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I* ' 

I ! I 

U t I 

^^ i t 

V N I E L V 

V O 5. '■ M :, i 

|U I" ^ k' 

>! . '. :^ I 













Bntand kccarding to Act of CongTCAs, in the jear 1B5I| bj 

Gbobob W. OokDOM AND Jamkb \V. Paiob, 

in ib» Clork'i Office of dw Dhtrict Court of iha Dbirict of UuMchqMton 





I iiANNOT allow these volumes to go to the press, wLihoui coniaLning 
a tribute of my elfeclions, and some acknowledgment of the deep in- 
terest that you have (e\l in the pruductions which ihey contain. You 
have witneiMed the origin of most of them, not with less concern, cer- 
tainly, than had been felt by their author ; and ihe degree of favor with 
which they may now be received by the public will be as carnoBtJy 
regarded, I am auie, by you as by myself. 

The opportunity seems, also, a tit one for expres^g the high aad 
warm re|rard which 1 ever entertained for your houored father, nov 
deeeo-sed, and the reepecl and esteem which 1 cherish towards thtt 
members of thai amiable and excellent family to which you belong. 





«cripiEl«iUp mttde b tb« Ooovmtkia on tbn lib i>f Dfcvmber, IZVt. 

84fl9 or YKt SkSIjITK i 

VMldi hno bistri^U a«<inlin)f to lVjju1a[ion« for Itio CLoicc of £«du«a, 
deJlr«ivi vn tb« l«ib «r Dc<«(nb«r, tVSU. 


fliff OlUnn of iho Jnd^Fbrj mnoTahlc tij Ihv Gofrmnr «btl CmiTLrll ii]ion 
(h* ArtdMii of Two ThiMi, ifMioarl of ■ Atj^rit/, of mch Rnap\t of ih* 


A 8pQ«eh 4ilJ*«nd la tJu !£«•» cf RHpTc«?nWtiTD> oTtl^ U«lt«d Stoeoa, on 

ikeMofJuiurji ISIS. 


Ttt& LSQAL CoBlKffmr ........ 

A Apcvch dritTtfid Id ihn Uonn of ficpiw ntailnfl of ttao Uulicd 3U[e«, vd 
%ht V£ih bf AprO, X^tt. on ihtt Collei'don of tlut lUi^hn* Lfi tb« LtQal 



Tna Rbtoldtiok in Greece 6Q 

A Speech delirer«d ui Ehe Hoom of H«pruea(UirBi <ji Iba Uoibed 8 Wn, oa 
du I9lb oT JtuiDuy. 18M, 

The Tariff 94 

A Spcfich delivered io dw Hoiue of ReprventatiTfiB of th« nniUi StatM, on 
the 111 ud Sd of April, I8fl4. 

Tas Jddiciarf ISO 

Renurki made on ihe 4lhof Juiiurj, IBSB, in the Hoaie of RepfeMOt*l&rM 
of Ihft Utdied Bta^Va. na (be Bill lo unend the JudicLuy SjBEern. 

The Panama Mission 178 

A 8pwch delivered in the Hou» of RepreMOUEivee of Iho United Sute*, 
OD the J 4th or Apri]^ 1636- 


A Spe^oli delivered in the Sennto of ihe United Stares, on Che 35ih of April, 
1628. on the BUI for the Relief of the SurriTuig Offlnn of the Rero- 

Second Speech on tSE Tabiff 328 

Delivered in the ScoAte of the United StaCei. on ihe 9th of Bfaj, 1836, on the 
Tariff BiU. 

KiROT Speech on Foot's Resolution , \ . . > 249 

Delivered in the Sennte of tli« United Statei, on the aoiharjannaiy, IBSO. 

Second Speech on Foot*s Resolution 270 

Delivered in the Scrmte of ih? United Staiefl, on the 96th ud ^97ih of 
Jan nary, 1830. 

Last Remarks on Foot*s Resolution 343 

Dcllrered inihe Senate of the United States, on the STth of Janojuy, 1630, 

The Nomination of Me. Van Bubeh as Minister to England 356 

RflTDarki made in Secret Session of the Seiuie of the United Siatea, on the 
S4lb of Janoary, 1832, on the NominaiioD of Mr. Vhq Bni«n ai Miniater 
to Great BritaJD. 

The Afportionhekt of Representation .... ^69 

A Report made In the Senate of the United States, on the &th of April, 1883^ 
OD the Bill from the Ifoiwe of RepreaentatJTes for the Apportionment of 



B^zvi or THE Unitsd Statbb 

A SpHch deliTfired in dw SttUle, on the S5ib of Maj. X632, on the BLLl Ibr 
nnawing the Charter of the Buik of Ibe Uoited Sutei. 


FriTHSB Rebukis oh the Bane op the United States 

Jfidfl In the Seniits, oo the 38lb of H«y> l^^- 


Toa Pbbsidektial Vbto of the Umted States Banm Bill 416 

ASpe«cfadoHT«rediDthfl$«nateorthe Cmi«d Sutu, on Ihe U(h of Jol;, 
1 BSS, on th« Pr«ddeni's Vvto of the B^nk Bill. 

iTbk CoHSTiTDTiOH NOT A Compact between Sovereign States 448 


A fipeech delivered in the Bcnate of the United Sutea, on tbe Ifiih-of ¥«b- 
nury, I833« ic Replj to Hr. CnlhoaD*! Speech OB A* Bffi "itottM » 
proTldfi for the CoUectioD of the Dotieion ImpoM.* 

T«E Behoval or the Depobtt* 

Remtrits, OD differflDt Occuioni,on theHemoTidof A*Diporf%iai«i4A 
Snlg'ect of a Nadonal Bank, delivered En the Senate of the Uoited BtaMi, 
iKlheCoiineofthe Schiod of 1833 -34- 







^fVU Ilk 


l> cor«o(iucnce of th<i •opanflon of what is cow the K^tatiQ oT Maine 
fWim MajBiitluiHtia, in tTic year 1S!30, ti became nocpunry to nuike 
tone change In the con«ti;uUon of iho Comiiiunwvallli, The opporiual- 
l]P wad iLoughkt a fsvorabLe on« fi^r & genvral nvmion of that iiulrunifjrit» 
which hml ulidefjrom* no mntudmcm vnr.c jli n^lopiion in HfiO, TMln- 
0MM ifort accuriiiTi^iy choM:n by the poi>itlo to mr:<'l in cunrcnuon (oi 
dii« purpose, tiio Hveriil towuB nuil flt-«iriGla in the Oommonu'ealth (there 
w«n llwEi DO cilio*} being iilluwixS tA rmtny itel^gateb ft» ihey weA 
roBpe>ct)t«]y entiLlc^J lo aend mumbijni lo tlic Housu of Kcprt-^iLtaDTc* 
of chc Sutc, Mr. WobBtcr vat among the de^i^gnres chosen hy th« 
lown uf Gustuu, biiil luuk irn ai^iiva aiid dibdjjguisiiin] pan in tlie bu^ 
tKim of the coQvioniioii. both ia com mittee< room and in dsbate. 

Aa eoan iM tho tx^y wju orgnniyrd by tha choice of ir« oll^c^iv, tlte 
chwr^rrovUiuiui uf tLr r.visting cuiLvUtudun wore jrfaJ'fvd (u Mjlirct com- 
miU«#Ji, mjiructcd to comidcr and rrpari wholhor (UiV. oDfi if any, AhM 
«m«ndtn^rtN u»n> dftumbli? i*> Jk^ mmio m rhpm, Thft Mubjevt of the 
<Actfd D«xh> uid Hubeicripiioui rcquirt^J by the Biiih chapter of the vcc- 
cnd pftft of Uto connliimjon woi reforTed to a commillea lor ihta purpone, 
oTvhieh Mr WehMer wu chHirm«n- A f^pon wux timrle by iMneom* 
milt*«. recpmnwnding thattin liou ofeJI unihs ani) mibdcnpliona then re* 
quii^, A simple oaih of ntivgiGuiee to tha Comtnon^'AHlih^ together with 
tht ouh nfoAlnT, Hhoiild be uikcn by all pt^noiu chowa or uppciirited in 
office. Tl« ni<Pt\ importiuit fviitiin> t>( tUnttf pmpoMtJ uhun^w vrun. thai 
e pror«iaio» of bcLt^f in xhtt Chrivii^in rvZigi^ii weu no tongof raqijirod «■ 
ft qDBlitjCAtion tf^^r ofhce. 

The r?iolutu>n« n^pofiod by thi» eommLllctf bucomo the Bubjeciof a 
diM«t*4on, in Uio courw of which, on ihe 4ih of Decomber, 1830^ Mr 
Wetnli-r inttJe ihe following reinark*;— * 

■ Rem&TkB. ni«dv en tn<i 4th cf |>i*4^tnb«r. 1^0, Im the CinTrniion ol Dolcf^a:^ 
CdiOiMi (a r^^Twi Ihu CoLialiluiven af M(tfiechiiHCllii« upuji Ihs KfluiLiition rfflitinfl 
'* UbUib vi Uthec. 

caifSTmmo?* op hassachuseits. 

It Ib obTiOLis Lbal the prbicipal aJtcratioa proposed by the flm 
resolution U (he omuwion of tho deolamtion of bolioT in tfa< 
Ct^riKLiun nJijEfion w a qualiiicfiUon for officei in tli« eaan of 
tho govmior, lil;ulcntta^gl>ve^nor, couiioIUois^ and membeis of 
the Ir^inliit.urfT. T kIuiU runti^il tnytvelf uti th'ib occaAiLvii with 
flntingt »iiort]y luid gcncmlly, the acatiniCDtd of the pdect com* 
piittcc, 115 I undrrnl.anrl thiTci, on the ftiabjcd of thin reaolulton. 

Two questions nntumlly preMiit thuinKclvci. In Ihi? tint 
plac«. Have the people a right, if ui thtir judgment the >reurl1y 
of their govenitnenl and it* due adminielriition demniul it, to 
icquirt n tledumfiiiii uf belief in lUt? CMBtiati reb^iun ua & i^uat 
ificntum or ooiidition of vShoc ? On this ijuefltlon, a rnftjorit^ of 
the e<Tmmitt/*<^ held c dmdt'd opinion- They thou^t the peo* 
pic hiid KUt^h tt right By ih*? faiidamental |wincipk- of popolAf 
and elective govcmroenU, oil oflice U In Ihe free ^fl of ^e peo> 
pir. Thny niHy gr^int or ihe.y ituiy wllliliold It itt pli-iiAun-; 
Uld ifu he for ihr^ii, und Uirm otdj, t^ dmdf? whcLhrx Uiry wiD 
grant o£ce, it u for them to decide^ aJao, on what term* niid what 
conditions th«y will grant it. Nothing is more unfounded thcin 
th« notion that any maa ba^ a right to an cf&cc. Thin mu6t 
(Lcptrnd on iha chc^Cft of oth^VKr uid c-oiLArvjiii'itUy upiiii Ihi* opiti* 
iona of otitera, in FclatJoii to hi» filoctM niid quali Mention foi 
office IVo ninn caa be said to bavc a right to that which othcn 
may withhold from bin at ple&rarv. Thero arv c^rt-ain nghts, 
no douht, which the whole p«opU, or Uia govamment a^ npn- 
Bpntlng The whole people^ awe to eadi IndMcllud In return fof 
that obedicr/ee ami pfrrnniHJ nervh^e, and Lliofw pro|UJTli»nale 
contributiuiJH to thr |mblie burdi^i^i, which eaeh irtdiWduid o-wtm 
Co the government. Thcac rights nrc atntcd with uniEck'nt ac* 
eujiLcy, Ju the tentii article of the Bill of Rigtif«, in Ihi* eonsti- 
Cutioti. " Each individual in society has & right to be protootad 
by it in tlir enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, ace-onling 
lo the stnndidg low*." Here i» no nglil o( officf eiium4-rat<-d ; no 
right of goM;riiing others, or of bearing rule in the State. All 
bottowmcnt of of&cu rcmaiiiing iu the diacretioo of the people, 
tbay have of coarse a rif'hl to regulate it by any tuIor M-hich 
they may deem expedient. Hence the people, by Iht'ir cuiirti* 
tutioii, pr<ucribe eerUuu Ljuidificntions for ofiitVf rrj(|x-^li]ig ngi% 
property, rcjiidcrice, and tnxiitiun. But if otfiee, mCTvly as »ucb, 
wure a righi whid^ each iiidivjdanJ under the ftocial compacl 


WBB entitt'^1 io HaiiTit aJ] IhcMT ({tinllfriilufii* wimlfl ht* rKHmVi!- 
Aduiuwlrdi^oci nfi^htB art not auljjcrt, and ougbl. ncl tn b«^ »iib- 
jcet, to any finch Liinitation- The rlj^ht of bnins pi*ofrctrd [d 
liffir litH^y^ find c«1mt<r i^ dut- 1o oll^ iui<l cntinot tx! jtir^tly drnipd 
to any, whaU'vc-r b* ihHf ago, jwuiwrty, or rrwid^ncfl in Um 6tal«. 
ntup qiinltfir-AtJntiKT then, cmn only hn mndr rrqni^ftp an rondi- 
dom for ollicv, on the gmund that nffirr I* not wtial tuiy mun 
can demand u mailer of ri^ht, but rcata In Ui« confidence oimI 
good-will of tfaoM: vbo ore to bestow it. In ahoft, tt ttemn to 
roe too pbin to be qu^Ationml, that the nfiht of ollici? i« n mat- 
ter of d]»CTrtion, and option, and oan mrvtrr be dntmtxl l>y any 
man on th#? gn>uncl of oEiIl^iIoii. It would irc-m to fndJow, 
tfacfi, ikat thciw^ who confer oflice may annex any lurh ojjnili- 
tioni to it na thfy think pro^irr. If tbi^y prrfcr one man to 
BJiotbcr, thc^y may net nn that prrfc-rciice. II' tbrry frgnrd ctrlaiu 
pvnonal ((aiUilicstionfr, they mny t»ct nccordinply, and ground 
oToomplaint 1a aiTrn tn nnbctdy. Hi'twi^'ti iwn rTindldstef., olb* 
orwise e<tual)) quitifii'-<i thr pcoplt*- ni hd HtH^tmn may Jedde in 
favor of ono bccaufic he ia a ChTi»tian, anJ a^^nat the othtH 
b«:au»e he ie noL Thry may repeat thia preference at th« next 
doctton, on th« BAin^ ground, and may contiuoe it from year to 

Now, if ihe people may» without bijiialiee, not n|K)n thin pref- 
erence', and fniRi a %o\r. n^e^rd 1o thtA [jiialiEit'jitimi, iind rrfuw 
in any instance to dcpnrt trotn i1, ihry h;iTc nn equally dear 
riffht to preecribc thia f]iuililio(ition bcforchnnd, ne it mlc for tbek 
Intnre f^vervaenL If They may do it, thpy m&y a^te lo do it 
If they deero It neoeeaary, ihcy may 4o say, beforehand [f the 
pmbliE: will may require tliU qua lifii-n lion nt every elfeiioii hb h 
occurs, the pnUlk vih luny declare itaelT brfun^hnnJ, miJ mukc 
fOCh qualification a Btunduii^ roquujtc. Tbut eftaiitrt be an tiii< 
jOAt r«k, the oompiinnec w^th which, in every case, would be 
dight. Thii qaalificaTion buv nollihi^ to clo with nny man^a 
eoiMciencc^ IT hn dtaltke tJie condition, he mny decline the otHce, 
In like rai^nner a8 if be divlikn thr >atary, fhc r>ink, cr any thing 
tW whii^b tlie law attache* to it. 

But however clear the right may be (and I can hardly aup 

pose any f^ntletaui wiU di«pute it)> the ^xpediancif of ret&ntini; 

UiA ^ocJaratioo m a more difHeult qnentlon. ]t ijl t^id not to be 

MWMnryt hreiuMe in ihir« Common w^'ftlth nintiy*riiiie nut oi 


e coKSTmrnoN w Massachusetts, 

every htudred of th«i inhnhilcotK profevi to boll«ve in th« Chni^- 
tlan relif^on. It ix vnfBrirntly oc^rtnin, thortforf-, th&t pctnont of 
(hia (Itrm^ript.Joii, ftfid t\oiv* othrrfi, will onlii)an]y be choaen to 
plat-'ea uf public tiu»t. Tberr i^ at nuiclt «oeurily, it i» &ai<l, on 
thin subject, w the necciwily of the cose Kquirca. Antl «» there 
is n flort of opprcbriuin incid(*nt to lhi« qualiiiofttion, — a niark- 
mg otjt, for obitfrvutitin tiod comor(ou« rvmark, of a einglo indi- 
vidual, or n vpry fr>w individiiii)»T who mny not h^ able to mnke 
tint dcdnratJon, ^ it Ia an nr.f., if not nf injunUcc, yd of iinkimt* 
neasi and of uincccssajy rigor, to calJ on eucb iiidividuai« to 
m&kc Ibc declaratioa. and to exclude them from office if tbcy 
refuse to do so. 

Thorv ift alao another elaea of objectionB, whicb have been 
Ktatod. It hiw htwn Buld, that Ihvte art? many iiv^jy devout luid 
ipHoiin ppraonn, pi-rscmn whcj psItTin tlie f^liriatirm n-ligion to be 
abovtr all price, to ■whom, nrvrrthrlcM, the T«tfns of this dLxJora- 
tion 0ecm aomewhat too strong and intense. They aecnii io 
thoae penon&t to require the dtH^limtion of that /oM wlucli Is 
deemed eiia«<ntial to pergonal ^aK^Ation; and th4?rafo]¥ not atsU 
fit to be adopted aet a Jeclaration of belltrf In ChriiiUanily^ tn % 
more jio|iiibtr hiiJ f^tm^ral si^ustr. It wjUiiily apjirtini In inr, 
that tbi:« 15 n nilrtEakc^n inteijirctnlian of the trnrn^; that they 
imply only a gencmL a^acnt to the truth of the Christian revdft- 
tion, and^ At moift} to the supcrnatuTnl oociirw^nt*!** which cstab- 
Uih its authenticity, Thrrr in^y, hourvf^, utiH there appeaj^ to 
be> conscirnre in thifl nbjoctinn ; nml nil ennwicncp ought to be 
re*peL:l(rd> I v/a.^ not aware, btforc I utttiudi'd the iJi^t^uMiou* 
In tbo committee, of the extent to which tli» ubjeotiifu pn> 

There It^ one oihvr eonHidcrmlion to which J will ftJInde, ml* 
though it was net \lT^i■d in coniniittoi». It is this, Thi* qimliii- 
cation Is madp applieahle only to the (•xreutivi? nnd the member* 
of Lhi3 le^itlulurtf. It w*>uld nut he tii»y, pwbap»» ti> say why it 
should not be extended to ihe judiciary, if it weic tbuuKht neces- 
sary for iiny ofiicf. "Inhere can be no oflioe in whii^h tlie »cn»e 
of rdij^'ious rewponeibiiity ia n^ore n*-H:e«ft[U"y thun in that of a 
judge* ^ e*p*^*i'-iny of lho«e judge* who pcv**, in thf kut teHurt^ on 
thr live*, lihrrly, ami [»n>pt'rty cif rvery mnn. Thcrr may bo 
ninong legiflnttin* *tr<"iig pus^ion* nnd had pnMiJorka, There 
may be party heat;» and [HTr^onnl bittrriicss. But leglslHtioii in 

^^^ QUALmcATioKs fou office, 7 

in l!« nature ^ncn&t ; lavrs ueuoll/ (Lffbct the whole eoriety ; mad 
if miechievoas or nnjtuL thf? wtiole socriety is alnrmod, find Mck* 
their repeal. The judiinary power, on rhe other hand, act* di> 
rrdJy on individuals The irLJurcd may suffer, without fiyrnpii* 
thy or the hope of ledieaA. The Ja>it hope of the iniioccfitt uoder 
acciuiation nncl in didti'eeet 10 In the mtegritj of hla judgea,* If 
thid fail, cJ] fails; and there \& no remedy, an thia side the bur 
of Heaven. Of all placec, therefore, there U none whirh bo 
iropemtively dernacdi tbut he v/ho occuplee it should be under 
tht: fiuir nf Odd, oikI nbnvr lUl ulher ft^ar, us the fiituatiun of a 
judge. For tbc»c rcoBonsT perhaps, it might be thought that the 
ccnstitutior h?ta noi gnnc Sax enough. If the pTovi»ions ahcady 
in it were deemed nccx^Bsary to the public secohty. 

T beheve I hare Btat«d t]i« mhGtanee of the rcasona whbh 
uppeaml lo have weight with the eurjuaitlet. Fur my owit 
put, lutdin^ this dcdarallon in the conatituiion, and hearing of 
tH> pradical evil re^iullin^ from lU I «hould btxve ht^*in wiUirt^ to 
rctiun it» unless conaiderable objection had but-n exprc^sHC'd 10 iL 
If othen were «a1i!iJti?d with tt, I fthould \ie, T do not conudei 
it, however, rvumtj^d In il, an tlirre in amilhr-r p».r1 nf thr 
con^titiition which rcu^ucs. In the fuUcit mannrr, the brnctiU 
wbldi civIE sodcty dciivcft from tbom: Christian institutiont 
which eherieh piety, mondity, and religion. 1 am dearly of 
opinioii, thai we should not «trik? out of the eonfltltutioii all 
ncognltton of ihe Christian religion. T am deriroos, Jn ao sol* 
enui a tnututction ui* the eataUlabti^ent of a eonatltutloti, that 
we ftboukl ktep in it aii cxpreaftiun of our rcepcct and attachment 
to Chnotiumty; — not indi^t'd, to any of it« pecuUaj fomru» but 
to iU general prineiplea. 


I wMow Aot^ Sa, whfltb«f it be prcib«bt« tbat any opinjont tJt 
votes of nune ti* ettf Uk^iy to b« of more permanent impor- 
tmi<w, tJmn those whicli ! inny givr in iht- tlisfjinrgR of my 
dutlrft in thU body. And of tlif? t^iimtinnH whidi mmy srim 
hot, I luitidpntc no one of greater conscqurncc than tbo pra»- 
mt, I iu4( Icnvc, thon^on;, to submit a few Tcrnuiu to tbt; con- 
vidomaon of the committer. 

The iiibject before uv, i« the manner of conetitniing Ihe lej^ 
lat.W* 4k»|>«rlrnenl of tfov^mnifiir. W*? liaiv? alrwidj' dedded, 
tbuL Ujc k^itiUlivti (lower nhnJl e*JBl lu* it leas berctofore eiistodf 
in two »ep«U'Ette and divUnct branchn* n 8f Jijit« ajid n llonnc of 
R**pftrt*rhi1ivot?. Wt- pto|>osc nlno, ot l<?nat 1 hav« hE^ord no 
jntimiktion of a contmry opinion, that thcvc bruiohe* thalE, in 
form, poMM^sn n n^gntivA on n^vieh othrr, I prr^'tnmr I may abo 
bikr it 6ir ^inli-d, Omt Ibn mrmhtfn cjf hnth thi-w hniiinK hit 
to be cbo»«n niinnnlly- The immediate finr^tion mjw iindci 
diMai«sTon is* Ln what mnnncir AbtdJ the ecitators be clcclttll 
Thoy arc to he choson in dictriei*; bnt «ball they be eho»en in 
proportion to the nitmbrr of Inhabiunta in P»eh district, or in 
proportion to the tiuuble proj^erly of eaoh diatH^'t, ov, iu other 
wimln, in propiirUnn to ItiT- ]mTi wbii'h each dislrirt btare iu the 
public biirdenn of the Statc^ The latter is the existing provision 
of the constitution ; and to thiii 1 give my tiupporL 

Th«i resolution of thv hononibk* n1cmb<^T from Boxbury f 
propouM to divictc the fttnr.c into certain Irgialiitii-L* dinlriot*, nnd 

* RcRUTlti Tnadn on IJm 13th of Drecm1ii!T. IStffi, la iha CanvcntiQa. upon iba 
ftenlutioti tn diviflti tlie CujiiiiKniwtal^b inlu DiJiLriciB (at tli« ChuJru uf bi'Liiilurv 



<iboOo« a f^\en number of acnatore, and & givtMi Qtimbet of 
ropTMertatiwa, iu tuch cUaUiot, Ui proportion to pcimliUon. 
ThM I nndentmi± It ii a fimpltf and plaia ey»t«ra. Th« bon- 
otoWi' encmbtT from Pitufi*-*ld" and the honorablit mt*m1>eT from 
Wnrmifi^t support tJir fitvt |>nrl of tftiH pmpcHilinn. tFmt itt to 
vayt that part wldch proridea fov the cbt>icc of tvntdon acccud* 
Sag to popolatJoii, without cxplaiDia^ colir^l/ their viewv a« t«^ 
tb« Jaiter part, relutivo to the i:hoico of roprM^ntativ^e. They 
insist iJiat tli« quwtion« ore diatioot, and oapabjt? of a gepaintc 
coiuid*^rmtjon luid d«et*ion- J confcis myvrir, Sir, tinabk- to 
virw 1fi« r&dbji^ tn that Itghl Tt writin In rnr, tbrjt? b mn 
cv^rvuiil pffiQfiricly in ronHitWing thr i^Uf^^tionji logrtlirr i ttnd 
in Jorming our opinions o( them, aa parta n^pccEiTcJy of ooa 
leg'»latiT€ tyftcm. The l?gialatur« ia ooa ^T^at machiii« of ^r- 
MUMiit, not two mftchinnp. Th« t^t^ houap« nr^ itn parts, and 
to nlUity wlU, as it sF<rms to ine, depend not inprcly oil the 
naisr^n of tluwe paTta, or tlirir evpanito roiiAtrticLiuii, Imt on 
tbeir accommtHU-Uon, also* and aJaptaUon tt> <?;tch other. Their 
balune^cd and rt'^^ulattxl movcincnl, wiioii umlcsi, ia that which 
U 6x|>e<rtcd to intfiue eaftrty to the Sta1« ; and who nui j^vc any 
opinion on thi«, wilhottt firit. ii?pin^ tht^ conntmctioii of Ixtthf 
•iid (ainnidrring h^iw thry xrc ft^nru-fl nnd nrningnl with rrirprrt 
to tJirir muUnJ rrtatitin ? [ r^mjiot iinugiTii*^ lh<'rT^fo^F, how tbo 
IttaiDbcr Eronn Won:ratcr ahouid think it uacandid to inijuirv of 
Uoit dnoe he Mipporta thia mode of ohooeiiif^ vcnatons what 
mode ba prof)Ofl«a for the oboioe of repre«eDtativ«a. 

It haa been said that the contrtilutjon, as il uow stands, ^ivea 
UWfe than an ^ual and pri^ptr nuiMber of Henuluni fo the oouniy 
of Soilolh. 1 hope I inay be thoogbt to contend fur the gciicrmJ 
principle, witliout bcirg infliienocd by any rc^^ard to ita local ttp' 
phoati»n. I do not inquire whfrthrr the irnatont whom thia 
principJv bringa into thi< govrnrnent will come from the €onnty 
of Snflolk, fnwi thtt vultry of l,hr- n<^»R»tj>ni<T, or the '^itrvintty 
of Cttpr CoO. I wifth to look only to thf^ pnncj|ile; and aa ) 
believe lliat to be aonad and Balu(&ry, 1 shall give my vote in 
bvor of raatntairiing it, 

In my opimon, Sir^ there arc two questions beforo the eom* 
minee^ The ilrst Is, Shall the legisl&iive department be cci»* 


i Hr. lioeobL 




»1jnctc<l with nny other cJteck thfio tnch aa Ari«c« «imp1y from 
dtvidin^ the mcnibcra of Ihia deptJlmciit into t^<o houeoa ? The 
•dcOEd is, 1/ such olber aiiJ rurther chedc ou|;ht to ciivt^ ii trAcjf 
mofiffer aball it be creflted ? 

U till? iw» Iimjnva ore bi bi? cbcmen in tiir? niunni*r pnj|iu>r<l by 
the rcM>]iitJonH of the member from Boxbunr, thrrc i* obviotifljr 
no other check or control thnn n division into tepiuratc ch«m- 
bcrv. Thn mcmtxm of bolh hous^ are 1o bo choem mt tbc 
same tim^^ by the same electors, in the same dlatriclap and for 
the same term of office- They will or<M>ur»e alJ be actuated by 
IfiF? nutJitf ri-e[jtif{s and inlF-n^nlji, Whttli^ver rtiutives m>ty at the 
mcjmcnt rxi^t \o elect pnTliciuliir mrmbm of ouc houw:, will op 
cmtc cqii&lly <m the choice of the mcmbrrti of the ^thcr. There 
is so littJo of riMil utility in this mode-, Ihat^ if nothing; mono be 
<lone, it wonld b(> more Pipedirnt to choojir nil thp members of 
the legi8la^T1^l^ wiihout dlBlincTlon> simply as tncmbiTa of the 
le^ifllui lire, and lo make tUe daviHiuji into two huuww, either by 
lot or otherwiae^ after theae mt^mberv thus chottcii should bftve 
come up to the cnpitaL 

I underetand the* reason of checks nnd balanof-Sf in the legis- 
Utivp powi*r, to lu-iie from thi? trothj thnt, in reprfstrntnti^e gov* 
prnmnil*, thiit dr|iiiTtmriif is thr* liiiHing nml prrd^HniiiEiliiig 
pow«v; and if ils wtJI may l>c at any time suddnily mid hastily 
C3iprcr^«rd^ thrrr is gnat danger that it may overthrow all otbcf 
powers- Let'ii?lalive bodiea naturally feel Biroiig, because they 
axe oomerous, anO because they eonbider theniflekes a« the im* 
mediate repfesenlalTves of the pt'Ople- They depend on pub- 
lic opinion to aiMliiin their iTii^^L4iin% and tliey um)oiitvlr<dly pos* 
KC9B grvnt mmiis of inHLirnHng public opinion- With aU the 
gaards which can be rai^d by constitnHonal provisionBt we ue 
not lilicly to be too w-cll secured ogninst Cfucs of ImpropeTi or 
hasty, or intemperate legislation* It may be obefirved, also, 
tliat the executive power, so nnifonnly the object of Jealousy to 
repubUcA, h^s in the Staler of this Union l>een deprived of Uie 
greater part botti (^f its ini|K)rta[ice and its splettdor^ by the ea* 
tabiishment of I lie ^^neml Kovernmt^nt While the Blutrs pos* 
Bceeed ttic power of mohiiig war and peace, and mnintaincd 
mltltory foroes by ttieir own nnlhority, the power of the State 
tJtocutivr* \^^I■ very (•onuiilrrubli* and reMpeirlnhle*. It might 
llii-n i^ven he an olijcct, In somf^ casfs, of a just and wairanta* 



ble J«a]oa0j. But a great change h&ft been wron^bt, TIic care 
of foroi^ reUtJouft, the maintfinajico of armioa qdiJ aa^k^, and 
Ih^lr oommftiit] and M>ntroi, haT« devolved on anoUier govern* 
ment Even the power of appointment, so exclnelrely, oo« 
wiiulci llimk^ Hi» Kxw^ijtjvc pciwer, is. in inry riutiiy of (he BtnU^«, 
held or controlled by the Irgi^Inture; thcit depArtmcnt eithcf 
making the princtpnl nppointmcnU itself, or d»c anrraunding 
tb« chief pnwutivc mn^Rtmti' with a coandl of it« OH'n dec- 
tion^ pcti^Mng n nrg^iivr upon hif norainationft. 

NiTT h-19 it hppn fo^jml pnny, nor in nil c3Wf^ powible, to pW" 
serve the judicial department from (be progreu of k^iflktive 
ttJicroachiiieiiU Indeed, in Honicof the Stiil«E^, all judges arc ap- 
pointed t>y liie Jci;iBlaturti ; in otlien*, uiUiou^h appointed by tiie 
ttMativ«^ they are K-niovubIti at the pteiuuru of the iL-gislature. 
In ttll^ the provinion for their mnintt'imuct- is necwsarily to be 
mndr by ihv. Irgi^Ulnn'-. Ak if Monfj^jjiiji'ti hud never demon- 
trfttcd the nrrcMkity of larpnnitirg the depnrhmenta of gnvcin- 
mtSkt^t A^ )^ ^1^' Adfflms had not done the ^ninc thing, with 
eqiul nbtlity, and more clcaTneB», in his Def«noo of the Amen- 
can Coufttitutiona ; » If the eentimente of >tr. HamUton anJ 
Mr. M"»dSson were lilready ftiri^otten ; we see, all around ua, u 
ttndKiity t*3 esUnd ihf. kgl?Inlive puwrr over llie pro|Hrr a^jhere 
of the lAliei cIe|>3rUui-nt0^ And nn the legislature, trom ttic very 
nature of ^ing:*, ij* the moat powerful department, it becomes 
DffottvMuy to provide, in thn mode of fcirmiJig it, som<^ check 
which flhall injure dHibt^r^ion find caution in it« m^ftanrfit. IT 
aJI Ivgiftlaflvr pnwr I'Htrrl in cin<* hoiiaf, jf. \a very probl^^iHAtical 
whrthf-r any piojK^r inileiH^ndenee: vinAA he giveiv, either to the 
executive or the judiciary. Experience does not speak encour- 
agingly OD that point. If wc look ttirougli the aoveral coiutilv- 
tiww ct the Suites, we ahall perceive that f^eneraJly the depart* 
nyeatti are most distinet and independent wh^re tlie Iv^gi-ilntun* 
in nmi|HJ^H] i>f Iwu liouaea, wllli fipml auOjoril^, and lutiliiid 
chrelui. [f iJI legiDJativc pim'rrbe in oiie popular i^jdy, Jill other 
power, n>onct or lat^r, ivill be there nli^o. 

I wii^h, now, Sir, r« corrctrt a most importnni mistake in the 
manci**r in which th» qnefltion h^ut been f^lntnd. It hni hfmn 
taid, that viv proptwp to gi^'e to proprrly, merrly «b miehf n fyin- 
iTul o>cr the |H-opl4\ nurneri('4dly ctiuMdcrr-d. Hut lhij« I t.akn 
ool to be el all the true nature of the propoailion. Tlie Benato 


oo^sT^'UTw^ of uassachlsetts. 

tft not 1(1 be ft cbiH'k on tikc poofilc, 1>iil on iht* HixiPte f»f R(*pn» 
■rntcititt^ It ifi tbr COM of an ftullioritiri givcii to one bjE^^nt, to 
ch^k or control Ihu actD of AUOtlicT. Tbe peopJL% hoving ron- 
fcTTt^^l 05 the Houjw of lU'prTq«<n1ativcd powers which ari" g^ati 
anil, Irom thrir nature, liibk* to nbuBv, rcquifp, for tbr-ir ourn «>•* 
Cttrity, «noT.hf^ hodW'-, whirJi »4ialJ imihpm ai) nflmTtUitl nngHtlve 
on th« fint Tbi^ t^ir* ru>t limit the jkiuat of the people; but 
odIj tbc authoritv of thi:ir agenla* It in Dot a i««tmijit on th«ir 
riglitd, bnt a Kfltraiiit on that povcr which tbey h&ve d«1c|^«tod. 
It UmiM tira tttithority of ofjonte in mokinf^ Iqwv Ut hiiul Ihcir 
pcincipAJ«. And if it be wiM> to give one agent the powrr of 
checking OF con1tr>ning niioilw-r, it Ik «|aa)ty wiv, moott tnftni* 
fmtJyi that thf-re 8hoiiUI tic t>o\iw diflrrcnri* of chaiartirT, i^nti* 
nitmt, ftfttliiig, or origin in that agent who is lo |)0««eM» this 
conuoJ. OthtranM, it i& not at all probable that the control 
wiU cTtrr btt exefci&ed. To veqnire the L^CTment of two agcntn 
Co the validity of an act, aud yet to Bp;K)tjit afi^itA m Bimlbr, 
bi all r^speHw^ att Ut crpate a innml certainty thnt whiit ooi* doe* 
fhc other will do aUo, would br inironHiMrnt, and itiignto^y. 
There can be no effectual control, without some diflcrriice oC 
origin, or character, or intercut, or feeling, or sentiment And 
tbc ^reat queetion in this country has been, where to find, Of 
how to create, 1hi« ditTi^rence, in governmenta entirely elective 
and jwpulftr. 

Variniift m^xlra hnvr biwn nttrmptrd In vniiouzi Rfjilrji, Tn 
aomci a difference of qnatitication has been re^^uirrd in the per- 
Bona to be clwrtf'fl. Thiji obvioa^ly prodaota little or no cff«et 
AH property qnnlilicntioii, evErn the hi^hoet, ie eo Jow, aa to pro- 
duce no exclusion, to Rny extent, in any of the States. A dif* 
ferenee of age in the ji^rAonw eltclfd in «orn*^l[mea n^julred; 
hnt this i* fimnd t» be equnlly uumi|Kirtnnt. Nt-illier has it hap* 
pcncd, tliTil nny consideration of the rrlntive mnk of the mem- 
bcre of th^^ two houses h<i* hud much effrct on l.hc! chnracter of 
their constituent menibt^ra. Both in the ^tnte govemntuiihi, and 
in the United Stat^^s government, wb daily sw pcnons dpct*d 
into thp Ho^*e of Repre*ienta rives who have hcAn mrratw^ of 
tlie Beiialtr. Public opinion diren not attach bo much weight 
an ' importance to the diBtinction, a.n to Icmd individuaH greatly 
to regard it. In some of the Stales, a different acrt of qiioltfi- 
•Ation in Uie electors ui rc<]mred for the two house* ; uud Ihia b 



pmbAUf Uic m<i»t prupciT and ciTicietit check. Bui auch ha,t ool 
been tkt provi»i<Hi in thin Comiaapwcpjth, and there ntc stroDg 
objeclkm^ to introttocm^ it. i» other cilac», n^in, thv^ i« « 
double election for «eiifttora ; pJrcton bnng liret choiwn, who 9l«ot 
Benatortf. Such J9 the cate in Mnrjlnntl, wh^rp th« BPnafora ara 
t^raltM] lur five yvurs, bj eloulurs apjxii iil-trd iii •'quid nuiiibtra by 
tltf counties ; & mode uf drctiLiii not ujiliKc tjiat uf dioosinif r^p- 
roaenttttivco in iha Britiah Puib^Lrnunt for the borotifjfha of Soob- 
ItuMi. In tkuB SULte, tbti qualification of tii« votfra 1« tJi« euin^ 
fiw flio twu huottcH, nod tiic^n? is no i-sav-rittal dilTcronro ut tiAt of 
IIm pvTMHut c-hEWTii, But, io itfipuri-uiDing liif Heiinm tti fhr di^ 
femit dielrid* of tbc StHb^ iW pn^r^nt Gor»ititut»oi] wnign» tai 
(r:»i:h district a number proportioned to U« poblic taxM. Wb^ther 
thitf bt! tho beat mode of producing a diifon-nce in. the ooiiitnio- 
lioB of the two kouaeoi i» not »ow the question; but the qae*> 
tion u, vbrtb4!T thi< bt* betier tbnii no tncHk- 

Tbv gt-ntlfmun fruin Roxbnry csd]r*d for nulliorUy on thU *nb- 
jeoL Ho wiknl, what wrilcir iif n^pnUtion hnd Jippr^wd tb« 
piiiidpTc for which wc conti^nd I ihoiild hope, ^iTt thai, even 
if this caU could not be aiiswercdf it wouJd not noccaeaiily fol- 
low that the prindpio should be expunged. Oovwnmente ar» 
ianitDUd for practicaJ benefit^ not for aLibje<TtB of vp^idatlve 
WMOitfng merely. The beet aulliorlly for the auppurt cf a 
pwticnlaj principle or prOTialon in government is expciienoe; 
uid of all expcricocCf our own, if it h^ve been long enough to 
girc tliv pruiciple n fun trial, fihould be muat decisive, 'i'hie 
provUion tiiu exi!»t«*d fur &irty yvtu*, and while sc> many ^title- 
men contriid that U im wrong m tbeuryf no oae Uns shown thftt 
H hu been eitlirr injurious or iiicuiivoment in praeiicr- Nt; one 
prtHttJa that it bna Cftuecd a bod low to be enacted^ or a good 
ooe %o be tv^ctfd. To coJl on ua, then, to strike out thU pro- 
viaiioih bMftOfe we ehould be able to find no authority for it in 
tnjj book on govprnmenti would aeem to be like rvi|uir{iig m 
nwcfaanic to abaadiui fht- uue of hij implement, which had 
alwayi answered ail tlie purposes dc^s-ard by it, beeauoe hn 
ocmld &ad no model of it in the patcnt^o^ce. 

Bntt ^1 ^ ^^ ihe primipte to be wcU i^stabtiahed, by wntec* 
oS tb* grc^tatt authority- In the fir^t place, thoa* who haws 
titftted of natural law hare tnalntained, a» a prlneiple of Thai 
lftW| that, as br a& th« objiwt of Mcieij ia Lbo protection of 

VOL. ti*. 2 




bomcthing in which the mrrmbrnf |>wi«r*M ujirt^nTtl jthnir^. It ui 
juat that the weight of each pcison in Ihc cominofl couhoeIi 
Bhould bear a relation aod proportion to hie intcr^at Snch is 
fcho MOtinient of Grotiua, and he rcfere, in support of it, to Bev* 
Oftl bi5tituciom among the ancient stares, 

Thuif- authon* whu huve writU^ii moru parti«ruI»Hy^ oti the? Hub- 
ject of poLtiail hitftitulioiiei havE;* many of i\itm, inaintaincJ 
Hmilni aonlinicnl** Not, indrcd, that crrry man^n power should 
be in exact proportion to hisi property, but that, in a gcneraJ 
•en^, and in n grneral form, property^ am vnich, should have its 
veigbt and IrAuence in pohlJeal nTmngrment. Monteaqalea 
wpeiibs with approbation of the early Roman regulatlort, made 
hy ScTviiw TnJljuar by which tlif people were dinlrthuted into 
claMcSi according to their proprrrty, und the public burdens ap- 
portioned to each individufli according to the degrco of pow«« 
wbiob b^ pofMWscd in Ihn govi^nnuMit Dy thin ri'^ilntioitt 
he obaervaa, aome bore with the greatne«a of xh^ir tax beeaose 
of their pro|»jrtioiiabte participulion in power VLnd credit; othcro 
consokd tht'inaelvtra fur the ftinallncss of their power and credit 
by Uie 0(imllne»H of their ta.'C. One of the most ij]geriiou» of 
political wriUn) Li Mr. Harrington^ an author not now road eo 
much na he deaurves. It Sb his leadiiig objeeTj iii his Oceana, to 
prove, thai power luUutalty lutd necttssftrily fijlluw* proptfrt^. 
He maintiiitm that a gnvrmtnctit foundnl en property i« legiti^ 
nialely founded; and tJiat n government founded on the disr^- 
f^Eird of property \h founded in injustice, and can only bo main- 
tained by military force, " If one man,*' *ayi he, " be ftole Jand* 
lord, like th^ Grand SeignLofT his empire is absolute. If u few 
poHM-Kt t|i(- liind, Ihia iniikt'S tli^ Golhlt' or feudnl conhtJlution. 
If the be hmdlordA, then ia it n eounTiftiiw^ralth." 
^ It ia rrtr^ngc,'^ ^nya an iiigt^niouti person in the lant centur/i 
^that Hnrrington should be the timt man to lind out ao evi- 
dent and demonstrable a truth as that of property being tJac 
uue bam snd meosvrt of power-"* In mith, he was not the 
bRit. The idea la as old as polilical fcieiiee tiavYU It rnuy be 
fdund 1*1 Arifltotle, Lord Bui^uii, Sir "Walter R!ilei>i;h, anii other 
writerB, Harriugtou seenis^ however, to be the fimt writer who 
naa illustrated and expanded the prmoiple, and given to it the 

* Sp«tine'« AnaorioUa of Boofca ind M«n, ^- T^ 



tflcd and prominence which ju»U> ticlong Ui it To thu iiTiitJ- 
meut, Sir> 1 i*ntircly agree. It acctna to me to be plain, that> in 
the absence of military forccj politicnt power natunUIy and 
nnflfiwrily gixw into the handi which hold tb^ property, la my 
fndgnK'nl, ^h^^rrforr, a fp-piihliwin form of govrrnment Test», not 
aioro on polJiii^Jil coT^r<tJTutioiiF^, than on thow- biwti which rv^u- 
Ifttc the dcBcciki and UuiiamisiJou of prop^ty. 

If tbo natore of oui tiidbtutiotiit be to found government on 
property, and that Et uhould look to titose who hold property for 
its prot^kAion, it :■ entirely just thiit u-ofwrty Hhould hnvo its duo 
wrIght and eojiAidmititin in politien! iirmngiunt^atA. Lifi? nnd 
pei^nid liljcrty nic no doiibt to tic piolcctfifd by hivr ; but prop- 
erty is nUo to be protected by law, and i^ the fund out of whi<^ 
the mrane for protecting life atid Liberty arc usually fur^uahcd 
W« havo no experience that t^achee tis tltat any other nj-bt« arfl 
Msfp ^here property h not safe. Con£5<;atjon and plunder nn 
g^mmliy. in revubitiuntiry eornrnolLonn^ iiof, fur Ix-'fore bani«li> 
ment^ hn^iaixnuent, natl dralh. It wuuld be monstrous \a give 
0ve» the name of government to any rui!i<>ciar.U>n in which the 
rightfl of property should not be compl^t^^ly »<^curo<L The dhoA- 
tmu revolutioni which thd world bafl witne^ivd, lliose political 
thnnilcr-fttorma and foithquakea which have shaken the pilla/« 
of jwfirty to ibi-ii vrry deepest foundations have been revolu- 
tioDS ftg&uk»t property. Since the honorable member from 
Qoincy* has aJJudt^d on thia occf^aion to the history of the nn- 
einnt «ta<ee, it would be preBtunpiion in me to dw^Il upon it 
It may be truly 8a!d, however, 1 think, that Rome herself la 
an example of tlie miMchtexouH inHuenee uf the po|)u]ur power 
when diBCoiinQCted with propiMi.y uuJ in a. corrupt ttxt^ It is 
true the anu of Cieear prostrated her liberty; but Cttsar found 
hjj aupport within hf^r very walht Those who were profligate 
and fieceuitous, and factjouie and dcspernte, and capable, tliere* 
fore, of being InAiU'need by bribes and largesses, wliiiJi wew* 
disliibuted with the utmost prodlgulily, i^ntnuTiiU-rrd and out' 
V9ted, in the tribes and <:«nturies, the substantial, sober, pm* 
denti&Jid faithful citizfraa. Property was in the hnnds of one 
cI^Mnptioii of men, and power in those of another; and the 
balance of the coa«ti1ut]on waa destroyed. Let it never Iw 

* PTMidDnt Adami 

coNinmrnoN of massachusetw. 

forgotten that it w&a tbc popular tnagtstiutt^ ek-r&ted to oAcse 
wbcro tlic b&d oalnnmbured Uw f^d, — where Uiove who bmA 
not % «talc€ in Ibc comtnonwMlth, by damor and noiiac and nnm* 
ban, drc»vnr(L tiir voW (vT tluMu wlut tmd,~>thnL Iniil ths nrdt 
of Rome al the feet of hci coDqucroi. WbcD Cnsar, maiiifcat- 
ing a di»po«itioD to march hia army agniiut the G(4)italr ap' 
pnMobed that little stream which hmM beoon» to mnmabU 
ftoiD te'uiOcialioD with tue history, a d«OM« w«propo«^lll 
th« Senate dedsHng him a pabtic enemy ff he dtid Dot dl^ 
band his tiuopo. Tir tiiin tlertcb ttie popular trlhuura, ihc 
wcofu prot^jctoTB of the ptopk, lulcirpuHcd theu negiitive; and 
thus opened the Ki^ rood t^i Rome, and the gaic» of the city 
henietf, t<i thn npproor-h of hv7 cdM^ueror. 

TKr Kngfifth lU^volarion of 1688 was n rrvohition in favor of 
property, H« wpll ns of mhrr HghtA. Itwsu^ brought about by 
the men of propcily for their acounty; and our l>wii iianii^rtid 
Brvolvition waa undcrlake^it oot to thakc or plunder property, 
but to p»>t«ot it Tbe acl» of which the country oompJauied 
were such ob violated dgbta of property. Aji imm^uBe majority 
of all lhot«e who had an iiitemt in tbe *ail wert* in favor of the 
RtfTolntion ; mtd th<-y mmied it tlmJiigli, h>okirig tn ibi n>*uba 
lot the Jiccurity of r.hrir poMnMiona. It wa« the property of iho 
firagal yeomanry of New England* hard earned, but £rcdy given, 
that enabled her to act her proper part and perform ber fuU doty 
In a(5hlevin}:; the indiopeodonoe of tJie country. 

I would not be thought, Mr. Chainiian, to be among IhoM 
who tindermli- the vcdiiR uf rrtilitjtry sn-nrli-R. My heart brata, I 
tra»t« ax rr3i|K>aAiTe an any one'*, to a voldicv's diiiiD for honor 
and renown. It ha^ ever been my opinion, however, that while 
oolcbrating tho mibtiry adiio7cment8 of our countrymen in the 
Revolutionary oonteat, wo Jiave not always done ecjual ju«tioe to 
the merits and the ftufiVrlii^ of tltoae who HUiiaiiied, on th«4r 

|iru[>erLy, ami on thpir tiLniii-i cif Piu.*e, the ^(TT^t burdrii of 

the wBir» Any one, who ha« had occuaion to \x aequalutcd with 
the records of the New I^nglnnd towtM* knowv wdl how to e«tt> 
m«be llioat? merits itnd Ihone auifcrin^:^. Nobl^^r rr^ordn of patr>- 
otiam «xMt nowhere. Nowhere pan there bp found higher proob 
<vf a dpirit tfaxt was nmdy to hniard all, to pledge aD, to sacrifioa 
all, in tht* ciiusr of the ein^nlry. ■Iri»(anw* wi-re not [nfretinenl, 
in which emoJI freeholders parted with their last Loof, aiul the 



IttKt inpa#tirr^ of con* frtun thfir *^Hiuiei». to supply povUiunn fof 
t\w trcJOiw, iiiifl liirr bctvu'*- fi/t the niikn. Thr V4>]cc of Otis 
awl or Adam« ia Fancuil llnll fonnd iU full and true ccbo la the 
littlic eouDcila of tho interior town^^ ; and if nnthin the Conlm^D- 
taJ Congrvw patrioti^fn »honp more coDsptcuouA)y, it did net 
tb^re eiiM more Inily, nor bnm more fervently; It dlil not render 
U>B day more ^ii^Iuu^, or (he iir^^ht ritore !i|ee|)le-iH ^ it Htiit i;f> iif) 
moR ardent pntytr to God, fui fuceur; uiid it put ftirtli ui iil> 
greater dr^rce the fulneoa of itti ctTort, and the; energy of It:* 
whole donl and «piri% in tlv t*ommon cuis-nc, thitn it did in tht^ 
tfmaU anHetnblieK of the tovrn*. I cnrinot, thf^rcrofVi Sir. h^r 
that it i» in fnvor of norirly, or in fovor of tlie pf?opIi% to non- 
stltule govfinment wil.h *in enlin^ diwcgnrd to thuw whi> bear 
the public bmdcns in timcA of great cxifcncy* This qucatioD 
hafl t>ccn argard, aa if it were propoecd only to give an advaii- 
tftgt to a few rich men. t do net 90 understand it 1 oon&tdier 
It sa giving property, gcnen^lly, a repreapntation In tte Sefiate, 
both becauite h h just that it tthoidd liAve xuch rr-[>n^Ktii]t:ition, 
and becaase it is a eonrcrruent mode of providing tlirtt chrfk 
which tho con^itatation of tlie legislature rrqiiirc:i> I do not 
«ay that »uc?h elict'lc mi^^ht not be found in nomc? other pn>- 
viaicn; but thi* ii thf provinion already eatablitht^d, and it ia^ 
in my opinion, a jn^t and propT one^ 

1 will beg lenvp to a»k, Sir, whrlhrr proprrty may not b<? mid 
to deserve Ihta portion of respect and power in the govLTn- 
meot? It payfr* at thia moment, I think, l^vc eUtha of all tha 
public; tax«e; one eixlh only being raised on perftom*. Not 
only, Sir, do the^e taxes support Ihoae burdens which all gov- 
ammeDta inquire, but we Imve, In New Etiglajid, from early 
timea held property to he r^nhjed to another great pul>1:c u^e; 
I mean the support of achooJA- Sir, property, and the power 
urhicb the law cxerciaca over it for the purpose of infitructton, 
ard tha ba«i*i of the ayntero^ It in entitled to the rcnpact and 
protection of govrmmrnt, bi^cnn^r, in a very vital reitppct, it 
aids aad snataina government. Ttie honorable mermbtr from 
Won^enlef, in contending for the admission of the mere popu> 
[hi priitciple in all'hefl of the governnnciit, told Lia, that 
our vyntem reated on Che intetligenee of the community- He 
told c« truly. But allou^ me, 8ir, to aak the honorable gen- 
Ueman, what, tiut [u-operty, T<ui>pl]eii the iiieHnit of thut intelll- 


coNSTrrtTioN or MA^sACHrsFrrs. 

g^nce? Whnt livinp roLint&in feoda this <"v<>f-rtowiaflr, evct* 
r<*rr<vhinj^, rtrr-frnitbing »tjvajn of public ififllmof&on and gm* 
fmd tnli.-Iligcncc ? If we lake away from tli** Town* Uih powi^r 
of aaei^ablfi^ luxrs un |MO|>r?rtVi will llif? mr}i<Hr]-li(ii>K(.'s nnmim 
Open? If v/t deny lo thtt poor the l>e(ic:fit which thtj now 
derive ftoro lh« properly of tbv rich, will tlieir childirn remun on 
their forms, or will they not, rather, b« in the lUeeli*, In icUcneiw 
uiid ill vioe ? 

I ini^ht afik u^in, ^ir, hinv m iL with relijtpomi jantruclioci t 
Do not the towim anrf parishes rfli;*p monry by vote of fhe ma* 
iority, CLn«v4cd on prt5j>**rty, tor tlie ra[iiiil<*nQiieo cf n^ligiotin 
iK^onhip? Are not th« poor ma well n* the rich beneGied by Uw 
mertnii of ntt^^nding on ptiblio wrimhip, nnd ilo fhr^y not equnlly 
with thr rirh pns*i?As n voir"' luiA vote in ihr vUmcr \>i tW 
minister, nnd in all otlirr pnrii^h concerns? Dors any man, 8ir, 
wijih to try Th<^ cxprnm^nt <^f "triliing out of tho c^orfftitnlion 
the ri'ipinl U'fuoh ii ban hilht^rto mninfjjiiied for propf^rty, ond of 
foregoing n!«> th^ 4*vtnionl[nnr%- h^ncfit whirb «>ci*ty among iw 
For nrjir two ct-nlnrif** 1ia» ilrrivrd from iRying th** harden of re- 
li^juUA uiid tJlemry JiiHliuf;l!oii of a1) diL^^M-f Lifon pn.>perty? 
Vqc9 any man wi^h to tfcc iho^ only wcr^hipping CSod who ara 
ablL> to build c^urchi.'H ond n^uinf^in ruiniiiiera fcr themMlvett 
nnd thoie ohUdren only eduen1e<) who^ pur^lv poeM«* tha 
mr^tiLs of f'duenHng fh^ni 1 Sir^ it is lu unwise na It (n unjiiat 
to ninke prupettj an cibjc<'t of jmlonny, Inatead of being, in 
nny ju!il nen^e, a popular courtte, »nch a coume would be mo^t 
iojnnonri »nd dt'Sttueljvp to the bent intfr^atfl of tbo peoplo, 
Thr niiion? of our Uiwk iiallidrntly nceures il* [igninitt any dan* 
gproii* nnrumuhttion*; and, lucd and difToird nnwe huve If, the 
whoK* opr'rjilioii of pTO|«?Tly i» in the highest lU^grrr niH^ftil, both 
to the rich mid to the poor. 1 rejoice, Sir, that rvrry mail in thi* 
nommiinity may call all property his own, ao far a» he haa oc* 
eaPion for it, to furninh for himn-If ai>d hb childrpii the blewing* 
nf rr-ligion* instruction and The elompnta of knowledge. Thi* 
bcfivpniy nnd thi* earthly Iifl;ht hi? ia ^milled to liy the fimda* 
tnentfi] law*. It ta evirry poor uijin'a uiidoublt'd birthrighti. it jr« 
\hc great blc««ing which thia confllitntion hae i-iTurcd lo him, it 
.A hitL Boliioe in life, and rt may will lie hin conpobtion tn death, 
that hiH eotmtry tftiuid« ph^gi^d, by The faith which it has plighv 
ftl In 111] it* eilizfn*, lo pnitrct hi* ehildrcii froai innoniiier, ha' 
bnriAin, and rjef; 



I win now prooeci.1 t** wk, Sir, wbcthrr wc linvt? not wrn, nnd 
whether we do not ai thL*! moment scc^ the advantage aad bene- 
fit of girin^ (bfruLinty to property, by thij^ and aU other reaeoo- 
nble aiul jii«t prorisione. TJi^ «>n«titutioii baa atood on it4 
pfvsent tK»sii» forty y**aw^ L*t me ask, What Slate ha* been 
mcirr diniifigi-UnhtT.! fur wise mid wliolt^^uint? legislation? I 
ipcvk, Sir, without l^it- pnrUidity of a native, iim) qIm) without 
inteDding tho compiimcnt of a Mmni^iT; and 1 cwk. What exam- 
pJe Imve w<^ had ^f better Icgiulntion ? No vitiknt mrnsurca af- 
feotini^ propprty have bopn att'-mpt^'d- Stop laws, suapeni^ion 
lav^ lender ]aw<^ all ihe tribe of tIii^i? arlillmry and tyrannical 
Iiiterfefi^nces between credilor and (li^bior, whieli, wtiereaoevrr 
prooliaod, generally enti in ih^r riitri of bolh, are sl^aiiffcn to our 
Btatale-book- An upri^t^ht mid iiit<^ili^f-i]t judiciary hatoome tn 
•id of wbolesiome ki^JHlation; and general Hecuiity for public 
and privrittf righU has bcfii the re«nli, 1 do tiol ^ay that ttiis i> 
prcnU^T, I dn not Kiy thnt olhcr* havf* rot done na weJ. Il ift 
roough that, in the«Lr reitpecH^T we Ahull be tatJAfied that we are 
iM>t Iwhiiid our iieI^bbor«. No doubt, Sir, Th'.-re are betiefitA 
of every kind, and «f ffT'^at v^lni-, lu an orijunixation of gor* 
cmm^nt, both tn lej:itilutive anJ judlctui adminJptralioEi, which 
well vecured (h« rif^bCri of prO|M*rTy; and we »houJd find it t^Oj by 
unfurl II mitv eviHTipnet-, should LJi^tt uharat?ter be hwt, Thcrfl 
ftfc milliuiis of |icrHinal pniprtty now in thix OuTiimon wealth 
which arc eo£iLy trnniiferablc, and would be ht»tajjtly Uunsrerred 
clacwhorci if any doubt existed of it« eiififo security. 1 do not 
know how nmcb of this elabilily of ^vornmertl, arid of thv 
general raapect for it, may bi- fairty Imputed lo this purtieular 
mode of organizing the t>eitLi1t\ It huH, no dtmbt^ ]i:id Home 
efleet. It indiculra a n<Ap(?et. for Iht' ri^htn ii( projirrty, nnd ntiiy 
hare operated on opinion n« well as upon mca.iure*. Now lo 
ethkc out cind nblitcrtttc it, ns it mxmi^ to mo, would be in a 
hi^h degree unwiw and improper* 

As to the Hgltl of apportioning ^enfitor^ npon this principlo, I 
ilo not undi^rvfand \niw there »hi bk- a ([nt-^iim itbout h. All 
govtrniment is n inudiluutiiiii i>f jteueia.! priiiciph-j* urid y^enerul 
tmlJift, with a vt^'W to practical utiilly. I'irrHoiial liberty, for in* 
itance. is a dear right, and in to be f)rovided for; but it in Rot a 
cloorer right than thr right of property, though it may be mor«i 
impofiAnt It U, therefore^ entiUed to prot^ctitm. But prcprrti 


coysrmrrroN of* massachcsetts. 

is niso io Ijc protijctwl ; BRcl whrn it U R^mcmbrrrd how grmt m 
portion of the people of this State po«Ae«s |>ropcrty> I cannot 
urtdcTVlejKJ bow ite pn>tcctioA or its influvnoo ia bo«tiJc to theit 
righU nnd privil^^g^t. For Ihw* reaaonfl, Sir, 1 vn in favor of 
niFiini^htUig Tliai eheckf tn the coufltltulion of tfa« legislature, 
wliich lius an ioog (^xtsU-d L]ii*r& 

] iiitdeniland tJir ^i^nUtniuii from WtJr«Tiil«r* to hn in f^vor 
of n chccJi, biH it rccms to mc he would place it in the wrong 
hou»c. JJc»id<^fl, tho tort of check he proposes appears to mo 
to be of n nov^l nature, ae a balance in p;i>veriinieDT. He pro- 
pot^ to chooae ihe senators according; lo (he number of inhab- 
ilAiils; And to cTiootte repmipnlativcr-^ not AcrunUng to tbat 
i]iinibi?r, but iti |iruportionp grrntly unri|ii;«l in Ihf? town rorpo* 
rations. It. hrk^ been stated to n^uJt from computation, nnd 1 do 
not undt^rjtanci it to be denied, that, on hi» system, q majonty 
of tbi* fi^|>ri?tientiitivee will be chosen by towne not conTaiiiinj* 
one third part of the whole population of the Siato. I would 
bi^ to u*ik, Sir, on what prind^>le this can stand; e«|>edally In 
thr- jii<]|^'iieiit of ihtiit who r^-^anl |>opiilatjon ua i\\v only just 
briPi^ of THprcacntiition, But, Sir, i have a pfi'liminary objro 
tion to thiei syvt{:m; which its, that it revenev uU our cominoTi 
notions, and coniiUtt:tr« the |Kjpu]iir huunv upon ant t< popular 
principl^-s, Wu arc to have n popnliir Senate vt thirty-sit tnem- 
ben^ and we are to place the checJc of the system in a House of 
Ri^pmH^EilativL's of Iwo Lurkdrcd and fifty members! All money 
bills art: to ori^nate in the Houac, yet the Houao ie not to bo 
the popular bmnoh* It is to eoEoeed tbe Senbte, seven or eight 
to one, in point of nnmbeis, yet the Senate iM to be chosen on 
the popular pTincipk% nnrj the llonsr on »tHui» other prinefple. 

It Is necessary here, Sir, to oonsidpr ihr mnnner of riecting 
repnMunUlivea in lliia Corurni>nwi-aJlh, as htretofjre prautiaet], 
the nw^ewity which cxiMo of reduciriK the present number of 
repro3cntiitive:t, ond Ihu' ^>ri>poBiUono whieh have been dubmitteJ 
for that purpf>#o- Rv prone n1 at ion by town^ or townships (u 
they mi^ht hnvc btM-n tinginnlly mon' pmp<»rly ealEed) is |>ecnliar 
lo New Kngfnnd. Il has e^i^led, howrvr^r, ninvr the first aettlo- 
ment of the country. These local district* arc so small, auU of 
»uch unequal popuiatiou, tbat if every town is to have one nrp* 

* Mt. Liiieob- 



fiOIQpBml witL tliu- MiiitlJtT^t tvwn, woulJ iiumcricftlly entide 
them lo,a very nuiD«n>u» body mxtii be the consequence, to any 
l&rge State. Vive hundred rDcmbcn* I understand, inay novr be 
ooiutitutionally i^kctcd to the Houdo of R^pnULVitutiven ; the 
very itulvmvnl of ^h'hich number vhowii the nt^eeiuity of fvduo- 
tion. I ftgrec, Sir, thut tlu« U ii yt-ry dilTiciilt siibjcvt Herw ftre 
three bnniired towDs »iU p(w»c«Miig XUv- rigftt of rrjirrerntation ; 
And repreeteutatiuu by U>%n& is aji uul-UiU habil uf Uie peupta. 
For one, 1 am dUpoaed to pivstTve tlu« mode, tK> fni ua intty be 
pmetkiiblti. There i« uJwvyo tin ndvunlogo iii miUiiu^ itc rcv'tih 
lOQs of tho fmidnmcmtal biw, wbioh drcunulCLJicc« mny lertder 
n«o««»ary, in « mfinnrr which <]nm no violence to ancient bablt* 
Mid MtabliAhed rulrn. 1 [>rt.-fL-r, ib^rL-furv, a repre^entariun by 
towns, even tbou|$h it shoiUd necetwanly hn mntiewbat nuiuer* 
oasi to a division of tiic State into new dUtrictn, tbe pjirts of 
wbich might hcvK liltic natuml ainn^^ctjon or little actual i^tci^ 
GOQiKc with one another. But L ^ound my opinion in this ro- 
tipcci on 6tn«-»e and Ptp^di^nc-y, eod the sendm^jite of the 
people; not on abeolaTe ri^bt. The town oorpomtlon», •imply 
aa >iueb, rTuiuol be suid tu have any ri^bt In r4-[in-«-nliition ; ri- 
«pt M* tai tiM the con.trJtntion ctt!iitc!» rnirh right And Ibis 1 
apprcbcjul to be the fulincy of tJic argument of ihi? honorable 
inerober from Worocfttcr- He contend^^ tbnt ttic i^muiiL'tit town 
basurii^ht to ita r^preaenlative. This U truv; l>ut ttto hirgt>j>t 
town (BositOD) bai a right also to lifty- These rigbu arc pcv^ 
ci)w1y evjual. Tb^y nUind on the same ^ruund, (hat Ik, itii the 
proviMOfiH of the cxinting nTniUtutiun. The iu>itornb]e nien:ibcf 
think* it quite jn&t to reduce the right of the J&igc town from 
fifty to ten* and yet that there U no power to ollect the rl|;ht of 
the email 1o\«'n, either by uniting it wilh anolhvr »aiall town 
for the ohoiee of a represenlative, or oiherwiae. I do not uifcnt 
to thai u|iiniun- If il be ri^lit lu Lake uway half or ihrei^ fourtht 
of the reprr-K-ntation of \iitt lirgt^ tow^^ it eunnot be righi lo 
leave that of the Nnnll towns andimini«hcd. Tbe report of the 
coininitteo pfopoAca that IhcHc ttma^ to^ua ahall elect a. member 
ever} other year, balf cf them e^ndini;; one your, and hall the 
next; or ebe that two mniiU towns *haU uiute and «cnd one 
member every yt-nr. There m mjiii^^Thing appcirpntly inrgulai 
nd anomalous in Heiidin^ a meinU^j every other year , reu ptir- 

coNSTmrnoH of kassachusetts. 

hupft^ ii )■ na }^rt-i3t [1t-pnrtare fnttn forRi-r hnbit^; b«-ntiiw thr«p 
miiniJ towns, bring hy the pn^wnl coiislitutlon coni|Kl]cd U> p<ty 
(bcir own OHrmbcn, ha^c not crdJnanly wut Ui«m ofteoor, oii 
the avrragc, than once in nvo ycnn. 

The honorable member fivin Worwsttfr fotuiiU bid a^^urtwut 
on the riflfht of Iowa eorporaiiouH, as such, lo be reprt*»enied in 
(he leginjuture. If hr only mr-iui that right which tho constitii- 
Uon at prcACut mxij^^n lU (>t>Acrratioii J» tni€, whili- the conelU 
tation rcanaitia unaJtcrcd But iT tw iDlcntl to aa/ that ftach 
right axiata prior to the ooii«iitution, and it>doprii<lcrit of tt, 1 
aab, Whence is it derived F Repreeentatjon of tbe fM^opie baa 
hcrvCofore befiD by towns, boirautfe im(*b a mode has btn^n thought 
romrni4*nt. Still it hn« N'en thi* nrprpifiitalloii nf iht- p<-oj)[f*. 
It ia no oorporaur light, lo ^mri^ikr in tbi< 80vi-rc-ign |)owrr and 
form jjoil of the le^i[^aiur«. To catabiiah tliid right, aa a cor- 
porate n^ljt. the g<;iitleu)au ha» caui&cruted tho duties of the 
t<>v'ji corporation ; eucib as i\w iiuutitciiuiicc of jmbhc wurshLp, 
pubitu sebooliv und ptibUc hifEbwayd; utid in«]at« that tfie pur* 
formanep of thf>r Hiiiu^a g'vr:* the \n\vn a right to a rcprpw-nla" 
livp in Ihe IrgiiUatnrr, Hut I wmilfl ftak, Sir, what powibb' 
^(JuilJ [IiL-re ]s for ihls ur^ujuent The bitrdeji of these duiiea 
faJIn not on nny {^orporatv funds beloogbig to tlie tov^vs but on 
the people, under jLsM^Twment^ mado on them indivitlunlly, in 
their town meeting's. Ae diatinct from their indivicjuai inliabit- 
anta, the lo^ns have no interest in th^^rt alTaim. Tbese dutiea 
are Impo^d by (^em-ral IflW^; they are to be performed by the 
jiHople, 4tid if tlie petTpUr arc reprt-wnted hi llie nntkin^ of tbf-?«? 
Uiwti, the object is an^wcrcxl, wlictlit-r they should be rcpresciitcMj 
in one mode or nnother. 

But* fnrlhcr. Sir, nro those rnoiiicipal duiic« rcndonrd to the 
State, or aie thi:ry not rather performed by the people of the 
town* for ihelr own benefltT The general Treasury derives no 
vupplif* fniiii till llie^ie eontribiiiioti<i. If iht* In^ns [[lahiidiii 
rdigion> iuMniution, il i:t for tlir bemrtit of Ibrir own inh;ibitfint> : 
if tiiey support nchools, it i» for the cducniion of the chiMrni of 
tiicir ijihshilflnt*! and it they maintain rood« and hnHge»» it a 
also for their own convenience. And Iherefore, &ir, aittioufj^ J 
repeat that for reasonn of expediency I am in favor of maintain- 
ing town repre>ten1iiti(>:i« nt fur hh it c*iin be duTie with a prtvjMT 
regard to djuality of rrprcsenlalionj I entireiy diugiee to tiir 



aotl<Ui| th:it €vcry lown him h right, whidi sn idt«ration of the 
OOOBtlliitJoji ciijiiiot (livL-blt if ihe ^-iRTnl gi)od require such aJUr- 
atioift, tiu hnir a irj>ii;0eutativc iu the: U-f^Ulature. 

The honombic mcmhcr Una drclan:-d that we are about to 
itUfnuichisc corpornTJoiiif, rtud tlt-nUoy churtcred righb. Ha pro 
noanc«« thin nyYtpm cf n^pnvcntntion ^u outrage, and doclArvv 
tbsit vnj arp rorgtng c^hitinK nnd ft^ners for th? pe^oplc of Ma«3a> 
ohTiaelta. '' Clmiii^ ^n^l ft'n<.'i>i ! " Thl^ <x}uvt-iiliofi cf Jelifgutes, 
ciioHi-t] b} the |m>|>le wifhin Una niQrith, xjid guliigj Imdc Ui tW 
pco-fitc, dWcMcd of nil puwt-x, withi:) anotlirr month, yet occupy*- 
uig their h|ian of time [lorrT, in forgiiii; cimuia unii fett<:R» for 
tliom«clvc« and thitir coiutitucnu! ^ Chaiiu and fettcn!" A 
poputnr ftRM'mbly of fotir hundre^l imm f*pmbinlrig 10 ruhrioAtr 
thi^MT manaelrfr ri>r thi^ |»oi>|ih% luid iioUnly bnl thr honom- 
ble Ri«mlxT from Wnrocali-t with sagucity enough to dtrtcct 
tlie bornblo coudpiracyi or honi^ty enough to di:»cJose it! 
^'CbouiflaJnd feilt^ra!" An G*«imbly mo*.i variously con^poH'd, 
^nwn of ail profei^iiona bdcI aU pertiea, of diflerent U)>e>i, hab- 
Its, and as!«M*iatWi»,^Hll frtfely and reL-trntly Lliotiini bv tiirjr 
hjwiii and Jiftuinta- yet thin iisu^mlly, h\ otift shnrt ntoiith, mn* 
Iriving to fcltci and cuela^i; itself aitd il0 roit^titucuta 1 Sin 
tticfe arc aomc things loo cxtrnvti^nnt for the ornanit-tit and 
^eooration of oratory; eome ih\n^ too Mccdaive, evuii for the 
dctioDEt of [xwtry; and I am persuaded that a liltJe TL*Clv(^lion 
wuiild «ai"fy tlic hoitorabk* member^ iliai, when he iprnik* of 
tliiA n»u-tnhly^iui CHimmlUiiig r)(itT:if?rjt on tlit- righU nf (hf^ [Myo- 
pic, aud oa forging chains and fetters for their 9ubjugationi he 
docs as great injustice to hh ou'ii charact<;r a^ n coirrct and 
majily debatoff aa h« doo0 to the motivcn and the intoUigenoc of 
Ihia body. 

] do not doubt« Sir, that some inequality exists, Ln the mcd« of 
it<liRWjiUilivt!9 pftipom-d by tJte cuiiimttt^e. A prm^t^ and t-xoct 
equality is oot attasnaUi.-, jn nny iulxI^ . Look to the ^enttrmati^n 
own propoeitionH By thut^ EaaeXf wtlh twejity t.hoiMand iiihub- 
itantit morQ iban Worowttrr, wjidd h&vu i>\'vnty rv proven talJvoi 
IftiA. SuHbik, whidiTaectirdliii^ tu niUTi>*»*r*. would bt* t-ntiOtd to 
iWfintyi would ha\T, if 1 mii^tVKr iiol^ ri^nr. at nuw orify, VVhaU 
ever dtw» SiTi tltta propoaiiion may be a spcdincn of, it ie haid^ 
ly ft 6pa.tmcti of equality. Aa to the House of Krprci^entafivos, 
mv view of tliu «ubjuut 10 Itui^. Under the pre«ont oonet'talio^ 




tur«, in a orrljiJii fixtrj pro|)or1ioii to Uieir numbers. It Imb brcn 
foBiid thut the full excrd»« of tliia riffht filla the Hoqm* of Rep- 
rcMJitntivcfl wi'h tno iiuinuroiis a body. ^Vhat, then, » to be 
done? Why, Sir, tb<.' ddifgaCet ol tbe tirA^m ttm hrnt asMm- 
bWd, to iign'<-, rniitiinlTv, on «<imt* ra-HKonnbli' tnodp of rpdnction. 
Now, Bir> 11 i^ nut for om^ iinity 1<i vtiuid stcnily on lU riglil, 
and dcuaud all tbe conccMion from snothcr. A» to riijht, all 
ai« cquaL Tbc light Vihicti Hull po»«c««e to acnd one, u the 
samo u th« ri^-lit c»f BobIou tu b«uc1 fifty. MatuuJ coticeMion 
and aoc<?mmodtuion, rbc^rvfor^, can fitorie uof.'cmipluh the pui^ 
poH* of our mi-etmg. If HiMTon ^oI1«pnt|^ initrail of fifty, to 
m^rnl but Iwclttr or fifl(Trti>lbc ^mutl towiisi niu^. mnn^nt, dthci 
to be miitcd, in ihc rhoiri* of tbHr rcprc8cnloti*^8,_ with othct 
emcdl towHA, or to ^rtid o reprc«(^iitAtiTc len fvcqacntly than 
every year; or to hftvcr nn option to do one or the other 
of These, bcTPaftefT trn frhnll t>e found most conveolenl- This 
Ift what the n-part of the conimltlee proposes, arxt, ai far ai 
we have yet knriit^d, a ^reat majority of the delegates £rocn 
small lowns appruvt- the plan. I am wiUiiiff* therefore* to vote 
for thJEt piLTt of Ihc- rejKiTl of tht* oommittee; thinking it a« 
Just and fuir n. reprOM-ntution, and iu much n-'ditced in point 
of mimbenti lu cun be rvLiMonahly ho{M*d for, without giving up 
rnlirrly Uirr nyMriii <if rrpn^Nriihilioii by lown^. It is io be con* 
fidered aL»o, thfit, nccording to the report of the commitlcCi 
tbc pay of the membcis is Io be out of the public treasury* 
Kvery body muat see how this will operate on the large towiu. 
BodTon. f(»r example, with its twdve or fourtwn memt>dn, will 
p^y for tiriy^ Re It so; It la Incident Io IIa properiyf and not at 
all <iti iTijnNtire, If pr»[irr weight be given Uy that property, and 
pr<»prT p^ovi-^ion be made for ite ^cunty. 

To recur, again, to the snhjcct of thn Smntc- Th^m ii ono 
rcmnrki mftd<: by gontlemc-n on the other Pide, of whif-h I wi*h 
to take rotifc Ii is «iid, ihat, if the prindplr of wpre«enra- 
tlon in the Senat^.^ by pro^>erly be (?orr**t-t, It ought to be car- 
ried llirough; wberfas, il in limited und ri«train»l by a provi»- 
jon mat no distriui eball be eutiikd to mon^ than atx Senaton. 
But ttiij 14 a probibititii, on the mnking of great dintricts, gen- 
cvaily; not merely a liniitatioEi of the efTetrt of ihu property 
pririeiplr. It prrveut* great dli^Tncts from bdng mnik- when 


le Tmlnfttion ii itmnli, us wdl &» whecv it is Inrgc. Wrrc it not 
for tbU, or W3iite liiniinT prohibilioii. 'Worr<'fitrr ajid Hampamre 
might have bui^n jtiiJitx), timkr tht* |)m<c-nt cni^^liUiUoDi &ikI hav« 
Mntt perbaps. ten or ittcivc Sccmtcra. The LiuiUUoii i> ft ^ti* 
fjal one, iiitixKliti^d fur ^atml purpuscA ; and iT in a piuttcul&i 
inilanoe iL ]:>ua» lianl oa ai^y county, ihU eJiould be rcgoidcd ftf 
an evU iac*i4tL*iil lo a f^ooJ aiiJ suluUury nik, onti otLE;ht to be, 
ui I <)i>ubt not it will bt-, *^m<-rJy bornt*. 

I fofbraff Mr. Chuintiun, to inkt'. nolirrr nf njniiy minor object 
tjocut to ibe n-porl of the committrc- The defence of iJiut n^|]url, 
eepedftlly in it* detoila, properly belongs to othisf and ablirr 
hands. My pufpoac ia ad<lTCMiiig you was, eimplyi to consider 
(he propriety of povidiiij^ la one branch of the legidlaturo m 
reat ehnck upon 1li<- ulhi-r- AnO us J look n\xm ihixt priticj* 
pie to be of thr highnd pmi-tiraL inipornuii^i?, ttnd iw it haa 
iu-<.-Tut(l to me that the doeliiiira contended for would ^ tc enln 
vert iiy 1 iKjpc I inAy be poAioac^ for tlctaining th« couuoiUee 
HI long 


BsoRKTH art vain for vbvt b p«Mt; yet T hivdly know hciw H 
has bficn thmighl tn be a ngvl«j roor^ of proc^Hfding to go Into 
commillet: on diiH subject^ before taking up the scfwraJ propooi- 
tjona which now av^uJt Ihc-lf filial R^tidiiE^A on l1iif pn^i-iileiit'a 
tabic. The c4>ii>H.-quF-iic<.' ia, Ujal liiis qur'sUoii cuinf7o on by but- 
priecv The uhiiirnittn of tho ack^ct ooinmiU^fe ia not pn»cfii; 
muny of tht' moft clMtingniAht'tl mf^rtibcTA of tho nonvontion am 
|M-rson[i]ly no nitn^l^'d lu not t^ bt; willing lo tnkr ptirt in ths 
dcl)liti*f nu(3 thr Bmi Inw ofTioi^r of i\w governinriit, a inirmbrT of 
the coiiiniittcc, ImppexiB ai this matneat to be iik a place (thu 
chair of iht: coramitltc of the whole) wluch deprives ua of ihe 
benefit of hi» obtfL-rvuttuiiio* Under theiw cirruiniitanoGa, I had 
hopinl thir commiltee would nic. It ha», howovpT, buen detcr- 
tfiUii'd othcrwifiiv und 1 mtiAt tfirri-fori- beg their jaduLgtmoc 
whjh^ 1 mnkr^ a frw obRrrvntion*. 

A« the conalttuiion now Htatkd«, all jtidgcs att liable to be T& 
moved from oificc by the governor, with the content of the 
council, on the aildrc^ of the two houac» of (he legisl&tun^ It 
is not miido TicTot^^eujy that the iwd hoiuea should f;Ue any r«a- 
ioaa for Ihc^ir address^ or thu-t the judgt< should liave iin opporlu- 
nily to be hrnrd, I look npi>n thin a* ng^iinwl miinmon right, ajt 
well as repugnant to thi^ general pniiciplrs of the govcrnmcnl. 
I'he comnusaioa of the judge purports to be, on the face of il, 
dariitg good hehuvior. He haa an Lnten.^»t in hia ofhee. To 
j^ivw an authority to the legislaior^ to deprive him of it, i^-ith* 
out tnat or fle«u«alion, in munifeitly ta iiialce tbe judgea depend- 
ent on thtr Ic'gipJatiire. 

• R»nnrk« iiitd* tin thfl 3nih *»( llupcmhftT, \9S0. to ihn f'nnTnntlnn. cjion ■ 

the AifiljrBfi(i4'oihinli (iiwLi<cul ofardjijijrii^i vffcwh timurti ti ilie Irf^/itlitnjrr- 



1^ qurftinn U not whcU tin? l^glsliilure pTobably iviH di>, but 
whiti Uifjr rnay dn. If :Jii? judj^-vt, in 6w:t, hold iheir niritf» ijuly 
Hf lung UA the Lrgi»l»turr «(?u fit, thru it 19 vain nii^L illuj>niy 
to say tliftl tfai- jitdgi^ aic independent men, incnpnMr? o( bclii§; 
iflfluoDCf^ by [icpc or by Tear. The tenure of their oihcc U not 
hide pendent, Tb^ Jteaeml theory and priDoipIe of the govorn- 
ineiLt ure brokfrii in upo^i, by ^'iviiiK (tie It^^iskilurv thia power 
The di-piinmi?rits a( gujviTnrni'rit arr' no! tnjmil, c^ourtliimte, and 
iiuliTpi-Eulpnt, ^ihili* tiiii* i« thuH «t tlii* iiirrt-y cif Uirt utheiK Whiit 
would he MiiJ of a pfupuiHiTJun (o nuthori^tr the governor or judgr^ 
(o remove a i»cnatof 01 iiiltiiIkt of thi.- Hou^e of KcprcseiJlalivc* 
ffom otBec? And yrt^ Uie j^ciKraJ theory of iho uoni^titutioQ U 
to tnal&e tfic jud^L-a un tudependeiit a^ membt^r^ of The Legislature. 

I Itnuw i)oL whrltitT 4 gri'iilt^r itiLprowirtf^iit has ber^n made Iti 
governnit^nt llinn tn iti-pEimt^ ttic judiciary frxiiii the t^xeeutivv 
vnd le^^lativc hnin(^br?<i nnd to provide for the decision of pri* 
vQtr rights to & iDanricr vrholly luiinHni^nrrd by rvMi^ons oJ' sUlr, 
or con^idoraliohA of porty or of policy- It is the glory of tho 
Brjttfih coofltiturioD to have led in ih^ r-M&bliHhment of this moiit 
(mpnriani principle. Ii. did not exiAt In England before the 
lU'Ttdutioii of 1683, MnJ ila iijtrt>dinrliij|i liaa peeuied W> givr? a 
flew chhrnctcT to th<: thbunjiK It i^ not nec4.-f?Dary to tititc the 
evild whidi h[id b4?en rxpm^nced In thcit ccutitry from depend- 
>40t and timefirr^'ing jadgi'A. In maltcrv of mnrc property, iu 
«an*ea of no politieni or public bearing, they mij^ht perhapa be 
aafely mwted; hni in gKAi qoeBfinnH concerning public liberty 
nr thi; ri/iEhu of llie subjeil, (Iiey were, In too mmiy cH-ie*, tmt fit 
to b<> fiuMed at all Whet wiiuld ntiw ijuotc t^t^rciggst^ or Hniin- 
iler^ or Jrl&cryis on nque:<tion oonci-niing the right of the habcae 
L<Drpt^K, or the right of nutrrri^re^ or tho Itbrrty of the prc«s, or ony 
otbrr Aabjeet doiely connt>rt4?d wirh political freedom ? Yet on 
all thrnr Mibjrrtx tbp ftrnftmr'nl* of Ihp Knpliiih judtfes ninee the 
Revolution, of Somer'S Molt, Irrhy, JrkyK mid ntlirrs like (lieni, 
mre, in general* favorable to civil libeity. and rt^ucive and deserve 
great atteiUbn wbenevor referred to. Indt-^ed, MaMachuaetti 
henMflf knows, by her own liiBiory. what is tci ha cxpi?c-1rd from 
dependent jadffen. Her own etiarttr was deeUired forf«itod| 
witJiont a hewrlng, in n court wliere HTieh judgen laL 

Wbrn Chnrlft* the BtTond, 3tiid hii» hfothrr wfl^T hiPO, at- 
Icmpled the dr^^truclion of ehartcred right*, bi^'lh in the kin^um 


and i»i( of it, the xnadc wan by jndgmrnU obtaiiKi] in the 
courto. h 15 well hiipwn, tbnt nftcr tb« prii«ccutioD a^tdnst the 
dtj of Xjondon ^vae «onnTnc(ic«d, rui<l wfaila it *n^as pondio^, Uio 
jud^^ were changud; and Saunders, who had be^n consal^ 
on the i3am«)on, and had advised ihe proc««ditiff ou ihe port of 
thn crown, w)ib tnadt <!hi«r jnnljcw fur tiin vrry }mrpcjfw <if giving 
a jtii!(|;mtrnt in frkvof of the crown ; liin prrdtxi:nM>r being ii-m€jv«j 
to make room for him. But nincc the Ucvolution of 1688, lui 
entire new chamcicr in thi» rfspcct has been given to Jviiglish 
judlcntur?. Tho jiid^» hnvif bci.>n mode ind^perxioiit, and the 
bpnrfii has hf*cti widHy an^l fWply felt, A similar improTemenl 
secintt lo have mude it8 w-iy into SeoiJaiid. Before tlie imioii 
of Uie kuif^iiiB. it f^annot be fr^jd itmt Uierc waa aiiy judicial 
imbpctidcncc in ScotJnnd ; luid tliu hl^'heit luinco in Scottiati 
jurispnidenrc Imve boen ehurKed w^th btiii)^ under intluvnoM 
which coold not, in modrrr timc^ be i^iidurrd. It U even f^ixidf 
that thp pr»i^i.ir4' of entuiU tlid not eittrnt^ivrly ctiRt in SeoiJsind 
til] iihnut Iho lime of Ihe rrlgii^ oC the laft; pritieea of the 8Uiar1 
rflcci and tbat it wila liien iiilroduc^ to guanl df^tnt^l unjuat 
forfciturea, U is strungt^'. indeed, that thin »lioiild Jiuppen at m> 
lute a |KTJc>d, mid UitU q motit nnnnturnl nnd nrtiheiril dtalc of 
property xbould be owing to the Itdf of drpendt-nt juUicntnr**. 
1 might ftdd here-, that th« berilAhle jnriiidletion^ tJie greatest 
aljDOtt cf )dl K'\'i\h L-oTinec4ed with tbe ndiitiiilstruljou of junuoir, 
wera not aholiahird in SL-otlaiicI tiU ubout Itip middle of the laat 
century; m> slowly doee improvement miikt progress whern o|> 
poaL<d by ignorunct;, prvjudiui.^ nt in[<^re»L 

Jn oar own conntry^ it wiw tor yenj> a topic of comphiinl, 
before the Revolntion, ihiit jUHtiee w»* administCTeel, In some of 
the Cfl>luiiiee, by juJji^ea df[iendent on the British erowru The 
DFclnriliun uf Iiide|>endeMc-e \\^A( jiiila htrih iliia as a promi- 
nent grievancef among tlioDc wtiich ju^tiELed the RevolLilion. 
The l{riti^h king, it dcclurc'n, **hnd mjide judges dependent on 
bis own will cdone, for Iht^ tiTiuinrof I heir otlic<^£.'' It was tlu^ro- 
fun to be exppctedi that, in r^mhlinhing their own gnvernmL-ntw, 
thi> iinpurtikitt point of ih*' indr^penili^ncr of thr jndieinl pfHVi'r 
would be ivgurdcJ by IJie Stutesp Some of ihcm have made 
gr«at4ir mid other? leee proriaion on tliio «ul>juct ; the more recent 
ounHtitulion0> I bcliev<^, tieing generally fraintd with tho host 
guuidt for judicial ini'LcTixmdciicc- 




Tbon who oppose any adiitioiaftl Ao-mmty for 1h« tt^niirc of 
lodicial office hav« preM«J to know v/hat eril liau lie«ii expcri- 
enonl, what Uijmj tjas ari^-n, from the (xinntitjiikm aa It i»- 
Pt-rliii|D ^Kinr ^ btit if evil-* (iroliiihly may arise, ihv i^iirxtion 
itf, whvtJicr ihr atubjc^ct be not ^o imporiant n» 10 mulcT it pm- 
'knt 1f> giionJ ogninoit that evil. If evil tlo ariH*, wi^ tnuy be 
fcflrc ii will bfl n (jrtai evil; if thin p«wi?r jthonid hippcn to be 
ttbtivi^df thf coniwv^ucncf* voiild br mi«r misfhii^voii*. It la 
iHvt a soffidrnt An^^wiT ro wiy That wv havt» an yf»t felt no In- 
oonvctJiL-ijcc. We are boutiil ft] 1i*(>Tt ttp prolitiblt? fiirurii «^vf:^nt<i. 
Wc hftfc, loo, tlie o\pOTicm* o( oLh^r Siatt-fln ConrKctinit, hnv 
ing bad Juclf^ Qp]>oiiite<l miiiuuily, frurn tfio rjmc of Chorloa 
tb* Srt-'ond, in Eiir- ri*ceot altomlion of lii*r eon»iTitn(i(>n ^nn pro- 
Ytdeil. tbai hrn-n/ti'-T thry ahnll holil thrir niScp iliiring i^ood 
behmvi;ir, mibjrH tn rr-.Tnova] on Ihf nd^rr^nii of two thirds of each 
house of the It'ginlaturc. la IViinayUaciiii, tie jtitjjk^i may bo 
romoTrd, "for miy rca^ofiable Mmse," oil Uk ndclmvi of t^-o 
tliird» of tho two hoQ4t.'a. la t>omir of tbc 8tata>, tbrcc fourthe 
of each house are required. The n<?w cotnlitution of [Maine hn« 
a provi?(toii, with which I should be ponient; whi<'h b, thtit no 
jiHlgi- skjU bi- li;ibl*' In bp rrmnvi-d by the legiHiatnrft till the 
mittteT of hi» llOt1I^nTio^ hn> bi'-rn mndr known to bin, and be 
has bod nn opportiiniiy of b<^iji^ heard in his ilefi'Dce* Thi:t 
Aceme no more than common joatice ; and yet it io much pcata 
tlkao ai\v sectirity which at preeenl e^sisln in the conntihition of 
thU ComnionwoulfJi. It will be fonndj if 1 mislftke not, that 
thav nrt'. mil morr- I linn two nr tbm-T"«3t nf hII ihr Stntwi, whinh 
harp Irft thr tcnnrr of judit-tnl olTicc ul the entire pk-a8ore of the 

Jt cannot t>c dcnkd, thot on« giral object of written eon^tjtu- 
UoEU is to keep the df^partioenU of ^verrimj^nt uA distinct oa 
poiflible; and for ihls puq)OBe to Unpose re«lviiints designed to 
hnve ihal efTetrL Ami it 11 eipjiiTly inn*, fhiit thcff! id no depart 
ment oa whirb it In more [ii?t:<r:wnry to iinpoTic? re»Irain(» iban 
tbc legirtlntore. The tendency of things i» almost always to 
najl^c^nt thf^ piiwer of ihnt drpnrtincnf, ia it« relation to the 
jmiicia/y. The judJcuiry i» cx>mpo»ed of few per^onu^ and those 
iw>t sncb A* mix hnhltiinlly in the piir^nltA and objects wbieh 
mnti engage publie irifn, T]f*y are ii^iT^ <ir never ohtxilil t>f, 
imliticaJ Di«ii. They have often uiipleuHiiit duUo tg pt^-rfonr, 


coKSTrrnios of ma5Sachc«ktts, 

and thrlr <'(>nduct U of^rii liaUr to be canvaaaed and fWfiNared. 
wiinrc their rr-n:H>n!i for il irc not knowiii or aiinoi be xnidci^ 
rtood- Tho kf^ifilattirv hold* tbc public punw. It Jixcn the com* 
p«>n»ation of ill ofhi^r ilr-piulniant^ ; it applj«#, ti« wpll flit i^iMft, 
nil rpvrimp- It U n niirnrroim body. And nrrrfVUiriEy csrrirA along 
vnth it & ^at force of public of^nicn. It» membeia arv puUk 
raeti, i» t'onM^it coiitaot wiUi one anottier, uod with IbcLr con- 
Btitucnta. It would seem la be plain Dfiough, that, witboni con- 
ntitutiona] provUions which nhould b<? fixctl and ccftnin, #ucb a 
dcpAflmoni, in cftw of oitoitemcut, would bv ahlo to i^ncroftch 
on Ihe judidsry, 1*hfTpforr U h, Ihni a wcnrity of judiol&l 
indeppnrl^^nce l»eoomi'A nei.-c«i*ary ; nnd llii; queHtioii in, wbellt^r 
tiint indiqwndcnce be al prir»rnl oulTtcienO^ M^^tirrd. 

The conatiluUon hviuj!, (lie BaE>reme law, it follows of cctine, 
(hot every aet of tbo legislature, ctmirnry lo rhjil tnw, must be 
vcid. But wbo ihaU dec^iclc XhU cinriitinn ? Shall the le^ifilatnnj 
itiwlf di'-Hdi^ it? IfiLOf thru the cx^nKtiliilion cmBm TO be'a legal, 
and b"-(^iiTTn> only a morni rrMraint on the lej^alaturp. If they, 
and they only, are lo jud£;c whether ihtrir acta be coufonuable to 
the contttitution, ilitn tho conslitutton is admonitory or advlaoi^ 
only ; not lef^ily binding; bt'euiiw, if the oonslractiGii of it rcri 
wholly with them, their diicrelion, in puTtieular ea«e», may be in 
fav«>r of very eTronir<in!i and dnn^i-r<iii« ron«inieticniL Henco 
the mnrln (jf Uw» iirceMnrily, when the ea*c amc«, fi)n«t decide 
upon the vntiditif of portieular actft. The«e ca»c& arc rarci at 
Jcast in (hia Commonwealth ; but they would prot>aUy bo leee 
80p if tho diaj'acior of the jndiciary w«re leee j^fipeetabk than 
it in. 

Itii tU« theory and plitn or ihe corMtttutlon la reatnin tile 
legiftlAltire, aei weJI iif^ Either drparttnenL-^, iirid lo Mibject thrir 
oct« to judirinl dec-j^lon, wht'nevcT it appear:^ Ihnt BUch acta 
infringe const itutionoJ Umita. Without thin chcek> no ccrtsiD 
limilafion ci>nld exiwt on the irxcreiie of le^fi^lntive power. The 
coiLAiiiiiiriiii, for rsmmpleT drcJjir<*«, that iht- h-gii^Liiiirr' hhuU not 
aij»|iF:i)d the bi'Jietit tif the writ ttf hnbe-n» eorpnp>, exrept under 
certain Lmitationri If a Ielw blmuld happen \o be fntrdtud re- 
BlTaintnjii; pcraonal liberty, mid Jin individuiil, [icliiif; oppreoDed 
by iU rdiould apply f(»T his liubeuA corpus, muitt not the judges 
dreide whul iit the lx<acfi( of habe;u corpui hitendoj by the 
conilitution, what it \* tn KUiipend jt, and whether the acts of 



Iff Ir^^lnlure ilo, in t)it ^ivrti tram?, oinritrtfi to thr or>n*»- 
tion? All thesis <|]jt'»li<i:iA wouUI uf ctuu^c uiise. Tlic jud^ Is 
bound by U\s mttb to cIcc^kIc! nccofdiii^ to Inw, The cotitftituiion 
IB the !<oprrinc Jnw. Any net of th^ kginlotuTt*, tlitrv'fon?, lnooi>- 
euUTni ^vith that Bupremp Uw, mmt j-icld to it ; niid nny judgi^, 
searing this in*'/)innHii'nc7, and ypt giving rffift Ui thu kw* 
vi'oiili) violate Iwth hi^ tliiiy anJ hw oatli. But it i» evidi^nt tlisit 
tlii-^ powrr, to be ua^ful, mual be lodged in iudeptndcjit hftodt. 
If tfae Irffiehturc maj' remove judges at pleasure, aMif^og no 
caasc for niich ivmovDl, of ooujwr it i:^ not to be expected that 
they would (jftcii £nd de^cUion* ng^n^t the conitlttilionidity of 
their mm aet«. If tho logiiJntttrt'* fJiotild^ unhoppity, h(^ in a 
temper lo dn n viofrnt thing, it would piDbnhly take can? to jrec 
that die b«rnch of juslicc wm m> constituted as to agree with it 
in opinion. 

It U unpl^atant to allude to oMi&r States for nc^tiv4> ^xam- 
pl4?»; yet. If any one wen Inclioed to the in^ulryf It might b« 
found that ca^iefi had happened hi u^hldi law** knotvit ui t»eai 
bent very queatimialjle na to their const-nteney with the CLJii.<ttitii> 
lion, had been pasmKl ; and at the etamr Ac^nAion, elTt^ctnnl meaa- 
nreit taJi<^^T undt^r the power of rrmovni by (iddrc'R^, to create u 
new bt-nch, Sueh a eoinoidcncc tnight tx^ accidental; but the 
freqni*nt hcippenlng of *iifh ae^'idrnt* would c!i3itToy tiie bidance 
of a frt'c gntrmmrnl. ThiT hrvlory of nil lh<* Btntrfi, f l](rlii*vi% 
fthowY tbc nccc#«]ty of settled Limil^ to legislative power There 
arc nttsonp, entiTcTy conAiatcnt with uprii^ht and patriotic mo- 
tive**, which, nevertlieleBe, evince the dnni^r of ie£^i«lative en- 
eroa'^hn^nts- Tho nubjecL ib fully treated by Mr- M^idiKon. in 
eoine nutnbeni of the PeilrndiiL, whidi weU denerve lh<? eonuid- 
f*ration of the conveution. 

Ther? is nothing, after all, 90 importnnt to individuals aa the 
4ipRf*ht adminietTEtLon of jujiticc. Thin comci* hcime to every 
man ; life, litK^rty, reputation, prt>p<'rtyj all depend on thtn. No 
govemmrnt dtws it.i dnty to thr propk, which do(*e not mak« 
ftmplc ami tftMc prnviMuii for the c?(crci*e of this pem of iia 
povrcm. Nor is* it enough, thnt there are eaiuta which will deal 
)nE»tly vHlh m«r privnle qucsdoaa. Wc look to ttit judldaj tri- 
tnuud for protociion against ille^-aj or uiieoiitstifutional ucta, 
from whatrvcr qnnrtrr thry may proceed. The eourta of Uv^, in* 
dep<^iilrnt judgrs. and t-idi^hicnt-Hl jurita, are ctl^uld) of ^aipnlsu 



libcTty^ hji w«Tl oa t4^niplr« of private jiulice. Th«f movi 
tKtl right* conncfcled with poliUcol liborty nre Uicrr i^nnviUBed 
rUftcuBwvi, niif] mniiiUiinrd; nnd if U fthtniliJ al luiy Time »o hap* 
ppn Ihal thr*r righlfi nh^uM hr iJ\vnt\rt\, then' in no r^-meiiy but 
a reliance oa tiiL- couilfl to (irotccl and vtodjcatc thciii. Thert* 
b dan^T, also, tlmt Icfflabtive bodlca vJl] Aomctimva pnaa lavra 
inUrfcnof- witb vthcr private rifc^ta than thoE«<? connected with 
politicuJ libvriy. IruiividuaU iir« loo Apt to rLpfily to thr (ogu- 
.atlvc powiT to mlorATL- with prirale ca^e* or private prcptr- 
ty; niul mirh npplirixticinii nnrni'limrw tna-i with fnYnr nnd »Up< 
port There would be no security. If tlicec iiiU'rfL-rt;iici.'a wen 
not fliibj<:ct to souLo Aubftf^qu^n! constitutional rcviftii>ii, where all 
parties could be heard, and Jusfic^ be adrmnul^rcd according to 
rbe BTandinf; law*. 

These corisidt-rutioni ore among Uu^*e whioh^ in my opmlon, 
rendfj SLU uif]i-[M-mlrnt judiaiury i-'pjiilly i^^tnitiiil let Ihr prrHrr- 
vation of piivnt*; right:* and public liberty, I Inmrnt tlic neces- 
sity of dct^iding thiii question tkt the present mumeat; aod 
ahouid hopci if such immodiate decision were not demanded, 
that somo modification of this report mif*hl prove acceptable to 
(be committee, alnee. In my judgment, ftome proviaton beyond 
what i^Ub ill tlitt prtw-nt coMHtitulioi^ ia titM^Haary. 



Cof Iba 3d of JcuiiJory, 19L&, tho bill lo incorporoilo a bonk being 
tiDder«>on«tHemf](kii, Mr. We!tn[«ir innvHfl ibuT it bt rei^nrnmltrtrf! io n h»- 
led commillcc, wlUi injiiruciionsi U> moko iho fuTlowing altcraiiuLM, to 

L Tto ndncc tlic cnpiiikl id ivrnty-flvB miHion^, with Vihtitty vo Am 
fOTi«mnoil1 to nubKnbc on iti own nccitni five uulIiuiiA. 
'2. To ifrikft out th« tfufli;«i(ti 9uc(ioTi, 
S- To «u!ko out to much of i«id bill a» niH-kcii ii cihlEt[a[orv on thm 

4. To luErmluc^ n fvciion itrovidiu^, thai if tb« bank do iioi oem* 

mctficc bi oj>cmkin» wLthln iho i^paco of nioiiEh*, fivm lU' t^ny U 

the pasBing of iho uct, iho clmrrur BtuJI ihiM^by bu foHHtc^l, 

5- Tc ijisun a scftion allowing iaicrr«r nt ifaf! rnct cf ^ 

oa wij boll Of note oftlic bank, of wbich puyTncat «ball bares ha^a dulr 
dcitiBJidtd, tkccontiog lo ilB tunor, ond rcluaod i uid ro infliot pufiallios 
on cui^' dirpcton who idinll tunii^ any bill" i^r utiim diiring nny niiiip^n- 
BOD ortpecio pa/moiir al ihtr bniik. 

6. To provide ihrxt ib« caul tvroaly-fivc miHioni of capital stock abnll 
bv composed of llvo rniTTlona of tfiecie, nnil tH'smynifniori^t of any of 
ilio vEoclt* of iho Uoitod Staitii beating an inlvroal of mx per c«ffj., or of 

T- To HirikROui of iIh? tnll dial pari of ii which n^«1nLm» thubaiik fruin 
•oiling ila Block danne the war- 

Ift «jf>pojt of Lhi8 iTiorioTt iha fallriwjng iponch van tlnHvomd, Tho 
notion lid rot prcvpil, but tiio bill Ltnlf waa rrjvctod ih? Bmiii? d^y on 
dw tluni reading 3o<nc of the mout pruiciplc* of tbc«; inalrucrioiu 
w^rm incoFporaipd inTo 1b@ chnnrir f>f iha Inin hnitk^ vthnn rhni cha^ 
nr vran gnuiLad, tiio foliowin^ vc^ ; »}>ccuiUy thoac vbioh were raom 

■ A Sp««cli dvltnrtd m the Ifduu of RcprrvnaiiTa oT Iha tTniicd S»igb. oo 
4i«9d<tf^JMuarT, UlS. 

punicEiUrTy rfeilgijcd to it«HPP tlie pnymeiti nf ihe iiou« t>f the tunk h 

IIowEVBR the TTnu!«r mny (liaposQ of tbe motfoti bofore t^ 1 
do floi regret thnt it hrui hccn mudv, Oilo object inUjidvO by it, 
9A lea«ti 1$ aoeomplifih^. It pnhienf* a choice, and it «liowt 
tha tb^ oppiuitton which exiHU to th« bilj In ils pr<->vni ittat« b 
not &1I ufiiiliKtiiiguUliiiig hcwl.ility ta wlu-trvcr ma/ be prcpt>»ucl 
tui It imliittml bank, but a hoalility to an iuslitutioti of nuch a 
uMfIcfa» and daiigirouH imture art il U believed the vxieliiif; pro- 
viaioiu of the bill would establiBh. 

]f the bit! fthould be rM^mmitted, and amoiided accorrUng to 
tbi? mutructious whU-h ! hav<? rjovej, ha prln(rlplt.'4 would he 
msilr'n^Uy rhjin^rcL The tmpitu] of the pr(if>oM:d bnrik will be 
reduced from fifty to tliirty millioti.v ruid will br cmnpo^cd of spe- 
cie and etockt in nrcirly the #ninc proportJon.i on the ca]>jtal of 
the former Bank of th<f United Slutw*. l*h(j obUgntion to lead 
thlfty millions of dollars to govvmiripn^ an obligstion v^hkh 
cannot be fulfdled \^Uhout eomniiuing aii act uf hankrnptcy, 
will b« Hlruck liut TIr' ^wer to bunpeud the piyiutrnl of ila 
notes zuid bUlet will hn aboliahc-d. and the prompt and faithrtd 
execution of iia conUucto »ccurcdi txs fur aet, from the natuR! of 
thin^ it can be vi->cured, Thu reatiiction on tha unlp of Its 
stocks wiU he remov<-J, nnd as it. i% n incmcipoly, prt>\-L*ii>n will 
be iTiEkdc iJkut, if it should not rfrmmrnrr Jt^ (iju^mrJonii in a rra- 
eonoble time, tlic ^mzit tliail be forfcLtcdn Thu« anacndej, the 
bill would e.^tablifih an in:^titution not unlike tlic loat Bunk i^f 
the United States in any panicuJnr which Is d&omcd material, 
excepting only the legalized amoimt of capital- 

To a bank of thlii iiattire t nbould at any time be willing to 
^ve niy niipportj nut da a nieaaure uf Ltfinporauy pulii^y ur us an 
expedient for relief from the prcncnt poverty of the trra»ary, bul 
as an instjtution of p^rrrniitK-'nt in1rn<ot and impnrtnnrc, u^fuj 
to the g4jv47nn^ent and c^uunu-y at nil tiniv*, and mont useful in 
tunee of commefciid prospmty, 

T tini Aure, 8ir, thut ihe advantagf<M whir.h uonld at pN*«ent 
result from miy bnnk are greatly ovirratrd. To look to a bafik, 
aa a sonrce onpabic, not only cf aHbrding n circulating medium 
to the country, but al^o of supplying the wayu and mcnnri of 
carrying on the var, especially at a time when tJie cooiilry i# 


vitij<m[ cpmrnrTr<\ i# to t*ipoct mnc^h mof"* thnu over will be 
obtainrd> Sach high-wnmght bcipm cnn end onlj in dbftppoinv- 
meirt. The means of Kup|H>r1lrig an fxpeiialve war are aot of 
quite ^-u L*ua^ Hci|ui»Ilion. Baiika arr^ iiul revi^iiue. Tht^y C'jin> 
not supply jta place. They may afTofd facilitk's to ita a>tlcc' 
tion and divtribulion* They muy furnUli vrith convcnjcrnco 
tompomry lonng to govtrrnmrnt, in cintiripntkoii of ita taxee, 
ancl rt'n'kr impoitnnt aMiMnnc?, in dirrr^ way», to the gen* 
«ml oprmtion of fitmncr. Thry Jvrv n*rM to Ih^ state iii ihelr 
|irt>iier pluc^e mid »[ihere, bui th^y an* U(jL nciurceii »r riKtionnI 

The ^tTf^ara* of rc-vcnur inu< flow from drqjrr fornitains. The 
cn^diI and circubtion of bnnk paper oro the c-ticcta ratlior than 
th« oaii^wa of n piol]t»ble rominerc9 and a woll-ordered syvtam of 
fioaiH-e^ Tli(*y are the propn of national wealih and prosperity, 
nol the fouritlulionA of Uii^tu. Wlioi'trer slitUl nlti-itLjiL tu r^ictom 
Ul« faUen credit of t1ii» country by tlic entabUahmt-til of niTW 
bankfi, merely that (hey may creat« new piiper, aiid that govxifti- 
monl mcty have; a obance of borrowmg where; it hai not bor- 
rowi<d bi^forv, will tird himself iniiLcmbly (h^ci^ivfrd- It is under 
lll«r Uirtiionrr of no niiHi vnui ho|)eii ihnt I yiHd my as«ent lo the 
enlabli.Hhment of a tiank on ^ouitd Hiid prtipi^r iJiindjiles. The 
|im;cipjd KLiod I tJipeoL from it is ralh«r future lUan prcuctiL I 
do not ^u-c, indeed, tliat it ia likely to pn^duce evil at any tiroc. 
In timr^ lo eome jt willf I hope, be uneful. ]i if. wcr? only to bo 
h-irniEr*^, Ihwe wouM be «utHcient rmson why it should bo sap- 
porfed in prefpitTCP to mich a ^'/intrivaricr a« is now in coiitera> 

The biok which wU! bt; created by tbr hill, if it Hhonld paj«s 
in it» prcwnt f*jnii* b of o, moA txfmoTtlinftry, and, n* I think, 
alarming nature. Thi? capital in to he hlty millLona d dollars; 
fiv6 miltion* tn gold nrnl silver, twt^nty millions In the pubtiu 
debt ctealed «lnop ih^ war, trn millions in treaBLiry-notee, aiid 
itftiwn niUliofiH to be 8ubBLTil>e<d by ^veriictietit In sttoek to he 
iHaucd for Ihut purpune* Thi? ten millions in trrasmry-Moti*^ 
when received in payment of i^ubHcriplintia to the bank, arc lo 
be funded nlno in United dtut<?ii ntocks. The ^\ock subscribed 
by government on i1« own aecoEint, ami the eiocUi in which tha 
IMOmrj'-notcA firi* tn he fnndnl, arr io be redeemable only at the 
pli-wiiire of the government. The war block will be n'rlecniable 

VOL -u, 4 



accAittinf; to iKe Utiiis upon which the late loans hare bet<n 

The mpilal ^r tbt? bank, ttie^o, wilJ he live milliona of specie 
Ofkd forly-fivc mtilionM of i^viTrinrnt ntocko. Ui othrr wonJiit 
the batik vrill |w«bp»« Ave mJUioiM of dAJlftni nod ttir govvtn- 
oiRDt wtl) iiwiT it fartv-liri- mitlimiiL Thi* bunk iji rpMminnd 
from !fcrllii]j^ ihl> ilrht of ^^vnnntmt doriag the war, ami aowtn- 
mcat Id c>cu^r-<i fri>m pavLii^ tiitiU it aludl aee fit The buili ia 
alflo lo be niidcr obltgntion to loan to government tbiny miJliona 
ofdolktv on <l«niarid, to Sx^ n^paid, notwiien the convi-fik'noe 
or nftwMity of ihe bank may r^iuire, liut wht'n JoLu cluv to tJw 
hnak fmm guvemmcpt nn* pnid; thut i«. wh4-» it nhnjl he llie 
good pit^Miirr* nf govenimnit ThU i^um uf lliirly milliwis is to 
snppljr tlie necesaitiL^a of ||:ovcninieat, and to «uperwd« the ccca< 
aioa of other loans. Tbi» li^an will rioubiksB be mudr on the 
fi»t day of tfao «>Jefencv of lh« batik, beeaueN* the public wunte 
con admit of no delay* Ita eondition, theaf will he^ that it ho* 
fiv** miitiona of »piv.if% If It ha.'* bcp n ubjp to ohtiiir lo iTinchf 
aiid a debt, of j^i^vrjity^tivr milltotiJ^, no pnrt, of wfiit'h it cai) eitlirr 
Bell or caU in, dac to it frocn gfivcniinent 

The loan of fJiiiiy millions to ^vcrnnient can orrly bo made 
bj en tRimodiatc iaeuc uf b~dl» to that amount* If tbe«e bills 
vbcuJd rtflom, the ba nk will not l>e able to pay thatu Thi» is ccr 
tain; and to ivriiedy iIiIh in<'or>ve[iieiice^ power ih ^vt-n to tbf 
iJirrcUim, by thi- act* lo <iuH|)vnd, al Ihcir own disorrUdn, Ibr pny» 
meot of their notc» unTil the Pruwdenl of the United 8tatc--« shall 
othcrwiiw ordor. The IVnidetit will giw no snch ord^T, becnuw 
the ]KC«»8iti(!» Qi gowrnmriit will compel it ro dmw on the 
bank till the bank bee^m^a e.^ nccca^toue a> it«elf ludcod, 
wlintev«'r rirtiera may be given or wilUhfkJ, it will l^f uttt'riy im* 
puHtbli? fur lli<- bank lu pmy Uh mtXrv. No sin'li tiling ie> cx\tvci^ 
ed from it Tbt; Hntt note it i:^niir:t \i'ill be di^lionorr-d on its re- 
Com, and yet it %-ill oontinuir to poiir out it^ (taper sig long lu 
govarnment can apply it ia nny tlej^roo to ita pnipote*^. 

What sort of an in»ijtuticiii, Sir, U this? Il loi^kn lew liko a 
bank Than h (lfpnriTn4>nt of goven^ment It will he prnprrly the 
papiT*ciJiini--y dfparlniT^nU Itn uiijiiUiJ la gtnettnneut dfblA; the 
amount cf ita iMiica will depend on govi;riini(.'Qt ncccwitieaj 
government, in clt'ccti nbaolvt^si itwif from itjt own debta to the 
laak, aad. by vay of compcfiiiation, obaolvca Ibtf bank from ita 



owa oontnictii vHlh olhcnt. This in, itidcp<i, n ivonclt^ul fcht^mn 
c»t finaxicr?- The gowrnmc nT- i« to gmw ricli, bf^tMUne it U to 
borrow witfioiit the «>bljgn1ian of rcpsiying^ and is to borrow of a 
iMitk which lB5Ut.-tT piipL-r tjhithoul [lubilily tu rtfJcviii jt. IT tills 
btuib, like oUtcr JnalituUona which dull and [iloUdiiig common 
WDM btu i*rected, wun to pay itd d^bts, it must have dcnno liro- 
itv to Uj iMH^ of pnpnr, nnd thcm^fone thete would bn n point 
Iwyond which it couhl not tnaki* loons to government. Tbta 
wonl'l full short of the wiehps of the contriveie of this sfwtem. 
Tbey provije for aa uitlimtted ia&uc of papRr iu mi eiillrw l-i- 
CfBption Irom payment* They found ti)i:ir bnnk, in the first 
pioiofii on tho discredit of govvnimcnt, and Uion faopt! to <micb 
govvmmpRt zmi of ihc insoUci^cy of thntr bnnk. With them, 
pov4*rty lEHrlf i« th<T mnln source of Hupply^ and batikmptcy a 
ininR of inrihaimtihift trr^inTirr. They tra^c not ^n the ability of 
lh«: btutk* but Li iu b^ffgaty; uut m ^(jU uid f<ilvcr cuILvlt^d in 
its vaidtji> to puy ita debtee and fuUU ita prorni»«a, but in iu lockn 
nnd bora, provided by alalut«, to foatrn its doom ogninxt the vo- 
Ucitation* and cliunorK of tmportiizmtc cnfcliton. Such mn uuii- 
tvtiom th«y Hat.ttfT tbrrniw|v4^9s will not only ho ftBle to sUAtSlin 
hwir, but to bnoy up the sinking mulit of thn govpfnvrifmt A 
baui which duen not pay ia to j^uamnUrtf thr i^ni^f^trmeiitft of 9 
giMvniincnt whicji dors nuE pay I '^ Juliii Doq la to btx^omc tw* 
ourily for Richcird Roi^.^'' Thuo thr? (.nnpty vnultA of the tn-a^tu- 
ryuv to bo JlUc-d from Ihe i^qualjy «ippty v^iulta of the b;tnk, 
fttid tlic ingenioim invvntion of n partnership bi^twecn iniinl/mitg 
li to rr?Atorr nnd rrf*fll:iblbhh thi^ crrpdit <^f bnlh. 

Sir, 1 eau v'ww lhi» OTily h» a 8yyU^m <jf runk s^xv^uiatioD and 
anormous miBLliitC Nothing m our condition ia vh-orse, iu my 
opinioti, thun the- intdin^don of gnvcrnmcot to tlirow li^eli upon 
•mch dospcmte coursos- If we arc to be aiived, it ia not to bo 
by flocli meoiML If public credit is to t>c n-iitorcd, tKij» is not one 
of th« RUfaftim'fi thnT will help to rrntniv lu If the treasury is 
pxhansted, thi» hank will not ElII it with wiy lliing vnItinUe. U 
■ mTc cimulittinh' medium be w&ated for tke commumLy, it wiil 
i»ot be found in the paptT of euch a corponxiion- 

1 winh, sjir, that thast? who ifrmffine thut thette objectt!, or any 
of tliC4n, will bo vffecied by luch a bank as thJtt, woiJd dwenbe 
ih** manniT in which rhi-y r\pi'**r. It fo Iw* donfv What U tfte 
pnxvte wliji4i in tu produce ihvtc re^uita ? K it ia perceived, il 


can bo JosltI1>vi]. T)i^ bank v^ if] not ii|H*nti** ii^iIxT hy mTm?l« 
or m&gic Wl)ucv«r i^ipi^cU niiy good {rata it might to be nblc 
CO t«ll ua Id whiit wn.y that gcxid i.t to be produced. Afl jrct, we 
have bod nothing ^nt goni^raJ idcniv nnd vnguc and Ioom cxprcs- 
siooe. An indf'finitc and indi«tincl notion la entertained, no- 
body hpre BP^m? to know or what ground, chat tbifl bank In to 
reaiibnate public c-rvdit^ fill llie treatiiir^', iiud rt'irovrf all the f*^ti 
thut have arisen from the dcfircciatJ on of tiic paper of the cciutt- 
ing banlt*. 

Some ^ntJcmfvni who do not profen themaolves to be in (U] 
reflpccta pleased with th«i provi^iona of IJm bUlf seein lo cont«ni 
th«ni*elveB with an idea that nothing; better can be obtained, 
Hiid Th»t it irt rttM^MHHTy to do Aonielhlzig- A atrojig impression 
ttint Aomcthin^ mu^it be done is the origin of mniiy bnd meoff* 
Qtea. It 13 tAny, Sir, to do M>methBng, but ihi; objcijt ia to do 
something usefuJ. It 15 brttcr to do nothing than to do itu** 
chief. Ic ie much better, in my opinion, lo moke no bank, Wmui 
to pn^c thr bill as U now in. 

The inft^reblH to be nITected by thin im^aAun-, ihe Hnanc't-Ai tlw 
public ovdit, ujid the i^trt^ulutiti^ mGdium of tlic country, me too 
imporfuiit to be hiijcarded ir tK;hrmt-» like theee. If we wish to 
roBtoiv the f>ubhi; ^-rcdit and to rccctluhlivh the ^n^nccft, we harfl 
the bc'Hirn road before; un. All tmo analogy, all cxpt^it^nce, and 
all jnil knowlrdgv? of onrBrlvc* tind our ronditior, point nnrr w%y. 
A vnt^- iind 83'»l<rmnti(; economy, 'Aut\ a m--ifJi<d and fmb^tantiaJ 
rcrveiiue, tm Uir; mijunti to be rulk'd on ; not eiceasive iasucB of 
bank*note!i, a forced circtdation, and aU the miperublu contrivun* 
CC9 to which poiitieal folly can resoiti with tlie idle expectation 
of sivirg to men paper the quality of money. ThcH uo all 
The inventions of a 8hort-«ight«d polJny, vrxi*d and goaded by 
the neeesftitiea of The moment, and thinking 1pk» of a perman^^nt 
tenit-ily than uf nliifU mtd eji[>edieiitfi to aroid the prcBKriit dl^ 
trefl!i> TImy have been a thousand tbnc*) adopted, and a tliou- 
fffind timcA exploded oa dchiMvc itnd rninoiL^f a» dL-ntmctivc of 
&U eolid n^cnn^ and incompatible with the security of piivmt* 

It i», Sir^ 8TiDioienlIy obvious, that, to prodnf^ any benefit^ 
Ihid Imnk tmiat be 00 coni^truiHrd a» ihat iU nules sball bare 
ereflitx^ith the pulilie. The (ir^it inquiry* therefort.', should be, 
vbcthcj the bill? of a bonk of thi» kind will not be imrnedtuteiy 


ttnd gr^titly dpprrciat^d^ I think thoy ^U, It would be tt ^on* 
dtj if Ihry fthL>u]ii noL T\ui riYvcl will be prcnliired by thmt 
exoestuTe iMue of ito paper which the bmik inant mnke in lU 
loan to gorrrarm^nl Wh<:th^ tl^ inmii^?^ of pnpcr arc cxcc»pive 
will depend, tiot on the nominal (unonnt of Jl» capitaUbut on lU 
ability 10 jndetm it Thi* is thn onJy safe criterion. V«r7 epfr 
cui ca»p« mRV pprhaps fumieh exc«ption«H but iher^ is, ut gen- 
4^f no fitvuriiy for thv crmlit of pn|)trr, but Tbe Hbthty iti thoM* 
wfio ciuil Lo rfHlt-cin i(» WJiPnever tmiik*Moti-ii mt^ ntii rtia- 
vertibk into gold and silver nt Ihi! will of tbr holdor. they be- 
come of IcM vnlnc tbnn gold and siivrr. AJl experiments ou 
this subject bavo oomo to the same re«iilt It is eo cleaii and 
ha« b«<en to univ^naLly admitted^ thnt it would be \paate of 
time 1o dw^J upon it. Tbe depreeiution may not be sensibly 
perc«ivi-d tlie firht day, t^r the first wrek, \i taken [Jacti lb wili 
first be diiocrncd in whjit ia mlled thc^ n»c of .iprcie ; it wilJ next 
be seen in the iiicrecf^t^d pfice ot ull commoditie:<. The drcuiat* 
pg medium of A commcrdni eommiuiity mtifit hr thai which if 
alao thp circidating mrHiiim of orh<?r rommiTrcind oomnk unities, 
or mUAt be cJipfihle of i>ping ronvcrtrd into that mwiiiim with- 
out Ipbo. It must be ubie, uijI va\y lo puss in p^yuienta a^ul 
receipts among individuals of the »ame society nnd nation, bot 
to ti^jti»t and discharge the balance of exchanges between dif- 
fcTont nntionn. It must be something which hoH a value abroad, 
Be wpU as At home, and by which foreign aa well a« domeatic 
dftbts t^rt hf sntUned. The prcidmifi m''ln1« nionr nn^wer these 
purjKMHfs. They alone, titeivfui^i are inojii?y, aud whatcivei d»i^ 
is to perform tlie offices of monf-'y muat be their reprecientdtive, 
•nd capable of being turned into them at wtlip So long aa bank 
paper retains this quality, it is a sub&titate for moriey; diveeted 
of this, nothing cua give it that obaraettr. No aolxdiiy of funds, 
110 ani^cirney of iiivsetj», no confidenee in thi; solvency of bank* 
ing instiHiliun^ hfi# ever ermlilerl them to krvp up llieir paper to 
tiie value of gold and sUver auy longer tlian ihey paid gold and 
ailvcT for Iti on demand. This will continue to be the cnac ao 
long ns thost nieiola shall continue to be thrr ^t^mdMrd of vnluc 
■xid lb« general eireulutitig rn<.-diom among iiaTioni, 

A Btrtbirig illustnition of this eotnmnn princ*iple i» foond in 
Ui« early history of the Hank cif England- In the yt-fir 1097, it 
had been so liberal of Jte loans, that it waa compelled to piua- 




pmi tIi« pfi^n«nt of ItM nolra. Its pnpcr immrdiatrly rrll to a 
diBCCUiit of near Iwrnly per cent YcC vucb wa« the pnbUe 
opitiicn of tli« Aolidity of iu fnndv, that lU stock then M>id for 
(m« huticlrod and Um p^ oefiUi altiton^ no zBOrv Uran uxty |>er 
ci*iu. ujH^ii i\w vubtftcrlpdon had been paid In- The aanie fate, 
wm U wtll kijvwn. ativailed tlm bniilv of 3cotlnii<l, wlirii tiwty 
ntio\}Xn\ thr |jTiit;t>i^r of iinrrting In tlieir nplrii a clnuse, giving 
ihi: bunka on optii>n of paying their note* on demand, oi M 
monlha uftcx dcmnrrdi with interest I^ipcT of tius tort was not 
eonvvftiblo into sp>?c-i^, at the pleasvuw of tbo holder; and oo 
Mnvjctioii of the at^illty of the bank which iHsued itoould pr»- 
serve it fium dupnriiitiuii. 

TtiiT :m!i]ienE»iun of sjircir payments hy the Bank of Cei^ukI, 
in 1707, and the eo]i^r?ciuiT[ice» wliich fuIIow^Hi* aiford £o oigu* 
mrnt to ovcrrthrow tiiU geni^rnl rxpi-riiMici^ Jf Btink of ting- 
land not«-« wvtB not imnii^intely depredated on that occn«ioa, 
depreciation, D«vafthfl)c«», did imuhlt. Vcjy faviiroblc <»iuh*8 
9fx\atf<l U) ]ir(*iTjit ihflr fuddt-n deprcnion. It waa an old and 
rich itutituliuiu It waa known to \>a under the Tuoat diocrcrt 
nnd independent mivnai^-meut Govemmcat had no control 
wet it, to kirt*('. it to miike lotina agcunat itv intvresit or ita wUl. 
On th<t eantraryi it e<>mpi*lled Che governinejit to pay, tttough 
with nwich inconvpfiii-nw to itsdf, a vrry c?on*idemh]Q sum 
wltirh waH dii^ to it. The eoiuitry enjc^yed^ at that Uine, an 
pjLlt*nnive commerce, nnd a revenue of tbrvc hundred imUionn of 
doUam waa collected and diatrihutcd thmuKh the banL Undei 
nil thf-'SL* iidvLiiitnf£4?ft, however, Lliu difference of prioti bntwecci 
bnnk-noteK und cojn heeitmc tit one time to grvat, aa to threaten 
tho mont dnngrrooH conn'^qnencr'^^ SnppoM- th«^ condition of 
P.nglnnd to liave b«rii revrrwed, 3u[;r|iow'r iTimt, in^tr-ad of a 
prubperoua and tJicreaahi}; oomiiien:e, »hc hud »ulTercd the rnin 
oC her trade, and that the product of her mamifactitice had iaia 
upon h^T h^ndSf iis the pn>dnc^ of our a^^ioullure now periabea 
in ourn, Dova any one imu^n<^ that hi'f drL-uiuling paper could 
have exiiled nnd mninlained any cirdit, in »ueh a change of 
liiT ciindiliun ? What migtit to s^nrpriHi* ntM \t^ not thnt hvs hank 
pnprr WiiP depreciated, but that it wa* not drprcciafi*d MKHlcr 
and lower than in Jnct itwnc The reason can only be found 
in thni cTiraordinnry combination of favoriblc circnm^rtnncoai 
which never cmtrd bpforo, and i» hardly to b*? rvp^^cied again. 
Mijrh )i?w IS It to he diM-overed In our condiliun at present. 

Btit trc* huve cxp(7riirnG^ ni.'arer liom& The paper of all the 
barkA nouth of N«w Efi||flund hew b^eoriK* depreciatM to a» 
abnn/rig Mclait, Thin cunnr^t he <\t*uied^ The ideu rhul IWb 
driiri'i'iatinn i'xi*U only nt u distFtnrr* rmni fJtr binks n"?<|irt-ti»i> 
[y u unfoundrd and absurd. It exists everywhere. The ntcs o1 
rtchaDgc, both foreign ftnd domeatie, put this point bejrond eon- 
tt-irerwy. If a bill of exchonge on Europe c^an be pnrehTuiwi, as 
it may, IVThty per eent eheaper in Boi^ton thaa in BoJumor^, 
tbe iiea»on most he that H h paid for In Boston in morey, and 
ill BalliTiiore ill M>in«rlliia^ Iwcnr.v per iviil- le?w valunblt? tliaii 
money. NotwHhnbindiiig the deprcs-iipn of their paper, it w 
not prob«ible that nny doubt Ln etttcrlaincrd of the Auiricieiioy of 
ih/B (nod* of the prbtHpni banks. Certainly no Mich doubt ii 
Hit caiue of fiiu fjill of Uipir paper; beenuHe th'' deprp*iicn of 
cbe pnppr of nil the bank^ tn any place is a* far n" I li^nrn, gen* 
eiuQy [iniforrn Ltnd e[|uiil ; w]ierfa*s if puhlir opiiuun prui.rL'L'dfd 
at ttll \x\tQtt (lie adeiqtiaey or liiaJei^ULtey vf thvtr fund?, it wi^uld 
aecjfBaarily ocnie to diHen^nt icnultv in dillereiit eaaes, as ^omt- 
of tbedv iii9titiilion« inufrt be AiippofeJ to bv neher than ^th<?n^ 

Hir. *i>mi-*]hing tntui bv diseovcrvd v^'hich h&t* hitherto L*^ii|K'd 
thm nbirrratinn nf munkiiul, befnn:* yoii enn glvr to piipiT in* 
tended fut elreiilauon the valurr of a miitnUic cuireticy^ any 
longer thiiJO il repir-aenta that cuttcocy, and ts coHTcrtibb Uito iti 
M tlw will of thr holder The paper of thio bank, if yoa mako 
k(trm be deprseiaftid, for thu same reuaun thiit the paper of 
other bunk* thit bnvi* gone before il, and of iboiie whieb now 
t^hti anmnd ti», bi!> Ihvh dirprecinhH), brnntisc \l Ift not hi pity 
upecjL' for itH [intrA. Otiirr institutionst, ^tting out pT'rhapn iin 
honeH prine.ipJe-s, hnvc f^illcn into diiKrc-dit, tbnjugh miMiiftnoge' 
mcnC or mi^fonnno^ But thi« bank u to begin with in^oK'eney. 
It i» in iMiue its bitln To iho amount of thirty million?, when 
every body knows 11 eannoc pay Lhera. It la to commence lu 
exlnleiiee In iti^hunor It i-i Ui dmw Ht iirnt breath in «li»gNiee. 
Tbe proiniM! conUiined in tbtr firi^l iioF^r It m-ntl.-i forth in tu tie u 
faUie proiniM, and whoever receiver rhe note la to tnkc it witli 
the knowledj^e that it Is uot to be pvkid nceording to the trrms 
of ir. 

Hill thin, Sit, in not nil. The frames of lliU hill bnvo not 
done llMrir work by b:i1ve?f. Tliey hnve [inl the ilrpttciation of 
the QOlea of tb*ir bank bev^ind idl d(;ubt or nuciTfaunty. Tliev 



Uauoji of pnpi*r. nml thi? fuilun.- to iiviku pnymcnt*, botli whwb 
thry provjtli? for by lnw, thvy mnki* the t^pital of the hank to 
oi^n^JHt pnnHpnlly ni' [itihlir. »t£jrk. If t}m ilock »houM be 
wlij ^Ls ill the foriiR't BEiitk of the United St&Wa, iht? ^vi] u'uiih] 
be IcMi But the bank hae not the power to »rll ir, untl* for 
aL ptirpoAce of tnablinft it la fulfil it** eiififn^niotil*. ita funib 
mij;ht as ^vell be ut the boUom of the otttraii ad in government 
vtoeks, of \^'hich It cannot enforce payment, mud of vhieh It 
tfarniiil His^pfW'- Tlifr onnlit oi ihin ifiHtiruUoii U in bi- roiimlrvj 
oji public fiuidn, not on privaic jimprtty or comm<^cird crrdit. 
It ia to be a 6nanciali not a commc-j^oJ bank- Its credit can 
harcilv, thi^reforc, bo better at any time than the credit of the 
jjovetnment. If the »tooka be depreciated^ so of eoune mmt 
ftvery thing he whieh re«ta on the stookft. It would require e^m* 
ordiiiEuy ingminiy to wliuw huw ii bunk, wbHi is fimrnlM on 
the |}iiblJ4^ dnbt, \^ Ut huvc! any l^rtirr rrpnliitJon Uinii ihr dHit 
ttMtf. It must be «omc v<Tcy novel invention which maki*fl the 
Bupcmtmotoro keep it» plac« after the foundatjon h&« fallcHi 
Th« Argument a^me to etand thu^ The publia funds, it is ad- 
mitted, have Utile credit; the bank will have no credit whieh 'It 
does iiul bijin'tiw tifttte fund?!; but the ba^>h u'iU be In full credit. 
If, Sir, wr wrm in a tvTiipi;r in hmrn wiMlom from expeririicc, 
the bintory of mofit of thf? bank;* on th<^ <\)nlinent of Europe 
might Tcneh n^ the t'utiiity of ill ihcnc coatriviuioe<A. Tiiorc in- 
etilUtionH, lik<r thU brfor^f an, n'cre ontablifihrd for purpoiieit of 
finftncef not purposr^i nf r.iimmi*r<*<'. The piririH' fnrtunr bnn ha|v 
pened to tht^m all* Their cT<?dit has *iiiik. Thdi respective 
l^verumenta go to thtm for money wbea they can get it no* 
where eUe; and the baiikn crtn ri?[i<jve Ihoir wanta only by now 
i«»u<'$ cf tbojr own paptT. Art tbia ia not redeemed, the inva- 
rhiblt- eoiisequt'npc* of depreoiatloii follows; and this bat ionie> 
tt"u*n Ird in Om minrrciblf nmi drsUurlive rxprdifnl rtf drpretia- 
ticin of the r-iiln it>elf. Such unr the Imuks of Pt'lrrrtbiirg, CJo* 
penha^n, Vienna, and other cities of tjnropc; and while the 
paper of ihejc ^vernrncnt bank» has been thu> deprcMedf that 
of other bank» existing in their neighborhood, unconnpct<*d with 
government, and eonductUiff their bu«!neM on the bi4sis of com- 
men*liil erfdit, Ikih reluined ii vnlim f^t^tiivHlenT. to that of eoin. 
BicnMJVP is»i]e> of pnjier, arid a Hoik: conat'cUun with gi>vern- 



nMfit, are the djcoinatanara wliich of all otbera aie the moAt 
oertain lo deetroy tJiv crvdil of batik paper. IT tbcrc were no 
eio<i4t« iMoe*, or, in other worda, if tlic bnnk paid it* note* in 
specie on demand, its ooiiiierUoD wilh g<ivt^nment and it* in- 
ttfrent in Oii? funds wimid nnl, |K-rhiipK, mnU-mtly HtTrtrt tlir 
tircnJation ot itn pajj^r, nhhmigh thrj* uvonld nntumlly dimlnijfh 
the vitlue of it* stock, tint wbc^n ihi:^*^ two circumstances eJUftt 
in the condition of any biinh, that it doca net pay ifa nolcBi and 
that itn huidA nrc in public stockn, and all tl» oparalioiifl ioti* 
nwiHy blr-nded with the operations of government, nothing for- 
tbtr aei^*S tttf kouu-ii, to be quite aiirp tlml its pajitT will not 
untiweT the purpose of a crediUible ctrcidating rnc-dium. 

1 look tjjHjn it, thcrffiin\ Kir» na rrnoin, llint n very con^id^^ra* 
bli! dif^ccnint U'ill attneh ElMdf to tht? noto-s of ikifl bank t\\*^ liret 
dfty of ttieir npiicarancc ; thnt thin discount wiLf continue t> in- 
rrmiBr ; hik) iiiilmK CongrfSK nhoiilH hi* nhlr to rnrnUh fwm« 
nrnMHiy which i:* not certain, the j^ai^cr, in tfj« end, will be worth 
iiolbtii^ If t^iis httppKiiv, not only will no on<! of the beiiefita 
proposed be obiaint'd, but t'vila of ihc mont Bilorming magnifudo 
will lollow> All the horTijr% cil a pupc-r monoy [lyntpm arc before 
Oo. If wu venture on the present cxpvdionf, we f hoU hardly be 
ftblr to avndd thi*m, Tht- ruin of pnhliiT alTiiirn and the wreck 
of pTivnt4^ propcfty will (■n:*in^, 

I would a#k, tiir. whnhor the friends of thi* measure have 
well roosid^red whrit elfoct it wiii producp on the revenue of the 
country? By th*^ provisions of thi» biU, iht* notes of this bank 
are to be rec-eived in payment of all te.vea and other dtiea to ^v* 
ttnmeiiC They cannot bf- refused on account of the deprecia* 
tion of their valuK> Govrnimenb bintlti itself to reerive them nt 
par, although it should be objigt'd immcdintL-ly to pay ttiem out 
at a discount of a hundred per cent It is oertuin, then^ that a 
loM in tht? revimue AvilJ be KustaintHl, e<iuiU to any d<.-prec)atioi^ 
vbioh may lakn plnc4> In liiU pnp*^; iind whrn the* [mpur nhnli 
come to nothing, the revennt: of the country will come to notb- 
uig oltjng with It. ThiB haa liappcncd to otjier colmtrie* whtie 
thiA wretched ey*tym hoa btcn adopted, and it will happen (icn-. 
llie Austrian icovemnient reported to a Hirnitar expefiment in a 
v«ry crilieol pi^rlod of itj atFatrs, In 1809, the year of the last 
Dnmpdign bftw**'n that cownlry nnd Fmiice [^Twions to the 
coaiiUon. Prcittvd b> the nceeasiticB of (he ocx^ueion. the ^v> 




crnnicnt c«ub«1 n Urgt ^uuotjly of pupi-x lo be ic^ued, wliScli 
w»9 to b« rwcinni ii; impofita »nd taxui. Tbc papt^r inuncdi- 
attfily fell lo a d^preoiMtioji of four for one Thp cojiP'^qneooG 
wft4^ that the government loil iui ppvriiu<^, ni\^ unth it the 
intiitiiH of i»tj|]ij1> iiiK 'La liTiiuvit and iltriendiii^ ila tiiiupiiv. la 
thitt flrovrrnmcTit now reaily, Sir. lo put U* rp«oiirL» ali at hai- 
uxl, by purauitig u afmilux coune? b it rea<Iy to ttucri6ce itd 
trbuJe ttub^toiLtiml rcvcjiuv ai>d peniiaiieiLt suppbni lo ftii Ul-coi)* 
Irivcd, tll-con»id<-r«d, dniigcrous, oikI niiiioni project, adopt4»d 
only nfi rhp mesinA of ohtnining H liltlr prriiMTai nnri momriilQiy 

It ouK^t to be conaiAffcd, ulso, whal el&t^ta tbis bank will pro- 
duce on otht.-r biiiiki[u; mBtitulioua lUready rxiadi^, and on Ibf.' 
puptr whicL tli^y huvc tK9u<-<L The aj^j^gat^ capital of thfwf 
kuUtutioikfl U laxge. The amount of iheir aotea is large, and 
UirrHi? mjl*"»< fi}nstiful«T at |tfeM-tir, in u j^-aL fKtftJoii of the coun- 
tfy, l.li4T «irily diculatiiig nu^diuin, if tbey onn Iif calit^ a cin^o* 
latin; nifxlmin. Whatever aieota tbia paper, cither to raiac it 
or df^prcM it lower thiui it if, aifoctn tin* inti^nvtn of <TV«ry man 
in the community. It js f^nHbicnt on tiii* ptJint ta r^ft^r lo the 
memorial from tlie bnnkH of New Ynrit- Tbnt muniyji ub, chat 
the o|^ifiliOR (jf Kudi a bank a* this bill would rxtabTir^li mu8t 
be to Iiiiirtsase llie difiiculliea and diiitrcaEi wiiicb ibr ^^uatio^ 
bfliilu uow «penrnW) and to tuiidof it nearly impot^lc; for 
Uiom to f«!flun]i> iho paynicot of their noledp ThU ia whut vvvry 
man woul^ naf.uruJiy «<vp«.'(7t Pap«t tdicady dcpredciTed will 
ttrrr'Hfiiirily bi- ttiiiik litili liiwrrr wbc^n jtmithf-r Hood of drprr«i- 
•toJ |Hipiv iM fon^rd into rimdntion. 

Voy recently this govcninicnt lefotcd to cxtetid the chartef 
o> the Bank of the United J^tatoe; upon the ^ound that it wb4 
tinoonatituficnal foir Cofk^T«iu to create banks. Many of Uw 
State banktt owe their exLitence to thi^ decision. U vrukit an in- 
YilHljiin til tbr States 1u ini>iq>(>m1if ■■ iimob bunking riipiUi) an 
vrould unawer all Llic pufpi]»?9 uf tbr country. Nofwiihstmid- 
iim; what Wd may now tt^ and lit^ar, it wotild then have been 
deemtKi a ^rom irnpuUilion on the DtM^sLnlrnrry ol icow-nimrnt. 
If nny ma;i bud f^xpreitKed un eKp<?o1ii1ion, that in five ycarii alJ 
thcMn niinaitil.iitifMml wmi|ilM wmild he fnrgntt«*n, h11 thr dnngers 
fo [Mkliliml lilif-rry from n\oiii^yt%\ \r\t^ih\tt^onv, divrrgardeid, aitd a 
bauk propoBVii upon tbc mo«t lutraordtutuy pduciplc^ wiib au 



iinpr<^cedcrttcd amoimt of capitnL tuid with no obiigaticn to ful- 
^ iu contraoU. 'Hie Statt* bunkn hiLvc? fiot forocd tbtrto waives in 
(he w»y of grtvernitirnL They wi?rr c»:nbli»hrd, tnflny of tfaena 
nt l«wt, wtirn govemrm^nt hn.d d<^lnrpd its purpose to have no 
baak of iU owu> They di^sLTVB aouie rt^^U mi llcir own aiv 
cooixt, ftod on Account of tlioae pdrticulirly concerned in them. 
Bui ih^y dv^t'Tvii much nioro oonsidtrntjoii, or in:<wi;mt of the 
quEintity oF pnpt^r \thich ■■ m csircnlutiun, uid the lAtcicst which 
thv whole commnEiiTy hcui in it. 

lit'.i it nlsfi lir fiT/iIIrf'ti'd, Sir, Ihsif thr- pfpj(**nt. condition of 
the banks in pniicipolly owiitg to th^'tr advajiur» to government* 
The txcaauxy baa bohowod cf the banks, or of those who them- 
aelvi^ borrowLvJ of tJiu b&nks, till the banko have bctroiiie as 
poor, and ^iiiuAt as much di»credit«df a» the u-eatory itjMslC. 
Ttj*y have d«pn*oaati^d ib^ir p*f>er, neatly ruiiied ihrmvclvcM, 
4f»i bnmght thr- nnrr-Af di-itrtu ciri lli<- i-nunlry, by dning thnt cin 
A fimall nc^ff wJurii ihi^ litirik 15 t4) p^rfiiTJu on 11 hoidr vanlJ^ 
larg<«. It is almort vnp&rdonabb in the condnctors of thsse 
inctitntioits, not to hav4i foroAcrn tho ccniMV|iicnces which have 
resnlt&d from the course pur«und by them. They w^re aU plain 
and vWbte- If they have any apology, h Is thai they were no 
btiEidrr thuii thr- ^ovfriiiueut, »i}d tlint thi?y yicK^eJ ti> thosu 
who would tnke iia dcninJ. Il wltt be ailtigethr-r uiip^irdiinablc 
in US) if» ^ith this ua wcH aa tUl other cxpt-TiFuco before us, we 
continue to puTdUC u sydtv^m which nmst inevitably lend us 
thrgngh d^-'preeintion of currcnoyt pa per- money, 1endE^-laW9| 
and ail thr co[il4!rnptih[« iind tnixemble ccinTrivmiced of disor- 
dered finnncr itrid njiliiirin) tn»o]vencyt to complete ai^d endra 
bankmp^y Ui the end. 

1 hope the Uouw wiU rooommit the bJl for amendment 


A iiLL reported bj Mr- C&lhouu for Jio ^stunlion vt iht cui-rcocy 
wfti rf^Jucled in iht Houie of UcprcBcntauvoB oa iho 25th of AjvriL, LB16. 
On [hn 2Ath, Mr- WftiAt^r IncrcKlii^Arl ihrne rcLPiuUiiioiin lisv'mg ihv umo 
object in vi«w; and in »uj>poit of ihcm mndc the folloiviitg HfA^M:h> 
The first two, being iJ«cUraiory of prinoipTd* only, wtn wiitkdmwD 
al tlw rvqu4<<(l of seveml gentlemen, who wem tn ftvor <*f Jhft tklrd 
rc^cilution, wliicli coniained Mr. Wob»tcr** pluii fur reaturing llio cur 

h provirfn<1 thai the SecrcMry of ihn Trnuniry nhoiilri adopt wioh 
me&miKn <u he might doem nooessarj, to cauMj, oa qocil 00 mighl be, 
^1 Buma of money dtii^ to iha Uniu^d Stolen '*lo bo collocuid and paid 
in \\iB legal currency of the Cmted SLAiefi, or ireajiury-noTcH, or noiea 
of tlio Bank of llio Uikiteii Slater, «« by law pr&vldcd and de\;larodi 
or m tioius ijf biLTikH which aro payable an<l paid on dmnand, in Ihe 
estd legnt ctirrenry of ibr tTnitnd Stnira"; and 11 direcicd chnt, alW 
the 20ih of February ncxi (siuiuing, noihuig «1so sJio^ld bo recoived ia 
paymdni of ih& public duos. 

lliin resoluiion wnsi Tvci»ived wJlh great fkvnr by the House, and 
pojeed through all tlio vlogr^ of kgislniion on iho aamo day (the ^th 
of April) by a majority of mori; ihuii ivo lliirdw. It wa« itppraved by 
Presideiil Madison on the SOth, and wns completely huocueTuI in maior- 
ing a tound currency. 

Mn, SpRAKiTit, — T hnve felt it ia be rny duty to call tbe 
atteation of tlic Hoilho once moTe to the ^nhject of the ooUecy 
lion of Uid revcnuGt and to present the re^sohitiona which are 

* A 5p*«h delivered In the HniiH of RepnraniUli'« of die UniLed Slatn, 
(in ibo WStti of April, 1816, m the Collection ni tba ftdraauaia Ibe I^gal Cur* 
■vmay uf Lhe Country. 



awr fobmitfcd. I hflvo h^rr the mofc tndinH to do thin from 
an ftpprchi>nflion thai the wjrctijsn, ycstonii^y, of the bill wMcb 
had been mtroduc^, noy be cc>nBtrne<3 into an nbandottmont, 
till the y-\n oi the Hou*e, of all hope of remedying ihe existing 
rvil. I have ha<i* It in Uue, some obji^ctjuna u^iiisL pruceul- 
ing by way of bill; btcauae the cnttc ts not ore in which (he 
Law i* fltedcieitV, hut one in which th« oxc^rution of tht; law 
is deficient- Th« gKTtt ohjecti however, is to obtain n <lLTCt«> 
ion of thi* cincl the other hotiH', that the present mode t>f receiv* 
ing Uit- rnveiiu<r ^hnll nut be entttiuut^d; :ind hk l.hi< might bf* 
^obflUiiilJnlly effected by the bill» [ had hoped that it might 
ptjt*. Thia hope htu^ been dii»ftppoirjtrd» The biJl hofl beert 
rojcetj^. Tbn Iloui^c han put iH oegntivo upon ihfi only propo- 
aition whieli has hprn eubmitl«3 to it, for correeting a stnte of 
rhingn whieb evpry body known to *Mtint in plain violation of th? 
CoiUlltutiuil, and in open defmni^e uf Uie ^^^t[ten letter uf the 
law* For one, 1 enn never eorr«nt to uiljoiim, leaving this 
jinplj^M] »anc'Uon of thtr Hou^^e upon uU thut biut taken pkcc, 
and aU tliut may bere^fti-r lake pluce. 1 hojH* mit to hear 
again tlmt there !« not now time to net on thi« question. If 
utJter jfenll«uieri oonsider the ipjeHtioii tin inipurinrit as T i^o, 
they wili not fwrbcni to act on u from »ny desire, however 
«tioD^, to bring the jtc^AJon to nn early dose. 

Thr Bitnatioa of the eountiy, in regard to its Bnanooa enJ 
thfi colleetion of its rpxmnw, is ino»t dnplombic. With a per- 
feerly vonnd legal ourreuey, thp- nRtioral rerennpe are not ooU 
lectccl in thin currency, bul in p&perr of various sorla und vanuua 
degrees of value- The origin and progrcB^ of this evil are die- 
linctly known, but it io not euuy to soc it« durauon or iU futum 
extent* if an udecjuaie remedy 1m- net soon found- Before the 
war, the buiune*^ of the country wai L-onducted prineipally by 
mr^ins (if the pnpi't uf tiir diirerrnl Sl-itr- banlte. As these 
were in good cTe4il, and paid their notes in gold and silver on 
demand, no grent evil was experienced from the eirculation of 
Itlt^ir paper* Not being, however, a part of the legal money of 
the country, it eonld not, by law, bo received In the payroent of 
duiles, taxes, or othf*r debts to government- Rui being pa^a* 
tjle, and billierLu re^*ulndy paid, on demand, the euUeekim and 
agcnUof government had gL-ueraliy received ita«ca^h; it had 
been depD.«iEeJ oe canh in the bunka wluch reoeived the depoeits 

vOI« HL 5 





of >^ivrtjim«>iit, ancl rmiii thrtii It bail hrtn drawn hs cash, siiJ 
pai^ jff t(i crc;<Jilur3 of lh(^ public. 

During tlio war tbia atnto of thinf-» chanf^. Many of the 
bajikd huii bcH-fi in<liioc<<l fo rnukt* luaus to a vt^ry f;n<cit umonnt 
to tlic govenmn^iiT. The-*e lunns wtre maJp by nu iuiie of Ihri* 
own bilK ThiK pnK*i<r(llng thrrw iiila eun-ulntjnti n.n imiripnM^ 
ijiiiiniily of hnsil. pnpi.*r, in no dr-grcp ron*r*j»omiing wiih th-r 
ntt-rcariUle bne!iics» of the coiintry, and rcating:, for ifs paynitnl 
and redemption, on norlitng but the govemiDcnt »1oc-lc», vrtiicti 
w*fie held by iiw baiilcs. Thy conm^qutrnw Immtdiauly fol- 
lowrdj which it ^n'ould hv impndti^ a grviil dcgrire of bliii<ln«^» 
bulh lo thi^ ga^-vTTimrnt ard to tb«* bunkn to »iTgg«-Ht ibiit tbi*y 
bud Ijol fon*i-<"ii. Tbr rspi*** of psipn whirh w-i* fLn^nd rvrry* 
Inhere cTcat<^d alnrni- Dt^mande began to br madtr on Ibc 
bank?, a'»d tticy all etoppod paymnit. No contrivnnrc fo get 
money wirhoul ineonvt>iikonce lo the peopf^ evi-r litid a aliorttr 
oourse of eiLp«ilrii<.-iir, or n more unequivocal tormJnaiSoa. The 
di-pnrdulion of iKink-nofi's whs the nives^iry riin^f-iiTw-nr** of a 
nrglrvt or rrfuMiI lo p/iy lh<<tn, on ibn pnrl of thtitt' wfui ii^v^ 
rhrrn. It took place immcclinlrly, and hiis coiitinnrd, wilh occa- 
sional fluf^nalion* in the dqio^wion, to the ptr^nt momciit, 
Whal i*tilJ fnrthcr irKTcaws ihe <>%il U, that iblt bank |>S)p<T, 
b^ing ihv wxte of very many in«tiuition«, glttiRrcd in dl^crcnt 
purl* of ihe coiniiry, iiiid powcuwng difl^n-nt licgrr-f"* of rrrdit, 
fht' drprmatiiin ti^e not bcciii and Is not now, uMtfomi tliruugh- 
out the United Statca. It Is not the eomc al HaJtimori^ a« at 
PliilaJt'lpliia, nor Tho eame at Philadelphia aa at. New York- 
In Nl'W Eiijiflandi The t^ankv have not stopped payment in 
*pf-i<]f-, niid of coune Ib^^lr paper hiaa not been d*>pres»i-d at 
ttli. But ihr nwtrs of bank?< which have ceamnl lo pay Tiptrdct 
havi% nrvrfthclcn?s been, and utill are, received for dotira and 
taxe», in the placets wlitre eiieh Imnicn v\\tti. The conttvqucnee 
of all thift in, that Ihe pi*opli< of tl^e t'nited Star«« pay their 
(Inririi ^nd tams in i^urrinud.** of JiiTnvni thUii-k in liitlVrcnt 
pliuwa. In other wordji, tn3ie« and dutirj« are hightT in nonie 
plaees than tbcy a/c in otherfti by at much as the rafnc of 
gold and silver i» gn: a ter ihnn the vidue of tlic sevcrul di'^oip- 
tion0 of bajik p^jx'i which are rirceivvd by government. Tbi» 
ditfereace In relation Co tlie paper of Ihe DiBtrit*t where we now 
are, ih twenty-five j>t*r cent. Tiinen and duties, llienic^re. ct)l« 

im LEGAL CimR?!trCT. 


HMrtcd )n Mnjvtnrbn.-icHjk, ilt^^ one qnnrlrr bighrr thw Hit t«Ui 
^nd doiic« whic^ arc cnllcch^, t>y virtue of ilic «nic [iiw», ta 
v*e Disrtrict of Columbia- 

By tb*^ Coil si f lilt ton of thp TInil**H Stati^a, it is certain ihat 
«iJ duliv», liXts, uiid i;>i-iat-a oui^ht Ui be uiiiforrti tliruufjhotiL 
the couiitrj; uitd tbut no prfrfn^ncv Mtonid bt< f^vvOf by any 
rof-uiulion o!" coimntroe or rev^vm*.', to ihe portti of om- SUtc 
over tbo«(? of aiiotli«r. TIum condUtutinitul provivion, it ir« obvi 
<nu, i« flagraiiUy violttTcd, Dutli** luid tii3tc>« urc not tinifontL 
Tbry iirvT hijfbrr in whth' |ibn:r'* tbiin ii> olbi-r». A rilizf-n of 
New England pajt bis laxc» In geld and ailvc-j, or their tniutv^ 
lent. fVom hh hnnd tbc collector will not receive, and is ia* 
sbootcd t>_v government nf>t 1t> n?wlve, Ibo ]>apeT of fbij Lxiiiks 
wliJcli do not puy iht-Lr noXi^'H on (ji.*ni^iui, and whicb notua )i« 
«oold obtain twenty or iweniy-tive per <wnL di4>a}wr itiaii that 
wbirb i:« i1inii[uidi-L| of bhii, Vt^l a LNtiJCt-n iif ihr Middlr Stnr^A 
pay?* bin laxi.V't In IbrM: ruiICA jil pEir Ciiii ;t ^;nrjiTi^ lEijii^icc^ 
than tills be concaved? Can coit^uiiitioniU prorlMOiu be di»- 
fr^rdi-d in n more rw*rntial point? Comnu-rcJal prt*f«r€oc» 
alf^o nri< gi^4-n. wtiirb^ if ll^^y «bonld t>o ooiiiiiui^'d, would be 
mliideiK to annibllnte ihe cornTiii?r<« of somoi olii^s and fioroe 
8]ai4.'Ts whil<*' fbt^y would ^rrally promote tliat of olhrrh. Tbe 
imiiiiri4Ek|; nit-nliatit of Boston pay^ ibir ilutW upun bl^ f^vodfii 
citHr-r in tipoca(< or ai^b nclc:.^, whk'h nrc n.1 Wnsi twi'iiiy per 
CPiit., or in trraanry'iiotcp, wbicij art- icn i>er et^nt more valn- 
nbliT ihun the noTn wbicb an? |mid for dtilic-E^ ai puTf by the 
im[M^nmg mrrciinm at Riihimorr*. ^nrcly thiii Ik rot ti» ha 
fiiidiinnl. Such mon«trnii4 lii>.-4)Uiilily and inju^ljci* criiiiiLot eon- 
limir, Since the commcni^iiK-^it of tlii» oourac of tbiiig>t it 
can b« flt^pwn Ibm thi.^ peopk of llio Norlbt'tn Stutt-* liave paid 
a tmlluMJ iji doiliuH cDore thmi tbi-ir juet proportion of ibi< pub- 
lir- tMifiti'nii. A #iimUr itu-c]u:iliiy, iluiugb i^omewh'U tt^^v in 
degn-i*, Fmk fnllr-n ii|iiio ibe dtniL'9 jHriith uf Uie KiUiitiue, In 
wljiHi IIm- pFLprr in r.ircnUlioHT Ldlliougb nut npjisnU'iLl li:i ^pi^ue, 
is yeC 4)f biK^er value than thr Liknk-iuilr« of ilii* Ui!»iric1, Mary> 
I«ii4^ aiLd tbf Mid'lle ^tjilci). 

Hut tl ifi n<vl iiKTuly tbi' inM|uality and InjuBtico of thi« aya- 
Efim, it lUiit nmy be cul[r-d ly^t^'in wbicb la ratbtf ibo want of 
mil *y*tfm- IHtii nr*'d reform. It tbitiw^ llu- wlioJe rrvtfriu*- bilo 
deruftj^-iT cii> ai* i vndlcAA coufuviou. Xvcnu tlir j4>?i.-tiLility 




of ordcTf method, or crrtninty in ihr public rtocipto or diAbmwv 
inontiu This maafi of dopreeeed paper, thro wd out at ^l in 
louriA to act^omnkodal.e g^iveriiinent, hftfl done little eUe tfirm 
ciDbarmas unii Jifltre&H jfuv^fmnitrnU It i^ii hnnlly Ix: mud U» 
circuEali.', bui it bt^a Lii ittc chtmnel of circnlntioa^ and chokes it 
up b^' iltf bulk and its sluggitthDOEM. In n grcnt portion of the 
connlT/ th« dci» ari- not pnid, or arc hndly paid; nnd in an 
«qaal ponton of tbi- country the pub^ creditor am not psid) or 

It i» (luit*^ clear, t!mL by tl»r sUtut^? all duilv^n and taxes an 
ruquinxl to bt pf\id in the Icgni mpncy of the United Stntci^ 
or ia iicn^tiry-notcst, agreeably to itx^cnt provivions. It b jmt 
M elmr, that the law has bocn disregarded, and Ntnt th^ not4^« 
of bnrihs of a haiidred different deacnptionn, nnd almost as 
many different valuea, have been received, and stilt nre received, 
wbtre Lfit BbstuLt? required legal inuney or litaaury-uotea Ut be 

In thc«c eircumstanccft, 1 connct pcrvtinde myaetf that Con- 
giCfle will adjoiirti, \cithout attempting ncmething by way of 
r8niMly> In my opinion, no greater Fvil bns thrc^ntt^ncd n*. 
Nothing ear more endanger, either tbe existpiiee and pfeHrrrsL- 
tioii of (he public revenue^ cir the necurlly irf private property, 
than ibe consf^Ljuencea wbicli arc to be apprehended Irom tbe 
prevdil cour?« of thin^, if tbey be not arrcvited by a timely and 
an effectuaJ interforenov. Let gentlemen oorsider what will 
probably h»pp<*n, if CongtesB should ruie without the adoption 
of Rny fnrsiMnre on the subject 

Vir^Tiia, having passed a law for compelling the banks in 
that State to limit the c^irculalion of tlieir paper, and reaiufiiti 
Bpecie payments by the autLimi:, will^ doubtleoa, repeal it Tho 
Stat4^ei fjuthcr to the nonth will probably fall into a aimilrir relax- 
ation, for it is hardly to be etpectf^d that they will have firnme** 
mid perseveranen enocif^ to persii^tin tb^Jr preiirnt moiti pmJrnt 
BJid cLimmeiid^ble eunr^e, wiihuut tbe eonnienance of the gen- 
eral ^vcTiiinent. If, iji ndditiun lo tbeoe eveiit«, an abandon- 
ment of the wbolf^ame ayalem wliich has ihn& far prevailed in 
thu Northern States, or itny relaxation of that systein, abould lake 
ptaco, tho ^vernmr^nt is jji danger of foUing into a condiUon, 
from which it wilt hardly b« abl9 to extncate itself for twenty 
fcon, if indeed it shall evtr be able to extricate it«elf ; and iJT 



that state of thintf!*, invK^uil of hv'wg chun^*^^ by the gOTeinniefit, 
**lia|} m>i cbEingi? tb«^ govrrrtimrnt. 

