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"HirrAKgR & Co. ; J. Bain ; E. Hodgson & Co. ; Richardson & Co. ; 
h °W*tom & Sons; Bickers & Sox; H. Sotueuan & Co.; J. 
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Preface to Part II. ..... 3 


~* Preface to De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris, by Bobert 

c Leslie Ellis - - - - 39 

|; De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris - - - 47 
j£ Preface to De Principiis atque Okiginibus secundum 

Fabulas Cupidinis et C<eli, by Robert Leslie Ellis 65 

Dk Principiis atque Originibus. etc. - - 79 

New Atlantis ...... 119_^^i 

Magnalia Nature ....-- 167 



Preface to Part IIL - - - - - 171 



Preface to Valerius Terminus, by Robert Leslie Ellis 

Valerius Terminus - 

Advancement of Learning, Book I. - - 

„ „ Book II. 

Filum Labybinthi ..... 
De Interpretations Nature Pro<emium - 
Temporis Partus Masculus - 

Partis Instacrationis Secund* Delineatio et Argumentum 541 


Cogitata et Visa de Interpretations Naturae 
Inquisitio Legitima de Motu .... 

Calor et Frigus ..... 

hlstoria soni et auditus - 
Phenomena Universi - 

Preface to Descriptio Globi Intellectualis, by Robert 
Leslie Ellis ...... 

Descriptio Globi Intellectualis - - - - 

tuema cceli ...... 

De Interpretations Nature Sententlb XIL 
Apiiorismi et Consilia - 

Physiological and Medical Remains - 

The Facsimile to face the back of the Fly-tiO«. 








541 > 







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727 i'\ 
769 ' 










I»U enitn no* tanqium In limine Ilintori* Natnrsllt stantcn prmplclmm, qua 
quautu magi! quit m Immrrterit in Hinloriam Naturalrm tanto for ,i»»e prohibit 
nuitii, Alum™ teiumur ilerum not hie ti-neri nullc. In lilt I'liim. ut in unit, 
««rtl tic nwtrs tutaui, certl t«dit nuttre nou sum us — Tkrma Cali, 1612. 

01 III. 


AxL the works except one which belong to thia part, 


several of the most interesting anion 


which follow in 1 1 it- 
were published by Isaac Grutcr in 1653; and since in 
explaining the arrangement which I have adopted I shall often 
have to refer to the volume in which they first appeared, it will 
bo well to give a particular account of it at once. 

Bacon, in his last will, — after bequeathing hia collection of 
speeches and letters to Bishop Williams and Sir Humphrey 
M.iy, as being privy councillors, — commended the rest of his 
papen to the care of Sir John Constahle and Mr. Bosvile. 
" AImi I desire my executors, especially my brother Constable, 
and also Mr. Bosvile, presently after my decease, to take into 
their hands all my papers whatsoever, which are either in 
cabinet*, boxes, or presses, and them to seal up till they may at 
their leisure peruse them." 

What care, or whether any, was presently taken of these 

not learn. But it is probable that for fourteen 

Macon's death, they remained locked up;- — fur so 

long it was before any one had authority to act; the executors 

I in the will refusing or delaying to assume their office, 

and letters of administration being granted on the 13th of July, 

to Sir Robert Rich and Mr. Thomas Meautys, two of the 

-and that then, or not long after, t\\vy were placed in 

the liaml- of Mr. Bosvile. This Mr. Bosvile, better known as 

Sir William Boswell, was sent, soon after Bacon's death, to the 

where he resided for several years as. agent with the 

ihe United Provinces. He was knighted on the IHth 

Of May, 1633, and died I believe in 1647. Whether all Bacon s 

ining manuscripts were sent to him, or only a portion ot 

ia not known. What we know is that, among those 

H ■< 


winch were sent, there were many philosophical pieces writ- 
ten in Latin : that he consulted Isaac Grater about them : 
and that the result was a 12mo volume printed by Elzevir 
at Amsterdam in the year 1 6-53. entitled Franeisei Batumi de 
Vcndanmo Srripta in Xuturaci et Unieersali Pfulosvphia. and 
containing these pieces following : — 

1. A Prayer, headed Temporis Partus Maseulus, sm Instaxrati» 

magna imperii kumani at unirerrum. The same in sub- 
stance, and almost the same in expression, as the prayer 
which is introduced towards the end of the Prefiee to the 
Instauratio ( VoL L p. 131.; : placed here by itsolf on the 
blank side of the title-leaf, as if it were a motto to the 
volume — an office for which the heading makes it alto- 
gether inappropriate- 

2. Qyitata et Visa ; to which is aided a Latin translation of 

Sir Thomas Bodiey'a letter to Bacon concerning that 
work, i p. 62. > 

3. Deseriptio Globi InteUeetualis. (p. 75.) 

4. Thema Call (p. 154.) 

5. De Fiuxu et Reflux* Maris, (p. 178.) 

6. De Prineipiis atque Originibus secundum Fabulas Cufilin ~s 

et Cctli, Ac <p- 208.) 

These are all printed as separate pieces; each carrying its 
own title along the top of its own pages. 

Then follow, under a general running title of Impetus Fnila- 
sophiei : — 

7. Indicia Vera de Interpretatiane Satura. (p. 285.) Merely 

the Przfatio to the Serum Qr*janum y already printed in 
the first volume of this edition, p. 151. 

8. Partis Instauratiomis Seeunda Delineatio et Arvumentum, 

(p, 293.) Printed as if it were a sequel to the last, the 
two forming one piece ; which originally perhaps they did. 

9. Phenomena Cuicersi, site Historic Xatmralis ad evudenJam 

Pkdosaphiam. (p. 323.) A fragment, consisting ot a pre- 
face intended for the third part of the Instauratio. and a 
rudiment of the Historia Densiet Rmri. with which it seems 
that Bacon then intended to begin his collection of his- 


we Filnm Labyrinth/, (p. 379.) A preface 

intended (be the fourth part of the Instauratio. Already 
printed : Vol. II. p. 687. 

11. Prodrotni sive Anticipations Philosophic Secundcp. (p. 385.) 
The preface intended for the fifth part of the Instauratio. 
Already printed: Vol. II. p. 690. 

12. Cogitationes de Natura Rerum. (p. 389.) The piece with 
which in the present edition Part II. begins: infra p. 15. 

13. A Preface, entitled Franciscus Bacon Lectori, {p, 431.) A 
first draught probably of the preface to the fourth part of 
the Instauratio. 

U. Filnm Labyrintki, sive Inquititio UaiHma <b Motu. (p. 435.) 
A skeleton of an enquiry conducted upon the true method; 
that m to say, a complete list of the titles of the several 
prooceaOQ of an investigation into the Form of Motion ; 
followed by some general remarks, which may have been 
.mil for the conclusion of the work which Bacon had 
in contemplation when be wrote the Cogitata ft Vita, and 
intended to set forth the new method in an example. 

15. Franc. Baconi Aphoristhi et Consilia, de auxiliis mentis it 
accensione luminis uaturalis. (p. 448.) 

f)e Inttrpretatione Natura Sentential XII. (p. 451.) This 
and the preceding are rudiments of the Novum Orgauum. 

Tradiiuli Modus hgitimus. (p. 4.j8.) This consists of tun 
chapter!' ; of which the first is the same as the first chapter 
of the Temporii Partus Masculus ; the second another 
form of the Redargutio Philosophiarum. They are printed 
here (probably by mistake) as if they were a sequel to the 
Sentential XII., with wliich they do not appear to be con- 

18. De JkterpretaHone Natura Proamium. (p. 479.) This has 

^i intended for a preface to the Instauratio, in some 
its forms; probably to the Temporis Partus Masculus, 
. Francisci Baconi Topica Inquisitionis de Luce et Lumine. 
(p. 485.) Another copy, with n few slight variations, of 
the [taper which has been already printed (Vol. II. p. 
317.) from Dr. Rawley's copy. 

b a 


Of these nineteen pieces, the last thirteen are (a* I have 
said) distinguished from the other; by a general running title 
of Impetus Philosophici ; the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6tli 
carrying each its own title on the top of its own pages ; and to 
the whole volume is prefixed an address from Grutcr to the 
reader, which contains all the information that is to be had 
about it ; and which I must transcribe at length, the meaning 
being in some places so obscure that I can only guess at it. 

Lectoki S. Isaacls Gkuterus. 

QDjB tibi damus Amice Lector, ad Universalein et Naturaleni Plii- 
losophiam spuctantia, ex Manuscriptis Codicibus, quos accurate 
recensuerat et varie emendarat author, me amanuense apograplia 
sunt. Sola Bodlei epistola, quae ad examen vocat Cogitata et Vita, 
per me ex Anglico facta Latina est, atque ex opero epistolarum 
Baconi, quae tali idiomate circumferuntur, hue transhtta ob ma- 
teria; cognationem. Titulus quem frons libri prsefert et totum 
complectitur opusculi in varias disserlationes secti argumentum, ab 
ipso Verulamio est ; quem singula exhibent paginre ex rerum 
triietatarum serie distinctum, a me, ut minus confunderet quajren- 
tem Lectorem indieuli defectus. Quiequid sequitur, ab eo loco cujus 
inscriptio est in ipso contextu Indicia vera de interpretatiotie na- 
ture tuque ad fincm, donavi eo nomine Impetus Philosophici, quod 
lx familiaribus Viri magni colloquiis notassem, cum de iritis cliartis 
mecum ageret. Non aliter eaiim nppellare solebat quiequid priori- 
bus per titulos suos separatis connecteretur ; ne quis imperfectum 
btatira suspicetur quod defervescente Impetu non videt trahere syrma 
prolixn trnctalionis. Omnia autem haec inedita (nisi quod in editis 
icusimii rara exstent quarundam ex hi.-" meditationum vestigia) 
tor, Nobilissimo Guil. Boswello, ad quem exipsiua 
to pervenerant, cum aliis in politico et morali genere 
nc ex dono roS fiaaapirov penes me servantur non 
need*. Boswello inquam, viro nobilitate, prudentia insigni, 
• summa, et Oratori oliiu apud Batavos 
! .i hi memoria est. Vale et conatibus nostris 
iconiana Utine versa, max imam 
iirnamus epistolarum quus vireminen- 
riprit ad Belgss, Germanos, Italos. Suecos, 
nai Cfau issimus Sanavius Senator Pariti- 
itaque in quorum manus lia;c inciderint, ut, 
lit. nut sciunt undo haberi queat, ad typo- 
teris jam collectis aggre- 


m this statement we learn, first, that all the pieces in 

lume are genuine, having been copied by Gruter from 

il manuscripts, bearing marks of revision and correction 

■• !*< '"a himself; which manuscripts Gruter received directly 

<nii Sir William Boswell, to whom they had come directly 

-econdly, that Gruter had then in his 

bmioDi '* non diu premenda," certain other writings of 

aeon'.- (in Latin apparently) relating to morals and politics, 

which had come to Boswell along with these ; and thirdly, 

that he had in his hands (hut whether derived from the same 

source or not we cannot 8ay) some pieces written by Bacon in 

!d most of them unpublished ; and that of these he 
led shortly to bring out a Latin translation. 
With regard to the works contained in this volume, he 
• to have had no further information to give. lie has 
confined himself to the simple office of transcriber. The order 
in which tiny are arranged tells nothing either as to nature 
or date; ami the running titles, which are his own device, 
seem to imply a distinction which, being untrue, can only 
introduce confusion. By assigning separate running titles to 
tome of the pieces and printing all the rest under one general 
running title of Impetus Philosophici, any one would suppose 
that he meant to distinguish the first as in some way different 
in character from the last, — to separate the complete from 
the incomplete, for instance, the solid from the slight, or 
the deliberate and final judgment from the experimental and 
rudimentary essay ; — whereas there is in fact no such difference 
to be found between the two: there being pieces among the 
hut as complete in themselves as any among the first, and 
is among the first as incomplete as any among the last. 
And if I rightly understand Gruter's own explanation of his 
motive in making the distinction, — namely, lest the reader 
i impute the imperfection of the pieces to the fault of 
lead of the defervescens impetus of the author. 
u seem that he supposed the Descriptio Gloli 
nd the De Prineipiis it Oritjinibns to he com- 
. which he could not possibly have done if he had read 
■•villi his mind as well as with his eyes, 
fact probably is that the five pieces which stand first 
| irate titles — the priora per titulos suos separata — 
found copied out in a book; and that the rest,— "quie- 
ts 4 


quiil priorihus. &c. eonnecteretur" — were in separate paper*, 
tied up with it. We happen to know from the V<i»imvt>tiui<i.< 
Solutus that in the year 1608 this was the way in which 
Bacon's manuscripts were actually arranged, — that among his 
Libri Compo&itionum was one entitled Scripta in Naturali et 
['iiirvrsali PhiLisuphid, and that all his books "had pertaining 
to them fragments and loose papers of like nature with the 
hooks; and those likewise were bundled or laid up with the 
books." These last I presume it was, or such as these, that 
were called Impetus Phtfuxopliiri by the " Vir Magnus" (that 
is, by Boswcll, — for Bacon cannot be meant) with whom 
Griiter conferred about the papers : a description convenient 
enough for the purpose of distinguishing in a box of manu- 
scripts the loose from the bimnd-up pieces, but worse than 
useless when introduced, especially with such imperfect ex- 
planation, into a printed book. In the present edition, the plan 
of which makes it necessary to separate and disperse the 
several pieces collected by Gruter tinder this title, the title 
ii-i If is of course dispensed with. But if the reader wishes 
to know which of Bacon's posthumous writings he had taken 
paius to preserve by having them transcribed into a book, and 
which he had merely kept by him in loose bundles, — a point 
which it may sometimes be of use to ascertain, — he will find 
in the table of contents which I have just given all the infor- 
mation on the subject that can be extracted from Gruter's 

The duty of transcriber Gruter appears to have performed 
tolerably well ; there are but a few places in which the text is 
manifestly corrupt ; but since he has attempted nothing more, 
it is to be regretted that he has left us without any informa- 
tion as to the fate of the original manuscripts ; not one of 
which, I believe, is known to be in existence. There is not 
one of them which would not be well worth examining, if it 
could be found ; not only for the correction of the text, but 
In cause some interesting questions as to date might possibly be 
cleared up by help of the interlineations and alterations. 

Another question well worth asking is, what became of those 

moral and political pieces which Gruter had received from 

Boswell, and had by him in 1653, and intended to publish ? 

I cannot hear that he ever did publish anything answering the 

iption ; and unless he transferred them to Dr. Rawley to 


be included in tbe Opuscula (1658), which does contain a few 
tilings of the kind, they remain to be accounted for. 

The unpublished English pieces, of which he announces his 
intention to bring out a Latin translation (an intention which 
I cannot learn that he ever fulfilled), may have been only copies 
of those which were published by Dr. Rawley in 1657. These 
were afterwards translated into Latin by S. J. Arnold, and 
included (see Acta Erttditorum, vol. ziii. anno 1694, p. 400.) in 
an edition of Bacon's Opera Omnia which was published at 
Leipeic in that year. 

In 1695 they were reprinted at Amsterdam by H. Wet- 
stenius in a separate volume ; with the title Francisci Baconi, 
§-c, Opuscula historico-politica, Anglice olim conscripta, et nuper 
Latinitate donata a Simone Joanne Arnoldo, Ecclesice Sonnenbru- 
geusu Inspector*. 

J. & 




This piece was printed by Gruter among the Impetus Philn- 
sophici; from which we may probably conclude that it had not 
been transcribed into the volume of Scripta in Nattmili it 
I'niirrsuli Philosophic ' : but that is all. There is nothing to 
determine the date of composition, unless it be the absence of 
any allusion to the new star in Ophiuchus in the place where 
ew star in Cassiopeia U mentioned. See note, § x. The 
value of the argument will be more easily understood by 
comparing the passage in question with a pa.- sage of the same 
import in a work, nhviously later, where both these stars are 
mentioned together. In both cases the question under discus- 
immutability of the heavens. In the Cogitationvx dt 
X/ituni Rerun, of which the date is unknown, we find,"... 
iiuitationcs in regionibus ccclcstibus fieri, ex cometis quibus- 
dam satis liquet j iis dico qui certain et constantem configura- 
iim stellia fixis servarunt ; qualis fuit die qui in 
sctate apparuit" This star in Cassiopeia 
appeared in 1572. But another of the same kind, and no less 
ippeared in September 1604. It is said to have 
liter, when first seen, than Jupiter 3 ; and though its 
tnesa diminished afterwards, it was distinctly visible for 
I IB a year. It attracted so much attention as to be 
the subject of three lectures of a popular character, given 
ilileo to crowded audiences; and it is difficult to believe 
either that Bacon did not know of it (he being then 44 years 

ibovf, p. 8. 
* lUntllu. quoted In the Life of Galileo, Library of Urt/vl Knoieledyt, p. III. 


old, and busy at the time with the Advancement of Learning, 
and quite understanding the significance of the phenomenon ;) 
or that, if he did, he could hare forgotten to mention it when 
speaking of the other. Accordingly, in the Deseriptio Globi 
Intettectualis, which we know to hare been written about the 
year 1612, the passage which I have just quoted appears in a 
new form. " Id enim [sc. admirandas in ccelo accidere muta- 
tiones atque insolent ias] perepicitur in cometis sublimioribus, 
iis nimirum qui et figuram stellae induerunt absque coma, neque 
solum ex doctrine" parallaxium supra lunam collocati esse pro- 
bantur, sed configurationem etiam certam et constantem cum 
stellis fixis habuerunt, et stationes suns servarunt, neque 
errones fuerunt ; quales setas nostra non semel vidit ; primo in 
Cassiopea, iterum non ita pridem in Ophiucko." 

That when Bacon wrote the tenth Cogitatio he had not 
heard of the appearance of this second new star, may be as- 
sumed with considerable confidence. The only question is 
whether such a phenomenon could hare been long known to 
the astronomers of his time, without his hearing of it; of 
which I can only say that it seems unlikely, and that, in the 
absence of all evidence to the contrary, the presumption must 
be that these Cogitationes were composed before 1605. That 
they were composed before the appearance of the new star in 
Cygnus, cannot be so safely inferred. That star was much less 
conspicuous ; and it is a fact that Galileo himself, treating this 
very same argument, mentions both the others without making 
any allusion to it, See Dial, dei Massimi Sistemi, p. 59. ed. 
Flor. 1842. 

The notes to this piece are Mr. Ellis's. 

J. S. 




De sectionc corpontm, continuo, et vacuo. 

Doctrina Demoeriti tic atomia aut vera est, ini ad demnn- 
strationcm utilitcr adhibetur. Non' facile enim est nntune 
subtilitatem genuinaro, et qualis in rebus ipsis invenitur, aut 

iitione complecti aut verbis exprimere, nisi eupponatur 
atniiius. Accipitur autem duobus sensibua atomic, nonmultum 
inter se diversis. Aut enim accipitur pro corpurum scctionia 

t'ractionis termino ultimo sive portione minima; aut pro 
corpora quod vacuo caret. Quod ad primum attinet, Iikc duo 

\ tuto et certo statui possunt. Altcrum, inveniri in rebu9 
dijpertitionem et comminutionem, longe ea quae sub adspectum 
radit subtiliorcm. Alterutn, earn tamen infinitam non esse, 

perpetUO divUibilem. SI quia enim diligenter attendat, 
rerom minutiaa in corporibus continuatis, eaa quse in 
corporibus fractid et discontinuatia inveniuntur aubtilitate longe 
vincere. Videmus enim parum croci in aqua infusum et agi- 
t:itmu, puta dolium aqua? ita inficere, ut ab alia aqua purn 
< tiam visa distingui poseit. Qua? certe dispertitio croci per 
a-|iiaui, sulitilitatem exquisiturimi pulveris superat. Quod 
mi fict, si tantundem pulveris ligni Brasilii, vel ba- 
lau.-tioruui. vel alicujua rei uptime colorata; (qua; tamen croci 

rem ad sc in liquoribus apcriondum et incorporamlum non 

it) irnmiaceas. Itaque ridiculum erat, atomoa pro parvis 
ittl corpaaculii qUffl -ul> radiia aolia ennspiciuntur uccipere. 

aim pulveris instar sunt; atomum autem, ut ipse Demu- 
t-rittj.-* aicbat. nemo unquam vidit, aut videre possit, Sed ista 
rerum dispertitio in odoribus multo magia mimbilem se oatendit, 

im si parum croci dolium aquae colore, at parum zibethi 
ornaculum am plum odore, imbuere et inficere potest, et aubinde 

' Sam In Crutor'« copy ~ J.S. 



aliud, et rursua aliud. Neque quisquam sibi fingat, otlore: 
luminis more aut etiam caloris et frigoris, absque communi- 
cations substantia difFundi ; cum notare poasit, odores etiatn 
rebus solidis, lignis, inetallis, adhaerescere, idque ad tempusnon 
exiguum; posse etiam frictione, lavatione, ab iisdern discuti et 
purgari. Vcrum in hisce et similibus, quod processus itjfinitus 
non ait, nemo eanus contradixerit; cum intra epatia et limitea, 
et coqiorum quantitates, hujusmodi dispertitio give diffuaio co- 
hibeatur : ut in exemplia antcdietis evidentissimum est. Quod 
ad secundum sensum atomi attinet, quod vacuum pnesupponit, 
atomumque ex privatione vacuidefinit; bona et seria diligentia 
Hcronia fuit, qua; ' vacuum coacervatum negavit, vacuum com- 
mistum asseruit. 3 Cum enim pcrpctuum corporum ncxum 
cerneret, neque inveniri prorsus aut assignari spatium aliquod 
quod corpore vacet ; et multo magia, cum corpora gravia et 
ponderosa sursum ferri, et naturae suas quoquo modo deponere 
et violare potius quam divulaionem absolutam a corpore con- 
tiguo patiautur, videret; naturam a vacuo majoris notae, aive 
coacervato, abhorrere prorsua statuit. Contra, cum eandem 
corporis materiam cuntrahi. et coarerari, et rursus aperiri et di- 
latari pcrspiceret, et spatia ina^qualin, interdum tnajora interdum 
minora, occupare et complere; non vidit quomodo hujusmodi 
ingressus et egressus corporuiu in locis miis fieri posait, nisi 
propter vacuum admiatum, minus videlicet cmpore eompresso, 
plua relaxato. Necesae enim esse, contractioncm istani per 
unutn ex his tribus modia fieri ; aut eo quern diximus, ncmpe 
quod vacuum pro ratioae contractions excludatur ; aut quod 
aliud aliquod OOrpua priiis intermixtum exprimatur; aut quod 
sit quacdnm naturalis (qualis qualia ea ait) corporum condensatio 
et rare! actio. Atque quod ad corporis tenuioris expresaionem 
attiuct, ista ratio nullum exitum habere videtur. Nam verum 
est, apongiaa, et hujusmodi pornsa, expresso acre enntrahi. 
De acre ipso autem nianifestuin est per plurima cxperimentu, 
eiUD* spa tin notnbili contrabi posse. Num ergo et ipsiua aiiris 
Bubtiliorem partem exprimi putandum est? et deiuceps hujus- 
moai partis aliam, et sic in infinitum? Nam adversissimum 
tub ojjiiiinni rst, quod quo tenuiora corpora siut, 00 majorem 
tionem Bustineant; cum contra fieri oporteret, si con- 
do per expreasionem parti.-, tenuioris fierct. Atque de ilia 


' f\n OraUr'i copy. j. s. 

9 aotv ou AW. Org. u . 48. [Vol. L p. 347] 

' cum in Grater's copy.— /. & 



alien* EDodOj BOrp t . a<lem, nee alias mutata, tamen 

ft minus in raritate aut. deositate recipere, non multum 

i. I'.'-itivura enim quiddam videtur esse, ct 

ration' et inexplicata niti, qualia sunt fere Aristotclis 

ta. Reetat itaque Urdus ille modus, qui vacuum 

■u|r|Mtiiit. Quod Bi illud i|uis ubjiciat: durum videri, et fere 

iihiie, ut vacuum admistuiD sit, outa corpus ubiquc re- 

pcriatur; is si cxcmpla qua modo adduximus, aquas croco, vel 

odoribue inhvti, aniino scdatiorc consideret, facile per- 

I oallam partem posse asaignari aquae ubi crocus non sit, 

n maaifastttm esse ox oontparatioae orod et aqua; an te- 

ntur, corpus aquae corpus croci multis numeris 

Quod si id in diversis corporibus invenitur, multo 

s in corpora et vacuo hoc fieri putaudum est. Verum in 

parte, Herouis, utpote hominis mechanici. contemplatio, 

Democriti, philosophi clarissimi, inferior fuit : quod Hero, 

•piia lii- apud Doe in nostra tato orbe vacuum coacervatum 

DOB repent, ideo illud atmpliciter aegavit. Ml enim impedit, 

<|in iiuiniir- in regionibus ffltheris, ubi pmculdubiu majorcs sunt 

COrp or um axpansiones, etiam vacuum coacervatum sit. In lis 

autem loquiaitioiubuB el Buuilibus semel monitum sit, ne quis 

propter tantam Datura tulitilitatem confundatiir et diitidat. 

tet enim et unitates et summas rerum ex icquo supputa- 

timii -nhmitti. Tarn facile enim quis mille annos dixcrit aitt 

irit', 411am mille momenta; cum tamen anni a multis 

conetituantur. Nequc rurous existimet aliquis, Ban 

■ulaliouis curiosa: esse, quam ad opera et usum re- 

. enim est omnes fore phitosophos et alios qui ia 

expericntia et rebus particularibus scdulo veraati sunt ct 11a- 

tiiram ad vivuni diftfiecuerunt, in hujusmodi iuquisitiones in- 

feliciter non peragant. Ncque alia sub«sst 

eerior, ob quam philosophia quam habemus 

tuurn -it Bterilis, ni-i quod vurborum et notionum vul- 

im Bubtalitatee captavit; natunc subtilitatem non persecuta 

• inqotrere oonstituit 

ulitate ac iuanjualitate Atomorum sire Seminum. 
invents el placita talis ex majore parte fuere, 
a<l ordinem potius quendam religiosorum fundandum, 




quam ad scbolam in pltilosopbia aperiendaui, aecomiuodata 
oaaont ; quod et evcutus eompi>>l>avit. Ea enim diseiplina plus 
in lueresi Maiuebawiuu et superstition? Mahumeti quam 
pliilusophos valuit et floruit. Opinio tarnen ejus, munduni ex 
numeris eonstarc, eo sensu aeeipi potest, ut ad natura 1 principia 
oenetret. Duplex enim est, atque adeo es9e potest, opinio dc 
atomis sive rernm eeminibua : una Democriti, qu:e atomis in- 
xqualitatrm <t liguram, el per figurnni situm, attribuit } altera 
rbrteasQ Pythagone, qua; eas omnino pares et .-imiles efse as- 
seruit. 1 Qui enim cequalitalcm atomis assignat, is omnia in 
numeris m-rc-sario point ; qui auteni reliqua attribute admittit, 
is naturas primitivas atumorum singularium prater numcros 
nve rationes cohionum adhibet. Activa autcm qua;stio qua: 
huic spee.ulalivue respimdct eamque detenniuare potest, ea est 
quam etiani Democritns addueit; utrum omnia ex omnibus fieri 
possint.- Quod enm ille a ratiane eBenum putassct, atomoruta 

diversitatein tenuit. Nobis vero ea qinrst-iu nun bene institula 
nee qmestionem prioreza premere videtur, si de tnuisinulatione 
inimcdiata corporum intelligatur. Vertim utruru etiam per 
debitos circuitus et mutationes medias universe nun transeant, 
ea deruum qnatttio legitima est. Dubium enim non est, se- 
iniiia ivmiii, licet sint paria, postquam se in certas tunnas et 
Qodos (Minjeeerint. eorpnrimi dissimiliuni naturam omnino in- 
ducre, donee ea3dem turnne aut nodi dissolvantur ; adeo ut 
Qompositorum Datura et aft'ectua ttaoamotationi immediatai mm 
minori impediment*? ac obiei, quam simplieiuin, esse possit. Ve- 
riLiu Democritua is oorporum priitcipiis investigandis aeutua; in 
mntiiuni autein principHa examinandis sibi ioipar et imperitus 
deprehenditur; quod etiam commune vitium omnium philosopho- 
lum t'uit. Atqtieuujus de qua loquimnr inquirhiuuis de prima 
couditioue scmiinim sive atnnionnn ntilitas, ncscimus an non sit 
omnino maxima; ut qua; sit actus et potential supmna regula, et 
Bpei et opcrnm vera moderatrix. Ktiaiu alia inquisilio inde Huit, 
oojua utilitas oomplexu minor., aed rebua et operibua propioreat. 
t <le Beparatione et alteratione; boo est, quid per separa- 

1 It is possible th it Bacon mny haw been led to tuggeet tlii- view of the Pythagu- 

tUkMophj In !'.,hxj. I. 16. It ft there taiil that Eephan- 

tua, a Pythagorean of Syracuse, took a* first princ/lptcs moms and vacuum. rai yip 

nu^07u,'i«ds ji'/i-dSaj ojrrot -wpuiTos airtipjiearo awnaTixai. Hut a* metaphysical con- 

k. a natural tendency to assume a merely i<)«> ^ i< ;i 1 character, 

the bteiefa parallel between Dcmocrttui and Pythagoras may, It h not improbable, 

hive occurred to him Independently of thi< or any limilar passage. 




tionetn fiat, ct quid alia ratione. Familiaris enim est animu 
bumano error, qui etiaiu a ehvmistarujn pbilosophia magnum 

■ et incrementum aooepit; ut ea separationi deputentur, 
quai alio speetent. Exempli gratia; cum aqua in vapmvni 
lit, facile quia opinetur partem aqua* subtilion in emitti, 
craMiorein Babfistere; ut in ligno videre est, ubi pars in fininma 
i t tamo e-volat. pan in cincre manet. Simile quiddnm et in aqua 
fieri quia putet, licet mm tarn manifesto. Quamvia enim tota 
Mtta quandoque ebullire et consumi videatur, tamen faeces quas 
dam ejus, tanquamcincreiu, van adhoerescere posse. Verura et 
ista ratio OOgitationem fallit. (.Vrtissimum enim eat, totuin 

U aqos in oereta posse mutari, et a quid vasi adhaercseat, 

i>l nun ex delectu et sepurat'nuie partis crassioris, sed forte 

ut aliqua pars (licet pari nmnino cum ea qua; evnlat snb- 

itn vas tetigerit, evenire; idque exeniplo argenti vivi 

quod totum fit volatile, et rursus tot um absque 

diminutione vel tantilla consietit. Ktiam in olco lanipadum et 

>-andelarum, totuin a pingui fit volatile, nee aliqua fit inci- 

bo; namraligo post flatumam, non ante flammam, gignitur; 
ct flammac cadaver, non olei aut B6T1 sedimentum e?t. Atque 

iditum quendam ad Dcmocriti npiiiioncni dc diversitate 
aaniMilini sive atomomrn labefactandam prabet. Aditum, in- 

. in aatura; nam in opinione aditus ille est multo mollior 

indior, quod pbilosophia vulgaris materiums suam commen- 
titiam ad omnes formas sequam et communem fingit. 

wglitjentia veterum in innuisitione <U- Motu et Moventibiu 

n rum I rittttpiu, 

:'>mm <!<• Natura in Motu contemplando et exami- 

nando maxime oollocare, ejus est qui opera spectct. Quieta 

i rerum principia contemplari aut comminuci, corum est. 

rjtii serrnones serere et disputationes alere vclint. Quieta 

toco principia, qu» docent ex quibua res conflentur et 

taut, noti autem qua vi el via coalescant Neque enim 

i pote&tatem sive operationem bumauam axnpli- 

idam sufficit, aut mognopere attinet, nosse ex quibus res 

. -i modus et Mas mutatioiium et transformationum 

m sumpto exemplo a mechanicis 1 (a qua nam 1 

. WioilK ri'.nttnx fi>r mrilich. ifi:i'l ijvorui:.. 

c a 



phanmsia eelebrcs illiK de prineip is rerum inquiaitiones flu- 
xiase videntur), an forte qui simplicia theriacam ingredientia 
imvit, is pro eerto theriacam componere potest? Aut qui 
hari, vitri, panni, materialia recte descripta apud se habet, 
urn propterea artem qua? ad coram pneparationem et effecti- 
oncm pertinet tcuere videtur? Atque in hujusmodi tamen 
prineipiis mortuis investigandis et examinandis hominum specu- 
lationes prarcipue occupata? sunt ; ac si quis cadaveris natura? 
Mnatnmiam iDflpioere, non nature viva? facilitates et virtufts 
mquirere, sibi propnnat et destinet, De moventibus autem 
rerum prineipiis senno fere in transitu habetur; ut omnem 
admirationem superet, si mtueamur quam negligeuter et dis- 
solute res omnium maxima et utilissiina inquiratur et tracte- 
tur. Etenini si cogitationeiu du iis qua; dicuutur puulisper 
suseipiamus; num stimulus materia per privationem? num 
emirinatio materia; ad ideatu? num aggregatio particuluruni 
similiuni? num agitatio i'ortnita atoinorum in vacuo? num lis 
ctamicitia? num cceli et terrae impressiones reciproese? nutn 
elementnruni coinmerrium per qualitative symb ilizanles? l num 
inn u mis erelestium ? num sympitth'ue et anlipulhiie rerum? 
num occulta? et. specificje virtutes et proprietates? num latum, 
fortuna, necessitas? num, inquam, hujusmodi general ia, qua? 
nil aliud sunt quam spectra et simtilachra in superfieie rerum, 
veluti in aquis, natantia et ludentia, humanum genus beabunl 
aut opes homunas efficient auctioreaf Ista eaim pnuntaannm 
imptent, vel innant poiius; sed nil prorsus ad uperum e fleet io- 
nem, corporitm mutatinnem, aut motuum regimen f'aciunt. 
Atque rursus, de mottl naturali et \iulento, de motu ex setpao 
et aliunde, de termini* motuum, orgutari el BubtiKtatea rapture; 
et luee quoque nil admodum de oorpore Datum -tringunt; sed 
pottufl in cortice de.-cribtintur. Itaquc his missis, vel ad popu- 
-i run. a< - damnatifi et rclegatie, illi denium rerum appeti- 
tus et indinationes investigandae sunt, a qtiibiis ista, quam 
vi-lemus, tanta effect uura et nmtationum varietas in opcrihus 
<t nature et artis conflamr et emergit. Atque teutandum ut 
nature, veluti Proteo, vinculn injiciamus. Sunt cnim genera 
motuum recte inventn et discrete* vera Protei vineula. Nam 

1 Those elements arc said to lymhollw, nr to l>e allied, which have ■ i 

unci . Tim- nil •> inliu 1 jzi- willi fire, InUiliUctl U IK)lh are hot] and 

i'it. Iruntnueh u like water it i> rouist. In the preceding; ell .i 1 1 mlt--* 

■ >i-l_i Ui IrUlotle, Plato, Aiiitxagoni, Democrlfus, Empedodea, tail Parniciiiilei, 



prout motuum, id fist, incitationum ct cnhibitiommi, stiintili et 
nodi adliibrntur, ad illud sequitur materia* ipsius conversio ct 
tranaformat io. 


De divisione vulqari Mot us, quod sit inntilis, et minus acuta. 

DivjbiO Mot us recepta in philosophia popularift videtur et 
abeqoe fundamento, ut quae rem per effect us tantum dividit; 
atque ad hoc, ut per causas eciamus, nihil conducit. Nam 
generatio, corruptio, augmeutatio, diniinutio, alteratio, lutio 
ad locum, nil aliud quam opera et eli'ectus motuum sunt ' ; 
qui cum ad manife.stam rerum mutationem pervenerunt qua' 
populari nota? subjacet, turn demuni hisee noiuinibus (pingui 
contemplatione) insigniuntur. Ncquc enxm duhitaimis 
quin hoc sibi velint : cum corpora pur moturn (cujuscuiique 
sit generis) eo usque processerint ut formam novam teuearit 
vel veterem pouaut (quod vcluti periodus qua-dam i-st, H justi 
spatii confectio), id mo turn ffenerationu et corruptionia nomi- 
nari ; -in autcm, mauente forma, ijuautitateiu tantnmmodo i-i 
dniH-ii.-iionem novam ndipiacantur, id tnotum augmentation^M et 
dtiiitnutidiiis dici ; sin 5 , mancnte etiam mole et rlaustris sive 
Cffcamacriptkmfi, tamen qualitate, actionibus, et pasaionibua mu- 
ir, id inotuin ulUratiimin appellari ; sin, utancntc utique ct 
forma et mole et quantitate, locum et nil aliud mutent, id pot 
vaotum latiouis significari. Verum Inec omnia, acutius ct dili- 
gentius inspieicnti, mensura motus sunt, et period] sive curri- 
eula qmixlam motuum, et veluti pensa; non vera differentia;; 
cum quid factum :-it designent, at rationem fsicti vix inmiant. 
Itaqne bujosmodi vocabula doccndi gratia sunt neeessaria, et 
dialecticis rationilni- accommodata, naturalie autcm seientiffi 
egentiwrima, Omnes enim isti motus compositi sunt, el de- 
eompo/ni, et multipliciter compositi ; cum perite contemplan- 
tibus ad mmplioiora penetrandum sit. Nam principia, fontcs, 
cauwe, et formie motuum, id est omnigeme materia: appeti- 
tus et passioncs, philosophise dcbentur; ac deinceps motuum 

ill rnuniemllon it «tras that Bacon nm not aware that Keneration and 
cvifTui'tktn »cr* n<>t regarded tiy Ariitotlc as kind* of motion. But »ee ArlsL Pkyitc. 

There »re. »co>nling to Aristotle, three kinds of ntvqinf or motion, com-- 
•pirtullnu to the tin - which a^mit of contrariety ; namely, itigo»,-*oiov, nml 

fa the flr?t correiponda Increment or decrement ; tu the second, alteration i 

I h,] :is M. Biinilln ha." Dtiwrvril, ourhl to I" 


inqiressiones sive imptdsiones ; fraena et reluetationcs ; viae et 
obstruetiones ; alternationes et mixturse ; circuitus et catena;; 
dt-niqu;' universiis nuituuin |ii iiflmilin Neque enim disputa- 
lionea animosse, aut sermonea probabiles, aut contcmplationes 
vagre, aut ilniifjiie placita. specioaa, multum juvant. Sed id 
agendum, ut modis debitia, et ministerio natune conveuieati, 
mot urn quemcunque in materia susceptibili excitarc, cohibere, 
intendere, remit tore, multiplicare. ac aopire et sisterc possimus; 
atque inde corporum conaervationes, mutationea, et transfor- 
mationcs praeatare. Maxim e autctn ii motua sunt inquirendi, 
qui eimpiieea, primitivi, et fundanicn tales sunt, ex quibus re- 
liqui conrlantur. Certissimuin enim est, quanto simpliciores 
mntus invenientur, tanto magis humanam potest cttem umpltfi- 
eari, et a apecialibus et pracparatis materiia liberari, et in nova 
opera invaleaccre. Et OBTtfl qtiemadmodum verba sive vo- 
cnbula omnium linguarum, immensa varietato, e paucia Uteris 
sioqilicibua componuntur ; pari ratione universal rcrum actionem 
el virtutcs a pauoif motuuin simplicimn naturis et originibus 
constttauntur. Turps autom t'uerit honunibaSj propria vocia 
tintinmihula tarn accurate explorasw, ad natune autem vocein 
tain illiteratos esse; et more prisci eeculi (antequam literce in- 
vents! assent) sonos tantuiu coinpusitoa et voces diguuscere, 
elementa et litems dod diettngaere. 


De Quanta Materia certo, et quod" 1 mutafio Jiat absque 


Omnia inutari, et nil vcre interire, ac summam materia proHDS 
criuilciii manere, satis constat. Atque ut oiiinipotentia Dei 
opus erat, ut aliquid crearetur e nihilo ; ita et eimiiis omni- 
potentia reipiiritur, ut aliquid redigatur in nihil um. Id sive 
per destitutionem virtutia conaervatricis eive per actum dis- 
aolutionis fiat, nihil ad rem : tantum nccesse est, ut decretum 
intercedat Creatoris. Hoc poaito, nc cogitatio abstrahatur aut 
materia aliqua fictitia intelligatur. etiam illnd ngnificamm] 
earn a nobis introduci materiam, atque ea Datura investita&ij ut 

1 a manuscript in the British Mn-iuin (Add. 41&9.),— >te a full account of which 
we my Preface tothe OogitaHamn .!<■ SeiuUia HmmmS, the first piece In the third Purt, 
— contains the liMi. sixth, seventh, unrl tenth of these CogltaUone*. It bm » 
■linViem readings, which I will point nut here, though they are almmt all lui-t.ik .. 
— ./. N. 

■■■■ In ms. 



possit, huic cnrpori plus materia* adesse, illi autcm 
(licet candem im-n-ma n expleant) minus. Exempli gratia, 
plumbo pin-, aquae minus, ae'ri multo minus : neque hoc solum 
■definite et ratione incerta et Burda, sed praccise ; adeo ut 
lloa haec res pati possit, veluti plus duplo, triplo. . t similiter. 
Itijur -i quia dieat ■Bran ex aqua fieri posse aut rursus 
aqiiani ex acre, audiam; si vero dieat similem mensuram aquSB 
in -imilem meusuram a&ra \crti posse, non audiam; idem 
enini est ac si disdnel aliquid posse redigl in nihilum. Si- 

r e converso, .-i dual datam mensunun aSria (exempli 
gratia ftmeam conteuti ccrti aeris plenum) in similem men- 
sunun aqua' terti posse, idem est ac si dieat aliquid fieri posse 
ex niliilo. Ex liis itaque positis, tria pnerepta sive eonsilia ad 
nam -l.rivare jam visual est; ut homines pcrilius, et propter 

un feliciufl, cum datura negotientnr. Prinuun bujusmodi 

I liomines frequenter naturain de ratiniiibu- suis reddendis 
interpellent ; hoe est, cum corpus aliquod quud prius sensui 
m;uiilV--tuiu erat aufugisae et disparuisse videant, tit non priiis 
ratioues admit lant ' aut liquident, quam demunstratum eis fu- 
erit quo tandem corpus ill m 1 aHgraverit, et ad qute reception 
-it. H >«•. ut nunc sunt res, negligentissime fit, et couteiuplatic 
pKruiiique cum aspectu desinit ; adeo ut flamma?. rei vulga- 

.. receptum homines non norint ; quandoquidem earn in 
corpu- :n' : ri - miitari i'alsissimum sit. Secundum hujusmodi, ut 
turn homines* considerent necessitate!!) nntura- prur.-tts aila- 

mantiuaiTi qua- materia meet, at m raateatel sec in nihilum 

cedat aut solvatur. illi rursus; nullum genus vexationis et 

ionis materia' pnetermittant, si ultimas ejus operationes 

et ohctinaiiones detegere atque educere velint. Atque hoc 

nun non admodum artificiosum certe videri possit; quia 

ncgat? sed utile tamen quiddam videtur, neque nihil in eo est. 

tea, ri placet, etiam nune. par um observationis huic 

r. i aoUpergamus, Itaque sic habeto. 3 Maximum certe homini, 

>|n ranti tire experienti, impedimentum occurrit, quod 

i' ma-sun certain absque diminutione aut accessions 

I premere et subigere vix licet; sed Beparatiose laeta 

. i- aluditnr. Separatio autem duplex intcivcnit, aut 

j'.'UTS materia^ evolet, ut in decoetiniie : aut saltern quod 

*io lit, ut in Horc lactis. Intcntio itaque mutationis 

■ r in M- 

* ImmiKta en- 
. 4 

kabelr ill Ms. 


oorporum prof"unda3 et intUM non alia est, ipiain si materia 
omnino debitis. tnodis vcxctur ; scd tainen ishe dmc separa- 
tiones nibilominus interim prohibeantur. Turn cnim materia 
vere const ringitur, ubi tug:r nmnis via intercipitur. Tertium 
dcuique bujiismodi, lit homines cum corporum ahenttioiies in 
eadem materia. 1 msssa, neque aucta neque diminuta, fieri vi- 
dcant, primum eo crrore phantasiam liberent, qui alte rueret ; 
nlterationem nenipe tantummodo per sepanitinnem fieri ; de- 
lude ut Bedolo et perite distinguere incipiant de alterationibus. 
quando ad eepnrationem referri debeant; quando ad disonli- 
nationem tantum, et variant positioned) partium absipie alia 
separatioue; quando ad utramque. Neque enim (credo) cum 
pyruru immaturum et acerbum inanibus ' fortius attrectainus, 
contundimus, et subigimus, nude illud duleedinein ucquirit ; 
aut cum succinum vel gemma in pulverem subtilissiinum 
redacta colorem deponunt; materia} pars notabilis di-perditor; 
sed tantum partes corporis in nova poflitionfl eoiwtituuntur. 
Reatat ut errorem quendam ex opinionibus homiuum evel- 
lamus, euju- M vis est, at si tides ci udliibeutur \ aliqua 
ex his qiue diximus pro despera-tis haberi possint. Vulgaris 
enim opinio est, rerum spiritus, cum ad intensiorem quendam 
gradum tenuitatis per calorem evecti 8 sunt, etiam in vasis *o|i- 
dissiiuis (puts argents, vi r ri ) . per ooonltot eorundcui poros et 
meatus I voiare '; quod minus verum est. Neque enim vJa aut 
spiritUB, licet aooedentfl ealorc rarefactus, non flamma ipsa, 
tarn libenter se comminuit, ut per hujtismodi poms exitum >ihi 
quaerere aut facere sustineat. Verum ut nee aqua per riniani 
\alili' parvam. Ha nee aer per bttjusinodi eifluit. Nam 
ut aer aqua longe tcnuior, ita ct tales pori rim is conspieuis 
longe subtiliorcs sunt ; neque opus liaberet 5 sub \ase operto 
surlbeari, si bujiismodi perspirationes i 111 ullo modo praesto 
essent aut conipeterent. Kxemplum autem quod adducunt 
miscrum est, vel potiua miserandum; ut sunt pleraque eontcm- 
]>lationc8 vulgaris philosopbiiv, ctun ad particulars veritum i .•-!.'• 
Aiiuit cnim, si charts inflaiumnta in poculum mittatur, et 
eubito OS poeuli super vas uquai couvertatur, aquam sursuin 
tralii; propterea quod postquam flamma, et aer per llammaiu 
rarefactus, qua? spatii aliquantum impleverant, per poros fa&U 
exbalaverint, restare ut corpus aliquod succedat. Idem in 

1 per man hi in MS. 

♦ tcolari in i;r'iter'» edition. — J. S. 

• fj/iibrittur in MS. 

1 habrr-l Jlum i .1 in Ms 

* mmtm in MS. 

* tit in MS. 


rentosis fieri, qme carnes trahunt. Atque de successimie 
aquse \<I OHRUa bene sentiunt : «1 «• enm i|iue pnecedit, ini- 
periti--ine\ Xeipio cnim est aliqua corporis cmissio, ipia; 

•pathiffi pnebet, sed sola corporis contract io. Corpus enim 

in quod flam inn recidit, longe minus spatiurn complrt, qwa 

tliimiia iintcquam ex-tingueretur. Hinc fit illud inane, quod 

mem deciderat. Atque in ventosis hoc evMlcutissimum 

Nam Btna MM fortius trabere volunt, spoiigia aqUfB 

lie infuan illaa tangunt, ut per IVigus aer interior qob- 

densetur, et se in minus spatiuni colligat. Itaijuc demiraus 

i-crto hominibus cam solicitudinem, ne de spirituum tain facili 

evomtkme laboreal i nun et illi spiritus, quos nape deaiderant, 

odomiDi saponin), similium, non semper 1 extra sepia evobnt '•'. 
intra euni'undantur »j iu>c certisshnum est. 

De Quiete Apparent?, et Consistentla, et Fliim-r. 

QtlOD i|u;e<l:un quiescexe vidcantur et iiuitu privari, id secun- 
dum totum aut integrum recte videtur, secundum partes autc.m 
hoininiim opinioncm fallit. Quies cnim simplex et absolute, 
ctin partiluis et in toto 4 , nulla est ; sed qua- esse putatur, 
|ier motuuin impedimenta, cohibitioncs, et icquilibria etricitur. 
Exempli gratia, cum in vasis 1 in f'utido peribratts, quibus hor- 
tos irrigamus, aqua (si os vasis obturetur) ex tbraminibus illis 
non eflluit, id per motum rctraheuteui non per naturam quic- 
scentem fieri perspicuum est. Aqua enim tarn contendit ■!■ - 

lere, quam si aotu suo potiatur; sed cum in summitate 
vasis non sit quod sucoedat, aqua in imo ab aqua iu Bummo 

'litur et vim pntitur. Si quis enim alteram infinni- 

i in facta teneat, ut se movere non possxt, atque illc 
nttatur tamen' scdulo, non propterea minor est motus reni- 
rintia'. quia non prasvalet, et a niotu fortiori ligatur. Hoc 

00 (|ikk1 dieiinus de falsa quiete, et in rebus irmumeris 

iitiU gmtu est, et non minimum lucis pnebet in impn- 

-itioue natura? solidi et 7 liquidi, sive consistentiic ct fiuoris. 
Soli'la enim videntur in positione sua manere ct quiescexe, 
liquid* autem moveri et confundi. Neque cnim columna ex 

'. MS. » rrol-iHl in MS * confundutitur in MS. 

tilmi ri rn tittn nm MS. * vitilmt In MS. 

Mv eillt. lumen romm .illi-i i&ujilcrea. i MS. 


aqua, aut alia effigies cxstrui potest, ut dc 1 

Hgno vel lapidt 
Itaque in promptu est opinari, parte- aqtUG superiores conten- 
dere (mutu, qucni appellant, naturali) ut defluant: partes 
autem ligni non item. Atqui boti vi ruin mm est; eum idem 
insit niotus partibus HgnL quse in sunimo coUocantur, ut don- 
sum ferantur, qui aipue; irfque in actum perduceretur, nisi 
ligaretur et rctraheretur iste motus a motu potiorc. la autem 
est ccrte appetitus continiiitatis, sive separations fuga j qua; 
et ipsa tain aqua": quain lignn competit. sad in ligno est motu 
gravitatis fortior, in aqua debilior. Nam quod ex liujusiuodi 
mutu etiam quid liquida sunt partieipent, id mamTestum est. 
Vidimus enim in bulbs aqua 1 , ad separationcm evitandam, 
aqiiam se in pellicular cunjieere, in hcmisplnurii Ibrmam con- 
fietas. Videmus etiam in stillicidiis, aquam ut aqua* eontinu- 
etur, in tilum exile se pioducere et atteuuarc, quoad Bequens 
a< gun suppetat ; sin auteiu deficiat aqua acl continuatiomni. 
tuflB H in guttae rotundas recipere, qnarum diameter file* ilk) 
priore sit multo major. 2 Simili modo videmus. aquam com 
minutionem magis exquisitam aigrc pati, cum ex ibranainibus 
et rimis (si subtiliores suit) naturali suo pon«l< iv absque con- 
OOinOttC non ettluat, Quare constat appetitum continuitatis 
Stum liquidis inesse, sed debilem. At contra in rebus solidis 
viget, et motui naturali sive gravitati praidominatur. Si quis 
enim csistimet, in columna ligni vel lapidis superiores partus 
non dHHueru eupere, scd se in codem plane statu su=-tinere ; 
U facile se corriget, si coustderct colmnnam, give similia, si 
altitudo ejus ad latitudiiiem basis non sit propnrtionata, sed 
modum exeedat. stare mm posse, sed devexo pondere f'erri ; 
:i«l<<> u( -tinii'tnris pra-allis necesse sit ut ad pyramidis t'ornmm 
ineliiu'iit, it Bint versus suimnitatem angustinres. Qual» 
autem sit ea natura qu;e appetitum istum continuitatis in- 

tt aut remittal, non facile imjuirenti occurret. Illud 

uggererur, partes solidorum esse aegis denaaa et 

eompactas ; liquidorum 5 magifl raras et solutas; aut liquidis 

eubesse spiritum, quod fluoris sit principium, qui in solidis 

. et liujusmotli. Sed neutrum horum veritati conso- 
iiiun est Manif'estum enim est, nivem et cerani, QUC Si 
et Hngi el impresaionea recipere possunt. argento vivo aut 
plumbo Liquefaeto longe esse rariora, ut in ratione pondcruni 

' el i 

■i train «nit mnjii> lit Ms. 

hnuorunt in MS 



«*\ iuciliir. Quod si quis adhuc insistat, fieri posse at nix nut 
cin. Boel -it (iii loto) argento vivo rarior, tamen habere 
^it partes njagis clausas et compactas ; verutn quia sit corpus 
spongiosum et cava raulta et acrein rccipiat, idco in siiiiiina 
ettici leviorem ; ut in puraice fit, qui cum pro ratione molia sit 

■e ligno levior, tamen si utrumquc in pulverem redigatur, 
pulverem pumicis pulvere tignj futurum graviorem, quia cavi- 
Utes iliac non amplius adsint ; hiec bene notata et objccta sunt 
Sed quid ad nivem et ceram oolliquatam dioent, ubi jam <-a\i- 
tates expleta* sunt ; vel quid ad gunmii corpora, ma.-ticlien, et 
similia, qua' cavitates istae manifestas non habent, ct tamen 
sunt pluribus Uquoribue leviora? Quod autcm de spiritu 
cujua vim et imnctum res fluant ; id certe priran 
intuitu probabile eet, et. nottonibuj communibua familiar. ; 
rcipsa autem durius est et magis crruucum ; cum vera; ratioui 
non solum non iunitatur, sed fere opponatur. Spirit us eniin 

[in in ilirunt, revera (quod tniruin fortasse dictu) consi- 
-tciitiuiu inilucit. non rluoivm. Quod el optime in iiistautin nivis 

tUT, qua cum ex aqua et aeie cnmposituin corpus sit, 
CUfiique el aqua >t air scorsim fluant, in inixtura tamen con- 

iiiam adipiacitur. Quod si ijuis nbjiciat, id erenire 
ex eondenaatione aquesj partis per rrigus, et nun ab interpo- 
tiitione aeris; U bo corriget, si aoimadvertat etiam spumam 
C VpUfl smile nivi esse, quod tamen a frigore nullo modo con- 
deasetur. Sin adhuc orgeat, et in apuma pnecedere 1 conden- 

;icm, nou a frigore, sed tamen ab agitatione et pvirussimic ; 
ii pueroa consulat, qui ex levi aura per tistidaiu sive calamuin 
mapirata, <A aqua (ob parum Baponia admixtum) paulo tena- 

. in i ram et turritam bullarum stracturam conficiunt. Res 
autem ne se habet : corpora ad tactuiu corporis atnici sive 
?-imili^ so solvere el laxare; ad tactum autem corporis dis- 
-« iit'untis se stringere et sustanere. Itaquc appositumcm 

oris alieoi esse consistentite causam. Sic vidcmus oleum 

admistum, ut fit in unguentis, liquiditittein, quae et in 

aqua et in oleo antes vigebat, quadantenus exuere. Contra 

nil-, papyrum aqua madefactam se solvere, et consistcn- 

((pia- iil> air.iii antea in poris admistum valida era!) 

: oleo vero madefactam, minus ; quia oleum papyro 

i:n. Idem quoque in saecharo videmus, et siini- 

M. Hmiilli-t rcaiN /irwrri/c/r, which i> doubtltM rli>ht. 


libus, qunj ad aquain vel vinum introniittenda se laxant, nequc 
solum cum liquores illis incuiubunt, sed eosdem quoque sugunt 
et sursum trahunt. 1 


De consensu rnrporum, qua sensu pratdita sunt, et qua 
sensu caretlt. 

PaSSIoNKs corporum, quit" sen.-u dutantur, et qua? MB8U carent, 
inaguiiin > ( »ri-. ii~iiin luibent; nisi quod in corpore sensibili ac- 
ecdat spiritus. Nam pupilta oculi spcculo sivc aquis sequi- 
]iaratur; et simili natura imagines lucis et rcrum visibUtuin 
excipit et re r Jdit. Organ um autem auditus obici intra locum 
eavernosum* conforme est, a quo vox et sonus optirae residtat. 
Attractiones autem rerum inanimatarum, et rursus horrorc* 
sivc fugac (eas dico, qua; ex proprietate fiunt) in animalibus, 
olfactui atque oduribus gratis et odicMOB conveniunt Tactus 
autem ratio et gustus, omnem quae in corporibus mammal is 
accidcre possit aut violentium aut cuntra insinuationem nlmain 
et amicam, ac universas carundciu passionum figuras, vcluti 
vates aut interpret exprimit. Nam compressions, extensiones, 
erusiones, separatiuncs, et similia, in corporibus raortuis in pro- 
1T.-.-11 latent, nee nisi post ett'eetum manii'estum percipiuntur. 
In animalibus autem cum sensu doloria secundum diversa 
genera aut cbararteivs vmlcntia; peraguntur, permeante per 
omnia spiritn. Atque ab boo priiicipio deducitur cognitio, 
mini liirte nticiii animantium adsit alius qnttpttm sensus, prater 
eos qui notantur; et quot et quales sensus in universo ani- 
mantium genere esse possint. Ex passionibus cuim materia? 
rite distinetis scquetur mmicrus sensuum, si modo organa 
OOmpetanl et aeeedat spiritus. 


De Xlotu Violciito, quod sit fitija et diseursatio ptn/i/tui rei 
propter piissiirtim, licet minime visibilis. 

MoTDfi violentus (quern vocant) per quern missilia, ut lapides, 
sogitt®, globi ferrei, et siinilia per aerem volant, fere omnium 
motuum est vulgatissinuis. Atque in hujus tamen observatione 

1 The foltowlni! »entcnce is ftddtd In Oic MS : " Kndt'm est rt tpottgiMNni num. 
Qltln rt mrinlla iliim per Calorem lli|uc(lont, msynrrm parlimit ■tjlMlltfltcm ilr|n-ii.i 

ill cc»nmla(ionp olitineiit." 1 



et inquisitione miram ct supinam negligentiani hominum ri"- 
tare licet. Neque parvo detrimento in motlM ratios natura 
et potestate investiganda otT. mlilur: cum ad Infinite sit utilis, 
el tonaentis, machinis, et universal rei mechanicss, .-it instar 
animx et vita?. Plurimi autcm se perfunctos inquisitionc 
putant, si inotum ilhun violcntum BSM pronuntient, et a na- 
tural! distinguant. Atque is sane est Arlstotelis et roholse 
BJOS mos proprius et disciplina, curare ut habt-aut homines 
quod pronuntient, non quod sentient] et docere quuiiHtdu 
aliquis arHnnando aut oegando B6 expedite, non cogitando se 
•licare et sibi satisfaoere possit. Alii paulo atteatius, ar- 
repta illo posito duo corpora in uno loco esse non posse, restare 
aiunt ut quod fortius sit impellat, debilius eedat ; earn ces- 
rionem five fugam, si minor adhibeatur vis, non ultra durare 
<ju;uii prima impulaio continuetur j ut in protmsiuiie ; si autcm 
r, etiam rcmoto corpore inqiellente ad tempus vigere, 
donee sensim remittatur; ut in jactu. Atque hi rursus, alio 
■ ju-dern scholx more inveterato, primordia rei captant, dti 
-li et exittt non snllioiti ; tanquain prima qua-que eastern 
trahaot; quo fit ut Immatura quadam impatientia o oa templa^ 

ti.iiuin abrumpant. Nam nd id quod OOTpors Sttfa ipsiiin ictinii 

cedant, aliquid afferunt; sed postquam corpus impelleas jam 

roiiii.tuiii sit. adeo ut necessitas ilia conf'usinnis corporum jam 

plane cessaverif, cur postca tnotm enntinuettir, nihil dictiut, 

capiunt. Alii autem magis diligentea 1 el in 

inqnisitione perseverantes, emu vim aerie in veotss et tnxultbas 

quse vel arbores et turres dejicere possit animadvartJaBent, 

opiruiti ,-unt cam vim qua; liujusniodi missilia post piimam 

inpolsionem deducal et oomitetur aeri debere attribui, pom 

eorpua quod movetur collecto et ingruenti; oujus impetu eor- 

tanquam navis in gurgitc aqaarum vehatur. Atque Id 

• non deserunt, atque contemplationem ad exitum 

Ineunt; sed tamen a veritate aberrant, lies autem vcte 

in liutic modum so habet. Pneeipuua motus partibus ipsius 

1 8e< ■-. De SympatA. ei Aatiputh. i. ) . to whom BaruQ refers in the 

Vul. I. u. 301.] That the medium Ihrtiuch which a txaly l« pro- 
jects! I. the caiiH' of Its continuing to move after it hju parted tram that which 
it, had however been taught by Aristotle. Sec the i'Ay»i'e», vlll. ID. ; a 
tliniurh the theory of projectile, eont.ilnitl in it i» altogether f;il-' ;•' 
. tbjt Aristotle hid formed n ilistlnct though Incomplete conception o< the pro- 
■, medium. Arlttotie'i view ieemi not to h.ive turn 
tij hi« comment. itur.. S c Hi mdij'* >rWoi, p. 4.M., ftt bottom ; 
• i •- . li Subtil, li . and Vsinini, Diul-yi, xl. 


corporis, quod volat, incase vidctur : qui, cum viau ob niniuim 
subtiiitatcm nun percipiatur, homines non satis attendeuf. -. 
scil Levi oh-ervatione ram transmittentes, latct. Aeeuratius 
autein semtanti manifesto constat, corpora qua' duriora sunt 
pratuonifi e.-se impnticntissimu. et ejtisdem veluti seiisurn acu- 
tissimuin habere ; adeo ut qutim miuimum a iuiturali positi- 
one depulsa.. magna pernieitate nitantur ut liberentnr et in 
pristimiiH statinn resihnaiitur. Quod ut fiat, partes si ngn he, 
facto principio a parte pnl-aia. M iuviiriu umi serus ac v i* 
externa protrudunt ae urgent 1 ; et fit continua et intensisaima 
(licet niinime visibilia) partium tivpidatio et commotio. Atque 
hoc videmus fieri in cxcmplo villi, sacchari, et hujusmuili 
rcrum fragilimn ; qua: si mncronc aut ferro acuto seeentur ant 
diviilantnr, pmrinua in aliis pnrtibus, a tract u mucronia re- 
tinitis, quasi in inslanti ili-niiiquuitur. Quod cvidenter demon- 
strat communicatinnem mutus press unc in partes succeilentc.-. 
Qui motus cum per omnia nioliatiir et u tuque tentet, ca porta 
confraetioncm inducit qua ex pnecedente corporis ilispoauione 
minus tint is Brat compactio. Nequc lumen ipse motus, quando 
per omnia turbat et pereurrit. sub aspeetum venit, donee aperta 
fiat etfractio sive continuities tolutio. Rur.siis vidrmus, si 
forte filum I'-, rreum, aut bacillum, aut durior pars calami (vel 
hujusmodi corpora, qua? tiexibilia quidem sunt, non absque 
aliqua reniteutii) inter pollieem et indicom per extrema sua 
ciirvcntur et stringantur, ea statim prosilire. Cujus motus 
can a itianil'este deprebenditur non esse in extremis corporis 
parti 1 digitis stringuntur, sed in medio, quod vim 

patitur; ad cujus relevationcm niotua ille se expedit. In hoe 
auieii! excmplo plane liquet, caoeam illam motus quam addu- 
cunt ile iinpnlsioiie aerie excludi. Nequc cnini ulla fit pcreussio, 
qua: acrcm immittat. Atque hoc ctiam Icvi ilto experirnento 
evincitur. cum jiriini nueleum reeentem et lubricum premiums, 
digitosquc paulatim addttcimUB, atque hac ratione einittiuuis. 
Nam et in hoe qttoque exempio compresso ilia vice |» itiiaat 
oxdfl est EvidentiagimuB autem bujusee motus efieotua oer- 
Ditur, in perpi tuis conversionibua sive rotationibuB eorpnrum 
mis-ilium dam volant Siquidem ea procedunt utiquc, sed 
progrcasutn auiim faciunt in lineis spiralibns. hoe est pnoe- 
dendo et rotando. Atque certe is motus tpiralis, cum tarn sit 
rapidilSj et nihilominus tain expeditus, et rebus quodanuundo 

1 riytnt In Outer'* crillinn — J S. 


iainili;ui.s, nobis dubitationcm innvit. nuni forte ex altiora 
priucipio non penderct. Sed exislinmrnus DOO aliam causam 

rei Bobesse, quam eandem quam Dunctrsotoniua. Naxaque 
prcssura corporis afifatim motuin in paxtibns aire miuutiis ejus 
excitat, ut M qnacunqnfl via expediant et liberent. Itaquc 
eerpQ9 non solum in lines recta sigitur et provnlat, sed un- 
dequaque azperitor, atone idco ee rotat ; utroque enim mode 
ad ae laxanduin nounihil proficit. Atqae in rebus aalidis 

Le quiddam et abditum ; in mollibua evidens et quasi pal- 
pabile eat. Nam ul oen vi I i tliiniliiKTi, et hujusmodi molliii, 
in:ill.'<i percnaaa cednat, n«m tantum in directum, sed et in 
btera undequaque: codem uiodo Bt corpora dura sive ivui- 
Eriunt et in recta Lines el in circuitu. Ceaaie enim 
fH'pw alw in moUibus, el localia in dims, rations ootrraunnt ; 
■tsjoe in corporis mollis efibrmatione, corporis dnri pgsaio, cum 
et volat, optime conspieitur. Interim nemo existiiini 
nos prater motum istum (qui caput rci eat) non etism aliquas 
partes sexi devehenti tribuere, qui motum principalem adjuvare, 
■npedire, Hectare, regere possiL Nam e1 ejus rei potaatae eel 
dm parva. Atque base motus violenh sive meclianici (qui 
adhuc latnit) explicatio, veluti fons quidam practical Stfe 


Dc eauta motus in tornuntit fontis, quod ex parte tantum, nee ea 
potion, mquitita sit. 

Tormmntoiii m igneorum causa, et naotus tarn potentia el n»- 
1 ili- cxplicatio, manoa eat, «i ex parte potiora deficit. Aiunt 
enim polverem tormentarium, postquam in flammam eo&versni 
I extenuatns, ee dilatare et majua spatium occupsre: made 
sequi, — ne duo corpora in uno loco aint, ant dimensionmn pe- 
i'.'u> liit. aut forma elementi destruatur, aut situs partium 
•r naturam totiua sit (hsec enim dicuntur), — corporis quod 
.! cxpulsioncm vel eftVactionem. Nequc nihil est, quod 
diount Nam el iste appetitus, et materia' passio, et' hujus- 
modi EBOtns pars aliqua. Sed nihiloininus in hoc pecc&nt, 
qood ad Deeessitatcm istam corporis dilataudi rem pra> propers 
ptationr deducunt, neque qm>d nature priua est distincte 
i-ideranl- Nam nt Corpus pulvi ris, postquam in rlammaiu 
-i, majnrem locum occupet, necessitatem sane habet; 
i corpus pnlveris innammetur, idque tarn rapide, id 

1 M. BoUIIIM mull <TA/, 



simili necessitate non constringitur; eed ex pra?cedente motuum 
conflicta el comparatione pendet Nam dubiuin son c>t, quia 
corpus illud aolidnm et grave, quml jilt bujusmodi nmtum ex- 
trnditux vc] removetur, antequam eedatj sedolo ubnitatur; et si 
rnbustius .-it, Victoria potiutur ; id est, ut non flarnma 
glnbiim cxpcllat. Bed globus ilaminain suftbcet. Itaque si loco 
palverifl tornicntarii, siilphureiu vel caphuram vel similia acci- 
I • i . i - , que flumnam et ipsa cit<> oorripiont, et (quia corporum 
oompectio iiitiammationi impcdimento eat) ea in grana pulveris, 
admkta c'mcris juniperi vel alicujus ligni maximc combustilis 
aliqua portioae, enbrines; tames (si nitrum absit) motus iste 
rapidus et potens non sequitur : sed motus ad inrlammationcni 
a mole corporis renitentis impeditur et constringitur. net- se 
eiplioat aut ad affectum pertingit. Kei autcm Veritas sic se 
babel MotuiB istuni, de quo qua^ritur, geininatum et com- 
poettum reperias. Nam prate* mntum iiuiammationis, qui in 
sulphiirca pulveria parte maxiinc viget, subest alius ruagis 
f'ortis t*t violently. Is fit a spiritu crndo et aqueo, qui ex 
ditto maximc, et nonnihil a earbone salicis concipitur, qui et 
Ipse expanditur eerie (ut vaporea subdito calore aolent), sed 
una etiam (quod caput rci est) inipetu rapidissimn a calore et 
inflainniatione fiigit et erumpit, atque per hoc etiain inrlam- 
mationi vias relaxat et apcrit. Eiujuaofl motua nulimenta et 
in crepitatiouibus aridoruiu f'uliorum lauri vel hederas ccrnimus, 
cum in ignem mittuntur ; et magis etiam in sale, qui ad rei iu- 
quisiuc naturum propiua accedit. Simile etiam qii'ulilam et in 
candelaxum madido et in fioiolentia ligni viridis Hainmis 
-a-pc videmus. Maximc atitcin ctninet iste motus in argento 
vivo, quod corpus maximc crudum, et instar aquse miueralis 
eat; oojua vires (ii afa igne vexetur, et ab eadtu prohibeatur) 
nun multo pul vi ris iormentarii viribus inferiorea Mint. Itaque 
boo exemplo manendi homines start et rogsndi, ne ia famna 
rum inqnisitione unum aliquod arriptant, et facUc pronunticnt; 
aed cii'i-uui.-piciaiit, et contemplationee Baas fortius et altius 

De dittwdKtudine cadettium et niblunarium quoad aternitutan 
et mutabilitittem ; quod non sit verijicnta. 

Qi on recepturo eat, universitatem naturie veluti per globes 
recte dividi et distingui; ut alia ait ratio ecelestiurn, alia sub- 



Innarium ; id non absque causa introdtietum videtur, a in liac 
opinione modus adhibeatur. Pubium eniiu DOS est, quin re- 
gion*- be hmari pesttn et supra, una cum oorporibus 
tpm -i j1 • eisdem spatiis eontincntur, multu et niagnis rebus 
ditferunt. Neque tuinon hoe certius ast quam illud, corpori- 
bus utriusque giobi iaesee oomnmoaa inehnationes, passiones, ,,; 
motoa. Itaque umtatem natiinc sequi dehcinus. et ism distiu- 
•ruere potiu? quarn discerp oont) mplatiouem frangere. 
.uud olterhu receptumest, — ccelestia mutationes noa subire; 
sublunaria vero aut eleinentaria, qua vocant, ii.-dem ohnoxia 
esse; et materiam lh-nun instar meretrieis esse, novas f'ormas 
perpetuo appetentem ; illorum autem instar matrons, stabili et 
intemerato connubio gaudentein ; — popularis opinio videtur 
• t infirrna. et ex apparentia et superstitione orta. Videtur 
aut'in noil .ntcntia ex utraque parte lahilis et sine J'un- 
dameutn. Nam neque cudo ea eompctit aiternitas quam fin- 
gunt, nee rursus terra; ea mutabilitas. Nam, quod ad t celuni 
attxnet, non ea nitendum est ratione, mutationes ibidem non 
quia sub a-pectuin non veniunt. Aspectuxn enim frustrat 
ifporu subtilitas et loci distantia. Nam var'ue invenimiti II 
mutationes, ut in a?stu, frigore, odoribus, sonis, inanifestum 
i-mii non eadunt. Neque rursus (credo), si OCU- 
lus in etrculo Innse poeitus csset, a tanto intervallo qua> hie 
apnd no-- Hunt, et qui in BUperfick terra obveniunt motus et 
achinarum, animalium, plantarum, et hujusmodi, 
pusillaa rdicujus festucre dimensionem, ob distantiam, non 
it,; oernere posset. In oorporibua autem qua- tani.r 
molis et magnitudinia sunt, ut oh dimensioniim suaruni ampli- 
tudiuein spatia dlstantlarura vineere atquc ad aspectum per- 
realre j ><•->- 1 1 ri t ', mutationes in regionibus coclestibus fieri, ex 
eometis quibusdam satis liquet; iis dico, qui * certain et oon- 
jurationem cum stellis fixis servnrunt ; qualis J'utt 
ilia, quae 1 in Cassiopea nostra aetate apparuit.* Quod autem ad 
terrain att'mct : postquam ad interiora ejus, relicta ea qiue in 


It should apparently be ill*, qui. — J. S. 
' Th irwl in Ophluchiu In 1004 \- Ki-iwrally mentioned hy Galllm 

m w:ih i i it- one la Cat lo,>ei.i (allien appeared in 157a), as evidence 
..I the IrnmuUtiillty of ili>- heaeena. It serins, thai ihe 

. or not long after H.oi. espi 
: i> .ire mentioned together. Dnt n similar art 
tteti lirfotv or soon after 1600. .*> tin' ilrW star in 
not nn-iil ioiul. [«).: tbl l.nt point -:■• • . |ii : ,: \\ H.—J, v.] 

. III. I) 



suporfide el partibus pruximis iuvcuitur incrustataeae et mix- 
turn, penetration <>t, vidctur it ibi quoque similis ei quae in 
ccelo Buppanitai parp e t u haa existere. l'roeidiluhio cnim est, 
si in profuudo terra pateretur mutationes, conscquentiam earuin 
mutationum, otiain in nostra regkme, quani calcamus, majorea 
fuisse parituram quani fieri vidimus. Sane terra; motus 
pl'iique, et eruptiones aquaruin. vel eruetationes ignium, non ex 
profundo admodum, sed prope, insurgunt ; cum parvum aliquod 
spatium i:i niperficie occupent. Quanto enim latiorem regionem 
et traetum hujuamodi accidentia in facie terra" occupant, tanto 
magis radices sive origines eorum ad viscera terrae penetrare 
pufainlimi Mb Itaipie majorea terne motua (majorcs, inquam, 
ambitu, non violentia ) qui rarius rv.nluut, recte cometis ejus 
generis de quo diximus avpiiparari possunt ; qui et ipsi infre- 
quentes sunt : at illud maneat quod initio diximus. inter cneluni 
et trrram. quatenus ad Constantino et mutationem, non niultum 
interest. Si quem autem a?quabilitaa et certitudo motus in 
a o t p o ribna ooeleetibai apparent movet, veluti ■totnit a t M comes 
tm&vidntu; pmeto est oceanve, qui in nta mm haud molto 
minorem constantiam ostcndat. 1 Postremo, si quis adhuc in- 
stet, negari tamen non posse quin in ipsa superficie orbis 
tcrrarum et partibus proximis infinitac fiant mutationes, in OCBio 
noa item: buie ita responsvini Tohmnis: DM DM MM per omnia 
a-quarc: el tamen si regiones (quas vocant) superior fin ( A W 
illtini aerie pri) mperficM eut interiore tunica cadi acctpiamus, 
quemadmodum epaaoin istud apod nw, quo animalia, plantu-, 
it mincralia contincutur, pro superficie vel exteriore tunica terne 
HOcipimus, <t ibi qvoqne varias et inultiformes gcnerationea et 
mutationes inveniri.* Itaque tumult u- fere omnis, et conflict n>, 
i t perturbatio. in connnns tantam cu-li et terra 1 locum habere 

ir. U\ in rebus civiubua fit; in quibua illud frequenter 
u-ii \iiiit. in duorum regnorura fines oontinuis iucuraionibua 

ilentiia iofestentur, dum interiores utriusque regni provin- 
ce alta quiete fruuntur. Nemo autem, si 
uderit, religionem hie opponat. Nam ethnica jactau- 

■ lunimi'd'i pnvrogativa ista ccalum inateriatum donavit, 

nt sit iacoiTuptibile. Scripture nut m v - — eteroitatenn el 

rruptiooem co?lo et terra ex hhjuo, licet gloriam et vene- 

icm disparem, attnbuunt. Nam ?i legatur, solem et lunam 

» M|i»irr in MS. 


fideUs et aternos in ccelo testes esse ; legitur etiam, generationes 
migrare, terrain autem in sternum manere. Quod autem utrum- 
que transitorium sit, uno oraculo continetur, nempe caelum 
et terram pertransire, verbum autem Domini non pertransire. 
Neque haec nos novi placiti studio diximus, sed quod istn rerum 
et regionum conficta divortia et discrimina, ultra quam Veritas 
patitur, magno impedimento ad veram philosuphiam et natune 
contemplationem fore, haud ignari sed exemplo edocti, pro- 







■ - ;i natural result of the progress of maritime discovery 
in the sixteenth century, that mueh was thought and written 
on the subject of the tides. The reports continually brought 
home touching the ebb and flow of the bea on far distant 
-. not only excited curiosity, but also showed how little 
tli>' philosophers of antiquity had known of the phenomena 
which they attempted to explain. Men who dwelt on the 
shores of an inland sea, and whose range of observation 
extended beyond the Pillars of Hercules, were in 
truth not likely to recognise any of the general laws by 
which these phenomena are governed. Their authority ac- 
cordingly in tlii< matter, was of necessity set aside; and a 
Dumber of hypotheses were proposed in order to explain the 
newly discovered facts. Of these speculations an interesting 
•en in the twenty-eighth hook of the Pancotmia 
'atrichia. It is not, however, complete; no mention 
le of the hypothesis of Cacsalpinus, which is in itself a 
furious one, and which clearly suggested to Galileo his own 
un of the cause of the tides. Otto Casmann, the pre- 
face to wh.i-e Problematii Marina is dated in L>96, gives a 
deal of information on the same subject, some of which 
be simply copied from Parrieius; but he 
nlpinus, whom, as I have said, Patricius omits, 
it may be remarked, is a scrupulously orthodox phi- 
his work to (jregory X I V. with many 
■ and submission. 

D 4 



It is perhaps on this account that he has said nothing of 
Csesalpinus, whose works were " improbata; lectionis" and who 
seeks to explain the tides, and also certain astronomical pheno- 
mena, by denying the orthodox doctrine of the earth's immo- 

The earliest modern writer whom Patricius mentions is 
Frederick Chrysogonus, whose work on the tides must have 
been published iu 1.327. To his account of the phenomena 
little, according to Patricius, was added by subsequent writers; 
nor are his statements contradicted by the reports of seafaring 
men, who however mention certain matters of detail which he 
bad omitted. Of seamen Patricius particularly mentions Peter 
of Medina and Nieulaus Sagrus, the latter with especial com- 
mendation. From Sagrus (but probably through Patricius) 
Bacon derived some of the statements of the following tract ; 
those, namely, which relate to the progress of the tide-wave 
from the Straits of Gibraltar to Gravelines. On the day of 
new moon, according to Sagrus, there is high water along the 
coast from Taril'a to Rota at an hour and a half alter midnight. 
After mentioning several intermediate places, he says that 
along the coast of Normandy as far ns Calais and Nieuport 
there is high water at nine, and after a not very distinct state- 
ment as to the time of high water in the middle of the channel, 
goes on to state that lrot.i Calais bo Graveliucs the water is 
high offshore (in derota) at an hour and a half after midnight, 
that is at the same time as at Rota, and at Zealand at the 
Bane time SB on theeoastof Portugal. These statements are 
scarcely sufficiently accurate to make it worth while to com- 
pare them with modern observations ; hut. it is necessary to 
remark that Sagrus, though he mentions it as a remarkable 
circumstance that the time of high water should be the same 
at Gravelines and at K>>ta, does not mean to assert that there 
is any discontinuity in the progress of the tide along the 
shores of France and the Netherlands. The tide gets pro- 
ively later and later until we come to a place where there 
IS high water about one iu the afternoon, and therefore also 
water about half-past one after the succeeding midnight. 
In order ti> compare Gravelines and Rota, he takes (but 
without mentioning that he does so) two different tide-wave: , 
— the statement with reference to Graveline: appearing to 
relate to a later wave than the other. Bacon however does 



not appear to havi- understood ths; and consequently, after 

Mying that the hour of faagfa water hecomes later and later 
from the Straits of Gihraltar to the coast of Normandy, pro* 
thus: — " Hucusque ordinatim -, ad Gravelingam vero. 
verso praam ordine, idque raagno saltu, quasi ad eandem 
horam cum ostio freti Herculei." This notion of a reversal of 
the order of the tides as we proceed along the French and 
b coast is not justified either by Sagrus's statements or 
by the phenomena to which they relate. 1 

is probably the first writes who remarks that the 
time of bigb water is not always the same as that of 
pater. " Et illud adnotai Sagr Patricias, *• non minus 

minus" (he has been speaking of the coincidence as to the 
time • at> r between the Duti-h and Portnguei 

■ Selandii quia ad oaptxt Anglise Dobla [Dover?] na- 

. mare plenum eril a medinoctio tertifi quideru bora. 

idem itinera, fluxus aqua? obvius fiet per heraa dans cum 

imidia do at, quod naotss diennt aquam fieri staa- 

cam.'" Patricias rightly compares this with the phenomenon 

red at Venice, namely that when the water has already 

sunk half a foot at the entrance of the harbour it is still rising 

in the harbour itself. 

\\ hli respect to theories of the cause of the tides, it may be 

red thai ■ Connexion of some kind or other between the 

i has at all times been popularly recognised. 

I'tiou winch was formed a.* to the nature of tli i- 

xion long continued vague and indefinite; and in Baoon'fl 

those who rpeculated on the subject were disposed to reject 

ogether. < me theory, that of Telesius and Patricius, eom- 

to the water in a caldron : that is to say it rises 

and tend- to boil over when its natural heat is called forth 

under tin.- influence of the sun, moon, and stars, and then after 

a while subsides. But why should this alternate rise and fall 

a definite period of six hours? Patricius calmly answers, 

•• numrmn quia omnia motus fit in tempore, 1 ' and that there is 

no bettor reason for asking the question than for asking why 

motions have periods of seven or fourteen days, 

\ months or twelve. 

Another theory, which was propounded by Sfondratus, in a 

■ !•• 

I hivr . • '« -iitrnini'- in rjrfflijo in a note on the p»««jme in th* text. 

Slnipurl i- farther from C*lal< than I 



tract published in 1590, and entitled Oh/mi .7-.'*7u* Maris 
plains (lie reciprocating motion of ebb and How [as owing] to 
the effect produced by the continent of America. The water 
iiiitk'v the influence of the sun moves in accordance with the 
motion of the heavens from east to west Hut it i.^ reflected 
and made to regurgitate eastward by impinging on the coast of 
America, which was supposed to extend indefinitely southward 
(Cape Horn was not discovered until [16163) and u 'bich permits 
only a portion of it to pass through the Straits of Magellan. 
Between this theory, of whic'i Patricius speaks contemptuously 
and without mentioning the name of its author, and that which 
.5. C. Soaliger had put forth in the Estreitaiitmn m&oemsm 
kautm, 52., there is no essential d iffer ence, though Sca- 
liger ascribes the general westward motion of the ocean to its 
sympathy with the moon. But in both theories the change 
of direction of the motion is ascribed to the action of the coast 
of America; and both were doubtless suggested by the cur- 
rent which flows from east to west through the Strait 

Bacon himself, as we perceive from the following tract, v\a> 
inclined to adopt the same view. He compares the Straits of 
Dover with those of Magellan, and conceives that the German 
Ocean exhibits on a small scale tin- same phenomena of a 
stream tending in one direction, and compelled to regurgitate 
in the opposite one by the obstacles which it units with, as the 
great Atlantic. This at least appears to be the import of the 
expressions of which he makes use. That the period of the 
revolution of the waters round the earth is greater than twenty- 
four hours, appeared to Bacon to be in entire accordance with 
ilte retardation of the diurnal motion of the planets. All the 
inferior orbs lag behind the starry heaven, and that of the moon 
most of all : wherefore the moon's diurnal period is more nearly 
the same as that of the waters than any other. 

In these vieu - there is an absolute confusion between the 
bodily motion of water as in a current, and the propagation 
• it' an undulation; a confusion not unnatural, seeing that to 

ive tie ii»n of an undulation apart from that of the 

•d is by no means easy, Sealiger 

tin Cardan, notwithstanding 

dm, 1" distinguish between 

water follows the 


moon, inquires win the motion of the flood current is so mucfa 
flower than the moon's. He answers: "Causa est, quod noil 
beta aqua, nee una pars hiiiam sequitur, sed proximae in 
proximas transferuntur, velut si quis carnem uomprimens tu- 
morem elevet, caro quidem parum loco movebitur, celerrime 
tamen tumor per totum cms transferetur." 1 

It became necessary, wheu the flood current was confounded 
w ith thfl motion of the tiilc wave, to assign a cause for the reci- 
procating motion of ebb and How; and this cause was sought 
fur in the configuration of land and sea. 

It Menu as if Aristotle, if he had developed any theory of 
the tides, would have had recourse to some similar explana- 
tion. Tin j- Strabo says, (I quote from Xylander's translation,) 
" Jam Aristotehni Pnsidonius ait aestuuin mariuorum qui fiiint 
in Hispania eausas mm recte ascribere litoriet Mauritania^ "(by 
litori is probably meant the coast of Spain itself), " dicentem 
mare idea reciproc&re, quia extrema terrarum sublimiii sint ct 
aspcra, qua? ct rluctum iluriter excipiant et in Hispauiam re- 
pirrutiant, cum pleraque Htora sint humilia et arenas tumulis 
HO— tOPt." With this passage is to be compared what Aristotle 
! the commencement of the second book of the &fet*oro~ 
from n hich it appears to have been his opinion that 
the seas within the Pillars of Hercules flow continually out- 
varifl in consequence of differences of level, and that where the 
Lfi rt in by straits its motion becomes visible in the form 
of ■ reciprocating libration : 8<u to raXavreveaBai dsvpo KaKei-at. 
I'll I - obscure expression is taken to relate to the tides, and 
probably does 10. It suggested to Ca'salpinus his theory of 
their cause. At least he quotes it, and dilates on its meaning ; 
lad when the ebb and flow of the sea is conceived of as a 
libration, it is easily interred that this libration ought to he 
■scribed not directly to the fluid itself but. to that on which 
it rests. And this notion of the libration of the earth con- 
DOOted itself with his views of astronomy. For in order to 
ji.t rid of the necessity of supposing the existence of a ninth 
and tenth beaven, — the former to explain the precession of 
, and the latter the imaginary phenomenon of 


M)i-lli ri'inarklng Ihnt Ihis parogr in quut«-il liy Iilrlcr 
to edit)" mrolofiet, \ p JOI.. ii | which nukrs tt quit* tinlntclU- 

■u *ci-lclciiU!l) ujnlttrii. 


their trepidation, — be ascribed the motion by winch these phe- 
nomena are pTOdooad to the earth itself. The cause OX this 
motion he sought in the action of the ambient air on the earth's 
irf'ace. To explain trepidation, the earth'! motion wa- -op- 
posed to be in some measure iibratory ami irregular; and by 
being so it produced the titles.' 

From the theory of ChMalpUHU we pa.«s naturally to that 
of Galileo, seeing that in both the tides are explained by the 
uucquat motion of the earth. Galileo** theory was first pro- 
pounded in a letter to Cardinal Orsino, dated 1616. He 
remarks that the libratory motion " che alcuno ha attribuito 
alia Terra," (alluding of course to Ciesalpinus,) is in several 
respects not such as to save the phenomena, and maintains 
that the true cause is to be sought in the combination of the 
earth's motion in its orbit with its rotation on its own axis. 
In consequence of this combination, the velocity of any point 
the earth's surface varies, going through its different values 
in the space of twenty-four hours. The waters of the sea, not 
accommodating themselves to this varying velocity, ebb and 
How at any place us their Telocity is less or greater than that 
of their bed. The boldness of the assertions by which Galileo 
supports this theory is remarkable: thus he affirms that, the 
ebll and flow is always from west to east, and vice versa; and 
that, the notion thai, speaking generally, the interval between 
high water and low is six hours "e stata un' ingannevole 
opiuione la quale ha poi fat to fa\oleggiare gli scrittori con 
molte vane fantasie." No refutation of a theory which alto- 
lie;- mirtepre-ents the facts which it proposes to explain 
could <vei have been needed; but the advance of mechanical 
enoe baa long since made it easy to show that no recipro- 
cal iug motion of the waters of the sea could be produced in tin- 
ner described by Galileo. 

*>acon does not mention Galileo's theory in the present 

Cactj which was therefore probably written before or not 

' after 1G10. But in the Novum Organum [u. 40.] it is 

• 'tiori.-.l and condemned; one ground of censure being that 

^ j*> ^i^T^ceeds on the untenable hypothesis of the earth's motion, 
-r~ -*" • ™ e other that the phenomena are misrepresented. 

both in this tract and in the Novum Organum, 

' QwetUonet JVripat iU. I. .ui<i ••. 



ascribes the tides in the Atlantic to a derivative motion of the 
1 by the obstacles which the form of the con- 
tinents of the old and new worlds oppose to its general 
rly movement. It is thus that he meets the objection 
which would arise from the I a re u instance that there is high 

C at the same time on corresponding points of I In- -' 
of Europe and America. This notion of :i derivative tide is 
absolutely necessary in the detailed explanation of the phe- 
nomena, and I am not awars thai :mv one had previously 
-ted it, ;it least in the distinct form in which Bacon puts 
it. He admits that, if the tides of the Pacific synchronise with 
of the Atlantic, his theory that the tides depend on a 
cssive motion of the ocean must he given [up]. If it be 
high rater on the shores of Peru and China at the fame hours 

Florida and Europe, there are no shores 1 • 

which there can then be low water. For the important obser- 

D that the hours of high water correspond, speaking 

hly, on the European and American coasts, Bacon quotes 

in the Dt Fluxu et Reflux* Warit no authority; but in the 

Novum Orgnnum he ascribes it to Acosta and others. But it 

:y remarkable that Acosta does not say what Bacon makes 

namely that the times of high water are the saute 

on the coast of Florida and that of Europe, and that he does 

bat Bacon admits would be fatal to his theory, namely 

at there is high water at the same time in the Atlantic and 

Pacific oceana In his Natural History of the Indies, iti. 14.. 

he speaks .if the tideSj and of the two theories by which they 

bail been explained. There arc some, he says, who atfirni 

that the ebb and flow of the sea resembles a caldron of water 

and fro, the water rising on one side when it falls 

on the other, and reciprocally; while others liken it to the 

boiling over of a pot, which rises and falls on all sides at 

< ond view is in bis judgment the true one. lie 

• be had inquired from a certain pilot, Herna 

Lament 1 , who bad -ailed through the Strait- of Magellan 

ebOttl IT 1579, how he had found the tides there, and 

ularlv if the tide of the South Sea or Pacific (lowed when 

\"iih Sea or Atlantic ebbed, and vice versA, 

lero made answer that it was n.>i so, that both tides ebb 

•*t», ill. II. 


and flow together, and that they meet about seventy leagues 
from the Atlantic and thirty from the South Sea. With this 
statement Acosta is altogether satisfied ; and so far from trying 
to compare the time of high water on the opposite shores of 
the Atlantic, he remarks that but for the Straits of Magellan 
it would be impossible to determine experimentally which of 
the two theories he has mentioned is the true one ; as only 
angels could make observations on both sides of the ocean 
at once, the eyes of men not reaching far enough to do so, 
and the distance being too great to be crossed by man in the 
time of a single tide. 

•J 7 


Coin tiMi'LATio de causia fluxus ct refluxua maris, ah antiqui- 

tentatu el deiudc Omiaaa, junturibus rcpetita, et ttunen varietate 

liniuimiii magu labefactata quam ducasaa, rulgo leri coDJe- 

tuni refertur ad lunam, ob consenauni nonnulluin motus oju-- 

•loin cum motu lunse. Attamcu diligentius pcrscrutanti vestigia 

qwedam writatia se ostendunt, quae ad certiora dcdueere possint. 

[taqne nc confusius agator, primo distinguendi sunt motus 

maris, qui licet satis ISOOmaaderate umltiplicentur a nonmdlis, 

mveniontur revera tantom quinque; quorum onus tanquam 

roomalm eat, reliqui oonatantes Primus ponatur motus illr 

• t varius (quos appellant) currentium. Secundua motus 

nagatu ooeani Bexhorariua, per quern aqua? ad littora acccdunt 

< t reoedoxrt alternatim bis in die, uon exucte, sed cum differentia 

tali qute periodum constituai menstruam. Tertius motua ipse 

?, qui nil -.iliixl est quam restitutio motus (ejus epiem 

dixiiiiiisi diurni ad eadem tempora. Quartus motna senumen- 

Etrnua, per quam fluxus habent incrementa in noviluniis et 

ple&ilnoiif quam in dimidiis. QuLutua motus semestris, 

qaem fluxua habent incrementa auction et insignia in 

Qoctiia. Atque de secundo illo motu magno oceani 

rio awe diurno, nobis in prsesentia eermo eat procipue el 

faint : de reliqui a sol ummodo in transitu, et quatenua 

it ad bujusce motus cxplicationem. Priino igitur, quod ad 

iintmn currentium attinet, dtil.iium non est quin pro eo ae aqua> 

ire] ;il> aagustiia premuutur, vel a liberis spatiis laxantur, vel in 

• <K-. -1 l-v "i;» festinant ac veluti crl'unduntur, vel in emincn- 

incurrunl ac inaoendunt, vel l'undo iabuntur raquabili, vil 

fundi Bulcia et inajquabtatibuB perturbantur, vel in alios cur- 

que cum illis sc miscent et comtmtiuntur, ve\ 

itantur, pnesertim anniversariis sive statariis, 

- tempestates redeunt, aquas ex liis et simili- 


DE fmjxi; K'l 3EFI.I \r MARIS. 

bus causis impetus et gurgites BOOi variare, tain consecutione 
ipsius motus atque latione quam velocitate sive mensura niotus, 
atque bide OOOStituen eos quos vocant cumuli s. Itaque in 
maribus, turn profunditaa foss® Bive can at is atqne mterpotitaj 
voragines ct rupee subrnarinaj, turn curvitatcs littorum, et ter- 
raruin prominentia;, sinus, fauces, insula; multis raodis locata?, 
et similia, plurima possunt, atque agunt prorsus aquas earum- 
que meatus et gurgites in omnes partes, et versus orientem et 
versus occidentem, austrum versus similiter et septentriones, 
atque quaquaversum, prout obicea il II aut spatia libera et de- 
clivia sita sint et invicem confifnirentur. Segregetur ijjitur 
motus iste aqiiaruni particulars et quasi fortuitos, ne forte ille 
in inquisitione quam pioscquiinur obturbet. Neminem enim 
par est constituere et fundare abiiegationem eorum qua; ciox 
dieentur de motibus occani naturalibus et catholicis, opponendo 
nuitiiin istum (-nrrentiuin, veluti cum thesibua illis niinime con- 
venienteni. Sunt enim eurreuUs un-ru; coiiqweaaonea aquarum, 
aut libcratinnes n compressione : suntque, ut dixiiuus, particu- 
lares et respectivi, prout locantur aquas et terra;, aut etiam 
incumbuut venti. Atque boc quod dixiinus eo magis memoria 
tenendum est. atque diligentcr ndvertendum, quia motus ille 
universalis ocea&i] de QJW nunc agitur, adco niitis est et mollis, 
ut a compulsionibus cunvntiuni ornnino dometur et in ordinem 
redigatur, ecdatque, et ad eorum vkilentiain agutur et regatur. 
Id autem ita K babere ex eo perspicuum est vel maxime, quod 
nnitus simplex fluxus et refluxus marls in pelagi medio, pra.'- 
sertim per nmria. lata et exporrecta, non senttatur, sed ad littora 
tantum. Itaque nihil mirum ai sub currentibus (utpote viribus 
inferior) lateat et quasi destruatur, nisi quod ille ipse motus, 
ubi currentes sccuudi fucrint, eorum impetum nonnihil juv. I 
atque incitet ; contra ubi adversi, modicum frcnet. Misso 
igitur motu currentium, pergendum est ad motus Qlofl quatuor 
eODfltantest sexhorarium, menstruum, semimenstruwk, et seme- 
strem ; quorum solus Bexhorarittfl videtor fluxus maris agere ct 
ciere, menstruus vero videtur tantummodo motum ilium deter- 
minant et restatuere, semimenstruus autem et semestris eundem 
augen- et iotendere. Btenin fluxua et refluxus aquarum qui 
Littora maris ad certa spatia inundat et destituit, et boria variia 
variat et vi ac oopia aquarum, unde reliqui illi tres motus se 
dant eonBpieiendoa. Itaque de illo ipso motu Huxu.~ el niluxus 
proprie (ut instituinraa) videndum. Atque pnmo 



illud dari prnrsus necessc est: motum hunc de quo inquirimus 
unum ex duobus istis case, vel motum sublutionis ct deinissionis 
aquarum, vel motum progressus. Motum aut em sublntionis et 
demissionis talem esse intelligimua, qunlirt invenitur in aqua bul- 
lienti, quae in caldurio attollitur ct rursum residet. At motum 
[irngrOMUH talem, qualis invenitur in aqua vecta in pelvi, quae 
unum latus deserit, cum ad latus opposituin advolvitur. Quod 
vero motus iste neutiquam sit primi generis, occurri* illud in- 
primis, quod in diversis mundi partibua variant aestua secundum 
t' nqmra: ut fiant in aliquibus locis fluxus et augmenta aquarum, 
cum alibi sint ad eu horns refluxus et decrements. Debuerant 
autem aquae, si Ulae non progredcrentur de Looo in locum aed 
i x profundo ebullirent, ubiquc 1 simnl se attollere, atque rursue 
miuuI se recipere. Videmus enim duos illos alios motus, seme- 
strcm et semimenstruuni, per universum orbem terrarum sinvul 

x-rtungi atque opcrari. Fluxus enim sub nequinoctiis ubique 

itur; non in aids partibua aub sequinoctiis, in aids sub 

ipicis ; atque similia est ratio motus aemimenetrui. Ubique 

enim terrarum invaleacunt aquae in novituniis, nullibi in dimi- 

Itaque videntur revera aqua? in duobus illis motibua 

Jane attulli ct <lemitti, et veluti pati apogaeum et perigoeum, 
qucmadmodum codestia. Atque in fluxu et reflux u maris, de 
quo sermo e=t, contra fit: quod motus in progressu ccrtissimum 
eignum est. Praeterea si fluxus aquarum ponatur ease aublatio, 
attendendum paulo diligentius quomodo ista sublatio fieri pos- 
nin Aut enim fiet tumor ab aucto quanto aquarum, aut ab 
extensione aive rarefactione aquarum in eodem quanto, aut per 
sublationem simpliccm in eodem quanto atque eodem corpore. 
Atque tertium illud prorsus abjiciendum. Si enim aqua, 
qualis eat, attollatur, ex hoc relinquatur necessario inane inter 
terrain atque ima aquae, cum non ait corpus quod succedat. 
1 2uod ai sit nova moles aqua?, necesse est earn emanare atque 
ecaturire e terra. Sin vero eit extensio tantum, id fiet vel per 
soiutionem in magis rarura, vel appetitum appropinquandi 
■d aliud corpus quod aquaa veluti evocct et attrahat et in 
sublimius tollat. Atque certe iBta aquarum sive ebullitio, 
sive rarefactio, aive conapiratio cum alio quopiam corjiore ex 
superioribus, non incredibilis videri poBsit in mediocri quanti- 
tate, atque adhibito etiain bono temporis spatio, in quo luijus- 
ino<li tumorea aive augmenta ae colligere et cumulare possint. 






VOL. Ill 

1 ihi,/ue in th* origin*). — J.S. 



Itaque excessus illc aquaruin qui inter ajstum ordinarium 
atque asstum ilium largiorem semimenstruum aut etiam ilium 
alteram profusisBimum semestrem notari possit, cum nee mole 
excessus inter fluxum et renuxum roquiparetur atque habeat 
etiam bene magnum intervalluin temporis ad incrementa ilia 
■mint facienda, nihil habeat alienum a ratione. Ut vera 
tanta erumpat moles aquarum, qua) excessum ilium qui inve- 
nitur inter ipsum fluxum ct refluxum salvet ; atque hoc h'at 
tanta celeritate, videlicet bis in die, ac si terra, secundum vani- 
tatem iUam Apollonii ', respiraret, atque aquas per singulas sex 
horas efflaret, ac deinde abaorberet; incommodum maximum. 
Neque moveatur quispiam levi experimento, quod putei non- 
nulli in aliquibus locia memorentur consensum habere cum 
fluxu et refluxu maris ; unde suspicari quia possit, aquas in 
cavis terno conclusas similiter ebullire; in quo tumor ille 
ad motum progreseivum aquarum refcrri commode non possit. 
Facilia enim est responsio, posse fluxum maris accessionc sua 
multa loca cava ac laxa terra? obturare atque opplere, atque 
aquas subterraneas vertcrc, etiam aerem conclusum reverberare, 
qui eerie continuata hujusmodi puteorum aquas trudendo nt- 
tnllere possit. Itaque hoc in omnibus puteis minime fit, ncc 
in mult is adeo ; quod fieri debuit, si universa massa aquarum 
naturam haberet ebullientem per vices, et cum a>stu maris con- 
sensionem. Sed contra raro admodum fit, ut instar miraculi 
fere habeatur : quia scilicet hujusmodi laxameuta ct spiracula 
quae a puteis ad mare pertingunt absque obturatione aut impe- 
dimento raro admodum inveniantur. Neque abs re est memo- 
rare quod referunt nonnulli, in fodinis profundis, non procul a 
mari sitis, aerem incrassari et suffocationcm minari ad tempera 
Huxus maris ; ex quo manifestum videri possit non aquas ebul- 
lire (nullae cum cernuntur), sed aiirem retrovcrti. At ccrte 
aliud urget experimentum non contcmnendum, sed magni pon- 
deris, cul responsio omnino debetur ; hoc est, quod diligenter 
observatum sit, idque non fortuito notatum sed de industria 
taquiatuin atque repertum, aquas ad littora adversa Europas et 
Florida; iiadem Fioris ab utroque littore refluere, neque desererc 
littus Europa? cum advolvantur ad littora Florida;, more aqu« 
(ut supra diximus) agitata? in pelvi, sed plane simul ad utrum- 
que littus attolli et demitti. 2 Verum hujus objectionis solutio 

1 Phllos. Vlt. AijoII. Tyan. [See Sylra Sfhuuum, Vol. II. p. «40. — J.S.] 

I the note in A'«p. Org. n. .'16., where Aco&ta's name is mentioned in con- 
ii> \i'iii with this statement. [See also the preface ; supra p. 45.] 

perspicue iippnrchit in iis quae mox diocntur de curau ct pro- 
M occani. Summa autcm rei talis est, quod aqua? a in:ui 
Indico profecta?, et ab objectu terrarum veteris et nmi otbifl 
impeditse, truduntur per mare Atlanticum ab Austro in Bo- 
rcam ; ut non mirum sit eas ad utrumquc littus simul ex azquo 
.•ijipcllere, ut aqua? golent quae contruduntur a mnri in ottii et 
eanalea fluminum, in quibus evidentissimum est motum maris 
e»e progreasivuin quatenus ad flumina, et tamen littora adversa 
iimul inundarc. Verum id pro more nostro ingenue fatiinur, 
idque homines attendeie et meminisse volumus: si per experi- 
entiam inveniatur fiuxus maris iisdem temporibus ad littora 
l'cruvise atque China? siffluere quibus fluuut ad littora pnef'ata 

pa? et Florida?, opinionem hanc nostrnm, quod fiuxus et 
refluxus maris sit motus progressiva, abjudicandam esse. Si 
eain per littora adversa tarn maris Australia quam maris 
Atlantiei fiat fiuxus ad eadem tempora, non relinquuntur in 
uni verso alia littora per qua? refluxus ad eadem ilia temporu 
aatisfaciar. Verum de hoc judicio faciendo per experientiam 

oausam submisimus) loquimur tanquam eecuri. Exiati- 
nmuiua eniin plane, si summa hujus rei per universum terrarum 
orbem nobis cognita tbret, satis squis conditionibus istud foedus 
Transigi, nempe ut ad horam aliquam certam fiat refluxus in 
aliquibus purtiims orbis, quantum fiat fluxus in aliis. Qu:un- 
obren ex iis qua? diximus, statuatur tandem motus iste fiuxus 
ot refluxus ease progreasivua. 

Sequitur jam inquisitio tz qua causa, et per quern consensum 
rerum, oriatur atijiu exhibeattir iste motus Jluxus et refluxus. 
(mines enim majores motus (si sunt iidem regulares et con- 
ctAntes) solitarii aut (ut astronoraorum vocabulo utamur) 
t> rini ' non sunt, Bed habent in rerum natura cum quibus con- 
-cntiant. Itaque motus illi, torn semimenstruus increment! 
<|iuun nienstruus rcstitutionis, convenirc videntur cum motu 
lun«. Semimenstruus vero Ule sive asquinoctialis cum motu 
->lis. Etiam sublationea et demissiones aquanun cum apogseia 
it perigfeia ccelestium. Neque tamen continuo sequetur (idque 
liiiminca advertere volumus), qua? periodis ct curriculo tempori.-, 
aut etiam modo lationis conveniunt, ea natura esse eubordinuta, 
Itqoe alteram alteri pro causa ease. Nam non eo usque pro- 
gredhnar, ut affirmemus motus luna? aut solia pro causis jwni 

» Sw Vol. 1. p. Mft. 3.— J.S. 
B 2 

52 DE fmjxu i:t rmfluxu maris. 

motuum inferiorum qui ad illos sunt analogi, aut solem et 
lunam (ut vulgo loqiuintur) dominium habere super illoa motus 
maris, (licet hujusmodi rngitationea facile mcntibus homimim 
illabantur ob venerationem ccelestium'): sed et in ilia ipw 
rnotu scmimenstruo (si rccte advcrtatur) minim et novum 
prorsus fuerit obsequii genus, ut ajstus sub noviluniis et plcni- 
luniis eaclem patiantur, cum !una patiatur eontraria : et multa 
alia aililuri possint qua; hujusmodi dominatinnum phantasiaa 
drsiruant, et eo potius rem deducant, ut ex materia pa?>ionibus 
catholicis et priiuis rerum coagmcntatiouibus consensus Lilt 
oriantur, non quasi alterum ab altero rcgatur, sed quod utrum- 
que ab iisdem originibus et concausis cmanct. Veruntnmen 
(utcunque) manet illud quod diximus, naturam consensu gau- 
dere, nee fere aliquid monodicum 1 aut solitarium admittere. 
Itni|ii. videnduiu de motu flux us et refluxus maris lexhofario, 
cum quibus aliis motibus ille convenire aut conscntire repcri- 
atur. Atque inquirendum primo de luna, quomodo istc motus 
cum luna rationes aut naturam misceat. Id vero fieri omnino 
non videmus, pneterquam in restitutione menstrua: nullo 
inmlii cnim congruit curriculum eexhorarium (id quod nunc 
inquiritur) cum curricula menstrua ; neque rursns fluxus ma- 
ris passiones luna? quascumque sequi deprehenduntur. Sive 
cnim luna sit aucta lumine sive diminuta, sive ilia sit sub 
tem sive super terram, sive ilia elevetur super horizontem 
altius aut depressius, sive ilia ponatur in meridiano aut alibi, 
in nulla prorsus harum consentiunt fluxus atque refluxus. 

Itaquc, missa luna, de aliis consensibus inquiramua. Atque 
ex omnibus motibus ccclestibus constat, motum diurnum maxi- 
me curtiuu esse, it minimo temporis intcrvallo (sputio videlicet 
viginti quatuor horarum) confici. Itaque consentaneum est, 
motum Latum de quo inquirimus (qui adhuc tribus partibus 
diurno brevior est) proxime ad cum motum refcrri qui est ex 
oilc.-til.u~ brevisaimus j aed hoc rem minus premit. Illud vero 
longe magis nos movet, quod ita ait iste motus dispertitus ut 
ad diurni motus rationes respondeat; ut licet motus aqua- 
nun ail motu diurno quasi innumeris partibus tardior, tamen 
sit commensurabilis. Etenim spatium sexborarium est diurni 
aaotufl quadrans, quod epatium (ut diximus) in motu isto ma- 
ris invenitur cum Pa differentia qu« coincidat in meusuram 

1 munutlicum. Bn Vol. I. p, JG5. note 3. J.S. 



motus lump- Itaque hoc nobis penitus insedit ac fcre instar 
nraculi est, motum istum ex eodem genere esse cum motu 
diurno. Hoc igitur usi fundaniento pergeuiu9 inquirere reli- 

atque rem omncm triplici inquisitionc absolvi posse 
**fttllf*irnn Quarum prima est, an niotus illc diurims tcrminis 
QObE continuatur, aut dclabatqr et se insinuet ad inferiora? 
Secunda est, an maria regulariter I'erantur ab oriente in occi- 
dentem, quemadmodum et ccelum? Tertia, unde et quomodo 
fiat reciprocatio ilia sexhoraria ajstuum, qua> incidit in qun- 
drantem motus diurni, cum differentia incidcnte in rationcs 
motel bxnB? Itaque quod ad primam inquisitionem attinet, 
arl.itramur motum rotationis sive conversionis ab oriente in 
OC idontem esse motum non proprie ccelestem, sed plane cosmi- 
I'lim, atque motum in fluoribus magnis primarium, qui usque 
I .-ummo coelo ad imas aquas inventatur, inclinatione eadem, 
incitatione autem (id est, velocitate et tarditate) Ionge diversa ; 
ita tainen ut ordine minime perturbato minuatur celeritatc 
quo propius corpora accedunt ad globum terra;. Videtur 
autem primo probabile argument um sumi posse, quod motu* 
iste non terminetur cum ea?lo, quia per tantam coeli profundi- 
tatem, quauta interjicitur inter ccelum stcllatum et lunam 
(quod spntium multo amplius est quam a luna ad terram), 
valeat atque vigeat iste motus, cum debitis decrementis suis ; 
ut verisimile non sit naturam istiusmodi consensum, per tanta 
-patia continuatum et gradatim se muilU'utcin, subito depo- 
Quod autem res ita se habeat in cuclestibus, evincitur 
ix dimlm-. quaa aliter sequentur, incommodis. Cum cnim 
inanifestum sit ad sensum planetas diurnum motum peragtre, 
nisi ponatui motus iste tanquam naturalis ac propriua in pla- 

"innibu?, confugiendum necessario est vel ad raptum 
l^rimi mobUifl, quod Datura prorsus? adversatur, aut ad rotatao- 
nem tcrnc, quod itiam satis licenter excogitatum est, quoad 
phymcas. Itaque in coelo ita se res babet. Postquaiu 
• ■rlii diflCCMum est, cernitur porro iste motus cviden- 
ttMimc in cometia humilioribua, qui, cum inferiores orbc lunaj 
-int. tamen uli orient'- in oendeutcm evidenter rotant. Licet 
enim habeant motus suos eolitarioa et irregularea, tamen in 
illis ip?is conficiendis interim communicant ' cum motu aHheris 

Modem oonveraionem feruntur; tropicis vero non con- 

' [nnmmumtiimiiB tn t lie origins].] M. Buulllvt^ reading i« commumietvU, which 
I* iVrabUrH right. 

K 3 



(*i advcrsi fucrint)motum istuin verum ncris disturbcnt Quod 
ergo coeli terminis non oontine&tur iste inotU9, satis patet. 

Sequitur ordine secunda inquisitio ; An aqua ferantur rcgu- 
htriter et naturaliter ah oriente in occidentem f Cum vcro aquas 
<Ji' iiuus, intclligimus aquas coacervataa, sive massas aquarum, 
quae scilicet tantai sunt portioned natune, ut consensum habere 
possint cum fabrica et structura univerai. At que arbitramur 
plane, eundem motum uiassaj aquarum competere atque inesse, 
sed tardiorem esse quam in acre, licet ob crassitudinem corporis 
sit magis visibilis et apparent. Itaque ex multis qua; ad hue 
adduci posaent, tribus in pnesens contenti crimus experiments, 
Bed iisdein amplis et insignibus, qua rem ita esse deinonatrant, 
Primum est, quod manifestus reperiatur motus et fluxus aqua- 
nun ab oceano Indico usque in oceanum Atlanticum, isque 
mestatiox et robustior versus fretum Magellanicura, ubi exitua 
datur versus occidentem ; magnum itidem ex adversa parte 
orbis terrarum a mari Scythico in mare Britannicum. Atque 
•naequentia? aquarur.2 manifesto volvuntur ab oriente in 
•Oodentem. In quo advertendum inprirnis, in iatie tantmn 
duobus locis maria esse pcrvia et integrum circulum conficcre 
; cum contra per inedios mundi tractus, objoctu duplici 
ris et Novi Orbis abscindantur ct compcllantur (tanquam 
tia duminum) in duos illos alveos occanorum geminorum 
Allantici ct Australis, qui oceani exporriguntur inter austrum 
et aeptontrioncs ; quod adiaphorum est ad motum conseciitionia 
ill ► orients m occidentem. Ut verissime omnino capiatur motus 
.tquarum ab istia quas diximus extremitatibus orbis, ubi 
niitj irapediuntnr, Bed permeant. Atque primum experimentum 
hojlMDlodi est Secundum autem tale. 

