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J-^>Ci 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



FROM THE GIFT OF 

JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN 



OF NEW YORK 




THE 



WORKS OF HORACE 



\ 



WITU 



ENGLISH NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY. 



BY CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D.. 

PROFICSSOU OF TIIR aBBKK AND LATIN LANGUA0K8 IN OOLUMIilA OOLLK01| 
AND BECrrOR OF TUB GBAMMAB BOUOOL. 



A NEW EDITION. 

OORRBCTED AND ENLARGED, WITH EXCURSIONS RELATIVE TO TIIB 

WINES AND VINEYARDS OP THE ANCIENTS; AND A 

LIFE OF HORACE BY MILMAN. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER^ & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

1897. 



2^1i^.34r 



Harvard OoUes^e Library i 

CTift of J. P, Morgan 
March 17,1920 ^ 



Entered, nccordio^ to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eiglit hundred 

and forty-nine, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New Yorlc. 



/^ 






TO THE MEMORY OF 



MY OLD AND VALUED FRIEND, 

JAMES CAMPBELL, ESQ., 

WHO 

AMID THE BURDENSOME DUTIES OF AN OFFICIAL 8TATir>K 

COULD 8Tn.L FIND LEISURE TO GRATIFY A PURE AND 

CULTIVATED TASTE, BY REVIVING THF 

STUDIES OF HIS EARLIER YEARS. 



PREFACE. 



The text cf the present edition has been oorreoted 
throughout, principally by that of Orelli, and the notes 
have been carefully revised and emended. Much ad- 
ditional matter has also been iniroiluoed, nut only in 
the shape of new notes, but also of Excursions. Tho 
latter have been taken from the larger edition, and will 
oe found to contain much interesting- information re- 
specting the vineyards and wines of the ancients 
Milman's Life of Horace has also 1)een appended, 
from the splendid edition of the poet, which has re- 
wntly appeared under the supervision of that scholar, 
and likewise a biographical sketch of Maecenas. 

The larger edition contained a list of the authori- 
ties whence much subsidiary matter was obtained for 
the notes. This list was omitted in the previous edi- 
tion of the smaller work, as the latter professed to be 
a mere abridgment, and as it was at that time the in- 
tention of the editor to publish a new edition of the 
larger Horace. This intention being, however, now 
abandoned, it has been thought advisable to transfer 
the list of authorities from the larger edition to tho 
present one, the last thirteen works enumerated there- 
in beiu^ those from which materials have been more 
immediately obtained for the imprcveinent of the pros- 
ont volume. The list is as follows: 



viu rREiAci;: 

i, lloratiiis. cum Annotatioiiibus Mb 

reti Venet. 15! 

i. Horatii Opera, Grammaticorum XL. 
Coinmeutariis .... 

8. Horatii Opera, ed. Bentleius 

4. Horatii PoSmata, ed. Caiiiugainiua . 

5. Horatius, ed. Sanadon 
i HoratiOs, ed. Watson 
7. Horatius (typis Andre.* Foulis) 
8 Horatii EpistolsB ad Pisoncs et Augus- 

tum(Hard) .... 

9. Horatii Opera, ed. Valart . 

10. Horatius, ed. Wakefield . 

11. Hoi*atii Opem, ed. Mitscherlich 
l^. Horatius, ed. Bond .... 
J3. Horace, translated by Francis, with 

the notes oi' Du Bois 

14. Horatii Carkr.ina, ed. .Taui 

15. Horatius, In Us. Delph. . 

16. Horatii Opera, ed. Fea 

17. Horatii Bclog:e, cum uotis Baxter!, 

Gesneri, et Zeunii 

1 8. Horatius, ed. Wieland 

19. Horatii Opera, ed. Kidd . 
20» Horatii Opera, ed. Hunter 
'21. Horatius, ed. Gargallo 

22. Horatius, ed. Fea. cum addit. Bothii Heidelb., 

23. Horatii Opera, ed. J{f3ck . 

24. Horatii Ecloge, cum notis Baxt., 

Gesn., Zeun., et Bothii . . . Lips., 1822. 

25. Horatius, ed. Batteux, cum addit. 

Achaintre Paris, 1823, 1 \ k 

26 Horatii Carmiua, ed. Knox . . London, 192A. 
37. Horatii Epistola ad Pisoucs, ed. Ayl- 

mer Loudon, 1824. 

28 Horatii Opera, ed. D6ring . . Glasgow, 182G. 

29. Horatius, ed. Bip., cum addit Gence. Paris, 1828. 

30. Horatii Epist. Libri Primi 2do, ed. 

Obbarius Halbers., 1838. 

81 Horatius, ed. Filon .... Pa' is, 1828. 

R!. Mnrklandi in Horat. NotJC {Clrtss. 

Jo\rr*., vol. xiii., p. 12G, aeqq*)* 



Basil, 


1580 




Cantab. 


1711. 




London, 


1721, 


2 rolf 


Paris, 


1729, 


2 voli 


London, 


1743, 


2 volf 


Glasgow, 


1760. 




London, 


1776, 


3 vda 


Paris, 


1770. 




London, 


1794, 


2 volf 


Lips., 


1800, 


2 vols 


Paris, 


1806. 




London, 


1807, 


4 Ynlii 


Lips., 


1809, 


2 volb 


London, 


1810. 




Rome, 


1811, 


2 vols 


Lips., 


1815. 




Lip.s., 


1816, 


3 olii 


Cantab., 


1817. 




Cupri, 


1819. 




Mediol., 


1820. 




Heidelb., 


1821.. 


9 rM 


Vinar., 


1821. 





Lips., 1843. 

Turici, 1843-4, 2 vob 

Tunci, J 844, 2 voli 

Halb., 1830. 

Leid., 1845. 

BoniiiB, 1848. 

liOndon, 1848. 

London, 1 848. 

LoudoQ, 1848. 



FREFAC55. IX 

SI Bontleii Corse Novissimse ad Ilorat. 

(Mum. Crit. vol. i., p. 194, teqq.). 
84. Horatius, ed. Braunhard . . Lips«, f.63I*8, 4 vok 

35. Horatius, ed Heindorf 
3p. Horatius, ed. Orelli . 

37. Horatius, ed. Oi^lli (ed. Miu. ) 

38. Horatius, ed. Schuiid 

39. Horatius, ed. Peerlkamp . 
10 Horatius, ed. Dillcnberger 
41 Horatius, ed. Keightley . 

42. Horatius, ed. Qirdlestoue, Slc. 

43. Horatius, ed. MUmQ^n 

44. Dflntzer, Kntik und Erklftning der 

Episteln des Horaz . . . Braunscli. 1843^, 3 vum 

45. Jacobs, Lectiones Venusinje . . Leipz., 1834. 

46. Taite's Horatius Restitutus . . London, 1837. 

The present edition, it will be perceived, is an ex- 
purgated one, every thing being thrown out that could 
offend the most fastidious delicacy. In this respect, 
the edition here offered to the student will be found 
decidedly superior to that recently put forth in En- 
gland by the Rev. Messrs. Girdlestone and Osborne, 
and in which many passages have been allowed to re 
main that are utterly at variance with the idea of an 
expurgated text. 

It only remains for the editor to express his sincere 
obligations to his learned friend^ Professor Drisler, foi 
his kind and careful co-operation in bringing out the 
present work — a co-operation rendered doubly pleasing 
by the consciousness^ on the part of the editor, of its 
having been the means of rendering the present vol- 
ume far more useful to the student than it wouM 
therwise have been. 

CiiiUtLES AlfTHOK 

Oolutnbia College, March 15lh, 1849. 



LIFE OF UQRiCE, 

BY MILMAN. 



CHAPTER I. 

miEO-HrCTIOli BIRTH, PARENTAGE, EDUCATION OF HOB ICE ATBliUi 

FHILIPPI RETURN TO ROME. 

The Poetry of Horace is the history of Rome during the greal 
cha!'4$re from a republic to a monarchy, durin^r the sudden and ai- 
most complete revolution from centuries of war and civil faction tc 
that peaceful period which is called the Augustan Age of Letters. 
His life is the image of his eventful times. In his youth he plunges 
Into the fierce and sanguinary civil war, and afterward subsiding 
quietly into literary ease, the partisan of Brutus softens into the friend 
of Maecenas, and the happy subject, if not the flatterer, of Augustus. 
^for is his personal history merely illustrative of his times in its broad- 
er outlines ; every part of it, which is revealed to as in his poetry, 
ts equally instinictive. Even the parentage of the poet is connect- 
ed with the difficult but important questions of the extent to which 
slavery in the Reman world was affected by manumission, and the 
formation of that middle class (the libertini), with their privileges, 
and the estimation in which they were held by society. His birlh-i' 
place in the romantic scenery, and among the simple virtues of the! 
old Italian yeomanry ; his Roman education ; his residence at Athens ;| 
his RuUtary services ; the confiscation of his estate ; his fortunes as* 
a literary adventurer, cast upon the world in Rome ; the state of 
Roman poetry when he commenced his career ; the degree in which 
his compositions were Roman and original, or but the naturalizhtiou 
of new forms of Grecian poetry ; the influence of the different sects 
of philosophy on the literature and manners of the age; even the 
state religion, particularly as it affected the higher and more intellcct- 
aal orders, at this momentous crisis when Christianity was about tc 
be revealed to mankind — every circumstance in the life of the poet 
if an incident in the history of man. The influences which formed 
bis moral and poetical character are the prevalent modes of feei- 
ng and thought among the peop>le, who had achieved the conquest 
of the world, and, weary of their own furious contentions, now be. 
gan to slumber in the proud consciousness of universal empire Ii 
him, as in an individual example, appears the change which took 
place in the fortunes, position, sentiments, occupations, estimatioa 
character, mode of living, when the Roman, from the oitisen of 
fr-'* ami turbulent rspublic, became the subject of a peacefiii moo 



Xli LIFi!. OF HORACii:. 

hrchy, dis^ruisod indeed, bnt not, therefore, the less arbitrary , while 
his acquainfanee, and even his intimate friends, extcndi.i^ tiirougl 
almost every gradation of st)ciety, show the same influences, as they 
afllect persons of different characters, talents, or st^xtion. Horace is 
exactly in that happy intermediate rank which connects both ex- 
tremes. His poems are inscribed to Agrippa or Miecenas, even tc 
the emperor himself, to his humbler private friend, or to his bailiff 
He unites, in the same way, the literary with the social life; hi 
liiows the station assumed by or granted to mere men of letter^ 
*hen the orator in the senate or in the forum ceded his place to the 
ftgreeable writer ; the man who excited or composed at his will the 
strong passions of the Roman people, had lost his occupation and his 
power, which devolved, as far as the literary part of his fame, upon 
the popular author. The mingling intellectual elements blend to- 
gether, even in more singular union, in the mind of the poet. Gre> 
cian education and tastes have not polished off the old Roman inde- 
pendence; the imitator of Greek forms of verse writes the purest 
vernacular Latin ; the Epicurean philosophy has not subdued his 
masculine shrewdness and good sense to dreaming indolence. In 
the Roman part of his character he blends some reminiscence of the 
sturdy virtue of the Sabine or Apulian mountaineers with the refined 
manners of the city. All the great men of his day are the familiar* 
of the poet ; not in their hours of state alone, but in the ease of so- 
cial intercourse : we become acquainted with their ordinary manners 
and habits ; and are admitted to the privacy of Maecenas, of Augus- 
tus himself, of Virgil, and of Varius. Thus the Horatian poetry it 
more than historical, it is the living age itself in all its varied reality. 
Without the biography of the poet, even without that of some of his 
contemporaries, the poetry of Horace can not bo truly appreciated, 
it can hardly be understood ; and by the magic of his poetry the 
reader is at once placed in the midst of Roman society in the Au» 
gustan age. 

Quintus Horatius Flaccus was burn on the 8th of December, ix. 
the year U.C. 689, B.C. 65, during the consulship of L. Cotta and 
L. Manlius Torquatus. His father (.such was the received and 
natural theory) owed his freedom to one of the illustrious family ot 
the Horatii, whose name, according to general usage, he was per- 
mitted to assume. Recent writers,' however, have shown from in- 
Bcrijitions that Venusia, the town in the territory of which Horace 
was born, belonged to the Horatian tribe at Rome ; and that the 
father of Horace may have been a freedman of the town of Venusia 
The great family of the Horatii, so glorious in the early days of the 
republic, certainly did not maintain its celebrity in the later lin.es. 
With one solitary exception, a lega>*e of C. Calvisius in Africa (Cic^ 
id Fam., xii., 30), it might bcem to have been extinct. If the freed* 
man of an Horatias, the father of the poet does not appear to hav( 

"L G. F. Qroteftnd ir "Ersch nnd Gniber'8 Encj clopjedie,*' Horatius: and T 
(. drotrfrnd in th« Parmttadt Lit 'oumal. Franke. Fasti Iloratinni. n«»tr« I. 



LlPB OF HOKAt R. xiii 

kepi VL^. vhat connection, or civil relat'onship, which bound tht iyman 
cipated slave^ by natural ties of affection and gratitude, to the laniili 
of his irenerous master. The theory of this assumption of a Roniai 
name was, that the master, having bestowed civil life on the freedraan. 
Atood, in a certain sense, in the place of a parent. He still retained 
some authority, and inherited the freedman's property in case of hia* 
dying intestate. On the other hand, the freedman was under the 
obligation of maintaining his patron, or even the father and mother 
of his patron, if they fell into indigence.' But there is no allusion '.v 
the poet^s work.s to any connection of this kind. At all events, the 
freedman has thrown a brighter and more lasting lustre around that 
celebrated name than all the virtues and exploits of the older patriot-s 
j(rho bore it. We know no reason for his having the piT'^omes 
Quintus, nnr the agnomen, by which he was familiarly known, Flao 
ens. I'he latter name was by no means uncommon ; it is found in 
the Calpurnian, the Cornelian, the Pomponian, and the Valerian fami- 
lies. Horace was of ingenuous birth, ^hich impliej that he was 
born after his father had received his manumisbion. The silence of 
he poet about las mother leads to the supposition that she died io 
lis early youth. 

The father of Horace exercised the function of collector of pay- 
uents at auction.' The collector was a public servant. This com- 
panitively humble office was probably paid according: to the number 
of sales, and the value of the property brought to market ; and in 
those days of confiscation, and of rapid and frequent changes of prop- 
erty, through the inordinate ambition or luxury of some, the forfeitures 
or ruin of opulent landholders, and the extinction of noble familio 
in the civil w^ari, the amount and value of the property brought to 
sale (st<6 hcuta) was likely to enable a prudent public officer to make 
a decent fortune. This seems to have been the case with the eldei 
Horace, who invested his acquisitions in a house and farm in the dis 
trict of Venusia, on the banks of the River Aufidus, flose upon the 
doubtful boundaries of Lucania and Apulia. There he s(.>ttled down 
into a respectable small farmer. In this house the poet was bom, 
and passed his infant years. One incident, mentioned in Ode iii., 4, 
9-20, can not bat remind the English reader of the old ballad oc" the 

]. Compare Plin^, U. N., xxxi., 2, for an instance of the literary son of a di» 
4ngtti«be(l man in those times pnying a tribute of gratitude to his civil parent 
Lsarea Tallius, the poet, was a freedman of the great orator. A warm spring hi*i 
Voken out in the Academic Villa of Cicero, wliich was supposed to cure diseasci 
in the eyes. The poetical inscription by L. Tullius (of which the feeling is better 
than the taste) described the spring as providentially revealed, in order that raorp 
eyes might be enabled to read the widely-disseminnr .d works of his master. Tiva 
freedman and frecdwoman were admitted into the f imily mnfisjleiiin with thos< 
irbo bad emancipated them. Sec several inscriptiuus, e.-pecial.y a very beautiful 
•»», Grnter, p. 715; Ciampivi, p. 173. 

2 "Coactor exauctionum." — Snet. in Vn. AnothT reading, exactionum, would 
..'take him a collector of the indirect taxes, farmed by the publicanl; the Rcmav 
mnuicipnlities in Italy being '.>xeini t from aP "irect taxation. 



IIV liiKE Ul* llUKACE. 

Chlliiren in .hi3 Woxl) '' and Robin Redbreast pic :sl) did cover then 
with leaves." 

The names aiid situatioi of the towns in this romantiC district (the 
Basilicata) still answer to the description of the poet, the hi«rh-hiuig 
chalets of Acerenza, the vast thickets of Banzi, and the picturesiqiiii 
peaks of Mount Voliorc. There are no monuments to mark ihe sit^ 
of Bantia ; bones, heiiiiets, pieces of armor, and a few bod vases, ha\€ 
teen picked up near Acerenza.^ The poet cherished through life 
Ms fond reminiscences of these scenes, the shores of the sounding 
Aafidus (to whose destructive floods he alludes in one o( his lar«»nt 
odes), and the fountain of Bandusia.^ He delights also in reverting 
to the plain life and severe manners of the rustic population. Shrewd, 
strenuous, and fragal, this race furnished the best soldiers for the Ro- 
man legion; their sun-burned wives shared in their toils {Epod. ii., 
41-2). They cuhivated their small farms with their own labor and 
that of their sons [Sat. ii., 2, 114). They worshipped their rustic 
deities, and believed in the superstitions of a religious and simple 
people, witchcraft and fortune-telling {Sat. i., 9, 29, 30). The 
hardy but contented Ofella {Sat. ii«, 2, 112, seqq.) was a kind of 
type of the Sabine or Apulian peasant. 

At about ten or twelve years old commenced the more serious and 
important part of the Roman education. It does not appear how 
Horace acquired the first rudiments of learning ; but, as he grew to 
youth, the father, either discerning some promise in the boy, or from 
paternal fondness, determined to devote himself entirely to the edu- 
tation of his son. He was by no means rich, his farm was unpro- 
ductive, yet he declined to send his son to Venusia, to the school of 
Flavius, to which resorted the children of the rural and municipal 
aristocracy, the consequential sons of consequential fathers, with 
their satchels and tablets on their arms, and making their regular 
payments every month .^ He took the bold step of removing him at 
once to Rome, to receive the liberal education of a knighrs or a 
senator's son ; and, lest the youth should be depressed by the feel- 
>ng of inferiority, provided him with wiiatever was necessary to make 
* respcctalile appearance, dress and slaves to attend him, as if ho 
iiad been of an ancient family. But, though the parent thus removed 
dis son to the public schools of the metropolis, and preferred that he 

1. Keppel Craven's Tour in the Abruzzi. Lonbardi, sopra la Basilicata, ii 
Uemorie dell' Instituto Archa^ologico. 

2. The biographers of Horace had transferred this fountain to the neighborhood 
of the poet's Sabine villa. M. Coiimarliu de Chaupy proved, by a bull of Pope 
Paschal II., that it was to be sought in the neighborhood of Venuaia. Some mod- 
ma writers are so pertinaciously set on finding it in the Sabine, district, that they 
ba^e supposed Horace to have called some fountain in that valley \y the name en- 
deared to him by his youthful remembrances. But do we know enough o/ th< 
Kit) of Horace to pronounce tliat he may not have visited, even more tliac onco 
the scenes of hia childhood, or to decide that he did not address the famous o<k 
(o the Vcnusiau ijuntdn (^Capmariin tie Chavpy. Maison d Horice, torn, ii., y 
43-^ 3 Sat. i. 5. 71, fif70 



LIFE OP HORACE. X> 

BlKHiid asm>ciate with the genuind youthful i.obility ot the capitai 
rather than the no less haughty, but more coarse and unpolished 
gentry (the retired centurions) of the provinces, ho took great cart 
that while he secured the advantages, he should be protected frorc 
the dangers of the voluptuous capital. Even if his son should rise 
00 higher than his own humble calling as a public crier or collector, 
his jood education would be invaluable ; yet must it not be purchased 
by the sacrifice of sound morals. He attended him to the dificrerl 
nhools ; watched with severe but adeciionate control over his char 
acter ; so that the boy escaped not merely the taint, but even the rc^ 
proach of immorality.* Tho poet always speaks of his father witk 
grateful reverence and with nonest pride. 

His first turn for satire was encouraged by his father's £dvere aa< 
imadversions on the follies and vices of his compp^riots, which he 
held up as warning examples to his son.^ To one of his school- 
masters the poet has given imperishable faiiie. Orbilius, whose 
flogging propensities have grown into a proverb, had been an ap« 
paritor, and afterward served in the army ; an excellent training foi 
a. disciplinarian, if not for a teacher ; but Orbilius got more reputa- 
tion than profit from his occupation.^ The two principal, if not the 
only authors read in the school of Orbilius, were Homer in Greek, 
and Livius Andronicus in Latin.** Homer was, down to the time of 
Julian, an indispensable part of Greek, and already of Roman edu- 
cation.'^ Orbilius was, no doubt, of the old school ; a teacher to the 
boart of rigid Cato j an admirer of the g luine Roman poetry. Liv* 
flis Andronicus was not only the earliest writer of tragedy, but had 
translated the Odyssey into the Saturnian vers*^. the native vernacu- 
AT metre of Italy .^ Orbilius may not merely have thought the Eu* 
^merLsm of Ennius, or the Epicurianism of Lucretius, unfit for the 
study of Roman youth, but have considered Accius, Pacuvius, oi 
Terence too foreign and Grecian, and as having degenerated from 
the primitive simplicity of the father of Roman verse. The mor<) 
modern and Grecian taste of Horace is constantly contending witt 



1 Sat. U 6, 81, segq. S. Sat i., 4, 103, seqq. 

3. " Docuit majore fama qiinm cmolumcnto." — Sueton., de GrammaL 

4. Bentley doubted whether any patrician schoolmaster, at that time, would usfl 
(be works of a poet so antiquated as Livius Andronicus. He proposed to read 
LsTius, the oame of an obscure writer of love verses ('E/)u)TOjr«iy»'*a)» to whom 
be ascribes many uf the fragments usually assigned to Livius, and which bear no 
marks of obsolete antiquity. But, with due respect to the great critic, the elder 
Borace might havo objected still more strongly to the modem amatory verses o( 
LmvixiB than to the rude strains of Livius. 

5. Epist. ii , 3, 41-2. Compare QuinL^ i., 8 ; Plin^ Epist ii., 15 ; Statiut, Syly. 
Ti 3. D. Heinsius quotes from Thcodorct, roiTUJv de o'l vXiIotoi oiidi riiv nfiva 
tstai T^ 'j^xtXAfbif. Even as late as that father of the Church it was a mark of 
Sfuorance not to hare read Homer. 

6. Cicero thought but meanly of I ivius : " Nam et Odyssca Latina, est sic tan 
faam opus aliquod Da»d«Oi. et Li^-'anse falulue non sads dign&a qua) Itenini \f 
fa^tlur.*"— SrMfM. c !«. 



AlVl LIFE OF HORACR. 

V»i\p antiquarian sc^hool of f^ietry, and his iinpieasing ron/embranov 
r/ (he manner in -which the study of Livias was enforced by his eariy 
teacher may have tended to '■onfirm his fastidious aversion from the 
-uder poetry. 

Horace, it may I e concludeu, assumed the manly robe (toga virilif ) 
m his sixteenth or seventeenth year It is probable that he lost hia 
excellent and honored father before he set out to complete his edu- 
cation at Athens. But cf what stirring events must the boy have 
teen witness during his residence at Rome ! He might possibN.. 
soon after his arrival (B.C. 52), have heard Cicero speak his oration 
for Mib. Into the subsequent years were crowded all the prepara- 
tions for the last contest between Pompey and CsBsar. The peace- 
ful studies of the Roman youth must have been strangely iuternipt^ 
ed by these political excitements. What spirited boy would not have 
thrown aside his books to behold the truimphant entrance of Ca)s&* 
into Rome after the passage of the Rubicon ? And while that de 
cisive step was but threatened, how anxiously and fearfully musf 
Rome have awaited her doom — ignorant who was to be her master, 
and how that master would use his power; whether new proscrip- 
tions would more than decimate her patrician families, and deluge 
her streets with blood ; whether military license would have frcf 
scope, and the majesty of the Roman people be insulted by the out- 
rages of an infuriated soldiery ! No man was so obscure, so young, 
or so thoughtless, but that he must have been deeply impressed with 
the insecurity of liberty and of life. During the whole conflict, what 
must have been the suspense, the agitation, the party violence, the 
terror, the alternate elevation and prostration of mind ! In the un- 
milled quiet of his manhood and age, how often must these turbulent 
and awful days have contrasted themselves, in the memory of Horace, 
with his tranquil pursuits of letters, social enjoyment, and country 
retirement. 

It was about the time of (probably the year after) the battle of 
Pharsalia (for the state of Greece, just at the period of the final con- 
flict, must have been insecure, if not dangerous) that the youthful 
Horace left his school at Rome to study in Athens. If his fathei 
was dead, the produce of the Venusian estate would no doubt suflice 
for his maintenance ; if still living, the generous love of the parent 
would not hesitate at tliis further cx})ensc, if within his power. 
Duriag many centuries of tjic Roman greatness, down \o the time 
when her schools were closed by Justinian, Athens was the uuiver- 
tity, as it has been called, of the world, where almost all the dis- 
tinguished youth, both of the East and West, passed a certain period 
of study in the liberal arts, letters, and philosophy. This continued 
e"^en after the establishment of Christianity. Basil and Gregory of 
Nazianzus studied together, and formed their youthful friendships, 
as Horace did, no doubt, with some of the noble or distinguished 
youth of the dxy. On this point, hovever, his poems are silent, and 
twntain no allusions to his associates ^nd rivals in study. Thi 



LIFE OP IIORACR. .«V1. 

prnnger Quiutns Cicero was at ihis time UkewUe a aiiidfcf.t ai 
Athens, but there is no clew to connet/t these two naiieis.' 

The ailvantages which Horace derived from his residence in 
Athens may be traced in his familiarity with Attic literature, or 
rather, with the whole range of Greek poetry, Homeric, lyric, ai.<i 
dramatic. In the region of his birth Greek was spoken >»]mo8t m 
commonly as Latin j^ and Horace had already, at Rome, been in 
Btructed in the poetry of Homer. In Athens, he studtod, pArtiooiar 
y, ^e comic writers ; the great models of that kind of poetry whico 
DODsists in shrewd and acute observation on actual human life, on 
SDciety, manners, and morals, expressed in terse, perspicuous, ano 
Aoima^^d verse, which he was destined, in another form, to carry 
to such unrivalled perfection in his own language. But he incurred 
a great danger, that of sinking into a third or fourth rate Greefa 
poet, if, in a foreign language, he could have attained even to that 
humble eminence. He represents the genius of his country under 
the form of Romulus, remonstrating against this misdirection of his 
talents. Romulus, or, rather, the strong sense of Horace himsel . 
gave good reason for this advice.^ The mine of Grecian poetry was 
exhausted ; every place of honor was occupied 5 a new poet, particu- 
larly a stranger, could only be lost in the inglorious crowds. But 
this is not all. It is a law of human genius, without exception, that 
no man can be a great poet except in his native speech. Inspira- 
tion seems impatient of the slower process of translating our thoughts 
into a second language. The expression must be as free and spon- 
taneous as the conception ; and, however we may polish and refine 
our native style, and substitute a more tardy and elaborate for an 
instantaneous and inartificial mode of composition, there is a facility, 
a mastery, a complete harmony between " the thoughts that breathe 
and the words that burn," which can never be attained except in our 
mother tongue. 

The death of Caesar, and the arrival of Brutus at Arhens, broke 
Dp the peaceful studies of Horace. It had been surpiising if the 
whole Roman youth, at this ardent and generous period of lifb, 
breathing the air of Pericles, Aristides, and Demosthenes, imbibing 
the sentiments of republican liberty from all which wa.s the object 
of their study, had not thrown themselves at once into the ranks of 
Brutus, and rallied round the rescued but still imperillol freedom of 
Ronae. Horace 'was at once advanced to the rank of military trib 
Uhe, ami the command of a legion. Exceptmg at such critical 
periods, when the ordinary course of military promotion was super- 
seded by the exigencies of the times, when it was no doubt difficult 
hr Brutus to find Roman odiccrs for his newly-raised troops, the son 
of a frcedman, of no very robust frame, and altogether inexperienced 
in war, would not have acquired that rank. His appointment, as he 
acknowledges, on account of his ignol le birth excited jealousy.'* 

1. IVcichcrt de L, Vario, Ac, |'. 388. 2. Sat i., 10, 30. 

3. Sat i , 10^ 91. 8e4iq. 4 ^iat i.. 0, 46, uif9 



WIL IJFE OF IIO&ACB. 

Yot he icqairea the confidence of his commanJers, and, unlet is fa| 
has highly coloroi ais hard service, was engaj^ed in some dilHcultie^ 
and perils.^ It is probable that while in the army of Brutus hii 
n.'ossed over into Asia. Though it is not quite clear that he wai 
present at ClazomeniB when the quarrel took place between Persiiu 
and Rupilius Rex, which forms the subject of Sat. i., 7, and his local 
knowledf^e of Lebcdos, which has been appealed tc, is not absolute^ 
(y certain ;* yet some of his descriptive epithets a)>pear too distinot 
and faithful for mere borrowed and conventional poetic language 
He must have visited parts of Greece at some period of his life, m 
fie speaks of not having been so much struck by the rich plain of 
darissa, or the more rugged district of Lacedsemon, as by the head 
.ong Anio and the grove of Tilmr.^ 

The battle of Philippi closed the military career of Horace. Hm 
conduct after the battle, his flight, and throwing away his shield^ 
bave been the subject of much grave animadversion and as grave 
defence. Lcssing wrote an ingenious essay to vindicate the morals 
SLud the courage of Horace* Wieland goes still further in his as»^ 
sertion of the poet's valor : " Horace could not have called up the 
remembrance of the hero (Brutus), by whom he was beloved, with 
out reproaching himself for having yielded to the instinct of person 
aJ safety instead of dying with him ; and, according to my feeling 
fum bene is a sign of regret which he o(rei*s to the memory of that 
great man, and an expression of that shame of which a noble spirit 
alone is capable."^ The foolish and fatal precipitancy with which 
Brutus and Cassius, upon the first news of defeat, instead of attempt* 
ing to rally their broken troops, and to maintain the conflict for libcft 
ty, took refuge in suicide, might appear, to the shrewd good sen^ 
of Horace, very different from the death of Cato, of which he has f j& 
pressed his admiration. And Wieland had forgotten that Hora(| 
fairly confesses his fears, and attributes his escape to Mercury, the 
god of letters.® Lessing is no doubt right that the playful allusion 
of the poet to his throwing away his shield has been taken mutf^ 
more in earnest than was intended ; and the passage, after all, is a 
imitation, if not a translation, from Alcasus. In its most literal sense 
it amounts to no more than that Horace fled with the rest of the de 
feated army, not that he showed any want of valor during the battle 
He abandoned the cause of Brutus when it was not merely desperate. 
but extinct. Messala had refused to taxe the command of 4he brokeb 
jroopsj and had passed over to the other side; a few only, among 
W^om was the friend of Horace, Pompcius Varus, threw tbcmselvei 
Intt? the fleet cf Sextus Pompcius, a pirate rather than a politicai 



1. Ode U., 7, 1. 2. Epist. i., 11, 6. 3. Ode i, 7, 11 

4. Werkc, ix , p. 126, 173. Lpssing is co-aipletcly successful in repellinfi a vaatk 
disgraceful imputation ''ipon the memory of tlie poet In a pnsFnge of Senec 
vome foolish commentator had substituted the name of Iloratiud for a certnin L. 
Hostius, a man of peculiar profligacy. 