U y OUT bujiinr»4 ia (oT^t^ thi9 dnngrr, nnd to avoid it- 
Thcrc Arc nonic political evils vbhich arc seen ns soon as thoy 
ftTG dnngcrooA, aii<l whicb alarm at once aa m^U tbc people b9 
the govpmm^nt. Wan and liivaeiona, therefore, are not always 
the moflt certain tleatroyen of iiutioiial proBperlty. Tbey c<ora& 
in ao ijuesliunuble aUape. Tlit-y ariiioiiii<.'i? IlK'ir own apprunchi 
and Uie (^iieraf nvcnrity ie< prff<t--rvtd by the ^neml aljuitii 
Nut 90 with the cviU of a drbaacd coici, a drprcriiitn] p^ip^-T cui' 
rtucy, or a <ie}jr?wcJ qii<I fnliing public cr^ilit. Not »o with the 
piaujubte and JnaidiouB miKfaicfa of a papc-Mnoticy iyKtom. 
Thr*i? ifiAinuatit lhemwlvo« in the nhapp of faeiliiiPS, ftor*^nmo- 
datioii, and relief. They hold out the riLOrit fulladoiut Iiojm 
of an ea«y |iayii]«jit of debtiif and a liffliter biirdea of !;»- 
ation. It iti cany for a portion of the pf?opl« to imaB:]tie that 
l^overDment may properly ccmlirmc to rcc<;iv(: drpri^dated paper, 
bucaoAi? they have receivt^d it, and bt*cuu)«e it i< more convt^n* 
\t-nt to obUiin it than to cibuln otlifr pup-r or HprH-ie. But on 
theiie «ihj4^« it i* that govrrrHnrnt otighf, to rtprrisM* it* own 
peculiar viMloin and caution. It ia supposed to poMcss, on 
subject* of thi> nature, aomewlmt more of foresight than baa 
follen to the lot of individuuk It ia bouod to foresee iho evil 
before every man ferU it^ and to lake all nect-'vifary mea«urv« to 
guard against, ii, although they mny1>e meaiurc-ii attended with 
*ome dilTimdty and not vbithtmr, irmponiry irirpiivenif'iiee-. In 
my humble j a dgmrnt, thr evil dtmaiid» the immediate attention 
•i*i Con^r?^ ll iA not certain, and in my opinion not probable, 
that it will «rvcr euro iteclf* It ie more likely to grow by in<lul- 
g^nce, white thp renxxly whfeh must In the end be applied will 
become leM efficaeioua by delay- 

Tbe oidy power which the general government possesses of 
reetraining the iAatirt? of the Stflte banks, is to refnac their ttotet 
in the reewpta of the treaeary. I'hie power it cnn exercise now, 
or at h^aiit It can provide now for enerciaing in reaocnable 
limp, bccaijiw the eurfcncy of some part of the country i« yet 
8onnd, and the rvtl Is not universal. If it should beoome 
univnW, wliO tlmt lieflilJtIeM now will Uien prnptwe uny nt\f.* 
qonte ineana of relief? If a measure like tfje bill of yr^-^tcr* 
ibVi or tbc ivaotntioaa of to-dny, can hartlly pasv bore novr. 



o^hftt hopv IS there thai any eiTideiU measure wUl b^ tclo| 

Tbc conduct of tht; 1]:^LMiry clri^ulmcriL tii receivjiif;; the uo4eB 

not, liuvc bccu L-xc(i><7cl b)' tbc nccca^ity oi Ihc- ciu>a That b 
not rtoxv thv xtibjVi^t of Inquby. I wUh kuHi inquiry bucJ be«a 
aii«tltat«-ri It oiii^ht to hn\T bmi. It in of (Lnii^vroiin eonm** 
qiurncc to prrn^it plntn timWiori? lo eod'curr ihv Uw U» pj«?w oll^ 
under any circuiDati^ucrf^ wiUiout tiiciutry. It vrouJd probaljly be 
ftft!*icr to prove tliat tiie treaBury must hnvt- continued lo reccivt 
ftucb nuifis or tliiU ull |KLyfii(-nbi to BiiT4*rumt.*iiL %*onld h%fe 
beea atiftpended, tbari it wuuM b« to jutUfy tbv previous tt«gi> 
1i»lioiiH uf grtMiT loiin* nl (he lank?!, whitli ^^'ll* u VLjiiiitary traiiH* 
Action, lEiclu^ci) by no pjirluriilrtr iiri'-rx^jty, niul whitL if^ iii'^i^r* 
thelcM, bvyoud donbt, tbt? priucJpiU cnUM^ of Ihcir present con- 
dition. But J have cMprva^ed my belief on more tbnii oac 
occGwiort, and I h:))i?at tho opinion, that it was Iho duty, unJ In 
(he potior, of Tho St^cretary of ihv Tr^afiuryi on Ihe relurn ol 
peace, lo rvrurn to (he IfrgiiL mid prosier niude of I'ulIiHrliiig \Ho 
revtmut* TIir pii^H-r of t)ni b^inka r»nt? un llmt ovi:iialuu al- 
most to nn equality with siKxii^; that was the f&vorablc nio- 
mnit. The bnnk^ in which tlie piiblitr nioucy vn^ depocsiled 
ought to have bwn ijkdaccd lo lead the \A"ay, by tbu «dc of their 
g^vrrnmciit Mockn, iind olbei iTi<»o>nre* cnlcidatinJ to bring abcintj 
moiJL-riiU-ly aitd ^nradmilly, hut rt'i^darty and c^flainJy, ilif n^^to- 
raiicti of iht? former uzid uuly wife Aiute of lJtiii|p.i It can haiUly 
be doubtf d, that tbf jjiflopncv of the treasury could ha^t ttU'eck-d 
li ihio. K not, rt c-i^tild hnvc willidmwn the dt'popibi und eouri' 
IcniMiccT of gov(<mmcnt from iniititution> which^ ng«injit all rulo 
Biul nil proj>Hpiy, wrre holdinj^ g^^'^' *unw in govinninM'nt )tt(n?lit, 
nriil lusdiing iMiormoiH pro ti!*i from th<» circuiallon of thHr own 
lUflhoiiort^d [juper, Tbjit wbkb wa* nio»l waiili^d waa the de** 
ignntion of u lime for the cotTi-niwndiiiK cipemiiou of biuiktt in 
^liflt-rcnt places. Thin could have been madi- by ihe buitd uf the 
lAaaQryt better tliun by any btidy or cvrry body ehcA But Uio 
0(>cn»Eoi] wj* sutfered to pass by Linimprovtd, uad ihe ert'diE of 
the bunkn skioji fell nguin, whi^n It wna found ihcy ijimiI ntiii<! 
cf the mcfLus which the oppuftunUy alTunlcd tljtin ftar cttabliug 
them to fulfil their tiiga^nient*. 

Aa to anv |>owcr of omiipuldioi; to be cxerciood ov^r the Stoto 



JbpHln^ \\\rj are not aitbjfrct tn the <Iirr<Tt irontn>l nf ilir gL^ncrnl 
gi>vetnm(;nt It in for the Stutc authorilici,* which crcfttcii them 
to <lr«ido whethirr thfry hnrc mtixl According to their charters, 
and if not, whnt ahull he the i^in^y for tli^ii Irr^f^Ariti^a. But 
From ftiicb of tiirni a* coiitinni?-J to ree^ive dopoiiitfl of public 
m<>iirry, ^verotiic^uL hiul a ii^'lit Ui ^xptit^t Lh»L ihtty wutittl am- 
ciuvt thvjr con<:«rn» atcofdin;^ to the nafe mid 'EvrlUkntPWu |>riti> 
ci^dua wliich ffhouid properly ^ovt^ra ?uth m^tituMon.i, It I* 
UouikI alftu to ooUvct 110 tiuc« of the proplc ol3 a untform np' 
Urn^ Tbi<M; right* mid Uuwe duties ;irLr ton iniportaiTt To bi^Aur- 
n*afli?ml to thr nct^immoLbiliiin of iiiiy tntcnvf. or ni>y 
U'mporHfy pnrposr- 

Thc rc9olotion» before Ihr House take no nQtic« of the sSlato 
banke^ Thcry c!iprr«« nrithcr praist^ [kcr ccn^urc' of thcin. Tboy 
neither commcmd thvm for tb^ir potriouem ii\ Um loaiie mule to 
govenim^iil, nor propose to tax Ibem ft>r their Ufgltfcl or rehrsal 
111 pny their d«htB. They asauiDe no powi-r of itilr^rf^fiug with 
fhe^ iiE.ttilutioEiffc. They »ay uol one word about troDipdliii^ 
them to ruiiiat- ihcir paymciittf; Xhvy tcarc thnt to the conaidcr- 
ation of the banhn them !h;1v 1:^4, or to thcH<r who havo n ri^t to 
QoUth«cn to account for »iiy miteondnot in ih;tt rrt^pccl. But 
thft resolutions df'dair rhat tufiP^ oui;lit to be i^u^; that prf-'f* 
er&uceA oii^ht not to be giveji : that ibe revenu^^ of th« vounlry 
OUfjit DOt fo bt.- diiiHiiihhT^d in Limoont« iKir hnxnrdf-d nttoj^f-thirr, 
by the rect-ipt of vju-yiiiif and uncertain pnpcr; and that the 
prmcnt iftatc of thingn, in which «il Ihctc unconatitutinnQj, ille- 
gal, and danp^rons inpt'ilirnt* nrr mi^nfi, onnbl not l*> f^xii^t. 

It hsL8 b^rn Mfiid) tliTit thr*«* ri^stihirionn m-iy tw? e<nihitrurd Into 
A jofttjlicalloo of ilw pa»t ouiiduct of the Irea^iry di-pariment. 
Bucti ;in objttiion has b^-t'ii anticipatri]. U waa madf. in ray 
opinfoUf wiib Ttjucb raore jii»tit'e 10 the bill reji-etcd ytati^rday, 
Atid a proTJHion woa tb^n>fore sLtbgetjuieiidy lulroducvd into 
that bill to exclude »ucb an lnfer?oc?i?. Thl» is oerralnly not thi! 
lime to expfritn any juMliriL^alion or appn^bulWn of the oondur^t 
of that dr|Kirtii]cnl on thi^ niibjcct, titid 1 iruat 1bt:ie rc'volnliiin* 
do not imply it Nor do the riBoltition* pro()o»(! to rxpn-jt? 
anT cennun^ A ^ulhdt^rit reanon f«jr UMining to do either \^ 
that thp facTi^ tLrp riot itufRdenUy known- What \v%s ha* actu- 
tippened, what atnoiuLt — it is wnid fo Ik* largr' — may bA 
in ttu; treaAtiry, in notr» whi<:h will not imft, or und<T what 





But bcTcirtf thcoc resolutions tkiv ri^jcotcdf on the ^^ound thai 
ihpy mny cibk'Id Uk? tnjcuiwry di*pttrtini?(it from rrjsjjon»ibJUiy» it 
ought U> be de!U"ly (hown that they arc cnjiciblc of jiiich a con- 
^tnirlion. Thv. tnm< (uuning of niiy rrHohitinn cannot hnv^ ihat 
flrfiecl. A drclHnition of wh»t ou^ht to Ixr done doi*-^ not necoa- 
Minly imply any sanction of what ha* been dont. It muy «ome- 
time? imply the contrary. Thcac Mwoltilioo* cannot to mado to 
imply any more than thu, — tJjat the finanoial affair* of t*w ccnn- 
try are in 4uch a eondlt[oD that the revi^nne eannot hv inst^uitly 
froUeuteJ in le^pl tufrtiicy. T^iin ihey do imply, Hnd this 1 nop- 
ptnc aliiiont all admit tit be true. An bialnntanronii rxtTMtion 
of th<? Inw^ witEiout wumuix or notice, could m my opinion pro- 
duC!A nothing, in a portion of tlic countiy, but an entire ouflppn- 
sioii of payment*. 

But to uhoiie fuult it U owning that the affnirt of the country 
arc rrducL^cL to tbl« t^ndiLion^ they do Jiut declare^ The^y do not 
prevent, oi in any degree t7mbziTTn«% future inquiry on liiat sub- 
ject Thoy Bpcak to the fact tJial the iinancc-a are deranged. 
They tuiy, alao, Uitvi rtfermntion, thou^^h it munt be j^raduaj, 
ought to bv iniiu?diatt.rly bo^n, and to be earriMi to perfection 
in tlir? iihoTteHt time pmolic«ib1e. Thc'y cannot by nny fair con- 
«tni('lir>n be made tri rxpn^^-iA tbr fi[»pr(ih!Llinn of Congrr^^ on ibc 
paat condtict of any high oHiccr of government; nnd if the time 
shall ever r^mewhcn tbi^ i4ou8e ehtUldcem investigation nece*- 
naryT it must b*^ n enae of very nnproiniMng aspect, and of most 
fearftd inane, which ahnli aiford no other hope of cncape than by 
settirig up thet«e re^iolutfonfl by way of baf lo an Inijuiry. 

Nur is it uny oUj«:tion tci thi:i measure that iiu[atry has not 
Arat l>ecn hjiil. Two dutka m^iy br aupposcJ to \%tx\c reeled on 
the House: the one, to inquire into the origin of the evd, if it 
needed inqoiry; nnd thr other, to find and apply the remedy. 
BecEinae one of thcflr diiiiVn has not hitbrrto Iwrn disphtirged, ii 
no reason why the other should be lorigiT ni'j,'U'ctrtU Wliile we 
are deciding which lo do jirKt, tha time of Ihc ^eaoicn ii» going 
by u^s (^J^^ UT^ithcr rnay be doiic. In the mean time^ public mia- 
cliie^ of unknown ma^^.ltude and jncnioulable duration threaten 
th« cimntry. I see no «]uWttlent, no consolation, no tnitlgatioo, 
for these evila in the future renptmiibility of depsu^ inenla. l*cl 



•how me any ToapooalWllty whieh will not be n niimfi 
ftfidnilftUfacry. Iff whe^n wv mi^i^t hfiv af^in, it fihuJi be foiiad 
ttiat M tlic WfTirn whic4i hnvr hithi^Oi in any degfoc, ir- 
>trai]i«d the rmia^f 1(311 !i of n pnprr moncj of itic wty worat son, 
have given way, and that tiio floods havr^ broken tn upon ua and 
MUM ov«r UB, — if it ebaUIXf found that fFVonu^fi hav^ failed^ Ibat 
ibe public crciJit, now a litt.ip propped nnd anpporl^^d by a at&ls of 
petu?e uftd <x>riir[ti^r(H?, hati ag^iin toui^red and fallen U> the ffniarul^ 
and Uini nO tliv optrratiuiin of govi^miiient are al a sUiiid,^ 
what Uipen will bo the \alue of the i^iipon.-^ibllity of dcp&rtmcnta ? 
How great, Iht^n, iha votue of inquiry, wh<<ii tint t-vit in pu*t pre- 
vention, when officers may hav« gone out of place, and when, 
iiidtwd, Ihir whole EidniiniAfTatlon will nece^Mtanty bt^ dluolvirg 
by thi? oxpinition tjf thi^ tx?rin fr^r winch thr i^hti^f nccutlvc ntn^ 
ifltfatc wri» cho»cn? I cannot conacnl lo stoke the chance of 
the greatest public mischicta npor a rdiancc on any euch re- 
sponsibility. Tbr. strtltps are loo Unequal. 

As to the opinion advanced by aome, that the object of the re»* 
olulUins oannul in nay n'ay be aiiiawered, Ih^t the revenciea eannot 
be oollecletl tttlierwiae than an Lliey are imw, in ihe paper tjf aiiy 
and crery banking a:uoctation which chooses to Iemuc pnpirri it 
cflutnol for a niom<?i>t be adinttt«4i This would be nt once giv* 
tng up llie government; for what \e govemniont without rcr*- 
nue, and whsit in a ri*vr'n«i^ that ii< gethi^rcd together in th<» vary- 
ing, fl nt^timti ng, dUiTnlitrd, di^pn-cintcd, and £ti]l failing prom- 
bvary uoIch of two or three hundred distinct, and, oa to tliie gov- 
ernment, infApoiuiblt ba»ki[ig compatiiee ? If it cauittit wsllecl 
its icvi-nues in a Ixrtter nmnaer than ttiia, it inuat eeiuc to be a 
government. Thi« thing, therefore, is to be done ; at any nitE! it 
U to be ntti^mptrfl That it will be Qet-omplivhed by thn trrfl«- 
nry d^partrnentj without thr inirrfrrence of Congresa, I have no 
bdtef. If from that Aoofuc no rcforniatioii came when refonuit* 
tion was casy» it is not mui u^ 1a rxpt'cted. Edpecially aJW 
the TTote of yuAterduy, thOBt.' win.)'-: mti^Teat it is to continue the 
pire«ent sUlc of ihingu will arm themifelves with the ;xuthority 
of Congrei*, They will jualify ihemsehe* by Ihe dednion of 
thin HiiUAiv Thej will say, and sny Uiily, Una iiiis HcatNr, hnv* 
log taking up the anbject and diAcu^nt^ it, hn?i not thought Gt 
so mne.h a4 to drclnrc that it i* expedient evf-r lo relieve the 
«r\iuilrT or ib* D*-vcnuo8 from a ^poi-iuouev ay^tem Wjioevcf 




believe* tiiat the treoAiuy <Jt*piirtinent will 4>pp(Vtc thi» ti<b\ Mrd 
ftj it will be by »troDg focimg and grrat iiitiTc^t, ItLut morr fqith 
in thiit drpctrttn^nt ih;in hrnt rillrii to rnv iol. It in ih** duty of 
thin Hoiiv In inti-rf(*rr with ifjt own niithnrity. Having utXfd 
tho pc-oplt; wilb iiD l^gtit bfti;J, il la iiliw iu dtih tu tuLc cant 
tliat ihir pet>|j|r do not (Tustaui Uicpc burdniM In vain. The taxes 
ikte not bi>rrio WLthoul feviiri^;. Tht^y will not be b4>rui^' wiUiout 
complaint} if, by cnijiiiuiiiuf^ineiit in collodion, tfaLrir utility to 
fpvernnicnt vhould hv Jo«I, und Ihry vhoold get iiru> the trctuury 
■t hiM. only in iliKCM^'ililrd nm) itM^Trrd pnp^f. 

A baiik of tliirty-fivt: ralUioii» huA \xra crf-ati^d fcT tbc pn>- 
fcsMd pur]>OBe of corrvcTing ihc v\\h of oar drcitliilioti, and 
f&cilitathkf^ Ibt rortripttf unU expendilnrce of govcmmriil. I am 
not no waii^uiue ill tiio hojje of great K'uefit from thifc meatiire 
at others arv. Bui th^ trj>a«[iry Ih also fiiitborSi:<'d to Iseue 
twvnty>iivi* fiiillioriA of iicnaury'MiJtcfH, ei^hirt^ii or iwt-nty iDJl- 
lionv of which rcm.-iin yet to be imicd, and which are aUa 
allowed by law to bi^ received for dutii^* nnJ Uxr^ In mlilition 
lo thMe la thu coiji which i« m the country, luid whic^h i» tare 
to come forth into circulation whenever thora i« & d^^mand for it 
ThMe uk^anftf if wlwiy mid skilfully admiiilMTf>red, an^ Aulfir^leitt 
tu prevtiji iiny piylinilsir iin-jwurt-, ur (jEn^t im-tirivi-nirntu, in 
returnuig to the lrg;J modi: tif i^idte^^tuig the n^rtrnuci. It ii> tme, 
it may be rn!>irr for the pcoj^lc in the Stat<*5 in which the dcpre* 
ci8t<'d paper cniM* to pay iheii tjuce* in tUfh p!i]MT than in ihm 
l^^l cum>[kcy of treaAOry^notr^v, bscaoM they oari get it cbettpcr. 
But ttiifl ia only ttayiiig Ihnt it U ea^f^r to p^y n small tnx thmi 
lo pay a lar^e ontr, or lliAt irkont^y viy^iA rnorv ih.tik Ihsit which i« 
lewi valnnbit; tlni.n money, & prupoeitioi] not to 1>c disputed. 
Dnt n mt^diuni of payment convonieiit for th(i people aud ^e 
(or the government will be l'onnshf?d, and mny ttverywhero be 
obtained for n reanontibk? prioc*. Thi> if all that t^an justly be 
rxpri<-trd of CongreiiH. Having pmviili^l Lln^, they itught lo 
rctgnire all pari* of Ihi- connUy U> lufinforni to tiir k«itic nic-aaurD 
of Ju»tice> If lax(^ft be oot ncccA^aryt Ihey *h>nd4] not be laid. 
If laid, tfaey cufiU to be collected without p^^fcrcncc cr par- 

But while ^ame gentlemen oppose ihe resolutions hrenufw 
Iflpy tilt a day too nenr, other* ihink tliey fin a day too distanL 
Id iny own judgment, it b iiul tso material what the time La. u 



It i« ^o fix A lime. Th*^ gT*flt. i»bji"^i:^t i* to Jirttk the (|in^f.ion, 
tbnt cur L-^al L-urrriKj' is lo be prc«cr^€d, and that wc ore not 
ctboot tc embark on the ocwan of paper money, Xho &taC« 
b&nki^ if fhoy couaiiil their own intf^reet, or the int^r^sl of llfl 
commimiTy, will di^ipote of Uj«ir government sloek^ arid pri^> 
|iarc itit^iuAFlvt^s ui ri-(}tH-iii iliirir p;ij>i;r and fulfil tl^cir {.iJittnK^t^ 
If ihcy «liouli] iKif. wlopt ttiiA coufM-, tht^re will bt; tiitii- for tht; 
people to be informrd that tbr pnpt^r of sMvAi inr<tiimLOji« wiU 
not aottwer the dcmnnd^ of govi^nimnit, tind that duties and 
taxev muHt be paid in Ihp marmci pmvidrd by \av,\ 

1 rannot i^ay, indrcd, ihal thin mrniiirn will o»*rtji(nly produce 
thf dt^Aiivf I oHf^H. \i may lail. It8 8UL-cr-vs ft^ l^ i;bvi<)Li», must 
C9W!fili;iIly di^pt-nd on 1\k couip^ puniucd by \hf irvaeury tl<;part' 
mnU. Hut itb tendency, I Uiiiikt will be to pruJncL* jj^ood. It 
will, ) ho[^F-, be a pmof thut Coiigruaa U noi ri^f^-ttrdtotte of it4 
liuty. It vi\] hv evidenco that thb grejit subject ha< not ptuimad 
without nol]<;n. Il wiU record our di'li'nnincitiou lo rciint the 
introduoliofi of a monl dej*iruct.ivo and Tiiinrmhlc polit-y into our 
eyetcm ; &nd tf there be any Bajicticn or authority in the Cotifti* 
totion and ihv Uw, if there be any regard (or ju«tjcc and 
ectn^lity, if there be any ear<j for ibv iij*tional r€V<»niic, or any 
Goocern for ihe publie iiitort-*!, let goiiileincn consider whether 
Uiey will r^inr|ut«h their wai ben* befurt thbt or aotne otbei 
mennure br odoplH* 


Tait riiie mhJ prognwo of tliH mvulutiuii ui Opoocc ntfncUid ^^cm 
ftftcntiQn in the United SEaica, M'uiy obvious Cfluaon C4>ntribulcd Xo thw 
cifrcT^ ftnr) thflir infliiunc^ wmi nfCAndcd hy iho tiimct opp^ftl m&de to 
tl*c jwoplf of America, by llie ^ii*l poUtWl boJy orgnnixed m Gnwco 
Ki^or ihc breaking oul of ibo rcroluTbn, viz. " llio MeMDniui Smmie 
of CftlamAiA.** A formftl luldrpvi wan mndiN hy ihnt bndy to ihe paoplfl 
of tho IJniicd fil&t«)«, and farwiird<;d by their commiHce (of which (he 
Golobmod Koniy wdh chainniui), to a friotid artd eomapondcni ld ihjji 
oouniry. TIiIh n(JUrv>« whh iniiiHlaled aucf wy«Ly dvcubilod ; ttiil it wu 
nc4 (o be oxpcGlcd Lhal aay gr^al dc|Ere« cf oonfidcficc ahouJd bo oi once 
gvnorftlLy Colt la t. movomoni undvrtulcan bgainm nucb fortiudftblo ixJd«> 

Tlio prugren uf tsvueiib. huwcvur, iu l^'H u-tiJ lf^>^, wua nudi cu lj 
crcoto ftn tinpri;wii(#n HutX thv rovc>lutiun m Gn^ccc had u ftuhMantiuI 
foundulioa iu Ihe slale of airuirt, in tbv awiiceoed «pirtt of tluit cuuutry, 
and ill t]jii coijilit'ujii af public opiuiaii tliruugbciil Ctrriatcndoni. Tho 
intorvHi kXi in th« nruggto rapidly incrcoAod in tb« Upilml St&tra. Lo- 
cal ci^mmitlecc ven fonncd, unimtilud oppi^uln were madc» and fund* 
cvllccicd, wttb a view Ml ihc rc!ivf oflbo »icurii*cf ihc nar. 
' On tliB aMOJUbling of Congrtjw, in Ll«G<imb«r, l^^iU, Preflid«iil Mon- 
roe nuidr the mToluiton in (imTi^c* ttir' vuhject ttt a parcgmph in hi* 
nnniin! mcoiago, and oil ihe Qlh (rf Docritnbcr Mr. Wcb»icr moved ibe 
foUowing iVHdtmir>n in tho Moum of Itfprvtu?malive4 ;-^ 

•• R^goirrd^ 'Thnx pmvihii>n niLghi m bn mniln, by Inw, for nCmy'm^ 
Iho osp«n«a iacid«nl to tho npptHnlmcQt of oji A)c«nt or Coiiimimionor 
toGwec**- whtnuvcr iht Prvndum flhtJIdtcm it <>\pvrlieni lo nuUto «»ch 

'DiOflO, if. ifl btilkuvvd, uns ibv drtft official fJUprvHHioriH HLvomblr to iJjO 
indapendeiicfr of (jreece uttered by nny of ibc guviimmmti of CKrutTco. 
doDi, onJ DO doubt conuibuieJ powerfully low&rd* the crcauon of tJmi 
iipeliiig throughout the civiiiucd world which evi>mu«ILy lod to Iho buirle 

* A S[mttli dplirfretj m tlie Houao of RepmHnULrm ciT iha Tailed Suilet 



of NflTiiriiio^ and cho llb^nLtfon afu portJnn of Qrvecn fWim iha TurkUh 

Tho HonH) of RftpFcioniDtivci Imring^ on the I9Th of jE&nunry, r^ 
4n1v«n iiH^ir Intn A crtrnmlrtflp rf iJw wIidIp, ahiT this m^nlHtlon hrrlng 
lokon into conaidcmiion, Mr, Wcbi^cf »poko to ih^ following clTccl. 

1 AM afraid, Mr Chftirman, Th:tt, to Ihr as my pari in thi« dif- 
r?t]wilon k comfHiecl, lht>»if ex|>ectattonn whii^h the pitMic c%' 
iritrmeiil ciisting on the siibjctt, nml crrlaiu nfl[*c>elatJ<»nB caeily 
3iag^e«tcd by it, have cooajMri'ti to n\ac, may \k diBap|Kjintcii. 
An ooauton whidi colU thf^ citt^n1i(>iT fa n Apot so diHtinj^uiahed, 
ILO conniicned wiih ir>Tyiviffif]i; n^oolU'ctioiipt^ h* Oivet^e, may natu- 
rally create *oiTii-lliitig of wurmtl; nnc) rrithii!*iM-'<ni. In a grave, 
(xilitiral 4li!H-ii»Ni(iii, howrviT, it 19 uccv-Mnry tliat tJujEie fc«1in|^ 
fthouM br rh"*ti*i-d I ^hall ^'ndcavor propt^rly to rrprcdfl them, 
Eilthovgh it \» impoasibli* that they should be oJtogrth<^ rxtin- 
gubh«d. We muBi, indoed, Hy beyond the oiviliz^d world; we 
most p^M the dominicn of law and th^ hoiindarW r>f k>l^w^ 
t<d^: ive mtiH, more (rftpociHlly, wilhdniw (i«r»*e]ve8 from thli 
pittce, ftful tlie seenea and ubjecta wbJch hf-re surrourwl us» — if we 
would rHrpnrat*^ oumdves tutircly from th^ inlluercc of all ihoM 
racrn'OTickU of ht;r*<'lt whioh nncicnt t;rt*<'ro hufi tmmimitti!d for 
the.- lulmintion and f.h(< bem*tit of mankind, TbU frc4} form of 
govrrnmi'nf, thU pnpiilnr !uui*nddy, thr <>onimcm ('nunoil h^kl for 
the common gnod^-^whrrri: \mvr- wi* f.iniiviii\^U\U*d iln crtvlJL'st 
model' ? Thi« f^ractier:^ of free debate and public discii^»ion, 
the eonlost of mind with mind, and that popt^lar eloquence, 
whieh, if it were now here, on a subject Uke tbia, would movo 
Th^ fffoiies of the Cj^pitcl, — whose wab the lariQ^uage rn wliieh 
all lhe«ti were fimt i-.ihltMted ? Pveri llie edifire i;i wliicli we 
aHMemble* Uieae [in)|Hirtii)tu'd nibtitirin, tiiiH unmmt^nri^d arfrhl* 
tectnre, all remind n-* Orrrrr hns rxirttcd, and Ihttt wc, like 
the not of mankmd, an- jfrcntty her debtorti.* 

Bat I have not introduced thi* motion in the vain hopo of 
dkcfiarging [iny thing of thi* nenimnlatr-fi di*ht. of erninrirs, I 
bare ncX nnUni npon ttir ex|xvln1t<>n, Ihut W4\ wlio bsiv4* inhi^r- 
itcd thin obi igntirn fiiim oar ance-r<tcrp, shoidd now attewipt to 
pay it tp thow who may ecem to bavc inhcKlod from their on- 

* Th* inicTior of Iho hall of ihc IIouh ol J^cpruArriauvoa u jurf uumlod By i 

THE RKVOLirnON va ureece. 

morr immrilinlr. \ v;hU la Taki- cir('n!<ioii of ihf- nltu^glr of nn 
ifttrrv^»ting ami guUsnt people, in th*^ CAWs«c of liberty nnd Chris- 
HAnitYi to draw ih^* nttriitioii *:>r thf^ Mtniiir to the divumMaiK^c* 
which have accompanied tlmi 0irLiq;^Ie, an^ to th<* principle* 
which apppar fo have govf^ned the rondiKit of lh^ gr^sit »lAtes 
of Fiiropt* Iti n-^HiO to It; ntid ti» tin* efTfcta inul OfHiWijm-TJwa 
of thc*^ piiiiclpltTi upon tho hi(U'|tt?itUeiLcc of national anJ cspt- 
ciotlly upon Ihc iiit^tj!tiiiot)» of itvc goTtrnmcnts. What I have 
tovayof Cirw'ce, tht'refor«r,*>oiiwrDB tho modern. not the anient; 
thv living, unJ not the dead ll tvj^rtU hvr, nftt n* *h? eitlsta In 
hUtory, triiiinphHiil owr timi% Hiid lymtiny. and iy;ioninpp ; but 
tut fhc now in, contx-iidiri^T nfi^ii»t f(.-»rfi]l odd?, for being, aod 
for (be common privik'g»"-< of homart nutun*, 

Aa it i.i nt'vor diflicidt io ivoifc comnionplace r^miubt nod 
tiitc nphotifmv, M> it muy bo vnfty, I nm uv.tiTtr, on thi« ix<^* 
■ion, to truuut] mr of thr wis'lotn whirjj dirtnlrv Ut mm a cft» 
of their own afTiw^, and iHlmom*lir!< thi-m, in^lmid of jtrarrhmg 
for adrcntun^ abroad, to leave oThcr men's couc^rn^ in tbcir 
cvji bandit It tmiy be i.a*y to call tMp rc'*o!ution Qvixottet ih© 
emorjatioa of a cntnadin^ or propni^iiidieii ppiriu All tbta, and 
more, may he n-udily naid ; but all iblsj %ad mo»^ will not be 
allowed to flic a ehanici4.>r u|Km ihU pmc^tH^diog, uulil tlmt !h 
pn?VL-d whicli U Inkra fur grjiotrd. Lrl ir. fir?<[ Im." nliowii, that 
tn ihh quf-Mioti tlicrr i» n(;tbiijg which con nt}o<-t ihr inti-rrflt, 
the chnrncirr, or ihv duTyof thiJt toiuiliy. Let it be provrd* that 
wft arc not <?rt]W upon, by rilhcr of IbcH.* con!*idf'nil]oii«, to px* 
(irraw an opinion nn thf^ tubjfc-t to which Ihr ri'Wuitou rr]»t«-JL 
Lcri i.hi« be |>roviv], nml ihcn it will htdcc^d W mndc out, thni 
tintbcT ought 1bi# ro-Wution to pa#B, nor ought the subject of it 
to hove been mentioned in the communication of the iVe^ident 
to iia> Bnt, in my opinion^ thi« eannot be i»howAi In my judf;- 
meiit, tb<? siibjwi is Inu-n^ihig to the people :itid the govern- 
ment of this etiuniry, uiid W*- luv mlled npon, by ritiisideMtionc 
of great ^-ri^bt and momrni, to ej^prnwh out <»plnioii» ii]Min it 
ThefH^ toii.-<iderittion!s 1 Ihinli, ^p"i'g '"^cni ^ j^ttJ^ *ii oiir own 
diilyT our cfmrnctrr, iind on r own intrTc:il, I wish to Iri-nt the 
inbjrci iin *iiph jfronndfl, e^ehii-ivHy, nn htc mily Afitrne/in ; hm 
th«*rii In ooiiMdiTtijg il ns nn AirLTicnn (jiirs^tion, I eannot fotgvt 
*he a^e :n wbieh we live, tlie prevtiiling p^pirit of tht age, rbe m- 



rnf^ i)fif<Mlofm wMrTi Bf;rl:i1<- iT, nvt\ ottr civtn pi-riilllir Tvhl* 
tkin ill n.-x:i>^l to IKl-31' nitfrrr^nliikg (iui-9l)(in». I^rt tJiIk bi^, tlirrkt 
ntul an fur tut I tun coiict-nicti I ho^x- it will be, purrly an Asucn* 
cs»n 4lirtCtu»oi); Imt kt tt ^mbrii«% nfivrrtJu^lcss, rvrry Ibin^ that 
fuiriy <y>iK^rmK Amrrioa, Ixt it ccimprf'hf^nd, not raeroly ber 
pn?«Rnt ndvfliilngr, htif. hf^r pt^nnnnrnt ifitrre«r, bn eleralMj 
<;bnra€(rr ha our of th<i frrc ittntr* of ihr wnrhl, mn\ htr duty 
towmitb th«« gri.'at principles which have hillutlo riLaiiiiuineJ 
tbc relative indcpni^t^noc- of nationa, and wblcb h&ve, more «• 
pedaUj, nia<i6 hvr what she U' 

At the eommohoem^nt of ihe session, the President, tn fho 
dUrhai^ of tbe bi^'b liiilies of hitt ojtioi-. mllrd our afb-ri1ifm lo 
tlie tfubjcct to wlitch 1bi» rmolutioti rrl't^ri^ *^ A Mroiig bopr>* 
aayv lh«i1 cornnium;-<nlion^ ^h/uboru loiig tmtcrtnir)c<I» found^tl 
OD the hi"foio fllmsjrlL' of the tiroeki, thut Ibcj' would *ucccod iji 
tii^r rontrvt, and rt-»ijme ihrir {>qual station among the Itntions 
of thi- (•ftTl.k It in bi'lirvc'd fbut (he wbolp Hvil(/nd M-iTtld iatp« 

A dcrp intrn-** in llwrir wclfnif, Altb^>ugh no power bii* :k'- 
dared in their favor, yet none, according to oiir informaUoi], has 
taken part &gain#t tbcm. Their caii^c tind ibcij^ namu bav? 
protected Ihem from diMigir* which mtgbt ere tbis hav« ovtr* 
wb^med a»iy other jysiplc. The crrlir^.iry calculnllom of Inlcr- 
(!«, and of aia|Hb*ltioa wiih a litrw in ag|^u]diKenu-nt, which 
miniflc H) niiK'h in tlia tntneactlont of tialiun^, neL-tn to have 
had no tiU^^l ii\ ri'x^rd to thfrm. I'totn the facta which hnvc 
Gon>r to ouf knowlL-d^, there i^ f^ot} cutioc to btlicvc ihnt tbcii 
fincmy hm Imrt forever all doiiiiiiiMi ov-ertbern; Ibat 0<e(!W!wm 
bccofTi* Ptgnii) iin imleiM'mlcni ri^tion." 

]| luu nppean^LL lo mtt lliat the Ilouwc kHouU) ac^opt fiocnf^ 
rvsolalion rociproc^ting these senriment*, ilo far a* it tihall ap* 
prove tbein< More than twerity ycnr» have dnpacd since t^n- 
greea ilret ceased to receive Mich a oommtinicatton fnim The 
Pf€«ideni a» could properly he mnd** the '^iibjeer of a gt'i^Tiil an* 
vWirr, I do not runati li» ftiid fiittlt with Ihin r^<]]j]qiir->hriii'ii1 of a 
fovitier and an ancient pmcticci. It may h»vr Urn Jiilended 
with iiiconvrntcneea which jutffjfie*! its hbulition* But, CT^uun* 
ly, tlicre was oat ailranta^c belon^in^ to it; and thai in^ that it 
Fumii^bed a fit op|>ortuniry for ihe fxytrt-awn of the opinion of 
iho lu>tLM*ii of CoiigrrsK upon tb()»e foplen in Ih^* exi^-iuivr* r*4)ni* 
miinkuutini) which were not expeclcd lo be mtidu the immediate 




mibjf^fff or 'tirrrt Ir^Mition. Sinr^, theiflbrc, the Praeidooi's 
mc^pogr dori^ not now rrccivc^ n ^^^ncrol ftnawcTt Lt Ina aeomod 
lo mo to be proper thntf in »omo modu, n^^uibfi* to our own 
a^n^t form af proocpcJing, wc «hou1f! ^xj)n?t* om- aenilnienta 
upon the impoftfint anil int''W*Hh'ng fnpirai nn whirh it (n-nt*. 

If t)i« MCjilInii^itUi of th« measage in reapt-ct to Ort^coc be 
proppr^ it i* rqualiy profwr that thi» House should reciprocate 
thoHc ticnCimciitA. The pre»i-nt rctfolution is d^eignoJ lo h^ve 
thnt extent, and no mort^ If U poeft, It will loav« any fulure 
proe^-^cding whi^rt* it now isi, in the di*en.*Tlo« of die i-xecullve gov- 
rrnmrnl, tf, tsi but. «ri rxpnr-wirttj, unrlri lliCKir funns" iii wbirb 
lb<^ lloiiAi* iH ncciiittomni to ru-t, nf thr itntWiicUon cif the Iloum; 
with the g(>ncral sentiment* c^iprcased in regard to ibis subject 
ill the mr^wagr-i and of lU rv^ndtncM tii d^^fmy thi^ cxpr-nso ind- 
dent to ftny inquiry for th(» pii/po*F i»r furTlior inforfnationi of 
any other agency which the President, In his discretion, ahall sec 
fit. III whar^irer maiiiit^r and at wbati^ve<r lime, tu liistltntr. Tbe 
whole matter is slill Icfl tii Hib jud^'Hieiit, and tbifi resulutiort can 
tn no vnxy Tvsirtiin its unlimited t^xtTcioi.'- 

I mi>;ht wtHi Mr, Chairman, avoid th«« mponKibility of this 
measure. If it hud, in my judgni*?nl, nvy lendt-ncy lo change the 
ptfliry of Ihp i'oiintry. With llir- gi"iii'r:»J *"i>nr«" of fhnt policy 
I otu ijuitc tijitUfic^i. The? iiELtiim 15 |iM?tprn)n:s pmccfnl, mid 
hi^ppy; nrd I should very rrbiclnntly put it* peace, |>rD9pcnty, 
Of happincTPfl ot rj*<k. It appcnre to me, howcvoT, that thia reeo- 
hilion i» fIricUy conformftble to our funeral poliey, and not only 
connlnrent with nnr infi^rpiU, hnt even demanded by a la^^ and 
lilienl virw of lhos<' intcrvfttn. 

It ib ctrrtainly true that the ju»t pulicy of t1i» country !«, in the 
ftret pinco, a peaceful poliey. No nation ever had leaa to expect 
from foreihia B^grariUijroment, The mifEhty ajpvita whitjh arc 
working out our greatnt-** are t'lniOj industry, and the art*. Our 
BUgmftitnlion if. by growth, not by nnqninilion; hy internal de- 
velopmf*rit, not by f^xtrnml ni'oeTwIon' No scheme* can be ung- 
gr<-ated to n* 910 mngniticent nf the pniapect* which a sobef con* 
tempktion of our own condition, naaJdcd by projecta, uninfla* 
enoed by ambition, fairly spreads before ua, A eouiitry of fnich 
vast eitenr, with unch vanVliP:* of fwll and climate, wlib no much 
public »piril and private enteqiriae, with a population inrTrAning 
«o much beypnd former example, with capacities of improve- 



^p>CBt not only uuapplieil or uxiexhaoff^cl, but rv^n, in a gn«t 

'inmiiri*« cte yet unt^^ipEored, — ao Cree m iu inj<ii1tilion«, «o niiki 

m il^ biws* so Bi'curr Id the tille it confer" on c^'ery mun to hin 

own iirv|x]isi1i(nj^ — n'-nU nothing t>tjl limr unH priu!!' tn r^viry 

it forward to nlmost utiy point of ndyflnccmrnt- 

In the nc\t pliirr, 1 Inkc it for grcintird that thr policy of thia 
cooDtiy, «prirgin^ from the nature of our government and the 
•pirit of all our infititntionn, b, ut fnr at it reflpoct« the intcies^ 
ing <jU4rf<tio[i4 which a^tntf th'- pr»^'*<'nt ft^<», on the Me of lib- 
lenl lutd euli^htriied <H.'titi[iif.-nl0. Tlie JUji- is extraorilinary ; iJie 
•pint ihai nctunfi^ it U p«r(;u]]4r and marked; and our own re* 
htion to the lime* wc live in, and to ttio questions which in- 
tercut thnm, u equally markf^d and pfHruhar. \Vc an? |>]nocdT bj' 
our good fortune and the wisdom and valor of our nnc^ctfint, in 
a pondilirn in wtiiiih w« cun art nn o1i«nim part- B*» it for 
booor, or bo it for di7>honor, whfitcvcT vc do Is eurc lo ^Itfact the 
'ObwrvatioR of the vorld. A» one of ihc free states among the 
nfttioDSf OS ft great and rapidly rising nrpublie, it would hts ir»- 
poMible for Ds, if we were to dinpoeed, to prevent onr prin<.*iph*«, 
our aentimentif, and our example from producririg noine eJTeet 
oimn tbr opinions and hopes *>{ Mn:ipty throiiKhoul- Iht? civilmsi 
world. It re^d-fi probnbly witli onmclvr* to determine whether 
tbc- inthicnce of tbcHc »haLl be naliitajy or pcmiciooA. 

It cannot be denied that the great potitio-nl quoFtion of thia 
age i* thai hetwef n abflolatft Tind rr'giilflf/vj gtivrrnrnfiit^. The 
sabfttnnee o( thu controversy in wh<n,hr*r arei*4y Hhall have any 
part m tt^i own govi-nimcuL Whether the fuiui of governing lit 
■hail be *hai of limited moiiarcliy, with more or less mixture of 
ttcredilary power, or wholly ^leetivo or rfrpret^entative, may per- 
bapa Im considered as bubordinate. The main oontrovervy ia 
between that ab^olnte rule, whic^h^ while \t promUes to ^vero 
WvU, meaitn, uevFrLfiph^nn, to ^ivern wlUimit eoiitru], and that 
eonvtitutioEul «ptcm which rc^trainn sovereign discretion, and 
aiaarla tbat society may elaim aa mntler of ri^ht Home eRL-elive 
p'VAvr jn the eatablijihrntnt «f the lawn wtiifh arr* to re^jiilate it 
Th*" spirit of tin* times si-ta with a rao*t iiowtrful enrren: in fa- 
rnr of tliiwt hn(Umrntior)r*d <»|)iiiiona. It in o|)jHMiHlf howmrer 
whenever and whrrcvei it *how* it^r-lf, by c^-rTain of the great 
potcDtate? of Europe; and it is opposed on gronnd^i aa nppli- 
aabla in on« c^vilij^eJ nation ae in another, and which would 



jiutify fiuch opposition in i^atioQ to the UidUMl Slatee^ Sis trel! 
■A in rf^fiUion to niiy othiT vtnto or nuliori, i( time nmd t^Lrcuin- 
fctAtii^fl nhmild rrn<l*"r nodi oppo*itwjn cipcrJii^tiL 

W)mt pLtft it fxvMTTtr* thiH <u>iiritry U> Uxkv on a r|t]0(lK>n of 
thU Kiri, to foj a» it is caUcd upon to tnko ary pnrt> oaiiiiot be 
(}oubtfttL Our i^idc of this qucstioD i« settled for as, vvcii with- 
out our own voUtJoii. Our hiatory, our oituation, out clinr»ct4*i, 
iioo^fesarily dtvido ouf pOBiUoii mid our coai»6, before wr buve 
even tirupi to a^k u'lit-lber we bjt^« an opiioiL Our plncp !» on 
llie Aidt of free insUtutiniiit. Fniin tlie e:irlieat tieLli«^m«fuL of 
these States their inhnbitaTil» WE^n? accuAt^mcd, in d greater or 
lens degree, to the enjoyment of Ihc powrm of (lelf-go'criiment; 
and for the ln«t half-cnnlury they have vuntiLinral Fy^trmH of gov. 
CTntnenl rntiMy rrprpM-ntniive, yidding tx> lb'm»rlv<*s thr gieat- 
rvt powlilr pmcjx'Htr, ^ntl not Ir-fiviug ilirm willunit Hi«tirirlioti 
aud rc«peet amo^i^ the naliijns of tLe eafth. Tlii? eyttem we 
arc not Ulcciy U> abandon ; and lA/hik we shall iio farther rocom 
mend lie adoption to otber nations, in wliulo or in par% tlian it 
may recommend \tse\t by iia visible intluence on ouor own growth 
and prosjwrity, we are, iieveflbe)e*ftj inU^iesl^d to Tetiai tbe e»- 
ijibliKliini^nt of do<^lriti» wliuth dt^ny llie It^^Uiiy i>f itn fimndiH 
tion:^ Wc stjirid n* on e<)UnJ funong nations, Llniming tJic full 
bcncBt of the c^tahliHhcd international law ; and it b our daty 
to oppose, from the C4iriief<t to the \uU'tX moment, any innova- 
tionn iipnn thnt code wbieh ihaii bring Into dnuht or qiie«tioii 
our own eqiinl and ind'-pendent- riglitw. 

E will now, Mr. Chaiiinani advert to tho^ pretensions pul 
fiirth by Ibt allied Bovcreign* of Corktiucutol Eurape» which Mwtn 
to me culeulatcd, if unret)t»l<.*d, to bnnf; iiilo didrejnite the prin* 
cipli-4 o*" our (50v<*rninentj atid, indeed, to be wholly tuoompatiblc 
with any degrt-i* of imiional iiiilepeiideiiee. 1 do not iiiiruducc 
these ei>n*idrr.UJo[iK for IHt' Mikr? of Ui|ii(-A [ nni not nbixit iti 
declaim against cro\mc'd h^ad^, nor to iiunrrri with any eounfry 
for pr^^fening a form of governmrnt dilfen?nt from our own. 
I1ic right of choice that we cixcrclao for onrsrlves, I am quite 
willing 1o leave lUso to others But it upjieuri to mi* that the 
pn^tf^nsions tnwhieh 1 linvr albulrd nrewludly ineansi«Eent with 
tlic iadepeniJence of natjons generally, without regard to the 
question whether their governments be ahsohitc, monarchieaj 
4iid bmitedi or purely popular and rcpresentativ. I haw a 



rcifrf d^fj> ani] thorough conviction^ that a new «m hua arisen 
in iht world, (but nvK unci Onii^TOUti CK^mbinutloiu urv lakiiig 
pbce, prntnuigalinft doctriova and fraof^ht witfi conftCf^Qenc^ 
wholly KiibverHlve In thtfir tendency of ibe puWio l»w of luitloni 
wnd n( llie grju-rj] lilwrlirsi of m^iiktm)- Whfthc^ tltiM br^ wt, ur 
DOt, i> the quf^uon whic^ I now pfoj>o»r to cxominr-i upon »ucb 
gnrandfi of information as nrc nffordcd by tbc common and pub* 
1>c meunii of knowlrdjsr. 

Evrry body known lh;il, «nc*( thc» final iwtoration of til* 
Honidkonn to tlir tbrnni* of Fmn<v*T tfip Conttnenlnl powrrs hnve 
4?nlat<<] iDto Aundry iillimjcrs, ipvblcb haw Letrit inudis publit^^ and 
I>avc held several mcelijigs oi conffa's-'<-'s, at which the priiaiplcB 
oi their potiUcal conduct havo bi^en dedured. Thetw Miiiiga 
imurl awesaaiily bav« an effect upon Etie intemaiiianaJ law of 
the *taie« oflbe world If that clFeot b*^ good, mid ueeonllng tf> 
thi* pritid[tk» of lli4r. law, iht^y d^M-rvir in hv. nppUiidnl. If, <m 
tbc contTBTy, thrir cfTctit nnd tendency be mo»t dnn^roun, their 
priiit-ipli^ wWly inatlmi**ihlc, their prctcn:»)OH* such as would 
&b<>li«b every d^-gr™ of national ind^pcndmcc, then they qtc to 
be rMi8i4^d. 

1 beglHf Mr. Chninnan, hy drnwing ynTiT i^ttrrition ixi thn 
treaty concludinl aI Vaxi^ ui ScpicnjU^ IS1>>« buiuf^nL Ru^Ma* 
Pht-aia* and Au»tTUii commonly adlwi the Holy Allittrcc, This 
MJu^iihir adianoc appoara to have originatc*d with ihi* Emporcr 
of Rudsiu; for w*^ Lire hifonned that li dmft of it was exiiiliitod 
by bbn, pernxiaUy. lo a plenlpott'nTiary of one of the great pow- 
I'm of Kun»pir, befitrt- it wan prcwnird Ut thv otlu-r sHvi-rt-igna 
who nhiiniitidy si^iit^d it," This in^trumrnT. [irvifrsftc-s nothing, 
certainly, wbic^b i;i not exln.-mcEy comm<indable tuid prui0ewOT* 
tby. It pn>inijii*4 only tlmt lh<^ rnntmctitif? pcirtH'ii, bivth in rela- 
tion to other ■tate;*, and in r^gnrd to Ibi'ir own ■ubjt'tt*, will 
nbftervR Thi* ml^ of jvislit-e mid (^hri^tiMnity. In con fin mil ion 
of these prt>mi«^it mnkes' the [nost jiolcniM nntl dr.vont rrli^oiis 
ixiTocatkinJt. >'ow, althongh wich mi allinnnr^ is n novelty in 
Ej]rop<*nn hiptorv, Iho world iicoiDf lo hiivu rooHvird thin trenty, 
u]PL>n ii« ^i>i prom nig! It ion, with i^rnrral t^hnriry. It wn« oom- 
mnnly nndriyi^hHl oa liftlf^ or nnrhing mort? thiin nri r*Kpn*iuic)n 

* i^trljird f.^ilf?r«bgh'B BpHTh in ihc IftJiikDrrf romntOTi*, Frbrujiry 3. 1010. 
Dfbat» in Farlocnent, Vol. AXXVL p. UA; wJiwrv z]vt ttiv irfuiy iut fa< 



of tli^nkf frir l.h>> sutTK^cKiriil tfriiiiit-ifion of tliv moiiii*iftui.>h i^on 
tai in wiiicl) ^h^^c vE^urrigiiP hnii br-eii i-tii^agaL It ntJil M.*trmu 
•omcwhat unitocount4ble, howvvcr, that thc.-w gcKxi rcsDlntioiu 
ihould n?<(uir« to bo cDnfinni^iJ by trciity. Who dt>itb1[.<d UiJit 
tU<^«e bUguHt vov^roigiii would trtf:it eikch ofhur with jivtici^T '^>^ 
rule llu^ir own unUjei-T^ in mi-rcy? Ami wEmt n^wisMlly wit* 
t)ic7n: for ■ atilrmii Afipiilulicn by treaty, tt) iiiMirf? (hr^ |>ctforni> 
ancT of that which is no more thaw the ordiimry duty of tfcrj 
govcmmoDt ? h would h«rdly be admitted by tbcac savcmgnsi 
that by IJiie compact they cooKJd«T 1.heins«lvc» bound to intro- 
duce tin entire change, or any change, in the coume of their own 
nonduct Nothiui; sithataiiliitUy new^ cv-rtuiiily, oiii be fiU^poMnl 
to bnifc be^Ji iiitcndni, Whut |)niic]}>le, or wliat prttctic«i Iherc- 
forc, culli-d for t^iia EaoLoran di^cLaration of the iutcrition of tha 
pnitica to obd^vv thv nilcti of rcii^on and justice ? 

It it not El litUe rtn;arkubl<-% that a writrr of reputittioo Ufon 
the Public Ijiiw, dneribctij mnny yaxtu ngi>, tKit tmiocurftiplyt 
Ihc charfwrt^T oflhiB allianci\ ] aTludc to Funt^ndoiT- '*It wpitis 
cftfJcsa," flay« he, ^' to frame any pacta or Icagucai bnrrLy for the 
defence ajid support of univcrBal peace; for by each b Icngufi 
nothinff in piji)r^nLddoU to tht? ubli^i&tion of natural luw, and AO 
agr««mi-nt i* madt? for the |Mrrfunimu(^ of any thbig which thf» 
l^uUes w«rt* not pn?viouiily hound to pe-fform ; not is the origi- 
i^a] obligiiljon n-adrrt-d linni-r or nirtm^r by such an dddllioh. 
Men of any tolrrablc^ culture and civiiixution mi^ht wt^ll be 
oehamed of entering into otiy »ucji eompitct, the conditionH of 
whirh imply only thnt thr parties ccncornnJ lihall not olfriid in 
any I'ltnr jioint of dnty^ Hr*idPH, wr thmitd hr gniity of gn^at 
itrcvcrenciff towartU Gt>d, #hoidd wc suppose that hu ii^ancti<His 
had not already laid a auHldent obligation upou us to act j»»tJy, 
uulcea we oursdvea voluntarily ooiiAciiled to the aa/nc cngD^ 
ment; a^ if our obligation to obey hi£ will depended upon our 
own ple^iure. 

'■ If ctiitr en^Rge to fterve anot^ir^r, he doea not. t&t It down c%- 
|tfcaa1y mid p^Liculurly luuciig the t^rrnEi and condltionH of the 
bar^itin, that he will not betray tior murdrr him, nor pUla^ nor 
burn hi^ hou?r. For thi^samcrruiron, thntw-oiild be ei di^hcnor- 
&hle erigngemtMil, in which men should bind thuniftvlvvii to art 
propi?r!y nnd decently, and not break the peaces'* * 

■ L«» »rKiLiuiv&ni] NhtLons, Dook 11. cAp. 9, 4 ll< 



Sndl WtfW the wntimrnt* of rhnt pmlnenl writer. How 
ll«4irly he hut] ?tii1icj|mt«-d fhc c^iae of th? Hoi)' AUtHmrtr ivlU 
appear &um (he preniubltr to that alUaiiiw, After stAUtig tliat 
Ihe allii-'i) «OvoT?i^a hud become pensuadf^d, by tbr cyrmt^ of th« 
Jii!it thrcE? yearst tJmt " thcSr rdutioiu with each olhcr oijght to be 
regulated cxdiutivcly by Ihc sublime truths taughl by fhit el^nifll 
f«Tigion of Gvt\ th*^ Saviour," th^-y solpmnly dcclaw ihvii fixed 
resolution *" to aJopt an (he «ii1e' rule (»f lh«-iroDm!ot-1, both in lli« 
adniiiu»UHii[>j] of Uidr rmjiutrUvt? Gila1t?% and iii ihvlf puliticiU 
relatione with every other {^vcronient, the prcccpf^ of that holy 
reUgioiii namely, the prccvpU of juvticc, clLrtrity, fuicl peace, 
whichf £af from being oppliciible to privRti> life alone, ought, 
on tJie contrary, to havi* a dlrpt-t influr»nre upon th** roiiriHi^U of 
princH'fi, and guide nil tlirJi »t<p)kt iir^ \mng thr urdy rneium of 
consotiditiog Uamau institutions, and remedying tiieir iinper- 

Thd9 mcnmirc, however, nppeara principaUy importaj^t, ua it 
WA« the fuvl of a aeries, md ^^it followed afterwarda by othert 
of a Riure ntarVed uiid pr:i<rliCHl rmture. These nienHures, tiikcn 
lO^tbiT, profeD lo eplitbli.ili Iwii prineipleft, whitih the Allitd 
Powem would introduce a.t % p*irt of the law of tbc civili/cd 
vorld; and the eiT(abli:!hmcnt of which b to bu enforced by a 
miliion and n half of bayoncte* 

The first of these principles 19. thnt all popular or eonstltntloaal 
fighla are held no otherwise than a^ ^rantd from the crown* 
Sudeity, upin Uiis priud|ile, hnn ni* nghtn t>f tta own; it fnki-a 
good goiremroent, wheit it geti it^ nn a Ixron and a conc^c^Aion, 
but can dcmnnd nothings It in to live by thot favor which ema* 
natc* froxn roynl authority, and if it have (he misfortune to lonfr 
thSLt fttvoT, thrrv U nothing to proTcet it agiiin-^it nny dr>grrc of 
injiistic^ and oppTeutpn. Ti r?in rightfully mnke nn rndt^iivor 
fix a chaUKi',iy ilaelf : lis whole privilege is to receive the fuxon 
(bat may he diapt-iiHLxl by il\e sovLTi-ign power, und all il^ da^ 
i^ described in the single wurj jwiwnWr'ffrt. Thia ia thtf pioin 
result of thu priiiuipai Contlntu(al Blute papera; indeed, it is 
ficarJy the idetiUcrdl text of aonie of Ihem. 

Tflft rirrnilnr di-»pEiT^li addressed by the vovrrcif^ns a:!8t-nib1ed 
at Laybacb, in the spring of I8SI, to their iLinisten at foreign 
courts alicgca, " that useful and u^tx^aaary changes in legislation 




and 111 IJie itflminiiitrTilion vf niAti-s iitEglit only t<i L^mnnttlr tram 
ttiG frai will LintI iMlHIigrut 4ikI wiJl-wtMghfd r.Ljn^'it'tinr; o( 
tfioetc whom Oik! hits rendered rr?!ipoii»Jblc (or power All that 
diTviatciL from (biri Uii<- nor^A^anly Icfids to dii^ordcr, comtnotioiv, 
and rrvilR fru mnr^r innafTcr&blf' thaa tho»o whicJi th«y pn^nd to 
ninrrfy"" Now, Str, tbU principle would cnrry Eiifopi' hnck 
agHin, at once, Juto the middk- of ihe Dark Age»H It is ihi^ old 
doctrine cf tlic Diviue ri^'Iit cif kin;^t ttdv^nci^d now by itf;w 
advocat^v, and PU^Uioed by a fonnidabl^ array of powu. Tkat 
tbe people hold lh«'ir fundiimcntu) prtvilv^ua lu inatt«t of coii* 
c«38ion or iiidul^i^nov from ihe wovt^Klgii power, U a sentiment 
not ^aay to hi- difTtisc-d in ihU ngPj any farilii^r lliun it U eiifon^nl 
by lljr din^cL oprrnLtiori of rnjlilary nxMnx It ia ImCf <H.'t1atnly» 
thftt nomr MX ccutiirics ogo tilc rarly fonndcTm of i{llgti^h lib- 
rrly ctdlud the inr.t.niincnt which i^t^cnrt^d thi^ir rightc a chnrttr^ 
It waft, indcH.<d, a concrmon ; thry had obtained it »word in 
band fnnn tlirr king ; and in mciny otWr i^iu», whsilfTVio' wax ob> 
taiiir-d, favoraWr to humuii righM, from Uir tymiiiiy nod di^npoU 
i»m of the feudal flovcrcigu% waa cfUlcd by the iiain«4 of prM' 
U^s ajid tibvrii^s^ oa bcijig matter of apcciai favor. Though 
irontaui thiu lan^a^ at the present time, tho prineiplit it««Jf 
b^tAOga to ages ibaE bave lon^ passed by us^ The ptvtiivf-d 
world liHH done with " the enormous faith, of many made for 
one.'' Society aHi-ria it« own li^btai and alle^feft tiK-m to b« 
original, aacred, and imnlic-iinhlc. It id notfiatuBed wilh bavjuf^ 
kind maatcm; it dcinnndi a pnrli(Uj>n1ion in Ita own govem- 
rnmil; mid in KtntcH much Eidvnncrd in dviUxEilioii^ jt ur^s thU 
di^miind with a constancy and nn r^n^rgj" that (^Jiniiot well nor 
long be refiistcxl. There are, hsippily, iNiough of Trgidntiid gc»v- 
(nuncnta in the world* and tbuse among the moM di*tingni»hed, 
to operate a^ coisatant examples, and to keep alive nn nneenMng 
panting io the boeomB of men for the enjoyment of etmilat fra* 

Wficn llie English R«^vo]ut]on of 1688 toith plaee, the Hog* 
lish people did not raintimt tbe[n9<?lvr« with the cxajuple of 
Bnnnymede ; fhry did not bnilrf their hoj>eiS upon royal chnrtcra ; 
thi^y did not, like the; milhorin of the Lnybadi curtiular, suppoM 
that aJI iiKtful diungcA in coasiitntion^ and Uw^ must proceed 
from tho»e only wham God has rendered respotixlblr for power. 

■ Annu*! RcviMf for i9£t, p. 601. 



rhcy vTKTt Aomowhat bettor inetnioted in iho principles of civil 
.ibrrty, or ut Ictwt Ihvy wore hotter lov^-pa of those principl^t 
than thi* wivrTPtgnH f>f Ijaytmeh. Irjstt-ttd of |>trtitL>iiirig for 
cnarlf^r^T they (Jpcbrr^d thHr nghf*> iitul while lliry nltr.n'ii lo tli« 
Priuce of Orange the crowa with one hnnd, thry hHd in th< 
oUiCT an emun«filioii of tho«c privilcgrs whif'b they tlid riot 
profeA* to hold a» fflvors, but wliich tboy ticmandcd and inF^tKtcd 
i^xin «A their undoubted rlghta. 

I ne^ not wiojj to obseive, Mr- Cbahrnaii, Uow loJally hostile 
liTP iJit^fiE? diN^triuea of LMybiicL to the furid^niit'illal ^riiiti^ca of 
our govornmcnL Tliry art in diri^ct conUntliclion ; the prlnc^ 
pJ<^si of flpod and evil are hunily mow^ oppottjlo. If Uk'bc prin- 
caplr* of the rovcrrigtiA bv true, wts arv but jji a i^tat^ of rt-b<fl- 
tioii or of nn^rchy, timl nrc? only tolcnitpd among eivilfxHl tttatea 
b^AtiJ^r il h^M luit yi^ brrn f^iiivriiiriit Ui rrdiire |]» Uy thi; tniQ 

But the second, and. if pof^j^iblc, the «till more objcctiooablG 
prindplo, a\'ow<^ in tbc*e pnpcr*, in th? right of forcible intcr- 
fsnnoe in the allain of other st^Iei^. A right to oonlrol nations 
in theii dettire to chan^ theLr own gi^veniiiit-iitf whenever it may 
be C4>nj«^(<irrd, vt |irt-[<^m]*-il, ffml vuch irhnii^r inigiit funii?<b nil 
example to thr AubjrL-tA of othrr states, lb phiinly and lli^li:lctly 
ttflBcrted. 'X'h« mime Congrcm tbut made th<! drnlomtion at 
Laybftch had di'clcirod, bpfon; it* ri^movnl from IVoppou, *' that 
the powen hnve nn nndoitblrd right to tnkr* a hoi^iile attitude in 
nfgnid tn t.hdw xmtJ'H in which (br ovriihrow of the government 
may operate a« an c^nnplc" 

There cannot, sa I thinks be couccivcd a inore Jtakgraut Tiola- 
tion of public law, or national independence, than U contained 
in Ihi» «bort declnrT^iioii, 

No matter what be the ehamcter of Ibe government reaUted; 
iio matli^ witli wbul weight tlie foot «f tbc oppreMitc Ulnars on 
the neck of the opprt^cd; if he ntru^le, ur if he rampinin, he 
kIa d dorif^vrouri cs&ampJc of rf^:ti?tuncc^ — and from that mo* 
mi^nl be becomL-Ji nn obji'ct of ho*lilily to the most powerful 
potv-ntatev of the <-artb^ ] want words to c^prv**; my nbhorrcnce 
of thbi nbominjiblr? pTim'iplr% I trmit rvt^ry rnlightf-ned man 
throui^bout the world will oppose it, and Ibitl, ejtpi.vialJ^, ihoka 
whOp tike ou^etUe^ are fortnnatrly out of \he reach of tbe bay- 
Mieta thai enforoe it, will procbink tbctr dcteetation of it| in a 



lone hoth lood nntl drcwWp. The avoww! ol^tet of imch ifcda* 
mtuinj< i« to preserve the pc&ce of the world. Bat by vhat 
moAlu i« it propoeod 1o pret<^rvo this poaoo ? Simplif, by brin^ 
in^ the pover of all governmentfl to bc^nr a^if&inet all eubj^ts. 
Here k to be c>filabUfthe<3 a nort of double, ar ti^ble^ or quadru- 
plet ^t ^^^ nuglit 1 know, quintuple »l]t<-fpn[ic& Aii olTeiute 
mgiihiai one king in to be nn oflriici? ■gminnt nil klng^, and t}i« 
powL^r of nil in to be put fofUi for the punishment of the oHcnd- 
er. A rifht to interfere in citrerae ca«c8, in the ca«c of contig 
noilv »tnt«e, and where Lminiuetit dani;;er ts threatened to cn^ 
by m^ftt Is occurring la unotbi^r, U nut wkhout precedent In 
nuxlem tini^ upt>n whut hen* bo^n ciUled the ]»w of vi<.4nttge; 
and when L-onfiiir<l to uxrjrme rnncji, nm) liniir<><l to n irrrtain 
Gxtcnti it may perhaps be defended upon principlcfi of nccc** 
ftjty and ^df-dclcncc* But to loaUitain that sovereigns may 
go to war upon the eubjeote of another atat« to repress an exam- 
ple, li moi»tzo(t» liidoed- Wbot u to be the Uiuil to *uch a 
prutdple, or fu^ pmetice growing ont of it? What, in any 
coni^j but r^jvprelgn pl<:ii*nrL*, is to dircidc whriher the rxnmple be 
good or bad? And what, u^idta tlic ufiemtjoii of *uch a rule, 
may be thou^'ht of our example? Why ate we not aa fair 
objuutA lor thi? opemiion of the new prineiple, lu any of those 
who may ultempt a reform of government on the other tide of 
the AiEntiti^? 

The ultirnati^ efli'ct of thi* alliunee of «overeigii», for ohj^icta 
personal to theni»elve«, or rt.-apecli]ig truly ths pentmueiicc of 
their own powej, iimat be the destruction of all jufct feeling, qjmI 
all nuturul aympathyf between tliom; who exercise Ih-u power of 
govcniment and thoae who are subject to h. The eld channel 
of mutual rvgiird and eontideiiet^ ure to be dried up, or cut nIT, 
Obt'difnee can now be eJiL|>ee1i*d no long^^r than It is eaforcraJ. 
lofttead of rtJying on the ajTec'tiorib t>f the governed* sovereigns 
arc to rely on tho ad'ccti:>nH and fricndahip of oihef Bovercigne* 
There are, ui sliorf, no longer to be mvliona- Princes ajid peopk 
are no louger to unite for intereEta common to them both. There 
li to be an eu<l of oil patrioliHiu^ as a diuUnel nationd fiM-ling. 
8oru?ty U to bi< divided hon^cinlrLlly ; nil Hoven^tgiTfi nhovr^ niul 
aU subjects bcdow; tlic lurmer codlest^iu^ for tljeir own r^curity, 
atid for ihc more cerlain subjection of thu unJiaUuKuieliLtl mul- 
titude ben<^atlu Thiit, tiir, ijt no picture drawn by imugindtion. 


f h^rc hfirt!1y u»ed language etioogcr than tbat tn vrhtdi the 
autbord of (hi5 niMv sy^ttrm have fionamtiiW on tiicir own work. 
M- (It- Ch[iti?atibniiiiti, in hie speech in Ih^ Vnnnh Clmmbt-r of 
I>e|}<itic4, in Fobn;tixy lu*l, declnivd, that hi? hiwl a. coiifcrfnc* 
with thr Kjitfiemr of Hn^^sru nl. Vrmii;t, in whirh tlint nngiut 
■OTCTCign uUrrrd Mntimcnlc wbii:h appcart-d to IiIjq so pn^ions. 
thnt he immtrdiatoly hastened horni?-, and wrote them down while 
yet frcfrh in bi» roci>llpction> '* Tht Kmpcror dt'cloredV taid ht*, 
"that th«fe can no longer be eueh a thlii^ a« an BiikU^^, Frciieh, 
BoMiaji, Pnuslarif or Aualria/i polit^y; llu-rt.' U htniccT^^rth bui 
one |X>lii7t which, for ihi* tutfi-ly of all, i^huiild Iip 4cf<ipEi?d liull 
by peiiplr iiml L)n^, It, wiLst Uit inr fin*! to a^how myxrlf coa- 
Tii]<}cd of thr- principles upon which 1 1'oundrd the alliaacr^; nn 
occoftion otirrrd )t»eif, — tho Htingin GrcooCn Nothing certainly 
coold occur mort^ for my iulcroat^T for the intcre«t« of my p^o- 
pie; nothing more aco«pTdblL> lo my country, than a rdigious 
W8f Id Turkry. Httt I JiHve tTiutj{-hl I perrfrlvt-tl iii the (n)uble> 
of the Morira lici .tigii of rcriilLiii«>riT mid 1 \\iivv \iM baclt. 
ftoTidcnoc hnn not put under my cdmmnnd eight hundred 
thoufond sioldi4?r» to Mttifrfy my ambition^ bat to protect relig- 
ion. mcralLiy, and jmtiDe't ftJid to MCure Ihct prevalence of thow 
prindpk'fl of ordef on which bumao auclety rt-^il:^ It may well 
be permltl^d. that Wags T«ay have public alUHncea to Jifend 
tkeiUMlvc:! ji^iriat eccrH enemies." 

Tlic9e^ Sir, nrt^ thr w<>rd» whjch the French miniatcr tbonght 
•o hnportTint that they deaerved to be recorded; nnd i| tot?, 
Sir, ftm of the tntixe opinion. But If it be? true th:it ihvrv U 
heretic to be tit^iiher a Rti^inn policy, nor q Pm^i^ian policy, 
mrtui Austrian policy, nor a French policy^ nor oven, which yet 
I vUl not believe, an English policy, tiicrc will be-, 1 tmat ia 
God, on American policy. If the authority of all thc«c govern- 
owotB he herenfter to be mixed uud blended, and to tlow, in on« 
auf^nieiiTed current of prero^tlve, owt the fnee of Bnrope, 
■wL-rpin^ nw«y all r("»Lit(mr*" in its co[ir*f', il will je( n-niain for 
uv to wrunr out own linpplnci:^^ by tin? pn-'^crvftjion of OUT own 
principles; which I hope wc nhall have ;hc manlinc&» lo expn^s 
on all proper occadloiib, and the apirit to Ucfend iu every extrem- 
ity. The end and ftcope of thi» amalgamated poliey are neither 
more rioT less than tbUr ^ interfere, by forL^e, for any f^ovem* 
meut. ai^sinrti any j>eoplt' who may reaisL it Be the »l*jle of the 

TOU 111 7 I 

I J 



people what it mciy, tlity ebull not tiAc ; be ttn^ government 
vrhat it will, it shiUl not ^c oppo4t-'d. 

The practice uommentftry hatt ccn-e»porid*.'d wiih tho plain 
langUHgt-^ of Ibe text Look at Bpa^n, and at Greece. If men 
may liol n-alsl Uic B^iiULinli liiquisiLiuiif atiU Uic Turkiali dmetrr, 
what 1» Uirrc to which humanity munt (lot eu1>iDit? Slroiiger 
ooocs cnn nctcr arific J0 it not proper for us, ut all tinaoo^ ia it 
not our duty^ at this timt^, to come forth, und dony, and con* 
dvmr. IhoM? monstrouH prindplcii ? Whert-, but ht-rv, a«d in oiw 
oliirr plHri*j arr tbry likHy in be WJijirinl ? '^h^'y (ifr i^dvniionl 
with cqusA cooIik^m and U>lducAs; and tlicy aic snppoftcd br 
iinm«n»c^ power. The timid wlU ahnnk nnd give u^^. and many 
of th<J bravo may bo co^iipclied to yteld to force ttiuiian UbcrCy 
may yet, pi^rhaptj, be oblif^e<i to repose hi principal bopea on the 
Int^UigE^iiee and the vjj^^r of the Saxon race. A^ far ai di^pends 
oil us, at inait I irtiM ihuM- bupen will mil be dinapjiDinti^d ; anil 
that> to tbc cxtciit which mity oonNAt with our own wttlc-d, pa* 
cific policy, our opininns nnd .imtimpnt* mny be brought (o act 
or Uiu liglit vide, and to the right i^nd, on tui iioca^ion which i«, 
in Iroth, nothing \esA than a momcnlotm qneotion btftwcen an 
inN'UigE-nf iig**, full of knowlrdgi^, Thir«ti/ig for impmirimtit, 
and quickened by a, thouAQiid impulses, on one Aide, and the 
most arbitrary prirteiiaion:», sujrtiuncd by unprecedented powcf, 
on the ether. 

Thia HMerird right of forcible tnterventJon in the fl&Jn of 
other nations i* in oprn violation of the public law of the world 
Who has authorised ihetM^ le&ru'^d doctorB of IVopptLU lo (rslHb> 
)ish new artitlea 111 ikia code? Whtnc* nrc ttitir diplomaa? h 
the whole world eipoLted to a<-'qui<w--i? in printipks wJiith en- 
tirely «ubv«^t tii*t independeue« of naliunnT On thL* hti*i< of 
thia iiidejkeiEdeiice ha^ been reared thir bt-cintifiti fubric of intiT* 
jmtionul law. On tJii? prinriplr of thix iitdqH'ndrniv', Fliiropp 
baa seen a family of nations doiuiftbing wilbin it» limita, the 
Bcnati among the Ir]rg<\ prot^ crtcd not nlwvyn by power, but by ft 
pritieipLe above power, by u snanff of propriety nnd jiiMicc*- On 
tbiM princ^iple, the great eommonwealth of civili7ed Btate* haa 
bft'M hithf-rU) nphrJd. Thprr have bpen oemwona! dpparturet 
or violatdona, and always Jif^aAlious, ub in thi- L-utie uf Pulnnd; 
but, ID general, the harmony of the vyolem haa breii wonderfully 
preserved. In the produotion and preoavtition of thia sense of 




ftlflUcc, thiA (jrcdoinina'ii!)- priLii-iplf, ihc Clirbfiaa rrligion bof^ 
actctt a inuLfL piirt. Ultri^liiinity aiid dvilualion hiivc luborcil 
tc^lb^r; it iit-L-iiitfi induvdlf to be a law of our huniun condiUon, 
thHl they cim livt [iiid UourUb only together. From Mit?ir blt'nd* 
r-il biflui-ntv- Imij« iiri^cn ih:U df-liglitfxil Hprc-ladr of thr. pn^vnU'ticv. 
. of rca!*on and principk- osi-x power and uilcrc&t, so well dracntK^d 
by one v^ho w\o an honor to the age ; — 

■' Aid •QTvTtlirn J'^w. ihv BUii**> cotltwi«d vrill, 

0'*f thrvMM iDd globu vlalo, 
Sii* CQLpr»a. -^ uruiirniiitf jfouj, npi«Biii|f ill: 

Sroii by haf iop™d frnwa, 
The &diid, Hiarrt^tivEL, ti]t'! a r^por, >iiikS| 

Ai^il ii'viJ iho a][-iijiu1iiL^ crvmi 
ITidot hi* ^mi nym, knd m hoT bidding ihnnki-" 

But thin viaion is puaL Wttilc thi? tt-ncht^r:^ of Lnybach ghc 
the nil(<, thvrv will bo no liiw Ijut tUc Iilw of ttip fft.ron^^et 

li miiy now bi* rrijuirivl of m** t« ^liow what interpust ipc havo 
in P.'^ifctiug iJiirt nrw jiyj+leni. What is it lo i/.s it nt^y be sifi^ked, 
U|ioti what piiiicipleai or whal prttciiuo. lh« European govexji- 
meuts aaacrt a r\)shl of inmrfcrin^ in the aflkln of Uicir iieigh- 
bom } The thur:d^rf it niuy U.* euid, rolls ut a dieluncc. Tho 
widt^ AtkuiUo U ht<tw£^-ti us mid danger; aud^ howuvcr oth«n 
muy lulTer, tr^e nhnW remain safe, 

1 think it lA n .tolFirJrnt iin^wc'r lotliiH in Kny, that Wi^ Rrv orra 
of the nations of ihc earth ; that wc have an interest, thcrcforci 
la the preecrvation of that ey«tem of national law and national 
Lnt^reouree whlob ha» h^^rrtofoiv ^ubHisted, «o benefii^&lly for alL 
Om «yBtem of ^ovcrnmpnti it should also bo rem^tnber^ 1ft, 
Ibrou^hout^ foniidud on prliK^ipien utterly hc.i»li[e to tli« new 
eotle; and If wc rciunin undiaturhnl by 'tis oE»^mtion, wc shall 
owe our Accnrily ctthrr to our situation or our spirit. The en> 
tCTjtFMing ehunictcr c\ the age, our own lactivoT commercial vpirtti 
tlM great inciviuiv whieh hon Inkeii \Ancc in the Jnti.*rcoune 
tinoBg civili^i^d ntid cj^mmircinl stAtr-^, hrtvr nrcv^iii'nrtlv con* 
necl«d UK with other natione, and given ii» a high conc^ern in the 
preeervtttiou of tho«e suluiury prliicipk^ apoii which that tntcp 
oourae 10 fouudwL Wl- have a,s dc-nr an inlLTL-ot in inteniationaJ 
law, Lvi indivLdutLtH have in thi< lawd of uooitity. 

But npirt from the eoujidiu-sfi of t\u. poliey, on thu ii^und 
of din?rt inlereHt, we liave, Sir^ a duty coruieelcd with ttiii 



wnLjevi, whk-li \ tni%{ wn nrr willing to pcHorm. Whdl t\a ■* 
not GViv tn Lhi^ miiitp of dvjl and rrlLtjiikUA librrrtyl to lltr pm>* 
dple of Invful rcWBtnncc? to iht principle that society hw a 
ri^ht to pftrtnkc in it» own coverHmmt? As ih** Icndins kv 
public or ihf* world, living niid brr-athinf; in thcM* prinrtpW^ find 
iwlv^rjrtv], by thi'-tr oppmtion, with Dnpunallrd rapidity in oni 
cBiTwr, sljnll wi^ ^ivi" oiir conwnt. in hriog \\n'iu info disM'putc 
and disgrace? It 124 nrithrr ofitciitalJoii nor boastiug to soy, 
tbcit there lica bcfon: thie couAtiyi in immediate prospect, a gw^t 
extent and height of power. We aro bor^ii^ aloii^ tovrards thi«, 
without (»iTorr, aiid nol aKay^ even wllh a full knowledge cf The 
rapidlly of uui own molioa^ Oir(rumHfani*e!t whirh [iftrr i-oni< 
Lined bcfoic hiivr mtiperttfcd in our fDVor^ and a tiijgbty ciin^nt 
iM M'tting n» forward which wc could not rc.iint even if wc would, 
and which, while wc would etop to mitke an obtftrvntjon, and 
t^kc th<' Kun, ban t»^t un, fit Ihr* cn<l of the operation, far in ad< 
vnncit of thr plnra* whffp vr. ppommnirwl iu Pop* \i not b<*- 
oomc u», tbi*ni i* it tint it duty im[Kii^ed on un, t4> give mir wt-igbt 
to the pidc of libi^rty and juaticc, to let maiikmd know tlial we 
arc not t^rcd of our own inetitutionsi and I0 protect against the 
awprt-^d powor of altdinf^ at pLeanure the law of the eiviliz^i] 

But whatever we do In thiA respec-t, h bee^imi^ um to do upon 
devftnd a>n»i?<1<.'nT, prSni^lples. TbtiL- 't» an imporlajit topic in 
the inceaoge 10 wliidi I have yet hiirdJj iilitidi^d, [ mean the 
ntmcT«d «ombination of the Europetui Continental Hoveroi^ns 
a^in>tt the newly eitublivhed frt.'e kliil«'« of South America 
Wbiitt\er ponilion this gov^rmiienl mny take on that subject, t 
trust it will be one which can be dcft^ndcd on known and uo 
knowlcdgnd grounds of right The ncnr approach or thtr rrmot*^ 
divtancc of danger mny atlcct policy* but cnnnot chongr princi* 
plo^ The »»mit r^ARon thni woold nuthorix<v u> to protect agnini9t 
unWHrmninhlp comhinaliorw to incHpTP hrtw^^n Spain and h*T 
foMTi'T doloriii-*, wouhl unlhdrizf- im p*inflUy to ]>ror4rfil, if ihe 
»ainc combination wrre directed a^ust ihc ^m$i]li?0t atate in 
Em^pc, although our duty to ouradvc*, our policy, nnd wiadoiDi 
might indicato very diSerent coureea as At fo ho- pursued by ua 
In ihr* two cpflca. We »hall not, 1 tniat, act upon the notloa of 
dividing lbt< world with the Holy Alliance, and eornplain of 
iiotliin^ lilone by ilmm in tlielr heinUphert; if tJiev wtU not intrr* 



r«i« vn'lh ottr%. At N^att Mt woald not be ihuHi r ootinio of 
policy ft« I coi.iltl r^'commnnrf of unptwrt. Wr- hnve iiol offt^ndfd, 
and I Uoytis wu do nut iiiU^nd lo oHi^nd, In rv^^rd U> South 
Aiueric^i a^niiiM, any |>r[iiti|>|L' of iiutioiiul ijiUe^eEidt^iir^e ur lit 
publEc law. Wi- liavi! douL' nothmg» vrc aliall cli> nuthm^, that 
we m^L^l to liush up or to D^^mprunnM.* by furLciimig to ex- 
ipnm OUT itymputhy for tho ciiuito of th« Grc«ks^ or vur opinion 
tjf till* roiir*r wFilt-^li tither ginvevnmcnU havL* adojiW in rrgnrii 
to thf'm. 

It may. in the ncit pkcc, be n^kcd, prrhapv, Supposing tUI thie 
to be tmct what can ivc do? Art wc to c:o to wur? Arc W6 
to ink-rfctf* iii tho Cirook csm*i>, or any ottitr Eutopt^an cau*o? 
Are we to tndunjijyr our pacific rcJatioiia? No, uertainly not. 
What, then, tbf* qurtrtion rpfiir*^ remuia* fur ua? If we will not 
r^dEingi'Timr own pr;nT.-, If ^v wfll iii-ifhrr fnrmjih nrniin:* nor 
tiavic^ to the <^mtvc wbich wc think ihc; jii-^t one, wliat is there 
vilhui our powCTi 

Bir, thif r€QM>mng mictakoe ih^ ago. The tima has been, in- 
d«td \vh*^u JWct«, nnd aimiee, and snb^idievti were the pruidpoi 
reliaQ0i?4 even ifi the i>vtti eause. Bu% h^ppdy for munkbid, 
B gn-iti diiin^e \mv hikeii pkioe in this a'-n^H-crk Moml (-ninuw 
oonic into cnn.Mdctu(J»n, in pmitt^rtioii n.<i thr progrrs^ of knowlr 
edge is advanced; and the: public opinion of iht civilised world 
ia rapidly gaiomf^ nn mu^r-ndtmcy ovor mi^i^ bmtal forco. It ie 
already able to nppn*i' thr mo*t formidabt*^ obstruction to the 
progre<4 of injuptliv* unH np}irv«ion ; and as U grows more In- 
ttfUi^'iit and moro intcusi-. it will be mote and jiiurK rornudtthliN 
It may be aUcnwd by niUitary power, but it camiof Uv tr^w 
quercd. Jt i* cUstici invpresniibk, and invulm-mblc to the wcap-^ 
ODA of ordinary warfare, it ia thut impTUAibks uncxtinf^iiiiihnbJe 
«n9inT of merer violent^t.' and ixrbitrory rule, which, Like Milton'i 

Cuniiti but ty AnnthiUt&n^. [b«." 

Uhlil Ihifl be propitiated or satisfipd, it is intin for power to 
tn<k eilbcr of triumphs ot of repose. No matR-r what lidda are 
JcMlutcd, what fonremea surrendered, what unnk-H -iubdned, or 
wh«t provlneo* overrun. In the history of the year that hu 
fiDMted by us, uiid In the ivi-^fanee of unhappy Spafn^ wo have 
mm the vunily of all Lriur'^pha in a olosc which violulos the 




gt-^m-nil iu^i*r iif jnntin- nf Ihr- rmUTviJ wnrld. It Is nothing 
lli3*l Ihc frnopn of Pmnrr liavc pa^ptf-il from-llte Pyreiii-es lo 
C^diz; it It itoihJng tbat an unhappy and pro^lmte iintton hta 
falica before thcin; it ii nothing Uiat airt-sla, and confiocaUotit 
and exeouLiooT sweep away th« liltlt^ n^innant of imtioniU rc^ist- 
anet\ Tlwa* is un *nvmy that still triiM% to ehrck the glorj- of 
tht^iH.' triiiiTi|ih!i. It fiillows thr cDiKjiiE'niT bjK'k Id the very ncrti^ 
of hia ovalions; it cnlU u|toii hiin to tnkr notice that Europe, 
l]H>ugh flilent, is yet indi^ETJrtM ; it shnwfi him that th* sccpljc of 
hill victory id it btuTcn sct'ptrc; ihat it shall confer neither joy 
nor honor, tmt thaU mouldrr to dry a»hea in hie ^ap. In 
tli« niid»t of his pxvhation, it pirrcr* hia par with the oiy of 
injured ju^ljcir ; it denouricve agniri^t htm ihe imli^iiurruu of 
an cnligbt«ued %ud civjli^etd agt; it turas to biiUnieM the 
cup of hie rcjoici^xe?* ^i*^ wounJa him with the sling wbirh be- 
lougd to thu <?OJiBcioaBJL^tft» of iiiivuif- outm^d thu opinion of 

In iry opinion, Sir, the 3|kTLniHh nation ia noiv ni^firr*?, not 
only ill ptjjiit of time, hut irj jmint of cirtiimifttjineet to tlir ao* 
quinition of n rcgulntcd govnmmentt thiin at the moment oJ 
the French invnsion. Nntionn moM, no dciiibt, undergo th«c 
trialJi in thpir progrenft to the cKtablii&hnicnt of ftPc inj^tJtn- 
tiona- Tlio very trlnU Ix^nelit them, nnd render Ihem more 
cajittblu boll] of ubitiliiliig arid of enjoying ihe object which 
they eeek. 

I bIiiJI not detain the committee, Sir, by laying before it any 
Btatidtidilf g^Hjf^Ttiphioiil, or «>mm<?ruiaJ, account of Grei'c«- I 
have no knowlrd^i* on thew* Kubj«L*te wlUeh U oot common to 
ail h is nniversiUIy admitli'd, that, wiihlii thf- hij»t ihiriy or 
forty ycBW, ihc eomlitioJi a( Ofi-ece ha!i hi'i'u grcaliy hnprovrd. 
IIci marine i» at present rcspcctnble, containing the. best sailor* 
in the Mcditcrraneaji, bettor evi^ii, in tlint i^en, thnr our own, os 
more aecuBtomeJ to the lonj; qiiarantLiii:-* and orhj'r rngLilntiona 
vhich prevail In lift porta. The number of her sosiinrn hn« been 
estiniHlrd ii» lii^h a» /JOjOOO^ huT 1 ftnppo^' ihitl r«<llrnHir iimtit 
be nkueh too Imge. She hu?* pruLubly, 1-50,000 1oU4 of Bh)|J- 
ping. It ht not ea^y to aivctTlitiii the amount of the Creek 
populftUon. TUe Turkirli government doea aot trouble it»eIJ 
vith any of tik« cult^ubtiozi* of political economy, and ihen< haji 
fifiver been Kurh n thing &>; an accuralr cenKUMr probably, in any 



pnrt of thr TVjrJtkh rmp?rp- In thp ohspnw or all oft(-iu) ijifor- 
m&tion, [irivntr o]iitituri>< witk-ly ditlVr. By ihr tnblex which 
bare bwiL lOHmiutiiL-aii-ti, it \ oulil sl-ciii that ihcn- nrv 2f4O0,OOO 
Orwlid ill Gnrt'ci.- propt-r aiid Iht- blandn; nn omoiiat, a* 1 am 
inclined to tluiik, eo]rti.*wbat ovi.-rTatt!(J, Tht^rc arc, probably, in 
the whole of Kuri>jitiin Turkey, 3,000,000 (^r^cto?, and 2,000,000 
mow til iht! Aviufif? duniuur^iLi oi Uut pinvrn 

Th(f monil mid iittrllf^irtiiiil pro^rm^v of tliie n(im€roiu popula- 
tion, un<lcr the hoirihlt; opprc««on which cruAhcH iL, has haon 
0uch as may well riicitc regard Blavca^ under barburouD ma*- 
ten, the Oreek^ have eliU aspired afUr the blos^m^ d knov^> 
edge and €i\-i|jyniioit. Before the brcikiii^ our of \\n* pmc^nt 
Tcvoliiliofi, Uicy hiid c.tljihjwbfd surhuoU, and itillcgcs, and libra- 
no, lind thr prvtn. Whrrcvcr, an in Bcio, <iwiiig to particular 
circLirDs1ancc«, ihr weight of opprcMion was mitigaled» tlie na^ 
Ufal vlvncity of tlic Grcck»f and Lhcii aptitude for the ajtA, wenr 
eviiioed. Though certainly not on an equality witJi the civil- 
bed and ChrlMlan »1atcB of Europe, — and how is it pcBtdblej 
under friioh opprcHfiiitn an ihvy endtjiird, tliut lIu'\ should bt-?^ 
they yet furnished a airlkiug cuittrnnt witli tlirJr Turtiir mji^crs. 
It ba> b«H:n xitII aaitJ, tli:it ii in not nwy to form a jiist concop 
tjon of the nntufc o( ihc dc^potinm ctcrciscd over tbcrn. Con- 
quest and ^nbj Ligation 1 ae known among Kuropoan dlatee, are 
iiiade<|iiate mode« of pxpression by which <o denote the domin- 
ion cf t\w Turkrt. A conjjuefiit In thi? crivLliE^d wurld it* grnrrully 
no more llinn an iit^quinitiori of a \icvt doininiun U> ihi- rmiipir-r- 
ing ccumry. ll dlJc^ not imply a ncvcr-rnding bondage imposed 
upon Ihc conqnrrvd, a p*?fpi*timl mark, — an opprobrioiu dialinc- 
tJen between them and their masteia; a bitter and unending 
persecution of ibeir religion ; an habitual violation of their rigliltf 
of perion and propeny,und the unteritrained Ijidalgenee towunb 
them nf evtrry ]Jii»[irii whidi b(-lon>^ tu the cliaracler tif n bar- 
baroua voldicry- Virt Mich ta the :itatc of Gm^cc^ The Otto* 
man powcv ovrr thorn, obijiincd originnlly by tJic tiword, is 
C)on*1ailtly pn^tirrvi^d by th(^ fiUTie rnr;iiiH. Whrrcvcr it liXiKt^, it 
18 a tnere military power. The religions and civil rade o( the 
atate b^lng both fixpii in the Knrun, and equally the object of 
an ignorant a^ui furii^iiti fa-Ith, h*ive lM.'iffi foiiiLd eqctally tneaptible 
of diaitge- ^Thc Turk,** it had bcun tsuid, "lina bvvu ei^cumitcd 
in Kuropc for fonr t^eniurieEt.** He litia hudly ajiy mort; partioi* 



pnlion in Kiiropcnn mfinnrrK, kno\rlp(lgi\ anil itrtji, th^n wh^ii 
lip crowed the Ho^jkbriRii*. But (hi* i» nol. thr vvor»[* Th« 
|)Owr-r of ihi:- empire ia fallen into Qniifchy, and nt the priodple 
which belongs to the head belongs tUao to the pArla, there ar« aa 
many de^poU aa lh«ro are pnchaa, b^y*, aiul Tiziei*, Wars ara 
almott petp«tuui byfw^on Ihe Sultao and »ome feb«>Uitiiu gov. 
emor of a provuKr : wnd In ihe coiiftict of the**- dt-ipuiUinn, iJic 
propb arc []ex:i-5MtiiI^v grmiii<l bi:twi7cn the upprx and the nirthcr 
mUl2ton& In ahcrl, the Chmtiar fubjrcTa of the 8ub1in)c IVirto 
fed daily all the miacriee ^'hlch How from dc«poti«m, from aii- 
arohy* from tlMvery, snd from n^BgioDi pffr«octition. If any 
thing yet wmain* to hdghtifii nitoh 9 plenirr. In U bn »ddrc4, 
that vv^ry uHit^e in i\ur govt^mmt'Ot ih ra^t i>rly aoiually, but pnv 
fcMinlly, vc^iol; lh« pachalice, the vixicmtt-?, the «:adi»hl|>s, and 
whiib>nc%-cr other di^tiomi nation mziy denote ihc difpoaitory of 
power. In ihp wholir worUl, Sir, ihcrv in no Dueli cppreMion 
f^lt a^ by the Chri»tjaD Oreck*^ In varioii* part* of India, to 
bo «iin*i ^h^^. gc^xrjjinn^nt i* bnd i^non^h ; bat iht^n it in the gov- 
rrmmt^nt of barbttriiiiih nver baibarmnftt aud the fwUng of oppre»- 
&ion iff of course, not eo lte«ii. There the oppre«Acd are pcihap* 
Eiot better than their opprc^^ora; but in the ease of Creeoc. then 
ire miUioas o( Ctjriotiuii moci, not without hnowEcdge, not ^ith* 
out refinement, nol without a almng thimt for all thi* pEeusures 
of civiUjri'd Uf»% Imnipled into lbs- v*-ry enrth, cvnlury aftrr two* 
tnry, by a piJln^ng, wivugr?, relriitltr^ .loldirry, Bir, the chm; is 
uiikjue. There exiaf^i and hru existed, nothing like it. Ths 
world haa no »uch misery to «hov; there b 1:10 ea«e in which 
Cbridtian oommunitiM e-an be calli^d upon with »uch omphaais 
of appeuL 

Bnl 1 h«ve <uiid r-iiough* Mr. Chairman, indeed I netd have 
Maid iiotbingf In ^tatiufy the Hmisp, thai it ninnL b« Miime nrw 
oombinotion of circnmstanepB, or new views of poUr.y in tbr cab- 
mcts of Europe, which have cauM:d Ihia Jntrrrnticg ^tniggic not 
merely to be regarded with indilTercncc, but to bo marked with 
opprobrium. The vpry Rtntrnirnt of ihf rn^n, n* a ccntent be- 
rn^een ihe Turk** nnd On-^fk*, iinlliripntly indleiUes what moat be 
the fei^ing of every individual* and ev^ goveruruenti that i» 
aut biased by a particular interctitt or a particular fccliug^ lo 
\iHregard the dictates of ja&liee and htimumty. 

Ajid now, Sir, what has been the conduct pumued by (be Al* 



tied Fk>wrr« in ivgnrd to t hid conlc!*!? Whcii thir revolution 
bvokc oat, tho 9ov«Tcign* were ft^Hcmblcil in congr^M At Lay* 
htt«h; and Ihr ptjp^T* nt that nnHprnhly nifliHrnTty m^tnifpst 

thnr vriiliicirnrM. Tliry prortniiin'tl tliHr iibliiirrr/»cn* of l.hoHVi 

"crioiin&l combinationi which had b«rn formed in the ca^t* 
(sn portv of Huropc**; and^ althoii^h it i« poetitiblc ttmt thU 
dMloswIlitioii was aiiTKid, moro pnrticularlvi fit tho diHltirbanc<!i 
In the pTovine«« of WalUohia anf! Molda^Ha, y«t no ^xo^ption la 
mfidt*, tWim ilH ^r'lieral ttrrniH, in {^vot o( lhoH«^ evenlH in On^n^e 
whitii wfn- jwoprrW ibt LVJimneni'einent of lirr rr-viihjlturr, »nd 
which could not but be iwvll known at Iiaybnch, hrfon: the datt; 
of thcac d?aIaratioit&. Now it mueit bo n.*mr?iti begird, that Ru*- 
nft wa« a leading party in fbiit dvRunciution of thectforta of thta 
Grwita to nchicvc llt^'ir Hh*'ni!i(Mi ; and it eann»f. hnt bi> ^^prvti*d 
by RnA^ifl) thnt fhr WirHil fhlKiitTrE iiUn ri'rni^inlHT whfkt pikH Mh<* 
heneir has )i<-n;fuforc acted ia Ibo same concern. It is nolori- 
oos, that >vtt1iLn 1h« last liolf^o^ntury ehc ha» agiun and again 
«citcd tljc Gnx-ke to rebellion aj*aiji[^t tho Port^, and th^t ahc 
baa oonatandy kept alive in them the hope that she would, one 
day, by her own ^TftAi power, hr^nk the yokr iif rhHr op^wessor 
Indend, the rarnest ntteniioii with which Eu.iaib ba^i iv|fardc?J 
Ortccc goCB innch faiiht^r bacli than to the time I have men- 
tioord^ Ivun the Tliiri, in MSS, biiviu^ er*]>ouBfd a t-rttian 
prim^cvs, bi?in--M* of the hist (.^rL-ck Kin|jt'n'r,tli^c^;'d St. t«t?cirE;e 
6om \hc Rtiiwian armM, and ad(?pl<>d the Gn^rk two*h&aded 
hiark engfr, wliirh hiu rdntinni-rl iii the Rii^Tciafi nmi^ to the 
pre«i:at day* In virtur of the wnrnr mamAgc, the Ruaaiah prin 
cea claiTO tiic Greek throne aji their inheritance. 

Und^t Farter tlic^ (*rMt^ lh<' pohey of Rn^ia developed itself 
mora ftdlv. In 1696, hf* r''m5*^Trd ^inifirlf mTittf^r r>f Xrcify and 
in I6O81 obtained ihr right tit pnu ihf OaTdHiie]?eri,nnil to main* 
latn, by that route, eommerfrial iuk-nxiim? wilh the Mediter- 
vnoean* He hud cmiaearies throuf^'hoiit (Greece, and pttrticulady 
applied himself to ^in th« di?r;ry. Ho adopted the Labarum 
of Conntnatine, '* In hoc *if^no virict'ii"; und wsre struck, 
wiih the in^eripiion, " Petrus I. Riisso-Gnreonjni Impe.ratrtr.'* 
In whatrvPT nrw dinnition the pnninpU* of ihe Holy Alliiinnt 
may now le-ad the politico of RuMia, nr whntrvcr eoiirse she 
may AUppo^c Chnatfanity now prcacribcft to her, in re^rd to tha 
OmJc catutfi the time hea been when she profr^Mcd tn be con- 



tendiEjg for Uiut cnuiw, a» iilifiiliflw] ^vllji dirbtlmiUj'. The 
white banii^r uiid^'r wtiich llic soMiere of Pcler the Firsl usually 
rmifrhl, bonv, na it* inttc-ripluin, ** in f-hc namt nf tlit l*rinco» unii 
for our country/' lU'lyin^ on the aid of the Grci^kA, in hia wnr 
with tho l*ort4*, he chongc^cl the white Aug to nhIi mrul ciUplnytMl 
nn i( tht? worrln, ** In thi' nnmr of GimI, nnd for Chrintiriiiily." 
Tlic nnrortumitt' iw-uc of this wur i» wrIJ known. TlKwgh 
Anncftod Bluabcth, the «uccc««or> of l*etcr> did not po»cM 
hid activQ fjhamutvr, 1}iey kept up a oonAtaot eommunioution 
with Greee^ a^id hold out hopes of rvHtorin^ th«i Grvck ^inpir^« 
Catharine the S^oondi^aA is well known, exdted s geitenl revoh 
iu t7€9. A Himpian Hoi-t atpjM'unMl ii^ the Mt-diterrnneiinT iiiid a 
SurwiAi) army WEin Jnndt-i] in the M^jirii. T\n' Gn^t^kn In the 
end were di.-Kgii»tr<i n1 brin^ expected to lake an oath of olle* 
fnniicc to RuMin, nttd ih^. Kmprr'n!i wa« dirif^aMed boctiii^e they 
refunL-d to tnke il. In 1774, pcaei? wa» aigned bt'twren Rinwin 
mid ihe Pnrfi", itnd Ihr Grrrks (*f thr Mof*-ii wi-ri' h'(i. tn their 
t^te. By ih\* Imity the Ptirlr nrkiiowhnlged the irLrlrpeiidrnf?*; 
of thtr khnn of Ihr Crimea; % prdiminary «tep 1o the ncquipition 
of thnt country by Ruf^ia. It is not unworthy <'f ivmnrk, a« a 
ei reunify In iicMf wliiph dlAfin^i^he'l this frotn moat othnr diplo- 
inntie tnmnftr'hnnft, Ihni it coneetled ro the cnbinei of St, Peter*- 
1>UTg thf^ riglil [>r inttTveiition Jn the iiit4-mir afHlrH (tf Turkey^ 
in rc^rd lo whatever i^nct-TiKd the religion of tlic Gieekk 
lliecrijc1tic« aud nifiMaej-eo that hcippeni^d (o ftic Gnrdo uft^r 
the pe<aoQ b«itwe«n Ru94ju and the Portc^f notwUhstnndiri^ 1hi> 
general pardon which had been stipulated for thoro, need not 
now be iveited Tnstt^itl ofrr'tnidng the de-plunibli* picture, it t* 
<-fioiiKh tsi ftny, that In Ihit* re»pi^t-l. the [msl. is jitstly fctWteJ in 
the jirf'flent. The Emprefy* anon nller invndcd nnd iTon<|ncn?d the 
Criinen, oiid on one of the tp^teti of Kernon, it«i eiipitol, cnnned to 
be inflerihL*df " Tlie rond to IlyvrsintiumJ' The pres<*nt KmpePor, 
on ltJ!> iirei'H^ion lii llie ihnmi^, iniinifejitrd Fin inlenthm to ndo|U 
tlie piiliey of CHlhanne (he £^(H>nd n» hiitown.iind the worid 
|jn» not brpfi rljcht in nil it^ Hii«picion», if a project Tor the porfi- 
tion of Turkny did not form n part of llw negotialJona of NajKJ- 
leon nnd Ak-xtinder nt Tilsit 

AH ibi* rmirH' of pohey neerDS naddenly to be chan^il^ Tur- 
kfy i^ no longrr it'gatdrd, it would H|>{>fHi, ntt aji ohjei-l, of p^irl4' 
Qon or tLuquiFiitioni atid Greek revolla have all ut omxt become 



■jocnrding to the declaration of LaybAch^ "crimrrial combtuft- 
Hon*." The nvtrnt oongri-M nt Vrrona cxoi^i'rfivl itx prfdcre*. 
»or at LaybncU in il« denunciations of ihe Grrpk ilrugglt*. In 
tJie drcular *»f lilt 14lli of Dtxciiiber, 1822. U ilmJiired the Gre- 
cian rcfsistuxice 1o t1i« Turkisli power lo be nidh uiiO culpable, 
cui4 IcinciilM lliat *' ihc* firt-'hmnd of rvbdlion \w\ hetn thrown 
into the Oilomnn eirpireJ' This n^bukc? nnJ crimincilioM we 
Imovr to hiiv** proceeded on Hiost »^ttlrd prinHplen of comiuct 
whkJi lln^ f*oiilirii*nttiI |>nwrTn had pn'»*cribi^d for lhoTnwIvr»*L 
Tbc Mivirrci^iis eaw, as w<-M aa olht-ra, Ihe real conditiuu of the 
Onrckfi; they knew as well ua othtrs ilmt it wa» moat natural 
ond moot juotifuiblf, thut th<^y should eiidt-uvor, at wbuffvci 
haaord] to change tliat condition. They kncfW that Ihey them- 
vclvun, or at Ivuait one of them, hatt more IhEiii once urgind tht 
nrpr-kii In nimilar pfTort*; thrit Ihr-y IhrniM-lv*-!* hail ihrown thr 
aamc Itcvbrnind iato Ijiu mid»<l of Uit; Oltuiuiiii L-iii^'irr-. Ajid 
yeti 9o miicb dcc« it eei^m to be their ^vt} objc^ct to dlacounte- 
nancie whntsoc**tr threatens (o disiurb Uil* uehinl j^overimictlt of 
m\y ©oiirtry, that, Chrii^ticitis a* they wirt-, mid aih<.!d, uc thoy 
prafeiui-d to be, for ptirpobee most Important la human Imppi- 
n<"*« nnd rdieinr, they have lint hc»it«fi'd to deelntp to Ih^ 
wui'id Th»t ll]i'y havv ^huii^ furbume to exeri-'liie any uoiupa^- 
mon to the Greckft, aimply because they Ojouj^ht tJml they naw, 
in Ihe tttniKKl*^^ "' '^'*^ Mori?ii, the &i|fn of revohiii<in» This, 
thE*nT a eominjT to a pUjnT pmetieal result- The! Gri^cian rt'vo- 
Jutioa hat been dUcouraged, dtweountenunced, und denounced, 
milely brntiim- it u ci rr^vnlulJon. Vmh-pendrni. nf nil itiipiiry into 
the re»p*oiiabIencAf* of Ut ctuajip* or the oncirmiJy of Jh** Dppres^ 
Mon wbkh produced it; TCgardlcas of the duiina which 
Greece po^ctesM^a upon the civiliecd world ; und fe^ardleB» of 
what h08 be«ii their own cc^nduet towjitdH her for a (?L>rirury; re- 
ganJIeiKA of the tntere«l tjf the ChriMlikii religion, — Itie ttov«r> 
I'igtis :il Veninai wi^cd tipnn ihe cjim* cif the (Jreelt r«-viklulj(i» 
a!4 line nbovr nit olher.i rjileiduLfd In illiiMnitc Ihr li>ed jirinci- 
pics of ihcii policy. The abominnble rule of \\ir- VoTtr on one 
aide, the vnluR nnd the sutk-ringft of the Chriarinn Greeks oji the 
Otheft fumielied a oaae likely to convince even itn in<iredo]oa8 
vii^rid of the ^Incprily of the profefiaioiis of jh** AlJied Powert, 
Tfiey eriibra(¥d the 0(rL>:isioii witli nppareni ardor : and the 
Wttrid, I tntnt| \& aatJEiiietL 




We a^ here, Mr. Chajrinan, ITie diiect and a«tt>al appUeation 
ofUml iiy>U"m Tvhiph I Imve alU-rnplPtl to (lc*cribi^. Wc tec it 
in Ihi* vrry canf? of fin-rcc. W<" Iriirn, niitbi'Mtirally and indtn* 
putnhly, thiii Ihf- Allirri PowrrH, holrllng th;tt ilII chBUgra In leg- 
islation &nd administration ought to procr-r^ from kutgn a]oit(\ 
were wholly memorable to the euAcKogs of the C?r«ck#, uaJ en- 
lirely hOAtilo to their f^uccoei' Now it i* upon ihie pmcLicml k* 
ftult of tlie principle of the CojitiueniiU powon that I wlttb lhi« 
tToubtT to inUiiiiiTc its optnioiiH Thf? gri-at ([uestiun in a qufvlion 
orpiiiu^rpTc. Qn^r-(* is only ilw. ni^iial in^iiim-*: nf Ihtf njiplicA* 
tion of that principle. If tbc principk be right, if we esteem it 
cooformablc to tli« law of nntioii!*, if wc have- nothing to tay 
ftgaioet it^ or if wc deem oureclves unlit to cxprcb^ ojt opmton 
on the tubject, then, of courset no resolution ou|[ht to p^M. 14 
on the cAhvr hund, we *ee In the <IecUratlonfl of the ,\Ilitd Pow- 
r.n [u-ini-.iplr'H not only ttllrrly hcotils Ui our ciwii (trv tMHiitu* 
doiUi bill hostile hlibo to the independent!!* of nil nntionis and al* 
together opposed to the improvement of the condition of human 
nature; j], in rho instance before u«t we «cc n moi^t Btrikijig ex- 
portion and applioadon of thoM principle?, ^nd if we deem 
t>ur opiiriona to be entitled to any weight in the estimation of 
mankind, — llien I ililnk it i.i our duly U> miopt jiome mteh 
luensnre lui the proponet] rnolutlon. 

Jt 19 worihy of obaervDtiiin, Blr> that a» rarly n» J(i]y> 1851, 
BoKiQ ^trogonoff, the Huasian mtniBt^r at CoriPtoiitiiiople, rep- 
rteeoted to the Portei that^ if the undistinguished maMacres of 
the Grcek»^ both of auch as were 3n open resistance and of 1ho»e 
who refnaiii^d palJent in their ^nbnJwiiori were ei>ntinued, uiui 
ahouM beconw a tiettJed habit, tlj«y would give juat cauve of 
war a^inst the Porte to till Christian states ThiA wad in 
Iy21/ It was followed, enrly in the next yeur, by tiint indo- 
iwribable enormity, that appalling monument of barbari&n eru- 
ejly, the deatrucHon of 9clo ; a aeene I shall not attempt to de- 
aeribe; a Aceiie from whieh humtin natnre ahriuka shuddering 
away; a ac^-ne having hardly a pandld in the hintory of fallen 
man. ThiA scene, too, vraa qiiir.kly followed by the maMacre* 
in Cyprue; and aU these tbinga were pericctly known to the 
l^rifitf'an ]M3wer3 aaoembled at Veruna. Yet theno power*, £a- 

* Aanual Rc^in^r for iBSl^p. ftAl. 



AtAaJ of ftctiiig upi>n Ihf c^tft' aupposcd by B^lfod StrogonolT 
und wliirh otic woM lliiiik Imd bci^n thfii fuUy iiiiult out, — 
in»tea«J of ht'uig moved by any coinpaftvioii tot the Auir<^tiiig» of 
the OnrekE, — irie^ie pow^r*, iHl'^o ChrUtlnii power*^ rtrbukL> tli«lr 
gnUaufry nnd iiDiiill Ihrir flu^i'ringH hy nc^iiHing Ihrm of " throw- 
ing a CrebanU into the Oltointui enopire " SulU, Sir, ap[)tar Ui 
mc U> be tbc prindplca on wlitdi the ConLlutfTiliil pi^wtra of Eu- 
ropt^ \mvc Et^uti hi^rciLf1<n' to net; und thlii, uti crimncnt irijitdticc 
of the applicuiioti of thouo principlca. 

I »hEd] uot dcluin ihc c-timmitli!i*T Mr. ChoirmAa, by any ftt* 
U^mpt In tpcitr ihf. rvrnij* vf ihn (frrrk *lniggliT up U> fbr prrih 
tnl liinr- li* oii^n may l)e founcl, doubllra^, in ihat improvctl 
0tatc of knowledge which, for f^inc ycar»> ta« been gr&dualiy 
takini; pjaoe in that country, Tho iimiiniipution of tho Grnj^b 
huB b«*u a «ubJL<ct frt«|m?nUy djBcudBwl in modern limee. Thoy 
thf^mwlvea ure n.'pr<--*enii*d as huving % vivid reinembruoc^ of the 
distJniTlion uf thr-ir unmU>r(, nut Ltntiihrd with nn indignnni 
feeling (hat civili/rd and ChriJitJuiJ Riiropr ^^Ijould not ere now 
have aided ihcin in breaking their intolerable fetter?. 

In 1816 a aociety wtw founded in Vienna for the eneouragQ 
raent of Grocjun literature. It wiu» connected with a similar in- 
atjtulion at Aiticns, and nnolher in ThcMitly, cnllcrd the " Gym- 
nonliim of Mount Polion." 'rhi* trpa*iiTy nnd g<^nprftl offifvr of 
tJir iiistitiititwi wi.T(* i-Aratili>hvcl at Mmiich. No politiral object 
vras avowed by iheec inj*Utulioiia^ piobably nunc eon te in plated* 
SdUf bowovcr, they had their etfect, no doubt* in hasteiung 
that condition of tbin^ in which the Greeka felt coinpytent to 
tht Mtablishmeni of their lndt-pendence» Many yonrig men 
have he^-n for years annually iwiii to the unlversitieH in the west- 
cm itatea of Giuopr for iJirir i^luersition ; luid, after the gi^iK^ml 
pacification of Baroptr, mniiy military men, cliM:hargccl from 
other ompLoyincnt, were ready to cntci even into so unpromia- 
ing a ^fvicc a* that of the rovolutionar)' Greek*. 

In 18120, wajr ccmmeneed btrtWL'en the Porte ajkd Ali, the well- 
known Pacha of Albania. Biflervnr^^H existed aJn) with Peiaia 
and with Uubsia. In tbb «tatc of tUiiigs, al the beginniJi^ of 
18SI, an insurrection broke out in Muldaviu, luidcr the dirf^lioit 
of ALi^x&nder Ypsilanti, a welhedncated Boldicr, who had been 
major-gvnertd in tlie Ru«>inn fu?rvte«. From his charoeter, und 
Lh(* iniuibcr of thoae who liteinni luotlned to Join him, he woff 

TOI. III. 9 


THK rf:\'olittion in grrece. 

0UppuJi_^ (o be comiktiaiK-itd by thi- court of St l^«tcr*burg 
TliLti, h< WL^TT, wua u i^ttt iniittithef whiclj tiic Bmp*^ror, llkcii ul 
Laybuch, kfok an coily opportunity to rectify. The Turkish 
govvmincnt wiu alurme<l ut thcs« i^ccum^iicr'ft in the nortlitfrn 

o( all vcsM'Jd t'Titrring ttic Ul&ch St-a, Icat aiTDM or other nuUlar^ 
nicauifi t»houI(i be »f:at In tiiat miuuior to tlic iofturgtots. Tbia 
provtd iiimiivenloat to Hi*; commorce of Rtutaia, eiikI caiiB*-%J 
somo onfl«lj»factory P0fTtfj|K>iidence betwt'L^n (lie two po\v»>tt, 
It nmy bo worthy of remark, ns an ex!ubltjo» of nutionEi) olia^ 
Rpirf, ihiil, agitjitrd by tittle B-ppHnntriw* nC htlrMmr L-iniiirio- 
tion, tb(^ SuItMTi iiwued a pnxJiMEmlion, r»ltiiig on nil trim Mii^ 
tmlinuna lo reuouiior fht pirosurc* of aocia} IiTl', lo iwcptut nmis 
and borM<T<, iiiid lo return to the muniier oi their tineestora, tbc 
life of the plruiid. The* Turk ^ecmn to have Ihouj^bt Ibat he 
had, tit hi*1, eLiught dorn<-1hing of the duiigc^roui eontJigion of 
Kitropt^un riviliz^iUon, iiml that it was neet-uury t<i nTfiinn hU 
babit9, by recurring 1x» the original mnnn^ni of niilituiy roving 


It wild about thi» tiiDe, that U to «ayt at tho oomin«i)C6meut 
of l^L thttt Ihf? revolution buret out in vuriouB purta uf Greece 
&nd the iite». Cireiui)»tiirc-e», wrtaiuly^ were not urifAvurkible 
to thi? movi*fneiit, n« one porlk:»n of iht* Turkish »rmy woa em- 
p1oy<Nl ill thr wnr ngnin^t All P:irhn in Aib»[iin, find another 
part ia the provii)cc« north of the Danube. The Orceks 00011 
poaaesMxi thcmaclvca of the open cooniry of the Morco, and 
Av>vo their enemy into th^ ronri'SBeB. Of tlwrn-, that of Tripo- 
lit;(ij, Willi the ^JTly, fell into their liand^T i" the eoonr of the 
itummer. Htiving ufter th«-!te (int inoveinentM obtnin'd linie C9 
hrcsithr, it Iji'cinms of rainrnej an early ohjcrt to e^titNiAh a ^ov- 
ermni'nLi For this purpose delegates of thv poopk- afiM-inulnl, 
under that name which describe* the aa(jcmbly in which vn our- 
*elvc* r-iiy thiit numewbich "freed the Atlajitio," u Chnffttss. A 
wntur, who urid<.*rfukes to render to the eivili^ted world that wr- 
vice which wns onee performed by Rdnnnid Burkr, E mean Ihc 
r-Eimpilrr of the English Atinniil RpgUtrr, aitk^y by what uiiihor* 
ity thi« a»sembl^ eouid coll itself a Cong^re>», Simply, Sir, by 
the aamc authority by which the pi-opEc of the United t^tatcs 
have given th*.* eanie uarao lo thi^r owi» le^elature- We. at 
W&*i|«hodd be niniraily inclined to Uiiuk, not only aa fjii aa 




flameA, but things alsn, are concf^nefl] that ihe GrF^ks cotiJtl 
hanlly have bti^gua their revolutLin tinder beticr aii^ipirea ; aince 
xhcy linvc «iiUmvon?d to n^jidcrr appUculile tu tlieiii^elvvd tlie gen- 
erml pnncip[i;a of oiir fomi of ^vcnimmt, an wrll tui its name. 
This eonvtitutioii w«nt into opcratkin at tht; commcncoincnt of 
the next yc-ftf- In tht! iri^nn tinn\ the war with AH Pticha wn» 
?ndrd, he having ^Lirrpncirri^, and bring nftrrwRnin ^Mf^ni^mnTccJi 
by an Initancc of trea<:hery and perfidy, which, if it htid ha(i|krncd 
eJscwhfrn* tlmn tiiidtT tht^ utivenuticiit of (he Turka, wuuld havi* 
dc9«Tvcd noticr. The lu^^otjution willi Huosia, too, took ia turn 
utilAvomblo to tho l^re^ko. The ^ut pomt upon which Rutfsia 
iiuUtod, brfiid« tbe ab«ndoiimr'nt of th<^ mou^ure of ^eurt^hlog 
vmwit bound To thfl Bhck Sr^i^u-nn, that tho i'orte shoidd with- 
draw Li^anTilf^ froin Iht neighborhood of the lliimiftn franticTB: 
and the iiiiiiii^dmlr (^OMhL'qurnue of Ibif^ w1it.'[i L'|]r4.'l4.'d. wms U> 
add BO mncti more to ihe disposable ft>rc<? ruady to bi* «mp]oyi.'d 
igtiinst tht! Gn"i?ks. Tbcte L-wnte suemed to have left tht* whole 
forao of the Ottoman L*tnpirL", ut tbt' cp[ninencE?m<rnt ijf 1822. 
la ft condition 10 br Mmployf^l jigninHt thr Cirrr-k rrb^^Jlinn; 
and] Aoconlingly, vt-Ty ntnny nfitit^'ipnliH thr imiDrdintr doAtmc* 
IJOQ of the ctitj*t\ Tbc cvriit, liowi'VCT, waa ordrrt^d iJthL-iwJsep 
Where the gr<.!it4*»t effort waa mfldc. it wa» met ai«l def<.-ttt4;d 
Ent4^o^ tbt' MoHMi with an army which aeenicd capable- of bflor 
ing dowTi oil pMUtuBpe, the Tark^ were uev^^rThek-iii dofyntwd 
and drivni hwrk, and piintuiHl bryoud the iitihiTuiK, willuii wh:ch, 
as far »■ it upprjim, from thai time t4> the prudent, they havi? noc 
be«-n able to ?(-t thi-ir foot. 

It was in April ol thiii year thnt thr dcstniction of Scio took 
place. Tbnt inland, a (oH of appnangc of the Sultana mother, 
enjoyed many privilf*i^p« pe<Ti]|[ar to ifjtelf In a popolatjou of 
130,000 Of 140,000, it had no morp than 2,000 or 3,000 Tarkft; 
indeed, by scmic airoiinJa, not near a!» iiuiriy. Thi- nbwmH? uf 
tJieic nilfinn tnasteri had in ?oinc dei^ee ullowed oppartmiity 
for the promotion of knowtcd^', the aeenmnlntion of w-eallh, 
and tho i^neTMl L-nllivuUon of society, Here wjm the Lont of 
modern Grepk lii^rntnw:; hcw^ were libraries, printingpreasuA, 
and other p*tflt>li*hinerit#, wtiirh irdicat*» som^ advancement In 
reiiiiement arid kin>\^ ii-d^t?. Cerlalit v( tlit* iiihabitajttH of 3«" 
nio%, it would Bcein, ^■llviou4 of thi» t^omparLttive hapjjiuew of 
^,io, landed upon Uie ulund in an imguJar mulUtudej for tho 



-THE KErffl^CmON IN GR££U£, 

purpoAC of compelling lU iiibabilnnfA to make common colum 
with tboir oountrymcn n^inst thoir opprr^sonip Thc^o, being 
joined by th« peasantry, marched to tb? ciiy ftnd drove the 
Turks into ibt? eaat.le. The Turkish fleet, lately reinfowwd from 
K^^il, lm|i[H?iit^U Ut \m in ttitf tLri^bburiii;^ Hea?i, uiul, lir.trtung 
lh<:w: ^vait^i, Lii^dcd n force on the UlanJ of fiftcva thousand men. 
Tbi^rc woA Dotliiii^ to rc-d^t snch nn army. Thi--:*c troops immc- 
dintcly cnt,c!rcd thu c-ity nnd began nn iiidij^cnmmaic mnH^acTC. 
The dty wat lircd; nud in four dnys the fire ajid sword of the 
Turk readpred the IkeatiliTnl Srio a elotted ma** of blood and 
a^hea. The dttuii* art tut) Hhoctifig Ut be reciltd- Forty ibou- 
eaitd wunii^n and cbJldrv'ii, uiihnpinly b&vcd frtmi llic general dQ»* 
truction, wire aftcru^urda euld in i\ic itiarkL-t of Smynm, and cent 
off into dixtnnt nnd hopeless *L<rvitude, Er«n on thu ^'bujrvc* of 
our own dtic*, it ha* been naid. hitvo bt-cn void tht- nt<^nM!)i of 
tbosr^ htvinhn wh^rh now vxwt n<t Uai^t. Ol the whole poptl- 
J&Lioii wbich I have tiientioned, notttbove nine hundml persona 
wuri: k-fl Uviuj; upoa tJie JsUiid. I wUl oiily repeal, Sir, that 
tbctte tragical sceiirs wrrr lu* fully known at the CongrcM ci 
Verona, as they arc now known to ti»; ond it ia net loo oiuch 
to call on lh<* powers that eoni-titnl^d that coni;^**w, in th" name 
of conReirnec nnd in Th<' mine of hiimnnif.y, lo tell uft if Ijiere 
be ncitliJng even in iheav unparaUeled excec^teit of Turkish bar* 
baiity to exdie a «cnUmoni of compfiFviun; notlilu^ which Ihi^- 
Rgnrd asi 00 objc-otjouuhk ua t^kn the vury idun of popuJar rc- 
nutanco to [>owur. 

The (^ventA of Ihc yt^ta whidi hac jtiit pnAted by, as far ah 
thfly havi? beeomp known fo us bavr heen even more favorable 
to the Greeks than tiiose of the year preceding. I omit all dv- 
toiU, aa being n^ well hnown to othem aa (o niyw^lf. Sulficv it 
to aay, thut with no othrr i^immy to contend witit, and no divcr> 
don of hi& force to other objccta, the ^arUi hnn not been able to 
coiry the vme into the Morea; and that, by the laat aocouatSi it» 
»rmies were acting defensively in Tbe«0aly. I pBM o<rctf, also, 
the naval engagenit^ntB of the GreekH, although ibal is a mode 
of warfare In which ihey art* cuJi^idatiN] lo t^jti^J, and in which 
they have akc-ady performed acliona of such distingaiahed ekiU 
and hravOTy, aa would diaw nppUube upon the best marincTB in 
the world, Th« pri*ii?nt erate of the war would aeem to hn, that 
llic Greeks pnue^s tlie whole of tlic Morea, with the exccptlun 



of Lbe thxtn (brtreaaea of PBtraa, Cofon. aikd T^tocloii; all Oandiftf 
bill one furUfsti; tuid moflt of the other iabiicb* They \KiatHmM 
Lhc citadel of AUiuiiBi, MiM^>Joaf^bi| uud acvi^mJ other place's ill 
Livftdiii* Tbv> huvo be«ii able to act oti the otIrji»ivi-, luui to 
niuiy ibe wur beyoud the Uthmoa. There b no ruaiioii to he- 
lipvr Ihrir iciunrir la wt-itkt^aeil ; ituirp pmbnUy, it t* »"lrrngih- 
riMxL liul, wImL ia luurtL iiiifJortojU of nJI, Uit^ hxvy* tiblfljnml 
tim« aod cApcricnccp They have awakened a o^inpuLby 
throughout Earoj^c^ and throughout Anicirica; aiul ttii^y ha^-'e 
funii<-d a ^vuruiueut wlijch Bccms suited to tbd 4;iutrf{tjioy uf 
ttiL-ir ooikdlLloa 

Bir, Lhi'y li;ivt? dune niut^h. It wuuJil be greut iiijufltlAe to 
cumptLTi! (Iicir adikvi:tucutB with our own- Wc Iw^n »nr 
BcvoltitJon, idrcudy pi>aDCtfacd ot govtrrnitu'ttt, and, compnmtiviv 
lyicf dvU tihurty. Our unooHtont bad froai the drat been nnciiv 
toroed in a gn-at nieuituv to {^vt-ni lliemeeLve«. Tht^y u^ri- 
faTniilar wItK popuhir rlcflirmjt nnd li'^islntivc nftM^niliLii^Sj and 
well ari|LLitnl'.-(i wiUi Uie g<-nrr»] priiiclplus liiid practice of free 
govern; uej I ta. They had iiltic clac to di> than to ttuuw tifl' Lhf 
pnnuuouiit uuihurity oi Uiq [Miu'iit i^iaic Kiiough wua alill Jeft^ 
both of law bud of or^ni;iiitiunT to condaot doui<-'ty ia ita aoctu* 
lomt'd evurvi'] uud to miite men ioge(li<?r for a comirioa object. 
The Orr^fk*. cf cotimt", could atl wjth Uiiltf (^oiiccrl lit the bf*gin- 
uiilg ^ they wv-tii uii^uKriinti^iiLcd lo the exi^rcim: of p»wi^f without 
fXpcncucc, with limlu-d hhowkdgc, without nid, and j^iirrouad^ 
od by o4t]OD» wbii/h, whdiuvcr dnLtn^ the Uret*l«i might w^cro 
to bare upon tht^m, hitve n^ordtxl tht^m nothing but disoui- 
ttgvtnvat s-nd n-|jn}uch, Tiii^y hnvv hrld out» hoW(?vtT, for rhfce 
cuDpiu^us; and iIiili, fiI l(.r(i«r, i» ^oiiR'tbiikg- ConM^iatijioph- 
ftod lhc uonlian provinces have treat forth thouAiitida of iroopo; 
■^tbey hav« been defeated. Tjripoiii and iU^cre, m\d Ugypt* 
huve coEilribditMJ their marine contiuf^erita; — they huve ooi 
kept the otvuii- HordL-n of Tartunt hiive i?ro:»sed tbe Bo^spbo* 
ruft;— tbey have died wii^re the Per*iiuw dit«L Tli« jjowerful 
mouorchicai in the ni^i^liLorhci^ hLtn- diriiuuiict^l their euuflc 
aud odnioiudhcd tbeni to abujidon it u»d mbmit to their fatc> 
They liavu answered them, ttu^t, although two hnndrud thou- 
Aand of tiieir coutitrymeu hsi\-e -oHvrvd up thi^lr livoi?, there yet 
remain livcit to oi\'vi-, itnd thu it i* the drirrmi fin lion of a//, 
" vr^i ofAUU" to pi-n>cverc antil they shall havv t«tabh«h^d tbeir 



liberty, or until the power of their opprvwun almll htivo ralleved 
them from fha burden of cxiif unoi;- 

It niftv now bt" [ukrdr pf-rhnp<i, wltPthrr Ihr t^xpfrvMir^n of our 
own Kvmpnlhyf tind tlmt; of Ihr (^oiirtry^ niny t\n thrm good ? I 
liopc il may. It m&y give tlioin conrogi- mid tplt'it^ jl may assure 
Ihcm of public tc^&t<[, teach tkom that IIktv an? n^^ wholly for- 
golivn by the civilised world, and Jnupirc them with constancy 
in the pumult of their f^vm end. At luiy rattf, Sir» it oppeon to 
iin^ that the mt-uiurt^ which 1 huve jjrcj>o!*t-d is dut- it> our own 
<7hiirni-ti?r, und c^llfMJ for hy our nwii duty. Wht^i w« jdintl 
have discharged that duty, wc may Iravc the ic«t to the dispo- 
sition of Provide nc€- 

1 do not seo how if can bo doubted that thie mcamre ia en- 
lifply patifi'^. I prafi'd« my inability to perceive that it bae any 
possible tt?ndency to involve t)i:r neuiml rtlationsL If thi^ reso- 
lutiiHi PE1--U, it JH not r>f ni^-r!AKity to In? iiEiniefliiili-'ly lUTtrd on. 
It will not be* ndrd on at nJJ, unlcM, m the opinion of the FVes- 
idcHT, a proper ajid safe ocea^ion for acting upon rt sbuL arise. 
If we adopt the resolution tonlny, our relations with every for- 
«if^ji state wU) bi> to-morrow ptt>cWly wbut they now are. The 
renclutioo will be sulFieient to f.-xprL-«x our sentimenfs on !he 
vubjrcb iJi whiHi 1 hnvr* ndvrftrd, lUrfnl fnr thut pUTpnsr, it 
GbJi be: nnj4rhi(;vous for no pur))ose. If the topie wrnr propprly 
introduced into the message, it cannot be improijerly Introduced 
into difloufifcion in this House- If it were prtiper, which no one 
doubts, for the Preaident to expre^ hi* opinions upon it, it can- 
not^ I think, be hnprtippr for u* to express oura. The ooly ee^ 
tain eiTr'L't uf thin rr-siilnlion if* lo signify, in a form ustml in 
bodies eonslHuted IJkc this, our npprobarion of the grnenU iwn- 
timent of the mesaagc. Do wc wish to withhold that npproba* 
tion? The reaolmion confers od the Presidrni no new power, 
nor dot^B it enjoin on him tlie exercise of any "**w duty; nOf 
docs it bnaten him in the di»e]mrge of any eiisiing duty. 

1 cannot iiziiigine that tills resohitrnri eiin add Hiiy thing to 
tliosc excltemcnta which it boa betui :t[ippo»rd, I think very 
causelessly, Trught poeeibly [jrovoke the Tnrki.-ib government to 
acts of hoatibiy. Thore is nlrendy thu mrepagr, expreej^ing the 
llO[W of aui^cess to the tireek* and disnatcr tt> the Turks, in a 
much Klronger manner iJian is to be implied from the term* of 
thi) resolution. There is tht^ correHpondeiiee bi^tween tlie Seo- 


irinry of Rt>it^ niid ihr Om*!! A|;vni in LnnHon, nIrpttHy mad^ 
publii.*, in whiirh Hirnilnr wi»tK'« 9Tc pxpn-Mrdi and a contfimaii(^f> 
oi" the cont'opoiidviji:*: apf>an.'iktly iiivjtrd. I might add to thiw, 
the uncxo-iTipW tiurat cf fci^lintc which this cnuw Has r^lcd 
forth froru all L<la9d» of &uc*i€ty. und the rioUirioun fiLCt of pncQ- 
fijnry conlnbuUuns made throughout Ibc? coutitn,' fnr iU aid FUid 
iidvuncv-mr-riL Afi*^r :dl this, whofvrr con Bii? cnuii^ of dftngor 
to our pncrific ridiLtionA fmm thr iido|it.Lt>ti of tins rc»ulijlioji has 
B keener vision thtm i can pretend to. tiir^ llkcri^ is no au^ 
tncntcd danger; there i> no druiger. The queation come» ftt 
Jast to thifli whether, on a mbjeot of this sort, thiis Hoodo hold» 
an opJfUoo which Id worthy to be expr^-Hned. 

Hven «iJppo9f| Sjr, uri ugeiit or eotiittiiHuiofitrr werr* fo hi* itn- 
iiirdiatcly »oiit,^a mcd.iurr which [ iiiym.-ir belit-vc to bn tJie 
pfcpcr one, — thcrr is* no breach of neutrality, nor any just cau»c 
of otTcjicc. Sueh an ngont, of courne, n'ould not be accredited ; 
hd would not be a pubtic minitter. The obj«ct woiild be inqui- 
ry and informafion ; in'|iitry which we have a right to make, Ui 
formatto^i whicli we ure inTcrcst^d li> |r)^whh. If a diitiiiembtT 
rnenL of the Turkiah empire Lp taking place, or baa already 
taken pWe; if ti new ^t^te be riMiig, or be already nttcn^ m the 
|UeditcmnL-an, — who cun doubt, that, without any breach of 
MotliLlity, ve riU}' inforiTi ouriielvee of the^se event* for the gor- 
ffTOHimt of onrown canctrnr^'^ The Grepk* have deelared the 
Tiukifth Dua£la in a stair uf block^ide; may we jiot hiform our* 
■elv^H whether thla bliAkad^ be rmmintil or retti? mid, of eoimet 
wbetlier it ah all be rL-^'urded or disre^rded? The (creatcr tnji 
t/ade may huppen lo btr with SinyniUi a consideration which 
ncvnini to hav^ alarmed ttonie |>entlt-iiief}, the ^utex >» the rtm- 
iijjn, in my upirdon, why we shmild nerk ti) bi* sieenrately iu- 
forrn<<d c^fthoMe evriitH wlueli m^y niVn-l iu safety. Um^'ma to 
mc impoMihlc, therefore, for any reaeonablc man to imagine 
that thi« r««olution can expose ii» to the rcscntmcJit of Ibe Sub- 
lime Porte, 

As bttl« reai!Lon ia there for fearing it^ eonflequeiii^ett upon the 
eondvic-t of the Allied Power*. Tht'y niaj, very nulundl)', dla- 
like our MTntrtn<*ii1« npou tlie aubjet^t of the Greek revulntion! 
but what tbojve [v^otimfints are Utcy will much more explicitly 
Icain in the IVe-sident** ii]csf*ngr than in thi* resolution. They 
Uiight« indeed^ prefer that we should ostprcae no diveent from thf> 



doclriiirn whic!h thr:y hiivr. ;ivowr<l, nntJ the applbntitvn which 
eli«/ have DiDcIc of thoAc iJoctriim to ihc c»ac of Orctcc. But I 
tmst wo ara nol diBpoeed to loav« thom in any doubt a* to our 
fftnlimMiU upon those important aubjcctip Thvy h^ve ^x- 
prsfo^ thinr opinions, and do not call thai eTprf«uon of opinion 
au iiitt?rrvn.'n<^; in wUtch re»p«xrt tliey unf n^lit, a& the c^»k^!*- 
aion of o].>Lm<m In aucb guko ie not eiuch lui iutcrft^rviiutf a* 
wouldjufltify Itie Cin^t-k^ in coaaideiitig tho pow^rre ut war with 
thean< For the enrnu ruats^an, uny exprc£i£io!i which wu may 
moko of diffen-nt pruicipW %iid dilFur^iit syiuptiUiivM Ik no 
imcrfrr{*nr<\ No t^nf'- wcniM c;ill fiie Prestdrnl'n mi^suuigir an 
tntt'rft^rt-iice ; and yet it i» much »1rorigt:r in th»t n^]kect than 
thin nraolaliixi, Ififitht^r of fJicm vould be vuniflTaed to be aui 
intcrfi-rtrucu, no doubt it would be itnprcpdr, ttt Jcaot it w<iuld be 
eo uooording to my view of the flubjeot ; for thv very Uiing which 
I bikve utternpted to rt-«iHt in the c^uxoe of thcte ubscrvutionn i* 
the right uf ftirrign inLi'rfefi<n(-L\ Btih ririlhnr tin.- rni?uiig<- itar 
the reM>lu1hin ha^ thiit cli^ni'k^r. Thrrc in not n poiiver in Bti* 
rope which can duppooc, that* in expressing our opinions on this 
oocoeioni wc arc ^vcrnod by any desire of oggrandiKiag oot- 
teJvef or of injuring others We Jo no more than co maintain 
those eBtabJi*lit*d prlneipltB iu which we have an inti;f««t In 
coimnon with other niilionti, and to resist the iutroduelion of 
new prinuipW nnd iirw nitcH, eidnihit^^^I lo diTtttrtky tin- ndnljve 
independence oi stales, and porticularij hostile to the whole 
fabric of our government 

I gIom, theOt ^^^ ^^ rep^atjng, that the object of thia resc^U- 
IJon b to avail our^elvea of the mtereiitiii^ oeeasioD cf thd 
Greek rekriilutJuij to make our protect af^iLliiKt the dot-trSneft of 
the Allied Power^it bvUi a& they ore laid Utiwn tu principle? luid 
IL0 they nxc applied in pradjoe. I lliink it ri^'bl, too, Sir, not to 
be unsea&onablc in the cxpmuon of our record, and, as for as 
that goea, jn a manifestation of onr eympathy ^A^ith a. lorg op- 
pressed and ni>w struggling people^ 1 am not of thote who 
would, in tht' hour of iitrnohL pt^ril^ withheld «ueli enr«imi^emeiit 
OS rai^hl be pruperly Etiid lawfully giveij, and, when the ctImb 
^houid be pcttti, overwhelm the rescued aulFirtr with kjndne«4 
and CLtreistfeft. The Greeka addrewi Uie eivilixed world with a 
pulliOb not easy lo he reiiiHted, They invoke our favor by more 
moving confiiderutioitH tfmn eun wdl bt'lon^ to Llie condilion of 


any other people. They stretch out their arms to the Christian 
communities of the earth, beseeching them, by a generous rec- 
ollection of their ancestors, by the consideration of their deso- 
lated and ruined cities and villages, by their wives and children 
sold into an accursed slavery, by their blood, which they aeem 
willing to pour out (ike water, by the common faith, and in the 
name, which unites all Christiansi that the) would extend to 
them fit least some token of compassionate regard. 


At in vnfy pwiod of the Mw^on of Conj^rcM of 1833-^ a ImTI 
VFiw u>ft>duc*d Into thn fliiUHT *>( RrrjiniAtTaiolivt^* Tn niTiri^tl r}if^ Wt- 
orol bMfl l&yinf^ diiUM on imporU* The object of iho bit) wjut n 
compfcheniivfi rovlsjon of the cxUting bw, with a viciv to (ho i>xi«n' 
kkvi uf lIiq piMltctivu Hysrum. The bill U:cuiiht cIkt subject of u 
pfDimcfcd debate, in which much of tnc ulcm of the Hou>o on both 
»id<^ 4Ufl Fngnged- Mr W^btter took an nctive pan in iho discuiuion, 
bod ipuku upon mnrty of llic dutniU of ihc bill uhilc It rcnuuiiod in the 
cammiitno ofiiio nbor<T bwiito on tho *tuio cf tbo Union. Snvortl ob* 
jectniiable pmvi«ifMi« itffrt* i^rnovod. nnd various nnL^ndint-nT* v.^n m- 
tW^icfil uj'on bin NHjUiin; and il «a» a mnTlcrof rcgriri to bnut n^ »cua 
in tho following K|iM-cbi ibal iho fnondK of iha bill vero not able or will- 
ing TO bring ii into a farm in ubif^h, ai n 1A'ho}^. hi^ could givo ii tils 
■ijppi>r1. On llio OOlh and 3l^t of Murcb. Mr. Clny. 8|itnkcr uf the 
Hoiue, addreverf iJiu commitrcc of the* wbole^ at Icn^li ond witli j^rcAl 
nbihiy, on thr gf'nrml prinnlpt™ of ihr bill ; nnd hn wns ■iirnrHlrri by 
Mr, Webster, on the Int and 'Jd of April, in the folbw*ng speech* 


Mrr. C'li^inM^H, — ] will avnil my-irlf of the prct<cnt occiLiijon 
tA maU(*. flom<^ rrmarkB on tHMlain prineiplcK antl opinions which 
hfive hffn recently ad vnrcpd, nnd on tho*i* roniideration* which, 
In iny judgtTit'nt^ oagbt fn gov(*ni us m drriiiitig npftr* the sr'V- 
rm] aw] n^fl|Hrctivv paria of fliiH very impoitaikl mid cuiii|>Jex 
mcaj'iirii. I vnn (luly asiy tijnt this i5 a puinlid duly. I deeply 
rrgfTct ihi* nectrs^ity whi<^h ir* llkrly 1o bv imposed upoo me of 
giving fi gcnrrrd nliinniitivu or nrgnlive vote on ihe whole of 

■ A Sjiw^rh H^liwflTPd on IhA t« ind Sd of April, \BU. in the Itmiw of Rrp. 
r«««<nt:tiiv<ri, on ili« |hl] for rvviiiinfl \Uv ■D*cnil Ada impmiu^ Dulj'u iii\ (IcnaiD 
Arti«i4^ impnnMl tain dti^ I'ljiLnil dui«a. 



Ihe bllL I f^annot bm tKink this mode of proeeeding Uable to 
gri'ftl abj«ctiun>^ ft rxpojn"M both tfuis* who support and llioSA 
who oppoM: the mrhKiin^ to vrry iiiijiiht ihkI liijiiruJUit mi.^apprt^ 
hcnnions. Thfrr mfxy be good rcrfloiis for fFivniing jiomc of the 
proviHionK of the biU> nnd cqnolly j»tToi]g rr:a*ofi:i for o}>poniiig 
oth<!r»; ind thi^fic pnivitions do not wtnnd to carh othrrinthe 
frUtion of priiLcipal and inctdeot. If IhaT were Th^ raep, llione 
who air iti itivor of the prlnt-ipal might ftit^^o their cpimons 
Upon in(idf^uta] and subunUtmt*; provUluriB. But the bill pro- 
poses enactniniU entirely tlisiinct and diiTrrent froiii one an- 
other in oharacttr und fiuid^^dcy. yucn*? of it* tluuaoa are ill* 
t«iid«d merdy for rcvpimi.-; and of iIioil* which regard th*.' pro- 
tedion of horn*? iniinnfiicturt'*, ane part ntaiidn upon vi-ry dilTw* 
cot grouudft frmii \ho:v. of othvr pnri#. Bij that pmhiibTy rvury 
p^ntlcmnn wh^g mny ultimately support llic bill will rot^ for 
muob which hi« Judgment doc» not approve ; and thoso who op- 
pose it will oppoi^e »om«ithtiig which they would very gladly 

Being intJUAivd wit}] tlie EnterefilA of a dlatrict lilgldy comineT* 
cialf and dtrply hitt-rt^^ili-'d in niauufuctiirfr-i alMi, [ wish ut ritatfi 
nay opjnione» on the pronont int'iiauri-, noi mn on a whole, f<ir it 
ha> no entirv kikI horno^'t-iLVouir chaructct, but a» on a colleotion 

dilT(-n?nl enat?tmontJ«T K>mt* of which moet my approbution 
•omr tii windi flo not. 

And kWow mc. Sir, in the fimt plnnr, Ut wtntj? my rrgn-t, if ia- 
deed 1 on^ht not to OLprcw a n-nrmrr ^cnUmcat, at the namrd 
et dcai^&lion* which Mr. Sprahcr * hn» nc^i^n tit to adopt for 
the piirpo« of d^K-ribing thp advocnt^a am! rhe oppoeera of tha 
pre6<>nt bill It 19 a <iU4'iitii)ii, he Aayn, h<*r.wr<'n the Trienda of an 
" American |Kihoy" and iho^v of a "foreign policy/' This, Sir, 
ia an a&?uiaption which I ttike the llbcirty iiiiMt Jlructly to denyi 
lit, Spiraki-T cvrttilidy intended nothing itjvidiyus or durognlory 
to any part of the House by this mode of dt-^nomiiiating Iricnda 
and a^vmw'A. But there U power in nmneti, and Ms miuiner 
of dtctinguJHhing those who favor and Ifiowe whn oppose- portic- 
olai mtriiMjrr« mny Irad to inft-'rcnct^ to which no [iirnilx'r of the 
House can ^uhmit. h may imply that there h a moic t-xclualve 
U)d peculiar regard to Amcricnn intcxcaU in one claaf» o( opin* 

• Mr. CUT 




ions thsn in nootlm. Such «n implicntion i« to be resisted and 
mpc]lc<h ETfry member linn tx right to the prc»ampHon, that he 
pureiiM what he bclievee to t>c the intennat nf hir> cmintry with 
ttA ennodra a z^ at any oth«T menib'^r, I cinim iMh i& my ovni 
CQfl«; and vtille I shall not, for any purpnRi? cif drM-ription rn- 
mjiveiiiriit Jumtiip-inT-iiL hw* Ifriiit!! whidi itimj iinjily uiiy diMC* 
spcrt t4> (ilhcr mrri'^ ci|imio)]!!<, iiiucli li-» aiiy inipulatiuo upon 
other mcn'^ motivcfi, it b my duty to take cart- tJmt the uao of 
mcb trrm« by otfirrf^ be not, n^in^t thn vrill of tbop^r ^dio adopt 
tham, madi* to prtHJucir a fnUi^ imprr-xition, 

Ini-WH, Sir, it U a little nvtfin in hi rig, if it mrmtfl ifmyf^nii-iit 
tu Mr R|H-nker, for the piir|>oM'^ (.>f di"titirticin, Ut in*iltr iiw of 
the terms " AjUtfricnii pubcy" aiid '^ foreign policy," that he 
should not have applied Ihcni in a manner precieely the roveree 
uf that in wliith be hnn in fuel uaed ibem- If names ai^ 
tliotight nt^cftAiiTV! it v/ouM bi* tvell tnouf^h, oTie would think, 
that llir nrunp Mbinikl bt' in whjii- meJisiin- ll*■^e^^pljve uf Ibe 
thing; nnd Mnec Mr. Bpriikrr drnominnli?^ the ptilitty which be 
rccommeads "a new policy in tlii* country"; *incc he flpeaka 
oi the present Tnca«nro as a new ora in our [c^^lation; rince 
he profe8te« to invite us to depart from oor aecuatomed conrvo^ 
10 IniHtnict ourselves by the wladom of others* and to adopt th« 
policy tif the iriunt dt-iliri^iiiKht^d fumgEi nrate^t^ — ^ one ia a litlJtr 
cunoun to ktuiw witli whnt jirciprir-ty (if npt^cch thi» imitation of 
other natlodB ia denominafi:^] an ^* American pf)liey/^ while, on 
The coalrary, u pn-fi?rt-*Tnx' for our own entabliahvd ^yfttem, UB U 
now actuully t*:ci»tH und alwuy* hai i-xiiitcd, %» called a '^foreign 
policy." Thi» fnvoriti* American policy i« whut Ammc-u bn* 
ni^viT tried; nnd Ibij* odiouA fon^jgn policy ifl whs*l, a* wc arc 
told, foreign states have never pursued. Sir. that ia the truest 
American poUcy which shall most uacfully employ American 
capiml and Amerioan tabor, and beet soatain The vi-'hole popula- 
tion. With me it iw n fundamertfal axiom, it U int^rwovc^n with 
ail my o]>iniofi», Ihul the gretil intervnt* of the* poiintjy are imited 
and itiAcpiinble ; that ngrliriiltnre, eommrrrr, itiul mnniilnctiircs 
will profp^^r togi^^thrr or Jangui»h together; and ttidt ulMogiflla- 
tion ia dangerouat which propoaee to benefit one of tjioae without 
locating to c^niu^uencpa which may faU on tlia olhern. 

Pasting from thin, Sir, 1 am bound to say that Mr> Speaker 
began hlit able and imjirebaive speech at tlie proper point of in* 




i^filrj; I rnehii Iht^ preflcut state and condition uf th^ coimfr/, 
HlfJioou:!' I ^^ *^ unfortunate, or rather alihou^li I am eo happj, 
as to difll'T from hirn wry wUlely in rfgurd lo Ihat fxintlition. I 
did^riif t'nIm^1y (torn 1h<^ juBlte<* of thut picture of (lintrnfin which 
h« hn^ i-lniwn. I htivtt not t^tyn thr rciilily, imd kno^x* net vvhcr* 
It «xl»l8. Within mv ohnprvntinr, fh^rr 3* no ran*"* for no 
gloMiiy Slid t^^irifyini^ w n^jM^Ht-ntatiori, In r<»*tp*'»:!t to th*? New 
KngUnd Stnt^-s with tbi? t^oiiidition of wltich T am of oovmt! 
b«t iw^tinimctl, tlir prrsmt npppnw to mn n prnod of Ycfjr 
£«ncrat prosperity » N{>t, ii^drcil, n irnic for imddcn acqumtioti 
and grvat profits not a day of oxtfaordinary activity and auc- 
ttOMfuJ »p««Qlation. There [4 no doubt a considerable deprea- 
■Ion of iiriivA, atidj in f*m\v drfjire^ h Hla^n:iti(>n «f bu-niiLeHA, 
But the Ui^<^ prr»rnti?d by Mr. Spt-iikcr WEifi not one of drftrtx^ 
sion^ bnt of distffu; of univrrsal, prrvnding, intense diatxcf^i 
limited to no da«a and to no pJikcr. Wc arc represented as 011 
tbe very v^r^ and brink of natioaal miiL 80 far front aoquie«- 
ein^ In th<r«e opinion^f 1 believe ihere has been no period in 
whuJi the gfiii-rd [iriHiHTiiV y-^^ belltr He(!ured, or r>r:«[»-d on a 
more nolitl roondnljoi). An appltcnbk to tht* K^iAtrrrn Stnlrfl, ! 
put thi» rcmnirh lo thtir rcpreM*otAl,iv«^n, Find nA thtrm if it i» not 
tTU& When ha3 thcrr bf^pn n tjnir irt which the mesna of living 
have been more acee^pJblt- and more ftbondnnt ? When has lal>or 
been rewarded, 1 do not aay with a lari^er, but with a more c^r- 
lain Bueeetu? Pn»lilFi, iiidt^tnl^ ure Vivi ; in sonii? pur^diiln of tiie, 
whkb it i» not pru|icJH(<<l tii iKriif^rtl, tnit U^ hurtifn^ by TIiIk bill, 
Trry ]*nv. But *lUl I nm unacquainted with any proob of ex- 
tmordinary di^trm. What, indeed, arc the general ijidioatlous 
of ih« vtntif of the country 1 There ia no famine nor pestilence 
In the landi nor war, nor desolation. There ia no writhi^ig nU' 
der itic bnrtien of taxation. The means of anbsisteiice aro 
nbund:iiit; nnd ul ihe very inomritt whr-n Ihr rniMTrtihii-< enndi- 
lion of the country i* averted, it i:^ admitted Thut the wagea of 
Itibor art high in compnrihon with those of any other country* 
A country, then, enjoying a profound peace, perfeo! eivil Ubertyi 
with the mcstn* of sab«iflteneo cheap and ahnndani, with ltt«^ re- 
ward of labor suret ftiid Ita wa^a higher th^in anywhere elae, 
oiunol be n^prt^eiiled as iri ^luorn. influichoty, mid diniwan, but 
by the cfffutt of extraiirdiaciry puwci^ nf trn^^ly. 

Evi:-r if, in judging of thi:« question, wc were to regp&rd only 

vou. III. 9 


?S THE TARIFF, ^^«^^™ 

IhdiN? imhirn h> whJL-h we Imvr lirni rrferred, we vlijiil probably 
comi- Ui a cunduBiuit ^ifinewhat cliiTt^cnt &oni tbac which hA» 
been drnvrn^ Our exports, for cxurnplr^^ lUthough Mrtairily {cm 
tlian in oomc^ yr^trv wrru nntf Icurt ycnr, ao mnch bdow an av- 
erngi? Ibrmi^d ajH^n the expert* of a »i<ric> of }'««», tii<l potUng 
Ihofto rxportv at n lixprl vuhic, aa might be siippniun). Tlir vnlun 
of tb? expod* of Rgricultiiml proUacla, of aiiimnK of thr pmd* 
ucl* of the fcrcftt and of the sea, togftbrr witb gunpowdtr, 
ftpiriL<s nod sundry uiii.'Humcmtrd articlca, amounk'd iii tbc iv^- 
cnJ yc!tir» to the rollowiii^ num», vix.; — 

Jal790, $27,716,152 

1904, K3,M2^16 

1907 38.1(J/',,854 

Comlnp up now to cm own imop., und xttk\n^ :hp **itporl» of 
Ihe years 1831^ 18t?2, and 1893, of »br same anlclPH and pmd- 
iiRf3t, :it iJie H^tmi^ prii%M, t)my etand Uiuh:^ 

Inl^-Jl $45JM3,176 

1&93, , 48,782^295 

le^ 5d^63^dl 

Mr. RppulcfT bn* tnk^n thi? vpry rxtmoffJinnry yppr of 1^3, 
and, HiMiitg to tTtc r-x|>i)rliiiiori of ibat yir;ir what. Ue ibifika 
ou^bl lo IvAVt^ br-0[i a just uu^iTifntaiioii, in pr^^porlicti to the 
in<!T4?U3i3 of our pupulatjori, tie awollB^ the- rc-.^ilt to a mafl^nitudcf 
whicbj wlicn compared wtih qut oirtuid rxporl^^ would exhibit a 
grt-al ddk'ivn(-y^ But li tht-re any juxtlci* in thi^ inocle of caJ- 
folritioti? In tbc fir«l phii^, (ix brfim? obw-rvr-d, the y^-pt IftCW 
wa* a year nf Rxlr:i(iriJiiiary rxpiirtatJon. Hy n^fcrfniv to the 
ficcoiiutn, thiU of the articbr of fiouri for example, thiirc wa» aii 
fxport Ititit \ our of thirloin [uindrvd fbouotind b'jrn'iti; but the 
vi-ry ntxt y^-ur il fWI lo eif;hl huncirvd ihoucund, and th« next 
yo»r to «?vcn hundred thoiMiind. In fbt- nexl pluof*, thcrt- ntrvtr 
wan any ri'uwim tu enpitt Uiuf i]ir iiuTi-iiw nf niir *?x|Mirt« of ng- 
ricnliuFiil pmdnci* would kcrp patiir wilh Uic iiicrra*!* of our 
|H>pulaiionp Th^t would be agftiust all espalcncc. It ia» in- 
dti'd, morft dci^irtibic, that tht'ro ehoidd be au aus-ntoiiicd <ir^in&nd 
for the products of Hf/ncukuro ; but, nuverllii-k-Er-i, Uiv otficifti 
retunitf of OUT expom do not ith{>w that nbaiolute want of uU for- 
rj((M nmrltrl whii-b fins bten »o viron^ly «ln1<*d- 

Bui thi'a* arc Mwr luraoi^ by whi^".!) to ju<3gc of the grncrfal 


condition of ih« people. The i[iiflntity of the menn» *>{ subu^t- 
en«e conMim«U or, Co make ti»o of a phraet^olo^y better suited 
to thi* <-oridiUon of oiir own people, (In? tjunntity of the tromforta 
ot li/i- I'ujoj-i-d, is une of thcwe itn-uds. It so Imppensr iiide«l, 
Lbfit it t% iioIh «o etisy in IliU cxiuiilry 319 d»uwfK*rc lo miiirlAiti 
fartf of thi* *oj1 with nwurstcy. Where moet of the ruliclcs of 
rabiii»t<-ncc and mo^T of the comfortft of life arc tnxc^i, thvrc ia, 
of counKsgrMit fncilit)' in nvcortaining, from oftid&i sialDmcnU, 
the amoimt of con^amption. But in thia country, mofit fortu* 
natfly. the governmeiit neither knows r^or I* concerned to know, 
ttie nimiuil u^iisinuplion ; atnJ ntinvili^ri vnn cnily hi^ foniieil In 
aiiothrr n^ode, &nd in rcfcrenei^ only to n few nrtidrji. Of theae 
ttHick^, tcA in one. It >n ntit mtWc a huury, nnd yd in .lomt;- 
ttkin£ ft^vr the fLbsmlnlc nccTt^AAiirK^^ of UT^. Itx coiiPiimpTJoni 
thprefont^ will Iw dimirni^hrd m iinii?B of ndvprwity, and aug- 
tnTird ill time* of prnsppnty. By dediietiiig ihe annnfll ex 
port imtii \Ue aiifiujil Liii|Turl, ainJ tukliiK u nninb<^i of \e»n 
Utf^ihvtt w*^ may arrive ut a probable rMiniale of coLiMiri>|>tioii. 
The avt'raift' of <!lcv<'ii yciir:*, fri>m 1790 to !S00, inclusive, will 
br foiind U> bi? two millioiiK and a hnlf of poutidii- Krom IHOI 
to ISI^T indniivrf the nrrrngt* wok throo miJIionfl »even hnndrt^d 
thoiiMinri; aekI th*^ nvmigr< of the Inat ihrer yr-nrx, to wil, l^^l, 
1(^2:?, iifid 1^2% wap fivo niiillohM and h hnlf irivtiig rnude a 
juM oUow'ttncr for Uii^ increaHv of our iininber^. we nhall atiU 
fiod, 1 think, from tht--w^ etatcmf^nta, that theni in no <liiiltC4!t 
vbfceh hiifi liniitLHl our moann of ^ub1li»t^no(! am! cnjiiVEnnnt. 

In running an opinion of the degree of gom^nd pruupcrity, WQ 
nwy n-giird. Iikrwiw, thi* progrcMH of inti^mnl improvcmrrit*, the 
bivftftinml of mpinil in r*m<N, bridg»*»s and ciLnikh. All ihrflp 
provr a l>Alancc of income over eKpcndilarc; they aflord evi- 
<Wacv ikat lh(.Tc i« a «uTphi» of ftrotita, which the pre^^ciLt |,'cner* 
ntioii in n-»>fiilly vefliti^ for tho benefit of ihe i>ext. Il oMimot 
hp tU't\t*^\, rhar, in ihls parlionbiT, the progrevis of the vountry is 
Blf-u<jy :iin) riipid- 

WV tuny Ujok, too, to the sinns rtprnde*! fiir ediienlion. Arc 
mir c*»Ur^,'LT* d<^wTted7 Do tiitlu'R* lii^d lil<:mrtrlvc^ Il-zv* nhlc ihan 
luiial Eo edtieatc Ihcir diiidren? Ir will bo found, I imnginci 
Uial tin- fimciint paid for the purpose of tf^ducaiion 1* wn>Ta(iTTy 
inen^iiMEi^, niifl :hftt fbe tchool* and coliegea w^-rv in-vrr more 
FuJI tiMin at lUs pre-ient monienL I muy add, lliut the eiido^ 



bene voir fii-c, wfurtlwr fori'iKfi or iii>ro<-*tic, the imirufic<.-nur of 
mdlvi{li:uJ0 toworUa inrhuttvt-r prombea t« benefit the communi- 
t^i aro all >Kt many prodifa of DationAj proflpoHty. And, finaJIri 
ih^re U no di-fili-atioii of revonue, no pTe-i4i]tv< of taxation. 

Tbe f-eiit^ni) re?<nl^ Ihtrrtfure, of a fair eiaiuin^itioii of th^ pmt* 
tnl condttion af tliinips at^tms to niL- 1o !>r, tlint tliere !» a C-*Mn" 
aidt-rul:lt? dcpKfifiion of prices, am! <-urtailmciit of |Wolii; and in 
aome |«Hlf» of thi* ^(Hintry, it must b*- a(lmitlt<d, IfK-rt' i* a K^oat 
d^greo (*f ppcuni:try t'mbnrmK*iTu^nt, arising from the difliculty 
4if paying <1rblA whk-h wrrr i-iirilr.u'tf-cl when |iri«r» weir Iiigft, 
Willi llirAR qiMlilic^nHoEirt, tlir gnirfal si4ifL- of Itic cunnlry miiy 
bft »nid to be pro*pcniu*i and thc*r nrr not ^niHioirnt (o |[iv<^ to 
Ihe « liH«T face of aflain any apprnmnofi of grnrmj drrtrcM, 

SuppoHinp Tbp evil, then, to bn fl dj*pr^*iiion of prii'^^fl, flnd a 
partia] pecuniary pi^Hanre, the npft ivifinlry i>* intJi thp miiHPfl of 
that evil; and if upp^^un to me that fTiere are fH-veral; and In 
Ihia rcnpect, 1 l.hink, too much baa bten imputed by Mr. Speak- 
er to Ibt" singltf cnuflt" of thr diminution of e\poriHp Connected, 
a* we ore, with aiJ the eommeroial nations of the world, and 
liuvinq j:stnn*rvrd ^'at fhnngi'n to UiVc pluec *liiOwh<Tr, wo 
■hoTild fnn^idrr whrrhiT tbf* fntisrs of thn*? rbnngr* hpvf not 
irarbf'd nj', nod whrthrr wr nrv-. not uTiffi'ring by the opeiRtion 
of them, in common with othcm, Undoubtcdty, there ha5 been 
a great fall in The price of all eommoditle* throug^iout (he oont- 
cnercial world, in consiHiuenee of the reetrration of a state of 
pefifv. When the Allies entered France In 1814, priee* roae as- 
lonia'hingly faal, and very high. Colonial pm^ihiee, for inalanne, 
ill tbe porle of this country, oe wdl aa daewbcre, npninfc up sud- 
denly frt^m the lowest to the hi^heat citremc- A new nnd taat 
dernaod wuh cn^attni for tht tf!r-immoditie« of trade. TheBe were 
itn' miturnl eonioc^nencv** of the gretl poUficfll ehunge* M-bkh 
Ihru Jnok plaf"i" fn KnrniiP. 