Bnpponatur fluxum maris ad ostium freti Herculci fieri ad 

. aliqtuun crrtam, constat acccdere fluxum ad caput Sancti 

quam ad ostium illud ; ad caput Finis-tcrno 

tardius quam ad caput Sancti Vincentii ; ad Insulam Regis 

i- 111111111 ad caput Finis-tome; ad insnlam Hechas tar- 

ditM .plain ad Insulam Regis; ad ingressum canalia Anglici 

I quam ad Hechas; ad lit t us Noriuannicum tardius 

quam ad ingressum canalis. Hucusque ordinatim ; ad Grave- 

lingain vero, verso prorsuB ordine (idque magno salt u), quasi 

tndem horam cum ostio freti Herculei. 1 Hoc experi- 

1 Tanc »utetncnu ut ufciu from Nicubu? Sagru*. tjuutcd by Patricias (Puh- 

* 4 

mentum secundum ad experimentum primura trahimus. Ex- 
i.-timamus cnim (qucmadmndum jam dictum cM), in mari 
lodioo et in mari Scvthico veros esse cursus aquanim, ah 
orients scilicet in oceidentein, pervios et intcgros; at in alveis 
maris Atlamici atque Australia compulses et taMVCMOB et 
rcfractos ab object u terrarum, qua* utrinque in longuni ab 
Austro ad Boream exporriguntur, et nusquam, nisi versus ex- 
t militate*, liberum dant exitum aquis. Vcrura compulsio ilia 
BBJ—Itm^ quae causatur u mari Iudicn versus Boream, et in 
oppo«itO a mari Seythic<> versus Au-trum, epatiis immensum 
di He runt ob diH'erentcin vim et eopias aquarum. Universus 
igitur oceanus Atlanticus usque ad mare Britannicum eedit 
impulsion*! mari* Indici; at superior tantum Atlantici mari?* 
pars, nimirum ea quae jaeet versus Daniani et Norvcgiam, ceilit 
impulsioni maris Seythici. Hoc vero ita fieri necesse est. 
Etenim dim* IMglM insula* veteris orbis et novi orbis MSB 
sunt sort ita figttruBj atque ita exporriguntur, ut ad Septcn- 
tflOBM lata*, ad Austrum acuta; sint. Maria igitur contra 
ad Austrum magna occupant spatia, ad Septentriones vero 
(ad dorsum Europa* et Asia* atque America?) parva. Itaque 
ingens ilia moles aquarum qua? venit ab oceano Indico et re- 
fleetit in marc Atlanticum, potis est compellere et trudere 
cursum aquarum eontinua successione quasi ad mare Britanni- 
cum, qua* nOMMM 8Bl \ersus Boream. At ilia longe minor 
pettio aquarum qua> venit a mari Scvthico, qua?que etiaiu 
liberum t'erc babel exit tun in cursu suo proprio versus Beet* 

n.rt. axvlii p |,W\ at»l In CasmannN Prntiemata .Vonao. p. I6i. " In die con. 
thxiU lun* cum aaa? pmt nvrdiam noctem bora una rum dimkJii, in freto il,r, 

t ■ Tariff* qua? flnb ("nU Ml ad dextrram in sinum rolmtdo usque *l 
A R>i!la ad I'aj.ut S. Marias amdrt bora trcunda rum 

BenttH, re ad dexteram Bectrndo toto I 

Indc *d »ricntrm per tutam Caotabricarn orara, et < 

«*)ue ad r. l-i« in-ulnm tribtts post medinnrtium horis marr crit rtrrnim. 

at ad tasuiam Hwhas In mari medio ad devimum fire miluariam. qu»l 

•I drevtam mare rrit plenum bora trrtii rum tribm qiurti*. &rd ia 

■ft q>. Hebas [rorriee Ab UeduV] ntqa 

«I»» AtvrUcI aqua plena bora quints rt quarto ano ia derota. In nt torib a u 

to mrro littore Kcrmaodiro usque Catetuaa et 

tqua plrna burn noes. In derota bora- twins iribu* qoartK la Cam 

: uvd*«i«aa ha ea de m lunar conjunrtvjoe. A Caktr vero , 

i». mai atn 

lt»,rr Tiri- 
•* the |.J 
a>d» Re' 

.rnu> ..• I 

< dbtead fjrtmm* n.' Tb*~ 

ord i Rulta brine, of count. Bora, and 

rate of Hecsaa. ft fcv aa-u nii. <Jbe I 

atarr. < see Orteflto* aad Mercabar.) 

aaatarr from rearing a ■ a oaa atn of Mark 



dentem ad dorsum America?, non pot is est cursum aquarum 
compellcrc versus Au-tniin, nisi ad earn quam diximua metam, 
Dempe circa fretum Britannicum. Nccosm? est autetn ut in 
nititilius istis oppositis sit tandem aliqua meta, ubi oceurrant et 
eouHictentur, atque ubi in proximo mutetur subito ordo acccs- 
eionis; quemadmodum circa Gravclingam fieri diximus, liniitc 
videlicet accessionia IndiesE et Scytlitcai. Atquc invcniri 
Euripum quendam ex contrnriis fluxibus circa Hollandiam, 
-ilum ex ea (quam diximua) inveraione ordinis horarum 
in fbixn. sed etiam peculiari et visibili experimento, a pluri- 
uiis observatum est. Quod si luee ita fiant, reditur ad id, ut 
;t fieri, ut quo partes Atlantic! et littora magis ex- 
tenduntur ad Auatrum et appropinquant mari Indico, eo magis 
fluxus antevertnt in pracedentia, utpote qui orintur a motu 
illo vero in mari Indico ; quo vero magi9 ad Borcam (usque 
ad limitem communem, ubi repclluntur a gurgite antistropho 
Scythici), eo tardius atquc in subscqucntia. Id vero ita 
fieri, experimentum istud progressus a freto Hcrculco ad fre- 
tum Britannicum plane denumstrat. Itaquc arbitramur etiam 
fbixuin circa littora Africa antevertcre tluxum circa fretum 
Ncrculeum, et, verso ordine, fluxuiu circa Norvegiam ante- 
re tluxum circa Suediam; sed id nobis experimento aut 
lii-turia compertum nun est. 

Tertiinn experimentnm est tale: Maria clausa ex altera 

parte, qua; Sinus vocamua, si exporrigantur inclinatione aliqua 

ab orient e in occidentem, qu;c in einsctjuentia est cum inutti 

vero aquarum, habent fluxus vigentes et fortes : si vero incli- 

natione adversa, languidos et obscuros. Nam et mare Ery- 

tbnrura habet tluxum bene magnum, et Sinus Persicus, magis 

recta pete us occidentem, adliuc majorem. At mare Mediter- 

raneum, quod est sinuum maximus, et liujus partes Tyrrhemun, 

l'mitu*. et Propontia, et similiter mare Balticum, qux omnia 

tunt ad orientem, destitnuntur fere, et fluxus habent 

iiiiljeeillns. At ista differentia maxime eluccscit in parf.ilms 

Mi iliterranei, qua; quamdiu vergunt ad orientem, nut flectunt 

ad acptentriiMie- i ut in Tyrrbeno et in lis qua; diximus mari- 

l'ii-), quiete agunt absque testu multo. At postquam se con- 

Nertcrint ad occidentem, quod fit iu mari Adriatico, insigiiem 

pent ' tluxum. Cui accedit et illud.cjuoj in Mcditcrranco 

in.- ille tenuis (qualis invenitur) ineipit ab occano, fluxus a 

' M BouHlct corwets the pnssiigr by Trailing recuptrant. 



con tram parte, ut aqua magis scquatur cursurn ab oriente 
quam refusionem occani. Atque his tantnm tribus cxpcri- 
mentis in pra?sentia utemur ad inquisitionem illam sccundam. 

Possit tamen adjici probatio qurcdam consentanea cum his 
qua; dicta sunt, sed abstrusioris cujusdam naturae; ea est, ut 
pctatur argumentum hujusce motus ab oriente in occidentem 
qaem aquis adstruximus, non solum a consensu ca?li (de quo 
jum dictum est), ubi iste motus in flore est ac fortitudine 
pnccipua, sed etiam a terra, ubi protinus videtur cessare ; ita 
ut ista iiK'linatio five motus vcre sit cosmicus, atque omnia a 
fastigiis cccli usque ad interiora terrae transverberet- Intel- 
ligimus enim conversionem iftam ab oriente in occidentem fieri 
scilicet (quemadmodum revel's invenitur) super polos austra- 
lem et borealem. Verissime autem diligentia Gilbert! nobis 
hoc reperit; omnem tcrram et naturam (quam appellamus 
terrestrem) non delinitam sed rigidam, et, ut ipse loquilur, 
robustam, habere directionem sive verticitatem latentem, Bed 
tamen per plurima exquisita experimenta sc prodentem, versus 
Austrum etBoream.' Atque hanc taraen observationem plane 
minuimus, atque ita corrigimus, ut hoc asseratur tantum de 
fxteiioribus concretionibus circa superfieicm terrae, et minime 
]irii<liicatur ad viscera ipsius terra; (nam quod terra sit magnes 
interim levi omnino phaotasia arrcptum est ; fieri enim pror- 
sus nequit, ut interiora terra; similia sint alicui substantia? 
quam oculus huntanus videt, siquidein omnia apud nos a 
sole et coeleslibus laxata, subacta, aut infracta sint, ut cum 
iis qune talein nacta sunt locum quo vis ccclestiuni non pc- 
netiL't neuttquiim consentire possint) ; sed quod nunc agi- 
tnr, superiores incrustationeB sive concretiones terrae videntur 

ntire cum eonversiunibus coeli, aeris, atque aquarum, 
i|u;itL'nus consistentia et determinata cum liquidis et fluidis 

ntire queant, hoc est, non ut volvantnr super polos, sed 
dirigantur et vertnntur versus polos. Cum enim in omni orbe 
volubili, qui vertitur super polos certos ueque habet motum 
crutri, sit participatio qusdam natune mobUis et fixse; post- 
ipiain per naturam consistentem sive 6e determinantem ligatur 
virtu? volvendi, tnmen manet et intendttur et unitur virtus 
ilia et appetitua dirigendi sc; ut directio et verticitas ad polos 
i i igiilis, sit eadem res cum volubilitate super polos in fiuidis. 

Racon appears to refer particularly to Gilbert, Dt M.ujn. vL 4. ; a passage re- 
, like many other*, in the rhyM. .Vucu. 



Supcrest inquisitio tertia: Unde et quomodo Jiat reciprocntin 

ilia sexlioraria cestuum, qua inc'ulit in quadrantem motus diumi, 

rum (iiffcmitia quam durimtuf Id ut intelligatur, supponatur 

orbem terrarum universum aqua cooperiri, ut in diluvio 

.li. Kxistimamus aquas, quippe ut in orlie integro, neque 

itnpedito, 6cmper in progressu se cominoturaa ab oriente in 

occidentem singulis diebus ad certum aliquod spatium (idque 

■ to non magnum, ob exsolutioncm et enervationem virium 

hujiij motm in continiis terra;), cum ex nulla parte objectu 

terne impediantur aqua; aut cohibeantur. Supponatur rursus, 

t.-rruin unieani insulam esse, eamque in longitudine exporrigi 

Austrum ct Septentriones, quso forma ac situs motura ab 

oriente in occidentem maximc frenat et obstruit ; existimamus 

aquas cursum suum directum et naturalem ad tempus per- 

iras, sed rursus ab insula ilia ropcrcussas paribus intcr- 

\u!li.- nlapsuraa; itaque unicutti tan turn Huxum maris indie 

ftiturum fuisse, et unicum similiter refluxum, atque horum 

ilis circiter 12 horas attributum iri. Atque ponatur jam 

(quod verum est et factum ipsuin) terram in duaa insulas 

■Uvisam esse, veteris scilicet et novi orbis (nam Terra Australia 

situ suo rem istam non magnopcre diaturbat, quemadmodum 

nee Groenlandia aut Nova-zembla), easque ambas insulas per 

tree fere mundi zonas exporrigi, inter quas duo Oceani, Atlan- 

ticus et Australia, interfluunt, et ipsi nunquam nisi versus 

pol(M pervii ; existimamus necessario scqui, ut duo isti obiccs 

urn iluplicis reciprocationis universe moli aquarum insi- 

nuent et communicent, et fiat quadrans illc motus diurni ; ut 

aquis scilicet utrimque frenat is, rluxus et refluxus maris bis in 

die, per spatia scilicet sex horarum, ee explicet, cum duplex 

fiat proce8sio, et duplex itidem repercussio. Illse vero duas 

insula? 6i instar cylindroruin aut columnarum per aquas ' cx- 

[wirrigerentur acquis dimensionibus et rectis littoribus, facile 

demonstraretur et cuivis occurreret iste motus, qui jam tanta 

tate positune terras et maris confundi videtur et obscurari. 

Neque c-tiam eat difficile nmjcetiiramcaperenonnulkm, quali m 

Botoi aquarum incitationem tribuere conscntaneum sit, et 

ta Bpatia in uno die conficere possit. Si enim sunmntur 

i in utOMtionem bujus rei) littora aliqua ex iis quas minus 

ktOM aut depressa sunt et occano libero adjacent, et capiatur 

» terra> inter metam fhixus et metam refluxus 

1 iy«u» In ihr original, — J, S. 



interjarentis, atque illud epatium quadruplicetur propter aestus 
singulis dicbus quaternos, atrjue is numerus rursua duplicetur 
propter aestus ad adversa littora ejusdem oceani, atque huic 
nurriero nonniliil in cumulum adjiciatur, propter omnium lit— 
torniu altitudinein, quse ab ipsa lossa mari semper aliquantum 
insurgunt ; ista computatio illud spatinm product lira est, quod 
globus aquae umi die, si liber ab impedimento esset ac in orbo 
circa terrain semper in progressu moveret, conficere possit; 
quod certe nil magnum est. De differentia autcm ilia qua? 
coincidit in rationea motus lunaD, et efficit pcriodum menstruam; 
id fieri cxistimamus, quod spatiumscxhorarium non sit mensura 
exacta reciprocationis, qtiemadmodiim DM ruotus diurnus ali- 
cujus planetarum non l rcstitiiitnr exaete in horis 24, minime 
nuteni omnium tuna. Itaque mensura fluxus et refluxus non 
est quadrans motus stellarum fixarum, qui est 24 borarum, 
eed quadrans diurni motus luure. 


Inquiratur utrum bora fluxus circum littora Africa; ante- 
vertat linrani fluxus circa fretuni Ilerculcum ? Inquiratur 
utrum bom fluxus circa Norvegiam antevertat horam fluxus 
circa Siiediam, et ilia 3 similiter horam fluxus circa Grave- 
lingam ? 

Inquiratur utrum bora fluxus ad littora Brasilia; antevertat 
horam fluxus ad littora Hispanue Novae et Florida;? 

Inquiratur utrum hora fluxus ad littora China: non inveniatur 
ad vel prope borain fluxus ad littora Peruvia?, et ad vel propc 
boraiu refluxus ad littora Africa; et Florida*? 

Inquiratur quomodo bora fluxus ad littora Peruviana dis- 
cirpi.-t ab bora fluxus circa littora Hispams Nona, et particu- 
lariier quomodo se babeant diflerentia? borarum fluxuum ad 
utraque littora Istbmi in America; et rtirsus quomodo hora 
fluxus ad littora Peruviana respondeat bora; fluxus circa littora 
Cbina- P 

Inquiratur de magnitudinibus fluxuum ad diversa littora, 

non solum de temporibua sive horis. Licet enim causentur 

magnitudines fluxuum per depressionea littorum, tamcu 

nihilominus communicant etiam cum ratione motus veri maris, 

prout secandllS e^t aut adversus. 

So in the original J. S. 

Hit in the urigiual. — J.S. 


Inquiratur de mari Caspio, (quae sunt bene magnse portionea 
aquarum conclusae, absque ullo exitu in oceanum,) si patiantur 
fluxum et refluxum, vel qualem ; siquidem nostra fert conjectura, 
aquas in Caspio posse habere fluxum unicum in die, non 
geminatum, atque talem ut littora orientalia ejusdem maris 
deserantur, cum occidentalia alluantur. 

Inquiratur utrum fluxus augmenta in noviluniis et pleni 
luniis, atque etiam in aequinoctiis 1 , fiant simul in diversis mundi 
partibus? Cum autem dicimus simul, intelligimus non eadem 
hora (variantur enim horse secundum progressus aquarum ad 
littora, ut diximus), sed eodem die. 


Non producitur inquisitio ad explicationem plenam consensu' 
motus menstrui in mari cum motu lunae; sive illud fiat per 
subordinationem, sive per co.icausam. 


Inquisitio praesens conjungitur cum inquisitione, utrum terra 
moveatur motu diurno f Si enim aestus maris sit tamquam 
extrema diminutio motus diurni ; sequctur globum terra: esse 
immobilem, aut saltern moveri motu longe tardiore quam ipsas 

1 ttquimtxiii In the original. —/.S * Zntygitt In the original.— /. S. 












The following tract is one of those which were published by 

G niter. It seems to be of later data than many of the others, 

as it contains several phrases and turns of expression which 

l in the Novum Organnm. 

Bacon's design was to give a philosophical exposition of two 

myths; namely, that of the primeval Kros or Cupid, anil that 

ranos or Cuelum. Only the first however is discussed 

in the fragment which we now have, and even that is left in- 

The philosophy of Democritus appeared to Bacon to be 
nearly in accordance with the hidden meaning of these fables; 
hut we are not well able to judge of his reasons for thinking so, 
as the only system spoken of in detail is that of Tele si us. 

Touching the origin of Eros, Bacon remarks that no mention 
1. anywhere of his progenitors. In this he is supported 
by the authority of Plato, or rather by that of one of the in- 
terlocutors in the Symposium, who affirms that no one, whether 
'- spoken of the parents of Eros ; but that llesiod 
in the order of his theogony places Gaia and Eros next after 
primeval Chaos.' It seems in truth probable that thu fables 
which make Erns the son of Zeus and Aphrodite are of 
origin. Emm the Symposium Bacon may also have de- 
rived the recognition of an elder and a younger Eros, of whom 
the fi inner was allied to the heavenly Aphrodite, and the latter 

p. IT*. ; and we ValrknaerV Diatritw, t» whom Sttlllmum refers. On Che 
•itlirr haml l'ju>atiix> mention* as an tarty mjin that l.iot w.i- iht- son i>l llitliju. 
.... 2'. 




to Aphrodite Pandemus.' But it is more probable that his 
account of the distinction between them comes from some later 

Hesiod,, to whom the first speaker in the Symposium refers, 
though he places Eros and Gaia next to Chaos, says nothing 
of Eros as the progenitor of the universe. His existence 
is recognised, but nothing is said of his offspring. In this 
the theogony of Hesiod differs essentially from that which is 
contained in the Orphic poems, and shows I think signs of 
greater antiquity. To recognise as a deity an abstract feeling 
of line or desire, is in itself to recede in some measure from the 
simplicity of the old world: we find no such recognition in 
Homer; and the transition Gram him to Hesiod is doubtless a 
transition from an earlier way of thinking to a later. I Jut 
even in Hesiod Eros is not the producing principle of the 
universe, nor is his share in its production explained. On the 
other hand in the Orphic poems, Phanes, whom we are en- 
titled to identify with Eros, ia the progenitor of gods and men, 
the light and life of the universe. He comes forth from 
Chaos, uniting in his own essence the pules of the mysterious 
antithesis on which all organic production depends. From 
him all other beings derive their existence. There seems 
clearly more of ft philosopheme in this than in the simpler 
statements of Hesiod. 

The identification of Eros with Phanes or Ericapeus rests 
on a passage in the Argaiianties, in which it is said that he 
was called Phanes by the men of later time because he was 
manifested before all other beings ; TrpwTos yap ecpdvdi).'* It 
is confirmed by the authority of PimcIum. 

Phanes, in the common form of the Orphic theogony, comes 
out of the egg into which Chaos had formed itself. 3 But I am 
not aware that any one except Aristophanes makes Night lay 
gg from which Eros afterwards emerges * ; and it seems 
that this is only a playful modification of the common myth, 
not unsuitable to the chorus of birds by whom it is introduced.* 
It. doea not appear necessary to suppose, as Cudworth seem- 
ingly docs, that Aristophanes had in some unexplained way 

' ^vinpos. p. 1 PO., and *ee also p. IPS, 

7 llrjih. Argon. 14. In the preceding Hm\ Eros ia mads, according to Gesner'i 

. the son of NiehL But for uta then- l» another reading, rartpa. 
' Beg Urtrtk, Ael;i"|.|> i. 474. • Avei, 650. 

* This M-cius to be confirmed by the half ludicrous epithet urtj*()uoy. 



become acquainted with a peculiar form of K the old atheistic 
cabala." ' 

The most remarkable passage in which Erus (not Phanes) 
•ken of as the producer of all tilings, is in the Argo- 
naut ics : — 

wpira piv apxaiuv \dto£ /itynXi'/^nroi' vpv<t>, 
i»t tinifiiii^t finif, iif T ovpavof if vipat i)Xfl<r, 
yilt T ivpvtrripvov yiviatr, xufi/4fi'iic rt 3aXd<riTf|C, 
wptatirarov ri rai aiiror»Xi/ iro\i''/ii>riv "Epiuru, 
aina t ifuaiv liiravm, rd f icpo'iv SXXou aw' dXXo. 4 

Nothing is said here, or elsewhere I believe, of his having 
mingled with Uranos in the engendering of the universe; and 
I am inclined to think that when Bacon says, " Ipse cmn Cudo 
mistu-. et deos et res universes progenuit," we ought to substi- 
tute Cbao for Ca?lo. s For the passage in Aristophanes goes on 
to say that in wide Tartarus Eros and Chaos mingled in love 
and produced first the race of birds and then gods and men. 

Of Phancs nothing of this kind is mentioned, except his 
intercourse with Night*; so that Bacon's statement does not 
to be in any way justified. 
It would be endless to cite passages in which the attributes 

ibed, nor is it necessary to do so. 
The form in which Bacon connects the myth of the primeval 
with philosophy i» far less artificial and unreal than moat 
a interpretations which he has given in the Wisdom of 
the Ancients. Chaos represents uninformed matter j Eros 
r actually existing, and possessed of the law or principle 
by which it is energised ; the first principle, in short, which is 
the cause of all phenomena. The parents of Eroa are un- 
known ; that is to say, it is in vain to seek to carry our in- 
quiries beyond the fact of the existence of matter possessed of 
such and such primitive qualities. On what do those primary 
qualities ultimately depend? On the "lex summa essentia! 
tnne . . . vis scilicet primis particulis a Deo indita, 
ex cujus multiplicatione omnis rerum varietas emergat et con- 
fletur.'" Whether this highest law can ever be discovered is 

■ 8«« Cuilworth, Intellect. Syst. 

' Argonaut. 423. In the thlril line wvOpivas it admitted to be corrupt I would 

ire to tugxett voXiai, mnking baKdoo-r)\ the genitive rue after ydmrw. 
' Thi» conjecture l* confirmed by the corrc*i>ondtng passage In tbe Dt Sap. F«/„ 
•IrtTr fur rim ctrlu m/»<m w r have rj- ehtlf). — J. S. 
• Lobtck, L Ml. It M to thu Intercourse llml the line quoted by Proclui refers: — 
AJret <V,i yap itat&b* A#fiVtTO Koip.o* irOoi. 
r 2 



by Bacon left here as elsewhere doubtful; but he does not 
forbid men to seek for it. Hut what he utterly condemns is 
the attempt to ru;ike philosophy rise above the theory of 
matter. We must ever remember that Eros has no progeni- 
tors, ''"ne forte intcllectus ad inania deflectaf — that we turn 
DOt aside to transcendental fancies; for in these the mind can 
make no real progress, and u dura ad ulteriora tendit ad proxi- 
nuora reeidit." We must of necessity take as the starting 
] >• »i 11 1 of our philosophy, matter possessed of its primitive qua- 
lities; and this principle W in aceordanee with the wisdom of 
those by whom the myth of Eros was constructed. Aud 
certainty, Bacon goes on to say, " that despoiled and merely 
piisaire matter is a figment of the human mind ;" a statement 
which refers to the Aristotelian doctrine in which the primitive 
v\t) is not conceived of as a thing actually existing, but as that 
which first receives existence through the ei&os, wherewith it 
is united. Of this doctrine Bacon asserts that it is altogether 
trifling: "For that which primarily exists must no less exist 
than that which thence derives its existence;" that is to say, 
matter must in itself exist actually and not potentially. And 
the same conclusion follows from the Scriptures, " wherein it 
is not said that God created hyle, but that he created heaven 
and earth.'' 

This application of Scripture certainly does not deserve the 
indignation which Le Maistre, perhaps in honest ignorance, 
has poured out upon it.' u lie asserts the eternity of matter," 
is Le Mai-tie's commentary on the passage in which it occurs. 
Beyond doubt he denies that hyle was created, but he also 
denies that it. exists; treating it as the mere figment of the 
Aristotelian philosophy. 

But although Le Maistre's remark is only a fair specimen of 
hifl whole work, in which ignorance and passion are so mixed 
together that it is hard to say how much is to be ascribed to 
the one and how much to the other, yet it cannot he denied 
that Bacon does not appear to have understood Aristotle. So 
far from putting at the origin of things that which is potential, 
and educing the actual from it, A ristotle asserts that any system 
which does this is untenable; and it is curious that he refers 
particularly to the theogonists, at etc wktos yevvwvres, who 

1 Eiamen dr la PliiUrn|iliie tie Boron, il. p. 143. 



niler realities out of night. 1 For Bight ami chaos may not 
unfitly be taken to represent uninformed matter. 1 The doctrine 
of Aristotle being in thi- as in other imtters followed by the 
-<h'». linen, it was :i question with them how the words " ami 
the earth was. without form," which come immediately niter the 
declaration that in the beginning God created the heaven and 
the eerth, ought to be understood. For to create the earth is 
an] existence; how then can it be without form? 
To this the most satisfactory answer was that the words with- 
«-iit form do not imply the absence of substantial form, failing 
which the earth could have no actual existence, but simply 
mean that as yet the earth wad unadorned and in disorder; 

.tmn in which we see how far they were from supposing 
that according to Aristotle the first created thing ought to be 
un in tunned matter. They insist on the contrary that the 
Scripture cannot mean that any created thing can be mere 
matter: " mm enim datur ens actu Bine actu. 1 ' 

Aristotle, as I have said, condemns the thcogonists in whose 

:o Night is a producing principle,— a remark in which 
he may refer either to llesiod or to the Orphic writers, but 
which probably relates to the former only. In the reason of 

tondemnation Bacon agrees with him, and yet takes into 
i be myth which be proposes to explain, Arietophanes's fancy 
gg from which Eros came forth was bud by Night. 
His reason for doing so is that this part of the fable appears to 
him tu relate not to essence but to cognition, that is to the 
method whereby we may arrive at a knowledge of Eros, or ot 

Fundamental properties of matter. For conclusions oh- 

( by means of affirmatives are, so to speak, brought forth 

right! whereas those which are obtained by negatives and 
exclusions are the offspring of Night and Darkness. Therc- 
_ is laid by Night, seeing that the knowledge of 
though it is assuredly attainable, can yet only be at- 
tained by exclusions and negatives; that is, to express the same 
opinion in the language of the Novum Organum, the knowledge 
of Forms trily depends on the Exclnsica. That this 

method of exclusions mnst of necessity he ultimately successful 

timated by the myth itself; for the incubation of the pri- 


n.h. xlt 6. 

p. so:).. nud for the remark* of Alexander 
Lgluvjita. i 4f>». 

*• 3 



meval egg is not eternal. In due time the egg is hatched ami 
Eros is made manifest. If it be Miked what analog; there is 
between darkness ami the method of exclusion?, Bacon's answer 
is satisfactory, — that darkness is as ignorance, and that in em- 
ploying tin.- method of exclusions we are all along ignorant d 
that which at any stage of the process still remains unexcluded. 
It may again he aalced why the method of exclusions is the 
only one whereby Eros may he disclosed, — a question to 
which Bat geetfl an answer by saying that Democritus 

did excellently well in teaching that atoms are devoid of all 
sensible qualities. Bacon's opinion seems therefore to he, that 
any method but. a negative one would necessarily fail, because 
that which is sought bears no analogy to any of the sensible 
object! by which we are surrounded. The parable, he Bara, 
maintains throughout the principles of heterogeneity and ex* 
ciiihoh : meaning by heterogeneity a strongly marked anti- 
thesis between the fundamental qualities of matter and the 
ible qualities of which we are directly cognisant. In 
accordance with this he censures Democritus for departing 
finio due principle is giving his atoms the downward motion 
uvity and the impulsive motion ( play<e) which 
belong to ordinary bodies. Not only are atoms and bodies 
different at touching their qualities, hut also in their motions. 

In these views, which however do not show either that t'le 
method of exclusions is the only one wliich can succeed or 
that it will always d > i >, there is much which deserves atten- 
tion. They show that Bacon had obtained a deep insight into 
the principles of the atomic theory. The earlier developments 
nf tlii- theory have always been encumbered by its being 

nary i in order to explain phenomena, to ascribe 
to the atoms properties which in reality belong only to the 
bodies which they compose; that is, by its being thought 
necessary to break through Bacon's principle of heterogeneity 
Thus the atoms have been supposed of definite sizes and figures, 

abling other and larger bodies, and to be perfectly 
hard and unyielding. When freed from these subsidiary hy- 
potheses, the atomic theory becomes a theory of forces only, 
and of whatever ulterior developments it may be capable, 
Can only be introduced when it lias assumed this form. 
The speculations of Boscuvich do not mark the farthest point 
to ulu.ii the Atomic theory may be carried, but they were 



never --cntial step in advance, and altogether in 

accordance with what Bacon has hero Maid, though in an 

ire and somewhat abrupt manner. " We do well," remarks 
Leibnitz, " to think highly of Verulam, for liis hard saying- have 

p meaning in them :"' a judgment which may not impro- 
bably have had a particular reference to the views now spoken 
of. For Leibnitz's own monadism is in effect only an abstract 
atomic theory ' : more abstract doubtless than any thing which pad conceived of, but yet a system which might have 
been derived from that of Democritua by insisting on and deve- 

g Bacon's principle of heterogeneity. And again, in a 
different point of viewj it seems not unlikely that Leibait* 
perceived an analogy between his own doctrine and that of 

i. In the earlier part of his philosophical life, Leibaioz 

disposed to agree with the opinion common among the 
reformers of philosophy, that what Aristotle had said of matter, 

inn, an«l of mutation, was to be explained by means of 

rure, and motion. This opinion he ascribes to all 

the reformers of the seventeenth century, mentioning by name 

i and leveral others.* Thirty years afterward*, in giving 

account of the history of his opinions, he says that he 

came to perceive, "que la seule consideration d'une ma-e 

Vendue ne Buffisoit pas, et qu'il falloit employer encore la 

d de la force, qui est tree* intelligible, quoiqu'clle soit <lu 
i de la M&aphyaiqne." * In introducing this notion of 

. he conceived that he was rehabilitating the Aristotelian 

itic philosophy, seeing " que les formes clcs Anciens. 

on Eotelechiea ne sont autre chose que lee forces."* These 

primitive force?'" being the constituent forms of substances, 

apposed them, with one exception (founded on dogmatic 

I, to have been created at the beginning of the world. 

The " lex a Deo lata" at the creation "reliquit aliquod sui 

a in rebus vestigium," namely an cthVaey, or form, or 

. by virtue of which and in accordance with the divine 
precept all phenomena had been engendered. 6 

If we compare these expressions, which contain the funda- 
mental idea of Leibnitz's philosophy, with those which have 

I 1 hr BOOadi l.i-iljnllj htmsrlf remarks. Is a mftniihy*leal point, or formal atom. 
I i liuuun't ediikiu of Lvilmiu's Plill. Woikj. 
i. I'. 124., Krdniiuin. 
* Lriirr ■ BottVCI, |i. Ult., Ki'uiii.uui. * force, prtiilllivr*, v, Sy»t. Muuv. 

Matnra, y. I 

r 4 


already been quoted from the following tract, we shall T think 
pereerre more than an accidental analogy between diem. 
Leibnitz ■peak* of the primitive forces hn p r caocd by the divine 

word on created things, "ex qua scries phenomenorum ad 
primi jnesua pneaoriptum consequeretur," — and Bacon of the 
M lex aumtua essentia et nature, vis scilicet prim is particulis 
a Deo inditn, ex etijus limltiplicatione omnia rcrum varictas 
emergat et confletur." It dues not seem improbable that 
Leibnitz, who in the letter to Thomasnni rjlnnnoi Bacon, so far 
as relates to the present subject, with Gassendi and Descartes, 
came afterwards to find in Bacon's language hint* of the deeper 
view which he bad himself been led to adopt, and which con- 
stitutes the point of separation between his system and the. 
Cartesian. This supposition would at least be in accordance 
with the emphatic manner in which he has contrasted the phy- 
sical theories of Descartes and Bacon, taking the former as a 
type of aooteneas and the latter of profundity, and asserting 
tlini compared with Bacon, Descartes seems to creep along the 
ground. 1 

It may not be out of place here to remark that there arc 
other traces of Bacon's influence on Leibtiilz. In Erdmann's 
edition of his philosophical works, we find several fragmentary 
papers which Leibnitz wrote under the name of Gultelmus 
Pacidius. The title of one of these is " Gulielmi Pacidii Pins 
Ultra, sive initia et specimina seientUE generalis de instaura- 
ttone e1 ougmentii scieotiarom ac de perfioiendA mente re- 
runti|ue inventione ad puhlicnm fu-licitatom." Pins Ultra was 
the motto to Bacon's device of a ship sailing through the Pil- 
lars of Hercules, and the remainder of the title U both in tone 
ami language clearly Baconian. The work itself was to have 
concluded with an exhortation "ad viros dtgnitatc doctrina- 
que egregios de humana foelicitate cxiguo tempore, si velimus 
modo, in immeneum augendd." 2 

Another of these fragments contains some account of himself, 

or rather of WilhelraUB Paeidius, in which he mentions it as 

of the happy incidents of bis youth, that when he had per- 

I the defects of the scholastic philosophy the writings rf 

:l of the reformers came into his hands— among which 

' t.elbriitinnn. vol. vl. p, .103., ed. Genev. 17(j8. — J.S. 
' Uibnlt*, ab Eid. p. SB. 



be gives the first place to the " consilia magni viri Francisci 
iii Anglke Canccllarii de auguicutis Scientiaruin." ' 

To return to tin- (able of Cupid. After interpreting the 
statement that all things come from Eros to mean that all phe- 
nomena must be referred to the fundamental and originally 
inherent properties of matter as the first ground of their [■!•>>- 
duction, Bacon goes on to say that next to the error of those 
who make formless matter an original principle, is the error 
of ascribing secondary qualities to primitive matter. This he 
expresses by saying that though Eros is endued frith per- 
sonality, he is nevertheless naked, " ita personam*' ut sit tatnen 
nodus." Those who have committed the error of clothing him 
have either merely covered him with a veil, or have dressed 
him up in a tunic, or lastly have wrapped him round with a 

These three errors are respectively the errors of those who 
Jit to explain everything hy the transformations of 
one element as air or fire, — of those who assume a plurality 
of elements, — and of those who assume an infinity of fir.-; 
principles (the homo;omeria of Anaxagoras), each possessed 
of specific properties. 

tnl with these emirs is the doetrinc that there is 
bog fitel materia] principle, "idque fixum et invariabihv ami 
that all phenomena arc to be explained, "per htiju.-modi 
principii . . . magnitudines fiiiuras et pcsitiones I a — a state- 
ini ut srhicfa includes along with the old atomic theory ev-M 
such hypothesis as the Cartesian. By those only who hold 
ipinion is Eros rightly displayed ; they show him as he 
really i-, •' oatlVUS et exutus." 

In the interval between writing this tract and the Novum 
Organum Bacon's opinions seem to have undergone some 
„ r e, as he has there condemned the atomists for asserting 
the r if " materia non fiuxa;" an obscure phrase, but 

which appears irreconcilable with the expression which I 
have jn-t quoted — "fixum et invariabile." 

However tins may he, Bacon next proceeds to enumerate 
the different forms of doctrii.e into which the doctrine of a 

' Lribnltj. »h Brd. p. 91. 

1 The morning ot ftrmtitmi appear- rrom the phrase Bacon previously uses : 
i ptiHiuii qua-dam." 




tingle element 1ms been subdivided. The first principle or 
primitive matter has been asserted to be water, or air, or 
fire, Something is then said of the opinions of Thules, of 
A-mxiiueiies, and of Heraclitus, and they are collectively com- 
mended for having given Eros but a single garment, that 
is, for having ascribed to primitive matter only a single form 
I il»tantially homogeneous with any of the forms of secondary 
ex : stences. 

The Anaxagorcau doctrine of an infinity of elements is then 
pet aside as belonging to the interpretation of the fable of 
Cesium, and thus Bacon comes to the doctrine of two oppoeu g 
principles, with which the remainder of the tract is taken up. 
Parmenides, be observes, among the ancieuts, and Telesius in 
: u timet, had made fire and earth, or heaven and earth . 
the two first principles. 

In connecting together Telesiua and Parmenides Bacon 
overlooked an essential point of difference. Fur the system of 
TelesittS is merely physical, it deals only with phenomena, and 
seeks for no higher "rounds of truth than the evidence of the 
senses. Parmenides, on the other hand, r. cognised the antitii. i- 
of TO ov and to <$>au>6fj.svov, of that which exists and that which 
is apparent. His doctrine is ontological rather than physical, 
ami he noes not admit that phenomena have Buy connexion with 
real or essential truth. He seeks for a deeper insight into 
tilings than any which a mere " Welt-ansehauuiig," a mere 
contemplation of the universe, could be made to furnish The 
hypothesis which he framed to explain the phenomena l>v 
which we are surrounded, is with him a hypothesis merely, 
and though, like TeLsius's, this hypothesis refers every phe- 
nomenon to the antagonism of beat and cold, yet it has a 
character <>f its own, inasmuch aa in a way not distinctly 
conceivable it also serves to represent the metaphysical anti- 
thesis of to of a. d to cv. 

It is however to be remembered that with the ontotogical 
t of the philosophy of Parmenides Bacon has here no 

The fundamental notion of Telesius's system was doubtless 
ested both to him and to Parmenides 1 , by certain obvious 

' The Mtiif notion I* Merited also to H1pjx> of Rhenium, mid to Othtfl of t tic- 
• .I'U ptiiloi i[ibcrs. S»f Pnudu-oriy. Vkilvt (16.), 1or tin- lulled itatemcM a* to 



phenomena, and especially by the growth, decay, and repro- 
duction oi plants and animal.*. But it is essentially derived 
from the delight which the mind takes in every funu of anti- 
duali-m, and especially in the idea of the reciprocal 
action of opposing forces. It comes from the same source as 
the love and strife of Empedocles, and as the good and evil 
principl s of the Persian theology. 

By the help of this notion, namely that heat and cold are 
the constituent principles of the universe, Telesius attempt* to 
give general explanations of all phenomena, leaving it to others 
;lv them in detail. The largeness of his plan and the 
eloquence with which it is set forth won for him some 
celebrity, notwithstanding the extreme obscurity of his style 
and the vagueness of his whole doctrine. 

The academy of Cosenza (it was at Cosenza that Telesius 

born) adopted his views, and both there and elsewhere 

men were for some time to be found who called themselves 

'1 1 le.-iuni. Spiriti, in his Scrittori Cosentini, gives a list of the 

disciples of Telesius ; it contains however no name of much 

pt that of Canipanella, and the fame of Campanclla 

much more on his moral and political speculations than 

OB hi* 'li fence of Telesius, Giordano Bruno and Patricius 

lied disciples of Telesius, though the writings of 

heat traces of his influence. 1 Among real student* of 

nature it was not to be expected that so indefinite a system as 

thai of Telesius could find much acceptance, and accordingly 

or ieldom mentioned by scientific) writers. Grass!, in the 

Astronomica*, seems to reproach Galileo with having 

taken some notion about comets from Cardan and Telesitts; 

remarking that their philo-uphy was sterile and unfruitful, 

and that they had left bo posterity " libros non liberos." To 

this Galileo answers that a> for what Cardan and Telesius 

■ Hi on the matter in hand he had never read it, 

and it would seem as if he means to disclaim all knowledge 

' Thr infliuri.T nf TelCttUJ >>n Bruno is not, I think, mentioned hj- historians of 

loulit uf Its e»i«tence. In the following pasHnge the 

fuiniiti.'. I us 1b plainly a^umed, minKled with Idea* derived from 

< op. m ilKtinto I' unlvrno in fumo rt acqua, cbe tono rosffrttJ <U dof 

I'rtmi prtnclptl t.. mi ii *t Bttivi, Ireridn et riddo. Que' corpi che ,plrniiu II caldu, mm 

• •ii hu.iiti ri ialill; que" corp I cbe spiranu il (riddo son W 

p 174. of'niTs edition. 

i ■«, with Hi. pseudonym of Lutarfo Sural It is incorporated tu 

tbc ne» ImIUk/s «nrk», iv. p. 61. 


of their writing. Though he protest* against the argumentum 
ex consensu which Grassi brings against them, yet it is plain 
that be doflfl BO only to confute his opponent, and not because be 
thought them worthy of a greater fame than they had received. 
Even among the large class of men who are content to acqui- 
esce in general views and are not careful to inquire whether 
these views are accurate or ill defined, Telcsius's popularity 
could not last long. For he had left nothing for his followers 
to do. All that could be said in favour of his fundamental 
idea he had said himself, and any attempt to develop it further 
could only show how insecure a foundation it was built on. 
His works are however not undeserving of attention, even 
apart from the influence which they had on the opinions of 
Bacon. They show much of the peculiar character of mind 
which distinguishes southern from northern Italy, and which 
is yet more conspicuous in the writings of Campanella and 
<>f Yieoi grave and melancholy earnestness, — a fondness for 
symbol and metaphor, and for wide-reaching but dreamy 

The first two books of his principal work, the De Rerum 
Natura, were published at Koine in 1MB. The complete 
work was not published until 1586, only two years before bis 
death. 1 In 1590 a miinber of tracts, some of which had 
appeared in his lifetime, were publi.-hed by Antonius Pers'uis, 
one of his chief disciples, with a dedication to Patricius, which 
seems to claim him as at hast halt* an adherent to the Telesiau 
philosophy.' For some account of Telcsius's minor works I 
may refer to Spirit i's Scrtttori Cosenfini, or to what Salli has 
said of them in Ginguene's Histaire I.itft'raire de ritalit. 3 

Of LotterV work, De Vita et Scrijitis Ji. Teiesii, Leipsic, 
1733, I much regret that I only know what is said of it in the 
Acta Eruditor idii for that year. It appears to contain much 
information not easily to be found elsewhere. 

The view which Bacon gives of the doctrines of Telesius 
seems to have been much used and trusted by the historians 

1 It wa- reprinted in 15SS, along with the Gmirmphtionti of Mmrenlcui and the 

Qmutiona ftripahticm of Cir*alpinu*. Ttir Toliwir rtmtntntm them three works i« 
entitled ■ TractHtlooitm Philowpblcaruin tomu^ turns," and i« ■ppiMOtlj qui easily 

m. t with. It Is this edition ttint I have hem In the hnliit of using. 
• Tlii< dedication ii prefixed to the tract *• De Marl." 
' The Koount of Ttlntui in UUigui-nu w« written by SaHi. See 6lAgtWB4 riL 


of philosophy ', — a natural result of the involved and obscure 
style in which they were originally propounded. Whether it 
is altogether an accurate representation of these doctrines 
may at least be doubted : it seems as if Bacon, in some mat- 
ters of detail, mingles with what he finds in Telesius some 
further developments of his own. Perhaps he is in some 
measure influenced by his jural habits of thought, and tries 
in all fairness and equity to put a favourable construction 
on that on which he sits in judgment. 9 However this may 
be, I have certainly found it difficult to support all his state- 
ments by quotations from his author, and in some cases have 
noticed at least apparent discrepancies. 

The tract ends abruptly with the discussion of the system 
of Telesius. A similar discussion of the atomic theory would 
have been of far greater interest, for Bacon's own opinions are 
much more closely connected with those of Democritus than 
with Telesius's, from whom he derived only isolated doctrines. 
The most important of these doctrines is that of the duality 
of the soul, of which and of its relation to the orthodox opi- 
nion I have elsewhere had occasion to speak. 8 

1 See what Bruckrr says of Morhof and Sosellus, His/. Crit Phil iv 453. 

* Bacon's own language suggests this impression. " Nos enim," he declares, " in 
omnium invent!* lunimi cum fide et tanquam faventes versamur." And that he does 
not conceive himself bound to minute accuracy in reproducing the opinions of the 
philosophers of whom be speaks, appears from several expressions : " Hujusmodi 
qustdam de diversilate calorum a Telesio dlcuntur ; " " Hasc, aut lis meliora, cogita- 
bant Uli," fcc. 

• See General Preface, Vol. I. p. 49.—J.S. 





Qc.£ de Cupidine sive Amorn ab antiquts metnorata sunt, in 
eandem personam convenire non possunt ; quinetiam ab tpeu 
]K>nuntur Cupidities duo, et longo sane intervallo discrepantes 
cum unus ox iis dcornm nntiquissimus, alter natu minimum 
B dieeretnr. Atque dc antiqun ilia nobis in prsesentia 
sermo est. Nsirrant itaque Amorem ilium omnium deoruin 
ftuate antiquissimum, atque adeo omnium rerum, exccpto Cliao, 
quod ei cosevum perhibetur. Atque Amor iate prorsus sine 
parente introducitur. Ipse autem cum Chao ! mistus, et deofl 
HmnMI proirenuit. A nonnuliis tamen ovo prognatus* 
incultatite Kootfl traditus est. Ejus vero attributa ponuntur 
diversa, ut sit infans perpetuus, caucus, nudus, nlatus, sagilta- 
riu.-. Vis autcra ejus prsecipua et propria ad eurpora unicnda 
>:det: etiam claves setheris, maris, et terra? ei dcferebantur. 

Gxfo in the original. Fur the ground* of the correction, see Preface, p. 67 

J S. 

* Krllcren, De Oen mindamn (Helsimrfors, 1P49), has collectrd I he passages on the 
rue cosmogony in the Institutes of Menu, the Putana.% and certain Commentaries. 
lir remarks that, so far us he is aware, no trace of the myihus occur* In the Vedus. 
lid not perceive any reference to it in the 129th hymn of the lOlh 
Kit Veda, with which he tnu certainly acquainted, as he has quoted » 
> of (,'olr brook's translation of it. In this translation It is difficult to rccosmiie 
" of the mythii', l>ut in that which has since been given by Max Miillrr 
■ more easy to do so. It »imid be interesting to ascertain how far the my thus 
wa* developed ut the time at which the older portions uf the (tig Vedu were com- 
posed. The subject may be said to have a interest at Helslngfors, at the egg 
coatBosj Mating the Finns. For the hymn referred to see Colebrook's Mm- 

(sawnasosis Ernij/i, L p, 34., and Mullcr's Addenda to lluustn's IJipyolytw, p. 140. 


Fingitur quoque et oelebrator alter Cnpido miuor, Veneris 
filius, in quern attributa antiquioris transt'eruntur, ct propria 
mult i adjieiuntur. 

Fabula ista, cum seqiienti de Coelo, brevi parabola; eomplexu 
proponere videtur doctrhiam de principiis rerttm et mundi ori- 
gwibtu, non imdtum dis.-idciitem ab ea philosophia ijuam De- 
mocritUS exhibuit ; nisi quod videatur aliquanto niagis severa, 
er --obria et perpurgata. Ejus enim viri, licet acutissimi et 
dili cntissimi, n.uitemplationes gliseebant tamen, et niodiim 
tenere nescitc erant, nee ae satis stringebant aut sustinebant, 
Atque etiam bsac ipsa plants qute in parabola delite.scunt, 
quamvis paulo e.mcndatiora, talia sunt quails esse possunt ilia 
qua? ab intellect!! sibi perniisso, nee ab experientia continenter 
et gradatim' sublevato, profecta videntur; nam illud vitiuni 
existimatnus etiani prisra seeula OOCOpa— 0. In primis. totem 
intelligerulum est, qua? hie afteruiitur QODOlust et prolata esse 
ex BUthoritate ration!* humana? eolummodo, et sensus fidem 
■seats : cujus jampridem cessantia et deficientia oraeula inerito 
rejieiuntur, poetquam meliora et certiora mortalibus ex parte 
vcrhi divini affulserint. Itaquc Chaos illud, quod Cupidini 
POOnrun erat, mssasn sive congregationem materia; inconditam 
significabat. Materia autera ipsa, ntqoe vis et natura ejus, 
dentque principia rerum, in Cupidinc ipso adumbrata erant. 
I lie iiitroduritur sine parentc, id est sine causa: causa enim 
efteotttfl veluti parens est ; idque in trnpis familiare et fere per- 
petuus] est, ut. parens et prates causani et effcetum denntcnt. 
Materia autem primes, et virtntia atque aetionU pmpriaj ejus, 
causa nulla esse potest in natura (Deum enim semper exeipi- 
nuis); nihil enim liac ipsa prius. Itaque ethV.icns nulla, nee 
aliquid natures notius; ergo nee genus, nee forma. Quam- 
ohreui qua-cunque tandem sit ilia materia atque ejus vis et 
operatio, res positive est et surda, atque prolans ut invenitur 
aocipienda, nee ex promotion? aliqua judicanda. Etenira modus 
si M'iri detUT, tamen per eausum sciri non potest, cum sit post 
u causa caosarum, ipsa incausabilia Est enim terminus 
• juidam verus et certus causarnm in natura: atque jeque iinpc- 
riti est et leviter philosopbantia, cum a<l ultimam natura; vim et 
m positivam ventum sit cau&am ejus reqtiircre aut fingere, 
ac in iis qua: subordinata sunt causam non desiderare.' Quare 

' grniinlim in uriffinol. — J. 8 

* Compare A'or. Org. I, IS. 



Cupido ab antiquis sapientibns poniturin parabola sine parente, 
id est, sine cau^a. Neque nihil in hoc est ; imo hand scimus an 
non res omnium maxima. Nil enim philosophiam peneque 
corrupit ac ilia inquisitio parentum Cupidinis ; hoc est, quod 
philosophi principia rerurn qucmadmodum in natura inveniun- 
tur non receperunt et amplexi sunt, ut doctrinam quandam 
po-itivam, et tanquain fide experimental ; sed potius ex legi- 
rmomim et ex dialecticis et luatheniaticis conclusiunculis 
Rtqve ex communibus notionibus et hwjusmodi mentis extra 
naturam exspatiationibua ea deduxerunt. Itaque philosophanti 
quasi perpdtOO hoc animo agitandum est, non esse parcntes 
Cupidini, ne forte intellectus ad inania deflcctnt; quia in hujus- 
modi perceptionibus universalibus gliscit animus humanus, et 
rebus et se ipso abutitur, et dum ad ulteriora tendit ad proxi- 
rninru recidit. 1 Cum enim, propter angustias auas, iis quffi 
fnmiliarit'.T occurrunt et quaj una et subito mentem subire et 
podsunt maximc moveri cousucrit; fit ut cum ad ea qua; 
BBOaadum experientiam maxime univcrsalia sunt se exten- 
. cl niliilominus acquiescere nolit, turn demum, tanquain 
a lime notiora appetens, ad ea qua? ipsum plurimum affererint 
:nu illaquenvcrint se vcrtit, et ea ut magia causativa et de- 
inonstrativa quam ipsa ilia univcrsalia sibi fingit, 

[taque quod prima rerum essentia, vis, et Cupido, sine causa 

?it, jam dictum est. De modo vero ejus rei (quro causain non 

it) videndum. Modus autem et ipse quoqtic perobscurua 

idque a parabola ipsa monemur, ubi eleganter fingitur 

do, ovum Nocte incubantc exclusum. Certe sanctus phi- 

losophu- it:i pronuntiat : Cuncta fecit Deus pulchra t emp t" 

statibus suit, tt mundum tradidit disputativnibus turum ; Ufa 

lumen ut non i/neniat homo opus quod operatus est Deus a 

princijiin usque ad finem? Lex enim summa essentia 1 at que 

natunc, qure vicissitudines rerum secat et percurrit (id quod 

iliioimi complexu deseribi videtur, opus quod operatut 

e*t Deus a principio usque ad Ji item), vis scilicet primis parti- 

eolia a Deo indita, ex eujus multipltcatioue omnia rerum varie- 

i conrictur, cogitationcm nmrtaliuni pcrstringere 

it, subire vix potest. Aptissime autem refertur illud de 

V.xtis ad demonstratione8 per quas Cupido iste in Iocem 

:-. Qurc enim per afiSrmativas concluduntur, videntur 

Bis; qua? vero per negativaa et exclusione.*, ea tanquain 


Ect lis. III. 1 1. 



ii tenebna et nocte exprimuntur ct educuntur. Est autem iste 
Cupido vere ovum exclusuni a Nocte; notitia cnim ejus (qnv 
oranino haberi potest) procedit per exclusiniuvs at negntivas. 
Piobstio autem per exclusionem facta, qiuudum igtmratio est, et 
tanquam nox, quoad id quod includitur ; quare prawlare Derao- 
I'riiiH atomos sive eemina, at que eorum virtutein, nullius ni 
similia qua: sub sensuni cadere posset asseruit ; scd ea prorau 
caeca et clandestina natura insignit. Itaque de ipsis pronun 

tiavit : 

Neque sunt igni siuiulata, ncquu ulli 
Proeterca rei quie corpora mittere pussit 
Sensibus, et nostroa aiijixt.ii tangere tactus:' 

Et rursus de virtute eorum i 

At primorclia gignundig in rebus oportet 
Naturam clandestinam esceamque lulliiberc, 
Emincat ne quid, quod contra pugnet et obstet.' 

Itaque atomi ncquc ignia scintillis, Deque aqua; guttis, neque 
auric bullis, neque pulveria grania, ncque spiritua aut aether is 
minutiis, similes sunt. Neque via et forma eorum aut grave 
quiddum est aut leve, aut calidum aut frigidum, aut tlensum 
aut rarum, nut durum aut mode, qualia in corporibua grandio- 
ribua inveniuntur; cum istac virtutes, et reliqurc id genua, com- 
posite sint et conflataa. Neque similiter motus naturalis atomi 
aut motus ille est descensus, qui appellatur naturalis, aut motua 
illi opposhua (plagai), aut motus cxpanstonis et con tract ionia, aut 
motua impulsionis ct nexus, aut motua rotationis coelestium, aut 
quiapiam ex aliia motibus grandiorum, simpliciter. Atquo 
nihllominufl et in corpore atomi elementa omnium corporum, et 
in motu et virtute atomi initia omnium inotuum et virtutum 
insunt. Veruntamen in hoc ipso, nimirum de niotu atomi, 
collate ad motum grandiorum, philosopliia parabolas a pliilo- 
aopma Democrats disaenture videtur. Democritus cnim non 
omniuo parabolas tantum, sed et sibi quoque impar et fere 
contrarius reperitur, in iis qua ampliua ab en circa hoc dicta 
sunt. Debuit enim motum heterogenous) atomo tribuere, non 
minus quam corpus hetcrn^ciieiiin ct virtulem tietcrogencam. 
Verum illc motus duos, descensus gravium ct adsceusus levium 
(quern per plogaol mvc percussionem magifl gravium pcllcndo 
minus grav'm in supcrius expediebftt), dclogit ex motibus srr?r.- 

1 Liirr.i I 

* Id. i. 779. 

p ib. crrmiNis ET CCEM. 


•liorum, quos atamo ut prlmitivos conmiunicurct. 1 Parabola 
autcm hetcrogeneam ct exclnsionem ubiquc tuetur, tarn sub- 
stantia quam motu. At parabola ultcrius innuit, harum de 
quibus diximus exclusionuin finem ali<jnom ct moilum esse; 
nequc enim perpetuo Noxineubat. Atque Dei certe proprium 
est, cum de ejus natura inquiritur per scnsum, ut exclusionesin 
itlii uiativis non tenninentur. Alia vero est hujus rei ratio; 
ta scilicet, ut post dobttaa exchisiones et negationcs oliquid 
atrirmetur et constituatur, et ut ovum quasi a lempestiva it 
inatura incubatione excludatur; nequc tantum ovura ex.du- 
ilatur Nocte, sed etiam ex ovo excludatur persona Cupidinis ; 
hoc est, ut non tantum educatur et extrabatur hujuscc rei notio 
quaxlam ex ignoratione, verum etiam notio distincta et con- 
fusa.* Atque de demonstrationibus, quales eue circa materiam 
primam e.^^e possint, liacc hnbuimus qua) cum sensu parabolic 
maxime convenire arbitramur. Venicndum igitur ad Cupi- 
dinem ipsum, materiam scilicet primam, ct dotes ejus, quai 
tanta circumstat nox ; et videndum quid parabola ad illam 
lm is afierat, Xeque nos i'ugh, opinioucs bujusmodi duraa et 
fere incredibilcs ad hominum sensus et cogitationes accedere. 
Atque ejus certe rei penculum jam factum esse plane oer- 
nimus in bac ipsa Democriti philosophia de atomis, qua quia 

. acutltM et ultius in naturam penelrabat et a communi- 
bus notioiiibus erat remotior, a vulgn pueriliter accipiebatur ; 

t pbiloaophiaraxD aliaruiD qua; ad vulgi captum maga ac- 

; .nit disputationibus, tanquam ventis, agitata ct fere ex- 
ctincta est. Et taimn etiam ille \ir suifl temporibua summa 
.1 iniiratiorie floruit, et Fentuthlus dictus est ob imdtipEiccm 

tiam', et inter omucs pbiloaophoa omnium cmiscnsu 

icus est habitus, u1 Magi qitoque iiomeu nbsim-- 

. . Neque Ariatotelia pugnaj ct dimicationes (qui Ottnman- 

m more de regno suo philosophic anxius erat, nisi fratrea 
mien i iii etiam cunc erat, ut ex ejus verbis liquet, ne 

poateri srilicet dnbitarent) tantum sua viulcntia, nee etiam 
majeataa et solcnnia tantum reverentia putucrunt, ut 

■ " Ctmeta mghm rst 

Am Kwvttnte >un ferrl primunlia rcruin, 
Ant Ictu foitc tlti Lieut. II. £2. 

Bol Drmocrttu* 1 i;ivitv to the atom, ami In this us in MM 

B.ti-»u war mUlcil li) Ilia! Lucretius alwaya rcprvsmti the 

.-ntu*. £.-• 15. 

In tb< otIkii ic equivalent won], hm dropped out. 

M I. i nf mr for >/. — ./. V 

lullnch. Di'inoc. p. 51. 



pbilosophiam hanc Democriti delcrent. fSed dum ilia Ari- 
stotelia et Platonis strepitu et porapa proflWWorill in scholia 
circumsonarent et celebrarentur, hsec ipsa Democriti apud 
sapientiores, et contemplationum silentta et ardua arctiua com- 
plexos, in magno honore erat. Certc in seculis illis Romana; 
doctrinal, ilia Democriti et mansit et placuit; cum Cicero ejus 
viri ubique gumma cum laude mentionem facial, et non ita 
multo poat pneconium illud poetue, qui videtur ex temporis 
Boi judicio (ut solent itli) de eo locutus esse, conscriptum sit 

et exatct, 

Cujus pruileiitia monstrat 
Magnos posse viros, et BtgM exempla iluturos, 
Vervccum in pntrin DfMBOqut sub uerc nnsci. 1 

Itaquc non Aristoteles aut Plato, sed Gensericua et Attila et 
barbari, hanc philosophiam pessundederunt. Turn cnim, post- 
<|u;im doctrina humana naufragium perpessa esset, tabula: istai 
Aristutelica; et Platonics philoaophiaj, tanquam materia; cujus- 
tlam leviuris et magis inflataj, scrvataa sunt, et ad nos pervc- 
nerunt, dum magis solida mergerentur et in oblivionem fere 
venirent. Nobis vero digna videtur Democriti philosophia 
qua; a neglcctu vindicctur, prasertim quando cum authoritate 
prisci seculi in plurimis conscntiat. Prinio itaque describi- 
tur Cupido ut persona quaedam; eique attribuuntur Infant™, 
Atau, Sngitta?, alia, de quibus sigillatim postea dieenius. Sed 
lioc interim sumimus ; antiquos propoauisse mntcriam primam 
(qualia renim principium esse potest) formatam et dotatam, non 
abstractam, potcntialem, informem. Atque certe materia ilia 
spoliata et passiva prorsus humanse mentis comraentum qimd- 
dam videtur, atque inde ortuiu, quia intellect ui humano ilia 
maxime esse videntur, quae ipse potissimum haurit, et quibus 
ipse plurimum afficitur. Itnque fit ut formaa (quaa vocant) 
magis existere videantur, qunm aut materia nut actio: quod 
ilia latet, luce tluit ; altera non tarn fortiter impingitur, altera 
non tam canstanter inhaeret. Imagines autem ilia:, contra, et 
manifests; et oonstantefl putantur ; adeo ut materia ilia prima 
irnnnoia tanquam aoocuorium quiddam vidcatur, et loco 
snffulcimeiiti ; actio autem qiutvis tanquam ernanatio tan turn a 
forma; atque prorsus prima- partes Ebnnia deferantur. Atque 
hisouuxisee videtur formorum et idearum regnum in easentiis, 
ia scilicet addita quadain plumtastica. Aucta etiam sunt 
raperstitione nonnulla (errorem, Lntemperantiam'j ut fit, 

In original, | The tret reading 1* probably inttmpmiiitid. 



MCnta), ct ideac abstracts; quoque introductic, et earunn digni- 
: tauta confidcntia et majestate, ut cohere somniantium 
mtes fere oppresseriL Veruin ista ut plurimum cvanu- 
crunt ; licet alicui, nostro hoc seculo, curae fuerit ea sponte 
iuclinantia fulcire et excitare, majore ausu (ut nobis ridetur) 
>jii:iiu f'nictu. 1 Verum quam prreter rntioncm materia aba- 
tr.icta principium ponatur (nisi obstent praejudicia) facile per- 
spicitur. Formas siquidem scparatas quidam actu aubaiatere 
posuerunt 8 , materiam soparatam nemo; ne ex iia qui earn 
ut prim-ipiuui adhibuerunt; atque ex rebus phantasticis entia 
r<in>titurre durum videtur ac perversum, neque inquisitioni 
de principiis consonum. Neque enim quacritur quomodo na- 
tiirain entium eommodissime cogitatione complectamur aut di- 
ii.inuis, sed qua? sint vere entia prima et maxime sim- 
plifia ex quibus caetera deriventur. Primum autem ens non 
minus vere debet existere, quam qua? ex eo fluunt ; quodara- 
DBOdo oagi>i Authupostaton 3 enim est, et per hoc reliqua. 
At qua dicuntur de materia ilia abstracts, non rnulto meliora 
t-unt, quam si quis mundum et res ex categoriis et hujusmodi 
- notionibus, tanquam ex principiis, fieri asserat, 
Parum enim interest, utruin quis mundum fieri ex materia 
et forma ct privatione dicat, an ex substantia et qualitatibua 
eontrarii?. 4 Sed omnes fere antiqui, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, 
Aminwifl) Hcraclitus, Democritus, de materia prima in 
OBteril di-s-identes, in hoc convenerunt, quod materiam acti- 
vsDi, forma nonnulla, et formam suam dispensantem, atque 
intra se principium motus habentem, posuenmt. Neque alitor 
cuiquam opinari licebit, qui non experientin; plane deserter 
ease velit. Itaque hi omnes mentem rebus Biibmiserunt. At 

1 The allusion U apparently to Patriclus, who*c .Vora Phihiophia was published In 
l work long since so rare that Sorellus (apud Brucker, lv. 38.) says that a 
I library might be purchased fur the price uf this single book. See lor an ac- 
n.uiii of It Brucker, ubi modo. 

1 Angels are regarded by the schoolmen as forms not Immersed In matter. Thus 
•iv", ■■ Anei-ll sunt forma? Immatcrlales." — Sum. Thcof. L q. 61. Even 
the soul "f man I- -oaken of as a (ban "nun pi-nitus materia.' iinrocrsa;" a wiiy of 
spcnklmt probably employed for two reason*, — to »ave the possibility of (he soul's 
srpant. and to obviate the difficulty of the Scotbts, thai an u.iextended, 

or Intense, (orm like the soul ennnot give extension or corporeity. from this diffi- 
culty D deduced the existence of a " forma corporeitatls" distinct from the 
•out : a doctrine not to be confounded with that of Avfccnna, who, from the impos- 
■ nceivlng unextrnded matter, woi led to assert the existence of a form ot 
rritj primitively Inherent In all mutter. 

! ai/tivrferrirroi, of which the Latin form ought to be suthypoetttus, Is 
by Strphanus, with a reference to Nlcetas. 

a 3 



Plato mumliiiu cogitationibus, Aristotelcs vcro ctiam cngita- 
tioncs verbis, aujudicnrunt ; vergentibus ctiam turn hominum 
studiis ad disputationcs et sermones, et veritntis inquisitionetti 
severiorem miesam facientibus. Quare hujusmodi placita ma- 
gia toto genere reprehendenda quam proprie confutanda vi- 
dcntur. Sunt enim corimi, qui multum loqui volunt, et paruin 
scire. Atque abstracta ista materia est materia disputation um, 
non univcrai. Verum rite et online philosophanti, naturua 
plane facienda est dissectio non abstrnctio (qui autem secarc 
cum nolunt, abstrahere coguntur), atque omnino materia prima 
ponenda est conjuncta cum forma prima, ac ctiam cum prin- 
cipio motus primo, ut invcnitur. Nam ct motus quoque abs- 
t radio infinitas phantasias pcperit, dc animis, vitis, et simiUbus, 
ac si iis per materiam ct fonuam non satisfieret, aetl ex suis 
propriis pcnderent ilia principiis. Sed hacc tria nullo modo 
discerpenda, sed tantummodo distinguenda ; atque asserenda 
materia (qnaliscuriquc ea sit) ita ornata et apparata et furraata, 
ul munis virtus, essentia, actio, atque motus naturalia, ejus eon- 
sccutio ct cmanatio MM p o a ah. Neque proptcrea metuemluni, 
ne res torpcant, aut varietas ista quam cerniraus explicari non 
possit : ut postea docebinui^. Atque quod materia prima forma 
nnnnulla sit, demonstratur a parabola in hoc, quod Cupidinis 
Ml persona qutcdain. Ita tamen ut materia ex toto, sive massa 
materia;, quondam iuformis fiarit : Chaos enim informe ; Cu- 
pido persona quacdam. Atque luce cum saeris Uteris optima 
corivcniunt. Neque enim scriptum cat quod Deus hylen 1 in 
principle creavit, sed coclum ct tcrram. 

Sulijungitur etiam descriptio nonnulla status rerum qualis 
i'uerit ante opera dierum, in qua distincta mentio fit terras et 
atpue, qua; sunt nomina luriuarum ; sed tamen quod MMM 
secundum totum erat infbrmis. 1 Verum introducitur in para- 
bolain Cupido ita pcrsonatus, ut sit tamen nudus. Itaquc post 
illos qui materiam ponunt abstractam, proximc (sed in con- 

111) peccant illi qui earn ponunt non exutam. Atque de 
hac re quscdam adapersimus in iis qu.e dc dt-mmistrationibus 
qualea in materiam primam conveninnt, et de beterogenea 
ip'ius tnateriae, a nobis jam dicta sunt. At bic, quein nunc 

liemur, esl propriua ejus rei tractanda; locus. Videndum 

- » j 11 i principia rerum in materia formata luiulaverunt, 

i -int illi n^i formam materia tribuerint nativam ct 

—j s 

ut SL Thomas, Sum. Thiol, i. 6ft I. 



nudam, <?t qui rursus euperfus.nm et indulam. Inveniuntur 
autem otnnino guatuor opvumtium secta. Prima est eorum, 
qui unuin qtiippiam asscrunt renim principium, diversitatem 
u entium ('nn-tiUiunt in natura cjusdcm principii fluxa' et 
r&penaatrifi. SecQada eorum, qui principium rerum ponunt 
■ubstODtifl unioum, idqae fixum ct invariabilc; diversitatem 
entaiim deducunt per hnjusmodi principii diversas magnitu- 
dines, figuras, et poeitttraa, Tertia eorum, qui plura consti- 
tuunt rerum principia; ct diversitatem entium ponunt in 
eorum t'lnpcramento et mi^tiime. Quarta eorum, qui infinita 
oltemnmneroM oonstitimnt rerum principia, eed epecificata 
et eti <juibua nihil opus ut coinminiscantur aliquid quod 

res dedueat ad multiplex, cum naturam jam a principio disgrc- 
genL* Inter quos seeunda secta nobis videtur solummodo 
Cupidinem exhibere, ut est, nativum et exutum. Prima vero 
introducit cum tanquam vclo discretum. Tertia tunicatum. 
Quarta etiam eltlamydatum et fere sub larva. Atque de singulis 
pauca dio6nu8i ad meliorem parabola explicatiunem, Primo 
igitur, ex lis qui uninn rerum principium statuerunt, nemi- 
nem invenimus qui illud de Terra affirmarct. Obstabat scilicet 

natura quieta ct torpens et minime activa, sed coeli et 
ignis et reliquorum patiens, ne id cuipiani in mentem veniret 
asserere. 8 Attamen prisca eapientia Terram proximam a Chao 
ponit, (JuTique primo parentem, deinde nuptam; ex quo con- 
jugio omnia. 1 Neque propterea hoc accipiendum, ac si veteres 
unqiiam statuissent terram principium essentia?; sed principium 
i in potius schematism! sive systematis. Itaque banc 

•1 parabolam sequentem de Coclo rejicimus, ubi de Origi- 

inquiremus ; qua: est iuquisitio, ad illam de Principiis, 

Thalea Iquom principium rerum posuit.* Videbat enim 

riaia pnecipae dispensari in bumido, humidum in aqua. 

Consentuneum autcm esse illud rerum principium ponere, in 

1 fimxH iii uir original. — /. s. 

immKAtlllg tbCM fuur sects. Bacon alludes successively to the Ionian phy- 
tu I'lirmenidrs, TcIcaIus, Empedoclca, and many others; 
•nil la»u> i" AMstgoraa. 

rk Bacon may have derived from Aristotle, Mttuyh. I. *. However, 

of fUlcgium, it rather Hippo the atheist who is probably the same person, 

made earth i t of all things, nt least according to the scholiast on Hesiod's 

•i. (Set BttMlia* Hesind, p 237.) Others however, give a diuereul account 

of IKppu'* opinions, ami it h pos«ilile that the scholiast's story was suggested to him 

-if him in the third chapter ot thi wtme liook. 

I h;ive remarked In the preface, reference is here made tn Heslod, 

» Plutarch, l'e Plae Phil 

o 4 


quo virtutea cntium et vigores, praesertim elemcnta gcneratio- 
nuin ct itistaurntionum, putlssimum invenircntur. Gcnituram 
aiiiiualiiim humidam ; etiam plantarum seniina et nuclca, quam- 
din vegetnrent ncc cfficta csaent, tenera ct mollia. Mctulla 
quoqua liquescere et Autre, et esse tanquam teme succos con- 
cvetOBj vel potiua aquas quasdam mint rales. Terrain ipsaiu 
imbribus aut irrigatione fluviorum fcceuudari et instaurari, 
nihilque aliud videri terram et linium, quam faces et sedi- 
ment* aqua?. Et aereni pianissimo esse aquae exspirationcni 
atquc expansionem. Quin et ignem ipsura non eoncipi, nc- 
que omnino durare aut. alt, nisi ex liumido et per lmiuidmn. 
Pinguedinem autcm illani butnidi, in qua flanuna et ignis bub- 
liiii.iiiiur it vivunt, videri quandaui aqua3 ruaturitatcm et con- 
coctionem. Corpus rursus et molem aquae per universum, 
ut fonutern communern, dispertiri. Oceunum terra; circuni- 
fundi. Vim maximam aquarum dulcium subterraneam ; unde 
fontes et fluvii, qui, venarum instar, aquas per terra; ct faciem 
et viscera deportent. At immensas vapurum et aquarum con- 
gregationes In supernis esse, utque aliam quandam aquarum 
universitatem, utpote a qua iuferiorcs aqua:, atque adeo ocea- 
nus ipse, reparcntur et reficiantur. Etiam ignes cadestes exist i- 
mabat aquas illas et vapores depascerc -, neque cnim aut sine 
alimento subsistore, aut aliunde ali posse; figuram autem aqua;, 
quae in ejus partieulis (guttts videlicet) cernitur, eandem cum 
ligura universi esse, rotutulam uenqie et spbamcam ; quin ct 
undulationcm aqum, etiam in aere et flamma, notari et OODspid : 
mutum denique aqua: habiletn, ncc torpescentem, nee pnefe- 
stinuiti ; mimerosissimam autem piscium et aquatilium gene- 
rationem. Sed Anaximenes Aerem d elegit, quod unum essct 
reran) principium. 1 Nam si moles in constituendis rerum 
principiia s-pectanda sit, videtur aiir longe maxima universi 
spatia occupare. Nisi cnim detur vacuum separatum, aut 
recipiatur guperstitio ilia de heterogenca ccelestium et aublu- 
tiaiium ; quicquid a globo terra? ad ultima cadi extenditur 
Bp&tii, atque astrum aut meteorum non est, aerea substantia 
eompleri videtur. Atque globi terrestris domicilium instar 
puncti ad cadi ambitum censetur. Jn xtbere vere J ipso, quan- 
tula portio in &tellis conspergitur ? cum in citimis sphaeris 
dmpjUe con8piciantur, in ultima, licet ingens earum numcrus 
taxnen prffl spatiis interstellaribus exiguum quiddam spatii 

'■" cll > '■ R In Ou original • |Tub.iLilj a miitakr fur vrrd. — J.S, 



sidereuin appareat ; ut omnia tanquam in vastissimo aeris pclago 
natare vidcantur. Neqtifl parva est ea portio aeris ct spiritus, 
OUS in aijuis ct cavis terra locis sedem ct nioram habct; unde 
■quae iluorcm suuni recipiunt. Quiii ct extenduntur quaodoquc 
f t inturncscunt ; terra autera non solum porosilas sua accidit, 
Md L'tiam trcmorea et concussiones, cvidcntia eigna venti ct 

imlu.-i. Quod di media quasdam natura n1 pmpria prin- 
eipiorom, ut tanUc varietatis point esse susccptiva; ea prorsus 
in acre rojieriri videtur. Est enim aer tanquam commune 
rerum vinculum, non tantum quia ubique P Me to est, et succe- 
dit. ct vacua possidct, sed multo magis quod videtur esse 
untune cujusdaru mediae et adiaplmra. Hoc enira corpus illud 
est| <juud lueem, opacitatem, omui unique colorum tincturas, et 
umbrarum eclipses excipit et vehit ; quod sonorum etiam har- 
monicorum, ct (quod multo majus est) articulatorum, impres- 
naturas motu accuralissimo discriminat ; quod 
©durum differentiaa, non tantum gencrales illas suavis et 
fcrtidi, gravis, acuti, et similium, Bed prupriaa et specificatas, 

viola;, subit nee confundit; quod ad eelebres et poten- 

ias illas qualitates calidi, frigidi, etiam humidi, sicci, 
quodammodo aequuw se prabct ; in quo vapores aquei, hnlitua 
pinguen, spiritus ealium, metallorum fumi, suspensa vulant ; 
uViii«pie in quo radii coclestes, et arctiorea rerum consensus 
et discordia;, secrcto comuieant et obmurmurant; ut sit ai : r 
veluti chaos secundum, in quo tot rerum semina agaut, cr- 
rent, U'Uteut, tiqiM experiantur. Postremo, si vim genkdem 
ct vivifieantem iu i\bus consulas, quae ad rerum principia 
mnnuducat eaque inauifcstct, etiam aiiria potiorcs paxtn 
videntur; adco ut acris et spiritus et animie vocabula usu 
nonnunquam confundantur. Idque merito, cum vike puulo 
udultioris (except is scilicet rudimentis illis vita; in einbryonibus 
ratio aliqua comes sit veluti individuus ; adco ut 

I concreta et conglaciata aquarum Buperficie sufl'oceiuur. 

: i ignis ipse, nisi ab aura circumfusa animetur, exstinguitur, 

niliibpie aliud videtur quam ai ; r attritus, irritatus, et incensus; 

qtieuiadmoduiu aqua e contra videii possit aeris coagulum et 

•iu-. Etiam terram perpetuo aerciu exhalare, neque ut 

an in formam acris transitum taciat opus habere. 

IKracJilus vcro magis acutus, scd minus credibility Ignem 

rerum principium posuit.' Ncquc eniui naturam mcdiain, 

1 riut»rcb, I. c- 



quae mnxime vaga ct corruptibilis esse solet, scd naturam 
sumiuam et perfectaiDj quae corruptionis ct altcrationis ter- 
minus quidam sit, ad rerun principia cnnstituenda qua?sivit. 
Yidcbat atitcm maximam reruin varietatem ct pcrturbationern 
in rorporibus solidis et consistentibus inveniri. Talia enim 
COrpon orgazuca es-e possunt, et veluti machine quantum, quae 
etaam ex figura Lonumeraa variations nancisouiitur, qualiasunt 
corpora apimaliiun et plaotarom. Etiam in his ipsis, ca quoque 
quae organica non sunt, tamen si aculius introspiciantur, valde 
diasimilia reperiimtur. Quanta enim dissimilitude later 
partes aiiimaliuin illas ipsas, QU0 vmrantur similares? cerebrum, 
bumorem crystallinum, albuginem oeuli, os, membranam, car- 
tilngincm, nervum, venam, earncin, pinguedinom, mcdullam, 
sanguinem, sperma, spiritum, chylum, rcliqua ? etiam inter 
partes vegetabilium, radicero, oorticem, caulcm, folium, florcm, 
Beman, et similisi? At foaailia organioa non sunt eerte, sed 
tainin at in una specie varie commista sunt, et ad invicem 
udmndwn copiosam varietatem ostendunt. Quainobrcm ba.>is 
ilia diversitalis cntium, ampia, lata, et cxporrecta, in qua hia- 
tus rerum apparatus eluoeacit et obversatur, constitui videtnr 
in natura solida et consistcnti. Corpora vero liquorum vis 
schematism*! oigauici plane deserit. Neque enim reperitm* per 
totam istam oatenun visibilcm, aut animal aut plantain cor- 
pora mere thiido. Ergo numerosissima ilia varietas a natura 
liquida absciuditur et suhducitur. Manet nihilominua varic- 
taa DOB parva, ut in tanta diversitate t'usilium, succorum, 
dcstillatnrum, et lmjusmodi, manifestum est. At in acriis et 
pneumaticis corporihus nrctatur multo magis varietae, et ob- 
ducitur promiscua qu:»-«lain ivrum similitude. Certe fil ilta 
colorum et Baporum, quibus Uquorea qnaadoqua distinguuntur, 
omnino cessat ; odorum vero manet, atque aliarum imnnul- 
larum, ita tamen at tran scant, confundantur, et minus hae- 
rennt; adeo ut in universum quo magia ad ignis naturam fiat 
appropinquatio tantum de varietate depereat At pastquam 
ad ignis naturam ventum eat, ejuaque rectificati et purioris, 
Ooane organum, omniaque proprietas, omnia diasimilaritas exu- 
itnr, atque natura tanquam in vertice pyramidali in unum 
ooire videtur, atque ad terminum actionis ante propria; per- 
[taque incensionem sive ignescentiam pacem nomi- 
navtt, quia naturam componeret; generationem autem bellum, 
ua ad multiplex deduceretj Atque ut ista ratio (qua res a 

1 Dlofl tacit, ix. a 



varictale ad iiniini, et :ib unitate ad varhnn, numinis instar 
dueranl it nfinsreat) aliqno modo Bxplieari posset; ignem ei 
den.-aii et rareseere placuit, ita tamen ut rarescentt'a ilia vcr- 
MM naturam igneam, actio esset Datura.' directa ct pTCjgl 
.-- 1 v : i ; ,!,nsntio autem veluti rctrngradatin natunc et destitutio. 
I tromque fatO ct certis pcriodis (secundum eummam) fieri 
ccnsibat : ut luuiidi i.-tius, qui volvitur, futurn sit quandoque 
<• mfiagratao, ct dciudc instauratio, atijuc incensionis et general 
tiunis series perpetna et successio. Ordincm autem (si quis 
diligenter vcrsetur in tenui ca qua} de hoc viro atque ejus 
deeretifl ad DOB pcrvenit memoria) divcrsuin statuit incnisinnis 
i ii;nlit>nis. In ecala enim incensionis, nihil ab iia qua- 
rulgata sunt dissentiebat ; ut j>t*ogressus rarcsccntiaj et exte- 
nuation .1 terra ad aquam, ao aqua ad aftrem, ab aiire 
.id ignem ; at non idem d e cm s m | sed ordincm plane inver- 
tcbat.' Ignem enim per exstinctionem Iciram educere assere- 
haa, tanquam faces quaetkun atque ruliginee ignis; easdeineeps 
uditateai concipere et colligere, nude aqua fiat effluvium, quae 
nnm aSrem emittat et exspiret ; ut ab igne ad tcrram uiiitatio 
fiat in praiceps, non gradatim. 

Atque hsBCj aut iis mclinra, cogitabant illi qui unum rerum 
principium statuerunt, naturam eimpliciter intuiri, non conten- 
tiose. Atque laadaadi sunt, quod vestem unicain Cupidini 
triluu'iint, id quod iniditati proxinium est; atque liujusmodi 
i|M:i' est (ut diximus) Teli cujuspiam instar, non pro- 
bate telsB spi.-sioris. Vestera autem Cupidinis appellanvua 
formaui aliquain materia; prima; attributam, qiue asseratur esse 
MB forma alicujus ex entibus secundia substantialiter homo- 
Mi':!. \A:\ autem qua; de aqua, acre, igne, ab istis asseruntur, 
ii"ii iinnis admodum rationibus nixa, lvprchendere non fucrit 
difficile ; neque causa videtur cur de singulis disscramus, sed 
untuni in genere. Prinio itaque videntur antiqui illi in in- 
ipii-itione principiorum rationera non admodum aeutnm insti- 
tuisse; sed hoc soluinmodo egisse, ut ex oorporibus appa r en t!- 
Inis et manifestis, quod maxime excellcret qua?rcrent; et quod 
viilebatur, princijiium rerum ponerent ; tanquam per ex* 
ellentaam, non vere s aut realiter. Putabant enim hujus- 
nodi naturam dignnm, qua; sola esse diceretur qualis apparet: 
cactera vero eandem ipsam naturam esse existimabant, licet 

• I'luurili, I. c i iurtiuj., however, does not support the statement of 

lira lot, 

— J. s. 



minims secundum npparentiam; ut vcl per tropum locuti, vol 
tan<|uam fascinati videantur, cum impressio fortior reliqua 
traxerit. At verc contemplantom, acquum se pnebere oportet 
ail omnia, atque principia rerum statuerc, qua; etiam cum 
minimis et rarissimis et maxinie desertis quibuscunque entium 
coitveniant, non tantum cum maximis ct plurimis et vigentibus. 
Licet enim noa homines entia qua; maxime oceurrunt maxime 
iniriimir, tunica natura; sinus ad omnia laxatur. Quod si prin- 
cipiuin illud suum tencant non per exeelicntiam, acd shnpliciter; 
vidcntnr utique in duriorcm tropum incidere; cum res plane 
deducntur ad aiquivocum, neque de igne naturali aut naturali 

aerc ant aqua qnod ;i nut pradicari videatur, scd dc igne 

ali<|ti<> phantastico et notionali (et sic de casteris), qui nomen 
ignis retineat, definitionem abneget. Porro videntur et illi in 
eadnn inenmmnda compelli, qua; assertorcs materia; abstracts 
Bubeunt. Ut enim illi materiam potentialem et phanlasticani 
ex toto, ita et isti ex parte introducunt. Ponunt etiam ma- 
teriam quoad illiquid (prineipium illud nempe scum) fbnaataro 
et autuulcm; quoad reliqua tuntum potentialem, Neque ali- 
quid lucri fieri pes istud genns principii uniei videtur, magis 
quam per illud materia; abstractor; nisi quod habetur altquid 
quod obversetur ad intcllectum humanum, in quo cogitatio 
liumnna magis defigatur et acquiescat, ct per quod notio prin- 
cipii ipsius paulo plenior sit, rrliqunrum omnium abstrusior 
et durior. Sod scilicet ilia stale Pradicamenta regnum non 
accepcrant, ut potuisset prineipium illud natura; abstracta? 
latere sub fide et ttitela pnedicamenti substantia;. Itaque- 
nemo ausns est confingerc materiam aliquam plane phanta- 
BticaiDj Bed prineipium statuerunt secundum sensum ; aliquod 
ens verum ; modum aut cm ejus dispensandi (liberius se ge- 
rentes) phantasticuin. Nihil enim inveniunt, imo nee commi- 
oiacuntur, quo appetitu aut stimulo, aut qua ratione, via, aut 
ductu, istud prineipium suum a se degeneret, et rursua se 
reoipiaL 1 At cum tanti appareant per universum contrario- 
rum cxercitus, densi, rari, calidi, frigidi, lucidi, opaci, animati, 
iiianim.iti, et aliorum plurimorum qua; se invicem oppugnant, 
privant, perimunt; ha;c omnia ab uno quopiam rei materiatao 
tpnte manarc put arc, neque tamen ulluni ejus rei modum 
ostendere, speculate mis cujusdam attonitrc videtur, et inquisi- 
(ioncm deserentis. Nam si dc re ipsa per sensum constaret, 

1 Cuiupare Arlst. Mc>. i. 3. 



ferendum esset, licet modus esset in obscuro ; rursus si modus 
vi rationis erutua esset aliquis habilis et credibilis, discedendum 
-e ab apparentiis ; sed minime postulandum ut iia assen- 
tiamus, quorum nee entia per sensum ruanifesta, neque expli- 
'•iri'iiies per rationcm probabiles. Prasterea, si unum esset 
rerum principiuin, debuerat ejus conspici in omnibus rebus 
nota qua*lani, et tanquam partes potiores, et predominant ia 
nonnulla ; neque tnveniri principaluin ullum, quod prineipio 
ex diametro opponatur. Etiam in medio collocari debuerat, ut 
omnibus coramodius sui copiam faceret, et per lunbitum se 
ditlundcret. At horum nihil esse in illis plncitis invenitur. 
Nam terra, qua: a principii honore separatur et excluditur, 
ridetot suscipere et fovere naturae illis tribus priucipiulihiis 
opposite) cum ad mobilitatem 1 et lucidam naturam ignis, oppo- 
nat naturam quietam et opacam ; ad tenuitatem et mollitiem 
n : ris, opponat similiter naturam densam et duram; et ad humi- 
ilitatem et scquacitntem nquai, naturam siecam, rigidam, et aspe- ; atque ipsa quoquc terra medium locum occuparit, cajteris 
detnrbuis. Porro, si unicum esset rerum principium, debuerat 
illud turn ad rerum gencrationem, turn ad earutu dissolu- 
ionem, squam prasbcre naturam. Tarn euim est principii, ut 
res in illud solvuntur, quam ut res ex illo gignantur. At boc 
non fit ; Bed ex iis eorporibus aijr et ignis ad materiam gene- 
ration!* prebendum inepta videntur, ad eorum rcsolutionum 
• xcipiendam parata. At aquu contra ad generationem benigna 
et alma; ad resolutionem sive rcslhutinncm magis alicna et 
-a; id quod facile eerncretur, si imbres paulisper cessarent. 
Quin et pntrefactio ipsa nullo mode res ad aquun puram et 
cru'lam redigit. Sed longe maximus error, quod conatituerunt 
|iriricipium corruptible et mortale. Id cnim faeiunt, cum 
principium introdueunt tale, quod naturam suarn in coinpositis 
deserat et deponat. 

NiiTu quodcunque mi!> tnutAtuta fmibua exit, 
Continue boc mors est illitu, quod fuit ante. 

Vcrum hac ratione magis nobis opus erit statim, cum ad 

illam tertiam scctam, quae pluradecrevit rerum principia, sermo 

'am online devectus sit ; qua; certe secta plus roboris habere 

vitltri possit, plus praejudicii certe Indict. Itaque ad opinioncs 

secundum genus et in communi, sed singulis accedemus. 

1 -oliil'tittim to the original. A similar mistake occur* at the end of the Thtma 

ihk-h Mr. Ellis was the first to observe. — J. S. 
* Liicrl ui. MS. 


Itaque ex iis qui jilura principia dixerunt, separabimus co9 
qui infinita WWII Hill Ille enim Incus de infinito ad parnbolam 
Cadi pertiaeti Verum ex antiqnis Parmenidea dun n-ni... 
principia, ignem ct terrain, dixit, aive caelum et terrain. ' Solem 
enim el ndero verum ignem esse asseruit, eumque purum et 
limpidum *, non degenerem, qualis apud DOB est ignis, qui tan- 
quam Vulcanus in terrain dejectus ex casu claudicat. I *; t rn i u - 
nidi* vero placita instauravit semlo nostra Telesius, vir peripft- 
teticis ratiotiibus (si aliquid ilia- essent) putens et instriietus, 
quas etiani "in illos ipsoa vertit ; se<l affirmando impedittis, et 
destruendo quam nstruendo melior. Ipsius vero Parnienidis 
inventnrum parca admodum et perexilis memoria. Attamrn 
fundamenta siinilis opinionis plane jaeta vidcntur in libro quern 
Plutareluis de primo irigido ccrascripsit ; qui tractatus vide- 
tur ex aliquo traetatu antique., qui tunc temporis cxstabat. jam 
periit, descriptua et desumptus. Hubet enim non panca et 
acutiora et firmiora, quam solent esse autboris ipsius qui ea 
vulgavit; a quibus monitus afquc exeitatus videtur Telesius, 
ut ea et studiose arriperet et strenue perseqtieretur in sitls de 
Natura Reran commentariis. Placita autem hujus sects; sunt 
hujusmodi, Primas fnrmas ac prima entia activa, atque adco 
primas substantias, ealnreni ct 1'rigus esse 3 ; endcm nibiloniinus 
im'nrporea exiatere ; sed subesse materiam pussivam et poten- 
tialem, qua; corporcam molem pnebeat, atque sit utriusqus 
Datura ex aequo susceptiva, ipsa omnis aetionis cxpcrs.* Luecm 
pullulatiun m ealuris esse \ Bed caloris dis-ipati, qui coSundo 
multiplicatus, lit 6 robustua et Bensibilis.' Opacitatem similiter 
destitutioiicm et confusioncm naturic radiantis ex frigore/ 

1 This opinion, nr something analogous to it, was held by many of the older pby- 
•h \-V. i K.-e kar-un'- P.irmeiiiJcs, p 830.) BttMf those Whom K:tr-.t'-n mentions, 
w that Hip." is said to have made lire and earth, ur heat ami cold, 

his tir-t principles. (Sec Pseudo-Orlgcn. Phllosoph. c. 16.) 

• Stobwu-, Edog. Ph>«. 1, 23. 

i itet calorem et tl igni tgfftlttf rerum omnium principia c-sr." — De Her. Sut. i. 3. 
' -■ Odorem frigUStrtM incorporeum esse: reruni omnium prlodpil tria rtte> ■fltatFI 
n itur.i-. duis Incorporeal <t i|" : » lllu nueiplt oorpomun omnis ip-.ini icttoob 
pie ex pertain es»e operationl*." — lb. I. 4. 
•• .Materia a<jue ad calorem ac ad I li -ndiini Spta facta est." — lb. I. C. 

1 •• Candor . . . nequsqiMin res ■ cmlorc •ejuncta, et alius a ealurr, sed si non ataf 
Ipse i| ■■ ''its et veluti faciei est." — lb. i. 1. 

• tit in I 

' •• Pilot .... albeJinem ncc earn nunlo ipire .... qturd -r-r n-sidue am- 
'. c! ipiaipiaversu* elTundit .... |H_r ^i vlillll est, Ct lux dirilur, sed q«ie 
orpel . . . . et non lux ted albedo dieitur ... a soils calore in quibu* 
• ir rebui omnibui inditara, llliusque tpeciem et veluti bclein esse." — lb. 1 S. 

• 'lli do, or which li^llt i> the concentr.itinn, is nh'redo : -i 

..! by Trii'iiua to cold, but lo matter. " Nlgredo omnlno . . . rum 



Jtarum et Densuin caloris et I'rigoris tcxturas et veluti telas 
le ; calorem vero ct frigus coruiu effectores et optfices, den- 
sanle opus frigore et inspissante, divellente autem calore et cx- 
tendente.' Ex ejusmodi texturi? imli ooxponbua dispositionem 
orgii motum. vol habilcm vd a vervain, JIari.« videlicet prompt am 
ct habilem, Densis torpescentem et avcrsara. Itaque calorem 
per tenue motum excitare Bt peragere, fngaf pcz dauaa notma 
compescerc et sedare. Quare ease et poni quatuor naturas 
coessentiales atque conjugate, easque duplices, ordinem euin 
quem diximus ad invicem servantes (funs cnim calor et irigits, 
ra'trr.i' cmanutiones) ; sed tauten pcrpetuo concomitant es Bt 
inscpaiabiU.-. Eas esse, Calidum, Lucidum, Itarum, Mobile. 
Et quatuor nirsus bifl oppositM, Frigiduni, Opacum, DcriMiui, 
Imraobde. Sedcs vero ct contignationes primae conjugationis, iu 
eado, sideribus, ac pnecipue in sole statui; secunda) in terra. - 
Caelum enim esutnmo integroque calore et materia maxime ex- 
plicate, esse calidiaeimum, hu-idi&dimim, tenuk-imum, maxime 
mobile. Terrain contra, ex frigore integro et irrefracto et 
materia maxime contrncta, r'rigidtssimain, tenebricosissimam, 
.-.-imam, peuitus immobilem, ac summopcre motum exhur- 
ui. 3 Summitates vero cceli naturam suam integrum atque- 
ilbjesam serv.arc, diversitatem nonmdlam inter se adtnitt> 
sed a contra; ii violentia et insultu penitus scmotas * : similein 

. . . caJorl quod llbui ml Datura visit* nit asilgnari ncqucat, minus ctiam trifori, 
quod ii» pUnmaqu* loot entibus quo* bene calid.i sunt, supercsl ut matcriar ■sajgnatlda 
•it." — D« Utrum Nut. I. 4. Bacon's tendency lhr<mi;b.out Is to make the antauiun-ni 
of oral and cold more symmetrical than 1t is with Ttleslus, who retains something of 
the Pannenidean view, In which heat is the active principle, and cold In a manner 
passive, — the relation between them being ijrmbollMd by that of the sine*. 

' "Calor qulvh , . . quae corripit exuperatque tmmutare vhlctur, frieus scilicet 

tx Us, rj ii - 1 1 u i • bcnltatn condliioncsquc ouincs crassltiem, ohscuritatem, liinn- .i >i I i— 

tatem dctnrbare, ct a* Iptum ha proprtaaque facilitate-, cnndtltonnqut onirics — trnui- 

et mobtlitatem imlcrc." — /A.I.I. But although Tefcatm assert* 

• in unlus modo tenuitatis opiHilum esse," — meaning thai it produce* * L crassl- 

tle»" only per accident, yet he nowhere -ay-, I think, " mnliilltas " Is the result 

■ ■I iMoltj .iinl not the direct eflect of the action of beat. (See De Ilir. Nat. I. 7.) 

tifi tlic eotjtmrr, hi jorem sui naliiri mobileni, frigus contra immobile e»sc;" 

-aln, that "attentej DperaQteique nature, calor nimirum frigusquc moli cul 

indiint, unum prorsus flunk" — lb. 1. 2. 

•■eat . . . uno in sole el Stellas rtliquas et universum inlncrl aclum." — lb. 
I. 11. •* Omniuo ealidus tenuis candidua mobitisque est sol." — lb. i. 1. " Nee vero 
H.l turulo, seil ct -trllcc rcllqute omnes it cerium Itldem universum ... ah ejdem 
■ omnino consfltutuni vidrtur " — lb. I. 3. 
itra frigida, crasaa, imra brlcowqite." — A. I I. 

.sura . . . proptcrea pcrpetuo ctrcnmvolvitur, quod ipsitlS 

oplfex cilor clrcularl assiilue commotus niotu, molem cui penitus Inflxus est . . . 

.- U-ii» et Terra Immobllis in uibliinl permanet . . . quod fricin 

■ . , . nullo moveri potest motu." — 76. 1. 2. 

••rrnque . . nee fieri unqoam nee unquam iininmavl, en' 

aajldue flerl auidurque imniulari currumpiquc vldentur. I'atet rntia rell-jua 



per ima sive intima terra? constantiam esse; extrema tantum, 
ubi cnntrnriorurn sit appropinquatio ct concursus, laborare, et 
ab invicem pati et oppugnari. Coelum itaque Uita mule et sub- 
stantia ealidum, et omnls eontrarine naturae prorsus expcrs, Bed 
inasqualiter ; aliis partibus scilicet rnagis ealidum, albs minus. 
Stellarum enim corpus intensius ealidum, intersteliare remissius: 
quin et 1 stellis ipsis alias aliis ardentiores, et ignis magis vividi et 
vibrantis : ita tamen ut contraria natura frigoris, aut aliquis ejua 
gradus, nunquam eo penetret; recipere enim diversitatcm na- 
tunc, contrarictatem non recipere. 8 Neque vero de calure aut 
igne ecclesthun, qui est integer et nativus, ex igne communi 
judicium oinuino fieri. Ignem enim nostrum extra locum auum, 
trepidum, eontrariis circumfusum, indigum, et stipem alimenti, 
ut conservetur, emendicantem, et fugientem 3 ; at in ctclo vero 
locatum, ab impetu altcujus contrarii disjunctum, conetantem, 
ex 8e et similibus conservatum, et propria3 operationeB libere et 
absque molestiu peragentem. Item coclum omni parte lucidum, 
sed secundum magis et minus. Cum enim sint ex stellis notis 
et numeratis quaj nisi ctrlo sereno conspiei non possint, atque 
in gataxia sint nodi minutarum stellarum qua; albedinem quon- 
dam conjunct, non corpus lucidum distinct^ reproesentent ; 
nemini dubiuin esse posse, quin ct sint stcllrc complures quoad 
nos invisibiles ; atque adeo universum coeli corpus luce pradi- 
tum sit, licet f'idgore non tam robusto et vibrante, nee radiis tam 
confertis et conatipatis, ut lauta spalia distanliarum vincere 
queat, et ad nostrum aspectum pervenire.* Ita rursus cerium 
universum ex substantia tenia ct rara, nil in CD ctmtrusum, nil 
illibenter compictum, scd tamen alia parte materiam magis ex- 

nmnia a sole terrain opPaftnantC invertt-nicque (rppu/nante ut contra agentp terri) 
- l)c R*r. tfat I. II. 

I. We should apparently read ex for et, — J. S. 
i excepts, irliquorum intium nullum prorsus n fi'lgore, sed ... a 
omnia. . . . Non sen-u- n , omnium tttt vctorum 

t dlfiuc etlam titcrrc cuduiii ealidum testamur. . . Nullum 
Cecil portlo ail no- calortm, nullamquc ciulrtrre videtur 
taauUslroi pemllli Inert ealor." — De Rer. Nat. i. ;t. 
•umpt'i peril runt, In nun ecu auiiss* rxjsttmare 
Blndrqu* ct Invisllcrrj tcnuitatem attas, ct al> Insidente 

101 CHt."— H'. I. I. 

tllurumque el i-ii-.i Linlvcni natura condltloncs rellqua 

I) hujm vires condiiionivque reliqiuc, multa? robusUora 

♦unt," — //-. I. II. " Lactea . . via . . quin coll 

' c»( rnagis consplssata el proptcrt-a splt-udldior 

- lb. i. 3. Observe that nothing is said of stars In 

(mprcmU el luflmls cojll portlonlbus) lacem quandam 

niinallutn generibus pereipiutur, quae longissima 

it."— //.. I. c. 



plicntam, alia minus expHoatana BOTtui. 1 Postremo, motum 
• uli cuui invcniri qui rci maxime mobiti compctnt, conversions 
zi iitiii 11 in rive rotationis. Motus cniiu eircularis absque tercnino 
eat, et sui gratia. Mot us in linea recta, ad tcrminum et ad 
iliquid, et tanquam ut quieseat.* Itaque universum cerium 
mutu eirculari ferri, nee uliam ejus partem liujus motua exper- 
tern esse ; sed tamen quemadmodum et in ealore et in luce et 
raritate cceli versatur inscqualitas, ita et in motu candem notari; 

_ue magis insigniter, quia observatinnom humanam magis 
I net. ut etiam caleuloa pati pottit.* Motum autem 
orbieulartm et incitationcdiffcrre posse ct latione; incitatione *, 
> i T -it OL'lLrior ant tardior: latione, ut sit in circulo perfecto, 
aut aliquid habeat spine ncque se plane restituat ad eundem 
terminum (nam linoa spiralis ex cireulo et recta composita est). 
Itaque hxr ipsa ccelo aecidere, varietatem nempe ineitntionis, et 
deflexionem a restitutione, ^ive spiralitatern.* Nam et stellai 
iaerrantes ct planet.i- impariter pro pe w u at; et planetie evidenter 
a trapiee in tropicum defleetunt ; atque quo sublimtora cicleatia 
mot, eo ct majoretD tncitationem sortiuntur, et profoorem spiram. 
Nam «i phsBDOmena simpiieitcr atque ut conspiciuntur accipi- 
antur. ct ponattir motus diurnus unus naturalis et simplex in 

:iln: j , el formoeitas ilia mathematioa (ut motus reduc-antur 
rfectou) contemnatur, et recipiantur linea; spirales, 
ct eontrarietatefl illae motuum in eonsccutione ab oriente in oe- 
exJentem (quern vocant primi mobilis), et roTSTU ab oecideute in 
orieaten) (qaeoa vocant motum proprium planetarum) redigan- 
tur In untim, Balvando differentiom temporis in restitutione per 

stinationem et dcrclictionem, et diversam politatem zodiad 

i'iras; inaiiilestuin est, hoc quod diximus evenire : exem- 

ninii iinlTcr^tim (coMum ) tenuitute summnqur donntuiii esse albedine, lux 
."— IH Urr. Sat. I. 3. 
no other reason thun the following. "Sol, ca'lumque universum 
proptrrt i perpetuo elrcumvotvitur, quod ipslm opifex calor circular! aaaldue rocntuoClla 
norn motrm cul nrnilus Inflxua est . . tecum afrit." — lb. \. 2. The motion* of the 
i i.iir construction he afterwards seeks to explain on telrotofiical ground* 
■ hicli ' but which arc a promlm nt part of TeletiuVs lyatrtn, 

A' I. i f». 10., and com p. the physiological speculations In the sixth took. 
i altrmpt to connect the inequality of heat with that of motion, 
deeUni; modum, quo quulta est, conctrui tin -it mundui, ted cur ita con- 

I cur qulbu* coclum muvetur n oUbus lis mover! oporturnt, In- 
— -lb. I. 9. 
il ft Is repeated before incitalinnt. — J. S. 

it the special hypotheses of astronomy are foreiun to hi« purpose) 

ver In favour of the doctrine here ascribed to him, and which we 

I by hi* disciples. Sec the preface to the Ducripti* 

l*l< Bet. Xllt , l|hi tnr«lo. 




pli gratia, ut luna, quae est planetaruin infima, incedat et tar- 
diaaime et per spiraa maxime raras et biautes. Atque talis 
quae dam natura portionis illius cccli quae fit (propter distan tiara 
a oontrario) firma et perpetua, liuic secta; videri possit. Utmm 
vero vetcres tenninoa servant Telesius, ut talia esse putaret 
quscunque supra lunam collocautur, rum luna ipsa, an altius 
vim inimicam adaccnderc posse, perspicue non ponit. At 
terne (qua; est oppositae natura coutignatio et aedes) por- 
tioneni it idem maximum intemeratam et inconeuasam statuit, 
et quo cocleatia non penetrant. Earn ' vero quails sit, non esse 
cur inquiratur, ait. Sat esse ut quatuor illia naturis, frigidi- 
tate, opacitate, densitate, et quiete, iisque absolutis et nullate- 
nua imminutis, dotata judicetur. Partem autem terras versus 
superficiem ejus, veluti quendam corticem aut inerustationenv, 
generationi rerum assignat 2 ; uraniaque cntia qua; nobis quovis 
modo innotuerunt, etiam ponderosissima, durissirna, et altissniie 
detnersa, metalla, lapides, mare, ex terra per calorem cadi aliqua 
ex parte versa et subacta, et quae nonnihil caloris, radi:iti<mis, 
tenuitatia, et mobilitatia jam conceperit, et denique ex madia 
inter aolem et terram puram natura partieipet, consistere. 3 
Itaque necesse est, ut terra ilia pura infra proiundissinia maris, 
mincrarum *, et omnis gencrati deprimatur ; et a terra ilia pura 
usque ad Iunain, aut altiura furtaase, media quaedani naliira 
ex temperamentafl et refiraotiooibiM cadi ct terras collocetur. 
Postquam autem iuterioru utriusque regni satis inuniisaet. 
expeditionem et bellum molitur. Nam in spatiis illia intra 
extima cocli et intinia terra, omnem tumultum et conflietuui 
et tartarisruum invcniri, ut fit in impcriis, in quibua dlud 
Ufluvenit, ut fines incursionibus et violcntiis int'estentur, dum 
interiorefl provincial secura pace i'ruuntur. lias itaque naturas 
et carum concretionea, sese assidue generandi et multiplicand! 
us offundendi, et molem materia: univeraam oc- 
mutuo oppugnandi et luvndeudi, ct propriis 

mistake apparently for ta. — /. S. 

iccrH el terra.') ixmin (viquidero ct extrcmi hujus cteH 
Itttr rti>) iii .-uli.i, iii qu« utldae tgl vi.l.-t nr, Imiiiutari 
. rvari que;it natura." — Dt lUr. Not, i. 10. 
u-ire intrnlum cessat, et ilum af-'H non ii.-.l. in jier- 
tt vjfiuii5 : ... non quotidlano tantum • . . aglt 

''"^Mnjitni nlu terrta tndldlt atque todlt 

■trrnuJ ~ u^irfmani terra; nortiontm emollit laxatqur, ct 
'i r«, V(t matiriam nactui longe minus 



«e sedibus deturbandi et ejiciendi, et aese in iia constituendi, 
jincterca et altcrius natune vim ct acticmes, et proprias etiam, 
percipiendi et prehendendi, et ex hujusmodi percept ione se 
movendi et accoramodandi, appetitum et facultatem habere; 
atque ex ifita decertatitnie, omnium entium atque omnia actionis 
et virtutis vnrietalem deduci. 1 Videtur taineu alic-ubi, licet 
titubanter et atrictim, aliquid dotis materia impertiri ; primo 
ut non augeatur ncc minuatur per fbrmaa et activa entia, sed 
gumma universal! constet 2 : deinde ut motua gravitatis sive 
descensus ad illam referatur 3 ; etiam quiddam de nigredine 
m a t eria injicit. 4 Illud autem perspicue ; calorem et frigua 
eadem vi et copia, in materia cxplicata virea remittere, in 
complicata intendere, cum mcnaurarii non euam sed materia* 
impleant.* Modum vero excogitat atque cxplieat Teleaiua, 
quo ex hoc certamine et lucta iuduci atque expediri possit tarn 
fatcunda et multiplex entium generatio. Ac primo cavet teme, 
iniWiori scilicet principio, ac oatendit quid in causa sit cur a 
*ole terra jam pride in destructa et absorpta non ait, nee in 
t'uturum case possir," Caput buic rei diatantiam ponit terra; a 
Btellia fixia irnmensam, a sole ipao satis magnam, et qualia e8ae 
debeat, brae tiunsuratam. Secundo, declinationem radii irum 
rit<\.i a perpendiculOj liabito respectu ad partes terra: diversaa; 
qui«J villi lii it supra majorem partem terra? sol nunquam ait 
in vurtice, aut incidentia radiorum perpend icularis ; adeo ut 

•> »olc porro terrain oppujrnanto, ejusque naturam el. conditioner reliquas dctur- 
lunte, uu-'ue iinlente, tut Interea adeoquc dlversa constltuinitur enUa : ■ . ■ Soil* 
iemru.ue vine* lunge amplissima* sunt . . . et dum altera- tttem tffpugnmf ct ad 
Intrmccioncm ajcunt, nequaquani strrtunt nihilque contra agunl altera*, sed Hrrnufe 
rttpugn.nt. et dum non |«'ultu> prreunt contraria* et Ipsa? oppugnant oMa.-duntque (I 
"— Df Her. S«t. i. 14. 
' M.iUrix- niolem neque niliml ncijue nuceri unquam." — lb, I. 5. 

nrum omnium (crassiorum entium) delapsus . . . mull as- 
dgnanilii. est." — lb. 1. 4. The reason being, that It cannot be assigned to heat which 
lends trpwvrds, nor to cold which tend* to Immobility. 

'4. n. 8. [The original hai ingrtdint. — /. S.~\ 
. moils portlonrm tortltui rtl eafor penitus Is .sublet univermm. 
. . . I .< !•>■' -i illam ut libet efflntfenili dlsponcndiquc, non ct cfncirtirii tt 

vcluti , I vis.'" — lb. 1. a. 

• The tenth chapter of Teleslas'i rlrst lx»k is teleologies!. •• Summa Del b mltas 

. . . ens nullum . . . pcnli vclit." For the preservation of the universe ami the 

balam-c . the eartb is put in the middle point of the heavi ns The 

Tell* hiiiI the earth are Imth spherical — the former according to the free and 

i the different orbs, and the latter that half of it may always be 

TTpOWd to the sun's influence. If the earth were larger and uot In the centre of the 

of cold wouhl predominate and destroy the lower part of hraven. 

For tlv I the earth.- tin density and heat of the heavens are not uniform, 

and Imth tun and stars arc at a urea! distance; and the oblique and unequal motion 

ivenu his remaining too loot; over any part of the earth's surface. All 

tin. agrfsn tolenihly well with Bacon's account of it, but to hi* fifth reason I do not 

find anjttiiiu oonrsponding in the text. 

II 2 



universum terra; globum vigore aliquo caloria notabili nunquam 
oceupet, Tertio, cbliqiiitak-m mntus .*nlis in transcursu per 
zodiacum, liabito respectu ad easdem terra? partes; unde calor 
solia in qualicunque vigare nan a.-.-iduo ingeminatur, sed per 
intervalla majora rcdit. Quarto, celeritatem solis rcspectu 
inotus diurrii, qui tantum amhitum tarn exiguo temporis spatio 
conficit ; unde minor mora ealoris, neque momentum aliquod 
temporis in quo calor constet. Quinto, continuationem Cor- 
porum inter solem et terrain, quod sol non per vacuum integras 
catoris demittat vires, sed per tot corpora renitentia perme- 
ans, et cum singulis satagena et dimicana, in immenaum lun- 
gueat et enervetur ; tanto magis quod quo longiua proccdat 
atquc debilior evadat, eo corpora inveniat magia inobsequentia ; 
maxime omnium, postquam ad terra; superficiem ventum est, 
ubi videfur non solum renitentia, sed plane quaHlam repulsio. 
Froeesaum vero iinmutationis talem asaerit. Bellum plane 
inexpiabile atquc interncclvum ease; neque contrariaa istas 
naturas ullo symbolo convenire, neque per tertiana, pra;ter- 
quani hylen. Itaque utramque naturam boc ipsum nppetcre, 
niti, contendere, ut alteram plane perdat, seque solam et suam 
materia; indat ; ut sit solis opus (quod perspicoe et sacpe dicit) 
plane terrain vertere in aolem ; et vicissim opus terra, solem 
vertcre in terram' ; neque hoc officere quin omnia ccrto onli- 
ne, dennitis temporibus, et justis mcnsuris fiant; atque actio 
quaeque cursu debito incipiat, moliatur, vigeat, langueat, 
cesset. Quod tamen per leges foederis aut concordia? ullaa 
non fieri, sed omnino per impotentiam: omne enim plus et 
minus in virtute et actione, non ab intensionis moderaraine 
(qu»e integrum quiddam coneupiscit), sed ab opposite natuiaj 
ictu et frasno case. Operation')? diversitatem et niultiplicitatem 
••■• etiam perplexitatem omnino propter unum ex tribus 
vim cnloris, dispositioncm materia;, modum aub- 
i n*-- tamen Iria rxexu quodam inter ee implicantur, 
-iint. Calorem ipsum, vi, copia, 
», BuecesMoiic difterre : fuccessionem vero ipaam 
ari ; accedentia, recedentia; sive intenaione, re- 
ltu, gradu, reditu -, rive repetitione per majora aut 

. . quni ejus porttones exiiperat, . . . 

ii>smn scilicet in caelum, ?<>lem<|ue aelt in ipsum. ... Si 

uttirnura »U»it frlgui, que eorrlplt ■ . . Ip*»ni in terrain 

• I. 



minora intervalla ; atquo bqjaeiDodi ftlterationibufi. Calores 
itaque prorsus vi ct natura longe diveTHSBtmoa ease, prout 
puriores vol impuriores, habits rations ad prinuiin Ion torn 
(sol em videlicet), facti sint. Neque calorem oninetn calorem 
fovere; Bed postquam gradibus bene multis ad inviceni distent, 
se mutuo non minus qtiam frigora pertniere ac perdere, et 
proprias actiones agere, et altcrius actiouilms adversari atque 
opjioni ; ut minores calores ad multo majores constituatTelesius 
tanquain proditorea ct perfugas, et cum frigorc conspirantes. 1 
Itaque vividum ilium calorem qui in igne est et vibratur, 
exilem ilium calorem qui in aqua eerpit omnino interimere ; 
atque similiter calorem pnctcrnaturaleni liumorum putriduram, 

rpore humano, calorem naturalem suffbeare et exstin 
guere. Copiam vero caloris plurimum intereaae, manife-tin- 
esse quam ut explicatione Bgeat. Neque enini unam aut al- 
teram ignis prunam aqoa vehementer ac multas coaccrvatns 
lalel'acere ; maxima autcm insigniter oopita caloris effectum 
demonsrrari in multiplicatione caloris eolis, per reflexionem 
r.idiorum; numerus enini radiorum conduplicatur per reflexio- 
rn hi nmplioem, multiplicatur per variam. Capias caloris vero 
debet adscribi vel addi et unio, quod etiam obtiquitate ct 
perpendiculo radiorum optime ostenditur, cum quo propius et 
aJ acutiores angulos radius directus et reflexus coe'at, eo va- 
lidiorem caloris ictum jaeiar. Quin et sol ipse, cum inter 
majores illos et robustiores stellarum fixarum ignes, Iiegulum, 

■ulum, Spicam, versatur, valcutiores tcrvores efflat. Mo- 
rnii vero caloris evidentissime maximi momenti opcrationcm 
i---i : sum omncs virtutcs naturales tempora colant, obscrvent; 
ut ad vires actuandas tempus requiratur nonnullum, ad robo- 
randas bene multum. Itaque uioram caloris calorem mqunlcm 
in pi nn et inssqualem convertere, quia ealor et ante- 

as et Bubsequens simul conjugantur; id et in furvuribus 
an tumnalibus, quia fervoribus solatitialibua, et in horiaaaattvia 
pomeridianis, quia horis ipais meridiama arduntiures sentiuutur, 
iiianit'cstiim; etiam in frigidioribus regionibus dcMlitatrtii 
caloris, mora et longitudine dierain scstivis temporibua quan- 
doque compensari. At medii potentiam et effieaciaui in calore 

1 " yul» tnim calldorura cntlum longc divi' esse virrs, rt crnUda qu.T sunt, 
nutuo »vcr»ari aufugercque, ct rnutim bcsc oppugnars iiitrrlmervquc, calores 
uto» virilmi. Sri* mutuo oppugnure corrumpercquc noil perclpltf" 
— Dt li<>: Sal. t. 1 3. 

ii 3 



deferendo insignem esse. Hinc enim tempestatum tempericm 
magnopere variam, ut cerium indicibili inconstantia jilt dies 
a;9tivos algidum nonnihil, per dies hiemales sudum quundoqne 
inveniatur; sole interim iter euum et spatia sua constanter 
ct legitime scrvantc. Etiam segetes et uvas flantibus austris et 
corio nubil<>.-i> DOftgfl mutari. Atque omnein cceli secundum 
varias annorum revolutiones dispositionem et cxcretioiu m. 
aliquando pestilcntem et morbidam, aliquando salubrem ct 
amieam, hinc eausam et originem suinere ; medio scilicet aere 
variante, qua? dispnsitioneni ex ipsa vieissitudine et alterationc 
tempestntum diversam, longa fortasse terie, colligit. Succes- 
sionis vero caloris atque ordini.-* quo calor culorem consequitur, 
ut imiltiplicem ralioncm, ita summam virtutem esse. Neque 
solem tarn numerosam et prolificam generationem edueere po- 
tuisse, nisi corporis solis moventis configuratio versus terram 
et terrjB partes plurimre inarqualitatis et variationis partieeps 
esset. Nam ct circulariter movetur boI, et rapide ct ex obliquo, 
et ee retexit, ut ct absens sit et preesens, et propior et remotior, 
et magis ex perpcudiculo et magis ex obliquo, et citius rediens 
et tardius, neque ullo temporis mumento calor emanans a sole 
eibi constet, neque brovi intcrvallo usquam (nisi sub ipsis 
tropicis) ee restituat ; ut tanta variatio generantis cum tanta 
variotate generati optime conveniat. Cui addi posse medii MT6 
vi ibiculi naturam diversissimam. Caetera quoque quse de in— 
asqualitate et gradibu9 caloris unici dicta sunt, posse ad vicis- 
situdines et varietatos successions in culoribus diversis rel'erri. 
Itaquc Aristotelem non male generationem et corruptionein 
rerum obliquae vise solis attribuisse, eamque ut cflieicntem 
DO earum constituisee 1 , si libidine prununtinndi et arbitrum 
natur& se gerendi, et res ad placitum suum distinguendi et 
concinnandi, recte inventum non corrupisset. Ilium enim et 
generationem et corruptionein (quae nunquam prorsus privutiva, 
sed generationis alterius pnegnans est) imcqualitati caloris solis 
secundum totum, hoc est, accedentirc el lvcedentia* solis con- 
junctim, non generationem arerdentise, corruptionem reeedenthc 
divisira, assignare debuissc ; quod pinguiter et ex vulgi feru 
jinlicio fecit. 1 Quod si cui mirum videatur, generationcn.> 

' " h.lticleiitrm rcnim cau^im . . . |icriH'ram (.-ifi ArMoteh-) olili<|usr solis latiom 
1 '•»• Obllq n aliiul Jifjlt quicqwun, s«l tantnm ut Sol magis mi- 

' — Dt Rrr. Nat iv. 8. 