5. mdavd, Uorazens Brinfe, b. ii., p. 191. a Ode K., 7 1i 



LIFE OF HORACE. XiX 

letifer.' Libeity may be said to have deserted Horac(. rather inar 
Horao) liberty; and, happily for mankind, he felt that his calling 
was to mj^re peaceful pursuits. 

Horace found his vfSiy back, it is uncertain in what manner, to 
Romo.^ But his estate was confiscated ; some new coactor was goU 
looting the price of his native fields, which his father had perhapg 
acquired through former confiscations ; for Venusia was one of the 
eighteen ciiies assigned by the victorious triumvirate to their soldiers.* 
On hiS return to Rome, nothing can have been well more dark or 
hopeless than the condition of our poet. He was too obscure to b^ 
marked by proscription, or may have found security in some gen- 
eral act of amnesty to the inferior followers of Brutus. But the 
friends which he had already made were on the wrong side in poli- 
tics ; he had no family connections, no birth to gild his poverty. It 
Mas probably at this period ef his life that he purchased the place 
of scribe in the quaestor's office; but from what source he derived 
the purchase money — the wreck of his fortunes, old debts, or the 
liberality of his friends — we can only conjecture.^ On the profits of 
this place he managed to live with the utmost frugality. His or- 
dinary fare was but a vegetable diet, his household stuflf of the 
meanest ware. He was still poor, and his poverty embohlenetii 
and urged him to be a (loet. 



CHAPTER n. 

STATE OF ROMAN POETRY THEORY OF EARLY ROMAN POETRY 

CAUSES OF ITS TOTAL LOSS ENN1U8 INTRODUCTION OF HEXAME- 
TER VERSS GREEK INFLUENCES DRAMA LUCRETIUS CATUL- 
LUS HORACE THE FRIEND OF VIRGIL AND OF VARILS POVERTY 

MAKES HIM A POET ^INTRODUCTION TO MjGCENAS INTIMACY WITH 

M^GENAS CIRCLE OF MEN OF LETTERS FIRST BOOK OF SATIRES. 

The state of Roman poetry, and its history, up to the time when 
Horace began lo devote himself to it, is indispensable to a just esti- 
coate of his place among the poets of Rome. Rome, according to 

1. Manilim, L, 859, segq. 

9. It is difficult to place the peril /. shipwreck off* Cape Palinums, on the west* 
ens coast of Lucania (Ode iii., 4. 28), in any part of the poet's life. It is not ijnpo» 
Alirte that, by the accident of finding a more ready passage that way, or even fof 
concealment, ho may have made the more circuitous voyage toward llome, and 
•o encountered this danger. 3. Appian, B. C^, iv., 3l 

4. '* Scriptum qusBstorium comparavit.** (Sueton.^ in Fit.) There is only oim 
passage in his poetry which can be construed into an allusion to this occupatiovi 
nnless the " hated bus'ncss" (invisa negotia) which compelled him to go, at time^ 
to Rome, related to the duties of his office. The college of scribes seem to hart 
thooght that they had a claim to his support in something which concerned ttieii 
•cmmon interest (Sat il., 6, 36, seq.). But in the account which he gives of thf 
nciannir in which Iio ti8UrtI]v spent the day (Sat. i., 6, 120), the ;e is no ailus/cu tc 
official bustccss. 



}LX LIFE OF HORACE. 

ije moJern thoory, had her mythic and Homerio 9l^g : her ear}} Iuh* 
tory is but her epic cycle transmuted into prose. The p^(>^abi]it3 
that Rome possessed this ohler poetry, and the internal evidence foi 
.ts cxistoncCf are strong, if not conclusive. 

If from the steppes of Tartary to the shores of Peru — if in various 
degrees of ex3ellcnce from the inimitable epics of Homer to the wild 
ditties of the South Sea islanders — ^scarcely any nation or tribe U 
without its popular songs, is it likely that Rome alone should hava 
keen barren, unimaginative, unmusical, without its sacred bards, or, if 
ts bards were not bwested with religious sanctity, without its ))opa. 
/ar minstrels ; Rome, wi*h so much to kindle the imagination and sth 
Iho heart ^ Rome, peopled by a race necessarily involved in adven» 
turous warfare, and instinct with nationality, and with the rivalry 
of contending order!* ? In Rome every thing seems to conspire, 
which ill all other countries, in all other races, has kindled the song 
of the bnrd. When, therefore, we find the history as it is handed 
down to us. ihouifh obviously having passed through the chill and 
unimaginative older chronicle, still nevertheless instinct with infolt 
poetry, can we duubl where it had its origin ? 

'* The early history of Rome,'' observes Mr. Macaulay, "is in 
deed far more poetical than any thing else in Latin literature. The 
Ic /es of the Vestal and the God of War, the cradle laid among the 
r( eds of the Tiber, the fig-tree, the she-wolf, the shepherd's cabin, 
the recognition, the fratricide, the rape of the Sabincs, the death of 
Tarpeia, the fall of Hostiis Hostilius, the struggle of Mettus Curtius 
(hroii£rh the marsh, the women rushing with torn raiment and di- 
shevelled hair between their fathers and their husbands, the nightly 
meetings of Nuraa and the Nymph by the well in the sacred grove, 
the fight of the three Romans and the three Albans, the purchase of 
the Sibylline books, the crime of Tuliia, the simulated madness of 
Brutus, the ambiguous reply of the Delphian oracle to the Tarqutna, 
Che wrongs of Lucretia, the heroic actions of Horatius Codes, of 
SdBvola, and of ClcBlia, the battle of Regillus won by the aid of 
Castor and Pollux, the fall of Cremcra, the touching story of Corio- 
lanus, the still more touching story of Virginia, the wild legend 
about the diaining of the Alban Lake, the combat between Valerius 
Corvus and tue gigantic Gaul, are among the many instances which 
will at once suj^^est themselves to every reader."^ 

But this pocii^ cycle had ceased to exist in its original metrical 
ff»rm long before the days of L ivy and of Horace. Wo read of the 
old aitral songs, of the Salian verses, of songs sung at triumphs or at 
feasts, by individu^J guests, in praise of illustrious, men, and at funer- 
als. Jbat these were mostly brief, religious, or occasicnal. Of the 
lanegyric, or fmydly songs, Cicero deplores the tot&i loss. The 
verses to which Eh'nius^ alludes, as sung by the Fauns and Bards 
the ancient verses »*i'hich existed before there was any real poetry 

. Macaulay, Preface to " L ays of Uaaie.** 

8 ^otcd in the Brutus ^ { Cicero, which refers them to the verses of Naw^uf 



IIFE OP HORACE. IXl 

ixy genoral inspiration of the Muses (Ennius, no doibt, intens pcietr) 
K- fjreeK nnetres, and L.nitative of Greek poets) were from the Saturn- 
ian poem of NiEvius on the First Punic War. 

Yet how did this old poetic cycle so utterly perish that no veslig€ 
should survive?' Much, no douht, is to be attributed to the ordinary 
canses of decay — chsmgc of manners, of tastes, the complete dominioc 
of the Grecian over the Rt)man mind, the misfortune that no patriotic 
or pootic antiquarian roso in time, no Percy or Walter Scott, to 
wmrch ont and to record the fragments of old song, which were dy- 
ing cut upon the lips of the pejisantry and the people. There are, 
however, peculiar to Rome, some causes for the total oblivion of thi« 
kind of national record which may also seem worthy of consideration. 
The Grecian ballad poetry, the Homeric (distinguished from all other 
ballads, and, indeed, from almost all other human compositions, by 
transcendent merit), had an inestimable advantage besides its other 
inimitable excellences. At the time of its earliest, undoubtedly its 
most complete development in the Iliad and Odyssey, the wonder- 
fully and naturally musical ear of the (rreeks had perfected that most 
exquisite vehicle of epic song, the hexameter verse. From Homer to 
Nonnus this verse maintained its prescriptive and unquestioned right 
to be the measure of heroic and narrative poesry. None, indeed, could 
draw the bow like the old bainJ; but even in this conscious fceble« 
ness the later [)oets hardly ever ventured to innovate on this estab- 
Usked law of epic song. 1'he Saturnian verse was the native meas 
ore o( Roman, or, rather, of Italian poetry. This Saturnian verse wa.i 
unquestionably very rnde, and, if we are to trust the comment-ator 
on Virgil, only rhythmical.* When, therefore, Ennius naturalized 
the hexameter in Latin poetry, it is no wonder that all eyes were 
turned on the noble stranger, who at once received the honors of a 
citizen, and from that time was established in supremacy over Latin 
as well as Greek narrative poetry. In this verse Ennius himself em 
bodied all the early h'story of Rome ; and we have only to look back 
from the fragments of his work, which, though yet indulging in cer- 
tain licenses which were dropped by Virgil and the later writers, 
have some lines of very free How and cadence, to the few Saturnian 
verses which survive from the Punic war of his rival Naevius, and 
we shall not wonder that the Roman ear became fastidious and dis- 
tasteful of its old native melodies. The ballads, if they had still sur- 
vived in common currency, were superseded by the new and more 
popular poetic* history of Ennius.® The Saturnian verse was aban 
doned to farce and jwpular satire ; though even satire began to set up 
foi a ffeutleman, ar.d, with Lucilius, to speak in hexameters The 
Atcilun ^arces (pantomimes in dialogue, accoiding to our uso of thf 
irord, not that of the classic writers) were still true to the Saturnian 

1 Mr. Mai'Emlny has acutely obaerred that the words of Dion. Hal., dyg iv roU 
•uTpiiuS buroli bird 'Puptatutv in vvv qAcrat, are either trnnslated, or, at farthest 
(Mraphraeed, from Fabius Pictor, one of the earliest of the Ilomao annalists. 

% ^rius in Virg., Tmoru. ii.. :)85. 3. Hur., Epist U^ L tflS 



XXll LIFE OF HORACE. 

measure. But the Atellaii farces were Italian not properly llCniar 
entertainments ; they were, perhaps, originally in the Ososn dialect; 
and whether or not they learned to speak Latin before they migrated 
to Ivome, they were then taken up by popular poets, Pompouius and 
Novius, and became one of the regular amusements of the people.' 

But probably the most extensively operative cause of the rapid 
extinction of the Roman pDpular poetry was the dissolution of the 
Roman people. The old plebeian families which survived had be- 
«c»ne a part of the aristocracy. As they had attained, either, 
ike Cicero, having struggled upward, the higher rank, or havinjji,- 
reacbcd it by less honorable courses, whichever side they might tak« 
in the great contcsi between the senate and the democracy, they as* 
fumed patrician manners, tastes, and habits. Except here and Lerc 
some sturdy " laudator temporis acti," some rough Cato, who af- 
fected the old republican manners, they beloitged to that class which 
had surrendered itself — which, prided itself on its surrender — toGrook 
influences. If family pride was still Roman in its reminiscences, if 
it delighted to recall its ancestral glories, it would disdain the rude 
old verse, and content itself with the chronicles which had now as- 
sumed the more authentic toiiO of history. It would appeal to mcM« 
authoritative public records or private archives. The man of rank 
would be ashamed or afraid, in a more prosaic age, of resting the 
fame of his ancestors, or tlic truth of his genealogy, on such suspi- 
cious testimonies. Cicero tuight have taste and wisdom enough to 
regret the loss of these ancient songs, both as poetry and as trust* 
wortny records of former times; but in his day they had entirely, 
and, it should seem, long vanished from the more refined banquet! 
of the higher classes ; they found no place amid the gorgeous mag- 
nificence of the Luculli, or the more enervating luxm-ies of the 
Clodii. 

If, then, they lingered any where, they would be on the lips and in 
the hearts of the Roman people. But where were the Roman peo- 
ple ? where was that stern, and frugal, and strongly national plebe- 
ian race, which so long maintained the Roman character for order, 
virtue, freedom ; and which, if factious &nd unruly, was factious for 
noble ends, and unruly in defence or assertion of its rights ? In the 
city there was, and there always had been, a populace, which, fron. 
the first, to a great extent, was not of Roman descent, the mechamo« 
iuid artisans, the clients of the wealthy — now swelled in numberH^ 
and, though always held in low estimation, debased in character by 
•Ihe constant influx of si rangers, not merely from Italy, but from re 
moter regions. This half-foreign population was maintamed in a kind 
of insol 3nl pau|)erism by largesses of corn and other provisions, and 
by the distributions of the wealthy with political views. This hybrid 

1. Ths Sutuniian was the cuminun measure, no doubt, of all the rude Ibdic veraf 
in its vanous dialects. Grotefend profefeses to have found it iu the Umbniui in 
scriptiuna of the tabula) Eugub'osB. Scie a learned trt otisc, De FabaltR AtiiUxil . 
bj Dr K Munk. Lipnittf, 1840. 



LIPE OF IIOKACE. XXIJ 

itna shifting race, largely formed of enfranchised slaves and nven o( 
Rorxilo descent, would be but precarious and treacherous guanliani 
of national song, probably in an antiquated dialect : they would kee|i 
up the old Italic licer.se (so indelible, it should secra, in the ftaliac 
character) of poetic lompoon and pasiiuinade : any wild traditions 
which heightened the fun and the revel of the Saturnalia might live 
h^mong them ; tiiey would welcome, as we have seen, the low and 
fareical dramatic entertainments; but their ears would be unmo\od, 
Aiui iLcir hearts dead, to the old stirring legends of the feuds and 
tecllons, the wars of neighboring tribes, and the heroic deeds of 
arms uf the king? or of the early republic. The wxll-known anec 
dote of St^ipio ii'hiiilianus may illustrate the un-Roman character of 
this populace of Rome. When the mob raised a furious clamor ai 
kb bold assertion of the justice of the death of Tiberius Gracchua, 
" Silence, ye step-sons of Italy ! What ! shall I fear these fellows, 
iww they are free, whom I myself have brought in chains to Rome ?' ' 
These were the operatives (opene) who flocked, not merely from the 
workshops of Rome, but from all the adjacent districts, to swell the 
turbulent rabble of Clodius.* 

The territory of Rome, the demesne-lands formerly cultivated by 
Roman citizens, in which resided the strength of the Roman people, 
had been gradually drained of the free population. For sevenU cen. 
Curies it bad filled the legions, and those legions had achieved the 
conquest of the world. But that conquest was not won without 
enormous loss. The best blood of the Roman people had fcitilized 
the earth almost from the Euphrates to the Western Ocean. The 
veterans who returned received apportionments of land, but mure 
frequently in reniote parts of Italy : the actual Roman tenntory, ther-D- 
forc, that in which the old Roman language was the native dialecf, 
und in which might survive that Roman pride which would cherijvb 
the poetic reminiscences of Roman glory, was now, for the most part, 
either occupied by the rising villas of the patricians, or by the large 
farms of the wealthy, and cultivated by slaves. The homestead 
whence a Camillus iasued to rescue his country from the GauL^ 
may now have become a work-house, in which crouched the slaves 
of some Verres, enriched with provincial plunder, or some usurious 
knight ; a gang of Africans or Asiatics may have tilled the Geld 
where Cincinnatus left his plough to assume the consular fasces. Foi 
centuries this change had been gradually going on ; the wars, and 
even the civil factions, were continually wasting away the Rornjw 
population, while the usurpation of w^ealth and prido wa,? as corist.uit 
ly keeping up its slow aggression, and filling up the void with thf 
daves which poured in with every conquest. The story 3f Sparta 
ens mfcy tell how large a part of the rural population of Italy wa 
fervile ; and probably, the nearer to Rome, in the districts former 
ly iah&bited by the genuine Roman people, the change (with some 

I. ^•B. PaUTC^ IL 8: VaL Max., ▼!, 2; Cic, od a Frat.,il,3: r/. Pttrwi^v-, 164 



XIHV LIFE OF flOXACK. 

exceptions) wm most complete ; the Sabine valleys might retain avmt 
oi the oid rough hereditary virtues, the hardihood and frugality , bnl 
at a distance from the city it would be their own joca] or reiigiout 
traditions which would live among the peasantry, rather than the 
M»ngs which had been onrrpnt. in thw streets among the pnmitivQ 
fjommons of Rome. 

Thus, both in city and in country, had died away the genuine okl 
Roman jx^ople ; and with them, no doubt, died away the ^ast echo 
of national song. The extension of the right of Roman ciiizenshfp^ 
'le diffusion of the pride of the Roman name through a wider sphere, 
tcuded still more to soften away the rigid and exclusive spirit of na- 
tionality ; and it was this spirit alone which would cling pertinacious 
ly to ihat which labored under the unpopularity of rudeness and bar 
barisra. The new Romans appropriated the glories of the old, bul 
dis»*cgarded the only contemporary, or, at least the earliest witnesses 
to those glories. The reverse of the fate of the Grecian heroes hap- 
pened to those of Rome — ^the heroes lived, the sacred bards perished 

The Latin poetry, that which Rome has handed down to poeteri. 
ty, was, like philosophy, a stranger and a foreigner.* She arrived, 
though late, before philosophy ; at least she was more completely 
naturalized before philosophy was domiciled, except in a very few 
mansions of great statesmen, and among a very circumscribed intcl< 
lectual aristocracy, ft is remarkable that most of her early poets 
were from Magna GrcBcia. NsDvius alone, the Saturnian or Italian 
poet, was from Campania, and even Campania was half Greek. Livius 
Andronicus was from Tarentum ;^ Ennius from Rudias in Calabria ; 
Accius was the son of a freedman from the south of Italy ; Pacuvi is 
was a Brundisian ; Plautus, of the comic writers, was an Umbrian ; 
Terence was an African ; Csecilius was from the north of Italy. In 
every respect the Romans condescended to be imitative, not directly 
of Nature, but of Grecian models. Ennius had confined her epic 
poetry to the hexameter, whence it never attempted to emancipate 
itself. The drama of Rome, like all her arts, was Grecian ; almost 
all the plays (excepting here and there a tragasdia pratextata) of 
Livius Andronicus, Accius, Pacuvius, Plautus, Terence, were ol 
Grecian subjects. So completely was this admitted by the time of 
Horace, that his advice to the dramatic poet is to study Grecian 
n o«iels by night and day. (Ep. ad Pis.^ 268, seq.) But, on the 
other hand, the wonderful energies Which were developed in the 
universal conquests of Rome, and in her civil factions, in which the 
fTMLt end of ambition was to be the first citizen in a state which 

1 " Punico bello sccuodu musa pinnato grndu 

Intulit sc bcUicosarn Romuli in gcntrm fcrom." 

P. Liciniits apud A. QeUtvm 
i. Ok^ero, Brutus, c. 18. Livius was taken prisoner at the capture ofTiur^kium. 
11 is aupposed that be was a freedman of M. Livius Salinator. TtM} Tarenttawi 
•rare great admirers of the theatre. PUtht., Meniuchmi, I'rolug. S9, §e.qq. ; Ikffn^ 
Oyuac., ii. 2SS se^g Ihriw reT)re«ente<i his own ->lays. tfo., vIL, % fuL ITto^ 
I. 4 



LfFB OF lIORAfJE. XH 

TijleA at 'V :rlJ, could not but awaken intellectual powers of t'tit 
highe >'t ».- ;er. The force and vigor of the Roman character are man. 
ifest in the fragments of their early poetry. However rude And in- 
harmor..uus these translations (for, after all, they are tran«lation8), 
they aio full of bold, animated, and sometimes picturesque expre» 
sions . and that which was the natural consequence of the domicilia 
lion of a foreign literature among a people of strong and masculine 
minds invariably took place. Wherever their masters in the ait had 
utia'ned to consummate perfection, wherever the genius of the pea. 
plo nad been reflected in their poetry with complete harmony, there, 
oowever noble might be the emulation of the disciple, it was impos 
Bible that he should approach to his model, especially where his own 
genius and national character were adverse both to the form and \o 
the poetic conception. 

Hence, in the genuine epic, in lyric, in dramatic poetry, the Grecki 
»tood alone and unapproachable. Each of these successive forma of 
the art had, as it were, spontaneously adapted itself to the changen 
in Grecian society. The epic was that of the heroic age of the 
warrior-kings and bards ; the lyric, the religious, that of the tenple 
end the public games ; the dramatic, that of the republican policy, the 
ifxquisite combination of the arts of poetry, music, gesture, and rpec- 
(acle, before which the sovereign people of Athens met, which was 
oresided over by the magistrate, and maintained either at the public 
t'ost or at that of the ruling functionary, which, in short, wan the 
threat festival of the city. 

But the heroic age of Home had passed away, as before observed, 
vithout leaving any mythic or epic song, unless already transmuted 
into history. Her severe religion had never kindled into poetry, ex- 
cept in rude traditional verses, and short songs chanted during the 
solemn ceremony. The more domestic habits of her austere days 
bad been less disposed to public exhibitions; theatrical amusements 
were forced upon her, not freely developed by the national taste. 
1^0 doubt, from the close of the second Punic war to the age of Au- 
gustus, dramatic entertainments were more or less frequent in Rome. 
The tragedies of Naevius, Ennius, Pacuvius, and Ancius, as well as 
the comedies of Plautus, Caecilius, Afranius, and Terence, formed 
part of the great games which were celebrated during period", of 
public rejoicing. The fame of i£sopus and Roscius as actors im- 
plies groat popular interest in the stage. Still, as has been said, al- 
most all, if not all, the tragedies, and most of the comedies, were 
translations or adaptations from the Greek.^ The ovation and the 
triumph were the great spectacles of Rome; and, when these be> 
oame more rare, her lelaxation was the rude Atellan farce, or the 
coarse mime ; but her passion w^as the mimic war, the amphitheatre 
«ith its wild beasts and gladiatons. the proud spectacle of barbarian 

1. Langp, in his " Vindicise Romanes TragnBdito,** and Welcker (" 6riechiich« 
Tra^tOBdie") arc indig^nant at t>^ i general, and, as they asecrt, unjust dbparsf cmff«f 
f Roman tragedy. 

2 



IXVl LIFE OF IfORACK. 

captives slau^hterin^r each other for her amusement. Roiut thu8 
>% anted the three great sources of i)oetic inspiration- -an her(»ic pt ricKj^ 
of history,, rciijfion, and scenic representation. She had never, at 
l«»ast there appears no vestige of tlicir existence, a cnsto or order oi 
bards ; her sacerdotal offices, attached to her civ il magistracies, dis* 
iained the aid of high-wrought music, or mythic and harm&nioai 
Symns. Foreign kings and heroes vvalkea ner stage,' and even tka 
txjmedy represented, in general, the mahficrs of Athens or of Asia 
H 'nor rather than those of Italy. 

Still, however, in those less poetic departments of poetry, if we 
may so speak, which the Greeks had cultivated only in the later and 
Iftss creative periods of their literature, the Romans seized the unoc 
-upifjd ground, and asserted a distinct superiority. Wherever poetry 
ould not disdain to become an art — wherever lofty sentiment, rajv- 
estic, if elaborate verse, unrivalled vigor in condensing and express- 
ig moral truth, dignity, strength, solidity, as it were, of thought 
ft.ifl language, not w: hout wonderful richness and variety, could 
compensate for the chastened fertility of invention, the life and dis- 
tinctness o^ conception, and the pure and translucent language, ir 
which the Greek stands alone — there the Latin surpasses all poetry 
In what is commonly called didactic poetry, whvjther it would eon. 
vey in verse pUilosophical opinions, the principits of art, descriptions 
of scenery, or observations on life and manners, tlie Latin poets are 
of unrivi:lled excellence. 'I'he poem of Lucrt'flus, the Georgics oi 
Virgil, the Satires and Epistles of Horace, and the works of Juvenal, 
were, no doubJ, as much £Uj)eri<ir even to the poem of Fmpedocles 
(of which, nevertheless, there are some very fine fragments), or to 
any other Greek poems to which they can fairly be compared, as 
the Latin trage»lians were inferior to ^schylus and Sophocles, or 
Terence to Menandcr. 

Ennius, in all points, if he did not commence, completed the de. 
naturalization of Roman poetry. He was in every respect a Greek j 

I. Ninu names of Tnig(Bdi«B Prsetextatae, tragedies on Roman subjcccs, bav« 
survived, more thtm one of which is doubtful; four only claim to be of the ear' 
ier age. I. The Paulus of Pacuvius, which Neukirch ('• De Fabula Togata") and 
IVelcker ("Griechische Tragcedie," p. 1384) suppose to have rcpreseuted, not 
Paulus ^milius Macedooicus, but his father, L. iEmilius Paulus, who, after tba 
battle of Cannaj, refused to survive the defeat. (Lit., xxii., 49.) Yet^ noble M 
was the conduct uf Paulus, the battle of Canna) would have been a strange subject 
for Roman tragedy. II. The Brutus of Accius (Cic., Ep. ad Att., xvi., 2 and 5) 
C:.i?"iuH Parraensis wrote also a Brutus ( fVelcltcr, p. 1403). Seo the dream of Brutu< 
Id Cie. De Divinat, i., 22, and Bothe (Scenic. Lat. Fragm., i., 191). From this fray 
raent Niebuhr (Rom. Hist, vol. i., note 1078) rather boldly concludes that theae 
*'«re net imitations of the Greek drama, but historical tragedies, like tfaoec ol 
^hakspeare. III. The iEncada;, or Dccius of Accius. IV. The Marccllusof Acciuf 
8 doubtful. V. The Iter ad Lentulum, by Balbus, acted at Gadea, represented a 
passage in the author's own life. (Cic, Ep. ad Fam., x., 32.) The later pnetex 
lata) were, VI The Cato ; and, VII. The Domitius Noro of Maternus, in the reign 
of Vespasian. VIII. The Vescio of Persius ; and, IX The Octavia, in thi work« 
if 8(*o\}ca, probably at the time of Trt^an. 



f.iFE OF HORAC!£. XXil 

^€ tiuf* old Romiui legends spoke not in their fuli grandeur to hit 
ear. The fragnnents of the Annals, which relate the exploits of Ro- 
man valor, are oy no means his most poetiC passage.^! ; in almost aif 
his loftier flights we trace Grecian inspiration, or more than inspira- 
tion. If it be true that the earliest annalists of Rome turned theit 
old rvj«try into prose, Ennius seems to have versifled their tame his- 
tory, and to have left it almost as prosaic as before. It may bt 
doubted, notwithstanding the fame of Varius, whether there was anj 
Sue Roman narrative ])()etry till the appearance of the i^ncid. Bat 
Lucretius Imd shown of what the rich and copious, and, in his hands, 
tiexlble Latin language was capable ; how it could paint as well as 
describe, and, whenever his theme would allow, give full utterance 
to human emotion. It is astonishing how Lucretius has triumphtkl 
over the difiiculties of an unpromising subject, an;l the cold and un< 
[xietic tone of his own philosophy. His nobler bursts are not sur 
passed in Latin poetry. Notwithstanding the disrepute in which 
Cicero's poetic ♦Alents have been held, there arc lines, especially ir 
his transltiion of Aratus, which, by their bold descriptive felicity and 
picturesque epithets, rise above the original. Lucretius was dead 
before Horace .<«ttled at Rome, and so, likewise, was the only oXhea 
great Roman p-et who has survived (excluding the dramatists), Ca 
tuUus. Notwi.r .standing their grace, sweetness, and passion, th( 
lyric poems of Catullus do not seem to have been so pleasing a 
:cight have bee n expected to the Roman ear. His fame and popu 
larity rested chiefly on his satirical iambics. His lyrics are men 
tioued with o.'sparagemcnt by Horace, and are not noticed by Quin 
tilian ; yet in his happier moments, what Latin poet equals Catul 
luii? Even if more of his poems than we suppose are translation? 
some of them, which we know to be translations, have all the fir 
and freedom of original poetry. If the Atys be but a feeble och« 
of a Greek dithyrambic, what must the dithyrambics of Greece hav* 
been? 

When Horace returned to Rome, Virgil and Varius, with Asiniu 
Pollio, the statesman and tragic writer, were the most celobrata 
oames in Roman poetry. These tw^o great poets soon admitted thi 
young Horace to their intimacy. The fame of Varius, as an epic 
iX)et, does not appear to have been recognized even by his Roman 
posterity. Quintilian speaks of his Thyestes with the highest piaise, 
an wnrthy to be compared with the nobiest Greek tragedies ; lie does 
not mention his name among the epic writers. Varius, it should 
acern, wrote fine verses on the events and characters of the times ; a 
))oom on the death of CoB.sar, and a panegyric on Angustus. That 
kind of poetry obtains high reputation in its own day. but loses itf 
interest with the events which it celebrates. Yet of the few epic 
lines of Varius wJiich survive, all show vigor and felicity of expres- 
•ion, some great oeauty. The Eclogues of Virgil appeared in theii 
collective ft)rm alwut the same time vith the earliest publication of 
Horace, his first book of Satires B it Virg 1 had already acquiror 



txrili LIFU OI flORACK 

hone I some of his skoiter ])oemj had oxoiiod jL'reat aiimiratioo and 
greater hope ; a few of his Eclogues roust have been alreaiiy knows 
among his friends ; ho had the expectation, at least, of recovering 
his forfeited lands through the friendship of Asinius PoUio; he wtu 
already honored with the intimate acquaintance of Maecenas. 

The introduction of Horace to Maecenas was the turning-point uf 
h ^ fortunes ; but some time (at least two or three years) muse hav« 
unervened bet sv eon his return to Rome, and even his first presenfa« 
^ion to his future patron, during which he must have obtained soma 
■ieputation for pontic talent, and so recommended himself to the friemk 
ihip of kindred spirits like Varius and Virgil. Poverty, in his own 
^rords, was the inspiration of his verse. 

" Pnupcrtiis impulit nudnz 
Vt versus faccrcin." — Episi. li., 2, 51, luuf. 