Wp iin* to r-oiirtidrr, tot*, that our own witt ciratcHl nrw de* 
mnad, nad ihnt a government expenditnrr of twenty-five or 
thirty miliwn dollars a year had the n&uni eflrct of enhancing 
pneen. Wa nrn oblitjed to add, that The papw icsuea of our 
bnnkH earri**d the aame eflfeet. atill IVinher. A Hppreelaled enr- 
rency exrated in n gn^i part of (he eriunfry ; deprv-eiated to aucb 
aa eil«nt, fhat, atone tvmr, cxt^bangr brrtwtTcn tlicixntra nnd the 



North VM u high u twcnfy per cent The Banlc of the Umt«d 
Btntrn wna invtitiircd to corrcxrt thin cv'A\ but, for chivica which 
it IB tioi ncccMnry miw T<i c-niitnrmtc, it did nat (or »omr* y(?»ni 
hnng bnck ibc curr^'nry of tb^ country to a noiinfl sUil^^. 1^hi« 
ili^prpcleitioJi of ifip rlrcutating currrncy W8« 90 mncb, of conne, 
added to tlie iioitii[wl [irii't^s i*r cuiniiiodiLjeB, iiitJ tlitneprit'eh, 
ihuB uimHititnJij Ui^lu setiHtd, to llioac who louKi'd aitiy at the 
appeumncc, to indic«l4: grunt pro9j>t;ri1y. Htit such profijx-nty ii 
more »pr<!itjiu Uiati r-uJ- ll would Itavt? bt^rji bf^ttf^r^ probnbly, 
an Lfa4? »hoclc would hitve beett \t*#r, if pricn.-3ii hod fnllcii AOoncr 
At h-iigth, hnu-i-vi% tbrv l«<|]; and fijt Uitm- U littk^ doiiht thni 
certain rvctits \\i Kurt>]tr. Iiud an iiilliifiici^ m tUiertuhiiu^ the 
tiiDc at whicli Uii» fuil took place, I will advert eh^jtly to aoiri'* 
of lh<T principal of ttioBe cvc-jua. 

Ilk May, 1819, ih^ Briri«b HouBe of Coraroone decided* by a 
uDfloimoiM vote, Ihjt lie reiUtiipUon ot cttnh ptiyirkentEi by the 
Baitk of Kiif^bmd ?<hi)tdc) iicit bt- ilrr<-TTt-cl lM?y<irid ihc rj]«ujiig 
PcbrtJary. The rv^ffiriion hnd hri^n ooiititiurxl from time lo 
Umc, and from y<mr to yfur, I'urliamrnt always profrawing to 
look to tho rnAiortiUon of a (prcic cuxrciicy whencYer it ehould 
bf found pmHif^Ahlft^ H9vi;ig b»^rtn, in July^ 1818, continued to 
July, 18lf^, it waj* iindfr»tond rhat^ in (he interim, the important 
({Ui*8tiun of Iht- lime at wliieh ra?h [iHymerklfi nhould hv te^unied 
vtiould hv fiiiidly Mttli^d. Li tlic laiies pul o( \he ytM 1618, tlie 
4-ifcuJ&tioii of thf bantt hnd been ^i^atJy rudticcd»nnd a severe 
«earoitj of moiiey wun hit in the Ijondoii mnrhcf^ Sucli wo^ th:! 
fltftt« of lhmg» in lilrigbnd On th* Con tin mf, other impc^rtant 
UTPtil* took pla<!i-^ Th4* FVf nrh Indf^mnity Loan had been nego- 
ttalrd in the fiimmrr of I^IS, nnd Ibe pri.>porfiaii of it t>r>longing 
to AuAiria, Ru^^ia, and Fruaria had been aold. Tlib created ai> 
L]jiu»uaJ demand for gold and silver in tho»e countries. It ha« 
been AtaVod, Ihat xh& amount of the prenotu oiefaU tmn^iDitt^ 
to Austria anJ EuHia in that yt'ur wuh at letiat twenty rnULioii» 
itttfrtiiiff. Otiiejhirp? »timii wcreiwntio Pru.^Hiuniid toDenniiuL 
Thr irfTn:! of thi* ^iidilrn drain of npecir, ftll fimt at T^iTid^ vrm 
commooicatcd to Am^^tcrdnm nnd Hamburg, njid all other com- 
mcrcial pJatx^p in the North of I'Juropc 

The paprr syrtem of Erglnnd hud cftrtftinJy wmmnnicAf^ an 
iTtificial value to property. It had encouraged ^^peeulnrion, snil 
excited ovBr^trsdJn^'. Wfiej. the shock ihi^refore canie^ and thin 



riolrnt (ireMtiui- firr morii-j nrleJ hT ihr Mri»e raomriit lin the 
Cont.iiiMit ^uiO in Eoglandi itill;iltri) ^ntl uimJiluritt (iricFB cuulJ 
be kept up no !onjB;cT. A rechiction ^oak place, which hna born 
eetirnutvd (o have bc*<'n at Imst i^<^tm] to n falJ of IhirJy, if not 
forty per ci-iit. The drprt^sion wni niiitfi^rxAJ; aiid iKl* cimnge 
wtt« frit in thr Uniit^t) Sintf« s^vpri'ly, though not rqiinlly so 
in cvrry part. Th«r« aw llio«e, ] am a^^rc, who mainlnin 
that the events to wttich I have &Uiul<?d OJJ nut caiue the ^ai 
Tall oT prictr?f, but that that fali waa naturtU and inevitable, from 
the previoiuly existing ntnte of thmtid, the abnndnjiee of com- 
moditii'c, and tho wnnt of dc(n:4iid- But (hat would only 
provi- thftt thp eflbrt wan prodiirrd in anothrr wiiy, rather ihaii 
by nnoihor caiiiie. If ihfsr ^cat ond *iidde[i will* for mrnry 
did not Induce prict^fi, but prict^fl fell, a» of themselves, to their 
natumi Mate, Btill the result in lhe«&ine; for vc perceive thfti, 
after thence tie^- ctilU fur n;ont>y, pri<«ft could not he kept longer 
at thdr unuulurtd height, 

Abtint the linu' of rhi-H> forrign cvditu, owr own >Ktnk jtysfem 
luidrrweiU n ehAUgr; mid nil Ihir^e cmiM'H, in my view of the 
subject, concurred to produce the greM vhock which took place 
la our commtTcial giIjca, and in many pa/t* of the country. 
Thp year 1819 was a year of numerous ffiiluP'*, and vt:iTy con- 
fliderable dblr^aa, and would have fujni^ht-d far better ^^undi 
Th^n fxlnt at prv«<*nt for that gloomy n^prfi^iilalion of our van* 
diiion wliieh ha* bci-n prrH-ntcd. Mr. S(>eaker hna aUud«] to 
tlic strong inclination which cxint*. or han exiatcd, in varloui 
part* of Ibfi country, to Mn*- pnprr monny» ^ o proof of grrat 
exisiirg di3icitltioa» I regard it rathr* as a very productive cauflO 
of tho«e diniculties; and th^ eommittee will not /ail to observe, 
That thhTtr iH, at ihJH moint^nl, fiiueh the loudest eonnplaitit of 
dinUi'!<» prri i?(Ely whpn* Iht-rf* haa been the ^'reutniL allenijjt ia 
relirrvc it by systems of paper credit. And, on the other hand, 
eontont. proaperity* nnd hnppinrnti are tnoEil iibnprvahlfl in those 
part* of till! country wh*^re thfh* hi»s bi-cn xUv h-aMt cndravor to 
admiiii«f4«r rdiH* by law. In truth, nothing \% to baneful, so 
uttrrly nilrou4 t^ all trup Indn^lry, a* lntrrf»»ring with the If^l 
value of money, or bUf.'niptin^ to mtae mtiticiFd alandanls to 
flupply ita place. Such remtditB euit well the spirit of exiravn- 
^nt sipeeulatjon, but Ihty sap thy vt-ry foundation of all hone^ 
lequivi'ion. By wculicmag the security of property ^ they Uiito 



ftvraj oU inotivc for eicrtioa. Thdr cS^i u to trmntirer ptop- 
crty. Wbciicvcr a debt U n.llciwtjd U) be paUl by any thing lc«« 
valunblo :htin the legal curronoy in fwfpccl to which it wne con- 
tr&cied, lUtj djflereace bet^vv^n th^ value of ttie paper given in 
payment and the l^gal currency la precisely so mach propertjr 
taktii ftutti UUC1 iJiiuL lULtl (fiveu to JtnuUitir, by bT^iHlutivc; viinot* 

When wt tnlk, therefore, of protecting indur^try, let as rcmem* 
ber that thti fir*t menmifiJ for thut end ie to «<^ouro it in ile earn- 
iogs ; to assure it that it Hhnll receive iu ou^n< Be-fore we invent 
new modes of roi&ing pricpfl, iet 114 IsIep o-are That existing prices 
mm Jiftl reii4.tertH] ^hbnll^ iiJMv;itl>i1j]r% Ij^' iiifikrii^ llieni rapuble 
of bcujg paid in tle^nvdatfij pa[H'r I nfguid, Sif. tliin Isnuc at 
iricdeenirable pnper no the inost prominent und deplorable eausc 
of whatever preaciire otUl vxUim w the eountry; and> further, I 
vrotdd pnt thr <|UciiticH to thn mt^mbrrx of this committer, 
wbeiher it U not from thnt part of the people who have tjled 
this paper ^ystom, and tried it 10 th<-ir cunt, (hat this bill ret-elveH 
the inuat enriK^t vuppurt? Aiid [ coimut forbe:ir to ask, furtli^^, 
wbethrr this support doc^o not proceed mtbL-r fri>rri a gencml feel- 
\ng of uneiuiint^M under Ibe preMnit coiidiUon of thing?, thnii 
from the elciLi perec ptioii of uny biniefit which thi? inf?nsiire itself 
can confer ? !« not ^11 r\p(H-lat.ioE] of ndvnntnge ccnircd in a 
sori of va^e hope, that rhitiigc nmy |irodu4;e n.-Uef ? Del>t eer* 
tainly preawd harUcBi wht^rt; pilcTrs havt^ been lungcT^t kept up 
by nrlificiiil mi^atin. They fiitd t\u^ ^hork U^'htcAt wht> ttihc it 
ttoonefit; and I iully bdie^c thiit» if thocic |iart» of the country 
whieh new miller moft, hud not AUgmonlt^l tlic forec of tlic blow 
by ddVrnnif ii» thpy would have now b**rri in a much better ooii- 
diiioH tJian Ibey j^re. We njuy a»uru ourdelve^, oiil'i? fur aJI^ 
Bb". tiui there c^uil he net such tbin^ aa ^mymejiL of deUU by 
Icgidlution, Wc nmy aboli?^h dcbia indeed; wc may trnnvfer 
property by vtaionary niLd violent Inwa- But wo ticceivc both 
QunMlvcfr tuid our constituent*, if wo iUtter crither ourKeivc4 or 
th^m widi the hope thnt tbrrr^ iu any mlirf agninxt whnt^-ver 
pn^witn* i-:iiA[:k, Inn, in ei-iiiLoiiiy und iiuliihlry. The dr|fr(»sioii 
of prices aiid tbe «iJi^naiion of buftincas huvc been in truth the 
ucceMury result uf circum;ftujicc8> No govonimt-nt could prc< 
VAnt them, una nu KuvcnuEitnt can altog^fthcr rebcve the poopio 
Imhh their efftxL Wc bixve enjoyed u day of extmordiiiarv prcb 




peilty; we had been nenlial wliUd the world wtu at war, ood 
bad foimd a ^reat Jciiiaiid for our proUuols, our ii;iv]gu1it>iif mid 
uur lubor^ Wi* hut! jio ri^ht to opt^t thut that >1n1e of ihmgM 
woiiliJ i^mliniii* alwiiy«. WiUi tlir return of |>c'tuy, fnn-Ign mh- 
tionn would ^ULigj^lc for thcmsdrcs, and cnt<:r iulo competition 
with U0I in the ^rcat objects of purauit 

New, Sir, what IK tli€ remedy for cxieting cvile T What 10 tho 
0011IM oT policy aoitvd to our actual ooiidiuoa 1 Certainly U b 
not our wisdom to adopt any nyvtt-'rD Umt luay be offered to lu, 
wilijout EuaiuiuaLioa, nttd iu tlm blind hope Umt wh4tevi!r 
changes oiu coiidition may improve it It b better that ws 

Tbu fl}r to otiiutv that «r9 hfiov not oC* 

We are boiuid to Me thai tht^e is a filceeA and an aptitude in 
whatrtver ineajiufeA iiiny be retvtmiiieiided to reUeve tbtf «vlk 
thai ufUid Ufl ; ■mi ht-ion? we udupt a ay^Ur ni that |jRjj'uHeu<» to 
mnkr ^tiit ahc-riLtio:iA, it it i>ur thily la UkA carrJ'jilly io racb 
IctuLag intcrcM of the cotnmunity, nrtd »cc haw it mny probt- 
biy be a^cctcd by our proposed Ic^t^lation* 

And, in the &r«t place, what i8 the condition of our oom- 
merce ? Here we inu»l clearly perceive, that it is not enjoying 
that rif'h hanent wtitr-h fell In ita fonune during tlie eoniJaitan<» 
of tbi: RurofieDJ] wnrr. It ha» brr:i f^rratiy drjirrA»Rd, and lim* 
Jtcci to f'TntiH prodt«. Stilli it La rlaotic aiid uctivi:, and MX'ma 
capable ol recovering il«elC in aomc mraaure from it« dcpn:^won. 
The thippinj* inteni'tt, altfo, hae aulfi^red eeverely, (tril more 
aeverely, proba!>lyT than coniinercv. If aay ihin^ thould strike 
aa with aftoniHhfutinlf it \h Utal Lb* navi^titftri of the Unii«d 
Blalt;!! nhoxild he able uy :>u»tiiin it«elf. Wit^uiut any guvnrn* 
mciit pTot^tetton wbatovn, it goc* abroad to cbnUen^v compe- 
tition witli the whole world ; and^ in )^pit« of all obstacles, it ba« 
yi^ been able to iiiuinl^in ei^^hl hundred tbuuptuijd tone in ibe 
empioyment of fortif'ii trade. How, Sir, do Llie *liip-owner» 
and nuvi^i4>ni iteeornjiliKh Lhi«? How i> it Lhat thf-y ar^ able 
lo Tiieel, and in mnne ini*HHitre ovrre^kini-, iiiilvi^rHnl «H>uipi-Uti<jn ? 
It ia not^ Sir, by prolo^lioii And buuntira; but by unwearied ex- 
ertion, by eislrnTnc economy, by unahokcn perecvcmncc^ by thftt 
manly and n<i>ohito iipifTt w^iioti relioa on itecLf to protect itadf. 
I'hete euuM-'fi alone coabla Aiaeiioaii aliipa atlU xo keep tiasir 

tlemeiiT, fltiJ fhaw ihv ting of f Jirir country in dUiant ftntn. 
Tfae fated of insuranc^e may teach js how [.hi^raugblir oiir Mjn 
ait built, aod kiow slulfully mid safely they aro jiavi^l«l. RIsJu 
mv tnki^n, h9 1 JlM^^ tfim^ the- UtutL'd tituU^o to I^vtirpool, at 
one pet unit.; au4 from tbe Uiiil^^J StaU-» to Canton and back, 
as low oa thive per oeuL But wht-n wu Itwk to tho lt>w rule of 
^'ight, iirtd wlitn wi; ronvitlrr, rImo^ thut the nrtidiA fiili-rlng 
into die c4>m|)ijMUon of n »\up, witli tht- 4-Xf^ption of vrotid, arc 
dearer here than id other couittfit^oi wv caiuiot but be tittcriy 
6ur^Mx] that the Abip^^irifc' iuti-n-at lina h^^ii able to auaiain 
itsedf at ail [ netni not eay tb^t thv imviKution of tbu ciuuntr}' 
[» ««w«>nUal to iU honor and lU dufeuttc, Vcl, liulcad of f>ro 
pooirtg tvairrjtH for it In tliix hour of itn dttpmnion, w*? thn-atj^o 
by Uiift measure to lay iipi^n it ;irw Lind hi'nvy biirxicn*. In ihe 
diBcuuion, tbc other day, of that |jrtJvlAiou uf the trill which 
propot^9 to tax tmllow fi'r Iho Liuciil of thti oU-merchanLa ai:Ld 
wlioleiuen, y^ hud the pU-ufiurc of \\LixTuifz vitx\nvrtt buiu^mrnji 
QpOM that portk)ii of uur *bipping urnpli>yc!4:l iu ihv. whuli^^lii; berry, 
and strong utofftncniji of Un iin|ionjin<^ fo the pnblic inr/^rc»l. 
But ihv «aiiL<: bill propoM;^ n ^evcTL- Im tipou thnt inU're»t, for 
the btrncfit of the iiuu-iiiaJiaftu-'turcr uiid iht: lit?i»p-^ruwer So 
that tilt talloiM^'chftndlvira and eoapboilera are nacnficc^d to the oii> 
mi^rehunt^f. in onk'r tbut tUt^L* agiviii nioy contributes to the man- 
ul'actiiri?r« oi iruii unJ tbo growtov of botnp. 

If Mich bi< ibt- ^T7lTi? of our eommrrcc and navigatJoii, wbut ]« 
thv taruljtion i>f out liijmr iitun]ifa(^iin>M? ITnw qfff Ibi^y ;iniid»t 
Ike gcoeml dri^a'^ioii ? Do llicy ncL^d furdjer ptok-ctiuu ? und 
If asyi hovr much ? On all theac poiutis we have had much 
feacsal etatemcul, but httlo pre^sim? infonnaikon. In the vitry 
daboratt vpetch of Mr. Spvaker. u*e nr'i not uuppli^ with Matitt* 
factory groutida of jud^ifig with nr«pcct to tJit-tw variou* partjo 
tdarc Who nu^ IHI, from iiny ihiiig ynr. bffiin- ihn eonimiltre, 
ttbttbr the prop^!wd duty be ioit high or too Ujw on any out 
article? Ucntlcmrn tdf u-s that they arc ia favor of domcftic! 
industry ; bo am 1. They wouJd gire it proloction ; «o vhx>ukl L 
But then all domestic iJiduetry ia not eon1ijii*d 10 manufaclun^*. 
The pmpluyin^ut8 of agricukurBf eooimeroe, i^rid navl^lion &K 
bJI ttntniijcfi i)f Uje auine ilumentic induaiUy; th^ry jdl fiifni>h 
tMUplnjmrtdi for Ammcnn cnpitnl nnd Ainrricau Inhor. And 
vlicji thr question io, whc^thcr new du^c« nbaJl be Itud, fox Uic 




purpose of giving farther ciicourogcm^mt to parti^^nTnT a\tiiya- 
racturoSr cv^ry rca»oufkbIe m&n mubi tLek hiin^Hf, bolh whii-ihcr 
the proponeU d*w ^nooura^m^nt be nec('=»arj» mid wh*'tU*t it 
eaji bv (fiven without iiijusti^?^ lo other brant-hi-* oi En^Uiafry. 

!t is (Irjiimblr ti> kiii>Wi tiUo, wrmrwlml incin* ilrHliniHly, !»>w 
the proposed mean* will produce the intended eflect One grrat 
object propoAcd, for cxan^plc, i« the inorcaec ofihc home mru'kct 
for the eoudumptioii oi a^lcxihxmi products. Tbift oonninly is 
TSUoh to be dexired ; but whM provisions of the bill mre pjipecred 
wholly or principally (o produce TJiiA, It eioI iiated, 1 woitld 
luit deny iJml ?»ciri]e tmfeiute of tlic liome nmrket may ftJlow, 
rtotii the udoptitiji of tliiit liilJ, but nil its prim-tiori;* liEivr not nu 
eqvnl irndeiicy to produce thi* eilrcl. 'I'ho^e ninnufactarPB 
whieh employ moiit Ubor, crente, of couno, moat tiemnnd for 
ftrticiee of oonmrnptioji ; and thoee create ]ea«t in the produoti^'n 
of arluob capital and sk\l\ enter a^ the chief ingnKlletitJs of oo«t, 
I caimot, 8jr, take tbht bill rnf*rely bt^'Huse a ooriiEnitlt^e haa 
reeoinmrnded tt. I eaiiuot tfg|H>us(^ zi side, rtnd Gglit under & 
Aag> 1 wliolEy ri;pot the? idea ihnt wc inti»t Inkc tbi^i law, or 
pods no law on the atubjcct. What should hinder tij^ Irom cxer* 
Gi>^ing our own jud^menfji upon the>c firoviftJoriHf Hinglv nnd 
(u'vemlly f Who han th(^ power in pluce oi?i, or why shonid wc 
place oursvlvnif in a condJIJoii where we i^nnot give to evctfy 
meaaure^ that \& diaUiit't Jtnd atpariite in itself, a separate and 
diatinct coiisjdcmtiun ? Sir, t prtnumu no member of ttiu oom- 
mittee will withhold hie aaoent irom what h« tturiks rif^ht, until 
other* will yield iheir aK»ent to whitt they think wruag. There 
are many thingi in thin bill neeept.ibjf^. probnblyj to ihc< g^m-nd 
■enpMr of the? Hoiwc, Why i^haiihl tjot these proviwnn* be pRMcd 
Into a law, aud otheis left in be decided upon their own merit*, 
ad a majurLty of thi; House ehall aee tit? To aomc of thedc 
provLiioiifl, 1 fun myaelf decidedly favomble; to othora I have 
greut objeotionA; uiid I should lau-e been ver^ glad of an oppor- 
tuiiily of giving niy uwn viyU^ di!ttini:Uy on pmponifionti which 
ttre, in Iheir own nature^ »i.%t?ntjally nnd *ubAlnnti;ilIy d)0(jiJL't 
irom one nuothrr. 

Hot, Sir, bcfon? eitpreM«itig my own opinion upon the »cvcml 
provisions of thi» bill, I will advert for a inomeot to tome other 
general topics. We have heard much of the polioy of England, 
■jid her exaruple has Ut^n ivpeatcillv urged upon ui, a% proviiig. 



not only Ujc expediency of rnooum^mciit and protecnoii, but 
of €ScJusion eirid direct piohibltion aUo. I took occasion the 
o'hcr day to rcn;irLrk, thnt more liberal aotiond were bocoming 
pc«videfit CH thiF^ subject; that the policy of r«tttninu uiid pro- 
blbltJoott wiu g«tCiD||f out of repct«, a* ihc true iinture cf com* 
mt-rrc bcdutie hrUn u MtJrf stood ; mtid thcil, :imong pithlir mt'iij 
ihttsc ruost diBiifigiii^licd were intivi ili^chlnl ill iitv'ir rt'proUitioil 
i^r the broad principle of exclii^ion and prohibition. Vyou tht 
truth of thia ro presentation, ns matter of fact, J Auppo^rd there 
i>oiild not be two opinions nmon^ thoiie who had obser'^LHj the 
[irogresa of political fteii1im«iic ia otluT countries, and were nc- 
qu^tinlini with its pre«'iit ■tuti*. Id ltii« tt'nprci^ hnwi*vi*r, it 
would »fr(n Unit 1 wiifl grrntiv iniMakT^n. Wr Uhw- hi.-Eird it 
jLp^'tiiiL mid ^^aiiL drdorcdt that the Engli»b govfrriiinei^t »tUl ad- 
hrn^s, witli iniEEiovnble finnncBa. to ite old doctxjnc« of prohtbi* 
Ilea J tfmt ulilioLi^h joamallets, theorbta) and ad^ntiUf; uTitcrtf 
advance other doctrine^ yet th(> pructlcaJ m^ii, tbe l(rgUlutor«, 
tilt govrrntm-nl ty( the {rowitry, tirt* ttio wiau? to follow thrm, 
It hfts rvvn birril imwt >iignt:[OU»ly hiiiU^l, tUiih thti promul^* 
tion of liberal opiiiioiie on th<^c »Libjcc1» is intended only to de- 
lude other government** to cajole them into the folly of liberal 
icleu», while KnffUnd rutain& To lie-rft^lf all tb<i byiiefild of thi? tid- 
iiiirublo old *yiiteiu of prohibiuoa. W** havy licurtl itvm Mr. 
SjM'aker a warm wimm^ndation of th<T complex mrchnnivm of 
ihi* »yBtein, The UritxMi eTtipire, it i» i»aid, is, in the fimt places 
lo be prolect^il agaliiM the rest of ihc world; tlicu ibo BriUsli 
fftlci* against Iht- cobnien; next, the wJfa reflpoctively afcainat 
irach other, Bngliuid h(.-rdi-'lf, ao tht) huart of tb? ompirv, boSn^ 
protected iuo4t of iiUi and a^uiiint all- 

Tmlv, Sir, it npprur* to me thut Mr. ftpi^aki'r'n imnginfltion 
ha» seen *yHt''iTi, iinH order, mid brniity, in that, whirh In inrch 
more Jually eua^idtTcd fift tlie result i>f [<;iiorunee, puflialltyt oi 
violence. This part of Kngliah legii-lation has resulted, partly 
Irom ooiwiderijJir Ireland q« a conqutri^d i-ountry, |HulIy from 
the wutit of a complete union, evt»ii with St'oflund, and pt*rtjy 
from the; Durrtixi vtevi's of eolonial re^ulifion, which In early and 
uninforrnr^] pi-nndsi influrnri'd llii- Rnmpi^ari .itntrrt. 

Nothiiifj, I imagine, wonid ^Tfike the public men of Cji^daiid 
iiioio ttiugulaiiy, than to find genilrrnvn of real infLvm&tJon and 
iniu:h weight in the counoile of this country vxpri^aaiiig Exmti' 




DMnta Uke time, m rcfgnrJ to iht cuiatin^ AUt<^ of t1ic«c Eji^UIi 
JftWV. I buvu never n»id, ifv<]r(.-d, tltnt |>rohibitcjiry Iswa <lo no4 
exlil in Cnglund; wc ftU know ibey do; but the question ht 
Doot iili« awe her protptYJty nnd gri^atnoKA to ihesis luwi f 
I vtfiiUiif^ Ui Ki^f th;tr ^urii u iidl IIk' <i[>inl»[] of [niblit; tnvii 
now in Knglniiil, and Uic cocidDnancc of tbr Uwt«, rvrn without 
any Ckltcniuon, vould not be cvidcsioc that tUtilt opinifn la dif- 
fi^'iit from whol I fk&vc rcpmcnl^<l it; bocniific the lawf> link- 
ing cxiBttnl longt &nd grcftt i^it^Ttnat* having brcn built up on 
IIhi fiajtl) of rbrm, thry caiiiiot now hr rrprnli'd withciiit grrjil 
And overwhelming niix^aviniit^icu. Bccau^^c » thing hu» been 
wrongly donci il doi^a not tht^rcforc follow that it cstu now bt 
undone; and tbie Iq tJna re^oiit ae J understand it^ for wbkh 
*xdi]aioii» prohibition, ajid moiiopoly are AutTeicd to n^main In 
Any degree In the English fty^letn; and for the mm^ renson, it 
will be wUo ill u» t^i Uike our utcttaurt^Ei., on jiU subjeuUi of thl> 
kind, with great onuHon. Wc may not he Mc^ but ai Iht hax* 
uH of muicb injury lo individuutn, huri^uftor to retr*(:t' our sit'psc 
And yet, whdtovur in uxtravogant or unrt-asonuble U not tikHy 
U> vadttTG. Then- may come a moment of Etrorig rt-'uetion ; MJid 
if no innilcniliiin 1>r iihown in Inying on dnlifji, \iiKcc ni\iy t>e 
Uft littler srm^Ji? in tohing them off. 

It may be here observed, timt there ia a brocid snd marked 
dijitin^^tioj) h<itwecn t'ntiftr prohtbilion and rpsxFonabte cricotir' 
ngi^mi^iit It m onr ^liinji^i by dniii>» or Taxrii on fomgn nriirl'^H^ 
tii nwnVrn n homp cnmpetJiion in the production of th^ aanin ar- 
ticleft; it lb anofhi-r thiti^ rA> n^mu'ir id) competition by a lotel 
cxdu^lca of tlic foreign urUcle; and it i* (IUiThC anolher thing 
Etill, by total prohibition, to rnidu up at home manufaeturee not 
suited to the climate, tlie nuture of iht! couiitryf or the state of 
thr popiihfSon. These areeubHtflarlal distirelions, and sithrngh 
it nmy not be I'iuiy in every ra^itf In dtlenniiie wUleb of them 
applied lo a giv«n article, yet the difltinetimis them*^lvo» cti»f, 
find in moot coses will be euirK-iiiiily deiu' to Indicate Thi> true 
OOVine of poEiey; and, nnleet^ I \t\xvc grearly mistaken the pre- 
vaQilig aeiitiiiient In the ('ouucUti uf Bn^limd, it growH evrry dny 
more and moru favombltr to the diininuUon of r^Atricflons and 
to tbt wisdom of leaving much (1 do not &ay every things for 
that would not be true) to the ent^'iprLic end the ditfcrelion of 
Uidividuultf, I «hou[d certitinly not have tolcert up the limn of 



the comtnittec to etnle at uny len^h fhe opiitionA of other gor* 
emmcnto, or of the public men of othrr countnci^i tipon a «iab- 
jwn like th'w; but nn oouaniotml n*mnrl( trifttln by mo the iithor 
d»y, h[ivjiki{ been «a direc-lly confrovrrfrd, **tppcially by Mr. 
Bpi>tth<'r, in Jiim obMi*rvrtti»n:« yi-xlvnlny* I mnvt rnke nf^^^Ajon t^ 
f<-rrr to j^nmr jirocifs of whtit I hcxvr Mnlf^d. 

WhaN ihen, i[i the rtatr of Kngli»h opinion? Every body 
knovr» f^mt, atrrr thn h^rminntion of the lato Europt^aii war, 
thirro oniTir n timr of jfTP^t prcfiinrp in Eiit^laTid. Since her 03C- 
uniplp hnn br«^n ijiioTihI, t^ ir br nnkrd In whnT. m^irlf' hpr gov* 
enimi^Ml nought n4iK. [>jd it aim to niziiiilain arU6i.'ral nmd 
uunuttirai i>ri<K-5? Did it niainfain a swollen Hn<l *fslnivn|piiit 
pnpiir circulation ? Did it curry furtticr \hti hiwa of prdbibition 
ftiid <!Xolmioii ? Did it draw do^tT th<.' cardu of coloniul ?<&- 
stnuiit? No, Sir, but pivoiwiy Ihe ivveriM?, Idntrad of relyiog 
on It-giTilnrhr ronTTivfinr-f-Tt iiii'l iLrlirif-iiil di-vicvv, if trii!<tj-il In ihe. 
entcrpri-^r itiid iuduAtry of the pc'opic, which it »cdu1on<1j^ twught 
to exdtCi not by imposing rc*tfaint, but by removing it, whet- 
e*er its n^moTflJ was pmcticfthi^, in Mfly> 1890, tbo attralion of 
the flOT^^mment having been mnoh lurned to th« atate of forvij^n 
tfadCf a di>»iin>^iish4'd mi^mber' of the House of Peen brought 
foninird n PatlraMi*?nlary jiiotion upini thut nubject, fullownl 
tiy iiii nmple dJHriissioti &nd n fu)) btnkiiii^nt of hia own upiti- 
JonA, Jn the coru-.-it! of hi^ rcmerkti, he ob,-«crvcd, ^' tbkil tbt;rc 
ought TO be no prohibitory dntitv^ a* «ueh ; for thnt it w»« cvi 
dunt, that, whore a inimnfur! are ctmid not be muricd on, oi i 
piwluefion raiswl, hot under thp prof**PTi<in n( n pmhibiTory 'h^iyj 
llml III ail u fuel urr, or Lhat prodoce, i^mld not Tie broiiglit lo ida^ 
k^t but at a [oi», In his opinion, fhr nnm*^ of strict prohibition 
mi^ht, Ibt-ri'lofi', in cmnn^'roe, be got rid of altogether ; but he 
did not ar*e Uui nmn« objection to protecting dutietis whioli, wblle 
thify admittL-d of ibe Ion of eommodltieft from nbroad 
■imilitr frt Ihowp whirh wt »urrtt?tveii irmiiufHctured, plui'ed tliein 
iio nnu^h on i \f^v\ an tu Tilbtw a Gi>]n]>triitioii between ihem*" 
"No axiom" br added. " wa» nwrc tmo than thin: thnt it waa 
by growing what thi* trtrilory of n (^milry wiuld grciw movt 
Ob^apty, ftnd by n^n^iving from other eonntriet wbat it eould not 
|VOdnep except at too grmt nn npnniip, thsit Ihp gnmtivt drgn^v 

* Uird lAtitdovn*. 



THK rAnirr, 

ol bappjncvft wn» to be coinmunicatod to the grcutcat extent of 

111 aseenting to the inoiioii, the fint minister* of the crtrvo 
»pfV-sHe<l his own opinion of the great advaiitago resulting from 
uiin^fliiic'liri] frt'L-Jum uf Inuk* " Of the 0uund[)t?iti tif lli^a ^^n- 
cral principltV hr^ obftf rrcxl, " I cnn cittrrtnin no tJoubt. 1 ^''^n 
cntcrbiin no <l^ubt of whut would have btxu the great ad van- 
tiigr* to the (riviliKed world, il' The «yKtcni of unrv-ttriotrd trado 
hfld been iieT<?d np^n by overy nntlon from tbc! enrlicnit |H'ni)d of 
lU <<jitiimi-rcinJ ititfr^^iiirMf with iii^ nrighhofn. If to ifioHi* ud* 
vanU^cf then: coiilJ ha\c; bi-e^i any vxct'ptioiiB^ 1 uoi pensnadcd 
that ihcy would have been but few ; und J iitn al^o penuadcd 
that thi-' ca«a to which tht-y would have referred wculd uol 
bave been, in Ihemaelve*, connected wllh the Uade and com- 
meree of Eiigiand. Bt>t we ure now In a situalion In whtcrb^ L 
will not say limt u refertiiri! Uj iIk? )mririp1e vf min^lricU'd 
Inde can bet of no tiE»ef bccaiiK! such a nTfrronoc oiny cormrt 
CTTOnooun Tennonme;, but tn which it \i< impofVAJhlc for 11», 0? for 
any country in tbo world but th<i Untt<Hi yiateii of Atnerit^ft, to 
aot uiircfFi^^rT^ly on that pdndple. The commcrcia] re^aUijn* 
of Th(' Kuropean wi^fid have been long e9iahli?*heJ» and eannot 
•ndd^nly b« dcjKirtr^d ffuin" Having aup|HJ6Cii a }iruj.HinilHin lo 
be made to England by a foo^jgu stalif fur free coinuncTi:!^ and 
intvrconrDe, zind un urirr--<trict(.-d cxchnnge o( ngricultund prtidudj 
and of tnanuliit'turtiiT hu proettjds to obst-n-e: •* U would be in** 
poMible to itocriii! lo »ueh n proposition. Wc have rincn to oai 
pn'*rrit gotdnrs* nndrr ■ dillVn-cit lystx-ni. Some smjipoHi* that 
we hnve risni In coruMniurniv af that aysteir i rjf/irrA, ly v^hoiti I 
am one, bc/Uvc ihid vjc Itrtvc rwn in ^pitc of that sj/sUm* Bnt, 
whichei'er of lliete hypotbwea be true, ctrtain it is that we hav* 
riHcri under a very djifewnt system Iban that of Oee uud untfr 
etrlt*led iraile^ !t Is utterly IrnpoviMlble, with our debt and laica- 
tion, L-vi-n if thv.y wr-rr? but hsi\( llii^ir i-xUtltig mmninif Unit we 
can f*uildt-i]ly ndiipt Ihr tiysilem tff fn^r Imdi'." 

Lnnl I '«l It' n borough, in the :*nmr dchnte, ?nid^ '' ibnl hr attiih- 
ntcd the fj^encTrtil dtAtn^rji then exiMing in Kuropr to the rognla- 
tion* thai hod tukt^ti plnee mihv the devrrueiuin of the Krench 
pi)«i/rr- Mdsit of Ihr iitnT4'ii on th«: Cortlinrnt hnd Hurronnded 



thc^msdvc* an witlj wnllfl of bra^N to iiibjbit mtenxrane vnih 
other ftntTTt. Fntnvoii/w? wns prchibitod, even in dis^cto of tht' 
■uno >tAtc-, na w&» tha cue >n Aiit<irin nnd 8nr<lm'fn. ThiiJt, 
thoQ^ tbd l3LX^*) [?ii th« p«0|i]9 bfti) been lii^ht^iif^d, ihv fcvrrrty 
of tb«Er oondillon had been increaae<L He believed that the 
i|]EKr(>ii(4.'tiL wtiiL^L (if^rv^dt^il mont ptiile of Ktin>|>e, and ea |i<*i'.ia{)y 
nt,TEti4ii)\ vniv iiiwre owiii^ to coinnjeruiul rtaUictioria tliuii Ut 
nn)' thcoTciicul dodriuca on sovernmont; nnd thitt a Itru c<iii3- 
tnunicnitian amonfi; Ihrm would do mort^ to rci^tom tmnqiiillity, 
than flny othrr ftc[> thut could bv ndoptod. 11c objri?t4^ to lUl 
attrmplji t^ frnixtniti' thr bf*iirvolrnt inrrnlinnn of Providrncff, 
wliirb hud ii}\vii to vnriouH eooiitric* vitnona waiil^ In onlft 
to bring ilwtu togi-tbfr lie obJL'ct<:d to it aa anti-?>odal ; Uc 
objected 1o it, oa making commerce the locana of barbari^s- 
iog, instead of enlightening, imtion». The atitta of ih*> trade 
■with Fnuioti wan mo*t disgraci'fttl to both couiitrie*; the two 
gmttrfft irivUizrd nuliiins of the WLirtd, pliirt^d nt n ilinUimti? nf 
twara-l/ twf'nij' mil<'s frvim rnrh otbrr, h"d ctintriv»*d, by thrir 
artificial n-gulations, to rcUiict: their commcfcc with each other 
to A moro uullily," Evcrry member fipeakmg oti this ooicasion 
agreM in the ^'t-n^rai dL>ntirapnttf favorabl<> to unreetrieted Inter- 
ecwrAie, wbieb Ind thus b^en adv»ricvd ; one of (hem remarking, 
nt lh(^ i^ineluiiioii of the dfLiiifc, thiil "Ibe prinrtplt-H of &t*e 
tradr, wbifh he Wjisi huppy to t^tv. m> ftdly rrTn^idzf^d, wenr at 
the utmovt ccHfirnuciicn ; for, though, in the present circom- 
Btaneci^ ot the country, a free imdc wns iinnt.tnirinhlei yet ibcii 
t&flk herpafler wa* to approximatfi to it. Contiderinp the preju- 
dices and interv^t* wbieh w<ti? opposed to the leeognltlon of 
thai principle, i( was mi Htntdl itnliratioci of the firumfvtt and 
tibtiality of govenimt^iit lo have ao folly coiio^dt-U it." 

Sir, w« have arvn, in tlie couree of tbla diacnMion, that ocrveraj 
^mtJrrae-11 huvf L-\pri'Hti4^d their l»i;b ndminxlion of fhc^ *i^k ntun- 
lifacture of Siigliiiid- tU e^jmrnc^ndntiun wnn b<'guri, 1 think, 
by the l-tononibb' rnc^mber from Vi*Titi<niI, u-bci kIu neftr mr, wbo 
tfaioka Ihiit thnt nK>rtc: givr^ viuK'tiiHivr- E-viilener oi' ihe bent'fila 
prodaccd by attention to mnnofacturrv, in^aamueh aa it !» a grvat 
source of wealth to the nation, and hiu amply repaid oil the 
C09t of itA protection^ Mr Speaker's approbation of lhi« pnrt of 
the English exampk wa;i i^ijlj wnrmer- Now, Sir, it does «o 
happi-n, tliaL both tbrse gendrincn ditler very widely «>[i Ibla 



TflE TARfFr 

jnilnl from tlie ojilnlfinH vnt^rtnirril in Knglnnd, by pmion* of 
i\\r fifBl raeiti, botli n* to knfiwlfxl^r mul power. !n Ihr drbfttc 
U* whi«h I hnvr alrt'&dT i«rorn>cl, tJio pro|>o»^ of the notjon 
nric^J t^K* rxpf-dit'iii^y of providinfr for the acimlsvion of tli« iiilkft 
of Franc*' into Oifflniid. " Ho wru aWBfe," he sakl. ** that ihere 
ns n prMiT iind ini)ii!<ir>oi)f< IxHiy of rnHnufucliinfnii wtitmv mtPT' 
rflU irin>t T^iifTt-T br i^uch nti ftmuigr-im-tit ; nnd thrn-forr br frit 
Ib&f it woiilJ be rbr dnly of E^nrbAnirnt io provide for thr prr** 
cnt (p-ncmtion by ft lnrg<* P;ir]iamriitnr7 gmnt. It wru» con- 
fonn^bk lo fvcry principle of eonnil juftioe to do fo» rvb^ti iJi» 
inl^riHU of a panieular dasjf \vpr"> Hnniliced fo the good of iUm 
whiilr.** In annn'^T to t}\^i*i' ob^i-rvat^ofiH, Lord Liverpool said 
thniT with rrfcTrncr to brvrnil brnncbi^H of muiiufatirltirp^, thn«, 
(in(i ^b** cbnngr of rirpunifllnoc*^, bud rcndcml (bu ^yMcni of 
proiivririg duiirji mrrcJy nomiiiul; and thnl, in bin opinion, if 
all llj<? i^rotcoting Uw« wtiit*h n^gmdiHl both the wootlcB and 
i<nlton mHnnftu-riirey" wrrt* to bn n^pcnlrd, no iiiJEirimiv rfttvts 
would llifri'by br onrflhionnL " Oil^" br obsrrvn*, "witJi r»- 
npm t lo ?Uk» iImiI munufacturc in tliie kingdom ii* so completdy 
irtifainl, that any atffinpt to introduce thi* priiicipkv of freo 
'*'idtf wilb rtft^P'iiot- to it miKbt put an citd to imllof[C*thfT, I 
allow t but thf! «i1h mnnufnciurr U not nutuml lo thU coiuitry. 
/ wish ff** had fi^if*T had a sifk m aav/at. titr^, I allow thnt !l i» 
iinttinil to Pmn<*p; I nllow iUnl it Jiiight biivr b<*en l»"*lt^r, hnd 
cacb tountry adhered c-xcbjsivrly to that manufacture In whicK 
Mub IB superior; and hnd the i>ilk^ of Fmno« brren oxch&ngvd 
r<tt Brili^h cottons- But I miiBt lock at tbin^ a^ they are; 
(11^1 when 1 oon^ider tbe extent of eapital* and the Imm^^nae po|> 
oialion, ctmiaiiKlirig, ! bHiPve^ of about fitiy thfms^nd ppT<"onaj en* 
gnged in our Milk innnufnrfnri', I iim oiity ^ny, tfi&t one of the 
few points ill which 1 totnlly di^ogfrc with the proposer of the 
motaon ie ftie e^pcdicnoy, under cxieting oircumetanoca, of hold- 
ing out any idofi, thai it would bo pci^fiib]^ to i«linqu^eh tb« eilk 
manufacture^ and to provide for rhow who live by it, by Parlift- 
meniary enactment* Whatever objections there may b<> to th« 
contliiuaj|4.<cr of thi? prottolinj^ flystfrnif I nrptfat, tbut it is* impoow 
.liblc altop^ther (o reliii(|uiab it I may n*HTtt that tbe syitcni 
wua ever ^ornineneed ; but qa E ennnot mcall thnt act, I rnual 
submit to llie Irieonveririiee by which if in attrndcd, rather than 
uLiosie ibe country tj> eviU of greater msignitude-" Let it b« re> 



mernbrrcd. Sir. tbnt ihac are not the M^ntimcntA of % thfonttt 
nor tfar fniide* of «pccaktioo ; but thr opemtivc opiniona of tbo 
first minij^tor of Kngland, RCkiiowlcdtfH to be ono of tlie ablest 
and ntcri prucCii^ Hlate^nmi of fat* countiy. 

Oenilempfi €ouJd bave bordly been more nnrortunate tliun ta 
lb* Hi-k-i'liiUM ijf thr silk til turn furl II rp in Knt^Uim! n,"* an rinm|ile 
»r the bcm-firml rilVtiji of Ihnl fijfrtrm wliicli \\ivy wi>i]|ij rpcom* 
mend, [t bi in tbc langtin^ which I hnvc <iucitcdt compJctcly 
tfftificioi It tiAf br-nn ^iiMtkirtod by I know not bow mfiiiylaT^^t 
bnridn^ in upon Ibe plnin^t princ-ipUM of ^^oiierul expedi^ooy, 
Al the la*r M-vAioa of PatHuinent, (he manufot-torirr* ptrtitioned 
for Ih*" r-p<-ttl cjf (brer cr Umr «f 1hr-«* sliilutrn, (ajni|jluitiitig of 
tbt^ vrxHtioii)* mtlHdionH which Uiry hiijxiM^ <in tbtr Wivgrah of 
labor; wtcing forth, that a great variety of orders has from time 
to time been ieaucfi by magistntw under ihc authority of Uicae 
bwt^ tiitviteriag ill an oppraodve mtnner wit^ tJie minuleet de- 
Mib of the manufaciim! : auoh ai Jimilin^ the number of threadt 
to an \jtc\tj^ the ixirltb^ o^ iriiiny >orlB c^ wiirk, mid 
Jetcrniliiing the qiL3Jitlty of blior not to be rx(^(-dctl without 
fixtm wmge«; (hnt by the op^^rnticn of thci»c Inws?, the rate of 
w«ge«, in«tJ>flid of being lelt to the rreogniard principles of rcg»4' 
btion, hat been arhitrarlly fiicp<i by pprMnii* wbo»:t: Jf^ioranAO 
renders them incompH<*nl xo a juM dpcinion; thnt tna^ien ar« 
ooiupeLled l>y la« lo pay an erpial ^triee for all work, uhHher 
-Weil or ill pcHormt'd; mid thai Ihty are wholly prevented torn 
using improved muchinfry^ it being orJeredi that work^ iJi tho 
wcvvtnfl; of which maohiiiery i* L-rnplcycd, phall bu puid preciooly 
at the Mitn« rau? &■ if done by hiiiid; Ihut these avtj havtt 
froqncntly givr-n ti^e to thw moff vi^xnijoitii n^giUaiion^ th<- \in» 
tatviitron^] breach of which ha» Hiihjc.i:T'^i miiiuifar-l iin-nt to niin- 
ouif peitalticM; and tiiat the bitruductioii of all macbinety being 
prevented, by which Inhor mi«ht bt i:hoapenod, and Ihc niaim- 
fuctur^^rii being compclkHJ to pay bt u Axird pnoti, ttnd«<r uU 
Gire«imftlotic!f-Kt they ore unable to atTord emptoyrnent to Ihttir 
workmriif in timn of Ktiti^UHticjn rrf innh', imrl iirr eonipellM 
lo «lop dirir lo*tmx. And fitmDy. Ihey e^Kn|»l;iiii, th^it, notwitli* 
vtandii)^ these grievances under which they Ubor, while cArrying 
on their manafaduri: in London* the law I'liJI proliibiU them, 
while tliey continue to reside there, Irom employtnj^ any portion 
of fboir eoplia] in the Asnie buuinefi» in any clhcr part of ihe 



kin^i>]Ti, whifre U might be mote brpcfiriitlly condnctccL N<jw, 
Sir, ubfurd ti-^ Ihc^r Inwa mu5t nppcar to be to every mim, the 
atteinpi (o n-pccil ihrm did not, oji fur fit I rcc^ollcot^ nltogcttitr 
«ucGCud. Till? Ui'Tivcrs wrrc loo numrroiM, their inti^rr^tt toa 
jzn'^t', or ih^iT pn^jiuliriM loo fttrong; nnc) IhU nolahir inUHnn* 
uf protCL'tiuii uitd iu«HiU|>o)jr still exiatd, to Ur kiu^iittil in Eoi^- 
lauJ with ii[» mudi aincnity u-i it srrema to ]>e adiutrri here- 

In ordtT luTthtT lo sUow the pa-vailixiK scntimewt of thu Eng* 
linh govrrnmpnt, 1 would rpfcT to a report of ii fli?lect conimittcr 
of the Honut' of Comm^nB, At Ihr hcac! of which wan the Vict** 
Pli'flirlnit of Ihr Bimrtt of Tniih* (Mr WjillHrr'), in July, ll^O, 
"The lime/' w>y ihat corninitlix-, '*whrn monopoltes t^uld btr 
ftuixett^fully ftupporieii, or would be f>atiunUy cadurcd. cither in 
rc«pi>ct to eubjet'tH ufiivinBi subjtcts, or purlicular comitnc» 
upoinitt the rMi ni tht' worW^ scrnis iv havp pujfCL'il iiway. Com- 
mpre**, to conliimi-' undisiiirlwHi mid ni'curi^ must be» uw it wjw 
init-ndnl to bi", a wmnm? of rr^nipriwHl nmity hi't^^vi^ii niilionv, 
nnd nil iiiTc'Tthiiit^'r iif proihirtioiiA t« promotv' thr imluMry, thff 
7'callh, Jiiid the bappiiii^AA of mankind/' In moving lor 1li« t^ 
Appoititni<-nt of the commilli'L- in F«:bmur>v 1**^, (he same 
I^ii11i>mari i<uid: " Wi^ inujLt also ^i rid of thtit fivliti^ of iip- 
propriation u*liidi rxliibiu^d i[%v\S iii n dUposlUon 10 prodiic*c 
«vt*ry tiling ni'tviniiry for otir own conAumpiiciif uod to rrmlrr 
«iir»"lvi*3 ijidi^pi*ruh'nt of thr workh N<j nniiiv) could b« monr 
ftbsLurd OT mt»chKvuii#; it led, even in peaee,to tin aniinoaily and 
rancor greater than existed jo time of war. Undoubtedly thctr^j 
would be ffri^ixi prejiidioe* to combnf^ Uotb in thirt eoimtry nnd 
«be where, ill ibe ntltmpt to remove thu diflieuilie* whkh lin* 
moiit olinoiionuL U wonid hp ImpotAiblr to forgirl i.hi? nt.ivntion 
whieh wnji in 3»otin5 rojU'eJji dne to ihr pre^rnT ^viU^m of ptotrv- 
tionn, although ih^t ou^bl eeitMiidy nut to be carried 
beyond the absointc ncc^a^ity of the ciwc." And h\ a »eoond 
teport of the oonr>mittee, drawn by tbi* mime f:MiiT|i-m»n. in Tjiut 
parr of It wbieh pro^ynwa u dindnuiian of dniiei on timber from 
the Xorth of Knrope. nnd tht? pnitey of giving « li-^^alive pref* 
rrenet* Ui flir iiri|>or1[iti(in of Htich timber in the hi^, nnd n d'tn* 
coum^mrnt of the importation of dcnl*. it i> sluted Hiat the 
committee mjcot thij* policy, bccaiiiie, among other reasons "it 
ifi fonnded on o prineiple of exduaion, which lliey are most 
avDfv* lo Bee brouglii into operation, m any new instaHte^ with- 


out the wnnnFit of «nmn ovident aiKJ great political f xf*<iipjicy " 
And on mui^y 0LiL>M?i[ariit occasioos the aainf i^ntlemuit hn* 
takvn (locjLMoii tu uLincrve, that h« ilifTcrtHl innn tliti.-<p nhu 
tkioti^ht tfmt ni;jiiufactur«A could not ilouritth wilhoiit Tcntrictioti> 
on trude ; that M pivjudic^<n of Ihnl mirt were, dying nwayt lUiJ 
Ihnt mort- lilwriil Mndju«t sritlfmc^ntv watv taking ihnt plnc^. 

Tb^Hc ttrjitim^nU app'^nr to hsivr b^tm foltowi'd by importniir 
Icgttl [irovjuontf, c:alv-iilar4rd In n-movi-: ivstrJctions and pmhibi- 
tioQs when! they wrtt^ luuaL fic-vcrcly ic\i\ that ta to May, in scv- 
enl bniaclics of iiavii^tioii tu\d tndc, Tlicy liuvc n^kxcd their 
ooloninl •yiitem, they have opuncHJ the porte of their ifdiuida, nnd 
bare done away thr n^trJciioii whidi limiTrd thc^ inidc of tho 
colony to thn mothi^r ronnlry. ('nlimml jirodiu-lfi cnn now be 
cami-d diix-f^Uy from the i^l^ndu lo any |>ari of Europe; and it 
limy not hv: iifi\iwha.b\i^, coiitii-lciin^ our ovii\ hli^b dtiliea on 
0pint% ihat ihul aftick nmy be c^xrli linked hi^fcaficr by the Eng- 
lish Went India coloniofl din^ctty lor the timbc-T find dcaia of the 
Itfitiic. ll miiy tt ud<lrd tJjnt Mr, l^iwr, whom fhc i^iitknmn 
huA citfd, nay*, that nobody i^upiKu^*'* that the Ihrve gn?nt stnpi^ii 
of Hngtl^Ii manufaii'turcs, colloii, wou]l«^i), and hctnlwunr, eie 
Lit.'iji'iilt-d by Hiiy cxiHtliif^ proIt^cUii^ diilit^s: mid thnt one object 
of nl\ xlii^st: prolvclio^ lawa i» luaaliy overlooked, und thnt i«, 
t^ai Uicy have bueii intended to rcc^onciJe the viltioua intercut* to 
taxation; thv com liiw, for c^xomplr^ bring dci^igned ojp somo 
cquivulrnT to the ngricuhwrni iiiirrc^t kir tlip burden of tilhe» 
und of poor-raiP4- 

In fini*, Str^ J tlniik it U clear, thai, if we now enibmu? tbt 
syntetn uf priihibiliona and nffiUictions, we flhal) sbuw nil affec* 
tion for whiit otheni have diM.-ardcd, and be utterapting to orna< 
rreni onr>elvc* with rni^l-olf nppnr<<L 

Sir, I should not Ii^lvc i^oiii* inia thifl prolix detiiil of opinloiu 
firom any con^idpration of ihfir *pp4'jal imporfimrr oa th** pn*»- 
eiif oet'itflum; L>ol b;iviu^^ imppt-ned to wlale llmt ftudi wah the 
actual opiiijon of the x^vermru^nt of Bn^land at the prt'sent 
time, find the rlccunK^y of thM rqin^rH^iitnlion hdviiijC bc^rn so 
oonhdnidy defined. J hnvn cboj«(<n to put tJio iniittir boyond 
douM or envilT Although nt tht? cx^n-nse of rhL^sc tediouii ei1a< 
tioriA I ihrdi h^rr iMv^ajtion hc^rpnftj^r Ut wiVr mom psinirn* 
larly to sundry recent Britibli enHclnimile, by wuy of Hhowiug 
Uie diligence and dpirit with which that goverEircient «trivea to 



BQStft^B ite n&vif^ttDj^ tnLvcAt, by opening* thf* widest poe^iMc 
mn^ to the eaterprUe of iniJiTlda^ ft^tveittnren. 1 repeat, ibat 
T h«vi* not Aliudt^d tn ihese ev:iinp1f^« of a fuTvign ttuav b>i bl^1ng 
fit to control (wir own piliry. fn thr grniTjl pHndplr, I iuv|ni- 
&«««. IVotcctiofi, ^ hrn carrird to the pt^iint which i» now rcc* 
cmnQf^ncicd, thtti in, to entire prohibition^ Hecme to mc dc«tmc- 
ilvf of all corami-iroiaL int«^rcoT>r90 bctivecii nfttion^. Wc aro 
urgni to ndopt the ftyiT^m upon genenl principled; and what 
would he the curueqiietiee of iIk^ nnivt-rial appIiGmioii cf vueh 
n grnm] priiiHjili', In*!, ihnt tntTion* wniild iilialirin rrrliri'ly frf>m 
h)I tutea^ivurnc with one another f I do not admit thr ge-niTol 
principle; oo the contnuy, ! think freedom of trade to be t}ic 
geaerol principlir*, ond reotriotion tlie execption. And it ia for 
evpty state, takiui;' into view Iti own CMJiiditlon, to judp* of the 
propKety, in nay oaae, of makbig aii excepdou, eonfltantly pre* 
frrring, ns I think hU wiw g<ivi-rii(nF-nt» will, ii<tl to 4k-p(irt with- 
out iirg>*iit ntiM'n fri:>m th<r griu^ral nilr. 

There \% sDolhcr point in the exiirttng policy of England to 
wMeh I would most euracatjy invite the utt'?»tio(i of the com* 
miftr.*L-; I moan the warehouse sydtemf or what wi? usnuily call 
the nyttem of drawback. Very great prejudieirit appear lo me 
to exi»t wllh u» cm ihnl *uljjw?t. We *ci?rn uvi-rsi? i^i thn esttn- 
oion of the principlr. The Kiigli)>i|i gnvrrninrm, on the con- 
trary-, appear to hatr carried it to the extreme of liberality. 
They ha>'c arrived, htiwevct, at their present opiiiiona and pF»- 
ent praclioe hy *Jow degrees. The traneit oystein wn» tjom- 
m^na.'d about the year IS03, but the first law wii* partial and 
limitj'ii- It niliTiitti^l thr imp^rtuiion of nw matfriiilH for ex- 
piirUriori, hnt it rxi-Jurlird nImoM, cvrry wort, of manufnetuivd 
gijoda. Thi» was done for the same reason that we (iropoBH to 
prevent the tronfiit of Canadian wheat tlirough the United 
Htatew, the ivat of uidiii^- the eompetition of tlie foreisn urtido 
with our own In fon.'jf>ri iiiarkeTB. Beltt-r rHk-(.*fion or more ex* 
perwn^t* hn^ iiidurjfd rheiii (i> nhiindoii tiiut modr of rvniAoninff, 
and to ninAidrr nil vut-h rnfrnua of inllnciidTig forci^i mnrktrbi an 
nti;K:»tory; since, in tJir present active and tnlightrncd »tatc of 
the wofid, nations will :iupply thcmf^tlvt-fl from the beet source^ 
and th<^ tme polioy of all producer*, whether of raw material or 
of manufacturE^d article^ H, not vainly to end>>avoT to keep 
other ve idora out of the tnarket, but to oon<]uer them in it by 



the cjiiiLUty Hid tlw cbcapDe«s of their artitilee- Tliv pnrtieiit 
policy <»f EiigUuiJ. iliircfi^rci b U> allure the imporUiti^ii c( cotu* 
modilico itito ]ilui;liiiid, th^re to t>c O<j|>o0it«d in I^^^liEih wuns 
lioUf^i^ lhi-fi4;iu tu be exported lu (ut»urtvd carKores oiid thus ca- 
abliijg hcT to OUT)' on a g4tiH-ril vxport trade to alJ quaiton of 
llm gtobv. Arlirl<-K nf nil kimiN, with llir^ jingle f>Toi:-ption of 
'iSft, may be brought into C[i|f]aijd, from any pnil of ihe worUl, 
Ib fbre^ign sa well ae Bnmb »lii|>», thcfc wareiiouAedt uiid a^ii 
cftporli-^i ut Uif ^lt-ti><urv of the owner, without the puymcitt of 
auy duty Of ^ovL'rmiK-eil duuK*-' wliaU-rtTn 

WhUu 1 am upun lliu «ubjuct, [ would lake notioi* «Uo of th« 
recent pniponilitM; iu Kitglinh 1'arliiuiivnt to ahuliBh Ihf lax 
ca bnport<<d uool^ aiul it ih obititrvabic (h^U tlio^i; who ^(ip|iort 
tbU propoetuoa gi>c the »Amt: n-asona that Imvt.- bc;«u otTored bure, 
ttrjtbJu tbc laat wi't'k. against iht duty wliicb we prupusc on the 
Munu urUcJc. TtiL*y day ilvxi Iht-ir muoufLicluri^n requirt? a chuiip 
and ooai^e wool, for ihe iiupply of tbt^ IVl[<dH<,'rrani<Eui arnJ Levant 
tradr, and r.liEil, without n moiv* frur iidmU^^ion nf tb<? wnol of the 
Cunlinciit, that, tiuilc will itll I'idi into ihi- hfuidri of Ihe Ovrrmana 
and lladinus, who wiU vAny it on tlirougb Legbora aud TrimtCL 
Whik' ihtTc i* Ihio duly on foftigu wool to prot^irct Uif wool* 
grower* of KuKl^odf thviv is, on tliti other hand, a prohibitioa 
OD Um uxporlauon of the naiivi> uriid« in aid of the mtumraotnr^ 
erai 'llie opinion iwi^nist lo txt guiJiiiig fUvogth, that Xhv true 
policy i» tosholiMb Uithn 

Lawn have- loi^g cxL^tod in Knglaad prevejiting tlicr cinigtti* 
tion of nrtiftjiriB and the c^xporialion of machiiRTy ; but Ibc policy 
of thnAr. nlai\ has bocuiuv doubted* and an iiiquiry han Ut-'cn in^ 
atitutcd in I'culiami'nt iuto tbe QX|iudi<^ncy of rept<uUn^ them. 
Aa lo tJje cmignition of artiaaiiK, ^%y tboH- who diHi|)pr<iv<T ttie 
lawa, If ttiftt wi^rv: di'ftirabJr, nti btw iNiuhl r-lTt'tit it \ aial an t(i thr 
rxpiirtnlion uf iuacbiii<.'ry, )i?t ua make it and export it a« wc 
would oo^y other oom modi Ly. If Francf^ la determined to »pia 
and weave her own cotton, Let a»t if wti mayf tftill hava the bou- 
a6t of farni«binj; the ma<^hinrTy. 

I bav« »l&t4>d thcAi^ ihiiLgi, Sir, to tLow wlut veem* to be the 
geutml tone of thinking and n^nnninng on thr^mf iiubjr-ntx In thnt 
rouniry, the exaiuple uf which ba^ been so much prea»rd upou 
ua. ^^*betilcr ilic present policy of England be right or i^nrou^, 
HIM or unwivc, it eaiuiot, aa it ftoenu) cU-aiJy to lae, b? qiiolod 


[t TARirr. 

aAOn QUthontf for cArrymp; forlb^T tbc restrictive oncl fxr.luurp 
t^t4>n), cither iei regard to inanufBctureii or trud(<. To n?e«tab- 
liih n sutund currt'iicyf to mvt^i ut once tbi* vhock, tn^mimdixDi fti 
it wiuij (if tlir flit) nf prii'i-Xi Ui polnrgp hrj rnjiiirily fnr ft^rrigii 
trade, to opcD wide the Bcid of individual nilcrpriM: &nd cumpo 
titiotit and to en; plainly nnd distinctly that the country muAt 
vLieve ito&lf from tho emttarrossmcDte wtiicli it fdt, by economy, 
frugality, and r«oaw«d efforts of ^nterprtBc, — thMe appear to b^ 
the gen^ml outline of Il)« policy wbtch England baa punucd. 

Mr- Churtnan, I wHl now procc^ to ^ay a few wotdi upon u 
topic, but for the introduction of which into this debate I should 
not hnvc givt^n the committee on thifl oecMion the trouble of 
h^nring ine- Some days ago, 1 bcU(»vc it vntj^ when we were set- 
tling thp controvmy b^-tween th« oil-mprchnnts and the tallniw^ 
cb&odlerv, tlio^aicmceo/frikir riLiide ttjt tip|x?uruijcv In debai<.%iuKi 
I muet coufew. Sir, that I nj^ok*^ of lu or rutU«r epoke to it, Mime- 
what freely and irreverently. 1 belit^'c 1 used the hcird nnin«« 
wluch linvv btnm im)H]t«Hl to ftk^t and 1 did it dinply for the- par* 
|)o*v of hiyiiig ihc »pi.*<!tre, and driving it btick to iU tomb. Cer- 
tainly, fVr, when 1 i-jillrd Ihfi ohi nnliiin on thi>i mibjert non* 
ncnw, \ did not »nppo»e that I ttboiild ollrnd any ornr, unlo-M the 
dcnd should happen to hear ido. Ali the living gcncratioui I 
took It for grantedf would think tli<-* tcnn very properly appliedf 
In thifl^ however, I waa mlalaken. Th^^ dead and the iiving riee 
op togi^ther to call me to aoeount^ and I muBt defend myself aa 
wdl tun I am ablen 

Let UH tiicpjirc, thr-n, Sir> what in mrant by ;tii nnfavorabltf 
balance of tmdc, niid what the argamcnt is, drawn irt>m Ib&t 
ftotircr> By an unfavorable baianco of tnwir, i under».t<iiid, la 
meant that ntale of thiii|^s in which importati^iEi ej:oet^ cxpor- 
tdtlon^ To apply It to nnr own oa^, If the value of goods int* 
jioriifd eiciH-d tlie vuhir of iIk»m* tipurlcdf llirn llie hiilaiicv of 
trade la void 1o be ngainrif, »*■, infi:«miich an wc have run in debt 
to ilie amount of thi» diliV-rcncc. Therefore it 'in iiaid, that, if a 
nution continue long in a commerce like thie<, it must be rcn* 
denxl absoiuidy bankrupt It i» in the condition of A man that 
buy* inorif than he nells; and how can (inch a fraJTiG he msin- 
lained without ruin? Now, Str^ the whole fallacy of thh argu- 
ment con«ista hi eup|Ki-<ing, that, whcnuvor the vaioe of iiuporto 



AX(«f^dB thai of cjiport^i Q lioht i-i nroertoarily crrafrd io the en* 
lent of fbif (lilTcTroiice'i ^'ht^^-^i*, ordinarily, the import i* no more 
than Ihr r«tiili nf thr ntport, ftngmput^d in value hy thf^ labor 
af ttHnii|icir1rt1]oit, Thi* »^x<'r»^ (if iinpi^A i>vrT i-t;|ioHM, m Irnlh, 
tiMiaUy »bow» the gaiuAi not ihc losae«), of trade \ ur, iri u coua- 
tty that no! only btiya aiid scUb gooda, but cmpJovA M]>v in car- 
rying good;* (ifoo, il ehowfl Ibe prcfiU of coininCTxw, and thr- carn- 
tngi of navigatioi). Nothing t» mor« ccrtuiti tfmii ihnt, in Iho 
l&l (^DURir- of things, and taking ft serip* of yeant fjigrthvr, the 
bu of oitr imjwirta is i.b- aggn'^pitp of our cxporfa m\d oiir 
tR{gblM> If tlie value of commoditir^ importrd in n givrn in* 
ftannedid not rxcvvd thr vnliinof thf^ outward cnz^o,with ^-hicb 
they wrre pnrchni^i^d, thrn it would W cknr to every tnnn'H com- 
tr\on **inip, that ttip voy»Rc bad not bf^pn [irofitahle. If ^ncb com- 
modluri^ f*-ll fwr nhorl. in vnUw of ihf coht of tiip outward eargo, 
th*fn lUe voya^tf wouli! bt a \try lonni^ one; and yet It woulil 
prcMint exactly Uiat sUtr of tbiriKH* vrhicb, itcconiiiiK to the no- 
tion of & balance of tnide, can nlont- indi(:ii(t^ v. proti porous com- 
merce. On the otK*^r hand^ if tho ri^tiarii mirgo wrni found to l>o 
worth mucb morp fbnri tin* ciiitwurd rjirpo, whilr thr mrr*'hpint, 
hsving piiid for dir* gninU * tportrd, i^nd nil tbr rxprn»'S of thr 
voyage, fin<b a handsome »um yet In his band?^, which he calla 
protitK> the boJancr- of trrK^c is Mitl a^lnst him, and, wlin(«:vrr he 
may think of it, h*^ w in a very bod way* Although one iiidt- 
vidua] or aU Individuals f^ain, the nation loe^e ; while all It^ cdt* 
imu grow rich, the eouatry growi poor. Thiti is the doctrine 
flf thp baltiiif^e of LraileH 

Allow me, Sir to give an inatEuioe tending to show how un* 
tocoofltitbly individual* dc^ci-ivr; thctnM'tvr?^ nud imriKin? them' 
volvt* to be iiomewhiit mpidly mending 1hi<ir oondit.ioo, wtiilo 
tliey ought to he pprvunded that^ by (hat infallibtc standard, the 
halanrp fif 1nid<% thry :»rr» on th*^ high mud la ruin, flnnii* ynftr* 
ai^iu betti.'f limcrithnn ihr- prt^scnt, a ship left pnt^ of the tvwna 
of New Englnnd with 7t),000 specie dollars. She proc*xdcd to 
MochOf OQ tho Rod 8oa, and then* laid out thr^ic doIlnrH in cof- 
fo^dnif^ sptoeH, and other ariieles procured in thnt m[irket. 
With thi* new cargo she proceeded to Europe; two thirds of 
itwi^* so lit in Holbnid for $130,000, which the ship brought 
back, and pliu^ tn tht' tuimr bank from thi^ vaults of which she 
hod taken hrr originid ouitit. The o1ht.*r third w&e sent to tho 



l>ortA of thf? Mnlitemncan, uicl produced n return of $ SJ^jOOO 
in npt^c, ami 9 1^000 tn [toLiun mcrchflndiM; Those vuni» 
toother makv $170,000 imported, which i> $100,000 morv^ 
than was oxporteii, and 10 then*rore proof of an ui&iToiable bal- 
ance of trad^^ 10 that amoving in thm adventme. Wis riiOiM 
Ami uo ^al itiJUcultjr, 8ir, iu pujuiK cH' oiu W^itnss >f 1)ii^ 
weia the luiturr of theru oli- 

The truth is, Mr> (JhuiriumLi tliat till Uiutu abaoldcr and oiplodcd 
notions hod IheJT oriiciTi in T«ry iQirtakrn ideas ol tlii^ true nattm 
of comnn«TC«- Commc?rctf ]* not a fpimbJing among t;aiioti» fiir a 
■Uihr-i to hr wiin by MJtiiE-arfU li»t byolbf-m. It hAw not lb? b<n- 
dcncjr ncH:i«aarily lo iiiijxiTi'ri^l] <7iii? of thi^ pnrtir* tc it, u'hilc it 
aahch«s tbo other ; all |>sT(i(^A gnm, all parlies mukf' profits, afl 
fMffttes grow rich, by th« op^mtioD» of jutt and Uboml comnicroCL 
If tka world had but one cLims and but om.* soil; if all men had 
Ito mn« wanu ^nd the same means, on the ft|)ol of liielr oxut- 
anoe, to ^^Lify Ui4nv uraiilJ,^tlieit, uKlt-ed^ wh*it one t^blaitied 
from tiir cthn by exch:ui|^ wuuld ifijurr urn- t>^tty in ihr jiiiidc 
degree that it bencBtcd tijc other; tht^tit iiidci?<i, thrrr would be 
vomcf fi>aiidaUi>n f^^r the balance of trader But IVovidcncc ba^ 
diftpomd our lot mucfa tntirv kindly. Wt- inhnbti n vnriouiB earth. 
\Vp hn\r niriprfM^il wunt*, and n^r-iproral irifnTtn for (^tifvidjf 
onr anothr/aw»nU» Thin ia lh«- iriir origin of rominircv, wbieli 
ia nothing morr- than an eidiaogc of cqoiralcnts^ and, from the 
nido barter of its prlmitiTa etote, to tha refined and tomi^ex 
oooditioii in which we sea it, ita pniioiple ia unifonoly tha «antef 
lis only object bcin^, in ev<»fy "tfij^**, to province tb:it eitrban^ of 
(>>miiKKlitieit between IndrTidu^lH aiid btlwe^^ji iiMfioiis whirh 
shall conduce to tbo advitiitaiife and to tlie happiitrr^i of bolh. 
Commcreo between nutjontt ba.i the sarnr marniial character 
&« (?ontmefc>e between individujibs or bt^twf^cn part* of the eamr 
nation. Cmtnot two individunU makv an int^'rchan^e of 00m- 
modi li*** which *hjill provn iwn^liHul To ho I h, or in which the 
balancf- of Inide hIihII l>*r in fan^r of both ? If iio% Ihtr tailor anU 
the ahocmahi-r, the furmcr and tbe »mith, have hitherto very 
much mi*andfrBtood their own intt-'reAie, And with rrgard u* 
the internal imd^ of li L<ountjy, in whirh tiie ffume rule wookl 
apply an between ntiiiciFi, do we ei^er «|H-uk of rndh an iatft- 
«aunu- Hit prejudieiiil lo one Ttide bei-HiiBe it in useful to tJi<* Otb< 
ec! Do wtf r-\'rt Ur^r thiit, bi-cnu»e llic intcrcoiir*); betwcvii 



New Virrk and Albany i? luivaxitngcoas to one of ihcwe ph 
it must Uiereforc be rniuoiu to ihe otherl 

May T b« alKiwed, Sir, lo n^d a pas»agif- on Lhtft nubjtfut from 
the uUsen-ntiunfl of & geritlTrmdn, in my u|iiijiiJiL one ufth*? inont 
df^u And flrtiaibk writcn and spc&kcTB of the age upon 9ubj«cl0 
of tiiifl Aortf '^Thc^re is no |>olitu3ul quetttion on ivliu>h the 
provtilcni»T oC fid^c prmciplr^a ib so gi-iir?r;Ll, act Id what rejatre to 
tbe naUirr of iirntnmt^rc-r^ nnd to the pr<riirTut<*c) bctUnev of trade; 
and thcro ar:' few which hnvi* kil io n grraicr nmnhi*! of |who 
tical mintakch, altrodcd with coiiKx^ucncr^ c:iici)»jvely pfrjudi- 
dal to the bappmt^sa of majikiikdi la this countrv. our IVrlia.^ 
meiitary prot'^wiinffti, out piablio dottiitieula, and tfi* works oi 
itcvvnl able anil populm u^Til^rs, ha^« comblnc^d to propagntc 
lh« tmjtriTftfion, tbit we are iiidt*b(<xl fur much of our rkln'» In 
wbnt lA c^Ili-<l the bainn-(-e «f tmJc,*' " Our Inw? p<»lii^y woiitl 
Bordy b<? to pr(>fr^, a» the object nod guide of our cojujiu-rciul 
ayvtcTDt that which every mnn who has studied the aubject tuiut 
know to be the true principle of conuncrcc, ihc Lnterchafif];^ of 
redprooal and r^juiralcnt bt^nrfit Wv may rest aauufed that it 
IB noi iij the iiaEiirt- of LHjnimfrcf- to t^nrlL'h urc {M^ty at ihr f*x< 
pt-nai* of ttie utUrr. This la u puq)c>s(? 4t which, if it W[?ni prai> 
tjctiblet wie otLtfht not to aim; oiul which, if we aimed at, wv 
oookl not ftceom]>lish/' Tht*SL» rtmarlc*, 1 brhcvo, Sir, were writ- 
ten tome U'ti or twi'lvf! yi'Eir* Eigo- TbL-y nrtr ia peHcot accord- 
anoe with tbf <]pini(iiu nulvanrf^l in monr i<lnborat^ treatiA«B| 
Ukd DOW thaT ihf world hnn retnm^il t<i a wiEite nf pnacp, imd 
oonuaerct! hus n.-Aiuiked Jt« aatora] chaiiiK^ls, aud diireretiln iiJt* 
tiotia arc oujoymi^ or accking to eojoy, ihcir rcspcctivc purtiona 
of it) aB mr« the ju^tuettb of thetio Ideas ; all aec, that, la thi« day 
of knowledge and of p^ai.'^, iher« can be no oominerce between 
nation* bat that wbitrh ah-Ai benefit uL who arv partLea to il 

If it vtvtr. iifveuary, Mr, Choiriimu. ! iDJ^ifht luik the uticnthm of 
the eoinmittt^- to refer toadocument befor*^ us, on thi^ subject of 
the balance of tmdc It will be wen by relcu^^iicx; to the neeounta, 
tlAt| in the ooiuec of the loxt year, our total rnport to Holland 
vxoecdod two millions and a h^tf ; our tot^l import froEn the name 
'SJUnUy wa« bur 4«v*ii, hnndr^d thoutanH dollara. Now, can any 
man bi< wild eiiongb tu make any Inference from Uiia aa to Umi 

* Mr. flytkmnn. Prmidpnt vi Xht Kngtitb Hcnnl of Tphle, 
vou III. U 



p\m or loM of cur trudt ^Uh Holland for that }<-Q.r? Oiif ondr 
with RuBHJit for tht' *rinn? yt^ar prodnctsj a bnlctnor thf' iithrf ■WTiy , 
otir irnfHiit hiding two millronft, niii! anrrvpnrt bill hnlfa Trillion. 
Riri thiH hHA HI) miiri- trnL)rn<!y to xhow Ihr Rnuinn Tmdt* ft tnit* 
me tnulc, tliiui the other stittcmcnt has to §bow that ihv Dutch 
tmiJr ho» been n g&inJul one- Ncithci of ihcm, by it»L*lf, proves 
any thing. 

8prln^ng out of tUs notion of a bnJonc^ of trade, there 
Itt another id<?a, wUleli hm been uiuch dwrit upon iu ibe 
ouur!« uf thin Ot^batr; Ibil is, Uml w»" mi^ht nnt Iu buy tiT na- 
tioEiA who do not buy i>( iia; for cxampir, thnt Ihr Runuan trade 
\a a Inulc cliacitlvData^^ouFi to tbo country, and ou^ht ii> be din* 
M)Ufugi.*d. bL^craniie, in thi* porta of Ru»L[t,we buy mcirc^ Thciii via 
mOl. Now alhnv mv t4i obiu^rve^ in th<? first plaor, Sir, that we 
hiivn no nrronrit *hnwir»B hmv mnrb wr do sril in ihr |>orlii of 
RusEta, Our ollicinl returns i^bow q» otily what h the Qmouiit 
cf our direct tmdc with her portfi. But thc-n wc oU koov thai 
tho proocrd» of nnothi^r portion of our ox|>ortii |^ to tbo saiDe 
mnrket, thougli indirecrtty. \\> dend our own produda, for ex- 
uriple, to Cuba, or to Bruiil; we there eiehnngr them for the 
mignr mid Ihi- railTw cif ifitiM- ^-mintrif-s, unit ibrsr rirfVJ™ we 
coiry to St. Petrrabiirg, nrid thrrr sril ^h^m A^iiin : our ex- 
ports to Hollnnd and Ilnrabu^ arc conn^ctrd diw*clJy or indi- 
rectly ^i-iih our importii from KufK'in, What diflVrenc« does il 
make, in »en>4ii or r^^iiAoiii wh^her r c«lt^o of iron b« boo^tit at 
St Petfir»bur|^, hy The exchange of a cargo of tobncco, or vtietb* 
er tlie lobALix) htiA bt-en huU vi\ thp wuy, in a. better market, in 
4 port i>( iKillaiid, the inoiiL^y reiuutv^d to Hii^Und, and ibe iron 
paid for by a bill on London t There mlK^it ind<.«d hn*e been 
an augmented freii^ht^ th<rtf ini^lit huve l>t*en »ome luiving of 
eomtniMionft, if tobiioeo had been In brisk demand in tht Rut* 
Rinn m4rki*l. Rut ftl.ill tlirre In nolhing tn nhnw tb»t lh<' wliole 
voyage may nol hive been highly pTofifablrr. Thnt dqicnds 
opoji the origifir^] co*t of the article here, the ramount of freight 
and tiihuranc*' 1^ Holland, the prien obtniiied Iht^rc, the mie of 
exchaDi^e between Holliuid and England, tho rip'nse, then, of 
procer<lmg to St. Pelcruhnrg, the price nf !.»in there, the ml9 of 
exi^huiiKe belweCfi thnt pluee and Hngtaud, the Hiiiount of ffvlght 
and insunince at hmnt.*, and, finally, the %'alue of the iron when 
brought to our own market These art; the ctdcidutloott whtob 



itetcnninc the fortune o( the juivrntun!; and nothing cui be 
judgrrd of Ut onu w*y or the otiicr, by the lelaUvc state of our 
imports urcxpurU with HolUiid, EiiK]iL"ti» or Rutwian 

I would not ba undrr^looU lo dLuiy, Ibut it umy ofMJi be out 
Enrerect to cuJtivurv u trudt* wilb countric* tJibt ret^uiri* mo*t of 
iiueJi r-Oininni)iiirj( hk vtv i^sin fiirriifthf iiiul whii'h nrc c;i]mL>lti 
ul«Q uf «iiroc:i.]y rtu^jplyiiig our own wJini4. Thi^ it the orl^^UAl 
and Uic umple^t form of all conimcfcci and u no doubt highly 
beitfiliciaJ. Somv couiiftius 4irv «o ailuatoJ, that comui^rco, in 
tfai» original form, or t^omollmi^ iivnr it^ tu^y ba uU tliat they 
con, without consider;ibl<? iiicouve*iiieiJCtf, cuny on. Our trad^ 
for i'xniu]jU-T v^ith M^drim and tUv Wt-simi IaJiihJ}* has li**ii 
OArfnl Xit lUi'- couiitTy, iix furriUhtng n dnmiDil fof miiiic jMjrliuii 
oT Ottf GgrJculiuraJ products, which probftbly could not havo 
been boiigbt bad we not received thcu producta in return. 
CoiuiUKv BitLuitt.'il Atili further frura Uie great maiU and bigb* 
wfty« of the commercial world way alTord tttlLl utrouger instan- 
af» of the rnwf-a*if.y und utilify of tuiidiietiiig i-oinrni-rM? on the 
origirinl ])Tinci|)ti^ vi burtrr, wttiiuui jniich 'i^^iftliincJ? from th« 
opctntioDs of credit and exchange. All 1 would be understood 
to eny i^, that it by no mecuia fcllowe that wc can cany on noth- 
ing but a losing trade with a country from wbich w receive 
more of her products than &he rveeivea of oure. Since I was 
M]j>poaed, the other day, in BptHking upnit lhi» »ubje;;1. to ad* 
vancQ upinlom which nut ordy this country ought to ngent, 
but which aU(> oth<^r Cf^iintrics, and those the moat diatinguiahed 
for&kdland lucccn:* in ocimmordLiI mtcrcour9<?f do reject, 1 wiU 
■ok luavc to tcfcr ngain to tho discussion which J fir^t men- 
tioned III the Eiiglmh i'iirliamfni, r^ialjve to thff foreign trnde 
of ihjit country. ^* With rej^nfd,'' says llie mover" of the propo- 
vitlotif " to tlie argunieitt e^nployfd a^inat rent^witrg our iiiter- 
courac with the North «f Europe, ttnmcly, that those who sup- 
plied us with timber from that quctrter would not receive JtotiAh 
manuractorfif in return, it nppi^arod to him futile and unground- 
pd. If they did not Jierid diri^ct for out mnnufHciurrB ili home, 
ihey would send tor Tliern To Lt-ip^ii:' nnd i»thiT Inir- of Genna- 
Dy. Were not llie Eub^i^iau mid FoliAh inerehdijiB purehatwni 
Hi/at to K great ojnount? But he would never admit Ihc prui* 

* The Mat*iucaA orLuiB^ownd. 




c(plr, (.h»t a ttHifr wa» not piofitftUJc bci^uu w« wctc ob1i£;e<J 
Lo carrj ii on wlib tbc prcciou* [DctaJ«i or tbitt wc ought W n:- 
nouoco itf becauA« oar maiuirftciurce w««r« not foovivod by the 
foceiga jiutioii in rvlum tor ix» proJut^e. Whftlvver we rcoL^ived 
moat be puid lji the produce of out land aud kalxv, tiiitxtly 
or cinrutlouvly, 4ud ht^ wna glail to Imve llie uuLlu Enrl\i* 
madteii ciJUC'iJrrciw:e iu tlua priuctph." 

RcferrbiK ouxadwo tiJ^r^ Sir, U> the ounlogics uf ctJiLiinuu 
JJUs no ori« wtiuid Acty tLi:it « furuu-r or ti rovchoniu should buy 
oniy \t'hcr« hi* dii do so by the ei^clmiigt; of hu own product?, or 
of liiH uwii trijuiii&iclurt, Siuli trxdmii^ may \m <A\at\ rdiivrn- 
ic»t; aiiil, oil tiie nthrr hiiiid, tin; oi?ih purcliit*e muy br ofipii 
more convciiicDi, it l» tii« rMLim' iu thr. uitcix^uric of imtionA. 
indeed, Mr^ SpcsLkt^r hck» placod ilii« ikrguincat oa very dear 
grounds. It was Haid, iu the early p^rt of ihp ti^^batf*, tJiRf, if we 
oe«se to Import Ea^L]»4fa cotton fabiJos, Eogland will no lon^- 
Hf f!untiiiiie to purdiaiie ijur cotlun. Tu tlii* Mr Sjifuker re> 
plied, «vltij ^at fivn^ and juatict-^ th^tt, lu aIic mu»t have cvtton 
in liii^ quojititico, »liu wil] buy tlic urticlc where nhc cun &rul it 
bc9t nni cheapest; luid that it would be quite ridioulous in bt-i, 
nujiufacliiriug nK the »lili wxiuld h(<, for hcrr own VTint cotnump- 
tion Hill I the confumpliou of imlliorm in nlhrr rinaiirii'iii Ui xvy^vX 
OUT iipluiid« bc>ciium? wr hHd b^nriKHl Lo iii^uiufiLclurx: » p^irt of 
them for ouncUcv. Would it uot be equally ndicuiou^ In un if 
the e^tELunodititib of Kut^«iti wcro both cheaper and bc-tt<:r suited 
to our w&ntij th&it could be found el0«wh«rc, to obFiuJn from 
comrin?fct> with ber, Ltecuu^o ah*? will uot rec<_'ive in return oihrr 
cum modi Li eA which wtj hv-^t? U> iwllj bul wlUch Hhi; bus uu ocua* 
■lull to buy \ 

lutimatcty councctcd, Sir, wHLk tbU tipple, u anotiicr which 
hot been brought Into the dcbitt^ ; I nii?iui tJie pvil so much com- 
|d(iitii-d of, l.hi? rx|i<ir]jition of ipE^t-Ir. WV hetir geiilJ«intrii irti' 
puting till? Joi4:« of iiKirkvt Ht hijiiii- tu ii wiuit of iiioiiry, uiid Uiin 
want of money to tliL* r«portution of the prccioua tnL-taU. Wu 
ACar the indJiL and China tr&dc denounced, \xs a cxtmrnetcc cou- 
duGt«^d on our side, in a great measure, with gold dnd silver. 
TbeAc opiniouti, Sir, urc clesrly vuid of uli ju^t fouJidatiuii, luui 

Lurd LjiGfpLHil. 




rrii:4fWf'(3( lEi»n lh<>n<(* pkliitnU nm) (xiiiiniiTrml writi^ra wh<^ wtMild 
f^fcwnt It to he the only tnir nnd gainful fml of commerce, to 
acctrninlaU' llic prccamii* rnftttK Thcac arc nrlidrs of uac, and 
ftFtkJe« of m^rchandiw, wirh thU adclitioiml cii«iam«hiitce bo- 
longing to ihpm. ihnt tJiry afp madp, bv llit* tf^^rfrol coriw*n1 
of natkiiifi. the f<l»i>flyr(l by whk-h the v»]iie of nil ulhrr mirr* 
dhnrntitie b to be cctEmult-d. In rr^nl In wc-i^ht* nnd nwaiN 
art«, !M»fnclhin^ Jrawfi from cstrcrnnl nntnrr lit made n com* 
Tnoci Ktnndnrd, for thi^ piiTiko^rx of grzicml convcnic^cr. ; nnd 
thw i« prpciin'ly thn otfkr fK-rfomnyl by th^ precionii motal*, 
In addition to those M**^ft to which, as nicin^ ih*'y niv eapn- 
hlff art being Hpplltril. Tliffr iniiy be of rhe^if* too much or 
too little in a onunlf^ at n jksrticiijjir time, ns there tiiitv bt; 
of ttny nthrr nrticli^fl. Whm thr m^rkrt iv oTenrtockrtl i*dtti 
Them, o* il oOrn Iss tlrcir rsp*jrt™tron hreomrs as pToprf tind as 
□fi^d 49 that of othifr comrnodit>««, t)tid<?r »iniilEir ciroumfltaa* 
MB, \W ne^d no mon* rep^ne^ when the dollars which have 
Iwen jjivtiiffht ht-Ti^ from 3onrh Amerit-a ure d»4j>!i(uhi?d to ottier 
mnntrir-*, than vrhv-n cojTre ^ind nitgjtr tnkr thn :ianii< flivniv 
iJon. ^Ve oftrn d^^iirr on■^5^lvc^ by nttribntiag to n scar- 
dty of money thnt which i* ih*' result of other causes. ]n the 
uoorse of this dehatf , xhi^. honorable membi^r from Pemisylvanifc" 
faas n^preeent^d the country as fall of every thing but money. 
Bui fhiH I take id be n mistake. The a^rlf-nlnirjil jiroduL'th, ho 
abuudaril in Praiis^Kimtii. \s^'i\\ not. hr niivf*, acll for iriuijey ; but 
they will sell for mont^y a-i quick an for nny othw artiele whidi 
hnpprn^ to be in demnrd- Thoy will wll for money, for e^ara* 
p|p, itK (*imJy an for c^oHTpe or fcr t4*ti» nl the pri<*»** whieh properly 
belong to tho«u artJeh-K. Thr* miHt^ikr Hc-m tn Imputing thut to 
want of noney whirh nmr* fmm wi*nl of dt'iDnraL Mi-^n do 
not Iruy vihi^at becnu-e ihey have money, but breauF»e they 
wint wheat To dieidt wh<:(hn money be plenty or not, that 
ie, whether ther(> be a larf-o portioiL of enpitat nnemployed or 
not, wh*in the currency of a eountrv is metallie, we miiM look, 
niit only to the prieen of eumiEioditie*^ but alno to the rate of 
intrtr*!, A low raU? iif inti*rfst, n fmrility uf obtiiinin^ inonoy 
Ml) loans, % disposiitjon to invent in permanent sCooks. aH of 

Mr Tod 




which arc prooffl that noA^y \* plenty, may Acvcrtbele«e oileii 
dcnol« a etato not of the highc^st prosperity. They mfty, tfuid 
ofien do, show & waul of employment for capital; utid Ihtt oo* 
citmutalSon of specie ^howa (he ^ame thtng. We have do occiu 
AJoii fur llie prL'L-iimn iiicIuIh «j* nioiwy, tuct-pt Utr ihi- puq^nm 
of cixcuUtion, or rnihf^r of suttlauilnfc n »af« paper drculation. 
And whtfnt-TiT 1her<! iti u pra(ip(<ct of n pfx>BtnbJc invc»tmcnt 
nbraodT iill lbi< ^oM und Hilvor, (except what thc-^c purpo»o» re- 
qairi^, will bti c^xporlcd- Pof thi- seme n^ii^on, If « d«-rnftnd «xi«t 
fltntHifl fnr niigitr itiiil (Tttli^^r, whutrvrr qmoiinT. of ihoM? srTJcW 
might eiJst hi the countrVi beyond th^ wuiita of ita own cori- 
oumptiorit wuul<l be sent ^ibroad to meet that dcmanJ. 

BL'0i(lL-A, Sir, how ahould it ever occur to ony hody, that we 
■houUI ooritJjLiie to export gold and silver, if we did not conUnuo 
to import them ulfto ? If a vegfwl take our own produeta to th<^ 
Hitvunaif ur elNUwhere, eu-hhii^ Ujeiti fur dolinn, prncrtn) lo Chi* 
TlA, rxchiuigc them for »ilka And Icav, bring thenr. Inat to thn ports 
of the McHitemincfin, nril thctn thtTP for dcillnrA, nnd rrtwn to ihc 
Umied Slntrn ; thi* would bn a wynge n^ulnng in the impona- 
tloa of the prcN^ioim mtiiahi. But iTi^hc had returned from Cuba, 
and tile dollnr* nh1ii]n''d thi'rv h^d hern H|tlp|>eil djfi^et from the 
United StdU-s (u Cliliiti, Ihr Cluja ^ooJh »uJd ju Holliutd. nnd 
the prootrixia Irougfjt home lii tho hemp and irou uf RuMia, tliis 
woviJd be u voyai^ in wttieb ttiey wort ex[KJTtfd- Yet every 
body t.vt!» that both rni^ht b« equally bi?tiefit-iui to tbi; individ- 
ufll nnd to tiie public I believe^ &ir, that, iu point of fact, w« 
hnvf I'njmed grt-nt brjiefit, in ciir xinilf. with lEirliu nnd China, 
from ifie liherty of gi»ing fnim plner to pliu^T iiU ov*t the worlJ, 
without being obliged in the rrran Time to return home, a bb<?rtj 
not heretofore enjoyed by the private uadera of England, in 
regard r.o Etidia and China. Suppose llie AmertL-aii i^hip to be 
mt Bmsfil, for t'xample ; she couJd proceed with her dolliuM direct 
to tiidisi, sind, in n-Luni, i^ntld di-ilnbiilt; hi-r 4-iirgii irt nil thn 

nrini)'^ \xwin uf Hnrofn" or Anirrririi; wliilr nu I'jiigiUb ^ilip1 if 
private troder, being at Hrfuil> miiM tir>t return lo Kjigiand, 

Vi then oould only proceed \n (he dirr^rt line Jrpm l^ngktnd te 
iiidia- Tlii» advantage our coiinrrymen bavf no! be*ta back- 
ward TO hnprove; and in ihr debair lo which 1 have atrendy m> 
oftfU ri'lerrt^J, It wait tdutfd, not wirhoul sortie <»rriplaii:I of tlie 
im '>nvrDienro of exelunion, and the natural aluggi^^hnrcs of mo 



nopoly. thftt Airicticuin thip* wrrc nt thnt raomt^nt fiUing out in 
thv Tlinmc^ In vnipply Kranci*, H^illam!, ami oHirr rountrim cm 
the Ci*nfin*.'nt» wilh l4?a; whUc tiie Kw^t littlin C<"in|>nny would 
not do t}ji« (jf tliT'cnAoJvea, nor alJow a^iy ol tiicir fcUow-couatry 
men to 6q tt for them. 

Therein yet another tubject, Mr. Clinirman, upon which I 
tvotUcI wivh la iny itomt'Uiingf tf I rni^lii prt-ntiTt]<< tij>on thr con* 
tiuiicxl piiticncc nf thr^ (Tominitt^Tc- Wc liinir s^oint^liiTirv in the 
llon^c, nud contiiiuftUy out of it, of the rntc of cAchaii^^e^ &« 
bcinf one proof ihat wc ore on the dowiiwnrd rond to ruliit 
Mr. SpTAkor himRclf ha« advertod (o that topic, and 1 am afraid 
that Ma aniJiority may give credit to cpinJonrf clearly uafouikded, 
and whi<:h IfHd :o vi^ry faJne ttnd erriiiiieoiiiH concJuAioni^. StTf 
let na sre wimt thi? fActs njv. Kxdian^i! va England hiu re- 
eentjy ri*cn unc or o^^* and n kdf pt-r cent,, paiUy owing^ pc'r< 
httptt, t<? tht' introduction of tliiv bill into Ci>n)^*ci9. HHWl* Thin 
reci-nt huej and for the ItibI six month*, I undcrvlarid iU nvcr.igv 
muy hav(' bev.t\ about seven and a half prr rent, iwlvancr. No^tf, 
fliip|x>Aiitg tiiin to !>c ihi* mif^ uud not men-ly, iij* it i*, ihr nomi* 
nal, poj of exchange between ua and England, what would it 
ptovc? Nothing, G A cept that londs were wonted by Amcrioan 
catmjw in England for oommorcial oporationif, to bo c«med on 
dtber tn England or elsewhere. U would not iieeeAsarlly show 
that we wfere indeblfd lo England; for, if we had ou^asion to 
pttv deblfl in IIiihbj:( nr Hotlninl, funds in EtifjlMiid wiiulit (mtu< 
rally enough bu rrquirrd for nuch a purpti;«c. Even if it did 
piovc that a balance wan due England at the momt^nt, it would 
have no tf^ndenoy to L^xplain to uh whether our commort-u with 
Englund Imd hren profitnhlo or unprnfitnhlc. 

But it ia not tru^, in point of f^rt, (hat rhn reai prirr of cx- 
cbauf^e is bvwi} and a Imlf jn^r cliiL advuiu;L-, iiur, indeed, that 
there b al the pre»?"ut morDtnt any advuutu at uU. That ia to 
Bfty, it la nut true that mcrchunta will give tiudi iiu advuiiecr, or 
any advunt^i*. for rjtcmr^ in I'lngLanti, beyond what Ibty woidd give 
for the namr amount, in thr- Hnm^ rurn'n<'yt hcnr. It will iitrik^- 
evtry ORL* who rcMiTts upon it, that, if thf rr wptt? a nml diflrr- 
enec of bcvin and a liulf pi-r cent, money would be inuuediatciy 
«hipp«<t to Kaglind; because ino cipcnsc of trandportatioa 
v'ould be fiir Icm than that dilfirreuee. Or commoditje'8 of tmde 



would bo tltipp^d to Bcirop^, and t1]<^ proofs ntruttnl to Ev^ 
hndi If it ooidd 00 happen, thnt Air<-ncnii mf-rvhantA eUould 
be wiUing to pay xen p^r opnt- prpmitim fiir moni*y in Kn^und, 
ctf In otbCT wDrdft, thai a ivhI difT^rpiicp lo ttttt smotim in the 
exchatigf- i^hould i'xUt, ila FtTeirfji wuuld be imitTMlinlrty icrrn in 
new ntiipmiMiU of our own commodiCktt to Europe, brcDii«c tkia 
Atttt^ of ihiiijpi wottld cTieftt^ oc^ rootiTe?. A cutgo of tobacco, 
for vxatnplp, might welt ftt Anii»T«fdftm for the «iftm<? price as b^ 
foro; bm if :t» procc»c!H> wh«fn remitted to London, were ad- 
v&iced, H* ihf'y woTild hn in «iirh rnnr, 1«^n pp? r^nt. hy the «t&t« 
of fxc|]!iij^> this would be to inncL addt-d U> ihi; [)ric«, and 
wuuld cjpcTjti? ih^rd'on? as a motire for thr exporUtion; and in 
thU wuy imtiooal balancua an?, and dw^ya wiU br, udjuftEcd* 

To form any ar<?\irat« id»a of tbe tru^ elat^ of excrhangu be- 
tw*sn two pouti&*e*, we must look at thrfr ^-imeiicle*, and 
(vinpiire llir* ijuntrtilkn of f^uld ami Kilvi-r wtiic^ ihvj tnay k* 
i^ecfiTcly rrprc^mt ThU ntiunlly (^xptainfi the ntntr of Ihc rx* 
chanc:''" T nnd ih:!< ^x'ill saitinf ltd only account for tlio Appnrcni 
ndvnncc row eitiftirti^ on btib drawn on Rnfflcind. The t^g^tifh 
Mandnrd of viUu<f in gold ; with uv thnt (4Ticc U pc^rfomiffd by 
gold, It nd liy rillvr nlftn, nt a 6icm1 rr-lnHon tn f>»rb ofhT, But 
our L>tiruat(^ uf frlWr? jft rather higher, hi |>ropurliuii lo K^dd, than 
moat nationa give It; it is higher, e^pcdalJy, than iii Hn^dand, at 
the proi^ent rnomcnt. The tToriBL^uence ia, that eilv^r, vrhfch re- 
naiiiri u ]e^ currency with ub, »tay» here, whde the gold hna 
jn*on^ abn^rtd ; verifying the unlvenal truth, that, if tieo ctmencJCN 
Ih" zdlovri-d r« tjiif*t, "f dilTtTvnt valiie>4, ihal whu'h is thmp-st will 
fill u\t iUr- whoitt riruulHlioti. Fnr tts rnncli gold n.^ U'ill i^TjIficTr 
to pny hm a debt of a gi'rn nmount, wr cnn buy in t^ngland 
more rtJivcT thfln would be? ncoce«ftnr to pay t.bft wanric dobt hcta; 
and from thia ditf<^ivnc^ in the valuo of hiIvpt an»i?a wholly or In 
a great mpafurc the present apparpnt diffprenre in exchange, 
Sp^fiHlt dollnrs »»"ll miw in EnKli^nd Utt fuur hIuUiii^ nnd nine 
pejtoe Btrrlintc p*^ ounce, tt]nA\ to anr. dulhir and aix ix-iitA. By 
our slflfidnrd ths same oor*^; jj* worth one dollnr and T^ixteen 
GcJ1t^, bring a dilfc-rL^tttNr of about nine per ci^nt The tmt: pm 
orexohiin^*, l!i«<n^i'oTo, in ninr per tvnt. If a mnrrfhant here pay 
one biiniTrrd Sprmisih dollnru for ^ hill nn KiLglnnd, at nomlml 
par, in «U*illng money, that in for a hill of £ 22 ]0s., the |>K^ 
se«d»cf this bill, when paid in England in the Ugal <runioiH!y, 



wfll then pnrehaee, ftt the present prioe of ulver, cnc hvuidrvil 
nnd ainv S|jiirLiBh doLJuni. Tlit.'ri<fof&T it the noniinuJ advonve 
on Etigli>h billi da nnt ^xcnnvl iiiM^ pi-r cvni., itm n>A] rxrhsuige 
in rioT n^HiMhl iUh i'Ai\uivry; in otfiir wnnlH, it <]u^» not iihow 
that lUtre ia uny |jieABing i>r psulicrulv i>ccasiuij for thc! niniu 
tancc of (uii<l» lo EiiKlitiiti- 

A0 liitlt? ooji b<.' mferTL-J from the ot-'ciiftionul tmnnfcr of United 
Stotea «tock to Kn^^lnnd. Con«itlenng tho tntmtiit pnid on our 
itorbii, rhf* rntirc inability of our rrrdit, mid thr* nmimiilniioii of 
rJipiTnl ill Kngliind, it i* nut ni nil wondrrfnl That. invi^fltmentA 
»hoLi[(l oL-cttBioimUy be rnjiic ui our fun<ln> Aa a »urt of ixiuii* 
tervailini; fad, it muy be aTal^*} that Hitf^liph atock» are now 
actmlly held in thia coianuy, though probubly ijgt to any con* 
*i<liT[ible amount 

I will now procvipd, Sir, to ^t&te aome objoctlons of a more 
tCeji^rnl iiutun?, lo the courac of Mr. Siiealrr'n iiLirTVulimi!*. 

H« i*Mrinft to nit lo zin^ue Ujp (iue-*tiun ci5 if i\\i dmiifyitic in* 
duatry wen* conftja-d to titc pn^duction of innnuriicturcd nrliclcft; 
u if the employtnc^ni of Dur uwn cn)>itnl nnd our ovs^n JaboFi in 
tha occnpation« of comm^cr and ri!*vi^iioii, w^-to not &h em- 
(ideally domPBfir industry n* ftiiy other occupation. Some 
Dtber gentlemen, in thr {--aiirse of ihe drb;ite, lifive frpoken of the 
pnce |iitid for ever}' forciKti manurut^iured ii» ^o miicrh 
given for Ihp (rncounvjfi'mctit of forciirn Inbor, to the prejudice of 
dif own. Unt i» not rvcry smch article the prodact of our own 
labor fit truly aji if we h»d marmfacturcd it ourselves? Om 
Iftbor han cnmed it^ nnd pnid the price for it It is «> much 
add^ fo ihe ^t.och of iinnon«l wrvillli. If the commoi-lity were 
doUqn*. nobody would <toubl i\»; truth of Uiia rrm^k ; nnd it 1» 
preciady ftA correct in it« application to any other commodity aa 
toniJTtT. (Me mrkn niHkt*** u yord of dolli at b*^ime; nnothi.'f 
raiHi?* itgricnUund products nnd huyn ■ yitrd of iinprjrti.*d doth. 
Both thf^i* an n|iiidly rhr i'iirning« of dimicviic industry, and 
ih*f only 'pir^Tionn Ihni nriwr in rhc ruw- anr two: th<? finst is, 
which i» ihr be»t inodf, umler ttU the circum»ianer:-», of obtajii- 
iniC tlio futiole; tbc atreond la, how (ur fM?f fust question i> 
prii|>«T to bt decided by fiOvernm»?iil, uod how far it is proper to 
be kff to incGviduid dinL-reiion. There in no foundutton for the 
dUtlneliOTi which AilfihntiBt to cff-rtAln employmentu the f pculiat 




nppt^Ilntimi of Anicfricon industry; smdHi«iUi ray judgment, ca 
trcdiHy unwi^t? to nltcmpl «i]ch diMiimuifltionii. 

We nn? ask«lf What uatioDb have ever att&uiod emloctt 
|irofiperiiy withom eiioour^iiig mannfaoixiTes ? I m^y nak, 
Vihal tttkttmi r\r.t Ti^ncUni llie likt prcwprrily wiihuut priiiiiot* 
ing fortign Tjndr? I rcgnrcj thctvc iotCTciiUi an dosrly con* 
ncctcdi nnd nm of opinioi) that it should l)c oiir aim W cauM^ 
them to floiirttih toi-eih<?T* I know it would be vory t^aay lo 
promoi« manuAtclnraa, at l^ast for & time, bat probably for a 
alioit time only, U we mlglit lurl in dhrcf^ard of other iniereHtH. 
W<* coulJ tmuAf? n .ftuildeti ijati^tfer of cnpiltd, luid n viulriit 
chniigv; in Ihc putMiitn (if tniriiH Wr cxiuUI u^KCC!cdiiigly brn<:fit 
iWfnc dnj**c* hy the--** mcnn^ But whiit> then, bccomo of tii« 
iiitcro?t« of o1l;ere ? The powfr of cc!lcc!ing ravcnuo hy datkl 
oa importe, Qtn6 ihf* hnbii of the* government of collecting ulmoflC 
It9 whole revenue in that mode, vrll! eni^He us, without esiceed- 
Jiifj tlje liouiidn of itiudeniti<iit, ta fi^^^ (^retit mlvmitiiffrs lo thmr 
clnwH::! uf mjinufiu Utrr^ which v^tt may tbiak icui^t (i.-<t-ful lo pro- 
waoic nt home, Whnt 1 objcc^l to i:* the immoderate qi<c- of the 
powrr, — «xdu9ionfi nnti prohibilionA; oil of which. a> I think, 
not only mtcm^pt th<' piirfiuiiv of iniHvidiiaU, wilh fu^ut injury 
to ihrmwlvpft nnt\ tiule or no b**nefit to thp coiidtry, hut alfto 
ofli'ri <iivert our own labor, or, as It tD&y very prO|)vrly bit called, 
our o\^ a domestic iiiduttlry. from thoite oceupatioiift in whit'h it 
id wol) crnployt'd ntid wdi paid, to othL-ni ni which it wiU be 
wonte riiiplijyt-d and womi* puid. For my pnrt, 1 mc very little 
relii'f to UitMW who ore lik«*ly to be di^prived of thL^r employ- 
m<']it7^^ or who find th*' pric*'« of the comiiuKliLiiM which they 
need, nii«ed, in any of the alternatives which [Vtr. d)>4*-«kirT has 
prc«i.iUcd It. is nothing to «dy that thty may, if tbey cJiooACi 
contliLtio to buy the foreign ariidt.'; the answer i», tho price b 
DUf-menlcdi nor that they may UEie the doinevtio ailide; the 
prict* of thrit ftl*o i* iTKTe:i«M. Nor can they «upply themneiv** 
hy the suJwtimiion of fJidr n^xn fnliHr. How can the u^ritfiil* 
turint make his own Iron? How can the ship-uwuer grow hi* 
own hemp? 

iJul I have a yet stronfiwr objection to the coiltm? of Mr. 
Bprnket^A miuonirif; ; whieh its, that he leaves out of the oara all 
thnt hii* ht!c-n alnndy donr for the protvetioii of rianufac1ore«t 
and nr^iep the quf^nliou as if thote int^R^vltf wi-re now fur the 



Orst lime to rcoeivo olJ frvtn ilutit^d on iinporlo. I ctku htinUy 
tixpioM the fcurpHMf I fed Ihat Mr S|3oukvr »Liould fnll inU> th« 
common modr rf rxprmiion lur^d djurwlit'rc-, and fiKk i( Wp> will 
uivi^ u^tr i)i>iriiif^urt'iiriT:4 mi {>Ti>lE*i'!ti(i[u Hir, Lifik in llir hUUiry 
of our Itiw^i k>ok to tlic pr»ciJt statu of our Jaw«. Coniider 
tJmt our wiiolt; rcv^^nac, with a trtttin^ exception, is (^oLIccI^hJ 
ftt UiL- cuAtom-houtse, and ulwitya hue bt-cn; aiiU thi<Q hu^ whut 
propriety tlitrro i» in c-utUng on tht^ Kovuriim<tfit for protvotion, Ai 
if no prolrctton hmi WreUifuri' li'to nfRirdt^cL Tlip rt'ivl qut'dtinri 
bffom Uis in rrganl U> aW llir impiirLiiiil cIuum^ii of itir bill, it 
i)Qt wbether wc will iay dutlct^ but wbcthri wc wiU avgmetU 
datice. The dcmatKl i^ for uomctlimg more thaEi «xii«t^i and 
ysX it ia prL-b»cd aa if ncihiiif^ cKiAtcd. it id wholly for^ttCEii 
that iron und bvmp, for exmuplt', already pay a very bct^vy and 
burden laoini- daty ; and, in ^bon, from i\\v gi-ni?r^ t4.*ncjr of Mr 
S|v*qkrr'H obArrv»t]iiii&, oni^ winiUl inirr (bnt, hilhiMici, wf hud 
mUitr laxi^ (lur owu rnatiafauturf;^ ihaii fo^Ecrrd thtrLii Ly tuit-a 
on tliOHp ol' oLlirr oouiitricAp Wc J^car of i\\c fatal poLky of tlie 
lanfl oi ISlC ; and yet ibo law of 181^ wa* pa«ved avowedly for 
tJiv bi^ncfit of MiiuiufatrluTLTB, and, wiili very few yxtvpiionsp iin- 
(loiii'd on tmporU'd arlic^lei VL-ry gnrat aJdilion* of lux ; in #ome 
Imjiorrani LnfUanrrn, indpjni, uiminDting to » prohlbiT.inn. 

Sir, on tin* wibjcut, it Ixicumt* \i> «t IrnM tt> nniK-[>fiknd t1i( 
teai |fO0turc of the (juc«tioni Lrt us not snppoaf^ tlkdt wc rut 
btf^nniitff Ibo prokxiioji of manufaoturoBt by dulioH nn unportd 
What we are a«ked to do ia, tu r**nd<rr tlioae duiivH iinii:^b hi^-tiori 
Had (herefOTd, In^teftd uf dealing in goneral coniniejidatiouct isi 
iJm bt^nvfitfl of pnrteutioo, llit* frirnds of Uie bill, I think, tm 
bound lo nvAr. out a fair cuac- fur curli of tb^ mannfiii^turrn 
which Ihty propoctc to bt^rcJiU The govrrnmrnt hn-i alfi'ady 
dono mudi for ibcir protJ^ctiotii oitd it ought to bo prc»(umcd to 
baTv don« fnoii|jh» unit-** it bo *hown, by ihv fact"* and roiwider- 
aUou>^ applk-able to fjcbfthat th4<r<- ir^a ni.^t'es-iiiy forduin^ inore- 

On the gi.'iii>ra] <|fiefilj<iik, Sir, allow irit to ask if llw doGtrlfi«' 
of pn»hibitiori, as a icrncrd d^H^irinc* br nof. prc[m»tfmus. Sup- 
pum.< all nutionEf to ncl upon U; thi-y wonld br prortpt-runrt, Ihcn, 
uoconjing to the arKumrnt, prcoiticly in tlic proportion in which 
Ihi^y nbollwhtfd bilrrc^onrfo wiT.h one auotlurr. Tbt* I^m of mu- 
tnat i^mmrrvv ibi" hi^TUrr, upon line hyiHuhmifi. IVoiri'ik*n and 
trutiofa^rnirnt may b^* and doubtlt^M are, Hona-iiin'-H. ifk^iM' and 



ben^lidii?, if kppt within proper Umiu; but v^ht^n cnrnVH to an 
extravii^irit Tjfij^lii, or \he point of prah[l>ilEoti^ifa^ ubtinitl cha^ 
ttctm' <>r tilt? !iy:it«fn inantftfotn ]tat!ir. Mr. B|>rakrT has n^ff-rrcd fti 
the laic Rm)x-ror Nopoleon, &» hnving nttrmptrd 1o nato-Mltxc 
the mnnul'nchirt^ of cx>tton in Fnincc. Ik tM not die a more 
«3Ctravii|fant pjirt of lli<? pn>jccl4 cf ttat niK-r, that is, hU ultcmpt 
to naturnlixi* thi' growth of thnt plant itnHf, in Fmnce; i*-h(*r<-a*, 
wc have umleiNlixnl ilifti fonrtid^rable Jij*fncT*- fn ih? South of 
Pranue, and In Itnlj, of rifh anil jirodmrlUe taiLdfi, vcTV at one 
time wilhdmwn from profitable uaeH, and dtvoitd to raL^Inf^^ at 
grmt (*xponaLS u litlitt bod tottim* Nor havo wc boen refCTicd to 
the Dttc^mptA, untier the tnmn ayntem, to moke nugiir and coHve 
from cornmon nilinnry vrgHabli**; fltlc-mptii which si*rvi*tl to 
lill lli^ priTi1-»iliop» of Eiiro|)r, oiitl to show us how vn^y in the 
tnnniLion fmrn what some Uiink aublime to that whkb all ad- 
mit TO be ridicitloui^ The folly of HoniP of tUeae projt'cta bus 
LOt been ffiirpiiniiird, nor honlly rqmiUf^d, unlevft it bn l>y the phi- 
losopher in onv- of ihi^ liatirrH of Swift, who «o Long labored to 
extmct sunbeams from cucumbers. 

The poverty ard unhappineA« of Spain have l)een attributed 
tn the wiint (if pnrlef^liuii to ber own hiduft-ry. If l>y tbi* it 
be meant that the poverty of Spain in owing to bad govrmment 
«ttd bnd law?, the rt^mnrlt h^ in a grrat measure', jtivf. Hut thrite 
very laws nre bftd bi'cauE^ they nre rcstrirtive, pnrhnj, and pro- 
hibitory, if prohibition were protection, Spain wowld eevin to 
have had pnongh of it- Nothing mn exerfxl the bnrhnTOUa ri- 
gidity of her colotiial pytlem, or the folly of her tinily L-orumertrial 
n^uktiuna. Unrnli^'btened ;ind bigoted le^ialaiitm, ihc multi* 
lude of holidiivA, miBcrnbk* rcmdci^ monopolies on thp pirt of gov- 
errmrntj rtwirit^tivt* law*, Th«t ou^ht lonjj »inoe to have born ab- 
rogated, nre gonr-r4]iy, tnd f bi'Iioi^t' truly, reckoned th(? principal 
cfiin"'« of the hfld i^tnti^oflhr proilnetive indnjitry of Spain. Any 
partial inipro^rr-ment in her eondition, or inereaj*e of her prosprr- 
ity* has b^'ii, in all ea»e»i the rc^nlt of relaxation, And the abolfi- 
tJoo of what wap intended for favor and proti^ction. 

In Ahort, Sir^ the general sense of thiti &^ i^xs^ with a etroi^ig 
cnrrent-i In favor of freedom of eommereial intercourHe, atHl UO" 
renirainrrd individual aetioiL Men yield up their ncitioiiM of 
immofuily and mlric^tion, nis Ibt-y yiekl up olhrr preJTidieefl, 
slowly nnd rcluctaittly ; but Ihcy cannot wiih»t4iLKi ihc ge ueral 
tide of opinion. 



LpI trti^ now nitk, E^r, wlint, rrlii*f ihif hill prnpiuiw U> Hum<t 
of thofte gmat s[iiJ r«M^iitiul intc-(r«t« of th<- coiiiilry, Iho rjincli* 
fJon of which has been rcfcncd to us proof of xLatioiial dintrc^e; 
diid which condition, althoni^b I do not think it makc« out a 
oaw of dutrsn, yol doew iiidicatt' di^prdAMton. 

And i\n:-y Sit, as iu our foivign tradv. Mr. Speaker hfks ittat^d 
ttmt iJif^rt huH biH'n » ci)n»jdenib|p ftilliag olT in lliv tuiuiug^ 
emplujcd in thnt tnidc. ThU Jtt trun, IstmritljiLjly time* tn luy 
npmioH, it ta onr of Ihonc occiirrrticcd which might to arrt't^t oiir 
irnmcdintc^ our d«cpf our m^^C earnest nttortion* What doofi 
this bill propo»9 for ite rotief? It propoeea nothing but nrw 
bnrd^nflv It proposes to diminish iu einpIoym«n% and it pro- 
IKHMTM, at cht* Minif t'nni\ to augintrnt it« ^xjiciim*, by ^tibj^i^tiiig 
U 10 heuvJci taxation. 8jr, there la no iiitcrcel, in rt^^urd to 
which n &1rai]fC<-r <^»e for prokction catt he iimde rmt, thuii the 
DArigitting intcK-ft W^bcUic-r vl^c look ut i1« pr««i<nt condition, 
vrhieh U udnutt^d to be depr(<ji«t<(J, the numbt-r of persona L'On* 
twfUn} with it, And df-pf'ndt-nt tiptin It fnr ItifU' daily br:.';id, or 
jl« iniportaiKu; lo iht-- cotiiilry in 11 piilitlt-^l point of vifw, it 
baa cl^m» upon our attention which carmoL be burpoAseJ. But 
whnt do wc propooc to do lot it? I rtpeiit, Sir, *irupl)f to bli^ 
den ciiid to tax il- By a t^ln1caii.'iit whieh I b^ivo atrt'ady Aub- 
mttted to the eommillee^ it &ppt-a» that Uie fchippin^,' tnt^re«l 
payft, oJiTiijidiyT ""orr ch:in htdf a riilKoti of dolhtre in duties 011 
orLiiJcia uwd in the t^n6iT\iciion of s^hipn. Wf propose to udJ 
ncurly, or quit*^, fifty ptr cent to thi» amount, ni the v^ty ino- 
rnurit that wv appeal to the ImiguUhmg etidi- ol thi& intcrcat 
a# a |)ruof of nciuunal dietrea^ Let it be rf-tiK^mbered that oiv 
shipping imiploycd in forrlgn commrrc^? hriK^ »t thi^ ngmf^tt. 
not tilt- «luu]ow of govorninent proleclion. It go<-« abroad upon 
the wide sL-a to make Its own way, ajid earn iTa own brL-ad, in 
a profcsAdd competition with the whole world. Ita n:-aourcc« ^u^ 
ita own fn^fthty, its own skill, it^ own i^nit^rpnbe. It hopes to 
sutx^f^i if it shall encoded at all, not by extjaordinary aid of 
^vunmenr, but by pafienrr^^ vi^ibi;ic^, mid lull Tliin ri^lit iinn 
of llie UTitionS safety -slri-ngthf-ns iU ijwn inn:*njc by it?i own 
eflbrtft, tind by unwciirjetl exertion in iti own defence bccomi^ 
«tfODg for the def«?neo of the ennntry. 

No on« acquulnu'd wiili thia interest can deny that itn xitua- 
Ijon, at Ihii tnornent, Jia (^xTxcnii'ly critical Wn have left il 

voi^ 111. 13 



hitherto to rmuntoin tUeK or p^rrinh; 1o awim if it carii unci to 
jimk IT It mtul. Dut ut Uiiv momiTnt of it« apparent ritruggic, 
can w(^ M mrn, cnn wr &« pntnoUt ft(i<! nnc^thrr ^loiir- to the 
wrigtit ihnt thmifrnn to mrry it down? Sir, ih'^fr i» a limit to 
hmujtii poutrr, mid to liuttiun eJfurL T limw titc ctiriiiitrTria] 
raarinc of this country c^n d<i ulmDat errry thing, tuid bear 
ainoet cvrry thing. Yet M>itiv ihin^ ht^ impcj^siblc to bti donc^ 
und «omc burdcni fniy bo impouiblu 1c> ha borne; luid n« it 
won the lant oonee thnt broke the baolc of th« comrlt *o thff la«t 
tns, nlthongh it wpm" pvi^n n nmnll our, mfly J"* HrHaiTi? hk to ihe 
|)uwrr of our maxlue to »ufctaiii ibc i-onflii^t in wliicli il ia now 
engaged with all tfa« coinmcr<^la] aaiions on the globe. 

Agtui), Mt. Chairmrin^ tbi-* fnilun'^i und i)i<r bunkraptct^* which 
ha,vs tAk(*n pluoi? in our ior^ cities Imvt? boon m«jitio»i<d mi 
proving tht; Little vuccvu ult^fidtng commerct^f und it« geni?fal 
drctint?. But Ihi* I»it1 h^H iin biilrii for ihosr ntniiutft. It i« vrtjr 
ir-markablc, tbut wlifii tbc Iw^ir:* and di^u^trn* of cirlairi mniiu* 
factortrai tho»r of iron, for instaoLt, arc mentioned, jt ia done for 
the porptjec of iavokiii^ aid for tbe diBlruaaed. Not ao with lh« 
iosBOtf aiid diHUstcr^ of cornmerci* ; thej^- Laat are muTiii(*iii und 
not unfrvque^ntly moch exo^cnited, to provft the ruinou* imtore 
(if the fill ploy rnf^nl, itnd to nhnw thnt it ought to br nl^andonvd 
and the r^tphjd rn^gt^d in it tumrd to olh<:r objoctn. 

It has bcrn often aaid, Sir, that our manufacturers have to 
contend, not only againat Ibc- natural advantage of thcac wt>o 
ptodu(* slmdar arlitlL's in foreign couiitrietfT but alao u^^ainat tijo 
action of fort^lgn governnw-nls, who have ^reut political interval 
In aiding thr-ir own iminufnd.urp* to vupftrvaji aut*. But have- 
not thrsir gtjvrmintnt:* n^ grrnt mi inU-n'-s^t t« frrijJjWr our mnrinr-, 
by preventing the growth of our commcroc and navigation? 
What is it that mahce uft the object of the hight.vt respect, or 
die moat 8u«picioufi jealouay, to for«i^n etat«id? What is it 
that moat enublea ua to laLt^ hii{h ri>lativi> rank among the na> 
tloiiH? I need not nay thnt ihit* re.HuliH, morv (lia'n from any 
thing elbe, from tliat quantity of military pou-er which vre can 
ttiuii3 to be water-born^-, and from that rxtcnt of commcrofi 
which we arc able to maintain througboot the vrorhL 

Mr Chflirman, I am <^oni»c]oua of having detained the coin* 
lolttee much too long with theae obu-rvatioiia. My apology for 

lUfc TARIKt' 


aovr prutv^Mliti^ Ui miuic rcrtmrVn u\iiui J.\\e |iiirlit-utiir rkiiiirt a( 
Thr bill H thut, rrprencnling a district at oiici? iM>miTii'^rciik1 und 
liighly Ennnurnrtiiring, iind htnng <3itk<J upon to Ttytc upon a bill 
containing provi^biatia ao numumuo unci so varioua, I am tiatu- 
nUy dsffirous to fitatc lu welt what I approve, as what I would 

The linii tiectJoD jirrposp^ an augnienlvd duly upon wonllt'n 
manuJacturi'B. This, if it were uiiqualitind, woukl no dniilvt be 
deftiruble to tbooe "who tin.' engagLHJ iu tli4t bui^itici.r I have 
nivdvif pruM-'nted a pi'tJtiofB Uom tlu* wuoilt-ti mnnoCnc^hirrre of 
MmMachu#et1», pmyhig un atigini:*Dted a<i tatartm dmy upon 
impoftt-'d *ti«tlL-n dolbs; jind I ura pnpiiri^l In sionrdr* r« thai 
propo^iilitmT lu n riMAtJimblc rxti'jit. Hut ihrii lW\*> bill propxHr^ 
&leOt a very high daty upon imported wooJ; and, aa W an J can 
loorn. a majority of the mnimfacturcrrn arc at JcuM evtrvniely 
dotiblltil whether, taking thv^t* two provi^ioiifi toj^vthtv, the at^to 
of tii« law Ib not heftpr Tor Ih^m now than It would be If ihli 
bill should |iaHH. Tt \^ «aid, ihii lav oji raw woul will ht*ji(-fit 
titc ngrkidtnri^i; but 1 hnuv/ it to Ut- the opltiicm iif M>inir of 
tbc beat ioiVirmr'ii of tliat cltios tbut it will d» them mor? hurt 
(ban good. Thry f^ar it wUl cli^rk tKv nmmiliictarrr, nnd con- 
•eqaantly chciek hi« dcinmad for thdr articles The nri^Ofnent ia, 
that ft cxTtnin qimnHiy of cotinur wcHd, r-hc^apPT fhnrt we oa& 
puoaibly furui»h, ii^ utrcr^f^Ary to (uikIiIc- tKr muMurti.'lun.T to eurry 
tm (he gtru^ral buaiDc^s, and thai if thU cannot bt- liad. tlje eoii> 
•rqurtnce wUi be, not a grcntcr, but n tt^^a, nianafaciuri.- of our 
own ^-ool. 1 am awara that very intollifieiU jwibous dilli-r upon 
thia |Kjiot; btil Si we may safoly infer from that dilFi-a'nijt' of 
opinion, thai Xhv prtiptK^d bem-'fit la ai Iwiht doiihffui^ ii would 
tie prudent pi^dinj}» \a abvtmri fruiu the rxjit'ThnrnL Certain 
it la, that the aamr reasoning hii# been employed, a« I ha^o 
before slated, on the erimo ftid^jrct, wh**n n renewed apjilkulion 
wru<i luiide to tl^e Kn^lJHli Parliament to repeal vht* duty on Im- 
pArtrd wool, 1 believe scarcely two months ago ; thow who Aup- 
poM''<l the nppllfmtion prewiiiii; nri^r*iil]y llie nriv^^ily vf mi unre- 
atrk'lHl n^i? of tliii rhfup, iinportrd ruw zit'iirrinl, v^itli » view to 
pnppty with coiuvf! clothe the market* of warm olhimles, aucb 
as those of Kgypt sird Turkey, jimi r:*pi'(*iaUy a vaat ocwiy wo- 
ated demand in the 8oiJlh Ainerle-an stntea. 

A« 1c ttie inaunfaeEurea of cotton, It ia agreed. 1 believe, thai 




Ihey arp ^n^mUy stJrrfMfnl. It ik miflirntooil that the prppipm 
esi<k^in^ (iiity ifiiTBTj-* prrltjf much aw a prtitiibirtoii ovjlt thone 
(femnipUojiA of fabiic» to wfaicli It a|>pll«». T\k proj>uaed alleni* 
tjon would probably enable the AmcrJcuu manufacturer to com- 
nrnace <tompt!iiiion with hiKhL't^priccd ftLbrjcn; arid eo, perhitp«, 
would ui auf^rnv Illation Wtt than U hi'iv propcMi^d. I convidi-r 
the csotton munufariureH uoi only lo hnvp n-nch^d, bnt 1o liMvr- 
pasBrd, th<i p*tiiil of (^duiprliliiin. 1 n^gnrd ihcJr ^urw'** a» orr- 
tatn, and tlicir growth u rapiti a» the mo»t impatient euuLJ well 
ncpecrt. U, however, n provjiiion of the nature of ihat recum- 
meiidvd here wete thougln neoo^eary, to commence iww opom- 
tionv in the nme Une of manofactun^, 1 Bhonld cheerfully u^^re^ 
to it, if il were n«i al Ihe ocjht of larrlfK-Jn^^ olhi-r ^f?iit interMU 
of iJir oi>untry- I nr.r\] hiirdJy ^sty^ llint whulrvrr |)ro(]K>1<^-« ilic 
oottoti and woollen rnQriufficturr? promt^tcs mo»t imporUint in- 
tero»tB of JDj oi>n«titiient^ They hove a great etuhc in the euc- 
ceea of those «»tflbliehmcnif, and, a^ fnr qh Ihaee manufucture« 
are concerned, would b*f a8 much benefited by the pruvitfionei of 
thin hill a» miy pfiH of tht cYknimumiy^ li U obvuni*, hjo, 1 
mhonlrl thriik, thiil, for Mitiie rxuiMtlernhlr limr% nmniifiu-tnnv of 
lJii» Borl, to whntrvrr magnitude rhcy may rise, will be princl*- 
pally (^tabtt^hed in tbo»c pnrtr^ of thc^ country where popul&don 
IB moflt dense, cnpitid mo»t Qbundnnt, and where the moat 6uo- 
ceAsful b(>^iniiiiig& hnve already been made, 

Bui if tht-xe lie thoii^hl. to be HdvantJi^t^i^ dury are greatly 
ccmnl^-rhiiUm'T'd by ulher ad^TuH^igt^rt i."njiJ)cd hy other |Hir1iona 
of thft country. 1 cannot but rtganl th*^ situation of ihc Wcftt 
nt highly favornble to human hitppincae. It otlcnt, in the abuO' 
danco of itn new nnd fertile hnd«, iiuoh tuwumnct-<« of pi?rmftncnt 
property sinH f^i^'ctuhility to Ihe >ndn*tTioti*, it ennWe* thetn to 
lay Huch sure foundations for a ooiopetent provision for rhelr 
fnmilieB, it inakeii SLieh a imliun of freehuldt^nt, that il need noi 
envy (hff happiest and monl prosperoua of the ni^mufaetunni; 
ccmmunirW. We may talk aa we will of well-fod and well- 
idotfied (lay-Uhurr^n or journeymen ^ they urt^ net, ufteruU,To be 
coinparedj rither for hiippJm^M or re*pe<jfnbilityj with furn who 
nln-pn utkdi?r his own nnti mu\ euiUvui«t» hi* own ItiivHimple in- 
herit ance. 

With respect to the proposed cliUy on glftAs, I would obscTre, 
that, upon the b'->^t uioano of jud^ijig wluch 1 poejwda^ 1 am of 



tipiptoD that the chairmnn of ihc committee is right in •luting 
thftt there U m cjfoc.t a boanry upon the exportation of the Bnt* 
irth flrticlc, I f hink it entirclir prop*^, ThcTefor«i ^ '^^^ ^"' ^^'^ 
duly by eiich aa Rfnaunt &« (ihnll tx^ ix^oivftJoait to thiLt bonut.y. 

And here, Mr. ChMrrran, befrtfp procrecling to lliosp pan* of 
tht bill t(i u'lik'h I iijiipI hfrc'iiuoii»ly objVut, T will be 8U prr- 
nufiLpiumja an tu tako up a thalleiigu which Mr- Sptakifr ha* 
thrown down. U'i hLi^i uskeU us. in a tone of mt^ito^atory in- 
dicolivf! of the iW-Iiii^ of uiitjcipuftH] trianaph, to itit^nfion any 
country Iti which nmui-iftictiirt-s hiivt* Flcjuri^hc^d wiiliout the aid 
of ptohibiidiy law*. He htm clt'itinndr-d if it bet nut iKJlioy, inv* 
U-ctioji, vLj^ and prohihitian, that hnvr rjinied otlif^ staled to the 
height of ihfir prowprrity, nnd whether any one hn< succeeded 
vrilh »ueh tame and incn kgjp.loticin sis oitn, Hif, [ am ready 
to answer this Inquiry. 

There h a country, not undistiTigiiwhefl nmong the natlonft, in 
whteh the priiifTe» of luuiiufaetureH Uiia been Tir niort! rapid 
than in tuiy other, and yet unaided by pioliibitiniLB or unnatural 
rcEilrictionj. That country, the Imppieat whicb the »un »hine4 
on, ill Qur c^-n. 

The woollrn manufnemr^fi; of England huvc! r<x»tei] from the 
rarly ^gp"* of Ihf monnivhy, l*riivisi(fn« drvignrd to aid and 
foMer tliem an.' in the blnek-letUir Malnii-}* of the KdwMrda mid 
the Henrys. Oiir*. on the cvnfrary. are but of yesterday; and 
yotf with no more than iUv proteetiou of eiiBtinj;; Lawa, they are 
ftlready at the pojiii of eloae and promtMin^ com petition. Sir, 
notrdng U more lUiphUo^ophieal than to refer u*i on these Hub- 
jeetHi to the potii^y adupttn] by other jmtious in a very different 
Htiit« of MMTicty, tir to infrr ttint what w^n jud^t^d expedient by 
thenit in llicir enrly hifltorj-, must ulwj be exp-dii^nt for u.^, in thi* 
early pnrt of our own- Tfua would be reckoning our age chron* 
olofrically, and efitimatin^ our advance by our numbrr of years; 
when, in tniih, we vhoidd re^ri) only the ntnfe of noetfly, the 
hnowled^, Ihu «ki1], the capital, and tlir eaterpriM' which beloajf 
to our tijoc4. \Vl- have been trati^fcrred frum the stock of Eu 
rope, in a comparatively chlij^blcm-d a^o, and our oivtlixation 
and Improvement date as far bach as her own. Her ori^^naJ 
hUtiiry is idso uur original hUfory ; und if, siuf-i^ tht moment of 
mrpamlinn, sIif has giini-- ahead iif us in >omi< n^iipr^js, it mny 
be «iiid. Without vkduling inilli, thnt we have kept np in othnni 




mnAt m othen a^Tun. t^t^ hcftd oitndT«!L Wc mr to [«<^i^b1»•, 
th4:n, wjih fTgrnrd to th« present actool «lftte of »ocKiy ; ami ow 
own rxpi^coce vhowt ia», that, oomnMfncinff iDaaufactiuoe at tlir 
pTAMiit highly ofiligbtttfKd and cmoloui monent, we fMr«d nof 
moft to the domftj hi-t|n with whkrb, la Im aartptcloos Unm, 
^OTifniirj^jiU have eou|:ht to enable Uk ui^'uuil^ and 'uiduntry 
of tbcij pcojije to hobble alon@. 

Tbe Eiifflub cotton inunuTacturca be^pui about tbc* oocq- 
trcnccmccit cf lite la^t rvi^iu Oni* can baidly he tfiud to bare 
comm^ncM! with any rttrn«»Uii'«Sf laotil Iba applimllon of th^ 
powPT-lwitn, in 1^14, nnt mnn- ihnn Irn yram ngii. Nnw, Sbr, I 
hardly n««l agnin *]>rak of it* pragn^Mi ii« pn^'i^nt riitriiT, or ll> 
aMuranc^ of future ^^nbir^mfrnt- In w>inc suria of fabrics ive 
arc ulrvady fTxporl«ni, and tbf* products of our £acfi>rBe« arv, at ihia 
mon^vnt, in the South Arrcriccui marki>1«^ Wa ne^^ then, what 
roff bt* done wtiboui prohtbltlon or extraordinary proieetioa, be- 
ntniiii wi- !(«■ whnt Attt been cliinc: und { rcnturtT 1o pmdict, 
(hntj in n frw yFmr>Y it will be Ibmi^ht wnifdrrful Th'it llti'^c 
branchca of mniiufnttaK*, at Icuiift, vhoidd bare been thought to 
rcqnin: additional aid fiom govrrnmcnt. 

Mr. ChairmAn, tbe Wrt apoloj^ for laws of piohlbttion uid 
tftwii of monopoly wll be found hi tiial atala of society, not only 
iinrrtlightfned hut fllug^ali. In whtcb Lb<^ arv moat K^nrrally 
eatabllKhpch Privalt? industry, in iJitKw- ilciy^ n-iiuirri] sumi^ 
provocative*} which govenimpuls wcrr wriing to ndmiwlci l^ 
these mcnniw Bomcthing wn^ wnntrd to actuate nnd ■ttmnlatc 
roeng and tha proi^pt'otK nf nn<!h prnfitn tit wmtid, in cmr timoi, 
excite anhOQndM rompftillon^ would hnrdly movr the jiloth of 
formrr aged. Tu aothc in»tance8, no doubt, lhe»e lawa pr(Mlu<*e«] 
iir rffrirt, wliirh, In llirtl fnfrlody would nor hatvc l^iheti ^jlart- 
without them. But our ngc ifl of a wholly dirtcTcnt charactcfi 
and iU lobulation taki*M another turn, tjocicty i« fall of cxoitv 
meat; compf^tJtion t^omt?!! in placi> of niotiopoEy; nnd intplli- 
genee and induslry mik only for fnir pby »nd itii 4]pr<n HckL 
ProHta, indred, in »ncb a statr of things, will l>r :<mnll, hnl they 
will be cAlcasivcly diffused ; price* will be low» and Ihrr grcal 
body of the people |)r<>»porrtUB and happy^ It i* worthy of tc- 
mrirk, that, from tlie operation of these eamieii, conimerojul 
we:itth, while it is inort^aftcd beyond oalouUtion in its ^ni^ral 
aggngate. is, at ttie annie Lini*;, broken &ud iliaihiif^hed in Its 



KilidiHsioiu, Commirrinl pmi|y-riry «hoiiM Kp jiidgrd "f, tliirnv 
fOTK, rather Trom tl>e rxirnc i^f IrtuJi', f hBn from ihi* inngnitiuJr of 
itft upinn-nt protlta. \i hu Seen rL-muikrd. tUaX Spaing ocrtaiii- 
\y out of Iht: pix^resf tiatJou»» EriaUt; vtry great [jrotitA on the 
nmoniit of her tmd*?; but with litUc otbcT b«iit-1jt iimo tJie en- 
h<^hiii^ of 1 IVw iiidividimU und tamprmic*. Profits to the 
KngUili mcrt^hnnU <!ng;igcd in l)ir Iji^VLint nnd Turkey tnide 
wiTc forrurrly v»t^ grrali wnd Ihcfr were ricbpr mcm^tiuntH in 
EoghuKt somi2 ctMiturics Ago. c-on^^itkrLiig the oomporativc? v&luc 
.of money, than &t the i>r<^<-at highJy commo-rcia] period. When 
the JinainiitJoD of profiTB arir^b from ihv extent of oompetiiiuii, 

The UUi- rutirw- thru, Sir, for u?* u> [Jiirsui-, in, in my uplricm, 
let con:(iilf-r vliat our nitimtiiin i>; what our laraiia iuk; nnd 
how they cwi hr best npipliod. Whnl ikmoiJitt of populiTion 
kiave we in r^ompuriiKin with our esttcnt of »oii, whnt omounl of 
capital, ftnd labor at what prioo ? As to tJiiU, knov/ladgo, and 
^atPrpriiter we may ^nfely t«ke it for grants thnt in tbo«i? par- 
tleulurv we arv on iin ti^Uidity ^'Ir.h ullierv. Kce|iiiig [li^st* eon- 
«iclf-r*Ltioii» it] vjpw, allow me to pxamliie two ur ififce of tboM! 
provi^ioiin of th(^ bill to whidi I ferl the alrongent objcctionsb 

To begin wifh the urlidc of iron. Our wholt; anmini con* 
liumption of rhiji nrtidc U vuppoAcd by the chuitmiin of tlic c^om- 
mlttee to be forty-eight or fifty thouKnnd t^inn. Ia*x u« mippow 
the latter The ainoum of oor owd iimiiuftirlijri' h<* t-^ttnmka, 
! thtiikf nt awvuit^tt ilmixhUMil ioiia. Tht^ prvat'iit duly uu iht! 
iinporled article in J 15 |>cr toji, mid as iWifi duty t»m*ir*, of 
L'oijT^n?, tin cqoivak-dt uu^tiK'titutton of the- pno(? of the homo 
mnnufnctiire, thf* whole in^iv^iip of prien t» i^ucd to $7^0,0(10 
nitntially. Thi^ tijun wi> p^ty on n row mntrn;il, iind on mi ab- 
■ohiTp nefvMary of life. The hil) pM[if<wK to miJ^e the d»rty fmni 
$ 1-5 io 9 22^ per Ion, which \^oijld bi- eijiiul To f L,I2-^JX10 ou 
the whole aiirmal toiisumptiom So thnt, »uppo»e the puiutof 

■ *' The fnfewnt pqunfilr dilT\iiion of moAvnt^ vpaIiH (bunoi tM botier iWap- 
inted, itvui by fHUHrhm^ lIihi t\i ihn 4fi< ntmiy |iHL:<fi^ nii<t nuji^rl} jiiui»iwii 
tiaTft hma pLiLlail d»An, rir riinvrru'il lo irlln-r jMir|Hiiu-H. vihiit iion^ havn hrun 
erocKil on a bkfl Kale. I^Lu? numlK^rles tnruilLitl cuilcs ^iiiil umntiuiiii, jn all 
psruvT Bijultiict, now in ruir». nuy all hv AiliJueed u T^i.irtiiiff* of iW il-^ini^w* 
(tf iriurifiimin h^fihli <>ii llir nOii^ litnd. liii< ttiuhj|itri'4ilmji ui L^umniuiJ iuijp 
(IvflUln^* for llic U|?pvr ami auJiUt i^liraaoi uf wicrotv, btiil ih<? incicAMit cmnfoiu 
vf *M <K»ka. TiJiihi ti victun^ufiiidiviiJuaL lia|>piDiUt uukiiu«n in Miy allMrtad.' 
— &r V, Biantt tMfrr la Imt^ S^pctu^^ in 16(10. 




jiroliibition wUicli im iiiineJ ai by mmn' ^riilU-mm 1<t l>r fitininf<(l, 

every >rar to the producm of it, over and above the price ut 
which tUcy cotald supply liicniAclvce with the fc^mc artido from 
Dlhcr Hourooa- Ther? would b« no miti^tion of tbie burden, 
i<xn-pt from the pro»ppct, whatpvcr ihm might he, thai Iron 
tVQuld fft]] in vuliif, Uy dtimL-^fic competiijon, hfter iht* ii[h)>orla> 
tioa ehoulil hv prohibitive]. It wUl bt c4s>'. I Djiiik, Ui ahow thai 
i1 dumoifull; and puppo^ing fur th^ prewsiit that it nhtJl not, thr 
r«Ault wilt bt<, thnt wit chilli pay amiuuDy Ibu sum of $ 1, 1:^,000, 
coriEttuittJy nugmLnili'd^ toj>, by in<*rvnM?d (wnititriptiud of Ihc at- 
ticJE*, to mipjittrl a fmtinrgi ihat cantml support U^wif. 

It m of no ooiiM^(|neric» to thi- nrguim-tTU thai thi» sum is ex- 
pended at home; bo it would bi- if wc tuAed the pc<Jpk- to Bup- 
port any other iwdeas and lipensivu cAtabliBhriunt, to build 
another Capitol, for eoiamplet or iimor :iii umJi^cvHiiary expi'iiHt- 
of ftny ftnr1< The quoMtion »1iil id, Arv i\\v mua^y, tinte, anJ 
labor wtll hiid oin in thrasp nv**?* * Thp [itciirnt priPt- uf imu iil 
Stot^khofni, f am nMhun^] by ImpoTti-ns i:* 9 53 pi^r Uiii <iii l>if:ird, 
$-ld in tho yaid bcforu Joadin^, and piobiibly not far from $40 
ftt tho iTiinc^ Frojf^hr, ifianmnoc, &c*, may be fairly c^tivnated 
ftt ( i^t to whioti add our preM^nt duty ef $ 15 more, and ihciM 
two ]»0t euma, c^^thc^r \vifb the covt on board at Stookbolm, 
^Ivp J H3 an :h»' roKt of Swetlt-B irt>ii In our iiiarkf 1. In fat^t, It 
M Ajiid to have bc-f.'n suld VasI ycnr at $ 81-50 Ici ^ ttS p47r toji, 
Wc p«rc«ive, by ibia titutement, that ^e oovt of tho Iron is 
duublud in rvuohin^ nd from the minc^ in whic!h it iv produced. 
In othi^r wonit, our |)r(^fi4.'nt duty, with the cxjicniic of trunsporttt* 
tion^ givr» Ai) itdvanT»gi; lo the AmmcnJi over the forr^igii ninn- 
ufaelnn-r of om? hundn-d per et-iit. Why, lhi>ii, eainiut ihr iron 
be iiianitfdcluicd ut bojiie? Our ore \b bUid tu bo as ^ood, and 
Aooie of it better. It ie undur our feet, and the chainuau of tbe 
oommlttuif U*Uh ua thut it might be tvrouizht by pereons who 
otht-rwiJi wdl not be employinJ. Wby, thun, in it not wrou^iil ? 
Notiiiiig r-oiiki be more sure of eoni&tant Hidf*, It i« nnt un mii- 
iVtr uf nh:inf^i!Eib]4? f^if^hiun^ but of iibttiilntr, prrmiment nf-i^jwiLy. 
luid nnth, thcri;fcire, as would aiwaj* rnivt a ;iteody demand. 
Sir, 1 think it would be wi:ll for the chain. wn of the committee 
to revise hiv premises, for 1 am pi*r»un<1ed that x\it*T<*. ih an ingre* 
JieiJt propcTJy bi^longiiig to the ealculation which he has mi«- 



rtetccl or omittcj. Swedes iron in Bn^Uml pn^rs a <ia1/, 1 
Ihink, of nbout Jt^Zpcrtoni ]r«C it la impnttrd in con^i<L<:rable 
quftfititicjL, notwith«tun<Linf; thr* vnM cnpiT»l, th^ f^xccllr^iU coiUf 
?iii<l, more importanT, than nW prrtiapfi, the lii|;hly Jmptovml »rata 
otf Inland nrtvigntinn in Rni^land; nlihoiTgh 1 nm RWan>thattbo 
Engii-nli ii?^if of SwlrJl-^ in)ii may be Uiuught to be owing in 
^nie Urj^rw- lo itn mipcfior qualily- 

Bir, the tn;e t^ptiitiAtion of thia oppcnrn to mc to Lie in tho 
diflercni priorji nf f/tbrtr; nnd hrr<* 1 nppivbrnd i» the grand 
miatalw in thi? argnmvni of th<» chairman of the committ^. Ht 
days it wtnilrl c*o?t th** natinti, aip n n»iiou, rtnihlng, to rn^Mf^ our 
(irt* into iron, %'nw, I tMiih ii wiii»ld L-ont uh pm-Wly that 
whiirh wc cun worat atford; that is, ^^'a( /oV^r, AJiliouf^-U bnr- 
iron Itf very properly din^id^i-rcd a mi'k^ mntcrial in Ktf|»col to its 
TBriociB ful-um ii»e«, yet, ns txtr-iron* the pruicipaJ inf^rudif^nt in 
ttii 4M>«t IK labor Of mn.fiua[ labor, no nation hkn morn xU:xtt a 
crilnin qiinntiiy, nnr tjiil it hi* innviiH-H nf, will. A« ti^ mmtt 
<r|>fralioniSf imln-tr itn plRcr- nitty l>r' ntippli^'d hy niuHiinrry; but 
lh«rf arc olber aerv'Kxti wbicb in^dnnery caniiul purfL^rm for it* 
and wtiicb It mu&t pfriorm for itaelf, A most important qu»- 
hon Utr t-v&ry nation^ ua well aa for evyry (ndividanl, to propose 
to i!»«If, %*, how it (jan be*i upply that ijun.ntiiy of lubor whic^h 
it IK flbk? lo }»rrform- Imbcir i* thi? pnit iircyJuorT of wrfttth ; 
ir. mnvi-^ all oiht-r raiisrji. If it rail ruiirbinrry lo Itjt aid, it i» 
Btill employed, not only in nutig the machinery, but in making 
it. Now, with rcitpL'cl to f|i<.- quantity of labor, aa wc; all know, 
<litf«ivnt natioita are dilTerently eirenn:t»1anced. Somo n«ed, 
more than any Mnf{^ work for hands, oihen* n-c|Tilrtf tmndti for 
wcirii; and if we our*i-lvi^s nw not ubHjtiirHy in tht^ hilu-i Hrt**, 
WB nrc »ti|l mo^l fortunatrly vrry iiftni \L T canzid lind th;it wr 
have tliOHt; idio bhnda, of which thr chairman of the committee 
^)e;ikft. The price of Inbor l« a conelnaivc and unfxn^wcrable 
refumtion of that idea ; it i» knowik t<j be hifiher with ue than in 
any oi her civiJijsed ataf e, and thin b Ihe Rrealeat of all proofi of 
gphf^ril ti:ippiiiiX'4^4 fialKir bi t1ii-i euiiiirry irt iTide|H*ndf lit and 
prond, h il!l^ not I'l Link ihit |>rilioii^k|(^r nf i^itpilul but rjipitjil 
pu1idt« the aid of labor. Thi* is* tbr genrrnl inith in regard to 
Ihf condition of onr whole population althoni^h in (he large 
dtiea tb'^TG arc doubtles* many exccpiion^H Thi.- more cnpacity 
Vi tuhoi In common a^enhural eiiiploymentJtj ff^M to oiai 



youR^ mm ihr afwimnn^ i>f iiidcptDdc^cr. Wc have hc^t 
ukccL t?if, by tbe cboirnian of the committcci in a tone of Mime 
pathots wliLjthcf we wiU allow to the serfs of BoMta aji<l Swe- 
den tfac bvii(>fit of makiil^ iaron for tia. Let me inform th« K^if 
fJemaiiT Sir, tliat tho»e eame serfit do not earn mow tbaii st»viMi 
oentti jt dji^'i mid tluil ttiejr v^'urk in tlicee rutiii^it fur Uiut c<)ta|M!a* 
■atlon bccaunr thi^^jr arc M<rf^. Anil let mv ink tbr jj^ciillrinmn 
IWtbcr, whelbcr ve hnvc Goy Inbcir in lliin counTry thot csLnnot 
be better employed Uioii in o bu»incvii whicb doce not yield the 
laboTpr tnorv Iban seven eenls a dny 7 This, it appean to me, 
ia Uie Lnie ijui^^titjn for our eoiksideriiioo. Thtre U iiu r«&*on 
for buying Uuit we will work iron bee:tii>>f we hixve IV^JiiiuinM 
tJntt ei>n1«iin t.iir tin\ Wr iiii^lil (vx tlit? aiiiiic rr(L1^LJn di^ iiUKtiix 
OUT TOi^i for ihc venttrrctl grniii* of gold nnd sijver wbieh mighl 
be found thcrCi The true inquiry i^s Cnn we prodiioe the ihrticlc 
in a useful etalo at 1b« enmi* cq#A, ct nearly at the sanie ooal, or 
flC'any r^a^oiEaMi.' approximation towards Uie*amee>o«t,at wbich 
v/c ean itiijKjrL il? 

Surni^ gi?iLt--nil rAtirnntrs of the prici? amJ profile of iiibtiT» in 
those Goontfie-s fro:n which wc trnport our ixon, might be formed 
ty comparing the reputed prxxJuds oi diliercnt mi»e»i and ilivif 
ttitj^ Willi the numbor of hands employed. The min*-* of 
DuK^moTu urc >eiid To yield about 4,000 lon^t >t^id to iMn)?loy in 
thr niim^K twrlvc huiidml wofknu-ir Sujipuse ihii t*) hi' worth 
^ F% per um; any nMe will fiEui by rnnipu lit Lion, Ihfit thi' whole 
pruduL-L would not pay. in 1hi« eoimtry, for one qtjait4rr part of 
the hccetoary labor. The whole export of Si^edcn waa eati- 
mated, a few yearv it^^. ut 400,000 Ahip pounds, or about 64,000 
ton*. Ctntipuritig thin pruduot wilh the; numbar of workmen 
OHiially soppniM'ti to bp rrn|>hnT<l in the mine* whirh pK>diiee 
iron for r^ponaiinii, the re*iiil %vill rot gfi'ruiy <IU1i*r from the 
foreKoir>K- Th«ae ettdmabie an? ^i-nerut, and iiui-ht nut <x7iulnci 
u:" 111 II prtrcise result; hut we know, from itiiellii^nt tmvrlh^r*. 
wid rytwitnefWE*, Ihiit the f>ricr of kbor in llje SSwL-di-ih niinc« 
does not cxeoati ncvcn eentu a day.* 

* 1^ha prLop of l-i^mr in Hvmi mnv he prtUjr well (S^1lnT(?d frpni Tcialioli 
'• Vti^w nf ill-* Buwan Frn;iifr " ^'I'Iju ^Tirknifii in ihp mm™ &iid iJit* tb\iB' 
4vinA uri;. iiidm'd. nil ulM mHKli'i^|kni|i|Q; iia\ the)' ^lattncuirii vlicnuiJtea iiiw 
i(i<Mcrs, uiii^or'ri>'L*icf«, i|jprmiKo, ddvcr*. ^natii*, cnrnm, tfi«lii-n, aiiiI 
wpnniiun. hi [irovnni>ii tn (hrjf sl-ility iliaif Aaffo* arc rj^cjuliicJ. whiuli pro 
4i«rd frun £A«ii (v u|j««fil* vt tUiiij fvubin per vnuni' 'VUo piuvibiwh vbiob 



Th^ true TV^30n, ^ir. ML'hy U is not our policy to compel out 
dtixrn« to maiiuruuturi.- aur own iron, ie, that iJioy tan far better 
employt^d. I< is un unpoducTtive b^:tiil4^A». and they are noi 
pimt enough to be obUai'd lo follow it. If wv had more of |X3v- 
cvt^, tntiTTf of tninrry, Hiid w>mrlhirig of Kervihidr^ tf wr- hiut nn 
j^fnotaDtt »dlfi «l%Livti]|' population, wc might act up for iron 
nakeiB against Uic wirrliL 

The committee wiLJ iukc notice, Mr. CliainnuQ, that( undtf 
ovu pn-stMit (Inty^ logcthor with the expLMiAc- of lnui>porliLtioii, 
our ruLtrmfurturcDi aro Btble to supply thoir own ImtnijdititG 
npighlKirliixirl ; lU^d thit^ provrvi Ihr nmt^itiuir of Ihnt mihnlaii* 
t]»l cncouni^L'itirrLf wlildi ihvt^r- two raiitM.-8 corrttr tu givtr. 
ThtTC ie little or no furvLKti iron, I prv»um«, used in the iHiuiily 
of Laacaatcr Thin io owing to ihtr bcuvy expejtae of land ciu- 
riu^o ; mid, ma we recctU^ fnrlhor from the coast, Ih*? munti factor- 
t-n UTf Hlill morr complrlrlv luimtud, oa to thdr owu immrdiato 
marki^^ ngninfit. tht? nompcliTion of ibp impnrTrd srtidr. But 
what they &hk is to li<' allowed to r4ii[>|>1y t]i*> >^(.<R-coHHt, at burh 
a price as shall lie fonntNl by nddinj^ to the cost nt ttn: itiini^ IhL' 
cxpcjiw of land cuiriiiicc to the acq; and thi£< appcam to tnc; 
tnosit U]iTt-aM)rLuhJi;. The cHi'ct oi it woiild he to compel the 
tronnuTncT to jiny th*' ro»t of lu'tt limd trun ii porta t ici lu ; for, in 
tlic ftrflt pker, the* prii'e of iron lit the inland furnaces Vp'iU al- 
ways he found lo ht- iil, or not u^urh helow, the prE::e of Lhi^ 
inipurled oiiiclc in the nctif^ort, and the copt uf Uniinpottjttfiiii tn 
the neighborhood of llif- furrmce ; and to enable the horrfe prod- 
act to hold a conipetition with the imported in the fLcnporC, Ihc 
coiit of anolhi.*T ImriKportnlion downu'onl, from t.hi; ftirnaco to 
tb«? coRsi, niURt be uddinl. Uiiii) our meanf- of inland forimGr^» 
bo improved, and llie eh^r^e^ of I^UL^po^tatiorL by tbut ineaiui 
feasenedt it appears to me wlnilly in ifirac* tillable, with audi dutten 
art any one would think of ynopaj'ins, to meet the wi^ihen of tho 
mannfAetiircr« of thr« nrticlc tfuppoec vrc were to add the 

\h¥.j mviltt frcini \,\\v riiJif?ixTnw hw clwii*pief1 iVcirn ihis \My *' Thf tshre of the 
ivuMiT 41 Umi UEiir Cl7^fft) wi ithiMit iwiTniy-rmif jw^incw Hl^rliTii;, "r fortir-fiv* 
«W(ii> iFf imr THoncy. 

*'Ry tliv edict uf IT99/' it is irfdv*}. *'ii liilior<^r with n horw* ttiiiTI rroeiTf*, 
daily, in »iimi(i>'r- lw*'MLy. Hritl in wmler. IwiTi^ rniweks; a Titrorvr i^iihvur ■ 

A C(»t>^L 19 i|j? liuuttirih pan of 1 r^tii^Iv. or about litif « tviil vt uur miinaj. 
Thr ]>rirr (^f UKn innjr h«*e rinn, in Buina iJt|;ti?t. since thai pcrii^, bm profaa* 
ki)^ noL iBiLCh. 





(lu'y pft>p<wrd hy thi* bill, ellbongh it wouliJ brncfit thf^ capHal 
invcviled in works near the wa and the navigable rivi^M, yet the 
1>t-itf fit u.'oii)f) not eittrid fur in tlit- aiiWior. WWn-, then, are 
we lu nlap, or wliiil liuiU in }mifH>w-il !«> i]«? 

Tbc freight of iron ha* hc^n aflbrtlcd from Sweden to the 
United SiaIcA as lov as eight dollfire per ton. Tliie is not iriorc 
thas the priee of fifty miies of land cairioi^ SlochholTni there- 
foro, for the purpose of thia argument, may be eonRJder^d as 
witJun fifty mile* of Pliiladt-lphia. No>y, Ei ia at onct? a ju*^ and 
n Ktrtm^ firw of tliin c^eim-, to c-oit«id(-r, that tlirn- wrt-, within fift; 
mile* of oLU market, vavt muttitudee o{ pcreons who are wiJling 
to labor in the production ct thin article for tii, at ifao rate of 
eeveu <fenta por day* while wc hnvc no labor whicli will not com- 
foand, upOD Ihe average at least five of £lx times that amomit. 
The (jut^-jiioTi i-i, iheii, *hfl!l we huy thi* arllele of these manu- 
fiictiiTriH, niid :<til)rr our own lahtir t4> rnrn itx girrtlt-r n?wanl, iir 
«ha11 vc: employ our own labor in a eimilnr mannfacturr, and 
make up to it* by a tax on consumer^ the Iosa whicli it must 
iMC«0flanly au stain. 

1 proceed, Sir, to iHq artiele of hemp* Of chm we iroporiMl 
Ia»t year, in rtnind rinniber*, 6,000 itins, puying a duty cf |30 a 
lon^ nr g I^F,{HH) im i.hf- whnl<! rnriiiniit; and thin itrlidr, it in, ta 
be rcin^nibi^nrd, is eonnumed almit^t entirr-ly in Ihe iJ^jt cf nav- 
it:atirin. The whole biudia [nay be nald lo fall on one interest 
Jt ifl Buitl wc can pri>due<.' Diis ariide if we will rai^tJ the duties. 
But why is it not produced now ? or why, at ieiwl, hairo we not 
«'i?n Home speeirneiis ? for the preJicnt i* a very high 6nty^ when 
4'Xpi<nH-i. of iniporittiitin im? iuMf*(l H«mp w*a>» pun^liam^d at 
St. Petr^urg, jnst yenr, at 9 101-^^^ per Ion* Chnrges attend* 
JLi^ shipment, icen, i 14.2-^. Frri^jht may lie btaled at $30 [>er 
Ibjif and our cjiidling duty $130 tuoiv. Thcso tiireu ladt aumSf 
beinf( the ohargCfl of transportation, amount to a protection of 
near s(!venty<6re per ernt. in favor of the tiome mnnufactnreTt 
if tht'Pe be any swch. And we ought to rnnnidrr, nlao, that 
the priee of hemp at St. PeUrrstmrg is increased by aj the ex- 
|>eime of tranJ^por lilt ion from the plut-e of growth lo that purt; 
^o tliat probably riii! whole cont of Iran e port a lion, from the pLaoc 
of growth to our miirki<t, including our duty, id equal to tho finit 
oosl of the uriirlrr; or, in other words, is a protection in favor 
of our owfi product of one huidivd per cent. 