Solem awcdenteni generation^ eausam non ess<?, nee rcccdcntem corrvptioni?, 
ristotcli pi 



rcrum soli attribui ; cum sol ignis esse asseratur et supponatur, 
iirrii^ autem nil generet ; ill leviter objici. Somnium enim 
plane esse illud de heterogenia calorum solis et ignis. InPmitas 
cnim esse operationcs, in quibus actio solis et actio ignis con- 
veniant: ut in niaturatione fructuntn, conservatione plnntarum 
tenerarum et dementia; cocli assuetarum in regionibus frigidis, 
exclusione ovorum, restitutione urinarum ad claritalem (Valorem 
enim solis et animalis conjungimus), resuscitatione animaku- 
lorum frigore obrigentimn, evocationc rorum 1 et vaporum, et 
id genus.* Sed nihilominus ignera nostrum malum minium 

nee solis actionea bene imitari aut prope nttingere ; cum 
solis calor tribus dotatus sit proprietatibus, quas ignis coin- 
munis n?gre ullo artificio reprresentare possit. 3 Primo, quod 
sit ob distantiam gradu ipso minor et blandior ; hoc vero 
ejusmodi esse, ut aliquo modo oequiparari possit; caloris enim 
talis modus mngis incognitus est quam imparabilis. Secui'idn, 
quod per tot et talia media fluens et gliscens dissimularem 
quandam et generativam vim mutuetur et obtineat; maxime 
vero quod tarn regulari injequalitatc augeatur, minuatur, acce- 
dat, recedat, nunquam vero subsultorie aut pracipitanter sibi 
succedat. Qua; duo postrema ab igne fere sunt ioimitabitia, 

industria perspicaci et perpensa res provehi possit. Atque 
hujusmodi quandam de diversitate calorum a Telesio dicuntur. 
Frigidi autem. coutrarii nempc principii, atque dispensatio- 

ius vix mcminit*; nisi forte quae de dispositione material 
jam secundo loco dicentur, ea huic rei satisfacere posse puta- 
verit ; quod tamen facere nou debuit, quandoquidem frigns 
nullo modo privationem caloris, sed omnino principium aoti- 
\iini, caloris seinulum et tanquam competitorem, videri voluit. 
(Jiue autem de materia; dispositione disseruit, eo pertinent ut 
I'stendant quomodo materia a caloro patiatur et subigatur et 
vertatur, missa frigoris mentione aut cura. De frigore autem 
(noe enim in omnium inventis summa cum fide, et tanquam 

■mm in the original. — J. S. 
- 1 1: ileum calorem lib animalium scllsque calore ritversum nun esse." — De Rrr. 
iuj Rives some instances In proof of this assertion : Bacon's how. 
ever are for the mtnt |wrt nil own. 

Son igltur ad animalium ptantarumqiH- generationem ineptn* est ignis, quod 
rju« calor ab animalium et a collect I calore divrrsus sit, sed quod nimls est vehement;." 
— lb. < 

' •• N> tn.rnm i iii'iim nullum prorsui u frigore, sed eorum quorivtl :i ralorv Hfltti> 
tutum r.mi term? portio Incalldam iictn est ens." — lb. i. 16. ; a pWlft 

whlih »UKKi*»ts the remark I have already made, that Teleitui dM not regard heat and 
■fiuclples. Compare 11. £3. throughout. 

ii i 


unur) hujusnuxli qu.Ttliini diccre potuit. Sedem 
frigidi inuaotan ft fixam ad Btroctaraa caloris umbilein et 

•ileiu uptime onivenire ; tanquam im-udem ad mallcum. 
Nam m utrumque principiurn varietatcm et altcrationcm lia- 
bniW<tj gamiimoat proculdubio entia horaria et momentanca. 
Hi iam immcnsas regiones calidi (coclum scilicet), coinpaeta 
Baton globi tuna? et circunyacenrium nonnihil compen 
cum non spatia. Bed eopia aataril in .^patiis speetetur; frigidi 
vero naturam, virtutes. el ratinncs, merito aut silentio preteriri 
aut brevi serraone transmitti debere, cum nil certi et explorati 
de eo haberi pr>ssit per experientiam. Haberaus enim ignei:i 
communem, tanquam soils vicarium, qui caloris naturam mani- 
At frigidi telluris nulla eat subslitutio, quae in raanu 
hi.'ininis sit et adhibcatur prasto ad experiuientum. Etenim 
illos horrores et rigorcs frigidi qui ex globo et ambitu temc 
hiemalibus temporibus et in regionibus frigidissimis exspirant 
in aerem, IspOiai plane et balnea esse, prae natura priini fri- 
gidi in fjatwrib— terra? inclusi; ut frigus illud cujus homi- 
nes sensum et potestateni habcant, simile quiddam sit, ac :•") 
calorem nullum alium haberent. prater eum qui a sole esti- 
vis dtebus et in calidis regionibus emanat ; qui ad ignes fbr- 
nacis urdentis eollatus. refrigcrium quod-lam censeri possit. 
8qI in 3| qua subdititia sunt minus morandum. Viden- 
dum igitur denoepe, qualia siut ea qu« a Telesio dicuntur 
circa dispositioueiu materia?, in quam calor agat ; cujus ea 
est vis, ut actionem ipsam caloris promoveat, impediat, immu- 
tet. Ejus ratio quadruple*. Prima differentia sumitur ex 
calore pneinexistente aut uon pneinexistente.' Secunda, ex 
copia aut paucitate materia?. 1 Tertia, ex gradibus jubactionis.' 
Quart a. ex claosuza tcI apertura corporis subacti.' Quod ail 
primura attinct, snpponit Telesius in omnibus entibus qua? 
•iobis oognita sunt subeese atquc Ltitare calorem mmnulfann, 
i minime dcj rehcndatur, qui calor cum novo aut 
-alore conjungitur : quin et ipse ab eodeni ad- 
calore ad actiones suas peragcndas etiam in proprio 
uk> excitatar atqne 

ns'tgnc, qaod nullum scilice 

Hujus rei 
ex tatibaBj naa m bAbbb, 

• »»a it* ■UK4 *J 

sec. far. cmniNis f.t colli. 


non lapis, non aqua, non aijr, quod non ex attactu atqne 
ttiain ah adniotione ignis nut corjjoris calidi calescat. 1 Quod 
factum iri vcrisimile non est. ni.-i calor pneinexistens et latens 
pnep:i ratio qua.' lain csset ad calon-in novum et manifestum. 
Etiam illud magis et minus, neinp,' faeilitatem aut tarditatem 
in i-alore concipiendo, quod in entibus invenitur, secundum 
modutu caloris prsmexutcutu coinpcttTc. Aerem enim pcrvc 
calore tepescere, atque eo qui in corpore aqua; non percipiatur 
sed sensutu fugiat Etiam aquam citius tepeseerc, quam lapi- 
dem aut metallum aut vitrum. Nam quod aliquod ex istia, 
Tix-tallum scilicet aut lapis, citius tepescere videatm* quam 
aqua, id tan turn in supcrficie fieri, non in profundo ; quia eor- 
j)ora consistentia minus conimunirabilia sunt in partibu* mi':-, 
quam liquida. Itaque extima metaili tit ins ealetfii ri quam ex- 
tima aqme, universam autem molem tardius. Seounda diii'ercn- 
tia ponitur in coacervatione et exporrectione materia;. Ea *i 
ifalW fnevit, tit at caloris vires magis uniantur, et per unionem 
magis augeantur et intendaatur ; contra, si laxior fuerit, ut 
magis disgregentur, et per disgregationein magis minuantur et 
enerventur. Itaque fortiorem esse caloreni metallorum ignitu- 
rutn quam aqua: ferventis, etiam quam Mamma; ipsius, nisi 
quod Haiiuna j>er tenuitatem magis subintret. Nam flammaui 
carboniun rive lignorum, nisi fiatn excitetur, ut per umiimi 
licilius iuipellatur et penetret, non admodum furere; quin et 
nonnullas Mammas (qualis est spiritus vini inflanunati, pr.c- 
eertim in exigua quantitate et disper.-a) at loo lenis caloris i 
ut ad manum fere toleretur. Tertia differentia, qua; ramitur 
ex eubactione materia:, multiplex est ; gradus enim eubactionis 
memorantur ab eo quasi septeni ' ; quorum primus est Lentor, 

' The notion of heat latent In til bodies, inrxistens calor, is frequent In Teleslus ; 
a» In the passaiic quoted nbuve, p. P-S., from the thirteenth chapter uf the flr-t booh, 
m the nineteenth, where it i« *.ii<l. " Coraprimcodl (calori ) nimirum ut 

fl»ctanturr|ue et tluant Inejdateni prerstat calor qui, si nan propria vi, 

at romprlmcnti* opt MU*, CoUimowt}" where illam, T believe, refer* to the 
word* " materia expansio," contained in the cl.iu-e I have omitted. Bui I h 
found Hie argument by which Bacon «oes on to support this doctrine, which would 
i.aiurally have occurred in the twenty-third chapter of the second hook, in whlih 
'I'rlnlui seek* to show that all the elements except earth bear traces of having been 
crnerated by heat. 

i> six. •• In itiel ad ttnultatem proaredlcntca immutatlonea, len- 

torrtn, mollltiem, fluorem, Taporem esae." After deaerttlDg these liir 

degree-, i at once to say : " Scxtum vcrum atque cxtrcmuni (spaliuru 

'; triiulras, i|Uic Klllcet lion tactuni modo ted i|uantuinvis In se ip-n ■ 
i|>iun rtljm. i|in«l vapom mm faciunt, pcnltus latrat et i|iiautavis facta lucem nihil 
m, ut a va|K>ribu9 x-jungenda Ideo sit et ccclo ex universo 
Ineaae vbletur."— Dt Jltr. Sat. l. 20. whence it seems that air is included among 
the v.»|* 



qui est diapositio materia: exhibena corpus ad majorem vio- 
lentiam nonnihil obscquens, et comprcssionis et pnecipue cx- 
tennionifl patiens, flexibile ' denique aut ductile. Secundum, 
Mollitics, cum majnrc vinlentia nil opus est, sed corpus etiam 
lovi impulsionc atque ad tactum ipsum sive inaiiuni cedit, 
absque evidenti renitcntia. Tertia, Viscositas sive Tenacitas, 
qvm est principium quoddam fluoris. Videtur enim corpus 
viscosum ad contactum et couiplexiun altorius corporis incipere 
StMFfl et continuari, nee se ipso finiri, licet sponte et ex sese 
non fluat; fluidum enira sui sequax est, viscosum alterius 
magis. Quarta, ipse fluor, cum corpus spiritus intcrioris par- 
ticeps in niotu ver.-atur liliens, et eeipsum sequitur, atque aegre 
definitur aut consistit. Quinta, Vapor, cum corpus attenuatur 
in intactile, quod etiara majore cum agilitate et mobilitate 
cedit, fluit, undulat, trepidat. Sexta, ILditus, qui vapor est 
quidam. magis coctus et maturus, et ad igneam naturam reci- 
piendum subactus. Septima, aer ipse; aiirem autem contendit 
Telesius omnino calore native, neque to piuvo aut impotent!, 
prxditum esse; quod etiam in frigidissinus regionibus aiir 
nunquam congelattir aut coucrcscit. Etiam illud evident i in- 
■Jii i i esse, aerem in natura propria calidum esse, quod omnis 
aer clausus, et ab univcrsitatc arris divulsus, et sibi permis.-ni.-s 
teporcm manifesto culligit; ut in lana et rebus fibrosis. Etiam 
in locis clausis et angustis, aerciu ad respirationem sentiri 
quodam modo sufloeativum, quod a calido est. Atque bjBQ 
propterea fieri, quud aer clausus sua natura uti incipiat, cum 
ac'r i'uras ct i-ub dio refrigcretur a frigore, quod globus terra; 
perpetuo emittit et efllat. Quin etiam acrem nostrum commu- 
nem tcnui quadam easiest ium dote insigniri, cum liabeat non- 
niliil in se tucis ; quod ex visu aniinalium, qme noctu et in 
locis obscuris cernere possunt, ostenditur. 9 Atque talis est 
Telesio dispositionis materia! series, in raediis videlicet j Biqui- 
dem extrema, videlicet ex altera parte corpora dura et rigida, 
ex altera ignis ipse, tanquam termini mediorum non recen- 

1 Jluxibik in the original. —J. S. 

5 That certain olmh can we at night I* with Telesius a proof that the ap- 
parently obtCttre part* of the heavens — the highest ami lowest, — alve out a percep- 
tible amount of lifiht, not that the ulr Is itself luminous, — unless the •'Ultima ctrll 
portio" he understood to mean our atmosphere. (See De Bcr. Nat. i. 3.) It is re- 
markable Bacon omits TelcsluVs chief argument in favour of (he opinion 
the air in generated by and contains heat, namely that it partakes '" •"•"» "•«■«!»» 
ut' the circular motion which the heavens derive from th>* -" 
which they are constituted. The natural motion of * 
iiijj to Telesius by the sound heard when a shell • 



eentur. Sed praeter lioscc gradus simplices, magnam aucu- 
]>alur diversitatem in dispositione materia? ex corpore similari 
et dissiniilari ; cum scilicet peritonei materia; in nno corpnrc 
compot-ita? et coadunata?, vol ad unum ex grailibus supra-dietis 
jequaliter referri possunt, vel ad diversa impariter. 1 Longe 
enim maximam indc sequi in operatione caloris difTerentiam. 
Itaque quartani illara diilurentiam necessariu adhiberi ex na- 
tura ac etiam positur.i corporis in quod calor agat, clausn, 
aut porosa et aperta. Quandt) enim in aperta et expo^ita 
opcratur calor, operatur seriatim et per singula, attenuando 
et siuiul educendo et separando. Cum vero in occlusa et com- 

i. uperatur secundum totum et secundum massam, nulla 
iaeta jactura caloris, sed calore novo et veterc se conjungentibus 
et plane conspirantibus; unde fitut potentiores et magis intrin- 
secas et exquisitas altcrationes et subactiones conficiat. Verum 
<]'• hoc plura mox dicentur, cum de mode .-ubactiitnis disscre- 
mus. Sed interim satagit et a^tuat Telesius, et niiris modis 
iniplicatur 3 , ut expediat modum divortii et separationis qualita- 
tum suarum primarum connaturalium, caloris, iucis, tenuitatis, 
<t mobilitatis, ac quaternionis opposite, prout corporibus ac- 
cidunt : cum corpora alia inveniantur calida, aut ad cjilorem 
optimc pneparata, sed eadem inveniantur quoque densa, quieta, 
niirra; alia tenuia, mobilia, lucida sive alba, sed tamen frigida; 

iniliter de caiteri^ ; una quapiam qualitate in rebus ex- 
istentc, reliquis non competcntibus; alia vero duabus ex istis 
naturis participent, duabus contra priventur, varia adniodum 
pcrmutatione et consortio. Qua in parte Telcsius non ad- 
modum feliciter perfungitur, sed more adversariorum suorum 
se gerit; qui cum prius opinantur quam experiuntur, ubi ad 
res particulars ventum est, ingenio et rebus abutuntur, atqtto 
tam ingenium quam res nilscrc lacerant et torquent ; et tamtu 
alacres et (si ipsis credas) victores suo eensu utcunquc abun- 
dant. Coucludit autem rem per desperationem et votum, illud 
aignificans, licet et caloris vis et copia, et materia? dispositio, 
crasso modo et secundum summas distingui et terminari pos- 
■Hi : tamen exactas et accuratas eorum ratioties, ct distinctoa 
el t.mquam mensuratos modos, extra inquisitionis humanai 

rpaura qtuedam tlmklxri e terra et uno eodpmque a calore unirerM rtf. I i 
plrniqur, quit aliU sul [lartilmi *1 non miignia ii* teauh 
ro criMtnr rst ilrnslorqup." — lit fitr Nut. I. 15. 

1 1». The gviivral ourport of his explanation ts, that the 
•• with and controlled by that of cold. 



aditus scpositos esse; ita tamen, ut (quo modo inter impos- 
sibilia) diversitas dispositionis materia;, melius <piun oaloria 
I 't graduBj penptci poaut; atque uihilomimis In his ip/is 
(si qua futa sinant) humana} et sciential et potent ia* i'.istigium 
et culmen esse. Postquiim nutem desperationem plane pro- 
feaStu eoset, tamen in vnta precesque non ccssat. Ita eniin 
dixit: Qui p »rr<> ettlor rrl quant us, hoc est, quod caloris robur 
i. qua; ejus copia, quam terrain et qua: entia in qunlia invrtat, 
niiiiiine inquirendum videtur, ut quod homini nulla { ut nobis vi- 
i/'tnr) iinutfi.icere queat ratione. Qui cnim vel caloris vires et 
talortm ipsum veluti in gradus partiri, vel materia; eui inditus 
est copiam quantit'itrmqiir distiurfe jxreiperc et certis dctcrmi- 
imtisqne caloris viribus COpfafU* certam materia quantitatcm 
dispositionemque certosque actiones, ant contra 1 , certm tMtclia 
quantitati certisqne actumilnis certam determinatiinque caloris 
copiam, assignare liceat ? Utinam id otio /mattes et pertpieadore 
preediti ingenio, et quibus in summu frauquil/ifofr rmtiii naturttm 
perscrutari licuerit, asseqitniititr : ut homines mm omnium modo 
.self iit<s, ted omnium /ere potentes fiant /' lioncslius p.iuUci quam 
solent ejus adversarii, <pti ipiiripiid arte- qui ipffl pepererunt 
non assequiuitiir, id ex sirte oinnino impossible ssatuunf, ut 
nulla ars damnari possit, cuin ipsa et agat et judicet Rettfri 
teriium qood erat, subaetionis videlicet modus. Hoc triplici 
dogmate absolvit Telesius. Primum est, id quod antea a nobis 
obiter est nutntum, nullam prorsus synibolizationein intelligi 
(ut in Peripateticorum duetrina), per quam res tanquam Concor- 
dia ipiadam foveantur et conspirent. Omneni enim generatio- 
nem, atque adeo umnera effecturn in corporc naturali, victoria 
et pra'domiiKintia, non pacto nut i'uedeie transigi. Id quod 
novum non est, cam etiam Aristotcles in doctrina Empedoolia 
hoc ipsum notaverit. 3 Quod scilicet cum Empedocles Litem 

1 centra In original. 

* This Quotation b iDMcnntr, "'Qui porro calor. vel quantum quod nhnJrum 
caloris robur el qua ejIM COBM* (ma tartan et qu.T enria in quiili i, minime 
inquirendum vuli-tur, ut quod honiiiii nulla, ut nobis videtur, nutotatctra queat 
ratlonr. Qui rnlm v*l calortl vin-. et calorcm Ipsum veluti in gradlU partiri vel 
materia* cui ruditui e-t copiam qaantltatemqiie distinct^ pwclpew, et ovrtU di-trrml- 
natisquc caloris vlribui c-optaeqiM in certain materia? qaantltatetn dltpodtioaemqBB, 
certas uetiones et ccrta; materia? quantitati certam dclcrinmulJimi-iic caloris copiam 
assignor*' liceat t Otinam Id ulii it penplcaeloTC prirdltl Ingi-nio etqulbut in Miintn.i 
tranquillltate mum naturam per-cruuri licuerit as^rquantur. ut huminrs non omnium 
modo scienter jt-.l et poteiltCf Bant." — De Iicr. An', i. \7. Perhaps Bacon m») quota 
fn>m the edttiim pablUbed In 1565 [or from a copy corrected by conjecture ; for there 
is evidently something wrong In the passage as it stands. — /. S.] 

• Arlst Meteor, iii. A. 



ct Amicitiam, rerum principia cHiricntia .statuissct, tamen in 
explieationibus suis causarum, Inimicitia fere utatur, alterius 
tanquam oblitus. Secundum est, calorem aetione sua propria 
perpetuo vcrtere ens in humidum, et quod calori siccitas nullo 
lii(nlt) curat, nee frigori huiii'ulitas. 1 Idem enim esse attenuare 
et humectare ; atque quod max'nne tenuc, id etiam maxime 
humidum esse : rum per hutnidum intelligatur it) quod i'acil- 
lime cedit, abit in partes, et rursus se restituit, atque a?gre 
finitur aut <•> m.-istit. Qua: omnia magis insunt tiammae, quain 
■Sri] qui a 1'eripatetieis eonst'tuitur maxime huuiidus. Ita- 
que calorem, humidum perpetoo allicere, depascere, extende- 
re, indere, generare; contra, i'rigus omnia agere in siccitatem, 
concretionem, iluriticm ; ubi vult Aristotelem et hebeteni in 
observation! 1 , et Blbi discordem, et erga experientiam imp 
ROB et libidinosum vidcii, quod calorem cum siccitnte copulif.' 
Nam quod aliquando entia desiccet calor, id per accidens fieri ; 
nimirum in corpora diseimilari et ex partibus aliis magis crassis 
alii- magifl tenuibus coagmentato, eliciendo et (per attcnua- 
tioneni) exituin daudo parti tenuiori, dum pan crassior inde 
cogatur et magis se constringat: qua? tamen ipsa pan cra.-si.ii-, 
si advencrit enlur ferocior, et ipsa fluit ; ut in lateribus mani- 
festum est. Primo enim calor non ita fcrvens 3 , hit um OOgit in 
lateres, tcnuioiv parte evaporata; at fortior calor ctiam illniu 
substantiam latcritiam solvit in vitrum. Atque lnec duo do- 
gmata veluti errorum redargutioncs censeri possunt ; tertium 
plane affirmat, neque id solum, Bed et perspicue distinguit sub- 
tiuiiis modum. Is duplex est, vel rcjiciendo, vel vertendo ; 
tque alteruter ex iis modis perducitur in actum, secundum 
vim caloris .1 ili-pi.-itiuncm materia;. Cujus rei tamen duo 
videntur lanqunm rannnes. Unus, quod cum calidum et I'ri- 
gidum magna mole ct tanquam justo exercitu coneurrunt, 
si«piitur ejectio. Nam entia, veluti aeies, loco moventur et 
imp( lluntur. Ubi vcro minors quantitate res geritur, turn se- 
quitur vi r-io 1 ; nam hiteriinuntur entia et. naturam potius quam 
l-.iiun mutant. IIujus rei Lnsigne et nobilc cxctnplum esse iu 
nibus ncris Buperioribus, qme licet ad calorem eoclcstem 
appropinquent, tamen frigidiorea inveniuntur quam con- 

1 " Propria ijiltur calori*, el t-alorli opui bumldttaf." — D< Rtr. .Yuf. III. 14. 

' " N.rtunr Iti'li m •< D5uique <L %Va\ rliitn Ipd din ..r~ ArlatObelM calori slcclUtrm 
ri frii: ri humorcm copulnt." — lb. I. e, 
* irrr/iji, in die original. — J. S. 

' It daM not appear that Trlesl ui rrrognlted the possibility of transforming heat 
oid| or vice versu ; wli eh seem* to Ue implied l>y the word m rM". 



finia terra?. In illis enim locis, postquam propius ad sedem 
primi ealidi ventum est, calor se colligcns universam t'rigoris 
vim qua; adscenderat simul ejicit et detrudit, et ;alitu pro- 
hibet. Quinetiam similiter fieri posse, ut sint per profunda 
terra; calorcs vehementiores quain in superficie; postquam 
scilicet ad eedi m prinii frigidi appropinquatio facta est, quod 
se excitans, magno impetu catidum rejicit, et fugit 1 , et in se 
vertit. Alter canon est, quod in aperto scquitur ejectio ; in 
elauso versio. Hoc autem insigniter conspici in vasibus oc- 
clusis, ubi emissin corporis attemiafi (quod sprritum fere voca- 
mus) prohibita et retrusa profundas et intrinsecas in corporibua 
alterationes et fennentationes generat. At hoc ipsum similiter 
fieri, cum corpus oh partium compactionem sibi ipsi inatar vasls 
occiusi est Atque hsec sunt qua Telesio, et fortasae Parme- 
nidi, circa rerum principia visa sunt ; nisi quod Telesius hylen 
addidit de proprio; peripateticis scilicet notionibus depravatua. 
Atque similia vcri fuissent qua; a Telesio dicuntur, si homo 
tollatur e natura, et simul artes mechaiUQBl qua? materiam 
vexant, atque fabrica mundi simpliciter spectetur. Nam pa- 
etoralis qucedam videtur ista philosopliia, quae muudum contem- 
platur plae'ide, et tanquam per otium. Siquidem de systeniate 
mundi disserit non male, de principiis iniperitissime. Quin et 
in ipso quoque systemate ingens est lapsus, quod tale constituat 
-v-tmia quod videri possjt a?ternum, ncc supponat chaos et 
mntationes schematism] magni. Sivcenim ea est Telesii philo- 
BOpbia, sive Per'qiatcticorum,siTe quae alia, qua; in cum moduin 
s\ -tenia instrtiat, libret, muniat, ut non videatur fluxisse a 
cliao: bb livinr philosopliia videtur, atque omnino ex iingustiis 
pMtoril humani. Nam omnino secundum sensum philosoplianti 
materia: aMcrnitas asseritur; mundi (qualcm eum iiituemur) nega- 
tur; quod et prison MptentUBj etei qui ad ipsam proxime accedit, 
Democrito, visum est. Idem sacra; literal testantur. IUud 
pra>eipue interest; quod ilhe etiam materiam a Deo; hi ex scae 
slatuunt. Tria enim vidcutur esse dogmata qua* seiuius ex 
fide circa banc rem. Priino, quod materia crcata sit ex nihilo. 
Seoundo, quod eductio systematis fuerit per verbum omnipo- 
t'lii ia-, neque quod materia se ipsa eduxerit c diao in Bcfeema- 
tismum ilium. Tcrtio, quod schematismus ille (ante prnevarica- 
tionem) fuerit optimus ex iis qua; materia (qualis creata erat) 
tuscipcre posset. At philosopliia; ilia; ad nullum horuin adscen- 

1 So In the original —J.S. 



dere potuerunt Nam et creationem ex nihilo exhorrcnt, et 
hunc schematismum post multas ambages et niolimina materia? 
eductum sentiunt; nee de opt imitate laborant, cum scheniati- 
smus asseratur occiduus et variabilis. In his itaque fidei atque 
ejus firmamentis standum. Utrum vero materia ilia creata, per 
longos seculorum circuitus, ex vi primo indita se in ilium opti- 
mum schematismum colligere et vertere potuisset (quod missis 
ambagibus ex verbi imperio continuo fecit), non inquirendum 
fortasae est. Tarn enim est miraculum, et cjusdem omnipo- 
tent, repra'scntatio temporis quam eilbmiatio entis. Videtur 
autem natura divina utraque omnipotentia* emaDationc se in- 
signire voluissc : primo, opcrando omnipotenter super ens et 
materiam, creando scilicet ens e nihilo ; eecundo, super motum 
et tempus, anticipando ordinem naturae, et accelerando proecs- 
aura entia. Verum haec ad parabolam de Caelo pertinent, ubi 
qua nunc breviter perstringimua fuaius disseremua. Itaque ad 
principia Telesii pergemlum. Atque utinam hoc saltern semel 
et inter omnea cuiivenirct, ne aut ex non entibua entia, ant ex 
non principiis principia, constitui placeret, neque manifesta re- 
cipiatur contradictio. Principium autera abstractum non est 
ens ; rurstis eua mortals non est principium ; ut necessitaa 
plane invincibilia hominum cogitationes (si siLi constarc velint) 
compellat ad atomum, quod est verum ens, matcriatum, forma- 
tum, dimensum, loeatuin, hnbens antitypiam, nppetitum, motum, 
emanationem. Idem per omnium corporum naturalium inte- 
ritus manet inconcussum et scteriu;m. Nam cum tot cl tam 
variie eint corporum majorum corruptionea, omnino necesae 
eat ut quod tanquain centrum manet immutabile id aut 
potentiale quiddam sit, aut minimum. At potentiale non est; 
nam potentiale priimun, reliquorum qua: sunt potentialia untile 
esse non potest, quaj aliud acta sunt, aliud potentia. Sed 
nccesse est ut plane abstractum sit, cum omnera actum abriegct, 
ct onmem potentiam cmuincat. Itaque relinquitur, ut illud 
immutabile sit minimum; nisi forte quia asserat omnino prin- 
cipia nulla existere, sed rem alteram alteri pro principiis esse, 
legem atque ordinem mutationis eonstnntia esse et sterna, 
essentiam ipsain fluxam et mutabilem. Atque satiua foret 
I1HJ11-11101I1 .jiiiildain diserte aOirmare, quam studio ajteruum 
eliquod [inncipiuin statuendi, in durhu iiu-ommodum i&c&dere, 
ut idem principium ponatur phantasticum. Ilia enim prior 
ratio uliqiuin exitum habere videtur, ut res mutentur in 



orbcm ; hrec pronua nullum, qua? notionalia et mentis admini- 
cula babel pro entibus. Et tamen quod boc ipsum millo modo 
fieri poesit, poetea docebimus. Telesio tamen h/h; placuil, 
quasi ex juniore sgvo postnatain in Pannenidts philoaopbiam 
transtulit. At certamcn instituit Telesius a gentium suorum 
prim-ipiorum luirum et plane inlquum, et eopiia et genere bcl- 
ianrli. Nam quod ad copias attinet, terra ei est unica, at cn?li 
excrcitus ingens ; etiam terra puncti fere instar, cceli vera 
spatia et rcgiones immenfic, Ncque buic incommodo illud 
subvenire quest, quod terra et eonnaturnlia ejus ex materia 
maxima oompoeta asserantur, caelum contra et tetberea ex 
materia maxhne cxplicata. Licet cnini pluriuuun certe intersit, 
tamen haw res nulla mode copias vcl fottgo intervallo a?quabit. 
At robur dogmatia Telesii versatur in boc vel prnecipue, si tan- 
qunm ajqualis portio by!e8 (secundum quantum, nun secundum 
exporrectioiiem) utrique principio agenti assignetur, ut res 
durare poasint, et systema eonstitui et stabiliri. Quicuuque 
enim cum Telesio sentiet in ea^ti-ris, et exsuperantiam hyles, 
;;ini bam amplo excessu, in uno principio, ad alteram 
recipiet, brcrebit nee so omnino explicabit. Itaque in dialogo 
Plutarebi de facie in orbe luiiir, sana mente pmponitur ilia 
consideratin, non esse veris»iniik', in dispersione materia? na- 
turam quit-quid compact! corporis erat in unieiim terra? globum 
conclusive, tot interim volventibus globis nstrorum. Iluic vero 
Oogitatiooi tarn immoderate indtilsit Gilbertus, ut non solum 
terrain et luuain, sed complures afioa gtoboa aolidofl et opaeoa 
per expansionem cocli inter globoa luccntes ■panel assereret. 1 
Qnin et ipsi Peripatetici, postquam cadestia suo statu, sub- 
lunaria autem per succcssionem et renovationem icterna posuis- 
sent, non Bosfiai sunt se boc dogma tueri posse, nisi dementis 
velnti ajquas material portiones assignasaent. Hoc est enim 
illud, quod de decupla ilia portione qua ambiens elcmentiim 
interim elementum snperet consomniant. Neque ista eo nd- 
duoSmue, quod nullum ex Ha nobis placeat, sed ut ottettdamufl 
inepinabile quiddam esse, atque cogitationem pr or gaa male 
meneuratam, si quis terrain contrarians agens coclo princi- 
jiium Btatuat: quod Teleaiua fecit. Atque boo ipeum duriua 
■Quito invenitur, si quis prater quantum ipeum, disparem 
virtutem et actum c«ili et terra? intueatur. Purdita enim 
omnino sit dimkationis conditio, si ex altera parte telorum 

' CrJIUrt, N I, 10. 



hostilium ictus perferantur, ex altera non pertingant, eed eitni 
cadant. At liquet plane eolis virea in terram mitti ; terrie 
autem vires usque ad solem pervenire nemo spondcat. ICtenim 
inter omnea virtutea quaa natura park, ilia lucis et umbnc 
tODgieaune eniittitur, et maximo spatio sive orbe circumfunditur. 
Umbra autem terrae citra solem terminatur, cum lux solis, si 
terra diaphana esset, globum terra; traneverberare possit. No- 
minatum calidum, f'rigidum, (de quibus nunc est sermo) min- 
quam deprehenduntur tam magna spatia vincere in virtute 
sua perferenda, quam lux et umbra. Itaque si umbra teme 
non pertingit ad solem, multo minus frigidum terra? eo adspirare 
posBe consentaneum est. Id si ita sit, nempe ut sol et calidum 
in quxdam corpora media agant, quo contrarii principii virtus 
non adscendat, nee ullo modo eorum actum impediat; necesse 
I •-: ut ilia (sol, inquam, et calidum) proxima qureque occupent, 
<t dein remotiora quoque conjungant, ut tandem futura sit 
Heracliti conflagratio, solari et coelesti natura gradatim versus 
terram et confinia ejus descendente et magis appropinquante 
NVque ilia admodum conveniunt, ut vis ilia naturam suam 
imponendi et multiplicand! et alia in se vertendi, quam Tele- 
sius principiis attribuit, non operetur in similia neque aut magis 
quam in contraria; ut ccelum jam excandescere debuerit, et 
■tailfl inter se coramitti. Verum ut propius accedamus, qua- 
tuor omnino demonstrationes proponendaa videntur, quae Telesii 
philoHOpbiam de principiis plane convellcrc ct destruere pos- 
sint, etiam singulae, multo magis conjunctoe. Harum prima 
eat, quod inveniantur in rebus nonnulhe actiones et effectus, 
etiam ex potentiesimis et latissime difFuais, qua? ad calorem 
et l'rigus nullo modo referri possint. Proxima, quod inveni- 
antur naturae nonnullse quarum calor et frigua sint effectus et 
consecutiones ; neque id ipsum per excitationem caloris pne- 
inixistentis, aut admotlonem caloris advenientis ; Bed prorsus 
per qua? calor et frigus in primo esse ipsorum indantur et 
generentur. Itaque principii ratio in Us ex utraque parte 
deficit, turn quia aliquid non ex ipsis, turn quia ipsa ex aliquo. 
Tertia, quod etiam ca qua: a calore et frigore originem ducunt 
(quae certe sunt quam plurima) tamen proecdunt ab illis tan- ab efBciente et organo, non tanquam a causa propria et 
iutima. Postremo, quod conjugatio ilia quatuor connaturalium 
"iiniiino permiscetur et confunditur. Quare de bis sigillatim 
dicemos. Atque alicui tbrtasae vix operas pretium videri 



possit, nos in philosophia Telesu urgucnda tam diligentor 
versari, philosophia scilicet nrm Bfb&odam cclebri out recepta. 
Vcrum nos hujusmodi fostidia nil morumur. De Telesio autem 
bene sentiinus, atquc eum ut amantem veritntis et scientiis 
utilcm et nonnullorura placitorum emendatorcm ct novorum 
Inmiinuin prinutm uguoscimtis. Neque tamen nobis cum BP 
res est tanquam Telesio, sed tanquam instauratore pliiloanphiss 
Parmenidis, cui multa debetur revcrentia. Sed illud in primis 
in causa est quod base fusiua agamus, quod in eo qui primus 
nobis oecurrit complura disserimus, quae ad sequeiUium secta- 
rutn (de quibus postmodum tractandum crit) rcdargutionem 
transferri possint, nc stcpius cud cm dicere sit necesse. Sunt 
eoim crrorum (licet diversorum) film niiris modis inter se im- 
jilicatsc et intextae, qua; tamen srepenuinero una redargutione, 
tanquam falce, demeti ct succidi possint. Verum, ut occoe- 
piinus dicere, videndum quales iuvenianlur in rebus virtutcs 
et aetiones, qua; ad calidum et ingidum mdlo rertun consensu 
aut ingenii violcntia train possint. Primo itaquc suuiendum 
quod a Telesio datur, materia; 6ummam selenium constare, ncc 
augeri aut minui. Hanc ille dotem, qua materia se servat et 
sustinet, tnuvsmittit ut passivam,et tanquam ad rntioueni quanti 
pottus quam ad formajti et actionem pertiiu'iitrm, ac si nihil 
opus esseteam calori et frigori deputare, quas agentium tantum 
formarutn et virtutum fontes pouuntur ; materiom euim non 
simpliciter, sed omni agente virtule destitui et exui. Atque 
hffic asseruntur magno meutis errrre, et proreus mirabili, nisi 
quod consensus ntque opinio pervulgata et inveteiata mira- 
culuin toll it. Nil enim simile fere inter crrorcs rvperitur, 
quam ut quis virtutem istam materia! inditam (per quam ipsa 
se ab interitu vindicat, adco ut minima quajquc material portio 
ncc universa mundi mole obrui nee omnium n^entium vi ct 
unpetu destrui aut u31o modn annihilari ct in ordincm redigi 
queat, quin et spatii nonniliil occuper, ct renitentiiiin scrvct 
cum dimensions impenetrabili, et ipsa vicissim aiiquid moliatur, 
nee se descrat) pro agente virtute nun habcat; cum contra sit 
omnium virtutum lorige potcntissiuia, ct plane insuperabilis, et 
veluti merum fa turn et neccssitas. Hanc autem virtutcm nee 
conatpr Tetanus ad calidum ct i'rigidum rcferre. Atquo hoc 
rccte ; ncque enim scilicet aut incendium aut torpor ct con- 
gelatio huic rei aiiquid addunt vel dctialiunt, nee super eum 
aiiquid possunt ; cum ipsa interim ct in sole, et ad centrum 



tf-rrrr, ct ubique vigeat. Seri in eo lapsus vidctur, quod molcm 
materia; certam et definitam agnoscit ; ad virtutem qua sc 
numeriu suis tueatur csecutit, ramque (profundissimis Peripa- 
teticorum tcncbris immersus) accessorii klOfl ducit; cum sit 
maxime principalis, corpus siiuui ' vibrant, aliud submovens, 
soliili ot adnmantina in seipsn, atquo unde decreta et possibilis 
ft impii— TttiTili cmanant autlioritate inviolabili. Scliola itiil<in 
vulgaris earn t'acili verborum complexu pueriliter prensat. satis- 
fy fftTMD luiic cogitationi putans, si duo corjmra in eodeni loOO 
non posse esse pro canone ponat, virtutem autem istam atque 
ejus modum nunquam apertis oculia contemplatur et ad vivuin 
dissccat; parum scilicet gnara, quanta ex ea pendeant. et qua- 
lis lux inde scicntiis exoriatur. Verum (quod nunc ngitur) 
ista virtus quantacunque extra Telesii principia cadit. Trans- 
eun dum jam ad virtutem illam qua* ad prinreiu banc est tan 
quam antistropha, earn scilicet quae nexum materite tuctur. 
Ut cuim materia materia obrui non vult, ita nee materia a 
materia divclli. Atque niltilnmimis utrum hasc naturae lex 
sit asque ac ilia altera peremptnria, magnam liabet dubita- 
tionem. Telesio enitn, quemadmodum et Democrito, vacuum 
coaeervatum et sine meta dari placuit, ut entia singularia 
contiguum suum deponant, nonnunquam et deserant, ■ 

aiunt) et illibenter, eed majore nempe aliqua violentia 
domita et. coacta; idquc illc nonnullis experiment is demon- 
strare contendit, ea potissimum adducens, quaa passim citan- 
tur ad abnegandum et refelleudum vacuum, eaque tanquain 
extrahens et amplians eo modo, ut entia videri possint in 
levi aliqua necessitate posita contiguum illud tenere; sin 
majorem in modum torqueantur, vacuum admittere ; sicuti in 
clepaydris aqueis, in quibus si foramen per quod aqua descen- 

[K)seit minutius sit, spiraeulo egebunt, ut aqua descendat ; 
sin latins, etiam absque spiraeulo, aqua in foramen majore 
mole incumbens, et vacuum supra nil morata, deorsum fertwr. 
Similiter in follibus, in quibus si cos* comprimas et occludax 
ut nullus illabenti aeri aditus pateat ac postea eleves et ex- 
pandas, si pellis gracilis sit et debilis, dirumpitur pellis; si 
craua et frangi inepta, non item ; et alia bujustnodi. 3 Verum 
experimenta ista nee exaete probata sunt, ncc inquisitioni 
• minino satisfaciunt ant quaestionem terminant ; atque licet per 

1 [So In the original.] The tense appears to require «umm. 
1 «e In tht criminal. — J. S. 

I 2 

• De Her. Nat i. 24. 



ilia Telesius se adderc rebus et inventis putet et quod :U> 
aliia eonfusius observatum est subtilius distinguere nitatur, 
tamen nullo modo par rebus cvadit nee exitum rei evolvit, Bed 
in mediia prorsus deficit; quod ex more est et ipsi et Peripa- 
teticis, qui ad experimenta contuenda instar noctuarum sunt, 
neque id tarn ob facultatis imbecillitatem, sed ob CHtttMtaa 
ojiinionura, et contemplationis pleriac et fixa: impnticntinm. 
Qusestio vero ista (ex maxime arduis) quousque detur vacuum, 
ct .id quae spatia fieri poasit seminum vel eoitio vel distractio, 
et quid sit in hoc genere peremptorium Bt invariabile, ad lo- 
cum ubi de vacuo tractandum orit rejteinms. Neque enim 
multum interest ad id quod nunc agitur, utrum natura vacuum 
pciutus respuat, an entia (ut emendatius se loqui putat Tele- 
Dtie ') mutuo contactu gaudeant. Illud enim planum l'acimus, 
istam sive vacui fiigam, sive contactus cupidinem, nullo modo 
a cslido et frigido pendere, nee a Telesio ipsi s adscribi, DM 
ex rc-rum ulla evidentia illis adscribi posse ; cum materia loco 
mota aliam prorsus materiam trahat, sive ilia sit calida sive 
frigida, sive liqutda sive sicca, sive dura sive mollis, sive arnica 
sivi- inimica, adeo ut corpus calidum corpus gelidissimuui citius 
attraxerit ut ei adsit, quam se ab omni corpore disjungi et 
deseri patiatur. Nam vinculum materire fortius est quam 
dissidium ealidi et frigidi. Et sequacitas materia; non curat 
divcrsitutem formarum sprrialium. Itaque nullo modo hasc 
virtus nexus ab illis principiis ealidi et frigid i . Sequuntur 
virtutes dua3 invicem opposite, qtnc regnum hoc principionim 
(ut videri possit) nd calidum ct f'rtgidum detulerunt, sed jure 
male enucleato; eas dioimui, per quas entia se aperiunt et rare- 
fanunt, dilatnnt et expandunt, ita ut majus sputium occupent 
et se in majorcm sphasram conjiciant; aut rursas H clandunt 
et condensant, coarctant et contrahunt, ita ut epatlis decedant 
et in minorem spha*ram se recipiant. Ostendenduni itaque 
<\-h qiiatenus ista virtus a Ofiltdo et IVigido ortum haheat, et 
quatenus seorsum morctur, nee cum ilia rationes misceat. 
Atqne verissimum est, quod affirm at Telesius, rarum et den- 
Bum caloris et i'riguris esse veluti opih'cia propria; longc enim 
maxima: sunt illorutn partes ad hoc, ut corpora majus et mi- 
OUB spatium occupent; scd tarocn confusius ista accipiuntur. 

1 " Knlla prorsut omnia mutuum contactum tcmirr ct suinraoiH'rc to oblcctari . 
•Pt»rent. M — De Jhr. Nat L B> 
* So in the original, t think it .should be ipso. — / S. 



Videntur enim corpora quaiidnquc :il) una spatiatione nnturali 
in alteram mi| K transfem-, idque libenter et tanquani 

i tin, et tunnani mutantia; quandoque autem tantummodo 
a naturali spatiatione depulsa, et manente forma veteri in 
• un-iR-tam spatiationem reverti. Atque virtus ilia progressiva 
: n novum spatium a calido et frigido fere regitur. At virtus 
altera rcstitutiva non item, nquidem expandit se aqua in 
vaporcm et aerem, oleum similiter et pinguia in halitum et 
flammam, ex vi caloris; nee (si pcrfeete transraigravcrint) 
nvcrti satagunt; quin et aer ipse ex calore intumeseit et 
extenditur. Quod si migratio fuerit semiplena, post caloris 
abseessum in se facile recidit; ut etiam in virtute restitutiva 
partes Grlgoria et caloris sint nonnulln;. At quae non me- 
dinnto calore sed violentia aliqua cxtensa sunt et distra>t:i. 
etiam absque ulla frigoris aceessione aufc diminutione caloris in 
prion -patia (cessante violentia) cupidissime rcvertuntur ; ut 
in exsuctione ovi vitrei, et foUibus levatis. Id vero in solidis 
el 8A18M longe evidentius est. Nam si distendatur pannu- vcl 
chorda, rernota vi magna veloeitate resiliunt; atque eadem est 
compressions ratio. Nam aer violentia aliqua contrusus et 

■ eratus multo conatii erumpit ; atque adeo omnis ille mottia 
foci lianicus quo durum a duro percutitur, qui vulgo mot us 
violent! nomine appellatur, per quem res solidai mittuntiir et 
\ ■ il.-mt pet l3rem et aquam, nihil aliud est quam nixus partium 
corporis emissi ad se expediendum a comprcssione ; et tamen 
nusquam hie apparent vestigia calidi et frigidi. Ncque est 
quod quis argutetur ex doctrina Teteeii hoc morlo, ut dicat ; 
singulis spatiationibtis naturalibus assignatam portionem 
qn.indam calidi ct frigidi, ex certa quadam analogia : Itaipie 
fieri posse ut tametsi nihil addatur caloris et frigoris, tamen 

itia materiati extendantur aut eontrahantur, res Bodea 
reddal ', quia plus et minus imponttur materia* in spatio, cpiam 

; itionc caloris et frigoris. Vcrum ista licet non absurda 
ditto, tamen sunt eorura qui semper aliquid comminisci solent 
ut ipu»d semel visum est teneant, nee naturam et res pcrse- 
qiiuntur. Nam si addatur calor et frigus hnjusmndi enrporibus 
aut compressis, idque inajore mensurn quain pro 
rationc et natura corporis ipsiua, velut'i si pannus ille tensus 
calefiat ad ignem, tamen nullo modo rem compensabit, nee 

Heodit in original. — J. S. 
l 3 



iuipetuin restitutionis exstinguet. Itaqiie planum jam fecimus, 
istam virtutem gpatjfctionil ex calore et EHgOM in parte notabili 
ii< m pendcre, cum tamen sit ipsa ilia virtus, qua? plurimum 
nulhoritntis hia principiis tribuerit, Sequuntur duo; virtutes 
qua: omnibus in ore aunt, atque longe ct late patent, per 
quas scilicet corpora massas sive congregations majurcs 
venup cunuaturalluDi petunt ; in quarum observatioue, ut in 
reliquts, aut nugnntur liniiiined aut plane aberrant, Schola 
enim communis satis habet, si motum naturatem a violcnto 
difttmgmij et gravia deorsum, levia sursum ferri ex ntotu 
nattirali pronuntiet. Vcrum parum profiehtnt ad nhilowyhinm 
liujusmoili speculationes. Ida enim natura, ars, violentin, 
compendia verborum sunt et nugie. Uebuerunt autem liunc 
motum non tantuiu ad naturnm referre, scd etiain alVectum 
et nppctitutn particularem et proprium corporis natumlis in 
hoc ipso ninlit quteiere. Sunt enim et alii motus OMflnSM 
naturale* ex passionibus rerum longe diversis. Itaque res se- 
cuuilum dift'erentias propouenda est. Quin ct ipsi illi motus 
quos violentos appellant uiugia secundum naturam appellari 
posaint, quam iste quern vocant naturalem ; si sit illud magia 
Hllgllfirlnni naturam quod est fortius, aut etiam quod est mngis 
83 rationa universi. Nam motus iste adscensus et descensus 
non aduiodum impcriosus est, nee etiam universalis, sed tan- 
quam provhicialis ct secundum region es ; quin et aliis mu- 
tibus obscquens et subjectus. Quod vero gravia deorsum ferri 
aiunt, levia sursum, idem est ac si dicerent, gravia esse gravia, 
levia levia. Quod enim pnedicatur, id ex vi ipsa tennini in 
aubjeota assumitur. Si vero per grave densum, per leve rarum 
intclligunt, promovent nonnihd; ita tamen ut ad adjunctum et 
concomitant, patiua quam ad causaui, rem dedueaut. Qui vero 
graviuni appetitum ita explicant, ut ad centrum terra ilia ferri 
contendant, levia ut 1 ad circumfercntiam ct nmbitum cudi, tan- 
quam ad loca propria; asserunt certe aliquid, atque etiam ad 
i';iiis:im iimuuM. acd oranino perperam. Loci enim nulla; sunt 
vires, neque corpus nisi a corpore patitur, atque oinnis ineitatio 
Corporis, qua: videtur esse ad se eollocandum, appctit atque 
niolitur riiiiliguraticmem versus aliud corpus, non eollocationeui 
aut si I urn simpiicem. 

So in the original . 


1 The Thema Catt, had It stood by Itself, would have followed here; for it belong* 
properly to this class, and was written before the New Atlantis. But being so closely 
connected with the Deseriptio Globi InteUeetuaUt, which belongs to the next, it was 
thought better not to separate them. — /. S. 

I 4 



The Nnc Atlantis seems to have been written in 1624, and, 
though not finished, to have been intended for publication as it 
stands. It was published accordingly by Dr. Rawley in 1627, 
at the end of the volume containing the Sylva Sylvarnm \ fin 
which place Bacon had himself designed it, the subjects of the 
two being so near akin ; the one representing his idea of whit 
fhoiild be the end of the work which in the other be supposed 
himself to be beginning. For the story of Solomon's House 
is nothing more than a vision of the practical results which he 
anticipated from the study of uatural history diligently and 
systematically carried on through successive generations. 

In this part of it, the work may probably be considered as 
complete. Of the state of Solomon's House he has told us all 
that he was as yet qualified to tell. His own attempts i<> 
" interpret nature " suggested the apparatus which was neccs- 
mty for success : he had but to furnish Solomon's House with 
the instruments and preparations which he hud himselt felt the 
want of. The difficulties which had baffled his single efforts 
to provide that apparatus for himself suggested the constitution 
and regulations of a society formed to overcome them : he had 
but to furnish Solomon's House with the helps in head and 
hand which he had himself wished for. His own intellectual 
aspirations suggested the result : he had but to set down as 
known all that he himself most longed to know. But here he 
obliged to stop. He could not describe the process of a 
perfect philosophical investigation; because it must of course 
have proceeded by the method of the Novum Organum, which 
was not yet expounded. Nor could he give a particular ex- 
ample of the result of such investigation, in the shape of a 
Form ..i an Axiom; for that presupposed the completion, not 
"nl\ of the Novum Organvv, hut (at least in some one subject) 



of the Natural History also; and no portion of the Natural 
History complete enough for the purpose was as yet producible. 
Here therefore he stopped ; and it would almost seem that the 
nature of the difficulty which stood in liis way had reminded 
him of the course he ought to take ; for just at this point (as 
we leirn from Dr. Rawley) he did in fact leave his fable and 
return to his work. He had begun, it witb the intention in" 
exhibiting a model political constitution, as well as a model 
college of natural philosophy; but "his desire of collecting 
the history diverted him, which he preferred many 
degrees hefbre it." And in this, according to his own view of 
the matter, he was no doubt right ; for though there are few 
people now who would not gladly give all the Sylva Sylvarum, 
had there been ten times as much of it, in exchange for an 
account of tin- laws, institutions, and administrative arrange- 
ments of Bensalem, it was not eo with Bacon ; who being 
deeper read in the phenomena of the human heart than in 
those of the material world, probably thought the perfect 
knowledge of nature an easier thing than the perfect govern- 
ment of men, — easier and not so far off; and therefore pre- 
ferred to work where there was fairest hope of fruit. 

To us, who can no longer hope for the fruits which Bacon 
expected, the New Atlantis is chiefly interesting as a record of 
his own feelings. Perhaps there is no single work of his which 
has so much of himself in it. The description of Solomon's 
House is the description of the vision in which he lived, — the 
vision not of an ideal world released from the natural condi- 
tions to which ours is subject, but of our own world aB it 
might be made if we did our duty by it ; of a state of things 
which he believed would one day be actually seen upon this 
earth such as it is by men such as we are ; and the coming of 
which he believed that his own labours were sensibly hasten- 
ing. The account of the manners and customs of the people 
of Bensalem is an account of his own taste in humanity; for a 
ideal, though not necessarily a description of what he is, 
always an indication of what he would be; and in 
the sober piety, the serious cheerfulness, the tender and gra- 
r| ""- courtesy, the open-handed hospitality, the fidelity in 
pubho and chastity in private life, the grave and graceful 
maimer*, d,,. order, decency, and earnest raduatry, which 

" n il among thr*e people, we recognise an ini:ige of himself 




made perfect, — of that condition of the human soul which 
he loved in others, and aspired towards in himself. Even the 
• ]i'--.'s tlic household mangeme&tS] the Bidet of theiz feasts 
and solemnities, their very gestures of welcome and salutation, 
have an interest and significance independent of the fiction, 
as so many records of Bacon's personal teste in such matters. 
Nor ought the stories which the Governor of the House ot 
Strangers tells about the state of navigation and population 
in the early post-diluvian ages, to he regarded merely as 
romances invented to vary and enrich the narrative, but ra- 
ther as belonging to a class of serious speculations to which 
Bacon's mind was prone. As in his visions of the future, 
embodied in the achievements of Solomon's Houpc, there is 
nothing which he did not conceive to be really practicable by 
the means which he supposes to be used ; so in his speculations 
concerning the past, embodied in the traditions of Bensalem, 
I doubt whether there be any (setting aooe, of course, the 
particular history of the fabulous island) which he did not 
believe to be historically probable. Whether it were that the 
progress of the human race in knowledge and art seemed to 
him too small to be accounted for otherwise than by supposing 
occasional tempests of destruction, in which all that had been 
gathered was swept away,— or that the vicissitudes which had 
actually taken place during the short periods of which we know 
something had suggested to him the probability of similar ac- 
cidents during those long tracts of time of which we know 
nothing, — or merely that the imagination is prone by nature to 

lie darkness with shadows, — certain it is that the tendency 
was strong in Bacon to credit the past with wonders; to sup- 
pose that the world had brought forth greater things than it 

inhered, had seen periods of high civilisation buried in 
oblivion, great powers and peoples swept away and extin- 
guished. In the year 1607, he avowed before the House of 
(\.iiiiiK>ns a belief that iu some forgotten period of her history 
(poaribly during the Heptarchy) England had been far better 

led than she was then. In 1609, when he published the 
J)e SapientiA Veterum, he inclined to believe that an age of 
higher intellectual development than any the world then knew 
of had Bonri&hed and passed out of memory long before Homer 
and Ilesiud wrote; and this upon the clearest and most deli- 
berate review of all the obvious objections; and more dcci- 


dedly than he had done four years before when he published 
the Advancement of Learning. And I have little doubt that 
when he wrote the New Atlantis he thought it not improbable 
that the state of navigation in the world 3000 years before 
was really such as the Governor of the House of Strangers 
describes; that some such naval expeditions as those of Coya 
and Tyrambel may really have taken place ; and that the 
early civilisation of the Great Atlantis may really have been 
drowned by a deluge and left to begin its career again from a 
state of mere barbarism. 

Among the few works of fiction which Bacon attempted, the 
New Atlantis is much the most considerable ; which gives an 
additional interest to it, and makes one the more regret that it 
was not finished according to the original design. Had it pro- 
ceeded to the end in a manner worthy of the beginning, it 
would have stood, as a work of art, among the most perfect 
compositions of its kind. 

The notes to this piece, which are not marked with Mr. 
Ellis's initials, are mine. 




wmriKX bt 





This fable my Lord devised, to the end that he might ex- 
hibit therein a model or description of a college instituted for 
the interpreting of nature and the producing of great and 
marvellous works for the benefit of men, under the name of 
Salomon's House, or the College of the Six Days' Works. \ 
And even so far his Lordship hath proceeded, as to finish 
that part. Certainly the model is more vast and high than 
can possibly be imitated in all things ; notwithstanding most 
things therein are within men's power to effect His Lord- 
ship thought also in this present fable to have composed a 
frame of Laws, or of the best state or mould of a common- 
wealth ; but foreseeing it would be a long work, his desire 
of collecting the Natural History 1 diverted him, which he 
preferred many degrees before it. 

This work of the New Atlantis (as much as concerneth the 
English edition) his Lordship designed for this place 1 ; in regard 
it hath so near affinity (in one part of it) with the preceding 
Natural History. 


1 In the Latin translation Bawley adds, alianmqut Inttawatiomt partivm nm- 
Uxtndarwm ; alluding probably to the Dt Augment™, the only portion of the Instau- 
ration, not belonging to the Natural Hisloiy, which lie seems to have been employed 
upon afterwards. 

2 It tat published at the end of the volume containing the Syltsa Syharvm, The 
UUepage bean no date. 



We sailed from Peru, (where we had continued by the space 
of one whole year,) for China and Japan, by the South Sea ' ; 
taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good 
winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five mouths' 
space and more. But then the wind came about, and settled 
in the west for many days, so as we could make little nr no 
way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then 
■gun there arose strong and great winds from the south, 
with a point east; which carried us up (for all that we oould 
do) towards the north : by which time our victuals tailed us, 
though we had made good spare of them. So that finding 
ourselves in the midst of the greatest wilderness of water* in 
the world, without victual, we gave ourselves for lost men, 
and prepared for death. Yet we did lift up our hearts and 
voices to God above, who showeth his wanders iu the deejj ; be- 
seeching him of his mercy, that M in the beginning he dis- 
covered* the hoe of the deep, and brought forth dry htnd, so he 
would now discover land t«> us, that we might 1 not perish. 
And it came to pass that the next day about evening, we saw- 
within a kenning before us, towards the north, as it were thick 
clouds, which did put us in some hope of land; knowing how 
that put of the South Sea was utterly unknown; and might 
have islands or continents, that hitherto were not 00OM to 
light. Wlierefore we hent our course thither, where we ,-aw 
the appearance of land, all that night; and in the dawning of 
the next day, we might plainly discern that it was a land; flat 
Iq our right, and lull of boscage; which made it shew the 

I'll.- word! "by Hi, s.. hi 11 Bea " ire omitted in the translation. 

I. If tlisi.tnict be the right word. It must mean rNOTM the 

rimg of the far* of the d«ep. But I think there must be some mistake. The 

vtnlon has iptcmadmtHium in principio congregation*! aaunrim mnmtuvit H 

rrr ftctt. The i illusion In, no doubt, to CJenen. I. 9.: " Let the water, 

the heaven Ik- gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear." 

' mk-ijIiI in the original , a lurm of thr word frequently, though not uniformly, 

I have always sulwtituttd might. 

111. h 

more dark. And after an Lour and a half's sailing, we entered 
into a good haven, being the port of a fair city ; not great in- 
deed, but well built, and that gave a pleasant view from the 
sea 1 : and we thinking every minute long till we were on land, 
came close to the shore, and offered to land. BuLstraightways 
we saw divers of the people, with bastons in their hands, as it 
were forbidding us to land ; yet without any cries or fierceness, 
but only as warning us off by signs that they made. Where- 
upon being not a little discomforted, we were advising with 
ourselves what we should do. During which time there made 
fordi to us a small boat, with about eight persons in it ; whereof 
one of them had in his hand a tipstaff of a yellow cane, tipped 
at both ends with blue, who came aboard our ship, without any 
show of distrust at all. And when he saw one of our number 
present himself somewhat afore the rest, he drew forth a little 
scroll of parchment, (somewhat yellower than our parchment, 
and shining like the leaves of writing tables, but otherwise 
soft and flexible,) and delivered it to our foremost man. In 
which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew, and in ancient 
Greek, and in good Latin of the School., and in Spanish, these 
words ; " Land ye not, none of you ; and provide to be gone 
from this coast within sixteen days, except you have further 
'time given you. Meanwhile, if you want fresh' water, or 
victual, or help for your sick, or that your ship neeJeth repair, 
write down your wants, and you shall have that which be- 
longeth to mercy." This scroll was signed with a stamp of 
cherubins' wings, not spread but hanging downwards, and by 
them a cross. This being delivered, the officer returned, and 
left only a servant with us to receive our answer. Consulting 
hereupon amongst ourselves, we were mueli perplexed. The 
denial of landing and hasty warning us away troubled us much; 
mi the other side, to find that the people had languages and 
were so full of humanity, did comfort, us not a little. And 
above all, the sign of the cross to that instrument was to us a 
great rejoicing, and as it were a certain presage of good. Our 
answer was in the Spanish tongue; " That for our ship, it was 
well ; for we had rather met with calms and contrary winds 
than any tempests. For our sick, they were many, and in very 
ill ease ; BO that if they were not permitted to land, they ran 
danger of their lives." Our other wants we set down in parti 

Van uptctubtit, tlrganliam magnum prir u tnlil. — LaL n-vs. 

BEW .\n.\NTiv 


cular ; adding, " duct we had some little store of merchandise, 
which if it pleased them to ileal fur, it might supply our wants 
without being chargeable unto them." We offered some re- 
ward in pistolcts unto the servant, and a piece of crimson vel- 
vet to be presented to the officer ; but the servant took them not,<. 
nor would scarce Look upon them; and so left us, and went/ 
back in another little boat which was sent for him. 

About three hours after we had dispatched our answer, there 
came towards us a person (as it seemed) of place. He had on 
him a gown with wide sleeves, of a kind of water chamolct, of 
an excellent azure colour, far more glossy than ours ; his under 
apparel was green ; and so was his hat, being in the form of 
a turban, daintily made, and not so huge as the Turkish tur- 
bans ; and the locks of his hair came down below the brims of 
it. A reverend man was he to behold. lie came in a boat, 

— — ■ 

gilt in gome part of i t, with four persons more only iu that 
boat; and was followed by another boat, wherein were some 
twenty. When he was come within a flight-shot ' of our ship, 
signs were made to us that we should send forth some to meet 
him upon the water ; which we presently did in our ship-boat, 
sending the principal man amongst us save one, and four of our 
number with him. When we were come within six yards of 
their boat, they called to us to stay, and not to approach far- 
ther; which we did. And thereupon the man whom I before 
described stood up, and with a loud voice in Spanish, asked, 
•• Are ye Christians ?" We answered, " We were;" fearing the 
leas, because of the cross we had seen in the subseriplion. At 
which answer the *aid person lifted up his right hand towards 
heaven, and drew it softly to his mouth, (which is the gesture 
they use when they thank God,) and then said: " If ye will 

:ir (all of you) by the merits of the Saviour that ye an 
no pittites* nor have shed blood lawfully nor unlawfully within 
f<>m il you may have licence to come on hind." We 

We were all ready to take that oath." Whereupon 03M 
.if those that were with him, being (as it seemed) a notary, 
'i entry of this act. Which dune, another of the 
tfcteadanta of the great person, which was with him in the 

ic boat, after his lord had spoken a little to him, said aloud; 

' tfHcuti jtitium. When archers try which can shoot furthest, they call It flit'lu- 
The dlatasea would be between 2<X> and 300 yards. Old Double, ncvord- 
BtMlknr, would have "carried you a forehand shaft a fourteen and 
and half;" Out i . 184 or vn y.mK Set Ben. IV. Part It. act 3. *c. -' 
x 3 



My lord would have 

that it is not of pride 

ron know, 

greatness that he cometh not aboard your ship ; bat for that in 
your answer you declare that you have many sick amongst 

lie was warned by the (Conservator of Health jof the city 
that lie should keep a distance." We bowed ourselves towards 
him, and an.^wered, " We were his humble servants ; and ac- 
counted for great honour and singular humanity towards us 
that which was already done; but hoped well that the nature 
of the sickness of our men was not infectious." So lie re- 
turned ; and a while after came the notary to us aboard our 
ship; holding in his hand a fruit of that country, like an orange, 
but of colour between orangc-tawncy and scarlet, which cast a 
most excellent odour. He used it (as it scenieth) for a pre- 
servative against infection. He gave us our oath ; " By the 
name of Jesus and his merits:" and after told us that the next 
day by six of the clock in the morning we should be sent to, 
and brought to the Strangers' House, (so he called it.) where we 
should be accommodated of things both for our whole and for 
our sick. So he left us; and when we 1 offered him some pis- 
tolets, he smiling said, " He must not be twice paid for one 
labour:" BR) aning (as I take it) that be hul ulary sufficient of 
the state for his service. For (as I after learned) they call an 
officer that taketh rewards, twice paid. 

The next morning early, there came to us the same officer 
that came to us at first with his cane, and told us, " He came to 
conduct us to the Strangere' Efrratftj and thai be had prevented 
the hour, because we might have the whole day before us for 
our business. " For," said he, u if you will follow my advice, 
there shall first go with me some few el you, and see the place, 
and how it maybe made convenient for you ; tad then you 
HO] -end for your sick, and the rc>t ol your number which ye. 
\s ill bring on land." We thanked him, and said, li That this care 
which he t«H»k of desolate strangers God would reward." And 

l of u^ went on land with him: and when we were on 
land, he went before us, and turned to us, and said', "He 
wot but ..or servant, and our guide." lie led us through three 
fair streets; and all the way wo went there were gathered 

landing in a row; but in so civil a 
it had been uot to wonder at us 3 but to welcome 

1 639 has he. • §t digit, puimmni mrti Ac, 

CM £C. 



us : and divert of them, as wc priced by tl ■ in, put their arms 
a little abroad ; which is their gesture when they bid any wel- 
i "im\ The Strangers 1 House is a fair and spacious house, built 
of brick, of somewhat • bluer colour than our brick ; and with 
handsome windows, some of glass, some of a kind of cambric 
oiled. He brought us first into a fair parlour above stairs, and 
then asked us, '* What number of persons avc were? And how 
many sick ?" We answered, " We were in all (sick and whole) 
one and fifty persons, whereof our sick were seventeen." He 
desired us to have patience a little, and to stay till he came 
back to us ; which was about an hour after ; and then he led 
us to see the chambers which were provided for us, being 
in number nineteen : they having cast it (as it seemeth) that 
four of those chambers, which were better than the rest, might . 

■ ■ lour of the principal men of our company, and lodge 
them alone by themselves; and the other fifteen chambers were 
to lodge us two and two together. The chambers were hand- 
-"tin- and cheerful chambers, and furnished civilly. Then he 
led us to a long gallery, like a dorture', where he showed us all 
along the one side (for the other side was but wall and window) 
seventeen cells, very nent ones, having partitions of cedar wood. 
Which gallery and cells, being in all forty, (many more than we 

■ I.) were instituted as an infirmary for sick persons. And 
ho told us withal, thai as any of our sick waxed well, he might 

moved from bis cell to a chamber; for which purpose 
there were set forth ten spare chambers, besides the number we 
spake of before. This done, he brought ua back to the parlour, 
and lifting np his cane a little, (as they do when they give any 
command',) snid to us, "Ye are to know that the 
custom of the laud requireth, that after this day and to-moriow,i 
I .\ Inch we give you for removing of your people from your ship,)) 
you are to keep within doors for three days. Rut let it not/ 
trouble you, nor do HOt think yourselves restrained, but rather 
left to jour rest and Von shall want nothing, and there 

Ls of our people appointed to attend you, fox any business 
you may have abroad." We gave him thanks with all affection 
and respect, and said, " God surely is manifested in this land.' 
We offered him also twenty pistolets ; but he smiled, and only 


rkiroiltnrjr. The Latin translation has gitalin talent <••»* dormitoria monachorum 
. »nr rhirge which they have received from superior authority — {quad in 
If i/wjtirt minittri mmidata %njicriorum refimnt). 
K 3 



id ! " And so he left 

Soon after 

Faid; "What? twice 
uiir dinner was served in; which was right good viands, both 
for broad md meat 1 : better than any collegiate diet that I 
have known in Europe. We had also drink of three sort*, all 
wholesome and good; wine of the grape ; a drink of grain, 
such as is with us our ale, but more clear ; and a kind of cider 
made of a fruit of that country; a wonderful plcasiug and re- 
freshing drink. Besides, there were brought in to us great 
store of those scarlet oranges for our sick; which (they said) 

iwere an assured remedy for sickness taken at sea. There 
was given us also a box of small grey or whitish pills, which 
they wished our sick should tike, one of the pills every night 
before sleep ; which (they said) would hasten their recovery. 
The next day, after that our trouble of carriage and removing 
of our men and goods out of our ship was somewhat settled and 
<juiet, I thought good to call our company together; and when 
they were assembled said unto them ; " My dear friends,, let 
us know ourselves, and how it standeth with us. We are men 
BOt on land, as Jonas was out of the whale's belly, when we 
were as buried in the deep : and now we are on land, we are 
but between death and life : (for we ar c beyond both the old 
world and the new ?j and whether ever we shall see Europe, 
God only knoweth, It 10 a kind <rf miraele hatli brought us 
hither: and it must be little less that shall bring us hence. 
Therefore in regard of our deliverance past, and our danger 
present and to come, let us look up to God, and every man re- 
form his own ways. Besides we are come here amongst a 
'Christian people, full of piety and humanity : let us not bring 
that confusion of face upon ourselves, as to show our vices or 
unworthinees before them. Vet there is more. For they have 
by commandment (though in form of courtesy ) cloistered us 
within these walls for three days: who knoweth whether it 
be not to take some taste of our manners and conditions? 
and if they find them bad, to banish us straightways ; if good, 
to give us further time. For these men that they have given 
u- for attendance may withal have an eye upon us. Therefore 
for ( tod- love, and as we love the weal of our souls and bodies, 
let ii- so behave ourselves as we may be at peace with God, and 
iimy find grace in the eyes of this people." Our company with 

ii.i, both for run! ind rfriiU ; tarn mpetiu eibenu* jmim I'utin 
lit next Hoc t'ut one, Pbtut rral ti turn gotcr**, fo, 



one voice thanked me for my good admonition, and promised 
me to live soberly and civilly, and without giving any the lent 
occasion of oflence. So we spent our three days joyfully and 
without care, in expectation what would be done with us when 
ihey were expired. During which time, we had every hour 
joy of the amendment of our sick; who thought themselves 
cast into some divine pool of healing, they mended so kindly 
:iiul ao !a-t. 

The morrow after our three days were past, there came to 
us n new man that we had not seen before, clothed in blue as 
the former was, save that his turban was white, with a small 
red cross on the top. He had also a tippet of fin ft linen . At 
.>niing in, he did bend to us a little, and put his arms 
abroad. We of our parts saluted him in a very lowly and sub- 
missive manner; as looking that from him we should receive 
BCO t eace of life or death. He desired to speak with some few 
of us: whereupon six of us only stayed, and the rest avoided> 
iln- room. He said, " I am by office governor of this 11< n-i >>i 
_ Strangers. ^ md by vocation al am a Chri s tian p riest, ; and there- 
fore am come to you to offer you my service, both as strangera 
;jnd chiefly an Christians. Some tilings I may tell you, which 
I think you will not be unwilling to hear. The state hath 
uiven you licence to stay on land for the space of six weeks: 
and let it not trouble you if your occasions ask further time, 
h»r the law in this point is not precise ; and I do not doubt but 
myself shall be able to obtain for you such further time as may 
be convenient. Ye shall also understand, that the Strangers' 
House is at this time rich, and much aforehand ; for it hath laid 
up revenue these thirty-seven years; for so long it is since any 
stranger arrived in this part : and therefore take ye no care ; 
the state will defray you all the time you stay ; neither shall S 
you stay one day the less for that. As for any merchandise ye 
have brought, ye shall be well used, and have your return 
either in merchandise or in gold and silver: for to us it is all ™ 
one. And if you have any other request to make, hide it not 
For ye shall find we will not make your countenance to fall by 
the answer ye shall receive. Only this I must tell you, that 
ii'in e of you must go above a ha ran " (that is with them a mile 

in half) "From the walls of the city, without especial leave." ■*■ 
We answered, after we had looked awhile one upon another, 
admiring this gracious and parent-like usage; "That we could 

s 4 





nut tell what to say: for we wanted words to express our 
thanks j and his noble free offers left us nothing to ask. It 

J Seemed to us thftt we hail before us a picture of our salvation 
in bear en; for we that were awhile since in the jaws of death, 
were now brought into a place where we found nothing but 
consolations. For the commandment laid upon us, we would 
not fail to obey it, though it was impossible but our hearts 
should be inflamed to tread further upon this happy and holy 
ground." We added ; u That our tongues should first cleave to 
the roofs of our mouths, ere we should forget either his re- 
Mi'iid person or this whole nation in our prayers." VVc also 
most humbly besought him to accept of us as his true servants, 
by us just a right as ever men on earth were hounden ; laying 
:tinl presenting both our persona and all we bad at his feet 
(He said; " He was a priest, and looked for a priest's reward : 
fwhich was our brotherly love and the good of our souls and 
bodies." So he went from us, not without tears of tenderness 
in his eyes; and left us also confused with joy and kindness, 
saying amongst ourselves, " That we were come into a land of 
angel s, which did appear to us daily and prevent us wilh com- 
fort*, which we thought not of, much less expected." 

1 hi' next day,about ten of the clock, the governor came to us 
again, and after salutation* said ftumliaiiy, "Thai at was Dome 
to visit us": and called for a v hair, and sat him down : and we, 
being some ten of us, (the rest were of the meaner sort, or else 
gone abroad,) sat down with him. And when wc were set, he 
y began thus: ** We of this island of Jiensalem," (for so they call 
it in their language,) "have this; that by means of our solitary 
situation, and of the laws of secrecy which we have for our 
travellers, and our rare admission of strangers, we know welK 
most part of the habitable world, and are ourselves unknown./ 
Therefore because he that knoweth least is fittest to ask ques- 
tions, it is more reasou, for the entertainment of the time, that 
ye ask me questions, than that I ask you." We answered ; 
" That we humbly thanked him that he would give us leave so 
to do: and that we conceived by the taste we had already, that 
there was no worldly thing on parti" mre worthy to be known 
than the state of that 1 

" since that wc wei -hi. 

and hoped assun 
dom "1 heaven 



(I -iii il to know (in respect that land was so remote, and so 
divided by vast and unknown seas, from the land where our 
Saviour walked on earth,) who was t hejtposlle. nf that nation, 
ami how it was converted to the faith ?" It appeared in his 
lace thai Le look great Contentment in this our question : be 
said, " Ye knit my heart to you, by asking this rjuestion in the .: 
first place ; for it sheweth that you first seek (he kingdom of 
heavfii ; and I shall gladly and briefly satisfy your demand. 

" About twenty years after the ascension of our Saviour, it 
osme to pass that there was seen by the people of Renfusa, 
(a city upon the eastern coast of our island,) within night, (the 
night was cloudy and calm,) M it might be some mile into the 
l great pillar of light ; not sharp, but in form of a column 
or rylinder, rising from the sea a great way up towards heaven : 
and on the top of it was seen a large cross of light, more bright 
and resplendent than the body of the pillar. Upon which so 
strange a spectacle, the people of the city gathered apace toge- 
ther upon the sands, to wonder; and so after put themselves 
into a number of small boats, to go nearer to this marvellous 
Muht. But when the boats were come within about sixty yards 
of the pillar, they found themselves all bound, and could go no 
further ; yet so as they might move to go about, but might 
ii-it ■ppzoacb nearer : so as the boats stood all as in a theatre, be 
holding this light as an heavenly .-ign. 1 It so fell out, that there 
was in one of the boats one of the wise men of the society o 
Salomon's House; which house or college (my good brethren) is 
the very eye of this kingdom ; who having awhile attentively 
and devoutly viewed and contemplated this pillar and cross, 
fell down upon his face; and then raised himself upon his 
knees, and lifting up his hands to heaven, made his prayers in 
this manner: 

" ' Lord God of heaven and earth, thou hast vouchsafed of 
thy grace to those «>f our order, to know thy works of creation, < 
and the secrets of thein; and to discern (as far as appertaineth ) 
to the generations of men) between divine miracles, works of 
nature, works of art, and impostures and illusions of all sorte.* 
1 do here acknowledge and testify before this people, that the 
thing which we now see before our eyes is thy Finger and a 
Miracle; and forasmuch as we learn in our books that 

1 tanqytm sccnam ra'trlem. In the transition. 
r tUuiirort •lamonim, turn imjivilurn uitiMunutlii. 


thou never workest miracles but to a divine and excellent end, 
(for the laws of" nature are thine own laws, and thou exceedest 
thnu not but up&TTgreaVcause,) we most humbly beseech thee 
to prosper this j^roat sign, and to give us. the interpretation and 
use of it in merry ; which thou dost in some part secretly pro- 
mise by sending it unto us.' 

" When he had made his prayer, he presently found the 
boat he was in moveable and unbound ; whereas all the rest 
remained still fast ; and taking that for an assurance of leave 
to approach, he caused the boat to be softly and with silence 
rowed towards the pillar. But ere he came near it, the pillar 
and CTOM of light broke up, and cast itself abroad, as it were, 
into a firmament of many stars; which also vanislu d soon 
after, and there was nothing left to be seen but a small ark or 
chest of cedar, dry, and not wet at all with water, though it 
swam. And in the fore-end of it, which was towards him, 
grew a email green branch of palm ; and when the wise man 
had taken it with all reverence into his boat, it opened of itself, 
and there were found In it a Rook and a Letter : both written 
in fine parchment, fend wrapped in notions of linen. The 
contained all the canonical books of the Old and Xevv Testa- 
ment, according as you have them, (for we know well what the 
Churches with you receive); and the Apocalypse itself, and 
some other books of the New Testament which were not at that 
time written, were nevertheless in the Book. And for the 
Letter, it was in these words: 

" ' I Bartholomew, a servant of the Highest, and Apostle of 
Jesus Christ, was warned by an angel that appeared to me in 
a vision of glory, that I should commit this ark to the floods of 
the sea. Therefore I do testify and declare unto that people 
where God shall ordain this ark to come to land, that in the 
same day is come unto them salvation and peace and good- 
will, from the Father, and from the Lord Jesus,' 

" There was also in both these writings, as well the Book a9 
the Letter, wrought a great miracle, conform to that of the 
Apostles in the original Gift of Tongues. For there being at 
that time in this land Hebrews, Persians, and Indians, besides 
the natives, every one read upon the Book and Letter, as if 

The nrlRinnl has a semicolon after " Itself," which would seem to connect this 
.titli the lust. But Ihe translation (Apocalypiit ip»a) shows that it was meant 
to be the beginning of a new sentence. 



they had been written in his own language. And thus was this 
land saved from infidelity (as the remain of the old world wt 
from water) by an ark, through the apostolical and miraculous" 
evangelism of St. Bartholomew." And here lie paused, and a 
messenger came, and called him from us. So this was all that 
passed in that conference. 

The next day, the same governor came again to us im- 
mediately after dinner, and excused himself, saying, " That the 
sfbn In- wag called from us somewhat abruptly, but n<*w 
he would moke us amends, and spend time with us, if we held 
his company and conference agreeable. 1 ' We answered, " That 
we held it so agreeable and pleasing to us, as we forgot both 

ngers past and fears to come, for the time we heard him 
and that we thought an hour spent with him, was 
worth years of our former life." He bowed himself a little t > 
us, and after we were set again, he said ; " Well, the questions 
are oo your part." One of our number said, after a little 
|MM | " That there was a matter we were no less desirous to 
know, than fearful to ask, lest we might presume too far. But 
encouraged by his rare humanity towards us, (that could scarce 
think ourselves strangers, being his vowed and professed ser- 
vants,) we would take the hardiness to propound it: humbly 
beseeching him, if he thought it not fit to be answered, that he 
would pardon it, though he rejected it." We said ; " We well 
observed those his words, which he formerly spake, that this 
happy island where we now stood w 7 as known to few, and yet 
knew most of the nations of the world; which we found to be 
true, considering they had the languages of Europe, and knew 
much of our state and business ; and yet we in Europe (not- 
withstanding all the remote discoveries and navigations of this 
last age,) never heard any of the least inkling or glimpse of this 
island. This we found wonderful strange ; for that all nations 
have inter-knowledge 1 one of another either by voyage into 
D parts, or by strangers that come to them : and though 
the traveller into a foreign country doth commonly know more 
by the eye, than he that stayeth at home can by relation of the 
Qer ; yet both ways suffice to make a mutual knowledge, 
in some degree, on both parts. But for this island, we never 
heard tell of any ship of theirs that had been seen to arrive 

» €Htfri*owittfye in the oriiliniil. 


Ni;\V ATI. V NT IS. 

upofi any shore of Eumpe ; no, nor of eit'ier the East or West 
Indies ; nor yet of any ship of any other part of the world that 
had m:ul ■ ivlurn from them. And yet the marvel rested not 
is this. Fur the situation of it (a? his lordship said) in the 
secret conclave of such a vast sea might cause it. But then 
that they should have knowledge of the languages, bonks*, 
affairs, of those that lie such a distance from them, it was a 
thing we could not tell what to make of ; for that it seemed 
ti» us a condition and propriety of divine powers and beings, to 
be hidden and unseen to uthers, and yet to have others open 
and as in a light to them." At this speech the governor gave 
a gracious smile, and said ; " That we dill well to ask pardon 
fur this question we now asked; for that it imported as if we 
thought this land a land of magicians, that sent forth spirits of 
the air into all parts, to bring them news and intelligence of 
other countries." It was answered by us all, in all possible 
humbleness, but yet with a countenance taking knowledge 
that we knew that he spake it but merrily, " That we were 
apt enough to think th> j re was somewhat supernatural in this 
island ; but yet rather as angelical than magical. But to let bia 
lordship know truly what it was that made us tender and 
doubtful to ask this question, it was not any such conceit, but 
beC&UM we remembered he had given a touch in his former 
speech, that this land had laws of secrecy touching strangers." 
To this he said ; "You remember it aright; and therefore in 
that I shall say to you I must reserve some particulars, which 
it is not lawful for me to reveal ; but there will he enough left 
to give you satUf iction. 

•* You shall understand (that which perhaps you will scarce 
think credible) that about three thousand years ago, or some- 
V* what more, the navigation of the world, (specially for remote 
voyages,) was greater than at this day. Do not think with 
yourselves that I know not BOW much it is increased with you 
within these six-score years: 1 know it well: and yet I say 
greater then than now: whether it was, that thf i .sample of 
the ark, that saved the remnant of men from the unmr-:d 
deluge, gave men confidence to adventure upon thfl waters; or 
what it was ; but such is the truth. The Phoenicians, and 
especially the Tynans, had great fleets. So had the Car- 
thaginians, their colony, which is yet further west. Toward 
the east, the shipping of Egypt and of Palestine. was likewise 

great. China also, anil llie great Atlantis (tiiat you call 
America), wliich have now but jumesand canoes 1 , abounded 
then in tall ships. This island (as appeareth by faithful regis- 
ters of those times) had then fifteen hundred strong ships, of 
great content. Of all this there is with you sparing memory, 
or none; but we have large knowledge thereof. 

• At that time, this land was known and frequented by the 
ships and vessels of all the nations before named. And (as it 
cometh to pass) they had many times men of other countries, 
that were no sailors, that came with them ; as Persians, Chal- 
deans, Arabians; so as almost all nations of might and fame 
resorted hither ; of whom we have some stirps and little tribes 
with us at this day. And for our own ships, they went sundry 
Voyages, as well to your Straits, which you call the Pillars of 
Hercules 2 , as to other parts in the Atlantic and Mediterrane 
Seas; as to Paguin a ( which is the same with Cambaline 4 ) and 
Quinzy \ upon the Oriental Seas, as far as to the borders of 
the East Tartary. 

" At the same time, and an age after, or more, the inhabi- 
tants of the great Atlantis did flourish. 6 For though the 
narration and description which is made by a great man with 
you, that the descendants of Neptune planted there; and of 
the magnificent temple, palace, city, and hill; and the mani- 
fold stream* of goodly navigable rivers, (which, as so many 
chains, environed the same site and temple) ; and the several 
degrees of ascent whereby men did climb up to the same, as 

1 Crwoo'» in the original. 

1 Hercules Is called by Edrisi Dhoulcarnain. He say§ he lived In the time of 
Abraham, and has been confounded with Iscander Dhoulcarnain, or Alexander the 
two-horned. That the limit* beyond which It it impossible to paw were set up by 
Dhoulcarnain give* the obvious explanation of the passage in Chaucer's Troiltu and 
Creuida i — 

" I am tyl God me bettre mynde sende. 
At Pulrarnnn, right at my wytte's end," 

"qui Interprets mire torsit," — It. I . /.'. 

' lVklng. It seems as if H.i I that Peking was a sea-port. — R L. E. 

[Tile translation acids ciritiilem in Chimi luttiquistimnm.] 

inbalu Is Ihc reading ul the common text of Marco Polo. The word is pro- 
perly Khanihnlilt. |i li Ihi Tartar name 'or Peking. — K L. E. [It Is Combat* in 
nil In the Eiicllsh Bacon probibly wrote Cambulm. — /. S.] 
Olo, IH'W II ,!.. - li. L. li, 

* SoJU ato, Criiia*. p. I IX. and Tlmn-u?. p. 2j._ Every tblug relating to the «tory 

of Atlantis has tirrti c-dlrrteri by Hiimboltlt, Kvomtn critique fir I'llitloire tit In Gc>>- 

•, &r.| I. p. 187 Compare Mai tin. Etudtt •■'•r U Timir ; and see liisenius, 

for nn account of a spurious Phoenician Inscription, purporting 

to give tbe history of the destruction of Atlantis. It may be a question whether there 

be not wine alflully between Atlantic and Homer's Phmcia. — U. L. E. 




if it had been a scala casli; be all poetical and fabulous: yet 
bo much is true, that the said country of Atlantic as well 
that of Peru, then called Coya, as that of Mexico, then named 
Tyrambel, were mighty and proud kingdoms in arms, ship- 
ping, and riches : so mighty, as at one time (or at least within 
the space of ten years) they both made two great expeditions : 
they of Tyrambel through the Atlantic to the Meditcrraue 
Sea ; and they of Coya through the South Sea upon this our 
island. And for the former of these, which was into Europe, 
the same author amongst you (as it seeraeth) had some relation 
from the Egyptian priest whom he citeth. For assuredly such 
B thing there was. But whether it were the ancient Athenians 
that had the glory of the repulse and resistance of those forces, 
I can say nothing : but certain it is, there never came back 
either ship or man from that voyage. Neither had the other 
voyage of those of Coya upon us had better fortune, if they 
had not met with enemies of greater clemency. For the king 
of this island (by name Altabin) a wise man and a great war- 
rior, knowing well both hia own strength and that of his 
enemies, handled the matter so, as he cut off their land-forces 
from their ships ; and entoiled both their navy and their camp 
with a greater power than theirs, both by sea and land ; and 
compelled them to render themselves without striking stroke: 
and after they were at his mercy, contenting himself only with 
their oath that they should no more bear arms against him, 
dismissed them all in safety. But the Divine Revenge overtook 
not long after those proud enterprises. For within less than 
the space of one hundred years, the great Atlantis was utterly 
lost and destroyed : not by a great earthquake, as your man 
saith, (for that whole tract is little subject to earthquake-,) 
b ut by a j rortieular delug e or inundation ; those countries 

and far higher moun- 
of the old world. 

having, at this day, tar greater rivers 
tains to pour down waters, than any part 
But it is true that the same inundation was not deep; not 
past forty foot, in most places, from the ground: so that 
although it destroyed man and beast generally, yet soui ■ few 
wild inhabitants of the wood 1 escaped. Birds also were saved 
by Hying to the high trees and woods. For as for men, al- 
though they hod buildings in many places higher than the 


The translation UJt, of tin mcmntniut : lilvtttren hnlitatora quidnm mnntiMm. 



depth of the water, yet that inundation, though it wore shallow, 
had a long continuance ; whereby tliey of the vale that were 
not drowned, perished for want of fond and other tilings neces- 
sary. So as marvel you not at the thin population of Ame-I I 
rica, nor at the rudeness and ignorance of the people ; for youl I 
must account your inhabitants of America as a young people ; 
younger a thousand years, at the least, than the rest of the 
world ; for that there was so much time between the universal 
flood and their particular inundation. For the poor remnant of 
human seed which remained in their mountains peopled the 
country again slowly, by little and little; and being simple 
and savage people, (not like Noah and his sons, which was the 
chief family of the earth,) they were not able to leave letters, 
arts, and civility to their posterity ; and having likewise in 
their mountainous habitations been used (in respect of the 
extreme cold of those regions) to clothe themselves with the 
skins of tigers, bears, and great hairy goats, that they have in 
those parts; when after they came down into the valley, and 
found the intolerable heats which are there, and knew no means 
of lighter apparel, they were forced to begin the custom of 
going naked, which continucth at this day. Only they take 
great pride and delight in the feathers of birds, and this also 
they took from those their ancestors of the mountains, who 
were invited unto it hy the infinite flights of birds that came 
up to the high grounds, while the waters stood below. So you 
see, by this main accident of time, we lost our traffic with the 
Americans, with whom of all others, in regard they lay nearest 
to os, we had most commerce. As for the other parts of the 
world, it is most manifest that in the ages following (whether 
it were in respect of wars, or by a natural revolution of time,) i\ 
navigation did every where greatly decay ; and specially far I ' 
voyages (the rather by the use of galleys 1 , and such vessels as 
OOaU hardly brook the ocean.) were altogether left and omitted. 
So then, that pari of intercourse 1 which could be from other 
natin I in us, you see how it hath long since ceased; 

pt it were by some rare accident, as this of yours. But 
of the cessation of that other part of intercourse, which 
night be by our Bailing to other nations, I must yield you 
some other cause. For I cannot say (if I shall say truly,) but 

WtCpttttA ijwnI trtrtitm 
tmttrcQurtr ii: mil.;. 

in kjhik anirt caprrunU 



our shipping, for number, strength, mariners, pilots, find all 
things that appertain to navigation, is as great as ever: am! 
therefore why we should sit at home, I ahull now give yen an 
account by itself: and it will draw nearer to give you satis- 
faction to your principal question. 

" There reigned in this island, about nineteen hundred 
years ago, a King, whose memory of all others we most adore ; 
not supcrstitiously, but as a divine instrument, though a mortal 
man; his name was Sulunmna : and we esteem him as the law- 
giver of our nation. This king had a large heart, inscrutable 
for good; and was wholly bent to make his kingdom and people 
happy. He therefore, taking into consideration how sufiieicnt 
and substantive this land was to maintain itself without any aid 
^itall of the foreigner; being five thousand six hundred miles in 
circuit, and of rare fertility of soil in the greatest part thereof; 
and finding also the shipping of this country might be plen- 
tifully set on work, both by fishing and by transportations 
from port to pnrt, and likewise by sailing unto some small 
islands that are not far from us, and are under the crown and 
laws of this state; and recalling into his memory the happy 
and flourishing estate wherein this Land then wa->, so as it 
might be a thousand ways altered to the worse, hut scarce any 
oneway to the better ; thought nothing wanted to his noble 
and heroical intentions, but only (as far as human foresight 
/ might reach) to give perpetuity to that which was in his time 

_/ so happily established. Therefore amongst his other fnrula- 
Imental laws of this kingdom, he did ordain the interdicts and 

I prohibitions which we have touching entrance of stranger- ; 

/ I which at that time (though it was alter the calamity of Arac- 
*- — [rica) was frequent; doubting novelties, and commixture of 
manners. It is true, the like law against the admission of 
strangers without licence is an ancient law in the kingdom of 
China, and yet continued in use. But there it is a poor thl&g j 
and hath made them a curious, ignorant, fearful, foolish nation. 
But our lawgiver made his law of another temper. For iir-t. 
th preserved all points of humanity, in taking order and 
making provision for the relief of strangers distressed ; when ..f 
you have tasted." At which speech (as reason wa.>) wc all rose 
up. and bowed ourselves. He went on. " That king also, still 
desiring to join humanity and policy together; and thinking it 
against humanity to detain strangers here against their wills, 


I 15 

nnrl against policy that they should return and discover their 
knowledge of this estate, he took this course: lie did ordain 
tlial id' the strangers that should be permitted to land, as many 

II tinn'-) might depart as would; but as many as would// 
stay should have very good conditions and nivalis to live from / [ 
the state. Wherein he saw so far, that now in so many ag 
since the prohibition, we have memory not of one ship that 
ever returned ; and but of thirteen persons only, at several 
timet, tli it cboee to return m our bottoms. What those few 
tliut returned may bare reported abroad I know not. But you 
iim.-t think, whatsoever they have said could be taken where 
they Came but for a dream. Now for our travelling from 
hence into parte abroad, our Lawgiver thought fit altogether to 
restrain it. So is it not in China. For the Chineses sail where 
they will or can ; which sheweth that their law of keeping out 
strangers is a law of pusillanimity and fear. But this restraint t 
of ours hath one only exception, which is admirable ; preserving v 
the good which cometh by communicating with strangers, and 
avoiding the hurt : and I will now open it to you. And here 
I shall seem a little to digress, but you will by and by find it 
pertinent. Ye shall understand (my dear friends) that amongst 
the excellent acts of that king, one above all hath the pre- 
eminence. It was the erection and institution of an Order or 
Society which we call Salomons House; the noblest foundation 
(as we think) that ever was upon the earth ; and the lanthorn 
of this kingdom. It is dedicated to the study of the Works 
and Cr eatures of God. Some think it beareth the founder's 
nnme a little corrupted, as if it should be Solamona's House. 
But the record* write it as it is spoken. So as I take it to be 
denominate of the King of the Hebrews, which is famous with 
\"M. and no stranger to us. For we have some parts of his 
aieb with you are lost; namely, that Natural History 
which he wrote, of all plants, from the cedar of Libiums to 
the vios* that t/rmrrf/t ,mt nf /lie wall, and of ail thiiu/s that 

life and motion. This maketh me think that our king, 
finding himself to symbolize in many things with that king of 
the Hebrews (which lived many years before him ), honoured 
him with the title of this foundation.' And I am the rather 

' Bacon In speaking of lhl< king who symbollies with Solomon «>eni< to lltodi 
, |ir 1 1,.- Yrw Allanti* had Ih'iii writ tt-ii in the rurlit-r part 

of Juror- - r-iin. Barm might haw Urn m>prcteil ihtIiuih of sonic iucb ailaaML lie 
111. L 



induced to be of this opinion, for that I find in ancient records 
this Order or Society is sometimes MtUed Salomon's House 
and sometimes the College of the Six Days Works; whereby 
I am satisfied that our excellent king had learned from 
the Hebrews that God had created the world and all that 
therein is within six diyij «nd therefore he instituting that 
House for the finding out of the true nature of all things', 
win i\l iy God might have the more glory in the workman- 
ship of them, and men the more fruit in the use of them,} 
did give it also that second name. But now to come to our 
present purpose. When the king had forbidden to all hi- 
people navigation into any part that was not under his crown, 
he made nevertheless this ordinance ; That every twelve years 
there should be set forth out of this kingdom two ships, ap- 
pointed to Beveral voyages ; That in either of these ships there 
should be a mission of three of the Fellows or Brethren of Salo- 
mon's House ; whose errand was only to give us knowledge of 
the affairs and state of those countries to which they were 

c designed, and especially of the sciences, arts, manufactures, and 

» inventions of all the world; and withal to bring unto us books, 
instruments, ami patterns in every kind | That the ships, after 
they had landed the brethren, should return ; and that the bre- 
thren should stay abroad till the new mission. These ships are 
not otherwise fraught, than with store of victuals, and good 

» quantity of treasure to remain with the brethren, for the buying 
of such things and rewarding of such persons as they should 
think fit. Now for me to tell you how the vulgar suit of ma- 
riners are contained from being discovered at land ; and how 
they that must be put OQ shore for any time, colour themselves 
under the names of other nations ; and to what places these 
voyages have been designed ; and what places of rendez-cous 
are appointed for the new ink-ions; and the like ciivum.-lancea 
of the practique ; 1 may not do it: neither is it much to your 
<lt -ire. But thus you see we maintain a trade, not for gold, 

I silver, or jewels ; nor for silks ; nor for spices; nor any other 

mi«ht Imve hoped to encourage James to justify the parallel l>y going and doing llke- 

Uut since Junes had now reigned above till years without doing or attempt- 

in*,' '" Natural Philosophy ; without showing nny 

■ in it ur any taste or capactt) fur '• : 1 f*nnot untlir-tand what the allusiou 

at where the resemblance. Nor does it -cent nrecsviry to suppose anything 

of tlu kind in order to explain why a model-king foe »i lltKU and knowledge should 

be likened to Solomon J. S.] 

1 ujI luijuitttioncm et intintionem nafnrir itra it inttrittrii rcrum umnium. 



commodity of matter; but only for God's first creature, which 
was Light: to have light (I say) of the growth of all parts 
the world." ' And when he had said this, he was silent ; and so 
were wc all. For indeed we were all astonished to hear so 
Strange things so probably told. And he, perceiving that we 
were frilling to say somewhat but had it not ready, in great 
courtesy took us off, and descended to ask us questions of our 
voyage and fortunes ; and in the end concluded, that we might 
II tn think with ourselves what time of stay we would 
d.'in.ind of the state ; and bade us not to scant ourselves ; for 
he would procure such time as we desired. Whereupon we all 
rose up, an 1 presented ourselves to kiss the skirt of his tippet 'A 
but he would not suffer us ; and so took his leave. But when/ 
it came once amongst our people that the state used to offer 
conditions to strangers that would stay, we had work enough 
to get any of our men to look to our ship, and to keep them 
from going presently to the governor to crave conditions. But 
with much ado wc refrained them, till we might agree what 
course to take. 

We took ourselves now for free men, seeing there was no 
danger of our utter perdition ; and lived most joyfully, going 
abroad and seeing what was to be seen in the city and places 
adjacent within our tedder ; and obtaining acquaintance with 
many of the city, not of the meanest quality ; at whose hands 
wc found such humanity, and such a freedom and desire to take 
strangers as it were into their bosom, as was enough to moke us 
forget all that was dear to us in our own countries : and conti- 
nually we met with many things right worthy of observation 
and relation ; as indeed, if there be a mirror in the world 
worthy to hold men's eyes, it is that country. One day therc\| 
were two of our company bidden to a Feast of the Family , asl( 
i :dl it. A most natural, pious, and reverend custom it is, 

wing that nation to be compounded of all goodness. This 
i- i r of it. It is granted to any man that shall livel\ 

thirty persons descended of his body alive together, andll 
nil above three year* old, to make this feast; which is done at 
i b<.- coat of the state. The Father of the Family, whom they 

I the Tirsait, two days before the feast, taketh to him three 
of such friends as he liketh to choose ; and is assisted also by 

r.. In wlmtivrr iu»rts of the world it U to be found. 


Lure, inquam. ia qua- 


the governor of the city or place where the feast is celebrated; 
and all the persons of the family, of both sexes, are summoned 
to attend him. These two days the Tirsau sittcth in consulta- 
tion concerning the (food estate of the family. There, if there 
be any discord or suits between any of the family, they are 
compounded and appeased. There, if any of the family be 
d istressed gr decayed, order is taken for their relief and com- 
petent means to live. There, if any be subject to vice, or 
take ill courses, they are reproved and ee.n.-uml. So likewise 
direction is given touching marriages, and the courses of life 
which any of them should take, with divers other the like 
orders and advices. The governor assisteth, to the end to put 
in execution by his public authority the decrees and orders of 
the Tirsau, if they should be disobeyed ; though that seldom 
needeth ; such reverence and obedience they give to the order of 
nature. The Tirsau doth also then ever choose one man from 
amongst his sons, to live in house with him : who is called 
ever after the Son of the Vine. The reason will hereafter 
appear. On the feast-day, the Father or Tirsan cometh forth 
after divine service into a large room where the feast is cele- 
brated; which room hath an half-puce ' at the upper end. 
Against the wall, in the middle of the half-pace, is a chair 
pl.uid lor him, with a table and carpet before it. Over the 
A chair is a state*, made round or oval, and it is of ivy ; an ivy 
(J /somewhat winter than ours, like the leaf of a silver asp, but 
\ more shining ; for it is green all winter. And the state is 
curiously wrought with silver and silk of divers colours, 
braiding or binding in the ivy ; and is ever of the work of 
some of the daughters of the family ; and veiled over at the 
top with a fine net of silk and silver. But the substance of 
it is true ivy ; whereof, after it is taken down, the friends of 
the iainih are desirous to have some leaf or sprig to keep. 
I The Tirsan cometh forth with alt his generation or lineage 8 , 
J the males before him, and the IVmalis following him ; and if 
there he a mother from whose body the whole lineage is de- 
scended, there is a traverse placed in a loft above on the right 

11;ilf-pace or dais, the part raised by a low step above the rest of the floor. — 
//• L. E. 

i. r,. a canopy, amojieun. 

linage In the original; which seems to be the pTOptT form of the word. The « 

Buy haw been introduced originally as a direction for the lengthening of the flr>t 

syllable; and then the resemblance of the word to *uch words a* liueai may have 




hand of the chair, with a privy door, and a carved window of 

leaded with gold and blue ; where she sitteth, but is not 

Men. When the Tirsan is come forth, he sitteth down in the 

chair; and all the lineage place themselves against the wall, 

both at his baek and upon the return of the half-pace 1 , in order ^/ 

of their yean without difference of sex; and stand upon their 

When he is set; the room being always full of company, 

but well kept and without disorder; after some pause there 

!i in from the lower end of the room a Taratan (which is 

as much as an herald) and on either side of him two young 

bid.-; whereof one carrieth a scroll of their shining yellow 

parchment ; and the other a cluster of grapes of gold, with 

a long foot or stalk. The herald and children are clothed 

with mantles of sea-water green sattin; but the herald's 

manj je_Ja^strcaui cd with gold, a nd hat h a train. Then the 

I with three curtesies, orrather inclinations, cometh 

tip as far as the half-pace ; and there first taketh into his 

hand the scroll. This scroll is the King's Charter, containing 

gift of revenew, and many privileges, exemptions, and points 

of honour, granted to the Father of the Family ; and is ever 

styled and directed, To such an one our well-beloved friend 

and creditor : which is a title proper only to this case. F_or_ 

they sav the k ing k d ebt o r to no m a", '"it for r^ 2Pg|^22!L 

n f his subjects. The seal set to the king's charter 13 ths 

king's image, imbossed or moulded in gold ; and though such 

iters be expedited of course, and as of right, yet they 

arc varied by discretion, according to the number and dignity 

lie family. This charter the herald readctli aloud; and 

while it is read, the father or Tirsan standcth up, supported by 

two of his sons, such as he chooseth. Then the herald 

raounteth the half-pace, and delivercth the charter into his 

band : and with that there is an acclamation by all that are » 

present in their language, which is thus much: Happy are. f 

dV JMOpU of Betualem Then the herald taketh into his hand 

(rOffl the other child the cluster of grapes, which is of gold, 

both the Btaik and the grapes. But the grapes are daintily 

and if the males of the family be the greater num- 

B are enamelled purple, with a little sun set on tho 

j if the females, then they are enamelled into a greenish 

1 jmtii paruttm, tarn a ttrgo quam a latenbus aula, tuper gradum ,i,c*ntai. 

L 3 



yellow, with a crescent on the top. The grapes are in number 
as many as there are descendant? of the family. This golde 
cluster the herald delivereth also to the Tirsan ; who presently 
delivereth it over to that son that he had formerly chosen to 
be in house with him : who beareth it before hi s father n^ a p 
ensign of honour when he goeth in public, eve r a fter; and is 
thereupon called the Son of the Y ? nf> - Aft^r tliiafprpmrHiy 
Tnded, the father or Tirsan retireth ; and after some time 
cometh forth a^ain to dinner, where he sitteth alone under the 
state, as before ; and none of his descendants sit with him, of 
what degree or dignity Boever, except he hap to be of Salomon's 
House. He is served only by his own children, such as arc 
male ; who perform unto him all service of the table upon the 
knee ; and the women only stand about him, leaning against 
the wall. The room below the half-pace hath tables on the 
sides for the guests that arc bidden ; who are served with gin at 
and comely order ; and towards the end of dinner (which in 
the greatest feasts with them lastcth never above an hour and 
an half) there is an hymn sung, varied according to the inven- 
tion of him that composeth it, (for they have excellent poesy,) 
but the subject of it is (always) the praises of Adam and 
Noah and Abraham ; whereof the former two peopled the 
world, and the last was the Father of the Faithful: concluding 
ever with a thanksgiving for the nativity of our Saviour, in 
whose birth-rbc births of all are only blessed. Dinner being 
done, thejTirsaniretireth again ; and having withdrawn himself 
■lone into a~pk«ce where he maketh some private prayers, he 
cometh forth the third time, to give the blessing ; with all his 
descendants, who stand about him as at the first. Then he 
oalletb them forth by one and by one, by name, as he please- th, 
though seldom the order of age be inverted. The person that 
is called (the table being before removed) kneeleth down be- 
fore the chair, and the father layeth his hand ujn>n his head, 
or her head, and giveth the blessing in these words: Son of 
Daughter of Bensalem,) thy father suith it; the 
imin hij whom thou hatt breath and life spcaketh the word; 
The blessing of the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace, 
and the Holy Dove be upon thee, and make the days of thy 
pilgrimage good and many. This he eaith to every of them; 
Mid that done, if there be any of his sons of eminent merit and 
■''!(.•. (so rhej b '•."• gain ; 




ami Faith, laving his arm over their shoulders, they standing; 
Sunt, it is well ye are born, give God the praise, and persevere 
to thv nid. And withal dclivcreth to either of them a jewel, 
made in the figure of an ear of wheat, which they ever after 
wear in the front of their turban or hat. This done, they fall 
to music and dances, and other recreations, after their man- 
ner, for the rest of the day. This is the full order of that 
-jQ By»that time six or seven days were spent, I was fallen into 
/ strait acquaintance with a merchant of that city, whose name 
was Joahi n. He was a Jew, and circumcised : for they have 
some few stirps of Jews vet remaining among them, whom 
they leave to their own religion. Which they may the better 
do, because they are of a far differing disposition from the 
Jews in other pa rte. For whereas they hate the name of 
Christ, and have a secret inbred rancour against the people 
amongst whom they live : these (contrariwise) give unkfottr 
i£f*K>ur many high attributes, and love the nation ofCjBcnsa-J 
(lem/extrcmelv. Surely this man of whom I speak would-ever 
acknowledge that Christ was born of a Virgin, and that he 
was more than a man ; and he would tell how God made him 
ruler of the Seraphims which guard his throne; and they call 
him also the Million fPay, and the Eliuk of the Messiah; and 
many other high names; which though they be inferior to his 
divine Majesty, yet they are far from the language of other 
Jews. And for the country of Bensalem, this man would make 
no end of commending it : being desirous, by tradition among the 
Jews there, to have it believed that the people thereof were ot 
t lie generations of Abraham, by another eon, whom they en 11 
Naehi>ran ; and that Moses by a secret cabala ordained the 
laws of Bensalem which they now use ; and that when the 
Mc--i:ili should come, and sit in his throne at Hierusalem, the 
king of Bensalem should sit at his feet, whereas other kings 
should keep O great distance. But yet setting aside these Jewish 
dreams, the man was a wise man, and learned, and of great 
Key, and excellently seen in the laws and easterns <>f that 
nation. Amongst other discourses, one day I tojd him I was 
much affected with the relation 1 had from some of the company, 
of their custom in holding the Feast of the Family ; fur that 

lit i I bad never heard of a solemnity wherein nature*^ 
d'ul so much preside. And because propagation of families 

i. i 



nroceedetn from the nuptial copulation, I desired to know of 

liiin what la ys and customs they hrul concerning mnrrlnrrc : 
and whether t hey kept marriage wel l ; and whether they were 
tied to one wife? For that where population is so much 
affected, and 8uch as with them it seemed to be, there is 
commonly permission of plurality of wives. To this he said, 
" You have reason for to commend that excellent institution 
of the Feast of the Family. And indeed we have experience, 
that those families that are partakers of t lie blessing of that 
feast do flourish and prosper ever after in an extraordinary 
manner. But hear me now, and I will tell you what I know. 
I You shall understand that there is not under the heavens so 
chaste a nation as this of Bensalem ; nor so free from all pol- 
lution or foulness. It is the virgin of the world. I remember 
I have read in one of your European books, of an holy h'T- 
mit amongst you that desired to see the Spirit of Fornication : 
and there appeared to him a little foul ugly ^Ethiop.' 1'ut if 
he had desired to see the Spirit of Chastity of Bensalem, it 
would have appeared to him in the likeness of a fair beautiful 
( berubin. For there is nothing amongst mortal men mo re 
fair and admirable, than __the chaste minds of this pe ople. 
Know therefore, that with them there are no stews, no dissolute 
houses, no courtesans, nor any thing of that kind. Nay they 
wonder (with detestation) at you in Europe, which permit 
such things. They say ye have put marriage out of office : 
for marriage is ordained a remedy for unlawful concupiscence ; 
and natural concupiscence seemeth as a spur to marriage. But 
when men have at hand a remedy more agreeable to their 
corrupt will, marriage is almost expulsed. And therefore 
there are with you seen infinite men that marry not, but chuse 
rather a libertine and impure single life, than to be yoked in 
marriage ; and many that do marry, marry late, when the 
prime and strength of their years is past. And when they do 
marry, what is marriage to them but a very bargain; wherein 
is sought alliance, or portion, or reputation, with some desire 
(almost indifferent) of issue; and not the faithful nuptial 
union of man and wife, that was first instituted* Neither is it 
possible that those that have cast awa- -« •••<•!, 

of their Htrength, should 

1 The Kliill MritU-r 



the aame matter ',) as chaste men do. So likewise during 
marriage, is the case much amended, as it ought to be if those 
things win- tolerated only for necessity? No, but tiny remain 
btill as a very affront to marriage. The haunting of" those dis- 
Ute places, or resort to courtesans, are no more punished in 
married men than in bachelors. And the depraved custom of 
change, and the delight in meretricious embracements, (where 
sin is turned into art,) ,J maketh marriage a dull thing, and a 
kind of imposition or tax. They hear you defend these things, \ 
:i- done to avoid greater evils ; as advoutries, devouring of \ 
virgins, unnatural lust, and the like. But they say this is 
a preposterous wisdom ; and they call it Lots offer, who to 
gave his guests from abusing, offered his daughters : nay they 
say farther that there is little gained in this; for that the 
MOM \icea and appetites do still remain and abound; un- 
lawful lust being like a furnace, that if you stoj. the Bamet 
al together, it will quench ; but if you give it any vent, it 
will rage. As for masculine love, they have no touch of 
it 3 ; and yet there are not so faithful and inviolate friend- 
ships in the world tgain as are there; and to speak generally, 
(as I said before,) I have not read of any such chastity in any 
people as theirs. And their usual saying is, That whosoever 
is unchaste cannot reverence himself; and they say, That the 
nee of a nuut'i self is, next religion, the chufest bridle of 
nil r/fv.s. - ' And when he had said this, the good Jew paused 
a little; whereupon I, far more willing to hear mm speak 
on than to speak myself, yet thinking it decent that upon his 
pause of speech I should not be altogether silent, said only 
tlii- ; M That I would say to him, as the widow of Sarepta said 
to Elias ; _ that he waa come to bring to memory our sins ; a nd 
thjjjJLfft"^** +■!"» righlgjl 11 ^'"- ' < "' was greater than 

the righteousness of Europe/' At which speech he bowed hia 
TieadTand went on in this manner : " They have also many wise 
and excellent lawstouehiug marriage. They allow no polygamy. 
■• have ordained that none do intermarry or contract, until 
I month be passed from their first interview. Marriage with- 
out consent of parents they do not make void, but they mulct 

itri {pan nottn a 

* Non ▼' era giunto aucor Sardanapalo 
A rnostrar do ch" In camera si |>uote. 

Dante, Prnmlitu, 3tlv R. L. E. 

•'•» tjui.l. m nvrunt. 



it in the inheritors : for the children of such marriages are 
not admitted to inherit above a third part of their parents' 
inheritance. rf\ have read in a book of one of your men, of a 
feigned Commonwealth, where the married couple are per- 
mitted, before they contract, to see one another naked. 1 This 
they dislike ; for they think it a scorn to give a refusal after 
so familiar knowledge : but because of many hidden defects in 
men and women's bodies 1 , t hey have a more civil way ; for 
V they have near every town a couple of pools, (which they call 
Adam and Eves pools,) where it is permitted to one of the 
friends of the man, and another of the friends of the woman, to 
lee them severally bathe naked."/ 

And as we were thus in conference, there came one that 
seemed (o be a messenger, in a rich huke 3 , that spake with the 
dew : whereupon he turned to me and said ; " You will pardon 
me, for I am commanded away in haste." The next morning 
he came to me again, joyful as it seemed, and said, " There is 
word come to the governor of the city, that, one of the Fathers 
of Salomon's House will be here this day seven-night : we have 
seen none of them this dozen years. His coming is in state; 
but the cause of his coming is secret. I will provide you and 
your fellows of a good standing to see his entry." I (hacked 
him, and told him, " I was most glad of the news." The 
day being come, be made his entry. He was a man of middle 
stature and age, comely of person, and had an aspect as if he 
pitied men. He was clothed in a robe of fine black cloth, 
with wide sleeves and a cape. His under garinet.t was of 
excellent white linen down to the foot, girt with a girdle of 
(Im SMDfl ; and a sindon or tippet of tbe same about his neck. 
He had gloves that were curious, and set with stone; and shoes 
of reach-coloured velvet. His neck was bare to the shoulders. 
His hat was like a helmet, or Spanish Montera; and his locks 
curled below it decently : they were of colour brown. His 
board was cut round, and of the same colour with his hair, some- 
what lighter.' lie was carried in a rich chariot without wheels, 
litter-wise; with two horses at cither end, richly trapped in blue 
velvet embroidered ; and two footmen on each side in the like 
attire. The chariot was all of ced 

1 See More'- i ik II. — 

* Thi' tranilatinii mIiM ij ■ 
' iniliittit tun 
' The words " uim wliui l! 


crystal; save flint the fore-end had pannels of sapphires, set in 

lers of gold, and the hinder-end the like of emeralds ' of the 

l'eru colour. There was also a sun of gold, radiant, upon the 

tap, in the midst * ; and on the top before, a small cherub of gold, 

with wingt displayed. The chariot was covered with cloth of 

gold tissued upon blue. lie had before him fifty attendants, 

young men all, in white sattin loose coats to the mid-leg; and 

■todringfl of white silk ; and shoea of blue velvet ; and hats of 

blue \t-lvi t : with fine plumes of divers colours, set round like 

hat-bands. Next before the chariot went two men, bare-headed. 

in linen garments down to the foot, girt, and shoes of blue 

velvet; who carried tlie one a crosier, the other a pastoral staff 

like a sheep-hook; neither of them of metal, but the crosier of 

halm-wood, the pastoral staff of cedar. Horsemen he had none, 

neither before nor behind his chariot: as it secmeth, to avoid 

all tumult and trouble. Behind his chariot went all the officers 

and principals of the Companies of the City. He sat alone, 

upon cushions of a kind of excellent plush, blue; and under his 

1". 'i H curious carpets of silk of divers colours, Ukc the Persian, 

but far finer. He held up his bare hand as he went, ns hlpsaing-i/ 

lh B~"p"enpT pj h ut in silcj icc^ The street was wonderfully wellF 

kept * : so that there was never any army had their men stand 

in better battle-array, than the people stood. The windows 

likewise were not crowded, but every one stood in them as if 

tin y had been placed. When the shew was past, the Jew said 

ae; "I shall not be able to attend you 4 as I would, in re- 

1 of some charge the city hath laid upon me, for the enter- 

t:iiuii);j; of tins great person."' Three days after, the Jew came 

to me again, and said ; '' Ye are happy men; for the Father o 

Salomon's House takcth knowledge of your being here, and 

iDiuinanded me to tell you that he will admit all your com pan 

to his presence, and have private conference with one of yo 

thai ye shall choose: and for tins hath appointed the next da 

after to-morrow. And because he meancth to give you his 

he hath appointed it in the forenoon." We came at 

our day and hour, and 1 was chosen by my fellows for the 

ate access. "We found him in a fair chambci^ richly hanged, 

•Wtwob In 
■'•m in nvy/i<i vertirix ,nlhtdra. Mol oral, tx aura radiant. The ill the 
•• C'lUI," .""I no -'"i 1 «fl»T " riKlliml ;" a misprint probably. 

