «itli a yellow Hmiic, nod yields n brown watery duiillet© 
villi u l<vt drop* of oil floating 00 the eurfaoo; the nwiduu i« a brown 
IUOA3 which ultimately become* cham-d. (WurU.) 

ChUrommtuvaU of JCthyiamine. Obtained by nriitog the a^oeono 
solutions of corrosivo sublimate and bvdrochlorutO of ethylaiBflM En 

3 uiruJcnt quantities. < '. * I illisej mors readily than the coTresnoudin^ 
t o| iiii'tliyl.iniiri<.\ but forma smaller crystals. From tlio elooboha 
■olntiofl il t| dopOeSted iii small while -« ;i lr-. 


4C 24-0 .... 11-07 1 

8 11 _-..,. 8 . 3-68 ... S8fl 

70-8 .... 32«6 3271 

HjC 100*0 .... 4613 

N HO .... 616 

cwN.Ha4.HfQi ZZ 100 . 00 

or CM1WCI * HgU J 2I ° 8 - 10 ° Q0 

Cktoro-xuraft. — Prepared lifcfl the preceding fait. — P'onns very 
liiu • .••oldon yclluiv, itrianiaticcryatale. soluble in water, alcohol, and olhof. 

i C M-fl frtl «i ■'/! 

*II 80 .... 2*07 2-33 

I a HI ..- 36-63 3683 

Au 1930 .., M-47 -- ITM 

N UD .... 3-62 

OH.\.)ICI * AnQ>l -_.- .^..y. 



fn-rV. rwp^rol br mixing the eon«*ritrat*.l solution* of 
rido of plolinwn ind chloride of -th/Iinm. njifiag alcohol, fiwing 
ta© n -. i'IIow firoc iJ dlflwmiut il In bofltaf water. On 

exiling, the #fnnhle nit i«piri*M in beautiful tablets of a deep or&nge- 
jdtcw colour. (Wcrtr,.) 

4< . ... 2-i-O 

$!!.... 8 

3 CI IOC 2 

N 140 

.... 319 .... 
.... 42'2J ... 
.. 30-41) .... 
_. 5-56 

.... 948 
.... 331 
... 426S 
.... 3008 

SMia.Picpi ,...* 
i PiCV i " " l " 

.... 10000 


„. 1338 .... 

.... ii-m 




.. 53-19 

.... 4471 


.... 780 




_.. 100-00 

• h "f El vrtih rrvtvchJoride o/ Platinum. — 

«. 2(rtCI.C l irX. S t&WVftCl 't PtCI — Klliyl:tini.ii' to* M dflyoD 
JVOlOulllorfafo oi [il-if ii.ini: .mi log ci.iMi.l.-mWe rise of temperature, and 

0Ofiv*xiii»</ j| iniuncham i <1 -alt, niMiluhlr m water, and agrooiop; 

in composition with tho above formula. (Wurta.) 





Analogous to Mngnus's gram compmjud, SNH.PtCl + PiCl.— It 
ttiby ni--' !"• regarded, locontfog i<< Garnantt' ■ n melauro and feraralttt 

toCAJoroplaiintste «/Dipl<itoi< , lUTII.\"CMi' *Pt. (wo\ VI.3U4; 


b. C-H a PtN\HCl = 2(C 4 ll , N),Pif1. YnnwA bf heating the nit a 

with excees of *thylamino. To prevent low of ©ihyliiuriir. it i i >< ••( :■. 

bout iho mixture? in a imnll scaled flask, us in the preparation of tlio 

oadinr rait of nine. (VII, 316.) Tbo oliiimoie-coloiircd 

bile, Komotiuea completely, eoDietiiON I 1 I 

r\ detonating residue prci1>nU\ :iiiulogoai to fulminating platinum. 

(VIII.: W7.) TM BOtatfon ftlt*rid and *f«pOIftted dvpotttl >['ii'ii«li.l 

colfiarloec i»r«*iiic vfaiefa dissolve pretty readily in water, but sparingly ia 

i I. They contain 2 At. water of cryatoJUeation. 


8C „.- 4**n .. 

.. iy*a .... 

16 H ... 1*0 .. 

6-61 .... 

.... M& 

*9'0 .. 

. 40*71 .... 

.. 40'2i 

1 30-4 .. 

.. 14 66 

IN 28-0 .. 

.. 11 &« 

t O ICO .. 


1(C*iPN).VtCl*2HO 242-4 .... lOO'OO 

This compound U ansJ^oaa lo Koisct'd first chloride, *NIP 
(VI. *;inI.) — Accordion '■■ QWhi rdt*s nutation, it mny bo ru^unled 
tbo liydfoektorau o/ Dipiaimihyfamitie, N'CWPi.HC'l. 

PtetinotKtfJvt; *f Ethytemini, SCWN^ISO*. Tbo «oluti«& of Uit 


6t nVTLKMS; ritiiUKT nucleus cmiv 

preceding otud with Milphate of aiKcr» y\cl>U oMoridt of 

lillVj ;i»:il :i lil- niir rt liirh. " '"' ll • 1 ;<I""airil v ilftpoflilfl Ll.r ■M.iLu:<>Mil|jliat'> 

in colourless rry^tuU of eanaidorablp *izc. The cnlt m purified by *li»- 
•olriiiL' ii in hot water and mMinir iibiohitt? alcohol, which throw* ii'lovb 
iu lliv lurai of & while precipitate. (Wurlx.) 


BC _. 48 — 20-2* - tt*l| 

14 H 19 5-97 .- «<>4 

ft 99 .... 41-67 4140 

JN .28 11-B3 

SHO 4 4U a«-:'1 

?{CH'N).l»lSO* .. 23? . 100*00 

Wqrtl r»£»rd. Rci.rl'i f r.1 bat* mNHUNH^I, nfc-fcni-ir to it the MM 
I'ladnnmint, »nri th# Currr nKMuft** g ethtl.bnv rnntmn«il in lh« »alti jmt d««rriK<d, ■■ 

FMrt(i.wftyiirM».ic- NHM'-ii 1 » Nim.i *H\ acfindlaf totUfttiev, thAfbmvtaofaU 
b, U yjj JV;^!|'|. I UC1, and that of ino cocrwuonrflug lulpkttr, b jJ|?Pt c"J*} UaU *' 
*-tiuml«ir? for ike owrt>po&M)u<x turdi* [-compound*. VII, 317. tf Vthhunins. An aquAoiifliirjInr.inn of liydroelilnrat* 
of ethylomino evnporntod over tho water Ixith with oxccb* of protocblo- 
ride of palladium, yields larpo black cryvtnlv grouped h i<-iiJn rv tuft*; 

by li-bt lln-y SavVM :i fa| r«-d 0OWUT. They yield \ red* 

brown powilnr, and retain thmr liutrn unimpaired at tlio nil 
Water-bath. (Kockenw-huaa, Ann. Phann. 83, 343.) 

4C 140 .... H'll 

8U 8-0 .... 470 

2 CI tt **mmm 70-8 . . 41C2 

N 1*9 31-81 ZVW 

N NO ... B'2.l 

ofCirNci.iMCi I - 701 •- l000 ° 

llt/drochlcrati of Etfiylamint wiOt Vyanidi of Mircnry. Obtained 
by mixing a neutral flotation of Uy<lr<><:!il<>rutu< of othylatnino witbo^ucouo 
MMlda U nirnuiv, ntnl •MJDOBadu over tlw Vltfftl Ii to tin: vtjalal- 
linng point. Lutki*, luniinnti'd cryAtnlii, which aru prratanent in tho air, 
ami are uot deunmpowed '»>' th* hiMtf "f the* vruT.rlmLh Solublo in 
w&jtir, npnrin^ly in <*i>l«l ..Koliol. Ta*to diw^reoably molalhe. (Kohl & 
Swobcda, Ann. J'harvt. S3, 342.) 

Kuhl flt SwntmiU. 

8C „ _ 480 .. 14-40 

1 H 8*0 .... 2'40 

a tt-4 io-6i 

2 11*; 200 .... 39-99 „. 69C 

SN ™ 42-0 .... 12-CO 

<?UrN.HCl* 2t?N Hg .... 333*4 — 10000 

AvtaUofXtkytaminr When rtliylnmlnc vnpour in |mw«o<1 Fntc 

■ ■ (in arid HM RHIUM with ioe r th« klU is 
•Jaaincd in the form of a -.ery doli(|aoAcent cryvtallmo nuuw of dasalie^ 
wbiUnew. Anhydrouo pboepboiio acid char* it rapidly, but (Wot nut 

ifto tu tbc furmutiou of any compound aualo^oun to acntonii 

Btcmoitrrrm..' • 


f Biniodcthylaminc. C'HT.v. 

Wmroc. .V. Ann. Chim. PKy*. at), 478. 

iUo4oc*d into an aqueous soluti»a of flbylarain* *x«rt* an 
■nmctluti! acti mi attended with rifoof ttmjwititaiBh |M»luoiog *yilriu«iat« 


CI I'diyUtriiru', am) \ brafcfa black liquid which is Inniodothylaniinc, 

Tliit* DOQipoand dMoampa*** vfaM dUiiltal, givim* off vapour* 
of iodine, and connoquontly bao not yet been obtained in a ntatc of 
parity. — It i* oolublo in alcohol and other. Ciwietio potatli decomposes 
idually, fnfiii ti". iuduln of [iiit-'iH^ium, a small quantity of iixLtt*) of 
pota*h, and a yellow, crystalline* residue, the composition of which baa 
not boon aaoertmui.' 1 


4 0.. 24 .... h'VS r-90to$M 

i II B ... Mi9 180 ,,2-03 

SI 2W ... 86-42 8C-38 

H H .... 4-7« 


Cwr> m loo-oo 

If Bibromethylaminc. C'H'BrN. 

Wintra. X. Ann. Cftiw. Phyt. 30, 477. 

Brornino aot^ on cthylaminc in the woo manner as iodine, bat more 
violently, w> that it \a neoeasary to add the bromine drop liy drop, and to 
oool the lio/iid with let. The greatei pajrt of ll»w remltiujr, bibmm»;lhy- 
lamific remain* dissolved in tlio watery liquid, only a small portion 
srttlittg di -■«• n ii -in oil t* th<> action nppronelion itfl (Cfininv 

Uon. Tko dissolved portion may, however, bo extracted by agitating 
wit* ntber. and cvaporatiiijc the ethereal eolation. — The product U an 
I having an urangw-red colour ar'iMnj.' from ;i sliyht excea* of 
broanin*-, which, may. bowerof, he removed by a-jitation with nviiU. potiudi. 
It u boaricr than water, and has a pungent odour. 

T Bichlorethylaminc. OH'Cl'N. 

Wcnrrx. -V. Ann. Ck,m. Phyt. 30, 4T4. 

Chlorine acts on ethylamiiio in the aame manner no bromine and 
■aalan, forming bydrocbloralo of cthyUmiuc and biculorcthylaiiiiiiu ; 

2CWS . |Q - C'H NHCI * CMPCl'N * 1ICI. 

Th*» act : on it attended with row of loinporaturc, and a alight evolution of 
■strogen (fa* 

«. Washed chlorine gii* in passed to saturation into 
lit ate solution of cUijlomino, contained in n tubo finrrmitni»*l with n\\ 



Tho product t* thon iltpotitcd in the form of * y<- loo BfoU, irnfeo may 
be puriiicU by washing with wulor un-i ,' oror chlorido of 


rrop«rtie*. Tit in, iiidImIi' liquid "f a liyht yellow colour, has a pene- 
trating odonr, and product* coughing and flow of tain. BoiUxtfll'. 

Tho vnpourexrlfv In, u-li.-n luvitod in u tuli.\ lml nnf. wtfli etilticioBt force 

t«> Wvuk ilio 

l*io tuW, 

10 2«0 ?| -DO 

5H ... VO I'M 

I i I 704 . 02-21 

N MO 12 31 



H 19 



DtMwipofiti&Bt. This compound llOstid vilb fxce»» nf chlorine it 
converted into a toftd body wlm-h •vy*tullitoain«ca!eii. Ammonia decom- 
M "Iroa it grndiwilly. Qraotic potash deeoropoact it aJowly, 

forming ohlaride of potudanij jBCtato of potufc, ami aiiiiimni.i, n jrw 
conUn '< being aUo gi\on off in urnall quantity, and iinw 

drop of M oily liquid, nMch has n ilimrrccabio odour liko that of impure 
OJMldfl of bug to the bottmn; 

C<IPC1*K ♦ 3KO * HO - CMPKO* * NIP + 2KCL 

Tin- #a* ami tho nily liquid must ho regarded as secondary product*. 

f Bietbylamine. C* , H"N-(cmi 4 ) j ,H 8 N=c , h iv N. 

H | 

Honum Pitt /mm. 1650, I, 120; 0&em, i?oc. Qu. J. 3, 300. 

/»,. ■//i y Ai«..»f , Jiict&yiwntHiiniti, Divt/ij/lin, D'flAv/iu, 

Obtain*! in the form of a hydrobtowiUc bjr tin- notion of bmnJ 
etliyl on >-:\>\ liniiiiii". 

(r«ipjrP.N 4 PHVBr - (C*fl**Hff;ftBr! 

PThon an aqueous solution of cthylnmine u mixed with execja of bromide 
"I tliyl, ami tin mixtara boiled For BOSM houra in a ami cd tube, hydro* 
III Mil ■ill nf liii llij liiiniiii ii il i ill i in in - — , Thhi 

!il with pouujh yields (he base in tho form nf a very volatile 
ami mflamumblo liquid, oxtrvmoly voluble in water and strongly 

VhlycoplfitinaU of /StHJit/himint or of Bitthylium. — Bivtliylaininw 

n»»tr»lut«l witli hydrw I; and mixed with a strong notation of 

bichloride <>< puUinnn i rcryeotable platinum-wit, which err*- 

tallizc* in orango-rcd grain*. ^Hol'mium.) 






1J0 _. 
1**0 ... 






Hi i fin a no. 


i-irvm i, 

C*U w N,Cl.rtC:i r f 

2?9-2 „ 1 110-00 

If rtirinnmir br rrirnnltd *i C'H 1 N,H : .".-■, MattpUmlN may bo rin-r«*d 

•I t ■ ; \ ii !i . itti.v.l frutu the r.irmcrbj the 

of t Ai- cloy I fur 1 At byJrugwi in ttc auclcua. 

^ Tricthylamine. C'Mr'N^ccm^iVN^CMiV.v. 
Bonum, I'M. Trent, i860, I, 121; gaom. Soc, #u. j 1 . 3, 301. 

7Vi«/Ay/*M«omc, 7W#fAy/ur, 7W*fAy/ifloa«, Tr'tmthyVnik, Trivthylamin. 

! from bictiiyiamino in the sam< manner a* tho latter 10 
prepared frotu ctbykuuiric. 

• ooloUTiOftS, »troBg]v alkal inn lii|:n.l, rrfirj volatilo and iuflctiu- 
nmbU; lorn toluol* in water than bicthylnmirio. 

Toe hy<l r*,t*TVTn&t« eryttalliiea in beautiful fibroui* oryvtalo, eomotiiaoi 
•mm I fa h< •"»*. 

Plaiimum-ftill. — Very «olublo in wfltrr. Cryttnllistf* on cooling 

froan coneoulratod solution* in munificent orange -red rhombic cry 1 tola, 

Ii ar© obtained yf perfect regularity and couaiderablt nu [U\\( an 

kicli brvudj DftO from TWJ iBkftU 'luaotUicv of liquid. (Ilufinuciu.) 

12 C .... 



72 "0 

i lit 




:.i w 
?.2 S3 





103 ■.' 


Trieitylaninc mi^Ll aUo bo regarded, eimilarly l<> biotuylamiuo, iu 

* TetreUiylium. c»H»x==(CTiyH\N=(C*HVN. 

BaMASOr, PAO. /rait*. 1851, II, 357 i CAm. A*. Qu.J. 4,30*. 

TffrvtiyineBmofliwm. — Obtained as an iudid« or I rum id* by tbo 
«t*oi of iodide or bronii lo of "*!>> • on trintliylainino. 

CH fc N ♦ C*H»I - C»H»N,I. 

To» *mJUt mtU <j«kkly viih the aid of beat; tbo Irutuido TOIJ ikwljl 
Totratfcylivni U not known iu tho teparutu tUtte. 


Ktim.KNP : priuauy mjcm rs r*iv. 


N 11 



... 96 -. 



in , m 

ETyoVtferf (f'H^'NO.HO. — FlVBtred h« deMnposifti; tho 
i>li-I- irltft ; i s • r. — Tho *>Iutiou of the iodide ifl gently hotted. 

aud recently precipitated oxide of silver added in «imll portion*, with 
airiUtiun. till the resulting iodide of nilvcr anuiuoe a permanent yellow 

cotoof Tin* liquid filtered from tho rilvwvproelpitM b a nhitioa of the 

hydratcd oxide of tctrcthylhim. It may likowiicr be obtained by doc-oni- 

the tulphatO Willi DtfYftftj ImiI tuifi prociw l*t not 90 good 04 tlio 

(receding, on Account of tbo difficulty of getting rid of too ox ocas of 
aryta or of rulj'I i u ri - in id. The alkaline K>Iutioa evaporated in vacuo 
OTW BOlphoric odd Mid I -me, yield* after ntiuv It mo, l««ig hair-like ueodlo* 
which are extremely doli.jueieent and nttmet carbonic acid rapidly from 
I In' air. Ky rcmnhnng louder in VMNfe the urysudi dUup pour again, and 
tin- lijuiil driol Bp to a iMWll IplM DUWtj which oJm> «iclu|iic*co» 
attracts cuxlmuio u*id rapidly. 

The volution of Lfau compound i* strongly alkaline, and lira* 
;.ii ■ ti' i..t( Thr ■ .i |iiniitii< lii tin <<,iki i:iin.. ( ttftle, :- burn* tho 
tongue and acta on the cpulcrmi* like cauetie potash or aoda; rubbed 
between tbe fingers, it excites the well known tencatiou produced Irj 
fixed ilk.ilir^, nii'i tin- BUM pecttlial odour. It fapouiuc* fat* » reMily 
u potash, convert* furfurnmido into furftirino, and decomposes oxalic 
ether into AXftUt MM :ni.l tkoboL — Wilh mutiillic solution* It behave* 
like caustic potash, except me that hydrnto of alumina it lc*K«olnbU in 
it, and livirafed chromic oxide ajrito InotabU. 

A nt(nlii-.ii<!v concentrated solution of oxide* of tctruthylium tuny l«.i 
boiled without alteration, hut ax an advanced *Utfl of tlio eVftpofftflon, 
faoompOfiiSov seta in, even at the tcmponituro of the water-bath, the 
reiiidiM' iiiLiinii nolo* ttronglj, nod being gradually but completely 
resolved into water, trtctln laminc, end oliliaul jpw; 

■ ml 


C'*H»NO.HO - 2HO » t ll' \ 4 I -11*. 

, *r 

The volution of tlio oxide boiled for nbout 21 hour* with iodide of 
ethyl in a flask provided with a condensing tube, N that the Volatilised 
prooBOtl may be condensed nnd ran book, 6000111 ea perfectly neutral, and 
u converted into alcohol and iodido of tetrethyliuin. 

C"il»NO,UO + C^ll'l - CII^O* - C'*H»N.l. 


A concentrated solution of tbo oxido no x 1 with :im ;ilk:.lin 
of iodide of pnfewfafi vMdl n cry- , .-ill im preoipitota of iodide of 
r.ircilivlinm; thil effoot is duo to the insolubility of the hitter sutvUnee 

in nlknlin** ii«jiit.l> (ji. 67). 

Salt* of TftrrlhyJlnm. The oxide cuml»uc« readily with ncidn. form* 
"lU which nrei all, except the rarhonatv. highly dolii|iieMVnt. They 
B ' I'll Bed either bv talutStLag tho ba»© with tbo respective oci'M 
or tiy donblo <!. , in . Tho nilphatcs uitmte, phoephatc, carbonate* 

ride, brotuido and iodide, nil crystallite. — Tho tribueio phosphate u 
etxongly alkaline, like the *oda-#aIu 



tadide of Tetrfihyliwm. — ■ When perfectly anhydrous Iodide of .-tit vl 
Med to tfiethyhtmtrm dried «vor hydritc of pota*h. the mixture 
diphlly turbid, li'-at h.- n,.- DTolr«d at the same lime, The 
action roop on l' uJ "lowly at ordinary tfinjM-rsturr.-, Iih- mixture after 
aeieral day* Oving converted into a i^lid ma»a; but nil exposing tho 
nittam for a minute or two to |Jm Ltfflp* aton ol boiling water, a 
powerful reaction «nra«; the liquid remaining fbi Kxnel state 

of ben- 1, ebullition, ctco after removal of the bout, ud soUdifrhuj on 
lioif, into a hnrtl rjM wf rr pbal*, « hicli white or yellowish, 

icthy Limine or the iodide of ethyl i* in exec**. To ttoiU 
*f to" «f ii b«l to hrat th» mistvrw in awitKl tubf«. On ditaoMug 

t oyataibn* maw in eold water am! Unii;' the notation d> m-aporuto 
nnUneoaslj, Uic iodide ii obtained in beautiful uril I, lin I whit* 
rry*Ul<9, rable eise, which may In.* separated by mechanical 

tnraii* from small - of u rvdditdi icntiiiM nmipuiiud mmetfttN 

formal bj n of ilie air. Thi* latter mbeUnOB i- foTBavd m mm-h 

larger quality ■•! higher temperatures, for vrbiob rcuon it in heal to 
avoid tin 1 u*c of liot water in the purification. (W. in/ra ) 

The crystal* arc anhydrous, an I Jo sol diminish in wri»ht by cxpewur* 

to the (sj&ipereturo of boiling water. When rapidly heated to % h 

Uapmd : -o ducom Mi*od loto trletbyliraina aad Iodide 

•f eUivl. wbieh form two byera in tho receiver, but EjtrfoWy mute and compound. 

.qiieoua Mjlmii m mixed with caustic potash eulidiifaa at once to a 

rrv»t.illi:ie man rnnnstinjr of tho iodide lUelf, which U lew soluble in 

altnl 1- Ifctl ifi prat • water. — With nitrate or sulphate of rilvcr, 

i od iile of wlror, and :. oration ol nitrate or ?ulphutc of tetro- 

•f silver it yield* a solution of flu l.\.lr:iicd ..xnln 

af lrtrvlb\li -in (p, 08), iHofiiiauii.) 




.. jr-ao 

3J it 

10 Ii 



...- 7?l 




' — 


. .. 1MB 



_. 100 00 

Tmwiitk of Tftrftkytmm. When lodldfl nf ethyl II boated for wmo 
tiaa* imononia in itiefc a mariner thut the volutiliicd portionf 

■ay oond«Biio and run i -i liquid ia fonnad ooBtraing loctidool 

amnnniuro and the pTotiodidca of tho four etbyl-ani and thia 

wbcrr. i'xjmimI t.t thi* air for about a mouth, (whereby the iodide of 
ananneium hi deeornposeil ami iodine "*l fr^") yield U r!o lido of totroiby* 
hna* in large -' irk-nd priimatio eryttalt. — The am onud 

» moro iroiclily i the* liaoid irilh iodlao; It thon 

atparmte* in small necdlc-Alui|i.<l OTTttaJfl (Weltaloo, Ann, ]'h>wm. 80> 


W ■ 

. 1B*» 



W fl 

- 20 .. 

. 3-91 









.1 1 




;i n 



n u 

Tervodidc uf trrthylium boiled with aqueous potash is pntlially 

T 1 

ethylene: primary nuclei's cnt«. 


flrHlllMjUWl nviOf off a Xt X\l\r rlhyl-haM-, probably tri ethyl amine, and 
forming iodiiii' of poWwIlUP. judaic of fM>U»Ii, and ii«Iuf<i:ni. To uyotiM 
f..r ihr f.rrfvinnn c,f CMH podflDtth hMSW| wc inurt auiipittc Uml lartiurrtUi] h.<rJr<i. 
gcuji art uIhj alien off; 

3C"H»NP t CKO - 3C"I1 U N 4- 4KI * KO.IO* * CM | C"1I". 

TeriiMlMn of trtrpthyluim dinolrns slowly in eohl water, madily tn 
t-oiling alcohol; from the IiiIUt dilution ir • ry^slliri-* in neodi** arranged 
in feathery grvop* It di**olvo* also in the Iodide* <d rmt-i ium 
and the ethyl-ammonium*, and aerunto from lb fa l.irgo 

cry^tala. (Wcltxica). 

/VnWiV*. — The liquid from which tin- l.-i judidi.- hud crystnllix^I, 
yirMi'd on dilution with watat I hrvvv, ml-brown, oily aampound rich 
■My eomdating of x hiifher iodide of t«trcthyliuui. 

[A warm sotntton of iodide of nrtramerhylinm. mlwd with an alaaaana fcalotfa c ttf 

mcU\< iMntBfl 'iyiml» eoniUbnic of penti-ioduli.' nf iftMmi-thylmm (i\\ r.M'; 

■rid thr votutitin of i in* compoaod m-tin trntirtl with iodine yields a itlU higher com- 

iiuunj, poMUi •[i.'it-i'M" (W«tai 

Brvmidt. White. rBMq&6j fmnular cryttnla, obtained by acting 
upon triutbylauitno with bromide of utbyl. (Hufmaun). 

Todo-mcrmrate I, Mercuric iodide boiled with a volution of iodide of 
totrothylium, immediately loses iU red colour and it con verted into a yellow 
compound, which Fumb and collect* ao a transparent layer ut the bottom 
it the veaool. On COoEog, it solidilise to n brittle uiom, ItaTing a cry>t*l- 
line fniciiirr. — 2. Iudidn of tetrcihyliuui mixed ivitli it large exeeaa of 
eorroaivo sublimate, yields n wliitidi crystalline proeipitat* which m a 
mixture el tin.* i»d->-inorctir*t« with a largo quantity of the corTcspomiin- 
ehlorine-compound [in/rti): 

GCMi-M t soiled - cii*ki ( 3HiT + W*mmMHBb 

By boiling with wafc-r tin- hater i« romtived, whilo the iodin«-coni»ound 
Kinainh Itohind. 


C'Ml^N 130 .... 9*38 

«I FW bi-U 3370 

* B| COO ... 3G08 

(C-H')<NI,i»lg! .. 1386 .... 100*00 

Chioromnrvrait. On adding an excess of corroaiyo sublimate to a 
nearly neutral ■M.luiion of oUondo of tctrethyliuru. a U-auliful whitO 
cryatalliuo nrecinitnti? in formed, which in Aidnhiu in water and in hydro* 
chloric acid, oi|H.T ; nlIy on Imilin-'. From tbo boiling a*luti»u it U 
depoclttxl on cooling, in pUre- which Iiuva a groa»y ap|»caraneo. 

C«H»N 1300 .... 1&'43 

oci 2\t* •jujx , woa 

»»« aOO'O ... 39-3o ... &9-01 

(OUVNa.&KgCl. 842-4 .... 100-00 

Chlerwvrate. l^inon-yclluw preeipitate obuiincd by mixing tho 



solution* of the two chlorides. 

:.'(.■ add. 

Dissolves but quringly in cold water and 





.... »*4I 


.. «?-IKI 

(CHI'lWCLAvCP ... 


. MO 

CKforopitititwU. Bichloride of platinum added to tie chloride of 
Wrrtbylium, imtjiediutolv f urine an orange-yellow precipitate, which in 
•very rt*p#et roMMnhlcs tin* ofirrf*jmndin>j iHrtnjfeiuni and amnioniiim- 
•alu. frliirliliy voluble in water; Ie« soluble in alcohol ind other. Miiy 
i* crystallised in beautiful "Ctohedron*. iH-.jnn.iin;. 

HnfnM DB- 



N - 

3< i 



i in 

106 2 


28 G3 
B 9& 



I. DK 

29 2; 

iC'ir/NU.PtnJ 354-2 ,.., 100-00 

% Mftthylntriethylinm. 

C'H I *N=(C ! H , )(C l H') 3 ,H*N=(CH l XC*H 6 ) , N. 

HarVAtt. I'hU. Tratit. 1851, II, 373; Chtm. Soc. Qu. J. 4. 

MHAytrjristSyfairttnou'vm. — Obtained a* nn iodado by tho action of 
iodide of methyl on tnctiiyhuninc: 

[C'll^N t C"H1 - (CMltyCMI'-jiN.I. 

TW* mixture of the two liquids lolidifiee to a crystalline ma--r t* i li-I 
of nw:tbyhitr.ttli\liu)ii. slowly at;.:;, i npOntON . I Detail try OB 
■i*. 'lh* iirtliih> rf»i!ih]<<a iodide of tetrrtlylium, and ii eiir/mcly 
sotaMe, forming a neutral, very hi"' r solution, which i« decomposed by 
j.jtjwl ul ited without iiIt«T.iUol>. 

The iodido decompiled by uxido of ailrer yield* the hydratcd 
winch dries up in vjcuo to u crystal lino compound, iceeuabling the 

■yvh in. 

a beautiful DrysteOiao j>i-.-^ i|ii uitta by 


H. — Obtained m 

In of platinum to % •olmfoia of the Ikwo »aturuted w 
sydruchloric S 

llul ..*•«. I 

HC . 840 

-.. 2411 

10 II 1» 

-. 500 

N 14 

... 436 

MA Hit. 2 


I't W0 

. sota 

.. 30-48 

NCU1CI" - 5218 

.. 100 00 

TLe b«ic forms crystalline ftulu with MiljJmric, hydrochloric, nitric, 
aud oxalic oc;J. y Hoftuona J 




% Conjugated Cempoututo coa/rWniuy AntnU: ArtencOiyU. 
LkKDotr. Am. Phaim. 8i», 801, Cftem. Cm. 1954. 

Theao compound* arc obtained by the action of iodide of clliyl c 

IlilllMlf MnllIIIII. Thi'Vatr llirn .11 nu tibiT n/.. Aifirubtetk ■ 'liudt/t 

(I'll 1 . 3 . A,H- = (C'H'jMi: Artentririhyl. (C*II«)» A*H» = (CW/Ao; 
and Jr$tn<ftiyHvm (C'H*/AnH' = <C*ir/A».' taft i< fcC-JogOU to 

Ictrciliyliuin, etfbmclliy.iiu.i. Ac. 


7*rrj)ft ration. 1. Arnmidr of BodrMfl pfOpomd hj ELfl i i 
KtdOB of »l* element* • i- O&flj imuii«l.<i together will) 4 or 5 time* IU 
weight of u.uartx-.-and (if pulrcnxod nlono it take* fire); the mixtuio 
introduced into a number of small churl. nocked lliwks (holding about 
3 o».), so ;u Ui fill them U> about tWO> hud:-, lodldl oi '-iii>l IwJod t<* 
the content! of ono of the flank* (tlic others being well corked up); and 
th* fliuk iinmodiiiU'ty OOOItOOttd with a 00n40MUU| ii|'juiratim through 
which a llrOUB • I carbonic acid ifi p&uicil doting tho whole operation. 
TUi» condensing apparatus (which ia tho mine as tbat uocd by Lowig and 
S liwciicr in the |»re|iur;iliou of Miltethyl, p. 78), couviste of a till wido 

ejlfodiioa] pmnJ eland by ;* soric taring k&m ■perturoa. Through ono 
of tbetc aperture* rn«%,e* it tubo proceeding from tho carbonic acid appa- 
ratus tad rooobiu i» tli" bottom of tbo vowel; Uiroogfa tboeeooniL a 

.li;it;;!it lul.e t» tarry that gnu off; and through tlic third in 
inserted the diotilhtion-lubo conuoctcd with tbo flack cooUiuitiy the 

iui\turt<. Within |bt<|rl:,>s •■yiiiidrr ;m> phnrod two Hinnll bnlrli -, iDtO 

one of which the low I end of thi* conducting tnbo in inverted. Tbo 
tore oi iodide oJ ethyl aod areooJd* t\ MKuum soon become* #v hot 

lliul it h.rge pOTtlCfl <"f tho iodide of e'.hyi>- over .*|m>hI:&iio ki ly; aJ 
floou ae tlii ■> notion [fl OTttTj (he flack in removed, mora iodide of nhyl 
poured in, and ilie MM Operation rnpOfttod a* long as any notion Uike* 
place. Tho final rvalue M lodidfl ai ■ \\\\\ i. nxpdlod by |]«rtly hp-ntinji 
the bVk, and on ■ublM^aootiy WptJ'inn, i« tfroagor hi •.>oid« of 

i di til orot, Thi ootkoim ojrliadrM roMol mart thra (»' niuodi 

togcthci vitb tli«! tui.«». the vc*«eJ turned luiind nu a* to brloj| ifcl 

qI i Li- <h- ill I'll ioa U -l'i OVi t " I"- ■ -i-r -ut I I ti .i lr. .mi 1 1.. *in cioud 

I bofiil'r 'I It .-v.. I hlumrhl lii .•;.:•!, -.n- lln liofllci m:u li» kttO ■*■ 

by tli- OondnotlDS tube, \rhicbbiu previoukly boon hot anil dry. hoootDlM 
cold and ITOtted 'villi dlOpC of 1 i* j u nJ. TI. « heat i^ tlien gradualljr raited 

* Purr mrfiiUii' iifc*nlc. In l)»r kuia Of Sill pttwilir. U jrolly liratftl in i farnac* 
h»» In z « food dnniytit, ill] It bffltm to fumr, nml in ill >!>nt4 

f i Uau U EiSH tUl 'i" diiimie brtcim to n»-'iuir o fl'i"i RalchcSM 

Uiko |j!u(c niiru a ijutnl (t vt KXUm BU bcOQ "'I "dm i J, aljmit c«.|«ioI !■> <lnl of ill* 
anauita A* tho prodoet i» liit;li:y rumbailiblr, it u noiwuurj loctrluda the air u 
pompli'tfly m p»twi>il# durJnjf the wliula operation. For tltix parpM*, th* arNnH4 ii 
plaml in a pOMV Onolowd w«hm » h. m-in rrn.lliU. tiftth tMCAf ^r»<hM 

with r lowly fitting cover*, wliirii mint mily be rcmovrd to Uiireiluce tlif ao^lnni. or to 

■ lii Llic miiluic with oil ihjii nrl. >■■ n EQ MOBIl unl.nin i:omlt;ii*l»Mi. Tlir irtM« it 
Trry TKilrnt, and allcmlcMl villi »Wd ^: in > Itfinj 

•.»a..>tiuKi thrown out. Tho *il<i_>. vMaft K-' « rrjiwHoi ftocton »nd ril x t-wtdH 

colour, must be »«)>t la h < filled lj- wild •j>iarta-aariJ. It dkcon- 

poKft wiVr villi iv. I- ■ ! Iiydroffon, in cffrcl nhich IiIn pUo* 

in ilimp »ir | nail l>r b&adlfd witi nonotu 



to rtxlnou-, and when nothing more panee over, tlie flank id removed, * 
Mcood put in iu plans, Mnj she « bolaaexiei d i pen tJ a repeated 
ttfltminoflior 15 flask*, repairing about a pound • •!" load* ol *■' i. . I , 
yield about 3 ot. of the mixed arveoidet of othyl. — At the end «f ui* 
operation, llic |ii>t In. till- ooalAini iinliiU of ethyl mixed with 4 Mtl&IJ 
quantity of Uic iii»-nidw; the accoiid. a I lottfloei liquid 

eacstly ■iZfld with a rod mhoUiice. TUie liu^uid — nhidi u heavier than 
water, hat an Intolerable odour, excito* & eopioo* flow of u<ar*, fumeu 

rtronffly iu the air, and afterwards take* fire, — U a mixture-- 
iutAy* »a<J a/vmrViWAy.'. The« two compounds nifty be icxaratod by 
fiaciiutiaJ I'icM. Jju latwi being much the mora volatile oi the im». 
For tbia parpoM, Ihi orwlfl product in trunafcrred, within in :inn<. ]h<in 
•fearhonicar and tlie flank immediately conn* . 

Villi UlL- d:atlllatl»Il (tll)O of lllO OU&dcti»ilI£ »]>|»:.i n de-tcribod, a 

lumber of fliiiall botlJca being previously arranged within the largo 

IricaJ vwkI, eo (La! hy toning to* fOttitJi Otob of them QM be 

■orxwsutvely riron^lit b*nr**t.h the nxtrcuiity of to* dlfltiU&tiou-tflu*. Tlie 

tjMk i> hcttod in i smell sand-bath, nod u rapid current of enrboui-.' acid 

jaj pail I tbrongfa ill..* npparatai derraa iii»> wb h aparniioOi ll mi 

f the diftlillatc, which paewd ovii 
•0" and 18***, cuniaiuul iodide of fthyl. and aolidifled after a while iuto a 

of i :v.p id" rmt.ifr t/f artntriJi i/hi/ui, Ar'A*l, Tim 

>*i portion. which wfti collected nt NO, mil containc I iooaBvj tho 

wnteh pewsod over botwoc-n 1 10 and 18V, oouaiuted of pure aivitt- 

'I; a/terwurde a mixture of lh;it compound with arecnbirtlivl 

over; nli ili: pure aracnbk'thyl together with u little iiiviulfiu 

remained in the hVl. II - prorru i* best adapted for tlio 

.! nW t flUl ttfcylj vhteb 11 rfeldi La BUtol bigot ouantlty 
araciibiciby). Th a latter ia mora adrantagcoujly obtained by thu 
iwiajt proceca; 

!. Ann d< tn i touted with oxcast of iodide of ethyl «a 

d with ether; tho ctheroai exlmrt, nhh'Ii 
una artnbicthyl, arot fttr iaehyl, aad iodide • •! ttbyi, niXM with 
lot' "<■ • tin r -iii.tiil.Ml off; and tho alooholic solution utixod 

wilt armter, wllioii piceipiuitca arseuhictliy), and diaeolvoo iodide of 

aiav:,i . ilitj ic iuu ■ die iodide ol eibyli a i < utiiutliyl. 

— Tlie tnntaiMii of t\\o anonldri <t aodiuni with iodide of ciliyl i* pcr- 
fonne-i in aaall tla*k« as in tho lint procex*, nml th- i'>iii-l>« of ethyl, 
vbaeh difiila over iu roiiMK|ttviHT «! ihr hrat ^uunitoJ by tb« rtuctiou, 

I .\ Mnall thuk, and aubae^ucntly poured back again* togd 
with frr h Imfidi of ethyl, tlieac upenilimis ueiug repented ;i* lonj; ;n any 
artiun eontinorw; the Iranafarpnce < i tho liquid inu»i he ollectod ma 
quickly u to avoid aeco*» of R I bi u the action i" OTwT, thu 

-TtwUr |>.«rl •<( tlit." rwiminm/ k>«Ji i "I ■ ihv; mil I bfl di diltd ftfl by v 
Xtiatke htat, MdK.:i*'til bowwvd bcinx left to loop tin: mixture inoiol; if 
the cxiew wcru all r tmove d . tbe HnaJ pTodud would OOtlalet cl ;i 

racaUaibyl and aranitrlctnwl, whleh would thou taquira frac- 
tjowal diatillatioa to aaparate them. Wbon the colli i IU or 12 

flfc-ti la ,ua lrvak*i, lho whulo U tl - ad into a bottle 608- 

tAiuui c '""" H to 3 |niuii'U of ether, and ]»rerioualy filled nith rail 

bi*tiU tightly eioicd and well blitikou; the cuntenU left to oUnd 
till Inj lioaid haa woorna clear; tliii liquid deeanted Into another UkUo 
SIM witli car UitW acid, (whereupon it ^enciully bccouiui turbid, and 



|i peelfe ft yellow powder, tho quantity of which id pTcotor, the looker 
tlic liquid has been c a noted tv tli- Ml luring ibo eovoral operation*); 
the mtidiii 1 u^iiin Irratwl viillt flint; mid tun inn mi-ut rvpwatrd an ! 
*» ft drop of tho ethereal extract become* turbid on expaetm to tin* air. 
The whole of UN SthSrM] oxiwcl i- limn mixcii will; :ihxolu:o alcohol, 
and the ether quickly distilled oft". During this distillation, the yellow 
powdtl j'i»t mentioned cukee together, and forme a red, resinous body, 
melting ftt 70*, Mid iuaciuble In all rvagKnU. 

alcoholic solution i» noat tranpforrod, in an atmosphere of 
carbonic acid, into n cylindrical flaw vestel capable of bein^ well closed, 
ftnd mixed with wutor free from air till it becomes very turbid. It in 
left tn -mud till it boCOV . ftfid hii cilv body .m-|mi.iI.-> nut, then 

faulted from this nil into another vesewl, and a lur^e quantity of miller 
added, whereupon arviihieihyl i* *ep*rftlttd in tit.- form of fto ui!y llqoU, 
HII itig ft faint greenish yellow colour and powerful odoar. Il ii decanted 
into a- small bottle; freed from the lupornntant liquid by means of ft 
pi- t '.-. .u.«i |ii .-rvi.-il 11 iid it :i In vi.t »-f ilf :m\il.d water. — In all tllMO 

operations, tho ^rcatrst enrn must Imi taken to exclude thn air; otliorniwi 
n r..l powder form*, w liii-li in ..!... -udieal ami r. n \<\ it * puritii 

{\<>u v. i •,• diSovlC* 

The water used for prccipitntiujf the arscnbiothyl r 
artctwlhylium, together with ( compound-, which luvr not 
yal lifi-i" '«'ji:h;l1.'iI ODfl from flm Other. On :ij/ trnl.iii|r tli« watery liquid 
•with other, a portion of the*© compounds dissolves, together with a con- 
oiderald..' mafltity "I lo did.' el iir-.iu>tliyli')rn, although thii compound ia 
by itself but apuringly soluble in other, and on lrariuj? th* liquid to 
cwiporutc in the uir, there remains a yellow tyrup, from which, altor a 
while, th«< iudidn ol ai —•-«■•-■ liylnnu rryWullirrn in b-niitiful prisrmslic 
crystal*. It may be separated from tlie liijnid compound* which milium 
t"> it, by washing with a kihuII quantity of water, und obtained in a etato 
of purity by :c*cntl ittll'/tUftllirjiti mui frcn water. — Tho watery solution 
after being treated with ether as above, etill contain* ft pmall quantity of 
lodldooi :n- Mnethj diiim, which may be 'Ty*i:i Uited by evaporation over 
tl c iv .ii. -r- Until . hut it is very impure. 

I I .- i in> in H.' Stake hi which arsenide of sodium hna noon t rented 

with iodidfl »f rtliv', wd tl" product digc«to>l with ether (p. 71), 
contains a number of arsenical organic compound?, UOOBA which the 
./ <ir.>.-ntr\fthy? t Ae'A«0\ e .tints in ron«idcruh1o qnantity. It 
nuiy he p.opar.itn«l by tri'jitin^ tho re>iduo ■irli b|bo1vM ftlMiol, cvapo- 
rating tho alooholii and subjecting it to dry diaUllftiiofl The 

oxide thou pft?«o« over in the form of a yollow oily liquid. 


f Araenbiethyl or Vinocacodyl. (0*H*) , r A«H , =(C i H«) t Ae. 

iTfanaailfl a/jTdai K/Ay/o-cocwfyr.— for the prroamuon. tid. p. 71. 

vertsrs. Oily liquid, having * fnint ycllowith colon.-, itroug 

. sod a vory diaftgroeahlo, paOMQl) oJLaceous odour. 

Besnet than waterj In irkkai it &jnki without mLdfic BoiU bctarcoo 

.iud 1»0\ 


ion in ... jii — r ;a 

A. ... 7i ... M-H .— - 56*2 

(c*h*)=ju m - loooo 

tag to Cntflin'i notlm^htcrr, thi» compound Oiotdd bf regarded *a fccfong- 

••i u» ii- •:,.]<' aarl ■ •■IK., md ^' - obi "■'- .■''■■ d a— poupJ erf I |L Hi with EM 

»w.«J»'« i.. t..rm#d from Ihn pnmiry nor!.. 

of I At. H by Kr - Aill-: Amorrflne, to tl.n new. lu formal* would be < < u II. 

(VW. - 

Araenbiothyl rapidly absorb* oxygen from Ibe air, and generally 
break* out into * dull BftBBv, £&**■£ ■■ 1 vapoun <>f annuiou* aoid. In 
tlo* rc*fxi i boWflver, it* proper lie.* vary according ro tli- imrJtj nf pra- 
MtfltlfTO, A drop of the product obtained by tlio first method (p. 70), 
tnkm ffrv :-. whi'ii Id full upon worn! or paper; lint with th:it 

i ned by tno second method (p. 71), this effect dt.«* not 
take pUoe till tho temperature i« raitod to 180'. — Strong nitric Mad 
xo* it rapidly, with violation of liirh'. mid hot Dl *cid 

Uk*. -'■> it. lu :> red mbytanoc anulu^uu.s to 

Run«**nf rrythnmiii, being formal in m BMondary produot, T>uj rw. body, 
vafcro. H l.krnn* Linnet whrn nr^nbunvl i*iii.-.mii|.|,i H linrrvit in the air. It Itfht red 
• Ltx 6>*t produced, but toon Deeoate* darker, *ud when dry (■■mn * Urovn powder, 
vkkeblurai »bili to lie «ir, ii i» IimmIuUM in vmiti, alao&ali *iid 

, i m- foil it bunts***! It with a pnlc ftmoic -flame, brit/d 

{■ ■ (r-il-ti.K- it x 1 *" ■ • ■ ».JiJQf, prut U*V(*» 

» rv- iiotift uf «r»enic.— Strong Piilplnirir m i I l.;i.< i:n -i.ti n mi 

artenbictbyl at ordfaftfj fmnpi-Mt m-: . Jul n.ilvpn Aiitphtirou* ftcJd A b«U 

limii'il with it; dilute euipliurir iota den nol uUbct it. Atacnbiatuyl 

from tin ir *olnl •<::• l- nlri.hnli loriun mtditd 

|0 a acta (fan >>f nitrate ofatlvrtor oorrosivi sublimate in. m.-- h.i to lyihrow* 
d:iw» nieta'.lie silver or mercury. TbJl I I Ifi '< r, and the production of 
the | ili yl from the other 


(/•Mtnltr*ati*m. Ar*enlii'Ubvl i hr*<:tly with nlpliiir Mid with 

|)m MUocea-radioiia, thi *ti©o boio^ attended with great evolu- 

tion of ut'*i. All it* ooniponnds hitherto obtained era ImjumN. »ud 

ifittim|aiwbed by ■ pernl *rly repulnivo nnd penutCBl odonr, whirli civile* 
A copion* flow of tear*; i I expoSOftt to thil o*ionr pr i toi 

in^. | i ■■'■-. ud liOJMl-ftcho. TlM OMBpOliadl contain I At. 

ftncabietl.yl «ith 1 At O, B, CI, &o. 

Arwnbiethyl. Obtained by witnmttng an nilx-real Mlution 

of *'- ;. i *ilb an Hhorcal poltiti"n "I :•■•! t- ■! ••■• ■ >("•' 

uia i-. | l.mnlcll); aJjTO by <ir> ■ 1 1 filiation vi tliO 

'ifl.AeP (Cahoon s Hiclic, p. "8). — Yellow oil rcmiily 

»4ulik- iu al< <i| I nid ether, but not mincible with water. Doca uot 

fo»P in ilio air. In burn* llovly arhan li'niml, giving off* TAiioura nf 

Uiaiillod wilh fiac-aniolgain il yields araenbietliyl- 

iiijHMod 1 rio and aitrie acid, with reparation el lo 

-Tko aleoiolio aalatj I »itti uitretc of ailvei (i VOU an imnirdialc 

a««Cip4tate of iodido q{ ailver. but $T0$ no prrci|i;tuti? with a aolotbo of 



correal re aublimntc in dilute aJcolml. (I.:md<dt.) Willi mdphato 
nitrate >>( *ilv*r> it yield* kitHclfl <>r lUvrr iuid iryvUllund i*ijjftatc 
nitraUtif arstnliethjfl. {Cahouw k Ricbo.) 

10 B 


I ... . 

4ft ... 18'Ai .... 

10 .... 3?'i ... 

75 .... ZB'H .... 

128 .... 4804 ,., 


|K"M| •„ 19*34 

i-u ., * n 

4345 „ IMS 

lC«ll')Uil .... 2St> 

III <>H 

ArKobietliyl i* insoluble in water; but diwolrw readily \u alcohol ai 
rtArr, ami i* piucijiitiU'd froOl Hi itopfcrfh wfatfcB by «at«r. 

H Arsentricthyl. (CWyAaii^CwyAa. 

Thia compound is most advantageously obtained by the find incthi 
(l 1 7Q)i >* pa*»#* over in a Uute of purity 'between 14U" and IStK. 

J'rcptrtU*. Colourlcaa, vnry m >Ulr. liquid, lmving £r**t refracting 

SrOWtt and a disagreeable mlunr, like that of UMn£nnttM hydrogen j^a*. 
Ip. pr. I"]£l ar Ifi-7°. I'imI^t a prr>-iir<> «if 796 mm h DCgflM t<> 
nl i in : i.nt (lie boiling |>oint tlowly rite* to 180", a una! I quantity of 
iii<!:i!lir |«imtiDC At the mine time Hence tko toapOBB I 

App-iarv to dottunpoac is boiling. ntwuMkTibM dmarpfafe*] i». however, 

TfTJ Mn*ll, social pOTttOM BdUMIM brtHIM I 10" «ntl 170*' nul cAhibiiinx k ililftrciicc 

of uiuic tliAn I jht ant, Id the amount of carbon. — Vapour density J 2783. 

12 c — rx . .. 

io 11 LI ... 

a. r* .... 


44-44 43-21 lo 4 1 OS 

9'ifi ¥41 M »'« 

40 30 

tcni*r\u .__ tat .^ 

T«t. Density. 

C^INV. 12 .... 4"J'JIU 

It pi* . . . Ii 1 u.ttfft 

or | O'lM 


Of i Vol. 
EthyUvipour .. ..... 3 ^ 

Aa-Tapoar i 



V«nooraf A^Aj... S ... 11-2312 
1 .... VGL&6 

Vapour of AAii ... 2 ... 


Dtcwn posii ions. Ancntrictbyl funics and becomes baited whom 

•xpoarxl in ilifiur. liit bdMotu i.ii.r- Srt onloai It ta nntiv h.-.-.tnl; tho 
product! of ibr combustion are araeuious arid, mrbonie arid, and WKttK 
D tak«a trino* nlonly ai'in Irian \)w 4-.Mnp.iund is kept under 
water, in a tightly closed veoooi; wboa ii lm t 1- need > c<rUin Maffl, 
tlic Ik|uiiI no longer fume." in the air, —Strong nitilc acid oiidlm it 

rapidly, with vivid oouilnHitlon aod oxpkwoa; hi dJummMcI «-f •. yy. 

1-42 ouwulvcw it idonly, with BTolutioil of nitric oxide, nnd form* nttrato 

• -f-riiri.-ilivl im> t-i'd oompoofld analogous to errtlirarsiii ie fonncni, 

cithor l-y Uic action of auric acid or by oxidation "m tho air. — Aroco- 

1 yl uiaxcfl with oil of vitriol, and ou the applicatiou of beat, mluotu 



U (a aalphuxouft arid. It <lmu Ml Mdttfl tiu - > x i ■!•>** of |Ik* nobl* 


Cut'taa/torM. Aracntrii | with oxygoo. cvlplnir. ohla» 

rinc *<•., foraiimj compounds containing 1 At. of thn radical and t At 
of ttto Mher Uiily, analogous ikuofcfn to bVn compounJj of stibu>cthyl, 
KiWtbyl, &c. 

Oxide. When un rtlhTvnl volution of purr nraontriothyl i* loft to 
CVftDormt* »lnwly in CO n na fl with iho iiir at ordinary tomporaturce, tho 
♦xnle rcmiona in tbc fnnii of a [< :irl> > > I. uii > :• it -I u'lit 

alb'accou* odour. A:^ thus obtained, bowareff, '' ll Ifll I'lin-, In 

• I with othor ouui pound* nol yeteiaminu I. — Preparation* Tim nm« 
olrti | i'f .(nil i. in .\ ah in. in Ii' ol i-iIk/I i- i-t liu i-i( <i 

firtt nrith hrdfl with ftUoluto alcohol, the alcoholic 

extract •vapuratcd, and tho roaiduo subjected to dry distillation in a 


Oily liquid baring a klight yollowiab colour; lirimor than watnr and 
-oWcs readily in alcohol and other, and U pro- 
cttntatod from tbo Uoohotic aolution oj iriter, in a.- otitji • 

The «>Iution bus no action on litmut-pftpor, 1 nl iKioa not 

uceeiphalc tntmto of silver Tho uiidc is readily dueolrcd by dilute 
nkfif. :uiil, but i» inaolubln in dilutn sulphuric and hydrochloric u id. 


12 C 72 .... WAS 39 iB to -10 SB 

IJH. tft .- •■■« •>» „ 0-40 

A» TC . - 4213 -13-17 

2 lo ... g'99 

(CW^A-iO* ._, 179 . I (10-00 

tnd L'immh.- lurliul mi nxiirmare to lhe air. nml pauea to 

n bitfWoir r.f oxidation, but without ranting «r taflamifl 1 

(Vkra fcuro uraentrietbvl MJ wft to stand for wmt Mm 111 1 Innaoly 

aWapercd butt I • , "' '>>".■ i''"' r cry»tnui grnduallj fbrra on the curl 
anJ if la- w formed ba Don ant) than broken and pubed to tlio 

bottom, tbo rutiro Bu;uid may bo oonvertod into a wild Dompoukl. Tim 
rona, and diwoWa h ami ntlmrj ootid 

wot net wiib water, tk«y dnliqnoaon to a colviirlcM oil wlm-h h 1 
anito nndissorved; • !« I ipi* 1:1. v. 1 .■ 1 (. j.luco in a moist atnio- 

afnWtn and « .11 eapoaunj to agnntlo boot, Thin oonrpoond dm u 
nwtkm, its nlonbolto solution forma with nitmtn nf rilrnT a yellow floc- 
mi> i t« anion: hhf 1 « nbrowo 

n*vd«r oontaiuin^ ••» 8 j-.c. of mlvor. 

— I. Whoa nn Hhrrral volution >i nrMntrlntliyl ll bofbld 
witfc wa*br4 Bowwb of aulphur, tho lirjuid dooooUd Into ttetlxT w .( 
an aooo ae tbi- bwr In* icttlod tlown, mid I-^fl to cool, tbo 

mJpfci4c of ar»ontricth\l v -pn rates out in priainatic cryaUls; if, bow 

no mu*b rtlKT li;i-- hi* 1. iinr.1, thr cry -!m!- -In mil fnnii lill tin- lii|iiiil in 

cvnyor»ccd. Tin- erystali nm yonorallv *•* «i * t unmatod both with nnlpfaiiff 
■M vUlt oxi«i« of amentricUijI, which Intter is tot y difficult to ron 
Tbcy arc beet pttrJAed by rocrjannlilaatJOB from alcohol or water, tbo 

rniTLOE: rami it »txuts CT*. 

tbre Kf+rxUap ia hmI) feaiWy cttMmU; larger ery»*als 
It erili— iviag U warm ether. 

♦lowly.— r TVra^nudu/UkftwW 

• eoietino to 

by bonKng 

an a r i nes n s aoleiian of pentasaJpeaee of innam «mb .x-l# of 

tnetlrrl; crystals of the ..1^-ie iW 

|i«a l has a bitter taste, bat ia ejuiie inelnrnaa when 


13 C 

13 11 

n ._ imi 

u-ir - ii-;r 


Snrpkide of ancBtncthrl it net altered by c xp ot nr e to the ur. — 
Heated in a tot tebe, it melt* somewhat Wov 10T. formiag a yellowish 
crilr lii|aiil wWk boOa at a lit/k*-r trmj>rmtare, giving off erjoiiUiir<iti>iy 
innasawiabte Taponre, sad covering tke iaasde of the tab* aritk a yellowish 
red deposit of mipAnW of arsenic, — Wbeo boded with petaakv-Jty, it is 
Hot deevmpo*e>d, bat eeerely incite, and solidifies in a crystalline xtum on 
coolies;. — Strong titric acid acta very powerieJly on it, convertiag the 
salpnur Into eatslorie acid, aod partially oxidising the ararntriethyl. — 
Itilate hydrochloric acid decomposes it impcrftetty, giving off salphn- 
rctted hydrogen, and forming a mall quantity of erseaf nethyl, which 
mar be recognised by its nascent odour. Tbc aoeeoes solution form* 
witb nitrate *f abaft * Mack precipitate of sulphide of silver; no nreci- 
pitat* * itb arrUt* of b-ad or u-ilh copper alu. Willi meecureue nitrate, 
it form* a Mack prcespitate which anon tarns white; with corrosive subli- 
mate, a bulky wbite precipitate. 

Salphltlcof arxctrWthvl dissolve* readily warm water and in boiling 
ether, but is nearly insoluble ia cold ether. 

Mid* «/ Jrtfntrutkyl. — Wbcn on ethereal aolation of iodine 
addnl !•> aa ethereal aolatioa of ar-entriethyl, as long as decoloration 
place. iodide of anoatrietbvl seiuratea ia large quantity ae a snip 
yellow eWeulent proripitatc. It u imaaoliatelv ar) orated from tin lii] 
washed with a email quantity of ether, pre**! betw*** paper, drsed at a 
very gentle beat, and then ea«Jo*od in a li^ht-stoppered bottle. It u also 
obtained by dry distillation of tbc compound (OH'/Ael, A*l» {Cehour* 
k B;cU. p. 78). - Very inanwUtj »»•■ eipoeed to tbc air. if only far* 
ehr>rt tfantj it iuniM bevwn aaxl aioa deH-jur»ce» to a dari-oJuurrd -} n \<r 
liquid; even wbcn coaip'-etelr peatecte«l Iroea lb* air. it gradually aasonee* 
a brown oelour. Wbect boated ia a u*t-teb* ( tte*raa»M a darker colour, and 

at 1 60' to a brown liquid, wbick eoJidifioe eraia on oooling; at 1 DO 7 

it is oun verted, witb partial ilecvmpoeitiou, iuto vapo«r wbich coadonacv 

tbn ceJdVr parts of llu) tabu n li.Lt Tfttew tlropM; nu- separation of 

io-Jm* ij r :>ears to take plsce. Nitric and suijluric acSd deeoni|KoH> it 

Jiatcly, witb eeparatioo of »odan«; it diaaolree ia bydroehleric acid 

when bcated, bat s«|iarat«i!i cut a^aiu nnckanged c« oe*linu. Strong 

i^tasb-lcy diaaolree oat tie iodine* and forme axSde of aierntrietliyl. 

lJist-Urri witli tioc-aaatlgua., it yields artentri<nky}. «;C»Ji«mr..V Rirbr)'. 

1« of aneatriechyl diavolvas readily in water and alevbul, but 

trtngly iu ftber. lie a<jucoua eolation forms witli nitrate of silver an 



iraacvlrtti' \ iodide r.f silver; from iootate r.f lead it *ei*i- 

T»tm i< •>' I OttlO ll I'tiMllf ft nl, : 

Utc voluble in CXf*M. 



2 I 

I a 

17-39 IfffB 



M 'A»I* .. 414 


— Nol yot ohtamod in n <li finite utato. Whrm mi lleoaoUfl 
•olntion of oxide of arsc-ntriethyl || mixed with Strong hydlOGulofSQ Mt^ 
ami water afterward* :i>ld*«|, tin' OXtdi •<<[>» m toe out inmlti<rf<l. hut tlio 

d nt the mio« ti in-- tkoqnin i nn intolerable odour and emit* a <raponr 
which attache the eyea otron. •!;,-. This odour i« altogether foreign to 

oxide ol hi Mi.iriMtlvI. ami in ilirndiri' prnh:ihly iIim* In llw fofUtfOfl 
Of a *wall ^uantit j of chloride. 

Nitntif. — Obtained by treating araentriethyl or iU Oxide with diluto 

id. On rvraporaiiu*.' tin: liquid ovit the Miter- bath, a thick 

■vrufi in obtained; and this, when loft for «otne time nvt-r »ul|ilnirir acid, 

dciKuiU Sfjetala, whii'li cm cxpoviire to tin.- :ur, r:Mn<lly ahftorb wator and 

jueoco. (Lundolt.) 

% Araenethylium. <CMi7AxH'=(C'HyA*. 
FunQmlj a* an Eodide, by the action of iodido of ethyl on uran- 

(dl'PAs + CWI - (04tyA%t 

AUo by th* action of metallic araenfo on iodide of ethyl. (Caboiirs 
'■■■; p.7»). 

known ia the frco itato. 


!« C 96 ...... iO-M 

20 11 20 ._ 10'«7 

Aa 7ft 39-37 

(C«H*j'a. I'n niu'iin 

The fempoiiBdi of ir*cncthylium aro analogous to those of pobacemm, 
aramr-nium, t-:tr<<hyliijni. ^tilmirihyliuin, \c. The hydrate i UsJe is a 
fxed boo* reeeuibliag hydrate of potash. The mIi* dissolve readily in 
water, eryntallii* iradily and poaiou grout stability, undergo'""/ m 

OB 4DTMOVIV tO) tk» uir. liny :m in.ulrirotiH, liavi; H UtUT taato, and l Q 

oot appear to b« poiftnuons. In these respect*, limy differ remarkably 
f.**m tie oompound* of arsvubiciliyl and aroonlricthyl. 

Qg&te. — Obi klned hy thi» action of oxide of silver on an iqoeni 
eolation of Iodide of arwnetliylium. On tillering from tin- Iodide of 
■War and evaporating the *>lution, the air being oxoludcd ao much at 



b|fl tin- bvfatad oxide mmiim in the form of a white maw, which 

.1 utrong alkalfa ft, . n.l .(iiirkly nh*ar\u» water and «ft I 

aoui i A Htrtmg boM) tcparatiug ainmuiim from iU mllj 

At or<li i-uron. nnd j-tccipiUtiiii,' tic i'ivrth« nnd henvy metallic 

o.viJi** from their solutions. 

Iodide. — When iodide of ©thyl U mixed w t tti anentrietnyl, comoi- 
nation generally lnl;c« place in a ?■.■«■ bourn, 1 1 ■ ■ «ntir.. li<pi 
in ;i miu of crvM:il>. tot Uie pMamtfOb ^A |io. 71. 72. — LargocOJOnr- 
rryatals, wliirli often bsfiOBM somewhat duiktr by long keeping. 
J boy cIumoIvc readily in wnt+r aud alcohol, but aro it:-. Int. I,- m atfaf 
and in alftabol eODtainilg I'ilii-r. Nitric Mid toparatci iodine; so likowwa 
doc* sul|iliuric acid, with evolution of hydriixlio nnd sulphurous acids. 
3 bl irystalrt fall to powder when heated, giring off rnpmiro which Lake 
lin- in (lie ;iir, and viftldltig « 4iihlilnali dlic aixcmic, but »>uly u 

cmnll quantity of iodii r iodide of arsenic 


96 .... 3028 ... 

2U . . 6-11 . 

;» .... wm 

12fi .... 39 7i ... 


..- 39 '83 

(Cii')*.\»i si? M loooo 

C wm ubuiued by uiclhud 1, |m>;c Mj ft by mcCbuu' 2, pa$c 72. 

TodUitfAft -rift Trriodide of A runic (C*ir)*A*T, A*IV 

Obtained by hunting iodide of ethyl to 2WV* in contact with metallic 

Splendid rcl iablcB which uro decomposed by dbuillntion, yielding iodidt 
vi Atvoutrii'llivl ftod iodide of ammbiethyl, (Cnhoara lc Etiouftj Compt. 
rend. Hi), *«&) 


Chlnride. — Obtained by witiirilin^ a tolutlon of the oxide wil 
dilnl" hydrochloric add \ on evaporating tho liquid undor tho air pui 
oryrtaU arc obtained which contain 8 At. water of cryatallisalion I 

uceco rapidly in lh« air. When heated, they Crot tnclt in their 
water of *T\>Ullii.iri<ni. nnd thou gradually i*'m: ■ dcrgniryr 

do o o mpc y dtlOB nt the i«me timr, and ultmcirrly disappearing iltotp-ther, 
with (onWHioo of fOfatU*, ptoduct*. Strong HllbharM ucid doeompoaea 
the »n!t immediately, with ovolation of bvdrocalorio acid gas — The 
cttMaI* diwiolre readily in water and nlcohol, but arc insoluble in v\ 
'II m nqueom volution [fin Hatfllv precipitated oblotUo QfcSw froai 

tllO 1) ('* »**A f/.Fiita nn inanliiKl/i /imiKln ault Will. i.wv#^rtlit n «i.I A »/ 



:.nd forma an inaoluhlo doutdo autt w<tli protucblorido of 


1. 1. .-.-,. 


ft HO . 

900 .- 
*>*• .... 
750 .... 




.«... 11 MH 

1 1-5* 

(CW/A*CI*-K*i) »H-« I'.nruo 




Sttp&ab. — Obtained by precipitating iodirto of ineMflijilun with 
i of ralpfota of t l><\- <ftntiiiaing *xc«w of nlpbvrioMid. 'Mic 
!. whon filtered and evaporated, UtTCI ^runutsr crystal*, which may 
bo furihVd by r*p«*t*d cry*Ulli cation. Thi* mil diarelrW rraJily in 
water and alcohol, sparingly in ether Jut U*to is Hour at first. ifuvvAnU 
Ultcr. Hfitod in a tube, it fuw*n with feertpttsitiM at first. Mid then 
gir** off Mid \apours which da not take 6ro in tho air. 

I6C . 


O . 

S*<>» ... 

no _,. 


M ... S3*J3 330fi 

20 ... 6*94 _..„ ;■:..'. 
75 .... SOtu 

BO „. 22-78 ..„. »-«ft 
9 ..,. .VIS 

<WtV.j..|.. sol m 100 , 00 

Ctt\}*$*t*tt Compounds containing Antimony. 
U Stibethyl. (<?H*)/SbH»=(<:Mi^>i, 

•owio A ScnwtiKMi. MMeilunyrn &tr Eur&ktr riatnrf. G'.trVtdtqft* 

Nt. i:> n .'»!, inn, PAon* 7.3. 31,1,327, /.«-. CSmk td,8& 
SSI; /'/larm. (?ewfr. IVjO. 230, MS, 04Aj Am. N, n.**S; ArcU. pA. 
not. I8j flj 14, S88; furf*. IMftl, I?*; 1841, 30; Z,attr. * 0li 
,' | MO t37, M#j OAsm Ota. 1 859, 201, 372, 305, 420; JvKrt&rr. 
lftSO. 4T0; CAem. £w. Q*. •* *i M. 
I...w i»i. On "">'«-' eomj^umU of Stibethyl. J. pr. CAem.GQ, 3JV2 ; Ann. 
PAarm, **, 333. 

Formation. By tiic action of iodide, bromide, or ohlorido of ethyl 
on ai of uot&uinin. 

Prestation. Atitini"rii<lo of pntaeeiam prepared by is^tiitiiis^ orndo 
to/tax with antimony.* is triturated with two or three timo* it* *<-i>;lil *.>{ 

ccart/-taii 1, tin -mixture introduced iota .i numboi ol null Suta H !■< 

Uk jutparatinn of tho nraeriidmi of ethyl (p. TO), and mobttBBod with Iodide 
of ethyl. The xotion b«£iM in a fisw Mim.ii'-, and w attended with a 
rUe "I 1 1 i ii ]> I to volatility the oxcoa* of iodido of otbvi, 

Led by it-elf in a amnJl receiver. Thia action bang 
ova/, til* flask is connected u- ijiiK-kly as pooeloll willi ' oaiog 

aatparata* Joaciftad on pflgn TO, and DMlM, x'c-ntly at tint, hut after- 
ward* ai<.ro otronjjly, a* lonj; us any liquid diattu over, a stream of car- 
&W«uc and got bang p**« I (trough tho iimmmtus during iho wholo 
Oferalk'U. The tl n removed, and the dietillation-tubo stopped 

w.ih armx nil i noonJ llaaL is ready, a\tou which the u|tcrAliou in 

* 5 pCs. of emtio lartsr nn«l 4 fU (< •tiiiittony ar« sln«l/ lie nt.-d m a rnrnrnl 
4*aflM» C1U 11- tartar hrcunra clinrrv.l . lh< b«1 iKsn i..i>kI B0 VhltfBCBl fur an bOU | 
sl» furaaf olotetf saMlChl. arwl thr mtxtun> l*ft tn cnnl ilonly. Hie prmluci Is a 
erj.i-lii.* rrfnlu* waalat«ns| Ii pM «oc. of pulauiutn, atucfa liccompoM* w«l«t 
Saf^Jf, fM/diu* bot slnidf in tko «ir in lb# c^inpsrt »U!r. but Vcoinic* bc*t*d «ml 

*ff«rt uisj. bowiYcr, bf prccci.tsd by »»"»« 

■Uojr vith 2 or 3 pssls «f qurU-s«ad 



ropeaud. Thu cuuUmiU of 20 to 21 flaaku of 3 rir 4 ouuot'a cnpncity, 

yield * or 5 on new of em«Jo product, w\w Jnod m th« 

f I day, The tccciwt :n wlii.-ti tli« <li.-iill»iii lifti) uoea colloctotl 
i th i .1- . . J v. lull ^lill immersed in Ibl ntinosphere of carbon to acid, 
after* ardj removed, and a \ a« ■ retail in the rectiticatioii Of t] 
duel, (Lt5 same condensing apparntiift Iwdng UMd a* before. Tho firtt 
portion* of th.- rvetitird product contain iodine, and deposit after a whila 
I urate of eoioarUM crystals [iodide of otibothvlrim'. (LvWflg 


Proprriif4, Transparent, etih.urlrw, mobile. »tron»ly refracting 
liquid, MtIdI * dlMgmeatrla liliaceous odour. 13244 at 16*. 
Doc* not solidify at W° Bolll at 138-V (bar. at 730 mm.). Vapour- 

dmuity = 7'44. 

US wig & 6caw»»er. 

13 C ?» .... 33-33 $3Mt«S4 

1JH _... IS .... 6'IM 400 ., 7-28 

Sb 129 .... ifl-73 M9f .. ftU-22 

(C<H?Sb -. II* .... 10000 

Low if & Srtiwriser rrgiird »Mietlnl tin n rwdirnl rrmutining 2 At. ftljl united ailh 
th« mpiilH ( 'M'.Mi. unit einwuU \ a I U. •-tliyl in It npUmt tl * 

coinbiiuliitn uf 1 At itfbMhf] RUB I At OAJgW i COlOfUie. Cmoto. f'll'Ai, on ckc 
Contrary. tfafl rr<«rd o« 1 Al. MCtbfl uuitcd with tl»c cupula C*1I\A». kcu<* 1 At. 

cacodj).. ...! aiUa onll I At, onp-n, Ac. — La a rent A Crrhardt {Comfitr* nr%- 

•wWs. IBM). 'SMi •uppowJ* tkat ft - ■■ ■ i .1 rtlbMtyl wlto »ontun*d * bu« I 
18 whi<li (1m ' |»l tiM BOON «jf •tioHltm», the chlofidt t»M«r 1 : -11 ,, S).,'.'lli i. ■ i,.- 
nitmi* C'll ^.sti.Vii \t>*. ft*. But Grrturdt in hi« n-c.nt ;'r*in» J* CAivtie 0'fam>/a*. 
j. MS, " U* n (C*H rM>. 


A droD of etibothyl oxpoced to tho air at tho ond of a glow ro 
emit? thiclc wlnio fumte, unit in a few aoconds taken fire and burn* wit 
a white, atnmgly liirniu'Mi- 1 inn-. Wu.-u lutroduOtd IB ft thin *t i- 
into ox^un gad, it Itnran villi Hauling hri^DtDcaa. Hut if it be mado 
(0 run into a glow globo ootitaining air, in auoh o DUaoaT U not to tak© 
Aki, it jrivot* oif «iviiMi wlut<: li,m. 'vlnli Oellaet on tho sidoc of too 
rowel in the form of a powder, whicb ia insoluble in ether, but dissolree in 
alcohol and «iilt'i ; :U the BaBU llHW a tniNHpmvnt, colour!e«* v vi»cM maw 
is furmod, whieh U Moluhle in ether. Thi* latter aiilwtanen i* tho ortWr of 
f&fthyl, Ao*SbO»; the powder is antimonitt of Mtibethyl, A«*SM ' 'Sl.i ' . 
[I: .. ; v, t - .ml fctivulier •• ethyln»tlbyll-~ -*>~ >■ 

btibeilivl MCiol -lowly when immersed in water; hone* it iu best 

t> keep it under that liquid. — Afwtplmr, rtltnivm, kxim*. '"•■-. 
Mormr ooubhM dn.rtlv with pliU'lliyl, the Bcftloa btlOg always atUnd<d 

with evoiiition of htat, and In tha dbm of bromtno and oblod ids wit.h 

- iiiimtion. Tin.' COmpOQI ■! , Qke ibe i»xi<I" ill iMntam 1 At. st'ilicth vl, 
with 2 At of |ba Otbor bod/j La trbie/fa reapeel they reaemblo tbo com- 
poUDtU of stilmcthyl (VII, '322) and arsentrietkrf (p. 75). Stibotbyl 
intrmluced into A yd rue/dork acid go*, yields cblornle ol itlbotbT] and 

A#»Sb + 1BCI - A»»ShCl 3 + H«. 

Th*> ^:i urn takex place with fuiiimjr hydrochloric arhl. — Dlluln 

nitric c<id with tho ail of heat, acU on stibotbyl in tho fame manner as 

metal*, crolving nitric oxido and forming nitmto of *tr 

uiniuic nitric acid nor a^ua-rt-gia oxtdixen tie aatttnon 



OxiJ- cf Xtibrtlyl, Ae*SbO\ — 1. Formed by tho direct oxidation of 

tbyl, cither ill the free »Uto as abovo mentioned, or di*#o)ved in 

alcohol or ctber; a- tbu "hlsiiied. bouevcr. it i- itlways more or lea 

anxrl wll uf Ktibothyl, oatwciiUy when obtained from tho 

ethereal eoloiiofl. The ilooholiti lolutiuit on tho contrary vivid* hut a 
mill quantity ol antitnonlie. Accordingly, the oxide may bo obtained 
by leaving a dilute aleon lie elotietl fco i Faporato: flowly in a loosely 
eovereU foot-gUat; treeing the rofidac with etber, irhlca dloeolvoi tho 

oxide leaVM Utt ■fatiBKOiUjJ eDG* n ;>• fttiflg tail tre at ment as long as 

- loar** any inaolnblo residue. — 'i. Tin? mndu my nlao bo 

obtained by trcoting an ajuoona Dilution of milphato of ntihcOvl with 

baryta-water; QTBpOTftlinr tba nitrite over tbcwntcr-b.ith; exhausting tho 

rctfiiluv with alcohol, rlud dieeolvee out a- eompoood of oxide of otib- 
iAyI and baryta; prompitattng the bnryti by earbonie arid , tad «vapo* 
rating th? GlUxod AUoboUo •olntion. — 8 From tho nitrate in n fibular 
mareer. — *■ An alcoholic solution of stibcthyl Hmkcn up with finely 
led red oxide of mercury, quickly reduce* iliruirnutv to lilt ntttftlnfl 
ttate, atid yield* pure oxide of Htiuethyl. 

Osjkk ol rtibethyl hi t- ptneet Mats, is a trwptftnt, coloiirlciw, 
rierid, amorphous rnaai, which dissolves readily in water and> I, 
somewhat leas readily in ether; bao a very bitter La*tc; doc* not 
appear to bo poisonous; il not altered by expo euro to the nir; in not 
volatilr; hul wli.n hentod In a tube, ^ivM off white vapour* Vfhlflfa I 
witk a bright flame, and leave* a rciidoo containing antimony r.nd cliar- 
eoal. It u decomposed by potawium, nt a gentle boat, with eoparaticn 
•f KibctbyL Fomtog nitric toM d.enmDoees \U with orolalkro of light 
iad boat, Qolufi id ntrong sulphuric aehl diasolrg it, Ibiutnj >h\U 

of aiibethyl; hydrochloric arid and other hydrngeti-aeidii dUsolve U in 
ibe form *d obJorido of saeetuyl and similar compound ■ SoIphatoUod 

lro^cn hae no porotTfitibli- artim upon it . l-ut >n ••v :L |»u feting a solution 
■ aoiaratcd with the gas, c ry atala of sulphide of ►tibethyl are 
I; tin* wnalleit trace of untimonta of Btioetbyl mixed wifli the 
oxide it detected by tho tofuatloa of a yellow precipitate. 

n si-oi 

15 4C 

ob 12'J 6V60 

B )© G-OO 

Tk« rotepMilSon itm JclerviifteJ by the annlj™* of tS« RalphaU »nJ nitrnte. 

Svlf&vie. Forrnod, with eeolntinn nf heat, when sulpliur nnd 
■tibeihvl are broogbt together under water. It i« howoror nbst readily 

vl oolntion of ftibetliyl will. jmt. Iluu i 
a«l|>l tron Ibe enlpbaff noon solidifies In ne« 

teaf ' [Hirifled hy leaving tbo adheriujr eulpliur to 

frtiirrf in tt« air, and cry •■ ■■»■ nil tiin*e from ^ttier. 

Salpl.i'k iyl tluw perilled forms a bulky eryttallfa 

karing a filreTy lu»tre, an or.|il«x*int odour, and b bitter rule; it is 
uermst ■■ air wkon dry; molt* above 100'; and it ttmompoet I 

a ftmoger heat, vital formation of a liquid uroduc n in I ■■• avlnfaii 
of ethyl. Ju tbo fmodatato it U dooompoied by polaasiuui, with cvoln- 
f ol ix. a 


tic* of vapour* of s'.ibctbvl. The aqocou Nation of tulphidc of 

' tyl j-Kcipttate* awtils from tWir mI«Ihmm in ilia furm of »*1| 
an! y*m* sulphar«tt*l byilrojpn wSth allot* acidi- 

U»l c & firtmeirr. 
. 290> 
19 .... 6 05 .. B :t 

U9 .... fcr-01 

12 VI . -. I.T*» 

12 C 

J 8 



SulpAaie. — May be obtained by the direct union of its component*, 
but mure readily by dMCnopOBuU sulphide of Mibetbyl villi au BU 
e^uivslort <|iiunlii\ I sulphate Tli* flJltred loUjtfon tTlpuffBlOO 

to a syrup yield* perfectly white crystals, which may be dried between 
paper and afterwards orer oil c<t vitriol Kxoc*a of sulphuric acid 
prrrooic ibe * htioQj bat dot! do-I dt< <>mpuee tlic i 

ihyl. — Tho «U in iniMiorvum, but lia» a lit rr ::n.l ragy panaiafBl iiwtn. 
The crystal* sufl'er do Ion of weight at 100'. but oi a lomewp it I 

U D)p ■l.nii:-. ' ii.! i.»Jt uini Ini-ll into :l rob.url. "-* ll^Ufl. The 

aalt is very soluble in water, dissolves with tolerable facility ui alcnhul, 
but in nearly insoluble in other, Hydmauerk acid added to the aqueous 

•minium, in-1 lint.'Iv lurm- :i pn-«-i|.iUIr uf clilnr-ib- nf -lilirllivl Soil 

baryta aaiU throw down tbe sulphuric acid. 

Uhrlf ASdiaaow. 


. |3 1 

1 ■ II 


SI 129 . 


2 16 . 


2«0> »0 

. SV6I 

tttl . as-w 

tpm*fm&#a& ... n* ... 10x00 

'niVic, — Prepared like tbe sulphide, and similar Id that con 

in it* prnptrtwa, excepting that when capon In lot «ir, it dooompoi 
rapidly, \. iii. a paraj Eoa • ■• ionium. 

■•If. — Iodine and itibetbyl combine together under water. the 
combination being attended with rioe of tcmpcniturv. Ou adding iodine 
tu rt.ii rilin. ui ■( lutioa oi rtihi thy), ■ w i moii i nr.«rv aboJIItfon lakes 

plnco and ilio iodine quickly dieapeaftM. The eomponucf i- howovoi 
e.mily prt'i'iired byaJdilU Lodinfl W r-imill portions to an alcoholic aoki- 
tiov ol ' 'i,\! BotTOttQaod by * frigoriflc mixtai ong a* tho colour 

In- inline -I and Ittvumj Ibe ocloarleaa sulutin 

•pnntBnoou.ily. fni Iodide the! onatftlKaai in " \o\ rial mailTta, which 

alcohol and aJtarvardo from ether, to free 
fcbora lr in i Boa.ll eeoatH* of a yollow powder | ln.h odhorra lo 

lodldo nf itCbcthyl Ihm a eKeal odoai ol atuSethyl und n bitter tacte; 

rnnltn and solidifies u 70.1'; lonlrnal in unall ipixiitity at I0O J , arithont 

l"»i k I at a ■omowhot lughar tatapamlafy, with 

mtion -I dooM white fame*. In tho fined stale, it is inataatly 

deo>nnp'w«l Uv, with toparatioo <>l siEbeihyL With oil of 

•i and with metallic behavco like iodido of potajapan. Hydro- 


tfU immodUioW a-ro^HUM talaria* of atiaotbrL 

*kk>riof* vrpant*- tk* jooiac; »o likovio* ooo* eilrx aoj, 
of aitmt* «f »tibctbyL Tbe iodide dimorrcj 
" >n. aad rr»lily iu alcrtM ami etfccr. 


« h 

IS _ 3-» 

Iff - «-M 

(CUF/atf - 448 _ 1NM 

J?«mwfc. — StiW>r! U>«o Cro »l>*a %M*d 
Tbe t>rc*nido if ^Mtftvi by aJdia*. a roetatlr prof 

ratoo to bo alcoholic soUtk« of Kibctarl cooled Wm,M loa* M 
tW colour of ifcie btomia* disappear*. Oa auxin* the MJation aiia ft 
Ujj* quantity of water, the Kfoiaadfi of Hifc-Kkrl a* pr«eii*t*t*i la tbo 
tm of a eoloarleai liquid, wkiefc nam* tbeo beVuW wrU water and 
4htd bj contact with caioridf of osksom. 

Tnatpnn-at, colwfcat, rtroerlv rrtVacimf SowSt harm*: a doaeitT 
cf1-9ttat ir. 1U» aa acficamat coW )£c that of ta j aoa Uaa , aa* 
■ »cecxin£. Solalifiea in a crrotalline maan at —10*. It at aot 
Tdbulo \Vh«i AHUM, h yUMa, mtaoo^ other arodartn, a t aj ii fl i 
•ml lipoid h*Viar, an mtokrahW altar like that of oh I oral It u 
OKoapoocd by oil of vitriol, w.ib erelatioa J hT'iroWooue add. aad by 
cUorine with Reparation of moaiiiw lawolabtc n water, bat aie«Jlwr 
rw.% in aJnJiol aa-l riWr. TW **% Ulir aalalJea eUaa wit* anttlMc 
<*tk>na similar to thona of broeaido of 



■ % it 



._ 1» 


- It'll 





AH _ 

dry bjrttK.hri; 

fil edoar lib* that of 

-ir wwi it » 


aa+ri*.- SowltI d**t 

with a bti/efat bat imofcy asm*. 
<**, rt form* rhW*U of «iW<hyI, «o4 « 
atmJ ra rotaaoo to half tW hydroch l o r i c n<W f*. (a »„~ The chloride 
U alt» farmed, with <t.iati*a of hTdrwc*a, by tio arboo of Maaaaf 
.-Woric aci4 oa otiactavL— /Vca^r^oa. Tao cmWOo at oaairj 
obtajaml in tbe mu-o atato by Ji m aa a aa i a a ; a auoag k4s6m of aAtato of 
oUbatbvl «Hk ttroaf bv«ioca>lon> acaJ; it tWa flvaafatoa m tbo am of 
.1 waicn mar bo a«rif<4 ra tbo oaaao maaaor ao tao booanoo. 
Traasattical, ooloaifeaa b^aO, of oau /»- I *tv at IT' : bao a ao* tf - 

"a*. ami a Wtter taota, Bcaaaia* ioWl af 
wiib vaUr, a amaU aocboo aaajaan tol 
brnuool akaM it babavaa Rko tW 
u, *bb e~,lpti- of bplroeafork 
oa tbo otior bomi, b io w ai Unc a»4 aAo-4 to a iilitu 
•r of atibrtbTL tajvw oVva tbo cUonoo. la otior fiipiaa, 
rtact&omi aro tike'taoac of cJaWaaW of | i H i i n or of o»« 
// is MiMn m a-aaor, bat l imi l i f masbHr fat aktmaal ami oUmt. 


; oaraaario scm! 


1»C 72 .... UU 25- II . tfT.-m .... 25 ll 

15 H ISO .... 522 B'U .... 5M8 .... Ill 

Sh .... 129-0 .... 44-9* 

an ;ob . i**b WO ... 2i-2« ... 2120 

W&N&* — Obtained by saturating dilute nitric acid with oxido of 
stibcthyl. or by dissolving stibcthyl in the dilute acid with the nid of 1 
gcutlc heat, (lu this latter WafltlOtt, nitric Ootids ia evolved, and a small 
quantity of antimortle. oxid* *PT>ar*ti>« out) — On evaporating iho 
solution, the salt is obtained in crystals; or, if the acid Mlntkn fco 
strongly concentrated over tho water bath, tlio salt separate* in lioary 
oil) drops which solldlf* in tin cry'.illini fonu '»n eooHfig. Bj uJjsOlT- 
in|f tin: >alt in n siimtl OUafllitj of water, ami leaving the solution to 
BpOntafleOin evaporation, it is obtained in tarv* rhomhoidnl rrj 
moltiiii: at r.i-.V, into a Iran parent liquid, wlnrh at ■'•'. ma 

crystalline iuam. The nalt when mom tfron^U- ln\atrd, 1 tliMiti- like a 
mixture of nitre and clinrcoal. It dissolve* readily ill water, l&sa caaily 
in alcohol, nud i* nearly insoluble in ether. The volution- Imvn an acid 

reaetiou :md hitter tsuu-, 

12 C „ 72 .... 2118 22-20 .... 21-60 

IMC IS .... 4 41 4-55 .,„ 4-62 

8b 129 .... 57-D4 

JO 16 .... 4 51 

XNf> -,.. 10* ... M-;6 , 32-20 

(CH')»SbO , ,2NO» -. 3«0 •■» 10000 

Antimohit'. — Formed, together with the oxide, by the gradual 
tion of stibcthyl (p. HI J- The uhtt.- inmrM vI.kIi . t lUtbyl diffuses in 
the ait before talcing fire, consist almost whullv of tlii .■ compound, li i< 
pi<-pnrcd by leaving au ethereal solution of stibcthyl to evaporate apou- 

l-iii.wiii-ly, :lim! dteolvtlU Wit the -nnnlt;it:ron-ly f.nniMl »x A- \vilh a 
mixture of ether and alcohol; tho antimoniie tlmn rtKftlnfl in th<> f.irm - i 
n white, pulverulent, amorphous body. — Has n bitter taste, and dissolve* 
in water and in alcohol. The aqueous solution prepared in the cold ia 
in rfectly mobile; but when heated, beoonm tiacfa tura rt*Jtb-pMte»«ipi 
dries up to a friable mum IDu porcelain; water poured upon this mass 
dissolve* tho neater j rirt, hut leaves a small residue consisting of anti- 
niomc oxide. — HydrooMoria acid added to tho alcoholic solution, mimc- 
dUteh duTOwidowi chloride, of itibetbyl; the add Liquid scperneed fan* 
tho nhlnridn yield* with sulphuretted hydrogen a precipitate of leer 
■nil on mixing it with water, n precipitate of algaroth-powdor is 
obtained. (Ldwig.) 


tt . 13 3* 1258 .... 1207 

15 II u . . R'H I M ... 2'JB 

SPb 397 .... 7I-M 6833 ..- MC4 « «» 60 

ft<' 1 11-92 ^ ^^^^^^ 

<cii»>»sba'-,2abO i ... 53a ... loo-oo 

XI urui wa* forrusrlj regarded bj Uhrig & Schimstf, is rtJ 

•firf, AoSbO*. (dot l» io soj, u mi ir-itl inalo^ou* t > sal »od c9&taiaias; 

I, calWi dhymttibyl, 'fanned of 1 At. ethrl oa4 1 At. utuaoDf . 



SxJphan/imMiitf- — I. Sulphuretted hv.Irn^on paa*od thron/rh a solu- 
tion of tho anliiM onil <-. "hrcwi down thif compound in Ifao form «f a Ifefct 
yellow precipitate having an extremely unplc&sint, j ■ I -nr. lilto 

ercaptac. — 2, Tlic compound ia also formed bg addtOf recently 
irfUlphldn of antimony to % solution of lulpntdeof ritilnrth vl. 
tbo Utter Iwing in BKC • ■ i ■ ■ r< i pon I RIM 

light yellow. |>rie<J OW loJpburic and it form* 
■ .wi r .i fnl ii-it yellijH colour. wh\<h change* to brown-red 

hi ifai of tlio water-hath, — Whan oiatiUed orw u apirit-lauip, it 

■ Mate having all the properties of -ulpbide of atibrtlivl. 

— I- ]Kjiiti':l u|hiii it, wparal*al«r*uli>hide of antimony, 

Ytiili evolution of jalphurottcd hydrogon, and formation of sulphate of 


A4ttbaV9btf 4 2SO> -f 2HO -. Ae»SbO'.2SO» ♦ 2IIS «■ 2Sb5». 

Famiag nitric acid decompose* it, with cmiwion of light and heat. 


I* v ••*—•»■.••■••••••••• ■*• 73 

15H 15 

AS 128 

.. 11-9C H-68 

... 2-« V1V 

.. 64-M 

. 2127 ....... 2074 

(CWfSb? t gabtf .. H9 ...10000 

CjamJe. Ae»*SbCy 9 . — 2 At. cyanide of mercury and 1 At. ralphida 

of fctiQttlrj] mix'tl in (lie alnto of a/ji)tiOUN solution, form uilplihl- .if 

* liquid wliioli Uwto* and smells lilto hydrocyanic acid, 

- Cfl frith metallic aaltn like cvuiiido of potassium, and proUtbly there- 

.'liht'lhyl. Bui it loses ilieso characters in thu 

; ?4 honrv, iip more ojilelcly when heated; and if it ba then boiled 

: ia it given off in Urge quantity- — When iodido of 

■tibcthyl U added to nn alcoholic lolution of oyuuidu of mercury* tho 

r precipitated lit fiat t*d ilrtl aflor a while, and tho 

Quia a mlt, in small, hnrd, yellow, shining oryatnN, which 
ind aleoh-l, and probably oonuot or :» compound ■ •! 
.! wnii iodide -I mercury. Dilute hydrochloric acid 

" to a aolalioo oJ i lii. .*alt» throws down iodido of mercury, and 
>ruw hydrocyanic acid and chloride of ctibcthyl. (Lu«ig eV tiehweizvr.) 

TRTUrM. — (C*H*)*Sb. Kuown ai {rot only In tho form of an 
ioV, wai.-h i* obtained by adding iodide of ethyl to otiuotbyl. Tho 
ide crystallite* in lony beautiful noedlce, which aro ciwily aolublo in 
wairt and alcohol. (LandoU.) 

: imirLirTriYMCM.— (C'HWC*H°)SU Obtained a* an Iodide bj 

th iodide of ethyl. The iodide cloaoJy roecnibhyj 
loSdo of atibiiK'tliyliuiu (VJJ, 32tf). (Lnudolt.) 



C4*j*ff(ittd Compound* <ontoinin$ ZJiwcuM. 
r Bismethyl. (C-H')"BiH«=(OH»)-Bi. 

Lowu; & ScinvrixrB fl»50). d/m, I'ham. 75, .155. 

Bjiised. SUL Am. ./. |_ ,! . i;t. in I ; Awl fl . 100; •/. pr. 

Chan. 50.341; /Mam. On*r. 18S2, 445; iV. ^.m. 6'Am». ittj 

35, 47fl; JahrtArr. 1M2. 601. 
PtfxjixtfPT, CAm. Car. 1854,3, 81. 

linrnvlAiifr uf F.lhyl, ItistrirtkfL — DlK«vi:rol by LllnE{ 4 SuI*4m 
fully examined bj Breed and hi l)Ui>liau|>; , 

Formed hy tun Action of todido of *lliyl on bwrouthido. of pot&ftiiui 
(Lbwig & ScUwciwr.) 

Rh*mnthirif of pot.owium* finely pounded. aud without 
ftdflatxttJN of Mind, is introduced into n finull flaftk; lodldfl «>f I'lliyS laMtd 
in oxco*-; the fliwk closed, and innn !:>i v rotinooUd with a Ion* 
narrow disUUfttlon-tabc umiiii: into a rcooivtf aurroundtd with ice: all 
tlu'flt) manipulation* boof pvnbnood n.- quickly a* possible, lu a few 

minutes, Um set ion beirhu; the mixture be oo moa in-un-d, and the cnw 
of Iodide od Mhjl «!m.iI- WW Water froo from air i» then introduced 
mi- tbo flaik, which *w immediately oloaod and heated IB *'i" wiitvr-b«Ui 
till tho rnaas beoomos 50ft and the iodide of potauiu! 1: 'J 1,<- 

.-anii- i»|»'r:i'iiiitj. :m< rrju-.tlnd with :i i-oti*ide.i nuiiilni of flub j the 
disintegrated content* transferred aj quickly n* possible into a largo 
1 c k flltd "i'ii -uriionio acid; thakea up several lim*a with a l*rj;« 
iniiniiiv ofetfisr; the ethereal solution adxtd witli thode-ftn. 
and the ttboi OOinplotcly distilled iuT in the water-bath. The bun 
mnainJ at the bottom of the water, and is purified hy di»tilliii£ it will 

water i it rantiMi li, dUtUtod tloat, irfthoat deroinimainon), sosicmg it np 

with a «nail <iim>uiu c>! <l:lui niim- nnd l€ tree it from oxide, and dry- 
ing over ohloridc of calcium. During nil these operations, the air a 
in' Mil I x- excluded. (Breed. J 3 lbr*. of biMiiutluuu of putus»iuru aud 1 lb. 
of iodide if ill vl ylnld 4 or 5 or. of pure liUmethyl. ^Ditrihanpr.) 

FlVp$i fin, Transparent, very mobile liquid, sometimes colourless. 
but oftou aHffhUy t!n«d "i'lt yellow. Hm> n.n utiplcn^tnl odour Me 
that of stibothyl, ■Doltl vapour, when inhaled ovon in small quantity, 

firoduooa a very disagreeable burning sensation on tho tip of tUo tongue. 

Drtfd (mess). 

12 C 71 2i 24-4H 

15 11 _ U .... 5 5 26 

Hi =13 .... 71 ro-io 


Ml - jw 

• Tim iIIot i» pr<psred by lorliuiiiinig at a moderate heat a uiiiturt offiOO pt». of 
h -.'•<! 1-n pt«. v( uxiar fS ( -i<. of bwnrth and l |-i» of urtari 
<l)8»li » | • I.! • ••-? -rrll pultcriwd th • 'I., i Mr i« thrn hc*Ud id <«*li * mrtnetet ** to 
riMeu ro * wtiiir haul in hnir.nn.hour «t the farlbMl i kftal fffa b 'i... famaw w irkwed 
Mid li-fi to mil. Tbi urn ■* inuiul i* ib# bouwra of tW 

crodbSf In the formof aaili'ft-nhiif. nrvfltaUina batton. It u • i«a(t 

ituaiiu wft oi NVU I'.t.iJ after owllny. (■*« Aii |T f 4 

i albm 



fifcmpwifion*. J. Btfmothrl h*»to,i alooo in a rotort, bojrina to boil 
at 50', amng off a jr»* froo from biainuth, which btiroa with a cloar 
tame, whilo ■M*Ul!; separate* out in tho retort. If thojicat bo 

continued, ill.- ilirniwinrtGr ri«« abut 6 1*10°, ami M&iIbMI to ri»c till a> 
*&<idan ami violent explosion takei place, which •ti:atori tlic Bpp»ratiia. 
(Brw»d. \ l'< between ^i and 12 , nod PXjilotion 

toko* place at Tho dilut* ethereal aolutiou in aiao 

deootnpo4e<l v. PtYUBg a white rraiJuv «-f 

hjpdrairl oxide t»f bisraatfa (Dunhaapt). — 2. BiKmothv) a m oa o d Ifl iho 
air give* off ii npOQM iixwl uLim tir irl a lUgnt axiu'oaJoD, 

i-inr a «Icd«o "yrilow ranokc of biamblli <ixnl>-. lUl effect i* Uwl 

ng a piece of filtering paper with ibi Liquid 
•in,* It lo the air. — 3. Faring nitric aim I deonnpoMablflntlBjlj with 

ami nvit] pnnboRJen. — 4. Bftamaibyl DATM in chlorine pw 
with aaptratlofi) of charcoal, ami takei 6r# in oontacl with bromine. In 
£*aoraJ, it* r<;t nble tin ■ ofrtlbethyV B 1 Moraothyi 

*JiloJ lo Mitutii n- <.f rod " ■Tii" n| illVw oi con 

rablli I -.inifJv throw down too oxlda, bml at Kavlf aWutn- 

paaad On fitting to alcoholic aolution of bbrmothyl lo • (KM too • li 1 tx tn 
1 pro to chloride of m i mor I" '"x* p ta*aJ •lowly ami 

with commit i terv lar^e precipitate of calum*) 

■ml chloride of linmutli mud hydrochloric other 
ar*-.. the tamo time Bui If tho pra wn be un ui i u \ 

»oJ a W dilate ab tion of eOrYOftWo aublrmata bo pour**) In a 

-tr«»m and with oooitant atirrinj; into a diloU aloeaoBo volution of 
btao -1*9 of hydrochloric acid bavo been added to 

if oxide uf lii.Miniili, tin |.tri-i|ni:iii' ia formed at first; 
Im r.tter ulky prcotpttAto appoora, which bowavaT toUflfa 

<o»i| ho liquid |>0 hotted The reaction ia terminated 

when a drop of tho li<|ui.l no longer pniduriM a white precipitate in a 
♦elation of coi iblimatOj bj i little can it may be arreiij-ad thai 

linatG. If ilu» liqtriil !>•• than holed on tho 

vmtor-liaeli till it b+eoBv pentad, if MWaavy, fnm h 

■mall 4ita.ntity of lanUllie m-.Teury ty decautatiou, and thai MR io cool, 

hi, eiJvcrv, ihdeooent laroioro wparato out and KradoaliT 

' 'uii! Tl, /A/'/jwptrfAyi 

H^AeCl [p. 93); t!io aolation from which they are depustt*:d cvutaiaa 

i*tfXi#!Ayi t BiAoCP [DUnhaapt)] 

•UtCl ♦ MW - Stll^AH'i) * BlAtll-. 
Ccnbinatiorii. Bimn-tliv! 00(ObiD«a PrltO ffttlpkwf, ImlbM Brcmiir, 

bla than Ihoao of atibrtoj h It hi 

■ iniolutlo ie, R *tOK*T *>luWo in other. Nut <Ilm«lv«« readily 

ia abooluto alcohol. (Urccd.) 

AumdAyl a.u-J Sulfur. — Tho aoJphfdo uf bafBWtbfl liaa not yet 

Whon an alcoholic nulutiou of 

ti&wem of fnjphur, mlpbidaof Waranth aermraU*; 

if la -hilit boiling, »l doposiU a -m:<l! .jnuntity of a 

r>wi«Ii brown Mwdet which appaan Mill to contain orc^nio matter. — 

AaHhrrra! > nut *-d nitli julpburoltcd Uydn 

aad loft m a boailj boltlo, d< |f«aie <»f BH 1 baWn| the 

.en long oxposod to th" ift 
luivtlcd hydtofxa, tint a yellow aad after- 



ward* a brown precipitate. Tke ycMov precipitate alio bccomca Wcwa 
vhvn dried, and baa lb* (**»« ouni|«*iuuii as tlie brown, vix. that of a 
compoontl of i At- aolphido of btsmctoyt with SAL Umlpfcid* 
Warn alb (Duobanpt). 



wc ;a 

II H 15 

sa M9 

.... $M 




.... ;r«o 

.- BOO 
— I'M 


._ 1V10 

_ 8-Ot 
— 181 

n S m 


(PtPfB0M0 .- W4 

WO 00 

N U 


.- w« 


BumtUyl and Iodine. — V> hm i.lmo U added to an alcoholic soh» 
UOB of U nn-ll.y], hint U rv>K id, tun colour of tin iaapQMf&jaAll 

iodide of binnnthyl ii formed. This compound w leu ruble than iodido 
-hvthyl; wbon iU alcoholic solution is I«ft to itself for a wiile, 
. parfttoa cut. (Bmd.J — Wlion iodine w added to an 
alcoholic solution of hi a methyl, till its colour no longer disappear*. * 
number of compounds are formed, aumo which rcuialu in aolutiun while 
0tb«T1 uparaUt out a* rod or yollow proorpHaow. If an alcoholic solution 
of iodine bo added to an othoro alcoholic aolution of bismcthyt, till tbo 
colour of the ijJino begins to bo permanent, and a small quantity of 
walcr lw then added, an amoijdiuu* precipitate, sometime* yellowish, 
anmotlmoK rmMuh, ia thrown down. If it bfl then filtomd and a tolerably 
largo quantity of iodine ndded to (lie lilt rate, nn nmorphoui reddish 
yellow precipitate is again produced. II tin- Imj quickly removed by 
filtration, and the filtrate mixed by constant stirring with a conaidcrublo 

auantity of water, a rid precipiUtc of acicular crystals ia immediately pro- 
nred.whirli rtdiilr UOlst Ml «jiiirltly dOOOUipOOOd hy lij^ht, uiul miut theft fn|vi 

k; it 

iff a 

(C 4 H s )'I*il 8 + Bi»I»J ie, obtained by adding [odiao 

be driod in tbo dark; its analysis led to no decided rotult. Uiinhaopt,) 
An Iodide Imvintr tho composition C"H u Bi'l' or (CMl'/Bi 1 !' f BiV [or 

alcoholic eolution of biamcthyL till it* colour no longer di. 
JiUonny from the precipitate, ami mldimr to tho liltrutt* a large cpmntity 
of water at 40°. A ttuall Quantity of a raoy-colourod liquid ftepentca; and 

if tho watery liquid bo poured off from tins, a Inrgo quantity of bos 
rod necdlo-dfmpcd crysUle are formed a* it cools; tlieec must be il 

iW.-ly collected and dried in raooo. — Tin- wqjsj compound i> formed when 
biamcthyl is loft for n considerable time in contact with dilut.- 
acid, and thou mixed with iodide of polavsium. - — Sparingly soluble- 
water, but dissolve* pruUy readily m :iU, >UI mxl .tlior; tbo OOllllsO 
Ii iM .i pak jpollow lolwiir. —The compound healed uu plaUnQIQ fol 
off a strong vnllov vapour which takes firo tui oombaj m contact wl;h 
flame. (1'uiilunpt.) 

t Another k»li , ■■■ ' lu»ln« tho formula <l H l i< ^ntaiuolta 

»1k>'* li-(i-ii); but il i« vcit Instable. (I'llnlmupL) 


I*' »l 

.. n 


... Ill .... 

... 4673 ., 

. 4«'»1 ..- 


... 4-io .... 1 M 
li.i .... | ;.; 
4000 to » 


. -*G'9o I- i;i: 

c ,: n»at°i 4 

.. 134G 

... 10000 

£itmrf?*yl onJ Bromine. — Dromido of biamcthyl appear* to bo fomi«J 


isIaRTHYU «9 

Iiy adding brotnlns) to an alcoholic eolation of tismctliyl; the solution. 
drpoeiU bromide of bi-inuth when evaporated (Breed). 

A compound having th» f>iriiiiil:i r--*H M Bi > nr orBSBr-f tl)iA«^1 Is 
farmed wl»*n sin alcoholic solution of bromine is addod loan ■leoflJ Lie 
tionof biamo.hyl till tho colour of tho bromiuo no longer disappear*. On 
mixing the liquid with water, ;i white powder is thrown down, and tbo 
UsjnJa btCQDiei u .i,;. Xks powdn vheo dried cuututu* GS'oTi pyft 
bismuth end SG'SS bromines. [Th#«r trasstftttv <lo aot »t »H ■*»*• **b tbs seen 

fotaaist*kicbrta*ttTs 71-23 BiftadQ'OG Br." — The acid anliitimi tNtl«d with. 

Hul^liuivticd i: i'-li :o.ui turu brown, 

and bavc tl (Cm^fiiB 1 -t- wiff (Dunhaupt). 

&ftr*i*yBimft&pL — 1!Amathy\ - uiy Lx dilots Bilrfa 

lid; Mid Uio aotation when firvt formed contains nitrate of hixmclhyl, buf 
wbco evapcTatod loaves nothing but nitruto of Uemuth. (Bre-ol.j 

f Bisethyl. c l HSHBi=C'H»,Bi. 
Dnausra Cfcw. ow. mi, set. 

Kor din format iim of tail DOmpoand« see pane 67. It combines with 

tprmr, Iodine, bromine, &c. In the proportli a*«l I w bl stM 

Ai. <>, !>..». j tut tbo compound* aro very difficult to chinm. fa 

c*nK«,u*nco of their jtrcnt prououen to decomposition. Tbc iodide is tho 

oaly oc* that w at all btable; and oven that can only be preserved wbuu 

pvrnctljr dry and In las dark, 

OxioV. — CWBiO 3 . — A. solution of ioJido of bisothyl in aqueous 
alcohol yields *Iini mixed * Eowlfla wllta precipitate 

of the liyrinUed oxide; potash lilcewiiv throws down tho mime pn nlpltatO 
bat radsasolvo* i'. In S30SSI If the prteMtet* formed by ammonia bo 
immediately OoUootsd on n Alter, washed several times with obeolnto 
akvbcl, then pressed and dried in vacuo over oil of vitriol, it apptwie. 
when examined under the air pump, to bo au amorphous yellow powder; 
but as M*in a* it 1m brought from tho vacuum Lute tho air, it. |gaiti 

off a dense yellow vapour. — Tbii oxide appears also lo/bs formed 
by tbc fpontuncn^ oxidatlOC <■( bismothyl, that radical briny firnt con- 
scried, with elrminatien of 2Al to uxido of biocthyl, and ulti- 

ydratci] oxide of btsinuin, BiO > ,.1l!0. 

— Obtained by treating tho iodide with enlphnrottod 

<«.v. — By treating tho iedido with sulphate of silver, 

■'' — CWKI*. — When Eodido of potn-t«iam U added to tho 
•ola i y -n oi* ehlonioef bieetbrl obtaineil by ■•orronivo snblii 

wM Ibo lionuJ I''-. . red colour. •■ 

cut boeou iiL On addiug water till turbidity h , then 

hcaiinje *t«i 1 r-batli till it beoomea pcrfeolly clear, 

and aUnwinj; '. pmdunllv, the iodlds of biw-ihyl «opa races in 

Uaulifsl, got- 1. . '>\x iided luminal which muot bo pressed bciwcua 

lixun^ pnpsr nod dtici in vacuo; they then pojsscas a perfect golden 



loatre. Scarcely colublo in water, and Bporinjriy m other, to which 
impart* a palo yellow colour; but diwalvc* pretty readily ia alcohol ercn 
when bydrated. Stable when Vcpt ia the <Urlt aii perfectly dry, bu [1 
il Ihi lrfi fur rntm* mini under iIh* mothcr-lmunr, which Mill contains 
txeen of iodide of potaaeium. the red crystals disappear, and are eon. 
Verted into imull, black, metallic, crystalline i*r*uiuV of sodsde of bis- 
muth. Dtl 1 , the supcnuUaat liquid retaining a strong yellow colour. 


4 C U 1 'W 

Sll ft .... 101 ....... 135 

Ui . . 213 .... 4*11 41-9G to B 

8 1 ... tb* ... 5101 ... 60-20 „ 61-60 

l Ml I 

— 491 


Otidi. — Contained in llio alcoholic eolut'on obtained by too 

;. I on prt't'M >fi evaporated 

on the wntor-bath to u nmiLll residue reiuiiiu* perfectly transparent ; but 

On Cooling a MmU nuantity ofeklOlMo Of hydraivHhyl separate*, and 

inont be jfol. rid of by filtration. On leaving ihn tltrato lo ovaoorato 

rtaacotuly, crystals are obtained, consisting in all probability of 
ride of bisethyL They do not hvfftlVI diaoolve completely ia water, 
but l^xv* a white powtlrtr. lodidn of potaaflaiii added to llto dlasol 
portion throw* down iodido of bisetbyl. 

jfihnt*. — Obtained by adding nitmto of ailvor to the holutiou <>f the 
Iodide. (Dtonhanpt.) 


IF Zincothyl or Zincethyliwn. C 4 H 1 Zu=CW,ZnH=C 4 H»Zo. 


PML Tram. 18J2; lid. also Ifanoin cited 

Formed, Iqgat fc at with iodido of rine n»d free ethyl, when granulated 
ainc ia boated with iodido of ethyl in a scaled tube (VII., 171, V11I., 

0*il»l I 22n -Xnl i « 

On Opening the lube, a quantity vf got escape*, after w huh the 
tilivl 1 1 1 : i v bfl dtatltlod at n mntM boat man .-irinnftphon* of liydi 
nnif collected in small glass bolb* tonmnntinjr in capillary tube*. 

Transparent, colonrlcas, atronirly refracting liquid, uuving a peculi 
ut odour. 





39 22 


'n . . 



e*byl rewmbie* xinc .methyl fVH.SW) in iu chemical reacts 
diaes in the air, but does not taka fire 
Uatvajly, unleso a eoiiaiilerftbla |U El bo t ijMi»cd to the air 


! : 

roatatt with v-atOr, it u iuunodiatcJr ffiulvwl into oxide *A liuo and 
ajndnde of ethyl; 

CHlV.n + BO - ZoO + C*li\H. 

tThea left lo oxidize sluwW it fenu a whit© amortdioua uxide. Coia- 
bioea al*o directly with ic«iinV, bromine, ami chlorine. 

* QHty*$aS<d Ctxipoundt containing Tin StcnnrtJipts. 

Vuxxklxxz*. FkU. 2Y«st. Iart2; /•*•*. J/oo\ y. [4], ft, Ur»; Jjui./'Aam. 

85, 38d; y. i>r. Vkm. 58, 481; abett. tft™, &q. V". </- 6, J7; 

JaMralxr. J83S, 530. 
Cahouiw & Rich*. Ompu rr*J. 35,61; /wcif. !«.**, 223; ^*n. 

J; Jek.-ttUr isii. 176. 
Lowio. J/tftW, J. mviwforscb Ots^Uek. m Zurich, Oct. 1839; J. or. 
C'A/m. 57. 09S; OAo* Oat. 1353, 101, 196, 149, I70j nUtr. 
rfljMi. PJutrM. 64, .10*; jf. .Inu C\im. Phyt. .17, 315. # /, 
/'harm. M, 234; Jahrtsbrr. 184S, ^77. 

Kranlcland obtained itannotltyl in tho farm of on iodide. 

ilie action of tin on iodide of ethyl, under tho influence of light or 
beat. The eoxno product hiw been obnmol in i *imdiir manner lv 
Cahour* and Richi- Uld I •**£, M acting upon an alloy iif lin and 
andiutn or potiuwium with iodide tiyl, hia uhtiincd tho inmo radical, 

tojrrikar villi several otbert, partly in thy froo Plate, portly combined 
witi iodine, YB. :— 

Saumrttiyl . . 

.rtannrthyl or MrlliyWnc .»lami' i bl I 

-tuuu'fhyl o' BtfaytNie-ftomnccbyl 

lurtiijl <ji .Vr.«-ilnLlfiKli)l 
(•rthtl tr MKbjIo H-iiMtliyl 
i)l or Etiij to-iUonf O.jl 
Haanrtfcyl . 

l'll«Sn = lefla 

A. '*..« 


„ A<«So« 

Luwij; regards tbceo compound* a* analogous to bjdrorarbone. 

Far iWc ttmnJt»Mout foraMtioa of the rarfiiviU tml thair Iodide*, UHrff mmK 

«*fit***non* fl | I...I..' ihvl §".) <*nnM.if ..r Bedlam dm 

|i and »did# if ■Mttan Leta bmtaliwri thai BO mdulu of '.in l« formed); toe 

iben acta uvea soother portkiu of Iodide of ettarl, tannine iodide- of ataw 

rtfcyl; aad UWcU>)rl iLi* »cl five uMilmrt Wltli IhotaOBHOl Itn, ic('i«-lu- lnj "UnotUifla 

fCWtlar tW »*Uilc irftLmrciliTl ii rrdurod or mil ami the MannoC&yl OMtauod lall xt 

t t yaala aaoo tlia fr«"U' or imilUi * t uftntlty of Milium preasnt. — (2.) Tho 

plM«t<t«r«o 1 At. iodide of atbjl, 2Ai. do, Mid 1 At. «t»tmm. 

JC*H'I * 2S* • Na - C'HSn + C«l!*Si.I * N*l, 

«wcti}l hda| wliollj or partially rcilurtd anrordinc t> lie exeat of 
*iQwm pfyftiL OU»«f p*Tj>or(lorw bv«v«««i il .... »*jb«unpf« jiTa 

raw ba lac fmnaallwi nf la iUni ■tmini'ijli »>d tlmi i<.-tiJ»«. 

rHf»]«liiilt* of tin mad M of atoonothy], 

of saciliytro« aAaaiutiijI. mA uiic uf il 




Prffxrraliw, according to LSwty — 8tairoM« "'if nedintn preparr-d 
D n t'-!i 1 pt of Milium* ia finely pulverized, MM mix* 
v .ili i(ui»rt* sand in the proportion of 1 pt. of the alloy to 1....1J pte. of 
rand; the mixture <iuic).l_v introduced into a number of jjlwn nu*k* of 
3 tir •» iiiiuir- i:i|>:m-:i_v and ji i|ttniit iiy of iodide of ethyl added, snffirient 
to form a thick pMtft! the fliulc w then briskly shaken, and a distillation* 
tube adapted to it. Tlio netion commence** iu n w«r minutes, and h 

»f iihJvI v :i; prOpOrtloO M tin: ftlloj It rirhrr i:i >oditjlit, 
Tin- ! it : 1 1 \\]\.\\> il <!<■<. ; tO i.iiim- lin' <m<» of iodide- of 

ethyl hi distil over, after vliirli, llm fla*k while yet warm i qj Mo* sir- 
t-if^kt ; nftcr the mixtuiv btl cooled, the tNttatBt villi iodfdt 01 ttbjl 

Wod.and (In- ii«ir ration! r- p.-ii.-ii tii! :( Ntinplo Of tho eonteuto of 
tho Ibwk no longer gives off hydrogen when thrown into waUr. Tho 
rlry, dusty, yellowish, stinking m:i - nlitained in (hi* manner from Hoveral 
IIokIc*, [| then Innt.njru-'l to ft bottfo till Oil with other (from 4\ to 5 poiitt.l < 
t> tho <*ontontt of 1*3 flaslce), loft to itund for nn hour or two, and fre- 
quently shaken; after which, the dark brown ethereal solution in poured 
Into a uotllu filled with carbonic acid, and left to eland for half an Lour 
Or U hour, whereupon, especially if there wore any air in tho hotilft, a 
brown substnuco, which dnea up in tho air to a whito inodorona maaa, 
separatee out, The ethereal •otntuS Oonttixrj Syb or fix organic radicals 
mid a Dumber of iudiuc-roinpuuiida, the <|ii;mtity of tho latter btfaf 
^rniU'i when the ftnsk dors not routuin any uiiilccuni posed iodide of 

General Properties of (he StamtrthyU. — Thro compound* nro at 
ordinary U'nipertUM* vi*nd lnpndv, like turpentine or palm-oil. Tboy 
li;is«- a faint odour liko that of rottfJD fruit, ami whon rubbed between 
ili- GngCTOi in* j»a rt a strong smell of tin; their tonto i» diaaprccabN rdnalp 
n:til barolog. They are insoluble in water mid exhibit no adhesion la 

.bin or sparingly aoliihlo in alrnlml, bur dlwnhtf readily in etbor; 
thl r iodidej are readily colublo in alcohol, even when liydnitod. 'II. 
i tafiOatuYb do not take fire trpoiituncouely, or even fume when exposed 
to tin :!: , li-u *et Oil fire, tliey burn with ft very bright flan I . • outtiog 

aiarks and diffusing a thick white vnpour of *tanme oxIA R ban 
if* rtlnrcii Bolatiotl of tfcttt mdic*lv U left to evaporate in ih© i 
they oxidii*, tomo of thiMn being OOHT«rt*d into whito nmorphoui 

iiowdere, otbera into ay ropy liquids tfhiob eryatAlHsO -ift.-r a while, The 
[■iiucr u.\i i< • ;ip uearly inodorous; insoluble in water, alcuhol, nod 
ctbi i . i": mi r.'k -•.ilii^iMn >;ilt*^ and an procipitated fn olutiona 

by ammonii; — tlio latter havo a rory powiilul odour liko that of oil of 

ml; dianlvt) Iptnogly in wator, but readily in alcohol and tit 
fona liquid baloTd oonpcvnda; hav« very strong bona propcrtirj; aod 

ante uiii!iioni:i from il —All tho vtatuietliyls tnlto fins 


" To rmpaia ihii ullor, C pU>. of tin arc Tuivil in an rsrtbrn i ril< Wei 1 pi. 
sodioni ilill moiatmad witl rod: oil n.H.-tl l.j imnll portlona, fin. I the taiatur* 
attrrrd ui:h mi Iron rod. Tin naall Qoaatfa of inphttiK ndlirrhip to the Koditiro, laicj 

ftre.aiidihe fn* e abttation nraraal tai i<-«i-" <i( ur u> \ht nUttva* 

Tha Mhtaia whea » kalftirmai Brcr-wblta i pataUta illoy, latar u paU«rua u4 
Itm «■ ■ iii (1m oorrcapoadins alluj cf potasalnoi] ii mu>t Ur prr./r\M las 

<catd bottle oiled tip with auarU-aaad. — The olluy «buiurd Xij iWm* 3 ur I pn. 
of ;ri villi 1 pi. el tedium dilnte* <oruldcr*Mjr in •oUdifjin K ', ofltn IvmLUic tac 

il 1*. Tl»o Jormur alloy u by f»r tic uioit coutcuicat for powering the aUnaMn of 



• xplc-de on the addition of a few dropi of faming nitric aoidf with diluto 
■itric acid, the/ (tiro oft* nitric oxiilo, and Ml OOO fft lM into nitrates. 

KMNnllt tli* i "m- motel 

nradily with Iodine, hr-unine, chlorine, »V.\ ; the Union with bromine ana 
chlorine in aftiii-i.-a with momentary WMttbwtloa. W i tli hydrae^l*, t.g. t 
with hydrochloric acid, they rv<il»o hydrogen and form hid ml mlta. — 
Tbe ctuereal solution of the a Uun ethyls added to an alcoholic solution 
•I r it rat** of iQra-, luiiiindiatrly throWl ihmn mcteilll -ihrr |fl |fc| firm 
of a bla^V powder; tho iodides form a yellow pnvip'itata of iodide of 
, [Lowi?.) 

ScparttfiwH 0/ *Ar inoVviSd ih. — o. The I >I aiion wan 

tnixod arftl ilcobol and tho llqtiH distilled &rer tho 

wiler l>ht&. After all tho •.".her had paaeed over, thcrn ronwtu< t! n. \\ 
retort a duik redL nearly Mnck moos (A), of tbo consistence nf turner* 
*hirh was a nurture of -several stamiidcuof ethyl, Tho hot alooholic 
solution ! nto a wwl rilled with carbonic acid rlonoritvd efte! 

*4 boar*, ay olio w oil (Hi. — To the alcoholic mother-liquor from which 
thw "i deposited, water won added drop by drop, till 11 cam pi o 

of tbo liquid :»n longi r reduced an fclcooolio -solution of nitrate of lUvetj 

cipiUit'* «if pun* iudidi: <»f lllrvr. ■ ColoUtlo otl 

■ mnitiing aleuboKfl liquid (l>) contained 

ut tbo iodide* of tho fttonncthylt, 

1 !n' ! <-K<d but . i>:i-iir;W in alcohol, oven at n boiling hear., 

and r-erwau-d out ajraiii completely on cooling. The dark red CtnCTOnt 

<i on tbo addition of a airmll quantity nf alcohol, 

and -.-.-:ivy iiiom, pro-huMy containing tho rtoioa] 

Tho dccolorixcd ethereal solution evaporated out of contact 

of air, left a nearly colourless viscid liquid of sp. gr. 1"G54, which 

diaouJved rvadilr iu ether, aud wua gradually but nut coui|drl.-l v prcci- 

OO00L The compound thin pradpluated iru SUiui/nhyt, 


Tbo yellow oil B eepnratod after a while into two layers, the lower of 

li cc«u>uU*d chiefly of Btanuelhyl. Th-: upper, «r How, 

Tiarjil mratum wa> dissolved in ether nnd rfiakan up potoeh, 

wb*reen#n a tfai«k black man* separated, containing itaiinetnjl and 

JLc*4»Hii nV Tho ethereal solution *till contiined tho 

*•*>« two radioau, wok ' 1 tbo athei wai aw pirated, remained \u 
th* 1 .■ liquid, On converting (ho*o radii <\ into 

kdUloa, diaaolviti^ the lodtdi In ilcohol, nd loatlng thi wlutioti to 
ovaporat^. flti- iodido cA acolcAtiuuotbyl cry^tallixod out llr»t, atiJ llwn 
tic iodide «.f etannethyl. 

diUcront port-ioiw of the li^aid C wero moie fluid and rolatilc, 
J**- ha»T tboy w. 1 .1 mil ili.riir- ih« addition of water. 

Tn* flrrt poitiou* eoiuirted ebierly of «tanncihyl ; tho lntur portion* 
yieUrd tynipy iodide* having a vory otl'onsivo odour, and these, after 
atandiBL* able oryvtala of iooldooi WtkpUnfr 

dan. i'ini i apai bb d from ill- 

eaataini «1 wt«itiI vtilatiln iudinr>ciiinpt>undit, which could not ho 00m- 

.: 1 Ion with wat*r, rho first nnd 

I was docomp&scd Willi roooutlT 

Bf*ri|,iut*;tl trndfl ; and tho strongly alkaline alcohol U li qa I 

fltorod from tbo bod •nvr, loft, wban ova|Kirated| 1 Dtns)< 

awl a taiga number of prmmatic crystal*, confuting of tbo hydrated 


rrnTLSNF.: FftniAfcv mtthits ch«. 

oaidca, the fottaer or Etljh^^.n netful (CUMBn*, 
afaaartf.v/ (Oil'/Sft 1 . Tbo more vi«*d c<:rtioa 
aftrrwnrd* itawd imflaf treat 

the loiter of IrVdyfo- 
>A the distillate which 
juvwil over, yielded |> v ftimfltf trvattncal * amall number 
of tbo ploVBatU and a law oatnbAr of the ma»m^:Uted crystal*. Tbo 
•opanvtion of tbo two radical* u rendered more complete by converting 
them into salphutca, the *uiphatc of c?hrloe4aaiietbyl boio^ lea* oolaMo 
in alcohol ibau Ibe sulphate of rnelhyloelanitelbyl. 

Tbm nlltka n contained rjM) iodide* of the rnd'maJi, in quantity 
raryiqg according to the oompocilioa of the atannitl© ctf sodium, a»*l tbo 
ro*MT« qaaBtilloa of tbo nlloy and - of ethyl ueod In tbo prepa- 

ration. Ad alloy of 1 pt, m to 6 pu. of i£o a mind i 

equal weight of qusuU-aaiid. ami added in excels, yielded no iodide* 

iy U»*t free mfifdaj hnt when alloy* were used containing a Urgnr 
proportion of * ■ lhi iodldfl -t -thy! wm added in exec**, 

iodide* of tlio radical* were always formed. Some of these compound* 
i ryifdlliublc. and after exposure lo the air for acme limi in d i 
inn-. Othftffl ***H0 lujiiiil. ^nfrutly -»ily. and had * powerful orlnur The 
i were sometime* formed in such quantity, Mint tli\v partly sepa- 
ratod in tho crystalline form, together with the radicals, from Lh< 
•ioftholk ntalaon (|>. !*3>. after (be distillation of tbc elber, tboy war 
be *ejiaralrd fnnii ilir culi.-aU i'V their Milubdiiy IB OoM alcohol. 
Generally, however, tbo*/ miaisad in «oIutii>n. and" were then found in 
ihoaleolodic liquid |>, from which the radicate hud boon prvij-iuwd by 
tbc gradual addition of waltr. Thin liquid, abandoned to spontaneous 
evaporation, frequently yielded at fnat small lmd JJaiala, sparingly 
auluhle in alcohol, and tepn rating in table* from tin .lie — lata—; 

theao conaitted ol inline of MHkyUn^4taimHhyl, (tWj'Sirl; aftorvarda 
a considerable number of ucvdlc-*bapod crystal* of iodaio of nceto- 
ataunctbyl generally separated in stellate glXalp . and nfter complete 
rtujiiiiuiiuii, there remained a II u i* I ma*-, sometime* compare 
WrmtttM Thtriri On ilaanhinr ihlt liquid ua in ■lninVil. uptalfcn 
the HoluiK-ii % ill. .-t lnT and a inttieicnt quantity of wntor to separate the 
other, and evaporating the ethereal solution, rhombic table* of mm 
ftnjiajrift ■hmrnllijl ■ rem the ruaidue, nhilet iodidt of nictliylo- 

i i vl and tadtdo «f otaylootanotjCbyl raxnajned hi tbn *iily liquid; 
tin- <liitite«l alcohol likowUc retained iodide of ttannotbyl in solution. 


b. When it iu il r«'il not llto ra niselroa. but 

tiin '.'f their ei»in|»iumU, tbo following mothoda of ieparati'>n art 
preferable to the one just given. 

1. To the nil. .-.ill ftofotloa of tbo prodacU obtained ly the action of 

iodide of ethyl 011 nUuuido uf Midioia (p. 02}* ' ,M 1>»»* '* added as lonj 

Oj it HI dkaVfllrtd und ita colour deatroyed. after which Um liquid i* 

and Hiootlwr completely diatillc-i off. Th»twM|l 

..!.■ n,ir, . ■ r i ■ . I niLo Oajdfjl \\\ ruiMUi; tho olcoliolio solution with reeeruly 

pi co pita ted oxide of .tilv M |ifftviou ll a?a btd wiih aleuhul. The reauJt- 

■ idea uf uielhylostunncthyl und I'tliylostiumelhjrl are auluUo ■■ 

iboat of ill.- otii.'i- ruhrui- on iBoolnbU oj»d go down ■ 

i>ii<i* of *Urer. After StOSUIg and washing with alcohol, the altvhoiic, 

iliuo linuid is exactly neutralised with sulphuric a< 
>iou#ly ililut.Ml null alcohol; liic eulphateo of inolbyloaUnaelhyl and 
•thyloainnnethjl, which erysiallue out. by apnntanaooa ayaporation, are 
" ly wcryniLlliaation; tho pm« oalU rodisoolyod in alcohol. 

tol r aod 



ilecoiDpufMl with an anally oqatraknl quantity of boyte-vmUr; ud 

too * ie pure oxide* uted for the preparation of the otln 

■ill* — Th« re j of iodide of ulrer. cx« 

of oxide uf wlrcr, tad lotolul 

of ii lliin naote; rt r^tujr hydroclilonr laid aVXwJ 
with alcohol gradunUy uditid 1:11 alifibUy m naw; nml the aleo! I 
eolation <>f the c&lenJM of the radical* *opar*t*$I (torn oh)«rul« ant 
irol eilvcr, which U boat effected by prc**nrc lictweea tine lim I . . 
*beo Mi to evaporate, deposit* Mucoewivuly the chlorides 
of mrthvlciit^Aianiieihyl, ucvUiafaunelliyl and wthyleiie-M- ; ruin 

wlnrh the pnre oxides may be precipitated by uromonia [not b» pota*li). 
— Or, tin.' alao ol all the ioaide« i* mixed with atronjp 

Manifcnia, which throw* down ail tho oxide* excepting thote of metbylo- 
aUaaethyl and ■■tlr.lf -lai.nethyl; tin* w\\\ mllectrd en * 

filter, wmtoed will alcohol, and diaaolred in hydrochloric or MOM other 
arid (which mintl, howe?or, ha itm\. I uiih alcohol); and Um iadMdOal 
■ilia coUioe I fcj fractional cryatalliaatiou. Tho liltmte »till 
contain* live ioJidea of mcthylo-suonclhvl and etliyh>-»ia-uncLbyl ! QfJ 
mixing il with water and agitating with ether, the. ether Lakes up 
taa iodide*, which must thou l,i tn-utel wmIi ovule of -ilvDr at 

*. Thi* ethereal Nlation of the radical* ud th.-ir iodidw i* mixed 
vita alcohol till the radio hi berin loNnnte out, aftoi which an alco- 
■ aolation of nitrate of -SUer if added, can? lining taken to avoid H 
Beforu tillering, the Liquid ii plaoad in ■ mudenitely V«m 
n till tho etluT || eoinph'ti'ly ' '-htili/»'il. wtwtMiprm tha aJtlBtafl 
corta iro into hi bio or only jnarinply soluble in 

i. rudiasolro. The liquid is then filtered; tho filtrate 
■lowly *' the miter- bath; uud the residue 0< a'tod 

with ether. \i Inch laartt* nmliiuinlvpd tame mnnll whitn cry*tJil»; utu\ on 
d lain lying tho** crystal* in kydratcd alcohol and flowly ovapomting the 
M :rato of a<cto*lannothvl are hrat obtained. 

irate ..I" .-ijiiiim ()i\l The ethereal tolution yield* 
by iuu a cryatallioo maw nod an oily liouid, whieh bci-umu* opa^na 

»id«. I nn o i fl . ma** ix :i mixture of QltTaV 

rlhylen*-»laM rata of aeetOAtannathyl, and ■ xniall auutit 

• la of stannethyl. The vnrni.h lileo residue conoist* of nitrate of 
malLrlosUnaetliyl and nitrite of etbylooUnnotbylj on diMulvjuj; it in 

alio-^ ■ "I and il vah I'.nl nto of baryta, tho l>aaea 

remain *lli»olTed in the ah-ohol, and may bo oblnincd in cryntals by 

3. Tb» • tb« radical* and iodide* i* mixed with 

bo|| Hid lb i mixture left t<> craporata in a wide frlaaa rovtcl. A 
alow oxid I ikon takeo place; and lh rfclch art 

baoli out a* a white powdor, while tin- i 

t KiDotliyl and etbyloatanneUtyl remain 

Joohol. pa then diMmhni in 

dmaloric acid, and tho rcailUiug Cnloridol WptJated ty 
Tt*> atwaffvtivQ of Lhe iodide*] and of the ox:<, 
>north\l ud ttbjIoatUDfithyl is effected m ihe uv.« 

ann as 

cnnum: TOhuiT Mxurs c*iv. 