The mtcrpretation of this passage is the difficult problem In ttia 
oa.'ly history of Horace. What was his poetry ? Did the author 
expect to make money or friends by it? Or did he write mere« 
ly to disburden himself of his resentment and his indignation, at thai 
crisis of desperation and destitution when the world was not hu 
friend, noi the world's law, and so to revenge himself upon that 
^'orld by a stern and unsparing exposure of its vices ? Did the de. 
featetl partisan of Brutus and of liberty boldly hold up to scorn man; 
of the followers and friends of the triumvir, whose follies and vicei 
might offer strong temptation to a youth ambitious of wielding the 
scourtre of Lucilius ? Did he even venture to ridicule the all-power- 
fui Mp^cenas himself? This theory, probable in itself, is supported 
by many recent writers, and is, perhaps, not altogether without founda • 
tion.^ In the second satire, one unquestionably of his earliest cont- 
positions, most of the persons held up to ridicule belonged to the 
rsDsarieoi party. The old scholiast asserts that, under the name of 
iVIalchinus, the poet glanced at the cfTeminate habit of Maecenas, of 
ti'caring his robes trailing o*i the ground, wnilc more malicious 
<candal added that thijs Was a trick in order to conceal his bad legs 
Arid straddling gait. To judge of the probability of this, wo must 
.ook forward to the minute account of his first interview with Majce- 
nas. If Horace was conscious of having libelled Moecenas, it must 
fativo been more than modesty, something rather of shame and con- 
fusion, which overpowered him, and made his words few and broken.' 

The dry and abrupt manner of MsBcenas, though habitual to him, 
might jierhaps bo alleged as rather in favor of the notion that he had 
been induced to admit a visit from a man of talent, strongly rccom- 
mended to him by the most distinguished men of letters of the day, 
though he was awaro that the poet had been a partisan of Brutus, 
and had held himself up to ridicule in a satire, which, if not publish* 
fcd, had been privately circulated, and must have been known at 
ilpast to Varins and Virgil. The gentlemanly magnanimity of M©. 
fpnas, or even the policy, which would induce him to reconcile al 

» WtUkejtaer, Histoirc de \a Vic d'llorace. i., p. 88. 2 Sat iTisiT 



L.IFE OP HO»ACE. Xi\ 

meL Ai talent with the government, might dispose Lim to o 4-1 \ 
with quiet ccnterojit or easy indiflference, or even to join in the ianj»» 
at tbis touch of satire against his own peculiarity of person or mah 
Qer ; bat, still, the subsequent f^ublicalion of a poem containing such 
an allusion, after the satirist had been admitted into the intimacy of 
Maecenas (and it is universally admitted that the satire w^as (irst pnb- 
lisheu after this time), appears improbable, and altogether inoonsbtcnl 
with the deferential respect and gratitude shown by Horace to hia 
fMtroii with the singular tact and delicacy through whic'n the poet 
preserves his freedom by never trespassing beyond its proper boonds, 
uui with that exquisite urbanity which prevents his fliittery from de» 
geaerating into adulation. This is still less likely if the allusion io 
the satire glanced at physical deformity or disease. After all, thii 
aegligence or effeminate aflectation was probably much too conL'noo 
to point the satire against any individual, even one so eminent aa 
MsBcenas. The grave observation of the similarity between th« 
names of Mascenas and Malehinus, being each of three syllables and 
beginning with sn M, reminds us irresistibly of old Fluellin's Mace- 
don and Monmouth. 

The o(b.?«' rh'cumstances of the interview seem to imply that 
Horace felt uu peculiar embarrassment, such as he might have ex- 
perienced if h^ wii conscious of having libclied Maecenas. There 
was no a^t'kward attempt at apology, but a plain independence ir 
his manner ; ho told him merely that he was neither a man of fami* 
ly nor fortune, and explained who and what he was ^ The questioD 
th«5n recurs, wit it were these verses to which Hoi'i-ie was impelled 
by poverty ? Poetry can not have beer: c^^ itself a gaiiiful occnpa- 
tjon. The So^^ii were not, like the opulent booksellers of our owd 
day, ready to encourage, ard to speculate in favor of, a young and 
promising author. In another passage, written late in life, the poel 
pleasantly describes himself as having grown ric h and indolent, and 
as having lost that genial inspiration of want wh cu heretofore had 
10 powerfully excited his poetic vein. Pope has imitated the hu* 
momnB illustration of the old soldier with more than his usual felicity 

* In Anna's wars, n soldier, poor and old. 
Had dearly cnm'd a little purse of gold. 
"nrcd with a t€±'ous mnrch, one luckless nigfct 
He slept (pour dog), and lost it to a doit 
This put the man in such n desperate mind. 
Between revenge, and grief, iind hunger join'd. 
Against himselt', tlic foe, and all mankind 
He Icap'd tlie trcnche«, scaled n castle wall 
Tore down a standard, took the fort and hI]. 
' Prodigious well I' his great commander oriod. 
Gave him much praise, and some reward boside. 
Next pleased his excellence a town to bntUit 
(Its name I know not, and 'tis no great mattpr; , 
' 60 on, niv friend,' he cried ; ' sec yonder walls I 
Advance and conquer I go where glc-ry oaI'« I 

""~*' "^ 1. Sat i.. fl(. 58, te^g. " "^ 



XXX I If B OF HORACB. 

MotR honors, more rewards, attonj the brmvef 
Dozi't you remember what reply ho gare ? 
* D ye think me, noble general, such a sot T 
Let liim take castles who has ne'er a groat.' ** 

From these lines it appears that tne influence of poverty was iiaOi« 
:hac the independent desiie of exhaiin<T his indignation against tlM 
partisans of the triumvirs, or of wrreaking his revenge ; it was th« 
vnlgar dm -prudential design, in some way or other, of bettering hit 
ek>ndit^on, wn 3h was his avowed inspiration. In truth, literary di» 
lixction iu those times might not unreasonably hope for reward 
The most eminent of the earlier poets had not disdained the patron 
hge and friendship of the great statesmen. Ennius had been domi- 
filiated in the family of the Scipios, and his^st^tue was admitted 
after his death into the family mausoleum. Lucilius had been con- 
nected with the same family. Lucretius lived in the house of the 
Mcmmii; Terence with Scipio Africanus and Lnelius. Decimus 
Brutus was the admirer and patron of Accius ; as Messala of Tibul- 
lus ; Vulcatius, or iElius Gallus, of Propertin&. Varius was him- 
self a man of rank and birth ; bu: Virgil owed to his poetical fame 

he intimate friendship of PoUio an 1 Mascenas ;' and though TTorace. 
AS a known republican, could hardiy have hoped for the patronage 
of MsBccnas, there were others to whom the poet might have been 
Trelcome, though much prudence might be required in both parties 
on account of his former political connections. 

But, whatever the motives which induced him to write, the poeti- 
cal talents of Horace must soon have begun to make themselves 
known. To' those talents he owed, in the first place, the friendship 
of Varius and Virgil, of Pollio, and perhaps of some others in that 
fist of distinguished persons, which he recounts in the tenth satire of 
*he first book. Some of these, no doubt, he first encountered after 
•'e had been admitted to the societv of MaBcenas. Under what other 
''haracter, indeed, could the son of a provincial freedman, who hat! 
oeen on the wrong side in the civil wars, had lost all his property, 
and scarcely possessed the means of living, make such rapid progress 
fimong the accomplished and the great ? Certainly not by his socia 
qualities alone, his agreeable manners, or convivial wnt. Nothing 
out his well-known poetical powers can have so rapidly endeared 
aim to his brother poets. When Virgil and Varius told MsBcenai 

* wiiat he was," they must have spoken of him as a writer of verses, 
.lot merely of great promise, but of some performance. But w^cpb 

1 If Donatus Is to be credited, Virgil received from the liberality of hia frinndi 
aot lees than centics 8estcrtU.m (£80,729 3s. Ad.), Ix^sides a house in Ronoo on d» 
BsquiUne, a villa near Nola, perhaps anotlier in Sicily. {Donad, Vita Vlrg , ri. 
fiecoo Juren il's tvell-known lines : 

" Magna) mentis opus, nee de lodice paranda 
Attonittu, cjrru.s et equos, faciemque Dcurutri 
Aspiaire, et quulis Rutulum confundnt Erinya 
Nam si Virgilio pucr et tolerahile dcessct 
Uospitium. <;adr>rnnt mnncs e crinihus hydri.**— Bat. tlil. tib 



l.lFR OF HORACE. X%X\ 

til* two or three satinjs, which we ma/ suppoiie to have bejn writ 
ten bei'ore his introdu ition to JVLeccnas, suflicient to found this \ioiMi{- 
repuiaiioB ? Tha some of the upodes belong to this early part ol 
bis poetical career, I have no doubt; the whole adventure witt 
Canidia (that one of his poetical intrigues which ha^s a groundwork 
at least of reality) belongs to a period of his life when he was loose, 
as it wore, upon the world, without an ascertained position in society^ 
ai^ettled in habits, and to a certain degree in opinions. Nor doe* 
•here appoar to me any difficulty in the supposition tha,t some of tUf 
ides, which bear the expression of youthful feelings and passions^ 
uowever coliected afterward, and published in books, may have been 
fl>mong the coupositions which were communicated to his friends, 
Aod opened to him the society of men of letters and the patronage 
of the great. ^ 

Nine months elapsjd between the first cold reo* i^ioa of Horace 
by MsBcenas and his advances to nearer friendship. 

Maecenas, though stilf engaged in public afi'airs, and though be 
had not yet built his splendid palace on the Esquiline, had neverthe- 
less begun to coiieci around him all the men either eminent, or who 
promised to become eminent, in arts and letters. The friendship 
with Horace grew up rapi«l*y into clo.se intimacy. In the following 
year Horace accompanied lum. on his journey to Brundisium ; to 
which M ajcenas prtxjeeded, though on a political negotiation of the ut- 
most importance (the reconciliation of Anton) aud Octavianus), as 
')n a party of pleasure, environed by the wits and poets who had be- 
^un to form his ordinary circle. 

The mutual amity of all the great men of letters m this period 
fives a singularly pleasing picture oi the society which was har- 
»aoni/ed and kept together by the eximple ami influence of Moece- 
Tias. Between Virgil, Plotius, Variuj, ind Horace, between Horace 
and Tibullus, there was not merely nc vulgar jealousy, no jarring 
rivalry, but the most frank mutual acmi/ation. If an epigr&m of 
Martial be not a mere fancy of the poet, X'^irgil carried his delicacy 
so far that he would not trespass on tha poetic provinces which 
seemed to belong to his friends. Though hj might have surpassisd 
Varius in tragedy, and Horace in lyric poet.y, he would not attempt 
either, lest he should obscure their fame.-* 

L The most untenable part »)f the Bentlci w chronoVogy, which, however, as fa 
as ^be publication of the separate books, is no doubt true, is his peremptory ar 
flertion that Horace employed hhnself only on one kind of poetry at a time : thai 
he wrote all the satires, then the epodes, then the three books « «f odes. Dr. TbIb. 
the faithful and unshaken disciple of Bentley, quoting thj lines, 

'• Neque, si quis scribat, uti nos, 
Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poctam," 
does not scruple to assert thitt Horace, Sat. i., 4, *'says, an plaiuly as a man cm 
Bay it, that he had not then written any thing which could entitle hi^-n to the nami 
of a poet ;" therefore, no single ode. " But Horace," as bos been well observed 
^ uses language much like this in his epistles (Epist. ii., 1 25J. frc), written aftof 
4 11 bis odeA"—Dyerj in Class. Museim, No. V , p. 215, &c 
itartial, RpU. viiL IR. 



KIXU LIPR OF HORAC«« 

In *he enjoyment of this society Horace completed tlie «bfli«tt *r 
tis works which has reached posterity (if, inde3d, we hatv \.r* >ii. 
vrhole pubhslied works), the first book of satires.^ 



CHAPTf:R III. 

•▲TIU": POETRY ITS ORIGIN THE COMEDY OF ROMS— flVAIt Off 

^sA::ETY SABINE farm chronology ok the books of tiATllOtfl 

— KPODKS DATE OF COMPOSITION OF COMPLETION. 

The satiric style of poetry was admirably suited to this 'iray oi" 
iving. It was the highest order of the poetry of society. It wiU 
bear the same definition as the best conversation — good sense and 
wit in equal proportions. Like good conversation, it dwells enough 
on one topic to allow us to bear something away, while it is so de» 
altory as to minister {lerpetual variety. It starts from some sub- 
ject of interest or importance, but docs not adhere to it with riirid 
pertinacity. The satire of Horace allowed ample scope to follow 
9ut any train of thought which it might suggest, but never to pro* 
lixity It was serious and gay, grave and light ; it admitted the 
most solemn and important (questions of philosophy, of manners, of 
literature, but touched them in an easy and unaficctcd tone; it was 
full of point and sharp allusions to the characters of the day ; it in 
troduced in the most graceful manner the follies, the affectations, 
even the vices of the times, but there was nothing stern, or savage, 
or malignant in its tone ; we rise trom the perusal with the convic- 
tion that Horace, if not the most urbane and engaging (not the per- 
fect Christian gentleman), must have been the most sensible and de- 
lightful |)erson who could be encountered in Roman society. There 
is no broad bufibonery to set the tabic in a roar; no elaborate and 
exhausting wit, which turns the pleasure of listening into a fatigue; 
i' it trespasses occasionally beyond the nicety and propriety of mod- 
em manners, it may fairly plead the coarseness of the times, and the 
war t of efficient female control, which is the only true chastener of 

1. Even on the publication of the Fatires, odes, and epistles in separate book?, 
tluM-e are more difficulties than at first sight appear in the chronology of Bentley. 
Several of the satires in the first, but especially the fourth, show that Horace had 
already made enemies by his satiric poetry. Horace was averse to the fashion of 
reciting poems in public, which had been Introduced by Asiuius FoUio, and com- 
plains that his own were read by few : 

*' Cum mea nemo 
Sciipta legat, vulgo rccitarc timentis." 
Compare line 73, et aeqq. Sonic recited their works in the forum, some in the 
public baths. 

No doubt he is in jest in this compaiison between his poems and those of hie 
rivals Crispinus and Fannius : but it seems to imply that his poems were already, 
some way or other, exposed to popular approbation or neglect. Our notion of 
publication, the striking off at once a whole edition, probably misleads us. Before 
the invention of printing, each poem must have been copied and rccopicd scpa- 
rateljr; perhaps they may not have been exposed for sale till made up in bookv. 



UiFE OF HGRACE. YAXU 

cjDTirrdatioii, but whi^h can only command respect wher«5 the fe 
males themselves deserve it. 

The satiric form of poetry was not original ; there was something 
like it in the Silli of the Greeks, and Luciliiis had already introduced 
this style of writing Into Rome with great success. The obligauonif 
of Horace to Lucilius it is impossible fairly to estimate from the few 
and broken passages of that writer which have survived. Horace 
cau h&rdly oe suspected of unworthy jealoufiy in the character which 
ltd gives of his predecessor in the art. Notwithstanding Quintiian'4 
»:atemont that there were some even in his own day who still pre* 
(erred the old satirist, not merely to all poets of his class, but eves 
Iz evi ry other Roman poet, there can bo no doubt that Lucilius waft 
rude, harsh, and inharmonious ; and it is exactly this style of {toetrj 
which requires ease, and that unstudied idiomatic perspicuity of Ian- 
Iguage, that careless, as it may seem, but still skillful construction 
of verse which delights the ear at the same time that it is widely 
diiTerent from the stately march of the Virgilian hexameter, or th« 
smooth regularity of the elegiac poets. It is so near akin to prose 
as to require great art to keep up the indispensable distinction from it 

The poetry of Horace was the comedy of an nntheatrical people 
If the Romans had been originally a theatrical pieople, there wouI4 
h^vo been a Roman drama. Their pra^textatre were but Greek 
dramas on Koman subjects. The national character of the people 
was, doubtless, the chief cause of the want of encouragement to the 
drama, but we may go still further. Tiie true sphsre of the drama 
seems to be a small city, like Athens (we reckon its size by its fre« 
population), London in l\u time of Elizabeth and James, Paris in 
that of Louis XIV., or Weimar at the close of the last century. In 
these cities, either all orders delight in living in public, or there is » 
large and predominant aristocracy, or a court which represents o; 
leaf Is the public taste. Rome was too popnlous to crowd into a thea- 
tre, where the legitimate drama could be effectively performed. The 
people required at least a Colosseum; and directly, as el:^where^ 
their theatres rivalled their amphitheatres, the art was gone. So 
oiety, too, in Rome, was in a state of transition from the public speo 
tacle to the private banquet or entertainment *, and as our ovm pres- 
ent mode of living requires the novel instead of the play, aflbrds a 
hundred readers of a book to ore spectator of a theatrical perforn^- 
aoce, so Roman comedy receded from the theatre, in which she had 
never been naturalized, and concentrated her art and her observp.tioti 
on human life and manners in the poem, which was recited to the 
private circle of friends, or published for the general amusement of 
the whole society. 

Lucilius, as Horace himself says, aspired to bo in Re me whr 
Eapolis, Cratinus, and Aristophanes had been in Athens {Sat. [., 5, 
1, teqq.) ; and more than Cascilius, Plautus, and Terence, exccUeoi 
as the two latter at least appear to us, were at Rome. 

Tho tone of society, of which Horace is the representative waa 

2* 



XXXIV LIFE OK HOHACR 

that into which Home, wean' and worn out with civil ooit^sts. mu 
delighted to collapse. The peace of the capitsii xaa no mote di» 
Carbcd ; though the forei<^n disturbances in Spair. and on ihe othei 
frontiers of the empire, the wars with the sons of Pc^npey, and, Anal- 
I}', with Antony in the East, distracted the remoter world, Rome 
qnietlj' subsided i^to the pursuits of peace. It was the policy no lesi 
than the inclinatio:i of Augustus and his true friends to £often, to 
flunuse, t3 introduce all the arts, and tastes, and fecnii^s which coaU 
nduoo forgetfulness of the more stirring excitements of the rostrfc 
And the senate ; to awaken the song of the poet, that the agitating 
eloquence of the orator might cause less regret ; to sjiread the ooueb 
of luxury, of elegant amusement, and of lettered ease, on which Roma 
might slumber away the remembrance of her departed liberties. 
Agrippa and Augustus himself may be considered ls taking charge 
of the public amusements, erecting theatres, and alorning the city 
with magnificent buildings of every description, transmuting the 
Rome of brick into the Rome of marble ; exhibiting the most gor- 
geous shows and spectacles; distributing sumptuous largesses; and 
compensating, by every kind of distraction and diversion, for the pri- 
vation of those more serious political occupations in the forum or at 
the comitia, which were either abojished by the constitution, or had 
languished into regular and unexciting formalities.' JVIscenas, in 
the mtaw time, was winning, if not to the party, or to ]>ersonal attach- 
ment toward Augustus, at least to contented acquiescence in his 
sovereignty, those who would yield to the silken charms of socia': 
enjoyment. Though in the Roman mansion or Baian villa, as after- 
ward in the palace on the Es^iuiline, no test of opinion might be de- 
manded, and no severe or tyrannous restriction be placed on the ease 
and freedom of conversation, republican sentiments, or expressions 
of dissatisfaction at the state of public affairs, would he so out of 
place at the hospitable banquets of Maecenas as to be proscribed by 
the common laws of courtesy or urbanity. Men's minds would be 
gradually reconciled to the suppression, if not to forgetfulness cr 
abandonment, of .such thoughts and feelings ; they were gradually 
taught how agreeably they might live under a despoti«»m. 

Horace was not the only republican, nor the only intimate friend 
o"' Brutus, who took refuge in letters : 

" Ilajc est 
Vita solutoruxa misera ambitionc gravique." 

He excused himself from the hopelessness of the cause, of which he 
•till cherished some gcnei ous reminiscences. He still occasionally 
betrayed old associations, as in his flashes of ad miration at the un- 

1. Tho panfomimes had bc^un to supersede the reg^ithtr drama. 1 ylados was ex 
polled by a faction, but recalled from exile by Augustus. In a dispu;;e with Bathyl 
lus, who was patronized by Majcenas, Pylades cried out, " It is wo'l for you, C»- 
flar, that the in?opl«3 trouble themselves so much about us, the less, thurcf .ire, aboof 
yoTa."-iDio Ca?8., 11 v., 17. S<;e, on the pantomimes of tlie Rimans, an ercJCr-u 
diuscrtnticn by E. J, Grysar, Rhcinisches Museum. 1834 



LIFK uK" UJIlACia. XXX » 

broken spirit tnd nob e death cf Cato; 3'et, nevertheless, he gradaal- 
\j softened into the friend 'jf the emperors favorite, and ut length 
into the poetical «^ourticr cf the cm^ieror himself. Horace, indeed, 
asserted and maintained greater independence of personal character 
than nr.ost subjects of the new empire ; there is a tone of dignity and 
aelf-respect even in the most adulatory passages of his writings. 

Between the publication of the two books of satires, Horace :P- 
eeived from Miecenas the gift of the Sabine farm, the only produi^f- 
ive property which he ever possessed, and on which he lived 111 mod- 
erate contentment. Nothing could be more appropriate tban thli 
gift, which may have been sof/ened olf, as it were, as a compensa 
tion r^r his confiscated personal estate ; the act of generosity ma) 
have recommended itself as an act of justice. Virgil had recovcnd 
his own native fields, but the estate of Horace had no doubt been 
irrevocably granted away. The Sabine farm had the recommenda- 
tion of being situated in a country as romantic, nearer to Rome, and 
it no great distance from the scenes in which Horace delighted be- 
yond all others in Italy. 

The Sabine farm of Horace was situated in a deep and romantic 
valley about fifteen miles from Tibur {IHvoli). The description of 
the farm, its aspect, situation, and climate, exactly correspond with 
tht? valley of Licenza, into which modern Italian proimnciation has 
mtrlted the hard Digentia. The site, with some ruins of buildings, 
WHS first discovered, and discussed at length by Capmartin de 
Chaupy, in his *' Maison de Campagne d' Horace." It has since 
been visited by other antiquarians and scholars, who have found al- 
most every name mentioned by the poet still clinging to the mount* 
ains and villages of the neighborhood. 

The estate was not extensive; it produced corn, olives, and vines; 
it was surrounded by pleasant and shady woods, and with abundance 
ol the purest water; it was superintended by a bailiff (villicus), and 
(cultivated by five families of free coloni (Epist. i., 14, 3) ; and Horace 
employed about eight slaves {Sat. ii., 7, 118). 

To the munificence of Mnscenas we owe that peculiar charm of 
^je Horatian poetry that it represents both the town and country life 
of the Romans in that age ; the country life, not only in the rich and 
luxurious villa of the wealthy at Tivoli or at Baise, but in the se- 
3luded retreat and among the simple manners of the peasantry. It 
might seem as if the wholesome air which the poet breathed during 
his retirement on his farm rciavig crated his natural manliness of mind 
There, notwithsjandmg his love oi^ convivial enjoyment in the palace 
Df Mfficenas and other wea'thy friends, he delighted to revert to his 
3wn sober and frugal mod«>. of livirg. Probubly at a later period of 
life he indulged himself in a villa at Tivoli, which lie loved for its 
aiild winter and long sprang ;^ and all the later years of his life wer« 
jiassed between these two country residences and Rome. 

~ r Vm Tibur, 8«e Carp*, '., 7, 10-14 ; it, «, 5-« ; id., 4, 91-21 ; iv., % 87-31 • i<L, d 
0-12: Epod i.. 20. 30; /:pi«t i , 7. 44-5: 8. 'St 



ZKXV3 UFK OP H0R.^I;B. 

The frbcoiid Ivxtk of satires followed the first. It is e\idenr, frnn 
tlie fit St lines of this book, that the poet had made a strong iir.pres- 
siou on the puhiic taste. No writer, with the keen goo<l sense of 
Horace, woiikl have ventured on such expression!^ as the foiiowing, 
onless he had felt confident of his position : 

** Sunt quibus in Satira vidcor niinis accr, ct altra 
Legem tendere optia ; sine nervis altera, quicqnid 
Composui, pars esse pntat, similesquc meorum 
Mille die versus deduci posse." — Sat ii., 1, 1, »eqgA 

riiij is the languacre of a privile<red egotist; of one who had ao* 
ai ed a right, by public sufTmge, to talk of himself. The victim ol 
iSs satire will be an object of ridicule to the whole city : 

** Nee quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! et ille 
Qui me commArit (melius non tangere I clamo) 
Flebit, et inslgnis tota cantabitur urbc.'*— lb., 45, 9eqq.* 

The sixth satire of this book is the most important in the chronok^ 
ey of the life and works of Horace.^ It was in the eighth year* of 
his familiarity with Mzecenas that this satire was composed. T(i 
his must be added the nine monlhs after his first introduction. If 
Horace returned to Rome in the winter after the battle of Philippi 
(A.U.C. 712, 713), time must be allowed for him to form his friend- 
ship with Virgil and with Varius, and to gain that jwetic reputation 
by pieces circulated in private which would justify their recommenda- 
tion of their friend to Maecenas. The first introduction could scarce 

I. I fubioin the imitation of his beet interpreter, at least, if not commentatcir : 
" There are (I scarce can think it, but am told), 

There are to whom vaj satire seems too bold ; 

Scarce to wise Peter complaisant enough. 

And something said of Chartres much too rough ; 

The lines arc weak, another's pleased to say, 

Lord Fanny spins a thousand such a day." — l*ope. 
2 " Peace is my dear delight, not Fleasy's racro ! 

But touch me, and no niiuister so sore. 

Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time, 

Slides into verse, or hitches in a rhyme ; 

Sacred to ridicule his whole life long. 

And the sad burden of a merry song." — Pope. 
1L Am Sat ii., 6, 40-47. T^is pleasant passage Is exquisitely adapted by Swift 
** 'Tis Oct mu see) three years and more 

(October next it will be four) 

Since Harley bid me first attend. 

And chose me for an humble friend ; 

Would take me in his coach to chat, 

And question me of this and that ; 

As, What's o'clock ? or How's the wind t 

Whose chariot's that we left behind ? 

Or, Have you nothing new to-day 

From Pope, from Parnell, or from Gay Y* &c.. Ac. 
4. Bama construe "Septimus octavo propior Jam fugerit annus' tm on)y aix 
fmxn and a half. The pnst fvgerUy surely implies that the seventh year had ac 
*vtUy elapsed, and above halfa3'PRr more 



tIFE OF hoha(;b X&XVl 

I^, therefore, be earlier than A.U.C. 715. It is impossible, therefore, 
that this book could be completed before late in A.U.C. 722, th« 
year before the battle of Actium. If, however, there be an ailusioc 
to the divjsion of lands 13 the soldiers engaged in that war, the date 
can not be before A.U.C. 721.* 

The book of epodes may be cons lered as in one sense the transi* 
\ion from satire to lyric poetry. Though not collected or completed 
till ih^ present period of the poet's life, this book appears to contain 
fome of the earliest compositions of Horace. In his sweet youth, 
his strong passions drove him to express himself in the sharp iambic 
verse (Carra. i., 16, 22-4). Bentley's observation, which aW would 
wish to be true, is perhaps more so than would appear from his own 
th^oiy ; that, as it proceeds, the stream of the Horatian poetry flews 
not only with greater elegance, but with greater purity.* 

The moral character of the poet rises in dignity and decency ; he 
has cast off the coarseness and indelicacy w^hich defile some of his 
earliest pieces ; m his odes he sings to maidens and to youths. The 
two or three of the epodes w'hich offend in this »na-.iner, I scruple not 
to assign to the first year after the return of the [xjet to Rome. But 
not merely has he rise.i above, and refined himself from, the grosser 
licentiousness, his bitter and truculent invective has gradually soft 
cned into more playful satire. Notwithstanding his protestation, 
some of his earlier iambics have much of the spirit as well as the 
numbers of Archilochus. 

The book of epodes was manifestly completed not long after the 
last war between Octavianus and Antony. The dominant feeling in 
the. mind of Horace seems now to have been a horror of civil war. 
The war of Perugia, two years after Philippi, called forth his first 
.idignant remonstrance against the wickedness of taking up arms, 
lot for the destniction of Carthage, the subjugation of Britain, but tc 
fulfill the vows of the Parthians for the destruction of Rome by hei 

1. This part ()f the Bcntleian chronology is, it may almost he rn^rrted, impossi 
Up. Bcntley refers the partition of land alluded to in the celebrated line, 

•* Promissa Triquetra 
Preedia Csesar an est Itala tellurc daturas," 
to the division which followed the defeat of Sex. Pompoius. This defeat took 
place A.U.C. 718 ; the death of Pompeius A.U C. 719. The eight years and a half 
■lone would throw the presentation to MiBcenas above the date of the battie of 
Philippi, A U.C. 712. The only way of escape is to suppose that the division w&i 
promised, not fulfilled, and took several years to carry out Bat this is irrcconcilar 
Ue with the accounts of this division in the historians, and the allusion in Horac«> 
III it« first enactment as to where the Inods were to be assigned. 

2. ** In cseteris autem singulis pra^cedentis astatis gradus plenissimis signis in 
<fi.cat ; idque tali ex hac serie jam a me demonstrata jncundum erit nniraadvertere 
eant operibus juvcnilibus multa obscena et flagitio!*n insint, quanto annis provec 
lior er&t, tanto etun ct poetica virtute et argumeutorum dignitate gravitatoqoe m^ 
^rem semper castioremquc evasisse." — Bendeius in prtufat But by BentJcy'a 
Gheory the w .fst of the epodes were written whm he was 32 or XI years old 
hardly "annia Jurenilibus. * The 14th bears date after tt\a lotimAcy was forfi^Ji 
-«tth Mflsccnaa. 



XXXVllI LIFE OF IIORACR. 

owi hanis.^ Both at that time and several years later llewise, ia?! 
befo e the war of Actium, the date of the first epode, the most ardei* 
lover of liberty might deprecate the puilt and evil of civil war. It 
was not for freedom, but for the choice of masters between the sub- 
tle Octaviauus and the profligate Antony, that the world was again Vn 
be deluged with bloc. I. The strongest republican, even if he retax- 
ed the utmost jealoasy and aversion for Octavianus, might prefer his 
4»aiise to that of an Eastern despot, so Antony appeared, and so bf 
was represented at Rome, supported by the arms of a baibari&i: 
quoen.^ It might seem that the fearful and disastrous times had 
broken up the careless social circle, for whose amusement and in- 
ttni^ticn the satires were written, and that the poet was thiowa 
oack by force into a more grave and solemn strain. Msecenas him- 
ielf is summoned to abandon his delicious villa, his intellectual friondsi, 
hifl easy luxury, and to mount the hard deck of the tall ships of war : 

" Ibis Libumis inter alta nnvium, 
Amice, propuguucula." — Kpod. i., 1. 