And *moo >t ift ctmUd that wc gr^ni qusntjtjcf offing 
ftnd for the ijrodnction of hvnip, of which I htivi? no ctcuhtj tbr 
quesiion rf.'i'im. Why In it not pnidiK^ccI f I sp^ak of the w«t«T 
rotted tiemp, for it is admitted that that whidi is dt^w-rotlcd i^ 
not Mitbckiitly good for the rcquiailc purpoficA- I caTiaot«&y 
jrbutJi«r Um «iU5tf be m oiimate^ in the priJceBs of rotting, or 
what vUVi but ihtf fact la certal^i, thai ihvre in no AiniTican 
wuli*r-rutfed h^fiiip in the market. We ni* acting, then-fore, 
upon ai) iiypochcain. Is it not rcacionnbic that thoKf! who nay that 
ibcy c^ii pjoiJuct: the article ahttH at Jc&at prove the tnilh nf that 
tUcgation, before new taxed arc htid on thov^^c who iiac* the for- 
figD oojnmodily 1 Suppoaic HiU bill paivc« ; tho pric-^ of bernp 
b iminvdiaidy rainrd j U.$0 jfr ton^ 4il(I thin bntdrn fftlh im- 
mediati'-ly on thr ship-bnildrr; iinil ruj [lart of it, for iUe jmxrnlj 
will go for ihc bcnrht of Ibc AmcncaL grown, because he hafl 
none of tbc articJc that can be a»cd, nor is it expected that much 
of it T^ill b'* produced for a eontfidt*rablo tiin«. Still the tax U\ken 
MicX upon the imported article; and ihe ship-owners, to «nubla 
tile Keiiturky fanned to receive an additional ^14 on Mfi ion of 
hemp, wheiit^vrr ht: tuny bt- able to rauae and tniitiiifnrtnre it, 
pay, in thr mean time, an equal duin per ton int^ the trcuury on 
ftU the im^Hirtnci hemp whieh they arc «tili obliged to use; And 
thift ii^ colloil ^ protrctiou ! " U tbi«i jUHt or bir? A particular 
intereM in here burtlemni, not only for iJip b^n^fit of another 
partieular iiiieret^l^ but burdened al«o btryond that, for lie bene6t 
of the treasury. It is aaid to be important for Ihe cociiitry that 
this article should be raised in it; then let the oouJitry bear the 
cxpens'j, and pay the bounty. If it be for th<> Rood of Uia 
vholu, let the iiaf*ri£ee be made by the whole, and not by a part. 
[f it be thought iwefiil and neee^eary, froni pcjitieal coiisiderw- 
tioHit^ to cnronrage ihe growth nnd mnnufautnrf? of ht*mp, gov- 
enuneut has nbi.iii<UNt means of doing it It might give a 
direcx bounrvt and suoh a intrn-sare woiiki. At leant, difitributc tho 
harden cqasUy ; or, an government itm-lf i* a great eon^umer of 
this artldv, it might stipulate to eonfine i:« own purehn^s to 
the: home prodiuit, to noon u» it i^hoiild be shown to be of the 
pro^jei tjualily. 1 sec no objection to this proceeding, if it be 
tboufiht to be an object to encourage tbc productioti. It imgbt 
L-aaily. mid perliup» properly, be provided by law, that tlie ravy 
should be supplied with Arurioau hemp, thii quality being 

VOL. ML 13 



good, ftt any pric« not ^xcocding, by motv than » g\ypn nmpant, 
the cujTctit prioe of forc^ign hemp in our mvkol. Ev^^ry thing 
con«]>ir^ 1o r^'ridef •mtme huc-Ii c<iiir>ie [inrrt.'niblt> to the on'.* now 
propoat^. The eji4:i»iir£if;eiumil Ui Lhdl wAy would be utn{)|r, 
an<l, if tlic frxpt'rimrnl should ftuccrej, Ihc wli4>lt- ol^jecl wiuld 
be guiriod; and li it should Eoilf no coriiudL-rablo Ioim or evil 
Wiiuld be icit by ftny one. 

I tlntecj, tLt>mt* diiys iign, nml I vn%h to n-nruv th<* it1«1cm«nt, 
whnt xvRA thr Rniouut nf thr [irr^pohril nngnirntFttinn of Ihr 
duticc on iron ojid bcntp, in Ihc coat of n vc»#H- Take the cuw 
of n commoD Hhip of tht^r- hundred tonj>, not copp<Tedi nor cop- 
por-fn^tencd. It would stand Ihna, by the present dutieas — 

I4J touH of ivattf for hull, ng^iig, tuid luichuva, ut $ 16 
per Ion, -,.-.. 

10 tons of hcrnpt nt $ ^ 

40 bolts KtiHiiiL duck, Tit { 2, . 

20 bolls Ravens duck, at $ 15-^ , 

On arikileti uf 8hij>^i>itidler)', eabiii fijrniiure, hard- 
T^&ie, &C4 • > • ■ ■ 

The btU proposes to add, ^ 

$ 7-4C p<?r ton on iron, whii*h will bo . 
1 14.80 per ton on hemp, Piina] to 
And on diirk, hy th*' \nir nmendment of the hiU. »ay 
25 per ceilt-r ■ « • • • 






8 107.30 


Bnt to the diitirs 011 iron nrd hiMrp «hould be ftdded Lhoire 
paid nu i^oppiT, whi'^i-vi^ ihiit. nrtw-Jr is um-iI. Hy ihr. ntntfs 
(nent whir.h 1 fiirni:*hpd thr oihr^r t\ity, it. flpprnKHl ihnt Ihc dnlic» 
received by government on ftrticlc* used in ihc; eon?mietion of 
ft vessel of throe hundred nnd tifty-nino ton», with copprr fa«te«' 
ings, smounted to J^^^^^- Wlih the augmentations of thl» 
bill, ihey would )t^ vi\\vil 10 1 1^^100. 

Now 1 caiinut linl Hailter inywlf, Mr. Cbujnrkan, thbl, befarv 
tht* cornrniUte will consifnt to Ihi? n*?w hurdfn upon the nhip- 
ping iiiterL'at, it will vtty dehbfrritL'ly weigh the probable cori»c- 
qn^ncet- 1 would n^uin iirgt^ntly H>licjt it* utiontion to tho oon- 

-niE TARItT. 


dition of Ihftt intcrratn We ore to{<l thrit i^voniment hod pr> 
l9etP!d it^ by di^criminaTini^ dutt^ and by an exclusive right to 
ll?e eoa^rln^ intdir. But h wotklJ tvlaln ihe (xiaBlSTijf (.mile, by 
ilA own riatuiiil Htorfn. in like mniini^r. aiul wiUi inurt rtHniriLy^ 
than it ni/w rt-Tainii niiy portion uF forri^ UtLde, The dincrimi* 
natitif^ dutic^^ lut.' now uboljah^, uiid wliilo Ihcy uxixt^di thi^j 
•wvTc nothing mnrt^ thtin <?oii[]U'r\'jiiting m<:a«iirv»- not mj muclr 
desigm^l to givr our nnvigfition ^n ndvnnTngc ovi-r thni of other 
iiatjni)», lu to pnt ii upon an eqiisliiy ; and we 1kikvc,ae>:Ti.>n.1iiigly^ 
&bo[i«!i«-d oun, when tht-y have beca willing' to uLuiiBh (Jielnw 
Look to the rate of frd^tita* Were they cvtr lowiT. or eviu &o 
low 7 1 auk t;«iiUeRien who know, wlit-ttier the hiirbor of C}mrlu4< 
roo, and the river of Savannah, be not orowJtHi with Bliip* leek* 
\ng t^rnployuiMti, und finding notic ? I wimld cisk th« g<'nT]c>. 
tn^'ii froiTi Nrw OrlrunM, if Ihrir ning^nififv'fil \Tiiu<iMi|k|ii <1oea 
not cxhibil, for fitilongAi a foretst of maate ? The coudllicmt Sir^ 
ol 1b« shipping iid'^rc^t l« not that of tliost^ who ari; Jnttiefiii^ en 
high profito, or utnjfTi^lijig for mofiopuly ; but il b ihc <?ondLtion 
of men conteDt with ibv tuiiiUeai i-urniii}^ and aniiou< for ihidr 
breads T]i« fntl^lit ufeonorj hut fi^rmi-rly \ietrn tlnv-i' [H'lu?!* nifMf- 
Itngt (nmx CinttU'Sinu Ui l.ivf-r|HHil, tfi timt- iif |>f?Eier. ]f in tiow 
f kn<rw not what, or ho^v many frnctiona of a pejiny; J think, 
however it is stated at five cighrhsH The producers, then, of 
this groat staple, are able, by meuns of thia navigation, to &ond 
It, for a oeiil a pound, from theix own doora to the beat market 
in the world, 

Mr OhsLinniu^, f will imw only remind iht^. ixmumilvr llml, 
while wr nre propoMitg to add new biirdr.ns to the ((hipping in- 
Icsvsti a very diliereni line of policy is followed by our great 
oomroeToial end TOfthtime rival. Jt eeemu to be announced as 
tho M-nclment of the K^vcrniueiit of England, and unrloubiedly 
it !v ifn rvvU sentimenr, thai the first of all manufaenire^ Is the 
munnfEiLitm^ of ntiip?*. A i^^nsljuitund wnktliil Htientiuji la paid 
U) this inlfrrent* nnd very important rrgnUtionn, favorabie to it, 
hare bren adr>|)l<:d within iht Uat year, .lomo of whidh I will 
beg [i^nvc to tvii-r ti>, with tlie hopo of exeilini^ Ihi? notioe, not 
only of the commilta^ but of nil olher* whu m^y ft^el, ua I do^ a 
difWp intrrenl in lhi« KTihjrv^t. In Ihe fmt plnrr% a grneral 
ame^inenl has fnkeEi plnee in lh« re^iMer ne-tav introducing 
many new prvvJMOOfl. and, among otlicra, the following: — 




A direct moH^^a^ of ttic jjiicrci^t of a »hlp i» aDo^xd, with- 
out eubJL'ctiii^ tho irioTlgug^y to the T08pon»ibibty of an owne^r 

The pn^portiun ^f inl^reftt h*"ld by each own^r le exhibited id 
die rpgittrr, tht-rt^by facilii&ling butJi sales and mon^g^s, and 
giving II nrw vnliii< 1i> 9hi[i|]Ittg :iJTiting the mt)ni?yeij diiAiea. 

Snart-». in the ahip^ of copftJtncr:»hipp, may be rcgiatercd ah 
joint property, uid subject to Ihu vamt: mica a9 otJicr pttrtiiorship 

Shipa may be re^aivrvd in (ho nain« of tfDBtee»T for iho brui- 
«ill of joial-*loc!t oompaiilei. 

And many »thf-r rt^'EiUiiDiiK nre adopted, with tJie aviTie 
gi^nmd virw of midc-riiig tJic niodc^ of holding tbc propcrrty ma 
convenient and n?« fjivorable &s pof^^iblcn 

By another act, Hrili^h r<'^&t«.Tvd veeficle, of every deitcriptUMi, 
are allowed to er1<-r into the gi^iieml nnd thi? c^f^anting tmde in 
the Indin seaa, and mny now trade to And frorri Iiidl^, witb any 
part of thr* world, vAeirpl China, 

By a lliird, all limitniiuiia and reat^k-tiQtl^ aa to latitude and 
longitude, are removLni from Bhipa enpL;{i.'d in the Southern 
whn)cT-fishc-ry. Th»e rt^pilationof I preflurne, have not been 
made without firal obminint^ ihe conin'nt of the Eji»t [ndin 
Com|moy i SJ iriir in il fmuid, that n*a] rneoiirRgf meiit of pnt<>r- 
priflc oflciier (x»n»istis in our Juy»i in TOftr^Jniiig or buying off 
inotiopoliea and prolJbitlona, than ia impoaing oi extending 

The trade with Ireland ia turned into a free ooovting tnde\ 
light dutiest havt' been reduced, nod vnrioua other bL^nefieinl an 
rangf niriiU mtidf>, und hUH otiirn propfiiiuv]. ] might £tdd» that, 
in favor of gcnmd otiinioejvcj and ilj» i^howjrg thrir oonlidenfte 
m the priuejplc« of liberal Intercourse, tlic Biifiah ^-overnment 
bflj' perfected the warehouse cydtcm^ and authorucd a reeipro- 
city of dutiea with foreign stales, al the discretion of the IMvy 

Thi*, Sir, is the attention whieh our grrHt rivid in paying tn 
thcAe inipiirtanl 9ubjee1^, mid we inny arisurc onr»elves (linf, if 
we do not. cherieh a proper Hcnse of otir own intcrmt*, she will 
not only beat un, but wiil de«^ve to beat u»p 

Sir, I will detELin you no longer There are «orne parte of 
this bill which 1 highly npprove ; Uiere are otliere in which I 
diould aoquieitce ; hut those lo whic^ I have now hUiIthI rnv 


objecUons appear to me so destitute of all justice, eo burden* 
jome and so dangerous to that interest which has steadily en- 
riched, gallantly defended, and proadly distinguished ua, that 
nothing can prevail upon me to give it my support.* 

* Since the d^liverv of thin speech, mn irriTBl hu broughl I/indon papeii 
oHitaiainff the bjim^ of the English Chancellor of the Exchequer (Mr. RoI»d- 
son), on ihe 256 ol February ]aat« in Bubmitling lo Parliament the annual finan- 
cial etatement. Abundant confirmBtion will be tbund in that BlALemenl of ihe 
mnarkH made in the preceding apeech, u to Ihe preratling sentiment, in tho 
E^tiah govemment, on ihs ^enernl subject of prohibitory lawa, and on tbe 
«lk nunnfiioture and the vool tax panicutarly^ 


At rhe Ann Mmkxi of llio Ninefeenrh Cvngr«» a IijTI wnn tnrTixtiiceil 
fT)li> llic Hoi-mQ of Repre*enmrivc4, by Mr- W«b«Tert fi^^rn ihv LV<n>miiTt>r 

nn thr* Jiidicinrv, wlijfh plMposr'd thni rhr S«[>npnrLi> Coim nf tK*? t'nilpd 
8mtr» siitjiilJ lliuucufunh cuiiititl of a chief jnvlice mid time asMvcisir 
juifUcfv, ajid provided for iho nppuinlmecii of ihrcc tKiditioncI anociai« 
jimiirm of unid i^oiin, nnd thui ihn wvi>nih Judirinl Hirpiiii Ctmrx rS rh*i 
Viiiitd Stui^ dhuulJ cotinisi of Jic Jbincis ^*f Ohio, kdiuMi,«jid IHitujiB; 
the? ojjchrh circuity of Iha diMrota of Kcmucky /uid Mianoiin; Iho ninth 
ciruiilr, crf tliL' rlHtrk'E>i c>f TpruufiHi^f^ imt\ Alubuma ; nnd lhu leuili cir> 
cuil, of ihc dinTrictfi of EtfOiii»iana and MirBLMip^ii. 

U ne|>o*1i7d BO iniich of any flci or Acu uf Cungr^M iu vo^tcd in th» 
DiFLlrici Cutjrrs uf (1r- [.<(]iti.-i] SinUa in ihe dialricbi of Endiaiib, llliuois, 
Miiuouri, Miwisnippi, Alitt>ama, nnd LotiUiana* the pciwcrs ruid jurisdic* 
rion of Cifvi]it CfinrtB, und provided ihiii TLr *h*»Mlrl I* ihnnc^fonh 
CiTCuil Coum lor ™ld diiiricia, lo be compontd of tbt- jij*ttca of Ure 
Supreme Conn nnnijEficd nr nlloTtH fo thn cincuit ir> nhit^h aoch di^lHct* 
fnfghr rf«*pwiivcly t«diing, ftnd fif iHe tfi^iricl j'i*ljjo of <uch di^irtct*. 

On lhi» bin Mr. VVetisicr apokc oa fultuwn: — 

Tub biD ^^hicli U UJiJtr the conflidf^ration of the cominttt^ei 
is sii fimplt* in iU |iroviHionM,Hni) hu itrif^mliiirriFtHnl wlih di/lail, 
thnt lllllr or TEoiliing in ihr wny of r-xphiinfiirn iiim'Hj if ]>roli- 
ftbly rApcctcd from the comnitlcc. Dul ibc jErnml mijjorlniK^ 
of Ihtr *ubjccti Eind the nmtcrial oKorci* whirli fhr ftropoitcil 
niff-asHTV crribrocffit dcmsim!* wimo *.'X|>o?itiv»r of IIr- ri'tiaons 
which have led the Commiltee on the Jiuiidsiry 1« ■nhmil it to 
Iho eo[wldr»rjTiou oflhi" House, 

Tlu" iJu-ii-"*lon nutiirul!}- |nivv-o1x tw<» ini|uirif^M. ftra I, whether 
Hny evil* cJtirt in tb** nJmrni^trQtiou of jiistit* in i)>r courU of 

• Kf^inarku mn<f*- in tli" Hoim" uf RepraMntaUv^t ofiho iTmtrd StlIm, oo Iht 
4Ui uf JunUHry, IA^. ou ilic UiLl lo uiwnd the Ju>1iciiiy !>T«t'-ro. 



the Ur^r<<(l Stnt*»; and ■i.>cfin*lly, wheihtT, if th^rft be* *ur>h evfl*, 
tJlP pn>|vw4H] bill U ft priiprr nnd mimblp nrin&ly. On Ixitli 
thr-vr poi))U ii (b my duly to ncjirpj;* tlur wutinicnU whrrh IJip 
Cammittcc on the JudJL-toiy ^itlcrtain. LVrJiaps, however, Mr. 
Chairmnn, before erktering into a dtec]j>>«ion of tlieec two qneiv- 
tioii^, I mftv be ailoM^ecl to &1ate Kona^thirt^ of the hietory of IhiH 
depanmenT of the povernmenf, and tf> advert to the «pver»l lawa 
whtrh have hveti^ (mm liiitf- to tlme^ eiiacted retfpetrlin^ itii or^ 

The jiididnl powCTi wfeich, by the? ConfiUtatJoni was iobc ex* 
creUcd by the pn^#ent govRmtnoiit, neccc^nrily cngngcd the a^ 
tention of the fir*i Con^MB. l*hc *nbjt*cf Ml into the hnnilw of 
VTfy nblc* Tni*n, niid it mny wrll f*xt*i(P ustonUhtnent thai, the 
flystrm whieh they prepan^l and recoitinif-ndeilt and whieh whh 
ftdupU'd ill thir hurried sfv^-iun uf tlit* <iitii;iiitr uf 17S9, liiu Ihu^ 
fair boeri found ta fidiiJ, ao wi-ll and for *o Jung n timi-\ the Kn-at 
purpose* whic?h it wan di^^i^ed to oecoraplinh. Ttie grneml 
«ucciC99 of thr jrern'ml syslum, no far, may wi?)! inipire some do- 
grre of ennijoii in Thr? mindn of iii*Hf? whn aro ealli-d on to alter 
or «mnn<l it. 

By the original Rct of Scptonbcr, i7Sd> there woa to be a 
Snpretnc CVurt, according to ftc Con»tlJtunoni whieb wn» to 
oonsist of fix jiid^8> and to hold two eettbiom^ a year nt the 
seftr of ^vernment. The United SlaleH, or ivnch of Them u 
hud lh<'ji :idiipii:*d 1li«- CuiiFititiilion, wvre to \fv dividend inlo dr- 
ouit* atid diM-ri^'ts, und tht^rt? mm* tii Ih- v< DtslritL Court in each 
diAtrirt, holdrn by n di:»trict judge. Thr diMrici* tvrrc divided 
into thrrc drcinlvti. the KaM^rn, the Middit.--, and thu Southern; 
and there wni* to be a Circuit Court in ench dijitticrt, to br com- 
posed of two of tho juHtieea of the Supr^^me Court, and tht? 
disTrier judge for The dl^rrlet. Tbia Circuit Conn wb* Io hiild 
twu afiutiuuFi a yfjir in tfat'L dtslnt'l, and 1 uut'd not infc^rui the 
commitiiri-, tbiit ihi= i^reat maw of businrs*, cxccptinjf only that 
of (idmiridn- and maritime juriwiictimi, Moapod lo the* Circuit 
Court a.n a ri nr i^i iiri;cin:d jurjAdiclion. It f-ntt-rUmt'd uppoubt, 
or wrarjc ufcnuc, d:o, trum the doci«iouj( of the DUtrict Coun«, 
in all riiH4-M, 

By \hif urrauifenicuT, than, the Ju»!.iecf» of the BupKiDC CuQit 
were rvipiiri\j to hold two Mfusions of that court aniitiallytat 
Uie »eat of RCNvmraL-nt, to hear appoob and eauaes rcinovod by 



writ* of OTfor; and H wns frcjuitrd of thf^n nI*o, thit two of 
them aboitid Attend in pach dtBirirt iwic*p a ywir, fo hold, with 
the (iintrkt judge, a Cimik Court. 

1l waa fiTuijJ llml nir.-aL- ditliCB were M> burdcmomOi tbftt they 
<«ii]d [lot be ficrTonTirtl. Jn Novt-mbcr* 1793< the jud^n ^- 
<ircuwd the PK-tiideat on ihe «uhjt<ct, (who tuid Ibtrir cotnmnni* 
on1i£>M hr^foTP Confr^pas.) nt-tliiifr ftirt.h Iheir iimbilily to pfrrforni 
ihe uprviriii impoipd on them by litw, wirhouf rxfrttDmi tiiid *flo* 
Tiftn^ii tcin gfa-ut ta tr nxpn^fnl fmin lu^y uwtt^ It wxjif dcitibt* 
Ic»» this* commanicMion which produced the Inw of Mirch, 17^ 
by which il wfla provided that one jadgT' ni tlur Snpri*mc Courtt 
with tho district jadgv^ dhooid confflttute th« Cifouit Court 
And, lri!iEsmiK-h &a th^ courts would new conAint of two jiidj^m, 
|)n>vjFiiiui WAH uiHde, perhnpv aiiflideii dy Hwkw:ird Jiiid iuoon- 
venirnt, fur iiw casi^ t>f d>(Ti^ruiiie of opititon. It will Iw ubfierred, 
Mr. Chnirtnnn, that by tht-'w.- ItiwOf thu-i fjir, ptuticnlar jntfticca 
arc not nwiiKOfd to pnrticuiar circiiit-i. Any two jtid£;r» of the 
Siiprrmc- (^oun, ijndrr thr? tint J»w, ond nny one, under thnt of 
nfta, with thp district jiidflp, conntitiitfld a Circait Court. A 
rbnngr, or all^maMoji, of thp judgrn wan onntrinplnlpd by the 
Isw. Il wnB ttccordlii^ly providrJ by the uct uf 1793, that, la 
caac of division of opliuoni aa the court confliftttd of but two 
judfi^tf, x\ia qucfition ahould be continued to the next seaaioiii 
and, if a dUferent Jud|(e then nppoared, uiid hlfl opinion coin* 
t*idt-d with Uisit of hhi predcccsjtor, judgment vhoutU go accord- 

And hrfc, Mr. Chaimiftn, I winh to ohsr.rvc, that, in my opin- 
ion, the ori^nal plan of holding tht; Cirrnit t'-ourtji by diHirrcnt 
judgcfi, from time to time, woa ih-judged snd founded on a 
f^itae analogy- It fteeme to have been borrowed from the Enf^- 
tiflh Cwirta of As^iie and Msi Prias ; bu: the dirtVr*'iif*f in ihe 
powtrB and juriwdictjon of ihe judges in the two fauc» rendereJ 
what was proper fnr one not a fit mtxJi^] for the oiha-. The 
English judgCA ot Nhi /Vtujr, 90 far ne civil cunnt^a arc con- 
cerned, have nothing to do but Try queattons of fui^t by the aid 
of n jnryT <*n isAiir<» or pleading already settW in tht* court 
from which Ihr rt'iwrd pro<^pi'ds- They give no lln^d judf^tm-^nlff; 
DOT do Ihcy make intcrlocur<jry orders respecting ihc proceeding 
and progrc4« of the cau»r, I'hcy lake a verdict of the jury on 
lUo it^noH fiiroady Joined between the pu/tie^ and give no other 



ilircclioni in mttu*r» or law, than such m become neeammy in 
thi* «rt:r"P of lhi» trini hy jury- Rvety rase be^uri, tlierpforr, is 
onJimiriJy fitij*h<nl. Nathiii^ of that r.nsH^ ruinniii* for thr j^ulgcr's 
bacct'B«oi. If ,it be fjic<], the rrcord i» tnkcn bnck with the vcrr* 
did to WciftminBtcr Hnli; if it be not tried, the whole case 
rvmoiiitf for a aiib^c^uent occasion^ It i?, p^rhapu, burpnsijij^^ 
vhttl tJitf vtry able men who framed the firat ju<UciaJ uct did not 
H-o tJiti grrnt JitTert-nc^e bffweerj this niniiiter <>f prueei?(ling nt 
Uh! Englif»h Amii^cs, niid ihe ntcFMary <rmirH*" uf proriwiling ui 
out CiKuit Courtrt, with the powcra aiic] juri^dictionif confcrrcO 
on thoM courlo- Thc#c an: courta of huaL juriMliotion ; they not 
only take v^Ttdictn, but give jndgmt^nin. Hm* ^uiln iir^; brought, 
proceeded with through nil ihi*ir fciftgn"^ tried, nnd finally deter- 
iDtii^ Aiid aa, hi the progre«a of sultti, iwpeci&lly tJioae of 
tH)iiky jurmliclioii, it iiceeBaatrily hupiJtfiiPi iUai iJiere rtr« ililT»?rrrnt 
«tfi^9, and ^►ucc<:»aivc ordc^n become mcosrvry from term to 
t«tm, it happened, of couriw, that the judge wai often changed 
beforo the oauao was docidcd; ho who heard the end hod not 
heaid the be^i^iuiing. When to thia h added, that these Judges 
werv bred in ditferent tM-hools, and, a* to matters of practJe^ «h- 
]wiH^Ij, aiT^iistdUjed lo dilTereiil ui4Ji.|<eB, it will be r^aay Ui jierr- 
oeive that no nni^di diJiiculticd wtTO to be encomitured in the 
ordinary duapntch of bunineee. So, in caaco rt:«crvcd for advioc* 
ment and further oanMdemtion, the juilj^ rt^gF^rving the qnealion 
waA not the jn^lgr to drtude it. He who henrd the itrgume^it 
was DOt to mBlK.i the drciftion. Without pumiiing this part of 
tbc caM farther, it i» quite obviona that such a ey^leni eould nat 
•nawcr the rnds of jaaiict. The eourl*, iaJi-ed* were called Cir- 
cuit CouiU, which ueemed to jniplj an itinerant character ; but, 
ifi truths they resembled much nLore, in iheii power andjuriBdio- 
lion, the KngJinh court* nilliiig in bench, Ihun the Ajisizcs, to 
which ihey njipenr l*^ hnn? )>rrri liltfred. 

The Hit vi 17d!], by n-qujjin^ the uttcndance of only one, In- 
stead of two, of the judges of the Supreme Court on the cir- 
euittf ofcourau ditniniuhi.'d by one half the circuit labors of thotte 

We fhen oome to the law of February, IdOL By thia act, 
the judges of Um Supmne Conrr wrrr wlteveii from all r-ireuil 
datieft. lVovi»ion was made that thdr nninbei should be re* 
daced, on the first vacancy* from fix to five. They were stiJI lo 



hc»i<l tftro wndons annually "^ Iht' Snpwme Court, arifl H*Mm 
juilgct^ vent ftppoihird lo holii fli^ Circuif Court in iiacli diMrioL 
The prcviMOiiB of thit* hnw ftrt geti^ruUy ktiowii, ami h » iiot 
ncct'sHory to r-dtc them pnrtU'ularlvH II in tmiu^h lo fiay, that, 
in BvL* of Lhe MX cirt^uitc, tht-- Circuit Court wua to eoncwat of 
IhivL* judg<-«, iip(H<jtttly uppoint«<i lo oonntitulc Aueh court; and 
in tiip Mxlhr of onr Jiiil^'^ «p(*diL[ly itppitinte^l, und the diiitriol 
jQclgr of ihc tlifitrk'l. 

Wv ull kiiDW, Sir, tbul tlii» lu.w lu^k^d tjul a tw^lvemontii. Jt 
was repf?a]i-J en fo/o bj t)ie act of the 8lh of Alarvh, 1SD3 ; and a 
new dTguniseation of (he Cireuit Court* wub jirovidt^i for by thi* 
act of the :f9th of April of that ytai. It invut be admilted. 1 
think, Sir, that thU aof rmul^ <vjn»idrn»hly imiirovrTru'ntH xi^mn 
tliL^ ftyMirn, nit U t-xieird t>i-fi>n^ ihr iirt of Pr-bTiiJiry, 1801. It took 
Away (lie iltnrrary chaniictcT of ihc Circnit Coiut4, by assigning 
particuJAT jmfioc« to particular circtiita. Thiis in my opinion, 
wa0 a gr^ut irnprovcm^iiT. It coikformcd thf^ con^titulicT of tho 
ccurl t-:* T.ln> nature of th^ jx^wers which il oxerc'lst-d. The 4ara« 
judfff'.H now tifur^I ihf? euiiw Mirou^h nil Ui(< ttttigiM of il-i j>r(igrAtaf 
nnd Uic- court lit-ranif-^ whul \l^ duUi-n |iripi-rly tiiatk it. 4 tumrt 
of rrcorc], wllh prrmtiiu ni judge's cxrrt^i.Miig a vnriomt jurindic- 
lion, tr>'ing cauw* nt il* bur by jury, in caBC-s proper Tor ihe in* 
tcrvcntjon of a jury^ and rt^ndmnf; lianl jad^rmfnt*- Thie act 
abo provided aaolher mode of proceeding Miib ca»e« Jii nrhicti 
tii«! two judj^eH i'om|)OHiaK the Ciruuic Goun ^ihould drfTtr In 
opiiiitin> Tt pn^wvibi-d, Ehat vmc\i ilinVrrnrt? <ibouliI be nUlffd, 
ccrtifipti to tSc Stipn'tnc: Court, nud that ihat court .-ihixdd dc 
cidc the ciucntioti, and ccrlil'y itt dtxi^ion to the Circuit Court. 

In Thi* piatr of thingr, thr- judidal ty^trtn r<*mnincci, without 
mntrrlnl chun^*\ nnH) lh"' Vfai 1^(17, wUrn n Inw ^Tii* pn(?A^ 
for the rippointnienl of an aridir-ionnl jndgi* of the 8nprein# 
Court, and a cirruii allolicd lo him In the W«atrra dtattre. 

ll may be here obHervetl, ihul, from liif ci^iTijiK-ncrinftnt. the 
a)fatcin hu* not bt't'U uaiWtn- From the iirat, there was on 
anomaly in it< By the* original net of dripT^mber, 1789, a Din* 
trk't Court wa» t-TitiibIi*ht'd for Ki'niuc^ky (Iberi piirt cif Virginia) 
and for Miiiat* (;]i<vi piirtof Mm^^m^himrTfA), nnd, in ndiiilion lo 
the power* of Dialnct CourlA, there was L-onfencd uji thrst: nil 
the Jurisdiction Mvhlch eletwhere belongs lo Circuit CourtA, and, 
ill otb«r omwAt 0(4 naw ^tutc^e wore uddt^d to tbc Uniou, Diptrir* 




Cotirt* wrrp i^nlablifihpd with thff powOTB of Circuit Courta. 
The wtmp f^^i^g has hn]ippni?<), too^ when Stntej? haT4> been di- 
vjdf'd icilo iwu ilJ^lnL-fii. There itiv, Ht preneiit^ Hevf^r&l Sra1e?» 
wliii'li hu*e no CircuU Cuurt <^Lvpl tlie Dititjict Ciitirl, iu«' 
tlLcrre Aic vXht^T BitiicB which ^n^ tlividcd into more thsn ntic di^ 
trict, uiLtl in oonii-of wZ>ioh DUtrici^ thi.'7t^ U btitn District Uour 
with Circuit Court junt»dkii;)n ; 60 thui it cannot be 8ind tha 
thr *y!*li^m hiUi bt^rti 4t any limn entirely aniform. 

Ko ninrh, Mr. C'hiiirni?iii, for the lii«tory of our leglnlation op 
the judictAl dc'i^af titient. 

] &iti not aware. Mr. Chauniaii. that there b any public corn* 
pluiul of the opcraliun of Iho pwecnt ayslt'iti, ao far u» it npplitt* 
to Ui«^ Atlantic Sla1«D, So far ftn 1 kiioi^T i^stii?e haii bean nd 
miniatfn-d efTitieritly, protaptly, uiid Kuljvfiictorily, in all tJioM 
cin'-iiiM- Thf jiulg«"T*T prflnjw, liiivr n. gtxnl di^nl of rmpftiymfni: 
but llicy have been ablr to go llirou^h ihtu a/Uuuu» tintieti in 
euch ma»ner aa u> leave no causo of complaint, ua for ad I am 
iiifHurriit'd. For my own part, 1 am not huiii^uini< en<>ii^li to ex- 
ywij 02 fax skH ihose circuits arc conoeriied, thai any iiiiprovu. 
ni^ot can bv niHile. In my opinion^ noni; Jh iiet^ded. But it i« 
not so in lh»T WtslAtn Sl£ll<'^, Hen? eiihln n g'l'stt ih'lirirnc*y. 
The country hn.i cwfgrown ihc »y»ti?nL Thia ia no main's fault, 
nor dor> it impntc want of u«iinl foruai^ht to any one. It would 
havo aecracd chimerical in the rmmm of the low of 17t*9. if iht-'y 
]iad profeJocd to »:vikc out ^ plan which Hhould have hf^ca udt-* 
quattf to i\:\e exlgeiici^ of the couMTry, aa it actually uibCb in liH!^ 
Fnaii a |H.'riod us fiir biitk an ihe dost tff tin- lafe wnr, th« pi-o* 
]iJr of ihc Went hn^t? applitd to Ci)ngri-P.i on ihc Mibjccl of the 
courr.-!. No tte&aion of Con^oa bap poacu-d without an attempt^ 
in ono or 1h« othrr houKc, to produotr nomc (ihnngEr; and ai- 
thongh vnmiUG pr<}jci?tii hiivu b^xn prot^ntcd, ih<^ inhiTi^ni dtfli* 
culli<** of Th<' Mihjpcl h«v<^ ]]rrvroi»'<i nny riiirinnt in'iii>n of th« 
b>d?kinn-i i will atutt- shortly, Su^ ajid a» jieuilv ufi I rein«iii* 
Ih-Ji what had been at diflcrcut licuirs propuacd. 

In ihe iirst plucc, it liaa \r-vm prupua^^d lo n'Ciir to the tytittm 
of C-ircuil Courtd, uptai iXiv priuciph.', ulrhoui^h ni*L eiiai'tly after 
IJifl niodH, of the ai:i of Fchruar)', I8JL A bill of tbM chartto- 
IfT |i4)4nl (hi* Si^n'itln in 1810, diviilin^ die vintnuy inm n>nc 
cin^nii*, iiiid proviLJiiig iW t^K nppLiiiilTnmi of one tinnil jod^ 
to t'ut^h rirenilt who with tht* di^Luict judge of llio dip^liicL Ahould 



<iOii«tltuf« tlie Circuit Court It aUo providc^d, Umt Ihr- So- 
prcTDc Courl^ as racanf^icff sbould occur, ?ihoiilcl be nxhiccd to 
five mcoibf^rn. ThiP biltT I U'liovr, ww not acted upon in lliiu 
Houtie. AgftJn, it Kbr been pro|>oAed to c^n^litut^ Circuit Courtid 
by thr* anion of the di«itrict jud^a in the olreult- It baa \te^n 
]ni>|Ki*<«<d, ttlw), 1t> e:il4fiid llic- I'linljiijj Bv*trni ■omr-wlml ui poti* 
ftiniiity io tht; otiji-crL of ihe prr>riit !»]l^ hj lidding to l.tir niim- 
brrof iho jLitigr* iti the SoprciTwr Court- And & ditfcrcot ar- 
miigrtnrnt ?fill boa been frU|*§tMtcd, whicb cont<nipUtc« th« 
appomtm^nt of circutt jud^^ea for iome distrirrt^, and the con^ 
tinued |M>rforrnance of dwuli dirti« by lh« noprtme judge* Jn 
(lEbf^r^T with HuHi \e^\ pnivUtoa ha 4iuI1 nut vttJuJi tbr judgm 
»r i\w Biiprpmr ConrI, in thr pcrrutinaucr of ibcir drcuit dittiri, 
uncqusLly to any- port of the country, but allow tbcm to be d]«< 
tributt^ cquEilly and foirly over the vbolc Thin Fynti^m, though 
•OcDoivhAt coinplciti and perhaps liable to be fnieundentooiJ, tK, 
I oonfeUi, what appean to me b^»t of aU aiiited to 4>ur condition. 
Jt would not make the duprein<r Court too numerous^; and it 
«on1d slilJ rri]iiinT from ir^ iniTrnU'r-t Thr i^crfumiiinci; of cimiit 
duties; ii would allow a proper dir^lribulion of Ihcjic mfinbrra 
U> every part of the oountiy; EUid, bnaUy, it would furnish an 
ftdoquato provision for the dr^patch of bumno«a in tho Circuit 
Coi^tA, Vpon thi» plan, a bill w^a prcaf^ntt^d rx> the IIou»e of 
Reprejwa la lived at the lir?Ll iteaaion of the lartt CimgrpAv, but It 
did nut ineel. wilh general favor ; and the fult- of it piiiniW prup- 
OditioEi elscwlicrcf at a subsequent period, di-toouragcA rwy revi* 
ToJ of tt. 

I now come^ Sir, to consider wbcfthci any, and whnt, f^Tils eac- 
ist; and then, whether the preprnt bill be a nuiiable remedy. 
And in the fir>t place, it la said, perhapa with some jualice, tliat 
ihe business of the Bnprcint? Court iUielf ia not ycnie ibmuffh 
with t^nlTicient prc>mplitadc ; tliat it is aqcumulnting; thnt great 
delays arc experienced, and greater dcbys fr-nred. An to thid, I 
would obMTVc, that tho annuoJ fwwion of the court cAnnot loM 
above ftix or seven week^, because it commences in Februar}', 
and the clreuit duties of ihe judges require them to leave this 
|)iai^ the ]n\U'j part uf Mun-h, But I know no reaeun why the 
judges should not itnscntble earlier. I beli?^ve it would not ma* 
IcrisdJy inlcrfert^ with their circuit dutit^-t, to commence the sci^- 
ition hern in the eaily part of January; and if that were tlie c^asci 



I have tittle doubt thut, jn two yi-an, Ihcy would oli^or the 
docket A bill to make thb change paued tlib Hoiue two 
ymrs H^; I re^^r to mi^, it whp not uclrd u]fuii tri the Seiialf. 

Af lo returning tu the urif^iiuil pfuctiix «f having two Bpsnimis 
of the Buprenae Court within the ycu, 1 incline to ihink it 
wticUy inexpedient. The inconvc^nitncc ikripiaf; from the din- 
iVKV of fuiton and conn^tl from the »ciit of government Uitmn 
u decisive objet^ion ta that propcHitlon- 

Tlie great evil, however, Sir, nt prcfwrnt cxprrimniNj, nml Uial 
which calls most loudJy niid imprmtivdy for n. remedy, i» the 
nlntc of business in thp CiPciiit Coiirt^ in the Wej*t.?rn Sinic^ 
The neventh eii^niit coneiAU of Ki^ntuoJty, Ohio, and Tejio*»«e*, 
All tiifi other Western Slates have DistrJct Courts^ with the 
liowerH of CireoJl Ccuirl^. 1 urn clearly of ophiiuii, iJiiit some fui* 
ther proviAiiiii i» mqumul of ua for the ndminislrTtljan vS jitstice 
In tlicdo 6tiiti»i The existing me&n» are not cquh\ to the end^. 
The juUieird oTt^iuihuaiion m not compofnCTnt to exrrd«c the jurv- 
didion wh^eh the JnwK confer upon it. 'J^hc^n? i# n want of rnon, 
urul a wnnt of time. In thin reMpeet, it appearv fo m« that our 
(^on^lilulionid duty i« very plain. The Conxlitut.ion (^onfrfs cer- 
tain judicial powcra oa the govcmcnait of the Uniletl SULa»^ 
wc undcrialto. to provide for the cxerciae of lhc*c poiA^ra; but 
the provision i» inude(|iiuTe, and the poweiH art not exercised. 
By the Conatiturjoii, the judieiul power of this governmeut ejc* 
rendfi, a* well as to oliier rhJugif, lo cnasefl between eili^L'M* of 
diflrri'nt. Siules, We ojh'O nnirts [jf ofessetl ly to rxpn-ide thul 
jorivdlction ; but they &rc not competi^iit to it; it i* not cxcr* 
dMd with reasonable promptitude ; the suitor la delayed, and 
tho end of tho con«tit utiou&L provision, in &ome mc&«iire, d(?font- 
ed. Now, it appear* to me very plain, that wt» ahonld eith^ 
refuse to confer ihiH JuH^^dlcfion on the eouria, or that we nhonld 
■u euufUtute them that it may be eflideutly excrciaed. 

I bold. Sir, tJic certificate of the clerk for the Diatrict and Cir- 
cuit Court of the Dintjiet of Kentucky, that there are now pend- 
ing in thone coutIb nine hundred and fifty cniiueK. Ap* thiji ii 
licit n mitritirni* disttxiet^ mfisl of the*e rtitisesi, doiihlte^tH, are in 
ihe Cirrnit Court, Tiii* iireumubition hn* not iiri«*n fmrn any 
waut of diligence in the jodge* themsrlve*, for the fiftmc papi?j 
etatcfl, thfit two thonsnnd cnofiefl have been disposed of within 
the lafat tlireo years. The Memorial of the Bar of NashviUc ii»- 

VOL, III. 14 





roima n« tliftt cvno htuklfcd oind »ixt)- coma arc pending tn Itv 
Circuit Court for Ihc WVhicin Piftrioi of Toiin«M«>r; a num- 
bet, perhaps, not mucb 1<?0», i» on the dock^ of th^ <'^urt for the 
Eastern Dlfitriot of Teiihc^^ee; and 1 am authorl3re<l to iilat^ 
timt twu huiiflrvi] ur Iwu htiiidml iiiul fifl^ may bu lakifi »» iJtr 
number of *Tiif» |>rndiiig in ih^ Circuit Court, of Ohic^ Thwc 
lbrc« States, i^ir, con«titiit<; one circuit; tht^y extend orrr m iividc 
ivj^on; the placi*« for holding ttie coucta arii at vaftt diatanoM 
from one another ; and it le not wilMrt th^ powi^r of man, rhac th^ 
Juilge ai»<»I^ii^d lothltt L'lri'nit iliould g^i (hn»ugU ilw Juiira of bid 
ultiljon, Witli ihr cUiie uf tl"- nmrl,-* iii thiT otNt-t WViii-m nmi 
SotithwT^torn Stntc-as 3 nin mtt ki imrlicultrly iirijiiiiiii1i-d. Grn-* 
ll<'nn:a from tho** ytatc* will make it known to ihrr commilttc, 
1 know «nougbt howevtrt to be eatiaiud that \ht: whoK* oa^ callfl 
lor utieiitloii. Il KtowH iia better by doUy, and, whult'vtrr diift- 
cultie» einburrujo it, v/v iimy uh wvU mt'til tht'm at onco, luid ^^nts 
Ufion such rritiml)' a« Hhidl, u|k}I] ItiL* wholr, mvui moat (?x|ii-dj(-jiL 

And ihJH, Sir, br'nig^ me to tlie mast diflicult part of our in- 
quiry ; tlmt 13 to nay, wh<-TbeT aucb a measure ta this bill pro* 
po»» be the proper reru<;dy. 1 bt-^ to say, Sir, that 1 fr^l thb 
ditTicTuUy as dtt'|ily up it can be felt by any miTrnber of thv com- 
mittee ; and while I «xpreii)i my own o[>lriiuu», hucIi a* tliey arc, 
I «hid] be mom happy to dcTivr* light froni thi* gn^iitiT cipni- 
ence, or liie bettrrr i^ilrlligf'ner, of any f^mllrnian. To ine it 
appeaxBt that vrc are brought to the alt^-Tiiative of deciding be- 
tween eomething like what thin bill propoAce, and the Clrcvit 
Court ByBttfm, at) pto^'jcJvnl in (he bill of the Seaole lii ISIO. 
A* a pratnicaJ question, I think ii haa eotue to iliifl point: Shall 
wp rxti^ml th^ pfesent nyslcm, by mireiMiiig the numbcT of Ihc 
judge>, or nhsill wr rrruf to tlitr sy^lern i>f ('inniit Cotirlji? 1 in- 
voke tlic attention of the committee to tLin qui^sticn, bcciium.% 
thinhijig the one or the other inevitable, I wJeh for the mature 
iud^tn«ut of th*^ House on both. 

In favor of ihu Circuit Court system, it may be said, tImt it m 
unifnrm, and iniiy be madt? tn apply to all the States equally; 
Ml r.h«t if nrw SlHt<*M eimir- into the Union, Cim:it Conn* may 
Ih: providid for them without dexajigt-meut to tlie grntrnil or^^i* 
iialaOD' Thte, doubtlo^a, ia a consideration entitled to much 
weif"ht U ia aaid, alao, that by scpamtiiig the judgi^s tif the 
Supreme Court from the eircuiU(> we dhall leave thi^m aniplo 



Uinf for tho dUcharpfe of the Mgli duUos of thrir oppdlntc jniia* 
flinioo, Thifcp no dcnbt^ h true; tmt then, whtflher it be (ic«irf]> 
hi*, o|mn lhf> w/bale, ta wif.U<lruw iUtr jiid^i-v <»/ fhc Suprrtm? 
Court from thr drruit!!, and tji cnnfinp Ibrlr Icihor* ("nlimly 1<i 
the strMJonfl &l Weu^ington, i» n question whirh hru nio«t deeply 
<ic?c?itpicd mv Tf^rtrctions, nnd in »fgnrd to which I em Frto to 
confess Botni? chixngc hn» bpsn wrought in my opinions. With 
I'ntiTp respect fi^r the bptWf jiidgmetit of othpra* and doubtii)^, 
th^rfoTt', wh*^n 1 Cirjd my^'^If dlffpriiig from llinwe wbo nrv wIm't 
nnd more p.\pefieucrd« I am still cotiatmiiK'd Uj suy. Itrnt in^ 
judgrncnt U agajiij't witbJrawiiiff the jut!j;ra of fJic Sijprcme 
Court from the cirL*uiI«, if it «ran bv Avoided. The n?uMon» 
which infliu'iio*? Ihi» «L*nUiiiL"nt tire gvnenil, und perhaps nay be 
thought t*iri indpfliiiti- nml Hm^crrnin t*i wtw n« % gtjidf* in m^att- 
tirrn of pnblir innmrtanrrj (hry ni"Vi'rthr!lr»* apprar hi uu- to 
have wrigbt» nnH I will »tat« them with frankiK-As, In the hope 
that, \f they TLTP without rea>onnblo fouiidntion, they will he 
xbown to t>o 00, when cortaJnly 1 >hall chccrfuJly rclin<itiish tbrni. 
Ir the fint place. It apiiean to me That ^nch an intcfconr«e ai 
th** jniifc''"* of the ftnpr^'iriP Qinrl wrt? rnubh-d tvi hnve with the 
profohfriou, and with tht.- p^ruple, In ibirir rt-Hpei.-live ctn-iii(», is 
itftcif an ol>jc<Tt of no incoriBidemblc importanoc- It natumlly 
m«pire« rcapotit and oonfideiici.^ Eind it producers a reciprocal 
communication of bifurtriLttiori through all the brunchi'f^ of Ihe 
judicial di'pHrlitient- TliU Icailn in tt hnrmony of opinion and 
of ai^tioit. Thf SiiprfHie Cmirt, by ilai-lf, in in wonitf iricupHW 
insnTatcd; it'haa not frrtpirnt orojiftion.n of contact with the 
comnnantty. Tht! bur that ftrtcnd* it in neither nurnrToup nor 
regular in it« attend an ct^ The genllmii^n who nppnar before it, 
in the (■bsiraeler of ecuiiuel. rnmt* for the ot-cnitiimT nnd depart 
Willi the oi*rn*ion. Thf pn^lemtion in neenpiiil mFLJiily in the 
object* which I'ngage it in it» own donifstic fomm.-*; it belong* 
to the Stalcfl, and thi-lr trlbunalA furniah ita conptnnt and prin- 
cipal Ihoatrc, If the ja-l^-te of the Supreme Court, tb^^refnrf-, 
Arc wboUy witfadrxwn f/om the eircuittf^ it flpp<*arft to mv thcrn 
fa dfiDgpr of Imviiig lht*Tii wirhoul ibe mc^nif of nm-fnl int^r^ 
rrotirsc uilh other juilii'itd cliantrtcfTi*, with the profrs^ion of 
which they arc members and with the public- But, without 
parvuing the«e gr^eml rcrHrction*, I would «uy, In the 4i<cond 
place, tbnt I think it ascful that judge* ahould aee in praotice 




tho operation and effect of thpir own d«oieioii«. Thie wUl pT«< 
fent theory ffom runninf; loo fir, or ivfiiiin^ too much- We 
find, Jn lt^gittlaTi(jri> thai ^i^rirml |>nrvmionft of law, hou^e-ver i^nu* 
tlously F3L|ira.!»n], uft^ii retjuirt! liiiillatiDiL aud [niKjitimtioii. 
Soiuctbiujf of tli« aame jtort tule-B pEai^r in jtiUicnlurir, flow 
ovtT b^uulifd Txwy be Ihe theory of fi^nt'ml [>riiiciplo:if noch 
ii llie ia^HLte variety of liuman airatrv, that thcw^ niotft f)nu.-tis«4l 
In titeni atul ^.^onventatit wilh them we at t*very turn n npw"w»ity 
(jf impiiMiig fj'silniint!* nnd (jimlificTitinnsi ou *nv\i pri nr-iplrJi, 
The daily application of their own doctrino "will nrccnsarily ii>< 
ppirc courts wHb caution; and, by a knowledge of what takfv 
plnor upon thp nrcuitfl and oe^our* in con»tanf prnt^oc, th**y will 
bn ablr to decide finally, wilhruT the impiiiaiion of having over- 
looked, or not understood, any of Ihc important elements and 
ingivditfiits of u JEJ!^l Oei'ipioti' 

But furUiiT. Sir, ! muni tak<f the liberty of saying, that, lo tt- 
f^xd to the judieiui olfiotr, punHt4iney of employment l« of itttolf. 
in my juO^meatf a ^ood, and a K"^ut ^ood^ 1 appeal to the eoi> 
viction of the whole prnfeHnloii^ if, uh a gerieril rale^ they do not 
find that thci?<e judf^en who deciilrr monl catusea dedde them best. 
EKcrciae strengihras and Bharp»'ns the faculTit'a in thU more 
than in alinoBt any oOkt irmpbymcnU 1 would have? (he judi- 
olaj ofHee filled by hirn who ik whuJy u j^id^, alwnyit a judfpe. 
rfnd nolhmg bur a jiwlgf'^ Wiih pr<>|>i'r sen^onH, of eourse, for 
rr-CTpnlioii niid rrpour, hii^ M*rioij« ihoiight* idioiild nil be ti^rnra 
to hiw oifieinl dntic*! he should be omnn in hitr- I think, Sir, 
there U hardly a greater mJMflkr Hian h<ift prevailed ort^n^ionnUy 
in womo of rhr Stntea, of creatiiiij many jinlgnu, sitwi^ing thorn 
HnfirH whieh ceenpy bttt a BTonll pnrt of their 1irni>. and then 
making lJii« Ihu ground for alfowing Iliem » ^^rnall eo]n|>en«ation. 
The judicial power jb ineonipiitiljlr with any other pur»att in 
life ; and all thc' facidtiea of ovcry mftn who tahca it ought to be 
constantly exercised, aad e3ieroi»ed to one cud. Now, Sir, it is 
natural, that, in TCasoning on thh aubjectt I ahould tahp my 
fnH* frorTi wiml pH^HeT* within my own means of nliJ^'Tvation. 
tf I am Eiiif^lakt'ii tii my prenuBes the ci^ncJuMon^ of course, 
ought to be rtjceti'd. But I suppose it will be safe to aay, that 
a eetiftLon of ei^ht weekfi iti the year will prot>al>]y be eiifli^ient 
for the deeififon of eauMeH iJi the Supreme Court ; and, n?a>u^t;ing 
from whatejTstn in one of the most connidefaWe ainuita in Uie 



Atlantlo 9tat«flT I Bnppos^ tlifit ei|;ht, ten, or at Ttioflt twelve 
-vrekft, muy be the a^^er^f^e of ttie time requkir^ to be apent by 
n. drcnil j"<l|^ to his tvinrt in thone cin^iiiln^ If thi» be m\ theii, 
if tJu? i^Hirls hv laepaniUa!, we Wnva Htt|iri*mi? jiidgna <i(:impji*J 
two mciiith?^ out <if rwclvr, nnd circuit jodgrs occupied thrw* 
months out of twelve, in my opinion, thU ie not a eyvtcm 
etth«r to make or to keep good judges. The t^upTcmo Court 
exert'ivea b f^at variety of juriadiotion. It reveruei deoiatoni^ at 
conuTion hiWy bi eqiiJiy, iiiid \:t adiiiirally; uid with (lie th^ury 
ami ihL* jkniriiiT erf idl tttfi^ -ijAlt-iijM it in iirdaiipc'riiuLblf'. tJmt tiitr 
jndgi^ik shmild be accur&b?lj and intiin:ttc]y acquai/itcd. It ifl 
for the oommitl4X! to jwdgt: how far Ihr withdrnwijig thcrii hum 
ihc eircniti^i and confining them to tho c:<erci^c of an appeilato 
jurisdiction, may {nerea«e or dimlnUh this information. But, 
flgaEn« Sir, we have a f^-^t variety of local lawa existing In this 
i?ouiiIryt w^iicll are the HtJinUard of defUBiun wliew they prevml* 
The Iaw> of Nrw Engknd, Maiylnndf LouifitAnA, and Ken* 
incky nrc. ahnofit !*o miiny diff«?rrnt codn^ The<»r- lawji are to be 
ootiMnJod and ndmini*teri*d, in many cfuu*», in the conrTs of the 
Uoiled States, li* Ihrm any doubt that a judge coming on the 
beiwh of the Snprerne Conn wlfh a fnTniliar acijaaJiitflnee with 
tlww litwtif derived from dtiWy \tntvtivv ai:d thvmuuri, nniiL be 
more aIiIc; buth to form hi» own judgment tsonnrUy, nnd tu u»«i»t 
that of hU brethren^ thnn n strringrr whu only looks At t.tic the- 
Oiy? Thin la a point too plain to \x: nrgiiod. Of th'! weight 
of the Buggeetion the oommitt^e will judg*^ ft appesre to m^ I 
oonfetM, thai a corirt rtmoiely nituated, a. ^tran^er 10 the»e Iooa] 
IswH ilk their appliiHlidr^ and pnietjL'e, wlfh whatever diligence 
or with whatever At>iiity, muikt be liable to ftdl into great mintukeH. 
May I nnk your Inklulgenor, Mr Chftirmnn, to n^igge^t one 
Cither idea. With r;o diA^Kr^tliou whntever to entirtfLin doitbti 
a» to the mnnrter in which thn (fxecutiv« duty of appnintmenti 
diall BT. any lime hrrf'nflM' he performed, the Sitpreme Conrt la 
K> imporlsnl, that, in wimlevfr relatet^ lo it| 1 am willing to make 
ueiir&aoe doubly aaic, and U> ttditpt, thrrcfore, whatever foirlv 
comeh in rny way bkely to increope tJjc- pttfl>ability that al>lc and 
efltctt-nt men will be piaeeU upon that benth. Now i iHuifoM 
ihsii 1 know nothing whieh I think mori? eondueive to iliat end 
than thr auigning in th** mcmbrr* of tliai eoart imporlnui, re- 
Hpnn^tble, individLud diifii-H, Whatsoever niake» the imlividuqj 



prominent, roneptcuon«> and fc^ponaiblt; mc^rcost^ji Ihc pfobc' 
bility that he will be §omc one pa»»c»iung the proper n<vyiij>itc« 
for a jnd^. Il is one Thinf; to give a vote upon a boiirh (r4- 
pwldlly if it be n numerous bench) for pUintiH' or ilrfrndnnT, 
■jul quii4? ujiotTiti Lluii^ tu t«ct itH lUe lii^aJ of u coLirl of ^aiJous 
larJMiictiani civtt and criminal, to conduct Uhxh by jury, and 
rendfT judgments in law, canity, nnd adminiltyp Wliili: thcve 
dutic^tf belong to the condition of a j^d^ on :hiit bt-ndi, that 
plmce will not be si «inocnm, nor likriy to be oonfcrrt^d without 
proofh nf proper qiinllficaiions. For tbf^w rp-jisonn, f am tnrlined 
Id wIbU that Uie judj(L-» of the Snprtiii« Courl may not be wcp- 
araUrd iJrom tlie circuito, if uny other atulAbk provision can be 

An to the prrK^4Jt bill, Mr. Chuirrnun, it will doubtliuw bo ob- 
jected, i.liAt it maJfon the Supreme^ Court tott nutncrou*. In 
repartl lo ihtil, I am bound lo wty tliat my nwr opiiion WBa> 
tbftt lliir ].]re»eril exi^trney of tbe L-ouiitry <u>t)]d lisvfj- hvi^ti an- 
bwwtHl by llir addition -of two rnt-mbcre lu ilic couil- I bdievc 
the thri'L- Northwefltctii t^tfttcs mtglit wril t-noa^h ro on for M)mc 
tiruu lurtjb^, and form yi <iireiiit dl thcmiidvi^, pLThup^, hurcnf- 
tBT, aa tilt? popnlniion Ahull iiLort-aHP, and Ihc *1nt4! of tbi^r aftaira 
iwjuir*' it, Thi' nddirion of ihe third judge in what I naaenl lo. 
fullier tliHEi wliHl I rtcdniniend. h in whul I ^^onld {ffadly 
avoid, if I vajM with propriety. I admit l\mU fm M>m« cauaca, 
the court an conMitutcd by tht.- bill w'xW bt^ tiirtinvrnientJy large; 
for «»chf eppccinlly, ii* require inventigiklion inl<i mn1ter» of fapctt 
auob 9f- ttioAt^ of equity and admiralty, and perhapn for atl pri- 
vate cfiii]4<^4 genemlJy- But ihf? great and l<?adin;{ ohamctcr of 
tbe ?4upn^Tn» Court., it« muni lin|»orlaiit dntirH^ ami Hm highi-At 
funcCJuuHf Uavr nol yrt bt-eri alludf'd to. It i* itn ]>mjliiir rrln- 
lion to th}9 gvivcrjinicnt and the State gnvrrnmtmt^, it is the 
power which it rightfidly hold;^ and cxcTci»eti« of reviainft iht 
opinioiiH of othor tribunals on oon»titalLonaJ qvioj^nont^ us the 
great praetic^il expounder of iIkt powers of the f^rernraettt, 
wbieh aUacheii lo thin tribunni the greatest allention, und iTiaken 
St Wurlhy of tliL- laoaL delibt^mttf <H)iiF<idrTalioii. DuIif-h nl once 
«o impurtunt and ac dclicatr impose no comtnc^n rcppon^ibiiity. 
nnd require no common tnJrnt nnd weight of ehnraet/-r. A vurv 
nmnli t*ouTl xromft unHt for th^*e hi#;h functionn. Thew dniic«i, 
^tinugh esscrt]j:klly judicial, parlakc soniethiii^ of a polilioa 



Th^ judf^irs arfi atlM on to olt Sn judgmtnt on 
the aeb of imlt-pcndcnt Siniea ; tbty control tlio will of aovdr- 
cignv; they fira tiublc to bo expoH<.'d, ib«rcfore, to ihe re»«nt- 
TQcnt of woiintit'd »ovt*r4-'igTi pride; uiui frain tlio vrry ai&ture 
of our vyiitfinT fhf*y urr nnmrUmm rstllf*<) on, nUn, to <]r>r-ici(? 
whether CoiisTtsft haa not t-*ce«ilud it* coiiHtitaUontU llxnito. Sir. 
tbtre exhU not ajjou the earth* and lh<?re mrvcr did fxUt» a jndi- 
cibJ tribanul dofJiifJ with powcrn ao vurtous, and do tmportaat 
I doubt the n^tfoty of ivndcrjiig it trtnd] in nuinbL-r, My own 
opinion il^ thftt, if wit M;crc to coUkbUxlk Clrcuii Conrtsi, nnd to 
confine their jadgeft lo thHr ihitip" on fhr Iw^nrb, :hrir nnnibwr 
nUould not be at ull rfdiiL^fd ; and If, by »ome inode-rah' udditlon 
t4> it, othrr itiiportiint tlbj1'ct^ may wvW Ite ?iii:^Vhnrn?d, 1 am pre* 
pnrcd to vote for nuch nddition- Iei a government like otm, en- 
tiicly populnr, cnrfi »honM hf tnkrn in cvrry part oi (Jur *yatem, 
not otiiy lo cJo ri^hT, h»t to »iinpfy the commnnity that right ih 
done- Tbe ojiinionti of mankind uaturaliy ati&ch more respect 
and I'linfid^iK't lo the deelbiions of u cxinrt «o:iiewhal niirnrrouH, 
than Co thiiAP of uue cr)m[Hi»rd at n IrM nttnibt-T. And^ for 
my."<cJJ'» I arknowictl^ tny fr&r, thnt, if thn member of iJic conrl 
were reduced, and ita nicmbrx* wholly withdrnwn from the oif- 
cuits^ it might become an object of anplcasaDt jealousy and 
givat diarjuat. 

Mr- CljatriTi:in, T --iip^M^He I need not ftHfiiirt> the eiimmlrtee 
timf, if 1 fiiiw any tbin^ in thJti bill which would katiien th« re- 
•pcctnbility or sihnkn the independence of the Supreme Courts I 
Bbonid be the Innt innn t^ favcir it. 1 look upon the jndicini de> 
partment of thif government a? it# main enpport 1 nm per- 
suaded Chat tho Union ooold not e:<iat without it. I shall oppcbe 
whuff'v«-t I think oaloiilil'-d Lo di^cnrb rhe fHbrie of f;ov<-rn merit, 
b) unrtetllp whnl is Hellh^d, iir to sliuke the fnilh of lioiiesL ineji 
in tlic stability of the Inws cr the pnrity of their admini.itrnlion. 
If any ^en^lrmnn Ahnil nbow mc fhnt nny of thoBi^ eonju^ijur'ncc* 
ia lihr lo fallow the ndoption of thli^ mvaetire, 1 »<haJI ha^^ion to 
withdraw from it my fiopport. Bui I Think we ar« bound to do 
W)mHhiii|?; nnd shnU b*- mo*l happy if th*.* wlp*<lom of The House 
bhiiil flti^{>^Ht >i euurie rnort; fn-e from ditlieuluea Umn ihul wlikJi 
la now propoecd to it 





1 iiAi> not infcn<tfKl, Sir, to avail mypolf of tbe ii)diitit<^>^<^ 
which in generally allou-rd, untirr circuRifftxu^t^un ^kn* iht-* [Tn-<Aunt 
oT mtildng n n\t]y. But th^ iloti*c hiw bom tiivitrd wttli aitc^b 
esrnrnlDPMA to |Kwtpoiie tliia mrti*u™ to nnoUirr }"r«r, it ha» 
bct^i pn-sp^Cii, with «o itiut^li nppzuriit alarm, to g^Ir« do furthct 
coontcnaricti ot 9upf>ort now Ui tlit bill, rhat 1 rt'luctandy ilcpart 
from my purp<nn*, oin! ii*k leave to ofler u few brief rwnarkB n\ioa 
the k'fldinjc Topic* of the diiici.ii>f;ion. 

This, Sir, muvt b*? nUnwiHl, nnd tii, on nil hiin<l« nittnvci], to be 
a mrfwiirp iif gn*nt Hiid g4-nrnil iiifrirhi. It n*H|HYl3i thsit tin' 
portaiit bTAJich of ^overikiuenU the judiciary ; and somi^thing of 
ft judicial lone of cUacuaHion is not unsuitable u> the occasion. 
We vuniiot treat tht; queetion too colmly, ot too dUpaMioiiat«ly« 
For in^^fielff 1 feel that L have no pridi^of opinion to grnlify, no 
eagEriiPds of dfbali' to htc indiil^'d, no oompi*titirtn to hi' pur* 
(TOivL I hope I may wy, withovu impropTipty, thnT, I nm not 
in«oi)Bible to the responMilUJiy of my ov^ji UtLuitioii aa a mem- 
ber of th« llouBc, and a member of ihe comrnUti^c.* I am 
Etwan- of no pri?judio<; whicli should draw my mind from the sin- 
gle and flolidloiu oontentplation of what may be be«t; and I 
liavc ti»lfMrd atlcr»tivrlv, through ihp whole eour«iT of thi* d4s 
tmtc, not with f*'**Jingn of one who is mi'ditating Ihr rnrann 
i)f re[)1yiiig lo objection*, or escaping from theii forc«, but with 
mi unaffecLfd anxiety to ^ive every ar^ment ite ju^t weight, 
and wiUi & jM.'rft*ct readinttw to abandon this mt'aBun?, at any 
moment, in favor of any other which should apfieor to have 
Holid grounds of |ircTfTrLHiee. Hut 1 cannot sny that my opinion 
iH flhrrf^d. Thr mi<ii«urp appi'Hni to my mind in Ihr f^amr light 
Ha when it wa» timl. pri.^aeiited to the House. 1 then saw «ome 
introijvenitrucc* attending it, and n«lmilt<ri] Ihem. I ace them 
now 1 but wiiil<? the elfoct of this diiKiuenion on my own mind 
hat not been to do away L^ntirely the tenEie of Ih^tr biconven- 
iencea, U has not been, on the oth(?r hand, to remove the grealei 
objectiiHis whiHi rxiflt to uny other pUin. I rerrmii] fully (.^un- 

* Mr. Wcbvter whiCb&irmin of ih* JbdJciiiy Cvnimiltec oS ibf IkuHe ol 



«iiiced,th&t this courec is, on the whole, thct which w freest from 
difiiealiJG& Hcwtrvor plaiiaible cllier syBtoma mayscom in their 
goneraJ outliae, objeotions ame, &nd thicken ba we f^ into th«ir 
cletaUs. It ifi not now at all cvrtuia Umt tliute who art? oppoMd 
Ui thb bill OTK n^t-d tat Ui whnt <»thi*r rrifjuiurr- thcinld Up. pre.* 
frrrrd. On ihr eontrary, it is certain that no plan nnifi-^ them 
bU; and tht^y act together only on the ground of their common 
diMatisfaction with the pn>poi»od bilL That flyvtem whieb 
iMni< tnovt favored is the eircuh fyBtem, aa provtded for in 
tlie 8enat«'s bUl of 181$. Bui as 1o that there \a ml m emire 
a^reKintrnt. Ont- provUinn In thtii bill wan^ Lci n*rliin- tlie niifn* 
her of the judgca of the Supn^tnc Court to fivi^. Thi;^ wa»ft part, 
too, of the original reaolotion of amendment moved by the gen- 
tleman from VLr^aia;' but it was afterwarda varied; piobably 
to tnaet the approbation of the gentleman from Penneylvajiia,t 
and Olbere who preferred to keep the court at it* preaent num- 
ber* But other gpnlJemen who ttnt in oppimiliiiti U% ihU bill 
have ?till rL-cornmt-.ndi'd n. rtdurtlnn of ihiit numtjcr. Now, Sir, 
notwithstanding snrh rednrtton was one object, or was to bd 
one effect, of the law of IWU wa« eontcmplatod, alao, in tlio 
Senate*fl bill of 1819, and hae been a^iit reooinmerded by 
lije geatlemun from Viigiiiia, and other geniltmen, yet I can* 
not fWTwir.Mlf? enysolf 0ml any ten rm-rnUT* of thw HmiM*, npon 
ntatiir« rrHr^TLlon, would now bt in fjivor uf ^ucU reduelion. It 
could only be made to take p^nce when vncancic» »hcnild occur 
on the bench, by dcfith or rc-fignntion. Of the seven judgi's of 
which the oourt cousUts, six are now assigned to eircviits in the 
Atlantic Statea; one only is attached to the Western Dlstrieta. 
Now, Sir, if we were lo provide for a reduction, It ml^ht bap* 
p(^n that the Ijntt viiaiiniy would bt- in the vituntion of tJic Njigle 
Westrrn judge. In that event, no appointment could be tnade 
until two other rocancie* »hoiiIJ oceuj, which mic:bt be aevcml 
yearn. ] anppoae thiit no man would think it juFt, or wi&e, 
or prudent, to make a legal provision, In conse^juence of which 
rt ini^t b!ip|>en lliat Uii-re Hbtiuld tie fin Wi.-4f^rn judgv nt all 
oil ihf. nupft-rur bpiK'h fnr *ii"Vfnd ycnn* fo romr, Thin|j[irtof 
the plan, tbeiefor^s wii» wisely nlmndoncd by the gcntli-^mwu 
The oouit cannot be rnluccd; and the question is only between 

Hi. Puwcll 

t Mr, BjchADfta, 




09ven jnetlcmof tli(3 Supreme Caurt,with ten ciroult judpce, and 
ten jnstW-n of the S^uprcmc Court, with no tireuit judges*, 

J wiU tnki? noticr hf*rir of nnolht*r »uggp»lion madt* by the 
fft'iitJi-mnn from Ppnnjiylvnnla, who i* g»*nrmlly «> *ohi*r-iniinled 
ELrd conaiiloiato in liirt Lrb^trrvatioiis, that ihvy deserve ttit4.'iiiicjii, 
Trotn Twpcct to tht miaritT u-liciicc ihcy proceed. That gc»li<y 
mui nxx)mmcnda that the juDtie^id of thf* Supremo Cotirt ahoutd 
bo rf^liev^d from drouit duties, as Individuals, but |)ropofe«»f ner- 
rri.hel«Ka, that xhf^ wbok trourt should becDiutr rtHij[ra1ury, or um- 
buliittiry, Mild thnt iU M'TuiDnit nhuutd bt- biildt^UT ii<rw ui Nvw 
York or Doi^ton, now in Wn^hingron or Rjchmotid, and riovir in 
Kc^ntucky or Ohio- And it is* hin^:lnr r^nough, Ihnt thw nrrtingv- 
mt-ut i* W'cominendt^i in the name upcc^di in which iJic nulhon- 
ty of ft Iftt^ Pfpsidenl ]« died, to prove Ihtit consldmiliorrA aris- 
ing from ihe ui^MBlly advanced age of nome of ihr jiiHgr^ji, und 
Uieif rraauuablt deajre fur re|n)tte, oi^jhl to lead u» i*» relieve 
them Ironi aU circuit duties whatever. Trulyi Sir, thid » a 
Ertrunge plim of rt-licf. lnntT?nd nf holding; crourtit in hia own 
State, and jH?rhap» in bte uwn town, iind viHiting u tivinhbtmn^ 
Stftte, every judge on thi« plan w to join i^vvry otbvr judgi^, and 
the whole bt^rieh to make, rogi^ther, h ■nrl. of juHlrifil progr*-**, 
Tticy are tu visit the NorL}i, uud the S^ulb, and to aecend and 
deaccjid the AJIe^hmiies. Sir, it i^ impoettiblcr to talk serioufily 
ri^^nctt pucli a pro[)OAition. To ttixLtn i1^ i^ to refute it. Let me 
murviy ni^k, wbrtht^r, in thin peregrination of the court, it it pro- 
poned tbnt they fake nil (hoir recotdn of pondirg tutlHf nnd the 
whole enlendnr of cauftoa, with (hem. If no, then Tbi' KVntDeky 
dleni, with hi» L-oun»e], i^ ti» follow the court, to BoAron; and 
the Bo»Fton dient to pumui; it bac:k tu Kentucky. Of ia it, on 
the contTOjy, prt>poncd tbnt thcro »h[ill be gerund judicial divia- 
ioriB in the? countr)-, niul thnt while nt the Northf for example, 
hone but IVorthirrn nppeaU nhnll be heard ? If thi« be intended, 
thi*i] I >ink, IfdW often could t.hi* eonn nit In riteh one nf thfMt 
diviHlon)^? LVrtfiirily, not ofttnt-r tbaji once in two yi^nr*; prob* 
nbly* not Dltt-itcr than c>uce in tbr^- An appeni, thcrc-rorci 
might be brought before the appellate court in two or Three 
ycnri^ from thn time of rL^nderin^ the tirat judgment; and Bup- 
poning judgment to be [u-L^iionneed in the apppllatc court at 
ihe seeund tenn, It would be decided in two or thiee yLiirs mure. 
But it ia not neceasi^uy t4.i exnniine this suxgi^^tion fuTther. Sir 



pvfrry thing ctiii^pireB U> prove, thnt, with T«epeoi to the (jr»al 
•lnti«ft of th^ Supreme Coort, they must be diftchorged at ou^ 
nnntial Ke«»ion, ami thnt fteKsIon must t>e liolrlen hI, rh^ vrm of 
^»vernmt.'tit. If ouch jmrnsioti Ik mndr nf> thni Uir bu^ihr^iu of 
the yrnr in that court may be deoptttched within tiic year, rca- 
tionable ptompUfucIc in the ndminifftrnlinn of justice will be at- 
tained; and fltirh prDviMi4>n, I beUrvp, h practicabJc* 

Ancth*^ objppfion advnnc^^d by the member from Pennaylva- 
nin nppllir* s» wr-ll lo rh^ ityftlem a« It now exlAtA^ an to thnl 
wbli-h will btr BubsUtutwl if ihia bill sbwll pasn. Tbt himiirablt; 
m«nib(.T thmh« that tbfr »[i|}clla(tf court Jiml tlic cinirt From 
which the up]>E.<ul (wmi^ fUoutd, in all niirtost, he bopi cntirrly diA- 
tinct and vrpnrat^, Tme principle tE^i^uirtHf, in hifi jnd^ont, 
that !hf Hfciiir. judgr ■hniitd b** cx<?bidfMi from any ptirticipa- 
tion in th<' rrviAio« of hijt own jnilgnirnl*. t bdlev*', Sir, tbrtt, 
LU thi^ eaily [iibtory of tbt- court, the practice vj^a fur tbt^ j<id|{e 
wboM opjiijDU waa under revision not to partaho ui tbu dditv 
vtationei of the- court- Tliijn practicov however, was altorwimU 
altered, and t\w court resolved that h could not diiebiiri^ ttit; 
jndgE- from tht' dtity «f asptiatiny in i\u^ d»s^i*ion t>f ilir uppcni. 
Whrlhrr thn Iwd i-(inrb< uugbt to brr kr-pt ah EiliKobttrly dinUnrt 
and separate ae the member frnnt Pt^nn^ylvania rccomnt'iids, is 
not ao dear a qnc-^tion thnt persona eompetciit to form an 
opinion may not dilfer upon it On the one hand, it may very 
well be said, that, if the judgm4?nt appealed from huB bet*n ren- 
dered by one of lie Judg*^* of the appellaTe eoiirt, courti'ny, 
kindnejDi, or syrnjmiby iimy JiiHpin? auint- dl^poHail)]l in the 
membr-r^ of the i^amc bunch to tUfirm ihat jnd^^ent; and that 
the gcncrni h*bit of the court may tbua bcoorm? unfriendly to a 
(ree and unbinAi'd revision. On The lAhvr hand, it iiiny be con- 
tended, ibalf if there he no medium of commuiiieation betweeri 
the court of ibr 6riit iiiHtunce^ and rb(< i^onrt of Eipprllnte jaris- 
ditHion^ (here Diay U.* Jaii|;cr that the rr:-a?^oii» of ihe first may 
not be alway* well understood, and ita judgmonlA conaequenuy 
iiable, [•ometimea, to be erroneously revorsedn It certainly U not 
true, ibnl the chance of jusliee, Eji an appelUile court, t» alwayt 
preejeely equal to the chant^e of revertEOL; ibe judgment below; 
ellhougb it >■ niTf'sas\ry for (he pi-ner of ^ouiety and the tenni* 
nation of litigation ta take it for gtauted, as a ^-nernl nilc, that 
what » decided bv the ultimate! tribunal ia deeideii rightly. 



Tn guanl ngfiinBt too great a tendency to rev^rioli in appel 
late oourtA, It. Itfut oftiMi be^n thought exjiulipnt to TunitKh « 
good opportunity at It^nt of m^ttiiifl; fortii the gnnuids nnd res* 
una or the on^inal ju(lgm<:iit. ThuH. in the British IIoum of 
Lord« a jud^^ij^nt of the King's BL*iich w net ordinarily rarcrftcd 
nntiJ the jud|;n* hnvo brcn cnJUd in, nnd tJi<( rt^^^ion of their 
veventl opinions alat«d by tbemAeivea- Ttiu6| too, la ibe Coturt 
f BiTora of New York, ihe Cbant^Uor aiid the judgv« ars 
LiFTTiWr* of the ruiirt; nn*\f AUhmi^U tht-y do not vutc upon th* 
rvvioton of tfitrir own Judgmmto or dcrrrcs, they &rc r^j^ptrctcd to 
a»«jEn jind explain tho rcruton* of tho ori^na] jnd^^mcut. In 
th<^ m^MJmi pmctic^ of th«^ court* of comnkon hiw, cniiACs mrr- 
coHFitqnily nnd daily rpvisrrl on mcifjonw for nrw trifti» founded 
on the (uppoftrd mJAdtrectiou of the judgt in mnttor of l&w. In 
tbflW cases the ju'l^v fuEUsdf ia a coi:i}H>jjfriit itii;ii]b(.'r of the 
OOQR^ and coiiBtmiiiy toki-t) pari in it« pioL-c^dtiitp. It cerUunly 
may happuii in vuoIj vojs^& ttmt dome biutf of pnxionccived opin- 
ion limy inllut'tiuf-^ tho in<lWidual jiadK*-\ <^r vonie undu^ portion 
of roapwrt for tht? judgmpiil nlnWy prorninrus-sJ muy luioon- 
mouiily ininglr it^t^lf with ihe. jndgm^ritu of otJu:riL But tbr 
uaivcr»ality of ihi; i^ractlc^ £ul)ici«'ntiy shoWA that no great prao 
ticftl evil b cipLTitiiotd froiu fhi« chuhc- 

It hua btfcu aaid in Kn^kddt that the practice of revij^in^ th« 
opinion* of jud^^tt by mottona for new uiiU, inaivud of 61Ing billi 
of (?X4.-rpiion mill Muing out wri1« of i-rror, hn« ^aliy (liminiHhcd 
the pmrtlc-jd rxU^ut of Ihr iip|M-]lHir jiirUrlintJoi) of thtt Hmiru? of 
Lordb. This sbaw^ thai «uhora aie not advi^c-d that they bav« 
no hope U> prtrvfiij a^^nat the tir«t opinions ol' indivlditid jod^csi, 
or the tfympathy of thtir brethrvn. liidocd, tiir,jud|;iBa of th« 
highcfttnink of intellfs^t hriw aJwayv bvun distinguish^ for the 
cnndor witli whkcii thi-y re<*(iii»jder lh*ir own judgments. A 
infill who i^houM r-ominrMil liL]n«r!f for nrvi-r hiiving alltTn-d hhi 
i^pinioii nii^fil ha pmiai-d for tiimn^s» of porj>o»e; but men 
would think of htm, frilhcr that he was a good deal ebovr all 
ottvr mortdiA, or somL'wtutt bt^lnw tho iuo»t cnit^ht^m^d of UiEnn^ 
lie who is not witft: enoufih to im Ldwaya ri^bt, ahoald bo wise 
enough to ehang<.' his opinion when be Andv it wrong. Tbt 
ron)(]tttr!i]ry of ?i truly a^rrwt mnii la pmvpcl by his uniforia at- 
tnchmcnt to trutli nnd principle, and hi* devotion to the bvltciJ 
reason; not by ob«tiiiaic attachment it? tinit-fornied notJOiia. 



Whoever hua not candor ?iioa^h, for gooU cfiUHP^ U> chanf^ His 
own o]>iiiioB»f U not a^f^e authority to change the opinions of 
other itifiL But ut Wntf Slff th^ iiternber fruTn PeiiiiHjlvaiiia 
will tidtiLJtt l}mt, if un evil in thin ritspect i^xist uiidr-i the jirKtriiL 
Jaw, this biJI will atfbnl Aomc mitigation ot ihtit evil. Bjr ftog* 
mcntin^ the number of thi:^ jtJtl^A, it diminii^bt'V the ifiHucnoe 
of tht? itidivkluol wh<Mc jmlgmont mny be uiidtu* n<-vi»ion; and 
so foTj 1 hopft, the hon<mbb member mny himiwlf think th0 
iDcastirc productive of goodn 

Dut, 3b, bvfoic wf; puBlpouL" to AncUicr year the consldt^ratjoii 
of ttiia bill, 1 bt'g again to rt-mlnd the House that tbe mt.*uBure id 
uot uew. Lt ia not di>w in iU general ohitmctt'^r; >t i& not en- 
tiwly new w ito piirticuJar provinioju. The necessity of some 
nsTorm in the jmlidiil c-AlnljIi^hiiit^iit uf i.lie eounlry hn^ boen [ve* 
Mrntod Uj everj- Corigit^uss niiil every AeMJnii of Congn.<s:4, since 
tlie peace of ISIC. What bus been rcc4>mmcnded, at dilTci^ 
Cfit timcA, bu been oirrfidy frcquciitiy minted. It ie eiiou^bi 
ttOWi to eay, that tho measure of extending the ayatom by La- 
cnMlng the number of the judf^ee of the Supreme Court wa* 
presented tu the Hoiiw^f »mi>iig othtrr nieiiMiire!^, in 1823, by t}ie 
Judicituy Cuiiimittee; zind Lh^L -lu hile ±is Ujc UaJ. nc-n^iun it nf* 
oetTcd a di»1ijicl exprcwion of approUition in the otjicr W^nch 
of the Irgi^bturc- <«cntlL*inpn tinvc rcfcm^ to the bill intro* 
fioccd iaii? t\ni liousc? two yean agci. I'biLt hill had my appro- 
badoit; 1 lo dn^claivd nt the commencement of this debate. It 
ppopoeed to pffcet the object of reCaiiiing the judge* \»pon Iheir 
dreaiU wilbaul iimnfUAiji^ their numbrj. Btil il vjna <.-orii|iJiu< 
It vns thouftht to be uiiequui, mid it waa unEutliflfuctory- Thcire 
appcun^d no diApoailion in the Houftc lo adopt it; uitd when the 
8am4^ ineDfure iu mh^titmre vdm ftftcrword* proposed in the other 
btanch of the JfigisUturv, it raoalvod the approbation of no 
more thnn n hnlf dozen vniees- ThU M me t^t ninke a remark, 
at the opeiiiijg of the dubate, wiiicU I have already repeated, 
that, til my opinion, we are brouj^bt to tht: narrow ground of de- 
ciding between the ayatem of CircuU Couild and tho proviuoDa 
of t^itH bill. Shall we kei-p the ju<]^-s upon the i-ircuiu a^id 
augment thoir member, or chLilJ we relieve tliem from drcuit du* 
tie* and appoint upedai circuit jndg™ in thrir phra'M? Thin, as 
Lt 8uefn» to tue, is the only pmctiual i^uo^on leniainini^ Uv om 

vou 111. 16 




1 uo not Iftfend, Sir, to go of^in Into the fr^ncrul qti^itlon ol 
ooiilinuiiig the* juEitif-'es of the 8apn;nit* Couit in fhv diBcnur^ 
of circuit (liitif-ft^ My opmiim htu Immt nlnnidj (ripprflm:!, und I 
}i:iv<- hmnl nolhing lit ithi^r it. Tim hoEiuntlili? gi-rillrmnn fmm 
Virgi lia tloc:» mc morr than justice in cxptnining any tipr^8*ion 
of his own vrhich might icfcr ihi» opinion 1o a recent origin, or 
to any u<xw cireomeTiiiicea. [ confess, i^ir, that four-and-twenl/ 
y^sra a^o, when ihis matter was dbcoMed in Conj^reaa, my oplo- 
ion, &H far ni» I can be auppoved to have hud any opinion th^n 
on fluc^h TiiihjeeT3, im-tini'd **> the arguninril thni n-cMiiiin«nl«l 
the .icpnratioti of the judgrs from tht* circatto. But, if I rxiny be 
pnrrionrd for rcfcmng to nny thing »o liftJc worthy the rtjfiLrd of 
rhe House as my own i^xpencnct*, 1 will «ay thnt th&t etporienoe 
eariy led me to donbt the coirecinpR" of the firrt impre^ibion, and 
thut 1 bpcame saliafipd that It wa» df^nirnhlp in JtaHf thar the 
judgctt of the Supnrme Court ntiouLd r^nalii in iIil- aotive dis- 
charge of the duties of the circuil^. 1 have ncic^ lo oonfoimify 
to ihii! oentiment bo often ua this subjei:! has bt*i*n hvfoTP Con- 
gn^M in the uhort periods thai I huvo b^eii a ni«mhc?r- I wtill ft^l 
^e vume oonvletion ; and though I fLhall oerlsuttly yield the 
[Miinf, mthrr ihiUi that no prtiviMon for Ihr Mulcting rsigrn'^y 
should be modr, yet [ should feel no inuoll:^idr Tdbli- pain lji huIj- 
mitting to such neccA»ity. 1 do not douht^ indeed, BiJr, ihati if 
tfao jud^-ea Wf>r<!i HepiLniled from cirouit duties, we i^hould go on 
very wt-U for boihb yeara lo eome. Bot looking lo it ad it per- 
manent vywtem, T view it with diitruttl and anxiety. 

My ThMMinM art* alrejidy Iw-fiirr thrr Hchjm-, I am not tihont to 
nrpntt tlirm. 1 Ijrg to tiiki; thin ot^4:a?i(»nt hi^wt^viTf, to oonvd 
one or two mi.'*npprchcnMonfl of my meaning into which goiitlo- 
m<!n have (alien. J did not tay, Sir, that 1 wi»hc^ ihe judges of 
th*> Supreme Coorte to go upon the circnil», to the end that they 
might aee In the country tlie tmprett^lon whieh their opinioni> 
made upon the puUlii; sentimenL. NoLliing like if. Wliat I tUd 
aay wa,i^ thut it was useful thnt the jndgt^ of Uic? Su|in.-tne Court 
flhould he ablti to [x^rooivi! thi? applic-ution and hcciring of the 
opiniont« of that oourt upon the vuriety of eausiM eomhig before 
him at the cifeuit. And in not thi* oweful? U U not probublo 
that the jiidg*? will lay rhiwii n grnr'ral rule with thr gniiTert 
wisdom &nd prviastinn, whn c(^mpreliend> in hi:^ virw the grval««t 
nomber of inatanccs to which ihit rule 10 to be applied ? As far 

TME JLDiClAlir, 


ft« I can now reooU tbo tniii of my own idctLis the expression 
WAS «uggiMUHl bj (L roRcction upon thf^ laws of tho W««t<Ta 
SUt^B* rpMptf^-iing t'n\v TO hnd^ We hear o(\en in tbie Motive 
of^jiKlifiiJ ]»'^»iHt»lioiiT" If 'Ally iMidi ibtiig ^xlsl Iii tliis <:otiii* 
tr^^ iLu iiisUmcc of it duubilt^ta is Ui bti fomiU iii tht; UtuJ LtwH 
*>f aorD? of the Western SUt«s. In Ki^ntuckyt ^ui cxumpir-j 
titk'9 1o the Boil ttppfur tci drpujid, to n vrry great rxtt'tit, Tipon 
u nerieA of judidnl dvcitiionv, gvowuig out of tin net of th« Lcgtfl- 
Inttirar of Vlr^nitt pn.Hrrl in 1779, for tli<i imJ« and dUpoKLtiori of 
brr public Homaiir Th** logi«lativ*» provision was very fchort 
unci i^nerfil; mn\ ns tij^lila were iinmeJidlj^l^ uL-tjuirrd uitdnr it, 
the waul of le^ialuiivc deUt] could oidy be ?nppll«d by ju<]idnl 
conjitTuctioQ and dcU-noiiiatioo. Hi-ncc a ny.-^tcin fi^i jb^wft 
up, which ie complex, urtilioial, and ar^unic!ntntivc. ) do not 
impou blame to the cK>un»; ibcy had tin option but to di>cid« 
canes aa they aro?ip, upon Ihr bf^si reannns. And although 1 am 
u v«rj incompetent jud^a in ih^f (ja^e, yet aa far an 1 am in- 
fijrmrd, It pLjr|KT;Lr!i to me ihJit the conrlsi, both of the Stfitc Eind 
of like United bUile^, hnve iipjilied juflt prmeiphi^ tci the ^Intc of 
thingfi which they foorid rxif^ing. ^iit. Sir, an a rule bid down 
at Waabin^ton in onei of theiie< cAsea may be exp^c^ed to atTeot 
f^v^ hoi^dred ofherv, U it noT obvious that a judge, bred to tuii 
pi^uUnr HyvltMn of law, nrid having Jiliw niEiiiy of tlieve ea.ifH in 
judgment before him in bin 4iwn circuit, is bett<?r enabled to 
at^te, to limit, ond to modify the general mh, thnn another 
judge, though of r<iual talcnt-^i who should be a »trangcr to 
the deci^iona of the State tribunala, a strajiger to tha opinions 
and prac'lica of llie profeBtion, end a Btranger to all caaea except 
tlie ftingli* one liefiire birii for jiLd^riient ? 

The hofHimble mejiiber from Penn^ylvnnm luiksi, Sir, whether 
4 atatutc of Vcnnont cannot be iw well undrmt^od at Wtnh* 
oigtoiitiLaftt Windsor or Rutland. Why, Sir, put in tbut ahftpo, 
tile quaatlon ha8 vitry tittle meaning- But if the gentleman Ui- 
t«nd* lo aak, whether a jud^ who haa been for yeara In the 
L<on?<fant iltHcfmr^e of Ihe diilJeH rm*unihenT. ujKjri hnii nit iho 
hr«d of xUt* PirtTiiit Onnrl, Jti Vermont, nnd wlin, thrmforr, baa 
hod ibe »tatiiica of that Stntc Irrijocntly before him, has learned 
tl^eir interpret a lion by the State judicutnre^, and thdr eonnec- 
Ljon wiUi other luwbf local or gi-nerat, — if The queBtion t>€, wheth- 
er sueh a judge ti not probably more eomputeot lo undemtand 




tbat 0taMit« than uiother, vho. with do kno^edge 9f its local 
iuterpn^tiLticm or local applicalian, ahall look at tt» lert«i for the 
firftt tbue in tlw; bcill of tiie 8L]|>n.'inp Court, — if ihl* bt the 
qtirntion, Blr, whu:)i Lhe huiuirable genllt-mati iiienuB tu [jtu- 
pound, J chrcrftilly rclVr him to the Judgment of xhio Hou.ic, 
and to hiK own good undvntondin^T for an nii*w«r. Bit, wr 
haw hcofd a tone o^ obncrvatioa apon this subject which (juitc 
iurpri*(^s me. It srcmi to imply tJi:«t on*' inlrlligrnt mnn U an 
^t to bi* a jii'ljSV of t^t' Supw^mi* Court h» another- Thr |>it* 
coptioti of 1\k true ru]c, aiui IIa ij^htful appUcatioiia whether of 
local or gcnL-ral law, an- euppoecid to be cutiwiy co*jft b«:att*o 
there are mtuiy volumca of attttutt<a and of Ovciaionti. Thvrt* 
can bo do doubt, it »e«nis, that a Supreme Court, howvvcu 
conHtitnlrd, would rvudily underitand, in the tnAtiiuet* mea* 
Ucinrtli tbf* bw of VrriniHit, berauw the ftLitut™ of WrniDiit 
arc occc^fliblc. Nor nerd l»ui»liina frar that her peculiar code 
will not be thoroughly nnd practically known^ inuamueh a« a 
printed copy will be found in the publie htiririePw 

Sir, 1 slliide to nueh argtimrntjiT orrlnlnly not for th4^ purpow 
of nndrrtHkiiig h rrfiilntjun of them, hut only lo eiim-jw my re- 
gret tbat they ahuulJ have found place in this diftcuMLon. I 
have not GOnt<;ndt;J, Sir, for any thing tike judicial reproacnta- 
tion. 1 can not in what tormb of n^proacJi 6uuh an idea be 
spoken of. It hi none of mint*. What I uaid waft, and I vtill 
«ay it, that, with ao niBuy Stiitc-*, having vlu-Ioiim luid diHi^n^Jit 
aystemsj with sudi a variety of hicul lawH luid iiAiigeji nnd pmo- 
tkeftp it ia highly iniporUint tbnt the Supreme Court should be 
iO COOatituted as to alhjw a iaJr prosptxt, in cvrty ook^ that 
thoao IflWe and uF^gea should be known ; and that 1 know noth- 
ing ao naturally conduoLi;«i to thtn end, &« the knowledge and 
experience oblabied by xhp judg^t^ on the circuits. Let me ask» 
Sir^ till" mcaibera from Ntfw Kn^Utidf if they have ever found 
any tmin this oidr, of the North River who thoroughly under^ 
fltood our pmctici? of i^pcdaJ attnebments, our proet^ua of gurniah* 
m^nt, or trustee procf^sa, or «ur mode of exti?nding execution 
tJpon land? And lei me oak, at the Kujne Uitie^ wherlher iixtin 
he an individunl uf th«? prufcii»&ionT tH-lwrrn (hi;* plnei^ und Maine 
who i», at thi« moment, com|>efriit to the decinon of qur^lion* 
arising under the peeuliiu' ayatem of land tittca of Kentueky or 
T«imoaHGc? If there ho ftuch u gentleman, I oonfeefl I bavo not 
tho honor of his aoquiiintanoi>. 



On rhc gonf^ qocftion of the ntility of coiutont oocipction 
m ix^rfc<:tijig rho diftraot4rr of a jadgc, I do not mcnn now to 
enlarge I am awnre that rn'^n will differ on that Mjbjc><!t, an- 
□ordiitK to Ihetr i)il)t>rent m^ans or (litTfreut habllA of abftprva< 
Cion. Tti tin? it E*PTii» ttfl tleai ns any niunil firu^Hnilioii wKal- 
cTTT AriH I woiiM a^k (hn honomble mfmbt-r from Rhode 
titlandi :*incc br hiw rrfcrrcH to the jndgip of the fiwt drcoit, and 
lia« #pok**n of him in term* of w#ppct not ondcfiervwj, whfriticr 
be M)|>poi?ieH that that raeinb^r of th« courl, if» tifte^n yeare a^ 
fsn receiving hl« oommisdon. h^ had removed to thlti oity, and 
had reifiMitied ben- ever stnun wkb ruj ollit-r cxmfiwtjon with bin 
|jnjf(.-n-'<iiiM Ihnn nti jutnunl .^t-a^ioo of n'ix wrrk» in liie Buprrmc 
Court, would htivc been (he jii<Jp- he now in? Sir, if thi.i ques- 
tion wewi proposed to that di»tin|^ii»hed pennon hiini»rlf» and if 
h«* roold ovpwuniP the n*}iictAnce which he would natnrnlly fnpl 
To uppnU ai all of h\% own judicial qnalltiea, I am extremely mia- 
tahrn if be would not ivfr^r to his ooi]iieL<tiOf] with tbe Cinruit 
C-ottrt, and Lb^ frequfiicy and vnriety of bU labom tlicfc, an effi" 
^ient caiuw0 in the [>roducTion of that eminent degree of ability 
with which ht now dii»Ghai^;ra( the dutko of hin etntJon. 

Thpfr in not, Sir, an tnrifi* n^vohition wronpht in tho mind of 
SI ]>ror<'M)nnHl mnn, hy fippoliiHng him a judge. He is still a 
lawyer; and if he have but Httie lo do as a jud^, he la, in 
eflt'ct, a lawyer out q( practice. And liow ia it, Sir with law- 
ycfn who ar*- not judges, and orr- yet out of pmetice? Let the 
opinion and the common pmctic^c of mankind decide thin. If 
yau rr*|nire profe^onal assistnnee In wharevpr rdat*** to VOtUf 
repnlntionj yiiur properly, or your family, do you go to him who 
h rrtirecl frori tho bar, and who ba» untnlemipU^d leisure to 
pvnuc bi» readings and reflections; or do you addreas yourself 
to him, on the contrary, who ia in the midst of alliurs, hu»y 
every dtiy, and every hour in the day, with profeoaioool punuitsl 
But 1 will net follow tbi» topic farther, nor dwell on thia part of 
the ca^c. 

1 have nlready wiid, thnt, in my npinioUt the prrwrnt numbrr 
of the court 1.1 more convenient tbnn a larger number, for th© 
bearing of a certain clo^^e of causce. Tlit« opinion 1 do not 
pptmct ; for I believe it to t>e correct But the question u^ 
whether thie ineonvenience be not more than balanced by other 
arivBiiia^&t I think a \h. 

It hrm hten af^ln And Hf^\n urged, Ihftt thU biJ mal:«« nn 
proviftion for clesrinf^ olT the terra busiucM of tbe Supreme 
Court; ftixl ttrniji^e mbiiik^rH, aft It appears lo in«, are eominlU 
l#d^ asa Ici Uir nrtiouiit of nrrt-ais in thut LtJtirt 1 lirlitrc that 
the biD int«iid<;d to n.-tntdy that «vi] wjU remedy it I bvUeve 
tbene iv tjmu enough Tor tbc oourt to j^ through it» li»1« of 
(mniie!! li«rt.-j witliotit intiTft-riiiK with thi! w»*Jon* of llie Circuit 
CourtH; tiiitl, n(itwitli*in Tiding ihf mulhi^maUcul cnlculiilions by 
which it httn hnpti pmvrd Ihiit thi* iiroiMiwil iidf^itinn to ihi^ 
length of the k'mi wotiM ciLublc the court to decide precisely 
nin» aJditloaal cautfea, aad no more, yet I hav-c authority to aay* 
that IhoM who have the beet means of hnowini!; were of opin- 
ion, two ytujtt ago, that the |>rO[>o[ied ulteratiori of xhv ti-rra 
wuuhl i-tLu1]|c< tht? eoiiri] in two yeant, tu go through all thr- 
cnuMrw IwfiTTt" it rtrtii\y for hi<uring. 

It has htxti Miid, Sir, that lbi# mefk«ure will bijtiTC the e^ftr- 
scter of the l^uprrruc Court; hecau^^c, as we incTea«e numberSi 
we leescn reaponKibility in the i*ame proportion- DoubtltM^as 
a penera] propoultion, there U great Tmih In This rvrnurk- A 
court HO iiuiaerouB a« to beeime a |K>pu]uT body would be unfit 
for thi" mcnW i>r juiliciiil funulJuit-i This if* ivtrfnlu. Rut then 
thiA gent-rjil truth, nithnugh admiH^-'d, doe? not r^nnblc ntt ia fix 
with prcciiiou thft point At whieh thia evil either begins to be 
felt at fiilj or to become conf^iderable ; gtill [esa, where it la s^ 
riout or in t alterable. If «Rvcrn be quite few enough, it may not 
br ensy tn nho^' thiit Irn mnnt iir*cc!!i«iirily W a grent drill too 
maii>. Dut there i» uiiuthtr vlt-w of tbe ea»e, (.(riuieL'ttrd with 
wUnl I have biiid htTc-tufora in thU diccuB&ion, and wliidi fur- 
tiiehetf, iu my tuind, a cotnpifrtc anowiT to this part of the argu- 
menl ; lutd that is, that a jud|^* who iimt varioutf important iudi* 
viduiil duties to perform in tlie CJreuit Court, and who sitt in 
the sppidUtc? iH>urt with nine! olhi^m, ttvit^j on tbe wlioh-, in a 
rni^re cnii^piciioiw rhjirnctrr, ikkI niidrr thr prr*wim of more 
iTTUTio<]iatc and weighty rc*pon?iibi]iTyi than if he ix'rfomied no 
ifidivifiual circuit duty, and eat on the appellate bencli with aiac 
oibent only* 

Bat again, it has been argued, that lo Increase the riumher of 
tlie Supreme CLiurl Is daitgi^rtiuH ; hcr;:uiief with ,Hueh a preeiv 
clriit, Congress may hertnfjrf riTcrl nnj pnrpiKir of ir.i own, in 
r^ard to judicioi deeiHJoiitf, by chan^n^ ee^entiallv t\ic whole 



ouuFiUitlon cif i\w t^rinrl, ami tivrrtli rowing its j^tTM ()i<ri>t- 
tonei, by nu^mmlln^ (he- mimbcr of judgi^. Whf'iicvcr C4in* 
grc9«, it in itnlcl, may dislike tbc conr^titutional opmione tu)d 
dccisioDB of the court, it may mould it to itft own vtrwi^i upon 
th« authority of tho present example. But thesu abuMt-;i of 
pow^r are not to be anticipated ur uuppoiwd; m\d Ibeivrore 
HO arguineKi rt^jjlul1A from them. 

If we; were to be Allowed to imu^inr thitt tbr Irginlntum wntild 
Qct in cdtirc disifcj^nrd of itj< duty, there nrc wnyji rnoogb* err- 
toiiily, bolide that niippomd, in which it might dcfftroy the jadi* 
ciary, o* wdl an »ny othvr bmnoh of the government The ju- 
diciary power ifi confrnrdi «nd the Siiprt>me Conrt eslab])>^hcd, 
by the Coimliliirloii ; brit l.h«'ii Icgji^laliv^ ncT« iire nei<4^wiHry to 
i:onrrr juri!«liclioi) on In fi:Tii>r courts, and toregalali! pruticrediiigs 
in oil rourts. If ConxretiH stiimid neglect the duty of prsi^iing 
Ruch Inwts the jnibmal powc^r could not be efficiently cvrcincd. 
If, for Bxamplf^, Congrcw wrre to ropenJ the twenty-fifth e«^ction 
of the judicial act of 17^9, and mstkiY no 8Ub«titntt.», there would 
hi.' no mode by wkj]i-h ifie Jec-LHionB of Sl^te triburmlh, on <|ue-c 
tions RTiMog nnder tUe Cuntilitution and law? of iht! United 
States could he rc^'i»ed In (he 6u|)rcme Court Or if tbcy 
wcrr; to rrponl The oinvcnih section of that net, the power of try- 
ing <-aneL*A bctnvcn cifJKcnH of djftcrcnt Stati^e, in the tiibunald 
of tbitf |*ov^riimenf, could not be exerclHed All other bfuncbe« 
of thp guvt-ri III lent rJepeTid, In like inaiiiierf for fh^ir rtmlinuanci* 
in lifr- rtml brinj^:. niid for the pr<i|H-r tfxfui'is*? uf Un-ir powr.n, on 
the prcMimprinn thnt the IrgiAlnturc will di^hnrgc it:< coni^titu- 
tjonal duiii'N If it wcrr pop^^iblc to adopt the oppo^tc »iJppo- 
aitton, douWlo8ft ihiTc nrr mode* enough to which w'<? may look' 
to i^u the iiubver«ion both of the oourta and tbs whole Conirti- 

Mr. flpprtkf'r, 1 will nut dcliiin yon by fnrlher reply tti Ihn va- 
rJoos iibJETCt'ionn which have been made to Ibin bill- What hns 
occurrctl lo me n» mont impiirtiinl^ 1 have noticed either now or 
hetclofons -iml 1 reft'r tb<f wholn to the dJApckMioiinte judgment 
of the Houee* Allow mc, howp\^r, Sir, bcfjr<^ J *it down, to 
diKavfHT, on my own h^hnlf nnd on hehnlf of thi^ cv^mmitTre, 
nli nHineirtioi) bt.-twr>en ibis mtrasun.- and any opinion?! or drt^j^ 
ion.-H given or cipcclcd, in any cauaes, or cJaas(*i of caueea, by 
Uic Supreme Court. Of Cho rocrita of the case jf wbtvh curly 




mL*rHi»ri wft< mmie in thr* ilrlmtiTt I know nothing. 1 pr^mraa 
it W!i* ngbtl)r drritlrcJ, Ix^ntiiAc il was drridcii by f»\vorn jiidgri, 
compc«ii)g ft tribunal in which the Coodtitutjon itiA the laws 
liavc lod^d the povcr of ultimate judj^niL-iit. h wotild he nn* 
worthy, mcJeed, of the maf^ittid^ of Ihia occufiioni tu b^nd oar 
course a hair's breadth on the one side or the other, either to 
jTnvor or lo opjHi?^ wlinf we iiiL|^hl \i\w, or dislikv, in rfgnnX to 
pajtieulAr quf^liims- Surely we ntr not fit for lhi» grmi. woik, 
if motive* af tisnt tort can pcxtibly come near ua. I have 
forborne, throughout thi» dubcnn^ion, all cxprrs^ion of opinion 
on the mnnncT in which the tnemb«» of lh« Supn^me Court 
have heretofore discharged, and (till discharge, ihe reapotiBible 
duties of their srailon. [should feel restraint and finhnnnSH- 
meiit, were 1 io mnkc the altempt to expren^ my srnliint-ntA on 
thnt point. Frofecaionid habits snd pumuit^ conrttct mc with 
the court, find 1 fn-l thnt it in not proper that 1 chould speak 
h«w of the perKinal (^UEilitina of itH rarmbcts, either ^neraUy or 
individually. They whRlJ not fiiffer^ at least, from any iU-tJnk«d 
Of dum«y euLogj' iif mine, T could not, if I would, make Ihnn 
butter known tjmn lliey are to IhcU cxmntry ; nor could I eiLlier 
«tjcn^licii or r^hnke the foundation of chdnictf^ and talc-nt upon 
which they nlond. 

Hut of thv judiciid brunch of the jj^overnment, and of tlie in«ti- 
tution of the Snprrm** fjnirt, a* the bi'ad of that branch, 1 bag 
to iay t.hnt no mnn enn regard it with more r<<iipiHrr. and nttach* 
tAfiot than mysoif. It may have friends more able^ it ba« now: 
mnrr. sJncen.'. No conviction is deeper in my niind, than that 
the mriintenancc of the judicial power is estvcntiui and iiidia- 
pontnble to th« very being of tbi« gov^rnmenU The Conittitu- 
tion without it wmild t>e no coniililnlion ; the g<tvernment» no 
govrinment, [ atn ilwply wrnsiblr, loo, nnd, 3]?< I Ihiok, evrry 
man must be whose cyea hate bcrn open to what Sas passed 
around him for the last twenty ycnrs, that the judicial power ia 
the proti-ctirig power of the whole government. It^ position la 
upon the outer wall. From the very nature of things aiid tbe 
fmnte of the Constitution, It forms the point at whieh our dltfer- 
ent ■ynt^'mn of government meet m col|j?«ion. when eolKnion uii" 
happily exists. By the abmilute necrsMty of the case, the iDcin- 
bc?n) of the Supreme Court become jiid^ii of the cxtiint of 
coublitutjonal powt^re. Tb«v ar^ if 1 m^y so cvUi thenk, the 



groat jirbiirutoTB behvceii contr^aUiiig sovereignties. Every man 
is nblo f.p *cc how ddicatc ujid bow critjcal niu»t be Hiv exer- 
ri*# of muh pi>wi*r!i in fr»'<' and |K>iii:1»r govpnimenta. BuHpicioii 
nnd jrHlnnsy nrr rnftily nttulr*), under *uch circumsUtiices^ uguiiiAt 
a body, ntccs&ftnly few En nambcr, and pa»^c6smg by the Con- 
stttuticn a pormancrtt tenure of oilicc- While public men in 
more popular parta of tho i^vommQat may oeoapo without n> 
buke^ notwithstanding they may aomeiimea act upon opinion* 
which arc not am'tpiable, that impiiiiity i* not to be cxjjecttd jn 
lK*[ialf <»r judiriul Iribunjd^ U i^minot but hiive allrrti-ted obser- 
vation, that, in the history i>f our govemncnt, thtr courts have 
not been able to avoid tcvcTii, and somctimea angry compliunt^ 
for givjn|> their eanctioii to tho«o public mcaaiirt^a which the rep- 
resentatives of the pt^ople bad adopted without exciting; particular 
(JUquielude. MeirilH^rii ot ihia and the other hauat- of Coii^eaft^ 
iifding vulunttirily, nnd in Ihr eterdsc of Ihcir gi?nf-r-il ilistvt-UoM, 
bave cnnctrd Jnwv without iticiirring an unccmntoii drgrnc of 
dislike or rrscntmcut ; and yt-^t, whm those very Inws have been 
brought before the ronrli and tho quF-ntion of their validity has 
been distinctly raided, and U necesfiarily to be delermtnrdp the 
Judges affirming (be coiiHtltullonal v^idiTj' of aueh acta^ although 
thi* ocrn»ioa wu» fon^Eid if[Hiii Uietii, and th(?y w(*rt< ab^dnttdy 
boiind to ^X|iress thr one uphiion or Uir olh(% hnvir, iievrrthD* 
ItMS not escaped a severity of reproach bordering upon the very 
Tcrgc cf dcnuncJationi Thie Gxpericnco, while it teaches u& the 
dflngara which environ this department, inittruots ua moet per* 
fuuavely in !(a importance. For ItA own security, and th*^ tK!CQ> 
ntf of the other Iminciht?!! of Uie govprnment^ it n-quim viich aa 
extraardinary union of djj^crrtion mid Brmiies^ of abitily and 
modetationt that nothing in the country is too di^tingoiahcd for 
Mbct acitse or too gifUxL with powerful talent, t« fill the sitn^ 
tion» belonging to it 


llip whol* Hmifw Tipfiii The ntn» of iho Union, m. : ^ 

** Raohtd, ThiX in lh« op'mioQ of th« llou«c it U cupcdnni lo «p- 
pv^priatQ thr> ruMt n«cotK«irr lo cnaU«- itw Prendcrl of the UnilBd 
Slftttw to H!ti(3 minuitcni to the (!VknRrr» of PnrAmn'*; — 

Mr. M«Lu]i; of D«lavftr« tulfinidad iho followinf; atrwcdmcbt t!her«- 
to, VTi>: — 

** It bciiLjE unrlentocid aa l]io opinion of this Hotfiv, iIlilI, «« it hiw a1* 
wavn boon tho scitk<d policy of tliiti p>vrMTi[iicm« Jii i^^ilendinf; our eom^ 
iiitrciai r<.'l[iTiouB with fofviffn nDtioriii^ to havo uich ihr-m u Utile pollu* 
GaI coniiccliurk as imn^ibtrt Uj {'ri;wrv« }i<.mL'u, codiuiirrxr, niuJ frirudblup 
With all nniiotiB, And to form cnuuigfia^ olJinncua with none i the mima- 
tKni wIhi mny bo wnf ihnll tillrrn'l ftt thft fuiil C->ngrn*iii in n rfiplnmfttic 
diamcle^r m&rclj, und uuglit not to be auilioria^ed tu discuia, comidtr, 
or comutf, upoti nny propcMrition of aflmncp, offrmsivo or dnren»ivo, 
KftTwrfr* fhk coimtTj* ftiwl *ny nf tbe SpnnUb American grivernm«iitl*, 
or any alipulBiioD^ compact, or dcctomtipn, biTidtnit eI.g Uaiied Btattm m 
uiy wny, or to uty nt^cnt, to roflint Lntoffoninco from Bbroad with th^ 
doiritLpfllr rciiic«nis of ihc ifonmid ^ivf?rrimf<Tm ; or any menfoin? which 
fhnll commii the pnacnt or future nf:utri>l ri^htji or dJtic* of thflio 
Uniwd 8taifr», »Liher aamay tcgard Europetin nAiiooit, or beiwouo tho 
MUQtol nmirsi of Mcxhii luid f^cniih Americii ; leaving ihe Utiilcd Sitiinf 
fbco lo odopt, in iiTiy cvnil whicli niiiy happen, iiflt:ciiiig thu rvUtiorui 
of llio South American govemmenifl with ench oiher, or with foreign 
nftliona, niJch ni'ffwiirfis nn the friendly t!ih|io*iiTii)rt clii;r('ihtf<J by the 
AmericiUL people towards the people of those stales^ uid ihe honor aod 
imeroit of tliii tioTioTi^ mny mquire '* ; — 

To which Mr- Ri^i-B of Virgmia pru^KMod to euJiJb vSUit Uiv wonlv 
** oTorewkid governmental^ tho following : — 

* A Hptif)h di'hv^r^ in the Uoum of Rcpruentalive* of Ihc Uniceii Stale*. 
?niho llthuf Ajnl, ltid6. 



** (^ any eompacl or (in|;iip»indni by iHiich lh« UnilAd SiftiaE ahutt be 
pl«Jgi*d ro (ho S|Aini*ih Aiiwrican MtlM, lo m&jntftrn, by fufTT'i, ihe [trin- 
ciplc thfti no pixrt of ihc AmnrLCAji oontuMot ii hcoccfonrard lubjeot K* 
^omzJiiic>rt by sriy Eurtjrtiftn povor** 


Mr. Chairman, — I am not ambitloun of funpUr/m^ tbiddU- 
cutwjon. On ihv conrmry, il w my amioo* wiah to ooiiiine the 
cIvbaU*, »o fur ai) I partakL' in it, to Ibe renl twil tmxlCirM que#- 
tlorw before uh. 

Dm judgntetii of tbiii^ ik liaMr, ifcmbttrs*, In Ih- iitfTupiifyHl Eiy 
our opinions nf nvii. It wojiltt br uJTiTtfil.ion hi niA, or ill nJiy 
one, to cl&un mi exemption from thb» po^ibility of bins, I cui 
eaj, howovtv, th»t it hnn hocn my AJnocre purpose to ooMidei 
ftftd diecoM tlie profli'iit nubj^nt with th« nn0^ vigrw of findiiifs 
out what duty it dpvr>1ve« upon me, as a membET of the Hou«e 
of Hi^n<<>r*|]Tn liven. Tf any thing ham flirerf«^) me fmni tlut io!e 
njin, it ban Ewrn i^iuiifit my infrntion. 

[ thinkiBirthnt ib^^nc *r(^ tvo qur^tion^ nnd tw«" <mly, fwour 
decision. The: limt i:i, wbMhrr thr iloiiiir of K^prei^ontntivcv 
will awomi? th« rc»pon"ibJlify of withhclrlin^ ihe ordintiry ap- 
propriation for cftrryini^ into "ffix^t an exeoulive meawnre, 'flwht<^h 
the eu^'Ufive depan.ireiil [laik c4iriBliIutj<iim1ly rfivtitufed. Tbu 
■eocnid, wbeLhvr. If it wiU nut wiibbolU the appoiprnitiaiit It 
will yet take (he fe»paiiHibility of intcrpoffin#r, with Itfl own 
opinionrs direefioiitf, or instnieiirns, an to the miuiner in which 
thi* particuJnr executive rru^nitire nhnll bn condneted. 

1 ftm, r-i*rtHinly, in Ihr n^gntivr, on both tbew qneadoM- I 
am ijritluT wiiilrig Ut n-fn^p. Ihc approprintion, nor am 1 will- 
«n|c ti> limit or reatTuLn iho ilis(M*iio« of the tuet^jtivt^ brftirt' 
hnnd, as to tbc manner In which tt fthhll pcHorm its own np* 
prophdto conialitiilioiial dtHie*. And, ^^ir, Ihoso of us who hoid 
thene cpinioott tiave the ndvuntiigt^ of being on the (*r>mincn 
higbwny nf nur mriomil pdliTH-sL Wp prnpnup nothing n**w^ 
we «oi<griit iionhniigr*; wr* Ht|]i«'re< to tbf* niiifLimi pi»ic(ii.v of 
the govemincjit, a» I nritif^retand il, frtim lis oriffin. It is for 
Lbow^ on the other baiwl, who arc in Trivtv of dihCT, or both, of 
tita propO'^ition^i to ehcw os Ihf co^-ni rcrt^'^itid whuh rrotrrii- 
mend th^-^ir odoiitioit. It in tJivir duly lo fAlidV ifae llouMe and 



lh«c«uplrj th&tthci« b something in the prevent cccft»ion vhidi 
calN for ouch nn extmordinary ftDd oiiprcccd^iilcd intcrfcronco. 

Tlit^ PrtMiid<-nt nod Senate have instiluled & public mtaaton, 
foT the putpo*p or irMting w;ilh for*>ign ataf^* The CoiisiItv* 
tiun givrH Ui tb<< Pra'Kultrnt. thi- |Hiwt-r tif n|ifH>]^, willi IIjc 
ftmsrtit «>f the Brnntc, fimhnMadoni and othor puhlin miniAU-rei 
Such appointment i», thcrcforr, a clnir nnd anqiirMionnblc ei' 
orei«t? <if ojcrcntivc pownr. h », iiid«*d, I<rti conn<*Gt«^d with 
lh« ftppropriatc dotiua of Ihist Hcn;*e, than nlmoit nny other ex 
emf.tvr Het ■ h^cAUKP the olTier of ii pnblifr mininler \% ttttt (To- 
uted by any statute or law of our own government. It exbta 
under (he law of national and ia Tccognucd as existing by oni 
ConsUtufioii. The acta of Congresfli indcf^d, limit the selaiiea 
of public miTiintem ; but they do no moro- Every tkinf^ elae in 
regard to the appomtment of puhUe mlniHtem,— their nnmbera, 
Ihr timi' of IhHr niipoinlmrnt, hik! (bL- nrgiilhilidnN c-CJnli-tripUl«l 
in *iieU uppointmenls^^ i:* mnttrf for ewrntive diKTrlinn. Ev- 
ery new fippointmejit to itupply voconciea in cxii^ting tnissioot 
is under the snme authority. There arc^ indeed, whnt wc com* 
monly torm »tanding misraoup, no hnown in the |ira<-tioe of the 
l^ovemnifrnt, but they am not mnde ppmiJiijenT by any law. Alt 
missions rrst on fbp same gniuri(3. Now the qnr»lioa is, wheth- 
er, th€ PreBident and Senate Imvln^ created this niideioiit or. in 
other words, having appointed the miniatera. in tho ex<!rciBe of 
their uudoubred conBtitiittonal |Tt>wer, liiis House will take upon 
it*eir t)ie responsibility of defentSf^g iu objeota, find rerdL-ring 
l^ii* exerciste uf execnlive powitr \ti\i\ ? 

By voting the Halpiries in the nrilinjiry way, we nstj^umi*, nii It 
seems to me, no responsibility whatever Wc raerrly cmpcwci 
another branch of tho government to discharge its own appro- 
priat* duties, in that mode whiofi seems to itself moat oonducive 
to the public? InTeresta. We are, by so voting, no more reapontl- 
b\v fur llie nt»niier in which the nef^uliatioii •shtiW \jv eottduetnlj 
than wc are fijr the ninnner in whieh one of the heads of depart- 
ment mnyditieharge the drttie*cf hin oHioe. 

On the other hand, if wc withhold the ordinary means, we do 
mcur a heavy rcAponeibility. We interfere, as it s«emB to m^ 
to prevent the action of the government, according to eonatJtu* 
tWnal forms and provl^iionit. It oti^ht eoimtiirilly lo h*'. remem- 
U-rrd. that our wb>i^- puwrr in the case w merrjy iiu-idriilid. it 



!■ oiily birc3iuHi' publii* miniedrni iriu>t h»ve sslnric^, Ukt? uLho 
Ljincc:r», mid bc^cAunc- nti wiljirirn r«in be paid but by uiir vpt4!, 
that the subject i* rrfcrrcd to ua ot nil- The Constitution vrrt* 
the |K>V(^r of appointment in th(^ I'rccitJcnt nnd i^cnntc ; the Uw 
giv^s to the President ev«ti ih« poWOT of (ixin^ tb^? amount of 
ttisry, within r^rluin limits; and the only quealton h^re l» upon 
ibe appra|iritillori. Thtre Im no doubt that uk^e havv the jiower^ 
if vre bve &t tcj exfrruM! it, to brc^^di up the? mtmion, by withhold* 
ii!^ Iht* Hiikrit'rt. Wc have powrr nUo tt> brr^ik up the? court, by 
withholiiui^ th(-- sciluncMi of iUv jiidjen^T or to brettk up the otfico 
of PrL*)iidcnt, by withliohiiug the VAlnry prondcd for tt by Jaw. 
All UiM*? *^"ng*j it i" tJiJt'i wr tnur thy powrr to do^ ■Iner 
wr hoM thr keys uf Ihi' imi»*ury. Hut, ihrn. i.^n wr right- 
fully cxcrraec thia power? The genUeman from IVnusylvaiua,* 
with whom 1 have great plra^iure in concurring on thia part 
of the oaao, while 1 regret thai I dilFtir with lain ou olhcrBt 
has ptaoed thld question in a point of view which cannot be im- 
proved Tliene olTie^rs do, irKle>ed, nin-udy vxitit They are 
public iium^trr.i. Ef they were to oegofiali? n tp^Hty, and Ihr Hrn* 
Ota ahould mtily it, it would become a law of the land, whrth<:r 
wo voted their italariea or not This shows thnt the Constitution 
D6Tor contemplated that the HottHe of Repreiioittativea should 
flot a part in onginating negoiinfions or eoneluditig Treatlca. 

I know^ Sir, it i?i n ani^lefn Inhar lo diM-ui?k!t iht? kind ofpower 
whidi this House inetdeiitalty holda in these cnncn. M:?n wiJ] 
dtffei in that particular; and as thn forms of public buainc^n 
ond of the Constitution are such that the powor may bn cxer* 
mod by this House, thert' will alwnyji bn nome, or alwnyv^ may 
be i^Dme, who fed inclined to exerctHr it. For mysHf, I fp#l 
bound net lo st^p out of my own apLerei and neilhe-r to eier- 
ctse or control uny autl^orjty, of which the Cojisututioii htta 
ititendf^ io loilgT! tJic free und unrtetniin^^d exerciBe In other 
bund& Caeos of i;xtri*mi: ncce^^ily, in which a n;^rd to public 
■ifHy ia lo be Che supreme Jaw, or mther to take place of all 
Jaw, must he nllowod to provid*' for Th**mBrlvi*B whon th^y ari^e, 
Argumi-nu drawn fr<»m *n<:h po*^ihIe ^a'^r** will *h»:d no light on 
the general path of our conaTituttunui duty* 

Mr. Chairman, 1 have an habitual and very eincere reaped for 

■ Mi Buc'iMtn. 




tti9 Opinions of iht genHlemsxi bwn DeUvptKi. And I oui aa^ 
wtlh tnith, that he ie cbe la«t mftn in lh« Houw from whom 1 
MioiiliJ havp looked for ihia pru^NJiikioD of Ami-ndiiieiil, or fmpi 
whom I sJiould have 4.-x|H?ci«() lu licaratniie of ihe reiuiniB whieh 
he ha> given in iu support. He Mya* Ihcit, in ihiti tnatirr^ tho 
dourcc frntn which Ihc ntcnsarc aphnge shnnkl hnvi- no mHiJcnoc 
with uj whatever. I tlo not comph^heiid thi^ ; nnd 1 rauiooC bat 
think ttiR honomhlr- grntlrmnn has been Mirprbrd into on mc« 
|Tr(!iviian wblrh (1o<*ii not ronvpy hk« niPuniDg. Thiit iri^aHure 
oomea from tlm Mei^ufive, and it id an appropriati! nuvuitw of 
0X4*cutivc powirr How is it, then, tbat we are to t^naider it as 
entirely an open qnc^stion for ns, — as if it wi'To ft Iciciotutive 
rnt'Eiflurc orif^inuling with ourvulv^*? [n deciding whether wa 
wiM rnnblr xhr rxrontive lo i*xefei«i^ hi» «)wn tlutiiw, nrv we to 
cron*iiIt*r whMh'^r wr «hoD]d hnvf pti^'iwd ih^tii in thff «iimr w«V 
ooraclrt-a? Ajid ii wo differ In opinion with the Prcaident and 
^Dftte^ arc we on that account to refuBe the ordinary nieanA? 
I think nut: nnlc«ta wi? mean to e%y that wo Will ounralvev 
«ert>i!** all thL* powt^r* of Uie govern merit. 

Bui tlie gendemati «rgi]e», thnt, ahhough gvnenUly aueh % 
ronrw? wnidd not I* propiT, yvt in the prR«-nt m»e ihr l^nj- 
dent hft> especially referred the mnttcr lt> our opinion ; that he 
hnn thrcwn oll^ or atu^mpted to throw elf, his own oonrtitutionaj 
reAponfihility ; or nt Icarjl, that he propo»<-» to divide it with ma ; 
ibnt h^ recjuesla our advice, and that v,f, baring referred that 
reqiipirt. to thfl Committee on Foreign Aflairs, have now reeeivwl 
from Uiat uoiunBitiee llieir reiairt tliereon. 

Bir, Ihifi appears In irn? a very miAlidteit view of the ■ubjn.-t; 
hirt if it were nit po, if onr advice and opinion had thus been 
ankoH, it would not nlt^r Ibe line of our doty. We .cnnnot tiLka, 
Ihixigb it were olTrred, sny nhan* In neeiitivu duty. We can- 
not divide their own proper reflponflihillty with oth^r hrRnehet 
of tilt- ^ovt-rrninnil. The Preiiideiil tuiniuii properly ask, Jind w« 
ciunioL properly give, onr advice, as lo the riian^er in which h« 
nhall dinchargu hin dadcA. ilc cntinol sihift ih^^ redponaibitily 
frtun hitnaelf; and wc cannot luwnme it. Htich u courao. Sir, 
would confound .'ill that i% dintinel in onr reipeetlve ?04i*litu* 
tional functions. If wnniri hrrnk down nil known diviNiiinn ol 
power, and put nn i.'\u\ to all ju»t n-sponigtiility. If tlir Vir*h 
icnt were to receive dircrrtioua or advtcc &om va^ in things pcf- 



tjiining to UiR ilutivw nf hhi. avrn oHmw, whit wanUt brfMimr of h\% 
rmpun^biliLy tu uk mu] tii the Senate? We hM litr iin^M^ach- 
ing povrrr. Wc arc to bring him to trial in &njr ca>c of dioJ- 
ndminiBtmtion. The Scpatc arc to judge him by Ibc Coaatitu* 
lion and laws; ftnd it would bd ain^fu^ mdeed, if, wheo •uoh 
iK^nuLJon »honid arifi^, thp party accused «hoald have the meaoi 
nf shcltLTing btin^rlT under Ili« advice or ojiiiiioiia uf bi» n*> 
caMt& Nothii^t caui be more incorrect or more tbingeroun 
tban thic pW^'ing tbi^ Hou^* brforiliniid to any opinion lu to 
the tniuiiicr oi dii^bcir^iig executive duUe*. 

Bat, Sir, I *cc no evidence wh»tciv«r that Iba ['n-fHidcQl bu 
ukvd tt« to tnkr thin mi-nsuro upon oiir«<^lvre, or fo divide tho 
rcspoiiNbHJty of It witb [lirnH [ stt- no i^ueh in^'itaiion or n?- 
queau The Senate havlug coinMirrod In tbe nuAeicn. tbc Fre»i< 
dent bae Hit a mcesagc n:<|ucbtiLiK the ui>propriatioii, in the 
u«uai and oomnion fotm. Iii aiiBwir to u call of tJiv Houhc, on- 

■r mesao^ U Meat^ eonxinuiiiimiiiig tJi« eom-irp<uid«uci-% and 

Ling forth Ihti objec>ts of the rniwdun- It i* ci>nlendi^d, that 
hy fbin mrKMi^ lie npk^ oiu iidviiu', or lef'tnt Llut niibjctrt to our 
opiiuon. I do not so undcrataod it Our concurrrnee, he aayc, 
by ninkingtlie appro priotion, i^ subject to oar free dcterminn- 
ticn, OooblleB* it i« eo. If we dt^tf^rmiDo ^t all, wo 8hall delei 
minfl freely ; and the raeaoa^ dc^a do more than leave lo our 
aelvf^ to decide how far we feel ourselviM Uiiuid, eiither U> 
rapport or to thwart tJie t^rcuti\e dr|iiUiTnf?ul, in tlic txerciM; of 
ittf dtitieo. Tbere la cio nievsn^ tut document, no comnxunica- 
tion to u>T which ikskit for our eoncum^tice, Dthtjrwise thui ua we 
jthall m&mf(-«t il by rouking tin? ^ppropriuti^iL. 

Un*loiibt«ily, Sir, the Prmidrftt wtkuld ht- gliid to knt>w that 
tbe iiieiij^urr^ met the appoUation iil Uic Holjm. ]!r iiiu»t be 
aware, uiKtuestlonably, that all Icadiit^ mea»ufv« mainly di^pcnd 
for ftuoccda on the support of Coii^^w*. St-iU^ ihoro i« no 
evid«ne« that on this ooca^on he ba««ou|:;ht to throw otTreepoo- 
•Ibibty from bimfteZfi or That be de^lrea ub to be an8w«rable for 
any thiTi|^ bt'ytirul the <]i?<(.<hHi^i- of dur own coriHEitiitioiia] duties 
I havn tdfEady snid, Sir, ihal 1 know of no j)rerpdei»t for aunh n 
proc%cdin^ aa the amendment propntK-d by the iccntlemtui from 
Dviuwure, None whit^h [ think analo^an* hm be^.^n ejted. 'i'ho 
resolution of the House, some ycnrn n^, on the subje^'L of the 
sUve'lradr, i« u precedent the other way, A otimmitiec had ra- 



ported Ihal, iii unler to pul rui *-«J Iv tin' f<Ii*vr'-itni|i*, a mtitnv 
nght of arufch tnight be ndinUtixl nnil Firntngr<j bjr nr-gotinlion 
But thid opinion wmo not incctpomtrd, &8 the gcntJccnan now 
proposes to incorporate his tuAcndmcnt, into the rcaoJatioEi of 
the lloaae. Thtt TMolation only doolarod, in general tenOB, tbat 
the President be reqiiCTfed tr> enfPT upon such ne^tUtlons wllh 
otJier powers ilh fie mi|^bl deem expedWnt, for the eflecrtiiHl iibck 
Ution of tlti! Afhcui slavc-tmUe- U io Miigulnr rtioLigli, rtnd 
maj acTvc &a on admomtioti on the prcaent occ&siloti) th&t| • 
nt!gDtJ&Uon hcivinjt; be«ii eondudedf in cont'ormity to the opinion* 
«i|}ret»pd, not, tndi.<c(if by Iht* Ho»j*ir, but by thi; comitiittcp, the 
tmnty, when kid helorc ibe fic-n»te, *'■» rj'jf-t'b'd by that body. 

Thi.^ grutlcTnan froTn Pi'kiwnre bitnsf^if mivh, tbat the C«n- 
atitutioiml rcfipon«ibility pcn4in» atone to the ei:ccutivc depari- 
ineiitt !md that none otbcr hn# to do with it, aa a public lucadure. 
Tb«»e admidmoztd eeern to 'me to conclude tbe (|ueHlion; be- 
Cftvtter bi the Gnr place, LT the con»titudona] reflpoiibibility ap- 
pprtainu aV^ine to tbe Prfiildeiilf be i^uniiot devolve it on on if h' 
wotdd ; and bt^cnuse, in tliv tfecond place, I nee no j>roi>f of niiy in* 
tention on bid pitrt »o lo di:rvo[vc it on un, «v«n if h*: had thr? power. 

Mr. t-biurmnn, i will here take dccit^ion, in order to prevent 
iniHit-pprehrnHion, to Db»<-rve, ihiht ni> our \% inori^ convinced thaii 
1 Ain, thfit it 1% the right of tbitf ffon)^« and often Ita duty, to 
eiprcu il« geucm) opfnion in regard to questions of fon^^i 
policy. Nothings certainly, i^ nkorr proper. 1 liavc concurr^ 
in Bucb proceedings, and am ready to do fto a^tL On tlioae 
great eubjecta, for infiianoeT whiL-li form the leading topio^ in this 
di»cu»iiioiii U U not only the ri^ifhl of the Hoiue to *x[3reR* itt 
opinionHr ^^t I think it itn dnty to do ao, Lf \i iihould auppoH* the 
executive to Ik- pursuing a geurml courm- cf polic.y wUich the 
IIcu^c it«clf will not idlimately nppruvr. Out thnt i« nomcthiug 
ejitircly diH'cicnt from the present »U£^fttioa- Here it is pro* 
po«ed to decide, by our vote» u-hat Hbnll ha diecut^od by partiou- 
lar miiii^lers, already appointed, when ibey shckll ra^et the min* 
isteiB of the other p4)\iirr4. Thia la not a general exprewion of 
opinion* It is' K piirlicittrtr dIrenLion, or a apenul inKtrnetitm* 
Ite opt^ration i'e hmittx] to the conduct of pnrtieultij- mm, on a 
particnlur occar^ion. iiuch a thing, Sir, is w^boily un|ircccdcntc<l 
ill our history. Wh<?n t)ic lEouae procei?dB in thi^ nocu^tom^ 
way, by genenU rcfioluiion, it* aentiments apply oh fur a« ex- 



presaet), lo all public agents, and on all occasions. Thvy n\tp\y 
lo the wbol« coarse of iiolicy, fuA muat iicci^MarUy be fell every- 
where-*. But if w<j iirocccd by way of ciirc^oLion ic prtrticulnr 
mnustm, wr mant direct thuim cUl. In vbortf wu niuttt tulic upon 
OQndvt-« to funiiah diploinuUc Ui*1niction« in eiU c&mcii. 

Wr now pnipiMf< Ui prrsi-rilx^ whiit our tiiinUlj^ni Hhnll flisciua, 
and whut ihi.'y «liall not di»cu8A, at Panama. Bui tlinre ia no 
subject c^oinini- up for discussiou at Panama, whidi might not 
atao be prop<hwd fur diacuaajon L-ither here, or at Mexico, or in 
the eapiuU of Culorultiu, [f wu (brvet whcit our mim^tcra at 
Panama shaU or ■hall n<it nay on the vnbjiH^t of Mr^ Moiiroo'a 
declamtion, for estanipIcT why shoiild wb not proceed to say aJso 
what our o(h«-r nliiist^-rb abroad, or our S«.'<-rr-C4ry at hume, dhall 
aay on the aatme aabj>ct? There U pit^ciiM^ly the came reaaoEi 
for the one aa for the other. The couree of the Hou^t^ hitlicrlo, 
Sir, ban not been t^noh. It ha^ expreactcd ite opiiiionB, wbc-n it 
deemed proper to express than at all, oa great leading questions, 
by rrnoUition, and in 9 general form. These general oplnioa;!, 
being ihoH made known, bave doubtlejiri always bad^ and aiieh 
GxprcuiutiB of upinion doubtltsn always wiU have, their ellect^ 
ThU is the pmcticc of the t^v^rnmirnt. It Is a salut^iry prao* 
tioe; but if wi* ciirty it Inrthcr, or nxther if wu adopt a vi?ry dif- 
ferent praoliot^, cuid uiiderlnke lu pteecribe to our public ininiB- 
tent what tbry *hn[\ di^r^uw, tini\ what thry ^Imii not dtai?usH, wa 
\jtkri upon curH'lvfA Ibfit which, in my jtut^nienl, doen not at all 
belong to ua. I bi;c no inort' propriety ut oar dtrt^Jdiiig jiom^ ia 
what manner these miuislcre ehaJl discharge their duty, than 
there would have bco^i in our preaeriling to the Pruaidcnt and 
Senate what perilous ouj^t to be appointed mijiistere. 

An bonoraiUe na-mher from Virginia," who spoke bome daya 
Hgity iieetns lu gii hUII fnrtbrr Th?in the mi^niber from Delaw^^e. 
He maintain?^ thai we may diblingul>h between th*^ >ariouA ob- 
ject* contemplated by the extculivc la the propoftcd negotiation^ 
and adopt aome and rtjeet others. And this high, delicate, and 
important lru»li the gtrnllemau di^duoea «imply from our pow«r 
to withhold (he mliilBtt^ri *iulurie«. Th«? pruce?(^ of the gt<nde* 
inan*e aryninenL appc-nrs In me att nuigalar nn ila ettrdu^oo. 
He founds hiinself on the legal majum, that he who has tb« 

• Mr Biirea. 



po^«r to givr may aiintx to thi' nift whatf rt^r condilioti or cpidi- 
ticfttion he vhoow^ Tlun muxim, Sir. %vouicl be spplu^nUe to 
the prnent coK, if we were ihi^ norcfrif^ of Itic countty; if 
aU powi^ wfir« in our hands ; d the pabJic ir;on<vy ^rer^ Mitifehr 
our own ; if our apprDpriation of It wrre m«'re graoe and (ayot; 
and if thuv wt^re no n-iirrminl^ iipiii tw litiL nnr own vymrvig}i 
wiD and plnuvurp. Bat the? lugamvnt tntally forgrU thjiL vm an 
onndvc* but pablic ag?iht«; that our powrr ovrr the ifCAxnry ii 
but that of etcWLuds over a tront fund ; that wc have nothing to 
^vpf and tlierofora no pfts to linit or qualify; that it U as 
ma^ oar doxy lo appropriate to propiY objecis, a« to wittihotd 
approprinUonTt ffoni «uch au arr imp^iprr; ojhI tlijit it la as 
miirh, mid iin i:lrarly, (MIT doty lo iipproprlatc in ;t [irof^ei and 
confttitutiooni mnanrr, as to approjwinic nt aU- 

Tbs tfLirc honorable rDcmbcr advanced another ideoi in which 
I ^nnot eoneur, H^- do^e not admit that con^^^itce ]« to b« 
repotsvd ui the executive, ou the pteM^nt oc<oaEion, beoauke eon- 
Gdence, lu- ar^e^, irnplieji only ihtit, mil knowing ounaelvea 
what will \>r. d<jne in n given m^r. by tylhrrr^ wr tra*l thoKT who 
are to act in it, thut they will act ri^ht; and n* we know the 
courec tikdy to be purened in rc^rd to this si^jcct by the ex- 
ecutive, con&deiK^e can ha.v& no place. Thid ae«rafl a singular 
notion of oofitidenc**, and oerlainly U not. my notion of that oon- 
fidoiica whii^h thft Conittitiiiuiii nH)iilrp« nnv bmnrh of th^ gov* 
ernment to rrjmw in nnothi^n The Prt^tiilrnt in not onr ng^nt^. 
but, Uke ourBelvcp, the- a^'cnt of the jwople. They have EiuBted 
to hia handii the proper duties of hia ofEre; and we ure uot to 
take thotfc duTied out of hia hand^, from any optnion of our 
own that we ahoiild ex4*cate them better onrflelv^s. The eonfi* 
denee wllicJi i* dnc frotn iii In the executive, nnd from the ex- 
eeulive to ua, U not fwmoral, btil o^icisil nnd constitunonnl. It 
hoM nothing to do with individual UKjiigB or diBlikinga; but 
reaalta from that division of power HUiimg drphrlmenfF, and 
tho^e iimtrntion* on the authority of ent^h^ which bWong to the 
nature and frome of oar government. U WL>uld ba unfoftunEiti) 
indei*d, if oiir Mnn of eonfltitutional nrtion wer« lo vibrata 
bnekward and forward, Brontiling to onr opinions of persona, 
BLwerviiig Ihia way to-dnj, from ujiJue nllndiinetit^ nnd tlie olhei 
■vay lo-morrow. (wtu di!iUut»t or dittltke, Thi^ iimy ^fometitiitn 
happen from the weuJuiew of our virtue^ or the cxatetnettt of 



our pwmlcmK; but I rniiil it «d]l not bp rooliy r««omfnfi3i<loi1 tn 
tm, n» Ihr ri^htAil co(in«e of pnjbtk- oonilucT. 

It i» c^Ti(/a« io rrtmuk, Mr. Choirmttit, that the Scimte hav« 
not nfi<l«r1&koTi to gtvtj dirdCtioiiB or ui»imction» ui tbia cuac 
That body id uloiwly conaected with tha PreBid^at iu ex**calive 
mpa%urei4. Iim voiiavtif in iJi(.-?m- vrry itppointnieiitii is mude iit>> 
M>luifly n^t^ewtary ity tiie CoiiBlltvilion ; yt't il has not neeji ijl, 
U) tbia JT luiy oiliei oijc, to t«kc U|kjii itudf tlir mjxiuaibilitjr of 
directing the mcdc in which tJic ncgtitiationi ahotUd be con- 

Kor thitno rauoniK, Mjt. Chairman, 1 un for giving no iji«lraa- 
tioii«i sidvic4\ or dinvliorm h\ ihr i^^w*.. 1 prrfrr leaving >t wh<'re^ 
in tny jiLrlg[uenl, thi.- Coibttifutijn \t^» \vh it; lo rKcwiitt^o dir"" 
cretioii Hud <rxtx:utive rcBpousibUitj, 

Bnt, Bir, I think there arc olhci ohjecUona to Uic amcddmcnt 
There dre purtd of it which 1 could not ajj^rw to, if it wcru 
proptT to ttttmeh unj vuch condition to our viita, Ai to ull Ih&t 
pftft of Ihc am«*n(lmrnT, inc]<M.*[l, which n*iti-Tis, tbv neutrnl policy 
of ll}i? United Suti'-\ sun! iUty inoxpuilieni:^y of forming iiUianci.'», 
no man aaecntft to thoac »cotimi;nt» more readily, or more en- 
tirely^ thari myaulf. On iln^-^c points wc arc aU agreed* 8uch 
la our opinion; nneh, thtf Prvsident att^urea u&, in l^rme^ i& bis 
optnlun; Hueh we itiiow to bo the opinion of fhe country. If it 
be thought invrenniiry Ui alfirin ophiiutiH winch no on*? t^ilhcf 
denic* ordoubtisby a re^olutiun of the House, I ahaW ctiFrrfulIy 
eoncGl in it But there ia one part of the proposed umctulment 
to wliich ] could not ngrt^c in any form. { i^^ieh to otik the Ktin- 
tlcman from Dalau^are himM-Lf to reconsidef it. I pray him to 
look at it flgniii, aud to ai^i^ wtiilher he menna whiti it e^tprcHMv 
Of im|>lies; for, on this od'a^ion, 1 should br jiiort- gratitii^d hy 
secujg that the honorable genlbmaii hirua/;lf had become acusi* 
ble that be had fulk-n Into »onic error in this rcjtpcct, than by 
cecdni; th« vote of tlie Uoufce ai^aet him by any majority what 

Thpit part ^r t)w aniendnit-rTt fo whieh I now objVot la that 
whirh rfciiiirt-s, n* a rtuidilion iif thr re7*iibili"U Iwtorc us. that 
the minifftrrt »hnll not ** be imthonxrd to diM^uaa, conaider^ or 
CCDAuit upon any mraiiTirc wlneh ahail enmmit the pri^fltnit or 
foturo neutral right* or diitiei' of the*w United States, either aa 
m«y rv^gard Knropenn iintton«j or betwern the several «tate9 nf 
Mexico and S^uth Ammca." 





I fw^ hnrdtj rvpmt, that ihu moounU to ^ pnrciBe luntruc 
Uon. It bt-ing utid^r^tcKKi tlitit Uit^ miiiifftora AhoU not be au- 
thori^ud to diMcaHt pnrtioiitiLr •ubj<-ot», U a mode of »pccch pro- 
ci«c-ly ixjuividcnt to nuying, " pnjviJc^d i\it* miniHtcrft ht invtriict* 
1^1/^ Of "^ ihi* tninistrrt U-ing i tiHtnitTli' J, i)i>l io dlflcuKK lhoH4< >iiih- 
jccto." Notwithstanding oli th&t tia« bcr;n «auj, or i:fti) be Bnkl» 
about thiA arac[i<lmcnt bciog no caorc thaii q gi:a(rral expreMion 
of opimou, or aji al)Qtturt proptMition, thifl part of it is an tx^ct 
mnd definite ln£iraoiion. It preiioribea lo pubhu ruijiutcn the 
ptecda« manner la whL*h ihvy are to ooaduci a piil>lic oogotta- 
tioii ; ii. duty mnnifr?Htly tind r:(i-luHivt?]y Motigiugr in my ji^dg- 
mcitt, tn the; (Mrciitivc, niul not to ii». 

But if wc po>ec««('d the power to give ioflUuctionfti lliia ii>> 
BlrUGdoi) wouid not be a proper one (o give* Lt-t ua «\amiii'> it. 
The miniaton Bbail not " di^cuM, oouftidcr, or eonetiH upOTi ajiy 
mcaiure which ahall commit the present or future neutral righl« 
CJT dulicH of LbeBF UiJtted Sutlt^a, «itli(*r aa tuny rt'gard Buro^>ttui 
Datioii-1, ot bt;tween the several st&tco of Mexico and Sooth 

Now, 3ir, la the fintt place, it ia to be obsurvcd that they are 
not orlj not to agree to any Kuoh measure, hut they art not to 
difteUAH ii. ir pn>|K)Ki'il (o ihrm, they art not to givi^ rrNiMinv 
for df^cliiiJng it Indi'i.^d, thcry c^niuJt rpjecL it; thiry i:an only 
eay thoy drc not authomed to consider \L Would it not he 
better, Sir, lo ku.vt^ thotA.- ai^uiittf at bUirty to t^xpluin Iht- policy 
of our f^overniiiL'nt, ftUly aiid dearly, and to E»how thi^ reiviona 
uhich induce Ua to abslaiii, ii!t Tut a^ possible, frOTH forei^^ eon- 
nections, itnd tii act in aU things with a scrupiilom regtird u> 
tlte duljrs of neutrality t 

But ognin ; tJiey arc to <tiACU«« no mejisujc which may com- 
uitt our ncutrnl right* or dutic-n. To commit ia ionicwhat in- 
dclinir«. May lh*"y not modify or in aiiy dr^greo sltor our 
neutral rights and diitlrA? Jf ant^ T hnrdly know whethpr at 
commoi) tn^ftty of wunniercMr cdidd bi? iicgnLlHlrd; U^cauiM^ nil 
such treaties aftect or modify, more or 1cMi the neatral right« ot 
duties of thi7 parties ; especially all nuch treaties o» our hnbituaJ 
policy tends ua to form- Out I suppose the author of tlie 
amendnienf ases thp wnrd In a Jargpr Jind higher aeiise. He 
meaiiA that the mini^tcrx ftball not discuM or con»idi3r any lut-ai^ 
ore which may ha\c a tendency, la any dtgree, to |jIaoe tii in a 




tK)«Ci!«i nttitiido towiird^ uiiy fDreign ntnie. And iK^rc^, Agnir, one 
fluintit M\> Kpi*rilm^, tlitil tiic |iri>|]ihitioEi iii, not ngnii^M propo«. 
lag or &««cn1iiig to nnj »urh mr>nimv«>, but a^mst considering it, 
agafnftt an»iwerln^ It if pmpoflpd^ R^rtnt resiallng It uiih K>&>iontH 
But if lliifi i>bji'ttiua ^^•vlv n.-m[>M?(l, still \h< hiHiruirLiim (-(luld 
not pmiKrly btf j&rivcii- What impnrtnnt or Irntling mrasiire ii 
tiicn?, <:nnncc1od with mir fon'igH nlnlion;!, Avhich rnn be :»dopt* 
od wirhmil Iht; po^f^ibility of CM»intruttiiig an ro thc^ ni^co^hitv ol b 
hoi^tilr ^tii1udi<? Any ns^rtion r,{ our plaint'A^ ri^hie may, by 
pnf^ftiliility, havt* itinf, i?fri*tt. Th*' wnthor of Th*- am^futment 
»eeiita lo Btip|JD»u Ihat our paciiit; rriutintiscMTi iii^<'t^r E>e i:1ia»^*d 
but by our own option- Hl- BcirtiiB nut to be aware Umt ttlhcr 
Blai^s may <»mp(*l at^ in defivicw of our own righU, lo m<.-a»- 
un-it which, ill itir-ir iiltimalL* tcndonc^y, may commit our neu- 
(ntlily. L»'t m<- a»k, if iht^ mini*tt'r* of othrr |M>wcr», at I'luitt- 
inn, ^hoiiIiJ vignify l[i niir ngnir^t thnt il wil« in {^iirfrnplnljcui 
Linmi'inATrly To Ifik^ soinir uu*a»Lim which lhi-!<u agL-nt» kn^w 1o 
be hofllik lo our policy, advt-rec to ojr n^'htB^ ard 6Ucb aa we 
Aould not ftubinit to; ehould ihcy be [til Irvc to ^pvah the oontj' 
mt^ntf of their f;ovNiimr*nl, to prot^rdt ■;Kq"i''t thv meamirv, and 
fo c!t-olnre Ihxit t\\v L'niti'*! Stale's would not *ol' it cun-ind into 
plFrct ? Or itlionld thry, u* thi,* iirnriidMirnl pTi>piM***, hr. pn- 
^oinr^ to silenco, to h-i the RK^oauir j)io(«ed, In order th&t after* 
wards whtu prrhapn wo ha^« gono lo war to nrdirsa Lhe evil, we 
may loam that, it our objetiUoa* had been fiLJrly and frankly stub 
eU, ihu Http would not hav<? beejj taken ? L^k, Sir, to the vnwy 
pus<e of Cuba T the niont delicaii* and ra*tly the ino«t ifuportonf 
[unnl ill all our formgn ra^htJonN. Do g(*aL]pnien lliiuk l.ln^y 
i.-KhiliiL iikil] or 9ii<it(virtaii)>hip in laying Kiich n.-!4lnunti lui tln^y 
propo>c on our RiiniHlt-ra, m regard to this among othiT sub- 
Jt^cts? It haft b<;<-ii Tiiadr fna[U-r of complaint, that the cxccu 
tjve has not u&ed, already* a more decisive tone towards Mexico 
and Colombm, in rr^^rd to thi^lr dMlfcn* on thlii i«1und. Pmy, 
StTf whal tour could Ik* t^krn nndi*r thrnc instruelhiii* ? Not 
one word, not one ^inglr word, could be M\it\ on ihc atnhjrct. If 
asked wtiethcrr the [Jnifcd States would ^xjovriit io the occupy* 
tion of that ialaiid by Ihoatr ri.<pub]ic)4, or to lU tmnafcr by Spain 
t4i Q l%urtipi^?an power, or wheUier we ahould rfl«i*t euoh occu- 
pation or iueb trnnnf^-r, what eoulJ tbey *ay ? " That la a mar- 
It^r wr ramiot dlf^nuAK, and eannot couHider; >t would comran 




tfor neittnil Krlntiorui; ww htv luA at liberiy to ntpr^te the fteiai^ 
menu iirourgtun-mmenl on the mubjnct; wi* have nothing ut uil 
to my " h thiis Sir, whnt the ^itlcnirn mi^hr or whnt thcj 
vroold recommend ? 

Iff t^iTf we ^vc these iurtniction^ And ttKy thoold be cbejcd, 
4Tid mooavenienoe or evil resuh, who Is antwonblc? And I 
M^jpoM h U expected tiiej will be obeyefl. C^ainly it mnnot 
be latanded to give iheni, and not tiike the renpon^ibility (if thn 
<M>uT<»]aeEjoiL!9t if Qxy Jtre fdUuwcd* It cajiiiui be icteitJeJ to 
hold the Pn;>uient onawerable both Mvayv; Hnt, to coiiip*^ him 
to obey our tncitractiona, nnd, NWondly, to mukv ^kini iv«pijafaible 
if evil oomo* from obeying thiMn. 

Bir, evt-ntit mn^y r^Jisiiigr', W wr hftd thi* pfwrrr to give inKlmcy 
tiufi?, mini if tiiritft pro|Mi«(iil iii»in)r1joi}ii wrrr? |mi|irr to lir given, 
before wo ftmvv at our own honie« bITeut^ may take o new d»- 
rcctioiii ind the public intoroM require new ftnd eorresponding 
orders to oor agente abroad. 

Thb is aald to be an extraordinary caae, anJ, on that seooUAt^ 
to ji^Mlfy our iiiterfen-iice. tf the fsitt were inie, the eon net jue nee 
would not fiJlloiA\ If it be Uitf em^ftise of a power aasii^iieU by 
ihti Qm.ititutiori to thr cxc^cutivei it C4n m^ke do diHerence 
wh^hc!r the oiK'ji^on he common or nncttmmuti. But, in truth, 
thci* hrtvc been much Mriingnr cnFi'* for the i titt'rf crt nc^ of the 
HouaCf wher», iievertheleMs the Houih* hn* not inierfernd. For 
example. In ti>e negotiutioiift for |>t^iw CAmoi:! on at Gbeoi. In 
thftl laiae, Coii^rcBb, by Ijolh houM-N bud ded;ircU vmx fur eei* 
tain !iUc^i;ed cnuaes, After tht war Imd lasltd somi'' years the 
Prrsidcnt, with the cidvice of the St-nttte, appointed ruLniatitr^ to 
treat of peaoi*; and he gave them luch inntnioUona &» hn iaw 
fit. NoWj im the wilt u'sw (brlBn^il by Congrp*n, und wn* wuged 
\a oblntii eerlnin rndA, it would hnr^ het'ii pimifhiblf? ia '^ny that 
Con^'oa ou|;bt to know the ifiBiMiotiuu» under which peitee 
wun to \te m'^'otihtcd, thut thry miic^kl m'l^ wliL'ther the c>bjectd 
for whi<rh ihi? wht wnn dt'clurtd luid bctii iit>m:don«Hi. Vet no 
mcb eluim wati »et up. The ]'nMiid(<rit gHTe i»struofjon» vueh 
«■ hii jud^mt^nt dietuted, fuid iietlher houie uAwrted any right 
of intrTfen*m»"-. 

Sir» there lire gemlemen in this Ilou»c, opposed to thi» mi^ 
•tOftT who, I hope, will nevcrlhi<fe>«A conMder this question of 
VDentlnieut oil g^^ui-'mJ contftituiioiLal grouudu. They ire gen 



Aemm of much ovttiiTKdciii in the cammtinity, likid/, I hope, 
kiBj^ to corrtinoL^ in t^.* piiblic »^mcc; and I trust they will 
weJi ir^Hrct on the c^r^cl oJ this Bmendnioiit on the sepante 
pcfven and duUe« of tb9 fltrwal departroeiita of the govem* 

An lioiiijoihle iTifinlitr f^Kii Ppunsylvnnm " }m» ■llmlr-d to 
H rr?rfululi»Ei intriTiIiuml l>y mr thr :te-.v«inn brfnn? thr \wL I 
»hou]J not httvo refcmd to H myself) had he not invited ihd 
ivf('n*nre; but I am hnppy in thn opportunity of ebowing ht'iW 
ihat rvMilution coincide* with rvrry thing whieh I wty to- 
dny. Whni wnn thi^t rr«olntjon? Whf*n nn mfTenting people 
"Wrrr Kirngsling fnr nationiiL vxihlrnc^ Hi^tiJti»t n btirtmniii^ ili^s- 
potuim, when thrrrwcrc good hopf'it (hoped yt-t, I U\u*U to he 
fully reaiiired) of their »iiuocfla, and when th« Holy AHiuikm* bad 
prononnood ap^inui ihem certain fttJae and tLhumlnabli! dou- 
Irijif!*, I moved (htf Hoove to rt-aolvc — whtit? Simply that 
)mivisi<in on^lit to l)<^ inHih* by Inw Ut dr'fniy thn i-xpi^nHi* ni nn 
ngrnt ur fi>iiiriiiii3iion«rr to thnt conntryi whrnr^vrr tlir. IVr^itlrnt 
should deem it cstp^dtrnt to m&kc such nppointnicfit. Did I 
propose any inatjutfion to the President, or any limLt on h'it> dis- 
crelion? None at oil, Sir; none at all. What re^emblaaoei 
tfaen. e^i be found between that reaolotiori and this amend- 
ment ? Li-t Itiuwe who think any »wh reifrrublance i'xlitA 
udofit, if Ihry will, the words of Iht rcwlnlicm lui u subettitute 
for l.hi» nmcndmcnt. Wc ^hiUl gladly take thi^m, 

I am tlK-rrltfrr, Mr. Chniminn, a^innt thi^ umriidmr^nt, not 
only as not bnn^ b prn|>#T mann<* cf ta^tcijiiti^ any powvi bo- 
longiiip; TO thts HoiiHe, but alM> as not contnJning inalmcliatifl 
^t to tw ^vt'n if v.'i' pir<w*^wi.l the power of giving them. And 
fts fny vote will n^4t on ih<^]ir groiiiidsi, I mi^ht ImuuiAtr my re- 
maiks hprc; but the di^icussion hna extrndtfd over a broader 
•oriacc, and, following where othrra hav« led, 1 will arJt your m- 
thllfenoe to a f«w obMrvations on tho moro grncrul topics of th« 

Mr Chaiminn, it Sa fiur fortune to be cfllted upon to net o»r 
purl HA pnblic iTirn «t n most interiracinf; em in human utlftinL 
The short pr-ri:oii of your life and cf mine liaa been thick and 
crow \t-d with ihr rio!*t impcrtruit event*. iNot only new inter* 
e«td itid ncA Tcbtions havo sprung up among tttot^^ but new 

• Ur. H«nipbUI. 



•OCaetieSr new nations nnd familif^A of nations, htkva riikcn U> Mm 
Uietr plncf^ and pcrloTtn llinir partt jji t.hc' or(l<fr sTui the inter* 
rtiun* of thr world, Kvr-ry mnn (iiipinng fo the c-harart^ofa 
ulatoflrniin nniM fiid'^avor to enlarge hi* vfi-ww to mr*'C Ihia n^w 
state of tlniijjN He mu&t ulin ut aa udrijiJalH Lt)iiiprc1miiHii»Ti ttfil, 
and instead of bciiLi- aaiisfied with that nairow pulitica] aagucity, 
which, Jike iho powi^T of minute vi^on, hc«0 smfilJ Ihinga uccn- 
ratcly, but cuu »ec nolhiufi vU&, he mmt look 1o 1hi^ fur horiaon, 
and *mbnicw Ln his hruad nurvcy whatcvrr the series of recent 
nvc^lltft him broTighi into [?nnni*Hioii» nmr or rnnotr^ with th«f 
00IUiti7 whose lotcrestfl tic itudics to serve. 

Wc hive seen ftftht state*, forntd uut of colonic* on onr 
own cotitinent, astfnmc the rank of nations* This is n mighty 
revolution, aud wlii^n wv oonuder what an eiitcnt of thv vurfnce 
of thi? giobL* tUt-y cn}Ttr, through what dimaiev Ib^y c^xtvnd, whiil 
|j(ipiitiiti(in ihi^y (ftmbiiii, and what ni*w iin|)uliu'ii thi^y niinct de- 
rive from thin rhnngc of govemnicnt, wc cannot but pcrccivs 
thot grrrat cffrct* tire llkrly to be produced on the intcfcOflnc 
and the intere^tA of the civilized world. Indeed, if h&a boOD (Cf- 
oibly taJd, by tho int^ili^ot and di^tiiiguished atatesman erho 
condiiels the forotgn relations of En^diind,* that when we now 
n|H-;ik of Riiro|»e Jind tlin wurld, wr n^'sin Ruro[H- mid Anierieai; 
and tluE, the difTrnrnt »y:*tcm» uf lhu« t.wo portions of the glotx?, 
and their soiver^l and vnrions interests, must be thoroughly stud- 
ted aod nicely balanced by Wui statu^men of (he timoa. 