* Staxmethyl or SUniietbjiium. OH»Sa=OH'SoH=OH» r So. 

p or nu in 

1. By taw action of line oa a alt of a*ua*4byL 

■trip of fine tmraerW in a solution of chloride of rtanr.rttyf. anon 
become* covered with deoao yellow oily drop*, whir* finally separate 
Irooa ibc lower extremity of too ainc, a*d aocamuhuo at law bottocn of 
th* i*t*cJ. The funsaAiott of loo oily liquid U utck favoured by a 
goalie heat. It u purified by wa»hinu' vita water, sad drying over eatlo» 
rideaf calcium, i KraoklaaML) — t. &tammrthy\ U aJ» fouod in th» fr*o 
atato, aaaonir the prod Beta of tbo action of iWidc of ethyl on etaaoid* of 
eodjim. (Liwig, pp. ftl-i>5.) 


ProptrlUt. Thick, Urtvy, ally liqaid. probably coloarloM when par*, 
bat generally exhibiting a yellow or brown'uh yrlluw colour. (Prmrik- 
lan.i, Lowij* ) Hob a very pungent odour, rvcorabliog that of ite com- 
pound-, but inocb more powerful. (FraukUod.) I "558 at 15 3 . 
(Unrig.) Do.-* Bja| tolU fv ft| — 12 . (Ltwif.) Bogiw 10 buil at . 
depoiit'ng metallic tin. and yielding a eolonri*%i distillate which has n 
r-ecnlUr odour, au-i probably coqcmu of (C'H'/Sn. (TrnnVlaali) Iu*o< 

la water, aoluble in alcohol and ether. (Kranklnad.} Sparing 
culublc in alcohvl, icadily in ether. (Luwis.) 

iC_ «.- 2t ... 2;*2T IMI ?;00 to 28'OT 

»H.„, 5 - .Vol ...... Sal ....... 5*3 „ 600 

Sa 19 .... C7 0J €6-89 

C*H»Sa. 88 ... 100-00 

Qatdt, — BtaWWOttyl exposed to tho nir, either in the free state or 
dmolved in ether, rigidly absorbs oxygen, nnd i* converted into n whito 
pulverulent oxide. (IdMg), TbuoXM tl siI*o precipitated by ruumonin 
from aolationa of the suite. (Krnukland, Lfiwig.) 

Cream-white amorphous powder, closely resembling stannic u\iji\ 
bui not to heavy; U\u a peculiar elijrhlly ethereal odour mid a biUn 
taate. (Frank land.) WkltP, non-volntiln powder, d*tth«te of Urt* ami 
KuielL (Lowjg.) 


5 H ... 

Jt .... 

S .... 

8 .... 



FrankUnd. LBwfc 

, 2i'0« - 21*09 

s-ia 5-4; 

CIl'SuO. 9G 


OxbJa of »inmiethyl boated in tbo air, ukei fire and bums with 

off (mi * fames of stannic oxide. It if in.<>!ul.Io 

iol, and fitlinr, but 'li»*olr(M roa«iily in acids, formiojs 

■die. (Krnnkland.) Ae« Wwlp, tbi alli« 

•itb Jifflctiky. — The reactiooiof thoao mltocb i. mlile tbonot 

tbo rwinnic oaltH. Anniion :t |i;-rripitatea thi? nxiile |«erni.iTifn;!v 
al«o pi . . if, but rcJiMolvci :i exoaf l;'an<l, Ui 

Cnhonr*, au<l lUcbeJ All tiio oalta arc iuodoroujj ftolullo in water and 


aieoki, and vptriBgi- in 'ibcr. (Luwlj.) Tuom which co-jtaiu etrong 
kM s exhibit an acid miction. 

SulphiJt. CH'SnS. — Penned by ntatisix nlphonilcd hydrogen 
tarecgk a eol'ition of a rtannctoylic salt : 

AsSuO r US - AeSuS * 110. 

WVite precipitate, inudnbl* in dilute :i»il- and In ninmoiiia, but tolltble 
Mb Mroiv ..cid and in volution* of tho fixed alkalis and 

aik&IiD'* Milpliiile*. Ha I rerj pum-mi uiul r.-pulm< ndour like that of 
decaying horsc-rndisli. WUcn heated, It melts, frotlia up, and dtv mi- 
off vapours whioii bavt) A ni"*L iiieuipportablu odour. 
Hratr 1 with nitric achi, it [| tlfeonirKMied nnil Maiinn- Oxldfl fanned. 

Tli* ' I PUwphtU of etannothyl arc iosclublo in water. 

(Gafcosrs U Bit 

r «tfe. Obtained 1/ decomposing the tedido with sulphate of 
silver. Cryitatlixahlc, soluble So water and alcohol. (Liiwig.) Crystal* 
lixen in small uacn-ous scale*. (Cuhours A- Iticbn.) 

4C 2* ... \?(H IT . 

*II _. fi ..- 9 ft! 3U0 

8o - _ 50 .... U tO 

ft ... 5-88 

M* .. . •£'*! *■•*« 

Cll'SaO.SO- - I3G ... 100 00 

/•*# iaV — I K. rui.'il liy a.Llnp- looVnl tfl »'( tthftfttl lOhltlofl of 
■M'tliyl as lotti* ■* it* colour i« doitroyod, and leaving the lohition to 
ob pirate <L"» »-_r. I 2. By the »''lii>" <if tin on iodide ol ethyl* 
i iodide «f ethyl u- <l metallic tin arc placed together in scaled lube*, 
ard exposed ti> tfcc actio* of heat or to the direct rays of the buq, the tin 
gradually i---i :■..-. iad the lipoid Ii ultimate.) converted lotoi uuaflcf 
»urles* crystal*. The reaction ii roost conveniently effected hy 
tlm influence cf ligrhl nn oxoew of Lm cut into narrow mini being 

• ili a i aboa ©outshining the ingredienta, *huuld bi pls> -1 
urar tfco focus of a Ur^c parabolic re fluoter, the temperature 

to !■ ii. b) ■ ilti Eu i m la 

i - r «>r m a iolui Ipbntn of copper. 'I he uaoonoenirated ray« 

cf Ike tan davli^bt, are \\\iit< 

tLe funjKUioa <-f ilic errslallina body; but un oxposefe of Boveral weeks, 
BtOOtlia, woali be ui-cwsarv far the OOD-plotioB «>l 1 1 ■ « bbal 
•k t by the ns« of tin* i > :)■ t<:il in a few ili.v» of brigal 

The liquid grndiiully i wuiiien n struw-yellon coloar bol rU 
lificstiea ewst ho prorentukl as l*ng as nossibto tow.irtlw tlio rime of 
mporaturo to n»o to 3/i or 10 I nearly all 
I then co ten ii ' viih tin- [in. Vvhea 

; : i J to offei i lie • ombinatkin, Lb« I aum 

ps than half .i" ineh in diaiaeUir, and i Avoid rl 

:li Ailed with the matarialsj comotoa- 
ti'ia then tsjton Bsaee at abenl I -" . Hi« p tine, vhothor 

iaai . e c« ployed; but tlio a^.;ucy of h^ht is the m .r.: COV 



ntont of t!io two. Thn oryxiMIino product, which con*iot* of iodide of 
• tlivl, i§ dinolved in" boiling aWi"l, »n«l lh« tolntioti rrapur»l«d 

in mOUO. — Tlii» rr*ction 1» *U«.» mieiiJ««J -111. <).< |n.»| H < i > " •' * ■m»H <l" "" 
Of f»«, 008 Ulant ;n« »nJ iotiiJc of ttityl, M B i aa to f, fr^m ft aMuii*Jftry 

Mfaa '.i Vni* 9610 (Kanakknd.)- Gaboon & Riebc likewise prepara 
the iodide of atanncthyl by heating iodide of ethyl with tfo foil in 4 
ecaled tube lo a temperature between 100" and 180% and extracting 
with alcohol. 

Gry»ialli>e« in tnuwporent, alight ly at row -coloured noodle*, which 
IftTo iho fon "f rlghj MOtMgttla* pmma, often ^ of u ImI broad 
oitd 2 or 3 indite Long (Frankland). — Beautiful colourkw nuodka, often 
4 iftnuoalo&g (Lowigj Lou nevdle*. h:mu£ a alight vcllowieb 

tint when ptrtlaUv Jrconipojird, at by oxpoenro to ■Ufhinffc bttt UCCOflaiog 

ooYonrtaeBaltn proBrora betw* n blbulou papal (OahonnA Rioto.) Hiu 

n peculiar pungent odour, aoinowlint likotbnt of oil of muotard, tad irritntot 

the vyos and Lining membrane of tlio now, can < harjjc winch 

I : Mt:,l boon "i OTO0 daya, cvpecin II y if tl»c vapour from 

tLeoaotcd compound Im! inluilcd. (Fnuikuind.j Nearly hwdurou* when 

|iur«\ bur before purification, ha* \ *tn>ng odooi Kko flul of turnip*. 
(Cahoan* Rich*.) Molt* at 3» v [Cab. & Richo); at 4*' | Frankland) 
torru'mir a colourJote oil. Not perceptibly volatile at ordinary tompcra- 
itin . ni i.-much an a few irraine may be vxpv*vd to tlio air for several 
W riu wiilinut low of weight. (Fmukland.) When slowly butted above 
[l Belting petal it iQDjtBial In bMOtlnl, Inn^, eolnurlo** needle*. 
(Lftwfo; Gabouisa Rieho.) Boik at 140", with parti if dOGOinpOaUIO&. 
(Kronkltind.) '.puringly in cold water and alcohol (Fraukl-md, 

Cl K>an& niche), hut when In .i rater, if II converted into a 

colour lew oil which Biuka in tin- ■ iicr and gradually diasolvea. (Caliuurv 
& Eltlia.) Th« aquvnua solution is deeoiiipofted Uy rioiliuii, mddt of 
•UBDathal bring pracipftatad and hydnodic acid formed. (Frunkhtnd.) 
i>iMM.Iv»8 readily in boiling uloobol, and still more in ttluff, (Frankland; 

I. khoOn .'. I -!.■-- i i ■ - . I lli-' clutioii lt.-li:ivr.- will; If of Ira 1. iUei, 

mercury, &c. just tike iodide of poUwium. ^Cahuuia k liicbe.)] tin!. LOnlf. Call. A Rfco*. 

«C 74 . lit' 11-19 II Ifl MOO 

B II a .... 8"W 2-.iS 2-54 a*4fl 

i9 .... 27-51 27 l-> 

I )'■ :>H-H» a&-» ftfl-6> i»-2« 

i VII 



i . | :irr<! I ■ t. < % tho i-»<li.J.- i. 
holic dolutiooe of ataumsthyl and bfOtnina, ^Franklaod.) 


Of the al 


•pvDtnuoiKH esaporttion En Leni vLIta oeadlen rewmbling UM iodide 

iraoee and iu chemicul reactiona (LQwig, Franklaud): 

rrahkUnd. LaMg. 

it: »l 11-91 I44S ...... I4'0W 

»H 1-00 2'9a S-U 

8n— 50 ... 35' 12 

iu no «r oo . -i7-:to 

C"H>8QBr..«„.,-,.„, 169 .... 100-00 

Cbbridt* Picpftir.l l.> >li -1 . i< - i.xidi; »f •laiitulhyl in dilute by« 
;icid. Ou avi|ioratiiig at a gonilc boat (Frariklund), or fa 

MBTOTLBM v.' i.niYf. 

tancuu? ovA|N>nii<4i (L4>*-igK lie chloride uyrtfJltai b long •obarkflfl 

needle*, i*o7iiurji!i'. id.-. M**lU-<" and 

9km <p»cklj co-led, conditio* in an amor] i ». (Lowijr..) Mora* 

roUtita Kill uovd pOMDt than the iodides (Yim&klaad.) Vory wlntilo, 

»r.d sublines below iu ineltiojc puiut in fiao ln.l ■ i ■. ;. "Jin-- tttiJBli 
(Luwig.) In iLo chemical ndaliuus it rcjeublcu tlio iodide and bromide. 

LB, fc 

«c . 


... 2 CO ... 

6-0 - 


I I ... 

19*43 . ... 


18 70 BO I- -'» 
, 4-00 

.'■0 „ 2S-2J 

CUttftl 1 . . 123-1 .... 100-00 

■olviDgthooxidc in dilato nitric acid I I 
or by d<**Dj|.t< ; wiiii nilMtoW ilii 

ic Kichc.) Forms tolerably l&r^e crystals wliicli melt when Lcatod uud 
i eli^lit dctnuiiliuu (Lowig); 

ic si .... moo i&«d 

Mi 19 .... 39'34 

8 .... b<&3 
NO* ....,._.... 5H , 3000 34 93 

■j ■<■!!! 


C*H**nO.NO* „ lAQ 


. c 'oi'MMife niwl Aerate of itanucLhyl »r* soluble in water and 
eryotullimUc. (Cab oars ^ ttiebc.) 

rmrfti v ! t* formt-i \tj iho action ctf tin on i' v«t F* •■ - •>' rustbj '. SMlstcd bi 
i>f twsi. J rlio** of •iJ.nm'ItiTl. (fruktand, I rJM.] 

% Mcthylcnc-staancthyl. (CMr)'3n\ 

compound ie polymeric with -(nuihtWl. It do*. • cf • > <- u n 
the fret? stau* tuoufi ii.- j ■ - ■ .il ■:• ed by the action of iodide of ethyl 

i n£um, bul wbi obtained n« an iodide in t Ik 
already dcacribod {\>. *■ .). 

V. <C , H')'SiiM>.— hrcoi|.iut«:d from the Mlntiou of iu salt* by 

auiiuuuio. R<*cmbl<« vxi«i« of atannvtb _\ I. 

lodid*. — Prfjmmttm (p. 9411 Ci!mur«\ Hiclic hnvo lihvwi 

| -.■n-l, *"£■ i iodide <-i tain i :i yl by tlio nction of fin 

•a iodide of cIIitI- alio by the action of phoiplTide of t> kk of 

fcyl. (^la.-tflW. 8b\3l».) 

BC ( ■ 1V90 15-13 ._ 11-84 

SJ1 3'32 ._ 312 

I . KM 11-71 



n 2 



CMoritU. 0bUiin.Nl by ffloolflni the oxidr in hylroohlorio acid. 
Sparingly lolublo in alcohol. Cryilallircti from the hot alcoholic solutiou 
iu shining while laniinw. (Lowig) 


8 C .,,.... 

4P0 . 

.. 22- 71 ... 

.... 2124 

100 . 


.... 406 

11*0 , 

.. 5&-8J 


SV4 . 


.. !«■» 

((_'M»>«Sn»Cl an-4 


It Ethylene-staauetbyl 01 Elayl-stannethyL (Olftfeft 

Also polymeric with stanncthyl. Four. I ntr.i.iig tbo radical* which 
uro B n < id toted by water from tbo cold alcoholic tolutioo, lite tbo 
BHmm part of On- siniiiittliyl and uoctoatannothyl havi- Hr|>:ir:il»-d out. 
(1 - 99.) Uy fractional precipitation, • portion may be "Ltaioad consisting 
chiefly of r-tlivlrTir-^unnptliyl, lierfcotly colourhws, oily, aud of sp. gr, 

_ 0*»cfc. — <C 4 H*) 4 Sn , 0. — Snow-white, ■flfirphou* p»w<h-r, i .. ml -iin- 
oxld« of jsUuiiuiliylj perfectly insoluble. i» waiw, sparingly soluble in 
boiling ulcohol; morn nl uimla'ntly in ether, but separate* fruui lhu solu- 
tion In lli*» form of nn ainorphnm powder. Willi arid* it forms colourless 
■alls, which are soluble in alcohol and other, but aro precipitated Fmni 
their alcoholic solutions by a large quantity of water, a property which 
distiii^ni-lii.^ tlinii from the *»ll* of stannctbyl. Ammonia throws down 
the oxide an a permanent flueuulent precipitate; potash also precipitate* 
i( buJ ).'« Ii--.i]\i • ii iii nr. -« The KiltN in the dry state are greasy to 
the touch Hko camphor, and have a faint but peculiar odour. 

JvJUU. Pnptniioti. (pp. 93. 9*)' Generally crystallises in rhornbio 
tabic*, but lnijULMitly also in scaly and acicular crystals; uuctuou» to tbo 
touch and very fii.iinV I'arfcctly itiRoluhln in water, but easily soluble 
in tkubol LinJ ether. 

16 C... 
M II . 

4 Bo . 





20 08 


vt, -if, 

19 14 to 19-71 

433 „ 402 


2410 to 2651 

(t_MI A )*»'l 

_ 478 


Jiremid*. — Obtained by saturating with bromine the mixture of 
radio uli precipitated by water from the ctboro-alcoholio solution (p. 83) 
ami leaving the volution to evaporate; tbo crystal* which b-rni in tbo 
oily residue UMt bo pressed and reeryauilliml Uuiu ether; the last 
portions which separata out consist of bromide of ctliyleuc-etu-iiuathyl, 
which may Iki purified by repeated erystallieation from ether (Lowig): 


... 96 ... 22-22 

..... 2140 , 

, 22 22 

■jo II 

.,«._.-... 20 . 

4 63 

4-56 .. 

. 4-8 

.... 23G .. 

. 51-03 


80 . 




{WHy&iMir 4M .... 1UU-UU 



Ctemdc. — CryatallitMout tut vlaflO t!m wUilion of lliO mind ttltfofl 
(p. 3.V in ftlooholk hydmc hl'irii' nci-I i-. left to evaporate. RosomMcti tho 
p.-r««iing compound*" 

li~it- j.V. — OhUiucO 1» v £noItSiiJ! tut) lust portions uf the mixed 
radical* precipitated by water from In mid nlrohnlie notation (p. B| 
& ftiiitnrrt or* aliv.licl ami •-tin it] ubrinfl the diwolrod radical* with ft 
ouaathy of nitrmto of silver cxnuly NiitficHiit for fab tnim.lormation; 
slUrior the liquid from the wlrer-prccipitato; and evaporating ftt a 
ftcdU heat. TV oily residue, after a while, yields crystals which oro 
only partially eoluhlr in < a thi*r. Tin- di. nlvod portion o«himmi> nf minin 
nf iihyl*ne-*tannmhyl wiiirh iTy<t»IJi>6# out from tho ethereal solution; 
bat it u only tho hut portion.* that commit of tho pure compound. 

I« C 96 21*14 

20 I! 10 . i -;.; 

4 8u '«« 0701 

O tm H 198 

NO' 51 1304 


22 '23 



404 100 Oil 

11 AcctostannethyL c- , H"Sn-=(CH l ) , Sn«. 

$«parair« from too alcoholic solution of tho radienls (p. S3) after it 
boon freed from ether and cooled. It 1i);i«wmo roriKtitutM the firat 
portion of tbo mixture of rndicah prp.npil.aU-d on .i tiding walor to tno 
•uW akwliolic solution. It lias not been obtained quite pore. 


12 C .11 22-19 

11 II 15 H-CI 

4Su 23ft 73-07 

(cw/Bft*- .-. *» loo-oo 

Oxide. — Precipitated from tho i>«ltdo by ammonia oaa white amorphous 
powder, loUMi m aoneou* pota*h. In nUiiona, it aUinda 
next Ui tho oxide cf ctUylcm.-ttamicthyl. Iu aaltM an; ncarooly nuluhlo 
in water, but dtaulve in alcohol. Tin- iiilmto :k il-n noIiiMv in other 

ftrJUft, — PrvjtaroUua (m, 03. H4). Cryatalluea from tho ethereal 

p>hi" ftlly III h»':mtil'iil niTtllcM :u tiinyiul in -li.-|l:ih.' Mmip-, liul. 

frequently ftlao, orpccinUy from the alchoholie solution, in imnll nrodle- 
•heped eryttnU. It 10 incoluhlo in water, but J involve* readily in alcohol 
tb«-r, k*a eaaily bowovortban iodidoof othylono-stannctbyl. Noarly 

12 C 72 ... 1604 13*23 to 13-30 

1&H 15 .... 3 34 341 .. 3 60 

4 ft* . 13(1 .... M'M ai'04 

I . . IT6 . 2* 06 Sft-Ofi to 39-71 

(CH'/SaU 449 .... 10000 



Bntmvit. — 0>»l»iT>r*1 by saturating with tirnmln* tho ethereal rol 

of the mixture of rstilirnl |<-'n;. luted by water from the Oold alcoholic 
tfututinn (\> &3), and leaving it to erapornte BpantMMUlljj tho hnimido 
thou *cp*»tC« oat first iu amall uooJl«-«li»i>cd crystal*; 


I tC. „-...._ 72 .... X7-B7 

15 11 . 15 ..- 3-;a 

• Sa .._ 236 .... H-M 

Br .. m) .. IS ■ ... WSO 

(CH«)*aUlr . 403 


Nitrate, — Ohlnineil. f enher with nitmto of ethylene *Unin>t!ivl 

freallM '!"• mixtun >'f '!>•• nultaUi proa pii * I by vaut (ton Km 

nh-»li"lic«olution (p. 98), witli nitrate of »ilver. whereby they art* converted 
into nitrates. Ai it is but Dpuriufflv soluble in othcT, it may be obtain- 
t«,!w..ll\ litre by rCp—toily trtatiuir the mixture nf the uitrutee wi 
cold other nnd recry* from the DthtTMllanllftlfa solution. (**♦ 

•il-Mj.-y.-tj:,., Hut Id nbt.iitn :i J^rf.Ttly J.urt --il'.it || B6G6I -iry tfl rleoom- 

bo pur* Iddl It vitk an 03 |OTTt3«n< noaBtitj «i>* of 

mlrcr «)i olrod in alcohol. — CnraUUiicfl in rmall, obinin^, tolenbl 
hard crystal 4| which buru away without detuoutiou wkcu heated. (Lii 





.... 1870 .... 


.... SB9 .... 

... 4-ST 



.... GHtO 



-.. 2*09 



.... u-na -.. 

... 13-67 



-.. 100 00 

% Methylostannctliyl. (onysn 1 . 

Tl»i» OOnpOUd tad cthyloatannctliy] firm tli6 prlncSnl \kiH of tho 
Bit portion* pin ijiii;iiitl by water from tho cold tileoholie solution of 
the rftdlmla, ami nro dutintfuislnd from rho preceding {tortious by U) 
greater volatility. 


wo n svis 

II II II 7'32 

118 M'Afi 




ftrwfr. flWjSoK).— OLi-innl by treating the ikobolk nhtl 
of tho puro cmlohate (p] | d«nHb«1 on > wit h baryta- 

•rafter; evaporating the whola t.. dryncfcat 80'; agitating t!»© wwidi:< with 
■hen] hi i. :.!(-,. hoi; and evaiKiratinjr the lilt rn to under ft bell jar with *ul- 
pfcurie Kid. "A bin tbo Liquid liao attained a ceruin decree of concen- 
tration, bciiutiful, n at, prumatio cry alula kq formed* oooabtiBf 

of Im by d rated oxide, uruiablv containing water of ervstnllir:. 
(SmiUji-. 04.) ' * 

Tbo Orjltfilfl lU'.'lt below 10O' tt> ati oUjf lkold| and volatilizo 

ixo rory 



jrndnally. If eli«y bo melted or*r Ibo water bath, and a glnev tod 
and witb h oid bald orej ili<- liquid. '>•* are 

firmed. Placed uudor a bell-jai ovoi ail ol vitriol, ll ■ 
furaaUr In wtigfat, bui arlthoal ftoaiftg thatr tmn*j«rcnrj, 
Bai* ibey become soinewbat ti|««jao. The hydraled oxide di 
■taringly in water, but wiUi lolcralvo facility oven iu dilute ulcuhol, and 
l&awito in ether. It ha* a CMOftlOj pi -iK-trritiny, Rod ptt 
blow r«4deocd litiiiu.-piijvr, and m jmxute* ammonia* raagncaia, nxidocf 
tine, Ac. from thrir milttoi tited 1" tho air. It q ll '•• I v ataWrba 

• I. which cannot be aapaTltad from it by |ulaUune, Ita Kill*, 
wish the exception of tho oitrato, aro crystal! i&ildc, and ate at! ooluWo 
it alcotol ana iu etber. 

plhaU. — i*r*pnr*tto% (pp. 93, D4). ' • frotn llsi 1 :di'nhnlic 

ti r,| nrii i iaUc cryatals, which 1*0 piinn&iiaiil in tlio air, 
and v*ry tjwringly aohablo in wafer. 

iM*4 of 50°. 


ISC .. 72 ... 2844 ... 

... 2801 to 

U H mm 15 .... 6-93 ,„ 

,. a-91 „ 6-21 

t$m _ 118 .... ur,0 

o * s-ei 

... 15-&4 .. i.v;a 

\n' 253 .... 100-00 

'••&. — Prtparntiwk (pp. 03-91). To obtain the Compound pure, nu 
aJcoftmlic eolation of the oxide W ngititwl with ai|iieous liydrindir acid 
•4fc*r, and :» nn:in1 ity of w:iter infloleftl to aeporut* the ethereal notation »f 
i|,. i I I u-hi<l oluti r-vaporntoa. Tho iodide then remnina, 

rod witb n thin layer of water; and, niter the. removal of tho wnter, 
it ia treated witb a laaaM quantity of obforidft of calcium, and after a 
Trnnjarcnt, colour!***, mobile, ItrOBgrj rnfraOttng ttqffbJ, of *p. ffr. 
oM n pnDMBl ©door, and attack* tho eye* and noao lilto 
oil «f mustard. frols between 1^0 and 200'; but uovcrtlielce* \ 
tiliir* completely wIhmi knot lor BOOM ' ftttt muIvt-UiUi. Mixca 

I h alcohol and otttflrj diaaolrei very iparfa^y in 

water, hot rcodilv hi hydrntod alcohol. 


12 C — - 


I . 

14 .. 

11 i 
126 . 

.. 21 ; 

413 ... 

_ 3H-07 .... 

... 2196 .... 22-00 .... '.'I« 
... 458 .... 468 .... 4?l 

3T03 .... 3;-5S 



- 100"B 1 

fa — V, i it add*d to an alcoholic aolntkm of "tide of 

BWtbvNMUnnclJtvl an Ion a; aa iu colour ia d« ataB -Inning 

muuff of tbe lod -to oat. while the iodide rcmaiaj in aolutioa. 

Taa i>iatc detoeatvw diglitlv wbon bcatod. 

Bromide. — Obtained iu a limilaf rrtaDOa>r to tbo iodidtt, r\7.. bv 
tnaliag tbo o«aa^ witb IrydrtbroTDK =■■-«! or, by aatoratiiig taa aJcol 

aolatiuo uf tbo oxide will, (manioc, agitating with ctbor and water, and 


rrnri-rNE! puimary ncclkus c>h*. 

evaporating the othcreal solution. Sp. gr. 1 030. Rc«cmblca tho iodido 


12 C 78 .... 3S'2« 

IS" 15 .... S'2« 

»Sn IIH 41-41 

Df 80 .... 1807 . ., 27 M 

{CW^Sn'Br 285 .... lOO'OO 

Bromatt. — Similar to ilio iodnto. 

Chloride, — Obtained similarly to tho iodide nnd bromide. It like - 
pofata immediately on the addition uf hydrochloric ncid to tho 

alcoholie solution *if rln» wilphate. — Tim M |> u ■•;>'■ . colouring itroogly 

iv.MiMtinjj liquid, huvirigamoro powerful mlnur mid grrater volatility than 
the iodide W iT.iiniili.t. Sp. gr. 1*320. MueiUu in ill pro'tortioiM) with 

ah-.tlwl ;ui<l cthor, 

1IC... 720 .... 29-95 

li H l.vo 6-24 

B *B 116-0 .... 4909 

Cl « 35-4 .... H-J2 


14 55 

(CMlVSu-CI 240-4 


Xitrato. — Obtained by adding dilute nitric acid to tho alcoholic 
eolation of the base; agitating with other; then with a sufficient quantity 
of water to sopurute tbo ethereal solution of tho salt; and evaporating too 
Utter. Tho nitrate then r main* a* a syrupy mnat, which :lI low<r tcm- 

ntures assumes the form of a transparent, colourless, voruUhdikobudy; 
icyulvi-s readily in ether, and burns with a dull 1 ?■_-!■ f hut wilhuiit 
detonation. (Luwig.) 

12 C _ 

1ft H .... 

2 Sn .... 

O .... 












(C'H^SnKJ.MJ* 267 


H Ethylostannethyl. (C*H*)W. 

Por the formation of this eoniponnJ, ico pp. 93, 94. 

Oxide. (C 4 H I ) Jl Sn*0. — Obtained from tbo sulphate in tbo *nmo 

maimer iw llic oxide t'f iii'-ihyl'':'t:»niif(byl (p. 102). Crystal I izeu from 

'Kb alcoholic rotation, a* a hydrate, in warty nodule*. It UftatTOU 

hough not ipiite ho powerful as tlm mul.. ,.f inethylonUnncthyl; 

i olinrp caustic tonto; bluoa rod litiiiuu pni»or; and uparntc* ammonia 

tbo metallic- oxides from thoir oulte. It dioaolrc-s apariu-ly in water; 



nUty in alcobol and in «i!n-r; aUotfe* rarlxmic utM rapidly from tin- 

I in rrudMy Ktlublo in ■looaol, 




.... 30- ii 

.... 2**0 

tfl ii 



«Sn 2*fi 

-.. 59\M 

o a 

... 201 

!IO » 

... MO 

... 10000 

TV tiTrtraf* »l!h vfaldfe th* «hn»* lUlj •»* *«** Rttdfl h»J been k#j>t (or tome tlai« 

hi the liquid Mice oicr the inter -htth, •ml mi nM oata frw lhm«rwnk 

— r^o-*'- •■•■■;.- pp. Ml. 94).— (-ryafallizoB from llio «lo0 
orynUlline nccdlci, which quickly become" Opaqot (Than 
•xpoM*l to the ■■ amth inoofabla la trfttw; ami !»•►>< «otubl« in 

J titan ■nlphttti <»f irii;tliyii>*tai-iH , ihyl. 



.... 27-97 .... 

... 27-ai . 

. IJ-*| „ 

. AMI 



._ VK2 .. 


VW . 







i H 



.,. 120 .. 

. 9lf .. 

, 8*1 



. 10000 

Mid** — Prepir«d like tic iodido of motfiylostannothyi (pp. 08-00} ■ 
ml., a Ii mill, <>t H[i, gr, 1*72-1. Red uc«<| by potassium 
a»d km 


M C 130 ... 33«7 SJ-75 .... 23 90 

2% II n .... *'93 ._ b'OB .... B-21 

4 So 2.16 .... ■«(»■>.. 

I 124 24Aa 2V«2 ... 20-11 

Wl .. 507 


, ami Urn nlln-r 1j:lIu*i'i1 OOnpoandl ol •■iliyliiataiinPthyl, diflVr 

(m(> ■ poodi npoundl of motiiyl'«i'!in-iMbyl. only iti Mna 

MOt* vixid -kiul Imvin^' a lowi.r vihmtiIU' gT»Vlt*j i. 

D i" wntor, Jtlcoliu). . u<l :1k i. tln-y c1um-1y rwcmbt la« nutliv 
iyl cuuipouadd; and they are prepared by precwely eimil.-i 

. — Lew ymckJ IoM tl« iodido. Sp. gr. 1*48. Reduced by 
frtairi-T" and sodium. 


20 C 120 .... Vp 

2» II 2i ,... 6 42 

4 J* .... 230 ... ill) 

Br 80 M-M i:*o 



The Matt ami Bnmot* qf E ' tfiylo-rtintiftks/l f-rromU out on adding 
MUhia '" lo il><- »lcoholic oUition i ibe oxide. 

— ItcM-atlco tbo Uomidc. Sp, gr. 1*30. Rcduci A 'y 
|K>t&Muia fodJ 



30 C 

4 So 


1200 ™ 21-18 
2V0 WO 

S5 4 .. fl'M .-. 



(C*Br)»&i*CI UG I 

(00 -00 

.ViVr///r. — rO , H*)'Sn 4 O.N0 1 . — Prepared like the ooiT«f ponding alt 

cif iniiJi_vlo*fJtiiii.iliyl, which it rcsnmMca in jta properties. (IVwig.) 

Sir-fourtfo StennHAyL lOHV^n* 1 

Wlifii ww added in nnall auant:tif-< la tho dark red elhenul 
solution «'f th I BBiM A (p. Wj ,i "' ; najd he*»MnWol«»riiod f and * Hark 
grcnay BUI wepnrotod, which, in two experiment*, woi found to contain 
in-45 ami 20 SO p c. C, and 4*17 and -HUH, (junrttitici prettv nearly 
agrcaiiijr, with lL« r :...!. . , H r /Sn* »M< 10 ISC mxJ I .:.'H. 

— Tho ethereal miction left to cvnporntn in thn nir, yielded a whim 
powder, which dried Op ttftOObetvui iMiwiMin^ nf tho 

oxidoof LluMIDfl radical Dried tit HH» . it yielded 1812 to 18'tfU fwc. C, 
mid 4 18 to ft'ftJRi the formula (OH*)WO. requiring 20'OOC, and 
-4 .fill. On dissolving thie oxide in livdruchlorio laid diluted with 
iloohol, tDAklng up tho lollltZoa n*Ufc w:ifu ud Other, and uvnimrnling 
tho ethereal telution, u intercom Kilt wai obtained, c ig 7 "20 per 

cent of nfaioi (CMP/Sn'Cl renuiree 736 p-C- — The 

original clear ethereal solution often deported a grey powder, which wan 

nun rl\ .'uiilc in il'-oli'i) uud othw bad a pungent oaom ind teak In 

when "fuitiiM" nil ir acid niu pound upon it, II appeared to coiim ( ■ ■ l 
tho iodide (C 4 H») l SnM, its :nmlv^ giving 68-S uid - 1 - li p.c. So. I 

3*811, afidSl'l \ t »i.iio the formula reeum 598 So. IMC MH, and 

'j i .'.i I. But the i|uautitii-* of thc*c several oompovoai obtained were tee 
nniall to render those results of much value. (Liiwig.) 

1 Plumbides of Ethyl or Plnmbethyls. 

Lowjo. Chm. GO, 304; Ann. t'Aarm. 88, 318. 

ThpRn BOmpmifnIs ■!■■ ; by tho action of io.ii.l* afatM 

plumhiili.' «■! mhIiiiiii « m t:.r.];ip.- ] j.i -odium to (i pU. lend. Ou agitati 

! """' """ 



there remain* n mixture of Hevcral pIumMde* of ethyl, which have BOI 

{Tt been nopanted from uuc uiiutlier. the suiMiration noinff Tory dillicutr, 
iinim of the trrcat «iiiii1aritv of tlieir nliVBtcal 

in < i <<jiiinr. of tiit DT^nt similarity al tbaSr pfayiScai fuijmliai- ■■ 
Thcoo radicalu aro jHrlirdy <olourle«, toleralily DaohQa, volatile, and 
hnro n fKiwerful odour. 1 nay •!<• nut fume in the air, but when act *a 
Ira, tl" v ban and fiivc off Jcnae ahmdl ef<cude of lend. When strong 
uitri( m-hl i* pooTeJ Upon ilirni, thoy take lire; an<! in contnet with imtinn 
or hroin i.. . i | 1 1 ■ . •. m itli (In- hitler, i!h«v OXpIodo with vkilenee. Tncy 
HI irr.oluhle in uaUiT, but diasolvc rtaddy in alcohol or atfctft Ifcl 
ethereal or alcoholic nolution wbon cxpoacd to the air, dc)M«iU an 
aajiorphoofl powder, which in ineolubla la water, ilcuhol, and ether, and 
foul eryithdlinilile Milt^ with ncida; anil in dilution th*n ren 

ly alkaline haw, the n^|a^ MdfylopUmlithyly (C«Il»/PL» ( 

SMj .,i ,i: - 



called from ita inmlo^rr to methyl, C*IP , tl»e radical of whii tea 

Kbyi on plumMde of narli 

Oruku/ lbik&fop?**UlkyL (C'U'jWO.— Obtain*.! H ■'• l.v.lnatchr 
fchiing a solution of niti [vm mixed with alcohol, to tin 

•datum uf the iiiiiod radii*!* M long lb praoipfcaied: 

Ikarin;* from the «ilrer: sauting tfio ranking solution of nitntaof 
nwthylo] ' rruh nml afu-m»r<i* witfc ether; 

vidtuc: * ■ .imntity of water to Mptl ■ r -I tolution of 

die oxide; unci evaporating t!.c ttiici in a retort. Pur© bydnl*] uatide 

cf nethylvtiluuilpviliyl then RUM I ■■:.!■. l_v liquid, 

> after « while in ■ crystalline iwu>. idijppanj la Uki toaoh 
Iko hydrate of potato I* w v.iliiii..' .iixl l..nni white funics who it n 
rod moiMotiod with hydrochl bold OTOf it. Wh«n heated, it 

ofl whit* -\:.y»w.'. winch excite powerful nimctiuir, — * pi\>]K<rty 
which a leu belong* Ui ibi radical itaelf and many 0/ ii 
nrdrate diamlrr* sparingly in waur, readily in aloohol and in Btb+fa 
ft© •olatior.s hiive * rtroog ilkftllm 1 than), diaa/roeabla, 

oa«rt>o ta#k; ami jinnluoo an extremely mploaieat uoneation in tlie 

CorltmaU. — T!ic hydra ted oxide rapidly absorbs carbonic acid from 
tlic air. Hy ti-Jtvitiy lli« aloobollo aolulimi of | In C-nipOrutC ia 

the vr, Uic catioctate ia obtained in small ImrJ cryfctaln. It U nearly 
kMoluhJe in wottr. soluble in aJcoh&l and ether. Alcohol eon- 

laiuiu*; hydrochloric attd,4if»olv4a it with cd'ci ve-Kttit*. II haa a atroKuj 
Warning Uu>te. 

! Half. 

. ... 7H 

. .. IB ... 1-01 

m son ..- 04 i>u 

ao 2« ... ;-3« 

. ■ 
1,-4 . . 

03-87 .,. 




(CW/WO.C'O* .. *J» . >"'■'>" Kiu-iH. .. > 

SvlfJ-Jiu (OWpwOfiW — Whoa milphariaacH hi added by ftrofi 

to an alcoholic eolation of tho oxide, leaving tho baso in oxer 
daxalitxjr vhitc cryrffllluif nrtcipil u 14 obtained, v! 

Dtofft W waebod with alcohol and afterward* with elaof. Tfco tall U 

ulieoluto alcohol, and other, hut diuoiYea 

1 in I ii)ivi'i| Willi hlll|llllirif! or It vlr> ••lilt.ri.* :n i<i. Ki< in llio 

ifl <ry»talli«< in tolo rally Larg*, lard, shining octohcdnl 


ItC - 

r n 







1 1 •no 

ill-30 .... 

«•*» .... 

(in .... 

B'08 .... 



CO- 6 ..., 60-4 

C"H u rVO.aO< W3 .- 10000 . ... 10000 .. 10000 

/^Jw/a. — {OWyPWI Pormed by Uh .•!.- .J potaadn 

on aolpliate uf itliyl. \ory instable. When an aleolivlic 

■olutioa of iotiklu of [lotnosiuni is aJdud to a nululiou of tho nulubalo 



'•dated Willi aiilphurio nciil, ilio mixturo ahakcn up with rtbor, the 
til.rrcfll solution or iodide of mothylupluuibetliyl aeparated by wntcr, 
and l*ft to evaporate, lodldt ftf h-nfl MIHHUl from it in ronnidorabU 
quantity. By rapid evaporation, a colourlctf oily residue it obtained, 
having a pouotrating odour; ami likovriMi.* yielding a depoait of iodido 

of lead. If tlic coid|ivqdiI, while yet undecoDi|i0tcd, b* dUtillfd with nalrr, the 
aspiration of iodide of lend take* j-l**c immcdiuU'ly, and tbo walcty Ttpour which 
pinw ovar ii acaompaniad by a colourlc*«, mobile, very -.ituiRiint liquid, hiving an 
OdOQI lllf that ol nil nl' mm'/irri Jind no Inngrr «uhji'*'t to ■pwiUnmua tlfvompn&irirtn. 

Tl.i. liquid nan fnnnd tn con Cain tt'll p.C C, ■'■ 70 H, 30*38 fh, nnd WW* |, 
tiumbcia iiKfntiuc rrrlty nearly wilb tbc fotmubi (C*ll 4 > K lVl» [ur (A^ITiJ 4 ! 1 ]. which 
jripiirr. (5*08 C. V24 B. 36-40 Pb. and 3334 I. 

finmti'fr — Ohl:iiiii'.l by :nlilin/ :iti ■iloilmlir xolittion of bromide of 
j«il:ivwium to a solution of tho snfphato in alcohol containing sulphuric 
acid; agitating tho whole with ether; than with voter to separate tho 
I !;.. r. il rjolatfo&i and cvupomting tho latter. The bromide then cryatal- 

li.-.i ■ in ;■ i. nr. ■:!-■ 


12 C 72 .... 19 '20 

1ft If 15 .... 100 

•i I'll . .. ftOti .... av47 

lir 80 .... 31-33 20*99 .... 2123 

|Cni , )WBr 375 «. 10000 

OftUrvJr., — Obtained by adding chloride of barium to a aolution of 
tho sulphate in alcohol containing hydrochloric acid; agitating with ether; 
■Bpar&ting the ethereal aolution by water; aud leaving it to evaporate. 
Cry»talliro« in beautiful, long;, needle*, having a it rang lustre, nnd giving 
OH a atroug odour of oil of mustard when gently heated. When heated 
in a xhu:* tub", (Ih-v dotouato alightly eveu at a modorato boat, yielding 
chloride of lead and ui etui lie lead. 


12 C- - .... rz-0 „ 2170 ... 21-58 .... 2151 

15 11. 15 .... Vbi 4-85 .... *-7\ 

2 Pb 20H-0 .... C3-9G CfrW .... C2-74 

U-... , 35'4 .... 10-71 10-64 .... 1058 

(C'lmVCl ,..., 330-4 .... 100-00 W«3 


Niirttfe. — Obtained bv dacoii)i*i«ing the alcohnlii- dilution of the 

ElumbcthyU (p. 107-) with nitrato of silver. — On evaporating the alro. 
ohe solution, tho *alt remain* in the form of a colourfees, riccld li>|i:id, 

wImiIi . ■■ui. |! like butter, ha* a burning tn-sto, and solidities after a while 
in a crystalline, unctaous mtiso. Dccompoaed by heat, with alight dcto- 
uation. Dieuolvos readily in alcohol and in ether. Tho alcoholic solution, 
when alowly evaporated, deposits a small quantity of nitrate of lend. 


12 C 

72 . 
15 . 

.. 20-17 


ft ft 

20tl , 



8 . 

. 2-J 1 

NO .... 

54 .. 

. 15-13 



(C<H')'Pb>O f NO» .... 35? ..., 100-00 



1 Hjdrargcthyl. CWBa*. 

tdMRR. C***F*. ttud. 3f», 57. 

PtjuiArrT. CMea. Oat. 18AI, K3, 2V2. 

Not known in th* HMCBla Btatw. Obtained a» uu iodide by thu 
utk*i of BDereury < thy] (Sfmckar); and a* a ohfofula <ir 

brooid© by decora poting mercuric chiorido or bromide with biimcthyl 


JJvdraUd Oridt, C*B'Hfl a O,HO. — Obtained by dcoomi»o»iiiK a Imil- 

ioD of tli'* chloride with i .> od tiltcrinjr, 

ii- alcuhul, and eraporatiug in vacuo. The bydiatc then 

rank be fenn of ;• colotirlea oil, wl in -ly all aEna ud 

blUtara tho ikin. It daeumpoacs the talis t>\ ami I Ml 

ibo#© cf potaah 07 magncain, and forou p with tolotiou of 

stamina, rirac, ID, gold, tad platinum. With :i kafgl *XM 

julpliurrlted hydrogen, it forms a while pre* ipitato, which after a while 
turns yellow, brown, and black. — Willi BMlalfia zinc* it form* xiiH'-etliv) 
iu>l amsdftara of line, llcnnihlnos with acids fanning crystnlliiublo »nlts; 
lh# carbonate, i ;>baW, sulphate, nitrate, iicetut*, Mid oxalate 

Lsro bceu «buinod, (Duidmupt.) 

CartcKat*. Prepared by deeompoi-uiy tb« Ohlorfd* with carbon: > 
- at a con lie heal. Crystalline* will difficulty, and is cosily decum 
)h*kh1 by beat. Acids decompose it with evolution of tarbonic acid. 

CH*Hg*S. — Sulphide cd* ammonium added to au alco- 

; ol : oriclfl of hvtlrarwthyl, throw* down tfali oompoind hi 

tb# fonn of a yellowUb white pulverulent precipitate, easily toluldr* in 

•xoom oi <l Binmuoiuiii l>i.m>lv.- ibo la tJoobot and ttUar 

Tbo alcoholic solution deenmpuie by ■.-vuporntion, yielding lolphtdo Grf 

aaercury; the ethereal eolutiou yield! tin.- oompound iu toe ci_ t •: illine 
56nn wui hi daeonpoaiuoD. It pave by aoaJyaia 8] ii.'i p, r Hj* f 

I 5'IOS; the above formula reqniroa 81.63 II •. :'-?9C, 
i'05 II, and 53 Kg, <I>unl.unpt. i 

■ >!'. OH'IVI. — 1. Obtained by mixing an alcoholic s- i 

the bvdr»U<I OXUM with alooln i 00 as long a* tho colour of tlio 

.pear*. (DiinhnupO 2. By the acli< n of m n>dide 

daylight. (Strreker.) It U drcomDnwd hy AtraoT I m 

mJ trt.iT Pnakland (VIII. 302) fsiW I II BofublQ in boIHlu atbol 

aad alcohol, and •eparat«.-> on cooling in white and very brilliant himinax 

SlnaoliibU in watar, bat nlublo in aremonU and 
b i>..[n. I: ley, frv>«» which il eryftnllixca u(nJcc.iii|io»ed. (Str<«ktT.) Vula- 
tltfarwi miltiniil dinoni|iiiiilinii (I'iiu aupl > Sublimosat 100", bulrt^uirea 
m at"- :ekei ) Yioldj l.\ aualyala, >jti*l$ 

p. e. .nil n'<iniriuB;*0'tt.'>. (Diinbaupt ) 

Brvnidt. C*H*Hf*Br.-» 1. OLtjUnad by mixing th« hydrat* 1 . 
will I i> v liaao at loo -f bromlflfl to 

an alcvhohc aalntlon «•* th i bydratad oxida nil tlifl oolnw ■' 

moa femuueM; bromato ol b liyl It Urn foni 

tinae. — 3J. Bv mifi.: di« alcoholic aululiona of bUnmtliyl and nrorcurio 
broanido. — K«ariubli» thu ■ Aualyaia give* 2.VM p. \iy., 

cal«UiK.n, Ji mi. (DUuhaHipt.) 



QUMfc UVPH^CL — 1 P by «U«i4« of aofim 

ilio oauooud oolutioa' of tLo nitrate. (Strccbor.; — 2. By lb© acti"' 
jir-.tM-hl .:p!. r.i i... rurv i*n lunncdijL (Diiiiliaupt, p. 87.) Form* li 
ciyaUlliur iridomnfl Uinfautf taring a I i SuMjiuca at 4i> m 

'tin bunfam uiiiu.nt pre' ion, Imt nt KID ;t melt* to a dritr oily 

liuuni, and lJinn 0rmporat4COOtDpt<><< ly. l!.:.i. .1 .mi platinum-foil, it l>umc 
Willi a weak flame, ditfniiiii; a very unpleasant odour. It it ■• 
InooltiMc in watori duBolvee Ppatingljr iu ether and in c©M .»!••<. !...\ blrt 
froclj in boilii iroi '<> M p.c Effja i f 

) 4.'. to '>'i H. ami Ifrtf CI, the formula na ' >J(iC, 

1, and 13 41 CI. (Dttahaopl ) 

JWfnofc CMl'n-'.NO*. — Nitrate of tUref nddtd U. » Polutfi 
i.tli . r"ii) vl. fnnni n pn I IpJtatf of lodidt o! oflror and :i 

tion of uitnitc of bydf*rg«thy), itlticli wltcn oriiporatod jiolcli too aalt 

olaaria prii <" ■ (Btrockor.j 

(hfantiU. OWIUfQjl — Forxaod by lattirating an ■looBotia Mention 
of tin 1 bydraf wiih VtroDff uydroojm Crystallise* 

i-Mitliiv V !'!'.' robri l<- ; whim bwwd Id ft tab* it omhoa rapour wblol 

b:i« an fxtiomoly t- l-iur, attack* til* respiratory organ* fttronftly, 

and lippcUM to bo liiu'lilv |»»i. mi m! ; irarboi B tn* 

tubo. Tli' txtolvoa readily in uloohol nnd ctlior. (DLiiib.-iiipt.) 

Mercury alio forms • wmpouml wllh mrthyt, tii ; 

Hvmt LMOKSTHl i. C'H'Hjr*. — Tlu* compound is obtained in tin- 
form of Nil todldl bl tbfl letton "f metallic morcnry on tod ld# of iiii-tIivI, 
nnder tbo inflaMOB of tbo «o!ar ray* In about a wenk, tho i 
n<.|i<Mii ■• b ■ oolonrlo ■ Qryatallino iiuia*. By treating tlii* uin*» witb 
el!:- 1. tiic i<nliiit of lis 'Irargomottiyl is diasolvvd .>i,il Baft* watt! be ■optr 

I li'im tin- remaining oieballu mercury aud tin? snmll nuimth 
lodhia of tnarear* bnoMttlbs wanm timo. Veil litr i - ■:.- :• j^iv^n off 

: tbo reaction. 

II y.|i-:u-.»iin«tUyl 1«ih not V"i bfttt obtiiiiir.l in tin; free *lato. Tfafl 
iodide it a wbite aalid body, taoDlublo in water, bat diatolring p. 

;!y in alcohol, ami very OOailj i in iodide; of methyl, by 

tponlfl i 11 vafxiratinn «»l i-irlirr nt tl.( -.• ..uliiliiiM-. ihf I-. i in< I 

mall DMIVCKW, CtyttalKnO uvmiaal At onlinnry tc*mj>e rat urea, it it 
iljgbtlv rnUtilo. eimitiui; a («h-iiIi:ii- :iti<l unltMUl >[>oar 

«li>ii i] .I..:!.- 1 I-i.. b aau aoi ■ taflto on llio p&loj . lulu fur 

eovenil dny*. Ai K»o t ibfl ■< roktHe, tlio cryitnU 

cniiipktolv >■.!)■ i oxpoatd t> ■ ourraDt <•( air «t tbai 

temperature. At \ I'J . it moltl LDd lubllma a»itl Ql I 

iff in fxu. m ly tli 'i -. 'tv-i JHne lamir hr 

: nnd 3«'5t! J, the formula CWIM ro- 
.jtiiilii- 8 31 C.OHh II. and 36 92 I. (K»..t.U, 

Imli li uf bydnufOUiotliTl in oonl <■ fixed 

alknli u oci rcrti I into o ide >\f hydraryrrmtxhyl, irhion i*dif»olr<d br 
nti »xi***» »f ti her "i lb** roo d tho lolotlonr tl>"f fomrd 

Sof hi miioijiii in a lloeeuk'iit precipiute of tu!pS< 
1ivii.Ii colour, an<l a peculiar Mid uuM 
ratio odour. (Frutkbi id, .4n«, Pharn, 85,381.) 




B S: UCt-KI. 

a, Oxygen S*<i*u$. OH» I 

Oxalic Acid. c<H : u»sC*H l O',0'. 

3 at ax r. -0W. «& «rfe ttcttvullat. Argtntor. 1773. 
WiKiiijcR. Chff. f 7<t.i. ./. 2. 6. 
gcaru-r. Opusc. 2. I 

C^hr*. |,S51 j 9,364 aa4370. 
WrjirRCNCL HfeiuepAy/.tAcm. AltU. I, I. 
bans* Naur* GtyautimA, i*. D 2. 

ikijx. i'Atf. fa*** 1804 
Bcmakd. iiN. 0»wa. 73, MS; uUo ^ 2V. IS, X, 2(55. 
B»«awjCf. OV*. 4U, 950;— 4nn. CAm, M, I8*j -Inn. Cnt«. i'Ao* 

ato£ri«r. 33, 421 
K. 0. V,.itu. tfoto. 2. 435 and 7. 1. 
KXKl.fKR. &Av. Irt, 107, ami 23, fl«. 

B. jtfrm. <^f fa CtOMM det Sc. math, ft phyt. dt Vlnniiiut. Ai 
J i 1 . p cxoix; n 

Gat-U«mac 4»ml Chim. PAg* k;, M8j altoiSUta C2, Mis »i*o in* 
/'Wm. 1,20. 

TbBJttt /*A»7. Jfo? /<«// :'. I 9% -114; ;.l*n A'r .trrA. 

i ■ — PAtt Jf«<? inn., iu, 3IH; a\toAnn. Mom. I, 22; olw> 

i. v/ . V4, 166. 
Graham. 8»lU- An*. Ph-trm. 29, - 
BmV. Doublo Sail*. J*, /'kri* 2*. GOD; aloo J»/-. flvm S6, SIS; 

limJ pr. Cfkm. Iff. 3&3. 
Bkxi.ix- Doable Chromium Bait* flmeliu*, JafitriUricht. 24, 244; ami 

Kioto fully: Utruhut, ZMi-o. Au«g. 5, :*, lOHtf. 
KiMV> u-m:m». Cryvtallo-ohcuiical ttODOgrapfe ou Ottttft-ftvU iukI it* 

aalu. i'w W, 24. 

OiaMm**. KknQmrt, .Vuwr/4.'r«d«rr, 5vvfrA7<»a/?«aitiY . tnhligt SAurt. AcitU 
//w/'/ry — Sai-ar/ in 1 773, and WUgler in 1 7 7 -'. flnl olll ■■■' I I "vilm 

an.l in ti. ' a sublimate and in i^neoni tlittUJalo by hoatfaf aalt 

of •orrcl. Sol ; ' •! Aorrol !»/ in<an« of euU- 

aOPUtr i.-f ln.vr<.l tlmt On; '-ci-l lliii:- i.l.t lin.'.l \r 11 villi 

j- id of infer provioatty obtained fivin miuai ami nitric acid, and 

mrwu^ii. ! man 

rem In tlm fa* Mtato: In tha juk* of chick-pea*!— In B 
tm!fmr**4. — 2. In oxalate of ammonia: In guuno. 3. Ae aeki oxaImo 

of pOta*b: III Oxitiu •vrVitfll* Rod eontlCtieote, Rut/kx 

' ranitirt n — i and /*Ayfi 

•i*i*m (Br" '. and in ibo fferba .'' 

S»nmtr — 4 Aa oxalato i>f - n I.: . In SnUola KM wd .v.»mV.- %oA li 
ya tfa w i.r jfaltwnt i (.!.:.^. 1'iiom. m;. M.) — 5u Ai oxalato cf limfti 
Acouriiin^ !v E ; -., J^oartn-r, J^**, JJtUvct,, l\trd*>- 



fiaii/2, Cnrcumtr, Dittimni Mi, Famiadi, Gendamr rnbrtt, 7/innrJt- 
n/iriiT, lapatki iirii/i, I.i.juiriHt* Mon .y+r, Iren$ 

/ortfit, Ir. nootfOBW, Uhabarb. «»«?■«, Sarxmaria, Scilla, &y\ll\ Safam. 
TQrm&itilt-r* VaUriiinve, Zedvarias and xingibcrit; in 0>rUat /kr&criJi*, 
7/. itllti, Quea ullatex, Co**itt /**«»'., Cbtn-x f f'*n- 

nam.,Cvi Pranguta, /'rarini. Oucmtt, Sfl \>truUr, /.ymi 

/uinn ranting Ul OtOMV, III '-.. .ultjrtrix,< 

idcL Latlyri tuberori, Paoni* of., Uu) PmeotOO&ij in Corter Cw/- 
/Vdjpi 1 JanviicmiUi JCofiutk*, V"' 1 **^*, J*<rrobo t /Vudo- 

r, and Wtntcranm; in L'ujnum ''i>np«Kietfc; in StiyUft DitUa- 
munr; in 2Terfd JSmti ffwpomCanti Bmadmnm aud MtKmbryantkrmi 
Crytt'illiui. According i<> fnOnnSTOV & VaiKjiir-lin (7. /'Ay.< (ih, 42!'*), it 
occur* in tlio greater number of jdauU. According to Braeonnot (j>iw. 

Cftfet PJryi '.*s|3U*; fJnoj&YAw. r.. i.;r.), ii .-oua.iuir ball il (.moo 

fjf iiutiY UebCMi -iii*I I'V tho'j .!■■■ i_v eti torn into the eODItilutiot i>f tlra 
vegetable wjil of ruck* \— Aloo iu lwr-yea*t (K Slmti'ltt. —During 
the iiiomi \ ;'omiin jn-ntul of ^ruwtb, lira oxalate of lime b oorauli 

ditcolvoil in the content* of tin- OoUl, tw.f tKrougfa the medium of an new, 
foniialir :u;n|y iln tol liyvulw ii ( hut |,y iho nellOU of ^eiTOtliblo 

I li.Hiuin. But byvrwtll tlic ond of tbo period of growth, tin- OXJUAt* of 
limo Kpnratce "in the ccIJa in mi nWDOpHI euiiniti-baflod octoLcdnmn. 
in iln- oolll "i '''■ Ofld o] rftrlou (K .-rli. 

Ann. I'ltarm. CI, 21)7- ) — Oxnlntc of lima ooaaa in rcrUntruIar prfani 
■ouniBtlod v.-iih bar moot reoUog oa tbo lot***] odgo in lb wi -\ lt-U 
. in !-'>'• liUirin A!cL*upi*, Seittm h^fylia aad ma r i tima , 
iV.*n :••'/ him. and Amaryllis <Ju*eiau); mrtpcj Mwm • 

\fi/x<l, OaUa J\(/l/t>j>i.-tl, Ai'-c isri tiiui.ui, iS;irrn;-ii. Iwidnlph, 

nud Kio^. . I' 'vi?i>'ii Jft!a\»i ^mu 

dt fa 'Bid -V.//./7-. 4, '.»?;( and 4i;j)— OxaJa: lih-wU© 

oeonn in mouv nrinniy calculi (WollMton)j in urinary radimcata 
(1'iout); in very- imall r/uaotity in tlio urino of tbe sea-co^Ic (J. Di 
in iht Li'iwjr Allvntvitii* of lira cow (Tiffiignir); in iIm- mnoui oj 

pnll-l-Jail-lcr i >( lun. QXCO. «lo^i. rabbits, nnd plkas, i id !i* Dklei | 

to-buod • '■ I'l'-'inbrttti* of iho grarid ulcran 

(\\ . Ann. PAam, 01, 2'M));, also in lira Malj i <-«cU 

of the catcrpillnr of SpHntC ' anvoftwi (Meckel, K. Scliiuiilt.) — 0. 
fanODJ i>vj);itc«: in browu-coal dejioJuL*. 

/' .-■ nation, 1, By tin Mtioad ahxioiciioamonioiguitoooiD|Ki 
(UI. 123). — Hie pracud el i*' ; i i balarfe idd ftdKnua Ite lonoallDa af n 
UlS, (B. Kopp Cbanrf . roid ■-'■i.GlO.:i — 2. In the docompoaitioi 

ly' r Daia ( VII, 380, 38? ) — 3. Ku the dccomiivation of 

DJ ir u i 1 bj .Mi.iiii.- ind In An dKontjmfcition of tin- nroifl i<f nmmania 

eontoinod IB JU 4. When li^-dnito of jioUth i» fuaud -it & nvnlU 

; ; |i Tanoafl ornnla ootnpountC ( vn i:i." ) \\ rillv cUj-Lnswi 

-t (not jvl Ml in pn^-tiocjt i : B| Urtmlo of |>aU«k 

nUtt 5. In tl.n pfaMrraosef potOOtinni from carbouuU vi j>ot*tli 
iol (VIL 


exocei of «nb» 

J'n'jj'ii'-iti'm. — A solution of odd OXnJaU of pi*tapb (»alt of 
lint vmUr, n treat I boelo*o method, with 

»>f, and tlio prooipitatod "v,i.. ; i. ni | ,-d, fin,t by 

frc^ucm^v pouring wa4 i upon it nnd decantinj;, tlio notcr boino; rtOOON 

'j on a cloth filu-r. H i* then digested 

oxalic Aero. 


several day*, with frequent agitation with a quantity of oil of vitriol 
•»mVti«nt (« eouvort all tho h*ad Into »n phato — vi/.. :i little nrnw tfm 
t'» [iU. oil of ritriol to HS-Q pts. of acid oxalate- of potash or 148 pta. 
of dried oxalate of load — and diluted with 10 timets its weight of water; 
to* nqneeu oxalic -■■-■■ 1 *v|mtatad from Am lalpb&U of toad by GUrntiou, 
repeatedly rTaporntixI and eoolotl. a* long ns oxalic acid continue* to 
separate; and the prod 0*1 purified by n I rv-ialliration from any sulphuric 
sent that may ronium attached EO it. — Am >iilphuri<* | dd OH UM I ■•• 
removed by Oigcetiflg the dilute liquid with a null quantity of oxalate 
of lead, till it uo longer forms ;i cloud with chloride of barium, lifter which 

litre!* nul bo Ireotod vrlth ralaboretted hydrogen totenovoanr* 
lead that mnv have boon dissolved. — If tho oxalate of lead has not boon 
♦otiroly frvol from noctalo of potuah br cnrelul wa*uin£ with water, tho 
1 from it < ■■■:: ii n date <»f putacln which when 

i£iiit"rl roauuni .n the furm of carbonate; from tlii I impurity tin: uxulic 
. be freed by recrystallisation, the pota*di-Kilt separatine; out 
nr*t, — or l»y sublimation, whoroby howevaf :i portion of tho acid in 
decomposed. — Anthon (tUperf. 81, 250) recommends, instead of •uV 
ac etatc of lead, the sulphate which ooi 0BJ so abundantly as a waste- product 
ii. lb'.- pi ! i Alum tif uouUic of al ii ii i in*, Far i In- pun wwi he ki(-ii rales 
I At. (137*3 pis.) nf talt of itorrvl in the stale of hot aqueous solution, 
with oirbonsto of potash; digests the liquid l>>r Mm] days, stirring 
frequently, with 2 At, (3W pta.) of inlphal »ol lend; decant* the ttlltfatl 
♦f # i potash from the resulting oxalate of load («hich. after 

thorough wanliing, should dieaulvo completely in dilute nitric acid, wliii'li 
It will ilo if freo from sutphnic) : and dsoompoasj ii by rontiino .1 <li : r--- 
lioo with 2 At (98 pts.) of oil of vitriol diluted a lim quantity of 
water. — An<»iln.T method i to tatunito the salt of aorrel with carbonate 
of fm lat h, add chloride uf barium i> throw down oxalate of baryta, uud 
|H>« this salt with dilate sulphuric 
2. One part of -i: r T.r i- boated In I retort with J* pts. nitric :i< 
ep. ffr 1-J |l 88, according to Schlo*iii)T''< V gODtlv %\ firetj but a) 
to lli« bollil -p^int; the liquid evaporated ID A linsin and COolcd fa lb* 
crrstallu Mid the mothcrdiquor repeatedly 

;<irat#d, with fresh Duantitiai of nitric add, m long :i« cry 

»c pirate out on cooling: the crystal* are finally purified by recryita lis- 

tioo. (Hcrguiae.) Uv tin- process, "' pt* of ousjar and 30 pts. nitriaeeid 

of sp. gr 1 '.*, yield l pt. of oxalic acid. (Bergman.) in lead of pun 

rouitnou supir, moist sugar niuy olio b i Di cd, 01 the brown syrup of sugar, 

gmp6-tvy trch. — The nitron fames ©rolfcd In the proccei are 

! available fu- tho preparation of oil of vitriol (II. 1 hi)). 

If too small a quantity of ni trie acid bo used, compnmtivelv lirtlo 

obtained, ih« chief product taint; "fici-h.inr :icid irtilmial 

1 1 wblel l lit iwn syrap when the lipid is 

■ •ratod. hut moy be eonrertcl into oxalic add by digestion nili B 

larger cjtantity of nitric acid. — Boblceing ' 7 t. ^*) nehtly 

reooniineods the tueof i uvatity of nitric Mid from tho hcgiunmjf 

of the i/t»eraliou, so that the crystals of oxalic acid may not be con- 

toininatcn with u linid inother-ti<|uor, which can neither be |Kiured off 

t 'i. .rii.-tl l-y pnpor, i" i i>t. of su^jnr bo thoreforc talMfl s ptt, <•( 

I sp. ^r. I : ut further addition of water; evaporator 

the liquid to J, after Kicnt-n; it gradually to the boiliag-pointj and thereby 

olHsiu* Utweess 53 ntd 00 pt*-. <>( l» I Wfl 

froB 100 pts. of au^ar. If a jullieieiiL quantity of nitric udd has bovu 

rot- IX. i 



I, th# ooliMtrleaa or yellowish mother-] iijuar rryatulliw iu the fefin of 
oxalic acid down in th."> bur if low tiitric ae-id ha* born added, 

lb* mother -l.ouor become* yellow and brovn by oraporitioo, and require* 
a further udditkin of nitric acid. behJmin^cr likewise rec 
the oxalic acid borocryaUdli" iter containing » Hniall yntntity of 

uitric acid, and the gmtoll drained on a funnel. wn»iicd with a little 
cold wafrr. and dried between bibuloiu paper at a Hied Dm it'tn>pt> 
r&turo. — Oxalic acid prepared vita Dittfe Mtd ll afteD contaminated 
with the Utter, which may he recognised l>y the yellow colouring whick 
it iiuj«rU to the cork of ilia bottle in which the crystals arc kr; 
KeJiu» rritu.i.- ihsi nitrld lflU by iillowiii).' tb" r.-r»Uia to ell!' 
warm air, then rocrystailiiimj from hot water, again baring litem to 
iIHon ►.«.., rcttv«toJliiin^. onti H I-tiIi. 

The rrvitallixcd ltyd rated oxalic acid obtained by (J) or (2) i* I'tou^kt 
to the anhydrous stnte (C7J10 1 ) by lung emit i nit ed healing ofwt the »•*•*■ 
baili, Of by wibl inmtinn. — Turner first driM the ncid io a 
Latin over the waU>r hath, enwriiifj tho baam, Hr*l with a shoot ■ i 1 1 . ■ 
bibulous paper, then with a ohoet of writing l«H»w. and loaily with n 
•ccotid rtty shallow boMii filled with ice or cold water; ho tlien beat- 
IfiVn bni-in ui 177 'if fnnH ihal triupciralurv to nt mod 104 n uiuTaa 
thn snUimod noodle* front iho bibulous [taper every hour with a fitttha 
and HtdOHi them, while yet wnrru and before they have uluortted 
m u well oU— d tc ttlo. A Mi i all portion of iho ftc :'«iw 

daring thi* Mililiuijninu, and certain product* of dccorapOeifctfHi are 
abtorbed by tho pnxwr. Tho mblinied aoid. uhen dissolved in w.-i 
again yield* tin* ivitiimoii hydlfttcd HJatih, showing that tho acid ha* 

I rffono no chango by the sublimation. (Tumor.) 

rropaiia. A« obtained by sublimation . Transparent, colourless, 
slander, bard needled (Turner); by heating to 100 : While tdNorvsced, 
pillvcn.Iriit plan Tin flold lx a. Utile v i ilul ili«. ftVOfl :if. ru-Iinary t .-!■:— 
prratnrc*. (Faraday, I'tgg. II*, S50.) It may lo raolimed nt 100*; 
tltir-i, hut alowly; more quickly between loO' and 163°, without any 
but fr<»in JO to 204', the 9ttUilBfttSoB (©*• 08 BMVC 
xui'idly, .ii il |mrli:d ■!■ <<mi: j« : ; ■-. incicnaing as tl»0 

bBDparataifl rise*. At 212°, the dry acid melt*, boils brwkly, and 
cvstnornUu, with partial decompoeition. (Turner.) The An *0&4 m-ithtr 
nbiinn ;i'.:- .h<<.i;i;m.. .. rtl, t -|, I., : ,|, 1 |„ Hi) fa :i reli.rt fcf tw« Ii'-ur., 

lot I" ablani with ptltU deowspoMtioD between 132" and 150°; 

it iWuu to mall :"• 1 50 , ia oomplotely fti« ut istf*. nod t:)^, 

(Durtot, 5dbp. 62, 450), — Tin ftoid Ifl LnodoroOl :'t oi.liri.iry tetn|»orator««, 
hot tho rapouri which it give* off whoa heated, bavo a pungent acid 
I and excito oueeising and coughing. (Tnmcr.) It* tnato io mora 
inti'M . i-U >imii tli:m that of any otltor orgiola BjOraj ud hi i.ti-i ■ largo 
(juantitiea c.q. half an ounce, it avu as a deadly poison. In it* pow* 
raddonSaa litmus, it likewuo fiorpauea nil other organic acid*. IU 
aolutiun in 2000 j»U. of water still cxbibtU this raOotfon Whm hoaUd 
With oil of \ttiiul, i(. t'ivr-N nil i:;nlnuiii; ;,r\i\ ;ind iaib< in Oiual 

Iu italutioD prodnooi a cloud in :i u-w mlunta In an tgwoM 
nolution of npnun 

Or- ^ 

, LU , Qs*iic mrii. h iheuaH. Btrtl 

JC . . It u: .. 21 ... Sfrtl x&»7 M tJ'li 

ii I 2ii i .... 2^2 rn 3o» 

■**>..-«„. w ao- ot nn ... . r««B . m-7h 



Oay-Laatao k Thfaard, and likewise IWlliolIet, armlyaod oxalate of 
liie* dried at 100*. which may l»c regarded cither u Ca'J.CHO 4 , or a* 

The Cannula C'HO', which reprMcnU oxalic arid n* a menobofie acid, 
ii MpfWrUd by (Ijd following oOsatttrftJ I L. That thi« formula U 

too mere *imt>I* of ibo two! — 2. That oxalic aoid may bo form"! from 
eyanccen, C'Nj, that U to aay, from a compound containing only 2 At. 0, 
— Jl fluU indigotio ncid. wliicli OOOUlnt H<\ i I I", nitn'i 

into ucne mill cmiuininjr I2C, and oxalic acid, for which therefore there 
remain bat 1C from the n41fcet|a acid. — 4. That the 
vo airnplcr on this new. 

r..»jiml;i' aJ ninny 

The iaranh OHK)*, which reprint* lln- io in 

aeceedaDco with . |. Tm ma number of atotnr. (VII. 158.) — 2. Tin- 
bedLW point (ibid.)— 3. Tho gnmt tendency of tho arid to farm laid 
aad dfrihlo «dU. — 4. Tho fact that formic aflH r<H'0\ and wooi 
rpirif , CHO', are not oonrertcd into oxalio acid by oxidation with nitric 
acid. (<*».) Ou tho other kind, formic arid, whirl i- I WMpOOnd of a. 
•owci toy 8* formed from oxalic add.— S, That oa juhv 

berx.i i Ji'Nu'. whctfofornnnl 

Binftovcr tbo relation between thin icm Im acid ll t<»o clo*o to 

edaiit of tho vQ»pOMtion that oxalic acid contain* SC and oxainic avid 
It i: , „, , _c. If oxnlic ether be regarded an OHHXCON it* vapour 
wiU boBwiiinU>inic;liii( if it-- torniula bo*C*H 1 1 I 'i I it rftpOU will bo 
« lie, liko tboeo of other compound ethsn of the third • ■■> 1ft 

Tbo radical (booty, boeidun tbo add dried as compl ttnal hb l 

pci^ae, a.- '-xieUuioe «t b hypothetical!) 

1 '<>\ containing therefore S3'39 percent < wWl 

NMy bo Mppoacd to exut in tbo metallic oxalates and the oxalic ether*. 
According to tbU view, oxuliu *oid dried >»rr k i» not CHO 1 (w CMllr*)* 
bat HO, CV>» (or 2HO,CO j, therefor- » hydrate of oxjdie arid. 

Dm m poti d M M t. |. Tho acid (tuned through a mf-Ao* tube, i 

nectely rcentrcd iiito water and Baft NH i without depo 

««/ rbaronaJ. — 2. Tho aoid, when I > i a ratoitj v*il:ifilii*c, 

without laWrlog nny oerboniiccouo roaiduc, partly nn I ptrtlj 

reeolvvd iato waUr and cijual volumes of earl- and carhomo 

aeid jaaoe, |a»rlly ine-i i-;iilH.tur ,-»ml forum- aoidc, (Gay-I.tiHue.) ti«iu»- 
tints tor the tint decomposition i 

CWO" * 3CO + SUOj * iUO; 

te« taoeeeood: 

OHV>- ^ 2CO- *- C«H«Cr». 

Tbo acid containing »(*tcr of cryaUllitation mtlu in I Itjfeaft nt Us . and 

i tiff, even ut Jirt', togotbu with vniwur oj -.ii r and lomiic acid, a 

raixtnre uf mrlxinir oxide and carbonic ncld gn*v.t in the proaxiTtioB I v 

• folution of craa iaer<n- raWy beti 

otiaaoa till all tho 

.tile ihe cud uf the ; ; rboaio acid becomev 

■aaarwaaii '■■> thn hi it- r which |a?) otcv out uO 

fie greaUwl <\u If tic ht«al he nut too violout, all 

tbe < (ictaed state. (Ouy-LuamA) — 

Oxalic acid oonUiaiug; H I valuation mclU ■! JAO'jail at 

i 2 


-sixixr* ciiw. 

110°; gives off but a troec of gna M ISO**, and but very littlo oven at 
It boils at 1 43 r ; giving i»lT, with lho*;it.rv v..,».;.r. ntily n small 
QUkOtltV i»f ^/im, win rli bower*] boOOniOO abundant between 155' and 
160*, nml r rw found by Ony-Lufcwe, eOBtlfal A vol. owIhiiik- nxidi- '*< 
<t TViL OtliOBSo MU Oxalic Mid [-rrvi<.ii-lv <l.-li vl f-at^d bogin 
■ |i i ompOM and giro off gas nt 165'; if the heat bo graduullv applied, 
the gas thus c vol red contains 5 vol. carbonic oxide to G vol. carbonic 
acid; bul> if the lu-al be ipiicklv raised, Oio proportion of Oftlboolo oxido 
<loori>a«» (Turner; compare " I>aflo«. 0fau0 62, 4»0; Schlocingor, 
Jieptri. 74, 31.} — The product* of decomposition are the nmo, wbotbor 
the acid bo heated in a retort, nlone, or in contact with *j>onry pUtinwn 
0T pWalOMtQMj t'ut tin* addition of charcoal powder produce* a (treat 
disturbance in tin* decomposition. (Kuiscl & Milton, .V. .(tut. {'Mm. 1'hjja. 
8, 290)— BorffTDN bad jTcvu.i-ly rfiown that oxalic acid when hnatod, 
im-lt*, boils, and ■obtimea, partly" un decomposed, partly rosolvod inb> a 
HMDons mixture ooniMting Imlf of carbonic acid, and half of a goa which 
born* with a blue flume. — Qsvil Mid b >»*•*, Mricklv "junking, eras- 
hurt\U*, bat the carbonic oxide cvolied from it in u lid BOt iniciblo nay 
iimo bo set on fire. 

3. Aqueous oxalic acid ia very slowly oxidised by platinum -Mack, — 
if th:it nili-lMi;rr rntii:un.H nvy^'ii :tinl f hi vortril into wntur ami 
carbonic told i Dnbcreiner, Ann. Pkarm. 14, 14.) 

4. Dehydrated oxalic ncid alisorhi Axy cArVine <7fl>, am! forms with 
it, without evolution of gas, a white substance which is rraalred hy w:u< r 

h-.ilr. i-hlirii' :itmI ivirKimi.' ncid. The : rid 001 inl^r of 

OfTftiuinsloa is immediately decomposed by ehlorino, yielding hydro- 
• IiImtic and carbonic acid; 1 vol. chlorine produces 3 vof. carbonic acid. 
1 1 >• hcreiuer.) lime- t ho dry compound is probably C*II , 0*CI\ ami on 
addition of water yield* 4CO* and 2 H CI. Also when eUorblt i* [ Ufa s d 
tbfOSgn ibt) lOQOOOl iriil, OOmplott decomposition toiaac, with formation 
of carbonic and hydrochloric and. (Anltam i'-'.) 

3. linimiue added to aqueous oxalate of potash or soda containing 
a slight excess of alkali, doe* not act in the cold; but between *u 
50°, ptito carbonic acid gnu \a abunduutly evolved and a metallic bromide 
formed. (Cahours, S, Jim. Qtrim, Pfyt, 10, 4*6; also J. pr. CAcm. 
431, CI): 

C<KW I 2Br - 4CO : + SKIlr. 

fi. By continued digestion with Nitric i Y\c acid i« completely 

rieeompnwd [yielding carbonic ncid and water], fBOTVBMIl,) Sctdowin. 

recent statement {Rtvai, 74, S3) Hint ■ ■ i i aol I'oompeaH 

1'V boiling nitric acid is unfounded; but nt nil event* the decomposition 
place but slowly. (Out.) IT According to Reiu»rh (Jakrb. pr. 
i'karm. IS, lfli>), a notation of effloresced oxalic will in moderately 
heated fuming nitric ncid yields, oti cooling, n number of crystal* having 
a g)*«*y lustre, easily ■ : *le, and conlaiuiu;? equal nu rubers of 

•..ili< iBd nunc acid? 5 

7. v.'iih aanaoQs Hypoehfar&nM acid, omMc mU $th otf ca- 

ncid arnl chJorinc; if the fonn> v r noi I | ttOB I nd the Utter crYitnl< 
frothing takes place attended with evolution of heat, 
9~ Oxtilic nci-i boated with aquooue 7«<fs0 ocirf ii decompoaoJ, with 
ovoluiuiu >A OOrboOlC m-id and libciutiou of iodino (II. Davy): 

oC'lPO* + 210* - 20CO* t 10I1O t jr. 


I 1 I 


die acid act* in a oimilor manner, hut tbo decomposition in »low 
«Trn at a boiling beat. (Bcnckiser, Ann. Iharm. 17. 258.) — Willi 1 pL 

ti hydratcd oxalic mciJ to 2 pftj mlir :i< ; I in 10 tn I no pi i. 

»»trr, no action Ukei place* at 10* in 20 hour.; nt M'or:" 
•tpara-ttu out iu 3 or 4 hoaw; and tlio dccoin position w complete in 
4 or 4 day*; at 60° it is completed in a few minute*, with ti- 
cflVrveaccucc— Lii*lit li*> ah-u gnat iull minx' OB tlii* reaction. Ir 
Mjital portion! i>f the mix tore bo taken, and placed for two hoiirn.nt 19', 
'i ub« dark, the other in iiMtfaia (fi ra B (•• i» o a otoMC)j tho 

qiaatitiei of jras evolved by tho two uro ft* 1:12; and Eb fa tnoro 
powerful eunshino of 11 to 1 o'clock, tin- |-iuportion in 1 : 18. Moreover 
Uh-iv i« ** much oarbonii acid evolved in buu chine ;it 10\ aa iu dilluM*! 
diyludit %i 'Jl> . — Spongy platinum Kktvfw mvoli r.uea lha deiYanpi-i- 
li the ternperaturo ia ao low that tho mixture of the two acida 
•Tolro* no ga*, tho introduction of spongy phitmuru immediately oauaw 
a* ovulation of ga* If a mixture which evolve* ga* bo diviuVd bite 
!*• portions, m.i Kpatigj platinum introduced into onn of them, 
portion will yield in a girou timo 25 or 30 time* x« much ga* n* tho 
ether. Tho ovulation of ga* increase* with the (juantily *f »jwn^y 
BODj L*ut . | aamo ratio, with '< ami lo grammes of apou^y 

plat i (iiautiiic^of pu rvolvcdaron* 3:4. Platinum plaiai Invriog 

• ctfaco of 84 wjmire* c^irJnir'trcft ih> not ; i i • il.i rvulution <*f jpu; 

becorao covutrd with ImU.I-- •■• lu'li prevent tlioir further action 

coal likcwii* accvlcmtca tho evolution of gaa, OOBtid rMj ut tirwt, 

no more feebly, so that on ii.- v. holo tbo quantity of 

carl' uff in iiuly double*!. — Tho proportion of tbooatalifl 

lie acid has no influence on tho rapidity of tha deoompoiUJoB« 

only that tbo quantity of the litter be rutttcUni to daeampcM 

1 that i- to »y, at least ■ ' ' [3 At.) iodic acid to G3U 

II o. (5 At ■ iIk' acid. Tin- i.-u-iion i* likewise uunffoctod 

r the degrro of dilution nith watrr. — On Utt» othvr ham!, tbo raaClJOM 
bctvtvn Uiu two acid*, even 1 ■■ twWt 60* Mid HI) , la proven Wd by tlm 
preecne* of v ■( hydroeyanifl acid. If to I ftuatioa 

of 1 £iu. of [iv'dxated oxalic acid in o grain nice o t< he addi I 

• irt ovul. prataic acid, ami llicu i aolutiou vf '2 gltO. iodic 
arid iu a mini! Quantity of water, no notion is perceptible even for 
•■;. • bythmtUmo bowavei il.c hydrocyanic told ■ ■■ ■ ■ J. minted and 
iodino separate* out. For, in the decompotttiuil "I oxalic by iodic AOid, 
Utara aro !■<» *tage» to I. lied : I. Oxidation by tha iodic 

■cid ales* I i.-.i by tLc iodine oet frvo in tho fir»t .ita^. 

MiH»r of th«M action* i* very trifling, and taken place oven iu 

preveoeo of hydrocyomo aeid; tl»o «*cond i* very atnon^, but doc* 

Irocyanio acid, beejnuat ihli acid inmiediaiely 
cocitcrta ike liUratCil io-lim; iii'.H iodide of cynnejrcti and hydriodk 
and ttr laUer, i«M i« present, dow not ad upon iodic 

acid ia socb a manner nd to form water aud lodlna, Batwbcn bjrdra- 
cyaaic acid i* absent, this In I 1 r-aiuion t il;os p!ae«j and COD* 

#*qi. doonopoaii ►xalic acid by iodic aoid mav b 

t' bydriodio acJd, which throw* down 
ii 1 i hereby laail i.t. • the action. — Fcrrtjcvanidc aialfeniujii 
<< poUMiuni • with In- roaotloO. (Milloii, N. Ann. Chim* 

i'Ay#. 13,31; tbo J , !».) 

0, Oxalk ac'id Loatod with oil uf riUwl u roaolnd bt« vaiar, wbicU 


rwmlna behind, and k mixture of carbonic oxi4e and eajtaftle add gua 
in »i|Uft! vtihmotf. (Doboreiner.) 

CHPO" - 2IIO ¥ 2CO * aco*. 

DaayoVstad OXall* »'*'*! deeompo»*H wi f h I in** *n*i»rv<*e«tncn in contact 

with faming oil of vitriol, ovon at ordinary temporaturea. Tbo by d rated 

acid dissolved in oil of vitriol, and decompoaea on the application of * 

M ll" hrnt. I'Dubcreincr.) i — The decomposition of by d rated oxalic acid 

I D "'I of rllliol begim li'-tni'-n 111) :i:n! II.* . ( Qny-LumftC.) 

d*ny4nttad noiii ii doc.ompo«ed by common oil of vitriol •lowly si 

100 , .piieklyat 1IU ; thebvdralcd acid exhibit* moderate effaevaatwnea 

nt I'M", if -lir oil «f viltol i* in very I»rsj0 CXCe**. (Turnar.) — 1 pt of 

fcjilliaJoJ ftcitl healed witli let pta. of purified oil of vitriol begins 

at 1M' P to giro off go* free from formic acid; a mixture of 1 pt hydntled 

: >M'ii t pta, 4iilphiin« acid «.f *\>. if only 14, bogim to boil 

at V22"; and an noon a*, by avaporalion of tho water, tbo boiling point 

haa riaen U> \$\' J % a alight "evolution of g%» take* place, hocomWijr rapid 

at 143 , mid rrnftin? nt I.V'r . The gaseous mixture produced at 184° 

. I nol aBAOfllfl OOddl to I* vul. rarhrmic ftflld; Uinl nliicti ia 

EtTM off" at 155* contains iho two jraaoa in equal volume*; the diatil- 
hie contains nothing bat formic acid, amountm; lo nith<r more lbs 
4 |icr cent of tlw fcyd rated oxalic acid need. (Dufloa.) — When 1 
Ejdl ;•■ I OZaJSo :i-nl i* hmUii] w 'ltd 10 nla. PAaiphoric acid of Bp. gtm 
i . timihr phenomena are produced ; the evolution of pa tmgina at 
eeaaw at )<3% and the dkttllata contain* formio acid, amounting 
to | percent <if thr hvdnited oxalic IflHi 

lit. AqucoiiH oxalic acid reduce*, with formation of carbonic acid and 
wnt<T- eubfJlifl 'iri.l to chromic oxide: (taundic arid to vanadie oxide, 
Btrtdtvji), and Iho peroxide* of tuangaootO, lead, eobalt, and nickel t-i 
enlifirvblo bojcr, with which the undcoompofcd portion of the oxalic acid 
combine*. (Dbbcrciuer): 

SpirO* ♦ 9MaO> - C"Mn*0» ♦ 4CO> * alio. 

Coawcre WinkclMcoh. Am. fAarm. 13. 167.— When 4 pta. of 4ohynWed 

I with 21 pt*. of peroxide of lead, the maw instantly 

rlac» fn ■ rod haal Bydntad <l mlxftd f»Wi in i / or n faoftu 

«|ii:.niity of pOTOTtido al -imca • I rem fly heated, with foil 

aqueous vapour, carbonic odd ^5, nnd carbonate of lend, »«> 

eufl ' l '" tiff n J. pr. Chart, 8, 47. , S, 80.) 

I . v, iili i-lii.iiuie ju-iil nr one nf the above-named 

poroxidcx, nnd wilt sulphuric neid nt the <amc time, ii 

, r.'-i-'Mie acid and wnt-r, with lormation of a aneulhc 

roi -ii. 

•J* t- SUnO< ♦ .SO 1 - 4CC> : + .HO * .(MaO.SO 1 ). 

II. Oxalate of ammonia mixed with raucous i'rvftyA/crtJc o/ J//T- 
cttr<> powd titid< of figlili yielding *al-:iimiiuaiac, 

.■ \ and carbonic arid (Plancne, J >M«m I 98.} f*n>l»bly tbaa 

.i 'Ml-oa t «lb.< D . ■ i jii. ■ i l<XA 

Tin mixture of thr nturnted (nluti-->n» remntna clear in the dnrV: In day 
llgtil ; ■■» mrin.1 in >i\ miuut- raa of an I 

■tit* calomel, which in euuobiuu quickly falU dowa ia «ofi oakoa, 




wroaarlml with boMd*t of carhouic acid ga*. The filtrate do longer 
mataiai aaftTH .1 umoaJM an<l uudoooanpo**d oxaUto of 

lawunia. (I'Ui 

It, Trrvxldc of Gold, in coutact wiU iu|iiwii]3 oxalic acid, is qvfokly 
iwlvead to th* rnni with evolution of •■ • nl FffJUanl 

aooeotu rotation of chloride <if gold, oxalio noid thrown down all tbo 
f«d :n Um metallic state, Jowly " ia tho dark, more quickly under tlio 
'.bo decomposition being attended with evolution of 
or toil ic Mod. i 

Oxalic arid and its ultfl added to the nqneona solution of / . 
riaV of J*fatinun$, prccipitnto the metal uno-.T il; InJltefMB el . uuoliiuo, 

oroUtion of earhomi: acid fDoboroiaoJ • 6fl, 04). Koiop 

ififptri. 7*, 236"), who pcihap* diil not rxpoa© tho mixture to the 

*atr- th .! mi precipitation take* place— The u'jii'miim rtolutiun "f chl»rn 

»\ h not deoouipoacid by oxalio add :>t :i boiling 

bent; but on oxpa#ur* to fluiuluno, it u completely decolor url. w\\k 

iUon of onrboniu acid and prccipitatiun U grey moUllio indium. 

14, Salt of Morrcl hen tod with //>/i/r.i/<r qf P&aA, Ifl Pfl*olv©d falio 
hydrogen gai nad eirbouato of potnsb. fPfligot, Ann. V/um. J'hw. 7^, 

C'HKO- 0) - 4(KO.C0 y ) + 2IIO ♦ 211. 

If when boated with Hr/ttmH ff /fr/ryfVi, it yield* hydrogen ga« 
■irlc*i alkaline carbonate (Duma* * Staa, 4ftfi. C'Atw. /%*. 73, 
NnM& Millon); 

IKO< * 3(110,0*0) - KO,CO> r SCBaO.CO*) * 3110 t 211. 

Anhydrous normal oxalates heated with dry JiaryUr, yield cai- 
h"oic o\ id* gaa and mrlwHali' of baryta. (I'uloun? A Millon, Aan. Pkarrn. 

cina* + 2iwn - tCBsOiCO*) + 2110 -» 200. 

16. Pvtnmum axul So'ttmn >\ ' ■ alic arid it a 

h««t f v ombuation, Raiding charcoal and alkali [and 

in «*■]. (Uny Laaaac At TUcnard.) 

CbfaofWfan* With IFafrr. 
HgHrntrt Qsati xnmonlf «IM eryiUllinv! oinlic tOti fcnt fla) 

Motid h«i*9 erjattUia*— "j'ii«> denydratodf acM beaonaaj h«*T'-<l l.y 

witb wntor; vbOQ MpOftod to thu air. it cmickly absorb* ■• Much 
a-ater •» the hydral<4 erynlala bad lost on bcin^ heated (Biobtor)j lienoo 
Uav rabiiraad imdxa uf tho dubydjated acid ijuickly booOSIC ofkaqoa on 
1 t [Turner.) " Tl"' erjwtaLi whicti •vpnrate from tho 
aoamia.t*otn'kmby rraporation or OOOlfog, ilw»y< cOU«i»t of thr hyilrnlod 
-{Preparation, p. 1 1 J.) 
Large, *.nii*parcijt eolooriMi prifmi bclnn^ng to the oblicmo prio- 
n>«Je *rm*n\, rty. :- i hoes nnv however be <rftnting. Cl»i%-age 

»».! .in . ar«'=e3°5', . :c= 

i j I (backward- l| = lo:r 1 J •'?*. Tlic face* 1, c, and/app«irsu 

Caco* of :> 9 m and « ai aeaminntiAnfa. .-. 

thr bubo, (Brooke, Ann, PAu* 2J, 110.) Somekimee alw» thu « faces arc 
»#ty pr-*lr«iiruit «:W fprotobly barki u;f=\i 

r :/=ii7'Srt'; ex/ backward H>4 »4'j « ah ■ 
b«low=lla 14'j a;N-Hr 10.' (PwrosU/o, If. Ann. C'Aiw. i'Ay*. 


0; to* aba lUraaxdaWrx (Po& $X 2J). — Tb* crystal* placed 

bat Ifaft* witltiu a Ml-jar out rxliauMed of *»r, ilw u- 
:rr a; ordinary tcmjirratiirf*, awn Id tbo couran of sarenil boors; 
A «t *l* U*T eitaraeaoa tba aorfaec. tjTunicr.) Al I00\ t**y - 
1*0 off all linr w»i*r oa cxpoaaro to ibe air. — Bft gf, of tlw cryoali 
•611. (Joule A rU/fair, C*ca*. £x. ©a. ./. I, 121.) 

Tbamaga. Btnrd. Bcratiua. ficrpnau. Ricbter. 

c*iw m — 7i-u „ j; ;;; ;!■>.._ so ._ «-; 

* A'l --~ »+., tt-M ., O ~- »7-S-, H>* ... 30... 303 

CWO*+4A<| Z 126 — 10000 ._ WO _. 1000 .» 100 - 100 "Z 100 « 

Or: float. Hermann* 

4C M l^Oi . . !»*» >9'« 



* - 


70 15 

4 7* 


... 75 9 


lv J w 

100-00 100 >) 

6. J^uamu Oxalic Acid. The cry*** 1 .* uf the hyJrxtcd acid iLiudro 

in B | ' ■ of roM m fcfi r. fomil ff 'i 0: D LfM U pOW C t, tad OOloUrlMfl 

of ap. gr. 1-045. (Richtor) Thor dia-otr* in 15*5 pf : it 10 , 

0~5 pU. at 13 W; nt very nuall qnaatitic* at I OOP. and nt tbo boiling 
of tic eolation, which \e considerably oVovc 100', iu almoit an/ 

■rtloo, Lfisjoaca »*. aran at 104*5, tuy daUcjooaeo * ■ * tbak water 

y*ulliia!ion (Tumor.) Oxalic acid contaminated with riitri< 

lv*» in S rW. of ctdd water (Bcricliu*.) llio crystal* aometima* 

tocKpiUtc nw thr>r diwoWe La water 

Oxalic acid «T)a*olvc* in AatfrvcAfonc uud iu i/ti'olc tufphurit acid, 

H itliOUL docuiiipocfition. 

Oxalate*. Oxalic acid i* one of tLc eUoogeat aciili, and in it* affi- 
nity for ctrUin tore* lime for example, rxcivja creo tbe itfOB yciil-. — U'li-ii eORimon cult i* dUtilled with nquc l 

n largo goantily of bydrooblorio aoid h arolrad (fartboliet, .ytefj'owr 

... 1, 271.) Pry chloride of sodium or chloride of calcium intimately 
mixed witl» lavdntdd axalia aoid, given off all its krvdmcUorio Mid I 
heated, 60 limt ili»- raid 01 lofl ;ili D couaitU «>f rarlxmntf) of lad i 

Of euOOBAK of lino. (A. H Wood." I'M!. Meg. J. S, 445, coinpro 
KomU (71 pp. OAnn. 14, 370.) Oxalic acid decompotcj aqueous Uv 
•UonU or Ditiato <>f Midi;, MM oxnlaio of Bolt* crYotulii&ing out. '■ I I 
reincr, J. pr. Qkan. 15. .'JIT.) — Tin; mluiiuu of -k' I >u Be mM 
in abaolotd aloobol doM DOl 4fl00Bp0M carl>onat«i of potash or corbonnte <if 
Imip. Iitil thaenrborartw oi btfTtag Mroittia, and niocne»m, are docotnpoaad 
I>yit;it:ilflo<lUMl\M»mtrntooflini4>diaH)]%'iyliiia)< ."oloaw.) 

Kcrmtd osakta in thdr drieal staZOj Eq wkJob 'tieycaaool 

all I I -\i ; ili'WK../ UX akte«=C , HWO , j lUtAwmcid 

oxaUtcd = C*ll.MU\C*H : U , i lb«ie arc also basic oxalate*. If oxalk acid 
boropr.lcd asCIId 1 . (I.r nomml wit* will bo = C , MO l , tbo acid mils 
C HO'; and (Jio byooracid M lu= C'MiV^^HW, MC4tfdh« to 
VI i< li ft In ; iii:iy li« dihtiti^'uibljed, ft« mono** totei. 6 . and 

1 WO - , luloptcd in thia work, 
11 ■ v ' ' ' bl I i. Linndahod tu dioxaUtaa, monoxalalea, aud bioxalalco; 
tbi» nomonclaloro, bowaror, we alia.ll nol Aopl, u ii a 

l rda tbc anhydroiM normal nlu (C'MQ 1 
pj (.'M'O'j n« conipousda of a m«tal wilt cwwok aciJ. 

». #1 



ilruiii nnrmal oxalates of llii> Axed Alkali a are pmoIvdI, by 

it of contact with tho air, into carbonic oxi«lc go* and 

t'onatc*; thcSO <>( the earth*, and of those heavy metallic 

atifa wIim :. 1 ia rill iLi -ro»u-*t tenacity, noh hi 

oxide, into a mixture of carbonic oxide and carbon 

-. anil a rmidae of oxide; mid those of oibi t htktfy 

avoid gna and a nuidue of metal. TI10 load (alt^iven 

wfl' 3 vol. carbonic acid to 1 vol. curbunio oxide, and anflcra partial 

I ion ; 

WO* - 2CO ¥ 2{K0.C0') 
CWg-O* « 2CO 4- 2CO- +■ 2M»0 
. CuO' - ICO" r 2Ca 
CWO* - CO * SCO 3 + l'b-0. 

The oxalate* of mercury, silver* mid platinum exhibit slight dctona- 

when thu* •l< > rc>iii|iOiO(L — Oxalates when thu-i healed in a clo*o 

u»mr\ leave little or no otirbon, and nxo thereby diitiBguiencd fixon tins 

alu of moat other organic acids. Tho very law] tiunntity of charcoal 

wliirh the QXalfttW Oi UM vUthl :m<l lW.-il :Il k :lI im often leave, whereby 

a ffoyiih tint, — oral loast a alight groynjh or brown i*n 

•dale io imparted to the substance during the ignition, — n attributed by 

Btro-lru* {/-<7/> i.). to organic iinpuritiet, uud by II. Itoso (2'<><ty f), 20). 

to ilio face that anmn of tho water prawn t is decomposed [but this UOoTd 

i ice the ereitnry effect, ini much as the oxvgen of the water would 

then contribute te toe) eovVucttonof the carbon 1. 

The oxalic acid contained in oxalate* exhibit* ma °y °f tho above* 
mentioned rase '.ions of the tree acid. Thus, oxalates heated with oil of 
: carbon 1 arid mul enrhonic mide in e<ju:tl volume*. Alka- 
line oxalatci diuolv ■<{ In wntei am converted by rdutimun-l Lick into 
eawboaole*. (Doboreinor, Ann. J'harm. H, li.) when boiled with 
a-paeou* clJurido of p<ld, they throw down metallic gold. — - Potoaaiuui 
decorajaxtes many anuydrt w* with hmd ntploftitui, 

Mi '', rnninil oxidate* arc insoluble in n 1 1 ■■ r . a An diatolw In mvaooj 

n\*' imnioniac; all in diluto nitric acid, bat 1cm readily 

titan mm t nthor salt* of organic acid* which are insoluble in wuur, 

<atca dissolved in water precipitate all dissolved linn,-- silt-*, oven 

tm, ualrm 11 ■ neral ucmI be present in considerable excess; 

Ubfl prrripilate ii insoluble in acetic acid and in e:il -amnion 1 4C« 

'<tU of Ammonia. — a. XorrnaL 1. Obtained by neutralising the 
acid villi ammonia or carbonate of ammonia. — 2. By decomposing 
aisdstn of lead with hydrofcidiihate of ammonia which luta heou prepared 

ng aqueous sulphido of barium with earbonui< 
aid iliitiiliax the fiitrute (Liobig, A. Tr. IH, 3, 260). — Lone; prisma 
uoit and belonging to the right prl im. J' : 

• of dutiuoldircetiinu o( clftivago; /• : u or « = .'>" ; j : 1 — ] *■>■ .10'; 

•■ * ■/- ' ' 1 •■:'3*; «':i = 

1 : theja<*ah<A< m= 121 ( Brook*, Ann. Jfh%L 22, 374; compare 

M« W»ii i'hjf*. i, 453; (sec «Iau Itanjiuetabcrg. 

!P<W y3. 20.) — Very alight ly volatile nt ordinary .teiiii»«ratDree. 
FamiUr tho tAMto of a»l.HTiiiu.ini:ir. of 

tho erytulav 1-5. (Joule and Flaynxir, CA<m. »yoc V«, J. 1, 121.) 




. IMS . 



■ = Jt»| — «•», .._. f*4» 

C*(INJI*;0"J ...... 121 


inn* - s* - 

■ ' . :•■ . 

t HO .„ _ 36 -. 

10000 MO-00 - 1W00 

tlMiHiat. HVrmrd. 

si _. 



50 ;u — 

er-« .- 


1041 ... m< 

.H\iO" + 2Ac 1 143 IOOOO 




TlwryMaU efflnrw* wii*n htnted, giving off 2 At. wat.v Al 
bijflior temperature, tbo dry reaiduo i* rotolrod, with partial fusion, n 
tearing ut moat a trace of chare oil. rartly into cnrbonio oxide, carbonic 
;i< i<). j;iiiiiuiii*, and water, partly inly oxatnide ami water; pari of I bJm 
hvdrneyanie. acid, find if tlin riUtillafJnn l*> intnrrnpted al tri*i 
propor tune, oxirnie noid i» likewise found in tbo residue. Tito decom- 
position may, porhapf, bo represented by tbo following equation*; 

CWPO" - 2CO 4 2CO» t SNIP *- «HO. 
CNIPO - MWNf 4 4 HO. 


CWU'O* - 8CO» * 9MB -t NIP * IIIO. 
rRetmetlng the oximio add, rid. add oxalate of ammonU.] 

A mil portion only of tbo Riit sutillmne unf ■•.,iii|mi-..1 , nr nllier 
in of oxnmido], tbo creator part yielding carbonate ul aiamoi 
(IScrgnmn), together with carbonic oxide and natcr. (Bonojia*. i When 
carvuiUy In.Mtrd, ii yields uarbuuai'- of H&OMMkh a\nd cawboalfl oxide ga* 
ftvo from oirbonie neid. (Mitrboll, ■Sift -dm. /. Sd", 844.1 —If Ow b 
l«e maintained ;■( -,'20°, the alt id wholly resolved into carbonic oxtdo and 
cnrbotinto of MBS10BU] without ttiofl of oxnraidc. (M.xIj^qu, 

pi rend. 22, HJ2.) Oxalate of KBIDOOU »" combination mik corona 
a mttipnotn oxmhip, yieldi bydrooymnla acid when boated, ha avdaUtiena 
to emrbovfe otldoj c&rbonk add, unBMnn> ui4*tioi (0oboraiuor,ltgMrf, 

15, 126.1 — The anhydroun iialt melt* and boil* only win.-: < .;oo>- 

tact with the hot parte of tbo retort, Riving off": first aiiummi*; ili-n a 
niixlure of carlmini; oxide and carbonic wad (tbo formi pirdummatin^ 
in lb- borinolog bfrCOMO a 1ar#» ipinn rbonfo m*ul OntOH into 

combination with the ammonia, afterwards in equal volant*, and 
nwtely mixod with cjranojr*n gaa [vapour oF hyvjrocynnio *cidT|); thca 
cnrlroimtc of ammonia, with 4 or 5 per cent of oxawidc, which partly 

■ il.i: Uy pOflBM OTtB illtolhr wali-ry ili.-lill:iln, .-n ll:::f Hi • . \ mtu'im 

rein in wliit« flaltfli: tmm mmaim a trneo of eliareoal. (Diibdl 
^fnn. GAtfm, /V/y/. 44, ISO] njr.>y. C'Aim.ifM<(/. (i, 401 j nlco ^». 01 
ako -''■>■/<,■ 10, 171-1 A :':i::ill .| i i-acitliu^ formed at 

the (•ix.-e time, beeaoie the residue, hj OVol ition i 1 Bam ©flat, la r 
<x*v»ri'il into arid nxalniH »f uiiirnonitt. ( BalitrcL} The «alt. orcn « 

tttd in h it5t#» oil" aintiioma, and OOqonrM Utl p«>w«T of 

I )■•? aqncouA inhitioii of toO »aJt ii doconi- 

pvMd iu tbc oirovil oi the roltaic battery, yielding cartonic »cid at Ura 



ptwilra, «&d ammonia and water nf. tho nojratiro polo. (Daniell, Xom» 
J*tm. 9* 35); 

IMW - 4C0* ♦ 0KP 4 2H. 

Th* ao^eon* petition l»«oraM alkaline, when exposed to too light for 
fcOT ayenr. (Uoi ft, AV. draft, i. 057 I Tho Milt lioalol with i to j iu 
vetgbt of oil of vhriul. yiehlff Mfbottlc Ox! Jfl tad QtrboSM 11 i>I D DQOal 

if ammonia. (Gnll. PhU Mag. J *•. ''>?.) —This 
sfiUffaent of Getl's contradict* that of MitHndl (J§i& Av\.J. S5, «;*n, 
wh* Cndi that, in thin decomposition, c Oxido free from onr: 

add ia eiven off, together with carbonate of imfflffllk, and OOtbillf 
rtm.. u ub.»at 20 plo. 

•f cold water, tint not in alcohol. 

b. Aditoli. — I, PraeipitAtod in tho Of jataUrftoibnn Iron Itaaqvoow 

•station *f tin: normal salt, by oxalic, rulphuric, hydroohiorio, 01 nitric 
acid.— IT 2. A hot aijuoous solution of I At. oxali Q |flU and 1 At. 
chloride iifimiin.iiiinu Irpoaiu thi* salt on cooling. (An.ln ofl OAm Soo. 
/, I. *T — Yioldt crystal* belonging to tho tight priamatfc 
§r*Urm- Fty.HZ* but ffce«ralLj without the y-ruce, and on the other 
baud, wi; boo. ;> : V = 150 47'. ;< : * or m = LKr , u ; m — 

37 ; u ; < = lit :!.'•, . :* = HO" Iff. (Prertnlnvr. A. inn. Chim. Phtj$. 
1 tf|), — Tliii*ilr. frtM BOfl IU IHmCs, ami i« le*i kuIuMo in 

water than tho normal nlu — Sp. gr. of the crystal*, 1013. (Jcuto & 
May fair.) 

Myttrafrd. BtVurd. 

Ml If ... 15-M I«"05 

C*CK 74 __ C7-291 u ,„ 

2 HO 19 .... 16-Kf W9lf 

CA'U.NU'jO' . 107 .... 100-00 

IS 13-60 ..... 

TZ ». 69-6H 

■4 BO SO .._ 28-SO 

. ... .. 







C\ll 1 NH'jO - ltA/| ... 123 ...100-00 


too 00 

The rry«takluHxl rail y\>-W< by dry Alvtflltttkm, first trattr; llhn 
carton »c oxhl* and carbonic acid p.»<j, a largo quantity <>f (brnloaeld and 
.rds corbonntc an-1 hydrooyanato of ammonia and 

ioiC4B<hia consists of tttunto .icul C'Niro ft . 
.) TIip crystals, wheu gttutif boated, effloweaa Broa Ion of 
i*m «ndory»injc tin- iqaaoai Iiitiftn At tho flinio tfino. At ■ biffbtf 
ttvporataro, tho soliiiiliod mi*i bccorooi risoid; between 22t)° and 
it U fto am fasty. and V^ian to deo itb rtronjr inlnmoeeonce; gircs 

«# ■ miitare of cs entity of carboaic >xW« 

and yWdi ■ it'-y a hir^n (jnnntity of formic acid, 

i small rablimatc «f oxatnldo. At > bl aire, 

■:u^n(5tin<"ti ooaaos, a yoTow bitter abalanac » 

I, »r>! a mixtoro »f 1 ■ .irbonata nf amraon 

. wLii-Ii oflbrroecea with the acid distillate prerioaaly j»:w«id over. 
If tho pcoceaa bl Iboa taMrrapted, lUor* romaina in tho xotort a iiorouw. 


llnw ma*t (or brown, if too much heat has been applied) of 

acid, possibly mixed with small (|mntitftMof"xsmHcanduealtcrcd 

[oxalate of ammonia. The dry salt, C*NH*U\ is n-sol^ed into 

Hytiad 2H0. (BeJard, .V. iw, CAin. Phyt. 4, 93; *l*o -d**. 

42, Ii)C; also £ jr. CArm. &3, 84.) 

Ilyjxracid Salt. Crystallise* front tbc aqueous solution of equal 
of Lvdratod oxalic acid ami crystallised acid oxalate uf ammonia. 
•vstnllinn form and hi composition, it rascmblci iln 
in aall (Ori!i:«ni], txMbhlU nnly I flight dilToreur. "tflea, 

fVOataT*-) Tho crystal* cfltorcicc at 1 

Al.) <J water. They dissolve readily id hot water. (Ilabonrdin, X. J. 
C, l«7.) Specific grarity of the crystals, 1052. (Joulo ft 
lay fair.) 

i*W «/ 100°. lUbourtia. 

48 ... 24-36 24 -1» 

]| .... Ml MS 

8 Kr •!... — MM 

: h 



1. 1 

3-5* _.... 

..I M 

CM!,Nint>\C_Hl*0».... 197 .... 100*00 

O V.. i.... I AMI i .....i... 




«R ..„ 20-60 

u .... c-oi 

11 -.. 4'/2 




,.. 6»'WK 

c: M,NinO',C i H , 0't4 1 V|. . 233 .... 10000 

|Q i M 

(hetilatt of Potaefi. — a. .TornoL — Salt of sorrel i* heated with water 

Sand enrbonnte of potfttb, till lie liqnM bftCOniN slightly alkaline : 
eoluii"!! i- then filtoti .1 urn] oooltd t" f In* eijratalBslng pout According 
to WcSMIj the crystal* are rfcctnbie and »ix or more aided priooi willi 
oblique dihedral summito; according to Pre yob lay c (JP. Ann. ( /• 
a. 4.vt, iIm memoir being accompanied by a figure of ill* crystals^, they 
belong sO tfcfl obUaso -firitiiifttic ftyrt^m and t'vlultit a eonijilicatrii f.H in. 
•J According to KtHiimclsbcrr, they are oetohedrons belonging t 
oblique pntinaliv Ijatttt, (rid. Fogg, J'3, 27. where the inc.-eurvmenta of 
the angles arc girto,)?. — The GtreUk tarn- ;t cool in k bitter Wc and 
rdBomoi when beeted.< rgman ) They contain I At mfte?. At 
100 . i'm v qaleUy become <r|nque, but do BOt give uj> nil their water till 
I..;. led to ICO"; in n r. ►nlu'rc, the i agail t:ikoe np 

10'fd per cent of water. (Graham.) .\« Fonnd much mora 
water in the cxYStale, it would appeal that there arc two kinds 1 1 be 
)!j.i ir ^iH-l i <1. The dry unit leaden carbonate of |K>tn*di when to 

Mix.-.l with an e^nal weight of pulverized antimony and igliiW b>Z I" 
minutn in a covered aruoiblo at the beat of a blast fninaco, it Ka\<-a 

uiiiinH'uv pontaiolog potaMLunii Tht oryBtali dimrlTii in 8 rrfe, of cnM 
•:. rTbonuon.) Su. gr. of the bibydnted 0TTitaJ*=2 127. (J, 

APlayfuir.) V 

J»Aydr*ttd. F. C. Vopl. ThcNBMtt. 

2Ki> pi-4 .„ 4G73 56-78 W13 

CO 1 .. n-e — IJ'27 44-22 44-8; 

( PO 

»C-4 .... loow) leouo 


fiV.U.ATK O? POTASH. 125 

fSr+k*~'t Crftatt. RMiawUatrf. 

2 KQ .......... *4-4 . 11-19 .._ SO** 

CH> 11+ -. 390* - 3*49 

1HO „ 1M> V?« 

VKW+tA* 194-4 ... 100-00 

2KO . 94-1 .... 42'BJ 4211 

4X)« ... — 72*0 ... M'fl7 :«'4ft 

• HO M-fl . M-M 2>-42 

C*RW**Aa. .- 2204 _ ICO 00 100 00 

^.-i-ftH^,%nW. Sawtrlittttii. Sat ArttouK*. Ojatitm. 
— Obtained from lhn jnice of Tnrious specie* of Oratii and Rutnrx. Ly 
•Ttnorutii.n, clarifying, cmtallixAtion, ud rocrr-tnllijatton, 
lially ait u rating with corhonato of pnta*h tlit> oxalic acxl prodttOad 1>T 
lie action of nitric acid on au^ar or syrup. — Tho Lydratcd cryntalu, which 
arc pcrainuc-iil in tliu nir ami Iiiivl" & sour ami Imiorith tasto, Iwlvuff lo 
ilk* oniiiin** prismatic aimem, Fiy 1 1 4, the edge between « anil a ]*ing 
replaced by the i-faoi. • :f= 133* 2l>'; i:« = 90 a ; i:«=l 

t Wf i:V; »:» 18TW; w ; w= 103" 38' ; < : w= DO* (Prev.*. 
lay* I. Tho cry ■tali jicl>l Ly dry distillation. 1 p«i :it of a white acid 
vaMimate [dry malm acidl] and 31 percent of colon rlcsa water containing 
oxalic and (a irmnll quant if v of m ilir arid a large ijuantUy of formic, arid, 
aecowin- to I> .boroinor, «&A» 08,888,) and loava 33 :i por cent of a lii;ht 
residue, oon*ifitinK of carbonate of potash with 4 per cont of 
(Witglcb.) — Sail of aorrtd adulterated with cream of tartar 
a cob>: lanuiy of charcoal; according to Daman, ii 

blacken* and envoi off lulphurcu* acid when Lento* I with oil of 
m. — Tho oryttal* dissolve epuriugly in cold water, in 14 pU. of 
ng witer, nnd in .11 pt«i. of boillOK aleolml. (Wcnaol.) £p. gr. of 
th» aqueous eolation saturated at S*= I 014. — Sp. gr. of the crystal* 
= 2044. (Joolt^ JUvfair.) 

CVffiffilWl Gnhaai. T. C. Yogel. 

KO 47-2 ._ 32-28 32-21 31 s4 

C*i* 7_'-n |«'S9 . , *•■«! .. aVM 

3 IIO 27 .... ia-47 IB'39 ... ISM 

C*HKO- + 2Aq..- 146 2 ...100-00 100 00 100 00 

■ .*. Ap.crtrdiiijr to larnmelabtrg iP"jf. ;>:t. .12), tho salt obtained 
bw latnr ( umiiry of oxalic ariil with rarlionat* of potash 

aa I ■ ^an*«iut! quantity of oxalic tott, forma crystal* belonging 

l<> iIk* riirl»* pm— lill -•yatoin, and contoininc; only half an much water aa 

In* pfff CC<linf . 


2 KO 94*4 ... 35»4 3041 ~. SV2'2 ,. Mt'Xft 

SCO* . U4-0 _ B4'Sa i* 31 .... 44-32 .. 44-00 

alio 27«o _ in-u 

•CBlWfAq ... 2«-4 .., 10000 
•r, ieeardbf «• !Ummf1A<rj i 2(KO,2C*0>> * 3\q. 

n, lUnunel-lrfirg al*>, in prcnarioff poUaaio-nntiaiouit: onalatv (</ "■). 
obtaJBMd acotlicr hydrate containing \ aa much water a« », or J on much 


rnrn.F* r. : nxYr-EK-MucuuB c«»o*. 

m ^. Tain aait i* mcf* aoluWa Qua liw. ordinary hydrate [* W yit], from 
lLo eolation of wliicb it mijrit *>ETba-M bo obtained by cryMaJIuftUxcti at 
lower U-iiij-cralurto lta cryitalliue form is also tlifTcreiit, mud tbecryjtaJe 

i-llliiri ■<'■ m TV ijiiirilv. 

KO. — — . *?4 «. 34-3? 

CH> 730 .... MSO 

2 HO.. Ivii . IJ-U 
Anbmnnii- omia 





Or- KO^OKP+lAo. Th» rryvUU wrr* mntaminstn) »ith I 
mlli.-rm; antlmonfc oiidc, vblcb <uuld not be KpartUd from (kem. ( 

fyptratitl Salt — Dluovrr*! by tar&rj and TWflvb ; mow roinuUlr 
fa H ..Hi. I. .ii. [AU IVafMi 1800, 99.) — A/vordinjt Ut fctrard. it U lonv- 

0, B) 

mminfd by WW IMUiU , I /'Ait -jww. iron, yv.j — Arrordinf I 

I h« mnfctt ltutrorf of wit of **f rrl (wien tht Utter to p-vpn-ed from 
oxalic oral nntl iirbomta of polaah.] — I'rt'cipitatoiion adding OXnllC. «ulpliu rtV, 
lijrdrocklurie, or nttfit iiH to tho n-jtivoua volution nf norm 
acid osaloti* uf potelfaj it if alto produced Ly mixing Ml MQOOQn anlcri 01 
of chloriJouf poUiMium wRL oxalic acid.— \\ rj aotd naorfui 
(tatpBofttad cryxtal**, often of gnwt site, belonging t<' in* dooM* ofiiqn 
prismatic f-yilem (ProToatayo, -V. *4am, ' Ite, pAjo, 4, 453, whore a 
figure of tbo cryitaU isgirc'n together witb Hm n ka aajrlo* 

8j>. gT. a"840 (Joule & T'la-ffair.) The crjetnle give off 18 43 per ocnt 
of water at 128°. (Ber*«1iu».) Tin- t. -nlm.-, wIil-ii more -inni^-ly heated, 
■ires off port of tbo oxalic acid without daeom pott t Ion, Uio rwi in fit* 
doeoinpoK*! ttutc, and leave* carbonate of potash. Tbo carbonate of 
pfitiub loft l.y 6 |*t«. of tlii* milt canctljr ncutroJuw I pfc. of Uio uudeeotn- 

posed Milt. (\VouWluli.) — Tilt Mill 1» »till l».-> m>IiIi|i; it) \\:\\ i tllHII (be 

salt h. Aoeordkig to PobJ (/. mr, Chem. 5C, 210), 1 pt. of the anlt 
dissolve* at 20-6', )n 20-17 ]>t*. of water. 


2 CW 

:i no 







. .... 12-JB 

CUIK» i i C , H , 1 218-2 100*00 

CryttaUi§td> B&rard. lUnaMlsbfff. 

U'57 - 18-94 «... WW 

»6-66 53-G« — « S&T1 

"'' ■ • 

a co* 

3 HO 

4 Aq . 

4W .. 

UIO „. 

270 .... 

300 ... 

i:s» •»» 

CWKOV-U o- i\, ( ... Hi*I . lon-uii 


Ornlato of PotatJi and Ewncnui. — H0"2 pts. [1 At.] of salt of 
aomlwilk Ifl ]i- [IT pi- — 1 AfcJ ammonii form luiiff nccJI*. pM> 
maiieiit Kn Uio air. (wonnl.) — T. Tk< Mtntl-ni NofootftJ to fnictioaal 

li:n in.; |1m.< f(-Mi; i.l inMitraJ - xalnto of 

am moo is and oodta ning that tu\i in brgo execae; tut aficrw»rU- il- 
i of tin: irmnonitt'saJt diwiuiolie*, and ultiniAtcr 

v frre from tfliiDunLl ud bftvlng Ihfl rotm M inMitmJ 
ocrcablo of poUal. Ito lliird crop <>t eryataJ* obtained front took a 
atlntion contained Si W p. e. ( = 22 At.) oxide of unaonhiu to 3-70 



(1 At) potuk, and the n«xt crop, which had the form of tho potoab-ctilt, 
eontajnfd <n1y 1 Ai. N" I'n to 00 At KO. similar r-MttlU af»> obfA*n*d 
hv neutralising Ltnoxalato of airmionm with potash. Honcc it appear* 
tMt there io no dclir-iw oxalate of i*ota*h and ammonia, but thu4 tho 
!•• aalU luorvlv cryetalluo togtiher ill le-ijuiur'phu-UB mixtunw, taking 
Um Cora aamttimi tojMtivMt of ton other Halt, tho ammonia 

■ait, frorn it* inferior »oluf>i litjr* gwatly predominating in the curlier 
cryatailiiatiocia, (KamnwlBbGrg, /'oyy, 93, 30.) * 

Oxalate o/ JS&da.. — a. .VVmai. — Obtained by nnutralieing 1 pi 
i»f -il nt:t|ir :niid with 8 |>U. of dccuhyd rated cmrbonntu of vodav 
Small crystalline-rain*, u. I bi ij Istfj I i-ilot-jmcogroou; 

havo but iiillo tnrtc; arc conrcrtod into tho acid snlt by tbo stronger aeida; 
are very *hj;hlly polablfl in miter, nud iiioolublo iu aJwh-oI. (Beigraaa.) 

— U. I | ...i- uf Niidis dried at 100* ili*#ulvi"> 1 1 -1 8 in J 

pU. water, and at tin* iHiilin^ paint of tho aolution in 1 1»'02 water fPool); 
( wnt-.'r of crvlinury l«nipomtnri.-, -nnl 34"(J i»U. of boiling 
water. (JummoUWr^.) ■ . I'L -aim t IcttVfi 7 ■• \>, pet 00ft 

of carbuoateof »odn when, ignited, ami arc therefore anhydrous. (Graham.) 
i!. nnl. who band in lln- rr.-.::iU only 41 ON per OBfltj and Tln>tn»ini. 
id -nly 31*08 '.i!:i. :: pp..-:ir to li:i ".' ■ ■ i"CJiniIicd a 

hyilrntotl eryitalliicd cait. 

Oyiialkuu'. Ci.h-Mn. 

. 62 4 .... 4b'43 4C-JI 

CV 710 .... W-57 


l.M I 

11)0 Ml 

& AM, — Obtained by DtQtflltttDg I Mttoifl <|uaiitity 0l . ^ : L , , . - : , . - , . i 
witli carbonate of todo, — heating with water at the HUM tinn-, and 
Ui«n adding an equal quantity of tbo acid. Alio by dissolving I At. 
oxalic acid and I At. chloride of rodiuiu in liut water mid leaving tbo 
•elation Co OOOl (Andemou.) — Tho cryrinlft wddr>n lilmno. In vmeoo 
over oil of vitriol, they loso comonh&t inoro than I per ceut, bnt MM 
Ihey l««j 14 01 per cent (somewhat inoro than 9 Al.) water, 
and leave tfhoa lO'W P.O. varbuuatt of mmU (Graham), ivfi pwfe 

NaO ... 31-3 .... 

>An ■— - »-o ... 

CaK-KK-BAq .... W-a -.. IfXi-OO 10000 

OntuU of Soda and Potash. — Stilt of oorrol neutral ixcil uii 1 
wi*l*U cryttafc nMcmMiri^ bIiiim. n..i ilfliqurttoont; td . i oil 

nI then injarji' on', in uffloroicont majue*. {Wcoiel.) — IT Ac- 
eofdioc lo BammoULcrf, on the contrary (Vc-<jp. 7C. &C2), a boilinjr 
aolu: ofoorroi acnt:aiiz<<l ^ iibcaitonaUJ of «oda. yicldoon cooling 

(*t b» rv*|N»rilii»ii, if dilute! a i-ry-i Jlina |itiU.-inlrti[ mil, which i* U 
doabin all cf soda nod "potaiii, hat ordinary oxalato of soda, C*NaK)\ % 

if HiAia. — a. A'orgui/. — Crptallizce with dilHculty in 
Ut MaIbJos, which diftaolvc readily in water. — If. Jci J. — 


Cmti*m. Rata mr lab. 

83-M .. 

..„ 83'09 


55-30 . 


64'1 1 




Transparent, crystalline nrneaka, tacaewkat leea triable than th« normal 
■alt (C. Omel I 


Onialenf Rnryta. — a. .V»m<rf. — •, H7U 1 Jf. Wafer. — 
pita ted is the farm of a white tastclcw powder. onrairiag oxalic acid with 
execs* of baryta water, or norm) oxalate of poUafti with the a^ncoos 
eolation e-f a UrrU-eaJL It if art dehydrated by bcin/r boated above 
10(T; but whrti subjected to dry dUtilUtioa. yiddj water, wWiie oxide, 
carbon ir acid, a hydrocarbon, and an psnpyreamaiie oil, having a vt 
of carbonate of laryta mixed with charm*]. (Dalocjj.) — !l dissolve* in 
200 pin. of cold wafer, and in aa equal quantity of hot water. < Boebolt, 
Tixhtfil. 1818, 1*8.) — Dievolvee much more readily in a cold n/]» 
eolulioii of aal-aiuuioiiiac. (Bait, PhU. jtfay. J. 10, Oi; Wackenrodcr, 
Ann. Pkarm. 41,315.) 

Wrard. TUosaaon. Grahaa. 

JBiO ..-^^— JM-2 .- 65 00 et-1? 62 

C*0* 73i> — M -601 

2 HO „... . ~. 180 — ; 101 

! 37 W 


CnVO^^n,. ... *«J* ... 100-00 .... 100-00 

T /). TTi*.7( 1 /If. aaghr — Separate! immediately on mixing % < 
Irate J solution of cMondo of barium with a very small quantity of oxulic 
U&d, Form a very small cry»lnld nod inhJsj by the n.-iLc! 

tut appearing unior the microscope us Tory regular iharp-edped prWtu. 
Very *i*ri»jrly solublo in water. (YV\ Wkkc, Ann. /'harm. i)0, H 

2 BaO -.._.... 1532 -.. 0H3 . Gil* 

C*C ;.»o ... 30 M 

HO „ 9*0 ... 3-81 

CBaH^ + Aq 234'2 . 100*00 

6. Acid Salt. — When carbonate, hydrochlurat*, or nitrate <.( btlTtt 
i« mixed with ex cow of aqueous oxalic acid, the filtrate an cooling yiolJji 

tr.uis].;ir. ;nt i/rytalu, trhich, wliyn botltd wWl vi'n\ ,u'. PSaoKod iulu 

tin- iiiM>h.Mi- nit <'. and an idd liquid, from vfaich crystala of Ui« kiIi &, 
separate on cooling. (Dcnnnau.) — A concentrntJ'd solution of ehfe 
..t Ivniiiin in i iced « "ill oxalic acid yields nOOduM! a dilute aolaUon rcraaina 
clear. (Gm.) 100 pte. of the obtained fr«-m cnrt'ooiite of 1 try la, 
Id, when boiled with wutcr, a quantity of oxalic acid equal to tint 
which m costaioed in lliu undissolved normal silt. The acid salt yield* 
by Ignition, a quantity of carbonate of baryta containing 4.'» per i- >B1 <>t 

bftljttL (Berard.) — Whtn carbonate of baryta b treated Hitfa excess vt ttidk 
ntnl Um rataltlnf wit tlmplj wnaliod with cold water till it hu \o*i iUaourt*-<' 
)te\i\* bf ipnhi»i&0'82 per cent of ImrvU, not mtirli moro thttrrfnr* thin th* nnnul 
»alr. Thr «ilt tlint ( nn! i» t)im>fnnr ihr «;tlt. having 1 mrrrly a email quwi* 
tlty of frreok«Ilo aiid •iDicrliVf to It i ntJUicrUan *ciJ salt oliialneil hj ilifr>tin^ :he. 
•1 uialnic **r»li ftrc Oialid aoid| bCDM the add ululate appear* ivit t»i rgcktf. 
-*[ When saturated oolutione of oxulic and ud cblorfdt *»i 
ire ruia<il in equal qiiantitieti, uo turbidity is produced at ftrtt; 
D tbool a mlnutn crystal* of tho acid oxalate begiu to farm in 
abandanoo. Thcae cryttnU are acute rhombic lamitim. They diwolv 

i water at 15 5 J , fonnin^ nn uctd solution; arc deeompoeed by 
I into tho normal Oxalate hy alkaline tsulutions; an'd 



arc net altered fcynlwtnl or c-thor. After drvi"-' Efl rWW, thoy »nfl>r 

.•■*» of wetgfcC at 1' at 204 J , oxalic 

I; and at timber UnpflnUoit Ivc turtwiiio acid and lenr© 

earfannt* of baryta. (Cfctptnn CTfln 5b* Qu J, fl, 223.) — OMorido 

of larimii add*d to axiom of oxalic Md HI arid oxalato of baryta, 

.ilov evaporation may bo obtnine I in Umniful pointed eryetaU 

■eve:;. I 1 n< long. Oiwolvee aparingly in Cold, more readily in v, 

walfir, Oi il i« tiwcilKUUtl frmn it-* Aiiiitxiu • iota 1011 by ftfcobol. I.W. 