. ><t i at ii/njj.i jn/ii't. mtlHUi intrrditm. 



and carpeted under foot, without any degrees to the state. Ho 
was set upon a low throne richly adorned, and a rich cloth of 
state over his head, of blue satin embroidered, lie was alone, 
save that he had two pages of honour, on either hand one, finely 
attired in white. His under-garinents were the like that we 
MV hiin wear in the chariot ; but instead of his gown, he had 
on him a manth: with a cape, of the same fine black, fastened 
about him. When we came in, as we were taught, we bowed 
low at our first entrance ; and when we were come near his 
chair, he stood up, holding forth his hand ungloved, and in 
posture of blessing; and we every one of us stooped down, and 
kissed the hem of his tippet. That done, the rest departed,/ 
and I remained. Then he warned the pages forth of the room, 
and caused me to sit down beside him, and spake to me thus in 
the Spanish tongue: 

" God bless thee, my son ; I will give thee the greatest jewel 
I have. For I will impart unto thee, for the love of God and 
linn, a relation of the true state of Salomon's House. Son, to 
make you know the true state of Salomon's House, I will keep 
this order. First, I will set forth unto you the end of our 
foundation. Secondly, the preparations and instruments we 
have for our works. Thirdly, the several employments and 
funetions whereto our fellows are assigned. And fourthly, 
the ordinances and rites which we observe. 

" The End of our Foundation is the knowledge of Causes, 
and secret motions of things ' ; and the enlarging of the bounds 
of Human Empire, t p the effecting of all things possible. 

" The Preparations and Instruments are these. "We have 
large and deep caves of several depths: the deepest are sunk 
mx hundred fathom; and some of them are digged and made 
under great hills and mountains,*.^) that if you reckon together 
the depth of the hill and the TOpth of the cave, they are 
(some of them) above three miles deep. For we find that the 
depth of a hill, and the depth of a cave from the flat, is the 
same thing; both remote alike from the sun and heaven's 
beams, and from the open air. These caves we call the Lower 
Region. And we use them for all coagulations, indurations, 
refrigerations, and conservations of bodies. We use them likc- 

tt mottiHm, ac tiitutum tnttrwrum in 



wise for the imitation of natural mines; and the producing 
also of new artificial metals, by compositions and materials 
which we use 1 , and lay there for many years. We use them 
also sometimes, (which may seem strange,) for curing of some 
diseases, and for prolongation of life in some hermit* that 
choose to live there, well accommodated of all things necessary ; 
and indeed live very lung; by whom also we learn many things. 

" We have burials in several earths •, where we put divers 
cements, as the Chineses do their porccllain. But we have' 
them in greater variety, and some of them more fine. We 
have also great variety of composts, and soils *, for the making 
of the earth fruitful. 

" We have high towers; the highest about half a mile ink 
height; and some of them likewise set upon high mountains ;l\ 
■o that the vantage of the hill with the tower is in the highest/ J 
of them three miles at least And these places we call the / 
Upper Region: accounting the air between the high places 
and the low, aa a Middle Region. We use these towers, ac- 
cording to their several heights and situations, for insolation,/ 
refrigeration, conservation ; and for the view of divers meteors;// 
M winds, rain, snow, hail; and some of the fiery meteors also. 
And upon them, in some places, are dwellings of hermits, whom 
we visit sometimes, and instruct what to observe. 

" We have great lakea both salt and fresh, whereof we have 
use for the fish and fowl. 4 We use them also for burials of 
some natural bodies: for we find a difference in things buried 
ith or in air beJrjtv the earth, and things buried in voter. 
We have also pools, of which some do strain fresh water out of 
salt; and others by art do turn fresh water into salt. We have 
also some rocks in the midst of the sea, and some bays* upon 
the shore, for some works wherein is required the air and 
ir of the sea. Wc have likewise violent streams and 
cataracts, which serve us fdOtjgn.ny motions 6 : and likewise 
engines for multiplying and ermn'cing of winds, to set also on 
going divers motions. 7 \ 

of artifici 

•• Wc have also a number 

ual wells and fountains, 


(Umm ttinm at, fit irpultnrm rnrpurnm natural/urn tl m'lUrinriiiu , HN in kih- 
■ ■. i*J in i/>*i ltrr,i contigvt, vl'< tampturu cimnitu amUimwr, jr. 
ti»HUM ti fimorum vuritliiUm magnam. Htm ttinytmtiunum rt MMMHMI 
». |re. 
• ace* lira pntuttrt* n uijmilioi; umxh gtnmt. * loen fMCafatJ »/.W<m. 

■ lrntor*m. * qua centos treipiuHl, mi-'l>p'n> ' ' 



made in imitation of the natural sources and baths ; as tincted 
0{X» vitriol, sulphur, steel, brass, lead, nitiv, mid other minerals. 
And again we liuvc little wells for infusions of many things, 
where the waters take the virtue ' quirker and Letter than in 
vessels or basons. And amongst them we have a water which 
we cnll Water of Paradise, being, by that we do to it, mado 
very sovereign for health, and prolongation of life. 
1/ " We have also great and spacious houses, where we imitate 
and. demonstrate 2 meteors; as snow, hail, rain, some artificial 
rains of bodies and not of water, thunders, lightnings 3 ; also 

^ generations of bodies in air ; as frogs, flies, and divers others. 
" We have also certain chambers, which we call Chambers 
of Health, where we qualify the air as we think good and 
proper for the cure of divers diseases, and preservation of 
health. 4 

I J " We have also fair and large baths, of several mixtures, for 
the cure of diseases, and the restoring of man's body from 
arefaction: and others for the confirming of it in strength of 
sinews, vital parts, and the very juice and substance of the 
/I " We have also large and various orchards and gardens, 
"wherein we do not so much respect beauty, as variety of 
ground and soil, proper for divers trees and herbs : and some 
very spacious, where trees and berries are set whereof wc 
make divert* kinds of drinks, besides the vineyards. In these 
vvc pr ac ti ee likewise all conclusions of grafting and inoculating, 
as well of wild-trees as fruit-trees, which producetb many ef- 
fects. And we make (by art) in the same orchards and gar- 
dens, trees and flowers to come earlier or later than their 
seasons; and to come up and beat more speedily than by their 
natural course they do. We make them also by art greater 
much than their nature; and their fruit greater and sweeter 
and of differing taste, smell, colour, and figure, from their 
nature. And many of them wc so order, as they become of 
medicinal u 

" We have also means to make divers plants rise by mix- 
tures of earths without seeds; and likewise to make divers new 

ubi aqua (currem tdi m carpontm melius et eieaeita, §■*. 

i- c. exhibit: in quiltm imilumcnta rt npriticntationes metevrorum cxhibemtu. 

nuidotton add* coruicnlitmum. 
This experiment bni been tried, especially by Dr. Beddoes of Clifton, but without 

d n »ult S din it In caws Of phthisis by inhaling oxy- 



plants, differing from the vulgar ; and to make one tree or 
plant turn into another. 

" We have also parks and inclosurcs of all sorts of beasts 
and birds, which we use not only for view or rareness, but 
likewise tor dissections and trials ; _that thereby we may take 
light what may be wrought upon the body of jnan. Wherein 
we tind many strange effects; as continuing life in thera, though 
divers parts, which you account vital, bo perished and taken 
forth; resuscitating of some that seem dead in appearance ; and 
the like. We try also all poisons and other medicines upon 
tin in. u well of chirurgery as physic. 1 Bv^art likewise, we make 
them greater or taller than their kind is: and contrariwise 
dwarf them, :ind stay their growth: we make them more fruit- 
ful and bearing than their kind is; and contrariwise barren 
and not generative. Also we make them differ in colour, 
shape, activity, many ways. "We find means to make commix- 
tures and copulations of different kinds ; which have produced 
many new kinds, and them not barren, as the general opinion 
We make a number of kinds of serpents, worms, flies, 
fishes, of putrefaction ; whereof some are advanced (in effect) to 
be perfect creaturcB, like beasts or birds; and have sexes, and 
do propagate. Neither do we this by chance, but we know 
ehand of what matter and commixture what kind of those 
tures will arise.'' 

" We have also particular pools where we make trials upon 
. as we have, said before of boasts and birds. 

" W« here also places ibr breed and generation of those kinds 
of worms and flics which arc of special use ; such as are with 
you your silk-worms and bees. 

"I will not hold you long with recounting of our brew- 
ike-houses, and kitchens, where are made divers 
drinks, breads, and meats, rare and of special effects. Wines 
we have of grapes ; and drinks of other juice of fruits, of 
grains, and of roots 5 : and of mixtures with honey, sugar, 
manna, and fruits dried and decocted. Also of the tears or 

' The tmnnlation ndd« n( carport humnnn mditu enrcnmiu. 

• Tl. I'd with great approbation b] . Hitalre at the end 
of * memoir on the results of artificial Incubation rc^il before the Academy of Science* 

i the .hm.ilts ilu Mutrum tor that year. It may be siid that 
■ it ti) wtaou itiflc Importance of mouslrosltles waj fully nupre- 

ind in un>wcr to the which were Mimic to the study of Teratology 

on the rrniinil of it- BltlUllty, be Invokes the uuthorlty of Bacon. — ft. L.B. 

• lUxixliimiliui g r vm or u m tt radicum. 



woundings of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And th?se 
drinks are of several ages, some to the age or last of forty 
yean. We have drinks also brew ed with several herbs, and 
roots, and spices; yea with peroral fleshes, and white meats l ; 
whereof some of the drinks are such, as they are in effect 
meat and drink both*: so that divers, especially in age, do 
desire to live with them, with little or no meat or bread. 
And above all, we strive to have drinks of extreme thin 
parts, to insinuate into the body, and yet without all biting, 
sharpness, or fretting; insomuch as some of them put upon 
the back of your hand will, with a little stay, pass through 
to the palm, and yet taste mild to the mouth. We have 
also waters which we ripen in that fashion, as they become 
nourishing; bo that they are indeed excellent drink ; and many 
will use no other. Breads we have of several grains, routs, 
and kernels: yea and some of flesh and fish dried; with 
divers kinds of leavening* and seasonings : so that some do 
extremely move appetites ; some do nourish so, as divers do 
live of them, without any other meat; who live very long; 
So for meats, we have some of them so beaten and made 
tender and mortified, yet without all corrupting, as a weak 
heat of the stomach will turn them into good chylus, as well 
as a strong; heat would meat otherwise prepared. We have 
some meats also and breads and drinks, which taken by men 
enable them to fast long after ; and some other, that used make 
the very flesh of men's bodies sensibly more hard and tough* 
and their strength far greater than otherwise it would be. 

* We have dispensatories, or shops of medicines. Wherein 
you may easily think, if we have such variety of plants and living 
creatures more than you have in Europe, (for we know what 
you have,) the simples, drags, and ingredients of medicines, 
must likewise be in so mueh the greater variety. We have 
them likewise of divers ages, and long fermentations. And for 
their preparations 8 , we have not only all manner of exquisite 
distillations and separations, and e specially by gentle heats and 
percolations through divers strainers, yea and substances* ; but 

"* quin el atlditu quttintuqnt carnibu Hi t\cu!rnt>t. 

• Chocolate, which however wn» well known <•* n. «,,.•. Mi ■« in fulfil thl» 
de-criotion. It long since ga " 
lireakinc fast. See the treatise c 
franiru jejunlum Eecleslie." — R 

" imilitiimmiii prapami 

* firr i/iriTjrJ linleit, /«»«■ 



also exact forme of composition, whereby they incorporate 
almost, as they were natural simples. 

M We have also divers mechanical arts, which you have not ; 
and stuffs made by them ; as papers, linen, silk?, tissues ; dainty 
works of feathers of wonderful lustre ; excellent dyes, and 
many other? ; and shops likewise ', as well for such as are not. 
brought into vulgar use amongst us a9 for those that are. For 
you must know that of the tilings before recited, many of them 
are grown into use throughout the kingdom; but yet if they 
did flow from our invention, wc have of them also for patterns 
and principals. 

u We have, also furnaces of great diversities, and that keep 
gr. at diversity of heats; fierce and quick ; strong and constant ; 
soft and mild ; blown, quiet; dry, moist ; and the like. But 
above all, we have heats in imitation of the sun's and heavi nlv 
bodies' heats, that DAM divers inequalities and (as it were) orbs, , 
progresses, and returns, whereby we produce admirable effects. 
Besides, we have heats 8 of dungs, and of bellies and maws of 
living creatures, and of their bloods and bodies ; and of hays 
and herbs laid up moist; of lime unquenched ; and such like. 
In-truments also which generate heat only by motion. 4 .And 
farther, places for strong insolations ; and again, places under 
the earth, which by nature or art yield heat. These divers 
heats we use, as the nature of the operation which we intend 

"Wc have also perspective-bouses, where we make 
tions of all lights and radiations; and of all colour 
of things uncoloured and transparent, we can repi 
you all several colours; not in rain-bows '", as it is in gems 
and prisms, but of themselves single. 6 We represent also all 
multiplications of light, which we carry to great distance, and 
make bo sharp as to discern small points and lines ; also all 
colorations of light : all delusions and deceits of the sight, in 
figures, magnitudes, motions, colours : all demonstrations of 
«h.idow*. r We find also divers means, yet unknown to you, 

idf rtiam aliipiarnw artltan pradictarum. 
.hi quamdetjut ejmtfiiaria, tawjvam primigenia, el uptime tlaborata, in Duma 


•m, to tt!ks to the rvmlt of hi* investigation Into the form of heat, namely 
•>f miit inn. — It.L.E. 
' iridum gliicmtet. * ltd per $e timplim el rout/null', 

• iti'rr volitmttium. 

;e demonstni-l\ 
jrs; and outu 
present unto ' 



of* producing of light originally from divers bodies. "We pro- 
cure means of seeing objects afar off; as in the heaven and 
remote places ; and represent things near as afar oil', and things 
afar off as near ; making feigned distances. We have also 
helps for the sight, far aljove spectacles and glasses in use. 1 
We have also glasses and means' 1 to see small and minute bodies 
perfectly and distinctly; as the shapes and colours of small 
flies and worms, grains and flaws in gems which cannot Other* 
wise be seen; observations in urine 3 and blood, not otherwise 
to be seen. 4 We make artificial rain-bows, halos, and circles 
about light." We represent also all manner of reflexions, 
refractions, and multiplications of visual beams of objects. 

" We have also precious stones of ail kinds, many of them 
lof great beauty, and to you unknown; crystals likewise; and 
(glasses of divers kinds; and amongst them some of metals vi- 
trifioatod, and other materials besides those of which jrOU make 
glass. Also a number of fossils, and imperfect minerals, which 
you have not. Likewise loadstones of prodigious virtue; and 
other rare stones, both natural and artificial. 

" We have also sound-houses, where we practise and de- 
lonstrate all sounds, and their generation. We have harmo- 
'nies which you have not, of quarter-sounds, and lesser slides of 
sounds. 6 Divers instruments of music likewise to you unknown, 
some sweeter than any you have; together with bells and rings 
that are dainty and sweet We represent small sounds as great 
and deep; likewise great sounds extenuate and sharp; we make 
divers tremblings and warbtngs of sounds, which in their 
original are entire. We represent and imitate all articulate 
sounds and letters, and the voices and notes of beasts and 
birds. We have certain helps which set to the ear do further 
the hearing greatly. We have also divers strange and artili'-ial 

1 qua biioculia trttrtt rt iprc-mti$, uxu la>ujt pruitant. * artijiciu. 

' It has been proposed 10 facilitate the examination of diabetic urim.' by U appal** 
U's in which the amount of sugar prevent In it in to be measured by lU effect on the 
plane of polarisation of polarbcd light transmit led through it. — R. L. E. 

' Nothing that has been accomplished with the microscope would have interested 
Dacon n-.nrc than the discoveries of Scblelden and Schwann, because nothing has 
brought us so near the latent processus by which the (bum of organic life arc formed, 
mnrltable that when Scblelden had as he conceived destroyed the analogy be- 
tween the development" of vegetable and animal life, by showing that all vegetable 
tissues are developed by i ells Schwann should beva re-established it more clearly than 
befbn by showing that this is true of all animal DJtUM also, — H. I,. E. 

1 htttonfi, i/mi/ii«. pit rutmntt rt trepitlationcj linnini*. 

* mitetnles no* tuntum Beta illwt aculnm el moltt, ut rot, «et/ quad ran tcs tonoriun ; 
U tremnlus aiiqn ii itulci'timoi. 


echo?", reflecting the voice many times, and as it were totting it : 
ami gome tint give back the voice Lovdra than it oame; hum 
shriller, and some deeper; mm, tome rendering the voice dif- 
fering is the letters or articulate sound from that they receive. 
We have alac means to convey sounds in trunks and pipes, in 
strange lines and distances. ' 

■• We have also perfume houses; wherewith we join also I 
practices of taste. We multiply smells, which may seem ' ' 
strange. We imitate smells, making all smells to hreathc out 
of other mixtures than those that give them.' We make divers 
imitations of taste likewise, so that they will deceive any man's 
taste. And in this house we contain also a confiture-house ; 
where we make all sweet-meats, dry and moist 3 , and divert 
pleasant wines, milks, broths, and Ballets, Ear in greater variety 
than you have. 

*• We bava site engine-hoQses, where are prepared engines// 
and instruments for all sorts of motions. There we imitate and' 
ice to make swifter motions than any you have, cither out 
of your muskets or any engine that you have ; and to make 
them and multiply them more easily, and with small force*, by 
u h< vis and other means: and to make them stronger, and more 
violent than yours are ; exceeding your greatest cannons and 
baailiakn. We represent also ordnance and instruments of war, 
and engines of all kinds : and likewise new mixtures and com- 
positions of gun-powder, wildfires burning in water, and un- 
quenchable. Also fire-works of all variety both fur pleasure 
and use. We imitate also flights of birds ; we have some de- 
grees of flying in the air 5 ; we have ships and boats for going 
under water*, and brooking of seas: also swimming-girdles and 

1 [ail mof/nam diilantiam, tt in liueii tortnotis.] This li now done virj ' rnVclivcly 
!•> ncBU of gutttt pcrcha tubing. — it. L. E. 

' ThU |>owrr of imitating smell* l» one of the recent achievements of cheml«lry. 
Frum fur.ll oil, a product of the distillation of spirits from potatoes, it«rlf exceeding 
orit-iKtvc, mnjr be (tot oil of apples, oil of pears «il of sr-ipcs, and oil of cognac. The 
oil of pineapples and that of bitter iiliiHinds enable confectioner:, to Imitate prrflrCtlj 
tile spent mi II .ivuiir of plnc-apph ■« and bitter almonds respectively, and both, like the 
- alrendy mentioned, are got from very offensive substances. — ii. L. K. 

* The trjn-l.uion adds imo et comdimut ta cum rr6iu aliii dulcibm, yratimmit, 
frrrttr tacthantm tt mil. 

* morn* rtJdtrc ftxe'tlititrt rt irtlentiorcs, cos multiplieandu per rtftus ft tiUos ayrffff, 

* gtmlu* ijuvulam /uihrmus d contmoiUtnUa vevlurtr per tiertm iiutur anirmilitum 

* A boat for Ruing under water was one of Drebbcl's Inventions exhibited in 1410. 

IwomrafM refers to another namely, Drebbcl's method of producing 
cold. — /. J 

H 2 



supporters. We have divers curious clocks, and other like 
motions of return 1 , and some p erpetu al motions. We imitate 

also motions of living creatures, by images of men, beasts, 
birds, fishes, ami serpents. We have also a great number of 
other various 2 motions, strange for equality, fineness, and sub- 
tilt y. 

" We have also a mathematical house, where are represented 
all instruments, as well of geometry as astronomy, exquisitely 

'• We have also houses of deceits of the senses ; where 

we represent all manure of feats of juggling, false apparitions, 

^impostures, and illusions; and their fallacies. And surely yon 

I Vtvill easily I.elicve that wc that have BO many things truly 

natural which induce admiration, could in a world of particulars 

jieceivc the senses, if we would disguise those things and labour 

a make them seem more miraculous. But wc do hate all im- 

jposlures and lies: insomuch as we have severely forbidden it to 

fall our fellows, under pain of ignominy and fines, that they do 

not shew any natural work or thing, adorned or swelling 1 ; but 

vly pure as it is, and without, all affectation of strangeness. 

" These are (my son) the riches of Salomon's House. 

"Forthe several employments and offices of our fellows; we 

have twelve that sail into foreign countries, under the names of 

other nations, (for our own we conceal ;) who bring us the books, 

and abstracts, and patterns of experiments of all other parts. 4 

I These we call Merchants of Light. 

"We have three that collect the experiments which are in all 
books. These we call Depredators. 

" We have three that collect the experiments of all mecha- 
nical arte ; and also of liberal sciences ; and also of practices 
which are not brought into arts. These we call Mystery-men. "' 
|'\ "We liave three that try 'new experiments, such as them- 
selves think good. These we call Pioners or Miners. 

" We have three that draw the experiments of the former 
ftmr into titles and tables, to give the better light for the 

1 el alios mntus iirrii ft aovnnm, in orUtm rf per vice/ mtrttntei. 

' The word •' variou»," which wrms t» lie redundant, is omitted in the translation. 

• arlifieioto appnmlu tmentitum 

* qui libroi. ct mattriat et cjtmplarm np> riinniturum <»/ not perfirHnt. 
1 In the translation they are c.illed Venatvret, hunter* ) a name, however, which 

doe* no! wem to distlneuUh their peculiar office so accurately us •' mystery-men," 
that is, men vhOM btuioCM wtl to inquire after myileriea, ' <• crafts. 



drawing of observations and axioms out of them. These we 
cali Camuilera. 1 

" Wfl have three that bend themselves, looking into the ex- 
periments of their fellows, and cast about how to draw out of 
them tilings nf use and practice for man's life, and knowledge 1 
;is well lor works as for plain demonstration of canseft, means 
of natural <\\\ inatioM, and the easy and clear diseovery of the 
virtues and parts of bodies. 3 These we call Duwry-men or 
Benefactors. 4 

" Then after divers meetings and consults of our whole num- 
ber, to consider of the former labours and collections*, we have 
three that take care, out of them, to direct new experiments, 
higher light, more penetrating into nature than the for- 
These we call Lamps. 

" We have three others that do execute the experiments so 
tl, and report them. These we call Inoculalors. 

" Lastly, we have three thut raise the former discoveries by 
• 'vpi-riments into greater observations, axioms, and aphorisms. 
These we call Interpreters of Nature. 

•! We have also, at you must think, novices and appren: 
lliut the succession of the former employed men do not fail: 
besides a great number of servants and attendants, men and 
women. And this we do also : we have consultations, which of 
tin- inventions and experiences which we have discovered shall 
be published, and which not: and take all an oath of S OCro Cy, 
1. r ill, concealing of those which we think til to beep secret: 
though some of those we do reveal sometimes to the state, and 
not, 7 

■■ Fur our ordinances and rites: we have two very long 

ami fair galleries: in one of these we place patterns and sam- 

Lnner of the more rare and excellent inventions; 

in the other we place the statua's of all principal inventors. 

There we have the statua of your Columbus, that discovered 

■ •II of the tables ivrnpamiliic, aliMiitue In nruximo, 
• ■ Novum 1 1 ■■•■ Hum, it. § II — 13. — R /.. /•-'. 
Fur " i In- n.iii.l.iiiii] I i.i- iliriion i, ili«,trll)utnri. 

nut MM iuM'li'lnt ttlitttli*, IHIII A'll'ltn ./ UOtut "/»"'.. *"/, §"C. 

• qtMt ttnt *■■ timyjilin pnrit 'Intel. 

' Tl III the VtiidcmUtlo prl Sec Noe. Org. li. § 20 R.L. B, 

• fail Ititortt rt i ■ font jitnilu* inttu^ikiunt el yi/jjl riiiuinnnlur. 

• The imtulatidii mlil' thin was only ilone afier consultation with the whoV- 

I colliMjuit firiHl Imhilit mm metis uuivtrtu. 
, r in, cum ruNjcntv. intrnhtm Htgi nut Setuttui mhmMi uli<t 
i nutilUim nuitritw c*i/ii/«7iiwi. 


the West Indies: also the inventor of ships: your iimnk that 
v\a^ the; inventor of ordnance ami of gunpowder: the inventor 
ot music: the inventor of letters : the inventor of printing : the 
inventor of observations of astronomy: the inventor of works 
in metal; the iavoator of gloss: the inventor of silk «.r the 
irormi the inventor off wise: khfl inventor of corn zat& breath 
the taveotor of sugars: ami all thaw by don oartain tradition 
thnn vim have. Then have we divers inventory Off our own, 
!' i'm-. -Ik-lit w.uks; which since you have not seen, it were 
too long to make descriptions of them; and besides, in the 
right Dnderstaading of those, d e eoi ' u /i l oas you might easily err. 
For upon every invention of value, we erect a statua to the 
inventor, and give him a liberal and honourable reward. These 
Status's arc some of brass ; some of marble, and touch-stone : 
some of cedar and other special woods gilt and adorned : some 
■ 'I iron; some of silver ; some of gold. 

** We have certain hymns and services, which we say daily, of 
laud and thanks to God for bis marvellous works : and forms 
of prayers., imploring his aid and blessing for the illumination 
of our labours, and the turning of them into good and holy uses. 

" Lastly, we have circuits or visits of divers principal cities 
of the kingdom ; where, as it eometh to pass, we do publish 
such new profitable inventions as we think good. And we do 
also declare natural divinations' of diseases, plagues, swarms 
of hurtful creatures, scarcity, tempests, earthquakes, great in- 
undations, comets, temperature of the year, and divers other 
tilings; and we give counsel thereupon what the people olnill 
do for the prevention and remedy of them.'' 

And when he had said this, he stood up ; and I, as I hat! 
been taught, kneeled down; anil he laid bis right hand upon 
my head, ami said; " God bless thee, my' son, and God bless 
this relation which I have made. I give thee leave to publish 
it for the guild of other nations ; for we here are in God's bosom, 
I land unknown."' And so he left me ; having assigned a value 
of about two thousand ducats, for a bounty to me and my 
fellows. For they give great largesses where they nunc upon 
all ii< 

1 Fnalu i'hi«> r/mm (iH/ adctHwnt ( nt quodud Suturalet Dhin.itivnti pertintt) 

(.TIN p.; ST WAS not iirui l. r J I. "i 




The prolongation of life. 

The restitution of youth in some degree. 

The retardation of age. 

The curing of diseases counted incurable. 

The mitigation of pain. 

More easy and less loathsome purgings. 

The increasing of strength and activity. 

The increasing of ability to suffer torture or pain. 

The altering of complexions, and fatness and leanness. 

The altering of statures. 

The altering of features. 

The increasing and exalting of the intellectual parts. 

Versions of bodies into other bodies. 

Making of new species. 

Transplanting of one species into another. 

Instruments of destruction, as of war and poison. 

Exhilaration of the spirits, and putting them in good dis- 

Force of the imagination, either upon another body, or upon 
the body itself. 

Acceleration of time in maturations. 

Acceleration of time in clarifications. 

* This paper follows Ibe New AtlantU in the original edition, and conclude* tbe 

v 4 


Acceleration of putrefaction. 

Acceleration of decoction. 

Acceleration of germination. 

Making rich composts for the earth. 

Impressions of the air, and raising of tempests. 

Great alteration ; as in induration, emollition, &c. 

Turning crude and watry substances into oily and unctuous 

Drawing of new foods out of substances not now in use. 
Making new threads for apparel ; and new stuffs ; such as 

paper, glass, &c. 
Natural divinations. 
Deceptions of the senses. 
Greater pleasures of the senses. 
Artificial minerals and cements. 





" Because you were wont to nuke me believe 70a took liking to my writing*. I tend 70a mi 
of thli nation's fruit* ; and taut much more of my mind and purpose. I hasten not to publish : 
perishing 1 would preTent ; and am forced to reaped a* well ray times as the matter. For with 
me it is thus, and I think with all men in mjr ease: if I bind myself to an argument, it Imdeth 
mjr mind , but if I rid myself of the present cogitation, it is rather a recreation. This hath put 
me into these miscellanies, which I purpose to suppress It God gire me leare to write a Just and 
perfect volume of Philosophy, which I go on with, though slowly." — Letter to Btikop Jndrtmm 
sums sending Urn the " Cogftla et rHa." 



We have now collected all of Bacon's philosophic*] work* 
which there is reason to believe he would himself have eared to 
preserve* The rest contain hut little matter of which the sub- 
stance may not be found in one pott Or another of the preceding 
volume;", reduced to the shape in which he thought it would be 
effective. In hi? eye?, those which follow belonged to the 
part of the race which was past and was not to be looked back 
upon; for the end which he was pursuing lay still tar before 
him. anil his great anxiety was to bequeath the pursuit to :i 
second generation, which should start fresh from the point 
where he was obliged to leave h. 

It is not so however with us. In our eyes the interest 
which attaches to his labours is of a different kind. We no 
longer look for the discovery of any great treasure by following 
in that direction. His peculiar system of philosophy, — that is 
1" say, the peculiar method of investigation, the "organum," 
the "formula," the "davit," the M art ipsa interpretandi natu- 
ram," the "filum Labyrinthi," or by whichever of its many 
Damet we choose to call that artificial process by which idonc 
be believed that man could attain a knowledge of the laws and 
Qmand over the powers of nature. — of this philosophy we 
can make nothing. If we have not tried it, it is because we 
feel confident that it would not answer. We regard it as a 
curious piece of machinery, very subtle, elaborate, and inge- 
nious, but not worth constructing, because all ihe work it could 
<lo may be done more easily another way. But though this, the 
favourite child of Bacon's genius which he would fain have made 
heir of all he had, died thus in the cradle, his genius itself Mill 
I works among us: whatever brings us into nearer 
COOUnunion with that is still interesting, and it is as a product 
and exponent of Bacon's own mind and character that the Ba- 
li philosophy, properly its chief value for 



Viewed in this light, the superseded or abandoned pieces which 
are liere gathered together under this third head are among the 


most interesting of the whole collection. For in them we may 
trace more than can he traced elsewhere of what may be called 
the persimal history of his great philosophical scheme, — the 
practical enterprise in which it engaged him, and its effect on 
his inner and outer life. We cannot indeed trace the Idea 
hack to its great dawn : to the days when, in the fearless 
confidence of four and twenty, he wrote Temporis Parti * 
Maxim i B at the head of the manuscript in which it was first 
set forth, — thinking no doubt in his inexperience that Truth 
had only to show her face in order to prevail. Our records do 
not go so far back as that : and before the period at which they 
begin a shadow had fallen across the prospect. The presump- 
tuous "maximus"haa been silently withdrawn and "uia-oii- 
lus" put in its place. Instead of that overeonfidence in the 
sympathy of his generation we find what looks like an over- 
apprclicn-'mii of hostility. And it is in deprecating general 
objections; in answering, mollifying, conciliating, or contriving 
to pass by prejudices; in devising prefaces, apologies, modes 
of putting his case and selecting his audience so as to obtain 
a dispassionate hearing lot it ; that we find him, if not chiefly, 
yet much and anxiously employed. 

It is probably to the experiences and discouragements of 
this part of his career that we owe the greater part of the Brat 
book of the Novum Orgunum, which embodies all the defensive 
measures into which they drove him; but though the result 
may be seen there, the history may be better traced in these 
fragments. It is in them that we can best sec how early 
this idea of recovering to Man the mastery over Nature prc- 

I itself to him ; presented itself not as a vague specu- 
lation or poetic dream, but as an object to be attempted; 
the highest at which a man could aim, yet not too high 
for man to aim at; — how certain lie felt that it might bo 
accomplished if men would hut make the trial fairly; how 
clearly he eaw or thought be saw the way to set about it; how 
vast ctations of the good to come: how unshakable 

■ in the means to l>c used; what immense intel- 

1 operations that confidence gave him courage to enter 
ioij and patience to proceed with,— deliberately, alone, year 

ear, anO decade after decade, still hoping far success in 



the end, — delays, distractions, disappointment?, discourage- 
• internal and external, notwithstanding. They serve 
Him. nver to remind us of (toother (act which it is not unim- 
portant to remember, and which, judging from the events of 
later times, we are too apt to overlook or forget, — namely, 
DOW little authority in matters of this kind hi- name carried 
with it in those days. M A fool could not have written it, and 
I wise man woidd not," it said to have been the criticism of a 
great Oxford scholar upon an early sketch of the I/istaurutw. 
And bow little Bacon could trust tor a favourable hearis 
his ease to his personal reputation among lus eo ntem poraries 
during the first fifty years of his life, appears from his hesita- 
tion, uncertainty, and anxiety as to the form in which lie should 
Bast it, and the manner iu which he should bring it forward. 
For we find among these fragments not merely successive 
drafts of the same design, (which would prove nothing more 
than solicitude to do the work well,) but also experimental 
Variations of the design itself, in which the same matter is 
dressed ap in different disguises, with the object apparently of 
keeping the author out of sight; as if he had thought that a 
project of such magnitude would be entertained less favour- 
ably if associated with the person of one who had done 
nothing as yet t<> prove any peculiar aptitude for scientific 
investigation, Ol to entitle him to speak on such matters with 
authority. Thus at one time he seems to have thought of 
bringing his work out under a fanciful name, probably with 
BOBM fanciful story to explain it; as we see in the mysterious 
title" Vahtiut Terminus, Sec. with the Annotations of Hermes 
Stella.* At another lie presents the same argument in a 
dramatic form; as in the Bedargtttio I'hilosophiarum, where 
I part of what became afterwards the first book of the 
Novum () niiiuum ia given as a report of a speech addressed 
to an assembly of philosophers at Paris. At another he tries 
tn disguise himself under a style of assumed superiority, quite 
unlike bis natural style; as in the Tcmporis Partus Mascuhis, 
where again the very Bame argument (for it ia but another 
version of the Redargutio Philosophiarum) is set forth in a spirit 
arnful invective poured out upon all the popular reputa- 
tions in the annals of philosophy; — a spirit not only alien 
from all his nun tastes and habits moral and intellectual, but 
directly at variance with the policy which he was actually 



pur.-uing in this y<tv matter; which was to avoid as much 
na possible all contradiction ami collision, ami to treat popular 
prejudices of all kinds with the gn urtcsy ami tender- 

ness: — nn inconsistency which I know not how to account 
lor, except by supposing that he had been trying experiments 
as to the various ways in which popular opinion nr.iy be eon- 
ciliated; and knowing that many B man had enjoyed great 
authority in the world by no better title than that of boldly 
liiiLT it, had a mind to try how he could act that part 
himself, and n wrote this exercise to seethe effect of it ; and 
finding the efieol bad laid it by. Another thought which he 
had, — still probably with the same view of avoiding the con- 
trast between the lofty pretensions of the project and the 
■mall reputation of the author, — was to publish it in ■ distant 
place. In duly Kins, remembering that a prophet is not with- 
out honour except in his own country, be was considering the 
expediency of beginning to print in France. 1 And about the 
same time the idea of shadowing himself under the darkness 
of antiquity seems to have occurred to him : for I am much 
inclined to think that it was some such consideration which 
induced him in 1609 to bring out his little book De SapieniiA 
VittfMm ; where, fancying that some of the cardinal principles 
of his own philosophy lav hid in the oldest Greek fables, he 
took advantage of the circumstance la bring them forward 
under the sanction of that ancient prescription, — and so made 
those fables serve partly as pioneers to prepare his way, and 
partly as auxiliaries to enforce his authority. 

Altogether, the result of my en to arrange and 

understand these experimental essays ami discarded beginnings, 
is a conviction that Bacon was not more profoundly convinced 
that he was right, than uneasily apprehensive that hi- contempo- 
raries woidd m\er think him so : and that for the first fifty years 
bief anxiety was, not so much to bring his work 

o the most perfect shape itr to his own conception, 

: it before the world in a manner which should insure 

I attentive listeners, and involve least risk of mis- 

nge, — the carrying ot~ the world with him being in such 

Iterpiisea condition essential to success. And this 1 have 

'ac more worth pointing out. because the course of 

Vnnnvrv. :iu» 



proceeding which he ultimately resolved on tends to hide it 
from us. For his final resolution was, as we know, to di. 
all fictions and disguises, a:ul utter his own thoughts in his 
own person after the manner which was most natural to him. 
But we are to remember that before he tame to that determi- 
nation, or at hast before he [tut it in execution, the case waB 
materially altered and the principal cause of embarrassment 
removed. For besides that lie had then been four years Lord 
Chancellor, the great reputation which he had acquired in 
nthcr fields — in the House of Commons, the Courts of Law, 
and the Star-Chambcr,— coupled with the well-known fact. 
that his favourite pursuit all the time had been natural philo- 
sophy, concerning which ho had long had B great work in pre- 
paration, — this reputation had given to his name the weight 
which before it wanted ; insomuch that there was then perhaps 
no mouth in Europe which could command a larger audience, 
or from which the prophecy of a new intellectual era coining 
upon the earth could proceed with greater authority, than thai 
of Francis Bacon. 

Nevertheless, when I say that these pieces are chiefly in- 
teresting on account of the light they throw on Bacon's per- 
anal hopes, fears, and struggles, I am far from meaning to 
underrate their intrinsic and independent value. Those who are 
most perfectly acquainted with the works by which they were 
superseded will uot the less find them well worth the studying. 
Many of them are in form and composition among Bacon's most 
perfect productions; and if in successive processes of digestion 
he succeeded in sinking the thought deeper and packing the 
words closer, it was often at the expense of many natural and 
original graces. What they have gained in weight and solidity 
they have lost sometime- in freshness, freedom, and perspicuity ; 
and it will generally be found that each helpa^-to throw light 
on the other. 

J. s. 








The value of this collection would be much increased if the 
dates of the several pieces could be fixed, or even the order of 
succession. I fear however that it is impossible to do this with 
any certainty. 1 have arranged them in the order in which it 
seems to me most probable that they were written, but the 
evidence is so scanty and unsatisfactory that I wish every 
reader to consider it an open question and to judge for himself 
upon the data which will be laid before him. 

This which I place first, and to which for convenience of 
reference I give the title CogitatkttUS de Scientid Humand, is a 
fragment] or rather three separate fragments, that have not 
been printed before. They are copied from a manuscript 
which came to the British Museum among the papers of 
Dr. Birch, who appears to have received it from the ex- 
ecutors of Mr. John Locker. Locker was a friend of Robert 
Stephens, the Historiographer Royal; was employed by him 
to see through the press his second collection of Bacon's 
letters, published in 1734; was afterwards engaged in pre- 
paring an edition of all Bacon's works, but died before it 
was completed; whereupon the task, together with the papers 
which be had collected, was transferred to Dr. Birch. 

ihc hktory of this manuscript I have not been able to 
ham anyihing beyond what appears upon the face of it. It is 
i tronfloript in a hand of the 18th century, and has evidently 

made from a mutilated original : blank spaces having been 
left by the transcriber in several parts, such as would occur in 

■ ]>\-, nut of an unfinished <>r illegible writing, but of one 
v. urn away at the edges of the outer leaves. The leaves of the 

If 2 



transcript are put together in a false order, and are not num- 
bered; which makes it less easy to guess what the original 
-led of. But it looks as if there had been three separate 
papers, each wanting a leaf or two at the beginning, and each 
Containing a series of " Cogitationes" or short phflwiopnical 
eaaaya, The transcript has been corrected throughout by 
Locker himself and prepared for the press or the copyist : 
some p aaaag ea being marked for omission, and some to stand, 
and titles being added to the latter. It seems that he HI 
to include in his edition of Bacon's works all those portkww 
which were not to be found elsewhere in the same or nearly 
the same u >rds. As these titles do not appear to have formed 
part of the original, I have omitted them here; my object being 
to print Bacon's own paper as Locker received it; which I 
suppose the transcriber to have copied as correctly as he cou!d. 

The subjects of cogitation are various, and not arranged in 
any logical order. I find interspersed among them the four 
fal'le^, Mitis, Soror Girjantum, Caelum, and Proteus, exactly as 
they are printed in the De 6'apientid Veterum: and the fifth, 
sixth, seventh, and tenth of the Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd, 
exactly as they are given by Gruter; except a few verbal 
differences which I have pointed out where they occur. In 
the last mentioned (which forms the seventh article of the 
first fragment), the passage about the new star in Cassiopeia 
appears in the same words and with the same context precisely ; 
and therefore the reasons which I have given for presuming that 
the Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd were written before 1600 are 
equajly applicable to this fragment. It is on this account that 
I place it first in the series; Hot that some of the other pieces 
contaiued in this part may not have been written earlier than 
1605, but that there is none among them concerning which 1 
have such good grounds for concluding that it cannot have 
been written later. 

The Cogitatio in which this passage occurs is Immediately 
followed by one on the true relation between natural philo- 
and natural history; in which the kind of natural his- 
tory mii which a sound and active philosophy may be built 
is particularly described. If we could be sure that this also 

w written before 1605, the fact would be valuable; as 
hat this part of the design was no after (bought, 
as clearly conceived, and iis essentia] importance as 



fully recognised, in 1605 as in 1620. In the Parasceve and 
in tin- admonition prefixed to the Ilistoria Vnitorttm {manendi 
sunt homines, &c), the impossibility of carrying the work on 
without such a collection of natural history, though more 
fully ami anxiously insisted upon, is not mure distinctly under- 
stood. The presumption however which fixes the date of the 
preceding Cogitatio does not necessarily hold with regard to 
this, because it may no doubt have been added afterwards ; and 
the word partitionem at the end of the paragraph in page 189 
may seem to imply that it was meant for the Partitiones Seien- 
tianm, and therefore written after the plan of the lusfauratio 
Ma g na had been laid out in its ultimate form. 

The miscellaneous character of these meditations makes the 
of the rest of less consequence. It is easy to strike into 
tin- argument of each, and to refer it to its proper place in 
Bacon I philosophy. It maybe convenient however, as they 
are for the must part without explanatory titles, to give here 
a list of the several pieces, with a note of the subjects to which 
they refer. 


1. (Cog. 3.) Of the limit,* and end of Knowledge: the same 
argument which is handled in the first chapter of IWe- 
rius Terminus, arid the opening of the Advancement of 
Learning. (The beginning wanting.) 

2. (Cog. 4.) Of the Use of Knowledge. 

3. (Cog. 5.) The fable of Metis. 

4. (Cog, fi.) The fable of the Sister of the Giants. 

5. (Cog. 7.) The fable of Valum. 
I',. (Cog. 8.) The fable of Proteus, 

7. (Cog. 9.) Of the error in supposing a difference in point oj 
eternity and mutability between things celestial and things 


8. (Cog. 10.) Of Natural History considered as the groundwork 

of Naturul Philosophy. (Imperfect at the end.) 


(Cog, 8.) That general consent affords no presumption of 
truth in matters intellectual. 

* 3 


2. (Co<*. 9.) Of the error of supposing that conoersancy with 

particulars is below the dignity of the human mind. 

3. (Cog. 10.) The exposition of the fable of Midas. (Not in- 

cluded in the De Sapientid Veterum.) 


1. Of wisdom in the business of life. (The beginning wanting.) 

2. That the quantum of matter is always the same. 

3. Of the sympathy between bodies with sense and bodies witiiout. 

4. Of apparent rest, and solidity and fluidity. 

The notes to these pieces, and the explanatory remarks 
within brackets, are mine. 





.... a Deo defectionem homini insinuavit* Quod vero 
ad terrniaos sobrietatis attinet, eos demum legitimos et veros 
esse censemus, qui senaus aditum ad divina prohjbeant; utjam 
dictum est. Si enim per alas sensus male conglutinatas ad Dei 
oaturam, vias, voluntatem, regimen, et reliiiua mysteria, tan- 
quam ex propinquo audacius conspicienda, supcrbo volatu effe- 
ramur, pracipitium certum nos manet. Atquc hoc est quod 
per fallacia in philosophise et gloria oppressionem cavere jubcinur. 
Quicquid vero non est Deus, sed pars Universi aut Creatiu-a, 
hujus certe contemplatio et scientia obscuritate stepius et di^ 
cultate remove tur, sed iiullo edicto separatur. Certe Script ui a, 
post vicissitudiues reruiu et temporum commemoratas, ad ex.- 
trumum subjungit : Cuncta fecit bona in tempore suo,et mundnm 
tradidit disputationibus eorum ; ut tamen non inveniat homo quod 
operatus est Deux ab initio usque adjinem: ubi satis apertc signi- 
finit, tradi certe muudum hominum contcinplationibua et con- 
troversiis, et infinitas et abdit&s Naturae operationes posse crui ; 
opus autem quod operatus est Deus ab initio usque ad tiucm, 
id est legem Naturae summariam, qua? in star puncti vertical is 
Pyramidis est, in quo omnia coeunt in union : hoc inquain, non 
aliud quicquam, ab Intellectu humano seponi. Nam ut idem 
Author affirrnat, Lueerna Dei est spiraculum hominis quo quceque 
interiora pervestigat ; et rursus ait, Gloriam Dei esse rein celure, 
gloriam Regis autem rem investigare ; non alitor ac si Divina 
Natura innocenti ac benevolo puerorum ludn dclectarrtur, qui 
ideo sc abscondunt ut inveniantur, ac animaui humanam sibi 

' A.t.lltiutul KM, Brit. Mm. 4258, to. 219. 

n -ix-nklnn, pnihahly, of the nature at the nm which leil lo the 
UII ut nun ; vir. (lit' |>ruinl*c that he should be a? God, knuwmy y,*,J ami tvit. 

» 4 



collusorem in hoc ludo pro sua in homines indulgcntia et hern- 
iate elegerit Itaque Deum Fidei, muudum sensus ct seientias 
liuiii.'mic, vera objccta esse ponimus. Quod vero ad artificium 
illud attinet, ut ex ignoratione causarum major sit nanus di- 
vine recognitio et veneratio ; hoc nil aliud est quam Deo per 
im-ndaciiim gratificari velle, quo ille prorsus nostro non eget. 
Ktiametillsc cogitaliones parum pirn sunt, si quia Dei viccin 
timeat, ne religio detrimentum accipiat. Nam lute rationeni 
nnimaleni et fidei innpiam sapiunt, et religionem tacite qno- 
dcunmodo importune insimulant [ac] si periculum ei ab inqui- 
sitione veritatis subsit, Neque metuat quisquam ut Seusui 
Fides magis ex diamctro opponi possit quam per ea qme mine, 
virtnte :ifHatus divint, creduntur ; mundi creationem ex nihilo; 
Dei inenrnationem ; carnis rcsurrectioneiu. Atque nobis eerte 
petf ectiaBmum est, Naturalcm Philosopliiain, postverbum Dei, 
n-rtissimam superstitionis medtcinam, eandein (quod mi rum 
videri possit) probatissimum fidei aliment um esse; quantoque 
altius penetret, tanto fortius animos homiimm religione per- 
fundcre. Nam in limine philosophic, in causis proximis 
morum faciendo, fortasse animus nounihi! deprimitur, ct sen- 
eui obnuxius efheitur. Sed post quam ascensus factus est, et 
catena cau?nrum ex opere divino fabrefaota in conspectum 
ven it, erigitur proculdubio animus, et ad religionem praepara- 
tur. Itaque existinmnius Scicntinm de Natura tanquam fidis- 
simnm Keligioni anrilhim j>nesto esse, cum altera voluntatem 
Dei, altera potestatem uiauifcstet. Neque erravit qui dixit 
Erratis nescientes scripturas et potestatem Dei; informationem 
de Volinifate, tanquum Fidei instrumentum, et nicditationem 
de P< (testate, tanquam ejusdem adminiculum, conjungens. 
Veruntniuen (quod verum rebus humanis presidium est) ad 
preccs confuginius, et Deum supplices rogamus ne ex resern- 
tione viarum sensus et accensione majore luminis naturalis 
nliijiiid incroduLitatis aut noctis animis nostris erga divina 
mysteria oboriatur; sed potius ut ab intellectu a phantasiis 
et vanitate puro et repurgalo, et divinis oraculis nihilominus 
subdito ac prorsus dedititio, Fidei dentur qua Fidei sunt. 


Atque cum de teriuinis et finibus Philosophise jam dictum 
res postulare videtur ut de usu ejus aliquid addamus. 



Omnls enim scientia usu prudenter termin.ntur ; atque usui 
nomen finis vel praecipue competit: hi quo altius rem repctcro 
visum est, ut fortius quod tantum huminum intersk mentibus 
coram incutiuinus. In Divina Natura radius trinus per omnia 
splendct, et in operibus et in attributis. Essentia et Creatio 
Mat<-rine :id Pal rem; Essentia et Creatio Forma; ad Filium; 
duratio et conservatio Essentia? ad Spiritum Sanctum rel'eitur. 
Neque enim ait Scriptura Dixit Deus, Jiat Cesium et Terra, 
83d Creavit Deux Colttm et Terram. De operibus autcm £ex 
dierum, no nait Srriptura Creavit Deus Lucem et qu:c sequun- 
tur; sed Dixit Deus, Jiat Lux, et facta est Lux ; et per omnia 
Creationein praecedit Verbum. Similiter, Potontia Patri, 
Sapientia Filio, Charitas Spiritui Saneto attribuitur ; ut et 
peccata iisdezn attributis respond ea nt ; cum peccata ex infir- 
mitate contra Patrem ; peccata ex ignorantia contra Filium ; 
pi'ocuta ex malitia contra Spiritum Sanctum esse dicantitr. 
Etiiim origines defectionis eodem spectant. Nam ex appetitu 
pOtentise angeli lapsi sunt; ex appetitu ecient'uc homines; 
sed Charitatis non est exceasus ; neque indueit charitas tentn- 
tiunem, neque Spiritus aut homo per earn unquam in peri- 

< iilum venit. Qui eulm ex plenitudine charitatis sibi exitium 

< t anathema imprecati sunt, ut Paulus et Moses, utcunque in 

i Bpiritua eo progressi, tamen oflensionem apud Deum 
ineurrisse non reperiuntur. Ituque Deus prnponitur hoiiai- 
nibus ad imitationem, secundum Charitatem, non secundum 
Potentiarn aut Sapientiam. Scriptum enim est, Diligitt 
irtiiiu'cos vestrus ut sitis Jilii Patris veslri t/ui in Caelis est ; 
qui Molem suum oriri facit super bonos et malos, et pluit super 
jitstia et injttstos. Augelus autem dixit in Be, Ascvmium ft 

nit/is Altisfiiim : non dixit Deo, sed Altirsimo. Similiter 
Homo, postquam tentationeni hauslsset, efferebatur, et eon- 
cupivit ut similis esset Deo; non siuipliciter, sed in hoc ut 
Bonum et Malum. Neuter ad similitudinem charitalis 
divinic t>e excitabat ; sed Angelo mlnistcrii Dominatlo, Creaturcu 
dominant! Scientia, desiderio fuit. Atque haec in present! 
ndducimtlSj ut homines tantis oractilis mnniti scientiiD vent-; 
finee oogitent; nee earn aut animi causa petunt, aut ut alio3 
ant.. nit od commodum, aut ad lucrum, aut ad gloriam, 
.-nit hnjusmodi inferiora. Atque hie rursus, ut prius, Deum 

n.ur ut do|>osito sciential veneno, a scrpentia venoao 
JUH a piincipin inl'uso, quo animus huuianus tumet, ncc idtum 


sapiamtis, nee ultra sobrium, sed Veritatem in Charitate 

Narrant poetas antiqui Joveni oegMH in uxorem Metin, &c. 

[Here follows the exposition of the fable Metis sice Con- 
silium, for which see De Sapientid Veterum, § xxx.] 


Finxere poets Gigantes e terra procreatos, &c. 

[Here follows tbe exposition of the fable Soror Gigantum 
sive Fanta; for which see De Sap. Vet. §ff.] 


Finxere poetaj Caelum antiquiesiinum, &c 

[Hen follows tlie ox[>osition of the fable Cizlum sive ori- 
i/itifs ; for which see De Sap. Vet. § xii.] 


Narrant poetae Proteum, &c 

[Here follows the exposition of the fable Proteus the 
Materia; for which see De Sap. Vet. § xiii.] 


De disfimilitudine cieU-stium et sublunarium quoad eetemitatem 
tt mutabilitatem, ijuod non sit verificata. 

[See Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd, § x., p. 32. of this vo- 
lume. These five Cogitationes agree exactly with the copies 
elsewhere given, with the exception of a very few verbal 
-ariutions, which I have mentioned in the notes. With regard 
k he List it is to be observed that, though it follows the 8th 
tatio without any break, the words Coyitatio 9\ are nut 
tcu at tin* head of it, as in all the preceding ; but ( 
is inserted in the margin; from which I infer that it 
not numbered in the original, and that the number 10 
I afterwards hv the transcriber in reference to the 
tones dc Rerum Naturd where it stands tenth and la-:. 
i formed part of the present series however, 




belonged In this place, may be inferred horn the fact that it 
is immediately followed by] 

Fundaiuenta solida Philosophia; Naturalis purioris, in Natural! 
Historia jaciuntur ; caquc eupio.-a et accurata. Aliunde petita 
philusuphia natat et ventosa est et agitatnr ct se confuudit; 
nee ad utditates huinauas et partem activam duck 1 autpertingit. 
Atque ut distinetius loquainur, Historia Naturalis aut non satis 
investigata aut non satia inspeuta duo vitia et veluti morboe 
aut cnitupiitines Thcoriarum pepcrit. In altero homines ad 
BopbistaB p-itius, in ahem id PoettB partes accedunt. Qui euim 
ex vulgaribu» obaervatioaibtta theoriaj principiis concinnatis, 
reliqua in ingenii discursu et argumentatione point, is quain- 
Bimque fxi.-timationeni aut foi'lutuun Invt-nta sua sortiantur, 
tamt'D revera ex veterum Sophistarum more et disciplina phi- 
li«s»>pli,uiir. Qui autem ex portione Naturaj diligenter et ex- 
quisite indagata et observata tumidus ct phantasire plenus 
alia omnia ad ejus exeniplum et sitnilitudiueni fieri fingit et 
BOmniat, is inter Poetns sane est conacribendus. Itaque pru- 
dena et aeutum erat illud Heraeliti dictum cms quereretur 
httninM Phiiosophiam in mundis propriis non in muudo majore 
qua?rcre. Naturalem enim Historian) levitcr attingunt, atque 
in nieilitationibus suis in iinmensum expatiantur; neque luec 
prudenter dividunt. Atque hujus rei exeniplum, praesertim 
iiiurbi illiaa prioria, in Philosophis Seholastieia se prodit ; qui 
cum ingenii acumine et robore pollerent, et otio abundarent; 
lii-t>ri;i. autem aut nature aut temporum parvain partem 
nossent ; nee omnino variant doctrinam hausissent ; sed medita- 
Honea suae intra veluti ecllas pauoorum authnruiu, prax'ipuc 
Ari-totflis (qui dictaturain apud eos gerebat), quemadmoduin 
peraonaa intra cellaa monasterioruni et collegiorum elausissml : 
totem autem et cunfidentiam earn qme illos qui pauca 
norunt lequi solet (ut animalia in tenebris edueata) acqu'^i- 
vissent ; ex materia: quantitate non magna, ingenii vero agita- 
tione infinita, telas eaa doctrinae confecerunt, qua* (ut ilbe ctiam 
araucarum) tcnuitate fili et texturaj subttlitate aunt admirahili s. 
t-ed eiili-taniia et virtutc fere inutiles. Longe autem magis 
mirauduui cat Aristoteleni, tantum viruiu, et tanti Regis opi- 

1 durat in MS. 



bus innixum, et in tanta rerum et histnria? varietatc venaUillk, 
quique ipse tatn aecuratam de Aniinalibus historiam conscri- 
pserit, atque insupcr experimentis cujnsvis generis cogitatio- 
nem impertierit, (quod ex libris ejus Problematum rt Parvis 
Xatui alibus manifest inn est), quique etiam ' sensui JUStas partes 
ttibuciit ; tamen Philosopbiam suam de Nat lira a Helms omuiuo 
abstraxisse 1 , et exp rientia: desertorcm maximum fui-sc, at- 
que ea tantis laboribus peperisse qua Dialcctica 1 potauti (ut- 
onoqne homines distinguaniet argutcntur 3 } quam Physica* sol 
Metaphysics sint aceommiidata. Verum ille in^enio incitato 
el imperioso, atque per omnia ipse sibi author (cum antiqui- 
tatom despiceret, experientiam autcm in servilem umdum ad 
opinionuui suaruui fidcin traheret et quasi captivam circuin- 
dmvret), meritoque sane gal cam Plutonis (obseuritatem scili- 
cet qiinndam avtificiosam) induene, cum tantas turbns conci- 
rifleel : tleuiquc Dialecticam suam, utpote artein ab eo (ut ipse 
licentius nee tamen vere gloriatur) oriundam, intexponens, et 
tea verbis maneipans, vaihtatcm doctrime et sciential BUB usu 
ambitioso et callido conupit. Nos vero, licet propter faculta- 
tis nostra? tenuitatem statuam Philosojihiaj efformare aut eri- 
gere non possimus, saltern basin ei paremus, atque Historian 
Natural]* usum et dignitatem hominihus praccipue common- 
detnua, Neque enim inventio prima Philosophic tantum ab 
Bfl pendet, ted etiam omnis inventoruin aiuplificatio et correctio. 
Ut enim aqua: uon altius ascendunt quam ex quu descendenint, 
ita doctrina et informatio ab aliquo authore vcluti cisterna. 
quadain derivata non facile supra ejusdem authoris inventa 
BOandtt aut insurgit. Ipsi rerum I'mites petendi sunt, Quam- 
obrern si qua nobis fides est aut judicium in his rebus, cptas 
certe summa cum eura et maximis et indefessis animi laboribus 
trartamus, id ante omnia consulimus et monemus, ut Uistoria 
Naturalis diligens et scria et fida procuretur et comparetur. 
Atque liabemu8 sane Histnriani Naturalem, mole amplaui, 
genera variam, diligentia etiam curiosam ; veruntamen ei quia 
ex ea ipsa fabulas et antiquitat&B mentionetn et phQologiam 
it npiniones et simitia excerpat ac seponat, qme convivalibus 
pot.ius eermonibus et virorum doctnrum noctibus quam institu- 
tion] Philosophic sunt acoomroodata, ad nil magni res recidet. 
Neque novum est invenire diligentiam simul in rebus auper- 
- curiosam et in magia necessariis imparem. Atque hoc 

m* in MS. ' tibflmiiiitt in MS. * argutxtur In MS. 



maitme mirum videri debet, Nuturalem Historiam qua? in ma- 
iiilnia habetur ' non earn esse qnatn nos aiiimo et cogitatione 
inetimur et concipiruus, cum hoc plerunque fiat,ut quod fine 
id fere Mtora et genere difFerat. Naturalis autem Histoihe 
inquisitio ah aliquibus suscepta est ut jucuuda et grata pere- 
grinatio, qua? et cognitione et comniemoratione delectet. 
A 1 i i r= doctrinal varisc et Iectiimis multiplicis fama est qusesita. 
Nobis autem longe aliud pnvpnsitum est. Earn eniin Nat Lira - 
kin Historian! qmeriimts ex qua causa; naturales potissinium 
infonnari possiut, et Philosophia eondi, sensui fida, et operibus 
testa ta. Itaque magna cura et judicii acveritas adhibenda est 
ut liujusmodi Historia 2 sit fide certa, ubservatione definila. 
BOS vaga, oomplexu rerum lata et copiosa. Atque ut clarius 
at melius intelligatur quid tandem desideremus • et velimus, 
non alia magis ratione Ulud declarari posse judicamus quaiu 
si Partitionem Naturalis Historite subjungamua fini ipsi nostro 

Hirtoria [Naturalis 4 ,] vel Naturae liberal et tamen ordina- 
te, [vel Na]tune errantis sive cxpatiantis, vel Natures [arte] 
Bttbactaa et oonatriete, facinorn narrat. Alia enim est Natural 
diapeoaatlo et actio cum sponte fluit; alia cum materia? defe- 
etibu> et exce6sibus et pravitatibus et insolentiis urgetur; alia 
denique cum arte et mi tiistcrio humano premitur. ltaquc 
prima narratio eat ea cui Naturalis Historian Communis appel- 
Utio triliuitur ; cujusmodi est Aristotelis, Plinii, Dioscoridis, 
rri, Agricoke. reliquorum. Secunda, Hiatoria Mirabilium 
nunenpatur, aut simili titulo gaudet; qnam etiam Aristotelea 
ipse non eootempsit, alii autem ita tractarunt ut eorum vani- 
tatis et levitatis nota iu rem ipsam incurrat. Tertia eat Ili- 
Vtoria Mechanica sive Artium; cui nemo ineubuit aul oprram 
oonttantem et juatam bnpenditj sed alii alias artes, aequo 
tamen multi multns, BOripto aliquo fortasse [tractarunt] eoque 
ip.-o obaeuro et ignobili, et [quod] apud plerosque lectures sor- 
deaclt Atque eanun partium prima rursiis in quatuor partea 
recti dividitur; Historiam Ciclestium; Historian! MeteororUOl j 
Historian! Terra? et Maris; et Historian] Speeierum. llistn- 
riaoi t ulestium simplicem esse cupimus; suspensa umnimi vi 
it potentate Theorianun; quteque solummodo phenomena ipsa 

' hiil-mut tn MS • hi it 01 ut In MS. * dnifdrremui in Ms. 

• The «pAcc» between the brackets »ro left blank In tUe mamiMiipL. The VuTdi 
nhiili I liM>e Inserted arc »u(/;ilied by conjecture. 



iiMirii, neinpe astrortnn nuiueriim, nuigiiitudiiH'tn. pitus, fa- 
»i's, niotus, complectafur ; non omissa rerum vulgatUsimariiin 
metitione, eaque exaeta ; addita etiani obeervatione colorum, 
scitifillmiunum, positionum, et simlliuni, licet ad cursus astro- 
rum deeariptioneni nil faciant. Non enira caleuloa meditnmur, 
ci'il I'bilusnphiam ; eatii qua; scilicet de superiorum non molu 
taiitum, sed substantia quoque et potentate, intcllectum hunia- 
inun infonnare posait. Histuria vero Meteororurn (ut et ipsa) 
M imperfecte mistis cat. Poatquani Aristoteles ' principia rei 
(iidi.-set (licet diverso ab Historia inodo) nulla quro mentione 
digna est continuatio aequuta est, quaa tamen huic parti \< I 
niaxime a . . . a res sit ex uaturalibus maxime instubi[lis et] 
qua regionibus et temporibua plurimum [vari]etur. Si quid 
an tern in Historia Civili et annalibua temporuiu, de meteoris, 
nliquibua cometis, terra' tnntibus, teinpestatibus, et bujusmodi, 
Bpanun inseritur, illnd sa;pius ejusmodi est ut potius calaml- 
tfttM 61 ODUOU rei qimin natune et modi nieniinerit. Certe 
inter Meteororurn Historiam dignissima (Minmemoratio fuigset 
lie Cometis, utilissima de Ventis. Nee ea spernenda eeset quai 
i -i <!<■ (ibiviis prudigiosia vel de rebtll quae ex alto decidunt, .-i 
tides eonstaret. At Historia Terrae et Maris ad pauca exten- 
ditur, licet ea quie ad sptuBTCin et partium terrae cum partibus 
cu-li coutigurationcm pertinent recipiantur. Neque enim ter- 
mini Inipcrtorum, urbea, et similia, quae Co-anngraphiam im- 
jdent, Naturalis Historia} sunt; cum vicissitudines manifestas 
patiantur et Imminent plane spirent. Terra? figura, maris iu- 
tcrpositio et occupatio, minerarum moles, solum ipsum non 
. lie [sed] substantia distinctum, Huvii, la[cus, si]nus, 
litora, paludcs, aistus maris, gurgites et Euiipi, aqua calidic 
• i vine . . . infectM* igne exundantes, et reliqua id genus, 
hojuamodi narrutioni debentur: res sane vulgatsc, sed conse- 
quentiie earum non vulgata). Nam maria inter Tropicos, et 
itrunque a TropicU distant!*, pervia non esse; duas 
8 vel novi orbia versus Boream latas, versus Au- 

i angustas] efformari; AiVic&in et inferiorem Americam 
ul.i- erne ; Mediterranean mare sinuum, Caspium [l]a- 
iiiiximum oonapici ; et similia; si per se accipias oc- 
, sed tamen Philoaopbia consuluutur et ad multa in- 

•tfcfc In MS. 

*-. ». ? The lop of the rf twins wnrn "fl". it would look like «. 
MS. The blank may I* fill, J wiili t n, nma*. 






f'Tinationem pra'bent. Restat Historia Specierum, qua; ccrte 
t:tni diligetiter et copiose elaborate et exculta cernitur, ut mm 
tea aucta ea quam repurgata opus est. Namque ' multua 
lMiiuus in fahulis, antiquitate, et eensura rnoruni ; Gesnerus 
Wten hacreditatem historia; suae ex mult is partibus Pinlologira 
ex paucis Philosophue . . . Ccrte si qua ex parte deficit 
Historia Natural is Specierum, ea ipsa est qua; [Homineni] in- 
tuetur et refert. Demptis enim c[ivilibus,] parca est Hoiminis 
historia naturalis qua; Mineeia est. Reliqua duo Historia; Na- 
turalis genera homlnibiis simnna; eune esse debent. Habit 
enim historia naturae spoutc sua fusa; coirtemplatinneiu ainav 
m, sed inquieitionem vagam. Historia autem Mirabiliuut 
mines ad operum niagnitudinem invitat ; Historia Artium 
etUUB deducit. Itaque quod ad prim[tim borum] attinet, fa- 
cessant fahuke, impostura;, levia. Heteroclita sive Devia na- 
UlMB cxaininentur tan quam falsa, refcrantur et describautur 
tanquam vera; id est, non aucta re miraculi causa, sed potius 
intra inodum. Ante omnia, fahulae et mendacia non tanluin 
rejiciantor, sed etinm notentur. Neque enim magis utilem 
Historia; Naturalis de Mirabilibus partem esse cenaeo, quam si 
68 quae [apud vulgus opijnionem quandam voritatis obtinent, 
sed facto] experimento fidsttatu eonvineuutur, nominatim 
in ntur ct prn[sci - ibantur.] 

[Here the blanks left by the transcriber become so frequent 
ih:it it is impossible to follow the sense further. Only it may 
tbered that, after remarking that " as things now arc, if 
an untruth in nature be once on foot, what by reason of the 
neglect of" examination and countenance of antiquity, and 
what by reason of the use of the opinion in similitudes and 
ornaments of speech, it is never called down," — (I quote a 
passage from the Advancement of Learning with which it is 
evident that the next sentence in this manuscript closely 
corresponded,) — Bacon 1ms recourse to the illustration so 
happily developed in the 118th aphorism of the first book of 
the Novum Organum, comparing the mistakes which will occur 
in such a natural hivtory as lie meditates to the misprints 
in a book; — if there be but a few, you can correct them 
by the sense of the passage ; if many, you cannot find what 
the sense is: so it is, he says, with Natural History and 

1 ran* v"" '" MS. 



Philosophy. " Nam si paucae vanitates admisceantur, esc a 
causis ipsis inventis reprobantur ; sin 6pissa?, ipsam causaruni 
inquisitionem Bubvertunt. Itaque optima consilio res geretur, 
si triplex fidei ordo statuatur. Unus eorum quae dainnautur ; 
alter eorum quae certo comperiuntur; tertius eorum qtua 
fidei sunt [dubire.]" He concludes his remarks on the His- 
toria Mirabilium by observing that it is useful in two ways 
— both excellent : " the one " (again I quote the Advance- 
ment of Learning, for the fragments of the sentence clearly 
show that it was to the same effect,) — " the one to correct 
the partiality of axioms and opinions, which are commonly 
framed only upon common and familiar examples; the other 
because from the wonders of nature is the nearest intelligence 
and passage towards the wonders of art ; for it is no more but 
by following and as it were hounding nature in her wan- 
derings, to be able to lead her afterwards to the same place 

He then proceeds to speak of the Historia Mechanica, — the 
third and last. And here, the blanks being fewer, the sense 
may be clearly traced, and the missing words probably sup- 

Sequitur et superest [Historia] Naturalis Mechanica, sive 
Expcr[icntiae] qualcm artes exhibent : ut agricultural, Picto- 
ria ', Tinctoria, Fabrilis. Addo [etiam practices] omnes, licet 
in artem non coalucrint, ut [ve]uationum, aucupiorum, pisca- 
tionum. N[eque tamen] excludo mechanicnm partem libera- 
tion! artium, quas vocant; Musicre, Perepectiva?, Medicina?. 
Hax: autem historia licet ree minus solemnis sit et honoris et 

[And here the manuscript suddenly stops in the middle of 
tli.' page ; being evidently a transcript from an original of 
which the outside leaves had been torn away, and the others 
more or less injured, — most towards the end.] 

frinclura in US, 




De Scientiis et mente. De prcejudicio consensus; quod 
infirmum sit. 1 

Consensus in doctrinis receptis, cujus ea est potestas ut vim 
quandam hominum judiciis faciat et contradictioneni omnera 
inf:imet, rccte perpendenti et sanara mentem adducenti tantum 
a vera et solida authoritate abest ut prwsumptionem violentam 
inducat in contrarium. Seienttarum enim status certe perpetuo 
Mt "k-mucraticus, qui status tetnpestas et insania in clviLbua 
a[«|pillari consucvit. Ncque multo melius se gerit aut probat 
in intcllcctualibus. Apud populum enim doctrine contenttusa; 
et pugnuccs, aut rursus probabiles et specioste, plurimum 
vigent; qnales videlicet assensum aut illaqueant aut alliciunt. 
Itaque peuimOB augur veritatis, studium et admiratio populi. 
Si quis autem baec ita fieri concedat, et sit firmior, et turbam 
<»oriam non admodum vereatur, scd cum inter eos non 
paucos ingenio et judieto excel lere videat, horum suflragiis 
moveatur ; sciat ee ratione fallaci niti. Dubium enim non est, 
quin per singular abates maxima ingenia vim passa sint, dnm 
viri capttl et intellectu non vulgarcs, nihilo sccius existimationi 
hub ( av.ntes, temporis et multitudinis judicio so submiserunt. 
Nun enim apud eosdem est pretium seicntiarum et posse>Mc>: 
sed qua? viri pneataatefl pmponunt vulgus mtimat Quod si cui 
adhuc tamen mirum viJeatur quod totsieculis nil melius bis qni- 
itimor invcniri potuerit, is non meminit hoc saapius accidere 
Uinporilnis retroactis potuisse, ut potion istis caput extiilerint 
«-t in lucem venerint; verum cum penes populum (ut dictum 
t judicium et delectus, memoriam eoruni interire nccesse 
adeo ut altiores contemplationes oriantur aliquando, scd 

1 A.1<lili..n:il MSS 4258. to. 214. This begin* at the top of a p»Re, and i* not nutn- 

IhtmI. ■ >t)ier two Cogitations which complete this fragment ure numbered 

i ■ i. I conclude that tbb wai la fact Qlffrltft *', the ttrst seven having been JoiL 

\<>i.. in. o 



fere non ita multo post opinionum vulgarium ventis agiten- 
tur ' et extinguantur. Quare non dissimulanter monetidum it 
prffidicendum est (ne quis firrttlOTn de cxpectatione sua decidat) 
vena de nature upinioncs a vulgarilws in hnmemuzD remoreri, 
et fere religiouts instar durns et interdtim primo aspect u pto- 
diglOMF ad hominuni HDIQB ct . captus aecedere ; ut in Demo- 
criti opinioue de Atomis usu venit, qua; quia paulu interioris 
rota; erat, limi exripivbatnr. Varum htuc ad rtnimos hominum 
eaxuuutoa qui consensu perstringuutur pertinent. 

Insita est in an'imis hominum a natura et a diseiplina opi- 
nio et sestiniatio tumida et dammisa, qua? philosophiaui rerun 
et activam veluti exilio mulctavit, et omni aditu prohibuit. 
Ea est, minui inajcstatem mentis humanae si in experimcn- 
tia et rebua particular! bus, sensui objeetis et in materia ter- 
minatis, diu et aiultuni versetur; prawerttni cum hujitsmodi 
res ad inquirendum laboriosa;, ad mcditanduui ignobilee, ad 
dieendtmi aspens, ad practicam illiberales, numero infinite, 
et Mibtilitatu pus'dhe, vkleri soleant*; adeo ut scaYnfiunim 
gloriam et nomen polluere fere existimeutur. Quin eo usque 
valutas i-ta. et mentis, si vcrum nomen quieratur, alieriatin 
et excessus, provecta est) ut Veritas veluti aniinac humanae in- 
digene, sensus autem intellectum excitare non infbrmaiT. alj 
aliquihus assercretur. Nequc errorein istum ab lis corrigi 
COntigit qui sensui ibbitas, id est pritnas, partes tribuerunt; 
veruin ex his quoque plurimi exemplo et facto suo, relicta 
Otnnino historia naturali et mundana perambulatioric, omnia 
in meditatione et iugenii agitatione posucrunt ; et sub speciuso 
tqinadationum et rationalium titulo hominum mentes ad rerum 
evidentiam nunquam satis upplicatas et aihlictas, inter opaeis- 
sima et inanissima mentis Idola pcrpctuo volutare docucntnt. 3 
Varum istud rerutn particularium repudium et divortium omnia 
in familia Immana turbavit. Neque tantum homines moneudi 
sunt ut experiential se restituant atque intellectus cmnmen- 
tis et meditationum simulaeris non amplius confidant, varum 
ut inter experimenta ipsa, sive instantias, nee 1 Ian- 

quam levea, nee res vulgataa tanquam sudpi 
chanicas tanquam viles, nee res tun 

' ugitauttir in MS. 



res praeter naturam tnnqunin odiosas aut infaustas, despiciant 
aut rejiciant. Sane si eapttolium aliquod bumanse euperbia? 
condendnm ct dedicandutn esset, non nisi auri fortasse et 
ai jretiti el eboris ramenta et hujusmodi res precioeas ad funda- 
ntenta ejus ingerere per pontifices lieeret, Sed cum temp] urn 
sanctum ad instnr niundi, munduquc i|i;*i quantum fieri potest 
parallelum et concent ricum, funtlanduin sit, merito exemplar 
per omnia sequi oportet. Nam quod essentia dignum est id 

i dignum est reprnesentatione. Scientia autem vera nil 
aliud est quara essentia; re pwosc ntatao 8ive imago. Atque 
OertC quemadmodum e eerlis putridis materiis optimi odores se 
ditVnndunt, ila et ab instantiis snrdidU (quibus ut ait Plinius 
etaam bonoa preefandus sit) quaudoquc eximia lux et informatio 
exhibelur. Eodern modo et res tenues locupletes srcpe t 
sunt. Bulla in aquis est res cxilis et quasi ludicra; tain en 
hand aliam in-lanti ini reperias qua3 duarum rerum pauio 

iriorum commodius fidem faciat. Una est de appetitu 
continuitatis ctiam in Liquidis; altera quod aer non magnopere 
ferator auranm. Etiam nubile iliud inventum de acu nautica, 
i|u;e stellis ipsia est stella certior, in acubus ferreis, non in 
rirgia aut vectibua ferreis, se conspieiendum dedit. Itaque 
postulauda est ab bominibus res difficilis sane, ct a natura 
humana prorsus alicna, sed imprimis utilis. Hicc est ut 
mdem diligciitiam, attentionem, pcrspicaciani, in rebus vul- 
garibus. panda, et obviis contemplandis et examinandis sibi 
iiiqn rent, quain in rebus novis et magnis et miris curiositas 
bumana adbibere solet : ratio euim non aliter constat. Neque 
rnim boo c~t scire aut causam reddere, si rara ad vulgata re- 

inr et aeeoiumodentur ; Bed ut corum qua? raro et eorum 
qua: frequenter accidunt, causa; eonstantes et communes inve- 


Fabula de servo Midas ad libellos famosos pertinere videtur. 
uit enim Midas cubicularium cum aniinadvertisset domi- 
nion euum aures habere asininas, id nulli mortalium dicere 
; eed cum futilitatem naturalem rcprimere non 
ore in terras rimam applicato quod viderat re- 
dines oditas esse, qua; levi aura motas iliud 
inuntiarent. Sensus est: cum regum ct 
ui.i ministris interioribus innotuerint, 

O 9 


eos vanitate aulica et pnlatina aecreti impatientes esse, nee de- 
bito silentio ea cohibere. Ac si forte verbis abstineant, tamen 
aliis indiciis ea prodere, quae postea in calamos ingeniorum 
malignorum incidant; qui maxime sub inclinatione temporis ad 
turbas et rerum tumorem (tanquam vento flante) invidiosis et 
fatnosis libellis ea spargunt in vulgus. 

[Here the manuscript stops before the bottom of the page ; 
and the other page is left blank.] 




. . . ' lu>mimim actiones sequaa et indifferentes, et propterea 
vel optnm- [mojnto libera sunt. Rebus autem ngendis et 
usui singula, et interdum <juai minima viilcntur, aut prosunt 
aut othYiunt. Adeo ut verba, vultua, oculi, gestus, joci, sormo 
rpiotidianus, ad rem faciant, ut nil it-re imperio et dccreto vacet. 
Kiiam virtutis forma magis simpliees et inter ee consentien- 
tes sunt. Prudentia autem Civilis iunumcras furmas, easque 
maximo inter se contrarias, qua} rebus, personia, tcmporibua, 
eenrettiuit, desiderat. Adeo ut inirum minime ait si iabula 
Protei ad virus prudentea transferatur; qui ab oecasionibus 
Constricti in omnea t'urmas se vertunt, donee liberi ad naturaa 
suas rcdeant. Atijue sane admirabilia est species viri vere 
politic!, in quo nil absonum, nil negleetum, nil stupidum, nil 
irnpotens, repcrire lieeat; sed qui sibi, cajteria, rebus, tempo- 
ribns, debit* tribtiens, et negotiorum prineipia, media, clausula*, 
« los, distinguens, singula turn delectu lariat. Perfeetiasimua 
aiituu niiimi status, U NUtttM affect mini accedat et boni fines. 
<.^ui auti'iu ex philosophias disciplina civilibus rebus abstinent, 
ant in iiedeiD [se] versautes tatn multa devitaut ut actionum 
uiaguitiidincin destruant; ii omnino similes sunt iis qui ut 
ndetodinem conserveut corporibua sua vix utuntui\ et inaxi- 
lcin|Hiris partem eoriim curfl impendunt. Ilaquc ista, 
mm j) ui ut iimi eupiatf itd/t eupere ut ncn metuat, ipu'dam animi 
II i ; et major est virtus iiuu; se sustinet quam quus 


5H lb. 258. This fragment bruins ut the top of a |>»n<-, 
a utyUtlmc lo Umjw bow mwli b mluhttj. li U evidently the aoueliwlui of 

■ Ofitatie • •■■■ /''« '■« tivHi i mill upjKMii tu commence In to* middle ni' a dl«.u». 

•mu uNievroJoa: ilu- uiBiiuitv ol civil u iximpvrd with Dotal »Ukira. 


De Quanto Materia certo et quod ' mutatio fiat absque in- 

[ See Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd, § v. This is not numbered ; 
and the word Cogitatio has been written in the margin by the 
transcriber, as if it had not been in the original] 

Cogitatio 7*. 

De Consensu Corporum qua sensu pradita sunt, et qua sensu 


[See Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd, § vii.] 

Cogitatio 6'. 
De Quiete apparente et consistentia etfluore. 

[See Cogitationes de Rerum Naturd, § vi. 

The concluding sentence of this Cogitatio is not found in 
Grater's copy. In this transcript it closes a paragraph and 
comes to the bottom of the leaf; making it doubtful whether 
the original ended here or not. It is to be observed that the 
numbers of the last two Cogitationes are out of order, and 
coincide with those in Grater. It may be therefore that they 
were not in the original, but inserted by way of reference.] 

• qmt in MS. 






The following fragments of a great work on the Interprela- 
of Nature were first published in Stephens's Letters ami 

linfl [1734]. They consist partly of detached passages, 
and partly of an epitome of twelve chapters of the first hook 
of the proposed work. The detached passages contain the first, 
Hxth. and eighth chapters, and portions of the fourth, fifth, 
nth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and sixteenth. The epitome 
contains an account of the contents of all the chapters from 
the twelfth to tlie twenty-sixth inclusive, omitting the twen- 
tieth, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth. Thus the sixteenth 
chapter is mentioned both in the epitome and among the de- 
tached puaageSj and we arc thus enabled to see that the two 
portions of the following tract belong to the same work, as it 
appears from both that the sixteenth chapter was to treat of 
the doctrine of idola. 

It is impossible to ascertain the motive which determined 

i to give to the supposed author the name of Valerius 
Terminus, or to his commentator, of whose annotations we have 
no remains, that of Hermes Stella. It may be conjectured 
that by the name Terminus he intended to intimate that the 
new philosophy would put on end to the wandering of mankind 

i eh of truth, that it would be the terminus ad ijitnu in 
v, hieh when it was once attained the mind would finally ac' 

Again, the obscurity of the text was to be in 6ome measure 

removed by the annotations of Stella; not bowerer wholly, 

. in the epitome of the eighteenth chapter cmnmciids 



the manner of publishing knowledge " whereby it shall not he 
to the capacity nor taste of all, but .dial I as it were single 
ami adopt his reader." Stella was therefore to throw a kiml of 
starlight on the subject, enough to prevent the student's losing 
hit way, but not much more. 

However this may be, the tract ^ undoubtedly obseun-. 
partly from the style in which it is written, and partly from it- 
being only a fragment. It, is at the same time full of interest, 
inasmuch as it isi the earliest type of the Instauratio. The first 
book of the work ascribed to Valerius Terminus would have 
corresponded to the De Augments and to the first book of tlio 
Novum Organ um, the plan being that it should contain what- 
ever was nooonsarj to be known before the new method could 
be stated. In the second book, as in the. second book of the 
Novum Organum, we should have found the method itself. 

The Advancement of Learning, winch was developed into the 
De Auyiiti'iitis, corresponds to the first ten chapters of Valirius 
'J'rriittnits, and especially to the first and tenth. To the re- 
mainder of the book (a few chapters are clearly muted after 
the last mentioned in the epitome) corresponds the first book 
of the Novum Organum. The tenth chapter, of which we have 
oidy a small fragment, is entitled " The Inventory, or an Enu- 
meration and View of Inventions already discovered and in 
use; together with a note of the wants, and the nature of the 
supplies." It therefore corresponds to the second book of the 
Advancement, and to the last eight hooks vf the De Augwentis, 
luit would doubtless have been a mere summary. ' When 
Bacon subsequently determined to give more development to 
this part of the subject, he was nauirally led to make a break 
after the inventory, and thai we get the origin of the separa- 
tion between the De Augmcntis and the Novum Organum. 

The most important portion of Valerius Terminus is the 
nth chapter, which contains a general statement of the 
problem to be solved. It corresponds to the opening axioms 
of the second book of the Novum Organum, but differs from 
them iii containing very little on the subject of forms. What 
Bacon afterwards called the investigation of the form he here 
the freeing of a direction. The object to be sought for 
is, he saje, " the revealing and discovering of new inventions 

1 Sec my note at the end of ibis Treftee. — J. S, 



be done without the 


and operation*." — " This 
conjectures of art, or the length or difficulties of experience." 
In order to guide men's travels, a full direction must be given 
to them, and the fulness of a direction consists in two condi- 
tions, certainty and liberty. Certainty is when the direction is 
infallible ; liberty when it comprehends all possible ways and 
means. Both conditions are fulfilled by the knowledge of the 
form, U» which the doctrine of direction entirely corresponds. 
This correspondency Bacon recognises towards the end of the 
Chapter, tat i" illustrating the two Conditions of which we 
have been speaking he does not use the word form. The 
notion of the form or formal cause comes into his system only 
on historical grounds. In truth, in Valerius Terminus he is 
disposed to illustrate the doctrine of direction not so much by 
that of the forma! cause as by two roles which are of great, 
importance in the logical system of Ramos. "-The two eom- 
BH nded rules by him set dou n," that is by Aristotle, '* whereby 
the axioms of sciences are precepted to be made convertible, 
aod which the latter men have not without elegancy Mirnamed, 
the one the rule of truth because it preventcth deceipt ; the 
other the rule of" prudence because it freelh election; are the 
BRUM thing in speculation and affirmation, which we now affirm. " 
And then follows an example, of which Bacon says that it 
"will make my meaning attained, and yet perea.-e make it- 
thought that they attained it not." In this example the effect 
to be produced is whiteness, and the first direction given is to 
intermingle air and water; of this direction it is .-aid that it 
i- certain, but very particular and restrained, and he then goet 
' free it by leaving out the unessential conditions. Of 
this however it is not now necessary to speak at length; but 
the " two commended rules" may require some illustration. 

In many passages of his works Peter Ramus condemns 
Ar^totle for having violated three rules which he had him- 
self propounded. To these rules Ramos gives somewhat 
ul names. The first is the rule of truth, the second 
the rule of justice, and the third the rule of" wisdom. Tlie-e 
three rules arc all to be fulfilled by the principles of every 
science (axioinata artium). The first requires the proposition 
to be in all cases true, the second requires its subject and 
predicate to be essentially connected together, and the third 
requires the converse of the proposition to he true as well as 



itself. The whole of this th 

, lik-U 

the proposition 

Kamus ami the Ivainista; 8eem to have ascribed much import- 
ance, is founded on the fourth chapter of the first book of 
the Posterior Amihilirs. Aristotle in speaking of the prim i- 
ples of demonstration explains the meaning of three phrases, 
Kara Travios, de omni; naff avro, per se ; and Ka86\ou, imiver&a- 
/ifrr. When the predicate can be affirmed in all cases and 
at. nil times of the subject of a proposition, the predication 
is said to be de omni or Kara irai-ros. Again, whatever is 
so connected with the essence of a thing as to be involved in 
its definition is said to belong to it per se, icad' aura, and the 
same phrase is applicable when the thing itself is involved 
in the definition of that which wo refer to it. Thus a line 
belongs per se to the notion of a triangle, because the defini- 
tion of B triangle involves the conception of a line, and odd 
and even belong per se to the notion of number, because the 
definition of odd or even introduces the notion of a number 
divisible or not divisible into equal parts. 1 Lastly, that which 
always belongs to any given subject, and belongs to it inn- 
much as it is that which it is, is said to belong to it KaOoXov, 
Wtmertaliter, Thus to have angles equal to two right angles 
does not belong to any figure taken at random, it is not true 
of figure Kara irain-os, and though it is true of any isosceles tri- 
angle yet it is not true of it in the first instance * nor inas- 
much as it is isosceles. But it is true of a triangle in all cases 
and because it is a triangle, and therefore belongs to it tca86\ov, 
univcrsaliter. It is manifest that whenever this is the case the 
proposition is convertible. Thus a figure having angles equal 
to two right angles is a triangle. 

Aristotle is not laying down three general rules, but he was 
understood to do so by Itamus — whose rules of truth, justice, 
and wisdom respectively correspond to the three phrases of 
which we have been speaking. 

Bacon adopting two of these rules, (he makes no allusion to 
that of justice.) compares them with the two conditions uhirh 
a direction ought to fulfil. If it be certain, the effect will 
follow from it at all times and in all eases. And this corre- 
sponds to the rule of truth. If it be free, then whenever 

' A i I'tolU' nunt i >n* h third »<-n*e of koto vcwtvi, which it i. not lure W Kmi] 10 

111' 111. on. 



tlie effect id present the direction must have been complied with 
The presence of either implies that of the other. Ami this is 
the pract'eal application of the rule of wisdom. 

I have thought it well to enter into this explanation] because 
it shows in the first place that the system of Peter Ramus 
had considerable influence on Bacon's notions of logic, ami in 
the second that he had formed a complete and definite con- 
ception of his own method before he had been led to connect it 
with the doctrine of forms. 

At the end of the eleventh chapter Bacon proposes to give 
three cautions whereby we may ascertain whether what seems 
to be a direction really is one. The general principle is that 
the direction must carry you a degree or remove nearer to 
action, operation, or light ; else it is hut an abstract or varied 
notion. The first of the three particular cautions is " that 
the nature discovered be more original than the nature sop- 
poaedj and not more secondary or of the like degree:" n 
remark which taken in conjunction with the illustration* by 
which it is followed, serves to confirm what I have elsewhere 
endeavoured to show, that Bacon's idea of natural philosophy 
was the explanation of the secondary qualities of bodies by 
n i. '.ins of the primaryi The second caution is so obscurely 
expressed that I can only conjecture that it refers to the neces- 
sity of studying abstract qualities before commencing the study 
of concrete hollies. Composition subaltern and composition 
absolute are placed in antithesis to each other. The latter 
phrase apparently describes the synthesis of abstract natures 
by which an actual ultimate species is formed, and the former 
[refers] to the formation of a class of objects which all agree 
in possessing the nature which is the subject of inquiry. The 
fragment breaks off before the delivery of this second cau- 
tion is completed, and we therefore know nothing of the third 
and last. 



NOT E . 

The manuscript from which Robert Stephens printed these frag- 
DMBta was found among some loose papers placed in his hands by 
the Earl of Oxford, and is now in the Britiah Museum; Hurl. 
MSS. 6462. It is a thin paper volume of the quarto size, written 
in the hand of one of Bacon's servants, with corrections, em 
and interlineation* in his own. 

The chapters of which it consists arc hotli imperfect in thenuchrea 
(:ill but three), — some breaking off abruptly, Othen being little more 
than tables of contents, — and imperfect in their connexion with each 
other; .-u iiiinli suns to suggest the idea of a number of separate papers 
i her. But it was not so (and the fact is important) 
that the volume itself was actually made up. However they came 
together, they arc here fairly and consecutively copied out. Though 
it be I collection of fragments therefore, it i- fcuch a collection as 
a thought worthy not only of being pXMSrred, but of being 
t ransi i ili«-«l into a volume ; and a particular account of it will not 
be out of place. 

The contents of the manuscript before Bacon touched it may be 
thus doaoribeiL 

1. A tillepage, on which is Written "VAt.F.BlTJS TERMINUS of 
the Interpretation of Nature, with the annotations of 

'_'. ■ Chapter I. Of the limits and end of knowledge;" with a 
runuing title, "Of the Interpretation of Nature." 

3. "The chapter immediately following the Iuventory; being 

the lith in on 

4. " A port of the 9th chapter, immediately precedent to the In- 

\entory, and inducing the smiie.*' 
" The Inventory, or an enumeration and view of inventions 
already discovered and in use, together with a note of the 
wants and the nature of the supplies; being the 10th chap- 
ter, and tl>U a fragment only of the same." 
1 I chapter, not numbered, " Of the internal and pro- 

found errori and superstition! in the nature of the mind, and 
of the four sorts of Idols or fictions which offer thcmselv. > 
to the understanding in the inquisition of knowledge." 



7. "Of the impediments of knowledge ; being the third chapter, 

the preface only of it." 
"Of the impediments which have been in tho times and in 

diversion of wits; being tho fourth chapter." 
"Of the impediments of knowledge for want of a true suc- 
ion of wits, and that hitherto the length of oue man's life 

hath been the greatest measure of knowledge ; being the fifth 

10. " That the pretended succession of wits hath been evil placed, 

forasmuch as after variety of sects and opinions the not! 

popular ami not the truest prevaileth and weareth out the 

rest : being the sixth chapter." 
"Of the impediments of knowledge in handling it by parts, 

and in slipping off particular sciences from the root and 

stock of universal knowledge; being tin -< inith chapter." 
12. "That the end and scope of knowledge hath been generall 

mistaken, and that men were never well advised what it w 

they sought? (part of a chapter not numbered). 
"An abridgment of divers chapters of the first book 

namely, the 12th, 13th, and 14th, (over which is a running 

title "Of active knowledge ;") and (without any running title) 

the 15th, lGtb, 17th. 18th, 19th, 21st, 82nd, 25th, and 26th. 

These abridgment* have DO headings; and at the end is 

written, '• The end of the Abridgment of the first book of the 

Interpretation of Nature." 





Such was the arrangement of the manuscript as the transcriber 
left it ; which I have thought worth preserving, because 1 seem to 
■>'■■' traces in it of two separate stages in the devetopement of tin- 
work ; the order of the chapters as they are transcribed hetng pro- 
bably the same in which Bacon wrote them ; and the numbers 
inserted at the end of the headings indicating the order in which, 
when lie placed them in tho transcriber's hands, it was his inicu- 
iiui to arrange then ; and because it proves at any rato that at 
that time the design of the whole book was clearly laid out in his 


There is nothing, unfortunately, to fix the ihiie of the transcript, 
unless it be implied in certain astronomical or Astrological symbols 

written on the blank outside of the volume ; in which the figures 
•■'< occur. 1 This may possibly bo tho transcriber's note of tho 

1 Ser the second pace of the facsimile at the Hrgitinliig of this volumr. The writ it 
In tne ormtnal l» on the outside of the last leaf, which I* In fart the cover. Tne froi 
cover. If there ever wa» one. i« l»>t. The ink with which the line containing tho 
-itondu with that in tho body of the MS. ; .-mil the line Itarlf 
,. |iUtrd lymmetiictlty in Iho middle of the dhkc, near the top. Tne two lower 





t'.mc when he finished his work ; for which (ljut fur one circumstance 
which I shall mention presently) I should think the year 1603 as 
Likely ■ date as any ; tor wi; know frnm a let tor of Bacon's, dated 
3rd July 1603, that he had at that time resolved "to meddle as 
link- as |»»--i].lr in the KiiiirV causes," »» 1 1 to "put his ambition 
wholly upon his pen ; " and we know from the Advancement of 
L earning that in 1605 he W|| eoglged upon a work entitled "The 
Intel "pre tat ion of Nature:" to which I may add that there is in the 
Lamheth Library a copy of a letter from Bacou to Lord Kinlosse, 
dated 2.3th March, 1603, and written in the same hand as this 

Bacon's corrections, if I may judge from the character of the 
handwriting, were inserted a little later; for it is a fact that about 
the beginning of Jam n his writing Underwent ■ remarkable 

lines are apparently by another hand, probably of later dale, certainly In ink of a dif- 
fi-nnt colour, mid paler. The word " rililosophy " In In BBCO0.V own band, wiitit-ii 
litihtly in the upper corner at the left, and Is no doubt merely a docket inserted 
afterwards when he was sorting his papers. What connexion there was between 
the note and the MS. it Is impo-iiible to sny. But it is evidently a careful me- 
morandum of something, set down by somebody when the MS. was at hand; and 
mi many of the characters resemble those adopted to represent the planets and 
the signs of the zodiac, t'.ut one is kd to suspect in It a mile of the positions of the 
heavenly bodies at the time of some remarkable accident ; — perhaps the plague, of 
which 30,578 persons died in London, during the >ear ending 22nd December, 1603. 
The period of the commencement, the duration, or the cessation of such an epidemic 
might naturally lie so noted. Now three of the characters clearly represent respec- 
tively Mercury, Aquarius, and Sagittarius. The sign for Jupiter, as we find it in old 
books, is so like a 4, that the find figure of 43 may very well have been meant for lt- 
The monogram at the lieglnuing of the line bears a near resemblance to the sign of 
Capricorn In its mo»t characteristic feature. And the mark over the sign of Aquarius 
appears to be an ahbrevia'Ioii of that which usually represents the Sun. (The blot 
between 1M03 and B is nothing ; being only meant to represent a figure 6 blotted out 
with the linger before the ink was dry.) Hllipw lll>| tlnrtl'ore that the writing con- 
tained a note of the po-Mlon- uf Mercury and Jupiter In the year 1G03, J sent a copy 
to a -cii niilii' friend and asked him if from such data he could determine the month 
indicated. He found upon a rough calculation (taking account of mean motions only) 
that Jupiter did enter the sign of Sagittarius alwut the 10th of August, 1603, and 
continued there for about a twelvemonth ; that the Sun entered Aquarius about the 
12th or 18th of January, 1603-4 ; and that Mercury was about the 16th or 17th of the 
same month in the 20th or 27th degree of Capricorn : — coincidences which would 
have been almost conclusive as to the date indicated, if Capricorn had only stood where 
Aquarius does, and vice versa. But their position as they actually stood in the MS. is 
a lovmld:ilile, If nut fatal, objection to the Intirprctaiion. 

Aic ii ding to another opinion with which I have been favoured, the first monogram 
Is a wuf/i hear ; the next group may mean Din Mercurii ( Wednesiluy ) 1641 Jumiiiiy, 
Ifto.;; and the rest refen to something not connected with astronomy. But to this 
also there is u serious objection, The 2tith of January, 1808 4, ■■• ■ Friday; and it 
:■• me very improbable that any Engli-hman would have described the preceding 
i j as belonging to the year 1603. Bacon himself invariably dated according to 
the civil year, nnd the occasional use of the hisimical year in loose memo. 
hake involved all his dates In contusion. 1 should think it more probable that the 
writer (. s* in> m i> ba*l been copying a kind of notation with whkh he was not f.uni- 
mlawpM the sign of Venus into that of Mercury; in which case it would 
Friday, 26th January, 1603-4. But even then the explanation Would be Un- 
as leaving so much unexplained. Those however who are familiar with 
o'd MSS. relating to such subjects may probably be able to Interpret the whole. 

change, from tlic hurried Saxon hand full of largo sweeping curves 
and with Utters imperfectly formed and connected, which he wrote in 
Elig&beth't time, to a small, neat, light, and compact one, formed more 
upon the Italian model which was then coming into fashion; and 
when these corrections were made it is evident that this new cha- 
racter had become natural to him and easy. It 13 of course impos- 
■ibta IB fix the precise date of Mich a change, — the mure Su because 
his autographs of this period arc very scarce, — but whenever it mm 
that he corrected this manuscript, it a evident that he then con- 
sidered it worthy of careful revision. He has not merely inserted 
a sentence here and there, altered the numbers of the chapters, and 
added words to the headings in order to make the description more 
exact ; but he has taken the trouble to add the running title wher- 
ever it was wanting, thus writing the words "of the Interpretation 
of Nature " at full length not less than eighteen times over ; and 
upon the blank space of the titlepage he has written out a complete 
table of contents. 1 In short, if he hud been preparing the manu- 
script for the press or for a fresh transcript, he could not have done 
it more completely or carefully. — only that he has given no direc- 
tions for altering the order of the chapters so as to make it corre- 
spond with the numbers. And hence I infer that up to the time 
when he made these corrections, this was the form of the great work 
on which he was engaged: it was a work concerning the Interpreta- 
tion of Nature; which was t.. begin where the Novum Orgnnum 
begins ; and of which the first book was to include all the preliminary 
considerations preparatory to the exposition of the formula. 

I place this fragment here in deference to Mr. Ellis's decided 
opinion that it was written before the Advancement of Learning. 
The positive ground indeed which he alleges in support of that 
conclusion I am obliged to set aside, as founded, 1 think, upon a 
misapprehension ; ami 1 lit- supposition that no part of it was writ- 
ten later involves a difficulty which I cannot yet get over to my 
pwn satisfaction. But thai the body of it was written earlier I see 
no reason to doubt; and if so, this is its proper place. 

The particular point on which I venture to disagree with Mr. Ellis 
I have staled in a note BpOII his preface to the Novum Orgtuitoit, 
promising at the same time a fuller explanation of the grounds of 
my own conclusion, which I will now give. 

The question is, whether the " Inventory " in the lOth chapter 
of WiUriut Terminus was to have exhibited a general survey of the 
state of knowledge corresponding with that which fills the second 
book of the Advancement of learning. I think not. 

Srr the facsimile. I am Inclined tn think that there wis in Interval between 
the writing of tbe tint eleven titles and the but two; during which the J Lilian ilia- 
meter had become more familiar to him. 




It is true indeed that the title of that 10th chapter, — namely, 
" The Inventory, or an enumeration and view of inventions 
already discovered and in use, with a note of the wants and the 
nature of the supplies, — has at first sight a considerable resem- 
blance to the description of the contents of the second book of the 
Advancement of Learning, — namely, " A general and faithful per- 
ambulation of learning, with an inquiry what parts thereof lie 
fresh and waste, and not improved and converted by the indus- 
try of Man ; wherein nevertheless my purpose is 
at this time to note only omissions and deficiencies, and not to 
make any redargutions of errors," and so on. But an "enumera- 
tion of Inventions " is not the same thing as " a perambulation of 
Learning ;" and it will be found upon closer examination that 
the " Inventory " spoken of in Valerius Terminus does realty cor- 
respond to one, and one only, of the fifty-one Desiderata set down 
at the end of the De Aug mentis ; viz. that Inventarium opum hit- 
manarum, which was to be an appendix to the Magia mrturnlis 
Sec De Aug. iii. 5. This will appear clearly by comparing the 
descriptions of the two. 

In the Advancement of Learning Bacon tells us that there are 
two points of much purpose pertaining to the department of Na- 
tural Magic : the first of which is, " That there be made a calendar 
resembling an Inventory of the estate of man, containing all thp 
Inventions, being the works or fruits of nature or art, whicli are now 
ixtant n iid of which man is already possessed; out of which doth 
naturally result a note what things are yet held impossible or not 
invented ; which calendar will be the more artificial and serviceable 
if to every reputed impossibility you add what thing is extant 
which cometh the nearest in degree to that impossibility : to the. 
cud that l>y these optatives and essentials man's inquiry may be the 
more awake in deducing direction of works from the speculation of 

The Inventory which was to have been inserted in the 10th 
chapter of Valerius Terminus is thus introduced: — "The plainest 
method and most directly pertinent to this intention will be to make 
distribution of sciences, arts, inventions, works, and their portions, 
dtftg to the. use and tribute which they yield find render to the 
,'imi of man's life; and under those several uses, being as seve- 
ral oflices of provisions, to charge and tax what may be reasonably 
exacted or demanded, .... and then upon those charges and 
taxation-, to distinguish and present as it were in several columns 
that it extant and already found, and what is defective and fur- 

•r to be provided. Of which provisions because in many of them, 

f the manner of slothful ami faulty accomptants, it will be 

ned by way of excuse that no such are to be had, it will be fit 



to give some light of the nature of the supplies ; whereby it will 
evidently appear that they are to be compassed and procured." And 
thai the calendar was to deal, not with knowledge in general, but 
only with arts and sciences of invention in its more restricted sense 
— the pars operativa de natura (De Aug. iii. 5.) — appears no less 
iliarly from the opening of the 11th chapter, which was designed 
immediately to follow the " Inventory." " It appeareth then what 
is now in proposition, not by general circumlocution but by par- 
ticular note. No former plutosopby," &c. &c. "but the revealing 
and discovering of new inventions and operations, .... the 
nature and kinds of which inventions have been described as they 
could be discovered," &c. If further evidence were required of 
the exact resemblance between the Inventory of Valerius Terminus 
and the Inventarium of the Advancement and the De Augmentis, I 
might quote the end of the 9th chapter, where the particular ex- 
pressions correspond, if possible, more closely still. But I presume 
that the passages which I have given are enough ; and that the 
opinion which I have elsewhere expressed as to tho origin of the 
Advancement of Learning, — namely, that the writing of it was a 
by-thought and no part of the work on the Interpretation of Nature 
as originally designed, — will not be considered inconsistent with 
the evidence afforded by these fragments. 

That the Valerius Terminus was composed before the Advance- 
ment, though a conclusion not deducihle from the Inventory, is 
nevertheless probable: but to suppose that it was so composed exactly 
in its present form, involve*, as I said, a difficulty; which I will 
now state. The point is interesting, as bearing directly upon the 
developement in Bacon's mind of the doctrine of Idols ; concerning 
which see preface to Novum Organum, note C. But I have to 
deal with it here merely as bearing upon the probable date of this 

In treating of the department of Logic in the Advancement, 
Bacon notices as altogether wanting " the particular clenches or 
cautions against three false appearances " or fallacies by which the 
mind of man is beset : the " caution " of which, he says, " doth ex- 
tremely import the true conduct of human judgment." These false 
apj>earance8 he describes, though he does not give their names ; 
and they correspond respectively to what he afterwards called the 
Idols of the Tribe, the Cave, and the Forum. But he makes no men- 
tion of tin- fourth ; namely, the Idols of the Theatre. Now in Vale- 
rius Terminus we find two separate passages in which the Idols are 
mentioned ; and in both all four are enumerated, and all by name ; 
thmi^h what he afterwards called Itiols of the Forum, he there calls 
Idols of the Palace ; and it seems to me very unlikely that, if when 

p s 



tie wrote the Advancement he bad already formed that cL 
be should hare omitted all mention of the Idols of the Theatre ; 
for though it is true that that was not the place to discos them, 
and therefore in the corresponding passage of the De Augmeutis they 
are noticed a* to be passed bj " for the present," jet titer art noticed 
by name, and in all Bacon's later writings the confutation of them 
holds a very prominent place. 

Tome the most probable explanation of the fact is this. I have 
already shown that between the composition and the transcription 
of these fragments the design of the work appears to hare undergone 
a considerable change ; the order of the chapters being entirely 
altered. We hare only to suppose therefore that they were com- 
posed before the Advancement and transcribed after, and that in 
preparing them for the transcriber Bacon made the same kind of 
alterations in the originals which he afterwards made upon the 
transcript, and the difficulty disappears. Nothing would be 
than to correct "three" into "four," and insert "the Idols of the 
Theatre ■ at the end of the sentence. 

And this reminds me (since I shall have so much to do with these 
questions of date) to suggest a general caution with regard to them 
all ; namely, that in the case of fragments like these, the com- 
parison of isolated passages can hardly ever be relied upon for evi- 
dence of the date or order of composition, or of the progressive 
ilevi lopeinent of the writer's riews; and for this simple reason, — we 
can never be sure that the passages as they now stand formed part 
of the original writing. The copy of the fragment which we have 
may be (as there is reason to believe this was) a transcript from 
il loose papers, written at different periods and containing 
alterations or additions made from time to time. We may know 
perhaps that when Bacon published the Advancement of Learning 
he wa^ ignorant of some fact with which he afterwards became 
acquainted ; we may find in one of these fragments, — say the ZVM0O* 
ru Partus Miisculim, — ■ parage implying acquaintance with that 
Does it follow that the Temporu Partus Masculus was written 
after the Adrnncement of Learning ? No; for in looking over the 
manuscript long after it was written, he may have observed ami 
corrected the error. And wo cannot conclude that lie at the same 
ill/ M. i the whole composition so a* to bring it into accordance 
with the views he then held ; for that might be too long a work. 
He may have inserted a particular correction, but meant to rewrite 
the whole ; and if so, in spile of the later date indicated by that 
p ftirnlar passage, the body of the work would still represent a 
stage in his opinions anterior to the Advancement of Learning. 

I have felt some doubt whether in printing this fragment, I 
*iou!d follow the example of Stephens, who gave it exactly tsbe fcund 


it; or that of later editors, who have altered the order of the chapters 
so as to make it agree with the numbers. The latter plan will 
perhaps, upon the whole, be the more convenient. There can be 
little doubt that the numbers of the chapters indicate the order in 
which Bacon meant them to be read ; and if any one wishes to com- 
pare it with the order in which they seem to have been written, 
lie has only to look at Bacon's table of contents, which was made 
with reference to the transcript, and which I give unaltered, except 
as to the spelling. 
The notes to this piece are mine. — /. S. 








A few fragments of the first book, viz. 

1. The first chapter entire. [Of the ends and limits of know- 


2. A portion of the 1 1th chapter. [Of the scale.] 

3. A small portion of the 9th chapter [being an Inducement 

to the Inventory.] 

4. A small portion of the 10th chapter [being the preface 

to the Inventory.] 

5. A small portion of the 16 th chapter [being a preface to the 

inward elenches of the mind.] 

6. A small portion of the 4th chapter. [Of the impediments 

of knowledge in general.] 

7. A small portion of the 5th chapter.] Of the diversion of 


1 This Is written In the transcriber'* band : all that follow* In Bacon's. The words 
between brackets have > line drawn through them For an exact facsimile of the 
whole, made by Mr. Nctherclift, see the beginning of the volume. 

p 4 


8. The 6th chapter entire. [Of] 

9. A portion of the 7 th chapter. 

10. The 8th chapter entire. 

1 1. Another portion of the 9th chapter. 

12. The Abridgment of the 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 21. 

22. 25. 26th chapters of the first book. 

13. The first chapter of [the] a book of the same argument 

written in Latin and destined [for] to be [traditionary] 
separate and not public. 1 

None of the Annotations of Stella are set down in 
these fragments. 

1 This refers to the first chapter of the Temporit Purtu$ Matculu* / which follows 
in the MS. volume, but not ben. It I* Important as bearing upon the date of that 




Cap. 1. 

Of the limits and end of knowledge. 

Jn the divine nature both religion and philosophy hath ac- 
knowledged goodness in perfection, science or providence com- 
prehending all things, and absolute sovereignty or kingdom. 
In aspiring to the throne of power the angels transgressed and 
(ill, in presuming to come within the oracle of knowledge man 
transgressed and fell 1 ; but in pursuit towards the similitude of 
God's goodness or love (which is one thing, for love is nothing 
else but goodness put in motion or applied) neither man or 
spirit ever hath transgressed, or shall transgress. 

The angel of light that was, when he presumed before his 
fall, said within himself, / will ascend and be like unto the. 
Highest; not God, but the highest. To be like to God in 
goodness, was no part of his emulation ; knowledge, being in 
Creadon an angel of light, was not the want which did most 
solicit him; only because he was a minister he aimed at a su- 
premacy ; therefore his climbing or ascension was turned into 
a throwing down or precipitation. 

Man on the other side, when he was tempted before he fell, 
bad ottered onto him this suggestion, that he should he like mi to 
God. Uul how ? Not simply, but in this part, knowing good 
and ivil. For being in his creation invested with sovereignty of 
all inferior creatures, he was not needy of power or dominion; 
but again, being a spirit newly inclosed in a body of earth, he 
Wti fittest to be allured with appetite of light and liberty of 
knowledge : therefore this approaching and intruding into God's 
secrete and mysteries was rewarded with a further removing 
and estranging from God's presence. But as to the goodness 

■ This I'Uti'.i- is repealed in Uu nurgin, In the transcriber'* hand. 



of God, there is no danger in contending or advancing towards 
a similitude thereof, as that which is open and propounded U> 
our imitation. For that voice (whereof the heathen and ail 
other errors of religion have ever confessed that it sounds not 
like man), Love your enemies; be yon like unto your heavenly 
Father, that suffereth his rain to fall both upon the just and the 
wijust, doth well declare, that we can in that point commit no 
excess ; so again we find it often repeated in the old law, Be 
you holy as I am holy; and what is holiness else but goodness, 
as we consider it separate and guarded from all mixture and all 
access of evil ? 

Wherefore seeing that knowledge is of the number of those 
things which are to be nccepted of with caution and distinction ; 
being now to open a fountain, such as it is not easy to discern 
where the issues and streams thereof will take and fall; I 
thought it good and necessary in the first place to make a strong 
and sound head or bank to rule and guide the course of the 
waters ; by setting down this position or firmament, namely, 
That all knowledye is to be limited by religion, and to be referred 
to use and action. 

For if any man shall think by view and inquiry into these 
sensible and material things, to attain to any light for the re- 
vealing of the nature or will of God, he shall dangerously abuse 
himself. It is true that the contemplation of the creatures of 
God hath for end (as to the natures of the creatures themselves) 
knowledge, but as to the nature of God, no knowledge, but 
wonder; which is nothing else but contemplation broken off, 
or losing iteelf. Nay further, as it was aptly said by oue of 
Plato's school the sense of man resembles the sun, which openeth 
and rcvealeth the terrestrial globe, but obscurcth and conrealeth 
the celestial; so doth the sense discover natural things, but 
darken and shut up divine. And this appeareth sufficiently in 
that there is no proceeding in invention of knowledge but by 
similitude ; and God is only self-like, having nothing in com- 
mon with any creature, otherwise than as in shadow and trope. 
Therefore attend his will as himself openeth it, and give unto 
fUiifi that which unto faith bclongcth ; for more worthy it is to 
believe than to think or know, considering that in knowledge 
(as we now arc capable of it) the mind suffereth from inferior 
natures; but i u a ll belief it suffereth from a spirit which it 
■Ideth superior and more authorised than itself. 



'o conclude, the prejudice hath been infinite that both divine 
and luiman knowledge hath received by the intermingling n nd 
tempering of the one with the other; as that which hath filled 
the "ne full of heresies, and the other full of speculative fictions 
and vanities. 