Horace was in doubt whether he sliould accompany his patron. Ma?- 
cenas, however, remained in Italy ; and, after a short absence, re 
Bumed the government of Rome. The first epode expresses the 
poet's feelings on this trying occasion, and perhaps has never been 
surpassed by any composition of its kind. There is hardly any piece 
of the same length in which the delicacy of compliment is so blended 
with real feeling, or gratitude and attachment expressed with so 
much grace and dignity. The exquisite second epode might natu- 
rally api^ear to have been written after the possession of the Sabine 
estate ; the close, in which he seems to turn all his own rural senti- 
ment into ridicule, is a touch of playfulness quite in his own man- 
ner. The ninth epode is, as it were, the poet's first song of triumph 
for the victory at Actium ; the triumph, not in a civil war, but over 
a foreign foe. In the fourteenth there is an apology for his tardi- 
ness in completing the book of epodes which he had promised to 
AfaRcenas : 

" Inceptos olim i)roiriis6wm cannen iambos 
Ad uiKbilicum diu ere." 



1 . Read the seventh epode : 

*• Uuo quo scelepti niitia ! aut cur dcxtcris," &c. 
The tone of this poem agrees bettor with the entirely independent situation d 
Hdracc at tho time of the war of I'erujjia, than hiter, when he was at least (a)- 
.hough he was yet unfavored by Octuvijinus) the friend of the friend ofOctaviamu 
Tlie seventeenth ode, in whicii lie poetically urges the migration of the Roma 
/y>pLe to some happier and sechui(!d hmd, soeras likewise to belong to that peri >d 
S, " Interque signn, turpe, militaria 

Sol aspicit conopiuni." — Epod. ix., 15. 



Br> «rii(il, 



Huic ope barbnricn, variisque Antonius armis, 
Victor ab aurorttj populis et litore rubro 
iEgyptiim, virosque Orientis, et ultima secum 
B^tra Utiaii- scquiturque ncfas) ^gyptia conjux." 

iEb^id, vlii 



LIFE OP HORACE. XXXI X 

The whole hiMk U|)|»eared iiost probably A..D.C 72^, the secu^ii 
SUBT fi/ter the battle of Actinm, in the thirty-<ixth ol' the life of iriorac^e 



CHAPTER IV. 

SOHiCS A LYltlC WRITER ORIGINALITY OF HIS ODES— DATK OF COM* 

POSITION MERITS OF THE ODES EPISTLES GENERAL CClCPOSf 

now— KJHaRACTER of HORATIAN POETRY. 

Horace now became a lyric poet, or, rather, devoted himself c&- 
i'rely to the cultivation of that kind of poetry. The nine or tec 
vears of his life after the battle of Actium (A.U.C. 724 to 734, lif«i 
of Horace 35 to 45) were employed in the composition, or the com- 
pletion, of the first three books of odes. 

The odes bear the character of the poet's life during this \on^ 
(Hjriod. He has reverted to bis peaceful enjoyment of society. The 
Eword of civil war is sheathed ; one of his earliest and noblest bursts 
is the song of triumph for Actium, with the description of the death 
of Cleopatra. There is just excitement enough of foreign warfare 
on the remote frontiers of Spain, in Britain, in Arabia, to give an 
opportunity for asserting the Roman's proud consciousness of uni< 
versal sovereignty. Parthia consents to restore the standards of 
Crassus, or, at all events, has sent a submissive embassy to Rome ; 
the only enemies are the remotest barbarians of the North and KaM 
^ith harsh-sounding names. 

" Urbi solicitus times 
Uuid Seres, et regnata Cyro 
Bactra parent, Tanaisque discora." — Carm. iil., 29, 26-8. 

C^ctavianus has assumed the name of Augustus ; the poet has ac< 
quiesced in his sole dominion, and introduces him, for the first time, 
into his poetry under this his imperial title. Public affairs and 
private friendships — the manners of the city — the delights of the 
country — all the incidents of an easy and honorable literary life — sug- 
gest the short poem which embodies the feelings and sentiments of 
Horace. His philosophical views and his tender attachments enable 
him to transport into Rome such of the more pleasing and beautiful 
lyrics of Greece as could appear with advantage in a Latin dress. 
Horace not only naturalizes the metres, but many of the poems of the 
Greek lyrists. Much ingenuity has been wasted in forming a chroo* 
iel<» of the amours of Horace, almost as authentic, no doubt, as that 
§0 the graceful poem of our own Cowley. However fatal to the 
poisonality of the poet in many of his lighter pieces, I must profess 
my Jifcbelicf in the real existence of the Lalages, and Lydias, and 
Glyceras, and Lyces, and Chloes. Their names betray their origin ; 
ibough many damsels of that class in Rome may have been of Greek 
or servile birth, many of them, no doubt, occupy the srrae place in 
me imitnticn of the Greek poem which they did in the origjnal.' 
L Comrnre an eBsay of Bu'tinann, in German, in the Berlin Tnmeactiona, &^A U 



41 LiFK OF II0R.40IS 

By a carefnl examination of each ode, wilh a fine critical per€e|!tiaft 
ami some kindred congeniality with a poetic mind, much mi^bt per. 
haps be done to separate the rcai fiom the imitative, the ori^inEi 
from the translated or transfused. This would, at least, be a more 
hopeful and rational work of criticism than the attempt to date every 
piece from some vague and uncertain allusion to a contemporary 
event. Some few indeed, but very few, bear their distinct and un- 
i!eniablc date, as the ode on the death of Clcpatra (Carm. i., 37).' 

According to the rigid chronology of Bentley, this poem must 
•Ave been the first, or nearly the first, attempt of Horace to write 
lyric poetry. But it is far more probable that the books of cdes coik 
tiftin poems written at very different periods ia the life of Horace, 
finished up for publication oh the separate or simultaneous appear- 
ance of the first three books. Even if written about the same time, 
they are by no means disposed in chronological order. The arrange- 
ment seems to have been arbitrary, or, rather, to have been made 
not without regard to variety of subject, and, in some respects, of 
metre. In ihe first book, the first nine and the eleventh might seem 
placed in order to show the facility with which the poet could com- 
mand every metrical variety, the skill with which, in his own words 
he could adapt the Grecian lyric numbers to Latin poetry. The 
tenth, the Sapphic ode to Mercury, is the first repetition. There is, 
likewise, a remarkable kind of moral order in the arrangement of 
these odes. The first is a dedicatory address to his friend and patron 
Maecenas, the object of his earliest and of his latest song. The sec- 
ond is addressed to the emperor, by his new title, Augustus. The 
third rolates to his dear friend and brother poet, Virgil ; then comes 
the solemn moral strain to Sestius, followed by perhaps the most 
finished of his love songs, to Pyrrha Throughout the whole book 
cr, rather, the whole collection of odes, there seems this careful 
stilly of contrast and variety; the religious hymn to the god of 
mercurial men is succeeded by the serious advice to Leuconoe. 

The just estimate of Horace, as a lyric poet, may be more closely 

his Mythologu.^. and translated in the Philological Museum, vol. i., p. 439, aeg^ 
Buttmann carrieh out to the extreuae his theory, that most of the love-lyrics aro 
translations or imitations from the Greek, or poems altogether ideal, and without 
any real ground-work. 

1. Within a few yearj there have been five complete chronologies of the whil« 
works of Horace, which pretend to assign the true year to the composition of every 
one of his poems : I. Kirecl>ner, QueBStiones HoratianaE^, Leipzig, 1834. II. Franke^ 
Fasti Horatiani, Berlin, 1839. III. Histoire de la \'ie ct des Poesies de Horace, pai 
M . le Baron Walckenaer, 2 vols., Paris, 1840 ; a pleasing romance on the life and 
times of Horace. IV. Quiutuii Horatius Flaccus, als Mcnsch und Dichter, von 
l>. W. K. Weber, Jena, 1844. V. Grotcfend. The article Horatius in Ersch and 
Gniber's Encyclopaedie. Besides these, there are, among later writers, the live 
of Horace by Passow and by Zumpt ; the notes in the Fiench translatioo of the 
odes by M. Vai^derbourg ; the notes of Heindorf on the satires ; and o' Bi^hmid 
on the epistlei. The irreconcilable discrepancies among all those ingenious au 
thors show the futility of the attempt ; almost every one begins by admittij^^ tlu 
nnpoMihility of success, and then propeeds fcp frame a nevy scheme. 



i.lFB I r HORACE X- 

eonnected fban api)oars at first with these coiisideratious. Netthei 
was his the age, nor was Latin the lanjruage for the highest atv* 
9oog. Tlie religious, and what we may call the national, the second 
inspiration of the genuine lyric, were both v anting. 'J'he religion m 
the Horatian ode is, for the most pert, the common-place machinerv 
of the established creed, the conventional poetic mythology, of whicn 
the influence was effete. There is wu deep and earnest devotion : 
even the gods aio rather those of Greek poetry than of the old Ro 
flBUQ uith. The allusion to passing events are those of a calm Mid 
«lf-possessed observer, ingeniously weaving them mto his occasioniij 
ieccs j not the impassioned overflow of the poetic spirit, seizing and 
pouring forth in one long and inexhausted stream, all the thoughts, 
and sentiments, and images, and incidental touches, which are trans* 
muted, as it were, by thr> bard into part of his own moral being. As 
compared with the higLjst lyric poetry, the odes of Horace are 
greatly deficient ; but as occasional pieces inspired by friendship, by 
moral sentiment, or as graceful and finished love verses, they are 
perfect ; their ease, spirit, perspicuity, elegance, and harmony com- 
pensate, as far as may be, for the want of the nobler characteristics 
of daring conception, vehemence, sublimity, and passion. 

The separate or simultaneous publication of the first three books 
of odes, and the date of their publication, mainly depends on one 
question. If ilic voyage of Virgil to the East, on which the third 
ode of the first book was written, be that mentioned in the life oi 
Virgil by Donatis, thai book can not have appeared before the yeai 
U.C. 735, and in such ease the three books must have been publish, 
ed together about that time. 

The epistles were the work of the mature man. The first book 
was written abcut B.C. 20, 19, A.U.C. 734, 735. No one doubts 
that these delic:htful compositions are the most perfect works oi 
Horace ; but h is singularly diificult to define, even to our own con- 
ception, still more in language, in what consists their felt and ac 
knowledged charm. They possess every merit of the satires in a 
higher degree, with a more exquisite urbanity, and a more calm and 
commanding good sense. In their somewhat more elevated tone, 
they stand, as it were, in the midway between the odes and the 
satires. They are that, in short, which Pope, their best, if not their 
one siicccssfnl imitator, is to English poetry. 

The ajsthetic law, which would disfranchise Horace and Pope, 
and this whole class of writers, from the venerable guild of poets, 
must depend upon what we mean by the word poetry. This ques- 
tion had already occurred to Horace himself. Some doubted wheth- 
er comedy was a form of poetry, and whether Aristoj)hanes and Mc- 
nander were to be honored with the name of poets (^Sat. i., 4, 45). If 
poetry must necessarily be imaginative, creative, impassioned, digni- 
fied, it is also clear that it must become extinct in a certain state of 
society, or, instead of transcribing the actual enintions and sentiments 
of men, it must throw its3lf back into a more stirring and romantic 



Xiil MFE or HORACE. 

pcr.od. It MUst make for itself a foreign realm ii the \nis\ cr in tiM 
future. At all events, it must have recourse to s)me remote or ex 
traonlia ary excitement ; the ca.m course of every nlay events can af- 
ford no subject of nspiration; the decencies and conventional pro 
orieties of civilized life lie upon it as a deadenin«T spell ; the assira 
dating and levelling tone of manners smooths away all which i« 
(triking or sublime. 

But may there not be a poetiy of the most civilized and bighl/- 
t^^iltivated state of human society ; something equable, tranquil 
seiene; affording delight by its wisdom &.nd truth, by its grace and 
elPtiauce ? Human nature in all its forms is the domain of poetrv 
and though the imagination may have to perform a different oUice. 
and to exercise a more hmited authority, yet it can not be thought 
nr, rather, can not be feared, that it w^ill ever be so completely t x- 
linguished in the mind of man as to leave us nothing but the every, 
day world in its cold and barren reality. 

Poetry, indeed, which thrills and melts ; which stirs the very depthsf 
of the heart and soul ; which creates, or stretches its reanimating 
wand over the past, the du^tant, the unseen, may be, and no doubt 
is, a very different production of the wonderful mechanism of »hc 
human mind from that whic.'i has only the impressive language and 
the harmonious expression, without the fiction of poetry ; but human 
life, even in its calmest form, will still delight in seeing itself re 
ftected in the pure mirrpr ol poetry; and poetry has too much re^J 
ilignity, too much genuine sympathy with imiversal human nature 
to condescend to be exclusive. There is room enough on the broad 
heights of Helicon, at least on its many peaks, for Homer and Menan 
der, for Virgil and Horace, for Shakspeare, and Pope, and Cowper 
May we not pass, without supposing that we are abandoning t'lc! 
<acrcd precincts of the Muses, from the death of Dido to the epistle 
:o Augustus ? Without asserting that any thing like a regular cycle 
brings round the taste for a particular style of composition, or that 
• he demand of the human mind (more poetic readers must not be 
iiocked by this adoption of the language of political economy) re- 
^uirts, and is still further stimulated by the supply of a particulat 
kind of production at particular periods ; it may be said, in general, 
that poetry begets prose, and prose .poetry — that is to say, wheu 
pootr} has long occupied itself solely with more imaginative subjects, 
when it has been exclusively fictitious and altogether remote from 
the ordinary affairs of life, there arises a desire for greater truth— 
for I more close copy of th/.t which actually exists around us. Good 
»' use, keen observation. '3rse expression, polished harmony, then 
•r-mmand and delighi,, im possess, perhaps in their turn too exclu- 
lively, for some time, the public ear. But directl} jis familiarity 
5'ith common life has too cl^'-^lv approximated poetry to prose— 
V 'leii it is undistinguished, o* crre'y distinguished from prose by a 
f jnventional poetic language, r <?ertain regular forms of veife — 
then the poetic spii it bursts away again into freedom ; and, 'n gon 



LIFE OP HORACE. Xi 

ei-nl, U its fifAt snuggle for emancipation, breaks out into ex rava. 
gance; th3 unfettsred imagination runs riot, and alt(*<jether scorn* 
the alliance of truth and nature, to which it falsely attributes iis long 
and igcoble thraldom, till some happy spirit weds again those which 
should never have been dissevered, and poetry becomcjs once mow, 
in the language of one of its most enchanting votaries, 

*' Truth severe in laery fiction dresa'd." 
Hence may, perhaps, be ibrmed a just estimate of the poetical ohai 
acter of Horace. Of him it may be said, with regard to the mom 
(perfect form of his poetry, the epistles, that there is a period in the 
'^terary taste of every accomplished individual, as well as of e^ery 
t»un*ry, not certainly in ardent youth, yet far from the decrepituda 
of old age, in which we become sensible of the extraordinary anii 
nndefinable charm of these wonderful compositions. It seems to i e- 
qaire a certain maturity of mind ; but that maturity by no mcan.i 
precludes the utmost enjoyment of the more imaginative poetry. It 
is, in fact, the knowledge of the world which alone completely quali- 
fies us for judging the writings of a man of the world ; our owt. 
practical wisdom enables us to appreciate that wisdom in its most 
delightful form. 



CHAPTER V. 

^rOSlTION OF HORACE DURING THE DECLINE OF LIFE FRIENDSUll 

WITH AUGUSTUS RELIGION OF HORACE PHILOSOPHY CL9SE 0» 

His LIFE POETICAL CRITICISM EPISTLES TO AUGUSTUS AND AR^ 

OF POETRY DEATH HIS PERSON. 

Never was position more favorable than that of Horace for t* 
development of this poetic character. The later years of his life 
^ere passed in an enviable state of literary leisure. He has graduai 
*y risen from the favorite of the emperor's friend to the poet in whosf 
compositions the shrewd and sagacious emperor is said himself to 
have desired to be enshrined for the admiration of posterity. The 
first advances to intimacy with the poet came from the emperor him- 
sjeif. Augustus had at first been his own secretary ; he had written 
hifl own letters to his friends ; he offered that honorable and confiden 
tial }K)s; to the poet. He requested Maecenas to transfer our Horace 
tts he cjndescended to call hiii, into his service. When the poet de 
etines the offer, Augustus is not in the least oflended, and does not 
glow cool in his friendship. He almost tempts him to ask favors ; he 
asMurcs him of his undiminished regard : " If you," he says, "are so 
proud as to disdain my friendship, I shall not become haughty in my 
tain." He writes of him in terms of familiar, and, it may almost be 
?aid, coarse admiration.^ The fourth book of odes and the secular 

1. '* Ante ipse suffiWcbam scribcndis cpiatolis Amicorum ; nunc occupatissimui 
. t infirmas, Ilonitiuni nostrum te ciipio addicerc. N'cniat igitur ab ista parasitici 
rensa ad haiic rej^iant, et nos ia cpistoUs ecribendi^ adjuvet" Sec the fnffmonti 



JCll7 J.IFE OP (lORACK. 

Ivrnn were wTiUen at tho express desire r.;f the enperir. mia'- wai 
ttmbitioas thai tho extraordinary virtues of his step-sonS; l«n\:iit8 
&nd Drusus, should be commemorated in tho immortal s rakris of ihe 
poet. 

There is no reason to reproach Horace either with insincerity m 
with servility in his praises of tho eitip«^ror. It is remark ible ho% 
nmch his respect for Auj^ustus seeni» to strciitrthen, and his affectica 
to kindle into personal attachment, as we approach the close of hit 
poetical career. Tho epistb to Ai'fi[ustiis is almost, perhaps may 
hftve been quite, his latest ptxsm. In the second book of epistles 
^which no doubt comprehended the Cpistle to Piso, vulgarly called 
the Art of Pinstry), the ono addressed to Augustus, whether prior or 
not in timo of composition, would of course assume the place of 
hanor. Nor is it difficult to account for the acquiescence of the re>« 
publican in the existing state 6f things, and that v;ith no degrada« 
lion of his indc|>cndence. With declining years increases the love 
uf (juiet ; the spirit of adventure has burned out, and body and mind 
equally yearn after repose. Under tho new orJer of things, as wo 
have shown, Horace had found out the secret of a happy and an 
honorable life. His circumstances were independent; av least they 
satisiied his moderate desires. He enjoyed enough of the busy so* 
eiety of the capital to jrjvc a zest to the purer pleasures of bis coun< 
try retirement. He could repose in his cottage villa near Tivoli, 
amid the most lovely scenery, by the dashing and headlong Anio, 
at tho foot cf the Apennines. Hither his distingiii:-hed fnends in 
Ronf>e^ delighted to resort, and to partake of his hospitable though 
modest entertainment. Should he desire more complete retirement, 
he might visit his Sabine farm, inspect the labors of his faithfu 
steward, survey his agricultural improvements, and wander among 
scenes which might remind him of those in which he had spent hi» 
childhood. He could not but contrast the happy repose of this period 
of his life with the perils and vicis.situdes of his youth ; do we won- 
dcr that he subsided into philosophic contentment with the existing 
order of things? 

Augustus himself possessed that rare policy in an arbitrary moD» 
arch not to demand from his subjects the sacrifice of their independ- 
ence further than was necessary for the security of his dominion. 
The artful despot still condescended to veil his unlimited power un- 
der constitutional forms; he was in theorv the re-eiectod president 
of u free people ; and though these politic contrivances could onljt 
deceive those who wished to be deceived, yet they offered as it were, 
honorable terms of eapitulation to the opposite paity, and enabled 
them to quiet the indignant scruples of conscience. Horacu is a 
ftriking illustration of the success of that policy which ^4m.> tran- 
'\uilly changed Rome from a republic to a monarchy ; it b*v. ..«» j.-. a 
well Augustus knew how to deal with all clcusses of men ; how wise« 

m  I  ^^M^iMM M  . II    I i I   M ..^   I  — I M I  — ■■■■■M mmt 

01 the other letters of Augustus, in Suetonii Vit. Horat : " iicque tinim si ti "^ f «• 
but. amicitiam nostram sprcvistl, idea dos quoque ai?i TcfTj(i>a^oT<Mv.** 



MPE O* HORA'.B Xl\ 

ly he \^oond toe fetters of his persona] influence over the R^mar 
mind Horace, on the other hand, may fairly be taken as i\ ropre* 
senta ivc of a large, particularly the more intellectual, class of Ro. 
luans. We see the government stooping to flatter that onler of men 
by familiarity, and receiving, in turn, that adulation which cculd not 
out work into the public mind. For the first time, probably, writer* 
began to have much effect on the sentiments of the Roman people : 
and when Virgil and Horace spoke in such glowing terms of Augus< 
taSy when they deified him in their immortal verses, we may be 8is- 
«iired that they found or made un echo in the hearts of multitudes. 
This deification, indeed, though we can not altogether exculpate its 
Adulatory tone, must be judged according to the religious notions of 
Rome, not of Christianity. 

The religion of Horace is the religion of Rome — the religion of 
the age of Augustas. Almost every god in the Pantheon receives 
his tribute of a hymn from Horace ; each has his proper attributes, 
his traditional functions ; but it is the painter or the sculptor framing 
the divinity according to the rules of his art, and according to an 
established type, and setting it up for the worship of others, not the 
outpouring of real devotion. The very neatness and terseness of ex- 
pression shows the poverty of religious sentiment. Almost the 
latest of hi.5 iyric hymns is the Carmen Saeculare. In this there is 
something more of the energy and life of inspiration ; but even this 
faint flash of eutlmsiasm is in character with the vrhole of tke la tcr 
Roman religion. The worship of the gods is blended ^.ith natural 
pride. They are the ancestral and tutelary deities of the Eternal 
Omnipotent City which are invoked ; the sun, which, in its course, 
cjwn behold nothing so great as Rome. It is a hymn rather to th« 
majesty of Rome than to the gods. The poetical apotheosis of the 
emperor is but this deification of Rome in another form ; in him cen« 
tered the administration of the all-powerful republic, and in him 
therefore, its divinity. 

Yet Horace, if we pursue the subject of his religion, is not with 
out his apprehensions, his misgivings, his yearnings after more serious 
things ; the careless and Epicurean scorner of Divine worship is, of 
fancies, or feigns himself to be, startled from his thoughtless apathy 
by thunder from a clear sky *, he is seized with a sudden access of 
respect for all-ruling Providence. As in the romantic adventure o'. 
his youth, so in the later accidents of life, his escape from perils bj 
}flnd and sea — from the falling of a tree — he speaks with gratitudo, 
apparently not insincere, of the Divine protection ; nor is he without 
tome vague sentiment of the general moral government of the gods. 
The depravation of manners is at once the cause and the consequence 
of neglected religion : 

' Delicta iQajoi*um immeritus lues, 
Hona^nc, douce templa refeceris. 
iEilesquc Inbentcs dcorum et 
Fui.'a nigi'o simulacra fumo- 



tiT] LIFB OF HORACE. 



Dil miuta ne^lecti dcdenmt 
Ilespcria) mala luctuosie." 

Aod liie ii'Awiic of his vengeance is ihe gere a* corruption of m;\r 
oers : 

' Fopcundn culpte sirculu nuptlaA 
Priiiium inquinavere, ct genus, ot d.>i'n<)b, 
Hoc fontc dcrlviita clades 
In ])atnam populumquu tluxit." 

N T LI he alto<Tether above the vulgar su]x;rstitions ol the times, 
Daring his movning stroll through the city, whether for amusement, 
or not without some lurking belief in their art, he sto{is to consult 
tbi9 itinerant diviners, " who kept a kind of shop for the sale of ora- 
cles."^ The Canidia of Horace wants, indeed, the terrific Ijarnest- 
ness of Lucan's Erichtho. The twin passions of unbelief and super- 
stition had by the time of Nero grown to a greater height. As Gib- 
bon justly observes, Canidia is but a vulgar witch ; yet, if we may 
judge from the tone, Horace is at least as earnest in his belief in her 
powers as in those of Mercury or Diana.^ The ingredients of her 
cauldron thrill him with quite as real horror as the protection of 
F>iunus, or the rustic deities, which he invokes, fills him with hope or 
feverence. It is singular enouirh that we learn from Horace the 
existence of the Jews and their religion in the great capital of the 
world, and may conjecture the estimation in which they were held. 
It seems to havo been a kind of fobhionable amusement to go to the 
Bynago^T'e for the purpose of scoffing. Yet there is an indication of 
reaped extorted, as it were, from the more sober-minded by the ration- 
al .acism and simpler worship of this strange and peculiar people. 

The philosophy of the Horatian age, and of Horace himself, can 
not but force itself upon our notice in connection wit& his religion. 
How far had our poet any settled philosophical opinions ? To what 
extent did he embrace the doctrines of Epicurus ? The secret of 
his inclination toward these opinions was probably that which had 
influenced many Romans during the disastrous period of the civO 
wars. Weary with faction, unwilling to lend themselves to the am 
bition of the leaders in either party, when the great and stirring striie 
between the patrician and popular interests had degenerated into the 
contest for personal supremacy between aspiring and unprincipled in- 
dividuals, some from temperament and apathy of character, like At- 
ticus, others from bitter disappointment or sober determination, took 
refage in the philosophy of self-enjoyment. In hortulis quicscet suU 
ubi recubans molliter et delicate nos avocat a rostris, a j udtciis, a curia, 
fortasse sapienter, hac prasertim repiiblica : even Cicero, in tb-^Si 
expressive words, betrays a kind of regret that he has not abandoo 
bd the barren, ungrateful, and hopeless labors of a public man, ana 

J. "AssiRto divinifl," which the worthy Mr. Creech renders "wcrt to clfurRl» 
w'^ttry day I" 
*i. Compare the witv h oi Afiddleton with thosc^ of Hhakfjebre. 



LIFE OF HORACE. \lvii 

joined the happy idlers in the peaceful villa or shaJy garden. It L 
1 remarkable observation of M. Constant, and shows, after all, the 
singular discrepancy which so frequently exists between the opinioiL' 
and actions of men, that, instead of unnerving the Roman spiiit o) 
liberty, or inducing a contempfuous apathy towaid the public in 
lerests, the Grecian philosophy night seem to have inspired the last 
champions of Roman freedom with their generous sentiments of self 
sacrifice — tlie devotion of their lives to the sacred cause of their 
country. Brutus was a student of every branch ol' Grecian philoso- 
phy ; the genius which appeared to him on the field of Philippi is al 
most in the spirit of the later Platonism. Cato died reading the 
Phamlo. Cicero, notwithstanding the occasional feebleness of his 
character, was unquestionably a victim to his own exertions iq the 
<;ause of freedom. Cassius, the dark, and dangerous, and never- 
smiling Cassius, was an avowed disciple of Epicurus. 

The doctrines of Epicurus bec»me doubly acceptable to those who 
sought not merely an excuse for withdrawing from public offices, but 
a consolation for the loss of all share in the government. Epicurean- 
ism and Stoicism began to divide the Roman mind. Those of easier 
temper, and whose intellectual occupations were of a more graceful 
«.nd amusing kind, forgot, either in fhe busy idleness of a gay town 
life, or in the ?equestere(l ease of tho beautiful villa, that the forum 
or the senate !iad ever been open to the generous ambition of theii 
youth. Thos»j of a sterner cast, who repudiated the careless indo- 
lence of the Epicureans, retired within themselves, and endeavored, 
by self-adoration, to compensate for the loss of self-respect. The 
Sti>ic, although he could not disguise from his own mind that he was 
outwardly a slave, boasted that within he was king of himself. The 
more discursive, and, if we may so speak, tcoiative spirit of inquiry, 
which distinguished the earlier attempts of the Romans to naturalize 
Grecian philosophy — the calm and dispassionate investigation, which, 
with its exquisite perspicuity of exposition, is the unrivalled charm 
of Cicero's philosophic writings, seems to have gone out of vogue 
Men embraced extreme opinions, either as votaries of pride or of 
pleasure, because thej centered their whole energies upon the sub* 
ject, and, in the utter want of all other noble or lofty excitement, throw 
themselves with desperate vehemence into philosophy. With Horace, 
however, that period was not arrived, nr^r does he scorn to have em 
braced any system of opinions with thai eager and exclusive earnest- 
a?ss. His mind was by no means speculative. His was the plain, 
practical philosophy of common sense. Though he could not elude 
thvse important questions in which the bouqds of moral and religious 
iflquirv msct ; though he is never more true and si rikmg than in nis 
'iw»ervatiocs on the uncertainty of life, the dark and certain approaches 
o death — 

" nee quidqimm tibi prodesf, 
ierias tcnttvsso lomus, nnimoquc rotindaoi 
Percurrisso poluiii, m^'ritiiro " 



xlrin uvR >r iiorace. 

thou-^h tneso sentences are n»io solcn'm, occurring a^ they <] > ftiRoim 
iho ga}ost Epicurean invitations to conviviality and enjoy neiit, yet 
. (he wisdom of Horaro— it may be said without dMparr»;."ement, for it 
jpas the only real atvainable wisdom — ^was that nftJic world. 

The host evidence, indeed, of the claims of the ]>oct as a muiml 
philosopher, as a practical observer, and sure interpretei of hiunoi 
naliire in its social state, are the countless quotations from his workS} 
which aro become universal moral axioms. Their triteness is thf 
veul of their veracity ; their peculiar terseness and felicity of expreS" 
Bton, or illustration, may have commended them to general accept- 
ance, yet nothing but their intuitive truth can have stamped them 
as household words on the memory of educated men. Horace mi^t 
seem to have thrown aside all the abstruser doctrines, the mere re- 
mote speculations, the abstract theories of all the different sects, and 
selected and condensed the practical wisdom in his pregnant poetical 
aphorisms. 

So glided away the later years of the life of Horace : he was never 
married ; he indulged that aristocratical aversion to legitimate wed* 
ock which Augustus vainly endeavored to correct by civil privileges 
and civil immunities. 

The three epistles which occupy the last four or five years of his 
life treat principally on the state of Roman poetry. Horace now 
has attained the high j'iace, if not of dictator of the public taste, of 
one, at least, who has a right to be heard as an arbiter on such subjects. 