Baf> . .. W-fl .... (ft-M - I5'0 

C*o ; -ii 41-iK. 

3 IH: „ »7-0 .. . 15-58 

C*IIUaGr > +-Mq t I75fi 


• " 720 






4r»'£6 ... 

... 45*94 


St 08 


.. . 1*40 

D 0» + 4A<| .,. ]..».-.. linmi 


CrfrmrJ'i dcUrmiaUion of the bnrjU agrccj belter vitb (be tecowl of iho *boto 
form.hU than rrhb lot fnt. 

L — a. Formal. — n. With 2 At, Wafer. — Formed 

of ttrontia with i.«k iumI •>■- nlnu- »>f |«it.i-h v. 

li-l-'Icsl i ) When bOBtod aboro lOU . it itill wtihi 

w»4' ■ aiturcH CTolvt4 tho tame piodooll M tfac 

1-ar-fL-VAilL (I'ix!< ny i DlMOlvci Ell 19'20 frta. of boiling v\;i;rr. (Hujnt.) 

— DimoItcv djKiriiij.'Iy ii cold, n-ily fn hot :u(Ucous Molatlcmi <«f liylrv- 

rr.l.rtt.- o unmonu. and tti U more readihi It aiint« of rami 

104 ._ 

;i! ... 


5? U 


.r.l. Vanijatlin. TLorn»i>n. 
- 44'ifi tt*i - 6023 



I /?. Tft'A fJ ,-f/. ir«iw\ — On adding oxalic add lo exei** of nUnti 
i/«tn>nt : ». nr nitral in, to excess of oxnlic arid, a crystalline soli. 

'U-Mirsl. Mot tba niui poor* to eoiwiet • ■! 

\ful, (i-aiisfurent, oquarr I: < i >el ■ ;<■ Iron the eryjuillmc clinmrtcr 
i> aUo ijaito 'wrcepIiUo to Uio coked eye. (Wick- . 


i 1VJ1 

■" 3131 

'■ IK' .. 51 ._ 5U-49 


' -li\q tao 


'. — ThomAon oliUinod a nil o.tnUnmg 48*1 f*r ootlt 

ti rtr©- < 'nl, (lie n»It a i« but tcr\- *liyl.tly iohlfclo 

ir. fl.,uri»:»* oxalic ncsl. — Uxal.c acid add c»lt of eorrcl form with n-fiuci 

IX- X 



nitrate ofatrontitt, even in tolerably dilnU aoltition*, a esyttulli 
Torulcnt pr«ipiUto, OP»C«miQJ( which it is not known decidedly, whether 

\l.\- ur the acid suit. — IT Couccutrated solutions of oxalic 
acid mid chlorido of strontium innnt'iliittfly yiAld crystal*, con#i»»t;ng of 
broad rhonibio table* and wnail oetohodrons, tho proportion of •trout i» 
il which is iaUnnodiuU between thui of the normal and that of tlio aeid 
salt. (Clapton.) — According to Wicko, tho noid oxalate of itronlia doe* 
mil i-i . i"t, ill* Kilt obtaitiod by adding malic avid to liitrolo of slro 
nma, being a neutral oxalate (vid sup.). ^ 


Oxalate. 0/ Lime. — Occur* in various parU of plant* and animals, aa 
mentioned on puge 1 12. — Pnrvipiut*! I lotion eimtaimng limr in 

mixed with any compound of oxalic acid, provided ther* be no strong 
mineral acid preterit in largo oxceas, and no alumina, drain ic oxidu or 
ferric oxide. — White, in irlc^.« powder, which, according to Ik'rgin 
turn* 1 ■mlci ji:i< J6 green at a liuilm^ heat; or transparent crystals, »u 
as Fourcroy (Crctl. Ann. 1794, 1, 4G0) obuiud by ATAjkOXtluu the sol 
tion of tb* »lt in nitric acid. — In vegetable nod animal structure*, tba 
>wa tho presence of eryataU of this salt, t rnjftd by the corn 
binatioii of a square priam with a squarc-baacx! octohudrou (Firf. 23 . — 
Sometimes the aquaro oi-tnlietlrnii in t fir pnnmryfonu (' -*• »vi>r id 
= 4tJ°S8 ) .niiiPtiruMfln ohtiuo octnhedron (r.'AOW the r*rt*x = 1 111 .If.) 
(A. .s. hinitit.)— Kajpail describes the rnmo crystals a a rectangular prisma 
acuminated with four faces rwtinj* on the lateral edges at an nngln of 

I82 f ' 20' to 102' 55'. — When n; i.f Hun- i> formed l-v loufall uV CCItt- 
poaition, even In very dilute solutions, a powder is obtained, consisting 
of extremely small rrvktala, too email indeed for measurement 
solution of oxalate of time in by&oehlofta am id, W tporaUd U tenMMca- 
ture* between 80 a and 40°, yield* large rhombic tallies rvsciuliUng 
uholetterin (angle of the rhouibut = 79' 33'), which are perhaps a 
hyditilfil acid salt, ainl liknw im,- on the edge of tho Watch -gt AS*, rrv 

'. Jl». in which e:e over tho vortex = 1 1 9° 30'. On evaporating tho 
liquid, tho rhombio tables full to pieces, being roaoWcd into a heap of 
numerous sou mrc -based octoliodruius, (K, Schmidt, Arm, l%.\rm. 81, 31)4.) 
— rJpOD A&3 batWAAD aiimn metastatic crystals of ralcftjt&r fwm Hungary, 
there were found crystals having a strong lustre like that of sulphate of 
lead; tliny worn r»«cc>mii*i>d by Scindnll -w Icyd rated oxalato of li 
CKVOVJAq. Their dcuaity H l'$90j tl.-y or. ttay brltilt, A**« 
coucliui'dil fracture, and arc softer than eaJcAD&r. Tln-ii primal y Uirm ia 
an oLilinue rhumlnc prj-iit. {I'uj si 1 CImVaBB pATailal to i. u. and r. 
They bkn« i»a cxbibit tho facea a, a, f t r, a ft** r«pUol > Og Lt»0 Ui^rail 
odgo between I and v, and tho face x. — i : a = 

\ vr 



a 11 

187° Sa; i :a= i^ 4, 

BB°; 1 i ; t = DO ; a ; a = 143' IS'; o ; t 

' bnckwarla = 100 
MS" 36 . a : u = 142' 15'; u : u = 100* Wj » :c = !?»• 42'. N 1 
eryitnls often occur. (Brooke, Vh.l Btag. p. 16, 44B.) — (Cv«n \t ibt 
erjstsUoartphk 1 dncrlptlon* of Kstpill »nd Schmitlt run lie *»*»(ljr i«onrtl«d. by con 
A| Rsvpail's MatAAfAAV |iriiiii m ■ Mjiiarr prism, Ihr form dnrritni by R 
|altsj diflaraati pcrbspt from » dnTtreocv J11 tbe qusntltj of water.) 



j>n*dcinr' urn". 

2 C«0 i6 _.. 

C*0* M , 

K. C. Vnesl. 
4J;B 437B 

C^Ca'h :* ... 10000 100-00 




?. £ YftjdL Ik'fiftL TUoinwo. 

. . M-* 3h an 


ia-of —— 


LX^tr-VA 4 . 114 ,. I0Q-UU .... IVU'U ... IOO 


J>nt4 *f M\ 
iCWO .v. 

4 HO. 

34-li 33-M 

ta*M «.v69 

2I-9S 2*33 

CWCT^A-i .. 


1M-00 ... . loo go 

A<eonHnjr to Graham, aUo the salt dried at a flonllo boat, 
CCa'O* r t Ac,.; and at Kl Mtaroof I0IT jrives off in 2 dayn, 18 

and in 6 daya 15 ?- r - | ■ ■ " nW» ftkatt S At Of Valor, Above 100 \ 

tb© Halt glraj ll i! < lonl 2 At. water, but MOOTMl ibmi again on 

drying oj IflO*, ItteconiM on 

ta* vligbUat dintiirl.jiii.-.!, >o I: .-ir:,). tluit it jo throwni out of tlio 

containing ve**cl» it even rctuinu thin property when « old, till it lia* 
again nbnorbed woter. (Berttfiua.)— > According to Dulmijc. tin* ftalt Jotd 
at l< ■■•>■ < I r > i i 1 1 ; 1 1 j ■ i u the earns products an tba lift! 

according in BarzettoJ and olhera, it i* mud-mi into water, «arbo 

and carbonate of lime. — PMatiitmi or aodia d with tlio *all to 

the aaoJtSag point ot l*«r nii-Ul, t .mh.< ulkuli and ehaiCOaJ, with h feint 
appear*"'* 1 ' of OOmlmetSoQ., (Gay>Lua»ac &. Tlii : u:inl, fiWJtrnAr*,) — 

Strong i-iii lt-«ilution wpaiatcs oxalic acid Groin nunte of lim; but 

li««, oo the otin t band, lake* in* oxalic add from n Ainu* solution of 

to of potaaH. (K. Sffcmi'lt, .-Irt/i. i'A-ir;/». til. :ii) l.) A atmOu red 

city thfrcfvro 'x (Kit vbl ■■" . Of liinc c*rbinvc acid, and |n<tarlt (1. 1'JB.) 

— Oxalate of lime boiled with carbonate of fotiisli [or *oda) M jtradunllv 
dtc«'iii|HJM.-d. yielding carbonate of liinc and oxalate of potato. ( 

— Tho eutution of oxaJali acid \ u'll- cryolala of oxiilic 
acad wh*n ornporated. (Braeonnot. N". Ann. ftfcta PJtyl, 17. 859.) 

Oxalate r>| khni ii inaolobla >n water, n-joroua wlution of *al- 

unaanoiae (Schoola), (even at a boiling b< at, a< idSng I Br U, Ii fan ''< Id 

a, V. 't), MM in ii-ji . ■ «.. . ■■. lie ii< i-1. |ui«c 

ianolnble (Hdicfle, IfonUi; or vury apmrinriy wIiiIiIl' (Strnrd) ia 
aqarou* In »(|iioim. I:u-.ti« aale! |0tp * H*n 

iroa with tolcrablo fneility in nojneoni bydroebl< »i<r :t nitric :* « - i « I . 
wLcnco it may be precipitated by cauetic ummonia or potash or t 
oxalate*. -;iih.:-i- IlkdviM Fon^on oxalate of I 

allgli ...tier (Tomer, Poyg. 18, 1 iH.) — "7 i 1 lion- 

iw a i a r acd in a tolatinu of acsiprio Mil !•• ;/ ib«- •-■■» Iji** - rl-i 
nitrate) i" gtadoaUf eoovvrUd into enp le oxalate, :i oldbla Ihnaaall 

Wit i i itt ifie mine t int.. In -'rejcncc of o lorcn ouj. 

m»cnloiuin, or ainuionium, «. lima di^" 

cwMpleleljr In aololioa of i-rn .,i l.iuua.- 1 1 ooppatj bal if tin- Klulion bo 

-m; iato-1 e* loft to ituxd for *.ane timo, eupric OxalvM out. 

U'bcfj ox*Ulo of linio in boil««l with a oolublc tult of atfor, i 
Miiniloau. suo, nkk«l, roUll, vtt>ntU or barjU, a sotabla I mm *alt U 
Jbnaol, and mi oxalate il die ilier baM ll prtcSnllaAcd. (A. Rcvnoao> 
Coaiof. r**d. 19, $17.) n 

Oraloi* a/ Lm< vM CU+r*d< •>/ C*t*km, — The MtnraUd » 
PijJata of lino in warm coxwalralod bydrochlorio acid yiolda on cooling 

K 1 


of cryrtab, wbich imut be pre«aed between bibulou* paper, till 

jo longer exhibit any acid rcKtioii. Tfcepr aro pemanenl io tbo 

ivo off 23 f» i*r Mdl of VftlM "lieu beat©*! to 100' in * dry curicnt 

i -r east (10 At) at IJKi'; mere traces between I M 

but ti,l oontinM t-> gjvf off water wn«fi gradually boated from 

to'2*'0 , at wlni-li tiiti|*er&tur« the evolution of water ec-noa; tlio 

quantity Riven offal 84'att p.c. (14 At ) The crystals, which hnvc 

bsODBI ojiikjm', nb-urli water aimm from tin; a r. without dclititiueCfOg, 

Id tlittolve it» liVilf«M-lili»rii» nthi without enVrvrirvrirp, fihnwinfl that 

Foy havo not been decomposed by the lent. But when trejite*! with 

•■ c-n in the imalkdt quad! v r- ■ - -K - - i loto 

i - ilcioa mA I I »Iub!c oxalate of lime. (Ffitaxoe, 

*egg. 28, 121.) 

Crjufltix*!. Mm** 

<*VO* 12-0 .... to-01 U-27 

ac*ci ., no** .... 3o-a; 

14 fc .. 126 . 3fM 138 

C*C««0».2CaCUltAq 5M"8 ..100*00 100 00 

Oxalate ©/ Magnaia. — Majrutssia Ultea ox;ili«- ;n .! fan (In. soluble 
alkali* {iWjrman ) Tliij TOtd by digesting cirlmimt* of 

• icaiA with a<)uooai oxalic acid, or by precipitating thy u/iueouf 
solution of n mngncjia-salt with nonaal ftaTallU of polflflbi Tl 

iix! u-, woi n I. ii ut i'"., doM not deposit ill- OXllatO vt tnagnoaia till 

far ■ cniwidemhk* tiiiu-. bat if otnmgly agituled, da posit* it in n few 

' ] I OAfac, Ann. C'fiim. f'Aj/* 7d, 431.) Thn camo eon 

ito- from a inixturo of tlio a^uooai solution* of sulphate or hydro- 

lonato of maarneaia nn<I i&lt of sorrel, hyperacid oxalate of potash 

in- in ...l.iii.Mi, (Graham.) — While powder. — Th I silt* 

koonteioa t At water, Io* rax tl»' 

li.irli, i.jiIj 239 pfJTCMtj and ut MS*, altogether 3'4ft Mr Csmf of 
wator; the ron • rtEoo ol vraJsB ftppMU slot to jjo oil' sritbonl 

■'■•■iii]- it ion ■ ■■' ii - .tit G . ii:r in. I .\i i N b :i'*'i. Uta alt La&Yi 

majpii'*ia free ban DmVCCSUi I Hergmau.) — It ia but very rligbtly soluble 

bind mm OO tll« addltloo of OXmIoAoU, becomfti acarccly BOH 
uhle, according t.> Berar.l. nod oOoordlOfl to Graham not at all. 

D/«mJ. GiaUid. TVoaaoa. 

smko 40 . trta — . tr» :?-A3 ...- an-as 

4 HO 3fi .. 

■■.■ . ■ i . - — . i - . . ■ M 

G^Mf^P+lAi] . US ... 100-00 

BcrtrJ examined the wit dried At 100 s , GrsUm the tlr -dried i&lt. 

i and Ammonia, — <t. WiiA tutem fifths Am*- 
ft, — ObtaJDod \'\ ntanilag I oovontratld aolution of normal oxalate 
potash with rixriUte of ma^iipfcia, kMftfag it 1« ilin^- fort ':<»noidoniiIo 
u*» — or by intiiniiii^ ncil oxnlnto of ammonia i lar nxxunor 

Ji majTwein wl aroopon '>vil^!iM.riii a ^ n « V uiH>|uinDwoatXanJ6lt#riBX 
_ A^ I . the d itilitn «\lt >'■. 

i r :.iwl dii < i.v. both hi hol 

IHy ummg from tho tcpuraUoo of 

* of magucoia. (Ii. A. KayK.*, A^, CO, 143.) 



SNIT «.-.... 




2U .... S1-J3 

81 ... to-is 









S£C 4 (tNB*)0 < ]«-C\Mc^U f )O a -f4Aq M M 402 ....10000 

kuurnipiniMlhtnll to MBtain : 6NH\ I MgO, MO 1 , unci I0A<). 

6. Wtik cxccit of ". ■■■yali. — An a*|uoou« mixture of h 
cUorato of nxignvaia and annual oxalate of ammonia remain a < 
a! i!#, liirt wbmi miuvnf mi* il, dopoiitfl the lftuhln Rilt in a fnw | .. 
a <\ lato, in the r.nii: o of dayi or wcokj, in th> form of n white, alight ly 
tran«locont, tasteless, cryatoJIino cruet, repairing mort than 180 pu. of 
voter lo qU*»o1t6 it, (Tiraadw, Schur. 27, 1R.) Tn« faroiAtSoa of thi& ait 
ulo .'i facility wIicp tho mixtaro oootaTiu Bxeasaof 

Tiio Rilt kwoIIh up oonjddflrablj vrhon boated. (Bonnlofff.) 
ita *o!uti..n i:t hydrodilorio or nitric acid, it i« not roprocipitat«<i 
(Bora^Iiaa, le/trt.) 



3MpO CO 

2CHV 144 

» HO V 

Braid ci. 


2419 25 

MOfl — aa 
1089 ..-.. 8 

I ^MtV r 2An, 248 .... 100 00 


Oxnh'-t* of Afxiynala ond Puhish. — Funned by boiling a CDaooofaated 
aofutUn of normal oxnlafeof pota-h with txoau <>f rooently precipii i 
oxalate of magnolia, ami lili.ur n; hot. At tho liquid couW, milk-v. 
vtNl-alm a» produced, which effloresce rapidly iu tho air, arc nearly 
ioacJiiblo in cold water, but dieaolv.* in Lot water, witb separation of 
oxalate of iiia^nona. (Kuy>ur.) 



.... 2411 ... 

.... 2S-68 

M*c 200 

... IWJi ... 

.... 10-80 

CK* - Fit! 

.... :<;■'.- 

6 HO B Q 

.... 2J'9a ... 

.... 27-62 

CKMcO' + tfA, lovs 

.... 100-00 

Vfcea mainrrii la dtgcaln! with Mil uf fcirrri, a null quantity diunlvn, bat 

E'v »r|>»tuif« out ugaxa a* ot*lal« of nation f*o, without famun| fl «luuulc >alt. 

* — Oxalic acid and alkoli&fl oxalate! nddod to OOJOVfl 

aalU Uirowi down hydrated cerou* oxalate In tlu) form of i white powdOA 

heated in i I -I riroi off water, ctrbotlK OXida, and 

etrbe I a i too coric o . witfc i imoJ] 

in. (Bcrzeliui.) Tha twit, when prepared 
wiifc ccfOttS oxtdo tnt fr-'iu IxntbanBin, con \\ water, whieli il 

Jom not rnrt sril i romp!et#Ty cT«n at 260". Woaa mora ir.>n^ly 
ki*U-l t it UavM a blaefc pow i )• take* tire in Lha air, and b 

(Boringer, Ann.J%trm, 43, 143.) 
ult U inK*luMe in water fin-i in aOUOOUB oxalic acid- (BeHBlloaJ 

ro» witbuut ikconijKjr.itiuu in hot nitric acid, and cryxUllixM out 

COOl : 


rnm.Fxr: oxTGEN-srcmrs cm* 

1« IC-14 .. 

7* s»-r« . 

51 23-08 . 


6 HO 

4 *50 

C<Cc»0 b *6a4 331 ._ 10T00 100-00 

Crrif Oxalate. — InacJablo ia water, fact anJuhU in anneotM aoluli<m 
of sal asmiMiiie. Tbi> solution, wben ervporatcd 0rrt dnc«4tu a y«l- 
towuh powd*r, a»d tWa yieUia Uaaoo-joliow crystals. (Barscliaa.) 

/V*iM«>.<*roiM <W.aV. CKCeO*. — WhlK> powder inaolablo in water 
a*<l Waving, woes ijrnitad, a mixture of otroao-oaric oxirfo aod oarboaaW 
#f poiaab. (fkraclint, LcM) 

Oxalate tfLa*tXa*i$m. — Inaduule In wnWr. (Moautdtr.) 

5 OxalaU *f DiiymMWu — TuIroruUnl and wLit#, witn a alight 
tin^r of ro»-colmir. when precipitated from u-«tral solution*; bat . 
rttliasolved bv = ' h**t in *xe*a# nf nitrie or hydra i ft 

«f*rato*a* Ac liqaid e*#U.iu tho|r^nnlar*adcry»taHino stale, •om«Umc* 
trcD ia *b»11, rosc-colonred, reetaujralar prieau terminated by fuui aided 
pyramids with tbtir fac« reet'iD^ m, Tbia salt 

» completely ii"-'iluMi« in wiUt and nearly msnlabta in oxaliV ac il taiA 
ry diluta minora! acids. After drying in tbe air, it KJ'es off abooj 
SO per cent of water at 100*. (Marigaae, -V. A»* Qhim, /**«/•, 38, 1 fi 

/*W Wi 100°. KUninM. 

2IMO 112 — M'4i iVW 

I <* . tt-fct 

2 HO IB ..- VPI 

CWO*«-2A<| 202 ..- 1O0OO 

Air-dried, M« <iat. 

2DIO 112 M «75 .... 44Lo45 

CO- ?2 -., 5812 

e HO „_. 72 ~. 38-13 

< MM-0> + 8Aa. 256 ...WOO 1 

OxnfaU c/ Ktfri*. — Oxalio acid precipitate* enita of yttria. (Klit- 
rolli.) The precipitate, rbteb at fir»t m balky aad eifdy, shruik* 

•r awhile, assuming ■ mow-whito colonr. It due* ■, . 
olT III 6 Ar wfttartJI it bagtal to dece-nipo**: at a red beat, h leave* 

tnxiJOirUieioiil (Bertie) The emit it insoluble in water. 
idi - >mew bat more readily thftntlmccrnuaaal l. (Qalin and 
Burzclius.) It is insoluble ia aflWOal oxalic acid and is dilute hydro- 
(Uork mL but dissolves ia nitric and iu tCruiig hydrochloric acid. 
<B*rl. | 


2 YO CI .„. 33'fiS 

CK* 72 .... 37-90 

tHQ.., w 51 _ 2»-42 ...„. S*» 

4>^*W+UAu - 1»» «- WOW 

^ The prveaAflf drarrlpriffli »|ipliM Krt 
•aiiUfc oi tii« vxalafica of jxtras rrbla, and tcroia, Tacao Uree salts, loavfar, 

, lonwi 



ibl* tar-h •f.hrr rrry rlrtt* )r, but Hi» yltrta.Mlt ti more •nliihl* in igMl iK.nn eh*> 
dvImm of #chi» and t*rbln j and on ihl« pmpfity It foontl*) a method of tepsrttlnf 
Jttjtt rrau the olhc* two esrlUi i r»f. III. 291). \ 

Oxalate of Ytlria and Potash, — rrecipiuUed, ft* a heavy white 
powder, on mixing an yttrimoilt with uunnul oxalate of potash or with 
Mlt of aorrtl (Hm-wllus, fterlfn, H Scheerer, Po^r, 56. tor ) Oontt 

irttm ami potuti In equal nuniWs of atoms. {Berlin.) When Untied 
t leans a mixture cf yttrio and carbonate of potwli. Insoluble in 
water. (B*r*ttliiis.) 

Oxalate of Otuchia. — Remains, when iU ft^QMIU solution It cv&| 
r*r#*l, in the form of a tnnflpanat pimmy ma**, possessing the sweel 
(>f all j*luciau-«du. (V.i 

Oxalate of A lumma. WormaL Insoluble in water; it* formula, 

according to B< ii Al'O'aCW ^C'AI'O".] Gctmrdt A- Latin U 

amim fcttenc* i if anntlior aluminum. Al/J=£ At (Yd. 40. 1 )), nn«1 

trwulsto AI»0\3C»0» into C*A1^0'. 

6. Ji'i'cf. Tl»c solution of hydrate of aluruiun. in aqueous oxalic acid 
learn on •rjporation. ■ irouapartut, yellowish, amorphou :.\, 
aalrin£f-iit nu««, which rcjiloiw litmus bat not viuloL-juitt'. tiwt-lbt up in 

ind dsjlqneceea In tin.* :iir (Beunai ) Toa •olsjtloo Ipai »<»» 

p«cipiui< bypottilpbuta <>l Km*. (Heranhol.) 

Oxalate 0/ Alumina and Pvbieh. — By iliaKilviinr, 1 pt. of hydrate of 
aim 1 iU. of nit of MtfNl ami evaporating, a gummy mtui in 

ofciaiaed which remains dry in the sir, but is owily soluble (tfensel.) 

Oxalate of Alumina and 3oda, — The Mtercvl solution of hydrate of 
alumina in M -1 oxalate of sniln, y I shin, whon slowfy nvajio. 

rated, ♦•poeiallV if covsrsd with a laynr of alcohol, thin Inmin*, which 
readily x ivo '■& their water or crystallization at 100', and when ignited 
leavfl a mixture of alumina nnd carbonate of soda. They Cuiitaiu "-'. 
par cant cf soda. IMC alumina, liH)0 water, and 3210 liypothetieally 
aaUydroau oxalic acid. (Busay.) 

Oxalate tf Alumina and Baryta. — 3(B»O,CK> l ) + (Al*O*,0C 9 O > )-f- 
q BOd 4 SOAq. [-C' , fU«Al''0" + 10an«l + S0Aq,] RttpnraU* 00 
atiubj* a eoncontratol lolution of rhloride of Imriiini with acid oxalate 
af alamina, in lnmll, ■now-white-, aitkv nomiliw, ararnoly dutolvino; in cold 
waJur. kot «»labU tii 'A0 pU. of boiltnj; wator. Ammonia toparato* the 
•xalic auid from the alumina. (Boci Recce, Compt. rend. SI. Ill, 8.) 

0*tiai* cf Mmtlm and Strontia. 3(8rO,C»0') + (APO»,3CX) , i + 
1AAi|. (•«C*Sr , Al , 0*=18Aq.]— R«awnble« tho boryta-eonrponnd, bat 
if decoapeotd by toiling uatcr, (Rem Rate*.) 

Ta# i »i n w f iH>g Unw-aalt oouhl aot b* pwrarwl, 

In <nn>«rn«nr» «f Us U«oU- 

Oxalate tf T%vrina — Oialic nr'nl furinR wMfc tLo!lli"ia1tfl ft LaBVV 
wHto pracipiiato, which, if waahod with pnr© waUt not eoiiU< 

-.1 acid, ninp roilhy through tho filter It is in»lublo in wator 
and oxnlie acid, and dissolve*, rery eparingly In other diluto ocJdf. 

I ethtlenk: ovsr.rv-M nn> 

0*at*U ofThorixa a*d Solas*. — WLiU|weei|MUU whic*. I 

I. an<l then. It m onUet vttb the air, Innv a white btiiture 
if \< (Mb, V.M1I1 firm* n aiilky liquid «*itb 
iter. Doe* not diwolre ifi water or in raucous oxalic wn«L (!Wi - 

Ozafar* of Zirwaia. — Oxalic xe'*\ and oxnls:e of ammon'x throw 
.!nwn whit* Hake* fr-.m wlution* of itrcoaia t&IU. T! itaio, 

after •Irviiij.-, hal llu: COlOQff off npaL II U noi M>lulde in water or ia 
boiling aqueous oxalic xcM. (Dubois & Sil'cir* } 

Oxafau nr" Titanium. — Proupitauxl in tlio form of a emdy ia***, 
I i'i aqueous solution of a titanic mlt miied with oxalic aciiL 

(lAUjrier.J — Any ferric oiide (bat BMS tc conUiocJ in lie liquid mratnf la k 

,.t Mrt. — The dried precipitate imra.rU to moist litmus-paper a 

tint, which nearly Iknppear* on drying. Tbo precipitate is sol 
cxum. buili of i.iiur ■ arid and of i -tl* i.»f li 

(H. Rose.) 

II Rose. 

i3TiO» iso .. :t-'j<) ... n-ii 

c*o» .— ;-• . , io*s . . . i«-4o 

12 HO 10H LtXI 15-19 

i2T.o»,c*no"+ i:*q too ... 10000 ..... 10000 

I ,'- .-./ rmtaUiMi — According to Wolhwton, oxalic acid dUtorvco 
recent I y precipitated bydratod tantouio acid ig toGab&i Bern 

- ru, i*aalie oci I du sol * w onlj i traco, bnt nil i I m ■! at 
toiling bent diaso l Tea a> aonaidansbre quantity, fanning ■ oriourlafl mla- 

i Imiii nlncli nlLrtli. ifcrA* •! urn 1 1 * •_- t.intnlic acta, If thi 

in iall of sorrel also contains tunjptio acid, aud i* saturated arbilo U 1. it 

tolidifiea on cooling:, in ■> milk-whu. nd becomes tmged with 

i a pieca of tin vriini' U iiuinri.M.d in it (Borxeliat,) 


dltlgldtut Oxalate. — Dark grey precipitate, which turns black wl 
dried* and is sparingly soluble in excess of oxalic acid. (Benefit**, 
6, 370.) 

JfofyAi/i'c Ojxilafr, — CryMnlliice in black '.:Ii blue crystals when thi> 
m t ao m nolntfoo ii loft to mpoata spontaneously. From 

in w liter. which is n<l, anHDOBai throws down a pain inirk-rvd, fxuic tail 

inaolttble in oicca* of ntiiiiiumu. ^TlllialliM is; 

0snfat4 ofBlw OsiJt a/ / Km. — Blue aolution, wl 

1\ M in ii;.im wlicii eraporateil, beconai nVM uLm •! lutad »tUi * MMfl 

?0f water, but brown on Iteiti^ mixed with a largo «naal 
Hoytr, Vrttt. Ann. I7«4, 2, 14.) 

/ M'.htfnilc AM. — Vitrmed bv ifi^r?*tingmolyMic aci. 
aanaoa eoalic aeid. The solution, wbieh in co a tl*e 

b, >iold* on ornporation n eolourle^j jcllv, ■■■ 
not erj*t: diwolre* in water, and 

wili oloni in alcohol. (Dcrxcliux, Pofp, 6, 3S4.) 

•at cf Jfo4>MoiM Q*id< «tW Pa/o*^. — Porpk; kIuUo ia . 

cmioiuc OUUTB. 137 

<Xro. r '/folic OrtaU end Pctask — Formed by lUafolrfeig ibo 

Soluble in water. (BexttUu.) 

dm ^ an// Polaah. — The aqucou« ftOlntfon of 

■tt •! sot i . . 4i*iylT«o niolybdic 

^uU0 5KlL (]VsTD!lillB.) 

ttrw. 1 tftdcUc Grid*. — Aqneon* oxalic nrii! MtUltcd 

Kir tide, yields on evaporation a tight Mne, tram hi cent 

»B, wUkh di-©ol\-CO slowly i" *oU TOUT, BON .| [fl !i:(. B-a4*T, 
*l* eqtCMUs >■■■ iixo4 with a Urge quantity of oxalic acid, yields 

i,r jpMttatwou* evaporation, bine crystals readily soluble in inter. (Bor- 

selin*, P<*yj. 2t 

' M hon i lot <<i ranadta oxide Ii evnpo- 

rio acid, and the n idno b sated with water, the greater 

p*rt* i, forming a yelh<w:-h red mIubIoO, which on int 

lr*»f.* *ix.;I.4i» ol vftMtdlcaotd •" '*"' form of a i ■<Ui>li yellow, wnarrfumi 
extract, likowite soluble in water An execta of oxalic acid imraedr 
fo dn cea the Tuni-Ii'? acid to vnuadie oxide. (BefloliQ*, l J '>?$. 22, f2.) 

Os*l*\U 0/ Fan&d'C Ox'ult <md Potash* — Salt often I afeted with 
LrltAtr*! <*•'. ftdlc oxide, dries up to ■ daik blue, amorphous varnish, 
whkb dissolves slowly in water. (Hcrzcliiut.) 

Osnbite nie Oxide or CkrOWU ' fat*. — A faofcoZa. ■— 

Nex«il oxabUo of ammonia form* with hrdroehlonita of chromic ox Me 
a Ml pitato. (Hayoe, SHI, Am. J. 14, nv. 

■I i. C"CrO i ii. sataral d riotta •<! duoou 

•xidc it» ic arid, which is re4 by tinnsmittcd ami gltCD by 

■ rot redden Iitmu-. learea irben vnpSnU 
gr«*« salt vibirli becomsfl moiat un exposure to rim mr, :iti<l iliMolrei 
lilyJnvaUr. (Brandonhurir,, StAtr.JFord. ftl. \, '208, and 219.) — 
when prepared in the cold, bat ft ohotlY-iad colour, bnt if 
a( a boiling licit, it i* tfrcen, but aonnee il»0 cherry colour on 
Wxion Uft in evaporate spontaneously, it diiofl Dp tfl ■» black 
ritmctis mo**, ivliirh uplitn up intii ■mull piiywtj Bdcldbitinc B v^M-rcd 
eolicr by lt){ht transmitted turouffb their odgoa. But a KUtttlOfl wbiob 
luu beon'tarncd green by boiling, leavos n erecn mooa whoa ovapo; 
. ii. (U.rlin, BerttUw M>rb.) — Brudntaff'i »i-«i i 

\%*c ■ uc hy it lor|«r .:.1i)iiioii «•( <ii.l, i- ji.s . luflnood bj 

n'veWrtvriofifl, ia*t wkl.'h ^r>».»-4i i ;. \U*n«»»oT 

. — The Mtieons Bofntfon i hy alhnlie, but 

Ilf.iirli-nhiir^.) — It il't ■ BOt 

plt**.a lbxie-mlu P bcciase the oxalate of lima produood fonns wilft 

efrkrnlo of In »uaa that arta the chromic oxuto 

rlnmii'- a< hI, up at the budo time a portion of the oxolic acid. 

— The solution : i ; Ued 

; by lifao-mlu; but it '/ivci :i preclpiuto witli limisiiai^r, 
•. beo he«; i with pr.i:i-»ii. (Beru9 i 

.*o form a Willi tin ■! lllfl ftlkalhl and earth*, 

• fk-a *»f aulu, \\i. ilark-hluo &%lia which form bluiah gTOOn join: 

la water, and daorrf-red or p&niot-coluiircl *alw (■ .iv- 

rrW Tin- i'i.i,imiI:i ii tlm liliu Mil* in 3i MO,C'O l » + 

I - C^MCrO 14 iGui.)=COICr^y (Oerhardtj; that of tho rod 



b!u ii M0,C0 , + Cr»0\3<?O'=C'M(V0»(GnO — The poUab-ealt 
tho bluo «orie» vu discovered by Tani«r ami Uregory; the potaoh- 
tho red eerie* by Crvft. 

Btn*Amf*o*ifhthrtmieOr>ilM!t,—- Theeryttaleeootarn 3 (NH'O.CO 1 ) 4- 
CrH>',3C , O l +6 An. .; v r | Borita}«0^8NV > 0«)(P 

+ 6 or 3 A(|. — Obtained by »aiu rating acid oxalileuf amnion m 
in water uitb hydratcd chromic oxid*. <MilacLtrIicli, Lekrh.) The 
igneous • dtttloa when evaporated yielda *cale* and Uni . ming 

10-72 por con! of writer, which they fiivo off at lOO", aMuoiing u : 
blue colour, ami iIkh, when morn rtroiiirjy heated, leave clirumio oxide in 

I lie IWn M laiiii.-is-r. They diaVolrO 111 !{ \>\ ' 15'', nud ill 
amnller quantity dJ hot water. (Berlin, Bmtliui Kehrb.) 

lied Ammoniotf,r\<m>c OscafoU. — la the ery*Ullinoform:-=NH*0,C 1 0' > -f- 
CVO^C-V-MAt. =C:'(NH\Cr*)O l0 -rSAq. — Tho eryetaie rcaemblc 
thoee of the red potaeb-wdt, in colour, general appearance, and aulubilii y 
but arc often more chining, and am tranaperaal and ay of ooloi 

II . y contain S4'88 per cent of *rat*r ami <-ffli>r*fCe> when boated, 
.iiiinii- u light Kid colour. (Berlin.) 

Bl*4 Potemio^kromic Ota?<tU. — Tbc OOmoaJtba of i!ie b 
crvuala is 3(K0.C , 0») + Cr 4 0* 1 3C ! O a + flAq. (Graham, Mitac 
Borliii);=C ,, K»Cr*0» + ftA l| * 

J'rrf>atxition, 1. An fl-juooui lululion of :icid <ixnlat>) of potatfe ie 
anturated at % boiling boat uitb hydratcd chromic oxide ( MnUynatj, 
itompt. rcnti 10. 458; Warington. PiiL Aiag. J. 91, 202; Berlin.); 

•PMRP ♦■ CrN>" - C*K»Cr»0* * 3110. 

Cfofi tlul not noaaad in prepartna; the bine Hit hr thla prorct. — 2. Bichromate) of 

pot-ndi i< ImiiUiI with oxalic acid find acid (or normal) oxalate of pota*h, 

r.iupon carbonic acid is evolved, and the chromic acid reduced to 

chromic oxide (Gregory): — Equation for acid oxalate of potaeli: 

S(KO,2CrO r ) r ICHIKO t (Cll'O* - hW e UHO ♦ zC"aWr*0*. 

Equation for normal oxalate of potash: 

a ku^rQ'} * tc<K»o» ♦ FOWO - ItCO* * MHO ♦ 2C c K»LVO". 

According to tins calculation, Crufl (Phil, May, J, 91, 107; alw J. pr, 
Ckem. 27, 431) use* 10 pU. of bichromate of pouult, 23 pt>. of rr, 
liwl normal oxalate *if pjajt. aud SS pt*. of bjnbtUo 1 i irmtaUia -1 axaili 
acid. [The uad •t«Tchioi»«<rlo proportion U 1M-2 i IM t 411.] — Tbo mixture ia 
boiled with water and evaporated to complete dryaow, the reetdue 
rediooolrcd in wafer, an<l the solution loft to crystalline; by t&iie precm 
mrttii»K but llio blue nail i» obtatu»L (Crufl.) — Berlin una the earoe 
relative ^uantiticM of material, excepting that he taken 27 part* of oxalate 
of pota*h, inetead of 23 (which i* prtitmbly a misprint, inocmueh a» it 
ehould he S At.). Ue adda the oxalic acid in euccoeeire small portion* to 
tho builia j tolution of tbo chroroate of potaah, and teicii, aa avou aa the 
if i::irlnitii< • *"»ruial uxtilaU' of potaah; n£tnrw*nU 

•Taporaim and oooli the tot alios j and pnrifn« thn r^tnltin^ cryctalt by 
reeryelallitiaKii . — rWbaej acid oxaluto of potajh ia mod, tho pruportioaa 
ore: 151 2 pie. of liclmnnuto of potash, 202*4 pU. of acid oxalate, aad 

* Tac tve r<rn<hW u<ordluc to Che *ub»tiiutiun- Omett r- r«u on pan 210, toe i- 
M| Vll t arciaifi«reaftfct. 



potass rn fiinouic fuu.m. 


$15 t»t*. *f hydratal oxalic »oi.). J — Gregory Tcoommcodcd If'Opt*. (! At.) 
•f Wfarocnxt* of poUtb, 511 pt*. (not unite 3 At. I of acid uxnltit<? Ott 
pn4a*ti. ami! *1 ;• |pU(1 At.) of cmtnllixnd bit, in-i.nlittgto 

Croft, Uieoo qmitttilicM yield pry*tnlfl of chronint? ami oxalate of pot rub 
l* w*|| fid of the bin* /alt. — (i'rali&in take* 1 n(. of bloaramttoef potMb, 
1 pt. of acid •Xiilftto of pota*1i, anil 1 pi. r^f |i>, |»trt» 

aceonlint: to Cfofl til- -c proportion* leare a lnrgo quantity 4tf ebmaMo 
wf potaah ond»*ramp<meo\ — 3. The ftqttewu iclctlon of his pti (i At) of potaah and 24*> r»U. (2 At.) monoehiMmate of pora*li Ik 
heated ir tb K32 pt*. (4 At.) of hyixrated oxalic oei<i. Oufovie r»*^i«t i* 
Ibcft *r.>! Ted, and a ifcark ifTeen solution formed, which yields crvetala 
«« cooling. (Du«/.) Tliooo prop aftorij oo ffSflfl the 

reaction : 

MM 0> 4 f<KO.C'rO>) ♦ 4(«H>C»« - P-X»Cr>0* + KW* * SHC1 + O. 

Tba I AC Urn* aot froo probably decompose* a "mall quaUt? of 
exalte acid. — Turnrr, who** laemoil I have not *ccn, appenra to nayo 
bested an i-iaeuu-f solution of bichromate of pot&sh with oxalic acid, a 
piww whii-i). m i Croft, yfoldj not tb* Mm bat tfc* rid nit, 

The nnhvdraat tnlt, which i* obtained by (liaAoWmg 
tin* h v IraleJ salt in n hot concentrated <olation of the corresponding 
soda-salt, and cooking the mixture, cry*L»lli ihodroaa, oo 

lull a email nnaniit , (fSMiaJt, (MltHShlfllrfl.J 

The byrfrited rait form* lar/jo rhombic pritau (Gregory, Hiwy), 
witb itibdlral tumaiti, un-i having tbo two aeutc lateral odtf»v truncated, 
(lUihu ) Tho cryvUlaare Mi< 'k tad liatrvu* ly reflected light, tut by 
tnntmiU.'d lijf lit thry exhibit » blue colour rusoiubliug that of tho corn- 
flower (OltgOvy; w>e al*o Hnidinger, Pnng. 7u\ 107.) Tim pnwder in 
ffreraiitb. (Butty, lUrlin.) The oryrtala intercept thn middle portion of 
tbe rod raja of tbo •poetrum. (Brewatcr.) 


»3 KO 141 6 3134 

3CH* „ ai6-o 


WW* Balrr tf Cretan; nth*. 
3 KO 141*4 -. 

Cr*» BOO ... I ■ :: 

iCXV , 216-U .... 4.1-91 

140 10-98 



14 40 ... 

... IH2 

14-1! » 

... 41*31 

- 1147 « 

... 10'fiO 

C«KHyi^**-n.lq „ 491-4 

urn i.(i 

mtx'.arc of carbonate and eliminate of potoeb. amount- 

m \ The 

Tl»# eejwtal" wl»»*n beal*il to 100', pro off :••! ', per cent of water, 

■■tordian ta Boriia, but 10*4 p. c Roooraing to Bumv; win I drietl at a 

IIjtVt icnipcmturc, tboy rivecIT \ VK pel Oint, ^Ornham.) Tho rwiihw 

m r «krk pa powder. (Berlin.) At a rod heat, it gived off eorbonic 

oOfll lc*yea a mixtarc of earl) 

1-4-87 fwf Crtut, and perfect It *'>i ihlc in 
•ImhoIt4)« ia r. pta. of vol vrlin.) Tho mint ion u irrecn 

i tran-.mi: (Orc-ffory, Bumt.) According Ui 

\U k remain* r«4 by tnuittaiuod lizhi when boiledj bit Moordisg to 
in, thi ciifoaaio oaudl poww it a iyilioj beat from the violet modi- 


inilVLE^C; OXITGES-NrCl.EI/S c'iro» 

>ito the fclUMIj on-I tin- boiled aolalion, if craponitcd by 
yield* « preen, ainorphouii residue which becomes fi«uroi ie drying. 
l»y aolution in wakr and *ponUueoua cTaporatioti again JIM* iW Mac- 
Alkmlifl added to Um rlaUon throw down oolv a 
portion of the chromic oxide (Gregory); to likcwico doe* carbonate of 

robwU (Graham) j an da proa do precipitate; potaofa, only at - 
oiling bcai. (Berlin.) Line alii font* bnt a scanty precipitate (Oi 
pixy; none, imleai the colutiou io highly concentrated (tteeco); bat 
i n tn-wnirp ami Une-walei thro* down i nlxtvra of hyaraled clirimm- 
: buyta or limo. (Berlin.) Alcohol does not dimolrc 
tho salt, but throws it down from the aqueous «olution in tbo form of a 
green powder. | 

I ftaMfe-d • '* — The crystal* contain: KO.C : O s + 

CrH)\ 3C*0» + HA^.= C |, KCr l U , *-f SAq. Tho aaU i* obtained I 
dually '' pt*. [or 882 pt9.=?At] hytl rated oxalic ad 

f coooeatrated eolation i IDpte, [or 30f'4pU*2AtJ af bicbro- 
tnat* of pntnali. (Croft. Phil. Mag, fc SI, 1*7.) 

2 KO,2CrO»;. + ;cnw - 12CO 1 + uuo ♦ ac^KC^o 1 *. 

Better crystals arc obtained Iv >j>outancoua evaporation thau ty 
cooling. (Croft.) — Tint «ilf. termed br uitiiratim/ an iqteevi 

toil <>l hvpCttlCld o\:il:lle nl |ml:t 1) Uith livdrati»d Chromic, Oxitlo. 

| bfalagutij C'ompt. rend. I 5, i5«j olco /. pr. Caen, 20, 294.) 

( . (ji - 0WK< I K> r«0" I »KO. 

Alan by Mt uniting an nqocou* solution of 126 pU. (1 At.) ofhydrnted 
oxalic noSd and H62 pi*. (I At) of salt of sorrel with \\ 
chromic "xi-l- (WaringtoB.] 

Vvry small laMea and granule*. (Croft.) Spangles and crust* cora- 
|Hi»'d of *lenoW needli \u ihi ) Rhombic <<r rhomboid el l 
what like Fig. 114. (Miller, PftC, Mag. J. SI, 201.) Dark rod both " 
rotlcctod und by transmitted light. (Croft.) 

KO m 47-2 .... 1215 ... 

Cr«0> KO-u VI -in 

I i '•>' 144-0 ... 37-9* ... 

13HO 108-0 ... 28-48 -. 



M M 
in M 


fK'l". U">U'A.,..„ IJffi .... 100-00 10044 

Arvonlimr !•» Mnliiguli, the errMmlft routiin only # \t. w*ter, l>ot «rmrilm|; 10 
Lttwd (COmyr mA 1 B. 8*1) ttiey conuin at Iract 10 At. 

Tho cryibalsgivo off 15 or 10 per cent of water ut 100", and 10 p. c. 
, (Croft.) i!,v_;, off aolbiug at tt°,biit allOO tbeynartwill 

I of" lln-ir v :iln, bcruiutli ; :« I (.111* SHI1H inn- ]i;!il red aftJ OpaqjBBi 

(Borltn.) The rtaidat, when roddanlj baatad, i« conrartid into % gt**n 
Mfwdav v paH d wbEoh U thrown out of the vcwel bj laoaa of th# 

JaoompoaitioB. Tho cryaUU, if nuhjectod to a ?#rj . h iwly iacrwuuD^ 
beat) rctiin their form at first and aaaumo a dnik ^icen colour, bat 
mi- -niinMe to a lijjlit ^rvan powder ofebroauo oxide, which 
i wliw man xirotigly haalod and lamlxad ahth < 

• in in ill., air, with ohromataof potaah. f Croft.) 
•kilt diaaol . u more than 10 pU. of cold water, ami 

»i boiling water; tin- boiling solution is blinkieli greta; 
rry-nxl; thu boiled solution, when left to 

1 1 nool 



4o|kMiU i« % f*w daya % BOnbrar <»f gained coloured crystalline pr«iai, 
bet if er*porat*d i - ue Imt . I v >.,., ■(,,• « .ii. ■;-!»:. rli. viM.l- 

UmThl'i — tlio concentrated notation in dork • 
aadevee liUe* Uy rtlMCed lijrhi. bill rod DY Inn i .'lit, ''ten »#lor 

in-1 wpo.-iiilly by ■ the 

eelo ! .to a oplondid preon, but does not prceipitat 

chromic oiiilc till botlc 1 of potaab tots anor, 

bat ilxa not bo n idllj product n precipitate. Ammonia pi •■ no 
i pita to; cbloride <-if calcium likewise forma nn proeiprl .*<■ uone; bat 
with on la, it ihr iw» • (Croft ) 

Ahuoi added to the aqucoun aolation of rim «ult tlir-wii down a I 1 lit 
rod powd r. wtrioh, :i fter drying, absorb water from t be Air, and dcli- 
e,uc»ce# to a ft ; i. -coloured tnaav. (Berliu.) 23? pla. (1 At) 

of lhi« Mill and II5pU. (1 At.) of ecyataJliiod normal oxalate of pot.i -li 
du»i i"l« i by evaporation 311*9 pte. [aomuwhut 

more than 1 At] of I blue potawio-chrvinic oxaluto. (Croft) 

\rtmic OxtWe. — 3(NuO,C , 0*) + CrWOCO* -f* 9Aq. 
r=C H Na , Cr 1 0» + i)A ; ql | i l»orli«h); 10 A* (Graham.) Obtain*] 

by aaturittii;; a boiling aqueoUJ nlntlOD of acid oxalate of soda with 
brdratcd oxide of cbremiaiu, (MiUoLcxlioli.) — Six-aided uiblea or riaOftt- 
M: ( .-k by reflected, daii Woe b» trtmamkted light; efflop 

tlj n tbq air, and aisi ittA Q - B rloUt colour. The salt dfcaolroi 
readily in water, and U precipitate 1 therefrom by alcohol a* n gtfM I b 
bite syrti|'. (Perl in ) 

Tin- mi of Ihii tall mixed with that "f normal oxalato 

afaOtftrkyi* >ld * hy ; n OT a pormtlcm, vinh't-Wiioacale* ruidgran 

wfcii >l let- red br efflorvueenco on oxiioauro to rand 

0,CH)*)+C] ' .<A|. (Berlm. ffermHm l £dfcr*. n, 

iot raiy to andrrrtanil bow oxalate of »oda cm ■Us'.rict an aUjra of 
euliir i blue mLi fo»1 dcaciibed ] 

im* to lUmmrlaborg (P<xj</. 03, CI), n »olution of hydra ted 
ebroanie nxiilf in binoxahite '' "I 1 yield* two mite, agrwon " in mmpo- 
mCvon, b«it differing in form ami ooloor 

m'-. Taia inlt cryitallizce out fir»t- ( The cry«tnl« are 
UkIc. bin loo I i ' tbin tamiaor v exhibit a violet i ir by 

ua« also yiold a r. , powdoi Tb i bi 

to the baanilimlml divutoti of the regular ■yatom Tlwir aOluitOD ii 

fr^let-re. bal ipT«« ftC0h'iii.-l |iri-oip|- 

la to aftt r it wlnl- with caSlorido of oftloiom, 

.'./•a? Aosft. — Found mixed with d in the later eropa of Of) 
Black by I, but Mou iti tliin laraiu* by li^lit. 

can j»eoeral!y In o* i j ttaJ tablw towotyihous vil wffii 

oxalat<* The |>owder nad lli<- n^ucoua aolution of tlti>t lolt ban* Lfcl < no 
eUuor aa thfr*: of a; it l.kuwiao giro* tlio amo toaOttOM witb MMBOnial 
ami x .Ila: 


. l 

K00 IC-7U • 

I I 





ra0.oo^<(Ci«o» i JC s o f i-t^ 



£uryta-<hrvmw 0*oio&. — atBaCW) + (Cr»0\ dCW -r ISAa. 
and I«Aq [=C ,l B»»rr 0" llAf MM loAA liaryla-oalb yield with 

Mid '.'lir*mio oxahUc 4 aud wilb blue ammoi pOtaisaO-C 

oxalate, but only when ihu •olutiou arvi highly concoulrau<l, a precipi- 
tate con-' r-im;;, not of oxalate of barytA, but of baryto-chromio oxalate. 
Tin* titlt in obtained by prccipilatiug a saturated solutiouof Uueaium' nio- 
tlromic oxubite, u'irh ;ni e^iiiti vnlumn of a saturated wdutinn of cbloTulp 
<>l baliflfftj «eparating tlio precipitate from the mothrr-licjuiJ, and purify- 
ing it by oryalalliautiou from a bot aiiuooue solution. — Dark-Yudot 
nccdleo having a oilky luelro They aru scarcely OoluMa I B ttU water, 
-<iNi« Sa 80 pta of boilios rater. FuuaU acpora:.' th* uarouM 
oxido togathor with oxalate of buryU, but ammonia rioM not pwipituto 
tbociiromio oxide completely. (Kw« Ke«ov).— B*t1iu Jail pronouaiy 
obUin^-1 Lifbt bin* crystal*, probably of tho oamc nature, by di tool ring 
o.i late ill iniiyu Id obromjc oulaiQ, nod w^m tba mlntum. 

mOtfckronk Oxalate. — o*(BrO. CO 1 ) + CiWaCW + »« 
[«OPDa J Ca*0 M + 18 A«j] — Analogon* In all rcapecu to (ho ba?y 
•alt (R** Homo.) 


Cfc r < <WaaV.— a. 3(CaO,C*0>) + Cr 1 O s ,3CK)» 

(Berlin.) [ssC^CaWU* 1 +>**<{- 1 Aceoxdfeg to Borlin, 

atcr, winch 

t JSAu. 

tbo «alt 
coot* inn 03* HI per cent of water, which corrctpondj to at toast 20 atom*, 
— 1. It ie obtuiucd by boiling a oououutrated solution of ehrumic ul 
with recently prcripitaied oxalate of 11m* throwing on a filler rim v inlet 
rnagmu wbioh settles down from tbo hot (titrate- at it cools, and vashiug 
it; it »a thou converted, by the removal of the blue mother liquor, iuto 
"biuiog rooo-cidonri I, CfyStaQlDt lamina', which dry up to a 
crust. — '2. A boiliiiK MUMMH solution W abrotuatO of lime it n.-thnul by 
OSalk :k-i*I; in iln* cu*e also, tin.* Ityoid liltcrvd hot from U>6 j itOO&piaataw 
oxalate of limo, dopoail* a magna which must bu trtatl ••' fetmot 

process. (Berlin.) Tin- :.ilt, wluu boated Ul 100', glTOji ofl oulj -3*11 
i' ami of water, assuming a light blue colour. — U diuohus in uvt lea* 
than 800 paTto of Cold Watrr ami in a much Minder 
water; but tin* li<>t wlntion doposiu nothing on 1 1 oling, till it isovapor 
to a ayrupy DOMatOOOO, If howover the solution DO evaporated over iio 
water hath, there ffwufal M mojpaOBl uioas of tbo grven mod incut 
which rfjawolrat in n rorj mall quantity of water, and thou a^am ikpoci* 

(.In- ri^<l matt Oaf tba rtojtf inn.iiiiiMtion. The unit, w lien boiled with a largo 
gOaWtlty Of wntrr, Ll DOttly ratolVftd luUi oxalate I •'paratea, 


ami froo chromic oxalate; the liquid liUVred froni the oxalate of hi 
left to evuporato apontancuiif ly, dopoaitf the uudccomitujcd red dvui/Lv 
►all, vvliile ihr vnx-u of acid a&raalSo BJUaUlB mBalXU mi lliu uiuther-li 
1 li- i mini ll In ti» in i\« il u iili iiicnliiJ, v bii 1 1 I tMitf 

oxalate m lOlatioo. UkowiaO deuoaiU a dark-red magma of the u 
poood rod [U nobg in tn« air to a dark-browu ayrup, from whi 

tho rooc-colourcd iiowdcr i« aoou dopoaitod, (Borliu.) 

0. 3. Cal '. C Oft + Cr°O , SCW + 3flAq. — Park violet milky n**!*?*, 
•xhibltbgall :ln cnarari -otothecorTcvpondiagbaryta- 

'.li:i! iIh-v : ?, ijj WutOt ( KOOOO.) 

lli<- formation of tbi* somewhat aolnblv aalt caplains the obocrvatiou 

faafn, AnA. 18, 251), that Crom liqiuda contaJalof 

' 'ijniated by oxalxs 
acid; if bow.-ver, such a liquid containing ixci*. of bydpochlorio acid, bo 

l* aeiil, 00 



trrwted willi oxaiio aeid and then with oxalate of ammonia in exec**, the 
wili \j< completely picupilAtod. Similar reactions take place when, 
instead of flferomu oxide, alumina or ferric Olldc both oJ which form 
naular au law and oxalic acid— il preset la an acid K.lution, 

together with lime. 1 Jtccj Rccoc) 

Jfafnnia-tkrtmic Oraiat*. — An aqnonn* l UlUM <-f chromic oxalai* 
with rh'romat* of irnignesin lear** by ipontanoonf evaporation a mixtaro 
cf blue and red cryttoU which are difficult to separate. (Horlin.) 

('rstnrun Osnfaf*. — Obtained by precipitating protorhlorida of 
cranium with oxaJtc acid, and walking the precipitate lYpvaUdly with 

ng wiOtr to rcparata any uranic oxalate tlmt may bo mixed with ii in 
cotanqjaoaoc of tUa protoobforide of uranium huviutf heen oxidixed by 
axpa*«r* to tie ;iir — (invnUli whin«; rimy lx< dried in the air ami pru- 
•enol without ijiv.i Of it" 6 Al. waUr it giro* ofl" 4 At bfl 

▼acao i. -V. Ann. Ckm. Vhyi. 5, 2« and 33.) — 1< am rn ©labor*, 

( Pottf' 55, 20) br the eatno prootea, excepting that ho doe-s not appear 
to hi*c nualwil with hot water, obtaiuod a flwyudi-ifrceri pnwih.-r. 
wlnrl. jfiwoff 1$ R3 percent nf wntcr at 100 . ft'M Ml cent at 220 , 
and 17*30 per cent at the highest temperature which it couM hear N 
oat deem -I i<> dry ilntiJlation, it wo* ro*" 

into water, oxalic acid, carbonic u\i 1 •. .u'h mi. acid, and uranoeo-uranio 
won raUily an tarty decern poaed by uiiueoua ammuuia- 

and potaih, and -ii^ -< .1 v ,-.1 with difficulty in hydrochloric arid. 

IVlignt, lt*mm*Uh*rg, 
tCO 136 .... 61-91 BO'O 5131 

Co- ii ?;•(« .. y:-r.» t, 

6 Hl< M W« ... WW 17-30 





TlWfrr^ •• F^iigftt found 9*2 per cvnt. of (vbmt. Th« tnlt •najjn*! hy 
it t a n g *-**! OOM <iii"' OTOF «-»* 1 of rttrlol, md thereby prhnjM ilrprlvtd .1 pan 

Wa**> t»f> ult i* S*aU>i with aqeomia ox ill c ackl. it U coiiirrtrd, wiibnnt l>>«*. into 

■ Mil, wbilbv. in ■'• I "KIIUU1 ii 

• OiSvut, htrtnutltUMUO,! UO^CKHf cAq. 

Ills. tlii» colt wn* O0 . >(«J with araaW wit. Wh I 

t «b I" rpitatad bydrale of nnoou oxiclo it introduce! 1*1 

i^Mirtu oiili Kid i f <; but wiimi a largfff <|H(Hili(y uf 1t 

Ifjnt* U iiirtiJ, fit'* prodnrt jn»( m'titu nf] it |<r(*ci|nrsff<1. (RuiumeUbrrg ) 

mk Oxahf "gqq. 1, 369 U 

attcntr^tm^ U purify uremic oxalate by dissolving it in aqoeotu car bona to 
uf an md DTcdpUataag from tho filtr»t»j by coutiaaod boi 

i4rf*i»*J, oxi uue ikcmiuu, tin niuthvr, the fallowing tall o. 11 

1 it probable that tho aalt a thus obtained mi. 'lit 1ms 
tc-J with aramooia, and thorafoM did not place implioit cuq- 
ib the *ni*l>Bit. 

WtU rfrjerf. ate. 

. m .... raoy u-u 

32 1311 ... IM5 

dim ii ;»i 

tWtC^WlCiMii D« .- 100 (JO 


r, AWwm/. — 1. Formed by prccipitnlin^ uranio nitrate with eon* 
vxalia xomL (IWraliu*.) — runrlim innf»«J th* Mil hy |aM 


>U_ tU 

ruborut* of unmoiiU, S*. r#*/. . c */r * —If t)i« volutions b« mixed cold, lid 

■ait it precipitated m thfl foRD of ft powder, bat ttc-y nr* m- 

hol, it wpar»'< • M boollng in ytllow crystalline ffmiita, I i. — 

\Ui(>n iho wlutioiu iii .< 1 .in- I., i ( ;i 1 i-.i:ii-.-nir.if.M|, n vi- 

fipit formal, which gmdntlh I I a yellow erj -tullm* powtlor, 

i» woslivl with waUr, till • virion runs through giro* bat * 

•li^bt rcddcxiinjr with litmun, .inMn- from Ilia portion of uranic nxilitti 

which dissolve*. Tbo colt raoy oUo be paril J by -UnaO'lrii . ■ Et ift ba3- 

log WAlcr, bm tlio iinili ) I : h« «lt i< bu-- < 

altghtlv aolubli- •■« ■ in hot wnt.-r (Ebolmas.) — 2. Hy pr.-«- 

a amino ml t with oxalate of potttL [Kiohtor. .YVusr* G«ym*l. I, 16.) 

Ifc tit i.i.i i.ik d by Kbt i :•.-.. ■ '"ii-i-:- of i lalpaar ■j.-Inum-j) 
ponder or crystalline gmiui, wbicli, accord :i ■ 
of J'&S. The woonJ jirucvuH yield* m yellowish white paw.lar. (Rlchwr.) 

A-fetf*/ 100". EMflft, 

*IW , 2** . 76-19 

OCT 72 ._ 19-** i»-» 

2 HO I* ... 4.i. < <M 

cwWjO^sAq jra .... 10000 







.... &>3; 
,- lf-88 

._ 1304 




i; :o» 

i ' 20 '" f0*464flj .... 414 
* FtfUgot founJ b-'jQ p.c. carbon. 
*I 'In- felr-dl)od «U Ik 


... 100*00 -. 


100* — 12(y. k*' ' <<ii' in-ivh .n fM ir cent 
of wuter, wbicb it tike* up agnin from ibo air; at 300*, it tarns brown, 
;irnl i- OOnTWtfjd afalOaf inxUnUv, Willi oviIuIsmi ••( nal'i and r;irbontR 
acid, into n coppor-eolourod powder of aranouu ox:d-\ vliiofl by ignition 
in the uir, ia converted iuto green uruuoso-uraiiic oxide (Bb» 

CHaC t O r )0» r 2Aq = al'O f ICC ♦ 2.\ v 

Tho iimr txnlr gad bvSV preytnniljr obfainM by HtmIIiii. •■■ ■ tliU be 

rrr*nli«<l Cho unnnui *iiil» n* motullic UIBttB, ~ TV* -iy. Oil expu«*d 

mi continually given off carbonic oxido and «n I -rues 

in viuviiic relative quuv.iiy; becomes turbid; and deposits violet-brown 

f uimiio!" ur;init- oxide, iHl all tbfl oxalio acid i 
lifjuiil i« ibi'iiln: i. f)nrci])itattd I mooo-Qrnfllo bj Unity 

nwanic* a yellow colour, and tftntpOttd to tltonirbccomai jwrfootly y^ltow* 
by convemion into uromebydmir | Ebahaao, ) —Tbo salt di*n»>lrc« in 125 
pta. of water nt 14* nfcd Kfl -M pt*. of boiling; water; it d)Aiolvo»>nmrwh»t 

: iil\ iii tbo .itrungcT ooiaff, and exaily in warm a<]Ucoiiii oxalate ef 
ttmnonlra op potMh. wttli ronnnUoc of double gaits which cry 

Im#n.) An oxeau of 04|n4JOin oxalic ncid •Jii-rJvi^ n 
in ibo cold, Tbo yoLlotr flolution, which scarcely 

• up, yields on cvupomt- tnllin* cru«ttf. and win 

ul af contact >f air, yicldj nr. . rxddal 

form <>fa pornlor dinrlitnteol Ins) <nmidorir, A*. Tr. 8, 1, 2S€,) 

^NMicnc rxlm. — lie dark g icn. n-idiib on 

tlio cox;' ! rccipitatcd nnn> a I ydmto in tot aoid oxalate of 

•UUKifiU, yicida by cvnforattoa, cryotals wlticb must be freed *s com- 


& . r 





1/ a* |h**«ibl* from admixed oxalate of ammonia bj rOcry*:all;iation 

Cryrt'ilt ifrirtt orrr oif of' t : RunmrUlvre 

Ml' i; ... 102-4 ... U-02 

LO U lil*tfn A 7*66 

CK* — 72 .... ii-ZB M-ti 

HO —..-.. 9 ... i <2 

C*tNH« I Uja' IO'i .... 10000 

AmWmfa-urtmiG Oxalate. — Urnnio oxalnte dissolves abundantly 
in warm BtjttOOBI MDBBOBJft, BOd yield* beautiful yellow transparent 

prunu when tlio lolulion id evaporated, (Pclijtot, .V. Ann, CAim. I'Ay* 
). Twelve-aided priami belonging bo the rigit ]'msui*uc system, with 

«dral mitiiiiui.. /Vf 7 '», Lugatfior «iili the (-moo, bjr which tin 1 lateral 


u = V$\y 55u:n= 160* «'- 


edgo between n and « behind II truncated .jf : X b:ick wards = I IS 
- 115' 15 iy:«= 100* 30; m 


NH> 17 .... 611 

UW „ 144 .... 51-80 52-G 

CO* « ... 25-90 „ 2B-8 

&HO- 4i -.. U10 

C*;VH\i."-'i>\0 B *4Aq 378 ... 10000 

(*«litr»( fc>uu<l in the tilt, B 6 p.c. carbon «<t J-SM ; h» «appoit« it to cottUin • 
i \«. w*t#c. 

0W OmUt*. — Recently precipitated uranoua bydrato 

tailed with an uaucous eolation of Kill of som-l, i* covorted into a £"*y 

powder, only a roij -mall quantity remaining in Kolution with a j-tv.-n 

ir. Tbo pawdi r. J. v- tt«d in I rOtOrt »lu-r having bom dried over oil 

«4" vitriol, bccomcfl firot brown, then block: ^ivc* off 1308 percent of 

water; and leave: a mixture of uranona oxide and oatbonate oj pwt- 

Injog 4H'CtO pyr «rnl. of tbn hall ;im urinous oxide and 

7'10 »• po cording to which number* the unit tliould bo = KO+- 

t-ttTC+lOAq. (KammcUbcrg, l*0$f. 59, 20.) 

Patamo-uranU Oialate. — Obtained by Kitnrnttng a liot tqOftOttl 
•*lut< >nil oxalate of potaib with u runic oxnlato, Altering hot. and 

kavinx 111 OB 10 crystalline by cooling. Lane, lemon yellow 

oklrqbc t '"-, transparent and permanent io too air /-'■•/. m, 

191 . . . ' ./-Mi 40*; ..• or u :m=Ill a 2*'; «■ . »t = u'o ST; 
4:n=I.W3' i ' MM. i :■.'--, - :,ri.| „- : vr. nil' all iu wntor at 100*, ami i- 
<vnvort#4 at '.W0' into a black mixture of uranoo* oxido and carbonate 
of notatb. or if the air boa iiccow to it* into a yellowish red mixture of 
carbonate and urinate of p»ta«h. Tim a quo oil* solution in not d>-< 
i . axpoeoro to •Boahtao. CblorUo of calcium doM not (i 
alf the oxalic acid from it. and the precipitated oxalate of lime eon- 
al«o wran*te of lime. (Kboluioo, JV. Ann. Chim. I'/iyt. i, 189; 
*UoAnn. Pkitrut 43,809 ) 

C<y*t*U**4. BMBJBB, 

KO 172 I0-3G ... lft-8« 

. 1U0 M-62 4K-92 

72-0 24'B1 - - 84T1 

3)1" /;o 9-31 • v-.v. 

rou ix. 

C\K.UHyjl>"*Saq JEM'2 . lOO'OO 99-5G 


FTUYI.tXE: OXYfiRN-Mrcr.FrS C*II*0». 

When tirouio oxalate i* cUsVO] ^c*aa ©* *«» aquoout solution of 

normal oxalate of pntOafl. ami the hot filtrate evaporated, nearly uJi the 
doaUa »alt u deposited, and uiav be purified by svaryvUltiatcOfl It 
brita the fom of muh.II afltrogaitd crystal* rminblink' ihosr nf gypsum, 
noil quickly giving off thair water a littto above 1U0-; their aqueous 
BOlvttan Li doeomproed by annahino. Those crystals contain 19*70 per 
cent KO, 40*50 l : 0\ 23*63 CO*, ami 1305 Aq. fth< NH of which is 
98-92); their formula U ihvtfuro 3(K0 > C^ + 2(l" , , ,C ,, O') + lOAq. 

JtanganoM Oxolatt.- MtagtDOBI carbonat* form* with aqiKoua 
oxalic acid a liq i vrbiob ihc salt is dopooltod in the fuim uf \ wbita 

crystalline powder. (Bergman; Hnusmuuu and I.nwctithal.) The same 
■alt is quickly produced on mixing n ii-.i t-.. ililuti* wilurbm of a o 
gaucus &\l with oxalic acid (Hcrtpnau), or with oxalate of pot a* li or 
ammonia. (Buckolx, W. Gehl. 0; 676.) Execs* of oxalate of potash 
•prevents ihc preciintutiou, by forming a double salt. (WinckelMccb.) — 

ntooompdmn UiikcwUo lormed, with orolntloa oi auboxtlc sold OS 
treating manganoso-mangnnic oxide or poroxido of manganese wi " 
nqucoua oxniio acid. (Hergman, Pobcroincr.) 

'['In- .lUiiio powder exhibit* a reddish tiut wheu dry. f 

icdina, f.rhtb.) Wlirii the nit h precipitated by oxalate of |mta>h 
manganous sulphate dissolved in 100 pt< of % titer, it separate* in noodles 
after a few day*, Tho salt contain* 24-16 per cent |5 At.] of wutcr, no 
portion of vram i* ghwa off *t 100 . ((mbuo.) At a red beat, it 
gives off water, carbonio oxide* and carbonic acid gas, and l*smw the 
grocu protoxidu. (Tr>muiiHclnH r , X 7V (>, I, L'Hli; Harnnianii.) It U 
.•ni.ij... I* ly diOOttpOOOd i»\ ii'.I ,i.lti.- uU I t Jup. r..ili / fi QMM L& 

SOU. J Aouoout ammonia precipitate* part of the mariganous oxtdo, aad 
forme a flotation, which besides ammonia and oxalic acid, still eoLuiua 
niangaiivuv oxide, and when evaporated to dryness, deposits that sub- 
stance but partially in the form of manganic oxide, *" ibat on irtaiiag 
the residue with water, tbo greater part of the manganous uxido if 
rodiwolvod. (WlMktlUiMb, .1/7.. Mann. 13, 280.) Tbo aalt dsswclref 

in ''in' | j t ■. ul n'ld, Hi'l Ml ;i itiiillei qua II tit) Oi boOlOB ^jV;,"'U 

aqueous oxalic acid (1 racid to 10 water) dow not dlMwlTO it much . 
nhiinduntly than sWOT, tint hot aqueous oxalic acid diuotrrj it in ranch 
larger quantity. {Winck«l block, Ann. Jfton*. 13,280.) It b likewise 
not very soluble in dilui add With aqucoue sulphut?, nrtriie. 

bydrochlorate, or succinate of ummonia, it fonnn at ordl j»*ra- 

tortji ■ inilnl torBtSoo, whicli, however, becomes clear when heated. 
(Witucoia, Apart 07, «t) 

Dntd *t 100°. Hausmacm 6t UwcalUI. 

2"»'nO 71 .... 40 39'M 

CHT n .... 40 oi 

aHO. _ 36 -.. SO ..... 20 98 

C*Mn*-0» + 4Aq mo .... 100 10000 

Mttnvanic Oselatt. — Brown manganic oxido forms with old con- 
centrated oxalic ucid* a brown .iiii-u, «lnrh, m !i< .ii mixed ui;b iHitash, 

assumes a reddish parpli ocdooj Qwm fomtiloi "I pcriminnashtai od . 

«h. (Fiumber i4 339.) — Manijanow or*s of too* etractarr 

D with aqueouaoxalic acid, a purplo solution, nhicb U rosolvodjoiowly 



In the oob), but immediately an ilu applicntiou nf heat, into rci I 
aei-i and meuganoiM oxalate, f be inutility of maagv tliuj |>ro- 

uptleU'd i» inu<* al*»v« Unit wbtoh COfMfOldl l« tbo i|uniility of air- 
<■ acid «Yi, i i mtu£*aoue oalt was ukewise I -11 [a 

solution tbr«mi;h llio iM«iium cf ihouaiigauie salt. (BcrtLier, Ann. CAiin, 

^imffioni<7-m(7ii^an»tu Oxalate. — Mangaaous oxalate dissolves readily 
ui an aijiirva* > I»ltl4 Of ainiiuniiu. funning a. doidilti -.ill which 

cryjtallix'** in small white needles. eflWrscw to a ypih.w ]> ^<: mi 
exp-xuro to ln» air, ami dissolve* rfhgJBg*J "i water. (Wiiickclulcoli.) 

CrjtttUiWt. I cb. 

Nil' 17 .- 10*l)'J in :.<.. 

M..D 56 _ ai-iu U 

C«0» 73 . 42-3S 12 2i 

»HO 15 ni7 27" I • 

C?(NU«,Mn)0-*.4Aq ... 170 ... 100*00 MO*!! 

Wlackelblrcfc s spawn toe Mlt to conulu 1 At. tew of water. 

Oa mixins; a not too diiuto solution of tlto salt with ammonia, k 
fc«j*e #u«* separates iu needle*, or if the solution bo somewhat stronger, 
m Use farm of ft crystalline powder. (Witickelbleck.) 


S S«' U 13 20 . 15»4 

9MaO.. 101 ., 2313 .... 27-64 

2C*'r 144 .... 37-M „* 3;-28 

* IIU .81 ... at 09 ... W'OO 

.Mi'-l.^M'.'.VlN.tJ*) 'Mi.HV + fA*!* 3M .. 11)0 Oil 

m a * 

^otOAaio-aaiij^moaj Oralatt. — Tbo solution of mun^auouc oxolat: 
le aeneous normal oxalate of potash, yields faint ro*o coloured crvetaU, 
wkkli leave woe a ignited a mixture of uiani;auou9 oxide and carooimto 
of r»'la>h tlicy an- Inoolubk in v.nWt, hut iI;>m ( 1vi; iu aqueous ox 
of |M»ea>h. (W'ineksttuVh, .inn. 1'harm. IX, MO.) 

I*vta4*u>~nttnffa*ic O/atvU t — A cold ai|uuou* KlIatJOB nf wilt of 
•HiLativl »i ili |Hil*rrirjiil peroxide, nf manjrancsft, give* off car- 
acul rand forma a purple liquid. (Van Moiw, J. Fharvu 3, 307.) 

of Armtfau Acidt rVann iqaeou oxalic aoid 
act* oo me-taAlc ar-*rii:e, but readily dtaolrei 

when cvnporuteil yield | Men, when lu.od at a gentle i 

giretip f ! yield hcautifid Vegetation*; tbetehavi 

en acid, mb I at a guutlo heat, rand »t a itTOOj 

beat yield, first oxallo acid and afterward* arsenic. Tl»e> diMoli I 
la WMtar aui aloobol. (Bergmoo.) 

^fiWr.i.: Ojnli'r. — A<|ui his oxalic acid diwolT»« ft »mall qttan- 
tily 04* iDtiannnin ox Ida j*ri'|*uxcd at u red beat, and loftvca "i» '■• 
ra4i*ift CJyrtalli»t ^rajn*- MoIto fpanngly in water. Mi< -ami? 

•alfttai* or acataloi wbortai >• utter of antimony i* nut i > by 

oi*l*o acid. (Bor^nmn.) — WIicti antuuwi 

cartuaato of a&moada from bottvr of antumouy, — or jniw-lcr of ul^a- 

b 9 


i.TUYLevk: oxic.i \--ni-, rva>. 

ri'tli. — ii boiled with oxnlio oeid, or whi»n hydrochloric or tartaric 
is poured into the hot aqueona solution uf ricitastto-antimonic oxalav, 
the Himc aiuiiiMiuic MCnfaU is likewise precipitated iu tin- firm of a white 
crystalline powder. It ii involuli uid it deoompowNl 

by hot water, wlii- iwj tho acid from it. (rVligot, 9, Ann. 

CAim.PAyt. 20,201.) 

suy .. 

| o 





10 25 

| s.i 



4 10 




% jtoMCni'o-enrimoniV Oxalate. — A rolation of Mnoxalntoof ammonia 
boiled ^ith cxecw of nntimonio oxide, yield-- (lojrcther with the delicate 
prism* of the auiiiumni-xilt'i 1 ;i!i:ipniout, ah'miii^ crystals of the 

iImmIJi' unit - [|- )ir !),<• form firf. Ilammplitorf , t'nyy. VI. «l* J Tho *alt give* 
nff only a fraction per BeSt at I00P, ami at 17.V \n already n 
blackened, and dtOOmpOtto Villi lots ©I ammonia. Watvr decomposes 
it imin -i ^i.iv ipanttnj »lm- .'i.tiuionic oxide which ihn*a not rvdi>*oIre 
on boiling. I'lie filiui D, I Bid ^t ill become* elii/Ltly turbid when btatttd, 

form* with hvdroohloria ajold :< ooplona rrysUttlna precipitate, fonsiKtinir 

v el i|ii:n!i(>n:d:ii- oi m union la, but mill retain* a largo quanta 
of antimony in tolution. (Karnrueltbcr- | 


11 CW „ 390 

4NII*0 90 

1 BMj ...., (Mlt 

2 HO 19 

<6'59 Se>43 

u-29 .. i.v-t:. 


3'12 8*22 

a(Ml«0.C-0 , ;i+2(SbO».3C?O"; + 2Aq 810 ... 10000 


TIi la wit U inalnf nua t<i the potash* salt a described l*!nw fp. 149); In rattans! 
ill ll ucrhap* : fiiNll'O.CO*) t- lSbO»,3C*0')] I 2i Nil O.CO*) * )SbO\3 
t 2Aq. (RftunncUborj.) 1 


I'otassio-anUmonic Oxalate. — VTlien CO port f panel iffuplinl 

«ot#r (ire boU«0 willi 9 p«rt* of •ntimonle oaide prep»rt*l in the humid war. 
pt». iirr iliuiolwl. (Wpnid.) — l< Tho salt ia obtained by boiling equal parts 
of pulverise*! tia-tiie Milphid«; of antimony and hyperacid oxalate of 

|kiLi Ii nil.h WiiliT, Utvlog il"' flltffttO to rrvM.illur, Bad pn.-:l v:i;l' H bf 

nomttjlUutlon. (Ijnwni#ui\ ./ Chim, mid. :i, l*:h: olao Mag. /'harm. 
HI, I V2 ) By boiling HO nnueou* solution of salt of M>rrel with cxocm 
m -:m«- oxidr. ( Uu..-y. ,/ Pharm.%4 816.) — NVhilr ricdloa, united 
in atoliuU' > ■ ! - - which redden litmu>, luive nn i i ij after • 

tranln nn ncid tti-l *. nml « ^ ■ i J :i:i rinrtii* arthm, hut flOl M povsrfnl o» 

t'rii ol t-ii'i ir cii:i tie. fLtiflnlgnrj l.ur.'.'. obll^u led prUms. 

( Buaay) : tnu pared prune. (P61igot, /. Ann. I 

ire off thoir water ($5 per oenl) at 100'; but a certnio pvriiou 
of tin- oxalic acid appears to volatiliu it the sanio time. '!' 
■olntiun diluted witli water becomu turbid, and di>pmiM antianonie 

-in a white powder, leaving Mult of corrol in ■- 
teg>»ther witli oitdcoon <« *>lc twit. [Buaty I he oqueona -olutfen 

in dee*mpoacd vruli precipitation by minora] acida, The ?alt dioeolree 

[\irta of water at V, and in a smaller quantity af hot wat*r. 


CalialMfoa of Ike crjiUl* . *.o>r>iinp to 15umt. fiuwy. 




14 IN, 

■.wo . 

. trio 

.. 127» .... 
9CG . 

... W33 ..- 24'»Oto2o*2 
.... 1370 ,. 1 . i 


inn . 

6 11" • • 

M'Q . 

... 950 ., y»7 „12 

»04'6 . 

,. 100 '00 

Aeconling to PtHgot, the formula i« 3KO + SbO , + 7C , 0» + «Ai|. — 
Acooniiu' to Lti»*aijpH\ the crvrtaU c<niij:i L'OlU per cent of water. 
Po4«itly La«»«ijp>o's Mill wm ilil!< x- hi from thoobovo. 

^ According toltarjimclobcig (Vwf'j. fl-J, 53). tat Fi I oc oxalatoi 

of antimony and poiasiiiim. When n solution of nun' binoxal'iteof po 

U 1*0 1 1* I wi'.ii aiitimoille OXtdc >|>i.-p:it< I mm AJganifri-lintt'ilcr), UH lullg 

a* any of tin- oxide ij diaaolvcd, the nitrate yiol I no u KW 

<roj> of small cry*al» (a), on additional < ( i unity of winch aro obtained 
by i »u Boon, however, lai tola of another enlb (6) 

OO* Imi and togptlirr with iln*m, <Tysl.nU of lis. ftfflon 

hydrate of oxalate of potaih C 4 IIKO" + Aq. (p. 1*6), alao of tho 
ijuadnixi.-ate, CHK0 b iC*H , 0*+4Aq.; anil oowotimc* aleo crystals of 
U0lL«r double tail i BJOH toloblo fli.i!) a i.r b. 

•i. Tlii* *nlt i.n formed even nlnii i!n- relation "f Ijiiiuxnlate of poUali 

u n- rated with utinionic oti'le Tho cryttalfj Vaioli 

ire jr*aerally email and iodUlinct, belong to tb* obliqo* prim 
•yattm. [Tor tU nMiorCDeni m.l tl» following with »** 

fcaniwUhrrc'n memoir.] —The oalt is pui ti.llv d< coin|»oae*l l>y water, with 
Mim I atittlimiii'' inidci :m<l (niiiialiorj of blUOXalfl • of ]•" 

lm iti* ^prater part of the #.ilt ery«tnllixea again from the liquid, mixed 
U UjI ntb cryt-ih <>f h. Tbo colntion form-; with b y-Ii »ch i one ueid a 
«or><iou»* crystalline |ti-ci|hI.i ninj^ ;i larjf* quantity of <|uadrox- 

alatc of potash, and eoj'tly redtiaolvinjj i I esooM of Utt M M 


II C*>* ... 596 

iKO £j< .... 

tM'i 306 

T no W 



. 400 

• I • 




BbU* p 3(?U>>«7Aq ... iOOI . 10000 

LOO ; ' 

! Jiiir to *tt ■ iio tail nu bo rffudeJ as a oovipoaatl of iho other 

4mVW mIu, ti. [iKD.i :O')4Sb<>>,30W]4-[2(KO.CO^4.(8b(>>,iC , O»;] . :\.,. 

~T"W CmviM of IrfMr I' UaotMiJ •* 1 1 1 1 i . . i ■ ■ ■ ill. UlUr haa nnt FM bMfl uoUrci. 

< •!•<> f«op»M« tbe ilnplev rftrmula -\(KO.< -i \>) * iM.d'.r.oi^) * 3Ao. 

ki.- . well witli the nuiljn*, giving, iu fatt, 4019 Isir, 

X-J2 KO. »-i; aoO*. uil i 0:Aq, 

i>. Tim cryitaU of tliii rait nrc in ffvucml Inrger than llioie of *t, and 
rtry I • '!»•■ righl pri ra*tlfl lyitoa, 

Honl«4 to 10' To to Tsi p.c. (noarly J At.) wafeor; 

at I mo anaoanU to 10*83 p»o. (7 At, I; ^adnt l?i" J , tho wbok ol 

the water s 13*00 n.n (!» At.) u irmu off At 2.W, the tali blank 
dofomrx*e<, ami if aflerw.ird. ili-.-.f.-I in m;i!.t, pnlforulcnt 


The mU ili"olrc# oomplctely in water. Tho dear, ncid solution 
l-araraon turbvj wLcc liratrd. anil <lota nol recovei id transpartiMT orj 




trace* of OT«lic acid am! pouuh. Hydrochloric aehl *dd*l in 
quantity thrown do* ■■■■■ oxalate; Ami *ft*r this procipitato 

been « ; I further addition of acid produces a crystalline prvci- 

pltftU COBdwtinf obiefly of i(unlroxaliUe of potash. The solution « tLe 
nit precipitates baryta, Lbm and *ilv»r niIu. Ibi proafpllatai probably 
otBiMtfri; "i uulotfoui *i..»jM«-- , it. 


ecw — aio-o 

3 KO .. i -.- 141*6 

6bO» i «•• 

fl III) fll'O 


M-63 37-82 

23 91 21-13 

35-80 «'M> 

13'69 , 1*06 

3(KO.CH>»)f(ftbO , .3C l O , )+9Aq Wl-6 ...,100-00 100*00 

c Sometimes obtained from the mother-liquor remaining ofter tho 
«cparatiun of the two preceding salts; tlio crystals beloug to iko doubly 
oblique •• -.-(-'in Tin- -Jill f units a clfllf •olttttoo hi arftlWj 

hydrochloric acid precipitates ie in the tamo manuor as a and 6. 

OyitaIlix*<t. Rammflibfff. 

TCW 252-0 .... 47-0r 4V-43 

3KO . M-4 tT"tt 1H7 

SbO* 101*0 2M'5« . .. 21*77 

4 HO 86-0 #i-:2 .. ; W 

JCKO^COOtCSbCV^C-O-J+lAq 635-1 ... 100-00 10000 

Dm raanpOPJUan of 0)1* salt must tie caasldtrr-l an doubtful. «* It was not 
•Untly obtained. (fUmmelsbcrr.) 1 

Telluric Oxalate. — Aqueous oxalic acid docs not dissolve dry tell 
ox!de\ bur it. ili**oIve* the hydrate, and yield* crystalline grams coo» 
aisting of radii divcr^in^ from a centre; taoy dusolva roadi \y ia 
williout decomposition, (tienxdias.) 

. i-i.ii- 

Oriitat* of Hismii'h. — Aqueoiw oxalic aeid blacken*" biamatlt, -srithmir 
dissolving it. It combine* readily with the hyd rated oxide, forming a 
-v/hito tiotrdcr. PlOffl DltTfttOoJ Mflmatb, it throw* down, in the cot 
of an hoar, transparent mfclij ided gfalfti, "hub do D01 boOOBsl opa-iuo 
trj inunanuon b water, and like the whit* powdor. contain 30 per rent 
Of ImmmiiK; i M i T)M Mkll |g1llted i" I olOM VOsMl gives off 

water and oarb d, aod loaPM metallic biMiiuth. , 

it**, Ok'm, /'/<■«-. .',■!. Mfc) It contains 62 03 percent of BiO> ( 1 2C- 
10 1 11 uud 27*86 0. (Scbwnr-senbcrg. Ann, Fhan*. 01, 12,6.) IPio- 
bomforaO WP + «-\. ( | 

When the finely pulveriacd salt is boiled for some timo with wntv>r,wbK-b 
abstracts the oxalic acid, there remains a white crystalline powder widen 
dccomiMiM 800° and 2 40', with cvoluliuu of carbonic acid, ia 

insoluble iti wld dllttto nitrin acid, hli/htlv wdnbl-? in strong nitric :.--id, bill 
dissolves with tolernblo facility inlijdroenlnrie acid. (Heinti, r<$y.C3, 90." 

3BiO» irt . 

2W. ... lit . 

1 HO a? .. 

73-49 - 
- 33-3:' 
6-19 ... 


. 3110 
. . 416 

3l»(>»^t-rK4'U 1 | fi|S 


M n 

'tuff.— Produrjod i i |fce Run of %3 
treating tine Willi oxalic ocid ; tlir action bobg atttjiidOvl with r»l 



evocation of ni; — 2. By precipiuuinj* aulpbato, chloride, or nitrate 

with axalic acbl, wlurh throw! dm-. 10 conipIeUfly (Brrginan,} 

— 3. By pr*eipiutinfl iinr-*ilu with normal oxalate of pot:- MWr, 

M*$. J'Aarm. 3ti, &t.) - White, hod- crystalline p«w<Ii*r \SrJiimllor.} — 
Oivee off all iu water abovo 101)', and afterward* at a ttftflftt Dttl 
yield i nrlniiiic oxide ami carbonic acid, learitu/ tin oxide of line poeuo**- 
m* p*cnliar propttnim. (Dulonjr.) At a red boat. It glrc* off" equal 
v.. I jrao» of ecrbouio acid and carbonic oxido £a*ct T and leave* yellowiah- 
'in of xino, which doec not iucrcovo in weight when ignited in 
lie air, au4 ia therefore not a cuboxido. < Renault, Ann. Chim. /'Apt. 
62, 834; Petouao, ^»«- G4w /7<y.-. ;:». 112) Ti..- --Vidua] oxide 
ilnriiv, excepting that it ttometirnex retain* a little oar- 
booi« add. (Marciiaml, Pb£f< 3tf. 144.) — Oxalat* of xino U «curoolr 
Miotic id water, except in presence of cxocm of acid. (BmM.) ft 
rlicBoWce b aqoeoui by lr. -chloric acid and in ammonia. (Thompson.) 
Also at otrfaotuU^ of ammonia; 1mm tnenlpluatt, hTdrochlonte mtrnte and 
imeciDatc of ammonia ditsalvo it but imperfectly, ovon with tb« aid of 

According to Brett, it dissolve 3 

boat (WitUtein, /fry*?* 17. 33.) 
pUtely in hoi sal-ammoniac. 

lZ«n . .. HO .... 

co- . n .... 

i no 

Sehinrller. Maich*a4. 

42'W 42 93 

38 30 38'32 37»ft8 

itf-ia .. . iv-w \9+{ 

C*2ft 1 0"+UT. — 160 ... I00W .... . 100-00 100-00 

: : Oxalate. — a. Dcpoeited in noodlcc when oxalic acid 
livid™! t" ;»'i .I'iiircu- Mi!:iiinn i.f' ol slou Aiijuirsatunited with 
aanvmia. (Wackonroder, Ann. Phttrm. 10, C3) 

•■. Wbou an U'juc'U? solution of acid oxalate of ammonia ia directed witb 

cajbu»a'.r of line till it Ifl DOttpfotftly saturated, oxalate of xinc separates 

■ !!..:.•;■• "ben rwiptunlirl lwuw.1 Uiilk-tvliitQ imduh-v uliirh 

•lr.wljr effloreaee and give off water, art Hourly iusoliible in ooM water, 
bo! aie AttempOMd by hot water, with separation of carhonat« of sine. 
<KaywT, ftgf. CO, M0.) 

* flysjifl Ksjstr. 

IU «—.- 58 .... UW - 1(560 

flXaO . SO .... IJ-W 17'fiH 

1CW 21ft ... 4J*M* Ift'74 

00 ... 1982 

8£<^(aNB*)0"]*C«Za*0»*6Aq iU « 10000 

j.*t*uk QtaUU, — A cenccnlnOed rolution of normal oxalate of 

me with oxalate of xinc, and then filtered, yield* 

.11 Inuiffareiit tnlrit**, which efflorotce, arv nnuly inanluU* 

In e afl 1 *n» decomposed by boiling water, with yopnrution of 

•xakl« oi cine. (Kaycr) 


KO... 47-2 - U-19 24-88 

ZnO 40-0 -. 3019 18-a 

C^O» 720 ... 3«-*S 

36*0 18*4^ '.'I1-..6 



*ttf Cadratnoi. — Formed by precipitating a eadminm-falt witb 
aiieaiiao oxalate*' (Suoooycr). orwitii trw oxalic acid. ( Mar-hind p i'-r^y. 


■":s, I 4'J ) White crv-tatliti'- powder. (Man-hand i — Doe* outline weight 
i i i aflVO OT whm lira lad to 1 DO", liui ttlicp heated in ft rlnM'il ymv! trt the 
melting point of lend, it g&rea oft water. o»rbonie acid, and carburettod 
bjdnif^u cm, and leares preen suboxide of cadmium (V, 33.) if the 
temperature bo »uddenly raided abore tin.- point, charcoal i 
and at a red limit exert* x reducing action, no that a mixture of metal and 
oxide remain* bahhul ( Marchand.) — The rait d <■••• Dot diaaolff la water 
(StrOttMVflp a*ffO in proaenee of free oxalic ac4d [Chi al If 

ii •.nil!.- ". :i .» c< !l i mow . "iii'ion .,f ■lanmiftnTi (Brctt)i ilao ii 

ammonia, and iu sulphate, nitrate and BUcciuatc of ammonia. (Wittatvii 


:cjh 128 ._ M-K .... is-fli 

C'O f ft . ;iom 3019 

i BO M ... ]->2i 16*00 

CW3>« LA* . 236 

Hill 0(1 




, ot 


S!«iui>m* O.ntf.i'r. — rX X»riit<i? Till iiniiiiT»i'il in a warm :i<|in- nis 

■oluticm of oxalic acid, blackens at first, nnd uji*m off fraa, nnd afterwords 
bMODM BOTtNd "iiU | whit* powder, wbtlo a largo quantity of tin 
dieaolvc* IB ftfaa I'upiid. (Bergman.) Acconlingto Ha.uaiiiaiiu.iiid Loweii- 
tlial, the quantity of tin dissolved \* acVCOly pen rpiililr. Tin: |h*ti- 

tiitato which oxalic add fonwi A itumotu lacetata jrleldt Sy dry aiitlU 
atlon, water, carbonic oxldo, carbonic acid, and <>M|>ynMiinatic »il r and 
leave* light brown ntannour* oxide {Bouoiingnult, Ant* Cftim. l l t*$*. .*J4, 
266* ) It dissolves in hot livdrochlorate and nitrate of ammonia. (Brett.) 
Form* xliiiiin^ needN*> wliuli :irn iii-oluMi* in oild water, ami in- partly 

decompoted by boiling writer. Form* donVilo »alu with the oxalate* 
ammonia, pota«h, and toda. (Bouuuct, Ann, Phnrm. <M, *Yl*.) 

H An ii^iicnu* solution of protochloridi: of tin fornix with oxalic acid 
white, orrmtiine, pulverulent precipitate of atannnu* oxe 
Mater, only u suiu.ll quantity of tin remaining in the liquid. —The salt in 
]h Miiuirnt In ttio air, and doy» not part with Jill iu wat^r at WO*, nr 
even at considerably higher tonipcrnturca, 2 or 3 per cont I 
obstinately adhering to it, even when it id heated to between 100'' 
180' in i ciKiint uf air. It ia very little soluble in water, either 
or cold, iioulnhln in oxalic acid, sparingly soluble in cold dilute acids, 
J. ni 'ii-: oIvok rcmlily in hot hyd rochloric or nitric aci»l, in the latter com 
with evolution ol red vnpenrH. Tbo mtrio a<*id »lutioii, when heated BHC 
aorae time, dcpioiti a Urge quantity of atanuie oxide. — St*nn->u» oxalate 
diMolves iu hot oolution-i of ummeiiiacal railtn, and partly separate* out 

Hamlin in mii.iII cry»t»lH on roolin^ It f'nnnx douKU» «dt» wifli l!in 

oxalatOA of ammoniu, potiuh and soda. (Hauinuinu and LuwentliaI,^HN. 
riumn. 89, 104.) 

HnniiiiKun A. Lv»«utli*l. 

ISnO ., 1M .... 65-37 ........ 63%t «Al 

CK-fl 72 .... 54*63 33*64 33*43 

HO .... 2*M ™ 2*91 


2»oO,C«0 n nrC»Sn"O«.... 
<nu drhal U 100°. at 


10000 100-00 .... M-96 

tb«4« MtlfM« g1TC« fof 

160'. The mem of 
0-C5-1I; ©jilia »cid -34'fll. J 

t. Acid StiU. — A<|Uo<>mi oxalic aOio\ after l»eing dij^eatnl n i .h m 
(vitf. «'«.), ta- ' <till pcddon* litmu«, and v*m>|.U prismatic crystali, 

(NIC 0XA1 


*r when the '■ lotion [i arapomtcd <■> dry new, a homy nirus, whoso 
**l«\»f volition fcrut ft OOploUC pn *t] Itftl* with Ifafl nlknli*. (Bergman.) 

Stannic OratiU. — Stannic oxido diiuolvo* rcndily in oxalic acid 

(uVrj-n&an.) — T Recently precipitated stannic oxide (ubtft:iivd by yi*-v\- 

piuiirg llic chloride with sulphate of soda) dissolves readily in a ran 

i ill A natation nearly natural* ■! with MMAll "tide 

uhi>-b,u well aa the perfectly tut urn ted »olution, turn Idm- un ■ \ pu iim 

to sauoliinc even if the air be excluded, but become* colourless again in tho 

'lark n evaporation, ehJoiDf wliiu' Inmiuw containing variable 

ii o»iii it n^ i>f »i imiii- nsido, nml becoming, by rapMttad crraUlllxatloPj eou- 

Unuallv poorer in that sub*tance. till :it length ptireoxnlic acid crystallite* 

'lb.? Kolution wit urates with ctunnie oxido is tome 

siilky, ami yield*, whoncvapoTatcd, not n, bat ft i oloaritfsjallw 

which driai up to gummy fragments. The dried bkU jkLdfl by tritUZBtiofl 

a win OOUipOsitkm tl not constant, the imoOBl 

of stannic oxide vary ire between 11 and HO par cent. \\ hta tttftttd witL 

I quantity of cola water, it becomes continually more 1. 

iLe solution of -tannic oxido in oxalic acid yield* with the sulphate*. 

hyilpM-lilurut*'.". nitrate-*, Ac of tho alkalis, b white precipitate 

hydra**! stannic oxalate, soluble in water, OnlBti of ioirimim proatOsl no 

Sulpnurh n ti and hydrochloric neid at ordinary tempera* 

• .uced the .- mi ..Jul,!,: :n water and in excess of 

alphorio acid. —Ammonia fatUM the ftMQfl pracjpitfttftj 

scJutile in water mid in exceat) uf ammonia. BYoni the ammoniacal 

sclulion t)»» |- separate* a^ain after a vrhllt, bflt ll tbifl no 

longer toluol in ummouio, though itill eoluhln in water, in wlm-h 

however it tiktflriN becomes insoluble, alter remaining for aomo time in 

i. t 'siili tho aiwnoniac*] lipid Tin; fixed alkalis tvnil alkaline 

carbonate* aim furm white precipitate*. Kolubln in uiirr iinii»'di:in\y 

»(ter insoluble ifter remaining for some limo 

id i'. boing heated with it. All those soluble precipitates dry 

up at MO", f-rming jjummY frnfrments, which arc aiurn;ud.*, nearly 
insoluble m water, that Liquid merely extracting a little oxalic add from 
, ned a Intro of At&nttic oxide. At •* nsfl li.-nt, the* leaf o n ».imll 
*2«anlity of churi'oal, and when that ih burnt away, n residue of litfbt 
yellow •tncmic oxide. They nil appear to have tbo same composition, ru.: 

lliiUtWBtlQ A lyjrtcullial. 

CO» ....... 

IV Hll 

900 .... 
72 -.. 



a. *. 

83C4 .... 83'2H 

o ;* viii 

ISSnOSCO* 1 12A H 


mo oo 

loooo .... 100 oo 

« mi precipt«t«l b« chloride of » aim on hire ; 6 by cold nitric acid. (Kauiuuan 
* Uveatrul. > 

Amx±sniv-*tnunt>us Oxalutc. — Olitaiucd by dlMOrftOg stannous oxtt- 
Int* >n n boiling ooacentratc<l solution of oxalate uf uuimonia. and mixing 
tlt4 solutu-ii w'ruwt gold -'iili tloohol, t' ' "me time, deposits 

tL« doable salt in skltittc 0Oapi of Mftdlaj. whfoh •jfflorewc in tho air, 
am lasoloble in aJcohol, nn<l hare n rcry swcot taat4s The oonccnUmtM 
antaiimi. when led to itself for some time. deporlU bUlduoub oxalate. 
(Hau»mamj A- l.itwealhal.) 



S11O • «8 .- 39 86 

NII«0 . 26 ... M£tS 

ۥ0* n .- an 

HO . . 9 « 6*14 

U •■> 


C^rKNtt^O + An. i;.i ion-oil Union 

This cnlt ia Ssomorpboutf with ibo potaaaiom-aalt {inf.); it fu«M hi 
JotouaUe when . Ilou<]UOt ) 

Pat<mift-ttann>tH* OxoloU. — 1 Obtained by ritwnlring recently pre. 
Ofpltated atannoafl oxnlnto in a lint coiieafltttlfljd nolimoti of neutral 
oxalate of pota-lv l'urifici by rocryctollimtion. (Haiumonn A L 
thai.) — 9 Bf tofclfag acifl oxalate of potion witli n largo excew of 

.••I:iiii:n>l.\ <i\i<1«t. 1 I tl i>j'.'lli-nl , Q iluil f lc>;. jirixni:i I r- CT\ UtH ■ I tl I ' 

solve readily in hot w iter, )*■** roidily in cold water, nn<! nrr imoluMo in 
ajoobot. (Haaimann A Low.) — Bnuquct'c »lt form* largo colourleo 

full, winch duwolve r-i'lily in cold water, fnnnin^ a solution trUoB 
bttOOWfl milky after a while, and dei uiii|mmii*ji quickly when bulli-l. •. 

"rata white g-t-hitimiu.t.nnd afterward* n black i Bott^mO 
— ThA *alt Una a strong *w*ot tn>*te, but loaves a bittor after-taal*. It 
reddens lilmiu?, and ia not decomposed when heated to 1 W iu contact 
with the air. (Hauimann A Lo wen thai.) 

H«i»minn & Lit ir*n thai. 

SnO ...._ WO .... 34-6fi »4-6» 

KO ... 41"! _.. 54-QS M4I 

CH>* 72*0 .... 36-70 MiO 

HO - 9 ... 4 J9 4 r-7 

P&tKO' + Aq. . , llifi-2 . . 10000 .. .. 100 00 

Jlft-ninnnie OmtaH, — Prnpnrnd lika thft pnta*«tum-#alt, vim), 
rcaemblc"* in Iu prnji.-r(i.»i. (Htuwtnann and Lowontbal.) Auhydroi 
Me. (Uou^uM.) 5 

\taU nf Lead, — a fiajiir. — Obtained in the form of a white 

p ( v. l.-f, by |ir..r;|iitaU8H an a<|ueoiM tolulbn nf triacetate of load with 

1*1 oxalate of ammonia, or by bulling <'> I noR&ftJ *>xalato of load 

with the n<iueoua solution of the triaacotate (which ia thereby converted 

into tbo uunnnl :i'tUU')» — and In white abimiii,' hmiiiuu, soft to 

touoh, bj nlxltu :» boiling lolntlon of ©xatnl itttrat* or aetata of 

load, and then with a email quantity of ammonia. Whan cxpoetd to 

the air, it absorbs carbonic acid, and i* rceoUod into a mixture of cw- 

bo ii at nod norma] oxnla . i . ii ■■ 

<>( nf IwmJ; n dow b bcalitw vlotton ofnltnttoof Iri-l. l>i*ing itaclf 
thereby converted into a basic nitrate. (Falonta, Ann. Chini. /*Ay/. 
104; also Ann. PAam. 4S, 205; iltO J. /»•. CMm. 85, 197,) 


8 rho o72 .. 9ft-:u . M'fl 

C:*0* , 72 ._ 9*68 95 

iPbOfOWO 1 ... ;n ...loo-oo loo-o 

,. rnrd — Precipitated in tho form of a trliiu* powoW by a^idii 
oxalic and to any nr.lui mi tA n I<".ul-*ult (BtCgflUB.) May alao I, 
obtataod in ooodloi. (1 &«M.) — Wbon oaataoualy hoatod in a 

retort, it givca off carbonic acid mixed with a >mallci ijunutiiv of carbocio 



oxiaXanJIcnveaMiboTideof load. (BatajB [TdMiiliinlljTdiiimi V.107) 

deoonrpooition tokos place at 300 , tod yield; MfttiMI 
mrbomc acid gas to 1 rol. mrbonic oxide; UiwnnUtlm Odd only, tills heat 
bo rat.«od ftumonrhiil nbore 300 to complotn the dccotnpoiition, the | 
portion of oarbonio acid becotDM somewhat jrroater (1'oluuao): 
C«PhW ■ PhH) 4 3CO« * I ( ) 

A mixture of tbo dry **ll m!i)i purr- ..f pdin-.-imn ilWonnlo* vinlrntljr 

In l..w the temperature at which tbfl lei.l-cilt alone i* decomposed ; the 

- broken by the explosion, it aftonrafda found to contain 

l«a4 and potash, bal Docbareoal fficnitiat, / fttann, I?, .'.?o.) — The 

•alt is insoluble in waU-r, but ili> -■ j! vi- - pp.-iriui'ly in MIMOIU oxalic Bold 
.•main it is inwluble in iicetln acid. (VaOqiialln J Ii tMaaolrai in 

warm squoons sal-ammoniac (Brett); also in boiling nitrato and succinate 
Buoonifl, bul Dot in can Lio ammonia or oarboi unonifl iH'itt- 

<rt, «3, 330.) Soluble in DitrU add 

(Amm. Ckim. 01, 1*0,} (Po^. 47, I0».) 

JM«f or un». 

I H.I 1 





C'rVO* 296 _.. 10UUU0 Hio-iMi 100-000 

OrafA-nitrate of L*ad. — a. ffffjfc — 4PbO,C*Ph*0•-^■6(PbO,NO , ) + 

i^r— When exainidc is boiled with a strong solution of nitrato of load 

X with ammonia, this salt i« precipitated dnfing tot ebullition in 

whiui. •hiarag, oryttalHna grain*) which nui l>o washed with ooU water 

■ml dried in raeuo. If the boilinir bo too long continued, and the liquid 

neutral nitrato of lead (whlsn '''^j^T •♦ownnti lul.nme,) 

><i into the following **U e. 'f no «dt a in lilt 

ffhen basin 01.1 i'l ii tailed with a solution of nitrato of 

■I in a double qimntily of water, the ebullition beiii£ stopped before 

ill a U eonrertod into 6 (Pel': i CM** Phyt 7: ( 104.) 

I. A'orw^.^-C*Pli l O , J-H(PbO ( NO*) + 4Ao ( . — DitooT*wi by«on, 
{Pkii. M*f. J. hr. Ath. It, 166.) and \> T I "JarfUl 

J«nurv; atssV.S* Vhem 15, 408.)- I. Knrinrd l«v adJifi;.' ft tolutma of 
uunual noetatO of Jo k] {•• .1 BUEtON at i iu* ■ QJDalti MM M it ii I I ti ■■: 
qoantity of nitric acid.— or dilute oxalic uci'J to * mixture of a dilutu 

of norma] a^oraio of lead And a largo ouaniity of nitric 
or ty nixing load-rine^ar with a larjro quantity of nitrio aoid f and 
slowly adilinv" dilute oxalic acid. The double salt' 14 lb- 

1 » wbUo in sbinin:' l;ni imi , the precipitation booominc slower m tho 
i^oantity of oxalii* tJd in tho liquid diminixlna. (Johnston.) — 2. The 
salt likewice vofumtcj from a tolution of nxnUte of lead in nra «liluto 
nitric aetd. (Uujunim.) 9, It 11 lunlm^j normal oxalata 

of le*J with a airoof aolutioa ol Ibl nil itO, . I'elouw.) Tho crystals 
iau»t not bo vnaned irith "iter. (Jolmotun.) — r7Ml«i DMnona, *ix- 
▼bo«o races are lonjitudi lallj itrinUd M krOfl iicimIIos 
fJobnatoul; obliqM rhomblo plisBH (Millor); rhombic tables (Dujardio); 
bexa^oual Ubles (Polou«). 

CryfUWiHt. Ji)lm*i<iii. 

4 n^t H9 . r.r c . 6;*2B 

I NO* H« 1 

m. .1 42 

C*rVO*»- : 4An GO* _.. I00-« 


KTim.i SI nMCliN-M 

TBa «H lose* nothing nt 100". but given .»(! t'Sfl p«r cent of v,itor 
towardn 2*J0"; nt a temperature some whit below 300". it cyqIyn nitron* 
funics and Itsrw carbonate of Km J, which at a lumber temperature u 
coiii cpuil iii id the *ixi«lir. iJolniaiim, Dujardlc. i I; El aecutnpota u hy water, 
the decomposition taking ploco with peculiar facility if the silt hu Dot been 
previously dried at 100°. Boiling watec dissolves out nearly nil thenitrato 
of h-ad, leaving 52"3S percent «>l a mixture of oxalate of lead and a a mall 

oilailtilv ttf iiinli'c-nir|nwil double >all. (JtdiiiAtmi.) Cold W*lt:| decom- 

poses the wilt slowly, boiling water anioklj. (Polourn.) The wit dis- 
*oKvh in wain) nitric nod, ami sojiurutc* Bgftitj un . PujardmJ 

fiitowfa plumbic Orofafe — Acid oxalate of f*tnali digoaUd wj 

hydrntc-d OXldc) of luid. dutaulvna ft mall portion of il, and 3 eld EBaU 
BfJfdlai viiii h tire permanent fa the air, hut KB daoompOHtd by alkali*. 
(W attCtL) 

Cr*,0** + 15 Ai|.] A •iilniion ..I IiIqq p0ta*»i<»-rlir-'iiiic. <•-. ilntc fori 
with normal iwvtair of h'.id, n bluish gJV.y precipitate, which doe* riot 
low weight nt \W j while- still B&Outf, i' J l Ho l t *W In boUtatt chromi 
OaJfttOj I »'t Acpamte* again unchanged on cooling. (Boiift&J 

Ferrow Oxnlau. — a. AvmuL Fouud in brown coul strut. i in 

form of utrmboUttite or /roa-rmtj yellow, nf on, gr. 3*18 j rarely 
capillary crystala; generally in undo maAtc* of tibrouj, gruiuii 
compact" texture, tomowhat tinnier than gypsum. (Uroithaupt, Gild. "O, 
426*) Mariano d« Rirero and Vauquclin, Ann. 6'aiV/i, Phy« t 16% 207; 

■tar. 8dm, .'J;?, it*.) 

Prrpnratton. Iron dissolves in aniicoua oxnlio acid, with evolution 
of hvilmiM'n. forming :it tirnt U acid aalt; but as lUo acid beoomca further 
mturatcd with ferrous oxide, the normal salt i> precipitated. (Hertcliaa, 
LcArb.)- — 2. The rtalt ia also obtained by prooipitetiog giWMi vitriol mUU 
Dttfo ;"i'l (A. Vnyi'l, J. or Gktm> 6, 339.) Ilia iron is almost wholly 
precipitated; if the nliraui bo afterward* evaporated, the Ucfl povttattljf 
ferrous oxalate settlo down, and tho liquid filtered therefrom contain* 
nothing but Rulphiiric ncid and a truce of iron. (A. Vogel.) — 3. Bv pro- 
dptetmi KTitii \itriul «ii)i iidiiiial oxalate tl putaalb iRaiiiiuofohcor. 
/*o^y. 4<, '-. MM; GH, 2?fi). — 4. Wlcu u solution of ferric nxalau* 

in hoiHHiiH oxiitio ucid 14 expoved to the •mi, carbonic ncid ia cvolvixl, 
■dhnw flOnlatfl pr^ol^taUd. (I'-'borciuor, $cfue. 6*2, 00.) I).,kiww 

cjiIU ft|| prr*ii)kato, J.ichtAumbbJctilr. 

Prepuicd bv (2) it ia a yellow powder (A. Vogel); by («): *in»U 

lemon-yellow ubiDg oryiUlt, (IMttftfatTi) 

t Native. Rauimclib. Vouqiicni. 

2r60..-.- 72 ..„ 4211 4113 53 BO 
CO* 73 .... 43-11 42i0 
SUO B7 .... 1678 16-47 





C**0*+S*a, ... ITI lcio-iirt 


aPoO n .... 

C*0« Fl 

4 HO S6 ... 




lUmrocNb. (3). 


C M ro*0»4-4Aq .... 1»0 

at aa eultcr date lhaa 

.. 100 


found tUo 4A<|. 

ntftuc OXAUTC 


Tlio salt, whon ignited in a retort after thorough drying, i* i i! 

: j*rt reaclrcd into wotcr, carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, »nda tnixtalt 

-f<nic oxide witli iron containing a email quantity of charcoal. 

According lo M:i u tjii* {Pop?. 9, £8), Oik rwidne mini-i. uf ni»i*lltc 

iron, lot wit obtained by <4) give* offnt fint 3U"0 percent of water, 

Utcn at BttxtSN of 2 vol, carbonic oxido and 3 to I. carbonic acid ga«, ami 

ivc* 39 per cent of a irnvi li lihu-k pyrojdmric powdeff, eoflttatlng of 

MM oxide and carbide of iron, which when ■tnmgly igfl 

■foes nir riirlinnir oxide, :ui<l i» converted int.* :i mixliin- nf iron 
and ferret:* OXfdt, i t I> iherolrer, $otu>. ii'2, i»H. ) — Carbonic acid ami 
carbonic oxide ore evoked, and tbe residue consists of forroso ferric ■• 
vLich diuolTca in hydrochloric acid without evolution of hydrogen, in 
wiilinit. Ii-ivlii' any car1ii':i-i o ma residue, and 



,wn„' ;iliy 

ceoua reaitliiv, and uhcb net 


i»b in weight by ignition in the air. (Bottger, Rntnty , 2, 4H.) — 
Tbe aalt (3) leaven 41*89 percent of ro«nIu. ignited in ilio 

air. j :>wAr. amounting u> 14 31 p.o pi tin.' *alt, 

au<l a quantity of carbonic acid corresponding to 3# per cent uf earhou. 

But 100 pU. of tin- sill contain 81-1 1 iron; and deducting tlii* quantity 
i.( ir>M in! fii» fr.lfl carbon from r.ho 41 '83 p.O. Of retidoe, t 
wnam* 1U'39 for tiio quantity of oxygen therein. — Tho residue, th 

ig the 033 fi.c. carbon, ie Bcrthicr'a ferroso-forrio oxide 

I (V, If'O); for, 1001' (oxygon): 31 11 (iron) = ? . 8:107 (and 

Laally, »inr.c 100 pU. of the aalt contain 1.133 pU 

carbon and 3j''»ti oxygon (boafdof thai of the water), and 0*33 pt. of 

n nod 10'30 of Uk» oxygon roiuaiu in ilm rexiduo, it follow* that 

13 pia. of carbon aud 25 IT of oxygen have been evolved, doubtlcas aa a 

ruiiiuru of about 5 vol carbonic oxide aud 4 vol. carbonic acid [or more 

exactly 1 0> : i' rg. 

An aiiueeu* solution of earbonato of poteen or wdfl aPt t Watt i the 

oxalic ocia from the untir* ealt; ammonia also produces this effoct viti 

...r facility (Rivero & VaQqaelio); caustic potash and carbonate of 

il Milt ill IiMUlll:il inaiilirl'. (A. Vogol.) Tho 

aalt boiled with aqueous phnnphnl* of kodit produce* oxnlato uf «*da nnd 

■ ui phosphate — Tim Dative <ilt i* nwolnl.i. n "uter (Kivoro A 

ii! .alt u scarcely aoluble in oold water, nnd 

olfca very sparingly in boiling water. (A. Vojcel.) It i* insoluble in 

oal of vitriol, 'Hit ill--' Kt.- mi "Arm dilute aulplniric acid, which | 

dof»0*il4 Ilia lijrltt yollow powder u h.-u rviporutr-d. It *h-..ilvi- m --'.Id 

lOtiUated bydrocbloric acid, in toarcely cululdo in eold nqucouB oxalic 

acid, and dUiolvro but 4p»nu.*ly in too boiling acid. (A. VogeJ.) 

Sakt — Ii ■ -1 f" aonic i to iquooo oxilli 

Iniua hyilrogen. and fonn :i nweet, lutringcnt liquid wuiofa den 
yaHow-greeu »' i<i pn-ni- ernon oln^wbon heated. ana Mtily oluQn In 
watrr. (Bofgtoan.J 'll'i: doM not affrag with the aboroatatomrnt l>v 
Vof do olight aolabiliiy of tho normal ealt in oxnlic acid. 

Tho diaorcpancy may perhaps bo rOOOOcilcl bv Hrrilm-r'jj obeurratioti, 
tltnt in rnijiw ui-* aoliauon larrio oxalsto nisaolvcs a large otu 

.e%te; %o that Bergman* cryntnU pcrhnf»« OOnttat of forroao- 
fcene oxnlttc, — a HiippoMtimi agrooil u', ladoed, will HumMwilo <uggoa- 
I hat the grcoa oxaiato of ir vn U a fcrro*oferric aalt 

Frrrk Grtitatf. a. Xormai. — ObluiiiH by treat ing hy.Irited rVrrie 
«xi' die find nut in axo*** < Bergman), Of farrifl 

aalt with no aikaliM vxulato not in oxoo«. mhkt liowly htv-. 


rrnvi-iNE; OXTCEK-XVi mo:. 

pilaU. (BuchoIi.iV. CM. 2, (>7H.)— Lornon-yellow powder, atari)' insoluble 
in water, and separating in the ft-nu of an oehra when t toiled with water. 

b d(U. — The «iU a thfttclroa in aqueous oxalic acid. (Lai 
Tl.f aci«l solution rv mains uuaJtcjnl in tin? duck, eveu at 100°; bat in 
«<.ilntS<>n, or more slowly inordinary dnyl'ght, it turn* ^mtiiUIi 
continually firm on" carbonic hcuI, iuhI dcpowU crystal* of ferrous oxalate, 
till oil tbo iron ia converted into ibat salt, and the liquid in docoWised 
(DwLcrcincr. jfalta C-. ft 

C»Ps*0* - !<CsW) * 4CO*. 

The ieid solution is capable of dissolving a lurgo quantity of ttangou 
or ferrous oxalate. (Herllik'r, Attn. Chim, Phyt. 50, £3.) 

AmmoniO'/trric Orntat*. — TUn groan solution of hy dialed ferric 
oxiilc in warm aqueous acid oxalate of ammonia yields, on GoO&Ofl 

rliorubio octobodrons. Tbo nit, when expensed t<> Ugnti turns 

Jr»Uowl*b by fotfltttii i "l bftZOU oxalate; this change i* i ■!" ■• ml lj 
n tbo powdur, the nwnill) wbito ciilour of which changes almost 
instantly to ochr<-yi'lU<w in sunshine; tbo aqueous solution aUo, when 
■<f to sunahias, grV4t«C carbonic iicid, become* deooloriiod, and 
U oxalftto in tbo form of a veJIow powder. Tbo 
dissolves in 11 pt. of water at 20°, aud ia U ?:') pi. of boiling water. 

f>yt«/uW. Uussjr. 

;i Nil 1 M .... 13-M 

Kc-'O 5 80 .... 21 38 2100 

sc*o» us .... &;•;« &; 65 

Sim V :•-»» 


C^MlVh'.D- .171 


% CaluuUlktu according to RainmcUbrfK* 

3NII*0 .... . ._ ;3 ... 18 23 

FrO* .80 ... IH 71 

jeny tie „ so 46 

»H0 64 — !«■« 

Raw aids berg. 
1J-48 IB In 

Bussi'a Biml. ■.. ..,1 tlir aonvspopdiuc otoriatioii oroncil nft-r to lis 
■air* suce tt«ej do not iucluoV iLc wslci uUiiiUllifiiuti UUuitucl>t/7ia>; f 

/'./.fMio^/rmV Gmrtatt. — 1. Obtained hy dw'Iviu.g hydrated ferric 

oxide to saturation in solution of salt of n.n < and cooling. 

(WodmL Veru-oridtBchiift, 318; Busty, Graham.) It is tbo formation of 

LU oolahlfl tall which renders salt of sorrel utcful ia removing | 

apOltt. — 2. A mixlurv of aqueous scsquicbluridc of iron and iimmiiaI 

oxalate of poiasili, deposit* at flret tbo yellow pultcruli'iit fcrrin oxalate, 

A-arda tho oonl (Bucholj, iY, (•>/'■'. Pj 67s\J — 1>ot1; lt-vh 

rLomWvfdaJ crvatalx (W«&mL) Bbu)| opple-^rron, flat, four-aiikd 

. «:ili tlibctlral vummiU, and liavinjr a »we>.'t, alij-htly ferrapoovja 

taotr. (Bueholx.) Large, eiiierald-grveo crystal*, having an aetiingcat, 

■.vlr.f iwiMliall taato (Buosy ) Ai>plaffr«en lamina?. (Grmlaun.) 

crystals aro no4ii#d rhombic j r i nm haloou'ing to tho obli^ae 

natlO aTatcm lliuitum I b.-rv. ?<W, D.'!. II. - 1 'bey tKorcoco ia the 

Dl ii tin- otute of aqueous wlutiju. art 

■1 by Iimi in ili; tstoe ni;inrwr »8 ufifi UDO "ia doubts »aUl. 

(Bcs^y.i 1 it- v , ttlorcsco only in vory ilry air, becoming brown aad 

Of^ue. lUrauan.) At 1CKJ', tbey &y* off 1112 per ccut of waUr 

CAnrxo-rnRRic o.tautu, 


fBntayi; IO/iftpi\ (Orationi); and an> partially rteflmpOTd nl I W. 
(Graaam.) The anlt bcgina to douoin-poso at SOU , and is converted, 
•relation of carbonic mild, into * yollow powder, which appears Co bo a 
mixture of uxnUlr of putatb and ferrous oxiilitr, hutllllicfc U it diwioKea 
in wxu-r, At first, but noon itftcrnardii dnposiU fcrrou* oxahtt.*, v. 
pill— in ftnir nlTiliTi Tiiiini i in solution. (Busay. ) — The crystals dis- 
solve in 1 I 3 [itt- of i><dil iiiul -i pt«. ol txrflug wv.r, forming ■, fr W tfl 
•olulioa (j»*lc yclloir-grccu, according- U> Buchvla) wbaA reddens WDU 

CrytUUitcd. Buoy. Guliam. Rau>iucklirri[. 

Ul-ti tft-ftO . WiiX VWII7 .... »7-97 .... 26-94 

■VO> 800 .., 1627 ... 16*00 .... 1613 .... 1006 H. 19 

*C«0* 2160 4**4 48-N 

«UO . M0 ... 10-99 .... 11*12 -^ I0i6 

CWrVo-' -391-c .. 109*00 


MiteWliolt (^y. 45, 126), nwntjottfl a similar double wilt, in which 

r#i Hit- oxygen of the ferric oxide amount* to thin- times dual of 

lite potxurii, six! which, wbi'U ignited, leaves a compound of ferric oxide 

potswh frr»e from carbonic acid. — The solution of ferric NKlAe iii 

rucid oxalate of potash dncJ op by evaporation to a brown goni. 

(Croft, 1'hti Mag. a/. SI, 200. J 

Sedic-ftrric Oxalate. — Tho solution of hydmtod forric oxido in 

mucous acid oxalate of eoda, yields large, emerald £teon crystals, wbicli 

of 12 2 pc. water at 30CP. (Bu»y) Tho crystal* ©cIour to tho 

I rra&iro system, but rut aoi I nnoiptieiM with fa potadi-nlt; 

;.io or itiomboYdal tallies having thoir edge* irunr:iinl and 

bevelled. (ttaimneUberg.) They giro off 4 At. water at 100 , retain 

At. (Oiabam. ) The' dry HJt d«0O»J0HI at SQt) 3 , just like tho 

•jilt. (Bu.vy-) ItdiMohM m - )»U. of Hater at 20% and 

pt, of boiling wntcr. (Butuy.) 

CalculatloD, according to Buaij . ltoMjr. 

SNaO 03-6 ... »I'I0 20V7 

hoo iK-rn IJvV* 

*»* -jibii . fcttM 

« HO M0 .„ U17 12-20 

MO?* ♦&*.(£-. +W6 ... 100 00 

Calculation, accordlug to Graham. Grihiau. 

3 NaO 18*6 . 19-42 . I ''I.C. 

re*0» K00 . IrVGB 1046 

3 CO* - ...... 21C0 . 4iQ3 ... 14 51 

l« no ooo ,. i»;; tu-sr 

>VO«*IOao 47W-C . 10000 .... I WW 

CWeUtUM, W<W«U« to lUsrunclabcnr,. ttamm«Ubcrf. 

3Ni<> 13 ■.. 1*87 , .. IM 19 

iVtV ..... «0 .... 17 02 17 12 

216'0 .... «V90 .... - 16 II 
11-0 i; 21 

C * Ms V O »M »Ae 410-i 


O/*, i:n'Fo s O»+ 7A- r and i 91 A«. I'm- 

Wy prea>itati»g auiaoonio-ferrtc oxakto witb cbluri«le »( Iniriumj 



and purifying tlio precipitate by crystal lixatwn frontal wa>| 
vol low need)** having a nitkr fasuc. Both in Use dry *tat 

iter. Grconifth 
*ta' 'heir 

aqaeous solution, they aiedccomposad by sanshino" with evoUt;oa of 
carbonie acid. Ammonia, potash and boom abstract the acid from the 
ferric oxide, sud separate that oxide together wiOa oxalate nf baryta. 
i I ■ :tv*u1a ar* rorcely soluble in cold water, hut dissolve in 30 part\ of 
boiling water. (Roc* Recce.) 

india-fork Oxalate. — C"6f , Fe*0* 1 ■+- l8Aq. — Similar to 
baryta-salt. (Recce.) 

Cakithferric Oxalate. — Similar in composition; b«t iU amount 
water cannot be ascertained, becaoae, it d«* not crystallize. Id other 
rr*j»xl* it exhibit* »imiLu rc!uti>>n* Lo tbc baryta- salt, Ko COOSMOi 
of the formation of this somewhat voluble nit, lime is not praclpltalad 
by oxalic acid from u< aflU »>h>'i. likewise contain ferric oxide, 

mil* iii<I-M<l tl:o (.ilution 1»t highly concentrated, and even tliM the pre- 

aitaiion is imperfect; to obtain complete precipitation, it i» necessary " 
>pt the proceav recom> I in the case uf calckt-cUromic oxftu 
(]. U2). (Recce.) 

CololtoKit Oxalate, a Basse. — Obtained by the action of potash on 
norma] -:ilt dlffbaad la water, which Ii:m Ummi thoroughly freed from nir by 
boiling ami then cooled in a clow ve**cl. The product la a blue «*lt, wbJoQ 
remains bluo ctou when treated with a very largo oxews of poUuL. ml 
being thereby deprived of the whole of ita oxalic add until it is boated; it 
i.\ ili.-u rapiuji converted into Ibi tad bydratod protoxide By waabunglha 

trecipitnte with thoroughly boiled water out of contact of air, prefer 
plween |*per, nit'l .Irvit;- m vacuo, tli" .* i -■■ nl-'mnod in the form of 
& bluish green powder whieb, whew Ignited 1 iu close vctsols, give* off « 
and carbonic acid, and leaves a mixture of metal and protO 
dwlblech, Ann. /Aarm. 13, 158.) 