In many respeeis, Sir, the European and tli« Ameriean iia- 
tloiH are alike. They are alike CbrUlian BTfti4% eWdixed atatea, 
luid ccitnrnereiiil aUU.-*, They have aco<^ss lo the miua eornuioD 
fouiitninft of intetligcucr ; thry all draw from tlitjsw uiureca 
which ^'long to the whole civlli/ed world. In knowledge aod 
letters, tn the arts of pcaee and war. Ihi^y dilt'er in degrees; but 
they bt^aj, nevetthelesa, a Reuerul rysembknodp On the other 
band, in matter* of goverament and aocM iutttitulion, ihe na- 
rionst on M* contlnt-nt itn- foutided upon jirindplen whieh nevrr 
did pruvnil^ ia tun^idrmhle f^x1i.<ai, rither ut nny other lime or in 
ajiy other place. There has ncvcf been prc^cnt^rd to the mind 
of man a more- interesting sabjcct of contcmplntion than the 
MtabliiJhment of so many nations in America, ptirtnking in the 
civilisation and in the arts af tbd Old World, but baxing Icfi b^ 

* Mr. Caaoing. 



them thoK cttmbmuA mvtiUitiontt which hnd thi^ir orlpii lo 
lark nnd military Age. Wbnt^ocvrr Bampean <^p<*n<rncie haa 
ro'Vi'lcip''() favthmbic tit 'ho Ircedoirt aud ihn happiiK?**! of inruj, 
whatc^'iT Bnrop^nn i»oniu8 has inv^med for hi" iniprox'Hmrnt or 
gTatifioation, whatsopT<wr of ivfin«»m^iif. or polish thr niltmi^ of 
KtinBpc;in ^iH^ii-ty )irT'nT-iif?i dtr IiIh Hikipliaii and (.'rjJu_vEii(.'n1* ^ 
nil this j-i oiTrffrd t« nmn ivL Amtrica. wiiii Uw additiinittl aJvaii- 
toge of th(? Fiilt po-Avr of <^rirrting rorma of jjfdv^miiici^t ou htt 
nnd nimple prineipl**, without ovfirturninff insijtiiimns nuitnl to 
tiiTK^x long pn»pd, tint too strongly suppt^tU'd, vhhvr by iiiliTr^-attf 
or prrjitdirrs, to hr nhntcrn without ronviiUinn^ 'f'hiA uiipriTfis* 
<fenffi] "Ifitr of ihirii^ prrwiif* tlic ha[)pic*t of all rH^i'nniona ftw 
fto attrmpt U> ^tablish n&tionaj iiitffcour»t^ upon improved 
prindpkB, upon principles tcndiini^ to peaoo und the tnatuul 
pro9pcriiy of rmtions. In this r^p(*ci America, the whole of 
Am^ieu, liL« 4 iit-w tnm-tT be/un? her If wo look back on the 
hintory iif Hitntpr, wr sn^ for how gn-Jil n [xirticxt nf 1)ii? Iiu^l tw«» 
cmitiirirH hrr iitntrsi hivr iK-tn nt wnr for iutcn^.itA tHXincctcd 
ouiinly with her fimdol monarchic*. War? for particular tlrno*- 
tiesi wore lo support or prevent paitjcular Buce^eeioiLai wan to 
«Dlar^ or curtail the dominiona of partjoular orowus, wars to 
•Dpport or to dimolve family alUurie^d^ warA to enforce or to 
reokn religiouit iiTto|tirHiiit^,*^what l^'i^ H'kI bloody chnpleni do 
not time SiU m the? htsttjry of Ktiri>pt?an polilicd! Who does 
pot ace, ami who does not rejoice to sec, thut Amtrncn buA n 
f^tonouft chance of ovcapinf^ &t Icnat these causes of eootciition ! 
Who iiot-9 Qot nee, aud wlio doc« not rejoice lo sen, thut, on tbii 
cwEitiiiE^titf under othL-r fontii of goverrmcnt, wt5 huve bcfon^ tu 
the nobhr hope of bdng able, by the mere inMuenr.^e of civil lih 
crty and rcligioiu tolomtJon, to dry up thue outpourijtg foun 
t&in« of blood. Olid to extingutAb ihe^ cou»uming fires of w&i 
The peaeral ophiioii of the u^ favora ttuch hopva and aucb 
prospecta Thert- \s a growing dlsptufilion to tre^t the inter 
ooutie of iifttjonu mors Jik« llie iweful int^reoDnr? of frieuda 
phili-"i itu, j'lj?'! virwf* of nittioojd mlviiritiigc, ^o^kI »tnsc, th* 
dicTtiir " I li M i^orikmon religion, nnd an increa!<iLig conviction ihaf 
wsr 14 not tlic intercut of the human race, all concur to mngaLfy 
ih« impotlancc of tlii« n*w acce^BJon to th« 11*1 of nations. 

We h^ve heard it Bald, 8ir, that the topie of Scmth Amerioaii 
£|]d«f>eiidi*nee is worn out* itiid t)irr«ttdhan*- Such it may be 
vou III. L7 


THE PAKAMA mission. 

Sir, l<* Ihnw whii huvr contcmphtDd it onrrcly as an arBclr (rf 
new^ Uki- tlj« lltiduulion oi Uie markcU, or the rive and full 
of itocJ». Suob it PI ay b« to llioae wlio can i«4) no cimp«- 
qQ«nc«j( foUowing from lliwu great events*. But whoevi-r htu 
rilhrr \uit\rr^Uiod lh*'ir prr-*rnt importsru-r, nr rain nt all cli- 
mate their frjturt iufluKiioc, whoever haa rt-flecled on the mrw 
rolatiooM th^y iiilivduo: wilb ofhor »late*, whoever, aniori^ otir* 
fdvea cflpwiaJly, httfl mt^ditafed ou tht* new relationB whif.h wc 
11(1^ bi'ur to ihtrm, mid Ihe sTrikiiiK attitude in which we oui- 
i^-lvti* nrr now pluoMi a* tht' oldt^t of the Amt-ricun nation*, 
will U-vl thiit thr Io|jU- mr» nrv^r tw* witlumi. intrpr*!; unci will 
Iw Mrnnihlr thnU whHh'.T wr ore wi»(? rnoiigh to jjrrrchT it or 
not, the cstfibli»hirkcnt of South Amcricon indcpcucleJicc will 
uffw't all naucDBi and outtcjvea portmpfl mofL* Ihuu any olhcr, 
ihrouijh till eom^n};; timo- 

liui, Sifj iilthfiugh the ind Impendence of th*i* new fliatcs 
tfri^mn rtff'rliinlly iK^'ompliRhril, yi«t n Ungf'ring wod hnpo|r*s w»r 
i>^ krpt lip a^In»i( ihcm bv Spain, Thia Im gn^-nrjy to be regret- 
ted by ail natJonb. To Spain it is, a* every reasonable man 
*«*, Pftidr!"!!, ant) without hopcn To ihe new staTea t.hcmsftlvcfl 
it i* biirdpurtomi* nnd alllictivc^ To tht* comrntrcx; of ni-utml 
nati«:i« it in annoying nnd vrKAtioni^ Thc-rr »ct-mji to bt: «onii;- 
thing of fhii porlinneity of thr SfinnUh ehnmcti^r in holding on 
\n »urh n fh^ftperstr conrap. It n'mintlji n* of Ihf w^'^'nty years 
during i^'hJch Spain rveiated the ii^depc-ndence of Holland. I 
think, however, that there ta aomc reo^n to believe tliat the war 
apprauchees iid end, I belit-v^ tluit llie raeti^iurep adopted by 
our own governnitnt huve [iaU an elTiVl in tending lo produce 
that rrvnit- I undrrvTand, ut Eea«i, tlmt the qnrMi^n of reeog- 
nitjntt ha» bi'rn liikrn into Cr(>lVM(lcmi'ion by Itie Spitiiirth govtrrn- 
Rienl ; and it cnay be hopi'd ibFit a wnr which ^paia tiiidh to be 
no cxpc^«j^Y, which the whole wrrrld t^-Ut) bcr a m) hopelcaai and 
which, if eominnrd, now thrvarpna hei wirh new dangeni eh« 
may, ere long, hn\t* Xhv pnidpnee to fiTtninaT*^. 

Our own eounw diiring Ihia eonte»l tietwpen 3|.Hdn and her 
Cfilniiiet* \v wtll known- Though cnljroly and aErielly neutral, 
wc wrrc in fnvor of t-nrly rrrognitian. Our opinionK were known 
t4> tSr allied snvcrrcign?! when in coilgreee at A]x-U'Cha|»-lk 
ni JH18, at whjeh time thr aHalre of Spain and her eolonieff 
A'err undtT coimidt-miJon ; nnd prubat>ly the Icttovlivlge of thoct.' 



i^ntiin^ntfl, ti>f*ether with ih^ policy adopTod by Bnj^land* pre- 
vented any inlerf^rence by otfit-r pow<*ra ut flml Umv. Yt^l we 
ha^% tn-att-t) Sjiain willi Hcrtipiiluu!* tlelic^ncv- W« n^-Ted on the 
rant? sis our. of nvil wjtr, Wp In-^ifn) wilh tlir* nrw ^[ivrTri* 
mcnt* n* gt>vrriiincnts tic /a<to. Net quretioning the ji::ht of 
Spnin to rt'dxi™ th^m to tbt'ir old obedience, if she bad the 
powcr» wp yet held it to bq our ri^ht to d^TiI with rbem ns with 
o%Ulmg govrrntnentw in facti when the moment anived at whirh 
It beeame- appnrnit and maiiifi.'>*r dial rhe t^aiTiIrilon of Spiiiii 
ovrr Uitae, her aticienl (H>li)tiiir?«, wu.*< af an i-nd. Our d^hL, oni 
interest, and oar duty, oil conciinrd ^it thnt moment to rrcom- 
mend the ircognition of their irdrpcndrncc- We Accordingly 
recognised it 

Now, Sir, the bfstory of this prc»po(^ congreaa ^oefl baf^k ro 
an earlier date thun tliat of our recoi^niMon. It cornmenf*es Iti 
1821 ; and one of \\\r. in-alif-H uoy\ bcfurp ns, propiiTtin^ tmch a 
rnrcttn^, that, bcrtwrcn Colrmbm And ChUi, wn^ condudcd In 
Jnly^ \'^2'Z^ n frw mfn]th» f>nly after vrc hnd nt'knn^A'Irdged the 
independence of the new ?tfltr». Thp iiloo orii^iratcd, doubt- 
JcaA, ir th^ wi*b to streiigthcn th<* onion nmon^ the new govOTn- 
ineniHr :^nd to promote the common cati^e of all» the efleL^inid 
it^irtlarjcr 111 Spanish atfUuirily. As Indt^^rentb'nrt- wiis nt rhiit 
tirnt- tlit^r Itnidiiig object, it ia naturul to suppose tfmt tbcy con- 
tcmpktrd lbi:i mtide of mutiinl tntcrcoaric and mutiiiil arrange* 
mcnl, a* ravornbln to iho ccnci^ntml.ion of purpo«(^ and of ac- 
tion necessary for th^ attainment of that objcirt, Bnt this pur- 
poflP of the con RTp^*, or this leading idea^ in which It may be 
vnppoavd to have ori^inalf^J. ban led, ati it hc^eni^ to me, to j^reat 
mboipprchi^iBiotia an to tta true character, and ^i^at inistakr^ in 
regard to the danger to be apprcbcndi-d from our pending min- 
iftehf fyt the meriting. Thiei meeting, Sir, in a eongri^an ; not a 
congri^Hi as th« word U known Eo our Conntilution and law^ 
for wr* ni»«^ it in a prrnlinr «en*f?; hut a* it i* known t« the law 
of nntion*. A congri*KR, by the lnw i>i' nEltion^ i^ but an rt|i- 
poJAltfd meeting foi ihe ptettlemeiii of alTiirB Ijetwetn dilfea^nt 
nations, in whi<:h lUi^ representatives or ajitnts of each treat and 
ne^tiatP a*i ttioy are inatruelod by their own jiovemnieni. In 
other word*, this congresa U a diplomatic rnec^Un^^ We arc 
asked to Join no govi-rniEientf no le^ivlaturr-T no lengur% itctin| 
by votca. It i» a CHmgresa, Mich as thiwe of We^lphfdia, 'il 

Tire panam-^ mission, 

Kimc^icn, nf Rynu'ick, or of Uin-cht.; or »adi a« Ihoic xphich 
hnv(! been hM in ISuropc iii '-or ovm time Nu natiou b 9 
pnrly to nny thing done m Anch ap^emblics, 10 wliich it doeA not 
?K|)rctt»ty mikp ileelf a party* No oii*'a ligblA upe put at the 
dJajiOHlrion of any of the Tf*t, or of all the re*t- Wtiiit rainis- 
Irrn et^rpe lo, betiii^ aflfrwarJFi iluly TrttifLtfd til hitine, btniln fheii 
^v«rimienl; niid luHTiut^ dst? biiiH^ the gttVfTrimrnt \VlmUo> 
ciw ia donj-% to whioh they Ao mA aHA(nit» neither biii<l» the min- 
Utt!in nor their t^ovirnimcnt, any more thnn if Ihcy hnd not been 

Thmi^ tmthii, £^ir, H-f^m tno pinin nnd too oommonplacp to 
be «tat«d, 1 6ncl my npology only in ihora tniftRppn-henjittniB 
of the character of the mcrting to which I have referred both 
now and formerly. It has been uawl l!iat commetrial tteatie« 
arc not negotiated at tXLoh meetinfiEa. Fru otherwise io tfio faciL 
Amrtng the earlicHt of Importartl afjptihttonA made in fa^-or of 
coTnntf'rrf' nniJ ntivigntiim, w«v ihom* i»t Wmtphnlto. Whrit 
we e«ll the trraty of Uirecht, wo* n bundle of treaties^ negiitlai- 
ed at that conpreas; *ome of prnce, lomc of boundary, and 
otliere of eommerice. Again* it has been said, in order I0 prove 
that this meeting h & sort of oonf^derae}', that aach a«Bemb[l«a 
mxc out of the way of ordinary nej^otlatlon, and &re alvrayv 
(bundled on, and jimvidod fitr, hy pn^rioti^ treatien. Pteiv, ^IFi 
what trenty preceded tlie ec^ngre^n ut UtTpeht ? And tlie meeting 
of owr plenipotcntiariefl with tho?e of r'nglnnd at Ghent, what 
yfM Xhnt hut ii eongreas? and whnt treaty prpcedod it? It ia 
aftid, d^ln, that there ia no eovemi^ to whom our minifil^rB erui 
he aeer^difed. Let me ask whether, In thft caw la^T eited, oui 
mim»(en» exhibited iheir crede-ntJals to thi* Mfiyor of Ghent? Sir, 
thr jmidifj' ijf nations Sn these matters is well knawn, and in 
free from difficulty. If the govemmenl be not pre^cnt^ agenTJt 01 
]i1cnipo1entjnri^9 interchange their eredentinla. And whrn it is 
aaid that our miniMere at. I^annmn will be, not minl^em, but 
deputies, members of n dclibemtiv* body, not proieried in th^li 
|mblie eharacler by the pnblie law, propowitionn are advanced 
of wh'u^li 1 »t;e no evidcnee whatever, and whiclj appear to tne 
to be wholly without foundatiDii, 

ll b eonlonded ttiat thia congres*, by vSrtoe of the Ueath* 
whi- h ttie riew Btafeu have entered into, wLIl posaeaa powen 
nther than tboik- of a dtplumatlc eharactcrf as betVf-neti tlioit 



nuw Miati^ii [heinMrlv»-.«. If tli&t wov au, it would be ujviiopur* 
[anb bo it«^ The rvul qumtJini hcte i^, Wh&t will be uur icln- 
tii>ti vi'ith those »tAtcft, by JtcmUng naioistcrs to tJii? coiigrro^? 
Thc^ aiTuigcincnt amoug ^cmtclvc* will not oilbct a». Even 
if it wtjTd a ^vtriimeiit, like oiu old Confederation^ yet, if iU 
tiLvmben batl auibority to treat with tu in behalf of (heir re* 
»Ape<?livi- iiiLtioiiv oji HubjvcLb oti wliicli wu liuvi^ u '^H^^l ^^ Uval, 
IV con|[n4v might ttJll Lk b very proper occtiMoii for nuch ne* 
gotialio»»- Dv> gcuilrfncn forget Ihnt the French minictef wtiA 
mtrwluc<xi to out old Coiigres^ mot It in il# acMionfk, carried on 
oml ditfOiLMiona with it, aii<l treated with it IQ betialf of tlie 
Prejwjb kin^? All that diJ hot rrtake him a mvniber of ic, nor 
oOMn«ct luiU af al) with ihe relHlkmh whlt'li icn lueiubers bore tu 
each tjUicr. A^ be UoaU-d mi Ihe aubjecl of aifryiiig uu tlic wai 
against Cnglnnd, it \\iva, ct<>ub(lr.-Aii, ho»tiie towards that powuv; 
bat Ihia oon«\'<|Uencc followed from the objtiei ntui nature ol tko 
atipialationa, and not from the manner of the intercoime- The 
represeatativefl of these South Aruerlean alatea, it 10 aaid, vill 
KnUfrUuu b4*Ujgertint c*<JutLrieU at this t^oiigre-u. Be it so; we 
Khnll not join in »uuh couiuidn. At the inomeitt of Invltdtjaii, 
001 goveramcnt informed the miiii»t4:ra of thof^ «ta(c:s that wc 
oouid jiot make ounclvoe a patty to the war bctwcia them and 
Bpaiu, uor to cotuuele for dolibomuiig on the iD«aiu of it« fuxthet 

If, it in lukedf w» vend ininivtj^n tu a cungrvsa cuinposed nlto* 
gi-lhrr of bi-lligt't^ntH, U it not n brr?Mrh uf Iiput/Hlity? 0-% 
taiiily aoti no man can tay it i». Suppose, dir. that thcee 
niiiiiatcrft from the new sfalcsi inatcad of i'anama, were to 
ocuemble at IJo^ta, where wo ah'o&dy have a minister; their 
cooii9'^lt« at tiiut plufTv iiuKbt be bellif^rent^ while the war ahould 
last with Spaiu. But should we on that accctint r^-uU our 
iniuiilrr friuci RugutH? Th« ivhulii ttrgumejjt rr^ln uu tliist- 
that becixuac, at tbc eonie time aad place, the agcnta of the 
Bouth American govcriimE^nta may ncgotiutc about their owa 
rdatJoHJi with each other, in re^rd to Ihm common wur o^iost 
Spain, therefore we coonolf at the same lime !ind place, ue^^ 
tJHie with ihmn, or any of them, upon our own neutral and com> 
miTc^ial reUtimia. Tills prujio^iUuu, Sir, eajinul \m inaiuUiinifJ ; 
iDd therefore all tlie itilert^ioea from it faiL 

fiol* Sir, 1 ace no proof that, as between tbeni»clvc9, the rei^ 


rc^cai'^tivci! of tlic Soulb Amcncaii tiatee are to t>of^ae other 
than diplomatic powcre> ] refer to tho treaties which arc e«»en- 
tiolly alike, Bhil which have b«cn aften read 

With two ejtceptiuna, (which ! will notSre,) the anide* of 
IhcAV Ircmlieri, iIi-9u^nhitEg l>i(? powt^nt nf tiiP rotign-jt:!, iiti\ Knh> 
tftantiully Like tho:*c of the treaty of Paris, in 1S14, providing for 
the Cl>n^^a ut Vicnnn. It wna ThcTc stipulated that oU thfi 
Itawtn ihould «cqJ plcnipot<^ntJaric» 1o Vienna, to reguiDtc, in 
giciiwfti congrc»fi, \hQ arrangements to complete the provjeiotiii 
of rhr |irp«en1 trvaty. Now, il mi^hr hnvp bt^n here a«ke<}, how 
rt^ulait ? How Ti'h'ulate jji gfiit^rnl cungrew? — rtguUle by 
vouaT Sir, noEiu<^y a^khcsl auch queptiona; simply ix^caust- Il 
WUfi to Ur a vatigreM ai p[tiji|H>f*'ntiuri<:», The twt> [^xot'ptinna 
Vi'hich 1 haw ini?i:ticmcd luv, iliui thiti oot)gn--iu i« to act u» a 
council, and to intcrpn<t trcatit^n; but there i* nothing in eithci 
of ihriu* ti> !>!• doni* whirh mjiy not \n'- lUmr diplomnTiraUy. 
WliHt is more Ciiminon ihati Ji|j] iiit^Trourfu-, to explain 
find to interpret treaties f Or wliut more frcijucnt llian thai ua- 
tiootr, having u (x>Triinon oliJL'otf inkrohaiiKtr mutual couruclti ojid 
advice, through the mi^dium of thdr rrnpt-'oUve miiMMti^ni? To 
bring this maiti^rj Sir, to the t^, let itie mk, When thrive nuniM* 
Urr* a«i*mt>lfi ai Piitmrnn, can they dtJ nny thing but aerording 
to their iiihlructions 7 1!a\e rhey any orgaiiivution, any j>ower 
(if actian, or any rule of action, coiimion to lliem all ? No more, 
8ir, than the respective minlalcni at thr congrc^nn of Virnn&. 
Kvtry thing i» ^cltloH by the nee of the uxrd i*laapi>te-ntiiiry. 
Thai proves the meeting lo be diplomatic, and nothing dee* 
Who ever heard of a plenipotentiary member of the legislature ? 
fi plenipotentiary biirgent of u dly ? or a p1eiil{>oteittiary knight 
of the nhirtt? 

Wc may dismiss all feftn*. Sir, ari;)ing from the mitarc of this 
meeting. Our agents will go there, if they go at all, in the 
ohamctef of ininisters, protected t>y the public law, itegotinting 
only for ourselveH, and aot called on lo violate any neutral 
«Iuty of their own governmr^nt If It \iv that Ihi.H mei^ling will 
have t>ihet ihjwmi^. ul ajnMH|»eti(y uf uiher HrruugenKUt^ be- 
tween other Mjit<^?v of which I 9cc no proof, atill wc flhall not be 
a party to thenc nrrnrig^mentts nor cnn wc? be in any way ulTcct- 
vd by them, A« far a» tbia government in c«ne*^urd, nothing 
can be done but by ttegotiation, an in other ea»e»> 



It hiiM been aHirmed, thtit t)ii« mefuurv^ anU the fteDtimenta 
expr(?£50(l by thi? ('Xi^rtilive relntlvt to it» iibjt^trtMt no* an tt^rkiitnvl* 
tdgi^l <l<^pfirl.ur*' frnrn tlip Hfiiitral [joliry of tlip I'liitEHl Stitca 
Sir, I deny Itiiit there \* iin fichnowlcdgc^j drpoiturc, or any de- 
parture ctt dH, from the nciitmi policy of the country. Vi'hnt do 
we meaD by our n^utrnl policy? Not^ I euppoee, a bUnd and 
fltupid indiflc-reacp Xo whatev<*r ig pasflliif^ around ua ; not a toial 
dlaregard to approaiJiiiig eventts or »pprt»ici|iing evllB^ till the)' 
mcft Ha futJ in the (jh:^. Nor do wp mean, by oiir Uf^tilnd [Hflicy. 
that w< int<;nd never to iittMrrt our righla by farce- No, Sir. Wc 
mean by our poUey of ueutruiity, tbul the K^'c'at object* of nn- 
tionul pursuit with u« are i>oime<*ted with peitc& W« covet no 
pTOvinrm; wr dfjiire no c<jrupti-Kts ; w<' i-nirrtitui no unbitioui 
jjiojpc't:* of ji^grn-rLdi/.rirkpnt by wnr. This i» our policy. But it 
docA not follow from iMf!, th>T wr rely ]r»s Than other iiqIioli^ 
on oar own power to vindicate our own rights. WV know (hat 
the last logic of kingit ie alno our loist logic ; that our cwn uit«r- 
«vts mmt be defended ami mniniained by our owa arm; and 
tJmt |>ea(« or war may nut ulway^ be of oij.r own chooHjng, 
Oux nifulm) policy, therefore, not only jnatifim, but reqiiirevk, out 
AnxLouD ntti-ntion to the political eventa wliich take place in the 
world, £1 nUilt'ul peret^puon of their relution to ovjr own ccncerii*, 
nod nn r^orly nitticipation of their con»e()neiieoii, nnd brm and 
timely naserticuT of wimi we hold lo be our own nghfs nnd am 
own intrreitl^. Otir rtrnLrnlity i:i not n prf-drlJTiiiin<'d nb&lJ- 
nence, either from rcmonstrnncr^ or from force- Ovu ncuaal 
policy ia a policy that protccti ncutrullty, that dcft^nde neutrality, 
ttiat takes up arm?, if need b^, for noutmlity. When it t» saidi 
therefore, thfit this measure depart* from our neutral policy, 
either that policy, or the nitra^ure itficrif, if inibunderbtood- It 
inipliva eilber that ihe object or Ibe tendency of llic uie«»ure t» 
to inrolvo uh in the war of other «tiileii, which I think cannot 
be showu, or that the a:t3L*rti<ru of our own HenlimenU, on pointd 
nJfecTin^ deeply our own intt^etitiiT may plaee u» in u huntile 
uitilnde towanl oti«T Ktafi'*, nnd thnt then^fiire we depart from 
nenLmlity; wben^n* the truth in, thit (lrn*ive -w^ertioa and 
tiie firm Huppoa of these Heiitinieuts may be moat czfseotial tc 
Ific maintenance of rieurnililyp 

An ho[ oriibk mtmher from Pcnoaylvanja thinks thi» congrew 
«riU bring a dark day over the United Stateo. DoubUusD, Sif, it 



in un inii-rrstitjg mtnnptit in rmr Uialorj ; hui X wee no gmai 
prtiofii g{ thu'-k-c4MTting ilnrkfic»^ But the ubjcrt of tSir renuiii 
vccmcd to be 1o »how ILnt tbc I'rcvidcnt hiiD^clf naw diJficulUo 
on nil »idc4i and, making o choice of cviIh, ^r?forrr<l rnthcr to 
MTiifl minf^fcff lo this coh^^m, thftn 10 run th^^ risii of veiling 
the tioMility of the Btat«ft by refoAing 10 ttf*nH. In other worcKs, 
thi^ g'l.'intlemaii i»u)lit-tl I0 prove tlii^t the Pn^f^idrnt iDicndnl mil 
aUJiuiCt?; ttllhou^h such tiit^ntiou ia fxprcaaly tliscJniioed. 

Much commcntnry has bcm botowed on the kturra of iavi- 
tation from th<^ minintcrR 1 xhfitl not go throu>;h wiUi verbal 
*:riUciiira» on ih^w Iftu**, Their j^pfivml import. U pia.m <.'iiouffh- 
1 ffhnll not gnthrr togrlhrr vmaj] and minute qnntatinns, Tuking 
A MMilftnt^ hrT<% A word llifn*, and n ^ylliiblr in n fhini pUcf% 
dovetailing thcni inlu iSit counte of remark, till tbc primed dis* 
Goune bri«tjc« in every line with inverted oomoi&s. 1 look to 
the i^eneral tenor of the invitatioiLbr and 1 find that w« tn askdd 
to tale pari only iti nuch things ab eoncern oimekee. I look 
ptUl more cHrefuUy lo the anHwen, uiid 1 uee every |>roper t.-ati- 
tion niid |ir(>prr gucird. I Uatk tv thr< incwiugr, luid I ttrtt th&l 
nothing i^ thrrr conteinpinl<^ likrly to involve as* in other tnrn'o 
quixrr^ln, or t^t mny ja»liy give oflcncc to vty foreign ttate. 
With thi» 1 am FWitiflfied. 

[ mntt now a«k the indolgeocc of The commitie*^ to an im- 
portAnt (iHiint in the dlFieu^ion, ! meaji the deolsLrallon of the 
President in tSaS.* Not only no a member of the Home, bnl 
&» a atixea of the connlry, 1 hi^vc an wuious de»jn; that thie 
part of our puNie hiiftorv »honld ntitnd in its propcu" h^fhl. The 
country hiv^ in iny judgm^rrt, n very hiffh honor conn«clcd with 
timt occurrence., which w? may mnmtain, or which wv may aao- 
rilif^. 1 lonk upon it afi a part of it« tiT&nuea of rcpntiUion; 
and, for one, [ intend lo j^uard tU 

* fn Xfw nv'mn^f nf PrMMrni Mnikme u> Hflnprni at iti* mmnfiii«mnni <if 
lf^^s flfwlon of 11^3-94, llm followinf- p>Ru^ iwun: — *' in i\ic *nn of ihv 
KiiriTimti pLittrn. in triQiiod rrlmincr lo thrmiH'lm, we tnT« hvvit tbkrn vn^ 
pirt, uur iliiiv it 4'jini|iiirT whh nuT pnliry ti> lu do. It is anlv whnu our ri^rhU 
tie ijii/ftilrd, 01 K-iiriikl> iiiniuiwil, ihm w« mcfjt injuni:* or make pii*|iai«LEOik» 
ibrderriiKW. Wiifi ihr iFHivcmeiiu Ji thi> bi'tikiSLiJir'rt wu an of i]p*^-rvwif luurv 
immailiiiUly rurioni^u-di uniL hit ranfi^r. wlucl) xnunl lir uhtitPiiH Ur til mliuliLimnJ 
■ml Imp&nm] uWrmia Tlir jivtaii^fll «>*tDiit uf lIjc Allkr^l ruwcrs tA«KL tj&IJy 
diflcrrm, in Ih^v r«|vci. fmm thai of Amrrin. Tbia ilifT^r-^K^c nrocrndt fron 
Ljul tfthiah 0IIAU in ilirir ii«L>n-liv? jftrntntmnEiia. .\tni Lij iho tWaicc iif uu* 
:fNn. wliif^h hu b<«n aclikf^vr^ t>y tlic lui* at tu muvi tiliKHl kjiJ tirruure, a»d 
mtt^rod bjr Lho w»di>m af tJwii fawI eolifhicncd oiiiacoB, and tiodot which wf 



8Ir, let UK ri'c^iir ia Uii- iittportajit polilicul <*v«nbi wliull Ind TO 
that tkclaniliar, or Hccompanml il- In tlte fall of 1832, rlie 
nilicd sovcrcigua ht-M (heir ctiiigrc*« at Wjoutt, Ttie great aub* 
jcct »f con^iJcratioii wns itii; condition of StMiin* timt ctmntry 
then b«iii|!; uruler Uw (jyverDilieul «( liic Uortt-th Tbc ^juc^ion 
waa. wheibtr Ferdioaiid *^ould l»e n^insiiik-d m ull lii>. nuihonty, 
by tlitr iiiiervt-ntiou of fortuj^i: forcr. Rii»iiu, I'm^sin, FmnoOf 
uid Anstriu unrrc uidiitcd to thiit incu^ure; Kngland dLMcnled 
mod protested; but tlic counc waa agreed on, anJ FnitLcv.% wttti 
tj|« cODBcnt of llic«G otbirr CoutJucatai powtn, took tlifr conduct 
of the operation anto her own liiMidjs* In tbe bpnti^ of IS^'^^ n 
Freni^li urmy wua tent inlu Spuin, ItB lUcct^sH w^i^ compktft. 
Thr popitUr gov(-rnmi*iit wiu uvp-ribrowti, nuEl l-V-rdinmnd nt» 
i^stttl>ll»hcd in all liia pviwtT. T\m inTOHon, Sir, wtu dn-t^-rnijiied 
on, acid u[]det1tiki--ji« prirt-inLly on tlir doclfiiica whicli tbc aJJtvd 
inoiiuriiM bud procluimcd tht.' y«ar before, at Laybacb ; that 
ii, tfabt th<.-y had it right tc uit<.'r£w^ in llm ct^nctfrim of on- 
otbcr atfttOr i^d reform it» govcrmuentt in order to prevent tho 
%^KtM of its bnd i*xainpk; thi* biul cxamplf , bt* it n^mcmbn^, 
always bt^iitg xhi^ v%'An\p\e of ftrr g;iHrriiiii<nu Now, Sir. act- 
ing Ull ilitn pruii'tple of Buppoaixl daiigt--TUU£ irijimple, aud li;iv- 
lx\g put down tbc cjt^unple of the Cortes in Spain, it wai n&t- 
aral to inquin! with what cyco they would look on llm colonic* 
of Sp^n, tbut wcro foiJowing nUU wor^e exaiiipW. Would 
King rVrdinand and hin nilitd bp cnntoiii witfi what tiad bc^-n 
dcuw Id Spain itM^lf, or would hv. Holirit thHr aid, and a-a« U 
liki^ly t}tey Mould ^raiiL it, tu aulxlue bid rcbelUoua Auurlcttn 
pro vita** 1 

8ir, it wa0 in thisi pontore of utTnim, on an oocttdjon which ha* 
already been aDndi^d lo, that I v^^nturc^d to Huy, uarly in ibc hca- 
ftion of Deo^-mber, m^li, that Ihotiu idliud monarch* mi^ht poA»i- 
bJy turD th^ir attention to Amrrlnn; that Amrri^fa came within 

kiva #nJciyAl %afh unMiiniplpd fc^linty, ihm whnli* nition li dDvoffld W«> o«9 
ft, thnflTOTD, lo cmiilnr, ^nA in ihn amip^ljle rrlnlinut pxiPtini* Iwtwwn Iho Ifnliod 
SuiUB and thm? |rfrw*rn. Ui il^HiLn^ i-li^i Ytf klimiltJ i\.iiihulifr uny iiCbTiU]-! on IhnJr 
part li>«xir*nil ilmir Hyhdm Id iciy pirruuii uf lliU liciriifl|itii<fi: m iJfvi^mua 1u 
Oiir fttuiA*' ftriil ufiiiv With ih<^ rxiatiiii; cciloiiiiv ar ddjjciidcuirLFa of in^r Ktij«» 
fnn (vrvtrr, W'? tu'ti nui iiilurr'-n'L^ mii] »1ijiLI hul lUUEfifr*, J^ui vtidi iljt^ gut- 
iraindnli Whu ho^t Ji^cUrrit ihi'ir iiLi]i-[>rtiitL:iirc juJ [tmmliiLirriil ii, iru] vvliuw iti- 

WAvould nul ilcw auy inltf'iiuBmua fur Ilia puiiruBu itf (rpf>ifiHii>G Lhcui>aroMi' 
Ln>JJib£ la Dikx oibtr inaunt^r Jicir ditliiLy, in *iriy uilt* ( lid>L Uian >a ihc muir 
Ivuoon of an uiifriDJiilh dLi|Kj»LtiQa luwud iho Ciulsd SuiOf *' 



tljcir RVowrd ilcwtnnr, nnd that li^-i PxaoipIfR rui^ht %rfy |ifj»*l" 
biy ultntct thcij notice. The doctrhii-B ot Layhuch wrre iiol 
limitJHl to any ootitinciit. Spuiii hud colonieft in America, &nd 
hai'ins reforrnetl Spurn bi-rstlf lo tht- true* «UMi[nrd. it wti« not 
jinpotiMbti? Uml iht^y niighl sev dt Co i^ompli^to thi? work by rro- 
rincilirig, in tin-ir vHy^ iTirr ('oIoniHii to tJir mdlh^r r^nnnlry. Now, 
Sir, i1 (lid tm bupjx^ii, that, n» noon tu tht^ Spunii^Ti king wiu 
completely rcc:<lnblif}]cd, h^ invited the coopcmlion of h'\9 al* 
ljc», in rcgajd to South Amcrico. In the earn© moiitb of l>c- 
cembor, of 1833, a forrnaj invitation vras addn.^i4Hed by Spain to 
X\\^ courts of St. Pt'tewburg^ Viojnia^ B(-rliri, and Pari*, propoa- 
ing ft) t*«lrkh1i!ih D nonfen-ner n1 Piiriii, tn onlr-r that (["le |>lenIpo 
Irniifirir* tl^iiTt* nKivrtnblc^d nti^ht aid Bjiniii in ndjusting tb<' 
ftJlnir» of hcT rcvviitid proriuco^ Thrjic nffnirn wcr*- pro|)oe>cd U 
be ndjnstod in mch mnnncr a» shonld rntain tho ji(Jv<Tcignty oJ 
Spain ever them; and thouf*b the co<>peration of ibit allied b} 
force of nrms wa» not directly solicited, iiicrh waa e\idvnTly the 
objeet aimed at> The king of ftpnin, in iiuiking thj* rer^m-sf. tc 
tile mnnibt^ni of the Holy Alliaiioe, argiir<] n.t it hnii bn^n ntxn 
fic might nrguc. lie quoted ihcir own doctrine* of I^ybach; 
h« pointed out the pernioionn oxnmplc of Aniin<^; nnd hr r«- 
mindvd them that their tacceee in Spnin iti4'?lf had pAVod tbo 
way for auooeGfifuI operations against the spirit of liberty on tbit 
side of the Adaiiiic. 

I^he priipci?ft-(L rnt^eUiig, howevirT, did not taki* plane. Eiig' 
land hnd already t^Uicti a decided course; for lu curly a» Octo< 
bcT, Mr Cunning, in n cnnfcrcnoe with the French minister in 
London, tnlormod him diiitinctJy and eiprossjy, that HrigUnd 
would conaidcr any foreign intorfrn^nce. by force or by tnrnacc. 
In the diHpnte beiween Spain and the cofonies, as a iniAJve for 
reougnlzing tlie lalier wiOiout delay. It i» prolwbh? liiin deter- 
minatiun of the English government wu known hem at the eom- 
mcnocmrnt of thi? sc^.^ion of Congrc^ii; nnd it >^~nd under tbeec 
circumBT^jces, it was in thie crii<i«, thni Mr. Monroc^it deohirulion 
WB» madcn It wa« not then ascertained wh<?ther u meeting of 
the allies would or wonld not tiik^^ pln^M^, lo eonrert with R|niin 
the nieana of rtf^alublit^hiit^ her power; but it wua plain enough 
they would be preaBud by Spiiin to lud her opera Uoud; and it wax 
plaincnough, aif^c, Ihutthty hud no ptuticubr hkiu^ to whatwat 
takiijg place nn ihip vide i>i the AtlcuitiCt nni uny grcut duiQcbua 



-Son to interfefL^ Thiti uima the posture of affairs; «nd, Sir, I 
concur ciitirdy m rhr »<.'rttim<Tiil exproHHHt in Iho ivnolutiort uf 4 
grntkinsui rniiTi tVnii«ylviiuiii,* thut thin drciiimtioii nf Mr. M(in< 
TO** Wn* wifir, H'aiiO[inl)U\ Hrifl puirliilir^ 

[l ]im» btrvn amJ, ij^ iIjc courair of lUl» dL*1jule, to \\n\e been a 
lu<H)C nnJ va^if declaration. It wa^| I bi^lieve, eufTickiilJy 
fltudir^d I buvc? uridf^mtuod, Iram ^u^mJ auiliority, iliul it wna 
conaidt?n?d, wvight-d, mid diAtineUy and dcciJi^dty Lip]>rovL*d, by 
**vdy one of the IVfidcnt'ii ndvistTn ui thut timo. Our guvt^m* 
innil could rmt i]fl(>|)l <ni 1)ijit ™vi**ii<jfi pn^diwly tJir (-uiirw? 
which England had t^kcii. Ei]^lQjid LtirT^K-iicd llif immi<diuto 
rf'co^iifiori uf the pruvmcts* if tlit- Aliit'it flboiild tulc part with 
tSpain ttj^uiijat IIr'Iil Wtj Imd dlri.-udy p-'co^"^^*^*' Iheui- It fL-- 
muiitcfd, tliervfori', only ftJi our govi^ninn-'itl to *uy how we abould 
coEHiidcT CI combinutbii ol' the Allied l-'uwfw, to i-i^ri:t olfjeotx in 

to Auy, wbat ildotv eny, Hint wn ttboiild ri.'^}inl Huctt cnmbina- 
tioQ aa dan^eruu? io n». Btr, 1 njf^c wi[}i those who mulntfiiii 
the proportion, mid 1 contend u^ainat tho^* who dt*riy it^ tbcit 
the miiMngcdid tncon tomt^thin^; thnt it mmnl raiiob ; and I 
mniiiiniii, ligain^t both, that 1hi* dt.^olarntioR rtli'ct^^d miwh g"od, 
aiiswi?r(?d Ihc £»nd dt^sigiied by it, dkl i^ivnt honor to Ihr- fGiT>ight 
And the ipirit of the (^overiitnent, aiid ihut It taiioot now be 
tftkcfii h^dk, rctmctcd, or aniuillcd, without diagmcc. It met, 
Sir, with the entin? cpnctjm^nt^^ nnd tlic ht^urty npprobiitioii of 
the country. The tone whiob it uttered found a eom^afiouding 
ri'vp^mVA in tho brcast« of th'* frrc pL;ople of the United Smed. 
That people ftaw, ftiid they n>joicfd to see, ihut, on a tit orcn- 
«ioD, our weight hsid been tttniwn Into the rl^hl scale, and that, 
without drpurliug fion^ our duly, wr h;id done Auiiiethitig tic»e- 
fulf and Acmclbing rtTrctunl, for the cAurte of civil jibert)r. One 
^ntmi glow of cKultatiojit oii<! ;}nivcrwl Inejiiigof the gruti&ed 
lore of liberty, one conscious and proud perecpiion of t!i<? con- 
»id«T&iion which the country posun»ed, and of the rrM|H-<Ti nnd 
bonof which belonged 1o it, pervndtnl fill boHoitiH. Po««^ibly tba 
public tnithuHlnsin went Loo hir; it i^rUiinly did ^u fur. Bui^ 
Sir, the vcnlimcm wbirb thi:« di^darnT.ion iurtpired wm not oon* 
finnl to our*elvc«. lt« forcr wa« fcU everywhere, by nil tboM 
A^ho '^uld KUideretand its obji'ot and Torc-ai^e ii« cJlri^ In that 

" Mr. MhtWIct 



voir Hou^ of CcmmciiA at urhieh the gcittlemnn fn>jn Sooth 
Cbrotina hiu H|io)ctv] wiib Buch cHimm< ndntion, how was it ro 
rrtvr-fl ? Not only, Sir, with wppMhnlinn, but, I may *ay» witli 
no liiilf* f-nthiii^n^^Ti- While the Irailini^ mmialer' exprestiAed 
bis enluc coocurN^ucv iJi tJje necitiiiit^iitA ajjO u|iimi):iH o( Uie 
Amcni:au Prcditivni^ hta di^tiiiffuUh^d iximpctitorf in that pppu* 
lur body, U-va rcatriuii(!ti by otAdiil dvcorum, and more m Libcrfy 
lo ^vc tittifnuico to all the fcdiiig of Hic occ>aKion, doolarffd ihot 
no went had ever cn-atcd gmiKT j^y, cxultalion, and ^rautiuie 
timoiig nil thf^ fnv rnPM Jn Biiropr ; that \w fek pride Li boing 
couacct^ by blourl aitd lauf^uiigo with Iht^ ))co|)le of Ui<? UiiiUfd 
Statoe; tWt tlir policy di^loctcd by tiic nicMiagc Imtvjuijc! a 
(real, a live, aiid an indi^pcndcjit uution; and that he hoped hi» 
own oounUy woaid br pn^'i^ntcd by no mean pride, or pultry 
juolouiy, iVom followiag 90 nobJe nnd ^lonoue an example* 

It ih doubUt-si^ trQ€, aa I xook occ^ioa to ob^^rve the other 
(lay, tlmt this dfdanilEoii luunt l>t* m^nvjUered ^a roiinded un our 
riffbts, tmd U? apriuj^ maiuly (torn n regard Ui Ifieir pTc^-trrvuliou. 
It did |]ot commit uci, nt lUi event*, to take up arm* ou any iii^ 
dicution of boAtili: feeling by the powcn of Huropc towards 
Sonth America. If, for example^ all the Ataleti of Europe had 
rKfuHTf] to trade with 8oiitb Anieri^ia uncil her states should 
Ktiun to their ftirintir allegiunoe, that would liave fuuljibifd uo 
cnuMT of ititi^rfcreiicc to iin. Or if an iiriiKimcitt had bcni fuf^ 
nUbcd by the Allies to act aguiiitft proviuce^ the mo*t remote 
&om oj, 09 Chili or Ducuoa Ayre^ Uio dialujicc of the aceiw 
of action diminUbinj* our appreh 1*11^1 oil of dan^^, and dimin* 
iahing aJdo our meaud of eiTvotuLd mt^rpoaiU<>ik, mifjht still 
bavti left UH to ooitlunt oumdvi^ with rt'inoiulraiK^. But « 
very ditTc-rent txjte would liavr ^rL-wji, if nii juiu), cipapped and 
iimtnluiiitd by Che^e powc-ra, bod bveu landed on the vhore^ of 
the Uolf of Mi^xicUk and commeacird the wv in our own iiatui> 
diata neighborhoocL Sueh au event might jUBtly be rf-giuxiiMl 
W dangerous to ouri»elvei», aiicL, on tb^t ground, call for divided 
Atid iminedidt^ hiti-ffpri-nt^ by ua The sentimenta and ih<T 
puljcy anTKiune«?i] by tlicr dr^eJumUoji, lUii^ undep»Lt]C>(l, w^ii:* 
thcTi^fore, ill strict conformity to our dutic» and our iiiicn^et, 

Sir, 1 look ou ihc message of Dcccrnbir, lb2J, u» forming u 
bright pugc in our hintory. i will help neither to vrsutc it nor leat 

* Mr. Canning. 

t Mr Brim|r|ifLRi. 



;i nwl 1 iiOT shall it bf, by ntxy (tct of iniiiy, Wirrre*! or bloltctl 
H did honor lo thi.* Bagnoity or thr ^>vi-mrnpirl, nnd J «-ilJ not 
diminieli tliat honor- ll <?lpvfitMl fhr hnprii, und gTiiltfi«-d tho 
pafriothm^ <if \h^ ppople. Owt ihnw* hnpp* I wlH not bring ft 
inrUli'w: iior will 1 put fliaf j^rutilu'd pnlrioliKtn u> s liar lie. 

But hnw fhtiuld il hu|>pf-ri. Sir, thit. thi-rr? nlii>iil<l now be &uc!i 
a m-w-born ivtxr on lh<r Biit>jrct of thU d(T-hration? Ttic cri^irt 
in prrr ; thf dnniff-r in ptint. At Th^ tim<* if wn* rfifldf*. th'^rr* wmi 
r4*al ijKJntid fur upprfl-hi-n-sion : noifl' thnv i» i]ort<\ It was Ih^n 
pr)9tfli[)t<*, p'rliR|M ik<it JiTi{irL>bst1}1i%1hat ihf* Allir-f! Powrm might ifi- 
itrfcrr- with AiiifrirM. Tlifio i?* how ho ^rvuiiil for any aiich fi^ar. 
Must ijf tbt (;riUl<^m€n who have now :ipokrn uii thf ^ubji-ct iv«ru 
at ihu( time htrt\ They nil hoard th*- d<'dnmlioii> Not one of 
Ihctn compkiiii^d^ And yt>t now, whi?n nil dLuigi^r m ovtar, we 
nN* rnhmnciilly WTirriH ngEiiilAt ih^ ■(^ntimnnl* of th** drdfiTQlion. 

To nvoid thifi nppTirpnt inconaistpncy, it K howc^'rr, «>nlpud- 
«dt fliftl new forr«» [inpf b^fn T^uentJy ^iven to tli!^ diTclnraiion. 
Bat of This I ftiT no tvjdeiice whatever. I sw nothing in any 
innlTurtionfi or cotrirrmnicEition.n frorn our ^vcromi^iit chiuigiug 
the <*hnrn<Tter of (lint dcolamtion in nny dc^^reo. There U, oe 1 
hn** biHon-" iald, in one of Mr. Pom«<?ti'* h^tfrrs, nn inMvnrney 
of rxpiVhSHJon. i( hr hnn rrriird rorrrrtly hU coitvorsntinn wilb 
chp M**iir4in minlHlcr, hi:- did ^o t4io fiir, farthfr than uny mvtmo 
tion waiTSHTc^i, But, taking hi?^ wholr: t-OTTr*pujidciict toother, 
it i-» fymie muriifoiil thtit hv ha« drooivcd nobody, und that \w haa 
not <*oinmitt^ tho oomitfy. On thy nubjeot of a pl«lR^, h^ pu! 
the MeviCTin mini*t<?f entWy right. H<? *Tuted lo him d]*4llnf>tly, 
thtif ilii* gcKi'muifni hud givrn no jili^lge whtoli ottiefii c-ould 
mil upon it to rrcWm. Whnt coikld br more rxpiicit? Again, 
Hit, H i* plain thnt Mexico thought ns under no greater pledge 
thnn Knglnnd; for tho li^tirra to the l^nglish and Americnn min- 
l#T*r#, p^qvi^jrtin^ inti^rforence, were in precieply the same words. 
When ihla pesaa^ In Mr. Poiu^ett'n lener warn first nntio^id, we 
werr u*^*tirt»d ihcn- wa?* and ma*ii be *OTne other anthorily for it. 
It wT!s eoiifideiitly >aid hr had irjj^trucUiins authorising it iti his 
pitfltrt. h turn* out othtTwi.-M.", As litTk i^roiind ia Hir_ra to 
(n^niplnin of uny thing in thr Svcn-tary'n h-tter to Mr. i'oiriJMjlt- 
It uecm* to mc to lu' propijiely what it Mhould hr. It doe* not, 
nv hail biH'n allngrd, pnipn^c nny eoHperatinn b^fween fhi? g<tT- 
'Tjimcnt of Mrxifo anil our ownT Nothing likr il- It mstnjcti 

VOL, iiu 18 


TirK PAXAMA MlSStth>. 

owr minirifw fc^ brine 'o the noftrc of the Mc!iican gov.rrnmL-nl 
Ihc lino of prtlioT which wo hnvc marked fint for *>um:K'iv, act- 
fng on our own grr>midft, and for <inr oivn jjn!«r«ftta : and to tiug* 
gest to iha( government, ftctins on Uw own ^onnd, and for Ifa 
own jfift^n-slff, llu" propriHy of futUiu'ing :» rtimihu' i-(rtirw, Hnv. 
Sir, if* no iilfinnpc, nor cvfn nnY coJipi-mlion. 

So, i^in, n,"- to th"^ cwrrpi'poiidrrK'r which rrfcr* to the appcv^ 
ftncp of Ihr KrriK^h rtn<?t in ihc Wrut India scan. Bf» it rrmrin- 
bcrrd thnt otir gouommpnl wbji contcndinp» in Xhv conr** of ih'w 
C0lTe*poiiHf*nrr with Mi^tjm, (ot nn <^qualilj in maftrni of com- 
tnert-e> It inrvialed mi heht\^ plut-ed, iti ihi^ irsjH-cl, on tfi»? nuirie 
routing ti> thi- utliT-r 3pniiinli Ami.-rknji ^Inlr-v To rnfonv thia 
claim, Dur known fiic^ndly »-ntimcn1a tow&ntii Mi'Xico, rL-« wrll 
«« to thr TPf'i of th<^ tirw filnlvji, wtrc aUfi>gc»tf'dT nnd pmprrly 
giiggf'stj^d. MpKiot> W!i<i PirmitKkd of (he ttm*?]y doclsiration 
which had hepn mad^r of ihpsc &pntime»tft. She wa« reminded 
Ibal ?<he lieTM-ir bad btvri well inclliiei] tu clHini flie bti'iii^Jlt rf^< 
ftultin^ froTn thai Orelamtion, wbtn a Prfnt'h fleet ftpiH-jjrecJ in 
the n<jighbonng»ea9; and ah:^ vitut referred to the coarse [idoplrd 
by our govcnimcrnt on Ihat Acoa»ion, with an tntimnlion Ihnt 
Bhc (Tiii^ht letirn from it how the utirfip goivrnmpril wtmld have 
Bcled if Dlher po«ihli' rnnli:igriiri*'ii had hnppi*m*H. Whut i* 
there in all thU of uny rcm^wcd pledge^t or whal U IbiTr of any 
thing beyond Ihc Unc line of our policy? Do gentlemen mean 
to any thut the caromuuLcation made lo France, on Ihia oeoiufioii, 
vnci tmpn-«pt<rT Do tli^y tnei^n to repel and rc'pudiate that 
UGclnnitioii ? That declaration W!i», lUnX we eould noi wee Cuba 
tmnpfi'rr<*d from Spjiin lo anultiL-r FnrojM^iti pow*-t. If the 
House mean in <?(>n1mdict that, be it >o. If it do not, ihvn, ns 
the government hnd ficlcd properly in tbi« caj»e, it did fuiiiish 
^Touiid to believe it would act properly, ol^o, in otJierca^'ea, when 
they cvtOMf- And thci reference to Ihia incident or ooearren'^e by 
the Si-'TeL'iry wti» pertinent 10 rhe argumeni whkh he T-a» 
pn^ftfling t\i\ The Mexican ^veriiint'iit. 

I have hut o word Uj say on ihi; pubjn't of the det Umtlnn 
agftinat Kiiropem colon 17^1 tion in Americft- The Utc^ IV!"iden, 
stems to have thought, the oecnMoo usu-'d by him for thnt par 
po«e to be ft proper onr for the 0}wti avownl nf n principle wbieli 
had already hern neted on. Great and pmrtical ineonvriiifncwil, 
it w&H ieati'ti, might he apprehended from the i^^ttabli aliment n( 



Atw colonies in America, having a Garapfan origin ttud m Eu* 
Tope«n conncctioa Attcmpu o( that kind, it ^-0:0 obvious- 
might pcwHibly be m^de, umitUt xUr chnzi^'f^ that were taking 
pLacB in Mcxic-o, as well as w ihit more «out.horn etal^a, Mex- 
ico bounds n^ on a vast length of line, from the Gulf c( Mexico 
Uj tlie Padflc Olvhu. Tbere an- mnny reiimms why it T^huiiM 
ant be tltMfL-d by ua^ Umt pui r»tulfli^liinc-tit,un[W tUi; ^mit^^iTtion 
of a diffi-rrnt powLT, t^honJJ oocapy any portion of that spocc 
W<? have a grnc^ni intpn**!, thnt, ihrough aU tJic vn*t tcmtorit^ 
ruGtied from xUff dominion oi Spain, our commerce may tiiid \ta 
way, polpcied by trp&tie« with governmt^ntB exlBtiiig 00 tho 
A|MiL Thrrne virws^ iirtd otliera uf h similar Hm meter, rfrtdi-rtfJ 
it highly (JeairjibLe tu us, thi^t these iitw stntr^ ^Ijoiild ?i<^tl)r it, 
M 0. ptirt of ihuLi poUcyt not to allow coloniTintion within their 
rMpcdtirc trrritori^'^ True, indcr^d, wc did uai ncc<l thdr aid 
to ftflfiiiit iJA in moiTifmniiig vudi % c^ournc! for oumclvrA ; bnt wo 
had an mf^^nt in thHr n^ncrtinn and mipport o( the principle ai 
ajJpliiiable to ilivrr nwn tcrritorif!i. _^ 

I miw prtjceird, Mr- Chrjinnan, iv a few reninTkn tin tht* riubject 
of Cuba, tht^ miist imporliint pmnt of our foreign r(!lation3. It 
i* the hinge on which :ntcre±r1ing evcnta may |>o»aibly turn- 1 
pray pentJi-mrn to review th^li of>\nioi\» on Ibis 8abj<*ut before 
lU*'y fully oomrnit. thcmsrlve^. 1 understood the honorable 
mt*inl»ir in.»\\ South Carolina to Miy^ that If S|»iJn vimve lo 
tmnAfer iHd* island to any puwcr in Europt.-, f^h<? hud n rijj^ht lo 
do ao» ami wt^ ctjiild nol interfere to prevent it Sir, 11il» i» a 
ddicatc iiuhject. I hardly fee J eompi^tcnt to treat il d» it do- 
Mrvts; ard I A.m not qni[«; wilting to vtrtto here all that I think 
about if- I ma^tj howivrr, disnent from the opinion of the gen- 
tletnfin fnjm Sinnh Ou^aiina. The rlghls of iLnljarjti, on viibjeL-m 
tif tJiitt kind, me neteawuily very much rnodilied by tiri:innnUuice&, 
Bccanpc EnKl^nd or FruiLce could nut righttully complain of the 
tron»frr of Fluridn to ua, it by tiu tneuns foliowj, oei the gtmtlc* 
man iinppove^ that we could not complsiin of tlie ee^nica of Cu* 
ba to one of iheni- Thn plain dttlWene*? iBt thai thr tmnsfpT of 
Florida to ui* w^n not fian^jertiuM to the safrty of eiJh'T of Ihow 
nnlionv, nut Sahii to any of their ^freat »nd paBcniiul iiileresU. 
Proximity of puAJtii^n, neif^hbt^rhood, whntevcx nu^^enlA the 
power of injuring nnd nnn-iying, very properly belong to the con' 
idanttion of all oiwc* of thia kind. The greater nr Icni facility 



«if >oc6» iticlf if^ i>r con:tiffcmUon in ^ach qiUMtionv, Im^aom- it 
briitgv, or in»y brmp, ^vc'i^hty cnnfeqiiciico* with ii. ll jiutiii«^ 
for th<^v rnn«onft and on ihmr groaiidfti what oih^^rwise mi^hl 
iwver bp thonghi of By i»Pt^iiaiicn wiih a foreign powerj Mr. 
JefTiTMiii obtutii^tJ a pri*viiit:e_ Witliout aiiy nlU^nilKiii of our 
ConAtituikiiu wc \avt inftde It piirtorthr United Suilrs, anil h* 
S^outoni un(i RcprrwntATivrs, now coming trt^m M-vcml Stntc*, 
ire hf^fc »moi];5 us. Now» Sir, if, ini^lcAd of being Loumona, 
thi» had txvn onn of the provjnoft* of Spuin [iroptirT or one of her 
SoiiUi ArTK*ri(Tin Polonips, hp niust h»vp bepn a inadman thnt 
ahouiti hj^vo prupowd Auch sii ^iiX|ui»iLiuit. A lii^li t.'oiiviini(iu of 
ita cdiiTtrnietJcc^ oriBing from pruximUy and fTtrin cIitm^ iiulural 
conni^oUon^ alon« ivconailed thi? country to ihf^ mvnnurcH Coft* 
ftidunitionft of tht^ enme eort have woi^ht in other cniicM;. 

An honfimblc mcribvr from Kcntti<-ky * argutw, thut although 
vrv. migfit rtghtfnlly prcvcrm anathrr powrr (tnm tnking CiibiL 
from Spnin by forw, yet, if 8|iflin ^hotjld chiionc to mnkn the 
voluntary tmrifffrr, vrt should hav« nv rif;hl u-hatcvrr to ui' 
tcHere. Sir, Uiicf i» a diofanction wilhuut a dilft'n.Micr. If we 
mte hki^ly to have* coua^uion about Cuba, k*t uh firut wt^ fon- 
*ider whut our rights aw, niid not commit oufielvc*. Aiui, 
Sir, if we Imvi- any right tn iiiti-rfprr Ht nil, it iip|il'irK »* wril lu 
tht; cnw of a jiRiut^ahlv a« to that of a fon.ihh; tmnitf^r If iw 
tion> be nt wnri wc uc not jodges of Ui«r question of right in 
that vrnri we muat acknowledge in both paftiee the mutooj 
riglit of attach and the tnutuul rif-ht of coni|u««1* tt is not for 
UH to wi boiuidtf to fheir belligcrt'nt ojior^tiorH io long as they 
df> I101 :i^i.*iH, ourHf'lvn. Our right lo inlerffrt^ in any Mtch c«Ae 
ia but. the t^ercjM: of the right of rrsubOiiablL' and i)ci^i?w»ary w^LT- 
drfoncc. It III n high and dclir.nte ex^rcL^f of tliui rivbt; one 
not to 1h; made but on grounds of Ktroiig nnd nmnifetft reaaoti, 
juftic^', and net^cisaity. The mil qi:c>tioii ir^ u-hcihcr the po^Ma* 
■ion of Ciilui hy n grpnt nisrit:irrp powpr of Kiin^pi- would hv^* 
iiu^ly mdungrr our own immediate aecurity or our cuitrnttal in* 
ler«Als> I put the (luirttiion, Bir, in the taiiguagr of some of the 
bcHt coiiflidcTcd fttate paporv of modern timed. Tbic general nilc 
of iiatiouul law ja, un question ably, ugainat mterftfrenca In thi3 
tr^naactiona of otiuv »t&tc». Then; arc, however, acknowted^l 

Mt. Widdiflb. 



eic«frtiorii«,f^utrlii^ out of crlrcunifltfliM?^ and founds In tlioM 
clivimiiiTarireit. These exoeptluriH, it hiU l>*4rn firajierty Stidt], 
cnniK-l withoat (lnTig<:r be rcdaceil Ut |ircviLrU!t rulr. mid innit- 
l>oratrd into the ordinary ^*r'**'"^*=y of ntition.v NrvcrtbcJcw, 
tbcy do cxiet, and must be judgod of, when thi^y nri^c, vr'\ih a 
jn«t regard to out own c««eiitmJ inlvn-^to, but in a epiiil of etrii^C 
Hifltice and delicftcy afsn towards foreign ^laiea. 

TTie ^niund of ihese exopptton» Ia, art T have already !iital«l^ 
neir-prrsrrialiuiiH II ia not a iliglU injury 1« our liiUrrmt, it !« 
not even tt greiit inconvcnii^ncc!, that tnakt-a out a cn^c. There 
muflt be ditn^r to our accurtty, or danger, manift-Eit and immU 
ne^nt dari^^r, to our eMtPottal rightu and oar «?»M^ntin) irti^rrrtn. 
Nnw, !4ir, Jrt ub look At Cuba. I ta^ed hurdlv rrfrr lo iU pjv«- 
cnt amount of commiTrciFd conTifvlion with t,[i<^ United Sfatea. 
Oui blalisLk-ui tfibJcA, 1 presume, would ^how a^i that our t-oni- 
mcTcc with the Havana aJonc i» more in anjount than our whole 
commercaal intcroourao with Frsace sad all her dependenciafti 
But ihb is but one part of the case, and not. ihe most important^ 
Culm, u* i« wtll HJiid in the report of tiie Committee of Forirign 
AilSiini, in pliiord in \hff raoaUi of thr Mississippi. lU otNiupB- 
tion by a atrcng maritime powerr wonUI br fplf, in tht^ fir»t rao- 
tncnt of hostility, n;- Uit up the Mi^^sippi and The Mii?4)oun oa 
oar population cxtrndfi. It i« tho commandi/ig point of tho 
Golf of Mexico. Spp, too, how it lie* in the very line of our 
coa>ttwi«e trairic; intj-rponed m the very highway bi-tween 
New York and New OrK'LinB. 

8jt, who hna Cfttimated, or who can estimate, the cRcci 
Lugc which [Should ptacL* thie island ni other handei, sub- 
ject it to n*w nily.t of coniniorciid mtcrcoumc^ «r eonnc^t it with 
objci^tJt of ti dilFfTcnt nnd *ti]l mon* dungiToiiH nnlnri'? Sir^ I 
rrpi'^t thnt. I fr^rl nn diA]io-<iiion lo purine iliin Utuie on ihr prpa- 
eiiT occasion* My purpose \s only to #how ita importance, and 
to bc^ gentlemen not to prejudice any rights of the country by 
AMentjDg to propoHitioiiA, which, perhapa, it may be occssetuy 
bfreafler lo review. 

\iid hert 1 dilTer again with tbe ^nlteinaji from Kentucky 
lie thinkA, Lhat, in Ui'ia an in othi-r cnni-n, wr- nhnuld wait till tfir 
cvcal comp», without any previous divlaration of our »en1Jm<rnt# 
upon subjects important lo our oMm right:* or our own inter ,>id 
^itt vucn dMaratJonP ari:; vf^n the* appropriate means of pr?- 



THE PAiSAUA Mission. 

Tenting Hiat which, it tinprnvenU^d, it migti be diflicult to Vfr 
dren* A f^ce^t objoci in htilfling dipl'imslic uit4.'rooune b 
fninkly to expuae the viir^'s and objocU of natioii*, aad to pro*- 
▼ent^ by candid eicplnnatlon, coTllalon and war. In thi« eat*, 
Ibr gnvrmmrnt I^ud suid Uml we eouUl not imrtit Ui \hr fmnn- 
fer of Cubtt to nnothrr Karopriin »tntc. Cun w<- fro aueotf 
Do g«-nl]cmrn Think vrc can ? Jf not^ then it was entirely propn 
Ibut tJiifi intimation nhouM be fnuikly and #«B8onaNy madi^ 
Candor r^uire<] it ; ami it would havp hpc^t nii pardonable, it 
would [lave be4>n inju^tJcf, an wHI an folty, 10 be siJeiil whili' 
wi- mi^lit >u[i|Hj»t UiL' tmiaBiU-'tion tu bt: mn1eni|ilnti-d, and 
ih^n to ivmptjiin uf it afltnh'ardff^ If v^ir »bciuld Untr ti vob- 
tcqucnt Tight to i^ompluln, vra have a pruvlouE^ ^gtit, cHjuaUy 
dear, of prctc^tin^; and if the cviL bv oiu* which, \vh«n it 
uom^fli lAxmld allow on to apply a rrmrdy, it not only aJlova 
ii*j but ii makefi It mir dnty, aUo tn apply |iTrwntion. 

BuL, Sir, wliilo buitir gfiiTlrrni^ij 1iav9 mainlainvd thitt on the 
aiibj«*ct of a tran^fw to uny of tbt Eumpcaii power* thr Pn^si' 
ddit lia» aaid too mnch, otht-ra ijiDtciL that on thai of tlit^ occupa- 
tion of tho u^and t>y Mv:(ioo or Colombia bit hatt wud ojid done 
too little. 1 p^'snm**, Sir, for my own part, that rh'^ (=TronKt»st 
lanprsigr ha* hf'iT flirrrird tti thr nonri'j' of j^stlt'Ht rlnngieT. 
Hcretofiire! that dangfi wsh, ^iouhtlt'AT^t gn^ak^^il wblt^Jt wad ap> 
piflinult^ from a voltintary trauafcr* The other haa been met 
nfi it arotw; and, ihiis far, adi^qoatciy and Hut^cti-ntly met. 

And ticnf, Sir, 1 cannot but «ay that I neviT knew a more ex* 
traortnnaiy orgamrnt. ihiin ^vo hwvv beard (in Ibr <'i)ni)uct at th*i 
^Xf'cutivi" on r.hi* part (if ihe cnniv Th*' l*o*sidf»ot in charged 
with incoii4Js1riioy ; and in onlcr to make this onl, pnbHc d^ 
ApatL^hes lira read, whicli, it m said* militate with u:ic ai>i>tber. 

8ir« vrbat nnr thr fadd? This government »aw (it lo invite 
the Empt^ror of Rnssia to u«e hid endeavorB to bnnp Spain 10 
tre»t of petiL*f* witfi her revolted coiotiip*. Ea^t^iia wa» addresftod 
nn thin oc^i^iisioti tin f hr friend of 8puin ; and, of eour**', rv*»fy ar- 
gument, ^I'hirh it wn* Ihoiigbl mi^ht )»ivi? iiidurnrr, tir ntii^ht lo 
have influence, either on Kiimiii ot t^pnin, wn.-* i^nggr^trtj in the 
corrcaijondcncc- /Vmotig other thingis the prrbaNe lo»* to Spain 
of Ciiba aad PurTo Rioo wns imied; and the qne«tion waa 
a^kedt how it was or could be expodtfd by Spain, iliat 11^ 
Uriited dfatfg ahduid iiLlerfi^re t<^ prevent Meikt: ntal Coiornbk 



from tailing Ilt4nc ipilnnfln rruiii lit-r, ^iiR'4^ o\\tf wwt tlirir ciutnyi 
In u pulilii: war, and i'mcv ahe pi^rtitmui^ii^ly, nnd utircQAonnblyt 
w we think, inAiato on maJntiiiiiiiig the wnr; Qod lincc lhc«c 
itlnndff oHVrcd [in obvioat objc^Tt of attnck. Wtu^ not thiis Sir, 
ft vpry proper argument to bv urgE^d to Spaiji ? A copv of thi* 
df^pntch, it sppinn, was sent to tSr SenatP in i^nfiddnce. it haa 
MUtt been piibli^TiK-d by the eAvcutlve. Now, Hit* allegjed iitcojiii 
ek»t'^iic> i*, that, iiotwHIisUiidiug tiu» l^it«i, t)ie Prt^nidcnil hac 
intcrferud tt> diaaoailc Mexico mid Columbia liom itttiicking 
Cuba; thiiti liiidiiig or thinking thai tlimc «lut4:p nuHijtxiLxl 4uch 
a purijow^, ihtt guventini^iU hat» u^g<^d Uirm to dv«Ut ^tom it 
Sir, waiA ever Einy thing morr itciri'awtnnblr tbnJi ilii» charge ? 
W&h it ni.a pro]x-r, that, in pn.Klii<^.' tlir dovirL-d result of peaiv* 
our govi^niiiiMit ebould uddrt-'an <iijr<.'ri'nE molivca lo Ibc difTc-jviit 
pufiUrd in the war? Was it not ite buniiitrsa to wi before ruch 
purty iU dtuigvnt luid Ud dillicuIUcA in pursuing the war? And 
if now, by Euiy tiling unu'X|)ci:l<^df tbcdv rt'ipn^Uvu corri^pond^ 
I'OCi** havr b^conic^ public, atr thc-M* ditlrri'iit via w>S nddrr^scd 
thus lo dtflereiit and wilh dlilmroi a)jjf^[.-l4, \o be rc-lu-d on 
a0 priKjf of ill c-un sift U-'dcy 'i ll ia Uit sl^m^twL aui:ua«iUuii irvi:r 
ht^ard of. No guvcriiiuent not wliolly dcAtilut« of comtiion 
acji«e would have acted olUt.'r\i'ijic<. W« ur^ud ihtt prupt-*r iii<^ 
tivi*fl to both pfirti<!VL To Spain wu urgt:d lbi> probublc io»n of 
Cuba; wa f^howtnl brr ihr iLuiigtrs of il« civplun? by Ibr nrw 
AtRtr?*; nnd w« a4ki-rl lirr to Inforni uft 4»n whnt ground it w«« 
that WL- ijuidd intc!rEVrt Uj prevent eudi captiut-, aincu ehe was at 
war with thuae atBtc^-^ and tb<.'y had an unqncHtiijiiiibJe right lo 
atUick hu' ill any oi tiur t^mtoricB; and, <:flpL*ciaUy, tfhtr wuti 
avkud how sha oouid cxpuot good olhoea from Ud on tlda occa* 
xiijr, uiiicv nhf fully undn.rfltniid onr npiiiion U> bi- that, 9Lht< wu« 
|ii<rAi>tUng in iht*. wur wiUiont or tu'yiiml nh n-JinuiiT Jind willi u 
SQtt of desperulJou. Thi» wa^ \\\c a^jpcal made ui the good 
Beijac of 6|juiii, through RudMti. Bot su*t>ii aftor^arda, havjtig 
reaaoQ to sUApect that Cok>nibJii mid Moxieo vivva ai;tiially prc' 
paring to ;itiuck Cubaf ;uid kfiowiiii; thai uuoh an event wouki 
mo*i furiously affi-irt un, our govemmt-nt reitionntrjivd agalfui 
nuuli iiir<litntr<l aiUnk, »nd t[> ihr prt'seiil, Lhiif- il hns nut be^iui 
madf-. In all lhi«, who 0c«a any ibirg cither imprnprr or iDCOti* 
cuAtcat? For my^cir, I ihbik ihat ihr <:our^' purtur^ »howc:d a 
walt'hUil regiml to ^jur own interi^st, nnd is whuily frve from aa^ 
iiiiiutnrion either of improprietv or invont-lairney. 



There Jirt oilier subjucla, Sir, in the Prcudcnt^ mc«M^ 
which hnvcT been diftcuflH^ii in thv debate, but on which 1 eball 
not long (Ictiun Uic committpfr. 

It cannot be tlmicd, ihiil, from the pomnn^ncement of our gov- 
rntmrn^ it hnn tx^rn lU nhjcna li} linprovif slul) nimpliry the. prin* 
vipli^ ijf national inlrn'oor^r- It rriAy well bi; thon^t b fit OD- 
coeiou to urge tbo^c improved principlre itt a mcmcnt whirn to 
■nnny now *tjit<^» are comtiLg inlo cxietoncc, untTammf Ucd» of 
counc, with prctfioua and Iodk-^^^^^^^^ coDR«ot]oii« or habitA. 
SoiDtt ho\n*r ot tM.-114-til conne^t«d with these topics ai« faugg^t- 
od in thr mrKftn^*. 

Tlie abollUon of prirntc war on thr (Ktmti la al»a among the 
nnl>jf^i-Li uf povAiblc Gotiflidcrationi This i» not the tirat time 
that ihfti .lubjtci Ima beep mentioned Tho iato Pn^^idcnt look 
ooooflion to cnfcirct? tho ESonaJd^mtionA whi<ih hd thought rooam- 
mondod it. For oibo, 1 inn not prtrpored to say how far euch 
abolition mny ho pm^^tipiihlp, fir how f;ir it itiight to be? ptuvuedj 
but there are view* hrlonging to the snhjrct which have not 
been, ill miy dej^'c, answered or conaidenxi lit Ihb discustsion* 
It is not al%^'nya the party that hua the power of etii ploying the 
fnrgi^flt military marine that derivifa the greatest benefit Irom 
anthorizin^ privateera In witr. It i* not enough that iheri; are 
bravn and gnllnnt eaptom; IhvTP mu*^ br iv>mrthing to hn cap- 
lure^. Suppo(^e, Sir, a wnt l^rtwcrn ourwlve^ and niiy one of 
the new at^tt-s of Socitli America were now exiatin^^, Vt\io woiiIJ 
lose most by lh« practice of [jrivuteering in such a war? Thi^ru 
would bi? nothing for u« to altacic, while the ra^aoB of attaclcing 
u« would flow to our enemien from every pott of the world 
Capit^il, vhiprt, Fiml mm woiihl be ubuitilEuit in oil their ports, 
nnd our commrrw^j i^prnnd «vi*f every ne.n, wtnjid l>o tin* €le*tjiird 
prey. So, again, if war should unhappily spring Lip among 
ihoac eiate» themAclvee, might it not be for our interest, &a being 
likely to be muob connected by inf<^rcour«c with all parties, that 
our oommerct^ should be fHrv Irom the vUitation and »eureh of 
pnvnte nriued tthlp*. one of the greuteift veKiitionH tu iieutnd 
eumnien^ rn lime tit war ? Thr-w, 8ir, are mime of the eonHJtU 
emtJonn belonging to thi« ^nbjcct. I have mentioned them only 
to show that they well duwTVc »crioua atieation. 

1 have not int<^ndcid to reply to tho i.iany obacrvations which 
have been submitted to lu on tbe me4«age of the J^re^jJeat tu 



Hub UoiuCi or that to tho BcnEitc. Ucrtolnly 1 Am of OfUiuon, 
ikkt »oino of thotfc ob(wrv&iion# merited an anewor, find they 
have bt'tn aimw^red by othvrd, Oa two ^oinU only wiU I make 
a temnik- h ItU!* been tai'l, and oiien rcpeutej. tbui the- Pn?*i* 
d«!»t, 11) hiH mi-A^^iKc i" T.iu- Sc^iali-, hii# n|Hiki*ii uf liU uwn jKiwrT 
10 regard to niiK«ii>ii?i in lcrm» which thn ConsUtulion docs not 
warrant. ]f grnll<-mcn ^'itl tuni to ihc mci^sagc of Prc«idciit 
W^iflliin^on ratative to the tuuajou h> Lisbon,* they will vcq ol- 
iDOBt Ihe exact iorat of eipr««8Jon ut^rd tu ilila caae. "The othar 
puim on whldi I woald make a nrmark is ihe allegation that an 
imfitir tiar {im hn^n ttiiulir, In ihv }t.r^iittimit of<- iTirs^;!^, uf 
Oci)[*ntl Wiuvliin^jiji% Pjin^wcll AdJrtr^s. T^irre wtjuld bt* no 
end. Sir, to c*>mmrnt-'» nnd criticifms of thi* sort if thpy were to 
be purvmd. I only obH(srv(?, ihnt, us it nppcaia to m**-, the orga* 
Itient of th? niffHAngo, njid it* use of The FnrcwoU AddrcM, afr 
not faSriy iindeT^tood. It is tioI atifinpied To br infrrrpd from 
tlie Fun^wvU Atldrew, that, according tu (ht- opinion of Wa«h- 
iQgton, wc ou^ht nuw to have fillinrictP with foreij^i triated. No 
•Qch tJiiti^i The- Fari-woU AJdrtso rucommi^ndti lo ua to ab- 
«taifi ni* much as po»nibIu from all aort^ of poliUool conneotion 
intb the sTaTe^i of Kuropt*, n)l<'gin^ «» rh? reason for Ihii advice, 
that Europe has n set of primnry iulcrefiis ol" her own, nrpflfatc 
froiTi cninsand with whidi w«- have no natural conitactton. Now 
iht tncsBOge argues, and argui's truly, tliaT, ihe new South Amtr- 
laati Btat«9 not Imving a £ut of inti^rc^st^ of ihoir own, growing 
out of the t>ulaiic« of powi^r, fomiiy alliances, tuid other ejiuilar 
GfiusM, separate from otir«, in the »am<; inanner and to the same 
degree n« the primtiry intermts ol' Etirope were repreaen!«d to 
be, this p«rt of Uie PareweU Addrvvw, amjod at thof^e separate 
Intereata expfe^alyt did not apjjly in this case But docs the 
mCMago infer from this the piupritty of ulliaiicca with thcac new 
atatwT Fax from it It infen no euob thiuj;. On the ooatrary, 
It diaclalmii all such purpose. 

Thf-re h om- oThrr pcjint. Sir, on whieh t'onimon juatit* re- 
quires a Wind to b^ aaid. It hris been alleged tlinL tlicrt; arc 
material difTcrcncea oh to the papers Bent resjicctively to the two 
bouaea. All thia^ oa it seems to me, may be easily and eatisfac 
torily nxplained. In tba Jirst place, the inatructiona of Ma* 

« Sparin'i WkHhiogMo, Yd. Xll. p, m. 


iSZ^ wtiicti, it i^ Mkl, wcri^ not Acnt to iho SonoW*, vrt^^. in 
Btntcliona on cphich ft tr^ty had been Already aegottal^d; 
wlilcrli Ireaty liarl bwfn smltsequentJy mlifiM by ihr Senut*'. It 
iTJrty tiB pn-namnl, tlmt, when Uir tn^nty wt<* w-ni tn thi* flriiaij^j 
tlic ineti^clionv ticcompanicd it; and if «o, tlicy were actunJly 
already brfom the Senate; and tfaia accotint^ for otic of tJie al- 
ivs^ diffirrcncc^ In the next place, thf Icth.-r to Mr. Middlclofi, 
la Ruflsia, not eenl lo tlie Houae, liui ii(.iiv published by the 
Senate, ia *uch a paper aa poAttibly the Pre<iidetit mlgfit not tlUnlt 
pmpM tn tf»riV*T [itiU!i(v There U rviilpni, miwiii f(>r 5iK'h xti 
inference, Andj ln?tly, ihr coirespondercr of Mr, Brown, *ent 
liere, but not to the Senate, appears from its daTe lo have be«ti 
n?L*fiviJd nfttT tfic eommunicadon to the Senate. Probably wbco 
»cri to UK, ii wa* aL*o aent, by another ni^'Htuftei to that body, 

The^e obiii^rvutloaB, 9lr, are t^iom und unlnTereifting. 1 un 
glni] til N- Ihrmi^b Willi Ihem. And htim I might. Ii-rniiimtr my 
remark?s f>"'l rrlirvjr ihr pulirncc, nrrw long and h^ivily Isicd, 
of the coRimitlcen But there ia one poit of the diAcuMJoni on 
which 1 must ask lo bo uidtUged with a few obMirvationQ. 

Paine, Sir, have been takou by iha hoaorabte member from 
VirginiJi, to prove tTiut the meoaure now in contemplation ^ and, 
indtH^df thr who!<' poUt^y of the gi>vi<rnment n?)ip«cting Stnilh 
Atncriesi, i« \Ur. iinhiippy n^Aiilt of Ibe iiitiiienee of a girntJeman 
forroerly tiling the chair of thi* Hoiuc. To make out thb, he 
ha« rofcmd lo certain speeches of that gcntlemftn delivered hflw. 
He oJiarKett hnn with huvins become lumf»i-tf uffteted nf nr» eurly 
day with whiit be ia pK^uwed to eall tlie South Amerienn fever; 
und with huvin^ irifuHed lU tnmi-ful lnf]urna<- into thf? whole 
eonn^els <if :he rntnitry- 

If, Sir, it be trap that that grntJrman, prompted by an ardent 
love of civil liberty, felt earlier than others a pfopiT aympatby 
for the eircif^^'lin^ eolonieia of South Anieriea ; or that, ucLin^ on 
thtt m»3cim Ihut revolutionif do nut go btu^hward, he hrvd the 
itgfieity Ui ttirt-^ct; enrlier thun ntbej*, the Ki]ei^r««f(iL ti^rmina- 
tiitn nf tho^r MtnggW; if, thiii* fnHing, and tbn* (KTeeiving, It 
fell to him to U-ftd the willing or unwilling eouuseli of his eouo- 
rry, in her manifeatationa of kindneas to the new govcrnmenb, 
and in ht-r weaaonable reeognitiou of their Independenoe, — if it 
tw ibin whith the honorable member imputes lo him, if it be by 
this iranrf^e of public? conduct that Iw ha> icicntiiied hta nnmv 



wHh Ihr ontJSf^ of SoutTi Anrerlo;a[i llb^rly, lie ou^hl (o be >4* 
loemod oa<^ of th<; moHt foriuuato men *>( the a^^if. If iiJJ tbb be 
<M ia DOW ivfiTi'fieiitccU he baa acquiri^d fainc cnongh. Jt it 
enough for any iiiaii thus fo hitto coi)f]<<4]tvd himn^lf ^ith the 
greutt>st <.'\4.-titM oi" the ogc in wliich tic livon^ mid to have been 
rorcmoHt hi mrnnarrft wnirh rr Hrnt high honor on his ccuntry, In 
till? judgmcEjl of mankind. -Sir, it is always with grt^ai rvliio 
tnnc« th&t J am <irawii ro Apeub* ui my place Itert, ^f mdividu- 
&1»; bat 1 could not forbfiu what I Imve now aniiL whrn I hciiri 
in the Hoii&e of Rtfpn-st-'fitativi'D, and in this Innd of free ftpiritii, 
that it U made matter o{ iuiyuX'^ijotx und of rrproKc?b to haw 
lieen fint (i> ivat^h tortii Mie hiind of wc^^omi* niid 4if meteor to 
nerw^liuni nutlomf, vtcugglliig to obtulii arui to rnjoy the b\e*t^ 
ingn of liberty. 

Wc arc told that the country i« di^ludcd aiid deceived by cab-* 
ftlifltio wordA. Cs^baliJ^tic word*! If we expreee an t*motiou of 
pleasure at the n'culu of fhiH great ac-iJon of the spbit of puliti- 
i!;!ii Liberty ; if we rejolre at ihe binh of new repiibHotui nn< 
tiuneit and cx|ire>t9 our joy by ihc comnioii teniia of rrgiiriJ imd 
sympalby; if we feci and signify high gntiticalion thai, Utroii^h* 
tmt thii whole contiiiont, men tire aav likrly to be bt^^Bcd by 
free and pnpuUr inBtimiionE ; nnd if, in the uttt^rin^ of lh«H 
8«iitiin^nts, w« happen t« *poalc of «i«rer rrpubliee, of the ^at 
AnLeri(.<Tin family of iiationrs or tif The |Hililim1 HyHtem and funna 
of govemiueiit of thiH heuiisphexe, then indeed, it «eema, we dcnl 
in BcnaelEas jargon, or Impose on the judgment and feeling of 
the commmirly by cnbaJiBliu wonlsi ! Sift what is nR^ant by 
this ? U It inlendvd ihiit the \te<j\)li^ o( the Unilc-d States ought 
to be totally indiirert.-iit (u the fnrttin<<H of these new neigbbon t 
1» no chnagi^ in the lights hi which we ^rr U\ vifw Ibrrn to 
bfi wrought, by iheli Imvju^ ihrowii olF forvlgii doimniou, e«Uib- 
liahud independciAce, and instlttiti^^ on our very bonlcra rcpub- 
Li<Min govern riieiits e^eiitially ufti*r our own example 7 

Sir, 1 do not wiah to overmtc, I do not overrate, the progTeni 
of thrfte new Htati^ii ut the great work of e»tablUhirig a weUn 
necurnl p>puhLr libi<rly. 1 know ihut to he ■ great atlaiiimT*nL 
ajkd [ know thry art but pnpiU \u itie vehool. Dut, thank God, 
tbey arc in the rchool. They arc coUod lo meet liil^cultieB euch 
u neither wo nor onr fathers cncounltred- Fnr these we ought 
to nuike lar^« allowances- What have we ever Ixnowii like lh« 



rftlrntnl vfuMnlagr of thi^n vtiitcn ? Whrn did we or oar an* 
ccetnra fed, like ihein, tlie wi'ight of s ptilili<ti] d^apotiam that 
presMe men to the eartlit w cf tliat rcUgioua inloleraiicr wliich 
voald flhut up heaTcn to all of a diiTt^rt-Tit crtcd 1 dtr, wc »j>rung 
from another silock. W<: bt^ionf; to unolhcr race. Wc have 
Iui4>wn nothing, wc h&ve felt nothing, of thr politioaJ dv^pottiicn 
of Spain, nor of the lioal of hci fir™ of Iniolrmno?. XoratJonnl 
ni8ii ex^vKlH that die Soulh can ruit ttie »ame rapid cvmr an 
thi; Nortli; or that an lasuri^nt province of 8pain i» 'in thv* 
aame condition nn the Kiijfliph coloiitrn when they limt nevcrted 
their indcpof I dcnci?. 'i'ficre iht doublk'^r, much more to be done 
in thu fint than in thi? Irmt cai»c. Hut on that aooount the hoiioi 
of the attempt is not l*'"*; nnd if all difficnllie* nhall bo in time 
ALtnmiuiili^d, it wHl bt* ^rrnu-r Tht' work nmy br_> iiLore ardu- 
CJlio, it U not lef<B noble, bocuusu there may be more ot tgiio- 
mnce to enJighten^ more of l>igotr^ to aubdue, more cf iirrja- 
dice tocmdicnrx!. U itbe n weuknCM to feel a. ntron^ mii^reiit m 
the ^uooees of these groat revolution*, I confesfi mywlf gnilty of 
that w^akreef- If it be w<Tak to /eel th/U I am &n Americaii, to 
"think that reeent ev^nt* havp nfit nnly tipened new modes of ln» 
tercoLiTMr, but have i^i^ateU also new i^rounds of regaril ami nym* 
pathy between ouiHclyea antl our nclglibore : if it b^ir weak to feel 
that the SouUi, in btr ^jrc-Htnit state, ia Bomewbat more emphati- 
ciUly a part of Am<Tnoa tbuu when eh« lay obscure, oppreesed, 
mid unknown, undt^r the- grin<iing bondage of a Afreign power; 
if it bp wrnk to rrjoirr wbrn, cvrn in nny rorner of f,hr c&rlh, 
bumuii belngB arc' abl« to ri&e from beneath oppreaaionr (o erect 
iheiaaelveat and to enjoy the proper h&i>pmca» of their intrlUgent 
nature ; — if this bt weak, it U a weaknesa from wbiob I claim 
no exemption. 

A day of Htitemn retribution now vlvita the once proud mon- 
archy of Spain. Thr pmilifTtion \n fulfilled. The tpirtt of Mon- 
'fjcuma and of the 1nc4» mi|;ht nowwrU eay,^* 

" Ari Ihiru. \tiii. rdlriK TtinnaT Dn wu tvt 

Thou! \\itn hjhsi wuBied rartit and d\r«d dopiM 
AUkn »hn *ni[h anil murey ofihe ikiea, 
I'liy p<im|i % in ihfi [;rht<* ; thy iflory txid 
Lvw M Ui< piui ifaino aiarico bu mode."* 


Cowpcr'a Charity, 



Mr. Chairman, 1 wi]l only detun yoa *ilh one more reScc- 
tion on tbi^ t^ibjoct. Wc cjuinot be eo bliriil, wc caMiiot bo sbat 
up our s*!!!^* and smother our fucuttitv, u» not to «ee, that, in 
tli« progtesH Bijd the eKtttbli*hmL*nt of SouJb AiiiyrEcan libeffy^ 
our uwji rxiiuijilr hn% hrt-n Hnmag ihr. mo^t ALimtilutiiig i^iinswiB,. 
In tbcir cnrrgcDcicfl, ihcy have loolccd to out experience; in 
their political mslitutions they have followed our THodels; in 
their deliberations, thty buvr invoked Ibo prifaidm^ Bpiril of oar 
own |ib%My. Thuy huva loukud vteadily, in every advortity, to 
the g^ect Mirtftcm tight, \n the hour of bloody eonfliet, they 
Imve rpmr^inijfTHj ihr firldn whlHi bnvt- h<*mi 4MHiw<Tmli"<l hy th« 
blood afour own fiitlier*; and wbs-n tbry have fnUrn, tbf?y bnvii 
winhed only to be remembered with cbenit as men who hud 
acted their porta bravely for the oiusc of liberty in the Western 

Sir, I huvo done- If it be wenknes9 to feel the tyrnpathy of 
ont-'n natiirn i^rited for such rncn, in such a csiiu^ I am giiilty 
of that weiLlini*»«H If it In? prudi-ne*: to iiu-cl their pri^fiVred 
civility, not with leciprocal kii)drie»a, but with coldnca« or with 
insult, 1 choo»o stiU 1o follow whore natural iiTipulac Icddi«, and < 
to^ve up that fube and mistaken prudenetj for thfi vntuntar^ 
lentlmenttt of my heart 



Muh PunoiDTWr, — It haa not been tnr purposr to take any 
purt in thi? <U5ciL'4BLt>ii of this bill. My ojiiriionn in rp^^arJ lo iu 
grn^ml ohjiv^t, I hnpe, ai^ well kncwii ; And I hnil inti^ndiMl to 
content myii^lf with n at^jiHy nnd pprtrviTing voIj* in it* Invcir 
Dut whvn the inuiiitriLt of final dt-ciatoii hua mtni:, ajtd tUc diviA' 
ion U eo likely to be needy equai. I feel it to be a liuty to put^ 
Qot only my own vo1l% but my own oiirm-fli wished aloo, and 
my fervent eairentie* to oihew, inlv the <li»ubtful tn^tde. 

It must be ttdmiMed, Sir^ thut thn pprcpna tbr wh»«e benefit 
Lhia bill ia designed an*, in xomf* mpin'tflT pfriilinrly imforlim^iir. 
Tliey are compelled to meet ii<jt C[dy iil>jt'CUons lu tbr [jNiicitiic, 
but, wliichever way thi^-y tuin thcm«cWcis cmbarrasAuig objcc- 
tione afftQ to details- Unc friend hcuitatca at thie provision, and 
another ftt that ; while thoBe who are not friends at all of coune 
oppofte €veTy thing, oud propoae noiblng. Wben U was con- 
tern[i]iiU-d, linretorore, tu give Oie |M-tituin(^ni n sum ciutrigbl iii 
«(ifi.-<rit4:tiiiii (»r their duiin, then iJje iir^inii^iit was, itiiioiig other 
tbingSi that the tjcaaury conid not bear so heavy a draught on 
its moane at the present tnomeiiti Tlie plan is accordingly 
objiii^ed; qji annuity ir> proposed; tuid then the objection chant^e 
alaOp It IB now itald^ thai thift la but granUiiff pens^D^and that 
the pension aysletii bum hirmidy been mrried tiw) far. 1 emifettn, 
Sir, I felt wuundrtl, drrply hiiH, nt th(^ i>ijMrrvntioii» of the Kt^n* 
tleman from Georgia. "So, then" said he, 'Mhc»e modcjit and 
high-minded genllemco tnlce a prnBJou at last ! " How i* it po«< 
Bible Ihar. a gentleman of hia geii<<io«ity of oharacter, and f^n- 

• A Speech dfltiveKd m tb^ Sanitl* of ihd TnltAd SuU*. on 1h* 9&th **f 
April, less. on tlie Bill for ihe nejief af Uia Samvinc OfflMr* of ihft Rov»- 






^ral kiiiilni^sM of fvrVuigj UHti mdulgp in Kiirli n Uine fif triiiTn* 
phniit irony Utwnnl^ a frwj lAi}, gnij-lu'vxiWi, poor, iind broken 
wnrriore of the ll«volutiott! There ii^ I kno^i something rcj>ul- 
■iv<i and oppr^>brk>u» iii tb« name of pi.'nsion> But UoJ for1>id 
tbat I fihotdd fiiuiit Ihfin wiUi ill With griofi ht-urt-Mt ffriL-f^ 
do I bebold the iieceutity whkh hudM IJitic vpitjiuiji to iiccept the 
bounty of their r*junl.ryj in u munm^r not fhr? most ngn*ublr Ui 
their rrrlingw. Worn out niul ilwLTrrpil, r-pri'i^cntt'd Iji^fori? nf> by 
thooTi their iorracr brothcT» in aima, who totter along our lob* 
t>EC9i or Mand leaning on thrir erutc:ht's. I» for one, woulJ rnoat 
j^adly support Hoch a rneuBUr>! tis diould cifiiftuit at oncv thoir 
l«rvlc««, their yuaro, tbeir nooesMtivi, and the delicucy of thcJi 
B^ntimf^ntK. I would ^bdly givr-, with promptituch' niid grficp, 
with i^riLtiliulf? iLtid <leli(:<K'y, iUnt whirii rnrrii htM vnknial and 
ncccwity demands^ 

Sir, ^bat arc the objectioas urged a|^in«t this bill? Let ud 
look at thum, uud »ee if ihuy be real; let ua wai^rb thf^in, to 
know if tbcty be Holid; for vrc are not acting on n HJight mutter, 
nor t% u'hftl wp do likrly u> pun* iinobiirrvci) now, nr I<» l>o for* 
goffpn brrrrtfti^r. ! rrgnirl Tb<^ ocrA^ion an on** foil of inlrrrnt 
and foil of te^poneibiiity. ThuM- intlividuuh, t]je UtlJi* miiuaitt 
of a ^lant band, wbo^e days of youih and manhood iwre 
t»pent for their country in the tciU and dangers of tho field, are 
now before ua, poor and old, — intimutjiig thtir wa:iU with re- 
liictunt dt'lit'tLoy, and asking auecor from tbeir (?4)ontry witii dvo- 
nroiiH Milicittidr. How wc sfmll irent them it hoboovf-a hh wpI) 
to considr^, not only for their sake, but for our own »akv: alw, 
and for die »akc of the honor of the eountry. Whatever vtc da 
will not be done in a corner. Our conflUtumt*) will aee it; ttift 
people will aee it ; the world will fee tt. 

Let m eundidiy Mamint*, then, the obJL-ctionn which hav« 
b«wn niPHHl to thin bill, witli n <lii«poiifion to yirld tA thf-m, tf 
from nrowiMty wc munt, but to ovoicomc them, if j^i fairnrrfui 
we can. 

In the first place, it ia eatd tli&t we ought not to pnsn thr bUii 
b«oaii?^o it will involve ub in a oharg*? uf unknown oxtrnl. Wo 
arc reniiiwltfd, thiil, wht'n the gtnoral pension inw for Revohition- 
nry noldirnt finMivl, an PX[K'rt!iff was incurred far beyond what 
hud br<^n ronlrrnphu^vl ; 'but the estimMit of Ihr ruirnber of 
viLrviviiig Revolutionary soldiers proved ailogelbor foliaciou^; 



and thnt, for ftught wc know, the same mistake may be commit 

Ud DOW. 

Is this objection well founded? LK mr Bnyjn the fim placPi 
that ir one meaaure, ^1^^^ ^'^ Iltelf, han gnn«* fmlher than It wan 
inU^nded lo be irwrricfi, fur wnnl uf micunil^ proviaiuud utid ude- 
qtiatr gimrtJs, rhi? mny CiifntAh a very ^)od re-^iton for aupplying 
such guord.i and proviviono in another inennun-, but can alforil 
no groand at all for rajocting nnch other mt^rkAanr altogcihrr. if 
ll be in iuelf just and ri?aei>naU<% Wp i?hoi]Jd avail oiirf<-lv4« 
of oar experience, it «eemH to me, <o eorreot what hes been found 
ainiH; nnd mA- dniw fruiit it nn undJHttii^umhiii^ rvMvJuliuii tu du 
notliing* merely brum^r it bu? taught ua, that, in :*i>mf-1h»if; wv 
have already done, wc have octf'd witJi too littler care- In ihc 
next place, doos the fact boor out this objccuoii ? la thvrc any 
diflieikUy in ascertaining tti*- number of the olBoers who will bi& 
ben«iitf*d by thi* b!U, utid m CBlimaUng th« expense, therefore, 
whicfh it will cR-utP? I think tliprc Is nune. The rt-runls i>i 
the depttrtmcTiiT c*f war und tfir tn-nj<nry fiiini^lj siu'h f^viilr-nee 
that there it no danger of material mistake. The diligence of 
the chairman of the commitiec ha* enabled him to lay the fact^ 
connected with this part of the ca^o *o fdly and minutely before 
the Senate, that I think no one can feel tierioutt doubt Indeed, 
it l» ndrnUted by rhe ndverwiriex of Uie bill, that thU objection 
doce ni>t apply hrru witij the Mirne force a^ tn tljc ft'nnrr |ji-n< 
aion-law. It is admitted that there is a greater facility in this 
cose than in that, in ascertaining the uumbcrand names ol' those 
who will be entitled to reei-ive that bounty, 

'i'hi« cbjectioni thL'n, i» not (ciundL^d in trui-< prinoipJv ; and if it 
were, it is not Bustaincil by ihv facts. I think wc ought not lo 
yield to it, un]eA», {vb'hif'h I know is not thi* sirnfinicitt which p^^r- 
vaden Uie Senate,) fecUiif^ that ihe lueanure ifu^bt not iu jkiw, 
we etill prefer not to plaoe our opposition to it on a distinct 
and visible ground, but to veil it under vogue and gcncrftl objciv 

In the sDCond placet >t ha9 been objected thai the operation 
of the bill will hp iine<]iiEil, tfeeau>e oU ofliL-en of the ^aine rank 
wiU receive e<^ual l»eucfu from it, nlthou^ti Ihty rnlertd Uir uriuy 
lit different tiroes, and were of dtlTercnt ages. Sir, is not tbi« 
that sort of inequality which mist oiv'ays exist in every geni^roJ 
|iroviidon. ts it poiti^ibli; that aav law can de^ciMid into such par- 



rti-nlur*? W«uM ihere hi* any rt-tiMi^i why it nhonlil do so. If 
\t rmilil ? The bill i« iiit<"*i*li*(i for tlinm' who, bfjiig Jn lliQ army 
!ii Octol:»cr. 1780. then rcccivcJ a solemn promise of hulf-ptiy 
fur lif*-', oil L'ocKiitJon thiit thf^y would cuinliriuc to vcrvr through 
Ihc w£if. Tbt-ir ^ound of iiu^rit is, ihai, whenporver they joinrd 
tli4; Eirmy^ Win^ tliu« solioiled by their country tt> riimiiin in it, 
th**/ nt ofipr winit fnr ihr whiilf; ihpy fturrnrcl thHr forhini*'* 
lo ihr mujiilwrdi* wMeli ihrv burr, ;tiu) rrsdvfd to oontiiiTit- tlirlr 

niliLmjT Birrvicc till it ehoulJ Trrnilti&ttT nUicr irt thtiir comtlr^^s 
aaoc(!55 CT in i\\e\T o^vn dcaili. ThiM i» (hf^ir merit nnd their 
ground of ckimH How Ioh^- lh«7 hud b^-c-n uln^ndy in acrvjcc, 
M immatcrinl nnd unimportunt. They wcrv tht-ti in tcrvicc; tho 
flftlvfttion of Iht^tr connlTV <lttpi'm\v.d on thi'ir oantinuing in that 
(*Tvlcf* Cohgrr/^?* sttw thirt im|Hr™tivr n^'w^Mity, and ii^aniestty 
voliuiipd them lu remain* anj |iromi»ed the comjitrjisatluii. They 
sptw llip ncccfiaity ulso, and tliey yiuldcd to it. 

But, nefiiin, it i:< ^atd that thu present time 19 not au^pioioiift. 

The bill, tt in Lir^^d, #hnuld not pitjtM now. Thtf vrncnibJc ncm- 
oer from North Cnroliim •nyw, an J und(*r"*tood him, thai ho 
would be almciT ns willing that thi* hill uhotild paw at some 
othr-f nt-Mioti, AS be diBCUPBt'd at tbia. He apuiiks of the dls^ 
lrr.-1.4m of the ccuiktry at the preaeni moment, nnd of nnolhfT 
bJlh now in the Senutr^, htivhif;, a^i he thinkes Xh<*. nirct of laying 
flcvv tAxrx npjin the |KTOph'. He }» for ponlponrmrnt. But it 
appears to m^, with rntirer roep^ct for ibci honorable member, 
that thi-* ii^ onp nf thp on*!?-* leaat of all fit for poatponemeiiC 
Tt ia not a nit!U!>ure that, if Duutlt^d tlib yt^ur, msiy us well be 
done nvxU Before the next year comc^ ncimc; of UtOMi who 
iieed the relief may be beyond it8 reach. To postpone for an* 
oibi^r year an annuity to pcrHoii^ nlrLiidy so aged, — an Dniluity 
founded on the merit of aer^iocs which were rvodorpd half a 
etnlury ago, — to po^f another whole year a bill for the 
n^lief of df->iervitip rtierv — pmpoHing^ nut uggmmiiit'mvttU but 
KUpport, not cmolunienl, but brcuJ, — i» a modt; of disponing of 
it in which ] cannot concur 

Bnt it 19 nrc;iird, in thi? nr^.x place, that the bill ought not to 
paa«, because iboHi^ who huve Bpoken in iIa favor have placed it 
on ditTt'fent p^ounds. They have not Agreed, ft is suid, wherhef 
it i-t to be rt^gardeil a« a niaiu-r ^f riglil, or irnittr of gratuity, 
or bounty. U there weight 'u\ thi» objection? If »oine Ihmk 


RKvnj.i-nnwnY omcEBS, 

Lhr iBT'Attt oiifiht li> br rnaOi,-, 4» an exeTci9f. of jruiiijou^ ukI 
wHt'ckm-rvird btiunly, doE\-i it weaken timt ground that olhcre 
thinic it fouDdod Jn vtrict right, And that wc ctinnoi refuse it 
vilhout m^nif<^«t nnd pnlpablc iiijttstlco ? Or I« Lt Mtrnngi^ that 
those iK'ho frpj ihf h*gal jnsiini* t>r Ihp clnim phoulii nd<Iri>Af« tO 
tliuec wbo da aot feel II cottAiticmUon« of a dinereijt di^acU-r, 
but fit it> have weixhl, aud which t!i<ry hope may have wciifht? 
Nothing- is^ more plain and nQfuritl tlian the cotirat whub ihiD 
«|>pliontion Iias taken. The nppticnntA themM?lvca havt? pLnocM] 
it oti the groimd of cquily nud Inw. They ttdrrtt to the rvm^lvc 
of 1780, TO T:h<^ cximrniiiiiriiin of I7?3, nnd to Tbo moHe of fund- 
ing llie C'tTflficateA. Tliry tiuiul on tlinr ouiit/ncL Tlu« is 
pcirfc^ctly uaturul. On thuit lia^b tJiey a±u prt-ftcni the arg:tiit)«at 
thoin.>>elvc«. Of what, is reijuired by jiwtjtx* and equity, ibey 
mny rf^iiaon, exvn in thcix own caat^. But whi'Ti Uj& ttpplk^ution 
I* plncN'd on dilfc^reril griJundv; whc-n pergonal merit i* to Ijc 
urgpd an ttrr fuuiidnlJciii ofn jnul und «Tuiioiriic-al bounty; wlit^n 
•iTvicp* arr- to hv mi.Tiiiinjii*d, priMilnui:^ n-ooiintrd, fmius 
enuiacratod, and vroi]iid» aud Acara referred to, the di»cu»ioD 
ncccaaarily dcvolvcj? upon oiticr*. In all that wc liavf sccii 
from theec otTi<.vn) iu thti vuriuuB paptts priraojited by iheaii it 
cannot bm be obvious to lawry owi how little is said of |>er* 
•onal merit) aud lif>w «^xdtisKvly they confiiie IheniBH'lvea to 
wh»t lhr) ihiiik thrir righu niidir lhr rx>iilnK.t 

1 niu^t €oiifc--0s^ iSii, that principlca cf equity, which appear to 
mc ae plain oa the «uiu arc urged by the mi^mori&liat* them* 
•elvM with f^teai caution, ajrd muvh qualification, Tli^y ad- 
vance their daim of right wiUioliI exiravaganoe or ovorvtraiQ- 
\n^■, and they AUbmil it: it tlie uniiEiputiidouf-d iseiiM of jusijce 
of the Sen^tr, 

For my*rlf, 1 am free to wyi tiiat) if it were a oa«e brtwccn 
individual and individuali 1 think the oHiccrs would be cntJtlrxl 
to M^Uff in » ctmit of equity. 1 mny b* mlAtakeii> but «uch » 
my opinion. My n^Ason^ an:-, ilint [ do not ihUik ihry bnd it 
fair option in regard lo i\\e niminutatjon of half-pay, 1 di> 
thiak It was fairly in Uieii pirwiT Lo a;^ii-*pt or rrjiet Uiat aHvt 
The ei>tid.iUtrn they were in, unU the aituaUon of the coujiLry, 
ooukpellc^d thrm to Eiubtnrt to whnt4;v«r wiu^ propOMxJ. In the 
iwixi pl[icc, it Mirmf^ To mp too evident lo be denied, that thfl 
^)^e yeai^' full pay wais never efiectually received by them. A 


fonnn] rompllnncrf vAth Iho tcrni)i of the contractt not a real 
complinncic*, i^ nt mcwt alJ ttint cvct look place, hor tbow roft- 
■ooft, I think, ia an individual oaiie, law and equity would 
nrform rhe M»ttlemer*Ir The coTiscleiice of chfiiicpry would deal 
with t\un ctiAe a.H willi oUiei cum*-i of hiird Imrguititij of uitviui- 
ia^c» obtained by mt^jtitit of uic<[i]ttLty of aitn&tioa ; of iLoknovi'I- 
«dj^^ dtibta, cumpoDJided from n^craetitji ct GomprciTn]«<d with- 
out vatisfiicttoiL Bitt oilhoiigh »uch would be my vicvPA of (hit 
cbtm^ lu betw«<en mun and mnR^ I do not pluci^ my votp for tbia 
bill an thnt ground- 1 wr thr couAifjiuTor of admitting thfl 
cUiin^ CD Uic foundation of atrict riglit I see at ottce^ Uiat, on 
thai gioutid, the heirs of the dead «vould claim, aa wcW na tli<; 
iiviug; aud tlitit other poblic cwdilore, an well as (Jitoe holdurv 
of eommuTalion (Certificates, would aUo have wheruof to com- 
plain, i know It is altogetlter impOHible to op*ii iho nccouiiU 
of Uip Rtvcilutidii^ rind tu l.hiiik of doing jeihLIcw Uj v^vrry tntdy. 
Mut^ of nalTrnn^ thcrr nncc^Bvaiily wjia, thnt can nr^vrr be ppLtd 
for; much of [o'*»that can never bcrcp^rcd. 1 <lo not, thercfonr, 
for myself, rri»t my vote on grouuda leading to any such conae' 
qDenoee. I feel con^iiained to say, that we catinot do, atid 
oa^t not lo rhlnk of doing, every i.hlng in regard to Revolu* 
lionary debla which uji^hl be deairabl^ if Uic whole airtdeioent 
were ncjw to be f{one over aiufw* 

The honorubk' tfirinbcr from New York* hma titated what J 
think thr true grcuiid of tJic bill. 1 regard it an ati af^t of di«' 
OMC And cnwiful bounty, drawn foirth by mcritonoui! lervicoa 
flnd by prrnoiifll nccr-witieiB- I cannot a'g"'% in lhi>* chrp, with 
the Ipt'hnir^itlil^ of my proftrMiIojL ; and lacfiuMf- I do not feej 
able to allow tic claim on tlje iri^urtd of mere right, I am oot 
vidinp, for thut reoaon, to iionBoit the pt^titionera, aa not having 
ruudi-^ out thi-ir cuae, SuppoEi? we udniit, us I lio^ that, oa ttie 
grotnid of mere right, it would not lie aafe lo allow ii; or, *up* 
pcisr UjtiI. In br admittftl for vvhirh nthera wmU-ndt thht there i* 
in tiir ciirn' no ?<lnat Hght ii|joii whkh undt-r Tiny eJfcumntanccti, 
the cJaim coidil :«tand ; atiji it dors not follow that there is no 
resAoaabJc arui proper foundation for Jt, or that it ought not to 
be f^ranted, [f it be not founded on atrict rights it ia not to be 
regaid^d a* being, for that reason alone, an undeserved gratuity. 

* Ur \kD Buiea 



ur the ofFunion of mvrc good-will. If thnt which w urmntM be 
not ojwaytr granted on the ground d nbAolnti^ ri^ht, it dow net 
follow that it i* grantrd lufr^ly from an arbitntry pmferenri*, «t 
i^Hprii^iniiH brnrflrrncr. In trnul fHsrn nf thin it<vr\^ mixrd t*>ii" 
Hldtrratioiift piv'-vflil, and ought 1o prt^vuiL Sonir coii^'iitcr&tjon h 
dtw lo the cluiin of n#-ht; mucli to (hat of merit and Krvicc; 
and DHoraio that of pci^tonal neocasily. If I knew that all th^por- 
40I1A to be benefit^^d by thJ^ bill were in (r]rutiinHlano<ea ofoomrotl 
and 4?oin{>et(<fioy, I shuuld not ftupport iu But Tliiti 1 kaow to be 
othrrwisp. I <<iuiriot (Uv»^U wJlh pmpn»-tj- ur ddir.KEy on tlda [larl 
uf the case; but ifrcl it» force, find I yield to it. A single in^tnncc 
of aflluencei or a few ca«m where want does not tread close on 
thoee who are themaclvcA treading cIohc on the bordon of the 
pave^ doe« not fitfpct the general propriety and necettity of the 
Tiieaeure. I would not draw thla reason for the bill into too 
nnioh pn^nniitiiee- We hU know il ejiis1.ti; niid we lufty, I 
thtnk, Bufdy net upon it, vrithont so dlMnisiMng it na to woond, 
in »ld, but At^nMTivr and ntill throbbing ht^Aoin^ fciOing? which 
^ucntion in«piro(i, ItMs habits of military life dierished, and A 
juHt iclf-reftpcct i» ntUl dcHtrouv ro entcnain. I confeu I meet 
thia HRim, not only with a rlesire to <\n rtoin**thing in favor of 
theae otiicrrB, but to div it in a inaiiiit-r indii'utivtr, not only of 
deoomjUi but of deep reaiwct, — thai rvspect wbiuli year», a^i 
public dervi<>e, palriotiain, and broken fortune, coroniand to aprinfc 
up in every manly breaat. 

It UL, then^ Sir, a mixed elaim of fojtb and public gratitude, 
of jnjttiep nniJ hnnomUlr boniity, of mrrit and brn^^volriin*. It 
■ttiindK t>u thr riEitur fdundnliiin njt that grant^ which no one tc* 
gret«, of which all are proud, made to the illnstriou« foreigner, 
who showed himself so early, and has proved himself so con- 
stantly and zealou&ly, a friend to oar eonntry. 

Then, again. It Is objecved, that the militia have a elaim upon 
uh; that tliey fvughl at Uie iiiUe nf the rt^^ular niildieni, and 
ought to tibare in the eimnUy'a remembrance- But it lh kuowj> 
Co bo tmpot^tUe to cnrry the mcftAure tn auoh tin extent as to 
^mbruee the militia; and it is plnin, loo^ tbat the txisL-e arv dif- 
ferent The bill, as } have alreiidy nitxd, C(»nline5 itself to ihose 
whu [Mirvt^d nut oucasionally, aot trmpnrnrily, but permaciciiily; 
whu nilowrd Lhi^insdvea lo be counted on a* mr-ii who were to 
»cc the contest through, last «u long as it might; and who liavo 




isUng (lining tlie <Gi'ar" a provctbt&l cx- 
pnaraSoD, ^igjiifjiii^ tjiiiillcmble ili^voUou U> our c^uae* throagb 
good fortutiL- and ill fortunc^^ till it rcftuhc« 0$ cJoac. Tbia is a 
piuin (li»tiiiciU;}n ; mit} ulthou^^h^ pL-rhuj>B, I mi^t vntih to do 
roorv, 1 »ot* good grtmrid to Hlop biro for tlio present. If ■«"« miiat 
Mtnp iinywlim-. Tlic iriilitiu v/b« fcmglit «t Coik'uhI, ut Iji-Jtiiiff* 
tnn, nitd at BimkorV Hill, linvt- iu'vn nllLJilrd Ui, ill ihc tinunt^ af 
tlii» dcbat<"T ill Icrni^ of wcU-dc^nrrvrd pmisic. Be awurcd, Sir, 
tlicrc could with diiiiculty be found a man M'ho drew Uia nword, 
err carried hix muifkrl, at Concord, at I^iiogton, qt Uunkur* 
IIIU, who would wifth ynu lo rt'jf<*t ihi* bill. Thf'y night fink 
you to dit [iiorv, but never to tefruln froiij doing dii»<> Wc>iiUi 
to God Ibtry wviv flwtinbltd bvrt, aiid bad the fjta oftbe bill in 
tbtiif own kituids! Would to God tbc (|ui:otjoi] of JU puMu^ 
wcri? lo be put to tbcm! Thuy would [Ubrm it, witti a unity of 
HECctamtition thtit wmdd rund Ihc roof of the CnpitoL. 

I ftup|Mjrt tlif' rnnuiurr, ihcti, Air- I'r^drnt, b<-cuUH^ 1 diiuk it 
B iifop<-r find judicious it^itrcisc of wpll'rnL^nt4'd n?tliojin1 bounty, 
1 ihiiik, t4>o> tbc gcucral ectktimct^ of my own conaUluejit«, and 
of the countjry, ia in favor of it. 1 bclic-ve thi- incinba from 
Nortb C^obiiu bimwif admitted, thut un iiKreuBing de<djre tbat 
lionietbiiig flbould be done for the RevoJuiioiiary ofllc«*r9 iiicni- 
festtfd itavlf ia the commuuicy* Tbt> bill wjU make no Imitje* 
diAlc or grrtft drmi^bL i>n tlit trtrnaLiry. It will mA drraugc (lie 
finaocctf- If 1 bad nttpponcd [bat tbc state o\ lite Tjc-o^nry would 
bnvo been urged ugaiiiAt the pns^ngc g( tbie bill, 1 nhould not 
bftve vot«>d Tor tbfl Delnwaro braakwater, bocauH^ tbaf might 
bflvd heon ccmm^Rccd next year; nor for tbe whole of tbi> auiim 
whii^ have been graaled (or furtificadims; for tlieir advance^ 
meiit wilb a llule mure or u litUe Icaa of rapidity \a itot of the 
Bmi iicccpaily. BtJ the prcwnt com a aigtaU Wbat we do 
ahonld b(i done quickly. 

Ml. Prevldent, allow mt^ to repeat, thut neither ihi? subj(>ot nov 
thtt QccAKion u< un ordinary oni\ Our own rpUow-dtizfrns do 
not «o oon»ldcr it; the world will not ao regard it. A few do 
scTviug soldicrf air before u», who tferveil Lbeir euuuUy failbfully 
tliTougb a acvcn years* war. Thut w^ir wan a civU war, It wtu 
oommenoed on principle, ai^d dUHtaiiiijd by every flac*ribue, on 
th» great ground ofelvil liberty. They fought bravely, and bled 
*jedy. Tbe cauae suL-eeeded, and tbe touiiixy triuniphed. But 




the ooridltJon of thlni^ dj<l not allow thai r-minrr^, «i?fie1bl« a* 
it ^"-lA tu their 4ervji-e2i and tneri\f>, lo J^^^ tht-m Ihr full juaficL- 
whicJi it dt-stn-d. It coiilil not ciitinrlj fulfjl ila cijga.^iiiirtltv. 
The army v^i* to br driitinndnl ; but li vrrt» nii\tnU]. It vnts co 
Jt9 J down it4 own pv^wrr; but Ihrrp \^ni* no g<'Vi-riimrnt with 
adequate powpf to perform what had Iwwn pf^mi«"d to it. tn 
tliiu rritip;)] momc-nti what in It^ miidLict? 1\)h it dJHfp^c? JU 
high di]iTH<-lfT? I» tcm|it:ition uMe to m.-dui^ il? Doea It 
Apeak of rif^hling ilMfJf? Dot-a it uudt-'rtakt? to rt^lmis jlaown 
VTOUgp hy ha own nwofd ? Doc» It 1oa« titi pairioti»:n in itj 
deep ecHM; of injury and injudlico ? Dove miltiiry ambition 
cuiubc ii« inti'griry to «wvrvc ? Fta^ (ixt otJxirwiNe. 

Et hnd f^iiihfnlly nrrvi'd and xavf^d thf cnnnfry; nnd to that 
country ii ruiw rr^fi^rml* with unhrviTnTing iH)iiliik'ncf<, ii« i-Laini 
ftiid il« complaiiilB. It laid dowji its arniis wilh alacrity ; it. min- 
gkd It»clf wUh the mo-t* of the cominurLity ; and it wailed till, 
io bclttr Unictf, and under a a<>w government, it* aiirvicua mi^hE 
be rewarded, and the promiaea made to it fiiUillrd. Sir, this ex* 
amjijf- hi worth mciri-, fur mtm*» t<i the came of eivil liberty, than 
thiei lull wi!l eriKf, tiH. Wt:^ i^n hiirdly rtvnr tn it ti»i <ifti-n, or 
dwell on it too much, for the honor of onr eoontry and of ita 
dofendcm. Allow mc to *ay» ngnin, that mcfitorioa* swvicc in 
oivil WELT IB worthy of poouliar coia^idi-rntion ; not only bcoaufte 
there ie. in «neh ware, usually Ipui powrr to restrain irregulariiiea, 
but bt-eaoM-, also, lliey expoae all |irominent Rctorv hi them to 
ditTerrnt kindn uf dan|^er. It in rebelliun aa wdl as war. TIioek 
who enga^ in it must look, not only to the dangers of the field, 
but to contipcatioii ulao, und uttuinUer^ and igncmiuious doath> 
With no fstHcicnt and ac?ttJed governmentf eithvr to suntain or 
to control thptn, snd wi1h rv^ry «iH of dangi-r heforp them, it it 
great merit to hnve t^jindiirlJvl thrm**'lvua with lltielity ta the 
<x)uiilry, undtr every diawjuiageineut on the ouc hand, aacl with 
unmnqucTubk* bravery towards the common enemy on tlie othtr. 
Such, tiir, WIL5 llic euuduct vi the oflioeta and tfoldier« cf the Rev- 
olutionary army. 

[ would not, and do not, underrate the wreif^e* or the auAlefh 
ings of ol,hr<rA. I krrtw well, 1 hat in the RevolutiiJi»iry I'lmtjwt 
all made sacrifices, and ait endured sulTeringx ; an wril thorc who 
paid for flcrvicc» oa tho*c who prrformed it- I know thftt, iii the 
re^rdd cf all tiio iittJu municipalitioB of Now t^n^lcuid, abundant 


pTOoT «((tfTB of the yeal with which tliv euuue wba cipctujed, flndl 
the aacrifia-i wilb whii^h il WJia rhecrfully rrjaintciim'J, I hnvs 
ortcn thrre fmd, with n-bfloliif.i? n.-^UjiiinlinifrLit, of tllc taji4t», the 
rontribation«, the hravy .Mib:H:riptif)iis, eomctimcs provided for 
by dispcaing of ih*; ahMikitc noccn^nric^ of life, by wlikcli vitli;?t- 
meats were p>rorntrcci, anri ftwd and clothing furiuBhed, It would 
bp, Sifj to thpflo wmtr mnnicipnlifW, to theee shii;(i< litlJe parri- 
otic (n)ui>c-ilii of Rfvolulioji:iry Tjrni'8, ihm T should now Umk, wiili 
modt uBBurtrd L-u II fuk lice, for » 1i4?uri^ aupiKirt iif whaL t-fiiM bill 
propostft. Thf^', the khU of Rt-viJuti unary mnit nhindn hjglu 
There arc atilJ tliom: living who rp'r[Lk <if tbc^ 19rh of April, sind 
The 17th of Janc^, wUhmit Chinking it fivcM'^Aury to add the year. 
Thi'ft*' niM^, onp and all, wntild ivjoier to find That ihoee who 
^1<]od l>y ib« ci>utitry bravHy, lhn>ngh tlir duubrful and perilous 
b1rii(;{^le whkb conduct it io ijidepeudence aaJ ^lory, bad not 
been fori^tt^ii in tht- dcdiiit? aiid doiw of life. 

The? objedfl, tht'ii, Sir, i>r the prnpoaed bounty, are moat wot* 
thy and di'm^rviiig objvettt. Thu servioL** which they nmdcrrcd 
wivf in the highest dc^rep iiNr-ftil nnd JniponnnL Thr» country 
to which lh<'y rfiidirml thrni i* gn-i*! mid prtiApirroiiM. They 
bavo lived to «c<: tt gloriouA ; let them not live to «cc it uiiUud, 
For mci 1 can give, them hut my vote and my praycrv; tind I 
pve them both with my whole heart. 


Me. pRfiPinKKT, — Thi* subjcnt Iji lotrroiintltxl wiih ^mbarraM- 
in^ntB oil ell aldesL Of kselT, hnwever widely or b*tnp«rrau^ly 
lrpal«J, It in full ii( iliHifuJtji-a ; aiid ilic»e Oiflicullif-q Jinri- iicit 
htrn iliminiflhrJ by the piiHico-ltir (mmv of xhin bill, nor by tbc 
manner hi;hcrto pumuccl ci procc«<iing with it A divcnjty of 
iDtoroeU cxi»te, or id auppoMxl to oxiat^ in (iT^m^nt partM <?{ the 
country; this is ono «o\irr-if ft diHitrnlty. Ditlerrnt opinions 
are ^iitc^Ttalncd lui lo the c^iutitulIonaJ power of Con^weM ; (hbi 
111 mu^llier- And f.Ueii, Tt^^iKf ilifiiTeitL ineiiiLit^ni at thi* Bc^iihIc 
bar:; iiit^tnictiiHia which thry fcrl Ixiuiiit to obey, aod whicb 
clush with one another* We have thin morning eoca an hcnor- 
iiblc membirf from New York, ixn imporlimt motion hc'itig nndor 
oontklrmUon^ lay hi* inKtmotion^ on th« Uli]i% nnd point to 
thrtr IU& hist jhiwit of ntiHorncy^ unrl nji cnnl^ining Ihr dltr^'lionK 
for tiiA vot«, 

Thoifc who intend to oppose thi» bill, under all circumetAnccift. 
end in any or all format care not how objecFtionablc it now ia, or 
huw bad it may be made- Othera, finding their own leading 
objeoia tLatlafacrlorlly ^eoitred by it, namr^^ly enough preM for- 
wHixl, without aLayiii^ (u iitjnsider d«lil»crately huw injuriou-iJy 
other inti^rcfltfl mny be aJl'cctctl, All thr»c^ i^atinc-'n create cmbcir- 
rD^nmr^titE, and innpiri^ juert r^'nm that a wim: and unnful ri.<tiiiit i> 
hardly to be v.xptn:iad, Thi:re vei^mn a utmrigr* <iiKp(i:(iriift] to 
mn tho hnsrard at i^xtrctiuv ; tind U> forgvi that, In casoi ol thii< 
kind, irirnKnrr^ prdportion, iitu\ drgrrr* am ohji-(TU»r]n[|iiiry> iind 
thv true rulc» or jud^jinciiU I have nut had tlie Blij^htrat wi^h 

* S|v«nh rl^Elrprwl in t}i« Jivinsta ar Uic CikiioiJ 8i3i«s, un the ttth of May, 
tfi«A, mi iheTiriEr Ihit. 

\y Sr-titCH OS THE TARI>T. 

todiicnssthc me4i»iiro; not bf>]iovin^ ihaf^ in tt>c prci^c-nt Ptatis 
of things, ttay pvod ooultl be done by ine in thut way. . Boi the 
fttf(^iij*Til tlwlnrjtkrn thut thw www Hlt<»gtfth*fr a X«v England 
mi-iLiiin-, u bill Un fi«Hiring n im)iK>[]4)ly tu ihc trnirifJiIlwis of lIi*? 
Norch. and inhrr rx|>rE*s»j*ioiifl of n Mmilnr natuic, ha^ induced 
me 10 addrrw thr ijonni^ on 1h<r rtnbj<*ct. 

New Bnt:lniul, S\r, han not Ix^en n ]<^ndrT in this poliny. On 
(h-e o*>rifrary, •h** hHd bnck hfTiwIf and tri^<J to hold olher* bach 
from It. from tbe ^dopHon of the CoaiTliutlon to I^t Up ro 
1824, she w!U( aivn^cd iif ^kiiiintFr nrnl i^cIfiFili f!t'^i^l1H^ ^r-rictfvr 
fib dtsr-o^itiltrntinefd thf proj^rru nf fhi* pofic^. Tt was hud to 
hrr rhnrgr then, that, having I'r'tjiblicvhrd her nmnufnotufe* her* 
Heir, ihc winhc'd Ihnf. othf^m should not havr tb<? power of rivrd- 
ling hrr, ftrid for thnl ra-nnon 4>p|HiM<<l %\\ IrgiiOiitivc rnicouragr- 
mf-nt. TJndrr Ihii* Angry drniior-intinn ngninfit hi-r, Ihn net of 
1891 pttaaed. Now, th^ iJiipatatioD i» prcuindy of an opposite 
eharac1«r. The prt^acut EntaHurc is pronoiinL'ed to be L-itdiiBivHy 
for Ike benelit of N<tw Eiii^land ; to bo bmuxht forwnrd by hor 
ttgcn^. Olid dfiign^d lo RmTify the mpdity of the pioprifrton 
of hiT wvnlthy ^^umblishnii-nt*- 

Birth rhnrgi^ji, Sir, nrr i'r|Tviilly withnnt thr «light«it fntindntioiL 
Thrr opinion of Nrw Hnel/md up In l^^ wn» fonndr^d in tbe 
conviction tbai, on the whotr, it w&« wisest at:id best, both for 
hemolf nnd othcra, thai mnnufaeturea should m^Lke lia^tit slowly* 
She felt a rflnclnnce Co true I ^eat interests on Iho foimdntlon 
of ^veriimem pnironruE^ ; fo^ ^'1^<) eoiild tell how long Hucfi 
|Mtrtinn^ windci lual, or with wliul nU'tidititi-HS, skill, or (icnio 
v(<ranrr it woiiUI conliiiui? to hr^ gnsnird? It ih now nniHy 
fifteen ycnm »inr<^^ ninonfl; the iirat things whic-h I cwx vctitiim*d 
to *ny hrrc, 1 rxpmwod n <**riotiP doubt wht^thc^ tbis govi?m- 
ni«nt wa* fitt»vl, by itf» oonMniction, to ndniiniMtrr aid and pfo- 
1«011oi> TO panieidaT porflnita; whethfr, hflring cfilled 9neh p«f- 
aurttf in(o Im^iti^ by inEliniljoELF^ of ir^ fuvor, it wixiild not aftrr- 
wards dnmt Iht*mi should troubleii come upon tbrin. niid Irave 
Ihcm to fh^ir fnt^-v Whrth^n- ttii» pnxliction, th^r n^sriilt, ccrt^n- 
ly, of chnncv, and net of suj^cityi in about to bo fulfilli^dT remoijit 
io btx *fen. 

At thi- iiami- timp it U trur, thnt, from thi- vnry fimt roininrncv- 
iDf^nt of the govrmmcnt, (liom* wIy(> hnvf adrniiii^^lfrrd if* eon- 
T^^rii« have held a lone of mrourugf meat aihd inviution toward* 

voi^ 111. 90 


ihtiKT who 4l)f>ulfl f?ni1)Eirk in iriMiiiirrtt^nrpH, AM (lie PiVKidtfiitA, 
I lxrlicvl^ wilhoiU r-i i:rptii>li, hnvi? conrtitrtxl in Mii.h gerit-ml :«-n- 
tJincnt; &od the very liret act of CongruM laying dulir* oo 
imports adopted the then unUAiiAl cxpcdimt of n pronmblcf ap- 
parently for litUe other purposfr than that of <ipclHTirtg that Iho 
du Ilea which U impos^^J were laid for the enconragement and 
protefrlton of riiuiiiirafrlitmiL When, ut \hv (rorniEieiioeiiitfnl of 
tiic! Utc AVJir, duliri wt^rc dinibli-d, we wt^rc (old ihtii wc aliould 
find a. mili^tjon of the wtJght o( taxation in the new nid ttnd 
Auccor whi^h would bo thiin aH'ord<^d to our own mnnufacrtunng 
Ut>or Like an^uin<*nt« w^rc ar^J, aod prevaiJod, bnt not by 
the aid of New England tfotjjt), when the tariff wa* afierwanls 
Mminged, at thi» clortt'of tlie wur in 1916. ' Fimdly, afli-ra iihole 
winlrr*!! dclilKTilion, thr nrt iif iT^I n-t^vird ihr nnnrtiim a( 
both houw^ of Congrcs*s»» And «tllrd the policy of the countTj-. 
What, then, ws»n Xcw England to do '! She T^-nn fitted for mnn- 
iifn<Tturing oprration'*, by the amount nnd chnmctrr of h^r popu- 
lation, by h<*r <*flpitJi!, by Ihr* vigor antl energy of her IVrfi labofi 
by 111 e skill, tronoiny, eiiU-qjTiai.% and pfrrvi^vt-rance of hi-r pen- 
pie, > I repeal, Wlmt whs nbt und»T IhtJ* rireumMti»L'r» lo d*t? 
A great and pro[<pc*roini rival in hvi uva-t nti^hborhood, thrt^uten- 
ing to dmw Iroin hrr a part, |>cr!iHp4 a gn^at paj% of her furt!ign 
Gommrrpr. ; wru tthv to upCj or to neglect, tho^a other meftnv of 
firebirig hrr own pmnprriTy which hHnngrd to htrr ph^r:irt^ and 
her ccnditicin ? Wjo* rihr tn hold ont for ovtT n^aiiiM thr^ ct>niMr 
of Hw guvaniiieiit, and tvce terpelf lu«ing on one aide, and yet 
make no ctrort to snetain lierjcif ou the ollitr ? I No, Sir. Noth- 
ing WHO k'fl to NfW ErxKland. after the ftcl of 16"M, but to con- 
fnrm hmelf to the will of olhvm. Nothing wiu It^ft to her, but 
lo rf}nMdrr that the govtTiun<'nl hud fixi-d and dfrterrninrd i!» 
own polif-y; and thnt jiolii^y W}t*< priiFrrti/yn. 

New KiLgbnd, pocir in «ornc re«peclK In others is aa wiraltby 
aa hi-'T neighborsn Htrr hoiJ woidd be held In low eBliinaiion by 
tho«e who are aeqiiainted Vb^th the vnllvy of the Mip^iri^ippi uml 
the fvrljli? phin» of ihe 3ontb< Bur in incluairy, lo habSta of U- 
bor^ tikill. ond in aoenmidnivil e^ipiral, iht? fndt of two peniurle« 
of Industry, »he mny bt- siiid to Ih.' rkU. Aflt^r this fin^ di^cdara- 
tioni thi^ Holeinn {iroinulgution of the policy of the governmcnti I 
ogdin nflk, What wuc alifl to do ? Wua *he to deny hrmclf Ihc 
tur of Ucr ailvuijrugej*^ aaturil nnJ n<:4]uired ! U'elh nhti to con- 



JmwirM'ith useless rcfffcto? Waa she longt-r to rvciatih-lint 
eilie t'uultJ no toijgtr prevent? Or vrtt^ eht, rathf^r, to iidapt hei 
nets to her Goiidition ; and, Ar^iiij* the jxiUcy of the govcTnmvnt 
thtis ^(^llW uml fixi^J, 1o ac<«^4>ini>Joda(«< ro it ttv wdl ft* thf^ coti]d 
hrr <iwn pni^tiiT:« iirul her uwn mdiistry? Kvi-ry m:in will HP* 
that slit liad no optioa Every man will eonfra» tlint Uu-re re- 
iimjijcrd fur litr but one conmc^H 8he not onfy snw tbU heneirt 
but had all ubuK forfeetnt 'hat, if tho syaiom of protcclin^ maii- 
ufiictorcf hJiouIJ bv udoplt^d, #11© muBl go luT^ely iutc tJiem< I 
beliL'Vf, Sir, ulmost evi^-y man from Nt*\*' Englcind who voted 
iigninKt Oii^ hw of 1R24 dfdnrt^l ihn^ il, nolwiOiMiMndiiiK h\* 
o[)poAiiioii tr> tlmt Iliw, it ^hniiM Mill pjiAii, thrn' wnuld bp no al- 
ternative but to conAidcT the course nnd policy of the govern- 
menl ae thon ^cttlod and fixed, and to fint aor-onli^ifEly* Tho law 
did puBB; and a vatit inoreo^e of invfrfllmvnt i/i inaniifiirtuhiiff 
eAtiUiHlimenlH was the oonfieqUFnce, Thosi^ who raade atil-Ii 
]nvf<HLtimntH imilmbly viitflrlHiiiiM] not the hligbe^it doiibl llriil lu 
iTMK-h Jin waM pm in i.<(E?d would be (rffrcluatly gnitrtrd; mid thnt 
if, owing to any gnforr^eet) occurrence or unloward ctrnt, the 
bcDeItt tic^if^iiid by tiic law to any brnncti of manufacturer 
flhciuld not bo fViaJisud, it would fumii^h a fitir ohhc for the con- 
aid^ratltiii of gcv«rnm«tnt. Ortainly thry could not expeut, 
alitor wliaf. Iiad ir.iMfed, that inlcrti«1« of great magnitude would 
br It^L nt thr lut-rr^y of the voy fimt change of cjniuinatancis 
which might oi^cBf. 

Afl a gcnrraJ rrnnark, it may be eaid, that Ibt intercsta cmi- 
oerned in the aot of IS^ did not eonplnin of their condition 
under it, exempting only thow? ccinnei*ti'"d wiih the woollen man- 
uf^Lciurob Thffiie dfd coittphun, not so mueh of the aet ItaelT 
aA of A iipw alattt of eiruumHan(^*!it uiirjn?r*»^i-n when the law 
pa4:«r<l, hut which had now ari.M-n to thwiu^ liti- brnr^iicinl opcm* 
tion» ft* to them, although in one rcnpnct^ prrhnpfs the law iterlf 
wan tti-jLiRht to be i%nwiM-]y fmnnvL 

Thr4?r ritui^rf; hnvr brrn grnrmlly stated at having produc^Ml 
the dij«appoinTiu(.^nl vxpcrieticed by the manufac-luEtTs of wool 
under the law of IS24, 

Firat, it IS alleged that tlie prict' of thu raw material ha» been 
raised too hi^h ^y ilie act ittu-^f. Thi* point had been di«* 
eu:<Hcd at the timo, ixtxd nXiiio^f^h opinions vnricd, the rx^^ult, to 
far u* it depended on thtii part of the coAc, though It may be 


SKCOND appi'.frH ffif THE TAHTrr. 

eald to hare hectk unrxpt'ctfd, vraa ocrlainly not rntircl/ tiii' 

Bnt, secondly, the mftiitifadun^rtt impnt^Hl ihiur dimppoLitt' 
mcnt to a reduction of ibi? prio* of wool in Ir^ngUtnd, which took 
plHcr JUKI. Eiliont thi' tintp iif thr luw nf 1S:^4, Ttii* rMiicIlon 
\va» produc^cd by lowering ikw duijr on importt^d wool from &ix- 
l>cncc ttcrliiig to on*; p'^ftny ntcrfing per pound. The clTtrct of 
thia it obvious enough ; biit in order to eee ll^e rettl ojclent of Uw 
riniuc^lon, i1 may bo eonTeuient to fitate tbe matter more ptirtio- 

Thi? mrfliiliig of OUT Ihw wn» diml>tlr*i» to give ih^ Antrrimn 
rrannfoctiirrr mn adt^ttntu^ ovrr hi» Rngli^ii ex>inpr*titonp- /Vo- 
i^itm muat tncan thiis or it tocahs nothii^. The BogLmb 
maiiitfooturcT having certain adyantof^ on his aide, aacdi an 
the lower price of labor and the Lower U)t^redt of money, 11i« 
objeel of our law was to eounteraot iheae advantages by creat* 
tfig othL-rH, in Wtiulfof thp Ain«Tii?4u inamifitL-(urt.'r ThrrffiirR, 
lo Mrt whiit wa* jii-'cessBry Iti he done in t«ilrr tttnl ihp Ameii* 
can mMHiWturrr might .^uJitAin ihc rrimprtition, a cxnnpariaciit 
of the rc*p<vtivxi advantages and di»advnnrjigi*s wab to be made. 
En this vii^w th^ V'-ry firnt Hr-ment to t>r ronfiidon^d wnn, what » 
the cost of rhf* raw material to raeh pi^rty. On this the whole 
niufii nialeriaily depemL Now when the law of 18$4 jmned, 
Ihe Ellk;li^U innriufaylurer imid a duly of wxpen«r pfrrling prr 
pound ou imporltd wool. But in a vrry few days aftcrwiud^ 
this duty wne ri^dueod by Puriiument from Mxpvnco lo a pmny. 
A nvluction of five prnice ptr pound in the prit?L» of wool w« 
cslimivfed in Parliiirnc^nt to ht: fV|u^1 :o n rrdiirrtion of Iwenqr- 
flix per cent ail taivrem on nil import*^ wool; and Tbi» n^duo- 
tJon* it 1ft obvious, had lU cfteot on the price of homc-|>rodiu^ 
wool also. Almoat, then, at the very moment that ihc fremerv 
of the aot of 1S24 were raiiiirif; the price of the raw maleriaj 
here, aa !hal aer did rai»e ii. It wne lowered in England by the 
vcrv grvut ntlm^lion uf twr^ity-fiix per cent. Of eonne, this 
chHrigcd the whole ImHin (}f Ihr c-iilcuUUoQ. It wrcught a ooin- 
pk-tc change in the rrlativr advantage** and disfldvantagea of 
the English and Amcricun oompciilors, and threw the pn-pon* 
daranee of adt^ant^i; moHt decidedly oti the -tidt* of the EnglUh, 

■ Sm ibara. p. 139. 



If the Afnono)\n |na^n^Lchl^^^ hurl n^t vruilly too ^r^nt a prftfct- 
unc€ bckire this raductLon took plsicc, it i* cU^r ho hati loo little 

In h )>ftf)er which has be? n preitent^cS lo the Senate, snd oft^n 
n-frm-il l«, — 11 \ni[U'T ihMmgjMti'd for Ui« ubUity urn) r|i-;4nii=« 
with whbh it i^nforct^n ^enrrol prinrij>]«T3k, — xhe RgMon Ucjiorti 
it n vk^arly provrd (whnt. indrr<j, \s sulfidrnlly obvioua Irom 
rhfr mnr«rompiiTi«on of diitir*) ihn.i tIic British govrmnscnt did 
not rcditcp it» duty ott wool b^ctiuxt of our act of 18^- C«i- 
talnly tliL^ U True ; but The e^eot of that reduction on onr manu* 
fmrtnrt's wiui ijii? nnnit- pm-isely hft if rJit- BritisJi aoL Jm<l b'^eii 
d^ATgnrd tn oprrutr n^ilnrtt TJirm, niiil for no iithrr [iarpi.KM\ I 
thiak it cannot be doubt'^d that our law of li^lM^ snd the re* 
daclioQ of the wool duty in England, tahi^n togcth^^r, left oitr 
maiiufacttm>ft m a worae condition tbsiri th^y w«70 befcVd. If 
there waft any reasonable ground, lljerofore, for passing tli« 
Ihw of 13^, Un-re in now the huiic ground fur mjiuc otJier ineaa- 
Div; and Ihi^ Kniund, loUf in ntrnigthcnr-d by the roiinidrrmljori 
of the hopes cxcitod, the rntrrffrijws undcrl^tkcii, and the capital 
invented, in conse^aciK^o of thivl law. 

In the laAl places ■< wa^ alleged by the Tn^Muractorera that 
they ^iiffered from the rnorie of collectlufj the duties on w<x>lleii 
fatiricH aL the ruHttirrL*hoiuini- Tlie-H- itulJeti iiro ad valorrm du* 
tic9. Siit^h dutir;!, rn>ii] Ihi* t^ommrncrmrnt of t)kt* govrriimroti} 
have been c«tiinot^d by n^fcrcncc to ihc invoicir, a* dxiug tbo 
value at the place whence importoti. When not suspected to 
b« false or fraudtilentt the invoice i^ Ibe regular proof of value. 
Originally this was a tolerably vafe mode of proceedtof^, While 
the iro^rtatJon was mainly in the haiids of American m«- 
chanfsv Ihr inviuc'.e woiil<l <rf coLime, if itot falnc <ir riiiiidi]lriit, 
cxprcM the Icnns nnd Iht; price of an nctLinl ,md aalc. 
But rm invoice i> not accefl«ariiy on instrument cjipretiaing the 
vale of goods, and their pcioeo- If there be but a Jiat or cata- 
logOfii ^th prices stated by way of eeliniate, it is atUl aa la* 
foice^ Biid witbiri tb»< law. Now tlie sui^g^tlon i«, Uiat thti 
Rn]K^l^h iiianufarLurerT in muhing out an luvimv, in whitth pri<feii 
are thuft sTalcd by hiinsHf in the way of r*timnt<' merely, i» able 
to obtain an important advantrvgc over the Ameriean merdiant 
who purehases in tbe eamf^ market, and whoeo invoice «tatc&i 
conft^tjuenrly, the actual price», on the aale. In proof of t.^iit 




rai^Btion. it ia Alleged tliftt, in the Iru^cflt impoiting dty m tike 
Unioji^ a \tTy grcnl prti|iimionT noinc my nearly ttU. of the wool- 
Iv^n fubrto* firr imjioriccl on foTf-ign acvroum. TUe variotu papen 
which liTivp comf before w*, pr^yhig for a lax oo aucllon nftlcsi, 
avrj lliat (hff iiivniirt' of llit furi^ign impiirtttr in grnrntlly muc^h 
l<wer than thai of tht? Ainrricaii importer; and that, in conttc 
(liii^ncc of thii nnd uf the pmcticc of aoics at auction, etc Amcti- 
wiii rrrrchnnt miiFC he drivr^n out of th<j trado. 1 cannot eLcmwer 
tar ihe entire accuracy of ihoao sratomo^TH, tui I have no donbt 
there i» aonio11iin|^ of Truih in ih«<m. The main fu<*U hav? bocn 
tjfleii nlati-d, aijii] f have nt^iltirr AH-^n iior hf-iiiti n ilimiiil of rlirnt. 

In it tnir, th(-ri, IhnI nrariy ih^ whiiJr impoMnlion of wooElrnit 
i«T m th(^ jnrgt'jrt imporling city, in the hands of forcigacra? h 
it true, ad etstod. thai the invoices of euoh fonipirti iniport<-*f« are 
Ijt'ti^rally found to he loi^-t-r than thoae of th<? Amc^rioun import- 
er? If these thtJigs be so, 11 wlU be adxniilMl il\ai ihcre is rca- 
iMin 111 lielteve tliitt uiidefvitluittiojLH d<i Inke pincr, amJ 1h:tt Homc 
riirrrc:1]vr for tin? rvil should k^r rLdmiiTJiLti^n'd. I sni glad to 
0rr tbnt tlic American mcrchout* thcnkAc-lvcB begio to bestow 
Dttention upon a subject, as interesting to Ihcm as it hi to thf^ 

t'ndt^r this state of things, Sir, the law of the Last *cs^on wu 
propOHHi. It was eonfined, m ] thought fm^peTly, to wool and 
woolli-it.i^ It tuok up tlir ^mt siitd lending nubjt^cL of com- 
phuttt^ nnd nothing ctnt^ It vras urged, indeed, agninrt that bdli 
that, filthoiigh much hod been said of frauds ot the cuatom-hottsc. 
no provUion was made in it for liie preveriliori of ^oeh frauds. 
That iri a ini&iake. The ^'eneral fmni« of ihe bill tvas such, 
ihnf, if «l(iiri]ll^ driivn and udupU-d to itai purpoMf, ilx tf*n<]eiir?y 
lo pnrvrnt Mjfh frund^ would br mniiifr:*!. Hy (hr Itxiiij^ of 
pri«Cb at sueeHeMiTe points of giadoation, ot t/iinimumiSn ns they 
fire called, the power of eradini; duties by und it valuations would 
Iw most malerially restmiited. If 1bt«e poiaiA, indeed, were suf- 
Adently di^laaU it \^ obiious (ht> duty would u»ume somerhiuR 
of tJw uortniniy and pivc^MJon of a ^it^cilte duty. But this btlj 
failid, mid Confess adjourned in Mairch, hixt yt^or, Imviitg the 
subject where it had found it- 

Tbe complaint-* which hod given rise to the bill continued; 
tnd in the coiit*« of the summer a racetuig of the wool-growcMi 
and wool^manufucturtirs was bdd m PenUBvlvauju, at which 

s":coxD srmAii of thl takief. 


ftli»n U) Cnnj-rri» was ngrvrd ui^i'ii. T du not (rA St mji^i-m- 
nary, un bcihiir of llie C4tb;cnB of Moanatlmsiftt*, to dinc.laim a 
portictpalion in tbut meeting. Pcrvona of much worth end ic- 
tpcctability nttcRclcJ it. from MadvnchueicttA, nnd it» proc^od-' 
ings ftnd rr*nlt» mcinift'nted, I think, n dngtop of U»mpfT and 
Ttiodfnit.iort highly r-riHlirjililf- U> Ihow-r who compowd it 

But whil<-r tlie bill of Iniit yi^nr wa^ ixitilinrd lo ihiit whl^^h 
done bad Wax & subject of complaint, the bill now before ua la 
of avory diifcrcnt dcecriptioitH It propoaea to ruiae duties on 
riirioutt oUi«r artjol&s bv«id«« wool smd woollr^np, Jl contains 
ftomc proviMon* whi<?h boar witli uiirivct'stiiry s*4^vrrity cti\ th© 
whole c^ommunity ; othi^n whirh iiflrci, wilh peculiar hardship, 
partirulfir inlirro»i» ; whiliHiolh of Chrin hfiir^fil iiobiKi^ Mnd [lofU" 
iii^f but ihe treasury. It containa provieicma wbkli, with whal- 
evcr moUvc put into It, it m coiift^MK-d ttrti now kept in for the 
very ptir|)ose of deatroyirij; tbu hjll ultoKf-lhcr; or with the* in- 
tent to compt^l thiJin-' tt'ho expi-cl to di^rive b<?nrlit, to feci ^mnrt 
from it uIho. Prohnhly such n molivi* of ncUon hn» not often 
bt'en Rvowedn 

Till! wual iiiaimfttetufera think Ihty hiive made out a ea»e fur 
the inttr(*OBilJon of Congrrsa. Thiry hnppen to lire pritinpally 
ttt the North fijid Euel ; mid in a bill proree»jri^ to be for tbcir 
relief, other provmions tire found, which uiv »uppoiied (iind Fup* 
port^'d hfcau-H thry tvre »nppo*i*d) to h<» nueh a* will prrns with 
peculiar hnrdnhip on thnt rinartrr of ibr country. Sir, what tun 
be eipi'cfed. bat ovil, when a tcnpcr like ihis prcvaila? flow 
can «ich a boptUf, retulialory legJ2)Iation be reoomuled to com- 
mon ju^bce, or common pnidi-'ncc? Nay, Sir^ thii» ruJe of action 
Kevrnv carried tttill farther- Net only ire ol«u«» found, and con- 
tinnr^d in the bill, uhit'fj oi>preBB purrimihir Intert'ulji, hut tim'ii 
art? titid iiUii, whirh will U- nrvenly ft-lt by thr whiili^ f'nion; 
and thj«, toOi with the nnme dc^i^n, and for the name end before 
mcntiont'd, of cau*iiig the j'muTt of Ihc bill to he frit. Of this 
dccfcnption i* the moln^^c* ra\; a Injc, in my opitiionf ahfrurd 
and pr«ipn«iproii»t in relnTion to any object of protection, need* 
jeaily oppiv«Hivn to the whole commimky, and l)one(ti>Ial no- 
where oa earlh but at the iri'Jiflury. Ami yet ht-a- il. in, und htrre 
it m kept, under an idea, concejvtrd In ignorance and chcri.^bed 
for a tihortdjved triumph, Ihnt Nirw Bn^^liind will be drterrt^d by 
this tax from proleenng ht^r cKtriuive woollt^n muuuiF^cture&; or 



if ni)l, lliat llie uuThoiH of rliis |>ii1iny may ut ]f-:iKl ^iiivp Ihe 




Hint tiHp fcpln thn lil 

dTccto of ihiif p«Lri of the biJl 

Sill kt iif look for A moment ot lhi» tftx, I'hc molaMoi un- 
porl4<J mio the Uiiit^Ki St&t€« amounU to ihiTt^en milliow of 
gallons annually. Of tbU quantity, not more ihAn three tn\U 
lioiiA Bre dktilllW ; the rvTiiHiniiii^ leii inillionH tH?<i]i^ ronstunecl, 
ftft nn artide uf wholifauinr^ fuucl. The jirupconi tax i» not to 
be Inid for Tc^t^noe. Thnt iff not prctendfnf. It wan not mtro' 
duccd for the bcnctit of the no^rplsntcf!» Thoy arc contented 
with thfTJr prvftont conditjon, aind have applied for nothing. 
What, then, was the object? Sir, fte original pn>fe»t>ed object 
n'HK to incrtane, by thl» new ^liity on rnoIa«de^ the ociisumplloii 
iif ^jiiriU dt^(i]lc^d fmm griiiii, ThU> 1 »iiy, wnn Uir nbjcct origi- 
nal!/ profci^Acd. But in thi# point of view the mE;a«iire ap|>car? 
to mc to be pirpofttoroue. It us monstroTt^^ nod out of all pro< 
portion and rclatjon of mrikne to ends. It propoeca to double 
the dniy on The ten miillonB of gallons of mola^aes whic]-h are 
.^on^urned fur focid, in order thai U luay IShewi!^ double the duly 
on the three ruilliimM whirh arv diattlleil iniu -iplrilB; und zill 
thin for the oontingent nnd doubtrul purpose of augmenting the 
oonnumption of #piritEi dinlillcd from gmtii. \ eny contingent 
and doubtful piirpo**?, becnuM? I do not believo any Fuch effect 
will be produced, 1 do not ihinic a hundred gallons more of 
sptrita dlvlilled fium ^^lii wiU find a inarkei U c-uii&equeticv of 
Uiin tf« on moUti-HfH. The d<*bitte, hen- mid elM-wherp, hno 
shown thnt, I think, dearly. But niipponr ,iomc ntight cffrrt of 
that hind should be produced, ii* it eo dc^imblc on object n« thai 
it ehould bo Bought by euch means? ^hoM v^c tnx food to on- 
OOOta^ Intemperance ? Shull wc raise the priee of a whot^om? 
Krtide of tottenanee, of dnily con^niuptlon, especially among 
ttir pomvr (!liuMtiM, In ordtr that we may eiijuy u mere ebuiKre of 
CAOsing these name dnHatr^ to use more of our homo-madif 
ardent nptrita ? 

Sifi the bare iitat4>ment of thi« c|aextioii puta it beyond the 
reach of all arguincnt. No min will ^i-riontly nndertalte the 
defence of aneh h t«x> U la h**tter, mndi more cnndid oerTalnly, 
to ftdmit, a» hutt btvn udnjitloj, Umt, obnudoua as It in lUnS 
abominable ae it i% iL la kept in thc^ bill with n ^jiecio] view to 
i"' fdfecf« on New England votes and New England int^rcatA. 



Th« biU aleo takes nwny nil xho drawhiirli nUtra-otl byriisting 
(awa 00 the export&ti'Mi of ^pitite dUlJJlf^ froni nolass^fH; nnd 
ihl*t U U aupiKUM^d, and liuly Mippoaed, wtU ifijarioAJi^ly alTirt 
?fpw Ei)}j;lnnd^ ll will liavi* lliis tiTi^cl Uj a uutitude rabble di-^rfw ; 
for thc^ cxpL>rC:ttioji of such apihte >n & pant vf hL*r tnulc* and, 
thougb not great in amount, it in n part whkh niiivglc;£ nscftilly 
with Iho rxporlation of o^er nfticiua, nwifilii lo make out nn 
A»80Tti^d cargo, nnd liods ft raarkrt In llw North of Europe, ihe 
Modilcrranpan, »Dd in South America, This exporuiticn tJw 
blil [JropoflL'Tf fiilirely to dirnlruy. 

Tlic^ incrf.-a.-H:d duly uti miiiusMit^, while it ihvto n««dl«s«ly aaJ 
wantonly vnhance» the prict; to tJic connumer, may uffcct also, 
iji ft grcntt^r or ti^» J<gr4.-i-, lhi< importation of that [urtlclt^; and 
b^ thQ« iiijuHoiiH trt fhif commrrcvt of the rouiiTjy. TUp impor- 
tation of inolnJW?8, in ricbnng? ftw kiinkH>-r, proviHionis eaJ oilier 
ofljclt-s of uur own piuductiou. in uiit; ufttit- IsLrgtat |iurtJOna uf our 
West India tmde* — a tnide^ iL may Le added^ tbouj,(h vf »maLI 
prodit, yet of Eihort voyogea, nuitcd to [small capitoJo, employing 
miny hofidi and much mivigucionf and the varliLvt and cldi't^t 
branch of our foreign coTn[n<^ro<\ Thnt portion of thin trado 
whirli wp now enjoy i« rondnrtrd on Ibr frnrjit iind moMt JitxmJ 
(tfin'-^ipW Tli« rxpcirU whidi >u»lai[i It art: fmcii ihv Kv.h\^ llie 
Souib. and the Wtfat -, every purl uf the u>ujitjy halting tliua an 
intereeit in lUi contiimmicc and ext^^neian, A market for theac 
«xportB itf of infmitdy moro impcrtanee to any of these jjor- 
tloni of the country, than ali the br-iiii^fit to bn vipected from 
the *Dppofwd mnreA«nd consumption of spirits distilled from 

Yct| Sir. this tax i« to be kept id the bill, that Nvw Kn^l'^u^ 
may b« niad^ to/eeL Qentlemni who hold it to bo wholly un- 
eoaatJtittioiial to lay any lax whatever for the purpoteH i(it4?nd«d 
by ihie bUI, cordially vote for this tax. An honorable f^ntlt*- 
loaii from Maryland* eall* thr whole bill a *'bill ofubontiim- 
Ijons." This tax, he ngrcMtai, jm onv of il.i RlHiminntioius y^t he 
votes for it Both the gcntlcmm from North Carolina have 
signified thcii dissatiafaction wrih the bill, yd they hove both 
votnd to double tho tax on laolaA^ft, Sir, do gentlemen flatter 
ch«im4piveB that this t^ourw of policy can sntwer their purposss^ 

• Mr. daiUJh. 




Dc ihty not j><rrt't'iv«r ilmt siidi n mode uf pr* VH^ccliitg, with n 
virw lo «uc-h Eivtiwc^ obJf^ctN, niu«t wuhrn u npiril tlinl nhnll trmt 
taunt with «coni mifl bkl iiicjijux' ilt^fifificr ? Do they not know 
(ir they do not, tt is time tbi^y did) that a jioIJc^ likL- ihta, 
avovrcd witb »uch sclf-patiafiKriJoii. fwmisi^^d h\ wrli a ddifibt 
which should only accompany the dUoovery of »ottiv hl-w tind 
i^^iideffut uuprovement bi legislation, wili Goiti|rt-l tveiy New 
Hiiglund ni)iii to fud tbit be bi degntdeil mid di^biiM-d if he doei 
not rcKtKt it? 

Sir. gcfitlcmen mtstnkc us; they gmlly muCake m^ To 
lliofti:: who propoK to couduct the afla^ of ^vcmmcDtt and to 
cmoct lQvr» on such prinoipies na Xhpte and for Mi«h obj<i'ctA aa 
these, N<i'W En^'lnndf be aA8iin?d, will exhibit, not ^ubmisHloo, 
bui reiiUiiim-4-; not humilinUoiiT Uit diKduin. Ajpiiii-*! bcr, di% 
peiid (jn il, nothing will be; gaiueil by inLinddnlion, If yon pn> 
pQM to stJtlcT ycuTtfclvea lit order thnt ihe mjiy be made to ."(uilcff 
mhCt ahc will bid you come on; the wiU meet cliailenge vnth 
challenge; Abe will invite you to do youi want, und your bc«t, 
nnd to »^0 who will hM out longest Sh*^ haii offereil you *v*fy 
oiin of her vntew in ih^ Stnaw^ to strike ont fhi* tax on molatf- 
Ma, You have refused tu jam bci, aud to strike It out. With 
the aid of the voiea of any one Southern Slate, for eAampLct of 
North CuToJlaaf it could buvc been stfuuk ouL But North Oar- 
olinu bui refused her vatea fur titiit purpose. She bun voted U 
keep iht* tax in, uiid To keep it in at the highest ratify And yei 
Sir, Norih C}trL>lina, wtiutever the mny Ltiiiik of it, Itt fully aa 
inncl) intcrc:^t4Mi in tliin inx lu Mn.i.-inchttKTttdv I thiuk, indcrd, 
eht IE more intrrc»t<-d, and that *hc will fi^d it more heavily and 
eortly. She in h(^r»e]f a gmnt GoiiffunnrTr of the nrticle, through- 
out all her eU^i^e^ of |}opu|!4tion- This incTriiir of rbc duly will 
levy on her cltbeens a new tni of fifty thonwmd dollar* n year, 
or more; and yel her repreaentatives on lliia floor aupport lli« 
tax, although they have so often t<ild \xs that her p^xjplc are now 
poor, nnd already borne down with tuxeo. North Carolina will 
feel thia tat aJ^o in her tnidv, for what forei|(n eommeree ba:« 
she more u»eful to her than the We*t indin nmrket for ber pro- 
ti^iona aud lumbf^r? And y^t tlir gp.nlJttnirii frmu Nonh Cam* 
Ima inaiflt on keeping thia tax in tdc bill. Let them aoU then* 
complain* Let them not hereafter call it the work of others* It 
i» their own work* Lot them not lay it to the manufactufcnb 



The manufatHumra have had aoilJiiif; !<> do wifii ir. U.t thfio 
not by it to thu wool-growi^r*- The wool-yruwL'ni have haJ 
nothing U^ do wtlh it. I^^t Thptri nut \ny It 1<t New VMghmd. 
Nrw Kngbinr] hru lUnv. iiolhirig but opprsr It, iinil n«k thrm 
to oj)|>i>HC tl aUo- No, dii; let them take it to Ihi-iiittdvir^ 
Let thcro enjoy the fmit of their own doijigs. Let theni na^xf^n 
theit mofivL'd fof thua Ittxinff thoir own t^natitueota, und abide 
tbo^r JLui^'ineiii ; but do not kt them flatlt-r thtrm»dvr« that Nsw 
Englttiid eunnoc pay a niolatide* lax ta long lu North Ouottni 

chiHint's thill. t;nrh H lilt ^hfill hi- |k»iih 

Bit, 1 iLTTi sure there i^ nob^y here enviouA of the proapeiity 
of New Kngland, or who would wish to sec it de»Qt>yc^i But 
if there be Hueh enywhcre, 1 cannot cheer them by holdinj; out 
the hopu <if a a[K<edy ae^omphnhtneiit of then wie^i«». The 
prosperity of New Kiigtund^ like that of other puru of the coun* 
try, tony, ihjublWs, Iw HrtW^ti^ii JiijurioiiTvly by uiiwi*r iir uiijiiAt 
litw«. It niELy bi- iiTipiirt^il, r^pr^einlly, by kiti iiiiMrjttly timl ^tiift- 
ing policy, which fosters particular objects to-day, and abandons 
them to-inorruw. She may advance faster, or tflo^ver; hut the 
propelling principle, be asaured, \& in her, deep, ILu-d, and aetiv<^ 
Her CDune iu onward luid forward. The grt*aL powen of free 
hibor^ of mom! Imbifj, uf t^t^iic-nd nluontion, of gniK) injititntituiH, 
of *kiU, eiiti-rprincj niul |«rfM-v<-niii(:r» nxv^ fill wtirkt%' witli her, 
and for her; and on the ^niEdl suifacc which her popnlation cov- 
ers, fthe ie deirtined, 1 thtiih, to exhibit Alrlking romilts of the oper- 
ation of these potent oau^et^ in whatever eonstttut»*« the happi- 
ne»i or the ornament of human society. 