But now there are again which in a contrary extremity to 
ilu m which give to contemplation an over-large scope, do offer 
too great a restraint to natural and lawful knowledge, being un- 
justly jeidotis that every reach and depth of knowledge where- 
with their conceits have not been acquainted, should be too 
high an elevation of man's wit, and a searching and ravelling 
too far into God's secrets ; an opinion that nriseth either of 
envy (which is proud weakness nnd to be censured and not 
confuted), or else of a deceitful simplicity- For if they mean 
that the ignorance of a second cause doth make men more de- 
voutly to depend upon the providence of God, as supposing the 
effects to come immediately from his hand, I demand of them, 
as Job demanded of his friends, Will you lie for God as man 
will for man to gratify him ? But if any man without any 
sinister humour doth indeed make doubt that this digging 
further and further into the mine of natural knowledge is n 
thing without example and uncommended in the Scriptures, or 
fruitless ; let him remember and be instructed ; for behold it 
was not that pure light of natural knowledge, whereby man in 
paradise was able to give unto every living creature a name 
according to his propriety, which gave occasion to the fall ; but 
it was an aspiring desire to attain to that part of moral know- 
ledge which definetb of good and evil, whereby to dispute 
God's commandments and not to depend upon the revelation 
of his will, which was the original temptation. And the first 
holy records, which within those brief memorials of things 
which passed before the flood entered few things as worthy to 
be registered but only lineages ' and propagations, yet never- 
theless honour the remembrance of the inventor both of music 
and works in metal. Moses again (who was the reporter) is 
said to have been seen in all the Egyptian learning, which 
nation was early and leading in matter of knowledge. And 
Salomon the king, as out of a branch of his wisdom extraor- 
dinarily petitioned and granted from God, is said to have 

1 linagei iu original. Set m>te J, p. H8. 



written a natural history of all that is green from the cedar to 
ihe moss, (which is but a rudiment between putrefaction and an 
herb,) and also of all that liveth and uioveth. And if the book 
of Job be turned over, it will be found to have much aspersion 
of natural philosophy. Nay, the same Salomon the king af- 
finneth directly that the glory of God is to conceal a thing, but the 
glory of the king is to find it out, as if according to the innocent 
play of children the divine Majesty took delight to hide his 
works, to the end to have them found out; for in naming the 
king he intendeth man, taking such a condition of man as hath 
most excellency and greatest commandment of wits and means, 
alluding also to his own person, being truly one of those clearest 
burning lamps, whereof himself speaketh in another place, 
when he saith The spirit of man is as the latnp of God, whereicith 
he searcheth all imcardnrss ; which nature of the soul the same 
Salomon holding precious and inestimable, and therein con- 
spiring with the affection of Socrates who scorned the pretended 
learned men of his time for raising great benefit of their learn- 
ing (whereas Anaxagoras contrariwise and divers others being 
born to ample patrimonies decayed them in contemplation), 
delivereth it in precept yet remaining, Buy the truth, and sell it 
not ; find so of wisdom and knowledge. 

And lest any man should retain a scruple as if this thirst of 
knowledge were rather an humour of the mind than an emp- 
tiness or want in nature and an instinct, from God, the same 
author defineth of it fully, saying, God hath made every thing 
in beauty according to season ; also he hath set the world in man's 
heart, yet can he not find out the tcork which God worketh 
from the beginning to the end: declaring not obscurely that God 
hath framed the mind of man as a glass capable of the image 
of the universal world, joying to receive the signature thereof 
as the eye is of light, yea not only satisfied in beholding the 
variety of things and vicissitude of times, but raised also to find 
■ >u f and discern those ordinances and decrees which throughout 
all these i are infallibly observed. And although the 

highest generality of motion or summary law of nature God 
should still reserve within his own curtain, yet many and noble 
arc the inferior and secondary operations which are within man's 
sounding. This is a thing which I cannot tell whether I may so 
plainly -peak as truly conceive, that as all knowledge appeareth 
to be a plant of ( rod's own planting, so it may seem the spreading 



nnd flourishing or at least the bearing and fructifying of this 
plant, by a providence of God, nay not only by a general pro- 
vidence but by a special prophecy, was appointed to this 
autumn of the world : for to my understanding it is not violent 
to the letter, and safe now after the event, so to interpret that 
place in the prophecy of Daniel where speaking of the latter 
times it is said. Many shall pass to and fro, and science shall be 
increased; as if the opening of the world by navigation and 
commerce and the further discovery of knowledge should meet 
in one time or age. 

But howsoever that be, there are besides the authorities 
of Scriptures before recited, two reasons of exceeding great 
weight and force why religion should dearly protect all increase 
of natural knowledge : the one, because it leadeth to the greater 
exaltation of the glory of God; for as the Psalms and other 
Scriptures do often invite us to consider and to magnify the 
great and wonderful works of God, so if we should rest only 
in the contemplation of those shews which first offer them- 
selves to our senses, we should do a like injury to the majesty 
of God, as if we should judge of the store of some excellent 
jeweller by that only which is set out to the street in his shop. 
The other reason is, because it is a singular help and a pi 
vative against unbelief and error; for, saith our Saviour, 
You err, not knoicing the Scriptures nor the power of God; 
laying before us two books or volumes to study if we will be 
secured from error; first the Scriptures revealing the will of 
God, and then the creatures expressing his power; for that 
latter book will certify us that nothing which the first teacheth 
shall be thought impossible. And most sure it is, aud a true 
conclusion of experience, that a little natural philosophy in- 
clineth the iniud to atheism, but a further proceeding bringeth 
the mind back to religion. 

To conclude then, let no man presume to check the liberality 
of God's gifts, who, as was said, hath set the tcorld in ma»'i 
heart. So as whatsoever is not God but parcel of the world, 
he hath fitted it to the comprehension of man's mind, if man 
will open and dilate the powers of his understanding as he 

But yet evermore it must be remembered that the least part 
of knowledge passed to man by this so large a charter from 
God must be subject to that use for which God hath granted it ; 



which t8 the benefit and relief of the state and society of man ; 
for otherwise all manner of knowledge becometh malign and 
serpentine, and therefore as carrying the quality of the ser- 
pent's sting and malice it maketh the mind of man to swell ; 
as the Scripture saith excellently, knoiclcdge bloweth up, but 
charity buildeth up. And again the same author doth notably 
disavow both power and knowledge such as is not dedicate 1 to 
goodness or love, for saith he, If I have all faith so as I could 
remove mountains, (there is power active,) if 1 render my botty 
to the fire, (there is power passive,) if I speak icith the tongues 
of men and angels, (there is knowledge, for language is but the 
conveyance of knowledge,) all were nothing. 

And therefore it is not the pleasure of curiosity, nor the 
quiet of resolution, nor the raising of the spirit, nor victory of 
wit, nor faculty of speech, nor lucre of profession, nor ambition 
of honour or fame, nor inablement for business, that are the 
true enila of knowledge ; some of these being more worthy 
than other, though all inferior and degenerate : but it is a re- 
stitution and reinvesting (in great part) of man to the sove- 
reignty and power (for whensoever he shall be able to call the 
creatures by their true names he shall again command them) 
which he had in his first state of creation. And to speak 
plainly and clearly, it is a discovery of all operations and pos- 
sibilities of operations from immortality (if it were possible) to 
the meanest mechanical practice. And therefore knowledge 
that, tendeth but to satisfaction is but as a courtesan, which is 
for pleasure and not for fruit or generation. And knowledge 
that tendeth to profit or profession or glory \a but as the golden 
ball thrown before Atalanta, which while she goeth aside and 
stoopeth to take up she hindereth the race. And knowledge 
referred to some particular point of use is but as Harmodiua 
which putteth down one tyrant, and not like Hercules who did 
jX'ianibulate the world to suppress tyrants and giants and mon- 
sters in every part. 1 It is true, that in two points the curse is 
peremptory and not to be removed ; the one that vanity must 
be the end in all human effects, n« niity being resumed, though 
the revolutions and periods may be delayed. The other that 
the consent of the creature being now turned into reluctation, 
this power cannot otherwise be exercised and administered but 

The words ■ that Is roan's miseries and necessities," which followed In the triin- 
K-rijit, have a Une drawn through them. 



<vith labour, as well in inventing as in executing ; yet never- 
theless chiefly that labour and travel which is described by the 
sweat of the brows more than of the body ', that is such travel 
as is joined with the working and cliscursion of the spirits in 
the brain : for as Salomon saith excellently, The fool putteth to 
more strength, but the icise man eonsidereth which way, signifying 
the election of the mean to be more material than the multipli- 
cation of endeavour. It is true also that there is a limitation 
rathi T potential than actual, which is when the effect is possible, 
but the time or place yieldeth r.ot the matter or basis where- 
upon man should work. But notwithstanding these precincts 
and hounds, let it be believed, and appeal thereof made to Time, 
(with renunciation nevertheless to all the vain and abusing 
promises of Alchemists and Magicians, and such like light, 
idle, ignorant, credulous, and fantastical wits and sects,) that 
the new-found world of land was not greater addition to the 
ancient continent tlian there remaineth at this day a world of 
inventions and sciences unknown, having respect to those that 
are known, with this difference, that the ancient regions of 
knowledge will seem as barbarous compared with the new, as 
the new regions of people seem barbarous compared to many 
of the old. 

The dignity of this end (of endowment of man's life with 
new commodities) appeareth by the estimation that antiquity 
m:ide of such as guided thereunto. For whereas founders of 
states, lawgivers, extirpers of tyrants, fathers of the people, 
were honoured but with the titles of Worthies or Demigods, 
inventors were ever consecrated amongst the Go;ls themselves. 
And if the ordinary ambitions of men lead them to seek tho 
amplification of their own power in their countries, and a 
better ambition than that hath moved men to seek the ampli- 
fication of the power of their own countries amongst other 
nations, better again and more worthy must that aspiring be 
which seeketh tlie amplification of the power and kingdom of 
mankind over the world ; the rather because the other two 
prosecutions are ever culpable of much perturbation and injus- 
tice; but this is a work truly divine, which comcth in aura 
leni without noise or observation. 

The access also to this work hath been by that port or 
passage, which the divine Majesty (who is unchangeable in 
hw ways) doth infallibly continue and observe; that is the 


felicity wherewith he hath Messed an humility of mind, such 
as rather lahoureth to spell and so by degrees to read in the 
volumes of his creatures, than to solicit and urge and as it 
were to invocate a man's own spirit to divine and give oracles 
unto him. For as in the inquiry of divine truth, the pride of 
man hath ever inclined to leave the oracles of God's word and 
to vanish in the mixture of their own inventions; so in ihe 
self-same manner, in inquisition of nature they have ever left 
the oracles of God's works, and adored the deceiving and 
deformed imagery Avhich the unequal mirrors of their own 
minds have represented unto them. Nay it is a point fit and 
necessary in the front and beginning of this work without 
hesitation or reservation to be professed, that it is no less true 
in this human kingdom of knowledge than in God's kingdom 
of heaven, that no man eliall enter into it except he become first 
as a little child. 1 

Of the impediments of knowledge, being the 4th* chapter, the 
preface only of it. 

In some things it is more hard to attempt than to achieve, 
which falleth out when the difficulty is not so much in the 
matter or subject, as it is in the crossness and indisposition of 
the mind of man to think of any such thing, to will or to 
resolve it. And therefore Titus Livius in his declatn 
digression wherein he doth depress and extenuate the honour 
of Alexander's conquests saith, Nihil a/ind a nam bene aitans 
vana contcmnere : in which sort of thingl it is the manner of 
men first to wonder that any such thing should be possible, and 
after it is found out to wonder again how the world should 
miss it so long. Of this nature I take to be the invention and 
discovery of knowledge, &c 

Thr impediments which have been in the times, and in dir, rsion of 
wits, being the 5th ckapter 3 , a small fragment in the beginning 
of that chapter. 

The encounters of the times have been nothing favourable 
and prosperous for the invention of knowledge; so as it is not 

I fltis chapter ends at the top of a new page. The rest li Irft bbiik. 
' rh^ wor<1 "third" has a line drawn through It, and -Uh U written over It 111 


i tially "being the fourth chapter the beginning." the correction all in 



only the daintiness of the seed to take, and the ill mixture and 
unliking of the ground to nourish or raise this plant, hut the 
ill season also of the weather by which it hath been checked 
and blasted. Especially in that the seasons have been proper 
to brinij up and set forward other more hasty and indiffe- 
rent plants, whereby this of knowledge hath been starved and 
overgrown; for in the descent of times always there hath 
been somewhat else in reign and reputation, which hath ge- 
nerally aliened and diverted wits and labours from that em- 

For as for the uttermost antiquity which is like fame that 
muffles her head and tells tales, I cannot presume much of it ; 
for I would not willingly imitate the manner of those that de- 
scribe maps, which when they come to some far countries 
whereof they have no knowledge, set down how there be great 
wastes and deserts tbere: so I am not apt to affirm that they 
knew little, because what they knew is little known to us. 
But if you will judge of them by the last traces that remain to 
us, you will conclude, though not so scornfully as Aristotle 
doth, that ^aith our ancestors were extreme gross, as those 
that came newly from being moulded out of the clay or sons 
earthly substance; yet reasonably and probably thus, that it 
til with llu'.n in matter of knowledge but as the dawning or 
break of day. For at that time the world was altogether 
home-bred, every nation looked little beyond their own con- 
fines or territories] and the world had no through lights then, 
as it hath had since by Commerce and navigation, whereby 
there could neither be that contribution of wits one to help 
another, nor that variety of particulars for the correcting oi 
customary conceits. 

And as there could be no great collection of wit.s of several 
parts or nations, so neither could there be any succession of 

(wits of several times, whereby one might refine the <>iIht, in 
d they had not history to any purpose. And the manner 
of their traditions was utterly unlit and improper for amplifi- 
cation of knowledge. And again the studies of those times, 
you shall find, beside* wars, incursions, and rapines, which 
were then almost every where betwixt states edj lining (the ma 
of leagues and confederacies being not then known), were to 
populate by multitude of wise- and generation, a thing at this 
day in the waster part of the West-Indies principally affected] 



enter into inquisition of nature, hut shall pass by that opinion 
of Democritus, whereas he shall never come near the other two 
opinions, Lufc leave them aloof for the schools and table-talk. 
Yet those of Aristotle and Plato, because they be both agree- 
able to popular sense, and the one was uttered with subtilty 
and the spirit of contradiction, and the other with a stile of 
ornament and majesty, did hold out, and the other gave 
place, &c.' 

Of the impediments of knowledge in handling it by parts, and in 
iBp p ia g off particular sciences from tin. runt and stock of uni- 
versal lawicleifge, being the Hth 2 chapter, the whole chapter. 

Cicero, the orator, willing to magnify his own profession, 
and thereupon spending many words to maintain that, elo- 
quence was not a shop of good words and elegancies but a 
treasury and receipt of all knowledges, so far forth as may 
appertain to die handling and moving of the minds and alter- 
tions of men by speech, maketh great complaint of the school 
of Socrates; that whereas before his time the same professors 
of wisdom in Greece did pretend to teach an universal Sapient* 
and knowledge both of matter and words, Socrates divorced 
tliem and withdrew philosophy and left rhetoric to itself, which 
by that destitution became hut a barren and unnoble science. 
And in particular sciences we see that if men fall to subdivide 
their labour*] M to be an oculist in phjric, Of to be perfect in 
some one title of the law, or the like, they may prove ready 
and subtile, but not deep or sufficient, BO nut in that suliji el 
which they do particularly attend, because of that eonsent 
which it hath with the rest. And it is a matter of common 
discourse of the chain of sciences how they are linked together, 
insomuch as the Grecians, who had terms at will, have fitted it 
Of a name of Circle Learning. Nevertheless I that hold it for 
a great impediment towards the advancement and further in- 
vention of knowledge, thai particular arts nnd sciences have 
been disincorporated from general knowledge, do not understand 
one and the same thing which Cicero 1 * discourse and the note and 
conceit of the Grecians in their word Circle Learning do intend. 

1 The " &o." in Bacon's haml. 

* originally "seventh;" "8th" substituted, and ■• the whole chnpiri " added, in 



For I mean not that use which one science hath of another for 
ornament or help in practice, as the orator hath of knowledge 
of affections for moving, or as military science may have use of 
geometry for fortifications ; hut I mean it directly of that use 
by way of supply of light and information which the particu- 
lars and instances of one science do yield and present for the 
framing or correcting of the axioms of another science in their 
very truth and notion. And therefore that example of oculists 
and title Imci/ers doth come nearer my conceit than the other 
two; for sciences distinguished have a dependence upon uni- 

I know ledge to be augmented and rectified hy the superior 
light thereof, as well as the parts and members of a sci> nee 
have upon the Maxims of the same science, and the mutual 
light and consent which one part receiveth of another. And 
therefore the opinion of Copernicus in astronomy, which astro- 
nomy itself cannot correct because it is not repugnant to any 
«if the appearances, yet natural philosophy dolh correct. On 
the other side if some of the ancient philosophers had been 
perfect in the observations of astronomy, and had called them 

Minsel when they made their principles and first axioms, 
lliey would never have divided their philosophy as the Cosmo- 
graphers do their descriptions by globes, making one philo- 
sophy for heaven and another for under heaven, as in effect 

tliev do. 

So if the moral philosophers that have spent such an infinite 
quantify of debate touching Good anil the highest good, bad 
tli' ir eye abroad upon nature and beheld the appetite that is in 
all things t<> recen e and to give ; the one motion affecting prescr- 
n and the other multiplication ; which appetites are most 
evidently seen in living creatures in the pleasure of nourish- 
m< nt and generation*, and in man do make the aptest and most 
natural division of ail his desires, being either of sense of 
use of power ; and in the universal frame of the 
world are figured, the one in the beams of l:eaven which issue 
forth, and the other in the lap of the. earth which takes in : 
and again if they had observed the motion of OOOgKtttj OS 

situation of the parts in res] t of the whole, evident in so 

many particulars; and lastly if they had considered the mo- 
tion (familiar in attraction of things) to approach to that which 
her in the same kind ; when by these observations so easy 
and concurring in natural philosophy, they should have found 




out this quaternion of good, in enjoying or fruition, effecting or 
operation, consenting or proportion, and approach or assump- 
tion ; they would have saved and abridged much of their long 
and wandering discourses of pleasure, virtue, duty, and religion. 
So likewise in this same logic and rhetoric, or nrts' of argument 
and grace of speech, if the great masters of them would but 
have gone a form lower, and looked but into the observations 
of Grammar concerning the kinds of words, their derivations, 
deflexions, and syntax; specially enriching the same with the 
li<lps of several languages, with their differing proprieties of 
Wards, phrases, and tropes; they might have found out more 
at (1 better footsteps of common reason, help of disputation, and 
advantages of cavillation, than many of these which they have 
propounded. So again a man should be thought, to dally, if 
lie did note how the figures of rhetoric and music are manj 
of them the same. The repetitions and traductions in speech 
and the reports and hauntings of sounds in music are the very 
Bame things. Plutarch hath almost made a book of the La- 
cedaemonian kind of jesting, which joined ever pleasure with 
distaste. Sir, (saith a man of art to Philip king of Maccdon 
when he controlled him in his faculty,) God forbid your fortune 
should be such as to know these things better than I. In taxing 
his ignorance in his art he represented to him the perpetual 
greatness of his fortune, leaving him no vacant time for so 
mean a skill. Now in music it is one of the ordinariest flowers 
to fall from a discord or hard tunc upon a sweet accord. The 
figure that Cicero and the rest commend as one of the best 
points of elegancy, which is the fine checking of expectation, 
is no less well known to the musicians when they have a special 
grace in flying the close or cadence. And these are no allusions 
but. direct communities, the same delights of the mind being to 
be found not only in music, rhetoric, but in moral philosophy, 
policy, and other knowledges, and that obscure in the one, 
which is more apparent in the other, yea and that discovered 
in. ihe one which is not found at all in the other, and so one 
science greatly aiding to the invention and augmentation of 
another. And therefore without this intercourse the axioms of 
sciences will fall out to be neither full nor true; but will be 
such opinions as Aristotle in some places doth wisely censure, 

' ■* in MS., I 



when he saith These are the opinions of persons that have respect 
hut to a few things. So then we see that this note leadeth us 
to an administration of knowledge in some such order and 
policy as the king of Spain in regard of his great dominions 
BMrA in state; who though he hath particular councils for 
several countries and affairs, yet hath one council of State or 
last resort, that receiveth the advertisements and certificates 
from all the rest. Hitherto of the diversion, succession, and 
conference of wits. 

Tlmt the end and scope of knoivledge hath been generally mis- 
token, and that men were never well advised what it icus they 
siaif/ht ; being the 9th chapter, whereof a fragment (which 
is the end of the same chapter) is before. 1 

It appeareth then how rarely the wits and labours of men 
have been converted to the severe and original imposition of 
knowledge; and in those who have pretended, what hurt hath 
been done by the affectation of professors and the distraction 
of such as were no professors 1 ; and how there was never in 
effect any conjunction or combination of wits in the first and in- 
ducing search, hut that every man wrought apart, and would 
either have his own way or else would go no further than his 
guide, having in the one case the honour of a first, and in the 
other the ease of a second; and lastly how in the descent and 
continuance of wits and labours the succession hath been in 
the most popular and weak opinions, like unto the weakest 
nature- whieh many times have most children, and in them 
■1m th<- condition of succession hath been rather to defend and 
la adorn than to add : and if to add, yet that addition to be 
rather a refining of a part than an increase of the whole. Hut 
the impediments of time and accidents, though they have 
wrought a general indisposition, yet are they not so peremp- 
tory and binding as the internal impediments and clouds in the 
mind and spirit of man, whereof it now followeth to speak. 

The Scripture speaking of the worst sort of error saith, 
Errure fecit eot in invio et non in via. For a man may wander 

* See i>. 151, note 1.; and compare Table of OnttnU (p. 21.1.) No. 3. 

ttab chaptrr wis not stated In Ilk- ir uiscript as It oriitfnrtlly stood: 
meter* are all added In Bacon's band, ul tile cud u( the title i 
riiithhii: i. atfOrk mil. 

* ThU clause U repeated lu tile margin and marked for insertion in Its proper place. 

q * 



in the way, by rounding up and down. But if men have 
failed in t heir very direction and address that error will never 
by good fortune correct it-elf. Now it hath fared with men in 
their contemplations as Seneca >aith it fareth with them in 
their actions, De partibns vita quisque dcliberat, de tumma nemo. 
A course very ordinary with men who receive for the nu M 
part their fmal ends from the inclination of their nature, or 
from common example and opinion, never questioning or exa- 
mining them, nor reducing them to any clear certainty ; and use 
only to call themselves to account and deliberation touching tlie 
means and second ends, and thereby Mt themselves in the right 
way to the wrong place. So likewise upon the natural curiosity 
and desire to know, they have put themselves in way without 
foresight or consideration of their journey's end. 

For I find that, even those that have Bought knowledge for 
itself, and not for benefit or ostentation or any practical 
enablement in the course of their life, have nevertheless pro 
pounded to themselves a wrong mark, namely satisfaction 
(which men call truth) and nut operation. For as in the 
courts and services of princes and states it is a much e 
matter to give satisfaction than to do the business; so in the 
inquiring of causes and reasons it is much easier to find oul 
soili causes M will satisfy the mind of man and quiet objec- 
tion-, than such causes as will direct him and give him light to 
imvv experiences and inventions. And this did Celsus note 
wisely and truly, how that the causes which are in use and 
whereof the knowledges now received do consist, were in time 
minois and subsequents to the knowledge of the particulars 
out of which they were induced aud collected ; and that it 
was not the light of those causes which discovered particulars, 
but only the particulars being first found, men did fall on glossing 
and discoursing of the causes; which is the r< a-on why the 
learning that now is hath the curse of barrenness, and is cour- 
ts. m-like, for pleasure, and not for fruit. 1 Nay to compare it 
rightly, the strange fuiii.n of the poets of the trans formation 
of Soylla seemeth to be a lively emblem of this philosophy and 
knowledge; n fair woman upwards in the parts of show, but 
when you come to the ports of use and generation, Barking 

-cript the chapter ended. 
inrn band. 

The next sentence is written in the 



Monsters j for no bettor arc the endless distorted questions, 
which ever have been, and of necessity must be, the end and 
womb of such knowledge. 

But yet nevertheless ' here I maybe mistaken, by reason ol 
some which have, much in their jien the referring sciences 
to action and the use of man, which mean quite another matter 
than I do. Fur they mean a contriving of directions and pre- 
cepts for readineM of practice, which I discommend not, so it he 
not occasion that some quantity of the science be lost j for else- 
it will be such a piece of husbandry la to put away a manor 
lying somewhat scattered, to buy in a close that iieth hand- 
somely about a dwelling. But my intention contrariwise is to 
increase and multiply the revenues and possessions of man, 
and not to trim up only or order with eonveuieney the grounds 
whereof be is already stated - Wherefore the better to make 
myself understood that I mean nothing less than words, and 
directly to demonstrate the point which we are now Upon, that 
is, what is the true end, scope, or office of knowledge, which 
I have set down to consist not in any plausible] delectable, 
reverend, or admired discourse, or any satisfactory argument-, 
but in_efje pt'"g fln ^ w orking, and in discovery of particulars 
not revealed before for the better endowment and help of man's 
life ; I have thought good to make as it were a Kalcndar or 
Inventory of the wealth, furniture, or means of man according 
to his present estate, as far as it is known ; which I do not to 
shew any universality of sense or knowledge, and much less to 
make a satire of reprehension in respect of wants and errors, 
but partly because cogitations new had need of Rome grossness 
and inculcation to make them perceived ; and chiefly to the end 
that for the time to come (upon the account and slate now made 
and cast up) it may appear what increase this new manner of" use 
and administration of die stock (if it be once planted) shall bring 
with it hereafter; and for the time present (in case 1 should 
be prevented by death to propound and reveal this new light* 
Bfl 1 purpose) yet I may at the least give some awaking note 
both of the wants in man's present condition and the nature of 
the supplies to be wished ; though for mine own part neither 

1 Thl* par»RiM|il!, which stands as the third fragment in in* onto of the trariR'ri|it, 
t- beaded in t hi* In liter lbert hand, "A part of the Dth tkupltr immaliuti ty prtcedtnt tu 

tit' /.I i r « , .1 ./ .'/'</ IHtllil/Hi/ tUt hltltt," 

well wrtltrti flr-t. 

2 54 


do I much build upon my present anticipations, neither do I 
think ourselves yet learned or wise enough to wish reasonably: 
for as it asks some knowledge to demand a question not imper- 
tinent, so it askcth some sense to make a wish not absurd.' 

The Incenlnri/, or an enumeration and rirtr of inventions already 
disronrnl nnd in use, together With <i note of the irnnt.s ititd 
tltr nut iter of the tttppUet, lieimj the Id/// rhtij>t>r ; anil this 

n small fragment thereof, being the preface to the Inven- 

The plainest method and most directly pertinent to this 
intention, will be to make distribution of sciences, arts, inven- 
tions, works, ami their portions, according to the use and 
tribute which they yield and render to the conditions of man*-; 
life, and under those several uses, being as several other- of 
provisions, to charge and tax what may be reasonably exacted 
or demanded; not guiding ourselves neither by the poverty of 
experiences and probations, nor according to the vanity of cre- 
dulous imaginations; and then upon those charges and taxations 
to distinguish and present, as it were in several columns, what is 
extant and already found, and what is defective and further to 
be provided. I M* which provisions, because in many of them 
after the manner of slothful and faulty officers and nccomptants 
it will be returned (by way of excuse) that no such are to be 
had, it will be fit to give some light of the nature of the sup- 
plies, whereby it will evidently appear that they are to be com- 
passed and procured. 3 And yet nevertheless <m the other side 
again it will be as fit to check and control the vain and void 
assignations and gifts whereby certain ignorant, extravagant, 
and abusing wits have pretended to indue the state of man 
with wonders, differing as much from truth in nature as Ca?sar's 
Commentaries differed) from the acts of King Arthur or Huon 
' <u.\ in story. For it is true that Csernr did greater 
* idle wit-! hud the audacity to feign their sup- 
dime; but he did them not in that 
lions manner. 

"t the pngr ; leaving nbom a fifth of it blank. 

with which the original heading ended. 

:. urn] the wonla in Ituinin character are added In 

let?, v» lii.-Ji i* crowded Into the page and overflows into the 
lequrutly to the original transcilpt. After 



T/ie chapter immediately following the Inventory; being the Wth 
in order; a part thereof. 1 

It appeareth then what is now in proposition not by general 
circumlocution but by particular note. No former philosophy 
Varied in terms or method ; no new placet or speculation upon 
particulars already known ; no referring to action by any ma- 
nual of practice ; but the revealing and discovering of new in- 
ventions and operations. This to be done without the errors 
and conjectures of art, or the length or difficulties of experience ; 
the nature and kinds of which inventions have been described 
as they could he discovered; for your eye cannot pass one 
kenning without further sailing ; only wc have stood upon the 
best advantages of the notions received, as upon a mount, to 
shew the knowledge! adjacent and confining. If therefore the 
true end of knowledge not propounded hath bred large error, 
tlif hest and perfectest condition of the same end not perceived 
will cause some declination. For when the butt is set up men 
need not rove, but except the white be placed men cannot level. 
This perfection wc mean not in the worth of the effect, but in 
the nature of the direction : for our purpose is not to stir up 
men's hopes, but to guide their travels. The fulness of direc- 
tion to work and produce any effect consistent in two condi- 
tions, certainty and liberty. Certainty is when the direction / 
is not only true for the most part, but infallible. Liberty is j 
when the direction is not restrained to some definite means, but 
OOmprebendeth all the means and ways possible; for the poet 
iaith well Sapientibiu undique lata; sunt via:, and where there is 
the greatest plurality of change, there is the greatest singularity 
of choice. Besides as a conjectural direction maketh a camel 
effect, SO a particular and restrained direction is no leas casual 
than an uncertain. For those particular means whereunto it is 
tied m i\ be out of your power or may be accompanied with an 
i.\ malm- of prejudice : and so if for want of certainty in direc- 
tion you are frustrated in success, for want of variety in direc- 
tion _\ .m are stopped in attempt. If therefore your direction 
be certain, it must refer you and point you to somewhat which, 
if it be pics. nt. the effect you seek will of necessity follow, cist; 
f yon perform and not obtain. If it be tree, then must it 
refer \.iu to somewhat which it it be absent the elh ek 

' I'ln words iii RomiM Iftti rs arc Inserted In Damn'* hand. 



will of necessity withdraw, else may yon have power and not 
attempt Thi.- notion Aristotle hud in fight, though not in use. 
For the two commended rules by him set down, whereby the 
fuitinis of sciences are precepted to be made convertible, and 
which the Utter men have not without elegancy surnamed the 
one the ride of truth becanm it prevented) deceit, the other the 
ride of prudence because it freeth election, are the same thing 
in (peculation and affirmation which we now observe. An 
example will make my meaning attained, and yet perease make 
it thought that they attained it not. Let the effect to be pro- 
duced be Wkitenen ; let the first direction be that if air and 
water be intermingled or broken in small portions together, 
whiteness will ensue, as in snow, in the breaking of the waves 
of the sen and rivers, and the like. This direction is certain, 
bat very particular and n ■strained, being tied but to air and 
water. Let the second direction be, that if air be mingled as 
before with any transparent body, such nevertheless as is un- 
< otourcd and more grossly transparent than air itself, that then 
&c. u glass or crystal, being beaten to fine powder, by the in- 
terposition of the air becorncth white; the white of an egg 
being dear of itself, receiving air by agitation becometh white, 
receiving air by concoction becometh white; here you are freed 
from water, and advanced to a clear body, and still tied to air. 
Let the third direction exclude or remove the restraint of an 
niieolimrcil body, aa in amb?r, sapphires, &c. which beaten to 
fine powder become white : in wine and beer, which brought to 
froth become white. Let the fourth direction exclude the re- 
straint of a body more grossly transparent than air, as in flame, 
being a bodv compounded between air and a finer substance 
than air; which flame if it were not for the smoke, which 
is the third substance that incorporated! itself nnd dyeth the 
flume, would be more perfect white. In all these four direc- 
tion- air still bearetb a part. Let the fifth direction then 
be, that if any bodies, both transparent but in an unequal 
degree, be mingled as before, whiteness will follow; as oil and 
water beaten to an ointment, though by settling the air which 
gathereth in the agitation be evaporate, yet rcmainrth whit*; 
and the powder of glass or crystal i> 
air giveth place, yet remaiucth i 
Now are you freed from air, bu 
bodies. To ascend further 



it would draw on the example to an over- great length, hut 
chiefly because it would open that which in this work I deter- 
mine to reserve; for to pass through the whole history and 
observation of colours and objects visible were too long a di- 
gression ; and our purpose is now to pre an example of ■ free 
direction, thereby to distinguish and describe it: and not to set 
down a form of interpretation how to recover and attain it. 
But as we intend not now bo reveal, so we arc circumspect not 
to mislead; and therefore (this warning being given) returning 
to our purpose in hand, we admit the sixth direction to be, that 
all bodies or parts of bodies which are unequal equally, that is 
in a simple proportion, do represent whiteness ' ; we will explain 
this, though we induce it not It is then to be understood, 
that absolute equality produceth transparence, inequality in 
simple order or proportion produceth whiteness, inequality in 
OOSQ] ound or respective order or proportion produceth all other 
colours, nod absolute or orderlcsa inequality produceth black- 
ness; which diversity, if so gross a demoiir-t ration be needful, 
may be signified by four bibles; a blank, a chequer, a fret, and 
a medley ; whereof the fret is evident to admit great variety. 
Out of this assertion arc satisfied a multitude of effects and 
observations, as that whiteness and blackness are most incom- 
patible with transparence; that whiteness keepeth light, ami 
blackness stoppeth light, but neither juisseth it ; that whiteness 
or blackness are never produced in rainbows, diamonds. cry .-mis, 
and the like; that white givetb m>dvr, and black hardly taketh 
dye; that whiteness sccmcth to have an allinity with dryness, 
and blackness with moisture; that adustion esuseth blackness, 
and calcination whiteness ; that flowers are generally of Brest 
colours, and rarely black, &c. AM which I do now mention 
confusedly by way of derivation and not by way of induction. 
This sixth direction, which I have thus explained, is of good 
and competent liberty fijf whiteness fixed and inherent, but 
not for whiteness fantastical or appearing, at shall be afterwards 
touched. But first do you need a reduction back to certainty 
or verity ; for it is not all position or contexture of unequal 
bodies that will produce colour; for aqua fortis, oil of vitriol, 

•• l)r hi, i i i. Vol. I. p. 566. "Ai iii Mii.i|'li\ i.-:i, «l fiut iii'iuioilo, hiym- 

.1 ilun l)l.«phan.\ intermix!:!, I'ortlnnlliua eorum Uplli-is 

. i!. r r, Mi. .id . ountitum- AllKdincm." And observe that 

• i In thr corresponding passage of the Atlranetmtnt of 

ii tin-"!>. 



&c. more manifestly, and many other substances more ob- 
scurely, do consist of very unequal part*, which yet are trans- 
parent and clear. Therefore the reduction must be, thai the 
bodies or parts of bodies so intermingled as hefore be of a 
certain grossness or magnitude; for the uncqualitir-s which 
move the sight must have a further dimension and quantity 
than those which operate many other effects. Some few grains 
of saffron will give a tincture to a tun of water; but BO many 
grains of civet will give a perfume to a whole chamber of air. 
And therefore when Democritus (from whom Epicurus did 
borrow it) held that the position of the solid portions was the 
cause of colours, yet in the very truth of his assertion he 
should have added, that the portions are required to he of sonic 
magnitude. And this is one cause why colours have little 
inwardness and necessitudc with the nature and proprieties 
of things, those things resembling in colour which otherwise 
differ most, as salt and sugar, and contrariwise differing in 
colour which otherwise resemble most, as the white and blue 
violets, and the several veins of one agate or marble, by 
reason that other virtues consist in more subtile proportions 
than colours do; and yet are there virtues and natures which 
require a grosser magnitude than colours, as well as scents 
and divers other require a more subtile ; for as the jwrtion of 
1y will give forth scent which is too small to be seen, 
so the portion of a body will shew colours which is too small 
to be endued with weight ; and therefore one of the pro- 
phets with great elegancy describing how all creatures carry 
no proportion towards God the creator, saith, That all the 
nations in respect of him are like the dust upon the balance, 
which is a thing appcareth but weigheth not. But to re- 
turn, there resteth a further freeing of this sixth direction; 
for the clearness of a river or stream sheweth while at a 
distance, and crystalline glasses deliver the face or any other 
object falsified in whiteness, and long beholding the snow 
t<> ■ weak eye givetJi an impression of azure rather than of 
whiteness. So as for whiteness in apparition only and repre- 
Bentation by the qualifying of the light, altering the intermedium, 
or affecting the eye itself, it lvacheth not. But you must free 
your direction to the producing of such an incidence, impres- 
sion, or operation, as may cause a precise and determinate 
nassion of the eye; a matter which is much more easy to induce 



than that which we have passed through; but yet because it 
hath a full coherence both with that act of radiation (which 
hath hitherto been conceived and termed so unproperly and un- 
truly by aorne an effluxion of spiritual species and by others an 
investing of the intermedium with a motion which successively 
is conveyed to the eye) and with the act of cense, wherein I 
Bhould likewise open that which I think good to withdraw, I 
will omit. Neither do I contend but that, this motion which I 
call the freeing of a direction, in the received philosophies (as 
far as a swimming anticipation could take hold) might be per- 
ceived and discerned; being not much other matter than that 
which they did not only aim at in the two rules of Axioms be- 
fore remembered, but more nearly also in ' that which they 
term the form or formal cause, or that which they call the 
true difference ; both which nevertheless it seemeth they pro- 
pound rather as impossibilities and wishes than as things within 
the compass of human comprehension. For Plato eaateth his 
burden and saith that he will revere him as a God, that can tni/i/ 
divide ami dffint* ; which cannot be but by true forms and dif- 
ferences. Wherein I join bunds with him, confessing as much 
as yet assuming to myself little ; for if any man can by the 
strength of his anticipations find out forms, I will magnify him 
with the foremost. But as any of them would say that if di- 
vers things which many men know by instruction and obser- 
vation another knew by revelation and without those menus, 
they would take him for somewhat supernatural and divine; so 
I do acknowledge that if any man can by anticipations reach to 
that which a weak and inferior wit may attain to by interpre- 
tation, he cannot receive too high a title. Nay I lor my part 
do indeed admire to see how far some of them have proceeded 
by their anticipations ; but how ? it is as I wonder at some Mind 
men, to see what shift they make without their eye-sight ; 
thinking with myself that if I were blind I could hardly do it. 
Again Ari-totle's school confesseth that, there is no true know- 
ledge but by causes, no true cause but the form, no true form 
known except one, which they are pleased to allow; and then- 
fore thus far their evidence stamleth with us, that both hitherto 
there hath been nothing but a shadow of knowledge, and that 
we propound DOW that which is agreed to be worthiest to bo 
BOHght* and hardest to be found. There uantcth now a part 

' lh,<n III MS. 

Bft V„r, Org, II. 26. Vol I. p, 277. 



very necessary, not by way of supply but by way of caution ; 
for as it is seen for the most part that the outward tokens and 
badges of excellency and perfection are more incident Id things 
merely counterfeit than to that which is true, but for 1 a meaner 
and baser sort ; as a dublinc u more like a perfect ruby than a 
spinel, and a counterfeit angel is made more like a true angel 
than if it were an angel coined of China gold : in like manner 
the direction earricth a resemblance of a true direction in 
verity and liberty which indeed is no direction at all. For 
though your direction seem to be certain and free by pointing 
you to a nature that is unseparable from the nature you inquire 
upon, yet if it do not carry you on a degree or remove nearer 
I to action, operation, or light to make or produce, it is but 
superficial and counterfeit. Wherefore to secure and warrant 
what is a true direction, though that general note I have given 
be perspicuous in itself (fr a man shall soon ca>t with himself 
whether he bo ever the nearer 5 to effect and operate or no, or 
whether he have won but an abstract or varied notion) yet for 
better instruction I will deliver three particular notes of cau- 
tion. The first is that the nature discovered Lc more original 
than the nature supposed, and not more secondary or of the 
like device ; as to make a stone bright or to make it smooth it 
is a good direction to say, make it even ; but to make a stone 
even it is no good direction to .-ay, make it bright or make it 
smooth; for the rule is that the disposition of any thing 
referring to the state of it iu itself or the parts, is more original 
than that which is relative or transitive towards another thing. 
So evenness is the disposition of the stone in itself, but smooth 
to the hand and bright to the eye, and yet nevertheless they 
all cluster and concur; and yet the direction is more unperf< <t, 
if it do appoint you to such a relative as is in the same kind 
and not in a divene. For in the direction to produce bright* 
aesa by smoothness, although properly it win no degree, and 
will never teach you any new particulars before unknown ; yet 
by way of suggestion or bringing to mind it may diaw your 
Consideration to irticulans known but not remembered ; 

as you shall sooner remember some practical means of making 
smoothness, than if you had fixed your consideration only upon 
brightness; but if the direction had been to make brightness 

1 So MS. qu of' 

« ntarr MS. 



by making reflexion, as thus, make it such as you may see your 
fade in it, this is merely secondary, and helpeth neither hy way 
of informing nor by way of suggestion. So if in the inquiry 
i if whiteness you were directed to make such a colour as should. 
be teen farthest in a dark light; here you are advanced nothing 
at all. For these kinds of natures are but proprieties, effects, 
circumstances, concurrences, or what else you shall like to call 
them, and not radical and formative natures towards the nature 
supposed. The Becond caution is that the nature inquired be 
collected by division before composition, or to Bpcak more pro- 
perly, by composition subaltern before you ascend to eotnpoti* 
tion absolute, &c.' 

Of the internal and pmfutind errors and superstitions in the 
nature of the mind, and of the four sorts of idols or Jivtimis 
which offer themselves to the understanding in ih* tm/uis/'tion 
of knowledge; being the 16th chapter, and this a small frag- 
ment thereof, being a preface to the inward clenches of the 
mind. 1 

The opinion of Epicurus that the gods were of human shape, 
ather just I)' derided than seriously confuted by the other 
gecta, demanding whether every kind of sensible creatures did 
not think their own figure fairest, as tlie horse, the bull, and 
the like, which found no heanly but in their own forms, a> in 
appetite of lust appeared. And the heresy of the Antlm-ipi- 
morphitea was ever censured for a gross conceit bred in the 
obscure cells of solitary monks that never looked abroad. 
Again the fable so well known of Quis pinxit leoncm, doth set 
forth well that there is an error of pride and partiality, as well 
as of custom and familiarity. The reflexion also from glasses 
so usually resembled to the imagery of the mind, every man 
ksowetfa to receive error and variety both in colour, magni- 
tude, and shape, according to the quality of the glass. But yet 
no use hath been made of these and many the like observa- 
tions, to move men to search out aud upon search to give true 
'•autions of the native and inherent errors in the mind of man 
which have coloured and corrupted all his notions and im- 

1 do find therefore in this enchanted glass four Idols or false 

1 The word ■ «uliiiltrrn " (for which a Wank wis left by the Intn'oriher) unci the 
■•ft" have b. « n in**rt»-d by Baron. The chapter end* nearly at the buiium at the imge. 

■ The vriinl- in Roman character have been added by B-icon. 



appearances of several and distinct sort«, every sort com- 
prehending many subdivisions: the first sort, I call idols of tlio 
Nation or Tribe ; tlie second, idols of the Palace; the third, 
idols of the Cave; and the fourth, idols of the Theatre, &e.' 

Herefollotretlt mi abridgment of divers chapters of the Jirst 
book at Interpretation of Nature. 4 

Cap. 12. 

That in deciding and determining of the truth of knowled-. . 
men have put themselves upon trials not competent. That 
antiquity awl authority; common and confessed notions; the 
natural and yielding consent of the mind ; the harmony and 
c .Ik rence of a knowledge in itself; the establishing of prin- 
ciple with the touch and reduction of other propositions unto 
them ; inductions without instances contradictory ; and the 
report- of the senses; are none of them absolute and infallible 
evidence of truth, and bring no security sufficient for effects 
and operations. That the discovery of new works and active 
directions not known before, is the only trial to he accepted of; 
and yet not that neither, in case where one particular giveth 
light to another; but where particulars induce an axiom or 
observation, which axiom found out discovcreth and designeth 
new particulars. That the nature of this trial is not only upon 
the point, whether the knowledge be profitable or no, but even 
upon the point whether the knowledge be true or no; not 
M you may always conclude that the Axiom which dis- 
eown-th new instances is trm\ but contrariwise you may safely 
conclude that if it discover not any new instance it is in vain 
and untrue. That by new instances arc not always to he 
understood new recipes but new assignations, awl of the diver- 
theee two. That the subtilty of words, orgu- 
. yea of the senses themselves, is but rude and 
in comparison <>f the subtilty of things; and of the eloth- 
aud flattering opinions of those which pretend to honour 
■ muul i.f man in withdrawing and abstracting it from par- 
i d of the i -i lui oenta and motives whereupon such 
ions hxxve been conceived and received. 

I. The chapter ends In the middle of the second pace. 
; of the next (which lit the 4iln, r..ll"\v- Immediately ; whence 1 infer 
,,, ,1 |iarl of the nrlitiiial trim* 
^J» "Int-'U'i ,; ••''"" ul Nature" added ill Bacon* band. 



Cat. 13. 

Of the error in propounding chiefly the search of causes and 
productions of things concrete, which are infinite and transi- 
tory, mid not of abstract natures, which are few and permanent. 
That these natures are as the alphabet or simple letters. (Thereof 
the variety of things consisteth ; or as the colours mingled in 
the painter's shell, wherewith he is able to make infinite variety 
of faces or shapes.' An enumeration of them according to 
popular note. That at the first QM would conceive that in 
the schools by natural philosophy were meant the knowledge 
of the efficients of things concrete; and by nietaphvsic the 
knowledge of the forma of natures simple ; wluch is a good and 
fit division of knowledge: but upon examination there is no 
such matter by them intended. That the little inquiry into 
the production of simple natures sheweth well that works were 
not sought ; because by the former knowledge some small and 
-i!|>ct'!icial deflexions from the ordinary generations and produc- 
tion- in.-iy be (bond out, but the discovery of all profound and 
radical alteration must arise out of the latter knowledge. 

GAP. 14. 

fOf the error in propounding the senrch of the materials or 
(lend beginnings or principles of things, and not the nature of 
notions, inclinations, and applications. That the whole scope 
of the former search is impertinent and vain ; both because there 
are no such bcginnings,and if there were they could not be known. 
That the latter manner of search ( which is all) they pass over com- 
pendiously and slightly as a by-matter. That the several conceits 
in that kind, as that the lively and moving beginnings of things 
should be shift or appetite of matter to privation ; the spirit of • 
t 1m- world working in matter according to platform ; the proceed- 
ing or fructify ing of distinct kinds according to their proprieties; 
the intercourse of the elements by mediation of their common 
qualities; the appetite of like portions, to unite themselves; 
amity and discord, or sympathy and antipathy ; motion to the 
centre, with motion of stripe or press; the casual agitation, ag- 
gregation, and essays of the Bolid portions in the void space ; 
motion of shuttings and openings; are all mere nugations; 
and that the calculating and ordination of the true degrees, 

* Thli lost illustration ts added in the margin Id Bacon'* hand. 


moments, limits, ami laws of motions and alterations (by 
means whereof all works and effects are produced), is a mattei 
of a far other nature than to consist in such easy and wilt 

Cap. 15. 
Of the great error of inquiring knowledge in Anticipations. 
That I call Anticipations the voluntary collections that tht 
mind makuth of knowledge; which is every man's reason, 
That though this be a solemn thing, and serves the turn tt 
negotiate between man and man (because of the conformity 
and participation of men's minds in the like errors), yet to- 
wards inquiry of the truth of things and works it is of u< 
value. That civil respects are a lett that this pretended rea- 
son should not be so contemptibly spoken of as were fit anc 
inedicinable, in regard that ' hath been too much exaltcc 
and glorified, to the infinite detriment of man's estate. Oi 
the nature of words and their facility and aptness to covei 
and grace the defects of Anticipations. That it is no marve. 
if these Anticipations have brought forth such diversity ant 
repugnance in opinions, theories, or philosophies, as so mauj 
fables 9 of several arguments. That had not the nature oi 
civil customs aud government been in most times somewhai 
adverse to audi innovations, though contemplative, there might 
have been and would have been many more. That the seconc 
school of the Academics and the sect of I'vrrho, or the eon- 
siderers that denied comprehension, as to the disabling of man'! 
knowledge (entertained in Anticipations) is well to be allowed 
but that they ought when they had overthrown and purgei 
the floor of the ruins to have sought to build better in place 
And more especially that they did unjustly and prejudicial!) 
lunge the deceit upon the report of the senses, whicl 
[U'tli very sparing remedy; being indeed to have beer 
•il upon the Anticipations of the mind, which admitted 
f remedy. That the information of the senses is suffi- 
•ot because thej err not, but because the use of the scum 
of knowledge is for the most part not unme- 
, dint it is the work, effect, or instance, that tried 
BXld the sense doth but try the work done or no 
or not being. That the mind of man in collecting 

hy RlllUke probably for H; the transcriber taking yi for 




knowledge needeth great variety of helps, as well as the hand 
of man in manual and mechanical practices needeth great va- 
riety of instruments. And that it were a poor work that if 
instruments were removed men would overcome with their 
naked hands. And of the distinct points of want and iiisuili- 
cieuey in the mind of man. 

Cap. 16. 

That the mind of a man, as it is not a vessel of that eon- 
tent or receipt to comprehend knowledge without helps and 
supplies, so again it is not sincere, but of an ill and corrupt 
tincture. Of the inherent and profound errors and supersti- 
tions in the nature of the mind, and of the four sorts of Idols 
or false appearances that offer themselves to the understanding 
in the inquisition of knowledge ; that is to say, the Idols of 
the Tribe, the Idols of the Palace, the Idols of the Cave, and 
the Idols of the Theatre. That these four, added to the inca- 
pacity of the mind and the vanity and malignity of the affec- 
tion*] leave nothing but impotency and confusion. A recital 
of the particular kinds of these four Idols, with some chosen 
examples of the opinions they have begot, such of them as havo 
supplanted the state of knowledge most. 

Cap. 17. 

Of the errors of such as have descended and applied them- 
selves to experience, and attempted to induce knowledge upon 
particulars. That they have not had the resolution and 
strength of mind to free themselves wholly from Anticipations, 
but have Dade a confusion and intermixture of Anticipations 
and observations, and so vanished. That if any have had the 
strength of mind generally to purge away and discharge all 
Anticipations] they have not had that greater and double 
Strength and patience of mind, as well to repel new Anticipa- 
tions after the view and search of particulars, as to reject old 
which were in their mind before; but have from particulars 
and history flown up to principles without the mean degree 
and so framed all the middle generalities or axioms, not by 
way of scale or ascension from particulars, but by way of de- [ 

a S 


rivation from principles ; whence h:\tli issued the infinite chaos 
of shadows and notions ', wherewith both books and minds 
have ' been hitherto, and may be yet hereafter much more 
pestered That in the course of those derivations, to make 
them yet the more unprofitable, they have used when any light 
of new instance opposite to any assertion appeared, rath fir to 
reconcile the instance than to amend the rule. That if any 
have had or shall have the power and resolution to fortify and 
inclose his mind against all Anticipations, yet if he have not 
been or shall not be cautioned by the full understanding of the 
nature of the mind and spirit of man, and therein of the seats 
pores and passages both of knowledge and error, he hath not 
been nor shall not be possibly able to guide or keep on his 
course aright. That those that have been conversant in i B> 
perience and observation have used, when they have intended 
to discover the cause of any effect, to fix their consideration 
narrowly and exactly upon that effect itself with all the cir- 
cmnstances thereof, and to vary the trial thereof as many WSJg 
as can be devised ; which course amounteth but to a tedious 
curiosity, and ever breakcth off in wondering Mid not in know- 
ing : and that they have not used to enlarge their observation to 
match and sort that effect with instances of a diverse subject, 
which 3 must of necessity be before any cause he found out. That 
they have passed over the observation of instances vulgar and 
ignoble, and stayed their attention chiefly upon instance 
j nark ; whereas the other sort are for the most part more sig- 
nihVant and of better light and information. That every par- 
ticular that worketh any effect is a thing compounded (more 
or less) of diverse single natures, (more manifest and more 
obscure,) and that it appeareth not to whether of the nai 

o be ascribed, and yet notwithstanding they have 
taken a course without breaking particulars and reducing them 
Exclusions and inclusions to a definite point, to conclude 
lijmn inductions in gross, which empirical course is no less vain 
than the scholastical. That all such as have sought action and 
work out of their inquiry have been hasty and pressing to 

:.] i§ w riiii ii between the lines in Bacon'* lund, and I am < 

Stephens read It molki, which If ceiumljr wrung. It it ni 

r word I cm think at 

ccrUinj; to tiielr . «ti rait i " folluw In Ite MS, bill .1 
gh 11 



ver some practices for present use, and not to discuver 

AxioCU, joining with them the new assignations U their sure- 

That the forerunning of the mind t > frame recipes up>>n 

Axiom.- ;it the entrance, is like Atalanta's golden ball that liiti- 

h and interrupteth the course, and is to be inhibited till 
vnii have ascended to a certain stage and degree of generali- 
ties; which forbearance will be liberally recompensed in tin- 
end ; and that chance disoovereth new inventions by one and 
one, but science by knots and clusters. That they have not 
collected sufficient quantity of particulars, nor them in suffi- 
cient certainty and subtilly, nor of all several kind-, nor with 
those advantages and discretions in the entry and KttttOg 
which are requisite; and of the weak manner of collecting 
natural history which hath been used. Lastly that they had 
no knowledge of the formulary of interpretation, the work 
whereof is to abridge experience and to make things as cer- 
tainly found "lit by Axiom in short time, as by infinite ex- 
periences in agea 

Cap. 18. 

Thai the Oautela and devices put in practice in the delivery 
of knowledge far tbc covering and palliating of ignorance, and 
the gracing and overvaluing of that they ntter, are without 

number; but none more bold ami more hurtful than two: the 
one that men have used of a lew observations upon any subject 
ti> make a solemn and formal ait, by filling it up with dis- 
COmmodating it with some circumstances and direc- 
tions tO practice, and digesting it into method, whereby men 
grow satisfied and secure, as if no more inquiry were to be 
made of thai matter; the other, that men have used to dis- 
charge ignorance with credit, in denning all those enacts which 
a attain onto t" be oul of the compass of art and 
human endeavour. That the very styles and forms of utter- 
• man) characters of imposture, some choosing a style 
nf pugnacity and contention, some of satire and reprehension, 
uf plausible and tempting similitudes and examples, 
of great word* and high discourse, some of short and 
wetness of method, all of positive 
affirmation, without disclosing the true motives and proofs "f 
their opinions, or free confessing their ignorance or doubts, 

R 4 



except it be now and then fur a grace, and in cunning to win 
the more credit in the rest, and not in good faith. That al- 
though men he free from these errors and incumbrances in the 
will and affection, yet it is not a thing so easy as is conceived 
to convey the conceit uf one man's mind into the mind of an- 
other without loss or mistaking, specially in notions new and 
differing from those that are received. That never any know- 
ledge vrai delivered in the same order it was invented, no not 
in the imatheiuatic, though it should seem otherwise in regard 
that the propositions placed last do use the propositions or 
grants place J first for their proof and demonstration. That 
there are forms and methods of tradition wholly distinct and 
< liffe -ring, according to their ends whereto they are directed. 
That there are two ends of tradition of knowledge, the one t<» 
teach and instruct for use and practice, the other to impart or 
intimate for re-examination and progression. That the former 
of these ends requireth a method not the same whereby it was 
invented and induced, but such as is most compendious and 
ready whereby it may be used and applied. That the latter 
of the ends, which is where a knowledge is delivered to be 
continued and spun on by a succession of labours, requirf th a 
method whereby it may be transposed to another in the same 
manner M it was collected, to the end it may be discerned both 
where the work is weak, and where it breaketh off. That this 
tatter method is not only unfit for the former end, but aleo 
impossible for all knowledge gathered and insinuated by Anti- 
cipations, because the mind working inwardly of itself, no nian 
ean give a just account how he came to that, knowledge which 
he bath received, and that therefore this method is peculiar for 
knowledge gathered by interpretation. That the discretion 
anciently observed, though by the precedent of many rain per- 
sons and deceivers disgraced, of publishing part, and reserving 
*o a private succession, and of publishing in a manner 
it shall not be to the capacity nor taste of all, but 

wei and adopt his reader, is not to be laid 

i for the avoiding of abuse in the excluded, and the 

ing <4' affection in the admitted. That there are 

idition, as that there be no occasion given to 

lit it carry a vigour t" root and spread against the 

and injuries of time; all which if they were 

any knowledge delivered, or if they were never 



iluc to any human knowledge heretofore delivered, yet are now 
due to the knowledge propounded. 

Cap. 19. 

Of the impediments which have been in the affections, the 
principle whereof hath been despair or diffidence, and the 
strong apprehension of the difficulty, obscurity, and infinite" 
ncss which bclongcth to the invention of knowledge, and that 
men have net known their own strength, and that the sup- 
posed difficulties and vastness of the work is rather in shew 
and muster than in state or substance where the true way is 
taken. That this diffidence hath moved and caused some never 
to enter into search, and others when they have been entered 
either to give over or to seek a more compendious course 
than can stand with the nature, of true search. That of thorn 
that have refused and prejudged inquiry, the moie solier and 
grave sort of wits have depended upon authors and traditions, 
and the more vain and credulous resorted to revelation and 
intelligence with spirits and higher natures. That of those 
that have ente red into search, some having fallen upon some 
conceits which they after consider to be the same which they 
have found in former amhors, have suddenty taken a persua- 
sion that a man shall but with much labour incur and light 
upon the same inventions which he might with ease receive 
from others; and that it is but a vanity and sell-pleasing of 
the wit to go about again, as one that would rather have a 
flower of his own gathering, than much belter gathered to his 
hand. That the same humour of sloth and diffidence su»> 
th that a man shall but revive some ancient opinion, which 
was long ago propounded, examined, and rejected. And that 
it is easy to err in conceit that a man's observation or notion 
is the same with a former opinion, both because new conceits 
must of necessity be uttered in old words, and because 1 anon 
true and erroneous grounds men may meet in consequence or 
conclusion, afl several lines or circles that cut in some one point 
That the greatest part of those that have descended into search 
have chosen fur the moel artificial and compendious course to 
induce principle* out of particulars, and to reduce all other 

A pirrnthffii "(«.» the Schools well know)" which follow* here, U»s a Hoc drawn 

-'i It. 



proposition? unto principles; and bo instead of the nearest way, 
have been ted to no way or a mere labyrinth. That the two 
contemplative ways have some resemblance with the old pa- 
rable of the two moral ways, the one beginning with incer- 
tainty anil difficulty, and ending in plainness and certainty, 
and the other beginning with shew of plainness and certainty, 
and ending in difficulty and incertainty. Of the great and 
manifest error and untrue conceit or estimation of the infinite- 
less of particulars, whereas indeed all prolixity is in diBCOUVW 
anil derivations; and of the infinite and most laborious expenee 
of wit that hnth been employed upon toys and matters of no 
fruit or value. That although the period of one age cannot 
advance men to t lie furthest point of interpretation of nature, 
(except the work should he undertaken with greater helps than 
can be expected)] yet it cannot fail in much less space of time 
to make return of many singular commodities towards the 
state and occasions of man's lite. That there is less reason of 
distn t in the course of interpretation now propounded than in 
any knowledge formerly delivered. beOBOM this course doth in 
sort equal men's wits, and leaveth no great advantage or pre- 
eminence to the perfect and excellent motions of the spirit. 
That to draw a straight line or to make a circle perfect round 
by aim of hand only, there must be a great difference between 
an unsteady and unpractised hand and a steady and practised, 
but to do it by rule or compass it is much alike. 

Car 21. 

yi\' the impediments which have been in the two extreme 
humours of admiration of antiquity and love of novelty, and 
again of ovi r-scrvile reverence or over-light scorn of the opi- 

Cap. 22. 

which have been in the affection of 

one kind, which is the disdain of dwelling 

Mint much in experiences and particulars, 

I are vulgar in occurrency, and base and 

besides certain higher is of pride, 

iiily and solemnity, in that tin \ 

their familiar actions, in that they 



have less affinity with arts mechanical and illiberal, in that 
they are not so subject to be controuled by persons of mean 
observation, in that they seem to teach men that tiny know 
not, and not to refer them to that they know. All which 
conditions directly feeding the humour of pride, particulars do 
want. Tbat the majesty of generalities, and the divine nature' 
of the mind in taking them (if they be truly collected, and lie 
indeed the direct reflexions of things,) cannot be too much 
magnified. And that it is true that interpretation is the very 
natural and direct intention, action, and progression of the 
understanding delivered from impediments. And that all An- 
ticipation is but a deflexion or declination by accident. 

Cap. 25. 

Of the impediments which have been in the state of heathen 
religion ami other superstitions and errors of religion. And 
that in the true religion there hath not 1 nor is any impediment, 
except it be by accident or intermixture of humour. That a 
religion which consisteth in rites and forms of adoration, and 
not in confessions and beliefs, is adverse to knowledge; be- 
cause men having liberty to inquire and discourse of Theology 
■ asure, it cometh to pass that all inquisition of nature 
endeth and limitcth itself in such metaphysical or theological 
discourse; whereas if men's wits be shut out of that port, it 
lurneth thein again to discover, and so to seek reason of rea- 
son more deeply. Anil that such was the religion of the Hea- 
then. That a religion that is jealous of the variety of learning, 
discourse, opinions, and sects, {ne misdoubting it may shake the 
foundations.) or that cherisheth devotion upon simplicity and 
ignorance, as ascribing ordinary eflects to the immediate work- 
ing of God, is adverse to knowledge. That such is the religion 
r>i' in- Turk, and BUch hath been the abuse of Christian religion 
at some several times, and in some several factions. And of 
Dgular advantage which the Christian religion hath to- 
I* the furtherance of true knowledge, in that it excludeth 
sod inti nlicteth human reason, whether by interpretation or 
anticipation, from examining or discussing of the mysteries and 
iplcs of fail h. 

Su MS. 


Gap. 26. 

Of the impediments which have been in the nature of society 
and the policies of state. That there is no composition of 
estate or society, nor order or quality of persons, which have 
not some point of contrariety towards true knowledge. That 
monarchies incline wits to profit and pleasure, and common- 
wealths to glory and vanity. That universities incline wits to 
sophistry and affectation, cloisters to fables and unprofitable 
subtilty, study at large to variety ; and that it is hard to say, 
whether mixture of contemplations with an active life, or 
retiring wholly to contemplations, do disable and hinder the 
mind more. 





The first edition of the Advancement of Learning is dated 1605. 
In what month it appeared is doubtful ; but from certain allu- 
ttODs in a letter sent by Bacon to Tobie Matthew with a pre- 
sentation oopy, I gather (for the letter bears no date) that it 
wa3 not out before the latter end of October. 

Tobie Matthew, eldest son of the Bishop of Durham, tru 
tlien about '2.1 years old, and had been intimate with Bacon, 
Certainly for the last three years, and probably for more. Bacon 
had a high Opinion of his abilities anil Mem to have consulted 
him about his work*. "I have now at last (he Bflya in this 
letter) taught that child to go, at the swaddling whereof you 
My work touching the Proficiency and Advancement of 
Learning I have put into two books, whereof the former, which 
you saw, I account but as a Page to the latter. I have now 
published them both, whereof I thought it a small adventure 
nd you a copy, who have more right to it than any man, 
except Bishop Andrews, who was my Inquisitor." 1 

Now Matthew had been abroad since April. 1605 ; and as he 
bad Wtm the first book only, it is prol aide that the second 
was not then written; a circumstance which may be very 
naturally accounted for, if I am right in supposing that the 
Advancement of Learning was begun immediately after the ae- 
on of. lames I. From the (hath of Elizabeth, 24th March, 
3, to the meeting of James's first Parliament, 19th March, 
Bacon had very little to do. lie held indeed the same 
ong the Learned Counsel which he had held under 
belh, but his Hen ices were little if at all used. On the 3d 
duly, 1603, we find him writing to Lord Cecil: — " For my 

i. MitthfwV rcillcrtlnn of English letter*, p, xl. 
November, IGuo. 

Andrews was made a 



purpose or course, I desire to meddle as little as I can in the 
King's causes, his Majesty now abounding in counsel. . . . My 
ambition now I shall only put upon my pen, whereby I shall 
be able to maintain memory and merit of the times succeeding." 
And in the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh at Winchester in the 
following November (though it was a complicated case involv- 
ing many persons and requiring a great number of examina- 
tions) he does not appear to have been employed at all. But 
from the meeting of Parliament in March till the end of 1 604 
he was incessantly employed ; first during the session (which 
lasted till the 7th of July) in the business of the House of 
Commons ; then during the vacation, in preparation for the 
Commission of the Union ' which was to meet in October ; and 
from that time to the beginning of December in the business of 
the Commission itself; — all matters of extreme urgency and 
imjiortance, and the " labour whereof, for men of his profession, 
retted most upon his hand." a 

On the 4th of December the Commissioners signed their re- 
port ; and on the 24th the next meeting of Parliament, which 
had been fixed for February, was postponed till October. This 
prorogation secured Bacon another interval of leisure; an in- 
terval longer perhaps, considering the nature of the public ser- 
vices which had now fallen upon him, than he was likely soon 
again to enjoy ; and which it was the more important thcni>m 
to use in finishing the great literary work which he had begun. 
Tlie same consideration may have determined him to be content 
with a less perfect treatment of the subject than he had origin- 
ally designed ; for certainly the second book, though so much 
the more important of the two, is in point of execution much 
less careful and elaborate than the first, and bears many marks 
of hasty composition. The presumption that an interval oocurro I 
between the writing of the two is further confirmed by the 
fact that they were not printed at the tame time. The first 
ends with a half- sheet, and the second begins upon a fresh one 
with a new signature ; whence I suppose we may infer that the 
first had been printed off before the second was ready for the 

Of the motives which induced Bacon to undertake and 

' See "Certain Articles or Con -.literal Inns touching the union of the Kingdoms 
EPifl.-ind .mil Scotland ; collected and dispersed for IIU Majesty's better service. * 
s Letter to ttre King, touching the Solicitor's place. 




hurry forward the Advancement of Learning at that particular 
time, and of those which afterwards suggested the incorpora- 
1 1« mi of it into his great work on the Interpretation of Nature, 
I have already explained my own view in my preface to the 
De Avgmaftu. Upon all matters requiring cxplanatinn or 
illustration the reader is referred to Mr. Ellis's notes upon 
the corresponding passages in lhat more finished work; and 
that the reference may be more easy I have marked the places 
where the several chapters begin; adiling some account, more 
or lew? complete, of the principal Differences between the two. 
In many cases these differences are so extensive that no ade- 
quate idea of their nature could be given within the limits 
of a note; and in such cases I have been content with a simple 
reference to the place. But where the substance of any addi- 
tion or alteration which seemed to me material could be state I 
succinctly, — especially if it iuvolved any modification of the 
opinion expressed in the text, I have generally endeavoured 
to state it; sometimes translating lhie m's words, sometimes 
giving the effect in my own, as I found ino.-l convenient. 

For the text, I have treated the edition of 1605 as the only 
original authority; the corrections introduced by later editors, 
though often unquestionably right, being (as far as I can see) OOnjectnral. And therefore, though 1 have adopted all 
such corrections into the text whenever 1 was satisfied that 
they give the true reading, I have always quoted in a note the 
reading of the original. Only in the typographical arrange- 
ment with respect to capitals, italics, ficc., (which in the original 
was probably left to the printer's taste, and is inconsistent in 
it-<lf, and would be perplexing to modern eyes,) and also in 
tlie punctuation, which is extremely confused and inaccurate, 
I have u-ii| the full liberty of my own judgment; altering 
as nun h as I pleas d, and endeavouring only to make the 
mse clear to an eye accustomed to modern books, without 
loumbering the page with any notice of such alterations. 
There is one innovation however which I have ventured to 
introduce and which it is necessary to explain. The Advan ce - 
mint of Learning was written for readers who were familiar 
with Latin, and abounds with Latin quotations. In these days 
it may be read with profit by many persons of both sexes to 
whom such quotations are a very perplexing obstruction. 
Forming as they generally do n pari of the context, 10 lhat the 
VOL. III. « 




sentence is not complete without them, those who cannot rend 
Latin are in many cases unable to follow the sense of the 
English. To give such readers the means of understanding 
them seemed therefore no less than necessary ; and I thought 
the true effect of theiu would be conveyed to the mind most 
perfectly and satisfactorily by presenting the interpretations in 
such a form that th-y might he read in their places, just as 
they would have been had they formed part of the original 
li xt, and just as they are in those passages where Bacon has 
himself furnished the interpretation. Following his example 
therefore as nearly as I could, I have endeavoured to give the 
effect of each of these Latin quotations in such a form as 
seemed to suit best the English idiom and to fall best into the 
English context; not tying myself to literal translation, but 
rather preferring to vary the expression, especially where I 
could by that means give it such a turn as to throw the 
emphasis more distinctly upon that part of the quotation which 
Kfj more particularly in point. Thus it will he found. I think, 
that those who understand the Latin may still read the English 
Without feeling it to be a mere repetition, while those who do 
imt will in reading the English alone find the sense always 
complete. It was evident however that translations of (hi- 
kind could not be read in this way conveniently if inserted in 
notes at the bottom of the page ; and therefore, there being 
no room in the margin, I have ventured to insert them in the 
text; from which however, that they may riot l>e mistaken for 
a part of it, I h ive always taken care to distinguish them by 
brackets. In a few cases where a Latin quotation occurs, not 
followed by a translation within brackets, it is to be under- 
stood that it is introduced merely as a voucher for what has 
just been said in the English, or for the purpose of suggesting 
a classical allusion which a translation would not suggest ex- 
cept, to a classical reader, and that the sense is complete with- 
out it. In a few other cases where a quotation is followed by 
Delation not included within brackets, it is to be under- 

M 1 that it is Bacon's own translation and forms part of the 

original text. 

For all the notes except those signed R. L. F.., which are 
Mi. Kin V. | am responsible. 

J. S. 



or THB 






At London: 

Printed tor Henrie Tomes, and are to be told at bit (bop at Grates 

Inne Gate In Holborne. 


8 2 




or THE 




Tin.r.K were under the Law (excellent King) both daily 
sacrifices and freewill ottering.-; the one proceeding upon ordi- 
n-irv observance, the other upon a devout cheerfulness. In 
like manner there belongeth to kings from their servants both 
tribute of duty and presents of affection. In the former of 
I hope I shall nut live to be wanting, according to my 
iuo-t humble duty, and the good pleasure of your Majesty's 
employments : for the later, I thought it more respective to 
make choice of some oblation which might rather refer to the 
propriety and excellency of your individual person, than to] 
I lie business of your crown and state. 

Wherefore representing your Majesty many times unto my 
mind, and beholding you not with the inquisitive eye of pre- 
sumption to discover that which the Scripture telleth me is 
titable, but with the observant eye of duty and admiration; 
apide the other parts of your virtue and fortune, I 
been touched, yea and possessed with an extreme wonder 
your virtues and faculties which ihe philosophers call 
; the largeness of your capacity, the faithfulness 
,', the swiftness of your apprehension, the pene- 
i judgment, and the facility and order, of your 
have oft en thought that of all the DetMfB* 
» 3 


living that I have known, your Majesty were the best instance 
to make a man of Plato's opinion, that all knowledge is but 
remembrance, and that the mind of man by nature knoweth 
all things, and hath but her own native and original notions ' 
(which by the strangeness and darkness of this tabernacle of 
the body are sequestered) again revived and restored : such a 
light of nature I have observed in your Majesty, and such a 
readiness to take flame and blaze from the least occasion pre- 
sented, or the least [spark of another's knowledge delivered. 
And as the Scripture saith of the wisest king, That his heart 
was as the sands of the sea ; which though it be one of the 
largest bodies yet it consisteth of the smallest and finest por- 
tions; so hath God given your Majesty a composition of under- 
standing admirable, being able to compass and comprehend the 
greatest matters, and nevertheless to touch and apprehend the 
least ; whereas it should seem an impossibility in nature for the 
same instrument to make itself fit for great and small works. 
And for your gift of speech, I call to mind what Cornelius 
Tacitus saith of Augustus Csesar ; Augusto prqfluens, et quce 
principem deceret, eloquentia fuit; [that his style of speech was 
flowing and prince-like : a ] for if we note it well, speech 
that is uttered with labour and difficulty, or speech that sa- 
voureth of the affectation of art and precepts, or speech that 
is framed after the imitation of some pattern of eloquence, 
though never so excellent, — aH this has somewhat servile, and 
holding of the subject. But your Majesty's manner of speech 
is indeed prince-like, flowing as from a fountain, and yet 
streaming and branching itself into nature's order, full of facility 
and felicity, imitating none, and inimitable by any. And as in 
your civil estate there appeareth to be an emulation and con- 
tention of your Majesty's virtue with your fortune; a virtuous 
disposition with a fortunate regiment; a virtuous expectation 
(when time was) of your greater fortune, with a prosperous 
possession thereof in the due time ; a virtuous observation of 
the laws of marriage, with most blessed and happy fruit of 
marriage ; a virtuous and most Christian desire of peace, with a 
fortunate inclination in your neighbour princes thereunto: so 
likewise in these intellectual matters, there scemcth to be no 

1 So odd. 1629 and 1633. Ed. 1605 has motiotu. 

* Observe that the translations within brackets are not In the original, but Inserted 
by myself. My reasons for adopting this plan, and the principle upon which 1 have 
proceeded in translating, are explained in the preface. 



less contention between the excellency of| JOVX Majesty's gifts 
nf nature and the universality and perfection of your learning. 
For I am well assured that this which I .-hall say is do amplifi- 
cation at all, hut a positive and measured truth ; which is. that 
there hath not been since Christ's time any king or temporal 
monarch which hath been so learned in all literature and erti- 
dition, divine and human. For let a man seriously and diligently 
revolve aod peruse the sacceerion of the emperors of Rome, of 
which Caesar the diotatoTj who lived some yean before Christ, 
and Mar. us Antoninus were the best learned; and sofuosceud to 
the emperors of Gr.reia. 01 of the West) and then to the lines 
of France, Spain, England, Scotland, and the rust; and ho 
u1ih.11 find this judgment is truly made. 1 For it eeemeth much 
in a king, if by the compendious extractions of Other men's 
wits and labours he can take hold of any superficial ornaments 
and shews of learning. OX if he countenance and prefer learning 
and learned men:! hul to drink indeed of the true fountains of 
learning, nay to nave such a fountain of learning in himself, 
in a king, and in a king horn, 1 is almost a miracle. And the 
more, because there is met in your Majesty ■ rare conjunction 
as well of divine and sacred literature as of profane and hu- 
man : so aa your Majesty standeth invested of that triplieity 
which in great veneration was ascribed to the ancient Hermes; 
the power and fortune ofa King, the knowledge and illumination 
of a Priest, and the learning and universality ofa Philosopher. 
This propriety inherent and individual attribute in your Majesty 
.nil to be expressed not only in the fame and admiration ef 
the present time, nor in the history or tradition of the ages 
succeeding] hut also in some solid work, fixed memorial, and 
immortal monument, bearing B character or signature h i th of the 
[lower of a king and the difference and perfection of such a king. 
Therefore 1 did conclude with myself, that 1 could not make 
unto jour Majesty a better oblation than of some treatise 

tending to that end; whereof the sum will consist of these two 
parts: the former concerning the excellency of learning and 
knowledge, and the excellency of the merit and true glory in 
the augmentation and propagation thereof] the later', what 
the \ particular acts and works arc which have been embraced 

1 n the Ovulation i in- refemcc to the p rtU i nhr <1 j ni i il ri i» Mil tint; baonty 

Prruntll ijUl film rlt imftmtOltim '< mfni .</■/.. ,t i'itlu ,),.'.,* ,mt:?/. 

I i. that It was onK ii" lattel pwl arM M Uw 

KbcilIC ol till' liulunrtUiv Mn-mr Villi tliuu^ll 111 adapting tilt' .Iili '«rf»r«l 
s 4 


and undertaken fur the advancement of learning, and agnin 

wlial defects and undervalues I tind in such particular acta] to 

the end though I cannot positively or affirmatively advise 

yoar Majesty, or propound unto you framed particulars, yet 

I may excite \<>iir princely cogitations to visit the excellent 

treasure of your own mind, and thence to extract particulars 

far this purpose agreeable to your magnanimity and wisdom. 

\° / I* the entrance to the former of these, — to clear the way, 

and as it were to make silence to have the true testimonies 

Qocoerning the dignity of learning fo be better heard without 

the interruption of tacit objections, — 1 think good to deliver it 

from the discredits and disgraces which it hath received; all 
from ignorance; hut ignorance severally disguised: appearing 
sometimes in the zeal and jealousy of divines, sometime- in 
the severity and arrogance of politupies, and sometimes in the 
errors and imperfections of learned men themselves. 

I hear the former sort say, that knowledge is of those things 
which are to he accepted of with great limitation and caution ; 
that the aspiring to over-much knowledge was the original 
temptation and|sin, whereupon ensued the fall of man ; that 
knowledge lutth in it somewhat of the serpent, and therefore 
where it entereth into a man it makes .him swell, — Scientia 
injiat, [knowledge puffeth up ;] that Salomon gives a censure, 
That tlicre it no end of making books, ami (hut much reading 
is irroriness of the Jivxh ; and again in another place. Thai M 
s/>i/riuiis hnoirlrilijr tin n- is much contristation, and that hi that 
incrmsith knowledge increastth anxiety j that St. Paul gives a 
caveaty That toe be not spoiled through vain philosophy ; that 

experience demonstrates how learned men have bees wce> 
heretics, how learned times have heen inclined to atheism, and 
how the contemplation of second causes doth derogate from our 
dependence upon God, who is the first cause. 
"ty To discover then the ignorance and error of this opinion 
and the misunderstanding in the grounds thereof, it may well 
appear these men do not observe or consider that it was not 
the pure knowledge of nature and universality, a knowledge 
by the light whereof man did give names unto other creatures 
in Paradise, as they were brought before him, according unto 

„t '/, .ikiiim/ t.i It, he retained the former [iart, )et he marks it in llie translation .is 
lively unimportant ; adding with regard !•> the first, •/•>■■ ' urgM 

Ua iiiihfa jiiatcimilU-mtn, .mil »ilh nfjlti t" ibt sti'und, 'fod caput rci at. 




their proprieties, which gave the occasion tr» the lall : hut it 
\\:i- the proud knowledge of good and i'vil, with an intent in 
man to give law unto himself and to depend DO more upon 
GhxFe commandments, which was the form of the temptation. . 
Neither is it any quantity of knowledge how great soever that 
can make the mind of man to swell ; for nothing can fill, much 
lees exten I, the soul of man, but God and the contemplation of . 
God; and therefore SftlomoB speaking of the two principal 
ses of inquisition, the eye and the ear, affirmeth that the 
e is never satisfied wi*h seeing, nor the ear with hearing ; 
and if there Ibe no fulness, then is the continent greater than 
the content! to of knowledge itself and the mind of man, 
whereto the senses are but reporters, he definotb likewise in 
these words, placed after that calendar or ephemerides which 
he maketh of the diversities of limes and seasons for all ac- 
tiim> and purposes ; and concludcth thus: God hath made all 
thingt liruiilifril, or decent, in the true return of their ttagons : 
.Also hr hntli ji/mcti the icorhi in man's heart, [fit ennnof mmi 

jind out the work which God worheth from the beginning to the 

end: declaring not obscurely that God liath framed the mind 
of man as a mirror or glass capible of the image of the uni- 
versal world, and joyful to receive the impression thereof, a-^ 
the eye joyetfa to receive light; and not only delighted 
in beholding the variety of things and vicissitude of times, 
hut raised also {o find out and discern the ordinances and 
decrees which throughout all those changes are infallibly ob- 
1. And although be doth insinuate that the supreme 
or summary law of nature, which he calleth the work which 
God warheth from the beginning to the end, is not possible to be 
found "ut ]<\ man; S't that doth not derogate from the capa- 
city of thi mind, but may be referred to the impediments, as 
of shortness of life, ill conjunction of labours, ill tradition of 
knowledge over from hand to hand, and many other incon- 
veniences whereuntO the condition of man is subject. For 
that nothing parcel of the world is denied to man's inquiry 
and invention be doth in another place rule over, when hi 
The spirit of man it as the lamp qf God, wherewith he 
heth the inwardness of all secrets. If then such be the 
cepnoitj and reoeii of the mind of man, it is manifest that 
there U DO danger at all in the proportion or quantity of 
knowledge, how large soever, lest it should make it swell or 



out-conijii! : no, but it is the quality of know- 

ledge, which be it in quantity Ban or less, if it be taken with- 
out the true corrective thereof, hath in it some nature of venom 
or malignity, and some effects of that venom, which is VtttfeO- 
sity or swelling. This corrective spice, the mixture whereof 
in.tkrt'i knowledge so sovereign, is Charity, which the npostle 
immediately addeth to the former ciau-e; fr so he saith, 
knowledge bluueth >ij>, hut charity buiideth up ; nut unlike im'i> 
that which he deliver th in another place: If I spake (saith he) 
with (ht tmi'/iiix of men and angels, and had not charity, it teere 
hut as a tinkling cymbal; not but that it is nn excellent thing 
uk with the tongues of men and angels, but because if it 
rered from charily, and not referred to the good of men 
and mankind, it hath rather a M Ottdhtg and unworthy gloiy 
than a meriting and substantial virtue. And a* for that cen- 
sure of Salomon concerning the excess of writing and read- 
ing books and the anxiety of spirit whjcj] redoundctli from 
kii..\vle<l^e, anil that admonition of St, Paul, That tec be not 
seduced by vain philosoj dig : let those places be rightly under- 
stood, and they do indeed excellently set forth the true bounds 
nnd limitations whereby human knowledge is confined and 
Circumscribed ; and yet without any such contracting or coarc- 
tation, but that it may comprehend all the universal nature of 
things. For these limitations are three. The first, that we do 
not so place our felicity in knowledge, as tee forget our mortality. 
The second, that we maht application of oar knowledge to gire 

^onrsrh and content/wilt, ami art distaste or repining. 

The thinl. i hat ice do not presume by the contcmjdation of na- 
ture to attain to the mysteries of God. For ns touching the 
flwt of these, Solomon doth excellently expound himself in 
mother place of the same book, where he saith ; I sun- well 
that kuowli !ge ncedeth as far from ignorance as light doth 
■ 01 darknew, and that the wise mans eyes keep watch iii his 
head, whereas the fool roundel h about in darliu'ss: hut withal I 
hnriieil that the same mortality incolnth them both. And for 
the second, certain it is, there is no vexation or anxiety of 
mind which resultcth from knowledge otherwise th m merely 
cidenl ; for all knowledge and wonder (which is the seed 
of knowledge) is an impression of pleasure in itself: but 
when men fall to framing conclusions nut of their know], w^ , 
■llying it to their particular, and ministering to themselves 


thereby weak fears nr rest desires, there growelh that careful- 
ness ami trouble of mi ml which is spoken of: for tlien know- 
ledge is no more Lumen siccum [a dry light], whereof I I 
clitus the profound said, Lumen rieevm optima anima 1 , [the 
dry light i-< the best soul ;] hut it bccometh Lumen mudiduiu 
or maceratum, [a light charged with moisture.] being steeped 
and info-vd in the humours of the affections. And as for the 
third point, it deserveth to be a little stood upon and nofto he 
tightly passed over: for if any man shall thiuk by view and 
inquiry into these sensible and material things to attain that 
light whereby he may reveal unto himself the nature or will of 
God, then indeed is he spoiled by vain philosophy: for the 
contemplation of God's creatures and work ih (hav- 

ing regard to the works and creatures themselves) knowlc 
but having regard to God, no perfect knowledge, but wonder, 
which is broken knowledge, And therefore it was most aptly 
Mud by one of Plato's school, That the sense of man carrieth a 
resemblance with the fan, irhirh (as ire see) opeueth and rrrealeth 
till the terrestrial globe; but then again It ib.«iireth and eoncrateth 
tile stars and ceh stinl globe : so doth the sense discover natural 
things, but it ilnrh nrth and tkutteth u/i diciiu: And hence it is 
true thai it hath proceeded that divers great {learned men have 
been heretical, whilst they have sought to fly up to the secrets 
of the Deity by the waxen wings of the senses. And as for the 
lonceit that too much knowledge should incline a man to 
atheism, and that the ignorance of second causes should make a 
more devout dependence upon God which is the first cause; 
Rat, it i> good to ask the question which Job asked of his 
friends, Will you lie for God, as one man will do for another, to 
gratify him t For certain it is lhat God woikelh nothing in ' 

Harare but bypeeond causes; and if they would have it otherwise 

believed, it is mere imposture, as it were in favour towards 
God; and nothing else hot to offer to the author of truth the 
unclean sacrifice of a lie. But farther, it is an assured truth 
and a conclusion of experience, that a little or superficial 
knowledge of philosophy may incline the mind of man to 
atheism, but a farther proceeding therein d->th bring the mind 

1 a\i")-ii (.itjrii >iv\h trwbairdTr): a corrnpli"n, ncontlnB to th' f t'rofisw 

W.H. Tbompaon, of aCi} ^v\}j no/punaTq ; ^rjprj luivlhj? bci'n rir-i in^frtt d by one 

cumiMntatiir, In explain tin- untiMial word a(fi. and - Into ihc ttsti c.617 

h .viit; hern tun>fd Into aiyh by nit'thtT, to inak* «n*e. S.c Rtvwiiu ■■■ 
An/in tlhtli-, m.I. I. p. 3N. 



back again to religion ; for in the entrance of philosophy, when 
the second eaPSet. which are next unto the senses, do offer 
themselves to the [mind of man. if it dwell and Btsj there, it 
may induce some oblivion of the highest cause ; but when 
a man passeth on farther, and seeth the dependence of can 
.ii/d the works of Providence: then, according to the allegory 
of the poets, he will easily believe that the highest link of 
nature's chain liinst needs lie tied to the foot of Jupiter's chair. 
To conclude therefore, let no man. upon a weak conceit, of 
sobriety or an ill-ap[ilied moderation, think or maintain that 
a man can search too far or be too well studied in the book of [ 
God's word or in the book of God's works; divinity or philo- 
sophy ; but rat her let men endeavour an endless progress or 
[iioficienee in both; only let men beware that they :ip[>ly both 
to charity, and not to swelling; to use, and not to ostentation ; 
and again, that they do not unwisely mingle or confuuud these 
learnings together. 

y And as for the disgraces which learning rcceiveth from ptli- 
/ tiques, they be of this nature; that learning doth soften men's 
I minds, and makes them inure Unapt for the honour aiul exercise 
'i of arms : thai it doth mar and pervert nun's (Impositions for 
> matter jof government and policy, in making them too curious 
/ and irresolute by variety of reading, or too peremptory or po- 
sitive by strictness of rules and axioms, or too immoderate rind 
overweening by reason of the greatness of examples, or too 
incompatible and differing from the times by reason of the dis- 
similitude of examples ; 01 at least flint it doth divert men's 
f nivalis (nun action and business, and bringeth them to a love 
af I ■i-uie arid privateness : and that it doth bring into states 
a relaxation of discipline, whilst every man is more ready to 
argue than to obey and execute. Out of this conceit Cato 
surnamed the CedSor, one of the wisest men indeed that ever 
lived, when Oarncades the philosopher came in embassage to 
Rome, and that the young men of Rome began to flock about 
him, being allured with the sweetness and majesty of his elo- 
quence and learning, gave counsel in open senate that they 
should give him his dispatch with all speed, lest he should in- 
■ t and inchant the minds and affectum* of the youth, and at 
Unawares bring in an alteration of the maimers and customs of 
■ state. Out of the same conceit or humour! did Virgil, 



turning his pen to the advantage of his country and the dis- 
advantage of his own profession, muke a kind of separation be- 
tween policy and government and between arte and sciences, 
in the verses so much renowned, attributing and challenging 
the one to the Romans, and leaving and yielding the other to 
the Grecians ;) Tu regere imperio populos, Bomane, memento, llat 
tibi erunt artes, &c. 

[Be thine, Rome, 
With arts of government to rule the nations.] 

So likewise we Bee that Anytus, the accuser of Socrates, laid 
it as an article of charge and accusation against him that he 
did with the variety and power of his discourses and dieputa- - 

tions withdraw young men from due reverence to the laws and 
customs of their country; and that he did profess a dangerous 
and pernicious science, which was to make the worse matter 
seem the better, and to suppress truth by force of eloquence 
and speech. 

Hut these and the like imputations have rather a countenance 
of gravity than any ground of justice : for experience doth 
warnint that both in persons and in times there hath been a 
meeting and concurrence in learning and arms, flourishing Bad 
excelling in the same men and the same ages. For as lor men, 
there cannot be a better nor the like instance, as of that jpair, 
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar the dictator; whereof 
the one was Aristotle's scholar in philosophy, and the other was 
Cioero'l rival in eloquence; or if any man had rather call for 
Scholars thai were great generals than generals that were great 
scholars, let hitn take Epamiuondas the Thebau, or Xenophou 
the Athenian ; whereof the one was the first that abateil the 
power of BpartA, and the other was the first that made way to 
the overthrow of the monarchy of Persia. And this concur- 
rence is yet more visible in times than in persons, by how much 
an age I is greater object tli an a man. For both in ./Egypt, 
A.--yiia, Persia, Gracia, and Home, the same time-* that are 
most renowned for arms are likewise most admired for learn- 
ing] so that the greatest authors and philosophers and the 
greatest captains and governor! have lived in the same ages. 
Neither can it otherwise be: for as in man the ripens 
Strength of the body and mind OOtneth much about an age, save 
th it the strength of the body oometfa somewhat the more earl; ; 
States, arms and learning, whereof the one OOtfreepondcth 




to the body, the other tojthe soul of man, have a concurrence 
or near sequence in times. 

And for mutter of policy and government, that learning 
should rather hurt than enable thereunto, is a thing very im- 
probable. We see it is accounted an error to commit a natural 
body to empiric physicians, which commonly have a few pleas- 
ing receits whereupon they are confident and adventurous, 
but know neither the causes of diseases, nor the complex inns of 
patients, DOT peril of accidents, nor the true method of cure^. 
"We see it is a like error to rely upon advocates or lawyers 
which arc only men ofrt>ractice and not grounded in their books, 
who are many times easily surprised when matter falleth out 
besides their experience, to the prejudice of the causes they 
handle. So by like reason it cannot be but a matter of doubt- 
ful consequence, if states be managed by empiric statesmen, 
not well mingled with men grounded in learning. But contra- 
riwise, it is almost without instance contradictory, that ever ' 
any government was disastrous that was in the hands of learned 
governors. For howsoever it hath been ordinary with politic 
men to extenuate and disable learned men by the names of 
Pedantes ; yet inl the records of time it appcareth in many 
particulars, that jhe governments of princes in minority (not- 
withstanding the infinite disadvantage of that kind of state | 
have nevertheless excelled the g o v ernm ent <>f princes of mature 
■go, even for that reason which they sock to traduce, which 
is, tint by that occasion the state hath been in the hands of 
Prdtate$i for so was the state of Rome for the first five years, 
which are so much magnified, during the minority of Nero, in 
the hands of Seneca, a I'cdanti : so it was again for ten years 
space or more, during the) minority of Gordianus the younger, 
w\\]\ great applause and eontcntation in the hands of Mi-itlcus. 
a f*,</(iuti: BO was it before that, in the minority of Alexander 
in like happiness, in hands not much unlike, by 
D of the rule of the women, who were aided by As 
nd preceptors. Nay let a man look into the govern- 
ment of the bishojra of Koine, as by name into the government 
oi Pius Quintus and Sexrus Quintus in our times, who were 
it their entrance esteemed but as pedantical friars, and he 
■ball find that such popes do greater things, and proceed upon 

1 So in all i hi' i-:!. 




truer principles af estate, than tOOM which have ascended to 
the papacy from an education and breeding in affairs of estate 
and courts of princes ; for although men bred in learning 
are perhaps to seek in points of convenience and accommo- 
dating for the present, which the Italians call ratjioni di statu, 
whereof the same Pius Quintus could not hear spoken with 
patience, terming them inventions against religion and t.l 1 1 ■ 
mora] virtues; yet on the other side, to recompense th;it, they 
are perfect in those sninc [>lu.n grounds of religion, justice, 
honour, and moral virtue: which ifltltev be well and watch- 
fully pursued, there will be seldom use of those other, \o ni'uc 
than of physic in a -<>und or well-dieted body. Neither can 
the experience of one man's life furnish examples and prece- 
dents fol the events of one man's life : for as it happeneth 
BOBU times that the grandchild or other descendant resembhth 
the ancestor more than the son; so many times occurrenn ■- 
of present times may sort better with ancient examples than 
with those of the later or immediate times: and lastly, the wit 
of one man can no more, countervail learning than one DMX 
means/can hold way with a common purse. 

Anu as for those particular seduccments or indispositions of ' 
th<' mind for policy and government, which learning if pre- 
tended to insinuate; if it be granted that any such thing be, 
it must he remembered withal, that learning ministereth in 
every of (hem greater strength of medicine or remedy, than it 
reth cause of indisposition or infirmity. For if by a Beard 
operation it make men perplexed and irresolute, on the other 
side by plain precept it teachcth them when and upon what 
ground to resolve; yea, and how to carry things in suspense ' 
withi.ut prejudice till they resolve. If it make m< n | o-itive 
and regular, it teachetfa them what things are in their nature 
demonstrative, and what ere conjectural ; and as well the use of 
distinctions and exceptions, u the latitude of prinoiplea and 
rules. If it mi-lead by disproportion or dissimilitude of ex- 
amples, it teacheth men the force of eiivnm-tanees, the errors 
of comparisons, and all the cautions of application; so that in 
all these it doth rectify more effectually than it can pervert. 
And these medicinec it conveyeth into men's minds much 
Bum forcibly by the quickness and penetration of examples. 
For let a man look into the errors of Clement the seventh, so 
described by Guicciardine, who served under him, or 


into the errors of Cicero painted out hy his own pe'acil in 

[■istles to Atticus, and he will fly apace from beincr i> 
lute. Let him look into the errors of Phocion, and he will 
beware how he be obstinate or inflexible. Let him but rend 
the fable «>f Ixion, and it will hold him from being vaporous or 
native. Let him look into the errors of C'»to the second, 
and he will never be one of the) Antipodes, to tread opposite to 
the present world. 

And for the conceit that learning should dispose men to 
l-i-ure and privateness, and make men slothful; it were a 
Htr.-mge tidag if that which aecustometh the mind to a perpetual 
motion and agitation should induce slothfulness ; whereas con- 
trariwise it may be truly affirmed that no kind of men love 
business for itself but those that are learned; for other per- 
sona love it for profit, as an hireling that loves the work for 
the wages ; or for honour, as because it beareth them tip in the 
eves of men, and refresheth their /reputation which otherwise 
would wear; or because it putteth them in mind of their f- >r- 
tune, and giveth them occasion to pleasure and displea-mc: 
or because it exerciseth some faculty wherein they take pride, 
and so entertaineth them in good humour and pleasing conceits 
toward themselves : or because it advanceth any other their 
ends. So that as it is said of untrue valours that some men's 
valours arc in the eyes of them that look on, so such men's 
industries are in the eyes of otln rs, or at least in regard of 
their own designments ' ; only learned men love business as I 
an action according to nature, as agreeable to health of mind 
as exercise is to health of body, taking pleasure in the action 
If, and not in the purchase : so that of all men they are the 
most indefatigable, if it be towards any business which can 
hold or detain their mind. / 

And if any man be laborious in reading and study and yet 
idle in business and action, it groweth from some weakm M of 
of spirit, such as Seneca speaketh of; Qi/ulam 
Imn mnit umbratilei, ut putent in turbido esse quicqvid in luce 
at, [there arc some men bo fond of the shade, tbal they think 
the) uc in trouble whenever they are in the light :] and not of 
learning. Well may it be that such a point of a man's nature 

th<\ lui'i' fur llxir cilijrii .iifit-r the applause ol'olhm or some inward grati- 

iWtV. (hue ridtntur ugtt*. uwt ut ulii plaudunt, aiU ui iysi intra te 




may make him give himself to learning, but it is not learning 
that breedeth any such point in hia nature. 

And that learning should take up too much time or leisure; 
I answer, the most active or busy man that hath been or can 
be hath (no question) many vacant times of leisure, while he * 
expecteth the tides and returns of business, (except he be either 
tedious and of no dispatch, or lightly and unworthily ambitious 
to meddle in things that may be better done by others ;) 
and then the question is but how those spaces and times 
"I leisure shall be filled and spent; whether in pleasures or in 
studies ; as was well answered by Demosthenes to his adversary 
/Tvehines ', that was a man given to pleasure, and told him 
that his orations did smelt nf the lamp : Indeed (said Demo- 
sthenes ) there i» a great difference between the things that you 
and I do by lamji-liyht. So as no man need doubt that learn- 
ing will expulsc business; but rather it will keep and defend 
the posseanonjof the mind against idleness and pleasure, which 
otherwise at unawares may enter to the prejudice of both. 

Again, foe that other conceit that learning should undermine 
the reverence of laws and government, it is assuredly a mere 
depravation and calumny without all shadow of truth. For to 
say that a blind custom of obedience should be a Burer obliga- 
tion than duty taught and understood, it is to affirm that a 
blind man may tread surer by a guide than a seeing man can 
by a light. And it is without all controversy that learning 
doth make the minds of \men gentle, generous, maniable, and 
pliant to government; whereas ignorance makes them churlish, 
thwart, and mutinous : and the evidence of time doth clear 
this assertion, considering that the most barbarous, rude, and 
unlearned times have been most subject to tumults, seditions, 
and changes. 

And as to the judgment of Cato the Censor, he was well 
punished for his blasphemy against learning, in the same kind 
wherein he offended j for when he was past threescore years 
old, he was taken with an extreme desire to go to school 
again and to learn the Greek tongue, to the end to peruse 
thej Greek authors ; which doth well demonstrate, that his tor- 
mer censure of the Grecian learning was rather an affected 
gravity, than according to the inward sense of his own opinion. 
And as for VirgiJ's verses, though it pleased him to brave the 

Pyttica* KttorditiR to Plutarch. 



world in taking to the Romans the art of empire, and leaving 
to others the arts of subjects; yet so much is manifest, that the 
IJomans never ascended to that height of empire till the time 
they had ascended to the height of other urtfl ;.ibr in the time 
of the two first Caesars, which had the art of ^government in 
greatest perfection, there lived the best poet, Virgilius Maro; 
the best hi-turiographer, Titus Livius ; the best antiquary, 
Marcus Varro; and the best, or second orator, Marcus Cicero, 
that to the memory of man are known. A9 for the accusation 
"f Socrates, the time must be remembered when it was pros - 
BOted; which was under the thirty tyrants, the must ha>c, 
bloody, and envious persons that have governed ; which revo- 
lution of state was no sooner over, but Socrates, whom they 
had made a person criminal, was made a person heruical, tad 
his memory accumulate with honours divine and human; and; 
those discourses of his, which were then termed corrupting of 
manners, were after acknowledged for sovereign medicines of 
the mind and manners, and so have been received ever since 
till this day. Let this therefore serve for answer to politiques, 
which in their humorous severity or in their feigned gravitv 
have presumed to throw imputations upon learning; which re 
dargution nevertheless (save that we know not whether 0111 
labours may extend to other ages) were not needful for the 
present, in regard of the love and reverence towards learning 
which the example and countenance of two so learned prinoM, 
queen Elizabeth land your Majesty, being as Castor and Pollux, 
lucida siilera, stars of excellent light and most benign influence, 
hath wrought in all men of place and authority in our nation. 


Now therefore we come to that third sort of discredit 
or diminution of credit, that groweth unto learning from 
learned men themselves, which commonly cleave th fastest. It 
is either from their fortune, or from their manners, or from the 
nature of their studies. For the first, it is not in their power; 
and the second is accidental-, the third only is proper to be 
handled. But because we are not fin hand with true measure, 
but with popular estimation and conceit, it is not amiss to speak 
somewhat of the two former. The derogation! therefore which 
grow to learning from the fortune or condition of learned men, 
are either in respect of scarcity of means, or in respect of 
privafeness of life and meanness of employment's. 



Concerning want, ami that it is the case of learned men 
HMiiIly to begin with little and not to grow rich BO last as 
other men, by reason they convert not their labours chiefly to 
lucre, and increase ; it were good to leave the common place 
in commendation of poverty to some friar to handle ', to whom 
much was attributed by Machiavel in this point, when he said. 
That the kingdom of the clergy had been long before at an end, 
if the rryutation and reverence towards the poverty of friars had 
nut bono- out the scandal of the superfluities and excesses of bi- 
shops and prelates. So a man might say that the felicity and 
delicacy of princes and great persons had long HZUM turned 
to rudeness and barbarism, if the poverty of learning had lift 
kept up civility and honour of life. But without any such 
a<lv;intages, it is worthy the observation what a reverend and 
honoured thing poverty of fortune was for some ages in the 
Roman state, which nevertheless was a state without para- 
doxes. For we see what Titus Livius saith in his introduc- 
tion: Catrn/Hi ant mr amor ntrjotii suscepti Jul lit, out nulla un- 
ijuam respublica ncc major, nee sa/ivfiar, MM bom's estlHpUi ditior 
fait ; nee in quam tarn sera avaritia luxuriaque immiyraverint ; 
nee ubi tantus ac tarn diu paupi rtuti ac parsimonuc honos fat i it : 
[that it' affection for his subject did not deceive him, there 
was never any state in the world either greater or grant or 
richerin good examples; never any into which avarice and luxury 
DUtdfl their way so late; never any in which poverty and fru- 
gality wire for bo long a time held in so great honour]. We 
BOS. likewise* after that the state of Rome was not itself but 
did degenerate, how that pert-ou that took upon him to be coun- 
sellor tol.Tulius Carsar after his victory, where to begin his 
restoration of the state, inakeih it of all point! the most sum- 
mary to taki away the estimation of wealth : I Vnum /. 
omnia main pai iter cum honore pecuniae desinent ; si m ipie ntayi- 
itratut, nnpu- /ilia rulyo cu]<inula, anulia erunt : [but these and 
all other evil.- the says) wdl cease as soon as the worship of 
money ceast - ; which will come to pass when neither magistre- 
eie.- nor other thing- that are objects of desire to the vulgar 

11 be to be had for money]. To conclude this, as it 

ras truly said that rubor t»t riitntis color, £e> blush is virtue's 

colour,] though sometime it come from vice; so itlmay be fit 1 v 

laid thai /iiioj'trtiis t$t virtutis fortuna, [poverty is virtue's for- 

1 I*»tri1iU» in.ndi. mill ',.i rotnra ilii.i rim). — /)• Akj, 

1 -l 



tune,] though sometime it may proceed from misgovernment 
and accident. Surely Salomon hath pronounced it, both in cen- 
sure, Qui festinat ad divitias nan erit interns, [he that maketh 
haste to be rich shall not be innocent;] and in precept, Buy the 
truth, and sell it not; and so of wisdom and knowledge ; judging 
that means were to be spent upon learning, and not learning 
to be applied to means. And as for the privateness or obscure- 
ness (as it may be in vulgar estimation accounted) of life of 
contemplative men ; it is a theme so common to extol a pri- 
vateilife, not taxed with sensuality and sloth, in comparison 
and to the disadvantage of a civil life, for safety, liberty, plea- 
sure, and dignity, or at least freedom from indignity, as no 
man lmndleth it but haudlcth it well; such a consonancy it 
hath to men's conceits in the expressing and to men's consents 
in the allowing. This only I will add, that learned men for- 
gotten in states, and not living in the eyes of men, are like 
the images of Cassius and Brutus in the funeral of Junia; of 
which not being represented, as many others were, Tacitus 
saith, Eo ipso jirafnlgebant, quod non visebantur ; [they had the 
preeminence over all — in being left out]. 

And for meanness of employment, that which ■ most traduced 
to contempt is that the government of youth is commonly 
allotted to them ; which age, because it is the nge of least 
authority, it is transferred to the discstceming of those employ- 
ments wherein vouth is conversant, and which are conversant 
about youth, liut how unjust this traducement is (if " you will 
reduce UuBgS from popularity of opinion to measure of reason) 
may appear in that we see men are more curious what they put 
into a new vessel than into a vessel seasoned, and what mould 
they lay about a young plant than about a plant corroborate; 
so as the weakest terms and times of all things use to have the 
hc.-t application* and helps. And will you hearken to tliu 
i w fabbina? Your young men thaU see visions, and ynur 
old men shall dream dreams ; say they ' youth is the worthier 
age, for that vi.-iens are nearer apparitions of God than dreams. 
Ami let it be noted, that howsoever the conditions of life of 
Pedantes have ' been scorned upon theatres, as the ape of 
tyranny ; and that the modern jlooseness or negligence hath 

' So the original. Edd. 1629 and 1633 have (Ac. 'I he meaning If, " upon thu ti at 
• ob**rve," ttc. ( Ex hoc tr.rtm nJIiguwl, ) 
!h< id. 1 838. The original lui- hulk. 



taken no due regard to the choice of school-masters sad tutor.*; 
yet the ancient wisdom of the best times did always make a 
just complaint that states were too busy with their laws and 
too negligent, in point of education : which excellent part 
of ancient discipline hath been in some sort revived of late 
times by the colleges of the Jesuits ; of whom, although in 
regard of their superstition I may say, quo meliores, eo deteri- 
ores ', [the better the worse ;] yet in regard of this, and some 
other points concerning human learning and moral matters, I 
may say, as Agesilaus said toj his enemy Pharnabazus, talis 
i/innii sis, utinam noster esses, [they are so good that I wish 
they were on our side]. And thus much touching the dis- 
credits drawn from the fortunes of learned men. 

As touching the manners of learned men, it is a thing per- 
sonal and individual : and no doubt there be amongst them, as 
in other pro fes sional, of all temperatures: but yet so as it is 
not without truth which is said, that abeunt stadia in mores, 
studies have an influence and operation upon the manners of 
those that are conversant in them. 9 

Hut upon an attentive anil indifferent review, T for my part 
cannot find any disgrace to learning can proceed from the 
manners of •learned men; not inherent to them as they are 
learned 3 ; except it be a fault (which was the supposed fault 
of Demosthenes, Cicero, Cato the second, Seneca, and many 
more) that because the times they read of arc commonly better 
than the times they live in, and the duties taught better than 
tli> duties practised, they contend sometimes too far to bring 
things to perfection, and to reduce the corruption of manners 
to honesty of precepts or examples of too great height. And 
yet hereof they have caveats enough in their own walks. For 
Solon, when he was asked whether he had given his citizens 
the best laws, answered widely, Yea of such as they would 

1 This parenthesis is omitted in the translation, no doubt as offensive to the Roman 
Catholic-. Several other passage* of tbf same kind occur In the Athancrment, and 
they are nil treated In the Mime way. The motive for which is sufficiently explained 
b> Bao n himself in the letter which he sent to the King along with the I)t Aut/mrnti§. 
•• I hive been also (he says) mine own Lidrx E-ipurgaloriu; that It may he read In 
I or since my end of putting it into I,atin was to have It read everywhere, 
it had been all kbaard contradiction to Tree it In the language and to lull it up in the 
nutter." Mr. Ellis made 8 list of these passages, which will be noticed In thrir places. 
The word memy In the next clause is omitted, probably from the same motive. 

* And that learning (tbe translation adds), unless the mind into which it enter* be 
much depraved, correct- the natural disposition and chances It for the better. 

1 i | or I I mean, from such manners as are} inherent. !ec. (nu'lum nccirrif dedtcut 
UUtit, *l littratotum m» ttw, sssafnau mat lUtrali, mUmrtmn.) 

t :t 



receive : and Plato, finding that his own heart could not agree 
With the corrupt manners of his country, refused to hear place 
or office ; saying, That a man's country was to be used asihis 
parents were, that is, with humble persuasions, and not with coif 
testations: and Csesar's counsellor put in the same caveat, '<Non 
ad cetera instituta revocans qua jampridem corruptis moribus 
iudibrio sunt : [not to attempt to bring things back to the original 
institution, now that by reason of the corruption of manners 
the ancient simplicity and purity had fallen into contempt:] 
and Cicero noteth this error directly in Cato the second, when 
he writes to his friend Atticus; Cato optmt sentit, sed nocet 
iuterdum reipublica ; loquitur enim tanquam in republica Pla- 
ti'tu's, how tanquam in face Romnli : [Cato means excellently 
well; but he does hurt sometimes to the state; fox he talks 
as if it were Plato's republic that we are living in, and not 
the dregs of Romulus :] aud theWmc Cicero doth excuse and 
expound the philosophers for going too fir and being too exact 
in their prescripts, when he saith, \Isti ipsi praceptores virtutis 
et magistri videntur fines offtciorum paulo lonijius qtiam uatuni 
vellet protulisse, ut cum ad ultimum amino contmdisscmus. i!>i 
tmii'ii, ubi oportct, con sister emus : [that they had set the points 
of duty .somewhat higher than nature would well bear; mean- 
in- belike to allow for shortcomings, and that our endeavours 
iiiniing beyond the mark and falling short, should light at the 
right place:] and yet himself might have said, Mo/citis sum 
minor ijisr iitcis, [that he fell short of his own precepts] ; for it 
was bis own fault, though not in so extreme a degree. 

Another fault likewise much of this kind hath been incident 

to learned men; w 
serration, good, and 

tich is, that they have esteemed the pre- 
honour of their countries or masters before 
their own fortunes in - safeties. For so saith Demosthenes unto 
the Athenians : //* it please you to note it, my counsels unto you. 
-ut such whereby I should grow great amongst yon, and you 
ittlc umtmgst the Grecians ; but tkry be of that nature, as 
not y ood fur me to give, but are always good 
o follow. And so Seneca, after he had consecrated 
nnium \< ranis to the eternal glory of learned go- 
on his Honest and loyal course of good and free 
his master grew extremely corrupt in hie 
tther cel.ii thu point otherwise be; for learning 
minds wiih a true sense of the frailty of their 



person.-, the casually of their fortunes, and the dignity of their 
soul and vocation ; so that it is impossible for them to esteem 
that any greatness of their own fortune (can be a true or worthy 
cud of their being and ordainment; and therefore are desirous 
to give their account to God, and so likewise to their masters 
under God (as kings and the states that they serve), in these 
words; Erce tibi lucrefeci y and not JScce milti Incrrferi, [' Lo, I 
have gained for thee,' not • Lo, I have gained for myself: *] 
whereas the corrupter sort of mere politiques, that have not 
their th> ughts established by learning in the love and appre- 
hension >f duty, nor never look abroad into universality, do 
refer all things to themselves, and thrust themselves into the 
centre of the world, as if all lines/ should meet in them and 
their fortunes ; never caring in all tempests what becomes of 
the ship of estates, so they may save themselves in the cockboat 
of their own fortune ; whereas men that feel the weight of 
duty, and know the limits of self-love, use to make good their 
1 and duties, though with perif:v And if they stand in 
seditious and violent alterations, it is rather the reverence which 
many times both adverse parts do give to honesty, than any 
versatile advantage of their own carriage. But for this point 
of tender sense and fast obligation of duty, which learning doth 
endue the mind withal, howsoever fortune may tax it and 
many in the depth of their corrupt principles may despise it, 
y< t it will receive an open allowance, and therefore needs the 
■lisproof or excusation. 
Another fault incident commonly to learned men, which may 
be more probably defended than truly denied, is that they fail 
sometimes in applying themselves to particular persons ; which 
want of exact ■ppKcation uriscth from two causes; the one, 
beQMMG 'lie largeness of their mind can hardly confine itself to 
dwell "m the exquisite observation or examination of the nature 
and custom of one person : for it is a speech for a lover and 
ii<>! for a wise man, SatU magnum alter alter! theatrinn sunnts, 
[each is to other a theatre large enough], Neverthelc.-- 1 
shall yield, that he that cannot contract the sight of his mind 
as well as disperse and dilate it, wanteth a great faculty. But 
u a second cause, which is no inability but a rejection 
upon oitOtM and judgment. For the honest and just bounds of 
observation by one person upon another extend no farther but 
and him sufficiently, whereby not to give him offence, 
•i i 




or whereby to be able to give him faithful counsel, or whereby 
to stand upon reasonable guard and caution in respect of a 
111:111V self: but to be speculative into another man, to the end 
to know how to work him or wind him or govern him, pro- 
> ■• ■■■ktli from a heart that is double and cloven, and not entire 
and ingenuous ; which as in friendship it is want of integrity, 
bo towards princes or superiors is want of duty. For the 
custom of the Levant, which is, that subjects do forbear to 
gaze or fix their eyes upon princes, is in the outward ceremony 
barbarous ; but the moral is good : for men ought not by cun- 
ning and bent observations to pierce and penetrate into the 
hearts of kings, which the Scripture hath declared to be inscru- 

There is yet another fault (with which I will conclude this 
part) which is often noted in learned men, that they do many 
times fail to observe decency and discretion in their beha- 
viour and carriage, and commit errors in small and ordi- 
nary point* of action ; so as the vulgar sort of capacities do 
make a judgment of them in greater matters by that which 
tin v find wunting in thorn in smaller. But this consequence 
doth oft deceive men ; for which I do refer them over to that 
which was said by Themistocles, arrogantly and uncivilly being 
applied to himself out of his own mouth, but being applied to 
the general state of this question pertinently and justly ; when 
being invited to touch a lute, he said lie could not fiddle, but lie 
rould make a small toun a great state. So no doubt many may 
be well seen in the passages of government and policy, which 
are to seek in little and punctual occasions. I refer them also 
to that which Plato said of his master Socrates, whom he com- 
pared to the gallypota of 'apothecaries, which on the outside had 
ape.- and owls and antiques, but contained within sovereign 
and precious liquors and confections; acknowledging that to 
an external report he was not without superficial levities and 
■h'fi trinities, but was inwardly replenished with excellent virtues 

1 powers. And so much touching the point of manners of 


ut in the mean time I have no purpose to give allowance to 

conditions and courses base and unworthy, wherein divers 

ssors of learning have wronged themselves and gone too 

such as were tlio>e trencher philosophers, which in the 

ige of the K ate were usually in the houses of 



great persons, being little better than solemn parasites ; of 
iv Kicb kind, Lueian maketh a merry description of the philo- 
sopher that the great lady took to ride with her in her coach, 
and would need-* have him carry her Utile dog, which he doing 
officiously and yet uncomely, the page scoffed, and said, That 
he doubted the philosopher of a Stoic would turn to be a Cynic. 
But above all the rest, the gross and palpable flattery wherc- 
unto many (not unlearned) have abased find abused their wits 
and pens, turning (as Du Bartas saith) Hecuba into Helena 
and Faustina into Imcretia, hath most diminidied the price and 
estimation of learning. Neither is the moral ' dedications of 
books and writings, as to patrons, to be commended: for that 
books (such as are worthy the name of books) ought to have 
no patrons hut truth and reason; and the ancient custom was to 
dedicate them only to private and equal friends, or to in title 
the books with their names; or if to kings arid great persons, 
it was to some such as the argument of the book was fit and 
proper for. But these and the like courses may deserve rather 
reprehension than defence. 

Not that I can tax or condemn the morigeration or applica- 
tion of learned men to men in fortune. For the answer was 
good that Diogenes made to one that asked him in mockery, 
Hmr it ,-uiitr to past thut philosophers were the followers of rich 
men, and not rich men of philosophers ? He answered soberly, 
and yet sharply, Because the one sort knew what they had 
need of, and tlw other did not. And of the like nature was 
tin- answer which Aristippus made, when having a petition 
to Dionysius and no ear given to him, he fell down at his 
feet, whereupon Dionysius staid and gave him the hearing and 
granted it ; and afterward some person tender on the behalf 
of philosophy, reproved Atistippus that lie would ofter the pro- 
I' --ion of philosophy such an Indignity, as for a private suit 
to fall at a tyrant's feet: but he answered, It was not his fault, 
but it irns the fault if Dionysius, that had his ears in his feet. 
Neither w«a it accounted weakness, but discretion, in him that 
would not dispute his best with Adrianus Cassar; excusing 
himself, That it was reason to yield to him that commanded thirty 
In/inns. These and the like applications and stooping to points 
of necessity and convenience cannot be disallowed ; for though 

' customary. Storcm ilium rtcrptum libroi pairo»it iatneupandi, — De Aug. 
Ed W19 ha* MfefM, 




they may liave some outward baseness, yet in ti judgment 
truly made thoy are to be accounted submissions to the occa- 
sion and not to the person. 