6 Con m - ■ 67 i7 6T-5S 

CHM H 21 '62 »1W 

4 HO 30 10'Cl - 10*37 




U.'oO ) C*Co-0*#4Aij . 533 .. 100-00 


Yormoi. — Formed by the action of cold a^ucoiui oxalic a 
c cobalt (Bergman); precipitated DD Bdxfaff Other di*«dved i 
nalt< with oxalic acid or oxalate of potash. It in beat obtained by 
directing cnrliMmtc of cobalt with ox con of nqueoui oxalic acid, wl: 
dissolve-! but littlo of tbc oxalate of cobalt, but remoTco any ferric oxide 
that inav br pn>nit. I I.j.n-jin.) R asa CxJoarod DOV&r nhich «lwh nul 
redden fitmu*. —The air-dried tail is CoO.CO* + SAq. (=C*CoV' 
4A*[.), and may l"< ertmpletely free-l from witer by cnrefally heating: bat 
whnti liirdi- r UriWd m lliomi-, it tako. tin :uid knvc^ <>baJtoaa- 

cobaltic] oxalate, Tbc air dried mlt, when heated to c 

t of air, \e resolved into IO.'i? per cent of water, 47*57 rarbonto 
arid, and SS'Rfi fn#tallfe n.hiili (DQbaiwttaTj SaW, 28, 161.) — TheaaJt 
is noarlv inioluble in water and in flfjueoui oxalic acid; aceord*.:u 

i.fblrfli, it requires 40,000 pU. of boiling aqueous oxalic 
dfaolte it. In ni'iH mi-, itiimionia it dieaolves with tolvnible facility, and 
• lil! iin.-r" readily in carbonato of ammonia, li 111 xdvea to a 

hot injueous sulphate, hydrocbl orate, nUrau or tuecinaU 



'/ammonia, imparting a liefct red OoYoOI bO lb« liquid, and separating out 
H*i» • '. 'ltt.-tuin, Repert W, 3.1). 

Dbhcrriner. Winokslbleea, 
7.'. .. 40-99 . . H*31 .. . 11-99 

.. .;;• .i J9-09 

* HO ._, atf . . inc; i»-w I! 

CCeW+IXq 183 ._ lOO'OO « 

—.- 100*13 

•''V OrxluU. — Aqueous oxalic aeid placed In <■ 
with hy>] alt, yirlda a dark green mint inn of tli« 

Of>tnlUi«o>«ob«Itic suit, carbonic acid being at tlif ftfOlred, ami 

■ tmail quantity ol oxalate separated out; the jjreon KlltloD 

I inr a bell-jar over oil of vitriol, yields dark gr««D ailky 
noeJtrs, which easily rcdi»i>lvu in w:itu with dm rnlmir of aqticoni 
IMBfani'' of fmrivli The solution ifawl J decompose, oven b*lo« 

>>'»ttou« oxulnte; and if it bu oxpoted to tight, 
tb* ttiuo decomposition takci place in :i j*w month' ut ordinary tcnij i 
t«rc5, tbe ooVjuIcous salt tben kirparAting' in mtftll OCTateJ . Sulphuretted 

jUWOgOtl rv.Tl- but ;i «|.,w . I. pur ni;.- Mli-i OV ll I gTOffl ■■■ill:. in. 

Potash added Lo ih.> lolntlon fetfOJ :i DtWn prooipftatOj enrbouato of 
y a t aih, a #rcen precipitin which turns brown in the air, probably jr iti£ 
off car k-r- in-- ioiii tt too eurnc time. Ammonia forms a brown j 
but only with strong aolntioiM. The carbonates vt biuyLi arid lima do 
b the fait, but merely ram org the tTfiMi of OXalk icid, 
Hydrorblorato or nitrate of lime form* no precipitate Cyanide of 
pttattfam tV.rni.' m vvint- precipitate) probably oouutiag of a ucu'roapen i 
I' MocyaitiJo of potaWem er.idiinllv i :■ ■ -prually 

acid jH»ln;ian f a blue precipitate resembling Prussian blm». 


Co*0* 110 5 ..... *5-56 

J CO* iu-o ■«"« 

C*C<i>0" ~ 261-S 

100 uu 

• CoO,C*0* * CeJOVK^O*. settig that, ™ Knillng the colutton. cob ft Horn evaUfe U 
fjrHifJ, »r*d J of the tertoti cent intd in the oialic acid eicoj<ct in the furni of 
rMW^-rnd. (Wtnrfcslhli 'hj 

Colatou* OwlaU uitk Ammonia. — Cubnltoos oxalate disaolrcs witli 
ml ciJour iu aojoeoaa ammonia, spam uly in ;i dilnU . more copiously in a 

ig ••ilulirui, i n.rr iini. Uly aheil United; arid yield* »heli r.v;i|itiratcd 

la an opra **o»i*il > red laitiiu:» t ueeillrs and aodalai. which dUanlve rvtdlljr 

in coJil, more i bot wntor, tinJ leave oobeitia [corjaHow-cobftltio] 

a when ignited in the air. (Lougicr), — Cobollon* oxalate olmken up 

with vara aqui'M i- aiiiiiintii:i m i stoppered bottle, diaeoli N completely in 

30 tiiaea it* quantity of that liquid. If tin* ;iir i . : > - am ■ \u ilm i juiJ, 
and ibe t-roocaww Dot vcrv qniokly performed, part of tho<'ftrm!taopar.ueji 
in a mot< »te ae a dmjcy vtelct pawdet, which <!■« n«t 

»fol«f" in .x I. u O' niJA'itity of boiltllf MBCOU ninnon :i. hut. i. 

■ up oxalic iicid to it. t> -linn illy hruwtvn. -ui-1 after wa»C» 

jjivn* oil a ,'ilrocldorlc ncld and iimmouii with jw»ta«h. 

ncWlbleeh). — Too ajonoaiaoal lolutioo forme a I • I n *- \ n «-:pit it.- with 
. when evar^ratoJ in the air. »t i|«po»iti bright I atlbM 

muti, arb i wiiter, ihouirh with i >por»ti<m of a large oaantity 

rown pol«ll forming a liquid wbicli yields with potarli a prt- 



ripinita of mi impure btflf eoltnr, and ihmforo rot containing pnr* 
oobetttou* ox:d* ( vVinek«M>l*eii. 4m. /'A**-**. 1J, 873). 

Cabal ton* oxalate, tic-ione diteolving in ammonia. Like* qp a portion 
of tk&t iuIuUuci:. ami ■ equina n deen red colour, but when Bcpiratcd 
horn tiif llooid by lloniSon, and lata rifa)o\ $"'*•• niT jimmnina, ..-. 
it* ligflit red colour, and in then found to contain the *nmo ouantity of 
water that it did before beinjr, treated with ammonia (WinckelMcch). " 

Ammcnio-cobaUota Oxahitf. — Cnbaltoua oxalate diuolvcs in aqncotu 
normal oxalate* of ammonia. slowly *n Ln< cold, bnl qniokly watt bl 
ami form* :i earniino-cnl.i iVTilch deposit* D cnolmjr, 

but when Icf: to •vaporai. , nUnoously yioMs imnll pair-red eryitaU. 
Theie crystals, a» well na the mother-liquor, arc neutral, cfnWccc 
0> tiii- -irface, nod turn white on exposure to the air, and mjivn Ignited 
in x cloco v. -i ! D^lli tnrn blna, and yield 4 Gt per cent of metallic 
cobalt ui lamina, having ft steel like lustre. This nit if but apariajrly 
aohtble in cold water, but dissolves in all proportion* in boiling water. 
l of the nil impart* to 30 pari* uf nntvr a -Jwper red ci'Uur that* 
the an It itself pmsnxs**. 8inee tha Rryatala contain 4 5** per cent of 
rohuhouc oxalate and 47*20 of hypothetical anhvdrous oxulic »<"1, 
formulae probably f N II s , O'O 1 ) + CoO.CO 1 r *84.\q. <vv 'w -1.. I bL ■■ -hi. 
II • -oliitiou of thif salt beoeuice dccoloriwd in a hew minute* mi tba 
addition of ammonia, anil do|maiia nearly all tlio cobalt a* a light brown 
powder. Thifl ou/ir dbtfBCfMfi vi.I.I. Iiy ignition, ammonia and 37*30 
per eont of pulverulent metal; hontod with Mtaaa, it L'm» oft' ammonia, 
with separation of blue protoxide; it i> inaotnWa in water and dissolve* 
tut partially in amupinia. Contains 34*71 per cent of pro taxi <j 
•oftiajfc, anil 32Sfl p.c hypothetical anhydrous oxalic i '.n-mula is 

probably -h.-r. rfor*: 8NH*,60oO, wW + ISA*. (WineWlblech), 
Ml\2CoO J £C l O l + 8Ao, as NH>, OWO* f eAq|. 

Col I ma.— A solution of cobaltoua oxnlate 

afrODf Mamonu. oat aside in Teasel* contamiqg air or wsYjrou. 

toete.l f- „,i -■ trltitiur nrnl, giadually deposit* Urge, I ..ny-fsord 

granule* of a hyacinth ml aoionj. Thov may I»< 

i in a hot aqi>- ition of caroonatc of ammonii, then fill 

ami - TIk-v s-'ivc nil" 1)7 percent at 100"; wlieu more itr*" 

banted, ili« ;, dec oph tie -1 ■ I . r 1 y r ami glr^otT ammonia, taming i 
nrVi ,'k; and wlien heated to redness in a close vowel, jriir* off 

*toe! form of the cryrlallroe fragment*, »■«! my 

lunch shrunk. VVhtO boiled Will pOlAeb, they L'ivc off amuionia. with 

fwpunuion of llta brown IryJraicd »wpiii»\iili< They am » uble 

in VaMff M -iiineoui nmiiioniii. but <littolvc with tolerable facility ia liol 
carbonate <>i aOMSOl ia i/ini.), 

18 NW U ■ Sl-U 

M 9 . 

I1H .... 18-44 

2M) , U* . ao*»o 

«A.| U .... 6*44 



10 70 „ 10-91 

IB 05 „ 1-T74 

MSU 1 * VWO" -r 6\ H _. GtO 

100 00 

llttt wilft t.ii.If of MPMf (vith C^pnt/ alU|f|4l U« _ 
» Ik* rs^' 1 I to 3*76 l-U. of enrbou c xcU wd W 23 bl 

tleoec tiic ul! i« not id Daycobaltatt of satonii m lae 

aattoral tin: louffac I. 

ry\\lMT, I wril AMMONIA. 


Ammonii%-etJ.<iUaui-J^ahxf Oxalate. — Ohf-ahi-d by mixing tlie ^jwn 
lutioo of cobaltAio eobultic oxalate with normal oxalate of ammtiniii, 
evaporating IB I > f email green eryotala dioool 

auSly is water (Winck«lb]ccli). 

Co Italian a nxnuU* dijwdvwi iirntty frvely in iqoMOl rorfytttfUe 0/ 
ammOMin. The carmine-coloured aolutii 
wha»*XpOied to the mr 

itioa doo» not yiold anv dcnoiit 

H*4tr Ptfeuh-f&fdt&us OrnUilt, — V' oxalate 

ao-Wrd in -.\ boDics solution ->F nonm] NBakti of poteahi thu wit wpv 

nUea c« c*oling in roue coloured rhombic errftUN. h i* :il-» fix 
»l*u * e>luli"'i • f potw n. ] it • w left to evaporate 

long timo ovop oil oi vitriol. The crveUla, when ignited, bdftvmt 
bUe for » while and leave cobalt mixed will ■ $| potato. Thrj 

arc iaaolublc in water (Winckcllilecli, Ann. J'fittnit. 19, J ft 

Po<>Ujis>'ttb<iUti*>coltikk QttitaU. — Obtained by mix in? the groan 

i urulmllii' nVilifii Willi li >i'in:il <itii:itc of pOUvh, and 

quickly evaporating in vacuo over oil of vitriol. Vary amall gw»©u 

UU, dimlriag frith jjroat facility in water. When kept fora I-tic, 

tboy are revolted into carbonic acid ysw and the preceding 

Oxalate 0/ tfici f. — The a<juoou« acid dooe not attack the metal, 
bat Gombam ■ t i ■ tho hydi t-ar-honute when ucutcd ; it prcoi- 

I il 1 .i|tlc «hU» HO COIIlfflvtcll 

li.!-, of iiiokcl-oxaloto rcrnaioe dinolvttd i-i tl 
liberated ariit ; In 1 1 [liv 1 n nut completely doeompoted bf 11 

at* of ammonia, potato, or wds ■ !<■<■* ool pr> rip tol 
Mtlt !. With ox id a U of poUab a precipitate i* formed after a 

n failing only wWu the potaali -salt i,i in exeeoe (Qn»)< 
but a/tarv&itui exhibition » 
•\ijg]f metallic taste iTuppnti). Tha dry m\l licatod |p ftlotod TOM ill 
yudU liM.J j . *i; carbonic acid and Ifl 1 1 rnetnllio 

nid. 1 JWO 1 I iAaJ, Tha «aJt beat* * 

IB CttOlaCt Willi ftir. Iii»l ;;;' .:(it, llii'ii take* tin-, :md UMVTM 

k rwidae of ov ...■■ (Doberainer, Schm. 20, 3d#j 2*. 160). — It n 

insula'' e in arater and -. gly toJnhlu in aqiuou oxalic acid, bat 

■ Jblo frtoili rigor minund acidn (Ttppoifj 

.-4- 7^i la*i). DU>oU'Ci readily in enwiio Minoobi and c*r- 

Umii" iif urn iniiii, and invonipltfUly in mlpbftte. hydrcjcUlomUv oitralc, 

and au«inoW < 

Omelatt if ICitU noaw. — l> Tha violct-Lluo solution of 

late is aqocatti ■■ iraonift, gradoaJIy lotaa it« colour, and gfi 
atrntimja vlu .. ex|io»ed to tin air, do >■> itiof aaJa Wui*li xntu oruat 
compoaH " lie aqueoi 

r of anwn ol oxaiata (vjot. 11*/.) muted witba iomUI joaaril] 

ilt in tu - form of * v.-. f 
. «Iu(L bi till aaJei wbaai dry (Wiuokalblaoiil 

iapoaiti tin area ill in ilia form of a aery p 

I I ic«el, lcare< nickel CODtaVltaing char. 
dam in watrr 
|i1a}rb ft TtfH : " (' L ' : — 1 - 11 -'" .5}. 

M S 



Nil' !J ... 
tMO » . 

cw . n ... 
6 JH) m 

7 80 JiS .„ ■ ' .1 

wo . . w** ... uyj 

MOl - 3VM .... 5151 
2477 _... tf-7J „. 27 47 

NB>tCWO*+««| 31» .... 

Wlnckflblccb trebles xUa formal*, 
•t I9.\t|. 

10000 W*4« . . MSI 

^mwnnw-TiirW Otahxtt. — AqpeOM normal uxaUtn of amm 
di**cdv«a oxalate- of nickel, and tho solution yield* green prisma 
evaporation (Tappnti), Tho rale whian lopuratcs from tbo pais green 
aoliition ha* & etill paler green colour, m acted upon 1>vheat ;in<l Kv water 
lil.e 'In: COrTe^)0n<iilli.' 00bslt->nU, und .inp:ii- lu liuti* Hi'' -.Kim com- 
position, inasmuch il it contains 4Tfi ptf rent of nickel-oxide. Tho 
i:'. Mi* solution mixed with a small quantity of umni'wia yield* ft ve 
p*lo preen prccipitnto «>f the pff0oedh>£ compound, which rcdiwolve* 
cxcCM of tin; ammonia (Winek.-llil.;, h |. 

Pctitttio-nidicl Oxalate. — Tho solution of nickol-oxnlat* in h 

f mil i>\:il:it<: of potMa, Yiolde green prisma when evaporated iTod- 

pmi). according to \\ iiickilulcch, it yields a light-green neutral double 
salt insoluble in wator. 




Cvproto* Oxalate. — Oxalic noidndded ton solution of cuprouo DM#» 
rodilork ucid, throaadowu this salt, ukitu at first, but changing 
eftera whdi» i» Mur j-reen (If. Rn«.\ Chem). Oxalate of 
aUo preeipitntrc tho *nlt in the form of a whit.- powder, which <ii 
rendily in mmnnnia HBd carbonate of ammonia, and incompletely in 
sulphate, hvdrorliltimlr, nitrate mid cuccinute of ammonia (Witteleia, 

•■:. 88). 

Cvpric V™latr.. — The aqueous acid exposed to the air in con 
with tin- mi i;il, plowly fornix cupric oxalate aa a polo 1*!ih- | nn ^ir. ( 
i Fii'iii mi :it|tii'oiij- solution of COpHfl Milplmt**, it throws down 
il.. OOppftf in the form of oxalate (Thomson). According to A. Vegel 
'J. pr, < '.'>• n, i;, 3-ltf.) it throw* down tho whole; for the liquid decanted 
From the precipitate and fYftpomb i) f.i :-. -vi up, <l. |« 1 uddttioea] 

iiiiitiitUy of cuprir uxnhitr, .mil afu-i wards U-liui il >A vitriol free 

DOn copper — Normal :ilk;iliin' ftTalatf added, not in •XOeift, 
salu, atto form a preelpitato of cupric oxalate. According tc* Hausmann 
& L.woiitlal, it throw r. down nearly nil tbfl COppOT, — Light greenish 
blue powder. — The suit, when thei nlgblr dried and then ignited in tfcc 
air, ItftTM so per cent of ooprk oxld« (P 0. Vogel) it may t« com- 
pletely dehydrated by nxnrful hesitipft "nd u -Irotlat* 
her lemperatnro into coibonie acid and motnllic eoppor ( Dot-ereinor). 
It pel L-ii< off --ill i- water at 100". and consequently wln-:i more 
Ida watei aewel] ftecarboDieucxI :;'•<! nu-ul 1 1 >nl > 
ii taki*i place rxon nt n pcntln hcai mid the reeldiMl 

iirni'x tho f' rui nf red, ihininir. malleable lamina?. 

mills tre* thick, nit ho ugh taer n*Te Wstt pcedueed 

"una |. n-rusinj' >alt i Pclonte, fn«i« 'Mm. P&y., 18, 11 J>. 

The Kilt i* MitAier disaolvcil nor decunipasod hy warm nitr.c acid 

tr.c acid. 



in, J. pr. C.hrm. 1.1, .1i>9.) Tn nil of vitriol it Ht Pai Bi Hm 

A. VobcI.) A " ' ' ••■'■itiori of carbonate of potaiU pvM it an axuro- 

I'lim colour; a boiling dilution of thai enlt tflfu it black (A Vogol), 

Wiih i>ota**ium it MuurM liko oataUt* of Uad (Serullae). — It \a 

SmnlniiM in water, and nearly inaolubla in boiling aqueous oxalle acid, 

,. d iiydroefelorifl acid. farmSofja yellow 
colution (A. Vog*il). It dil irltq bhm OoloU fa lAmoma Mid 

carbonate of ammonia, and witt bltt gift! Oolou unto of MU 

aia, — Ukewiao, tnoogb imperfoclly, in nlphata uydrooblorM, ami 
■itnUif of tmxnofda (WUtalno), 1' Kl insoluble in bydroeMoratc and 
aitrate of nmmonia (Brc:t). It diasolvo* in the *<[ii*<>U4 solution of 
aorwial oxalate of ammonia, potiab and coda (>\ C. Vogol). 

2 HO 

DrieJmtl 00*. 

,,.. 80 ~. 

;2 .... 

, m u .„. 

lUusmann & LtfTzbtKil. 
4706 47 77 

4*3S (i-ri 

10-49 1(1-10 

P+3AQ . IW ... 10000 


('halttir with Ammmuit. — n, H'iVA 2 4t 4 MUHVfab — WhH 

a aulution «.f eii|>ti<» oxalfllo in mjm ummoilia i« f>vapor*t«l, tbi« «*1t 

aajptrale* in abort, flat, six-sided priimi of a dark *tv-bIuo colour. 
KtU.r.v.-. .>tr 13 per cent of water and niurnomn; button tba 

■M Iqh of weight, ii. 100".. ai Iml-Uj tcinporaturee il Lata fin HUl 
exjdud.M (Y.C. VogelJ. 

F. C Vog«l. 

3 NIP 31 16-07 

2C-0 _ 80 .... 3,9-22 3900 

C*C 72 . .. 4V29 _ 3o'00 

2 HO 18 ... 882 

2NH',C«Cu r O , .2Aq 204 ..10000 
ft WYrA 1 ^f. .dwmnm'.r. — Ciiprie nx:iln(*.' i:ii niilin;ri| into at|im<m* 

aanaaoeia in lafgor quantity lb*a the mmuiniii mn iTIiaVt jMn% nnf 
oaly Iho «lt a in tolaltoa, bat also tlio silt b in tlio form of an axurt- 
v powder, wbicb jive* olV ammonia aboTo 100', and burnt 
at a etrongrr beat, wiib Hume aud detonation (F. C. Vogel). 

r,i,*tnt!.:r,l. P. C. Vujd. 

NIC . . 17 ... 10-00 

iCaO M . •»? .vi 4HM 

:-' . U 60 44-00 

NH\C*Co t O* . .. 169 .... 100-00 

VOfft l«|>pMM it Ul Mhlalli \ At. Aq. Itittft. 

Ammonite* prtt Osolfit*. — Obtain*!] by ditwolvinf caprk OXalatttJa 

itoruaal oxalat* of ammonia, or eunr o oxido in odd oxalate of iranio&ifc 

xbetaUo lamiaao, of a dark aky-bltio colour and permanent in 

the air. 



. ... IT 

. 40 




4ft 14 

17 1 

t. C. Vocel. 6 


- -■ 

^.Ca^+fiA^ IM ^.. tOO'OO 

rmuEXE: <mcr j c-irty. 

Permanent In tli* air WW ton*; j;{vm off it pop cant of w«t*r 
aboro 100', (1110 (•*. = » At. atconlin/ to Graham), bat rec*T«ta it 
I !m t| ; , air; «t a Ki^rht-r tcnipcra'.arr, it j;i»«* off amnn.nU, 
frttWiUTifl fir.-t brown, then roppercotuurcil, liut rrtajnlag \u * 
f thr« iir a* than allow* I In have w^r« to it, ^ 
like <J*tonati«« taltM plaoa, and (H* copper appeara to bo 
TLo «alt dia#olvcs without docoropf^ir tea ft] ftftaeoea r nnal 
oxalate of uatnaoU, sparingly »nJ «itb partial •incomposdtiun in «*trr, 
cnprie otnlaU wl ami ih* pireee of oxalate of ad 

l*ing taknn u|» l»y tbo wntrr i I — Whan dropi of 

tl..- aqoAone solution ar© plated upon bright mi ..| of 

lli-.iu remain unaltered, while oilier* rartantly topper Um: iron; but the 
dcpoMh'd Dapper beoomM uxidated after u arUa by the notion of the 
air, and rodluolvoa, taking up oxalic ncid and sotting free amnion: i, ■.-.- 

asta the coppering. Ir a number of m<U of iron OoateJoed in ^pa- 
nic (Iomco bo immemed in Hi- i tbombo > rod 
at ll« ordinary i. DpoTal the tpplIcaUoii of beat. ' : 

rim* of iron by tliis volution. wIiimi not c-xpotod u> it »crjr 

bright, don«o, aii'l petal v of apocial reoocn- 

aendution (Wutxlar, -S'. . .'-", 

Pot<mvtK**pric Ora/afV. — Obtain*! m blor T>f*dJ« bj WWel.— Prodooed 
by dia*olrinif cupric earbonato in mjiicoiis tall of aorrcl, or i .|*te 

in normal oxalate of pal ■ nixing enpric lulphaM with rxevm of 

Bonul oxalate af potaab. The blao amotion yiolaj an Dealing, 6r»l, 
grooiiub bluo rhouibohcdTom permanent in the air, tlion b)uo, qc 
ftiiapod, aix oidod, of ton II baTeli I vrith two fneen i □ ibe 

broader Uttral face* [pari D rV« WL and quickly cf&oreaciar 

. V. ' ' ' 

light blue inaaa (P. 

KO |M 

CqO 100 


1 HO . . ISO 

P. C. VuceL 
»U N 00 

40-63 11*2 

1016 liVQO 

chccho**^... ir;s « ioo-vv . iw-oo 


KO 47-2 

CoO ■ 4UO 

* !tn .. 300 

f f. Vocel. 

2118 U1 

10*41 TO-5 

35-M 3M 


C*Kc:uO*4-i.\<| .... I9i'2 ._ 100 no . . 1000 

Both kiude of ory-lal* riva ofl' tboir water when boated : turn brown 

at n btgaet tomporalota, btjt a*{|bott( rtuioc; and leave cubouaia at 9 

i. togotboi with euprto otidu or metallic copper, aoo>nliO|r aa tlm 

i ii aecc» To th«nu or not To alcohol they giro u]>. witlirot ilicaolr- 

t>i tii.-ir aratai of orjalaJltatloa ftMrdianrra »nar 

tod in ftboni Onti, <»f i« ii n ; ffalor, laarlcar a. raaidu< 

i oxalnto, Lecnuio tlio aalt is luluble only in aTCfc MaJj 

I oxalalo \4 polaab (F. C. VogclJ. 

£adi&*mpric Osaht? — \Vbcn oxakto of potaal ,., XJ 

wltai caprtc »>a.|>hai< . p<> .. loltatWO firm* M<j araitoa 

Urae, and than tbia aniij loo latter is ni<o obtain<d hydiaaUriaf 

a oxadat* in oxalate of aoda. — Fout-aidoJ, oftaa flat ■icdle?,' of a 



dark sky-bit* eolonr, permanent in Ifco air; whrn rxpnxMi to light, they 
irtt turn grv*n, then Mack brown, but without low of weight. - When 
boated, the «ult Erst pivt* oil' all it« water, awumtM a pule hluo colour, ftud 
lieu Occo«i|H'W», leafing ft residue of car bona:* of **ln and nelall 
axtdiaad copper. Difcsolifi sparingly in water. witU separation of rupric 
oxalate; but mpieoas oxslate of tocla diMotvoi il without decomposition. 

ti. K. C. Vogcl. 

i ' I93A 19 0* 

CO 10-0 .. 21-81 23-50 

CO* TIO U'bl 46'« 

BHO 1M hi; ii-oo 

PNaOaXP+ftajO. 101*1 .... lOO'OO - 10000 

Mtrtxrout Oraliitf. — Oxalic acid and owbU «>f poUuli precipitate 
mercurouj mtrnto and sulphate. (Bergman). Tho lalt u ldtowiao 
obtained Ly mixing 1 pt. of mcrcuroua oxide with 3 pta. oxali. 
2 pt*. water, octtmg tin' mixture *-i«lo in a tolerably warm silunti »n, 
ami triturating il rrtfouontly; than till a tine and waaliing with water. 
(lUrff, 2V. £r. Ar<h. 5, S64J. U'i it-.-, 1. leaelr coherent pi wdcr, (B 
mm ft metallic taeto (Horff.l. !■• In (i ■■ • .;*>•; u r-. In 

(Ber. (lUrff); the colou i tu dirty 

-a, itnit to dark bnwn (Bntekbardl, .V. lir. Artk. 1 1 . MO), — ft 
detomte* slightly wlen inddenly heated (Kaaproth), or when struck 
(Uul . bun Budiiooly heated in a {rlaaa tub*, ii oWlOftttta 

jrraduaJlY bcati ■ I. il merely dcooiapoaae with a. liiwinjt n«>i>c, i 

!, becu rubbed to Que powder; if it be very fleuily 
imevlint ftbore 103*, ii decompose! slowly and ooJetly ooi com* 
i ). — Tho salt, when loft for foxno tiuio In oo» 
| natily of cold Water, assumes a dirty yellow colour, v 
beoioird buckish ou boiling, and the filtrate couUiub n mixture of D 
comjw*rtl ntereiatoul axil wSth m< it (H. Rom, I' / 96 \2(l). 

By finift boiling with wati^r. a biitic and nn acid mlt ore formed, tho 
Iftttf. njf in tho water (Hnrirj. When boated wftb ' <■■ vitriol, 

it giro* off on u c ucid [and curboi '], ami is 

coatrrtrd. will. nut blftcl trie sulphate. It is I 

by ftftmno udt, and carbonate of amniona) (llarfl! Efctraklii 

WHUttrin, R*% 13). 

u Korooly tolttbta in eold watnr, requiring according to 

Ha: IT. 1 000 pta. of water to diaoolre it; according to Bofokbaidt, 

likewise inajl < in h..ihufj water. DlHolvea sligUtll in \\i\nn 

row and Kulplmrle u?id, and aopai froin 

boti. i/, or on Jves 

mm ia ii«fuoou« ozalio add toao 10 watoi O^lf); 

accoi nukaanlt, it u i(i»oIuM«- both in ti.i.- acid and ia dilulo 

■Uif ' : acid, also in alcohol aud ether. 

At 100'. Burckt.uOt. llattT. 

Bfla/O , t!C • I 'l m-rt I 

« 22 H 

fBO V30 

CUx*U**2A H _. &06 .... 100 00 

Mtrtttfie Ojo/^*-, — l ? ft«Uiceil r>y dieting Bat 
eeatralcd oxalic acid (Borciibardt . nnd By ^ro*ipiuiiog 

a r-ct~a «f «toc» * aafcaa aa* it 

Tkrita, nevrij a* afl a 


•■g** 21 1 — J«t 



wkita; hit fcj 

oxide (Huff). 

oxalic ar*4 r'B-irrl. 

• flMMUUtf 

fcafer mJ aritkoat 

Til W 4il« tc 

m c*U oU of 
Mr ta 41* pU of rtaar 

aaal atker (hcwkWHlJ 

afaa>«MJ» Br 

OHrO'- iA^ 

wv4ir to *Ua*D«L wlica ■«( 
II caatoaM *#'13 ai «. of wrwvK 

« ,< risk* i 

aad «-a*ae IL Ihaaalrca jvtaliv it 
aitnta; pal* cak**! witk 

ffWt, « bUct, 

%raaWa*4 irMblb 

oxtaV. MorvoTcr. wkra iaWr4 oa ta* kaaa w.tfe wiKr, ti cxiufciU 

g l a k a ii i of ■fcucmj r. aa4 &■■■?« in aortic arid, bavin? awiallic a»c*w 

cmty. Wkaa ka*ie4 a a taka, it yataaa aarfrcrr, ■ ■ ■■■*. as<< oxrgtn 

£** [a* ratfer cauaoaue aoa* aad wafcae IL 

arid, fotaaiac aaa a aaa u ■ecxmric aitoia; yia] 

ao4; aad firea •€ amaauaia "ilk aataak It ia avlaklc in vmtcr, 

a*4 rtkcr (HaxC .V. Br. JraL 5, 5« r 

J — mii^ji i uh OraVoaW — a. 5anc/ Pr*t»«4 » 
finam aa ut a iu aa oxalate. Loaat, wkiu acwier. U*ia;r 
Caaitabu A? >* p <■. taerraric oxide. Tarn* jnrll«<w at 
to a rtaaa uW, or boiiad eaatiaaoulr »«ik water, of aaoi a fa d wrth a 
aaaail <|«aft1:tT of «U 

•f vitriol. Siiailarlr »ita fOtaaa, p*'** ©• 

at lW aaaw tiar*. Daaolrca rratfir/ in rtxaa; kjrirecUarit acid, 

fcrauoa* a tototiaa wbick riv r - a alula precipitate aitk potato. Piaaolrea 

•fawie-lr ra roM. iaora fmtr ta kot astne a*«i. ia t!6 Ma. of aoM 

waur, and ia 47« at*, rt aleakoi, bat if iaaalaUa ia etker (Hart). 

i. .Voraarf f_ VVaM 


awtaio aa oxalate, t* 

oxaftaU (ar 

a>cUUie aacrcurj *r|aratc* out). » «l%aat*4 vitk a^unxw 

Iriur. when nxrearic oxalate ia dir*«to) *ith ai|0«oaa 

ajoraa&l oxalatf of ntamaaia, aa4 ouc of Ibaaa Ikaitai U Wfi to #>a|-.rata 

•Uwlvarirrk^ng fil:«rc*i. wkita akiaiar Unm* ara aktaiacd, karin^ a 

II" UMa, aa4 ^axkly tcruioj ^tUuw oa axpoaata to Bait. Tker 

i« «aaa kaakd; C n • at amauotUrai fmnra; and ara ftaaUy reaai«t< 



*ith strong il»tonatim«, ini.i mercury ami ■-:■?. With potash 

iVev •rolvo annnoi: - Id mercuric oxide. Thoy ciwtolvv in water 

with partial decomposition, mercuric oxalate remaining undissolved 
(BurcUiardt, S. Br. Stxh. 11, 256). 

.PofVrj#iVm**n.*ur<>u* (XnilaU t — An ooueou* flotation or salt of aorrcl 
sal a rated with rncrciirous oxido yields rhombic prisms (Wcnxel). Wai D 
iiurrun (ia oxMa ia digested for 24 hours with an equal sralght of Milt of 
sorr. i waior, tbo mix turn boing frequently vhaknn, tlio filtrate, 

wh«m repeatedly evaporated and cooled, yields nothing but crystals of 
a«] t of sorrel; but (he last tnothei liquor yields a small Quantity of i 
metallic Savoun ! jui-iiiv, h1hi.1i tiiii>| In- willed and rocry»l:illi/.i- !, 
\c\\ by boat into sublimed mercury and a resiuiu; of rnr- 
booato of potoih. Tb«Y nro blackened by potash or unnonlii Dissolve 
nitric or sulphuric acid, Dissolve readily in water, 
but ore insoluble in alcohol ami cih.-r. liydrOCMorio acid naded to tii<- 
B(|uc«iif volution throws down calomel (HarfT). — According to Burek- that oak can a oi be formed Inasmuch as neither rnerenrnui >xMe 
r*ar rnerenrou* oxalate di wives in salt of aorrol, or in normal oxalate of 
potash tfefthor, acoordiofi to the earao authority, doc* mercuric oxalate 
Ivrm o> doiibla «alt with potash. 

Oxafat* ofStlvtr. — Oxalic acid added to citrate or sulphate of silver, 
tKrowd down a white powder, which does not redden litmus, but turns 
brown on exposure to light. (Ber^ronn) It drtiumlr- -li.-htlr when 

fmribly strucV , r\ u nfti ; ln-iti iliird iu iuliiiilctcly M pOi ihlo, 'I J 

ermtei whrn heated, a* well a* <ilver and earvonic acid (Dnlonjr). The 
itjty <>f w-iier thus retained 11 2 p.o. = 1 At, (Hausiiuun & l.owcu- 

tinii. Tbo salt ii decomposed by heat, with a hlielng boIm, becoming 
tine .11 1 1- electrical (Dubereiocr, I. 310). — Heated to 

100 Is & current (if hydrogen go% it a/sourae* a liirlat brownUb-ytdlow 

coUur. parbape by partial mnvrr-ion iiiIm i>VMl:iro <>l riiibuxide nf xitvvr; 

at MO' »t turnii brown, nnd then immediately detonate* with violence. 
\\kr, Ann. l*harm. 30, i.) When immersed in water, it i* Dot 

droAiipiKt'd by heat, bul partially I v capture to MinMYme, Lute ovbanio 

ind silver. Onherclner, nehw. fl'i, :•.» ) — Tim ml t Is tCafcoly 

aotablo in water, but di«olr«s in nitric acid. (Bergmnu.l It dissolves 

in a<juooU9 cauttio amnions ■<■ ■. n. nm, mid when bout ' 

vittj of aal-mainoniac (Brett), or sulphate or nltraU of nniuonia 

. . it fur m j n clear solution which becomes luibid as it cools. 

A*hyi1rttttn. Hsawnsrui & UirtrrUJiol. 

«As;0 BH .... IMI flfl 

i:«o* . |» ( W6I Wi; 

ewftr 3o« ... loooo loooo 

IV 2 p.e. *ilfp nol dri»en off by tifot U regkriled as Dot ecMnttsl to thoconititu- 
ISBSI SS* ta« •*!> iHwwunn X LOiwntbil i. 

Pota -The solution of silrcr-oxido in a>|u> '<nn »alt 

nf laTrol yields rasily soluble Thomboidal crystals, which are permnnm.t 


' ■'t')^Ci J 1 l *C s O»+OAg. (=C 11 
1 '-r-fiAq^— A I Uon "i" ,;,■; i. . i mid 

juKiujiocbiuLjic oxalate gmdu:illy depo.-its dark blun shining noadlesv 


i asTflKN-vtrci.Fr 

whirh are obtained in a state of greater parity by solution in ol water 
•nil tv Imc Tlipy contain 11*13 per 0*0 1. of wa^er, pnr: of which I 
ap on sxpoeurt '.i' the sir, umiiiingii ptwjriili rxiloor; at ISO/ 1 *' 

■till retain I At- water. At n bight* f/rnjvrainrc. tli^y hnrt» with alight 
explosion, but without Iboy dissolve wiih tluo colour 

n- than 65 vU of water at 15 3 , and in 9 pU. of boiling water 

Orclrth nf ff'sAf appMn to 1w Innsrwhl* of ntltilnc ip. 1 111). — Tbf following; 
•MtlmlCuU ik»U*H by HcMniiit {Rtt*rtoift Je CMm*. I. 312): CUertas) uf 

Ci oiisrd *j!h •ituroa* mH of Ktrrcl » rwt tnlurcd, even tt U«at; ibfl rvHo* Mixture 
» *U colour w« o>oli, »*A drpwiw* l*r : ' n«iof>«rofy *Wh lUtsslte 

rMJilt U witf r, fonsbir. i solttlsa whl<4 jltss off sarbonlc »>U irhaa he* id, 
formi • teller* p i s ti s to ss. 

riatinvi>$ Cjjnlote. — Warm aqueous exilic acid dissolves plalinatc *»f 
kkIh, giving off carbonic aeid, ami (brming a dark liquid, which, n* it 
i becomes green, tb«n dark blue, ami afterwards dwrx-ir* wmall 
• . : 1 .....;- ■.. i>i plaiiowM o.itJs»tOj which oaplcd< wb*n 

healed, without nppctranci' •»!" firr, and yield waUrr and carbonic is 
i ii • pfljfl blu motlitr liquiir becomes yellow wheu diluted with water, 
and dark bluo again when evaporated (l».>uer<-inor. i*offl. 28, Iffy 

-The procipilAlc formed by soda in a solution of 
Me of | ItiiiMihi .iKm.No IrHh yellow oofour in oxalic acid, and 
yields yellow crystal* (Bfrgmnn ) . 

Amnvjni-t-f/"' <\ — Jrsnioafo'OZffsfe c/ Oxyehtorlde qf 

ptttitum. — Oxslin acid aildtd, either in thn free state or in eonibiutioa 
with an jlUub, to an aqueous solution of umnwuio mlpbaU ■ ' > 
t>xychlorid« of platinum (VI, 310, 311), throw* down n wt mUf 

MkUiiuoIaUo ifl mmI rooowvortod toto-tho talphat* or nitrate ty 

an excess of sulphuric or nilrii: acid (Ores, Ann. Pbtrin. 2T, £9 

(.. .. 








«Miut«rpicr/o* .. itrs ....ioo-oo ... icooo 

f AessrdJor. to CtrUraVi forroylw, this sslt U the BiekhrA/4rmUt» 
Dipiit,n*mtot -^"^ }*N'II' . f 

Atnmonio orypt.t'irn>n$ OxmlaU, — W|*n ox-.ila.tO of ainmonia is 
addc-i ton solution of neutrrtl mti-ati of pl:ilii»iiui.iio laminonio-oitrAic »f 

!VF, 3ll, 315V a lighl yellow oryatalliofl I lie is 

onu" l which when redlesolved In bolflng wa.tej Ittoilaiv of the 

■BDA eOlOUf 1 1 .<■::.■• I .1), t&Z). 


tK in .... ria -..- | 
101! 10 aw in 

:vi „ 109 .... tt-2'2 VI- 16 

4< 21 &4t -no 

UP Ml 30-11 I'JHU 

- -( ' PiO) ' :" - IV| SVI .- 10000 100 00 

tllttlOoavA'l .NV.'rarOLMSafyf/rffnisnmfClW.^NHFL 1 

oxAi-vrR nr itrra. 


PattoHm ttafafe — Alkaline oxalate* form a light yvUoxr precipi- 
tate with palludiu-u* nitrate (Bcrceliua). 

Amm^nio-ptlMloiit OxaltU. — 1. Prodnovl by mixing tho ooloor- 
amiiioniacal jwlution of any nalladiouj *xh with" oxalic acid. — 2. By 
• ■ritly precipitated hydrate >t carbonate of palwdinctv nxi'fo 
in n> . i .,i ..nii.i . i:. i rii ■ loabU »nlt orv^tnllmw, with 2 Al. 

water of • .in thert rhombic prUtni ol ■ Stw bwn»t fallow 

iiicb give off 11 A? per cent of water alien heiled. and with 
B Ai ■ i r, Id long Medial of ibe earn" -<ii.ii- whn-li ^iv* off 80 par 
cent of water when boalod. — Both *»lu, when burnt with oxido of 
copper, yield exactly -I vol. carbonio acid to 1 vol. nitrogen (Kano, Vhtl. 
Tram. I»!% 897). 

IW—IH Kane. 

Ml* I Tit 

W o>-J .... 30 00 3020 

O Ml 4 51 

CO* 7iM> ... 40-*] 

iuo ir*o .... uu 

L>NH«,Pd]a»*2Aq 177 3 . I00HW 

,\W/*?. K»n». 

Ml m ■• 17*0 .... 7'55 

Pd M3 . .. WUI - StA-IJ 

II HI) .... 8*0 

< -'o- rrfl . Ai-is 

9 ho sio .... ma 

l*.NIt\PJ)d" *8A*j.. MM .... 10000 

OraUte tf Urttti — I'reoiiiilatad in tli« cry «( *1 liu ■ furtttj 00 DixJOJ 
the cwnirntrai"! MOMDI •Olatiom of oxalic acid and ansa (Pnnii; 

F*» tl*r prvpirvnwi. Mil. VII 

Lou. - a \'*ry |> tir«> acid taate (Bnrxeliiifl). Large 
gatar Labka (Marin). 
vOHipouod when heated melta, boila, and split- up, like its eon- 
' aU» into carbonate <>j uauionia sad •'< d on the one baad< 

aad anrfcoo rfd on tl titer. If it ii costaratn 

aith oxalate of potiub, it i>ivua ofl* a «rnrill quantity of nydroeyaUil 
a«n ireoal mixed with [oarbooato oH] p«>ta ii ;' 
li»-). — Tl >pa<juo al ISO 3 , Audgive »fl 14*9 percent 
(4 At ) water The roeidtM doc >m\ at a ulrongcr beat before it hugius 

to in 1*116 ui liydnUrd rrv*'al« li«v» nut b**H I 

nc<k. 'IV air .In -I • i ofl at 140 only Oil to 0'J7 irfltar, 

mor< I (or therefore (Wcrther, J. pr. Vhw. 

-*Tbe cryttall V\-* and blacken vulitlv <vb« baatai), yielding, | 

m hIui'Ii -ini-11- of ammonia, tlioo 

• fume* wl to of oxauiidc (Mor 

OxnJftto of nron diwdrei in 23 pta i I -nucu 

t hot « .'■ ■" i ■ |>;irttnlly 

i (Borxcliut). U diwoiroi ia dD-J 

ft •> S^3 ai h; , and in i nlity 

■ ■< t'i i. mi 

furmiuc doabU ealta wind are tolahlc in nlc- I l;u#, 

- 1 ' ! - -■■■ •• - ■•"» — ~*ri 

- • _ •' - 3t7 

.: " +i .. -i "5 

> decani. *~«a«r. 

i r*ur*> -j« ir:* 

ijr ... - **r 

' > "- H-a £M 337 

3*rriit -*"■- 'W-*. ». ■> . ^Lxrnssn -" _w. •%«. 3*. !*.<; 35. 4flV. 

fie )Tf--,oj*»- SVTTrct jni rfs .1 Hi ITU - I — - '.")&■. - 31 W*. il. li w MC RlTea 
«-f. 3:s 3i«™«3 a irm wncrtt 3 a« <*a» Me Ini inn o> cse vvrr 
.xcn—'Txu.T dMi:=PC.a >t l ;tt>, as-u SBMSCU 7*^1. vatbi a* Tjuni to be 

jmviWl. iiu 1BUUCIC3L i >H : 

•T ."--Ti-ffc >*" .Yrfrrnunr. — i» T*9A»tC *0^^ ^ y.C*HH)• = 
C* , C ! =*y ,4 r* — Twn ixaiic ami s Aturaced wick asethTlaaune, a 
*j.';:;'iix s iiua.:>-i. wiica 11:17 J* **"ipoE3£e*i :>i j> jynpy cvosisience, 
iat it:<-* Tic rr"-^ciU':^e ^ruiii"* ))!?-* j^n. jf tillfl fabtfcance precipitated :a>raut jt raarnim r» r * )■ RMrf xni. >r* >xa»are it ame. correspond- 
ing ^j ■)'i2* 1 rn» J* ;^"f wr ?nic jr OE'?*: sw prece-iina: formal* 
wiairw :-}i per rsnr. — TVs nit. w^sa nnreeteii a> tiry distillation, 
L* rema^ea -ncj »iMr and. m&tjio^iaiuai!. 

This "raaat'Trrnaciuu ^u^f ut&ce 310 re readily than ta-e corresponding 
nn*;':rT:i:x.[i :£ :xal.i:e at xmatt-'nia iaw waser and oxam ide, beeaose 
metiiT>.xiai.«w a si«;r r;uic^ tian .xaaiidif ^WotM. 

STj.-ii. OrLOH^N 0* — Ocaiae-I by nrxiox the salt a with a 
f|nanr!rr «sf ;xj-:c itfid et^iai :o :ia; which :: already contain*. Crystal- 
lines mere rea-ii'.r ih.m tie neutral sal:. and as Iep«:*::ed from its alcoholic 
•olitZtin :a the fim «:f fmal* Iani!^ae. Keaud Co IW*. it i* resolred into 
2 At. water and vMLtjftc&mk tXtnL C*H , >"O r ^Wua X. Ann. CAi'm. 
«yj. 30 r tfftj. 

OxafaU 0/ E&kI: *'''!••>. — OVaXcd cy satnratir^ etlirlamine with 
oxalic acid. The scHck-n. wh^a evaporated, yield* the salt in right 
rhfcinhoidal j.rUnia with truncated <umaiiu. 


12 C _ 72 .... 10-00 40-23 

14 H 16 ... 8-*9 9 01 

2 S - 2S .... 15-34 15-59 

HO 61 .... 3557 3313 

CVCWVC « 180 .... 10000 — 100-00 

TliU ntlt ifl readily decomposed by heat in the fame manner as oxalate 
tf ammonia, giving off 2 At. water, and forming Etkyloxamidc 

C*U K NHr - CnH^O 8 + 4HO. 


OK.UIC ACID with hutssian n 173 

Wlifn Jt i« mixed nit'i exotaief DXallo acid, nnd the mixturo fuaed fur 
M>mo time av»r the nil-hat :i n' 180 . I <rnm11 quantity of A' . «M 

)• formed (Wurir. .Y. .)«/>. O...../.. J>h :r . 30, 169}, t. 

AqxKotu Orotic acid with I'nituian Uw. -- The '>t«r fial Uveoted bf 
StrpUii and Mak — C parta of pore uuno blue, tritanitcti with 1 or 2 
pts of oxdtc acid ;m<l ;i mikiI] quantity of cold water, forma n soft p:i*te 
\r), and with 64 pt«. wator, a dark hlua nTOp, nrUcfa by addition of 
% lar>r*r atuwtity of cold water, ii converted into a clear, tlun, dark bluo 
liquid < Karmn r, Chan. 2») ( 175). hwilB blue pit pond from 

fcrrocyanidc of pota>aitmi mid fcrrn- >ulph;iie. nttd imhed uirh wau-i by 
decaulaliou, rimy be nurd for tlii* purpose* (Mohr, Ann. Phnrm. 84,84? Jj 

or ronuiltTi-nl l\ir:- ItliiM. purifii'il if non .-. ,ry. } v t! with by 

chloric acid and afterward* with waitr [SttpnU A- .N i I). Th$ lia- 
bility of prnwian blue in oxalic acid i» increased by pTtTiOIH purinVnii DO 
» tb alroog hydrochloric or sulphuric acid fSicphnu & Nidi). - « pnrU 
uf prij> - :in blur, jnifilici] wild OZftllo fcCld WIBI willi 1 pt nf nv.tlir nrtd 

■rd Viti parta of water, a solution winch pnmo* completely through tho 
filler. If Hi? pnunian bluo lino boon previously mixed with ti lain 
quaii I i itriol to turn it white, and tfic sulphuric add huf tbttd 

hftu di»i'i'ni on: \,y n.'iiiT, i pari <ii oxalic acid li lufflciout tu reodex 
U of Iho praciinn bine eomrdr-tely soluble in 2Sti pnrts of water. 
Neither el < lolutioni wi«l<L any dope t on axpOfQie to» tin- i r, 

avi .* the eaaa with those ■ b ch arc made wiib orut an bfo i 1 11 >l prai 
! iod by acid* (Kurntatacli), -— With pruMian blue not to prop.. 
lift t» UJC ? pta. of oxallQ acid with (i pt.N. of pruxMiin blue ; n Mill 
larger quantity of i i- ii-eiett, ami eauaea praolfdUth" ti: ■ 

■KiUliotu which contain tho rmeJf* i ; ropOltlefl of oxalic acid are aim 
leait subjcoi U> decomposition fKarmanoh). With lr-s than 100 part* 
ol water tu 1 pt. of nruuiuu bluo, tho solution ii Dot QOOtplfltoj if. for 
eyaaiplo, tltA RVrop nblaini'd uirh 1 pt. OTalic BCld 6 pt*- NOfffaU] Wit, 
and 64 pt*. v'aur bo diluted, after 'J4 hour*, with only til pta. wutor, 
dirk blue liquid paoacs throuph, and there remain* on tho 
filter » thick blue mania, wbicE (liasolrea completi l> in i Iftrgo qnj 
of valar, forming :i blue liquid. With i pt. oxaJlc acid t.i i ji!». pruuian 
bl«o, a smaller Quantity of water nutKcot for w-Iution ( K hfn I ch). 
ill r<-i "in ion, wheat ovniMitiit.-.l leavoaa lyrup wkiofa dri' 

to a dark blue <ttrthy urn.... v.Iik h li:i- i. • i | ubbOu 

wiib colon rtcaa cryttali of oxalic odd, but radiaaolrn 10 wittr. If, 

howrvoT, thr •iklntion baa been prepurecl with 2 pta, «if ozaUa Hold ino 

: nf pr^-iaii blaf, tbo wbolv of the bla« NpatSMi comblet^ly a* tho 

atoa; and the decanted ooioorlcai 1'npiid, when turchcr ei i 
rut'^l, yieldi cryMalt of i xaJii d with a few browft-ycUoir 

flake* of ir>n lalt, * proof thnt tlic an. I In- i -■m.-n \ :> portion <>i' tfaa 

i (KaruarM'h) — It th« blna luiuid t- diluted with t<ni mnrn a 
it hnooaioa decolorized after •tauding for «omo woek 

precipitate; but a lew diluU ' . 1 pt. oxalic ;ici«l, 9 pUi PTW- 

aian bloc, iod ?.'io p(- »i W\U poaBj ciiln-i by fang 

•tafwlniw nr ■ ,1 i r. A. Hncbnrr. iUperL 7X, l 

to >1 tha otber hand, tic *olution yivldu nodepotil - 


bmwn-rt'l nlirn mixed ft'.iii - -i '■» ^nate of 
nali dj iii . ( i mlily 
depoartod a mo an ling to J of that which vu contained in tbo UMBotvod 



Dniiinn Moo, tl;« yellow li*|u i«] fdterrd fi side, yield* a 

bin* precipitate vilfc bydxocluWio acid (Wil&uuao. Ann. 

57, tm 

If th« Uoo liquid if to be nU, a quantity of ihcdlae m 

willi &n equal weight *f cindi potash and will. water, tbo eolation 
mixed wild a irnall M . , f lampblack, and a portion of the 

added lo the blue liquid tStephnii X Kttb). 


field* ft 


nil 1 bt 


Hydratcd Oxalic acid diaaolvee is 2*6 pU. of cald bifffcly notified 
*p<Wr, and in 1$ tart* of tLc aetno liquid at * boilinx beat. It i« " 
•potiiijcly kolullc in efnev. 


Qm/upattd Aat/M* naV o/rir Atcnrfttry AWrvi C*H»0». 

Oxalate of Methyl. Piro'ssdw+eo*. 

DVKal lc rru.vaT (1805). An*. Camb. Mjo. oS, 44; ftlso /fwn. 
■ .uajoc & ScinvKiXER. Pojp 49, CG2; J. pr. Chit. 85, 7. 

Netty"* f *ralalr, IMaMA**. 2fr#*f»r*« Mrtiylm, are&enrw MttAftttjd, 

Oralalt iff MtlAjfMn*, Oi$\forwi»trr. 

Preparation. 1. Hy distilling a mixture of eqnal parte of wood. 
fpirit. oxalic n<id> and oil of > 1 1 riol . The lirat portion of the tKuillaU 

•J* alaof tin- rompoBnd when left La araporata; tho U«t por- 

tion contain* M lam a qtumiitv that it K-liJifica in tho CI lorra 

on cooliny. Uy cooled rceniuc a quantity of u\c»ho\ nq 

to ill-: litl porfloi mm di ii linga laotitycf 

iy beobUkinad. — The cry*ula, ni in. f 

niul ObM rafltffled »wr dry oxide of load to rrrnoTe free oxalic acid 

(Mu nnn ,V iVltjrot). — 2. Ily distilling I jit of wnndxnirit with 1 i 

l>iiicxnl:t!r <f |«itn ili raid 2 ptfl. of oil of vitriol. Wood eplril ;>uim orer 

fu*t. and tin u tin* nictlivlic oxalate •ubliuiM in cryitala without any 

Drolntron of aulpfaaroOS acidj bid n» mum n* iu fonnation centea, *ui- 

rOtti and acetic acid paae or*>r, togatbar with a mull quantity of 

Dol, and aometitno* also aulpbornethylic Mid. ThoeryMtaUare prcMed 

1 1 d paper ond etiblimod at a gentle heat over oxide of l^ad [\V 

mann <k Miwciwr) — 1, WftUet (J lift. Pkarm SI. 370) niixea I pt. 

r»f woju) tpiril, irraurlnsilly *o n* t/i avoid rite of temperature with I pt. 

of »il ••! Titnol, and dwuli tho mixturo with V part* of binoxaUla of 

potash fit abould ho left for 24 hour* tcforc dif>tillin^). wbfll 

Bombasublt Liquid pfuwc* over first, containing a certain uaiantiiy o{ 

lata, wliich nmy 1ifeM>par*trd bj a»apoiBikm, and aiamnrardi 

bjHc oxaJato wbiofa aol <\ i->- a ikt Dark of uaa rttori thai»r u 

aoUcdtad apart, nrv--»-d but wean Miuloiia paper tad | - 'Un'Jrnjr 

ore: ■ af ttfaraann- lino- in « d state. 5. — 

ii»bte may likewise be obtained hy diatUlini \ 
with oxalic ac <\ aloof, and rohobating il" 1 prodiiet I'lVoidmaaa h 
■ by treating jK«rcUl- i he "xalole, CCIH)*, 

with wood-»piriv <Cahoura). 



Colon ilk erjftala.'r. kofkri 100*, 

(bar. at 0-7411 met. J; amella like oxalic other (Duma* A Prligot-)- 

Dimv * Pfl. Wtirim. ft ScJiw. 

8C 48 .... 40-68 41-08 II 04 

i. ii . ,. u | ..■»:< ft'fl . - s-18 


... 118 

10000 , 10000 

100 00 

DeeomprtitfortA. l.CLIorinena, withthfiaidnf h< ilnfl llowly 

cABTrm in. ilr i ■ . ilato i with format, on of hydrochloric aefd) rnta i 
rinated methyl ic oxalate, PHKZPO*, and aftorvftldd into jiercuioriniitcd 
na^ytic oxalate, C*C1*0". (Mtl^vn, Ann. Ohm. PAy* 70,880; ftm?*. 

rr*uf. 2.1 li>71 — .!. Mrihylir oxalalo (ItttolrN 111 ^.tlrr, ■***!. whrii 

ilrrd it quietly 4mqH|mwpiI, c.|mti:.IIv if tic&toi., ml 
aad oxalic aoid, <o that tho aolution, ovoo when recently prtfmtod, prod- 

£■■ i linn- traitor [UamM A Peligot). It nrat dlnatva la aata i ii 
wrap*-** 'uk of « ft* Ituun, ii rrsoli- d 

i If-rt: of »«>.•; ipint. Tail mctbul ii »ii oil, Dcorlj «i Urniy *t « 
•f**lli r»-»r« powerfully tranutifl il »n thr mrtrml ebtaSnad front BMtfatMo mlpluUa; 
and rrnuim W*1D p. ft, rathon, I '.i'W htdrOgfB, and '<"■ it la, Ohm 

CTll^O. (Wndimann & SdlmCnr.) — 3. AqUtOUl lojDtioni Jf till &X»d lUuUl 

imn»r4ialrl/ documu.»«4 methyl. c OtafaXo Into wooK pint and an alka- 
i| aouydioua uxido of Icail exert-* DC do. WpOttOg action. 
(Domua & Peligot): 

C*1I'0» t 2KO t J1IO - C*KH>* -r 2CUM0'. 

itwtk-hr ntaUift in rfTf rarrfullr dpeompnMvl hf rhlntc pnfuli, aood Ifilril li 
*rit»e« oti i ma & Svliadur. ./ /«. Crfcvi. 23, T.'i LB*I|, In i to i 

•«a»i 7*42,400). hi which I..- diitillal Mrrwal oanoca of m« thylic ouluta 

i obtain • tmcc of «o<xl*«|'iitt ( but << >.tU (Off an, VrrA.) 

ha tawka tat ravulutloo of 'in: »«i.|. "i-i.i ■ • mid MilaM Of BOaaaV 

4. Aoceoun ammonia convert* rocthj lio oxalnto iuto wood jpirit nnd 
©xawnic (Duuiu* & Pi-ligot): 

ICWD.OO 1 ♦ 2MP « 2CH , 0* 4- C'N-II'O'. 

NfT amnii'iiln- .1 :■:!> convertl -I ln»«»|iirii 
^Dimaait Ptiigot.) 

Cliloromethylic Oxalate. 0>H , Cl<O»=2C l IM?O # CH) - . 

HALAOrn (1839). ilaN, CAim. Fby*. 7C, 3«3j al«o -t^-w. fad 

t:», aln>y pr C'Am. I*, G2, 

d dry chlorine jpia i« paatcd tl -oJ malhylu* oolftt 

rxa- i '•«• 'ati, : : 

■■all (Hit i pound i : iln- com ■• of 14 day*, 

mU> •• uot aolidrfy at onlin 

-«i, aod *!«■ ■ rtlll oon- 

,i d ia it by io |Hu*.»^i; i-l the chlonn« till a Muaplo of tio 

I iliaavKoi cooplctcl/ it) waUr witbout cffcfTcsccncc, then decolori*- 


ing tho yrlh.w femiag liquid l-y the application of a static heat, ami 
ill fn-rjuciit ohann of receiver* .1 mix tun of 
oxalic acid, niotliylio oxalate Ami a small portion ef ehlnr<iinct1.ylie 
oxalate remain heliiud, and distillate*- aro obtained, NflM of which when 
dissolved in water, jjivo eft* carbonic oxide gxs alone, other* a mixlm- 
r.iil.niur oxide iiiid carbonic acid. The former must be regarded ft* the 
purer chlofOmtlfcjllo MDslfttt; tin IftttOT, m whirli tho proportion of 
oarbonio acid vol rod amount* to ^ of tho carbonic oxide, must 

Transparent, cvlourlesa liquid. 


'i H 

4 CI 
SO . 






• . (M 


.—. 17*01 

.... «9*gl 




In w:»t*r H llllttttlj .., npptftfl, nrinfl, converted into oxalic 
liv IroohlozSc acid, ami carbonic otitic, which eseapa* witb offcrvoBcone*: 

VBK&Ot * 4HO m C«H=0» * 4LO * Ml I 


In toil dMMDpodtlMI, 10D pl«. of chiorui'thvlio oXalatO yhdd ."W'gt p> 
hypothetical allhydroUM oxalic acid, :md :i qnnnfitv of carbonic oxtd* 
00H1 lining I'll pta. of carbon. — In damp air, it is quickly convert**! i 
cry«lallixi«d oxalic Ittid (Malaguti). 

Perchloromethylic Oxalate. 

A. CAiroriw (1840). If. 4m. Ckm, Phtjt. ID, 043; alio/, pr, C«<m. 
40, 42./; aUtr. Cbmpf. ww/. 21, 107 1. 

PfrfA/Aromtowrrr HethyUVher. Oxalate de Methylene ptre&lorf ; PtrtMn 

Obtained by introducing perfectly dry mothyUo oxalate into bottko 
filled with dry chlorine gn* nn<l cxpoiinp tlicm to ennchinc. The b-ri*k 
action which takes place at firnt eoon aiminiehM AfUn* xvcrel dajni' 

muto to ftuiuliiur, nliiti tl:i- colour of tin' r ■- in;, i hi ii-^ fn :ic no 

longer ftimfahdlOff^ the mothylic oxalnte in completely 00ft r Or tod into 
. - ol iii. oblorino-eompoond 

Snow -whit*-, MCMOM crystalline Iftuiiin-, which moll :-t I Mntlo UOiiV 
and aublimc partly aiMftcoinpotcd at a tttron.^i Ip-m; they have a 
powerful odour, li"ke tlmt of |ihvagcnc. 

BO 48-0 ... nro 1; 

6 CI „ 212-1 I &-4I CV'OC 

*0 «4*0 .... 10-7* . . «ws 

CCl fl 9 3244 .... 100-00 


Tin. BOflt|»ovnd it roeolrod. partially by oimplo vublimation, tot 
pletcly wli-.r. ,1 mpovi i* paa*ed tiiroagl 1 gUM UlO© hoofed li 
|»erature between 300 and 4U0', into plmn/enn and carbonic oxit 

ccro 1 - crcio * sea. 



In fanatir pM.i&h-4oUit!on, it disappears with violent action and fonno- 
of oxalito and carbonate of potiuh and chloride of polonium; 

CKXHy t 12KO - C«K*t>« ♦ 4CKO.C0 1 ) + CKC1. 

Soda-aolutioa and baryta-water exert a aimilnr action, — Aiiiirioiiincnl 
gM acta violently upon it, fciruiiii^* carbiuuide = CXII'O (II, 481), find 
sal-am tannine 

[ A ■'-•'•filiiiij 16 wlmt equation 'J — X «m»ll (jimnhty of brown natter !• rorm«4*t lh» 
fcimr timr. 

Witli wiim). spirit, il if derompnted, with great heat and intumeseone*, 
into hydrochloric told gas, vribioub mocmi nsuyik MCal >t*-. utwtrating to 

!•»( the pcTcliloroinetUylio oxalate, ond imloronu'lliylic fennfctt I VI 1, 909). 
f therefore water Ihj added to the cooled mixture, n henry oil finks to 
the bottom, uhudi. whrn distilM, gives off vlihinimiMhylir formiiite 
between 78° and S2", nnd aftcr-vaT^s nictliylie oxalate at lea : 

C*C1MV 4 4C>H«0» - «HC1 4 CWO» 4 SdPCIO*. 

Alcohol add*! m Mniall portion* to mothylio oxalates produce* groat ri«o 
of temperature and evolution of hydrochloric acid pv^ while oxalic other 
and cnloroviuic formiato remain behind. When tb| addition of frcali 

llr.iliol n« lODfivT prOtloOM H!'ith-<thci\ the liquid it In ft to ronl :ilii] 
mixed with a fartfo quantity of wat*r, whereby IB ofljf mixture i< thrown 
down, conflicting of the two c thorn, which may bo separated by dis- 


CCW r iC*W& -<UClt C i ni w O' t 2dt'CIO'. 

Ill a similar manner, fusel-oil and pcrehloromcthylio tatmiaftfl mixed 
together, become heated, gflva oft" hvdroehloric acid, and form amylic 
oxalate and cMoramylte formiate (Calioiir*): 

CWO» t 4C»I1 B 0» - 4UU t C*ll«0» » 3C 1J U»ClO*. 

Oxamcthylane. C•XH 1 o«=C 1 iI 1 AiC i O , . 

IreiiAi k PrtuciciT (1835). ^nn. Ckim. My*. 68, 00. 

I>ry ammoniac*! pis pruned, to saturation, over henh/d niriliyln: 
* tie, till in fast, thomass, which is liquid atflnt, lolidilieK witlii'iit 
-f temperature to a whilo crystalline maia:' * nh 3 - ditto* - vivo 1 . 

AltfunKgfc tin absorption of the ammonia it attended with aomo rioo of 
IcdDkeraturr, it U o<JY?rlhelo*s uecesssrv, for complete transformation, to 

mi* it from without iooi to keep tlia dims ialb< LlqttUsWt [Dudm 

le eiytUlli-i" tu.i t (Pumas A Pehgot). CratalluMM from tho 
aJcoko ic nelutiOQ by evaporation in poorly cubes (Liebig). Soluble in 

tx. m 


ETHTLBNK: 03Tr.fV-K'< 

f C . 34 .„. SIM h- 

'• M I , 4 86 ..- 

N tmmmmmmmmm U 1*'59 .... 

I 41 _ (GOO „.. 

DOMM * PMpt. 




(?II>AJ,C-0* -. 105 ._ 10000 ..... two 

May be regard*! ah n OOBpoUttd af BXMi of m>thyl with nrsmio vld 

(VII, 220.) \\K<-. 1 with wator, anl ammonia added by d rope, 

eo m to ncutr»li*o the acid a* mod aa it is oe4 free, till the compound is 

;>letely decom|>OM>d, tlit? linn I i.Um nothing but 

Ufl of UDBKonU i Belard, A', .(i.j. ■ I ■-,■*. 4, 101; **l*u -*' 

I'harm. *2, W3; alio /. ?r. Chan. 2i, M). 

Oxalate of Ethyl. CH'^^sDH^W. 

Bbromaj*. Optueufo, 1, 858. 

TiAubd Irefe. & a* Sw. fArcMcti, 2, n. 

Bai nor. .SV.W. 19, .108. 

J. Uunab & P. Boctur. 7. iMorw. U. 113; aleo 5<"Air. 52, 

Doma*. Jf», OUn, /%J. R4, 23?; aU Jm, /Ww. to, MS. 

Etlpttt COAiel*. VrnieOrtlnte. fYifitir Kthn, A'lftnojiAtAa. KffHitker. Onltither. 
Klrrttmrft ottrr om/Mnrrt Attkylotyd, Oi*t-*<nf1rr, Rthrr antique. (H+lat* d' Qfiiit 
fStkfi*. (Ma/tit tfAyfffw. — l>mco*oml by Uergnja ; wore umutvly uiwvti«Mrd 
by ThrnarJ, Unubof, Diimu ft Uuullay. 

Formed by beating OUM acid with alcohol (Bauhof); more readily 
In nraaflnra of nul|miirir. nrid (TIWini 

Produced alio, together with ohlorovini* ferniaio aud hydrochloric acid, 
in the deoornpo<ritiou of percMon>motbylte oxalate by alcohol, (labour*, 
[irn Okia Phpt, 19, M8). — 1. AIpo in the p ntd* 

aldehyde, by distilling ;i mixture of equal part* of pnroxid* of matigaaeae, 
miljjliuric »<*i<l, and apirit of ?0 per cent (C. Sob 
330). 1! 

St. oxalic acid and H or 10 jjU of 

I*rrpai~atiori. 1. A mixture of 1 
0Q per oral alcohol i* heated for some days, tud then diet lied, I 
l*t* being poured back again »ix tinei oi mow, till tho roaidaa no longer 
uryatallisi--. bi tho form of an oily liquid, wbioh may then bo 

«!'■ nllcd over without roaidue a* oxalic tllier; lot Una U-i <1 

tin- reoeJTor ah on hi he chunged . the fin- acid i kllon 

wnli c:.rl.<.n:ii. id limit ilhiiilinfi. A good modo of proceeding 

mix dehydrated oxeJic acid with three timet i»* weight ol ahtolnw 

mixture on tho water-bath for fl dav<% in a fluk 

ridod with ae Dprlght tab* 3 ft long and surrounded witb damp 

paper, to that the ahuliul may condeniM) in it am! niu loci u^aiu; tbra 

u i i Uia flank a bout tubo 6 (Apa 51). xnd distil, wha r w u paa 

■ ■■I.. and aftorworda the oxulie allierj l bo 

Ltod iua aopamto rccoi ). — Befgtuan, by tfiitilli ig ( v»na| 

|«rU of oxalic acid and alchohul, wOtaiocU. tint alcohol; tl .lata 



fan *lii<li lime-water separated nn other lighter than water, and 
turning with difficulty; and la*t)y, a heary oil. — 2. One part of 
efiorcaced oxalic acid and 8 pt*. of absolute alcohol are dfrtUM Ifl ■ 
retort provided with a thi-rmoinrt^r, till tl. potot IUM U) L4w*J 

tl v di-'.iltat* {toured hack, and rcdittillcd till ( c point Hup* to 

'•'*'; the rchidu*, consiKtiiif- anient of oxidio ether, agitated Ml 
with writer to remove xroo acid; and rootlflod DVat oxide of lead: 
portion which p.usc» over above JhO' i* pun* oxalic other, amounting 
jit. for ftirrv 2 |it». of hU (Miucherlieli, L<M). — 3. Oxalic MH 
.'i i tubulated retort till it iiogint lo give off whim fume* (to 
ocordinj; to Chancel), and alcohol dropped in through tho 
tnbaloa. Oxalic ether then pamoo over in Laisi numidiv mixed ■ 
liUlf Dodooompooed alcohol. (GauJtior do C'lninv. ft*, miaittf. 9 t 303; 
mlfto Ann. Phamt 43, 1ST). — 4. Aleolnd onion* hcuted with uxaiie 
arid to V<H) in it niirruw flat* tube with thin aidea, ItimfthfOlT formo 
oxalic othor MJurriu, io<c&), — 5. A mixture of 14 pU. exalte acid. 
IS pU. aJfvboI. and 5 pu. oil of vitriol is distilled till a BuJ] ipiautity of 
vuuc ether io forimxl. 'i'iie blOwD acid residue in the retort, when B 
with water, i!»jMi«itn ovnllc ether, wliirh rftflfj he HJlhod » ith a. pi eon* 
pataali and cold water (Thcnard). Tfco quantity tbu* obtained i* hut viuull 
(Ujitia* & BouJlav). — 0. A mixture of I wt. tiaoxalato of pota-li, 1 \>t. 
ml&jUiA, and 2 pi-, oil of vitriol, io distilled till llu ■ . - c - . = f no longer con- 
tain* alnolml. Tin: hY-t portion Ol il I ili.Niillatn cuUniflU of alcohol, thcu 
«ooic* ether, and nn oily liquid which tinki t<> tli" hot loin and contain)* 
16* jrroator part of the oxalio ether The alcohol U poured off (if 
p*ore«i hack mt* tho rvtoH erne ..rtu ice, it yields more oxalic ether, and 
i mixed witli wnter, deposit* a itill further •inutility}; tho heavy 
I KhukMn up lo a ovUndnoaJ vowel with water; oxpoaml to l hn air 
till the vinio ether, which often iiiakoa it liRiitor than water, if evaporated; 
Ik. i ted with litharge in n short-necked fluik till ih«« lnnlin.r point, wliieu 
i« at fir»t ooiweeo 90 and 100°, baa rieen to IW* J or 184°, Wfcertby it ii 
freed !. a* well :i* fnmi aleohul, ctbor, and water; then decanted; 

and the 1 ether dulilled off in a very dry retort DuinaaA Botdlay). — 
OtaJW other tlni* prepared, in at tir*i eonfnmiiiaied with a largw quantity 
Of* auJadioi-inato o/ wine b may however bo complotely rooiovc4 

by boiling for a euffiojeiit tame with lithiirijc. IU preeence nmy ho 
IftOOguinrd l»y Uinrwlo^ a piece of | upon tin- oxalic ciln-i .md 

aetting fire to tin- liquid; tho charred ihil« Itceomea not, and leave* 
■ ri)H<]ue, wit . I rhea 4iwolved iu water an< 1« pj<«'ij»n,ii * 

antl girce off aulpburvlted bydrogon when uuxed 
wnh hydrochloric acid. 

ProptribH. Colourleaa after rectification; otherwise yellowith | 
■ard),- browoieb yellow (Bauiiof |. Oily. tp. ev. 1'08S* ot 7'$. 
hetween 183° and 184 , the harotuoter «Ltiidiii{r at 07 *■ - VTnpo 
oWaiiy ■ ..i* & Uiiiili.iv . - fl 10 (Oaltoo i [iiaoMVomi 

(TWnentr, wndU like wine- oil and hue 1- oil (Banhoi); ha« an arwnatie 
y alltacoout ad ioi a Boullaj i. Xaato^fllightlv avthn- 

Riul (TiMtAiu), very diflo^rovable, hitter ami aatrin^cnt (Uauhol'): 

Dum. h. B«ulL Dkicuu. Cihtior*. 

IJC -^- 78 49-31 4U-U 4 'J 4 ... «900 

ii 10 m HO '■ n . . M i. ?r 

CHi^> Ml. 

tOTOO ni\i-o« . . 

1900 . . ion-no 




If , . 


t mm 


Yajcnr t/ Ottlir c.brr 

* I0'1TJ2 



Vtt7mpo*it*ms. 1. Ortlic ether i* decornpoved Ur C&Ieraftv, with 
aid oJ Ml and mud-Ii! h-. bat not othennao, vtehEa*; pcrcbloroxalic 
rth.t (O"0l J, OT aud hydrochloric acid (Malegnti, Ann. CAua /', 
?*. i':»'i; mm/>. Laurent, *flM. Oin. PAy* ««, 317)— 2. In OQfl 
witli JlnJo-, DX&lk ether in resolved slowly H !. <|ai<k1jr willi 

aid of lent, into alcohol and oxalic acid. On dUtitiinif it with «r»t«r, 
decomposition takes place immediately (Baoboi)i when tl>c t» 

- 1 1 v mi ml in the cold, It take* place alowly; in teasels win. I. do 
not plow veil, the more entrance of moist air gives rive to n separation 
of oxalic arid. — 3. Aqvecti* »Uit\/m* of the /sttt flUa/i>, vnch a* | 
ley (Thfaard), °* baryta water (Bauhoi), produce thin decomposition with 
^renter rapidity. 100 pts. of oxalic other yield, with potash. CS'18 pta, 
of ti)i*jilii!f eloaool a&d a Quantity of oxalate of ptii»»h cont.i did ■ '• I 
pU. of hypothetical anhydrous oxalic arid; thii shows an excess of 1 1 16 

5 ta- ( proceeding from liyiln^'i-n and oxygen taken Qpd repro- 

a ol the alcohol (Duma* Se Boullay). p U r U»c fraction of owlic cti>« 

vtaU an iMonVwut tjuantitf of potash, Me OreforfNte oefrf. p. 183. — 4- Oxalic clhox 
added to a mUturs o/ lime and hydmle of fxrta$A coutained in i retort. 
iMbl into thn powder, producing pr*>:it Mil, and probably forming 
•xalafe of potash nd r j>. t > ir.m; the urns*, when heated, 

S'ree o!T bYdrogjea, tod aft rward i eoo4 una noetic acid (proceeding from 
e a|od i carbonic acid (from the oxalic acid) (I)iimns & Staa, 

Ann. Okm, Pky*. T3, 152; also Ann. Pfwrm. M, 161; aleo J. nr. Chen. 

21. .17.1). —6. Afuwena Ammonia liooonpoaw oxnUc ether, yielding alcohol 
and oxauiido (Liebig, Pcgg. 31, 334): 

tevOrW * isw - sewo* ♦ cNm*o 4 . 

When oxalic ether is shaken up with excess of ammonia, the drone 

ether wh»h JiffufO thrC-OgD tin- Ran] I >nliriify in wtiil*.- m i 

thy Bpherioa] form. Duma*.) — Banhof, who'flr&t observed thn formation 

of oxamhlo in thai BMnntf, regarded it ni n compound cf oxalic 

with ammonia. — tf. Dry amrnomacal ejas pan od tbroaffli 

in absorbed, with orolation of heat, and decompose* thn tthcr into ah 

and oxumctlianc; by continuinj; the passage of the goa for aomo time, a 

*mnll quantity of oxnmido is likewise! formed (DUBnM hudiig): 

SC'IPO.CO" t KIP - 0*0*0^ ♦ WJH'O*. 


In iii .-. r-, i no pt«, of oxtlk • tber y M 91*9M ptf. of aJ 
alcohol and 7R'67"J pt>- (70 lo7* pta. acc(»r.lin^ to l.'umna) of oxin 
il'urn.M ft IluulUy.) When the gw and the oxalic other 
am Imiit jut fiiM I v *\i\. iliv grtttar par] of ihe Litter rfiMfinvf uudeoont* 

posed. . i is :ij pli.-.l i I . » r -. : . - quantity of OOUUnet! 

tli#n fnrifKu, with hut little oxaiuidc. Absolute alcohol aaturaied with 

dry aiuiu- iet form any ox.ihi -I* witli oxalic aexl, but a 

clear tiooid, d raporated luaveao larjr« quantity of oxaaae- 

" as*. (Liouijr, Poyy. 31, 359.) 

OX AUG Attn. 


7. J'<4ati\vm and SmEmCM hoatod with oxalic ether decompose it iuC-> 
carbonic oxide, etrbouit . ihcr t and other products. — Sodium do* 

act in tbc colli; wlicu bested CO the point at which il | ■ mom* 

from Iti orast of oxide* forms raBowiih white floelu which gradually 
Veeomo dark rod, and at 13?* Mgtu t4 glv* «ff gM, Ity the lint :lmt 
fresh pieces of sodiuin no longer oauM any formation of jpu, the q la 
♦rolrod amounts to about 3*0* cabio centimetre* for j 0? fTejumi 
OX-liir rthrr; the gaj CODelctI of OBlboolo OXtdi mixed villi sIhiiii /j of 

volume of hydtogen or carbonic field. There nmajfli :• dirk-wd 
Iomi, syrupy while wurm, I nit of tho eoo*iftcnco of an v\U ■.«•: uli.-i: cold, 
and i peoolJar odour. Tin* tuns* distulvcs readily in water, 

carbonic ell" i ibm m panning a.u-1 rtiuuj in tin- inrJaoeof ihfl Ifauid It 

«iw diawlvw cotnpl 'salute alcohol; and thi* Mil ut ion r\u. 

j. rM.d warm ov.-r oUol vitriol in raoim, !■• ive* | v n pttU DM . M biofa 

yield* a brown-rod powder, quickly becoming inoitt and j-iimui v. (E tiling, 

^Mit. Mann. 1ft. 18; also i'ooy. 80, 1 rj ). Potassium alio fornu 

and carbonic elber, the residue containing oialute of ]xiia_<sh. 

SCalt l yv///«. .0, 201 ; also Wnn. f'/mnu 17, 21*2; also 

r. Cam. ai>, 241). Tbo dark colour appear* as soon a§ tho sodium 
trtcnui to act; if tli-j action in strong, bout il product ■■■ and oxalic and 
car* < ra arc orolvrd together with Its carbonic oxide j bunco 

two production of the carbonic etboi doei not depend on t ; a addition of 
water. The earbonio ether, which amounts to I bug* ipuniitv. ma/ 
bo distilled ofl from tfio iiiiimh ka aoon oh fornird. 'J h,. »nfi*tanoo 
thco reoaaiuing forms with wator a black brown alknlinc solution, whioh 
Is a large quantity of ulcoliol by distillation. Sulphuric acid added 
loth i liquid throws down black flock* o! Siffric aeH and the 

filtrate when dbtillod yieldi formic aoid, an additional quantity of nigrlo 
arid remaining in the retort, while oxuho aoid remains in solution. 
(lewi;A Wcidmai.n.. 

Tlii» m"./! ii acid i» washed with elcoh-d an 1 ctha as long n* the irub- 
lubit a brownish colour, then dissolved it; alcohol, Mtrrcd !•■ 
►eparat# a trace »i undi kiIv.mI l«!:i--l; malt.'r, nod tjvtpmttti II B 
also be uIiLuhcmI by disiolving in water tbo mass wlncb romains after tho 

ou of the carboujc ctlior; precipitating with acetate of K 

waahina: tho brvwu urccljiitatei suspeuuiiiK it i" water, decoilipoilog 

■t.- 1 liyarnmn; filtering from the sulphide of; Bltpo- 

ration luo altrnte, wliicli bus at first n yellow colour, on tbo water iatli, 

■ unnir wator on llu> rcsidas; ■ n^ uipiin; 

sad ' fie or il. ii '•> again rcudcred insoluble, with water, to 

acid. When the acid thus ubtained ii treated with 

•liar. It prtlj nrm rl In tin formofablaci oiaat aaotbaj 

i ii.soU-os in tin- rii.i-r. Eorming a brown solution; but tbii portion 

when hen i- water is likowiao converted into tho blaoh loldj wfcWl 

dors tot >;i ■■■•<• ii ' tin c Tbcra an then Ion ihrw itatoi "i tho .-■ id lo 

ba-dblingiii'ln-d: I. A - >rt fmo by sulphuretted hydn i, »uthscuaratnjii 

r, in wliicli stale it diasoVes ID water villi a pale VoIlOfl OOtOII . 

1. As pn>lueo I rftot oxidation In the air, in which itato H I 

insolaUo iu w;it*r, but dissoWos with brown coloui m pthan 8; A. 
nnMlsrod by j idation, in which state it is black, and insoluble 

mV in wator and □ othsr, bul iliawln in alcohol Th* black idd 

IHinufl H - :t y With nqnooai ammonia, 
f4ta- forms brenn black lolutions, whioh whtn »i 

snra black, battle, ainuruhous masses, Tbc other salts arc almost all 


IttHi in wMor, and btVt a brown or Mark colour. Tb<» ammnnUr&l 
solution frood by evaporation from excess of ammonia, forms with acetate 
of lead a dark brown prccipitutc, which when dried at 100°, contains 
4*73 P.C. I'bO. 31-59 C, 803 H, aud 22 06 0, and is Umi 
PLO.C^irO' (tftwif A Waidmaim, P 107). In former txp 

raenla with oxalic other and potassium P*g$. Ai>. 107). Lfrrig U>< 
that be ob««rred tlie formation of crooooate of potash in vinie other. 

Of this decomposition of oxalic ctbor, and for mitten of carbonic 
•thoT. no satisfactory AOOOUOl I.;i- vit bom vivoa. It is true 
C M H w 0» (oxalic. eili«r)=C !0 H w O" (carbonic itnar) + 2CO. But a- the 
sodium disappears and ia absorbed in tlio maw, wo cannot MQribc 
result to a catalytic- action of tlio ■odium. IVrliaps ethyU'te of tudi 
K'MPNaO*") it formed nt fir>> - with carbonic ether nod airborne 

oxide, and all tlm otaof producti of dtoommritiofl »n» WHDid by ;bo 
action of tbo ethylate of sodium on the execs* of oxnlic ether lilewU** 
BJ| ..n! :if |b| miiBWIlOWUlH tJ l!".' Mtbot 

\ WHY ♦ Ns ~ OVNaO 1 ♦ C'H»(V * 3CO. 

Other explanations havo been giron by Dobcreinor (J. f>r. C'Am. 28 t 
168, and by Uvrii; & Wcidmuuu, Popg. 5 0> Ji7 )- 

Com&inrttifiu. - - Oxalic other dissolves sparingly in Watir. 

When Biehhridt of Tin is frrndually added to oxalic ether nt a tem- 
perature below (>', till lli-; whole solidifies in a mans, necdlce united in 
tufts nro obtained, front which tbo oxalic vtber i* again separated by 
water (Lewy, CompL raid. 21, 371; also J. pr. &m>8J t 4$S). 

"C »-0 1J.« 17»»9 

I0W . 10-0 .... *■«« 2*66 

SO 64 .... 157» W>W 

t«o ..... 1U-0 ... WO'J 20-U 

I CI Iil-C .... 34-91 34-JB 

c -n '"<:■,. HUOtf MM .... lOO'OO 100-00 

Ox.ilio Other diseolre* in Alcohol, and ia precipitated from tbo scJoiissl 
by water. 


f Vinometbylic Oxalate. 
C ,0 IC'O•=C«H«O,C*H , O,C i O l =C l (-Mc,Ae l )O , . 

Cbxscul. laur. <!*• Gtrk. C. X. 18*0, 373, t03; Jikrf&a: 1850, «W 

0*&tri*vt*/thyli<h. — Formed by the lotion of ooJnttOTluaftfl of |K)ta*i 
or ox.iImh>i iii\l:r- .if |m :i-li, or of the- *iilpli-iiiu-tlivloto on the oxakr 


<?HKl,KO,2St> ♦ C*HK>JM>,V<U' - caW£Ml*O f C«0» - tyKOtSO*). 

i**7 ■■• i oxalovinatc of potash completely dried, lot I 

at )QO , aftcrwaiili in ri I i mutely mixed with 1 pt. «f |mtI-. 



* auJpliomefliTlnte of poiAasna (mid witfa pumice-atone to 
UeUH&tion i ■ ;it. I M a rftori p1lil<(1 In a 

sand-lnlh. On til triplication of a ftufKntcnt heat, tho vinomcthylic 
: it* pM»>i ->i*ur in tho form of * joll«»v ]i<iiti<|, luvril g I MU 

aliiavcoue odour ariaJoff from tho prcooncc of a avlptun ooMpottM - (rem 

t±w ho««vri i; ui»y bo froed by etsvoral difUlIiitiuni orrr common alt. 
!l ia Urthvi purified by shaking it op with wild avian plnsing it for 24 
boar* in contact with chloride 0/ oaloium, and finally dulUling it over 
oxiie of leud. 

Properties — Transparent, rolourlesa liquid, having * fetal :imin*!.in 
r. ESp. #r I £7 at 1 1 Dbtill without alteration, and boil* between 
and I7<T. Vapour-deurity 4 ■*.::. 

Ckinoal. O. Chawl. 

104 „.. 60.. 45-41 .... 461 C*ll»0... J3 .... 1?42_, 

-II .- B .... 6-Ofl . „ 6-1 CMi'O ... tf m- Bi'W . 

* <> . ■ U i-r.i ... 16-6 PO" «... 73.... bi-M .... 51-10 

1 mi i 1 

Droit ty. 



I lyiic oxalate li InmumaaU^ ami bnnu «itli aorigfat flum*. 

.'«a. Ct dow not diaaolro in water without daoompoaltloo; 

eold water nnU dump oar decompose it slowly; ©oiling wafff dlnolvM it 

conplct*. ' it liDWfvrr into wood-ep ritj alcohol, mid oxulio 

1- lli; it dlaappaa In di li itcly, oven in tlic cold. 

Annonia dteomimvM it nipidlv, (arming 11 nrocipltata "f oxamidu 
(Choncol). n 

Oxodovinic Acid. * c*n»o,e»o> 

Mosciieum* -ii (1834). Ptyff. 33 » 332. — Lthrb. Aufl. 4. I, 208. 

A anlatiuii of oxalin ether in absolute alcohol ia mixed with a quantity 

a ,ii iliH.iIurM alcohol, just sufficient to 

*4o th« oxalin 6414; the procipitatod OT>Trt*llii»» Bcalcs of 01 

viaacc yf j«t**!i art waabod on a filu r wi b b daUaloohoJ^aadciuaolrad 

in ardrated alcohol, which leave* undissolved tho admixed oxalate of 

potash; tUo pnbufc a*'|nraluil from til* lil.i.ite by an eijui* kill n-riiility 

•I enlphciisn acid; the ileofaoIioaoluUoa ■' oxaloyinJo acid nkarad from 
! halo of potash, diWtad with wattr, and u( united with car!. 
yta; tho filtrate araporaUd over tlic water bath to a syrup, from 
■law. ifco KaujtB-aalt atpaAlca in crystal*; au*l I o« laaaa wken diiaolreil 
io maiai, tlieoxnliiriut aoid li wparatcd byaalvli 

Oficrow ar%4 cannot l# concontpatcd. eitln»r over the wator-li.ah 

raruo, ttt ultnoateiy kare* cryattllixod oxalic acii. 



Tk& Qsalotinotr* arc rceolred by boiling wiih oow* of an aqoeoas 
fixed alkali into tfeoB*] ami an oxalate of llie alkali 

I'.i.ikIi s/iU. — Ciyntallino sales, which do not doeomp<w# ot MtflVr 
any lo« of weight it I Hi) Tito salt dissolves readily in wit*? and 
oryitallizos out o^aia with difficulty. Scarcely aolnhto in absolute alcohol, 
but tttaotVftl with tolerable facility in hydratcd alcohol. 100 pt*. of the 
•alt dc<xnii|>o*ed by bulling with caustic potash, yield a quantity of 
oxalate of potaah containing 47 23 p«. of hypothetical anhydrous 

(>yita/lix*J. Mini-licilicfc. 

KO 412 .... 30 22 _ SOU 

»C 48 ... 30 73 . ... 30-90 

*" 5 .... 3 20 Z 01 

70. 5G0 .... ftsVU - SS'fr* 

C"H l KO> l OO< ISM ... loooo 100*00 

~ C( K^II'JO*- KO.OON C*H l O,C 3 0>. 

The ftaryta-m?l nnd the Fctathsatt, which xm& obtained like tho 
baryta *:i!t, crygtuDi** from tho aqueous HOluttODj ftJUl it ha* boon 
evaporated over tho wnter-hath to a syrupy consisteuco- 

When tho aqueous solution of the potash-wit 19 boiled with chloride 
of calcium, nt Ini.r j< precipitated S : niilurly, « mixture *»f tho 

aquoous potafch-talt with acotftta of load or with stdphnto of manenne**, 
sine, cobalt or coppor, yields, when boated or sot naido for toino tuno, en 
oxalate of the heavy inelal. la contact with protoxide of copper, the 
w<|in;tjij.> acid yftohfa alcohol mid OUpzig oxalate (MiUchulich)- 

0. $ulphttj--nudais. {MPS'. 
Bisulphuretted Vinic Ether. C 4 H»s l O=C 4 H , S , ,HO 

11*1*0031 (1839). Ann. Ch'm. Fhy*. 70, 334; Pham.Z2 t 

BinVwiniithtr. SehuiftiSihtr. Kth§f «i(/fcrr. 

When oulphuretted hydrogen is p;i-'<:«i tlirimirh biclih'rinated 
ether (C'Cl'IPO) contained in n reliit ■ iHgbl riftft of tCtop> mtur* takes 
; : ! a Ninal) ipmutiiy uf :m «>ilv Mihstancc posucs over, Void 

insoluble in water nnd sinks to the bottom, fogrihor with auuihi-- ...dy 
irfaleh has an cfftulvt odoof ami a*sMe)v*a in tin- Water, Towards tho 
Ms] of tho procc**, tho distillation imwt ho accelerated by cxteniot b 
but •Ton thru tbi pTodoOt ia nut much increased, as the rv#idue ooon 
sSoootnoa black and *i*cid. Th»? ili«til l:tt '- . if Bit a«Jdo forftfe* dajr*, 
■Olidlfioa to ft soft mixture of ncadless and scale*, together with n 
if this oil bo prcsocd out between paper, and the romdue tip Oil 
crystallised from boil in j; alcohol, a mixture of needle-* and lamina- is first 
invd, and aftvrwiinuj PUr*J D< odl*fl »>f hiMjlphuietted vinic »:tlier. TsiO 
lamina? of lulphnchlnrinatcd vinic ether, which remain dissolved in tho 
be separated by farther <■ tporatioB and and 

d I v r. i".;fi i ng 'in-ill in hot alcuhcl. aad NBMTlBf 

neotUto hLjcIi apj>car lint a* lie liquid begins to OOoL 

iodide of acetyl. 185 

Colonrlnu needlr*. Inuring a faint odour liko that of cldoridn of ml- 

Cbor, fusing between 120' anil 13?*, ami tolidifying on cooling iu o hard 
ratio cry'tallino ma*. [Malaguti.) 


«C. 24 .... 35 82 33 31 

3H .- 3 .... 4-48 4 62 

2 S »2 _ 47-7© 4701 

* _ ii'»« iz;g 

CWSPO.. , 07 ...100-00 10000 

Tho needle* are decomposed by nlooholio potash, yielding sulphide of 
potaeflium and acetate of potash; 

C'H'SJO * 3KO - CWKO 1 + SKA 
They dissolve in other ond alcohol, but nut in water (Matu£Uti). 

c. 2odine-n\tdti* 

n. Iodine-iiuetou*. t2*IH*. 

Iodide of Acetyl OUR 

RrxiNitLT (1835). Ann. CMm. l*hy$. 59, 3?0 ; nlso Ann. 1'Aarm. 

\S> GO. 
Kmil Korr. Compt. rttitL IP, 87j ftlno/ J»r. CArm. 9% Ifl. 1 *. 

S+f*n**ntt* loJaetfyl. tofaMtkyiten, Injur* d'Ao^li/lr, In.lurr d'AiMj/Ji** 
ftW Kjjolh#«iml finheil Cll* bring culled Arttyi or Ald'hylrrfi; ludttkitt (Laurtol); 

Mido <f cthyleno (OH*! 1 ! immoreod in strong alcoholic potoah, 
immediately gives off vapour of acetyl. It is ultiiiiauly heated to ' 

Or OCT', tn r\\*\ LllC VilpUlil nJliijilrh Iv. ilfld till' VUpiiUI ||j4>.«imI. Iit:-t. 

igli n minll quantity of water, thon through a long chloride of cal* 
dim tnbe into u rowivei coolod will to* nod wJt| lo n't <i< \i aoTnlnnnw. 
whilst delimit K*», produood at tho same time, pft»»co further (Rngoailh)! 
i Mi'i i KO - (/'lit' | Kl I lin. 

Part of the OWI 1 is, however, revived into CM I 4 and H. — K. 1 
limply JUtifo tho iodide of ethylene with alcoholic potash, passes the 
iluto into a well cooled receiver, and precipitates the oil by 

arleni oily line id (Regnnult). Sp. vr. 1*06. Boils ftt ,VI' 
(K. Koppj. Vapour dou»ity about -I 78- SuieJla like garlic (Kcgn.>-. 

omfKncl by fuming nitric acid, with evolution of nitron 
; « and separation *>i iodine, out not hy cold para nitric acid, or \y 
lulphtric «r o jrtfrochlork acid (B Kopp). 

lam\utle in water, bat dissolve* very oasily in alcohol and rther. 

R Kopp. \.l 

: I 24 . ) >••• C>mav i .. K646 

3 11 3 .... i M M-gw 3 .... 

I tsb iponi I .._ i 

i: ; , iDO-uo 


.. J ... II 


fl. Iodine Nucleus. OMMI. 

Iodal. (WfiyW 

To this hoad belong pr.ikibly the two following liquids: 

«i. A solution of 1 pt. iodine in 4 pU. absolute alcohol, i* in trod u 
into » bottle provided with a loosely fitting glass stopper, And strong 
nitric acid sdaed En fcbout equal quantity. If tlio browu mixture I 

mae decolorised bo 8 U) B w/s, nwn nitric acid mast bo added. 

Oil Is then continually im dved ic.inMsling chiefly of nitrom oside. sad 
an oil is formed, which rout be nmtVtd with the pipetU 1 . As it still 
lOOholj nitric mid, and iiitroUf cthnr, it inu*t bo distilled over 
curbonnte of linio and chlcrido of calcium. It begins to boil at fcS* . tho 
boiling |ioiut ii'iti;.', however, to 11. '• , nt which tciiipe-riturc tho rcaidun 
::m: il" iJixiillnin Ii.thhh- i I from Mqiaratlon if lodiocv 
This first portion* of the distiQstO which, pais ovor contain lar^o quantities 
of nitrona ether: tho Inst portion contains only tracos. which may be 
removed by leaving tho liquid fer several days lit contact with 30 times 
Us bulk « uac«r. 

Tho oil thus obtained smells like chlorine. When kept under water 
for Homo days, it forma needled at tho rurfaoo of contact. It gives °n p 
iodine with oil of vitriol SAd is converted by potash loto iodoform, — It 
diwolvcs sulphur, bromine, sad catorhiOj mm diatolros '» alcohol sod 

j'iril (Aim*, Jnn. Chim. PAya. 6«. Si 7; also Ann. than*. 1 
•J.iX; ...l.o./ j>f (W. is, \t$y 

I. When n sviontod solution of iodino in alcohol is poured into nitric 
acid heated ifl I I I B SjdOM fla*A, a riolout ftotlon DltrJe oxide, 

SXBtis acid, am! nitron* ether arc given off; ami the bdlna- 
bsoo t ne •! If the Rpplioiliou of heat bo continued. fresh 

iodino added till the totfsfl POaSSS an«l the ootaof disappears, nad tie 
li'iuitl left to cool, the compound sink* to the bottom in the form of a 
Jfolovisb oil, — The BttpeasAlOt acid liquid still d< n ill portion 

of oil on bring mlYed with wnwr, and »llll move when DOOtrSJlssd by 
potash; but the oil thus sSpq f Sifjd is mopo coloured: tho mow t otloctttsJ 
tnsau* of extracting it is to ehuko up tho aoid liquid with rinic pth- 1. 

Tin* oil |a dOaTi of pnU yrlloH DoloUTi and sp. gr. 1 '3-I; baa a strong 
' tdonr, rOTJi different from that of iodic nthrr . ]f redd 
inasmuch as, from thfl BtDat :Vihty with which it decomposes, it cannot 

b« f rood from ii-llo-nng acid, #>i(ii r l»y dixtillut.oii or '■. r un *! 

atknlia, iii>il:+ at 110'; but decomposes and turn., brown at tho same 
limo. rVboQ cxnoscil to the air, it praporatca very slowly, U :iim! dl On bfl 1, leavings 

When hoiittid in a wtort, it slowly yiobU at Jl's 
c»ii-nrlo« diatillnte, Laving an ethereal odour, nod loaves a tUt's 
residue, nhi.;li at 100° likewise volatilize?, invin^ off iodine- vapours, sod 
lcaviiiff n ■hininj( osxbonsceoua raoldoo. — T! ■■■ 

■SsflSj aswnmes a darker colour, mid yields a cryitalliDO dspcoit 
of kkdini 

lotion fi ilio oil, with formation of hydrochloric acid 

^*5, hot without completely Jcconijiosini; it. — Cold nitric acid baa nu 




action upon tbe oil. Oil of vitriol tum it brown, and at hluhor tempo- 
natures blackens it, with evolution «-l LodlDs imd *iibliumtioit oi veilowith 
prauu, probably eoubtbf of C 4 HM'. — EfyJrooMwk ac»d tlowfy colour* 
thu oil brown, itself xl the lanui time acquiring a yellow colour. Strong 
ih-Mftoiiofl liiroloriiM it, wilh riw of tiMnperoturu and avoluti 
and x*ium<# a fad colour ; but on agitation Willi wator, tfaf oil 
■met lomcwhnl yellowish, and acquire* tlio powcrof reddening Iuihum; 
if tiie potash-ley is in sufficient quautitY. tlio oil uppcara to rosolie iuwlf 
jnln * Solo iirliTNi ni!v livilriM^rlmn »nd indiilf uf i DO loAata &f 

potuh is formed. Pritajainm decompose* the oil, with evolution of hrnt, 
leaving n rvridu* of charcoal and iodide « f potassium. Phosphorua pro- 
duce* lojiilr i.f \<)u>*\ linrii.-, -..-illi gTfel <■ vn! ut i-mi fj| l.<-it; Lo4) MBM 

docouipontion takes place cttci andon wntefj which them take* up 

hydrioilio acid, — Tho oil diMolvea abundantly in fttfetf nnd in alcohol, 
and i* tepafat*! fr>m ita aloofce -u by wttttf (JehftMoa, | 

jtfoy. /. «i, 415; also.SVAw. «8 f SI 9; also Ann. I'httrm. f), MOO). — John- 
ston regards this liquid ae Iodic Kthtr. 

d. Uronint-nucUu 

-i. n.'oiuiuc-nnclcuf. C*BrIl\ 

Bromide of Acetyl c*tirU». 

EONJDLT (1835), Ann. Chin. /'Ay*. 59, 362; alw .dnw. PAam. 
i 5. 63. 

S^r4«M*/N iSr*««c*yy/ ( t.'nmntMptm, Arc**** 4'Aeeiyle, Brtmurt ttM4e~ 

An alcoholic fotutisn of bromide of etuy1ono (C'H'IV) sixtl with 

Xj*c>Linlt» snontatieously evolves tho vapour «.f l.uujiiU of anetyl, 
en I application of ImmU, ii given off oompl 
l*4*oon 30* and 10 *. It is passed through a nu-il! t water, 

then Ifcroa orida f calcium tube, and then into a rcc< 

surroaif] ;iud tall, in which it oondeueca cjuito 

U /naa lnomido of ethyl 

> r.r | KO - C«Bril» ♦ K lir 4 HO. 

Colourless, rery thin lipoid, which has a ep. ^r. of about 1 52, boils 
trtn at ordinary tempt ratal**, and forms a rapoui ol p jr, 3*69 1. Ita 
ed*ar is oUiereat and iilliibccoum, tut not iinnlciiimnl (Raffnaalt), 

Gbpaafe. Vol. DniWtr. 

._ U — 22'43 224* C-Ttpour 4 . I 

| m i I'M 2 93 H E « . . i ... oa 


7i ;• 

f 4'60 


:.: i; f,i 

C'Krli 1 .... t«iT .... 100 00 ... 10000 

,f(.MhilV... > M114 

I ... : 

rioe oonv«rts thr li-iu ■[ into .in ril r« iii *.-I ii i-j r>ut.*!i Ittjniul If 
til* ImjcM ts «arki*'d tagQlfor wSth btomlna in a Malod ^Ejs% r 
upoacd for sOtt* dbys to iunalmio, and tho pu:at of lh« bolo tbsfl brokoi 



nfl", a lnrcrn quantity of acid vapours eoca|ie. I'tulnMy BMUefing (if hydro- 
bimuic will. If In tag linnld hn washed with oratet containing 

|i<(.i !., i liquid leu itad heaviei tiijui ail «.i vim,:. I Ulan aWre 
100", and exactly resembling bronndo of cluylouo; i, a uog only 

fl'3M |>.c. ami J '00 if, <-<|Uoatly too muel n- . m -. pefffaagai 

ber&uw It contain* n bromide of carbon in dilution (Hegnnttlt). Thic 
liquid might bl t'H a llr*, or u hydnobromte acid Is evolved. psratM i 'HHi* (Law it 
Am. CM* Pky BO Hffj llM *"» ftUm IH. 16.".). — PoU>*iinn llovlf 

decomposes bromide of aeetyl a: ordinary temperatures, becoming covered 
with a cruot of l»r<-m;d.- of potoaaiuui; but when hcutcd, it become* red- 
Lot and >i|».n:.i • harOOel The vapour also deposit* charcoal ou etrouglr 
or gently bentud iron. If thu iron in red-hot, a got is obtained, wMrh 
smells like nnj-l 'I alto asd eOBtailM in 100 mluiinu, MO vol. hydrogen 
and 00 vol. carbon vapour; if the iron be leu heaUil, 100 vol, of tho 
gas contain 120 vol. hvdrojjeoand 152 vol. carbon- vapour; and if the ir< MB 
In- -Uil colder, 151 vol. hydrogen and 160 vol carbon-vapour, fllc^uaullj, 

(J. Uromiuo-DUclouB. CbVH. 
Bromai. C*Br»H t 0*. 

L6VU (IW2), Ana. P&rnn. 3,288.-7*0^ 36, 551. — Org. F«re. 
PonnyitrtiitnUt mil KoMtnaa'bromM (Bcrscliust { Osyd* it Bromtthht 

2*rtparation t 1. To I pt. of ether or abcclute alcohol contained in 
eooM dintilh&lury apparatus, 3 or 4 pU. of bromine are gradual I v added; 
the mixture *ct eatoe for 12 days; and three- fourth* of it, coim«:ing of 
'drohromio acid, bromide of ethyl, Mid heavy bjdfobrctnfe ether, dis- 

II. .1 ..(!", ;i r ■ hin. i; then !■ It cohm: ! :i:^ ..1 Lronial mixi'd Willi -mill 

quantities of heavy b-jdrobroinic otnor and nvdrobroinie acid. Tfci 
residue mixed with water, and expand to the air iu a shallow bl 
an Interval r»f 12 to 84 hour*, yield* large eryntaU «f hydrate of brofn 
On ifontly heating those crystal* with six timet their weigh I of oil 
ritaoL lip: doht > I rated bromai sinks to the bottom as a tninspnr 
OOlonXlfM nil, WOtCh i- •» j-:ii:itt i im/cli:iiiH"tlly lf«»in l'.v. -iv:i(n part 

the nil of vitriol, nod Anally di>iillud, flm over slaked, and then orw 

quick lima. Or the crystallized hydrate may I"' <l r ll.rl with nil of 

2. ThiM part.- el bromine are «ii lii. ills edded te 1 pt. of el 
ihol contained In .1 bottlo; about i distilled off ot 1 gradually iucrcas- 
in;» boat; the naidui ofbroniaJ, bnvjr bydrobtoiaie oiaer. 

hydiobromli d end formic acid, agitated with a laryo o^na 
*d»ir; the up|»er ethereal stratum, which contain* the broiiml and !■ 
liydrobromio ether iti solution (if too filth n I, i| U I lo tlio 

In rttOIQ ' ;«) :u iii-il from llir lown liijuid ioiil:i 111:11 ; llic two tcMaj «h« 

r nut! led from the upper layer at tin* gentlaft pcw*ihle heat; the 

■Ine exjioffed to tho air in a Mallow I -i iiil yellouiKli cryvlals ttf 

nrdrate of bromai form; theeo cryetale prcated l-n . 

ilii-m front the hcaty hydiobrowio ether, a portion of nhkli, neu-xtho- 

remain* adhering to tlicra; and tho ery*taJ« dlfltillcd, a* above, with 
of Titriol (Li/wig). 

fdfaq to Aunt, UjomI mat be i»irvmcd like ioilal, frviu ftlculiul, nitric acid, 
■a J bi amine. 

Properties Transparent, colourless oil, of *p. gr. 3*34 ; aomnwhat 
greasy to tha lonrh; Ratal gT * lH « p of* nn |m[«t which, however, dis- 
appear after a whilo. Boila ahovo 100°, mid may bo dfatUWd irttbOBt 
nVcompoiition. llao n peculiar pungent odour, and excitos a, copious 
flow of tears; its taste U extremely sharp aud burning, aud wry per- 


*C ... 24 .... fl-S4 8*64 

II , 1 .... 0-31 0-M 

3Hf 210 ... BV41 8465 

2 lti ... SG9 6 33 

C-Di'HO" -.-... 281 .... 10000 10000 

PefftmjMuitiOTtA 1 Brnrnil paused over rod hot iron yield* hromldft of 
iron, charcoal, and carbonic oxido [and hydrogen]. — 2. lieu tod limo or 
baryta becomes incandescent in bronml Tftpour, luriiiinx carhonifl oxide 
[and uatcrl] mid a bromide of llic metal mhtfa with rlmroonl* 
raruli -tn nor net when only illgbtl] iv.^-.i. — 3. Aqueous fixed u! kill in 
___rino*od bromine at n gvnllc heal yielding fariniut*' "<* |>i 

C 4 Br<RO> * no.KO - fiiko* + PBr*& 

Chlorine, nitric acid, and r i i of vitriol exert no dt'coinpoting action; if 
OB il"' IbddStlon "I oil "I vitru.l, it «till contains heavy 
ironic etbi r, 

Cemitiiuuimit With Vfaier a. llythnte cf Jtromal. — Bromal 
•xpooed to tint air is soon completely converted into snow-white crystals 
•f the brdrate. A solution of bromal in a small quantity of v*ater 
yields, after long keeping, largo crystals of tlie hydrate baring the form 
uf »i copper. The crystals fi»o ivrti al tho brat of tha bftfldj 

tsey hare the smell and taste of bromal. Oil of vitriol converts them 
Rsmcdately into anhydrous bromal. They dissolve readily in v. 
%&i erystafiice oat again on eTapwalion. 

tsnyt Cryitab. Lowi*. 

4C 2« .... r-r.y .... ?-m 

»H fi .- 1-06 I-W 

J Br S40 r» 71 . 13-3» 

tO 4K .... It'll 73'3« 

C«Br J H(> : >4Aq . 317 _ IOti'OO 100-00 

i-vweuf Bromal. The solution has tho tost© and smell of bromal, 
**•• t*t rodnVrn litmus, or precipitate nitrate of eIItcx. 
Bromal duaolroi Pkatphnrui and StUpAvr 
It nlxM readily with iJromiri*. 
Mixes rery readily with Alcotiol and with £&r (Lowig). 



Bromoxafora. ^HBr*0\ 

Cauocm*. If. Ann. Chim. Phvs, iy, 488; alio J. pr. (&**. 41, W; 
abotr. Com/if. UML Up 6)4 

Btt/niQjafvrmt, Di*c overt. 1 by Cabours in IMS. 

Formed by the notion of broniiun on aqnooua solution* of tlio alktl 
citralca. i Vid.OMVi* ocW) i 

C»H"Q" ♦ 2HO ♦ |4Bf - CHbVO 4 f 6CO* * QIIBr. 

Bromine is ridded by small Portions to it concentrated aqueous solution 

m mi 
lill il 

oJ citato of potash, tilt il no ln.ii^r ean«es wfforirwc«nc/' rrom map 
carbonic acid, and tho liquid begim to assurao a rcdiii»li colour ; tlio 
*xcc*m of bromine is then DOOtnuind by cautioutf addition of caustic 

potanJi; tlio oily mixture of broinooca&nn, broffli fonBj and I nanll i|a 
lity of ■ peculiar »ul»Uii unfa to tli«- bottom, gently i 

witli trawr; Lna r- -i.l n » I nil left to OrVBtallixfllg point >Dsftfl 

wat*r; and Um crystalline hum of ofafofcromonlorin muWd with water 
im.l than diAAolvcd in ataulml, from which notation pure bromtOtaJoTsl 
crystallizes out on coolinj. 

OrTaUdliaca oti cooling from thu li<>( - • -, i m r . « r . ■ «] iiFcnbolio ao!u: 

lony silky DO Bin tlm dilute solution, by spontaneous o»ap 

in transjisiroDt colourless table*. Melts ut ^4 or 75>; evaporate* for Us 

p:»Tt uii.I.'.mmmjm .«! v. li ii -mall qi 

of ifi'iiwtir niKMWj *su«l nibtiniM n nimbly luAtiousDoodk* 


8C ,..._ _.... X6 .... 7'M T-79 

6 Br 401) 8Y3UI 8A7* 

II - 1 ... 0*1 o-s* 

4 O -.,-.. 33 fi Bfl t-V, 



10000 100'W 

\U 7 be rcRmr<Ud *» axton 20, in frUob ill *r» t*i»U««d by i»r 

(Cshonra); [or u a compound of C r Br»H (brOmuforui) -nilti C^rW-C'BrK^.O*. 
,.. -,ir, u sUISS <*f tho minimi C*HHOM, 

Bronu'Xtvfonn riouivl niilwul nt vitriol Itll it boiil ll docomposad, will 
volatilisation of Immune and an oily product, Stront* nitric acid doos 
!mt il.Mnin|< .- it even at a boiling ncnt, but merely dissolve* it — Ii* 
■station in poiuah in deooiiipotod by boiling into brotnoform wbtcl) * 

■, and » rmidun of oxalate of potash nnd bromide of potassium: 
C«Bi*HO« + IKO - C*HUr« ♦■ C*hVO« + 2KBr. 

It doos Dot di«nlV« in Water, qtcu at a boiling Irtat; is Vot 
nlablo in flcntly heatadoil of ritftoij instable in ostd nitric 
ifivwlvi add s?nan hot and tolerably strong (tin; ncditsolml 

portion floating an IV.- tea in tlio form of nn oil), and crystallise* In 
BOcdJos as tbc notation oo 

I>ieeolvc» in h^ooo^«Dinf nod *» Ethtr, and catily in Alc&M, csfe* 
Jally wben liot (C^lioiira). 

cmautn g» ictrn- 


a. CLloriac -nuolcoa. CKaH 1 . 
Chloride of Acetyl. <X HP. 
tojrAlTLT. Ann- OMm, Phyt 58, 808; also Ann. Phxrm. M, 38. 

Stft%a**Ut CHiMttfyi. CMoritltltUvden, CMururt tt'Aeefftr. (htotur* fAtd*. 
MW, Ctfcr'/ t«M lUatttO. [!'*••*].— Pint «Wnnl !>«- Lnh%| cxinilnpO l<y 

fcfUall lu 14 Ji. 

Chloride of • tlivlrnw U mixed in n £»«-jrPiif*nttirig apparatus with aloo- 
Mlio poiaari, and after four days, whnn diloridft of potaatiuin bn aolllod 
liquid M dietillcd in llio walor bath M a ffmdaaliy mcrcatiiix 
W_ From 20 Co 2S , tin: ii.,uM hcirina to boil and giro* ofT a lar#n 
j««ntitv of gaoaova ebloridi deb (a uurjfiod br Daub 

•a* into a bulb ■unrounded with Soft, lfc«n ihrongfi two f.iobi/ 

■ffAAln., lb« fiM MJ-I With oil "I" vitriol, tlio tfooond Wltfc pottih (to 

labia alcohol and bydrocldorio a<-i i), tln-i. tbroufe ft cliiorido <>l a 
tab* th«n through at i to — 10 , in wbish traces of clil m i;«' 

^fathvleue m deposit! »aodla ly i&to a imall reofiiror cooled to —22°, 
« which tint ehlcridfl of acetyl condi-iiM-.. to a liquid, mlxod^ hnwovvr, 
ritk a small -juaulity of cblondo of ethylene (RcguauH). 

i OP ♦ KO - OlIXI » KC1 I HO. 

Tlda liquid, boiling bclwceu — IS aud — 1.5" (Liubig). In the 

JMT8M aUl* it hn.< nn rili'-n ■: 1 ilunt Ml. j.ii:uiU) 

• C 11-0 

1H ... 


-.. 4-M1 

... 14-00 


VoL Dtiuitr- 

H(« — *». 8 - o-2d;o 

Will 1 ..- 9Z'4 

... 100-00 

.. 100-00 

V»pour of C'CIH 1 .... X .... <-3fU 
1 .... 2-1031 

bartu with a bright y#ll»w flam*, groat fcl f i> *- ooW, Mixed 
with cayxon piA over mercury and act on lu*o, it explode*, I vol, of tho «u 
aWcibinj? -2.j vol oxygen, and forming 2 rol. carbonic acid gnu, togotSl t 
■rob vab 'I, iad imloiucl. - vol, "I tba (pu CODtAia 

I vol it, :i vol. H-gn*, and 1 to!. CI-jjiu; 4 rol. C raj 1 1 r, with 

L O-gna form 4 vol mrlmui.- ;:< M <; i ' v«.l H gal uilli 1 vol. I I 
li-gll with 1 roll Cl-gaa fnna* brdrooki 
Mid. — KlccCrio flporiu paued il ;;ai for ionu time prod o 

d«oai|t'2i:iun. — Pubbatiuai doos Dot act u, h in tin. cold, but 

.-mi ■ ftpnrfttOfl clurcoal, 

Mtlia-iii.' Ly of oaphthalin ^Kegirtiilt;. 

lit ;li" ii.|iid cUte. il : ■ ml in fill ]tro- 

i it into Hi nd CUl'Cl' (Ili'^naull). 



Monochlorinated Vinic Ether. 

Krr. n'AnfBT (1837). Ann. Chim. TAy*. $6, 108; aim Ann. PI 
2K, hX; oho J. pr. Qhm. 13, 439. 

CAhnlnMer. &for4tMnl(D'\tctl) t Elkrr ,u(furi r t< S6mt<Ak>*r4 (M 
Osyehhrurc cTfUMme (Laurent). 

ne and 

When chloride of ethylene (VI II. $76) \s prepared from chlorine 
uiijuinli.-tl ole&aul gM» and distilled over tliu water-built to purify it, 
pan cfalorldi (if ttnylaua pa«os ovor rtwt at Bflr*, ua thnro remains a 
rc*idno> whioli dot* not begin to boil till MO", the boiling point then ran. 
inmillv iMm till it MfcwM 180°. Tho di«ti)lato tha» obtain* 
tiftcr thorough t>uriiu\'ui<m [by whul mm -in- ?] a transparent, colourlesi, 
very thin oil. Luring a sweetish, ethereal odour; ila vauour-dni'ii 
in 4 U 

D' Arret. 

1 i ... H'O 

. .VV01 

i 11 

4 11 -1 

IfiO . 

.. B*4t 

CI .... 3V4 . 

. 4»S8 

- WM 

8-0 . 

. 11-21 - 

- 10-30 

Ctupoor 4 

H.pis 4 ... 2.V2 

Cl- e « ,. 1 — 2 4143 \ . 01HC 

CH'IIU ;i-4 ... 10000 ... 100-UU V.pour of C'U'CIO 1.4 

l!a Tipoitr u therefor* momtomir, tiks that of common other. 

MovoeblorfMted rinlo sttm tanu with i green ft&iiio. Chlorine and 
ammonia exert no action upon it (D'Arcot). 

1 1 i ■ (« .n i pound is doubtlow produced, quite independently of oblorido 
©f ethylene, by tho MlSoU <>( OalotiM on tho rihtf-TBSOU M ill •-••nt.-.iistd 
in the olefiiiut gas. (RejfnaulLt It u pmlmliK aUn furiin'd at tho oom- 
inrniiiiMii: uf the action of chlorine upon pure ether. (Malaguti.) 

Mouochloracetic Acid. OH'CLO*. 
Fix. Ij.iii.anc (1**4). y. Ann. Chin. My*. 10, 212. 

CMor+ttiyiuvr*, Acid* acttii/mt monocAhrtiri. Aevh cJih'StketifW (L»MQt}.< 
Nat tfl bft ftKifminctol with bomm'* chlor.iretir hold, winch if t«>r<*Mnru-<<tir u i 

Obtained by poMing chlorine ga« through glacial aeciic a*id ii 
■hade, *« lon^ w any action uUm plnco (it ir very alow even at 1 
.m '! (lini |>a nn| -ii %• oarbonic acEd pa through i? at lOfl to axpol faifl 

i I Inline. 

Colonritta liquid, having tho odour of glacial acetic acid, but lomewfci 
leu raobiUi 

The acid decompose tho alhalino carbonate* with tfTurreeoeaoet 
ym.M.1 n deli«|ue-ecnt salt with potaat 

El dOH 'ini jin.rjiitnte uitrato of silver. Diluted with water, 
rated at u gentle heat with moist oxido of filter, and filtered, it j 

T;KTnioni\\\TET> iirni:ncnr.nitrn ftiirr, 


ca evaporation fa nm.,, fir.: ttnl* of ordinary lectato of oilvcr, 

wliicli tuns I lx- remOTi -1, an! nina.ll whit ■■ -Inning *. .i]i» of tho « 1 
Mttoto, which are mure vol i than ll ■•■ 

diAu ■. tvlieo exposed to ligbt and leara chloride of invar 

burnt (Loblanc). 

a ii 







19 i 

1. 92 
i r M 



C'Cltl'A s O< . Ml -4 l')o-04i 

Bichlorinated Hydrochloric Ether. 
C l iPCI , = C 4 CIH , .Cl l =(xri'M,!l"( 

(Ifi.lft). Ann Chm Mj«. 71, 333; also J 
03, 317; aJ*o J. p 10, SOI, 

tin, F&arm 

hydrochloric olborj Pii-i'l i \ ni. \75\ cxposod 1o 

daylij-lil, rapidly »l»urlw i:liluriii«- ^i.<, i-uming a v Ifoll DOioor, but not 
dceofl '•• !* ■ culniir tn .t tV'A 

heated, nnVaii enough r ■ • i'ipi-^ projoction of iho liquid; 
and Rive* off hydrochloric acid gu (Kagnaull): 

C1HCT * X i ClK* r iia. 

700 irrammi'* of !uon.iolil<>riiifttod hydrochloric ctnoT, aovt red with a 

(Liu liyr of water, axe introduced into ft iwn-monftkod bottle, one ai>er- 

tan: of nhicli i* cuMiu.rl»-d liy a bent lul-< nuh ft cooled receiver, while 

niter wnw to convoy thn ehlorinn to tho bottom of the vaaanL Tho 

1 1 - 1 1 1 irated vviili ohlofinn in a rather dark phiro, and then 

tr»n«ftrr<<l t» a lighter pi lco, -r to uireol anehiaOj !■■ bullion i ln« reaction. 

-Marine ha* been tlm» continued fur two day a, 

imull quantity «»( | qu ore> in oni.-eiiucnoc 

of Uiehtntal .ml U rich in chlorine, ami iinty "I vo for the 

prnawruti jii of goiehloridt id liquid i) il"- bottlfl i- flit- 

lilW o»er, the racetvur being oharjMd after u wbild — Ijocauto tho flrat 
KH>rt "f monoohlcrioated bydroclo 

t, and MM > be, a^iiu sabjecled for some tini to tat ■" tlofl 

i « h : iiia\ Ihi aild>'d tn the laltoi half of the clutillate 

■ad t h# ted in a retort provided with a tberraometei Un 

tad Uit i I ill" ilntillnto being ret aeMc fend n«od for tho pre- 

K! and quadrii'hliirinoti .i li. •Irocblo-iic other, 
diatillate which paaaeo over in the middle of th< pr«- 
m at a annual boiling point, >>• puia Liloblorinaud livOruchlorio 

■urli«* li«|tticl of i|.. j-r- 1 372 -it It* ; boil I it IS . Va|>oor- 

dcd.r . Smell like 1 100 ■ J ■" »U I by& Am 





« 34* 

_ lw**3 - 

- IB» 


SH .- 

- 30 

*tt .. 



ia « 

_ IK-f 




- S 


C«H*Or\... lUt . IMH — 100/20 

v«rMrWcni*a v 2 ... 


Tin* compound U fcarcdy acted apna by pot&»k even In the stale of 
bailing alcoholic aoluttoQ. a mull qaaiitity of chloride cf pota- 
•rwralin* nut aftrr h-irral ilifclilUltoai, wlilta HchlorfoaUr] li\ 
•iter paa*e* era unaltered. If th* residue of tbo distillation ho then 
craporated, oxhaunU'l with iloobolj filtered to tcpara;* chl«.rwlc of 
pola*-iuiii, and the filtrate evaporated to drrucat, tbc rci-Jnc thtm 
ohtaioeii girea with sulphuric ackl a distinct odoar of acetic acid. 
[Tin- ■oBtaU nf pi. i.; I • | :ii:i|i» for mod as OMraaand by tin- I 

aqoadoi C'H I C» > -* 4KO= C'H'KO* - &KCf.1 — Bicnl.Tuutcd hydro- 
chloric ether oj;po.<c<l to the action >>( ehloriaa in ttjmiirric, i« eonrcrte*?, 
firtt into CH'-CK then into C*HCI», B C*U» | BogUaJl). 

The so-called Perchloridc of Acetyl 


Rm>aL-i.r (1PS8). 

Ann. Chivi. Phys. 60, 131; aim J. pr 

Pttti»mr4if Antytt, Chlorvrt ,U GUMAlaW (Liurenl). [ATtm**], 

Dry chlorine pa* exert* no Mtlot OpOD eaicona chloride of at., 
C*QH, in diffused daylight, but in nuttbllM il formi products wh<: 
nature varies according tu (he proportion* in which lbs lu-n gut* t« 

Preparation. Qiaami* chloride «<f acetyl Ea wolfed fcy gTadmllv 

haatinc a nfactun "I* chloride of ethylene an<l il <■■ ■!.. io (i<iix«b from S* 
upward*; pnsned iBfoiljra :i Imlli :tp|»:iniin.- filled with water to rem*»* 
alcoholvapour; then through a chloride of ealcimn tube; kin] lartlT 
i]non_-li a. bolb-aproratiio containing a large quantity <>f (H-tttachl 
antimony, which niiixt bnruulrd :il flr*»t, hut nftiTwanlii allow**} to*4 
■ami, t" i>r«vr<ni iln mi.- i'n*m solidifying. The hrown mo**, swttid 
up in iloii Ma tha original volutin-, vrhkfa remain* after wturnt nn, r**** 
by distillation ad ethereal liquid, which is freed from antnu-'iis I \ :l V»- 
ticm with water containing hydrochloric acid, ami t»i< 

Siurllinir Tin- portion which j;or- nvi-r U'lwtvn '.»."• :iii<t ' I V, r - • t« 
nfili li-iui.l: >>»t ihe boilinjr point qniekly riMO« to 11 ■ 
I"-'"":'' aan-vint. :in.l af lint lcmj>orntiirc (ha ocmpon&d bawaW 
tho pura vtale. — 2. Chlorine #\* <*• pa**cij to saturation tlm t i . 
■►f atbrloaa covered with a layer of water uml [ihi-.-.-d in n ,J ,. 
the yellow liquid thto bruogai into tbe light, whern it lf«>. it, oUar, 
inv.iuiix lii-.-iirrl. mi,! rjva cat liydrachlnrie acid, which tUaacdrr 
water; chlorino fpu •outiMOoaly po#»eJ throogh it for two day* in tat 
light; the wntory ■trudrni deennted, and the oil dtetilled, rejecting tk 

till HLOftlNAn U VI NIC 1TIILK, 


«*i*lt qnnniitr "f VOtai to remoro tin nloohol; and rtttlfiod ovor 


I 250 al l.V : . bolls l>ctwvcn 83 Mid U) 

■ u. --.n-ii-ii »■ 3321; lioa au alliaocotu odour, lika tool of eWorld*: 
afacttjrl, CWCI. 

a u 


«;9 . 

... ire; . 
n m 


.. v 

Vol. DcriMty. 

< i mn « .... i 8 -t" 

M-,' fl .... UHt 



„ lOQ'OQ . 

.. I00D6 

liquid oetoraofl coloowd by Icwping, even when scaled up in a 
ghu* lulv. hihI iltpoaiti :i white, ii"n ci ■. Ilioe vabatMOOi vrfaioi c»n- 

Uin- . ■:. II. Hi'I i' tln-I- :'«■!< .11. i uiinilr riioili li<;iiiun. 

ired into a bottle filled will cliloriao and exp iii h 

tin- ;ilii| i!itp< Kill if it 1m> jmiiri'tl itiln rlili h i ri * - in ihc 

tf and ilicu oxpoaod to daylight foi IS bonro, it yi-U. etyatolt of 
_tiit lii iniic of carbon, CCI' ana >i «mi«liif|4 ie cunijdololy converted 

i'. n lllfoiimi (R.r^iuiull ); 

< vr ttda 


Bichlorinated Vinic Ether. OHKTO*C*C1H{«0«=0 , OCFH,H»1 

Uii.tMin 1,11*33). ylnrt. Cftim. PAf$, 70, 33*; uleo Ann. Phm-m. 

doo, 18, 27. 

rOVfcr, ilietoumnaihrr, Y.lhtr t%[fttriq\ke chfonrf. — Previously observed 

w lVtrbuiiM and t»; Ueblfi compare vim. ..- ;. i-i. vlran tfci ■odiaf nraatioa >» 

•*<•»<*; sir to. 