Mr^ PreHJdei]t« tliia lax on niolas^en will beneiit tli^ treuHUiy, 
though it will bt-ncfil nijbody elt>r. Oni fin;ince> will, nt Irajtt, 
be Improved by it 1 asiiurc the j^ntlcmcoi wt will trndcavor to 
uae the fund^ thus to be mimnl proprrly nnd wiitnly, and to the 
public advanfni^e. Wr hnvn ilnmdy p'^ih^ed n bill for the Dela- 
ware breakwater; another w U^foro hh, for \\i** icnpmvemenr. of 
ttevem] €]f our harbors; the Chesapeake and Ohio Caoal hill has 
thiff moment been brou^lit into the Senate; and next sr«sioii 
wc hope: to bring forwani the bnrukwftter at Nantucket, The«e 
HpijropriaUone, Sir, will retinirc pn^tty nmplc moan.t; it will be 
convenient to have a wcll-nupplied Irmhury ; nnd 1 >tatj« for 
the especial con»oUlion of the honorable gentli*m*'n from Norih 
CaicrUnft, (hat aa long a^ they chooee to cofiipel their coAStiV 




UVfit^ Ari<) rny i^jii<ilit(ii'til(?( 1u jmy n iiui1h?-s«:v tuji, the pru- 
ce-edtt tlirrvof almJl he B\t\}toiinnicd, nrt Oir jt.n 1 nm <:i>i>r4;nicxl, 
to vnluoble mitionul objects, in UAtfnJ tind ncotmt^ry works ol 

Ml. I'ri?*i*I''nij ill what T havt now taadi, I hav* bat followed 
whpre o1hef>* hav*? |pd, nml onuiprlled me to follow. T have but 
exliibHed to gfitllonu'rt fhe iiecM«ary roriHfquei ][.<«■» irf their ourn 
eoui»e of (iroct^edhi^. Bui ibia inauinti of |iiiaaiiig [nwa Ji^ 
whollj ttgairitft my ova judgment, and repugnant to aU my fccl- 
ingi^ And J u'oidd^ avf^ nov-'j once miiri; iicticit gentlemen to 
conudcr whi'thpradiflprt^nc. coiitm' v;«>iild not be mom worthy 
of the Senate, fiii<l more iin'^ful to the coantry. Why ihould w© 
not H(rt upLrii ihia hill, arlirle b^ »hide, jud^ fairly uf eai^h, re> 
latJi whitt a mujurity ajiprovcB, Aiid leject the ttsil If iL br, lu 
the gcnllfrmoJi from Maryland callt^d liy^tk liill of abominntioius" 
why not *triicr out an many of the abominntioHH en w<j ran? 
Bxtr<'mr mocwurc* eannot tend to good. They mun produce 
jiiiacJiief. If fl proper and moderate bill in regard to wool and 
WOollfAH had paused litat yrar, w<r »ihould riiit now be In our jkreH* 
ent MtimUon, If t*uv]i a bill, e;(tei>ULH] jierli^ptt lo a few vHit'T 
turliclcfl^ if uecesBity so roc^ulrtrJ, bail been prepared had nxom* 
mended ut thifi ^><seit>n, muc^h both of cxeitcmL-tit and of cvij 
would ha'^e been iivoldcd. 

Nrverthflrsa, Sir, U b for genrh^mrn to jtidgr for themwlvur 
If, when ibi.' wooJ manufitetiirf'rv ibjiik they hiive a [uir right to 
eall on Ci]ngrL-« tu earr^' into tfHect what wm» inttriuled fur tUem 
by the law of 16*^1, and when there in manifeiited some diapoai- 
tion to comply with what tlicy thus tho houetit oinnot 
bo gnnted in any othrr maimer than by inocrtijig it in « «ort of 
bill of pain* and |»rnallic9. 8"hiU of ab*>minatiom»,'* it tn not for 
me to attempt 1o reason down what hut* not been n^asnned up ; 
but I luust cxiiitejii mypeir wtih adluclnl^]ling geutieaien iJiat 
tiatur policy n dceUned, in all probability, to Icmiiuute in their 
OWD aorc diaappoiniment. 

I advert once more, Sir^ to thit nubject of wool and wooJlena, 
for the purpoHc of «h»wing thiit, cvni in ren^iect to that [>Eirt of 
the bill, the iiiteri'-M. muinly pnol^e.lfd h not lliut nf th^-r muimfiie- 
tarer»i On the contrflry, it i« that of the wool-gro^cra* Tbe 
wool-grower ia vanlly tnore benefited than the majiufftctura. 
The intoreet of ihv nuuitdoetorer ia treated oa eccondarv aunl 


mbordinatc, throuf^uut the biU. Jtieii <to mucht und no moft, \e 
done for him, a» U muppoBtfii neoetifcary to enublv Jiiio ty purdm^e 
Biiil rnsiriiifEtftiire Ihe wool. Th« ii^miltiir;3[ intert"»t, Ih*' fjirm- 
iJig intrn*^t, rhr intm'rtt of ihc ^hrrp-owTirrt U thr gn'^^t oHjVpt 
wliich ihf trill it- CjJculateij lo benefit, anJ which it will boiiL-Rt, 
if the innnafadurc-r nan \>^ kept ollvv. A coraponaoD of cxiet- 
ing iluno^A WLih thoae proposed oji ilie wool and on tho dolhi 
wiU flhow how thiv port of iho cu»i- vtsimliL 

At i^KsvnX, u duly cf thirty p<<r cciit. oef vali>rem It laid on flU 
wiii>l <'(>»tirig tf'ii lU'NfH jH't pdiLiul, (IT tipwitnU; unci it duty of 
Eflcm prr ceni- on all wool under \\iAi. price* 

The present hill propoflce a spcdfic duty ^uf four cents pej 
pound, and filso an eid vahrcfn duty of dfty per cent« od fill wool 
of everj^ deM*riptioii. 

The rwLilt of the combluBlion of xhvatu two duties it, ^4t 
wixil lit tt\t rrmking gimi) clothii, iitirl ooiting from thirty to fciriy 
crnts per punml in thfi fonOgii imirhet, will pay n duty at lea*! 
equal to sixty per cent, ad va^artn^ And wool coAtitig lem than 
leu cenla in the foreign market svill pay a duty, on the awfage, 
of a huJidred per cent ad valorem. 

Now, Sir, ihc*^ faf*avy duties are laid for the wool-grower. 
They urv de«Lgne<] Ut givi< h spring Ui ugfii^uttarej by fostrring 
one of il4 rmml iinpoiiHHt protlurlA. 

But let us see what is done for the manufacturer, iu order to 
enable him to majiufautunr the raw nuitcrial. at piicea so much 

A» tl]^ bill p]L««4-^d the Houm* of RvpiwenUtiref!, the ndvance 
of dutio!? on eloth* is i^vippourd tx> hnve hrm not more than three 
per [rent, on the minlmunk poinljs. T^tking the ainoiini of duty 
la be now thirly-sevcn per cent, lut vttforem on elotlifl, this bill, 
IS it came to ua, proptmrdi if that auppOE^iUon be true, only to 
OEirry it up to fortVi Aiui-mlim-'ntA h^-re adopted huve i^nhunctrd 
tjiifl duty, and mv uiidi<r!»food to have citrned it up lo n duty of 
rorty-liVt> or perhnpx fifty pi^r cent, ad valttrtm. Taking It ai tha 
highesl, the duly on J\\r- eloth t^ raised Ihirlr^n ptT cent* ; whilu 
thuL on wiK>] lb raised In some instoLiices thifttj^ and iji »otne lu- 
slanccs cii^hUj'/tfe per eenl*; thai is, in one case from thirty to 
Wiiy, and in the othr^r from fifteen to a hundreii Now thv eiU- 
Dulation ii intd to be frtie ^\'hi<7h aoppoaea that % duty of thirty 
per cent, on the raw material cnhancen by fifteen per cenL ihd 

vol*, lit. 21 



ru^l of |jfor1i]t-liig iUt' v\o\\\ ; llw raw iiialeriHl btfl»g ^^irrulM 
gvaL*mJ)> 1o bf- ci|Lm] i4» li^f tlir cxpfrnw; of Uit? ftibric. So llial^ 
yrhile by tfau<i bil] the mnoiirActorrr gains tUirU^n per cent, on 
Ihc cinth, hf* woiikl apjKiir lo low /f3^m por cent, on the aome 
cloth by The incTcaae in it<^ prlco of rhn wool. Aod tbi« wooUl 
Dot only appear 1o be true, but wonlrl, T «nppofte. be acrluaUj 
tnie, werf' 'n nut (tiat the iniirkvt irwy be upeij to tlie timntifut? 
turt-r, uiitlrT llii» bill, for Mii.h rJotli.t &b( may be fiinu^hi^ &t 
priccv intcrmrdintc between tlic gmdoatcd prices cstabL»hrd by 
Ihe bill. 

For <^x3mple, few or no foreif^ii i^lolji^i, it U AuppofteJ, costing 
more than fifty eenta a ya/d and Imm tbati a dallar, will h& Jm- 
ponetl; llierefort^ Ariieric:in clolhi worth in«r« thun fifty c^iiIh, 
and Invi than a dtilEar, will fitrd a trnirkcL So of the iDtcrrals, 
n iiiterraediatr vptuva, between the other »tfttute pricra. In this 
modi.' it may be hoped Hint the monitlftctarcra msy be sDi^tninc^ 
and ri^'iidrTf^d able to enny on thcr work of donvoiiiig th« mv? 
rrntrrini, thr ngrieulturaJ produot of the cooiitiy, into an anicle 
necf-'^rMiry ^iid fit for x\»f. Thih BtaiUrfiienI, I think, ttiiflieieiitly 
bhowA ihat m> further Iw-iit^fu i)t mlviinlnge w niiriulvd fur tljtrij, 
than 9uch u» ah^iU kin-ly cnEiblr them to accornplifh th^t pur* 
po4e; and that the object to which oil others have been mndc to 
yield U the ndvantngt? of ^gricniture. 

And yei, Sir, It h on oe(^a&ion of a bill thua fmmrd^ that a 
loud and oea«ele«f4 €iry haft been raiwd ag^iutl vihat U t.-alleil the 
rupidil^Vt tht avnrii^e, ib^ icuinoiKiliziHg Hpirit, of New EnKbiiMl 
ni«iiiiCacIiin-rA ! Thin iit one of the main " abominations of the 
bill " ; to ri^mody which it i« propoKcd to keep in the other obom- 
iA&tions. Under the pro^pn^t of advaiitngo heid out by the Uw 
of L!^^l, me;i liavi? vi?ritured thaW lortunei^ and Ihvhr mean* of 
iubiiHfti'nee for tliertiHdve* and ^niliev, in wouJlen mnuuffuv 
tureo. They b:tve vtrntnred invotinenU in nhjeet^t trcjuiring a 
hirgr oiitl>iy of rapllaJ ; in inilJ^, bouiteji, wnter-worhs, mid ex* 
ppn*ivo ninchi(irr)-. Events have occurred, blighting their prcw- 
]>cpta «nd withcTing their hoprA, — cvcnto whieh have deprived 
them of fhar dcpree of «nec^>r which the lefiialatare rt»nife«tly 
jrt«-ndeil. Tliiy come here a%kin;^ for rt^Uef against an nrifoiV' 
eetn iK'i^urrenee, fi>r reinedy ^^Innt llint wbttdi Ci*ngreMi, if it 
had forcFieen, would have })reiente<]; urn] Un^' are Inld. that 
what they luik iii nn abominationl 'I'bcy say thftl an -ntereflt 



ImpnTbiJit to tht'tn, ftiid iin|)tirtnnt Co IIbit ruuiitfj, nvd {innci- 
pally ciillcd into cxiMcncc hy th^ government il»rlf, ha* received 
a «cvtro ebock, uitdcr ^hich it muet eink, if tho govenun^nt will 
tM>ti by renaonikt^le mi;ane, «iiid^&vor to pre^derve whuL it ha« cr^ 
alecL Arid ibey ere nii-t ^'ilh a volley of hard oame^ a lirode 
of rrpTonHiej, nrid u Umd ery ii^iiinl <Mpi(;ili-il.i^ -tiieizulnltini, and 
Hf ork-jol>b(^r^ ! For om% 1 think Uiriii hnnJIy trritlnl ; ) Uiink, 
and from the hrginning hove thonght^ ihcir daim to bi? a fair 
one^ With how mudi #o^vcr of luiduc hnMc, or cvca of credu- 
lity, ih<*y m:*y be thought to havr- tmbarkoti in th«8e purouito, 
niider Tho hoi^rn hfUi out by govCTtiment, 1 do not fed It to be 
JUKI iliat ibry should })V abandoned lo iheW (nie an (be Grvt itd- 
Ycr^if dia^HKC «f ciivuniftlanL^ca ; alllicngh 1 hnvt ;ilwiiy;i jw'rii, 
ord now src, how dilficutt, perhaps I fihould ritihcr luiy how im- 
poa^iblci it Ki for Conf^tw to act, whon euch chnn^cn occur, in a 
manner at once vlljciertt cmd discruelj prompt, and yet mod- 

For themr grnrmi reattonn, and on ih*^*e grouridpi, I am decid* 
ediy ill f&vor of a mea«un- yvh'ich shall uphold iind puppurl. iit 
bchtdf of the mcLnufadun^Tts lit* law of 16^3-1, and ca.rry iU brnr- 
fit» and mdviiniu»{i*H to tht* Tall eoitent intended. And though 1 
am not aJiojfiTther «U!<ficd with the |>*rtkTiliir form of fheac en- 
aotmc-nt4, I am u-illing to Ukc them, in Ihi* hi-Vwt 1h»t thr-y will 
answer an t<«fi('ntjiilly unporlnnt and niYie^fary purpofie. 

ft 10 iJOA my pauifu] duty to taKi: uuIIl^c of auutfaer part uf 
(he bdl, whii:h I think in thi; bighcat degree objcc'lioii^iUe and 
anrciuonablo ; 1 ineuri tb« vxtruorditinry augmentution of tha 
doty €u hemp. [ eunnot ^^ell eoncdre any thing more unwua 
or ill-jiidgpd ihtin tbU nppei^rK to ini? to br-. Tlie duty U nlready 
thirty-live- ilnllurai jter l4in]^nd tUr. bih iirnpoArs n prngrr^MivQ 
iiEirreaHC till It ^hall rc^ach sixty dollar?. This uJll be absolut^y 
opprtramve on thr:- shipping tnt<7C4tt the grcot oonr-umcfa of the 
artide. Whon tlii« duty »hall havo rcacbud it» tiiaxinium, it 
will creutu ai; animal charge of ai leaat one hundrtHl thousand 
di^llurH, fiUlIn^ not on the u^re^l*' of tlit- comitiertirtl loTfreftl, 
bni on thr f^hifvciwiirr. It i> h iirry nmnpnil bnrdi-ii. Tlie nav- 
il^alion of the country hoA already a hnrd M^tg^k lo Mislajn 
itarlf af^ainsl foreign CL>mi>ctition; and jt i» bingular enouKh, that 
(hiB intcrepti whifh la alrcudy bo &everely trii-d* whit-h payn m 
tnnch in datie» on beinp, dut^k, and iron, and whicJi it is now 




propowcd to put nndrr iirw hiir<Irn:s >* the "inly inWrM which u 
subject to a direct lax by a law of Coiigrcea, Thi turifiagr duty 
iA «udi n tax- Jf thi» bill bliotdd po«a in ita prt'acot [orm, 1 sluUl 
Ibbik it my duly, at Iht uadjeat miitablc opporltinity, to bring 
forward u bill fur the rv^jx-Md of llu- lonniige duty^ It arnountj^, 
I think, to « hiindrrd »nd twrnly thmiMnd d<illar« a year; and 
\Ia nrnioval will hv <\ut* In all justice tn Ihr MhijiHuwiitr, if hr la 
fio be inndn aubjrc-t to a m-w taxation ou btrii^p and in>n. 

Rut, objcTctionablc na tliut taic irs tr^m it& Kvirrc prcasnre on & 
IMrticuhir Intrrent, find that al pn-tiriit a iIcpr^^Af^d JntriTsU there 
on fttJJI furttier grounda of disi^ntiflfaciJon wiTh it. Ir ig not cal- 
cuiftU^d to offcct th^ object iiiK-oded by lu If ihat oijject be Tb« 
Increafrfi of ihe Halt? of diir dew-rotird Amfricari lierilp, ihe In* 
cn?H9Lrd duty will have little t^ndcncry tu pradiictr tb^it ri^mlt; 
brrnuTc nu^h bcmp is *o much lourr in price than imported 
hemp, that it mnnt be already uiirti lor ciich piirpcwca aa it is tit 
for. It is said to bo eclling for one hundred and twenty dollars 
p«r ton ; while the imported hemp commaiid^ two htindrc-d And 
seventy dolkra. The propostrd duty, therefore^, earmot mntrri«lly 
an&iHt the? Halt vi Amerirjia bvinp nf 1hi» ijuiility and dcMTiption. 

Out Ihc main rcnuon given for the increase ia the encourage- 
ment of Amcricon water-rotted hemp. DonbtlcM, thia^ ic b.i 
Important object; but 1 have Beon nothing to aatiftfy mc ^at it 
can be obtLiined t>y meaiiB like thitt- At prevent there la pro- 
ducted in the crouoLry no considerjble quanlily of v/ater-roltcd 
hf-mp. U IS pniLleimiliciit, at bi-nt, whether it cun be pnulurrd 
under any enconmgcmcnt'. The hemp may be grown, dtiubtlesa, 
in Turicnie parte of the United BlateA, as well a» in any countiy 
in the world; bnl the prooeaa of prirparinj; it for izee, by water- 
rotting, I believe to be roorw diflieult and lubt^riouH ihun i* fttn- 
erally thought among ui, I ineliiie to tliiiik, tliat, happily for 
U8, labor Ik in foti mnr^h demand, »nd rornmnndu ton high prjc^ 
h> hIIow lhi« prooTM to be cairied on profitably, Othi."r objire- 
tio^Es tdcc, beside the amount of labor K-quircd. may, perhaps, 
be found to GKitfii in dimate, nnd in the efleuU liable to be pro* 
duned on health iri warm oountritM by the nature of the procMwo. 
Batwhelh<?r there ba foundation for xUckq KnggeKtioni or not, 
the fatrt still ia, that we do not prodnee the artiek. It rannot, 
at pre^enT, l>e had at »ny price. To augment ihe duty, ihf^re* 
fore, on fureign hemp, can only have the eiTect of compeilinit 

IkoiMMlsumcr to pay ao much more money iiito the tri^anury. 
The pTcpodeU iiicxv^tsc, Ihen, ia doubly obj^-^ctionuble; tint, !»• 
vaunts it creHli's u d;nrgp not Id be boriK* ec|un.Uy by the wUnlc 
nmikUyf bat n nrsv :iml hwivy L-hiu^ir, t(» lir hornr. ptr-ltmivrly by 
one ptiiticLiliir iiULTc^^t* nnJ, second, bccnuac tliat, of tEic money 
raiMd by Ihi^ chttrgc, Litllc or none goes to ftccompliflb Ibc pro- 
fo««cd object, by aiding tho hcmp-growcr ; but tli« wholci OT 
nearly the whole, falia into the treattory. Tiiu^ Uie elf^Kit will 
be in no way proporlloned to the eauae, and ibe advoniage ot> 
t^ifned by nome not nl rill t?[jii;d lo llif htinUbip iiMiinitrd on 
oilit^f^ Whik one inlcrc^t wiil *oflcf much, th« other interest 
will gnrn Tittle or nothing. 

1 Eun <iiin<^ wilkinp; to mdko a tborongfi und fair experimonl, 
on the subject of v^tcr-rotled hemp; but 1 wlnh at the eame 
time lo do thla hi a manner that »haU not oppreM ludlvlduata, 
or pJirtii'idur ciiH^ts^ I i^jterKlr tliere^rorr, tn iit»V(? hn miK-iid* 
iiicdt, wuich will t^uuftisl In Mriklug oiil m) iiiiirh i>f t|i<t bill »• 
nii?c« the duty on hemp higher than it is at prcacnt, and iu 
m^erting d dause, making it the duty of th<^ nnvy dcpartitunt 
to parchaec, for the public service, Amcricaji wat^f-rctlecl h*^mp| 
whenever it c^n be had of a suitable quality ; provided it caii be 
puTL'hafttd nl H rute nut eKrc^tnlLug by iiit^re tiifiii twenty per 
<-KaL Ibc cuient price of linporU-'d hemp uf tlic aaiue qu^dlty. 
If tbhi umi^nJini'nt ohoulJ ba adopted, the vhip-owncr would 
have no rvanoii to ctJinplain, ]i& the \mtx of the oriidc would 
not be ciihniic-<!d to him; und, at the Bamti Lime, the h«mp- 
grower who shall try the expiTiinent will hv mnde sure of a cer- 
tain market, and a bi^h price. The exUtiiig duty of rhlrfy-five 
dolbir^ |>er tua will etill remain Ic be bornt; by the BhiiJ-ovviitfr. 
The twenty per ccnL adrancv on the price of imported hemp 
will be equal to bfty dolLam per ton; the a^^gate wjU bo 
cif^hly-fivc dollars; smd IhlM, it mu»t be admitted, Lr a liberal 
and elTecTTvi.' provji^ion, anil will M'cnre evi^ry Thing whieh ean be 
reasonably dtibired by the bump-grower in tli<: mo«t ample man* 

But if the bill abotdd become a Uw, uud go into opcmtion in 
it» preiwnt vhapc, this duty on heinp 10 bkoly to dofeiit lie own 
object 111 another way. Very intelligent penton^i enttYtain the 
opinion, thai the consequence of this high duty will \te such, 
that American veatteW eiigagi-d In forvigii commerce will* to « 




gRAt extent, supply tbontfdved with <H>rdag<* nNrcMiL ThiFi, ot 
conn^ wUi diminish the O0D:tuniptii>n ai honir, nud ihua injura 
tbc bcmp-grov/vr, and ut the «amc limo Ui« manufactuftv uf 
cordaf;!?. Ag^n, tht-rc may be rcoflcn to fear that, as Ihe duty ia 
not raWd on conhgp muiinfHrtiiri'd ;ihrii(t(]^ Mirh cordacc muv 
bv iinpt-'ited \i\ grt'rtkr ur lc*e d^gn:^; in ihc plaoc of the uu* 
Riaiiufactiirt'd ariiLlc, Whal^rcr view wc taltc, thcn-foie, of 
ttiid liL'm[) dutvt it jtppt'iini to mi? attof^lier obj(.'ction»bli^ 

Muuh hnH bLvn suid of t\\v prciU'cliun which the imvigntioii 
of the Cdunlry huv rcevivcsl front Uie dikonintncitinif dd1i«» on 
tiiiiii^gr^ Rncl Thr^ i xi-hi»iMT r-iijttymi-ril of tliir niTiMling tradn. In 
m^^ otiinion, iiciihrT of tlior mrHituri'n hft» mRU<riaUy atu«tatiiHl 
tlK aliippiitg iuU-K'at of thc UriiteJ BiAtce^ 1 ^i> not cijuicar iti 
tb<^ autitirnt'iiU on x\vii point quottrd Trom Dr. SL^bt^rt^a sUiluticd 
worki Dr S<*ybi-rl wiu mi uit(.4liKf*tit ami wortiiy mim, and 
conipilecl u VbiluaU« book; but he was t^ti^igtd iii pubLic iifc at 
a timr whi^n It was tiipn- fuHhJEimiblf? Unin it him Mncc brconi9| 
to RHcribf^ c(1iftsirj/ to diiHTtmimLiing dulic*- The »hip|7iiig iDler> 
eet in this touiitry b&£ made iu way by tU owa ciitirrprie*^ By 
bl« own vigorous cicrtion It «pKad iImIT OYcr thc «eaa, aftd l^ 
tht? natiK^ <>x4^ioii it ttiiU holdtt ita place th^re. It itiviivi idle to 
talk uf tlie birnclit end advaotag^ of dlacdmtitatlnjf duties, wh«fn 
tbr^y opf*rnte ngiiinsit un on oiii? «ide of tlit- ou^itu i^tiiie as much 
a» t\wy opi^rfttfT fnr nn on the tether To nijp)>tH^r thn.t two na* 
tioiiB, having intercourse with each other, caii secure each to 
it«olf a decided advantage in that intcroounK:, i« litUe 1cm thao 
absiirdity; and Iht^ ib Uie abaurdJty of diftcriminatin^ dutiuHn 
Stall 1m» TL'ABOn U there for the idea, that our own Hbip-ownvrv 
bold tliv excluitive I'lijuynient of Lbe uiUBiiiig imUe only by vir- 
tlir of the law which prcvt:nt.ti forvigiicrs from aJinring it. fiook 
at Lbc rat« of ffv-igtu^. lx>ok at the manner in wtiich thi^ coaaD 
Isg tmdc la condnctcil by oui own ve:weU, and the competition 
vfaloh Bi^MiBtB bttwviBii them. In a mnjcrlty of instances, prob- 
ftUy, tikBM vmhIb are owned, in wholp or in pnii, by thoae wbo 
navigate them. The^te owjieni are al homi?i at one end of the 
voyage; and repairs audfiuppliea jtre ihuaublajord in tliu i*hr-iip- 
C8t and ntoflt ecouomjeal manner- No forrii^n vctuicLa would be 
able to partake in this trade, wen by the old of prcjcxvncea and 

The shipping jnten^ttt of this ooanuy rci^uim* oaly an open 



Grid, and n fnir rhAnt^L', Evcrry thing via? U wilL<Io (vt itnrir. But 
:t ha!i mk( a inir chance while it in »o severely tAXr!(i in what' 
ever vntcm into thn ii4»ci-»MLTy expense of building and i^utp- 
m«>nt. In thin rrnpoc], it* liv^iU havu ndvanlftgcj* which mny in 
thf» end prov^ tn hv ilnH*iv<" ngiiinM, ns- I rnCrral. (he Senate 
rx» cKniiiixie luid wdyti ihia buIjJccI, and aot ^} on, blindly, Lu 
unknown cx>f]dL-<]UuDce^ The Briictieh shlp-owriei is ttitvCuWy 
rcgordcii by hio j*»>vi?rmijent, Htvi mdf-^U und ouccori^d, whi-ULivci 
and wh<-iwrr ni-'ci^iKury, by u tsh>irp-si^htr>d policy. Bnth hu 
and thv Amctic^an ihlp-own^r obtiiin thc^jr hi?mp from Ri»Kia. 
Rnt ohnrn/P thr (lifTrn'iirf, Thi- <lijly on hrmp ]n Kngiund U 
bm twrtity-onf d«)lnT>*; hiTr, it i* pro|Kiw^d to make it M»ly, 
i]otwiibfti«ndiii£[ Lt« coet h^^rc \a uc<«A»arJly rjih^nc^d by aii 
additional freiKtit, proportJonod to a voyago lon^-w tbaA thut 
whiob brjnjftt a lo th« Eii^U^h (ronttumur, by tho ^^hoto breiulLh 
of the AEiuutic 

Sir, 1 wt*h to iavcikc thr $ri:iil4f'ii ultirntion, rarnmtly. ia the 
subject; I would nwiihrn tiic n^gurd of the whoht govern mi.-iit, 
DftOre and more, not only on thL« but on alt QccoslonB, to this 
great national intcrcet; an interest which Ucd at tho very foun- 
dation both of our comm«-rcial prooperity and ouf n^vuJ aohiov^ 


On lh9 39lli oT December, 1B29. a resolution wna miyred by Mr. 
pQot^ oEie or the ScfiDton from Comwcticut, which, BHor tho kdJiUoa of 

" ilciofv<i<ft Tliai thu C(jmmiuiM3 un Public Lands be uutruclcd to iii- 
quira ULd report the quaotiiy of public lacdB ramnifibit unnoM within 
«aoh Stale uid Territary. AjiJ wlnriittrr h bv ti^pt'tliijiLi io lijuil ilr ■ 
corlain pcn<)d the ulca of the public lands \a luch lands only a.i hav« 
liarfttofoftt Iv^Tn olTort^d Tot uilo and aro now i;uhjr>i;t to ontr^' nt ih« 
miiumum yrtcc^ Aiid, aIbo, whtthrr Iho oflit^c uf 9urvp^r-0cnQr«]« 
and some of ibc Und ofHcM* Enay noi bo abotinhcd vrithoLii <[<iirimcci la 
thr p^ihlU* iniprMT; fir whftthpr ii hn PxjirdirrT in ftflnpt mnitaitr^ in 
bafftou the saliv and «%t«od more npidJy ibo sunreyA of iho public 

On the l8Eh of Janimry, Mr. B«<rklon uf MiHWjiiri addrenned ihe SennM 
on the ttubjocL or thu resolution. On the I9th, Mr. Dayno of S^Lilh 
Ol^uui flpok« at conHidorvbro lt<t)gth, Aft«f be bod oonoludvd, Mr. 
Wflbsif r niBc id rofily. but gnvt! way un muiiot) at Mr. Bt^nton for nu 

On tlie *iOlh. Mr, Webvt^r «pok« wt folLow* : — 

TfoTHi^a has been farther from my Inlealion ihan to take any 
part hi the diBOtiaaion of this rcHolutJon. It proposes only an in- 
quiry OD n aubjcct of mtioh importance, anJ one* iii rej^nrd to 
M'bich It might sirike the mind of ihe mover mid of cithcT ^entI«* 
mpti rhiU i>i<|tiiry Bful iiivi'srigatioii wcmlf) In? uv»-fn]. Although 
1 nm orir iif those wbo Jit nut p*'nTrivr imy piirtinilnr utility in 
tovtHutliig the inquiry, [ b*vc, n^TVcrthrltTsw, rot »ccn that i.*rni 
would bp likely to refluit from adopting thi? rcMiliition. lnd<*<?d, 
H givoH no naw powers, tind hiLrdly imptwee any new duly oa 

* Mitnvd ID Um SMJhto vf di« Uaiud Sum, ui iLo SOdi of Juiwry. l&Se. 



OOmmlrt^^- All that the resolution propoj^^i* ^hontri nv rlnnr, 
Uw eoininiLii?L< i% quite competent, wittiout llie rvBipUiliork, lo cJo 
by nttiir of iU unlinnry powers. Bui, 6ir, altliuugb 1 have felt 
quite indifTcTcnt aboat th« pA^-^ing of Ibc rcsclutitin, yt-t opaniona 
were cxprc3Md yesterday on the gccicrni i»abj<?ct of Ihc public 
land«, Qiid on «ome other »ubj«cts, by the gcnikmnn from 
South CafoUiia, vo widely diiTc^rpnt &om my own, thul I an not 
wilting to let the OT?eH^latt paaa without ftortie rr^ply. If [ dtvin^ 
thr ff-Jicilutluit tt:« origiinilly jim|H.if4^i[ liurilly iiei?e-i»iiTy, atiU kHSiJu 
I think it cither necr^siiry or cxprdicnt to ndopt it, since n ac^ 
end branch ha* been added (o it To-dny. JJy this nrcond brruich, 
the committi^e is to bo in»tjruct«d to inqnirc whtfther it be cxpi^di- 
ent to adopl n^eaanrpg fo h^^tpn Ihe saIpa, ftncl extend monj rap- 
idly (he :fi.irveyB <jf fhe ptihlic luiids. 

Ncrw it a]i|H-ans Mr. Prvsident, thai, in forty yeuni, we liaw 
Mold no more thun about twt^nly million.^ of acrcd of public 
luitU. The nrtnunl i<ix[c» do not now cxorcd, and never hr>vc 
exceeded, one inillion of acrca. A million a ycnj is, according 
to oar expericneeT a» much ft» the irerr'ase of popuJalion can 
bi-iikg inTo aeltletnent. And It appenr^, afj^o, that wb havp, at 
thiM nntnit^iil, survey*Tl and in (be nmrKel, ready fur sjile, two 
hundred and ten millions of Qcres, or thercztbouta. All thia viivt 
mnivs At thia moment, licti on our hundei for mere want of pur- 
chanerii. Ccui any mctn, looking to th« rt-al intt^rvntfl of the c^onn* 
try and the proplr, iKTriouijly tliinlt of int^ulring whether we ought 
not to hapten the piiblie *nrvry* utill fii*t*»T, «nd to brings Btlll 
iijore aud mort- rapidly, other vast quantilice Into thtr market? 
Tl^e truth 19, tbat, rapidly aa population haa incrcaited, tlie Aur- 
veya have, nev^tthcloae* outrun ouf wnnU, Thewj we more 
lands than pureha^fv. They are now fiold at low prices, and 
takf n up as fast a^ Die increase of people fiinijuheii handft lo 
tnlce them ii|l Tt i» obvitmp, thai no artifieijiT regulalujn, no 
foreing of jitiIc*, no giving aw^ny nf the Innds evrn» ran prodia'^ 
ony great and tiudilcn augmentatioo of population- The ratio 
of inerca4«, though grcat^ hat iU bounds. Hands for labor or« 
mnltiplied only at a eprfain rate. The lands cannot bo settled 
bur by *en|frs, nor fRfiter than i^etllera can be found. A nyfttem, 
if now adtjpted, uf furelng saW, at wbntevi^ prieeSf may have 
till? elTect of tfirowing largn quantitittt into the bands of Individ- 
uaU. ^h(> would lit tbii« way, in tinic^ becemc themaeii^ea rom 



pclitcre with the gov^rntnrnt in the saJt of lai)<L Mv own 
opinion hk» uniformly bci?[i, ttiat Ibo pubUo IaimIj should l>p 
o^ered IreHy, and at Jow pricrea; no a« to enoouraft*^ itHUcrtcnt 
aud ciLltlvallon aa rapidly as the lii^KaBiiip: population of the 
naiinUy U ixmi[H-tt-iit tu i-iterul stt^lJrmi^iit nml rulHvEiti<ii], Rv< 
cry aotUAl .icttin ^honJJ br nblc to buy gor>0 land, nt a cbcsp 
mt<'; but, on the otitcr hand, i^pcculation by individuale on a )ar^ 
ftcalct Bhonld not br «tioouTfij(i>d, noi ithoidd th« va]a«» of bH 
bii<l>s fiold and unBold, b*^ rrducod to nothing, bj thiowin^ n«w 
a^d va#t qunntitipa into the market at prioea merely DomUiaL 

I DOW pfovn-d, Sir, tc3 pam<? of Ibtr Djiinions e.\prt-:WM.-i1 by the 
fEcntJcinari from Bouih C^irolina, Two or thirc topics were 
touched by him, in rcpnrd to which he expreSH'd wniinienta in 
which ] do not at all ccticiv. 

In the firel place. Sir, the honorable gentJemnn spofce of Ibo 
whole course mid |io|ji?y of iha ^^vvi^riiineiit lowafds ftione who 
haw piin^lmM-d and ei^ltl^ th<^ public hitid». and tteem^ to 
think thin policy wronier, H« hdd it to have bcc'n, froni the tirptf 
hflH and rl^ortniei; he wna of opinion, that the United Staled 
h^id flclcd towards thouc who hrui iinbdii^d thi* Wt-attera wilder* 
nr^fm in Thr spirit of n ntr^mothcr; thnt thr pnblir. domuin had 
been improperly n^gnrdcd h« a aourcc of revenue; and that we 
had riffidly compelled payment fut thai which on^Iit to have been 
^jvrii ^way> He uld we cuj^bt to have imitated the example 
o1' other govcmmenttt, which hud acted on a muoh more Jiht*ra 
tiyKXem llian oura, in phinting 4^oloui4-s. He dwi?lt, purtioulurly, 
upon the settJnn'^nt of Amrricrit by i^olonir* from Kumpc; and 
reminded ui, that their go\«'rnmrritA hnd noi ciaetird from tho«c 
eolouica pfiyment for tbe bdiL In reference to thenii he aaJd, it 
bad been thought tliut tlic coitque«t of the wildcmea* waa ital^lf 
a.n eqcivajLHit Tor the »oil, and he JamenteKl Ihat we had not fol- 
lowed thai exttinpl*", and purnned the »ame liberal coiirae towarda 
our own r-jnignmU lo West 

Now, Bifi I deny, ahogrrthrr, thnt thc-rr ban been ajiy tiling 
harsh or eevere in the policy of the govemmrnl towards the new 
8iatea of the Wc«t On the coutntry, 1 maintain tlmt it hat 
uniformly pujaued towarda Uiobo State« a liberal and cnlight- ■ 
ened uyutem, auch aj* ita own daty aUowed and required, and 
%uch i\% their interem aud welfare demanded. Thfl i^oveniment 



tittp-noUiw to the new Statect, Sli« haa not btwii 
Ibf ft^ Uit«ra»t», nonr deaf (o tfii-ir refuw&b*; bnl from 

Ubti mumcfit when the t«rrltorie-» which iiow furai those 
States were tctlt-t] io tho Unitm* tlowii to the timt' in which 1 nm 
now Epouknj^, U iiuB bvvn iIk- mvcinubli? <ibj«'t of iljc govprn- 
ment, %o dbpu*^ of ibe M>Lt art^crdiog to the trut^ ifurit of tho 
olli|^i1ki]i EiiJiIrr whifh il n-oi-ived !l; t4j TiMHtt-ii iln w<lllMn«'n1 
ttiiU cu III vn lion, ua lot Ml*} an fa^^t ?is |>ni^lit;ul>le ; niiU Ut mar Ihe 
new coinniunilica into nfw and indt-pcmlcDt Bttttco, at thn c«r* 
lit'^t moment of lhi.*ir bcinff able, by their numbvni, to form a 
wgulur gtwtriimenl, 

1 do not admit, 8jr, thnt thi- anulogv to which the* gi^hllrmun 
refen u» m jiirit, or th»t the? Ciuut nir iit nil KLjnilnr. Thrrv i^ 
no TGicmhhncc bctwixn the CA»e«i upon vthich n itfitta^mnn can 
fourd Ml nrgiimrnt. The onginnl North Aint^icnn <x>loru«tc 
diiher Jled from Europe, liho onr NVw Kitgl&nd anoedtoni, to 
avoid p^Twvntion, or vnmv. hither nt ihrtrown chsjg9«, ruid oft^n 
al the ruin of ttitir fortAiiie^, im phvatj? adventurers Geaimlly 
apeaLing, ttiey derived iieithirr succor nor protection frum thr^ir 
fovcjnincutjt nt hotue. Wider, ind^d, is the djllerttncc Lctwcun 
Uioae (■iiB(--ii Olid our^. Prom tbo very iirii;iii o[ the- (fovcrome^ti 
tkc9e Wc«k-ni huidd, and the jusil (irotcctiou of Ihoiw who had 
ft^t Jed or should twtlli^ on tlieni, hnvt* benn tlit* letiding ohjf<c?la in 
our jMiliry, nnc) Imvr h'd Uiexpf^itditurt^ bulh fif tdiM^l itiid trcvi> 
urc, not incons^idcmblc ; not> indeed, cxrcvdiiig the importance 
of tbc object, nnd not yielded grudgingly; but yet entitled 
to t9 ngiirdod &» gi^at^ though necw^ary »cnfic«f, rtnde for 
lligb, proper ends. The Indian title has bern cxtingi]i>^hed at 
the «ipen«P of many milUoiis. l» that ikolhing? Thrre jh hIjI] 
n much moK matrrial coubidr ration. TIu^st^ coIuiiibI^ IT we 
arc to call Ihom »o, In passing rht .Mk-^bunitH, did not pa** bo- 
yond the caw and prot«ettoa of tht^ir owti govt^niment Whore- 
evrer they went, rhe pobho arm waa itUl (ttrerched over them. 
A purenlnl govern men I al liome wha hUII ever mindful of their 
t»>nditLO(i and their wantA. ajid nolhhig was npared whtoh a 
jn»t tiense of thc^ir nct^e^sitica rt-quired- ]a it forgotten that it 
waaoneof the most orduoua dntiiM of the gov^TJuneitt, in iu 
earliewt yejira, to defi.nid the frcntien against the Norih^'<rsU-rn 
Tndiuni? Are the Huiferiu^ and misfortunes luider Hurnmriind 
St CUir ijot worthy lii be rrmi^miit-rcd ? Do the occune^ncvi 




ponn^fjnd wilh thrMv military i^fTnrt* ■hnw iiri tinfnMing npglfCt 
of Wf*itt.'ni intcri'pr* ? Ami here, Sir, whit*^ of (he gen- 
tJeman'd analogy ? What BngUab arraieft accompanied our a»- 
cMoM U> dear Iht forirstfl of a baHjarous foe ? Whal tivAflUTce 
of lh« oieboqutT w*fri? cytpoadyd in btiyiritf up 1 lie origin id litJc 
to the *oi)? Whnt ^)vcrnmt?ntu] iirm held iU ivglit over our 
ffttlirrn' hf'iKU, IIS th*»y (litmi^i-ped thi'ir wmy in ihr wi]d<»ni<'iw? 
9b, it wa* not tii) Grnfrril Wuynr** vidory, in 17^4, that it 
could W said we had uuju|Ut.-rvd (hr: savagca. It was Eiut till 
that period that tht; go^ernmtiit could M&vc considered iitelf aa 
having estuhlbhi-d ati (entire uhiiity ii> ^roteci thooe wtio «hoald 
undrrtnke? thi^ oonc^no^i tif thv wildcrne*!. 

And h?rc, Sir, at the rpcx-h of 1704, Icf as pause and aarv^ 
ihp tci-nc, ae It actunlly fxiF^titl ihirty-fjv^ years n^a. Let ua 
look back and behold il. CH-er all tliat U now Ohio Uif-re then 
streU^hid one %'ast wildctncaa, unbroken <;xce])t by two small 
spots of civilised eulture, the org ut Marietta aiuJ the other at 
Cinoinnatj, At thest? little openings, hurdly eaoh a pin^n point 
upon thft map, fhr arm of the fn>i]ti[T-man hnd levfllrd tJi*^ forevt 
and let in the Mm. These litilr psitehes o( ewrth, tlifrnwIveB 
alinoat over^liaduwed by the c\CTliazj^ing bou^hn uf that wlliieh 
I106B which had stood and perpetuated itscir from century to 
century, Kvt^ [»ince the creativii, wero att that had theit be>t'n reu* 
dcred verilant by the hand of man- In uii extent of hundnrds 
and thouiiantliL of vqnarc mile*, no other turfaec of AmiJing 
gtP^n alTe^tf^d the prevnee of eivilizntlon. *rhi^ Imntrr'* path 
crotHH^ nnjchty rivers, tlowiii^ iu suUtjiry fjrindeor, whose Hunreen 
lay ui reniote ajid unknown regions of the wUderue«flp It ntriick 
upon the north on a vust inland hcui over vvjiieh the wintry 
tempest? rji^d uh on the oaenn; all around wxt bare ereatioit- 
Jt wafi freeh, unluueheJ, unbounded, magnilkent wildcrncssp 

And, Sir, what \* it now? U it imnginntion nnly, or nan it 
poA^itily l>e thnt prehrnt^ Mich a ehange ah iturpriiT^ and 
astotiiahea u» when we ttiia our eyes lo what Ohio now 1» ? \a 
it reality, or a dream, thnt,tii «o abort a period oven a» thirty-five 
yeuTf^, there has sprunt; u^^ on the name (turfaei.*, an indopt^ndent 
Slafe w^ith a mlliioii uf people? A million uf InhabitunTs ! an 
arnonnt of p(rpiihi1iun gn-nler thnn UmL vf all the cmntunj* of 
8wi1/erlaiid ; ei|uu] In one third of idl the pi'ople of the IJnitctl 
Btate.i Avhcn ihey undertook to accoinpllth their indcpcndeuoe 




Thi« 'f^v member of the republic haa olroady left tai bchuiO hor 
a nofljoriiy of tfci- old Stales. Sh« it now by ilie side of Vii^ 
glrtlti nnrl Pf iiuHylvaruEi ; and in poiiil of aumbrr^ w>]J xhartl^p 
nclinit iiii i-r(i]:il hut Npw Yurk tirrsi'lf. If, Sir, wr. nitiyjiKlpn 
of mt-aj<urc> by tbcir rcAuli^^, wbut lc:t«oji!» do tlicM- f^ictd nrtui U4 
Dpon the polic^y of ihc government? What infrrciioc* do tbuy 
lathori:!^ upon 1h« gcnervxl qiio^fioo oi bindiK'fl* or unkindneft; f 
What conWoiiona do they enforce a?, m the wUdum and tttiilily* 
on 1h« oiii* hand^ or the foUy end incapacity, on thi- other, oftmr 
gpin'fiil ^idEiilniilnilioti of Wrjiirni iiffiiirv? Sfr, riop* it not n?- 
qiiirc f-omc portion of sclf^rcrspcct in u» io iinagjac, thatf If uuf 
Lght hful «hont: on thc^ path of ^vernmcjiti if our wUdoiu could 
have been conaultcd in itd fneftsoree, ft mora rapid advont^f* 10 
atrenf^tli and proepeHty would hav« been experienced I Por njj 
own partf while I am flmick with wonder ut the vnocefft, 1 tkUo 
lonk wiLh admirnUoH nl (hr wiwdriin and fcirPKigbt whin.h firigl* 
tially urntik^'d niKl pri'.irri txii tlkc i^yxtrin for ihc hctilenit^nt of 
the public domain. ]t# opi^rntion has been, without a moment's 

tcrruption, to pup^h the actdcmont of tho Western country to 

e extent of our tilmoflt meaiia. 

Butt ^^1 ^ relTirn to the remarks of the honorable member 
fri>m South Carulbiti^ Hcf s^iiyi thsit Congri^u has sold thca« 
landn and jnit Uir monry \i\tj> lUr- treu^iiry, wliilr otbfT govern* 
nients, acijng in a more lilxral spirit, gave away their lands; 
and that we ought aJdO to hare f^ivcrL outb uway. 1 shaU not 
tUrp to dtatc an Qooount botwueu our revL'iiuea derived from land, 
nnd our eiqii^nditurc-* in ladiun iri^utieat nnd Indian wart. But 
I muKt ivfpr thr hunoniltli? grmtlf^in^ui to Mn^ origin of our own 
title to the fioil of ihvfr b*rritorit?», nnd mmmJ him ihat wc re-. 
eeived th«in on conditions and under truate wblch would have 
been violated by giving rhe ecil away. For eonipiiancc with 
tho«c condition^} and the junt ujct^oution of those truHi«, the pubbe 
faith wn> Kolemnly pK-U^d, The public land* of thu United 
9late« have been dc-rivpil from four principnl tourc^r-fL Fintt, 
oendons made to the Uuitrd Htnto by iiHlividn^I Sfntra, on 
tlie rFLoiiiiiieaddtion or request of ihc old (\jfigrcM; M^condJy, 
the eomimct with Oeorgia. in IWO^: Ihirdly, The purchase of 
Louiitiana, in 1SQ3; tfourtlily, the poroh&fle of Florida, in 1819. 
Of the iiTfi rlii»», the moMi important was the ct^aion l>y Va* 
ffn\a of all her right und title, an well of soil as JurltaJiction, to alf 

VOL, in. 



nitsf SPEECH o» potn-s hesolution^ 

l)i«- Errrirorv <.rilliti> f^r- liifitl^ of Ii»t rliarter iyir^ to tli^ nor^h* 
wrrt of (lir Ohiii Rivit, It iwij not br iU*litncJ to rct^ur W th*r 
CftUflcs and occaeionA of lhi» anil the oilier «milftr grants. 

When Ihr wnr of thf Kcvolnlioii broke out, a great diffcircoce 
existed in dJlTorent Stam in the proportiou between peopt<f tuid 
leiritcry. The Norlhern and Eastern SiaT^«, with very ftrooll 
HUifiioeH, eonfaiiTcd o^mpjimLivdy ft thick i^optihttion, and thi^rp 
vmn genenlly within tlicir Imiib no gritat qu^jlily t>r un.ilr 
tondd belon^jng to th« govornoiffnt, or the crown of Bnglftiid- 
<>n Ihr cotitmry, thrn* won: w the 3outhorri S1a1«^ in Virj^nin 
nn<l in G«'or^u, for example, cxleniiivc public domsun», wholly 
tinectilnd. And belonging to lh(> crown. An thtf«r po«««*jiion« 
would nrcea^arily fall from the trrown in ttir PTrDt of a pTO«]>er- 
ouft iMue of the vrar. it was inM»ted that thvy ought to drvolvc 
on the United Slatee, for the gooJ of Uir whole The w»r, il 
viu ciri^cd. wild tiiidL«rUki-^ und currji'd on at Ihc c^uniiTU^n ex- 
[wnitt* of lit] the eolonicM ; ittt bcnedtHf if nuc^^Mful, ou^M nlso to 
Im- common; fl»nd the? pmfWTty of the common enmny, when 
vnn<|iji)ihrdi oiiglit lo he ri^giirdL^I a* Ihr. grni^rnl 7to(|iii:«itiori of 
all. Whilf yet thi? war wlls rai^^ing, it wns coiit^^iidcd Utat Con- 
^K»» oij|fht to have the |>owcr to dir^po^c of vacant and un- 
patenfed lunda, coiniTionly oallixl crown lafid>4, for d«4myitig the 
vxpenBL*it of the wiir, mnd for oih*^ puhlii? mid f^nerrd ptjrpo«6t. 
*• Rci^son and jtr*lirCj" jiritd tlin Assembly of Nc-w JerwrVj in 
1778, " mniit drrkh" thitt tlir priiperly which i^si^t***! in the 
CTUWn oi Great Diitain previous to the pie^eut Reirolutioil 
ought now to belong to The Congre^ in tniat for the use and 
bcneiit of the United 8tnte», They have fon^ht and bled for it. 
In proportion to thcrir rcAjiXwtive abiiitioii. und thcrcftre the re- 
wd ou^ht not to be prrvlili^rTionnlly distribufc^L Rhiill Biirh 
0ditPN %K Rrr «hnt. oni by i^ituntion from ;«viii]iiig IhrmHcIvp* c^ 
the kftst atlvuniage fmm tliia cpiartcr be left to »iak under an 
^horm<»u^ debt, whilnl plhrrr* Mre eiinblcd in a *bort period to re- 
place Ml their cx|jcndiltxrcp frum the hard earningi of the whole 

Movijtl by CO II « idem t loan and appe«N cif tbit* kinti, Coriipw** 
tonk Dp iIh' snbjcn-t, inid hi Si*ptrml>pr, 17*^, rreomitir-mh-il tn 
the benrrnl States in the Union h^virrg eJ»im» to Wc^^trTn tnrri* 
loryi to mak« libera] cc«»ioiia of a |)ortioii thereof tc the United 
fitatca; and on the lOtb of 0<^lobt'r, iTSO, Coni*a« rcK)fvc<J> 



thM nny Inmlp p*o wded, in purriiiariCfr of tlit'ir prLV^ediiis: rM>0O 
mcndulioD, thotilJ br ilivpoEied of for the common bctii^lU of the 
ITniiTf] ftttttp*; flbotiht he Kcttloi) and formrd inlo distinct rh|>ub- 
hmn StHtna, lo Iwcnmr nn'mlM^n of iht* I'rdfTnl ITEiion, with 
the bume rights of »circrcigiityt frL-c<iom, and iadrpiTiidc^icf b4 
ihe olhrr Slafea; and Ihat ihc landr* f^bould he gifLntcili ctr ftct- 
tled» at eu£'h timee, and under %ucb ri'^ul^tiono, aa ehouM bo 
•gr^d cm bj; Congr^M. Ajf^ixi, in Bepv^mber, 17^3, Conf^rviiA 
p««fted another resolution, aeitlng foTlb Ihe eondSflans on wbicli 
CTMTtnirt ffiHti Statrfl ^hoald l>e r<H*ri*i*d ; tiiul in Or.lalH'.r fiillou'* 
itigi Virgifiin m^dr hrr cc:*.iioH. irciiing the resolution* vr od, of 
Srptcmbci preceding^ nnii thni Uanr^fcrring to the United States 
bor (itU- to her Northwrntfrn t**rrJlon^, upon Ihr i?xpi^n« condi- 
tion thai the lands mo ri^dfd hhoiihJ b> ronf^id^rod 4b a common 
fund for th^ %i^^ Rnd hpnrJii of duc-h of the United Statea as had 
bifcvme or should bct^ointr lut'iEibt-m of l]ie irunfcdenilujii. Vir- 
ginia incluBtvc, iuid »h^idd hv f4Jthriil]> jind hona Jid^ dtApiutcd 
nf for (bat purpoa«-, luid for no other use or purpose; whatever^ 
Th« fj^mTn from othvr Stairs wt^^^ on tiimdnr CH>ndition». Mas- 
*uiclm*t?Uj( and Coimptriierut both had chitini to Writcm ]nnd«p 
and both n*EinqiiUfir^i ihrm lit \\\v. I^nitrd Stat^^i in ihr »Rrn« 
mniTiHT Thrw- gifintj^ Wttc all m»t<lf; on tbret- MibntuntuJ uon- 
dJtioriB or trusts, FJrat., that Ibc ct^ded trrritoric* should be 
formi^i into SIaIcbi and admttti>d in diu* time into ^« UnioQ* 
v>'ith all Thv rij^htH btlanf^ing to olhir Stulcit; Fccondly, that tbc 
kndii nhonld form a c<ammon fond, to \^. diipotti^d of for t.hi.' gca- 
i-rd hrnrfitof ul) thr Stiiirx; nnd thiHIy, that tJiry ithonld h« 
Aold and Mrttlrd, at Ktich time ujuI in nnrh manner a« Con^M 
should direct 

Now, Sir, It ie plain that Coof^'rees never haa been, and id not 
now, at liberty to dibregard theiae Holemn (?ondLtiond. For the 
ralQlmeEif of all the»e tru^la, ih*» public f»ith wa*, and l», fully 
pleil|Ljrcl, Hiiw. Ibvn^ wuiilil it, havr hi-pn pusfihlr for (^ngn<»ji| 
if it had bccji tw dLtpa^rd, t«> gtvr aw^y fhe^r pubtH: tand«? 
How could it have fijllow^^l th** example of oth« guTcru 
mmtn. if t^r-rr hail ht-e^i «nrli, nnd eoiini chared the c-onque^t ol 
Ihp wijdernnjm nn cqinvulcnt eomfw'n»a1k>n for the»ml? Tbo 
Btaieii had looki^l t"> thia tenritory, perhaps too aanguinely, ai a 
fund onl of ^hich menns wen- to rorne lo defray the ex{Ter]ses 
of tilt! WOT. It luul bcrn iFLH-i^trd an a fund, a» a fund Coiigrcd* 


had ItcHimt ir^^lf U» n]*^\y it To Iihv^ ^vt-n k xwtty, iroolfl 
h&ve <lrA.-ukd zill tilt* vbjirclfi n'bich Congress iitid pMrticmlor 
Statcft Imd had in ricw in tttkhig nnd otitoimng the ccnioaj 
and vmtlil havr plainiy vioJuted Ihe conditions which the ceding 
SttiK-i uimuh(.<d to ihr^ir owrn gnnta, 

TUr griillntinTi Hdmitas ihnt ihv. hrnda tmiitot hp given awav 
aniiJ thi^ itiiiiuiuil i!i*bt. i^ paid; l>rcnufi(- Ui a pert of thai delit 
tlteystoud pI*^(J|^td. Dut thi» la not Iho original p1in1k<^> There 
18, vo to tpoakt aa c^icr mortgQgc. Birforc the debt -wtia fandrd, 
ftl th€ moment of the c«t«on of tUe land*, and by the v< ry Urm« 
ol thai c^shIoii, every Stale in the Union obcaiaed nn inlt'rc«t tn 
Ihein, a* in a c^unimun fund- CoDgTew has uniformly i^dhrrod U> 
ihi9 cinniUian. It [ma j^rorccdi^i] In pic*ll Ihr laiirU, and to n^idizp 
an much from tbrm n* was ocmpH^tiblc with ihc other txxa/U 
«!rcatcd by the same deed* of ccs^ion^ One of thcac deeda of 
tni«t, 64 J havcE already said, was, that the Janda should be «oId 
and »efl]^d, at fcuub rime and in itioh manncv a« Congre» 
ahall dtn«ct. The ^ovf>rnment 1ia*i always felt Ilwlf Ivmnd, in 
Itiu nr^pi-ct, t<i eitetviw: it« own tieat Judgment, and nnt to 
Irttnnfor Uii- dl5CTc(ic>n to othcre. It has not IcLt ittfclf ctt liberty 
U} dif^poiio oi the noil, thercforis in larf^< ma^M'tf to indivictnala, 
tliut leaving to Ihem the time und mariner of .i-'ttl«ment. It 
hnd 3itipu]Ei1<.<d to uw* ita own judgrnt^nt- If, for in«tanc«^ in 
order lt> rid itRrlf of the troublr of forniing n »yftfrm for the aala 
of tho»e iaiidst and going into detail, it had sold the whole of 
what )« now Ohioi in one maae, to individuaj« or companica, It 
would dearly hiivt- departed from ita joet obligations. And who 
can now tvil, or eoiijeclure, how ^^r^at would have been the evU 
of wuch n ooume? Wlio L-ari *ay wbat mischiefs would have 
rnniiTn], if C'on^n-:u bud thrown lhc»T? Irrriturir-i int4> thr hnnd* 
of privntr fptrculntion ? Or wlio^ on the othrr hand, on n now 
foresee what the event would be, jhotild tho government depart 
Doni iha «ame wiee course ben^aflerf nnd, not oonlrnt with «uoh^ 
gtadtial absorption of the public tnndn a» the nnturnl growth of 
our |>upulatIoii may aocompLiah, should force great portions of 
IVni, ut nominal or very low prices, Jiitu pri^-ate banda, fo be 
KtM nnd *ctlird ixsf> nnd wliru Mich holders might think would be 
moat for then' own intcrcate ? 

Hitherto, Sir, I maintain, Congresfl has acted wisely, and done 
ita duty on lhi» subject 1 hope it will e.onlinui- lo do it. De- 



parting from thr criginnl idon, mi scon rw it wa^ fouini pnu^tica* 
blc kFul corivrnivnT, of bi^lLing h»y 1own£hi|M, Con^rvsn Iiim dis- 
posed of Ihe ftoil ill smaller anc] will *rniillt-r pcirlfonH, nil at 
lenifih it ^-elJa m ;mrivU of nu inorc thtin rigtitj nrfr* ; tliim piit- 
liiig it inlo the |>o«'cr of every mnn in The couuUy, liowevcv 
poor, but wht^ hn« health and at/cDgth, to b<:<:ornc u rr(M;hoUlf!T 
a he drrtir™, jiot of borrcn seres, but of rich and fertile soil. 
The gov^rnm*'ni hn» p^rTormed all tliv coiidilion* of the gnum 
While it has rrf^arded the publlo land* ua n common fund, anil 
has wu^hl tu iimke what n':i>oii;ihTy m^iild hr mndr nf lh''m, r* 
it source of fi^vcuuc, it hna al»o fijipLlcd itA beat wiedum Ili stll 
and settle them, a« fa^t and q« happily as poao'ible; and wheii* 
Mwv.?r numbcri* would warraul it, cndi t4*rntory buB been tiao 
cvfli?iv£ly adniiued inCo tbt^ Union, with aU the ri^hu of an indc- 
p^ndenl Slate, 

In ibrnr ihrii, Sir, T n>V, uny ^mnnd for n wHl-roiindfvl (^bnrga 
of bard tlt-uling? fi^r any jii.nL iiimi^^ntidn of riri^ligtnK''', IndiJlt'r- 
enci^, or paraitnony. which i» capable of being AUHtaiiicd U|;^nat 
the government of the country la ita conduct towards the new 
StaCod f I tUu)k there h not 

But there M-na another ob«ervaUon of Hit* honorable member, 
which, t oonfi"**, did iiul a llttjt' KurprittL- inr. Aa a nv-won for 
wixhing tci grt rid of thr pid>1ir bird^ iia ^ooei iii> wr cinjlil, aiuj 
aa we migtit, the honorable gentleman i^aid he wanted no p^- 
mancnt sources of income. He wished to sec the time when 
the ^overamPiit ahotild not po^eees a shlJJing of p^rmaneut reve- 
nvic. If he (^ould speali a magical word, and by thai word con- 
vert tbfl whitlr* C&pilol into }{uld, Lhe WL>rd -tbould nut be H^Hiktrn. 
The adminisftjuiiori of a {ixinJ revc-nur, ht aaid, only conMilidntra 
the government and corruptfl the people ! 6ir, I confcvm 1 hcord 
theae Mntimcnta uttered on this tloor not without deep rc^t 
and jiuin. 

I am aware that thene and similar opinions ^rv e-»pcuH^ by 
ovrCain jwr^unu out of ihe Capitol end cut of thin g^overnnienl ; 
but 1 did not expect so soon to Und thcin here. ConeobduUon I 
— that peiprm^l cry both of terror and dduaion, — Consolida- 
tion! Sir, when g;t-iitlemeu speak of Uic eltuetfi of a common 
fond, belonging tx> all th« Statci, a» having a tendency to oou- 
Molidation, wh^t k\o they mean? I)o thry mran, or can tbey 
iiir*aiii, luiy ihiiij^ mvre tbaii ihat the uiiiou of Lhe Siaiva wtU taa 



bUvti^bonccJ by whnt^^'iT C4>ntiiiu«a or riinni»hi.-fr inddcemaita W 
ihf people of Uio Hiatt^ io lioM to^-etiitr? If they mean tUi-Tdy 
thU, lhc!n, nt> doubt^ the public luDdfl, an w«-ll lu v^ftry itiin^ dso 
in whioh w<* hxvc a eamnioii intercftt, lend 1o conflolldatioii ; 
iiiul to thifl iiprdr* of r«>ii)M>lir^iitifin rvrry Init- Ami-nriin might 
to be Btt^ch«^ ; it is Jit-lthci more nor lc» thao »trrD^ timing 
the Union itM-lf. ThiA ie the »cntc in which the framt'ra of the 
Constitution oee the word c&ntolidaiiortt and iu thi« emrsc E 
adept and chf-ridh ir. They t4>U ue, in the ielter Ruhmitxing thd 
Con^itulion to the ronnldenition of the cminTry, thai, " In all 
otir <kUl.H-rHiiuriH uri ihiti (mlijf^i-'l, wt? Iti'pt sTi^iuJily in uui vic^w 
ihnt wblih ap|j(^ur> lo u:i 1h<^ |(rv-itC9t intt-rc»t uf wrry lju« 
American, thr connoUclittion of our Union, in which i« involved 
our pro»p<frily, fi-lidt¥» *nfcly, pf^rhtip* our nntionnJ oifUncv* 
Thi» important <x)nfLi4:[<'rntion, norion^lv and deeply imprpKsrd on 
our TnJi>d», Jrd rach Si^tr in the Convention to be Ici^e rigid on 
pointA of iiifuriur niH^pjitudv ihasi mii^hl havu bet^ii otlierwise 

Thifl, Sir, 18 General WaHhiiif^ii*d conBolidutiou* Thid is 
th« tici^i eontatitutional oon£oUdaiion. I viAh to w» no new 
po\ver« dnwn to fiiL- getieml gtweniirt^nt ; bill I oonf™* I re- 
join* in wbtU-vpr Ij^nrU Ui Atrr iij^hfit thr lu^iid thnt nciitm px, 
and r:ir()urngc*« ibe hi>pc that our Union ma^' be perpetual. 
And therefore 1 cannot but feci rcgn-t at the eitprcsaion of &uch 
opinions aa iho gcnUt'miin bus avov^. becauBu 1 think their 
obvioutf tendency is to wouhea the bond of cor cirnne^ticn. I 
know thnt Ibcrv arc ttstxiv pi^rttm* in the: part of the country 
from VL"hii?h Iht' bnocmiUc- nu-mhrT chjiui-Hj who hubitimlly ipeak 
of the Union in tenne of indiiTi*rvnce, or cvrn of disparage- 
ment. The honorable member tuxDacJf U not, I tnxit, vid can 
never bt, one of theec. They eignifieantly doclarCi that It it 
tima to calculate the Tidue of th« Union; and their aim eeomK 
to be to c*rumr^rati-% and to inugriEfy^ all th^ eviU^ ivol and Imagl* 
Dory, whi^'h (he governmt'nl undr_r ibc Unitin prvKlnee*. 

Thtt t<*ntlentry i>f all thrrfir iJms anil ftrnijinrnta » obvjoii»ly 
to bring the Union ijito diAcuKtion, a» a mcic quc^licn of pictMnt 
>nd temporary expediency; nothing more than a mere matter 
of profit and lo**e. The Union in to he preaervtrd, while it «uils 
local and leinporafy purpOtft^M to pwservo it; and to be Htm- 
dered wbenevpr it nhuJI br found to thwurt »t)c'h purpoavs 



Uiiuin, of tU<*lff i* (wnKiikmd by (lie disciples of this school n^ 
lutnlly n gocMj. Tt i» uiily rf-gnriii'd b« :« pc^^ibf*.* meuiis of giiud ; 
or, on the othi^r hand, ae a postdb!^ rneuiLb uf evU. Tlicy clit^risli 
tio deep ai^d &ird tc^Txid for it, Howiog from a tlicrcugh convic- 
bori of tU ubAoluie luxd vital ne<^t'ssity to otir wclfnrc. Sir, [ 
deprectttc and dnplorc thJEi tone of thinking ttnd acting. ) deem 
hr athcrxifte of the union of th« States ; and so did the franiem 
of itie GoiiHtltulJon thcmi^elvea. What ihey h»1J, I believe ; 
fullj and milt^erdy believe, that the uiiiiJit uf the StJiti-s is ham-iJ' 
ti^ to the pro:<perjty ai:d safety of the 8tAtc9» I am a ufiiooittt 
and, in this ttctn^^ a natiooikl rvpubJic^nn. 1 v<'ould AtrcRgrhcn 
the ii^9 tbtit hold a»» togtTlhcr. Fur, indeed, in my wi^hoa, very 
fftr diHtanr. hp ihr^ day, whi^n our a^eocJal^d and fraternal atrlpee 
riiafl be Htrverf'ii ui^uikde-T, «nd when that happy conBltrUutioii 
under wlili^h we have riatti Lu ao mueh rtn«wu sihail he. bf»ki-fi 
Dp, nnd piitk, :itar after Mjtr, into obscurity nad nigbll 

Among other thing^i, thi? honorable member spoke of the pub- 
lio debt. To limt he hofda the pubLc lands pledj^^d, aitJ hai» 
expreiwed hU uaual earii^^tn(-BB for iu total diH:hargt.\ Sir, J 
hnrr alwtiy* voted for every mt-'aiurtf for reducing the debt, aincc 
I hn\e hr^rix in CongrtSH. I wiNht-d it paiti tirc-iiu-ie it ia u debt, 
and, ao far, i^i a chnrge npnn tfur industry of the conntr}' and the 
finances of the govcmmejit Dnt, Sir, I have observed, ihat^ 
whenever the eubjeet of the public debt is iutrodoccd into the 
S«nato, a morbid flort of fervor u maoife^ted in regard to it, 
whieh I have been iiometIin«s at a iofla to Df^deMtaad Tbe 
d<-bt is not now Inrge, and w in a coiireie? of tnnil mptd reducliua. 
A few years wUi mv. it, citingtii^hnh 1 nm not rnfirrlj able to 
pcTMiado iDyseir that it is not certain supposed incidental ten- 
dcnciea and elTectd of this debt, rather than itA prcsaiire and 
ohtirKc ar* a d^bt, that eauae so much t!nxn*iy to K*^t riJ of it, 
PoMibly it tony t>i* regarded as in nome degree n tie, holding Lhu 
dilTerpnt part* of the ctinntry U^othex, by ennHidrriilioriN ai' mu- 
tual inlfrrM- If thi?» he i»nr of iu efTeclj*, the HliTf. ilwlf in, in 
my opaiiiL^n, not to be lamenled. Ltft me nut bv misund(.TB[ood. 
1 would not continue the debt for the sake of any coUatL-ml or 
oontwiquential udvuntaije, eudi hk J have nienlioued. J onlv 
m«an to nay, tbiLt that coj.Mi?<|uenoe itftt^lf in not one that I re* 
gict; at thEt vmme tune, thul^ if llir*re on! olhent wtio would or 
who do regrH it, I diffrr from thein. 

mtST spRKcn OS poors brsoltoow. 

A» 1 b&TC oln-ady rcmftikcd, Sir, it vf^9 one ninong ttic rft- 
MRB aB«ign«4t by Uic honorable membof for hi« \vi*K to bo ticI <4 
thv public turida olLOKt^tlK^, that the ]>ubhi: di»poiiltion of Thein, 
and ihe r^vrrni*^ dcriv<*d from ih^mT tend to cofnipt the |wopl& 
This^ Sir^ I ocinfrjiKi piuw^ tny <^iiti|>rt-liHitM(in. Thi<Ki- huiiU 
are iLold ftt piililtt^ auction, or tnkcn up nt ^irA pricrj^ ia imrm 
liUTDs and irrctioId*> Whom doc« this corrupt? According to 
The ^yfttem ol e&lcet a fixed proportion ia everywhere re««rvifd, 
as a, fund for educttlion. i)o«8 education corrupt? U the 
BchooImaattT a comtpier of youth? the npetlin^-book, doea It 
lin'jik down llitt iiioruln uf the riauif^ gf^ut^nitiuii ? 3tid lliv? Holy 
8criptuir«, nro they Amntnins of (»mjption ? Or if^ iJi tlic vx" 
cfcUe of a provident Jibrrnhty, in rrgnrcL to ita oia-q property as 
» gtoai laiidi^ propiietoT, and 1o higlk parpoaes of utility tomuds 
others, the ^^^'^■''inieDt give^ portions of the4« lands to the mak- 
ing of n eajialf or the opening of a road, in the country where iundn tltf?fnM*lirj« are Mlcmltrd, \^'hat alarming arid over- 
whirhnlng cornipUon follows from all tliis? Can Ibt^re be tioth* 
ing pvirp in gtjvcrnmmt except the excrciac of men: control? 
Cnn nothing be done without oorrupLonf but tiic im]ko:^]tions 
of penal^ and reHtrMnt? Whatever i« povdtivtrly beneheent^ 
whatever \a actively good, whatever uprradi* abroad brneiiu and 
hletiiiin^ whit'h idl i.<an nijitf and all can ferl, wh&U'V(-ropi.*uHchun- 
r)d»of intea'ournt;, dugmeuls population, enhsuice^ tlit^ value of 
proper^* and dil1'u»« knowledge, — muat nil lliio be rejected aud 
r<^>n>batcd a< a dangcrouH find obnoxioua policy, liurrying u» to 
the double ruin of a government^ turned into deopotisin by the 
mere exereUte of acU of beneficence, and of a people, oorrupled, 
iH^yond hopv of residue, by the improvement of their t^oudltiiMi ? 

Thr gtriitlmn^ui proof^itdf-d, Hir, t» dmw n frightful picturu of 
tht future. lie ipoke of the ccutuzics that miut clapi« before 
aU the landa could be aoJd, and the great hardebipa that the 
fltatm most eu^ vhUe the UniLed Stalea reserve to themselves 
within thdr limits, auoh large porUonBt of soil, not liable to taxa> 
lion. Sir, tins is all, or mo*[Jy, tiiingination. If tliesi' Ituida were 
lenatrhold pniptrly, if tJiry yxe-m held by tht Unil<^l Htnti-x on 
n^ntt thiTc would be much in the Idea. But tliL-y arc wild latid»i 
held only till they can be eold ; reserved no longer than till some- 
body will take them up, at low prices. As to tikur not being 
t«kxed, 1 would aftk whether the States themeclvce, if they owned 



thcrn, would tnx them before oulc? Bir, if in nny caf^r any b^ntc 
can »how ibnt the policy of the Unih^d States rpfnirlB hor tcttJs^ 
rwnt, or pn^ueni*! hrr i'rom ctiJdvmr.iiTg iHp lonil? wi(hiri her lim- 
its, sh** ihull bflv*» my votp to filter that policy. Bwt 1 look npon 
The (mbiiir Uadiit ain u (luUitJ furidt uiid lliitl we iire mi itiortr im- 
thorixed to (five tlwm iiw»y ffmtuitoasly than Ui give nwiiy ^rn* 
tudounly the mont'y in the trca-iitry. I am finite nwiiri"^ th&l 
ihG mirtt tJrnwn annanUy from the Wcctom Stntee moke a 
h4!flvy drain upon thorn; but thnt ie unavoidable. For t[iat very 
reftsoT^i amoTtjf oth^ra, [ have aJws.yH been indined to pursue 
towards Iheni a kiijd &nd immt Ubeml jhiliisy ; but 1 aiti nut nt 
Jtbctiy to forgt^t, at the D^inr Lime, what is due to olher Btatetif 
and to tbc aolcmn engngrmrnts under which tbc govcrnmt'nt 
res Is. 

I come now, Mr. PrpwdOTti to that part of th« ^ntl^mnn'fl 
ipeoch which hn^ bpen the main occasion of my fiddre^^in^ the 
Staate, The East [ tht- obiioiioua, ihe rf buked, the a]>\'»yfl re* 
pruQchud Bast! — we have come in, Sir, oil thht debate, for eveii 
more thiin a common .ihure of necruantiDn and iittaok. If the 
hoiLurabtt' member it*nii Stiuth Uurolinn wnei not our original 
ftccuACT, he ha« yet recited Lhn indictment agninst un with this 
air nnd lone of n public proiorutor. Hv haji vummonrd uh to 
picnd on onr nrmignmeiit; and hi.- tells U8 ^le vire chaT^eJ wilh 
the crime of a narrow and eclEitfh policy; of ciidcavorin^ to re- 
strain cmij.'mtioii lo the Woot, and, having that object in view, 
of mainUiiiLn^' a eteedy opposition to Western meaoures and 
Wefitem iiirere-itti. And ttie eau«e of all Ihiv narrow and A«Uiiih 
policy, (he gr>nUi*nmn tinds in the buiff; I tJunk he callr-d it ihr! 
accurted p<jlir-y of the Uriff. Tbi* policy, the gcnileman li'IU an, 
icquircs multitudee of dependent laborers, a population cf pau- 
pers, and tnhftt It in to Hccun: thewr at home that the Eaat op- 
posed whatever muy mduoe lo Weetern erni^^Lition, Sir, I rise 
to deftijid the Eact. I rii^e to repel, both the charge iU«if, and 
the untfte aftiignc*d for it. I deny that the En*t has, at any time, 
ahown an illilHTAl policy townrds th<T Wol. I prunouncc ihr 
whole aocuaation to be without (be leuet foundation in any 
f&ctB, existing either now or al any previous time. 1 deny it in 
the genQraL, and I deny each and all its partioulora. I deny the 
■um total, and I deny the dL^fail. 1 deny that the Ea«t ha^ ever 
rQaDife9U--d ho^tililv to the Weal, nnd I deny that nhe hunadopt* 

nmr speech ok foots bksohjTion. 


i would timturally biivr 1m1 lirr in Mich m 

But the toiitfl the taiiffM Bit, I brg to eay in regard to the 
Etuty that the ong^inal policy of ttic tarlfl U not hcrD, wljcihcT it 
be vnt^ or unwt8e. Nvw EEi;<;]3jn^ id not its uulhur. Jf ^t^iiilo^ 
men will rofer to the taiKT of 1S16, ttie-y will FiikI thuf this wa» 
notcnrriec! by Xew Rn^bmd ^'oU-h. It win inily inorr a Siiulh- 
irrn liiEiEi nn Rsi:<t4?m inc-iiMirr. Ami wIihI vhU^ narrii-J ihr ur* 
iff oj' 1824 ? Certainly not tboM of New Eaglaikd. It le kiiowa 
1o have been made maltei of rq^roaclii capcejally Qgauirtt Ma«- 
MttohuEi-tta, that she would uot aid tb^ t&rifTof 18^1; and u eelf- 
iib irotivc wuu ImputMJ to her for that, aJiMx In point of fttct, 
it itt tnir that ulu* did» iTulM^d, op^Hit* the tariflT of 18^, Tlie-ie 
were more voTr^ in f^vor ofthrtt I:iw In tl:c ITou>i^ uf Rrpn^Mtl* 
tfttivoA, not otkly in each of a majority of the WeAtc-rn Utatca, 
but cvL-n in Vif-^nia lier>^elf, than in Mattsuchuactts^ It woa 
ittcmliy forced upon New England; and iluo aUowa bowf^TOUiul* 
ivst, how void of lUl protiubihty, muit bt^ ony charge of bo*- 
tihly u> ih«^ ^>wlh of thi* W^Tsd^rn 3tat», on naturnlly flow* 
iitg rrf>m H rbfTiidiril pciliry of hi^r own. 

ilut leaving all conjectures about causes and moUreai I go ai 
once to the fact, aiid 1 oitel it with one broad, compa^hcnAlvfi, 
and eniphutjc i)i*^ativr, I d<.'ny that, in miy pan of Iilt bintory, 
at any period of tbc governmeLit, or in Tt^litUoii to uny l«^ding 
ftubjretr New England lm« nmnifestcil »nchhoKtiJj(y <u iiehttrgttd 
.ipon hpr On the rontrnry, ] mniniHin th»t, IWim tfir day of thit 
cMtiaiou of l!ik U^rrilori«8 by Iht Stat4.'0 (o Con^esa, no [HJrtJO*i 
of the oounUj has adcd eitla-r witb more liberality or more in- 
t<^lligcnco, on the enibject of the public bnds in ihe new StAte*, 
than New Knglnnd. 

Thi8 »mt(*mpiit, though ftrcng, i* no vfrong^ than the •trict' 
ebt mnbs will warmnt. Lptii* look at thr hinlorii-id facia. So 
nutjii Hb the (icFiPioiiB were obtained^ it bfx^me ueccfuhary to make 
prDvjaioQ for the govcniinciit and U)»po»ltion of the territory. 
The country wqb to be governi-'d. This, for the prcbcim il waa 
obviotiH, mnat bu by some ft-mt<in;d Hyslt-m of adniiEUfErutiuii. 
hux tbu *oil, aluo, was to be griint^^d und nt-tllett. TUv^t^ im- 
mpiiisr rrgionsT tstrge enough almont for an nnpin-, wi-rr to bit 
Appropriated to private owiierf^htf^- How wa^ ihi« bt^l to bn 
6t^vf*t What Diystom for «ak cuid dii^Kinitiou ehould be adopt* 



«i? Two moclcB fjr coiidactinj^ the dales pretieriteii ihenueke*; 
tlje uiie a Jdouthcfn, iirid Ihr oihet u Nonh<*ri] iuoiIlv It wciuld 
be iMioiit^, Sir, [i<-ti% iv run out ihrMK tlijirrcnt tyr^Uma intu oil 
their ditiLiiic-LJOEta, atid UJ conUii«t die oppoait« n»ult&. Thilt 
which wacf uilupUxl wa» tbc NortJicrn dytttcm* and u Umt whidi 
wc nov EBLH? i:i auowsEful optjmtion ni oU tbe d(<w Sut^it, That 
which wiiK rtjifctvd wuA tfct(» system of WiirrtLnttt^ nurvcy*, entry^ 
and I'jcjilion; *nch as prvvaib M>utli oi the Ohio. It in not 
jieoesd^Ty to pxicnd llieae rvrnnrk» into invicLioaA ctrnipnrU 
iKuis. T]LL^ liLst Hy!flu[u is tliat widdi, ub hu& bfrtrii extirvs^Jvirly 
lid, h(i» ;tfnni^Ud ovtr Ibi: couiitjy tij wliicb it wuo upfjlii'd 
with 00 mony cojiJIictin^ tiUvti uiid daiiris* Evi-ry body oo* 
qitttintiKl wih] the ]iubj<,<<!t kiiuws how euitly it lead* tti »pccv 
ulatloEi and liTlg^Uoii} — two grntt cntamitic» iii a new oounlry. 
From the lyarem actually fetahliAhpHf thc^w evllt are banished. 
Now, Sir, ill tflTeiitiiij^ this i^rcuL ineaipuris the rifal i]n|H)rliiiit 
iTJciuiiirc on tht? wliole subject, Nt^w Eii^lujid aiUrd with vigor 
Bikd ufTccttttnd tht-tuteet povtcrily of thoac who settled the rcgioa 
itorlhwci^t of the Ohio will havt? fvfuoii to rempmb<iT, wiili i^t- 
tude, her pQtrii>ti]?.ni mid hf^r wii^dom- The Byatem adopU-d wae 
her own system. She knew, for she had tried and provud its 
vuluT". h WUH iX\e uld'-fu-iliiunrrd way of surveyijjg IvituU bt'fortt 
thr j?«niiig tit any tJttt? |m|H:r;if and thrn of iii^c-.rting iK'Turato 
and prcd»c <lc!K^ript,ion» in the jutcots or grant^i and proci'Ciilji^ 
y»n\h regular rcf^^rcncc to metca oiid boundsn Thie gtvve u> 4>riffi- 
nid tiUoH, derived from government, a oertain and ivtatS cbiir- 
uctFf; it cuU op liligation by the too la, and the ««tUer com* 
inirncrji bin hibnr wiili the i^^iiranae (hat he hna n dmr titlp. It 
is (^n*y to pircfivr, but not ciisj to inraxurr-, ibr iinportanee of 
thia in & new counlry. New England ^vc thifi ^ysteni to tlia 
Wtet; and wlnlc it rcm&in;», there will bo spread over /d\ the 
Wc*t one moniimt^nt of her iiiteUij^eu^ in matters of ^uvi-rii- 
rrivnt. and hor prut-Licul f^ood itenut?. 

^/'At tin? fnuiidisTion of Uie conuUtiilion of tlicsip new North* 
wr«tfTn HtJit^^A lim Ihir cxrlHjntt<<fl Ordiimnei? of 1787. Wc mm 
aucu»loiUL-dt Sir, to pmitte the lawgiver? of antiquiry ; we hrip to 
perpctoatu the faino of Solon aiid Lycurgus ; but 1 doobt wheth- 
er on« liLDgltf law of any lawgiver, ancient or modern, has pro* 
duc:Pil (Ttlc<Ti^ of munr (liHtin(.<t, maikt^d, and laHiiriff ohar»ei«T thftii 
tlie Ordiniinco of I7b7. Tlmi inKtrunu'iii wan drawn h^ Nstfau 



rKi:u.\ thru iiiiJ now ii LiljKrii of Mduacl^iM'llp- It ii^i^ mli 


i: J, aa I thuik 1 huvc uiidrmluud, without titv ^li^lJUTat dUsKi- 
tion; and <Mtrt)uiily it hns hnpponed to few mt-n to be t^t; 
nuthon oi a poliUcni tnvaaarc of ni^irc lar^ nnd rnduring i^on- 
»»qu«Doe- h fixi'd for ever the character of the [)0|iQlaiJoii in 
the vast legtoDH northwf^t of the Ohio, by fxc-Jnclin^ from Ihem 
ijivolunlury M^rviitidt. It impreaaed on the soU EueK* while il 
wa.<i j^ct u wihlrfiactv, mi uicnpacntf to aitatuhi h.\iy olhi.'< thnii 
ftvemcti. h Joid the uitcrdici against prmonal servitude, i^i 
origiiioi covn|>fXGti not only deeper than all local law, but di^prr, 
bJso, than all local constitutional Und<^r the circumstances th^ii 
mclftlag, I iookc upon this originoi and spaBonnblt^ ];>rovif>Jon as a 
real ^ood aitafcjied. We see itA eoiiM^quence:^ at thi>i iTiomeiil, 
and WIT nhaJl never craae- tu mtc tlietii, pediEipN while the Ohio 
nhall flow. It wn^ a grejit nitd nolvitary mciimirc of prtTvention. 
bir." I »hculd fear the rebuke of no IntclUg^^nt genth^mari of 
Keotudi-y, wore J to n^k whether, If such »n ordlnnrioe coohl 
have been applied 1o hi» own Stale, while It yet waa a wilder^ 
twaa^ und before Buujie had pussed t^ie ffup of tlie Alle^huniebi 
bir docA not iiu|i|nwe il wuiild huve tHintrilmlt-d In thr ultiiimlfi 
grca1ni.-:^« of thnt commonwcnlth ? it is at nay rate, not to \x 
doabled> that, where it did apply, it has produced an effect not 
eoaiJy to be described or mca«iirod, in the f^wtb of tho b1ato», 
arid the extent and iucreiuie of their populaiii>n. Now, Sir, &a 1 
have vtatvd, this f^eat iQeuBure wuk brought fcrwurd in 17S7, by 
l)ir North, h wns niifitEiirii^], Indrrd, hy tJif volrj; of thr Smith, 
l>ut it must havL- failcJ without the eordjal support of iti^ 
New EiLj^lancI States. U New En^^laud had been ^^>vefncd by 
^}iQ narrow aiid aclfjoh vicw<> now usunbed to heT» this very 
:ncjuiure wun, of uil iithrm, the best OLiJt-iUatud to thwart, her 
purjjoAeft. It was, of all things, tlie very rne»]» of rcadRTing 
eerJain a VBst emigniUori from her own popuJntion to the Wpm. 
Slie hii>k<-d l<j Ihul eoupe<|ueoee unly to (liFin'fCHrd iL Bhc 
deciried lUf. regulation a miKit useful one to ihc? Btatea tlittt 
would spring up on the territory, ond odvimtagcoat to tlie 4x>un< 
tjy at largr, Sho ndbcrfd to the principle of it perse vehti^ly, 
yearaftvf year, until it was linally accoinph^hrd. 

Leaving, then, Mr. l^eHideiiT, these two ^pvat and leading 
nie^iHttreti, arid eoniifig dtiwn lu our own tiniett, whjil is there \n 
the bijslory of recrnt iiim»UTr?A of goveriuucul tliat ex|Kim9 Ncvf 



047^1^1, btJJIy, that. In ull nirHALU't^ti ci^iiducivc tu tli*^ w«lf«uti of 
the Wc»(, ftincc my iic<|itiiuibmc«A here, ito part of Uie country 
hn» mnniluntccl a mon: Jibcrut |Hiii^y^ I beg to any, SiTj Ihnt 1 do 
not 8tat4!E lhi« with & view ol' cJuimLng for her &ny vpccJnl rf^gnrd 
OD that aiocoimi. Not «t all She cIops not piiicf* h^ >Qpporr 
op tiif-uHiirty on the grouritl of favor corifc-m^. Far ollieru^w. 
Whiit »tic haa tloiii^ hufl bt^cji €oii0onaaL to her view of itic gtii- 
enl good, and therefore ehe bat doa<: it. She haa aought to 
make no gain of it; oit thc^ contrary, individuals may h&v« felt, 
undoubicdly, eomc natural tpgrvt at finding th*- rvbTJvo impor- 
tance of ihpir own Stat<?» diminihliitd by the growth of the 
WrHt> But New England ha£ n-^rde<J ih^il at* the imium] 
[!ourM! of tilings, and hft9 ni^vei cumpiaiited of it. I^H, rue see, 
Sir, any one mf^juiurc favpmbit! to the Wi^dt, which hu-n been 
opposed by New tlngland, Rincuthc government bf*towcd itaat- 
[ontJoii on thcw Wtwlcrn improvomonl/'. Select what yovi will, 
if it be a nieaeure of scknowkdi^d ufilityf 1 answer for if, il 
will be ftmnd that jiot ordy were New Rn^lmid voiea for i^ but 
ihat New Riigland votcH t^ujried it. Will you take the Cinnlmr- 
land Kond? who hn.^ made (hat? Wiil you take ihc Portland 
Canal f who«c: support conicdl that biU? Sir, at what period 
bc^yoiid the Qreck kalends oonld those measuroBi or m^aaurce 
like Uiese, bav* been acoompliahed, had they de|>e[ided on the 
vote* of Sonthtfni geutjenien ? Why, 8ifj we know that we 
miuit havr WHib-d Utl Ihi* iNtnBditntional noUonK of thoM? gcnlJe- 
inen hud nntiergone an entire change. Generally j<pe<tking, they 
have done nothing, and enn do nothing. All that haa bccji 
efleclod hua be+n done by the votes of jrcproached New Eng- 
land, I undertake to say, Sir, Ihul if you look to ih<> voto* on 
any one of Ihttste ruea-iurei, xnd sh'ike out from the liii of ay» 
ihc! n»mr9( of New Kfiglftnd tnernbcm, it will bp foniid that, in 
every cnw, the South would then hnvrt voted down the Wefli, 
mnd the men«nri; would have failed. 1 do not believe ruiy one 
inatanco can be found where thic ia not etrietly true, I do zK)t 
believe that one dollar has been expended for Uie8« purpoAei^ be- 
yotid the momttainii, whieh could h^ve ht-en obtained without 
i^irtlidl eiifi|H*r]itJpn und »uppiirt from New England. 

ftij. I put the qvK^lion to the West iT^elf. Let g::nt]enicn 
who bave Ml here t4^n yeaxa coiuc forth and <icclcirc by whfti 

VOL. III. 33 



aidtf, and by wliooc voti'?, ihty have Buccec^ilfd. m rtit\t-nre§ 
iccm^A of oMontmJ im|>(irtunce to ttii^ir iiarl of Ihr couniry 
To all mun of M.-ii»e and uundoir, in or out of CongvoM, wfao 
haviT* fiiiy knowlctigt* upon tli« ^ubJL'ct, Ntrw l{[|ig|&ncl may ap* 
prai for rf^fnljilion of (hp rrpnuich il !■ now atUmpl^d lo cast 
upoit Ua III lhi» R-v|>ccU 

I likKt ibp iibtrty to repeat^ Ihat 1 make no claim on belialf ol 
New Eriglani), vr on aooount of that which I have? now aiatcdi 
Stii* <lt>M not pruft-*a lo have acted out of fuvor; forHivoaUi 
not Ix-conic \h-t ho to have actin]. She iiskn for no pvppciflJ 
ihnnkfi; hnr^ in the rnnH^i«nxnni9i of h;iving dnnr. Urr rhity in 
thcitp thingit iipri^'htly aiic] honi'-^lly, ami wilh a fjiir aiul libefa] 
spirit* be a^aured ahc wlU icprj, whi^nevejr sh« thJiike thir ofx^a^ 
^iol:l c&Ua for if, ud unjuuL anJ f^romuUeM i^npultilioii of purtixJ- 
Hy and HolfiHhiiGott. 

The geiitjt^m^n alliided lo a report of the late Secretary of the 
lV?tuury, whii-h, anvirding la hi» nmdiiig ur cuitsl radio n of il, 
rrcommriidM] wli^r he cJtlln thr? tnnfF paliry« or n br/iiich of that 
policy: that is, tJic rc^Uaimug of i-migmiion to the VifcMy fof 
the purpose of kr^ping hands at home lo carry on manufactuicVb 
1 ihJnh, Sir^ Ihnt The ^("jitleman misapi^rMjcndcd the meaiUDf^ 
i>f the Secretary, in The Interpretation given lo hia remarka. I 
□ndexAland him only as Miyhi^, that, Bbce the low prke of landi 
nt tUc Wunt acta an a co^at^nt and ^l7mdi»K bimiity to agricul- 
ture, it ii», on that Eiccnuntt the more rr-oAQiiabti! to provide en* 
oonragemcnt tor m an u fact ore*, tiat. Sir, even if llic Socrrtary'* 
ob*prvation wer« to be undCT^tood as the gcndcmnn understand* 
\U it would not he a BeniinH^nt borrowed from nny New Kng- 
lartd source. Wiiether it be right or wrong, it does not orlgl* 
iintc in that (^airter. 

Jji the conrap o( tbese lemniks, Mr. Prewdcnt, I hfivc opokcn 
of the supposed deairCf on the part of the Atlnnlic State*, to 
chctrk, or nt least not to hattcn, Weatcrn en>ifl;raiion, u« ntr- 
row policy. Perhaps t onght to have qualified the caiprvacion; 
lieeati^ Sir, 1 am now about to quote the opiaion of ona 
lo whom I would hnpule noihiii^ narrow. 1 am about to 
rt^er you to tho language of a genlJt^man of much and df^- 
ecrvrd dititindion^ a member of the other Iloum?, und occu- 
pying a prominent slTnation there. The ^ntlemun, Sir, in from 
South CaruIinEu In iS2^, a debate arose in the llouv of Rep> 



re»tiiuuvc0 oa xhc subject of tho Weetcrn Road It Imppened 
to tnv to tuko soiuu part iu ttie d«bat«; I iA-aii answered by lU^ 
honombte gt^ntlein^ii in wSorii I allude, and I rej>lie(l. Muy I 
br purdonrd, Sir, if T rrad ti jiitrt dflhiti tIdmtK, 

**TtLc; gcikilctnAn from MuaachuactU hoB urgcdt^' mid Mr, McI^ii^Ci 
*■' on i>u(j loading rtiuMn why tlio govommvai should diJLku rkiA'lH lo Uio 
Wcit, thttt ihtw; ioul« h&v«f a it*riduiH:j li> Mtde the public lundH ; tlint 
lltoy incroaac the lndiicoiii«iitH to Mrlllciaca:^ Mid that lliis is a iialioAol 
objoct Sir, I dilliM «iklinjly Trum Ills rurwa oQ tho aubpou 1 lluuk 
tlmt the p^thlir UmU nro milin^ <iiiKn E^ enough; rha: our prropln 
Dccd DO blUiuuIus Id ur|^ tJtvut Utithufi but wdjiI raLhvr a check, at 
tooai on Ihal artLficial loodoacy lo WoatQin Mtilcmvnt which bv bavo 
t!ivali<d hjr our own laws, 

" 'l*hc ^nt^cman $o.y%, that ibc £r«at ohjoot of govcmmeni wh to- 
«p«Ct to IhuM lands is, not to make thorn a fourc« of revcaua, but lo got 
ibem wllLeil, Wiiac wuuEd havu Uitia liiuught cif ihia uij^uiu'-^ljI iu iho 
old diiitccn Stale* ? ll CkmouDtt to thitf, that ihoco Statca arc lo a(fat 4 
bonuKof rh»tir own tmjiovurbihinant] ro on)Ht« « vortex 10 itwuLLow iiji i>ur 
AoaU/ilJI pc^puliiiLouH lAKJki t3ii» al iXiv pn^xm uApcxI of die Sujtiien] 
Htaiw. Ill (to pan of Europe wiU you 400 the «un» tDdiuationa of de- 
cay* DvwriL<(J vilttigrHt houtte^ faliui^ 1x1 ruiOt imjioverikhed laAda 
liirown i>ui of cuitJvaUon. Sir, I bdtcvc ihai, if the ^ubhc hu^l* had 
cover buun void, iIm aggr«|;atu umouitl of tltu ii&lioJiul woulth wooU 
have been grt&ier at tliU mumefii. Our populudou, if coiioeritrabad in 
t^W old Stalest uid not ^ruiini) down by tariilH, voulij tiavo been iiiorv 
procpcrous mid wifaLliiy. Kul every uiduouoiciLt tuu b«cn heM out lo 
ihem 10 BeTclc in rhe Wi^nt^ iiniil our popuJniinn \ina iMvciime tparw, and 
then the cftecia of itiia flpam^neu a^ Dow lo be oounicfaetcd by luioiher 
DTtficmL symcm. Sir, 1 uiy if ihvrc i» any objoci wonhy tho amntioo 
of t^iia govHriimeni. it ih a plun whlcih tthall litnjt i\\t* mile of i\k publiia 
Uodft. l( ihoAc Landii were Mold according to iheir real wiluc, be U ao. 
Sut ^vhiLu Uiu ^^i^nimvui <?oikr][iuuii a« ii do«0 lo give iham awny. il^cy 
will drmw ihn population of the older Smirn, nnd itiU Timhrr irutn'oie 
tho <tfli9til which m ulrcu^Jy di^trcMicigly Cvh, aiid winch must go lo di* 
miQwh tho voiuQ of ulJ ih^Mu Swoi pouciia. And ihis, Sir, ii hold out 
to u» ti« a moiivti fur ^rurjting the pnvi^^iit appr>priaiiim, I would iiol. 
indood. provcnt ihe formalion of road* on Jicic ouiixl^lcraijoikv, but I 
conainky wouM 001 oacotuuf^'o it. Sir, thorv i« uji Mlditioij»L iturn in lh« 
&GCuun; of tlio buticfiiB which cbia goveriiTntiu bos confttn^c) oo di* 
H'<9iunt Statcfl. It ia die vale of the public hrndt at llic ininimjin pnco. 
Ai thii moinc^>i wo am isuUing lu the puopla of the Wust^ landa, at ontt 
dttlUr riiid tw^uty^fivc cvui:*, v^hk'U am worl)i fil>een dollunt, nud which 
would M-li nt tliat prico if die markets were not glutted ' 



Mr. Wcbntcr obacrvcdf In rrpi/, that 

"Thr fj^intk^mau from Soutti U«rolm& hod iniffln.k<iD him, \f he ouf^ 
posed iJini il voit )iji viah no tc hzuicn the n1c> of The pilbtlc laDcfi, mm 
lo tlintw llwiii iiit^ ifio liuiiib uf |iur{;luufDni wliu wvuld sell BgviO' Hii 
ideA only wcnl u far da (hu : thai the price «houUI Ik' fxod bo Ion a« 
iii)T lo pmvDnt iho (Ktitkrinirm of tho latidii, yot lun ui low as ia nllov 
•jicpululiini !u pim^JuvH?, Mr. VVcbiWrr obaorred, lUtxi he could nu «1 aII 
ronuLir vtitti iho ^ntlcnaon from Sou^ Cnrohna, m wudiinj^ u> maomia 
the luboriri^ cl9«i^« of poputarkin in tli«i r.n«it«rn Se&i^a from g'^Log ea 
hny par of inu 1(^^^ilo^y where ihcy could betlcr their conditieii i nor 
dill tt ftU|ip<j«« ihut kijuh 4n idf« wtA sjiywhvni antoruin«d. Ths ob* 
frnrhim(»s <if iht* gt-nTlvmaa hfid opf>[i«J To him new vien's uf puliey on 
tlkin nuhjrcii und ho ilioiigtil he now could peTCGiTv why lunie of out 
AtHiex conlJMK^d tfi liAv? ittioli bud rautH ; it muAt Iw for th« purpow of 
pn^v^TTting (jf^nple fnuu gamg o"i ofthi'm. The f^nilvrmnn rrotn South 
Cnroliru euppovr-^, thni, if our jiop^lutiori h«d \iv*-ii ccjnfinod lo the old 
thiiteen SUii^«, l\» nggregaiv v^alrh of the coimiry would havfi btea 
graai(^f ihnii ii now \a. Beii, Sir, U f* no error, dial lite Incrviuie of the 
oggrcinT<< of the nutLoiuil wffotdt ik (he objviel chiofly to bo punned by 
governmnir. 'Dm ditinbuTiim of the nationnl wf-ulih U nn oI>jeci quire 
wi liupurTum u» ii« iiicrtiuiw:. Ele wciit nut surprbcd thni (be M Slutc« 
aot iroroofltDg in popuiniion «o foil as \rt£ eipected, [for ho boUevod 
noihiii^ like n ilfc-Tonfin wpa prnpridod,) nhoidd be kq iden by nn meuni 
ugrveLible lo gunduriieH from ihyst Suiee, Wc are nil rvhaatii to 
submil l& llje Ioh uf rolallvc imparUiar:^; ; but Ehls vu aoihiog m^ni 
thnii tht tiHiiiml cundirliin of » cuoidry ilMnw^Iy jimjilnd in iini* |>aH, 
ajid poKseuin^ iu another a rul iroct of unseltied Irmda* Tho plan of 
ibti gentleman *oM lo rav«r«« Ih^ ordsr of naturA, vamly o:ipecling to 
rtfUiiu iru-'ii villi in n Hnmll unii eonip]iniiivt>ly unprodu<?tive rcirriiory, 'who 
hnvi; ali the world bcftirc thcnk «here to choose.* For hii onn i<nn, ho 
wu.« iti luvor of ktliiig pojjulntioii Takt< itu ovrn coiine ; be slioutd «Jtpe* 
riiTOre rui fi-eliug of moTtiflcJiiiori if nny of hw coniiilucnrj fjked hnnrr 
to ttTtd*; on ihc KaiUNift or ArkaiiMio, or cl^cwhtjn: wiihin our lerritory -, 
lei tlir^m go, nnd bo happiur if Oiey could. The |jent]<?mitn vny*, our 
nggrr-grite oi Hrnlib would liavt: b'.vii gmiiicr ifour jiopulnibii had b*Pii 
r»lnined wiilit^t llio titniia of the otd ^ta.1«<t ; but doMi h« not coosidf^r 
papubrjon to be werklih ? And hna ooi (bU fioen mcm«H>d by Ihe hot- 
dem<.-it[ of b iii^w &iid fVrlili; country ? Sudi a cvuuiry |]iVM.-nta tim rnuni 
nilurmg of (lU pnHtpecU to a young and kbohujc man i it givoa him u 
fndnhold, il olTbn io bim wnigbt ftnd rc<4ppoiabihiy in Aoolery ; and nbnve 
all, it. picar.-tjin (u hiin a proipr^ct of a pennaiieiu proviebi) for hi* cbll- 
dren, Su, tluiim aro mduccmeniM which never were roelaTed* ftod rwvrf 



It be ; HT\<\, wor^ the vMe ^xipm of ooimiry ti\\v6 wirh population 
u\i to ihc Hocky Mouzimin*. lh(?w inHucemcni* woult] cnnry iltui popular 
tiofi fonrnrd to ibo «horM of ilio Pacific Ocouii Sir, tt i» la mia to 
talk ; individuals will *r*c\L :\mr own good, and not ony artificUl tggM- 
gBMof the nutiutLal wcAltht A young eTttcrprifm^ tind Imnlv ngriaul- 
lurat can ooncoivo of nothing bettor lo him thim plenty of fioa(t> f*hcop 

8tr, whli the rcadin;? of those cximcU 1 leave Ihe tiubjeot 
The Senute will b^'ox me witn«»fi that I am not ocoustomtd to 
nl!udp to lcj(r«l opitiioiis, nor to (^umpan* or contract dil&rcnt 
porlJonii of Ihr iHiuntJ'y. I )iavK nft^n snifTurtsl tfiingi io pn^ 
orithont any obprnntinn, which ] might properly enough havo 
considered aa deserving remark. But I hnvc felt it my duty, 
on thid occQBion> to vindicate tho StAte I r(7prce(.^nt from chorgeN 
and inipntatioBa on her public character and conduct, which 1 
know to be undeserved and unfonndnri. If advanced ehewhere, 
th«*y mighi btr pat^^e^, [lerhapA, wifhout notice. But whutever 
Is aaid hen; 'ix .lUppoE^d to be entitled to public reganlf and to 
deserve public nttention; it derives importance and dimity 
froTTi the piece wh<^rc it is uttered. Afl a true representative of 
the StAt« which has eent me hen, it U my duty, and a duty 
which ] ahall fulfil, lo place her hi«1ory and her conduct^ hei 
honor und her cliar^icler, in their jui^t and proper lights ao oUt^a 
M I think an attack la made upon her. ao rcapcctable as to d^ 
»frr« t4> be repelled. 



Mr. Webs^fr hnvlnff ooni^lud^d thn prrcrdlng iipccch, Mr, nencon 
>p<>kc m reply, 0:1 The SOch and ^1*1 of Junuary, 1830- Mr- Haynt or 
Soiiih Cnrnlinn (a\\<ivtt^i\ an ifi(* mrnc vide, biiT, aftrr snm« lime, gnvn 
w*y for n moiM»u for adjuumitii^fti. On Mijntlay,thc 25[ii, Mr. Eluym 
ivnimviJ, and couoludifd })i« brgumcnl- Mr. W«btitor immudialety rote 
jn reply, bm yipldccl tl* floor for n motion for ndjoommunt- 

Thc t^txK day (!36tl] JojiuaTy, 1830) Hr Webster look tb* fioorand 
d^lirered the foHovinR ipeoch, whioh hoi [{iv«n «uch [{raftt celobrily to 
thii dRhtito. THa i^Irriimntiiiinm ronnvi^inrl vlilt llil* mmarkiihln •ifi>n 
of parlinmfrntAry oloqiienoe tiro trtaud m iho biognipluc«l meniou' In 
the tot voEiimo of ihU coUoctjon. 

Hi. PnBaicrEJcr,<— When Lbe marbicr baa hftn towed for 
nun/ daye in thick w«&lh(;r, and on an unknovn i^a^ he natu- 
rally avails himself of thi> firet paose in the 0toiTDf the nartlest 
^ance of the bdh, to lake hb latitude, and atwrtaln bow far the 
elernrnLi liavw clrSvt^n li'un fn*rn Iiia true ouuraft. I*et us Inii* 
tale th:a prudence, and, l>dt>rp wc flcjat fzirllicr 00 tbc wavea of 
thid debate, rriw to the point from which we drpnxted, that wr 
may at iea«t bo abk to conjecture where wc now are. 1 aak fnr 
tho reading of the resolution before the S^na'**, 

The Sm^rcmry read flifl ronltiucin, m follovr* ; — 

'' Rfjtfiifpii^ 'i'hnl the Commill^e on f'ublic Lond» bo inipitnictod to ir- 
qolra and n*iwmho quantify of ptihiic !nfid« wmnining unwjld w>Thi<j 
aach Sratc nnd Territory, nod whclhtr it bv rXTJ''dicni 10 Kmii for a ecr 
lain period ilt« «a]?s of iho public tun^A to auoh landa oniy as hhvn heroto- 
Dtpc heen cifT<^n^d f<>r uln, and Rrc now iijhjsici la ciury at ibe muinnuna 


* ^'iTflrvd in lbs Sflnat^uf tbo UnJird %&Ms on Lhc SQib of JMicftrr, 1630^ 



pri<;#. And, alfo, whflTher ihd iifflm nf f^nrrrvAr-c^i^nf-rali u)il Bome 
of dw land oHicea, iimj our 1w aWishcd njlJiuat dtlninc^nt lo ihu public 
inlorail ; or whether it bo expedient lo adopt mcnouroji to hxmloa lli<f utilft 
kikI '*TtATid more raplilly thn flnrT«>y« of [h« public lurtild." 

Wl- have thus lit-ard, Sir, what the Reulufimi iB whidi is ui<> 
tually bcroff? ua for conAideralion ; and it will readily occur to 
eveiy cap. thai il i» almost the only subject obouf wliioh wfrnc- 
tilllig ha» not h^4-n Baid in the »p^ch, nicLiiirtg tiirougb two 
da]*i, by wtiicb the Senala ha« been eotertuineU by the gviitk- 
•nnn from Amih CamliiKL Every Io|I]k in tbt* wiiJi* riingp nf 
our pnblic nlihir^ whether pn^t or prcatnl, — every thinf^t gciiet&l 
or locai, whether belonging to national politico or [>arty poljtka, 
— ftcom?! to havo ftttrftot*?4 morv or Wtv of iho hoiiorublv mem- 
ber^a aiteiitioii, save only the resoluTion before Ihe Soimte. He 
h&ft ipoken of ev^ry thing but the publie landii; tbi^y h&ve 
(fscupeil his tiutkif. To that pubjecl, m all bin en?iiri«iti«, hr 
has not paid even the culd reapifct of a powng gUiux, 

When thia dubaU;, Sir, wad fa be resumed, on Tbtirwlay 
momlrig, it no hnppi^nod that it would hnve brcn <!onvcnient for 
mtf to bo eltrwbi-re. Thi? honorable mfinh<Tj howovi^, tlid not 
indtne lo put ofl' thf- dlK-iiuion to anolbn day. He bad a 
fthot, he «^d, to rftiirn, and he wl^lird to dUefiarj^t- iL That 
shot, 5if< which be thu» kindJy ijifonutrd us was oornia^f that 
we might titund out of the way, ot prepare ounelvoa to fall by it 
and die with doeenoy, hon now been reeeivt^d. Under all ndviin- 
t&gev>, and with rxpcvH^tion nwAki>n<!>d by tbr tone wbit^h pre- 
eeilrd tt, it ban been diHchnrgi'd, nnd \ian appnt }f* forrr. It may 
bcncime me to wy no more of it« H!ecl, than that, if noUxiy 
j« found, Aher all, either killed or wounded, it is not the fii^t 
time, in th<? hialory vf human oiFaire, that the vjgor and vnccev 
of the war havi' not quite come up to the lofty and sounding 
phraie of ihe mantfettto. 

The gpiiilncmn, Sir, in declining lo fMMptme thp ih'bale, (old 
the Senate^ with the einphn»5 (if hi?« hand upon hi* heart, that 
there wil» Bcmcthing rankling hrrr^ which be wi*hrd to prJietc 
'Mr Hciyne h^^r-, oad diwlnim'^d hnving n»ed the word ftiak- 
''"^7 '* would not, Mr. Prcwdenf, be wafe for the honorabi* 
member to appeal to those sroond him, upon the cjuevimn 
vhether he did in faet make u^e of that word. Rut hp may 
have br«n uneoiineioux of it At «ny rate, it n enough tliat he 



dbclainw it But stilL ^nth or without ihc u^c or that j^rtrticu- 
Iwordi he had yet Bom*?thinp here, bo aiii<l» of wliif b he u-i.^thf^d 
to rid binuelf by an immediate ^P^y* ^^ ^^'^ tvt\i^eu Sir, f 
h^ve a ^at Advantage i>vcT ih*? honorable giMitiemaM. The« 
iH iiothing hfffy Sir, \vhioh givrx rtip tfir Klighlivt itiii^/iMnrfut; 
ncitbrr feat, nor nngrr, nor that which is Bomctiincs more? tiou- 
bl«40nic tb&n cither, the consdousnc^s of having been in the 
wrong. Tnoro is nothing, either originating here, or now re<)eived 
kers by the gentl^^man'a shot. Nothing on^nalJng hnv, for I 
hod not the dightest feeling of uhkindneiKi 1o^^1krd« ih? hon- 
omble rm-mbtr, floiric ^inflAS^im, t\ h* trur-, b^id (u'<;i)rrr-cl Hinitn 
our ttcqoaltttapce in tbia body, whicb 1 roiild hiivi? wished might 
have been othtra-ii^r; bnt 1 hnd u«ctl philo!K>phy and i'orgoUcn 
thontp 1 paid the honorable member the atienrion of liston- 
ing with renpect to his fir»t *ip«^eh; and wh^n he ^ai down, 
rhough surprUed, and I must even say astonished, at some of 
Ills upiniont», noUiiiiif wno fmlher Trum my ititentloai Ihaii to 
oonunence any persona! wiofare. Through the whole of the 
r«rw remcirka 1 nmdr^ in unawer, I aroiJed, Mudioualy uod c«re* 
fully, every thing which 1 thought poHaible to be conmuwl into 
dt>iie4peet And, Sir, whik* lh*?re U thus noiblng originating 
hrrr wbirli 1 hiiT^ wished iit iiny tirnr, or now wnh, t" diKehnrgi*, 
I mn*t replant, aJ«o, that nolhiiig has beeti rrci^vrd litre whieh 
r^nkfch or in any way givea me annoyance. 1 will not nccuM 
the honorable member of violaticig ihc rules of cixili^ed war; 
I will not sayt that be po^bonnd hia anows. But whether hii 
shafts were, or were not^ dipped In <bat which would have 
caused Rihkling if Tht-y hnd rcHehr<U their desiiiintioii, wa* 
notf wLn it huppimeil, quitr »tr«ngth enough in tbc bow to bring 
them to thrir mark. If he wishes now to gather up thoac shaft*, 
he ma»t look for them clHcwhcrc; they will not be found fixed 
and quivering in the object at which they were aimed. 

The honomble member eompfained that 1 had i^lrpt on bin 
f|>eech. I jnuM have slept <]n it, or not ^ih'pt at all. Tho rno- 
meul the honomble member sat down, Wia friend froai \Iia»ouri 
rooe, and, wilJi much honeyed commcndauou of itc Bpcech. eug- 
grtit4*d that the impreasione which it bod produeed were too 
charming and delightful lo be disturbed by other sentimenfft or 
othe.r tu^iindii, and proposed thnt the Senate should udjotirn. 
Would it have been <;iiite amiable In me, Sir, to inti^rrnpt lUi« 



iflQifiit ^cod fccliiu-? Mu>i [ not hav4^ baeu eibM>Jiif«l,v mnli- 
cion^ if 1 couUI httv^ throat mywdf forwafdt *o dwtfoy »e(if*a- 
tioHK ihm pli-tifiiikg ? Wnti it iiof, much Wiirr aint kirttfcfr, 

licilh fn Klrrp Tl|loi) ihi-m rii)-sHr. liHil 4n a)lfiw tffliri^i >il«aj Oii- 

|ilca»are of «Wpuig upon tbcm? But if it be meant, tjy 
:>lccping upon hi# ipccch,Uiat 1 look time to pn^pftre a n-ply 
to it, it U quitf" a nii*1okr- Owing to oih<^r RTifcnecmrntji, I 
<*ool(i not employ €vcn {he inti^rral bptwrrn thr nfljnimimrDt 
of thcf E^natr snH itii mrKing thr iifvt irorning, im ntt^n* 
Tion tjj t!it^ AiibJL-L'l of this Jrbut'.-. Nevrrlhvlc^s^, 3ir, the mere 
matter of fftct !« undoubtedly true J did elcf^p on the gentle- 
(nan*» ftpce-oh. and flcpt »oondly< Afid [ *U*pt oquaJy well on 
Ilia j-ppi^eh of yesttrdfty, ro wliich 1 am now rrplying. It U <|nit* 
|)i.jf«ijl>1elhat in ibirt rrf'pr-rt, aUo, I powe«« sanii- advantage ovei 
ilic lionomtili? itifiuber, dtlxibntablc* doubtleM, to a cooler tern- 
penmcnt on my part; for. in trntb, I alept upon hi« Apoedi^e 
nmarkably weU. 

But the ^entlemnn infjuirea why he was madf the object of 
saeh a re[j|y. Wi»y wan Af *iitj^led out ? If an atlai^k hii^ bwn 
made uii ihi' EaM^ tit^, he ^Erai^a-tt u», did iujL be^iii it; it wiw 
made by the |^ntlr<niun from Mi.-i30t:ri, 8ir, I jinswf^rrd the 
gtrntteman'* «pr*oel] bt^cuiiv^ 1 tiappcnrd to h^nr it ; and beamne, 
aiiH>, I chostt to give an aiimver to that sp«<vEt, which, if unon- 
swerrd^ I thought mtwt likely tn produw" injnrlou* imprension*, 
I did not' *Ut\> to ifi<|ijirr who u-eia tbi- ririgiiial dniwrt of the biii- 
I found a re:fpoii.<iiblc indonvur before n)(^, and it wnii my por- 
piMw to hold him h^tble, nnd to brin^ him 1o Mti junt rufipoiidbil- 
ity, without debiy. Hut, Sir, thin inn^nrogntory of the honorable 
membi-r wt»« only introductory to another. He prcH-^'drd to 
H*k mr wb«'ther I hwl rurui'd upon him, in ^Ul^ drimie, from 
the con»nou»oeM that 1 ahonld find 3ii overmatch, if 1 rcnturcd 
on a contcat with hi* friend from Mi»Bouri If* Sir, the lion- 
orabl« m^mbpr, Tnodfiti/s ^ctiOi hnd chosen thnu to d*»fpr In 
hiv fmnd, and to pny him a compiinicnt, u^iihoijl intr^ntlonQl 
dippanigrrirnt to oUiere, it would have been tinitv according to 
the fiiendly courtesies of debate, and not at alJ ungrateful to ray 
own feelings I am not one of tho«c, 8ir, who caleem any trib- 
ato of re^fird, whether bjfht nnd oee-asional, or more eerioua 
anil dp<liberate, whieh may be beitowed on otbera, 9« so rnueh 
un Uf^tly withhohlea froin themaelvefr But the lone aiid man 


ncr of tbft ffctntlrmnn'!* qiirniion rorbM mi* tlm* 'o Mit<Tprrl 
\U } nm not at liberty to considt-r it as iiotluui^ morr flian a 
cirilify to his rrieiL<l. It had oi^ air of taunt ai>d di^'pannremciit, 
■omethini; of tlieIofun*?rta<»f as«'rtud fnjpt'nority, which doiti not 
allow me to putt it ovlt withoot notice. It wtix piit an a 4{ueH- 
tiriH for mr to aniw-r, anrl *o put nit if it wrrv ililiicuH fnr ni«» 
to anvwrr, wh^thn I (Wminl ihc memJicr frnii Mi>"«iiKi nil 
ommatcb for m)>clF, in debate bett. It aicm* to i[if. Sir, litat 
thia is extraordinary laiiffiuafi:^, and an t^xUaordinary tor>«i for 
tlie diHutMiona of tUU body. 

Matrht*» ant! ovwmatclKHi! Those ti?rm« aru more applicable 
Hitpwhere thin hrm^ anrf fittJT for other lujipnihlif-* ihnn thU. 
Sir, tlur ^rillrman M-rms to fnrgrt where hwI whrit wr n^^^ 
Thifl ifi a Sonatc, a Scaali* cf oquals, of men of individual honor 
ai)d personaj character, and of absolute independence* Wfs 
hiiow no nia«tvr»>, wc ut^knowlivlf^ no diotato™. Tliis la a ball 
for mutual ^^onmiltation nnd cjiifcu^tiion ; nut an arena for tha 
exhibifjon of ehiimpionn- I offiT mywrlf. Sir, n» a rtiat^'b fur nn 
rtinr j I thmw fhr challenge of delwte at no msin'i* f<*<^t- Bui 
then, S]Tt t\itcc the honurablt- member has pat the question in a 
mnnnrr that eall? for an ans^'CT, j will givi^ him on nnvwcr; 
and I tell him, that, holdini; myi»vlf to be xhv humblest of thv 
membera here, I yei know nothing in the arm of Ma friend from 
MiasouriT eilbtr alone or wh^n aidwl bv lh»^ nun of fli.i friend 
from ^niitb f^foUnn, tbnt nfM'd (Irlr.r r-Vtrn m(< from tivfnxming 
whatever opiniona I may chooac to e^poase, from drbat^ni* 
whenevrr 1 mny choose (o debate, or from flpraking whatever I 
may aee fit to ^^ay, on the floor of the Senate. Sir, when ot- 
tered as matter of commendation or compliment, I should div- 
iii^nt from nothinp; whirh Ifif hfuiombln rneinlter nLiirht aay of 
bin fri>-m], flJill leam do I pnt forlh any prT-Ii-tiMoii:^ of niy uwii- 
But when put to mc m mntter of taunt, 1 thmw it back, and 
nay to thff gcntieman, thnt he coold posMbly nay nothinfi^ less 
liltcly than such n e-ompnriion to wound my pride of pcmonal 
rharaeter. The angv^r of ita tone readied th« remark from in* 
ti^ntionfil irony, whieh otherwise, probably, wonld havp been it« 
gji^nrrul acct'ptailori. But, Sir, if it h\^ imagined ihat by thi» 
motiial quotatJ<jn and commendntion ; tf it be supposed that, by 
cnotin^ the charactera of the drama, assi^nng to ear_h hiti patl^ 
^Ji one the att4ick, to another tha oy of onMst; m* tf it be 



tliought that, by a loud nnd empty vaoot of aolidpatcd vic- 
ttty^ any InurcU an; Xo be won here; if it bt- inmptntffl, o«|»- 
dnUy^ that uny, or all thtic rhtngH will sh^kv any puriiose uf 
inin^, I cnn Trll thr. hiynnnMp wpmht^Vt onci^ for »i]V Ihnt h<- iii 
grvaJy iiiiftr.akL-ji, autl that he Ia dt'uliji^ wirb one of n hcr«r Icm* 
pt-r ami chamcler lie baa ycl tuucb to }*^n\. Sir* I thall uol 
aUcfw myn^lf, on tkia o(?cafiiQn, 1 hope on no r^c^rieion, to br< bc- 
tmyt'd into any Io«b of t<*mpeT; but if provoUoil, a* I trunt I 
n^vL'f «baU bi-, iato t-rmiifiiitujn ninl rporimt nation, the boiiorjbl* 
member m;iy prTbapi find Ihnt, m that rnnWf, thrw. will be 
blows to tjikr »e well na blown to ^\\v \ that utbrm i-nn <nt'r. 
COmpafiaoQft aa ttifcinftcnnt, at least, aa hia oijwn, and Ihut bis 
bnpuiiUy may potisibly deinand of him wbotcver powers of 
taunt and ttarcaetn ht^ niny poBFWMk J comm(?nd him to a pru- 
dent bunbruulry of hi* rcHourwK, 

BiiL Rir, t»ir (\inlit.ion! Thp ConlitioTi! Ay, "t»M- murrlrrHJ 
Coftliti(»n!'' 'Hur grniliriTinn n»k>*, if I were I'rd or frightrti into 
thia drbaic by the spcetre of the Coalition. " Waa it the |^^ho#t 
of the murdered Codilion," he exclaims, "which hauntinl the 
member from MaBtineharteltfl; and ^hich, bkc lhef:hont of Ban- 
quo, would never down?'* '*The murdered Coalition!" Sir, 
Itiis diair^r of u nmlitioH, In nrfrrt^n^f- to the Ijitr Eidtntnivlnilion, 
iff not origiiiid with the honorable nnvmbcr It did not i*]>ring up 
in the Seutitc. Whether a« a fact, aa an aJ^umcnt, or as an 
enibcUJ>hnicnti it iji all borrowed. He adopta it, Lndced, from a 
very low origin, and a Hlili lower prewiit condiUoi^ It ia one 
cf ihe thousand i.idum«ieii with which the pre*» teemed, durbig 
an exeited polili^rnl t?afivEiii«. It win a eh»rge, of whirh iher*- 
\nm not only no iiriujf or prtibubiiity, but which vnux hi itwdf 
wholly imponibic to be true. No maii of common iuformntion 
ev«T believed a ayliabtc of it. Yet it wae of that clam of fulsc- 
hoode, which) by eontinued repetitioni tbrouKh al] ihe organs of 
deiraetton and abufle, are capable of miulendin^ ibose who arv 
alrt^dy far mihtf^t, and of further ftmning puH^ion Hlrcady kin- 
dling into (lanif?. DoubdrM it servf-d in it-n lUy, nnd in ^rraler 
cr IcAEi dc^e, the end designed by it. Having done that, it haa 
iunk into the geneml mnita of Qtnlc and loathed cnlamnieA. It 
19 tiia v«ry cfi«t-ofr eloogh of a polluted and shamoii^if \iTv*K 
Ineapable of further mischief, it liea In the or wer, Itfeir-M and 
deupbed. Il is ntil now^ 3ir, in tlie power f the honorable 

- 1 



m<TtnbM to givi> :t dignity or dtcrncy, by ftTtcm;>tin|^ to rlcvaw 
it, and ti* inirochi^ it into the Senate, llr oannoi irbaiiffvf if 
trom what it k«, an object of gnieral diftgnst anJ Mcom. Oi^ tli« 
Gontiarv, ihc c-oiitaci, if he dioocw u> toudi It, b rncuv likvlj tu 
ilni^ him doiivn, <lcwit, to the plaoe vrli^e it Iks itself. 

Buti Sir» the lionorublo member wnd not» Tor either rcflaona, 
ttitireJy happy ;n bi« alltuiou to the »tory vi Uaii^^mi^H murd<-r 
tnd Bcinquo*]> ghrMt. Tt um* not, I think, ihr^ rrirniin, inn ihc 
f4l^mif« c^r the miirdf^'fl Kanqiin, itt whom! liiHdJng liin »p[ri 
Wui^'d JMrt dtfWn. Thi; liuiJordUc j^t'rilli-ma.ri t!» frt-sh iJi hia n'^- 
ingc the EngliMh ciu^^ciica, &iid (3in put mc ri^'it if 1 urn wnnifc; 
butt nccordifrg to my poor ToeoUootion, it was ut thot»c who hoJ 
bi^gun with <mrc?«w?» iind cnJud with furU uoeI trca^ihrrctit riiiir- 
(i«r that Thr giiry WL# werc^ vhflkrii, Thi* ghnut of Jli(jt(|i]Of 
like thatnf IlnmW, wan an bctmvt ghcvL It itiMnrhrH iin iniio- 
cvnt mail. It krtfw where i1» iipij)car&zicG would sLrikt' tenor* 
and who woujii try ouf, A glio*t! It ma<lo jt*rlf viblbk- m the 
rifclit <jLtart4.'^ und t^rnpt'llL^ tho ftuiily AEid tho c<}A3cu4^iioo- 
■mittcn, and itontf uttirrs, to «lttrt| vrUh, 

-■TV'yilitfx. xxjiUr^r 1i«|iu1d!— lank ! b 
It 1 «lkn<l httf, I luiw him ' " 

Ihbis cycbnlU wi-rr «c«rnl (vu it not fo* Sir?) wlio bad 
thought to ehJold thonit*Hvci4 by oonc^raling thc^ir own kaiid^ aii<l 
Uyin|( th'^* inipuratjon oJ~ th« crima on a Jgw and birt'lm^ a^-ii<-y 
Ln wJokedmMn; vrho hail vjdinly attempted to atilli? ih« workioffs 
of ihfii "wn Oiwurd L-uNtvt'itffK^« by i-jaculitlliig Iljri>u]jb wliitti 
lips and clintt^^finff tt^elh, ''Thou cannt not oay I tUd itV [ 
have mureaJ the ^rcat pa^t if thono who hud no vay parlahcii 
in the ci^'ed of th<f drnih, cither found that thi^y wurr, or fecrtd 
that tk^y shouki br^ puiihvd from Lhcir Htooh by tlic- ghost of Th« 
■Jnin, or pxdnimrd to a Hpcctre crvd-ti^ by thrir (iwn fisar* anrf 
lh«*ir trwij rernorFM>t " AvdUiit! and r|tut our eigfitV 

There ie »iiother p^ticutar. 9ir, iii wbtcb the hoaorabl< incur 
bcr^d quick pcT(»^ptJoii of reEM--inbltm«ct» mi|;ht, 1 »hould ihiiikt 
bavc Hrrvn mjmHhiiiK i>i tt^v latury of ButK[UOf inukinf; it iiol alEo* 
geihur a subject of tht? riiont pleasant canW'mpIuUou. Tbote 
who miinh^ri'd HnnijLin, whnt did they win by tt? BulMbuiliiil 
gotxl } Pcfmaikcat powur? Or diMjippointiniiot^nLllKT, tiiid jMirr 
mortJ^i^'alioii i diut and a^hcst tbe commoia fate of v4altiiAj£ 



unbttjoii ovt*rloapifiK iUoU? Did not evi^ii-bmid^d juqUou en- 
long Goiiiinmd ihu |>oj[iutivd chiiiici.* to thmrown b|i«T Ditl tWy 
not noon find thnt (or sinolhcr thi-y li«J " Jilnl ih^ir miitd^'t tlinl 
tbpir amUiuiin, ihoiigh ii|tpHrpntJy for ihp momrnT, «ucrp»«ru], bad 
but put a bar/uii Hcipire in Uii-ir ^asp? Ay, Sir^ 

T^rnu to h^ wftnduai iff M nn bnirnnJ Aojirf, 
JVo *im a/ than MHirrrJitig." 

Sir, I need pursue the al]u^i>o no Airther. I leave the honors 
able genijeman to nm it out at hia leldure, aaJ ta derive from it 
all Ufc ^^tificatioiL it in unluulutrd tu luliiiiiiJntiT. K hr tiiiila 
hiniM-ir |>]riuicd with thr nMnodHtionn, and prrj>pirtn] tc be qmie 
fhalintird, though the pnmlld should be cnijicly completed, 1 hiid 
aJmort tntcj, I am r^ati^liud also; but that 1 ehail IhiDk tA. Ycd, 
8ii, 1 will think of UiaL 

In ihe ooanie of my observations ihe other duy^ Mr Prealdenti 
I paid A. |j^attiriij tribute of rtraprfL't txj a vt-ry wirrlhy itmn, Mr 
Dane of Mii^Michuecttji, U »o listppi^rKHl llint he dtrw tbu Ordt* 
nance of 17^, for the govirrinnt-nt of thr Northwcslwn Tcrri 
tory. A roan of eo much ubihty, fuid ao Uujo pretence; of so 
great a capacity to do gixxl, and €o unmiKi^d a diHpofiitioii to do 
It for \\& own sake; a gerkdcmiin who had acted an Important 
part, forty yearh ago, in a vieabutr Ihc Inllneiioe <hf which In still 
deeply ftltln tlie rt^ry matter which was tlte subject oi debate, 
mighti 1 thought, receive from mc a comrncndatory rrcogniUon. 
But ihe honorablfj member wii* inclined lo be laectiou« on the 
dubj<fct* lie vrn* ralhrr disposed to make it matttrr of ridicule, 
that I had inirodueed into the debate the name of one Narhau 
Dane, i^ whom h*^ u^BureH un he had never twfore h^ard. Sir, 
if tlif* honorable ineniher bad never before henrd 4>f Mr, Diuie, I 
am aorry for it. It aho^v.i him ien nequiUnt^^d with the public 
iDCii tA the country thnji J hnd ^uppo^iL Let mc tell hjin, 
however^ thnt a «necr from him at the mention of the nittnc of 
Mr, Daii@ J8 in bad ta«te. It may weU be a high mark of am- 
bition, Sir, either with Ihe honorabk f^'nileumn or iny»i.-lt, to 
aeci^rnpltbh tib umrh iv make tmt name» known lo ad^uiita^^ 
and remembered wiih gruliludt-, a« Sit. Dane has acoJinpliHhi^. 
But tUe truth m, Sir, I eus|>eetf that Mr. Dane live« a little too 
far n[]rth> He U of rSlu^^iLchuisetUt. und ton neiar the nortti »Ur 
to be rniched by ili*- huncrabJc gentleman'^ telcfeeopi?. If biii 

tfOL. iTt 24 



■phcir h.\t\ tlnpprn«^(l ti> mngc noiith of Mn^^on aik<1 Dixon** Itnc, 
he mighr, probabljr, li&vc come withJu the svopv i>r hia vimoii. 

Ivpokiv 8ir, of tho Ordiaance of ITBT, which probibiU aluv- 
€ryt in slU future Um««, nurthw^'et of X\it Ohio, ati u incoAiire of 
great wisdom und forcaighT, und one which Imd bvrn actvii<l«tl 
M'illi Iiijkfhl^ Iwni'iirijil Htid p«*rniiinrnl o>iii}UYfi]t*mT!i. 1 9titp< 
posed that, on rhi?^ points no two griiflcmrn in thr 8i-rmtr muUl 
vntcTtam dillcK^nt opiiiloiitt- But the Bim|>le exprc}i»ic>ii of tlii« 
Hcntimcnt has led the gcjkijcman, not only into a lahorod dcfcnc* 
of Blavery, in the abBtfttct, arid on priii«i|>](?, but aUo into a 
Wflnn aocusution uguiiist ine, tui havipg uiuc^ked iJit !<}>l<?ni of 
doirmUc alavpry now dbting in the Sonihern Sutr*. For all 
thifly Ihv^tc wuH not liif lAliglilrnt foiindntioiit in any thing »aid or 
jnlimiitcd by mr> 1 did not a1(cr & single word which any ingts 
nuity coLiIH torture into an attack on the slavery of the South. 
) unid, only, th&t it was highly wibo and useful, in W^til3,hn^ for 
thr Northwestern country uhiJe il waa yet a wUdoniew, to pro 
liihit thtf inlrodiK-'lion of »ltivei; iind I added, tliut I pr^^umed 
then: waa no reHccting nnd intcliigmt iipraon, in the ui'lgh* 
boring State of Kentucky, who would doubt that, if Uic aauio 
prohibition had bc<^n cxtc^ncJed> nt the snmr curly pcnod, ov«t 
that commonwonlthT her Ftri^ngth and population would, at thii 
day, have? t>wn fnr gri-ater than they ar^ If tbe*e opinions be 
thoughi dottblfnl, Ihry are Eifverl]ii-!t;»8, I tmat, m^ilher cKtra* 
ordinary nor dta^apecUid. They attack nobody and menace 
nobody. And yet^ Blr, tlie ^enUeman'a optics have diBCOvcrcdi 
evMi ill tha man «xpreaBion of Unci tM.-ntimL'nt, what he oalla the 
vary apirit of the Miaaouri question '. Hi: r^'preMutft me &» inak* 
ing an onirt on tho whok South, and mnnifulirig a spirit which 
wouhl intfrf'Te wiih, and diftlorb, their dnrne^tic condilion 1 

Sir, this inJuHtioL- no odj«rwi»e aurpnM:» me, than oa it is coiii- 
milted htf , and comroitU^d without the Blighkst pref^aec of 
gronnd for it I nuy it only Hurpnetee ai«t ab being dons bMv; 
for I know foU well, that it i», and had been, the aett]^ policy 
of aonif^ p.*raoiiB in the Boutti, for years, fu repretwnt the jieople 
of Uie NorUi an dinpiincd to inlerfere with tlieni in iheir own 
cxcluMvc and |>cc«lifu concerns. This i» a dcli&ite and ttcnai- 
Mvo point in Sonthcrn reeling; aiid of lat<f year* it baa alwuya 
been touched, and generally with effect, wb<fn<Tvcr the objiscl 
has been lo unite the whuU South agaiiiat Northern meu oir 



Nortlwra ititfikHiireii. This f^eUng, always carefully kf*pr nliv?^ f 
«nd mninEjiiai-tl nl Icki intenM^ a liv^ut 10 ^idniil (ki-^riirriijmliori ur 
rvHtTtioiii in a kvcr of ^nt fwwer in mu pulitjoa] [tiacbiue. It 1 
EQovcft vaM bodic:!^ ttnd gi^c^ lo them onr luid the •nme <Ur3C- • 
tioii- Hut it M with<?ut odnjuali^ cna-K-i imd ttio ^uspidon which | 
tnciatft is wboUy grQundlea«. Thor« i« tiof, and ntrwr hu been, 
a dUposition in ihi* North 10 inlorfrw with tlinm* int^^rrHU of 
the South. Siieh jnteriererc© ha^ oevcr been ftii|>po«^-J Ut be 
willjiii die |Hfwcr of guvcriiaicfiit ; iiur baa U been 111 any way 
aitempU'd- The akvery of the 8<juth ba» always been n-yurUid 
lid 11 t]iLilt«r oi doTncaUc polic-y, left with Ibu 3l4il«« thviiLfielvn, 
oikI wiih wbidi thv fcKlerul govuruini^nt had puttiujg to dc> Cvr* 
Ittinlvi Sir, 1 urn, und pvit hnvo br^f-n, of thiU opiniois. Thi* 
gcnUE'rikiiiL, iiidt-riJ, 4Ugur4 that Muvrry, iji ihc niwtjvcti U no 
rvil. Mont a^^iucdly 1 need oot »ay ] diflW wi;h him, altogether 
and moat ^^'idely, on that point 1 regard doiue-^c »lnvery ad 
oae of IhET ^eutedt ovila, both moral and political. But whctJitv 
il b^ a m^udy, and whtther it bts cnrabk, and if »o, by what 
nieaii-i; or, on Ihe L>thcT bimd, wliethei it be Ijie ru^Aui imme.di' 
(ttitUft <]f iJir WH'hil ay*t«mj I Wve It in tbifM? wbuHp ri^f(t luid 
duty it in to inquire nnd to decidr- Aad thi? I bt^licvc, dii, 1^ 
And nniformly hn* been, the »cntifiient of the North- Let iu 
Ipok a JitTJ<T rat tbe hiftiory of thiA maltex. 

When the pKHenT Constitution waa mbniiTlcd for th(t ratifica^ 
lion of ihe people^ Ibvre wrre Ibone who ImagEn^M^ thitt tlie 
povpTeni of tbe j^venimcni which it jiropoT^ed to eBtubliab luighl, 
in «omc posatble mode, be cxcrtrd in mennureH lending to the 
abobtinn oj shivery^ Thia «u^ge-itiun would of ooumu atti&ct 
much uttenlion in the Suuthern convcrntionjk In that of VLr- 
giniu., CSovernor Rnndcilph «<id : — 

" 1 hopp tbrri' is lumv. hi^n', wbn, rnnnidrring thn Hnbjrrt in 
ihccvibn light of philosophy, will make an objcdion dishonorable 
to Virginira; thali nt the moment they arc acciirJn^ the rights 
*>f their ittuyx'iiy^ an objection i« titarted, th^it iHttp \f. a hpnrit of 
hope that ihoHi- unfortiinnCe mon new held ht hond»gii^ rifiy, by 
tile operiiT-ion of ihe genemi government, he m^'lft {tvv" 

Al the very lirsl (xiugrraiif petiEiona on the gubjtt^t WT^re prv- 
■ontcd, if I miatake not, frtam dilTcreDt 3Ui1ea. The IVnntiyU 
vaoia society fur ^^roinotini; tJic ubolrtiuLi of dluvery tctok a lend, 
and laid bi^foru r^nji^reM a mcmoria), praying Coi^r«-u to piv 



iTKJtc the ftbolJtJOM bjr ranTh poirww nm U poft»rMir<1, Tliln im- 
morinl Vft« refcTTGd, in the House of Rq;>rr^rptituve«, ui a m-IihI 
commitUe, vonsit^tio^ of Mr> Poster, of Ncav HiimpHlurF, Mr. 
nrrry of Maaaat*hut»eti(», Mf. Huntington of Coiiiiei-tjcat, Mt, 
lAonvjiL'^ of New York, Mr. Si )ii tick son of N^w Jersey, Mr. 
Ilartlejr of Pi-titJti^lvHiim, miij Mr ParkeT uf Viiginm; nJl i^f 
thmn, Sir, Kn jruu wiU obM-Tvci, Northrm tniMi bat thr liihL ThU 
uommUtM msde ft report, which wiw frfrrrcd to % ron^miltcc 
od' th<^ wtu)lc Housi?, and there connidcrrd ftnd discUM^d ior 
tovrmi dny«; mid beinff amendfid, although without malvriat 
alr^railon, it was m^iie to ^ipreSiS three dlncliN*! propo«1tiou», im 
thtr 4ii1rjert vf Kliiiri'ry »nd (he BlH\4*-tra(le. Flr*f, iji ihe wordn 
of 1\k Com^titUon* lh>l Ci»iign:!ifi could nol, pnur t*} thr yent 
l&Odr probibit the migration or importittiou of *\ieb prr^otu rKl^ 
any of Ihc !jtQto» thi^n existing fthmild think proper to admit; 
find »ccoi]dlyf Ihni Congn^^si hnd aathoriiy to n^-utruin thv niix^as 
of Uii? UtiiT<*d SiBlcit t'r\tin i^nrryiiig on ih<^ Afrimn «lnvf^trad«>, 
for thr piir|MiPM.- iif supplying furr-i^n oonnlrif-hH On [W\s pio[KK 
»illoii, uur car\y lavjn ugaliiat thoat: wlio ejigagc in llmt Imllic 
are foumledp Th^ third proposition, and that whkb br-ar» on 
the pn^Bi'iit ciutBlioii, wuB expre#»&d in tht? following U'rins; — 

" HesifU'fd, Thnl CoiigmiEt httvu no nulhority to interfere in Ibc 
^manHpnticm of ulnvj^if or in the tn^ntmi'iit of iheni in nay of thf» 
Stwlfs; it n.vna>^iing with the WYrral fltntr* nloiir to ptovi^lr 
mlea and rc^lationa tbtrtdn wbtcJi humaaity ond tiuc policy 
may rvqiurc." 

Tbitt resolution n^oeived tbe eanotJon of th^ noo«e of E«pre> 
seniutivpft #u e:iriy as ManitL, X700. And now, Sir, the honor* 
nbh member will allow me to remind him, ihaf- not only w*re 
lU(* iicWt tTimiiTiitU-o who r«|KffiPil the rencjlutiont with a ningle 
c)(ccpt4on, tt]\ Northf-rn men, but niMi tbnt, of the inembenr then 
composing the Hou«<^ of Hcpn^ftcntntiv*^ a luri^e inajonty, J be- 
lieve n^nrly two Thirds were Norlhi-rn men nliio. 

The Hoiisp n^f'f'd to Intrrt thr>ii* rrKitiiitlonii in it* jtinrmil 
■ml from thai duy lo this it ha# n^'vrr brtvi mnintuinrd t^r con- 
U-'ibded at tlic Ntirtli, that Congress had any authority rop'gnlnTr 
or inirrlt^rc with the eondiUon of slaves in th*^ sr-Trml Stntrif, 
No Northern gentleman, u> my knowled^ has movrd ttny «iich 
tjnt'jition iu vilher Hou«e of Cun^Ma. 

The ft*ar» of tin.- tiDuUL, whiitcvpr frar» tliey might have enter- 



ml, wrfr Allnvcd :incJ qujdcd by thie fttrly iWinion ; hikI 90 
rrmninrd till ihty were cxciW ufrenh, wHhouT entire, bat for 
ooUaUral &«id intHmflt porpovefv "Wlioa it bcrnmc ncccMmry, or 
Vae IhouRht 8o, by comn polilioul p'rsotin, to ^n^ an unvar^in^ 
ground for ih? p^dnnfnn of NVirlhrrn mr-n from confldpnce ftnd 
froTii li^iul in lb« j^fTHUA i^f the republic, ilien, aijiJ riui Ull llitrn, 
tlw (TV wiun mific-d. aiiJ the ft<:U[ig iiidiwtriously cxcifftl, that tlif 
int}ii(^f)c^ oi NorthiTii nun in (in^ [>ublk coxnipcb would yndnn- 
goT the PclnTiim of miifftCT and *Uive, For inynolfj I cluim no 
othvvr mmc ihnTi t.h^t IhU groxjt nnd enurmiiui iiiJD«titi* lowurdtt 
the whitir NorTli han JWt wrfmght npttii m*? Ii> rhnnga- try opin* 
lciri» ur my polllicftl crndnci I IiojH' I ;trn fibovi^ vitilniing my 
ininciples, tvrn und^r the Mii&rt of injury and faW- iinpittnfioua. 
Unjust «u-iplciori» and andciwrvod itproaoh, whulcrcr puin I 
inRj fTXpr*rici)4-i! from Ihi-m, will fLOt in<incu rnc, 1 trunlT to o^vr* 
fU'p ihtT limiU of f<onfttiliiliona] duty, or to eucroiich on iho 
righiA of oih^ni. Tho domrMii; ilarrry oflbr Sonthprn t^TFiif^Ji I 
\eA\e whftv 1 lirid it, — in the hands of ihcir own j^nvi^rrurH-nTvu 
It i» thf^ir aifalr. not mine. Nur do 1 complain of lh« jH.'cullar 
efiect wtiich the mitxiiitudc uf Lhal pupuiation haa had in the dia- 
tribiitioi) ul piiwi^r undur thia Mc-ml govvrntnt^nt Wi? know, 
Sir, that tho Tvprt'H'nUUoi) of \iie HI£i1<mi in the other hou»<f 
ii not squftL Wr know Ihnt gn^m ndvuauigp in that rcvppct M 
tnjoyrd by ihe nJiivr-holdiNg titiilrMi itnd w*^ knctw, I*hj, ihat 
the int^adi-d e^uivaif.-nt for lli^t a<Ivanla^> tliat is to Snty, titij 
impooitJon o( dii^ct taiea Jii the munti latio, hiu bfrcome merely 
nominnlT tim habit of Uif> go^t^rnmrnt E^uing 3l:ni»I inv^mably to 
coiipt^t itft nTwruic from other iintirco* nnd in other modvfi. 
N<*vrrthptcAit, I do not cnmplnin ; nor would J connt^^nnncc any 
inov(frnt-nt to ftlxvi ihr^ arrangement of repreai^nt^itioii. It h the 
original lioin^inf ih(* cknnjiaet; let It nlauU; Ivi Ibtr Hdvunlagr o\ 
it be folly enjoyed. The Union itftdf in too full of iK^ncfit to be 
hasarded in propo»itjons for changing ite onginol bneip. 1 go for 
lbs CoiiAtituTioD OS it let, and for the Union a» it ia. But I am 
reitolved not to eubmlt in aileiHra to aoc^UBatlona, eitber agali^Bt 
myM'If indivfduiilly or nifjinst the North, wholly urifountli-d and 
un}ii--il ; jKiniuLiutH which ijn]iij(r to ijk a iliit^KMitiiai lit rviida 
tba conndtutiopal compaei, and to rxtciid t\tc powfrr of tb« 
government over (he int^rmal laws and domestic con'Jition of (bs 
Siutt'^. AJJ auch accLisaiiooBt whcwjvcf and whonevw made, all 



ifibSnnnliona of the &vUt«iioe of any such purpoi<>«, [ know mul 
feci to be ^roundk-iin and injiniois. And wi: niunt conAdu in 
Sonthpin gi*iitlrmi^ii thprnnrlvr^iij wl* muni tniirt lo thoM* whuM 
iiltrgrily of hrnrf nnd imigiinrimit.y ti( U^^Wng vrUi U*nJ Iti^-m itt' 
& tii-biru tu mainlftin aud duscminatc Iruth, and who powcis 
tt€ nicaiiA of its dill'usLou with the t^ouUiorii pubijc; w€ mu^fl 
loave it to thirm fo div^abnae that pablic of it^ pn-judicrea. Bui 
fai the ineau ttme, Tor my own part, 1 t^hall (^oiiUnue lo act 
juHtly, whether ihow* to^nula whom jiwUtM- It* cjn-mi«?<! receive 
it with cniidcir at wiih n>ritutndy. 

Having h^d oct^aion to rccor to the Or<Ijnaiicc of 1787, in 
order to dcfcad iDy»clf t^nst iht infcrcDcce which the honor* 
able* memlxTr has ohoeen to draw from my fonnt^r ob^rvatioflft 
on thut 3abjt.^ct, I mm not willing oow entir<^l)r lo lake leave of it 
witbotit another remark. It need hanlly t)(? i»aid, that tlml paper 
p.xf)r«Hi-74 JiihI, w?nlitni-ni,-( ljil tlit? grt^ML ^tubjccl of dvil Hiid irlig- 
iotu librrty. Rnoh ^rntimrntu wrrc common, nnci nbound So aiJ 
our etotc papcm of that day. I3ut thi^ Ocxlmnnor did tbftl 
which wae not eo commonf and whioh i^ not o-vci^ now univer- 
sal ; Ihat la, it set forfh and d«o]aied it to be a h1^ and binding 
docly t>r f^ovf^rnmerif iWelf lo iiipporT vt^hoola rind fidvajKre the 
mrftiiA of r<liu^tl.ic}it, im llir [iliiin rr]i9<»M timl rrli^loit, miimiity, 
«nd kiiowh^l^e nnt nrcnMary to good govrrnmitn^ nnd to the 
happincM of mankind. One observation further, The impof- 
tont prov[8kon incorpornted into the Constitution of Uie United 
8tate0| and into several of tlioea of the States, and rt^entlyt as 
we have seen, adopted Into the reformed eonsljiution oi Vlrguiifl, 
resUainiiig IcgUiitive power in nueslions of jwival*^ righl, land 
fmia itiipiiiring the obtigatioii of uontnietfi, is firvt inlfixlucnl 
ami i^itAbliahr^d, a» far a5 1 am infonnrd, a,-* matt<rr of cxpm« 
wriHcii ronatitutionnl law, in thin Urdimnco of 17if7. And 
[ mufii »dd, nli^o, in n-gard to the author of the Ordinanoe, who 
has not h^d the htipplnesit to attraet the j^nfleman'a Dotlee 
heretofore, nor to av^iid Mh sarca^jn ritiw, tli»t he whs e.hai^ 
man of that aelect cuiiimittee of the old ConKreas, wl^osc re^Hfrt 
lus( e^tprcased tiie strong eense of that body, thai the old Con- 
fedcrution wnn not adet^uate to the cxi^ncieei of the country and 
rceommended to the Stfttea to send d«iiGgci1<-« to xh9 convention 
which formed the present Constitution.* 

* Sod Nalc A, ai Ul« Mid v( iho «p«i»ll. 

aEco^ii sPEBou on foot-s resolutioh. 


Ao attempt ha* bpon rriadc to tmnsfrr froTii thi" \c»rlli iv ilie 
8ouTh tlie hoiiur of ihi» i-xHosion of ulavciy from tln-^ Nnrib* 
wt;»tcrn Tcmttiry, The jcniriud, witlkout argumeikt or comment, 
refutes Bucb nilcmpla- The cuoaJon by Virginia waa made in 
March, t7!:^L On tho Ldth of Apn! following, u oormmtt«et 
roiwiiitini; of Mcunt. Jv^untoii, Chu»0. and Howdl, reported ft 
pUil for n. U^trpnrnry gov*-mtni*nl of Ihr trrritiiry, in wlii^rh wm* 
this articli?; '*'I'iiat, al't^r tfic yi^ar \^00, thrn- ^h^lll br^ urirhtjf 
flavcry nor involuutary «ervilude in any of the »ieud tilotcsj otb* 
«rwieie tbfln lu ptijiishnKat of crimes wlicrctif tlic jKitty shall 
have boen convnjttfd," Mr. Spui^ht of North Carolina rioved 
to «triki^ out thU pam^raph. The t|ue4tiori wat put, uccordiuf^ 
to the ftimi thfn practised, ■* Shnll tliene word?* ^rarid as n 
ptirt. of IIli; phiii ?^* \i?^^ IInm|jtthir«, Mn.innchux^tU, Ilhodo 
Ifjaud^ Connccticiil, New Yoik, New Jcr^^cy. nnd Pennsylvania, 
fercn 8t&tc«, votvd in the allirmativci MnrylnnJ, Virginia, 
and South CftfoiinR, in Iho n<fgativo. North CtirolJnrL wo* di- 
vided. A* Ihp conjf^nt of nine States w^w neceswiry, :\ny wordg 
could not Hlaud, and wtre stiuek otil artxirdingCy. Mr. JetTeTeon 
voted for the clause, but waa overruled by bifl f(flltfdKU«»* 

In March of the next year (17S6), Mr King of Mat^ruichu- 
^<^tt^, t!«(y>ii<lrd by Mr- Hllory of Rhodi< Island, proponcid the 
formi-dy rrjooted artii-ln, with IhiA addition : ** And thnt thiR r^g- 
ulfttion phiill h^* an articlp of oompnct, nnd Tpmain a fonrtafitflO- 
t»] prinoipli* of lh<? coii*l,itufionH tk-tween fh<^^ thirli'ou on^innl 
Utati-fs and each of the Statca deaeribwl in tlio reHulvt-." On 
thia diiuH.-. which provijed the adc<;uatG and thorouLjh sccurityi 
the etifht Nurthvrn Btatee ut that time voted unimtutively. and 
the four Southern States negatively. The voteu of nine Staloi 
were not yet oblsiiin'd, and thnv thf* provinion whk Figr>in n?* 
IKThHl by tlip RouUifrn SlJitfS. Thr prt>i<vrmn4-r of th'» N»>rth 
hdd out, ond two ycara nftcrwards the object was atluintrd* It 
ift no dcrogntion i'rt*m the credit, whatever that may br, of draw- 
ing the QrcbnnnceT that itft prineiple« had before bL^eii prr-pafi'd 
and (i>i!tcus«'-dT in the form of re&olatlonfl. If one ahould retiaoii 
in thai way, whnt would bpeonie of ihe dJ«lbii;;ui->heti honor of 
the author *jf the De^laiatiou of ludept-niienc'i.- ? Thcrre in iiol 
a sentiment in that paper which iind not been voted and rcaolvcd 
in the luaemblicej) and other popojnr bodied in the eottntfy, ovci 
and over again. 





But Ihr honor&blc mf-enber Iiaa now found out Chat tht* gvn- 
tiemant Mr. Dnno, wnB a iiK'-int>«T or ih^ Hurtforil Coht^^dUou. 
Howm'er uxtiolormed the hoiiumble murpber mav be of o1iara«Tt«r» 
and oc.-urwn(^«a m tb^ Norlh, il would tevm thit he liiu ai hU 
fJliow, Dti tltiH (Kmnion, ftortip high-miiuli'd imd l^ftv Kpiiit, «jin« 
i&agi]animoa» and irae-lirart«d monitor, poMc^ng tJi4? nicanv 
of lorn] knowlodgfv and ready to aappjy the honorable member 
With vvtty tUint,', down cv^u to rorf*ott«n and HUiiJi-t'ol^rii two- 
penny pamphU'tf, whioh may be u»ed lo the dieadiraitta^ of hie 
own wuntiy. But a> to the Ilurtfun) ConveoiJooT Sir, allow nn" 
to my,l.hnt ihr jirm'finlingii nf ihiit ^KifW*rrin novr tii tjt'lr»j» n-tid 
and tlndiri) in Nev Engliui<l thnn fmrllirr Hpnih. Thry nppi^iu 
to be looked to, not In New Knglund, but cUewhcre, foi the pu^ 
poM? of Mfebkg how W tJiey louy uerve as a preoedcni* Boi they 
will net answer the purpuLAf;, they are *imle too tame. Tlie lati- 
tude ill whlc^h thtry originnlc^l wiui loo cold. Other coiiveuboiu, 
of morft recnnt PKisti-iiOL% havr gone n whok* biirV tpntjtlt beyoud 
iL Tbr lifiitied <hH^tnrM i>r C'dlf'lon mid Abhrvillo hnvt pyHhed 
their commentaries on the liaxlford collect «o far, that thr orig- 
InoJ text'Writcra are thrown entirely into the ehadir. 1 have 
nothing lo do, Sir, with the ilarffMrd Convrmion, Im joiunnl, 
whiL^h ihi? gentleman has quoted,! never ri-ad. So far oa the 
honriTHlilefnemhi-rmnyiliHienveT In Itit proeeedhi^a ftptrlt In any 
degree fr»embliiig thnt wliu^h wiui uvtmeil and jtiptlifted in ihote 
other conventions to which 1 hnvr nliuded, or »o far hk tiio*e 
proceeding* can be »howa to be disloyal to the Constitution, or 
tending to dieonion, »o fur 1 nholJ bo tu^ rcudy tu any ooe to 
be#iow on them reprt'heniQon and cenfturr. 

Having dwelt long nn ihitt oonvention^ and olhef occurrrnce* 
of tliat day, in the hope, pcob^tlily, {which will no: be grauHedO 
that ] should Ictive the ctivu-fic cf thin debate to follow him at 
length in those cxeunuona, tha honorable member returned, and 
attempted anotht^r objc-ct. fie refomvl to a EjK^ecli of mine in 
the olhcr house, the Kame which I bnd orr»flion to cllndtf lo 
myaelf, the other (.l^y', and han qnolr^l a pa^Mge or (wn from it, 
with u bold, thougli mifriuy mid Idburln^', air of conBdenuei at 
il he hud dct^^crLed in me an incoa.xiBtt.-nev. Judg-Ing from llic 
gentleniun'0 nmnnert a atTungcr to the coarBe of iNo debate 
and to the point in diaemsion would hure imagined, from bo 
triumphant u t<mE% that tlie honorable mrmt^er wna about to 

aecovD SPEECH ON Pfxrrs ftesoumoN. 


tfrenvhdm mo with a manifest contradiction, Anyone- wbu 
h€>trd him^ mid who hod not heard what 1 bndi in fnct, prtTvi- 
otuly iaid, must httv« ihoufihi fne routed and didcomfiledi as thp 
^iitl«mnn hud promined. Sir, a breath blow» all ihla umnnph i^ 
itwAy. ThrriT ii mit Ihir Hlighu*»t ilinc'retKH; in tht? pLiqKJrt 
of my ri^markA on the two orvaMcna. Whnt 1 vnid brrc on 
Wednesday i« in exact accordance with the opinion «xprrw«d 
by roe in the oth^ houao in IBSd- Thouf;h the gentlcmaji bad 
tli« mtiaphj-iicH of Hudibrafi, though be were able 

"to»p*tif and dividi* 
A hitr "iwiti nffTih mn4 nonhwwt «do," 

ic yri ooulJ not ina^rt his mctaphyHtcal sciMCr* t>*twc«a tfc« 
fair rvadiDg of my remarks in 19^3, and whot 1 «aid hsro Ust 
w««k. Theie I0 tiot only no eontradiction, no ditfrrvnooi but, io \ 
triJlh, too 0^(101 a «imiJflrity, both in ihou^ht und language, to 
he pnttrv^Ly in juwf VA^it^. I Unt] myne-ir qiiolt^l the siinie &p*ecli; 
had rmim^ to if, nnd iipolu; willi it o]>rTi brforc^ inr ; uul much 
of what [ »nid was LJttlc more than a repetition from it* In 
order Io mabc finishing worEc with thii3 alleged contmdictioni 
permit me to recor to the oriffin of this debate, and Ufrittw it« 
course. This seems expedient, and may be done as well now as 
at any time. 

Wdl, then, its history iu thl^ Tlie honorable member from 
Connecticut mowJ a Tt-M>lution, which constitutes the Jirst 
l>mnch of thnt which in now before uk; thut i> to rtuy, a omo- 
lation, inatracting th« o^mmictee on pnblio lands to inqtiiro into 
tho «pBdirncy of limiting, for a etirlain period, ihe saka of tho 
public land^T to snc-h a« have h«reUifore been ulTered for sale; 
and whether sundry offices connected with tUa sales of the XtUl&t 
might oot he abolUhed without detriment to the pubLic ecrvioe. 
In the progress of the discru^ion which aroEto on thir^ rvsoJutiont 
an hofiomble member from Xew ilampfihire moved to amend 
the r^olulion, Ao as entirely to reverse its object; that u, to 
strike it nil oiil, nnd insert a direcdon to tJit; committee to in* 
qmrc into ihc cxpt-dietKy of adopling meosuies to hasten tb« 
«dIc9(, and extend more rapidly the survcyfli of the lands, 

Tba honorable member from Maine' suggested that both 

• Idf. Spngu. 


tfio»e [)tcpo[(ifion» might woll rnongh go for con lidcmtion io tiM 
cunifrultir; nnd in Ihi* sTjiM) of ihe qupfttion, ihr mrmbrt fjrom 
South CnmDna nddrepa^ tbt Spiiate in his fin^t speech. Htf 
ro^r?, he miiJ, t,u K>^~^ ^^^ ^'i'^ oujt fn^e dniuf^hu* cii lUf? imblic 
lands. J raw bini natz v^ith pltraLoure* and Li^tnu-d with CApecta- 
tioiip thouA^i bvfore be condudod I was iilkd with tfurprijie. 
CpTiainly, I ^"u* iipvrf mor<^ nurpnietL <hnn to find him blow- 
ing u|>, (u Uiff i^Ur-fil hr did, ihf* Mrntiirr'iitA vnd opinirjnt whicb 
tim ^iiUcfitiAri fmm Minwnri hnd pnt forth, itiid whu'h it in 
known he has long cntt^ftaiu^xl. 

J iK'cd not rrpual at large the gcoctal topic* of the honorabU- 
gentleman's sptrcch. When he Afiid yesterday that hu did iw>t 
attai^k (Ik? Kn^tern Stntt'e, h^^ onrtniiily mwtl have for^oiu^n. ncl 
onJy piirtirnlnr r^imtrk^i but thp whnli' drift and rmnr «f h\n 
itprn^h ; nnlfw^ h^ m^anft by not nttncMrg. that hr fiid ml com- 
mciicc ho»tilint-0, but th^f ?tno(lii^T had {n^ci-drd hint m the al- 
Tack. ift, ill llio iirBl pbce, disapproved of tlic wholt- ixmir* uf 
tbo icoveranient, for forty ycant, id rei^ard to ita dji^pooition of 
the public liuid.-c ; and thc^n, tiiming northward and eotttward, and 
faRcyinghe had found a t^niw for nllc^gi^d narrowncvii and ntg- 
garrllinrvK tn thp •* nccnrwd policy " nf thp tariff, In whiHi \\v rrp- 
re*pntrd thv p<'op!#' of Nrw England rt* wrdded, he wrnt cin for 
a fiili hour with Rrriiaikn, th^ whole acope of which waa to ex- 
hibit the teeulftf of ihia policy, io freUnj^s and in mcaflur^a uii- 
favorable to the W<-M. J thoufjbt hJa opinions unfounded tind 
erroaaouM, as lo thn g(*nem) c^urvc of the goveToment, and ven- 
tnnsl in r* ply to tlif m. 