The first of these, addrtwsed to the emperor, gains wonderfully ir 
point and perspicuity if we take the key which is furnished by a 
passage in the life of Augustus by Suetonius. Horace is throughout 
of a modern school of taste ; he prefers the finer execution, the fault- 
lessness, the purer harmony, the more careful expression, to the rudei 
vigor, the bolder but more irregular versification, the racy but anti- 
quated language of tho older writers. In this consisted much of hli 
cwn conscious superiority over Lucilius. But Augustus himself was 
vulgar enough to admire the old comedy ; he was constantly com- 
manding in the theatre the coarse and somewhat indecent plays of 
'Afranius and Plautus.* The privileged poet does not scruple play, 
fully to remonstrate a^fainst the imperial bad taste. His skill and 
address are throughout admirable. The quiet irony is perfectly free, 
yet never oflfensive ; the very flattery of the opening lines, which ox- 
Bit to tho utmost the power and wisdom of Augustus, which repre- 
sent him as an object of divine power and worship to the vulgar, ig 
chastened, as it were, and subdued, because the emperor himself, in 
eritical judgment, is to appear but one of the vulgar. The art with 
which the poet suggests, rather than unfolds, his argument, seemi 
at one moment to abandon and the next to resume it, is inimitable. 
He first gracefully ridicules the fashion of admiring poetry becauM 
H is old, not because it is good ; then turns to the prevailing mad 

i. "Se^ pltw'i vnonialum non irapcritus, dclcctabatur ctiam comnBdi* vt'iii»-\, rs 
nepc i^ain f xl'ibait pii'iHcia 8|)ectucttlis. ' — Sitew^ , Octuvius. ch. 8Si. 



LIFE OF HORACE. xViX 

ness oi writing poetry, which had seized all ranks, and ihus having 
caf(t aside the mass of bad modern poetry, ho nobly asserts the dig- 
nity and independence of the poetic function. He then returns, by a 
happy transition, to the barbarous times which had giv^en birth to the 
old Roman poetry ; contrasts the purity of the noble Greek models 
with their rude Roman imitators, ^rst in tragedy, and then in come- 
dy ; and introduces, without effort, the emperor's favorite Plautus, 
and even Dossennus, to whose farces Augustus had probably listea 
ed with manifest amusement. He does not, however, dwell on thai 
delicate topic ; he hastens away instantly to the general bad taste 
of the Roman audience, who preferred pomp, spectacle, noise, and 
precession, to the loftiest dramatic poetry ; and even this covert in- 
sinuation against the emperor's indifferent taste in theatrical amuse- 
ment is balanced by the praise of his judgment in his patronage of 
Vfrgil and of Varius, and (though with skillful modesty he affects to 
depreciate his own humbler poetry) of Horace himself. 

The Epistle to the Fisos was ajready, in the time of Quintiliao, 
called the Art of Poetry ; but it is rather an epistle of poetry com-, 
posed in a seemingly desultory manner, yet with the utmost felicity 
i>f transition from one subject to another, than a regular and syste.^ 
matic theorv. It was addressed to Lucius Piso and his two sons. 
The elder Piso was a man of the highest character, obtained a 
triumph for victories in Thrace, but was chiefly distinguished for the 
dignity and moderation with which he afterward exercised for a long 
period the high and dangerous office of pnefect of the city. 

The happy conjecture of Wieland had been anticipated by Colman, 
that the epistle was chiefly addressed to v»»e elder of the sons of Piso, 
who aspired to poetical fame without very great poelicaJ genius It 
^as intended to be at once dissuasive and instructive ; to show the 
difliculties of writing good poetry, especially in a reflned and fastidf 
•ous age^ and, at the same time, to dcflne some of the primary laws 
of good composition. It maintains throughout the superiority of the 
modern, and what we may call the Grecian, school of Roman poetry. 

After all, the admiration of Horace for the poetry of Greece was 
by no means servile; though he wished to introduce its forms, its 
simplicity of composition, and exquisite purity of style, he would 
have even tragedy attempt Roman subjects. And, with Horace, we 
must acknowledge that even if the poet had felt ambition, it was now 
indeed too late for Rome to aspire to originality in the very highesi 
branches of poetry. She was conquered, and could only bear th^ 
yoke with as much nobleness and independence as she might. To 
give her song a Roman character, if it still wore a Grecian form, was 
all which was now attainable. Literature was native, as it were, to 
Greece, at least the higher branches, poetry and history. It princi* 
pally flourished when the political institutions of Greece were in Xhz 
highest state of derelopment and perfection ; being a stranger and 
foreigner at Rome, it was only completely domiciliated when the 
ational institutions, and, with them, the national character, had ex 

3 



r LIFE OF HORACE. 

perienood a total chanpre. It was not till the Roman coiisiituhoi 
approached, or had arrived at a monarchical form, that letters we/« 
generally or successfully cultivated. It was partly, indeed, her con 
qnesl of the world which brought Rome the literature and philo8u« 
phy, as well as the other spoils of foreign nations. The distinction, 
nevertheless, must not be lost sight of; the genuine Roman char- 
acter, even under the Grecmn forms, might and did appear in hei 
literary language, and in ail the works of her greater writers : and 
n the didactic or common-life poetry, she could dare to be complete- 
ly original. 

In none was this more manifest than in Horace ; he was, after all, 
in most respects, a true Roman poet. His idiom, in the first place, 
was more vernacular (in all the better parts of his poetry he depart- 
ed less from common language, they were ^'sermoni propiora'^). In 
the lyric poems we may sometimes detect the forms of Greek ex* 
pression ; be has imitated the turn of language, as well as the cast 
of though, and mechanism of verse. The satires and epistles have 
throughout the vigor and racidess of originality; they speak, no 
doubt, the language of the better orders of Rome, in all their strength 
and point. But these works are not merely Roman in their idiomati 
expression, they are so throughout. The masculine and practical 
common sense, the natural but not undignified urbanity, the stronger 
if not sounder moral tone, the greater solidity, in short, of the whole 
style of thought and observation," compensate for the more lively 
imagination, the greater quickness and fluency, and more easy ele 
gance of the Greek. Of the later Grecian comedy, for which th» 
poetry of Horace, as we have observed, was the substitute, we have 
less than of almost any other part of his literature ; yet, if we compare 
the fragments which we possess, we shall perceive the difference — 
on one side the grace and lightness of touch, the exquisite and un- 
studied harmony, the translucent perspicuity, the truth and the sim* 
plicity ; on the other, the ruder but more vigorous shrewdness, the 
more condensed and emphatic justness of observation, the seriou? 
thought, which is always at the bottom of the playful expression 
Horace is addressing men accustomed to deal with men — men formr 
ed in the vigorous school of public life j and though now reposing, 
perhaps, from those more solid and important cares, maintaining thai 
practical energy of character by which they had forced their way to 
eminence. That sterner practical genius of the Roman people sur- 
vived the free institutions of Rome ; the Romans seemed, ua it were, 
in their idlest moods, to condescend to amusement, not to consider it, 
like the Greek, one of the common necessities, the ordinary occupa- 
tions of life. Horace, therefore, has been, and ever will bo, the 
familiar companion, the delight, not of the mere elegant scholar 
alone or the imaginative reader, but, we had almost wTitten, the 
manual of the statesman and the study of the moral philosopher. 
Of Rome or of the Roman mind, no one can know any th'ng wh'> i* 
not profoi wdly versed in Horace ; and whoever reall/ u idoTstand 



liIKE OP HOKACK. I 

Benoe wili have a more perfect and accurate Kno\i^Ie«3ge cf the Ro- 
man manners and Roman mind than the most diligent and hiboriom 
investigator of the Roman antiquities. 

The same year (U.C. 746, B.C. 8) witnessed the death of Mfe- 
cenas and of Horace. The poet was buried near his friend, on thf 
Terge of the Esquiline Hill. Maecenas died toward the middle of 
the ynar, Horace in the month of November, having nearly com 
jdeted his 57th y&v. His last illness was so sudden and severe 
that he had not strength to sign his will ; according to the usage o. 
the time, he declared the emperor his heir. 

Horace has described his own ])erson {Epist. i., 20, 24). He 
was of short stature, with dark eyes and dark hair (jirt. Poet., 37) , 
but early tinged with gray {Carm. iii., 14, 25). fn his youth he 
was tolerably robust {Epist. i., 7, 26), but suffered from a complain 
n his eyes {Sat, i., 5, 20). In more advanced age he grew fat, and 
Augustus jested about his protuberant belly (^wg., Epist. Fragm. 
apud Sueton. in Vita). His health was not always good; he waa 
Dot only weary of the fatigue of war, but unfit to bear it (Carm. ii., 
6, 7 ; Epod. i., 1 5) ; and he seems to have inclined to valetudinarian 
habits (Epist. i., 7, 3). When young, he was irascible in temper, 
Vit easily plaaable (Carm. i., 16, 22, &c. ; iii., 14, 27; Epist. i., 
20, 25). In dress he was somewhat careless (Epist. i., 1, 94) 
His habits, even after he became richer, were generally frugal akio 
sbstemious ; though, on occasions, both in youth and in mature tg^, 
be iodnlged in free conviviality. He liked choice wine, and, in tht 
loeiety of frianof xrupled not to enjoy the luzuriei of bii tltta« 



LIFE OF M.UCENAS. 

SMITH'S DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY, &j.; 



Mjscbnas, C. CiLNius. Of the life of Msecenas vre must be rm 
iMit to glean what scattered notices we can from the poets and bf« 
fiarians of Rome, since it does not appear to have been formally r^ 
eorded by any ancient author. We are totally in the dark boti m 
to the date and place of his birth, and the manner of his educalion. 
It is most probable, however, that he was born some time between 
B.C. 73 and 63; and we learn from Horace {Ode iv., 11) that hb 
birth-day was the 13th of April. His family, though belonging only 
to the equestrian order, was of high antiquity and honor, and traced 
Its descent from the Lucumones of Etruria. The scholiast on Horace 
{Ode 1., 1) informs us that he numbered Porsena among his ances- 
tors ; and his authority is in some measure confirmed by a fragment 
of one of Augustus's letters to Maecenas, preserved by Macrobius 
(Sat, ii., 4), in which he is addressed as " berylle PoraencB.^^ His 
paternal ancestors, the Cilnii, are mentioned by Livy (x., b, 5) as 
having attained to so high a pitch of power and wealth at Arretium 
about the middle of the fifth century of Rome, as to excite the jeal 
ousy and hatred of their fellow-citizens, who rose against and ex 
polled them ; and it was not without considerable difficulty that thev 
were at length restored to their country, through the interference of 
the Romans. The maternal branch of the family was likewise of 
Etruscan origin, and it was from them that the name of Maecenas 
was derived, it l^ing customary among the Etruscans to assume the 
mother's as well as the father's name (Miiller, Etrusker^ ii., p. 404) 
It is in allusion to this circumstance that Horace {Sat. i., 6, 3) men- 
tions both his avus materntts atque paternus as having been distin- 
guished by commanding numerous legions, a passage, by the way, 
from which we are not to infer that the ancestors of Mscenas had 
ever led the legions of Rome. Their name does not appear in the 
Fasti Consulares / and it is manifest, from several passages of Latin 
authors, that the word legio is not always restricted to a Roman 
legion. (See Xtv., x., 5; Sail., Cat., 53, &c.) The first notice 
that occurs of any of the family, as a citizen of Roive, is in Cicero's 
fpeech for Cluentius (i 55), where a knight named C. Maecenas is 
mentioned among the robora poptUi Romani, and as having been in- 
itrnmental in putting down the conspiiacy of the tribune M. Lirius 
Drusns, B.C. 91. This person has been generally considered th« 
father of the subject of this memoir, but Frandsen ia hie life ci 



i\\ LIFE JF MiliCENAff, 

Mscenas, thinks, and perhi)is with more probability, that it was Bii 
grandfather. Abi^ut the same period, also, we find a Mn$ceuas men- 
tioned by Saiiust in the fragments of his history (lib. iii.) as a scribe. 

Although it is unknown where Maecenas received his education, i( 
must doubtless have been a careful one. We learn from Horace that 
he was versed in both Greek and Roman literature ; and his taste 
for literary pursuits was shown, not only by his patronage of the 
most eminent poets of his time, but also by several performances of 
lis own. That at the time of Julius Caesar's assassination he was 
frith Octa/ianus at Apollonia, in the capacity of tutor, rests on pure 
eonj(H.ture. Shcfrtly, however, after the appearance of the latter on 
the (political stage, we find the name of Maecenas in frequent con- 
junction witl his ; and there can be no doubt that he was of great 
use to him in assisting to establish and consolidate the empire ; bal 
the want of materials prevents us from' tracing his services in this 
way with the accuracy that could be wished. It is possible that he 
may have accompanied Octavianus iu the campaigns of Mutina, 
f'iiilippi, and Perusia ; but the only authorities for the statement 
are a passage in Propertius (ii., 1), which by no means necessarily 
bears that meaning ; and the elegies attributed to Pedo Albinovanus, 
but which have been pronounced spurious by a large majority of the 
critics. The first authentic account we have of Maecenas b of his 
being employed by Octavianus, B.C. 40, in negotiating a marriage 
for him with Scribonia, daughter of Libo, the father-in-law of Sextus 
Pompeius ; which latter, for political reasons, Octavianus was at that 
time desirous of conciliating. [Appian^ B. C, v., 53 ; Dio Caas.j 
Klviii., 16.) In the same year, Maecenas took part in the negotii^ 
tions with Antony (whose wife, Fulvia, was now dead), which led 
to the peace o[ Brundisium, confirmed by the marriage of Antony 
with Octavia, Caesar's sister. (Appian^ B. C, v., 64.) Appian's 
authority on this occasion is supported by the scholiast on Horace 
(Sat. i., 5, 28), who tells us that Livy, in his 127th book, had re- 
corded the intervention of Maecenas. According to Appian, how- 
ever, Cocceius Nerva played the principal part. About two yean 
afterward Maecenas seems to have been employed again in negotieu 
ting with Antony {App., B. C , v., 93), and it was probably on this 
occasion that Horace accompanied him to Brundisium, a journey 
which he has described in the fifth satire of the first book. Maece* 
nas is there also represented as associated with Cocceius, and they 
fire both described as "aversos soliti componere amieos." 

In B.C. 36 we find Maecenas in Sicily with Octavianus, then en- 
gaged in an expedition against Sextus Pompeius, during the course 
of which Maecenas was twice sent back to Rome for the purpose of 
quelling some 'disturbances which had broken out there. (Appian^ 
B. C, v., 99, 112.) According to Dio Cassius (xlix., 16), thii 
was the first occasion on which Maecenas became Caesar's vicegOi 
rent ; and he was intrusted with the administration not only of 
Bvme but of all Italy. His fidelity and talents Itad now been test 



LIFE OF M/ECENAB h 

«d by severe . years' experience ; oiid it has probably been fooDd that 
the btsnt of his genius fitted him for the cabinet rather than the field, 
sinctj his services could be so easily dispensed with in the latter. 
From this time till the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) history is silent 
concerning Meecenas ; but at that period we again find him intrust- 
ed with the administration of the civil affairs of Italy. It has indeed 
been maintained by many critics that Mascenas was present at the 
sea-fight of Actium ; but the best modern scholars who have discmfri 
ed the subject have shown that this could not have been the case, and 
that he rcrsiaincd in Rome during this time, where he suppressed the 
conspiracy 3f the younger Lepidus. By the detection of this con* 
spiracy, Maecenas nipped in the bud what might have proved another 
fraitful germ of civil war. Indeed, his services at this period must 
have been most important and valuable ; and how faithfully and ably 
he acquitted himself may be inferred from the unbounded confidence 
reposed in him. In conjunction with Agrippa, we now find him em- 
powered not only to open all the letters addressed by CaDsar to thr 
senate, but even to alter their contents as the posture of aQairs at 
Rome might require, and for this purpose he was intrusted with his 
master's seal [Dio Cass., li., 3), in order that the letters might bo 
delivered as if they had come directly from Octavianus's own hand. 
Yet, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he had 
attained, Meecenas, -whether from policy or inclination, remained 
content with his equestrian rank, a circumstance which seems some- 
what to have diminished his authority with the populace. 

After Octavianus's victory over Antony and Cleopatra, xhe whole 
power of the triumvirate centered in the former ; for Lepidus had 
\)een previously reduced to the condition of a private person. On 
his return to Rome, CoBsar is represented to have taken counsel with 
Agrippa and Mscenas respecting the expediency of restoring the 
republic. Agrippa advised him to pursue that course, but Maccena* 
strongly urged him to establioh the empire. 

The description of power exercised by Msecenas during the ab- 
sence of CaBsar should not be confounded with the pratfectura urhU. 
it was not till after the civil wars that the latter office was establish* 
ed as a distinct and substantive one ; and, according to Dio Cassius 
(lii., 21), by the advice jf Mascenas himself. This is confirmed by 
Tacitus (Ann,^ vi., 11), and by Suetonius (Aug.^ 37), who reckons it 
iOtiong the nova officii. The prcefectua urbis was a mere police 
magistrate, whoso jurisdiction was confined to Rome and the adja* 
eent country, within 6l radius of 750 stadia ; but Msecenas had the 
eharge of political as well as municir>al affairs, and his administra* 
tion embraced the whole of Italy. It is the more necessary to at- 
tend to this distmction, because the neglect of it has given rise to the 
notion that Maecenas was never intrusted with the supreme adminis- 
tration after the close of the civil wars. It must be confesfjcd, how 
9ver, that we have no means of determining with certainty nn what 
♦H'casicjs, and for how '.ong, o^'ter the establishment of the empire 



Vi LIFE OF MiECBNA.«. 

MflBcenas continued to exercise his political po^^'er, though) as be 
fore remarked, we know that he had ceased to enjoy it in B.C. 16 
That he retained the confidence of Au<rustus till at least B.C. 21 
may be inferred from the fact that about that time he advised hin. 
to marry his daughter Julia to Agrippa, on the ground that he had 
inade the latter so rich and powerful that it was dangerous to al 
low liim to live unless he advanced him still further. (Dio CasnuB 
Uv.. 6.) Between B.C. 21 and 16, however, we have direct evi^ 
ience th:it a coolness, to say the least, had sprung up between tht 
miperor and his faithful minister. This estrangement, for it eat 
aot be called actual disirrace, is borne out by the silence of histo 
nans respecting the latter years of Msscenas's life, as well as by the 
express testimony of Tacitus, who tells us {^nn., iii., 30) that, during 
this period, he enjoyed only the appearance, and not the reality, of 
his sovereign's friendship. The cause of this rupture is enveloped 
in doubt. Dio Cassius, however, positively ascribes it to Terentia, 
Vho beautiful wife of MsBcenas. . 

The public services of Maecenas, though important, were unob 
trusive j and, notwithstanding the part that he played in assisting t4i 
establish the empire, it is by his private pursuits, and more particu- 
larly by his reputation as a patron of learning, that he has been known 
to posterity. His retirement was probably far from disagreeable to 
him, as it was accompanied by many circumstances calculated to 
recommend it to one of his turn of mind, naturally a votary of ease 
and pleasure. He had amassed an enormous fortune, which Tacitus 
i^mi., xiv., 53, 55) attributes to the liberality of Augustus. It haa 
been sometimes insinuated that he grew rich by the proscripticns ; 
and Pliny (H. N.,.xxxvii., 4), speaking of Maecenas's private seal, 
\yhich bore the impression of a frog, represents it as having been an 
object of terror to the tax-payers. It by no means follows, however, 
that the money levied under his private seal was applied to his pri- 
vate purposes ; and, had he been inclined to misappropriate the taxes, 
we know that Caesar's own seal was at his unlimited disposal, and 
would have better covered his delinquencies. 

Maecenas had purchased, or, according to some, had received from 
Augustus a tract of ground on the Esquiline Hill, which had former- 
ly served as a burial-place for the lower orders. (Hbr., Sat. i., 8, 
7.) Here he had planted a garden, and built a house remarkabit? for 
its loftiness, on account of a tower by which it was surmounted, and 
<from the top of which Nero is said to have afterward contemplated 
the burning of Rome. In this residence he seems to have passed 
the greater part of his time, and to have visited the country but sel< 
4om. ; for, though he might possibly have possessed a villa at Tibur, 
near the falls of the Anio, there is no direct authority for the fact- 
Tacitus tells us that he spent his leisure urbe in ipsa ; and the dee| 
tranquillity of his repose may be conjectured from the epithet by 
which the same historian designates it, " vclut peregrinum otium.' 
{*/fn^i., vvv., 63.) T ae height of the situation seems to have render 



LIFE OF H^ec ENA8. J VI 

ed it a healthy abode (Hor., Sat. i., B, 14), ana we leant from Sue- 
toniob {jiug.j 72) that Augustus had on one occasion retired thithei 
to recover from a sickness. 

MsBcenas's house was the rendezvoas of all the wits and vittuo$t 
of Rome ; and whoever could contribute to the amusement of th« 
company was always welcome to a seat at his table. In this kind 
oi society he does not appear to have been very select ; and it was 
probably from his undistinguishing hospitality that Augustus called 
fcis board ^^ parasitica mensaJ* (Suet.^ Vit. Hor.) Yet he was naU 
urally of a reserved and taciturn disposition, and drew a broad du- 
tinction between the acquaintances that he adopted for the amuse^ 
ment of an idle hour, and the friends whom he admitted to his inti 
macy and confidence. In the latter case ho was as careful and 
chary as he was indiscriminating in the former. His really intimate 
friends consisted of the greatest geniuses and most learned men of 
Rome; and if it was from his universal inclination toward men. of 
talent that he obtained the reputation of a literary patron, it was by 
his friendship for such poets as Virgil and Horace that he deserved 
it. In recent times, and by some German authors, especially the 
celebrated Wieland in his Introduction and Notes to Horace's Epis 
ties, MsBcenas's claims to the title of a literary patron have been de^ 
preciated. It is urged that he is not mentioned by Ovid and Tibul- 
lus ; that the Sabine farm which he gave to Horace was not so very 
large ; that his conduct was perhaps not altogether disinterested, and 
that he might have befriended literary men either out of vanity o/ 
from political motives ; that he was not singular in his literary pa- 
tronage, which was a fashion among the emmcnt Romans of the 
day, as Messalla Corvinus, Asinius Pollio, and others ; and that ho 
was too knowing in pearls and beryls to be a competent judge of the 
higher works of genius. As for his motives, or the reasons why ho 
did not adopt Tibullus or Ovid, we shall only remark, that as they 
are utterly unknown to us, so it is only fair to put the most liberal 
construction on them ; and that he had naturally a love of literature 
for its own sake, apart from all political or interested views, may ba 
inferred from the fact of his having been himself a voluminous author. 
Though literary patronage may have been the fashion of the day, it 
would be difficult to poinA out any contemporary Roman, or, indeed, 
any at all, who indulged it so magnificently. His name had become 
|yroverbial for a patron of letters at least as early as the time of Mar- 
tial } and though the assertion of that author (viii., 56), that the poeti 
enriched by the bounty of MsBcenas were not easily to be counted, 
is not, of course, to be taken literally, it would have been utterly 
ndiculous had there not been some foundation for it. That he waa 
no bad judge of literary merit is shown by the sort of men whom ne 
patronized — Virgil, Korace, Propertius, besides others almost their 
equals in reputation, but whose works are now unfortuna^-cly losi, aa 
Varius, Tucca, and others. But as Virgil and Horace weie by far 
y Iho gfrcatest geniuses of the .%ge, so it is certain that they were irmr* 

3* 



iVlii LIFE OP MiEjENAtI 

beloved by Mscunas, the latter especially, than au]i oi tboir couleui 
porariet. Virgil was indebted to him for the reco/ery of hLs fans, 
which had been appropriated by the soldiery in the division oi' lauds, 
B.C. 41 ; and it was at the request of Mseccnas that he undertool 
the Georgia^ the most finished of all his poems. To Horace he was 
a still greater benefactor. He not only j)i-ocnred him a pardon foi 
having fought agai.i>t Octavianus at Philippi, but presented him with 
the mean«( of a conJ'ortable subsister.ce, a farm in the Sabine coimijr^ 
H the estate was but a moderate one, we learn from Horace him* 
■elf that the bounty of Maecenas was regulated by his own content- 
ed views, and not by his patron's want of generosity (Carm. ii., 18 
14; iii., 16, 38). Nor was this liberality accompanied with any 
nervile and degrading conditions. The poet was at liberty to write 
or not, as he pleased, and lived in a state of independence creditable 
alike to himself and to his patron. Indeed, their intimacy was rather 
that of two familiar friends of equal station, than of the royally-do- 
fuended and powerful minister of Cssar with the son of an obscure 
freedman. But on this point we need not dwell, as it has been al- 
ready touched upon in the life of Horace. 

Of Maecenas's own literary productions only a few fragments ex 
bt. From these, however, and from the notices which we find of hi6 
writings in ancient authors, we are led to think that we have not 
sutlered any great loss by their destruction; for, although a good 
judge of literary merit in others, he does not appear to have been an 
author of much taste himself. It has been thought that two of his 
works, of which little more than the titles remain, were tragedies, 
namely, the Prometheus and Octavia. But Seneca (Ep. 19) calls the 
former a boyk (librum) ; and Octavia^ mentioned in Prlscian (lib. 10), 
is not free from the suspicion of being a corrupt reading. An hex- 
ameter line supposed to have belonged to an epic poem, another line 
thought to have been part of a galliambic poem, one or two epigrams, 
and some other fragments, are extant, and are given by Meibom and 
Frandsen in their lives of Maecenas. In prose he wrote a work on 
Natural History, which Pliny several times alludes to, but which 
«eems to have related chiefly to fishes and gems. Servius (ad Virg,^ 
Sn., viii., 310) attributes a Symposium to him. If we may trust 
.he same authority, he also composed some memoirs of Augustus, 
and Horace (Carm. ii., 1 2, 9) alludes to at least some project of the 
kind, but which was probably never carried into execution. Mae* 
ocnas's prose style was affected, unnatural, and often unintelligible, 
and for these qualities he was derided by Augustus. {Suet., Jiug^ 
26.) Macrobius [Saturn.^ ii., 4) has preserved part of a letter of the 
sraperor's, in which he takes off his minister's w^ay of writirg. The 
fiathor of the dialogue De Causis Corruptee Eloqitentice (c. 26) enu- 
merates nim among the orators, but stigmatizes his affected style 
i»y the term calamistros Mcecenatis. Quintilian (Inst. Orat,, xi., i, 
(28) and Seneca (Ep. 114) also condemn his style; and the laltei 
v.ithor g>*^es a specimen of it which is almost wholly iwintellig/ble 



LIFE OF MiECENAS ' ll> 

Tet he likewise telb ns {Ep. 19) tbat he woultl have bi^eu ver^ 
eloquent if he had not been spoiled by his good fortune, and allows 
biin to have possessed an ingenium grande et virile {Ep. 92). Ac*- 
cording to Bio Cassius (I v., 7), Maecenas first introduced short hand, 
and instructed many in the art through his freedman Aquila. By 
other authors, however, the invention has been attributed to various 
persons of an earlier date ; as to Tiro, Cicero's freedman, to C cere 
I onself, and even to Ennius. 

But, though seemingly in possession of all the means and appU 
«ace3 of enjoyment, Maecenas can not be said to have been altogether 
flappy in his domestic life. His wife, Terentia, though exceedingly 
ooautiful, was of a morose and haughty temper, and thence quarrels 
Were continually occurring between the pair. Yet the natural ux- 
oriousness of Maecenas as constantly prompted him to seek a recon- 
ciliation; so that Seneca {Ep. 114) remarks that he married a witie 
a thousand times, though be never had more than one. Her influence 
over him was so great, that, in spite of his cautious and taciturn tem- 
per, he was on one occasion weak enough to confide an important 
state secret to her. respecting her brother Muraena, the conspirator 
{Suet.^ Aug.f 66 ; Dio Cau.^ liv., 3). Maecenas himself, however, 
was probably in some measure to blame for the terms on which ho 
lived with his wife, for he was far from being the patteni of a good 
husband. In his way of life Maecenas was addicted to every species 
of luxury. Wo find several allusions in the ancient authors to the 
effeminacy of his dress. Instead of girding his tunic above his knees, 
be suffered it to hang loose about his heels, like a woman^s petticoat { 
f).nd when sitting on the tribunal he kept his head covered with his 
pailium {Scn.j Ep. 114). Yet, in spite of this softness, he was capa- 
ble of exerting himself when the occasion required, and of acting 
with energy and decision {Veil. Pat., ii., 88). So far was he from 
wishing to conceal the softness and effeminacy of his manners, that 
he made a parade of his vices ; and, during the greatest heat of the 
civil wars, openly appeared in the public places of Rome with a couple 
af eunuchs in his train {Sencc.j I. c). He was fond of theatrical en- 
tertaihments, especially pantomimes, as may be inferred from his 
patronage of Bathyllas, the celebrated dancer, who was a freedman 
of his. It has been concluded from Tacitus {^nn., i., 54) that he 
first introduced that species of representation at Rome ; and, with the 
politic view of keepmg the people quiet by amusing them, persuaded 
Augustus to patronize it. Dio Cassms (Iv., 7) tells us that he wag 
the first Co introduce warm swimming baths at Rome. His love of 
ointments is tacitly satirized by Augustus {Stcet., Aug., 86), and his 
passion for gems and precious stones is notorious. According to Pliny. 
he paid some attention to cookery; and as the same author (xix.^ 
67) mentions a book on gardening which had been dedicatcO to him 
by Sabinus Tiro, it has been thought that he was partial to that pur 
suit His tenacious, and, indeed, unmarly love of life, he has him 
self painted in some verses preserved liy Seneca (Ep, 101), antf 
vhinh as affording a sp( cimcn ol* hi a stylo, we here insert 



LIF^ OF MiECENAS. 



DpUlem fscito I 
Debi! jm pede, coxa t 
Tvber adetrue gibbemoo. 
Labricos quate dcntes ; 
Vita dum superest, bene eat 
Hanc mihi, vel acuta 
Si aede-am cruce, siutine. 

ProiD the&o lines it has been conjectured that be b slouged to the wet 
ll thfi Epicureans ; but of his philosophical principles nothing oeitaii 

known. 