J'rsjxiratien. Cblotiat -a- w»-bed by wntor nnd dried over chloride* 
ofualoUlri M | ■ j ----»- 1 liv il.iyli|.dit iul<» wiy pur. i-l.liiT, wliieli inliat At iirnt 

• 'iNtlrd aomrwlial below (J*. As anon m» r I > . - ■Aaorptioil .liii.un«b**, 
Uni>- \\xtn\ wltli \;i|i<nir nf liviIr.Hli,,.) !■ . tin r in orolrnd 

1 Usftt lb« liuuid would froth o»cr if it wore DOl moled. 

Ttr lt>{ ii4 i» titer nnrds ^nuiualtv boated, the tempt ratum being m 

mifM' ■ -1 tbroorb tb« Uanidall lb Lima. In 

ifct> \uu ibc pi i a of the eulariaa has bcou ooatioaod dm 

b hen vv, yellow fuming liiiaid ii obtnliivdj which bo] 

: tlif in... vnluttli> admixtui 
, *nd then rim-fully heated nmowhat thovt IOC . bu MmivTtd fiom 
tkrt firp ht *>wu »a it UvVB U] i-n.l-nrv to bOGOUQ*) -iiiiVcr and JpT* off 

ii< i illy tikes idntx* bvlwi n 
I)k rcoidaaJ told, slightly fuming, an-l no idling 

;,i«:it.i ..Mr iniKillv rotirivod, till It exbtbit* I 

uttjion ii JimiiiUbci in bulk, i uni< noutfal, I 

-lojuirw » n>or« plonoftot odunr), tbon 

mi oil Ml -. iinl :mh1 liuir. :ui«i IcOpt ill ft Untile to pre- 

• ontoct of dmiip air. A amiill cjuantily of rlilurat nmftllsl 

^mu*Ic»# oil, of *f\ gr- 1'fiOO*. SntolU and tut- 

U-ut iiaL 



«C 240 



S H .. '•" 



Z CI SVfl 





-..._ 7IJ 

C*H*CI»0 » 104*8 

.... 100-00 

_ 100O0 

DecomfK>aUiont. 1. Bicblurinatr-l risk vilier deooinpowe bale* il* 

■n" hydrochloric aeid /**.— 

iLeonvvfti it, wiih evofcdoa of hydrochloric t.-nl. rote a 

block pitoay mate. — 3. HydroealpbtftM Mid -■■■ paeeed lliroagti the 

liquid .'I'lui'i idc i < Kettl I >:« OOtDp .-it;;- omotimofl n«t, ant{rt]|H, 

., ii nil i the uiae tip . . whcu it acts, a elight nm 

il BVOlutioD Of Ii j-* - 1 Tl .. -Iiinrii- :<*:•! I il.i - |-!:w'c. u:i-J a L> 

< I In Mater |ulam>« om i thnretted 

fili< t. < ."II 9 O, and cMorcfulpltovioM Hbcr ( 4 H*CJS0, ui 
eAerflOWeJ t;i»v-) t.. fill b li(|U«l rolublo hi water, end bo 

m:\ uIIcu-jxi- odoUf TSM il i>4l I )j« r •.: i> «if Mii;tll .HiK'Ullt. AllJ »» Ut- 

crraimil br Heating tin- reaidoe, but Dot much, Lecnuou tliu rt»i«luu mwu 
• >* black mi« I v. 

i. n.l 


cipcro * jus - cip^o ► ana 

4. Ii ■ ted vinic ether immciaed in watei • i n dnnllj -it ■ ; ■ 

products i.r tleeompoMlioD ili-solvin^ in tbo wat-T v,, 

PO i 3HO - C*U*0 * 8HCL] —5. Biahloril 

rtaioetbof treated with a correal oJ <i*ted 

tin boiline point, ifciokona end Eanu black, and cite* oil' arl it4 v»j<wrf 
liaTinx -* <li ■ ■ odoor If thi a lirr i* iliasoUed >o 

perfeotlj lb ol >■■■ ill ih >l. dry ninuioniaowl giw prodncni mei 
eoJonrtBg wiiiiMui faribi i muos . I . be "..i oomptoCelveaeKl 

■nl-aiiimuitiiie fcoparute* out, ati«J tlm I. , i .1 ,.. «nl 

I of ammonia; 

iO ♦ 3MB 1 r alio - Mi'.cii'O 1 . sniim. 
»1nc4i doe* not ect immediately, but nla«boiio poU 

C. Aqoeem i>otnt4i d<i<* not ect immediately, but nlo<d>olio potash « 
iIc«|m,. i-> Imi Idorineled * ink ctlior, forming a precipitate of chlu 

JlUUUoiuitl lUJll II lolutioll of Uri'UlUl "f |HjI 

(.-•IPCl-O t 3KO - CHl'KU 4 # 2K0L 

i I. 

obloral likewido prc«cnt ^ivo$ riio to tho formation ">f e 
fUAiilit) uf cKlorafoxm, wbieb null de»»ii ;n .in "il •; wakr w 

«<i!il mixture i»f bleUlorinatetl vinic ptlu*r »• itli Blcutii>ti<: ; . 
dim) Dg, citber beforo or nftei the nddition of veter, 

i. ■).. i ,ii f fun iio -ii 1 1 - mi dot it iel in tlu 

■ ■ • . ootaino i 

bui "i iio anpliiatioii vf heat, it bcoomei covered »iili rli 

i vi- u Im-li i. lame, and 

uin- l Clin tho proportion of 44 1 5 : 65 (baeldat 

tborefun perbatM « aoavaUoruW, lui 

etber tninu* ICI j i| i — 8l Ghlorii :Jt<i fur- 




etfttionnn 1 . flii.l finally ii. : The compound wliieb 

»t 185*, \e |utc oqJ iun»t Lc ooltatod Bjaul 

O • -i i - circr . met. 

Cotoarloai liquid, heavier Iboa a*alee, »«<! hav njr a peculiar or 
odctti (LiiiiMii), j?|.. p. 1*076 at in. Bella at 135*. Vapour denrHy 
£"767. 6meU LUci "lil-ri-lo of ethylene {Rcgnuulti. 

ic. ■ ii.h. V«J- Dd 

4C- 24-0... 14 H . II : 111'. 

Sll .. M i )!• i .; |-» 

I . I Ml ■.. |-45 HM M'3* 

C-TCBOW - -4 1-6610 

ii. w- a 

( n i v I*; 13 imi)-(h) in in 




*l'li»* compound I'iitri xv. ill | mm- .lev BaCDO«i.!K 
it U gently DMIMJ arith pieoea »>f hydrate of potash, a violent action 
take* ptMBj attended I prolttlioa "f boat and funaatkm «l 

.■iii, of Botaaaintn. and moil li riven off, linvfrij] H one poo 
odour, and probablj I ig of C'HCl'. 

boUing Um oompound with alcohol u potaeh, nod then prtcipitai 
by *v»tcr (Laurent). Alcubolit putaen d«<Mmi|H«oa !)■• oompoiiad, vlu 

OrolaUoa of beat on of a large Quantity of chloride of 

[UBS, :ii»l ynlil' win n baU* I :in :i li'.ilinl lr ill-; n ulnrli \< 

I >i •<*. i rc> u >.l doobttCH I ">ve« off hyiJruc-bloru' I 

- . .iuii iv ■ \ ( i. win n I !l '.(. il'i-ll :»ini mi mm' h:i-. Iv u l.i it .1, till.. J, 
and thr-r. (i)Cd imiiiimI Im? nuulvtcd (It ,-'inilt|. By lln- furtln-p piWgp 
uf tlilni im- y.i~, ill*.- tttinj- "unl i.-murlol intu C'C'l*, mid with 

rity in Huii.viiim- (Rognaall | 

r Chlorine mi.-k-u. CVI'II. 

Chloral ccn^c. 

Lima, rfrtft. PAarm, 1. 189; olio /Wr. 24 % 

■ia*. J«n. Otaa*. PAyft SO, I m, tfM Fogy, 31, 657. 
fiTJtfltLBM, .-*»«. Pkarm, SI, 101. 

r!,>,„-\,rf.i,C'h!i>rr'tttiit [jVirnv*] fed I I l .'<■. I i i i ..1*1 J 

. . | 

F-.\,/Kiti,!L i. By tin- teflon of dry chlorine on abtoluto el 
(Ylll/'i Don apportion that the chlorine Brat p ro thi oaa acttai 

ctbvr, \himIi i- then aonrertod into chloral by tin- I'urihi.r ... 
chlorine, ia unfounded; fw bo ia not converted Inu rMnral by 

chlorine; morcuTer, parfcctly dry ehlorlno dee* not form acetic add with 
abaolute tlcohol li [a more probable that the a] 

into aldehyde by abstraction oi 2H ; and in tbio coai|> 
■ ' pi 'i\ an ropkood bySCL Bol bi proaonoo of viicr, 

Ibu ciilorina i U»-_ll from that oomponnd, - the o 

•I Fonninji ruwtic acid whicb UiOD aritl tha nndr«Mopo*«l 
Idi ""■' other il.ii'lui-. /W/ 4i>. !»;»»(. — s. Hr tlw 
of uhloiinu ^n •Uti:!i, gmjw -eugur, or coimuon oti^nr (Si Liefer.) 

C unit W. 


Frrportttton. I, C br«*gb abaoltttl A 

wMl-Ij in kcfit o*»l »t fcr*t. hut uwnrin - * conlraualJv inerooft- 

ia; leui|«nitiirc. us loii|f ** hydrochloric ncid oemliinici t" lonni I he 

rraultl .-•• of chloral freed from aatar, tad :t mall qnaaiftyof 

alcohol by agitation with oil of \ dialSUntfon owi oil of 

•I; l>nma*}j and tin? 'I«nut *cctifi«d oraf lime i i.n big 

— Tin- efaloriae bi - roivad ■ 

jo-'-e-l through a, cMorMe <»f enlcinm tuXiv to dry it; mm i ir«- n into 

> boot to he, iii, tnni of wttiofa nra »horl mm! partdfol t'» anno othofi 
em a what &Wkiuo tuward* tin mlddla, armta IhaH portion al lb* 

!•.' which u Jiroctol >l>>miwarln, ami tOBlfliu the ilcohol, ii 
lone;, ib<1 somcwhal ilonting, to ibai iftnf MTi^ 

ai iii- obliged '.» pom throngfe the DbKaoa c damn n 

Ilia unaltforbed dhforino, together witti 1 1 y ■ 1 rt »- 

eliloHf iic'ul ^». and rapoov <•! byiiroohtof thai ■■ Into two 

ilfo'a bottle*, and thence into ti ■ ppai nir, so that tho oporot- 1 
not i At tin comnx i ration, t !■ - ateohot 
ie cWc*J hj offoaion ol to! J water, to pravnol Ii ft m taking Sroaad 
al aflDerwafda, mhn tba al*»)rj>tiaii of tba vfrlarfna 
and tb4 Rnnid aaaumoi a jrallow aalonfj it mu*t bo 
gradually faanlai, and ultimately ndarlj to the * • • ■ 1 1 da point m m. «if 
atattul r*qoirc (lie paeenfec of the chloric* Ul 04 >nn<,l Iwr SO dnya, 

MJYoWuiu* .1 •<•!!■ i;ill])li<»It 1. 1 .!•!;< -liii.. > ,,| . :||| Till' alri.lin) 

continually thicker, acquire* a higher boiling point and U 

vy vi- ii». ■.viiii-li. attar - andlfu for. ►orao 

•tay- c mplotoh to 1 l whiii oryataJIrna mant ■ ■; • • 1 

by.1: 1 with n email quantity of hydrochloric a<M 

1 ol : f.Vn if Ii a flamak 1 4 

I with hiitr Iniii's il* mliiuir nf nii of 1 itrfol 

\,if, .I..... ti"i in ■ i'« u 1 > - 1 1 t Form b ■ <- '"T in*oluulo 

• tin* ml u! vitriol. Hi.' . bl tba obloTiat matt i»o 

iuacd f«»r a :itill longer time. The totidified cryntallinc imiu ii lioatad 

till u irM 1 1- . briskly agilalnl avitfa 4 to timv-i it" L>ulk of oil of viuiol, 

liluckcn Ii rest till dm defcydratad i'li1»raJ 

ha* ronn to '■ tl oil of viiriol, n result which niiiy ba accolo- 

nu-i by v*«iti 1 ' - ■■;■•■ in, oolonrlaaf lilm of chloral 

1 mo mi of a pipttto. If tho "il <>( vitriol Ooa- 

fcain I At aator, ic is jurticulurly nccc«8ary to <|. - 

u h Ol*' Iwfor* the chloral \* ihrn-hy tx t u irt I Into 

luiilo diloral. Lutly tho chloral ia diitillod ovnr lime which baaiaan 

4tkc-i au>l fu!'*"|ii-'uily ignilo«l hydro* blorta i I. enra balng 

k--. p id, v, li -I, ..f ihc liiur Ih-Iow iti' ! t!i»" liquid, a4 

It will other wi •leconi|>oae the mpour and l. bci la 

manner, the 1 lilarul 11 ohtniovil i" ; < . I nl < • HI contaJni tnooa 

-.I «iih-ii veil by repoate^ IrnataMnl aith 

■ riot, the < hi- ? il being .■■.■ b 1 Had ow Hnia All thwo 

■ ''':'.*. — Tbo 

Dbr I , 11 in ■ in, -j 1 |. -I fi T liir wld'h' j 1 ■ %\u» 

m introduced a 1 flunk 0/ IJ or .'" Iitrw« oapaoity, aud tba 

I; an S tiilie. Tli.- rl lot 

»*• ■ !: ■ mi tunc*, limt in 1 1 i;»t • I m it 


4,4 1 hum, tli- 11 » .1:11 into ." empti boitle, (■> y « t ■ 

t!i.- product in com- of any of it pawing backward**; au-l, tartly, 


ftTHV lOKINB-StCI-XlS c-cwi- 


of the flask eaataitiiup; the aJoobol, from wlii<h the aeid 
gt«<* arc coot eyed by » leaf lu &« dimma. A* sooa a* the 

■ lot) to«zllimt A jelwv osluur, it muni ' i.ittlod, and tW 

tcmpomlnn oo&tiuuilly tMOdj ■ un «f ciilnrine U*i*£ kepi up 

nil l in.' linn', till it do longer set* on tli*> ii.|tn l.rn.Mi it a nearly boiling time 
In thhj procc«s, 12 hour*' work lutHcoj for S00 tfnus. of alcohol, and 3 
days at the atonoel foi 600 grra*. — S50 gnu*. aJovbo! rt»|uira at laasi 
"» litres of culorino gas, at 1.300 Hues of bj 

i byd <•'' ol efa ■ i I i» mixed 

,1 .it lltrlolj and hum.. : .i:,t y di-ti!l.-.! ft \ ***** 

which joii oti readily at a moderuto bout, iuruanuoh as llio chloral ri«s 
(•> f rill ol; vtvar, t« 

lend Eum peated rcr. l tlitc 

aometer immersed in it, till the boiling paint bss risen 
to between ii-t axid ii.'i ', mi oi I W *.. traa it front titdroclilcme acid, «U*e» 
aocl |»rriiip ilao ir»m alcohol. TIio residue i* "ihon distilled as before 
OTVrollol vhii. .I uid tin' >li ■tilliit: ;<*■ l-ntly, it v» ratified 

in a dI" Miur.iti- 1 miIu/khi ■ -; OOOMBOO .-ah. with not |0fl 
(inutility of iiin*, fffiioh InU been staked and then burnt again, cans being 
tajeav howtTOT thai rend by the Uctiid, to* pn- 

sint ill.- liquid irum boiitf tetOd tire: hydrate • ! eUoml UiOB I 

Lydl b ii I ftcxJ, innmnuob a* it is Ices to 
ind th« i if pure i blond i Dame*),* of ahloreJ ni I by distilling ahsuliiutalcol. 

previously saturate*} rith cxees* of mu 

ncee N 

I . ■ l,.d H i a I pt». of oil ol riti iolj &S pi*, common salt, and 84 pt*. man- 
ganese; thkproccea adraaUccous <Gm). 

S, Starch ei lugar is dintillod witli liyilrocliloric acid niiiTpenu 
manfanmn. and t|j<* ekfconl wbiofa ptuws over, purified (Stu dolor) — 
I pt, ol • utreo mo sugar) |j added to 7 i>t*. of com- 

ii p B I be os frco *> poastblo f: 
j.i.un-11 w id, iui oqoaj volume' of water u-ldcd, tins mixture 

i. 1:11 till' pel. (/(»fii.nJ ivlirti •! irh I. M-l). l.:i- l.r »inr liquid; 

1 sr] tndacod, tofatlicff with a pu. of matigaooao 

iiM.1 a uomll tiaMtity 01 OOtDsDOn salt (to lix th.j luiphurio tahfl i>i-oduooi 
from tltn 'ulpauToai acid in !. ial bydrecbloric ai . 

Wpnii'mn nasnrj bfiobva Mqaioklyas r>o»ible to tli*: boilisf poii 
\U, In then oanpletBl* ramovtd The iium mrolli up, giving o 
lure* quantity of carbonic acid, nn-i to boil fo lom hi 

itsolf. As soon as Um aba I itiofl doclt no. it tnuit bo kept up by frcso 
IpoiioaAioil of bent, :unl the dt>til]:ite rolU-rli/d, :t- lu:i^ up it become* 

lurln'I whofl mixed *vitli lolorahly etroa* 1 potaah-Ioy [in i:ou«m|ii« 
•ftpamti' a of atdoioforoa frau ihc ohJural). Mora hydroahl 

th«n ivpwtl»dly mtroducod into thn fittak hy anmll porUoufl, nil tin 
hsto no Jonwr imollo of elilornl or becomes turbid irith potasb. 
wsitrry dint 1 little 1* ciiri* fully frood fruin tlic colourleao oil-Jxops, liearier 
than tvaNi Hod nnsJliu of cblarofoxn*, vhioh an prudaood si the 
• diolillntiou; satunitiMl vrith common rait, in ofdoc la 
no I »t and retain thi n :ii.(; dl 

a sulphur yollow, very pnngaiH amallgltf, oil; *t3 

limaa mora witb eommon **lt, remoTio^ th< oily dreiaj 

in onlor tu obtain oojuoouj bloxaJ .1* ooBetntntod u* powihlcs nad ■» 

iUo frum th« yellow oil, which greatly iinpolrs the pariArm- 

to a 




etii\!.i:m;: aiumist-Ntici :.■ 

ihike* (LfcLlg). — When < is left for m contact with ■ ,1 

• •I i if ol pohi ii i limn' thi;i l At- water, h Ir tmnsfui d 

tin- in..,liii.!i modification I li" mixture of croon bydrata of rHnnl 

(p. SOS}, with oil of vitriol, coh'dlfif* in * similar manner when left for 

bonra, OltLcl Ka n clow »q***-l oi cxi llic air ! Lu-Imx). — 

i ■ ..I • !i iii eon tart with aix limes it* volume of oil of vitriol, ii 

• converted, in (he cuunse of u night, Eaton waits ma« of Eneo- 

luble chloral (l»inii«). 

1 <-x«rt« no daoampoaing pan chloral, oven at the 

boning poiffl of thai lipoid and la * Daaatn)« 

I, Faming nitric aewJ, if ultimately Didoo by boat, oonvari -Moral 
lata leroblonontta add CCI'HO 1 ro lix< wiae d©«i a i I cbluraio 

of potrixh nix) Irydroehlorio ield (Knlba, iffam. flform. 34. IM). 
According to DanaSj Dl ifal iry Ditrio acid doet not net upon ehlonil, even 

vli.'n Ii. ■: 

'[.■iil may fin ibe moot part h< distilled nnchaaged over i 
vitriol; on) j to : aad of the diattHaiion ii a alight Lion 

...jr.! bj ibi evolution af hjrfrodilorfe add ind oatajcaolng of th* oil 
of vitriol [LiabigV Whoa I I abloralj bat not dry chloral, is 

■ i with oil ■•! vHtioSj pari 4 lb< on] tal pai at ovat io *'".■ d*hy* 
. . ,.,.■■:. ttat i onrarled v. tl ■ rolntios of hydrocM 

■oJphnronai and a naall quantity of carbonic acid, into chloral 

(l». tiff). iSr i.h-lcr : 111 hit |0 ili-rrrl llii fir i'Hi-imt d{ i-Ii lonl Hi ?i I n in n|, 

th+tiajild m::l' ntrated by eovornl di.ttllatimu OTar chloricl 

cnleium; heated fur wmc time witb BX limea it? bulk of oil of titrv 
123"; dilated when cold vitli a ifxfold ijuaotity >-i water, whereupon a 
mix (ora of chloralide and enrbonaccoui pari oat; ami (fci 

mixtnro waahed, pnaafid betwwn paper, and exnanttad witb filter, 
winch on evaporation yield* erjatau al obtoralldo: tho*o oryvtnli may 
be further purified by boating with oil of vitriol rind ra«TT«taUuH 
E in ciln;r, afar which J by thoir cnantctcri.-tie 

pvoportica (6tl«h lai i. 

4. Anhyilrnu* motaltit ex&daOj luoh an baryta, Kfroniia. lime, euprie 

oadda rnaranrio oxide, ot peroxide ol nanganaav axart no aation tij">n 

ebtoral when that liquid is dutillod ovor them. If however Uin baryta, 

atrontin, or lime be not 411110 covered bv the chloral, or if either of euc*e 

be IhmIciI in tin- \ii|M>ur itnly I" 100". il Itccmi;'- nl- 

bot, nod i- BODvorfadf arilb arolatioa of carbonic oxide ^»«, bata » bw( JBc 
tBlorldi nixad aitl SoalrdSvSdad ohorooal (Llabig), A yaUowiafa "ii 
in »t -lie ama tfma evolved, and the motallic oblorida U mixed «*iiU a 
blown mi btincfl Dunoa)) AlkaJia, rrithoi in ih- rorm of bydral 1 

ur diwohed i'i w:i(i.t, daOOXDpOM chloixJ n;t«iilv» BVlui at onlin 
pciatnre*, caiwin^ BTolotJon of heat, mid converting tlu' cliloml info 
chloroform which fiulcn i« ih.- Iiuitoni a< 1111 oil, fonuinte of polacb, an4 

in. i.-iii ■■ oblaHda (Liobig). rhafiral prodnol ol tbe aotloo ara fonniala 
af poti ii and chloroform, aiiil n portion of the latter in further do* 
pmediuto foriuiate of potaab and inoiallii- ablorule (Dumao): 

1 HO.K0 1 ^iiku' * OWj 


. Bd a + 4KO ^ C»HKO * IK 

ti. The r,i|ionr of chlataj paaaad ofai rad-faot Iran yield* caibooic 
oxide and chloride of iron eoTered with rharcoal (Liebigy. — 7. Potaa* 

1.: 11-1 wilt afilofaj yields hvdro^i'n ^m, and proiJucM a ronmDOl 

from which vatoa . ami tbWitlo of pota- 

fuljr, J'.y/ l*,«24). 

*fc»k*-n «jf- with iUr oomblM with I 

.1 ■alidifka in a few atom-la to n white, 

rque, crvtttaHinr iiuwh. A f«H llropa "f iMuril 
air i-i .. i.i.i, [| noi <|n .' . ion boooma novam! with nomaroM 
*tolUio eryjullimiions uf the hydrate. A nrixtara oi I j ml volunUM of 
(Mjr*i »• '1 u lii«li is attN nd< KJ ■ ill] 

leal, tMIi by «r . .tf ..r-i i«i: rhombic rrylali of Lko hydrota, vrliiob 
potate when eximsud for some llmo to Iba aif« Tlw rauonr-danailgp 
•f dvilr:.!. ol chloral i .' " i; , klumat). 

I Mini*. 

*I0 |«U nil 

111 3-0 I 82 ,_ I 79 

l*M Cl'28 . GU2 

820 ISW .- 20-58 

tP + tAq 


IM.I I'll 

C. vapour 


Q-ai ... 

0-$M «... 


. 3 
. 3 
. 2 



i i 


- 4 



hloral. Chloml diarolvei readily and abundantly in 
water. The hydrate mixed wiib a imail qonnUty of watex i» in 

;U.| itilii nilv dr«i]i: which <!:• i.w kvln.ll llOHU'd. Tilt) 

uirlU of chloral and bai no particular taato. A* it doo* Ml 
jtdaca i... i,in , .yitlo ii i hi,in- lionl, ir immt. eonluin tin* chloral in 
tW uodacomactod fttnU (Liobi 

CbloraJ, capocially with ttio nid of heat, readily diasolrcti jAotpfioru*. 
lafaaar, ■ tli | » « r 1 1 1 < • colour) and ornmnio (Liobig).— « 

ral absorb* a nmnll (jam lily of eMoHn$fOM, ftetplllog tlnMi'hy a 
ytlluw colour (Dumao), 

Insolnble Chloral. 

For He Qftmntn rW. Chloral, p. 200. 

fMMJk-Aff OUtrW, CftferaJ rwrfaife - Dbeowed by I -. . 

Jbm p 201). According to BtibJelaf} it ii oarr tin- fonlablf 

trodm t formed Crom ooloMo chloral, oithoj twiM or wrtJi Iho aid of 

%»Ut, that 00 the trUC ilieoluMc ..'IiImihJ, llir ul.i i urn 

loactiiin of iiiljiuuric acid ujwn cJi ■ mixtora nf chloraHdo 

and laaolnbla chloral, Bui the if chloral ■ 

lac aid »•( baa1 - Mobis and Duma* performed the prneoM at ordtmry t«-m- 

Tho iufu f the product ■ which tl.rv r.l >i used and tba 

ly of the tamo products in alcohol and ©tin r. < in 

SlttdcW- IBJipOi I 

Prt. Paj chloral prepared by Dante* 1 method b Ifft e.> 

itjclf in a cJo»«d vca»n| till it it OOBTaraBd latOI irldtO ;iihW| I 
odait'-l'he maan iiiNdub]'- in wa1 ;i. 

nafl '(imn- 
ffiiv of rwiduaJ liquid hohavm like IomIuMo chloral. —S. Chloml \* 


mixed with a quantity cf wait-i I«'-* tli:iri raffcloal i» toTW the hydrate 
i!.;.i,,.- -. ii. aolldtfltd m%M* ■• ttttttfUuh freed frcta aeloUa 

lv pooring water on Hid off >', tlU 
exhibit* aiiv eetd W Jver ohlotide «f cal- 

I a ahort tiroo l 
fcrutun* between 100 and Itfl , till the bydratc of chloral ia rouatiliaed 

ith fuurliinw 

for aiino hour*, either in an open 

or in a ekeed vcM<l,»olt<1i6c9 to a j^icc-Uinlike itiim which i freod from 

Itored chloral and from sulphuric nriil bj 
M-irhi." I, Km M b«l ^ I [ H:i a I. ■ '"' 1 i «| r* nl 

which runt off' still exhibiti *n w ' of 

gmriunl dfeoiapoaftion (LlOOIg) ---■! Cb total !< I :t i'i c»iit»cX 

with » fis-fnl'1 quantity ■ iiii«ntoa ••■ |»o maaa, 

whkfc, after a few .lav*, ii to bclifluscd in valor, triturated, thrown upon 

:i fitter, araabod with itrd dried (Dam 

vrJara, [n?oluMo chloral (3) ■■ arhrta powder which 

volal'l • lowlv in i!i' • '.it. pn uli ..r, ethereal o-Ivur 

■'}: (4) rrjiKtiliia iloviy (a raeaa [Dan 

Oil Md-lflff. Hum-. 

IC M-0 ... tC-30 .- 16-27 . I6*S ... l«-«3 .. UCt - 17 M 

II . ID 0**9 ODU 0-9* 0-99 ... !•« HI 

HI in..-'i ;.'T. W»-90 ?1'M 71-M 67-10 67-71 

«o . , IM M<J .. ir« .. lnu ... U**4 ... 14-09 .. 1330 

PHCPO* ... UM 10000 -..100-00 . 100-00 .. 100 00 ..100 00 „ 100-00 

Tlir cempomad la tfcanlbri Uoaaarlo »-j!h aolabla Balaral- Tbr •&>)?•#• m**» I>t 
I.ifi'tir mni Ornnaa aaad to tii«* tuMdoa tfcat their mriaoti ■ 

ir obseircJ Ifitolutnlity uf iiic i*me In alcohol nut i to a 

. antral ■> oondnifon. 

DttotHpwUioM. I. When insoluble drioritl (3) m dii*illcj. a viMjU 

product ii «!• ambling aolubk obloral, tnl aolidifyiaf again 

hill [Ltafc >luU. rhliu-al (4) Leated In l*i l *f» 

t" ■'"<» <I noi, bntyialdl > y-ry v.>lntik» difctillnle cry*.Ulliitn(f 

lika hydrato o( i-l: t- -. traoo of ohoreoal (Uomaa). In»> 

lablo ohloraJ II) bcAtcd in tbo oil both i» botweav 

hi the form ofpodeot y pnn ■ 4obl« obbrnl (Renualt}. Iiij-jIu 
ohlur.-il (:i), uln-i: proMrU diWi marl* ■ 
aolnble chlonJ i.v tUilillalion at iso° ii: 

-. [saolubll obwNhl (3) ia 4cconii>oaril by nitric ncitl. aluwlr and «HI 

<-il. 1 1 ■ ci-n.T iMcbiff); like aolublc oftlonlj it i M&rwtaj bjr fbaaW 
nitiii? aci.l into cblorncctic aci'l (Knlbo^. *>.i tho a hai li.m i. 

il liy & mixture of brdrocl rlcacid and ohloraM of potaab (KoH*). 
^3. Whoa {'.i) iv dittillaa with -• l ..f vitriol^ (bo rraaMr p»n i>f ii pauact 

rmiivpnrcnt iml «olourlc<« aoluble ohlorjj, which bovover, nftrt 

a nlntc inaae; but liVilrKblork 

ikewiac pa r, nmi tho reaidoo taroa bracb i I. :• !• .• ■ — 

4, Tho prodael (8) ilibsolrctiin aifiivoiui alLulis, and ia eomp1<rUi1ir daraav 

wkh production of nn alkaiMH bnnlato and tblorefortn; the qaan- 

ullor in proportion tnhonlk-U i| ttior«cohrrntrn.uJ. 

\\ boa (3> im fuaoj with hydrute of potiuih, TCffw little «ir ut> cJil-r-.l inn i 

obtained, hut, in tho latter caac, aauiioUiice which ili»olvt« with bruwaisfa 



ir in thr* <L5fA1g) Tba prodnal (4) bebavei with al 
like •riKiM" cliloial (Dviuoak 

luM* ehl inaotabl« in eoM water and dia-solrcs 

my aiUUm. I (Mrlii,; I I||ni:i->. - it 

aakvhol n etber, even at a boiling licit (LfobSg, Dunuu). 


Appcn/lir to Chloral. 


SrinCLF.B. Ann. /'A.irw. H\, 104. 

hi nil 

of vitrli 1 : tlio and gen ill II aoJplitt- 

i 'I Quantity of c ber -\ nJi andfl * 

I hydrochloric acid, find without bit boeomM covered with 

whit lie evolution of hydi ■ gnv 

l:n . tliO ilili'iiliilf M-|nU;iU> out ill -nft i-li'iii' i ■■■ liJfa, 

anconiamiriati- 1 '-iili any trace of an oily prodocti — StAHeUr, win. 
urirm toc&loralldi •!■<■ formula I ' i ■■ I " . and rccanU tho form:- 
oil bj utncMon; tho sanation! 

WBCPOi t 4itn c*B K) ftRi I « 51 

it it, I:, did DOfl I luiilly ohftorrc the prOWVM "" CftjH O&fa OxMo; hut 
Ik »egfeju it nmy have been co&TOrtM DJ the fulfil n 
nip-ljuroua and carbon ta arid [he however obtained bill » small nuaatit* 
of cm ■,-!.!]. — [If we aaraoia IbrohlonUlda tlu fonrraln C '\\ 1 1*0°, 

tie conation i«: 

SC'HCPoe ♦ HO t HCI]. 

WatcrafpoaretobocmDt'ml to the formation of chlomli-lr; f. r nnhydre-ua 
enteral tniv 1" mpoiition o*et a aunt] quantity' of 

it, wiihwut . . due of ehlomlido Suidcler). 

Prtt*r+lion. 1 vol. Iiydmtc "f rhlnni i hr-v..! m ■> t. tori villi 4 
or £ I i<tl. ^-i nily at first, but ni hi tlrt ftll-WiS 

to 1 ntiaaoB lo |«m oier — tho uuxinn 

aeifi-.* -kly *h.iknn during thn oparatlafi oral 

Noon -io hydrate fiy tlio addition ->f n *mall (jauntily of wat*r 

aa-d a-wred bn<k open tb< r«Mi,lm' « I. in ml.1; tho mm . :;IIeil 

ISO and 136 Lbodi»tillcd hlora i^aincoai rtod wao hydzoiOj 
:<1 book again, 4c &&, till the evolution of gua Iiub nearly on 
the nblorol no lonaar dbtlla ovar, bat le contorted Into enloruHde, 
fl<au <-n the oil of vitriol at a tratuairaal and •■■ lonrlaai li 
ill wliJifie-*. f ■ I00"j to n enow wbito cry«ta)Hn-0 ma** The 

e*»triii« "f tin.* retorl nrbea cold a* \ i ti id is) >■ funnel looacij otapp 1 

; : -ul<Min>; tba which rem BXpoaed for i 

to thr air. io that the adhering oil o rlti ol being 

ttnWturo of tho nip nv.iv u: run off, — aftei vbiob 

rakdo bmt be hoot four of bootl&g, nil ih. 

vater Bolou^r rrddeo^ IHoine. Tb« 

|ia[. -.-. db»olvL* 1 in rtlni. in-l tbeenlution diluted witli lull" it ■ roluioeoj 

loubol, ami left to crysullixe !»/ ipootaneooa evapomtEon I ba 

• i-ry»ial» are *tili conlaaaiD&to l frai than from 

7 are aej)aratc«l fn»n the mother liquid, roiliaioli 

the nolutioo raized with ether, lufl t<« crvntaJlico, iK„ till the cryvtaU 



opp- nnd rtftUr, Rod im-li ' il IM\ Tbi 

I -I hiothei |>rocea»c* yield ninro rry&uale, 

vbtehinay bttparuM In mawier by NrryAtallicailon. 

■> WtW '•!•. mill united !■ 1 i «■ -• oMiijoc 

rvctaii -ill:! r prim g ml* t-> e Vi • ■ • 111: 1 y nh i.|-,. . an. I 

hai [1 ■ (. 1 1 . d BfUl t* an 

"ii brtwtM IIS and 111 . . 1 1 1 - 1 ifinin to a on :cimb 

l»clw«n 100 und 105°. CI 1 1 wildlife >iill contaminated mth ilic |J 

it !<•» dial 
Iil:i- fill III. n!( :i r.-ii :iniiir|i)lolM It ItniU »t S"ll 'I'ul RlftV lv ili-!i 

rporitiOB, I viik'II- hut *li>:< -■ lt#»n 

h ea t ad, ll give* oH* r» rtfoi Loir li|;c that el rlih.rol. Ti I 

Ion by iuclf, Imt the aJoolioli* ;'l loiattone \ss\*t :* sbafpj rauttic 


(.'•liuUiiuii. ICflDflUtff I 
mm: (.11 n Ig-ftj 

tM 1*0 ... . o-62 

c ci 21: 1 <i;>*a 

6 (> O-0 

«. II .i ir 


CtlcnUlion, ■crorctinf; I 
*< , i-.i ... XT9B 

2U 8 

B ' 1 k; . 6ft-W 

5Q 10 ... ll-VH 

CHK-Wy 283 .... lOIMlu 1 «. 100-00 

■! 1, .iimly*..! fej 8tl ' "-Til IfM COffftplfariT 

'1 ■"! f tlu oil bj ■< hi "1 ri iti i • " ■■! ""'I < l»**l tfccti crj>i il 

tlill Um (Vi|t! .'U. l'i-I a IiUewbo •till rrUin pom« of ibc oil, mid iherffarf tidd 

Decomposition*, Cblornliiio alien set on flic barns villi n vrrj 
It in i\ L'lTi'ii :if llii> Inner i'.l_T. 1 11 ;i v.cin nqueOGH " 

it i* Nfolwd ntC QbJOfoform snd fornimto of |>«Li*h: 

('•IP(TO* * SHO + 3KO - ?t'lin» *■ SCHKO*. 

< 11 OK) I IHO . IKO - c IK 1* + SCIIKO' • 

I uei Iwwefori • ■ ' 1 i * ■ 1 i ■ I - ■ ol p (no aid !>•• fbnneo\ and to* 

'li'ii -mil Of Mil* i|lll"-!:i>l. Winl III Iil'-Wi>r flllOW which 1 >f llii' I WO toi'M:ii 

C^i'd'Cl* 1 or CMIi in r mi irbfefa \*tt pmbaMo 

ab«uld 11 .1 An alcoholic dilution <-i rliloi .t«d 

iloubolio !"'■'< I' :'■ Idi nothing Imt forroiate of |oUish and ehl< 

(hlorotorni i» :ii tin- aaraa lime con rotted int# 
. nl pol i-ii and nlilcrlde of |iota«*ium. An alconoll* 
clil»rali-io doVa uofl iet upon a lolutioi ti of lilror till boated, i»d 

I" h litlly U l:i.lll! Wlllli t'li'llltltn II llllM'd Villi , 

1 lion, and then with a drop of mm 
1 •■ cipiUte of oliloride of rilver. 

Chloral i da ia inscdnble duMolvoa n»«i 

1 «.ilil, sind altundamly in boiling alootn 
ulliJK'rt on «olinj-, in enow-, white, mioroseopio cryatata (SUdetar*. 




TercMoracetic Acid. OTIC "OfeOCH 

1'nua. / ^im, wAt o\ 65f»j alto intt. Plana. 32, 10! j fiM>/ ,.r. 

Cfc™. IT, SOSj abetr /w. 20, 1M. - ion CWi- /V* 70,76. 
MauitflK. A'. J»«. CAm. /*/.;.*. 10, 233; *l» IT. J. J'karm. 5, 281; 

iWo-/. pr. thrm. 26, 57. 
KlUovn. A". 4«*. C*«i. PAy*. 16, 10; obrtr. Compt. rend. 10, S78. 

TVtrA/orrwiviiju'i*. t"'M«r*»*fg«i»irr, Cklnrvi nti'dfirr, tXtafocicktorid 
OlViviA/^oWM*. . Aloracjttfm*, Amir cftlgre « ft tt gMfc — Duoov " 'I 

/Vw<T/;on- 1, By the action of dry chlorine £M on glacial icctic 
lilOO fl'iuniw); 

i .)« + CCI -C'HCW 1- &HCL 

t. In lh^ «-'X ; 'iali->a «f ftoltlMo I MOftJ '■>' a mixture flf hydroeh] 

4Ail cUorota of poU ii. and «! ■ I t'»i< oi Is elafeltj ohlonJ bj fbm 
. (Kolbe): 

c-'ii'mv . so ~ i Miciny. 

• irir action of chlorine gai in ratuhliM M piotoohUriib" of carbon 
•trend with » by ■ i (K n»«): 

c<ci* 1 4iio » aci - cmicjuv . T.ncL 

Vmrr Cl« la at the- wna tim« eoanrntad into CCI'. — ••. In tha 

decomposition of chloraUt/uylo by water (Maliigiitij* 

i"ii't»i + viii) - i:'Hi'ii>' f tin. 
tfeeoaipoall •'■■• i -I porcLlorivaled karaio ether (OCl'OjCKMO 1 ) 

by wxtrr (CUftl, A- i4ft». CAwi. /V..V5. 17, 300); 

CHn*iy • 4110 - CBCPO* « 2CO' ♦ BflOL 

Preparation. I. Wlu-n gWrinl a**tl« Mid • itttmfaeftd In 
•I fcottie* of fl i act i >*•" v-m. faal i oftoli, lad Km bottiei tilled 

• 111. line jcrw, <lo*ed with tlioir stoppers, and exp« 'I to ibo 

mn. I irou iln folio* •«! nidi oryatali of trn-blur- 

;M;ilirily uf III il i ItcUI. In Vl'fV lint ftiMtlliil', III 

..♦ion Buy bol 'lii* nmlv tUttiMM Om o! 

0* | -;, wh+r«ti| Lrow eric MM k**, 

Kith ft 001411 'j al * 1 1 .i luiTocatiDK vapour e*cape« 

wita bm; exposed for thoair, nil tin? guMMiun mixture in 

j Ictely •*»? ml * m!p'«1 o«t with 30 <»r 40 grin, waii-r, wlicli i* 

■Jirrwar.U awl I© wiub oul all tho othor bottle*, so tbxi with I j or S*U 
l«ottl«. . -i • onTiMmt'.-i fuliitiou of tcrcblorftootio ooi>l i* at ouoo 

obUuicil, mil* . r, -rt::li Ii yilrur|il«r ir- ;iri.l, n . .-il nriilii: 

acini, .in-! id. Whoa &hil wlutioi i »^|MirntoJ in Vftcno i 

at vitriol *inl liydmto nf |)otftah, water, hydroflhtorie >> m «\ and pari 
i<i id* aojcie *'■ •! • e | ■•. and id i then yield* oryataJ 

I ■■Js r»l toreliloraeetio aeUL 11 liquor diltillod 

l'li'i'j<liur»; aciil, whereby the oxalic acid is iJccomjKi-od, yield* 

KTIl'ITSf: C11l/>WNr»CCU!V* 


I illntc. find of aortic acid, then, on changing* the receiver, of 

Mu n aolldlftoa to a oryttullmu mifl, I- 

il» moat bo loft for »omo hour* ia vacuo cm torernl iheeta of w 
D£ paper, to that the admixed acetic acid may «-»W into the |*|*r 

( DilMI&o). 

I In debit rhlnral U treated with fuming nitrir xoid. und tho action, 

k at fimf iitf*ii<l«Ml willi riw ..f temperature and abundant ovdltisrjj 

afterward .'!• ii i»l u f«<ntW boat, 

till tlic dakc* of insoluble chloral have completely ilw&pfH'arc<i; the 

exec** of nitric ncid distill*] ofl" for tbo moet part, and !w itmimill 

if. >rt ■■ •■> left i" avoporata iii rue do iniT mi . nn! hydl 

Cryatadlirr*il C'Mvhlomcclic ncid then rem a in a, free free* nhrio, 
U in-. and I ■■!( .•■ ncrilly rati DM ftf cli'nral, whioli 

mi(>«hIcji the prcpamtion u? pur* acTta of t«rthloiAO,-tic a<id 

a l*r i!m<-Ji\ i;lr ,,(" :i T I I .11 :i LottU fllM With 

i no U.O*. oovorod i* it It n rilm *if water, and exposed to lite 
whereby, boa idea CK>I P tln.Tv ia fortuod uri nqnoooa aolution of torch 
acetic acid, wln.-Ji iii.iv be obtained iu tl i f ova 

in rat im mil oil of vitriol .mil lime ( Kolbo), 

A. Chlonidebydo i* dlaooWcd in water; and the anlution • 

hydrocidorie sold, araporatod In vseno t»v,.r <ni <>( vitriol and by I 
pot* b| win obi ''i' I I'Tocotio ncid io obtained in beautiful <r>*uli 
(M-l. tui'. roi I d, dry ether io «turaled in moaba 

dry coloriiio i^Ut tliv prxnlticU of which notion ore* oilhoi i 

i iii and rlilur 1 1*1 < hyda, — in which ewe, the liquid ra warmed la 
ott' i lie freo • Mm in.-, 'i.. -n uii -I witi. v.:. let iiini filtered fata tho C*Cl f 
or elre, potehloriuar. thor, wbicli i converted I -lion 

CH'I' ami chluraJdchydc, and the latter dooompooeJ witb \**tcr a* a 

PfWSHiti, Colour- rli. inbobcdronn. Mdta above 4fi", and ». 
Cooling b( gittl Lo Bolldlfr oj -KV, win || the mxaj l*c fhakca. the 

tompcralan riaea to Mn, arblcfa Ei tborefore the molting In ibn 

DatM -t:r« . it. Iitat a denaitv of I "'H? ut 16 . thai »»r mtot ll laV being 
1-900. .'""'■ bottrooB IW C ud -'"it- withool my dooomponl 

aublifnei in the forni ol i pilvery ernot. \':ip.,tiT ornity = V3. 
ont toe taWf fecauM M tbt b - •• neoagwy a i * 

... ppDdond — The neid omoUi ai • diooty 

ratureo. l-ut when boa ltd till it vnlatiii&.'i-. omhtUiC u puugfjnt an-1 |(Ja> 

oi log DtlonTi Hm i oatiatio, ^^>llr hwte, aod moKec lb« longiu white, 
like peroxide of bvdrogoaL It dottioyi tho cntioU . oanittiu it t<i |M««i »(f 
OD the following OUaJ ud I lofl for wmo tirno on tbo akin. prodttOM 

I' r-*l«:< ii ■ liini'i | Vtroogly, tut do«0 not bUftch it, c»'cu after a 

Iii: time (Duma*). 

H'7I .... i ' t •. dmm 

ii l,| |i ;., M :_..,«. . 

ini . 2000 O-c- 

>n, and 

r , rtntflfwaT. 

4C _ 240 .. 

H in. 

100J _ 
<" 3*0 - 

i it,D* iGj-a „ looco 


Vapour _.,.- 

11 ' «d »« too mull, in cotuwqoroce of lac |er«rur« of 

und (Dumu). 



DmmfMHiiti'jM. 1. Wiiru the acid h heated *"»t!» oil of vitriol, pari 
of H diatil* otov nncliangwl, iuid eryirtaHiaeii in rhoml : ilio r»*t 

!<• ftfid, t:n I .ii,!i- :-'-nl. mikI .-ill.. <H10 OXI( 

(P«t otbaja in Ib'u manner: C*HCTO*+SH0=«HC1 

When it io heated with excee* of poteah-coluti-in. ebttllith 
take* pla eftoi iln- *•■•••! In < ii removed /ran iIm Bra; 

.■ ■(-. «>; the ;■■.'■ • - - 1 : Ki I I »mi nnd nurfcottSlfl el pOte*a: 

but do ftnii. ■ IiL the ohJorofbffi i» revolved 

1 .nuaUt <i .1 color] It i poti nun (l>um«»). — Kiiot: 

C*HC*0< ♦ IKO - 2iK().('«lO - " -III l : ; 


C HOP * IKO - &OKO> - 3K(I 

. n tlie acid U 1-oUo.l with barvt*-^ iter, earbonaU ol bafTtn i« prod- 

iHUto'i t&mi carbonic add [chloroft ked (Duma*). •>. The acid 

byii««i "irl, i'X'T" of ;uiiin' q I luto oarbonaia ofaimn 

nil-- Mini cfal ; ifonn wliiirli miiI. - loVQ H BO ol] I I'un 

t mm pr* - IHI) 1 8 \u ,('(»;. - c-iu i. 

4. Ao.ic-jui t<*r<blo?nc*iio acid, or eitbea «>f it* >ulu divolvnl in 
"ipii^-.l I*,- |ki! lal^ani | i |>i potaarium i« > \C |»t*. 

Bierrorv) with •volution ut heal, and reeenrerted lata acetate of puuah 

i 'itkii' ♦ Mim - *,h ~ ( n'KO* f UCQ # >KOJ- 

U tlir ii not m >xcow in proportion '" the totd BO by 

ercdred. "rii. :> loon completed, if the resulting ponaeti 

W* Ibw olntion ova|»urot' 

i am, and i In- n : . the uoohol i xti u 

g iiniliifi' ftf i-liloriilc ■ if tlOLauduUJ \m'-\\ i':irLoii:i'i' nf 

potiub.* ol . ■•!! iii :ilijno, or line who 

•tl|:f »i r ; :• acid, doc* not * tl • ■- 1 tip Iniu I i aal mi, but emuc* an ovoJution 

of bvdm^cn l>» i Mil-. n»). - - 1 1 iii.'-trad of fi A I |>>f... -; m., <.:<! v -I At. 
DO U- foriU ut' ]iiil:r • il.lll M:ii:ilgaill, U© Um-I I |:.(!lM-nl, 

bit n] lining i mallet ajnasiUy of ohlorine than 

torrii id ''; iijnooni torcbloracetfc :i,, i. and 

f.rii! >f rino. o rino il which ippcftrt Io contain 

Lit. id] ■■ i] (.''CI-'H'O' Tenetil • :. I - alv> rcdu 1 

In acetic iritl in llir inil\ III tif ;t two-Mil D U 0*811 fl tico-fflarbofl 

AalUry.wi- i.-...r Mm i -/ iiiiliUsI lillC (I'-"''". VilftVt)* 

Th" acid Jolicjni eta in tb« air, and ditto! 
raadiljr in *wir. r (Dumaa). 

Ttrtklitrrtetlat' t./ J ww-min. — The ikjUCcik :)«i.l •'.H;rat6d «illi 

aanmoni*. and cvupnnit' < ; •itaarin raaaootin 

J* (DumoA), The «alt it like**! • [.n-ln. I when 

ca4i« it in contact withaqu dtlnta 

■Itfii Iioiiuiiful |<i : ii! iiidi- 

10° ati.l I Dfl off vapotin "f chloroform 

at,. I . bl ammonia. tfc« I in. i mj .-• mi [unilmr mIhiikIiidco at 

oo« K*\e* of mo/Ij 
trrrhlitn^^taic of ainnmnl i v> mi Ii ! mi, diasolvc rcadilj in v* i 

anit (fjTn off niniii"Tii!i when trcitod with potaan flVBC [n tha OuICm At a 
h'Cii. i nto carbonic ox Ma, 

:c, oad aoJ-amtLicnuftc ^op<.-ar iMnlajfuti | 

l- 2 

*12 ronLKHC: ciitOarsR-xrajius ch -. 

DMwmpft*i!inn of fho tijrtilUmil wit: 

CNrl-fTO" - CntCf + NimcCOMIO . 2llo. 
Decomposition vi tbfl ruaidual anhytlrcAUMiU: 


Cffhydrated in rtiruo. Pi 

«C 2«0 .... 1133 13» 

K H'O .... 

4 H 40 .... 222 ..... 1-2 

J ri MM r.K-03 

4 ... km ... irw 

CSP».NHVO* - 180 2 .... 100-00 

ArtMfri*! rrytfal*. Donua, 

«C ftl* .. UK- 104 

N liO (Mr ,.. 6* 

• H .... M .... I'M . 4-1 

:m l . KM-fl 49 12 

so r.i » '."»'.ii 

CVCP.NnViO'-MAo. 210-2 .. I00-1K> 

DumM t«j|<poM« (he wltto toouiu 5 At. water of erjiUllUuuon , Mal*^' 

Dsn-Jtln/'urm/t >,f Pctatb, — Tin- anueow acid nnUralined with oir- 
bon '■■ •' [•■: 'It yields by •potaneoua evaporation, nilby noodlef, ■ hiit 
doconi)H*o with a kind ol MOMtfoll whoa g*atly *■«- *i >■ 1, and abwrb 
only n amall '(iiitntity uf water when cxi>«ocd to dump air (Dunuu). 

Crytiahiz*<L Dunuu. Koftt 

KO „ ._ 472 ... S2-4.1 2300 „ .. 1%U 

IC 21-0 .... Illl i 

M 10 .... 0-48 O'JO 

an idei ... Mi-*? 

4 320 .... lfl-21 

C<C«0 + A<| aid .... 100-00 

The fiiiri/fn :iud Lime »du aro neutral and dUoolvo v*ry read 
water (I'umn*). 

Ttrchloracet'ite uf $3ver, — Recently precipitated oxide of 

tanuftnod in tin' nifiiKous acid U converted into grey lauiiun- 
diftflolve in a Igwatqiumtitv of water, and erysUlliw therefrom hy cvnjw 
ration in vacuo ovor oil of vitriol, and in the dark, in cry tn) line . 
and luiniiKc. — Tlio salt ia very readily dceorapoMK) hv li 
lu.-ii(cd mi ;i *liur( "f |"i|H-r, :i In miUm viulontlv, l"' s ">- off UiO "•»• 
odour a* torehlnrarntie aoid when it evaporate*, and loavw v. ^tntioas «j 

pure t'l.l.ri-l • of silver. If it he rtioihtr'iii'.l Milli .ilciilml mill tin* ■!' 
■ot on lire, it «ii-r.>iiipoj:4 more <|uiotly, and without |<rtijoetiun (l>ui 

CtyiMtiud. Dim. KMb*. 

Ac ■ MM .- 30» .. M-M ■■•- H 

4C . 24-0 ... *-m «-9» 8-9 

.it i . loot .... ao-ai 

4 32-0 M Si 

« ■ - 0-M — 

C^CPAjfO* 890*1 100-08 

• In Fri. LcbUne'i Memoir [A! .-inn. QUn. Ply*. 10, 199). the nropcdl 

■ilw U gittn w 29.U0 p c, doubUas hj a iiii*prlut. 

216 BTIiri.FTiR: CHL0B1H 

chlorine riti. I •liebloride of r I I K-pnauh, \ 

160]. — '2. \i ■ ! i Ixini wl. . ..I-..' m: I i^l in lbs 

i'-vf .i r|iirit-Uui|i it hunts aitli * bright yellow tin dm*. I . %'lro- 

rlilun wi.l tlV.nbyi — 8, Wlu»:i V- v | I □ 

gai. 1> wiNd ihrrmrli i rod-hoi tobo, h b raioJved, with of >l *«•* 

■ad light, into hydrooblorio acid pa* and a ! chnrxmnl. Klortne 

apsvkn repeatedly fsBed through lOaame de- 

position I i .'lay) — ». DoUMMtthttj ipi» Iu»iJi«l with vnjrour of chloride 
of carbon and axalodad by she « ■ • !"'«! Lota carl 

OXlde *ml liV'lrnr],! -::r MM gM (ram*! 

CH3' f 4110 - 100 + 4HC1. 


■, i »'>l b/droaen ii ropUoodlgrl voL carbonic oxido sad 

livdrnenforic n< mwljiv). — A. Vapour of |ipita ■•f rurhoa 

pa*««d or*r t r yt&7 yiohU, w '^ 1 T v,( ' ' "• *f 

barium, carbonic aeid | carbon <t • .i barytafl, unl n small Quantity 

charcoal (Furnruvr). '■. Exposed to tho Nil in DOntaot with dry chJoriuo 

£11*. i I i- i'uin.-tlrd i:il» ("•''I I l':i:.i.| .;, ), 1hj( boOCtll I ->V'i »f v<»t*r 

it farm tiM-chlnnrriic aoid together with litis compound Eolbo, p. Mat 

v - •- tj ihi«l«r *»f * ran 1 !»«■*! mfci 

< vi 1 1 thw sr tgnttlua in'" 6*0** : tha wisi 

un<t "' |«fljtM|uiu*nmnl(«ni, Iota . bcncc acetic acid amy be formtd 

from lalabhfc "1 ■ " ' '" ( *■ | " 

toehlafido of OftlboB il B< ipoood '>v nilTir. ulptnilK sad 

hjdroeUarie BoSdj ami pi not aolnbl i" attbai DfthtatMldfl (ritiadajr}. 

CtaUaMffORf. I*''' --"r, aqueous 

iu-nl mdSQjW •»- bUnlb I Faraday). 

At ordinarj temperatures, it diMolvco Iodine with a fino i 

but without further ;ill -Kilnm ( 

Witb Hi-i'Vi/ii*. in iiii>l-nic it -nliilirics in a fnw fltvond*, foi alt i* 

eryatalMno emnponnd C*Cf\Bi* (Malatad j 

ll ahflOfh Ollp <"" .'/"* :it'UIi'i:i!li:;. :i.-|uniii- :» n)]0W ColOfl 

loo*- '"iu| h niini llni^ formed rcmaina nnaltcrvd in diffused davli^lit; \tut 

in ouuiliiup it beociin'? 'I i"'"ii"| ;uul muuh 1 -* into thl more inliiu to« eomponnd C*Cl* (Kumda^). 
rVotoahknrfao of enrbou di»ioIv«« iu AUofwl, in E'.Aer, and ha 
bothjCmat ud »oM ; y)* 

Perchlorinated Vinic Ether. C 4 Cl>o=C*CI* l CI0=C t Cl l O,€l a . 

BmCAVI/r. Jmi. Ohm Pa^V, Tl ;(J>2; nlao^nn. 7'A.rnn. 33, ST; «l» 

• pi IP, 2CS. 

Maia.,111 Owip'- , "" / - I '■ :r '~. : " l,! 81, 748.— iT, iista dam, 

Phpg, Ht, A; ubntr. jf^n. Pthtrui. Ui'., So 8; .ibntr. J. />r. C*rm. 37, 


,'*7'/)n5l»r.'i/..r tl ( IIUm .\at-ariMl. 

asCCVO,( : [tea.] dsjoq 

"swlw-a. By lb* contimio<l action of cbJoriLO on Yfcajo «U»cr 



Preparation. Dry chlnriac gn» i> iily paaocd tlironjfli 

liW-li It aed from i i r bj dial lUticni tvrer chloride 

- contained in n fliwk, * the tir-t I 

*jit it u U MMftttQfe by hnixicrvion in water (if it We too much 

- i Hie hydrochloric Other wraed eJ I ifl fcuue titt< 'li»c* not eecape, 

end Ure clil»rvrinic ether becomes contaminated with (lie Babe4Jtetiou< 
wwloci* formed by ihe aefion of cblurinc upnu livdr».cld<>rie vttv 

r.l t.» tin* ran. Ttio yrO low li.jtii<i alW a wliilo 
dopoeiu Bumcrou' • ..f percblor uritcd ellier, end an Additional 

SautUy on i | ; :■. tho decanted mother I ■ •;■ 

filled *illi rill. rim, j-lill yi.:UU a fiirtl.- I OTOp All 

Lhaae crjatale nrual be pxeaaed between mml mid dissolved in boiling 
atad. alcohol ■■ -' cocdi rlrxt depoatui drew of oil, whird harden 

M they beeoma ■ . Md then cry. -all. no lamina of puro porchlori- 

nated ether (RojrnaitU). 

Properiiet. Crrvtal much like thmc of -«-m|u..-L!i>- 

rMe «f rawhan St. it- :it i ' ;) (tegular OOUlbedlVBi of 

r. i boo at 14 • hasted Bo ^><i , :.t whioli 

l<*)|<raturo it doea not btrllj rt doce not v-lidify till it ho.i boon ran 

fur *H»n bour*, probably because ^if 
into omeric «Utc. uf mqurchloritlc v( oirfwu ami yf 

ehlon.1 (Bagn i ill). 


IC 34 .- 1140 mmmm II l 

I * i ... IV hi M m tl 

O 6 .... 3 S3 3-98 

i ( ;-H 



TU+ nltk*iiftl fonriulu •- profcoblj I I forth* aomjtoiiinl mo\ 

; ;Nl Iqr 1I«* action oi t'l.lrirliit? jot in umihm^, 

. 1. Tito atlior wham b WO*! i' completely 

ratolvoJ, with obullil do, into cbloraldouyd and tttqaiobWido of caj 
wbidi \kvm ever aaaa odonma li<|ii i] ai Jlioc product, (in- re 

iuq/ ooluurlrju to il 

- CCKP i i" ■:'. 
la this Ji-iiil tn ii. 200 part* of tbo other v: ■', \t Id pU a! OMaJohlo- 

ill). Calculation (£209: 230*4= iou:xj giro* 
wb • li U altauflt exactly tba cmne. —Dry rhkrrine go* c-xert* no 
ii at 100°, ©tail m the i I iCvoraJ ho art; nitric and liv 

bleu lifcowi • Inactive. — *2. Oil of vitriol acta very si* 

»Lto ka*u-J; ut 240", it produce* ebullition, and evolvev, firal cblor- 
ahVlyli', itioii pnnajonti oluudv rapoun Laabileai oonaiathu <•? cfalor* 
loric acid, and ai nxlpburioacid vhiah, when 

.ulcr, yi.Id <i iivdruoblunc, l --<ida. 

maiainf m Uw mtort, ooliditjoa after * 
; (llalufQti i . 

!io.flo* - c-<:ro* ♦ hoi t m* 

3. AtiiiaitiiTi^n) ^»* dt--- i ' 

i m «Uokvl or in the inaltal tf it be bmtod euffn i 

Joraa cbJuraidckyJc, >u »liiib cujo lUii laltai ooupouMl and Iba an> 



l.lomcotjmttJo an.1 nl inmo»iM (MaJ 
*th< i. ■•; i I* yield* * lipoid i i 

uf tin- alcultul cunij 
wii i run time, nothing bnl pur 

U oa cooling cry#tflji uf un>iceomi»ocod perch lor in* i litr, 

• viiC.-une * aaiall ijukiitilr »f fnr.uUte #f potaab. 
i jMiMiitu id may It ohim rtol, 1; 

-ii'hl tl.n it [fa mi and lutly intti formic teiil 

■ -I lalpbtcle >i i*>ix\*.w.i •lpfu«i|A>«rx the wler, 

. erd mi]-< 

i"i im> . ;»K) i . n. 

2 put* of LhocUter beuted nitli an alcvliolio solution of 3 | 

produce turbidity jtlen »f Mcj'uIv «if potn 

mtMwii a* iLc nctiou begin* ; tin- liquid, when boiled* u*»umio> * «lark 
brown-red - 

... ■ i » ■ | • " ; i i me! >-.i ->■■-. ■!'•■ I 

.if .ih i ted liquid mixed with ■ 

oompoaad CCTO (MeUffotl] — •< PotMalum doi ofl at unap*- 

H)0 . bnl in-ir ihe4 troperelnrt, it per 
due**, ctcu in kinall ijuantitic*, a violent explosion (Mala^nti). 

CMnraldfthyde. OClK>\ 

.M ( \L.\4itTi. AT, .fn,-i. CAnn. PKt/n. n;. :, thatr, OompC rm 

jil-., /. ,..-. Chrm, 37, 4H ; mkJ, 21, «5. 

"-.1/ A'. J nil. Ohim ftlyt, 17, 31 : 

CMarvIdr'. M CAiuti [ AVmVm 1 1 n > ■ - .1 bj NUIajuli iii 19*1 

Formation — When dry ahlorino gM ii poawd ilirongh aauHytlrevj 
rfrnic ether expeeed to t)" L mntoai in ■eequicfflori'U nl oai 

Formed rn Cm I ol (<■ i i t4«r 

(VIII, IK4). — |*. * ----- j - . -j by -li.-iill.tik* 

into mqaiobloiido ol carbua «d ddwaJdebydo (Malagult).. — 2. 

irimttttl tenths ether, OC1"0\ repeotiidiy pained tbi i tale 

Invited !<» urn , :inil filled "'Hi ta of gla**» in eo I into 

aldehyde (MeJafoti) O l CrX)*=tC l Cl < 0». " Been when dry 
rinc pw ia pnwed through 4rr ncotio ether, first in daylight nod aft--r- lnu", rlilonddtdiyiJu h funned a* wt'll a* Boutiohlcruortia 

lib*] PHOTO* [< toe«> 

Prtparatv>n t CMorino /fa* is riae'ijd for 12 hours (oa in Itv^nauU'*- 
Mthoool prejx blonnated vinio ether), Uironrai other, u 

unity freed from alcohol nnJ w.iivi !•_>- n-prut.-il ili>tilUiion orerdiWl 

i.'iiini. ill ki<ji! inhiI by iiiiiiiiTriiiin in wild water; 1 1 1« ■ coll u.,- - 

Ifaee removed; the liquli expo • I to lfc< inn; and the paMogi >-f ibe 

M long n i'U take* place 'lb* pro* 

either fjetfoiehleHdi of cerbou md elilorehlebrde, «>r i»« i 

I'l, I llir ful'llirr r,»-4 . I ln» li'|iii'l liMOt I: i ti> n ]H4ti*d 

fractional di lllhilioo u Ihnl the lean rolnlili Moeide *f rart** 

tiuy remain mere end tiiuru lulilnd, the pfOOeea being rcpoUol 



i luH : lit v If poreblo- 
rinu !»,.- •■! by JiMilfi 

HKjnidila irbon nod ebloralcMiyde, wtiichu putted by 

lalion, an above (MnUgtUi). 

TraoapiiTvct, eoluiiflot* li-|ui-l. of ip, ?r. I-0O9 
Boila at l I -• ;',£, vVbefl aaraowJ Lo ritm 

»ff rapoiin Inving ra intolerably punjptri odour. Pltotd n j »< ■ *■ tin- 

then » i v 1 1 i t *■ *cj»nt . tun! til'mm. Iv CXMtl 

m cau*ti«" nction. K :i few MCOnd*. 





.... 12 -;h 


1 ■ .. 4 

i in i 



.- 100'OQ 

._ 100*00 

V»j»our «f CX.TO* 2 

-. I. Chlomldobvdc d! in mtor. nwi afterwards 
^MvoItm in it in tfao form ol fiYdrocwtoi limi- 

larly. Willi ...|u< >UI to III (40111 ol il>- El ■ ulU.ilij, it for»n» * 
tcicJilonucUU- (Molajpitt): 

< 'CVO' r 2KO - IK 1 * < H [»IIU\ 

2. With jpuwouj amnion in il bontol and iim I.;.l.-Iy foli- 

difoa to a mixture of ohlorncotti I »l uiiunmniir. Mpejooto by 

, nbicli <1 ■ l\ tic- cb'»'i-i'-*-t iiniiii'. Ai|ucou> iitiiinoiiiu yiv-lJi. 

Uw *i 'Mil.i 

CWO* ♦ iKff - t ■ Mm. 

:li j.|in>|iliiir*-llri! li ft 1 1 Dgm MM nyi. M- I DOHpOttlld (illluraeO- 

llfYpido), onaloffoM to okloracotiunide, together trlth bydrooUofk acid 

^ - PH« - PPH BO. 

mull quantity of okonolj it btWMB Wtol to tin- Luiluig 

t.ln. .My a l«l nl r u fXffw ii! BlOOhol, l«t* 
I Ovolr- i Mil tOfQttWwttb lh« b " -I. t'Tcblomcotio 

u formed, >'huii | 1 '■'.' water (Malngnti): 

C'< . HW - CrW m>' . un. 

BromDchloricle of Carbon. cci 4 l Bi>. 

Mii-xMin (IK*-* . Oempi. met. 10, $7»; nUo S, Ann. CK*u Pky$* 


*MJlf«mo»*!ra«r<a*; JJr.».r#/* tafcroWVidW [JMaftl]. 

of curtwu pspo*o(l to MRuhinfl in I Mil id wiili broi 
■otMtuV? ma ivft M*<vfttl« to * crritolliiio woto, wlm-ii Btaj U ; ii Boa 


eryvuU rwiuM* Uiumi of K^ukblorida < bom ■>*£• 

i .: ili^litly tlOUUUlcj in-j;iu U) v»l»tilit« tl 1UI> ; 


RTIIUUNK: Llll.i»!USM.KUCtlcil» ' 

■JftO *«J pr^tocnJorwio of «»rb«»o; m«I 
> tro.iteJ will, | lam am, iro re«olve4 iato Ur*» i-lo 

vf |Ki|aaiiuju natl prtii<t-lil.n-i<li' uf carum (Maltjru 

< i :'BH ♦ IK8 - CW + JKBr ♦ is. 

i i ; 111 6 4V«» 

y lir 160-4 *t'M 

WD. »* .. liMQ 

Sesquichloride of Carbon. cw-C'cw r 

In tin' .-ir. .1 .mi | :m x 214. 
RB0MA1 lt. J»,.. .'..'.,.,. pkyt. 60, 1G5. — 71, 371; aleo Ann, Phm 
33, 323; alio Ck*n. I», 20*. 


AndntAnUWAIoriv/.trfitto/r. A'vM<««iyfrrAfar«>» iVrcA.'cria* 4 (WW. C**. 
rw# J* t'>,h,{t\;*>> (UvtrrtA), { S evtnei). 

Formation. L By Eta notion of chlorine g>s in cxcwj on 

cldvriilu uf carbon in vuuklofl (I'aimliiv 

CW * C\* m C*Cl\Cft 

S. By llio xotkm of «xecc« <.f cblurin* on vliUriilo of »>iUjIpdo ' 
"Iimi.-, or mora •lowi, : - m ilayJi^lit (Fiir*lay), or wiUi tno *iti 
liuut (Uobig) : 

n. Ky tho action of oxeem of Ob tori no on hydrochloric «tbor, 

tin- •, .il' lupnla in BUiinliiiui (l«aiireuL, Jnn. (Aim. /'*yj, 31, 
also /. //r. Cknn. I | a 423) : 

I II* I | Hid - ccr 4 MI' . 

lurlv by tl- MlJ ;i of OSOOM of clilorino on monod 
•l, or torohloriftatad bvtifOoUofla otliti ^ ll«r^nuiile. 
Okim t*ky$, 99, 105). 

Chloride "f etiiyleoe treated tltarftatety with aleofcoHo |>ouuh, 
whirl podtHM - each lima i At chloride of |>ot&Mtain and l At. waUir, 

(Inn uitli dih.rinc, of fffaiefa 'J At. nro cncli timo taken ti|». thou :K*"D 
villi ftkoBOlic potMhi lfc« Iftfa *iftb (Merino, fro v\c, ]Ht«»C* by tb» 

..ins oU^i" int'.i i 'Ti' . 

C'll'Cr* r KO - Ktl r UO * CH"Cl. — C<H»Cl - Ctf - CIIK* 

1 - KO - Ktl 4- HO » PIPCA < .'IHT- . CP - CVOr 

i .1 i ;• EC KM * HO * OHO 9 . — CHCP ♦ CP - C'HCH 

I H'V , KO - Kt:i « HO t C*C)«. — <"< I ! - CCr. 

Aiuuti" tlirms rompouiiil.f i'lli'l' \* iln« only our which is not 
a«eunivlv known (Kcgimnlt, .i/ui (.Vi.»j. i7i|«. 6J>, 151; *U» J. 
1H, »0J. 

liylr-v-ll* !!■ otb r CMI'CI, in '! itoc of ile tmnrfol 

■ l.y ohk'iiuu, by O0QUbim4 KflMMMIll "1 virh 1 At II by I At 

r.oniPE or r.vuBON. 


yields the following com^i. im.|. bomeru »ith tnoss irbfch mo obtaiotd 
fton i ■ f ethylene <' : li i I-. r*i I in A . >HCr*j and 

•r> Anally ecnvtrtod Into CCr*, perfectly Identical with -in- c<_T 
obtained from chloride of ethylene (BegoailM. 

4. B/ the action of clilonni' on sulphur .in ether in sunshine 

(Ebehncu A Bouquet, iV. .1.-/ •*'/,.«. /v.. v .i. 17, 01 

3. Bthor BljIUtMl US excess of Oftlorfao in RimUtll i,i coin 

•MBOlbniM into MUtijiiii-li Midi Of c:irl...ii :ui.l .!■ I . . r iU. ii |fl I, ■_ MDOtfuM 

porcblorin:Ued viiiic other (p. 2 HI), which, tsWwifdnp 

Rvolvcl by distillation into Bcsquichlorido of carbon and chk-nUchydi: 
(IUk' mil, Kabgati), 

Preparation. Chloride of ethylene in nxpowvl to 1 1 if tun in a botttfl 
Med with iMorinM water frequently it ■ 1 -I • * I in *niull quantities to nbrorb 

miring hydrochloric nciJ npi»*; tho chlorine Irequeotl ■ ! an 

long as it exhibiU any alteration; tho resuLdii . . , vritb 

water to remove the giuatcr part of the hydrochloric acid; prmttul 

bHw»*n papor; hour.] in lubmnntlnnj Mid tna ivhlttnate dteolTod in 

alcohol. preei] itated from tUo alcoholic solutii»u by watvr ocateinlBj 
potath to remove tin hul IrttOUfl of hjdrotllknfa aci.l, then washed i 

water, pretted between bibulous panel and dried [a radio orar oil of 

vitriol (Faraday).— The chluiidc *.f ethylene mnj aim be IhmIimI Da&rll 

lo tba boiling point, and ohlorina gsu imniorruptadly duongfe it 

a* long a* bvvOOhlorifl acid ooutituM to form, whereby ftOWOTar, not tho 
whole, but "only the tpoatcr part of tho chlorido of olhylcn- • 00ft- 

TOrtca into cosquichlorido of carbon* which m OVl fur tin: i 

port WOOD the liquid is artificially moled (I.i n Chirm I. 


•j. A moil ijiiiuitity of bydroofclori* cii.ri Introduced into n bottle 
fillol with -1 r y onlorae £ne,aiad act esido in the I :.<!■• for - 1 boat*; after 
fAkh tho chlorine U renewed, and tho vessel o xpO naJ to tin- .-tin. :ii fa 

iiii'iu. of i In* process, Booh exposure would produce uxnli 
(Lonrent) "r. more adrantagooasly: Alcohol i> heated nith eonees 

t rated hydrochloric acid, tho Of 1*1 I niponrof hydrochloric othor pawed 

Urouirh water and oil ol vitriol in purify it, and than brougfafl in contact 

ed to the ffiimuirr »mi (IWjfnaiilt). 
rVrablorinated viui c t-thnr in duoompoHnJ by distillation Into m**- 
ji i ii.. if r!trln»i! ami I'lilomldohydc, and tba (U«tillnto rcpoacodly 

troalod with wntor, which takei up obloraliivliydiT in the ■!. ■■ .n.|... . .1 
Male, and leaves Dl ! irlion (Mnla^-uti, iV. Jtvi. QMm. •"//'/>. 

16,6, an«l 14). 

Prapmir*. Transjuircnt. colourloM cryjttJilR, ofton Blrftod in nrtwrf*- 
OMt tofts (Faradnyi EUgbl rhombic prisma bolon^inx to tho n-ht 
|frif 'i with / fact } u ; # = l-'i ; */';*= ; 

,, I s lift' If', Itfs |«0 20'; noclcoroxo-pluiooi'Hronkc, ^nn. . 
«a, .n«*; ; u ; t = 1 W 8QT; 1 :«= N (Laonot, Am i 

W, a^). — Hit.- ! | , - ■...-.; Rp. gT. about = S00. As hnr.l 

aaao^ar, sacilv pulverised, umi then ap]to!i» liks ponn.h'd »ugar. Dm 
mocoms Molts a^ iw Mdboil I itblhafof ia 

ifci injMalHiMi fniiHj tin! volniltm i» khi »ii • ' > at ordomry Utpon 
Urea (Faraday). Vaponr-dunaity B-Ja? i Jh-^naulti. 81 ugly 

ar>o*oticand hie oampnor; taste wamly perocptlbla (Faraday^. 



p liktwiac found ia tin compound 3 A 

i s- i|nuli1ftc5i a '■' ■■■' ' i • rtaeJved hv repeated 
• I i ivi-xi, <>r hy unoo f^uinu it* fapoUf through ■ rol-hot lube-, tsto 
b atoolloriile of carbon and valeria* gntj part of which i* iWW 
tilt former aud gim ■<lny'i. — ? Id tin 

t-latnp it bUflU niili :i red flame, |M*oducinj( ;■■!•). 

(jo** oat when removed from lb <n p*% it nuv 

bcI on fir* Will i,| ,.■,,. | | 

ir. ll vapOUI in! X--1 « i ' -. t , :) 

i:, ■ Lj dootrio o|fuik», wren at ioo ; tut in a red-lint tnfat ihe milium 

irli twin arid, iv! rlmuir " • itlr ;iml p 

3. Mclta lit a moderate hent when mixed with iodine, and *t u I 
temperatarc, ^irea »j> to 2 At. cb i - ■ { - 1 oto- 

paloridii ••! rnnrbon Mi I cli Sulphur ami phosphorM act 

inn similar diahikt i. K.i Ixcd will. hydro 

fi%* )« not «.'t oil fire by tea bl atria Iptrk, pv.-n it -juii * |.„t, «■ 
pi ijjb a wd-hol - po»iU chnrcuul on.i 

«ciil gat (Faraday). 5. Nearly all nieta I in iu rapoui 

oaarertod into ebloriden, witb tenaratioo of BuarcoaJ; |HJt*9«iutn exhiljiu 

i . - 1 . M : "j . i : - f 

*. Tho \ • i ovtf 7. .-eta, rtrootia or limo (itm^-ticfii 

ha* no action | form a ol I jrjil and i» t and .[< po 

. ■ Of tl | i:ii-l.»! ;nnl i lift of ll liLiili; ml 

banted oxide of li'ii'l. it funua cblnride -<f !-■ 1- 1. together with 

I and ivirlnihir iiv'nli- ■.■:!■■ -. with Mtldo oJ rfllC ll vulls lirnilnr pro- 
daeU, aometinieJ with tho addition of phoiapcnefli»; w ; ill . ■ >prM| 

and in. tod with noroxioc of lead, it yicldt nothing 

llic chloride ami rarltonic av'nl k»» (Faraday). — 7- S 

ni i u boa boated. 01 an bat .dijdah. « itli an alcoholic notation of -niphh 
of nj •" mlpharettod hydrogen wit£ rSe>> 

1 Ol> ill l.«l 1 ,.|Iw- 

led, ii give off n mixture of alcohol bi q of oarbo 

Mi-I i*«Ycr a ;• ■ ■ 1 Title of pntaxdiiin aod 

euuetnuce Repntull itlom •■■ p xisx — Water nxtracta el 

ride of potajafani from tli" rcaidue-, form i no Lien, 

which i< doeoiorUed by bydroenlofie aeid» with nrocip 
qatAtiiy <'f brown, ^i■ old, verj Blinking matter; tli" portion 
by the watei iiOvdaiK bioirn ■ibrtiuin- Il.r-.i-c laaoloUa in nlcv>: 
wVirfa when duttille* 1 uSxttira of raJpbar ami oaaroi 

proda ■ ifinu having gose too f*r. 

loohaiic Buation ol 1 pots tIi- like 

j-iil|tlti.le of hydrogen ■•.-,•{ putaerfajo, excepting that an 1 .('it 

|iiicli|i»t-itlv ni lailh-ti \. 1 ami very ciiniplsrat.'d 

pTOdaetfl (ilo/naiilt). 

k. Saaquienteride <>f < - not nbaorb ntn Teniae*! pi* in the 

colti, hut ia dccomponc<! DJ it wh<ti healed < ilioeaii, Aun. C'Aaa. /»i«. 
70. i70>. 




: txliibabi n«i Jeooropowtlon ah™ h«tod irfth 
.*.*i! nitrio mmI rnlpfrarta »cld mqiaqi umrHnfir*, ponuli '>r 
and i** wilatKinfl In .1 or alcohol do n .f tU ■ I 

oile«r | Faraday). 

'hn$, Setqufcldoridc of carbon diinlvM very uparingly in 
Watrr. Bird not nioi ,i: . , ! 

M In bollfoff .Yi/ru' acid* nnd »epnmt™ tlx'i ily on 

; ;utl_v on tlio Addition of w*tor fPfti 

It »l a Mr;k»l, i» prcerpitalitd (horofrora fcn more 

atan<laottj in fiOer; aleo in tfik, both/ntf Bad iatartf* (Faraday) 

A AJaKb+4 ur&w. OCI'O. 

Chloroxethose. C*cpo, 

CSUoraoTaM, CkhroriMoi* [PfeUftaa]. 
Formation. Ptoni pi.TchIuritmt<:<i Mine uiIht and protofulpoidi of 

I4t pta, <<f poroMorinutc-l rink -"lior uro boiled with a 

i ion ol ."" 1 1 prt>to*ul}ilinlo of pd I i . ■ 

ho), till i!.i ili ulved, tin: I1411 d -liuinUil uii l'ic following 

day from ihi leuoMitetl oblorido of potatanum, and diluted witu nr* 

, ■ ■ .. lite In. I In III xftl t !i M I it, 1 , Mi. I -: li! mill ill* DJ 

l> porclilo lb t. njraiu hciiinl vita. A folntion "I 8 

oni in K'O pie. alcohol; precipitated Agnin with 
w»|<~f . finally fiwu from admixed mlpliui !•■» boihou will) tf|Q,ooui pnUuJi 

39*1 frillli Ml ; iH;innn- -hi, liui.; -iil>-(.lll<- I. V DOUIIVj » i I li llltl!-- :i-<! 

VAltlod with 11 I \r&* ijiiiinlily of VBtOI itricd in 1 Otlfad two 

or IhlM titni ■.., Hftd one* more watliod and drawl. It t* t»e*t \l. • 


•«. Trnnsiorent. colourless oil of ip, gr. rfl.12 lit 21 '. BoiU 
■4S10*. Bcmiqw coloured incruiiy, 1 h M-anty Mart 

■I b difttilUtO !(■■:■ 1* of piiro ohloroxcthr*?. Him ■ 

rt ty ajcrcrolifo odour, like that <jf tbo Bower* of »t. 

J CI 100-3 .._ 7C-SI ft>«l 

. 8*0 ... »«jo frlV 

r..n p 

. 1 ,11 


IfiO-M iOO'OO 

■mpofifiem. CMofVKKOthoM wbofl ktpt 1" tamaI* containing air 
loaea its terete. *"'ir and fumim;. — It iv dot 

■»f op. j^r. t'5, witli (ormation m oarboak -".ot — 
iV#a exert no action on eMonmtliott. 

>. m<| |o Bosahllio m dry cMnrinc gna, it fonna crytrtali in a 



far <fa-jni. anil »lte tin cxcom of dilorino Iim Smo **tX'IU-1, - 

completely no pcrclitoriu.ii vroMif- 

MttftiC iiii-i MM li'.'l DCl :ll ••KutoctflW 

und ii «mnll q lib riib of carbon. iauntt°* 

M thtf MmUmI h*r, at <*«• moment of iu fornr 

revolted by watt* into tip- two fint incutinnod product*; 

I MIO -C*CVHf> . WO. 

Ill :i Minilitr iu:i)itn-r rlibimii'lli. * i'X|m>m<<1 |o tl | ■! u.illy tukft* 

Dp 2 At. bromine. ami Ml npeaad C*Ct l O Hr 1 . 

I ni«>luli|« iu wator, bat di*#oWta ill alcohol anil *n 
etftwr (lbwtgel 

Bromide of Chloroxethose. CCl'OBr*. 

MiuriTi (IM4). .V. Ann. CM*- Pky*. 16, S3; oUtr. Ccai/rf. tv*J. 


rfrW^WW, [J/*rWW 

CMoroxctlioot* ripoactl to tbo tun in cnuUicI *»itl» Immune, toli 

ill | fi '*% illl\M Id till! «J l.: H\ I-t: i •i.ill!/:ili..U 1; 

t iU ht«: obtain ad, Utvin.' ilif form of teaqoicUfrridl of cftrbnn, nirl & 
•p. gi\ of 2'5 ot I ^ I'bajrmoH ,i M*, in>.{ jr.' K-.iv. ■ 
bron&M mm! colotoxotfcoa* With an ulcoholio volution of proi 
of poUiMtiiifu. ilic; yield bromide of |H»taw)iwn jml OiiloToxHlittfQt *»''! ID 
lln-ir i»ibrr rlirnii.-i' i ." i -.i-inli l.-tnca t^ ]K-nv 

nato.1 rinip tlbtr, CH 1(K'I' (Malurati). 


4C 24-0 ... 8 05 ........ 7'99 

J CI 10*4 3i*«l 

2 tlr IC04 43-W 

M .. Ml 

. 2<t8 2 


lOOpta at 0« gf pu il ,'l |»t« rUlonde of ilker • l«on.Me of nitty 

£. PUffJiochUrinc-u ucieus. C { PI I ' (OR 

Cliloracetyphidfi. (^vn^nw^PiPjO^o 1 . 

Clou: (1946). «V,j4im ftfsi ffftj* i7-->u0. 

ProdlM*d VBM i<li' aphllfOUad hjdrona piu in patted through oblor- 
■U«hTd*i iU formation Icing utt Ii evoltttUa of liydrodiloric 

acid t'ur : 

C*CW * HP - cmmi-k::-!) » iicl 

Also by pnwiri£ tho nmo gat tb rough perci formic ctbrr. j-l 

iu I- ;i | h '..■•• I ih« him- tiu:«: 

can* + wp - cii'ii -.fro 5 f icoo • uci. 

Small, wkiftc, looae crystalline tale*, laving a a&fctly alliaoKut odoor 
and ; 

Wkon ac*t«d ia Ui« air, it leave* pWtphoric acid mixed vila 

I&eolntl* la water, sparingly aalublc in wcod-ttcriL alcohol. aad 
otbaff (doer). 

Chlorowilphawtted Elhor. c i H : c;so=C 4 CiH J s,llo=C*oeciH,H t . 

Ualmvti (18W). Ann. Cairn. »m». 70, 354; alao 4a». />Acm. 

32. 2:>. 

fVooroauM [p, 1*4). 

fawwiali oryvUlliaft scale*, greasy to tlio touch, and having an 
r.ftVauv* odour, moiling at 70" 10 72", and »«lidifyi»£ M a »oft ? laniumtod 
crystalline maw. 

JXcompoocd hy alcoholic potash into sulphide of |HJtac*iuni> chloride 
of |>otaB8tuiu, and acetate of potash: 

CWUSO 4 3KO - K» * KG f C*H»K0*. 

7 nan I itor, bnt «o!u1>Io In alcohol and other (Malaguti). 


4C 24*0 .... 2;-7B 27<58 

S II -Til . . :t-47 V.MJ 

a yj-t .... 4Q-9T — ti-ii 

8- H,0 .... 19-52 1«30 

eo ... 9-2<l *82 

CWCISO .... HtV4 .... 10O00 lOO'OO 

Conjugated Compound/ of the Chlorint-nuclei. 

Bichlorocarbonic Ether. c^PHWsOCTH'O.OO 1 . 

"UM (1843). N. Ann. Chim. Phy$. D, 203; nleo Ann. J'kxm. 47, 
203; tbo J. pr. Cam. 30, 242. 

n^Mmkt Mv m iawfcr. OoppeitcAhrAoMeniHArrii'hcr^ t'iker c^rhunltimrbichhrHnf. 

Carbctiio ctiW, CWO, f'0», in MUoratod hy dayllglll with dry 
dilorin* gaa, and hoatvd on the water-lintu to 70*— 80 la Ida Jfttttr pwt 

«4 Uh* piece**; anil »* toon a* Clio chlorine ocu»m t> tot, (ho cxccai of 
lied at 70 to 75 bya ream of carbonic acid gw. 
- bcavi t tbui water, and of awoct, j" ■ 

Ltorompoaat wfcen bofiUd. Not altered ty chlorine in daylight cron 
TOfc. ix. ** 


in ■ month; but iu ran*1iino it si «om*tt*l thmbjr Into p#r*tol&Tfiear- 
bonie ether oud hydrochloric uvid (CuJiour*): 

c*cpipo» + tci - owo* ♦ Ma 

IimuIuMv in wtUar, but KiluMo iu »looiiol (Oal.oun): 


iC- - 50-0 — 13«X »*« 

• a ii a o ... 2 .is — 

J Ci . tW .. H 10 - BW> 

jo M-fl >*-;* ....... ie-?: 

C*a=HH>»„..„ 127-8 ~. 10000 100-00 

Porchlorocarbonic Ether. &CI«0 9 =C I C1 I 0,CO S . 

Cahouiw. IT. Ann. CSt'xm. /%*. 9, 303; also ^nji. T^tnst. 47,25»4; 

J. pr. Vhrm. 30, 243. 
Malaoutl iV. 4m. C'/hot. i%#. Itf, 3<Jj ab«tr. /. j*. Cham. *7, 4 

f"h!trrw*rkmi/! Rlhtr, P*rthterkvhlt*rmt9ttr, t> *, nth forM l mi4wAlkir t JCi A*r 
COrloNiftu jttichtorvrf, fUhtr ckloraparlt/mfur. — Di*co*«M by CfthoUB to l*4i. 

I'rtparation. Dry chlorine pas in pawed eoutinuoutly in «un*UiM 
through bichlorocarbonio other, till, after 'J <ir :* day.-, fl- win 
fit* i" y crystalline ma**, irlmli !.-• tln-n i|iiirkly | ■< r<I Kctwccn paper, 
unrl dried iu racuo (Cuhonr*). Tin* product cannot ' ■ | 
UtYtag ii 1.. tmtalUai Am n alcohol «r ediar Imnmm it w thwby r**tiy 

ilfrMiii] il BBO D0BV9M i"l ■' I ' '■:•' BUI (CdUVQ )• 

Prvjtcrtic4, Small *uow-»hito uuviUur, which melt whcti heated, ud 
polidify iiflain in thn cryntnllinA *tai«. oa ooollng (Cahour*). MelU 
bfttWMB M ud $«: , and KlUdlfloi between lio oud ijj ^MnUgati] 
Hjw a faint odour (Cubour.); 

o \r >. .-U ... I'/'jv -• 13*lv 

5 CI IH .... ?6'62 .... :«-«o 

3<l M ._ 10*39 .. 'J mi 

II ... 0'2I 

L-CW , ... ., 231 


I0Q 0(1 

Deormpotntion/. 1. When this compound cilicr i« distilled, part of it 
goon ori't iiNd«cs>mpo«.Hl. the rc*t in tho form of carbonic acid p*, 
cliloraldchydo ami i^juioblfoddt "I OtlbOQ (Malufuti): 

2C*Cl*0» - SCO' t CWO 1 + C«Cl fl . 

2. Wbta part of llmiilirr i;« Iu>:ili>d wiili 4 |»(k nf hydrate ofpot&Wi, 

iir- v U tit nation vets in u »oon oj tho licjaiift bf^iM U 

ad cout. mi.'., nil All tho ether hua dimppcazc4l r imi u rcf*U(<I taU 

dilorido of I'otEuuiuin, cnrboiiutu of itotiusb, and fonuiat* of potMfc 

CHyO 1 * 9KO + HO - 6KCa -- 3(KO,CO«) ♦ C?IIKO«. 
If ooJjr boH tbg aWro qooutiij »f poe^ia U oKd, tbo ttvmpodto* 

rKRCiii-onrxTArtiioxic KTnRiu 

aom oa bot slowly ovon at a boSUu boat, and when bolf tbo ether tins 
ifaip|iMnni. tii^ mm proxfaotsi '•• Ian ■- In ' 10 liquid (Mala£til!)i 
i IVrchlurocarbosic ctLcx exposed at ordinary Ichijmi 

in! mm, absorbs thai gas tod becomes warm and soft; 
if it bo wanned from without, niter being saturated with aDsBOBl 
becomes very tot, giroa off a larfjo quantity of TCSjr thick BOka, 
iict a trace of water, and hantcrsl te a browu mw conflicting of cblonv 
cujIiuiHimiilt-, sai-ammonlao, aootl ■ « :u I +'tlm- 

nilto of nunnonin ?] and ■ small quantity of :l black pOVoVff rasstnuMafl 
BjllMjnBOgtll (MsuagBti . — V;ni.' fjliM litittl tin- I I UBttOOiU U 1 

pt j tos tt o y ttso undi. ..i.-cd, .an. I ..i;.,. afajtotated tMdi the aUovfri 

carbctlnnudc, vrLile tlio other salt remain? !n Uiu mi.tlii.T- 
liuuur. Ou evapuralhu; uud cool tug tho mother- liquor, tho lartmontionod 
•all ik r>1it - ic A in ttin lom <>f a white, tibrotut. easily fiuiblo, very bittor 
saata, which dissolve* very oosily in water, alcohol, and ether, givca off 
ammonia with cold potato, and, though it contain* chlorine, di>ct not jiro- 
ril'itatc a tulution of silver alien direolvod in water containing acetic 
and (Moiitfuti). — IChlorowbelbsmkk, la consequence of the iliifialiirj 1(111 
existing vita ngsrd to lu easstiudon, u sssnrfbsd onrj m ih* form nt n lap 
(p. 3 Jr.) 1/ no rappoM tint ibt« rwntinl product! of ibe dcoomporillon are ttl- 
unmonUc, (MoKxmibctbaDilJe, and dduruosrbcibsiuaLc of sjiiaiuuw, and sssitfti to llic 
lsifctf lbs formula ptuposctl bj GrtharcU, tlic cqustiaa iubj bo : 

CPCIK)* r MKV - aC^H'WO 1 t WWK80* + ONII'CI t 2N. 

AoMnltac to this exertion, nitn>r*a should be r mlrf d «t tW mida lime.] 

Perclilopjcarhouio ether thrown by small portion* ID to uqiieouc 
ansaotila, tnakoH a loud hiding nolss liko red-hot iron, and forma, with 
jrreai evolution of heat, a thin crystalline xnsgms, which leaves clloro- 
carbctbsiuid-* on the tiller; the brown fillrato evaporati .1 :u:-t exhausted 
with caber, re- If Into so iDsoIabls rasjdat »f mi-ammoniac, oar> 

■flunonia, rormiate of ammonia, anil a brown substance, and a 
solution of dilowcafbsthatnato t)f ammonia (p. S2fi) (Mala^iitl). Hence 
aqaSvQS ammonia fornix. Dot BMMlv M amide, liko ammoniaeiu gas, but 
likewise carbonic and forznic seid, filce potash f Mnluputi), 

■*. lVivliIorocarbouio ether ditEKilrea in alceliel, Willi n ■• >f t.nnM-i 1 
lure ananathlS t»i only a fow di>;ri'(M, :irnl forma 11 very acid, spon* 
taooously funifn^ liquid, from which water throws down a Ihmvv t . i 1 _y 
mixture of oarboak) atliar, terchloraeotio ether, and porchlon>carbonie 
ether, 1«tuii: an aromatic tasto and mncll.'.whilo bydrocblorie acid (togothcr 
with a >;jiall quantity uf UtrcUloiucetie .icid) reuutus iueoluliou (Mata^uti); 

cHn l o« -* tow - c:-u i o* * cti^a*^ f sua. 

The > 01 «>f tho 1 ] olpJtftted hy w.itor Is detenuiued by (Lfl 

Knetioni. When »hakon Bp v.ith aaoeoai ammonin, tho 
er part of it dissolves, with lutien 01 heat. Tho sol at ion 

lt«J from ..Ivol oil. -.1.: i cuhi-ni- M StbeT, _;r:plu;Jly 

nu iu an oil v. !aUi carhunate and 
Lto of ammonis, tojrrtl < r with mini ical sdU oon- 

Monno, remain 111 selut:un. The teraldoraostio other 
beea oon^ertol hy the ammonia sucecesiwly int.. chlo raortamido, ter- 
ablcraovluU uf ammonia, chloroform, and carWnate, hjxlrocblorato, and 
fonaials a, — Atnnio ' .1I.0* th'.- oil h^t, ami convorts 

aciiii maa*, whicli, besidet na oil ami wl-aaamv/n 
wise contains «blurocari>::bami.le, showing tliut andccjinj>oiod ponwlstO* 
aarboaic other u prcmait in the eil (MiUa^uti). 


Appendix ic PtrtMorKvtfonic Kthtr. 
I. Chlorocarbethanride. c ,0 x»H«CPO=c»Ad»croM 

it (p. 227). — Formed likvwleu In a similar manner 
i-IiIom ma urpnonlaca] gnu. 

Prtpctrot%o?i. PeKUonCiAobte Cth©r i* wturat^l In the cold 

<lry wmioniM] "lift iniiM ci-fulU batted till it &ivca off dctun 

fumex ami Koli'lifii«» to a brown ma*<; tlii* maw prewied betWMa 
i : ]..-t .mil -- ^ : n : . t . ■ i w if ii ubjrdreiu attar; had Dm ynlJow filtrate l*ft 
to evaporate, wherouimei impure chiorocarbcthanrido separatee in looc<, 
vtllo',vi.-h, mutaottl lamina'. ThoM are praised between paper to frve 
ID faxfl 10 ollj iBiljStani'K, di— oh I'll iii Inn Ii ii-/ witf.-r, anddiTulut i/i-d by 
n small quantity of animal rlmn'ial; 'I" filtrate cooled to tlir ery«t«llixinir 
point; and tbo rcoulting wliito laminro purified by roeryatuUucatioo til 
B *wcct t ami bare lost their bitter aftertaste; "' t' 

BOWDTW) ;i r>iiHii]i T.ililc ijiniiilifv "in ltiwt, 1 • 10 |it«. if |uT<'lili«i'irfSi!h»tiiie 

dli.r n!d 'JO pta. of rruilo culorocorbotKamido, and o much hd 
quantity of the purified product 

/ , , fll ; tin, — White, ciyeUlline scalw greasy to the touch; tin - 

to 140 bogfaa lo t'uni brown at Itt* boil at 2G(T; and" when 
gnddenly rained to a high temperature, sublime uiidoeorapotied, In afieoa 
indecent laaiinno, 



Rewording to Mftlagntl. 

iceofJiog to G«kardL 

IOC 60 ... 1579 

10C 40-0 .... KrV 

3 N 120 ... 10'« 

8 il ...- CO .... 1-5S 

t II 6-0 . 

7 C) .... 2ir-n ...v.-., 

: ' 1 817*1 . - 03-90 

SO ... 210 .... 6-32 

4 32*0 ... 8'tt 

3790 .... 10000 

387* .... 10000 




/rem Perekhmearltonit Mkrr. 

from (WortMlMi^ KtMwW. 

iv u 



i . 






1 00- 00 

[Maliitnn'urmpirir*! formal l, I "'v; rnrn>. MBbUni an rnicfcn numbarof atoms' 

M I mi-.1i prOpOMl Ihc formulii I ' ■ ■■. n i l't>*]. 

Chi* haraida dooi not evolve ammonia wi: 

cold with bjrdftttd "Mmim-. 'mt evolves it I sritti potaafa. In 

oiu it diMolvoi gradually, with formaticm of rrvKUllitablo 
"f ammonia. 
h dlmolrci a- in water, readily in alculiol I 

-V. ^ M . CAim. /'Aft, 16, 3Ji and 73; abjtr. J. tr. Qkem. 
42* and 451.) ^ 



2. Chlorocarbethainic Acid. P^HHFO»«<^AdH«Cl T O w 1 

'vn on\y in flic GoRn uf au mnmouUcnl aalt. Tliii >alt i- obi 
by disrating adoroearbotbinildi with .iqncous ammnnU. A U m 
after the cohitimi i* complete, tbfl liquid i* left to empowte in \-aouo 

Oil «>( vitriol, where I »y Hi" cli InTMrfl (rf UMBOfiil 

urn tii-.ii:., very tiiur acalor, which well be. 
und liinolvc very readily in wi ! ■ i 

Tin nit triturated will bjdntaof poi 
of ainniouiii. Whoa iti aquaoiu »olntion iaptra4ceat#d w»Ii '» :| 

r haa ceiuod to jfivo oft ammonia at 90 . it QTolvei a froth quantity 

on boiling (in connoqucncc of the decon»po*iii"u of bin • inmg 

id Afterward* exhlM • tlra ebloriaa-rautton wiili : -nimum 

of Bilvrr The aquoflii* solution of loo j»t i. of th- /ed nil j 

with hjebloTiilo of platinum <» -jtiniiv <>i cl h>roplatiiiate of nminonintu 

mm:; *'-"■ pt*. "I" .vimi'Mrm; BCUOC OOl "f 3 At. N OODtftlstd E& the 

mlt. 2 At, nir. [ -i-:ii in lid- fu.'iu of ammonia. Calculutiuu i*ive.* mily 

s pi* uf •minii.nii ; imt tha fit* hyiln.r" ■ «i in the 

biehJoriJt] of platinum u-.hI, pmliuhly •vmvonoil a porin n >.( tin 
contained in the calorocarbulli iuti»- ;:-i'l into amnionic. (JKadaglll .. 
>\ Ann. UVm. Ph/i. I«, a;*; nUtr. .Apr. t'Am. 37, IS 

CshuJot,ou Mai 

■wording to VulnfUti. trrontlng tn QnUtfdti tyyttah. 

IOC CfMi .. 1*93 IOC 60-0 .... 13-.SS . IS iU 

3\ . IS'O .... 9-GK 3^ .... 42*4 ... WiO WS 

12 H 12-0 „. S-77 12 H 12*0 .... 2J2 2'Bfl 

7 O • . M'U 7<:i . . 2-47-M . , 86*08 

SO ... 12-0 .... 1600 10 O ... «0-0 ... IS'Il 17 09 

433-3 .... 100-0(1 441-8 . . 100-00 10000~ 

AowrJlni: »i«aii - 2XIMO ( [' , "NUH'WO?. ai vNU'o.r-Mi < iHr + aAq.- 
Aeeorrfinfr to Grf I ...i< ' L'MI'l ''Ml'rwv" |_ 21 K i oeoord. i 
1 1, . (ortrraU, cMoracrarbcth imlo idd would be = t: l "A<K. , KII*0 , 1 Cr\ or, if tin salt con- 
tains 4 Komi Of waUr, = i^XdCP.O*, or I l 'MI : i IM > .. 

Chlorovinic Formiat*. C 6 HK?10 I =C*C1H'0,C 11 H0\ 

.. Attn. CAim. /7o/.<. ;.»,S2C;"a1rw Ann. Pttarm. 10,277. 
Clou. A'. Ann GUM 7%*. 17, 309. 
C*iuuk«, .V. imt, CAi'm- PAyn, 19, :!IC; *\*o J. pr. Chan. 40, 127. 

CAfefVtfTMtc KtAcr, CAtonmtUrnrin- i latfaioaytfuYA rr, JSfAtr w»/. 

rilarorcr4oWfBr<Damuj. SfAcr cAlurrfurmiijur (Column). 

Formaii9n anof Preparation, I. Thirty ^nunnioc of nbaolut* alcohol 
poorcd into a botllo coDlaining 15 litre* of plu^ouo sroa, oauao g 
ml form an amber coloured liquid. Air U ll 
admiitnl into the bottlo; the liauld pourvil out after I qaarl 

/. tliakeu tiji with BQ Portal roinmo of waUr; sot naMe; tin* \%ytl ol 
dilorofcrtiiic c-tUnr balow Ui4 ac|ueoua hyilrablorifl acid dnitrn out witli a 
i the water -h ■ ehJofido of calcium aul 

lidaoryo (Dusna): 

CrPO 1 l tO&O - C'ilKnO* ♦ 1IC1 


2- PcrcMororioie fcrmmto CCW) 1 b dropped into alcohol ■ 
:i.Mi il. Mid tbe whole Kit to itself, whereupon an upper layer of aqi 

fl »PHl U obtaillt -il. :ii;il a KftWM 

■rio atier and tcrehloraerti.- otbef On dbtlllTnjf tbia mixture, 
f!n- lUonrisii rormiato peaaca orer first, bs4waM&5 a ami I0O'; thou, at 
higher torn pcra tnre, the tcrdiLororicin acetate, w bleb most le collected 
reparole I . For the equation. Hi, p. »». 

3. Btrvmii alcohol w iNiurod by ■mall portion* into perokloroxaJaU 
of methyl contained In a br^e, l'«**ly utoppmd bottla, no lo«g aa each 
addition cauie* evolution of heat and eflanrcaoonec ariiing from ctcopc of 
Imlrochluric acid gas; tic mixture, when cold, ia obalcca up witi txeem 
nx" wwttTf Ac very tlruug smiling oily mixture of cblorufurnin ether 
nml anllfl rtbar therahy precipitated, t. p< :i'.- tly wa*bed with wali»r; 
tod for 21 boon orcr d mi a r* tort 

provided with n t he niio meter, tin- point rising from 2* to 100** 

the firet portion of the distillate collected apart; and rectified ouce or 
twin-, fill H txnttdtf a conitant botlimr point. (CWhouw; tie the etfuBaa, 
aw. P . 

Properties. — Tliin, transparent coIoutIom liauid. of «p. ((T. 1 # 133 a* 
1 '. . UoiU at 94 J onder a preworo of 77 3 in. V Aixmr-denaity =5«tt. 
Haa a tolerably agreeable odour when mixed with a large quantity of air; 
but in iln- [.in , vary MiffWaling ami ascites a oopUiutc no* i»f 

toare (Dumas). 




33 21 ... B«1 

4-61 3 a 

3S-GG 30-7 

nfM SO'l 

10* - 108-4 


Vol. D<»ty. 

C-Mpour .. 6 2 4 961) 

ll-gu ...... ... v . .,...„ 6 ........ O'itliS 

<'1-|P» . 1 IMM't 

O-gM U 2-218G 

Vapour of CMI'aO* 

.. r-3151 
-.. s-wr 

AMBslJVfafJmfl I. Clilo:<>inir: foraktfl lniiif. wi'.li i gffMB flUMttrf 
irWwwdi praeimtatM solation of nitrate of si uiaa). — *. Il 

dvtOlfWifl '►«! d v-ilriol^iixUoougirceeiralorA-eqaaiitityof hrdrocuUcW 
add gna, especially when heated; tit. a higher temperature, the evIubW 
blackens and ^fives off a combustible gas (Duma*}. — 8 ! eoaftaot aits 

1CT :r. become* rtroiurly and (Pumna). — 4 WTIUi 
arnmonia it bteouei *tnn)^Iy hoatrd, ot*B to oxploairo 
duappwan oeoploUly, formuifr urethano and Nil-amaaoninc, from wkiah 
1<j -eparalcU by oraporation in raoao^ «ud diatil- 
lalioa (Duiwotf); 

tin' 4- tNH> - OWHW *• KH*a. 

*- Tbo etKfr ij ..1. alouhol wheo treated withaoucooa potath 

(G«rli«tli.«lAii.cV.tAt. y'.'.y*, 73, Ife 1 *}. 



Biclilorovinic Formiate. G*ii i Ci , o*=c«ci»ii , o,C'HO\ 

Mixaqcti (W».) ^n*. C%im. i*Ay*. 71, 369; also jfmi, rharn.W, 39' 
also J. pr. CMm. 18, 5S. 

JH^a-'or-^orwip /CM#r, ntfAforamrtswmtattr, CMor*mti*m&lh*r, KtfterJbrmijHO 

Fonnin ether through which a stream of Bfclurim- i }•/.,!, i].hi» not 
DMiitL but bogim after two hour* t'>g"i*i.< o!F hydrochloric acid 
and cm lliu ;v]>j>l nation of cxtonml boat in converted, after about 
\y hours' i^isatfo of the ki**. >"'" impUM trioUorofoimic otlior, wliich ia 
tlicu heatol for sonic time iu a retort to 90° (ul 10.5", it woaU bum 
brown mi- 1 deooaipose), bo drivfl off iLe more vvdatQfl tootlcis; thm 
w*fch<*l with w.-itor. vrhttrtvpon it diminution CO&sJ I r i?:i- ; *ot 

sjiJo for somo days under water; and lastly driod in vnono over oil of 
ritriol and limp. 

TUBIMTOOty rolmirlftu liutild of fg) O 1 961iil6°« Hjmiui aromatic 
Odour, a bitter tusto, ami rrddons litmus slightly. 


tC. M« ■ *.VV.I , 2S'»7 

4 11 4*0 .... 2-eu 2-*« 

J CI TO'8 ..,. 49-&B 4675 

4 32*0 .... tt-41 S6-40 

i.-'ll'O-O' Il'.'-S 

100*00 iwj'im 

Bioliloroformic other docompoioi bolow Us boiling point. — It U rorj 
slowly decomposed by wutor, out very eiwily by n^uooas potach, into 
■jQttotO of potash, form into of potash, aim I flhloada of potassium; 

I mCW + 4KO - C-H'KO' + CTIKO 1 t BXCI. 

-«o1t*i in alcohol and in other (Mnlsguti). 

Bichloromethylic Acetate. 
C"H 4 Cl 1 O 4 =ecr-H0,C'HH) , =C 3 iJ !, O ( C l ClMiO\ 

Mii.Ani'ri (163d). Ann Chim. Thy*. 70, 379; also Attn, P^arm. 
3U, 47 i alao y. pr. CArrn. 18, y x i. 

J%tAfortMigft>rtitt*trr, Vhlorts'ithfH titijffuvm Mtlhyten, .Vcthyiencktortmo- 
mhrr, Aetilt &• Mtlhytene tktvrwt. 

Obcainrd by pHAilm: ehlorino ^sw to saturation through fflOtbyllo 

acetate, first nt tlio temperature of tliu air, theti at G0 % , distilling off "tho 

wowt volat:)o part ol U»o product till tho residuo bogiai to ton brown 

alllV'; VAilii t!i weal: ; a cooajdorablo 

time wilb water; *ud dj . oil of Tltrifll tad i 

<at| ootourl liqald i 1-25; IkiI wm M3° and 

14**, but boglrw to turn brown ind ut i:JH'. linn a 

rmnccat a tint of ncotio acid; tastes sweet at lirst, but after- 
wardi ftUiaoeoa* and very baruiur;- Neutral, 



„. SM) 

.... »*i 


22 41 


• H 

2 a 

4 O 

. 3J-0 


— 22;; 


......... wre 

... 100-00 

....... 10000 

McUTOtric with bidiloftrnaic torauate. 

Birlili.r HBtthjIo aeetato burn* with n yellow flume, green-edged at 
bottom. D«oompQ*M ilvwly with vry ly with aqueous potash, 

and violently witli afabolk poteflfc, yu-l<l:n : ; :".»rtnio. aoftlo, and hydn»- 
ehkrid add. Ii dum disappears completely; nevertheless a to! 

enngrot matter (lOanrsBJ fouiui ty Laurent in the decomposition of tin 
•llowing compoun -3) is at the kuw time otrterwd to form, itfl quantity 
being greater a* tie other ii low pure (Malajrnti): 

C*HCI l O,C l HK>» ♦ <KO - 2KC1 4 CHKO* 4 CIPRO*. 


Terchloromethylic Acetate. CH"Cl , 4 =CH»O,c i Cl , O 1 . 

LaTntKNT (1830). Ann. Chim. Pkyi. 03, 382; also /. pr. C&on. II. 

Df*ab. i4nn. Cftim. Phyt. *$, 85; ftlao ytnt?. PA«m. 32, ill; al*o 
*/.7>r. L'fim. 17. 209. 

7>fcA/«r«fij/V»TMf*#/r. Ckt<#***if4*vrt* Mrthptoryd; C%Ur*t*tat4 mi4kyltfe 
(Duum>, WmotM* rf# CAteromtttyUtc (Uurnit). 


Formation and Preparation. 1 . Chlorine g%* U slowly passed thro _ 
DM ■thvlic acetate contained in n Liobig'a bulb-apparatus, till hydr 
■Aid ■'* in* loogvr erolted. Wneo the >:(inr:iiinu i* nearly oomplat^arerj 
bubble of chlorine produces a light, in tho dnrlc, bat 'without any |>er- 
Mptibla tTolntSoo of heat. Tbo liquid saturated with chlorine 
at first * iliiitillutc OOnjktiajJ of two laTcre, which it wt iwidc; and tho 
residue in tho retort U repeatedly di illod till ib« boiltM total 1 
constant (Ivuirvtit). — 2. IVrobloracotia acid b di tilled with wood- n onaU quantity ■ •! oil ©i vim .1 , -.x,,\ Ui« compound 
separated in oily drop.* from tho ilifllillnto by addition of water (Du 


PrQ}tciti*9, Traiwparotit, rul«Mulr..> oil, Ikm' i prater (Lnurcnt, 

Dumiw): boil j< nt 145*, and maybe repeatedly distilled without decom- 
position (f.nureat). Has an agreeable odour like that of peppermint 

LsurmL Dumxt. 

rtf: M*0 5441 . W-S ... 21-5 

3H . .... 3-0 .... Vo9 17 .... If 

8 CI- .... 106-2 .. 39 « 

4 0... 



cwuhi* 179-9 ioo-oo 

Tcrchloromcthvlic acctnto is readily dccouipoaed ty can 
10 sulutiuu turns iruwu, ^'JTca off a vapour which UiiH a 8v««t tajte 

PCTCiH/inourriirnc acetate. 


aliacVs Ihfl eyw, d^pMltt t&lcrronei MS 1 at an oil, and 

le of calcium, and ptobftblj I •> forminto of pOtttn »n 
solution (Laurent): 

ClWO* ♦ IKO - CHCI + SKCI ♦ 2CWC0 1 , 

It \n itiftolnhle in water, but diMalvcJ in alcohol and in 


Pcrcbloromethylic Acetate = Perchlorovinic Formiate. 
CClW^C'Cl'O.OCPO'^C-Cl'O.CClO 1 . 

Inn. GMn, /%*. 17, Sflf j aWr. ' 

*l f CO. — ,V. ^trirt. CA1V.1. /^^ IT. 811; abatr. < . 81 W4j 

aUtr. .Y. 7. /ttar™. 9, 10; aWr. /. pr, Chan. 37, 3*5. 

JVrvAtorfl/ormir &th*r, P*rr/t!orm*tfifr>nmtkttr, l*rrr>tonramri****iufitle* , Cltlortt- 
HgMurtM CnlonnriAfjl'irjnt, ("'Orameitengnurfu CMotiUHytaiytl, Aclt&tt ih Aftthyti** 
prrzAlvrf. Rlhtr farmitjut ptrchtort!. 

l (lilotirio gas fe pMMxl through 
mothvhr ar.ti:tt«>, -ill if i- ao longer ebtorbod in MCtnlno, and il.. 
puri.v^l in the ordinary way. 2. Similarly with formio ethor I 
— Mtlliylic ftcctito ami liftte b*YN the some utnpirital formula, 

■ ■"•II treated with aquaou pouuli. tbo fonDtf U resotrba 

into wood-xpirit and ae#tnto of potash; the latt*T into alroln.1 and for- 

hg of potavh : they rm therefore BUCamerio. But the compound 

CCl 1 *** obtained f»»on "II tho bjdfogaa <•- I iftbov of thwc oaxupoundi 

U replaced by chlorine, m ox* ilv the Nunc ; not only in ooi 

luhI physical properties, but likewise in ull \Vt reaction.-, from wliii-h- 

ii rid ii rnay hare bar*n proparo*!. Tim eoinpoHud < "1M < j* 

apr.cnrs therefore to have a cooititi iMy different from Unit < ! 

two compound Others, from whioh *' n iay b»Y< I cos© 

U vitailar wiili the Iwa Isomeric i impound . monoclilofioated lu'dro- 
Lher C*H ind chloride oJ i both of 

whirl, when '''■'" .i'*"! mi.) the ftDC M I 

<>u C'Cl 8 (Clocx). — All porch lcrlnaUd 
1 ethen indoed appear to hove a constitution diffVi 
that of the otbere from whiofa they have bed fonntd by the fcotfoo of 
chin ample, bj no mora «; : 

to co irehJarinatad v\n 0: for il»i - unpou I 

u I -it.ii: which en the other aond, whon it 
ui<in any |Hirl,lor.n .1- : -1 ctlior. exchangee iU oxygen fur the 

cblo.-jiir of the nerchlorinated riuio i •■■ migbt bo enppoccl to 

rxin therein. (Mala^utl v<. 16, iftj *1*> J }tr. Clmn. 

17- 4 ' 

portfiM. 'J Lcjoid >p. ^r. <.f (l) = l-601at 

Doth boil 9A abonl 20w*, ua wben pure 

volatiliw without . but if imp are. h:\sr n'ltDOfl 

reeUue. Vapoor-deiMity of (S BoA | : 

eaUc|* odoar, au 1 i- ti. h*r.h and unpleajaut (it lir»t, alterwurJe from 

uVooai»niti«ti, i yttciJ (Cloeaj, 


B <i . .. 


II ... 

HorcO). Close (2). 
... M'O .... 12*U .... 1360 ._ !S<9 
.... 212M .... f%*n 71 50 74 7 

.... sz'O .... ihi ii-m .... iw 


fry , 

{WO 1 .... 2804 ....100W) .,..10000 ...1000 

VopuiirpfCClK)* t 

... 19*4404 

Decomposition*. 1. Eithor (l) or (2) inwHod through i red-Lot tu 
is resolved into phosgene gas and chloroldnhyi!' : 
c-ci*o = C*CW * 2CC10. 

2. In contort with wntor or >tamp nir. both (1) and (2) quickly Lunieo 
and are romh-od into if rcnlonoetta) carboun-. rocfaloXM Midi 

CCr»0» + 4HO - C*CPH.O* ♦ SHC1 ♦ NM 

Similnrly with IdQAMH fad nlknli*, t\vy v\M a terchluracebtte t* 
carbonate of the aika-li, togthlt with a metallic chloride: 

OCrW 4 6KO - OCHK.O' + SKCt 4 2(KO,CO]. 

3. When e '<!" '■ i of ' i* dropped into aqn«0U4 ammonia, cncJi 

•noi. • like r.-.l hot i r - ti plangod into water, dcvclopccb 
and «oim produce an abundant nhito precipitate, oonjUtia^ of cblora- 
oetamide and aal ammoniac, rcpurablo 1/ ether which di**olvosthr E 
or by wafer whirb takiw BD tho Intter; rarltfinain of ammonia is likawisn 
formed. Tim first fita^o of tho action probably con*i»ta in tin* formation 
of ohloracctainido, t«i ammoniac, and pliocene; 

cow f atciP - onifciw • nii«ci * scctoi 

I.— ■ 

but tho photgene in eonrertud by tho oxoew of ujjiuniuji ammonia 
of bydioehlorato and carbonato of ammonia: 

2UC10 ♦ 4KH* ♦■ 2HO - 2NUTI ♦ 2(NU*.CO*). 

4, Phoaphuretted hydrogonffa* Mtiori through (2) forma chloracetypM-lj*, 
with evolution of phoageno [and of hydrwdilorio acidj: 

t«u«o« f hi* - c-rnxwy ♦ «xio - iku. 

5. Either (1) or (2) dropped into wood-spirit, dUanpoan quickly. 
the temperature of the liquid nearly to tbo boiling point; and 
addition of water, two layer* or© famed, flu' upper, which ie watery, 
containing hydrochloric acid, together wffh ilm nxecas of nood-ftfdrit, 
WhflCJ Que lowW, whirh is oily, if a mixture nf rlil.Turni'lhylta formUU 
I^V'lI. ::n!t ) :i id terchloromotliyhc iievUle. tVffetpl b ibk BJAMff 
C*C1 a O' + 2(711*0* = rWClO* * f*HVPO« * 

With alenlinl, (1) and (2) react, in ti prtobelv Miuihir manner, exc«] 
in# that in this oaso tho oily mixture contiiU of chlororiuio fonuiaU) 
tcrchlororinia acetate, which may bo *eparutcd by dittillatioa, the former 
pawing OTCJV at 100°, the latkr LcLwoon 100° and 10V; 

C ( 1 BCHW - L"ll ( :(>< * eU-CrXH + 2IICL 

Thooily mixtoroo obtained with wood sp >it nnd with alcohol, differ 

iliiil tin: product <ibt-tiurd with »ihmI 
yirl.! idftj nnd urethyiiino ( VM, l!H), while) 

-tAiiicd with ucohol donotdionldo 4md ur.i (oob^ 

The corwwpoading com|>o«&il of lLo uctl>)lcuc-xricA a>«r be insetted la 



Porchlcromethylio Fonniate. CK!l 4 O l =C l Cl , o,C I Cio». 

CanorRS (1846). Cmpt. rexd . 23, 1071- — J^- Ann. CM*. Ph\/t. 10, 

PrrcMoramtiten/o mater, t\rmiale iff Methytt pervhfort. 

l'erfcctly anhydrous methyl ie fortnmto in placed hi a bottln H T 1 - - - 1 \v iili 

dry rlil.irliit |p*, Mid vXpomid for *oi Lo ilm .iiii (tli-> Itttfofl 

though violent at flnt *oon diminiiho* in intencity), till ifttrtfeotttM 
Jayo, the colour of the ahlorinfl do longer diminithiw. Tbo liquid, vlm-h 

J* coloured by free chlorine, is then uiMillnl, thi portion "huh Ji»tils 
ImjIow Hit ipwt, itiid rectified ncvoml tiine>s th© m > n 

volatile portion being wirh turn' 

< -parent, oolourl**, v^ry thin liquid, of Pp. gr. 1-731 nt 10' t 
boQIog at 180 1 to 181°, and having a *tro«^r pungent odour, liko that of 

wh«n pawed In the state of vapour through a tube hen tod to between 
3«0°»«435O', it ik n>nv. t|i« I :tliit»«t wholly into phn*g*uu gas, with which 
is mstamoric. — A *| noons ammonia act* violently upon il. form- 
ing white, aaorcous chlorocctamidc (containing 14(31 n. o. C, 124 H, 
Mid 6311 CI, bL-ridoa N ftlld 0), and «a) -ammoniac. [It is impnwiblu 
tft *%\itr-*n thU div.omrinftltiitn by a limplrt equation, QBlftM OwSV pif> 
ducts in present; if the nacroout matter is really chloracclainije, wo 
bate bcre aa instance of the oorrffmion of a conjugated compound of 
tliu uiciiiyloaoMriM into a compounded the etliylono aorios.] — Pot 

when hot and ronrrntratcd, oxorU scarwly any (Ircompofllng Mtlflfli 
hoi decompose* ii» with formation of cMnrovinia fonniate; wood- 
spirit and fowl-oil form tfmtfar produoU (Caaours). 


4C._ 21-0 .... 1216 1231 

4(1 141'fi .... 71f*6 M-tfO 

4 O ... ..... 


i. m 

U N 



If 7- J - . 100-00 


Bichlorovlnic Acetate. CH t Cl , O l =C'iI , 0,C*HCl 1 I . 

MALAutn (1889). Ant*. CM™. My*, 70, 307, also Ann. PA<xn*, 32. 

U; alioy. fw. Omm. 18, oO. 
LuiLavu. -V. Aw. Chim. 1'hys. 10, 1U7; abstr. G mf t, rcmL IT, I 

aUilr. C'Ac™. ft, 30 

JWcikrwrtf* 1T/J*r, tlWc P feJ MW w l W fi ihcAtoffsifrfcnfrr, /Jl?*forrM*». 
Aikrr, RlXer *«t^*e Mienerj. 

Whoa acotSo ether fa btrodoottd »4o a 

Welti.- 4Utxl with d. . . i;i ■ !!■ Ii i 1 nt im' li tit 

tte i! with n i - .'. : riilijiiii- and iln» 

aotiou allowed to £0 on, t- cliodc, uftorwanl* iu coxittauoily 

236 rrnn.FffK: o*»Nji:c.\TFn rovrrjrxns or cm* 

stronger minvliine feunehino from the beginning would cause an cxplo- 
I il villi ifepOtitiofl «•; <ii:ir*'..:: Morinatcd ctli-w, 

cxmiiiiuollv rifibof in d on pag» iW, vol Vllf, are 

produced. It i*, bowerer, not »Iw> hie t<. obtain 

tli« MTtkota* HCtfO 1 and 

CCI'O* being Uio only onofl that can be produ | Ay. Other 

product* arc aleo formed, tracti an acetic acid, torclilor.i- (which 

i'iIIkI' of the truHi'l), livdruchloric eth*r. sewioi 

elilor, i. <»n. and certain oil*, ie&reely MifuMn in water, 

carefully tho cLlorino boi bc«n dried, tho greater U the quantity of 
chloraottio acid nnd other product* tfolublc in water, formed (L 
— WIiuii all moisture wtw excluded, Clot* obtaiutHl uu wt^uidiluricle of 



iVtfpflrafi'tfU. Dry chlorine fa* h paaMd (in tho shade, according to 
I,< ■hl.uic) through acetic ether cooled from without, .* l..-r»-i. p-u ,- ( Iir-.i 
ijunntity of hydrochloric acid ga» is evolved, especially in tin; l.ii 
nf ifctOpmtiOfl \-fcrton ai i!h- iruun ..( tin- rhUriue lm« cciucd, tot 
1 1 : jl-> portions of tho resulting oily ii'juid ur. di tilled 'II', till th« 
rctfiduo begins to turn brown nt about 110'; after which the culourlw 
acid, u liquid il quickly rolnJ litt water (if it utood longer, 

in tin' form .if .ii'ittii- :iim1 bydroohUrn acid), and dried 
in Taeuo over oil of vitriol and lime (Malngnti, Loblnncr. 

■t*eriU*, TrjiuapAKfit, colour!^ liquid W\ at 1 

(Miilaguu), 1"-T* at lo* (Lcblauc). Smells aorncthiii£ likn aevtir acid, 
Uutea uko popper, nnd producee irritation in tli<- throat (Molagal 


MaIakuiI. Leblanc. 

* n 

4B<I . 

. 8*41 



. 3*3 

■-■ m 

TO* . 

. It'U 



. 20-11 


cnrci'o* lio-H .... iimww 100*04 

D If, 1. Hicblorovinic aec-tito become* coloured at 11U . 

;iml gtofl off hydiochlorio acid fMalngitti). — 2. When subjected ft«T 
ftiituc time to tho notion of chlorine in very brigtif luiurJiinr. il i* ulti- 
mately miivt-rlwd [ate CCl^O 4 , part of wh\x& compound further 
-I. oloriBi transformed into C*C1 4 (Loblalto). \\ hen loft for 
. ml day* under water, it dissolve* completely in the form of acetic 
and hydrochloric acid iMnlagati) '. 

0JKP& t 4110 - 2C*1I*0« t- IRI 

4. It u BOt imrniHliatidy OtooOtBpOftd '»)• aijuoon* poUsn, bat aJe> 
BUM ■ " »'. . t.iniiv. Fonlog acetate of potaeh nnd cblo- 
::... .1 poUninn [MaJngOtl, Lcblanc) : 

< ro 1 t 4KO - atTBVO* t 8KO. 


ptjrilk"! m tin- «aino manner m MuUgati porine* hi* Vichlonootio Mk«r, 
| COBpOUld other io oblaino.l which iQiclU and (xujtoi like bichlor&cetic 
itli.-i, aadcoDsiBlaof OH'CTO 4 (»© tho »boro aniilyei«)t (nit i* oo4 ilec*m- 
d by :nji i (fail tad u<rvIiUiraccut« «f jotwfc, but 

yield* wild i! \ chtorid* of poUsvim, chlorinated, aoliqnweeot 

im.UipIi saltd, and m cwoct, oily liquid m lunjrcr dcooapM&te by \>a\M*k 
(Lctlanc). [Can tbi« etb« bo tfCHHKWHWl 

Quadrichlorovinic Acetate. CHWO^r^nH^oaW 
Fn. IzBtxsc (1844). .V. ins. CAim iV^ 312. 

Bkhluraccue ether is cxpoicd t> (lie aututuu ■mi in bottle* filial 
ilry rlilorinogiM, and th© product purified in thu ordinary w-ay. 

Oil of rp. gr. I 4s'. fc| '.' '. . 

Decomposed by potiuli ley into a cMoriimtcd oil, • f poi 

■ mm, tcrcljlorj.<cUtc, and other chlornceUtce of poUah (L-.lUuc). 



480 . 



4 11 _ ........ 

40 „ 

.. 1 37 

«-. J'02 

1416 .. 

■ • 

. .... >.» 


320 .. 

.. 1415 

. 1329 

CWCi«0* Wf .„ 100-00 ioo-oo 

Quintichlorovinic Acetate. CMravv=C'CPH"0,c<Clw 

Fia. Liaitixc. JV. Ann. Clim. Fkyt. 3 0, US, 

Produced, like tin; pnetdhg compound, if the Liquid be heated at .... 

MLRlf! time, lint In Midi :i iu:iiil:i-l that i..r '■■ :.!»■ ' •■ .1 m:iy lm protected 

from the action of thr aolar r%y: 

U i(!i tirong pota*Ii it forHU the fnmo decomposition pro-lucf* . 
mtpOimd, yi-Min^ ln>w<TCr a lar^r Quantity of torchli 
of poliuu (Loblanc) . 


8C 4H 



3 If J 


-— l-» 

»ci 177 

... 6403 

....... 1 

40 32 

.... 12 31 



.. 10000 


Sextkhlorovinic Acetate. c , H'ClH>•=c 4 H , Cl I O l C*Ci'0^ 

LcutANc. X. Ann. C/tim. Phy*. 10, 'J I-. 

Formed when the preet'diu;* compound i* exposed for two day* to 

in a Imlili: I. II il v. 1 1 )i dilm-mo. 


Oily liquid ©f tp. gr. 1'6&3 at 23-5' (Lobluno]. 

stmcnionoviMC acbtatx. 


* • ■ 




212 I 


I A3) 


I : I'] IIH . 
. 11.1 


,. 730 
«. 9U 


»i-4 ... 10000 ...... 1001) 

SopticMorovinic Acetate. C 4 Hcro i =C'HCl t O.C l Cl , 5 . 

Ftt. Lkmuxii (1R43). N. Am.CMm. fflfHi 10, S0O. 

Formation ami Prrjwitum. Dry chlorine £*a is pfuwcl for „ 
time through torchloraootio cthor, by daylight mid at a temperature 
gradually inin;,' to 100 , 

OiryHqald of *p, gr. 1-002 at 24'5°. 

1.. Urdml 

Oi/y. try*(aIUut, 

8C 4ft-fl ... 14-60 - li-7 . u-70 

H ..-....- 10 .... 30 0'4 .... 0-4M 

7 01 .. 2*T 8 .... ft-»J H-i ,.,. 7470 

4 3a- .... U-73 I0i . 10-11 

Vlimi* 32S«- ...10000 _ IM'0 


Dry chlorine gaa paaaod for along timo through this other at 110° 
convert* it intn pmfcli rw alfl o«ctato. 
It ii imtolublc iu water (boblanc). 

CrytlaUinc modification of SfpeieMorovinic A&tate. 