'i'hr giMilfeman had reinarkc^l on the analtigy nf nthn rjiJie*, 
and (^uott^J Ihe conduct of European govcrnmenta towards th^ir 
own Bubjcd* settling on this continent, aa in point, to show 
that we hud bi^cn hnrah and n0d in aelhng, whea we should 
luvt^ given Ihe public loDda to Eettlpr« without price. ] thougbt 
the honorable member had anrtVivd hia JTidgnn'nT. lo tn? bf-tniyi*d 
by a faE!<e aniilo^ ; That h« was Htnitrk with an appv-arancr of 
TC^mbliince where there wntit no real »imilitiide. I thiitk so still, 
The firrt flcttlrrs of North America were entcrpritfing »piril«i 
engaged in private adventnrtr. or Hceing from tymnny at bom«. 
Wh^n arrived her^, they were forgotten by the mother country, 
or remembei^d only to be oppreased. CRtrird awiiy agnin by 
Ui* appearuiif^ of analogy, or sixuck with ihc doq^cncc of tho 


ptmtigCf Die hmiorablL- nirnibtrr yit:itcrcl:Ly i^b^rrvcHl, Ihat th« 
cosdnct cf goTrrnmcnt townrd» the Western rriigmjit«, or my 
Ti^vaMnl&tion of it, brought ta hU mmd n ^H-lfbr&tcd »pcc^h m 
the BtitiDh Ptirlmm^nl, It wa«, Sir, Ihr »pt^ch c( Colonel 
Barre. Ou th<* qncwtion of the atamp act, op lea tux^ I forget 
whicib, Colofjrl BMrrt' bnO be»inl n b]<-iikbf<r on the? rn-iuiiry bench 
U^i^ thill Uir ^i(H>|ilt^ of l.htf UiutJ^d 3tAt«, lirirfg Br)ll:»h rol<N 
nbU, pInnW by th<r tniiternitl care, nonri.ihcH by the indulgence, 
ftnd protected by the nrws of Hn^land, would not grtidgc ihclt 
mito to r(*li^v« the mot.hrr country from the heavy burden und<?r 
wlik*h ahe ^rroaned. The laii^fua^ of QiloDel Burre, in rvply U> 
thK was, — "They plaiiteid by ycmr cart- 1 Your opprt'sujon 
planted tfiprn ui Amcncn> Thcry (\td from your tyniiny, nnd 
grew by your nrglcct of them. So EK>on ah you began to fan- 
forxhr^m, yoa showed yotu care by sending persons td spy cut 
their libpFtJos, miBn"pr***f nt ihnir c)iaract<?r, prey upon Uiem, and 
eat GUI their )*ijb*tanep-" 

And bow doetn ihe honorable gentleman niean lo m^inttiin, 
thnt language like thia tn applk^able 1» llir- n>ri<in(!t of \hi'- gov- 
ernm^'ntof (he United Stales t4>w2ird* the W'e*i^tn enit^ante, 
or to any Tcptcecntfttion given by m<j of that conduct? Wcwr 
the sctfle^rp tn the Went drivc*n thither by our t>ppTcf#ior ? Have 
Ibey rtouriehed only by our ni-glt^t of ihern ? Ha* the gov* 
enuncitt done nothing but pn-y upon tbem, ^nd eut out thrtr 
HubiUintte? Sir, ihU feiviil t.-loi|Lieiiee of the BritiMh wpeiikrr, 
jont when and whi-re it wa? uttered, and fit to remain an cxer- 
CMC fw the echoolss i» not u littk out of pincc, when it ia brought 
thciice to be npplind here, to the conduct of oiir own country 
towards her own riti/m*. Frntn America to England, it may 
be Iroe; fn>m Amf*riejiriA In tbf^r own govern inenf, It woulJ b^ 
Strange langua^L'. Let ub leave it, to be recited and ileel:ti Tiled 
by our boya aKainst a foreign nation; not intioduw it here, to 
rr<ite and declnim ouraelvcci L^-ainut our own. 

But J oonii.' to Uie point of the ailep^d contradiction. ]n my 
innrku on Wi»<ine*<lny, ! conteud<rd that we eotiH not giv** 
away gmtniion^Jy all rhr- public Utnd«; rhut we held them In 
tntat; ibut the goteraiDent had solemnly pledged ilM-Jf 1o dis* 
poae of them aa a common fond for the eotnn^on benefit, and to 
euU and wrttle them aa its diacretion *hould dietule. Now, 8ir, 
^^&t ooiitmdie*ion doct the gentleman fmd to thin neutiment tn 



(he- fipcFch pf 1^25? Ilcr <]i)o1rfl me jut hMTiiig lh<*vi cnid, th«t 
wo ought not lo hug Thr?tr lands ah u %Try grmt tmmiin?. Vi?iy 
WciL dift eup|)osiiig mi^ fo be euxTiuvifrl^ nrpiirttd Ui that crxpre»> 
»iim. wliut is The i-oiilnulJdioji t I hav« not now hiliJ. llml wc 
ahuuld bufc tbuit^ Unda a« « ruvcritr (K>arce of peciuiiiLO "icomc. 
No *uch iJiing. It u not my vLe«*. What 1 liuve ivnld* «fid 
whnt [ do «ay, i«^ Ihcit tlif^y nn^ b ^jommon fund, to bt» iJU|KMod 
r>f for the common txTirlil, to bf^ tofd at low priest fur xht nctntW' 
morliitinn of v^rttkni, krrping thr olijrrt iiT Nrtfiing ihr Inndx ii* 
much in vii;w h« that of rftiflUig motR'y from them- T1ii« I «ny 
now, and thiti I htiw aJgiraya uaid, lb ihh hugging llirm a^ a 
&vorit4) ti^aeure? la thrro no dilTertuce between liu^^^uf* and 
liourding Ihi^ (xniA, on lUv on^ hun^T ^^ u h*r«:i1 tivKHure, and, mi 
the otliPf, iif [lin]ii»>iTig *»r it nt low pricrHj plitiring the protreeda 
in fhn gpnirul ]r<*;if<nry of ihn Union ? My npinion i% tli«t u 
muih ia to btr made of th<T land aa fiurly and reasonably may 
bc,btlJiflg it oil the wLiilcutauch ratcft afl to give the ftille»t dTcct 
to wtUemGnt. ThU id not ^l^ng it all away to the States^ aa 
the gentleman would propose ; nor ia it hug^nff 1l3« fund doftely 
ai^d tenaeiouftly» jw a fiivtwitc utaiure; but It is, in my judg- 
niistil, n juvt nnd wisw policy^ pr-rfw'tly acu^irding wiili hII tlw 
v«riou» dutir* which Te*i on govpmmrnL So much for my oon- 
tradictlon- Atid what is it ! Where ia the ground of the grntlc- 
man^a triumph? What tnconeiiatcncy in \vord or do<jirina baa 
be been able to detect ? Sir, if tbU be a sample of that dJ*eom- 
fiturv VL'ilh uhleh the honoruhk gi-'ntkman thrvuten^d tne, com* 
mend ni« ki (hs wonl tUxnmfiiutK for \\\\-. tvA of my lif*'. 

But, nflri idl, this in noT thr point of the deh-iTp ; njid 1 inn*t 
now bring the g<^ntleman back to what ta the p^uit. 

The real question belw.'ven me and liim i*. Hae the doctrine 
been advauijed arihe SLouth or the Eaftt, that the |>o|>ulution of 
the We^TTTiould be reUr<W* or ut leaii need not be liatitejW, 
on neooiml of ils tfFeL-L lu dmin off thp pL-opEr from thii Allanlic' 
Sutcn^ Li lliia doctrine, «i3 hitn t>ccn idlrgi-:d, of I^jtteTii (jti- 
gin! That it the qiic-^tion. Ha^ the geiiilemnn found any 
^SS^ by which be can make good his accuaation 1 \ «ubmil to 
tha Senate, that he had entirely failed ; and, aa fur a« this debate 
has ahown, ibe only peraou who faa^ advanced aoeU aenttmenia 
\n a gentleman from South Carolina, and a friend tif the honor. 
^1^ member hJiuiteir. The honorabic ^nilcm^ui hu givrn no 



answn to thi«; iherv n imiio wliich c:iii hv givirii. Tlir simplr 
fftcti while it tc(]ium no comment to cufunx' it. Jtfioft ulJ aigu. 
lunt to refkto it, 1 oould rrkT 1o the Mpcechee of atiothisr 
SoLithirn gotitJ^^mnn, in yi'tir* bpfor*-, of tho t-ame j^neiftt cliur- 
itrtjT, nml to ihn nninp rJlivf^ r* ihnt whjcli h^** Ikccii atioTcO ; 
but I will Mot conAumc Ihc litncof The Strtiuf^.' l>y iht* nttulitig 
of ihcm- 

So th^^n, Sir. Now England ia ffuiltleeu of the policy of n^tnrd- 
ini; W^^tf^n population, and of all envy and jcnloasy of thr 
j^wTli nf rhn npw 9in1«K Wholevor then be of tim! policy in 
Uie oouiilry, ik> part of it ih hers. If it has si loml li^ihirjitiori, 
thcr honorable inmiiber !ia* probatly nef-ii by thin tinir whcr* to 
loc»k fcr it; and if it now had rcct'ived n nnmc, he hnn himKoir 
oMttHied It 

We approach, at leiiffth. Sir. to a more Importnnt pan of the 
liononilili- iffniJemaiiV i)h«TrvarionH. Bimi4T it dt^ii not nrmrd 
vrith my view* of jn^tiee and policy to give awmy the public 
[and,* nllogether, cifi n mere Tnalti.-T (if ^ntuity, I nm D«ked by 
The* honoribli> gniilcnmn on uhtit ground it 10 thai I consent to 
vQt4; Ihcm aivny in punicular Invhuinv. How, he inqnireft, do 
1 rrrnnrilr with tbr*r pmfritH'd wnrimrntji, fnyenpport of ni^ut- 
utirtf appropriutiiig portinnA of ihc landjt to purtiL-uUr ruaj.^i, |uir< 
ticulftj canals, particular rivcrv, and particular ifisti tut. ions of 
edaoation in tho West? This leadie, Sir, To ih<- rvul and wide 
cSlHerencQ In poUtioal opiolon between the honuftble gL«ntJ<.*maa 
and myself. On niy part, I look upon all the»e objects u con- 
nectml with (be <.'uiuinoj] good, fairly enibmcMl in lis ubjt-cL and 
ita term»; iie, on tbe coalrary, deems Lhcm all, if good at all, 
only local good. 'J'hia i« our dittoivnee. The interrogatory 
whbch he proceeded to pot, at once eKpU^nn thif dilVcrrence. 
* What biiereat," a^ks he, "h«a South Carolina in a caojU in 
Olrio?^ Sir, thJA very qutnttuii i*s full of ai^ii ifiounu-. It de- 
vdopa the gentleman^ whole political tiystcin ; and ita nnswct 
exjwundfi mine. Here vrc differ I look npon a n^d over the 
AUeghuni«4, a canal round the falU of ihE< Ohio, or a canal or' 
railway from llie Atlantic 10 ihe WcTitern u'ulers, as being an| 
nbjf^t large und extenaJve enough to be fairly »aid to be for Ihtf 
common bentilit. The gcntJeuiaa thinks Dlhrnvi5CT and tlilir 
t» the k<!y to Ilia confiLmction of the povrvn of the ^Tcrn- 
mant He may well aak wb4t mtereut hut South Carolina in a 

vol- 111. 26 




rnnni in Ohio. On hb nvtipm, H is tjiir, shp haw «<» irtirrttit 
On ihat ffynhrni, Ohi» Bnd Cim>lina luv iliJTrrptit k"^''''')^*^^^^ 
tod difTcrcnt (xmntnr« ', ClC^at\ccic<i hcrrc, it is 1tu<;, by eomi; ^l^ebt 
and ilUlc'lini^L bond of union, bat in all main rMpf^ctit ttepunLl^ 
and divmin. On thul nyitcin, Cun>lina bv no more iiit^rvii U\ 
a cun^ in Ohi<i tliun In M(*xi(T(\ Tbr gr^titlfTTtiiin, Uitrt^^irt^ 
ortly fdllnWA out hi.t <)wri prii]ci|i1e--!i ; he dorn no mtirir ihni) nrrivr 
at the natQral cnnchisiiana of hi5 own doctrinr^; he only ah- 
nounrc^ thr niif: rcatdtf of that creed whidi he ^lu adopted 
]iim)ti*)r> nn<l n-ould pcmiade otheri to odopF, whrn he thun d^ 
plnr^A that South (^.arcilinn hiut nn intrrp*! in n pnNit^ wnrk in 

8lr, wc lULTTow-mindcd people of New Gnglnnd do not rea«oiL 
tliU0* Our nation of things Iji entirely ditTfrcni. Wc look upon 
the Stat««, not u Mponted, but a« untt4^d. W« lov^ to dwel) 
un ibat anion, nnd on the mutual hnpplneaa whicb it has mi 
mut-li proiitirrnl. and itie iiiitiTQiin n*jjowi] wlnrfi tt liii** no gn<tit- 
\j contjibutrd lo Bi-quirr. In our conlemplatiun, Carolina and 
Oluo lire part» of tb4.< » country; Stutce, united oader the 
nme K^nend ROTemTn^iit, having; ioter^BU, comuiofi, oMocJAledt 
intrrniingM- In wliitL'tcT i* wiihiri Tht* proper (phrrc of \\\* 
caniitlEutionid piiwri ^nf thin gnvcnmir-n^ wr Jouk upciii (he 
Stntr* lu (inr. Wr do nul im|Kiac gro^^pliicnl llmltji \o OUT 
pEtriotJC feeling or trgnvd ; wr do nrit follow rivf-m rind moun- 
latni, and Une« of Intitnd*;, to find Iximuloriefi, ht^yond vhich 
public impeovfinjent* do not b'n^tit ot. We who eon>a b«rv, 
as a|w»nTa and rrpupwniativvB of th*M» iiWTOW-inindwl and aelf* 
Ish ineii of Nrw Kngland, conaidor oTir*elvi^s aa tiound to r^ 
g4td with an equal eye the good of Ihc *hoIe» in whatever b 
within our powers of lepslat.ion^ Sir, if a milroad or o<riDal. 
b^j^innin^; in South CaroUna snd ending; in South Coroliita, 
ap]>eared to m(i To he of nntlonal JTuporianre and national mag- 
nitude, believing, an I do, tiat thr power of ^veniiiieiit eittiicU 
to Hie encouraj^^mpnt of works of tliat drwription, if ! w-ere to 
»tand up hore nnd ai>h, What intj^rest ha» MBsnai^ltii setts in a 
railroad in South Carolina? I should not be wiJUn^ to face my 
con«1in>eT^tft. Tbene 8ame narrow-minded men would tell mr, 
thai they had iwiit iiie to uet for the whole i-{njiiUy, nnci that 
one who poftftcwcd too Utlic comprehension, either of intellect or 
te&ling^ one who wab .^ot Urge onouf^h. both in mind ond in 



heart, to embrao^ tfae whole, wart not fit to be rblrufitvd wliU the 
Int'^rvnt of uiy port. 

Sir, I do not dcflint to enlflrgc the power* of the govrmmc«t 
by imjiintilinblf? cjHAtnirtioiiT nor to cx^^rcistr any not wiffaln a 
fair interpret A tJon. Rut wh^^n it w bplii^v*^ a ^x>wer does 
fxi«t, thfn it ill, in my jndgiriprf^ to ho rxi'fclwd for Jho i;*'ni»ral 
beiK-fit of the whole. So fai n^^ f»-''|"'rl* the exercise of sm-h a 
po^-er, the 6tftte« are one- It waa the very object <)f tbi- Con* 
tttitution to create onity of bitcrc^ts to the ettent of the powrn 
of the gcncnU n^vtTmnent In wur and pa%i^ wi> (in- oni*; in 
Qommcr^ ooo; bfeuuiie the authority of the geuiml government 
mcbev to wv und pMu^i*, and to the n>gii)ati<tn nf eommerc^. 
I haw n«vrr sr^rn any more difliridty in cfrcling lighflionjuT* on 
tbe lakes, than on the ocean ; in improving the tiarbotif of inland 
BCaa, than if they were within the ebb aud (low of the tide; or 
in removing obntnieticna in the vast strecmiB of the Wf-at^ more 
thnn in nny work to faeilitutc commerce oji the AUuntie coniit. 
If Ihf^- be any power for one, thcn» Ik power alio for the other; 
and they arc all and equally for the common good of the 

There are other objects, apparently roort Inral, or the benefit 
of which is low genemi, lowartls which, ncv^rthi-Jr-iR, 1 hnvp corr* 
curred with othi:*r*, to give aid by donuU^nji of InnX It in pro- 
poxejl to eon*tru^ n rond, in or through on« of the new 8iftie«, 
in wliirh thiH gnvrrnrnitnt poflsPi»pii Iqr^e qTinnrilirx nf land. 
H^ve the United ^f^tes no right, or, as a great atid Lintaxed 
propriiitw, arc Ibey under no obligation to eontnbute to an 
objerl thiia C4ilfriduled to j^omcte tlie oonnnoji good of all the 
proprii^lor^j th*"m»cU<?* included f And uvi-n with rc?'p''«'! fn 
odocstivn, whic^h la llio extntma cote, let tho qqestion bo eon* 
afderrd- In ih*- firnt place, as wn have »ei*n, it wa« m^t]*' mat- 
ter of compact with the«« 3tateS| that they should do their part 
U> promote cdiicaiion, In the next place, otir w'hole aysTcm of 
land lawa prooecda on the idea that education Is for the common 
good; boeaoae, In every divjpiout a certain portion hi tinitormly 
reserved and apprf>priatLHl for ttie iwe of itehooU. And, finally, 
have not lhKM< nrw RtntcH xingolTirly Hining chiitiiy, fonmled on 
the ground already «tfttnt| that thr gnvrrnm'^-nt i* a great un> 
taxed prcprirtor, in the ownership of ln« »o;l? It ii a conr'v^tr- 
%tion of great importaiiee, that probably tiiero ia in no part of 



the country, or of thr wculd, m> grrnt mil ftir th<r tncaiin of cdil> 
ciLtion, Off in these ucw States, owing to tlt*r vii?t nomtx-Ri of 
jMmons wifhin tho»« agc» in wtiich €ducntion and inotniction 
Mf. ttBually rt^ccivcd, if rccdvird at alL Thu is the natural con- 
eeqnpnc^ of recency of eettlement and rapid inereafle, Th« 
t^riLdUrt i>f Tlir^F* Sialics bIiowb huw j^ttaI a jjro[xirUciii i»f tli« 
whole popuUtJoa uecupk't) Ihe dans^-s bctwi^ii inrmity and 
mfinhcod. Tiirw^ arc. thr- wide fidd.t, nnd hrre in thr d^rp mid 
quiek noiJ for th*^ jicMs nf kncwkdgr ond virttir; and thi* ix tti« 
lavori^d ^RiKon. th*' vrry »pni]g-tLniP for sowing them. Lt*t thorn 
he diMj^MiinntJ^d wirhnnl Mint, I^t thrm he HratTcrrd wilh a 
bountiful hand, broadcafiL Whatever \hv ^iirnioentcan fuirly 
do tow;ird-H thf^ae oljjoc^U, in my upinlon. oug)iL to be dune. 

ThL'He, Sir, arc the grouadn, aucdn^rlly Matc^d, on which my 
vote* for in^nta of Iftnds for porticulEir objc^t^ts re«t{ while I 
mntnUiin, ni ibf? «9mr timr. Ibnt it iji all a eommon fvuid, for 
ibr nnmtn(»n benefit, Anri res^ons like Ihr***, 1 prrMmir, havt? 
influenced the voten of other gentlemen from New England. 
Those who have a dilFwrerU view of the powers of iUl* govern* 
ment, uf eimrjie, come Ui dilTcreut condti^ifrtiB, an lhL-B(.% lut on 
other quMtionn, I obiterved, when svpcnklng oil tbitt nutjjt*ct be- 
font, tbnt, if wo looked to any mpun^rf, whothrr for a road, a 
<MinnI, or niiy thing rUe, intended for the improvr'tnenl of the 
Weet, it would be found that, if 1h« New Eugl»n<l ayes were 
fltiuelv iiul of ihtr liTtEs of vote«4 Lbe Scjulln'rii noes would alwuya 
have rejected the mea.iure. The truth uf thio hi%a oot been 
denied, and cannot be denied. In utating l^hi^ I thought it 
jn*t lo ascribe it to the eonftitutioniU «cru|)l(>« of the South, 
rather than To any other le«8 favorabk or lew pburituhle L-uust, 
But no sooner hud I done thia, thaii the bouorable genllcinnn 
■udtH if 1 rKprnirh hiin :ind his frieitdd with Lbi'lf cifikbtilutiooul 
temples. Sir, [ rrpronc-h nob^xly. I stated a hiet, and guvu the 
moat respectful reason for it that occumrd lo me. The gentle- 
man cannot deny the faet ; ho may, if hi^ thooae, dieduim the 
nraeon, It i« not lon^ since 1 had ccea«ion, In preiu^iiiing a 
petition from bla own Stnte, to account for Uf being infjiJAtj^ 
Ui juy hnncH hy Niiying, Lhnt the conntitutionul opinions of the 
gcntlr-mnn nnd bii^ worthy collcfigar prevented thciu from eup* 
porting it Sir, did 1 state this tw tnotter of reproach? Far 
from it Pid 1 attempt to find any other cause ttiun \n hcn«it 


for t1i(-[w- »i(Tug)1e0? Sir, I did noL It did itt>l bt^'oirie iii<- 
W^otibt or iv hieiiiuitbr that tbe ^nUcuan luid ciflic-r diangri] 
hia ft^ntimciiU, ot thfit he* had made up a ovi of con^ititiilional \ 
opinions :kccommod[iU*d to fli:y pcirliculur conJn nation of polit-'^ 
Tciil occurriTiioeiL Hud 1 dona *Oj I vhould YiAvv fell, Ui>{, wliUe \ 
I wnH i-ntitJinI Ut IiMJ't crr^dit in iIiija qiit-«l,toniiig iithfr pPople^A I 
motivrs, I juKTifird ihr- whol« world in niir^prctihg my own. But 
bov hatt llic yciillL-maii returned tlua rcspL'ct for olhcr&' o\>\n* 
iona? Hi» own candor and justice, how bavc tii<ry b<;«n ex- 
liibitvd lominJEi tlie motivw of othrr^T whik Ur. htu> tx-oji nt «c 
much imlnK to iniiiiitaiii, wlictt tiobodv h^n dUpiiU'd. thr purity 
of hia own? Why, Sir, be bsia a*krd ic*Am, and hoiv, and wflj^ 
New England \i>1«a wt-re fotiiLfl i^(>ing for mi?usurpii fiivorable Xo 
xhc West, lie has demaiided lo be jt^fonned whether all tliip 
did not bt-gin in 18^, and while tbe elts:1ioii of Pn^eident wtu 
Atil) pen(Ung, 

Sit, to fhe^ qnenlions retort would be jti»tifiod ; imd It i» both 
cog(?nt and nl himH. Nrvprtheles«, E will answer ihr inf|Uirv, 
not hy r^lort-j but by fa<^t*i. 1 will t^ll the gr-ntlcmnn u*Jica, nnd 
Atiw, and tr/i^ New England bait supported incaburr^ favur^ble 
to the Wcat, I bnvc alrt'ttdy referred to the early hiBtory of tbe 
government, to Clicr timt aequituUon of the land^i, to the ort^intU 
law« for dinpovin^ of them, nnd for ^vtu-nin^ Ibi? itrritorieA 
where they lir^ and huxr shown Ihr inllnrnn- of Nrw England 
Qieii and New KnglMod |irinci|ilrK in all thesis Imding rnf^:(«innr!iv 
r nhrndd not U- j^ardoned were ] to go over that grouitd a^in. 
Coming to more recent Umes, and to meaAurei' of a lees gi^nerul 
cbonicteri I h»vc i-nri^uvored to prove tliat every thing of thia 
kind, designed for Wc^^turn improve int^nt^ has depended oa the 
vot^a of New Kn^litnd; all thin h iniv beyond the* powrr of 
^contradiction. And naw, 3ir, then* are two mpiwiirf** to whir.h 
] ^ill refer, not so aueiL-ut aa to belong to the early history of 
th*T public lands, and not 8o recent aa to be on this side of the 
period when the gentleman cb&ritably imoginea a new dirotn^on 
may have bocn given to New Knglnnd ff^eling Euid Nvw Eng- 
land votes. Thpfti mva^nrtfR, and ihi^ New England voivti in 
»uppoit of them, may be taken aa «i^2npb'H and H}^eolmen« of all 

In 1820 (obtttfrve, Mr. Prealdent, in 1820) the \ito\ih of tJi« 
Wc»t bctfought Congrexi.i tor a reduction in tiie priue of ianda* 


SSXXJNU SP££CH OS tDur^ lUti>OLUTlUlfl. 

In fovor of rhaC rrdaction» Nrw Kn^biid, with n drlr^tjon ot 
forty mcmbcre in tllc other hon-ic, gnv*r ;hirl.y-thr<w voli^t, and one 
oaly ftg^nsi It. The four Satith«rn Slotcfs with more Ihan tifty 
m«>[ntMfr»f ^vir thirry'two voto« far it, and vcvi^n ngaiuft it. 
Agnir^, in \^'2\ (rtiArrvr nguin, Sir, lliit tiiiii<), xhv hiw jhiMiu'ji fi^r 
the relief of ihc pujchiwcro of the public Jnnd^. I'hii^ wn> a 
measure of tjuI importance to the W(i!*t, and more r-»pcciolly to 
the 8uuibw('Ht. Lt nathoriited the rvtinqiiinbrnirnt oT conlmc-ta 
for bnd« whit^h hud h^t^n entered into at brgh jHricrp, and a re- 
diiMAon In othf^r rnKr* of ncit [v>*k thiiii thirty- ait vi*ri mid u hnlf pel 
vtnu ou thf purchAei>money. Many milliuna i»f doUa/N ftix oi 
kvcQt I brlir;vc, probably ranch morCi vrcrc rcliniiuishcd by thia 
law. Oa ihia hill, Now Kngland, wJlh htr forty members, ^vc 
raon aJBrmutive vo>L>d tbuo the four Soutlieru 31a1^», with thrlr 
liftV'-two ur fifty-lhri^e menibera Tfiette two uk' far ihv moat 
iiiiputtitrtt ^rirr.d cfitasiirffi i¥fl|)pctiii^ the publit! latid» ivliicli 
have t>«eii Adopted wUbin tlie lust twenty ye;u^ Ttiey took 
place in 1830 nnU 18tJI. Tlwl ia tbe time when. 

Af to the miinm^r A^ir/', the gt'DtiL-man idrrady aecv that, it wna 
by voting in >olid eolurnn for Ihu required relief; nnd, Itutly, sku 
Ut rhi- cJinKP ir:%, 1 trll th<f geiillrmnn it wnjt bi^rniiKiT Ihr mt'rn- 
bcr> from Now Eiiglund thoiight tbc meaeurea ju»t &iid aalutury ; 
bccftiisc they eutcrtmncd toworde the Wo^t neither cnvy^ hatred, 
DOT tnnlioo; h4>!cuu«o tboy deemed it bt^coming them, qa jtut and 
oiilight^nM pnhlie mfln, to meet thr rxigrnt^y whieh had arisen 
Ir the Went with (he nppriipriHle m**aaur(^ of relief; beeim*e 
they ftlt it due to their own characters, and the chamcler» uf 
ibeif New England predccearwri in lhi« governmetit, to act to- 
wards the nnv State* in the spirit of a Utieral, putiuniising, m^i^ 
nanimoufl policy. So mueh^ Sir, for the caui»e wti^; uttd I hopo 
that by thta time, Slr^ the honorable ^ntleman i« ^^liUslted; if 
nnl, X d(j iiul know twftfn, ur htitft or i/.A^ he ever will he. 

[laving recurred to these two in^port:tnt nirudureft, in answer 
tc the gentJcmun'si inquiries, I munt now beg permission to 
go back to u period aofnewhat earJirr. fur thi.> pnrpi>4i(r of ttiii 
'urther showing how much, or mther how iBltle, rt^iucn there 14 
Eiir thr gnnllt*inan*x uiiiinimtiiiii timt pnlirical ho\v^ tvr frRra, or 
party aflstTintions, were the ground* of the^c New Euf^land 
TOtci. And liilcr whnt hn* been srnid, I hope it mny be foTgiTcn 
mA if 1 allude to iomc poUtieal opiniomi and vote«( of my own. 



'«rt \crf liHit* public-- impoTtnnrr m+aiiily, bill whw-h» fnMu the 
tlmr at wliLch tVioy w^ro ^vcn and exprcuvij, tD:iy [inafr Ciff- ^»tl 

ThiB f;ove rumen If Mr, PreKJd^nl, from its orijfin to ttic pcftCv 
of ISIO, b'AO be«» too miurlj pi)gro9Uic.<(l with vadou« othcrica- 
|KHli4iTt (?oiic-i<rii» Ui lye Mt* Ut tani iln thoughtH inwnrd, and look 
to ilw lirvrlniiiTirnt nf iIa vn7<t: int^ronL Tefwurc«a. In ttie *^ns\y 
part of Vivj^ldcfit WtiJihiiif^ion'e admiiiUtraliuii, it was fully oo 
cupitffl with c^mpktiiig itn owa vrKanixution, prcnridiag for the 
public (lobt, dt-'fonUiti;: th« frontiers, and midntiuning domestic 
p«ftcix Before the u-rminutiot) of that utdiDinittration, the Arm 
of ihif Frriirh Rt-ro^Qijon hliun^d fonh, bc from a Dew-o]>«niHt 
totcuno, nnd the whole brf^adth of the oc^an did nut m-(-uit> uk 
from iUi efltcts. ThfJ amokt' aud the cindr-ni rou-hrd iirs lliiiugh 
itot the buming lavn. DiJIJcult mid agitating qiirvtionj^ cmbor- 
nL)W>g t^ gDvpTameiit and dividing pablio opinion, flpmog cat 
cf the nc\^* «fAte of our foivijEii rcUtion^, and wbta mcq^^od b]/ 
niben, end yet ngain by cthrre, ^unlly ^mbnrr^^ing and 
a-qtially eKcJlIiij^ divtatoji and dtHecird^ tbmu^h the lori<||t Hnien of 
twLNiLy yenm. till tEie^ fjnaUy iHautd in ibe war wtih Eii^laiiKL 
])o%ti to the do!M? of that war, no di^linct, marked, and drlibcr* 
ate attention had horn given, or conld have been given, to tbc 
internal conditinn of the country, ite eapi^eliics of improvemcnti 
or the eonetitntional power of th^ gov«rament in regard to ol>< 
jectft conti«'l<-'d with sut-h iiiipruvemeut. 

Thr pi-aiT«, Mr, Ptrsidenl, brtnight aliont an etitifrly n^w and 
a mott interesting *tntc of inhings; it opened tn ua other prwi- 
pecta and eiiggc»t<'d other duties. Wc ourselves ircrc changedi 
and the wlioU- world was changed The padficatioQ of Kurop(>, 
aftL*r June, idlS, aj^aumed a firm and pcrrrkanent a&p^et Tha 
nation! evidently mnnlfealed that they were di^po«ed for peac& 
Homr agifaticin of thr wav«H might \iv t*%])f<:VBt\, evmi afW lh« 
^Uirrii hnd niib^ided, bat the tcndrne.y wa*, strongly and rapidly^ 
towards ioulcd repose. 

It eo hfippencd, Sir, that 1 wa^ at that time a memttcr of Con* 
|peB0( and, like othpn?, naturally inrncd my thoughbi to iht- ooa- 
templation of the r^eenlly afrered rondiiion of the ermntry aiid 
of the? world. It appeiuei] plainly L^nuu^h to mtf, aa well aa to 
Winer and mori* rx^jpric^nccd incn^ that the policy of the govcm- 
mci\t would natLUally lake a etiut m a new direction ; bvoiuia# 



new iliret'tioiia would ntHnr-wuri}}' be ^vL<ti Ut ihf pitmuitii unit 
cMH:u|intii>i]» of tile [H^uplr. Wet hnd jtiiAhtHl our mmm^'ricc ta/ 
And r«»t, (indc^r the nJvmitng? of n neutral tlag< But there wore 
now no lotigrt Unj^^ oi:hrr iinuinil or bcUigefcot The harvest 
of ii«iii7AJi(/ had twen gr^at, but wo bad pothered it all. With 
the peace of Enrope, \t was obvious there would apriri}^ u|> in 
hri cdrcJi* of ]iulii~ifiM u re-viv'n] unJ invi^^rar^rf] H|)trit of Imdi*, mill 
n new activity in all iIift bustinrM nnd cibjftLH nf dvili^etl lifr. 
Jlrrcfifira'. oar commRrcinJ goiins wnrc to be eornrd only by auc- 
ccM ill a doAc and intense coni|>c-tilioti, Uther nations would 
produce for tberaaoJve», and carry for theniaeh'^, and in;inufao- 
tur« for thoms«<lve4, 10 iha full extent of theli abilitk*. The 
irrujM of our pbiiiK would 110 luiigiT hUHtajn Kuropi'an nrmtfs, 
nor init MtipA Ioo^l'E jHnpply Iho^r wboni wnr hm) n^ruiritd un- 
able to supply thnm^clvc*- It was obvious thai, tincirr 1hp»fl 
ctreumtftnnco^, the counrTy would begin to survey itself, ond X9 
tietiinatft ite owd cnpaciiy of improv«moiit. 

And this improvemeiti, — how was it to he accomplished, and 
\t DO w^H Tu iicf^oiTipliTih It? Wt- were ten 01 twelve iiitllionn of 
pcopll^ sprPHil ove.r nltn^Ht ludf :i world. Wc wer*? intirt- tJiHii 
twenty Btntrh^ some slrptcijing nlong the »nme twiiboegxl, »onae 
along the i^amr Imc of inland IVontier, and othciv on opposite 
banke of thc< aamo vast rivora. 'IVo coneiderationa nt onco pn>- 
sent4>d th^ntvelves with ^at force, in looking at Ibb «tate of 
UiliJ^ One wuHf that tbat f(reul bniiieh of liiipruveiitent which 
fMRBUHted ill furnifihing new fudliUeti of inien^oui^i? neueMuirily 
ran into tlijTcrrcnt BliHrn in every lca<)hi^ instance, and would 
bcnehl the eiti/env of all *uch Stutc»- No one titutv, thficforc, 
in such cftsv*^. would aiffiume the whole PxponiH!, nor wan lh« 
coi>pcrarJon of ni'vonii Si »r<'* \o be rtpp<TlJrHl- Tnk** tlir ini^Tmiee 
of the Delaware hri'okv*.'ai*^r. it will coat ft^^vrral iintlinnK of 
■Yonny. Wciuld Penimylvunla alonti tsver htive cunHiruL^ted ilT 
Ortiitily never, while iIiih Union laeft^i, becnuae it id not for her 
note bf^ntliu Would I'mnflylvHoia, Nf=w Jersey, and UeUwure 
have unitt^d to noeoinpliiih it at their joint f^xfXfniw ? Osrtainiy 
noT^ for lhe narni? reitinOEi. It c<juJd not he done, thfrvfon.*, but 
by thr grnf^TiiI govertiment. The Hamt^ may \w wild of the Injrgii 
inland uuderinkio^N ex<:ept Umt, in them, govnumeut, inetcaJ 
of bearing the whole expense, eo^ipcralee with oihera wlio bear a 
|iart. Tlie other ooiusiderutiop i«, that the UiiLt<:ii States havo tbo 



tuft. They ct\jvy Iho rfvcuue.n Lk-rivcrd from commerce, And 
tllf Statra have no abundant and co^y Aourcx-^ of public in- 
comcL Th« ourtom-houAR* 611 th*? gvneml trcuvury, while tbe 
StftteB hav« scanty nMOurooeT accept by r«K>rt to heavy dSr«ot 

UiidtT ttiiti view af thing*, T lhaug}il it iii^t^asmry U> M^itb-, tt 
t«Hist ftn my»rlf, same definite iiolioiij^ with n^js|i(^<t to thr ]>owerH 
of the government in regard to internal attatr». It moy not sa- 
vor loo much of scif-commendation to rt^miirk, that, with this 
objocf, 1 conHidored the CouEititution, its judiuial contfUut-'tioiif lU 
GOnt^riiporiineoas pxpoaiiion, and the whole tilstory of tht^ If^gis- 
latkon «r Conjure** under it ; and 1 nmvi^d at thr eonelnsdon, that 
govcnimriit hjui pownr to iirromplL-^h sundry nbjcfTl>, or aid in 
tbvir nocotnplinhment, which arc now commonly spoken of oi 
Intsswau l>irRovEMti>T#. Thdt conciu^ion, Sir, moy have been 
rifibt, or it may have beeifc wronf;. 1 am not about to argue the 
groundti of it mi lurf^ I say only^ that it wan adopted miui 
ac'ti'd on evi-n hh I'arly aa in 181G. Yen, Mr Prcitideiilf ! rnsidf 
up my opinion, and determined on my inti?iuled c\HirM? of |Hiljt- 
ical condofrt, on these suhjec^t^ in the Ponrtcenlli Congrrw, '" 
181Cp And now, Mr. I'miidcnt, J have further xo say* that I 
mad«i uf> thcfsct opiniofii^, and ctntoj^d on thi^ conne of poliuoal 
conduct, Teticfo dure* Yri^ Sir, I pursued la all thl« a Sotiih 
Cvroliriil iraek on tht* Jocti-ijiert of internal inipruverient. Zenith 
Carolina, oji nhe wns then repn*aented in \he other iiiiUKi^ » r. 
forth in 1816 under a fr»h and leading breeze, and l^-a^ among 
the fcllower!!. Jiiit if my leudi-*r sees new UghUi and turjia a 
sharp eorner, unle^* I nee now Jiglita also, I keep ftirnighl on til 
the Aam« path. 1 r^pr-nt^ th^it leading gentleman from South 
Cvrnlinu ^vere fir^it and fon^moHt in behalf of ihtr dtH'ri 
inUrnjd iinjiruveiut^nU, wlitn tinise docLrin«i t^riie fitKi 
coQskleicd and octed upon in Congress. The debate on the 
bank question, on the tnritf oi 1^16, and on the direct toLX* wilt 
Miow who was wtio, and what wo^ what, ut that time.. 

The larilT of 1816, (one of the plain cahca of oppression and 
UtturpatEon, from whichf if the ^ovcnimi^nt does not rei-ede, Indi* 
vidmii SlitlcB may justly aocedt^ from the j^t^v eminent,) ia, Sir, in 
truth, a South Carolina taritf, supported by South Cnrclina 

* Mr^ C&lboun. whvn ihie ajt^Mih was mudo. wit PfMidont cf the S^n&io, bihI 
VtM-l^DHdiiii of (ho Unitvtl Suxo*. 

•'* "■< «■« 

1 South V 

'rin*-» of I 

kl to ttr I 



volc^ But for thoac votc«i it could not have pa<»?H-cl in the foria 
in which it did poivi; wherca^ if it li^d dvpendvii on MiuiMcbu* 
MtTi» t-oi4r», k would have bttn lo-it Dov» uot ihi; bonorabl* 
genttennan well knou' iiU thi> ? Tbeff are oi*]y thoiao who 
till, fnli v,vt\t kraw it nil. I do not »ty thiA 1o rrpnitirh South 
Cnioliuiu 1 only stale titc fact; and ] UlIuK it vuiU ujf|H^ur tu bo 
tnie* ihnt amoiif^ thr <^arlic3t and boldest advocaU*» of the larilT, 
•4 A in«ai»ure of protirclion^ and on the express k'^'^'^^ ^^ protcc- 
llop, were leaditif; f^nttt'mcn of South CivroUiiu in Congrtww 
I did not tlie-ziT mui cannot now, undi-ntaiicl Ihcir Jungiiagc In 
miy olhrr ^ti'iiu'. Whilr thin iHtifT of 1816 whs iindi^M' rliKciiA- 
»ori in lUti tlou'w of Ri^^rufirntntJvni, nn hoiionbh? gfnrk'inHii 
from jCJcorgio, now of thia hou»c,* moved to reduce the- [>rupg»trd 
duty on cotton- Hv fuikd, by four vou*, South Carolitm iciving 
\htve votoH (eiioUfjh lo hu*t turned thi? at^iilu) u^^nst hU motion. 
The act, Sltr ihtn pLi&scd, and rt'ccivt.'d on iU |)u»BUf;e the »U|> 
jiort uf a inajufity of thi? Rv|)rupntntiv«-» of Stnilh Oirolinii 
liiTChcuti timl voling. Thi» art jrt tl^ic fi^^l in ihr onicr of tboiu? 
now denounced as pJam uaurpatioua. \\'<: acc it daily in tlw 
lUt, by the aide of those of 1^:1^1 end 16S8, a^i a ca>« of iiiauLf»t 
opprefKHLOn, juatifyinK disunion. J |)ut it home ro the bonorable 
loember Ooni ^^UEh Caroilnu, thiit bU own State wua not only 
"art and purt'* in ihijt mt-usure, but the cansa catatant. Willi* 
out her aid, 1hi» H-ntin»ti principlr of nittichirf, thi» root of Upa«t 
could not have hern planiL^d. 1 have ajn-udy said, aud it i« truet 
ttiat thia act procxcded on tlie ftround of protection. It idler- 
f(?ri^d directly with (.'xiAtiiifC iiitefe^lv of grt^ul vuIul* and amouoL 
It ^it up the Cuicutta cotton tmde by the rootjf, but it pauiAed, 
nrverthelefiA, and it pnancxl oo the principle of protecting mann- 
raclures, on lb'.' principle against fret? trade, on tJie priacipte 
oppDBi^d to tliut which itLi us aivtie.\ 

Bach, Ml. President, were the opinions of important and Icad- 
ini; gontienien from South Curobna, on the uubjeot of intenul 
JtBprovement, in lt<l6, I v>H.^nt out of Cougr4T»ti the nejtt year, 
4nd, reluming aj<ain in 1823, thought ] found Stitith Ouioliriu 
whvrc I h^id It^ft ht-r. I rErally inppoArd that alt lliingn rt?[naintil 
a« tlicy were, and that i\m Bjuth UaicrLiaa uoctrinc of internal 
improvements would be defended by the Bamc eloquent voicc«s 

• All. run>Ui, 

\ Sm NoiA B, at Uio cad of the Apooob. 



tnd tbc some strong arrows as formerly. In tho kip^c i>r thcM 
nx ycara, it is true, political aiiK>ciQti(iiifl hiul nfftiiiiivd el new 
avpeci and new div4»ioii«> A »irong pftrty hail arnc-n in tIm 
South )ioHti1e to Ihe dnclrlne of internal improv^mrnM, Anti< 
i!£iawilid»li»ii u'Lt-n lUl- ll^ig uiiJer wliU'li tbia purli^ fuujfliL; unJ 
ito fUpportm invrif^hci ugain^t inl^'mol ifii[irovcmcnta, much 
after the mannrr in which the houorabic gcntlcmnn hen now 
iuvcighcd ognm^t ihcm, tw pjirt cuid parot^I of the nyfltcm of coo* 
fcvlidaliotL. WhcihFT ihit party arose In South Carolina Itiwd^ 
or Iji the ntrkghborhood^ ia more than I know. 1 think the latter 
HowGVi-r thai niiiy Uaye Ih^-ii, lUert- wi^rv iliom? fuund in Bonih 
Cnrolinu rracly to nuikr war npon it, ant} who did m^kc i[itrr}>ij 
ni^r upon it. Nnaii^» being regarded aa thing:» in mch contro- 
rcrvicf, they bestowed on the anli-improvcmnU grnlkmen the 
ipellation of Radtcula' Yes, Sir, the appellation ol RadicuU, jui 
term of distinction applicable and applJed lo thot^*- who do* 
nifMl the liherul duclririi-n of Lutrriial itiiprovt-jnenl, uri^iiiutMl, 
ttOCOrding to tht; br-at of rny rc^ooIltHttJon, »oin(?whrr<! bf^twct^ii 
Norlh Ci>n>liiiiL and (itorgin- Well, Sir, thc*c mi«chicvou# Had* 
icftla wc!V to br put down, and the strong arm of South Vwto* 
Una was ?tret^h4^J out to put thrm dov/n> About tbis time 
I returned to Congreaa. Th^ battle with the Radicals li-dd beea 
fotigtit, uud our South dniliua clurupionH of the doc'irlnt^ti of 
interniLl impixivcmcnt had nobly m:tiulaimHl their ground, nnd 
were understood to have achieved a ricWiy. Wc looked upon 
them as eonqueror». 'I'hey had driven back the cneriy with dia- 
oojikfiture, a tbinj^f by the way, Sir, which ia not alwaya per- 
tined wbi^n it U pruiijixeil. A Kentlemun to whom 1 huva 
ndy ppftTTwl In this deJmle hml com* into Con^rvKt^ durmg 
my nbM*iic<t from it, tram South Canjiinct, aniJ hnd brought wilJh 
him a high reputation for nbilily. lie came frt^m n school with 
which wc had been acquainted, ei noscitur a sociU. I hold ia 
my hfindt Sir, a printed i^peech of this diatingnUh^d Qenlleman,* 
''ON IvTtnNAL iMpAovBMEvra," delivered about the period to 
which I now teff-r, and pririled with a few introdmTiory remaHEv 
uiHin conjolidaiUm : in which, Sir, 1 thrtik he igtiiti* (M-PUMiliiiHlnl 
Ihc u/n;umeiite of hi^ op;>cncnb!i, the RaiJicvils., if to crutk be to 
coiMoiidatc. 1 givt you « nbort bat signiJicant qaotatioa from 

* Iff. MoDuAa- 




tlip*4* ffmnrkn. He is »peLikirL^ of n gmrnpliU-t, l)u-n ri-<*putly 
piibli* ciitillcd " CoiiMiliiljtioii^*; nud hnvlrig u]KiO<sl uj the 
qjcfltiDii of rcnc^wJDg the charter of ihe former Book of the 
Unitocl 8tatc«f he saya: — 

** Mt^rcoircr, in the cflrly hiatuiy of ponica. and when ^r. Crawford 

ftdvovuicd a rciwwnl t>i ibc old cl^artiir^ ii wua uoiu>idcrod ri FfidomI 

iiH.-urfure ; uhidi mk-rnni ir[iprovvmehi nmsr vnu, tw this anchor «*rrurM*- 

o^^t^y AmLC4. Tlibi Latter mccuiifc i^rLgmoiod in ibir odmmMUaiion of 

} Mr. J<i|ltf fVOTL, wjih tho n|>propnaiiOD for Uio Uiin]1>4rluij^ Kuud i ftfld wm 

I flnti^jini pciMMiy OM tt fMtJm^hY jifr. < ]lilhoim> nnd mrniril iJiruugU iho 

Wlotj?c (>r^RGproscaCftli7o« b^ « 1u^ mi^hiy of i\w Ec|>tjl>lioiuiM, io' 

eluding iJmovt aveiy one of Uio loadipg m«iL who oarriod um tbr^High tlip 

f3o, then, iniem&l improvement it not one of the Fc<ierBi here- 
MeSt One parogrnph more, iSir: — 

■'The author in qitustiwi. not contunt with dcnounclD; ta FcfLcmlJui;!, 
Gencml Jackson, Mr, Adnnu, Mr. Cnlhooo, and lh« majority of Iho 
9i>Liih CiifiiliriA (It^lr^gntii^n Ui Con^n-j«, mutjest^y vitriidi (lie dcuimc^n- 
tion lo Mr. Mouruu nijii tho svholo Ropijbhcun part>'. Horo arc hit 
wonlii : — ' During the ndmlnistmtion of Mr. Monroe mucli hni pM«fd 
which tlie Kepuhlicun ptiny wuuld bo glaJ To approve if ihuy uuuld 1 1 
But ihe principnl ft!ruiirG, and that which hop chiefly uticilod thcve etv 
■crvniioDft, i« tM rv'ii«wiil of tho SvRTBM or t?n?KfriTAL tuptt(>vi:iiiKfiT«.' 
Now llii» mco-iurc wua udopbod by u voEc of 115 t(j 86 uf u RrpuUicojt 
Congrc««« juid etuictJoned by a Kopublicai^ Ppciidcni- Who, then, ui thtii 
aulhor, who tunume^ The high prt>n>galjv« of di^nntincing, in iff.' nuoi4f 
of the R4.ipulihca;j pait>, tim RopublicfLn u(Jniim:tiriiiLcrn uf ihn counLry ^ 
A dcjiunciatiuu itictudiug witliia ttzt awuap Ca/4vif>i, Luwncfrs, tmd 
CAci*er, man vho will be rcgnrdcd nn Ehc brighieai onunnrjiin of Sontli 
drvlina, flud the ttntngcvl pilbuvof itie Repuhtjcoii piLdy, aft long \u 
the talc war shall he remcmhared, and lolenia onii polriotiitin aball be 
legarded a* the pmj>«r objeoLfl of the ndmir«Tjon and grntitudit of a tm* 

Such tune the opiniona. Sir, which vrerv maintaiiieij by tigtith 
CAio^na gonttemcn, in the Hdums ot Kt!|)n*«cnlAlivu«, on th« 
DUbjf^ct of intt<rnal iini>rovrrn<fntii, wh<*rt I fook my *vui there 
ns a member fiom Mn^Mapbimptt* in 1823, Hut ihU Ih noL lUL 
We hjiO u bill bcfure ub, auJ pasftrd il in tliut houaci enlitlcil, 
''All Act to pruciinf ttie iLccv^ary Mirveys, plaii»i ai>J eatimalca 
upon the eubjeet 4jf roii<l» <uk1 caiuUci.^^ It itulhorj^ed the Pnv- 



idcnt to CAU9C surveys nnd catimntce to be made of thf" roatM 
Iff Buch Toa.6f^ and caoala 3d be mi^ht dwm of jaatjonul impois 
tance lo a commeTcIal or military point of rlt-w, or U^r the 
immportation of the mail, aud appropriated thirry ihoa^and 
iJullurs (Hit of till! tji-a»iiry ia di-fniy tiir rx|K'niUT. ThU act, 
though prclimmoiy iii it» nature, covered the wbolc ground. U 
took for gniDtcd the complete power of internal improve me nt| 
ae far aa any of its advctcatcfl had over contended for it Having 
passed the othf^r houfle, ihe bill eaine up to the SenaU*. and wu* 
here <ron»ider'xl and dt'bated In April, 1324. Tlie hoDoruble 
int-itibrr fmiii Hnntfi Cnrnlirm wsis a mrmhrM' of ihr fti-nnte at 
thut iimr- While Uh^ bill wi* imdrr eonAtdtTHlioQ hen-, a mo- 
tion waa made to add the following proviso : — '^Provided, 
Thftt nothing herein eontained abaU be eonotrued to allirm t>f 
ofhriit n powtT in ConKreasj on (heir own uuth<irity, to meikc 
road* or cniiaU within any of the State* of the Union," TTic 
yeas aruj nny* wrrr? tnkf-n on thin provino, and rhp honorable 
member votnl »« fAr? negative' The proviso failed. 

A motion wati tJion made to add llib proviso, vix.; — " /Vo- 
triifra!, That the faith of the United States i> hereby pledged, 
tbat no moEiiry nhidl t^vcrr hr i>«pcnd<^ for ronds or canal^ (ex- 
cept i1 ahall he ^mong the sovnral Stales, and in the eame pro- 
portion ae<Jirtv?t taie« are laid and aue^sed by the protierona 
of the Ci»n§tJtu[iouH** The honomble mt-mber vuttrd ta^ainil 
thiA pTovifi/t ^iIno^ and it fulled. Tht? hill vm* tJirn put nii it* 
paeeage-, and the honorable Tuerabo' voted fw U^ and it |ra««cd« 
and bceamc a law. 

Now, it fitrikeeme, Sir^ that there is no maintaining Iheao vot««, 
but upon the power of internal improvement, in lla broadeit 
t^n*r. In Iriith. the^e bllU for sarveys nnd estimaren huve ulvraya 
brnn roTinUlr-rrd as test, cpiestions ; they show who is for nnd who 
against internal improvement- This law itaeLf went the whole 
length, and a^nmed the full and complete powpr- The gentle- 
man^tt votes Buulaincd that powc^r, in every form in which the 
varJouB propoaitiona to amend preaented \L He went for the 
entire and unrestrained aQthority, without eonsulting the Statea, 
and wiHicuE ugrerlng ia any proiwirtionFilr diHlributiun. And 
now sufTt-T me to remind you, Mr. Pievident, that it is tbia very 
same pu^^er, thn» i^ncttoned, in every form» by the gentleman*^ 
own oplitiou, which ia 00 plaia and aiauifoat a uaorputipii, Lbal 

Toi. III. 36 




funn^ nubmiMjon to any lawn ^^irryin^ tlic jMnb-ct iiilo rl&vt. 
Tnilyi Scrj U not this a iittlo toa hard ? Muy wc not <ir^\-v 
Efonip iDfrcy, andrr fnvor nii<i protection of the gentleman's own 
\ ftuthofity ? Admitting that a foftd, or « c«naJ, mart bo wiitlpii 
tiourn llfvt iiftnrpitiori n* wm rver cnmmiltri), nmy wr lind nn 
mitignlioR in our mpoct for his place, nnd hi* Tot«, at one t)i&1 

|lui£>W5 ihfl law? 

I The tariff, which South Corolinri had an ciHcicDt hand in c»- 
tabli^hinfi, id 1816, «nd tJiia a«e«rted power of internal iiupro\'t-- 
nieot, advanoed by her in the snme year, and, s» vre hav«- seeu, 
approved und annirf&oii4-f) hy her [le(>reHeiJiaLives In IB^» Lhesi? 
two mt^anitrr? nri; thi; )^st grouucb on which ebv Iei now 
thought to he- justified in hiv^inf; up th^! Umon, if she ac<cs lit 
to br^jik it Dp ! 

I may ncvw laft-ly tty, I Ihink, tbat we have bad the antlionty 
of Inding nnd dinfingtiivhnl gvnUi-mpn from Suutb Cbratinn 
in :iupin)rf. of Lh<- dfM^nnr of intrrnid iniprovrmniL I rr'priil, 
thnt, up to l8tM. 1 for one t'dlowcd tSogth Carolinn ; but whf n 
thnt star^ in itn npconiion, v^rcfd oJT in on uncxprotod direction, 
] relied on it» light no Joagcr. 

Hrrc the Vlrr-rfTtriL<1<fni :aiid, *' Dncn ihc chair undenlnnil iha ganhi- 
mon JTvm MrvJ4wicliuHctt« to eay thai tho ponoa now occupying lh« <)htAr 
of tho Sonaci? hiu ^ hanged hui opicionii on Ihe milject of tntf-mul '\m* 

provcriwnu ^ " 

PrOTTi iiotldng ewr said to me, Sir, have I had tcason to Lnow 
of any change in the opinions of the pcrwn tilling the chair 
of th<^ Strimto. If tfucb change bad taken phcr, 1 regret tt. I 
•peak generaJy of the Stal« of South Carolina, Indlvidunti 
we know tht-re art', who hold opinions favorahln to ihp piMV<*T. 
An npplir-fttirn for ih* eitriiise, in bthalf of a puMtc work in 
South CwoliRFi itacif, t? now pending,! Ixjiicvc, in the other 
houHc-t pre^rnt'td by mcmbcrn from thnt State. 

I have Ihnn, Sir, perhiipv not without acme !edlouitne«a of 
detail, Pihown, if J tun in error on the >ut>j(<ct of inltirroJ jm* 
prnvrtrc'ni, h^w, ftnd in whiit luimpimy, I fr-ll into that rrror. If 
I am wrong, it is apporriit who minlrd nir, 

I go to other rcmarlc^ of the honorable merr^ber; and I bare 
to con plain of an entire miAapprchention of what I »aid on the 



nibjed of the natlofta] debt^ tbouj^h lean hardly pereelir^ Iiow 
mny »rit- t^oxild fniiniTiili*n1ii:id iiie, Whiit 1 mud wik«j not thai 1 
vri^hrd (o ini( off thn pnymtTnt iif Uic drbt, but, on Ihf^ contrwry, 
that f hnd alwaj^s voted for rvcrjr nica»arc for ite reduction, aa 
uniformly aa the- gentleman himscU. He eccma to duim tJic ex* 
eluftive ra^rit of a dUpoaitJoii to reduc« the put>lio charp'. I do 
iiol ftllow it to him. Ae a debl^ I woa, 1 um for puyin^f it, he- 
raltl«l^ rt U n chnrgr* on our finnniMrH, and «n the imlujttry cf the 
rTtnmtry. But 1 olic«r.rvp-d, that 1 thought I in^m^ivcd n morbid 
fervor on lh«t *«bj*x;t, an P3»crwivc anxiety to pay olf the di-bl, 
not to much bc«»asG it ia a dcljt eiinply, a« b^-euuar, while it 
laAt«« It furnidhon one objection to dieunton* It ii^ whifo it con- 
tinuettftt lie ofoommon interest. I did not iinputt ■uoh nioUvM 
1o thf* hnijoniblo mcrnbtfr himaekf, but thht thrn* is lueti n rt'«*ling 
in r-xi^tf?n<<i* I hnvt* not it pHrE.irlR of (loubL Th<^ moitt I Nuicl 
vafii that if onr el^Tct of the dtrbt was to ttrctigrhen onr UniOD< 
titat eHt^t iT«eJf vm> not regretted by me, however much others 
mif^ht regret it* Th« gcntJonian baa not seen how to reply to 
thii, otherwite than by Auppodinf[ me to hav^ advanced th^ doo- 
trine that & national dr>bt is a f>aiitiQal blearing- Oiher^, I miul 
hop*?, Ufill fuid mnrh li-s* diflit'uUy in undid^^Tridti]^ uw. I dU* 
tinoHy ^nd poifitrdly cautioned the honornblr mcmbrr not to 
under^EQnd me ^^ cxprcMing an opiiiion favorable to the coniln- 
uan(^4^ of the debt. 1 repeated thif couiionf And repeated it moro 
than onee; but it waA thrown away. 

On yet fliioihef point, I wu ntill more nnac^waiitably misiin* 
ilcTiljKxL Thr- ^t-nUf-imin hml hiiningnFc! HgHJiiBl. "tt-inKolidji- 
tion.** I txild htin, in reply, that there wu» one kiud of eoEiMili- 
dation to which 1 waa attached, and th^it wa^ the eonfolidrttion 
of our Union; that Ibis was precisely that eon^olidalJon to 
which I feiired others w&re QOt attaehed, and that t<nch eon^Hili' 
dufion wu* i\w very end of the Coiwtimtlon, the leading object, 
«■ they hud infunnt'd un thcnmelvrji, whieli its rraiiier* lind kept 
in ^iew, I turned to their commnniejitioii,* iind read thdx vrrjr 
wordfli ^^the consolidation of the UnJon," and cxpre^tcd my 
devofinn to thia sort of eoofiolidaiion' 1 eaidt in temi-v that 1 
wirhed not in ihtf ttliRhtert degree to Jin^neni the powen* of thia 
government; that my object wai to pruiertw, not to etilarge; 

* Tho kiicr flf tho KcJcnl Convonlian lo the Congrm of th^Conrede1'ltiA■ 
truHDiitmg tiiQ pUn of Ibe Conibiutida. 




an4 tliAt by r:nnno1ic1ntIjtg ttic ITnTr^n T itn<3rrHli)o<1 no miirr thnn 
the »tjcngf tilling of the [Tnion, oiuj pi^rprinatJDg it, H,tvln^ 
oc^ca Choc explicit, linvin^ \hns r?ad ^m th« printed book i\w 
prpGis^ WDrd)» whicli I n<lopt»jf ag exprce^io^ my own wenli- 
mentis, it pasaes compreher^ioti how ary n:iQii t^ould under^lflml 
iDe HH €UDtPntli(i^ for aui eilifiiaion of the ptiwtfrH of the gov- 
ernment, ur for CdUAoliiliitJon In thnt mlinu^ ^ttsc in wlifcli It 
fnean!^ on ncrnmnUtion, in the foirml govcrnmcnti of the pow* 
ers properly belonging to thr St&to». 

t r4*p«>ati Sit, thnt^ in adopting tho sentiment of ihe rmmerK 
of the Con^titnHon, 1 rv^d ilieJr language audibly, snd word (or 
word; and 1 polnlcd (nil Um^ diBlincficin, jusl »b fully aft 1 bi&V4' 
now d^jne, bi-lw<c-<:ii tfii: CT>riH(.»l]i)at{»[i of Lhe Union and llmi 
other obnntiou:* con.iolidntioii ivhirh 1 (li.-*claim<^. And y*tthc 
hononil>k mcrmbi-r ^nj:<undt-r^tood mc. The grntJcmnn hnd Mid 
that h«wiAhr<l for na fi.vrd revenue, — not a nhiiUn^. If by 6 
word he could convert the CapltoJ iulo gold, hp would not do it 
Why hII iliiff fear of revenue? Why, 8if, beeaune, an Th(r gen. 
Ucinnn tuld nrs ii triid:< to cons^oUdntion. Now thin rnii \nrnn 
neither more nor lc«» (ban that a common revenue is n common 
intereni, nnd that all common iDtcrcatA tend to preserve the 
union of tJje Slater. I coiifv^A J Uke that tcndt^ncy; if the 
g^udeman disliked it, he k riglit In defirecatini; a ahilllDj; of 
filed reveniif. So mueh^ Sir, for coniolidution- 

An wrdl ji;< I rri^iillrr.t Ihr miine of hjfi n-mEtrUn, the honuriihle 
genllcmnn next recBnrd to the subject of the tariff* lie did not 
donht the word muift be of luiplcasant Aoiind to me, end proceed- 
edt with an efi'ort neither new nor uUendod with new flucccea, to 
involve me and my votei in inoonsiiiteney and ccnira^liction. 1 
am hiippy Itie hotiomblr gt-ntlermin ha» furriiTihed me u:i oj>por- 
l.unily Elf n linirly n-tnrtrk or two on thut Huhjfi^I, I wiia glml 
he Approached it^ for ii is a question I enter upon without fe&r 
&om any body. The strejiuoua toU of the gentlemnn has been 
to mise an ineon^ieteticy bt^twoen my dij^fcnl to the tniifT in 
1824, and my vote in 182S. It i* labor lost- He ppiy* nnde- 
«erved compliment 1^ my speech in L$34; hui this Iti to raihe 
m^ lii^h, ihuE. my fall, ais hr would hjtve ii, in l?428, inuy be ifjore 
•LgLi&l. 3ir^ there wow no falL Between tlic ground I .-itood i>n 
in I'^i and that ] took in XS2St there was not only no jtrcei- 
|»oe, but no doclivjty. Jt wua a t]haj]|[e of poa^tion to meet new 



ri^(-nm^lllnr»w, bill on th*? ^nmr IrvrL A |il«iii fair i'TtpInin* Xhe 
whole mnltt-r- In 19IC I had not aci^utestW in tlitr t^uilT, tlicn 
•nppoHH by Soutb Carolina- To ftome pnrt* of it, o:<picially, I 
Ik- It and cxpn»rtiit»d ffreiit Tt'p«j;nonr<-. 1 holr! tlii* stimi-^ opiui.iriff 
in 1920, ul th« milling m Funouil Hall^tn vrhich ihi^ gciitlpinEiii 
has allnclM- 1 mid thon^ and »fty now, f^at^ atf an onginnl 
qtie^tlon, ih*^ aiillioTily of Congrrw* to eiercli*!* ihr rev^MHic po*'- 
CTf with direct reference lo the |)rot«ction of iiiniiufocliirFn, h a 
qof^tionaUe authority^ hx more <{ur?tiomiblr, in my judgment, 
than thr powrr of internnl improvrmrntfl. J m«»l cnnfi^st*. Sir, 
that in onf rrnprrt some impTriffli<iEi ban bt^cn mad'? oti myopin- 
loiifl lately. Mt, Mndidon'* pnhlication has put ih^* power in a 
very strong hghl. He hfiH plnv^^il Ir, I inuvt ai-hnowlexlj^i*, upon 
grounds of eonptruclion und argument which neetn impn-'giialile. 
But cvcji if the pJV^'CT WCTC dcnibtful, o^ the fapc of thr Connti- 
tution ileotff it hud br^en a»nmed nnd naKTlcd in the Hrft rcro- 
nuc taw cvrr f>n:?9MxI nndi-r Ibnt tump Constitution ; and on this 
j^und, aa fl maltrr Brnlrfl l>y ccnipmporaneona praclJce, I bad 
rffniiii^ from ctprt^HsIng the opinion tb»l the taritT biwa tntn* 
ftCMuded ci>nt»liturionnl Urnitp* an Die ^eiillenmn snp|h»i^A, Wlmt 
I did E«ny nt FnnenJl llfill, ns fnr m I now n-mrmbrr, wa^i thnt 
thi* wns oritrindly mfLttt-rof doubtfol constructioTi, The gcn- 
Heman himnclf, 1 Mippopt, think? thc*rr is no doubt about it, and 
that the law? ari? pliiinly sgRtn^t the Constitution. Mr, Madi- 
aon*!! l^tt^r^r ahvudy referred ti\ contain, Li my judgTu^nt^ by fur 
thr mnxt atile t*KpoHition e-xtiint of thin pnrt of tUt* dn«liiatinn. 
He ha* ^oti^ficd mr^ no for i* the pmcticc of the govi^nmcnt 
had left it an open question* 

With a great majority of tb<^ Eepreacntativcs of Maanachu- 
■et1«, I voted a^ini^t the farilTof IB^. My readout were lUen 
given, and 1 will not now repeat tbeir. But, nolwUb»iandiiig 
out iliNv-nl, the great Slnten of New York, PriiTiTiylvaniH, Ohio, 
and Kp*nt,nrky went for the bill, in nlmftsl iiEibiokrn column, 
and it pnn.icd. Congress ^nd the I*rc*idcni sanctioned it. and It 
beoamv tbc Inw of the land. What, fhent were wo to do ? Our 
only option waa, either to fall in with Ibis settled ooar^e of pub- 
lic* poli{.-y,and aerommod^le ourseh-es to It as well a^ we eould, 
or 1x1 ffnbr»iw tlit; South Ciu'iilina diKTlrtnt*, nnd tiilk nf nullify* 
ing the stjitiifp by State intcrlrrence--. 

Thi» la«t alternative did not euit oux pnnoples, and of coume 


SECOND SPEECH ON roovs Msoumon. 

Vft ftdopt^rd tlic formrT. In 1627, the subject cumc h^d bdcro 
Cw)gre<«t on ii prupoaltjon Ut nfRrnd donn* r<:lii.-f to tbtr bmnch of 
wool and wooUniifi. Wo looked upott the *y»tcm of proc«c*ti-va 
U beinf^ fixrd (uiti Af^tilrd. The luw of IS^ rvmciii^d, li had 
gone iliTo Tull opr-ration, and, in tl^^M to nninc nSjirrlx iTilrii(lL'<l 
hy lij ^r]i%\t» ruoftt i>f them, had proJucwl all its irxpccird 
c-fTccltf, "So man pmjKMcd to rvpeai it ; uo inruj uticmptcd to 
rt-aew tbL' jfOHoni] oouletrt on ite ptindple. But, owiim lo ttiil>- 
■cquvat mid iinrore«een occurTenoea, tbe bejit^fji iTiU-tidi-d by it 
to wool and uooilen fabric* bad not beon reiUin*"!. Event* nol 
knnwn hr-re whrii tlie l;iw |)ii?ui-d hiul tikrii ]ilai3% wUicli dt^* 
(cati^d jIk (ibjrH ill Ui;U pnrturaltir rr^prrc A m<^;u<iutu wn.i 
accordingly bmnghi forwArd to turret ttiin^ prrdt»e deficlrncyT tti 
vemociy thin pnrtlcular d^ft^ct. It wan Itmiti^d to wool and wool- 
lens. Wiui wvt any thing moro iviuonabjc? If ihi? policy of 
the taritT law^ hnd tH^nitno rjttiihlUhcd in pnnr:i}>]«*, n« thr prr- 
mftfi^nt policy of the gnvrmmrnt, vhonld thi^y not bi^ rwlacd 
and iiniciiJrd, &itd made equal, like othtt laws, a* wiiycocieH 
•bouldariac, orjusti<.'C rvqiure ? HecQUr^o we Imd di^ubttxl ubout 
ndoptinf! the syet4MD, wera vre to refuae to cure ltd manlf««l 
'leA-ctA, after it had h'^'^n fldopied, and wbfn no on? aitemptp^J 
Its rrpi-al * And Un;-, Hir. i» thti incim&i-ili-tn-y «» iziticli hrait*'d, 
I hod roli-d a^ainnt the tiuifT of 1824, bnt it iKitiscd; tind in 
18^ nnd l^Hi^^ 1 voti^d to luncud it^ in a point c^rntiAl to thr 
intirront of my contLlittK^ntN. Whc-n? ia ih<f inconiuAtcnt^y ? 
Could I do othcnirinc T SiT, docs political oonftii^tf^ncy coQSUt 
in alwnyn giving nrgntivr vott^s? D(>t'B it ry^rjnirr nf n pub- 
be man to rffii**^ tt> conriir in nnK^nding law*, biviniBC they 
passed agaiuat his conacut? Having vot<^d agaiuat tbc tarif!" 
originally, doce confeL*f^ncy demand that 1 BhoiUd do all in 
my pow^r to mainlAin an une<|ual tahJT, bitrdonsome to my 
own constltuenls in many re^peota, favorable in none? To 
consistency of that vort^ I lay au daiin^ And llirrr* i« an* 
other sort to which I lay a^ Uttle, and that in. a kind uf run- 
ftiatoncy by which prrrsona fed tht^niE^clvua oa much bound 1o 
oppotst* u propooitLon after tt haa bvcorin} a law of the land aj 

The bill (}f 1827, liniitf'flf ii^ I h;ivr wiid, to thr single objffct 
in whitib the t^irifF of 1824 bad mjtnifr^tly fnikrtl in its nfferl; 
paaaed the JIou^c of ftr preventatives, but was lost here. We 



baJ iheii Ihc ad of I829L I nwd iiol tvcut to fh«? hi^ory of n 
mtttrturc »ri rrvi'nt, Ita entmita s[uc«(t it with whisbftcrcr thfry 
thought would render it diktu^teful ; itt fH«ndA tooh it^ dm^^d 
III it w*». Vii*t nmounU of properly^ niuny million*, hud b**c*n 
iiivc-icUsI in Ttmnunuditrt<?s nndcT i\w imlmftnwlji <if Ihr net iif 
1824. Rvrnt5 t-nllRii loudly, n> I thought, for furthrr n^^iMimi 
to sirriir^ Ihr drgrrr uf prot«<:&ii intended by that act, I wa^ 
di*poAiHl to vote for audi regulation, and dcitirrd nothing mony; 
but c^rtAJnly w%» not to he bantered out of my purpoM' by a 
thr^atrnrd nnginf-ntiiiion of duty nn tiin)njiK-*, put jnin thp bill 
{ot the avowed purpoi^c of making k obikoxioua. Thi vote mny 
have beon right or wrong. wi*c or unwise; but it la littJu Ipjip 
than itb^iTird tu alle^^o afj;aifiBt it an inconaiBtency with oppoattion 
to the forriirr law. 

Sir, BM to the genital subject of the tariff, I have little now to 
Pfiy, Anutbrr iipjH)rliinrt.y niny be pn-Hpnti'd. I rnnnrk^'d thp 
Othi^r day, diAt thin policy «l»i niit l^rgin with us in Nrw Ku^- 
Iftnd; and yet. Sir, Now England i« chov^^d with vcbcmenc-e 
W b^ng favorable^ or f^htin^ with equal vchcmenoo tvs boinf; 
vnEhvoniMn^ to tho tariiT policy, jurt at hp-pi «uita the ljme» pla^e, 
find ocr^nninn for tnnking wimo rhatgn agnitiHt h^. The crodu* 
lily of l.lie fnibtic lia« bi-ta put to it« extreme im[Fi](rify of frilit^* 
imprvnaion ivUtivtf to lii?r conduat bi iAtitt partdcubit. Through 
all th« South, durini: tht! k.U} content, it wno Nf'W Hngland |>i>l* 
icy and a N^rw England ad minidf ration that were nlHit^ting tho 
country with a tnriff beyond all enduranw; wtille nn the ofh« 
aide nf thr Mli-gli}iH:«t rv^ti tht? aet of 1P28 lls^^lf, Th'* v^-ry mih- 
limated fwu^ncr of oppnTsuion, acronling to Bonlhi^rn iipiiilona, 
waa pronounced to be one cf those blcwingfl for which the 
WcHt was indebted to the •■genercus South/* 

With hrgp invpfltm^nta in inanTifactunn^ est,-ib1i«hmenta, and 
many and varioua int^nurt* ronreded with and dejwndent on 
tbciTi, it irt not lo l>e eji|wcted Ihat New V^ii^lnfirl, Jitiy miwr 
than clhei poriioaa of the country, will now conMut lo any 
measure dcfttroctivc or bighiy dangeroua. The duty of the gov 
rmnient, at the pteeetit moment, would B*^m to bv fo prf^st'rvc, 
not to destroy ; to maintain ihe ponitlon wbii'h it hns ujisiinicd ; 
■nd, fur one, 1 iihidl fed it nn irE<li»pruinibU* obligi«tioii u\ hold 
rt dt^'afly, an hr aa in my pciwt^r, to that degrirc of firuj^i^ctjon 
which it has undcrtakMi tn Uvttow. No more of the tariH' 



semND SPEECH ON Foiyrs REsoumoN 

rrorvmting Ui htr provoked by whut lit- <-li<r.u> to cun?«idr*r m 
chftrgr marJr by irie sgnin^t South Cr^irolina, th*? hcnombk mem- 
ber. Mi. IV»tdcnti ho8 tfikrn up n now cniHiulc^ n|E:ainFrt New 
Knglnnd Lt^Aving alti^grthRr tho nubjcct of th« public Jnnd«, in 
which h\9. nncci^nj prrhApn, linrl bRi*n ndthrr diitiiigui^bfMl nor 
0&ti»rft«1oryi Add JHiong ^y K^f>Oyo( thr topic of the tnnfT, be 
e&Uicd forth hi a griioral FiMaiilt on the opinions politics, and 
particB of New l^ngland, aa thoy have bet^n rxhibiti^d in tho laet 
thirty yoar». Thi* i« natural. The ** namiw policy" o/ the pub- 
lic Innds had pmved a Icga! s^td^mc^nr in Smith Cnrolina, ami 
wu« i:ol to he removird- The " acxTumtd policy " of tbtf Unff, 
abOt had eetablieihc^d the fact of \iJA birth aiid parentaf-« in tlie 
aairn? Stat*!. No wowdtr, thw-'fore. the K*'itl«^"3an wiohed to 
curry tta* wur, an he vxpK-fcsed it, Into the «nemy^fl coniitry. 
Prudently willing To quit these flubjept«, he waa^ doubtlesa, dc* 
>iront> of fastrnidg on othf-rs, wbicrb could not I>p ImtiT^fi-nvd 
MUth of MuAtin nnd Dixo[r» lini<. Tlic polilicAtif Si-.w Kngtand 
became hu theme ; and it wiu in this part of his epeecb, I think, 
that he menaced me wiih such »om discomtitarc. Discorofil- 
u«? i Why, Sir, when he attacka any thing which I mnitiTain. 
tttttl ovpHhrows it, when he liirns the right or left- of any poai 
tion which 1 itikv up, wltt*it lie tb-ivra me from any ground 1 
vhoowr U> occupy, he may then talk of discomfiluw, but not till 
that distant Jay, What had be done ? Hoa Uo nmntaincd hia 
own ehurscri ? Hqm he proved what be alleged T Han he nu*' 
lainrd himsL-lf iii hin attnck on the government, und on the bin* 
trry of the- Noifb, in The nuittr-r f*f iiif ptitilic bindn? Ka* he 
dixproTCpd a fiurt, rc-fiiti-d n prop(i:<iti<m« wisikvned an nrgitmrnt., 
mGintained by me? Has he oome within bent of drum of oay 
position of mine? O, no; hot he has **onrricd the wnr into 
the enemy's country " ! Carried the war into the enemy's ooun- 
tiy! ^'es, Sir, anil what sort of a war hn* he made of ll? 
Why, Sir, be Unn st.n-Tvhed a drag-net over the vrhok ^'urfai-!^ tA 
perished pamphlets, indiscreet sermons, frothy par^giapba, aa4 
fuming popular addressee; over whatever the pulpit in ita mo- 
menle of alarrOf the press in i1<> heat^, und parLiee In Ibeirexlrav- 
ftgance, have severally thrown otT In times of general e:celtenieot 
and violence- He hnn thun Hwept Lii^eLlxe.r a viw« uf nueh thin^ 
ns, but that Ihey are now old and oold» the puLUc hciilth wouid 
htiVCi required him rather to Icqvc in their ^lute of dupcmoo. 




a good long hour or two, wir liaO Wtt- tiiBbrokrii ji1ni9un< af 
bteniRg to the honorabtr nii;mhcr, while he ri-citrd ^ith hii 
amal grace and spirit-, ond with evident high guMa, 9i|*crchcs, 
pamphlets, ocldrraAciti and mil the ci extras of tiir political pre??, 
sooh afl w^aim heftde produce in wnnntiinc-«; and «uch »» it 
would be "diftoomfitnrn" indrpd for nny on^, whoee IrpIp d*d 
not dt^li^liL in iIulI wirt of n^iidiiLi;. to be obliged to prnitte. ThU 
in liiv war. Tfils it U to cajry war into the eiirfiii^*» country. It 
in tn An iavAsioD of this aort, that he iitditTB hiinAutf with thr ex> 
pf!C!tAtion of K^ainin^c Laun*U fit to ivJoro a Senulor'a t)r<>w! 

Mr, IV^idtTit, 1 «hall not, it will not, I tni^T^ U^ r-xp^^t-i^d Ihat 

1 »hoiild, rtrhrr n<}W or ttt any tim^T M^pttmt^ tiiin Ittfrngo [ pta ,'' 

part«, avid »n»wtT »nd ciumiiic if» camponml»^ I shall barely 
■beatovr upon it all a gcnoroJ rctnarii or two. In the rua of forty 
ycanit ^rr, under tliia ConAtitulion, wc have experienced nnndry 
fruoc^tieikve violent party oonteete. Party aro^e, indt^ed, with thei 
Con«tittition itself, and, Jn some form or other^ Uo-n attended Itl 
through tlip grealPT jiart of Itct hiHlory. Whether any othiT<M>ii-i 
tttitntion llinn the old AHidcn of ConfrdrnilioLi wil» dt-f^lmblri 
wo* it*ctf a qnpfttion on whit:h pnrtirn divided; if a new consti- 
tution wore frnmed, whfit pow^r^ nhould be given to it wa» 
AJiother question ; and when it had b««en formed, what wiu, in 
foet, the juat extent of the powers aetually <ionferred waft a 
thInL ParlieH, ;i» we 1<JinWf f^i^W nodirr flie finrt ndTntrn-iIni- . 
tion, tUft dint.inetly iimrktHl mn ihow? wU'ch Imvp manifF-TileJ tlirin> 
advea nt any nnlxiequent period. The contc^it immc^di-itely pro- 
oedin^ tliL* politiccU ehunve in 18Q1, and thnt, u^nin, which 
exintcd Ht the potnmtncetnent of the late wiir, nrt* oth'*f in* 
9tanc(»« of pnrty e:xcjt(<(Tient, nf something morc^ fiian usual 
Btxength and int^-nitity. In all th^^p-- conllteU there wufs no 
douhl, mudi of violence on both and all &idea, Ii would be 
Impopuble, if one had a foitey for Aucb employment, to adjust 
th« rtlalive tfuantum of violence between (heHe eoiiti^ndinf; pur- 
lie*. Th^re wti* enough in each, as must ulway* be expocled 
in popular govern ment^t. With n great deal of |M>pular i4nd 
deriiroii»4 diMr.UA<]on, thr-n* wi» miMgh^i) » grrni dt-al, nNo, fij 
declamation, virulencr, criminntioDi and nbuw". In ri'gunJ to 
any parly, probably, at one of the leading epoch" in the history 
of parties, enongli may be found to make out another intlamed 
•xhibitioti, not unliko that with which tbtf honorable ra^nibei 



SUCOND aPKiX;tt on i^lX/rS REaOLUHON. 

liOA edified i». For my^olff Sif, 1 6tifit] not r&be ainoni; 1ii« nilv 
binh o{ bygone tim<^ to wv whut ] cuu 6iiJ, or w tjt.'thej I cannot 
find Homi'TliLUff Ijy u'tiif^h I Cftn fix a blot t>ji iIl<* eHL'UU^Iit*OD uf 
Miiy 8l=itr, iiny imri.y, or uny part of tlie t^uuniry^ Gi*iirntl 
WjL^tiingfoii'H adimnialratitiQ W4a atc^ily aiid Evulouflly i»aia* 
taJn^ nn ^'c ulJ kiiowj by New Hn^laiuL It wits vioU^ntJy 
opposed i?l»ewbvro. Wv know in whut quiirt4>r liv bud ihu ukofli 
(nirjii'tft, o>ii»titnt, ntid pi^mrvpiing aiipportT In ull hU ^'lU and 
Irjiiiiiiy nimr<«rrs. Wp kntiw wbi-rr hi* (wivatp jiih) |i<-rM)iial 
charnctrr was held in the highest dcgnrc of nttuchmcut anfl 
vcncmtion ; and wc knivA-, too, where hi» mra»oftti were op- 
poM>d, hi* wfviro* rtiiehU'd, nnd hU chnrnclr-r vilitic^^ Wt* ktiovc, 
or WP cnighl kiioTA^, if wc lumpr) t;> the joumrtU, who ritprr**iHl 
respect, gnitiludpr^ and ir^lf when bp rduvd from Ihi- chiri^ 
riiJi^^iT^rTti^y, ii\v} who rrfuMxJ to irxpn^stt c'lthtT rtr^peLTt, graliluJr, 
(ir rri^i. 1 flhbll not OEKO Uioar journujp. PublicaUood more 
nboEUVtt or twurrilou* never aaw the liyhl, than w**fe tfent forth 
<^:K1n»t WuFit|iiLi;ioii, and ull hiti It-adiii^ meaumva, from pre««e« 
ikmlU of NVw England. But E Fth»U not. look thrm u^. I etn- 
ploy na Ncnvcni^r^t nn one in lit nUrndanoe <it\ mr, fitniiiihiiig 
VOch mrnnA of relnlliition; and if there wt^rie, with «0 OM^ 
ICMUl ol thriTi, with u hulk tu- hu^ an that whirfa the gentlcnuui 
hjnpcif han prixJneed, I would not touch on<f of Ihcm. J «ce 
pnoui^h of ihr violrn<-j^ of our own timrn, to be nn way anxioiui 
lo reiM^tJC from forgi'lftilnTss the cxlravagantt'e of time* pa*t, 

I]tHdc«> what K all th'n to the prc^cjit purpose? Ii ha« uoth- 
Ing to do with ihe public Jiind», in rrgard to which the attack 
WM b^gun; ond it hQ« nothing to do with those sentimonlfl aiid 
npiniouH which, I hav^ thouf^ht, t^nd to di&union, and uU of 
wtiiL'h the honorable member HeemH to have* adopted hiiit^t^f, 
and undertaken to defend. N«;w En^lniid hrut. 4t ttiaep, »o 
ar^ru'-'a the i^enllivnan, hold opiniona Oi* dangt-roua i%» tho»c 
whioh hi< now hold«H $uppo«e thi« were «o; why ahould he 
therefore abuse New England ? If he fijid« himself oount«- 
nanr-ed by bcia of her«, how \n It thnf, wh11>- he relies oa the^e 
acta, h*i covers, or aei;kfl to covert llieir authors with r«|iro(L(iU? 
UuU Sir. if, in the course of forty yeaiv, t^Kirc have been nudue 
ttFrrvefroenoee of party in New EiiKlu"d, bus Ihe some thing 
hap|x*ned nowhL-rt^ eUtf? I^nrty animoaily und party ontre^ 
liot it] New Bai^siand, but el!AcTwheri-,denouncT<d President Wa«h- 



»n» iioT, only ai« n Ff^(lniili»t-, but iih n Tory, n Hiitiflh a^nt, n 
who in h'i^ high otiirc anncficticti cnmiption- But diK-s thi^ 
hononiblc nifriubor tfUpposc, if I hnd a tondtTf licro who f hoiTlE) 
put mcb an ^iTu^ioti of wiofcc<l5(w nnd folly lntt> my bind, 
fhnl r wmtiM Maijl up Had n^ail it iigniflut tbff Bocih ? Purlin 
ran Into gR-at hruia ai^alti in 1799 aiid ISOO, Wbat was «9U1, 
^1 or mltK^r wlitii was uLtt bald, in tho^c yc&ra, i^*aiJl«t Jnbh 
AduDtfi cue of {\iv comrmUeo tbat drafff^d tht? Declaration of 
Iad«pMidoDoet and its &Jinitt«d ablest def^nd^ oii the tloor of 
Congrvw? If the gentleman wbihea to Incrense hi» »tore<4 of 
^naiy abueie aiid (toihy vlolvutw, if be has a deteruiiiad [injcliv- 
ily tu nuch j>i)r»uitp, llitrc £trc Irvaaiutti of that aurt ttoiith uf tlir 
PotumacTf much to bis tuste, yi't untoucbt^d. 1 shnil nol touc^b 

Tbe piiriitm whieh dividtO thv coontry at Ihe rommenL^m^ni 
pf Lh« Irtl^ ^var w*?r« violrnu But then thi^rc wa> vii»|piuip on 
both 9ides, And violence in evi^ State Minorittc!! and mjijon< 
ti<"fi wtTO oqwtily vioirnt* There wrw no more violence n^'niiiat 
Ihe war in Ni.*w Knj^luiid, thiiu in otbiT Stntt'ii ; turc ony rt»ore 
a|ipeiLrun^e! of violrncv, except that, owing to a d«nvc popuUijon, 
gnnli*r fmilrfy of Hinmiblinp, nxtii morr prf**s«% fhrri' tnny hnvr 
bocn more- in i)unniity »pokcn omi priiitrd tbrrc t\tmi h\ nnmc 
other plftctA In the artjdc of *c^no^^ too, New England ii 
Mmovrhit more ftbiindcirLt than South Cnrobna; nnd for that 
r«a»on tbo chnncc of findinf; bwre and 'herr nn etcpptionabl^ 
one mny be gn^ater. 1 hope, too, there «re more goorl ono*. 
OppObilJoji may have baru tnon- forinidabie En Ni;w Bil^luikil 
a» it embraixd & brgvr portion of ibc whok population; but it 
wa« no more iinriwtrainod in piinciple^ or violent in manneri 
The minorities d^nit ({niu- ae hanhly viih their own 8tat« ^aV' 
ernmenfji as the* dealt with the administration here, 
Tliirrv v/vTK prt^aK^ on both fiidr^», [Hipular rnETffin^ un Uutb 
Ndc», ay, arid puipitfi on both tjiden ul»o. The jjcntieniunV pnr* 
v^ycts have only caT^^red for him ^mon^c th:.' produtrtiond of one 
aid«<. I cerlamly *ha]l not supply the deficieTiey by foriii^hiji); 
«a[n|>tet» of the other I ]«-Hve to blm, and io Uieifit tbv whole 

It ia eniniirh for me to my, that if, in any pnrt of thfn thcit 
patefal orcupuUon* if> m all thiur rL-wnrcbc?, thty tind an^ 
lUng in the hiitlory of Maaaaebuiwtttf, or New England, or ip 



the |>rocflcding> of tuiy Ic^aUIivi; or oiher piiblif body. difJoyul Ui 
tbc Union, speaking :ilightijigly uf itd vajuc?^ ptoponm^ lo breuk 
it ttpf or rrcomm (ending non-intercourtfe with neighboriog ijlate*, 
oil Acc^mint of difTrnmcr of polificu) opinion, thon, Sir^ I give 
ilirm mII n|> tii ih*' horioral>lc gentlErrrifin's unr*^tTntnrH rHjukr; 
i-xpectiiig, li^wuvt.-Tt thai tic will cxItqJ his l>ufl<;Liiig3 in lilie 
majincr to att similar proccfdwg^it wherever eUe found. 

The ^oiitlcrmai), Sir, bas tpokcA at large of formvr parties, 
ituw no loiigpr m b^Jnf^, by their received appellaiionHf anJ h» 
anrlenakQD 1o instruct u% not only in the hnowle<)f^e of thetr 
firijicijjkss but i>r Uieir rvapecUve pedi^^rees alsiv Hf hiis afl* 
cri](K'J lo (htir origin, and run out their K^'i»^^^'Kic»s With mot^l 
exciTipJury modL*aty, he BptraicB ol' Ihi* pwly Ui wliich h(* profe»pa 
to have liiniHelf Mon^i^it, an the true Pure, (ht> only hun»l, pn- 
triolle party, derived by regulur deH(?enl, fnun fulhi--r fo ton, from 
liji; tjine of the virluou^ Rdiuitnn I SpmuiiTig iM'Turr! iiii lJir/»m* 
tVy i»nr of politicn) pnrljr!i, ht- taken c^^pccini chrr to sihow bim* 
»dr [inugly pt-rchf^d on a popiilnr bough! He i.i wnkcfut to thu 
vKpediency <jf adopting *tich rules of dosi^nt n» «h^]l biing him 
bi, to the exclusion of oilier*, ns an heir to ihe inhmtnnrft of ftJl 
pnl>1ir vinin? iirid idl irtir \MiViX\at\ principle, UU p»ny nnd hU 
opinionit Jhnr siirr- tn W ort^h^o?^; heterodoxy In eonfinc-d to bi» 
oppODCDts. He »pakr. Sir, of the FcdcT8]i»1«<, acid 1 ttiotight 1 
eow «oiro pyc» begin to open and etnro a htlle, when he ven- 
tUTpd on that ground. I «xp(<clrd h» "C^'oidd draw bid »ke»tehee 
rather lightly, when be Inoked on the rirrle round him^ and espe- 
cinlly if be itbuuld tast bib Uiou|;hU to the bi^h pbees out ui Uie 
Senate.. NevcfthileiHs he went h&vk to Hoii^e, ad annum arbU 
cvmiilf^i, and fourid tJie futherd of tbo Fedemlialo in the pritiiirviJ 
ariiitouruta of t)mt renowned city! He traced ttic Jlow o\ Fed- 
end blood down through soeoMslve ages and eenturW, UU be 
hroub^hl il iJito tiic veins *>f the Aintriean Turiea, uf whom, Xty 
the way, there were twenty in the C4^olinu^ ft>r one in Ma-i^nchu' 
scttd. From the Torieu he I'oUuwed it to the Fedi-ru-list.-i; nnd, 
ii« the PVderiil puriy wu^ broken uj)> and there wiir no possibility 
of trannmitting it further on ihis side the Atlanric-^ h* »eem» to 
hnvr? {Uiteaverecl tiint it liaci ^ne o(T eullateruUy. though vgtilnrt 
all the canons of df^nceLF^ into the Ultriu of Prance, and Bnally 
broomc cxlingiii^ibcd, like exploded i^ris, among the adherents of 
Hon Migudi This, Sir, id an abatnicH of tbu gentEeman's lus> 



lory of FriJiTttlifiiii^ I iiii nol nljnul To roitlr^'vrrt it U ir ijoI, 
at (jruafuf, wurlh the luitiif (]f nrfiitalioji ; bctauji-, SIl, if al tbU 
dfiy ony ouc feel* the em of Fedofolum lyirifi heavily on hib ooii- 
acience, he can «<a0ily procure renmioii- He ntay evei obtain 
nn iridaLgrcict', if he hp drF^imiiH <if n-ppntJng tikf* HAine tranngre^ 
aioii. It jtf an affkiF of no UliKculty to get Into iht» aame riglic 
Ui>c of patriotic descent. A man nour-a-davi i^ at liberty fo 
ohooflo \aA politicel parentage Uc may oleot hi« own father. 
Federalist or Dot, he mayi if he Ghoo»ei daim to beloni; to th« 
favored *U>ck, and hi» daim will be alloweJ. He may carry 
back hle^ prettfiiHioiifl just as fur as the bdimraUe (^iritrkiimii him- 
self; Uixy, he limy make hjuiself out Iht.- hoiuimblc ^^^rttlFmuo'e 
oouMJn, uud provo, tsutiafaatorily, thut hv id JcttcuLiLi^d &om tli« 
wime poliiJcul Kreat-K^andliithen All ihim \a al[owaL>lt*. W<> uJl 
know a ptoceiK, Sir, tjy whith ihe whole Eh^x JuiiIo could, "i 
niLi? Iiijiir, be nil wuKhr^d vvlirlt- fniiii thtir nii4*iriii pHlrntKiim, 
ftjid come out, cYcry one o( them, originaJ Dcmocrnt^T ^ycd in 
tbc wool' 8oinc of Ihom haTc nctunlly undergone the opera- 
tkMif OJld they cay i1 iif quite eoi^y. 'I'he only ineonvcnicne^r it 
iMsooiioiiftf aa they tell ur, i« ft elight tendency of the blood lo the 
fftce. a *»oft fttiffiiainn, whirh, hnwevrr, Ih vpry Tranftlf-nt, wince 
nnthiii^ is aaid by tliuBt whuiti Ua-y juiii calculated hj (ieepT.'ii 
tht: red OIL the check, but a prudent silence ia observed in re- 
gnrd to nit th*- pust. [ndcedi Sir, some ftmilL>3 of upprobhtion 
hove biwn bcdtOA't-d, n.nd some erumbs of comfort huve fidivn^ 
not a thousand riilei &uiri the door of the Hartford Convention 
ll^flf. And it th« jiuUiur i)f the Ordiituiiiic of 17ft7 jinsu'fwr'd 
thi^ othi^r r(?cfii!tute qualification!!, there '» my knvw'utg, nt^twith- 
BUmding hi:i i-'cdcniJi»m, to what heighta of favor he might not 
ypt nttain. 

Mr. l^reiideid, in coirying hJM warfare, «uch aa it la. Into Nim 
Englnrid, i.hi- iKHionibli- ^iillc-iudii id] almig pnifcHHrH l<k he nrting 
on the defeiiMVc He choo>c4 to con»idcr me ei» linviiig a»!fai]cd 
South Carolina, and invittBthcit becomes forth only QAhercham- 
pion, and in her defence. Sir, I dp riot admit tbnt J mode any 
Attack whatever on South CaroUnfi. Nothing Ukf^ it. The hcn- 
orahlff irirmliv^, in hi* (imt upernti, «>xprc!Mrd (>pini^>n», in regard 
'*> revenue and some other lopie.% whieh 1 lieard bolli willi pain 
and with »urpri?e. 1 told the gentleman 1 wati aware thai ftUi:b 
■entimcnl* WVW entertained oui of Che government, but hod 

vou ill. 97 




not e\|)r(rtrd to find th*:Tin ad^ivnceclm it; thikt 1 kn^wthei* 'xe*e 
pftiwn* in iho Stnith who epnak of oiir Uiiion wiih u>dit!i-n-f^c« 
or douUt, Inking pain^ f^ magnify' iu e.riU, and tn tny nolhrng 
nf \U Iwni'filji; thiii the honomhlo Tm-rnhpr blnwrlf, t w;ix sure, 
could ncvtT \tt one of tbeae; and [ rcgrvtU'd tho cxp«c»*i£)n of 
such opiniotit &» he had qvohtmI, bccaiuc 1 thought, thrir obvi- 
ous U^ndciioy vrdi to encourage feeling of dii^rc^pcct lo tho 
Unifintiirid lo impair Ite atreii^. Thig, Sir, in tht* nnm aid 
■ubntimci.- of all I itald <\n the Aubject And ihU (^onhtitiitrn thr 
attack wlik'b mlled on tJie diivJilry of the f^iriJllirniaik, Ju hb own 
optuioiu to harry tie with such a foray amorif; Ih^r pufty pam- 
|ihl<^t9 and purly proct>cdin^ of Mu:^sdohu[»(-11H ! if hi.' rnean* 
that I tpokL' with dhuiQli0l]action or durt-9pt<i*t ol the ebullttionft 
of litdii'idiiuls Ell South Oarutina, tt !b true. But If h« meajiH 
tlmt, 1 iL«9:iiW thr i^hnnuTfcr of IHp SinItT, her honor, ur (mtrj- 
otUrn, thnt I rtflcctpJ on h*T history or hci conduct, ho has 
not the aliffhtcat ^ound for any »iich oMtimption- 1 did net 
even nfoTr I thiiik, in my obttrrvtiiun^ to uny (*olJretJon of in- 
dlvldtmlv^ I BQJd noiUing t^f ihr: rroimt conx^'nTion*. I spoke 
In the most gnnrdnl nnd raiTf^ful mannrr^ mid nidy cxjifovid my 
r^fCTRt for the publication of opinion^ which I prr^urucd the 
hononibic mombrr disnpproTcd as much a» myw-lf. In thU, il 
prrm?, ] wn« mistnkon. 1 do not romombor that Ihr* ^jithman 
hnn dii^lntmcd any w^mimfnt, or any opinion, of a siip]>o«ed 
Jinli-uitton tf-fidrni-y, which on all or any of the rp<T-nl nccuNonf^ 
has beffii expn^ascd. The wholc:^ drift uf ha tpctrdi hoA Liccii 
rather to pn>VL\ ihat, in divtrs tiint^a and mfinncr^, oeuLlinQnt* 
equally liable to my objection ho^*c been avow^^d in New En^j- 
land And one would «uppo4d that hU obj«Hit, Sn thi« reference 
to MaE*suchu*etr3, w»a to find a prvceilent to justify proci*ed)n^ 
In th** Scioth, we^n? it not for thr wproai-h nnd tiiminftitly with 
which he Inborn, nil nlonjE^, to lond thr^r hi» own c'hti.-wn prnco 
dcntfl. By way of dclcnding youth Comlina from what br chooses 
to think an attack on her, hn lir«t quotes th« example of MwMi* 
fhiJsettaT nnd th*TJ denonnrrp thfti '•Komple in ^»iod wt trrrnn. 
Tin* twofold jmrpoiki', mif. vrry rfi*ii*iKl*-nt, onf would Ihinkr with 
\tte\t WAS r-xhibilrd more than once in the coune of his &pcech. 
He referred, for infttunoe, (o the Hartford Convention, iftd he 
do thin for authority, or for a topic of reproach T Appanrntiy for 
both, for h* told tu that he should find no fault ^ith the mere 



<if holding euoh a convendon, aod considi^rjn^ and dli^cuft*- 
ing jtucfi c|ut!sUi>;]ti ft« he auppo^ea were then and th^rre di** 
r^iiMi-d ; biu whnt n-ndercd it obnoxioun was iui bvin^ licUl nt Lhc 
tiiTif, mid under the circnrtiMAnrj?!* of thr country then i^tis^ing. 
We were in a war, he ^oid, and the country needed nil our aid ; 
the hand of povprikmont required to bo 0tren^hPDod> aoi weak- 
t*ricKl; und fyitrioii^m fihoiild have posfponed i^ach prot^^eiUigs to 
atKifher *h\}'. The Ihiri^ ilwelfj then, L* a preLvUtnt; Un? liine 
und mnnrirr uf it imly, n aubjettt ofcuiiisure, 

NoW) Sir, 1 go mueh fiirlher, on thi^ point* thin the hoooro- 
ble niembcri Suppositigi &» the g^^ntlemoii eec-ms to do^ that the 
HArtfotd ConvoDtioD ae^emblod for a»y buch purpose as break- 
tnj; up the Union, because they thought uaeoiisUiuttoaul Iftws 
find bi'rn pjiwd, or to eoiitfult on ihiit ftubjt4:r, or Ut €fil£viaU 
tht vatiiif o/ 4hr f'nUia,; »»p[Hi»Ling thU to Ih- Iheir piLtjToiu*, or 
Hiiy pari uf il, theu I a&y the meeting it&rif wa« <iidlvyiiJ. and 
waa objiuxioua ao c^nmue, whether held ii> time of peace or lime 
of war, or uj^der whjtovi,T eircmoetancea- The rautcrial quco- 
tioA U the object U diHtioluliou the ob^r^cl? ir it b?, uxUTnitl 
Gircnjn»1unec-i mciy tnuke it Q niorv or leu Eif^gravEitixl <^n»c, but 
e-nnnot nffefi ihe princfph^ I do not hutd, thi-n-fon-^ Sir, that 
th« llurlford Conveution wa« parJou^iblc, even ti> th'.^ fx1t*iil of 
the gentJciaaaS admltfaion, if it* objecte \h<ere reaUy auch as h«vc 
bc(?n imputed to it Sir, tticre auvtrr was a time, under any de- 
gree of excitemenl, in whiuh the Hartford Convention, or any oth* 
er convention, eouUi bnvtt maintaiatKJ iuelf one moment in New 
Knglnnd, if iiHArinhh-rl for nny *iii^h pnrpt>«e an \ht' griitleman 
taytt wouh.l huvi.- ijc^eu an allowable purpoT^L-iH Tci hold conven- 
tions 1o (Jtcjde coiiatltutional law \ To try the binding validity 
of utatutea by votco in a oonvtintion I Sir, the* Ilarttord Uon* 
vention, I preeume, would not de»rc that th(^ htiaoruble jg;crn*- 
llemaii itlioiUd be their defender or advocate, if he pau their 
case upon nuih untf?nitbk* nnd exlnivngurit ground*. 

Thert, 8ir, the gentleman ha» no fault to fuid with th««e re- 
cently promulgated South Carolina opiaions. Aod <N-rt^idy 
he need have none; for hi» own *enliiutut», qj» now ndvanoed, 
and advanced an refleolion, an far aa 1 hu^ve bt^en able to eompn> 
hand Uieoi, go the foil Length of all theve opinions. I propone, 
&r, to Bay aometliiiig on tTirve, and to ooii^tdcr how fur they are 
jtut and conntitutional. Before doing that, however* let me jkn 



tcrre tbftt tlic mlof^urn pronouns-eel by ibi- IiojiormUc jjff ntli^umn 
on the churaoter of Uif^ ^tutr of Huuth CWuliu^, for hci Rrvolu- 
tjonuy oad other mcrit*^ m«N*t« my hearty ooncurrtncc. / 1 phnl] 
not acknowledge that iht? hoiiorabk nit^nibtrr giw% bt-fmv mt* in 
rrgnni for whntrvrr of dimEingiiiAhiM] Inli^nl, or <}iitTi»giiUhed cha> 
ftctcr, Soutli Caroliua has pioducc^ I claim peit of thf? iionoTt 
i puttalcc in the pride, of her great »anic&, I daim them for 
eouatnnu-u, om.* and all, the Luurene^e, the Ruiltt!j;i.--i the 
Pitickiii'yH, tbi" Sumpicre, ll^c Murimje, Arnt>rifana nU, whom? 
Ikmc IK no moro to bo b(?inmwl in Ly Stulu llm^K, Ihnn tb^ir 
talenU nnil piitrintJAin wt-rr mpiibtr of br*irig dmiinfir'ribpd wiih- 
in Ihsiame narrow limits. In thrii day and g<-nera[mn. they 
fterred and honored the country* and the whole cunnlry; and 
their renown is of Uil* tn-afiore* of the whi>lc country, liim whodic 
honored nniiia thi? h*^iiikniau himself beanie ^d<>5p h« cAt^cm 
me It'M eapabte of gmiUude f^ hU puirtoiUm, or sympaihy for 
hi> KiilTc'riiign, Uiiui if Uh pyesi biul fimt <r|ir?n4-d ii|H>n the light 
of Mais:«JtCrbLt!trtl?i| in^tcr^td of Boutli CtitoUjisi ? Sir, iJ<>e« he »up- 
poee it ia ln» power to cjihibit a Carolina name ao bn^bl, aa tu 
produce envy in my bosum? No, Sir, increased j^^tificatiou 
and dehi*bt, mther. I thanlt God, thai, if i am fiifi-^d \vith lititi? 
of Ibe »[Hrit wluoh ia able to mise moriuU to the «kJeii, I bnvc 
yet none, as 1 tniHt, of ibat othrT «ptrit, which v^onld drag angola 
down. Wlien I Kbidl be fm»nlj Sir, in my plnce hcTr'- in Uic Sen- 
ate, or clst-whf^e, i<t meet at public merit, becatue it happtfris 
to epruig up beyond the iittJc limit» of my own Btatc or ni^ifch- 
h<irbcod; wbcji I rL^fuse, fur any «u<rh eauae, or for any canae, 
the homngt? due to Aint^ii-'an talent, lo vlt-vaTed patrtutirni, 1o 
aincirro dn%<otioii (a libi-rf.y and 1)ik eounlry ; or, if I mv an tin- 
<:i>inrnon cndnwrnrnt of }Ieavi*n, if 1 wt fJilrHorcJinaTy capacity 
and virE^uL't hi aiiy tutu of the South, and if, tiiovrd by lou^ P^i~ 
adioe or fc^^ir^'i*^'^ ^f &tate jealousy, I get up here to abatf- 
the iithr of a bair from Iiib judt c'hanieter and just fniuc, may 
my Urngiio t Lave fo the roof of my mouth l^* 

8ir, let utc refur to pleading n>coUvctioni; let tne indulge In 
reTreahing rrrmcmbnino^ of tlii? past; let me nnniml yuu that, in 
early time*, no Stat-c* checijihrd grfratcr bnnnony* both of princi- 
ple and ff^rling, than MaawichuiicttA and South Carolina. Would 
to (iod timt harmony might again rctum! i^honlder to rhoul* 
der they went throngli the Revolution, hand in band tb«y i^lood 



rtwutl the admlnlalr^Ltlon of Wa»|jiii;rl^ji, nnd fell hi» own groal 
anil If'ttn on thf*rii (or Kupiinrt. Unkind fnrling, tf it ninl, nllcn< 
fttioti, und ilWiint nrc titer gmwth, uiinFitiirnI to such »oil4, of 
false principVs ^tncv anwn, TJicy are w^'edft, li*e stwdft of which 
ihat frame great arm never scattcredi 

Mr. Pfe#i<i«nt, I shall enter on no encoinium ai>on Maitetuhu- 
teltn; flhe needs none. There iilie ta. Bi^hoM h^, and jtid^e for 
ycurHfJvi^s. Tlieiv? lo her hiHU^ry; llie world knuwH it tiy Iit-Hrt. 
Tbr- puHlf ui lenM, U vrcurR, Thrr« in Bn* ton, ami OimeiinJ, 
»nd Lexington* nnd nnnWrr Hill ; and there they will remain for 
CYrr The bon^^s of her sonti, faUing in the gicat ntnigglc foi 
liid«fK^iidnrkcri now IW- mingled iKith the voil of every Stale from 
Xew England ro Georgia ; ftnd th*fe they will lie for ever. And 
81r» ^PL^h^'n» Arnp-rirwji Lib*^rty rnJifed Jta fttuX voice, «nd where it* 
yiiulh waifl nurtured mid ^^Hlained, ihrre iL itliW tiwa, in ibc 
fltrength of Ua manhood ^nd full of ib originnl ?vpirit. If discord 
and ditfuruon »hall wound it, if parly ttriiv and blind ambition 
fihall hiiwk at nxid tiMir it^ if folly and mndm^HK, if nnetuinMia 
nndi^r i^atul^ry unci nefv>«>ury n-trrrninrf ihall nneer^ecl in »epB* 
rnting it fnim thnt Union, by wbieh alone U* eitinfenee ]n mild<> 
Btm.-> il. will stand, in the end, by the aide of tjjut eiudh: in widch 
ita infaiicy wns rocked; it will Atjctch forth Ila arm with wbat- 
evcr of viftor it may alill retain oter (he fricWn wlio leather 
round it; und if wdl full ul tiut, if fall it mutft^ itmi<l*t the proud* 
e.ftt moEiumenlji of its own glory, and on the very ipct of lis 

There yet rejnainn to ho perTormedt Mr. Preeident, by far tbo 
modt grove and important duty, vrhicb ! fed to be devolved on 
me by this occasion, ft iM to *ta1e, and to dvfend^ wNut I con-* 
ccivc to be the true pineipki of the Conatitation under whteh 
we toe hefp assembled. 1 might well have dfvtiml thnt no 
wejghty a task nhoidd have fallen into other and nbZer hands. 1 
could have wished that it sbouid have been excciitcd by those 
wfaoae choractor and experienoo g^ve weight and influene« to 
their opiruonr^ sueh as eonnot possibly belong; to mine, But, 
Sir, I have met the occasion, not lovight it; and I vhall pioeeed 
(o stnte my own pcentimpntf^ without ehallenging for Ihem aiiy 
partieulr^r n^gard, with studied plainness, and as much precision 
ms puHsilfle. 




1 tindrnlanrl tH<* huni)rtib1e gpiitliMnnn from Smitli Comllna 
to miurit.4n, thai it iv> a right of thr. Htuir ](*gip<lauin'7i to iiit^r- 
frtc, whenoifrr, in Uinrjadgmco), this govenimtJiU tr&neoendtf ha 
eODetiiat'iDual limitet and to omat the o^-ration of ita lawa 

I undf-ntTuiid him to msontuiti this nghl, us q rtf^bt cuLittii^ 
undar th« Convlitufion, not a* a Hght to ovt*rthrow it on tb<^ 
groiiiid of i^xljvmf^ necewitjTT such ntt wotild ju«ttiy vlolnnt rwn- 

I und^Tsland him to RiaintRjn an uitbority, on the part of the 
SCfliteB, thuA to tnterfcTc, for the pnrpo^c of corR^ctin^ the cxcr- 
«Im of power bv thi^ genera] govemment, of ohecrhinif if, and of 
«orDpelUng jt to conform to their opinion of Ibe «xtcn( of iU 

I iiiidf-rntiLnd him tn tnnuitnin, that the ultitDnte power of 
judging of the constitutional extent of it« o^ni authority i» not 
lodged exclii^ivdy in the general govcrnnieiit, or any branch of 
it; but that, on the confmiy, the States may lawfully det^idu for 
themft^lveKf and eaoh Stale for Stdolf^ whether, m a givtn euw, 
the net of the general goT^rnrmmt lnin**<'nd* it* [jower. 

I atuU-mtHnit him tti insist, Ihnt, if Hif* rxlgi-rif-y of the rtifw^ in 
the opinion of any Slate goveniment, require it, such St«tc gov* 
emment may, by it« own sovereign authorfty, annul an act of 
the gencmi government whieh it deema plainly ard palpably 
nneoanf i to tio na L 

Thi* 1% the* Jium of what I nndt*ntand from him To bv xhv 
Snnlli f^iirolimi dcxrtnni-, nnd thn dortrinf- whiHi he miiinljiinv. 
I propose to eon»idor it^ and compnrc it with the ConMitulion. 
Allow me to roy, a« a prdimtnary remark, thnt I call thin ihc 
South Carolina doothno only btxnUBe the girntJrmnn himsHf has 
•o denominated it. I do not feel at liberty to nay thnt Soulh 
Carolina, as a State, ba» ever adv^ite^ th"*e i-ennmrnt*. I 
lio^Kt aln? hw nol, and imvtfr may. Tlmt a ^rvnt majtvity of bcrr 
peopir nm opponed to the tarilf liiw^ i* donbtlrm tnie. That n 
mAJoniy, diomewhat lod thaEi thatjniit tncntionrd, eoDneit^otionit* 
ly bcliiive ihcjie law* uneonKtitutional, rany probably uW be 
tnie. But that any majority holdi To the right of direct Slate 
inti^ Tpn^nn? Fit Htnt*i riwrrption, fh« right oi miliifyin^ itrt* of 
Congrei« by aet« of State lpgiAlatioii> is more than 1 Itnow, 
aiid what I #hall be slow to believe* 

That thtu^ hiv indi%i(iuui:i beniddB tb« honorable getjtjomaii 



vrhff do mnint^in th^ee opiiilon^i U quite <-pnaIiu I reL^ctU-ct 
tbe r"ii*nl cipn'Sftioti of a sentimtfril, whidi dn;nmttiiiifr(r« n1- 
tciKliiig it:i tittcvancr: ahd ptihliottion jncttify u» in «DppD»iflig 
wm» not unprcnir<iitnt<sl. ** The sovereignty of the Slalc,— 
never to bo ct^nirollcd, coii»tni<fd, or decided on, but by hpr own 
feding^ of honombjp juHticcJ' 

Mr. Hftvno here roao nad Euiid, that, for iho pjrpowj of (njioir tle^r y 
undt^mrond, \nf wndd sfaw ch»l hU prnpoiilion w m ihe vordn of rhs 
VirgJitiuTvsululJuii, as f^jllova :^ 

" Thot this nMcmbly dwh explicitly ejid percmptoKly declare, ilmi n 
vlmvii iliff pnvAM ^f \h« A»jtnnil govRmmnnr, tw muTring fmm ihp 
compocl to wiiich tbcr t}t&tf7H bre poilics. na timttei! by ilic pltuit ivnM- 
uid intoniiorL of Iho iimtrumcni oorstliutin^ that compacli os no farlhcr 
*ofi(I ilian rhf-y nrp aiHhuriy^^d liy 'ho gtnurA onunifrrntvii in timt t-inn- 
pdcc ; naj tKat« in cue vf b <lfllib«nilo, palpable, luid Jangcroun e:icr- 
cidO of other powers, Dot gninicd by the (aid c^^mpnct, the Stniea vho 
arv pHrricH tTirr^iu luiv^ the righl, ami un? in duly Ttuuii^, k> inie^qiow, 
for orrcstiriit ihc progmw of ihe evil* und far maintftininfl withLn their 
r«ffp«ctWo Imutii the mmhoritiet, rights, and lib^rttnii nppnfuimng to 

Mr. Wobbler roauinod : — 

1 am tiuil*? uwtiTi', Mt. Pn*ah!ent, of thp «*xiiiti'in*r cif thr rt^oo- 
luiujn whirh ihir ^niElrmnn vt^mi, iind hn'* lufw rrpoatnl, find 
that he rclicd on it &» his authority. I know the rourcc, too, 
from \viiich il \3 understood to have procccdcidi I need not eny 
thut 1 hiive iiiiioh rep^ei/t for the (ion e lit alio rial opinions of Mr. 
MadiHCiii : 1h<'y ^voiild weigh grealiy with me always. Bui be- 
fore ihi' itiilhorily of his opinion he voueheii for the g(*nliemFin*ii 
pri>|K]t4ilJi)U> it will be proper to c^niiidr^r whul in the fiiir iiiltrr- 
pretation o{ thiit rcAolutioni to which I^f r. Madison i^ undenitood 
to hftvc i^vttn hifl .innction. A;» thr gtrntlcmnn c^n.ttrai^^ it, it la 
an Authority for Him. i'oaeibly, he may not havo adopted th« 
right construction. That recoJutior drdnrrn, th^if-, in the rate of 
ihf daageruui exercUs o/poisffs lun f^aiUtrd by the i^tnernl (f«u- 
trnjrtfiU, the SttUe^ may itUtrjMjifi to arrcH thf pru^esn of the 
cviL But how intcrpooe, and whrtt doej thin dt.-t:br:ition pur- 
port? Du(7£^ it moon no mure thun thut Ihcru may be extreme 
CAaeo, in which the people-, in any mode of ouucmblin^, may r^ 
mt UAurpatlon^ and n^lieire thf^m^fflvea fmm a tymnnienl govom- 
nwDt? No ote wdl deny thi». Such ruusiaiicc ie aot oiiJy 


SECOND SPEECH o« Foars Rtsonrnos 

rkri<Jwle<]^ffM] lo Iw juhL 

ai.'rkri<jwie<l^^fMl lo Iw juhL hi AiiieriL';!, bul tri Kri^lniitl nbo 
BUL-kalurif.- adiniJfl ii5 miii'h, in t.lip tlrory. iniil priit^ticrf too, of 
the Englijib constitution. Wc, Sir, wha oppoctt^ 1h« Carolina 
(fodriiif^i do not deny that the people marT if llipy <^[)oo-bL', throw 
olf any govc^rntnpnt when it bfiic^in** opjiri'AJiive nnd irilotrmbl^*! 
uml i>rt-c<-t, a hi-t,ti*r in itJi Ktpo^- W^ fill knnw Ihnt rivil inntitii- 
linn?( niv iriAt^Uifthrd for Ihc public benefit, and rhal wherj th^^y 
t^pfisc to ajifwcr ihc end* of tlicir «xi0t«nc« Ihcy may be thaii^p-'d* 
But I do not. undcTBtaitd tho doctrine now contcriflrd (or to h^ 
that, whioh, for ihti nako of distinction, w« may C4iU thu HfrVil oi^ 
rvvolutit^n^ I undorituiid tht^ genIJ<^man Co muinluiii. thut, wifb< 
out rt-viilution, wilhiiut civil commotion, wilbont rpMlum, a 
tt-mrdy for i*»p|>n*pd nbu»p and tninngTic*i*ion of thr powrrs of 
th« gcnrral government iJc« iii a direct appeal to the iDK:rfct- 
cncc of the Slate governmcnto. 

Mr ITnynfl h**™ roup ftiii nnM ■ ffn liii! noi cwimpnd iW ih» mnn» 
righl of cavi*luiiuj|, hut for the righl of coiiHUiuiiowd n:aifltaJicc. Whal 
ho maintDincd wni. thol in c<u« of & pletin, pnlpo-bk violniian gf tho Con- 
ttilDliuri hy ifie gfriumf guvemnii^rit, a Slau* may iiiTi^qiuw* ; and Ihal 
thi* intioTpo!iiE]«in 1:1 conilimiianaL 

Mr- Wj^bfti^r re-iim^d : — 

So, Sir, 1 imdi*rntoo(J Ihr gfnth*rnfin, nnd nm happy to find 
that I did not mieund<THtand him. What he contend* for is» 
that U i& oonatiiutjouaj to inlctnipt tho admitii»tralion of tho 
Constitution itectf, iu the handtt of those who ^te chosen and 
iwom to administer it, by the direct inlerft-rv-nce, in form of law, 
of tht- Stn(*'-Mj in virtnt* of thrir :iov»rrt-rgn (Mpucity, Tht- in* 
hc-rnnt nght in thr pi-opic t-n reform their govrrntncnt [ do not 
deny; and thry hnvr another right, and that i^^, to rc^int uncmi* 
ttitntionaj lawp, without ovortuming the government. It ie oi> 
doctrine of mine that unconft^tutional laws bind the people, 
Th*^ great quesUon U, Whow prerogative i% it to decide on the 
1-onHitmionnJiiy or tin<finiitituticjnHli[.y of fhr hiw«? On thuT, 
ibr main dr.lmtr hiiigrri. The pfopjiMtion, thai, in (towi of a 
»Dppo»(^d violation of the Constitution by Congn-*^ the 8tat<-j» 
have a conitUtationnl rTc;lit to interfere and annul llie tnw of 
Con^^reee, U the proposition of the p;ientleman. i do no^ admit 
lit If the i^ntleman bad Intended no more than to a«9pri the 
rtght of rev()1tJtio[i for jtisilifnible cniiip, be ivrmld hatve anid only 
what all ogrvc Ux Uni l cJtnnot cong^vc thftt there oui be a 




niiJdIe ooune^ Wweeii wubiriiiviiori 1« th^ lnw», whrr rrgiiturly 
pri>nouiice<l r-onKUUit.toniL ot\ the tinr Imntl, nricl <ipni n*>Jf(lHn<?i>, 
which ifl rrvoluTinn or rrbdijon^ on (he other, 1 tay, tla- right 
oi a iStnIr (o nnnal n law t>t Uongresa cannot be irkfiiiitaiiicdi but 
un the |{toiiik] of Ihc' innlinnabk ri^ht of man to nraiBt oppren- 
HLon; 1)mt IB to nny, upon the ground of revoltillon- 1 mtniit 
thnf tht-n- is an i*lliinale violent remedy, above the Cans tit tit ion 
iukI in iVH^ncr nf the Oon!>tifution, which miiy be rr-jwrljrd to 
when a iwoKifiiua ia to be justified- But 1 do not fidmlt, that, 
tind'T the CuiiaCitiilton and m conformity with it^ there id any 
mode in whroh ti Slate (,'ovemment, as a member of the Union, 
can interfere and 4lop the prof>!Tew of the ^uerai ^vernmen^ 
by foree n( her uwji Ihwh, under any c'tTc%tm*iiin<*vit whcilever 

Thin Ir^ada us tiT itKLuire iulo the origin of thin ^vernment 
and Uic M>urce of itti power. Whopc a^nt Ln HI U it the 
creature oi th<^ StAtt- lf-^i:iIatur\?V) or thcr crejitiire of thr people? 
If the gOYcrnmi'iTt of the United StAt^n be the agent of the Slato 
govrmmentv, then they mny eontrol it» provided they can agree 
in the irrantier of eontrolltng it ; if it tie the agi^iit uf thi* jieopte, 
llieii the peopk' uluiiu van f(>iitrui il^ rrrHlrain it, mudify, (ir re- 
form iL It 19 observable enough, that the doctrine fur which the 
honorable ff'-ntlr<nmn contr^ndn U^nda hiin to the necessity of 
inaintaining, not oaiy ihnl thw gcnemi jjonq^nment ia the erea- 
ton of ihe Slat^a, but that it is the creature of eaeb of the 
Scateri tievirrally, ao That eaeh tnny assert the power for ttJtelf of 
detenniniii^ u/hrihi-r it at^tx wilhici ihi- liinil^ of Uf. nnthority. 
It ifi the .irrvnnt of fo a r-and* twenty m>t5trr!i, of diUV-reiit w>l[» 
and dillerent piirposc-v and yot bnund to obey oJI- This absurd- 
ity {for it Foemn no less) ori^es fr*im n miweonception g* to (he 
ori|;^in of thi? government and tta tru? charRciw. Jt la, Sir, th« 
people's ConstStotionj the people^a (^veraraent, made for the 
[leujile, made by ihe ptinple^ and anftweinbie Ici the pt-uplv^ Thr 
peopir o( the United Statrsi have dc^-Urrd IhFit iJiiii Cnnaitrtution 
shnlt be the tin|nvme law, Wc munt riFhcr ndmit the propoiii- 
tion, or di.-ipule their authority. Th*^ tifateif Tire, uaqvcfltionahly, 
»oveieign, »o fur an th^Jr poveri^igaiy m not affected by this su- 
prtrme hiw. Rut the Stat^ Ipginla lures, as political bodiet, 
however voverei^ii, are yet not suverei^ii over the people. Sti 
far as the peoplr have given power to (he graerd govi^nunent, 
■10 far the grunt ia um^uesilioniiblv ^od. and the govc^ntiwol 



huM^ of the |H-0|]lt:, and not of Ihr SUIe f^iivvmnir-nt^ W« nrr 
all iij;L'fita uf llie same supreme [jcwct, Uir p^l»f)lf^ The ^t'nen^ 
governmesit niui the Stuti; f^avcrnmenta derive thcif aallionty 
from iho ^amv Aourct-v Ni^Uii*r can, it; Mnlion Ut the other* be 
cfOled ptitnary, though one in dcfiiLit^ and rmUtded, uiid tbr 
othpF genpml nrid rrHidimry. Thp naiional goveinmeiit po»- 
Ar*w* tlinnf powrni wbioh it can be ahowu l.lip |H*«ple \v4vp cou- 
ft'fTcd on it, and no more. All the re&t belongs to the Suilc 
govcntmcrnte, or to tbe people thcmMlvcd. 60 for 113 the propfr 
Im'f"' rt'fttmlntd State Mivereif^nty, by the expression of tbpii will, 
111 ihv CoEiHtiiuTion of th« UnilL-d Stutcic, fo fsir, it innM b^ ad' 
mitlM^ Slnte norcrt^ignty i» elfeotaiilly contTollrd. I do not con- 
tj.'n(l fhiit it i*, or ought t« iw, eonliolkt! farthrr, Tlie tietiU* 
fticiit txr whioli [ have referred propooad» thai Suic M>vi?rdgiily 
U only to he controlled t>y ttn own " feeling of judtiee " ; llial i^ 
to say, rt is not lo he controUi^d at all, for one who is lo follow 
hU own rcrUngKiB under no legJil oonlxul. Now, howcvt*r mr*n 

J may think thii onghi to be, ihi* fat^t ii»i that thn |>prpl*' of t>ie 
United Sl*ite» havt^ ehoMt-ri to iin|Kwe control on ^Inlr »uverei^i- 
titw. TJicriT are those, donbllL-tw, who wjsli Ibcy bud beru \efi 
without n^fltralnt; but the Constitution hua order<^ the matter 
ililTerenUy. To make v.'or, icT uifttnnu.^ m an ejterciee of novi-r< 
cignty; but the Constitution declare'^ tluil no St«te shiiil make 
war To rnin mont»y !« unotUer cxerelH? of sovi-r(?ign |iower; 
bnt no Sl^tfj^ in at libi^rly to e*nD money. Again, tbe (VfiHUtU* 
lion mya tliat ito ftovcrcign State shalJ be oo sovereign at to 
make a treaty. Thece prohibitions, il must t>e coufe^ecd. are a 
oonlTol OEi Iho bt4it« ftovorcignty of South Carolina, tut well tu 
of th« other Staiea, whUih does not ariae ** from her own feeliugB 
of hononible jnwtiee/' The opinii-fn referred U>» tlierefure, U in 
d«£anep of ih** phiincut pf*mtiu>na of Uie CunsiUulion. 

V l^ere a/e other proceeding? of public bodies which have 
dfeady been alluded to, and to wfaieh 1 refer again, for the ptir- 
poec of afieeTtui[iin|( more fully what t» the length and breadlh 
of that duetilne, denominated the Carobna doemnc, whieh tbe 
hiinoruhle jnember ha« now Blood up on thin floor to mnintflin. 
In one of them I find it rt-nulved, tliuL '^ the laritT of 18^28, and 
every othrf tanff ilcAigncd to promote one branch of induatry al 
the expense of othens i* contrary to the meaning and mtention 
of Iho federoJ oonipact; and dueh a dangeroui^ palpable, nnd 



d(*lihmt« Dinrpation r>f }Mw<^r, l>y n (if*termitic<d majorfry* wield- 
ing tliv gfiit^ral g;>t.>Tnirieni beyond th« IhiiliA of iU clt-lirg^ti^d 
puwirr?, -AS callfi upon the StatcA which i^umpoHc \he hUlTi^rinx 
initiOTity, ill their AOT«rvigji capadty, to neicLaic the powm 
wtkic^h. Hi aovetvi^ii'g, neoeftftatiiy devolve apcui thciDi wlicn ihcxt 
compact U vidnU'd." 

Otwr-rve, Sir, that ihitu n-ftoltiUon IioUU Ihr turiff of 1828, «nd 
crrry othrr tiiritF dmi^iicd to proinoti- our. bmndi of indii»fiy 
iLt iht? cxpcnncT of another, to be audi it dungrrou?s piilpablc, uad 
ddit>crutc ueiurpation of power, iui cMn upon the Biotcs in thi^ir 
■ovcreiga oapacity^ to jiiterfcre by their own Authority. Tlija 
d«nunc.intif)n, Mr, Fivsidrnl, you wili plf^ajw to ob«Frvei jnclude« 
our old tarilT of 18H(f nn wrll nn nil nthm; l)f<c4itM^ thnt u'ubi 
eetabliAhoifl to promotr the intcn^st of the maoufucturcra at twt- 
toti, to the iriaiiirc«t nnd admitted injury of the Calcutta cotton 
trade, ObH«rv«i, a^in, that nil the <iii»Uficadon0 ur« hr-re iv- 
h^uTtted and charge upon the taiid^ which are neomaary to bring 
the oatte within the gentltrmar's propor^irlun. Th^ tariff I* a 
usturpalion ; it 1b a dangc-rous usurpation ; il t?i a pulpTilik iiKur* 
pntion; it ia a dciib<-i&to usurpatioii. It b such a iii\irpntion, 
ttiCTfforL\ ae calU upon tlie Statea to wterciau thtnr right of i*itcr- 
fpr<*tioc Here i* a case, then, u^ithln lh(? gentjtuntin** prindplrv, 
and all hi* (jiiMlifn-titionn tif his phudplea. It la ■ onw? for nction* 
The Coii»1itiiLioti i» plainly, daiigL^roualy, pidpubly, niid ilHiber- 
ately violated; and thi- t^tat^^i must intcipoAc their own au- 
thority lo arrert thn law. Ut u» suppose the State of Ijoutb 
Ciui^lma to etprnaa thia »amc opinion^ by ttie voic<» of her legia- 
jatore. That woTild hr very imposing; bnt what then? I* the 
voi(*e of one 8trtte ra)nchj»>ivr ? It *o happen?* rhal, al (he vrry 
momFul when South Caiolina reeolvp» that the turiff Uw!i are 
Qnconeititutional^ Fennaylvania and Kejiluihy resolve ciacUy 
tht" revL-rae, They hold those law* to bo both higlily proper and 
etrietly eonintitutioiiaL And now, Sir, how doe* the fionorabte 
membrr propime to deal with thin caw? H:>w diwn he n*- 
IJpve us fr-tm thia ditUculty, upon niiy prif)cipl(< of hi:^? Ilii 
coii»IruGtii>n getA oa into it; how doc» he propose to get tii 

In Carolina, the tariff ia a palpablif, ddiboraic uviurpaiion; 
Caroiira, therefore, may iiulUfy it, and nfiiM* lo pay thi* dntiea 
[]i Fe»nf4ylvnnia, it i» both dearly ouustituticutal aud higlily ex* 


SPEECH ON ^tx)'^•l* besolu noi 

pedjciiti iind there the iliitic«i arc to hr- paid And yet wo liir^ 
imder a ^dv^rmmrnt of nniform 1»wfi, aod under a Conefitution 
too, which contaiDa an cv}itt.iw pnrvjbiaii, aa i1 happens, tliat all 
(Iulit9> ahull be equal in a)) th« States. T>ok» iioL tluA aiipruHiU 
absurdity ? 

If tL«Tte be no pow^r Ui eetlte eoeh qucetionit, indopctidcnt of 
iitlLW of the States, i» not th« wholt? Unii>ri a rope of naiid? 
Ak we not Ihwiwn ba^k agitiii, pr<"ti?«^ly, ujHJn thr old ConftvitT- 

It i« loo pUin to Ix: argued- Four-aiid-lwcnly inleriiretera of 
ConMitutionnl inw^ cnch with a power to decide for iti^df, oiid 
none with nulhority to bind any body dMr, and tht« constitutional 
law the only bond of thHr nnion I Whwt jh sncb a Btat« of 
thin^ii bui a merr conneciion during pli.'a»tnv, or, To ii»tf th« 
phnuti^olugy of the Iuul-w, during frcltn^? Ami tbut feeling, 
tuo, not the ftcling of the people, who eatabltshcd (he Constito- 
lion, but the fctbiig of tJio 8lalc ii^veninifnlo. 

In uriDlher of Uit- Soutli Carolmu addreuiiehi, having prt^miMd 
that the ferial'* requiws **iill the (*iiiio»-ntrnt/"il i-ncrgy uf pnjUQon^" 
an attiindr uf opi-ti niAi^aiiiei? 1o Ihr- lnw> of Hip llniim i« ^idvinnd. 
Open rcMMancc to the laWA, then, h ttie convtiiutJonn) remedyp 
the conacrvaUvc power of the Stntc, which ibc South Carolina 
dootrince teach for the nxJreea of political vvlh, tv-ai or imo^- 
nary. And lU atithorv farther say, ihat, appealing with confi* 
«ience lo the Constitution itJHf^lf, to jn>ilify lh«-ir opiniontt, th^y 
<--nnnut cunM-nt to try their acx;umcy by Lhi; ix)uit« of Juatice^ In 
one :ictT»e, indeed, Bit, thia JA adsuminf: an attitude of open 
rt^ni^tuncij in favor i>f liberty. But what eort of Ubt-rtyl Tho 
y^ Lbi^rty of ^establishing their own opinion*, in dcCiftDce of the 
opinions of hII nlh*frs; (he liberty of judging and of dreidlng 
eHfJuaively ihemM-Kra, in a emilli-r in which othrm huve as 
much right to judge and decide M thffy; the liberty of placing 
their own opinions above ihc judgment of all othorn^ nbovc th<^ 
^^ J\WB, and above the Con stitu lion. Thii* ik tiidr liberty, and 
this is th« fail resnU of the propoitiiion oontcniled for by th(^ 
honor^hlf^ genflemnn. Or^ it mny hn mnn* proprriy »aid, it U 
^iiticid vh'ith it, raihet than a result from it. 

In the same pablicatjon we find the following: — ^ Prevtouely 
to our llcvolntion, when the arm of opprcsdion wa« »trvtchcd 
ov«r New England, where did our Northern brethren mcrt with 



m Urava sympathy thsn ihnt wbir^U ajirung irom Ww bo^om* of 
CoroliiLiujig ? Wr liud no i^xturiloi), no opprrjtjiioii, no cDUi^ion 
ivHb the king's minij<tcr», no nnvign^on intcrcau Bpiitigiiig upi 
ill envioas rivaby of England" 

Tliia seems extmcrdinftry Inngtuig^-. Soatb Carolina no col. 
IbioD with the long's mlnUi^r* in 1775! No extortion! No 
o|i|>re9Hion ! But, Sir^ it ii &]»o moat BrgiiifiL*unt hitigiingr. 
Doc» any nitin ckiubL t!ie purpOMJ (or whicU it wiu pritmii? 
dm Jiny t^iic fail to ricc that it wit» dcvigncd to roinc in (he 
rcodor'fl inind the question, whether, ai this /iW, — that U to 
e&y» la XSSS, — South C^rolinn hit» any colbiiion with the kiiig'* 
miTiUt«<r», any opprea«ion, or c-xrorticn, to ff'ftr from England? 
whether, In Hliorl, RiigfaiKi Ih not art naturally tht^ frii'iiJ of 
Smith Carcliim as Nfw Eii^kndi with her iiavigatiojj intirruitA 
j^priuging up i» L^nviouti riimlry of Enjclaiici ? 

t» it not ^itmngc. Sir, thut an intt-Uigfnt man in South Cnro- 
Una, in l^i^if, vhould thus lubor to prov« ihui, in 1772, th<;rc waa 
no ho»tilttVi Jio t^misp of war, brtw^x^n South CArulina and Eng- 
land ? *V\\.Hl A^v^ hixi) no occasion, in nrffireucM.^ to bt-r own intt-r- 
cat, ui from a ri'gaiJ to ber own wcifaie, to IaKc up ariut* in tlie 
Revolutionary contcdt? Cau any cue account for the expreaaioti 
of Duch Htruuf^c ecutimcnl^ and their circu]ati4.ia through the 
SiuCct otherwise than by auppoeing tbe object to \wt wiml I h[»vr 
ttlreiidy intimated, to raiw the quvAllon, if ihey had no **ct>ltU- 
£on" (inuik LliP *'!ipri"ft>ioH) with Uic nihuBlt^rs uf King (trnirgft 
the Third, in 1776, whitt cotfUum have they, in Id^S, with tlw 
mlniatcre of King George tlie Fourth? What in there now in 
the existing state of tilings, to Mptuutc Carolina £rom Oit/, mor^ 
or mth% ihnn fnun NeiP England? 

Ri^^olution*, Sir, have bet-n recv*nfJy jviMtifl by the legUlature 
of South Curutiua. I ucrd not rvfer to tlii^ni; tJity go no fhr- 
tiicr than tbc honorable gentleman himaelT ha^ gone, and I hope 
not 9o ftir, 1 conti^nt my^df, tliercfons with debuting the matter 
with biin. 

And nov, Sir, what 1 have fintt to suy nn thi« vnbjtct U, 
Uut at tut timi?, and umli^r ttc ein^um^tnuL't-K, hns Ni'-w Eng- 
land, or any State in New England, or any respectable body 
of pcnun* in New Englitnd, or any public mnn o( atatidio^ 
in NcA^- Knglaml, put forth such « doctfinc a8 thia Cmoluia 

voc lit. 28 





The f^ntli 




port liib owu opInti>i)tt by N<*w England aLiUiurtry. Nc<w Kitg> 
Ifuiit h«a stuJicd Ifae CaEi^tituLion In ullier «cbuLj|&, mid undrr 
other tctichcra< Slw loako upori it wjlh oilier rc'i^rd?, uiitl ilot-riia 
tiioru hijfhly unJ rcvt^reiiUy both of ila jmst authoriFy uml itii 
utility fijici cxc^llifncv. The hi«tory of her l<-gi»litive prt>coc<J- 
ing* mny bf tmc»*tL Th« rphrmrrnl rlTtminniL of t^mprmfy IckJ- 
ir-N cnllrd tiigL^lfier by tlie rxdtfinvnt of lliv ("KV^^ioti, umy hr 
hant<.-d up; they have been huiitrU up. The ojjbiuna atitl vours 
of her public tiKii, in and out of Congivs*, may bt txploa-d. 
It ivill all he ilk vam. The Carolina doctrine eoi) derive from 
ber ti^ither c<oun1«auiice uor bupport She rejeotJt it now; ahe 
iilwnyH Jlct n-jivf it; niici till nha Iohkk h<*r iwiiiu**^ )(h<- iilwiiyH 
will irjrct it The luiniinbh* rni'iiibirr biif< n^frrrcKJ tii njirrn* 
Mon# oik fbe AabjVct of tbc embargo law, made ld thi» place, 
hy tin honorable and vcnrrubic gt-iillcmon," nov favoring us 
with hj« proneiice. He quotes thfit dj^tin^iebed Senator as 
aayin^, tha(, in hla judf^nentf thfl «tnbftrgD law wa« uncotiBti- 
tuiionul, and that th<?n*fore, in his opinion, the piTO])le wt^tf not 
bound lo obey iu T)m1, Sir, ia jierfci^lly LxinatiluiionuJ laiigua^ 
An uiiconatitiilional law is nut binditiff* ^"' '^"^ '' '^'^ *^i ^'' 
with a rcivivlioH or a taie of a Sialic (tf^^laturt to decide ifA<Mer 
an aet of ConffrfSA ^ of im not atnttilHtionat An uneotwti* 
ttitiona] net of CongrrM would not hind !)»* pf-opl** of thw Din- 
tjict., aiihough thry bavi* no lrgi><ln(nnr Ui iriti^Ht-n- in tlirtr b^ 
baJf ; and, on llie other hand, a conatilutionai hiw of Cougreas 
doea bind thir eitiiEena of cvory State, although all ihcir |i.-|'ir«la- 
tujew BhoulU undertake to annul it by act or rcBolution. Th« 
venerable Conrieetit'ut Senator ia a eonailtutlonal lawyer, of 
■ioun<l prinripleii and enlurge^d knnwTeii^t*; » HtjUeniuHn prnr- 
li?wd and cspt-rii-nnedj bred in ilip coinpMny of Wnsliuij^Um, and 
holding ju?it ififrwA upon the nature of our govenimento. He 
brJirvcd tho rmbnrt:o u n cvin eti tn ti onnl, nnd so did othrtm; but 
what then? Who did he auppOAi^ wan to dcoidn ihcit qiK!«tioa? 
Th<» Stftte leg^nlntuwa ? Certainty not No »«ch •entimmi 

K\**T €ACfip^d hii4 lips. 

Let us fulJow up. Sir. tilia New En^'hind oppotuUon lo llie 
embargo law« ; let ua trace it^ till we discern the principle which 

* Mr UiUhooM, of C»iiao4liaBL 


OOnlroUcd and p^avcrnrd Now Enplniid thniuptiPiii th« wliolu 
oouitte o( that 0(>padJuoii. Wc sh.<Il ih'^n »vf' \v\\ni MmilFirity 
ihvm ia briwceii ft:*" NfW Ciii^laiid school uf coriHtitntioniil oplti- 
ioDN, luid itib imiilE^rii Curullnu mrltoul Tho i^eiitlvninii, I Uitiik^ 
read a pc^tiiLori itoin .-lomc biii^Iu ludi/idual afld^^'^»ed Xo thi: ]i:g- 
jslatorc of Jl]n»jin<-hU9utt«t lUiMrrting the Carolinti doctrine; ttint 
ifl, Ihr ri^Kl of SUtc inU^rforrJiPU !o orfuat lilt law* of the Unitiii. 
Thf fim^ of ibiir po;iiion show* thi? wntimonT of ihr lpgi*lnHiTP. 
It m^t no fnvnr, Th^ opininn* of Mawaphnnt'ttn wrrr very dif* 
fcrtiiU Thi'V Jmd btrt-ii L-Jipresaed iu 1798, tii aiiawrr to fJir n^*~ 
i.»luliona of Viri^mitt, and »he did riot depart from tIk-iu, nur bind 
thorn to thu timea. Mit«f^v«rned, ^v)n>iip:<.-d, ojipK^ecd, tu «he 
Ci'lt hi'nwlf to be, *h« nUH h«Jd fujt Ikt inii^gTEfy to the Uiiioiu 
The grntlrmitii may find ii> hrr pi^ji-tu-dingw niurh eviilrmv (if 
diKAftTiHOic-lion wilti ttir mt-Hiiirt*^ of gnvt^rnmertt, and grrnf Miid 
dt'Cp difltike lu ihu embargo; aJI thJi inakc» the case ao mucb 
tbc «lK>Dff(rr for Iect ; for, notvithatsnding all thi« dJi<&atiF»faotioii 
and diHlikis the atltl daimcd no right to wvat the bonds of 
xhe Union. There wae heat, and there w^a anger in her po- 
Uueal ft^elln^. Be it so; but neither her heat nor her niiger 
Ueiiajcii hpt iiilu iiifulf-liiy ta thtf gtm-iiimcnL The gr-utlrnmn 
Idbura to prove thut ahc: di»likcd the ctnbnrgn nn much nri South 
Cnrolinii diMikcn the tniiif, and cxprwerd her dislike «i4 »ut)D^ 
ly. Hv it >m; bnt did *ht^ propcM; thn Cnroliiia remc<Jy? did 
■h? tbrraton to intorfc^ref by Slat« authority, to annul the lawe 
of th«? tTnion? That U the qupstion for ihe grnrN'mao'e ooii- 

No doubt, SiTi n grout majority of the ]>eup]e uf New Eng* 
liuid coneKUL'ntiousJy believed the cmbnx^ hiw of ld07 unconeti- 
ttiiiona] ; uh coniicientiuunlyT cL'rtninly, iti tho pcopto of South 
Cuxoliiiu hold that opinion of the larifC They resfioned Uiu«; 
(7iingn*Ki« him ptiwtf to rpgiilaUi commerce ; but here Is a law, 
they EtBii, Mopping al\ cuminriciT, and Hlu|ipJii^ il indeniiiU^Ly. 
The law u pvrpeiual; that id, it 15 not linated in point of time, 
and inuHt of uoar^e coiitinus; until it tthnll be rc^ptrnJed by aom^ 
other law. It w as perpetuuj, UiL-refor<?i nn the law agninict trra* 
Hon or murder Now, i* thin regnlnting commprcet or doBtroying 
it? h k guiding, ejintmlling, giving the rule to commeroe, ^ » 
•ub:4i^ linrig, or Ir- it puttjit|^ an end to if iilioi^f-iW? Nntli- 
in^ IB mure ccrlttju, th&r that n nvnymiy jii New t^ugluod dcGnttid 




UiiN Iftw ti violalioti of ih*" noti»ljtul|(Hi. Th*- wry cnsr nv|nipf«] 
by tbr grnlJriiinn t« jiwiifj" Stutc inUTfrmicir lin/l ih^^n sriHen. 
Maa&ftchu»ct1» believed rbia law to be "a dcjjbfntrt paJpabJe, 
unJ daiig(^rou£ cxcrciac of a powur not grantt^d by tfic CoiiBiirvr 
tion." D@)ib«rul« it wad, for it was lon^ <,toniiimi--d ; i^uipikbli- 
»bt! ttougtit Itr ^ '1'^ woniv lu the Consdtution ^vi* tlic- |)owtr, 
iind only a i^onslmc-lioiif in hrir opinion must vlulrnt, niiu'd it; 
ifdRiji'rouH it WH», Wmwx'. ii lltn'-uti^neil uIUt niin to hrr moiit ini* 
fioit&ut iiitcrc*t«. llcre, tben, wa^ a Carolina L^aw. Ilow diil 
Ma&»ac^iupctts dral with itf It was, as ehi? tbon^bt, a plaiji, 
iQanift^Hl, palpablti violation of ihti Conbtitution, und it brou>;bt 
rain to hc't dooru, Thouoaud* of ramilien, and bundredti of 
lhou«indA cif imlivldualWf \ivr<^ bi^£2;^red by it While %\iv naw 
iinJ frOl ilM lhi», #liir r^aw^ ;iil(1 frJl jlUoj Ihrtlt ilk n jnrAMirr* of 
national policjr, it Wtks pcrfccdy futile; tbat the country voa no 
way bcmtitcd by that which cauMd ^o tnuch individual du- 
trodEt; Ibut it wau cl^cit^nt oidy for tbc produi^lion of evil, and 
aU that evil in(Uoti-d oji ou»p|veti. In ituoh a ca^^, under aiich 
clruiiiiis'ttiiLT?^, bow did MiiH-iaf^hu-iL-ttH demean br-rM-ir? Sif, 
[ihe rr-imiMfttnili^i, r*he mcniuriiiti^i-d, wbe ftddrtTwed betbelf Ui tlie 
gcnf-ml gtn'rrnmcnt, not exactly '-wiih the contwntral^d diirrgy 
cif |>^Il^ion/' but with her owa strong 3cn«e, ami the eiior^ of 
Bober convieljon- But she did not interpose The arm of bet own 
powi-r to arf»>ai the law, and break tho embargo. F^r from it. 
Her prindpleit bound her lo tw(> tliluys; aiiJ ube foUuwed h*t 
prinr-i]ilT-H, Icml wbiirH tiiey migbL Fiwl, li> pubrnit to *t^y 
consiitutlonal low of Congress, and seeondly, if the conMiiu* 
tional validity of the Uw be doubted, to refer that queatton to 
the dc-^bion of the proper tribunaU. Tbc limt principle in vain 
and inuffL-etuaJ without th^ apcond A mnjonty of xtn in New 
England believed the embargo law uneorHrinitiojinl; hut ihv 
grenl quenrion wiik, and alwtiya will br in iiut:b r^sea, Who U to 
decide this? Who ia to jud^ between Ihr people mid the gov- 
ern -Tunt i And» Kir, it in <)uite plnin, Hint l\nr UoJiBtilution of 
thti United State* eonferi on the government iuelf, to b« exer 
eifiej by iu appropriate departnient, anil tiiKk-r Itit own renpon* 
Mibiliiy u> the pf^iph*, ilii>i power of deeiding ultiin^lely und euu* 
diiBively upon tbc ju«c extent of ltd own authority. If tbin bod 
not bLL-ri dune, we ahould riot liavi^ advajiced a Mogle step be- 
yond the old Coafedcrutic^n. 



Being Ailly of opimoii ihal the riubur^ luw v^'ns unconKfitti- 
flOAftJ, lilt- [H'opii? vt Ni'W Englnnil ^t^c yd vqtially rknr in Uiu 
ojuni^iir (it W119 n matter tbcy di<l doubt upon,) (hat ihe qur^tioii, 
after «11, miJift be clccidt.-d by the judicial Ijibunals of tlic Uuitod 
StntcA. ticJ'orc tho»c trit>uiial£( therefore, tlkcy brou4;^bt tlii^ ()U€^ 
tioo. Undier Hi© proviaiona of the law, they had Ktven boada to 
miJiion^ in ariiouuf, und wki(*h weri? uUe^ed to bL< furfeited^ 
Tliey nuHr^rwi Ibe bonda Id be Huird, end Ihtu mlitrd ihr qun- 
Eiun, Id tlir! old*fanhiiiii<>d i.viiy of »Ettliiig dispntni, thry wi^itt 
to Inw, The cum: come to hcariiigf and »olviiiii arguniL-iit; und 
hfl who OApouseJ their caune, and stood up for tlicni ai^fiittut the 
validity of the embargo act, waa nouu clbcr ihaiJ that great 
man, of whom the j^pEUleman has made [ioiRira[>le meiLtioii, 
S&iDUel Dcuf^T. He u'HH t|iei], 3ir^ JEi Ihe fnlni-vi of bi* kn»wl' 
i<dg<e, and E.Ue nmturjty of hi:i tilicnglh. H« hnd rciired from 
long and di^iinguinhL^d public cwrvioc hrrr, to the rc'iicwrd pur* 
suit of profi^i^iomd dutie«, carrying with him all thtit etklargc* 
ment and expansion, ail the new sircngth nnd force, which ftn 
acquaintance with the more |;encral nuhjeeTs dJ»eiiA&ed in the 
naiii^n^jl oouncUti U capable of adding to profetalonaj attain- 
um:il^ in u iniml of Ixui* ^rt-iitrirsn und i^ciiTiprt^hf-tiNian. He was 
a lawyfft mid lie wn? nUo a ^Intr.■»mnn. Up had ittudicd thr^ 
ConstJtutioii, when be tilled public station, that he might defend 
It; hr hud exatTiiiied lie principles that he mi^ht maintain thcm.^ 
Moru thiui uU luen, or at leaat as rnuiih a^ any inan^ he wa« at- 
tached to the general fi(overnnieat and to the union of tbe Sfa1e«v 
Hia fri-lln^ luid (i|tiniuurt all ran in Lbiit dir<-etlun- A c|ue?(tioa 
of Gon^^Ututionid Inw, tou, wub, of all nubjcctn, that one wbidi 
was bcBt suited to his talentA niid learning. Aloof from Irajhni- 
€aljtyi and wnfelterod by nrtiiicinl rnlr, mich a quoAtion gavvi 
opportunity for that d^ep and clear annlyniA, that mighty grnftp 
of principle, which so much dlstingnl^-hr-d hU highfTHTnrt*- IIj*"^ 
vrry HtntPiiirtil wan ai^niiifut ; Wis iriferiL-tKt' HtvtiU'd dfimonstjra- 
tion. Tbt; carLeatueos of hia own convkijoji wrought conviction 
in othera. One waa oonvinocd, and belic-vt^d, and aMAimtedf be- 
^Oftc it wnrt ^^tilyingi delightful, lo think, und f4'el, and bf-liuve 
in unison with an intclkct of sutrh (*vidtiK nuprnority. 

Mr- DeUer, Sir, such at I have denrrilK-d him, nrgiinl the 
Nevb F^ti^hml cJinF*e. Hf put. into hiN tflorl hi)« whole henrfii a« 
wcU a> idl ilie ^Miwera of bi« undcnlaiidiiig ; for he bad uvoweUi 





JA the incint public innnnrr, hin *^Ertire concumrac<^ with hi» riHgh 
boiH on iUe point in di^jnitr. lie &^picd ttir tuum-s il vivi lot^t^ 
ind New Unffland tabinittcd. The v«1ablii>hi?il IribunuU pro* 
nounf'L'fl t]\t^ Uiw can^ihuiionul, ntid Nrw Knghind U{<quic*<H^d. 
Niiw, rtif, U not llii* thr nncl uppoMti' of the doririnr :if Ihi? 
gcrdcmaji from Soulh Cajoliua? Accordiii^' to hinu iiiste&d 
or rcfcTTiEi^ to rlic judicial IribunfilB, wc nbould have broken ap 
tho embargo by lawa of Otir owa; wo ftJiuuJd hnw n^pcalM tt^ 
^uoctt New EitKlaiid; for we bad a stroiif?, pajpalt*', uiid oppTP»- 
ftho cttw. Sir. we belii'ved !h* embargo iiii<M>:ii«tiiuTk'nal ; but 
itt.ill tlijit w»:« miiiTrr or nptninif niid who weih tn ibwtr- it? 
Wc tlionghl it H rli'ar oiw ; buti ncvi?rt,b*'lf>^, wv did nof. tnke 
the law into ouv own hands, brcatuc wc did not wi»h to bring 
about a revolution, nor to br<'ak up the Union ; for 1 maintain^ 
tbat butw*4rcii tsubmJtvHLOn to ihe dt-cision of the coiintitaW tri- 
buuala, and n-'vo]utbri» or di*unioii, ihj^n- is no raiddir ^und; 
lhi*n? is lit) Hmbi)];ium« t^nndition, half nlb-giiitin- and bnlf reb«|i 
lion. And, Hir, hnw futllr, bow vrry fiilib- it \s, in admit tbi: 
right of State intc^rrcncci and then attempt to ."wvc it from the 
cboractcrofujilawfnl rcaintancc, by adding tcrmn of qnnlification 
to the caiwpp and occftHione, Irnving all ihri* ^iTinlilir^tionfi, like 
the casp it**'lf, ill tbo iii*»?Triifin nf tbe Stat'' govi^mmfnts, ll 
must be a dear ease, it ia ^aidi a deliberate cane, a palpable ca*e| 
a dangcroufi <^a»tr.. Dut then the Blati* ia nlill left At librrtjr la 
decide for licT?it.^lf what jci dear, what is ddtbrrntc, wliut 10 pal> 
pablc, wbat ia dongv!roua. Do (u^ootivco and cpithct<i avail any 

Sir, the human mind ii »n conttiiutrd, that the mrrit* of both 
Hides of a conTioversy appear very dear, and very palpaljje, to 
thow? who respectively cspouM Ihcm; and both ddea uaually 
grow dearer txa tiiQ controverr^y advaucv^a. ^ouib Carolina aeea 
uncoi>Bi4,ut]onaiity in thi; turitT; »ho aec?!i oppreMLon there nJiM), 
ttnd ahv «ee» ditnger Penna^lvuniu, witli a vinittn not hw nburp, 
iooka at the s.imi? tnrifT, iind s^rrs no siic^h thing in il; Ahr in-n 
it all constituliona), nil uM-fnl, all sttfr. Thr fnilb of dontb Ciir 
olina it atrertglbcnrd by oppoflition> and ?fhe now not only mc», 
tnit resofvcts tfmt the tontl^ u palpably uncoru^titutionnl, opprcfl- 
uve, and dangerous; but Pennsylvania, not to be behind l^er 
neighbors, ai]d equally willing to strengthen ber own faitb by t 
E3CJ!:tideiit aasevL-ruEion resolves^ aldOi and gives lo every wiuio 



iflmMdv« of South Carolina, a plain, downright. Pi-jinny venia 
W^tivLv South CmtoUiib, (4j hhow the afn-ii^li aud unity of 
lirr opinkm, bnngn bi^ UKicmljIy Uj tk onnniinltji wiUiin seven 
voice*; IViinsyJvnnin, not to be outdone In ^in rcvpcct any niont 
1h«ri in othf^r*, redimrTt hn di»jtcnticnt fraction to n tgnglc vote 
Now, &ir, again, I a«k i\w g^ntloman^ What is to be done T Arc 
Ih^te Stales both rii^ht? Ts he bound to consider rheni both 
ri|jht ? If nol, which iH in the wmnjf I or rather, which han the 
l>eat rijjht to d(.<cidt! ? And if hr, and if I, aiv not to know what 
the ConadtutioR m«^r», and what it U, till llioae tvro dt^tc lc^> 
idnturei*, uud the tiventy-two othi-M, ihoM txi^w In it* con^truo- 
lion, whut have wv nwom to, whttn we huve vworn to mninlfiJn 
it? t wfi* fon'ibly ntntf'k, Sir, with one o-llrcfirm, dn rho- grnlle- 
inan wrJit on in hi* *privh- lit? (lUi)UTd Mr- MiidiHoij*» rc^olu- 
lioriA, to prove tliat a State mny intrrfcrc, in a cascof dtrlibtrul^ 
palpable, find dangerous cxcrciec of a power not i^anted. The 
honorable membof auppoHCA tho lariiTlaw to ho bodi an exercieie 
of power; and t&al con4e<]n?QtJy a earte ha^ ariuvu la which the 
dtaU- muy, If It rtee tit, interrerv hy itti own Uw- Now it wo 
hnppi-ndi Tieverlhi^leM^, ihal Mr, Mudiru^a dtt^ajn Ihi.i v^iitijr. taritT 
Jaw quite cont^titutional. Inntcod of a dear nod palpable vi<^ 
iation, it in, in hia judginc-Eit, no violation at nil. So that, while 
they use hiA (lathonty for % hypothetical Gase, they reject it tn 
th^ very cn»r before them. All thin, Sir^ ahow» the inherent 
futility, I bad alrnout Ufu^il a »irotiger woid, of oonceiling this 
power of inltTrfcreuc« tu llic State, and then ati^inpting tu se- 
care it ffoin abuse by im]>oautg qu:dificatJoita of which the 
States thctnocivca are to judge. One of two things 19 true; 
either the itt^-* of the Union axe beyond the discretion and be- 
yond the cfitirrol of die States; tn else we have no conKtItntion 
of gijierul ^ve-nimt!nt, and arc thrust back a^in lo the lUya of 
the Confederniion. 

Let me hrre pay, Sir, that if the gentleman'* doctrine had been 
received and ncted iijjon in New Engbnd, in the timifs of the 
embargo and non-int^fconwr, we nhould protmbiy not now hai-'e 
b«en here. The i^overnmmt wonhl vrfy MkHy have gone to 
piei^fi, and i^roiiibleO UJto duaL No stronger euae cun ever ariae 
than e:xisted under those Uwa; no titat^^e can evur entertain % 
riejurer conviction thcvn the New Knjfiand tituten then cnt^er* 
taincd; and jf they hod been under the uilLutiucv of that hcra^ 




of opinion, fv I nmnt cnU it, whinh thrf honomhlr mrmW 
cfi|)OUac«, tliiA Union woiiM, in nU prohnbility, lirivc bcf^n »cat- 
tvrv4. to tbo foor windii. I ask tho gcntlomatii tht^rcforc, to apply 
hid prinolpk'e to that coj^o ; I aek him to come forUi and declare, 
whetber, in hU opinion, th« New England Stales would hsive 
bM-n jij-iTiriet! in ititfrft^riiig Ui liretik up the f^iibnrgo ^y»l«-in 
nndrr tlir rnn»cinilioii-i opinionri which iiicy lirld uptiii it? 
Etad they a nght to annLiJ that law? Dor? h«: <ulmit or deny? 
ir wbtt in tliought palpably unconM^nuionnl in South Ca^ 
nlina jOBlifies that Slate in aitrt^fii)^ fhe pro^M« of ih^ lav, 
U-U mv whether that whiob wsk Ihought palpabJy aneoii»iitii> 
lioriiil uIho in MjUiiiut^hLiseitH wituld liuve jii^^fincd hi*r in dutiig 
thv samr thing. Sir, I drny tlip whole dctctrinr. It hi\v ni>t a 
foat of groaiid in the Constitution to stand on. No public man 
of reputation ever advanced it in Ma»!Michu0Clt8 in the waxiiu^Ht 
limes, or could mLLiaiuin himself upon it Ihvrv at any Uina, 

] wish now*, Sir, to make a remark upon thv Virginia rt!*olu- 
tion* of 17S^- I I'linnol iindiTtnkr* to nay how fhPM' rcvi^hitionii 
Wirrc undrr^looJ by l\iiwr who pnitiH'd tln^rn. l*h(*if luiigiingi? i» 
not a littJc ittdutinitr-K In tlir uaac of the cxrrci^>« by Con^ciw 
of a daii^'vroaa powt^r not ^racitc'd to tlicm, th<? rcM.Jufion» &a- 
d^rt the rifcht, on the part of th« State, to inttfrfert' ojid ajTv»l the 
progTcs* of fhfT evil ThU l« KuwcrpUble of more 1h:in ont* inter- 
prptatipn. It may m^^n ni> morr th;in thai thf* Stntf* mfty in- 
UrU'Tt' by Ciimpliiint and rcmoniHt.riince, or by proposing lo tlie 
peo|dt; an altemlion uf the FvdemI Conntitulioii. This would 
all bff quite unobjectionable Or it im^y be llmt no more is 
mcajit t^un to luuctt the general righl of revolution, a:i againttt 
all govt'rnmc^ntai in c-nded of intolc^rablc oppression. ThJ» Jio 
onr doubtfl, and Ihia, in my opinion, I* all thni he who framwl 
thf* rriwlutions eould have meant by if; for I shall not readily 
believe that he waa ever oft^piniuu that a. Siuti^, uudrr the Con- 
»tilolion and in conformity with it, could, ujH>n ihr i^rimnJ of 
her own opinion of Itsi uncoui^titiiUoncdEfy, huwvvcr ch'ar and 
pal|>Qble she might thiiik the eaeo, annul a law of Conf^^^ ao 
far as it should operate on bervelTf by her owa l^^^latii'o pow4?r. 

' 1 muBt now bi'g t<i n*k, Sir, Whener* \s tlnx Auppo^^ nght of 
tJit StuU** dfrivrd? Where do thry ^nd the power ttj iiiti^rfrrc 
vitlj tlie laws uf i|it Unlun? Sir, the opinion which Xht^ himoi^ 



Mf i^r-filleitmn iiiiiinUiLii-i in u notion Aitimln] in a iolal tt\\vn\»* 
pivhrnflioMt in my jiulgnirnt-i at thr: origin of t.hiH giivrrniiit^nLf 
and of the roiuidation on vrhich it sUutd*. I hold it to be a 
popnlttT goYcrmmcnt, orrctcxi by the people; thoee who atimin- 
iflter it, responaible to the poojtle; and iUolT capable of being 
ftfneii^led and modified^ Just aa ihe people may choow 11 phoold 
bcL It u aft pn|m|[ir, jnnt an tnily emnijaLing (mm the pt'OpIr, &» 
tJie SUitr gtiVETnmriifji. If. w cit^U^il for our purpo:4r; the €tati! 
government* for iuioUut. It hfts its own poM^r^; they have 
thcirt- I'hcrc i* do more aathority with them to nrrPM the 
opwftlioii of a law of Con^jnti^j than witli Congrpapi to an^rt the 
L>p«ratioii of thwr lawa Wp ftn> hew to adminUrrf a C<inalitn' 
Eton rmanatiiJ^ inkmediattrly from fhe |>eople, and tnisteJ by 
lliriu to our fidmuiinlraiJoiL It i^ not thr or<-aturc of the Stittcf 
govcrnmrtit^. It ii of no moment to the firgumeni, ttiat certain 
aetd of the Stut« Ic'fprtliktiin?^ an? nc^cc^^Hory to liiJ oar voati in thiff 
body. That i# not one of their onginal Stal« pow(*rM, n piur. of 
the *ftverf*igtity of fhf Stflt4*, It in n duty whie.h th** |Mvjpl*», by 
the Conrdiiuiiikn itJielf, h^^ve imposed on the State legii^laturea ; 
and which they might have left to be prrrormed elsewhere, if 
t.hcy had *een ht. So they have left the choice of IVcaidcirt 
with eleelore; but all thi» doee not a^tvt the propo«itioEi that 
thU whole ffovernmenl, President, Senate, and Hour*o of Repre- 
HMilutlve*, iri a popular govprnntent. [t lenves \t >ttil| all its pop* 
nint ebantcrier Th* goveriujt of a B(atr (in i^mup of the Sl-atcs) 
is chosen, not directly by the people, but by those who are 
chofEen by the pt^ople^ for the purpose of petformini;, among 
other duties, that of electing a governor. Is th** government of 
th9 Statr, on thcit ncronnt, not a popuJai- government? This 
i^overnmeiit, Sir, i« the independent ofTHpring of the popular 
wilL it \a not the creature of St^tc legislatures \ nay, more, if 
the whole truth inu«t be told, the people brought it into eiiet- 
encv, eatabtinlied it, aad have hitherio supported it, for the very 
purpom-. amongst othL^ra, of unpoedog certain salutary refitndntA 
on State noverdgnlies- The States cannot now make war; 
thi'v (<-iinnol contract alliances; they cannot make, each for itaelf, 
nrpnmt^ regulations of commerce; they cannot lay imports; 
they cannot coin money. If this Constitution, Sir, be the crea- 
ture of State leginlatnree, it must be admitted that it has oH> 
taiti- d ^ «imnge n^ntrol over the volitions of its creators. 