T)!at moderation of character which led him to be content wiA 
& equestrian rank, probably arose from the love of ease and liixurjr 
H'hich we have described, or it might have been the result of more 
pndcnt and political views. As a politician, the principal trait in 
his character was his fidelity to his master {Mcecenatis etunt vera 
troftxa fides, Propert., iii., 9), and the main end of all his cares was 
the consolidation of tho empire. But, though he advised the establish* 
raont of a despotic monarchy, he was at the same time the advocate 
of mild and liberal measures. He recommended Augustus to put no 
check on the free expression of public opinion ; but, above all, to avoid 
that cruelty which, for so many years, had stained the Roman an- 
nals with blood (Senec, Ep. 114). To the same efiect is the anec- 
dote preserved by Cedrenas, the Byzantine historian, that when on 
some occasion Octavianus sat on the tribunal, condemning numbers 
to death, Maecenas, who was among the by-standers, and could not 
approach Caesar by reason of the crowd, wrote on his tablets, " Rise, 
hangman !" {Surge, tandem carnifex .'), and threw them into Caesars 
lap, who immediately left the judgment-seat (comp. Dio Cass., Iv., 7) • 

Maecenas appears to have been a constant valetudinarian. If 
Pliny's statement (vii., 51) is to be taken literally, he labored under 
a continual fever. According to the same author, he was sleepless 
during the last three years of his life ; and Seneca tells us (De Provid.^ 
iii., 9) that he endeavored to procure that sweet and indispensable 
refreshment by listening to the sound of distant symphonies. We 
may infer from Horace (Carm. iii., 17) that he was rather hypo- 
chondriacal. He died in the consulate of Gallus and Censorinu.«, 
B.C. 8 {Dio Cass., Iv., 7), and was buried on the Esquiline. He 
left no children, and thus, by his death, his ancient family became eX" 
dnct. He bequeathed his property to Augustus, and we find that 
Tiberius afterward resided in his house {Suet., Tib., 15). Though 
the emperor treated Maecenas with coldness during the latter yean; 
of his life, he sincerely lamented his death, and seems to have soiie* 
times felt the want of so able, so honest, and so faithful a coinselUv 
Dw Cam , Iw., 9 ; Iv., 7 ; Sinec, ie Benef,, vi., 32). 



METRES OF HORiCE. 



1. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 

Zaildd\bunt dll\l cld\rdm Rhdddn | aUt MjVl\Uni'i, 

The structure of this species of verse is sufficiently wei 
kaown ; it consists of six feet, the fifth of which is a dactyl, and 
the sixth a spondee, while each of the other four feet may ba 
either a dactyl or spondee. Sometimes, however, in a solemn, 
majestic, or mournful description, or in expressing astonish- 
ment, consternation, vastness of size, dec., a spondee is admit- 
ted in the fifth foot, and the line is then denominated spondiuc. 

The hexameters of Horace, in his Satires and Epistles, are 
written in so negligent a manner as to lead to the opinion that 
this style of composition was purposely adopted by him to suit 
the nature of his subject. Whether this opinion be correct or 
not must be considered elsewhere. It will only be requisite 
here to state, that the peculiar character of his hexameter versi- 
fication will render it unnecessaiy for us to say any thing re 
specting the doctrine of the caesural pause in this species of 
verse, which is better explained with reference to tlie rhyflini 
and cadence of Virgil. 

2. DACTYLIC TETRAMETER a ^o5^<;riore.' 

The tetrameter a posteriore, or spondaic tetrameter, con 
•ists of the last four feet of an hexameter ; as, 

CBrtHs ^nlm pro\mlsit A\p6ll6, 

Sometimes, as in the hexameter, a spondee occupies the last 
|ilac« but one, in which case the preceding foot ought to be a 
dactyl or the line will be too heavy ; as, 

Mensd\rem cdM\bBnt Ar\jhyid. 

lu Tlie expression a poateriore refers to the verse being considered as taken from 
die Uttter part uf an hexameter line (a posteriore parte versus hexametri)^ and is, nocso 
qaently, opposed to the dactylic tetrameter a priore. I'bis last is taken from Qmfirm 
9Ut (u prion parte'i of an tcx&xreter, and ipust alwoyj have the last foot a dac^l 



1X11 METRE.i OF UORACR. 

3 i;%:ttlic trimeter catalectic. 

The trimeter catalectic is a line consisting of ihti firsf ftff 
haJf-feet of an hexameter, or two feet and a half ; as, 

Arbdri\hilcque cd\miP' 

Horace uniformly observes this coDstruction, viz., two diic;tyH 
and a semi- foot. Ausonius, however, sometimes makes the first 
fcot a spondee, and twice uses a sjxjndee in the second place ; 
«mt the spondee injures the harmony of the verse.* 

4. ADONIC.' 

The Adonic, or dactylic dimeter, consists of two ieet, a dac 
tf\ and spondee ; as, 

RisU A\pOU6. 

Sappho is said to have written entire poems in this measure 
DOW lost. Boethius has a piece of thirty-one Adonic lines (Uh 
U mcir. 7), of which the following are a specimen : 

Nubibus atris 
Condita ntdlum 
Fundere possunl 
Sidera lumen. 
Si mare volvens 
Turhidus auster 
Misceat astum, Sfv, 

The measure, however, is too short to be pleasing, unless oc- 
ximpanied by one of a different kind. Hence an Adonic is used 
m concluding the Sapphic stanza. (No. 10.) In tragic chorus- 
es it is arbitrarily added to any number of Sapphics, w^ithout 
regard to -uniformity. (Vid, Senec.y CEdip.y act 1; Troadea, 
act 4 •, Here, Fur., act 3 ; Thyest., act 3.) 

5. IAMBIC TRIMETER. 

iambiG verses take their name from the iambus, which, in 



L Thia measure is sometimes called Arcbilochtan penthcmlmeris, since it forma, 
in foot, an heroic pcndiemimeris, that is, as already remarked, the first five hah tcfA 
rf an hero'^j or dactylic hexameter line. 

2. This verso derives its name from the circnmstancc of its being nscd by thi 
Jrenks in the music which accompanied the celebration of the festival cf A.-icai» 
Uiit part, probably which mprcsontcd the r^etoration of Adoiii» to Uf*!. 



METRES OF HORACE. IxiH 

pare «mbic8, was jhe only foot admitted. They are snanned 
by measures v.f twrj feet ; and it was usual, in reciting them, tu 
make a short pause at the end of every second foot, with an 
emphasis {arsis) on its final syllable. 

The iambic trimeter (called likewise senarius^ from its con- 
taining six feet) consists of thres measures {metra). The feel 
which compose it, six in number, are properly all iambi ; in 
which case, as above stated, the line is called a pure iambit. 
The csesural pause most commonly occurs at the penthemime' 
ris ; that is, after two feet and a half; as, 

Phdse\lus ll\[le quern | vlJ^li'^ hds\piti8. || 

The metres here end respectively where the double lines art* 
marked, and the csesural pause takes place at the middle of the 
third foot, after the word ille. 

The pure iambic, however, was rarely used. This seems lo 
have been owing partly to the very great difficulty of producing 
any considerable number of good verses, and partly to the wish 
of giving to the verse a greater degree of weight and dignity 
[q consequence of this, the spondee was allowed to take thfs 
place of the iambus in the first, third, and fifth feet.^ The «d 
mission of the spondee paved the way for other innovations 
Thus, the double time of one long syllable was divided into two 
Bin^le times, or two short syllables. Hence, for the iambus of 
three times was substituted a tribrach m every station except 
the sixth, because there, the final syllable being lengthened by 
the longer pause at the termination of the line, a tribrach would, 
in fact, be equal to an anapaest, containing four times instead of 
three. For the spondee of four times was substituted a dactyl 
or an anapaest, and sometimes in the first station, a proceleu^ 
oaticus. 

The scale uf the mixed iambic trimeter is, therefore, as fol- 
*:ws :• 



1. The reason why the iainbus was retained in the even places, that is, the seo 
ond, fourth, and sixth, appears to have been this : that by placing the spondee firs^ 
•nd making the iainbus to follow, greater emphasis was given to the conclnding 
syllable of each metre on which the ictits and pause took place, tlian would have 
Wwn the case had two long syllables stood together. 

2. The scale cf the Ctrcek trimeter iambic is much more strict and muf t lat hi 



IXIV 



METRES OF UOftAOIh. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


• 1 


«^ SmT >m/ 
^rf" V^ Ni^ ^^ 


Vx* >-' \' 


>• >• v^ 

•^ N^ >^ 

N^ ^^ — 




>>i<' ^ Ni^ 

^ W^ >,• 

N.^ N^ — 


<_« •— 



As an exemplification of this scale, we shall subjoin aomfl 4 
tbe principal mixed trimeters of Hoi'ace. 

Bpod. Line. 

1. 27. Plc1l8\vl Cdld\\hrls an\U 8l\\du8 J lr\Miim. 

2. 23. UUt \jdce\\r(i, mddd | sUb dn\\llqua l\lici. 
33. Aui dm1\U le\\vl ra\rd Un\\dU ri\tU. ) ^ 

Aut a\mUt ^||i7Z 'ra\rd Un\\dU rl\Vla. S 
35. Pdvidilm\v^ lejJdWrenif U dd\vlndm |j Idquid \ gfMiff^ 
39. QuOd St I pudl\\cd milli\^r in || pdrtim \juvit. 
57. Ant hSr\hd ldpd\\ihl j)rd\ta dmdn\€ls^ U \ grdtH* 
* 61. Has ln\Ur ^pu^lds^ nt \jiivdt || pdstds \ dvis. 
65. Pdsltos\qu^ ver\nds, di\tis Sx\\dmen \ domHs. 
67. Hac uhl I ldcu\\tus J(e\nerd\\tdr Al\phiiis. 

3* 17. iVgc mu\nils hilme\\rls ef\ficd\\cls Hir\cilll8. 

5. 15. Cdn1dl\d hrHl\fius t7n\pUcd\[td vl\p^rl8, 

25. At Sx\p^dl\\td Sdgd\ndi per \\ totdm \ dSm&m, 
43. Quid dlx\U? aut \\ quid tdcil\U? \\ ribil8 \nUU 
63. Sid duhl\ilSi un\\dS rum\peret || sUen\tium. 
69. Quin, ulii \ perl^rl jus\siis ex^splrd\ver6, 

7. 1. Qw5, quo I 5ceZe«||^f rw?|^l«? awi || cwr dex\ttrU. 

9. 17. -^c^ ^oc \fr^men\\lgs vBr\tirunt \\ bis mll\le i^quOs 
10. 7. InsnrWgdt Aqullldj qudn\tus dl\\tls mdn\tibu8. 
19. I^n^^is u\\dd quum \ r^muWgicns | sinus.^ 

oojaibunded with this. Porson (Prof, ad Hec^ 6) has denied the admissibility of tlu 
anapwst into the third or Jifth place of the Gfreeft tragic trimeter, except in the cmc 
of proper names with tbe anapesst contained in the same word. In LiUin tragedy, 
however, it obtained admission into both stations, though more rarely into tin 
dlird. In the fifth station the Roman tragedians not only admitted, bit seemed a 
have a strong inclination for, this foot 

1. The quantity of the a in amite depends on that of the e in leoi. If we read 
Uniy it is imUe^ but if Uvi, dmite. This results from the principles of the trimetef 
Uanbic scale. We can not say dmite levi without admitting an anapaest into the 
Kcond place, which would violate the measure ; neither can we read Amite livi 
without admitting a pyrrhich into ihc second place, which is unheard of. 

2. I6niu8, from the Greek 'Idvios- Hence the remark of Maltby {Morell.^ Lot 
Qrmc Pros., ad voc) : ^Idvioi cpud poetas tnihi vondum occurrit * nam ad Pind., 
tfeni., 1 87, reete dedU Heyniui *Hvicv non 9ietro •'lolum iviy.U^ verum aiam hat 



MBTRE9 OP HORACE. Ix 

BpodL IjIbs 

17. 6. CdnXdi\dj pdr\\c^ vD\cihu5 \\ landlm \ sdcrli, 

12. Alitl\hus dt\\qu& cdni\biis hdml\\cidain Hic\tlrBr)i 

41. Infdl.rJls Hel^Wna Cds\tdr OfWfinsUs \ tUcl. 

54. Ingrd\td mlsV\r6 vl\td du\\clnda est, | in hOc. 

56. Optdi I quU\\tim P^ld\pis ln\\fldl \ pdUr. 

^. Victd\bdr hilme\\ris tUnc | igo ini\\rylcis \ Hquia, 

69. DiHpl\rl Lu\\ndm vO\cihils || pOsslm \ mHs, 

6. IAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

This is the common trimeter (No. 5) wanting the final gylta- 
Ue. It consists of fi^e feet, properly all iambi, foIIowe<i by a 
catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vdcd\tus dt\\qu^ non \ m6rd\[ius du\dit. 

Like the common trimeter, however, it admits the s^iondec 
Into the iirst and third places, but not into the fifth, which 
would render the verse too heavy and prosaic. 

Trdkunt\qui sic\\cds ind\chlnS \\ cdri\nas, 
Nonnul\ld quBr\\ctl suni\cdvd}^ta U ul\mo» 

Terentianus Maurus, without any good reason, prefers scan 
Ding it as follows : 

Trdliunt\qu^ sic\cds || mdcM\n€B cd\r%nds. 

This species of verse is likewise called Archilochian, from the 
poet Archilochus. 

7. IAMBIC DIMETER. 

The iambic dimeter consists of two measures, or four feet 
properly all iambi ; as, 

P^riln\xU hOc || id\8dnim. 

It admits, however, the same variations as the trimeter, though 
Horace much more frequently employs a spondee than any 
other foot in the third place. The scale of this measure is ai 
fiiflows: 



1 


2 


3 


4 


««r _ 


\m^ •««• 


>-' •— 


>• — 


— >• %• 

>M' S^ — 




Nrf >-* — 



regvla^ "Si de gentc Gr<eca scrmo cft, semper hoc n imen ffo*iM, fm ui; m 
M' «k lEari /onto, temper pa o (UKp6w»^- 



fX^i METRES GF HORACE. 

This sptciDs of verse is also called Archilochiau dimetot 
The folliiwing L nej fi-om the Epodes will illustrate tl'^t scale 

Spod. Line. 

2. 6-2. yide\r^ prdpS\\rdnUs\ddmilm, 

3. 8. Cdnldl\d trdc\\tdvU \ dd])ls, 
b. 48. Cdn%dl\d To\idens pol\Viclin. 

8. IAMBIC DIMETER HTFERMCTER. 

This measure, also called At'chilochian, is the iambic dinietet 
No. 7) with an additional syllable at the end ; as, 

RMt\gU dd II veros \ VimO^rls. 

Horace frequently uses this species of verse in conjuuctkn 
with the Alcaic, and always has the third foot a spondee ; foi 
she line, which in the common editions runs thus, 

IHsjec\td ndn \\ levl \ rul\\nd, 

IS more correctly read with leni in place of l^vi. 

9. ACEPHALOUS IAMBIC DIMETER. 

This is the iambic dimeter (No. 7) wanting the first sylla 
hie ; as, 

Ndn I thur \\ nlque oiilr^fi/M. 

It may, however, be also regarded as a trochaic dimetett cata 
lectio, and scanned as follows : 

Ndn e\hur nl^que aure\ilm ; 

though, if we follow the authority of Terentianus (De Metr.^ 
738), we must consider the first appellation as the more corr<icl 
one of the two, since he expressly calls it by this name. 

10. SAPPHIC 

This verse takes its name from the poetess Sappho, who In 
rented it, and consists of five feet, viz., a trochee, a spondee, a 
d»styl, and two more trochees ; as, 

Dljlil\lt sdx\is dgi\tdtiis \ hUmdr. 

But in the Greek stanza Sappho sometimes makes the seu 
ttod foot a trcc:[iee, iu which she is imitated by Catullus ; as. 

Hat Afjof J5|Ao7r^d/f£f, ^toaofiaC re. 
Pauca I nunt'i\ate me^ puclla, 

Boraco, however, uniformly ha? the spondee in the sacpntf 



METRES OF HORACE. Ixn 

iilar«, which rendera the ^ei*8e much more melodious and flovr 
ing. The Sapphic stanza, both in Greok and Latin, is composeil 
of three Sapphics and one Adonic. (No. 4.) As the Adonic 
sometimes was irregularly subjoined to any indefinite numbei 
oi Sapphics {vicl. Remarks on Adonic verse), so, on other occa* 
BiODs, the Sapphics were continued in uninterrupted succession, 
terminating as they had begun, without the addition of an Adon- 
ic ©von at the end, as in Boethi'^iSt lib. 2, metr. 6 ; Seneca, Troa 
its, act 4. 

The caesura always falls in the third foot, and is of two kinJa, 
camely, the strong and the weak. The strong caesura falls aftei 
the first syllable of the dactyl, and makes the most melodious 
lit IS ; as, 

tnte\ger vl\t€e \\ scelt\risqu^ \ pHrus 
Non e\get Mau\ri \\jdcu\lls nlc | drt*.ii 
Nee ve\nBnd\tis \\ grdvi\dd sd\gUtis. 

The weak caBsura, on the other hand, falls after tho second 
syllable of the dactyl ; as in the following : 

Laurt\d dd\ndndus || A\p6lU\ndfi 
Plnus I out zm\pulsd \\ cu\prBss^ \ Eurd, 

Horace generally has the strong caesura. If the third foot, 
nowever, has the weak caesura, it must be followed by a word 
of two or more syllables. Thus, besides the two lines just giv 
en, we may cite the following : 

Concines majore || poeta plectro 
Caesarem quandoque || trahet feroces, &c. 

With regard to the caesura of the foot, it is worth noticing, that 
m the Greek Sapphics there is no necessity for any conjunctiou 
of the component feet by caesura, but every foot may be term- 
inated by an entire word. This freedom forms the characteris- 
tic feature of the Greek Sapphic, and is what chiefly distinguish 
w it fi-om the Latin Sapphic, as exhibited by Horace. 

In Sapphics, the division of a word between two lines fre- 
{|uently occurs ; and, what is remarkable, not compound » bul 
simple words, separately void of all meaning ; as, 

Labitur ripa, Jove non prohantc, ux- 

orius amnis. 

This \ircumstanf i together with tho fact of sm h a divisri;* 



iXVill METRES OF IIORACB. 

taking place only between the third Sapphic and the codcIuc^i 
Adonic,^ has induced an eminent prosodian (Dr. Carey) to en 
tertain the opinion that neither Sappho, nor Catullus, nor Hor 
ace ever intended the stanza to consist of four separate verses 
but wrote it as three, viz., two five- foot Sapphics and one at 
seven feet (including the Adonic); the fifth foot of the lon| 
vorse being indiscriminately either a spondee or a trochee. 

Thb ordinary mode of reading the Sapphic verae has at length 
begun to be abandoned, and *^ more r»^n'ect one substituteti 
which is as follows : 

There is still, however, as has been i*emarked, some doubl 
which of the accented syllables ought to have the stronger ac 
cent and which the weaker. (Consult Journal of Edttcafi^m^ 
vol. iv., p. 366 ; Penny Cyclop tedia, art. Arsis.) 

]1. CHORIAMBIC PENTAMETER. 

The choriambic pentameter consists of a spondee, three ciw«* 
\hmbi, and an iambus ; as, 

Tu ni I quasi&rls, | sclri ne/ds, | quern mlkt, quBm \ iitl, 

12. ALTERED CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

The proper choriambic tetrameter consists of three clioriiDi 
bi and a bacchius (i. 6., an iambus and a long syllable) ; as, 

Jdn^pdtir, \ Jdnl luens, \ dlvi biceps ^ \ biformU, 

(Sept. Serenu* * 

Horace, however, made an alteration, though not an imprt^e- 
ment, by substituting a spondee instead of an iambus in the tarsi 
measure, thus changing the choriambus into a second epitnte. 
viz., 

Te d^ds 6\r0 Sybdrln \ cur prdp^res \ dmdndd. 

The choriambic tetrameter, in its original state, was callec 

..^ . -  — — — -   

1. The dinsions which take place between the other lines of the Sapphic ttaiiia 
when they are not common cases of synapheia (as in Horace, Cjorm. IL, 2, 10), wO 
be found to regard compound words only, and not simple ones. The ode of dor 

•00 (iVn 2) which begins 

Pindarum qtiisquit studet temulari 

Ibntishes no exception to this remark. A synwresis operates jn FuU, irhich uuur 
V) read as if written YuU 



METRE3 OF HORACE. iXll 

PiiftlaeciaO; from the poet PhalaeciuSf who used il iu some of hia 
compositions. 

13. A9CLEFIADIC CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

Tliis verse, so called from the poet Asclepi&des, consiste of d 
qpondee, two choriambi, aod an iambus ; as» 

Mact\nds dtd'dls || edUiS, re\gihus. 

The caesura! pause takes place at the end of the firat chorW 
ftnabus, on which account some are accustomed to scan the Une 
M a dactylic pentameter catalectic ; as, 

Meecl\nd8 dtd\ms || edlVi \ rSgibHs. 

But this mode of scanning the verse is condemned by Teroo- 
tianus. Horace uniformly adheres to the arrangement given 
above. Other poets, however, sometimes, though very raivly, 
make the first foot a dactyl. 

14. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER, OR 6LYC0NIC. 

The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) consist! 
nf a spondee, a choriambus, and an iambus ; as. 

Sic tS II divdj pdtins \ Cyprl. 

But the (irst foot was sometimes varied to an iambus or a tro* 
»».hee; as, 

Bdnls II crede fuga\cibus. (Bo€thius.) 
VlCis II implicat ar\hoTes. (Catullus.) 

Horace, however, who makes frequent use of this measure, 
mvariably uses the spondee in the first place. As the pause in 
this species of verse always occurs after the first foot, a Giyoo* 
nic may hence be easily scanned as a dactylic trimeter, proviu- 
ed a spondee occupy the first place in the line ; as, 

Sic U I dlvdi p6\tlns Cypri, 

15. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC, OR PHERECRATIC 

The Pherecratic verse (so called from the poet Pherecr&tes) 
IB the Glyconic (No. 14) deprived of its final syllable, and con* 
■its of a spondee, a choriamb as, and a catalectic syllable ; as. 

Grdtd I Pyrrhd sUh dn\tr6. 

Horace unlfovmly adheres to this arrangement, and hence m 
him \t may be scanned as n dactylic trimeter : 



IXX M£TAE8 OF HORACE. 

Grdid I Pyrrhd sfih \ antra. 

Other poets, however, make the first foot soiDetiiiiBe a trfr 
ibee or an anapaest, rarely an iambus. 

16. CHORIAMBIC DIMETER. 

The choriambic iimeter consists of a choriamtus and a ba& 
hlus; as, 

Lydidj diCt | p^ 6mnBs. 

This measure occurs once in Horace, in conjunction with aifr< 
(Sther species of choriambic verse. 

17. IONIC a minore. 

Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Ionic a majore and the lonie 
a minore, called likewise lonicus Major and lonicus Minora and 
BO denominated from the feet or measures of which they ai'e 
respectively composed. 

The Ionic a minore is composed entirely of the foot or meas 
ure of that name, und which consists of a pyrrhic and a spondee, 
as ddcul^senU It is not restricted to any particular number of 
feet or measures, but may be extended to any length, provided 
only that, with due attention to synapheia, the final syllable of 
Uie spondee in each measure be either naturally long, or made 
long by the concourse of consonants ; and that each sentence 
or period terminate with a complete measure, having the spon- 
dee for its close. 

Horace has used this measure but once (Carm. iii., 12), an^ 
great difference of opinion exists as to the true mode of arrang- 
ing the ode in which it occurs. If we follow, however, the au- 
thority of the ancient grammarians, and particularly of Terenti- 
anus Maurus, it will appear that the true division is into stio- 
phes ; and, consequ3ntly, that Cuningam {Animadv. in Horat^ 
BentL, p. 315) is wrong in supposing that the ode in question 
was intended to run on in one continued train of independent 
tetrameters. Cuningam's ostensible reason for this arrange 
ment is, that Martianus Capella (De Nupt. PhiloL, lib. 4, cap 
^dt) has composed an Ionic poem divided into teti'ameters : the 
true cause would appear to be his opposition to Bentley. Thii 
latter critic has distributed the ode into four strophes, each con- 
sisting of ten feet ; or in other words, of two tetramete]*s follcv 



METRES OF IIOAACE. IXX) 

od by a dimeter. The strict arrangement, he remarks, would 
oe into ^ur lines merely, contair4ing each ten feet ; but the siz€ 
of the modern page prevents this, of course, from being done. 
The scanning of the ode, therefore, according to the divisioi 
adopted by Bentley, will be as follows : 

Mis^drum 1st \ neque dmori | ddri ludum, ^ ntqut tlnlcx 
Mala vino \ lavere, aut ex\animari, \ metuentes 

PdtraSe ver\bird llngu^* 

The arrangement in other editions is as follows : 

Miserdrum est \ nEque dmOrl \ ddrS ludUm, 
Neque dulci \ mala vino | lavere, aut ex- 

'dnimdrl \ mHAentes \ pdtrUa vi7\hird llngUSt 

Others, again, have the following scheme : 

Miserarum est \ neque amori \ dare ludum^ 
Neque dulci | mala vino \ lavere, aut ex- 

^animari \ metuentes \ patruce 
VirMrd \ lingua, 6cc. 

Both of these, however, are justly condemned by Bentley. 

18. GREATER ALCAIC. 

This metre, so called from the poet Alcseus, consists of two 
feet, properly both iambi, and a long catalectic syllable, followed 
by a choriambus and an iambus, the cssural pause always fall- 
ng after the catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vides I ut dl\td || stet n\vt cdn\didum. 

But the first foot of the iambic portion is altei*able, of course, 
to a spondee, and Horace much more frequently has a spondeo 
Chan an iambus in this place ; as, 

md\txl pul\chrd || fiUd piil\chr^dr. 

The Alcaic verse is sometimes scanned with two dactyls la 
^e latter member ; as, 

Vidis I ut dl\td II stet nlvl \ cdndidum. 

The Alcaic stanza consists of four lires, the first and socond 
being greater Alcaics^ the thiixl an ia nbic dimeter hypermetci 
(No. 8), and the fourth a minor Alcaic (No. 20). 

For some remarks on the stinicture of the Mcaic stanxa crw 
ult Anthon's Latin Versification, p 224, seqg. 



'XXIl MBTBBS or HORACE* 

19. ARCHILOCHIAN HEPTAMETE& 

This species of verse cona'sts of two members, tlie first  dao- 
tylic tetrameter d prior e (vid. No. 2, in notis)^ and the latter a 
trochaic dimeter brachycatalectio ; that is, the first portion of 
the line contains four feet from the beginning of a dactylic hex' 
ameter, the fourth being always a dactyl, and the latter portion 
'N^nsistf of three trochees ; as, 

SolmUr I dcr^ hSlims grd\td vici \[ vBrU | et Fd\viMi 

20. MINOR ALCAIC. 

This metre consists of two dactyls followed by two trochee* 
as, 

Livid I pirsdn&\iri \ sdxd. 

21, DACTYLICO-IAMBIC. 

This measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other eyes 
Hues of the eleventh Epode of Horace, omitted in the present 
edition. The first part of the verse is a dactylic trimeter cata- 
ectic (No. 3), the latter part is an iambic dimeter (No. 7) ; as* 

Scrlhlrl I vlrsicu^s || dmo\rl plr\cul$Um \ grdxH. 

One peculiarity attendant on this metre will need explanation, 
[n consequence of the union of two difiTerent kinds of verse into 
one line, a licence is allowed the poet with regard to the final 
syllable of die first verse, both in lengthening short syllables and 
preserving vowels from elision. 

Hence lines thus composed of independent metres are called 
& jvvdpTriToi^ or inconnexi on account of this medial license. Ar- 
jhilochus, according to Hephaestion, was the first who employ- 
ed them. (Bentlej/i ad Epod, 11.) Many editions, however, 
prefer the simpler, though less correct, division into two dit* 
tinct measures ; as 

Scriblrlt \ vlrsiculUis 
Amd\r^ pBrWculsUm \ grdfcfl. 

22. lAMBICO-DACTTLlC. 

'rh» measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other erei 
iiies of the thirteenth Epode of Horace, as it is arranged in this 
edition The first part of the verse is an iambic dimeter ^No 



METRE;S OF HORACE. lXXII< 



■• 



7), Uie latter part is a dactylic trimeter catalectic ^No. 3). It 
is, therefore, directly the reverse of the preceding. 

OccdlstOlnim dl \ dU : \\ dumqul v1\rent gtnu\d. 

The license mentioned in the preceding measure takes piaci 
also in this ; as, 
Epod Line. 

13. 8. Red '4cet in scdem vicb. Nunc j dec. 
10. Levure dirts pectorS. sollicitudinibus 
14. Findunt Scamandri fluminft, luhricus^ &c. 

These lines are also, like those mentioned in tlie preceding 
section, called aavvdpTTiroi, or inconnexi. Many editions prefei 
the following aiTangement, which has simplicity in itii fii?iiri 
but D^ stJ^t accuracy : 

Occd\$id\\nim dl | dU: 
4 



METRICAL INDEl 



TC THI 



LYRIC COMPOSITIONS OF IIOIIACE^ 



«l% Vetnito 18, 181. 

ASqnam memento ... 18, 18, 
A.ltera jam teritur ... 1, 5 
A.n£nistam, amice.... 18, 18, 

At, O Deoram 5, 7 

Bauchnm in reniotis . 18, 18, 

deatas ille 5, 7 

Coalo snpinaf 18, l<j, 

CqbIo tonantem ...... 18. 18, 

Ccm, ta. Lydia 14, lb 

Cor me qacreli* 18, 18, 

Oelicta majorum .... 18, 18, 
Descende c<«lo ....,, i8, 18, 

Dianam, tenerre 13, 13, 

DifFogere nives 1, 3 

Dive, qaem proles .,. 10, 10, 

Divis orte bonis 13, 13, 

Donarem pateras . . , . 13 
Donee gratai eram tibi 14, 13 

Rhea ! fa^aeea 18^ 18, 

Est; milu nonom 10, 10, 

Rt thare et fidibas .. 14. 13 
Bxegi monimentum.. 13 
Faane, Nympbaram • 10, 10, 
Festo quid potios die 14, 13 
Hercuiis rifca ........ 10, 10, 

Uorrida tcmpestas. .. 1, 29 
bis Libarnis., \ 7 



8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8. 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


15, 


14 


10, 


4 


13, 


14 


8»20 


10. 