I*rrparati^n. When bichl<>raootie other i* introduced into bottle* 
d with dry chlorine pn** an-1 oxnowd to amiehino for mooiu month* in 

wioUr» a Illilliir-' nf r.:l [tla i* fornntl. Tin 

with water; tho inaolubla portion tmtod with n juuiitity of vinic ether 
jo«t mftteienl todknlv* lit* • hynr* nf liquid nr») 

obtained, the lower being an ollioronl aoludots, and the upper an oil; 
thane two liquidi arc tap a pi pot U real KUQiiOft lofl to 

evaporate; and the resulting cryttule, etill ceulauiiualed with oil, dried 
ing f*i|H>r. 
The crystal* thus obtained nro rather aofi; thoy molt at 100°, and 
appear to bo incapable of volntiliriiiff without decomposition. They 
b»Y9 the compoaition abort given. — They arc fnaoltsbli in water, *p*r- 
injrlv ■clabl -• in cold alcohol of ordinary strength, but dissolve very 
readily in other (Lcbliuio). 

LrUuc did aoi ncocttl more than onoo la obtaining thcac crystal*. 


Perchlorovinic Acetate. CCi - 0'=(>Cl*0,C 4 C«'0» t 

NC. y. Ann. Ctnm. Phyt. 10, 200; aUlr, CV.; 

17, 117-'<; aJ^tr. .A pr. <?A*r» .TJ, i/rt. mtdL 21, DM. 

Mai w;i-rt. Qmpt. rmm. tl, MA. 9. in, CAfw. fAjw. 16, 57; aUo 

«A pr. C'/«m. 37. 432. 
Clok. -V. ^fut. Ohm, Fkgt, 17. oW Cb»j*\ rtnd. 21, 5? 

rintr. .V. 7. Ptanft. .«». i.\ .' ;.. / pr. Cftfln.37. N& 


chiorutiigtt*. — PJ W dW f td lijr bftbkTM in IMS, 

nation and Preparation. I. To r*jdaC* all t ' 

acetatobyoblon . i j tin :■ tbfl brUbtMi I utiliii.P *ui 

and a heat of at Irani 110°, and ©TOO then tho tubstitiition \a very ale*. 

if the* two ether* just mentioned is introduced into a tubulu 

having it-* ..u.r |.-n-r ;mi;i.T-.r.l Ifl ioimm-iiI r:ili^t! fUni'idc. of OftlfllMB! 

■i.'- dtim&tolv to no , »ud iu upper part exposed to tho nil. 

The pAMO^e of the dry chlorine must lo continued for at leant iOO hoar* 
to Gomvit the Uchloroiiaic accUto into aeptioUotoTilUO acetate, and the 
i-ixii i nL mi o| (in- i:iif.-r iDtoporchlaroi Info ocotaUi tokoi plaoo onh in in* 
brightest mmo ino, and wry slowly even then. Bros bcSOM tfco 

truneformation ifl comploto, eryrUib of c [uiohlondo of carbon 
proceeding from the farther decomposition of p ffohloMCatic ether by 
rhtci i:n\ bat tin' | <w*»*jfo of the chlorine must to still continued till a 
samploof tlio lujiij.I %t hr-ii nrmlyrrd in no longer foun>i to contain hydrojpea:. 
Dry oarh • ; ' ., M ld< t, pajfod through Lbs) liquid t> fro* it from 

abaorbed ohiorino and hydrochloric ndd gas); llto porcliloroeotio niht\t 

luted therefrom by water, and quickly washed with valor 
to ii-Miiiu- iln diwolvinl i. mIiIi i-.i.ri li- ncti] proceeding (ruin Bioutan iii 
ill.- oUoriuo p^w. Thn other U t!i m from tho antcr with a 

I for a few minutw to 100% whereby it losci it* turbid 
tbun Jruwti off filott with the pipotfco; dncd in vacuo over oil of vitnol 
and hydrate of potftlh; ;nnl boVtod lu i retort till iho builiii^ point ri*eo 
to iibout 200 ", and nearly nil tho diaRolved uwqnielilorida of i-arhon \* 

i*0«J. Tuo roaklOQ in the retort quickly wajhod with 
water and Jri.-I [fl | umo U ftbovv, yioldo pttttJ porchlorovinio acoUM 

2. Perfectly dry cnlorrno gnu in pai -I II i ) I d 'hiyliglit, 

nfterwnrdM in NXQamOl Lhrougfa porfootly j'tire and dry acetic cthorccc- 
tainod in I tobobtod ri-lurt; Ufl Uqi 

lillod villi dry cliloriu. . -ed to tbo nun f whereby do 

oUorido of flvbaD ia formed); u hir^o tiuiutity of dry carbouic 

Cfl'd il itr-li ii in -viiiir., roe ' liii'i ■:•■'■ A <■ ; um ihi! liijiii«l finally 
illcd in a retort lillod with carbonic acid, till the roaiduo bocomoi 
ii Iniirvd (Clocs). By thin dietillation, however, us afterwards Uio« 
Malatri i the pOTObioxOTillia acetate ia converted intotho i»o 

tempofmc, «!i)i i i 

' ►loarlo;- dil, which remain; liquid at a fow do^TOM 
•iLa at 245°, but is i>a;tly decoaipuwld 
tfaercby (a I In ■ u etron^ nonotimtlng odour liko that of 



•mi a burning to*ti. Whori recently prepare! and {uite dry, it <i-»a* U*t 
re-lien lilmu*. or produce .111 iiummliale. pwcipifcUc hi • III TOT •olutJUQ; 
bwt after » frnr KiatUBS, tfafl preei pitilc appear* (Leblano) 

I c 

H .. . 

8 a 


_. U-f2 

♦- #. 

13-3 .... 13-4* 
.... 0-2 .... O-03 

;m .... twj 

— .. i-4 ... *-«2 


. 8BM 

.. 100 00 

« «m jirrpu*.) fr*m bieblor*«tle tllict, b from t«tenlor»«tic etber. 

VtcomposttUw. 1. NVb-n rite rupour of pcrchlorucctio ether U puitd 
flirnuj;li * riot* tul»e filled vritli fragment* of i,'lue aud healed to 4(11) ', a 
Auuiug mixture ol UOd*OOinpO»oJ pcrrlilonicotic ulher aud chlunilduhyde 

■ uniril. the quantity of the latter increasing at each repetition 0/ 
th* pr<K>w (MalagUti): 

11m ii.ui-h'Mii iliuii u'OJ pffWrioMlj HWpcel'rJ by LebJuuc, uu finding ml 
the vapour-<len*iiy of the attar detenu ined nt 311 , ■*ninniiivil in mily 
•'$, i**t*«d of 12.3 ubirh 1* )!• «-il<"il:it«'»J v:iliic. Part of the ether ia, 
in fact, converted into cbl>raldchydo, even by distillation. If tbo ether 
prrpirr*! by |i|, nbicli hoe therefore boon alravly onco diatiilcd (an J 
ifcervfute «lrr.»«l y ooatajoi cUMBhlahyde I hi dntille*] » Mieoud time, tho 
boiling point ri«e* from 105' to 2 1*0", and the more volatile |Hirtiou, which 

fir.i |>*w- on- ri.n-iMt- ehlafij of oblowMihwU (Clots) — -* chlorine. 

Ci«t- •■•{ tbrnu^ii 1 * -n-lii iraaoti* ether hen ted to ISO* pad upQnd la 
IM, produce* ft lar*o quantity of aosuuichlorido of carbon which 
cabluuua. Hence the chlorine lakes the place of oxygen (Lvblain-.i 

->»iii» to In pfuiadj. — 3. Porculoracetic ctber ingrn- 
ckall , ■ i ■ ' ■ j 1 1 1 • - - ' 1 in contact, » it-U vvnUir, mid therefore ainu in inuiftt uir, 
int* tcrrhlororctir and hydrochloric arid (LeblaOO); 

' - 4HO - HOTHO* t SHCI. 

4. St/oeg potash-solution doCompOOea it almost iuatautly ami in a eiuailxr 
man- 1 ie): 

< I VO' r 4KO - aOCKO* t 2K( 1 

5 II :iliMiirU Hiitini)iii:iral goA, anil iintmvliul* ly MlldllM to a mtxtum of 

ctttoraeManiiite and aal amnion inc. When it is dropped into mjueout 
ai— o n ia, ceeh drop biWM tike red-hot iron ralBtU mfo w ic^r, evulviov 
ai*o • wLit>i fitiike. and forming chlorooetanidc PrTiiob precipitate*, and 
aaWusuoniae vhiob r<auain> uj nulutiou <MuliL>,'uti, ('loot): 

»)• 1 *Mt» - ZC'NII'U'O' t '2SWCL 

I. Alcohol dttompom percbloraceti': etber, witti ovolution of beat, form- 
tag terchlonftcettc etber and bvdrocblotic ucid iMuhi^'uli). 
I im 1 U Mi'ir m 'II-chi' BBCL 

la tic rtTftrtioOB 4, 3, au-l 6, perch lot uceUo «tLor axroc* exactly will 

Oil of vilriol noitbordii«olvo» tbi» otbor dot colour, u (LtbuHM 



Perchlorovuiic Oxalate. I « i t %Oi KtjQW 

M»ij(ut!. Ahh. C&in. f'Ayj 74, 2J*n; stlui im, Ptvm* 3?, 65; 
•/. rw. 6am. SJ, IftU. — A\ Ann. CAtm. /'Ami. 10, 45; abeir. •/. 
.'.v. 130 

Formation and Inspiration. Chlorine acta upon < 
when aided Iiv lir:it :nnl lijrlit. To obtain |K?rrlik<roxa]»fl rth*r, 
Hilorino £R* in pa»< •! tbf Ifl -li DXalfc I Am eontafai ■-! n a inJinh 1 
which U heated in tho water bath, und :it ili< HUQ 

hut), After an hour i i hhiric owd get ceeape, and 

Oo&tioQei during Uic ro*t of tho proceu. In -l to 30 boor*, the liquid 
beoameu ayrnpy, aad duposfto oryuUlu of pcrehtoroxalh i 

Mtiutanl liijiii'l man !•« deeunted *• *■;• Ifeel m «ufft- 

fiiont ijinmiilv t.i interrupt the ra«»*tje of the jra», * mart le 

0Boiina*d till the Uonid tl alaio*t wind I v i into ory>ul- 

■Isle ama el Mw b thee peased o ei — w p*?** till ib*»y 

mi lunger ui.iki- the pup-t -*lr.»-\ ■ ibe B**l p ll •'■. .. i Dfl n filter 

of Sw<'t]ish Mottlug jKi|H-f with rrir ether, till the liquid Vakil 
through no longer reddens litmus or but i He; the residue 

proMod between paper; again wunbod, &c, till t L. orjrvtali no l< 
ta*tc tour. To free tlnm from 1 1. - j 
then ''i. ring ihcMo several proceuoea, 0°d or 0*4 gnu. of the anronri 

spread out DO The inner tOrnoU of n pi till nin Qruolblo 


i filter 

•la I« 

of 6 contim.; ih* crucible phv- d Up D I notoJ |>l *' 
l»y a *piril laui]> tiuickly moved ntout under the pi 


_ late, oo that the 
may melt and run down to the bottom, while tin pa 

Bjr u» tho eidea Tin ethei poIhIWi nil inc eras 

(orfarthoi purification is plneod in witer for 4* hours then wi shod, U nd 
tja'i'.Wv dried in voOQO otoJ oil "f ritriol. Tho quantity of the ciWr 
hiMwl in oiio ->p< r.j 1 1 >u inn i riol be irr-itS-r than that ntfre »tat- 

1 It*- pajx i Qfarai .>ir Lpt i" i bo nd hnport l>> tho ether a anar and 
duapveablB odour, m ilmt it will require to bo waahrd and pr..«*Ml ii^aio. 
Kr*n with 0*3 jfnri a rortaln amount of d^oompotition takes placo, 
tho IflyOT uf m-ltod licjuid boinff very thin, tbo greater per: 
decomposition jiroduet* e^<n|»e in tho form of a denao oucTocatiug vapour. 

Proprrti**, C<doiirlc#a, f><nr->idod tahli'M, tranr?«r?ut wheu rvtvealT 
prejwrcd, hut ujmijur after being kepi foi notne lime Mel la it 1 \ 
nj deeompe ui iuu [oodoroiw, i.-fU'hr**, perfectly neutral. 

it i 


in i I 

» <> 


;2 nun 

.-' 13-00 .. H-19 

C^CI-O- v.-O I«J'*-0U :i»o-» 

Dt<cx%p>*tiionM, I Perefalorozalio ether li<-*t<-i ia a dUtalklonr 
•fipar.itu-*. it rtaelted betwoeii 280 and ZW int>a mixture m 

1'IIRl Id iHtoMNM hvM.\TC. 


oxide uid phosgene gin — Lbn pboagQDti predominating at fir*t, ami the 
nrlionn- oxide after**:. r<i™ Mid :■ iTinauuvnl, eoUniriMi diaullnt*', oon 

liatine. of clili»<l.'li\"I" Mid wndeeompoaed perehluTroxnlic i*hor, whir*.)-, 
after A*rer»l repetitions of the distillation, ii M length completely rtwolvod 
iolo iht* gamous mixture ami obtorrotfobyde. Tin- fiber undergone the 
mdia dor :i at ordinary irmpcrnturew. w!i«*n kept for Homo Iihhj 

I lealcd gill** tube; if ihl I !■•■<■ ■■ fporfng and i*i| ;!!>'• the 

odour <>1 | 

CWO* - ICWO 1 * KXIO • '-•»'>. 
2. P«rehlorozftUc fttbof imnd i<» dump tfir, btto i m *>ur, fumiug. 

and deliquescent. - 3, When boiled with di-xnlv*<, | 

moiling vapour nnd & small quantity of chloroform, and 
lu-4 of oxalate, tcrcbUinicetalc. ami foraiii*'* -I |".r.»*h. tofje- 
tkrt witli oblorido of poteonum, The product** Ami funned nre oxalate 
of, terrlilnracetate of potnrdi, and chloride of pot i--iiirn: 

( ■'-< -i'-f r + BKD - C-KPQ 1 • tCK3*K<P l iK( i 

But tko excess of notoeli decompose* port of the tore UIo race tat e, yielding 
ebk-rofvrui aud carbouitt* of potash: 

i";ko' i HQ ♦ KO -oiici* t l(KO,< 

nod afterwards part of tho clilorcfnriii, yielding formiate of potaah mid 
efaknde of potamium; 

<-»ICi» t 4K0 -CttltCO 1 I m i 

•I. With "•! -hliirntiitir i'I-Iht form* ►al-ammoniac. oUoi9*> 

cllmmidn, another nintdngnn compound, and on-* »r two peculiar run mo- 
• iacal nit*. Dry ruumoniucoj gaa pOMod over the pulverised olh M 

absorbed, with t volution ol heat, and formation of ;- "Into fume, % v 

fibrous and Ixminntcd sublimate, a yellowish ■:ry*Lalliiie cjuM, ami n rlla> 
agrtwuihh an i el Hug i;ipiuir. When tho iiiaatt thur* produced II Inttfld 
with roinmon ether, sal-ammoniac remains bobhld tat ttljtHal -»luOon 
j evaporation crystals of chloroxothamido; tho mother-liquor, 
wli«-i: further evaporated ilcpoeitu flnt groini of another amide; aud the 
. i liquor Jtcaut<-d friini this, leu*«>. tvlitu araporalod in racaOk ■ 
tolerably copiniu residue, which, under tin* in i«-r ■ .-i-.»|n- jirexint* tho 
app*amti<** of a mixture ..f grain k, prUm*, four oiled tablet, nod aJnOI 

tbouj matter. This rcnidmi give* ufl aniCOODia vbflfl troatod with potash- 
vilrate, a result which caunut be duo to the presence of oxalate or 
foci urate of auiiuonia, inasmuch m tin* residue ii completely noltable in 
«tl>er, acid iU aqueous soluiiou give* no pwenptlbha nirlmlii v with ehlnrido 
of ealeium or nitrate of »ilver. — With aqaeous omiuonin, m which «>rery 
: of iht etbor rankon n loml in 'ion aoion, il.< \\nw prednott :iro 

formed, excepting thut tlu Quanta IT of c3EloVOXtChuiui<i< I'I'hIu.I'.I I. ri 
leaa, and that a little oxamiile it tormed which falU dowo lOgBthn with 
the r!i allJe M :» ahiti 1 jmiwiIi.t 

rVhh rUcobol, pcrcliloroxalie cthor become* heatod, givo* off x 
amall ur u*u*. often mixed with carbonic oeid 

pu and vniK'ti lc MW tad foimi I llttla yellow liquid, 

! u±:<t. «lijK.i- :i pnlc yidlovr, oily uiixtu 

■ -niiill i i of oxalic I'-I.rr. •.rhile 

alio mil lis ifroehlone uci>i remaiu in 

■■ prrodnctJ rary oceordinc to tho temperaturr, itrefigtlli 

n 3 


and quantity of the alcohol. Id the following cuuatioa, Malxgut! t*p- 
po*** that all Uia alioTO-nanW arid* form cncnpoand rtbw- will the 
alcohol, and overlooks the carbonic oxide, carbonic acid, anil In* ©hlor- 
oxalovinic acid found in the aqueous eolut 

JC«C!"0* * HCM 4 ^ - OCITO «■ CH 1 ** - 4CMI*CPrV ♦ teOKK * WHO. 




«<rtic (liloruwthiitt. 

-u.. I 

6. ChIon.t:i' ivitnr «*th«r in likewise immediately decomposed bv 
wood-spirit, acetone, fusel-oil and oil of turpentine, more tlowlv by viaie 
other nnd noetic ether, and ronr slowly by acetate of methyl (M*l 
Whm wuod-*pirit U added dfCf 1»y u*iwp te perch luruxali*. e*> 
lone on it raiiscs any rise of temperature and eTolution of hydrochloric 
aoiil mu, and water added after cooling, an oily mlxtCN of ohl 
fonnm'i' find inrthvUn oxsdate full* to the bottom. (Cahoars, JV*. dla*. 
CAim. /%-. 10, 342; also .Apr. CAcw. 40.420.) 


MeXaotTI (1S-J0). 

CK*o , =c*ciK> l C'<>"t 

Ann. 0M* /%*. 74, 308j «i*o S. j»r. Otan. S*, 

0ttvTvaHfhtd, ArukcMonmtt/nniyu* mhydr*, CMurajffuir. 

When pcirhleroxnlio ether is added to alcohol, and water added to 
tht* inixtiir.' riil»njx<ihid« } oontamiuated with a email «uam h ..i onttf 
ether, is nrccipitated in the form of a pal* yellow oil. This oil ha* a 
•p. gr. ot 1-3-4 A3 at 16'a"; a vinous odoar, persistent sweet U-t*. wieh 
hitter after-taste; and doe* nut redden litmus, excepting after oxpoeuro 
to moist air. 

ll i* insoluble in water, which however becomes acid by eon tact v il'i 
it, hut without taking up hydrochloric or oxalic acid. It dosselM 
cold aqueous fixed alkalis, forming a ehlorox^loviitate of the alkali, hut 
at a boiling heat it forms au alkaline oxalate and a metallic ehlori-lr. 


t?C\*0> + KO - C*CP!CO',C«a»; 
PGirj * 9Kt) • 2C«K*0» 4* SKCL 

With nmmoniacnl pna or aqucoue ammonia it i in mediately forma pure 
crystalline vhUuoscthumide; 

PCW * Mi» = i:-mi n it" i BO 

It raixe* in all propoitiun* with alcohol ami vinic ether (Malagnti) 

6C «-0 

»a i;?<> 

70 afi-o .... 



i ; mi 



Hl'93 .. 


CCPO'. 961-0 . 100-00 100-00 



Chloroxalovinic Acid- c , HCJKr=c*ci'HO , ,CHJ»* 

M hi (1840). Ann, Chim. l'hya, 74, 308; aleo J* pr. fhtm. 22, 


''A/'vewHtow/nkw*. CAtoroMtowritiidttr*, AtvU cAIorosahmquf, A cult thtor. 


/''rotation. 1. In the decomposition of pvirhluruxalio ether by 
alcvuVd (p. 243). — 2. Whcu chloroxcthirin in treated with oold mjuroui 
Aolnfioii of fix ad alkali*. — 3. When chlorox«thaiuidv )■ treated with 
aqueous ammonia: 

C"NU'C*0* + 2HO - NllWHCW, 

I'reparaii&n. By placing chloroxctharnidc in contact with nqucoue 
moma till it i» completely dU wived, and ova|K>rAtiii|C ia TMlOj 
cM'sUlli/i-il chWuxuloviuair of ammonia in obtained. This mil is 
ilimnlvnl in writer; the hoIiiIjuii mixed with carbonate of w»dsi hiuI eva- 
porated, first in the sand-bath, afurwardu in vacuo ovar oil of vitriol; tho 
chloroxnlovinato of nod* extracted from tho residue by absolute alcohol; 
•da precipitated from thio solutiun bribe exact quantity of sulphuric 
li'-jiii.. -1- iln- ln|ind filtered, any cxow> vf fulphutic arid that it 
may contain, precipitated by narytn-wntcr; tbo liquid filtered again; 
ami the alcoholic soIatioS 0\ ebJoroxalovfaSO and ova|w>r*t*d to tba 
crystal li ting point, first ov«r tbo water bath, and then ia vacuo. 

Profxrtl**. Colourlcflf) needle*, which molt at n gnu tic heat. Han a 
l.iuiiinj; taste, and forms a white spot on the tongue; if placed for a wbilo 
.11 tb.- Itu-k <.f ilin hand, it produce** vioL-nt pftll and a white *|N>t sur- 
:1 ( an inflamed ring. 

8C i< l*>U lfl'2n 

il I .... O'M 

ft O 1*7 ..- Cl 03 00 20 

10 6i .... a*tj 

CJHCrK* 290 . 100*00 

(IjuklfVtnic or i J in wliicli ill »r* rrpUwd hj SCI. 

tnatt-n*. Tbo neid dissolve* in all proportion* in wntor and 
■ u I )ae«CM very quickly in the air 

(hi Ammoni-t. — 1'reparaLioii I nd. "/•.). Crystalline; 

may irilboot decomposing; tastes *ery bilter aud pungent; baa 

a faint acid reaction. WhflQ liwled to the baling point* it decompowe, 
will.' l ni«i i'\\> ofl iliit'k \* Mnolling of aeotio 

acid- DsuiflMMtl and turn- yel wi-h m ilie »ir, but become* while again 
ed in vaeu> S »l< >h«»l 


Eiiivi us C' 

I 11 








I i - I 

ph < o.c 4 cfo,< (.'♦ jo; 

I in no 

The isU dinoWLM in all proportions iu rinic ctliur and 

/ Amitiogen Sudt,. 
Am « loua OAdll 1 . 

Acetamide. &NU<o a :=c*AdH> a o a . 

Dumak, MaLAOD II Sc LSBUVOi (1647. ) Cwnpt. rtnd. 25, CiT. 

Produced abundantly by tlio action of trjutout ammonia upon »«*tw 

CIIMr 1 Ml' C'NII'O 1 - CIW 

White, crystalline; invlU nt 78*, and aoUtlifioa on cooling iu bcauti 
cryKtuU; boiW at LSI , fonnb)f ■ Jlatttuk V*pOuf. 

Ai)lir»lroii« |>li<>»|>li<>rio ucid readily convorta it ink* water and cyan* 
tf methyl: 

C*NH'<>- - Cffi*,0V ♦ 2HO. 

Wbnn nhrad wiili potaaaluni off hydrogen and mil 

hyilroycn pi*, without forming C'H'KO 1 , and l«ve* pota»b mixed with 
» vaiiido of potaMhiiim (Duunw, Malnguti, Loblntic). 



i COT 

f Bthylacetamide. c-NJlW=c l A.!|^!0'= KJCHV, 

WuRTZ. -V Anti.flnm Plot*. SO, Wlj fiinl.. . I ^feaufc rW. 36. I 

CSUn. 8m. C«- /. VII. 91. 
Formation an*i Pr^pCTOAm* 1. Obtained by tho Action of cthylauinf 

ou acetic Otl 

CH'O- + CHV G MPO" t C*8«A 

Acetic €tlicr dllBolyM iv;ulily in aguomu oihyUrani*. The »olut»<>* 
evaporated lirxl Wtf th<* ■Fattl-butli, and thou in vacuo over oil of 
>iirif), ^mdiially condonxsto a syrupy tionid which refiiKa to rrr*t«ili»c. 
— l'. Uy the action of cyanic other on glacial aortic acid, carbonic »cU 
ftrolfad jil the Minn- lime 

I U'O' * C*KH*0> * CNtTCV + tOCft 



","!" ,'nf"- w ■■;;■'■ - "■ 


pwllH, Diffor* from iHfffTWlHl IB Intinj; HqroM, Hul Iocs volatile, 
ttoib at auout 200 u , and distils, almost without Jooampoflition. Caustic 
i 1« - i<|". |d] qc nail acoUU* 01 pot. 

r :ko - firs t cmjiw. 

Aiihylruu* phosphoric ncJd docomponoM it with separation of Otfboa 

• Ethylodiacetamide. 

I < 'IP Ws. . 


' 36, 1 80. 
Kormeti by the action of cyanic ctlicr on auhjJroiw aoctio aciil: 

tir* li.|ui«U, in about ttjnal volume, arr t&oloi 8 d Id I nil*.- -.f 
iIch! and fa«At«d in tho oil-bath tu 
ISO", tit : l:u<- a* at>cv«, carbonic a- lid I dog «t f«W. 

TIk- EbnsatHJU and tUtottltUttOD uf Om ami lilt t>*i> |tic.r»lin« cuuiptJUiiiU J^nro 

. oc iiucltu. tlf l«ppoattloD llml acclaniiUcconUtim I At. imiJo»;«i 

mv\ 3 At. itydrccon, ami tin* h Mh}fawtiUfaidi HU <>( iht ttmn H *ti>uw i* roplinX'J by 

ttWO, ••!.! in cCd] mid*, "i»r i. rvplawd by •tbyl and « Hooai i>; M*iv* ia 

• t«iitbi*. Th« tlieor> vhldi bcal with thdi uon it tftat 

arefnniiile ia aintrmnin in wlncli I \t. II i- rctiVaoad 1 l<\ UU i blind ( Mr )- Mfctl fir 

•trill) -N II , clbjUmUnt Ulofa l M II j» icutavnl by 

•rvtyl and another by «tliyl; an.l ctWyl<» Am *l«mtJ», i» ammonia in which 2 At II «« 

ftpu i bnllatta 

■j winl ftomoi It la true (bit 

but lliiai it niu«L bo murtnlxuctl that llw*v QOOtaln 
■ ruu» raulaal C'llH) 1 . 1 

OlyCOCOl. C l NH , O i = C»A.illM)'. 

BftACOyKOT. Ann. 'hys, Jy, 114; also 5o4w. 29, 3*4; alsu Gift. 

i, 890 

■u'n < \d. 7, 403; uUo 7. pr. Gttm. I », i 8j aJao 

... fhnrnx V. Ann, CMm, l'A*t. I, 257; aloo Ann. 

/%».. i S4, it* 

tfou»KK., 16, 190; aUtr. /Un. ffeirM. 29, 7d. — /. yr. 

acm, .1*, S04 
Da>»Aioxto*. QmiX. rvnif »1, 1224: |]«o S [m, QHmv J'Ayt. 17» 40 ; 

L*ui ^0> 

m, t)0. I. 

GcmiAHtrT 11 I W 


Oecort a* a copula in hippuric acid <Po*«u£ac«); anJ 

(St rocker). 

Fvrvtatwt. By the actio* of euhiharic acid <* gtlalin (Draemioi 
or of pota>h on jrehitin or ni**l (Mukier). 

/V yw rt ip ft |, A mixture »f 1 pt ponndod jrlae, and 2 pta. oil 
. in set ovido for 84 hours, then diluted with 8 pts. of water; the 
liquid kept hoi ting for !i hour** the miter britijc renewed a» it evaporate*; 
MUtfaliwd with Co&lfc after furthrr dilution, ami the filtrat- 
to a fryrup. Thin syrupy liquid when left to iUelf fal RMIfl tunr. yields 
crystals, which are wnuned with weak epint, pnMMKl k«twe«n Iiiksji, and 
purified by crvatallictii»n from water (Braeounot). Thcec crystals 
t>rc still contaminated with soluble salts, and therefore yield from 2 to 11 
ii.o. of aah. They miiMi th*r«fom Ih» boiled fur PODM Uau vilk null, nf 
Dttryta, which doe* not raiwn any evolution of ammonia; the baryta pre- 
cipitated from the filtrate by careful addition of sulphuric acid; and the 
liquid rUtrred and .-v;i| M >raU-<f to the oryxtnllisini: point, which i> *<tj soon 
attained ( ItouMiiii£.-iiilt). — Mulder obtained, by liineonaol's pieces*, 
little B/lyriM' il. luit a h»rge quantity of leBoSl 

:>n of 

2. Glue U loilcd with poU-b Icy, which onuoce a copious evolution i 
ammonia; tlie liquid iicittruliwl with "ulphuric acid, evaporated; 
anpnrated from the sulphate of pnta>h, which crystallite* out, again 
evaporated; and the residue exluMod with uleohol, which take* tip 12m 
L'lvn" .1. logetbei with n •tiiiil) quantity of loin-m. Ah Inuein dissolve* 
In alcohol inui li Bote trndily than glycocul, the two substances arc ea'ily 

repainted — rur porMctttoo !• taalcr In tola proraas than in (I) !rr«» net 

i- t.r i ■ I. m.,Mi i. a mattajaandt] It lb rIjtcocoI ■ i » «>• uoc*hir4 also* lr*<fs 

« iMiill i|unii(il> of uh . mi .a. vf Line inn* Itc used iiutmil uf [MlasB-kj i L-oimiiycw*']. 

3. Four ounce* ut blppnric acid (prepared hy fUnarn'* proreas), U 
hented in n flmk. of I litre capacity, with lb* oar, of strong hydrochloric 
:>• i I til] || dJ mItm; the heal then continued half an hot) : the 
liquor diluted with water, which throw* down hoary oily drop* of fused 
benzoic Mid: filtered, wheu sufficiently cooleil f to separate the heotntc 

neid, wlin-ii hai thai for the mow. part oryatalliaed out; tli" benaote acid 

wn«lied with water no lonff ua the water thereby acquiror a aour ta>t*;tha 
liltmU' eootainisg hydrochlnratc of glyeoeol, tojrctLcr with hydrochloric 
nnd hnuoir i<'id, r^iipornfc<l m-mly to dryuese in uu eocu bueiu on the 
^ I ith, I- <-*v[h:1 tin- free neidfli water thou addi-d; tho Milation ujrain 

rvjiponiti.'d • cil flo-r iqicnition^ nqn<:it-ed till the renidlic ^r— rlfH of 
pare hydroehloraU of glycccol. This unit mixed with aiiiiooiw acnnaonia 
eullicicnt to produce nn alkalino reaction, then mixed with atuolato 
alcohol, nnd «ct aside for eomo time, drpooite nearly all the glycoool aa a 
cryHLilline powder, whilr wil ammoniac, lo^other with a trace of bfl 
Mid, rfimaini la KlntioD. The cryatnllino powder i^ washed on the I 
with ali-nlnr.' :iln»hol , til! tho liquid wlmh nnm oif no longer produce* 
lurbidity in a silver- volution (Hor«furd). 

4 <;ivcocol io likewise obtained by boiling cholio acid with bydro- 
cU(ffM#JOldQr u-iii' lit (Slrecker). 

t. CryNlalliuw more rea4il* tlinn common iugar, in aard, 

PRyralod Ubles, whirh rr.^-ij.; kin^n (Im; teSUl (Brneon 

uol). Li -ma ujid rhoiiihohcdrous (Mulder). The taiuralcd 



ni water or wmk spirit yiolda by jHOtaJMOai — f*f **T t 

cryataJ- ul the <>lifi<| iim |>n-.iuulio ayatvm f Mornfunl). M*du more oaxily 
than common *uffar. About a* awect as gropo-aagar (Braeoonotf; 
orewe and very iwoct (Mulder); lew awect tb&u common augar 
(Hnraford}; ali^hily *w»-»'l xml leatM »n imphwiaiif, a/Uir-Umto. (Boiia- 
ilojNult) Neutral to vcjjetablo odour* (Mulder, Howford). IT Per- 
fectly pure fflycocol, free Iron hydrochloric acid, reddona litinii- impcr 
distinctly [Df— Hyooa, Ann. Pkarm* $2, 237). *T Permanent in the air 
(Mulder). When heated with atrong poUeh. it exhibit* a rnajraiik' t.t 

firr-mJ tOiOOf, which aWpponn on it, Minium;,* [1ik 1mm(.. Evi-ii i n mm;iII 

■ prevents (ho |ir.'Ci|iil:ition of" iqoefiVa aulphato of copper by 

pocaali, a bluo mixture boinx in /net produced; a boiling aqueous solution 

*'r.> :il..n di-wolvc* oxide of copper, forming ;» blue solution, and 

da needles un cooling (Htirafurd). 



La u mil. 


&yit*IUt*rt. M 120*. 

emrtirr. ttlrr 

24 J8-OU . 33-N5 .. 

34-19 .... 3211 .. 


.. 31-98 


14 . I8C7 20-00 . 

19'SI . 1* ?* 


18 79 


ft .. 6T.7 . 644 . 

6-ia -.. 6-83 ~ 


5'8 J 

32 Itfld 39 M 

30 49 - -(231 


... 4236 

75 _. 1000O . 100-00 . 100-00 _, 10000 ... 1OO00 100-00 
MuIiK-r niiiipovfei that the llr»t sample of iv« I which bo analysed 

rhicli li>- deduced the formula ("" , N'H*V>\ wa* e-ontamiuaii'd i 

u: lb* game woe porlnpa tho case witli Bouaninfmult'e clycocol, 

wbi.', v formula CWH'K) 11 . Gerhardt (/'pA 3, U>2) firat 

anp^rrftcl the formula C'NH'O 1 , which ITM wnrda confirmed by 

nf Druaignra upon tiijifm i ii- :i« id, and »uh»ei{unutiy liy 

the analyse* nf Laurent, Mulder and rfoiWOfdi Mulder however doubles 

th» formula, making it (WH I0 OV Hon-ford likewise diatixvahmee a 

hypothetical anhydrous flyeocol = LW'H'O* which with HO forma erye- 

rcd ejrooool. According to tbc radical theory, this euppoeition ieeu far 

well founded 1 At H. in fflycocol ia replaceable by 1 A !■• of a in Hal. 

Th# rational formula CAdlf'.O* i* iniprobiil-b* for tbi« nnwnu: that 

flyencd giVM« -<fl ammonia only wlion ImuIwI with *ery ItCMg allcalia, 

*iiii Unit, if it contain* 40 onuid<* tbo nucloua, it tbould poaaqti moro 

i i-iopcrtie*. On the other band, ita acid nature ia in accord- 

anof< with tin* (sol thai :i ia apablool Dombiolog w ■ 1 U uo'tallie oxidea, 

tba rrtirti.m hnin-r attended with formation of I At water; and that in 

rvaibiritiuii with 1 At of anotlinr acid, it forma a conjugated aeid winch 

aewr inir to Qorliardt'a Ian p BS Mtton of a baae. Accord- 

H tbia *icw. jflycticol ia acetic acid C*fl*0* in which I At- II ia 

rrfdaoed by I Ad. — ti"rhardt atx'onliugly regards irlycowl w the iimido 

of i blWe add =CMKr»: 

JtAMOXamioadd ia prod need from oxalic add: 

0" t Nil' - 0W0" r iiio. 

npoiiiiom. 1. The cry vials freed from ndheniig mmatura hf 

r.g in *aruii -if ordinary tnmpemtnrvi iln rn. t undergo uny further 

ii ii weight nt 130° iHou-oinjH'dt;. or oean nt ISO (Hereford). 

M an ammOniaraJ l iillal* and a amall ajaail 

tifty +t while lubliiaatv (Draceoaot). At \'>- iln-y la^io tu nu-ii tliaji 

900 rniTtCRB: AMlDOOlN-NUd Mill*. 

dorompoao, with formation of product* having in empyrean*** _ 

a\ tad leave n nuH <>f lunwfad choree*] (Mulder). At I7t'. ti* 

:. torn I rw«*l tho lower part uud _• ra of gj**j whimt the m 
pan m.rlU andcryvtellUoeag. .1 lixr.iimrtial carbofiintloa 

tokofl pUcc (Honfwd). — 1 Whoa u na/n 
■epamted from walei bj I > '«-c of Nil pota wire | wl. - 

4 fair BoBaafr battery Mid the other into 

water, »f" i« evolved at both poles, (lit liquid round (be r.< ^uvo fade 
a*|oirei an alkaJtuo nuction. and licit around the paajffrc r*dc an add 
reaction, pcrhape fan formation of ammuuia and fiiruoH* arid [or more 
probably maleic acid ) (Hoafbfd), 

In u Kinaiii of chlorine jnw, tho eryitaU tmmcdiiitolr jrjvo e4T 
iiIt and hjdfoea ui.i ,ir,> fnuforted into a brown ro«o rar- 

v mJoUo in vat*?, Thomv ^ 

filter A 1*1 ali whh n tare not bot I lai bet i outlined, - The *am© 

aWanpoaluoD by bromine ami bj iodfne fMuldor), The 

"Iii'cMi nt [Irnoool rapidly »1>*orb« chlorine £*», witb 
formation i laid, and after three days' pamagc of tbo *nu, is 

converted ini'j ■ lytvB ■OBtalnlng a peculiar acid"; hill even after (he gu 
baa been pMMd ibjOOgb it for a week, a purlieu of tin- glycocol atill 
nil:; uiposed (Ilursfunh. 

To obtain the lutryta-*iH of ihii e*t*U»or add , ; • i* ciilatol 

with * jnmll o/iuntity of w*c*<r. Mtttraljaod with ammonia; precipitated 
by eblorido ••( barium; aud the precipitate wa*li*:d a lictK: itith . 
and dried, irhefnbr it» solubility in water is greatly di 

i K. i (hoi obtained h Tm n in ni n ••< <., md i 

BoO, I30HC, i-uhH, nml 33-3HO; it U thorofur* 0*0,1 ICO*. 

4 .*■ :n-nt IhiiIih] fur hoiih 'i "lviw«d QQtlYOftl it tolo 

peculiar acid abovo mentioned, jiwt as chlorine doA». £© likewise does 
liv.lN.i-Uk.ri. 1 acid, wIumi it i- Lmlod for o loug time with glrtvoel and 
caloratc of p cd fn^ucntlv in .mull •(uaatkica. The aame aetd 

M alto prod ncud by thai ftOtlOO of permAl^pUlate of potaeb (Hor»for«lj. 

;». Oil <■)* vlftrio] blwlcou rijeeeol when bontei with it (llnhl 

Wlit-n i viltiti>>ii m] I in dilute nulphuric aehl U evuporated to a 

Zmp. Um. i tbu tli|oi«ac>niiierapor«1 

■ ovnporatod iuojui ultimately eolidimM ill rhomhio priaaa, vhioh are 
permanent in the air; haro o eonr taate, and ifivc vfT ammooia «itli 
p"(-u<h after beiDC WMOfld wilfc uk'olio) and puh*erixvd ; tlivtr •ntuiioi 

pnolpttfttw Dlitormo of bftrimn and biehlotlat "»f puuimtm. — Thoio 

cryntalu contain IfS't p.e. C. 1 VA\ N. .V42 II ■ . O u.l 

. urethoref«« = t , \N 1 H lv OViSO , = NH'0 1 sn' i iiO t (WHKM.SO 1 , 
BnJphate of alum, du eoBbSood with id I gryooool, ilcmv I Al 

,i -.,; {f..l M\ \ii:Ma 1 At. ammonia* wbicb gee* to form the doubU 
■alt, while fdniark [nalfllo] add " ;'i tin rt free. — Wben 

rirooeol It boated for anrnral hour* with diluro oilplmrie acid, tbo water 
I t i vaporater, the greater port of tin- BalahftTM aeid 
thou precipitated bv oxide of lead, mid the reet bj buryta- water, — the 
filtmto coneeottNtod firel by omporation, then over oil of iitriol, \ 
itifnl rhornboll«dron«, which are sparingly voluble in cold **■ 
ioK*i ■ mi* when treot«4 witb 

pete i the OtaU ol conceiitraTod «dati with nitrate of 

«Uv. uble hi nitric acid; witl eliloridc of calcium, e* 

n. lulliinj precipitate ; and with ehlnrnl* uf 




HI . 




13 21 , 

«C4 ., 








l hum: 



4 3i 


, ItfOQ 

H. r !—!. 

. 12*7 

115 .. 100 00 

Bf of liydrogm dMrnntl La « rwidrr* Mi* wilyn* J.m. 

Mori ford like wito obtained ibo two following ba*ic compounds: 
Jtitviphtitt of 6'/y<rx*o/. — The ctjtbUIb contain 25*70 per ceat of 
wide 01 H.mihI Uurnfon ^iiwal of iC^NirO^O 1 . 

Sf*iuittuiic S'Nfpkatf of Gfycocol. — a. Tho cryrrtnl* cnnltiin £7'74 p.o. 
■ulphunc a.;i.l t and tboreforo eon«*t of *C*N'H"- | \hmV:'*o' 
/;. A nuxiiiir i>l tli.- Boluticrosof -• and -, yield* en • "H'Sj 

|i.c. nilphuric oeiti and Ittetclorc - K 'N'iW.^SOMJO. ■ 7. A •H-lutiou 
ofj>*ijcucol in weal nirili mixed with Milphuric Moid even in lur^t- eicna, 
• hi iiir eotirai of 'it bonny long rtttruigt&ltf prUm* which are acid 

ami permanent in the nir {Horaford}. 

*Vy»/a/. y Jrttd in mcu«. Hor»funI. 

is c n »'aB »•« 

3N 42 .... 13-00 Wll 

IT I IT ..,. W6 ........ ft*** 

11 119 . M-69 rii'O* 

SO .. t«7G 24-46 

3C*Nll A 4 .SSO s ^IIO.. 323 

100 00 .,_„.. 100 00 

Jfyfim.-tifcr* tactfaric Acid, or Afono/iy{?rotAlora*4 of OtyeocoJ. 
Wru- 11 liippunc acid is boiled for half an hour with hydrochloric acid* 

tin; liquid It-fl In lt*rlf till thv I" li/.uic IW id liu ' i-|-:ii :i l»-«f bj roolitig, 1U«I 

the mother- In-uor decutod and arrtpurated, long i-runm- art obtain?'! irhltfe tbt glycoool my 1 1 bj caroo&auofkftd. [Dm- 

oca). The nioilir: liquor oraporated tu a aj-rup and cooled, dopoeiti 
Loaf Bat pritunn. which, when nnched with alcohol nftcr the mother- 1.' 
In, l»c.;n ilrn-iiiiod, arc iraiiMpan-ul unit Mrn-ualy lu.-Wuue; Iht-y have a 
-4iul »lij-htly Utrhlgont tunc; nre not chunked 1* v kooJpliu th»m Oftr 
o 1 ol miii I. >li fiqaeaof llowly in tin 1 air; ami div«<-lr« rea'iilv in «arcr 
mud liydmtcd alcohol, bill pti-nii^-ly m ibtoluta eloobol I.Hor»ford). 

I f<tt$ Jrtct 09tr «ii >if €itt iol. 

1'IU _. 21 54 

n n-u )2-a; 

611 6-0 .... vw 

4 a 520 .... 28-72 

M .15 4 3I-7H 


,. SI -to 

.. It 17 


. 28'34 

i'MrO'.llfl t It"* ... 100 00 . 1«Hl-«w 



According to Horaford, there are certain bar'< «*>ipounc!i to be noticed 

thli huad a!*©. 
/■/< /ipJiYtcMctofc of Glgtocol. — *i. H"iM comparatively lUtU vtaUr.-— 
tdork lie id ia added to a concentrated wjucuuu solution of 
col, iiiul rlit-ii a quantity uf iilnoliol M-thVicut tn prndooa ■ ittgtlt 
taraditT, crystals are formed which increase if alcohol be ropeat^lly 
dnnN into Ifcfl Liqoldj larger oryetale may be obtained by tdow ovupo 
ration over oil of vitriol. — Rhombic prisma; «:tc'=87'; of acid and 
sweet taotc; permanent in the air. 

/J. W water. — Obtained by dinst-Iving gtooottu in a-iueomi 

hydrochloric aetd — which need not ha used in exactly equivalent pro- 
portion—and leaving the notation to cry stall lm (Horsford). 

CcfteU a. IlonfonJ. 

B C 


£csoniW'C Sfdt9<U$tWk "f QlyowoL — a. WUk eompartihvfly tMc 
water. — I, An fcanoOUJ loluiinn .if -.'lyeucol if mixed with cxccm of 
hydrochloric acid, nn>l tin* liquid Mt :i-ideki crystullixe —J. Hydrochloric 

^•as is pAA*od to Ail til rati mi OVaT bftateil ^lyi'iieol. Tlio roiiij rid 

mclu bftVMO I50 fl ami 170 , giving off wat. r. Bad -.'cnorally aamrainip a 
greenish colour duo to portinl aocompouitioii. The crystal* obtained by 
(I) contain 36*49 p.* Golorioe, Hud the ma«s(2) "contains 25*72 DA: loth 
are therefore = *frNIIWC'NH'0\H I I 

/$. With mo-v uwUr — Formed in »om» cases by the tame two pro- 
OBMM as a; the crystal* contain 34*59, Bad fa fated Bin obtained bv 
heating the glycerol in hydrochloric acid ju. contains 2M"23p.e. CI. BoA 
are there/ore = C\NH'0\2C'Mi*O',HCl (Hereford). 

AfOOrdlnc to Mulder, glyeocol driwl at 100" absorb* no nydim-hluric 
acid gas in the cold. 

yittveaccharie Acid, or ft'tiratt of GlycoctL — Ulveocol diasolres 
with* Ait eQcrrosorsoe or decomposition of any kiud, in dilute B 
either emld Of VUfllj and by careful oviipui ■»•.:■ m and riiij|iug,jk crystalline 
mass is obtained amounting t<» much more thuii the glycerol need; it 
nut !•** i>rc€»c<l between pa]K*r and roorystaUixcd frflflfl water (Bra 

parent, colourless, flatten.-.!. Uatrr «Uk4od priame, like 

tb*MO of Glauber'* «alt. md baring an acid, *li-*htly sweetish taste 

(BmrotiKU't). — lr. most raatH, Hr-re, trunn-wirent, rhombic crystals are 

obtamsd; hut sometimes tho aqueous solution, when \t*i\ to cool quietly, 

not crystallize spontaneously, but on agitation, solidifies instantly t* 

*m of uecdlo-ihaped crystal* (Mulder), — A solution of glycocol id 

B C .... *8'0 

»rt „ 2B-0 

lnll 1"" 

} o «-• 

(.1 . . ;<V4 

.... 27-fG 







(.WW* C-NH'0\11C1 i;j 4 
CtytUh fL 

*C «80 

t N _ 28-0 

11 K 110 

BO ««,0 

CI -Jr. i 

.... 100 00 



. 'in 

. B4-M 


.— . SC-OB 


—. IB4J7 

2CNH*0«,HC1 186-1 

.... 100'OB 



nitric a- 1. H OVer««il */ ritriol, «nm*1iin«« yield* Utfg* tal-lo* 

and Moaging to tho oUiqa* -y*#ni, 

K«nftlimc» v cepacia! iy if iLc liqcid im» Iccn bentcd. nccdlco (Horsford). 

«i *r*lin*ry tamfitratur*. B Ml "i •'•.!. MvMcr. Honfenl. 

4C M I7<M . i; 3d 18 35 .. 

IN SI M 29 *»'.'«' K04I 

6 11 .. < I»3i I 13 I 31 ... . *>7t 

10 O 10 .. W-W ... H 95 

< MI'DMKI.MK 138 




«5 f r 

i si m 

The cry rtali dried at ordinary tcinperatnro* in vacun give off I i 
wiitvr when ho* tod to I IC° in a cur: iDgaoH) [C'5J p. 

w«iti!<l In: I At. n'fttcr]. Jlcsited U> 120 with U fivrl MM, 

i!n y gireoff 3 04 p.c; lit lit> . they low: 3 13 p.0. iuon*; aud at I7<l . 
63fl DjO. more; on tin- wkole, uorttfom, Mu3 |»r. = J At. wator 

WilHMHIjlMIIMI acid ftwelU op ctrongly whoa I 1 detonate* 

slightly, giving off a pungent vapour (Draoonnot). It distolvM m water, 
lint doi in alcohol noi ei in irbon tbo alcohol i* tiry dilute and at a 
boiling boat. The Milts «>f nilrufncclmric arid ileflijfrate on rr.l-hot cool* 
like nitre 

5 A etc •>/ Glycol. — Wbou - At. glveocol ar 

iu 1 At. 'lilutr njtllfl iicid. n i.J tlit: liquid evaporated, a. viscid re.; 
Irft. which slnwlv (Imu^'CB to a riy-ulliui? EDAM rvN'iiibliiifr'? of 

ur.'ii I li«' o ■:.■•! av« ol ."i rilf! sonl tin 18*68 p.<*_ NO*,HO 

•; with the furmnln 2C*NH*0*,H0 NO'. (Dcssaignci. A". 
CMm.rin-' 94, 148] Ann }%irm. 88, 239.) f, 

O17 rt«Mo1 4oaj Q« ifelorb .4 Mmf/rusea! pa*, bat tIi«olvi»» In aquroaa 

•.', 1 1 m .rated to a 

HI edlcftj ■ bieb ""'I-' fa *i|i:u'l ly v. 

olotlon ha* a ttmng alkaline reaction. 


VntitAh. A alutioQ •<( glycocol in dilut* potash, 
syrup over tbe wntcr-biitli. yields very deliqnoncrat 

villi 1I1 nhol "1 luir aJoobolit 

■IM M 

Qlgcocol with Gftfarid* <>/ Potassium. — The *<iucuua toloi! 

s\\ <■«»! ii<ii 1 lih.rido ,i potOJUUm, evnporntcd over oil of vii: 

»tat© of hi^Ii eoneoufation, heromoH filled with dclirati n->*«llr», which 

!iiiickl_v booont DBOioj in tbl '■"*; Mid ooatain I8"68 p-c. C; licncc thou 

lormnln h<"NH'i)\Kn . ' 

Stt!fihGMe<har4t< rf Ptit&k, — VVIion olooh<-' t| ftddl d Lo M nc|U«ou* 

Doixtoro of glycocol and bieulplmto ol potash, thi« -.ill i ue«l in 

Uaotlacfloi nnnreia, wbaob, after drying over oil of vitriol eonl dn 90f)« 

p.c . jnilpburic Mid. ntul iM A«»fort K<t ,;'('*MPO , ,yM>' (Honcf- 

H rt 

*n of 

b'Urvmixhnn\tr u/ Ff/tu,h. — Obluiiifil I - tiiitucBCC 

acid with potash (BrncominL), M by niixinp in aqoaou nladorj 

1 I ura '""•• ■ 'i '•• ileolml (II. ob tacto lib* 

ily flwt-et iltor-tiuii', iuhI ilefin^mtc on glowing coal* 

BmooABoi). Bi loormot BktwlM AttanbbM n »ctJ t*x.niub 

i '" oj.-COMrOUNPS. 

4 C 

HO , 





I «.■;-. 

an -29 







t'NIPKO'.NO* .... 187-2 



><U of Sodium. — Cryatolli*en after MOM tfn>0 I Nfl 
a concentrated :i»|imm.u • i«dutiu| ->f itlyeocol and common *alt which lias 
been mixed with ubuclute alcohol (Ranfc 

Ofycocol nith Baryta, -- When gljeoool it triturated with livdrato of 

borvt-i, a '(inilluid ma*a ib obtninoti. ffbleb, "ii being mixed witb wntor 
an<f left nt f.-..(, yields after* ffoill OTJfUll <>f ili . . : . ,un«l i H..i,.|',,rd) 

Gtycowl 'i,i)i i /,,*, rid$ of Barium — A solution of 1 Ai obtoride <>i 1 At. glyeoool ra hoi a i'-r f yields rhombic prisms OB coolitip-, 
and Hut d ted lea by precipitation with aloohol The e*lt i* titter, neutral 
and permaw n| in the aii . ixuitaiw 05 tf4 p.c. cldm i<l< of Uu ium, N 
iU formula in BaCl.O'NH'OVHO (Honrfbrd). 

.XUfYMitceAitratr a/ Baryta, — l.'lH pea. ( 1 At.) of nitroeaeoharie 
drie-I iu vacuo, supersaturated with baryta-wuter, and then freed from 
estate uf baryta by carlmnic acid eud hulling, retain 102 jit*, (nearly 
H At.) of hnryia In combination (Mulder). 

' '.' tkLime. — filyrocol toiled for enine lime »lthcurhounte 

of limo dissolves a eotioidereble quantity of lime (Dossaigncw). % 

Fitr&ac&MraU of Lime, — Aqtieuue nHtOencoharic ftciil *;U ura tod 

with carbonate nf lime, yields on er&poretign QecfUe-abapea enetal . 
which are permanent in tbe air. sparingly soluble in sreter, and when 
thrown on red-hot cool 9, first m«lt ia (In ir water of cryctalliiation, and 
1 <rate like nitre (Hroconnot). 

Moecharati cj/ Magnesia.'— Uncrystallltable, detiqweesti when 
thrown on red hoi ooelsj ii i&tamesccs strongly, detonate: rightly, and 
leaver* n brown, arborc cent, Ittjeaflco residue (Bracotinot). 

Gtyeoeol wiiA Cnromatt of Potash 1 — An miuoous solution of giyeocol 
md hit hromate of potash, mixed with absolute alcohol, «■ 
leJe, which eren when left in the liquid, decompose in a few day «, 

with separation of carton (Hurafordj. 

5 Gijjeocot with £int-cjride. — Zinc-oxide diuolvee readily in n hot 
solution of glycocol, and the liquid on oooling. yield* hunmsr cry 1 ill 

bavin- .-1 mIKv lustif. The crystals dried in tl»»- n'r contain 9:> 7.*' |>.<\ 

riacvoxfdaj tfiefbrmen C*NH*0 4 ,S5nO require* M"0T pe, (De&saigiien). T 

Sitrowceharatt cf Zinc. — Zinc dissolve! to nitiowiccharic add wnb 
ovrilufion of hyilrogenj nnd form* a cryKtiillizablc unit (Bracomiot). 

5 Glycoool with Cadmic Oxitlt.. — Cadmic uxidc forme witlt glyc 

a coiu|Kiuud ini much like that which {rlycocol forn .nnc-oxidc, 

end containing 43-«2 p.c. CdO; Hie formula C 4 NH'0'.CdO rci|uirea 

1/. »t p.r. { l»i>-^:iiL'ti* -). t 


Qljcocol trkk Protockl'triJr of TV*. — CrrMaiUu* from a mixture of 
Um aaiuratfd iwiuiruuM tolutiooa of riyovowl and in l« i>f tin 


a*#f wiU Ltttd-arui*. — Glycocol imv.- 1 with «xomh of nrot*xid« 
uu-J thoroughly dried by hcot,girea off 12-5 p,e. water (Muld*r). 
,[li p.c = 1 At.]. When protoxide of lead is boilol will m|ueo«« 
glrooool. Dud (In* Holutniii Sltarad uul &rafM3x»tad oat of ooateel • •' 

eolourle&a noodhw ar« r.liuincd. which, after drying at l'_'u , (tn Qrifl 
more water at 150', but are dccom]H'«ed l.y carbonic acid (Bouuin^nult), 
Tboy •Momec- la ffWOO (Aluhhn. Thrir .'"lotion has an alkaline 
reaction (BouMiognulr.) When Um lUnU ubtaiued after Imiliog 
aqueous glycocol with fond-oxide id mixed with alcohol till it begio* to 
bfttnrbid, pf . -in- nr« i»rnilu:iltv fnnuod r«»**-mliliriir cyanid* of B 
And incrua*iug on frequent addition uf Alcohol (Honford). 

at I MuU. \ R«l!*it. K..uwin K .mJc. 

PliO II-' 5Sr*2 .. .. f»4'9.i ft-l-90 

«C « . I*4« . 11-49 

N ii ... Ml 

4 11 -.4 ... 2 21 113 Jim 

JO 24 .. U-48 .... ... 1 1-9* 

CMrrmi* .... 171 . loo'W . 100*1 

Cq/ntatM «r-dn*rf. HtirmT-ird. 

PbU 112 .-.'.von .. . p7«C0 

• C 24 .. IMS . 

N. H 7 411 

*H 2C7 210 

4 32 ... IM1 

CNH*ftO*HO ■ 1*7 -..10040 

mmiWUlMfcl »/ A<W. — Obtained by diaaolring lead-oxide 
nilro&acchario acid (Braeomiot). or the coin pound of It-ad oxide an< 
• I vrun, I in iciil (UoiitKingault). — Tim roiii|Niuiid i» not rrysuU- 
fiuiblo. hut gurauiy; it i§ porniiinent in the air, and deflagrates in Uio fire 

iHmeonnot). — After drving at 130", it contains 15'!>2 P.O. load oxide 
Mulder), and is therefore PbO.CNHK)*, NO 1 . 

Iran India vfH with iiitriMutocharic arid like lino (V> 
Glycerol imparl* a rod-brown colour to *»s<piichlorido of iron (Mulder). 

Olt/cocol wtth Cnpritj Otiid*. — I. Obtained by boiling cupric oxide 
continuous! v with :114m "u- „'l y«:< ><-.,} (MuluVr). The greenish blue nitrate, 
when OOoltM afWr fofflcienl li/iliug, aolidiflca to a crystalline uiaaa (Bout- 
mngnult); it become* filled with deltnit'* Bdfidki of a fine blu* eoJour 
(Howford). — 2. |lydmt<'d I'lijinc ojridaj 1- di«»o|\ ■_•« 1 in autieoua gryojocJ, 
;unl ttio crvNiala separated bv addition of nU-olml < H«r*ford.i. 3. Am 
a<|ueou« solution of cupric aulphate and glycoool ia mixed, first with 
puUvdi, and Um with alcohol, which wiien sulliuictilly runvratrxt^i, 
proeipitaics the ODOipoand OnnpUtoly (Honfofftl) Tht» rryatalfl, wt>«« 
I to 1 hi , atMimo ifreen and riolol lint*, and gir+ off s*04 puc. 
U At.) w»1 Thoy piv< "IF water at ISO*, »ad after warda 

ao more helc w 1 Hi ( lJou».-iHi:«iilt). After drying at 100% they give 
off an additional 3'M p.e. water at 140', but no more ax IiW (MuhMr). 


CO . 


4 II 








.••■.. i 

Dt 100°. 

22 '83 . 

M I • 


4 .ioooo 


I li 





IS 17 




■ - . 
.i to 


■CuO' + HO 115 



Gtyrw*it hoat#.i vith MftlA* nf .. r) Ij rxjKU tV* «O0lti? Mill (D*- 

Capric XiirGta&hirrrrlt. — Cupric "Xid yield Brtti ttHTOIWBhWJd 
«id t orvfttalo ^ in. !i nr. permanent in the :i.i (BlftOOOltOt). The Milt 

obtainod L/ diasolrijig Uie oonpoaod ul glyooool lad QBpria 

uiiiir ii n.[i:r :u el, Aiuro-bl niali turn groan, and gWo off 

J] ijunntiiy of nnw.r ftl I. . tnd dell .i ■■nir U-iween IM) and 182" 

OjntaU .''>:* fa w, «/ anf. faaao. 

IC 24 .... 

i n n 

ft H 

10 rrO ... 


■ I 
.:«■. .-m 

II Mfkioyault. 



CuOi C'Ml'CuO\N0^2A.| .... 218 .... 100-00 100-00 

5 GljfCQCvl with Mercuric Oxidt. — A cently licnted volution <•( 
■•"I rapidly diesulvea mercuric oxido, Mid 104 solution ou coolin| 
viiiiis aui .i'.*.'r-"^uta of crystals, whiob boeomc upnrjni vrhoa ilnr. When 
the if " * " ohilion of tbii eoinpooud la hotted u. iii.» boiling point, 
carbon i< m 'l l< «m ..v<d ; :ii.- liquid baoomoa ooloarad j marcorj u rodnood; 
on J a number of docoinpoaitioii prodocta arc fanuao 1 onoog «ra]oh io 
ite wf auiiuoiii.t .in-, .1"/'. /'.■« j/-. 98, 

Drifit in VMrttU. 

( -mi o' ;-- 


59-02 58 n 

WW . «•« 


1*3 . KHI-IHI IllOilt, « 

Gtycncol N r-oa*aV. — Oxitlo of ailvrr diwolvc* readily in Iiot 

XljMOUt fJjOOfiftl. To obtain :i nvturated compound, liowoer, tie; Wo 
>uli.l.nif (■■ inii-t lit: ili 'c.ti .| U.'cthei 8*1*800 Mi ;hmI I *•<• !"i •» ' •< ' 

bow 111*1 ii bollad Ear a few MMondfl, ud iUatad bob the 

tt«Uf*r*nl cn-n:i. .- n.croUy abtafntd ure .lrio*l in Mi' mi :i 

«**jircnt of ilry air (BouMinpiolt). — An oquooOj tolotioa of ijlycocol 
Imilt.-'l niili oxido of lUrvlj ud tOM mixed with »lculnd, 3'icliii nvduluf 
crjrstaU, wliicli blnckcu mIhth itx|ioaud lo light (Honford). 
*vnr :\ b 



IW-.....>. I P HI 

AgO tla ... 


m;a ._ al'SU 

4C. 24 ,.. 

li- 11 

. mm. ;;•!.% 

N 14 - 

80T 10-18 

4 H 4 -.. 


Ml :■;• 

SO .. $4 - 


Iftfl li-M 

«?NM«A|CH ...... 18* 


.. iim-oo loo-ofl 

If Die iq«*ou» totalloti of fl)cuc«abe ooi couplctcl* Mturalnl with uiMe »f «Ui 
tiic motlicr-lmu-tr drrtnb-tl from the rrscllinc <rr«Ul* and cripor»w<i in «bcuo, ymUi 
■ fmniiUf diam miii'h morr voItiM* th»n (1m normal It hm On? co»p««-- 
MM fft*c<i under 4 la Ihe pr*e*dlng t*HU «mI c*ot*t»t 3 At. iilv#r-aifcU to 4 At* 
gljeocal (Boumiing*ult). 

.VjVraAwAir/nY *»/ .S'ifivr. — 0>»l < U in- i.t :.!.• ..f . ,! 

nitro**ccharic neid, or tbo compound of that oxide with ffljooc. 

:- 1, rfrlvcocol in nqiicoua nitrate of silver. Beautiful needle*, which 

Suicklv tlacacn wLcn oanoevd <<> lii'lit; they do not detonate w| 
eatocf alone (BoD»inpult). Tho rryfctaJa daftonnta ■trooglv 
heated; thov ''■ ''ire when expoicd to tho air (Hortfoffd). 

« H 


tuir Hertford. 




in i; 




10 IH 

1 1 m 





ONHMgO'.NO* ¥36 1IKI-00 . 10000 

Olp OOtol »•>"■■ ■ '■ trf J'f-tliutim. — A concentrated Oolntiflfliol 

bkoloi idt of platinum In oxodh «»f Inrdrot Hoi ><■ acid i- added to »n iu|uc<uk 

volution of glycerol, und nb^duUr iil<-nhi>l added hydro-pa, uher#upoii tbt 

, ii- baoofnan tnrMd and daapfMi i eryvtnh*; — nr tin- liqtiii 
addition of alcohol, i« evaporated in vacuo ©vor uil Cherry- 

coloured priaiu* which, whoa exposed to tho air, give off water and beooiat 
llghtftl coloured «Ti l lie -tirfurr. Th>v contain 33 (»3 p.c. platinum, and 
therefore oonHiat of Pl(;| , ,C # .\HW'+ HO. (Hor*ford>. [Or, nl 
PtCP # 0*KH*0*-f 6Ha] 

Glycoeol ia insoluble hi absolute* Alcohol, nven lit a boiling ht-nt, tut 
dimulvr* with tolerable facility in hydra ted alcohol (Braconnnt). Il 
diatoliw fu 930 pti aloobol o1 \> rt 082* the boiling ♦uumtei 
aolutiou becomes turbid on cooling (Mulder). It dooi not diaaolt* ■ 
ether (Mulder). It i* nearly iutoliiMe in abeoluto alcohol aul in 


It fnnni a enmpnund which m.iv l«* ivflnr-lpd flJ ralpboflSQellAlllftof 
•thvl. CM'.'iM ■•\ll»0«,S(P t und contain* I7S* pc *ulpliurie »r».l . 
cknt4vbV I- ibloridt <>( bkrion (Hot ford), [Tho formula, to 

nlihtlicanalyclNmu^bcC'in : -N . i'O'.SO'.] 

Acrto-e(re*torie Arid H li»»n aleohnl in a^hledto a colution «.f ^Ivcaeal 
•I ill' tho nirhid, CTjrttah are pK-duc^l "«hki 

increaae if alcohol be fi--(tii-iiil_v addsd In »maJl au&fttii 
may aim Im ( rapidiji pro^Epltatee by i la/p qtiaal ly of alffdi^ and 
prcH-Jpttato r<*ryhtallifcod trum water (HorWord), 




8C <* 

loll '1 1 19 

»o n 

fi 94 .... 




,1 IIM^+Ac! 14-4 l'ini.0 

- AeiiL — Br : > rSa arid villi concentrated 

icftcid, »n«i Icivinu- 1" 1 1; 'i k oow, emtak of bentoit uMin 

obtained, Bud .i rnolber-liqDor whi«h yield* beautiful prinu of n\sl». 

aaod.-.r:- ::.!«1 ( 1 )r \ Miilnlioii ol' jflrrvirnl iti &OTO00I GWMfl 

ac'nl yieldi by evaporation a radiated cryutallihu ma** rQaambling WuvlI 
by t,Tu«'iully adding alcohol to tbc flotation, beautiful eryataU arg 
ohuiin-d, winch .ir jm 1 1 i.iurrnt in the air, and contain 32" v2 n.c. C: 
diciefore = aOWW.CO . Ilur.foni). 

Oxamic Acid, cnh o=f 'a.uio.o*. 

Bambi* i. i»Ay#. 4, 93; aho ifUk /'ftarwi. 42, 100; aUu 

J. ,>r. Gfcm. 25, $4. 

ht, Jrwir wumi'/w. — Duuuveral b) DiUrd lu 1842. 

-.1. PohydraUd acid oxalnto of amnion!* if carefully 
it to incipient fusion in n tubulated retorted plticc*i on the oil ' ulh; 
Ilia aarhrd portion mixed with that which m alill *olid, by means 
of a rod inverted thruiijrh tin: tuhulun*, in mder to ditta^o tin: Imit 
Dlim unit* irmly, till the tn n nearly fluid liiatm, which, ai 

the art inn gov* on, bocMitei jKwty and swolln up wy much. AatOol 
tboiYah n.- .cruoa, and, in place of »n acid (Batillatfl whi-li givaaoff no 
ammonia, when treated with potash, hydrocyanntc and carbonate of 

ii to |«m orer, and prvduoe an elTen r««-mc "i> i ling in 

I id with the aeid dutillato. the dUtillutnai moat In- um-n and 
tbo r. :- vrll.«M ib i! tin* Hi ii.i . ha« bo*n 

raiullv LraUu], but red In own if tin: Ii.i. Inn t piirl.K applied — 

treated v* ill i biob dia»oWc.i tbc ox ante add, afta Bonurtlnxa 

* raiall ijuunlity of undtviini potted acid oxalate of Hiuuitiuiu, [faring 


eid in n itfttfl "I" greater purity, the fnlhm Ing proeatm 
I 'I i :i- cold aqueous lolntion ia neutralised with anun» 

'•tnlli/fl cnamatn mmoiiin obtained from it by cvapoiation ami 

■JiU Milt diwolT*d in tin* nn*lle«t paaiilbla quantity ol li<.t 
an Mnlraltoi ^nastily of rolnhurie letd : i - 1 « I « •■ I ; and lb liquid 
\y cc-Jcd, whrr ]>v tin- oxatnic Mid i praoipitatod IB the rora 

prcoi tai- 
led solution ni a baryta-tall, tin- cryrlalline pr ...Mpi- 
irihVrl by ■oiajfoa in boiling wati«r (ai* with mn 

if it Imi ooWv*4) and oryiUllitttiOOj tbo cry.tala doc* ilIn 

• S 

ethylene: amh>oc;[ >Adnm 

B ."| !iiT*Ii*nt quantity of v.T',- -Itl no nlpfaria a«UI; atid ibo filtr*!. 
gently oraponttcd to tbc cry«ultiz'iijr point. — 3. Dry bytlroeWorie ceiu 

.mil jvuily healed ox run air i 
wb«?renpon dncomponttion t»k(* place. I villi gtVBl ■*» 

beat. Tbe exoe-* of by «** 

Of lirs the ivi.Iu<: l«»il(vl will a Wo lute aJcobol and filtered Erom qUnIIi 
of liNer; and llto acid obtained by cvaporatinc the filtrate in tbo fan 
rfl WililiilliWH iT too Biurli 1k-.i1 i* :ii>i>lir«i in decomposing tbc 

•ilvor-iilt tin' :in.l hH i v.'lluwifli colour 

JPpWriioi, White, crystalline, granular ; 


«C 21 . 2C'f7 H'\ 

N II 15-73 — I** 

3 H . . . :i , :t:i; i-8 

6 in . 53-9;. 14-4 

CNHK* B9 ... 100 00 

The fayp<illi<-l!ea1 ■MNBH MU h C'NiIKr*. 


Oxnmir iui.1 is reconverted, by boiling its anuccu* volution, into 
Mid oxalate of ammonia: 

MK>* » 2IIO - C'*,MIMn<A 
t>intiiictns. Tlw mM dlflulvff) very *p»ring!y 111 OoM w*Ur. 

ci w By b illvj th* baryU-oall with an •fdn v 

lent '|iiiiit.!t', i.f falpbato ill' iinii.-iiM. rvajn.ratiny the tiJtrato, and loaf- 
ing it tooooi, the ■wmnam'lll ia obtained in small pri«iiio arranged « 

fltrllulr -I.- 

CVyW.'*. lUUrd. 

■* ^* ■ '-■ ' *- •■ ... m'i'i 

3 N 18 .. 25 42 .. . 

«» 6 .- • d 

6 a 

. 4* 

ii-.Mi'.o ff jO l «c*C.\d.Am.a | )rr 106 loo-oo iwio 

'/ Bttyta The cold aqueous notation of tin* . 
oliUiiH-.l in distilling told oxalate "I ntmnouin, after neutraliaUi 
ammonia, pro concentrated *olution> nf baryta-Kilt*, bvt 

pAoipStttt with Allot* solution*, (p ■ ■' ' The, orvatnllhio | 
pnriii ..-;ii on rom warm water. The enlt hcaud •»* 

oil of rilnoh pi*eo oil" carbonic oxido ami carbonic acid c&tos in wp*J 
volumes, and leave* ammonia in ilia residua. The salt hofctod to I5# 

n dry ournral oftirgiroi off 15' W p.C ■"« I r 

OytttfeM. B-Urd. 

B-O ■ ■"■'' 39-M 4lM)o 

4C 210 ... 12*3 

n ..mi r-3i 

2 M 2<4 1-04 

6 0... ivfi jftift 

B a. ... .':o ... U09 

hi a 
mny »I* 

OAd»^>»,0'*-iAt-.. 191-6 ... 1UUU0 



■>f Lime* — Witt line salts atoj Uw uottoov aolotSon nf ilm 

Mid rni;ii:il /r.<| ujtl ammonia form* n ory«tiilline prreipitutc. bit only 
wln-n tho •OtattoBJ IN Mitral ntml<»«|. III!, 

trim nn.looonipoocd acid oxalate of ammonia, the prooipt it- l>rounr« 
nioalfl 1 with oxalate of lime, which however remains behind whea 
tllO OXaniftlQ <\ 1;mic i- i|i--.)]vn| in bofttof rt.n i 

Oramtttr ■ — Obtained !,v |irt<ri|>iliiftni* nitnitt ..J' <iWvr with 

i^Ucoiib solution of tlm iitninmim «.r hffyt> till 'J km copum*, 

'ran in ..:n. gchitinoua magma loon bec-uines opaque; it dtwolvi D8 
ln:.(i:. . |M|.|, and the ?,ilt oepanitos ajFint OO rjOollXUJ ia while, oilky 

las. IhoM en -i da blacken whan exposed t" light) wooming coated 

with imtiil; the aajnO eftVct 1:iU(h pi Arm ill l.Ml", Hi which temperaturo 
no WUt<T H^iv.n . tl' ( !. 





i i 





12'2ft 1223 

TM „ J-20 

in' ii; 

aaio sign 


<?(AaA|« )-;("»« 


KNJ-00 ... 100 uu 

1 Methyloxamic Acid, c NlPO«=C'N(H'Me)0*. 

\V nil-.. .V. inn. Chim. Phy*. 30, 4G5. 

rlod oxalate of nwlbyUmlM hovlod to ioO° i» resolved into 2 At, 
water, nnd I At. umiliyloxjuuic oeM (p.172): 

Tho methyl o ramie *eid partly remains in the body of the retort, and 
partly volatilise*, sometimes forming n oryttftJliM rablilDftta m til* nook. 

Tin- Quantity obtained ie however but khiuII, boctato taograstav portion 

of tho acid *ilt ia rusolved by tho hmt into irmter. earboni .l- id, anUmic 

oxido and no u i ml o salute ..f iiiothyliimiiii*, sad Mm bitter i« submquenUy 

motbyloxaroide (p. 2»J5). A a soon a* this product appears, 

iitwt to interrupt tho operation, and trout tho residue with a littlo 
fireo oxalic add 

The rfistlUod product ami the residue, must thru lie dissolved in bot 

C t|.. tolatiofl BMtaim&od vritb cliulk, und filtered. The filtrate yields 

Olioo n mi mi re of crystals of D)6tnjr)0XiBii<l'' ami "» rliyhixauuite »»f 

;„,,, ti,, l.niiorof which may bo easily volatllbtod by heat while tho 

litter remain unaltered. Thoy niny bo" purified by ill- <»ivni- them in 

bOt w:Upr ud ree-rystaLlixinj; 

fiH .. 30 .... 29*00 

m .... ns; 

(_• 20 .... 

CO „ «M '■'» u 


... 211 2G 

« H-13 

- il.OM»,Cs><F l-J 10000 

|H BtlfTLWnt! lafTMOtlMIQCI -*o». 

Artfyr*r*m*e o*nf, CNH'O* = OW ] ^\ p[o^« obtained ina* 

manner by mixing' neutral oxalate of cthvUmiue wild cxccm of oxafie 
acid, and fusing ilit* acid oxalate la ifae ml-bathat 180*: 

i ■ !• i -Mi ik » na 

Tho «, muni ty obtained iv but Hinall (Worti, X. Ann. Ckim. Pkyt ."0, 
4»0}. * 

7. .4miVo^n-nac/«T« C*Ad*0". 

Oxamide, G^W^AffOVK 

BAVllor Soto. 10, 319. 

Dra*& <4»».». i'Av*. 44, ISOj al*o /. f'Air. 101; 

Sflltf. ill, S2, febo PW. 10, *H - ill PA/* .'>«. 240. 

O. Rwrxr A Pliivon. Ann. CAim. Vhy*. 4fi. 100; n\oo J. Plkarm. 17, 

177; ulwtr. »/*«< t-v. 10*. 
LiRiu.i Ann. Harm. 0, 11 & 12U; oho Pogg. 38, 331 .& 33». 
Moiik. Ann fleam, 18. 327. 
l*i i,<n /,e. Jim. (,% ( 'ffi. Ih'jn- 70, 10*; also ȣ pr. Chrm, 25, 41 

Minitin. Com/it rru<l. 22, ***2. 

1 Inn compound wo* first obtained by Baabof m 1817, on D 
oxalir tli r r with a<|UiOU* ammonia; but it was regarded ea ft eom|M*aa<l 
of oxalic oilier with alcnliul, till l.icbig, in 18.14, rbowcd ii iibR«l 

with tfi« uxumide which Duma* had obtained in I8.10, by dietiDal 
oxalate »f ammonia. 

Formation. 1. By the decomposition of oxalate of ammonia al 
linpmliirei {DtmiM, p. 122). II ib« heel In: interrupted l« f<ir« aSt 
vnlatilizntion uioomplate, oxnmido in found in the nvifnc; it it ■ 
for* prndimod ln'l il iniiit inn (Mithr) — 2 My 1111x1115 rvjutom 

ammonia with locnlio other (Bftiih"f, p. 1K0), A copious wbi 
t&to U immediately fonnod; if however tho oxalic ether lift* beci 
vicmvlv mixed with alcohol, the formation of tbo precipitate dots o<4 
talcn pluro for noma leenndx (Ra.nhof). A lolntion of oxattfl "'Ix* 
in vinic cthcr likowwe fomn tbi* precipitate with anaooua aniwoefe 
(LiebifcO- - •< By ilie aotiou of nitrio ucid on ferroCYanide of potiMWL 
tftajSlr, VIII. IS*.) 

Frfpantii/m. — When normal oxalate of ammonia j* "ihforfcd toi 
■ 1 1 tillution till tho poilue dioappeore, oxnmido i» obtainc i. DftTtljT 
limed in the DQok of tho retort togotbor with carbonate of md took 
Hunting in floktl i'i the Watery distillate. Tho whole il -u«|>cmdaf"iB 
walrr, ami tin- .11 t > mi n .■ m I nr 5 pt-r nontuf th* itmiu< n ■ i'- 

eullert^d on a Alter, and washed with water (DuniM). ^Tbo eompooad 

in 1 :. ..'..- ..1. i. ■. I:..-. 1 '.v :i< 'it ralitiDd binonlateel poi ifa with aimnetla; 
nduini? oulphuto or hydroclilorate of unmoaia; tlBf '<• drjae*, 

distiilmu, and washing the euMiuinto with viivr to free it from larfamalff 

of ammonia- 100 pti of Ball of sorrel, neutxatSsed oilJh amimintaaai 
mixod with iU) pt* of ^ulpltnto of ammonia, yield S'lfi pt4. of oxanidt, 

tho whole of tho fulphuno acid bein^ kit behind in the form of 



TOO put. m1t«f Monvl dintillftl with 5ft pU. of tal-ainmnm 10 
»in wtiieb cat* the neutralization with ammonia may bo di-mcnued with, 
bcoauoo tho hydrochloric Mid U <Imv.ii -Hi, yield, Kml waui, then 
Iiydrochh - 1 1 1 i « 1 ,1 * ill. CflrttOflfltO flf MBUOBIa* and 5 52 

|iU. of sublimed ox.uuidc, the partially decomposed CAxbonacoom n-i-Inr. 
Vftfthto! Willi u-itj-r tnd luHlmed Mate] ymdl ft- linl« more oxnmido 
totoarod brown by wxtpyreamAtEe oU (Alohr). 

2. Aqueous aminuiiis ia mixed with oxalic other, eithor pnre or 
iliasoWtd in u'coliol, and lli* [TUOIpItetod uxamide purified with nntcr 
alcohol (Bauhof, Lul'iitl. — ill tin* distillate iXtnined frnm 1 pt. 
It of sorrel. 1 pt. uh .' [<(«. »»il 'if vitriol may 1"' immodintchr 

*luiki*n u|< with 140400* iiiiitiiomii- Tin* clow nnxlut- i •- lieuh'o, 

Uldd«pOM i'-Ic, whieu unint ho wished, first will* wat«r uiul then 

willi Bioofaol, to roniore aulidiovinatc of wine-oil whicli adhere* to tbo 

OZAIIlidt* and llir.ii. i i I a l.lill!. I'lhuival ihliiur (LUMg), 

Proptr(i<t. White, loose powder, soft to the (ouch (Baohof). White, 
confusedly cry*UiHi/<«l luninir .>r grutmlar powdor (Duiune). Some- 
KiDDM Coloured yellowish or brownish in part* by a subatant-u ruMuuihliu:- 
cyanogen (Duma*). — IW geaflfl babtiag in tm open tori tub*, it 
tinod witiiout dfi'iunpit-tioii in iiidirttmct i-ry-liil- or :i* a 
it» powdor (Dunuii 1 , Liftbtg). When hentod in a retort, it molu 
tially, bulla* and culdiinee un«l.'<'..mpo.> d in part only (]>uuiae). 
Inodorous, laetultrM an i u I I U I (Bnohof, DasUtfk 

llu mat. 


Varrwl i p 

•t too*. 

(D (2). 


\ w hi. 


.2* .. v;-v; 

. ■„'■. ■',»-> . -jt-9 


IN .. 

_ 28 ... 31'HX 

J 1'67 _. 31-9 


_ III 

4 11 

4 ... 45*. 

I'M .. 4-5 

4 ti* 


. 32 -.. 30-3« 

M-71 ... So 7 

...... 3«-5J 

C'JWH)* 83 .... 100-00 100-00 ... loo-o .. . 100-00 

Diamuorilion*. I. Oxamido lulled in a ri't nrt . tncltfc and (mils, but 
only at ilic hottest pan-, and b punlv ittbJinod wfthooi rWoonnoaittoni 

purity rv -van-nrcn, and light, very flocculcut charcoal ( Miiium). 

— Only tin* nuiallcr portion decouipooei, yielding a small quantity of 
dirtUlate. conuiotiiig of alcohol, iiini lUUolifl Oil (Huuliof). 

— t" idiI i. whan strongly heated ffiven off a distinct odour of CTtfiio 
*ciil. The vapour punned through I red -hot glx« tubo "1 foot loo& iu 

•oanpletely nMiiivi.i, witiiuui h ..i ohnreonJ, into tnvbo&ld oxid*, 

ou>>vua(e nf iuninuiiiiL, lisilrocyanic acid and urea, which pruscau tlio 
rauer of au oily diatillaLo quickly solidifying (LiebigJ: 

SC'N-H-Cr* - ICO * 2CO- * NH> 4 CWB * WW U*Mg). 

hermetically n-aled in a metal tuhu ami lu-atcd in a buth for 
minutfi to 310*. ii partially dtoompofod inUi cyaiio^tn, cnibuuii: 
acid And ammonia i M-Uagnti). The first product* are probaldy cyanogen 
«bd water: 

CN-H-O 4 - 2C»N f 4110. 

tut the wivtc-r nctiDn at 200' on naotbnr portion of tho oxnroido f»nna 
oxalato of ammonia; 

n-W f 4IIO - ZNU-.C-H-OS 

2. Oxaaawac krf* am awataet f-.r aaaav 

to nart-ok 
Kaaikrlr. * aatiiav* af BTBMaataad 

" (Wata^-l). 
DVraaaar dbbb witli «tnm«4 aUorfea. 
«««. «iMB« M oaplitory, fawac ■vWtWcw Mia. oral* *e*i, ua 
y J a M y aL. taiwraia 0/ aatroawa, wSa* tWa aa h rg »a* furtaor iMM- 

3. CM bibHi MM witfe » fw-oaUl «r*j»ti aril, at 

• amaaUal iat« a ■ux'.ttr. «lfiJ. aidajavc, 1 Tad. nitnaa oii, 
«di^- (uta acad pa < Mala^ati,; 

no 6 - ssi ¥39 * ma 


AeetoUa? to BuM aitrk acid, creo wUo Vol, ba. no id»« 
ataaaida ; trawrwiag to O Henry A nivoa, atraa** citric acid 

it ■■■■■■ and earfeaic arid. « With «ii of viirioj. bat -ray 
l—Tiil, oxawHi facaat aarVeM «x*W and earbna* acid id equal 
,iw»nn rvaaaiakajt Wbtad ta c+atl^txafeoa vilk the tgjfitne 
acid which naaaiaa ouloone— (Dum, ISA-. 

CWHW * tno - *CO . SCO * Mb*. 

5. All th* utmo^ir acad* in law dilitt* atato tareoO|ioao ouxumJ*. yip' 
aa nmraonia-aait Bad free oxalic acid iO. Henry .V Pliawa): 

CWVO 1 t «HO * M0> so") + C*l 

Soch h tli* action •xorftod by talphatie, hydrochloric ■■>: tartaric 

acid, aa ircB aa by oxalic acid iuel/. bat net by acet c acid, wbxh in*!ccd 
wbco boiled with oxanude, goea off ia vapour, without exerting any 
action (0. Haarr & Pliiwyi). 

V, OxxmUo » aot altered by 14 Jaya contact with cold water, or by 
■g with water; tut wWa healed with water to M« Q sudor increased 
proaaare, it ridda a liquid which ia acid after eradication, giro* off 
aanmonU with brd rated oxi-l .in! yicVU an abundant |irocJ|iitate 

with lim^uItM (0. i ntaaon) —7. Oxamida beatcd with *c,i 

alkali* it *UbliM into oxalate of potaab, aaxl aatnuttia allien \- 
i: aay trace of alcohol. (Dtmuu.) TaU Jccwwpowt .«• awa 
•Wrt «J b; ttoibef, who how*** aVnajat ttafl aloabrf wa* Ubnc aaeawJ: 

l'i> - 2UO • m t- 2>'ll». 

According lo tbii oqnatfam, loo b>im. of ox^mtda abooJd vteld 10?'2|t 

of ox tlw a/-i.l (OIPtT), and JS «3 aaainonift; Licb-x ..Uaiacd 
and :■ ■ amraesia aVeon)>oec4 oxaa.ide. c% 

tamptraUtr h giiJaaliw djaaklvinj; ii Ei ;« naaaiicr (0, Uea; 

II na) i ling carbonate of pot tub, arconiimr to IUnhof. oaq 

ujkiii oniBidi 

Tbo boilipjf nquoom bo] a lion <t" oxamldt deal D04 pn.*cir*itat« ai 
or inrtnte of load; but on the additHiu of a in 

i|l r.ttinn of ln-al, il tlirowe ilowu basic oxalate of Irud (]>. ! 

the aWumrwflitinn of ooMnuaa Into onlfo add and anmonU u 

n b mm - o circQuittancoa than u:r. 

annul «t alkali* ab>n< , I ing roiled probably by the iaoal 

8. Ou gvully beating oxain u Ea bdbIbcI with aoixMJnni, ryaniito 



potnuicm ii formed, with m] 1 dcflofntiou (Lowif, Potf. 40, 407). 
I_v thndi 

C'NH'O* * OX i WWK * -lK«> * -ill. 

iKaaffawL — Oxamidc repair* p4 mtar t<» 

■1i«H*lvo it (0. Henry &■ l'liason); in boiling water it diAsol res Borne what 
trllir, mid ■OpftT&let «i" Cooling m in i r 1 1 i.\ ii-.-u liafl Sftkn fDoiD 
iqueou* ftolution doe* nut preeipitato lim. •■■:i!i • i DllllNU). 

Ovid* — W'Im'u osinald* U boiled 
r, .iii-l mercuric oxide, added by entail portion* ae loni i iu 

■r. iin'i more oxuwide added, till the product becotnoi perfectly 

• , tin* CMiinni I tfl iil>itim-il ii: ilic ffitin ul :i li<i*.v a In!. pQwdai 

which limit bo fro'iin-uT - boiled with :i largi qunntitv ..t ■■ ni.-c to remove 
iIh ■ kpi - of oxaimdo. Itio-i"-' mpo i i by hydrochloric ncul at n coiitlo 
boat il> ■ ■ aigo< rm* 82, lid). 

ll«n ins . if.-io K-M 

i ■ WiV K* 4i\Kl 45*11 

llgO.CWII'O 1 19ii 10000 


Oxamido docs not oombaso with oxide of load or oxiilc? of lilrer 

Ii dooe nol dissolve perceptibly ba alcohol or riaSo ether (Baohefj 

1 Mcthyloxamidc. c-N-H'O*=c i N ? (!I 5 Mc , }0 1 . 

Wijbtx. if. /fun. dim, Wyr, 80, 104. 

•■'•"" -if J, Neutral oxalate of niotliylumitiQ if 

red by ilt> vod melbyloxanfde; 

cccH^yo 1 - * lho. 

Tko (ransformAtion in Touch more complete than that 
araroonift into oxamidc, became mcthyloxamide in much more vi-l 
tbxn Tin ructhyloxuroida collect* ii Uio ueei of tbc retort i» 

ili- form of Long deli Iuciuk* '"u-h oilu-i in chim. 

— *. By 1m- lotion «( -\ mlution <-f tnathylaminc on oxalic other, the 
prviltH i i "ii.- :■:. obol end raetbyloxaral I 

paralSoa. The renctiou token plate iuiuto 
dut< evolution of beat, ibe product being ■ wfclte nagroi com- 

po»rd of d N *dl*a; thMO dftflfftlve nattily in not water, nml as tho 

the mcrhyloxamido cry U lit «- in the form "f long h 
Uei, it diwolrcM in .;.■. i. i te . .',i- UmfiiavaUr. 

i-ilv. with evolution of unmonln | 

iir-j in.) ! .xalafe: 

[<:'N-lt*(r - -ii ) » -iKO - MW + » H 

It i>carU»nixcd ty nnhydfOB irio mM. 

• C .^ _■■ <H «vjj 4|-o 

h n , v „ «•»» , c-*> 

10 3i i;*i 

CWWCtfll'/O 4 .... II* . . tM-00 

* Ethyloxamide. c 1 \v , H n I =C*.\ : ;irA<r , ,O'. 

Wcrt*. A'. Aan. £«■■>. i»*y». 30, 490. 

unci by mcthodi |*cej*fly auniUr to tlio»« wUiro yieW mtlKyi- 
I'Uiuul ; the rractt»a of pUiyUiuiae ott oxalic clbcr afonb the beat ■•** 
"' !'•■ 

Kii-y nidi Efl mow Bolabla in alcohol «n>1 wau*r ilan ox»U«. 

-lie ftotltioa it cry ' tall isco iu beautiful dooIIm. It u 
volatile aii-1 candcnaea on Oio nut faun of c»M bo«lio# ia woolly 
FijUwIi dcoompojoa it, forming I'luyUiuiue ami oxaiutr of |»vjuL; 

[ ffW iy r tUO t 2KO - C'KW ♦ tCVK.] 

Anhy.lroui pluwphorio acid carbonize* it. 


1IC - _ 

_. 30-00 _ 

.„ 4J-SJ 

1 N 

„ 18 

-. 1944 

12 11 


... •■» . 

«. 1 




_ 144 

— IOO-00 


Allophanic Acid, tfNW0»=C*AiTO l 1 0'. 

J,ii i kj& WiiiiLna. Ann. J'Uinn. oO, 201. 

By pfirlnr. cranio •old Tjpour Into ibwiluur alrobol, Liebig \ Uobler obtained in 
1830, tconjioood Kba rUca Uiey refolded h Ojaalc ether, till in lr 1 7 :Uy da- 

Co Tired thai the njlilmur iboi f^i mrd » n compound uf oxi'dr Dfctfajl *llli ■ (imdial 

Midi »ll(i|i i Ami wlv.uld thorrfoiT !•• o*ll*d iillopbntti.i rtti«« ; tiintlariv U*c 

compound dbMh I • 4 I 1 1. l77)j#MNdlaj to f».**e cU» tniatt.a* u'*.N)p*rlxiaic «tb#* f <m^l»t 
tmUf to bt w^nnlfd a. auaphanate .* awlfayl [ - CHK>,C«N*U>0*j. — Tbu ~H k- 

■JfMd} b**B tnaribtd la toft aunhylMM avwats areo*eArhonlpand(VI[, i"!; but •» 
It much more probably btkmM 10 il>< stiigr lettO aurtai >od u Lkoljc n i uora 

d h id rneniMti . iiiiblr, it will be » well to doarrfbe Uk acid «gat« la Uhtt 

pl.«< . It It'll i !< ibe umc relation lint uxticaad bear* lu ti<U I 

Wo nro not ao<ju:iiTitt'<l \v i tti (-he acid ifwlt. 1 tBl <»tly with «oaw of 
iU B*lt»s which iirv nbuinrd by Croat ing mctlivlu- or rinio tllopaaoato 
witli aJkuli* di' "K*"l in vatof or &lcohul. l'bo eiut/iricul TwinuU vi 
Uic^ »alu U C'NM^.MO'. IC thcu wc wppoH that tlio add itarli 
OODlaSn t At uuuil :»li> iiiiial 1 1- - i;.|m»--i-.1 u> Iihvu oao of tbM4 

two at'iint raplaced hv an nnnloonm eooi|>ound NHM, a> that tholt 
raliooal tottaola »ft| I.' C(i v H > ,NHM>0 a ,O{ When beutod in tio eUl« 
of aquoutu eolutiou, Ikav *.'< rt*ulvc<i iulo cacbouic acid, a uuU>b*W, 

aLtOPIUtfC ICITJ. 267 

and orca; wb«i »u altoni)*: i> in:i . lb* allophaulc hU from 

thrn by iiipwih of another tu'id, tlm alUiphauie uuid ulmand] Italy raaoWod 
lutrt arbonc arid and urea. (S« ibcU»ryu». 

AUaphanaU of Potnsh. — A solution of n11«>|ih:wiie otlior In tteonolla 
potuft) qcJetiy di?p(K*iu thi« wilt in luiiiinn-, reicmbliug thereof chlorate of 

Ali^iminter)/ ffafa. — Obtninod liko tho \- itnah- all < | l.y 

ir.g tb«» baryU Ball without application of beat, with nn equivalent quao- 

qnooni tulpbatO of uoda, And pOQrfox aloobcl upon tin? filtrate, 

v.liich caused tho Duilu-aall to crystallite oul in mm.. II pri I M HI 

»'l.;ilii«i miction. Tho aqueous alalia c ff tbsnll Braporatad without, 

heat in nuruo, Ira vest tho tall in tun l<>rm of si blBO-glUtaring etlatfBOOl 
am**; •»»porut*d between -10' and .',<) , it leave* the wilt portly uiul< kuii- 

. -.rhonalc of iodn. The aqn> 

Miloti'Jii mixed rtitli nitric acid li»'.« nil' v;uIm iok Mid ;i od deposit - ani i 
■fnl<» of nitnilo of urou. It doe* not pivcipit i:e elrloridr »>i bftrfnm, hut, 
when lii-ati'il m iili \,., form* nn immediate precipitate of curbonnte of 

AUofhnixaU n/ finr\/t,i. — Obtained by ilisrftoMng inethylir or Hole 
alloplianate in bar] r i when- by woo- 1 pfrll ->r alcohol i* set free. 

.. rri(iir»i» aUuplumia albar a Itfa ' ,.f hydrate 

!if Inn;, i.t .up! l«xryta-HAt» 1. without applying till tin* v(h<-i dinap- 

pcart; filter front tba retnatatag baryta««ryataij ana MtasSdi ''u' filtrate 

l: Th.' U:il'Vl:i->alt th«n 14«»|«lP«t*fc tfruilnnlly 

aid crystalline nodule* Mid CrOfta The crystals nro tbon sopm 
fromi tho Teasel under the liquid: the liquiJ quickly deoantM ; any 

r«t'i'Ui;il'- uf UiryU tbal 111:. .* Ii:;i b6«0 I >; ni.-l I I ■p.ii;i' ■■'! I»v 1 !n I : :iti'»n ; 

i-rywab washed a. few time* with n *inull ananthy of oald wntOTj 
ami dried on papei al Hi*.' tompcratori »i tbe all Thi baryta -nit hai 

an ftlk aluii " ><t ..... \\ lirjiU:,! aloOO, it dC4fl DOl xivi nil .1 truce uf 

v*»tcf, bat cTolvei mooc«arboDala ol ainmoniaj and loavca Daonocyaoat6 

of baryUi iu a eUle of tra&Bpanal fuaiou: 

Ux'.i.i 'N-IMO' - MP.2CO' * C*NBaCF. 

It4 aqoroui auluiion bccotoei lutbid btdon I " , givoii *>\X oarbonit erTervwceace, ilejw^it* all tin* buiyla in ihu 1'nrw «»f Cadxaial^ uoJ 
aJ ta t w a rdr oooUip* Dotiilng but urea in nhittoni 

DaD.C"N*ll*0 ( + UO - B»O,C0 f + C0» ♦ CWI1W. 
Thi« wH, when an arid i« poured upon it. i« deeompoHMl with bride 

ctf<ir»oMvnee, yielding au-boiin- aaid '"'i iraaj tfao oarbonlaacid pro- 

«'ii» 1 - tlm decompoiitK'Ti, tboa rj&ailaar tn um aeid dot am aia 

Eatmod. It appesrv then that allophauie aow. C*N ii*0*. when mot 
fr* i iata WJ0» and OWH^O 1 Kv«u when 

tiamd in coutnet w;ili ...II if] Dl [aat^altl carboaata ol luninmiia. It 

onus urtsa ati«l oafboaaK el baryta. M potation f^ruia at firat 

a cl< < ncali 1 1 ■ ■; 1 load, but lAoraalf an battr, a 

itn of enrbooau ol It <l«>i ' D<H prvdptlato a 

tut i' h l|f nUralm nf silver. Dioulrw in cold water »Iowly bat 
!y (JL'wbig rj: 


i;v. - 



171 « _ 110-09 

JJbpAMWb o/£iW — Pr.>i»r*J hkotfe* baiyU^alt. 
■tmrintflr mi1aI4« in water (Liolig A Wohkr). 

Allophank Ether. c\\4W=CIIK)/-<N'H'o\ 

UKBM \ W. ikik Phot. 20, 30.V — iljtn. PKarm. £8, 200 & M, 

LlBBMK Ann. Pkim, gl t 195. 

paaMturtfi fea • titer, lor Dm faftMary* vM .*/r<y<iu«ir on/ 

r M ./ Pr<i*\r'\ti.'H, Whan cyanic *"cM vaponr evoked ly 
Itcaliiijr cvAiiurio aei-t, ia ]«uwcd into aboolute aleobol, it m rnjiiJij 

with an evolution «l heat which nearly makca the al< 
and n i it, »i illiui' pawilm in dvjra ncm 

in '|uat<citv *« 

W.lrT, u-l iflfa I 

(.iiiiiin^. Tlio ri-niiiinin^ lf.|»ul i« demntod from "Ik- jmwiier, w| 

ah ooU alcohol, and tinci Ton dotauud 
J i ■% ii i < 1 -1111.11" alfoogly a| *i r-t ol r\. i - Ideru tttmua; b 

I j<inpcrtic» nfter -i while, And tea 
in dim i'lr'im, 54, 370, leave* urvtlmie when DVKpor&tcd (Idebtg A 

lit pat that i M| i | | . '■ 

i" i d ■" with ■' ■"■' - »i 

iHcti iji.ifr* vtih ihi ueo lO uulcol tthyl m 

■J. Atihydroua ctlior is saturated with cyanic acid VA|»our, v 

itiiout evolution of heat; Mid the Lii|nid| which in-- I 
of cyanic avid, niiv-l villi half m bulk of :■." p*f cvnl aloobol 
net uldtj IW WOT lty-. H depoaite altophacic ptfaer io 
on tho iidoii of the <TMM] (Liebio;), — A hot aloobolia solution ol BR 
mixed trith <-il .1 fitriol, depoelui oolblng on coolimj l lobic Jt M 

II 0, Dt V :i:inii' I |tfkMvd into UM r[!i.\.:il . .1 till. .T| of llKAf- 

bona (e of hiMili'lirilivl I ''. forma allopluuk ctlnt in email wliifcr 

crystals, ami all oflj lulfAu OOflQpOVlid | Dobtt^ Villi 4*7): 

•j<"u> ()» i iNB" - mo(y < ciw i - . as . sun. ^ 

/'.. irliiir, cryvtelline powJ .1 . . I 

wloiion :n »lcolii I ui etliorttod alcohol, l»v alow cooling <ir *pom 

tion. in ...,!.•■ |q (] 10 fc j r ^ j t 

Dolu to to&T li'jiii.I. wfaioh ilidiBof in a erjatalliM rna^ on cx/Iinf; 

bul port ■: 1 1 ■ hi t; .. fi.rra of nn iuoduruoa 

in tin- .in to bulky flakoi coiucuki] of 



needles, which fly ;il>uut like ttowoa of uuoj a umilar woolly w -■■• i -nit n 
likowitio forms on iho fuu*d ioam iu It OOOla, Inodorous and without 
perceptible taste; neutral. 

8C -lh . 

$0 u 

30 -5ft 

Urfrig & WtfUlcr. 

. ■ 
. 2fl 51 



t-N-H'-i .... 132 . 



1 tSM LM 


I I ■*<,* ;■„■ : - 1 li ■ 

. tl l« bnpa ■ Iho 

• i)"i'iindv r i:i nlfnc ti raattot of d 

rinic cthei mil hj|iotUdh I Milndruus ftllophsAw uU, inasmuch »» luia In |HiheUail 
md tvwUma onh Ml lo -N ; vhstita thil euvnmsl DO ■faouM '»' r-^nnlitd a* 
[S| i of 2 at. *rmdog*a in ttt< .t QtdMMN- 

tton of ti ■ ■ i..i nnl*, | . m ■ on r*l not N it ei da«d J 

Dm I, Allopbfti li I ttbot btfttcd in n ivtort, |i.vdv 

lublinn i ini ut aim m #00", 1'uil: Imi kly uxl 

off alcohol togelua with u mum quantity of cyanic other, wbioh 

witti tfii aJrahot, reproduces =i Bmau quantity <I nllopbMta 

i. and finally lolidinos in tlio form of puro cynnuric Mid. 1UU \>i-. 

of fcUopu&ni< other tbu dooompostd yield t»2*5 ft*, .if cyan ane noid 

65*15 I''-,; [l mail '•■ observed, hgvrovofj tliut * 

nu.all qtooti bail acta in orolyed (Liebijj & Wuhler): 

viro* = rvcil'O' = 2C'vii , cr 1 . 

2. TllO v:. ii off by befcl p iftio otfcaf 'n tbc air, may be 

i Tit. . n-i'l burmi tvitli ii il.nii • like tliat of orftnogon c ; >-' (Ltebig b 

IVobler). — Tlio ether is decomposed I" ... , j a w,it*-i 

»T nr<lni:ii Pomiiny an alknliiin alhipiiuiuih lhalj 

qneoui potash, it ifivo* off Blooool and form* cyanate 

ul potasfl (Liebig 4 Wuhlerj. 

' .thlnatioiu. Alloplintiic nlirr i> ncarU in mM R'a^iT*, 

but <1 involve* with tolerable facility in boflfau| water; uml tlic- -olur on 

in ;i in l.ioWi' & 


It >ii ■ i boiling dilute Sulphur. . and appa- 
rently [lifting A W.-bU-r). 

It (JirtMilvoi in ai(UL*uu5 Ammama s Mmtrbiil mora readily Hum in 
%r»trir, nni! e I"-:- ii.. in. froo from atntnnnia (LlrJilg) 

i' t. iiiu n'ju«oui ftolotiofl witll B - utml or bono acclnto of 

lead, or with am Diacml nitrato of silver, (lie ether iTyettilJisco uut. 

; od aad free ii""i - i big). 

Ir i-. ■ liicwbat wdnMc in Aim/n-f, but .1 >--olv« \*<xy *|uiriu^ly in 
fim '■ I bcflinghoU (Licbi^'ik WoUler). 



K Amukge+nveUw CAJCf*. 
Chloracctamidc C'XH'CI'O^CAdClW 

Ci*m 00M*. m*f , *K fiO & 373. #, /. /'Aaraa. *\ 340. — A 

Hu 101 m Compl, trml 21. »1 X », SVI — A y Worn. 8, 131. 
\ .(r<n. CAim. Ftp. i«. ISA 

(ah a MS, A'. Ann. CAiih. /'V- l9 > 35a - 

Fonntrtlo/t. 1. By ill* action of aiumotiiacal jpu or »ifDMiM 
no p#«r. i ilm i»mii< ft loot): 

cm* ♦ NU« - cwplw» •■ 2CUO * iicl 

1. Wlifii icfiliU.r ii tir rthoi bdattilM in a currcut of am men be*) 
— or, in a few iiiiiiiih-v wfaftfl LbaJ OOropOQl i contact i 

Kiuvoua ammonia (Mul.'ijjiui)' 

C-H»CI*a» * Ml 1 - CWHX'WJ* *■ ch*o>. 

3, Hv r llr action of Liucoua or aoacaiM ammonia on trichloracetic 

All' - ft MK P0> * 1NHK3. 

*. !W timt iiff chlortihiVbydo wilb ammonincal £M (Malnxati); 


5, Br tliv nr i i«n of uuooo on p#rcblurovinw otbor, fcicblona* 

tttrfconlc, MtcltluroXsJIi .•i.-hl-iroMiroiiiic r.Vr. nil tin 

Vivid wb«D boalod (Mnlajnili), — (>, AeoiMm- to 

I .. fomod l.y tbo action of am maniacal ga« m 

fWfrl .!*. 

l*rrjjar<Vum . Tlio whit* riiImIahaa obtained by oitnar of 

t i m ill witb water to free it from tho ml ammoaitc 

! ulu'r which tlio r<-t«Iutil cbtorncctamUJa ma; W> 

rod in otbor and orvaUallhwd linrofrom by apoataaeona crapM*- 

linn (doat, Mi.I.'I-mui i. I'liloriiirl iiuiil,' U ol>t:iin«r«l in ereolaat nuantit* 
from perrblorecrlic OUMt (Mnlnguli). 

groat**! i|iiantity 

JS+prrti" toon whito. naerrou*, cryMallino lAmiitn% or if oUonoJ 
by »i.u oraporatioa <>f the alcoholic solution, flat ii. 
(Clots), t : , , ,|.-.-, hum llir Ijuilinjr wjnfton* aulutmn in rvtanj»a!ir 
Ublw l»*l<>ntfiiiit to tho right prismatic «y*t«m {MaJa^uli 

J'.irt -l tt . ill. lulling lit lli' 

•bo.* without doeorapooiltoo, !■ iriog onJ/ a tnacauf 

I, _ Boils it b temperature above IflO*; labllmeoln ■hiniaw 
quickly beoloit: and beglni to ii*r..m|»ow even at 16<r 

(Mill uniti) H:m n v-h-tMy nlojiiniit aromatic odour, udU 
inont id tbo air (floor). 

a a woct taato 



N . 
2 H 

(Vy <§UWttih 

-.. a«-o 

2 -a 

. 160 

-.. 14-80 

.... 8 A3 

.. . fcVJH 

... 9-ac 








8 30 

... 1-10 

63 10 

.-... 10-02 

.... 14*61 







Decompotttivtw, 1. Cblorjicetamide. after fasSoQi I . ^'ma to turn 
brown at 200°, and boils completely between 238" ami 240 ■ Tim vapour 
punned through a tnlc In ir.-.l in .lull r« * -.. yi.-l.l- i-nrnonifl oxide, 
Hie :hiiI. chlorine, mix! volatile chloride of eyunoj^fii, (o^thor with a 
i-mail <)ii:iiiiity of photgono, bo*idea aal-ammoniac and charcoal. Tho 
decomposition Uikco place in Bovcral ways, as oUown by the following 

CWFCtt? - CI - MCI ♦■ HO tCOt CNCI * C> 

moreover, tin' B0 thiiA produced may convert :i portion of the ehhirncetA- 
inido into chloroform mid carbonate of ammonia, (Mnloffitti, vid. inf.) — 
S. Chloracotamido sealed up n with a arnull quality W valor in a glass 
UiU; and heated to 100° [it tdiould perhaps bo 200], is revolved into 
chloroform and carbonate uf ammonia. 

OfeVBttftP t 2IIO - CHC1" t NIP » 2CO>; 

Tin- inriii:ii;.i(i of chloroform U by no moan* precitded by that, of elilomee- 
tato of ammoma; for, if tho tubo bo heated to 130", tlio ehloracetamido is 
found to lw Mill minll-Ted, whtMM chlorncctate of ammonia I tented with 
water 14 resolved into rlilonifoiiii jind carbon a to of .•mtuiouia between 

1 1.: and 1 i.v (MaJafuti). 

y. Chlorine- gas, when dry, doo* ICfl art Upon rlilnrnci'iiimide, *-vnn in 
bine; but in pi<woneo of watnr and in tmntdnno, it forum chloracetainic 
acid C'NHCI'O 1 , which, after a few days tublimoa in tho bottle in long 
needles (Clocs): 

CNIPCIW + 2C1 - <'<Ni;n'o« + IICI. 

4. When iliMolved in dilute nitric acid ami evaporated, it loaves nothing 
but torchloroootate of ummouia; 

&NBK&& + 2110 = C&WCPOK 

A. Similarly, when ealoiMeteOlSde ia dissolved iti MMMQI ammonia. 
uhirli tukr.N placo slowly In tla- cold, iplit-kiy with t£* aid of 1j « -:* t . it. 

txkna up tf At. III). mo (lint tlit' nolniinn, ■ lien cvriporatcd. yield* Inrgo 

crystals of taroblorucatat" of mnnnmla (Malagas!). — 6. TntftrtXed lb 

tin rold with hydrutc of potnah, it does not evolve ammonia; bnt ul.« n 
Imilrd with solution of potash, it gives ctTall its nitrogen in tho form of 
ammonia, and forms turehloran-tate <>l poto-ih, which i:« ic.Mihvd by 
farther boiling into chloroform and formiate of potanh (Clocz). 

ComfAvtitiona. Chlorscctamido is insoluble in Water (Clooz); very 
sparingly soluble. (Malnguti.) 

1 1 dissolves readily 111 Jkoho^ and very easily in Ether (Clocz, 


RTtninxK: auiik) I r.t:s c*.w; 

Chloracctamic Acid- c.vm 

CftftU (1*45). -V Ann. CTUat. Pfyt, 17, 303; aWr. AT. J. /W*. S, 
a* I ; &Uo 7. pr. t'A«ti. 37, 313. 

t'Momcf/aMNlHrY, Cht'tmcrliimim-.%0rt t AtiJU ^Mto^tHimtymt. 

ip« I 

Cliloracoti;n\<]i: :i • itar inol cxf 

to \ht rot) in i I ■ hi >i-it|> ft >i|l) 

iicdimic aci.l in Mtdtas, wliioli may la- purified by ery*iaUintiou 

from I'lhop. 

Loog colon rli na I , wbicli fiwo wlim liratod, and partly .-;. 
DUOCOmpowd. Nearly inodorooi, but hue a h-irah ami vrry Jija^fotfiMo 
tnU IVn i uiQQl in i txe air. 


i CI .. 




? 12 


72 «a 

. IS-] 

. 7 

. 08 

, ri-i 

. 87 


1%'fl . MiMMi . 10110 

[If U be ollm»»bl« to n"urno tl)-- r\i»l*»" n Will, 

Mid mi I "' '>' Ht.l I'll", n liiittrv.-r It run: .iim ■ml) SO, il W u©t 

I., hi property -"• fltad but uiaetd iliUda*] 

'J'li- ;.-*i(. u I - n boill d With a^tlOOU* DOUtth. jpvcui ofl" nil it* Oil 

in tin form of ammonia, ruwl leaves uotliing bat cUlotiilc of jiutaaiiat 
rtiid oaiboii!ii« of )> <>■ 

* ;ilO r XKO - Nil 3 -f 4KCI t 




ThoMid ii inioJiiila i«i vtuv. 

[| i r>1r« irlthoal iUcj n lq oolil taaeoua alkili*, foruia^ 

II) to I ll nil 
Tin' n minor* iacal Oolulfoll OVftpormtod in v.intio Intro* a Wl 

riiuuijJiiMi- in: - urh irli ili-orli- nittinfurrt fr I. ■ r.-. nml ii tll»l 

e averted tut • uign y Itiitroua crystalline liiimruo. lu aqiutoui aalnticc 
J, i i la not pro pitete load or ailvcr-ealta, —Tin: VvniaV-a-J* 
unilor in i 

I'ln- lOid 'l It ■ • ■ u!tll t<i|ri:iMr f;n'ilt'.\ i . mil 

and very readil* [n I EA< I (Clottf), 

Chlorosuccilamide. ONH't :,i'0 C'NCi , H,HO=C*AdCIH). 

I 1 ^ K -Inn. Cflim. i*iy». ICj T'i. 

A Miction of ohlomxoMia'ir n.-i-l in :i.ji,- nil. unimnu. i« rrapcm 
ifu-i.i) till if form a lyrup mixed with orjitaltj tbii ui&*» ip licit* 
100 i iu lon^ in ic continue* to cftbrveeeej then exhausted witli cUiur, taw 



t ho filtrate loft in •vnpoTfito •pon- 
ton*- • ly; i n p !■ tliua oMaim 1 a/bid liatclyin 
<t with water. The crv-t from kaI 

ii ttin «' Miics in huj m I . oVlBg. 

[la lb- *)ra|i whlrh n»n rraporeUoil Ol 'I.. I -VHI'I-, «ml Ii It 

tried loto t)j uldltion of HO? For the formaitaa 

41* lint boflf -nil uf t LI./;»/i.»n«.H- ui-ld - CMTiVK. »,v il„. |, 

Lnng ^I'llmtr* whim silky MOdUtj a*hteb ftilfl to n eloar liquid 

b*t*- . . an-l ut a llronpcr hoar. .It ill <>mt OBdoOOmp" ■■■.! m 

tin' fortfl <-l .\ Hamd, which <>" c lea in beautiful crystal*, 

transparent at lir>t, but afterward* In-cmnin^ opaque, nud OHiiiiiiiir 

trance uf asbostuv. The oampaund afta a wl»ilo jioijuirw & 



«c u-fj . to-ao 


H no .... n 79 


2 1! 2 .... 1-08 



1 0-71 


i 'm; iro .. .. iift'O , -cm 


Ctriorwnccihirmilc treated with aquoouo fixed alkali*, doo* not imme- 
diately give iifl" »mm«'ni:i; l.ut afar loi | -ith naustic potiwh, it it t : 1 1 ■ * .uniii'iiii.i .M.'i < lil .<■ tif pot. 1*1 1 I -111 

wipoonm ammonia it dimolrai eonipUtalr iu the courw of a few wi 
I ami a brown Hound 
It .linoi»vr very nmrinjfiy in sold Water, roomily m hailing water, 
and rcry rcodily iu Alcohol and Ether (MnJnguti). 


Clilorosuccilic Acid. 

The potMb*Mlt of tbic acid in formod by boflfaty flhloToww rflninW e 
potaah, *- long M ammonia continues to e»«i|*. It i« 
•ofoblc iu water and alcohol, Iti folntioa doM aol precipitate the 

| lllIH'j u;:i'/:n'-.i;i maDL'SD*flO "i /mi'. It fdriDfl wlulf |»r'*«-l|'l - 

utr* mlnbk in a largo qnantit] af water} vufc afntat* of Irad. eulphato 

ofipot and i i. .*•«•; will, ii rilvaritfoflni ft magma 

OrtwifK^od <»f nocillo ahaped crystala; likowitc aolubl* in » largo nuunti-y 

of water fAUUgiiti). 

[If w* m«M thai diloroaaMilaniklc li dcoororord 1>J rutatli in tLe manner 
rvjifvai .. i Kjuntkm : 

CNli"C¥0 i- KO + iHO - OH DKO 1 . Nil", 

tUii mmi rMnm.i i man H* iBpnotal fu be -C*C1 : II u'. fiUMvraceUt 

• U tiirrcfuic Ail upUir gap bclwwn cliluratctic and luvltor-crtic acid.] 


Carbamic Bther or Urcthane. CWiro^tfAdnrsrov 

r>c«»JL jIhji. CAnm Plyt. 54. 233; %\m Ann. Pimrm. 10, 2*4. 
Linuo. ism. Pharm. 10, 2W*. 

. J'A.rr«. 54. 370; 58, ?€0 
W i rvrs. C«tr*. mut «, 5413; ab© /. pr. 04m. 3ft, ««; fnrtlmr, 

am. 79. Ml 

pi rrn/A 21, 0S9j aim J. pr. /Vn 8A 14!. 

Oemiuiii>t. .*n«. r*iw. Wjml 72, IM. — /Waf, CAim. org. i t 140.— 
N. J. /'Aon». 9, 320. 

t'rat**; I.WMwe, X«A/»Wm»m^. — Wwcwd Wy Dimi in 1*M. 

F»rm*!r.*t\. I, By mixing eblotormk fnmiiaic (p. 2*0) witfc aqaoaw 
or ricofcotic immona (Dumas). P« tt* fqutin* nJ. p 750. — X. Bj 
»jj eartaonif ftthof in mniart with •*jm*«hih ammonia (Cihoam): 



, ByMUorating alcohol or ether with the rnpoarof «ri: I >ywhj 

Lao alloplmmc ctlu r I - lyelallisce on! <I.VM..- A Wdnlul); 

: -v CWPO*. 

4. Aloahol nVwirlj* gftMOItt (-Monde of cyanogen nVdimtontlv, and Ioam 
the odovf of ll slowly wIkii Mt nHitU in a rWsl vowel, 

quickly in snuehwo or when jjenlly heated, »aI nmmoame '• 
senaraio! nt the MUM tmr. tad ■ liquid formed coDtoiniuj: bydzoelilcno 

■ I.. 1 miiI iiii-tiixno (Win: 

OXCi * 2CWO" .4 .1 ■■■. • 

The sol ninmoniao appears to be produced by a wcondarj m rti). 

— 1T 5. By the action <if ntamenk on rinoincthjrlio carbonate, metallic 
itoohol 1'i-iii.; fi.uii.Mi gi the Mime time (Clnuoftlj Vll], 145); 

C*M of 

:: 01 * Ml» ■ <'\Nltrn< • (VU«U«, f 

FtYfmraticn. I. A mixture of cbloroTmio form late and ex 

ftlOftholn :iiiiiiiiini;i if- <h.Iil!rtl to drynftSS ill vacuo, and ths 1: 
-.1 from the admixed •al-nrnmnnino hy distillation iu the o:, 
it 1I.1 11 pMft "vrr iim ti colon iid which ci i>n oolssg. 

I! I ample of (in- disliliato dissolved in wnt ,.• turliiditr in a 

<*( nitrate of n'nu. il 1 on timet bo repeated (Panias). 

Cnrbunlo other U mSmd «; an equal troluus ■>!" u-im-ni* amooalg, 

nixl tdo mJstara *et avnic in a itOWpetOil bottle till the carbonic ethvr bu 

oonipU'i'ly Anip p earod, aft*r wbioa tb< liquid i» ovapofatOol in »» till 
ethane crystalline* (Cahoun). — 3. Alcohol <>r ether w mtutat*! 
>. tli rapoar of oyauie acid, rvnlvr.l l>v lin:ii. ■■ eyiminic acW; 1. 

:;|.T |.:irt n!" tin- ::ll. |»li:iiiifi'|i. x'*talliBPr^t; 

lu tiiotlicr-lifjni-1 decanted and cvaporaU-1 iufflciontly to •*••*# lb* 

27rt rriiTMtvi!: cnvjucuTrn roMPfimms or AwroooF.N 

and oolil ; ol-m in -4/o%W both abeotn'* and hyd rated (Dam**).— It al» 
di**olrt* rcodiK I | Li*Mg A W.-klcr). 

■ ft •^A(mr i C llJ NH >l O t =C t N(H*A«lO> > u* formed ay 

It mar ho wpwlw! a« < r (WurU, Compt. rtn4. 

180; GUo* £««. tf«. ^- VII, 1>2). 

•I Xwithamidc. cxnw = CAW] J£. = Xd 

fcaur. ^ 0M. C. J?. IHflO, 50; Mrtsb — Further: 

-Inn /v. . I 161 ; ibi f I '• Inn. &&» 

Cma.ncei. * ratio?, 03, S87; /'«*•'*. 1651, 100; *T pr. C*o,< 
111, JflMr, 1851, 512. 

XcnSkogmwmtJ, f rflAane mijuri — Dtoorerod b; I)'t*< In 1*49. 

y •■ .*. 1. By 1 1)0 action of ammonia vaul^ 

of ethyl kwAilfl of nmmouiii bem£ alio formed, ancf nlpum 
talcd (Dobua, VIII, -143): 

2CMI 6 S*O f ♦ 8NII> - CNIPS'O* + CHIVNII'/OMCS 1 ♦ tS. 

2. By tno action of nromoniii on vinomeihylie ornalphoc 
(Chancel, VIII, 443): 

CH'SO' * Nil* - ("Xlirsuy - ' il :- 

This action is analogous to the decomposition of rinomcr. 
Iiy MDUOOl k 

prefumtUnn. Dry ammoniaenl jra* i« pawed into an alcoholic mIh- 
ti<iu d! btOXTtillphociirbonAtfl tA ethyl, wlicn?apou tic: liquid bcoomM 
hot. and yield* a proci|tilaUi 'if nulnnur. A* oooii h> l)j i pr©ci| 
nt an imkI. the pBMigeof tlie go* u interrupt*!, tha liquid filtered, mid 

tin- filtrate c van.. rail. I in >li in \urim, The r.- i-lu. «fl!ow*C«* 

almost Completely, forming unall aggregated n«edlc* of xantliat* of 
ainniDiii.i. vuii ,n oily liquid wbioh il xnuthoxnidt Tb) ntUr 

!. ■ -IiMuUctJ OUt by I'llin. ;ili.l ii-Ml»:iir. ;if|r| . . | | of (I* 

in the fom of nn oil liaviui: uu alHaconui ndmir ami gradually 
imlidifvilig bfllow 2S* \( ilii- -nl:.l N'wi.lud Im J En a •mall 

qunntiLy of alcohol, and tho alcohol ©vaporatcd, the corn pound it obUiDtd 

. pun ii ii J in [ftrgi - r\ Or, iheeolution of 1/iMxyonlphooacboofcU 

of cilivl, afUl being treated with Jiiitrnntiia, in: . ofioraUd 

ovrr idf v .au r-Uuli. and the rc«iduQ freed from xantliate of arnmonia at 

traatlng it with a unall rjimntltv of water The rcoiaiidoff xiiritliamMSi 

Hi sod from alcohol aa a)>ov«. 

bioxj nlpbocnrbonoie of DthyJ ivymvl K-.r the nrcrtaratioo u»y 

ho obtain-.-'! ' •) lh«- |.r •-.-.- ^iven in Vol V 111. p. 4- : 

better, by treating uo alooholic ioluiiou of ihiU*Ii with I 



carbon rill ir \. nr-:ir)y neutral; Stating tin- liquid with twice iu hulk of 
wat- r. rin-1 then |iaimih^ chlorine tbroufh ir. ahfiirbj nibiiiiln of juilee 

tium kill ! i. yv n!) 1,. r .nli..|i:iii* of ftlivl eTl bTOdoOtd, tl 

remaining in • pur&titi^ in the lonn oJ u y.-lluw oH: 

KCH.CV * Q - KCI t OTnWft 

To | bl decomposition of i?«nu|ir.iitif] hv exceae of .LI .. 

rinc. a una! I q I iodide of potauitira may be added to the Bqui 1. 

'i".| : lot ■• .ill-inn- il;. * • .mil. ■i-.-.I u nan l* ill-.' liquid become* 

brown from nptu iliou "f iodine, Tbo liioxysolphooarboiraM of riliyl i» 

tli'-n wu*lnul with water (!t-.,ilviwl in a niivtnr*« of I pt. other And 2 pt* 
lleobol, and treated with ■DUaoaJa aaubov* {Dn I 

Propertitt. CryaLillize* in truncated rsenll ftQ pyremlda beloa ■• 
ohliipw prixuintie nyMMn, mul ■ ujipr.>vininTin/ w thu 

e 1 form Plan* angle ol ft* A* nearly — no \ P • h— llx ; p j fc= 
LOS bonocv And also by direct measurement, p:.P=l3?\ Too odjee 
Iwtwwn /' and p ie ttmiictinic" •lifatly tr BOOBl A Clcarage Terr ptrf cot 
parallel to A. The foe* A U ofteo eo grwatlj ex< I tbecrj 

appear to be reduced to tablet, By slow cvaporatioa Tory I urn cryatali 

niny b.» Ml.iain.'d ^ ' | 38* 

1 ut, Ckancnl). Sparingly aoJubla in water, hat di*»olvo« ia all pro- 
portions in alcohol and ctbar; tbc lolutioua arc neutral (Dcbua). 

CtyiSttK ttntil in r*ir. over mtfhurit aettl. Debm (mean). 

or .. .. '..■ :u m ;u ■ 

N 14 12'90 

j h i ( m ,„ mo 

8 8 32 .... SO-tf 3M4 

2 O Iu „. 15*3 

III . 

100 -DO 

tiwadde v*y bo rrgardtd a* uretban* tn whi«h balf ,; " on *d by 

icd bj Hi ill " it#i/. **/!) 

in eoinu ■■■■ u i . i ■ , ■ I : 

fori IJrbm).— Deliin »!*) propc Ehl formula 

>.< suH> ( cs^indc*ii oa». 



to O g-nuiaally i 

cyan uric acl 

fion*. 1. Xuritliiimido exposed in a distillatory apparatus 

Sncroa/m : temporeUae i» received into a «ud 

vO' - 3CIW + <?NMIHi». 

It brf»M to fire ufl gx» at 110*. iml boiled r>l 17S", living "IT tt ccIoarlfN liquid ■ 
had ■ tt^^I «lkilin« r—rtJon, inmlt of oivrcftft tin mnd cyanic ocid. bf<7»u>* oeloarfld by 
mtpw*n to hcM. »■• In •!"' tul □ Iwd l« nil pttqporllona Kith aloobol and 

rtk*-f. ii» iiiniidtt.- tolotior k»»c with bonwrre rabllnuqe A ooploui wbto 

■ ftM-h becmnic n I I niv. u.i « M lmiii'1 «>/ In: a compound Of iifci*i| ..<!<' 
Of tt*K»»f« Ntil. tiltuUln vf mt'i mi (MM 111 Um r«toi 

■ ftulid ri> '* »bkb,nh«o dbwoUW lo » «x»ll quantuy af alcohol, 

cmtaatol . — 2. X&Otbfl 18 tTOOg AU- 

p&unc ac\>- : . and li roprvcipitoioil from tb« anlution by water, The 
•oJbIhwi when bootod r loft t. . ttand for noma time, _*ivMoir, withonl 
bWkoaiinjt, a Itrgv ^aaatity ni loJpbaroa Acid, and fJw* thU leUeioi 

• 4, Uw UuuciUiu-fuo «f Uie j'VT*"*"- ''• ;'■ f*ecj uftlic pjrunkL 

27* ■niTLBSI: COMJIXATTO O0*rorsi>< Of aJftTOOen«a mlnfeauie nid, an acid wbiob fVnn* a aolakl* «*h w>ta t*mi 

Hot some linM- with l/pdi+tAkei* *c-U, 
is an apfawatua ao arran^-d that ike i dart* caja^&maUe at 

aJwoi 10' wore ocanpeUcritti rim \mtk a*a-i:. Tichied wl-ama—rrar ami 
a f*\\t*w, ToUliU oil, not yet fnrtl<r *xamin*l i_IMic«i | 

IM »'-t. vi...<r.tly on <tc, with ovulation *f nitric uxU*, (♦«#• 

iaijr ralpburic ao'd asd another ar'*l nv-t yc-t iarevti^tod. — 5. Xilnm 
aciJ vapour pa*acd into water in %hirb x-tnthan»iik u *«*ptaxlc*i, forw 
o^-ulpu-cyaiuu of cihvl. C'HK).! VIII, IS*,) wLirl parti; 

crv«Ulliw» out and parti/ remain- roe* oxide beiag ILko* 

wlaatYeJvwd tad snlpbar preoJpitot*4 (I)«tu»). 

* - c*hw*nso -» no * jno -» S. 

fl. XanOminU* it decomposed liy Ammonia at I50P- yUld 

acl. liydroauinhoeyanic aci : ikinsr ooaiponsd* nessi 

cspUn 7 7'-/a#V/«y and huryt>i-wat<r Wiled far several hoara will 

xanlhamidc, decompose it into alcohul and bjdxoaalpaocjaxiic a*. 

vX>" - OHHV ♦ CWHS>. 


rat tioM not »bee««l «err well villi j-H**h. Inc— m Ike cxcwm 
fclktlt la itifflrvlt »» i*i»r»t» from tlifl prociorU ol Hi* <Wotrvf «rtio» ; bat »iti 

waltr, M, i ,!,.i lUiory tp ■( in* wUn> nrodocu mi) 

•rein for wait.- noun, « iIImiIUi* of ikobul ■ obtained, ud U* Ip^vU fca la* rrtpfl. 

ah«a fm-il Imhn I IC*M "f btrjta bf ■ »Imiiii of cartumic iiid, tirliW rrrHwSwa suJpso- 

rjanidi of Kinnm. A nJ . I alao ■ 'olvcd durinc tar •iu:ili*:i.*m, tayaciallj 

Watiioim (Drim*'. — A. XiMtliaini •* dceositK>-cd by tic 

oxiii** uf leaw, mercury, and silver, a metallic *u]| i ig forma* 

aud a vnpnui rivon afT iraiob ttronglv affSfiol liqaai 

yioM. l.y HI [IllatiOU .i -iii:iIJ |ti:iiitity of An tliM*p:i: 

and a roaiduo containing a ornall quantity of nn aminoniocnl rait. whoao 
aciiJ, whim nrparatod by tttlphoxk Mid jitl Ival 'li i .! hi of cyanic acid. 