Now I proceed to those errors and vanities which have in- 
tervened amongst the studies themselves of the learned; which 
is that which is principal and proper to the present argument; 
wherein my purpose is not to make a justification of the er- 
rors, but, by a censure and separation of the errors, to make 
a justification of that which is good and sound, and to deliver 
that from the aspersion of the other. For we see that it fa the 
manner of men to scandalize and deprave that which retaineth 
the state and virtue, by taking advantage upon that which fa 
corrupt and degenerate : as the Heathens in the primitive church 
used to blemish and taint the Christians with the faults and 
corruptions of heretics. But nevertheless I have no meaning 
at. this time to make any exact animadversion of the errors 
and impediments in matters of learning which are more secret 
and remote from vulgar opinion ; but only to speak unto such 
as do fall under, or near unto, a popular observation. 

There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, when I. y 
learning hath been most traduced. For those things we do 
esteem vain, which are either false or frivolous, those which 
either have no truth or no use: and those persons we esteem 
vain, which arc either credulous or curious; and curiosity is 
either in matter or words: so that in reason as well as iu 
experience, there fall out to be these three distempers (as I 
may term them) of learning; the first, fantastical learning; 
the second, contentious learning? and the last, delicate learn- 
ing; vain imaginations, vain altercations, and vain affectations; 
and with the last. I will begin. 1 Martin Luther, conducted (no 
'"• an higher Providence, but in discourse of reason 
a province he had undertaken against the Bishop 
the degenerate traditions of the church, and 
n solitude, being no ways aided by the opinions 

It follows li much curtailed in the translation ; no doobt for the 

p. "J77. All allusioo to the "higher Providence,'* the " de- 

church, the —i ■ i • 1 y of the ancient author*, and the " pri- 

■ew ■< left out . and we arc only luld that this di»- 

•-Th (though in former limes it had lieen occasionally in 

II very much about the time of Luther; chiefly on account of 

-1 efficacy of preaching, ttc. The remark-* on ihe ityle of 

ed which at that time began to be conceived against them 


,>t bii own time, was enforced to nwakc all antiquity, and to 
cill former times to his succors to make a party against the 
present time ; so that the ancient authors, both in divinity and 
in humanity, which had long time slept in libraries, began 
generally to be read and revolved. (This by consequence did 
draw on a necessity of a more exquisite travail in the languages 
original wherein those authors did write, Yor the better under- 
standing of those authors and the bettefadvantage of pressing 
and applying their words. rAnd thereof grew again a delight 
in their manner of style and" phrase, and an admiration of that 
kind of writing ;/ which was much furthered and precipitated 
by the enmity and opposition that the propounders of those 
(primitive but seeming new) opinions had against the schoolmen; 
who were generally of the contrary part, and whose writings 

altogether in a differing style and form; taking liberty 
to coin and frame new terms of art to express their own sense 
and to avoid circuit of speech, without regard to the pureness, 
pleasantness, and (as I may call it) lawfulness of the phrase or 
word. And again, because the great labour then ' was with the 
people, (of whom the Pharisees were wont to say, Ejteerabilis 
ista turba, qua non novit legem,) [the wretched crowd that has 
not known the law,] for ihe winning and persuading of them, 
there grew of necessity in chief price and request eloquence 
and variety of discourse, as the fittest and foreiblcst access into 
the capacity of the vulgar sort. So that these four causes*"*]^ 
concurring, the admiration of ancient authors, the hate of the 
schoolmen, the exact, study of languages, and the efficacy of 

thing/did bring in an affectionate study of eloquence and 
QOpie of speech, which then began to flourish. This grew 
speedily to an excess ; for men began to hunt more after words 
than mutter; and more after the cholceness of the phrase, and 
the round and clean composition of the sentence, and the sweet 
falling of the clauses, and the varying and illustration of their 
works with tropes and figures, than after the weight of matter, 
worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or 
depth of judgment Then grew the flowing and watery vein 
OS* Oeorius, the Portugal bishop, to be in price. Then did 
Sturmius spend such infinite and curious pains upon Cicero 
the orator and llcnnogenes the rhetorician, besides his own 

1 So e<ld. 1629 urnl 163.1. The original hui that thin. 




books of periods and imitation and the like. Then did Car 
of Cambridge, and Ascham, with their lectures and writings, 
almost deify Cicero and Demosthenes, and allure all young 
men that were studious unto that delicate and polished kind 
of IflarniDgi Then did Erasmus take occasion to make the 
smiling echo; Decent nnnos consumpsi in legendo Cicerone, [I 
have spent ten years in reading Cicero:] and the echo answered 
in Greek, one. Asine. Then grew the learning of the school- 
men bo hi* Utterly despised as barbarous. In sum, the whole 
inclination and bent of those times was rather towards copie 
than weight. 

Here therefore [is] the first, distemper of learning, when 
men study words and not matter: whereof though I have 
represented an example of late times, yet it hath been and 
will be secundum majns et minus in all time. And how is it 
possible hut this should have an operation to discredit learn- 
ing, even with vulgar capacities, when they see learned men's 
works like the first letter of a patent or limned book ; which 
though it hath large flourishes, yet it is but a letter? It seems 
to me that. Pygmalion's frenzy is a good emblem or portraiture 
of this vanity: for words are hut the images of matter; and 
except they BOM life of reason and invention, to fall in love 
with them is all one as to fall in love with a picture. 

But yet notwithstanding it is a thing not hastily to be con- 
demned, to clothe ami adorn the obscurity even of philosophy 
itself with sensible and plausible elocution. For hereof we have 
great examples in Xenophon, Cicero, Seneca, Plutarch, and of 
Plato also in some degree ; and hereof likewise there is great 
iise; for surely to the severe inquisition of truth, and the deep 
progress into philosophy, it. is some hinderanoe; because it is 
too earlv satisfactory to the mind of man, and quencheth the 
t further Bearch, before we come to a just period; but 
man be to have any use of such knowledge in civil 
•nee, counsel, persuasion, discourse, or the 
11 he find it prepared to his hands in those 
•h write in that manner. But the excess of this 
iptib'e, that as Hercules, when he saw the 
don is, Venus' minion, in a temple, said in disdain, 
no divinity;] so there is none of Iler- 
»rs in learning;, that is. the more severe and la- 
inquirers into until, but will despise those 



delicacies and affectations, as indeed capable of no divineness.' 
And thu3 much of the first disease Of distemper of learning. 

The second, which followeth, is in nature worse than the •)£ '* 
former; for as substance of matter is better than beauty of 
words, so contrariwise vain matter is worse than vain words: 
wherein it seemeth the reprehension of St. Paul was not only 
proper for those times, but prophetical for the times following ; 
and not only respective to divinity, but extensive to all know- 
ledge: Dcvita prqfanas vocum novitates, et oppositions* falsi 
normals scientice :f [shun profane novelties of terms and op- 
positions of science falsely so called]. For he assigueth two 
marks and badges of suspected and falsified science; the one, 
the novelty and strangeness of terms ; the other, the strictness 
of positions, which of necessity doth induce Appositions, and so 
questions and altercations. \ Surely, like as many substances 
in nature which are solii]>no putrefy and corrupt into worms, 
so it is the prop e rt y of good and sound knowledge to putrefy 
and dissolve into a number of subtile, idle, unwholesome, and 
(as I may term them) vermiculate questions, which have in- 
deed a kind of quickness and life of spirit, but no soundness 
of matter or goodness of quality. This kind of degenerate 
learning did chiefly reign amongst the schoolmen; who having 
sharp and strong wits, and abundance of leisure, and small 
variety of reading; but their wits being shut up in the cells of 
a few authors (chiefly Aristotle their dictator) as their persons 
were shut up in the cells of monasteries and colleges; and 
knowing little history, either of nature or time; did out of no 
gretJ quantity of matter, and infinite agitation of wit, spin out 
unto us those labo rious webg _ol learnings which are extant in 
their bookjL For the wit and mind of man, if it work upon 
matter] which is the contemplation of the creatures of God, 
worketh according to the stun", and is limited thereby ; but if 
it work upon itself, as the spider worketh his web, then it is 

' In tbe transition ho mention* another vanity of style, though not of so bad 
■ kind, as commonl; tUfCMd!ng the bat In point of time, — a style In which all the 
study Is to hnve the word* pointed, the sentences concise, und the whole com position 
tallicr twisted Into »hape than allowed to flow (emtio druii/ttt petha re<»'i owiro fata). 
h brick which has tin- effect of making everything seem more ingenious than It really 
ha Such a style I he „ays) Is found largely In Seneca, lew In Tacitus and the second 
••iid has found favour of late with the ear* of our own time ; but though, it Is 
agreeable to ordinary understanding and mi prorttTM MUM r.-tnit for literature, yet 
to more exaei judgment* it Is deservedly distasteful, and may be let down among the 
distempers ol learning, being, as well as the other, a kind of hunting after words and 
verbal pre t tineas. 


endless, and brings forth indeed cobwebs of learning, admirable 
for the fineness of thread and work, but of no substance or 

This same unprofitable subtility or curiosity is of two sorts; 
either in the subject itself that they handle, when it is a fruitless 
speculation or controversy, (whereof there are no -mall number 
both in divinity and philosophy,) or in the manner or method 
of handling of a knowledge; which amongst them was this; 
upon every particular position or assertion to frame objections, 
and to those objections, solutions; which solutions were for the 
most part not confutations, but distinctions: whereas indeed 
the strength of all sciences is, as the strength of the old man's 
faggot, in the bond. For the harmony of a science, supporting 
each part the other, is and ought to be the true and brief con- 
futation and suppression of all the smaller sort of objections; 
but on the other side, if you take out every axiom, as the 
sticks of the faggot, one by one, you may quarrel with them 
and bend them and break them at your pleasure : so that as 
was said of Seneca, Verborum minutils rerum frangit pondern, 
[that he broke up the weight and mass of the matter by verbal 
points and niceties;] so a man may truly say of the schoolmen, 
Qnasf.ionum mhttttih scientiarum fravtjunt soliditatem ; [they 
broke up the solidity and coherency of the sciences by the 
minuteness and nicety of their questions]. For were it not 
better for a man in a fair room to set up one great light, or 
branching candlestick of lights, than to go about with a small 
watch candle into every corner? And such is their method, 
that rests not so much upon evidence of truth proved by argu- 
ments, authorities, similitudes, examples, as upon purlieu] ir 
confutations and solutions of every scruple, cavillation, and ob- 
«u ; breeding for the most part one question a- fast it 
•olveth another; even as in the former resemblance, when you 
cany the light into one corner, you darken the rest : so that, 
the fable and fiction of Scylla scemeth to be a lively image of 
this kind <>f philosophy or knowledge; which was transformed 
into a comely virgin for the upper parts; but then Candida 
"f.rrii latrat'tibus inguina monstrit, [there were harking 
monsters all about her Loins:] so the generalities of the school- 
men are for a while good and proportionable; but then when 
■" descend into their distinctions and decisions, instead of a 
imb for the use and benefit of man's life, they end 



in monstrous altercations and barking questions. So as it is 
not possible but this quality of knowledge must fall under 
popular contempt, the people being apt to contemn truth upon 
occasion of controversies and altercations, and to think they 
are all out of their way which never meet : and when they see 
such digladiation about subtilitiea and matter of no use nor 
moment, they easily fid] upon that judgment of Dionysius of 
Syracusa, Verba ista sunt senum otiosorum, [it is the talk of old 
men that have nothing to do]. 

Notwithstanding certain it is, that if those schoolmen to 
their great thir.-t of truth and unwearie.l travail of wit hud 
joined variety and universality of reading and contemplation. 
they had proved excellent lights, to the great advancement of 
all learning and knowledge. But as they are, they are great 
undertakers indeed, and fierce with dark keeping ' ; but as in 
the inquiry of the divine truth their pride inclined to leave 
the oracle of God's word and to vanish in the mixture of their 
own inventions, so in the inquisition of nature they ever hit 
the oracle of God's works and adored the deceiving and de- 
formed images which the unequal mirror of their own minds 
or a few received authors or principiesdid represent unto tEein. 
And thus much for the second disease of learning. 

For the third vice or disease of learning, which concernelh 
deceit or untruth, it is of all the rest the foulest; as that 
which doth destroy^], il limn of knowledge, which is 

nothing but a representation of truth: for the truth of being 
and the truth of knowing are one, jTifTcring no more than the 
direct beam and the beam reflected, This vice therefore 
brancheth itself into two sorts ; delight in deceiving, and apl 
to be deceived; imposture and credulity ; which, although they 
appear to be of a diverse nature, the one seeming to proceed of 
cunning, and the other of simplicity, yet certainly they do for 
the most part concur : fur as the verse noteth, 

PurcontAtorein fugito, nam garrulus idem est, 

an inquisitive man is a prattler, so upon the like reason a cre- 
dulous man is a deceiver: as we see it in fame, that lie that 

• That Is, fierce from being kept In the dark ; the allusion bring, ai we see more 
clearly from a corresponding imuncc In an early Latin fragment [fincttttim uuiem <-* 

r;u 4 r Wom qui paueti HQru*i atqui aalet, i nt amimalia in Utttbrit etiuctttu ) 
fcr. — r .in. $ 10. j. In tlu- (fleet ol darkness on the temper W 

• nlm.ili. — R. L. E. Tin' reft "f this sentence, from » but as they are " U omitted In 
the tiuii.iuti.r.i See Dote p. J7 7. 



rarities and reports that seem uncredible are not to be sup- 
pressed or denied to the memory of men. 

And as for the facility of credit which is yielded to arts 
and opinions, it ia likewise of two kinds: either when too 
much belief is attributed to the arts themselves, or to certain 
authors in any art. The sciences themselves, which have had 
better intelligence and confederacy with the imagination of man 
than with his reason, are three in number; Astrology, Natural 
Magic, and Alchemy ; of which sciences nevertheless the ends 
or pretences are noble. For astrology pretendeth to discover 
that correspondence or concatenation which is between the 
superior globe and the inferior; natural magic pretendeth to 
fall and reduce natural philosophy from variety of speculations 
to the magnitude of works : and alchemy pretendeth to make 
separation of all the unlike parts of bodies which in mixtures 
of nature are incorporate. But the derivations and prosecu- 
tions to these ends, both in the theories and in the practices, are 
full of error ami vanity ; which the great professors themselves 
have sought to veil over and conceal by enigmatical writings, 
and referring themselves to auricular traditions, and such other 
devices to save the credit of impostures. And yet surely to al- 
chemy this right is due, that it may be compared to the hus- 
bandman whereof JEsop makes the fable, that when he died 
told his sons that he had left unto them gold buried under 
ground in his vineyard; and they digged over all the ground, 
nnd gold they found none, but by reason of their stirring and 
digging the mould about the roots of their vines, they had a great 
\ ciiiige the year following: so assuredly the search and stir to 
make gold hath brought to light a great number of good and 
fruitful inventions and experiments, as well for the disclosing 
of nature as for the use of man's life. 

And as for the overmuch credit that hath been given unto 
authors in sciences, in making them dictators, that their words 
sbquld stand, and not counsels 1 to give advice; the damage is 
infinite that sciences have received thereby, as the principal 
that hath kept them low, at a stay without growth nr 
advancement. For hence it hath comen that in arts mecha- 
nical the first deviser comes shortest, and time addeth and per- 

1 80 the original. EtW. 1629 and 1638 have cantulf. The translation hai tiicl.i- 
mtt mvmirit til tdieant, non trnutoria ml cmmi/ant. Bacon nrolmlJjr 

wntt <n«... 

. HI. O 






good way, ami walk therein]. Antiquity deservefh that re- 
erence, that men should make a stand thereupon, and sBaeovar 
what is the best way; but when the discovery is well taken, 
then to make progression. And to speak truly, Antiquitas 
xaculi jnventut rnurx'i. These times are the ancient times. 
when the world is ancient, and not those which we account 
ancient ordine retrngrado, by a computation backward I'mm 

Another error, induced by the former, is a distrust that any 
thing should be now to be found out, which the world should 
ave missed and passed over so long time; as if the same 
objection were to be made to time that Lucian maketh tit 
Jupiter and other the heathen gods, of which he wondereth 
that they begot so many children in old time and begot none in 
his time, and asketh whether they were become septuagenary. 
or whether the law Pappia, made against old men's marriages, 
had restrained them. So it seemeth men doubt lest time is 
become past children and generation ; wherein contrariwise we 
see commonly the levity and unconstancy of men's judgment*, 
which, till a matter be done, wonder that it can be done : and 
as soon as it is done, wonder again that it was no sooner done ; 
as we see in the expedition of Alexander into Asia, which at 
first was prejudged as a vast and impossible enterprise; and yet 
afterward.-* it pleaseth Livy to make no more of it than this, 
Nil aliud quambene ausus vuna contemnere ; [it was but taking 
courage to despise vain apprehensions]. And the same hap- 
pened to Columbus in the western navigation. But in intellec- 
tual matters it is much more common ; as may be seen in most 
of the propositions of Euclid, which till they be demonstrate, 
the] seen) strange to our assent; but being demonstrate, our 
mind aecepteth of them by a kind of relation (as the lawyers 

I speak) as if we had known them before. 
Another error, that hath also some affinity with the former, 
onceit that of former opinions or sects, after variety and 
i \ n initiation, the best hath still prevailed and suppressed the 
So M if a man should begin the labour of a new search, 
be were but like to light upon somewhat formerly rejected, 
and by rejection brought Into oblivion: as if the multitude, or 
the wisest for the multitude's sake, were not ready to give 
Ige rather to that which is popular and superficial than to 
that which is substantial and profound ; for the truth is, that 

v H 



time accmeth to be of the nature of a river or stream, which 
eurriefh down to us that which is light and blown up, and 
sinkcth and drowncth that which is weighty and solid. 

Another error, of a diverse nature from all the former, is 
the over-early and peremptory reduction of knowledge into 
arts and methods ; from which time commonly sciences receive 
small or no augmentation. But as young men, when they knit 
and shape perfectly, do seldom grow to a further stature ; so 
knowledge, while it is in aphorisms and observations, it is in 
growth ; but when it once is comprehended in exact methods, 
it may perchance be further polished and illustrate ', and ac- 
commodated for use and practice; but it increaseth no more 
in bulk and substance. 

Another error, which doth succeed that which we last men- 
tioned, is that after the distribution of particular arts and 
sciences, men have abandoned universality, or philosophia pri- 
ma; which cannot but cease and stop all progression. For no 
perfeet discovery can be made upon a Hat or a level : neither 
is it possible to discover the more remote and deeper parts of 
any science, if you stand but upon the level of the same science, 
and ascend not to a higher science. 

Another error hath proceeded from too great a reverence, 
and a kind of adoration of the mind and understanding of man ; 
by means whereof men have withdrawn themselves too much 
from the contemplation of nature and the observations of ex- 
perience, and have tumbled up and down in their own reason 
and conceits. Upon these intellectualists, which are notwith- 
standing commonly taken for the most sublime and divine phi- 
losophers, Heraclitus gave a just censure, saying, Men sought 
truth in their own little worlds, and nut in the great and common 
world; for they disdain to spell and so by degrees to read 
"olume of God's works; and contrariwise by continual 
and agitation of wit do urge and as it were invocate 
ipirita to divine and give oracles unto them, whereby 
edly deluded. 

or that hath some connexion with this later is, 
used to infect their meditations, opinions, and 
with some conceits which tliey have most admired, 
iiieh they have most applied; and given all 
tincture according to them, utterly untrue and 

1 So the original. Ed, 1033 has 



improper. So hath Plato intermingled his philosophy with 
theology, and Aristotle with logic, and the second school of 
Plato, Proclus and the rest, with the mathematics. For these 
were the arts which had a kind of primogeniture with them se- 
verally. So have the alchemists made a philosophy out of a few 
experiments of the furnace; and Gilbertua, our countryman, 
hath made a philosophy out of the observations of a loadstone. 
Bo Cicero, when, reciting the several opinions of the nature of 
the soul, he found a musician that held the soul was but a har- 
mony, sjiith pleasantly, Hie ab arte sua non recessit, §c. [he 
waa constant to his own art]. But of these conceits Aristotle 
speaketh seriously and wisely, when he saith, Qui fttpiehM ad 
jiaiteu tie facili pronunciant : [they who take only few points 
into account find it easy to pronounce judgment]. 

Another error is an impatience of doubt, and haste to asser- 
tion without due and mature suspension of judgment. For 
the two ways of contemplation are not unlike the two ways of 
action commonly spoken of by the ancients; the one plain and 
smooth in the beginning, and in the end impassable ; the other 
rough and troublesome in the entrance, but after a while fair 
and even. So it is in contemplation ; if a man will begin with 
certainties, he shall end in doubts ; but if he will be content to 
bcjnn with doubts, he shall end in certainties. 

Another error is iu the manner of the tradition and delivery 
of knowledge, which is for the most part magistral and peremp- 
tory, and not ingenuous and faithful ; in a sort as may be soon- 
est believed, and not easiliest examined. It is true that in 
compendious treatises for practice that form is not to be dis- 
allowed. But in the true handling of knowledge, men ought 
not to fall either on the one side into the vein of Velleius the 
Epicurean, Nil tarn metuens, quam ne dubitare al'tqua de re 
viiL rrtur, [who feared nothing so much as the seeming to be in 
doubt about anything,] nor on the other side into Socrates hie 
ironical doubting of all things; but to propound things sincerely, 
with more or less asseveration, as they stand in a man's own 
judgment proved more or less. 

Other errors there are in the scope that men propound to 
themselves, whereunto they bend their endeavours; for whereas 
the more constant and devote' kind of professors of any science 
ought to propound to themselves to make some additions to 

So the original. 

E<1. 1633 b»« J.,,.,/,. 




their science, they convert their labours to aspire to certain 
second prizes; as to be a profound interpreter or coinmentcr, 
to be n sharp champion or defender, to be a methodical com- 
pounder or abridger ; and so the patrimony of knowledge 
coineth to be sometimes improved, but seldom augmented. 

But the greatest error of" all the rest is the mistaking or 
misplacing of the last or furthest end of knowledge. For 
men have entered into a dears of learning and knowledge, 
sometimes upon ■ natural curiosity and inquisitive appetite ; 
sometimes to entertain their minds with variety and delight ; 
sometimes for ornament and reputation ; and sometimes to 
enable them to victory of wit and contradiction ; and most 
times for lucre and profession ; and seldom sincerely to give a 
true account of their gift of reason, to the benefit and use of 
men : as if there were sought in knowledge a couch, where- 
upon to rest a searching and restless spirit; or a terrace, for 
a wandering and variable mind to walk up and down with 
a fair prospect ; or a tower of state, for a proud mind to raise 
itself upon; or a fort or commanding ground, for strife and 
contention ; or a shop, for profit or sale; and not a rich store- 
house, for the jrlory of the Creator and the relief of man's 
estate. But this is that which will indeed dignify and exalt 
knowledge, if contemplation and action may be more nearly 
and straitly conjoined and united together than they have 
been ; a conjunction like unto that of the two highest planets, 
Saturn the planet of rest and contemplation, and Jupiter the 
planet of civil society and action. Howbeit, I do not mean, 
when I ■peek of use and action, that end before-mentioned 
of tin' applying of knowledge to lucre and profession L for I 
inn not ignorant how much that diverteth and interrupteth 
the prosecution and advancement of knowledge; like unto the 
n ball thrown before Atalanta, which while she goeth 
IpJMth to take up, the race is hindered, 

■ iii-u-. auruminie vulubile tollit. 

ires tpoken of Socrates, to call 

from heaven to converse upon the earth: 

nil philosophy aside, and to apply know- 

- tnd policy. But as both heaven and 

and contribute to the use and henefit of man. 

Prom both philosophies to separate and 



reject vain speculations and whatsoever is empty and void, 
and to preserve and augment whatsoever is solid and fruit- 
ful; that knowledge may not he as a curtesan, for pleasure 
aiul vanity only, or as a bond-woman, to acquire and gain to 
her master's use ; but as a spouse, for generation, fruit, and 

Thus have I described and opened, as by a kind of dis- 
section, those peccant humours (the principal of them) which 
have' not only given impediment to the proficience of learn- 
ing, but have given also occasion to the traducement thereof: 
wherein if I have been too plain, it must be remembered Fi- 
</tlia vitlnera amantis, sed dohsn oscula malignantia : [faithful 
are the wounds of a friend, but the kisses of an enemy are 
deceitful]. This I think I have gained, that I ought to be 
the better believed in that which I shall say pertaining to 
commendation, because I have proceeded so freely in that 
which concerneth censure. And yet I have no purpose to 
enter into a laudative of learning, or to make a hymn to the 
muses, (though I am of opinio u that it is long since their rites 
duly celebrated:) but my intent is, without varnish ot 
amplification, justly to weigh the dignity of knowledge in the 
balance with other things, and to take the true value thereof 
by testimonies and arguments divine and human. 

First therefore, let us seek the dignity of knowledge in the 
arch-type or first platform, which is in the attributes and acts 
of God, as far as they are revealed to man and may be observed 
with sobriety ; wherein we may not seek it by the name of 
'ing ; for all learning is knowledge acquired, and all know- 
ledge in God is original : and therefore we must look for it by 
another name, that of wisdom or sapience, as the Scriptures 
call it. 

It is so then, that in the work of the creation we see a 
double emanation of virtue from God ; the one referring more 
properly iO power, the other to wisdom; the one expressed in 
making the SubfUt&lGC of i lie matter, and (lie other in dis- 
pOHDg the beauty of the form. This being supposed, it is to be 
observed, that for any thing which appcarcth in the history of 
the creation, the confused mass and matter of heaven and 
b was made in a moment, and the order and disposition of 
that chaos or mass was the work of six days; such a note 

' lad In all the "lil editions. 



of difference it pleased God to put upon tbe works of power 
and the works of wisdom ; wherewith coneutrreth, that in the 
former it is not set down that God said, Let there be heaven 
and earth, as it is set down of the works following ; but actu- 
ally, that God made heaven and earth: the one carrying the 
style of a manufacture, and the other of a law, decree, or 

To proceed to that which is next in order, from God to 
spirits; we find, as far as credit is to be given to the celestial 
hierarchy of that supposed Dionysius the senator of Athens', 
the first place or degree is given to the angels of love, which 
arc termed Seraphim ; the second to the angels of light, which 
are termed Cherubim ; and the third and so following places 
to thrones, principalities, and the rest, which are all angels of 
power and ministry ; so as the angels of knowledge and illumi- 
nation are placed before the angels of office and domination. 

To descend from spirits and intellectual forms to sensible 
and material forms; we read the first form that was created 
was light, which hath a relation and correspondence in nature 
and corporal things, to knowledge in spirits and incorporal 

So in the distribution of days, we see the day wherein God 
did rest and contemplate his own works, was blessed above all 
the days wherein he did effect and accomplish them. 

After the ceation was finished, it U set down unto us that 
man was placed in the garden to work therein ; which work 
so appointed to him could be no other than work of con- 
templation: that is, when the end of work is but for exercise 
and experiment, not for necessity; for there being then no 
reluct&tion of the creature, nor sweat of the brow, mans em- 
ployment niii>t of consequence have been matter of delight in 
nd not mutter of labour for the use. Again, 
performed in Paradise consisted of 
knowledge; the view of creatures, 
A- for the knowledge which 
touched before, not the natural 
i llie moral knowledge of good and 
hat God's commandments 
ho originals of good and evd, but 

ilnr, ire the »<>nls (if the (mutation : the 
■eJ, btiug withdrawn, or at leant uot at sirungly 


that they h:ul other beginnings, which man aspired to know, to 
the end to make a total defection from God, and to depend 
wholly upon himself. 

To pass on : in the first event or occurrence after the fall of 
man, we see (as the Scriptures have infinite mysteries, not 
violating at all the truth of the story or letter,) an image of 
the two estates, the contemplative state and the active state, 
figured in the two persons of Abel and Cain, and in the iwu 
simplest and most primitive trades of life ; that of the shepherd, 
(who, by reason of his leisure, rest in a place, and living in 
view of heaven, is a lively image of a contemplative life,) and 
that of the husbandman: where we Bee again the favour and 
election of God went to the shepherd, and not to the tiller of 
the ground. 

So in the age before the flood, the holy records within those 
few memorials which are there entered and registered have 
vouchsafed to mention and honour the name of the inventors 
and authors of music and works in metal. In the age after the 

fl I, the first great judgment of God upon tlie ambition of 

man was the confusion of tongues; whereby the open trade and 
intercourse of learning and knowledge was chiefly iinbarred. 

To descend to Moses the lawgiver, anil God's first pen : he is 
adorned by the Scriptures with this addition and commendation, 
that he was seen in all the horning of the Egyptians ; which 
nation we know was OXM of the most ancient schools of the 
world: for so Plato brings in the Egyptian priest saying unto 
Solon: Yon Grecians are ever children; you have no knowledge 
of antiijtuty, nor antiquity <>f knowledge. Take a view of the 
fi'iviuoni;d law of Moses; you shall find, besides the pr< figura- 
tion of Christ, the badge or difference of the people of God, the 
exercise and impression of obedience, and other divine uses and 
fruits thereof, that some of the most learned Rabbins have tra- 
velled profitably and profoundly to observe, some of them a 
natural, sonic of them a moral, sense or reduction of many of 
the ceremonies and ordinances. As in the law of the leprosy, 
where it is said, If the whiteness have overs/trend the flesh, the 
patient may pass abroad for clean ; but if there be any whole 
flesh remaining, he is to be shut up for unclean ; one of them 
noteth a principle of nature, that putrefaction is more con- 
ns before maturity than after: and another noteth a jio- 
BltioD of moral philosophy, that men abandoned to vice do not 



BO much corrupt manners, as those that are half good and half 
evil. So in this and very many other places in that law, there 
i* to lie funnel, besides the theological sense, much aspersion of 
philosophy . 

S.i HkewiM in that, excellent book of Job, if it be revolved 
with diligence, it will he found pregnant and swelling with na- 
tural philosophy : M for example, cosmography and the round- 
B6M of the world; Qui txttndli arjuilnaem super vacuum, et 
appendii terram tuptr nUiilum ; [who stretcheto out the north 
upon the empty space, and hangeth the earth upon nothing;] 
wherein the pcnsileness of the earth, the pole of the north, and 
the finiteneas or convexity of heaven are manifestly touched. 
Si i again matter of astronomy; Spirit its t-jns oniavit caelus, et 
idistetricante manu ejus eductus eit Coluber tortuosus : [by his 
spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the 
e rooked Serpent]. And in another place; Nuiu/uid conjungere 
ni!ci>is mietUU i strflas Plviadas, ant gyrum Arcturi poteris dis- 
tiparet [canst thou bring together the glittering stars of the 
IMeiades, or scatter the array of A returns ?] where I he fixing 
of the stars, ever standing at equal distance, is with great 
elegancy noted* And in another place, Qui facit Arcturum, 
rt Oriona, et iuteriora Austri ; [which inaketh Arc- 
turns, Orion, and Hyades, and the secrets of the South ;] where 
again he takes knowledge of the depression of the southern 
polr, calling it the MCfOtl of the south, hecause the southern 
Mars were in thai climate unseen. Matter of generation ; Annon 
sinit lac mitlsisti me, et sicut citseiim coagulasti me? &c. [hast 
thou not drawn me forth like milk, and curdled me Like cheese?] 
Matter of minerals ; llabet argentum venarum suarum princi- 
tt trnni lurns rst in i/uo con/fat ur, fv r rum de terra tollitur, et 
x(dnf/is rti/tirr in as vcrtitur : [surely there is a vein for 
silver, and a place lor gold where they fine it. Iron is 
ml of tin earth, and brass is molten out of the stone:] 
•awards in that chapter. 

in the i' :- m of Salomon tho king, we see the 

iilownicnt nt wisdom and learning, both in Salomon's 

ami in God's assent thereunto, preferred before all 

ml temporal felicity. By virtue of which grant 

e of God, Salomon became enabled not only to write 

lent parables or aphorisms concerning divine and 

eophy, but also to compile a natural history of all 



verdure', from the cellar upon the mountain to the moss upon 
Ihc \v:»ll, (which is hut n rudiment between putrefaction and an 
herb,) and also of all things that breathe or move. Nay, the 
nunc Salomon the king, although he excelled in the glory of 
treasure and magnificent buildings, of shipping and navigation, 
of service and attendance, at fame and renown, and the like, 
yet he maketh no claim to any of those glories, but only to the 
glory of inquisition of truth; for so he saith expressly, The 
ijlory of God is to conceal a thing, but the 'jinrif of the king is 
I o Ji ml it out ; as if, according to the innocent play of children, 
the Divine Majesty took delight to hide his works, to the end to 
tare them found out ; and as if kings could not obtain a greater 
honour than to be God's playfellows in that game, considering 
the great commandment of wits and means, whereby nothing 
needeth to be hidden from them. 

therdid the dispensation of God vary in the times after 
em Saviour came ioto the world ; for our Saviour himself did 
first shew his power to subdue ignorance, by his conference 
with the priests and doctors of the law, before he shewed his 
power to subdue nature by his miracles. And the coming of 
the Holy Spirit was chiefly figured and expressed in the simi- 
litude and gift of tongues, which are but vehicula sciential, 
[curriers of knowledge]. 

So in the election of those instruments which it pleased God 
to dm for the plantation of the faitli, notwithstanding that at 
the first he did employ persons altogether unlearned otherwise 
than by inspiration, more evidently to declare his immediate 
working, and to abase all human wisdom or knowledge ; yet 
nevertheless that counsel of his was no sooner performed, but 
in the next vicissitude and succession he did send his divine 
truth into the world waited on with other learnings as with 
servants or handmaid;- : for 80 we see St. Paul, who was only 
learned amongst the apostles, had his pen most used in the 
scriptures if the New Testament. 

Si again we find that many of the ancient bishops and 
fathers of the Church were excellently read a:.d studied in all 
the learning of the heathen; insomuch that the edict of the 
emperor Julianus, (whereby it was interdicted unto Christiana 
to be admitted into schools, lectures, or exercises of learning,) 

IBMs which prrbnp* ought to fee retained,*! another 

liinii »[ id. w.iul i .nine ili.ui .tiMtln-r u.iy uf -lulling It. 



was esteemed and accounted a more pernicious engine and 
machination against the Christian faith, than were all the 
sanguinary prosecutions of his predecessors ; neither could the 
emulation and jealousy of Gregory the first of that name, bishop 
of Rome, ever obtain the opinion of piety or devotion ; but 
contrariwise received the censure of humour, malignity, and 
pusillanimity l , even amongst holy men ; in that he designed 
to obliterate and extinguish the memory of heathen antiquity 
and authors. But contrariwise it was the Christian Church, 
which amidst the inundations of the Scythians on the one side 
from the north-west, and the Saracens from the east, did pre- 
serve in the sacred lap anil bosom thereof the precious relics 
even of heathen learning, which otherwise had been extin- 
guished as if no such thing had ever been. 

And we see before our eyes, that in the age of ourselves and 
our fathers, when it pleased God to call the church of Rome 
to account for their degenerate manners and ceremonies, and 
SUadry doctrines obnoxious and framed to uphold the same 
abuses; at one and the same time it was ordained b}" the 
Divine Providence that there should attend withal a renova- 
tion and new spring of all other knowledges": and on the 
other aide we see the Jesuits, who partly in themselves and 
partly by the emulation and provocation of their example, have 
much quickened and strengthened the state of learning, — we 
see (I say) what notable service and reparation they have done 
to the Roman see. 

Wherefore to conclude this part, let it be observed that 
there be two principal duties and services, besides ornament 
and illustration, which philosophy and human learning do per- 
form to faith and religion. The one, because they are an 
' -fleet ual inducement to the exaltation of the glory of God: 
be Psalms and other Scriptures do often invite us to 
er :ui(] magnify the great arid wonderful works of God, 
hould rest only in the contemplation of the exterior 
n as they first offer themselves to our senses, we should 
l/ury unto the majesty of God as if we should judge 
'rue oftliQ store of some excellent jeweller by that only 
*Ct okx^x toward the street in his shop. The other, ) 

U * '" , *~ > V,ltt< , <l '" thr ,n "" latl " n : a-nd 'he *ords catera riri eyrcfii are 
Or the *%^' 1C gl GWT Sl " 1 ' '"' tl ' P> -'"'■ 
fivm - ^^'*" i^-glinilng of 'he Paragraph, is omitted in the traoslntlon 




because they minister a singular help and preservative against 
unbelief and error: For our Saviour saith, You err, not knou>~ 
ing the Scriptures, nor the power of God; laying before us 
two books or volumes to study, if we will be Becured from 
error; first the Scriptures, revealing the will of God, and then 
the creatures expressing his power ; whereof the later is a key 
unto the former ; not only opening our understanding to con- 
ceive the true sense of the Scriptures, by the general notions 
of reason and rules of speech ; but chiefly opening our belief, 
in drawing us into a due meditation of the omnipotency of 
God, which is chiefly signed and engraven upon his works. 
Thus much therefore for divine testimony and evidence con- 
cerning the true dignity and value of learning. 

As for human proofs, it is so large a field, as in a discourse 
of this nature and brevity it is fit rather to use choice of those 
things which we shall produce, than to embrace the vainly 
of them. First therefore, in the degrees of human honour 
amongst the heathen it was the highest, to obtain to n venera- 
tion and adoration as a God. This unto the Christians is as the 
forbidden fruit. But we speak now separately of human testi- 
mony: according to which that which theGrecians call apotheosis, 
and the Latins relatio inter divos, was the supreme honour which 
could attribute unto man ; specially when it was given, 
not by a formal decree or act of state, as it was used among the 
Roman emperors, but by an inward assent and belief; which 
honour being so high, had also a degree or middle term ; for 
there were reckoned above human honours, honours l heroical 
and divine; in the attribution and distribution of which honours 
we see antiquity made this difference: that whereas founders 
and uniters of state* and ehic<, lawgivers, extirpers of tyrants, 
fathers of the people, and other eminent persons in civil merit, 
were honoured but with the titles of worthies or deoti-ffodsi 
such as were Hercules, Theseus, Minos, Romulus, aud the like; 
on the other side, such as were inventors and authors of new 
arts, endowments, and commodities towards man's life, were 
ever consecrated amongst the gods themselves ; as was Ceres, 
Bacchus, Mcrcurius, Apollo, and others ; and justly ; for the 
merit of the former is confined within the circle of an age or 
a nation ; and is like fruitful showers, which though they be 
profitable and good, yet serve but for that season, and for a 

' honour in (44. IMS, 1629, 1C33. 



one sort kecking dangers afar off, whereas the other discover 
tliuui not till they come near hand, and then trust to the agility 
of their wit to ward or avoid them. • 

Which felicity of times under learned princes (to keep still 
the law of brevity, by using the most eminent and selected 
examples) doth best appear in the age which passed from tin- 
death of Domitiamis the emperor until the reign of Cominn- 
dus ; comprehending a succession of six princes 1 , all learned or 
singular favourers and advancers of learning; which age, for 
temporal respects, was the most happy and nourishing that ever 
the Roman empire (which then was a model of the world) en- 
joyed : a matter revealed and prefigured unto Dotnitian in a 
dream the night before he was slain ; for he thought there was 
grown behind upon his shoulders a neck and a head of gold, 
which came accordingly to pass in those golden times which 
succeeded : of which princes we will make some commemora- 
tion ; wherein although the matter will be vulgar, and may be 
thought fitter for a declamation than agreeable to a treatise in- 
folded as this is, yet because it is pertinent to the point in hainl. 
neqw. semper arcum tendit Apollo, [and Apollo does not keep 
his bow always bent,] and to BOM them only were too naked 
and cursory, I will not omit it altogether. 3 

The first was Nerva; the excellent temper of whose govern- 
ment is by a in Cornelius Tacitus touched to the life: 
Postquam divus Nerva res olim iusuciabiles miscuisset, imperinm 
et libertatem : [he united and reconciled two things which used 
not to go together — government and liberty]. 3 And in token 
of his learning, the last act of his short reign left to memory 
was a missive to his adopted son Trajan, proceeding upon eonle 
inward discontent at the ingratitude of the times, comprehended 
in a verse of Homer's ; 

Telia, Phoebe, tuia lacrymas ulciscere nostras. 
[O Phcebus, with thy shafts avenjje these tears.] 

% So edd. 1629 and 1633. The original hat icitneet. 

Ill the Dr Auyraeutu he merely says '• dt guibiu," i. t. the golden times, " ri- 
ytltntim Md brevUtime verba faciam." And the next five paragraph! are condensed 
Into tine. 

Agrir. 3. : Quatujuam .... Serra Catar ret olim dittociabilt> mitevrrit, prin. 
nullum ac libertatem.. This quotation Is omitted In the translation, where nothing Is 
said of tbe character of Nerva'j government except that he wjs rlrmrntitiimut impe- 
r.,t »r , unique, n nihil alivd, orb, Tmjanum deitit ; from which it would almost seem 
Ifeat Haw,,, thomht It har.!ly deserved the praise which Tacitus bestows upon it In 
frV**» oi hi= Uanimg he adds that he was the friend, and as It were the flbi Ha J 
(/v-Houlu, the Pythagorean. 



Trajan, who succeeded, was for his person not learned : hut 
if we will hearken to the speech of our Saviour, that snith, //>• 
that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall have at 
prophet's reward, he deserveth to be placed amongst the most 
learned princes : for there was not a greater admirer of learn- 
ing or benefactor of learning ; a founder of famous libraries, a 
perpetual advancer of learned men to office, and a familiar con- 
vener with learned professors and preceptors, who were noted 
to have then most credit in court. On the other side, [row 
much Trajan's virtue and government was admired and re- 
nowned, surely no testimony of grave and faithful history doth 
more lively set forth, than that legend tale of Gregorius Mag- 
nus, bishop of Rome, who was noted for the extreme envy he 
hare towards all heathen excellency : and yet he is reported, 
out of the love and estimation of Trajan's moral virtues, to 
have made unto God passionate and fervent prayers for the 
delivery of his soul out of hell; and to have obtained it, with a 
caveat that he should make no more such petitions. 1 In this 
prince's time also the persecutions against the Christians re- 
ceived intermission, upon the certificate of Plinius Sccundus, 
a man of excellent learning and by Trajan advanced. 

Adrian, his successor, was the most curious man that lived, 
and the most universal inquirer; insomuch as it was noted for 
an error in his mind, that he desired to comprehend all things, 
and not to reserve himself for the worthiest things; fulling 
into the like humour that was long before noted in Philip of 
Mae.ednn, who when he would needs over-rule and put down 
an excellent musician in an argument touching music, was well 
answered by him again, God forbid, Sir, (saith he,) that yakw 
fortune should be so bad, as to knoiv these things better than /.* 

1 To this story Dante alludes In the tenth canto of Purgatory .- takinit it apparently 
from tlie life of flrrtfory by Paul the Dcncon, It seems Hrst t<j have Wii BffltfPMd 
by John Damascene In Ills di*rotir?r ■• De lis qui 1» tide ili.nnfinurt;" tn.ui whom 
St. Thomas Aquinas quotes it Id his Supji-'fjmntary Quiatiom, 71.5. The hymn 
sun* in the fourteenth century in the Cathedral of Mantua on St. 1'iiul's day, ii 
another curious instance of the appreciation of Heathen worth in the middle age*. It 
if UK-re said of St. I'.iul, 

Ad Mnrnnls mausoleum 

Ductus fudit MtfJM eum 

Pin; rorein lacrynue ; 

Quern te, tnqult, rcduidissem 

Si te vivum invenisjcm 

Poetarum maxlmc I 

See Sch<vll'« Hiitoirr <it la Lilt,, Mart JtomaiHt R. L. E. Thl» whole pa«*W Is 

omitted In the translation. 
• Plot. in K Apoph. 



It pleased God likewise to use the curiosity of this emperor as 
an inducement to the peace of his church in those days. For 
having Christ in veneration, not as a God or Saviour, but as 
a wonder 01 novelty, and having his picture in his gftllery 
matched with Appollonius (with whom in his vain imagination 
he thought he had some conformity), yet it served the turn t<> 
allay the bitter hatred of those times against the Christian 
name; so as the church had peace during his time. 1 And for 
his government civil, although he did not attain to that of 
Trajan's 2 in glory of arms or perfection of justice, yet in de- 
priving of the weal of the subject he did exceed him. For 
Trajan erected many famous monuments and buildings; in»<>- 
much as Constantine the Great in emulation was wont t<> <-;dl 
him I'arivtaria, wall flower, because his name was upon n 
many walls: but his buildings and works were more of glory 
And triumph than use and necessity. But Adrian spent his 
whole reign, which was peaceable, in a perambulation or survey 
of the Roman empire; giving order and making assignation 
where he went for re-edifying of cities, towns, and forts de- 
cayed, and for cutting of rivers and streams, and for making 
bridges and passages, and for policing 3 of cities and common- 
alties with new ordinances and constitutions, and granting new 
franchises and incorporations; so that his whole time Wftfl ft 
very restoration of all the. lapses and decays of former tim< -. 

Antoninus 4 Pius, who succeeded him, was a prince ex- 
cellently learned ; and had the patient and subtile wit of a 
schoolman ; insomuch as in cominon speech (which leaves no 
virtue untaxed) he was called c y mitu sector, a carver or di- 
vider of cummin seed, which is one of the least seeds ; such a 
patience he had and settled spirit to enter into the least and 
most exact dilhr. n< r- of causes; ft fruit to doubt of the 
ceeding tranquillity and serenity of his mind ; which being no 
ways charged or incumbered either with fears, remorses, or 
-' Tuples, but having been noted for a man of the purest good- 
ness, without all fiction or affectation, that hath reigned or 

1 There twins here a confusion of two stories. It was Alexander Severus who 
aecordlns to Lsmpridlus had * picture of "or Saviour •• matched with Apollonlus" 
Md "iUi -ome otheri. Hadrian however did honour Apollonius and is siid to hm 
thought of dedicating a temple to Christ, which, If t remember rightly, Alexander 
actually did. — H. L. E. 

,n all three edition*. Qw, Trajan ? 

* ixJHr.Hii, edit. IBOSaad 18*9. p aMM htf, td. i(>33. 
' -f..r.«.««, rdd. taOSi Ittft, 16.1,'i. 
Vol, HI. X 



lived, made his mind continually present and entire. He like- 
wise approached a degree nearer unto Christianity, nod became, 
M Lgrippa said unto St, Paul, A"// <t Christian! holding their 
religion and hiw in good opinion, and not only ceasing persecu- 
tion, Imt giving way to the advancement of Christians. 

There succeeded him the first Divi frufrrs, the two adoptive 
brethren, Lucius Commodus Verns, son to iElius Verus, who 
delighted much in the softer kind of learning, and was wont 
l i call the poet Martial his Virgil ; and Marcus Aureliua An- 
toninus; whereof the latter, who obscured his colleague 1 and 
survived htm long, was named the Philosopher: who as he ex- 
celled all the rest in learning, so he excelled tliem likewise in 
perfection of all royal virtues; insomuch as Jutinmis the cm- 
perof, in hia book intitled Cirsm-rs, being as a pasquil or satire 
to deride ail his predecessors, feigned thai they were all invited 
to a banquet of the gods, and Sik-nus the jester sat at the 
nether end of the table and bestowed a scoff on every one as 
they came in; but when Marcus Philosophus came in, Silenua 
was gravelled and out of countenance, not knowing where to 
earp at him ; save at the last he gave a glance at his patienofl 
towards his wife. And the virtue of this prince, continued 
with that of his predecessor, made the name of Antoninus so 
sacred in the world, that though it were extremely dishonoured 
in Commodus, Caracalia, and llcliogabalus, who nil hare the 
name, yet when Alexander Severus refused the name because 
he was a stranger to the family, the Senate with one acclama- 
tion said. QitDiiHitto Augustus, tie et Antoninus s [let the name 
of Antoninus be as the name of Augustus :] in such renown 
and veneration was the name of these two princes in those 
days, that they would have it as a perpetual addition in all the 
emperors 1 style. In this emperor's time also the church for 
the DBflti part was in peace; so as in this sequence of six 
princes we do see the blessed effects of learning in sovereignty, 
painted forth in the greatest table of the world. 

But for a tablet or picture of smaller volume, (not presuming 
to speak of your Majesty that liveth,) in my judgment the 
nuvt excellent is that of queen Elizabeth, your immediate pre- 
decessor in this part of Britain ; a piince that, if Plutarch were 

' In the translation ho mijs tli:it. Lucius, though not so good as his brother, was 
• letter than mot>t of thu other emperors. {Frolri qiutlcm lwnitn/e cidctis.rc/iipicu im 
feratorei ftvtmoi mtptrmuj 



now alive to write lives' by parallels, woukl trouble ltim T I 
think, to find for her a parallel amongst women. This lady 
was endued with learning in her B6X singular, and rare 1 even 
amongst masculine princes; whether we speak of learning 
of 3 language or of science; modern or ancient; divinity or 
humanity. And unto the very last year of her life she 
accustomed to appoint set hours for reading, scarcely any 
young student in an university more daily or more duly. As 
I'm her 1 government, I assure myself I shall not exceed if I do 
affirm that this part of the island never had forty-five years of 
better times ; and yet not through the calmness of the sea- 
son, but through the wisdom of her regiment. For if tin m be 
considered of the one side, the truth of religion established ; 
the constant peace and security; the good administration of 
justice? the temperate use of the prerogative, n>t Blackened, 
nor much strained ; the flourishing state of learning, SOTtable 
to so excellent a patroness; the convenient estate of wealth 
and mean.-, both of crown and subject; the habit of obedience] 
and the moderation of discontents ; and there be considered on 
the other side, the differences of religion, the troubles of neigh- 
bour countries, the ambition of Spain, and opposition of Rome; 
and then that she was solitary and of herself: these things I 
say considered, as I could not have chosen an instance Borecenl 
and so proper, so I suppose I could not have chosen one more 
remarkable or eminent, tu the purpose now in hand; which is 
concerning the conjunction of learning in the prince with felicity 
in the people.' 

it her hath learning an influence and operation only upon 
civil merit and moral virtue, and the arts or temperature of 
pear.' and peaceable government; but likewise it hath no less 
power and efficacy in enablement towards martial and military 
virtue and prowess; as may be notably represented is the 
examples of Alexander the Great and Cottar the Dictator, 
mentioned before, but now in fit place to he leeuiued ; <>f 
whose virtues and acts in war there needs no note or recital, 

1 If mm, ed. 1605 and 1629. linn ed. 1633. 

I 1689 and 1633. Ed. 1605 has i/rnce. 
■'. 1689 and 1633 have or; with. % Mfllicoloo after learning, where the original 
hat a comma ; the omission of which rnnk< - Ihr meaning and ceiibt ruction elear. 
.n.l 1633. The ortfltlkl ha- il, r . 
* Thii ii.inigtajih ii entirely omitted In tin- lit rfrajnaaaffej no doubt as one 
iM be allowed at Rome and miqht lend to the proacrlptlM of the hook. Si« 

^ a 



having been the wonders of time in that kind ; but of their 
affections toward* learning, and perfections in learning, it is 
pertinent to say somewhat. 

Alexander was bred and taught under Aristotle the great 
philosopher, who dedicated divers of his books of philosophy 
unto him. He was attended with Callisthencs and divers other 
learned persons, that followed him in camp, throughout his 
journeys and conquests. What price and estimation he had 
faming in doth notably appear in these three particulars: first, 
in the envy he used to express that he bare towards Achilles, 
iu this that he had so good a trumpet of his praises as Homer's 
- ; secondly, in the judgment or solution he gave touching 
that precious cabinet of Darius, which was found among his 
jewels, whereof question was made what thing was worthy to 
be put into it, and he gave his opinion far Humer's works ; 
thirdly, in his letter to Aristotle, after he had set forth his 
books of nature, wherein he expostulated with him for pub- 
lishing the se c re t ! Of mysteries of philosophy, and gave Sua to 
understand that himself esteemed it more to excel other men in 
learning and knowledge than in power and empire. And what 
use he had of learning doth appear, or rather shine, in all his 
Speeches and answers, being full of science and use of science, 
and that in all variety. 

And herein a»ain it may seem a thing scholastical, and 
somewhat idle, to recite things that every man knoweth; but 
\H wince the argument I handle leadeth me thereunto, I am 
glad that men shall perceive I am as willing to natter (if they 
will so call it) an Alexander or a Caesar or an Antoninus, that 
are dead many hundred years since, as any that now livcth: 
fbf it ■ I he displaying of the glory of learning in sovereignty 
that 1 proponed to myself and not an humour of declaiming 
in any man's praises. 1 Obs er ve then the speech he used of 
1 tfogenea, and see if it tend not to the true state of one of the 
greatest questions of moral philosophy; whether the enjoying 
of outward things or the contemning of them be the greatest 
happiness; for when he saw Diogenes so p erfe ctly contented 
with BO little, lie said to those that mocked at his condition, 
Wtn I uo! Alrjiimlir. I would wish to he Diogenes. But Seneca 
inverteth it. and BSJth, Ftut erat fUOd hie nollct accipere, ijiKiin 
ijitod die patet dare. There were more things which Diogenes 

1 All tblt tn.iu the beginning «f the paragraph ■ the translation. 



would have refused, than those were which Alexander ;ould 
have given or enjoyed. 

Observe again that speech which was usual with him, That 
he felt his mortality chiefly in two things, sleep and hist ; and see 
if it were not a speech extracted out of the depth of natural 
philosophy, and Hker to have comen out of the mouth of Ari- 
stotle or Dcmocritus than from Alexander. 1 

See again that speech of humanity and poesy ; when upon 
the bleeding of his wounds, he called unto him one of hil flat- 
terers that, was wont to ascribe to him divine honour, and said. 
Look, this is very blood ; this is not such a liquor of Homer 
sjiralutk of which ran from Venus' hand when it was pierced by 

Sou likewise his readiness in reprehension of logic, in the 
speech he used to Cassander upon a complaint that was made 
against his father Antipater: for when Alexander happed i" 
say, Do you think these men would liner, come from so far to 
comjiliiiit, except they had just cause of grief f and Cassander 
an-ucred, Yea, that was the matter, itemttt they thought they 
should not be disproved ; said Alexander laughing, See the 
fubtilties of Aristotle, to take a matter both ways, pro et contra, 

But note again how well he could use the same art which he 
reprehended, to serve his own humour, when bearing a secret 
grudge to Callisthenes because he waa against the new cere- 
mony of his adoration, feasting one night where the same Cat- 
luthenea was at the tabic, it was moved by some after supper, 
for entertainment sake, that Callisthenes who was an eloquent 
man might speak of some theme or purpose at his own choice; 
which Callisthenes did; chousing the praise of the Macedonian 
nation for hi- di course, and performing the same with so good 
moaner M the hearers were much ravished; whereupon Alex- 
ander, nothing pleated, said, It was easy to be iloquent upon so 
good " subject: but saith he, Tttrn your style, and let us hear it-hat 
anu can say against us: which Callisthenes presently undertook, 
and did with that sting and life, that Alexander interrupt! d 
him. and said, The goodness of the cause made him eloquent 
before, and despite made him eloquent then again. 

1 turn tain intliijentin lam rtituwltint'm uninr<r, per Wa duo daiiinattt, morlii sin. 
liiHijHutH nrrlml'OHti; the two opposite UDperffCtkMM Of natim-, deflcirniy and super- 
fluity, exhaustion and incontinence bcinj^ a&u «rn- laniesls of morl.dity. 

X 3 



Consider further, for tropes of rhetoric, that excellent use of 
a metaphor or translation, wherewith he taxed Antipater, who 
was an imperious and tyrannous governor : fur when one of 
Antipaters friends commended him to Alexander for his mo- 
deration, that he did not degenerate, as his other lieutenants 
did, into the Persian pride, in use of purple, but kept the 
ancient habit of Macedon, of black ; True, (saith Alexander.) 
hut Aiitijwtrr is all purple irif/iin. Or that other, when Par- 
menio came to him in the plain of Arbella, and shewed him 
the innumerable multitude of his enemies, specially as tiny 
appeared by the infinite number of lights, as it had been a new 
firmament of stars, and thereupon advised him to assail them 
I iy night : whereupon he answered, That In- would not steal the 

For matter nf policy, weigh that significant distinction, so 
much in all ages embraced* that he made between his two 
friends Heplncstion and Craterus, when he said, That the one 
lorn! Alexander, and the other loved the king ; describing the 
principal difference of princes' best servants, that some in affec- 
tum love their person, and others in duty love their crown. 

Weigh also that excellent taxation of nn error ordinary with 

counsel Ion of princes, that they counsel their masters according 

to the model of their own mind and fortune, and not of their 

when upon Darius' great offers Parmenio had said, 

Surely I would accept Jaess <>jf,-rs, wort I tu Alexander ; saith 

Alexander, So would /. in re I as Parmenio. 

Lastly, weigh that quick and acute reply which he made 
when he gave so large gifts 1o his friends and servants, and was 
Baked what he did reserve for himself, and he answered, Ilopr ; 
weigh, I Bay, whether he hail not east up his account aright, 
because hope most be the portion of all that resolve upon great 
enterprises. For this was Caesar's portion when he went fir-i 
into Gaul, his estate being then utterly overthrown with 1 u- 
i. And this was likewise the portion of thai noble prince, 
howsoever transported with ambition, Henry duke of Guise, of 
whom it was usually said, thai he was the greatest, usurer in 
Prance, because he had turned all his estate into obligations. 

To conclude therefore: as certain critics are used to say 
hyperbolioally, That if all science* were lost, they might bt found 
in Virgil; bo certainly this may he said truly, there are the 
"nuts ami footsteps of learning in those few speeches which are 



reported of this prince: the admiration of whom, when I con- 
eider him not as Alexander the Great, but as Aristotle's scholar, 
halh earned me too far. 

As for Julius CftSar, the excellency of his learning nccdeth 
not to be argued from his education, or his company, or his 
bee; hut. in a further degree doth declare itself in hia 
writings and works; whereof some arc extant and permanent, 
and some unfortunately perished. For first, we see there is loft 
unto us that excellent history of his own wars, which he intitled 
only a Commentary, wherein all succeeding times have admired 
tlic -olid weight of matter, and the real passages and lively 
images of actions and persona, expressed in the greatest pro- 
priety of words and perspicuity of narration that ever was ; 
which that it was not the effect of a natural gift, but of 
learning and precept, is well witnessed bj that work of Kit 
intitled De Analt>r/if/, being a grammatical philosophy, wherein 
he did labour to make (his i' ud piacituM to become 

vox ad iiritiim, and to reduce custom of Speech to congruity of 
speech ; and took as it were the picture of words from the life 
of reason. 1 

So we receive from him, as a monument hotb of his power 
and learning, the then reformed computation of the year; well 
expressing, that he took it to be as great a glory to himself to 
observe and know the law of the heavens as to give law to men 
upon tin- < irth. 

So likewise in that book of his Auti-Cato, it may easily appear 
that he did aspire as well to victory of wit as victory of war; 
taking therein a ooniiet against the g re atort champion 
with the pen that then lived, Cicero the orator. 

So again in bis book of Apophthegms which he collected, we 
SM that be esteemed it more honour to make h:m«elf hut a 
pair of tables to take the wise and pithy words of Others, than 

to have every word of his own to be made an npophflng r 

an oradfi ; as vain princes, by GUStOfD of flattery, pretend to do. 
And y if I -liould enumerate divers of his speeches, as I did 
those of Alexander, they are truly such as Salomon noteth, 
wheuhesaith, Verba tapimhan tmtguam aculei,et tantputm clavi 

1 ThLi ptmgtk ol without ■Mlneo or alteration. But Bacon sec ma to 

hav« ch upon ttie point In question. For In the sixth 

tbc D* .■friiymiuiu, c. I., hi- intim i!. i that Ca:8»r's hook was not n 

hllotopby, hut only a set of precepts for the formation of a pure, perfect, 

tnd ntuArted m>i- Sic Vol I. p. G.'j4. 



in alhim defixi: [tlie words of the wise are as goads, and as 
nails fixed deep in:] whereof I will only recite three, not so 
delectable for elegancy, but admirable for vigour and efficacy. 

As first, it is reason he be thought a master of words, that 
OOuld with fine word appease a mutiny in his army ; which way 
thus. The Romans, when their generals did speak to their 
army, did use the word Milites; but when the magistrates spake 
to the people, they did use the word Qutrites. The; soldiers 
were in tumult, and seditiously prayed to be cashiered ; not 
that they so meant, but by expostulation thereof to draw Ca?sar 
to other conditions; wherein he being resolute not to give way, 
after some silence, he began his speech, Ego, Quiritrs ; which 
did admit them already cashiered ; wherewith they were so 
surprised, crossed, and confused, as they would not suffer him 
to go on in his speech, but relinquished their demands, and 
made it their suit to be again called by the name of MiUtt$. 

The second speech was thus : Ccesar did extremely alfect the 
name of king; and some were set on, as he passed by, in po- 
pular acclamation to salute him king; whereupon, finding the 
cry weak and poor, he put it off thus in a kind of jest, as if 
they had mistaken his surname ; Non Rex sum, scd CtEsar : [I 
am not King, but Cffisar :] a speech, that if it be searched, the 
life and fulness of it can scarce be expressed: for first it was a 
refusal of the name, but yet not serious; again it did signify 
an infinite confidence and magnanimity, as if lie presumed 
Caesar was the greater title ; as by his worthiness it is come to 
DIM till this day : but chiefly it was a speed] of great allure- 
ment towards his own purpose ; as if the state did strive with 
hint hut for a name, whereof mean families were vested ; for 
Rex was a surname with the Romans, as well as King is 
with us. 

The last speech which I will mention, was used to Metellus; 
when C'tesar, after war declared, did possess himself of the city 
of Rome; at which lime entering into the inner treasury to 
take the money there aeeumnlate, Metellus being tribune for- 
bade him : whereto Caesar said, That if he did not desist, he 
would lay him dead in the place ; and presently taking himself 
up, he added, Young man, it U harder for me to speak it than to 
do it. Adolescent, ditrius est mihi hoc dicere quam facere. A 
speech compounded of the greatest terror and greatest clemency 
that could proceed out of the mouth of man. 



But to return and conclude with him: it is evident himself 
knew well hid own perfection in learning, and took it upon 
him; BB appeared when upon occasion that some spake what a 
strange resolution it was in Lucius Sylla to resign hk di©> 
tature, he scoffing at him, to his own advantage, answered, 
That. Sylla could not skill of letters, and therefore knew not hmo 
to dictate. 

And here it were fit to leave this point touching the con- 
currence of military virtue and learning; (for what example 
would come with any grace after those two of Alexander and 
r?) were it not in regard of the rareness of circumstance 
that I find in one other particular, as that which did so sud- 
denly pass from extreme scorn to extreme wonder; and it is of 
Xenophon the philosopher, who went from Socrates' school 
into Asia, in the expedition of Cyrus the younger against king 
Artaxerxes. This Xenophon nt that time was very young, 
and never had seen the wars before; neither had any command 
in the army, hut only followed the war as a voluntary, for the. 
love and conversation of Proxenus his friend. He was present 
when Falinus came in message from the great king to the 
Grecians, after that Cyrus was slain in the field, and they a 
handful of men left to themselves in the midst of the king's 
territories, cut off from their country by many navigable rivers, 
and many hundred miles. The message imported that they 
should deliver up their arms, and submit themselves to the 
kings mercy. To which message before answer was made, 
divers of the army conferred familiarly with Falinus; and 
amongst the rest Xenophon happened to say, l\liy Falinus, irr 
have now but these two things left, our arms and our virtue ; and 
if we yield up our arms, how shall we make use of our virtue? 
Whereto Falinus smiling on him, said, If I he not. deceived, 
young t/riitfi inan, you are an Athenian; and I believe you study 
philosophy, and it is pretty that you say ; hut you are mueft 
abused jf you think your virtue ran withstand the king's pouter. 
u.i- the BGOrn; the wonder followed! which was, that 
this young scholar or philosopher, after all the captains were 
murdered in parley by treason, condueted those ten thousand 
foot through the heart of all the king's high countries from 
M.diylon to Grrccia in safety, in despite of all the king's forces, 
16 the astonishment of the world, and the encouragement of 
the Grecians in time succeeding to make invasion upon the 



kings of Persia ; as was after purposed by Jason the Thessalian, 
attempted by Agcsilaus the Spartan, and achieved by Alex- 
ander the Macedonian; all upon the ground of the act of that 
young scholar. 

To proceed now from imperial ami military virtue to moral 
Bad private virtue j first, it is an assured truth which is con- 
tained in the verses, 

Scilicet ingenuas didieisse fidellter an.- 
Emullh mures, nee sink esse t'eros ; 

fa true proficiency in liberal learning softens and humanises the 
manners]. It taketh away the wildness and barbarism and fieree- 
ncss of men's minds : but indeed the accent had need be upon 
/id, liter : [it must be a true proficiency :] for a little superficial 
learning' doth rather work a contrary effect. It taketh away 
all levity, temerity, and insolency, by copious suggestion of all 
doubts and difficulties, and acquainting the mind to balance 
reasons on both sides, and to turn back the first offers and 
conceits of the mind, and to accept of nothing but examined 
and tried. It taketh away vain admiration of any thing, 
which is the root of all weakness. For all things are admired, 
cither because they are new, or because they are great. For 
novelty, no man that wadeth in learning or contemplation 
throughly, but will find that printed in his heart AT3 novi 
lupcr terra in : [there is nothing new under the sun]. Neither 
ran any man marvel at the play of puppets, that goeth behind 
the Curtain and adviscth well of the motion. And for magni- 
tude, as Alexander the Great after that he was used to great 
armies and the great conquests of the spacious province- in 
Asia, when he received letters out of Greece of some fights 
and services there, which were commonly for a passage or a 
fort or some walled town at the most, he said, It. seemel 
to him thai he teas advertised of the battles of the frogs and 
the mice, that the old tales went of: so certainly if a man 
meditate much upon the universal frame of nature, the earth 
with men upon it (the divineness of souls except) will not 
seem much other thnn an ant-hill, whereas some ants carry 
corn, ami some carry their young, and some go empty, 
and all to and fro a little heap of dust It taketh away or 
mitigateth fear of death or adverse fortunes which is one of 

' tiuMulluaii i cvymtiu. 


8 1 5 

the greatest impediments of virtue and imperfections of man- 
ners. For if a man's mind be deeply seasoned with the con- 
sideration of the mortality and corruptible nature of things, he 
will easily concur with Epictetus, who went forth one day 
and saw a woman weeping for her pitcher of earth that was 
broken, and went forth the next day and saw a woman wip- 
ing for her son that was dead ; and thereupon said, Jim' ritli 
fragilem frangi, hodie vidi mortalem mori : [yesterday I saw 
a brittle thing broken, to-day a mortal dead]. And therefore 
Virgil did excellently and profoundly couple the knowdedge 
of causes and the conquest of all fain together, as concomi- 

Felix qui poluit rerum cognoscere causas, 
Quiquc metus onirics et. inexombile fatuin 
Subjecit peJibus, tttrepituinriue Acherontis avnri. 

[Happy the man who dnih the causes know 
Of all that h : serene lie standa, above 
All fears ; above the inexorable Fate, 
And that insatiate gulph that roais below.] 

It were too long to go over the particular remedies which 
learning doth minister to all the diseases of the mind ; some- 
times purging the ill humours, sometimes opening the obstruc- 
tions, sometimes helping digestion, somstimea increasing appe- 
tite, sometimes healing the wounds and exulceratious thereof, 
and the like; and ther ef ore 1 will conclude with that which 
hath rationtm tathu; which is that it disposetb theconstitufi on of 
tlie mind not to be fixed or settled in the defects thereof, but 
still to bfl capable and susceptible of growth and reformation. 
For the unlearned man knows not what it is to descend into 
hfaneelf or to call himself to account, nor the pleasure of that 
suavissima vita, indies sentire se fieri meliorem, [to feel himself 
each day a better mnn than he was the day before]. The 
good parrs he hath he will learn to shew to the full and 
u->- them dexterously* but not much to increase them: the 
1'aulis lie hath he will learn how to hide and colour them, but 
not mueh to amend them; like an ill mower, that mows on still 
and never whets his scythe: whereas with the learned mnn 
it fares otherwise, that he doth ever intot mix the correction 
and amendment of bu mind with the use and employment 
of. Nay further, in general and in sum, certain it is that 
Veritas and tinnitus ditfer but as the seal and the print ; for 



truth prints goodness, and they be the clouds of error which 
>K .-vend in the stomal ofpMaOM and perturbations. 

From moral virtue let us pass on to matter of power and 
Commandment, and consider whether in right reason there 
be any comparable with that wherewith knowledge inv*c>t« t li 
and crowncth man's nature. We see the dignity of the cora- 
IIMlldme&t is according to the dignity of the commanded: to 
have commandment over beasts, as herdsmen have, is a thing 
Contemptible; to havfl commandment over children, ns school- 
masters have, is a matter of small honour; to have command- 
ment over galley-slaves is a disparagement rather than an 
honour. Neither is the commandment of tyrants much better, 
over people which have put off the generosity of their minds: 
and therefore it was ever holden that honours in free mo- 
narchies and commonweal lbs bad a sweetness more than iu 
tyrannies; because the commandment cxtendcth more over the 
wills of men, and not only over their deeds and services. And 
therefore when Virgil putteth himself forth to attribute to 
Augustus CVsar the best of human honours, he doth it in 
these words: 

vietorqna volentcs 
Tor populos dot jura, viamque affectat Qlyuipo : 
[Mm hilt in OOltquest onward, at his will 
To willing peoples lie gives laws, ami shapes 
Through worthiest d c odl M earth his course to Heaven.] 

Hut yet the commandment of knowledge is yet higher than the 
commandment over the will; for it is a commandment over 
the reason, belief, and understanding of man, which is the 
highest part, of the mind, and gixetb law to the will itself. 
For there is no power on earth which sctteth up a throne or 
ohftir of i -tate in the spirits and souls of men, and in their 
cogitations, imaginations, opinions, and beliefs, but knowledge 
and learning. And therefore we see the detestable and extreme 
pleasure that arch-heretics and false prophets and impostors arc 
transported with, when they once hod in themselves that they 
have a superiority in the faith and conscience of men ; so great, 
that if they have once tasted of it, it is seldom seen that any 
torture or persecution can make them relinquish or abandon 
it. But as this is that which the author of the Kevelation 
callcth the depth or profoundness of Sutu.ii ; so by argument 



of contraries*, the just and lawful sovereignty over men's 
understanding, by force" of truth rightly interpreted, is that 
which approaeheth nearest to the similitude of the divine 

Ab for fortune and advancement, the beneficence of learning 
is not so confined to give fortune only to states and common- 
wealths as it doth not likewise give fortune to particular pcr- 
>..ii-. Fur it was well noted long ago, that Homes hath given 
more men their livings than either Sylla or Caesar or Ai 
His ever did, notwithstanding their great huBeflBH and dona- 
tives and distributions of lands to so many legions. Ami no 
doubt it is hard to say whether arms or learning have advanced 
greater numbers. And in case of sovereignty, we see that if 
arms or descent have carried away the kingdom, yet learning 
hath carried the priesthood, which ever hath been in BOOM 
rouipetition with empire. 

Again, for the pleasure and delight of knowledge and learn- 
ing, it far surpasseth all other in nature: for shall the pleasures 
of the affections so exceed the senses, as much as the obtaining 
of desire or victory exceedeth a song or a dinner; and must not 
of consequence the pleasures of the intellect or understanding 
exceed the pleasures of the affections ? We see in all othdr 
pleasures there is satiety, and alter they be used, their verdure* 
departeth ; which sheweth well they be but deceits of pleasure, 
and not pleasures; and that it was the novelty which pleased, 
and not the quality. Ami therefore we see that voluptuous men 
turn friars, and ambitions princes turn melancholy. But of 
knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfaction and appetite are 
perpetually interchangeable; and therefore appeareth to be 
good in itself simply, without fallacy or accident. Neither is 
that pleasure of small efficacy and contentment to the mind of 
man, which the poet Lucretius describeth elegantly, 

SlUVS ninri magno, tiirbnntibus tequora ventis, &c. 

It is a ririr of delight (saith he) to stand or walk upon the 
nfiars side, and to tee a ship tossed tvilh tempest upon tht tea : »r 
to /'i- 111 a fortified tower, and to an two battles join isjmm " plain. 

Hut it U " plro.-mr iiiroinpuridili'. for tfir iiiiml of HMD f " it 

Kttled, landed, and fortified ui the certainty of truth ; and J'n>>n 
1 So niii. l6S0«nd 16S3. The origin*! dm 

' rrrdimr ill llu- original : ! Btt I', V><t;, 



thence to duerjf and behold the errors, perturbations, labours, and 
wanderings up and down of other men. 

Lastly, leaving the vulgar arguments, that by learning man 
excelleth man in that wherein man excelleth beasts ; that by 
learning man ascendeth to the heavens and their motions, 
where in body he cannot come; and the like; let us conclude 
with the dignity and excellency of knowledge and learning in 
that whereunto man's nature doth most aspire; which is im- 
mortality or continuance ; for to this tendeth generation, and 
raising of houses and families ; to this buildings, foundations, 
and monuments ; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, 
and celebration; and in effect, the strength of all other human 
i desires. "We see then how far the monuments of wit and 
\ learning are more durable than the monuments of power or of 
J the hands. For have not the verses of Homer continued 
twenty-five hundred years or more, without the loss of a syl- 
lable or letter; during which time infinite palaces, temples, 
castles, cities, have been decayed and demolished? It is not 
possible to have the true pictures or statuaes of Cyrus, Alex- 
ander, Ctesar, no nor of the idsgl Of great personages of much 
later years ; for the originals cannot last, and the copies cannot 
but leese of the life and truth. Hut the images of men's wits 
and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong of 
lime nnd capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are thev 
fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and out 
tlu-ir seeds in the inmds of others, provoking and MUMBg in- 
finite actions and opinions in succeeding ages. So that if the 
invention of the ship was thought so noble, which carrieth 
riches and commodities from place to plaee, and consocinteth 
the most remote regions in participation of their fruits, how 
much more are letters to be magnified, which as ehips pass 
through the vast seas of time, and make ages so distant to par- 
tieipate of the wisdom, illuminations, and inventions, the one of 
ihe other? Xay further, we see some of the philosophers 
which were least divine and most immersed in the senses and 
denied generally the immortality of the soul, yet came to this 
point, that whatsoever motions the spirit of man could act and 
perform without the organs of the body they thought mi<d:t 
remain after death ; which were only those 
ing, and not of the affe'tion ; so imnioi 
thing did knowledge seem unto tl> 


know by divine revelation that not only the understanding but 
the affections purified, not only the spirit but the body changed, 
shall be advanced to immortality, do disclaim in ' these rudiments 
of the senses. But it must be remembered both in this last- 
point, and so it may likewise be needful in other places, that 
in probation of the dignity of knowledge or learning I did in 
the beginning separate divine testimony from human ; which 
method I have pursued, and so handled them both apart 

Nevertheless I do not pretend, and I know it will be im- 
possible for me by any pleading of mine, to reverse the judg- 
ment, either of iEsop's cock, that preferred the barleycorn 
before the gem ; or of Midas, that being chosen judge between 
Apollo president of the Muses, and Pan god of the flocks, 
judged for plenty ; or of Paris, that judged for beauty and 
love against wisdom and power; or of Agrippina, occidat 
matron, modo imperet, [let him kill his mother so he be em- 
peror,] that preferred empire with condition never so de- 
testable ; or of Ulysses, qui vetulam praetulit immortalitati, [that 
preferred an old woman to an immortality,] being a figure of 
those which prefer custom and habit before all excellency ; or 
of a number of the like popular judgments. For these things 
continue as they have been : but so will that also continue 
whereupon learning hath ever relied, and which failcth not : 
Justificata est sapientia ajiliis suis : [wisdom is justified of her 

1 So all three editions. The translation has not auiem .... conculeanttt **e 
rtvlimenta at que qffuciat tensuum, novimus &c. 




or thx 




It might seem to have more convenience, though it come often 
otherwise to pass, (excellent King,) that those which are fruit- 
ful in their generations, nnd have in themselves the foresight 
of immortality in their descendant.*, should likewise be more 
cartful of the good estate of future times; unto whirh tluy 
know they must transmit and commend over their dearest 
pledges. Queen Elizabeth was a sojourner in the world in re- 
spect of her unmarried life ; and was a blessing to her own 
times ; and yet so as the impression of her good government, 
beaklea ha happy memory, is not without some effect which 
iloth survive her. 1 But to your Majesty, whom God hath 
already blessed with so much royal issue, worthy to continue 
and represent you for ever, and whose youthful and fruitful 
bed doth yet promise many the like renovations, it is proper 
and agreeable to be conversant not only in the transitory parts 
of g.>od government, but in those acts also which are in their 
nature permanent and perpetual. Amongst the which (if affec- 
tion do not transport me) there is not any more worthy than 
the further endowment of the world with sound and fruitful 
knowledge: for why should a few received authors Btand up 
like Hercules' Columns, beyond which there should be no sail- 
ing or discovering, since we have so bright and benign a star 

1 ThU Ust clause Is omitted in tin tr.iulullon. Sec note i>. 277. 
VOL. Ml. V 



a< your Majesty to conduct and prosper us? To return there* 
fore where we left, it remaiueth to consider of what kind those 
acts are, which have been undertaken and performed l>v kings 
and others for the increase aisd advancement of learning: 
wherein I purpose to speak actively without digressing or 

Let this ground therefore be laid, that all works are over- 
comen by amplitude of reward, by soundness of direction, and 
by the conjunction of labours- The first multiplieth endea- 
vour, the second preventeth error, and the third supplieth the 
frailty of man. But the principal of these is direction: for 
claudia in via antevertit cur&orem extra viam ; [the cripple that 
keeps the way gets to the end of the journey sooner than the 
runner who goes aside;] and Salomon excellently sctteth it 
down, //' the iron be not sharp, it reqnireth more strength ; but 
wisdom is that which prevaileth ; signifying that the invention 
or election of the mean is more effectual than any inforcement 
or accumulation of endeavours. This I am induced to speak, 
for that (not derogating from the noble intention of any that 
have been deservers towards the state of learning) I do observe 
nevertheless that their works and acts are rather matters of 
magnificence and memory than of progression and profieience, 
and tend rather to augment the mass of learning in the multi- 
tude of learned men than to rectify or raise the sciences them- 

The works or acts of merit towards learning are conversant 
about three objects-, the ptaceB of learning, the books of learn- 
ing, and the persons of the learned. For as water, whether it 
be the dew of heaven or the springs of the earth, doth scatter 
and leese itself in the ground, except it be collected into some 
receptacle, where it may by union comfort and sustain itself; 
and for that cause the industry of man hath made and framed 
spring-heads, conduits, cisterns, and pools, which men have ac- 
customed likewise to beautify and adorn with accomplishments 
of magnificence and state, as well as of use and necessity; so 
this excellent liquor of knowledge, whether it descend from 
divine inspiration or spring from human sense, would soon 
perish and vanish to oblivion, if it were not preserved in hooks, 
traditions, conferences, and places appointed, as anhrersitieB, 
colleges, and schools, for the receipt and comforting of the 




The works which concern the seats and places of learning 
arc |'..ur; foundations and buildings, endowments with reve- 
nues, endowments with franchises and privileges, institutions 
and ordinances for government; all tending to quietness and 
privateness of life, and discharge of cares aud troubles; much 
like the stations which Virgil prescribeth for the hiving of 

PnncJpio sedes apibus stntinque peleml.i. 

Quo ncquc sit vends aditus, &c. 

[First for thy bees a quiet station fitifl. 
And lodge them under covert of the wind. 1 '] 

The works touching books :ire two: first libraries, which 
are as the shrines when all the relics of the ancient saints, full 
of true virtue and that without delusion or imposture 8 , are 
preserved and reposed; secondly, new editions of authors, with 
more correct impressions, more faithful translations, more pru- 
fiiable glosses, more diligent annotations, and the like. 

The works pertaining to the persons of learned men (be- 
sides the advancement and countenancing of them in general) 
are two: the reward and designation of readers in sciences al- 
ready extant and invented; and the reward ami designation of 
writers and inquirers concerning any parts of learning not suf- 
ficiently laboured and prosecuted. 

These are summarily the works and acts, wherein the merits 
of many excellent princes and other worthy personages have 
been conversant. As for any particular commemorations, I 
rail to mind what Cicero said, when he gave general thanks; 
Diffirile iion aliquem, ingratum quaiquam prteterire : [it were 
hard to remember all, and yet ungracious to forget any]. Let 
us rather, according to the Scriptures, look unto that part of 
the race whirl) U before us than look back to that which is 
already attained. 

First therefore, amongst so many great foundations of col- 
leges in Europe. I find it strange that they arc all dedicated to 
profe^.-iuns and none left free to arts and sciences at large. 
For if men judge that learning should be referred to action, 
they judge well; but in this they fall into the error described 
in the ancient fable ; in which the other parti of the body did 
eti|)[K)se the stomach bad been idle, because it neither per- 

' It) Jen. ' Thb claiur U omitted in tl ~ Dt Amjaunli: See note p. 27 7 

v t 



formed the office of motion, as the limbs do, nor of sense, as 
the head doth; but yet notwithstanding it is (lie stomach that 
digesteth and distributcth to all the rest. So if any man think 
philosophy and universality to be idle studies, he doth not Con- 
sider that all professions are from thence served and supplied. 
And this I take to be a great cause that hath hindered the 
progression of learning, because these fundamental knowledges 

have been studied but in passage. PoT if you will haw I tnv 
bear more fruit, than it hath used to do, it is not any tiling ymi 
ran do to the boughs, but it is the stirring of the earth and 
putting new mould about the roots that must work it. Neither 
is it to be forgotten that this dedicating of foundations and dota- 
tions to DTof co e ory learning hath not only had a maligu aspect 
and influence upon the growth of sciences, but hath also been 
prejudicial to states and governments. For hence it proceeds th 
that princes find a solitude in regard of able men to serve them 
in causes of estate, because there is no education collegiate 
which is free ; where such as were eo dis]w>sed might give 
thcmselveB to histories, modern languages, books of policy and 
civil discourse, and other the like enablements unto service of 

And because founders of colleges do plant and founders of 
lectures do water, it followeth well in order to speak of the 
defect which is in public lectures ; namely, in the smallness and 
meanness of the salary or reward which in most places is 
assigned unto them ' ; whether they be lectures of arts, or of 
professions. For it is necessary to the progression of sciences 
that readers' be of the most able and sufficient men ; as those 
which are ordained for generating ami propagating of sciences, 
and not for transitory use. This cannot be, except their con- 
dition and endowment be such as may content the ablest man 
to appropriate bis whole labour and continue his whole age 
in that function and attendance ; and therefore must have a 
proportion answerable to that mediocrity or competency ot 
advancement which may be expected from a profession or the 
practice of a profession. So as, if you will have sciences 
flourish, you must observe David"? military law, which was. 
That those which staid with the carriage, shoiihl tturr Mttdi pari 
with those which were in the action ; else will the carriages be 

1 In the Dt Auj/mcHtit he MlcU praicrtim uputt tioi. 

' i. e lecturen. 



ill attended : So readers in sciences are indeed the guardians of 
the stores and provisions of sciences whence men in active 
courses are furnished, and therefore ought to have equal enter- 
tainment with them; otherwise it' the fathers in sciences be of 
the weakest sort or be ill-maiutained, 

Et pntrum invalidi referent jejunia nati: 

[the poor keeping of the parents will appear in the poor con- 
stitution of the offspring.] 

Another defect I note, wherein I shall need some alchemist 
to help me, who call upon men to sell their books and to build 
furnaces ; quitting and forsaking Minerva and the Muses as 
barren virgins, and relying upon Vulcan. But certain it is 
that unto the deep, fruitful, and operative study of many 
sciences, specially natural philosophy and physic 1 , bucks he 
not only the instruinentals; wherein also the beneficence of men 
bath not been altogether wanting; for we see spheres, globes, 
astrolabes, maps, and the like, have been provided as appur- 
tenances to astronomy and cosmography, as well as books: we 
see likewise that some places instituted for physic have annexed 
tlit- commodity of gardens for simples of all sorts, and do like- 
wise command the use of dead bodies for anatomies. But these 
do respect but a few things. In general, there will hardly be 
any main proficience in the disclosing of nature, except there 
be some allowance for expenses about experiments ; whether 
they be experiments appertaining to Vulcanus or Diednlus, 
furnace or engine, or any other kind ; and therefore as secre- 
taries and spials of princes and states bring in bills for in- 
telligence, so you must allow the spials and intelligencers of 
nature to bring in their bills, or else you shall be ill ad- 

And if Alexander made such a liberal assignation to Ari- 
stotle of treasure for the allowance of hunters, fowlers, fishers, 
and the like, that he might compile an History of nature, much 
belter ilo they deserve it that travail 1 in Arts of nature. 3 

Another defect which I note, is an intermission or neglect in 

1 i. t. medicine. 

' tmmilm in tlie original, and also In edd. 163*1 and lfiia. 

* i. r. In working upon and alterinc, nature liy ait. The meaning; fJ expreased more 
clearly In the Iranilatinn : mnj*t uuidiiiim iMtrtur in ijui nnn in mliibui nutura per- 
rrranl, ttri in libyrmlfii* nriium rmm ajitriiint : the compiler of a history of nature 
tuinc likened to a wanderer through the wooda, the " travaikr In Ml of nature" to 
one who nuke* hl» way through a labyrinth. 

T » 



those which are governor* in universities of consultation, and in 
princes or superior persons of visitation ; to enter into account 
and consideration, whether the readings, exercises, and other 
customs appertaining unto learning, anciently begun and since 
continued, be well instituted or no ; and thereupon to ground 
n n amendment or reformation in that which tbaU be found in- 
convenient. For it is one of your Majesty's own most wii>e 
and princely maxims, that in all usages and precedents, the times 
be considered wherein they first began ; which (f they were weak 
or ignorant, it derogateth from the authority of the usage, and 
leaveth it f>r suspect. And therefore in as much as most of tin- 
usages and orders of the universities were derived from more 
obscure times, it is the more requisite they be re-examined. 
In this kind I will give an instance or two lor example sake of 
things that are the most obvious and familiar. The one is a 
matter which though it be ancient and general, yet I hold to 
be an error; which is, that scholars in univer.-hies come (o«p 
soon and too unripe to logic and rhetoric ; arts fitter for gradu- 
ates than children and novices : for these two, rightly taken, 
arc the gravest of sciences ; being the arts of arts, the one for 
judgment, the other for ornament ; and they he tiie rules and 
directions how to set forth and dispone matter; and therefore 
for minds empty and unfraught with matter, and which have 
not gathered that which Cicero calleth st/tva and sujiel/rx, stuff 
and variety, to begin with those arts, (as if one should learn to 
weigh or to measure or to paint the wind,) doth work but this 
effect, that the wisdom of those arte, which is great and uni- 
versal, is almost made contemptible, and is degenerate into 
childish sophistry and ridiculous affectation. And further, the 
untimely learning of them hath drawn on by consequence the 
superficial and unprofitable teaching and writing of them, aa 
fitteth indeed to the capacity of children. Another is a lack I 
find in the exercises used in the universities, which do make 
tw> great a divorce between invention and memory; for their 
speeches are either premeditate in verbis couceptis, where no- 
thing is left to invention, or merely extemporal, where little 
is left to memory : whereas in life and action there is least use 
of either of these, but rather of intermixtures of premeditation 
and invention, notes and memory; so as the exercise filteth 
not the practice, nor the image the life; and it is ever a true 
rule in exercises, that they be framed as near as may be to the 



life, of practice; for otherwise they da pervert the motions 
and faculties of the mind, :in<l nut prepare them. Tlie truth 
whereof is not obscure, when scholars come to the praeti'- 
professions, or other actions of civil life ; which when they set 
into, this want is soon found by themselves, and sooner by 
others. But this part, touching the amendment of the institu- 
tions and orders of universities, I will conclude with the clause 
of tiesar's letter to 0|>pius and Balbus, linn qwmadmodum 
fieri possit, nonnulla rnihi in mentem veniunt, et multa rtptfiri 
possunt ; de iis rebus rwjo vox ut coijitationem suscipiatis : [how 
this may be done, some things occur to me and more may be 
thought of. I would have you take these matters into DOB- 

Another defect which I note, ascendeth a little higher than 
the precedent. For as the proficience of learning consisted) 
much in the orders and institutions of universities in the same 
states and kingdoms, so it would be yet more advanced, if there 
were more intelligence mutual between the aniveraUaei oi 
Europe than now there is. We see there he many orders ami 
foundations, which though they be divided under several so- 
vereignties and territories, yet they take themselves to have a 
kind of contract, fraternity, and correspondence one with the 
Other, insomuch as they have Provincials and Generals. 1 And 
surely as nature createth brotherhood in families, and at is 
in- •iiauical contract brotherhoods in eommunalties, and the 
anointment of God superinduceth a brotherhood in kings and 
bishops; so in like manner there cannot but be a fraternity in 
learning and illumination, relating to that paternity which is 
attributed to God, who is called the Father of illumination- or 

The last defect which I will note is, that there hath not 
been, or very rarely been, any public designation of writer.- or 
inquirers concerning such parts of knowledge as may appear 
not to have been already sufficiently laboured or undertaken ; 
unto which point it is an inducement, to eater into a view and 
nination what parts of learning have, been prosecuted, and 
what omitted ; for the opinion of plenty i- amongst the nnneci 
of want, and the great quantity of boolu maketh a shew rather 
uf superfluity than lack: which surcharge nevertheless is nut 
to be remedied by making no more books, but by making more 

' Pi*tr.< i juHhii oonui Burtat, — i>r Aue, 

Y 4 



good books, which, as the serpent of Moses ', might devour 
the serpents of the enchanters. 

The removing of all the defects formerly enumerate, except 
the last, and of the active part also of the last, (which is the 
designation of writers,) are opera basilica, [works for a king;] 
towards which the endeavours of a private man may be but as 
an image in a crossway, that may point at the way but cannot 
go it. But the inducing part of the latter (which is the survey 
of learning) may be set forward by private travel. "Where- 
fore I will now attempt to make a general and faithful peram- 
bulation of learning, with an inquiry what ports thereof lie 
fresh and waste, and not improved and converted by the in- 
dustry of man ; to the end that such a plot made and recorded 
to memory may both minister light to any public designa- 
tion, and also serve to excite voluntary endeavours; wherein 
nevertheless my purpose is at this time to note only omissions 
and deficiencies, and not to make any redargution of errors or 
incomplete prosecutions J ; for it is one thing to set forth what 
ground lieth unmanured, and another thing to correct ill hus- 
bandry in that which is manured. 1 

In the handling and undertaking of which work I am not 
ignorant what it is that I do now move and attempt, nor in- 
sensible of mine own weakness to sustain my purpose ; but my 
hope is that if my extreme love to learning carry me too far, I 
may obtain the excuse of affection ; for that ir is not granted to 
ntan to love and to be wise. But I know well I can use no 
other liberty of judgment than I must leave to others; and I 
for my part shall lie indifferently glad either to perform myself 
or accept from another that duty of humanity, Nam qui erranti 
eomiter motutrat viemt, &c. [to put the wanderer in the right 
way]. I do foresee likewise that of those things which I shall 
enter and register as deficiencies and omissions, many will con- 
ceive and censure that some of them are already done and ex- 
tant ; others to be but curiosities, and things of no great use; 
and others to be of too great difficulty and almost, impossibility 
to be COinpuwd and effected. But for the two first, I refer 
myself to the particulars. For the last, touching impossibility, 
I take it those things arc to be held possible which may be 
done by some person, though not by every one ; and which 

1 Rot Mora, liut Aaron. Ex. 1. 17. — ft L. E. 
* inftlicitaUi. — De Aug. 

' i. r. cultivated. 



may be done by many, though not by any one ; and which 
may be done in succession of ages, though not within the hour- 
glass of one man's life ; and which may be done by public 
designation, though not by private endeavour. But notwith- 
standing, if any man will take to himself rather that of Salo- 
mon, Dicit pilfer, Leo est in via, [the slothful man saith there is 
a lion in the path,] than that of Virgil, Possunt quia posse 
videntur, [they find it possible because they think it possible,] 
I shall be content that my labours be esteemed but aa the 
better sort of wishes ; for as it asketh some knowledge to 
demand a question not impertinent, so it requireth some sense 
to make a wish not absurd. 

If ' The parts of human learning have reference to the three 
parts of Man's Understanding, which is the seat of learning : 
Histor y to his Memory, Ffoeriy to his Imagination, and Phi- 
l osophy to his Reason. Divine learning receiveth the same 
distribution; for the spirit of man is the Bame, though the 
revelation of oracle and sense be diverse : so as theology con- 
sisteth also of History of the Church ; of Parables, which is 
divine poesy; and of holy Doctrine or precept. For as for 
that part whieh sccmcth supernumerary, which is Prophecy, it 
is but divine history; which hath that prerogative over human, 
as the narration may be before the fact aa well as after. 

K 1 History is Natural, Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Literary; 
whereof the three first I allow as extant, the fourth 
I note as deficient. For no man hath propounded to 
himself the general state of learning to be described ;m<l 
represented from age to age, as many have done the works of 
nature and the state civil and ecclesiastical ; without winch 


1 D« Aug. ii. 1. The substance of the following paragraph will be found consider- 
ably otiniiili'il In the tlr-t chapter of the DfattftU CMii hnUmatU*, and sol forth 
rnnrh more clearly and orderly in the first chapter of the second hook of the Dt A«g~ 
mtnti> ; which begins here ; the previous observation* being introductory. As i' m.iv 
be convenient to the reader tu have the means of rvfirring at once to the eomqMOd- 
liig passages of the more flushed work, 1 shall mark with a ^ the places where the 
several chapters begin; adding (where the case admits of It) some notice, more or 
less complete, of the differences between the two. See Preface, p. 255. 

* De Aug. Ii. 4. In the translation the divisions are standi BWot* being di- 
IntO Natural and CltU. BllllliJ of Nature and History of Man ; and Literary 
and Ecclesiastical History being considered us separate departments of the latter. See 
cbap. 2. paragraph I. This alteration induces an alteration In the order of treatment ; 
im>' precedence being given to the History of Nature, which Is the subject of the 
second chapter. 



the history of the world scemeth to mo to be as I he statua 
of Polyphenol with his eye out: that part being wanting which 
doth most shew the spirit and life of the person. And yet I am 
not ignorant that in divers particular sciences, its of the juris- 
consults, the mathematicians, the rhetoricians, the philosophers, 
there are set down some small memorials of the schools, 
authors, and books ; and so likewise some barren relations 
touching the invention of arts or usages. But a just story of 
learning, containing the antiquities and originals of know- 
ledges, and thuir sects; their inventions, their traditions; 
their diverse administrations and inanagings ; their ftourish- 
ings, their oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, rename- : 
with the c a us es and OQCejSons of them, and all other events con- 
cerning learning, throughout the ages of the world'; I may 
truly affirm to be wanting. The use and end of which work I 
do not so much design fur curiosity, or satisfaction of those 
that are the lovers of learning; but chiefly for a more 
rious and grave purpose, which is this in few words, that 
it will make learned men wise in the use and administration 
of learning. For it is not St. Augustine's nor St. Ambrose 
works that will .make so wise a divine, as ecclesiaslieal his- 
tory throughly read and observed: and the same reason is of 

f 'History of Nature is of three sorts : of nature in course, 
of nature erring or varying, and of nature altered or wrought ; 
that is, history of Creatures, history of Marvels, and history of 
Arts. 3 The first of these no doubt 18 extant, and that in good 
perfection; the two later are handled so weakly and un pro- 
fitably, as I am moved to note them as deficient. For 1 lind 
NMrHi no sufficient or competent collection of the works of I 

KMH 1-11 J« " 1 T 1 • 

£,r«nt/>. f nature which have a digression anil deflexion fr>«ni 
the ordinary course of generations, productions, and motions; *• 
whether they be singularities of place and region, or the 
strange events of time and chance, or the effects of yet un- 
known proprieties, or the iostcmces of exception to general 
kinds. It is true, I find a number of books of fabulous experi- 
ments and secrets, and frivolous impostures fbf pleasure and 

1 The iWriptlon of the requlrt-d history i- set fnrth muob more particularly in the 
transition ; nurt the whole paragraph rewritten and enUinol. 
: Da Any ii. 2. 
" T1iil dl«Won I- rrtiiini'd in the translation, but Ihr M p a alU OB "f It Is OiUmlrd 

iniii h long pwmtniph. 



s!ran£renes3. But a substantial and severe collection of the 
Iteteroclites or Irregulars of nature, well examined and de- 
scribed, I find not; specially not wilh due rejection of fables 
and popular errors: lor as things DOW are, if an untruth in 
nature be once on foot, what by reason of the neglect of exa- 
mination and countenance of antiquity, and what by reason of 
the use of the opinion in similitudes and ornaments of speech, 
it is never called down. 

The use of this work, honoured with a precedent in Aristo- 
tle 1 , is nothing less than to give contentment to the appetite 
of curious and vain wits, as the manner of Mirabilaries is to 
do; but for two reasons, both of great weight; the one to 
correct the partiality of axioms and opinions, which are com- 
monly framed only upon common and familiar examples; the 
other because from the wonders of nature is the nearest intel- 
ligence and passage towards the wonders of art: for it is 
no more but by following and as it were hounding Nature 
in her wanderings, to be able to lead her afterwards to the 
MOM place again. Neither am 1 of opinion, in this His- 
tory of Marvels, that superstitious narrations of sorceries, 
witchcrafts, dreams, divinations, and the like, where there is 
an assurance and clear evidence of the fact, be altogether 
excluded. For it is not yet known in what cases, and how 
far, effects attributed to superstition do participate of natural 
causes ; and therefore howsoever the practice of such things 
is to be condemned, yet from the speculation and confide ru- 
tin of them li^ht may he taken, not only for the discern- 
ing of the offences, but for the farther disclosing of nature. 
Neither ought a man to make scruple of entering into these 
thing! for inquisition ol'tnith, H your Majesty hath shewed in 
your own example; who with the two clear eyes of religion 
and natural philoaophj have looked deeply and wisely into 
these shadows, and yet proved yourself to be of the nature of 
the sun, which passeth through pollutions and itself remains 
as pure as before. But this 1 hold fit, that these narrations 
which have mixture with superstition be sorted by themselves, 
and not to be mingled with the narrations which are merely 
and sincerely natural. But as for the narrations touching the 

1 De Mlrls Amcullutinnilui' ; which it now however generally admitted to lie nut 
AriM..tlrV — /? /., E. See De All*. It. 1. Mr. Blake-ley I* Of on nton that the mid. u, 
of It was protaM) I hut that it hai been added to by •.ub-eijiient wrnti-. 


prodigies and miracles (.1" religions, they are either not true or 
not natural ; and therefore impertinent Cur the story of nature. 
For History of Nature Wrought or Mechanical, I find 
m,,, f , some collections made of agriculture, and likewise of 
Utchnuce. ma „ u „i ar ts; but commonly with a rejection of ex- 
periments familiar and vulgar. For it is esteemed a kind of 
dishonour unto learning to descend to inquiry or meditation 
upon matters mechanical, except they he such as may he 
thought secret -, and special subtiltics; which humour 

<ii* vain ami supercilious arrogaucy is justly derided in Plato; 
where he brings in Ilippias, a vaunting sophist, disputing with 
Socrates, a true and unfeigned inquisitor of truth; where the 
subject being touching beauty, Socrates, after his wandering 
manner of inductions, put first an example of a fair virgin, and 
then of a fair horse, and then of a fair pot well glazed, vvher. at 
Ilippias was offended, and Batd, More tlutn for courtesy s sulu t, fie 
did think much to iti.yuite with any that did allcye such base and 
sordid instances : whereunto Socrates answercth, \'»u Ituve rea- 
son, and it becomes you well, being a man so trim in your vestiments, 
&c and so gocth on in an irony. But the truth is, they be not 
the highest instances that give the securest information ; as may 
be well expressed in the rale so common of the philosopher, that 
v. Iiilo he gazed upwards to the stars fell into the water; for if 
he had looked down he might have seen the stars iu the water, 
but looking aloft he could Dot see the water in the stars. So it 
cometh ofLcn to pass that mean and small things discover great 
better than great can discover the small; and therefore Ari- 
Btotle BOteth well, that the nature of every thiny is best seeu in 
hit smallest portions, and for that cause he inquiretb the nature 
of a commonwealth, first in a family, and the simple conjuga- 
tions of man and wife, parent and child, master and servant, 
which are in every cottage: even so likewise the nature of 
this great city of the world and the policy thereof must be 
first BOUght in mean concordances and small portions. So we 
see how that secret of nature, of the turning of iron touched 
with the loadstone towards the north, was found out in needles 
of iron, not in bars of iron. 

But if my judgment be of any weight, the use of History 
Mechanical is of all others the most radical and fundamental 
towards natural philosophy; such natural philosophy as shall 

t vanish in the fume of subtile, sublime., or delectable specu- 


lation, but guch as shall he operative to the endowment and 
benefit of man's life : for it will not only minister and rag 
for the present many ingenious practices in all trades, by a 
connexion and transferring of the observations' of one art to the 
DM of another, when the experiences of several mysteries shall 
fall under the consideration of one man's mind ; but further it 
will </ivc a more true and real illumination ooneoraiag cmmi 
and axioms than is hitherto attained. For like as a man's dis- 
position is never well known till he be crossed, nor Proteus 
ever changed shapes till he was straitened and held fast; so 
the passages and variations of nature cannot appear so fully in 
the liberty of nature, a3 in the trials and vexatious of art. 1 

f ' For Civil History, it is of three kinds 3 ; not unfitly to be 
compared with the three kinds of pictures or images. For of 
pictures or images, we see some are unfinished, some arc per- 
fect 4 , and some are defaced. So of histories we may find three 
kinds, Memorials, Perfect Histories, and Antiquities; for Me- 
morials are history unfinished, or the first or rough draughts of 
history, and Antiquities are history defaced, or some remnants 
of history which have casually escaped the shipwrack of time. 

Memorials, or Preparatory History, are of two sorts ; 
whereof the one may be termed Commentaries, and the other 
Registers. Commentaries are they which set down a con- 
imii inre of the nuked events and actions, without the motives 
or designs, the counsels, the speeches, the pretexts, the occa- 
sions, and other passages of action: for this is the true nature 
of a Commentary ; though Cassar, in modesty mixed with 
greatness, did tor his pleasure apply the name of a Commentary 
to the best history of the world. Registers are collections of 
public acts, u decrees of couucil, judicial proceedings, declara- 
tions and letters of estate, orations, and the like, without a per- 
fect continuance or contexture of the thread of the narration. 

1 A paragraph is added In the translation, to My that not the arts only 
but aba the. | mcttcal pnrt of the liberal sciences, as well as many crafts which have 
not er.iwn into formal arts (such, he means, as bunting, Itsblng, fcc), are to be in- 
cluilnl in ihr HSatnrj Mechanical. 

Aug. ii. 6. The 3rd chapter, concerning the two uses of natural history, amt 
b toiwerning the dignity and difficulty of civil history, baw ft thing curie- 
ipooAtag t» them here. 

' " I am not nlln^'licr ignorant In the laws of history and of the klnd«. The 
same hath been taught by many, but by no man bettor and with greater brevity than 
by that excellent learned gentleman Sir Francis Bacon." — UuUyA .■ Preface to I be 
Jl„t„ry of the Warid.— H. I.. /•'. 

• ftirjht in the original ; the form in which the word was commonly written iu 
Haion'i time 



Antiquities or Remnants of History are, as was said, ton- 
quant tahulti >i<ixfrti</ii, | like the planks of a shipwreck ;] when 
industrious persons by an exact and scrupulous diligence and 
observation^ out of monuments, names, words, proverbs, tradi- 
tions, private records and evidences, fragments of stories, dm* 
sages of books that concern not story, ami the like, do save and 
recover somewhat from the deluge of time. 

In these kinds of un perfect histories I do assign no deficience, 
for they are tanquam imperfectc misfi/, [things imperfectly com- 
pounded;] and therefore any deficience in them is but their 
Baton, As for the corruptions and moths of history, which 
are Epitomes, the use of them deserveth to be banished, as all 
men of sound judgment have confessed; as those that have 
fretted and corroded the sound bodies of many excellent his- 
tories, and wrought them into base and unprofitable dregs. 

If ' History which may be called Just ami Perfect History is 
of thive kinds, according to the object which it propoundeth, or 
pretendcth tu represent: for it either represented! a Time, or 
a Person, or an Action. The first we call Chronicles, the 
second Lives, and the third Narrations or Relations. Of these, 
although the first be the most complete and absolute kind of 
history and hath mo.-t estimation and glory, yet the second 
excelldth it in profit and use, and the third in verity and ?in- 
ccrity. For History of Times representeth the magnitude of 
actions aud the public facts and deportments of persons, and 
passed] over in silence the smaller passages and motions of men 
and matters. But such being the workmanship of God as he 
doth hang the greatest weight upon the smallest wires, maxima 
e minimis suspendens, it. comes therefore to pass, that such histo- 
ries do rather set forth the pomp of business than the true and 
inward resorts thereof,* But Lives, if they be well written 3 , 
propounding to themselves a person to represent in whom 
actions both greater and smaller, public and private, have a 
commixture, must of necessity contain ■ more true, native, and 
lively representation. So again Narrations and Relations of 
actions, as the War of Peloponnesus, the Expedition of Cyrus 

• De Auk. H. 7. 

- And cvnt (he adds In the translation) where they attempt to give the counsel* and 
motives, yet itlll out ot the same love of dignity and greatnes* they introduc- Into 
men's actions more gravity and wisdom tney really have j insomuch that you 
may find a truer picture of human lilc in sume sal ires than in such historic*. 

■ i. J. not mere eulogies. The tr:iiisUii«in adds ; •' nei|iie enlin dc cloglii et trujus- 
nuidl COOUmDoratlnnibua jejuuli loquiicur." 



Minor, (lie Conspiracy of Catiline, cannot but be more purely 
and exactly true thau Histories of Time.-, because they may 
choose an argument comprehensible within the notice and in- 
structions of the writer: whereas he that undertaketh the 
story of :i time, especially of any length, cannot but meet with 
many blanks and spaces which he must be forced to fill up out 
of hid own wit and conjecture.' 

For the History of Times, (I mean of civil history) the pro- 
vidence of God hath made the distribution : for it hath pleased 
I mmI to ordain and illustrate two exemplar states of the world, 
for arms, learning, moral virtue, policy, and laws; the state of 
Graecia, and the state of Home ; the histories whereof occu- 
pying the middle part of time, have more ancient to them, 
histories which may by one common name be termed the Anti- 
quities of the "World ; and after them, histories which may bo 
likewise called by the name of Modern History.* 

Now to speak of the deficiencies. As to the Heathen Anti- 
quities of the world, it is in vain to note them for deficient. 
Deficient they are no doubt, consisting most of fables and 
fragments; but the deficience cannot be holpen ; for antiquity 
H lil<e fame, caput inter nuhila condit, her head is muffled from 
our sight. For the History of the Exemplar States, it is extant 
in good perfection. Not but I could wish there were a perfeet 
cmirse of history for Graecia from Theseus to Philopoemen, 
(what time the affairs of Grtecia drowned and extinguished in 
the affairs of Rome;) and for Rome from Romulus to Justi- 
nianus, who may be tndy said to be ultiinus Romaiwrum. In 
which sequences of stay the text of Thucydidcs and Xenoplwn 
in the one, and the texts of Livius, Polybius, Sallustius, Ctmtit, 
Appianus, Tacitus, Herodianus iu the other, to be kept entire 
Without any diminution at all, and only to lie supplied and con- 
tinued. But this is matter of magnificence, rather to be com- 

1 On the other hand It must be confessed (he reminds us In Ihe translation, — 1 glee 
only the gem-nil Import of the passage, which U of considerable length) tnnt re- 
l.iii. Hi "I this hind, especially If puhHltlHl nciir tnr timi ' •<> which they refer, an- In 
one re-pecl ul all narratives the most to be suspected ; beliiK romnionfy written either 
iu i ktONf "i in tpite. But then again it seldom happen-, that they are all on one ftdc, 
hi the extreme views of each party Ik-Iuh represented, an honest nnd Judicious 
in may, when the violence uf faction has cooled down with Lime, tlnd the truth 
■maul them. 

- This paragraph and the next are omitted En the translation, and their place 
supplied hy a general complaint that very many particular bbtocta W* "till wanting ; 
much to the Injury in honour and reputation of the kingdoms and commonwealths 
which tbey coueern. 



mended than required : and we speak now of parts of learning 
supplemental, and not of supererogation. 

But for Modern Histories, whereof there are some few very 
worthy, but the greater part beneath mediocrity, leaving the 
care of foreign stories to foreign states, because I will not be 
curiosus in aliena republica, [a meddler in other nations' mut- 
ters,] I cannot fail to represent to your Majesty the un- 
worthiness of the history of England in the main continuance 
thereof, and the partiality and obliquity of that of Scotland in 
the latest and largest author that I have seen ; supposing that 
it would be honour for your Majesty and a work very me- 
morable, if this island of Great Britain ', as it is now joined in 
monarchy for the ages to come, so were joined in one history 
for the times passed; after the manner of the sacred history, 
which draweth down the story of the Ten Tribes and of the 
Two Tribes as twins together. And if it shall seem that the 
greatness of this work may make it less exactly performed, 
there is an excellent period of a much smaller compass of time, 
as to the story of England ; that is to say, from the Uniting 
of the Roses to the Uniting of the Kingdoms ; a portion of 
time, wherein to my understanding, there hath been the rarest 
varieties that in like number of successions of any hereditary 
monarchy hath been known. For it beginneth with the mixed 
adept ton of a crown, by arms and title; an entry by battle, an 
establishment by marriage ; and therefore times answerable, 
like waters after a tempest, full of working and swelling, 
though without extremity of storm; but well passed through 
by the wisdom of the pilot, being one of the most sufficient 
kings of all the number. Then followeth the reign of a king, 
whose actions, howsoever conducted 2 , had much intermixture 
with the affairs of Europe, balancing and inclining them va- 
riably ; in whose time also began that great alteration in the 
state ecclesiastical, an action which seldom cometh upon the 
stage: then the reign of a minor: then an offer of an usur- 
pation, though it was but as febris ephemera, [a diary ague:] 
then the reign of a queen matched with a foreigner : then 

.-.•It BrUtmni* In the original ; Brittany in edd. 1629 and 1633. 

between the father and the son is more clearly marked in the 

elation. Of Henry VII. he says qui umtu inter antettttortt ret/ei consilio 

•it : of Hmry Vltl.'s actions. Heel maau impttu quam roast/to ailmtmi ttritfa. 11 id 

>n gone on with his history of Henry VIII. it would have been curious to contrast 

ntt of the son governing more by passion than policy, with that of the father 

lg by polk) without fxuston. 



of a queen that solitary and unmarried, and yet her go- 
vernment so masculine as it had greater impression and ope- 
ration upon the states abroad than it any ways received from 
thence ' : and now last, this most happy and glorious event, 
that this island of Britain, divided from all the world, should be 
united in itself; and that oracle of rest given to iEneas, Anti- 
quam exquirite matrem, [seek out your ancient mother,] should 
now be performed and fulfilled upon the nations of England 
and Scotland, being now reunited in the ancient mother name 
of Britain, as a full period of all instability and peregrina- 
tions: so that as it cometh to pass in massive bodies, that 
they have certain trepidations and waverings before they fix 
and settle ; so it seeineth that by the providence of God this 
monarchy, before it was to settle in your Majesty and your 
generations, (in which I hope it is now established for ever,) it 
had these prelusive changes and varieties. 

For Lives, I do find strange that these times have so little 
esteemed the virtues of the times, as that the writing of liv.s 
should be no more frequent. For although there be not 
many sovereign princes or absolute commanders, and that 
states are most collected into monarchies, yet are there many 
worthy personages that deserve better than dispersed report or 
barren elogies. For herein the invention of one of the late 
poets' is proper, and doth well enrich the ancient fiction: for 
he feigneth that at the end of the thread or web of every man's 
life there was a little medal containing the person's name, and 
that Time waited upon the shears, and as soon as the thread 
was cut, caught the medals and carried them to the river of 
Lethe ; and about the bank there were many birds flying up 
and down, that would get the medals and carry them in their 
beak a little while, and then let them fall into the river: only 
there were a few swans, which if they got a name, would carry 
it to a temple where it was consecrate. And although many 
men more mortal in their affections' than in their bodies, do 
esteem desire of name and memory but as a vanity and ven- 

Anitni nil nmgnic laudis egentes , 

[souls that have no care for praise;] which opinion cometh 

1 This U»t cIiuk Is omitted In the De A'igmtnti». Sec note p. 277. 
1 Arlc»ti>. Orlando FttriiHO ; lit the end of the 34th and the beginning of the 3ith 

VOL. ill. z 



from that root, mm prist /nudes contcmpsimus, quam lamlanda 
facere dcsivimus ; [men hardly despise praise till they have 
I to deserve it;] yet that will not alter Salomon's judg- 
ment, Memoria jnati runt taiitiihiiz, at imjiiorum nomen putrescet ; 
[the memory of tin: just is Messed ; but the name of the wicked 
shall rot;]' the one flourisheth, the other either ennstimeth to 
lit oblivion, or turneth to an ill odour. And therefore in 
that style or addition, which is and hath been long well received 
and brought in use, fcliris memoritr, pur memoriae, bonce me- 
moriae, [of happy, of pious, of good memory,] we do acknow- 
ledge that which Cicero saith, borrowing it from Demosthenes, 
that bona Jama propria possessio defunctorum ' ; [good fame is 
all that a dead man can possess;] which possession I cannot 
but note that in our times it licth much waste, and that therein 
tin re is a deficience. 

For Narrations and Relations of particular actions, there 
were also to be wished a greater diligence therein ; for there is 
no great action Imt lialh some good pen which attends it And 
because it is an ability not common to write a good history, as 
may well appear by the small number of them; yet if par- 
ticularity of actions memorable were but tolerably reported as 
they pass, the compiling of a complete History of Times might 
be the better expected, when a writer should arise that were fit 
for it: for the collection of such relations might be a9a nursery 
garden, whereby to plant a fair and stately garden when time 
should serve. 

1f a There is yet another portion of history which Cornelius 
Tacitus makcth, which is not to be forgotten, specially with 
that application which he accoupleth it withal, Annals and 
Journals: appropriating to the former matters of estate, and to 
the later acts and accidents of a meaner nature. For giving 
but a touch of certain magnificent buildings, he addcth, Cum 
ex dignitute populi Jiomani re pert it m sit, res illustres aunalibus, 
talia diurnis urbis actis mandare : [that it had been thought 
biiitable to the dignity of the Roman people to enter in their 
tniiinh only matters of note and greatness; leaving such things 
as these to the journal records of the city.] So as there is a 

1 Compare Cicero, Philippic. 9. o., with ihc opening of the \iyos iririQiot, 

* De Aug. 11. 9. Between this paragrrph noil the lut there I* introducer! In the Ltttnn M chapter on the ailvunuges unci disadvantages of historic of the world, 

"gui-hoi l"i' if particular vounrrLv*. 