4 


10, 


4 


la 


4 



Icci, beatis 18.18, 8 9G 

Tile et nefasto 18, 18, 8, 9C 

Impios parrae 10,10,10, 4 

Inclasam Danaen. ... 13, L3, 13, 14 
Intactis opnlentior.,. 11,13 

Integer vit» 10, 10, 10, « 

Jam jam efBcaci 5 

Jam pauca aratro.... 18, 18, 8. 20 

Jam satis terns 10, 10, 10. 4 

Jam veris comitsi ... 13, 13, 13, 14 
Justam et ten^cem .. 18, 18, 8. 90 
L and abont alii...... 1, 9 

Lnpis et i^gnis ...... 5, "^ 

Lydia, die, per omnes 16, 19 
MsBcenas atavis ..,,. 13 

Mala solata 5, 7 

Martiis coelebs 10, 10, 10, « 

MatersievaCapidinam 14, 13 
Mercuri, facande .... 10, 10, 10, 4 

Mercuri,. nam te 10, 10, 10, i 

Miseraram est • . 17 

Montiam custos 10, 10, 10, 4 

Motum ex MeteLlo... 18, 18, 8. 90 
Masis amicus. ••••••• 18, '.9, 8. 90 

Natis in asum '.8, 18, 8, 90 

Ne fbrte credas 18, 18, 8, 98 

Noiis longa fere 13, 13, 13, 14 

Non ebur, neqae 9, 6 



* The numbers refer to tlie several metres, as they have Just beep explained 
Tliua In the ode beginning with the words iS^i, Vetuato, the first and second liaal 
if each stanza are Greater Alcaics (No. 18), the third line is an lamhie DimeUr <Vo 
th snd tho last line a Minor Alcaic (No. 20), and so of the rest 



METRICAL IND^l. 



Ux% 



Mon semi^et Inibr^ii .. 13, 18, 

Xon asitata 1 d, 18, 

Nailam, Vare 11 

Nallos ar^ento ...... 10, 10 

Nunc est bibendum .. 18, 181 

Diva, gralam 18, 18, 

O fons Bondusiae .... 13, 13^ 

matre palchra 18, 18, 

O cata mccam . . . . • . 18,18, 
navis, referant .... 13, 13, 

O Bspe mecnm 18, 18, 

O Venas, reg^ina .... 10, 10, 

Odi profanam 18, 18, 

Otiam Divos 10,10, 

Parcos Deoram 18,18, 

Parentis plim 5, 7 

Pastor qaum trah^ret. 13. 13, 

Persicos odi 10, 10, 

Phcebe, aylvammque. 10, 10, 
Phoabas volentem. ... 18,18, 
Pindanim quisquia ... 10, 10. 
PusGiinur* »i quid ... 10, 10 
Uus CQrm pttnun ... 18. IS^ 



8, 


20 


8, 


20 


.0. 


4 


8 


20 


8 


20 


15, 


14 


8, 


20 


8. 


20 


15. 


14 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


10. 


4 


8. 


20 


13. 


14 


10. 


4 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


:o. 


4 


10, 


4 


3 


SO 



Q,aalem miuistniiD... 8, IB, S. 9C 
Q,uando repostam ... 5, 7 

daantum distet 14, 13 

daem ta, Melpomene 14, 13 

Claem viram 10, IJ, 

Gtaid bellicosiis 18, 18, 

duid dedicatam 1 8, 1 8, 

U,aid immerentes .... 5, 7 

U.aLa desiderio 13» 1% 

dais malta gracilis .. 13, 13, 
duo, me, Bacche .... 14, 13 
dao, quo, scclesti ... 5, 7 
B<ectius vivcs ....... 10, 10, 

Scriberis Vario 13. 13, 

Septimi Gades 10, 10, 

Sicte, Diva 14, 13 

Solvitnr acris hyeias . 19, 6 
Te maris et terrae ... 1, S 
Tu ne quoBsieris ■..■., 11 
Tyrrhena regam ..,. 18 18, 8 SM 
Vc'Iox aracBnoro ..... 18, 18 8. 91 

Videsataita 18, 1£ 8. M 

Vile potabki 10, 10 8l 



10, 


4 


8, 


ai 


8. 


98 


13, 


14 


15 


1 


10. 


« 


13, 


14 


10, 


4 



H MORA Til PiAOCI 

C A B M I NU M 

LIBER PRIMUS 



Carmen I. 

AD M^CENATEM. 

MiECKNAS, atavis edite rep:ibus, 

O et prsDSiidium et duicc decus nieuiii 

Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olynipicuin 

Collegisse juvat, metaque fervidis 

Evitata rotis palmaque nobiiis I 

Terrarum dominos evehit ad Deo8 ; 

Hune, si mobilium turba Quiritiuin 

Certat tergeminis tollere honorilus ; 

Ilium, si proprio condidit horreo 

Quidquid de Libycis verrilur areis. 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 

Agros Attalicis conditionibus 

Nunquam demoveas, ut trabe Cyp/ia 

Myrtoum, pavidus nauta, secet mare. 

Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africuro ft 

Mercator metuens otium et oppidi 

Laudat n ra sui ; mox reficit latub 

Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

Est qui iiec vcteris pocula Massici, 

Nee partem solido demere de die *<tP 

Spemit, nunc viridi membra sub arbutiN 

StratvB. nunc a J aqusD lene cap it sacrs 



Q. tlOSATil FLACCI 

nlultos castra juvant, ct lituo tubas 

Pennixtus sonitus, bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 

Venator, tcuer© conjugis immemor, 

Seu visa est cat u lis cerva fidelibus, 

Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum hederse praemia frontiuin 

Dis miscent superis ; me gclidum nemua 30 

Nvmpharumque leves cum Satyris chori 

Secernunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet, nee Polyhymnia 

Lesboum refugit tendcre barbiton. 

(juod si me lyricis vatibus inHcrii, di 

Sublimi fenaiu siiera vertio*;. 



Carmen II. 
AD AUGUSTUM C-^SAR£M 

Jam satis terns nivis atque dira) 
Grandinis misit Pater, et, rubente 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces, 
Terruit urbem : 

Temiit gentes, grave ne rcdiret ^ 

8a3culam Pyrrhss nova mcnstra queatie, 
Oinne quum Proteus pecus cgit altoa 
Visere montes, 

.ri«;ium et summa genus haBsit uinr o, 
Nota qua) sedes fuerat palumbis, I 

Et superjecto pavidsB natarunt 
^quore dara«. 

V^klimus flavum Ti berim, retortu 
Litore Etrusco vioicnter undis. 



^ UAKMINUM. LIBfip i. 3 

Ire dejeclfim nioiiimcDta Regis, 1^ 

Templaque VeetaB, 

Ili^B dum so uiaiiiini querent! / 
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinii^'tA*'- 
Labitur ripa, Jivis non probante, uz 

onus amnis. 20 

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persaj melius perirent ; 
Audiet pugnas, vitio papeiitum 
Kara, juvent"** 

Quem vocc*4 i:?:vum populus ruentif? 25 

iniperi rebujk? prece qua fatigent 
Virgines sanct® minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

JDui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
y Jupiter? Tandem venias, precair ufv 3> 

^" • ' Nufec candentes humeros amictus. 

Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam Jocus circum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotcs 3.'> 

Kespicis, auctor. 

Heu ! nuiiis longo satiate ludo, 

Qu«*in juvat clamor galeaeque leve*, 

A oer et Marsi peditis cruenturp j 

Vultus in hostcra ; 4C 

Bive rautata juvenem figura, 
^Jcs, in t orris imitaiis. almiB 



CI. IIORATII FJM.^^JI I 2, 3 

Filius Mats), patiens vocau 
Caesar is ultor : 

Berus iu coelum rcdeas, diuque 4£ 

LsBtus intersis populo Qnlrini, 
Neve te, nostris vitiis iniquum 
Ocior aura 

ToUat Hie laagnos potius triiim phoe, 
Hie ames die: Pater atque Priiice|», 50 

New ^nas Medos equitare iimltos. . 
Te duce, Cassar. 



Carmen III 
AD VIRGILIUM. 

Sic le Diva, potens Cypri, 

Sie fratres Heleiias, lueida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater, 

Obstrietis aliis praeter lapyga, 
Navis, quae tibi creditum 5 

Debes Virgilium fmibus Atticii, 
Reddas ineolumem precor, 

Et serves animaB dimidium mesB. 
f Hi robur et aes triplex 

Cirea peetus erat, qui fragilem truci ) 

Commisit pelage ratem 

Primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus, 

Nee tristes Hyadas, nee rabiem Noli, 
Quo non arbiter Hadriae \& 

Major, toUere seu ponere vult freta. 
Quern Mortis timuit graduni, 

Qui reetis oeulis monstra nataiitia. 



& 4. 1 CARMiNUM. LIBER T. O 

Qui vidil mare turgidum et 

Tiifames scopulos Acrocerauiiia 'i SfO 

Nequidquam Deus abscidit 

Frudens Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen impi» 

Non tangenda rates transiliant vuda 
Audax omnia perpeti 4i 

Gens humana ruit p**** ▼otitum et nefi j' 
Atrox lapeti genus 

Ignem fraude mala gcntibus intulit : 
Post ignem SBtheria domo 

Subductum, Macies et nova Febrium 3U 

Terris ineubuit cohors : 

Semotiquc prius tarda necessitas 
Leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 
Pennis non homini datis. 3/f 

Perrupit Acberonta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus ardui est : 

Ccelum ipsum petimus stultitia : neqU6 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 



Carmen IV. 
AD L. SESTIUM. 

BoU"tur acris hiems grata vice verio et Favoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machin83 carinas. 
Ac ueque jam stal-^ilis gcudet pecus, aut arator igni ; 

Neo prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cythorea chores ducit Venus, imminente Iiuna, .1 

Junctseque Nymph is GratisB decentes 
Altemo terram quatiunt pede ; dura graves Cycl ipura 

Vulcaniw irdens urit officinas. 

A J 



G Q. HORATJI FL/^cn« [4,5 

Nunc dece; aut widi nitidum caput iinpedire myiV, 

Aut floro, terraB quern ferunt solut» ; 1 

NufiC et ill umbrosis Fauno decet immolare luois, 

Seu poscat agna, sive nialit hasdo. 
Pallida Mors a^quo pulsat pede pauperum tabemaa 

Rftg^umque turres. O beate Sesti, 
'«'itaB summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. ifl 

Jam te premet nox, fabulssque Manes, 
Gt domu: exilis Plutonia : quo simul mearis, 

NfiT; regna vini sortiere talis, 
Ndc tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet juventus 

Nunc omnis, et mox virgines tepebunt. 



Carmen V. 
AD PYRRHAM. 

(^uis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas comam, 

Simplex munditiis ? Heu ! quo ties fidem 

Mutatosque Deos fiebit, et aspera 
Nigris aequora vcntis 
Emirabitur insolens, 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea ; 
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabiieui tfl 

Spcrat, nescius aursB 

Fallacis. Miseri, quibuB 

Intentata nites ! Me tabula sacei 
'/otiva paries indicat uvida 
Suspeudisse potenti I A 

Vestimenta maris Dvo- 



O I I iTARMlNr/M. — LIBEK I 7 

Carmen VI. . 
AD AGRIPPAM, 

Srnbcris Vario fortis et hostium 
Victor, Max)iiii carmiiis alite, 
Quam rem cunque ferox navibus an I eqiiu 
Miles, te duce, gesserit 

Nos, Agrippa, neque hsec dicere, nee graveir 
Pelidse stomaehum eedere nescii, 
Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
Nee sa3vam Peiopis domum 

Conamur, temies grand i a ; dum pudor, 
Inibellisque lyne Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes cgregii Caisaris et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingeni. 

Quis M artem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit ? aut pulvere Troico 
Nigrum Merioncn ? aut ope Palladia I d 

Tydiden Superis parem ? 

Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus, vacui, sive quid urimur, 

Non pnctcr solitum leves. 20 



Carmen VII. 
AD MUNATIUM PLANCIIM 

wiftudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mytilenen, 

Aut Epheson, bimarisve Corinthi 
McBnia, vel Baccho Thebas, vel ApoUine Deiplrv 

Insignes, aut Thessala Tempe. 



a. n RATI! FLACCl \lth 

Sunt quibus anum opus est intactSB Palladife arc 31 !i 

Carmine jierpetuo celebrare, 
Indeque decerptam fronti prajponere olivain. 

Pliirimus, in Junonis honorcm, 
Aptum dicit equis Argos, ditesque Myeeuais. 

Me ne'^ tarn patiens Lacedaemon, 1 9 

Noc tarn LarissaB percussit campus opiina;, 

Quam domuE A lbune» resonantis, 
l!it prseceps Anio, *tc Tiburni lucus, et uda 

Mobilibiis pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscure deterge! nubila ccbIo 16 

Sajpe NotuB, neque parturit imbres 
Perpetuos, sic tu sapiens liuire memento 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia siijnis 

Castra tenent, seu densa tenebit 2U 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patreiiiqu6 

Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyajo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes afTatus amicos : 
Quo nos cunque feret melicr Fortuna pareute. 2o 

Ibimus, O Bocii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice 'i • \icru 

Certus enim promisit Apollo, 
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futurair 

O forte., pejoraque passi 30 

Mecum sspe viri, nunc vino pellite cura« ; 

Cras ingens iterabimus a^quor. 



Carmen VIII 
AD LYDIAM. 

jjydia die. per omnes 

Te deos oro, ."^ybarir^ cur projieraa amaudc 
l*erdere ? cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulvjris atque »ili^ 



H, 9«j CARMINUM. LIBEK !• 19 

Cur neque militaris tf 

Inter sequaies equitat, Galiica nee lupatiB 
Temperat ora frenis ? 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim taiigere ? cur olivuiA 
Sanguine viperino 

Cautius yitat, ncque jam livida gesU t armiB IC 

Brachia, sa)pe disco, 

SjBpe trans finem jaculo nobilis expeilito ? 
Qxi latet, ut marinas 

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa TrojdD 
Funera, ne virilis t€ 

Cult us ip csedem ct Lycias proriperet catcrvaa ? 



Carmen IX. 

AD THALIARCHUM. 

Vides, ut alta stet mve candidum 
Soracte, nee jam sustineant onus 
SilvsB laborantes, geluque 
Fliunina constiterint acuto ? 

Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco § 

Large reponens ; atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
O Thaliarche, merum diota. 

Permitte Divis caetera : qui simui 
Btravere ventos aequore fervido fO 

Deprceliantes, nee cupressi 
Nee veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quserere : et 
ijluem Fors dierum cimque dabit, lucvo 

Appone : nee dulces amores \§i 

Spcrne puer, neque tu choreas 



10 a. hORATIJ FLACCl 9, l(V 

Donee viienti canities abest 
Morosu. Nunc et Campus et area9. 
Lcnesque sub noctem susurri 

Coinposita repetantur hora : 20 

Nunc et .'atentis proditor intima 
Gratus puellse risus ab angulo, 
Pign usque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinar.* 



Carmen X. 

AD MERCURIUM. 
Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti cat us et decorse 
More palaBBtrsB, 

 

Te canam, magni Jcis et deorum i 

Nuntium, curvajque lyraB parentem , 
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocoeo 
Condere furto. 

I'e, boves olim nisi rcddidissefl 
Per dolum amotas, puerum ininac* fl 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharotra 
Risit Apollo. 

Quin et Atridas, duce tc, 8uperbo« 
Ilio dives Priamus relic to 

Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojie 16 

Castra fefellit 

Tu pias Iffitis animas reponis 
fiedibus, virgaque lev em ooercen 
Anrea turbam, fcuperis deorutn 
Gratus et imw. 



.^12.] CARMINT7M — LIBER 1 <1 



Carmkn XT 

AD LEUCONOEN. 

Fu ue quajsi'ji'is, scire nefas, quem mihi, qucin tibi 
Fiiiem Di dcderiiit. Leuconoe ; nee Babylonios 
Tentaris nuinero? Ut melius, quidquid ent, pati ! 
Seu plures hiemes, seu tribuit Jupiter ultimam, 
Qux nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
ryrrhenum, sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spen: longam reseces. Dura loquimur, fucrerit mvii'a 
IStas. Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postcro. 



Carmen XII. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acn 
Tibia sumis celebrare, CUo ? 
Quem Deum ? cujus recinot jocosa 

Nomen imago 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, fl 

Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Hk^iho 
Undft vocalem temere insecuta) 

Orphea silvaB, 

Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos, 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoria 

Ducere quercu? 

Quid prius dicam solitis Parentis 
Laudibus, qui res hominum ac Deorum, 
Qui m^re ao terras, variisque mundum \A 

Temperat horis ? 



*•• a. H OR ATI! FLACCI |^.? 

Unde nil inajus generatur ipsi), 

Nee viget quidquam siinile aut Becunilum : 

Prjximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. W 

PrcBliis audax, neque te silebo, 
Liber, et sasvis inimica Virgo 
BcUuis : ner te, metuendo carta 

Phoebe sagitta. 

« 

Dicam et Alciden, puerosque Leds^, 2^ 

Uunc equis, ilium superare piignis 
Nobilem : quorum simul alba nautia 

Stella refulsit 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 

Concidunt yenti, fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, nam sic voluere, ponto 

Unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompih regnum memorem, an superlxfi 
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis 9A 

Nobile letum. 

Regulum, et Scauros, anima^qu?- magim 
Prodigum PauUum, superante Poeno, 
Gratus insigni referam Camena, 

Fabriciumque. 41 

Hunc, et incomtis Curium capillis, 
Utilem belio tulit et Camillum, 
SsTa pauper :as et avitus apto 

Cum la re funuuB 



12, 13. J 



CARMIXUM. LIBUA 1. 



Crescit, occulto velut arbor sbvc, 
Fama Marcelli ! micat inter oniuea 
Julium sulus, velut inter ignes 

Luna minores. 



16 



Gentis humanae pater atque eustcM, 
Orte Saturuo, titi cura magni 
CsBsaris fatis data ; tu secundo 



CsBsaie regnes. 



Ille, seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit just^ domitos triumpho, 
Sive subjectos Orientl* or8B» 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum regat cequus orbetn , 
Tu gravi ourru quatias Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittas 

Fuliuina lucis. 



Carmen XIII. 
AD LYDIAM. 

Quum tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicera roseam, cerea Telephi 
Laudas brachia, va3, meum 

Fervcns difiicili bile tumet jecur. 
Tunc nee mens mihi nee color 

Certa scde manent ; humor et iti genas 
Furtiir labitur, arguens 

Quam Icntis penitus macercr ignibus. 
Uror, seu tibi candidos 

Turparunt hunieros immodicae raero 
RixsB, sive puer furens 

ImproMit memorem dente labris notam 



fiO 



00 



l(? 



14 U. HORATIl FLACOf ' 13, U 

N 3iij 81 n le satis audias, 

Spores perpetuum, diilcia barbare 
JLaBdentem oscula, quae Venus || 

Quinta parte sui nectaris iinbiut. 
Felices ter et amplius, 

Quos irrupta tenet copula, nee ma) is 
Divuljsus querimoniis 

Suprema citius sol vet amor die. 



Carmen XIV. 

AD REMPUBLICAM. 
O navis, referunfin mL»,re te novi 
FJuctus ! O quid agis ? fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus, 

Lt malus celeri saucius Africo f 

Antennacque gcmunt, ac-sine funibuf 
Vix durare carina) 
^ossunt imperiosius 

iEquor ? Non tibi sunt integra liutea, 
Non Di, quos iterum pressa voces malo ( H 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
SilvoB filia nobilis, 

Jactes et genus et.nomen inutile, 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 15 

Dftbes iudibrium cave. 

Jfuper soUicitum quae raihi taedium, 
4^unc desiderium curaque non levia 
Interfusa nitentes 
/ \iUi6 aequora Cynladas JC 



i6.j MRMINUM. LfBBR I. 16 

Carmen XV. 
NEPi^El VATICINIUM DE EXCIDIO TllOJ^ 

Pastor quum traheret per freta navibus 
IdaBis Helenen perfidus hospitam, 
Ingrato celeres o bruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret tera 

Nereus fata : Mala ducis avi domum, B 

Quani multo repetet Gra)cia milite, 
Conjurata tuas ruinpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priam i vetus. 

Ueu heu ! quautus equis, quantus adest vine 
^udor ! quanta moves funera Dardanas 10 

Genti ! Jam galeam Pallas et segida 
Curru&'jue et rabiem parat. 

Nequidquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
Pectes co^sariem, grataque fcminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides ; Vfl 

Nequidquam thalamo graves 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis, strepitumque, et celerera sequi 
Ajacem : tamen, heu, serus adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. 120 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tuas 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respici« ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer ct Sthenelus scions 



Pugnaj, sive opus est imperitare equw, 
Non aurga piger. Merlonen ouoque 



16 Q. HOKATIl FLACCI [^^ 16 

N>8i^e8 Ecce furit te repenre atrui 
Tydidcs, melior patre ; 

Quern tu, cervus uti vallis in alteia 
Visum parte luputn graminis immeiiior, H 

ttubiim" fugies mollis anheJitu, 
Nor hoc poUicitus tuas. 

Iracunda diem proferet flio 
JVIatroiiisque Phrygum olassi? Achiilei : 
Post certas hiemes uret AchaVcus 51 

Ignis Iliacas domos. 



Carmen XVI. 

PALINODIA. 

O matre pulchra filia pulchrior. 
Quern criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit ^ 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythiun. 
Non Liber seque, non acuta 
Sic gcminant Corybantes a^ra, 

Tristes ut irsB, quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis, nee marc naufragum, 1€ 

Nee saevus ignis, nee trcniendo 
Jupiter ipse mens tumultu. 

Fertui Prometheus, addere prmcipi 
JLiiiio ccactus particulam undique 

Deseotam. et insani leonis it 

\hn stomacbi* apposul'rse nostiv. 



f^. 1 7. J CARMINUM. LIBER I. V9 

Ira5 Th/esten exitio gravi 
Stravere, et altis urbibns ultimie 
Stetere caussB, cur perircnt 

Funditus. imprimeretqiie inuriti M 

Hoetile aratrum exercitus iiisolens 
Compesce mentcm : n.e quoque pd(*,toTJi 
Tcntavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor, et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare qusero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis arnica 

Opprobriis, animumquc redd as 



Carmen XVII. 
AD TYNDARIDEM 

Velox amcciunn saspe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus, et igneam 
Defendit sestatem capellis 

Usque meis pluviosque ventcM 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutoe 
QuflBHint latentes et thyma deviBB 
Olentis uxores mariti : 

Nee virides nietuunt colubras, 

Nee Martiales HaBdiliae lupos ; 
Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 
Valles et UsticsB cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

l)i me tucntur, Dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hie libi copui 

B 2 



I'** U. H3BATII FLAttl ^.7, Ifli 

Maiiabil ad plenum benigno 1 5 

Runi honor um opulent a oomu 

llic in rediicta valle Caniculan 
Vita bis ajstus, et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen. 20 

llic innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra ; nee Semeleius 
Cum Marte confundet Thyonong 
Prcelia, nee metues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari *-^ft 

Tncontinentes injiciat manus, 
Et scindat haereiitem coronam 
CUrinibus, immeritamque vestem. 



Carmen XVIII. 
AD VARUM. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili : 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque 

Mordaces aliter difiugiunt soUicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepa ? ft 

Quia non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venup ? 

At, ne quis modici transsiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero 

Debellata ; monet Silhoniis non lev's Euius, . 

Quum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinurn 10 

Disceinunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu. 

[nvitum quatiam ; nee van is obsita t'rondibus 

^nb divuni rapiata Soova tene cum Beipcyntio 



IS, 19 20.J ^ARMiNUM. LIBfiK 1. IV 

Comu tympana, quae subsequitur csecus Anior »u 

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem. Ifi 

Arcauiqutf Fides prodi<?a, perlucidior vitro. 



Carmen XIX. 
DE GLYCERA 

Mater ssBva Cupidinum, 

Thebanaeque jubet me Semeles puei, 
Et lasciva Licentia, 

Finitis animum reddere amoribus. 
Urit me GlyceraB.nitor 

Splendentis Pario marmore purius, 
Urit grata protervitas, 

Et vultus nimium lubricus adspici. 
In me tota ruens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit ; iiec patitur Scythag, !U 

Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere, nee quae nihil attinent. 
Hie viv7im mihi cespitcm, hie 

Verbenas, fjueri, ponite, thuraqne 
Bimi cum patera meri : 1 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 



Carmen XX. 
AD MiECENATEM. 
Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Condituni levi, datus in theatre 
Quum tibi plausus, 

Care M83cenas eques, ut patemi 
Fluminis ripa); simul et jocosa 
Redderet laudes tibi Vatican! 
Montis irnaffo 



no a. HORATII FLACCf [20, 21 *2% 

Caracul lam et prelo domitam Calcno 
Tu bibes uvam : mea nee Falernas IQ 

Teniperant vites neque Formiani 
Pocula colics. 



Carmeu XXI. 
IN DIANAM ET APOLI.INEM 

Dianani tenersD dicite virgines ; 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium : 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 

\^08 Iffitam fluviis et nemorum coma, 6 

QusK^unque aut ge]ido prominet Algido^ 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis, aut viridis Cragi ; 

Vos Tempe totidem toUite laudibus, 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis, 10 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fraternaque humerum lyra. 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram fameri 
Pestemque a populo, principe Ca'saie, in 

Persas atque Britannos it 

Vestra raotus aget prece. 



Carmen XXII. 

AD ARISTIUM FUSCUiM. 

integer vitas scelerisque purus 
Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque arou, 
Neo venenatis gravida sagittis. 
Fusee, pharetra; 



92,23 ( ClKMINUM. ^LIBIM r 21 

Sivo per Syrtes iter SBstuosas, ^ 

Sive facturus per inhospital«^m 
Caucasum, vel quaD loca fabiUoeus 
Lambit Hydaspp*.. 

Nanique me siiva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen, et ^aIU\ 10 

Terminum curis vagor expcditis 
Fugit inermem * 

Quale portentum neque inilitanB 
Daunias latis alit SBSCuletis, 
Nee JubsB tellus generat, leonum 16 

Arida nutrix 

Pone me, pigris ubi nulla campis 
Arbor eestiva recreatur aura ; 
Quod latus mundi nebuls malusiiue 

Jupiter urget : ^ 

Pone Eub curru nimiuni propinqui 
Bolis, in terra domibus negata : 
Duioc ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 



Carmen XXIII. 
AD CHLOEN. 
Vitaci hinnuleo me simLUs, Chloo, 
Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviig 
Matrem, non sine vano 
Aurarum et silusB metu. 

Nam 8CU mobilibus vepris inhorruit 
Ad ventum foliis, fspu virides rubum 



/ 



/ 



a. HORATII FLACCI 1*48. Z^ 

Dimovere lacertsB, 

Et corde et gcnibus treinit. 

4.tqui non ego tc, tigris ut aspera 
Gffitulusve leo, frangere persequor . lO 

Tandem desiue mat rem 

Tempesliva sequi viro. ^ #» * ' ' 



Carmen XXIV. 

AD VIRGILIUM. 

Qiiis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? PrsBcipe lugubrea 
CantuB, Melpomene, cui liquidam I^&ter 
Vocem cimi cithara dedit 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor fi 

Urget I cui Pudor, et Justitiae sorer, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando uUum inveniet parem ? 

Multis i]le bonis flebilis occidit , 
Nulli flebilior, quam tibi, Virgil'.. 10 

Tu frustra pius, heu ! non ita credituni 
Poscis Quintilium decs. 

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vansB redeat sanguis imagini', (S 

Quam virga semel horrida, 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulert Mercurius gregi. 
Durum ! Sed levius fit patientia, 
Quidquid corrigere est nefas. 9Q 



20. 27.] GARMINUM. LIBER 1. 9| 

Carmen XXVI. 

DE ^LIO LAMIA. 

Musis amicus, tiistitiam et metus 
Tradarn protervis in mare Creticuin 
Portare ventis ; quis sub Arcto 
Rex g<}lidsB metuatur orae. 

Quid Tiridaten terreat, unice 

Securus. O, qusD fontibus inteffris 

Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
, Necte raeo Lamiaa coronam, 

Pimplei' dulcis ; nil sine te mei 
Prusunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro, 
Teque tuasque decet sororcs. 



Carmen XXVII. 
AD SODALES. 
Natis in usum laetitias scypliis 
Pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbajnins 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 
Imraane quantum discrepat ! impiuni 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presbo 

^ dltis severi me quoque sumere 
Partem Falerni ? dicat Opuntia) 
Frater Megillse, quo beatus 
Vulnere, qua pereat sagitta. 



Cessat Voluntas ? uon alia bibam 
Mercede. Quse te cunqiie domat V^'enui, 

Non erubescendis adurit *l 

I^nibus, ingenuoque semper 

A more peccas. Quidquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus— Ah miser, 
Quanta laborabas Charybdi, 

Digne puer meliore flamma ! Xil 

QusB saga, quis te solvere Thessalis 
iVTagus venenis, quis poterit Deus ? , 

V'ix illipfatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimasra. 



Carmen XXVIII. 
NAUTA ET ARCHYTiE UMBRA 

Nauta. 
T(; maris et terra) nnmcrDque carentis aren» 

Munsorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera ; nee quidquam tibi prodest 
Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum f 

Percurrisse polum, morituro I 

ArchytvE umbra. 

Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva Deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras, 
Et Jovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 

Tartara Panthoi'den, iterum Oreo 10 

Dsmissum ; quamvis, clypeo Trojana refixo 

Teinpora testatus, nihil ultra 
Nenroe atque cutem Morti concesserat atnr ; 

Judi'ce te non sordidus auctor 



^^•^s). I carminlm* — uneR i. lA 

Natiii-se veiique. Scd omnes una manei nux 16 

£t calcauda semel via Icti. 
Uant alios Furia; torvo spectacula Marti ; 

Fxitio est avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac juvenum densentur funera j /lulluu 

Sajva caput Proserpina fugit. 9S0 

Mc quoquc devexi rapidus comes Ononis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagse ne parce malignus arenas 

Ossibws et capiti inhumato 
Particulam dare : sic, quodcunque minabitur Eurua ^« 

Flactibus Hesperiis, Venusina3 
Plectantur silvse, te sospite, multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ab Jove, Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 

Negligis immeritis nocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committerc ? Fors et 
» 

Debita jura vicesque superbee 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultia . 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa , licebil )A 

Injecto ter pulvere curras. 



Carmen XXIX. 

AD I C C I U M. 

Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invidcs 
Gazis, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabses 
Regibus, horribilique Mcdo 

Nectid catenas ? Quss tibi virginuia. 
Bpcnso necato, barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
Ad cj^athum statuetur uncti% 

B 



2'i a. HoiiAT/i Ff Acci [29,3(1 m 

Doclus sagittas tendere Seiioaa 
A veil patent ? Quis neget ardu» Iv) 

PronoR lelabi posse rivos 
Montibus, et Tiberim reverti. 

Quura tu co^mtos undique nobiles 
Libros Pansti, Socraticain ei doniam, 

Mutare loricis Iberis, [ (I 

Pollicitus meliora, teiidia ? 