— 8. Wkcna nostra] solution of Cupi ' *AW to u aluduJic 

miliiimii nf" xutliBinaiO| tin- lii|iiid firwt aaaomoi ■ blood-re I eol< 
bMomM ooioorlaaj, ajid yiolda a proclpitau of amor|ihona wIjAur; tha 
li<|tii'l filtered fr .in thii pracipitata when tho action it endtxl. yields 

«i, (J iir<i 1. 1 , compound >i Ranthaxnidc and ooprotu ofalorid . 

U i of oxyiulphocyanatc of ethyl (IMm.*. VIII, I 
aCWHWH 4- 4Coa - iQ&HW&O 1'H'ii i i H 0,1 XSO -* tBl 

A iralkr reaction takea place when an nqucoua eolation of xantliantda 
mix'-'l vnli i \.. i if »Mi]iric -iil|tliato and bydrochlorio axiid. a ' 
cryatallinr praoipitate of t In- co]ip4>r-coiiini>iirnl Win^ iinnn . 
thicii! — Hi An :ili*iih(ilif w.lniinn of santlini a a'hita procipf- 

I. it- -'il!i corroiivo tuldiiiialo, and :i | tlilM |>ri-ri|utate WH 

bichloride of plntinum. With the frrcatcr nun tallic lalta, boir- 

over, toIotSoi i i 1 li:t.ninN- Ebnn do preolpiutea (Debnoj. 

-v.. .<M. n / Xantham il< unites with mttaJlio iodides and chlundotr 
forming definite cr^iiulliin COmpoVBOja, 

Xanthtmub uHk n,j-r<>u* lottoU—*, aC'NH'SKr', Cn'I = .NJ^CaU. 
— i Ibtajnad by mixing a aolation .-f :*X-i. In -CI in Hot alooh- 
wana colutioa of ivdido of potaoeiam; a small precipitate u tbcu 


the liquid lltevd tlirrvfrom. and Irfl to MAiid fur % frw hour*. 
rl foa l u th* coiniwititid " iu concentrically lt -h j-o»l noodle*. Them-" 
Irqwr, when further ev:i; J| dI tin OtiB- 

pound 6 (iW. i*/.J. iii'l lastly, xanthumidn and • blOftctl I 1 pOU 

Xn?C**a ♦ KI - XWI + K; i ■ 


x«i a Cu*i - Xd*Ou-i t xj. 

Tin ooiDpoond a cirrvuHIaM In broad, white ntortlit, which are 

tnvoluMp in vntt'f, but ifmnlrn in considerable i|unutity is cold aloobol 

■J ii»- ri.-jir aJooaolio aofotfoti bteovitt karbld when btatcd be Lfoc Uoil 

point, and dcpv*it> .1 •■ 1 id<-i-jhlc ountill iodide, whilst 

a.-iniimiiiide remains in the liquid, and may bfl obiuDod in bin 

tin- nitrate by evaporation; but if thn solution tontoiolllg the xiiithnmido 
b* allowed (o cool in contact with the cuprum iodide, nnd kit 

tbafl afu nrnrda ia contact with n ; NQoabtaftlion I ud tho 

original oompOOad Xd'Cu'I in reproduced. In boiling water the com- 
pound uvjlber melts nor JiMulrot, but taffan partial dacWD|K*ili0tii 

tlcAiiil uii |)l;iin.iii:t foil if Ihi'ihimv. HqoJdf and wilidiflr* in a cryatalliaa 
on cooling; nt a higher tamp*flatur*| U hlMr"1Bt and give* off* 
naorenpian. Ween kct>1 fi ol ood ■ ■■ ■■)■■■, 11 turn* green and iciv«a oft' 
mcraapttn. Niui< a< id .Kv-.n.].,. it ** jib riolcncc, setting tl 

Hydrochloric ucitl »I»o dtcotpyoew n, form log X-.'mI'I mid 

hyiiriod:<''ju>id. t'ouuri, ammonia, mid juilplhicynnida of jHitauJum not 

t in the tuna manner an ou the taiTOspondlng ahJonafr oogipoTn d 


I U 210 . If S 

2tu 04 .... 160 

I „ _.... 120 _. JI1 3211 

.1 400 «. IW'O 

i. Xd'Cu'I. — Crystallites from the moU>eff-liqti» r , from win 
La* boon deposited {$up,\, barge laminated orystall (Debut}, 

lp iiLi XdCu'I and Xd*Cu'l appear likewise to exut 


Xantkamids M I ro«l ftt/oWuV. — O. : — FormKmn and 

PN«*r«tk.ri r r .2Jtt). — Crywtallix** in Hmall, white, nldiiing rhoinbohcdraJ 
crystal *, approximating' to Uie cubical form. Houtcd an noSl a it 

■MlUtOI fellow liouidt and at n higher UopontttfB I dfc 

till^ liiriiMi 
Nearly in^duM" in cold wnti*r nnd Tilcnlml. hut di*--<iln» villi 

lalttabll ftWHtJf hi warm iJoofcol i» which it impart* n brown of il»iir. 
Oo l-i!m« tho to] 11: -f the nit it d * ' ■ ■ ■ l*ptl»«i( B I 

rulphido of copper; tho not mturnted eolation dopomU tin- |T«at0f part 
iu aalt, on 1 isli of ibe ibovt -inn tinin I f<>rm. — Water 

nnd other llqnida mciaalni I with hydrochloric ncld iHmuItv « 0001 
■i'ic ijunnti'v id 1 1. . eonipouncl, which i« thi'M ■ltnoai »ln>Hy preripiTaind 
o« tl **!er, or when the Mid i« B*u >»•«. 

<id uppcfaiD nloo to pir etul.iliry t. • !..■ ftOID] 0B» I 
wbcu diavolrod in li/ditchluiic acid, it doc* not decompose oo readily 


H**tod M k ft K«0.'h1 aut COoUiakf tku »eii Trtrt aiU Mm. 
•*l ,r * '*. »uh ■0i«niujaor aalpinr and nitr*«* acid 
•.Ipharu: mr\,\ ,t v „<a *ff a g»a, »»! r«4«a ■ bin* r- 1 — ral-* Tm 

aulahW in wnier — Atnm-ciia eoloin it Uaw. fi^SlS j^^ 1 ^ 
qpMlily of it, kxmins a Nation wbidi tuia* Ulmek wEImLIJi 
f«»**y eoUif. « i*W^»i « ftm, bat tbc colc.r tSSi u 

blark in a fcw hour*, with *lijrlit rv -ittannotita. — Wiik 

nth compound « ^ir« ft «UU prodpttAt*: and wkk^SSi 

cyanide «,f fK.taiMtuiii.ft wkiio |imipitate cvc*i. 

WgptX, hydrochloric *ad aod xauibawidc (l>elm*). 

• C.^.^^^. 36-0 ... If 41 

; ii 70 « sea 

lO _.... 1*0 _ 7*¥3 

IK ... »•• ._ : 

N _ l«4 — 6»5 

tc« <-i'fl . si-ai 




- 174* 

XdCh'CI . ... 204-4 

|M. 9« 

6 XriMVCl — I. OIn.ii^l by *ddii 
xantkamiilo to 1 At of lb« compound a di: 

tg rnther more than 1 At. 
-Mrcd in aloorwl. mi.J tcarinc 

tlir liqvof to craporalc. — 2. By smdually adding an lii0 ^ 

aftprifl 'i "i i la U- mi alcoboXio aojution of xantliamiilft, till % drop f the 
ferOftf fttodttoai * fiiiut rcddivli lint wbicb vwa dlanppaara, a prrx'i rotate 
of ■ulptur U formed; th* rtltrato yield* by alow ovaporutioa cfYftial* of 

iln: compound fr; Mid oxy-ulpuaeynnato of ethyl rvmaiaa iu aolntion: 

opnicpo' ♦ icaca - iQmcHW taci ♦ s ♦ 

n wifcc, 
pi&at* i» 

8. By riiftanlving 4 At enprin aulpnato and 3 At. Tnnthan. 
ami adding an oxecu of lirdrooblorio "-"I tt cryttnllitio precipitat 
produced, oonisieting cbii/llv of Xd'('u ! CI, Itut -:uall 

rjuntUteo of X.rCiiOI. ana •ometimoa also of Xd'CuK?]. It- 
aolntioa abaadoood to upoiitaneouft evapotslion f yictda tht^e tUrec » 
ponndi hi Ilia or^orfa* nenilonM. 

'I'll.- OOnponnd 6 orvttaUiaoi from dilute Alcohol h;ti ( .iiv n wliiu*, 
abiuiafi ->ljli«|uc rhorobio tnblw. but from itron^ oolaftioni in Urgo ux- 
SJdod tublra, 'I'll': cryotuld brcoinc dull mid like lmkhui.'! by U. , 
whi-ii lu'.itod, fuw to » yelluu- lii|uiil, wbicli Miliilili 

eryvulline nuai like malted t i rtrouger haU, eonplata doevnpo- 

■Uon take* pi ti'.-.- and narotpUn Uavolvod, — Th«oompoaad is iitAoluHo 
i:i wrier, l»t diMolv<4 readily in alcohol, funning a location whiea 

UaokKH hjJT '"'ilinj,', and dopoeilu sulphidn of Coj>|iot. l'i:i-li .|.|. 

rlic solution, thrown dowv i « I n i - proolpltaU wbloh diawrvaa in n uligit 

axoow of lli* r*>agont, forming n solution which dopowita tnlchido of 

cop|M?r aftnr a few hoops, nnd Icavca u yvllow oil whun eTaiKiratcd. 

nonia ami oarbonal* of aniiiMiiitii Im-Iiuvi- in g aloular "Tlimfr. bat Of 

In- lanaolablo in cxocm of the roa^ooto NStmcad «ilv«r 
BRMAwMta praaipitaia irbiah anon turiin blaok Taaida and •uliiho- 
.„i.i.. -I aotaadutn f^nn aiika, cryatalHoa pr«cipltaM il :.,u*- of 

produou* bo chan^o in aulaiious of thin compound. Uydrochli 


•dpittltttod hydrogen act upon it as on ilio precod- 


72-0 . 

. 2J27 ._ 

... 2331 

14 II 


I'M .. 

4 AS 

4 C> 

320 . 

. 1034 

Z N 

SW'O . 

4 8 

Gl . 

. 30-69 

2 Cu 

GIO . 

. 2069 



11 II 


ion -no 

<r. XdHVLi. — 1. ObUiood bj di«olvin K 1 At- XdCu'-CI and 
5 At Xd, or 1 At Xd'CV. 1 Mid 1 Al XI in UOOkoL mid bavin 
oulutimi |c evaporate. The beat noio of I'ruccediu^ ie to divide a solution 

of xjuitliamitk- Into bhrtc putt: ■-■ m vi-i l two pruts nun tlfl compound 6 1'/ 
tli. i method iln.ii' doaeribfl I una bat) the hurt portion of the xnnthanri<u> 

and fllu-r: the compound * onvtalUsM ffOtl) 'In' Mtrat* by bi tU 

•v»jK>ratiou. 2. An aquOOOj lolutlot) of xnuthmnidc II atrwnrlv Mi In 
lotcd with bjdn calor * lotd, iiihl ODpric rulphnte added in omalJ portion* 

U Ion;; ii' pi ■■! ipit.ilr ].. f.M iiit'I , till- |i:n:i|ii!.i!r El thVD dlMolVO 

alcohol, the Bmutioti lilwrnl, and the BHmta left u btuvtkM: this 

!:lU Which llr-H *Op:ir::ti> cnliKiMl. .if tl ir« I'oiupnim.) <*, — fry- !:i 1 1 ir.'i 

in l*r%* nevropatod cryetiila. derive! from an oblitjuo rbombie pyramid; 

Dl niul lustrous nt Bret, but all l ■ '•come «1<j11 

anJ like |<oi';«'lain. This e.uiupouiid null* when bc rt l I, aftd at I blgfatt 

bttmmtura b rapolved 1 1 * t • ■ niiTcaptau, -ulphide of copper, and other 

priKliJ.-U. IM>I y<J <".:i uiiu-il. If - i cilly iliwiliilil.! ill niM rtliMT. hut U 

readily ili**olvi«d by nloohol eitnor cold or warm. Tho alcohol may bo 

M U> tli<» boiling point without dccmiipiHiiinii Potato and ammonia 

added to tho polntum exhibit the Kama roootiow H With o. I'm-houatO 

of ammonia produces a white precipitate insoluble in execea. Sulphuric, 

bjnlroekloricj oud nitric acid, iniphnto of todftj am! sUnti nl bUwj 

behave with c in the same manner iin with b, Eodldi ami ttfabocmalda 
r»f |mf!VMimn pnul lien im jiltunifinn in cold diiiilt •olutioU Of 0/ OQl in 
itruny and boiling flotation* thoy form wbito, OPptnllinc prceipitatoi - 
Zinc producco no precipitate in tho cold, but at a 'bulling beat it'lhrowa 
down copper, and liberate* xatithanudc- (Dtibiui), 




.... 26*07 .... 

... 2Ai'» 

21 II 


5 07 ... 




.... 11 M 

6s .... 


.... 2d 16 


... 1013 





.^^• i 


114 4 

.... 10000 

A Xd 4 Cu"CK — Obtained by dbwotriflg 1 At. XdCu^CI, and from 
8 to 4 At. Xd. in nlcohol, ud leaving the •olottoQ I" cvnporute. Lurjc, 
truiipparent, ool«urlc*>. rbinnbic cryatala, of rery complex fonn, Sxnc- 
wlmt lolublo in water; «iJ»iolve3 iti alcohol much mure readily than tho 

tn BTHTUntBi conjugated confounds op AAunonr.x-Ni 

preceding eompomiti.*; in it.< hphavlonr wild r**jr*nti, it igreM 
A !■■• OOlDpOSBd f (Hubas). 


M< ... inn .... 27-;s . .. -i:n ._ 9*7 

2H II . .Mil .V.V> .V44 _ VI* 

8 m «• l*« 

• 8 I'JH-O ..« 24 C« 

4 S K-fl io :vj 

Id _ 64-0 ... 12 32 13-62 

W4 ... «•** 

x*i 4 c«h:i aira .... loooo 

Tliiv< streak] compound* of xanthamidc with ruprnus cMfti 
more funitlc mil more readitj soluble in hlcol»il in proportion ju tbsy 

i!n nan nnUamffoj irba ilajolTod la wry km ojaantjtfei <-i tboj andargu pftfth] <loM>mpoaitioii, hoinjr nvolr^il into f*0 atatf 
cnmj.oiiM Ik, mm BOfttwfog BttOM d4 tht 0&OF I cm xanthamido. Wtcn 
kept for Mine lime, 0TH If protected from it uml Ii^lit, they ter mi ,< 
dull on tho surface, and finally black, from separation of sulphide of 
eoppor (Debus). 

XanUt'imidt with Cuprous ^'ih.hnci,auul- — a. Xd,lflCu > Cy&. — 

Su]]tliiH-y:Uii<|i« of l»n!;ix-iiiiii t iuI.Ui! |0 U I DohollO lolotiou of the COOV. 

poiiTid Xd^Cu'Cl, thrown down tlii* compound u» llm l<-rni «•! :i crystalline 
precipitate, winch most be washed, firit with alcohol, then *ir*ii waJOTj 

and ili-ii <1. — Heated to 200 c in ;i ^-1 1 ■■• tub*.-, it dot's not fuae or undergo 

iinv alteration of ■ppoumpoo> but girt* «rt* u small (jiantily <-f n iraft- 

lai: .\t ;l ri'd hivii, :( f.nrtu Muck Sulphuretted liydrogm decomposes 
it, yielding iulphido of coppor. uydriuulphocyanJc acid lod xautbamido 


Dried over wii qf vitriol. DcW. 

SoC l.'-i . H-13 , ilia 

: B 7 .... 0-i;» 076 

2<> .- 16 .... I 'JO 

22 S %S% .... 26&6 

II N ii* .. U-ti 

*0 On 610 .... 4*>W *»26 

CWUWO'.IOCV&NS 1 1325 .... 100*00 

The mother-liquor obtained in Lbe preparation of tlii; i I con- 

hIbiOUVOW !)i|'ltory«nido and (begmtel part of t.lio xaiithnmido. If 
thv |iri'ci|iiiAio a. inalend of being immediately separated bv Bltral 
bo left for neroral dnye iu contact with the mother liquor, it nb&orLo more 
xanlh&midc. nrj'l fittUs compounds, ■.;ir',tii_; in run llt-jtktfl according to 
tin* tiim- uf luiiMiit and the dilution of the liquid (Debus) 

6. XHV'f'n'fVS 1 . — Su!j>lnicv:iiiitlr (rf poUMajan' iimduecv no prroi- 
pit'itx in :i mlil rhlute aleobulie solution of I Hut if the **lu- 

tiou* be wtna and concoutrate*!, the oompouiid 6 i« instantly precipitated 
in nsalj wlim Ublaa, wbil* (hc^n-utrr pari ->f lao xaj co^Ufer 

with n Miiall •((lautily of cuprous ■uJpliocysnidi , ranailM n tin.- mother- 
liqaor. — The compound 6, wh r hoatod Ofl plaUaon foil, tumi 

-Mi'ca off m^reapun. It u jiuoliiblo in water and iu aid 



U ii 


B N 

OC. .. 






.. iria 


IS »| 


?ONIKS<V,5i_V« N* 576 ...10000 

■ <\Cu*CyS\ — Whf-n tho rrysuU of h urn loft In tilth motW- 
liqnor for r f*w dart, Ihny inert 1 *** in «iw, become ycllowUh. take up 
»n additional 'junntily of xantliaraitlo, ami arc <onY«tto«i fatO \k% com- 


; ii 

49 . 


. Bl U 


.. 1MI 


... 22--2 


2 f) 


2 Qo 



... tret 

C^NH-VO 1 ,! i. I "N-V 

hi | (in 

An j 

Th* UBOWII Bf 0OflMf ' d I7 trmlfii* ti loo ■mill, th* amoQDU nf «rbon tin! 

so front, tMrauan the compound aMtynad **« ■OOtBflfn'tatan 1 with » •mi: 
of anothor compound conlaintoc more tlinn 1 At. XU to 1 At. Ou'CyJP. 

Tht ooapODodl tf foJOa watUly whpj in * glaft* tube. Itdofl 
it tool w or moll vboa imrnonod b hoi wfttti or fcloo&oL An aloo- 

ic •ulatiem of xanthiiiiiulo rliuolvea it readily, ami yields I 

t.'-u <-t vii.ti/- i»f the wlmrr-i n ui ;(»(u'i! tniii|K>uii<l richer in ssntbaMniao. 

iipOB it ill Ik- ftftlM BUMI » ">" "ill m OOtUpOQDlla 

■alpboaj uiogttD. Kydroohlorio Mid BlfaalilAtai ltytlro*ulptacyMilo 

id, :iim I piiiiliifV. 1 \ |! '-. 1 ! 

Xd,LV-ijS J * HCJ HCjr9" - XdCu-t'i. 
Aii aIooLoIic nlailati d pot* ■!< .ii --iv. - n, (brmin • i red aolatiovj; tbfl 

UqOid nil r\:m>i;iv lo |;ir - « t ; I. illy lOMB it* OOtOOT, IUmI <li'p<.-U- II 

bnwa precipitate c*ntitniniii£ wipjxT, Ireiving in wilntion mljiliorynnltlo 
iinn together with other producu of deoonipoattioo. Sulpha' 

*4rOJ |< mpOMt .1. \i<l'lni»,' x:;r.lli:tliild«», ii' 

acid, ana sulphide cf clipper (l>ebu«). 

All tbo compouu«l« of x.inili.nuiil "it!i cuprcVJ lulpbi 'cy;inii]c turn 
■1 1 J l.n|'iii;;, nml UTC rouWoil iul<» Othftl {VOductt D0I vi-t M 


oboUfl rolati m ofxaBthamUk fcrmi "ith Mercuric cMorM* * copinm vbho 
iiallf .-llnhlo in •*iit#r «nd nlcnb»l. Wtino *t*mit\ed hi th 
A toeflMM "t 'iy«inli«n(l »aiorph - .u* inni;.T It OOBtriai ISA) 
riMa (l)rliu>). iiium-f>>»if>f»in>f — XilPtfl -f XilPtf -I*. — An nlrtohoHo oWution 

3ouitli i!>ii-i" mi v.- L with biehlorido <»t" puituiuin dvsodti t/tec :i bn 

■mttttll a. yi.-llow crvDtallino prvci|>itato. and tho Ii^ni.i EUteTOd Ibff fa -m 

C .:n iiiuo.*. fut .Mivcral clara to «l«-pn»it tin- i-imc cnipouiul in 
lnmiu.T. Ihf ii»t puitUin*. hovfftr. vhHlfa I mil n out arc nut purr, liut »r« 

e«M»»ini|iim.'f| ultli n dark liniwu buIjiIqjii;*, \n>Ainii\j sulphide uf |ilnliriuni. Tlir dirk- 
oolourtd motaax ltO.101 whicli remaiu» after the tcparaliou of iliac J ., off 

,_r IrotalphoQj mIc 


hj^irorlildfic «M »hni e*»pnnrtM ; yt*M# ■ ttfnwa o*l, wb'«h gmjiurily ¥d1l 
ta(ttfcrr ir*h lfcr» MfBAOQI and nl obolk »afDOn ; »i*1 lr»T** ■ dtflccolM 
i.pmr« :.i L lulphhlvaf pUlmuic, together * lih «i-»mmo»»»c. 
ZfcW i* roc. wr oil •*/ aluU. Ikbu. 

12C 720 ... 14-00 .. .. 13S? ... 1339 

14 II 140 ... Ml Ml Ml 

10 38-0 .- «-** 

4S Ki'ii . 11-44 , .._ 15-31 

2N 2*0 _ 

2Pt 1910 M'M Asm A*-** 

3CI 1008 ~ 3000 - I9<8 ... 2V30 

iw-wn 1 M4-2 ioo'uo 

This OODTpeand be^i** to decompose at 130^, giving off a fdtnking 
It is iiwoIuMe in water, alcohol, ami --iIkt. i lj] 

Upon 'i ;»i ■ »i -li nrtr V' triiijK-raturc*, l&d very li when bl 

Ffelthei : [| Mtcil upMii l,_v I vilrm Marie «'T nitric tOtd, hut lUMJSi-rr^ia 
diwuho* it rvudily. I'.»i i !i b*l n MtlM 0<p0fl it tll«trii»). 5 

Taurin. C l NHW)*=0 ( AdH*;aSO*. 

L Giivrrx. WfJiqwn if* Gmrlitt. Die Vtrdmotmff, I, 43 and fiW). 
DeMAHCAif. 4*n. /'Aarm. 27, 286. 

Pi ■■.. ::> .'. Pi KJA •!"<'. PJUm. '-'?■ BW. 

cnii inn. Pita n. -m , 1 T<» . ij.\ ;J7. 

(ionrr Hi < !>>-/.. 4m, I'h'inn. :.'.». 130. 

flEaurtvv. In tin* hilo of oxon aiul otlirr auiiiniK whore, according 10 
Strvckor, it oxiiU a< the copula in gallic or choleic acid. 

1 Formation Bv tin; action of Lout ou iwtM-ixifr of amnio) 
thin Milt ul.i. heated bo MO . jiving off 2 At. water, and being oonvi 
int«' isiiriii (Streefcer, Gcmpt, (97)a 

< Ml NIl^O 1 . 2SO> - C'NIK^O* + 2HO. f 
r'liatfoti. 1. Ox-bile L* mixed with u !<.■■■ | latitity of )■ 
Ottoi ho mixture filtered from the gumtnjr [in rJiiilnf n. nnilaTaaa 

rated till it i* n*-iil\t'<! into a tough reelnona inn -- anil an acid waury 
liaiiid. The acid liquid, when decanted and Further evaporated du nag 
■ 1 x-h proem it topa itedfy depoeita rwinoua inae«ce» from which it rouM 
be otet tun 4 dooanted yielde on oooliug, e quantity ol I vrtala 

mixed with ootnmnn »iilt, from which the uuriii ritual bo mcdmnii 

>i-|.i:.ilr'.| 'llhl JMirifu'd llV (T\H(.llil \ I I !,.■ ri>-lll.>IK fflM|H 1 

mted in the proeeih, uhon ili**oli'oJ in a bitiall qaauiity of nl«olaM 
alcoliol, and lilicrcd after cooling", leave upon the filter an a<lutiioa*l 
<|uautilv of laurin 11. mail < whicL m;.v be pori I I bjv wa^hiue; 
with ulri.iiuc alcohol, ami erj LuU'iicd faun a hot a^ucoun aulu 
DerasrnT pupae da Ene vhmllar man nor, i*r«vprin^ tlmt ?!<■ ^"..i ;*>«.«« 

tho neid Jiaiiid .l':ii!<l Iroin the rvKiuoao m:i>-<. till tl)0 irr*»ter pur 
the abloriao of lodian hao ervatalliced out of it; mixt-j tho cuoth<r- 
luilk of nlcohnl . "vt* il neide; e 1-I10 tin- c.*T4- 
teltiicil c.i.i alcohol , and tejoryetalllxfl twTUns water. 

1 lj bill in tli* i'i Tom t ia prater |art «.f the 

colouring natter by asutoal ohftreo%i| but mixed with a bjuoII qaojititr of 


intwtinnl mt:«u«, ie Oip0 4 td To lb hroo weeks nt n. tompernturo 

i 87", till .! <ii .riii-ilv roddsu liimii... ;! . >l..h .1 by 

acetic Mid; ili- til'.tiu.:, Logethef with ill- mih -rotor, evoporatod to 

I new; uoxcsdofl axhooatod with BO pel cent BJcohol ikifaft 

iHiiiit.Fi dloanlvod in ii ,•^r; and tin* fiitrnte loft lo ffmtolUoO (Gonm 

Hmauoij. Tho pf<v|»ai-n!:an «>| uunn l>v I I ation of .-\ bill is 

I i. .■.-.! m rwonmicndccl bv Buolmcr (J.'pr. Qhw. L& U7 ; £7«on. Co*. 
IM'», 180). — 

•] 0. My hooting iiothionoto of ofrnnounk T!i b soil btgtof to loss 

ivrr bl ftj 200 . .'I 01 230* give* off writer I'liouniiTiQ; r«. I! p,4 of it« 

wcij.'lt- Tho fuic*i mtwj Ii Ihen .1- ■>!.■. -| ; I: | ,j t|, solution 

j.iii. i bj alcohol. Ibis prooipittto when rc<li:^«»|v«l iu water. 

; |>. iil.tiiooas ova|M>r:itioii, lnr^o cryptale <if Uorio <-\:irl!Y 

ro»< i apjieuraiicc ami propettiofl tliOOa pnpOrod from biU 

ptftfa, I-uri:i", transparent, colourlos; pri i mi/ i<- *,h<i 

rijjlt iTwiiiifttte system. AVjr. 68, often VJtll /'-face*, but without, tho 
fa<»« between a au<l f ; i* : u = 08° HI'. HouVTtOI taftfl u.iSt, lighten 1 

tJlAll Oil Of villlnl. frniUW botWOOt I In- u<c ill hmdontlK ; DAI I 1 ;■>• ■}, 

Imi othorvlffl not dopj-livl rait. 1 : no notion on rogooaofo oolocift Pcrtim- 
DMit In tho »ir and DOoHormblo at 100' (Gin.). Neither moltl BOT 

daoonrpoK! at :mo (Btrookor). 

4 C 
7 H 







1 1 '.» 




lUJUi I 

.... IMS . 
... )i 

;. .., 

2.VI0 ... 
.. W'Oi ... 

II .-,. 

II 8S 

:. ;; 


... 19-57 .... 19-18 

J ! 1?'J , M-I'l 

. ftS-» 

i i ill) 

vo».-. US . 1000 .. 100-00 


[00*00 140-00 

Tfemarety ana" Peluwr * DmiiAn ortflooln I ill- Hflpto, Vhlctl Rflwanb ac U OT 
4bco*fc.i. Hrlotx (Amr. n. 150) '""'"I 2&-&S p.cS; Vamntapfi .-» Will [Ah* 

N.— Rndmnhufcfr •»««iifi tbi rnikniftl 

Ii mi ,C*H«O i : '»s(.-. ,..■,., i, i. .,-.. t.. v|ki«k ii ibmU b< n bUsiphi! 

»l.lrliyd« n »< • TMl 'ir* of IN OOTOtl ' ■ ' Ifl «ffUrj bl '■, l-Tmalion of 

i potMh nu hMtfTVI Uinn With pflfAlhj DQl Hir ti/luMmir nf Imrin Willi 
Of vii' ind "I"" r*jl» (rail* lo tuiittrrru: ormrlnilofl Irdf. iV.), 

■i : n i »i ■ s i ii fl« ill? ■ btfuljiblM ot « 

j-;. oktcfi h«**c%ci riliiUi I -• Taurin 

I < r#7ir(i«-J m MilpUitw' '. •I.L'd'J*. oonxipondir^ 

«ft*dly lo tulphif- mmor lulpiiumpihjlitu I H JU .-"^l> , . 

Df<OMp<>>iti-yii$. I. Totnrra taKjpeto*! t>-» *lry- ili-iilktion, tiM-li., lurrifl 

brown, twrllo up -inui^lv. sod vioUfobrowo bl oilj 

li^ctliT with a >mnll qaaotitj of colourleaa, watcrr KSqaitJi hating ■ 
tinli, onipTTeuinatir ixlonr, and cont»inln|[ ammonfa, logothoi «iili u 
M«j of aottia aoid (Om.). — :' In th* opon fin H nollo and 
■ Ihiekiab li(|ai<i; •wolle ap, and omlti ft i*ivn I<* 

like liitftt of kcntfil indlffo, but |uirtj l 'cnt at the aajnfl I DO I and 
« Uimofiod nhareoftl whiou butna ca«il/ and without rOoi< 

ilorino nadooa not n>i •-! tourio En ilao oold) biti 

(Jj t | :)).• ;■.'-.•. till il.-rntnp(.*iti'. P 110 *! 

O atoall qoantiey of Liquid poaaca ovur containing tuljiliuric ac:d (H«dtcc- 


UeWr). -t Iti solatio* hi oil of vitriol. tented to the boiluiff poinl, 
—caw ft dark cokcr, Ut niUm p*»r edT avJpburtaui aeid r*», and 
iiur» not l*o<m- turbid ci the mdJntkm of wiicr iGa.i. — A aiiturc *f 
taarria with ar-latM-n *f aufrar anil Oal of » ll wliro boated, 

flm ft vllo», and tfe*« « bn»vu-r*d colour (Betaae-i). — It w not de*«n- 
voeed by boiling tod e>r»poratioa *itfc atroeg nitm aeid (Gin. f. Neatbaf 
le < ea»po»*d by bc-ilie/; witb m>|ui»- rr^ift. no* «»«» on tbo additko of 
dilorftte .if f-ju«k. tlje Uqaid do4 yir inf ft precipitate wkh baryta even 
afic- air Bui uarin licrnn! witfc atU* in ft rcd-bot rraciblc, 

yields auTpbau of potaab (Radtcnbaetv 

A \V*»* liiiiiri ik vli>mly «raparat«d fen drynaaa »itb eauntlt pota*li, 
mil lU* ftftuRKOiift jr*** off at a certain ctftfQ of tfce proeea*, in the form of 
nitr*^», wilboat blnckoiisnjr; ft»d Uw r*««Ja*. »l eooiad iaatnadv 
■Iter the •roUtioo mi lantMU ba* ccaaed. fttui tbea mixed will dilute 
•ultiliuric acid, fire* off su pbnrvna acid no free froea -uliibcrvtwd 
bydrnjrrn, sad witboal ; '\imr; tbU rcotdoanlao, wbeo 

led. yield* tnlpknroot and acetic acM. with ft reaidaeof pnrvtadphaM 
of potato <IUdt«aba«bor}. ITbft •rcjotmo of smaoona takaa piano 

rncx uiturntKCtttt, and » attended with cvcloiioa of b< 
Bonne (be cqualioa i»: 

i -IUS»0* + SKO - HO - NIP + 211 4 CHPKCy . 2KO.SC 

:ea piano 


On flmotboff band, ulion taiirin i* thrown into ra< 

treated, iftcr cooling, with iliiulc mi! plume %<:'■'. yi <■■ aulpbaro' 

•nlpbui .•iro^ftn £****, t^Wr with & procrplteu od nlpho 

At » bibber tctapcraturc, the ac<4&tt of |->iaah mcitu 
it « reducing action en tt* tulpbitc. — Taurin la not altered 
boiling witli Iwryta-wnUr (!■•• 

•J 0. Taunt* nndcrxoea fermentation in contaet with inLeati&a] ma< 
(vbicb actfl u tbr fcmirnt) and an alkaline base, such M bil 
nf mhU, l>iii doI iiuilfi ;li. ii.iliirctr ul il.f r«rmeol "i ibe alk.ili iilono. 
I <l>i d wfaei l<"ft for li.nic ilnys in a wftrm pbiea, * ■ n 1 1 1 -^ n pmri.l niiiiiionlfti 
. M. wrboMU ol ■»»onla i »^id, wtv 

■enpftft on tno a Lrongor Mod. The qro«£l . j-lioro** 

d increu' ai weeke, but aftcrvards diiuiiii>l.i->, ai 

l\w nil|'l:.t«- of HrdA :> 001 reffol bj OOnCftCt wltb tip.' -iir inl«i sujblute. 

produotj of lie fenncnUtiun of uiurin are in foot the i thoM 

wtilon If y toldn udw |bi Infloonc of atrong alien - ■ ■ ■ ■/ <•<} i, t h r? taurin 
aninjf rvfolvnd Into ftnJpanrona arid, aldobyda ->r iti oWaitnl (wbid 

ri*'<l by oxidation Into koatlo acid I i a^ain daring tko I 

inrril.ilifiii infi* I'lirbutiit nud), aihJ niuijiouifl , A*\n. I'Aarm. 

2oa ; Jahrmber, !«.•;!, 3t5). \. 

Ctmlmationi. — Toutiii <lix«olrcs in 15 2 pU. of Wnirr at IS*, and 
in ,i mallei aw frO« trlncli it orv-tallie*r» on Cvoiior 

Ii diftoxjlved Muwly in eoM Oil of' Vittiol, forming a rlftnr, naJe 
brown. rlirLJli llni doOl !'<•' D600B()n i.n tlio .i<i 

• (OniA 

frw oWo^ I rolutton of ^!». remaaucw 

red after tb( ei 

• »A Bolvti ati no reaction v% itli bydroohlorie 

nitric arid, aninicmEa, poUftSj flUft-WftUr, ;i!i»n:, j.n ti'tcldoridc od 



ion, sulphate of copper afirYOalrfl MiMini:it<\ DfB I 
or nitmlfl of niImt. axotptinfl ihnt the lost meatiooad mixturo, 
»h«ti crpoatd ii>r ">mc day* to tin- i _• l ; f . m iiiui- i brownh ii t.mI oolong 

aad dopoaita a frw data (llm.), — The aiincou fclution lOM nut act 
upon ammonio-oitntc uf mwt (licdienbacher). 

Bisulphite of Aldehyde-ammonia. NH'CMi'iF+aso 1 . 

Ksx>TKtnucHLH (1448). Ann. Matin. 6J, 37. 

1 The alcoholic eolutiuii of a1dehydc*nintiionin ahaoiUs 

mlptivroai acid >ja> pnaand tliroagu \t. In lam qua itltji ud •■■. h i pvoln- 

: 04 when ii bogfoi lf» turn mhL yield*, if well cooled, a 

lallrne proelpltato. — 8. Aiooaol latniatod irlW 

pli ii roue acid ruay also bo added to alcoholic ammonia till acid r< i-u-.n 

it*]*, niter being washed <»n a filter with strung 

alctdtol and «1 r i «r-l in raCOD, are aluioM. PUQ) pfOvWfd pait uldrli vtlc- 

niuuiMi)t:t liu been u»ed. 

ProptititA. Small whitr inrdle*. tatting elixhtW uf «ul]>liuruiui oeid 
Slid of aldehjdo-aiumonia, and baring mi ucid NUUQI, 


4 V . . :-i _. )9-2 r>'- 

N 1* . \\"i ll'N 

?U- 7 .... 5-C AM 

i 8 A2 .... 

CO 48 .. 3b-4 

CWtlWO* 1» _. 1*04 

Therefor* nnUnwrit' with taarto. 

/>rt»mpwifi.'n/ 1 . Tit* oompoQnd enclosed in n tabedocv not undergo 
any nlu ration at 100"; at |2<T to 140*, ii tonil yrl/t.wi h. .ml when 
tko tul<o in opened pmita an odoui "f Hn!pban>Ui aoid. — 2. Heaiol on 

platinum f.>il it turn- brOWn blftoletni, fwvvll lip, glw* off :vn udour like 
that of burnt lav ho, mid learei a epongy charcoal, 9. In the dry atalo 
rt change* bat #lowly in cold I I"" ■( .lnnni. 1" .iMy 

in ■ralgni, turning yelloa and thou brownbb, and omRtinf an odeVf «f 
burnt taurin. — -t. With the stronger icSd I ■ bras off ^nlpburou* tefd 

gac having an odour of aldsbrda, whilst an nminonincnl fait remains 
5. Hooted with i>ota-*h it exhibits the reaction of I 

— 6\ Ifci mooo w or alooholio solotfon ovaporaUd In vmoOj vuidtonlya 

few e <M-u»t«, and a lai*ifc quantity of tonacimm gummy BJBtl 

tfcf ' lied fruui Uiu alcoholic Boluti vntalDi *ulphun>ua ocid. 

i rated aqueous solution ij mixed Willi uxress nf strong 
Mil, ouly a thick tyrup i< prooipitatod, rn whleh « tji 
alter «omo Una. — T ThJ » . lulion fonm with buryta, load, 

•ilrer •alia, prn-ipitalca, which arc whully or partially soluble in nn I . 
Tbf giirov prccipttUo ia not blackened, couUiua incro traces of or^auic 

288 mimxB: conjugated compounds or amidoces-ncciji. 

>r, aad y'xMe by iguitiou tnm more ailrtc ttan inouottripliUe of 


C+*Un7tkni. — Sutphit* of nMebyde-annnonU dF*«olv«* r«Ji)v in 
wal- r. v-»*ily m l.vJr»U«J, but «|«rin^l/ in absolute alcohol {: 

Carbothialdine. PNHVsC'AdfP.Cfl*. 

RttTCHiiACui^i A Licnio (1848). Jn». PAarn. $$, ft& 

When Mjl|iliiiliMif o«rbon it nM-«I to an »T<oh«li< relation of aMnhytfc- 
IBKn • It boated lonw it* alknl 

* after a few mirutcfi, deposit* wliito, afchlv lustrous u$o-l!o>, wticL 
3i Mt bo waabod witb u email quantity of alcohol. 

fUJcnb. A U!». K , 

IT 50 -.. 37-04 86- <; 

m _. u-» ,_ imc 

8 II .... 417 . 6-Xt 

■2* . 8fl »« S9*t4 

CWW .... 81 ... 100*0 . _ 10006 

I . 1 1 • ll.i il.linn ili> -.?:,- .ri Mm. )t\ aci4, 

may be prcciptUUxI thcrcfruui by miirkiiuii or liiiixl alkali> 

I K"ii .ml id the orTaUllfae atate. But tlio hydrochloric 

•olutiou, vJicu laA to stud for ■<> time c 

wiiitinii yellow- jia«to, inxolublo in wator. Carbothialdino bo 

•XCftW of liV.J r .ulilor ;. nl.i (cil-ctiiinimi n<- ;iM<*ydc r noj 

■ulpfaido ff carbon. Oxalic aci 1 :.•! I 1 to ;i [■■ .t alcoholic «1i 
dilioly taroira down capillary CTjaUla of oxalate of oramonUi. 1T)o 
Moopolii Nation forme wUti ooppor aalia ft iL'n'K ;•<-< -i iirvcipiuuc: vjifa 
eorrosire rabtimatc, ttiiok ennly Baku and w tii nitrate 

U l^ick |>r<<rij>ii -iii*, which «oon change* tv black lalphiile •/ 
wlvar (Kadlefcbacbo? £ Uftbift), 

Oxamethane. c , >nro i :=(>Ai1H*C l O i . 

DuWahcV BoiLLAV. w. /V^j. 37, 40; aljo J". VAorw. i 

h Ami. Cfttot, //<>«. .5-1. 1*1, 

Likiieo. 7*0^ 31, 329. — /lJin PJuirm. P, 1 23. 

OMttrinnmMltr, Qmitiihan, 1Vetnki>Mtvmuin •jdfr U1 krr>r+U**r+* Amt 
A'tAfrt.i/Mi.I, Ui ..„■*/# il Ammuiuaqtir. Iti.u.ift tf h.fkjrlf */J'Jm- 

OxaiaafV it' Et Ay 7i* "< bj Duntu .\ LkrntUy m 18X4, atwi 

feOMeafcIl Eatdtlavtod by Dmnua A I.k'jij;, 

/t»rwi«r»on (p. IfcO). — Ctnaot be prepared with oxwftir.«hfr >ntl klootiul (5V*J). 

Prtporotion Perfectly dry am mou local gaa is pooves] ciroa^h iW 
lubolurn -f a retort oontaioiog porfinuly dry axalio ethrr, t ; ll t t 

*« prtMax'U out botwaon blotting paper, ami diaaolvri U 


C tmK* at i<m$. OnnMkm dbaotraa in WaUr in all 
aa-4 crywt*Jln<* oct t-naiurcj a* the water evaporates 
t« very j|»rit^iv iu coU, mobevluu tnor* freely 
(Daraaa k Bouttay). To« ajuu«04n •olmic* prmpiuu* 
■alt* (LUfcljr), nor laai aa4 mercury aalU (Dwma* & HnoIUr). 

It iliaWre* in all proportion* i» Akekrt, from whit 
out (I.ic&gK it «iiw/.T«* in alcohol mn*« readily than in water 

Cbloroxamethane. C^lTOW=C^uCT,C«0«. 

MA1.10IT1 (1*40). Ann. tlim. /'Ay*. 74, 301; fth» J. pr- 
805. — -V. ,tW Ckim. i*%*. 10, 40; aUo J. pr. CKtm. 35 

Cafcrarawd/am. CaftwMffaif CtowaartW. Ctforojc?**** 

/VrMr«n(p. 211 . 

PrrparaSum PulreriaciJ percliloroxalic cthor contained 
Iated n tort it eoroplcUily «aturaU«! with «dry amnioniacnJ gaa; 
map? ! nlm 1 in ether, cIm; a>lalfon filtered from il ■ramnnfn 

mI which fonn irnea tin- ether rntporaica, pra am d lwit< 
ami purified by wiluii ..« i n lmt wnler, tru&tmcnt with aoiina 
ttd rvpvatadcrywulIiaatioD (MalagutM. 

PfMUKwC Cbloroxamcthano crystallizes from ita aqueo 
on cooling in white noedlou; tut from it* alcoholic eoliit: 
lion, in the form of *nuw coniiioatnl <»f uwllc* and lamina? ( 
Th- Blinlall belong to the right prismatic ny»tcm (/ty. S\ 
with tV. ril^f. li.'iwi'.Mt ii and / triiiicateosl, ■ • «' = 8i° 2 
133' 44)'; I: otwoon «" and »=i 151*40; i ils 185* 

hut iik ut ("in ■) ingle i.s therefore the nunc a* In oxam 
wliicli uillVr may he dodoaai] (RHB the same primary fenn 
niaiiuM.liiiiir; .n-.-n. ilin-Jy uxaiucthane and i-lilnriii:i.iiii<(li:in« aj 
awmorpbois (Pr ra I » chin. Phya. 7o, 322). — CUUr< 

tni'ltH at !yi ,a largo portion MiMiming at the name timo as a \ 
liquid, vvliirh solidities on cooling in a tlfigotiy >•• OVQ I ■■nrati 
it* boiling point ie above 200 1 -'. — It tootee very fweei, Ml 
blUei hrW-tMtr only wl» n it U not jutM pure (Mnlngnti}: 

ftaVMalat Malajntt 

» < 48 _ 16-41 „_„ 10 M 

N M **4 484 

111 S . 0*S9 .. D-74 

3 LI 177 .„ lil-O An 

<Q ., , M 4 8 = 16-01 1*78 

ONhTOH* 380 . 200*00 .... 10000 

GcrWdt {PricU VMm. ory. 1, 119) xnA MtUcull wp|M>«e that tl« < 
■UoreaaawJnaai m dlffvrvut from tint *>i ntimeihuuc, imd that the two 1 
Tif*nt typM, Iwinw thry MhtbU .1iirri>r«f raactbni with tqumqi amiHoni 
fiv thli rv*»on tlirj iltc«r*l thonarneui ChlurorrtJumid*. 

DKampotilicnt, I. Ctiloroxamothono boilod with 00114 
(riraa off a Inrgo quantity of ammoiiiu, and fufflDi oUofUfl nt 



together with anntrier ebl'.riiintod «lt which doe* not precipitin nitrate 
of *t\rcr. Wlwii perfectly pure, it yield* only a trace of oxalate of 
potash hut that wjiieliha* a Kilter *rtor-U-<r« yuM- ratlin more. — 2. It 
aiatolrcs C"-iii| V tely in ii'juoou* ainraoriia in the cour*r *'f a f"U l] 

::" i-Monivilin i ll*| r i I :i niMH) i ■ .»li. p. •> I 

I -t 1BO - Mi I CI 'i.i u 

>*n*. Chloroxaraotiiftoo dissolve* apnrintfly in cold, raadil< 
iliBg il..- '. Tin- .i,luiioh dun* 09t |»r\cipitato lime or flilref-aalli 
— It diaaoWca in .i7c..V.:' iukI AV«v (Mikhi-iiti). 

1 Compound Ureas. 

, II] /'terra. <?**/* 1051, 487, Softnvfer. 1851, 384. 

ftnnnujm CN'rTO 1 = OWfffiA*)*)*.— Fonnod by tho action 
of ammonia op cyanic cil*r: 

C*U\CPN& * NIP - ON HO\ 

DiMolrc* readily in water and in aUoIid, and cryatallixca from the 
alooliolir Kilution io liraa prima*, which dccorapoMal nt 201) , wifh troltt- 
tloa of am inxii i in. 1 formation uf other product* Dot yet examined. 
Two a^ueou- ",Iun..i] i Aaeoittpoaad by ehlorino, fonrtloff a ln-nw Uojud 
wliJeh vuuciimea cryataliiaafl ^ru'lually. Nitric acid add<j<I to tlio 
»*{*• I ■ »u docs uvi form a precipitate; hut the mixture, when 

•wapontod in v.inin, yieI«U oryal .1-. - i' mime «»f uthyl-urea. 

MBBTXOTnmTRBA. PNW = C'N'fHWftA^O'.— Form. »d l.y 
the action of molhylaiuinc on cyanato of ethyl; 

< •u'.cma 1 + own - c r N 9 ii ! w. 
It if very dfiUqnMDant 

BrrmirL nar A . CPXWO 1 = CWfH'Ae^O 1 .^ Formed hy the 
action of water on cyanato of ethyl (VIII, 487): 

NO*) -r 2110 - 2CO< * C»N»IW. 

Alao >>y the action of ntfcylafilroa on ryanatc of ethyl: 

GW.CW0 1 + C'H^N - DWV. 

THo a^neon* flotation mixed wltfi nitric acid and ' don thawatar- 

r.|,, C N irn'NIM' flatten..! i 
nana, which am vory acid and daltynaaoeat (Wnrtt). 

TmmmmrmA. (WH"0»« mpplPfV = on»a©-o». Ob- 

uiaed hy tin- action of cyanic acid on «M« of i*:tr^ll: yJiutu : 

II 'No i i NO ' 

:.i« cosii|Mtund m omtaltlu* (Bofimwa, Awn Pharm. Tm, 274). 

v '2 


f Othyl-urea. C-N»rW=C , X l | f ^J£ )l }o», 

N. Zurrx. /. pr. Chem. *t, 3«3. 

At+fft-m**, Aftt*r*t€. 

Formation. By lb* aclion of chloride of OfJiyI (p. Itt J on urrw : 
pn>h«o» * c*H*o».a - Ha ♦ ctn^h\c«ii»o'jO». 

Prrparatmn. Chlor»le of o thy I poured a poo dried arm Hrt* ■] 

■UTned'ately withonl application 0/ ATieraaJ k*mt ; the mixture hoooroM 
beated: i»Ju: thoexeea* of ekloriic of othri eoktilitew; a* J too liqeia, 
after L.injj. atirred for •orn* time, twumw tfie form of a white, tenacious 
mow, wfcfab, if hesloi fort f- M to 12©\ entirely lorn tk« « 

pj i lih i.Ji- of othyl; it likewise remains *>fi, ami [i after-vanl* teinvlv 
diminished in weigh! by washing with ether. On diuotoing fin* rv 

:iud leanag th« solatiou to cod, tbo othyl are* cry*t*llue> 
Ottl. — \n ncra of urn «ppf*ra to bo tdnsttafcea* iu Ibe i-rrpansUon . the best 
biufwn m ; » 2 ft*, art* «• I At chlorbk of otayl. 

T; gMKfcrx, CryataHixe* from the alcoholic dilution in long, f,,i:r- 
I nee-lle< with IWtfflglliir *i:iNf, they in- generally ially 

•MftloBj ami have e«Titi<n ou tlioir surface, or faur«ided groom roi 
llovp] 0M </f the tn*o broader (ace*. The cry* toll Ate wbito with * 
lualrc. and rceeoiblo tbo*o of uren. From the ftqtu tioe, the 

i.iunl OysUlUni, partly iu ■ii-»i«lr<l prUms, partly in f»ur-*»ded 
prisma with "rhombic b»*«i and dihedral summit*, and collected in 
phimoiio or stclliitc group*. 

itnrrtMl 120° 

J \ IB 

II • 

* O 32 


3V29 .. IVfttf 

«■« vroo 

»-»» AVi 

31-J8 $H1 

CN^M'.CMPO'jO* 192 _ 10000 

l')D (in 

/J'C mpt'Udton*. Othyl-oroa hoatod on platinum foil ^itca off a whit* 
vapour, tho crystals becoming covered with a woolly deposit; At ■ 
heat it rulnlilicvi without residue. Wheu it U lien tod iu a tube, tho w. 

depoall begins to form at 100°, hue the ijn.-miiry r .f it predated U but 

niiall, lf|B nt 200 6 , nt which temperature the body fu«ew to eloox liquid. 
ThU liquid eolidine* on pooling, iu o crystalline miw which diraolrfe in 
alcohol hihI water; tbo alcoholic atdntiou yichle oryst&Uiuc ^odeo^ 

ttiMxl of fduiit, rather thick, ucumiaau-d rbomblc pnatna. If th* heat be 
nrthor rniacd. hut not too bigb, Bod continued for aorao timo, tho coo>- 
p< nii-1 in roAolvod into cyanurie acid winch takes the form of noodlo* 
bhnped ery»tol*. and othyl- amino (acotamido, p. 346), which pmrtlr 
remains intbo liquid among*! the crystal* of cyanutio acid, mud partly 
i-ollecta on (bo coldrr |«rU of the *r*.r) tu (he form of a w.mlly acieula'r 

^ ■ ■ % - - ** ^ y ■ i ■* V- ■ , , 


rymmrk «ii othyiimMv. 


2. Builrd with cnuMie potuh, it^ire* off amrnotiTu, ami yields a ro&idue 
of .-arl.onit* and aoeUU- of potash : 

V^VHtfpfo ♦ 3KUCH - 2(KO.CO>) t C<H*KO< t 2NU». 

Combination*. Othyl crcu is noluhlc iu WaUt", ftporingly folnble in 
cold ^/eoW, more readily ia boiling aloohol; tut lo»» so tli*u in water. 
1 pi of it dflaolTOi Kb 10 pU. of boiling alcohol, but the aohilwu after 
ruling retain- only one per cont (Zinin). 

1 Cyanic Amides. 

Cauovas & Ctoiiz. Compt. rend. 38, 31 1; Chcm. Soe. Qn, J. VII, IS4. 

Aiiirniinin tiitl the mm r ion ml* ammonia* am aotrd npon by g&neoita 
ritlo of cyanogen in a maimer which may to represented ny the 
general fonaoU 

2C"H»N * C-NC1 - OH'N.HCI * C^H^'N.CN. 

the products being u liydruclilomta of tho base, au<l a OBBIBOQBd <> 
cy*noi,'i.n with tho amide enrnwponding i«» th:it b*J». Thus when a mix- 

Min -nia and chloride of cyanogen carefully dried ii bwmi.'<I 
mihydroiw ether, sal-ammoniac atpamtca out and cynmunido (VlH, 1 15) 
is funned, which remains dUsolvud iu the filler; 

BB M G W i - H'N.iUl . H=N.t-N. 

Cj««- i 
Ag.-ijn II b< D %n p&OUn ehluridn of ey:mogi>n im pawed thrciiigli a solution of 
etny liunino ordiethy tamino ia anhydrous ether, Minilar Products are formed, 
a hydrocblorate of the b;K»e, and Cj/ancthyiamiJc or Ctptno-didkyt- 
UMvir . 

2C*H ? N T CNC1 - CirN.HCI . C'H'N.CN. 



N + (;*NCI - CWN.HCI f CTH*K,Cffi 


l^t compound, eyano-diothYlnmide, id likewi* obtained by tho dnr 

I'siimi of cyanvthyluiuidtf. On distilliii*,' that Butst.nnr in (hmdl-balL 

ido dirtilsover, and an timber -coloured subaUnce. 

olidifivs completely «« it cool*. r> i 

3C*H 4 N» - <: ,0 H»°N» ♦ 

•mains behind: 

Cyanic l'y»no- 

i-OiyUfiiMe. dirtliyltnmlr. 

Cyo4ii*-diclhyl unido ir - limpid oolotirlesi liquid wiving a cyanir "«i mi 
Ii 1. i irly and without d«mik|K>fttliou ut IWJ n< I form 

drfiniu romioundfl niih acids, but U resolved, nuder the influence of 

B4"mU i*r nf IllitaJiK, llltn rarlmrnr fcold :liiihiimii:i, :iim1 <\ . I !. v iaimu r 

>T - 2KO ♦ IRO - 2(KO.CO») « NIP r Cll-'N. 
Mo '•> d with ctmoous chloride of cyanogen, yield* a 

'j'tuinU, C*IV}*>&S (Cuhoure k 

[Viir** comyonRdi nuq be rrfanled »* taimonla. rtftjUmlnv, ftc . in winrh 
I Ai. II u npt*«ni *«y ejiaoornj ib»n: aruwmklc » Nill.U.t'y); ry*m 


rniYLKSK; PfTtOCl SH'. 

g. Sitroffemmmdei. 

b, A"k«^«i-fi«<^vj. OUR. 
Acetanitrlle. c*NH\ 

Dcmm (1847). Cuwrt. rW. 83. 36*. 

Dlm*», HAUMKni A ''ITtiITi CompL read. 25, 442 and 474. 

<*««4* •/ J/r.'4»/. MrtkrUt C*-.Je, CW'wm*/*'. e f «wM,/. 
fAtHpie. CpcxApArx.; d< MttA 9 t**«, Cfmurt At HS^jlc. £Alrt*Jy 

/Vwrnafwitft an*f PnjHxratitin. I Hy dWlilling njrtallittd iooIaw of 
ammonia with anliydrou* phosphoric *cid, lighting tho dutiltnle with • 
a»tnratc<l a'picoua chloride of caUiam flotation, and then dwelling it *r+t 
dry chloride of c&lciuui and uuigmv-i* (Duuuus). 

NlP.C'iro 1 - OWH 1 * 4 HO. 

2. By diAiilliug dry cyanide of potassium with a filed alkaline aulptio- 
mclhyli&le, uectouiwUe in oUtaiucd, eouiaiiiiiKitcd »ilh hydrocyanic Kid 
aad foriuiate "f ):nuiuiii>, wbich impart to it an i n lulenhle U*4* Sad 
►mull, and Likewise a poUonou* aotlun; fr*ni these imparities it may be 
freed by beating itj &rat OTcr met curio oxido, then otw *nhydrour pbofr 
pflMVJC acid, llio poievnous action being for the nioM part destroyed *t 
aaino time (Duma*, Malaguti A Lebltuie): 

OM ► t:'iPK0 3 .asO»-eNli > r *{KO,80}. 

Pm//rrtiVi_ TMii, traiwparwnt, colnurh** lii|iiliL Boili 
V >[.our density =1-15 (Dnmm-). 

DuroM. YoL 

if _ W -. 4B-&4 .. 57-4 C.Tmpoor.— «... 

N 14 ... J4-I4 *47 X-t- 1 -. CM* 

8 !! . 3 .... Ta2 7-1 1 1 -cm _.... 3 ... «•«;• 


C'NIP M . 100*00 


Vip. of \wtoaltrilo 2 .... S44S» 
I 1-4*31 

Mijr be rvfitnlcd as llvdnx-rnnatr of uarthylcBe • C'lI'.lICy (DuniMt. TW 
ponnd obUwod b> (2) eiuibila llio tonic }>iv; otitic* and tcwtiuus u llui proptfal 
ft) (I) (Duma*. MtlAifali, aad IxbUiic). 

ttttompGiitiGM. 1. Moiling |KH*vh-ley forme with uoetonitrile,: 
uf potash and aiivnuun i. 

CMP 4 5HO ♦ KU - C M tPKO« ♦ MP. 

FfataMira, iron aJ ordinary Umperatarat, nets violently and wiUi «vok* 

n i of best, on acstonitnlo, In i nnn c cyan Ida of potsttiura and a «•> 
baAttolo mixture of hydrogen and corburotted hydrogen gne (Dvaa^l' 
Frobably Uiiu; 

CWH« -t- K - C^NK * C'H' t ». 

:i. .N-rlui.' to tbw ^piutioir th« hjrdioaarboa Aould lio iiiothyleao 
i4C). Nltrio Mid rti-tU no decompooing notion, eveeatft kxil 
■ Ltoflr duea obrotuic acid (Duiiiae). 


A Lublinri. 

Acutviiili ili. i.« mhnJMn niib w iter <1)uulu, M: 



Chloracetonitrile. 04I0P. 
wn A Lanugo (1917). Ctngpfc nsiwfc -"•■ ** 2 - 

Obtained l>y dietDIJDg t*-reMuraootiito of umniuiiiu <>r ohlonwoi.iuiii.lo 
with tinliyilttma phosphoric acid : 

Nll'^'CPUO' - C'NCl* t IIIO 


C , NUM1 J ,J = CUCV -» 2110. 

Llqtdd 1*444 ; boiling at 81" and yielding a diatomic 

CMomcetomtrili! boiled with pohiah jivM* itinaoooli and imrlilm 
AOCtato of |hjUujL; 

* W* » 3MO + KO = C*CPKO* ♦ Nil'. 
Potaariam act* on il with *_"ivat v-oldOM (lluniiw, Muln^uti & Lebhuic). 

7- Mbvgen-nutlcu*. 0NXH*. 
Fidmixiic Acid. c*N»n«G*=C*NXHM 

IIl-wakd*. Kulim-mling McTcury and Fulminating Silver. rk'U. Traru. 

18O0. aJao After, / 3, C0«; ulao Gill*. 37. 70. 

Ui WO IS part, 12, 412; topti-t. I ft, Ml; »Un ^nn CUn. /%J. 24, 

: *lio rff(7&. 71, 89Sj alM jV. 2V, *, J. I //«*. 16, 3*7(1.— 

A.r.',- .!../. (],327; also Ann, G'AiVi. i'Av#. 32, 816.— • Mag* /'Aanw. 

15,364. — J;^'. /7m/i*.80. 14$; 50, 489. 

Oay-Limk A Tarawa, ifnn. f Ai'w. /7«$/«. 85, 2*5; *U» .ScW. 41, 17$; 

ii-> P<«. i « Kaon Ar*k v, l 

pAoramrKiiRR. Fulminating Umoaty. Jlr. Arxft . 7, 293, 

tC**tUOmrt, Acid* FutmiHiij**. 

Howard allowed in 1800, that nitrate of mercury or nitrate of piker 

licdtiU alii eJcobolud oxcom ef nitric acid, yMrM •<■ pwltil « ' -vhUtJ* 

eaaily defenating precipitate, via, fulminating mercury or fulminating 

tiiwtr; tut the ooinj*e«it»<>n of iheeo preoiioUT*- r*UU BOWD till 

( by Liybijj, wVoee determination wna aflcr- 
xunl' confirmed by Gay- Lu woe, 

"il.. rational formula of lb< e compound* is atill bowtraj llio #ubjuct 
or mm Dfdnn, rl«. the following: 

Tui» empirical formula of fttlminating wlror i* either CNAgO 1 or 

C*N J A^* ; OV hi Hi' former oaaa, it woulil K httattcrlfl wltl 

:i. v :in fa hon on * !t .liil\ i - rtmarlnblj in its proper- 

llto. If f ig ailver =- ' mi umumptioti which appear* 

only adttlie*ibh*, -mi. 1 'iiltniniiiinf* mU.t 

but even nee-weary, inojuiuch 

■ fiinn.-.l from iiU-nlm!, 

n* in certain reaction*! of tbi*i 

*rilTir.NF.: aTHNJOM-Wl SXili. 


evwpoaad. oo«-half of th* tilv«r af-pcarp v> b* in ■ dinVo*! *mU> to 
0* *4bcr, we La* c atUI a eboieo betwem tke rational formal* pri p iicl 
nererall v by Liebig . by BeraehWa, and by Laorrat A GerbardL 

Gay-Lnaaar * Li*b% gi«« tbe fcnoada lAjO.QyW. a/«l rfgard ;be 
eoeapoand ms Mb*** fahainat* of n)v«r. Tbay ■—■me in bet % biWv 
UlmniDK aeid, "hicfe, im die aypocbettcnJ anbydroaw state = CT 
CyW, tod in the Lylraud Hate - SHO.C'X'O' = SHO.Cjpf- 
ucVmi wt, rvcu in tkn Utter fttato Aceoedlng to &is theory. falmin 
mereary U a metre no difalrainate = iHrO.CyH)*; acid fulminate of 
tiNtr = AffO.HO.Cjr'O*; faliuioat* <4 tifter ami ;K>UMiua = 
KO.AjrO.CjSO 1 . Tbia view U avpoortad by ike fitct that in many 
reactions of fulminating aitrcr, by4rocy*a ; .< acid, k c ft cyasjugoa- 
CW i W iiid, is fuiBud. 

Gerhard? >. 4*5) ami Laurent regard fulminating tilrrr 

PKfN0 i k4jr*=0 l NXAjr' l that U, m ft aceoiidary BavWinl derived 
ctbyloa*. jmrt a* cyanide of tilvcr, ON Ac, U a ifM» iarv noclou* dori 
from meihr^ciir. Aa cyanide of afoot; C'NAg. i» dcroed from a n 
CNH (hydrocyanic acid) containing H, an duubtlo» may fulminating 
lilfw km a 1 01 Nad from ilic nin*l»-iiH O.N'XH 1 , * r«m|«iiinJ nu* at iimwmU 
kn«vn,but Uentteal with Liobi^i FfttmiaM aciil = SHO,Cy*0\ Accord- 
inc to tin-! ffifWg fuJrn mating mercury = ONXll ^; llio *» called atritl 

fulmiiialr of filter — C'N'XH Afc-, toj f.iimimitr 01 nlvef and jfOCiMiuoi 
= OXXKAg. In favour of toU iww it ma; be uracil, that the com* 

Siniii.!* in ijmviioti ap« producer) Ky nitric acid irhid If iatfo- 

uc«*» hyponitric acid = NO= X into !h* decomiMitod compound in |>li>^ 
of bydropen. — and that this iobatitution ftfforaD the moat Mtiafiaclory 
rxpbuiatioo of tho detonating proporti« of Uic* compoaDdei, whttcio 
tlicjr dihVr ftuin ilio c/auautt ana agroo wiib tlia majority od 

B*r:.l u- \ !1"?. Jahrmttr. SJ 87) «upp04e« UiAt lhe*o fulminatia^ 
coinrfiaadaeontiun a moullir nitride. Tltut, the acid fahninato oi 
obtained by Caj-Ltiaaavc & Licbi^ = IIO.AgN.CNO 1 ; hy »c|mi 

IBOi tola iijuiuihI b ronvrrteil into ApO.A^N^ONC. Aathc'.'AL 

«iU« r *rn here luppnand to bo in different states (the one being a** 
with N aa a copula in tbo nci<l. thu other with in tho l*aei) vo har< 
an txplanation v( tho fact, in many ib'r<>iu|io^ilinns of fulminating 
nU<r, o>olj the latter atunt i» x-|iNiiUcd. Tbo moio viow r*jila:i 
the io-i-.l11««1 fafaaioBle of iUt«t and put i.^-imn, KO.AkN.C'NO', detoaatai 
an Hiponjrl/ a* fntininate of lilrar AffO,AgN,C l NO' ; the ouan 
AgN, VOOM ilecompoiition prodnoea tbo detonation, boint; in Uot tfco 
«ino in both ou*tA- If tho detonation wore canned, tu (Sajr>Liuwae aoJ 

: Buppo»c, by Uio oxyjfoo of the silvar-oxida or in. i 
|jaM*iuv over rtMidin* and with evolution of light and hwit, to th* carbaa, 
Mmti KO.AgO^Nn)', oogbl to dotOOata lw« MmnglytanB tktfj} 
— Thin rircunMtaneo » ct^unlly in favour of Gorh-i .urett'» 


Kor Kul... , .tl»cory.ri.; , „l Licbl^ (Xtf . />4«r». 33 

TV fnllr.fciu* JntTi|ici(»» »( tlir»- rompoundati hmnl H|>o» G*th*rdi v 
tJaa>| batttwoli aaaiaahairt beta r>» ii>r pait latalaali 

kulmisatj.m; zinc. 


Lting Zinc or Neutral Fulminate of Zinc 

KdM. Pavy-. Trunmtt. of ft* Dnlhn s '■•> ■■. 1829; abitr. Ben. Jahrtabtr. 

IS. Pi £ ISO Peking, in* ftham 27. 130. 

UMOIg niiowetl tluit when xluc i- Defied hUIi fulmiiiiitiii ; im'n n v and 
wit'f, morrury i* wop* rated, and a yellow liquid prodaoed which ou 

ling doposiu y«llowi«h, Bliffhtly dotooatl »'» £ Uavy in 

' ' ! iMamined inoro mtnut.< ly the i:oinjM.nn*I llicncfl roenlitDf. 

1 ill. of fulminating incii-ury ■» placed under wutor in OOUtaoJ » itli ^ 

.mil i in- win. i. frequently >hal»r:i. iii! :iil the nMtoufjr 
i itod end im amalgam formed, afior which tho filtrate U loft U» 
..[•• iponUnoouelr- 

TmnspfUotiL. colon rlr?.?., rhombic table*, which arc txtfi1p«j dctwut.' 
v<ry itxonriy i»t I :>'. ', oi bj |" reflation or by contact witli oil of vitiiol. 
an' loftolnbta hi water; bnl aw*olve in aqn u alkali* — If rlir« fill. 

l»o evaporated, not in tho roll, hut at a gentle bent, there remain* a deep 

>w crutt together with yellow noodle*, which do not dotonato by 

■■■' l» oil of vitriol, but whoa heated, del »oaU !»-• readily, but not 

mi iixNiitlv ,i* llio fir>t - iiifiif fin- I QfYfltftlt ; thin Utter prodia-i \* 

ubh* in cold water and alcohol, hut diowlvetf auariujrli in boiling 

iti«l y«ty rem lily En ammonia — An eoaeowi eolation •>( fulminate 

of line |x>urod into a bottle lilt -i with ehlorino jpn, yield* a volatile. 

h U i n ir oil. which has n eweot ami hitter taste, doe* not 

ilublv in wftUir, tind ruilduuv litmu ;ift»-; -mm- 1 inn' only. 

(D«vv) ICXXCII], 

liquid Altered from til.- line to algam md e attaining the fakai* 
natftti£ line, yield wltfc nitrate of »ilror a white precipitate koluhle in 
h*l water, und detonating violently when li. a ted. With hydrochloric 

jm'kI, ii j;ivw out s vtrong odour ol bjdrocjanic end oyanlc sold It 

■vimi diirini rariiiii uver tin? warcrbnth. yiehlin 

vclli." i-.u.iiT. partially fr>tiiblv in water The eolnble portion of thi« 
MWoVr yield*, with ■ ■•■ alt*, i white non-fulminating powilt>r, while 
ttc ioeolnhlo port jpivoi off" ammonia, and learea white oxide of nog 
when heated, and J in acids nith evolution of hydrocyanic ucid 

Fulminate of Zinc and Hydrogen, ur Acid Fulminate of Zinc. 


Th* m|U40UA ooliition of fulmiuntini; I y the 

I t> n: 'Hi fa I mi Oft I i OR uirirniy, It [ic-n j.iliUe.l by exi^eaa of 

bojyU-weter, which noptmtcM a lar>?n qunnuty of oiide of rinc; the 
exeoM oi entoved by a itran ol oafoonle eolol; ithret*. 

which covUtu. fubuniai hod beriuiu, mid throw i iluwn fulminato 

« wkltion u( the nitmto, treated with the • uttty 

ilnHuii* 1 jM-iil n " red a i ■ tic l-iniiin. and tin* liquid lUterou- 

Tho fiitnit- foni»iii> - lergl iiuantilj i>f iJno (FoUIn^r). 




TIip reaction im x* follow*. 

I 'NXIV f ^W - CTOPJW f Kf», 

C^SXZft' ♦ RjO - C'NXZnB* * ZaO» 

t'NXZi.lU ♦ HO,80» - C'NXZolI ♦ B»n,SO*. 

The mum- promtc was pn-vioii-ly employed by K I>avy. wbo I •* 
■OppOMd (Mt UM baryta threw down all the tine, and that i\t* Yt-^nUi 
ttntiou of tin: baryta ty *ilj>buric acid wae pare 
fuliiiiuir acid = C'NXII 1 . 

The filtrate bat ■ DOWOrfal odcar, Kite lliut «f bjdrocjl>t« acid, 
laaics imoebJe bwihH at f\m T but artownrrij pungent and utriiiMi; 

it volatilize* when lir l']- * VI " '" * * ,0,! ' 

Ewliinllr loeoa it* i or beeoaie* yellow, end doposrirj .1 y.-lluw p.., 
t Mill forma an explosive yellow precipitate with nitrate ol a3rer 
(B. Davy). 

By aa-rurating tho filtrate with different haava, tho drmMo - 
fulminating xinc nro obtained, in which the I At. of line [hydrogen i] it 
replaced by I At. Of another metal or of ammonium (they were regarded 

by DuTy ft» n«r« foJmroatet), Thcee ieJu detent rlhoj lo D 

ln-twecn 173" and 2'iU ; meet of Attn arc Botablfl in water, and liaroa 
mvi'cfi-li rough ' :i- ff : flicir ■otattoni precipitant nitnitt' of «ilver. 

Aaxmortiumsalt. — Tbo aolution evaporated to a rryrup, eolidi! 

ullnio form, Tin? tail Inu an aikuJiiiu reaction, dtrtfm/rulcvs will; 
n yellow flnino when boated, and on cxpoauro to the air, bocorae* motat, 
but doe* nut decomposes 

VotQ**ium- talc — Trnnftpauml, coloiirleaa, rhombic iriMnw, which 
hare on all. niiii,> reaction, Mai n iwcotbdi rrmgli taate; explo*le 
n itli a pale r«d Borne, by boat, pr:- 01 contact vita Oil o 

0*00 in the aii; but arc insoluble in alcohol (K. Davy). 

Sodium talk — E ffl oreece u t, oblique rhombic prbnni with <Nh*tfaI 
ttunfna Detonate* like the potaavium-calt. 

iuirium-h\lt — OiyatoJlixoi from the syrupy eolation in flat. tran<p*- 
rent foiir-»idc<J priit n-i mIm. 1 1 ar.i nlki -to like rho potaanuja- 

wit; turn volluw vfcofl OWOted tc Itli nirj and are avlublu iu aJoefcoJ 

! -vyi: 

$tr&rHittm-ailt. — Small, tr»n*piront noodle*. 

IWciutfi-fu//. — Very email, iik tine, detonating cryetal*, which tun 
i when hooted; become moist when exposed to the air; mtu\ 
gpuktfUy rohlblo in water. 

maiun-tak, — Long, lint, four-aided priama, which am uicuiee; 
neatraJj oxplnrle by heal 01 pvrruiwiun, hut not by ooutact with ou c/ 
■. itfielj and dieeolve readily i» eratai and In alcohol. 

Aluminum-salt. — Yellow, Tmctly cry«ihlline, neutral r 
detonating, caeily nolublc. 

O k n mM J*tt. — Sumll, yellow-grocn, detonatini; cryMale, 

rniTUNS: NiTnociN-Nccuivs mean 

become covetix! with flaWNfy; tbc Ik* filtered liijBid k 

.!.■[-. *Iu on rooting n m1« gwtu powder wh'xh explod«« «tU a v 

fluno, blrl uly a Mnall quae lit/ of copper, and therefor* gii 

Imt a taint Mm* colour witb midiodm; a tra* faJmiaale of copp-r Lw a- 
yet been obtained (PaicruoU-chcr) 

5 FtUninate o/ Copper and Ammativm, ONXCttf XH*J. — 
by mixinir u •olulioo of fulminate of o:pp«r (obtained by Uant 
Bjflft *f MU'.r for »..rin! luiw in c<mt06l willi DMteUti c«/j»pcr *n<J a lafjt 
iiuauiiiy ..( nt'i) Midi * kiip exooaa of aauuoaia, I At. copper be!*c 
tneu laptftOad l>y I At aaunoniaao. When a stream of 

. u in paa>*d tIimii-Ii !li- ha CCj'pcf li 

|>r^'<'ijHl:,t«.l. Kill tllO filtered I'dllti+D ■■ found*! to 

hydjoaulphocymmu acid and urea: 

WW t Mis - t.s * all' J * i 11 <:N U«i>=. 

I l,r ('..: million uf un-ft frniu Lin* Kill i* ill favour of Gay-Lrxuir A 

view of the Ntatfol) bet* n B the fulminates and ey*uatoa ^OliriitaeV 

rm. •;•;, ii conp vn, 302;. f. 

fulminate 0/ Cupper and /Warivm. — By di^retilir fuJainstx ef 

|] ■ , |am »»iiii Dapper, tl. BfMlipitaJcal ami a Hoik 

ilnc-l, which i» odtbei praoipitated by potash nor tUKMd Una *_ 
lUf Biilou it be pruvioudy mixed with faydrnclilunc acid (L;<bi*;|. 

Fulminating Mercury, Howard's Fulminating Mercury, 
or Mercuric Fulminate. 

'i/iriiffH, WIk ii iim inn >- or mercuric oxido is beiicl with JlTO*/ 
mliic add :inil aloobolj llu IkjiikI bailfl »i|> and yi vr.» <i|f* a whitr Hoaav 

vajir-nr *■ : . M . • . I ethrrr*\l nitron* rjnx (VIII, '/1 7). containing memirf 

'•■ i'li il:«' I"" In'-' '!» 'iv ii»'i!. \t I ii. d M li"- nMMD ' fete, ft* 

hiliniiiating marcury ecparntoa out iu crvfttaU which aro HdJ iwfoW 
{Movant), — 2. Fulminating i3r*r boiled with mercury and a 

COD verted ml" fnliiiiu;nm;j iiirn-iit^ (Llebi^). — 3. An aajUQOttl -olutioa 
nf fulmiuutinjr xine. acltled to nnuooua jirutocliloridc of mercury, throva 

.Im.mi ftxloahubag mereary i,k. Davy), 

/ . A lolution of I j»6. mercury in ?-5 ptv hot nitric aoJ 
"i ■}' gr. J-<10 in mixed wftfc 10 pta. "i alcolioJ »f ap, bt. <)-H5; iJm 

miuiii.' bwtsd rfll »i i "'. , iii: i" tV..i!i, and tin- cvyaulfl whirl- form 

cotdingj oollaetod as ■ filar, main d '*iiii eolJ a-atcr, an«j diiad. I« taw 
maflcer, tn>m I '20 t-. I*aa pt«. of fulminating mercury arc ol 
(Ilovard). — On adding the alcohol, mercuroua nitrate i - tioi in 

il« form of a wliite poardar, which mliwolvcs *m heating; ! 
Hnold iiiiiiirdnN-Jv afuiwardA smuiiim a jrr*y rolniir, fn>ni ari>arilic« of 
::n t.. 10 pe. of tha naraary oaad; ii turna yollow, gi*itig 00 tfel 
•In--;, vi,,:, iiinviii;:,! ...jiMiir, nod dapoaitl grayiah wlite cryxal* of 

ary, the nuantity of which incrcuai'A ua tin; liquid oc<«l»; 
aV BOthi » liquid yield© ou evaporation a snmll qautitv v( fnl n 
aHvar, whil n omlata ramain alng baM >u soloti*a by 

I.iebig). — Tbo liquid mutt ba boitod for twa ainuta* 



longer after tho addition of the doohol; if it be heated, either for too 

: iir lixt luiij; :i (.iiiii-, lhn [irvpsral.imi f:iil* (PourrniY, Tl.i nurd). 

Wfigbl (0wo 7fl. 74) dSMOlVM I pt of mercury in 4 nts. of bo 

« acid ; add* ;<-.S |iU. of itleoliol when ill" liquid is parrVct! • i 
fr.-iiMit-- . the obollition. il \« i- ■■ ■:■ uv. I>v li^atiiif tin- 1 1 <| Lti'l for a Jli»»rt 
time, lllowing the boiling to go on till the white fume which rieee op 
tum.» re-Mian, then precipitates the fulininadn/ men in v by cold water, 
ami washes it with wntor by drcantntion. — Cromasooli (Ann. Pharm. 

w *) tli*«ilro8 1 pt. of mercury in 19 pU. of nitric acid of 34' Bm ; 
add* k pi« of alcohol of 3C Bm altar tin- Uqunl lm. rowUd t-» 12 

the- fltwk in boiling water for two or three minofc ■•, till thick ■ 
fume* begin U> furtu (i\w aetiou buinjr otherwinc but Might) ; net.-* it n :i 

ruiJ phics; OOlltCtl fhr ri'Mlltiii' ftrystnl* mi :l lilt* | VUhM iIihih J -lb t 

•mall natality of water; and dries them between paper in tho dark. 
Ttic prodael uaOQBtl to 1*25 pt. — Guthrie take; 13 pU. nitTic acid of 

I [fl Jit:' Ojoohol t" * I'l. "f mercury 

In ube preparation of fulminating mercury tin tho Inrgn »ail« for 
j»*rv I | lb. ftf iii.-iviiry i- iuS0lv«d at :i gtJItll bflBl in IN lb*. 

BrS nitric acid of HO*" Bm. contained tn a largs glo*» flaxk; tlu*n 
gradually mixed with 8 to 10 litre? of aleohol. and heated if ncocsaary 
lilt it N-iii< u> hnil ap; then after tho ebullition ho* craeod, and the 
1 1 < 1 1 j i - 1 Li i ■ -in p!»_-t«'ly cooled, the liquid il pound off, and tlie falntlm 
■icTCTiry left in ilnin on linen flltetl III rIbbs fnnni'U. wa*liad with a little 
pun. •■:i1m\ ami dried (Chcvallisr, J. J« tennaiu. utwito ; aiw> Ann. 
rAam. Sg I(J7). 

fitn/idituui. TUB fnliuiirtilin * imn'inv i.- dlaVOfcdd in hmling water; 
llie vidlow solution flltlfred froin tin rwrillir mercury; and tho vellow 
at-t'.Iu.. wl.irli crystallise oat on cooling, purified by again dissolving them 
b4 i t vstallieing (Liabig), 

Pnjptrtia VVhii*. Deedlea, having ■ silky Imire, very soft to the 
touch, and of swooti.h met illic taste (Lie-big):' 

*« ... 8 « 

i N 88 - «-M 

*llg . . . -20U ft-fl 

i" 32 ... ii_-; 

llow«r<l Lietha. 

6i-;a 66-*» 

C\NXhV - *»4 


lasting BWT0U7 probnbly muiaim vtttft u( mfmxHRimKktkt t*« 

MAT i'l llm »«l>-r nnulit rSpltfn the UaAdo&ej If) Uv M-rrur* fniml by in»U»1» 

wrurtl fulir.iiiotin( morruir at bm ai 

UgH) 1 tH|*0,Cj ononltoc to tU I u. n ■; UooavfaiNM 

ownrnrr- Mir*or*r pot*«h •*pir»tf« fnXB tt not uierviirous bul mcrcunc oii«lo. 

■ it potwiUv\K 1 Fulminating mercury explodes when heated 1o 
according U> Tin n.wl. Ant,. ' Sum F'hjj» It. IS1), by con 
tact - ling tindui by the -|ark fnim flint and sfcwl (boi aoOC 

II, 7.1, nnly when qalia ilrr), h\- tha electric »park, by 

fnetsoo ot persnsaion, nod by' contact with oil of rilrio] (HoWanQ, The 

"Bon is occnni) | reddisl li.-ia. i.nd prolurr. .l.)irlv»pot 

savin- liic im-ialbe lustri: (Liehig>. The detenatlof] pffoJoeod by bast, 

Linder, or by dint and sunnl, w mnch 1ms violent ibfta 

302 BTT1TLRNE: KtTftOl 

rioood by friction, perenarion, or the cleetri? trarlc. probably I* 
llio Utter oaaca, tip.' Kploeaon of tin.- wh->l* quantity take* plac* 
uniuluur.uuffly. 10 JRtilM of fnijniiiiii'ii - a ■• t-X by exptoaioa, in 

addition to water und iu.-i.iUir m i . iv 4 BuglUh. cubic iaichr* of a 

DfevSlBM Do aatufflld BCm »'"l BSCrOflfBl «*■*•**. 34 jftaina «if fill mi 
pajNHj ftro laffloaM to unrwt strong lire-ana*: smaller <|tai 
tho buft, but with much lc»« force than jjunpowiler. 0% Om tirj 
•rtton of" fulmmittiiic toi>rt«rr id ill Utin«li»tr iK'Hl»fc<'«'«o**l. < fc«<r»t%M 

U <Jt«UncM. till. Sfttw. S "*I»i- 

nUinf tniin-urv laln>* rtr», and, nn «« tjifiliralinn Bo p*rcaaaoa'«|M, ti 1 
fVUwlfr .V tiny.LuJMO {Am. CM* I'"y. it, 8). 

2. Hiatal nitric arid docouiuo*«« CuImioAtMj vii'U'rg 

carbonic acid, acetic add, and mercuric nitratn (Howard).— .1. afooeralob 
dilute aulphuric acid decomposes it without dctctfiataoa, lint with riao of 

n Datura Mad oro oti-'n oi l m i II ward). In this reaction, 84 p 
» white, non-dtitonntiujc powder U atpamtod, ippnxentJy a nuxlim 
metallic mercury villi DSorotLroUJ oxalate (uivtcun^us tulpbntv. acooi< 
t« Fltfrthnttat), whiUr. :il-n :i anuaD Quality of mnrcary appear* to remain 
diaaolrod in tho liquid containing tho aalj>)> ir < ' aja* «l* 

fulminating nonary iiitilled with a mixture of water and oil of 

■■I pnrU. yield from 28 to 31 Eogliab enVlo iachoo of ajraaoooa mixture 
which cmiu tho in or -u. _ in i la- - tfongfa with a block powder, and con 

■rhmiic acbl, from 5 to % Engl cub En »f a na vhich baraa with 
;i gremindi blue \\-\\\\'\ iLjo* not explodu by the oil >l. when mixed 

with hydrogen, nod it net absorbed by water (Howard). 

4. Aqucoue liydrocbloric acid decompose* fulminating mercury. 
nut Huy I'l'MHiilt-niiili' ticiiutioD oi nSj forming DMI ' and 

mrmmroua oxalate (How ird). It produce* mercuric and nn 
rido, toirotbor witl) *a I am m oniric (Tbvnard). It produce* h Iar™c quaiinir 
of hydrocyanic aoid (Ittoor). 5, Sulphuretted hydrogen converts fu 
nating tm-irut v iiamoratd La mpteoua ammonia, iuto culpbMc of oiarcury 

and hydruftulphiKyauic acid (Pnxruvteobor) : 

[CW^y + f.HN - lHf0 ♦ 2CNHS' ♦ 4110 >] 

6. Boiling poUwh-eolution «cparatoa a lareo quantity of ma 
oxide, without evolution uf ammonia, and yield* a filtuu-, >. i 
coola, dt'poctile yullow dototi&tiug flukca auO uecdlra, probably conai 
of pomado-morouHo fulmlnato [0*N*HgKO 4 t], and forma witli ni 
a<n.l i .vlit.. precipitate, vhicb dctonatoa strongly by r-erruaaion. Baryta, 
ttrootia. Olid limo Itcbare lil<c potatih (l.icbigK — I'otueh Icy exert* no 
aotiofl in tin- ooidj » boo lioi, it toparutes mereuriooxi«I<-. bal tie CHroU 
ywlli by i-Taporntion, not ;i dontonnting mlt. but milv narlionao? rf 
pniaAb. Cold haryto-wat'T likco lm orerta on ootlonj hoi oaryu daam 

a amall ounntity of fu 1 1 1 1 i n :l 1 1 1 ■ l.' iiht<iiiv, leaving tin* r^at ni aid 

Ihc litjiiiu, if ftfterwnxdrt exposed to the air, dcpaeiU all the barytv in the 
form of OBlboOfltOi BO that sulphuric acid no longer form* si 
in ii Bulpliiin'tLotl bydrogon, on tb« other hand, form* a brown p*. . 
tato. na with the solution of fulminatiiuj raoreury in pure vaUir (Pajtraa- 
atocli'-i-i. PaJmaaaUng mercury mixed with a i tity of aanog 

potoab, thkho&J in the Ooum Ol 'moll inantitKeti 

C'aab be then utldrd. ti',1. .ifl.-r aboaft is hour*, tho mixture at* \vuga 
otaoi paoiyg it in found to bare iurrvaaod to about Hour time-* too 
final polo mo of the fu mini knfi bm wy. A aainpl* r»f tin? mixture 
I at the end of tic D0t dnv. wrapped up in cloth, .in 1 »4roaf)f 

Ptll.MlYATIN.-. Hl.VFR. 


in a fire, Unvc* a raa»», Ml WMllWOI hot And detonate* 

OOtuly after a while; if |U lata plan*. i( i:xhiln(«. utter 

ying ai IM hi exploaro power equal to (hut of fulminating silver. 
n fnur dsj -, however, f i* » * mixture im** Itu aploslTa power, tod vmi 

bwtod aftor drying, m-rlv exhibit* a alight donnjrration. Carbonato of 
potash, sodn and ammonia, nn.l time witer, Bl i MUghtan tfcfl <xplooivo 
power ef fultiiiiiatin^ mercury, ami then destroy il {Guthrie, Sili. Am. J. 

N, 88$ end 298). 

7. A aolntloa of fulminating mercury in warm nrpieooj ammonia 

4e|w«nU, on cooling, yMlow, utrongly detonating, gWMMt crytttaU; but 

:.>Uitit-n bo boilod foraomo time, it deposit*, on cooling, * ynUowiwh 

while, DOO-detonating powder I I.icbig). Fulmimiting mercury diftsolvca 

abundantly in emmoua, without lepanation oi oadds; iliu solution, wlim 
expotcd to (he* air, given olT ammonia, and become* rowrod with a 
crystalline- frost «•( unaltered I iloilaal ing mercury, which ronowi iUoK iu 

often as il b) broki ii ( 1'ajfoiutochcr), 

H. Finely divided wnc, copper, or rilrer (the Inet in contact with 

pliLti n uitj-C.-il * boiled in water with Mmlnatlna mercury, dewmfKwtw tiiat 

metallic mercury and fulminate of jltir, cupper or 

#alv«r (Li i«. olinj tinn and *npi>cr. xid. pp. |M?. W9. By 

Sling! with fulminating merooryand water, uonwu/ •flfWioJc nftel a 

few boors, and a yellow liquid is obtained* wnioh yield* detonating preci- 
pkUtr* with lead and silver salts, nud with pulnoh, u dork green pirn pi- 
rate, which anon tnrnn lin>wn. The yellow lirpild, when hinted, ""rot 
become* wine-red, then blnok and blfldj nn.l yieUU a precipitate of the 
amc colour, which dries up to it brown, uon -detonating B«w The 
yelhiu lujiii-l, w)m n roOonlly |>n-|, AMUIOM a deep red «xdonr oo the 
addition *i( nu M ito col" l G ■ how t nd tln-n mucIU, 

Errt of fnhnusie [it, nnd iifWrward* of I. . K Davy),— A 

■aoiyTOiXtun oi Fulminating mercury with pulvoriaedl iron and T0 
wnMUrr»t. !v wflrmod, ht-corne* ttronijly heated, and dries up alim< i r. <m 
plftclr to a rtJ-browu uan; tblS, W&ff) uiawl with lukewarm water and 
fllrfTM), yield* a flltrato which, un - nipnniiioii, l«av«w u .-mall mline 
reaidno eontoinin^ ammonia; und 00 »!»■ filter toon mimlm a Uftok 
brown rot id ik< which DOOtaJriH globoJoi o4 rnOttroryj ytoldl pruwian blue 
villi lion heated a 1 \ burnt with bright 

flpurl'in . I.ii without detonation <Pa^on«tcclicr). 

Knltiiiii:iiin;; nwi iiry 'ii' olvoo fiy -p;uni-lv iii oold water, more 
ft»dii;. in hoi amtor i Howard) It diuoivet tlijrhtly in a^OOOOt IBUBOtJi 
(Liabig. I'l^ouNteeh-ri. 

K««|>e«lln( rh* dnulil- at moreury und potBuium, turbiro, tTronOum, 

Moreufout nitmto fonrw with fulminating zinc, an iraupty preeip'r 
Utc, which doiouati.-* th^litly by I \- rou i 

tting Silver. Howards (Bnigiaatcllii.) Fulminating 
Silver, or NetiUftl Fnlminate of Silver. 

r»oa. I lly li f iiilvorwith «in.i .i; uitri.* 

aiid it )■.-<• . UBM phtiiiiuienii u«id prmluctt appfttJUir a* in tuo 

itoJ utrotool *' (v er doo* 

iuy mIvui whtm ImjiIchI with itlooho); the foimalion of 

eofupftiind rfc^inn-* tho preOBOOl of iiitroua aeiil, iuatniueh as 


muxes?:: niihoges-nixmi-- > 

Cmpi « Uwrebv produced . when nitron* acid vapour n* 
an alcnhnlta aalntinn of nitrat* of ftilvcr, fulminating «il 
■opamte* in large need I.-*, without *hallit»»u uf eli«- Irqaid (I 
^Lrrwi. 5, 2*7): 

C 'IW + SftgO.NO-) * 2NO» - 09fUf»0< + HO ♦ J] 

S. Puhninxtiui: mercury »* onnrertcd into fulminating flilro 
with water, pdrtriaod aire*, and p 

Pr+fhimttfin. Nitrate of »llv*r U h«at*«l wilt alroho) 
nitria acid till the liquid begin* to boil up; and tho cryauUa < 
inff rilror which form during the ebullition and a* the litjui 

C ■Nti'W>d«B a filu<r. washed with cold water, and dried 
or at moat at tho heat of thf water -hath. 

M pNpindOB nf fulminating direr require* the gnat 
Capneiou* vomoU intuit I* u»cd, #o that tho liquid may not b 
iu tlmt oa^o the salt mi^ht dry on the outside and then eipK-i! 
i.tii-C r>e remove*! to a distance, lewt the vapoura should take 6 
mixture mr rfad with wnodf-n rod*, not with glawt n 

hnittai Contact with hard feodirM mu*t eipecially be %\ 
Ih* preparation m dry. Paper ibOTeel mti»t bi umsl to tronrf 
inuit ho krfit in v<iaacU of paper or |m»tc-buard, not of gla< 
vowels must be louaclr covered, od un exptoaion might an: 
frii-iinn of the »topp«r, or from pruning the cover of the \ 
(Gill. 87, 84). 

H -i ward and Cruicluhauk di evolve I pt. of ailror in a 
fi« pU. water and 2* pt*. of the 4, ad) 

.il. i ■ln-l. and obtain \ '} f»t of fulminating ailvcr. — BrugnaMl 
■ I • i. pooH fi pt* alcohol, and then A pt* fuming nitric K 
• «f jitil v<>rix^l lunar oauittic, and at tho pr> j.. r ohim n»<U il 
which boils np and deposit* fulminating silver, with water, to 
fulminating ailvcr from being decomposed — Accum rccotmnc 

offbuuog dI lad 7 pi "I ; leobol lo l pt of uitratou 

Deacotilf (.w>;» :. l!*H, aim (iiih It, 44), mhla I 

to the nitric acid a- the silver dU»>1ve« in it; as liowrver 
interfere* with lion id Ihn isKor, tho prodo 

to Licbig, greatly dinnniehed thereby. — Wngrnmani 
mi at* a solution of 1 pt. ailver in 8 pin. nitric acid of *] 
heated to AO or flO°, with H pts alcohol of *p. gr O'SS; heat* 
again to 60° or UU'; and adds -I pt«. of fuming nitric mil, m I 
foaming and formation of fulminuting -ilver, in i|uniuity ut 
•o f of the aiNrr n«.d — Tim quant ilv "I" alcidiol b.i. 
loo HtrinU; and the liquid beooiBM too tot, thereby the fulmini 
b doownpooBd [Uebig] — Ob^LohboA LW 8 i pi 

!'<> pU. nitric acid of 40 Bin.;" :nhl to tho solution 'J7 PU. e-l « 

alcohol, heat Iho mixture till it boila up; rctnovo tue fiojiui 
becoming turbid, from the Are; mix il lo order to uiouV i 
with tiikiiImt 87 p'* ol aloobol] and obtain, aftai tko Do^vJt 

plotclj cooled, about 1 pt. of fulminating ailver. The moth* 

aline eilvcr in flmon II tho mlier «v»ni;ttii- copper, 
c\;ijM>mtodf, dopoolll all tbo COppor in the form "f -Vidatc; 
remain- a li-|uid containing ailver. which, what! further 

n nd oait] ttwily oolobh la muei (LSaUg). 

yropcrYifi. Small, whito, opaque ohining needles, 

01 l;,,,, 

havSt H 

ii.l.M1SA7JN« SlLVKfi. 


»h metallic teste (Doscotil*. Liobtg). According to Prtj»t-H'FArot > 
ftilnmKiliiikr «ilv«r kill* catu with virdont convulsion*; according tolttner, 
5 grain a of it arc sufficient, and produce narcotic ^ympu-inM. When 
properly washed, it ia neutral and hxs no caustic action (Licbig): 



2 A* 



.... 88 

. 210 





& Llcblg. 


.... 12 19 




0*NXM*. . SOD 100-00 .... 100 -00 

Gay. Lame A U«t»K. 
*Cy 62 17.13 IMC 

3A|0 . 2.12 . :: U ;;-53 

16 .... I'M ... fi'JI 
J*jO.Cj*0» ;i00 ,. 10000 ... 100-00 

! ' ■ 1 1 )i :i;:i t intr silver gradually blacken* in nh\te 
oad in 111. ir 1. : 1 « i firing oil* carbonic acid, nitrogen ami *<iui<oiih vapour [\] 
and leaving a black suboxide [?], mixed with n mnall quantity of tho 
amdacoiiipnxfd o>ni|Miiiiiil ( Imbig), — 3, It tgplodtl UQOfa more violently 
tkan falminating mercury, by boat, by tiio electric Apnrk, by friction or 
pcrea**i'>n, or by oontact n-ith oil of vitriol. —A heat of 100" to 1$0* is 
BOt fliitlirifuf. tO induce ilw i-*|il<>*i(>ii of ilry fuliniimling * f '^> ' (Liflbig). 
— It do**) not explode by more prewnrf*, unlet* the prtftaanro he wry 
strong (Dewotils). — In tno moist state, it require* a much hnrtlor blow 
to explode it than when dry, but it will BOnotSnOfl explode, even uudcr 
WMtn, by firiotioQ with * ghus rod (Fizuicr, Ann. C/tiVt, HH, 104, 
Liebig). — It explode* with peculiar rcadmese when rub lied with glaaa- 
dust or «narti-*ond; also when dry, with tho adg« of a playing card ' 'ii the otlicr band, it may bo rubbed to powdor in a poreolaio 
mortar with a oork or with the linger (Liobig). — Fulminating oiltci 
w**h<-d mid l In ii QX] I Ml tO tD6 VU iill it. in diy, rxplodws on ll«3 
pjjfhtart toaeh tTrommsdorff. Gild. 31, 112). — Oil of vitriol eauutt 
■ • In detouat* a* strongly n* the dry cmipnuml 
(>** r. 41, 72). — Tho light accompanying the oxj )>■:. n. .v bloa 

ia mart easily f*x«i in the dark, is bine reddish white; it is succeeded by 
irmv vapour Lai mi: ■ pooaliai •loctricsJ odour Ouipoirdoi mind with 
faiiuiiiAtm.; ml for is not ignitad by the explosion, bur merely ■OBltond 

iU ■ Wh« a fulminating lilrar u « Kpmti bj oU U vitriol of 

by peretM an (In tho lattor caso, provided Jt l»« moist), tho odour of 
hydrocyanic acid is perceptible ^Ittiier, Dobcrehict r'nlmiiTllM 

Kvd niih 20 tune* its weight of finely polv«rIc*fl ■ulpnitl 
eraduull v »' dtcouiDOMf vbta hoaiod ii» u tube, yielding '2 vol. 

:.. i vol nitrogen (also oorbonoUs of amnion »i. II mo 
rot), hiiI d> BbUoM luaviiK dtcyanido of silver, C'XAg* [tu<w cnll«d 
■yanidc of ntyrf, VIII. 21 : fur the residue mixed with euprio 
" and ignited, acain yields toe mine (rosrottO mixturv. in about tlio 
aamo qui ..mi- pTopafiioni u by tho flmt ignition |f»»y- 

iii the fimt initanco: 

Uaasjr^ Liobig). 


C'H'Aa'O' - C*NA C ' 4 «CO» 4 N. 



afterword*, when ignited with cuprio oxide: 

CWAf HO - V * «CO» - N 

A mUturo of 1 pi. fulminating sUrer and 40 nU. cuprio oxi'lc m 
heated, iinriiivliatidy give* «)lf, iftirluml tj< l. rtwlion, la* who 
- -:iriMi»ic acid and nitrogon gate* in too proportion by volume of a 
(Gay-Lame & Liobjc}i 

3. Fulminating nil w r thrown into a bottlt SIM with obloril Q B 
before it rcachej tic liottoin, ami therefore doe* not break the bettk 
(E. Davy). — Kulmituiiiii;.' illver wall moistened eila *aier and expoetd 
to a currant of chlorine jraa, alirforlm a large enaaity of tb© ga>, tirni 
yell*"/, and is finally converted, without any formation of carbonic •* 
i Into tUonck <»( fUrer, and a tcIIoi* oil, baariar than wafer. 

' a pungent odour, attaching this nw airunglr. Uld bftviog * ahaip 
- tiwte which alimxt paralyze* the tongue. If the mixture W 
agitnttM villi wat^r nnd distillm!, jjru U given off before the wat*r hem** 
BO boil, nnd a coIouHom oil paeao* ov*r, havng a aoiucwbat leas p 

Tall oil given off £&« under water; it ineoluble in aqueoet 
elk*) a, butditt*ohc* in alcohol; ami, if mixed b t li *.-» *>]iiti 
j>uU-li, then with a ferric m\t, nnd then with tin arid, exhibit* a grew 
colour. Tin- <nl i- therefore related to the oil »>f ohloi '■■ * » * * » 

it P*$g 15, 5B«). [May »t not bo CNXCP, a* indie* led by 
the following equation f 

< Wa/P * tCI - C*N*CPCr« ♦ SAgCl.] 

4. Nitrir ru-id IhhIic! i- ,r «nn« lime w ith fnlniinfttinc >il ver derompnaea 

it, forming nitrate of ammonia ind nitrate of silver (Dceeii' 

B Dilute sulphuric or oxalic acid dooompoece fulminating silver witaoat 

eftcrvc*rciire, fbrmbf bjtlfOCyanU acid and ainumr.ia <G*y-I,u*eac & 


e. Aqueou- bydrochloffc seid immediately convert* ell tbe *ilver of 
fulminating ailvor into Hilorido of titvor, with evolutiou of tbo r. 
hydrocYnnic acid (Dracotila). Beside* chloride of silver and hyeto- 
cyanic- acid, a trace of aimuouia is obtained, but no oxalic acid (Ittavr) 

By a RoiiipnrntM *H HHtJl noantlty of hydrudilorio acid, the fulminat* 
it tfl eon vert cj into chloride of silver and acid fulminate of silver, 
AzKUOfiytQ* [=G*WXAffH]; but on adding hydrochloric acid I 

filtrate ia no longer clouded by it, tho acid fulminate i* converted into 
chloride of rilvcr, hydrocyunic acid, and n peculiar chlorinated zai; 
Mltber aiiimniiui imr mrlinnir >irid in furtiifd in tlii* reaction (Oay- 
I.nasac & Llnbig). To jndge by the odour, a large quantity of hydro- 
cyanic acid ie formed: but on pawing hydrogen go* through a mix tar* *f 
fulminating silver and hydrochloric acid, thon over marble, and la*tly iair» 
•oltttloo of niitair of silver, no precipitate i* formed (Oar-Lnaaao ^ 
f.irbig [Hence there i* perhaps formed an acid anelling like hydro- 
cyanic acid, bin not identical with it.] 

Tho thfartnaUd acid contains oxroon, nitrogon, chlorine, nad poraaas 
also hydrogen. The chlorine contninod in if appear* to amount tc t 5 
timco as much a* that which i» coutaintd in the chloride of ailver pfo- 
It ta*tca pungent and swectiah, rvduVna litinun strongly, aid 
doea «mt pr»>ripitiiti* nitrate «f mlvor. It dacompoaoa when explatd to 
flu- air li-r lomo honra, mora quickly when hcatod, yiclJiug nmnur*, 
irhiob noatmlisctf the Mill-nndccntnpoeeil portion of the acid. AAat 
BMOCrafixaiioii aill petM^ wboreby it firat ftcqolnn a row-ml, then • 


H-l \I|\\PV. -II • i i; 


ir, or »H**r it ha« l>*en tn to rated with amnion nt by spnmnnc""* 

•mpoftition, it colour* ferric mil* deep red. The acid saturated with 

prtuh givoi off ammonia when evaporated, ami leaves u residue which 

rU^rimcm strongly with arid*, and whom nqncou* nloUcm precipitate* 
nitrate of rilror (Gay-Ltuuae .t Lleblg) 

7. Aquonua lydnodio acid decompose* fulminating *ilrer in a oimilar 
■f silver and an iodurettcd acid, analogous to tho 

chlorinated acid, bill forming | <!•*•]» red prw-.tutaif'' xeMjiiiehluridn 
of imn, witlionl I a in | lint neutralised. In tlnn decomposition by hydri- 
nti odour of hydrocyanic Mid i» ptteeptiMc (Oay I.tivne 
0c Licbig). Hydrofluoric wcid due* not doeompoM fulminating *ilv<r 
(Gay-Lua-nc A Licbif }. 

8. A small quantity of aqueous sulphuretted hydrogen dc«jm|wses 
fnlminntin^ *ilv*r, forming sulphide of *ilv»r unrl cyanic acid; a larger 
quantity fonafl rulphide of silver and hydroaulphooyanic acid: 

fi •\H g ur* a 2MS - 2C7NtiO> ♦ Mf8| 
i fcj ■ >< ♦ 6IIS - SCVM9 * fa*!* * 4HU. 

if we suppose that the cyanic. acid formed at first, is concerted 
of sulphuretted hydrogen into hydrofiulphocyuuic Mid; 

(NHO 1 * 4lis - ICKNH9 IHO 

of the cyanic acid is resolved into carbonic acid anil iinmonia, 

ht<!i l»itn leniiiiu* e.umhined «iih flu; bydiuMdpluH-yaiiio acid. Such 

at all event* ii the- explanation which I venture to give of the following 

oxyi ririKiiita of ijuy-l-n*"-'"' A Ll«bt$ although these cheim*!* regard lh* 

Mad whioh in formed at different from hrdrosulphocyanic Mid.) 

When fulminating silver is sur-pended in water, the liquid briskly 
agitated, and sulphuretted hydroucu parsed through it in ^i-n'Mv Ml 
■ufnVirnt for complete dflpomporftion, tin- I [quid MBit* n pungent odour 
like thkt of cyanic acid, and forms fumes when a stopper « h pj«- -1 in 
■nra."N : Bui when all the fulmmnto of silver i. .Ic-on: 

posed, the liquid become* clear and loses all it* odour. If it be tlica 
filtered from tho mlphidc of xilvt i. it exhibit* the follow U\y properties : 
ft IftStfJg: lii:>h ABd rn<Men* lilruux; give* off irnnn ■iu:t ul;th I n:iU(l with 

pota*h: thrown down tulphato of baryta from baryta-salts after boiling 

with rime acid; colourr ferric suits dnrlt red; and form* i. ilow 

r wiih irflnia of ulvar [nlpl i I ufailreris antic.] When 

<d fur some time to the air, ii doiKsflits a yellow powder, acipurvt tho 
dfUtiir i-f Ii vilm. v * UK* iri.l. and finally l<mvoi ih'Iiiph'Hivni Hid phftcyanidn id 
innuiuiii <Luhi^, A'e//n. Arth, 6, 327). — [It i* tme that Gay-I.uatM 
A Licltig found in the ulplmrr tlod acid obtained from 1 At- falmivatlog 
■il*er, only a littU mora than 2 At. eulphur, altln.uiili t-l*o 3 At. bydrv- 
■cl|i!iucyaaic acid, which 1 At falmlruUlooj ntlvirt should accorditig to the 
■Wire equation prt>cl«cp, mutt contnin 4 At. sulphur; but 81 ptft *>i UM 
cy«nie aeii forrtifd at ili<- oosnODdaetttMl i* 1 alway* con\ertcd into car- 
bin tie of ammonia, it it nut | liat J At hydroeulphoeyanic ftbomllj 

U jirodaced.] 

•lotions of nlkalino -ulphiiU-w, e, y. pvoiotalpliii 
b«i ng in insufficient qunntily. decomiioxe eyatlldv "i* *ilrer, 

iohninate of a i 1 v>*r and the nfk»li-roeUl, and -ni -ilrer 

< •\>hjO* * IUX- C'WA|KH1« ♦ AgS 


With * larger profiartmn *f Uw» aartaJIlt ralpfaUa, aa alkalme f aha aas ir 
-KMr 1 ) appears to be Conned at ordinary iea-)f*ratarr«. ami wUfc the 
aid of L<at, » compound of tbe alkali with ■ -ulsiarrlo-d acid differrai 
from hydroauli.nocyaaic mM. If faltaiaatio* silver bo treated witi 
axartlv mi mnrh a q aeons protusaljihide of rctaasiura (or of autmur - 
that ll» liquid sball neither k^rlimdi*! bjrbj **'*A a*ir Waekeaed 

by nitrate of ailver, tin liquid filur,-! fnaag :L# »ul|>*x<U of silver ia fonm! 
! e I- | • rfoctly neutral, taste* exaetly like cyaoalc of potash, and wlwn 
udde*L to a Bolutiou of UtoM of silver, forma a pretipiUte of fulmiRatiof 
*iiv*r. itlldaj »f thr liquid 1*01 OOPUta *« la-hide of jiota**iu-m. ia black- 
ened by admixture of sulphide of silver On evaporating the filtrat*, 
tlie t Ileal me fulminate fcl BigQmpoaad (Licbijr, /*<•#?. 15, 3CS). — Hie 
fulminating •iIvt Mi.-]M*Dd»<I in boiling water, acaeoa* protoanlpbide of 
barium Lc added as long as sulphide of «il«er continues to form, a yell«>» 
alkal ne filtrate is obtained Iron which, towercr rarbtnse aeld throw* 
down only a very small quantity of carbonate of baryta. This yvY- ft 
bnrrtic filtrate doce not f»ivc off sulphuretted hydrogen when treated wits 
acil-. WIkii evaporated, it leave* a yellow residue, which at 100', as 
soou xm tin- U»l tr.ur if moisture i* r. studied, chaiu,'c» lo a Kiev saisa, 
from which lime eliminates nmmonin. and water extracts sulprtoey 
fif LcriUM, faftrtn* » leafdav of carbonate- of baryi i UM ::rey mas* 
lieAt-d in a tube, melts, Rives off carbonate »i ammonia which roll hunt 
then cyanogen, and I cares sulphide of barium. Dilute sulphuric acid 
wf arutT frdin the undecouiposed bnryla-taJt, an easily drcum|*' 
— With mtram of ailver, thn recently pro pa rod yellow horytir filtrate 
forms a yellow precipitate, which when washed and then beutcd wHn 
water to 100', give* off carbonate of ammonia, and U converted into 
sulphide of mI\h (tieblg, A'uWn. Atrk. 0. 330), 

10. Aqueous solutions of tin* fixed iilknli*. ax alao n»j?ne>fia, boiled 
with fulminating ffUw, gmilnnlly separate) nn| quit** half ih** fcilr*r, asa 
blnck oxido; a bo! at ion of fulminate of ftilvor and pot&auara, •odiom. 
barium, strontium, cnlciuro, or magnesium being at the came time formed 
(Gay Luetic A UtUf ) . 

OWtfHX •* KO - <WA«KO* + A. ' 

100 pU. of fulminating ailver, boiled even for a considorcbla tima wilb 
txc*** of potash, do not yield mora than 31*45 ptu. of oxido of ail*»«t 
nUobig). 0ra1«Uatioa reqaim $8 , 67 pta, — 300 ; 1U1 = 100 ; 9&4R. 
Hence purt of the fulminating siirer ;ippt-nis to remain iiiidi'cum|MisnL 

11. Aqueous lulnlionh of f I -■ RlkNllDC rhlorideK. even when added fa 
ftxeesa, proeipitato onlv half the silver in tho form of cblorido, and ft>r» 
fulmitiute of lilfit ntuf potassium, Ac. (Oay Luoulc & Liobig): 

In tli in manner. !(K) pts. of fulminating lUw (Icoompoaod by a 
0H8OU of rhlorido of jHitouium, yield "».'i'3H pta. of chloride of lilra 

a dilution whloh, vln.ii .!<■<•,. up* ...i-.i bj 1. virocbl.>nr acid, likewise 

> pt*» of chloride of silver. Hence rlho two atom> i-f stli 
lull.. n dtfferenl states, since only one of them is mvotpil 

a* elil • ilvi-i by moLallii rhl i ft 1-tebir). 

12. Coppei *-r meroory boiled with fulininatino; ■- i waMr 
Mitiinari'ly atparati- aU In* -iU.r m tbt DlttaQie ffat*, fomiintr faiuiiaat* 
of ..jipfr at fulminate of mercury (Liobig). — W DOB the boilinc 

rcary if continued for a short time only, fulminate «f oilier aai 



mercury i» formed = CWAgHgO* (LMIg)< — Zinc, even when boiled 
for avvrral day* with fulminating rilw, MpMmtoi ool* ball Ibfl sHvCTi eu 

that fill nil nM* Of -ilver and mh- U formal ( I.ioblff, Sehuf. 4S. SOS). — 
Wbni fulminating «ilv«r w boiled with water ana iron filings, a red 
brown filtrate i* obtained, which when evaporated, yield* ruddi h ' 
noted crjmUlt of fulminate of iron (Licbig, Ann, Chan. Phyt. 24, 308). 

(Wfcni.Tfwi* Fulminating silver is very vpuriiitfly soliihlo in cold 
Wattr, but <Iimhi/Ivii- in :u; pt& of boillu water, from which it separates 
ayva <« cooling- (G*yLu*£>c A Licbig). — It diaaolvoj more abundantly 
in aqueous Ammonia, which, when evaporated at orlisiny U IBl| 
U-avts it iina)r*rtfiil (DsMOtfif) 

F* S **maU in? Stfeer and Hydrogen, or sited /VmsnafV o/" £t7etr. 
C^NXAgH^AgO.HO.C/O*. — Pi 1 lath* form of a white 

powder «m mixing tlio aqueous wduliun of a fulminate of silver and an 
alkali-metal, witli nitric acid not in excess: 

C'VAuKO* + HO ♦ NO 1 = CWAgllO ♦ KO.NO*. 

Dtasolvcj readily in boiling; water, crystallmnp, out on cooling; redden 
litmus. By boiling with silver-oxide, it it converted into fulminate u 
niKiT. and by (toiling with mercuric oxide. Into fuliniuaic of ftilvor and 
mercury (Liobig, dim. CMim. fhyt, 24. 302}. 

FulminaU of SUtcr and Ammonium. C 1 NXAjr^m = NHK>,AaX),Cy 1 0*. 
— From * eolation of fulminate of BlNoi it b«t aqueous ammonia, linn 
■alt crystallite* on cooling in white, shining crystalline grain* haviuj- a 

Eingfnt metallic taste, whilo argon tat e of ammonia remain* in solution, 
olenites with three time* the foroo of fllmffioiiag aiJvcr, and with 
extreme facility, ovon under tin: liquid, when touched with a gloss rod; 
if, however, the liuuid contains excete uf ammonia, the exulosiou doea 
extend tnronraoni the ma** i)i»*olre« very sparingly in water 
(Liebitf, Ann. Chtm. Phy$. '24, 310), 

Fhlmimtt* rtSBwr and Polonium. C 4 NXAgK = KO,A4jO,Cy , , l — 

300 pu. (1 At ) fulminating silvnr Ufl decomposed by not quite 74"fi pu. 

St At > onlorida <>f pottUMUim dissolved in water,— or water in which 
aluibi.ittinr wlver n M)»|>cnded b kept in a Bftatl "I oboOltfOtt, and 
uu,»cou* chUri.i. of poteeeiam abided aa foutf as it occajdon.* turbidity, DQl 
no loader; the liquid ie then decanted from tbo chloride of aiUcr, and 
:i eryul ulises Ii ii l>e filtered, instead ■ >r being decanted. * 
• i I. Ii j iid it ebtninod which yields brownuh crystals : hut if it bo 
boiled Got *oroe time after dilution with water, it lotos it* ooIootj i^i-oeiU 
and when dovuntcd from tin colourless crystals, 

npound is obtained lean pure by builiug fulminating silver with 
asjoe canting from (In- iir#ri|iif:ifi'd ..vide *>f *ih*T 

:<*d lamiaai, which havo u repul»ive 
■ictaliic taste, and do not blue red'deuod litmus paper. Detonntoa Tvry 
easily and wi:h great Tiolenco Coutnin* 14'02 p.o. potash [=)5 3&rxc 

!>i>-nl\i> in ■* niv uf boiling and in a larger quMlItY el 

* w*Ur\ Nitric teid added, not in rxces*. to the aqnoous solution, 
down a white ponder, consisting of fulminate of silver and 
a-rdriigi'n. Hydrochloric ;»'■;<! added to the rotation mixed witl poteebj 
«•» down a rsreoipiue*. ahieh continues to ivdUxdte in Uin li'qold I II 


oTHTLKM: HITWXiEN-KI < t.H n « NMi. 

all tbo potwaium it converted into chloride, any farther qnaatity of 
iici'l throws down clloride of silver, with «inalU»coua tonuatio-a 
hydictvaiiic acid, carbonic arid, and nl ITWTirhn CWoridn uf potaa- 
iinm doe* not dwompow thW nit Copper imm^r«ftJ in tho »-ju*oa» 
Holutioo, throws down all tbo silver, by furrniag fulminate of copper tad 
fxuuuiunt, Tko volntiun dot* not precipitate ferric sulphate 
pruuuui b)no ou Mibeccjucnt addition of hydrochloric acid (Liobi*?, J*a. 
C'AjVi. y'Ayt. 24,31.5). 

FulmtimU of Stfver and Sodium. — Prepared by a airailar 
Small, red-brown, metal-chining lamina-, containing 11*34 p.c. 
[-^643 p.c. aodiuin], morn aolublp in waJcr than the pvU«b-**U. hut 
othi'r»ift.> Aihilnting mm i Inr reaction* (Linbig, Ann. CnitM. 

.0. ««4a 
-*lt, but 

Fuhf AiVrcr amrf liarium. — Dingr white crystalline jrxainj, 

which detonate with violence, diurolvc *pariiu>dy in water, und are decout- liv hydroohlorio Midi tha oampoaod onrad U loo* th*n yielding 

41*35 p.c. chloride of barium. Zinc iiiniier»td in tbo boiling acjuoou 
volution throne down nilver; the Bllrato deposits on evaporation a yellow 
powder, which k'twtx-n K'iO and IOtT burn* away wftlttQl dwtOtwtioCI. 
like mnd of iQrrar, leaving caibonau; of baryta mixed with x'ww, and 
when treated with hydrochloric acid, yield* «nl-irntnom:u' with i 
- «• (■« -n . und tiiii ni>1 thornlon Im.« a iuliuiiiati (1-iobig, |HA. ' Pfcjfl 
24, 315; ^cA». 48, MOjOm Lnasae dt Licbig, Ann. Chin. /%«. 25, SO*; 

Fulminate uf Silver and Strontium. — Dinury white crystal! 
grain*, which detiuinti* with violeiiw, utul are vpnringU | walci 


Fulmiujtf • >/ Silver and Calcium. — Small yellow crystalline grail . 
uf liijj'h specific gravity, and dissolving readily even in «ld water 



Fulminate of Silver and Maijnttium. — a. liasie. — Ob tain ad 
boiling fulminating silver with magnesia and water. Rose oo lei 
powder, hi ■■' in water, winch merely dooropitatee wbea heated, 
giving off carbonic acid and .imimuiia, and leaving a residue of sua^ncai* 
and silver. — 6. Neutral. — Whit*', thread-like cryatau*, 
capillary native silver, and detonating strongly (I.iebig). 


ninaU of Silver and Zinc — By boiling fulminating silver wiib 
tine nod water— whereby only half tbo silver is precipitated, ctco after 
long < ■«iiImmiiuI elmllitiou — and eva|Kiraliti^ ili«- vidluw filtrate, yelk/n 
d*4nrintin-r crystal* arc ohminod, together with a yellow nop-dotoriattar 
powder (Liebi^. Ann. Chim. Phyt. 24, 3UH;— icAir. 48, 330> 

J'\i!m'.i"itc of Silver <xnd Mercury, or Argcrtto-vtcrcurk Fulminate. — 
. -\ \-\ boUtO| fuliniiuU- uf ojKci mid hydroycu with l 
oihI water, or by boiling fulminating silver for not too Ion 
tnareury aiul O-itet. li .irati< th^eiuujKiund rrystaHiie* 10 M 

aluuiDg needle* (Liohig, Ann. (,'him. 1'hyi. 21, 90a 1 

J Bi um m i rk FtUminatt / — PoJniiBAic i»t hoc *h>\ bruiom. adJc^l 



■liJuto solution of normal lerchloridc of ffold, Ihrowj down a brown, 
explosive compound, which dissolves oven at ordinary temperatures, in 
amiiiuiiix h^dmrhhirir iwi i| # mill nil of vitriol j frmu l.ln.i taxt-iuvntiouvd 
solution, water throw* down a dnrk purple-red powdox. — Th* liquid, 
filtered from the brown powdor, fields by eraporaliou, yellow six aided 
priviii-, v>ln<h uxplodo and leave * romduc of metallic gold, arc insoluble 
in vbIm ojmJ mi hydrochloric koMi but dissolve in iqtnV i fft{B»(Bt I)u»y, 

/i>rr. JaKnsber. 12, 128). 

JftncvpttUtnic Fulminate t — Fulminate of /inn and barium forms 

with |i1.i1imm- nlpba if i brown prBcipJnxtej whWbj i'* Addition lo Milplnt. 
of baryta, contain* platinum and fulminio acid, and whon hoatod, does 
not explode, but wcrohr dcBotfrutoe. The liquid, filtered from tlm 
bfOWfl procSpltajOBj yields ou evaporation the puru compound in small 
ynllowdmnwi pii.-uiis, wliicli dolonato with violence (E. Davy). 

JSinco-palladioud Fulminate t — Fulminate of tine fonun, with nitrate 
of pTilU'liuui, a dark-bruwu precipitate, which id olivo-browu when dry, 
dnionatns, nnd in iusoluldtt in water (E. Davy). 

CanjutyaUd Compound* of the X itrogm~nueUi. 

Trigenic Acid. cwirO'sCWAdHW t 

Lifcino & WOiuftR [1HIC). Ann. i'karm. 59, 296. 

Formation. By the notion of cyan to acid vapour on anhydrous aldq. 

IV yg ra wfatti When cyanic acid va|K>ur, produced by heating 

cyaiMuir .ul. !• pa***! into a few grammes of dry aldehydo contained 

\m a vessiel surrounded by cold wnmr, thn liquid becomes heated, offor- 

veoeot violently fr<-m oncapo of carbonic Bold, and nil* Iho voseot with a 

froil i'liinatcly *ondi6oi in a tumid maw. With larger VMft- 

of aldehyde, the frothing becomes too violent. — A better plan in 

.nl thr nldtdiydu with 1<X, and leave it, after saturation with cyanic 

acU vapour, which then Ink** plarn <[uito quietly, in a moderately warm 

place; the ctfervcooonoo tl i i "», and eoutininM. like a kind of formsn 

Lotion, for boon ami days, till there remains either a tough hulf-.*»IidtnYd 

intMi, or ■ yt-Unw iah iiyrup in which crystalline crusts gradually form. — 

The man thus obtained, which IfkvWiM contains cyaniHlide, aldeliyile- 

ammenia, and p'rhaps other sccondjiry prwlurts, isdiaaolvod in uuvkiraudy 

tiloric acid, boiled as long a-* it give* off uldohylo-rspour, 

■■iln-'ivd hot. Whon the filtrate i» loft to .-tand for some days in the 

t ho creator part of the trigenic acid crystallizes not; Iho mutlu-r- 

i fnw more crystal*. The crystals nro dissolved in nater, 

(looolorixod by animal charcoal, ami hud 

Small nhito needles, generally in nUllalo groups, and hating a« 
acid Uotoand eoact.oit. 


• C -- 4* _ 37-81 .... S*H 

JN .. « 32S4 11-34 

jh 7 . ait »•»< 

4 O ... 38 W»l .. 84 i . 

WHW , IS* ... 100*0 . . 100-00 

Dttompcsihcns. The acid whan heated, mclu, with dwottiraiuna 
and carbonisation; circa off alkaline rapoor* eraelling strongly Dl 
line; mud yields by dry dietilbtton, fin* a* alkaline*, «oarp-ta*tin£ 
hie which uncll* lilui chmoljan. and afterwards vapour* off r\. 
The dirtillato solidifies in a yvllnwinh white miui, and when dutillod 
potaeb, vk>Mh oily okmoliae, wbilo cyanuno acid remain* in col 
with die potaak. 

CfefltotnoiiW. Tlw acid disaolreji sparingly in Wttirr. 

Triycmite o/.Vi7pct\ The clear mixtnrn of trigrnrc arid iind neutral 
nitrate of lilrer, gradually mixed wild dUlM nminunh\ deposits triffcDat* 
of *il*or iu Uiti form of a white powdar, which nppcarv by microscopical 
examination to bo composed of globular crystals; aaaumos a viol, i col' 
when exposed to light; between 120° and 130' gives off water, 
turn* light brown; and at Mf/", roeltn, black rn*, tad give* off % 
Tapour imollinff of cbinolinc. 

/MM «/ 1 NT. Urhfc .V W«.l C f. 

AfO M6 . 4W-IS 4H-4; 

BC 4* . 20-54 

sn 42 .... u-ao 

6 H C ,.,. S-M 

3 24 .... 10-17 

CNWAyO* 836 ... 100-00 

Trigonicncid ie nearly insoluble in alcohol (UdUg A UVblcr). 

Thialdine. cnhv. 

H SHW A Lmuio (1847). Ann. Vham. €1, L 


■ ■ .. ./,..' frtpn ration, Sulphuretted hydrogen rvetowly 
for 4 ui .' boon i1imi.;-1i a M>liiiiuu *»f aldehydcamiuoniu in I £ to 16 |rts. 
ill' w:it'*r. to which aqueous ammonia has tavn Dftviooaly atMe-i 

C.'ii,>n nf lu to I', drops to tbo ounce. In half an hour, tlii- 
mc* white and turbid, then gradually becomes clear, and deposi 
Yolals rcecmbling camphor, tbo appean&iicv uf which indicate* ibe 
iiiun uf die process. Ibe cry*tnJn arc drained in a funnel, uudicd 
ftitli water, dried by j>re«ure between paper to remove hjilinaolaTatfl of 

ami ill and iliftvcdved in otber. Tbo solution &l tfcon I 

r its bulk of aJcoLol, und left to evaporate in tlic air; and as *owu 
M Uiu crystals which iunn are uo louder antral by ibe millsf UilSM. 



thii liquid is decanted and evaporated, whereby it Yiolds a further crop 
of yellowish crystals, and ultimately contains nothing but L vdroeulpbatc 
of ammonia: 

3(NH'.C*H«0*) ♦ 6118 - CTCUm* r JNH'B ♦ UO. 

lot imw, during tbo passage of the aulphurcttcd hydro^on, thoro eopa 
Lcjiftd of the crywtal*, a heavy, colourless, tthilaQff oily mixture 
of thialdine with a peculiar liquid. To wpamt" the tfaiftlaint from tUfl 
mixture, the greater part of tbo watery liquid it decanted; irw oil «hakcn 
up with half ilx hulk of tthaf vti:rl, bnmdlftts)*} AinWwl if ; fa lols> 
tion ilcc anted from tho remaining watery Ii^ukI. nd well ahaUm uij m 
a stoppered bottle with rather strong hydrochloric acid; the crystalline. 

;toa, cvn«ie*tiusr of uevdlrs uf hydruculoratu of thialdiue, washed on 
the filter with other; the crystals. 'after drying, moUfonod with strong 
suueoa* ammonia; and, lastly, heated with ether, which dissolve* the 
libera '.rd tluuldino, mid deposit* it by opoutanoous evaporation in tbo 
crystalline I 

Prejwrftcs. Transparent, oolowrlo**, shining crystals, baritg tin I brn 
of gypsum, and refracting light itrongly. Sp. gr. 1-191 at 18*. Helta 
at «3°. ami lolkfdfitl again in the cry*tallitiM atato at 42'. Ev&porJlCI in 
to* air »t medium t*inpi>raiiirc« without reaidun, nnd may he di>.till."l 

heal dcoozapeaitloa in contact with water, but decomposes when heated 
■done. Has a peculiar aromatic odour, disagreeable after a while, and io 
■eutraJ to vegetable OoIoUfc 

UC - 93 

N «... . I I 

13 1! 18 

I* ... (I 



VYtfhlrr * Uebff, 



.... 30-U 





3ClI > S v Nll 4 8(W9Uer& U«b%.)— C^U^H*? fi«. 

De&mpcitiions. 1. Thmldino is revolved by dry distillation into a 
•ticking oil, which partially nolidifivM after a wliilo, an<l a dark brown 
mn Wsiilur iM.ntainiruj lulphur VYlieudi tilled uitli Lyiliat.- nf liinr, 
at a beat rising to redum*, it yields rhiuoline. — 3. Thialdiiie, or rithaT 

of ita salU, beattd with :i« ( iu'oii. mfr:ito nl -il vrr, I* r<i»<dVftd ium ;il !<■ 

byile which vohtiljpaa, sulphide of silver wbieh precipitates, and acid 
mlratc of ammonia which remains in solution; 

i it v f 4(\|O.NO») ¥ iHO - XCWO> 4 4A*S » NH» * 4NCV. 