33 y 

kind of contemplative heraldry, as well as civil. And as 
nothing doth derogate from the dignity of a state more than 
confusion of decrees : so it doth not a little embase the autho- 
rity of an history, to intermingle matters of triumph or mut- 
ters of ceremony or matters of novelty with matters of state. 
But the use of a Journal hath not only been in the history 
of times', but likewise iu the history of persons, and chiefly of 
actions; for princes in ancient time had, upon point of honour 
and policy both, journals kept of what passed day by day : for 
we see the Chronicle which was read before Ahasuerus', when 
he could not take rest, contained matter of affairs indeed, but 
such as had passed in his own time, and very lately before : but 
the Journal of Alexander's house expressed every small par- 
ticularity, even concerning his person and court 3 ; and it is yet 
an use well received in enterprises memorable, as expeditions 
of war, navigations, and the like, to keep diaries of that which 
passeth continually. 

IT * I cannot likewise be ignorant of a form of writing which 
some grave and wise mcu have used, containing a scattered 
history of those actions which they have thought worthy of 
memory, with politic discourse and observation thereupon ; not 
incorporate into the history, but separately, and u the mora 
principal in their intention; which kind of Ruminated History 
I think more fit to place amongst books of policy, whereof we 
shall hereafter speak, than amongst books of history 8 ; for it is 
the true office of history to represent the events themselves 
together with the counsels, and to leave the observations and 
conclusions thereupon to the liberty and faculty of every man's 
judgment. But mixtures are things irregular, whereof no man 
an define. 

So also is there another kind of history manifoldly mixed. 

1 time In the original and also In edd. 1629 and 16 i3. The translation omits this 

• K-thcr, ft. I. 

i greater matters were excluded ; but great and small were entered promii- 
runusly an they uUUUHtdL ( S'ei/ue txim sicut annulet ftin'wm grnrin, ita diaria tattlum 
I • tn"t; $td omnia promitcue tt cur$im </i'<inii cxcipiebantur, >cv mojorit 
tt* minoriM momeitti.) 

• Do Aug. II. 10. 

• This remark is omitted in the translation, and another substituted, to thr effect 
that this kind of ruminated history is nu excellent thing, provided R lie understood 
that the matter in hand is not history but observations upon history (nutdo hujiirm>idi 
•cripliit hue ni/iit tt hoc tt ooeit conjileatiir); fur in a regular histury the n.irrative 
outfit tut, lie says, to be Interrupted hj comment* Of lliis kind. It should Ik' pregnant 
wlili ixilitic precept', hut the writer should not play the midwife. 



and that is History of Cosmography : being compounded of 
natural history, in respect of the regions themselves; of history 
civil, in respect of the habitations, regiments, and manners of 
the people ; and the mathematics, in respect of the climates 
and configurations towards the heavens: which part of learning 
of all others in this latter time hath obtained most proficience. 
For it may be truly affirmed to the honour of these times, and 
in a virtuous emulation with antiquity, that this great building 
of the world had never through-lights made in it, till the age 
of us and our fathers ; for although they had knowledge of the 

Nosque ubi primus equis miens afmivit ftuljcli?, 
Hie sera rubens accendit lumiiia Vesper : 
[And while on us the fresh East breathes from fur, 
For them the red West lights her evening star :] 

yet that might be by demonstration, and not in fact ; and if by 
travel, it requireth the voyage but of half the globe. But to 
circle the earth, as the heavenly bodies do, was not done nor 
cntcrprised till these later times : and therefore these times 
may justly bear in their word, not only plus ultra, in pre- 
cedence of the ancient non ultra, and imitabile fulmen in pre- 
Oedesoe of the ancient non imitabile fulmen, 

Demens qui nimbos et mm imiiabile fuluien &c. 
but likewise imitabile ccelum ; in respect of the many memo- 
rable voyages, after the manner of heaven, about the globe of 
the earth. 

And this proficience in navigation and discoveries may plant 
alii an expectation of the further proficience and augmentation 
of all BCieooeij because it may seem they are ordained by God 
to be coevals, that is, to meet in one age. For so the prophet 
Daniel speaking of the latter times foretelleth, Plurimi per- 
transivunt, et multiplex erit scientia : [many shall pass to and 
fro, and knowledge shall be multiplied :] as if the openness and 
through passage of the world and the increase of knowledge 
were appointed lo he in the same ages; as we see it is already 
performed in great part ; the learning of these later times not 
much giving place to the former two periods or returns of 
learning, the one of the Grecians, the other of the Romans. 

1 ' History Ecclesiastical recciveth the same divisions with 

' De Aug. U. II. 



History Civil: but further in the propriety thereof may he 
divided into History of the Church, by a general name; His- 
tory of Prophecy ; and History of Providence. The first dc- 
scribeth the times of the militant church ; whether it be fluc- 
tuant, as the ark of Noah ; or moveable, aa the ark in the 
wilderness; or at rest, as the ark in the temple; that is, the 
state of the church in persecution, in remove, and in peace. 
This part I ought in no sort to note aa deficient ; only I would 
that the virtue and sincerity of it were according to the mass 
find quantity. But I am not now in hand with censures, hut 
with omissions. 

The second, which is History of Prophecy, consisteth of two 
relatives, the prophecy and the accomplishment; and therefore 
the nature of such a work ought to be, that every prophecy 
of the scripture be sorted with the event fulfilling the same, 
throughout the ages of the world ; both for the better confir- 
mation of faith, and for the better illumination of the church 
touching those parts of prophecies which are yet unfulfilled ; 
allowing nevertheless that latitude which is agreeable and 
familiar unto divine prophecies; being of the nature of their 
author, with whom a thousand years are hut as one day ; and 
therefore are not fulfilled punctually at once, but have spring- 
ing and germinant accomplishment throughout many ages, 
though the height or fulness of them may refer to some one 
age. This is a work which I find deficient, but is to ltltlltrilt 
be done with wisdom, sobriety, and reverence, or not l '" , i'* r " ca - 
at all. 

The thiiil, which is History of Providence, containeth thai 
excellent correspondence which is between God's revealeil will 
and his MGret will ; which though it be so obscure as for the 
BMMl part it is not legible to the natural man; no, nor many 
times to those thsit behold it from the tabernacle ; yet at some 
times it please th God, for our better establishment and the con- 
futing of those which are as without God in the world, to write 
it in smh text ami capital letters that, as the prophet saith, 
/;.• tlmt runneth />>/ HKrjr null it ' ; that is, mere sensual persons, 
which hasten by God's judgments and never bend or fix their 

1 Halmk. II. '-'• Mr. Kills has remarked in his note on the corresponding passage 
in thr l>< J*/mt*tU t hot 1 1 if tspmsion, now so familiar anil alrrowt pravnfeH, M 
in fed I iiiiM|iHitatii.ii Of the text and ;i tnii<representaliun of the meaning ol the pn>- 
,-.i'.,-r '■ w riir ilir M-i-n .mil make it plain upon the tables thut he my run that 
readrlh it." It would be a r ar t om Inquiry, who tir.-t made this mistake. 

Z 3 



cogitations upon them, are nevertheless in their passage anil 
race urged to discern it. Such are the notable events and 
examples of God's judgments, chastisements, deliverances, and 
Meetings. And this is a work which hath passed through the 
Uibouf of many ', and therefore I cannot present as omitted. 

H * There are also other parts of learning which are Appen- 
dices to history. For all the exterior proceedings of man consist 
of words and deeds ; whereof history doth properly receive and 
retain in memory the deeds, and if words, yet but as induce- 
ments and passages to deeds; so are there other books and 
writings, which are appropriate to the custody and receit of 
words only ; which likewise are of three sorts ; Orations, 
Letters, and Brief Speeches or Sayings. Orations are plead- 
ings, speeches of counsel ; laudativea, invectives, apologies, re- 
prehensions; orations of formality or ceremony, and the like. 
Letters are according to all the variety of occasions ; advertise- 
ments, advices, directions, propositions, petitions, commenda- 
tory, cxpostulatory, satisfactory, of compliment, of pleasure, of 
discourse, and all other passages of action. And such as are 
written from wise men are, of all the words of man, in my 
judgment the best ; for they are more natural than orations and 
public speeches, and more advised than conferences or present 
speeches. So again letters of affairs from such as manage 
t linn or are privy to them are of all others the best instruc- 
tions for history, and to a diligent reader the best histories in 
themselves. For Apophthegms, it is a great loss of that book 
of Caesar's; for as his history and those few letters of his which 
we have and those apophthegms which were of his own excel 
all men's else, so I suppose would his collection of Apo- 
phthegms have done; for as for those which are collected by 
others, either I have no taste in such matters, or else their 
choice hath not been happy. 3 But upon these three kinds of 
writings I do not insist, because I have no deficiences to pro- 
pound concerning them. 

Thus much therefore concerning History; which is that part 

1 In the translation he says, " sane in i<jlawi*x noiinuttnrum pi»rnm rirnnim incitiit, 
M.lnini -;.!• ]orti<im stuillo." Indeed it is dilli-nlt to K4 how. without partiality, 
niich a history of Providence could be written at nil. For take am ifgnal .ilamity 
and look at It In Ui historical character only, — who shall say whether it it ■ chtotttt* 
ment or a martyrdom ? a judgment upon the tinner, or a trial uf the 5*int '! 

'-' De Au«. U. 111 

' Some further remark" u|>oii the value and a-c of Apophthegms are introduced In 
the Dr AuffmaUU . of these, ■ translation will be given In my prcflwe to Bacon's own 



of learning which answereth to one of the cells, domiciles, or 
offices of the mind of man ; which is that of the Memory. 

% ' Poesy is a part of learning in measure of words for the 
Bttll part restrained, but in nil other points extremely licensed, 
find doth truly refer to the Imagination ; which, being not tied 
tO the laws of matter, may at pleasure join that which nature 
bath severed, and sever that which nature hath joined, and so 
make unlawful matches and divorces of things : Pictoribus of}W 
;w7w, tkv. [Painters and Poets have always been allowed to 
take what liberties they would.] It is taken in two senses, in 
respect of words or matter. In the first sense it is but a character 
of style, and helongeth to arts of speech, and is not pertinent 
for the present. 3 In the later, it is (as hath been said) one of the 
principal portions of learning, and is nothing else but Feigned 
History, ifhioh may be styled as well in prose as in verse. 

The use of this Feigned History hath been to give some 
shadow of satisfaction to the mind of man in those points 
wherein the nature of things doth deny it ; tbe world being in 
proportion inferior to the soul ; by reason whereof there is 
agreeable to the spirit of man a more ample greatness, a more 
and goodness, and a more absolute variety, than can be found 
in the nature of things. Th e re fo re, because the acts or events 
of true history have not that magnitude which sati.-fieth the 
mind of man, poesy feigneth acts and events greater and more 
lieroical; because true history propoundeth the successes and 
issues of actions not so agreeable to the merits of virtue and 
vice, therefore poesy feigns them more just in retribution, and 
more according to revealed providence; because true history 
lcpresenteth actions and events more ordinary and less inter- 
changed, therefore poesy enducth them with more rareness, and 
DON un exp e c ted and alternative variation?. Be M it appeal 
that poesy eerveth and conferreth to magnanimity, morality, 
and to delectation. And therefore it was e\er thought to have 
some participation of divineness, because it doth raise and erect 
the mind, by submitting the shews of things to tbe desires of 

' De Aug. II. 13. The UlingrttMOl b partly altered in the translation, anil much 
Drw mutter Introduced: HMOg the rest, a whole paragraph MUCerDtng the true u»e 

. i.ity of dramatic poetry. ■* » vehicle of moral inttniction ; which i» con 
In ■ itriklng manner with the remark that men in bodies are more open to im|ti< 

1 A M-nteni'c is adriccl in t lit- tran-latinn to explain that under this head Nittrcj, 
■mis and odes are Included. 

z 4 




the iihii'I ; whereas reason doth buckle ami bow the mind unto 
the nature, of ibingl. Ami Wt sec that by these insinuations 
itiicl rongruilie* with man's nature and pleasure, joined also 
w»ib tin- agreement mid consort it hath with music, it bath had 
access and estimation in rude times and barbarous region?, 

where other learning ^.tinxl excluded. 

Tin- division of pocy wbii-h i* aptest in the propriety thereof, 
(besides those divisions, which ut common unto it with history, 
M fi i^ncd clironicli'M, feigned lives; and the appendices of his- 
Uh y, I epistles, feigned orations, and the rest;) is into 

Poesy NuiiiIim, Representative, and Allusive. The Nar- 
rahvc is n iiKTr imitation of history, with the excesses before 
remembered ; choosing for .-uhject commonly wars and love, 
rarely state, and sometimes pleasure or mirth. 1 Represent- 
ative is as a visible hi.storv . and is an image of actions as if they 
win- present, as history is of actions in nature as they are, (that 
is) past. Allusive or Parabolical is a narration applied only 
ipress some special purpose or conceit.' Which later 
kind of parabolical wisdom was much more in use in the ancient 
times, as l>\ the fables o\' JKsop and the brief sentences of the 
Seven and the use of hieroglyphics may appear. And the 
cause \\a.». tor that it was then of necessity to express any 
point of rtMOO which wa> more sharp or subtile than the 
Vulgar in that manner ; becaur-e men in those times wanted 
both \:irict\ i'l evamples and subtilty of conceit: and as hiero- 
gljphka were before letters, so parables were before argu- 
ment*: and nevertheless now and at all times they do retain 
much life and vigour, because reason cannot be so sensible, nor 


Hut there remuineth \ ct another use 'Parabolical, 

npfios uh we btl mentioned: for that tendeth to 

demouatrate and illustrate that which is taught or delivered, 

ther to retire and obscure it : that U when the i 

rtcrios of religion, policy, or philosophy are involved 

oe parab P°°9 * e *** the use 

rited. In heathen poesy we see the exposition of 

h fall out s om e time* with great felicity : as in the 




fable that the giants being overthrown in their war against the 
gods, the Earth their mother in revenge thereof brought forth 
Fame : 

Illsin Terra parens, ira irritata tleomin, 
Extremam, ut perltibent, C«eo Euceladoque sororem 
Progenuit : 

expounded that when princes and monarcha Iiave suppressed 
actual and open rebels, then the malignity of people (which is 
the mother of rebellion) doth bring forth libels and danders 
and taxations of the state, which is of the same kind with 
rebellion, hut more feminine. So in the fable that the rest of 
tiie gods having conspired to bind .lupitcr, Pallas called Briareus 
with his hundred hands to his aid : expounded that tnOTUtfchiee 
need not fear any curbing of their absoluteness by mighty sub- 
jects, as long as by wisdom the) - keep the hearts of the people, 
who will be sure to come in on their side. So in the fable that 
Achilles was brought up under Chiron the Centaur, who was 
part a man and part a beast: expounded ingeniously but cor- 
ruptly by Machiavel, that it belongeth to the education and 
«lis< ipline of priuces to know as well how to play the part oi 
the lion in violence and the fox in "tide, as of the man in virtue 
and justice. 1 Nevertheless in many the like encounters, I do 
rather think that the fable was first, and the exposition devised, 
than that the moral was first, and thereupon the fable, framed. 
For I find it WM an ancient vanity in Chrysippus, that troubled 
himself with great contention to fasten the assertions of the 
Stoics upon the fictions of the ancient poets. But yet that all 
the fables and fictions of the poets were but pleasure and not 
figure, I interpose no opinion. Surely of those poets which 
an- now extant, even Homer himself, (notwithstanding he was 
made a kind of Scripture by the later schools of the Grecians,) 
yet I should without any difficulty pronounce that his fables 
bad DO such inwardness in bis own meaning; but what they 
initio: have upon a more original tradition, is not easy to affirm; 
for he was not the inventor of many of them.* 

1 The Prince, c. 1-". As two of the animals are the same Uk possible that Maichl.i- 
MB1 w-s thinking of what win said of BdoMbM VIII. by the predecessor whom he 
forced to abiliiuti , — that he came in like m fox, would reign like a lioti, and die like a 
.Ion.— h.L.E. 

■ For these examples there b substituted in the tran-l.ilimi ;i lull exposition of the 

three fable* of Pan, Perseus, and Dionysus. And tt i- worth observing span the 

.|ii.mIuii whither tberc win renlly a mystic sense ut the bottom of the .iiu-iint fable-. 

I expresses in the truiiiluliun a man decided inclination (0 the ' flllll lit T 

*>e does here. 


In this third part of learning, which is poesy, I can report 
no deficience. For being as a plant that comcth of the lu-i of 
the earth, without a formal 8ecd, it hath sprung up and ^ 
■braid more than any other kind. But to ascribe unto it that 
which is due ; for the expressing of affections, passions, cor- 
ruption?, and customs, wc arc beholding to poets more than to 
the philosophers' works; and for wit and eloquence not much 
less than to orators' harangues.' But it is not good to stay top 
long in the theatre. Let us now i>ass on to the judicial place 
or palace of the mind, which we are to approach and view with 
more reverence and attention. 

T s The knowledge of man is as the waters, some descend- 
ing from above, and some springing from beneath ; the one in- 
farmed by the light of nature, the other inspired by divine 
revelation. The light of nature consisteth in the notions of the 
mind arid the reports fif the senses; for as for knowledge which 
man receiveth by teaching, it is cumulative and not original ; 
as in a water that besides his own spring-head is fed with 
other springs and streams. So then according to these two 
differing illuminations or originals, knowledge is first of all 
divided into Divinity and Philosophy. 

In Philosophy, the contemplations of man do either pene- 
trate unto God, or are circumferred to Nature, or are reflected 
or reverted upon Himself. Out of which several inquiries 
there do arise three knowledges, Divine philosophy, Natural 
philosophy, and Human philosophy or Humanity. For all 
things are marked and stamped with this triple character, of 
the power of God, the difference of nature, and the use of man. 
But because the distributions and partitions of knowledge are 
not like several lines that meet in one angle, and so touch but 
in a point: but are like branches of a tree that meet in a 
stem, which hatha dimension and quantity of cntireness and 

oti nuance, before it come to discontinue and break itself 

and boughs; therefore it is good, before we enter 

> the former distribution, to erect and constitute one uni- 

«d science, by the name of Philotophia Prima, Primitive or 

iry Philosophy, as the main and common way, before 

the ways part and divide themselves; which 

ii nmlttrd la lh* translation. 
III. I. The order of this chanter Uchungcd in The translation, Mid a 
U added, 



science whether I should report as deficient or no, I stand 
doubtful. For I find a certain rhapsody of Natural Theology", 
and of divers parts of Logic ; and of that part of Natural ' 
Philosophy which concerneth the Principles, and of that other 
part of Natural Philosophy which concerneth the Soul or 
Spirit; all these strangely commixed and confused; but being 
examined, it eeemeth to me rather a depredation of other 
sciences, advanced and exalted unto some height of terms', 
than any thing solid or substantive of itself. Nevertheless I 
cannot be ignorant of the distinction which is current, that the 
same things are handled but in several respects; as for ex- 
ample, that logic considered! of many things as they are in 
notion, and this philosophy as they are in nature; the one in 
appearance, the other in existence. But I find this difference 
better made thnn pursued. Pur if they had considered Quan- 
tity, Similitude, Diversity, and the rest of those Extern 
Characters of things, a8 philosophers, and in nature, their 
inquiries must of force have beta of a far other kind than they 
are. For doth any of them, in handling Quantity, speak of 
the force of union, how and how far it multiplicth virtue? 
Duth any give the reason, why some things in nature are so 
common and in so great mass, and others so rare and in so 
small quantity? Doth any, in handling Similitude and Diver- 
sity, assign the cause why iron should not move to iron, which 
is more like, but move to the loadstone, which is less like? 
Why in all diversities of things there should be certain parti- 
ciples in nature, which are almost ambiguous to which kind 
they should be referred ? But there is a mere and deep silence 
touching the nature and operation of those Common Adjuncts 
of things, as in nature ; and only a resuming and repeating of 
the force and use of them in speech or argument. Therefore, 
because in a writing of this nature I avoid all subtility, my 
meaning touching this original or universal philosophy is thus, 
in a plain and gross description by negative : That it be a 
taclefor all such profitable observations and axioms as fall 
nut uithin the compass of any of the special parts of philosophy 
ur MJMttfj but <nr lonrc comiimn and of a hiyher stage. 

N ii\v that there are many of that kind need not be doubted. 

1 /•'( tul)limi!at< ijumttim trrmonit kiiminum qui tt i'jiioi admirnri amntit liiiii/'iiim in 
,. nliantm eolhtatUM. — D* Auk. The .substance of the rest or this ptugraph, 
till we cohip to the last Kntrace, b It ■•n-h tiviI to the vud of the chapter in the Da 
.■lui/mmti' 4iul *.-! forth inure fall] ,uid clearly. 



For example ; is not the rule, Si incequalilins cequalia addas, 
omnia erutit incptjualia, [if equals be added to unequal?, the 
■ liulcs will be unequal,] an axiom as well of justice as of the 
i)i:Lili<in:itir.. } ' And is there not a true coincidence between 
i • iiiinmt:iti\r and distributive justice, and arithmetical and 
geometrical proportion? Is not that other rule, Qua in eodem 
til/in fiinri -iiimit, it inter 90 r<>iirritinnt f [things that are equal 
to (he niiih- are equal to each other,] a rule taken from the 
nulla •iiialii'-. but so potent in logic as all syllogisms are built 
upon ii ? 1 1 nut ih«' observation. Omnia inutantur, nil intcrit, 
[all things change, but nothing is lost,] a contemplation in 
philosophy thus, That the ipiaiifutn of nature is eternal? in 
natural theology (bus, That it requircth the same omnipotence 
to make somewhat nothing, which at the first made nothing 
somewhat? according to the scripture, Didici quod omit in oprrn 
ipur fecit Deux persevitwU in ptnttttM ; non jia.isitmus ei.t 
quicqtmtn adders nee auferre : [I know that whatsoever God 
doetli, it shall be for ever ; nothing can be put to it, nor any- 
thing taken from it]. Is not the ground, which Mschiavcl 
wi-clv and largely discourseth concerning governments, that 
the way to establish and preserve them is to reduce them ad 
pruuipia*, a rule in religion and nature 3 as well as in civil 
administration? Wil DOi the Persian Magic a reduction or 
correspondence of the principles and architectures of nature to 
the rules and policy of governments? Is not the precept of a 
musician, to fall from ft discord or harsh accord upon a concord 
or sweet accord, alike true in affection? Is not the trope of 
music, to avoid or slide from the close or cadeuce, common 

1 This clause Is printed out uf lis place both in the original and In the editions of 

1629 and IBM . bring Insrrtrd nfirr the next Kntroce. ll i» olj\ lously an error of llir 

printer , bUI north Both nu u» evidence of the Imperfection Of the arrangement* then 

reo. 1 in inclined to thin* that tn Bacon's time the proof- 

l l>\ the author. 

• translation «c arc- fold that the axiom lipids with reirard to i{ittrib»ti'* 

. i'« F.lkiiit nhtimt ijmttrnu* tuf j'tttili ' tm ilittrit-nliram : MMUm 
■MMitr i'ii .j. i..' asjTM imjminbn* irihuttntmr ratio trrjnitttti* potfulat ; at m 
>iii tmfntria imp-" fur, inii/uitnt jKrrit maxima.) Equal mer- 

ited to unr<|U I Conditions pludtMO >n unti|iial mult ; a truth of which 
ii i.> the ••! . r.tum of our own laws as between 
mie penalty inflicted for the same offence fall* 
.r In Bftttrr of commmhition^ — as in a 
- property destroyed. — this of course does 
a.itivc and distributive justice and arlth- 
in«C alluded to In the transit km. But this may 
irarulauor perhaps not having observed where the misplace*] 
a to com 

\ft ii.ii. ggritUnj <h: wtitvl rtatyifas- 



with the trope uf rhetoric of deceiving expectation J Is not 
the delight of the quavering upon a stop in music the same 

»witli ' the playing of* light upon the water? 

Splemlet treiiiulo sub ] Limine pout us : 
[Beneath the trembling light glitters the sea.] 

Are not the organs of the senses of one kind with the organs 

of reflexion, the eye with a glass, the ear with a cave or strait 

determined and bounded ? 2 Neither are these only similitudes, 

as men of narrow observation may conceive them to be, but 

the same footsteps of nature, treading or printing upon several 

subjects or matters. This science therefore (as I m^ — 

understand it) I may justly report as deficient; for '2'™.,,"*, 

I see sometimes the profounder sort of wits, in """""'"*'■"- 

handling some particular argument, will now and then draw a 

bucket of water out of this well for their present use; but the 

springhead thereof seemcth to me not to have been visited, 

bring of so excellent use both for the disclosing of nature and 

the abridgment of art. 

% a This science being therefore first placed as a common 

parent, like unto Berecynthia, which had so much heavenly 


Orunes euilicolas, omnes supcra alia tenentes : 

[All dwellers in the heaven and upper sky :] 

we may return to the former distribution of the three philo- 
sophies; Divine, Natural, and Human. And as concerning 
Divine Philosophy or Natural Theology, it is that knowledge 
or rudiment of knowledge concerning God which may be ob- 
tained by the contemplation of his creatures; which know- 
ledge may be truly termed divine in respect of the object, and 
natural in respect of the light. The bounds of this knowledge 
are, that it sufficcth to convince atheism, but not to inform 
religion: and therefore there was never miracle wrought by 
God to convert an atheist, because the light of nature might 
have led him to confess a God : but miracles have been wrought 
to convert idolaters and the superstitious, because no light of 
nature extended) to declare the will and true worship of God. 
For as all works do shew forth the power and skill of the 
workman, and not his image; so it is of the works of God; 

1 So e<l. 16.13. The orlpinnl and the eil. 1629 have u-A.VA. 

* Some oitier LoiUfiCri Ht .itlilvd in the tiunsliition. 

• Dc Aug. III. 2. 



which do shew the omnipotency and wisdom of the maker, but 
not his image : and therefore therein the heathen opinion 
differcth from the sacred truth ; for they supposed the world 
to be the image of God, and man to be nn extract or com- 
pendious image of the world ; but the Scriptures never vouch- 
safe to attribute to the world that honour, as to be the imaire 
of God, but only the work of his hands; neither do they speak 
of any other image of God, but man. "Wherefore by the con- 
templation of nature to induce and inforcc the acknowledge- 
ment of God, and to demonstrate his power, providence, and 
goodness, is an excellent argument, and hath been excellently 
handled by divers. But. on the other -ido, out of the contem- 
plation of nature, or ground of human knowledges, to induce 
any verity or persuasion concerning the points of faith, is in 
my judgment not safe : Da jidei qua: fidei sunt: [give unto Faith 
that which is Faith's]. For the Heathen themselves conclude 
as much in that excellent and divine fable of the golden chain : 

That men and gods were not able to draw Jupiter down to the 
earth; but contrariwise, Jupiter was able to draw them up to 
hravm. So as we ought not to attempt to draw down or submit 
the mystericB of God to our reason ; but contrariwise to raise 
and advance our reason to the divine truth. So as in this part of 
knowledge touching divine philosophy, I am so far from noting 
any deficience, as I rather note an excess: whereunto I have 
digressed, because of the extreme prejudice which both reli- 
gion and philosophy hath received and may receive by being 
commixed together ; as that which undoubtedly will make an 
heretical religion, and an imaginary and fabulous philosophy. 

Otherwise it is of the nature of angels and spirits, which is 
an appendix of theology both divine and natural, and is neither 
inscrutable nor interdicted; for although the Scripture saith, 
Let no man deceive you in sublime discourse touching the worship 
of angels, pressing into that he fmowcth not, &c. yet notwith- 
standing if you observe well that precept, it may appear 
thereby that, there be two things only forbidden, adoration of 
. and opinion fantastical of them; either to extol them 
further than appertained to the decree of a creature, or to 
extol a man's knowledge of them further than he hath ground. 
Hut the sober and grounded inquiry which may arise out of 
the passages of holy Scriptures, or out of the gradations of 

•iture, is not restrained. So of degenerate and revolted spirits, 

THE SF.roNb itnOK 


the conversing with thorn or the employment of them is pro- 
hibited, much more any veneration towards them. But the 
contemplation or science of their nature, their power, their 
illusions, either by Scripture or reason, is a part of spiritual 
wisdom. For so the apostle saith, IVe are not ignorant of his 
stratagems ; and it is BO mure unlawful to inquire the nature 
of evil spirits than to enquire the force of poisons in nature, or 
the nature of sin and vice in morality. But this part touching 
angels and spirits, I cannot note as deficient, for many have 
occupied themselves in it; I may rather challenge it, in many 
of the writers thereof, aa fabulous and fantastical. 

If ' Leaving therefore Divine Philosophy of Natural Theo- 
logy (not Divinity or Inspired Theology, which we reserve for 
the last of all, ns the haven and sabbath of all man's contempla- 
tions), we will now proceed to Natural Philosophy. If then it 
he true that Democritus said, That the truth of nature Ueth hid 
i« certain deeji mines and caves ; and if it be true likewise that 
the Alchemists do so much inculcate, that Vulcan is a second 
nature, and imitateth that dexterously and compendiously 
which nature worketh by ambages and length of time ; it were 
good to divide natural philosophy into the mine and the fur- 
nace, and to make two professions or occupations of natural 
philosophers, some to he pioners and some smiths; some to dig, 
and some to refine and hammer. And surely I do best allow 
of a division of that kind, though in more familiar and scholas- 
tical terms; namely, that these he the two parts of natural phi- 
l'si.phy, — the Inquisition of Causes, and the Production of 
Effects; Speculative, and Operative; Natural Science, and 
Natural Prudence- For as in civil matters there is a wisdom 
of discourse and a wisdom of direction ; so is it in natural. 
And here I will make a request, that for the latter (or at least 
for a part thereof) I may revive and reintegrate the misapplied 
and abused name of Natural Magic; which in the true sense 
is but Natural "Wisdom, or Natural Prudence ; taken according 
tn the ancient ucception, purged from vanity and superstition. ' l 
Now although it be true, and I know it well, that there is an 
intercourse between Causes and Effects, so as both these know- 
ledges, Speculative and Operative, have a great connexion 
between themselves; yet because all true and fruitful Natural 
Philosophy hath a double scale or ladder, ascendent and de- 

1 \H An?. III. 3. 

rtqmat is omitted In tbr traoslntlon. 


scendent; ascending from experiments to the invention of 
causes, and descending from causes to the invention of new 
experiments ; therefore I judge it most requisite that these two 
parts be severally considered and handled. 

If ' Natural Science or Theory is divided into Physic and 
Mctaphysic : wherein I desire it may be conceived that I use 
the word Metaphysic in a differing sense from that that is re- 
ceived : and in like manner I doubt not but it will easily 
appear to men of judgment that in this and other particulars, 
wheresoever my conception and notion may differ from the 
ancient, yet I am studious to keep the ancient terms. For 
hoping well to deliver myself from mistaking by the order and 
perspicuous expressing of that I do propound, I am otherwise 
zealous and affectionate to recede as little from antiquity, 
either in terms or opinions, as may stand with truth and the 
proficience of knowledge. And herein I cannot a little marvel 
at the philosopher Aristotle, that did proceed in such a spirit 
of difference and contradiction towards all antiquity ; under- 
taking not only to frame new words of science at pleasure, but 
to confound and extinguish all ancient wisdom ; insomuch as 
he never nameth or rnentioneth an ancient author or opinion, 
but to confute and reprove ; wherein for glory, and drawing 
followers and disciples, he took the right course. For certainly 
therc cometh to pass and hath place in human truth, that whieh 
was noted and pronounced in the highest truth: Veni in nomine 
Pdtris, nee recipitis me ; si quis venerit in nomine sua, cum reci- 
pittU ; [I have come in my Father's name, and ye receive me 
not; if one come in his own name, bin ye will receive]. But 
in this divine aphorism (considering to whom it was applied, 
namely to Antichrist, the lughest deceiver,) we may discern 
the coming in a man's own name, without regard of 
paternity, is no good sign of truth ; although it be 
the fortune and success of an Eum recipieti*. But 
client person 2 Aristotle, I will think of him that he 
. humour of his scholar, with whom it seemeth he 
the one to conquer all opinions, as the other to 
nation.-. Wherein nevertheless, it may be, he may 
'8 hands that are of a bitter disposition get a like 
i"lar did; 

ill. 4. 

exi'mi'o cnti, rt .>!• acumen ingenii mirabili. — Dc Aug. 



Felix terrnrum j>rn?do, non utile in undo 

Editirs i\niij>lum, &c. 

[a fortunate robber, who made prize of nations] ; bo 
Felix doctrinae prtedo, 

[a fortunate robber, who made prize of learning]. But to 
me on the other side that do desire, as much us Heth in my 
pen, to ground a sociable intercourse 1 between antiquity and 
proficience, it seemeth best to keep way with antiquity usqut 
ad aras, [as far as may be without violating higher obliga- 
tions}] aud therefore to retain the ancient terms, though I 
sometimes alter the uses and definitions; according to the mo- 
derate proceeding in civil government, where although there 
Ik- Mime alteration, yet that holilrth which Tacitus wisely noteth, 
eadem niayistratuum vocabuia, [the name of the magistracies are 
noi changed]. 

To return therefore bo the use and acceptlon of the term 
Metaphysic, us I do now understand the word: It uppcarcth 
by that which hath been already said, that I intend Philosophia 
Prima, Summary Philosophy, and Metaphysic, which heretofore 
hme been confounded as one, to be two distinct things. For 
the one I have made as a parent or common ancestor to all 
know l edge, and the other I have now brought in as a branch 
or desoendenl of Natural Science. It appeared] likewise that 
1 have assigned to Summary Philosophy the common prin- 
ciples and axioms which are promiscuous and indiHerent to 
several sciences. I have assigned unto it likewise the inquiry 
touching tlw operation of the. relative and adoentive characters of 
essences, as Quantity, Similitude, Diversity, /'nssi/iiiity, and the 
rest; with this distinction and provision; that, they be handled 
ive efficacy in nature, and not logically. It appearcth 
likewise that Natural Theology, which heretofore halli been 
handled confusedly with Metaphysic, I have inclosed and 
bounded by itself. It is therefore now a question, wlmt is left 
remaining for Metaphysic; wherein I may without prejudice 
ive thus much of the conceit of antiquity, that Physic 
should contemplate that which is inherent in matter and there- 
fore transitory, and Metaphysic that which is abstracted and 
fixed. And again that Physic should handle that which sup- 
poseth in nature only a being and moving', and Metaphysic 

1 fnUnerrm In the orlnlnul,— the form r.f thr word i-ommonly uud by Bacon. 

. 'ir ion »(M» " iillil nutui'nl tiri-r—llj ." 



should handle that which supposeih further in nature a reason, 
understanding, and platform.' Hut the difference, penpal* 
ously expressed, ifl in<>-t familiar and sensible. For as «e 
divided Natural Philosophy in general into the Inquiry of 
Causes Bad Productions of Effects; so that part which con- 
cemetfa the Inquiry of Causes we do subdivide, according to 
the received and sound division of Causes ; the one part, which 
is Physic, cnquireth and handleth the Material and Efficient 
Causes ; and the other, which is Metaphysic, handleth the 
Formal and Final Causes. 

Physic (taking it according to the derivation, and not ac- 
cording to our idiom for Medicine,) is situate in a middle term 
or distance between Natural History and Metaphysic. For 
Natural History describe! h the variety of things ; Physic, the 
causes, but variable or respective causes; and Metaphysic, the 
fixed and constant causes. 

Limus ut hie durescit, et haec ut cera liqil— nlf. 
Uno eoiiemquc igni: 

[As the same fire which makes tin- soft clay hard 
Makes hard wax soft :] 

Fire is the cause of induration, but respective to clay ; fire is 
the cause of colliquation, but res p ecti ve to wax ; but fire is no 
constant mt either of induration of colliquation. So then 
the ph\ -ical causes are but the efficient and the matter. Physic 
hath three parts; whereof two respect nature unitrd or collected, 
the third eontomplateth nature diffused or distributed. Nature 
ir collected either into oue entire total, or else into the same 
prin cip les or sieds. So as the first doctrine is touching the 
Contexture or Configuration of things, as de masts, oV nni- 
versitate rrrum. The second is the doctrine concerning the 
Principles or Originals of tilings. The third is the doctrine 
concerning all Variety and Particularity of things, whether it 
lie of the differing substances, or their differing qualities and 
natures; whereof there ueedeth BO enumeration, this part be- 
in^r but M a gloss "r paraphrase, that attendeth upon the text 
of Natural History. 8 Of these three I cannot report any as de- 
tiei.ut. In what truth or perfection they are handled, I make 
not now any judgment : but they are para of knowledge not 
'ted by ihe labour of man. 
' i-t 

°" *& '"■"" '' "f lb* lUWect Itirr^ U a lafgt .-nl.litiou or ten or twc'iv* tii»m In 







For Metaphysic, we have assigned unto it the inquiry of 

'ormal ami Final Causes; which assignation, as to the former 
of them, may seem to be nugatory Rod void, because of the 
received and inveterate opinion that, the inquisition of man is 
OH competent to find out essential forms or true differences: 
of winch opinion we will take this hold; that, tin; invention of 
Forms is of all other parts of knowledge the worthiest to he 
sought, if it he possible to be found. As for the possibility, 
they are ill discoverers that think there is no land when they 
can see nothing hut sea. But it is manifest that Plato in his 
opinion of Cdeas, M one that had a wit of elevation situate as 
apoo ■ clitF, did descry that forms mere the true object of know 
ledge; but lost the real fruit of his opinion, by considering of 
forma U absolutely abstracted from matter, and not confined 
and determined by matter; and so turning his opinion upon 
Theology, wherewith all his natural philosophy is infected 
But if any man shall keep a continual watchful and severe eye 
upon action, operation, and the use of knowledge, he may 
advise and take notice what are the Forms, the disclosures 
whereof are fruitful and important to the state of man. For 
as to the Forms of substances — Man only except, of whom it is 
said, Formavit komincm de linw terra, et spirarit in facie, u ejus 
spiraculum vita, [He formed man of the dust of the ground, 
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,] and not. as of 
all other creatures, Producant aatur, juodttcat terra, [let the 
waters bring fbrth, let the earth bring forth,] — the Forms of 
Substances I ny (at they are now by oompoundiog and trans- 
planting multiplied) arc so perplexed, as they are not to be 
enquired ' ; no more than it were either possible or to purpose 
to seek in gross the forms of those sounds which inula- words, 
which by composition and transposition of letters arc infinite 
But tin the other side, to enquire the form iff those sounds or 

ices which make simple letters is easily comprehensible, and 
being known, induceth and manifesteth the forms of all words, 
which consist and are compounded of them. In the same 

aiiii-i to enquire the Form of a lion, of an oak, of gold, nay 
of water, of air. is a vain pursuit : but to enquire the Forms of 
sense, of voluntary motion, of vegetation, of colours, of gravity 
and levity, of density, of tenuity, of heal, of cold, and all other 

i i, lit* the tiMiutlation) thr «"i'tlry mint be put off till forms of simpler 
iture h»vr brim ilUcovvred. 

A A .' 



natures and qualities, which like an alphabet are not manv, 
and of which the essences (upheld by matter) of all creatures 
do consist; to enquire I say the true forms of these, is that part 
of Metaphysic which we now define of. Not but that Physic 
doth make inquiry and take consideration of the NU0Q6 natures: 
but how? Only m to the Material and Efficient Causes of 
them, and not as to the Forms. For example; if the cause 
of Whiteness in snow or froth be enquired, and it be rendered 
thus, that tin- snhtiie inttrinLrtiire of air and water is the, it 

is well rendered ; but nevertheless! is this the Form of White- 
ness? No; but it is the Efficient, which is ever but vthiculum 
IMM«4bv, fninuv, [the currier of the Form]. 1 This pert of 
< Metaphysic I do not find laboured and performed; 
«./««-. whereat I marvel not, because I hold it not pos- 

sible to be invented by that course nf invention which hath 
been used; in regard that men (which is the root of all error) 
haw made too untimely a departure and too remote a recess 
from particulars. 

Hut the use of this part of Metaphysic which I report as de- 
ficient, is of the rest the most excellent in two respects; the 
one, because it is the duty and virtue of all knowledge to 
abridge the infinity of individual experience as much as the 
Conception of truth will permit, and to remedy the complaint of 
ritu 6r»Wlj firs liw/fii, [life is short anil art is long;] which is 
performed by uniting the notions and conceptions of sciences. 1 
Pox knowledges are as pyrnmides, whereof history is the bens ! 
so of Natural Philosophy the basis is Natural History ; the 
stage next the basis is Physic; the stage next the verlie:il 
point is Metaphysic. As for the vertical point, Opu$ guod 
opera tur Dens a prutdpio nsatie in! Jiiunn, [the work which God 
wurkcth from the beginning to the end,] the Summary Law of 
Nature, we know not whether man's inquiry can attain unto it. 
But these three be the true stages of knowledge ; and are to 
them that, are depraved no better than the giants' hills, [Pelion, 
Ussa, and Olympus, piled upon each other,] 

Tcr sunt conati impoiierc Peliu Ossuni, 

Scilicet ntque Ossffi frondoauin Envciven Olympian: 

' A sentence Is added here in the Nation ; »ce note on falrriui Trrminu*. e. II. 

* L*. collecting Miein inti» axioms more general, Applicable !«• .ill the Individual 
Varieties: (ujciomnla unutiarum in magil grucrultti, ct BM uiiitti materia rtrum indi- 
vidual urn coiiij"tmit, evtligcudo rt HNI>i(/o). 



but to those which refer all things to i lit* glory of God, they 
are as the three acclamations, Sancte,sancte, sancte ; holy in llie 

iptinn or dilatation of his works, holy in the connexion 
<t i-oncatenatiou of them, and holy in the union nrthem in a 
perpettml end uniform law. And therefore the speculation 
mu excellent in Pafmenides and Plato, although hut a specu- 
lation in them. That all things by scale did ascend to unity. 
So then always thut knowledge is worthiest, whirl) is charged 
with least multiplicity : which appenxeth to be Mctaphysic ; as 
that which OOOeideretfa the Simple Forms or Differences of 
things, which are few in number, and the degrees and co-ordi- 
nations whereof make nil this variety. The second reepeot 
which valued) and comtnendetli this part of Metaphysial i 8 
that it doth enfranchise the power of man unto the givati'-t 
liberty and possibility of works and effects. For Physic rar- 
ruth men in narrow and restrained ways, subject to many 
BOCldettte of impediments, imitating the ordinary flexuoiis 
courses of nature; hut latre u/uH'jue .sunt sajiientihus cite: to 

ace (which was anciently defined to be rcrum diriiunum 
it huuuiiKinun srinitiu, [the knowledge of things human and 
divine],) there 18 ever choice of means. For physical causes 

light to new invention in simili matt-rut ; but whosoever 
kaoweth any form, knoweth the .utmost possibility of super* 
inducing thut nature upon any variety of mutter, and so is 
less restrained in operation, either to the basis of the Matter, 
or the condition of the Efficient : which kind of knowledge 
Salomon likewi-e, though in a more divine ecn-c, elegantly 
describeth : Nt/n urrtutunttttr tfressun fui, et en r mis mm habebil 
nil', itilicitlum : [thy steps shall not be straitened; thou shalt 
run and not stumble]. The ways of sapience are not much 
liable cither to particularity or chance.' 

The second pari of Mctaphysic is the inquiry of final can 
which I nm moved to report not as omitted, but as misplaced. 1 
And yet if it wciv but a fault in order, I would not speak ot 
it ; for order is matter of illustration, hut pcrtaincth not to the 
substance of sciences: but this misplacing hath caused a de- 
tii-ii nrr, or at least a great improlieii'inv in the sciences them- 
selves, For the handling of final causes mixed with the rest 

' i, t, neither vuiiHiittl to pUttCttUf mrthmla, nor liuble t.u be defeated by airiibiitii) 

| ,\Vr ItHfttttiit nrt oliitiUlU ol-nnxitu reSr. ) 
1 i. r. plaOrd l'i tin- ili'|iirliiii-iii nf l'li;«ic Instead of Ml't3I>hy*ic. ( Solent raia 
fijihi inlrr t'fiy\Hii, hvh inltr Mi t'f-li-n "'•'■ ) 

A x 3 



in jiTiy siciil inquiries, hath intercepted the severe anil diligent 
inquiry of all real and physical causes, and given men the oc- 
!i to slay upon these satisfactory and specious causes, to 
the great arrest an<l prejudice of further discovery- For this I 
find done nut only by Plato, who ever anchoreth upon that 
shore, but by Aristotle, Galen, and others, which do usually 
likewise fall upon thi-se iota sf discoursing causes. For to say 
that the hairs, of the ei/r litis are for a quickset and fence about 
the sight; or that the firmness of the shins anil /titles of living 
creatures is fa defend them from the extremities of heat or cold ; 
or that the bones are for the columns or beams, where upon the 
frames of the bodies of living creatures arc built ; or that the 
leaves of trees are for prott ./tug of the fruit ; or that the clouds 
are for watering of the earth ; or that the Itlidnitt of the earth 
is for the station anil utau.sicu of Uring matures, ami the like, 
is well enquired and collected in M eta physic ; but in Physic 
they are impertinent. Nay, they are indeed but remoras and 
hinderances to stay and slug the ship fruin further sailing, 
and have brought this to pass that the search of the Physical 
Causes hath been neglected and passed in silence. And there- 
fore the natural philosophy of Demncritus and some others, 
who did not suppose a mind or reason in the frame of thing-. 
but attributed the form thereof able to maintain itself to infinite 
essays or proofs of nature, which they term fortune, seemeth to 
me (as far aa I can judge by the recital and fragments which 
remain unto us) in particularities of physical causes more real 
and better enquired than that of Aristotle and Plato ; whereof 
both intermingled final causes, the one as a part of theology, 
and the other as a part of logic, whieh were the favourite 
studies respectively of both those persons. Not because those 
tinal causes are not true, and worthy to be enquired, being kept 
within their own province; but because their excursions into 
the limits ©f physical causes hath bred a vastness and solitude 
in that track. For otherwise keeping their precincts and bor- 
ders, men are extremely deceived if they think there is an 
enmity or repugnancy at all between them. For the OMM 
rendered, I lint the hairs about the rye-lids are for the safeguard, 
of the sight, doth not impugn the cause rendered, that ptitttijf 
U incident to ori/ices of moisture : Mnseosi f antes, [the B) 
springs,] <s.e. Nor the cause rendered, that the Jirmin 
hidet it for the armour of the body against extremities of heat or 



ml/1, ilnih not impugn the cause rendered, that contraction »f 
pores is incident to tlie outumrdest parts, in regard of their ad- 
jacence to foreign or unlike bodies; and so of the rest: both 
causes being true and compatible, the one declaring an inten- 
tion, the other a consequence only. Neither dnth this call in 
quettino or derogate from divine providence, hut highly con- 
Sinn and exalt it. For as in civil actions he it* the grea te r Mid 
deeper politique, that can make other men the instruments of 
his will and end.- and jut never acquaint them with his pur- 
pose, so as they shall do it and yet not know what they do, 
than he that imparteth his meaning to those he cuiployeth ; so 
is tli"' wisdom of God more admirable, when nature intend th 
one thing and providence draweth forth another, than if he 
had communicated to particular creatures and motions the cha- 
racters and impressions of his providence. And thus much lor 
Metaphysie ; the later part whereof I allow as extant, but wi.-h 
it confined to its proper place. 

f ' Nevertheless there remainelh yet another pad of Na- 
tural Philosophy, which is commonly made a principal part, 
and holdetb rank with Physic special and Metaphysie ; winch 
ii Mathcmalie ; but I think it more agreeable to the nature 
of things and to the light of order to place it as a branch of 
Metaphysie : for the subject of it being Quantity ; not Quan- 
tity indefinite, which is but a relative and belongeth to phiio- 
sophiu ]>rima (as hath been said,) but Quantity determined or 
proportionable; it . appcarrtli to be one of the Essential Forms of 
things ; as that that is causative in nature of a number of 
effects; insomuch as we sec in the schools both of Democrittis 
and of PythogortB, thai the one did ascribe figure to th,- first 
Seed* <f tilings, and the other did SUppOM numbers to be the 
principles and originals of things : and it is true also that of all 
other form- (as we understand forms) it is the most abstracted 
and separable from matter, and therefore most proper to Mela- 
physic ; which hath likewise been jAt cause why it hath been 
better laboured and enquired wK any of the other forms, 
which are more immersed into matter. For it being the nature 
of the mind of man (to the extreme prejudice of knowledge) 
to delight in the spacious liberty of generalities, u in a cham- 
pion region, and not in the inclosures of particularity ; the 

1 Dr Attf, III. fi. oIhtvp that In trati-Utinjf IM« ourt uf the work Ikioii has nut 
only in.uli great addition,, tiiu ctungvd th* "nil i. 

* * I 


Mathematics of all other knowledge were the goodliest fields 
tn satisfy that appetite. But fur the placing of this science, it 
is not much material ' : only we have endeavoured in these our 
partitions to observe a kind of perspective, that one part may 
cast light upon another. 

The Mathematics are either Pure or Mixed. To the Pure 
Mathematics are those sciences belonging which handle Quan- 
tity Determinate, merely severed from any axioms pf natural 
philosophy; and these are two, Geometry and Arithmetic ; the 
t in handling Quantity continued, and the uth«-r dissevered. 
Mixed hath for subject some axioms or parts of natural philo- 
sophy, and considered] Quantity determined, as it is auxiliary 
and incident unto them. For many parts of nature can neither 
be invented with sufficient suhtilty nor demonstrated with 
sufficient perspicuity nor accommodated unto use with eurri~ 
rii'iit dexterity, without the aid and intervening of the Mathe- 
matics: of which sort are Perspective, Music, Astronomy, 
Cosmography, Architecture, Enginery, and divers others. In 
the Mathematics I can report no dcficiciice, except it be that 
men do not sufficiently understand the excellent use of the 
Pure .Mathematics, in that they do remedy and cure many 
defects in the wit and faculties intellectual. For if the wit be 
too dull, they sharpen it; if too wandering, they fix it; if too 
inherent in the sense, they abstract it. Si that as tennis is 
a game of no use in itself, but of great use in respect it maketh 
a quick eye and a boily ready to put itself into all postures; so 
in the Mathematics, that use which is collateral and intervenient 
is no less worthy than that which is principal and intended.* 

' In the Dr Augmtntit he concludes by placing It as an nppendix a«i<l auxiliary to 
Natural Philosophy, In nrdt-r to murk more distinctly Its proper function; which he 
complains the mathematicians are apt to forget, iind to exalt it, as the logicians 
wait logic, above the sciences which it is Its btutoM to lerrt. 

- 'I'he whole of thin passage relating to the use uf pure miithrmatie-! in the training 
of tlie Intellect la omitted in the translation ; and the ontlMtall has been represented 
M Indicating a change in Bacun's opinion either as to the value of this particular 
•tody in th:it respect, nr as to the expediency of encouraging ony study which U 
'■ awful only to the mind" of the student. This conjecture is hardly reconcllnhle 
however with the fact that the mm rteomtnenibulon of mathematics ns a cure for 

certain defect- ol 1 he Intellect i> ripcatid both in a later chapter of the Dc Amjmi-nlis 
(vi. 4. ; to which place indeed the abaervatlofl progeny belonss), and in Chi i 
u« Simlirt m published in 1MB. Hot i* there any difficulty in I I DT the 

ill of It hire. When bacon wrote tlie AdtuMcmrut in lfiO.'i, he had no ileli- 
lo report in the department of Mathematics: he could not name any branch of 
Ihe ituU) Which had not l.i.o properly pursued, and merely took the opportunity of 
Obaervtng by the way that tbl study of the pure mathciniitics had a collateral and 

Incidental \..| ,ii Instrument of education: an observation very Rood itndju-t in 

I tar If, la, i uoi at all lo the puipn.-c ol the argument. When he ieM-cd the work in 



And na for the Mixed Mathematics, I may only make {his 
prediction, that there cannot fail to he more kinds of them, as 
nature grows further disclosed. Thus much of Natural Science, 
or the part of nature Speculative. 

1 ' For Natural Prudence, or the part Operative of Natural 
Philosophy, we will divide it into three parts, Experimental , 
Philosophical, and Magical'; which three parte active have i 
correspondence and analogy with the three parts Speculative, 
Natural History, Physic, and Metapbysic. For many opera- 
tions have been invented, sometimes by a casual incidence 
and occurrence, sometimes by a purposed experiment; and >>i 
those which have been found by an intentional experiment, 
some have been found out by varying or extending the nunc 
experiment, some by transferring and Conapoonding dryers ex- 
periments the one into the other, which kind of invention 
an empiric may manage.' Again, by the knowledge of phy- 
sical rausi - there cannot fail to follow many indications ami 
designations of new particulars, if men in their speculation 
will keep one eye upon use and practice. But these are but 
coastings along the shore, prmuade littus ini'/num: for it 
sccmcth to me there can hardly be discovered any radical or 
fundamental alterations and innovations in nature, either by 
the fortune and essays of experiments, or by the light and 
direction of physical causes. If therefore we have reported 
ftfetaphysic deficient, it must follow that we do the lil. 
Natural Majric, wilieh hath relation thereunto. For mm 

. . . .Vu,-/.. 

as tor the Natural Maine whereof now there is men- •J* *•»**• 
tion in books, containing certain credulous and super- M " Jur 
Btitioue conceits and observations of Sympathies and Antipa- 
thies and hidden proprieties, and some frivolous experiments, 

strange rather by disguisement than in tliem>clve> ; it : 
far differing in truth of nature from such a knowledge as we 
requiiv, as the story of king Arthur of Britain, or Hugh of 

ISM hi" knew more ilxiut innthrmntic.-, and was aide to point «iut tvttain deficiencies 
which were very much to the purpose, — millllljl »« to tbe doctrine of Solids In 
- rlr> in Arithmetic , lud in Introducing a relevant observation he 
naturally struck out the imlciant one. 

1 De.VuK. ill 5- 

1 In tic trau-Uti.n the name Snlnral Prtiiienee is omitted ; the purl opcrntirr i« 
divided into two part* Instead a) three; via. Mechanic and Magic; and the whole 
much id tend an'i 

' Being ■ matter of ingenuity mid lagKtty, rather thmi philosophy (qit mutjit rrt rtt rl mpnx, quail! fihilumphicu). Tills U iu fact the Eipcrtcnlia LiUiuta 
of which »i In .ir mors further on. 



Ihmrdenux, differs from Caesar's commentaries in truth of 
story. For it is manifest that Caesar did greater things dv veto 
than those imaginary heroes were feigned to do. But he did 
thetn not in that fabulous manner. Of this kind of learning the 
fable of Ixion was a figure, who designed to enjoy Juno, the 
goddess of power; and instead of her had copulation with a 
cloud, of which mixture were begotten centaurs and chimera-. 
So whosoever shall entertain high and vaporous imaginations 
instead of a laborious and sober inquiry of truth, shall be- 
get hopes and In liel's of strange and impossible shapes. And 
therefore we may note in these sciences which hold so much 
of imagination and belief, as this degenerate Natural Magic, 
Alchemy, Astrology, and the like, that in their propositions 
the description of the means is ever more monstrous than the 
pretence or end. For it is a thing more probable, that be that 
kuowcth well the natures of Weight, of Colour, of Pliant and 
Fragile in respect of th? hammer, of Volatile and Fixed in 
re.-pect of the fire, and the rest, may superinduce upon some 
metal the nature and form of gold by such meehanique as 
belonged) to the production of the natures afore rehearsed, 
tlian that BOBtfl gr&int of the medicine projected -Imuld in a few 
moments of time turn a sea of quicksilver or other material into 
gold. So it is more probable, that he that knoweth the nature 
<>f arefaction, the nature of assimilation of nourishment to the 
thing nourished, the manner of increase and clearing of spirits, 
the manner of the depredations which spirits make upon the 
humours and solid parts, shall by ambages of diets, bathings, 
anointings, medicines, motions, and the like, prolong life or 
restore some degree of youth or vivacity, than that it can lie done 
willi the use of a few drops or scruples of a liquor or receit, 
'I'ii conclude therefore, the true Natural Magic, which is that 
great liberty and latitude of operation which depended) upon 
the knowledge of Forms, I may report deficient, as the relative 
thereof is. To which part, if we be serious and incline not 
to vanities and plausible discourse, beside* the deriving and 
deducing the Operations themselves from Metaphysic, there 
are pertinent two points of much purpose, the one by way of 
nation, the other by way of caution. The first is, that 
there be made a Calendar resembling an inventory ' of the 

1 This i* Ilic InvcnUry which (.is I 1hinV > m to l>c contained in tilt truth chapter 
Of the VtiUnut Tirmimtu. Bet m> note Ml Ml. Lllb's nnACh 



estate of min, containing all the inventions (being the works 
or fruits of nature or art") which are now extant and /<"■"><«<> ■•>• 
whereof man is already possessed ; out of which doth """•"•• 
naturally result a note, what things are yet held impossible, 
or not invented; which calendar will be the more artificial 
and serviceable, if tu every reputed impossibility you add 
what tiling is extant which conic th the nearest in decree to 
that impossibility j to the end that by these optatives and 
potentials man's inquiry may be the more awake in deducing 
direction of works from the speculation of causes. And se- 
condly, that those experiments be not only esteemed which 
have an iinmeiliate and present use, but. (hose principally which 
are of most universal consequence for invention of other expe- 
riments, and those which give most light to the invention 
of causes ; for the invention of the mariner's needle, which 
givcth the direction, is of no less benefit for navigation tliau 
the invention of the sails, which give the motion. 1 

3 Thus have I passed through Natural Phdnsnphy, and the 
deficiences thereof; wherein if I have differed from the ancient 
and received doctrines, and thereby shall move Contradiction; 
for my pert) M I affect not to dissent, so 1 purpose not to con- 
tend. If it be truth, 

Non canimua surdis, respondent omnia svlvte I 
[All as we sing the listening woods reply :] 

the voice of nature will consent, whether the voice of man 
do or no. And as Alexander Borgia was wont to say of 
the expedition of the French for Naples, that they came With 
chalk in their bands to mark up their lodgings, and not with 
weapons to light; so I like belter that entry of truth which 
Cometh peaceably with chalk to mark up those minds which 
are capable to lodge and harbour it, than that which Cometh 
with pugnacity and contention. 

But there remaineih a division of Natural Philosophy ac- 
cording to the report of the iwjuiry, and nothing concerning the 

1 Thlt> example is omitted in the translation, to make room for a better (with which 
trm pi-iiluM) DOl ,n i|ii;iii>ti il in 1605) — the artificial congelation of water j an 
experiment which he nptdally ntfWd as giving light as to the secret process of 

lip pMU£S corrtapondtnjl In tills |wrnRr.i|>h conclude* the Uiird book of the 
J)r Auijmtutii. That which MlwHI \-> transferred to the middle of the fourth 
i -ha|>l<T. 

• Thl mbatanM ofthfa pmjtrtpll will he found in the middle of the fourth chapter 
tihi.i ttook of the Jh Atgmntk (WL 1. t». Ml.) 



matter or subject : anil that is Positive ami Consideralivc; 
when the inquiry reported) either an Assertion or a Doubt 
These doubts or mm iii/urts are of two sorts, Particular and 
Total. For the first, we see a good example thereof in Ari- 
stotle's Problems, which dOMl'VOd to have had a better con- 
tinuance, but so nevertheless as there is one point whereof 
warning is to be given and taken. The registering of doubtl 
hath two excellent uses: the one, that it saveth philosophy 
from errors and falsehoods; when that which is not fully ap- 
pearing is not collected into assertion, wherehy error Bright 
draw error, but reserved in doubt: the other, that the entry 
of doubts are as so many suckers or sponges to draw use 1 of 
knowledge; insomuch as that which if doubts had not preceded 
n m:in should never have advised but passed it over without 
note, by the suggestion and solicitation of doubts is made to be 
attended and applied. Hut both these commodities do scarcely 
countervail an inconvenience which will intrude itself, if it be 
not debarred; which is, that when a doubt, is once received 
men labour rather how U> keep it a doubt still than how to 
solve it, and accordingly bend their wits." Of this we sec the 
familiar example is lawyers and scholars, both which if they 
have once admitted a doubt, it goeth ever after authoii-ed for 
I donbti But that tise of wit and knowledge is to be allowed, 
which laboun-th to make doubtful things certain, and not those 
which labour to make certain thing! doubtful. Therefore 
fltntfhii«rfti these calendars of doubts I commend as excellent 
fJSftT* things, bo that there be this caution used, that 
when they be throughly sifted and brought to reso- 
lution, they be from thenceforth omitted, decarded. and not 
continued to cherish and encourage men in doubting. To 
which calendar of doubts or problems, I advise be annexed 
another calendar, as much or more material, which is a ca- 

C'tnine«i lendar of popular mars: I mean chiefly, in na- 

""" li-ii i ' t 

w»w« tural history J such as pass in speech and conceit, 

fetor*. and are nevertheless apparently detected and con- 
Meted of untruth ; that man's knowledge be not weakened nor 
intbaeed by such dross and vanity. .As for the doubts CT MtM 
lionets general or in total) I understand those differences of 

' I r. incrcii«. (</«« incrrmrntn tcientia prrpelun ail m tugant rt alllciant. ) 
' Thi* Is explained In the translation by aurilim that the recognition of the iloubt 
mu ctiarapkxH to muintaai each -i le, and so keeping it up. 

* re/ in Hift»riu \,ilunili, tel III I >■ *^ OUT iljUT-. — I)c Ant). 



opinions touching the principles of nature and the fundamental 
points of (he BUDS) which have caused the diversity of sects, 
schools, and philosophies; as that of Empedocles, Pythagnra-. 
Democritttt, Pannenides, and the rest. 1 For although Aristotle, 
as though he had been of the race of the Ottomans, thought 

In did not reign except the first thing he did he killed all 

bis brethren; yet to those that seek truth and not inagistralitv. 
it cannot but seem a mattex of gnat profit to see before them 
the several opinion* touching the foundations of nature; not 
for any exact truth that can be expected in those theories; for 
as the same phenomena in astronomy are satisfied by the re- 
ceived astronomy of the diurnal motion and the proper motions 
of the planets with their ccceutrica and epicycles, and like- 
nrne by the theory of Copernicus who supposed the earth to 
move; and the calculations are indifferently agreeable to both; 
so the ordinary face and view of experience is many times 
satisfied by several theories and philosophies; whereas to find 
the real truth requireth another manner of severity and atten- 
tion. For as Aristotle saith that children at the first will call 
every woman mother, but afterward they come to distinguish 
according to truth; so experience, if it be in childhood, will 
call every philosophy mother, but when it cometh to ripeness 
it will discern the true mother. So as in the mean time it is 
good to see the several glosses and opinions upon nature, 
whereof it may be every one in some oue point hath seen 
i 1< urer than his fellows. Therefore I wish some collection 
to be made painfully and understanding^ de a/iti- „, Anl , 
tjuis philasaphiis, ouL of all the possible light which '''"'• • u p*'"- 
i" iiKiiin. tli to its of lhem. a Which kind of work I find defi- 
cient. But here I must give warning, that it be dime dis- 
tinctly and severely 3 ; the philosophies of every one through- 
out by themselves; and not by titles paeke.l and faggoted up 
'her, as hath been done by Plutarch. For it is the har- 
mony of l philosophy in itself which giveth it light and cre- 
dence ; whereas if it he singled and broken, it will seem more 
foreign and dissonant. For as when I read in Tacitus the 

1 In Hie tr.. Dilation Empetloelt* U omitted ; and Philoluui, Xennyhitntt, Annxagorat, 
1 r*'l|j.<i, .iddlil. 

h (according to the'lutlon) as tV Lives of the ancient PMlovOphl r«, 
I'lutsuvh't collection Of pladta, Plato'* ijiiotiitiinis AfMotiVl confutation*, anil Hie 

i notice* iii'tatiiius Ptiiin, i'iin<MtnitiM, &c 

lw>th In the niii>in:i1 and In vd. 1633; perlmp* a misprint for "•e^crally." 
Kd. 1629 hu- The translation has liitlmrh only. 


actions of Nero or Claudius, with circumstances of times, in- 
ducements, and occasions, I find them not so strange ; hut 
when I rend them in Suetonius Trampiillus gathered into 
titles and bundles, and not in order of time, they seem more 
monstrous and incredible ; so is it of any philosophy reported 
entire, and dismembered by articles. Neither do I exckule 
opinions of latter times to be likewise represented in this 
i-;ibiiilar of sects of philosophy, M ibit of Thcophrastus Para- 
celsus, eloquently reduced into an harmony by the pen of 
SeVemiUB the Dane; and that of Telesius, and his scholar 
Dniiius, being as a pastoral philosophy, full of sense but of no 
great depth; and that of Fiaeastorius, who though he pre- 
trmlcil not to make any new philosophy, yet did use the 
absoluteness of his own sense upon the old; and that of Gil- 
bertus our countryman, who revived, with some alterations 
and demonstrations, the opinions of Xenophanes ' ; and any 
other worthy to be admitted. 

Thus have we now dealt with two of the three beams of man's 
knowledge ; that is Radius Directus, which is referred to na- 
ture, Radius Refracttts, which is referred to God, and cannot 
report truly because of the inequality of the medium. There 
resteth Radius Reflexxts whereby Man behuldeth and contem- 
plated himself. 

If 7 We come therefore now to that knowledge whereunto the 
ancient oracle directeth us, which is the hiimcMge of ourselves ; 
which deserveth the more accurate handling, by how much it 
toucheth us more nearly. This knowledge, as it is the end and 
term of natural philosophy in the intention of man, so notwith- 
standing it is but a portion of natural philosophy in the con- 
tinent of nature. And generally let this be a rule, that all 
partitions of knowledges be accepted rather for lines and veins, 
than for sections and separations ; and that the continuance and 

1 This passage it considerably altered in the tTan«Iiulon. and the difference* are 
worth noticing as bearing upon the course of Bacon'n reading and the development of 
bis views in the interval. After the notice ol Paracelsus the translation proceeds "or 
of '!'< realm of OonxatftUDi tcA<> levived the philumphy of Parmtnides and to turned 
the armt of the Peri/taletut uynntt thtmsrlit .' \ Of of Pntriiiui the i'enetiun, who sub- 
timnird the fames of the Plntnnieti ; or of our countryman Gilbert, who act up again 
the iluctrinet of Philolaus." The names of Denim, Fraeatttoriui, find Xeuophanet are 
entirely omitted. I do not know whether Mr. EluVs attention had been directed to 
Auk. It, I, The whole of thl. chapter U much altered and enlarged; re- 
written rather than translated. 



entirencss of knowledge be preserved. For the contrary hereof 
hath made particular sciences to become barren, shallow, and 
erroneous; while they have not been nourished and maintained 
from the common fountain. So we see Cicero the orator com- 
plained of Socrates and his school, that he was the first that se- 
parated philosophy and rhetoric; whereupon rhetoric became 
an empty and verbal art. So we may see that the opinion of 
Copernicus touching the rotation of the earth ', which astro- 
nomy itself ciinnot correct because it is not repugnant to any 
of the phenomena, yet natural philosophy may correct. So we 
see also that the science of medicine, if it be destituted and 
forsaken by natural philosophy, it is nol much better than an 
empirical practice. With this reservation therefore we pro- 
ceed to Human Philosophy or Humanity, which hath two 
parts i the one considered! man segregate, or distributively ; 
the other congregate, or in society. So as Human Philosophy 
is either Simple and Particular, or Conjugate and Civil, Hu- 
manity Particular eonsisteth of the same parts whereof man 
eonsisteth; that is, of knowledges winch respect the Body, and 
ni' knowledges that respect the Mind. But before we distribute 
so far, it is good to constitute. For I do take the consideration 
in general and at large of Human Nature to be fit to be eman- 
cipate and made a knowledge by itself; not so much in regard 
of those delightful and elegant discourses which have been 
made of the dignify ef man 3 , of his miseries, of his state and 
life, and the like adjuncts of his common and undirided nature ; 
but chiefly in regard of the knowledge concerning the sym/ia- 
thics and concordances betwetn tie mind anil body, which, being 
mixed, cannot be properly assigned to the sciences of either. 

This knowledge hath two handles: for as all leagues and 
amities con.-i-t of mutual Intelligence and mutual OHices, so 
this league of mind and body hath the^e two parts ; how the one 
disrlnseth the other, and how the one tcor/icth upon the oth' r ; 
Discovery, and Impression. The former of these hath begotten 
two arte, both of Prediction or Prenotion ; whereof the one is 
hiiiiuurcil with the inquiry of Aristotle, and the other of Ilip- 

Th«' trnn-latlon «dd«, ijuir humc quoquc ininluit. 
* In tin- lit AvymrHti* On- part is numbered among the Desiderata. Thr limii'i 
of man, ho »:iys, bate been well set forth both by (ihitoxtphers iiml theologians ; but 
of what he falls the triumph* of man, (that K InMancra of the hi. best perfection 
• Inch the human families mentul ur bodily, have exhibited,) he wishes a collection 
!■• In made from history ; and ^Ives a pa^t or two of anecdotes by way of example. 



pocrates. And although they have of later time been used to 
be coupled with superstitious ami fantastical arts, yet being 
purged and restored to their true state, tiny bars both of them 
a solid ground in nature, and a profitable use in life. The first 
ia Physiognomy, which disco vereth the disposition of the mind 
by tin' lineaments of the body. The second is the Exposition 
of Natural Dreams, which discoveivlh the state of the body by 
the imaginations of the mind. In the former of these I note a 
deficience. 1 For Aristotle hath very ingeniously and diligently 
handled the factures of the body, bat not the gestures of the 
body, which are no less comprehensible hy art, and of greater 
use and advantage. For the Lineaments of the body do 
disclose the disposition and inclination of the mind in general ; 
but the Motions of the countenance and parts do not only 
so, but do further disclose the present humour and state of 
the mind and will. For a*> your Majesty saith most aptly 
and elegantly, As the tongue speahetlt to the ear, so the r/estitre 
s/ien/ti/fi to the eye. And therefore a number of subtile persons, 
whose eyes do dwell upon the faces and fashions of men, do 
well know the advantage of this ohscrvation. as being most part 
of their ability ; neither can it be denied but that it is a great 
discovery of dissimulations, and a great direction in business. 

The latter branch, touching Impression, hath not been col- 
lected into art, but hath been handled dispcrscdly ; and it bath 
the same relation or antistrophe that the former hath. For the 
consideration is double: Either hmi\ and how far t/ie humours 
inn! affects* of the body do alter or work ttpon the mind; or 
again, how and how far the passions or apprehensions of the mind 
do alter or work npon the body. The former of these hath been 
inquired and considered as a part and appendix of Medicine, 
but much more as a part of Religion or Superstition. For the 
physician prescribeth cures of* the mind in phrensics and me- 
lancholy passions ; and pretendeth al-o to exhibit medicines to 
exhilarate the mind, to confirm the courage, to clarify the wit*?, 
to corroborate the memory, and the like ; but the scruples and 

1 with reward to the latter, of which nothing more Is Mid hen*, he observes in the 
Dt Angmintis that the treatment II has received is full of folllr.*, antl nut grounded 1 upon 
UtefDMl toUri bub, — which Is when I he same sensation isjirrMluctd In thi 
by an Internnl cause which U usually the elfect of some external act, he will dr 
that act ; as In the caw of iiichtmarc. where the sensation of OpprmafcHl on the stomach 
created by the fumes of Indigtttlofl nukes a man dream that his body U oppressed by 
a weight lopeHtnpoacd, 

: !<■ nji-niihtiilNiu. — Dr Aii£. 



superstitions of diet and other regiment of the body in the sect 
of the Pythagoreans, in the heresy of the Manicheans, and in 
the law of Mahomet, do exceed. So likewise the ordinances 
in the Ceremonial Law, interdicting the ealing of the blood 
and the fat, distinguishing between beasts clean and unclean 
for meat, are many ami strict. Nay the both itself being clear 
and serene from all clouds of Ceremony, yet retaineth the use 
of fastings, abstinences, and other macerations and humiliations 
of the body, as things real, and not figurative. 1 The root and 
life of all which prescripts is, (besides the ceremony 3 ,) the con- 
sideration of that dependency which the affections of the mind 
are submitted unto upon the state and disposition of the body. 
And if any man of weak judgment do conceive that this suffer- 
ing of the mind from the body doth either question the immor- 
tality or derogate from the sovereignty of the soul, he may be 
taught in easy instances, that the infant in the mother's womb 
is compatible with the mother 3 and yet separable; and the most 
absolute monarch is sometimes led by his servants and yet 
without subjection. As for the reciprocal knowledge, which is 
the operation of the conceits and passions of the mind upon the 
body, we see all wise physicians in the prescriptions of their 
regiments to their patients do ever consider accidentia animi, 
as of great force to further or hinder remedies or recoveries ; 
and more specially it is an inquiry of great depth and worth 
concerning Imagination, how and how far it altereth the body 
proper of the imaginant. For although it hath a manifest 
power to hurt, it followeth not it hath the same degree of 
power to help ; no more than a man can conclude, that because 
there be pestilent airs, able suddenly to kill a man in health, 
therefore there should be sovereign airs, able suddenly to cure 
a man in sickness. But the inquisition of this part is of great 
use, though it needeth, as Socrates said, a Delia n diver, being 
difficult and profound. But unto all this knowledge dr ronmu/ui 
vinculo, of the concordances between the mind and the body, 
that part of inquiry is most necessary, which considereth of the 
srtifs and domiciles which the several faculties of the mind do 
take and occupate in the organs of the body ; which knowledge 
hath been attempted, and is controverted, and deserve th to be 

1 tanqtuim rrrum nan inert rit milium Mti tliam fructtwiartim. — De Aug. 
' The ir m*l iiicm adds, "anil the exercise qf obedience." 

' i. e. differs together With the mother : nmhl cum mutrtbur affcrlihut cam- 




much better enquired. For the opinion of Plato, who placed 
the itudfratiinilinij in the brain, animosity (which he did unfitly 
call anger, having a greater mixture with pride) in the heart, 
and concupiscence or sensuality in the liver, deserveth not to be 
despised ; but much leas to be allowed.' So then we have 
constituted (as in our own wish and advice) the inquiry tow It - 
in;/ fnnnaii nature entire, as a just portion of knowledge to he 
handled apart. 

1 2 The knowledge that concerneth man's body is divided 
ns the good of man's body is divided, unto which it rcferreth. 
The good of man's body is of four hinds, Health, Beaut \\ 
Strength, and Pleasure: so the knowledges are Medicine, or 
art of Cure-, art of Decoration, whieli is ealled Cosmetic; art of 
Activity, which is called Athletic ; and art Voluptuary, which 
Tacitus truly callcth eruditus luxus, [educated luxury]. Thin 
subject of man's body is of all other things in nature most 
susceptible of remedy; but then that remedy is most suscep- 
tible of error. For the same subtility of the subject dolh 
cause large possibility and easy fading; and therefore the in- 
quiry ought to be the more exact. 

To speak therefore of Medicine, and to resume that wc have 
said, ascending a little higher : The ancient opinion that man 
was Microcosmus, an abstract or model of the world, hath been 
fantastically strained by Paracelsus and the alchemists, as if 
there were to be found in man's body certain correspondences 
and parallels, which should have respect to all varieties of 
things, as stars, planets, minerals, which are extant in the great. 
world. But thus much is evidently true, that of all substances 
which nature hath produced, man's body is the most extremely 
compounded. For we sec herbs and plants are nourished by 
earth and water; beasts for the most part by herbs ami fVuils ; 
man by the flesh of beasts, birds, fishes, herbs, grains, fruits, 
water, and the manifold alterations, dressings, and preparations 
of these several bodies, before they come to be his food and 
aliment Add hereunto that beasta have a more simple order 
of life, and less change of affections to w>>rk upon their bodies 
whereas man in his mansion, sleep, exercise, passions, hath 
infinite variations; and it cannot be denied but that the Body 

' Neither (he adds in the translation) is that uthcr arrangement free from error. 

which plniTs ihi- several intellicuial faculties, Imagination, Reuson, and Memory, in 

> ventricle* of the brain. 

; De A»g. tv. 2. 



of man of all other things is of the most compounded mass. The 
Soul on the other aide is the simplest of substances, as is well 


Purumque reliquit 
iEthereum sensum atque aural simplicis ignem : 

[Pure and unmixed 
The etherial sense is left— mere air and fire.] 

So that it is no marvel though the soul so placed enjoy no rest, 
if that principle be true that Motus rerum est rapidus extra 
/ocwm, plncufus in loco : [things move rapidly to their place and 
calmly in their place]. But to the purpose. This variable 
composition of man's body hath made it as an instrument easy 
to distemper; and therefore the poets did well to conjoin Mu- 
sic and Medicine in Apollo : because the office of medicine 
is but to tune this curious harp of man's body and to reduce it 
to harmony. So then the subject being so variable hath made 
the art by consequent more conjectural ; and the art being 
conjectural hath made so much the more place to be left for 
imposture. For almost all other arts and sciences are ' judged 
by acts or masterpieces *, as I may term them, and not by the 
successes and events. The lawyer is judged by the virtue of 
his pleading, and not by the issue of the cause. The master in 
the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, and not 
by the fortune of the voyage. But the physician, and per- 
haps the politique, hath no particular acts demonstrative of his 
ability, but is judged most by the event ; which is ever but as 
it is taken : for who can tell, if a patient die or recover, or if a 
state be preserved or ruined, whether it be art or accident? 
And therefore many times the impostor is prized, and the man 
of virtue taxed. Nay, we see [the 3 ] weakness and credulity 
of men is such, as they will often prefer a raontabank 4 or witch 
before a learned physician. And therefore the poets were 
clear-sighted in discerning this extreme folly, when they made 
>E.«culapius and Circe brother and sister, both children of the 
sun, as in the verses, 


Ipse repertoreni medicinio talis et artia 
Fulmine Phabigenam Stygias detrusit ad undo* : 

So rdd. 1629 and 1633. The original omits art. 

* rirtiilr ma el ftmcliane. — Dc Aug. 

• the oniitli'd both in the uri«inal and in edd. 1629 and !633. 

' This 1> the a|ielllnR of the old editions; and ought apparently to be revived by 
those who believe thut our orthography is the guardian of our etymologies. 

u u 7 



[Apalli's son from whom that art did grow 
Jove struck with tbundcr to the shades below]. 

And again, 

Dives inaccessos ubi SolisJSia lucoa, &c. 

[Now by the shelves of Circe's coast they run,— 

Circe the rich, the iLiughter of the sun l ] 

For in all times, in the opinion of the multitude, witches and 
old women and impostors have had a competition with phy- 
sicians. And what followeth ? Even this, that physicians 
say to themselves, as Salomon expresseth it upon an higher 
occasion ; If it befal to me as befalleth to the fools, why should I 
labour to be more wise ? And therefore I cannot much blame 
physicians, that they use commonly to intend some other art at 
practice, which they fancy, more than their profession. For 
you shall have of them antiquaries, poets, humanists, states- 
men, merchants, divines, and in every of these better test! than 
in their profession; and no doubt upon this ground, that they 
find that mediocrity and excellency in their art mnkcth no 
difference in profit or reputation towards their fortune ; for the 
weakness of patients and sweetness of life and nature of hope 5 
maketh men depend upon physicians with all their defects. 
But nevertheless these things which we have spoken of are 
courses begotten between a little occasion and a great deal of 
sloth and default ; for if we will excite and awake our observa- 
tion, we shall see in familiar instances what a predominant 
faculty the subtilty of spirit 3 hath over the variety of matter or 
form. Nothing more variable than faces and countenances; 
yet men can bear in memory the infinite distinctions of them ; 
nay, a painter with a few shells of colours, and the benefit of 
his eye and habit of his imagination, can imitate them all that 
ever have been, are, or may be, if they were brought before 
him. Nothing more variable than voices; yet men can like- 
wise discern them personally ; nay, you shall have ■ buffon 
or pantomimus will express as many as he pleaseth. Nothing 
more variable than the differing sounds of words ; yet men 
have found the way to reduce them to a few simple letters. 
So that it is not the insufficiency or incapacity of man's mind, 
but it is the remote standing or {during thereof, that brecdeth 
these mazes and incomprehensions : for as the sense afar oft' is 

den, * The translation adds tt amienrum cflmmendalio. 

* i. e. of the understanding 4 ImUthct&i nt/tilUat tt mcvmin. 



full of mistaking but is exact at hand, so Si it of the under- 
standing; the remedy whereof is not to quicken or strengthen 
the organ, but to go nearer to the object; and therefore there 
is no doubt but if the physicians will learn and use the true 
approaches and avenues of nature, they may assume as much 
as the poet saith ; 

Et qiioiilum variant mnrbi, variabimus arte* ; 

Millc mull species, uiille salutis erunt : 

[varying their arts according to the variety of diseases, — 
for a thousand forms of sickness a thousand methods of cure]. 
Which that they should do, the nobleness of their art doth 
deserve ; well shadowed by the poets, in that they made 
^K-enlupius to be the son of the Sun, the one being the foun- 
tain of life, the other as the second stream ; but infinitely more 
honoured by the example of our Saviour, who made the body 
of man the object of his miracles, as the soul was the object 
of his doctrine. For we read not that ever he vouchsafed to 
do any miracle about honour, or money (except that one for 
giving tribute to Cassar), but only about the preserving, sus- 
taining, and healing the body of man. 

Medicine is a science which hath been (as we have said) 
more professed than laboured, and yet more laboured than 
advanced; the labour having been, in my judgment, rather in 
circle than in progression. For I find much iteration, but 
small addition. It considereth causes of diseatcs, with the 
occasions or impulsions ; the diseases themselves, with the oc- 
fiil-itts; and the cures, with the preservations.* The defi- 
ciencies which I think good to note, being a few of many, and 
tlio^e such as arc of a more open and manifest nature, I will 
enumerate;, and not place. 

The first is the discontinuance of the ancient and serious 
diligence of Hippocrates, which used to set down a . Vorra „ ok) ., 
narrative of the special cases of his patients, and how 
they proceeded, and how they were judged by recovery or 

1 Here the translation dc|iarts widely from (he original. The parts or office*, Into 
which Medicine Is divided in the Dt .ivgn.eutit art I I. the preservation of health j 
2. the cure of diseases ; 3. the prakngRUun of life: with regard to Ihe first of which 
nomplalBi that physician* have treated it in several r. specs unskUfttll] or Im- 
perfectly ; and with rejtard to the last that they have not Wt o guhod the prolongation 
of natural life as a principal part of their science. Ik-Iiir sail-lkd if tlicy DRB prevent it 
from being shortened by diseases. Under the second he include;, the whole doctrine of 
disease*, — the causes, the symptoms, and the remedies, all in bet thai i» here included 
under the general head of Modcinc, — and so Mr ikes again Into the hfltt 

b d :i 



death. Therefore having an example proper in the father of 
the art, I shall not need to allege an example foreign, of the 
wisdom of the lawyers, who are careful to report new cases and 
decisions for the direction of future judgments. This con- 
tinuance of Medicinal History I find deficient; which I under- 
stand neither to he so infinite as to extend to every common 
case, nor so reserved as to admit none but wonders : for many 
things are new in the manner, which are not new in the kind ; 
and if men will intend to observe, they shall find much worthy 
to observe. 

In the inquiry which is made by Anatomy I find much de- 
AMiamia ficience : for they inquire of the parts, and their $ub- 
■vmpmatn. s ^ anceg> ^ ureS} an d collocations ; but they inquire not 
<if the diversities of the parts 1 , the secrecies of the passages, and 
the seats or nestling of the humours, nor much of the footsteps 
and impressions of diseases: the reason of which omission I 
suppose to be, because the first inquiry may be satisfied in the 
view of one or a few anatomies ; but the latter, being com- 
parative and casual, must arise from the view of many. And 
as to the diversity of parts, there is no doubt but the facture or 
framing of the inward parts is as full of difference as the 
Outward, and in that is the cause continent of many diseases; 
which not being observed, they quarrel many times with the 
humours, which are not in fault; the fault being in the very 
frame and mechanic of the part, which cannot be removed by 
medicine alterative, but must be accommodate and palliate by 
diets and medicines familiar. And for the passages and pores, 
it is true which was anciently noted, that the more subtile of 
them appear not in anatomies, because they are shut and latent 
in dead bodies, though they be open and manifest in live : 
which being supposed, though the inhumanity of anatomia 
vivorum [anatomy of the living subject] was by Celsus justly 
reproved; yet in regard of the 2 great use of this observation, 
the inquiry needed not by him so slightly to have been re- 
linquished altogether, or referred to the casual practices of 
surgery; but might have been well diverted upon the dksee- 
tion of beasts alive, which notwithstanding the dissimilitude of 
their parts, may sufficiently satisfy this inquiry. And for the 

' i". e. they inquire of the part*. kC, Of the human ttprlj- in general, but not of the 
diversities of the parts in different Ik><IU>, — of simple, but nut of comparative, miatnmy. 
This whole paragraph Is much rnlarned in the (run slid ion, and the order chnnged. 

* So odd 1629 ami 1683, The original omits iht. 



humour?., they are commonly passed uver in anatomies as pur- 
gaments; whereas it is most necessary to observe what cavi- 
ties, nests, and receptacles the humours do find in the parts, 
with the differing kind of the humour so lodged and received. 
And as for the footsteps of diseases, and their devastations of 
the inward parts, imposthumations, exuleerations, discontinu- 
ations, putrefactions, consumptions, contractions, exlensions, 
convulsions, dislocations, obstructions, repletions, together with 
nil preternatural substances, as stones, carnosities, excrescences, 
wonns, and the like ; they ought to have been exactly observed 
by multitude of anatomies and the contribution of men's se- 
veral experiences, and carefully set down both historically ac- 
cording to the appearances, and artificially with a reference to 
tin* diseases and symptoms which resulted from them, in case 
where the anatomy is of a defunct patient; whereas now upon 
■ pining of bodies they are passed over slightly and in silence. 

In the inquiry of diseases, they do abandon the cures of 
many, some as in their nature incurable, and others rn7Hfta/o 
as past the period of cure ; so that Sylla and the tri- w' u 'X r m- 

• *ii i- ,i tnnttbiltbut. 

iiuivirs never proscribed so many men to die, as they 
da by their ignorant edicts; whereof 1 numbers do escape with 
iifhVulty than they did in the Roman proscriptions. There- 
l.iv I will not doubt to note as adeficience, that they inquire 
not the perfect cures of many diseases, or extremities of dis- 
eases, but pronouncing them incurable do enact a law of neg- 
lect, and exempt ignorance from discredit. 

Nay further, I esteem it the office of a physician not only 
to restore health, but to mitigate pain and dolors; at Mm* 
and not only when such mitigation may conduce 
to recovery, but when it may serve to make a fair and easy 
MBMgO-: for it is no small felicity which Augustus Cicsar was 
wont to wish to himself", that same Euthanasia ; and which waa 
specially noted in the death of Antoninus Pius, whose death 
wan after the fashion and semblance of a kindly and pleasant 
sleep. So it is written of Epicurus, that after his disease was 
judged desperate, he drowned bis atOOMOB and senses with a 
large draught and ingurgitation of wine; whereupon the epi- 
gram was made, Ilinc sti/yins cbrius hausit w/uas ; he was not 
sober enough to taste any bitterness of the Stygian water. But 
the physicians contrariwise do make a kind of scruple and 

i. t. Of whom ncverthtkss I ijtnritm tamtn jilurimi J-c. — Do A113. 
a it 



religion to stay with the patient after the disease is deplored , 
wherea*, in my judgment, they ought both to enquire the skill 
ami to give the attendances for the facilitating and assuaging of 
the pains and agonies of death. 

In the consideration of the Cures of disease?, I find a defi- 
mmmm ti tteBOfl in the receipts of propriety respecting tlic 

*maL,. | mr tieular eures pf iBionrn ' I for the physicians have 
frustrated the fruit of tradition and experience by their ma- 
gistralitics, in adding aud taking out and changing quid pro 
quo in their receipts, at their pleasure*] commanding so over 
the medicine as the medicine cannot commiind over the dis- 
For except it be treacle and mithridatuni, and of late 
ilitt.u-ort/ium', and a few more, they tie them -elves to no feuelptu 
severely and religiously : for as to the confections of gale which 
are in the shops, they are lor readiness and not for propriety ; 
for they are upon general intentions of purging, opening, com- 
lorting, altering, and not much appropriate to particular dis- 
eases: and this is the cause why empirics and old women are 
more happy many times in their SUM than learned physicians, 
because they are more religious in holding their medieim ■>. 
Therefore here is the deficience which I find, that physicians 
have not, partly out of their own practice, partly out of the 
constant probations reported in books, and partly out of the 
traditions of empirics, set down and delivered over certain ex- 
perimental medicines for the cure of particular diseases, besides 
their own conjectural and magistral descriptions. For as they 
were the men of the beat composition in the state of Rome, 
which either being consuls inclined to the people, or being tri- 
bunes inclined to the senate; so in the matter we now handle, 
they be the best physicians, which being learned incline to the 
traditions of experience, or being empirics incline to the methods 
of learning. 

In preparation of Medicines, I do find strange, specially 
■ sn. considering how mineral medicines have been ex- 
'*•" tolled, and that they are safer tor the outward than 


*" J inward parts, that no man hath sought to make an 

imitation by art of Natural Baths and Medicinable Fountains; 
which nevertheless are confessed to receive their virtues from 

1 i. i. the particular medicine* prujver for purticuUr diseases, m distinguished from 
jjeneral intuitu. n- ' 

: In thr translation lie add. •• tin- confection of Attars 



minerals: and not so only, but discerned nnd distinguished 
from what particular mineral they receive tincture, as sulphur, 
vitriol, steel, or the like; which nature if it may be reduced to 
compositions of art, both the variety of them will be increased, 
and the temper of them will be more commanded. ' 

But lest I grow to be more particular than is agreeable 
either to my intention or to proportion, I will con- Filum Yftf 
elude this part with the note of one deficience ""?»£,"!!£ 
more, which seemeth to me of greatest consequence ; 
which is, that the prescripts in use are too compendious to 
attain their end: for, to my understanding, it is a vain and 
nattering opinion to think any medicine can be so sovereign 
Of so happy, as that the rcceit or use of it can work any great 
effect upon the body of man. It were a strange speech which 
spoken, or spoken oft, should reclaim a man from a vice to 
which he were by nature subject. It is order, pursuit, sequence, 
and interchange of application, which is mighty in nature ; 
which although it require more exact knowledge in prescribing 
and more precise obedience in observing, yet is recompensed 
with the magnitude of effects. And although a man would 
think, by the daily visitations of the physicians, that there 
were a pursuance in the cure ; yet let a man look into their 
prescripts and ministrations, and he shall find them but in- 
constancies and every day's devices, without any settled pro- 
vidence or project. Not that every scrupulous or superstitious 
prescript is effectual, no more than every straight way is the 
way to heaven; but the truth of the direction must precede 
severity of observance. 9 

For Cosmetic, it hath parts civil, and parts effeminate : for 
cleanness of body was ever esteemed to proceed from a due 
reverence to God, to society, and to ourselves. 3 As for arti- 
ficial decoration, it is well worthy of the deficiencies which it 

• So rdd. 1629 and 1633. The original has tommmded. 

* The lattrr part of this paragraph is considerably enlarged In the translation, rather 
however by way of explanation than mid II ion. till he comes to the end ; whin in 
closing his account of the Drtirlerata In Ihc science of curing diseases, he add* that 
there la however one other remaining which i- of man consequence than all the rr»t — 
namely that of a true and active Natural Philosophy for the Science of Medicine to be 


Kelween 111!* paragraph and the next is Interposed a lung passage upon the prolong- 
ation of life, of which there are nn traces at all here. 

' To whom (he adds in the translation) we owe no less reverence — nay even more 
— than to others. So In the Ntm AlhinUt, " and they sny ( i. r. the people of Ben- 
aalem) that the reverence of a man's self Is, next to Krligion, the chlefest bridle of all 



hath; being neither fine enough to deceive, DOT handsome to 
use, nor wholesome to please. 1 

For Athletic, I take the subject of it largely ; that is to say, 
for any point of ability whereunto the body of man may be 
brought, whether it be of activity or of patience; whereof 
activity hath two parts, strength and swiftness ; and patience 
likewise hath two parts, hardness at/ainst wants and extremities, 
and indurance of pain or torment : whereof we see the practices 
in tumblers, in savages 5 , and in those that suffer punishment: 
nay, if there be any other faculty which falls not within any of 
the former divisions, as in those that dive, that obtain a strange 
power of containing respiration, and the like, I refer it to this 
part. Of these things the practices are known, but the philo- 
sophy that conceroeth theia is not much enquired; the rather, I 
think, because they are supposed to be obtained either by an 
aptneea of nature, which cannot be taught, or only by con- 
tinual custom, which is soon prescribed ; which though it be 
Dot true, yet I forbear to note any defieiences ; for the Olympian 
Gaines are down long since, and the mediocrity of these things 
is fbf use ; as for the excellency of them, it scrveth for the most 
part but for mercenary ostentation. 

For Arts of Pleasure Sensual, the chief deficience in them is 
of laws to repress them. a For aa it hath been well observed 
that the arts which flourish in times while virtue is in gro wth , 
are military ; and while virtue is in state, are liberal ; and 
while virtue is in declination, are voluptuary ; so I doubt that 

1 So all the editions, lie must have meant to write, " handsome to please, nor 
■holcmnB to nse." 

By artificial decoration he mean* painting the face, as we learn from the translation ; 
where he expresses wonder that thisjururu com.uttudu fucandi is not prohibited by the 
laws, along with sumptuous apparel and lovelock". 

* The translation adds " In the stu)>endous strength shown by maniacs." 

• Here we have an important addition in the translation. Whether when he wrote 
the Ailvnticrmnit >•/ Lnimini) Bacon hud forgotten 1'ainllng and Music or meant tu 
find another place for them, I cannot SB} ; hot in the De Augmtnttt he Includes them 
among the AiHm I'oluplari* s which he cannot have Intended to do when he wroie 
thi« sentence. The passage in which they are introduced is to this effect : — The arts 
<'l |il<j-mv. lie says, are as many as the senses themselves are. To the eye belongs 
Painting, with innumerable Other art* of magnificence in matter of i)ulldings, Gardens 
Drcsse-, Vaeet, tjem*. &c. ; to the ear Music, with its various apparatus of voire-, 
wind, and strings; aud of all tbesen-tia! Hfl thate which relate to Sight and Hearing 

'iinted the most liberal ; for as these two senses are the pnreM and most chaste, 
so the sciences which belong to them are the um-i learned; both being waited upon 
by the Mathematics, and one having tome relation to memory and demonstrations, 
the other to manner* and affections ul the niiml. The rest of the scii-u.d pleasures, 
with the art- appertaining to them, ale held hi IfM honour, M being nearer akin to 
luxury and magnificence. Unguents, perfumes, delicacies of the table, and especially 
stimulants of lust, atnml mure in need of ■ ecmat to renmi than a master to teach 
'Vm , and U It hu been well observed, fcc. 



this age of the world is Bomewhat upon the descent of the 
wheel. With arts voluptuary I couple practices jocvlary ; for 
tlie deceiving of the senses is one of the pleasures of the senses. 
As for games of recreation, I hold them to belung to civil life 
and education. 1 And thus much of that particular Human Phi- 
losophy which concerns the Body, which is but the tabernacle 
of the mind. 

T 'For Human Knowledge which concerns the Mind, it hath 
two parts; the one that eiiquireth of the substance or nature of 
ttie soul or mind, the other that enquireth of the faculties or 
functions thereof. Unto the first of these, the considerations of 
the original of the soul, whether it be native or adventive, and 
how far it is exempted from laws of matter, and of the immor- 
tality thereof, and many other points, do appertain : which have 
been not more laboriously enquired than variously reported ; 
so as the travail therein taken seemeth to have been rather in a 
matt than in a way. But although I am of opinion that this 
knowledge may be more really and soundly enquired, even in 
nature, than it hath been; yet I hold that in the end it must 
he hounded by religion, or else it will be subject to deceit and 
delusion ; for us the substance of the soul in the creation was 
not extracted out of the mass of heaven and earth by the bene- 
diction of a prodttcatj but was immediately inspired from God; 
sii it is not possible that it should be (otherwise than by acci- 
dent) subject to the laws of heaven and earth, which are the 
subject of philosophy ; and therefore the true knowledge of the 
nature and state of the soul, must come by the same'inspiration 
that gave the substance. 3 Unto this part of knowledge touch- 
ing the soul there be two appendices ; which, as they have been 

1 Thl» observation is omitted In the translation ; anil a new paragraph Is Introduced, 
stating that everything which relates lc> the body of man (though there be some which 
do not properly belong to cither of the three office* above mentioned, via. the preserv- 
ation of health, (he cure of disease*, and the prolongation of life) 1* to be considered as 
Included in Medicine. 

1 Dr Aug. tv. 3. 

' In the translation a new division is introduced which does not appear to be dis- 
tinctly recognised here — the human soul being divided into Rational and Irrational ; 
the one divine and peculiar to humanity, the other (which Is merely Its instrument > 
being of the earth and common to man and brute ; and the remark in the text is con- 
lined to the first of these only. The other sou), which he calls the anima tmnbiH* 
in • yrndurla, is represented as a lit subject of physical enquiry, iu its nature and sub- 
as well as in its faculties ; though the enquiry has not been well pursued with 
to either. Concerning the doctrine of the Duality of the Soul nee Mr. Ellis's 
Introduction, § 14 

stance a 
regard t 

lied, have rather vapoured forth fables than 
Divination and Fascination. 

Divination hath been anciently and fitly divided into artificial 
and natural ; whereof artificial is when the mind makcth a 
prediction by argument, concluding upon signs and tokens: 

• natural is when the mind hath a pretention by an internal 
power, without the imhuvment of a sign. Artificial is of two 
sorts; either when the argument is coupled with a derivation 

■ of causes, which is rational j or when it is only grounded upon 
a coincidence of the effect, which is experimental: whereof the 
later for the most part is superstitious ; such as were the heft* 

■ ihen observations upon the inspection of sacrifices, the flights 
of birds, the swarming of bees ; and such as was the Chaldean 
Astrology, and the like. For artificial divination, the several 
kinds thereof are distributed amongst particular knowledges. 
The Astronomer hath his predictions, as of conjunctions, aspects, 
eclipses, and the like. The Physician hath bis predictions, of 
death, of recovery, of the accidents and issues of diseases. The 
Politique hath his predictions, O urbetn venalem, et cito peri- 
turmn, si emptorem ittvencrit ! [a city in which all tilings arc for 
sale and which will fall to the first purchaser,] which stayed 
not long to be performed, in Sylla first, arid after in Caesar. 
So as these predictions are now impertinent, and to be referred 
over. But the divination which springeth from the internal 
nature of the bouI, is that which we now speak of; which hath 
been made to be of two sorts, primitive and by injiiixion. Pri- 
mitive is grounded upon the supposition that the mind, when 
it is withdrawn and collected into itself and not diffused into 
the organs of the body, hath some extent and latitude of pre- 
uotion; which therefore appcarelh most in sleep, in extasies, 
and near death; and more rarely in waking apprehensions; and 
is induced niul farthered by those abstinences and observances 
which make tiie mind most to consist in itself. By iufhixioit. 
is urounded Upon the cone it that the mind, as a mirror or 
glass, should take illumination from the foreknowledge of God 
and spirits; unto which the same regiment doth likewise con- 
duce. For the retiring of the mind within itself is the state 
which ifi most gtlBCeptible of divine influxions; save that it is 
:!'■<' "inpanied in this r:l - e vv ' th ■ fervency and elevation f which 
"' Moienta Doted ty fury), and not with a repose and quiet, as 
W in the other. 



Fascinatum is the power and act of imagination] intensive 
upon other bodies than the body of the imitgtnnTit i Ra of that 

we spake in the proper place : wherein the school of Paracel- 
sus and the disciples of pretended Natural Magic have been so 
intemperate, as they have exalted the power of the imagina- 
tion to be much one with thepower of miracle-working faith ; 
others that draw nearer to probability, calling to their view 
the secret passages of things, and especially of the contagion 
that passcth from body to body ',do conceive it should likewise 
be agreeable to nature that there should be some transmissions 
and operations from spirit to spirit, without the mediation of the 
senses; whence the conceits have grown (now almost made 
civil) of the Mastering Spirit, and the force of confidence, and 
the like. Incident unto this is the inquiry how to raise and 
fortify the imagination ; for if the imagination fortified have 
power, then it is material to know how to fortify and exalt it. 
And herein comes in crookedly and dangerously a palliation of 
a great part of Ceremonial Magic. For it may be pretended 
that Ceremonies. Characters, and Charms, do work not by any 
tacit or sacramental contract with evil spirits, but serve onh to 
strengthen the imagination of him that useth it : as images 
are said by the Roman church * to fix the cogitations and raise 
the devotions of them that pray before them. But for mine 
own judgment, if it be admitted that imagination hath power, 
and that Ceremonies fortify imagination, and that they be used 
sincerely and intentionally for that purpose'; yet I should hold 
them unlawful, as opposing to that first edict which God gave 
unto man, la mulore vutius comedes partem tuum, [in the sweat 
of thy brow shalt thou eat bread]. For they propound those 
noble effects which God hath set forth unto man to be bought 
at the price of labour, to be attained by a few easy and sloth- 
ful observances. Dcficienees in these knowledges I will report 
none, other than the general deiieience, that it is not known 
how much of them is verity and how much vanity. 4 

1 In tlic transition he adds " tile irradiations of the senses, and the conveyance of 
magnetic virtues." 

* In the hrWHllHrW, HM words " said, by the Roman church" are omitted, and in 
/ii/ir/iorur iiim imiifiinum .... inraluit are mb.-tituti d. Bm note p. 277. 

' 1. 1. as a physic. il remedy, without any thought of inviting thereby the assistance 
nt -pints, — as explained in the translation. 

4 This sentence K omitted in the translation altogether; and the chapter conclude-, 
with a notice «t considerable length of two Dmiiiirraln not mentioned here ; the riot- 
i Voluntary Motion, and the doctrine of Sense and the Sensible. 


f 1 The knowledge which respecteth the Faculties of the Mind 
of man is of two kinds; the one respecting his Understanding 
and Reason, and the other his Will. Appetite, and Affection; 
whereof the former produceth Position or Decree, the later 
Action or Execution. It is true that the Imagination is an 
agent or nuueius in both provinces, both the judicial and the 
ministerial. For Sense sendeth over to Imagination before 
Reason have judged: and Reason seudcth over to Imagination 
before the Decree can be acted; for Imagination ever pre- Voluntary Motion: saving that this Janus of Imagi- 
nation hath differing faces; for the face towards Reason hath 
the print of Truth, but the face towards Action hath the print 
of Good ; which nevertheless are faces, 

Quale* decet esse sororum, — 

[sister-faces]. Neither is the Imagination simply and only ames- 
senger ; but is invested with or at leastwise usurpeth no small 
authority in itself, besides the duty of the message. For it was 
well said by Aristotle, That the mind hath over the body that com- 
mandment, which the lord hath over a bondman ; but that reason 
hath over the imagination that commandment which a magistrate 
hath over a free citizen ; who may come also to rule in his turn. 
For we see that in matters of Faith and Religion we raise our 
Imagination above our Reason 3 ; which is the cause why Reli- 
gion sought ever access to the mind by similitudes, types, 
parables, virions, dreams. And again in all persuasions that 
are wrought by eloquence and other impression of like nature, 
which do paint and disguise the true appearance of things, tbe 
chief recommendation unto Reason is from the Imagination. 4 
Nevertheless, because I find not any science that doth properly 
or fitly pertain to the Imagination, I see no cause to alter the 
former division. For as for Poesy, it is rather a pleasure or 
play of imagination, than a work or duty thereof. And if it 
be a work, we speak not now of sucli parts of learning as the 

1 De Aug. v 1. 

"■ Not, (tar adds in the inn,) that the divine Illumination resides in the Ima- "1 
n, — Its seat being rather in the very citadel of the mind and understanding; — 
but tin- divine grace use* the motions of the Imagination us ;in instrument of 
illumination, just as it uses the motions of the will as an Instrument of virtue. 

* This is better explained In the translation ; where It I* observed that the arts of 
speech by which men's rolnds are soothed, inflamed, or carried away, consist in exciUug 
the Imagination till it gets the belter of the Reason. 




Imagination produecth, but of such sciences as harulie and con- 
sider of the Imagination ; no more than we Bhall speak now of 
such knowledges as Reason produecth, (for that extendeth to 
all philosophy,) but of such knowledges as do handle and in- 
quire of the faculty of Reason : so as Poesy had his true place.' 
As fur the power of the Imagination in nature, and the manner 
of fortifying the same, we have mentioned it in the doctrine 
De Allium, whereunto most fitly it belongeth. And lastly, 
for Imaginative or Insinuative Reason, which is the subject of 
Rhetoric, we think it best to refer it to the Arts of Reason. 
So therefore we content ourselves with the former division, 
that Human Philosophy which respecteth the faculties of the 
niiud of man hath two parts, Rational and Moral. 

The part of Human Philosophy which is rational, is of all 
knowledges, to the most wits, the least delightful ; and seenicth 
but a net of subtility and spinosity. For as it was truly said, 
that knowledge is pabulum animi, [the food of the mind;] so in 
the nature of men's appetite to this food, most men are of the 
taste and stomach of the Israelites in the desert, that would 
fain have returned ad alias carnium, [to the flesh-pots,] and 
were weary of manna ; which, though it were celestial, yet 
seemed less nutritive and comfortable. So generally men taste 
will knowledges that are drenched in flesh and blood, Civil 
History, Morality, Policy, about the which men's affections, 
praises, fortunes, do turn and arc conversant; but this same 
lumen siccum^ [this dry light,] doth parch and offend most men's 
watery and soft natures. But to speak truly of things as they 
are in worth, Rational Knowledges are the keys of all other 
arts; for as Aristotle saith aptly and elegantly, That tin: hand 
is the Instrument of histm mutts, and the mind is the l'orm of 
Forms: so these be truly said to be the Art of Arts: neither 
do tliey only direct, but likewise confirm and strengthen ; even 
as the habit of shooting doth not only enable to shoot a nearer 
shoot, but also to draw a stronger bow. 

The Arts Intellectual are four in number; divided according 

1 This whole sentence Is omitted In the translation ; the reason for not altering the 
former division being stated simply thu» : Nam Phantatia icicntiat fere non parit ,- 
siauidtm Poetis (yw« a princtpiu Ph'iHtuiite uthibutn est ) jrro tutu pniius ingenii yuum 
jirt, ickntm lirfltirfii. IVc-y, which belongs properly to Imagination, Is not to be con- 
sidcrcd as a part of knt>uU<lye .- and the tvto other offices of tin: IraagUuition belong, one 
to the doctrine <lr miimtt, the other to Ubetoric. Tluic i, an oc< aaioa therefore to 
make u place for imagination among the parts of knowledge which concert] the faculties 
of the human mind. 



to the ends whereunto they are referred : for man's labour is to 
invent 1 that which is sought or propounded; or to judge that 
which [b invented; or to retain that which is judged} or to de- 
liver or,r that which is retained. So as the arts must be four; 
Art of Inquiry or Invention: Art of Examination or Judg- 
ment; Art of Custody or Memory; and Art of Elocution or 

II 3 Invention is of two kinds, much differing; the one, of 
Arts mid Sciences; and the other, of Speech and Arguments. 
The former of these I do report deficient; which seemeth to 
me to he such a deficienee ns if in the making of an inventory 
touching the estate of a defunct it should be set down that 
tin re is no readg monri/. For as money will fetch all other 
commodities, so this knowledge is that which should Database 
all the rest. And like as the West-Indies had never been dis- 
covered if the use of the mariner's needle had not been first 
discovered, though the one be vast regions and the other a 
small motion; so it cannot be found strange if sciences be no 
further discovered, if the art itself of invention and discovery 
hath been passed over,,' 

That this part of knowledge is wanting, to my judgment 
standeth plainly confessed : for first, Logic doth not pretend to 
invent Scicuces or the Axioms of Sciences, but passeth it over 
with a cuiijue in sua arte credendum, [the knowledge that per- 
tains to each art must be taken on trust from those that profess 
it]. And Celsus acknowledged it 3 gravely, speaking of the 
empirical and dogmatical sects of physicians, That medicines 
and cures were first found out, and then after the reasons and 
causes were discoursed; and not the causes first found out, and 
hi/ light from them the medicines and cures discovered. And 
Plato in hi- TheetetUS 1 noteth well, That particulars are infi- 
nite, and the higher generalities give no sufficient direction; and 

it the pith of all sciences, which maketh the arts-man differ 

in the inexpert, is in the middle propositions, which in every 

■lar knowledge are taken from tradition and experience. 

I therefore we see that they which discourse of the inven- 

■ rb»pj be » to observe thit Bacon use* the word imrtnl iiroply 

man* — to Mid out. 

Org. i. 7.1. 
' •• Plata in hit Thtttrtut noteth " the translation h*s Plato nm temtl 
I. p. 617. 



tions and originals of things, refer them rather to chance than 
to art, and rather to beaata, birds, fishes, serpents, than to men. 

Dictamnum genetrix Cretsea carpi t &b Ida, 
Puheribus eaulem fuliis et (lore eomantem 
Purpureo : non ilia feris incognita capris 
Rramtnn, cum tergo vducres htesere HiigittiB. 
[A sprig of dittany hi* mother brought, 
Gathered by Cretan Ide ; n stalk it is 
Of woolly leaf, crested with purple flower ; 
Which well the wild-goat knows when in his side 
Sticks the winged shaft.] 

So that it was no marvel (the manner of antiquity being to 
consecrate inventors) that the ^Egyptians had so few human 
idols in their temples, but almost all brute : 

Omnigenurnquc Deum monstra, ei latrator Anubis, 
Contra Neptunum et Vonereni, contraque Minervam, &c. 
[All kinds and shapes of Gods, a monstrous kosf, 
The dog Anubis foremost, stood arrayed 
'Gainst Neptune, Venus, Pallas, Ac.] 

And if you like better the tradition of the Grecians, and 
ascribe the first inventions to men, yet you will rather believe 
that Prometheus first struck the flints, and marvelled at the 
jpark, than that when he first struck the Hints he expected the 
spirk; and therefore we sec the West^Indian Prometheus bad 
no intelligence with the European, because of the rareness 
with them of flint, that gave the first occasion.' So as it 

1 This carious passage, which is omitted In the Dt Angmentii, mint refer to what 
Bacon tint! read In Ramuslo of the way in which the natives of the West Indian Islands 
kindled Ihrlr fire*, by rubMng pieces of wood together. Several passages in Bacon'* 
writings show that he was a reader of Ramuslo. See Ramuslo, vol. Hi. p. 103. a. for 
(i. [■■■!. •'« description of the method. 

In reality the coincidence between the customary mode of kindling Are In »he Wmi 
Indies ami the *ii|MTilitioiM usages of Europe is remarkable. The latter win to point 
back to a time when the use of steel and flint was unknown, The Nolh-feuer of the 
Dl was kindled by rubbing piece? of wood together. This fire, originally con- 
nrcted with the worship of Fro, was lighted when cattle were threatened with murrain, 
and they were made to pass through It. Dr. ,Tl Million in his Scottish Dictionary 
mention* precisely the same practice ata comparatively recent period In Scotland in a 
rase in which the murrain had done great mischief. The lung continuance oi Ikaa 
practice Is a sort of illustration of Spinoia's bitter remark that Superstition is the 
child of Adversity, there being no man, he observes, who In prosperity docs nut 
think himself wis* enough to take care of himself. See Spinosa, Trad. ThtnL 
PalitiiHt, chap. 1. : and for the German superstition Wolf's Die Dtultcht Gvtleilrlm, 

pp. 17.89. 

The holy Arc of Vesta, according to Fe->tus(ln voce Ignis), war rekindled when it 
had been allowed to go out, by friction of two pieces of wood. Plutarch's statement 
that the rays of the sun concentrated by reflexion were employed for the purpose 


C C 




should seem that hitherto men are rather beholden to a wild 
goat for surgery, or to a nightingale for music, or to the Ibis 
for some part of physic', or to the pot lid that flew open for 
artillery, or generally to chance or any thing else, than to 
Louie, for the invention of arts and sciences. Neither is the 
form of invention which Virgil describeth much other : 

Ut varias uaus raeditando extuncteret artes 
Paulalim : 

[that practice with meditation might by degrees hammer out 
the arts]. For if you observe the words well, it is no other 
method than that which bruto betists are capable of, and do put 
in uro j which is a perpetual intending or practising some one 
thing, urged and imposed by an absolute necessity of conservation 
of l» in g : for so Cicero saith very truly, Usus uni rti dtdihu et 
naturam et artem smpe vincit: [practice applied constantly to one 
tiling will often do more than either nature or art can]. And 
therefore if it be said of men, 

Labor omnia vincit 
Improbus, et duris urgens in rebus egestas, 
[Stem In hour masters all, 
And want in poverty importunate,] 

it is likewise said of beasts, Qui* psittaco docuit suum x a ' l P s ' 
[who taught the parrot to say how d'ye do?] Who taught the 
raven in a drowth to throw pebbles into an hollow tree where 
she spied water, that the water might rise so as she might come 
to it? Who taught the bee to sail through such a vast sea of 
air, and to find the way from a field in flower a great way off 
to her hive ? Who taught the ant to bite every grain of corn 
that she burieth in her hill, lest it should take root and grow ? 
Add then the word extundere, which importeth the extreme diffi- 
culty, and the word paulatim, which importeth the extreme slow- 
ness, and we are where we were, even amongst the Egyptians' 

iwiin improbable, and i» apparently founded on a misconception or mistranslation 
of some earlier account of the matter. Pliny mentions, but without reference to 
Vesta, this mode of kindling fire, and states that the best combination Is laurel wood 
with ivy.— H. I.. /-:. 

worth observing that though the passage in the text it omitted In the Dt 
AugmiHlit, the substance of it is retained in the Ctipitiita et Vita. Nam idea in igni* 
mrc'ito l'r-rutlhtum Sfteic India ab Europtco diiltMjittt, nuod apud cot tiliei) no» fit 
copin. • — J. S. 

1 pro liwatianibm inlftinorum. — De Aufl. 



gods ; there being little left to the faculty of Reason, and 
nothing to the duty of Art, for matter of invention. 

Secondly, the induction which the logicians speak of, and *i 
which seemeth familiar with Plato 1 , whereby the Principles 
of sciences may be pretended to be invented, and so the middle 
propositions by derivation from the principles, — their form of 
induction, I say, is utterly vicious and incompetent : wherein 
their error is the fouler, because it is the duty of Art to perfect 
and exalt Nature ; but they contrariwise have wronged, abused, 
and traduced nature. For he that shall attentively observe 
how the mind doth gather this excellent dew of knowledge, 
like unto that which the poet speaketh of, Aerei mellis ceelestia 
dona, [the gift of heaven, aerial honey,] distilling and contriv- 
ing it out of particulars natural and artificial, as the flowers of 
the field and garden, shall find that the mind of herself by na- 
ture doth manage and act an induction much better than they 
describe it. For to conclude upon an enumeration of particu- 
lars tcithout instance contradictory h no conclusion, but a con- 
jecture ; for who can assure (in many subjects) upon those 
particulars which appear of a side, that there arc not other on 
the contrary side which appear not? As if Samuel should have 
rested upon those sons of Issay* which were brought before 
him, and failed of David, which was in the field. And this 
form (to say truth) is so gross, as it had not been possible for 
wits so subtile as have managed these things to have offered it 
to the world, but that they hasted to their theories and dogmati- 
cal*, and were imperious and scornful toward particulars ; 
which their manner was to use but as lictores and viatores, for 
sergeants and whifflers, ad summovendam turbam, to make way 
and make room for their opinions, rather than in their true use 
and service. Certainly it is a thing may touch a man with a 
religious wonder, to see how the footsteps of scducenient arc 
the very same in divine and human truth : for as in divine truth 
man cannot endure to become as a child ; so in human, they 
reputed the attending the Inductions (whereof we speak) as if 
it were a second infancy or childhood. 