Tl»o |>coplr, thin. Sir, reeled thin f^v^nnicnL They gaYi> it 
tt CoiiBtituiK>n, tiiid in that Cormlitutmn they havtf ^■tlom'^ralod 
EJiq poverv whicb ihpy bwlov on it. They have made ii a lim* 
lt*d govL-mmtnt. They huve dflitiMl iU nathorlly. They havt* 
rv-Mniirifv) il Ici ihr i^xi-rt^bp nf mii-h pnwrT* ■« «re gninW; Hiid 
all others, tlicy declare, arc reserved to the Blolcs or the people- 
But, f$ir, they have not stopped here. If Ihey had, they would 
bavo AccompLiahi^d l>ut half ihcirwork. No dctiniiion cnn be vn 
alear, a^t lo avoid pasdibility of doubt; no limilallon to prrctM-, 
aa to «<xdude all uncertainly. Who^ then, shall conttnip thifl 
^aiil of Ihi- j»n>p]i*? WIjo fthrtll uit*rrfirtt I heir will, ivhrre It 
may hr. Mippmrd thny hnru lefl It dotttlfiil ? Wilh whum do 
thry ^^po^e Ihin nltimntr right of de^ridjnc on the pkowera of Ibu 
government? Sir. Ihey have mettled all thi* in tho fnlLcftl man* 
ner. They have ]rft ii with ihft povernmont itsHf, in itn appio- 
pniit.e lirarehpv Sir, the very chief end, Ihe rrnun di'^ign, for 
whii-'^h tlip whuk Coniititut.jon waa framed nnd adoptril, wHt to 
establi»h a government that should not be oblig^ lo aet through 
Sttvtc a^Hicy, or depend on State opinion and Btatc dtftcretjon. 
Tho people had hod qi]it« enough of that kind of jt^overjimcnt 
under Ihu Conftdrraiion. UitdtT Thiit *y*iem, ihe legal action, 
thi^ npplieiiUoii nf law tn iTidiviriurdii, fii^bn^Yl r*xdiiidvely to 
the Statev* Congreu could only recoinmrnd; their aet« wmr 
not of binding force, till the Stales had adopted and mlih* 
tioued them. Arc v^ in that eondilJon aliU? Ar>^ wo ytrt at 
the mercy of State discretion and Slate oomrtruction ? Sit, if 
we ar», then vain will be our attempt to cDotntalfi the Cot)iUtu< 
lion under which wf* *it 

Bnl) Sir, \}ie people have wiAcly provided, in the Consititutloii 
iMf, Q proper, :^ait«ble mode and tTibuital for acttjiag qticstionf 
of oonf^titmionnl law. There are in the Constitution gmnte of 
poAK^er^ To Con^re««f and rcetrlctionA on 1h««e powers. Tbc^n* 
arcr, alfto, problbitionn on the States. Some authority niuxi. 
thr-refore^ nect-Marily ettsf, bavinfj the nllimale jurlwliction to fix 
Btid ti.-icerdiin the interyirHation a( theac granta, restriutionfi. and 
pmbibitionn. The ConBlitution baa itwlf iwinted onl-.ordniried, 
and cstablifhi'd thot authority. lUrw hiw it ncoomplij^hcd this 
grc*at and efiaential end? By dHahng. Sir, ihat ^^the CotKtUU' 
ttcn, and the fates of ihe Urtifed Sintfi mfttie in pursuance tfirrfof, 
gna/t hr ihtt ntfrrttmt late of the lavd, upi/ ihirifr l« Mr fomti/iUiim 



Thips, 6ir, wn* thr hnt (Frrnt ftcp> By this the fupremnpy 
of the- CoitHCiiutJon and law» of the United Siafes is d^el&K'd- 
lliP p€Opl«i 9C will IL No State law \» lo bevAlhl wtileh frurrit't 
in crniHit-'t with llii^ Cuiistilutiui|], tn ntiy Itiw of ITitf t7nitr?il 
8latC3 piiiteicd in pursuanot of it. But who ihnU decide thXr 
quctftioc of nilirrfcn^nce? To vhorn liett the Intt Appeal 't Thi«i 
Sir, Ihv Copstitulion itself d^-H-iUeft hLhj, by dj^larin/j, "thai th* 
fndiciat potJ^rr shall fjtrnd la ail ca%f$ arinmr undrr the Gm^i- 
tulii^n Qmt Ifiirx o/ ihr. Uaiird SiiUe».^ Tht^ttp two prrm9ion« 
oi>vcr t^L- \x']it>ir ground. Thry are, lu truth, the kr^blDiifr uf the 
ar<:h! WiUi lhr»c it lA a govcniniLTit ; wilhcmt ihem it ip a 
confcdcrntion. In pureuiincc of theeie druT nnd c^EprrM provlv 
ionji, Coi]|^o»ii Eiiiabli!-hie<l, at it* v^ry (imt ncsfijon, iit thr^ judicial 
act, ft mode for ounying thrm info fiiil ^Rlet, ami for bringing 
all f]iH-flTtoTi« of ronntiiQt.ional power to xUp flnal dec^ititoTi of the 
SufirttiDc CmJtL It lli«rr, Sir» luaiamc » ^uvftunient. It ihrti 
hntl tht- mt'^nr^ of :vrir<protvolit)n ; jtnd but for Ihiri, it ^oiild, in 
oil prot>flbility, haw been now nmong thin^ which arc past. 
Having tvtriHtinitod the goY^rrnment, ai\d dcclnrni its powers, 
th« pcopli! have further nuid, thftt, *incc Bomobixiy mnat decide 
on Ihff ertenl of thr»p powvr^ the govemmfnt shalj Itttelf d«> 
uidt*; HtiUjei'f, alwuyv, like otbrr populiir j^vtrrnrnrfritH, to lis re- 
npunsibilily to thr p<-uplc. And now* Sir, 1 rrpeat, how ir it 
that a ^tatc if^Eiliilnre acquirva any power to interfere ? Who, 
or what, giwo them ihti right to say to the prople, ^* Wc, who 
arc your ngpntw nnd i«rvantt for one pnrpoBe, will undertake to 
dfvide, that ynnr othf-r agenlA nnd firT\-nntH, nppoinled by you 
for another purpo^et have fTnnfciL'Miled the ajthorily yoti ^uve 
them!'' The reply would lx-» 1 ttiink, not impatiuvni, — " Wio 
made you a judge over another* »*>rvuntB7 To their own miw* 
lers they ftutid or fnll" 

Sir, 1 <leny ihi« power cf State legixlafurefl allog«*ther, U 
mnnot stand the tent of cxnnnniitjcjn. Oenilrnien may aay, 
llisL, in an extreme ca^e, a 8t»t4r govirrnnicnt might pnit^-ct, [hf< 
people from intolerable oppression. 3ir. in such a ca^w. Lhr; jnw- 
ple [ui^ht piot«:t themfldves, ^^ithc^t th^ aid of fhe Btat»* gtn- 
^tmenta, Suc^h a cu^e warrants rL-voluTicn. ll rru.-it rnahri 
when It coTn««, ■ law for Staulf, A nullifylnfr act of n Bimc Irg- 
UJature cannot alter the 0J*ne, nor make nVnt^Lncp nny more [nw- 
fnl In maintaining lhc«c Mntimcnts, 3trt 1 ain but ikw»ertiiig 





tlie rights oT the pcioplt^. 1 state what they have d^-ciiLnrf], And 
tn»i»t on their ri^'ht (o dednre it Tliey havi? diuheii to n.*p<>?io 
Uiitf pow«r in the? geiicrul ^VLTnm(*n1t and 1 tltiiik k my duty to 
«iipf ort U, Kke other conHtituTioual power*. 

Fur inyiM*lf, Sir, I da nol udinil thr r^fimjH^tpnf^y of SciHlh Cht- 
oIui&» or any other Btatr, to prrncnbr my constituliuiid duly ; 
ot to MttJCf between mc and the peopk^ the validity of laws of 
ConpETCtte. for which I have voted. I decline her uniplrtmcr. I 
have not aworn to Kupport the Conetitutioa according to her 
iion^mcUon uf \u dutuon. I hav<r not ntipulutvd, by my o«Ui 
of otTn-r. iif olhi-rwi*!*-, to rnmp und*-T piny rr.Hponsihility, <"Xi?qn 
to ihv. prn|i]i<, Find whom thry hnvr nppoiiilrHl 1o \mff^ npon 
the question, whether Laws, supported by my votes, conform to 
th? Consliiution of The country. And^ Sift if wo look to th« 
l^neral nature of ihe cat^e, cculd any thii^ have btwn mor« pn** 
po*lerous, than lo make a government /or (he whaJ*» Union, 
and yet leuve itd powers xiibjwf, not to out! iiitL*tpnTt&tioii, 
tnit Ui thirtrc-i> or Iwriily-foiir imrfprrtntKin*? Ir»(cad of one 
tribunal, cntnbUslied by nlJ, re^pt^ni^ihlc \o all, with power lo de- 
cide for allt shall constituitonoi questions be left lo four-tind' 
Iw^nly popular bodies, edch at liberty to de<^id4 for iloi'lf, aAd 
none Ixiund to rcfipwt the d^^^iJ^ons of othera; aiid ea<.'h ai lib- 
erty, too, to give a new con^tructloo on every n**w tlootJon at 
iffi own mrmbera? WuuH &ny thing, with Aiirh n pmit-iplr ill 
it, or rulb<:r with nuch a dt-tftatulltin of all pniiciplc, he tit to i>r 
coiled a ^vcmmcnt? No, Sir. It vhould not be denominated 
A Coofititiitiun. It ahotild be callcil, ntJicr, a collt^ction of top' 
ks for e'Trlnfttin^f controvprwy; heads of debate for a disfnita* 
tjoua people, ll wonid not be a goveniment. It would not bir 
adci|attte to any pmcfical good, or fit for any country to live 

To ovoid all potinihility of being mi.^nndemtood, aLow me to 
repMit again, in the fnlkiEt mnnnCT, that I claim no powers fot 
the government by forced or unfair confltruction, I admit tbtti 
it is a government of atrictly limited powers; «f t-numerated, 
spedficdf and [i:irt-u.nkriv:ec] puwem ; an<) thuL whiii»orvr.r in niK 
granted, is witbheld. J$iit notwilhstnnding nil fhi^, und however 
ihc grant of powers may he cxpreaecdi its limit nnd extent may 
yoti in Aomo cfiees, admit of doubt; and tho ^nerai goveni' 
ment would be good for nothing, it would be incapable oi iong 



rct!ttitig, if si>inr* mode had not been provided in wbkh thoor 
itoubte, as tlity ehotild arise, ml^ht be p^ac^^Ably, but &utbi>r' 
itatively, srAveA. 

And Mciw, Mr. Prraiilcnl, Irl ini^ run Clir hurKinthlr gr-iitlr- 
mfurt dodjinrr a littic into its practical nppliciil.ioji. Lrt ui 
Jook at his pTcibiibln madHt op^raudi. If n thing can be done, dn 
ingfoioui^ man onn T^^N A<^Wf it in In hf done, and I wish to bo 
iiiformcd ^t;* ihi^ State infrTfpr"rno<> is to b^ pnt in praotici*^ 
without violence, hloodshrdj aiifl rnhpUior, We will lakp the 
rxUluif{ i^iiHi' i-if {\w iaftit law. Souljn Caraltua 'i» hhiiJ Ii> lmv« 
mndc up her opi^iion upon it. If wc do not repeal it (na yrc 
prohnbly nbuU not), ahi? will then apply to the ca^ thi> remedy 
of hfT lidctniti-r She vi'Ulf w« mutt «uppO0i>, paBta a \tk-w of h«r 
li*giii|Lttiin*f lU'riiLfiii^ Ihf Mfveral acts tif C<>Ti^Tei:<K^ iinuidly I'ttllcHl 
ihi^ Uiriff InwM, null mid vuid, so im mn they reMpi^t Boiith CmrtN 
Una, or the citi/cns Ihrrcof* So far, nil is a paper tranAtiction, 
and cnsiy cnonjih. Hut the collector nt Uhark'r'ton in (!o]lrctjng 
the duli(4 imposed by tht-se tnnff law*. He, thomfor*, mufit be 
fttopped^ The ^nllrrtor will frtTr thr gondii if thr tanfl dutiet 
are not paid. The Stnle imfluirt^i™ U'ill undertake their reacn^, 
the rmirnhal, willi hip [K»&m.\ will tome to iht* ^^iillc cltfrN iiid, and 
here the contf:-it btrgiiiSn The militia of Iho Btnle will be callrd 
otit to Mi! thf ntilLiTyinR act Tlicy wid mru-i^h, Bir, under a 
very gnJknt leader; foi I believe the honorable member hinueJf 
eonim^ndH the militia of vbat port of the State, tie will ndw 
the Ttri'LiFViNrt ACT nn hli sdnndiird, and npn-TuI it nut ns bin 
banjiL'r! It will have n preamble^ ^Hting foftb> that the tanS 
laws arc palpable, dclibmtJ% tind dangeTous violations of ^e 
Conslitution \ He will proceed, with ibi^ banner dymg, to the 
eaiftoiTi- house In ChaHeston^ 

"All ibanhil«, 
SonomiA moUt blo«rinfl* martial soutid*-*' 

Arrivrd al the nT:stoTn*hnii»e, hr will trll ihr rnllrctorthitt; hr? muM 
Cfilect n;> more duties under any of the tariff low?- This he will 
be Bomewhat pusKlud to aay, by the way, with a ^rave oonnt^ 
nanee, considefint^' what hnnd South Carolina heninlf bad in llmt 
of i'ilS. Bui, Sir, The eoUedor wonld noti probably, desliTi at hia 
bidding. He wmild nhuw him lire law of Con^^~ed9, lli« treanury 
itiAtriuiTiciii, niid hi.i own i^atli of fifTice. He would aay, he should 
porfoim his duty, eomt what come ntighL 
«4»t* 111. 2& 




Here would en-iiie a piiusp; for ttipy »ay that il wTtain irtJU* 
ntw pr4*ivik'a tli*? ti>in|>t>it The tJumpet4Tr wmtkl botU bJ9 
birath awhile^ and U.-rure all tfaiv niilitary array should full on 
tbc ctudom^house^ col3(ri-tor« clrrks, and nil, it la vtry |3rcbal>k- 
nomc of tho!ie compoain;; it would r^cjutot of their piUunT ixim- 
mKndi^*in^^iL<f to be informed a litUt^ u;>oei the fxiint of tav; 
for Ihpy hn^'pj dntihtldHit, n jiist n.-»f>«-'t for hU (^|miion» hh h hiw- 
JW, n* wi'U H* for hi* brmvriy »» (i soldirr- Tht'j kinjw lir ban 
read I]lack«tcPD<^ and the Constitution, u well u I'meanc uid 
Vaiibaii. I'lity would Q«k him, thcrrrorc, »omrthiiig concern- 
iDf; their rLghU In this iiifttt«T- They would inquire^ whotheir 
it waa not aonwwliat Jait^eroua to rr«Ut a law of the Uudt^ 
StaioH. What would ht- th^ italiire of \]\*At ofr<>ricie, i]wy wouTJ 
wbh lo Icorn, if they, by tiiQit^ri^ force ntul array, restated the 
exccnrioa in Carolina of a law of the United Sute?, and it 
ahooJd turn dtit^ aftf^r alt, that ihe law ttftu caruiitiiJional ? Ho 
woiild aniwpr, of ooutm, Treason* No litwyt^r couid ^v^ any 
othnr answTT, John Fri4?»» h** w*>uld tell thi'tn^ htid 1f-ar^I^d 
that, w>mr y**ani ago. How, Ihfrn, tlicy would ask, do yoii pro* 
pose to defend qa ? We are not aljaid of buliet#i but trcF);K>ii baa 
a way of taking people off that we do not much rehsh, ; How 
do you propose to defend U8? ** Look at ruy tloatui£ banker/ 
he would r^pJy; "Be^ihem the nuUi/yiag iawy Is it yom 
opiiduo, |^all;)Ett t-omrnandi^, Ihey would t^ien why^ timlf If we 
should bt indiclMl fi>r tn^aaon, that same Wonting banner of 
yours would make a good plea in bar? ^^ South Carolina id a 
!*ovcrrijjTi Siiiit','^ hf would reply. That is true; bwt woulil 
the joJgt^ Eidmit our pleu? *'Tb«aa toriiT lawv:,^^ hv would 
repratf "nrr uneonKtituUonalf pjUjKihly, dt^lilxTtnti^ly, dangar- 
oujily-" That mny nil U* iw ; but if the tribunal »houtd not hap* 
pen to be of that opuiioOr Bh£.ll we awliii^' for It ? Wt? atc rt^ady 
to die for our country, but U in rather an awkward bu^ew, 
thitt dylii^ without touching th« ground 1 After all, that ib a 
aort of lieinp lax wone than any part of the tajiti 

Mr- Pre^iident, che honiinible gentleman would he In adiletD* 
roa, Uke that uf nnothi^r ipt'wX gerirvul. Iln wnuUI bavr a knot 
ocfofe him which he could not untie. \\\' must cut it with hioi 
■w<jrd. He must Hny to hi* followers, *^ Defend yo«wel\c« with 
your buyonvU"; and thin la war, — civil woj. 

Direct colliidon, thprofore, between force aiid force, ii ih^ OH- 


KToidablc r«8ult of that Tcmwij' for the rovipion of ^lnco^flti^a' 
hoiinl Iuw« whicb the gentleman contends for- It muM. hnppm 
iri ll]«* very (ml canr lo ivliif^li ll ta applied Ift oo( tlUH the plaui 
Kvult? Tn rc»3-it hy forcw Uie tieriilioii uf n taw, (ttiiiBmllv, » 
tRft»oii. Cftj] the courts of the United Stfttc? t^ikti jiotic« of the 
indnlgcrcc of n titatc to commit tretuon? Tho common vay 
m^, Ihnt n State cjinncit rommit trtiftJKin hcrvelC, i* nolhio^ ^o 
thp piirpciw- Can *h^ ftnthomn othTft to do it? If John Fri« 
had prortnc^d an art of P<^nn»ylv»mftT nnniillmg ihti law of Con- 
gre^!), would it Ie&vc hi_-lpcd hia ca^?? Talk about it aa we wUl, 
these doctriiira go (hi? IcnKth of revolution. TJicy aic inoora- 
patibic v-ilb any peac^ablo admimfttration of Ihc govemmvot. 
The^ kud directly to distiiiion aiid dvil commotion; and thcrre- 
fere it i*, (hat nt tlidr (?oiiim*-nwineiil, wlien Ui^y art* liwL Atund 
to br mntrtlHuW by nr^u^riiihli' iiti^ii, uid in a tHii^ibl*! form, 1 
enter my public protect >gain«t tfactn all. 

The bonorablo gcDtlcmaii arguc^ ibat if this govr^nmcnt be 
tli« #ol« judf^ of the extent of ita own powore, whether that 
tight of judging bQ in Congnu or the Supreme Court, it 
^oally aot»verta State sovvffil^tjr. This The gentleman seea, ct 
thUika he MH?s, although be cnHtUJl pereeive huw thr n^hl of 
judging, in thii» matter, if left to the cxcrcittv of Sttitc Icgi.ila- 
turcis hn3 any ti^ndcncy to nubvcrt the government of tht- UmoiL 
The ^ntlf^mnn^fl option inny be, that the tight onf^ht not to 
havo b^en lodged with the gf^ncrU government; he mny liite 
better *uch a conqtJtntion as wf should havr nndrr thr right of 
8ui« inttrftteiKL- ; but I ask him to uiccl me on the pkin mat- 
ter of fucL I tuk liiiu to mct't me on the CouaUtutlon itaclf. I 
aak him if tlie power lA not found there, dvarly and vmbEy found 

But, Sir, what iv, this danger, aod what are the grounds of 
it? IdH it bti mrii-mlirrrd, fJnit ibn OmKlilution nf thr Uniled 
Btntt^n bi not unaltcmble. It i» to continue Jn iu pn«rnt form 
no longer than the people who cstabUabed h aball choose to cod- 
tiope it. If they ahall bcoonae convinoed that ibcy have made 
WM injildJ<douft or inexpedient partition and diblnl>uliun cf power 
between the Stetce goverrmieutct and the geiiertil goverumenti 
^y cnii alter tlmt difltribution at will 

* Qm Nolo C n Kho and of iho ipeoch. 



origiiml pro^^AJon or sulMtrcjncnl iriU:rprotBiicin, wtiicli du^IU 
tiol to be in il, tlw |)«opk know tiow to get rid of It* If tuiy 
consUuclion, unacccpUiblu to Ihem, be c^^tablistioJ, ^o na to b<-- 
fojijc }>nictiuaJiy a part of the Coiialitutiou^ tbey wiil umt'iiil it, 
it thetr own jwvereiffo pleasure. Bui wUUe ihe people tboo*t' 
to muDtaiii it tm it Hj wliSle tlifjr art? aatiBfied wiili il^ am\ ri-- 
fiisc lo churigi? it, wbu bns ^vciii or wluj <:nn ^\\c, U* thr Sliilvr 
Icf^flUturcn D nght to alter it, dthci bj intcrfcrciicci ccn«tmction, 
or othrrwbc? Gi^Dticmcn do not vccm to recollect that the 
people have any power lo do ftny thing for th^maelveiu TI117 
Imagizid there la no safety for Xhem, any longer than they are 
vndET the eldoe guunliaiifihip of tbe Slate Legjj^lalurea. Sir, the 
ptoplc Imvc not tru^^lt^ fJidr taSv^ly, Ut ri^^anl to tlic general 
Constitution, to thrnc hands. They havt; requifed other security, 
and taken other bondn. Thry hcvc choncn to truot IbciuBclvca, 
fireli to thp plain words of tbp insmiincnt, nnd to inch constnic- 
lion a» the governmcal tbem»elTrs, in doubtful e^iM*H, ahonld pat 
on their oxvn powen, unJer iheir oaths of olGrc, itnd Aiiifji^CTl to 
llttiir rt-.H|>(in-tibili].y lu ihein; \wi aa the people of a Stnte trusd 
tbcir own 8tatc governments with a siiniltir powrr Beoondly^ 
they bavc rcponcJ theAr tru^^t in the etlicai-y of fn;qucot ckcllonR, 
and in their own power to remove their own nervanla and agent« 
whenever they »ea cau^e. Thirdly, ih^^y havp i^poard tm*t in 
ibe judieial power, wbich, hi order tbat ii might be trtn^Ltworthy, 
iUay bavtf made nn refl|i«vtjible, as difiiiitcrebted, ajid aa iodu- 
pcndent an ^^'n» practicable. Fourthly, they have Mren fit to 
rely, in co« of ncccaaity, or high cxpodimcy, on their known 
and admitted power 10 alt4*r or amend the Conatitutioii, peaer- 
ably and quJetty, whenever experience shall puint nut drfcvta or 
hnperf^ctlonH. And» finally, the people of ihp. Uniind 3late« 
have Kt iin Urru?, in no way, directly or iiidifuctly, authorized 
Kllj State k^ialnture to coiiNtruc; or interpret their bif^h ijiMxu- 
KDcntorgoYerumr-nt; much le^, to intcrie4T:,by their own povvei, 
to arrest its courw and operation. 

If, Sir, t)ke peopk in these reapccta had don« othfrrwifte than 
U>ey have done, theii eonatJlutlan canM ncllhrr hwve Iwrn prr- 
aepF«d, nor woidd it hana bet;n wurth preaenmg. And if iu 
plain proviMoiia shall iiow be disftg-LirJed, and lUese new doc- 
trines mterpoialcd in it^ it will becoiue ao Icuble and belpteafl a 



being as It* 6nemie«, whether cafly or more r^'ent, could powi- 
bly dr-nirf . !l will eniHt in every Slafe but h» si |MJ(»r de|W'ii<lE-'Tit 
on fttnt* prnniBJHinn. It must b*JiTi>w Iriivi? Ui b« j Jiml will bi*, 
no longer than State pleasure, or State diflctfction, icv9 fil to 
grant the indulgcncc-i and to prolong ita poor Gadatcncc^ 

But, Sir, although there arc foac«i Uterc ara hopoa aUo- Tho 
people have preserved this, their own i^boBen Conatllutloii, for 
forty yearn, and have aten their httppNiens. proHperity, and w- 
nowti {jruw with lin ^ruwlh, tttul sLr«ii^ttiirn wilh JIa bfrengLti. 
They art now, gtnrmlty. strongly attached to it Ch-erthrown 
bydirt^ct aniitiuJt, it conoot t>c; cvadwl, onderniiHrd, itullifisp, 
il will not be, if wc, and thom? who ahall «iicocrd u» hrrc, hji 
a^nta and re preventatives of the people, ahall oonscieniiouidy 
and vig^kiilly diM:Lar^e the two greut tiranebett of our public 
truttl, raithfiiUy ia preserve, mtJ wiaeiy to adzniiUHler \t 

Mr. rre:<idri;t, 1 hove thiic stut<:d the reasons of my di--iAt*nl 
to th(- dticthnt^a which have been advunce<3 and miintainr^d. 1 
am e<jnj«iouH of hnving detained you and the Senate much too 
long- 1 wa« diawr inio thtf dHinte with no previous d<^libern- 
tion, euch a^ h suited 1o the di&ciusKion of so gnivvT and impor- 
lAiit a KulijecL But it 1» h tiubjeet of whieh my heart ia fuU, 
Slid [ liELVr not been willing Ui nupprrM the ulteninee of i\m 
•pontaneous aentimcnlA. 1 c«juiot, even now, per^unde my»olf 
torcliDquish itrwlthoutcxpreeaii^goncomorc my deep conviction, 
that, eince it re^pecl^ nothing ieati than thi^ Union of the Stutae, it 
la of most vital and essential imponance to the public happineaa, 
( 1 prufen, Qir, in rny career bllhertti, Ui havr kept Bte»dily in 
view tile pmr*[W-rity jind hiniof of the whole country, and tJie 
preectVQtion of out KiHWal Union- It i» to thitt Union wl- owe 
our safety at home, and our consideration and dignity abroad. 
It M to that Union that we are chiuily indebted for whatever 
makes us moat proud uf our country. That Union we readied 
ordy by the dlHeiplitie of our vir1ue!i in tlie aevere acUool o( ad* 
veiBity. It hnd itn fvrigin in tlir neernutirn of diejordered ficuinoe. 
proptrale commtccc, find ruined credit Under iU beaigu iidlu- 
encu, thp*c great intercata immediately awoltc» ues from ttw dead, 
ftttd sprang forth with newnefi« of life. Kvery yeur of !t^ dura- 
tion hsii teemed with I'rrsh proofs of ils niiliiy and it* bleamijign; 
and although our territory tiar^ ^treI4:hed out uiiltT and wider, 
&nd our population aprciul farthtr and farther, they have not 


outran iti^ protoction or its b^nofita> It ha* 6ccn to ns dll • 
eoploiu founuiu of imlionol, ituciaJ, und pvnon^ hftppincM. 

1 hiiv* not iillnwiv! fiiysdC Sir, t<i look twyumi ihi- UntuD, to 
■rr- M'hut might 1m- htddnn in thr ihtsk rr«-As br-himl ] have 
not coolly weighed tiic chftncrs of preserving libcrly ^'bcn the 
bon<U Uuit unite m together »hnil be broken w^nnder. 1 bavc 
not occtutomed my9L^U~ to han^ orer the precapioo of ditfiinii^n, to 
Mt^ iffhPther, with my ehort aiqht, I can 6klhoni ibe de^th of the 
Rb^M helow ; nor could I r^i^nJ him at a tsle ccuit*t»U4fr In the 
aJ^iicB of thi» yirvenuiient, wIium- Lhtiu^hlji hIiouIJ Ij*- rn^inly 
bent on con^drringi not how the Union may be brit pre* 
twrvtid, but how tolcmblc mi^ht be the condition of the pnople 
when It flhoEtld he bmkcn np iind dL^Htfoyed. Whi[i= tbr? Union 
Eftfttjc, we htvr hii;h, oxHtJng, gtntifyiiig pn]«fMN7ts i^prra^l ont be- 
fore US, for ua nnd <inr c^hiUlrrn. Hf^yinKl thnl I we-k not to 
pmcmte th« vt!tl. God grant that in my duy> at li-asU tbat 
cuitalji m&y not riatr I God ^raut that on my vtuou neve; may 
be opened what ii«e behiiidJ When mj ey«ti ehbll bo ttini«i to 
behold for thi' lunt tim'* the ann in heav^-n^ may 1 not n^m liim 
tfhinlng on the brcjkt<n mid tliiihoiiured (rA^mvuifi of a utioc glo* 
riouv Hninn; on BtHl4?9( djKswiirrrvd, dincimknt, iH^Uigrrmt; oo a 
land rent with civil f(fud«, or drenched, it mitj be, ii^ JrntfmaJ 
t>loodl Let their la»t feeble and lin^xing glance rather be- 
hold the gorf^oufl on«igii of tho republic, now known and 
bonored throui^hout the earth, atJll full ht^h advance<l, it« anna 
and trophiew atreamijig In their original lustra, not a vtripv 
amfvil or jxjIUiied, imr a ran^li! abii obsciir^d« bcuririfj for itn 
motto, no nurh Illi^rm^te interrogatory as ** What [» all thia 
worth? " nof thofc other words of ddutaion and foUy, ^ Liberty 
fijvt and Union ftiterwaidfl^'; but evi>rywbore>iiprpad aU over in 
cbaraot«r« ofliinng light, bla:eing on nil it* ample foldH, iu th«y 
float ovp.r thn sea and ovi?r thn hmd, and in rvrry wind undCT 
the whole hcftvrjie, that olb<*r nrntiment, dear to ev^ry true 
An^crican hcntt, — Liberty und Umon^ now and fof cvc^i one 
«ii i inMpo^able! ; 


Mb, HArPff hnving rrjotncd it> Mr. Wel>!rtcr, f J^pccmlTy on the ccnsU- 
FiiriDnal miMiion, Mr. Wrhairr mii**, and, in coQcluaiOQ, Hixd : — 

A PEW wordft^ Mr, Pr^sidt^rit, oa thb cDnvtitntionnJ Br^rrenc, 
which the honorabli^ genflemttn hiw bborcd to ifeoonalmct. 

Hia urguiuent C4>ti»i&ta of twtj prppimiiionit ^nd fin inferprKV 
His |>ropofcitLuji[i are,— 

1. Tbttt ihu Constitution u a eompact between the Sl^tcv* 

2. That a compact bctwct^n two, with authority rr^otved to 
oci« to inCiTrprc^ iu I0fm», would b« a tuTTender to that one of 
nil imwi'r whtm^vor, 

3. Thrrrcrcrv, (*iiich ie his irirerencie,} tfEcr general ^vernment 
doc« not poBooM \he authority to vonetrue itti uwii pov^crre. 

NoWf 8ir, wJio davfo not set^ without th« aid of exponitioti ot 
d«t«ciiou, the utt<.'r confusion of ideu iiivoWed in thU bo elab- 
orate ajul *y«u*iuutio orguinenL 

The CttnntitnUoii, it ia nuid, i» it corripurL belwtea RCulti : Uiti 
Stntrfi, ihe^j niul the StuLi-a only, Wf parties to Lhci cuiiipact 
llow comc» Ibc grncnU government ilflplf a parly? Upon the 
bonoroblc gcntlcmnn'a hypothopU, tho gpneml governmrtit ia the 
r<iflu)t of tho compact, the crcatore of xhc compact, not oiic of 
the panip« to St Yet the argiunent, a« the gruticrnHn Hhr iu>w 
sljatrd il, niaWt) the ^uveniineiit it-ielf ojie of it« tiVfii (.vrat^iri^. 
It moJiQQ it tL party to that Gmii|mt:t to which it owea it« own 

For the purpoae of erecting <he Cortatitiiliori on llie biuiifi of 
a compact, th<> g<entleiimn considers ilie SiateH an partJei to that 
compurt; hut it* soon aa hia compact is made, then hr rhooMi 

* i}«liv«n>d iu Iha Ssiiile, oa 11,9 9Tlti of JbDuary, 1(I30< 



to ooMidcT Ihe general government, which U the olTdprijig of 
Lbat compucf, not ibi oflkprin^, btit one o( tfs parileii; Bin<i vci, 
being u party, wiUioul tht; [jtiwci of jutlging on the tc-rniA of 
COmpacU IVay, ±5tr, iti what school is auch tm^omiig &» Ihis 
'Alight T 

Jf the whole of th« gemliaman'd main propofiUon ^nv oon- 
coded to him ; that U to eay, if I admit, for thv fitikr of ihc nrgn- 
mv/iL that the Coiialilutlon » 3ooni]»jct bctwemi Htaies the in- 
fi'triicL's whicli he dmw9 from that proposition arc wnrriiittil 
by no just Tta»otu%% If Ihc Uonitltnlion be a corapact bctw(!tn 
Stxitiia, dlill that Constitution, or that compact, ha^ eniubliHtitftl 
a gcivrni merits wilb t-errain powers: and whecher it bt one of 
lho>u< EKiwrrs, thai it si^mll cojiHtnie and iiiU-rpret fur ititrlf the 
[«rm» of tlic rumpant, in dutitrtfu] caw^ ia a qi;r:(tion whicti can 
K>n\y W drcid'-H by looking to the compact, and inqiiirifi^ what 
firyviaions it LXintaiiifi on thi* point. Without any incua^i&Ieufy 
mUi natural reason, the gov<Tnmrnt even thus cn^ted mif*ht 
be trusti?d with ihift powct of eonirtruot.ion. Tlip ej^tenl of it3 
|K]Wei^ therefore, muHl arill bi^ sought foi in tlie iiiBtruiiient 

If the old Confederation had contuncd a clause, declari^Jg that 
reaolutioini of the Con^reea should be the Auprt^nie low of the 
land, any State law or conBtitntlon lo the contiaTy notwilh- 
Btandiik^, and that a eotnmiltee uf CtiiigreBs, or nuy other body 
created by il, ahould puOBc!sa judidal powers, rxteudin^ to uU 
eaaea arising under refcolutions of Congrea?, then the power of 
ultimate deciHJcn would have been vcst^Hl in C;>nf,Tef^e under 
the GoiifederaUon} idthongh tliai confederation wiu a compaei 
t>etween Stalen; and for tbi* plain reason; thul it \v*tuld ^i^ve 
btwn coinfielent lo the Statci, who alono wem pnrtica to Ihp 
coropact, to a^e who nhoiild decide in ca^i^ of dispute ariaing 
on the Goncttruction of the compact. 

For the naint? cviwon, Sir, if 1 wer^ now to conc^o lo the 
gf?nUfinnn hU principal propo«illon, namely, that the Con^tita- 
ii(m in a ciiinpuct ho-fween 3lalett, the ([uehltoa would siill be, 
What provision i» made, in thi» eumpuL^t, Lo settle poiiitA ol' dis- 
puted coaatructioa, or coiile»ted power, that alidll come Inlc 
oontroveray? And thin (^uet&tion wuuld utill be auawered, and 
coelualvely answered, by Uie Condtilution itself. 

While the ^iiEJeinuii is eontendiri^ against cou-ntrm^lioii, h« 


blm»«]f U ftettinfc up the mc»t Iciovc tind dnngrrouK cotiKtruo 
lion. Th<j (Vinadtntloii drcUn^ thnt the lau*x of Om^rtu 
pasted iTk puriii/atee o/ the (hrvtUntiiM sKall be the. in;/rrme. /aur 
/»/ the ian£L No conKtniclion l* nccrMUuy here, [t declares, 
uino, with cqiinj plainncAn nnd ptoi:^lon, ihiU lAe judicial poteef 
fff the Uflit^d StiUf-t thail ^xt^d to etterff ease armttff vnd^ ihe 
iaws of Con^fxf,. This oe^ds na conHtnicdcrn, H«re u a Jaw, 
lh<rn, which i» dr-xJan-d to be Bupreme; and Wre U a power t^a- 
tabli»hcd« whjcb is to interpret tliat Jaw. Kow, 8b, bow Iiaa 
the gchdcinaii met thio? Suppose the ConBtituliori to be a 
rompacT, y<<T. her« aie its t^rrud; and bow rtueo the gentleman ||;«t 
rid of Ihem 1 He cunoot ar^e the s^aj off fht bond^ not th* 
wonl« out r>r the instmnir'nt. Hmi- Ihry "wr ; whiif nii!tw*!r do<'* 
he gi^'v to thcrn ? Noiir; in UtcwiirUli Hir, t-trj^i^l, thitj^ tlir rjlctrt 
of thi» woald he to place llic Btalc-A iii a condition of inferiority ; 
nnd thnt it rcrtiiJta from the vejry nature of things, there being no 
«n[KTior, that the parties muat he thm owd judges! ThuB 
closely and eogenlly doen the hoiiomhJti f-entleman reason on 
the word>« of lliu Counliluiioiu The gcnileninn ^taya, if th^ra 
btf niii:h 11 [Hiwi-r of fnml dmiiidn in Die ^ejirntl goveniineiit, ht; 
tt^ks for the grnut of thnt power WcU, Sir, I .nhow him the 
gmnt I turn him to the very word^. I ^how him tlmt the 
hiwa of Congrces nrc made anpremr; nnd that the jndJciDi 
power e3tt**nd&, by expree« word*, to the intfrprrtition of tht'Mt 
lawH. IriHt^i-ad of aii8WE-rln^ thin, he TetrrHt* into the grnt^rnl 
rvflccUun, that it muat result fritm l/ie nature of Chinas, that the 
States, beiriK partita, muatjud^* for them ai-lvci*, 

I liuve admitt<rij, that> if the CunBiitution were to bo con- 
ddered ua the creature of the State |L;x)vernment8» it might b« 
mocUfieil, inlerj>n?l4-df or con»tni«l nw*onlin|^ to Th'.>ir plcft*uf*?. 
But, even in llmt utM^, it wiiuld be neeewar^ that they fihuulU 
Offret, One alone could not interpret it conduHivcly ; oue alone 
ooulcj not conplTue it; one alone ooiild not modify it Vet 
the gi-ntli^niafi^M doctjuie h^ that UarnliniL itlone may fjonntrue 
and iijn^rprrt that compact which eqiiully bindn all, and yivea 
equnl rightA In nil, 

3o, itieii, 8ir, eviru suppostng the Constitution to be a com 
pact between the Btatoe, the geiitlcmriii*i* doctrine, ntverfho 
^a, ia not maintainable; bocouse, firct, the prnrral poverninunl 
ia not a party to that compact but a g-mnrnntnU iwiabli»h*>d 



by It, ami ve^tcil by it with the powcnt of trying ^ml ilrdd 
iQ^ UoitLtful <iucT»tii>ii» ; and secondly, bccAU!<Ci if ihc C(.>DAti* 
tittlon he Tvt^flfdrti fta a compSiOt, not one fe^tato only* but all 
Itie Stulvt*, iiT*^ parties i<f th&t compaot, snd one can liave no 
riglu to fit upon it her own peculiar c-onHirucrlon^ 

So mWi, ^iT, fur tIu? Qc^nivut, even IS llit? fJiYiiilBvn of Uit? 
gentlrnmn vrctt itr^nttd, or could be proved. But, Sir> the 
gentle-mou Una failed to mumtalu hU kadin^ pnrixjtiiticn, il« 
bab noi sJiowfi, it cuiiiiot be ahown, that the ComUtution io a 
wntjmct bet*wen 8mte gi>veniment». The? Constitution itiielf, 
in ]l3i very fmnt, ft-fiitj-n thai idta; ii tWlur™ IHhI il is unluiitpcl 
jwd raiiiblislird /j/; (At- ftfffpU of ike Unilrd StDtrit. fti U\t fro:n 
saying thut it i* cATnblinlicd by the gov<?niinciiT* of the scvpTai 
Statce^ it doce not even eay tiiat it U cfltabli^^hcd by ibi^ poo- 
|3le of tAf teveral Sfaler ; but it pronouncog that it U e«tab- 
lished by the people of tlie United Stairs, in the n^^reg&te. 
The (jenOeiiian aay^i, It nia^t ine&n no tuorv llian ihtf prople 
o( the several Slates. Doubtlcea, the people of rJie several 
^tat4:ct, taiceii coikctivr^ly, ooiistjtutv the pijopio of the United 
Stateis; but it i» in thU, their ooUealive capacity, it ie aa all 
(htf peopk of t^ie L'ulfed States, that tbey e«1abliib ibe Con- 
.-•liUitvm. Sti thry drdurei mid word» catinot btt pliiiiK^r Ciinn 
the word.i mcii. 
^ When the ^ntlr:man nayn the? Coostitetioft fe « oompncl be- 
twffcn tbfi Sintm, hu uit^ft l&ngitug<c vxoctjy applioftbtu to the old 
Confederation. He »peaka s« ii lio weia in Congrow before 
1789. Up de*rrihrH fully that old Mat*' of thing* thrn exjsdng. 
The ConfederHtiiin wa«, in MTicLnrtiaT a contpaet; tho St&1eS|&« 
States^ were parties to iL We bad no other genera] govern- 
ment. But thai vk-as found inAui&cient, and Lnadoiquale to the 
publia exi^iieieB. The people were not Aatiii6ed with it, and 
tuiderlook to eHtabllah a better. They undertook lo fonn a gen* 
era] (juvrmineiit, whldi sJioutd atund on a tic^w biuoH; not a con- 
Meracy, nut a knx^t^^ '>"'' ^ c>OEn|>oct brtwei.'ji Statv», but a 
Cbn^ftf If f Km ; a |>opu]u' govt rumt^nt, founded in popular decUon, 
dirt'ctly rt^spoufiblt^ to the jK^ople thoruEi^lvL-B, and divided into 
bmnchefi with jjn-sL'ribtfd limits of paww-^ and pnwcribiMj dutieii. 
Thry ordained aut'li a guvcrnmrnt, thry giivi^ it Ww tmnir of ■ 
Qmi^U^n, and therein tiicy cutnbli^hcd n rliKUiljuutiu of pow* 
en between tbisr their general ^vcmmcnt, and tbcir scTcraJ 




Slate govrrnincnU. WlietJ they *hitX\ becomu dUtniifil^rd with 
tbU clis^uUniUont liicy citn alUr it Thrir own pawrr ovi.'r ihv'iT 
ou'fi matnimcnt remains. But until ihcy sbEkJJ alter U, it mual 
fttaad &H UkIt wiU, and is equally bindiijg on the geu«ra] gov- 
ernment and ou the Sldtea- 

Tbe ^iiik<man, Sir, fiii<l« ctnaltsgy where I we none. He 
likens it to till.- cane of a troaty, in whii^h, there hvtii^ na coin* 
moil aupenoT. cuch party inuat iaterpnrt for itadf, uii^ ile own 
obliguLion of good Ttiith. But thi« U not a trcnty, but a con- 
Htttutiou of ^overiuueut^ with powere to execuU: itituli, und luJii 
iU duties^ 

1 iu3niit, Sir, that tliis government Is a ^Y«rnment (.it (^h<^l» 
and bnliLniir^,-! ; thnt in, Ihc HuaAc o( Ri-prrvriititlivr:* U a chock 
on the Senate, und the tScn&lc 14 n chock on the ilouae, and tho 
Prceidcnt a chcc\t on both. Bat 1 cannot com|>rchcnd him, 
or, If 1 dO( I totally ditTer from him, whr^n he npplje« the notion 
of checks and balances to the mt^rfcitnce of dilferent govern- 
ments He argues, that, if we transgreaa otir coitfliCtutional lim* 
iU, e&ch 8iA^ aa a State, had a right lo check tuh Docsi he 
admit the convcn^e of the propotntioii, that we huve a right to 
check the S^Uktc«? The gcntlumun^fl doetmiefl would givu ue a 
strangR jnmblc of autliantit'ii and powiirs, ineti.W of govern- 
ment9 ofsrpHmtt! nnd drfinol powers. It is the piirt »f wi»k>ni, 
1 thliLk, to avoid tliis; and to keep the gv^nertd governiucriit and 
tlifl Stale ^ovrriimt^nt each ID ltd proper sphere, avoiding as 
careroily an poaniblc every kind of interierence. 

Fin^ill)', Sir, the honorable gcnlJemnn eayn, that the Statea 
wilt only ini^rfew, by their powrr^ to pre»erve the C-onniiiniion* 
They will not destroy il^ they will not imfiair it; thry will only 
■nve, thi-y will unij preserve, they wiU only atreugthcn ill All! 
8iXi this is bnt the old story. All rtguhitcd govtrniucnta, all 
&re governments! have been broken by Hirntlur diennturosled and 
well Uiapoaed lnterfi<rcnee. It ia tli« common pretence. But I 
take leave of the HnbjecL 




NOTE A. Ptt^ sas. 
EjUractfrom the jQitrnai of tKt Cvn^rtn o/ihi Confederation. 

CofVOiSM lUMUtnblnil : Prcucni, an U^fLir^, Thr tr\»tr\ nf 4 i^mutL 
Gominilleci conitiflLin^ of Mr Dnac^ Mr. Vaniuri^ Mr. %. M. MiccheU, 
Mr. Smith, Mr. Cb<lwaM4i(1«r» Mr. Irvine. Mr- N. MllchcLl, Mr, Forreit, 
Mr.timvwm^ Mr, ntijLjnl. Mr. [lull, &nd Mr. Few* lo whirin wrii* rvfarrvd 
tt Jutrrrr of I4t}i S<|itcim|>ar, HAfi, from J. UiakjAnoitf wrillcn at the re- 
qiufit orcummifuricmt-rv frum iho Staldb cf Virj^TiJA, Dplawnri*, Pt^muyU 
vftnjo. New Joriwy, nnd New York* iiMomlf^i^d 01 itic c>iy of AriHapolU. 
iQ^thur with a copy i>rthe raport <»f uaid ooniinuuiioa«n Eo \ha kj^ula. 
lunu of till? Suiris by wTjum they w»rc 4{>;HfiuiFcI, b^iug ah onler of ili« 
day. Hu coLicd up, oad whicb u conuuncd in ihc follomng resolution, 
via. : — 

** Coiigrv«B haviug had under ootiniilvmtJuQ tl^ Ivitor of ioliti Dickiii' 
fCDi Em)., chnirmon of the comniibaionQr* wlio assembled ai Annapoli* 
<}uring ih»f LaAi year, aIso the procoodinga of iho «ni<] ri^nimiMiorwri, 
(Lnd 4:nLirc1y comciding with them Od to tlie inofficioncy cf the l«doral 
^<iv(»mn)ont, And the nece^iry of devising sach nirthvr provi«rioa« a« 
flhttll render the ume odnriuaie lo rhe eiigencieH of the Union, do 
Efiroa^ly recommend to thd ditfcroni togijlaiurc* lo send forward dole- 
gutea 10 me«t tha propoMd Convooton, oo the aocontl Mciii<Luy tu ftUy 
next, at die ciiy of Philutelphiu-" 


NOTE B. Pago 389. 

Aprils 191G, an Mr. Raadatjth'M Alelion to *lfikc oat iM J/uiumun 
Valwaion en Colion Goada, 

" Tnic dchfiif^, liureiofore, on thin wubject, hns brrn on \hr dcgpM> r>r 
probcctiuo whicti ou^lit lo be ailvrU«d 19 our cotloo nad wuullcc nuau* 



aTl prur<THiiiiig to ht fntntlly ttt thorn mrnni r->iAti1i4imeniH, 
Hid to W ^v|]Jin|C la citcott to ihttn odctquAtc cDCoum^mcnt. 'Vhc 
Urottfit motion n»Li:mr^H n niw nspnci- h in imnorlLicod, pn>flB»<11y, on 
the grouuJ liiai miiujraclun? uu^^l uoL lo rcc«ive any «inL'otrm)^innEit; 
«nd wilt, in ita opcmLioc^ )cav« our conon OBlablUhmoois cxpotcd to the 
compplitloa of thn rntron gnculii of ihr* F-nsi Inrfifs, whirh, It k n<*knnwf- 
«*clged<iii all KidcH. liicy anr uol cupubli* <?f niisoiiiig vtitli ftuccc»i wiiliQUi 
lh« T>rovis> pfopotfod lo bo «trick«a out by th« [n<>tioQ now uncL«r di«cu«- 
niiin. Till ilif tUbam oAtumtrd tliin iMTw fornt, )io (Mr, CAlhniiji) dr^ier- 
cnin^d lo b« nilcnt ; panic i pa EiiigiB,* lie largely did, in itiat gvneml &niti'<- 
ly «hich ifl fell, oflCT lo Icng 9.nd Ibborioui a cvstion, lo return io the 

ivm of our faiiuliffft, Bvil on a »ubj<^t vi >ucli riial impurliuicc. 
IK, » it <looB, tho socurily and pormtinoai prM]>on1y of our 
"eotinir)-, he hop^d ihat iht^ llcwne would indulge bim in n fow ohMrvn- 

** To give pcrTcoticm eo ttim sTulo of thlni^, it will b<» nfjooFUory to (Mid, 
RA Hnnn sa posfilh1f<!, n synlpni of intrniA! improvnTnrnM, And, nt leiMtT 
Buch nn eWcnwon cf our navy ob will preicnt the cutting off our cobb(- 
ing tmd«. Tlio advantoico of opch \t na itrikinK m not io n^uirtt iL1u«- 
tratlon, wip^ciftUy nOer thw vtiii:* rictus© nf rhf Inie war. 

"He firmly bt^lipved that the country i» prepared* c*en to maturity. 
for \ho inEFcduotkOEi of numufnctLirvii, W« hnvo nbmiciancc of roaonr- 
(WB, and LliiiL|p( naiunlly Ernd. ai ihis nioniPiil* iii iliai dinwliou- A 
proiTpcroua ccmmorcc has poured au immense nmoun! of commercial 
cnpiul into this counny- Thb cnpifAl htta lilt IflTnly fmmd orfitipiMJon 
ID coinint^rce ; but dial siato of the wurld which Uuiisfijrrvd k lo th'm 
ceuntrj aad gave it active cmploymcni, hoj paved away, never Io ro- 
iiim. Where shall wn now ftnd fiill flmploymeni for our prndfj^oiui 
emounl of lonrngH ? Whcre^ mnrketo for ihc numcrouH and abundant 
pmductB of our country ^ Thiii groat body of active capital, wbkchi 
fffT Ihe mommi, has found sul^cleni employment in supplying our mar* 
keta» «xhflUEiiod by the wnr and moaaurei pfcceding il, muit And • 
new direction; it will not bo idle, Whsi channel can it take but that 
(if inuiiufucliirva f This, if tliiu^ nonLinue a» Ehey arv« will be ita 
direoiion. It will introduce on cm in our alTairs, in many reepeeta 
highly advnf^tn^oua, and which ou^l Io be cmmienanoAd by tha gov- 
ern men L 

" itocidcK^ we have already aurmounted ihe greaieftt difliculty ihaL hai 
«ver bp^n fonnd in undertakings of rhis kmd. The coron nnd wnnllnn 
HMUiufactitrca are not to be inSrodu^^d^ -^—ihey are alrtti^y introduced 
bo a groat oxieni ; freeing u« entifvly from the haxuda, and, in a grea 
neafliiTV, thf wvrilkea, eipenenoed in ^ivin^ ihtr expitnl of ihc country 
a now diroclJon* The reetrictiro moaaurw* and liie war, lbi>n|jh noi m 

VOL. III. 30 




icDi1«d for that purpoM, tkavo, bf iIm Moesmry opci«iicc oT iKinp 
iurTt4!H « Urge amoiLnr of cnpitnl lo thi» n*w bmneh of induttry. H« 
hod ofWu htrurd il mid, both iu and out of CoogreM, thai ihi« C'flcoi 
tloiw would indemnify Iho cotmrry fof ali ieb I<mm«. So Kif^h \rti ihii 
f0nn of Awling whnn thir vknt of ihnsi pflinhlliilkmpnvi wns pmrtirJiUir 
fth, ihnt he pemembtrt-J, during the war, when norno qLiestioo w»< 
ft^lAtied roapMlioft Iho iairodaeiioa of for«i|cn gc>oda, ihcU mnsy tlu?rt 
ofppCNfld h on die gh;]imd cf bjurini; oor mftoufuoiumH. Hv Uipd >]iid, 
ihu wnr alono Aimiahcd siJiliciDnt «timiitu9| and pcrhnpa lo» much* u ri 
would DDakQ iheirgmwth UTinatunilty rnpid; but lhaE> on Iho return uf 
p«>cu. U would lhr[i he tmvs Vj shuw cjut af]i-cticiu for iIh^iel H« ai 
that timd did qui oxpool an apathy and avcraioc eo ihc cxicni which U 
vow Mvn. 

■*Bm It will 110 d«ibl bo auJ, if clicy are w for cBlabliahed, odd if the 
dtuaiion of the country a t*> favorable to their growth, where is tha ne- 
e^fltlTj r>i* ft/TVirdlng thnm protfH:tton ^ It la to put thorn beyond rh« 
reach of contingency' 

" It hu been further UBertod, ^l monuffteturoB are tho fruitftit eaiiM 
of puiipitriitm ; nnrl Rnghind ha» been roft^rrvd to a« foniltifi!ng cooclu- 
nvTi <]vid«n<?e of it8 tniTh. t'of ha pari* ho could percoivo ro such ion- 
d^Of^y in th^m. hiJl the otnct comtmry, an th^y Tirnnhwl now sumulufl 
and meaiia uf mib«ui1i?iKMf to lljt< latiurLng clus&r??i of iho ouR;iQunitjr> 
Wo ouf^ht not TO look Kl the ootton and woollen c^tabliiihmoiiv of GfMt 
Brliam fnr iht* prodtgloufl numhfir* of ponr wrfi which hcxr pofiutarioQ 
wax dugmnod ; cuuh^ei much ntont etlicuTui *iihit^ Jler poor laws, and 
■latutm nrffutairng ihe prica* of labor, with Uixi>fl, woro the root coaimv- 
BljI if il iTuiM be vn, if thft meiH fact thnt Rnglniul luani^rhired ohmv 
than any other country, OKploiacd iho cau>o of her havioK more b«f < 
gam, it ia ;uit at raaionabio to ivfor to tho uimo caA;«e her eouraga, 
apirh, and all h^r riiaK.'uhnQ <rtr1uea, in vhii^h thtf eonrehi all oihor na* 
tioni, with a linizlo exception ; ho naqanl ouv Owo, in which wc nioghi^ 
without vanny, chall'^ngi* a pre<min«inoe. 

" Auudier ubJL-r^EKiii hud been, which ho muift ai^knowludgo wats bettvr 
fbunt^cd, thai oapitaj employed in manafAotunnK produccfi a jpcotci 
t1op<*niTitrii^ oti lt]« port of (he '■mplivt-d, rTmn in cnininF»Fr:f>j navigniion. 
OT agrieitlliirrf. It ii certainty an oi'iL, and to tc rrgrtticdi but bo did 
not think it a dcciiuvo objootJCOt lo tho nynti^m ; oflpeciaLly ivhen it bad 
intrrdenrnl political advanuig<4« wdich, ifl hU opinton, more ihrio coun- 
torpoiscd it. Et produced an intefttt otnolly American, m much so aa 
agriculture, in which ii had iho d^cidod advonta^ of eamrnorco or nav. 
igBlion- The ouuntiy witi from Ihiii doriro much odnntogo. 

"Afabi: it ia oalcutoied ui bind bogeiksr moro ckooly our widely 
ipv«ad ropiiblic^ li will gr«iatiy iaanum our mtttUftl dftpcndcnee and 



iatercr>urw ; and will, u ft neccosikfy <!<nuKqiJMic«i oxciTO an inore«M4 
■tTcniioTi m inTcmnl imppovemeQia, a lubjcei e\'pry way m iaiimnidy 
CODiKPCtod will) i]io iittimalc alUucment orntiuonal «iren|^h, uid the |i«t 
Teotion of Dur political ifutitutiopv.^* 

Eitr^ft /rt?m the Spaeth t>f Mr. Cathovn^ April, 1816, on the IHrt€i 

Ifl regard lo chc i^uutioa, how far muiufoctuTra oughl to ba foatcriKl, 
Mr- C&ihi^uii Aiiiii, ^* It wu tho duLy of thin country, bj & (iioftaa of 
dafMne, x<t ^iicuiirage lh* domettk Muwr^r of ihv coaniry, mi>r« etipo- 
cuJIj thai part of Ii whlcU protitdo* the oeccuftry mntcrinl* for doihiug 
•od dofono«. Ixi u« t^k 10 Um ndirur* or' tli« war miML kLkttLy lo c«cuf. 
EngEhiid iv in ihr^ po«VDBiicn cf ihc oct^nn^ No man, how<*VfTr mrguint, 
caA bc]icv4> djut wc ctui d<:^rliro her aixin of }ic;r pn.Tdi^Tiiin(Lnc« thi^rt, 
Tbal control ilepri%^c« ui of tho moofiB of keepLni^ our army uid navy 
cheaply rind. Thn qiionrictn rrl^iiing lo loaTiiirncmm mi:!il tioi de|K!iid 
oa the abatmct principTo, that tftdunfry, left to piirKua it» oy/n couno, 
will lind'm iti own iaicmi all tho cncournf;eineni that it n<?eeanuy» I 
lay the clulnit of th^ niftniif^f^tiirera pnilrvly nut af v(ew,** vtld Mr. Cal- 
houn ; ^^ but. on goneml prific]pl«4, wiihout regard to their ititun!s1« a 
certain <!iiCDurtigcmcci should be extended, ai broal, to our woollen and 
cutluD muaufnclurc^. 

•*Thifl natton/* Mr, Calhoiio add, ''wa* mpkliy chanpng the chnroe- 
ittr of iifl in^ivuirry- When a nation Li agrictjhura], diip^^nfling for aupply 
on foreigu markets it^ people may bti mxed thn^ugh its bipuna alnioel 
to the amcunt of its capacity. The nation was, however, rapidly bo 
comings to n cnnwderaWe ertenT, a rnvmufBcturing nation," 

To The quoiftiiona from tho flpeechca and proceedings of the Tlcpro- 
aentaiivv^ vf Somtj CarcJiDa tn Congress, during Mr- Munrrm'a mlniin!^ 
tnhlJon, tnay bo added the foUowinfc cxtmct from Mtk Caltioua*a report 
on roadjt and cnimk, nnhmiitftd lo Congrrjw on th^ 7lh of Jnnuory, lfil9, 
from ihc Pc'pariHiT^nt of War : — 

*' A juflieioiw ffVBicm of rooda and canald» oonBiniotod for ihs oonren- 
ienco of cummr^refl nnd ihn TmnaponAtion nf ihfl mail cmly, wlOiuiU any 
refcroncff to iniliuiry uprmUuiiB, ui itoolf among die m09l efUcienl mcMuia 
for Iho ' more complotfi dofftncn of Iho United Stnicu,' Without udTerr- 
mg in thn fac*, Thar (Jit> road^ and c^unnk vf\Mi mn'h n nyufcm woidd rr- 
quire are, with few esiceptiono, praci>cly ihosc which would Ito reqiuiwft 
for the oparaiionia of war ; auoh a *y*iocn, by «cdiaohdftttng out Union 
Mirl incr^^wilng uor wr-alih nnd f\fcn\ capncityt would *'ll^ ^n*n\[y To utii 
roBourccd in war. It la in a %inic of wnr^ when a notion ^b compu1k<l 10 
put all iu niBonreea, in men, money. ikilU uid devotion 10 country, tnlo 



ractuiMlioa, iliut iu goveniiiMit mlisM in t1> MnctJriiy tht! beociicia] 
«ff«ctfl f™m a peoipio mad^ prOftperxKM and ^ippy !>)■ a wmf' riimcTiijn 

■' Should CougrrrKM ihlnk proper lo commnnco n tyMctn at rwdi and 
can&b for ih«i ' moro compl«lfr ^fenos of th« Umlsd ^ituieii/ th« dii- 
turwmi^nwi nf ihe mirn nppfopmtrd fciriht! purftoiw mt^hi be miulc by 
the DpparlnioiK of War, \^iuhr thr direction of die Prci*iiic<it> Where 
incor]>ortilcd companicK are atrcfidy formed, or tha road ^r c«na1 com- 
rwncpd) iindi^r clio xiipnrininndrnce of a Statn, it prrhap* would be ad- 
fUab]« lo diroci a aubdcription on (ho part cf liie Uniicd Stoic*, on auch 
lorms arid ctindiTioni as might be thought prop«r.** 

NUTK C. Pa(P) 339. 

THi following resolution* of the L«g]s1imra of Vi^nia bear w per- 
Einondy nnd ^o ntrt>n^)y on lht» putui of l\v^ dcrbuTe, llial ihvy itru llioughl 
wotthy of iM^ing iiiMcrlod in a noicenpccially aa other r<>wlutJono of the 
iamfl bcdy are referred to in the djfciiuton. It will br obskcrvnd thai 
thaao reaolutionA wen unanimcmaly adopted iu ^ocli houso* 


" A proptxiiion from ihe Stal* of Pennsylvania i«i htfp?wi[h «ubmitt«d, 
with Oijvnnior Siiydcr*s leiier actjumpnnjinK ihc tiaina, in which in wig- 
gealed fho pr&pnoty of amnnding th« Con»ufurii>n of the Uniiod Sinteat 
no RH [o pTPVPnt colliHion between the goveramt^nE of the Union and the 
Stale go<rerDroeDt>,*^ 

llouu: or T)EE.iiffjimi«« Frtdaif, SifctmJirr 1!V, 1809- 
On molian, Ordtctdy That >o mi^h of iho Covornor's comtnunicotioii 
%a relaren lo tlie oomniTinic^nrion from the GovcTticr of Prnnavtvnnla, on 
the subject of an amfindrtittii pr^jpuwd Ly llio L<.'|^i»^lutiirT- of ilini Stftie 
!o tho C>n«iiHition of the United Stalea, b» referred To Mcwrv. Peyton, 
Oiey, Cabell, Walker, Mndiwin, Holt^ Nrwron, PnHcrr, ftTrvmwn, Ran- 
dolph (of Amelia), Cocke, Wy»ii, mid Rlruhii-, — Juvmal. p. 'J&, 

Tkttrulap. Jantiarp II, ISlO. 

Mr. Peyton, from ihe committee lo whom wa* reft-rrvd tfrat part of 
^e Governor'! communicaEion which r^lalua to Iho amendtneai j>rO' 
pOMd by the State of Pcnniylvmiin u> the Cat^Hlifutinti of the Hnla^ 
Scatea, made the folIowiniE reporl : — 

The <'omroitL4^o to whom wom refurred the ooiDmunioaiion of the Get* 

off Poors BLSOLI 


ufPoannyttiknui, covering certain rwoluijona of ihc I-f giHlni irnjf 
ihu 9lAMt prupo^iiij^ an AinoncJmuni of iW Cumijiiiiiun uf tho ITmrciJ 
8uitea, by Uio oppotDtownt of on impftninl bibunal 10 ^IcchIc di»puiei 
between tikc StfiicA and Fodttrnl Judiciary, havo had thn nftmu iin6«r t^iirir 
cuubidtsmiiriji. uiid uru of upitiioji diul a triliujiul U nlrcudy |)n>vidcd by 
tlu CooBtituiion oT Lhc Uniicd Slnwa \ to wii, the SupnEnc C^iirt, more 
»mm«n[l)r fjLialifLAd, Trom thvtr haliii* and duti«fl, from llie modo of their 
viltieiion* and from thcr tenure oT iheJr olTicGii, lo dc^cidu tlko dUpute* 
QfoNiKaid in an cnli^Ktnand and impartLal ntnttiett thAC aay other tribu- 
nal which cHiild I* vn^awt. 

The membara of the iSupreme Court are iclcciud from itiow in die 
If'ttilvd Stai«i4 Aho nn moAl celobmiftd for virtue aiid legal iuuming, not 
HI the will of K Hin^ld iiidividtiat, but by the concurrent witbes of ths 
Prcaidcn: 04id Senate of the United Suiica ; they will, thrrcTurc, have 
no tooal prajiidioM and partialitit^n- The dutiw tiit?y have 10 f>erforni 
Wd tlietn. ritceEBiurily, tu Uil- ino«T etilargcd imd nccumiR nrqnftinlancp 
with the jikfiAdiotiuji of the PcdcmT and 3iat<' c<»:rta (c}f;(iTier, and with 
The ndniinibk >yinme[ry of our goTornnurni. The i&nure of their ofti' 
ce* enables cbem 10 prvnoijiictT ib<; sound and compel opiniona lUt*y may 
havo formed, witiioKt fi-'ar, Tuvor, wr fiurtiality. 

The amendment to the Cocmiiutien proposed by Peantylvanin Bonmi 
to be founded uiMi llie idea tbal (he Ft'Jerai Judicjary will, fruiti ■ lusi 
ofpovrari vnlargc* ih^^ir junsJtccioii lc lb« total annihilation of the juriv- 
dicriun of rhe State eon ns ; that they will ckDrcise thotr wilJ, msif^ad of 
the law and lite CoDHlilJiian. 

Thii arffLimcfnt, if it proves any thing, would operate more eirongt} 
•gaimn thn rrihunal pmpoaed 10 be ereatedj whk-h pronitHtf^ m> lillle 
than againai the Supreme Court, which for ihe na&i>t\s given befon- 
have every thin^ eornected with their appwnlriwm edculatad to inaur* 
cirnildcnee- \V}iiii MrN^uriiy have we, were the pnjfujned uineridmcni 
adoptedi that Uils tribunal would not eubsti^ote thotr will ixnd tlicir pba*- 
lire in place of the law / Th* judlolary am Ihik wcnkrvt nf the threi* 
deparimenia <jf grjveniiimU* iuhJ leual daugeroub to thv; political righu 
of the Coostitutioo ) they hold neither the purao nor the ciword; and, 
even lo anfnrf^ ihnlr own jiiigmpnni nnri derUlona. mnm iiliimarely de- 
pend upon llie eieeutive arm. Should ihe I'Vdend Judiciary, however, 
unmindful of theiT wcakneas^^Jt of ihe dmr which th<iy owe to 
thnmH^Ueii and ibnir eoiimry^ berf>nie enrriipi^ nml rrnnHcnd thfr tiiniia 
ofthelrj^riiidiciion. would the proposed amendiuent oppose even a prol^ 
ftblo barrier in vuch an impnbabte Binici of ihjng* f 

TW crFiiTidii of a tribunal mmh aa in ^ropuru?d by Tenaiiylvanui, ve 
far aa we are able to form an idea of ir, from the di < h^ripdon ^ven in 
Ao niietuitona of the Lr^gikluture of tJiai Siuie, would Jt the opiaior if 




ychir rommltirr, ri^nd rnfhcr la iuvile ihnti lo |>ppvrni ro!l«fnTi» bcmrtOB 
die PcJutnl ntii] k^^uic «ni:t9. It might iltto bcuuinu. id (^njccsn uf tlBMi 
% Mfioiu nnd dun^in'otji limbornuamcnt 1o iho oporaiuxuB of tbc gci>c ml 

JttAolvcdt ih^rffort. That the Legutlftlunr of ttiu STut<! do disapprove 
of ih(t nmondmtmi li \hc CoiuuEmioQ of ihe UmKd 8u)lo4 |>n>po«od t^ 
llie L«gk«1umre of Pijrumjrlvunia^ 

JUM/voi, iif«<r^ Thut hi* Exoollonoy. the Gciv«rDor, be« anij be ii 
hAfr^jr, fiM^upinml u> ironumJi forthwith n copy of ihw forrpoing pmam- 
it\v uiid rrwIuiKJiiH lu tflch uf lljtT Sv[iuton» uiJ RcjirvH^ttluiivta of Uiia 
Slafc ia ConjETou, »□<! :o iho exoCLitivc of tho several Slntoa ia ihc 
Urlan, whh a KtqueMt thnt ihA tk^ato bn laid bRfore dui Tngulntunii 

The ujd ropolutkifiB, being xnnd n. iveoEid time, were, on motioQ, or- 
dt*n^it lu hii* nift<rmJ 10 a cumiiiLLUw of i\m wliotu \nt\imt oD Jis tflute of 
the Common wealth. 

TWnl^, Juntiorit 23, 1810. 

The Hou«e. aeeordin|[ to the ord(>T ot the day* rcaofvcd ilaclf ioio A 
commineo of ihn wholfl houan on thfl flaic of the (Simmon wi>nlih, and, 
hAer Bume timr- npvnl llioreiiJ, Mr. Spcuker reBU&ii;i:l the chaift and Mr< 
Stonnrd of Spottjy Ivimia reported ihai the commiUce hod, nocordinf^ 
10 order, find iind»f conaidi* rati An thn prpnmhli^ nnd n>Mti1iiTioni4 of The 
aelccl commitite to whom vina rcforrrd tliui pari of the (Jovcmor** 
coiiimuntcttlkciit which ralaTeii 10 Iho amondmanl pro[>aj>od 10 the Conaii- 
tulionof lh« ITiiiImI SiaUfa by tho Lef^iflaiurHof Pt-niKtytvuiiLii, hud gone 
ihrouEh with the same, aad directed him to report [hom to (he hoiuw 
^fltholll iiiiiAadmerkE ; which ho htridtsd Id at \ho clQrlc'a table. 

AuJ die qurHlJuii Lcriiig pui uu ti^iciTm){ tu ilia ULitJ preamble mid n!li< 
oluiionn, they were agreed to by the House Liniuiiinouily. 

Onttrtd, That ihA oI(»rJt cArry the aaid pr^iamble Rod rasolutioiu to 
the Senile, and desire tijcir concurrence. 

The prenmble and resolutlDna on ihc omendmenl lo the (.'Ontttiiulioa 
of tho l^nitod Stafoi proposnd t>y the Lcfrwiaujna of P<^nnAylvnnuia by 
Ihe njipf>iiiim*<iit iif n\\ mi[i>irTiHl irihuiuil M diririrlb dinpiiTi-ii thoiwoi^n rtie 
Slates and Pcdoml Ju<liclary, being also delivered in and twice rend^ oo 
metico, #€ra ord^rvd to b« oommiited 10 M^oan. N<>l*on, Curri«,C(unp< 
beU. Up»l]Lir.nnd Wotfo. 

Friday, JattMri/ 36, ISIO, 
Ur, NeboQ Toportod, from the co<nnutt«« to wlioin wqh oodimnCud Lhc 


(rreamble and rsBolutions on the amendment proposed by the Le^ala- 
lure of PermsyUaiiLai 6i^c.y that the committee had, according to order, 
taken the said preamble, &c,, under their consideration, and directed 
him to report them ivithoui any amendment. 
And on the question bemg put tfaenuooa the ttatm was aoreMl lo 



Mn, PpnuipRST, a« it i» highly probnWc ihat our proc«>cdinp» 
on thi* nomination will he published, I de«in it propfir lo Mate 
shortly fhe con side ration» which have influenced my opinion, 
and will deuide my vole. 

1 tcg^inl tliiH tui a very idi|>ortaiit >ind d<^Uc;ite qutrfition- It ta 
full of reiipoimibllity ; and I fuel the whoJu farce- of that roBpon- 
Bjbilily. Whik I have been m the Senate, 1 have oppoMfd no 
noEniniilUin nf 1h^ IVesiden1> except for rann*; und [ hnvff at 
nil tim<?A Uitnjght that. bncU cnuse should be phtin nitd mifliHi-nt ; 
that it should be reaJ mid subbUiatiaJ, not unfounded oi fmrcifo], 

I have never dtairt^d, and do not now doeirci to encroach m 
the e]ighlc«t dt'i^re^ on tho conctitalional powcra of The cldtf 
iDagif^tr»to of ihe nation. I have heretofore gone far, very far, 
in iiMieniing to norniniiUonai whit^h huvc bt^vti iiihmlttc^d to uit. 
1 yoU-il fnr tliR n[i|Hi]nuiiri)t of iitl Uii? ^ntlrmt-n who i<<impoHiH) 
the first oabinrt; I have oppo^ no nominntion of a forri^ 
m)ni»l«*-r; and I hnvc not opposed the nominAtJon* rcc<-ntly bc- 
foi^ UA, for th« n^TganizatiOR of tho ndminiiitmtioEt. I have 
always bpen enp^cially aniiona, that, in all mritlrr* relating to 
our int*»rcoLirw with other nations^ thr ufmnut hnrmony, the 
f^it^utt'et unity of (jurpoae, tihuuld ejLiAt between the Prvetdtint 
and the Senate. 1 know how much of lueftiliieaH to the public 
Btrvice such liurinony und union ure cukulatwi to pn)duct% 

1 am now fully aware. Sir, thcit it m n tn^AonVj u vt-ry tferionn 
nultx!!', to vota agcun^i the conftrmution of a minivUT to a for* 
rigii rourt, who has already ^nr ahntad, «nd han b«ea rr<M-iTi>!d 

* RemarkB made in Sntci Sf^on of tbo Sv^nste of ihs United 3uv*, on rhe 
Mlh of Jsnutrj, 1639, va Uw ^otniusttun of Mr Via Btinn u MiniflU" id 
QMttt Brlob. 



And accTcdilrd by th<- ^o^^^r^'^^n^ ^ wtiich he ia ftent I aiD 
avorc that the mjr^cti^n of thi» nami nation, ind the nec4!««ury 
recall of tho minif^ior, will hi' rrgard^^d by forrign itnti^*, ut Xha 
lifsit bjiuh, as not \t\ the highest degree favorable to the ehar- 
■lctUt of mir i^uviyjiiiicfijl- I Itiicrw, mureover^ Ut what iiijurioi);) 
rriledionA our may subject himself, cap«cblly in Umre of pjtriy 
t-scitcrncnt, by giving q negalive vote on such n n(>TTit nation- 
But, afu-T alL 1 urn plaiz^ed here to diifohargc a duli/^ I nm o<it 
to go Ihroa^h a formality^ I am to pCTform a Knbrtnntiol and 
fe*|>on*iible duty. 1 flm to (uivhe the President in innttiTa af 
uppainliikent. TbiFif U my coEintiluUonal obligatiun; mid 1 bijall 
perfonn it ccinAciciitmuiLly n;id fcoilcnvly. 1 am bound to say* 
ibcn, Sir, ihtit, for one, I Ho nol^ ndvi^c noT consent to this* nomi- 
tiatioQ. 1 do not think it a lit and proper nomination ; and my 
r«atfona are found in the letter of iriBtruotJoiift writTen by Mr- 
Van Buwn, on The 20th of July, l*"??"^ to Mf. M^rLiane, iheu 
g(Kui2 iu thi* vnxKl of Knglnndr iii Arnr-ri<?im Minintrr, I think 
these instruct ii>nf drrog^toryt in a high dcgrre. In the character 
and honor of tli^^ country. I think tliey show a manifest dispo- 
eiiion in the wriUr of thtrn to I'stubliah a diatincticn between 
his country and hin pnrty ; to place ihut party above the conn* 
try; to make intpr*»*t at n foreign court for that pnrty rati icr 
Ihan for thr coinilry ; to persuade the English minislry^ and the 
Bnglipli monnich, that /Ary have an interest in niainidning in 
the United St^t<.'A the ascendency of tlie party to wlL[<:h thu 
writer belongs* Tliinking thus of the purpose and object of 
these instmcticns, I cannot be of opinion that their author is a 
proper rujvcMentative of the United States at that court There- 
forr U (K, that 1 propose to vote agalnHt hi* nomination. It is 
the fifAt limr, I t>rliuvei in modern diplomncy, Lt U certainly the 
first time in our bintory, in which a mimatcr to a forei/jjn (^nrl 
has sought to make favor for one party at home againnt anothcri 
or haa stooped Irom bt^ing the representative of the whole coun- 
try to be the n^prciicntative of a party. And as this is the first 
Inntaiiee in our hi«tory of any such tranHaetion, so 1 intend to 
do nil in my power to make it the last For one, I set my mark 
of diaapjirobaLioti upon it; I contribute my voice mid my voUj 
to make it a negative example, to be shonncd and nvoidrd by 
all fnturt' minisier* of the Unit^^d Stat^^ if, in a dWibetatc 
and formal Iciter of instraotions^ admonitionfl and dirootiODtt on 



given to a mintstcTi nnd repeated, once and A|^m, to urge ihtse 
nwjrn ptirty cnneidemtions on the foreign povornmci^t, to what 
exCrnt » it probable ibe writer himi^lf will be ili«poaed to or^ 
fhptn, in his fhon^iand o|>portiinTli'?a of Informal Intar^-'oune wjih 
lh« tt^v^ijlA of that guveniiiitnL ? 

I propose. Sir, To rcfirr to some pEirti<niInr pnrtn of xhc9c ip' 
ertruotion.i ; but before I (Jo that, allow me to ulntc, vrry gcncr- 
olly, liie pontiiw! of the labject to which tliosi^ pnrtioulan^ v^lato* 
Thut «u!>jrct U thn »iiitc of cnr irodfl with tbn Bnu«h W^sat 
Ir<1in folonip?!. I do not deem it npcr&*ary now to po minuleljr 
mlo mJI llie hiBtury uf that tnul«. The oi^^-ijoji dues mil <rnlt for 
it. All know. Ilmt, by tlie oonvcniiun «if IBl^, u re<-iprod1y 
of inli7cotu'»e wil« evtAbli^ihcd bctwci^ii Km nod GrcAt Uritnin.. 
Tbc «hip« of both oouniricf wrrc nilownl to pD»ii to and from 
^ch otti^T respectively, with th« «am9 cHri^oofi, find subj€ict to 
the same dmieH. But this anfingement did not extend to tbe 
British VCrsi IndiiiiL Tbt?re our interL-uurtti wuacutolt Vari- 
OiU dJKTrimifiEititLg niid retidiulgry AvAtt piuuiird by Knglaiid 
and by the Unitt^d Btat€«. EvcntaFiJiy, In the nummcr of 18^. 
the English l^liamcnt paascd nn ftcU ofioriii|; reciprocity, so/at 
as t^e mere cturymfr trade itat cont^trnfd, to all nauoos who 
might ehoc«e, within one yeur, to bccept tli«t otler^ 

Mr. Adam)i'« ftdminiirlniUon did not nece|3t timt olTer; Bnt, 
brwiTiscf il w«a iu'vfr o^ttiially communicRtcil to it; iH^xjitdly, 
bccau0i_-, only a few roonlha before, a ne^tiation on the t^cry 
aaiTic Htil-jcxt bad been siupended, with aiL uikdcratandin|» thai 
it mi^lit he renumed; and, thirdly^ beoaune it wan wry desirable 
to arraiif^c Ihc whole cuntti^i if potwible, by treaty* in urdt^r to 
MK!urf*-, if we emild, the admuiitm of our producU iitia thr Brit- 
ish inUittdi /or cufitiitfiptioi^ a4 well as Ih^^ itdiniAMoit of our 
ve^adA. Thi» ubj^ct had b^'en eiUJicstJy punurd vvvt nitiec the 
pe&oQ of 181& Jt wai» iiiMAted on, aa every body know^ 
tiirou^h the whole of Mr. Monroe'* adminibtratiun. H« would 
not treat nt ull, wiT.hout trifating of lhi# ohjrcT. ile thought tliv 
MCtjiting tiXtite of thing* better than any arrangemrnt which, 
while it admilted our ufvw/j Lilo We*t India ports, *till left our 
prodiicliunii nt^bjvcl bi niicJi duliev tJi«re, thiit tiicy could not be 

Now, 8ir, Mr. Adam»'0 fldminlAtration waa not the tint to 
take tlu« ground. It oaly oocupi^d the ^amo position which ib* 





had takt'n. It anw ao impart.^nt objects tu be ifninrd 
by ebth^fng th« «iiil« cf thm^, unkitF that dmn^ wna t4i 
sdmK our prnduf^U intn tbi- Briduh W^-^t Indies dirvctly from 
oar pnrl^, iinri nut bitrdrnrd ivith ric^wve duties. Thv dirpcl 
trokdci by EiigU^b caactnifnts and Ajiieritiiiri «ri;i(*tiTirntK, Um\ 
become doaod. No Hritiflh ship came hi^rc from thr Rrili^h 
W«t Indies^ No American ehip w«nt htnce to tho*p pl^L-Pis 
A dmilloii* frade took place ttirouf^h the iKliindn of Ihiid pow- 
ent; and That circultoos trade waa, in many r^r^pect^ not dieo'' 
vnntu^eiKiH Ut un^ 

In t^is otntc of thingv, 8ir> Mr. McLanc was »eiit to Eng- 
Land; and he rcccivf^d his imtruction^ from the Secretary vf 
SlAta. In Ihcic in si rod ions, tind in rHntion to thia eubji'H cf 
tba ootoRtnt Tradrr, Hfe found the senrim4>iiTa of which I coruplajn. 
What «rp thpy ? liK ns examine and see, 

Mr- Vrtii Bureii li'lls Mr. MtLaue. *^ Tlie ojiporliinitim whic-h 
you h^ve tlenV4.-iJ from a participation in uvir public <;ounM-Ui av^ 
well ns otitcT aoureea of information, wti 4inablc you to speak 
vrith coiiliclcni^Ef (lU for ai you roay deem it proper and UfwfoJ 
aci to do) of the rt^vpooUve purtA taken hy thovt^ to whom the 
adrntriAtratinn of IMm govrrntnr^nt in ticiw commitfpd, In rrfation 
to.lkt* eotine heretofore pureiifid apon Ihtr »iibjrct of f1i« L-oluni;i.1 

Now, this ia neither more nor leaa tliEtn eayinfc, *^ Yaxi wilJ he 
able to tell the Hrilish minister, whenever you think prop<?r, that 
yoUi and 1, and thi> leading per^nv &n ihU administr^xtion, havir 
opposed ihe r^onrw hrrf^tofotr pursiW by thn giovrnimnnt, and 
Lhe (."OiinTty, on ihr subject of the coloiiinl tnitK Br *iirr* to h:t 
him knew, that, on that aubjcct. wc have held with Haglaiid* 
vid not with OUT own government." Now, I ask you, yir. if 
cbia be dignified diplomacy. Is this «taleamandhip ' U if 
pa1rioti«mi or in it mu^re pivrly ? b it a proof of a high regurd to 
the honor and rrnown of llip whol« r^itnitry, or in ii pvideiuTt! uf 
a dispoxiuon to make a merit of bc-Jongijig to one of its potilicoj 
dividioiia 7 

The Secretary prooeeda : " Their views '* (that i^ the viewa of 
the preaent admimdtraUoii) ^upon that point have boen Bubnriitted 
totht people of the United StiitL'«; and the eouiineb by which 
vonr eon<1m*t i" now dJri'ctM are the r^'*<ult of tfu* JLiilfj^rutfni 
expreweti hy the only earthly tnbonal to wliich ihv Iste odiniil^ 
ivtratioii wad uint-uable for ita acta." 




Now, Sir. In the fir»l plncp, there is very Uitl*? reason lo «iip» 
potte thul the/ra^ [uirt of Uiis |mragTaph ts tni*r, in ptiitii of fuel; 
I mc^iui Uint pnrt which mtimatcp Hint the diim^ o( ndmiimtra- 
tion w«!i Ijfoiight nhout by ptibltc di.^approbriiiori of \fr. Adams's 
nonduct rriapcpting tbo subji^ct or tho coloninl tmdr, Pof^AJbly 
BO much wsl« th^n nAid on n fubj(*ct which «o few tiuci^rrgtood, 
that *ome clcf;;rce of impM'iwion may have lx***n prwlnci^i by it 
Ritt b& aflsuretl, dtr> anothr^ cauiw wiJI bcr found, by fncur^ hin* 
tormiiM, fur thta chungt- ; and that canM % ill be the pupulurlly 
of n rmccctfoful Boldicr, united with a fef^ling, made to tc con* 
Aidcrably extcnsivi?, t}mt the prvf^n^nca of tlie pc^oplc iti hi* 
behalf had not bi^cn justly rvgarded on a pre\iauit occaaioi]' 
ThTT i<, Sir, V(*ry Ijlib- gr^niid to-nny that ^llw* only tribunal to 
wbio-h tbt' l«l4: Hdluini^t^^t^o[l wn» unirmibl*^** bni* pronounccxl 
any jud^ Hunt againat it for its conduct on the whole subject nf 
tbc colonial tmdc- 

But, however thiH may be, tb« athGr asficrtion in the pam- 
ftTuph it» inuiilfestly quUft fl-"ld« of the fat^ts, Mr. A^lam*** ad- 
mtuUiTnlion did rot bring forwunl tWi* irluim. 1 hnw >lat^d 
nIn-nJy, Ifmt it lind \w.t'u a Mibji-rl iKifb of nrgiilinEion nnd leg- 
blation Ihfpiigh the whok eight year* of Mr Mi^nrfie'a admin* 
Utrotjon. ThiA the Secretary knew, or was bound to ktiow^ 
Why, then, doe4 he speak of it. as fct up by the la'e admin- 
Utration, and aft^^rward^ abandoned by them, and not now 

But th« inont hurnilialing part uf the whide followa:^»*'Tcj 
set np the net* of the Inte ndminintmtion a;* the arn^c of forfd^ 
urc of pfivili'gT!* which woold othcrwiK- btr extendi-d to the peo- 
ple of the United Stntcjs would, under existing circumstance h^ 
be unjtut in itjielff nnd eonld not fail to excite their deepeei aen* 

So, then, Mr, President, we aw reduced, are wft, to the jKior 
oCmdltion, tbut we see i% minUter of thia great n^public inEitniet- 
ad to ar^e, or lo infcreede^ wjlh tlie Hritiah mini^ter^ le^t he 
should £ii]d U9 to bavc forfijled our privilege; and lt«t Iheiu 
privilegrg should no iongrr bo i'xli-tidrd to ii*I And une havi* 
forfeir**fi those privil^gi** by our mi^Wmvicir in ihorming ndem, 
who thought belter of our own claim than of the Brimb 1 W^Vt 
Sir, tbia U paljenlly ftubmittinj; to the doniiiierring lone of the 
Brituh minifilfr, J b<*Liuvi? Mr. HuakiiMoa — [Mr. Clay c^aidt "No, 



Mr- Ciitinm^,"] ^ \fr- Caruiin^. thr^ii, Sir, who ttiM tu tfutl Till 
our trade willi (lie West liitJjcn wnn ii butni, grmiiixl tu ii;* bj ihr 
Jiululgfiict* af l^ngfuiLd. Tht^ Hritiih minisitcT call* it 4 k>noo, 
«iiid our imni^t^TT ruiinitit it aft n privikgc, nmj hoprn t^nt hin 
Maj€ttty will bo Too grucioun to <Uddc that ^v hnvc TorfHti'd thi» 
privilp^, by ciur mixhr-hnvior In th<* dinici* of imr ni|pv«! Sir, 
for our, 1 r-'jfvl nil idra of holding any ri^ltt of i.nulp-, or any 
other rights, u* a privUe^ or a boon froiu tbe Briilab goveiti- 
mcnt, or any olhcf govtnimeirt. 

At the coiK'lur^icin of the parof^pfa, the Secretary navf^ 
*■ You cuimot prvvi thi* vii^w of thcr *i]bJL<ct lot) eiiriicslly upon 
tbi> f*nn«ict<-m1ion of ibn Ilritiib mtninlry. It bfw braringA snd 
rrlslion* Uist nra<!h beyond ihv immcditttc (juvstiun undirr d'lf 

Adverting c^nln to The «anir? «abjcct, towards tbc dose of the 
doepatchf he 6iiy», "^ 1 wii] add nothing as to tbe impropti^ity of 
■tofiMllff any reelings that find (heir orl^ \n lh« pa»t prelen* 
ftionn of thi?( ^ovL<ri)mt<nl to have an advene Enfluenoe upon thi4 
f>njsent condticl of Great Britmii-" 

I ank a^ain. Mr> t'reaidi^iit, if tbi» be atntenmaneihip? if tlii^ be 
dignity? ii tfiin bi* dpvatf^d nrgurd lor ctiuntry? Can riny man 
r«ad this whotv dciipLtti^h wilb i^uidorj nnd not admit thut it in 
plainly and manifcslSy the utiIpi's intention to pToinot*^ the in- 
T^resu of III* [wrty at thi^ oxpta^ie of tboftc of ibi- coMiitry ? 

Leat 1 should do tlic 8ccn.-tary iajunticc^, 1 will read ali that I 
find, in tbla letter* upon Uiia obiiojcioue point Tbcao arc the 
paragmpb* : — ■ 

" Siiah la the prvaeni vTate of our commoiriol relarLonn xviih die Brft- 
ifih cntonicft; and auch the alcps by which wc have arrived at \i. In re- 
vievmg the ev«nui which hiivo |>n>Gidoit, nnd moro or lov coatrit>u!«d 
10, ft rrviU 90 nnich to be rrrgtvlied. ihert- will hv fjuud tlinre grvijuil< 
upon which w<^ Arc rnonl aAtnilnblr; — Iai. In our Uio Ionic and too tcnit' 
etouily re#i«liMg Eht> right of Great Brilnin to impcH« proietrling d(iti«it in 
her CLilnnir* ; 2(1/' &l.c, 

'^'llir oppcTtunitios vhich yoo ha vo derived tntm a partici[»ntimMn 
our public coun»lit nt wef] d?i othE^r Mun^rv uf infomiBEion, will i-jiJiUe 
jou m apuak wjib cunfltleiicu (uh fur jm ^ou m»y deem il \'W\n:t ond 
umFiiI VI la do} of ih« rcapcoTivu parrs [ukcii by iKoov to v^hom Khtf v\- 
minivtmTion <*f thin governmcm is now eommilird, ir rclniion to ibo 
courtr ^^irvtctfofc pursued iipou lim ttxihjfXX vt du3 culunial tnul«. Their 

voi^ III. 31 



Tltw* Upon that polm have lM«n aubmilted to tho pcopk of tho Uiiiied 
Stfties ; ami ilie ruuHHrtn by wln<!h yma ^ondiici a now fTirrcirri arr? thr 
rcwh of the jad^mcni cuprtotfcd by ihc gnly rttrrhly iTiliurial i<y whkcli 
4w lato adminiRintico mtm ainwi«b1«i foT ttw ac»- h ahouM bo sullic>nF 
rhnt ihi' dmmat svi up by Uurm. >inil wiiich cnuvd ihn imrrnipiinn nf ihn 
miElo lit que^ion, hnrc been explicitly abondoood by thoM* urho finri v- 
•«Tied tlicm, and ara not reeved by Ihelr >uoc««*or«. If Great Britain 
deeni» U diIvcim^ to her tntcrcul* to allow uil ui pnrrici]iAi«: \n titt tmrf* 
with Iwr coTvnHi«, &nd find* noting in thu oii^iiFiioji d1' ic to oihen io in- 
duce her to nppty Iho «ame mid to tia, aho will, wo hope, hir scnnbla ol 
iho |j[tr|priet^ of i^Uiciii^ licr rcfuMil on iJio!h< grouiuJa. Tu wi uji \lie 
acia t»r ihc lai<.< adtncnifiinkiion iw Uie on 110c of forfr^ituro of priviEcitcA 
which wniild nth^TwIiiA btt oxtsivlod to ihn pnopl^ of th« United Siei»fc, 
wmildi LiiLiJcr?ijstin£GUicuinetajM:inibe unjuitici itarlf.itiid cvuld not fnil 
u OKCiTo ihcir dcnj>ciil aojuibilJly. 'Vhc tono of ft^Imj;; which n C0Lir*a *<j 
snwU^and uni^nnlir^ if) C3ilcii!ht'*(t rn priwluc^t wdtild doublli?4« bo gpe<arly 
oggraimicd by ihc OPDaciouAncu thuc (ircAl llntain hAfl, by nrdcr in coun- 
cil, opvncKl b«r cotonjnl porta lo Ruiwift nod FrancOt no^vithjf funding h 
similar uirivflion cm lh"ir pari to &rc(^pi the roriru oiflrn-d by thr net of 
July, 1825- Vou cflnnoi prrsi ihi* ticw of ihr »iibjrci too t-.iama.*ily upon 
tht oaarid*>niiion n^ rhi? Rriiirih rnmittiry It hai bearingn and r«lMion< ' 
Uni imdi IwTytJiiii tlip immcrdinfp cjunfMion under di*cuttiion,'' 

*^ I will add noihin^ ai to thr imprapncty of viilTf^nnff noy foclin|pi thai 
find Ihvir oiHgtri in thf piiMt pretention* of thw govomrii«ni to hnv« an 
■dvcnc iiillucutrfT upon iJi<t prnscikt ounduet of (itmt Bniain.'" 

Sir, 1 Bubmit to youi fuid to tho candor of all.jnat meni if 1 
am not right in eayi>i>f that ibt^ porvflilin;; lopio, Uirouf>h tlie 
wholf, ii, not American rightn, not Aliimtruti irilerv^U, not 
Ampriran di"ft'nc*% bill tlfdunduliaii of punt. pr»'ti'ii.iitiiiK of our 
own oounfry, rr^flrclJona oq the |mj«t admin its tration, niiJ cxulta* 
EJoii and a loud daim of merit for the adinini^ tuition now in 
power. Sir, 1 would forgive mietakc»; 1 would pardon tht? wani 
ol infomation; I would pardon almost any thing, wh^iv I saw 
true pdtrlotiam and aound American feellrif; ; but 1 cann^^t. for- 
^W iUv surririoe of Uiia feeling To ii^ere party. 1 r^tn not con- 
cur ill ikcndjitg ttbroad a public aginil, whu h^ia not concept 
tion^ 90 \ttigt und LbiTul an to feci, ihaT, in the \tre»cncc of for- 
Ki^ courts, ainidiit Ihc monurcLica of Europt*, ho \& to Btand 
up for hi» country, and hU whole country; thai no jot nor 
t]tll« of her honor ii ui siillUr in hU hnmb; timt h^ ia not 10 
allow othrrs lo n^pr^fich ritlicr tii« government or liiv countr\ 



mod Tar lees le h^ hirnitf!lf to reproach either; that ho it to have 
no objects ID bis eye but Amcrir.^n objects, and no hrart in hU 
bosom but an Amerieaii be^rt; and that Uc h to forgi^t FM-If, and 
forget |wrt^, to forgtrt every sicuBter and narrow fccliag, iji hia 
proud and lofty attachment to tbc republic whose commisaioui 
be hcar»i 

Mr. Prc*id«nt, T hnve di^char^d an nrnordlnglj anpteaiaiit 
dnty, thr iricmt unpleasant liC my public liCa, Bat ! have looked 
upon li 4U A duiif,iitid it wiia mit to bti whunnrd. Ami, Sir, 
howvvcF uniiaportJint may be the opinion of ik> humble an indi* 
vidua] AS mytjcift 1 now only wi»h that 1 might be heard by 
every independent freeman in the United States, by the Biitish 
nolnivter antl the Britiah king, and by every minister and every 
crowfied hrnd in Rnrop^*, whili^^ standing here in my pUtfe, I 
prononnAe my n-biikr^ an Miit-mnly and aa dedsively a« T cuin, 
tipon thi» liri^t inslanoe in which an American minister baa been 
Bent abroad as the rcpfcseatativc cf tuB parly, and notaa the 
ronreeentfitive of bis country. 


Iff reply 10 flonifi TpmKrka of Mr. Foiiyih, Mr. WahniDr «pck# at 
follow* : ^ 

It i^ in my judj^ent, a ;^e£it mistake to suppose that what 

hi now Gallptl tlif* Arntrriciin " prelenT^ion*' orT^inuti^ with Mr, 

Adam«, cltlier as President or Beerrliiry of Slate. By thr way, 

it b sJngtUor cnougli that the American t?iit(^ of Ihi^ qar?Uon i« 

celled, in the inaCru^Ttiona before usj a prt-Un^ion too loag pefslflt- 

ed in ; while the British ^ide of it i« <<jLllrd a right, too lon^ &iid 

too ti^niicjously resisted by as. TWm ronrtrotm modfl of speak- 

ng of thi; duim» (if a foreign governments and IhtH reproarhfiil 

node of speaking of ibe cUJins of our own, is certainly eome- 

*hat novel in diplomacy. But wbcUieT it be oallcd, respect- 

ully, a daim, or, reproachfully, a pretension, it did iioL orif^iiiate 

Artth Mr. Adams. It hud u mueh earlier origin, Ttilv ^^prefcii* 

* ladcomScMina ef tba S«nsia, oaitiBSeth nflknnirj, lasv 



»loii," n0iv abandoiiril with ao much scotn^ or thU ckinif Mud, 
irprotM-htiiliy, to hnvu bc^n firat :ict tip by tht lnt<^ lulmini.itxa* 
tioiiT oii^itnted with Gvorge Wtuhuigton. He put hia awn 
haiKl to it- Hl< inniftti'd on it; and ho would not txrct with 
Kiigimul 1)11 rhr fluUjrrt of thr ntklanin] tmilc without rnrmid 
criiig it 

In hia int^truclions to Mn MorriA, und« hi? own hand, in 
Outobcr, 1789, E'rosld cm t Washington eay*: — 

" liTl ii bn Btnin^ly impreaMid on ywir mind, xHnx ih^ privilcp? oTi-iir- 
ryiog OUT pruducii^n* t» our vcncla to their jela.ndst &nd brtaging tn re* 
turn thfi producitons ot ihoao Utiuid« lo our own pcrlj and mBrlcnUg^ m 
regiirdi4il h^rv nn i^f (he highe^l impcirljirtcr ; nnd you wiM b« curufd not 
ro coimirruoncc ony idea nf our diiipcnuinii with it la a treaty. Aacer 
tain, ir[i{hifMhIi>, Thokr vitf>wit on chiit Aiibj^-T; for il would nor be expe* 
(Jieni lu conuticiict ueBiftEfttiutw wiilmut pfi:vioi4»ly haTing good rwisufni 
to CAjtcel a jiulb^rjictory Icrralnntirm iifthiMn-" 

Ob-ier\'FT 9lr, thnt PiPsJdtnt Wii!»liing1on, in ttieae ttiHlmo* 
tioii^, in tiot .ifK-Mkiii^ of iKc rmply timl Tiifitir righl of m^ndrng 
our own vcwci* without «iirgoc« lo the Ifritijih Wwt liiclic?; 
but be is speaking af the ^ubslaiitifii right of corryiti^ our OM^n 
products to the ielanda, for sale and for consumption iJifir«, 
And whether thpae produet« were hhuT out by a poMiive act of 
Parliament, nr by ft tHtifT of duties Hhsoluirl^r and n^iceMarily 
prohibitory, uonld make \\u tWffercnrr, Tlit oljjc<;l wa.H t« pro- 
vid:^ by trt-aty, if it amid be done, that onr prodtictw sboiiid hnd 
tbeii way, c?lfrctun!ly and protilably, into Uiu mnrkct« of Ihti 
British Went Inditjft. ITiia wan Gt-rcml Wiuhington^* object- 
Thi* wim fhr •* pn'tJ*nftinn " wliii^H lie MCt up. 

It is well known, Sir, theit no satlsractoTy nrningcniciit wu 
madi' ill General Waahiiig1oii*a time rcsjjcctini; uui trade witli 
thn BriljBh Wt'flf Indit-s. But the brt-aliiiiK out of tlie French 
Revolution, and the ware wliioh it ot^ruiioned, wer© eatL^e^ 
whieh of thtm»<^lves opened the ports of the West Indies. Dur- 
ing th*? long ronfinaaniTL' of those wun«, nnr vesurl^^ with tar* 
gotw of our own prntbit^t:^, found Ihrir way into thr ilriti^b We»t 
India InlaiidsT under a piactiesi rclaxatioji of the Itriiif^h exjJonial 
lyBtcni, While thia condition of thingn Icuted, *e did vt-ry 
woli without a partionJsi tnraty. But on th<^ ^neral n^xtora* 
*ioD of peace, in 181A, Qreat Britain returned to hnr fonncr 
•VBiem; Oien xiw isliuidx were nhut ugaiimt na; and then it 


bMsme nocosftflry lo twat on the iul)jcct, and otar mmliti-n 
vere, iiuoee»!tivelj, iiitttmcUd to truatf Irom tbnl timi< forwird- 
And, Btr, T miderlMke to »ay, that fi<-itht-r Mr MiidUon, wbo 
wn% lln-ti Pte^itltfiit, nor his Bim5*««ir, Mr Mtumw*, gJivr uny 
nuttiOTity or pcrmisaion to any American mini;itcr to ^qriJoii 
thie prctcnivion, or even to waive it or postpone it, and rmhc a 
trpaty without providing for it- No such th'ms^- On the con- 
trary, it will appoar, 1 think, if we look through papen which 
have b^en smi to the Sf^nnt^, that, under Mr. Madi»oii'a atlinln* 
btfaLioiii oiu iiiiniBter in En^latid wan fully irirtlTiitrlfd "ii Mil* 
subject, and cxpf^ctcd to prvju iu A?i to Mr. Monrur, I have 
mcana of bdng informed, in a manner not liable to vruaMtc^ 
thm he was^ en this subject lUwnyn immovabk. He vro\M not 
urgotiaie without ir^^idng on this branch of ih^ trad<?< ; nor did 
I pvpr nnder^unHj thnt, in regard to this matter, Ihew was any 
dilTtTrt^ii'-'e of upiiiiun wfiulcver ainon^ 1h« j^eiifleiiii-n whu oixti- 
po9t?d Mr Monroe's cabinet. Mr> Adaiuei, an BcTCfdary ii[ Stiitr, 
wrote the dcapatchea and the instructions; but the policy vn* 
Iba policy of the whole administration, af^ far 00 I ever under 
rtcod. Cc^ain it is, it was the vettJrd nnd di^trrmin^ policy of 
Mr. Monroe htrnwlf. Indppfl, 8ir, ac* far is it from being true 
tbat this jtfetfnaitm ortginati-d with Mr. AdainH. that it was hi 
his administi^tioa thai, for tlit; lirvt time, pi^rinis^ion was ^'iven, 
under very pt'culJar circomatancpa, and witli )n?tnn:tion.-i, to ne* 
gotiate a tri^aty, waiving this pcirt of tho question. Thi^ has 
been already alluded to, and fully explained, by tlic honorubk 
member Iron Ki^ntiieky. 

So, then, Sir, ihU prrtraxioay n^'^rU^ in thifi inFtructiona U* 
have beco firat ict up by the lat« admin latration, is stiown U> 
have had Preutdcnt Washington for its author, and to havo r^ 
e^ived the countenance of every Pteeident who had oeeasioa lo 
act on the subject, from 1789 down to Oie lime of the present 

But thi« i« not alL Cungmn itMrlf hn« snnrtioncti the »atne 
" pretention J' The act of the let of Marrh, 18*^. makc3» it on 
exprcAD condition upon which, and npon which alone, our porta 
shall be operttid lo British veeecla and earf*oea from the West 
Indicflt on paying the vfline dutiea aa cur vessels and cargoes, that 
OUf ptodiicts shcilhe udmitud int<i ihosr iiUiudt vithimt jttii/in^ «ny 
vlAtr or hi^krr tiutirv than ahcil be paid on fimitar pufdjtciwnt 



canning from el^nehfjrtt- All Uiijivritl bo w^cn by rcrlercnco to 
the third section of that ft<:t Now Tv-mf^niber, Sir, that ihU aot 
of Cooj^rth* [)uwwi \a March, 1833^ two yt^arw b*ffi.n>? t.lie rom* 
mefin^iiti-nt. i>f Mr Adttfjia's admlujatTulJuii. Tht^ :irt iirit^irLiitnl 
in the Seriate. Th« honorable Sonfilor from Mnrylnnci,* wht» 
has spoken on thifl subject to-day, was thc*n a member of 
the Seniilc, and took pcirt in Ui« diicuMion of thi? very bill; 
nnd he siipportrd it. nnd V4fti>d for it. It pn^r-d boTh tiOUBPaf 
without tnulf^nl opjviJiition in Hthrr. How ii« it possible, nfiet 
fcfciiiiig tu this law of L8?9, to find auy a|Kilo^'y fur the u»M-r- 
tion contained iii thc&c in^tructioaa, that Ihia cWiin is n preten- 
sion first set up by Mr. Adrunfl*» admiiiir^trHtjon ? How is it 
potmiblc that this luw oould have be^n oveHook<Td ur not rrmpin- 
bertHl? In ahon, Sir» with any io|t?riibhr lu^mtintiinei* with th^ 
hiHtory of Uif- ne^>tintioni« of Llitf tTit>t«fd Sbilm nr tlifir logirtln- 
tion, how mre wc Ut accoujit for it thnt »ach an aAscrtion b« 
tticac iiiAlractions contnin should have found \i9 way into them? 

But the honnraUD mcniber from (iroririn n»ki> why wc Jay 
all this lo th« chi«rge of the See^Ptory, Tind not To the chargie of 
the Pfe^dent The answer i», ih? President's conduct U not 
bcfufK Uit Wh lue not, and cannot Lttuitie, his lu-cnsm, even 
)f wc tbonght there were any thing in hU conduct which gnvc 
cauftc for aGGU!«:it-]on- Hut the Secretory u before us. Not 
t>roiLf>ht before us by nny net of oujis but placed bcloro us by 
the President's neminntion. On that nomination we cannot 
ieeilne to act We munt either ronfirm or rejeci It- As to tlie 
jiotiun that (he SeiLTetiuy of SUilf? was but tliu iu&trnnirnt of tht* 
Pretiident^ iuid ao not resporiaiblQ for thcae inn true tiutifi, I reject 
at once nil [^uch dufunce^ exoufie, or apology, or whatever rise it 
may be cdlud, if then? be any thing in u publie decpateh de- 
rogatory 1o the honor of the country, us 1 think there is in this, 
it is i*nongh for me that 1 *rc whoae hand ih to ii. If it bft 
said, that thrr rkjj>neT was only an iiiMnimrni in the hands of 
others, ] reply, th^t I cannot concur in conferring d high pnUic 
diplomatic trust on any one who has oontu-nited, under nny dr- 
cumMunees, to be an inetrunienl in eu<'h a easi.\ 

Tiie honorable member from Geor^^ aiks, also, why we have 
atept OQ tliis eubjtfct, and why, at this latR day, wc bring furward 

* Ur. SmUfa. 




tfOinplru/iiEV Hir, nobody baa tfkpi uptm it SirifH^ Mi<ft:^ in- 
stnK'Uuiu ti»v(' btvn miide pubhc;* thtrt hcu tii<ri) ti< prt-vlonh 
oppommitj t(^ (liitfni«» ihMn The hcinoruhk mc^mbfr will rt*o- 
ollert, ihiit thf whnh umngitnrnt wilh Knglumf wti* innd*- 
Hod coi]||)1i-(l-c) before these insrructiona sriw tbc li|jkt. Thi^ 
(Veeident opcrncd the trade b^ his proclamation , in Oetobcri 
1^30 ; but th<*ai? inetruetiona w^rrc not publicly eent lo Coagrcida 
till loiij* ttfi^ru'ard»» that is, tiU January, 1831. They were not 
then Aent with any view that either bouse ahould act upon the 
Mt)ijr(rl, for Ihe whole busiiieHM wjih ziIn^MiIy Hellted. Pur ntie, [ 
never ?aw the in^tjuc^tioncs nor ht^urd tht^tn read, till Jann^iry, 
1^1 ; DOT did I ever Jiuar them spoken of a» contnintcig thc«« 
ubuoxiona paMngefu Tliiisthciii U th« tir«t opportunity for con- 
•iderin^ thee^ in8lriictJon«. 

That they havf> bef^ii anbJE^ci!^ of compLalot out doon alnce 
Ihry wcfiT uv^df. publit^ at:d of iimeh Bt-vi^rt uiiiumdverHion, ii 
ce-rl^iiidy irai\ Rut, i^iitil tiow, Lhcnc never boa bern Jin «jppi>r- 
tuuJiy natiu^illy calling for their diacufiaion here The honora- 
ble geuEjernan may be a^mritd, that, if aueh oocfifdon bad pro- 
■>eot«d JtBbir, It would have been ^mbrae^ed* 

1 eiiiirely forbear, Mr. President, trom going into the merit* 
of Ihr InU^ iir»utigeinrnl wilh Rriglatid, as a measurt- uf eoiuiiiPr- 
cial poliity- Another time will amw^ 1 truM, motr. fniitnble for 
that di«cu«aiou. X^or the present, I confine my«eJf strictly to 
«UGh parte of tbc instructions aa 1 think plainly objectionable, 
whutever may be the character of the s^com^nt between u^ 
and En^lund, as matter of policy- I repeat, Slr^ that I place 
Ihr JDnlific^&Lllun of ny vole on the jtarty tori^ and fitiTlt/ char^ic* 
tcT of ihf^c i[ifitriu;tion». LcL ua luk. If nuch UDtisideratitJiiB oa 
theae are to be addiesscd to a foreign government, wbat is that 
foreign government to expect in rctorn'/ The rainiatera of for- 
«ign Courtis will hot bestow gratuitous favor*, nor even gratui- 
tous smiles, on American parties. What, then, I repeat, ia to 
be the return? What is pnrty lo do for that fon-ign gov* 
rrnmejit whieh hnji done., ia expected to do, or U uakoil io 
do, something for pswrty? What ia to be the considcratioii 
paid for thia foreign favor? iSir, rmei not every man vcc, thnt 
uiy mixtuie of such causes or motives of at^don in our foralgn 
Intercourse ib as fall of danger as it is of djahonor? 

1 will iioi purtiue the aubject ] am anxious only to in&k« 



tnjr own gm»n<l fully and ckarly iincIcT?>toocl ^ nn^ wSlifigly 
leave cvciy oihcf gr.iitltmnn to his avrii opinioii^. And I chetT* 
folly «ubmit my own vote tc the opinions of tho coiinlry. I wiU- 
ingiy Ipave it ic the peoplu of the LTnll^d StaU^ to saj% wb^ther 
1 am ariiiig a fartimis niul iiiiwtirthy jwirt^ or the part of a 
UUflitarlul AjEit-'ficaji, la wittiholding my ap|irubalioii fnHU llit? 
noiiimatlun uf a ^>f iitlcman as miiuflt^f to Eu^liiiJi], who ha^ 
alreiwly, iia it iippcare to mo, inBtnictcd bU prodoocMor at the 
«aou* court to carry purty condidomtjonsf to urf^e party mcrtb»t 
and Kolicit pitrty favoriT ^^ ^^^ f*>^ of tlie Britiih throne 

iVfiff. — The circumslaiicc did not occur lo Mr, Wcbikr'i rcL^ullccitoH 
at lliv mf>moai hd wju fipcfiking, bi^t Iho truth iii, vhnt Mr. Van Burcn 
WAB hirnvpff b i^trmlw-T uf ih« SunaM at the v«rj time uf ihe puuing 
of iho low iif 16S3* and Mr- McIjoqo woj at the ume limo a member 
of the Hwt^ of Rv|»r^iinmtLV<M. So that Mr, Van BursD did hiiriMir 
ct-rtfliiJy t'.uocur iu "willing u|i tlus prcttmuon," two y«ani buforr Mr. 
Adamx became Proaidcni* 


TtlE objpci of ihn follnwing rnpnn in lo mi fcinh thfi iinjiiHi r>pr!miinn 
uf tlxT rule lj^ wliich Llio upiKirtionmcnt of Itcpn»catalivc« had hiLhertu 
boon made among ihe StutM, and wat propuMiJ to bo cna<lo under 
itie Mh GcnMun. Noiwiil^^luitJin^ ihc nuuiLfinit uncqunl apirnitiaii of 

itir rule, acid iliti cn^i'ncy uf tSu nr^ijrriCfiU a^mil it containcil tn cKla 
Koorl, Con^rcu couUl not be brouglil on ttiix occiuion, nor on thai of 

In oiakins? pronaion Tor iho upI>o^Ij'»mn1^n1 undt-r thi? c^nJUt of 1850| 
<h* prinoirbi of thi< rt?port pfcvuiled. By iho act nf ib* 2*1 of May, 
1850. il ix pnaviJiHl ihit ibc number (if ifii* cww Huun Ghat! (ja ^SSt- 
llwontira rpprv4«nmt]vo popululion of th« Lnitf^d Stales U lo bo divided 
by ihU tivm ; and tlip qciniirni js iht^ mtin nf nppnrtmnmfinT amnng llie 
saveml State*, Thuir raprofntnTutJvt population is m Cum lo bo divided b> 
thia raiio ; and the Ioh of monibcn nrising from \hG rcaidunry numbvn 
is mad« iiji by nmgfiiii^ aj< many jiddrlicnul iiuT(nhi.Tii uh urv n<5«i*MDry 
for thai purpoK to Oic StuTcs tuLving the largt?9t fmctional remainder*. 
U vraa a fUnbar vory happy proviflioa of Iha law of th» *J3dof May, 
1S&0, dial Lhia dpporlJoLititinl sliould be mode by Lhe Secft'tary of ihn 
Intc^rior, aHci thi tctnttia of Ihe cct^aua ahould have boon niado, and 
wilhouf the tocesaiiy of any finbAr action on lh« part of Cougi 

The Select Commitli^c, to whom woa rcfrmnd^ on the ^ih cd 
Murch, ih<* bill Irom the Hoiwc oF Kcprfjuriitativca, tntitlcd, 
** An Ac>t for the Apportion in en t of RL^proFwntutivoA nmong 
the spveral Statea according to 1h^ Fl/ih CeiiF^u^/^ huvo hail 
the aubjwt ufider conftideraUon, and tnyw aj*k It^ave to report : 

Till* ^ll< likt; all lawa on the aamc aubjc'ct,, ivuri be rrganled 
uof an intcjvatiiiK t^nd delEoaiv natun*- ll rcspoct* thcdistii* 

• A Rwnn an the Snbjoct of the ApPOttJonniPiii of Rnpn!«naUlLi>a, in Iha 
HoiiPi* of Kripr««i<lJlivM of th<! UilImI otatne* niiido in Ihe 8eh>lD, on ttw Alfa 
of Avril, 1SJ9. 



bulion of potiti^^it ptiwrr nUKing the SUt**'^ nf \]w Union. It U 
to dt'lrmiiiii- iht number of voices whicht for ten yean to come, 
each Stute ia to poebeee in tho |>opular bnuich of th« h^^^^ 
lure. In the opiiiWn of rhe coimnUtoe. there cztn bo IVw ur no 
quiMiTionii whkh it i* mon defirai:Je to wttlf? on just, ftiir, aruJ 
ipHfWsrtorj prinri|ilr)s tlnti thi«; snd, avniling ih'*ni«*lYi-ii o( 
i\\f lu-nrfil (-if Ujc (liwrjinsiioii wlijch l.h*' bill haft alrr^inly titidtrr- 
^orie in Ibc SL*iml<-. iboy have gmii to it a rcucwi-d and uhkiuus 
con tiid<- ratio II. The result ie. tJiat, in tht^ir opinion, the bJU 
on;;hl to bt nmt'ndtd. SoeinR Ihu dilficultt*'* which Wong to 
tbv whok* subject, tli«y ;ire (ulLy convinced th:ii thr* bill ho* tjocn 
frnmf^il land pai«»*d in tbr nthiT Houm? wirh Ihr Mtii?«n')il di.-«tn' 
to u^i^rroriir thrwr difllrnllli^, nod to rniict » Uw whirh Khonkl 
<io ait Riut-ti ju^liot- no posMblc 1o ail the States, But the oom* 
mitttre arc u^n^lmned to aay, that Ihia obj*ci appear* to ihcm 
not to huve bt?t"n ftttidiifxlH The wnwitnil opt-nitiun of thf* bill 
on Konw of the Sfnlcs, xhould iL t>vcomc a luw, urems to the 
uoviniittoe rnont ttiniiifi'Kt; nnd thpy cannot bnt rxpr^^^^ » doubt 
whether its aciunl npportlonment of die reprej*L^niniivc power 
anioug tlie severuJ 9Uit4.-A eaa In: cou«idertnI ha conformablp to 
th« spirit of the Con^UtutioD. 

The biU providi^B, tlmt from und after thv 3d of Marob, 1833, 
the HooiM^ of HrprcTicntiitivi-* shiUI be oornpo«ed of metnbetv 
elPCtM i*grrrjib!y to a mHo of one Krprriu'ntaT.ivr for every 
fofty*»Pvpii ihifu^and aitd f-eve)i fnjudn*d pcrnorin iit i-ncb States 
computed at^conlin^ to the rule preao-jbed by the Coofltitutioik 
The addition of the aev^n hnndrcd to the forty-seven thouaandL 
111 the CTJrnpocition of thiei ratio, producen no effoet whatever in 
regard to the eomditotion of the House. It neither add» 10 ti<n 
tnkm from tJir* iininW of mernbcrs assigned to any State, lu 
only effect is a Deduction of the appan^nl amount of tin? frae* 
lioDB, as they are unualty called, or refc^iduary uumbcra, after the 
applicution of the ration For all other jjurpoBt-a, the rcatilt je 
precincly Uie eame ao if the mtio bud beL<n forly^ooveti thou- 

Att it icem* ge-npmlly ndratttRd that inr*cjunliti«« do ^xlat in 
tbia biU, Hiid thut injiirioiiH e/iojipqiieiK'/'A will iviHe fnitii itq op* 
entiocit which it would be desirable to avert, if any proper 
iDcnns oT averting thorn, witlu>ut produejng others equally ia^ 
|unou8, could bo found, tiie committee do not think it accce»arv 

u> go iotn a full niid pEirticotar ^InltrinFUl of thf-M- contm^uencaL 
They wiU ronti^at tb<'mw:lvr3 with prc*cn1ing a few cxnmpie^ 
only of Ihoec rcMiira, mid euch %s they had it nio«t difHciUt to 
peccitL*ile with juKtLoe aad the ipirit of tb# Conitimcton, 

III exbkbitiiig th^r ejiamplea, ihe oommitt*^ must nL^oeasartly 
«pi<nk uf piarticukr Blales; bat it ia bunJly npi-tfn«ufy iv »Ay, 
tiint ihry :tprak of them at rxampltrrt nnty, ami witli i\w inoNt 
perfect rc»prct, not only for the titatca thctnM:ivc«, but for ali 
IhOM who rrpfC0CDt them hrrc* 

.\]ihot]A;h the ImU doe* not comm^noe by fLtinR the whole 
Dumber of tlie propooed House of Repr»frntutivea, y<^t iUv pro- 
opitsi iid(tptr?d by it briitgi oat th^ iii])tO>«t of two hunrlnni nnd 
forty mcmt>m- Of tlirvc two huiulrrd unil forty innnbfrrK, Airty 
ore assigiJcd to the State of New York; that ia to say, prvciaejy 
one »Uth port of fhe whole. Tbie &B8iK[kmt.'nt would orem Id 
reqtiin? thiit New York ahoulU contain one eaxth purt of the 
whok- popubtiun of tike Untttnl dtat<^ and vhould be boand 
to pfty tyt)v «x1h part nf nil din-ct tiurv;. Vet netth^ of Ihrt* 
u Ihf «>j*<\ Tl»i^ whoh' rf|wrM-]iUtive popiilaiion of the United 
9tal« is IhOSWOd; that of Nl-w York la 1,91S,G33, which U 
leaa th&n one eixth of the whole, by neajly 7C,0C0> Of & dimt 
tax of two hmidrtrd and forty thousand doUurvi New York would 
pay only i 38.59. 

Hilt if, rn«u'Jtd of pompnring the niimhrni m^ngnn] to New 
York with ihr. whdr numbi-m nf thr Hiinw, wr. cMimpiin? h« 
with ulhcf Sl&tr!<, the inequality is etill more eviUcikt and etidt- 
iiigt To the State of Vermont the bill a^sifna tivo roemberft 
It fj^voHi therefore, ei£;ht titoee us manv Be preventatives to Nvw 
York «v to Vcrmoat; bot the population of Ni?w Ynrk m not 
equal to eight tiniee the populutiou of Vermout, by more than 
thrm hiirulreil thouatind. Verniotil hfi.i fivp mi^mlH-riK <Kily for 
S60,fi^7 prrvoniL If the Mmc proportion wrcrr: to he applic-d tit 
New York, it vrould reduce the number of her meinherd from 
forty 1o thirtv-foitft making* a diflereace more than equal to the 
wholy n>prtr!ientatioti of Vermont, and mort? tiiar suiricjent to 
oveieomt" her whole jjower In the Hotisi^ of Rt^pren-ntufivefi, 

A di»pro|ion.inn idmfwt eijilcdly striking ui mnnifi'At«'iI» if w9 
conipHie Nfw York with AlsibRma. Thr popidnfton nf Ahibaiu* 
le 0>^.2[)3 -, for thid she 'i^ allowed 6ve rDctubcre. The nilo of 
ppiporlion whioh ffivco to h^r hot Sve inetnbcm for her namhcr. 



lR"nONMfiST or REPR] 


VOidd give to New Yortt but thirty-flin for her numlwr. Vot 
Nev York r^oeivon forty. A* compiinMl with AJabamo, tb«n, 
N(-w York hni an pxtitua of n^prrficntntion t^xinl to fotir fifths 
i>f (lir whiil'" n^pffwritation of Alnhamn; ami Ihifi ncr^j? ifsplf 
will give Iirr, uf t^ounie, us uiudi weij^lit in the IlouBe us llit 
wfiok dokgiiiion of AUbumji, wiUiin & eJngie vote- Cnn it 
be Baid, tJieiit that Ri^pr^^fiontjiUvcs are apporljoned to Iheso 
Stale* according to thr-ir rci^pcctive number? ? 

The ratio aswmRd by the bill, it will bo pcrcrivod, tparoa 
large fracf.ionft, *o csllpd, or residuary iiwmberfi, In BPveral of 
tin: amuH SUlf^a, li> Uie nmnifeHt loes of a grt^t part of t!i4?if 
just pTOportiod of rej>rr?ru*ntjiiivc power. Buch is llie upemtiun 
of the mtio, in thim rcnprct, that Xc^w York, with a popidft- 
tJon kn thnn that of Now England by Ihirt)- or thirtj'-fiTe 
tbouflnntlr has y^t two more membera than all the NfW Bn^- 
taiid Sintre; and there aw seven Sfarea in the Union, re jwe- 
iM^iurdf arcufdin^ to rhr? bill^ by one hTUidred uml iWFiity'thr«e 
meiribem, Ut*iiig n cicnr inajority of tiie whole Ilt^uE^c, whoiw 
■^gn^K'^tc frarl:ioRj«> nil together, amount only to Jifly^lhrrr thoa> 
■and; wbilc Vermont and New Jerwy, having logrfhor but 
«lov«n members, have & joint fraction of sov^nty-five tboufand. 

Pennaylv-^inia, by the bill, will hav^, ttth It happens. Just as 
iribiiy Tiifnibt^m u» Vtrnnonl, NfW Hainphhlre, Mua^aehuMetttf, 
mid New Jmcy^ but hrr poputalion 10 not equ^ to iheirv by 
a hundred ttnd thirty thouitnnd^ nnd the reason of this advan- 
tage, derived to her from the provi»inn of the btL, 10, that 
ber fraction, or residunm, is twelve thousand only, while theirs 
is a hundred and forty-four thousand. 

But Itie Aubjer^t U uHpable of he\n^ presented In a more ex* 
act and niat.fipm^tienl form. The Honne is to eonnisl of two 
handled and forty members. Now, the prceifw portion of pow* 
cr, out of the whole moM presented by the nnmber of two 
hundred und forty, to which Now York would be entitled 
aoeordinft to her population^ ia 38.d9; that U to eay, she would 
be entitled to thiTly-«?ight riienilierA, and wttuld havff a reiiiduiim 
cf fmrlion ; Jtnd irvt-n if a mpcubf^r were g\\rii tirr for thiit 
fraction, she would still have bat thirty-nine. But the bill gives 
her forty. 

These arc a part, and but a part^ of those results, produced by 
tlw bill in iu pT^BCnt form, which the conimht«e cannot bring 





thflmM-lvrv t{) ar«]m>ve. While it is ncit, to be ik-n]i--il, tlial^ uii<l«r 
any ndr of np portion menf, stotne iic^cc of Tf^lntivc incqunlity 
muM nlwuyp f xitt, the t*ommitt<Tc cnnnot believe thut the Sen* 
ftte viJI Hanction m(.<qua]lty and mjUBtice to t)^e t^xtcnt in whU'h 
thpvoxiat In thin hill, if it. ran he Bvmdcd. B;if, rr*- ail i fling 
x\iv o|itnL()ii» which hniJ brrn i-^prrwwtl m tiie 1i*on*i*ion* of the 
Scrr»t4^, ttic conimittrc hav« dUigcatly sought to korn whether 
(here v/aB ncit aome other numW whioh might be takf^n for n 
ratio, the application of which would produce more juaTicn nnd 
eqiiahty. In thin piu*ult^ the committee have not hopn fluec*«- 
ful, Tlitre ttft, it iH lnj<?, ulher numbers, Uie JtJupUoii of whit:h 
would r«llt?vt nittiiy of th« Statrs which aulTer undc^r the pres- 
ent; but tliifl nJn^f would be obtained only by shifting' the 
preAinre to cj|h<?r States^ ihuii crviiting new ffrounds oi com* 
pkini in otht^r quarter*. The numbt^ 44,000 h«» b(«en ge?n* 
rmlly Hpklirn of ,!■ the most Bwirptabh' f^nhntitnlr for 47)7f)fl; 
but «h*ndd thin l>r »doptrd, grrnl rclBtivc iu(^|iiuJity would faJJ 
on several States ftnd, omong themi on «oine of th«r new and 
Rowing 6tato0^ whoAc^ relntivR dif^proportioHf thus already greats 
would b« constanity mt^reasing. 

Thp committee, thrrrfnrpiftfr of opinion that the biH abonld be 
alter^ m the luode of upiioftirviiiiffit. Thvy think thut iJie pro* 
ccsB wiiich bpgtitR by a»iEiiiii]g a mtju should he abdJiduntrd> luid 
that the hiU ought to be fnioK^d on the principle of the ajnond- 
mont whifh hos been the miiiu subject of iliafuBaioii before the 
Senate, The fmnics* of the principle of thia amendineutj and 
lJ»e grnirral w|iiify of hs result*, <<<rmpiire{) with tliune whieh fluw 
from the other procr»j», seem plain nnd undeninblc* The main 
qat^tion hn* been, whether the principle itself be constitutioniJ , 
and Ihia <iur.iition thr oontmitt^fc^ firoceed to exaramt', respectfully 
Ashing of those who have doubted Its constituLional propriety 
tif ronnidrr Ihr. qurstion t)f no much importunce aa to justify a 
fvx^nd n'dcctioii. 

The word* of the Constitution aiCj — 

" RcpmiAniaiivei and direct iaic« shsll be apponioned nmong the 
wvenil Sm[eb, wliich may bt; incluJed wiihiii litis Uziiuu, accunliikg lo 
Ihcir roipcciive niimbon, which thdl bo dotcrminod by (k<^4ung to the 
wholfi niimbnr of (rea peraona^ mcludin^ Thnw hnund lo scrviee fVir a 
lerm uf yeara^ ond eicludbg Indiuri^. thrcu ^f^hfl of all other persons. 
Tba «oiiial ftnLimoratioD shdll bo cnftdo wjthin Ihrg* y»an afUr ihij dm 

VOL. Tit. 3d 


vvmotmBjn op kephesentation. 

qumi (prm of itn ycnm, in nucti m&iuufr tn ilwy «hall bj Iaw diivau 
The tiumbvr of R«pT«»«atatiT*i ilkall no( oacfrtti oci^ for ovory thirty 
ih(HBULfi<i, fnii (uch Stale shiJL ho^'Q aL IbiuM ono liUpmMnUitito." 

Therv would scvm to br [itd<- difiicitlty ill niKlcreluKlin^ theso 
Itroviffions^ The tcrinii used ore dui^rd, doabtJ««Ct to bf ra- 
C«ived in no p«cuJiv or Icchntonl vi^nnr, bat ncoordin^ to thvix 
romnion and poputnr arcpplslion. To apportion U to dblribate 
by right Tikp^^fiurip, to wt ofT in jurt pBrfjt, 1o nwign in due and 
jfrufMT |)rr>purti4j|]. Tlii'oc claiiw:*} of llie ConstllutJon rRt[)«l 
not oiilj the fjortioriH of powrr, but the portious of the public 
bnrcloi^ uldo, whtch should fiUJ to tho aev^al States; uod the 
■aniF lunguiL}^ Ih H|.>pHi<d to botti. Re|?n'»ii<oTtttiv^n are to bo 
npjMiriiotir'il iLnioii^ Uif 8tiL|i*si Ki-LVtrding io ihi'ir n-«[>t-irlivt* num* 
hpn, snrl direct tHXt^ yutt t<i b<< iipportiimrd by titt? K3tmt? nil«. 
The rnd aimed nt irs thftt rrprmrntAtion nml tnxiition ?<hoiild go 
litnd in liHud ; tbnl each yinir *hoHid be rfprcseiitwl \t\ tbc ^nme 
OKtrnt to whif rt U in mndo anbjrct to tbc public ohne*^* by direct 
tiiaticii. Bat brlwppr the apportionment of Rj*prrm'iiiiiti\'rai 
and l.hp apponionm^'nt. of t«T^*, ihfTP r^-ppswirily i*xi*lii niip ph- 
Bcutial dif&fviiec. RcprasFTiUtion foundrd on numbors niu«t 
httvc some Uiait, af)d briii^i from it« nntort-, a thing not capable 
of iiidi^lSnito fiobdivisioni it onnnot be mado pn^citfoly <^quaJ. A 
^ tai, indeed, cannot always, or oft'^n, be appomontn] with peif<rt 
eia4Tln»ffiM; as in other tnHtt^-ra of aeo-oiint, ibert-r will Iw fnic- 
liunul jHaH^uf U)i.' BniuJleal cuuih, nud tiku niiiallt^at tleooininaiiua 
of money of ar-ooont ; yt-t, by the uaual *wbdiviaions of the coin, 
and of thu denominations of money, the upporiionmt^iit of taxes 
b eapablc! of brin^ mads ao exact, that tbo iuequaiity becomea 
minutf* nrid invJ!iit>le, But n'prefM-nlation eaunot be ^hiirt di* 
vhicd. (tf npreM'nlJiljtm, there eari be notJiiii^ Ins? llmu one 
Rrpre9>;ntntivc ; nor, by our ConsUtntion, morr R^prenentotivQa 
Ihfln ovp for **vi-fy thirty tbouaand. It is quiio obviouH, thero* 
fore, tbut the npportjonniept cf reprii«c<ntative power oan never 
be pr;?cJAr and pt^rfvot There rau^t ulway* exUt «onie degree 
of inr£)uuli1y. ThttM? wIh) fninuHl nnd tbow who udrptnl the 
Constitution were, of ooiinM", fnHy ac<iuainled u-ith tlii* nroci- 
wiry operation of the proviMor. In iha yonnte, the States ore 
entitled to ft fixed number of i^enntor*; and LhemJbfe, in njcard 
10 their reprr«cn*atiun in that body^ there bi no eou)-e(|utiiiJaJ 



OT Inpidcntd inrqunlily. But, being n^pn^anitod in th^ llouitR 
of RepfcH^ntittivi^ii uncording to UiHi r«*pi*clive numbrrH of 
p«op1r-, it U iinavoidribli^ Ihaf^ in AMigning to i*^u-h ^tstV* if? 
iinmbrr of mr-mhrr*, the vxnH pTY>[>nrHnn of narh, onT of n f^'vcn 
naiLibt'ii caiiiiat always ur ofu-ii bt- t-xprrsArd In wbule tuim- 
brrv; that, la lo »ayi It will not often bt^ found Ihnt thrre htt* 
lotiir> 1« ft Statfr vtuctly one tenth, or ont tUTntif^th, <jt on<? Ihir- 
tii?th of Ihr wholt' HouAf'; and thrwlorr no nuTnl>cr of Rrpre- 
Hinimtivo* will cturtly corrcirpond with the right of auch State, 
lit th** prrciw *harp of rppirfrnTntion which belong to ll, ac^cord- 
tu^ io ]ln iHipulatioiK 

Thi* ConnlilLfion, thoreibrv, ma^t be undmlotxl, notJuiriiJ4»liv- 
iiig nn ftbflolotc fflftlivc CK|uality, bor'AWsiff that would be <ic- 
tuQhdirig an impof^jbility, but a« inquiring <if Corgrea^ to mnfce 
the flpportiormipnl of lU'prfBeotatW^A amonfi the iwvenil S^atea 
ueconliit^ to Thtir rf^Hptctivp numbrts, ai n^ar « may bf^ Th»t 
lA^icb oannoi bf dim*' j^rriVi-Tlj mimt. bi- donr in a mnttnnr at 
m't*r yK-rfecfioii nw cwn be. If rxnrt(i<yi» c-snnot, from tJip n&liim 
<»f thin^, be atfaniwl, ihen the ncajv*t pmc-licaUe approac^h to 
rxftdntfflfl ought to be miide* 

CongTcflB is not absolvcrd from «il rul<* merely becnuttc< thu nilo 
of perfect juBtW* cannot bn applind. In ^nt^h a wmr. Approx- 
imation brcotnM n nilr ; il taken the plnop of thnt othrr r«^ 
which would be pff-fembK 1>ut which is foimd iiiHppli<-able, and 
lir-roiiifH ilp^flfan oblf^alujii of biiitlliig forcrf. The netvrftt up* 
proximaiTon to txttct truth or exact righf^ when that exact truth 
or that exact nght cnuiiiot It^lf be reaohtHl, prwails fcn other 
c««e«, not na mnttT of diHcrMion, but its an Intelli^ble and defi- 
nite rule, dicl?\T€'d by jnsiice and corfortning to the c^timmon 
iwii»e of mankind; a rnln nf no lew himling force in mj^f^s to 
wliirti it iH appliimble, and no more tu l>e departed from, than 
any nthcr nijp or obltf^ation. 

The rofnmitlrc ondrrr^tnnd the ConRlifution a* they would 
hftVR iijitk-r*tood it if it had said, in «o many wordfiT thiit Rppre^ 
roTklfitivet nhould \w. apportioned «mong the Stntnfl arrorrUng to 
their n»*pprtive numbprw, oi nmr an mity ftf. If thij* hi- not it* 
Inie meanings Hicn It ba» either given, ou ihis most tlrlie&tc a[id 
ImpcsrtAiit anbjeet, a tutc whieh if* always impracticable, or cIg« 
it has given no rule at all: beouuae, if the ntle bo thtit Hepre- 
Mntativea »lmtl be apportiatied e:tai-Uf/ ae<;ording to number*, it i« 




imprairtjiTnble in every tiiM- ; mu] If, fur itiiH reEu^diii tliait mitiint 
be- Ihf rule, then thrir ia no rule wh&trvrr, iinlrja Utr rvilt; bfr 
that thry shnlE be nppurtioncd aj ntrar as naif be- 

Thi» contraction, indeed, which the committer fltlispt, hn« 
ncit, to ih^JiT knowlotl^, bfcn denied; and they procwd in tbt» 
diHcnwion ofthequf^ion bflbrp the Spnntp, tnkiug for granted 
ihat 8tic1i is the true and uiidt^niable meaning of the Citn«tU 

The ncjit thtnj^ to be observed ia, that the Constitotion pre* 
fcribcp iio parriculnr procenn by whichthU npportioruaeiitiBt4>be 
wrought out. It haw plainly di?*f?rihtfd the end to be a<Gcorri- 
plifibfd, naniHj, th'' n^iawM npprcmrh to rpluUvt- eqmdity of ft*j>* 
n>f-n1u1]on among thi'r StBh':»i and wbntcvrr nworiplish"** \U\* 
triid. and i[t>thLnK ^'^^^ i^ the trac proccsA. In truth, if, without 
any ptocx-A^ whatever, whether elaborate or easy, Congrc»» could 
pt?rceivt' the exucf proportion of representative power hithifuUy 
bdonffinf; to cneh Slnti?, it would perfeetly fulfd ita duty by cou* 
ferrlni^ thnt portion on rarli, wilhmit refen'rnre In any ppuei*»» 
whatevrT. It. would Ih- emmgh tliAt Hm projjrr e-inj \i?u\ \>rcn 
&ttfiincd, And it ia lo be remarked, further, that, whethei this 
rnd be ntluiiic-d best by on<; process or by another, beromcs, 
when each proeettD hua been cairiod throoghi not Tnattt^r of opin- 
)o»i but mutter of tnathenuilloal oertainty. Jftlie whole popu* 
bition «r the Ijiiiled Stages, the populntioti of eaehi 8Jat*^ and 
th« pnipofird niiinbrr of tUi; House vi Rrprr^Arotntiir^, bt? mII 
given, then, between two bills appurdoning the memben among 
the several Slate*, it ean be told with absolute ctrrtartity which 
bjU aAaif^'Ud to any and every btnlc the number ne^n^tt lo the 
Mact proportion of that State ; In olhci words, which of the two 
bills, if elrher, appiiniori* th^ K^^preM-nfutivi^B aeeiinliui|f Uj ihtf 
nmrdjrrs iu Oip Stnlr*, rtapeetivdy, a$ ntarns may hr.. If, tfirrt?* 
forr^ a pEikfticnlur proccis of ap|>ortionmcnt be; adiiptrd, and ob- 
jection be nade to (be injustice or inequality of \i^ rciJUit, it is 
surely no annwer to such objection to say, that the inequaJlty 
OiK^saardy re^ulu from the nature of the procfiM. Before aueh 
anai^er oould uvuil, U would be nece-wur^' lo 4how, either that 
Uic CuiiPliMn.ion prentTrilie* rtuch jiroci^sw, nnd iiiLikr-i it ut?{^t<H»iry, 
«r thot there is no other mode of proceeding which would pro> 
dace Ies8 inequality and It^ss injuf-tlce. If incqualityt which 
ought have otherwiov been avoidudt be produced by a ijivcn 




ihvn t\xni [iruc^mx ii % wroitg one- fi la not Huiltnl lo 

Nor do the committee |>crocivc how it oui be matter of 
conetilutionaj propriety or validity, or in any way a conatitu- 
tionul qutution, wtietbvr the }iroc^»a whhh icay be applied to 
thfi ettttf be aimpleorcoinpouDd, one proceaa or many pf«cefl8e«; 
ftln(*e, ill the end, it inuy HlwnyA tie Keen wlrefJier the result l>o 
timt whkh hns t}cc^ii {umrd aI, n;imdy, the nctuc^l practicable 
i^^roacb to prcdac jut tic« uid iclttirc equality. The commit- 
t«Ci iodncd, nrc of opinioHi in this axm^ thnt the »implc«t 0n<l 
IDOAobvioUH way of proceeding la 9.U0 1h« true nud contlitu* 
tioDal way. To fhom it appear*, thai, in carrying into rflTnct 
ihlflpart of rhp CotiHtitutJon, the firet thiii|^* iiaTiirally lo br done 
is to decide on tht! uUolc number of which the Houses id to be 
oonipootHJ; tu) when* under the nnme claxuc of the Coiislitutioi], 
a tax t» to be Qpportionc^d nirioiig the States, the amount of the 
wholo f^» in, in tho firat plocei to be *ettlod» 

When thewhoW nnmberorthe proposed House is thus aJFCM- 
tainnd uiid liMrd, It bi-coniett the eutire repre^eiiiatlve ]MiWLir of 
all the people hi the Union, h iv then h very simple matter to 
aiiccrtttii) how mucti of thi?i representative power e^ch State hi 
<!ntit)<'d to by it^ numbt^rv. If, for cxampl(?f the lluuoe im to con* 
t4iin two hundred and Ibrty mi*mL>era, tljen the number ^0 ex- 
pn-svA ihr reprt'spiJtntivp power of all the Statett; and 11 plain 
caltMil^itiim n^itdily ?kliow4 how mndi of ihia pijwj^r hrhing^ to 
each ^tAX£. T\n» por^on. tl le Uue, will not always, nor ollcn, 
be cxprc««cd in whole numbentf bat it nmy alwuyH be prccis^dy 
eiibiblted by a deciiDd form of ejipreaaioa. If the portion of 
any State be »eldcm or never one exact tonth, one exact £f- 
tt^t^nlh, or one exiu?t twentieth, it will sUll always be nip»b!e i*f 
prerjM^ dei'inml rX|m'JuiLon, it* nnr tenth and two hniii)n-dlh?^ out- 
twelfth nnd foul hundredth*, one fifteenth and e\x hundiedth*, 
and «o ou. And the exact portion of the 8:ate, being xhua doci- 
mally expre^iwd, will always ehow, to muthofnatical oertfilnty, 
what integMl number f^mes nearest to aueh exact portion- For 
example, in a HouHe eonsJstlng of '^10 memhera, the evacl 
mntlieniHiiud jinipurlton Ui wliidi her tinniberM entitle the SUtte 
of New York i» 3Q.d&; it i» certair , therefore, that 39 19 the in* 
tcgrul or whole number nearest to hrr cxad proportion of the 
repRvoiitutive pow4:r of the Union. Why, theiii should i»hc cia' 




faavp ihiHy-nirw** nmi why »lK>iild tthe \mvt^ finiy? Sjip ia noi 
qiiili' rniillnl U> tliirly'ninr ; l.liat tiuiiibrr in M>riLrlhiii|^ Tiiufc 
^an bor ri|;4i1. But oliuving bcrthirty-niiK, from the ncccMity 
of (jiving litT whole nnmbdra, ond bccauj>c thnt i» the n<^nrc«t 
VhcJe number, in not the Conttitatioii (xd\y obeyed when sh^ tiaa 
reeeked the thlny-fiLnth member? Is not her pnroper number 
of ll^pcvHt^ritjirivr^i tlifji apjiorlioned tci bi^r, nn ii^nr h» iniiv bf-? 
Ami irt ini\ the OoiinfiiuLion dif^n^gordeii when ilir bill gocA Tur* 
thcT, nnd givrs hrr • fortieth mcmbef ! l<*or whnt i» nnch • for- 
tieth mrmbrr grivrn 'i Not for her abnolnte niimbrt?, for h<T «b- 
■oluio numberadonot enliUehertothirty-mne. Not forthe^ak^ 
of apporliojiiiii; her memben to her nombera as m^t aa may b«j 
berauHit* ihiny-nine In a nram-r Hpporfionment of meint74^i« tu 
numhrnt thnii forty. Bnt, it itt g^ivrn, mn thr ndvomtcs uf tlie 
bdll« because ttie procftt which has been luloptrd give« It, The 
&n6wcr iBy No »ac-h procc»a is cnjoiucd by the Conatitation, 

The cetBe of New York may be compured, or cx>ii1ruuted, with 
that of Minftouri' Th« vxuci j^roixirTton of MUaourt, m ft ^n* 
erul repw&eninlion of 240, la two mid stii trntiw; thiU U to My, 
it «wi*"» rriT*Tt-r to thrri' rnrttiticr* thnn to two, Jtl il U n>rilmtHl 
to two* Dux why is not Missouri eniifled to that numbfir of 
Representative* which com cfl neareel to hn osact proporrion? 
I« the Conetitulion fullUled ub to her, while thai number ie with* 
held, and while, «i the atimc time, In ttJiothcT ^t:ite, not only in 
that n«nrvst numbi^r given, but an additiunnl mr^iobrr ^veji 
abui? Is it an iiriHWrr with which Ihr peojilr of M iH^iimri ought 
to be 0ati»fit.-d, wherj Jt i& said that thL» obvious injustice is the 
necraaary rc&ult of the proccM adopted by the biiJ ? May they 
not bay with pro|)nt>ty, ihuL, mice three is the neaivBt whole 
nurnbt-T to tlidr exaet ripht, to Uiut titiinbtT they are eniitled, 
and the proee4» whleh deprives ihem of ii must he a Ti-rong 
pmems? A similar enmpnriscm might bt* mncli- bi<fwi'rn New 
York und Wrmont The eiact proportion to whifh V*^rinont 
11 entitledi in a representation of ^0, is ^.f>4<t> Her neatest 
whola numbctt tht^reforc, would be aU. Now two things ar9 
undeniably true; tin^t^that to t£Lk*.^ away the Fortieth memborfron 
New York would bring her rt-presL-ntuiion nenr^r to fa^ aociot 
pTu|H]rUi>Ti thiin it stnndK by leaving her Lhiit fiirlitTih member; 
accoiiii, l.hnt giving' ihr mrniber thus taken from New York to 
Vcriuoat would brijig her rcprcacutaiion nearer to het exact 



Vtf^ IhiiFL it in by thi^ bill- And botb fh»i? pro po*(i lion* ura 
«qna]]3^ vmv of n tranflfirr to IVIawarc of the twrnty-rigtilh niirtn* 
her RM^f^ried b^ the bill to Ppnnaylvanlfi, and to MtMourl of 
th^ iJiirteetilli m«[iilier uuti^ncxl to Kentucky, fn otlifrr wonla, 
Vermont hns, by her ttuniborA, raofc ri^tlit to aU imifibL'r* than 
Nuv Yofk baa to forty ; Dylaw«iT«, by her numlx-r^, ba» more 
riffht to fu'o m«Mtibet3 than PenoBylvania bM to twr^iTty^^M^^ht; 
and Misjuuri, by hrr number*^ bun mort- right lo tbrf* tiirinlipni 
(!iMn Kpiiturky hixti Ui ttiirU<ffn- lA^uhout disturbing thi< pro- 
pom^ niimbcT or the lloaw, the mrxr. changing of ihrnc three 
members from and to the «x State*, r(»pfclivdy, w<>u]d bring 
the repnwntaiion of the whole eix neoi«T to their due ^^opo^ 
trding to their reapeotive n»mber»T thnti the* bill in iti 
fonn nink^vi it. In tho face of thJa ini.lU)Hitablp tnitb, 
bow ran it be imid that the b'dl apportiuna mfrnibt-n of Congruaa 
among ttiotw Btat4» ooooniui^ to tbdr respective numlKrat at 
near a* majf be^ 

The prinerplt' on wbkb the- prnpoi^d amendment ia roiitidod 
\% nn pflpctiiHl c*fJrrc*L*tiv* fur thpur* and uU olher ei|iially gri'iit in* 
rqTiniilirk. tt mny hr. nppliri) at all riua--% and m all eaw-n. und 
iia result will always be the nearcat npproach to pcrfrot jnAfice. 
It ia equally aiinple and impartial. An a niJc of npportionnirnr., 
it ia littio other th&n a t/an>Leript of the vfordf' of the (.-onxiilu- 
tioDf and ita renulls are malhematicaUy erttain, Thi* (roni^lir.ii- 
tion^ as ihv cuiaTiiitU-e undtTHland t^ «nys, ReprrMrjilAtiim nhnll 
bi; appfirijunej among iJie State* according to their irspectivn 
numbeni of pt-ople, as near aa may be. The rnl*^ n*iopu^ by 
the oiimmiltc* saya, out of the whcle number ot the Hoaflc^ that 
nttmbt^ Hhiili be apportioned to each SLat« whieh oonim neai^nt 
to ItK r^inel right tits-ording 1o It* nnmbrr of |H-iiple- 

Wh«rp in \hr. rrpognnnry brtwn^n the CunatilutJon ajid the 
rule? The nrgnmenta agaJaat the r\lle Kcein to aeaume^ that 
there b a necessity of instituting »oTne proccao, udopiing -ome 
number aa the ratio^or aa that number of peopk wbiL-h each 
m«mber «halj b« nuderalooJ to represent But \\m rommlilae 
Me no oeeaaion for any other prooecM whnt<"ver, thua aimply the 
HverrtainiciPiil of Lliat tpainiurtit oot <it ibe wliolc mnw ol the rep* 
n»c. tatiTc powvrr, wliicb each 8tate may claim. 

But it ia said that, olthiDugh a State mny ivecive a number 
of B«preHCDtative» wbicH ia wEuuUiiug leaa thnn it^ exact pro* 




partion or representation, yet that it can in no caw ocmtHuticA' 
ftlly rcccivi' mori?- How ifi ihia propoaition prowd ? How is H 
•howii thai the Contftltution ift leaa perfecljy fuliULed by aUow* 
ili^ a Sfate a araal] escea*. than by aubjecliijg lier to « large dc- 
fidi'ncy * Wlml the CiiiL^tir.itiioR rrt|uints i» tht- umri'-al pradi- 
t'ublr- apprn:ic:h to precipe juMicc. The nik i« npproxintiLtion ; 
nnd u-r ought to approach, therefore-, on whichever iidc we can 
nppfcmch nrnrcxt. 

Bat thpr»^ is n mill more eonelorivc anflw^ to bf given to ihi* 
nuffj^pHtion, The whole number of Ri'prfiwnlniivrs of whirh 
che Huuae is to bt) coiiii>iJi»ed is, uf aeLvsnity, liiJiittrd, Thii* 
Dumber, wh^kvcrit is, it* thut wlach ia U> bt-* apfKirlionrxi, aix) 
not-hing el^e cnn be apportitmcd^ TIiIh i:i Uir lA'hole »mn 1o bt< 
ili^tribiit^'f]. If, thtn^fforcf in mnkmg the upportionmenf, somti 
Slatc"* rrcnivc ksf than their jii^t rhnri*, il mu^t i]ci!e«»unJy fol- 
low that some other State* have receivod mon' Uinn ih^ir junl 
nhartf. IT then? U? ctner State In tlie Ujiioa wilb li^a than ilA 
right, !«ijme other Bt;il<: Im.i morr Ihftu it<i n^ht; «o that the nr* 
gumcnt, vrhatrv^-r be it^ foj^v:, upplica to tlie bill in ita preoeiit 
form, afl strongly a?i il can ever apply to any bill. 

Bat tho *»bj(^rtion miint u»4ually or^'^d npkini^T the pHociph^ nf 
the proposed nmendrnent is, lliat il provifl^-^i fnr ihi* rf»pn'*i'ntii- 
tJon of rmolioTkH. Let this objection be exaniined and conMd' 
ored, Ijet it br aM-'ertiiwietl, in the fiiht |Jatr, what iheae frac- 
liona, oT fruciionul number*, or rc^idnnry number:*, rcidly arr, 
whieh it 18 said will be represented, should the nmendinent 

A rraetioii ia the brolien part of Bome ini^f^l nnmlwr- It j>, 
therefore^a rdative or derivative Idea, It Implie^i ihe |)revioiw 
i!xi>t<!tice of Amtte flxrd nLimbrr, of which it in bul n |mrt or le- 
maiadcr. If there be no nceewity for fixing or e.Htabli^ing 
sueh previous number, then the fraction resultiiig from it is iUcif 
not roatrer of neec^eity, but raali^r of choice or aoeident- Now, 
the argumejkl whieh eontiider^ the plan propofied in the arnend- 
meot as a repreBeiitatiun of fracrionn^ and iheiY-fore uijoonritku* 
lional, aTinumf'K a« itet biuJH, thuL, iiwiirditi^ to the Con.iljlution, 
every member t>f the llouie of Itcprrsrntiitjvo rtprtMjnt*, or 
ought to reprcnetit, the sumei or ncrirly the same, number of eott' 
stitutTottt; that thin iitumbcr is to be rr.^arded ftK an Jatt^giTr; and 
any thing U^kb than this ia therefore called a fmetion, or a rraidu- 


Mm, and ciiniiol be i-iiliiird Ui n Rj-pmrf^itntiv**, Bill luiihing 
of thi* i* prrjwrihrii by thr Cfin*litutJon of the Uriit*-*! ^Iftlffu 
Thftt ConstituUoT) coDtcntplatea ao inU^cr, or any coininoii 
tiunibcr for t}i« coaatitucnta of a mf^mbrr of iha [If>uB<^ of Hep* 
rMvntutiv«tf. It it**^ ^^^ ^^ ^ '°^ Iht-'ao etubdivicKiri* of the 
popiilutioi; of ft Statl^ It provide* for the (ippoftionni«Dt cf 
Rc'pmsrnrnlivpA among Oim tuvirat StaUSt according to thpir wv^ 
wpeetive rurmb^^rni nnd Ptnp« thprr. it mskea no prt>tfUioa for 
ihe rL-preM^iiLatjoii of diatficto of Statea, or For the rtrpn-'seiimUoM 
of any portion of the people of a Slate lew thnn the wlu>l& It 
tmyt nofbbig of mtioi* or of conatitucat nuttibt-rs. Ail thf^no 
tliinga it iaavM to Slate lugiidation. The right which (<nvh State 
potiiwwM ta ltj> own dnt* pontrn of the mpnw-nlJittvr powvr ia 
a State right, airictly- It Wlongs to the Slate, as a Stale; and 
k Sa to be oaed aikct exerriaod aa the 8taC« may eet; lit, aulx 
jcot only to the canstitntioniil iiualiJicBtions of dcctor.i. In facti 
the Btatea do mnke, and ^U^'aya have made, ditl'crcnt prorUion* 
for the exereiee of Xh'i9 powfrr. In aomc, a einglc momher ia 
chosen for a certain defined diatrJct; in otheraf two or three 
members ate eh Often for the aatne distrtet; and ia Home, again, 
lui Npw Hniiipf^liiTf, Hhoili? IsduiLd^ C*Min»^:U(*ut, N«w Jt»piey, 
nnd Ororgin, the rntircr nTpr?«rntJ«tion of the Stnt<? a a joint 
and undivided representation. In each of these last'mcntioncd 
Statea, every member of tbo House of Repre&ontahvea has for 
hia coDHtJlQenta all the people of tlie Btala ; and all the peo- 
ple of tho»e Statea are consequently repreaented in that branch 
of Ccj|]grf»sw. 

If the bill brfore the S<7nftte Bhculd paas into a law, In ita 
present form, whatever injaatlcc it mi^ht do to any of thoac 
Stated it would not bo oomsct to aay of them, ncvorthclese, that 
any portion oftheir people waa unre prove nt^KL The wull^founded 
objection would bo, na to aome of them at loaat, that they were 
not Ddr<]i]nU4yf cviin]>rtrnily, fiiirfy rr^nt-jirntrd; that th«T had 
not ati n^any voicrs and aa many volca in the flonae of Repro> 
eentativea as they were entitled to* Thia would be the ofc^eo 
tlon. There would be no iinic presented fraction; but the State* 
aa a State, aa a whole, would be deprived of »omc part of ita 
juat rlghta. 

On ihe othnr hand, if the bill ahoold paw* «■ itj" now pro- 
posed i4j be amendod, there would be no repreaentatioD of i>no> 




tiocis in any State; for a frBction 3^pp1^■l^A n diviMon ndil ■ 
rcmnliivkT, AH lliut cmikl jtirrtiv be s-itid would hc^ thnt i^iitdc of 
tboio ttliLtc«T u* St&lMf povaeiiMd ft poftion of li^giilativD power 
ft litt]« Ur^rrr than tt^r exai't riirht; 9s U ma«t be ftdmitted, 
tbnt, Bboakl ibr? bill pam nnameiiflpil^ tlicy would po>Mefl8 of thftt 
powc-T riiDcti lea« ihaci tliev exact ri^)tL Tlit! Aame rt?niiukit 
nrr .luliptAiitullv true, if ftppliol to LboM Blatra whidi ndopi tbe 
<B5tnct vy^Ertp, od iDoat of th«m do. Jn Mif^oari, for C3iftmpl«) 
thrre will be no Imction unr^prrscntrd, should the bill become t* 
law tn it« pTQ^cnt form; nof ft/ty rovmbpr for a fraction, «hoi.ild 
rht* amendmpnr prevail Bcrause Ih** modfl of apportionment 
vrhicU ta n^arvftt 10 ha einct ri^bt applies 110 Hj^mtied raiiu*| 
IDnkr.i no nubdivi^iunn, Dtid, tjf cour«r« (irtxliicrn im fractit^Dii. 
In thr one cftAo, vr in the othrr, the State, a» a State, will hftvir 
somct.birig more, or something Inss, than its exact proportJoii of 
reprvHenMiive pow«r; but «hft viU part OQt tfcii« po^-^r oeooui^ 
her own p^opl^, in elthef cue, in mxch mode ftu «h« may ehoow, 
or rxenu?* it altii^thw m* nn t^ntirv rtprcscntaUoii of tht' p<wiplrt 
of thr Stiitr- 

Whrthcr the »ubdivlBiou of fJie rBprogi-iitalivc power within 
aoy Btate* if ihi^c he a Bubdjvjeion, be ^qual or unequal^ ot 
fairiy or unfiurlj madi-v Confr^BB miinot know, and haa ao au- 
thority I0 inqnitv- It U enotigh that the Stftte prrM-'ntB li^r own 
rffpri**piitnrioo on the floor of Congre*« 10 thi* modr nhr rhotnuMt 
To prewnt if. If a Stal" w<'r« to giv<- to om^ porliiui of bcr 
Ceirilory a UqirtfteiitaUne for owry twenty-five tliouBafid [*vt- 
noijn, and to the rent ^ Repre^onlative oidy for evt-ry fifty ihou- 
•and, it would bo on ad of unjaat ie^evjatiun, duobtlcaa; but it 
would be wholly beyond retbvm by Any power in Conf^reu^ ba- 
cao^e t\v^ ConMiiution has Mt all thin to thf? S(iit<< iuHf. 

These ron^id^n lions, it is thought, mtiy show Ihnt the Coii- 
ititution hajs nu4, by any unpUt-aiioa of oeceasary conatraclion, 
eiijoio(?d that which h certaiidy has not ordulned in itriOB, 
namely, that erery inembrr of the Houiw phoald be suppofled to 
rtpre»rat the anme numbf-^r of eonttiluenlii; and ibtrrefore, tLal 
tha wmmption of a ralM, as reproaenting tbe eommon rnrober 
of oaiutitQMMa, Is not ealM for by tbr CcvMiuiiioi). All tluU 
ConjifniBH Ea at liberty to do^ an it would seem, ia to divide the 
whuie n:prr?*ntafi^e pow« of the Union into twcnty-fow pvta, 
■a«a|tnmg ooc poft lo taeh State, aa near aa praotkablo aiaoonj^ 

APPOiniOKMENT OF hepbesentation. 



Ing 14> ltd ri^fil, nii<] leaving ftU rtub^p^iu^nt armngmnpnt, nmi aJI 
^ubUivi^ionis tu the Blatf^ itiirir. 

If the view ctui--^ txikcn of the rights cf Ihc Stales and ibc Ju- 
ti6a of CoogvcAa b« ihc correct view, Ihen the plan prC'ikudirq] in 
tb6 ampfiditi«iit ie lh no juAt oeiise a repreneuEutiiMi ot rmciioniw 
But tmpjiose it waa oihenris*; tuppok« a direct provUlon were 
madi- for allowing a R<<pmF[)laliv« to rvtiy $(ulc in whow 
populutu.m, il bi-iiig finsT. dividi'd by u ciimmoti nitio, there 
shuiild be fcunJ a fracljoa exceeding half the ainuiiulur Uml 
ratio, wliiit ruiL><titutioQ^ objection could be fairljr QtgtMi a§;uinrt 
aac^b a proviiiiut] t Ljt-t it alwaya bv rcmembcTGd, that the ca«c 
har« itappoMd providea colj" tot a fraetioit exoe^ing the moiety 
^f tho ratio; for thd committee admit at once ihat the repr^ 
aeiitalion of frnuliuiia leae ihaa a moieQr w unL-oriFttitufli^nal; 
biK»U9Ba-, »tiuu)d a mnnber be alUjwed tu a Stute for ^neh a frae- 
tion, it would br c^cruin that ht-r rrrprenitntation wciuld not be so 
near hrr rxnct tighi a» it wa» before. But the allowance of a 
nMi&bor For n major frnction 10 a direct approximation towarda 
justice and ei^uaiity. Then^ appeare to the commttlee to be 
ftothJii^* either In the leiter or Ihe spirit of the Conntittition, op- 
poNn) tn ttiirJi