4. An almiolir xolution of tliiuldina fbmi a white precipitate after a few 
ruiaute*, with neutral acetate of lend, then a yell.uv . ■ n.l h-tly a block 
preeipiuate; with ivirmivo sublimate, tirxl whito, itMB y.-llnw, sjflifa 
bpohlerirlo of platinum, diity yellow after a while. — 5. Thiamine for inn 
with aqueous cyanide of mercury, n white precipitate, which by boiling 
01 varied int«. Mil phi de -if mercury; at tin 1 mnm linn-, whit* didtcato 
••edles sublime in the ratort, very volatile insoluble in waU-r, hut aulnhla 
in alcohol and ether; they probably consist of thiuldino in which the 
uilphur is replaced by cy&nogeu, 


* 6*. Ttiioidinc heated in n Mated tale with water and oxide of ■!«■ 
u«*T«rt*»l into l«i< 

rOfd oxWi* of k»d «fl&t« tb< moic IruuTwuutan, W 
fcdapttd f-'f Ik* 1'nrjKwt*. fwdf booamo It bu • {teat teodeor* to 
■ipI pvrtlf bwi" •' i« ilinc*! tints eunt&miniLW »itb 
/<«-. /Man.. 'HI, |«i). * 

Combinative. JhiaMint in very ■loritiety roUbie in 
<UmoIvo« id -icnif, (oruiing wbilo cryBuJlioabfa *mlt*. 

i { !/<lrochU,rti(( of ThUUJinf HyilriK-lilorio iiciil Mtcrmt«d 
tbnvldincv Mill WflllH •'* arid mot ton — If ihe thiaMln* 
anted Ml ilio foniijrii body already mentioned. Out nufctftoaoo #n 
it* -*Iour mure il fondly in Uic hydrochloric acid tolnti+n. bat auy bo 
immediately removed by agitation with ether — The *>Jatiun, vbca 
•vaprmtitd In tlio air. Of ooaemtialfid D t\ic wnicr-hfttli, and then raolija, 
yield* trmn«jnrcnt coIouHcm, higlly Imtroua pricing often aa inch loot. 
The** crystal* turn brow a whoa heated, but without molting, and yioW 
a •ubliuiate of kU ammoniac, together willi a got which Lae a very olea- 
■ivo odour, and burns with a ouioky flame. Tlmy tliwuWr in w»Ur 
Ii BUMV r>«;nlily tlum in alcohol. '■■pociuJIy when heated, and an 

>u other. 


WnkWr a LirMj 




v. v. 


1 4-0 



ii H 




. 3210 

- 3197 




_.... IIMI 

ONH 1J S\HCI ._. I99'4 .... 100-00 . . (tt>» 

iVxiitite of TAialdint. — Dilute nitric a«id is saturated with pur* 
tliiuMiti* , ud the solution evaporated and cooled; or the cthcre-al aulu* 
(ion .1 Ixaptm tbUdhM in coiiYcrled, by addition of nitric acid, into a 
rry>!alline iiu^mn, which i* wanhml with othftr, dbunlved in water, and 
ajBtBUind — WhSti delicate needle*, which molt and deeompo** whoa 
h-atcd. Tli«v diwolvi* in water mow readily than tbo hydrochlontc, 
are more soluble in but than in cold alcohol, ami insoluble in etb 


12 C 
I N 

14 II 


\\ Ohlrr A Uebtf. 

72 . 








64 . 

. 2ft-32 

tt 41) 

4H . 

21 ;i 

C»NI(>** i Nt»» 220 


Tliinldinu dissolve* remlily in AltoAvl, and still nioro readily in SAir, 
it* nnwdur dnii^u ea oa i vhen riposnd to uir containing etner-vatx-nr 

( Wftbkur A LUbij). 



grmndt d. <A«vr. m. prut*. Ckem. 3, 39). Th/oard examined this lie.uii 
wbich i» in tin iii.ui il:> hm i" BeVaaWa' nJWaiaiu off oxide of oacodvt 
Bol it wan rmervcd fur Buruca'i exact and laborious myarrae* to dt*- 
eover not only th*> composition of taw liquid, tat aUo & larg* namherof 
allied compound*, coustitutiiijj the caeodyl eeriea* which ho regarded »* 
■ oi from a raoUlloTdal radical, Caeodyl sOAlH*. On th< odior 
liuiil, I,;»iii.iit {Rev, Ktmt. 14, 327), Duma* (.V. Ah%. Ckim. /V 
362), and Gciiinnlt (/*r«ru, 1. 3A1I; 2, 445) regard theae compound* v 
Jh-I-.h-iml' lo th« Miijlenc-criea, and avaurae a* the aueUu* fr«»m which 
| an lUrivi d, thvOOflWMad PAttl 1 = C'Arll', analogous toethylea*. as the oacodyl compounds) ar<- farmed ftom • onbetanee ac- 
luniriiiL' lo tin 1 oflljrlvM -' M ■. I ■' IflOiti usdi - » » = * I Ctt odjj I. « li'T dfotitted 

with oil of n i;. til. Bapeara to yield gatphorvtnau <•( wum 

Arethase. CAaU'sPArH*. 

IV»«n (Qui.). 

trtpantfitrn. By treating chlorido of cacodyl. C*A*H'CI, 

aJooltuli.- |m.|il-|i. chloride of potawiuin io obtained, together with a 1 
which i» ii-»i nlaejbli with strong potaeh, and may be freed. by r* pntrd 
trvUuiont with potoah nml fractional distillation, from the greater |iart <o( 
the alcohol, wlncli i« lea* volatile: 

0*AlB*a I KO - C-ajH' * KCI + HO. 

Prvperlia Thin, traiinpari-m. eolourlew liquid, almost as volatile as 
time oilier, and having a repulsive ethereal odour, like that nf allenr 

(Jombmatiom. Mixen in all proportion* witli Wuttr and AUtkU 

Cacodyl. C«AalI«=C'ArHMI. 

flliNM-\. Ann. I7iami,42, 25. 

Format*"**. May Ui ftepamtoJ from chloride of caoodvl tv line. Hi, 

».r in.n :it I'd' tu 100 , or fri.m JulphiJo or bromide of caoodyl by mercury 

.a -(to tu ;jttO ; 

BW t So- PJkaV *■ Bafl 

It t ajea N.rmvd, together with tli** allitnl compounds, arveatrii 
^CH'i'Aa, and ancnmcthylioMi (C'lPj'A*, by the action of i«4»de ef 
methyl on arsenide of eodium (Cahours & Richo, Compt m%J. 99, 342; 
see aiw> ptigo 351 of this relnma), 

Preparation. Pure *ine and pure chloride of racodyl are 
together to 100 - for three hourv, in a perfectly closed vessel; User 



I. >f xinc removed ly water; and the cacodyl, which ninka to the 
bottom in the form of an oil. dehydrated by chloride of calcium. 

Tbe dfiUQfl of linn i»j>eratii>ti, wJiic.1i ih rendered \ it y dimculj hy the 
»trong tendency of cacodyl to take fire in the air, ore nj follows: To 
obtain chloride of cacodyl perfectly free from nlkarain (p. 320), the alknmin 
i* digettcd three tumja with etrong hydrochloric arid, till the reeultni.: 
idi of « mi -m-IvI ii» longer emit* the aligbtcvt fume on oxpoaurc to lie- 
mir. It i» then «figcited for several day- with ;i mixfi ilorida of 

nl lime, to free it eomplMiely from wau>r and hydrochloric Mid. 
Fop Uiii purpose, a ghum tube having a bulb in tho middle and placed in a 

■ a) position. \o bent utxvordti at nn acute angle at the lower part, and 

•Ipaill VertlCallv dliWUHani- ::( (111- >»mr itriili *:i:iL'l<-. T 1 : • - liljlb COUtttillV 

a mixture of'limo and chloride of calcium. Through the upper end of 

this iifi[utru1iH (I), ilry earlwiTiic ncidga* in |»n---*««<t to exiwi the air; tho 

lower end dipped ml" tin chloride *A cacodyl below tin* hydrochloric 

acid; tho chloride of cacodyl drawn up into the apparatus by incana of a 

han 1 pump attached by a caoutchouc tbbi to the upper end; and hintly, 

tin iv ii end* healed, ra r i « 1 the appar.'iKni *ct aaide tor ooine- day** — Tn 

MHpOM tho cacodyl tlu« punned, will xinc, the following apparatus 

(2) i* i. i I A phu*4 tul"' [•:■ i di.-t moo obliquely upward*] 

ik-ii bent at an acute angle vertically downwards*; thon at tin- I4BM 

acute angle obliquely upwards; and in tbo middle of thin rat, in blown 

a bulb, it iliiMi paiWM :it flic mlOM :wiiti- un\;\t' , Full, for a greater 

le&gtl . vertically downwards, and i* in thia part again blown into m hulh; 

lastly, it ii bent ut short diataacce and ut acute angle*, 6rat obliquely 

ml. . lb< n vertically downward** The upper bojb of thia apparatus 

i* tilled »'iili thin xinc-foil, which ha* been treated with dilute HJpaOrk 

acid, then wa-hod with wiiter. dried, mid cut up into apira] all pa; the 

■ ratua carefully tilled with dry carbonic acid gaa; tho chloride of 
cacodyl aucked into tho upper bulb; both enda of the tnlx- .onlod; md 
the nppnrntun boated for three bouns in the water-bath. The line 

• Urn without vviiliiLimi of t,'H*, the liiplid becoming pomovthat darker. 

Tbo liquid, ai it cooIh to 4- Kr, deposit* large cubical crystals, pmbahly 
a compound of ohlorlde of doe Prltl ObJcffldl •' OMOdvi, which disappear 
optin on baating tho liquid. Ultimately, whan tho chlorine incompletely 
removed, the contents of the bulb appear at 100 c 'oeadrv nliiu- iummh, 
wIiii.Ii uit.'lto a£*iu to :iu "d botvato 110 aad \2C, The lowai end of 
the utill hot ipiarntu* i» now dipped into water which ban been tho- 
roughly boiled and OOolad j than >>ro)cen off, an that tho water may outer 
aa the apl«niliiH I Q WHilod, and (he whole nielinod *0 thlt tho 

water may run from the lower bulb into the upper, where, ±fter digceikin 

fi-r aontl Umo, it diaautvealhe chloride "f xiiie, leaving the cacodyl in tho 

it of an oil, ftiupthar witii the axcanoftlne, Tba cacodyl \* ihon driad 

in nppnrnta* (J), again drawn into apparmtU <V.i. and ncaiii di got tod 

wiUi put.- xinc, by whirli operation bflVarar only a Bt&afl <)iuuitity of 

• >{ tine i» no" formed. The cacodyl i* then diftillod fi'-m ilie 

upper bulh \uU\ the low m ; the i raoapan uU eoborlaai duilllata cooled to 

— $* # lil! tBo-ilnrd- have eryxtalllEdd nut; and the iioitmn which utill 

il l d pourad baek into tbo upper bulb, again digested i 
a«piiu dietilled, and «o on tin- Um AON Hv thi« wrics of opera! 
pure aaoodyi Ki al teOftli obtaluad in the lower bulb. 

Prf/pnttn CeyNtallitea al — (l in large thiiiine. Mpiare \> 

At rT*lur%ry lempernturet. it fermaa lain, trmnapareni eototirl >, «t mildly 


bthtum:; arsipogen-- 

refracting oil bcamcr than water. fcViU neat 170*. Vapcxr-deavatty 
7*11)1 nai lite odour <vf alkaiwin. 

a. . .. ;a 
in a 




C'Arll'.II 105 . 10000 ,. M-6S 

C arodr J -Tip©** 

Runara, adoptiftg the radk-al- theory . recarfe cacoerl aa * nirfajluldal radical 
COrraapOO-lU* to ethyl, C'H 1 . and oLber radical*. *uumnl b<r lbt> tUf-vi Imt aiUrr» 
■nUolated [UiU «%» written br/orp the iaolaaun of ethyl, mctirL *w)| and lb* kvdibaa 
of cacodyl, in o'lditn.'ii to thit of ey«nocea, aai ncuooe, n looted wason as a 

great •unport of the radical -theory. U u however rtiu^rkVjlc 1ltit ejaoodyl bcila it 1*0", 
where*" •Ikirtin. lU with t At. otyarn. borr* at ISO*, thnujh in oth*r raaat 
the hudm* \*Ant of mean if rowponndi la ralerd by ulrtnton of Aijgrav « 
might therefore be rrf arxlol as a conjotatcd eomuottud - CAaW-CUrH V 
— Buifewn denote* caevdyl by the sjxiibol Kd. Brnrliu* (JeArewfar. 24, 041) «*•» the 
iyioWl KV. The latter regardf cawodyl a* a ooaipouml of «e<t*l * . ,«t*d 

hydrogen — C'll-Aill', And eon*e«jiiently all compound* of the oaextdyl- aerie* w 
•ompounda of tram i ore*. ted bfdrojren with ae-tyl iml Ha pmipouodV — J Caood*. 
»Uo be rvfanlwl •■ a nVfapOBM .if I at, aramir with 'I kt. methyl » < M' \» 
aceordlngly KnnkUnd | i:hrm. Aur. Q«. ./. VI, rll rall< it /n-aeiAuf* o/ arwmr Taw 
ftp* trf IU roniUtuUuu la auppurtcd by the Taut of ita ruruuliiMi. lojrtUwr with the 
compound* |niVA» and (C J IP)'\». by the action of iodide of methyl on arwnide of 
•odium (p. 351), juat aa arai-nhimhyl and the other araencthyU are obfiacd 
action of iodide of ethyl on arsenide of aodirun.* fl 

Dftompottfiom. 1. Cacodyl bc*t«>l in a bent tube eloeed at 
* twnporatur* aoiiiftwhtu above the (Milium \i\>\i\i at inatcury, i* rwd 
without deposition of naH»nn. into aravmie mid n mixture of 2 vol. m 
gMond I v«.i .l.-iiani |p.«r 

9C*ifH* - 2C»H« r C*N' * 3A». 

Tho ffMCOus mixture eontnine nl»o a onmll quantity of cneodyl rmpour, 
whence it l-urim with a coloured luininoua lliirue, depoeitto^ a jniall 
(|iiaiitity uf oraeuic, and vhm nixe<l with rlilurine uv«(i n:n 
m>»l bmu with :i fiery red IiltIiI, and 'lepoaition of eliareool. Oil of 
riliiol abatrncta tho ufoflunt ^as and oaeodyl rapour from 0>c mixture, 
leaviDtrthomarab'^aw. €rol. ol tho^axotie mixture exploded irlth 0XJMV 
coiwutne M toI. oxygen and produce 8 roL carbonic acid gna. [* 
inarBb-gjis D0DHBM « *ol. oxy^y.M and ji red lire 4 rol. eAtbonM arid gaa; 
2 vol. nlcfiiuit pi^ eonKume li vol. oxygen and nroflnco 4 vol. eari 
= 4 + 2 • 8 + -fi ; 4-f4.] — 2. When encodyl ia dirtilled with dry ell> 
rido of ainc, liquid* of vArioua boiling point paw over, apparently 
co-Delating of mixtures of a hydrocarbon, Dodeoompoaed caoodyf, mud a 
peculiar arveuic-cuuiiKitind. — Wbeu nue ia digeoted with ehloride of 
cocodyl in nppnrnttia (2), p. 317., till it i>- completely 0oor«rtod into a 
white cryatalline maa*. and tbit idmi quickly boated in th* oilhatb, a 
colour)*** liquid paaao* over from 800° to 260 . without any evolution of 
K»a, If tliij Baud be drawn up into MtOtbei appantua (2>; there freed 

• afWbnSag to fimnlln'a arrNne^mrnt., nrwnhtethyl chnuM l>e placed m IV 
■(•Carbon vriri. and recordrd n* C^rll'.H; nnd tlmUurlj lAndolt'a afwaatn 
C'll'-Av Bdlbl "ir revudrd •» C l '< S»H*)H ll .H . nnd aramatfeylhllB, C u H*AaV ■ 
1 Wtl'iK'MI. !l"- f..n ntee of tl»e>e two «onpovsdl i i<ntaJnla( Alii', afiajqwoa* U> 
ammoMia. *n& lliu Utter containing VIP. *n«h>coa* lo •mreituium. Aa howmr tVra 
mnfavbutlhuladnuiit tb*aaeonpouedl rtaUj bcloB| <o il<rt| t Tl- M nr», Mncinawc 
icwliirrti : . been thought beat to placa than in thtt acrio [W,] 

arrica. [W.J 



from the remaining rhloritHi by longer digwtiftn v|l Aon dt>- 

tillod in the nil-Uin, Gmt at »0° to 100 . th«n at 100' to I7U , ami 
laatly at 1 70' to 200°; and ouch of ttuMo IBM i lid itoe collected Mtt^ 
by traving up tlic roiJti-: loft after tin tier a frufh 
apparatus, there continuing the distillation to 170", ami heating tba 
rnadur to 200* in a fresh aiiparatn* (2): all the thn*. AIM llftlM tOM 
toed IN ir;m-j. uint, iv.ionrloM ami mobile. Tho Brat ramaina 
li'jti'l :it —II ; Ii:ih a peculiar odour; containo but a omall Quantity of 
cacodyl; and K*rrcly tMM fin in tlio air. The ancoml und third dielil- 
latc yield at —8', largo priain* of cueodyl, ami taku urn vary readily on 
eipotum to the air. Thiwe ilistHlnCflS have the following constitution: 

Prom 100 to l«r*. Prom 170° to 200°. 


A» .... 


From 90° to 100°. 






3. CncodW Lake* fire in the. ail nt nrdiimrv I otporaturc* ereii BOM 
readily thau nlknrsin. It- combustion yield* carbonic acid, arseiiiou* 
xtm) and water; if the quantity of air present bo not wiflioi^ni lor 
com plot" combustion, orythramiu ia immediately Acy :>• itodj togothor 
with a black crunt of arncnic having a Tory ononeivo odour. V 
an i* made to poor out a drop of this liquid, it take* fire 
arm before it anparato from tlio lip of thn bottle; a thread of trlaaa 
moistened with cueodyl take* firo immediutely on expoaun* to flip air. — 
<*'. I(h aeaoty aooow of air, corndyl Omitl white foilioa, ami ia convert. -I 
according to the quantity »>f OOCJMn present, partly into nlkoriio, partly 
caoodvtio acid. From thcalkiirriu thin obtained, chloride of cacodyl, 
&c. may no reproduced by the action of hydrogen -achta, and from tfiln 
again the cooodyl itself. 

4. In chlorine gu, encodyl fakeo firo at ordinary UttpOfatOftft, 
burning with it rod flame mid < By cliloritiC-wntor, it 

U ioauuitly conrcrted into chloride of atoodvl. 

.'>, fir duaulrlog 'i Oompantivsty Minll quantity of fiulpbur. 
converted into proto.ulpliido of eaoodyl, C'AjIIS; ami by taking no a 
larger quantity, into the poroulphido,' C'AoH^S', which separated from 

'.. Bt eolation En nitric acid, it in ooorortod into ulkanun, arid with 
the aid nf h'Mit, into cneodylir iflkL 

~, It dittnlve* in faming -.olpliunc arid without blackening, but oven 
At ordinary temperature* eliminatona lar^o quantity of •alphnrona acid 
gaa, and afterward* yields by distillation, a instance having a pleasant 
otbarvaJ uduur, aud apparaauy cooaUl Ivjj of •ulpliovinatoof i iu «"' 

fl. By digoation with hydrocbloric acid and zinc, it yield* a number 
of product*, among which i* aryUumrrhi. It Hkewian ajmoara to y .1 
tku \tw\y wlii-ii in.ii 1 with phofpboroni acid, protocJilonJo of tin, and 
Oilier powerful r-ducinx a^vnu ( l)uu»eo). 

w Cueodyl mixexl with iodido of uiuthyl yitlda wdidt. o/ flrracnmtfay- 
lium, MrMfc.I. ami tod id* el eawidyl: 

?i 'H\. . .'( II'I - (C^IMi'A.I ♦ t**H*I. 

,Hv with iodide of ethyl, it yinld* loJair qf arsfHmti&flrt 
(C , H , >^^ i ^*> ,A,, ■ * n ' 1 ' CM, "° ot eaoodyl; aoJ will iodide of 


aaaaOwC X«aac caam ml i. m 
TtOiU. 4am. Uawa. 51M> 

JL G'dU. 4, SM 
sVaaan. JSy* 4ft. 3ll>; — U.145 — Ju 
iHaraa. Jul. /W» 57. 1 4* — X. Uaav 


•feet* fwm il u iW mm ana*, aaa j W njuM m «* <amu 

• BOUCO • BCO*j. 



I rasa aak y drva* aortic acid. 


h to be prodoead rYean tie acetoB* evolved 07 
eecordiag to tait eowUioa: 

ciw * *»o» - cjuto 


ad wvitjM of 
by*****, tad 


I ar»cm«- 
...1 ;« «t- 

WWf acetate Of potaeb b diatillad with an 
ac*d, avga <j*aotitie~ of carbonic acid, eartoi 

rvtt*>l hyilrofco |£a«r* are evolved: metallic arson* Mibfune*; and in lav 
receiver aurrouaded with ice and aIu two diMilfctU* oondonaa. Tar 
tf |*U yrilftw liquid, in whirh a few particle* of amvmic flcavi El 
('m*Ui'* li'jBid [impure alkaran]; the upper, which i* brownufc-r. : 
«atory acid, and lo« faoairiK, ui*v be regarded %i a aolation of to* * 
ItfvU in sotoou* acetic acid (Thfnard). 

In thi» dinliDatlon. large quau title* of carbon: I inar*rj-gaa 

■ 11. ingwlber with a littlA olpflant ga* and much alkamin 
•tad hjrdrojjon; and tho prodncta collected in th* 
1 metallic iir»cnic at Uic bottom, — above thia, a brov 
mixta* ol alkanln with small qoantiliei <>f Tvihrnram. acetic acid aad 
Bi a ui looa acid, amounting to 30 percent of the axecaioua add used, — 
ami at left a •olotion 01 alkSBnB and BReeloOa acid in aevtono. aortic 
nod wEtcr. Carhouat* of potash romaina in tho retort (ButuooL 

Acetate of j.otaMi i- mixed with km e^ual w«i 
■raoii > ^law retort flood with a well cooled receiver and 

iir; (ho mixture gradually heated to rodna*- 
inelu from format i«i i dpotaah; and the .- 




\i ». \m\s. 


■eeraorod after tbl i ("I I baa completely eoobset but HOC before loat Uio 
•i in t i i v- uock <>» The tij.|M-r watery 

i- Uio a poured off, the llate quickly U 

. i 11 p uiili B •■ ftod 

Beetle Mid, WWttlou :i'-iil, ami orvthr»r>ni remo* . i- 

lfa»*>ily liquid over l.v Ink of |*-> tri? li in u» :ij.j nmtj: filled With carbonic 

i»4-i I, or bitter by dietilKing 't under a tented water* Tho 

ColfUrlcfA I'M.ti.'iiah- i> pftlftd I ffOnJ tl:»- -mmi'i-i |i;irl Ol tltt) »;i'ri by 

i icvii.uiirsi mean*. nn-I from the remainder by dietjtuulna ova beryl 

IlIIU' Mil "I n.M:ol .1 , ni:iv In- jwrfi ■ i"i 1 1 ■ * • 1 

ia a glees labs bant knee I u i- el in ebtnee urai < iv^t arm 

ban the left, and .it the extremities bulbe teiminating m fine 

ike il(-liiinl I 'i. ili li . Ijllcd wiih -ui;ill fniL'iiuMi 

baryta, thia apparatus (a) li AIM with caj^oole add or faydrogtc naa; 

lln- neck «'l tl I'tpty n .>iip tliid bulb Ik t<-ii : iiml tho 

IlC«k Ol thO I' ft li:i!l 1 Unlit <li|>|'« il l!ll' lln* l:i|lll<l, wlilt'li tlnMl l(M ■■ Illlo 

the lM'i fund bulb xu the rijflit U .1: ". ' The nock of do lafl 

■ i ill- i- tin n lil.i wine -i;i It'll, nud the distillation effected by carefully 

M£ Ilir loft li-iuiHiitlli v !t!i :i -|ii; ii-l:t i;|. Writ)* i hi to.'li! UTTO frf ! ho 
lute iiml it* bulb are boot cool i I water. (If tin; heal be too 

■ or loo long coiiiiiiiir.l, normanta! gaeee '»ro evolrad which 

burtt ili- Aami ereral lent bagbi which Goran 

Ihe eurroiinuin vith j Much film of .-i'.m!. n ■ i nie). Finally, 

r il- distillate --* twice poured lark from the right to the tefl band bulb, 

twic* redistilled. — He transference ol the pare elkewin tbua 

in the right hand bulb, into other mailer bulbs, io performed in 

■ ne of enrbou ■ at d, i i couplet lv le i iclude Uia ;i»r. like 

• -f tlif li-f 4i;nol Unlit in tir»l opened, 10 thai Lite air which en. 

lely deprived of oxygen by the rameinlog Liquid: Ihe right 

bi lli- ii .r:.!.l...i ;.n.i Lirvikoil OlTj in. I timolol till**, tllO 

«>n£ necks of the lull which arc to bo lilU-I. are ieeerted Into tlic diitil- 

, !■ ii the bulb, nfter tboy have been filled with c&ibonii: ucid or 

hi iio;ti.'il in- I Wield may be drawn up Into ibom 

urc tlin scaled For forth*! Itcath * -r P*ff ,a * ,,? - 

Alkiinin may al»o bo wry well preferred umler water in a atopporcd 

bottle (H-.:. 

Tbi'uuxd purified Cadet** liquid by ooe reetifleaUou 1 1 

J*r*p+rtif4 t Alk;iT>in loHdlfiel it — 8J' in cryitniline acales hevinsr a 

.-. At onlin.'UV U iiipiM-iliin-., it i| ;i In;; :»ii'rif ColoUll 

I of atreng refraetiag power. Bp it. 1*401 at li . Boiling point 
I 150* V |ki Lmnglv 10 the air I 

an Entente! re odonr which adheiee le tbe cao-tbea for montli*., 

un fl->w of tcrtra. nud an inteli vition hi 

uocoufl nicnibi do ol tlic tionts The Tapeai I lefethal with 

air, piniliK I- nuuM-a ami oppreaflioe el the chit i. and In delicate i q 
SmmcJiat< ur* cfaiody to anVal the nervea, batwiibont 

aaaaW any perrman<>nl irwary to tbe health. Alleare'tQ placed upon 

I .i..iv not "!iL< : uxe rii^ht iiifltinniial attended with 

. which ni iv \h eili ri tied by plaetei ol ferri* ncetate; I al 
i nto«t ca^nt, it take"* Bra rthn 1 1^ aad produeefl J ta p roui bam. 

. - 
k«ii rtWj <itiin.ii* lanaueel 

•tm I ■u-uiiii) 






6 1! 

6 - Ml .... ' U »-M 




... i 


_ l*tt4) 

C**-U'Hi) 115 hio-iiii inn-im 97'Tt 

Alk«r*«.Mpow 1 

r wi 

It! of ibe UolMI t» lepUtcd by A*fT* «* Ar. — Doom, 
from In j iwa nnalyiU, regards ilaanta u CAaH* [<thicb would be c*oodil]. IWmti 
iUo if :ir.l or. Hooked the O, till Bcrieliu. dwr atlanUoa «C tiw pn^Vber of * 

DxcmpofiJion*. When alkarein rtnoar Is licntH, not quite io ni- 
now, MOUOMU EMM arv formed, •ml arsenic and crTthrar»io pcecip- 

2. Alknrein exposed to the air g;v»*- off wi. ; 'itntod 

hy rapid tbeorptlou of ot) j«n tod aalnlctjf Imreti into & ywvi-li flan*', 
firming nnoniou< Mid, aftrbonia acid, after water. A drop of It faV~ 

through tii • ! iT' 1'vfore it reaches the £r urn 

Toi-mmI, k iii»— In in the ly wlien It cfmialm . — If 

Ipontaneou inflammation of alkiirmn ntod In k 

I ..*vlv ntlni Ki i' tUrOUj?B 

griilnallj oonTartad, with ri*e of tempi nto a vitcri 

ofoaoodylifl iClJj tlioavrupha»thecoiupnmtionC*A*H < 

I '' \^H*0 1 C l A*H*0 ', :in<l nnv (Ii r :'. rv U h „ u , 

il_vl<tti- nf «:k ■ i\ I. I --In--, willtdiit ili-i- Mujti, itj OS JO t -unit | 

1. 1 w int. bal on irger auttotHj . depotilj jurw irodvlr 

||) Mi t !in (.>!•(!! C-f :lf l nil, win! irmly lc ftl I '■ | !| a lUVV 

quantity of paracAeodyl ic oxide remain* in solution; on .1 ttiiilng 
Byrup, tlio greater porln » of the parm loodjlic < <reea 

IJn id I'lO , I'll \tu\\\ .r-\\ uillii when 

expotwd to tin: air itt ordinary Lomperattin»; bat whon ail i>r nxj . n if*» 

i- | * - : - — t* *. I tliroii^l. i! f..i , i .■ il :i |.M)ipor:itnn. nf lio t 

/jroator jiortion in converted into crysLallucd eooodvlie acid. — | '. 
to linn u. prinicaoodylic oxide h ienmeric with caoodylic ■• . rut* 

.]»l.( fteM ' I I" r 1 1 . 1 1> - (*nnm-ii hi tin* ui.-iniior ropruMiiUii hj the ennati 

("a.u-o t to *- ho - r>AaB 

A-- .•.»r.!ini.' t" thi« conation, alknntin could not form <ncodylic or: 
n\i! ; i(.<.ii tn [mtI-.-iIv Jrjrair, untccn a product containing feats tliati Co 
wcrr formed at tlio iam« liuir. Tbo actum of dry air tipou alaarvic 
required tlu'rofore tu be further examined.] — If the ntonm of »ir be lot 

I. :ir<i'nnHi. ardrl t- IlkawlM fori I — Alksir-.u k*pi onclct water » 

an opon vcaaol, »ton-ly di«ppc;ir*. fori U *oluhl« to vaMf 

(eacodylic noidl| (TWforortionol ■ .-. I- -..i»lwi^d liyTTrfnaw!). 

3. Alkanin instantly taken fire in olilortno goa. liiirninif with a r«HiV, 
venvky flame, and formtaff chloride i»f arsenic nod hydroohloiic acitt B«l 
tin: rceoJUoi liquid, » ■In-ii ililnird will waiur :ind trvaii. 1 '! ■>■> iili 'ulpViureUe* 
hyilrojrrn, tfoei not yield .til tlir irannlc In ihn form of .-ulpIii.W,— a prwl 
tint |-:iri uf the arwnio in contaJnwl in it, not a« chloride of antenie, Mrt 
■till in tlio form «.■! t:o orgaoio eompound, — • Aftorttioi -i, a i* t « »a 

ar#foi^o'!, nnd ncetic acid arc found u< Iiatc tteen protiuceJ <'' 
4. DnmiiiK- So «<i,';i.f iriUl aJkai m produces heal nca>rly wGIei i 
tho cuin]K)uud on fire, and prael|)1ut4i brown tUcVt . r i" I 



in alk:irflin, forming % enlonrWo* liquid t/bk h • IqwiU x white cryat. 
body, aoluhh* in a fnreer 

9. Alkorain oxplodo* willi fuming nitric Mid, ehg a larg« 
.1 flnmo. Hy cold C6flCciitrai> ..• nitric toid, il is con- 

lie ncul: th« ouodvHc .-■■•id h doi -'Miit; i.-i.'iv decooH 

fxwd. rvrn by rmitimifvl beating with nitric neid in ft *toLd gin— tii'io. 
— AlLar-in likewise MplodeJ wilb a<|u:i -r. gul i Unman}. 

7. Alkar^iti reduce* in llio mOBl «:iv tbfl arid .- of mi ri-tirv, nilver 

and gold, oracn indigo with formation of «hoMn flddtl. 

— Ignited iu n cumUifctiuu-iiilir with ninht nt tvipfwr. it yield* carbonic 
mUi wnttr, ftraenhli of eopvtr in amnll shining *ryi4al>, >ml nmnll 
fiDunttliM of ononion* acid idc <'iipriearwnintc. 

8. With hydrogen acid*, alkaraiu yi«'hU wnt<ir, and :< compound ■ tin i 
iii « hi* h llio oxygen of the alknrMu in rtpftood by Ifal Malawi of tlic 

otaatium heated wilh alkanin r>rodnc«* a nVry etphxi-.n, ^hereby 
teal nfrpotta to be reporoted aii-i amenhrtfl of pol I ■ inn famYfdj at 
•rdin r t. ii j»ernturc», tlm potnwiiiiii renuiin* bright for n while, l» i 
then elowJy converted, with llifhl WolaUoB I I :i while 1MTI1 u 

10, With aqueous cyanide of mercury, nlknrmi form« cyanidn of 
OUXmIvI. Hi- niTotiry being rodacod un I hf nlkurvin partially Drought to 

higher oxidation ffinajon). 

Qcmtimatfom, Alkanon dissolve* tctv sparing ly in vFtftoTj fan] 
Lo iln liqui iliai penei rating ouuor. 

•olva* PhtvtjJutJHt, producing na opalaoconl Han & 
It rij—orr— abundantly in fcqft »0* /'fiomhfrie Occtf, forming n itink- 
anjCi : ryatalUanbh tiquMj which woao boated. It resolved into 

-f |j|i>>r|ilu<tir .trnl. 

U'nli the iid *.f hart. i*. diaaohrca Su/phur in all proportions, for: 
a r*d liquid, fmm which tin- lulphui -^|Kiral«* in meriting eryslnlt on 

V. I cc digested with nan fuming oil o/ rifWe/, it form? a U«|nid which 
otdidifice on moling in a mow uf t - ' . : J - -li .. : ., -I . --niU; litre crv 
or ban purinVtl by praamn in pNWj '' :,s '' : * :| oxlnmialj oAi 

odour, in noid reaction, an*! dcliqaoOO) n tin 1 ii r 

iaoolvca "ttliout d«oonipo«Ulon la ooJd, BMdttmUW dilute ' 
otni, i thick Ixiuitl, which, with ninny heavy mouilliv. nit*, yield* 

pccaliar and ttry nnatoblo praoipiaUeOi 

lidinolves in aqoccus Pot/uk, furming ahnmu litjnnl: 

AOomU viik ' BnmuU. Probnbly = SflgBr.OArH'O.— 

6o)tomlr«in the cr>jUllinft form on mixing |«looh^lie'| momm hromido 

with ulknraio diasoUctl id a torpQ qOOAllty 01 olefin.! wilh uihir-ia 

wtii'-h In- Im.h slowly (nii.'i i by (!xpi«aro tn tbc* air}, avfl may ho 

Red by ronrvHtalliantion. — l'nlr yoflowiah-whito OfJlwIFDa p>wx|pr 

or lomifUK* ioodoroua, but a« I motaUta toot* faittwftti- 

' in a clone vcwud. nit I at a I 
tetin rielii ^ luhliroalo of me-reurous and mercuric broutd*. a 

atiaKing dbaili n eonl uning hruinine, aad ;i residua <>( chftTOoaJ W 
lw«t«Kl in th* air, il rolMlla** without l i d with partial comlm*- 

tioit. i)«com;io»e« when iU tqueoai Mkittoa i' boiled EExl il>iU mora- 
r tha aamo rractiona and iho *aai<j dvgrco of total t'v Ifl water aa 
Uip folloaing chlorine compound. 

x 2 


I ritUlSB: AR&ID<X;rN-NrCLEi:S C*AfII». 

Martin »HA Mrreurit CMoruU. 2H,cCi,OArIH>. — A c^ul* aiee- 
bolk •olntios uf alkunun (crou that which baa been slowly oxidised in 
tin* *\r) noised witli diluta [alcohol id] -.Mnrum nf p>rn 
] i:u 'v i .,.( | i:: VOflUtot to retnova tho odour rf nlk*r*rn ? yt&l* thil 
compound in tbo form of ft white bulky precipitate BaixOfJ witk calomel. 
By I'Ttwinjc trie precipitate between pnf»eT. hoiltny up in water, filt< 
mill llirte ii ■ ■ : iii ii if, the coni|wiu>ii U obtained pare. If the 

marcurinl solution be ml lad a ••\r*a r so a* cot -troy tk« 

odour of alkar-m tin. nan pool) I xoaw aad 

■ i in. 1 ; Uu ii oftafi Ok unly product. — loiuiid of alkirsin, cyanide of 
eaeodrl or other compounds of 1 At. oacodyl will 1 At. of & oaIt-r*dical 
may be uxd. 

Tho Compound separate* from the aqueous solution, whvn ni 
cooled, jd soft, nacreous scale*, mid by wry *h>w .- 1 Jit _-, in traall -btxttlvO 
tables With tQglaf <>l ibOttl 0(1* nod ll'O'. Although *•» J:-- fi elly 

loTDOO, it <ftuse», when * partiolo in inhaled into tbo MW, ft 

Li -ruble auil perri»tcut oduur. When pluocd on ibc Ion v cites 

a dlnm«ftbl( mofall s nufin, and produoM nan*** avmi lr. ita smallest 
quantity; in largor quantity, it u extremely poisonou*. 


«-c ..... «-o 8« .... 

Am » .. LB i . . i«*-i» 

6 H . '■<! i .; :•;.; 

(> »o ->*m 

2 n« ano-o . .. tt'll 

-' ri 70 J* .... IniS .... Itf02 

8H|Cr-fO*ArB>,l|0 383 P „, 100-00 100O0 

In ertni*r(ii*rir* OfCfea .li'ft. i.|.\ of il.r tnklfhli. bnn«*« OOHtOtd IM nvh 
moir meaty r -lmi. PAtm 10, iQj he $-ivi* Ui Mu» Um pf«4sh*> 

. kki i EVO. 

Tin- oofflpOOad i- read lv decomposed by beat, and wlicn MihjccOdto 
dry distillation, yields a sublimate of in«ir«'iir«>u« am! mercuric chloride and 

thmriiii, bonddi Ifinktag vapour*, end loavoi a p.u u olmrc I - 
bvfai away fn the an t- rtdoo, diffusing au nmcaic.. odour. Tba 
compound bkewiac Buffers decom{KuitioD and rulatiliatN coniplet.-lv, wfcen 
heated in tbo air.— When lie auucotin mlution in botlod tJoiiv, iKe oain- 
|mnnil i» n-Kolvod (mora quickly In prtwnrt of cxeosi of corrMnv 
•ubliumto) into oulorido of cacodyl which volatilitc^ calomel wbtcft k 
precipitated, and fvo aiilliinate and cocodylie acid nbioh 

Bolutiou. rProbabh f 

« v.n*ri./ll«<l) * vim - i:*.uiih.'I + L«4>H'"0« ♦■ 2ICfaa » 

Acconliti^ In tbi* ripmiiim, tlnTi' ahoold bo formed, not protocliloroa* af 
mi rvury/bnt hydroebloric acid tb. latter might, bowovtr, at a l- 
bcat decompo»e part of tbo ealomol into COTOOfvO aublimatc and nu-uHc 
urv. It is ft ijuefltion, therefore, whctln-: th. oaloma] which rvauinf 
ixod .- itb nurmry. At . Buusen'a equation {An*. fAurav 

37, -16); 

iceA.HsrviinCi} = 5C*AaB*Q * mi««c3 + IHiCi, 

« inadmiwiblo. inaamuch oi it loppoeaj eacotlylio aci«3 to conU=n aaly 
— Aiptoous LyJiiodic acid, in contact v'tih idkarxia, '" Tr , H aittY 


form* ltd iodide of i'n*rriiTv. which dissolro* in tho excess of ic'ul, with 
HJMfttloa of v< lloW fiily Utpfl Of <ic-o»lyI; 

H'\ n-u.-jii i | .u; - i \. m - SHgl * 2HCI + no. 
Duumo dm n ■Hnowbnt different equation, uooxdhg to which a 

etompmind of 2 At- OOrroflfva qiihliniatfl Willi 1 At. hydnodir .-ind would 
be formed . Hydrochloric acid decomposes tho compound in a similar 
UMltid' r EdM I ' JoMt of ciicodyl, rorrosirp tjiiblimule, nnd water: 
CMijro.SlkCl - HCl = C'A.II'U - iHgb * no. 

Other bjdrogen-ncida boh-ivo m a similar manner. — Aqueous phos- 
ric add exerti Karcely any decotupostinjt action upon ukai^a, aud 

tOSttM therewith an aqueous dihtill.itr which *nn»ll»i of cnloriiln of eueodyl, 
li .; & r - uf if.. — K.-isily rr-iiif ihli* iriftn! li** nxi 

likowu© Urcblonda of jredd, an- redflOtd DT tlm imiii pound, with Icrmnttini 
•f oaoodylio ncid, jut a* by free ulkurain. Oa the other hind, ly distil- 
lutein «i;ii pboeBoorooi Midi onlond El topontod and prounhlnrido of 

eacodyl obtained; and jtiniiUrly with tin, meieury, and utiirr labftABOM 

wliirli r.'.Iur.' I'tirni' ivi- - nli) in it. 

ai.L^.v.iru.jn^iij i I'o 1 - ICAsHHi i 2nyci i Po». 

WhWl i solution ©1 I pound ih decompC «.,| l, v || | il.-m :i-i Hairft* 

lent quantity »1 potitdi, yellow iiiirciiMr oxide ifl i«n-ri|Ml:ii"d, Mid «0B 
rcrtoi by tho hlbemled nlkanin and undecomposc.i corrosive , 

CsloUieti On further addition of potu*li, Llie ca-lumol is nunnicl 
into men 'iiiiiii-- nxide, which then raise* the alkarsin tn a higher stato of 

'lii.n. and i* itself lltoroby reduced* "|'l impound diesolrcs in 

iT7 pta. WHtnrnt M*, and m 1'Nh i.U. <d boiling watorj tl likewltO dis- 
solves in cold, and more readily in hot alcohol. 

A Martin with Nitrate of Stiver. .iC'ArH'O + AgO.NOr — \Vh. n 
alkarsln U dissolved Id modflratolj Rtrong nitric add, can- !h*iiij» vlUou 
to avoid all riw> of temperature, and tho solution diluted With Water find 

■uaed with nitrate »!' mIvit, :i ropt.m* \vlntt«. (.-rmiiiliir, quieUj -mhinff 

uocipitoto U formed, which nm t be vMhcd bydfOantAlion witli F» >i 

free trom air. — Tiiis precipitate iu the pun eLnte forms a wliite cryntal- 

li Ti*- p.»*der, and when examined with a lent, eppoaji t" l"' Dunpoeed «»f 
f«gelar octcbetlron* with truncated c-lgei and •ummitu, and of octohodrol 
lU; it adetru ire. It docompows on 

!.. liabl ar air, «t a contact with orjmaio l'<j<lic*, aevumioa 
yell^uiili, linn a browouh colour. After "U >>\\ of ritnol, it 

:! « iter or undergo any otbi r aJtemtlon at 90°i At ion [t 
*xplo«i«« with tire, emitting products of decomposition harin a in oAnCiTa 
•*iour. It drx*f not diwolv* id cold mtru aoid, bul Ml rapidly oxidated 
by the! acid at bi^het Umpsraioroe. When boiled witli aqueous nitrate 
of eilvar. it reduces the metal in the npccular f.jrui. It ie 'ItcomiKwed 
b«t sinwly hy aqoeoui ohwrids ol barium, ehlorldn nf silver ami nitrate 
of Itaryta besng formed. l»miiles volatile cacodyl-comp«h 

<Vji«rs<Vtonf. Rutivni. 

tflfl n ... H-11 . . uao 

3 As m ... «'» ■■ <»'S4 

la II IB .... 3i.. Sh7 

Am 108 _.. 31JW 21 49 

N ,11 .... .... 2-ttt 

• O ... . .. 77 u-i:» 1201 

X UUH*0 i a| '..N'»' MS . 100-M LOWC 


rnn lRsidooccuvcclbcs cA t ip. 

Alk in all prop*rtioal with dlcohcl and tCther, and w ariav 

rotod from (lie *>luli<Mi» by water iu iu jrigiual a: 

It forma couipuuud* fajfrfj, tirvniJt, and CUtoridt of CacoJyl 

Parocacodylic Oxide. C'A»II'0=C 4 ArHMio. 
BtMita. ftp* **i »4 

Wlifii air i« admitted to alkamu m slowly tint an hratinjr or intun- 

mfttioil takes pi am tin- :iH::tr»iri i* ruRvrrtt*d into a syrtjp fillo.f 

ottsUI* or cacodrlic acid: the ab»«rption of OXJgi be cowta- 

tin.illv iflowtfi The resulting IsMaaajoM mow, > . j|, wikv 

Mini -liMiHed. yield', ftrat * **.\t-ry liquid UDelling nf «]k:ir- n. thoi 
]■ ■ v.. ii I • tnd 1 ii> :m oil iponugly »uloWo la wnw, which i» dnsd 
baryta ami puri6e<l by dUtillaltoi i-ontact of air. — Afu* 

the first (liatilln' ii.ii, dufag ■ aicn thfl lerahoraLur* «4ion)d n< t r ■. roLiga 
ma 155', a toeidno U loft consisting of- ©aeodylic acid nad & tt.fliijf oojaV 
u.i %ai\. still tailed »itli jwacatodrlicuxklc. Tbe oaeodytie 
acid imduoed by tie- slow oxidation ot the alkaxaln, |<ctl*tMy aaiievwita 
the ro*t of the* alkarsin, forming a saline comyoi era jpeefer 

resistance to oxidatin, tad - dUtillaUon, the aJkanoa acparetcs 

again, in the foraj of it* isomeric compound, paraoftci>d\ Ik oxidi , (rca taw 
ranxlyiU' acid, it must. however, bo obcefrcd that aUtarain may 'k uw 

led fmni ii- rum pi i ii ml w iili |>luMphuric acid, al 
boin^r flu ftbp OOnWirtod im-i \ lit* oxide. 

Transparent, eolourtOM oil, winch Uua a pecaliu penetrating odvsr, 
boila at 120% and does not funic in the air (Uunscn), 





nata- . 

?4 . .. 21*4 . . 21«ft 

7i .. nft-37 Mm 

a V31 -.. 6 17 

... it .... rot* ... . 10-21 

C«JUH«0 ..» US ... 100-00 100-00 

Th* detirnmtttion of thf arwnlo wa« ntimitdd with a flight loav 

Pamoucodylio oxide when exposed to the air. is cauvcrted «yry vkiwly, 
amd without pfirri'ptiMn ri*i nf tiMiiprr*tnn\ i:il«i rcanxlylic acid. Air 
•aluraUd with iu vapour at Ml to 70", oxplodoa with grvtU vi*Ii 
vhea bot on tiro. — With livlropt'n-urids it behavca like all 
But vitli ;i«(it»jou* cvaiiiilc of nwrcury, it doc* not, tiki aiki 
f,.iinli uf c.M'iiilyl, Imt yiclila n brown, piilverulcnt prccipit:: 
tlinir miracyanognn. and MBfllhsg lilt" driad tnnn'U 

It iti»o!vo« »(*Aring)7 in vrjitor, and behave* with cthtr nib 
w-oll as towards ur-jtoohlorido of mercury, nitrato of silver, aod bii 

cironruc Ann. 


Cacodylic Acid an Alkargen. cvuiro'. 
Bones*, i"^. 22, H5.-iln«. PAcm 4a" 

r'ormol by tha alow oJtfdatfon of alkornin in the air or in oxygen jjas 
([.p. 8 -y the iixi<2:iLhnii'f tin- .viuio compound breom 

or betted niln- .. 1 1 by mercuric oxide, Mlvcr-oxide or auneoA 
Iluirttt. .17, 14); and tOgathcr witli |M>r4iil|iliii]ii nf raeodyl, wlmii the 
prototnlphido oxidises in tha air. 

Prtparatl m Air ia brou pbl In soateot with aQttnlOi «> uluwlv, that 
no Iflflamra if ion take* place; oxygen grin or nir paascd for nerenu i 
Ifcroagh ti." rtialttag strop aoottiaad ia I tabolaU I Mtett at * tenn 

in r. 70", till nearly the whole ia converted into crv*talh ■ <1 

cacodylic ncid; the tfroatcr part of the excess of paninico-lvlic oxide 

iv diatiilinu h batwcao \W and 1 4'>': and thy oaoodjfa aoid fraad 

i tbo rc*t of Ilit- }' ir la u odylic oxide by pressure between pajier. and 

two aryvtaJlitatloai ifota abaolata alcohol. Tkii j r* n- ■ vn M- >.n<»Jvh<' 
par*, but ia small ouantitv only, beeauno tho jrroaur portion is v.. In 
tilii«] duiintf the puaoagc of tho oxygon go* through tho boated syrup; 
at tbo -*tii« time lli« air i* di-ayrveably irifecled by it. 

2. Better: Alkiirain in bfOttfbt in i-outact willi mercuric oxida under 
water; the ruixtun I from nunf to a boiliqg i i a> t| DJT OftoUttfl 

frosn m itltoiit. or by pouring cold wuti r iul<i >\ . tho liquid, aa noon im it 
ocaxa to smell of nlktiroiu and bus become clear, decanted from tbo 
reduced uwrcury. ami — in order i<> deconnaaa tho mercuric oxide which 
baa born fonuod — mixed diup by drop with alkar*in, till no more mercury 
•oparste* out on haalfflg KM mixture-, and a fuint odour of nlkar-iin 
bocoman percoptibU, thou crjiporatrW. bfa*M u\iu- dttBOlrad in -.iI.mIh.I : and 
tbo eaeodylic acid allowed to crystallise out, and purified by rccryitalli- 
catioii from alcohol. By laic proeaaa, T6 pt». of ulkarain treated with 
218 pt*. of n:.M'!ii:i- oxido, vloid 18 pig of caaodylfte aaN (a. -curding 
to Bunaou's formula of eaeodylic acid, C'Aali'O*, tho e<>tution ia: 

Matt) « saaO + ho - MiaOW * 311*-. 

According to Uiii oqnnt oBj J i : pta. (1 At.) alkaiahd ir 210 

pt* (9 At.) mercuric oxide should yield IJM pta. (1 At) OBOodyllfl ici-1. 
IE 7o* (alkarein); I 45 (nMrouno '>xido); 82 - 8 (cacodylio acid). — Acootd- 
> iho formula of faeodylie arid propoaod by Oofhanh I /Wei*, 2, <4A), 
And provioualy also fcy Linrenr, v<t., C*A»H*0*, the e-juntion in: 

CUaVO i iBaO - OAmBPO* * nig * im 

Ae-N>Tdin^ to CBnl equation. 1 1^ [it*, of allarsin mid 4-t2 ptB of rnrr 

I3fl pt« of caaodrlio oxido = 76 ! WO :■ 91'S. — Xow, 
•connlin^ to Buno^n, 218 pta. of niercurio oxido are auffinient to convert 
70 pta. of alkanon rflto OKudylfc acid, nliempt Oi.rhnrdt > calou ; 
rrt^i. J pla. of mercuric oxida ro prod a fftol , tho 

rvmilt is tln*n*fore wry tinfavouralile to Uvrbardts formula of cieodylio 



JVopcrti*. The acid orT«alliae* from alcohol la Urjf*. iransfareut. 
eoWarloM, obliquo rh- li formi it nearly 1L01 of > 

• ; t = h : u LkWiuIs = I I UU wlicn UaM 

to '200". ilo mil g|fi off wmlffTa •"■! |1|l!,[ : * pOB I OTl arwniea) O^MT, 
■MM* ft BfOWBifth colour, and mo!' -olidiftee at Hi', 

i nftn. 'I'll" ao)d b iDodarooi ha* a Uigbtly ooo 
and acid r<%*rtu>n. and doc* not cahibu any poiac«KW action. — 6 grains of 
the acid inja tod iota the wbwmdi of » rmUiil • tk© jocular 

ufa, or 4 grain* into ibe lung-, do :»* afpoor to pruduro tl»u 

i.oi . in.- 

I'-lcul.tiun i*»orJiiig to Bi 

* < , ft ir» 

•v. ;.. M«s 

ni ... . : _ so; 

< •> . 81 . »*I9 

ColcuU&on fcaeording to UwWrdL 
U' i!4 — K*> 

B li 
10 32 - 23-M 



N 00 

.- IIHI-I.M lOf-M 

Tin- •|ti. in:i. f <,( menk bond bjf Dinooo, agroo* I»*H wiUi Gerhard i'» 
fnrrnulv tV- aBKXmt of h yuV ogCTl with BurwnV — Bunaon amumo* alio 
id--. ■>. Use* of u kypothetkftJ anhydrooi arid, - I ■ 

ulii'-ii. villi HOi U ooppooaj Co form tha ctj tal ■■■ i icid. Aeon? 
Qertrardt'o formula, crv»l*IIiwd oaoodrlicacid i« slnciul acetic tu . I 

U t if which 1 At. .<! hv 1 At. nrVidojreoi = 

= A*H\ Simido M thl« hypotliaau may appear, it nncnrd* bu 

with BOftMa'tOXftOt nrmlywi Of OlOOdyHc Mila* wbloli glv re bjdi 

than ficrliardt* formula fttlmir: - - tl.o following 

9, many if tBC eqoatkmfl become more c>miilicatod than 

ii Buusvii'tt in ad'"|it'"l. moreover, the abort aiplaiiiod formation «f 
eaeodylii* aotd from alkaraCn »nd inoreiirie nxiifa u alto^mhor Rnbvrahft 
• ■! it. unli**« Buiucu* »tait>mcnt< are aflVfltod bjf rmericnl emn. 

N*vorUiel.?4>, Bunion v forma la, * 'A rl'O*, ■ ft* nniavoorftl 
radical oj to the nucleus ihourv- The radical theory roflnnl* cftc<- 
OA*H%m analog*-., to ctliyl. ("IP. Now CW+O 
ami C'AhII* + O [j ( >\ii| ( . of rjaroctylj •<» tut tin- uudo^y li 
I "'H 1 + O' id C'HH> (hypothetical aobj-droai iOotio Of Hhvltc fttU) 
+ SHO; whereas C*Aili*. 0'= l.>A^H'(>» -t -21 10 rtM 

ftabvdtvna efttoo>Ik acM li -■■ ; &', but C*MV. 

Laurent )\V. j£iKA. i'lmn, Pljtt. --'. 10:ti hao recently ifJimit/d 

BtlDJBDi formuti if ei tjlioaritl and compan that acid with aoeote 

of flmtnom:i. N K i ,C*H fc O l , bomkmId^ the ammoni i XII 1 to bo roplac- 
■mftinfottod hydrogen, A --IP. A to tins lav|H>ctu«i«, caeod 

add ia I arwoiurotto* brdrop-n. If ih 

aoiil Im- wriitru in m-h \ form, ihnt the I At. II nlii-:!i ir tk\A:v \ 

iU, rrniy Ktand at th-» ond. uc *lmll hari»: acctio ai'id — CO*H 
ftOtUM Of potawli = CH.i'H'.K, aoataUi ol nmmonia, C'<VIP,M + ^ 
ammonio cuuric acctato |of which, however, no analy»w liaa como U 
Ihcauthor'a knowledge], — CO'H'.Cu + NH*. Hero wo bavo 1 At U 
replaced Uy * nn-Ul, and in this NO ORBamonlft-OalU bda "Mile acid*. — 
Sifinliirlv. naoodylle tdd = C'OMP.H + A*H', thu I At. H I* d| (tot vet 
rrpllCOd ■ i : hut in the iin'Uillic caomlylatee, ibia -nl^titution t 

•, aaA oaoodylato of eilvor, for exanijde, = C*0 4 H\Ag i A 





Hi-mr i-jn-n.l.lir ;i'i<l cimiot form any com pound with Nil* lite place 
wbiohtfafl NzPanOald rnlco Win*- alrr:I.!y .M-i-upi.-d b» AjafP. — Moreover, 

14 an amidogen-comnound. by taking up xHO, may bo tOBVftftN 
UtO :iu :miMi"ii|:i oOtt poind, 10 llfcewi*« in tin* formation of oaeodylic 
acid, arc the amido/cn or cacodyl-compounda converted into an ar»niu- 

1 bydrnjran i-ompouud, and by aWruoliuu of xHO> the OODtrury 
transformation m:iy &■ rfbfltaa\ Thim far, Laurent, whcue theory in 
corrulmrit'.'-l by tlio fiict that cueodylio acid exhibit*, iAtOfding to l-iiiirtn, 

hilt .1 V.T\ -.M.-l I'M. 

Ihoompwitioni i. CV<»K ii<- add boated above 200° i* docoiupoeed, 
with evolution of nrwnious acid and slinking anwnical product*. — 
3. H*tu«! with dryonromtonoM h prodoeni a taynxplottea • taming 
nitric acid, aqua-rwffia, nod aquoooi chromic uoid, do not docompotc it, 
oven nt it toiling heat. — 3. U'lion hatted with iKjueou/j phosphorous 
acid, it EnUDOdiatelv l-iw:. t.h" tin- |>imjrit n-liMir of ;ilk:u*in, wliioll 
canpovnd makai the liquid turbid luiil xcparate* in drops, and nt a boiling 

h«ttt gOOS OlF ill Vlljinljr 

CMtrKO 1 + PO» - C'A<rTO f HO +- PO 1 

(or, according to Gerhirdt'i formula: 

C<A«I1H>< , HO ♦ 2PO> - C«A»N«0 ♦ 3PO»). 

Hy dr ogen, pho«phurettcd hydrogen, amniarOtted hy>lronen, laJpbttjonj 
ammonia, keirouB enlpaatoj sad oxalic mW, bavi no notion upon 
carodylic acid. * i'< rfecttv drj hydiooulark acid £11.4 pnmed ov«r the dry 
crY»uJ». causes evolution a beat, aud form© water, together with n b 
MWalorlde whicn nolMHtea In largo radiating ovjmli on nooUog.m 
liry hydrobromic acid gas pasted over wall dried "cocodylic ao.-I, £ 
bromide of cucody I. bromine, and water: 


C*A»tt'0* t MIDf - CAiU'lk t- SBf t 4IIO 
CAallH) 4 * WJBr - CU»B*Bl ♦ IHc + 4110). 

But caci"lylic arid distilled with '-onccuinitaw hydrobroiuio acid yield* 
1*a*ir parbromide "f cucodyl. — Dry hydriodir ucid #aa pnwwd ov$jf the 
dry rry*ul«, oxuw* intent* beat, and fom* \-A-Av of cncodyl, iodiue, and 

CAill-O' ff 3(11 - < 'A.H'I . 21 * *TtO| 

(or: C/UH'O* t IHI - C'Wll'l t U i HIU). 

5. Salphorette'l hydrogen ooU i<|""i m (jrtk u.-i.i, wirb trelttfJoa 

beat, toil i» tbo dry und in tlio moist way, forming pcnmlplnl. 
cacodvl, free sulphur, and water; but if tbo eryaUllizc 1 ,i. i<t I. nol «•!! 
rwolt'l "luiiiir lot j'OflWye of tbe Kits, other ptodMtfl uro Likewice funu.- 1. 
In coe*oqunioe of thn bi*at m*olrnd: 

C*A#n70* *■ JUS - CUlBW tSt IHO| 
(er: ffiatfO* ♦ 4U8 — O^UMW i U I IH< 

If, howtrer, tbo cacodylic acid, bwtead of being diattotred in u^ter, be 


rnm-iiNE: iMirnxiFN i r**rfn. 

dmoUod tn wc»k AlecaoL Uo mlpkurttted hydrogen forma ■ 
<iuauuty ef prvtosttlpbide of e*codyl a* wcli m bUu)f4i»Jr: 


n » 2< ♦ iuoj 

C*A*U*0 -» iHS • C*,uH*A 4- a 

6. Gacndylic achI heated * ilb an acid Mjtatton •/ protocfiWid* of 
immediately form* rlilnrid* itf ta&> I 


7. A«]W 


C*A»H?0' - 2SbC1 ♦ 3HQ - C*A»H«a ♦ WaCP - r 
CJUHKP -r 49«CI * OHO - C*A»H-a ♦ 4SaCP 4> 4H 

ih cncodylic acid boiled nit-S imp ywdiU alkarmn and CAeodykt* 

t&AtUW ♦ 2Ze • rZnO.C'A.HW ♦ C\*H<0 ♦ 3IIO; 
AC'AailHJ' ♦ 4la - tOUatftaO 1 r C«A»H a O * 3H0). 

Comlinntitni. Cieodylic acid rornmn* permanent in dry air, tat 
doli<|ao»oc* in damp Air, It iioaolros in Water in all proportions. 

Cafrtfyttf't CaiN-idylie :u-l.l . m| •« carbonate* whon boiled wi 
them. The normal encotlylales contain an MotD »i > place of an 

iian of bydl l'be wit* Are rarely crystalline, more frr^u.-uily 

Km my. I ; 111* a blghtl MUMMtVrO to decompose tfcem 

e eacodyli* wM; vfaoo deoompMn, they give off ewktog pro 
and leare a nwtdtM of ika< They ato soluble 

water and in alcohol. Sulphuretted bydrngvn iLciu into 

it calls in which 4 At. O arc replaced ty 4 At. S. 

Cryvialllicd c*eoJjllc «eld do<» not «H»uib ■nttetdacel fas (Lm;i 


in than 

luWe in 

CntmlylaU of Potash. — Crystallize* from the :.ia by 

evaporation in concentric nuliated wham-, r.-v. niMinp; Wnvellite; ckti* 

Caecdjflatt of Soda. — Similar to Ibc p&Uuli-salt, but Itm Jnliqiiteceet. 

/Vrrtc Cacodplttl*. — Tbc l>ruwn solution produced by boiling lac 
aqueous Holution witli tartn: !i vdr.iir. ti m-ijid.-i h a linn evaporat 

Cupric QoOOd >//•!' ■ — Tli* aolnliitn <>( cupnc Iiydr.»t« in tlie acid leai 
A blue guni when evaporated in roeuo; tbc aqueoiw solution, wben boiled, 
dqmeita metallic copper, eo yotj finely JiviJcJ thai it cannot be ac-]>&ra»rd 
by filtration. 

Cvpnr Ca&dytaU with Cuprie ChlcrUe.. — An alcohol* oolatto* «• 

lie acid a*Mol in exoeo* to an ulcob<dic solution of euprke cklorvlt, 

ibrotvo down all the ■ flu form of it irrocuiflb vclk'W, ^aiaA^y 

pRoipllAMi wbicb, wliiu bulled in the aujx:: nuiaiii RtaoU, becuaa** 

Krinlur. and BtAJ tbeu lw rnwlily waiIuhI wiib absolutit AMofcoL When 
led, it «mt-< VApOOn vbifli -iih-I n( cuetHlyl and Uk« tip? in tUe air, 
AjkI Uatm eupris chloride, cupnc arson ta to, aftooic, and cbarecal. 

CilcuUUoa nvordiiiy to Buiim-i. H". I, 

)•". r t«-o ... 800 .,.- o-io 

4 A» 300 '0 2HOU 

24 H 710 . ♦•» 2-13 

Jfn . ..... CAfO 16-07 2d 'i» 

7 CI _ UP* U*fl .. 2312 

UO.. 112-0 ... 10 49 

n aCl ;; \0,$&AmRHJ*)1?] io»r-8 ioo-mi 
JferevriV C-tco<fytat*. — A solution of recently precipitated mercuric 

ill MXCOW of «OUC«'iitr:il. <l OMOdjUt Odd VWld* l>y *|mii. ::u: 

evaporation, soft, whit© nccdloa grouped like flock • of wool. TIicao 
eryeUtls when heated L'ivo off mercury, together with otinkiug products 
containing ulk:ii;<iii. iliey (liavolvfl but partially in wulcr ami iilrolml, 
laving I ysUow buta -Jilt. 

Cktan?y!ttte oj dftrcftrk Chloride. — Dy nixing llkfl llodollc lolntloDi 
of earodylio acid and OorrodVB MiMimatp. pearly tcalet are obtained, 
wliicli omogi v* whito delicate nrvdiet nil .. w bj) rvouitdag In tbt IfqoJd 
or by rocryitalliaation from alcohol. Thoy ai« inodorouo, molt into o> 
transparent, culourlcie liquid when hotted, and are rceolvcd, at » higher 
ten»|nr.ilurv% into vapours having an UMOICM oiWi hydrochloric MU 
and [«H- 1] chloride of mercury {Ann. J'/iarm. 4(i, 40). 

G-Uc. ■ocotdinff to Buim-u. C»Ic PWtffipJ IB lin. Bunien. 

*C 310 .... 5-90 4C 34-0 ... »-»7 »« 589 

A« 7S-0 ... 13-20 M n-Q .... 18-35 

7 11 Ml ... I 1.0 JH . . ... 70 .... I'M I ;H 

3 . ... 340 ... 5*50 4 32-U ... 7-83 

I He - 200-0 .... 4448 2 llg 200-0 .... 4*« 47*4 

J CI h 106-2 ... 34-34 2 CI JO-8 .... 17-92 20 &4 

4.16'2 lOUUO 40H-H . 100-00 

Uun**n obtained by Ul ■truhf'il. not 24*3.% but 21*60 jt.a chlorine, teotuaa, 
from U overtt<tir, h" e«tim«tod 3 Al CI, not ut 1327*90 («>= I HO) but »'. llOb'3. Xa. 
mrrttng to Uuiwrn. llir eompADd If « aMBj mind ^f inrrcurlc oxiilrt wllh (wrMnnrl** n( 
auodjl, 2IU<».<-'A'H*Cl a t-HO; atwrding to tJiu. it la cacodyUtn of mercuric chloride 

-mra.cuilpo 4 . 

Gacodyltit* of Silver. — a. Mvnvbiuic, A tiolutiou of »ilvt'r-oxido in 
jujueou* cneodylio acid is mixed with exces* of fdlvcr-oxido and ovapo* 
rnted to drvne**, the ntidu diswdvud in but alcohol, and tho liltrato 
cooled to tho cry»Ulluine point — Long, vory delicate noodle united n 
radiated macaco, iuodoroua and permanent in tho air. They blacken by 
exposure to lifchl, nay bfl bmtefl lo 100 without dcc<)iii|M>,iou or Ion of 
wa,l«r; but u tcinperiiture a little above 100 , they give olT vapour* liko 
nlkumiti, which taku fire in the air, while -diver free from nntcnic in left 
iMibind. l>i«Bolvoa vory roadily in wntor. 


Ctlc. tcconlinx lo Bu-uwn. Calc. tccotdliiK to Gci! udt. dried at 100*. 

C 24 .... 9-79 4C ii .... 9'&t» 9'83 

Aj 7i ..,. 30 02 Ai 7i ... 30 80 

>H .... 8-4b 4H 4 .... 1-64 , 2-43 

AgO 116 .... 47-31. AjO .... . U« ... 47; I 4?-30 

3U_ 24 -„ 9'7» 3U 24 .... 9*88 

A*O.C\im*0» 245 .- lUO-00 CAaU^O 1 213 ... 100 00 

KTtni.BUt: At$luf:< C-XwHK 


r*rvc'd. — By heating ftrWaaU of "Ivor with ao, n*ru cacoij 
Aclti for »«> tt»] day*- rrajmnUmj; to dr me**, *ad • ; iriifc w»trr, 

ink U otnaiucil ofaimilar character, and cryft-.allixiuf in »cc4lc*> " 
aol M) readily. 

C*Jc. accordiDf to Bnnwn, 

IIC 73 ... 

2 At ... 22& 43-19 

-" M . 20 3*4 

A<0 IIC ... M-K 

C*Jc. wccrfiiff to GrrUrJt. *n*4 coU m MP. 

3 A* 



n ... 

2tt ... 

-._ Ift .. 

lit _ 

SB „ 

M f-2 

i; ii t 


;.t\ iwoo 

CMiH'A|OUC l AiH 1 0- M3 3M-0U 

(A«w4in C ioliiiT»fn. tM.-ltU A«<\C*A.II c O»«? II- J \.ll ■ 
G«rt>«> '"M PAftlHV. TV f«rn« «- 

■nil ■■!( / wotr liytlrtfit: (I n bwhC; umI la* UMUrpm much fc» 

IRtfOC&odyfat r. Wli.-n ilcobolii "luti»n» *f 

OUSoMfttfl of silier irv mixad together, lars;« nec-Mts eejunit- 

left in lh« Bqoid -'-•" rhanc* to Mrlv roalo*. TI101 -i )►«• 

»:i. ii. ,1 I J .li-rauUlion (with alcohol M ami dried i k ovor oil <4 

vitii. .1. — When exposed t<« light, ttu y rory quickly Munw a dark 
brown colour; nh»*i when licntod Ion , . j- !« r ..!-.:>'■ »r UftJff V*| 
tlQ rli. ■;.' .1 .Tunjitr slightly. Thny di**olvc readily in water, vpaxinfly 
in absolute nlonlml. 

Calo. axordmr to Bmurn. 

n . (HI 

a. ra .... 1S-07 

uU ■! Mt 

SO 21 .... i-7* 

V Ai<> ■• 2'2 _ Sft*91 

N'* .. 44 . 13-01 

Cn\c, affording; to Gr*h*n!t. Bo 

IC 24 • II 

a* ;a ir-ia 

4 ii 4 wr — 

8 <► U .... 5-Sl 

.AcO «m ... B6-i? H*Jt 

NO* 54 .- 13-Oi 



100 00 


AecorJlnc to IW««<.i, it L* AtO.NO iO 1 ! MGordm R to 

AjO.NO* . OArH-AgO*. 


Cacodylic acid diciolvc* very roadilv in very dilul* AIcoA*!. \™< 
readily in cold absolute alcohol Ii lit Jrea Bparili 

auliydroiiBOthn, which in-lcoi |»rcci|*it*t» 

alcoholic solution (rJuuioii). 

Protosulphide of Cacodyl. C*AaH < S=f>ArH»HK. 

Beaut* Ann. PJUma. 07, 10. 

Korrnod in 1 1 ■ - ■ I n »f lOUeoai mcoilyli.? a^iJ (p. ;■ 

ftUtorein by wlpbtt»1 ed liydrogon, or «f chlurid* ol caoodyl oy ao^ucOM 
bydro«iil|'1iatc of laiiuru: 

^'CI 4 B.S.IIS - ettilTC t B.a ♦ us. 
•*caj)C of «til|>»iorott**l liyilrogen caiiso** rtrong off6rv*»ecnc#. 



Preparation. 1. Whmi ablealdt '^ OtOodyl m dmtilM iHth n<p in 

hydnxulph&t* of borinm. p r<i t-osul p li i »i o of cacodyl pa*M* owr totfotln-r 

with water. An chloride of cacodyl ia jponorally contaminated will 

alkarpiu, wliich is not aclol DMA bjf pXOtoeuJpbide <>f barium, but 19 009 

tod into milphiile of cacodyl by the action of hvdfloulplwti of harinm , 

■ htttor if bettor inin|iri''l f<«r the pri'pnmii.n tDa\B th« «irnplc Sulphide 

barium, uliirh would yiold a rohnfiiru of i mi: il.n 

in the retort tli all? remained, beddee chloride of barium, n tiocid 

•tinkiuu iiimb oonauling of eulpbur anil ;v mill i |>roto-uluuian' of 

: i with he blaulmudo for, the hydniMilphait- oi barium •■:u- 
rally con tn m bypMulpaiU of baryta and biftldphlde of barium: and by 
tbo mutual lotion oi to«M ••••mi • .n«i -. lulpbu u eparated :i *'»l oofiVura 

a portion of tbo pr*itoimlphido of cacodyl ioto bisulphide. If the hv 

barium contains sulphide of iron, thm compound mi parte to 

ni i ,n imli :(i-him- colour nrblch i >wi r«r U rMttOYol 

W diiullntiuii. — The ohlcllhUe ihu obtain c- I i "ii •'>• umrc distilled with 
tiydrnitulphntc of barium, tO OOdTOTI rh«> ohkffide of oaoodvl oomplvtoly 

.- l t i - 1 the lulphido i>f oaoodyl ii tb*n frood fton anoltr by 

ukiunt of chloride of calcium, and from aulphnrctted hydrogen by OH 

■Air of U.'i.l In i in- ■ a dlfll iliiiriuii-, BO FoDflJ U tbe lufobldi i fcCO lyl i« 

covered wkIi i layer of wilier Dontaining imlphtin-tted hydrogen, no pnr- 
ticulur care nood do takao to exclude Ike air baoaaee w ! ,T '" 

d» ct* of the cacodyl arc icduecd by the lalphurettcd hydrogen; ''"to* 
coon as the nilptitda of cacodyl ii completely freed from lulphurei d 
hydrogen, tbe air must be excluded u can-fully *> uoaeible, — Tbo 

aulplml* ..f* 1'iu'oilyl i» nimilj ■ ■•!. without Dtbu ollcvad to 00010 

in contact with too »ir, LOtO the •lintillulury uppurntu* deaoribed on pu^o 

3£J ('. r, ) ».':n L-» ■>■ tube with a baib ■»: i icJi rad). provk I with 

carbour add, and diatllled, whereby nny bi»ulphi<ir: of ooccdvl liiit may 
be praam I in ;:. • left Iwh ad in tbo form of a yellovri«l\. vlaoid, itioSting 
liquid N sod v. :tii i'i-y-i:iJmr grain*. — 2 Aootbtt biomm of mnaratlon 
i« lo mix tbo no id "wotery larer, which float* on Cudot'a cm I- |j qajd 
(p. 314), and contains nctie acid and alkar-in. with aqueous hydruiulpbcita 

of barium. Tbe rueultirjg anlphido of oac<>dvl. which rr<|mrc4 further 

[iurifiration. aiuk» to the bottom, being iuxdubln in tin: iu'ij Itipiiil: 
C*AsH*C> ♦ C^H'O' + BaS.rta - C^AiU'S t C*ll>BaO« 4 HO * H8. 

' TraMparuB), oolovrloatj atbfttUaJ inpml. trbiofa doe* not 
•«»lidifv at 40% nnd in benvier thftn water. BoU iWj abuTt 

100*, out pa>nc« over readily with vnpoiir of water. Vapoar-densify = 
7 ?J, Dom ti«'i GuUM in IM afc Sftl mi i'\ 
— ing and |>rnii3iteuL odour, like niorwijitan and aJfcarjin. 

Duncen. Vol. 

U It-tt . vo-iy C-vapoar i 

yj %lim ao-vapoaf i 

B 10 .. 

4 06 






s LSI 


• »0| 

Prt4oatl|<tii<!t of c%cnAj\, O.VrllMlls carr*«poii.lj to hpiruiulpbwric «€her v 
t >. *ni bk«Uk« Uttrr, yMila a menatnmir gn. 

Z>r<vwi/i.>ji;»'.M#. I. Tbo vapour heated to rodncM In n pln>^ bulb, 
depooiu artcaic, aulphldo *f ar«eiiicv o/id charcoaL — 2. Sulphide of 



caoodyl takes fire readily in eentaet with air, aa-1 turua wfta a grty 

,u nil.:! i!iiii< jaIi* IiIuh n( l li» r*d;*M*. — When exionrd totliearror 
IUJVU rh» at ordinary temperature*, it u .-nmertod Sate caondylic a*M 
and bimlpliido of caoodyl, which latter nray te extracted by eihor (.tea, 

K « HO * 30 - C'Aill'O' ♦ CAalWi 
2C«AaU'B » GO - C'A.H'O 1 « CMall'S? * JtlO. 


— 3, With Iodine it yivld* a ftfciil'mr cryrt-illine mbatano*. — Wi 
nhntan it f««rma a compound which cryatalltsM in largo eoloerli 
Inmim*. The aqueous or alcohalia rotation of tbio compound brought ■ 
Ml with ftiifiilmr, ri*M* bi »1| bid" ' — 4 Moderately 

It] ni uit/ic aeiil oaidicc* tbc pu j i civ, the cacody] rSCDJa- 

-.'». Snlplnir-r :in»l pfeoapborfo and Hill pli a ret ted 

hydrogen and form *tiifhnto or phoaphate of raeodyl: 

C***B*3 4- HO.SO* - C*A»H«O.SO» + HS. 

Acetic ncid exert* no decomposing action. — 0. Hydrochloric * 
chloride of caoudyl and sulphuruiU'd hydrogen : 

Piatt* * ItCt - CAalHCI ♦ IIS. 

? ProtoMilphide *.f i<ncoilyl heated to 200°— 300* in a curved rootirar 

orer mercury, girt* <•'! no gaa, hut oont« the mercury with dulphido of 

and i.. itaelf converted into a fuming mixture of caoodyl ana 

aodeeop^Kted tulpbidc. At this temperature, nowoirer fl the c*t*Kly] iter!/ 

bee !na to decompOM | fan PAaret, 42 

(>m*h't(otion$. fo>t<>»u1phide <»f caoodyl in •cureely fa H'qLv, 

but ik vi n in.- 1--'- LmfMiti u- thai liquid il oml&*t>1« odoui 

With tlfci aU if Iicftt, it dissolves Phoifihoi c/#, which 9Cpuratva 
from it again on cooling- 

Srtfp/iiifc of Caoxlyl ami Qtfpir. OCm^.C '' V-II'S. - Cry»!aJli 
from a D&ltvn of tbfl nUatiotM OJ Htlpbidt Or OaCo.i 
copper, hi rogaaU octobadmu permanent in the air ami baring a* 

adamantine- lu«lre {Ann, /'harm. 46. 47). — [AlknrVm i« probably fomee 
at the earn* turn*, a* ibown by tin Eollowbu MOatiofl 

iCaaH* I .TCeO -* -• SO*Aafl«OJ 

Protomlphidr cif nn-»dyl iiiixfK iii all proportion*, with K&rr aed 
JtmMi tM U precipitated' from the latter by water ^ Bunion). 

Bisulphide of Cacody]. PATH'S*. 
ft nakw. Un». /'Aorta. 46, 18. 

:-. i ProtoBtdphtdfl ofatcodyl, oitlior uVy or <li«*o)rr<l k 
alcohol, is convcrtod. ty bwitlac »itli ralphur, into bl **d ty 

e&poxurc to the air, into a mixture of LomipLuio QLd eac«dylic ae'i 

■iitnr or cacodti.. 


(p. 334). — 2. Sulphuretted hydrogen pa.'«cd over crytttalliiod dMOd 
acid fce] T eoM, 01 tbXDQJ|L tin; B^OOOOB lolutinn vf thai acid, produce* a 

m.xtarc of bwupbidi -.if oaoodyl ud sojpboj (p, 8S9). 

Preparation. Protcrialohido "f QftOodjl pTOMTOd bv three dijtilluT 
tiona wnh hydru-ulphnte of barium, ami i . ;l. . ijy ficc from chlorine, i« 
cumplotely 1 1 veil frmii water by treating it with rlilarfafa td calcium in * 
fl;i»k filled with carbonic arid, then mmnfl and accurately irejghad ID 
■ !la*k likewise filled with carbonic acid, »\v\ boatod with , fn l ,art °^ 
woll dried flown™ <d mlpttQI [I0pi» aulphurt" 1-1 i»< : - protoMilphido 

II idyl . ll,< -lllj'luir thrli d;. ■:■.»(■ :l:i.1 fifVIIM II [Ulk' v.'lliiw IkjmxI, 

which on cooling. aulidilii'ts completely into u inoas COB U MUg ol 

talHnn »M.lAft. A* tin- m.i ■ muv riinttlBi nnnoihoai ■ liltli* fiixs 

aulphur, iQmottmol B little prutoMilphi- v "I "Ivl, Rnd likcwiao traoo* 
<.( rwrodvlic Bold, H dl -ilvcd in R doODol| ,m I aloohftl and 

water adJcd, till tin liqv <J bogilM at I0 n to deposit i r>"iul» <»f liimlph'idc 
of cacodyl. Above ID - "', 1 1 1< I" til|rlii !■(■■ | ^rate in tin* llOJUM f • triii „ 

-in. I therefore could not h* punflcd by rvcryotoJllttiSuo Thttnotfcot- 
linuor u still pun- nit.n^li for the proparatfoi] oi furpbc-»codylatoo- 
\90 pic. pmto*iulphi«'' "i ..M.-ivl vi< II IJU'2pt*. of biempbldo [Til 
»Kr* im«- ealcfltitOw iiiih.iiiiI. 191 ; 188=100 : 1 $8 ' 

— 'J. Sulphuretted hydrogen *fn.» |j pa w d ihnni gh aCUOOtU DBOodybo 
acid; the pnTijiiinfi i mix tun ol free »ulphur imhi bimlpblda ad OModyl 

tod with [lOl diluU li.-ho', to OXtfftOl Lb* hitter: and tliO liquid 

filtered, and loft to cool to loft < point. 

Pnptrttc*. BUoJpaidc «f OMody] crvwUllitr. from flic alcoholic 

oolntion Lv »l«w oooling in large tiMMpanrOt) oolotiiicfl- tables: Uy quicker 
1 ftHisdl prii 1:1- rh« CJ I in-! pvnuy I" ll» t< 

I ol •<> to a colourlc- liquid, which, on QDOUBgi BoUdifitfl in a 

cry/tallitK- Laminated ibmb lluo u po.ctratinc, odour, like that of <ua 

fttiiUi*. PortBftOtOl in llio ftfa 


4C 24 ... I7U ij-j.b 

M ^ *4 74 34-iMJ 

• II 5 4-SB *31 

** U I3-S6 23M 



i m-;i 



B«tm*xi ud A f.-rnntli t'A-H'S.C^Afll'S". 

aonliNc t4» |bi b ory «Wo, • pvotlUf r ik wooU Ur it^ ttw d ft>f (lib 

aovatto'"! < onttilin >a inaino ajmhar of otoiii 

a9oMI I Bimilpttido ol heated jboro ilf boiling* 

■ :i \.lloni/h ooloar, Kivt- ■>)] pnitiMilpbidc <•■ 
tocethcr with a little andccoiiipoicd binulphidc, and 1 • : - - - » intxturc iif 
>alphur and tin* biButphltllj Wpaniblu by ikoliol; ;il :t higher innperatiiro. 

EMi tit ■. icodyl iIi'IiIh n»cr f tn^tbat with a -m:ill qoantlty of 
Ualpbido. and mlpbur •uhlimot together with a Unci ol ulplndotf 
aracnic; U-Uly, nt Biod lituat. ^ti'phido offtrOOD-i ■ d-rim -I. together with a 
iiiiiii ■<■' til in.kiii^ pmd'icU of decoin|H«*itinii, — ?, P ivn l|ili i> II* of 1 acodyl 
iMatrd in the air, burn- with a dull bluinh QamO, fbrtohlg *aUr, CUrb 
. telnhuro'M acid, an.i 1 u tjaidj which riooj in the form of a 


ETHYLKXR: AnsinoflMf.n'n.rrs C'A r «\ 

whito sniolcc. — 3. Nitric acid conrnrU it into snlphar wlnoh 
itut raruhtiric and cjwxidylifi nri.i 

<:«a»H** + ho + no* + r 'vtH"u» *aSf s 

4. It dissolves io oil of vitriol, with evolution uf jalf>htn;c* acid ia4 
abuudaut separation t»f sulphur. — 5. It is decomposed by peroxu 
k*d, yielding r.n^oilylatfl of land, anlphidr of load, »ru] fttilplmr: 

I If i'irn,]yU' utd * tn U- no avjantion 

Kili'bur in tlio frcf htftio. »inee (lie equation woull 

CAiH*^ * 3l>bf> _ c<A.H«PbO' * 3PbS ♦ 2HO-] 

0. From inuiiv Iiwitv metallic **lu, l« of caeodyl throw* 

raSphooieoMfttt. |'liuh:ibly with nimultanooiu fornutioti of ftl I 
c. 3/. with a load nit: 

2C«UU*S* ♦ PbO - cvv.MH'bS* I C<A.H«0.3 

7. Willi ii r»i -:i r *- ii R i it ordinary iMup-NUumvaiid with grout 

evolution of hent. valphido of mercury and nunliidnol i ic • ;*.]. vh ri, 
ti» -n. "I bring bontod (6 WO*! is OOQVtrtodj with furlLor formation of 
Kslpmda of mercury, into caeodyl. 

I **c 

IflD Of 


(.'"wbinatiOM Biialpbidc «f Caeodyl i* insoluble in ^ i 

It dissolves in Hydr»rltU>ric acid, an '"tiy uitlnuii <3 


It liinolvr* aparinjrly in K(hrr, but n<ndily in A Uokol hath nvdr»r*d 
Prom tbblfttUr, it separata*, on dilution »ttii irstortoa 

MfteSn VXtont] iu oily dro|»a, wUieh when loft at roil, remain htjtiid, <**n 
10 . '-iu on the slightest movem lify Id fino crystals, uad w' ' 

great evolution of li'Mi (BuiiMiij 

DaDJtn •aoooedod but imperfectly in preparing' u. ■ r Vnc<>7ji&i>*7 </ 
CYifwi^/=C*AsH'S\ in the ie|Kir:ti« id*- a fuaed mix torn of 1 At. 

ulpliiili' o! m.l 'i .At. -nlphur loHti : totting in * 

oryntnllino mot* oouui*tin£ of scales, and difforinj from tho bi 
cacodyl obtained in a similar manner mid crv*tnlli<cd from niooaa 
when tli»j crystal- IN it'Mifl »ilii ii m tAfOolatO nJoobol, snJpbai r i mm ins 
behind ii i" intii" Bo lewi I ban I At., nii"l tin- nVohol, on <Nmli 

Oj with ii"« iil|iliur afid « r\ -r:tJ« <.,f biialpb)d< «'. cecodyl, a few 

ftmrtte or7«Uki dUwria^ hi form from lIi.i...- ,a thai bbalpbidaj aalcon- 

Umin^ more snlpbor than that compound. 


Sulphocacodylates. KrJ 1 C*A*H , S , =PABH*Mff 
-RN. -<»n. I'harm. 46, 23. 

Ai llnn*rn Mripil I" BMi wlf» thr formula MS.C'AiH*^. h* wnmrn the 
iu'I'ikt <if ft lulphoflKotlrHc snd, w prmlpbldr of es< ■■■■ corrss- 

BowHof to tli" hypolrwltral nhgrd I« iddi C'^jII' 1 ■**■•- 

ii.. in. i \A. »uppotca the exUlcticc of a aulpbur add » < 

|o I •« r !.,\r-lt , i ' \- 1 l ;, s' i -»rf. Bpondinv to ...-.'. I . . 
fannlni ibi mlpbi s«d)Uli i>« ubit-tunori >,t i i . .. , .i i- • .<«. fa 

el* OSM Of •Miinouy »r.l ttMimllt. »ltiL-.i fbett terxiJ yiU«, the r»*lioJ U>r-<y 



SwapOSM flat I At. of a BAtalHd MflftlUl umt#i with 3 At. of tba sulphur wia 
H*S*. •Ulf. ftfcordtii* hi tU nnflrtictlt^r), I At of these netlll rrplnc^i 3At, 
■jtmpn it» .1 Ai. of ilio sulphar-add ,:, A»irsv 

latkn, 1 By firincrinji various betY* metallic ealta dissolved in 
hoi, in contact with bisulphide of coood vl (p. 33<n. — 2. By docom- 

Ing a hoary metallic eucodylale with bydroeulpbuno acid (p'. 320). 

Suhihoc'icoihjhie of Antimony. — A mixture of the concentrated 
akoDoltc nolutiun* of bisulnhidn <>f cBeodyIe.nd tvohlorldt of authnony 
(eootninitu r\rr -..-i livdrootdoric iei«Ij 'I'] 1 ' i ■hwt, 1st, llohl yeUov 
needle*, which bowevat CftBBOt bo completely freed from chlorine \>r 

alcvilif)], niifl nir tlr-rrfi'l p pcihftp.* niivrl ivilli | rl; || i: 1 1 < -rniiipoiitid. — ff 

On- nlcohotic solutions on oilntoaud do not oontftfa am of Djrrraonlork 

they form a yellowish \vli:t»< pnrijHtut'.' whioh uftor a time incomes 
ili>vr and then an ornnjro colour, Btisinj ffOBO precipitated xitlphidu of 
ntiliniimy; this dec-ompotfitiuri likewise takes place wheu I ho product is 
washed With afcoliul. 

12 C 

n a. 
|g ii 



•I .'1HM • HI 




It 31 






3 00 

SbS\3r'\-irv- C»A »H w Sb» u WO 

100 00 

Stdpfiocucotfylata tf fUrmttA. «■• Foitnod by lidding a dilute boiling 
nlroii>.iir lolal It ti 1 1 i a|<] iltrftt* of MsmulAj by drop* end srita eouatwt 

■tirriuu', to a boiling concentrated alcoholic solution of bisulphide of 
vl. The mixture asuumea n golden yellow colour, and depotit* 
* few ininutea, *oft, bulky, woolly Deeolot which ww« vliaiijpi tc» 
crynullinn srn1i>«. Ths) mothor-liijimr. which still contain* bisulphide of 
caoodyl, may bo docantod, find tlio bismuth k<Iuim.ii IgUin drupim! in 
•err cm I lloiofl with the mm 4 preotUtlonOj till bfl forthei addition IM flrai 

tr>irr. .f ;« l.iii.i. precipitate of nlpbtdi of bl notli maka tueii appeu 

pellet How, inodorous muIm wLloh an peraMent In ilia 

■ :i heat of I00 - without ftlU't:iti<.:i. bit at a h- 
toretUM, nxo resolved into sulphide of bismuth, sulphide of oaeodjrl 
Imr. They are not altered by aulphur 1 1 *_■* 1 hydri^e'i Tlu-yarc 
U t anil in ir! v iii-nlulilr in :ilni|i«»l mill . tin*:. 


1000 _... HWrt 

j .,n ... 2-hd 

Z9-3B ....... SOU 



S As 

It II 




n .... 

■ - ■' 

. tM .... 

m . 

ttaVC'Ail " Dt*« 720 ... 100 00 

! iyc*cof?yi<\/r nf LtuJ. — By mixing Iho .'ilcoholic solllUoiu 0J 
of leatl, smnll whitcj pearly mil 
obtained, which nro iuodorou* nnd pennanont in tho air, nol affeetad by 
L^d hydrogen, insoluble iU water, and nearly inaolublo in 
rot. rx- * 


mmtKE: AnsmociK-yccuirs curir. 

4C - 


4 5.... 






. T7-47 


. .. 2'20 





.... 23-11 

rb8.c*AiH 4 s«-c.uHMn.8' - 2rs .... KO-00 

$%JpkKr%&xtytal* tif Copper. — An &Icoh«K* aola'.xm of nitrate of 
copper t« added to an alcoholic eolation of bisulphide of cacc-iyl, in such 
proportion that the latter may jrrrally predominate, and the prttipUte 
wnidH-d with 4WI11U* alcohol (Bun 

II -.-II'.-- - I ruO.NO I < Hi) 2(1 ii'St A.!!'.* i 


If too inut'Ii nitrate of copper be added, Miluliide uf c»p|K:r u 
la led, together with u jH-rulur m;I| liur-wilt wbirli oryvtaJllltl 
noed!**, and dooompoac* ipontanooufly aftor a while, with formation 
sulphide of copper. 

Soft, loote, e^if- yellow powder, which Uilcct up water bot si 
WbfjO IhuIimI. it lint i(ivc« off Milphldr "f cw-odyl, then tulphur, anil 
leave* sulphide of copper. It in dsjannpoM-d liy pnunh, hut not hj mil- 
phorettedhydmgen. It ll button*! 111 \vm.t_. ><pieotif acid*, nicobol and 


.... 1030 


ai ;& 

.... 52 10 


«M 11 

.... *'W 

■' 1 

2Cb .- 64 

.... W-47 


4 8 - , 14 

... *7'«7 

Cn'S.PJUllW ... - 233 

... 10000 

. 100 

8*M*caco*lyhit* pf GM. — TL« alcoholic solutions of b 

oacodyl and tcrchloridc of gold f..nn :i l.r"**n precipitate of no 

gold, which, when boiled for aoroc time with ihr aapvrnaUal 

• - .n v i -i : c«I iiiin :i yollowfah erey-whlto Mindy powder, *.inking i| 

tin* hiiiiMin; it HU1-.I Ik- u:i \u>\ with ali-nlnir alcohol and dried in vacao. 

Thf liln r.« contain* encodylie neid: 

SOUfaW ♦ A.iU* * HO - C*A*H'AnS* + C 4 Ailt'0<. 

This compound, when dry. forma a very «oft ycjlowlao nliir.v taateJiN 
and inodorou* powder, which iipiirurH perfectly hnmogpnevw wben 
•aniiii'd l»\ I lie inicruKcope Whoa boatoc ll assama i dark-ltd 
colour, and give* off nearly pun* eulphido of cacudyl io oily dropi, and 
afterward* jnlphar, while futc gold remain* behind, it ii e by 

famine nitrn- arid, with reparation of iulphur mid £old. It ll .Icrwa- 
poscd by caustic pola*h, hut nut by nulphuretted hydro;-, n Knaolo) 
water, hydrochloric ncid, auoaol and ether. 


iC 24 

Ai. 7S 

•M fi 

Aa __. li#v 

4 Si 64 

-in | 

6'M ... 
113 I N 

m-08 w;a 

u u 

CUiH'AoS* ac» 




Sclcnidc of CacodyL CAaH'SosCMrllMfSs. 

BtflNBr. -fern. Pttarn. 37,21. 

Formed br dintillinj; pure chloride oFcacodyi two or turn© time* with 
anucoutf ■eleuide of r- "limn .ind purifying too oily dlfUDatt :it Uj| bottom 
(•! llM w:ii. . n BMOtt :-.- ;.ln- BQlpttldfl (j M3). 

rmn fmr wHj yellow oil, bwvter tlmn wvm?. Powftol Ann< In tbi 

uir, and baa a peculiarly DJgfc boiling pWDt, but DDtJ be duHttfcd v nh.uf 

decomposition ■. n:;' i *JoO« OX Ifitll wMrr. Haa a rcpuhrire, rxtn'im ly 

p«ui :nl lotnawhni otLvroal ami aromatic odour. 

1 bfl moor Df nlmida of enrodyl |«iwd through a roJ-liot 

!',i.c, ■(-■]" ■■!'- :> rlofl "i MlcBintn and atwnic Balonido. oi Moody] 
Cxpowd to tb« air, takoe up oXTOOfl and fnrra« colourloaa crystals; when 
«, it burna with n beautiful blur AalBa, cmitliui; a »li«ui;' odour 
of sclaniumu It i- readily oxidized by nitric addj ako bv hatted oil of 
Titnui. uitli . el nlphnroiM told and proorpKnikni M 

•oUniuiKi. From various heavy moiailie uilu, im from acvUt* ■>! ■•■ \ 
14 it rat* of •Hrer, it throw* down a black metallic sclcnidc. while »IL 
IB disiclved in combination with the acid; 

PAiMo -r AjO.NO" - CA.lfO.N0 1 t AgSe. 

addition of a mall quality of eoTmdta luMimatt, it forms a 

ij-iUto of aelciridc of tncrcurv. tln-n, on I... 

i:< pi conflicting of n rompoanaof nlknnbi wiUi protoohlorlde 

ry, which may b€ oxtracleu by boiling water, ami BrYBtaHSs ■ 
fan il ■ Lotion in nacreoun lamina): 

( 'a.u's. + 3HiCl t lto - HgS« 4 I Ufl D4HfCI * HCI 

SelfuMi In ^;iiii t but <l!xM)lv«* readily in 

Aleak*! auJ fiUicr i Bunacn). 

Iodide of CacodyL c*A«HM=c\VrHMii. 

Bi *>c.i. ifiui. Ptonu. 37. B 

allcaiwin in itiatRltd with moaaJlljM njdriedk • 
yellowish oil tctlect* o»Jor Um water In the " i tfiar. wfiii , "*>£. 

jaaaaha yellowish grata and ttaaaparoirt rhombic tabl riodtideafl 

caoodyl. ' Aflrr tbi» eeparatkra baa been mom oompklftly^ effected, by 
aanvnad ■ with o (ngorSfio raixtuja, Uao oily Miss of 

r*c< I _-sin dlatilled with i bad bydrlcdU 

«<t a-*""i< •>} witb cblonde of culoium aiid ojvkklliafl inn 

•itJod tube filled with earWif add ^«4, to rctnor* wac>r imd I 
*«iii; Bfjdnoally Jbtillwl iu anparatui 

carl ■ ■!"! nil ,' to } h ■ 

dMiltato in tbo TOCMTOT, which bftJ DCM eOIITOrtad into ice by UM 
fro*«infi BBucturo, yiebU, wbc*n io|K»r»t<xi frum tUo osyio<li4« and tfa wad, 
■Da did« of cacodyl, but Ic-- pur. it.— - 

aj ^. l>lid# of cafiidv I U alao formed, tuguibrr mtn tM iodidai of 

x 2 



jiioil.rr ars^nim) radical, hy the art ion of iodide* of methyl, ethyl. 
&c. t *n cocodvl: 

n-H-'l * 2C'H»A» - .;CW)V>ll»".H. I * CWftiT, 

r.f/. wil1> lodi «l* of ethyl, Xht proJi ii !•■ of urn •.•■.l;i. il^lian 

.: rCobooii ,\ Riebe. pp^llr, 332>. 5" 
J liia yellowish .1 r,| — 10'; k ifl 

i. ''Hi Ij.-Ii!. i Una l:u!-*. ISiiiU abort 
100 . f« inline* a yellow vnnour; mnv b« rawlily diotillcd with, water; 
aoa not fane in tlic air; hue u penetrating aod rcj»»il- . i iik« 

\) :i >f cacodrjL 

. - 10 39 

.... 3-G0 

i • mi 

a»... n 

<J H 1 

1 .. 126 




C*A*U«l 231 

.... 100-00 

fodldi ofcBOOdyl *M BO fire in Ao&jr, barM with a Hglftl NMkfcj 

giving off vapour* of iodine. Kxpowxl to tho nir at oidmary Wn\ 
tun-*, n ft short limo, \n nlifa] rbonbM pri >>i .. provaMr 

•isthg wf ra«M»iylir ,v:id. It i. >l ii: ami nlphuric acuh 

wiih lepftniSaa of iodine. With protocblande of mercury, it I. 
iii.. Jm omeefiotnllag eompoandi Itforeoij ibttnet* (be i<-iino, oveo 
below tli- boiling point of tho compound. 

ll u insoluble in water, but dissolve: in Alcohol and Zither (Banoso). 

Oxyiodide or Basic Iodide of Cacodyl. 

Probably = aCAeH'I.CS^IPO. 

BcNat*. A »«. Z'hamu 37, 54. 

Formation and Preparation. 1. Pumoi over, together with i< 
Oaoodyl, in in© distillation of alknrwm w ih ccniconlratod hydriodie 
(p. 3J0). To free tliO crytaJ* from the ":ly iodide which Mil] adheres W 
ificni, tliey ore acvciaI timet prvimed between paper; recrywallixed from 
absolute alcohol : freea from adhering alcohol by preeaeve Oder 
water, loft for tiimo toy* in contact with frngincntf of 
calcium; mid distilled in" apporatu* 3 (p. 321), previously Bllctl wits 
carbonic ncid, lilt half the prodliefl he* paved 0*1 r. Tl l ■« mpuaol 

uxidiwH no rapid lj it: :hr ii thai ll cunoi be abteined <|.iiif free fan 
Oxidfttiaoprodaoti 1 The hum compound i* fanned bvm Tin^alktrmi 
vriili mm! iiU< >.} oooodyl — LhoM bedta oombfolei In til prunortieaa — 

and Adding n- very uuinll quantity of water, which intm .nrArtJ 

tlte fluid mixture into a yellow cryatnlliuo mass. — On the other hand. 
il.r eonpOUnd • 0O( nhiaiuiNl by iligetttiug or di&tdliitx iodide of encou^rl 
with ewnoent rut imI hyilriodie acid. 

Yellow ttyttalliDO mi < nr tniiuraront rhombic tabloo. Melu for 
below ltn>, and uay by diolillcd wiibout dceompotilion. Eioiu wbitt 
m tljfi air. 

Ab«vib« OXygCO from the air «o npldljj that it hoconoi IrCTfol l« 


melting point, nnd even .-.•. Burn* with ft R&ok J 

off vmponn of iodine, tfol ouovi rt i Into EocQdtt of cocodyl, cither ly 
Uon or distHJelion with bydriodk ■•■■■!• 
Di»*vl>i- -junn-lv in water, very reudily in ■leofeol (Boom), 

Bromide of Cacodyl. tsdbMj = C*A«H l Br«C*AiH , ,HBr. 

Bu.ise.v. Ann. Pkarm. 37, 38; 42, 96. 

By distilling the ooanporad of alkintn and metanio chloride vlA 
highly concentrated hydrobronh ncid, u yellow, non*ioniing dlitUkl 

i»1h;.iiii ■>!, having tins prupcrtirtt of eMorwi of anodyl (Bunion). Thit 

hound u aUo formed bytha notion of bfOfflM of i b/J on 0*0 
(Cab our* & Kiehc. p. :j.M') t Aroinide of cacodyl pUoed DY«I mercury in 
aoirvi.I r-n:ivcr ( and heated to 200° — 300*. i» converted, with furnia- 
tinii of morOUnHH blOmldOj into n mixtmn ill' ivn-ihlyl :uwl Iimnr. 
cacodyl, which funics utrongly, and oven t.ikc« fire «pontaneou*dy on 
KMUM en the :iir; tint on boiling with water, thl DOeTOUZVUI bromide in 
navecd to iii'i metallic xtaio, and the eeoodyi reconrerCed into broafac 
which TolftUlUo* with Uw walciy vapours. — Wln-n boated nitb wut.-i-, 
it i» converted iato fuming oxybrouiido of woody] (tttuwon). 

Oxybromid* or Basic Bromide of Cacodyl. 

Bvx&zx. Ann. Fharm. 07, 52, 

Obtained by distilling nik&nin two or three Lima with moderately 
BttOCMj hvilriihromlc acid; reOtlMlig rim le-ulting distillate with clialk- 
powdcr and water, tho nir boinfl completely excluded; then drvm 
over chloride of calcium, nod distilling it ouco more in the dietillutory 
BpjuraU* (3), (p. 82 I J, filled witli c;irl"uiii' ;**-m* 1 _; i 

Yellow liquid becoming colonrleai wheaerer it w hrcital; in other 
leap*.'. moll like bremide of oaoo&fl 

U hen I...J "1 with BUN Miry, ii ii* converted, without •Tolutloi] of cm 
j. lom un-ycl low, caiily fusible Bubetoncc, which nioy be evaporated 

without decomposition, but v strongly licuted alone, in re-- I 

. bromide. :n:d xtiukiii]^ nrmuiferoii.i pr^Wl*, !iu«J 

trfaen hooted with water yicI-U mercury and a DOCDpOOnd tthjob I 
tiluo* wilb tbo water (Bun»on). 



9fi . 

li .'., 



4 Am 


300 . 

. 41-91 




:* ii 

U . 

. 3-59 


3 Li 


. Sft-M 




• . 



5CU i" 668 ...10000 10000 

ETim.EN*: aimm 


Basic Perbromide of Cacodyl. 

Bu.x*en. Atu»> Pfi'trm. id, II, 

i'acodylic »oid W dittolrod In WJ strong I 

b»t ilx tolatioa may Mil! exhibit a rtroaj; acid rcactica, 
IB<j tb . i ■ ' i in vncuo over oil of vitriol mid limo. Bj 

Mitamide ol tsrodjrl then i md h Liu I 

tajrilrourumlr «old h*« bfVfl prtptrtd from bromitw tad «»l|»hui> 

..Id. wlik'h muit bt prtdplutcd by bifjti »»trr. W'vtr maw 
bo JrtiiUtMinffrn.m iIk ai|ucuua byiln nil lie dUatUtc bc« im to o 

H «i>l OOM y -llowbh from the pracMC «f freo 

UmIt. tfu» roidtit dirttlJrd with fhovpUtir *fcd Y»ld« hYdrobromic «*d, 
■ndKifficimlly OMeMflMfel ! f..rili<- BWpNh 

Viicid, oolonrlotf. inodoroua ayrup. vbiob does not redden licmct- 
pftpcr, excepting on addition of water. 

«. die kcoiJ. IjUuuxu. ft. Calc*iu>rd. lu Gin. 

IfiC _.. 96 ... 1 1*1.1 MG Hi IfM 

4 Am 300 .... 3171 (Ai 450 .. 

3U1I ..... M ... 4-ZD 16 II If * :u 

5 Br U* .. M-M 4 Be JM . »•» 

31 U 169 -. HO-00 *0 20* ._. 17-78 

610 .... 100-00 

1170 ... 100-00 

A<Tunliii£Ui Oin^n.i!n.. 00Wpo|tlH|=^ 
MMOrdlng to CSm., = C 4 AaH 7 BV .( 

Juttcr formnU. Um forcn ition of tbo compound mint be expreood by tba 
bUovlnc NUli 

(CAill'O' t- «HBr + JIIO - C'AjU : Bi\:.C , AsnW + OHO. 

Moreover, ilncn Uio quantity of caeadyjto acid to l>o <Hmolv*d 

■ aaid i* not very exactly dotnrminod, tbo nix-Uro bmj 
OOnUlo rviftbJa quantities of oitrcodylic acid and of lk* oormtpoodinj 

DW-mo-aoid. i .\ ii i; : . UutiKii ajmoara to conclude, chiefly from t&« 
oireuinvUucn Unit tin* aompaaad iloci not redden liuniu w'liiU* 

Ayrnpy fttati*, luif. imly after with Mar, ilm t In? *rrup no k*y**r 

contains «ny acid, bat it rtOOQVftrUd int.. an totd by ill i.ut tlii» 

mat of action upon litmus way ariec from tbo thick ooinitefi or el tb» 
nm|ii M faun to Bim owe — tint wbioh rcndcjaUrtario acid ahwjwj 

-lilli- aJcobol iiii-:i|iuli!r <if ml 
Mi" runpin-.I, ulirii moderate! IB rofcolvod iato w*Ur, 

gafleoii* bf nn I.' ol :ii.-tbvl( VJI,28«) eaeodylatc of cModyho bromide, eaJ 
a«onion* acid (.ihh, Phanru -!«, 44). rriw rt| U itjon firtn l>x Hum 

r «Ukn ciuwitbeMfifU, — Floprcti 

I. — If wo aUrt fi m ai J) bo : 

t.*A«ll*i:. Clli>-9llOf2C"U , Br.2r«.\ 3 iH fl Br»3r'A.iri>i-JbO*. 

Aeocriing to [bi»c.|a«li.»o ( »4tir, brooUl OKO'I^I t*o>i)'. 

Mwo«M lie niiiiiiird". Tlic eon | dfeaolTod ii 

W«Ur , i I into e.U'iMUlif arid -»inl hv.l.. I 

iM ;: .-iiwr vritti the uii.r. wli.-ii tin, li-j ji I i- . r»ca* 

(BurwoiO. [Equ -ia i ; 

C«A.-H«BrH}» - CC'AlH'O' . illBr \ 3I.O). 



Chloride of Cacodyl. <?A»FI'C!=CrArH\HCL 
t.NBBX. Ann PAarat. 37, Q\. 

J P &p mw H om. I. Ih < I of alkarain wiih pro4cohlond« of 

mercury, it tlutillcil willi very t><uz I v-h-nhlm ■ id tin diatillat* 

dried snarl from tho uir, Oftf dbloriaa of calcium ami aia^ruwiri. 
il .rill-I ahmn in lb* tippinilux ibmorilit'd on pi.-. .'I (.: 
■rith carbonic acid gas and coaled. — All 1 with urontr 

hytlr-orhlorio ooiJ, doo* not yield chloride of caooiyl in a stato of parity, 
IwcAux- osvtiilorido of caooajrl i« formed at tlio cumo time, and ra uot 
c]«compu»ud. otu by r»pot ton distillation with hydrooalorioacfcd (Boasta}. 

— CbJofidfl of asoodyl is nl?o obtiinod by tbu action of chloride of ethyl 
on eacodyl (Cabour* * Uioho, \\ S 

PrtjjxrtU*. Tran«par*nt, «o1anr)ft», nthcr-wl liquid, wbicli does not 
•fyovennt — «*; heavier than wator. Bod* a litfll 100*. 

and font* * '<>lourlc« vapour of Pp. ijr. *'5«. Does not fumo in tb© ail 
Hub ptfMtt*tia£, \t odo»r, VMS more powerful than that 

alkanriu; whou inhaled in noiiKido ruble? rjuuntilv, l pradaoM nwrlling of 
tho miKou* mombrsoo of Iho mxo, and ♦tuavajaticm of blood in tho 


I r 2t-o ... 17*89 . Ure- 
al ;.vu W4S 

r, il t.o . <-77 «Ja 

11 v .. 4 , 2522 ... 22*90 

Vo). DwwJtr. 
C.T.po«r.. i 1-661 

Afr-wpoor | VII 

11 OHM 

1 I 4544 

.1 i Ufrf 10000 

Vanoo. I CI 2 .... 'J . •' 

I 44669 

In coawipuacc o/ llie idiulxtun g( oxfchlor iJc of oscodvl, BiMrM bud "o Uttb 

Dwnipaiitions. I. I Ib]d| Mi of ivicody!, when **t on fircj burns with 
a ,'u ] una, dapoaHinx HKilallir "i ar«niou3 acid, award- 

ing i iay with which the hit ha. aoooa to It, The J*P°D f which 

witaraaouelf In tb« i r. Whan hoatol 
in a rev- "'-' , HouMUM — v - 

lb* air h**oxcruw t.. ii I gly, it dopo - 2. [n ■ ' 

n Lake* firo ■pontaDi ixeoal. — 8 

nitric a-rid tot* "or.- itti "M' 1 ' ■■'"■' * * '" d«wnno«ad with 

Uuric and phospnon.- 

ty wuak«r aoida — 5. Will dry wnmoniacnl CM, it rormi a whit* H 
■uutm. which laav«« aalatnuoiuM iraM tmto4with aloohol. — €. .'■ 
bobo potasa redaea i\ Ic the II* (p. OKI), with 

preci, i pouasjum: 

. lira t- KO - C'AiII* f KCl * 110. 

D rY abatract chldhnc nXaD II ; oven from 


Mjftiiicully grnU to decompose the chloride of cncjdyl without the 

vcillioi "1 itiy ndiiT Mi1i«f:iin*e. — T. Silver-Alt- !;ir <li 

i a dftVIl all the rliliirmo in tlio f>rm of chloride of t\\ 
— Zinc, tin, and irun abstract all the chlorine, without erolutiou of gu, 
ami have cacodyl. Zinc and tin produce thi-i elicit at VO to 100 . 
liquid, irilicb at fml w traiinpureut u . rlr**, becomes dark •.'id 

opaque n* |]m inntal dttwdwui, and on RooHnjr »:diilin*e>s in a moist rs 
maw, from which water diwolvca out the metolllc chlorlda [Ann. J?Marm. 
«, 27). 

Cambiwttwu. Chloride of cacodyl i* Oft pel tiM> *oluMc w 
VAtVj bur i' vi ti!n-lr»- hnpuU If* ponotratlnfj odour to tluit liquid. 

Willi metallic chloridca it forma many OOmpODJulSj MHM of w Inch, 
however, uro atablo, excepting tho following.-: 

CacoJr/lo-cuprotw Chloride. — Au alcoholic solution of nlkarnn fun> 
with :i xolnlinii of enpTOOl flitntiiln iti Jr, , : i . t! i n in arid, a think wbitft 

MttV precipitate, which must bo tnlumted for some lime in a naoriar 
with ttronj: hydrochloric aoid, to remove alt the euproae ehloridu |'i 

pitated in Um free ft* to; thai washed us nuu-klv .-»* puMiMo *ud quit* 
apart ftuiu lot iir, fir>t with rixnu£, tliuu villi dilute liydi 
nnd afterward* with water; (lien prr*scd between pHl« a r and drit | 
vacuo. If ilia waaliin^- b tinned, Ihc nTOCipltatt i« deeow- 

|.. . .:.. n> I in iii. tad 'li ■"!»■• eomploteiy. W&u rmoIai povdtf 
smelling of encodyl; often, however, yellowish from incipient deconipc- 
utiou — Wlito Lwtodji El rival "ft* oulosida of cncmljrli *»d laavai 
cuprous clilorido. When exposed to ilic air, it tun fanning 

chloride of copper ami xliTikiuc arsenical product* Decomposed by 
boiling with vtiticr. InuohiMo iu lUooIiul and in othoi [Ann PJm 
4t t 22). 


K- 240 m. 1001 906 

Aa 7*0 .... 3128 

6 11 - <V0 .... 2i0 102 

Ct 3V* . ii-:« . — . Ix*« 
CVCI 0PM .- *M4 4010 

ClKtCfelUKX.- 2MB .... 100-00 

t .i ><lt/l<>-}>7>ttin\c ChljriiU. *— Clilorido of eacodvl fanu* u . 1 1 soil 
of phitiimni, a eopious brick -red precipitate, probably* eon'.: 
PtGP,C*A .■■■' I CI. — This predplUM dissolvco in water when boil 
washed with it, formiug Q nearly colourleea liquid, in vrnidi m 
platinum nor encodyl can bo detected by the ordinary reagents ; > 
nidlrd or mponten, ll yield* i<<n:.- oolourlent iieedlm rnnM nrvdlc* 

are annlo^ou* to Hoiset'a platinnni-roin|MMiiiiN ( ih< '•eiig 

rvplaccl by cacodyl. Tlicv contain a plntiniforoiu radical, which ui 
with lilormc, bromine nn<f cyanoccn, and fi-ims with oxygen a l«eC whi 
uuitva with uvid», funning: eryataUund nlla [DuBfBBj. 

mnruTF.D cmoiUDE op cacodil. 

3-1 1 

Oxychloride or Basic Chloride of Cacodyl. 
3C*A*H»CI ( C*A«H«0. 

Btnacx. Am* P/tanit, :;:, i:i. 

Obtained liy trwitiiijf elilorido of c:i<\Hiyl with -vatWj or moro r*:i«!ily, 
\>y diotillin^ nllcm-win with dilute hydrocUlorio aoid, rectifying tlio «.li: '.il 
lato with chalk powder Mid water — u-lwaya carefully excluding tlio 
air — drying tki rectificatfl oTaf cbfarkta of cnleEauij mm again dSaliUisc 

it in tbn apparatus doicrlbad on nan ■ *-!, previously Altai vriili rartKimo 

'id aealed. 

lh hj kid rvMmblos chlorido of csieodylt bul boilo it 10!) 3 , lias a 

I of i 40, ami ciiiiti white famM 10 thr ;iir, it-t MOQV i*» 

not near ao strong iu that of ulk.amu, but in:i -t-rihidcM* quite 

. ;li. 

ICC 90 .... 17-97 ... 

I A. 300 .... iO-16 ... 

Sill ....-.-... — . 91-0 ... 1*0 „ 

3 CI 10C-9 .... 19-** -. 

O _ 8'0 ... l'W - 



i si 


C'-vjpour .. 

i' ... 

O-fH ... 

Vol. D«H»y. 
l'J ... C-65fi0 

2 .... t< 

21 .« lf.H0 

3 ._ 

1 ... 0M.I6 

i.<> S3 1*2 .... 100-00 .. IUO-00 

8 .... 3r-03fl9 
I . 4 '6290 

<<vi)'irncror the rapid (nidation of tin* preptinllnn In th<- Mr, which 
biMill'icrilirr prnciiU-.!, linii.ui obtained loo much a&ygcii. [iSmi»ru'n calculation 
l)i« vapour-tlrn.nv > umiliiil^ilil.-; (br. Iv rVcfcOHi I I ipOaMtBaHv of alkanin ti 

■ imIiio* of olilontfo of < i h1 b> dividing Uj 4 c hulas Am rapour* 

dcntiiy of ■tic compound — o'3<% MEnM hotter aHfc the dcn>ity found 

ijoriineiit. t!.c npotn? N •Ik.ur.m i. BQCUtflialo, lad that nf 

■f\l «li»*(iroir, It fi'.lowt Ildt in the fipmir .if th» Qm U ].■. I 1 ..I. 

attaratn«va|KMr mu« be uiocioted, not tilth three, bat «lth *\% loiumr* of Mpoaf of 

i Monde of lucodjl]. 

Hydratcd Chloride of Cacodyl [?]. 

Hydrochloric arid £U dried by oil of vitriol and chloride: of calcium, 
awe*! oYttinow aUcarala from ■ aldi tho air Ii otnlbllj exclude 

ly ataorbcif, with £roat ovolntiou of hoatj rumg ovou to tin.- boiling 
nd forma two atrutu of liqnii, a briokred powder of crythranin 
[amounting to | p.c. of tlio alkar«in uod) being "t (l< u 

pititod. If ilieaJkaisun to nimiandad will :» fri^oriti*' miiiun- 'luiiug 
tli» paAiap^ of tlio ^nn, n bono liaoid U •blaioed. vtiicb, bow«vw, 

whea litf»l«d in » <ii rulu- lili.-d vrltll Oarooaio •■»< ■■!, tfl 

ecaec* to I I - \t li>\!roobforio nvi<l gat <wbich carric» matefJV rapOUf 
villi It) 1 rcwlvod into two BtraUi of li«iui I. J', if : 

'ii,.- :!nti upper lavar to ebloriio o( oacodjl. Th« lower vi era 
rniAtt F •iaco nothing el»o it formed, bo eblofkk of cacodyl ll lUoo 

witli part of tbo water *.« In h iru produwd in the fonuiition of tLat 

EfnTLOFBt AtflflMGBrf-JfVClKrS C'Arlt». 


compound. In fact, ehl->rid« of oalciim doliquotMO In it, Ion 
ofcooodjl aJuioH i !i. -uc**). [Wn tfc> •otnlkoce *akboiQ*4 

the «*iqw»e«ioa of On clilunUc of calcUm, ratty vtlcr f W>t b »ot tht tfccH 
com(->*uJ fumed on bfwijrinf chhnaV of caoo4*l a (oaUct witli • ga uU oxaalu; t( 

Cacodylato of Cacodylic Chloride |ij. 

BtmflBN. Ann. Phniyn. 49, 36. 

I'moci aver aa aa oil io tho distillation of hvnc percUI'mdo of curoJvl. 
WO li feJ at a gentle houl till tho ro-iduo bejriu Io he *otiwwbal 

urn!, tlii'ii i'[.-i'.I fffiui MuWir :iail liytlrm-liliirji' jiuid by DICflUMOf taijtat 

atxl aHftillcd one* morn in tho *m1od npparatai (p. 341). 

I i il r.^ernble* ohlurido of eneolvl If a jjlao* rid mo«tOf»e-l *ii* 

it K bold nrar t!ir MM U>r only a fi.-w ftcond*, tho odour, which u it 
l)t?t | "juirly porooptiblo riatt after awhile to an incredible iateatrtr, 
cunMiijf »nm*tiiig'. nrofW iKw huge uf mucua, uu<l ibo 

H it bt up I- Bmowhftt longer, tho odour fm m m \r' 
i itot ruble MMtJlOO, :itt.*ri-i--l villi piercing pnia in tho coreboUi 
TbU compound forma, with nor room* otih; I atio pearl/ 

*lkfcr»iti (p. 324), but without fbramtioa of c*loruol (Dun a . 

■ ■.!■.! ;; :. i;., Domh. 

20 I 120-0 . 15-28 .... 14-00 

'A. J75-0 i;-7J 

i. SOD 3-92 ... Ml 

*U<4 - 2104 tfrll 

1^0 0-11 P-4J 

100 oo 100-00 

Finnan ■tlributr* tlu> »ir«i nf ftijjm whfnh hf found, to n|4J oxklaUau m 
■Ir, *od giTca U» /ormulj 3C'AtU'CI T .;tC'A»U<0*. 

Perchloride of Cacodyl (?]. 

bydroeblork ncid gaa paawd over dry cacodyl ic acij, ov< 
groat nut, idI forms a liquid, wbicli on oooliag dopoaito largo ilii 
I mi i i ,,i baalfl novehlorioo of cncodyl. Tho mother liquor, »|i 
in.' of thie oomj I -i*i bo roffwdod m t»<! 

!: in fnct, ua C* h HH3I 1 loa BJUOfc M» b ydrochftorie Mil 

gM is pusod over tho OModylic aoid, oo »cparatioa of water takes pW* 
till tot gM i^ in Qfecm, mid thereby eavrU u decouiponirig nor ion r« tW 
KftnposnKj iln:i.!_v formodi [Tbo oomponnd mayalso to 0*/\»HH^* ( <Hr 
:" ooraisg to tho following o^uation: 

C'A.H-O 1 + 4HCI - CA-H-Cl' 4 4UO.J 

npound is it trauaparout, colourlou, inodoroBi *yr«pi 
llightfy in ihn aTr. 

rap when itrongly bcutcd. it rciolrod; without taming 



to ii volatile* product txmtuiirng chloride of cacodyl, and into unwiiioui 
acid and s p»rinan*»iit pu, wa ■ I by fctoobol bat DOl by w titer. 

Jt oumiut bo #*t on firo v iiln.i.t l-rinjring it iuto tJB alcohol flam*-. 
rrdiK'T- ii. -I is Kb doU to obloriJo of wooM^ lOooyrinMo by ito 
odour, and at higher tcnuporslvroe to caoodyL otu lolation uf 

the syrup ronr »Ua urid, firwidoH a tnnv of 

qiooj aoid (proceeding from admixed fcusic psvchloffidfl of cacodyl) 

Basic Perchloride of Cacodyl. 

BOKtW. Ann. P/tarm. 4G t 30. 

ProdtOfid hv tin: :i. lion i>f gMGQna or concmlrated W0p 
r blorie ftdd upon caoodylic acid. 


yrrpanttiott. I. By oolleetiux the twining Uminte which 
llio preparation of pcrohloridc of cacodyl. — 2. Ily cTaporatiug tLo 

i- caeodvlic acid in highly oosotraUmted hydrochloric 
oror oil of rltriol and Eima in numa tl andionj temptifttai 

•oltdifit* to n pasty miw inada up of Utmiru; |<r(.<H«ing this mas* in * 

botUd prow MtMB W**f«l fan! ttf warm uud WtD «lric.-J iMbul-mi 

; »i| i! several tiuicn to tiie air to MODftl UoktanS 

proving it out; ami lastly drying it in thouo over oil of vitriol 


Propcriie*. Large, transparent, colourleos, crystalline lamina?, whUt 
fuse BUinewliut bfllow 100*. running a colourless liquid, thvy are inodo- 
a very *nnr uuur». 

... 13-M 

C'«W. ■cmrding to Iturittu 

Ctlc. arronlirig to Gm. 

72-0 .. IS'76 

3 Al . '-"-'. .'ii 4V00 

•24 II . 240 ... i W 

lufrl . 

■.... . . ib jr. 

033J .,.. 100-00 


» V. 







14 aJ 


...- 2DI2 

«l-fi ... UO-00 

A/uort'u.z to Bviuni, lbs compound - C*AiHH:r\2C i AaH i O , -t fillOj scxoruW 
UVl >'•«>'. Affording to tl* luttor formula, the vijuUivu lo* 

mi of tliV 4D4MHHHkd •* * 

i i; ■ ; iiici = c , \wii*u*o» * 411o. 

lo ol CM* -IvI be ■■ D below iu 

1 1 I r.'Mi. bill filing off .t ptfinfcfient gl 

.. Ltoonpc i ""I Bom p m m pi mg byd 

acid | . mtboul OoMing. If ;i wiuti-'ti ■«:" ■ .*c * 1 v 1 . * 

»citl In c tuu.iI'-I bydi *oUloxic icid !>• • ■ Mrtip, ami 

i 100° mul IM iltoomvoidtioii t:ik(.; pi 
i' i i tothj - >■<}>. nhon purified 

..'•■ugli wntcr, potaahloy, and hydrute of pouuh, nnwtinle to 
mi. (or I grm. of o»oo .1 it) oil] 

■wtiiig of cxcodylatcof cacuilyli'* onloride, with nnall 

I liyclroolilurii 1 Mtdj uud a roaidofl of UMsnioua a«:i»J, gonctrally n 



witb cacrxlvtate of racodylic cbtorMo arid en4tt*mjxMrd bo*icr*>r 
vf rteodyl. [IV: M-iMiion proa fat '*•* .w*wpoait»o by Boawi (<i*. 

nn li'iuiil, una iu aqueous ooiutaoa axiUiiif avtliis; 

46, Wy uiiKviicti] — Bui-* i*r<llocid* of csoedyl deliquesce* qui'ki 

•luiil, and : 
Ctcodylicatid 1 old 

SO" «3PjUHW t 

[or; G*A*B* VCP * IMO - rKMlsMP ♦■ UIC1J 

Wilt SUM il jlflUl *■>' odj Ik Kid, <«odyl and chloride of line: 

i WH^CPO" f *£»-* Ca*H« 4 SZoCI f 4 HO, 

[oi: C'JU-H'U'O" * Mn - 3L»AjU<0' ♦ I'.i.U* * IZ»L1 4- II; 

■OCOnlUM to tui« r>|iiAtiou t 1 At. 11 rliould be tot free ** gma; vbolkcr 
any ovoluti'iu of gM takci plsOfl •>!' imt, BlIMBO doc* not Stl • 

Fluoride of Cucodyl. 

Ann. I'hnrm. ft, 

Hv dixtilling tho compound of ■Ikamn iuhI mercuric rhloriiJ- 
concentrated bydriifliiH .•• i.-i.l, :i «nlourIe*fl liquid it nlitnut^, rm»ii 
intolerably pungent and offensive odour. Iln- Ljqobj 
CAali'F; but, oj it attotka gloaa, it could, ncrnaps, only 
pure by preparing it in platinum lcaac-U. It la insoluble iu natcr, bat 
:i|ij<vur>« !•> be di.-C4iuipim.-d ilx-n-by. 

I, haiing in 

CrobaWy = 

Basic Ferflnoride of Cacodyl. 

Ut/Nfci:?.. Ann. I'harm. W, Ij. 

CooCOUtmtsa BTarofluoriC add ditaolrcs csrodylic aeid al-undan 
■nd with great evolution of boat. Tho solatia] tod in tho wittf> 

bnth, whereby the SXOOS* of hydrofluoric acid it drivi »re* a 

liquid which folldifl*M in priatna 90 cooling. Tlieao eryotala nat prated 
I .. , i: |».i|.. r. dried m vacuo over oil oi rltriol and Urne, sod neat ii 
platinum resiuls, 

Lonjr. t r-i ii» j.;».ri-fi i, colourless prisma, or by quick cryatalli 
i. iiccHc ■ Iuodorouo, 

C*lo. ■ceoiUtujc lo Dm 

i2c. o .. w-oa 

3 A* M>-0 .... lf-09 

7\ II 21-0 .... i-M 

6 k lis* .. 23-iii 

SO iii-m 

C»l*i. town JinK to Giu. 

8C 4H0 

1 *» i:.oo 

]i ii no 

4 P. .. ;»s 

•I t). ....... .. 32'Q 

475 J .... 100 00 318*8 .. 100 00 

ituoBra, - IJCUtirF.C'AsUKJ 3 t 3U0; »c<«Uior U> do. 



III compound fu • t ■« w !mmi hinted, j.'iviiif off hyilri»l1uoric acid, and 

afterward* product. Itovfag tOOOdour of ;ilknr-iii, :iml away 

with adult j*roy arfcnical fl&mo, leaving n \ -i •. eomht t bio ohnreoal. 

Jt attack* gloM, dcliqucrcea in the air, and dtMohrco readily in water, 

liquid winch tflruugly reddens litmus (Dunoeu). 

Conjugated Compound. 

Cyanide of Cacodyl. 0%A*B»s&A*H^&NH. 

FlrNj.r.x. Ann. Phitrm. 27, 23. 

Preparation. — The danger of nokoning. in tM» prorc« U « frrtM. th*t it mart 

W pcffmiiii'il In thi'iipm air; and duiiir the more Jiu^rtDui RMDlpdlattonVi ibe oir 

I be inhaled through alonggbiM lulir, tin- otibtrtna <>f vrhldi b) lu imiuvrd fiom 

<>ng vapour vt ojonide of oaeodyl. — J, Alkinin W distilled with connen- 

J liydrneynuta add, ami tha cyanide of aUMKlyl fre.wl I'mni udinixed 

ftlkur»m by cryitalliication. The nartflcat b Imperfc**, I Eb tMN^ow of 

Ibc ready 4Aidul>tlitj of llm oIImk.iu and tut fcmfullr pouunou* niturc of tlio <iT*uid« of 

c«rad} I, i<rj jangtreua, — J. Bettor: nlkar«iii ifl added to a com-rut rated 
oqueouq solution of mercuric