Thirdly, allow some Principles or Axioms were rightly in- 

1 This reference to Plain is omitted In the translation, ns well as the allusion to the 
derivation of the middle propositions. The induction in que-ttion U merely described 
M * the form of induction which Logic proposes, whereby to discover and prove the 
principles of sciences." 

* So In all three editions. The T)t Augmrntit bis Itai. 

CC 8 



duced, yet nevertheless certain it is that Middle Propositions 
cannot be deduced from them in subject of nature 1 by Syl- 
logism, that is, by touch and reduction of than to principles in a 
iniddle term. It is true that in sciences popular, as moralities, 
laws, mid the like, yea and divinity (because it pleascth God to 
apply himself to the capacity of the simplest), that form may 
have use ; and in natural philosophy likewise, by way of argu- 
ment or satisfactory reason, qua assensum parit, operis effata 
est, [which procures assent but can do no work :] but the aub- 
tilty of nature and operations will not be enchained in those 
bonds : for Arguments consist of Propositions, nnd Proposi- 
tions of Words ; and Words arc but the current tokens Of 
marks of Popular Notions of things ; which notions, if they be 
grossly and variably collected out of particulars, it is not the 
laborious examination cither of consequences of arguments or 
of the truth of propositions, that can ever correct that, error; 
being (as the physicians speak) in the first digestion: and 
therefore it was not without cause, that so many excellent 
philosophers became Sceptics and Academics, and denied any 
certainty of knowledge or comprehension, and held opinion 
that the knowledge of man extended only to appearances and 
probabilities. It is true that in Socrates it was supposed to be 
but a form of irony, Scicntiam dissimulando simv/atit, [an 
affectation of knowledge under pretence of ignorance:] for he 
used to disable his knowledge, to the end to enhance his know- 
ledge 2 ; like the humour of Tiberius in his beginnings, that 
would reign, but would not acknowledge so much 3 ; and in the 
later Academy, which Cicero embraced, this opinion also of 
acatalcpsia (I doubt) was not held sincerely : for that all 
those which excelled in copie of speech seem to have chosen 
that sect, as that which was fittest to give glory to their elo- 
quence and variable discourses; being rather like progresses of 
pleasure than journeys to an end. But assuredly many scat- 
tered in both Academies did hold it in subtllty and integrity. 
lint here was their chief error; they charged the deceit upon 
the Senses; which in my judgment (notwithstanding all 
their cavillations) are very sufficient to certify and report 

' i« rdtiu Mitur.ilitiHi, qua participant tx mntrria. — He Aug. 

e. pretended not to know what It was plain he knew, that he might be thought 
iw likewise what he knew not — rrmiHciuuito tcilictt til qua manifesto sciclmt ut 
'o ea rtiam qurr nttcitbat scire pvtaretur. 
bit allusion to Tiberius Is omitted in the tnin&UUon. 



truth, though not always immediately, yet by comparison ', 
by help of instrument, and by producing and urging such 
things as are too subtile for the sense to some effect compre- 
hensible by the sense, and other like assistance. But they 
ought to have charged the deceit upon the weakness * of the 
intellectual powers, and upon the manner of collecting and con- 
cluding upon the reports of the senses. This I speak not to 
dtatbie the mind of* man, but to stir it up to seek help: for no 
man, be he never so cunning or practised, can make a straight 
line or perfect circle by steadiness of hand, which may bii 
easily done by help of a ruler or compass. 3 

This part of invention, concerning the invention Eipfricnti> 
of sciences, 1 purpose (if God give me leave) here- ''/"J^rXino 
after to propound ; having digested it into two 
parts; whereof the one I term Erjterientia literate, and the 
other Interpretatio Natural*; the former Wing but a degree 
and rudiment of the latter. But I will not dwell too long, nor 
■peak too great upon a promise. 

IT * The invention of speech or argument is not properly an 
invention : for to invent is to discover that we know not, and 
not to recover or resummon that which we already know; and 
the use of this invention is no other but out of the knowledge 
whereof our mind is already possessed, to draw forth or call 
before us that which may he pertinent to the purpose which we 
take into our consideration. So as, to speak truly, it is no 
Invention, but a Remembrance or Suggestion, with an applica- 
tion ; which is the cause why the schools do place it after 

1 There is nothing about comparison in tbe translation. 

: In the translation be add* r<mtumacif — turn erniribus turn rouiuiuticitr (ova rebut 
tptii moriycra tar reentat) — and also ftrarit demonttmtwHilmj i an iri~^rti"ii which 
(though the observation U implicit perhaps in the Kiiglii>h ) 1 have thought worth 
noticing; because these prima deihonitrationa were Idol) of the Theatre, of which in 
the .lilvuHcement nf Learning there is no mention. 

' This it is then (he adds, writing eighteen years later) which I have In hand, and 
am labouring with mighty effort to ■WUHlllMl — namely to make the roind of man by 
help a| art a match for the nature of things, — to dlsrovor an art of Indication and 
Direction whereby all other arts with their axioms and works may be detected and 
broimht to light. 

* The one being the method ol inquiry which proceeds from one experiment to 

er by a kind of natural sagacity ; the other that which proceed* from experi- 
iiiimI- t.i axioms and thence by the 'mlit of tin- axioms to new experiments, ,-lut ™i» 
defertur indicium ah eTjierirnenlia ail e.rferimcnta. aut ub efl«rimtnti, ad asmmata 
nmur ei i)>ii MM u/>rnWn/u dtiiyntnU Of this t'..rprrittitin titerula there follows ill 
the l>t Augmrntit an exposition at considerable length ; In which the several methods 
of experimenting arc described, with illustrations. And this conclude* the chapter, 

[petition of the other part, the Intel licUILo Naturae, being reserved for UM 

A'tifum (Jryauum. 

* De Aug. v. 3. 

C t 3 



judgment, as subsequent and not precedent. Nevertheless, 
ise we do account it a Chase as well of deer in an iqctowd 
park as in a forest at large, and that it hath already obtained 
the name, let it be called invention : so as it be perceived and 
discerned, that the scope and end of this invention is readiness 
and present use of our knowledge, and not addition or nmplifi- 
oation thereof. 

To procure this ready use of knowledge there arc two 
courses, Preparation and Suggestion.' The former of these 
aeemeth h-ujv.K a part of Knowledge, consisting rather of 
diligence than of any artificial erudition. And herein Aristotle 
wittily, hut hurtlully, doth deride the sophists neiir his time, 
.-living, they did as if one that professed the art of shoe-making 
should not teach hoto to make up a shoe, but only exhibit in a rea- 
diness a number of shoes of all fashions and sizes. But yet a 
man might reply, that if a shoe-maker should have no shoes in 
his shop, but only work as he is bespoken, he should be weakly 
customed. But our Saviour, speaking of Divine Knowledge, 
saith, that the kingdom of heaven is like a good householder, that 
bringeth forth both new and old store ; and we see the ancient 
writers of rhetoric do give it in precept, that pleaders should 
fan the Places whereof they have most continual use ready 
handled in all the variety that may be; as that, to speak for 
the literal interpretation of the law against equity, and con- 
trary; and to speak for presumptions and inferences against 
testimony, and contrary. And Cicero himself, being broken 
unto it by great experience, delivereth it plainly, that whatso- 
e\er a mau shall have occasion to speak of, (if he will take the 
pains) he may have it in effect premeditate, and handled in 
thrsi ; so that when he eoineth to a particular, he shall have 
nothing to do but to put to names and times and places, and 
such other circumstances of individuals. We see likewise the 

diligence of Demosthenes ; who, in regard of the great 

>. that the entrance and access into causes hath to make a 

impression, had ready framed a number of prefaces for 

a and speeches. All which authorities and precedents 
erweigh Aristotle's opinion, that would have us change 
irdrobe lor a pair of shears. 

• the«e respectively Prompinar>a and Tufitn .- the one 
i \4 arguments neb a* you »re likely to want, laid up ready for use ; 
11 of tllrrctivu? tu In-!;. ;uu la looking for tbe thing you want to find. 

But the nature of the collection of this provision or prepa- 
ratory store, though it be common both to logic and rhetoric, 
J -i.-t having made an entry of it lure, where it came lirst to be 
sjioken of, I think fit to refer over the further handling of it to 
rhetoric. >k 

The other part of Invention, which I term Suggestion, doth 
assign and direct ua to certain T/iarks or places, which may 
excite our mind to return and produce bucIi knowledge as it 
hath formerly collected, to the end we may make use thereof. 
Neither is this use (truly taken) only to furnish argument to 
dispute probably with others, but likewise to minister unto our 
judgment to conclude aright within ourselves. Neither may 
these Places serve only to npprompt our invention, but also to 
direct our inquiry. For a faculty of wise interrogating is half 
a knowledge. For as Plato saitli, Whosoever scekvth, knoweth 
that which he seeketh for in a general notion ; else how shall he 
know it when he hath found it? And therefore the larger' your 
Anticipation is, the more direct and compendious is ycur 
search. But the same Places which will help us what to pro- 
duce «»f that which we know already, will also help us, if a man 
of experience were before us, what questions to ask ; or if we 
ha\e books nnd authors to instruct us, what points to search 
arid revolve: so as I cannot report 8 that this part of inven- 
tion, which is that which the schools call Topics, is deficient. 

Nevertheless Topics are of two sorts, general and special. 
The general we have spoken to; but the particular hath been 
touched by some, but rejected generally as inartificial ami 
variable. But leaving the humour which hath reigned too 

1 umplior tt certlor. — De Aug. 

* Thus the sentence stands boih In the orlg5nal and In the editions of 162« and 
though I do not understand the connexion between It and Itir -rutin. .- pre- 
ceding. Poeslhty an Intermediate sentence has dropped out, or some alteration has 
linen Inadvertently made which dloturbs the construction. In the truncation the in- 
■ lit .if the whole passage is changed, and all is marie clear, i I «- Isrftal klf 
ilivi.linj! Top* I Into two kinds. General and Particular. The General (he sav») has 
ban MitlK'irnth handled in Logic, and therefore he leaves It with a pawing remark 
(itlud lumrn ohitrr monnuUm videlur) to the effect of that In the text; " neither Is 
this use," fcc. down to '• search and revolve." But Particular Topics. In priced*, arc 
more to the purpose and of great value, and have not received the attention they de- 
serve. Jlc then goes on to explain at length what he mean* ; repeating the observa- 
tions In the next paragraph with Mime unpHlcatkai and greater clearness, and then 
giving a «pr<-inicn if the thing. In a series of Particular Topics or articles of Inquiry 
rgnerrnlnl Ilea*] anil Ught ; with which the chapter concludes. With regard to the 
Importance Ot HlWI IVyflMI M I P»rt of Bacon's method of Inquiry — an importance 

Idtnbk he meant to devote a special work to the subject. — see my D 
in the / Vol I. p. 38S.) and to the Tupicu Inqnititimu de tmm rt Limine 

I, Vol, II. |< J15.). 

C C 4 



much in the schools, (which is to be vainly subtile in a few 
things which are within then* command, and to reject the rest,) 
I do receive particular Topics, that is places or directions of 
invention and inquiry in every particular knowledge, as things 
of great use; being mixtures of Logic with the matter of 
sciences ; for in these it holdeth, Ars inveuiendi adolescit cum 
inventis, [every act of discovery advances the art of discovery ;] 
for as in going of a way we do not only gain that part of the 
way which is passed, but we gain the better eight of that part 
of the way which rcmaineth ; so every degree of proceeding in 
a science giveth a light to that which followeth ; which light if 
we strengthen, by drawing it forth into questions or places of 
iii'iuiry, we do greatly advance our pursuit. 

% ' Now we puss unto the arts of Judgment, which handle 
the natures of Proofs and Demonstrations ; which as to Induc- 
tion hath a coincidence with Invention; for in all inductions, 
whether in good or vicious form, the same action of the mind 
which inventeth, judyeth ; all one as in the sense ; but otherwise 
it is in proof by syllogism ; for the proof being not immediate 
but by mean, the invention of the mean is one thing, and the 
jiitlijmrnt of the consequence is another ; the one exciting only, 
the other examining. Therefore for the real and exact form 
of judgment we refer ourselves to that which we have spoken 
of Interjiretution of Nature. 

For the other judgment by Syllogism, as it is a thing most 
agreeable to the mind of man, so it hath been vehemently and 

N llently laboured. For the nature of man doth extremely 
covet to have somewhat in his understanding fixed and im- 
moveable, and as a rest and support of the mind. And there- 
line as Aristotle endeavoureth to prove that in all motion 
there is some point quiescent; and as he elegantly expound- 
i lli the ancient fable of Atlas (that stood fixed and bare up 
the heaven from falling) to be meant of the poles or axle-tree 
of heaven, whereupon the conversion is accomplished; so as- 
suredly men have a desire to have an Atlas or axle- tree within 
to koep them from fluctuation, which is like to a perpetual peril 
of falling; rhorefurc men did hasten to set down some Prin- 
•ij'les about which the variety of their disputations might turn. 
So then this art of Judgment is but the reduction of proposi- 

r to principles in a middle term : the Principles to be agreed 

Pt Aug v. 



ill and exempted from argument; the Middle Term to be 
elected at the liberty of every man's invention; the Reduction 
to be of two kinds, direct and inverted ; the one when the pro- 
portion is reduced to the principle, which they term a Proba- 
tion o&tensioc ; the other when the contradictory of the propo- 
sition 19 reduced to the contradictory of the principle, which is 
that which they call per iucommodum, or pressing an absurdity; 
the number of middle terms to be ' as the proposition standeth 
degrees more or less removed from the principle. 

But this art hath two several methods of doctrine ; the one 
by way of direction, the other by way of caution: the former 
framcth and setteth down a true form of consequence, by the 
variations and deflexions from which errors and inconsequences 
maybe exactly judged ; toward the composition and structure 
of which form, it is incident to handle the parts thereof, which 
are propositions, and the parts of propositions, which are simple 
words' ; and this is that part of logic which is comprehended 
in the Analytics. 

The second method of doctrine was introduced for expedite 
use and assurance Bake ; discovering the more subtile forms of 
sophisms and illaqueation9 with their redarguiions, which is 
that which is termed Elenclics. For although in the more gross 
sorts of fallacies it happeneth (as Seneca makcth the comparison 
well) as in juggling feats, which though we know not how 
they are done, yet we know well it is not as it seemeth to be ; 
yet the more subtile sort of them doth not only put a man 
besides his answer, but doth many times abuse his judgment. 

This part concerning Blenches 3 is excellently handled by 
Aristotle in precept, but more excellently by Plato in example, 
not only in the persons of the Sophists, but even in Socrates 
himself; who professing to affirm nothing, but to infirm that 
which was affirmed by another, hath exactly expressed all the 
forms of objection, fallace 4 , and redargution. And although we 

1 i. t. to be marc or fewer. 

1 This dause is omitted in the translation ; and a new observation Is Introduced In 
jtt p| ii c ; vii. that though this direction contains in itself a kind of Elcncbe or con- 
futation (for the straight Indicates the crooked), yet It b safest to employ Elenchcs 
(that U, Elenchcs properly so called) as monitors, for the better detection of fallacies 
by which the judgment would otherwise be ensnared. 

• In the translation the Doctrine of Elcnches is divided into three kinds — Etetcho$ 
Sn/ifii malum, E line hut Htrmeuitt, EUnchoi imaginum sine Idoiorum I i. e. Cautions 
against Sophisms, against ambiguity of words, ng.ilnst Idols or false appearance* ; and 
it is to the first only that the observation which follows is applied. 

* So In all the editions ; and not < I ttiluk).i misprint for J'.Jhuir, but another word, 

i not from/<i//'jt-i>i hut from fiUUx. Compare " Colours of Good and Evil," § 1, 
- 'Yhv JiiUux of this Colour," Sic. 



have said that the use of this doctrine is for rednrgution, yet it 
is manifest the degenerate and corrupt use is for caption and 
contradiction ' ; which passeth for a great faculty, and no doubt 
is of very great advantage : though the difference be good 
which was made between orators and sophistcrs, that the one is 
as the greyhound, which hath his advantage in the race, and j 
the other as the hare, which hath her advantage in the turn, so/ 
as it is the advantage of the weaker creature. 

But yet further, this doctrine of Elrnehes hath a more ample 
latitude and extent than is perceived ; namely, unto divers 
parts of knowledge ; whereof some arc laboured and other 
omitted. For first, I conceive (though it may seem at first 
somewhat strange) that that part which is variably referred 
sometimes to Logic sometimes to Metaphysic, touching the 
common adjuncts of essences, is but an elenche 5 ; for the great 
sophism of all sophisms being equivocation or ambiguity of 
words and phrase, specially of such words as are most general 
and intervene in every inquiry, it sceineth to me that the true 
and fruitful use (leaving vain subtiltics and speculations) of 
the inquiry of majority, minority, priority, inferiority, iden- 
tity, diversity, possibility, act, totality, parts, existence, priva- 
tion, and the like, arc but wise cautions against ambiguities of 
speech. So again the distribution of things into certain tribes, 
which we call categories or predicaments, are but cautions 
against the confusion of definitions and divisions. 

Secondly, there is a seducement that worketh by the strength 
of the impression and not by the subtilty of the illaqueation ; 
not so much perplexing the reason as overruling it by power 
of the imagination. But this part I think more proper to 
handle when I shall speak of Khetoric. 3 

But lastly, there is yet a much more important and profound 

i" fallacies in the mind of man, which I find not observed 

1 at all, and think good to place here, as that which 

.hts appertained mnet to rectify judgment: the force 

s such, as it doth nut dazzle or snare the understuud- 

particulars, but doth more generally and inwardly 

i corrupt the state thereof. 4 For the mind of man is 

"jc use l> to answer m>j>1» istical arguments, the corrupt use to invent 

1 part which In the translation he calls Etenehut /Armenia , and ex- 

-e clearly .in. I lully. 

omitted altogether in the translation, 
r Ike doctrine of Idols, In it.-> earliest form ; the names not being yet 
olj of the Theatre n»_>t yet introduced into the company. For the 




far from the nature of a clear and equal glass, wherein the 
beams of things should reflect according to their true incidence; 
nay, it is rather like an enchanted glass, full of superstition 
and imposture, if it be not delivered and reduced. For this 
purpose, let us consider the false appearances that are imposed 
upon us by the general nature of the mind ', beholding them 
in an example or two; as first, in that instance which is the 
root of all superstition, namely, That to the nature of the mind 
of all men it is consonant for the affirmative or active to affect 
mart than the negative or privative: so that a few times hitting 
or presence, countervails oft-times failing or absence s ; as was 
well answered by Diagoras to him that shewed him in Nep- 
tune's temple the great number of pictures of such as had 
ecaped shipwrack and had paid their vows to Neptune, saying, 
Advise now, you that think it folly to invocate Neptune in tem- 
pest: JVrt but (saith Diagoras) where are they painted that are 
drowned ? Let us behold it in another instance, namely, That 
the spirit of man, being of an equal and uniform substance, doth 
usually suppose and feign in nature a greater equality and uni- 
formity than is in truth. Hence it cometh that the mathemati- 
cians cannot satisfy themselves, except they reduce the motions 
of the celestial bodies to perfect circles, rejecting spiral lines, 
and labouring to be discharged of eccentrics. Hence it cometh, whereas there are many things in nature as it were mono- 
dica 3 , stti juris, [singular, and like nothing but themselves;] 
yet the cogitations of man do feign unto them relatives, pa- 
rallels, and conjugates, whereas no such thing is; as they have 
feigned an element of Fire, to keep square with Earth, Water, 
and Air, and the like : nay, it is not credible, till it be opened, 
what a number of fictions and fancies the similitude of human 
actions and arts 4 , together with the making of man communis 
mensura, have brought into Natural Philosophy ; not much 

hiitory of tht* doctrine «ee preface to the Novum Qrgnn*m, note C. In the Dt Aug- 
mentit the niiines are given, ami the tViiirth kind mentioned, though only to be set 
aside as not belonging to the present ■millliHIll The exposition of the three first is 
also considerably fuller than here, though not nearly *o full as In the iVomrn Oryanum, 
to which we are referred. 

1 These are the Idols of the Tribe. 

* which (he adds in the translation) is the root of ail superstition and vain credulity. 
In matters of astrology, dreams, omens, Ac, 

J S<> (he word is s|>clt throughout Bacon's writings, as observed by Mr. Ellis, Vol. I. 
p. Irti. The introduction here of luijnrit as the Latin equivalent seems to show, tlint 
tin- .rror arose from a mistake as to the etymology of the Greek word. 

* i. r. the supimseil tNMDblaM between the arts and Mttm of Man and the opera- 
iwin- ">f Nature : natural'inm (MVBlfaMMI ait ilmHitntiinem urtiuHHm httmuiinrMm re- 
./«</« .- Aot- ipmm ixquam, <jumI putttur talia Sulnram J'actrt qualia Htimu facit. 




better than the heresy of the Anthropomorphites, bred in the 
cells of gross and solitary monks, and the opinion of Epicurus, 
answerable to the same in heathenism, who supposed the gods 
to be of human shape. And therefore Velleius the Epicurian ' 
in nled not to huve asked, why God should have adorned the 
heavens with stars, as if he had been an j'Edilis, one that 
should have set forth some magnificent shews or plays. For 
if that great work-master had been of an human disport urn. 
he would have cast (he stars into some pleasant and beautiful 
works and orders, like the frets in the roofs of houses; w ho ff W W 
one can scarce find a posture in square or triangle or straight 
line amongst such an infinite number; so differing an harmony 
there is between the spirit of Man and the spirit of Nature. 

Let us consider again the false appearances imposed upon 
us by every man's own individual nature and custom*, in that 
feigned supposition that Plato maketh of the cave : for certainly 
if a child were continued in a grot or cave under the earth 
until maturity of age, and came suddenly abroad, he would 
have strange and absurd imaginations; so in like manner, 
although our persona live in the view of heaven, yet our spirits 
arc included in the caves of our own complexions and customs; 
which minister unto us infinite errors and vain opinions, if they 
be not recalled to examination.* But hereof we have given 
many examples in one of the errors, or peccant humours, 
which we ran briefly over in our first book. 

And lastly, let us consider the false appearances that are 
imposed upon us by words' 1 , which arc framed and Applied ac- 
cording to the conceit and capacities of the vulgar sort: and 
although we think we govern our words, and prescribe it well, 
Loqnrndum ut vufi/iis, siutiendvm ut sapicntes, [a man should 
speak like the vulgar, and think like the wise;] yet certain it is 
that words, as a Tartar's how, do shoot back upon the under- 
standing of the wisest, and mightily entangle and pervert the 
judgment; so as it is almost necessary in all controversies and 

1 So In Hit- original : the word bcliia pronounced In Bacon's time Epicurian. Sec 
Walker on ShuAe-pcurt'i tvrsijicat ion, p. 211. 

* These are the Idol* of the Cave. 

* *'. e. if they be not corrected by the continual contemplation of nature at larRe : 
ft e tpecM sun rnru tnnlum et ad brerc afiquwi temptti prodeatil, et non in contemjrfn- 
tionr natnra perpetHO, tanquam tub dto, morentur 

It may be worth observing that Bacon guard* himself against liring «upposed to 
rcprenrnt the Full immtion of Plato's parable, by adding in it puremlusis miua Ut* 
tmirnimttt jmrabaia mhlitililr 

* These are the Idols of the Market-place. 



disputations to imitate the wisdom of the Mathematicians, in 
setting down in the very beginning the definitions of our words 
and terms that others may know how we accept and under- 
stand them, and whether they concur with us or no.' For it 
cometh to pass for want of this, that we are sure to end there 
where we ought to have begun, which is in questions and dif- 
ferences about words. To conclude therefore, it must be con- 
fessed that it is not possible to divorce ourselves from these 
fallacies and false appearances, because they are inseparable 
from our nature and condition of life; so yet nevertheless the 
caution of them (for all elenchea, as was said, are Eu*ci,,m«i»i. 
but c:iutions) uotn extremely import the true cun- m m t ki mmt , 
duct of human judgment. The particular elenches *"•»""■ 
or cautions against these tbree false appearances I find al- 
together deficient. 

There remaineth one part of judgment of great excellency, 
which to mine understanding is so slightly touched, as I may 
report that also deficient; which is the application of the dif- 
fering kinds of proofs to the differing kinds of subjects ; for 
there being but four kinds of demonstrations, that is, by the 
immediate consent of the mind or sense; by induction; by 
siiphism ; and by congrjiiiy, is 1 li-it Arisloib" 
callcth demonstration in orb or circle, and not a notioribus^ ; 
every of these hath certain subjects in the matter of sciences, in 
which respectively they have chiefest use ; and certain other, 
from which respectively they ought to be excluded : and the 
rigour and curiosity in requiring the more severe proofs in some 
things, and chiefly the facility M contenting ourselves with the 
more remiss proofs in others, hath been amongst the greatest 
causes of detriment and hindrance to knowledge. d< .imti<>. 
The distributions and assignations of demonstra- '<'»'«»»»• 
tions, according to the analogy of sciences, I note as deficient. 

f 3 The custody or retaining of knowledge is either in Writing 
OK Memory; whereof Writing hath two parts, the nature of the 
character, and the order of the entrt/. For the art of characters, or 
other visible notes of words or things, it hath nearest conjuga- 

' It might seem from this tbat Bacon thought the premising of definitions would be 
a sufficient remedy for the evil. But in the translation he change* the sentence and 
CCpNHfy warn* us tbat It l» Dot i for the delljiition* tht'inwlves, he Kf% arc made of 
itordt i and though we think to remove tuiilMxuiiirs li>- the use o! technical terms, &c„ 
yet all is not enough, and we must look for a remedy which goes deeper. 

* mm ■ notinribiu tcilictt, int tiinquom ite piano. — Dc Aug. 

' Oe Aug. v. 5. 



tion with grammar, and therefore I refer it to the due place.' 
For the disposition and collocation uf that knowledge which we 
preserve in writing, it consisted) in a good digest uf common- 
places ; wherein I am not ignorant uf the prejudice imputed to 
the use of common-place books, as causing a retardation of 
reading, and some sloth or relaxation uf memory. But because 
it is but a counterfeit thing in knowledges to be forward and 
pregnant, except a man be deep and full, I hold the entry of 
common-places to be a matter of great U6e and essence in 
studying ; as that which assureth copie of invention, and con- 
tracted judgment to a strength. But this is true, that of the 
methods of commou-places that I have seen, there is none of 
any sufficient worth ; all of them carrying merely the face of 
a school, and not of a world ; and referring to vulgar matter! 
and pedantical divisions without all life or respect to action. 

For the other principal part of the custody of knowledge, 
which is Memory, I find that faculty in my judgment weakly 
enquired of. An art there is extant of it ; but it eeemeth to 
me that there are better precepts than that art, and better 
jinutiees of that art than those received. It ia certain the art 
(as it is) may be raised to points of ostentation prodigious : 
but in use (as it is now managed) it is barren; not burden- 
some nor dangerous to natural memory, as ia imagined, but 
barren ; that is, not dexterous to be applied to the serious use 
of business and occasions. And therefore I make no more 
estimation of repeating a great number of names or words 
upon once hearing, or the pouring forth of a number of verses 
or rhymes ex tempore, or the making of a satirical simile of every 
thing, or the turning of every thing to a jest, or the falsifying 
at contradicting of every thing by cavil, or the like, (whereof 
ia the faculties of the mind there is great copie, and such as 
by device and practice may be exalted to an extreme degree 
of wonder,) than I do of the tricks of tumblers, funambuloes, 
baladines ; the one being the woe in the mind that the other 
i^ in the body ; matters of strangeness without worthiness. 

This art of Memory is but built upon two intentions ; the 

' All this is omitted in the (mutation. The art of retaining knowledge is divided 
IfltO two doctrines : vli. concerning the helps (adminicula) of memory, and concerning 
.Memory Itself. The only help of memory which Is mentioned is writing; concerning 
which, after remarking that without this help the memory cannot be trusted to deal 
«itii matters of length and requiring exactness, especially lucb a* the interpretation 
• upon the value of a good digest of common-places even in the old 
mi! uouutar sciences, and so proceeds as in the text. 



one Pronotion, the other Emblem. Prenotion discharged) tin- 
indefinite seeking of that, we would remember, and directcth 
us to seek in a narrow compass j that is, somewhat that hath 
congruity with our place of memory. Emblem reduccth con- 
OBltB intellectual to images sensible, which strike the memory 
more ; out of which axioms may be drawn much better 
practique than that in use ; and besides which axioms, there 
are divers moe touching help of memory, not inferior to them. 1 
But I (lid in the beginning distinguish, not to report, those 
things deficient, which are but only ill managed. 

U 1 There remaineth the fourth kind of Rational Knowledge, 
which is transitive, concerning the expressing or transferring 
our knowledge to others ; which I will term by the general 
name of Tradition or Delivery. Tradition hath three part- : 
the first concerning the organ of tradition ; the second concern- 
ing the method of tradition ; and the third concerning the illus- 
tration of tradition. 3 

For the organ of tradition, it is either Speech or Writing : 
for Aristotle saith well, Words are the images of cogitations, 
and letters are the images of words ; but yet it is not of neces- 
sity that cogitations be expressed by the medium of words. 
For whatsoever is capable of sufficient differences* , and those per- 
ceptible by the sense, is in nature competent to express 6 cogitations. 
And therefore we sec in the commerce of barbarous'' people 
that understand not one another's language, and in the practice 
of divers that are dumb and deaf, that men's minds are ex- 
pressed in gestures, though not exactly, yet to serve the turn. 
And we understand further 7 that it is the use of China and 
the kingdoms of the high Levant to write in Characters Real, 
which express neither letters nor words in gross, but Things or 
Notions ; insomuch as countries and provinces, which under- 
stand not one another's language, can nevertheless read one 
another's writings, because the characters are accepted more 

1 The nature and use of these prssaotions and emblems is explained and illustrated 
In the translation by several exam plea.; Ixit the substance Of the observation it not 

1 De Aug. vL I. 

1 In the I)t Angmentit, tradition (in these three last cases) is translated termo : 
which appears to be used in the general sense of communication. 

' i. r. sufficient to explain the variety of notions. 

' i.t. to convey the cogitations of one man to another {fitre pone veMatlum ci-ji- 
tationnm <le hnminr in nnmincm), and SO to be an organ of frailitin" (tinrjitira). 

* Barbaront is omitted in the translation: the thing being equally seen in civilised 
people who know no common language. 

' r.otitiimtim fieri jam ctrpit. 



generally than the languages do extend ; and therefore they 
have a vast multitude of characters ; as many, I suppose, as 
radical words.' 

These Notes of Cogitations are of two sorts ; the one when 
the note hath some similitude or congruity with the notion ; 
the other ad placitum, having force only hy contract or accep- 
tation. Of the former sort are Hieroglyphics and Gestures. 
For as to Hieroglyphics, (things of ancient use, and embraced 
chiefly by the ^Egyptians, one of the most ancient nations,) 
they are but as continued impresses and emblems. And as for 
Gestures, they are as transitory Hieroglyphics, and are to 
Hieroglyphics as words spoken are to words written, in that 
they abide not ; but they have evermore, as well as the other, 
an affinity with the things signified : as Periander, being con- 
sulted with how to preserve a tyranny newly usurped, bid th« 
messenger attend and report what he saw him do ; and went 
into his garden and topped all the highest flowers ; signifying, 
that it consisted in the cutting off and keeping low of the 
nobility and grandest Ad placitum are the Characters Real 
before mentioned, and Words: although some have been 
willing by curious inquiry, or rather by apt feigning, to have 
derived imposition of names from reason and intendment; a 
speculation elegant, and, by reason it searcheth into antiquity, 
reverent; but sparingly mixed with truth, and of small fruit 2 
This portion of knowledge, touching the Notes of 
Things and cogitations in general, I find not en- 
quired, but deficient. And although it may seem of no great 
use, considering that words and writings by letters do far excel 
all the other ways; yet because this part concerncth as it 
were the mint of knowledge, (for words are the tokens current 
and accepted for conceits, as moneys are for values, and that it 
is fit men be not ignorant that moneys may be of another kind 
than gold and silver,) I thought good to propound it to better 

Concerning Speech and Words, the consideration of them 
hatli produced thu science of Grammar: for man still striveth to 

1 This observation Is trai lata red in the T)e .tugmmtit to the next paragraph, and 
■ffdlcd generally to all system* of writing In Characters Real. 

* So in the original ; and I believe always In Bacon ; the Spanish word being still 
treated as a foreigner, and the accent falling no doubt upon the fir>t syllable. 

1 The substance of this remark is introduced in the trail datiun In another place. 
Mere it || merely said that Characters Real have nothing emblematic in them; but 
are merely turds, framed ud pkuitum and silently agreed upon by custom. 

/><• SuliM 



reintegrate himself in those benedictions, from which by his 
fault be hath been deprived; and as he hath striven against 
the first general curse by the invention of all other arts, so 
hiith he sought to come forth of the second general curse 
(which was the confusion of tongues) by the art of Grammar: 
whereof the use in a mother 1 tongue is email ; in a foreign 
tongue more ; but most in such foreign tongues as have ceased 
to be vulgar tongues, and are turned only to learned tongues. 
The duty of it is of two natures; the one popular 2 , which is 
for the speedy and perfect attaining languages, as well for in- 
tercom i 3 of -peech as for understanding of authors ; the other 
philosophical, examining the power and nature of words as 
thej are the footsteps and prints of reason : which kind of ana- 
logy between words and reason is handled sparsim, brokenly, 
though not entirely 3 ; and therefore I cannot report it deficient, 
though I think it very worthy to be reduced into a science by 

Unto Grammar also belongeth, as an appendix, the con- 
sideration of the Accidents of Words; which are measure, 
sound, and elevation or accent, and the sweetness and harshness 
of them ; whence hath issued some curious observations in 
Rhetoric, but chiefly Poesy, as we consider it in respect of the 
verse and not of the argument : wherein though men in 
learned tongues do tie themselves to the ancient measures, yet 
in modern languages it secmeth to me as free to make new 
measures of verses as of dances; for a dance is a measured 
pace, as a verse is a measured speech.* In these things the 
sense is better judge than the art; 

1 in «m\ther (oncjut ed. I60. r ». in mnlhrr tongue ecld. 1629 anil 1633. Tbr trans- 
lation baa ■" lintiutt quibuiifttt rrrmiculit. 

• In the translation hi- -ulistitutes lilcraru for pnpular. 

' Here are introduced in tin translation some Interesting remark* on the subject of 
the analogy between word* and reason ; in which It It worth observing among oth.T 
things, that Bacon appears to have changed his opinion as to the nature of Cesar's 
book De Analogia, since he wrote the first book of the Advancement. See above 
p. 311. There he describes it a* " a grammatical philosophy, wherein he did labour 
to make this same vox ad placitum to become RM ad licit urn, and to reduce custom 
of speech to congrulty of speech, and took as It were the picture of words from the 
lfe of reason." Here he says he has doubted whether that book of Cesar's treate.l of 
such a grammatical philosophy as he Is speaking of. but that he rather suspect* it con. 
talnrd nothing very high or subtile, but only precepts for the formation of a chaste 
and perfect style, tree from vulgarity and affectation. 

• Till- OhMTWtlon i- omltteJ In the translation, and instead we have a censure of 
the tttcmpM i iii.Klr not long before Bacon's time) to force the modern languages Into 
the ancient measures; measures (he says) which are Incompatible with the frame of 
the languages themselves, and not less offensive to the ear. But this censure may 

In- considered as a ilevrtopcment of the rem.irk which concludes this para- 

III. P .' 



Crcna; l\.rcula nostra 
Mullt'in eonvivis quum plauuinse cocis: 

[the dinner ia to please the guests that eat it, not the cook that 
dream it.] And of the 6ervile expressing antiquity in an 
unlike and an unfit subject, it is well said, Quod tempore anti- 
i/itiiin ri/Frtur, id mcorifjruitate est maximc yiovum ; [there is 
nothing more new than an old thing that has ceased to fit]. 

For Cipher-!, they are commonly in letters or alphabets, hut 
may be in words. The kinds of Ciphers (besides the simple 
Ciphers with changes and intermixtures of nulls and non- 
significants) nre many, acco r d i ng to the nature or rule of the 
infolding; Wheel-ciphers, Key-cipbera, Doubles, &c. But the 
virtues of them, whereby they are to be preferred, are three ; 
that they be not laborious to write and read] that they be 
impossible to decipher; and, in some cases, that they be without 
suspicion. Tlie highest degree whereof is to write omnia />tr 
omnia ; which is undoubtedly possible, with a proportion quin- 
tuple at most of the writing infolding to the writing infolded, 
and no other restraint whatsoever. 1 This art of Ciphering, 
hath fee relative an art of Deciphering ; by supposition 3 un- 
profitable ; but, as things are, of great use. For suppose that 
ciphers were well managed, there be multitudes of them which 
exclude the dis<iphcrer. But in regard of the rawness and un- 
ski I fulness of the hands through which they pass, the greatest 
matters are many times carried in the weakest ciphers. 

In the enumeration Of these private and retired arts, it may 
be thought I seek to make a great muster-roll of sciences ; 
naming them for shew ami ostentation, and to little other pur- 
pose* But let those which are skilful in them judge whether I 
bring them in only for appearance, or whether in that which I 
apeak of them (though in few marks) there be not some seed 

•nil wl omitted. Certainly there is no English metre which reprr. 

'<• metrical effect of the Vimilian hexameter worse than the English hexameter 
write it now: mill if .my one would tr> t.» write it so as to represent the 
•ruly. by attending to the distinction hetween accent and quantity, and 
• cording to the sarne laws, lie would rind the truth of Bacon's 
■ ■•nut fubricu retpuit ; the English language does not supply the 

■ gives a specimen of a cipher liv which this lent of wilting 

-oiniu (Ih, it i« of cm i w -j my; u ny wonts yon please under cover of any other 

rliled only that the) Contain not less than live times as m;niy 

Ik- accomplished; a .i^»her Invented, be says, by himself when lie was 

I they might be: uttamesi fraeautiune tvlirti fieri ;«.viil 



of proficience. And this must be remembered, that as there be 
many of great account in their countries and provinces, whieh 
when they come up to the Seat of the Estate are but of mean 
rank and scarcely regarded ; so these arts being here placed 
with the principal and supreme sciences, seem petty things ; 
yet to such as have chosen them to spend their studies in 
them', they seem great matters. 

H a For the Method at* Tradition. I see it hath moved a con- 
troversy in our time. 3 But as in civil business, t£ there be a 
meeting and men fall at words there is commonly an end of 
the matter for that time and no proceeding at all ; so in learn- 
ing, where there is much controversy there is many times 
little inquiry. For this part of knowledge of Method sccmeth 
to mi- M weakly enquired as I shall report it deficient. 

Method hath been placed, and that not amiss, in Logic, as a 
part of Judgment! for M the doctrine of Syllogisms compre- 
hcudeth the rules of judgment upon that which is invented, so 
the doctrine of Method containeth the rules of judgment upon which is to be delivered; for judgment prceedelh De- 
livery, as it followeth Invention. 1 Neither is the method or the 
n store of the tradition material only to the use of knowledge, 
but likewise to the progression of knowledge: for since the 
labour and life of one man cannot attain to perfection of know- 
ledge, the wisdom of the Tradition is that which inspireth the 
felicity of continuance and proceeding. And therefore the 
nio-t real diversity of method is of method referred to Use, 
and method referred to Progression : whereof the one may be 
termed Magistral, and the other of Probation.'' 

The later whereof scemelh to be DM dtscrta et inttrclusa, 
[a way that is abandoned and stopped up]. For as knowledges 
are now delivered, there is a kind of contract of error between 

1 qui nprrmn illii prari/iut imiTinlrrmt. — De Aug. The original edition and that 
of lt'.-jo have ■ to spend their labours studies in them," — which Is also the reading of 
I hr edition I !'■ 33, exicjit that it has a comma lifter " labours." •• Labour* nnd *•' 
1» the reading of modern editions ; but I think it U more likely that one of the »..nh 
Wat meant to be substituted for the other. 

■ TV Sag, vi 2 

* Uoidet Ramus himself and fnrpentier, one of the principal persons In this con- 
troversy was the Cardinal D"0»sar, of whom some account will be found in De Thou's 
memoir-?. — H, I. li. 

' Be aid. ISSS and 163.3. The original has hvrntion: 

* Called hititiiira in the translation ; and explained to mean the method which 
disclose* the inner my-tiries of science ; and distinguished from tbe other not xs more 
■OH but as more profound ; the one ■lllMHIIH lll| the results of enquiry, the other 
exhibiting the method and process whiili M (a tl em, 

p t> •! 



tin- <lc liverer and the receiver: for he that delivereth knowledge 
dosireth to deliver it in BUoh form M BMty be best believed, and 
not as may be best examined ; and he that receiveth know- 
ledge dcaireth rather present satisfaction than expectant in- 
quiry} and so rather not to doubt than not to err: glory 
making the author not to lay open his weakness, and sloth 
making the disciplt not to know his strength. 

But knowledge that is delivered as a thread to be spun on, 
Ottght to be delivered and intimated ', if it were possible, in the 
name mrthotl wherein it was invented ; and so is it possible of 
knowledge induced, lint in this same anticipated and pre- 
vented kimu ledge, no man knoweth how he came to the know- 
ledge which be hath obtained. But yet nevertheless, secundum 
mtijits rt minus, a man may revisit and descend unto the found- 
fct&OM of Ids knowledge and consent; and so transplant it into 
another as it grew in his own mind. For it is in knowledges) 
as it is in plants: if you mean to use the plant, it is no matter 
for the muts; but if TOO mean to remove it to grow, then 
it is more assured to rest upon roots than slips. So the de- 
| of knowledges (as it is now used) is as of fnir bodies of 
trees without the roots; good for the carpenter, but not for the 
planter: but if you will have sciences grow, it is less matter 
for the shaft or body of the tree, so you look well to the 
taking up ot the roots. Of which kind of delivery 
the method yii' the mathematiques, in that subject, 
hath MOM shadow ; hut generally I see it neither put 
in ore nor put in inquisition, and therefore note it for defieient. 

Another dp Method there is. which hath some affi- 

nity with the former, used in some HMI by the discretion of 
the *■ but disgi v the impostures of many 

made it as a false light for their coun- 
terfeit merchandises; and that is, Enigmatical and Disclosed. 1 

i all Is* *4ttfon» ; but probably a mitpriot for 

• ■ •■ - ' 

km br «!**» tt the MMhMoti nan* of Trviitit LnmpaiU ; tOmgrnt 
<4 lb* lixhtrd torch from oik to anotber la tbe Gmk torcb-rfc.x. 

' tnaalatlaa b* call* the latter trtmtrien. tbc former meroama/ka ; aad rx- 

at ta* aaaatTy between tbe atr»amatir» »n.i the ..tfioriVa lie* III tan only — 

rtlilim KacV tr a t-kct »u<tirnrr . fwta themselves (rt ifm) they are 

•be %m^tt^imm a. l op U* a * Htellaoa 1 of «i< '.I .-err more open ttboa OG lnu»T\ , 1 1 

•HUM « ttf in. 

lb* aatttr 

»a xbr other by aa 

•ce Prober to tbe Nmmm Otvu. 



The pretence whereof is to remove the vulgar capacities from 
being admitted to the secrets cf knowledges, and t<j reserve 
them to selected auditors, or wits of such sharpness as can 
pierce the veil. 

Another diversity of Method, whereof the consequence is 
Lrr--:( t , i- tin' delivery >>(' knowledge in Aphorisms, or in Me* 
thods ; wherein we may observe that it halh been too much 
taken into custom, out of a few Axioms or observations upon 
any subject to make a solemn and formal art; rilling it with 
some discourses, and illustrating it with examples, and digesting 
it into a sensible Method; but the writing in Aphorisms hath 
many excellent virtues, whereto the writing in Method doth 
nut approach* 

For first, it trieth the writer, whether he be superficial or 
solid : for Aphorisms, except they should be ridiculous, cannot 
be made but of the pith and heart of sciences ; for discourse of 
illustration is cut off; recitals of examples are cut off; dis- 
course of connexion and Older IS cut off; descriptions of prac- 
tice are cutoff; so there remaineth nothing to fill the Apho- 
risms but. some good quantity of observation : and therefore no 
man can suffice, nor in reason will attempt, to write Apho- 
risms, but he that is sound and grounded. Hut in Methods, 

TiinUiiu series juncturnque pullet, 
Tantum de medio suuiptls uccedit honoris, 

[the arrangement and connexion and joining of the parts has so 
much effect,] as a man shall make a great shew of an nrt, which 
if it were disjointed would come to little. Secondly. Methods 
are more fit to win consent or belief, but less fit to point to ac- 
tion : for they carry a kind of demonstration in orb or circle, 
one part illuminating another, and therefore satisfy; but |ur- 
tioaLm, being dispersed, do best agree with dispersed directions. 
And lastly. Aphorisms, representing a knowledge broken, do 
invite men to enquire Farther; whereas Methods, carrying the 
shew of a total, do secure men, as if they were at furthest. 

Another diversity of Method, which is likewise of great 
weight, is the handling of knowledge by Assertions and their 
Proofs, or by Questions and their Determinations; the latter 
kind whereof, if it be immoderately followed, is as prejudi- 
cial to the proceeding of learning, as ii is to the proceeding 

1 i ■ of tkt t nlgmtOaJ method 

!• D i 



of an army to go about to besiege every little fort or hoi k 
For if the field be kept and the sum of the enterprise pursued, 
those smaller things will come in of themselves: indeed 1 a 
man would not have some important piece enemy at his back. 
In like manner, the use of confutation in the delivery of 
sciences ought to be. ttttj sparing; and to serve to remove 
strong preoccupations and prejudgments, and not to minister 
and excite disputations and donlits. 

Another divi i-iiv of Methods i- according to the subject or 
matter which is handled; for there is a great difference in de- 
livery of the Mathematics, whieh are the most abstracted of 
knowledges, and Policy, which is the most immersed : lad 
howsoever contention hath been moved touehiug an uniformity 
of method in multiformity of matter, yet we see how that 
opinion, besides the weakness of it, hath been of ill desert 
towards learning, as that which takcth the way to reduce 
learning to certain empty and hart-en generalities; being but the 
very husks and shells of sciences, all the kernel heing for 
out. and expulsed with the torture and press of the method 2 : 
and therefore as I did allow well of particular Tupies tor inven- 
tion, so 1 do allow likewise of particular Methods of tradition. 

Another diversity of judgment* in the delivery and teaching 
of knowledge is according unto the light and j>resu/'jn>sitions 
of that which is dclirered f for that knowledge which is new 
and foreign from opinions received, is to he delivered in another 
form than that that is agreeable'' and familiar ; and therefore 
Aristotle, when he thinks to tax Democritus, doth in truth 
DOmmend him, where he saith, If we shall indeed dispute, and 
not follow after similitudes, &c. For those whose conceits are 
seated in popular opinions, need only but to prove or dispute; 
but those whose conceits are beyond popular opinions, have a 
double labour ; the one to make themselves conceived, and the 
other to prove and demonstrate ; so that it is of necessity with 

•• iilrhMinh Indeed . " < illwi lumen infiruis now irtrim, &c) 
* II i- Introduced In tin- tnui-litioii at the Ix'uiiinina of th* chapter, 

»nd applied pBTtfctiUrlj t..thr method of dtchrf-imirt ; which are not mentioned, I 
ik, ti) name in till . i,lr,mrrmr»t 

* dlver?tt\ nf method to or uned with judgment. (Srqmhir ahud mrihntl 

erimrn la tr.i.h »,/■< itintiit cum judicio urM/hr<i'i«m.) Thli ma) perhaps be .111 

err .,f t |„. trmntcriber, tome word* having accidentally dropped out. 

It nag however b n elj in effect of ha»ty composition, of which tlu-rc are many 

MM 111 On. part of the »<,rk. 

ICC with received opinions. 1 Opmionibiu jam priJem imbihiti* t( 
r*rvj*w iijf«ta. ) 



Hem to have recourse to similitude- and translations to express 
themselves. Aiid therefore in the infancy of learnings am! in 
rude times, when those conceits which are now trivial were 
then uew, the world was full of Parables and Similitudes; for 
else would men cither have passed over without mark or else 
rejected for paradoxal that which was offered, hefore they 
had understood Of judged. So in divine learning we sec h w 
frequent Parables and Tropes are 1 : for it ia a rule, That 
tc/uitsoerer science is not consonant to presuppositions, must pray 
in aid of similitudes. 

There he also ether diversities of Methods, vulgar ami re- 
ceived; as that, of Resolution or Analysis, of Constitution or 

Systasis, of Concealment or Cryptic', &c. which I da allmv 
well of; though I have stood upon those which are least handled 
and nli^i rved. All whirl) I have remembered to this „ rfll -..,,.„,,„ 
purpose, because I would erect and constitute one 
general inquiry, which seems to me deficient, touching the 
\\ i-dnm <»l Tradition. 

But unto this part of knowledge concerning Method doth 
further belong not only the Architecture of the whole frame of 
a work, hut also the several beams and columns thereof; not 
as to their stuff, but as to their quantity and figure; and 
therefore Method oonaidereth rot only the disposition of Che 
Argument or Subject, but likewise the Propositions; not as to 
their truth or matter, but as to their limitation and manner. 
For herein Kaintis merited better a great, deal in reviving the 
u<mi>1 rules of Propositions, KadoXov TrptJTov, Kara navr/i, 8fcc ' 
than he did in introducing the canker of Epitomes 4 ; and yet 
fat it is the condition of human things that, according to the 
aueient fables, The mast precious tli'ux/s have the most jiernieiuns 
keepers;) it was so, that the attempt of the one made him fall 
upon the other." For he had need be well conducted thai 
should design to make Axioms convertible, if he make them not 
withal circular, and uon-/>romovent, or incuriing into themselves : 
but yet the intention was excellent. 

1 This allusion to divine learning is omitted in the translation. 

• In the translation he adds Olarrtica and /lumtrioi, -icil utecriH that he does not 
dwell upon these because they bare been riuhtly invented ami ilixtrilnilnl 

■ they should be true generally, primarily, and essentially. — H. L. E. 

* tnatMd of •' the canker of fcjdtonies," the translation substitutes " his peculiar 
method and dichotomies." 

' The attempt to amend propositions cast him upon those epitomes and shallows 
of knowledge, M they arc called in the translation — rpitoauu iluu et iciemtiarum 

1> 1) 4 



The other considerations of Method concerning Propositions 
are chiefly touching the utmost propositions, whieli limit the 
dimensions of sciences ; for every knowledge may be fitly said, 
besides the profundity, (which is the truth and substance of it, 
that niakis it solid,) to have a longitude and a latitude; ac- 
counting the latitude towards other sciences, and the longitude 
towards action.] that is, from the greatest generality to the 
moat particular precept: the one giveth rule how far one 
knowledge ought to intermeddle within the province of another, 
which is the rule they call Kadavro ' ; the other giveth rule 
unto what degree if particularity a knowledge should descend: 
which latter I find passed over in silence, being in my judg- 
ment the more material ; for certainly there must be somewhat 
left to practice*; but how much is worthy the inquiry. We 
see remote and superficial generalities do but offer knowledge 
to scorn of practical men ; and are no more aiding to pra>- 
than an Ortelius' universal map is tu direct the way between 
London and York. The better sort of rules have been not 
unfitly compared to glasses of steel unpolished, where you may 
see the images of things, but first they must be filed: so the 
rules will help, if they be laboured and polished by practice. 
Dtproduc But how chrystalline they may be made at the first, 
**■"" and how far forth they may be polished aforehand, is 
the question ; the inquiry whereof seemeth to me deficient. 

There hath been also laboured and put in practice a method, 
which is not a lawful method, but a method of imposture ; 
which is to deliver knowledges in such manner, h men may 
speedily come to make a shew of learning who have it not: 
such was the travail of Itaymundus Lullius, in making that art 
which bears his name; not uulike to some books of Typocosmy 
which have been made since; being nothing but a mass of 
words of all arts, to give men countenance that those which 
use the terms might be thought to understand the art; which 
collections are much like a fripper's or broker's shop, that hath 
ends of every thing, but nothing of worth. 

f*No\v we descend to that part which conccrneth the Illus- 

' This li omitted in the translation. " The rule they call ttaBavrb " is the rule 
that proposition! should !»• true tsttnlinlli/. 

* For we must not fall Into the rrror of \ntonlnu* Pius (he adds In the trans- 
ition) — to become Cymini Stctor**, multiplying division* to the last degree of ml- 




tration of Tradition, comprehended in that science which we 
call Bhetoric, or Art of Eloquence; a science excellent, and 
excellently well laboured. Fur although in true value it is 
inferior to wisdom, as it is Baid by God to Moses, when he 
disabled himself for want of this faculty, Aaron shall be thy 
spcah'i-, mid thou shalt be to him as Cod; yet with people it is 
the more mighty: for so Salomon saith, Sapiens corde appella- 
nt tir prudens, sed dulcis eloquio majora repcriet, [the wise in 
heart shall he called prudent, but he that is sweet of speech 
shall compass greater things;] signifying that profoundness of 
wisdom will help a man to a name or admiration, but that it is 
eloquence that, prevaileth in an active life. And as to the 
labouring of it, the emulation of Aristotle with the rhetoricians 
of his time, and the experience of Cicero, hath made tlu-m in 
'heir works of Rhetorics exceed themselves. Again, the excel- 
lency of examples of eloquence in the orations of Demosthenes 
and Cicero, added to the perfection of the precepts of elo- 
quence, hath doubled the progression in this art; and therefore 
the deficiences which I shall note will rather be in some collec- 
tions which may as handmaids attend the art, than in the rules 
or use of the art itself. 

Notwithstanding, to stir the earth a little about the roots of 
this science, as we have done of the rest : The duty and office 
of Rhetoric \$ to apply Riusim to Liidi.inntion 1 for the better 

administration thereof by three means; by Illaqueation or So- 
phism, which pertains to Logic; by Imagination or Impros ■ 
Bion ', which pertains to Rhetoric ; and by Passion or Affection, 
which pertains to Morality. 3 And as in negotiation with others 
men are wrought by cunning, by importunity, and by vehe- 
mency ; so in this negotiation within ourselves men are under- 
mined by Inconsequences, solicited and importuned by Impres- 
iloni ox Observations, and transported by Passions. Neither is 
the nature of man so unfortunately built, as that those powers. 
and arts should have force to disturb reason, and not to esta- 
blish and advance it : for the end of Lo<;ic is to teach a form 
of argument to secure reason, and not to entrap it; the end of 

1 Rhetoric bring to the Imagination what Logic it to the Understanding. — l)t Aug. 
1 In the trail- Lit inn he Ruh-titutrs j,tr praitiyitw errbvruiu , false lrnpreutoiis 
produced by wordi on the Immtinaliiin. 
* »'. t. moral l'hilotophj. ( Cttfafc ) 



Morality is to procure the affections to obey ' reason, and not 
to invade it; the end of Rhetoric is to nil the imagination to 
Becond reason, and not to o ppre ss it: for these abuses of arts 
come in but ex obliijuo, for caution. 

And therefore it was great injustice in Plato, though spring- 
ing out of a just hatred of the rhetoricians t£ Ids time, to osteon 
of Rhetoric but as a voluptuary art, resembling it to eookerv, 
that did mar wholesome meats, and help unwholesome by 
variety of sauces to the pleasure of the taste. For we see that 
speech is much more conversant IS adorning that which is good 
than in colouring that which is evil ; for there is no man but 
speaketh more honestly than he can door think : and it was 
excellently noted by Thucydides in Clcon ', that because bo 
n- 1 to hold on the bad side in causes of estate, therefore he 
was ever inveighing against eloquence and good speech: know- 
ing that no man can speak fair of course? sordid and base. And 
therefore as 1'Lto siid elegantly, That virtue, if she rmilil be 
seen, would more great lore and affection ; so seeing that she 
cannot be shewed to the Sense by corporal tfiOBPj the next 
degree is to shew her to the Imagination in lively representa- 
tion : for to shew her to Reason only in suhtilty of argument, 
wis a thing ever derided in Chrysippus and many of the StOSCsi 
who thought to thrust virtue upon men by sharp disputations 
and conclusions, which have no sympathy with the will of man. 

Again, if the affections in themselves were pliant and obedient 
to reason, it were true there should be no great use of per- 
BCtaOODfl and insinuations to the will, more than of naked pro- 
position and proofs; but in regard of the continual mutinies 
and seditions of the affections, 

Video iiuliiiru, proboque ; 
Detcriora sequnr : 

[whereby they who not only see the better course, but approve 
it also, nevertheless follow the worse,] reason would become 
captive and servile, if Eloquence of Persuasions did not practise 
and win the Imagination from the Affection's part, and contract 
a confederacy between the Reason and Imagination against 
the Affections. For the affections themselves carry ever an ap- 

1 In the translation he lays ut raliimi mililent ; to fight on the !>ldc of reason. 

* In thr tntnlltton ho *:i>s inurr correctly, " it wns notPd by Thnryitidet «» u «"■ 
Mm jMimrf trjmw CUcn" (Mt quMptom aatttum fuit»t oi/ji.-i fjaewr); fur the ousei- 
\uiwn ii made liy Diodotui la lie iiiwit to (.'Icon's lanwrtl, iii. 4'J. 



petite to good, as reason doth ; the difference is, that the affec- 
tion beholdeth merely the. present ; reason beholdtih the future 
and .sum of time ; and therefore the present tilling tin- imagi- 
nation more, reason is commonly vanquished ; but after that 
force of eloquence and persuasion hath made things future and 
remote appeal as present, then upon the revolt of the imagina- 
tion reason prevatlctli. 

We conclude therefore, that Rhetoric can he no more 
charged with the colouring of the worse part, than Logic with 
.Sophistry, or Morality with Vice. 1 For we know the doctrines 
of contraries are the same, though the use be opposite. It ap- 
peareth also that Logic differeth from Rhetoric, not only as the 
fist from the palm, the MM MOM the Other at huge ; but much 
itn. re in this, that Logic handleth reason exact and in truth, 
and Rhetoric handleth it as it is planted in popular opinions 
and manners. And therefore Aristotle doth wisely place Rhe- 
toric as between Logic on the one side and moral or civil 
knowledge on the other, as participating of both : for the proofs 
and demons trati ons of Logic, are toward all men indifferent and 
the same; but the proofs and persuasions of Rhetoric ought to 
differ according to the auditors: 

Orpheus in sylvis, inter ilulnhinos Arion : 

[to be in the woods an Orpheus, among the dolphins an Arion :J 
which application, in perfection of idea, ought to extend so far, 
that if a man should speak of the same thing to several per- 
BOQ6, he should speak to them all respectively and several ways: 
though this politic part of eloquence in private speech it is easy 
for the greatest orators to want, whilst by the Observing their 
well graced forms of speech they lcese the volu- /),p r „ rf ,„„„ 
bility of application! and therefore it shall not be *«!T""'' r '" 
amiss to recommend this to better inquiry 2 ; not being curi- 
ous whether we place it here, or in that part which concern- 
eth policy. 

1 The lust clause I* omitted In the transition. I do not know why. For ac- 
cording to H.u-nn'» doctrine, expounded originally In Hie MnlitatinntM Sacrtr upon the 
text ntm acetyl! utulht* rtrtut prHritntia: nui en dixms qua wruiMtHr in conte r/u*, 
nnd relocated here a little further on, — namely, that a man can neither protect hit 
own virtue again- 1 evil «rt«, nor reclaim other- from vice, without the help of the 
kmmledge of evil. — Morality ha-> ■ relation to Vice exactly corresponding with that 
H 1* maintained that the Logician ought tu Ik- prepared 
to practice Sophistry a- well »» to delect and defeat it 

1 Hi ing a thing which the more it is considered the more it will be valued (rtm 
■ •Me ijHam qiw nttinttHt •/*!> noogittt, to piuris Jaatt). 



Now therefore will I descend to the deficiences, which (as I 

said) arc but attendances ' : and first, I do not find the trudam 

and diligence of Aristotle well pursued, who began to make a 

coiorn ho*i tt collection of the popular starts and colours of qoad and 

naff, ■iinpiicu ' ' ■* i • i 

rtcam/mratt. ev j^ l) th simple and rmnparntioe, which are as the 

Sophisms of Rhetoric (as I touched before). For example: 


Quod huidutitr, bonuiu: quod vituperatur, malum. 


Laudat venules qui vult extrudere mercea. 
Milium est, malum est, inqnit emptor: sed cum recesserit, turn gloriabitur.* 

The defects in the labour of Aristotle are three: one, that 
there be but a few of many ; another, that their Elcnches are 
not annexed 3 : and the third, that he conceived but a part of 
the use of them: for their use is not only in probation, but 
ranch more in impression. For many forms are equal in signi- 
fication which are differing in impression; as the difference is 
great in the piercing of that which is sharp and that which is 
flat, though the strength of the percussion be the same ; for 
there is no man but will be a little more raised by hearing it 
said, 1'our enemies will he glad of this: 

IIiii' Illinois vclit, et mngno mcreentur At rids : 

than by hearing it said only, This is evil far you. 

Secondly, I do resume rIm that which 1 mentioned before 
touching Provision or Preparatory store for the furniture of 
speech and readiness of invention; which uppeareth to be of 
two sorts; the one in resemblance to a shop of pieces unmade 
up, the other to a shop of tilings ready made up; both to 
be applied to that which is frequent and most in request : 

' and which are all of the nature of collections for store {pertinent omnia ad pram' 

1 Sormsjc. — That which people praise is good, that which thry blame U bad. 
ELESiiir. — lie iiwlwi his wares who wants to «et Ihi-m nfl'hia hands. 

It i» nnueht. It Is naught, «nyth Hie inner ; hut when he U ((one he will vaunt. 

1 In the translation, instead of the single rxumple given abort, he inserts a col- 
levtiOO ill twelve, by way of specimen ; enrh having the elenchc annexed and com- 
pletely explained. Tlii* culleftlon If a translation, with corrections ant] additions, of 
the English tract entitled •• Colours of Good and Evil," which was printed along with 
the Essays in 1597, and will be found in this edition among the literary works. 



the former of these I will call Antitheta, anil the hitter 

Antitheta are Theses argued pro et contra ; wherein men may 
be m«ire large and laborious : but (in such as are able to Antittirla 
do it) to avoid prolixity of entry, I wish the seeds of *"""•• 
the several arguments to be cast up into some brief and acute 
sentences ; not to be cited, hut to be as skeins or bottoms of 
thread, to be unwinded at large when they come to be used ; 
supplying authorities and examples by reference. 


Non est interpret utio, sed divinutio, quae recedit a Uteri. 
Cum receditur a liter:!, judex transit in leyislatoreui. 

Ex omnibus verbis est elieiemlus sensus qui interpretatur singula. 1 

Formula are but decent and apt passages or conveyances 
of speech, which may serve indifferently for differing subjects; 
as of preface, conclusion, digression, transition, excusation, &c. 
For as in buildings there is great pleasure and use in the well- 
casting of the atair-cases, entries, doors, windows, and the like ; 
so in speech the conveyances and passages are of special orna- 
ment and effect. 


So may we redeem the faults passed, and prevent the inconveniences future. 

H 3 There remain two appendices touching the tradition of 
knowledge, the one Critical, the other Pedantical. 4 For all 
knowledge is either delivered by teachers, or attained by men's 
proper endeavours: and therefore as the principal part ot tradi- 

1 Fo» thi Wo«db or thi Law Interpretation which departs from the letter, la 

nut interpolation but ilivinatlon. 

Winn the letter Is departed from the Judge becomes the Lawgiver. 

For tiii Intkstium or the Law — The tense according to which each word Is to 
be Interprets! mti*t be collected from all the words together. 

Of these anlitlttta a Urge collection will be found lu the Dt Auymtntii, set forth by 
way of specimen in the manner here recommended. 

■ Ot these formvlir — or formula minora as he afterwards called them — three other 
examples are Riven In the I)r Augmentii, all from Cicero, Bacon's own speeches and 
narrative writings would supply many very good ones. 

' De Aug. \i. 4. 

* Pitdagogica, in the translation. 


tion of knowledge concerneih chiefly writing ' of books, so 
the relative part thereof concerneth reading of books. Win n . - 
unto appertain incideutly these considerations. The first is 
concerning the true correction and edition of authors; wherein 
nevertheless rash diligence hath done great prejudice. For 
these critics have often presumed that that which they under- 
stand not is false set down: as the Priest that where he found 
it written of St. Paul, Demissus est ]>er sporfam, [he was let 
down in a basket,] mended Ida book, and made it Demissus est 
]>fr [tortum* [he was let out by the gate;] because sporta was 
an hard word, and out of his reading 3 ; and surely their errors, 
though they be not so palpable and ridiculous, are yet of the 
same kind. And therefore as it hath been wisely noted, the 
most corrected copies are commonly the least, correct. 

The second is concerning the exposition and explication of 
authors, which rcstcth in annotations and commentaries: 
wherein it is over usual to blanch the obscure places, and dis- 
course upon the plain. 

The third is concerning the times, which in many cases give 
great tight to true interpretations. 3 

The fourth is concerning some brief censure and judgment of 
the authors; that men thereby may make some election unto 
themselves what books to read. 

And the fifth is concerning the syntax and disposition of 

1 id lerilinp. In the : and also in the editions 16'29 and J 633. The trans- 
l.ili i.ii hu.i ii, kctinnr lihrurum coiitittil. 

this Illustration, which as reflecting upon a Priest might have been offensive 
:it [(nine, another is substituted in the Dt Augmenti; which Is " not so ptlpaMa and 
ridiculous." A striking InfhMHtt of the same kind occurs in two lectin editions of 
this very work. In an edition Of tile Attvmctmrnt of Ltarning, paMttbtd kg ,1 \V. 
P.irker in 1 862, (Jriuinn is substituted for Oturiui in the passage (p. SeS.), "Then grew 

foe Bowing and watery, wta pfOrariui, the Portugal Blabon, to kt in price; " wUli tin 

following note : " All the edfttOM have Onorius, which however must lie a IBM* mis. 
print. He was not a Portuguese, but ■ Spaniard, born at Tarragona, nor indeed ever 
I Mfbop, lie m Hal by Bfc AogUliilH <>n a mission to Jerusalem, fend is RtppoMd 
tn hnve died in Africa in the earlier part of the fifth century." In the following year 
Mr, II. ii.'hn published a translation of the !)r Avgtmatb, which is luiie mom loan 

ii reprint of Shaw's translation, revised Ifld edited by Mr. Joseph Devcy. In this 
Oroiius Is silently substituted for Owrim in the same passage, with this note ; 

•» Neither a Portuguese, nor a bUhop, but ■ sv.ud-h u k bom ll Tarragona, and 

sent by St. Augustine on a mission to Jrrusalem in the commencement of the fifth 
century.'' The mistake is the more remarkable because the passage '" Bacon refer* 
ob i'Mi-ly ami tiinuistaknbty to the period of the Reformation. 

* This point Is omitted in the translation, except in so far a* it is Involved in an 
observation which is added under the next head — vie. that editors besides giving 
" ran brief censure and judgment of their authors" should compare them with other 
writers on the same subjects. Hut I .nil inclined to suspect that the omission wa 
Ml ; for tan truth is, that without constant reference- to the times and circum- 
stances in which he wrote hardly any author can be properly understood. 



studies ; that men may know in what order or pursuit to 
read. 1 

For Pedantical knowledge, it containeth that difference of 
Tradition which is proper for youth ; whereunto appertain 
divers considerations of ffreat fruit- 

As first, the timing and seasoning of knowledges ; as with 
what to initiate them, and from what fur a time to refrain llu-m. 

Secondly, the consideration where to begin with the easiest 

ninl so proceed to the more difficult; and in what courses 2 to 

press the more difficult and then to turn them to the more 

: for it is one method to practise swimming with bladders, 

and another to practise dancing with heavy shoes. 

A third is the application of learning according unto the 
propriety of the wits ; for there is no defect in the faculties 
intellectual hut Beemeth to have a proper cure contained in 
■8SM studies: as for example, if a child be bird-witted, that is, 
hath not the faculty of attention, the Mathematics giveth a 
remedy thereunto; for in them, if the wit be caught away but 
B moment, one is new to begin. And as sciences have a pro- 
priety towards faculties for cure and help, so faculties or powers 
have a sympathy towards sciences for excellency or speedy 
profiting; and therefore it is an inquiry of great wisdom, what 
kinds of wits and natures are most apt and proper for what 

Fourthly, the ordering of exercises is matter of great conse- 
quence to hurt or help; for as is well observed by Cicero, 
men in exercising their faculties, if they be not well ad\ bed, 
do exercise their faults and get ill habits as well as good ; so 
as there is a great judgment to be had in the continuance and 
intermission of exercises. It were too long to partk-ulaii-e a 
number of other considerations of this nature, tilings hut of 
mean appeal anc. 1 , but of singular efficacy. For as the wrong- 
ing or cherishing of seeds or young plants is that that is nm-t 
important to their thriving; and as it was noted that the fir?t 
six king- being in truth as tutors of the itate of Rome in the 
infaaoj thi n of, was the principal cause of the Immense great- 
of that state which followed: so the culture and man- 

1 Thi* pi'tnt I* :il" omitted in »he translation ; perhaps a* Included in the •' censure 
nntl judgment;" which ( he add*) if as it were the Critic 1 ! rh.tiv ; an oAer rnnnliM 
Itl hi* tilm- liy «-omr great men. nt'tjnrcM ceitt- no»tro jtu/uia ij nut [itn minlulo crtti- 
ciirnm, — men aljo»e the rtttfOfl <A enue*. 

w* : i>niUthl> :i mUpftnt fi)C chics. 


uratice of minds in youth hath such a forcible (though unseen) 
operation, as hardly any length of time or contention of labour 
can countervail it afterwards. And it is not amiss to observe 
also how small and mean faculties gotten by education, yet 
when they fall into great men or great matters, do work great 
and important effects ; whereof we see a notable example in 
Tacitus of two stage-players, Perccnnius and Vibulenus, who 
by their faculty of playing put the Pannonian armies into an 
extreme tumult and combustion. For there arising ;i mutiny 
aiimngst them upon the death of Augustus Ccesar, Blffisus the 
lieutenant had cummitted some of the mutiners; which were 
huddenly rescued ; whereupon Vibulenus got to be heard 
speak, which he did in this manner : — These poor innocent 
wretches, appointed to cruel death, you have restored to behold the 
light. But who shall restore my brother to me, or life unto my 
brother? that teas sent hither in message frvm the legions <>t 
Germany to treat of the common cause, and he hath murdered 
him this last night by some of his fencers and ruffians, that he 
hath about him for his 68*mtionerM KJNM soldiers. Ansu < r, 
Blcesus, what is done witlt his body? The mortalest enemies do 
not deny burial. fflien I have performed my last ditties to the 
corpse with hisses, with tears, command me to be slain besides 
him ; so that these my fellows, for our good meaning and nnr 
true hearts to the legions, may have leave to bury us. 1 With 

1 The last clause docs not give the exact meaning of the original, from which it mnj- 

secm that Baton was reporting toe speech from memory ; unless it be that a line 

identally dropped out. By inserting after "fellows" the words "seeng us put 

to death for no crime, but only for," &c the sense would be represented with sufficient 


In tb<- translation, this passage relating to " Pedantlcal knowledge," — that Is tin- 
knowledge 1 which concerns the Instruction of youth. — is considerably enlarged, and 
a distinct opinion 1* expresfd upon many <>t' the points which are he e only noticed 
as worthy of enquiry. He b-gins by recommending the schools nf the Jesuits at the 
best model, — an opinion which he had already Intimated >n the rlr.-t book of (he 
Advanervunt. He approves of a collegiate education both for boys and young nun, 
as distinguished from a private education under masters. He wishes comoenriiums to 
be avoided, and the system which, aiming at precocity, produces uverconfldence and 
I imre shew of proficiency. He would encourage Independence of mind, ind if any 
one shews a taste for studies which He out of the regular course, and can And Mme to 
pursue them, he would by no means have blm restrained. Of the two methods 
mentioned in the text, one beginning with the easiest tasks, the other with the 
most difficult, he recommends a judicious intermixture, as best for the advancement 
of the powers both «f mind and body. With regard to the " application of learning 
according unto the propriety of the wits," lie observes (be.ldes its use as a corrective 
of mental defects) that mastcs ought to attend to It fur the guidance of the parents 
in choosing their sons' course o1 life ; and also because a man will advance *o much 
fister in studies for which he has a natural aptitude than in any uth'-rs. With regard 
to the "ordering of exercises" he recommeuds the system of intermission.. ( Irm/ur 
tuttuu at iiitcrmiiUrt tsercitia ct tubinUc rcjicttre, tjiuiui ittiiUur cohUkuui c tt urycrr.) 



winch speech he put the army into an infinite fury and up- 
roar; whereas truth was he had no hrother, neither was there 
any such matter, but he played it merely as if he had been 
upon the stage. 

But to return : we are now come to a period of Rational 
Knowledges; wherein if I have made the divisions other than 
those that are received, yet would I not be thought to disallow 
atl those divisions which I do not use. For there is a double 
necessity imposed upon me of altering the divisions. The one, 
because it differeth in end and purpose, to sort together those 
things which are next in nature, and those things which are 
next in use. For if a secretary of state should sort his papers, 
it is like in his study or general cabinet he would sort together 
things of a nature, &s treaties, instructions, &c. but in his boxes 
or particular cabinet he would sort together those that he were 
like to use together, though of several natures ; so in this general 
cabinet of knowledge it was necessary for me to follow the 
divisions of the nature of things ; whereas if myself had been to 
handle any particular knowledge, I would have respected the 
divisions fittest for use. The other, because the bringing in of 
the defieiences did by consequence alter the partitions of the rest : 
for let the knowledge extant (for demonstration sake) be fifteen ; 
let the knowledge with the deficiences be twenty ; the parts 
of fifteen are not the parts of twenty; for the parts of fii'liiii 
are three and five; the parts of twenty are two, four, five, and 
ten. So as these things are without contradiction, and could 
not otherwise be. 

% ' We proceed now to that knowledge which considcreth of 

Lastly he would decidedly have the Art of acting {actio thtatralit) made a part of 
the education nf youth. The Jesuits, he says, do not despise it ; and he thinks they 
are right ; for thoueh it be of HI repute as a profession (#i tit pnfltmrin, infums 
tit) yet an a part of tiitciplint it is of excellent use. It strengthens the memory', it 
regulates the lone and effect of the voice and pronunciation, it tenches a decent 
carriage of the countenance and gesture, it begets uo small degree of ttuindeiice, and 
accustoms young men to bear being looked at. In Bacon's time, when masques acted 
by young gentlemen of the Universities or Inns of Court were the favourite enter- 
tainment of princes, these things were probably better attended to than they arc now — 
and he could have pointed no doubt to many living examples in illustration of his 
remark. The examples which modern experience supplies are all of the negative 
kind, but not therefore the less significant. The art of speaking, of recitation, even 
of reading aloud, is not now taught a: all ; and the consequence is, that even among 
men otherwise accomplished not many will be found who can either speak a speech of 
their own, or recite the speecb of another, or read a book aloud, so as to be Iistemd to 
with pleasure in a mixed company for a quarter of an hour together. 
• De Aug. vll. I. 





the Appetite 1 and Will of Man; whereof Salomon saith, 
Ante omnia, Jili, enstodi cor tuitm ; nam inde procedunt actiones 
vita: [keep thy heart with all diligence, for thereout come 
the actions of thy life]. In the handling of this science, 
those which have written seem to me to have done as if a man 
that professeth to teach to write did only exhibit fair copies of 
alphabets and letters joined, without giving any precepts or 
directions for the carriage of the hand and framing of th« 
letters. So have they made good and fair exemplars and copies, 
carry ing the draughts and portraitures of Good, Virtue, Duty, 
Felicity ; propounding them well described as the true objects 
and scopes of man's will and desires ; but how to attain these 
excellent marks, and how to frame and subdue the will of man 
to become true and conformable to these pursuits, they pass it 
over altogether, or slightly and unprofitably. For it is not the 
disputing that mora/ virtues are iii the mind of man by habit and 
not hij nature, or the distinguishing that generous spirits are icon 
/»/ doctrines and persuasions, and the vulgar sort by reward and 
punishment 1 , and the like scattered glances and touches, that 
can excuse the absence of this part. 

The reason of this omission I suppose to be that hidden rock 
whereupon both this and many other barks of knowledge have 
been cast away ; which is, that men have despised to be con- 
versant in ordinary and common matters ; the judicious direc- 
tion whereof nevertheless is the wisest doctrine (for life con- 
sisteth not in novelties or subtilities) ; but contrariwise they 
have compounded sciences chiefly of a certain resplendent or 
lustrous mass of matter, chosen to give glory either to the sub • 
tility of disputations or to the eloquence of discourses. But 
Seneca giveth an excellent check to eloquence ; Nocet illis 
eloquentia, quibus non rerum cupiditatem facit, sed sui: [elo- 
quence does mischief when it draws men's attention away from 
the matter to fix it on itself]. Doctrines should be such as 
should make men in love with the lesson, and not with the 
teacher; being directed to the auditor's benefit, and nol to the 
author's commendation : and therefore those are of the right 
kind which may be concluded as Demosthenes concludes his 

' In the translation the word Appetite is omitted; and the Will is described ju 
governed by right reason, seduced by apparent good, having the passions for spurs, 
the organs and voluntary motions for ministers. 

■in' giving It in precept (he adds in the translation) that if you would rectify 
the mind you must Iwnd it like a wand in the direction contrary to its IncLxUicc. 



counsel, Qua si feceritis, non oraturem dnntaxat in pr&sentia 
laudabitis, sed vosmctipsos etiam non ita multo post statu rerum 
vestrarum meliore .- [if you follow this advice you will do a 
grace to yourselves no less than to the speaker, — to him by 
your vote to-day, to yourselves by the improvement which you 
will presently find in your affairs]. 

Neither needed men of so excellent parts to have despaired of 
a fortune which the poet Virgil promised himself, (and indeed 
obtained,) who got as much glory of eloquence, wit, and learn- 
ing in the expressing of the observations of husbandry, as of 
the heroical acts of iEneas : — 

Nee eum ariimi dubius, verbis ca vincere magnum 
Quota ait, et angustts his adders rebus honorem. 
[llow Imr J the task alns full "well I know 
Willi charm of words to grace a theme so low.] 

And surely if the purpose be in good earnest not to write 
at leisure that which men may read at leisure, but really to 
instruct and suborn action and active life, these Georgics of 
the mind, concerning the husbandry and tillage thereof, are no 
less worthy than the heroical descriptions of Virtue, Duty, and 
Felicity. Wherefore the main and primitive division of moral 
knowledge scemeth to be into the Exemplar or Platform of 
Good, and the Regiment or Culture of the Mind; the one de- 
scribing the nature of good, the other prescribing rules how to 
subdue, apply, and accommodate the will of man thereunto. 

The doctrine touching the Platform or Nature of Good con- 
sidereth it either Simple or Compared ; either the kinds of 
good, or the degrees of good : in the later whereof those in- 
finite disputations which were touching the supreme degree 
thereof, which they terra felicity, beatitude, or the highest 
good, the doctrines concerning which were as the heathen 
divinity, are by the Christian faith discharged. And as Aristo- 
tle Faith, That young men may be hapj>y, but not but 
by hope; eo we must all acknowledge our minority, and 
embrace the felicity which is by hope of the future world. 

Freed therefore and delivered from this doctrine of the phi- 
losophers' heaven, whereby they feigned an higher elevation of 
man's nature than was, (for we see in what an height of style. 
Seneca writeth, Vere mnyuitm, habere J'rtit/ilitutern hominis, 
securitutem Dei, [it is true greatness to have in one the frailty 
of a man .and the security of a God,] we may with more so- 
il i: 2 



brioty Mid truth receive the rest of their inquiries and labours. 
Wherein for the Nature of Good Positive or Simple, they have 
set it down excellently, in describing the forms of Virtue and 
Duty, with their situations and postures, in distributing them 
into their kinds, parts, provinces, actions, and administrations, 
and the like : nay farther, they have commended them to man's 
nature and spirit with great quickness of argument and beauty 
of persuasions; yea, and fortified and intrenched them (as much 
as discourse can do) against corrupt and popular opinions. 
Again, fur the Degrees and Comparative Nature of Good, they 
have also excellently handled it in their triplicity of Good, in 
the comparisons between a contemplative and an active life, in 
the distinction between virtue with reluctation and virtue 
secured, in their encounters between honesty and profit, in 
their balancing of virtue with virtue, and the like ; so as this 
part deserveth to be reported for excellently laboured. 1 

Notwithstanding, if before they had comen to the popular and 
received notions of virtue and vice, pleasure and pain, and the 
rest, they had stayed a little longer upon the inquiry concern- 
ing the roots of good and evil, and the strings of those roots, 
they had given, in my opinion, a great light to that which 
followed ; and specially if ihey hud consulted with nature, they 
had made their doctrines less prolix and more profound; which 
being by them in part omitted and in part handled with much 
confusion, we will endeavour to resume and open in a more 

char manner. 

There is formed in every thing a double nature of good : the 
one, as every thing is a total or substantive in itself; the other, 
as it is a part or member of a greater body ; whereof the later 
is in degree the greater and the worthier, because it tendeth to 
the conservation of a more general form. Therefore we see 
the iron in particular sympathy movelh to the loadstone ; but 
yet if it exceed a certain quantity, it fursakcth the affection to 
the loadstone, and like a good patriot inoveth to the earth, 
which is the region and country of massy bodies; so may we 
go forward, and see that water and massy bodies move to the 
centre of the earth ; but rather than to suffer a divulsion in the 
continuance of nature, they will move upwards from the centre 

' Well by the ancient philosopher*, but *till better (according to the translation) by 
the rlivinrs in their discussions of moral duUts and virtues, case* of conscieuce, 
sins, be. 



of the earth, forsaking their duty to the earth in regard of their 
duty to the world. This double nature of good, and the cora- 
]i:u:ttiv. thereof, is much more BBgnweH OOOO ninti. it" lie de- 
generate not; unto whom the conservation of duty to the 
public ought to be much more preciouB than the conservation 
of life and being : according to that memorable speech of Pom- 
p eius Magnus, when being in commission of purveyance for a 
famine at Rome, and being dissuaded with great vehemency 
and instance by his friends about him that he should not hazard 
himself to sea in an extremity of weather, he said only to them, 
Necesse est ut earn, non ut vivam : [it is needful that I go, not 
that I live]. But it may be truly affirmed that there was never 
any philosophy, religion, or other discipline, which did so 
plainly and highly exalt the good which is communicative, and 
depress the good which is private and particular, as the Holy 
Faith ; well declaring, that it was the same God that gave the 
Christian law to men, who gave those laws of nature to inani- 
mate creatures that we spake of before; for we read that the 
elected saints of God have wished themselves anathematized 
and razed out of the book of life, in an ecstasy of charity and 
infinite feeling of communion. 

This being set down and strongly planted, doth judge and 
determine most of the controversies wherein Moral Philosophy 
ia conversant. For first it decideth the question touching the 
proferment of the contemplative or active life, and decideth it 
against Aristotle. For all the reasons which he bringeth for 
the contemplative are private, and respecting the pleasure and 
dignity of a man's self, (in which respects no question the 
contemplative life hath the pre-eminence:) not much unlike 
to that comparison which Pythagoras made for the gracing 
and magnifying of philosophy and contemplation; who being 
asked what he was, answered, That if Hitro were ever at the 
(ffi/iiijifrni games, he knew the manner, thrtt some came to try 
their fortune for the prizes, and some came as merchants to utter 
their commodities, and some came to matte good cheer and meet 
/In ir friends, and some came to look on ; and that he teas one of 
them that came to look on. But men must know, that in this 
theatre of man's life it is. reserved only for God and Angels to 
be lookers on. Neither could the like question ever have been 
received in the church, notwithstanding their Pretiosa in oculis 
Domini mors sanctorum ejus, [precious in the sight of the Lord 



is the death of his saints,] by which place they would exalt 
their civil death and regular professions, but upon this defence, 
that the tiionastical life is not simple ' contemplative, but per- 
fozmeth the duty either of incessant prayers and supplications, 
which hath been truly esteemed as an office in the church, or 
else of writing or taking 2 instructions for writing concerning 
the law of God, as Moses did when he 'abode so long in the 
mount. And so we see Henoch the seventh from Adam, who 
was the first Contemplative and walked with God, yet did 
also endow the church with prophecy, which St Jude citeth. 
But for contemplation which should be finished in itself with- 
out casting beams upon society, assuredly divinity knoweth 
it not. 

Itdecideth also the controversies between Zeno and Socrates 
and their schools and successions on the one side, who placed 
felicity in virtue simply or attended ; the actions and exercises 
whereof do chiefly embrace and concern society ; and on the 
other side*, the Cyrenaics and Epicureans, who placed it in 
pleasure, and made virtue (as it is used in some comedies of 
errors, wherein the mistress and the maid change habits,) to be 
but as a servant, without which pleasure cannot be served and 
attended ; and the reformed school of the Epicureans, which 
placed it in serenity of mind and freedom from perturbation; as 
if they would have deposed Jupiter again, and restored Saturn 
and the first age, when there was no summer nor winter, 
spring nor autumn, but all after one air and season; and 
Herillus 4 , which placed felicity in extinguishment of the dis- 
putes of the mind, making no fixed nature of good and evil, es- 
teeming things according to the clearness of the desires, or the 
rcluctaliun 5 ; which opinion was revived in the heresy of the 
Anabaptists, measuring things according to the motions of the 
spirit, and the constancy or wavering of belief: all which arc 

1 Etlil. 1629 and 1633 have limply. 

1 Bo Fild. 1623 and 1633. The original has in tailing. In the translation the words 
"taking instruction* for writing" art.' omitted; as applicable, 1 suppose, to the case of 
Miwm only, not of the Church ; anil multo in otio substituted. 

1 Et relinuat enmpluret trctan et tehnlat, ex altera jiarU .- rcluti, fcc. All the opinions 

which are about to be cited belong to ■ the oilier side" — ■". e. the side opposed to that 
of Zeno and Socrates; a point which from the careless composition of the English Is 
not immediately clear. 

• The translation has "and lnstly that exploded school of Pyrrho and Heriltus." 

* That Is, esteeming those actions good which are attended with clearness and com- 
posure of mind, those bad which proceed with dislike and reluctation — {actio*** pro 

't main h'lhtHtta, p-cmt ex ■mitiw, motu /iuro it irrrjracto, nut Contra era drcr. 
fntiune rt relnctulvme, prwliteul). 



manifest to tend to private repose and contentment, and not to 
point of society. 

It censureth also the philosophy of Epictetus, which presup- 
powth that felicity must be placed in those things which are in 
<uir power, lest we be liable to fortune and disturbance : as if 
it were not a thing much more happy to fail in good and vir- 
* in his ends for the public, than to obtain all that we can wish 
to ourselves in our proper fortune ; as Consalvo said to his 
soldiers, shewing them Naples, and protesting he had rather 
die one foot forwards than to have his life secured for long by 
one foot of retreat ; whereunto the wisdom of that heavenly 
'eader hath signed, who hath affirmed that a good conscience is a 
continual feast : shewing plainly that the conscience of good 
intentions, howsoever succeeding, ia a more continual joy to 
nature than all the provision which can be made for security 
and repose. 

It censureth likewise that nbuse of philosophy which grew 
general about the time of Epictetus, in converting it into an 
occupation or profession ; as if the purpose had been, not to 
rariftt and extinguish perturbations, but to fly and avoid the 
causes of them, and to shape a particular kind and course of 
life to that end ; introducing such an health of mind, as was 
that health of body of which Aristotle spcaketh of Herodicus, 
who did nothing all his life long but intend his health: whereas 
if men refer themselves to duties of society, as that health 
of body is best which is ablest to endure all alterations and 
extremities, so likewise that health of mind is most proper' 
which can go through the greatest temptations and perturba- 
tions. So as Diogenes" opinion is to be accepted, who com- 
iiH'iided not them which abstained, but them which sustained, 
and could refrain their mind in pracipitio, and could give unto 
the mind (as is used in horsemanship) the shortest stop or 

Lastly, it censureth the tenderness and want of application 1 
in some of the most ancient and reverend philosophers and 
philosophical men, that did retire too easily from civil business, 
for avoiding of indignities and perturbations ; whereas the re- 
solution of men truly moral ought to be such as the same Con- 

1 i. r. (fcll mind is TO be considered truly and properly healthy— (am'mvi ilk demum 
vtre ct propria MSM tl niJirim cenatndiu ttt). 

' meaning what we ->ln)ulfl now rather call want of compliance or nccommouation — 
(itcptltildlnem nd morijcrunilum 1, 

11 t 



salvo said the honour of a soldier should be, e teld crassiorr, 
[of a stouter web,] aud not so fine as that every thing should 
cateh in it and endanger it. 

II l To resume Private or Particular Good, it falleth into 
the division of Good Active and Passive : for this difference 
of Good (not unlike to th:it which amongst the Romans was 
expressed in the familiar or household terms of Promus and 
Condus) is formed also in all things ; and is best disclosed in 
the two several appetites in creatures, the one to preserve or 
continue themselves, and the other to dilate or multiply them- 
selves ; whereof the later seemeth to be the worthier. For in 
nature, the heavens, which are the more worthy, are the agent; 
and the earth, which is the less worthy, is the patient. In the 
pleasures of living creatures, that of generation is greater 
than that of food. In divine doctrine, Beatius est dare ijuam 
accipere : [it is more blessed to give than to receive]. And in 
life, there is no man's spirit so soft, but csteemeth the effecting 
of somewhat that he hath fixed in his desire more than sensua- 
lity. Which priority of the Active Good is much upheld by 
the consideration of our estate to be mortal and exposed to 
fortune ; for if we might have a perpetuity and certainty in our 
pleasures, the state 3 of them would advance their price ; but 
when we see it is but Ma/piii astimamns mori tardiits, [we think 
it a great matter to be a little longer in dying,] and Ne alo- 
rierit de crastino, nescis partem did, [boast not thyself of to- 
morrow, thou knowest not what the day may bring forth,] it 
inaketh us to desire to have somewhat secured and exempted 
from time; which are only our deeds and works; as it is said 
Opera eorum secjuuiitur eos : [their works follow them]. The 
pre-eminence likewise of this Active Good is upheld by the 
affection which is natural in man towards variety and proceed- 
ing ; which in the pleasures of the sense (which is the principal 
part of Passive Good) can have no great latitude : Cogita 
quamdiu eadem ftceris ; cibus, somnns, Indus; per hunc circulum 
curritur ; mori velle non tantum fortis, ant miser, ant prudcu.s, 
scd etiam fastidiosits potest : [if you consider, says Seneca, how 
often you do the same thing over and over ; food sleep exer- 
••ise, and then food sleep exercise again, and so round and 
round ; you will think that there needs neither fortitude nor 

De Aug. vii. 2. 

u *. the stability. (mmtMm <■' 



misery nor wisdom to reconcile a man to death; one might 
wish to die for mere weariness of being alive]. But in en- 
terprises, pursuits, and purposes of life, there is much variety ; 
whereof men are sensible with pleasure in their inceptions, pro- 
gressions, recoils, reintegrations, approaches, and attainings to 
their ends : so as it was well said, Vita sine proposito languida et 
vaga est ; [life without an object to pursue is a languid and 
tiresome thing]. Neither hath this Active Good any ' identity 
with the good of society, though in some case it hath an in- 
cidence into it : for although it do many times bring forth actB 
of beneficence, yet it is with a respect private to a man's own 
power, glory, amplification, continuance; us appcarcth plainly 
when it findeth a contrary subject For that gigantine state of 
mind which possesscth the troublers of the world, such as was 
Lucius Sylla, and infinite other in smaller model, who would 
have all men happy or unhappy na they were their friends or 
enemies, and would give form to the world according to their 
own humours, (which is the true Theomachy,) pretendeth and 
aspircth to active good 3 , though it recedeth furthest from good 
of society, which we have determined to be the greater. 

To resume Passive Good, it receiveth a subdivision of Con- 
servative and Perfective. For let us take a brief review of 
th;it which wc have said : we have spoken first of the Good of 
Society, the intention whereof ciubraceth the form of Human 
Nature, whereof we are members and portions, and not our 
own proper and individual form ; we have spoken of Active 
Good, and supposed it as a part of Private and Particular 
Good; and rightly*; for there is impressed upon all things 
a triple desire or appetite proceeding from love to themselves ; 
one of preserving and continuing their form ; another of ad- 
vancing and perfecting their form ; and a third of multiplying 
and extending their form upon other things ; whereof the mul- 
tiplying or signature of it upon other things is that which we 
handled by the name of Active Good. So as there renuuncth 
the conserving of it, and perfecting or raising of it; which 
later is the highest degree of Passive Good. For to preserve 
in state is the less, to preserve with advancement is the greater. 

1 80 edd. 1629 and 1633. The original bu and. 

* 1. e. apparent good of the individual — (btntum ucticnm intiiriilunh taitcm appnrtiu ). 
' This pMMf ■ fr<jin /i.r Ui us t>ikr kc. to riijhlly, b emitted In the ; and 
the argument proceed-! mure clearly without it 



So in man, 


Igneus est ollis rigor, et coslestis origo.' 
[The living fire that glows seeds within 
Remembers its celestial origin.] 

His approach or assumption to divine or angelical nature is the 
perfection of his form ; the error or false imitation of which 
good is that which is the tempest of human life ; while man, 
upon the instinct of an advancement formal and essentia), 
is carried to seek an advancement local. For as thoM 
which are Bick, and find no remedy, do tumhle up and down 
and change place, as if by a remove local they could obtain 
a remove internal ; so is it with men in ambition, whin foiling 
of the mean to exalt their nature, they are in a perpetual 
cstuation to exalt their place. So then Passive Good is, as 
\v:i£ said, either Conservative or Perfective. 

To resume the good of Conservation or Comfort, which con- 
eisteth in the fruition of that which is agreeable to our nat?tri:\ ; 
it seemeth to be the most pure and natural of pleasures, but 
yet the softest and the lowest. And this also rcceiveth a dif- 
ference, which hath neither been well judged of nor well 
enquired. For the good of fruition or contentment is placed 
either in the sincereness of the fruition, or in the quickness 
and vigour of it ; the one superinduced by the equality, the 
other by vicissitude ; the one having less mixture of evil, the 
other more impression of good. Whether of these is the greater 
good, is a question controverted ; but whether man's nature 
may not be capable of both, is a question not enquired. 

The former question being debated between Socrates and ■ 
Sophist, Socrates placing felicity in an equal and constant 
peace of mind, and the Sophist in much desiring and much 
enj i tying, they fell from argument to ill words: the Sophist say- 
ing that Socrates' felicity was the felicity of a block or stone ; 
and Socrates saying that the Sophist's felicity was the felicity 
of one that, had the itch, who did nothing but itch and scratch. 
And both these opinions do not want their supports. For the 
opinion of Socrates is much upheld by the general consent 
even of the Epicures themselves, that virtue beareth a great 
part in felicity ; and if bo, certain it is that virtue hath more 

1 The connexion of this with the prrcedinc sentence i* m:nle drnrer in the trans. 
Iutiim liy Hie remark ttuit there arc found throuphnut the universe certain n»tilcr 
natures which inferior natures recognise as their origin and towards which they aspire. 



use in clearing perturbations than in compassing desires. The 
Sophist's opinion is much favoured by the assertion we last 
spake of, that good of advancement is greater than good of 
simple preservation ; because every obtaining a desire hath a 
shew of advancement ', as motion though in a circle hath a 
shew of progression. 

But the second question, decided the true way, maketh the 
former superfluous. For can it be doubted but that there are 
eume who take more pleasure in enjoying pleasures than some 
other, and yet nevertheless are less troubled with the loss or 
leaving of them ? so as this same Non uti ut non appetas, non 
appetere ut non metuas, sunt animi pusilli et dijfidentis : [to 
abstain from the use of a thing that you may not feel a want of 
it ; to shun the want that you may not fear the loss of it ; are 
the precautions of pusillanimity and cowardice *]. And it 
secmeth to me, that most of the doctrines of the philosophers 
are more fearful and cautionary than the nature of things 
requireth. So have they increased the fear of death in offering 
to cure it. For when they would have a man's whole life to 
be but a discipline or preparation to die, they must needs make 
men think that it is a terrible enemy against whom there is no 
end of preparing. Better saith the poet : 

Qui finem vita? extremum inter niunera ponat 
Naturte : 

[the end of life is to be counted among the boons of nature]. 
So have they sought to make men's minds too uniform and 
harmonica!, by not breaking them sufficiently to contrary 
motions : the reason whereof I suppose to be, because they 
themselves were men dedicated to a private, free, and unap- 
plied course of life. For as we see, upon the lute or like 
instrument, a ground, though it be sweet and have shew of 
many changes, yet breakcth not the hand to such strange and 
hard stops and passages as a set song or voluntary ; much after 
the same manner was the diversity between a philosophical and 
a civil life. 3 And therefore men are to imitate the wisdom of 

1 i. t. toward* the perfection of nature ; only a tkew of advancement, however, 
nut necessarily a real ore — {quia rcrum cupiiurum adcptioitct naturum viiUuntnt 
irniim ptrfictre ; quod licit vere non faciont, lumen, fcc.). 
' Compare Shakspearc'i sonnet— 

I cannot chusc 
But weep to have that which 1 fear to lose. 
' Tblt illustration is omitted in the translation. 




jewellers ; who, if there be a grain or a cloud or an ice which 
may be ground forth without taking too much of the atone, 
they help it; but if it should lessen and abate the stone too 
much, they will not meddle with it: so ought men eo to pro- 
cure Bercnity as they destroy not magnanimity. 

Having therefore deduced the Good of Man which is Pri- 
vate and Particular as far as seemeth fit, we will now return 
to that good of tout which respectoth and beholdeth society, 
which wc may term Duty; because the term of Duty is more 
proper to ■ mind well framed and disposed towards others, 
as the term of Virtue is applied to a mind well formed and 
composed in itself; though neither can a man understand 
Virtue without some relation to society, nor Duty without an 
inward dispnsition. This part may seem at first to pertain to 
science civil and politic; but not if it be well observed. For it 
conccrncth the regiment and government of every man over 
himself, and not over others. And as in architecture the 
direction of framing the posts, beams, and other parti of build- 
ing, is not the same with the manner of joining them and 
erecting the building ; and in mechanicals, the direction how 
to frame an instrument or engine, is not the same with the 
manner of setting it on work and employing it; and yet never- 
theless in expressing of the one you incidcntly express the 
aptness towards the other; so the doctrine of conjugation of 
men in society diff'ereth from that of their conformity there- 
unto. ' 

This part of Duty is subdivided into two parts: the common 
duty of every man, as a man or member of a state ; the other, 
the respective or special duty of every man, in his profession, 
vocation, and place. The first of these is extant and well 
laboured, as hath been sard. The second likewise I may report 
rather dispersed than deficient ; which manner of dispersed 
writing in this kind of argument I acknowledge to he best. 
For who can take Qpon him to write of the proper duty, virtue, 
challenge, anil right of every several vocation, profession and 
place? For although sometimes a looker on may see more than 
a gamester, and there be a proverb more arrogant than sound, 

1 i. «. of the conformation of men to the business of society — (^wa tot rtddit «d 
kujmnmiitli tociUutit commodu conforma tt bene n (fee tot). 



That, the vale best discovercth the hill; yet there is small 
doubt but that men can write best and most really and materi- 
ally in their own professions; and that the writing of specu- 
lative men of active matter for the most part doth seem tn 
men of experience, as Phorraio's argument of the wars seemed 
to Hannibal, to be but il renins and dotage. Only there is one 
vice which accompanieth them that write in their own pro- 
fessions, that they magnify them in excess. But generally 
it were to be wished (as that which would make learning 
indeed solid and fruitful) that artive men would or could 
become writers. 

In which kind I cannot but mention, honoris causa, your 
.Majesty's excellent book touching the duty of a king: a work 
richly compounded of divinity, morality, and puliry, with great 
aspersion of all other arts; and being in mine opinion one of 
the most sound and healthful writings that I have read; not 
distempered in the h«at of invention, nor in the coldness of 
negligence; not sick of dizziness l , as those are who leese them- 
selves in their order ; nor of convulsions', as those which cramp 
in matters impertinent; not savouring of perfumes and paint- 
ings, as those do who seek to please the reader more than na- 
ture 3 beareth ; and chiefly well disposed in the spirits thereof, 
being agreeable to truth and apt for action ; and far removed 
from that natural infirmity, whercunto I noted those that write 
in their own professions to be subject, which is, that they exalt 
it above measure. For your Majesty hath truly described, not 
a king of Assyria or Persia in their extern glory, but a Moses 
or a David, pastors of their people. Neither can I ever leese 
out of my remembrance what I heard your Majesty in the same 
sacred spirit of government deliver in a great cause of judica- 
ture, which was, That Kings ruled by their laws as God did 
by the laws of nature, and ought as rarely to put in use their 
supreme prerogative ai God doth his poirer of working miracles. 
And yet notwithstanding, in your book of a free monarchy, 
you do well give men to understand, that you know the plcni- 

' D ntt m m ia tlR Original, Butinrtte in edd. 1629 awl 1623. Vertiffinc In De Aur. 

•The words "convulsion" and "cramp" seera to describe a forced and abrupt 
style; an Idea not Implied in the words of the translation, which may be retran-Utnl 
thus : "not distracted in digressions, as those which wind about to take in matters 
impertinent " — (u/ ilia iju.r nihil ml rhombum wnt rijHitintinnt oliijuu jltxuoia <«<«i- 

* ■'. t. the nature of the argument. — (on/ Uclorum potitu dtttctutloni oKum arguminli 
natta-cr inter, iuitl). 



tude of the power and right of a King, as well aa the circle of 
his office and duty. Thus have I presumed to allege this ex- 
cellent writing of your Majesty, as a prime or eminent example 
of tractates concerning special and respective duties; wherein 
I should have said as much, if it had been written a thousand 
years since. Neither am I moved with certain courtly decencies, 
which esteem it flattery to praise in presence. No, it is flat- 
tery to praise in absence; that is, when cither the virtue is 
absent, or the occasion is absent ; and so the praise is not na- 
tural, but forced, either in truth or in time. But let Cicero 
be read in his oration pro Marcella, which is nothing but an 
excellent table of Caesar's virtue, and made to his face ; besides 
the example of many other excellent persons, wiser a great deal 
than such observers ' ; and we will never doubt, upon a full 
occasion, to give just praises to present or absent. 

But to return : there belungeth further to the handling of 
this part s touching the duties of professions and vocations, a 
llelative or opposite, touching the frauds, cautele, impostures, 
and vices of every profession; which hath been likewise handled: 
but how ? rather in a satire and cynically, than seriously and 
wisely : for men have rather sought by wit to deride and tra- 
duce much of that which is good in professions, than with judg- 
ment to discover and sever that which is corrupt. For, as 
Salomon saith, He that cometh to seek after knowledge with a 
mind to scorn and censure, shall be sure to find matter for his 
humour, but no matter for his instruction: Qnterenti dcrisori 
scientiam ipsa se abscondit ; sed studioso Jit obviam. But the 
managing of this argument with integrity and truth, which I 
note as deficient, seometh to me to be one of the best fortifica- 
tions for honesty and virtue that can be planted. For as the 
fable goeth of the Basilisk, that if he see you first you die for 
it, but if you see him first he dieth ; so is it with deceits and 
evil arts; which if they be first espied they leese their life, 
but if they prevent they endanger. So that we are much be- 
holden to Macliiavel and others, that write what men do and 
not what they ought to do. For it is not possible to join ser- 
pentine wisdom with the columbine innocency, except men 

1 In the translation he merely adds the single example of Pliny the younger In his 
Pnnegyric on Trap". Whin lie wrote the jiilvnncrmrnt of Liurning, he appear* to 
have been under the impression that Pliny'* Panegyric was spoken after Trajan't 
death. .See helow, p. 442. 

* So edd. 1639 and 1633. The original has pnrtit. 



know exactly all the conditions of the serpent ; his baseness 
anil going upon his belly, his volubility and lubricity, his envy 
and sting, and the rest; that is, all forms and natures of evil. 
For without this, virtue lieth open and unfenced. Nay an 
honest man can do no good upon thoee that are wicked to re- 
claim them, without the help of the knowledge of evil. For 
men of corrupted minds presuppose that honesty groweth out 
of simplicity of manners, and believing of preachers, schnul- 
mastcrs, and men's exterior language : so as, except you can 
make them perceive that you know the utmost reaches of their 
own corrupt opinions, they despise all morality. Non reclpit 
stitltua verba pruffentia, nisi en dixeris qua versantur in corde 
ejus: [the fool will not listen to the words of the wise, unless 
you first tell him what is in his own heart]. 1 

Unto this part touching Respective Duty doth also apper- 
tain the duties between husband ami wife, parent and child, 
master and servant: so likewise the laws of friendship and 
gratitude, the civil bond of companies, colleges, and politic 
bodies, of neighbourhood, and all other proportionate duties; 
not as they are parts of government and society, but as to the 
framing of the mind of particular persons. 

The knowledge concerning good respecting Society doth 
handle it also not simply alone, but comparatively ; whereunto 
belongeth the weighing of duties between person and person, 
and case, particular and public: as we see in the proceed- 
ing a of Lucius Brutus against his own sons, which was so much 
extolled ; yet what waa said ? 

Infulix, utcunque ferent en facta* minora: 

[unhappy man! whatever judgment posterity shall pass upon 
that deed, &e.]. So the case was doubtful, and had opinion on 
both sides. Again, we see when M. Brutus and Cassius invited 
to a supper certain whose opinions they meant to feel, whether 
they were fit to be made their associates, and cast forth the 
question touching the killing of a tyrant being an usurper, 
they were divided in opinion ; some holding that servitude was 
the extreme of evils, and others that tyranny was better than 
a civil war : and a number of the like cases there are of com- 

1 In the translation thU i< set down as a detidtralnm under the title of Satira & ria 
tine tractatu* tie inlerinrHiux rerutn. 

* ■*■ animtulrertioHe illn aevern rMlnvi, — DrAUK. 

* Fula both in tbr Ativrmctmeitt mid in the De Augmentit. 



parative duty. Amongst which that nf all others is the most 
frequent, where the question is of a great deal of good to ensue 
of a small injustice- Which Jason of Thessalia determined 
against the truth: Aliqua sunt infuste facienda, ut multa juste 
fieri possint : [that there may be justice in many things there 
must be injustice in some]. But the reply is good, Authorem 
prascntis justifies habes, sponsorem futura non habes : [the jus- 
tice that is to be done now is in your power, but where is your 
■eoa rity for that which is to be done hereafter?] Men must 
pursue things which are just in present, and leave the future to 
the divine Providence. So then we pass on from this general 
part touching the exemplar and description of good. 

If ' Now therefore that we have spoken of this fruit of life, it 
DeCuUu,a rem <"d n eth to speak of the husbandry that belonged h 
A»,mi. thereunto ; without which part the former seemeth 
to be no better than a fair image or statua, which is beautiful 
to contemplate, but is without life and motion: whereunto 
Aristotle himself subscribeth in these words : Necesse est scilicet 
de virfute dicere, ct quid sit, et ex qnibus tjiejnatur. Inutile enim 
fere fuerit virtutem quidem nosse, acquirendce autem ejus mudus et 
rius ignorare. Non enim de virtute tantum, qua specie sit, qiur- 
rendum est, sed et quomodo sni copiam fuciat : utrumque enim 
vnhtmns, et rem ipsam nosse, et ejus compotes fori : hoc autcm ex 
Mtfs non succedet, nisi KUUMU et ex quibus et quomodo : [it is 
necessary to determine concerning Virtue not only what it is 
but whence it proceeds. For there would be no use in knowing 
Virtue without knowing the ways and means of acquiring 
it. For we have to consider not only what it is, but how it i9 
to be had. For we want, both to know virtue and to be vir- 
tuous ; which we cannot be without knowing both the whence 
and the how]. In such full words and with such iteration 
doth he inculcate this part. So saith Cicero in great com- 
mendation of Cato the second, that he had applied himself to 
philosophy non ita disputandi causa, sed ita Vivendi : [not that 
he might talk like a philosopher, but that he might live like 
one]. And although the neglect of our times, wherein few 
men do hold any consultations touching the reformation of 
their life, (as Seneca excellently saith, De partibua vita: quisque 
deliberut, de summit nemo,} [every man takes thought about 

Dt Ail*, vil. 3. 



the parts of his life, no man about the whole,] may make this 
part seem superfluous ; yet I must conclude with that aphorism 
of Hippocrates, Qui gravi marbo correpti dolorcs non sentiunt, its 
■mm tfyrotut; [they that are sick and yet feel no pain are 
sick in their minds;] they need medicine not only to assuage 
the disease but to awake the sense. And if it be said that the 
cure of men's minds b^longeth to sacred Divinity, it is most 
true : but yet Moral Philosophy may be preferred unto her as 
a wise servant and humble handmaid. For as the Psalm saith, 
that (he eyes of the handmaid look perpetually touardx the 
mistress, and yet no doubt many things arc left to the discretion 
of the handmaid to discern of the mistress' will ; 80 ought 
Moral Philosophy to give a constant attention to the doctrines 
of Divinity, and yet so as it may yield of herself (within 
due limits) many sound and profitable directions. 

This put therefore, because of the excellency thereof, I can- 
not but find exceeding strange that it is not reduced to written 
inquiry ; the rather because it consisteth of much matter 
wherein both speech and action is often conversant, and such 
wherein the common talk of men (which is rare, but yet 
cometh sometimes to pass) is wiser than their books. It is 
reasonable therefore that we propound it in the more particu- 
larity, both for the worthiness, and because we may acquit 
ourselves for reporting it deficient; which scemcth almost 
iiKTcilible, and is otherwise conceived and presupposed by those 
themselves that have written. We will therefore enumerate 
some heads or points thereof, that it may appear the better 
what it is, and whether it be extant. 

First therefore, in this, as in all things which are practical, 
we ought to cast up our account, what is in our power and 
what not; for the one may be dealt with by way of alteration, 
but the other by way of application only. The husbandman 
cannot oommtnd neither the nature of the earth nor the sea- 
sons of the weather; no more can the physician the constitu- 
tion of the patient nor the variety of accidents. So in the 
culture and euro of the mind of man, two things are without 
our command; points of nature, and points of fortune; for to 
the basis of the one, and the conditions of the other, our work 
is limited and tied. In these things therefore it is left unto ua 
to proceed by application : 


Vincenda est omnis foituna ferendo : 



[all fortune maybe overcome by endurance or suffering;] and 
so likewise, 

Vincenda est omnis Datura ferendo : 

[all nature may be overcome by suffering]. But wben thai 
we speak of suffering, we do not speak of a dull and neglected 
suffering, but of a wise and industrious suffering, which 
drnweth and contriveth use and advantage out of that which 
seemeth adverse and contrary ; which is that property which 
we call Accommodating or Applying. 1 Now the wisdom of 
application resteth principally in the exact and distinct know- 
ledge uF the precedent state or disposition unto which we do 
apply : for we cannot fit a garment, except we first take 
measure of the body. 

So then the first article of this knowledge is to set down 
sound and true distributions and descriptions of the several 
characters and tempers of men's natures and dispositions, 
specially having regard to those differences which are most 
radical in being the fountains and causes of the rest, or most 
frequent in concurrence or commixture s ; wherein it is not the 
handling of a lew of them in passage, the better to describe the 
mediocrities of virtues, that can satisfy this intention ; for if it 
deserve to be considered, that there ure minds which are pro- 
jmrtiitiifd to great matters, and others to small, (which Aristotle 
handleth or ought to have handled by the name of Magna- 
nimity,) doth it nut deserve as well to be considered, that there 
are minds prupuitiunal to intend many matters, and others to 
feiof 9 so that some can divide themselves, others can perchance 
do exactly well, but it must be but in few things at once ; and 
so there conic th to be a narrowness of mind, as well as a pusilla- 
nimity. And again, that some minds are proportioned to that 
which may be disjiatehed at once, or within a short return of 
time ; others to that which beyins afar "//', mid is to be icon with 

length of pursuit ; 

Jam turn tvnditriuc fovettiue I 

[he begins to attend and nurse his project while it is yet 

in the cradle;] so that there may be fitly said to be a lon- 

1 These observations arc omitted in the translation, and the whole passage is re- 
written, though rather with a view of expressing the meaning more clearly than of 
altering u. 

* It ii remarkable that the observation* which follow, down to ■» benignity or ma- 
lignity," are entirely omitted lit the Insulation. 

1 So all the editions : a second intend having probably dropped out accidentally. 



gnuimity ; which is commonly also ascribed to God as a mag- 
nanimity. So farther deserved it to be considered by Aristotle, 
that t!i fir is a disposition in conversation (supposing it in things 
which do i?i no sort touch or concern a mans self) to soothe out! 
please, and a disposition contrary to emitradiet and cross ; and 
deserveth it not mueh better to be considered, that than is a 
disposition, not in conversation or talk but in matter of more 
serious nature, (and supposing it still in things merely indif- 
/'■ rt nt,) to talie pleasure in the good of another, and a disposition 
contrariwise to take distaste at the good of mint her ; which is that 
property 1 which we call good-nature or ill-nature, benignity or 
malignity ? And therefore I cannot sufficiently marvel that, 
this part of knowledge touching the several characters of 
natures and dispositions should be omitted both in morality and 
|>olicy, considering it is of so great ministery and suppeditation 
|q them both. A man shall find in the traditions of astrology 
some pretty and apt divisions of men's natures, according to 
the predominances of the planets; lovers of quiet, lovers of 
action, lovers of victory, lovers of honour, lovers of jdeasure, 
lovers of arts, lovers of change, and so forth. A man shall find 
in the wisest sort of these Relations which the Italians make 
touching Conclaves, the natures of the several Cardinals hand- 
somely and lively painted forth. A man shall meet with in 
every day's conference the denominations of sensitive, dry, 
formal, real, humorous, ccrtai/t, hitomo di prima impressinne, 
liiiornn di ultima, impressione, and the like *l and yet neverthe- 
less this kind of observations wanderoth in words, but is* not 
fixed in inquiry. For the distinctions are found (many of 
them), but wc conclude no precepts upon them; wherein our 
fault, is the greater, because both history, poesy, and daily 
experience are as goodly fields where these observations grow ; 
whereof we make a few posies to hold in our hands, but no 
man br'mgoth them to the confectionary, that receite might he 
made of them for use of life.'' 

1 properly both in the original, and In erlii 1629 and 1633. 

* Tht» sentence Is omttM In the translation | | H rh.iiis from the difficulty of finding 
equivalent term* in l.stln ■, but the substance of the observation Is contained In the 
remark (transplanted frmn a former paragraph) that in this matter the common talk 
Of men is wiser than their liook«. 

* at both in the origin at and in add tttO and 1633. 

* In place of this we have in tin 1 translation a passage of considerable length recom- 
mending the wiser sort of historians as supplying the best material fur this kind of 
treatise ; not only In the formal character which they commonly give of any principal 
personage on recording his death, but