Carmen XXX. 
AD VENEREM. 
O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
Spcme dilectaia Cyproa, et vocaatui 
Thure te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum Puer, et solutis 
Irratiffi zonis, properentque Nymphas 
Et parum comis sine te Juventas, 
Mercuriusque. 



Carmen XXXI. 
AD APOLLINEM 

Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates i quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimai 
SardirisB segetes feiaces ; 

Non aestnosa3 grata CalabrisB 
Armenia ; non aurum, aut ebur Indicum ^ 
Non rura, quaB Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua, taciturnus aninif 



ttl.32j CARMINUM — LIBEE i 27 

Premant Calena falcc, quibus dedit 
Fortuna, vitem . dives et aureis LO 

Mercator exsiccet cululLis 
Vina Syra reparata meroe ; 

Dis earns ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens SDquor Atlanticuip 

Inipune. Me pascunt oUvsb I 

Me cichorea, levesquo malvn. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones, et, precor, integra 
Cum njente ; nee turpem senenlaui 
Degcre, nee cithara earentem. 



Carmen XXXII. 

AD L Y R A M. 

Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra 
LuBimus tecum, quod et hunc in anuiiin 
Vivat et plures, age, die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi ; ^ 

Qui, ferox bello, tamen inter armft» 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 
Li tore navim, 

Liberum et Musas, Veneremque, et UU 
Semper hssrentem Puerum canebat, 10 

Et Lyciim, nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decus Phcebi, et dapibus supreiai 
Grata testudo Jovis, O laborura 
Dnlce lenimdn mihi ojnque 8al?e 
Pvite vocanti. 



M a. HORATII FLACCl I^34« ST 

Carmlii XXXIV. 

AD S E I P S U M. 

Parous Deorum cultor et infrequeni« 
Iniaiiientis dum sapientisB 

Coiisultus erso, nunc retrorsum 
Veia dare at que iterare cursus 

Cogor relic tos : namque Diespiter 5 

Igni corusco nubila dividens 

Plerumque, per purum ton antes 
Egit cipios volucremque curruiu , 

Quo bruta tellus, et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx et invisi horrida Tajnari 10 

Sedes, Atlanteusque finis 

Concutitur. Valet ima surnmis 

Mutare. et insignia attenuat Dens, 
Obscura promens. Hinc apicem rapaj 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit, hie posuisse gaudet. 



Carmen XXXV. 

AD FOPi^TUNAM. 

O Diva, gratum quae regis Antiura, 
PrsBsens vcl imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphof, 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece, •'^ 

Buris, colonua ; te dominam asqnoiif 
Quicunque Bithyna lacossit 
Caipathium pelagus cariim 



A J CARMINIM. LIBER i. <}8 

Te Oacus asper, te profugi Scythas, 
Urbesque, gentesquc, et Latiiim ferox, 10 

Regumque matres barlaroruiri, et 
Purpurei metuunt tyrAniu, 

injurioso ne pede proruas 

Stantein columnam, neu populni^ freqaeiu 

Ad arma cessantcs ad arma ifi 

Concitet, imperiumque fraE^?»t. 

Te semper anteit saeva Necessitaa^ 
Clavos tr&bales et cuncos (nanu 
Gestans aena ; nee soverus 

Uncus abest, liqukittnique plu':•>^'*m 20 

Te Spes, et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata paiiiio, nee comitem abnegat, 
TJtcunque mutata potentes 
Vestc domes inimica linquis. 

At valgus iniidum et meretrix retrn &6 

Perjura cedit ; diffugiunt, cadis 
Cum fsBce siccatis, amici 
Ferre jugiim pariter dolosi. 

Serves iturum CaBsarcra in ultimoa 
Orbis Britaunos, et juvenum recens 30 

Fixamen Eois timendum 
Partibus, Oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu ! cicatricum et scelcris pudet 
Fratrumque — Quid nos dura refugimui 

^tas ? quid intactum nefasti |{ 

I^iquimus ? unie manum juventiip 



210 a. HORATII FLACCI [35, 36, 37 

' Meiu Dcorum continuit ? quibus 

Pepercit aris ? O utiiiam nova 

Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massa^etas Arabasque ferrum l€ 



Tarmen XXXVI. 
AD PLOTIU^ NUMIDAM 

Et thure et fidibus juvat 

Placarc et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodes NumidoB Deos, 

Qui nunc, Hesperia sobpes ab ultina 
Caris multa sodalibus, Q 

NuUi plura tamon dividit oscula, 
Quam dulci Lamia;, memor 

Acta? non alio rege puertiaj, 
MutatsBque simul toga^. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 10 

Neu promtsB modus amphorae, 

Neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum. 
Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vir.cat amy s tide, 
Neu desint epulis rosse, Iff 

Neu vivax apium, neu breve lilium. 



Carmen XXXVII. 
AD SODALES. 

Nunc est bioendum, nunc pede likvro 
Pulsanda tellus ; nunc Saliaribus 
Omare pulvinar deorum 

Tempus erat dapibus, sodaies. 

Antehac nefas depromere Caicubnin 
Cellia avitis lum Capitolio 



17. j CHRMINUM. — LIBBR L T^i 

Etegina deniontes ruinas, 
Funus et imperio para bat 

Contaminato cum grege tiirpiiim 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impol'^nt IG 

Sperare, fortunaque dulci 
Ebria Sed rninuit furoieiii 

Vix una sospes navis ^b ignibus ; 
Menternquo lymphatara Mareolioc. 

Redegit in veros timores I 

Cwsar, ab Italia volaiitem 

Remis adurgens, accipiter velut 
Molles columbas, aut leporcni citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 

Harmonise ; darct ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum ; qua) goiiero^ua 
Pciive quaerens, nee rnuliebritei 
Expavit ensem, uec latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras ; 

Ausa et jacentem visere regiam iU^ 

Vultu serene, fortis et asperas 
Tractare serpen tes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet vcnenuni ; 

Deliberata morte ferocior ; 

Badvis Liburnis scilicet invideiis SO 

Privata deduci superbo 

Nun humilis inulier tji'.impruv 



82 Q. UORATI] FLACCI OARMINUM. — MDKB I ]bH 



Carmen XXXV JJl. 

/ID P U E R U W 

Persicos odi puer, apparatus • 
^Displioent noxae philyra corciia*. 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locoruin 
Sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil allaboreg 
8edulus euro : neque te miiiiffiram 
Oeiecet myrtus, neque me sub ansi 
Vite bibentem. 



Q HORATII fLACCI 

C A R M I N D M 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Carmen I. 

AD ASINIUM POLLIONEM. 

MoTUM ex Metello consule civicuni) 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunaj, gi-avesque 
Principum amicitias, et arma 

Noudum expiatis uncta cruoribus I 

PericulossB plenum opus alese, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes 
Supposilos cincri doloso. 

Paulum seversB Musa tragoedia) 
Desit theatris : mox, ubi publu'aa '0 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

I^jdgne moestis pra^sidium reis 
Et consuienti Pollio curiae ; 

Cui laurus eetemos honores I^ 

. Dalmatico peperit triumplio- 

Jam nunc mmaci murmure coniuum 
Pentriiigis aures, jam litui strepunt ; 

B 2 



V4 U. aUUAril I'LACCl 1.^2 

Jaji fulgdr armorun fu^acee 

T( rrct equoA cquitumquc vultua 21 

^udire magnub jam videnr dmee 
Non indrroro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuiuta terrarum subacta 

PrsBter atrocem animum Catonit. 



Juno et deorum quisquis amicioi 
Afris inulta cesscrat impoteus 
Tellure, victorum nepoles 
Kettulit mferias Jugurtha). 



Quifi non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia prcelia 31 

Testatur, auditumque Medis 
Hesperia) sonitum ruinsB ? 

Qui gurges, aut quas flumina luguont 
Ignara belli ? quod mare DauniiB 

Non decoloravere caedes ? 3fi 

QuBB caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne^ relictis, Musa procax, jocis, 
Cese retractes munera naBnia) : 
Mecum Dionseo sub antro 

QuaBre modos leviore plectro. tO 



Carmen IT. 

AD SALLUSTIUM CP ISPUM 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnad 
Crifipe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Bplendcat usu. 



^.8.] C/iRMINUM. LIBEI. 11. dfi 

Vivet extento Proculeius aivo 9 

Notus in fratres aninii paterni : 
11] um aget penna metuente soiv' 
\ Fama superates. 

Latins regnes avidum domandc 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus jungas, et uterque P(Bnu8 
Berviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydro)i8, 
Nee sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo 10 

Corpore languor. 

Hedditum Cyri solio Phrahaten 
Dissidens plebi numcro beatoruni 
Eximit Virtus, populumque falsis 
Dedocet uti 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
Quisquis ingentcs oculo irretorto 
Spectat acervos 



Carmen III. 
AD DELLIUM. 
^quam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonit 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
LsBtitia, moriturc Delli, 

8eu mcBstus omni tempore vixerig} 
Beu te in reraoto gramine ;Der dies 



M U. HOUAlll FLACCI [H, 6 

Fesios reclinatum bearis 
Tntcrioro noia Falera* 



Qua pinus ingens aibaque popuiu? 
Umbram hospitalem consociarc amant 10 

Ramis, et obliquo laborat 

Lyrapha fugax trepidare rivo : 

Hue yina et unguenta et niraiuin itrevif 
Flores amoBnos ferre jube rosae, 

Dum res et astas et Sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemtis saltibus, et domo, 
Villaque, flavus quam Tiberis lant . 
Cedes ; et exstructis in altum 

Divitiis potietur hsBres. SO 

Divesne prisco natus ab Inacho. 
Nil interest, an pauper et infima 
Do gcnie, sub divo moreris, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 



Onnes eodem cogimur : omnium 86 

^?rsatur urna serius ocius 

Sors exitura, et nos in aBternum 
Exsilium impositura cymbaB. 



Carmen VI. 

AD SEPTIMIUM. 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et 
Barbaras ^yrtes, ubi Maura sempei 
iEstuat unda : 



CARMINT.M. — LIBEK 11. 9^ 

Til jr, Argeo posiluni colono, I 

Sit mea^ sedes utinam senectie. 
Sit modus lasso maris et viaruia 
Militineque. 

Undo si Parca3 prohibent iniquie, 
Duice pellitis ovibus Gala^si \ ^ 

FInmen ct regnata petam Laconi 
Rura Phalanto. 

iUo tcrrarum mihi prsBter omnes 
\n^ilus ridet, ubi nou Hymetto 
Mel la decedunt, viridique certat 10 

Bacca Venafro. 



Vcr ubi Icnguin tepidasque prsebet 
Jupiter brumaS) et amicus Aulon 
«?ertili Baccho minimum FalemiR 
Invidet uvis. 

lUe te mecuin locus ct beatsB 
Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amici. 



Carmen VTI. 

AD POMPEIUM. 

O sa3pe mecum tempus in ultiiuuro 
Deductc, Bruto militias duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritera 
Dl» patriis Italoque ccdIo 

PoiDpei, meorum prime sodaliuin t 
Cum quo morantem sa^pe dieiu meio 



98 a. HOBATii FLAci:i l'7> y 

Vt&gif corona tus nitentes 
Malobathro Syrio cipillos. 

1 'ecura Philippos et celerem f Ugam 
Sensi, relict a iion bene parmula ; 10 

Quum fracta Virtus, et minaces* 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere ; 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 16 

Unda fretis tulit EBstuosis. 

£rgo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea, nee 

Farce cadis tibi destinatia. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciborio exple, funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis ado 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Curatve myrto ? quern Venus arbitriufi 25 

Dicet bibcndi ? Non ego sanius 
Tiacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 



Carmen IX. 
AD VALGIUM. 
Non semper imbres nubibus hispidoB 
Manant in agros, aut mare Caspium 
Vexant msequales procellas 
U^ue, nee Armeniis in orin. 



^•10.] CARMINUM. LIBER II. 811 

to 

Amice Valgi, stai glacies iners (i 

Menses p3r omnes ; aut Aquilonibue 
Querceta Gargani laborant, 
Et foliis viduantur orni. 

Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
Mysten ademtum ; nee tibi Vesporo 10 

Surgente decedunt amores, 
Nee rapidum fugiente Solem 

At non ter sbvo functus amabilem 
Flora vit omnes Antilochum senex 

Annos ; nee impubem parentes Ifi 

Troilon, aut Phrygiro sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelarum ; et potius nova 
Cantemus August! tropaBa 

CsBsaris, et rigidum Niphaten ; ^0 

Medumque flumen, gentibus addituiu 
Victis, minores volvere vortices ; 
Intraque prsescriptum Gelonos . 
Exiguis equitare campis. v 



Carmen X. 

AD LICINIUM. 

ilectius vivos, Licini, neque altum 
8emper urgendo, neque, dura procellaa 
Cautus horrcscis; nimium premen \o 
Litus iniquum. 

Aureara quisquis mediocntaiem 
Diligit, tutup caret 3bsoleti 



|t1 U. IIORATC: FLACCI 10 I I 

SoidibuE tecti, caret invidcnda 
SobriuB aula. 

SsBpius ventis agitatur ingens 
FinuS; et celss graviore casii 10 

T>ftcidunt turres, feriuntqne sumrios 
Fulgura montes. 

Spcrat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatuin 
Pectus Informes hiemes reducit I 

Jupiter, idem 

Summovet. Noii, si male nune. et oliin 
Bic erit. Quondam cithara tacentera 
Suscitat Musam, neque semper anmin 

Tendit Apollo. HO 

flebus angustis animosus atque 
Forlis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 
Turgida vela. 



Carmen XI. 
AD QUINTIUM. 

Q/uid bcUicosus Cantaber, et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quinti, cogitet, Hadria 
Divisus objecto, remittas 

Quterere ; nee trepides in usum 

.Poscentig revi pauca. Fugit retro 
Levis Juventas, et P'3cor, arida 
Pellente lascivos amorcs 
Canitie facilemque somaum. 



N 



il.l^ CAKMINUM. LIBER IJ V) 

Nou semper idem floribus est huiioj 
i/^eriiis ; neqiie iirio Luna rubens riilet Ifl 

Vultu • quid ailernis miiiorei.n 
Coiisiiiis auiminn fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alia vel platano vel hac. 
Pinu jacentes sic temere, et tom, 
Cdnos odorati capillos, 6 

Dum licet, Assyriaque cardo 

E^otamus uncti ? Dis^ipat Euius 
Curas edaces. Quis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falcrni 
Pocula prsetcreuiite lympha f 



Carmen XII. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

\c lis longa ferae bella Numantiae, 
Nee dirum Hamiibalem, iiec Siculum iriSLre 
^PcBno purpureum sanguine, moUibus 
Aptari citharse modis : 

« 

Nee saevos Lapithas, et nimium mere 
Hylaeum ; domitosve Herculea manu 
Telluris juvenes, unde periculum 

Fulgens contremuit domiw 

Saturui veteris : tuque pedestribus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 
Msccenas, melius, ductaque per viafi 
Reguin colla minacium. 

Me dulres dokiiinsc Musa Licymuiw 
CantuB me vcluit dicere luciduro 



i2 a. IIOBATil FLACCI [1*^. 131 

f ulgenles oculos, et bene mutuis 19 

Fidum pectus amoribus 

Quam nee ferre pedem dedecuit eh orb, 
Nee certare joco, nee dare brachia 
Liidentem nitidis virginibus, saero 

Dians colebris die. W 

Nuir. tu. qua3 tp'auit dives AchsBmenes, 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias o|)es, 
Permutj»-<5 velis crine Licymnise, 

Fionas aut Arabum domon ? 



Carmen XIII. 
In arboreni, cujus casu pasne oppressus fuerftC 
(He et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicunque priniiun, et sacrilega inanu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciera, opprobriumque pagi. 

Ilium et parentis crediderim sui A 

Fregisse cervicem, et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturno cruore 

Hospitis ; ille veuena Colcha, 

£t quidquid usquani concipitur nei'as 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo f| 

Te, triste lignun:, te caducuin 
la domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, nunquam homini salii 
Cautum est, in boras. Navita Bo8{M)ruii] 

Fanus perhoiTcscit, neque ultra 

'JiBca timet ai'unde fata; 



18, 14. J CARMINUM. LIBER (I. M 

Miles eagittas et celercm fugam 
Parthi ; catos-ias Parthus et Italum 
Rr)bur : sed improvisa leti 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentos 9C 

• Quam pBBne furvae regna ProserpinsBj 
£t judicantem vidimus ^acum, 
Sedesqiie discretas piorum, et 
iEoliis fidihus querentem 

Sappho pucllis de popularibiis, ^5 

Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
AlccBe, plectfo dura navis, 
Dura fuga3 mala, dura belli ! 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur Umbrai dicere ; sed magis ^ 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

Densum humeris bibit aure vulgu3 

Quid mirum ? ubi illis carmiuibus stupens 
Demittit atras bellua centiceps 

Aures, et intorti capillis 3fi 

Eumenidum recreantur augueg ? 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur souo : 
Nee curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 



Carmen XIV. 

AD POSTUMUM. 
£heu I fugaces, Postume, Postunie, 
Labuntur anni ; nee pietas moiam 
Bugis et instanti senectsB 
Afieret, indomi torque morti * 



<4 Q HORATII FL.UCJ |^lt. 15 

Now, si trecenif , quotquot eunt cliea, fl 

Amice, places illacrimabilem 
riutona tauris : qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityoiique tristi 

Compescit unda. scilicet omnibus, 
Quicunque terne munere vescimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sixe reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Frustra cruento Marte carebinius, 
Fractisque rauci fiuctibus Hadriae ; 

Frustra per auctumnos nocenlem V 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum : 

Visendus ater fluinine languido 

Cocytos errans, et Danai genus 

Infame, daninatusque longi 

Sisyphus iEolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus, et domus, et placeni! 
Uxor ; neque harum, quas colis arboruu: 
Te, prsBter invisas cupressos, 
UUa brevem dominum sequeiur. 

Abfiumet hseres Caecuba dignior iff 

Servata centum clavibus, et mero 
Tinget pavimentum superbis 
Pontificum potiore coBnis. 



Carmen XV. 

IN &UI SiECULI LUXURIAM 
Jam ])auca aratro jugera regis 
Moles reliaquent : uudique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu : platanusque cselebs 



I 



16 I O.J CARMINUM. LIBEK II. <^t 

Evincet ulmos : turn violaria, et I 

Myrtus, et omnis copia narium, 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori : 

Tom Bpissa rainis laurea fervidw 
JSxdudct ictus. Noii ita Romuli 111 

PraBscriptum et intonsi Catonia 
Auspiciis, veterumque norma 

Privatus iliis census erat brevis, 
Comnune magnum : nulla decern (^edu 

Metata privatis opacam li 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton ; 

Nee tbrtuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumtu jubentes et deorum 
Templa novo decorare saxo. 



Carmen XVI. 

AD GROSPHUM. 
Otium divos rogat impotenti 
Pressus iEgaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit Lunam, neque certa hijgeni 
Sidera naulis : 

Otium bello furiosa Thrace, 5 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura vf?- 
nale neque auro. 

Non enim gazaB neque consulaiifi 
Snmmovet lictor miseros tumuitiiR 10 

Meniis, ?t curas laqueata circum 
Tecta vo!anlca 



t6 a. HORATU FLACC ' ifS 

Vivitur parvo bene, cui patemum 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum. 
Nee laves somnos timor aut crpido II 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur acv > 
Multa ? quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? FatrisB quis exsui 

Se quoque fugit ? W 

_ m 

Bcandit a^ratas vitiosa naves 
Cura, nee turnias equitum relinquit. 
Ocior cervis, et agento nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

LsBtus in prsBScns animus, quod ultra Mtt 25 

Oderit curare, et amara lento 
Temperet risu. Nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatura. 

Abstulit clarum cita mors Achiilem, 
Longa Tithotium minuit senectus ; 81 

Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccaj ; tibi toUit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa ; te bis Afro SI 

Murice tinctse 

Veetiunt lana^ : mihi parva rura, et 
Spirit um Graiae tenuem CamonsB 
Paice non mendax dedit, et malignum 

Spemere vulj[>iis> 40 



11.1 CAUMINUM — LIBER 11. 4^ 

Carmen XVIT. 

AD M^CENATEM. 

Cur ine querelis exanimas tiiis ? 
NecDls amicum est, nee mihi, \*i pnaik 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 

Grande decus columenque renim. 

Ah ! te mese si partem animse rapit 11 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Noc carus aeque, nee superstes 
Integer ? lUe dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego pcrfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 6 

Utcunque praecedes, supremum 
Carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nee Chimierse spiritus ignese, 
Nee, si rcsurgat, centimanus Gyas 

Divellet miquam : sic potenti \t 

Justitiie placitumque Parci«. 

Sen liibra, seu me Scorpios adBpicii 
Formidolosus, pars violcntior 
Natalis horae, seu tyrannus 

Hesperiae Capricornus imdas, 20 

Utnimque nostrum incredibili mode 
Consentit astrum. Te Jovis iirpio 
Tutela Saturno reiulgens 
Eripuit, volucrisque Feti 

Tardavjt alas, quum populus frequanf 8t 

L»tum theatris ter crepuit sonum : 



a. IJORATli fLArCf [)7«lli. 

Me truiicus illapsus ceiebro 
Sustulnrat nisi Faunus icluin 



Ddxtra levasset, Mercurialiuna 
C^ustos virorum. Reddcrc victiiria« 10 

-Edemque votivam memento : 
iVos humilem feriemus agnain 



Carmen XVIII. 

Non ebur neque aureum 

M 3a renidet in domo lacunar ; 
Nou trabes Hymettiae 

PreiJiunt columnar, ultima rccisM 
Jkfrica; ncque Attali o 

Ignotus hseres regiam occupavi ; 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestse purpuras clientaB. 
At fides et ingent 

Benigna vena est ; pauper'jinque dirt* 'C 

Me petit : nihil supra 

Decs lacesso ; nee potentem amicura 
Largiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, \i 

Novjeque pergunt interire LunsB : 
Tu secanda marmora 

Jjocas sub ipsum funus ; et, sepulcri 
Immemor, struis domes ; 

Marisque Baii^ obstrepentis urges M 

Sammovere litora, 

Panim locuples continentc npa. 
Quid ? quod usque proxirios 

Kevoliis agri terminos, et ultra 
Limites ciicntiuin tA 

Salift a varus ; iieUitur paiemoi 



i^l9. I CARM.INUM. — LlJIEft Jl. 49 

fn einu ferens Deos 

Et uxor, et vir, sordidospo natM. 
NiUia certior tamen, 

Rapacis Orel fine destinata Si 

Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? ^qua tellua 
Pauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris : nee satelles Orci 
Callidum Promethea 

Revexit auro capius. Hie superbum 
Tantalum, atque Tantali 

Genus coercet ; hie levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 

VocatuB atque non moratus audit. 4tt 



Carmen XIX. 

IN BACCHUM. 

fiacchum in remotis carmina rupiftms 
Vidi docentem (credite posteri !) 
Nymphasque discentes, et aurea 
Capripedum Satyroruin acutas. 

Euoe ! recenti mens trepidat metu, $ 

I Plenoque Bacchi pectorc turbidiun 

f LflBtatur I EuoB I parce, Liber I 

Parce, gravi metuende thyrao ! 

Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadaa, 
Vinique fontem, lactis et uberes \t 

Cantare rivos, atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterarc mslla. 

Faa et beatse conjugis additum 
Stellis honorrm, tectaquc Penthei 

C 



50 a. HORATII KLACCl [19, 20 

Disjecta non leni ruina, ] t 

ThraoJB et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu dectis amnes, tu mare barbarniu 
Tu Beparatis uvidus in jugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crincs. 

Tu, quuin parentis regna per arduiu^ 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet inipia. - 
Rhcetum retorsisti leonis 
Unguibus horribilique mala : 

Quainquam, choreis aptior et jocis 25 

JLudoque dictus, non sat idoneus 
PugnsB ferebaris ; sod idem 
Pacis eras mediusque beUi. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo. 
Comu decorum, leniter atterens W 

Caudam, et reocdentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



Carmen XX. 

AD M^CENATEM. 
Non usitata, non tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum sthera 
Vates : neque in terris moraboi 
Longius ; invidiaque major 

Urbes relinquam. Ncn ego pauperam S 

Sanguis parentum, non ego, quern tocaa 
Dilecte, Ma3cenas, obibo, 
Nee Styg'^ cohibebor unda. 



so I CARMINUM. LIBEK II. 51 

Jam jam residunt cruribus aspera: 
Peilcs ; et album mutor in aliteiri 10 

Supema ; nascunturque leves 
Per digitos humerosque pluDUB. 

Jam Dsedalco notior Icaro 
Vieam ^cmentis litora Bospori, 
Syrtesque Gsetulas canorus 
Alea Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus, et, qui dissimulat metum 
Marsse cohortis, Dacus, et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni : me peritus 

Discet Iber, Khodanique potor. ^ 



Abeint inani funere na3uia3, 
Luctuaqiie turpes et qucrimoniiB . 
Compeioe clamorem, ac aepulcri 
llitte fupenracuM hononK. 



q ilORATII JtLACCl 

C A RMI NUM 

LIBER TERTIUS. 



Carmen I. 

0:>i profanum vulgus et arceo : 
Favete Unguis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 

Ilegiim tirnendoruin in proprios greges i 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supercilio moventis. 

list ut viro vir latius ordinet 

Arbusta sulcis ; hie generosior 

Descendat in Campum petitor ; 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Contendat ; iUi turba clientium 
Sit major : aqua lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignes et imos ; If 

Omne capax movet urna nomexi 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Ccrvice pendet, non Siculse dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem, 

Non avium cithara^ve cantxia 91 



J a. HORATII PLACCI CARMINUM. LIBER (Jl 691 

Sonmum reducent. Somnus apnrest um 
Lcnis viroTum non humiles domos 
Fastidit, umbrosamve ripam, 
Non Zephyris agitata Tem|»e, 

Ddsiderantem quod satis est nequt* 80 

Tumuituosum sollicitat mare, 
Nee S8BVUS Arcturi cadenti? 
Impetus, aut orient is HaBdi ; 

Non verberatffi grandine vina^ 
Fundus ve mendax, arbore nur c aqi.aa $M 

Culpante, nunc torrentia agrcs 
Sidera nunc hi'^mes iuiquas. 

Contracla pi sees sBquora sentiunt 
Jactis in aitum molibus : hue frequei«p 

Ca?menta demittit redemtor 3S 

Cum famulis, dominusque terrw • 

Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minae 
Seandunt eodem, quo dominus ; neque 
Decedit aerata triremi, et 

Post equitera sedot atra Cura. 10 

^od si dolentem nee Phrygius laj»is», 
Nee purpuraram sidere clarior 
Delenit usus, nee Falema 

Vitis, Achffimeniumve costuni ; 

Car mvidendis postibus et novo 1^ 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cui valle permutem Sabina 
Divitiaf} operoBi« res '.' 



^4 a. UORATII flacci [^ 

Carmen II. 

Au(p«starr. ainice pauperieni paU 
Robustus acri militia pucr 
Condiscat ; et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques mctuendus hasta r 

Vitamque sub divD trepidis agat I 

In rebu& Ilium et mcBuibus ho^tmia 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Prospiciens et adulta virgo 

euspiret : Eheu ! ne rudis agmirtuiD 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

Tactu leoneiB, quern crueuta. 
Per medias rapit ira ca>dftd. 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria nkoii 
More ct fugacem persequitur virum. 
Nee parcit imbellis juventai 1 ^ 

Poplitibus timidoque tergi . 

Virtus, repulssB nescia sordid®, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus : 
Nee sumit aut ponit secures 

Arbitrio popularis aurfP. 80 

Virtus, recludens immeritis men 
CcBlum, negata tentat iter via : 
CoBtusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit hiimum fugiente penra. 

Est et fideli tuta si lent io flA 

Afteroes : v3tabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcinsB, sub isdem 

Sit trabibus, fragilemve meeuizi 



f U. CARMINUM. — LIBER 111. 6fl 

Soiva: phaselon. Ssepe Diespiter 
Neglectus incesto addidit integrum : H^ 

Raro antecedentem sceleBtum 
Deseruit pede Pcena claudo. 



Carmen III. 
Justum ac tenacem propositi vimm 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non vultus inst£aitis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque AusteTj 

Dux inquieti turbidus HadrisD, 11 

Nee fulminantis magna manus Jovis . 
Si fractus iUabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinsB. 

Hao arte Pollux at vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas : lO 

Quos mter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 

Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tun 
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum 

Collo trabentcs ; hac Quirinus 11 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
Junone divis : Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque judex 

Et mulier peregrina vertit I 

In puiverem, ex quo destituit deon 
Heroede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castseque damnatura Miuervao 
Cum populo et duce frauduleata. 



a. HORAT£r: flaot^i 

Jam nee Lacsens splendet adult srm iU 

Famosus hospcs, nee Priami dciAUf 
rerjura pugnases Achivos 
Heetoreis opibus refringil 

Nostris^ue duetum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et grarc; M 

Iras, et invisum nepotem, 
Troia quern peperit saceraof, 

Marti redonabo. Ilium ego lucid&a 
Inire sedes, discere nectaris 

Succos, et adscribi quietis 96 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter seeviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet exsuioi 
In parte regnanto beati . 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

Insultet armentum, et eatulos ier» 
Celent inultse, stet Capitolium 
Fuigens, triumphatisque possit 
Roma fcrox dare jura Media 

Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 16 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Seeernit Europen ab Afro, 

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nil us * 

Aurum irrepertum, et sic melius situio 
Quum terra eelat, spernere fortior, 9D 

Quam eogere humanos in usui 
Omne 8aeru!2i rapiento dextnu 



B 4 I CaAHINUM. LIBBR III. tfl 

Quicunque mundo terminus obetitit 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 

Qua parte debacchantur igues. ft£ 

Qua nebulsB pluviique rores. 

8ed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
llac lege dico ; ne nixnium pii 
Rebusque fidentes avitsB 

Tecta veliat repaiare Trojie. 60 

'^. Trojse renascens alite lugubri 

Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Conjuge me Jo vis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat mums aeneus 6(i 

Auctore PhoBbo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis ; ter uxor 

Capta virura puerosque ploret» 

Non haec jocosss conveniunt lyrse . 
Quo Musa teudis ? Desine pervicax ^0 

Referre ceraiones deorum, et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 



Carmen IV. 

AD CALLIOPEN. 

Descende ccbIo, et die age tibia, 
Begina, longum, Calliope, melos, 
Seu voce ni\nc mavis acuta, 
Sen fidibus citharaque PhoBbi 

Auditis ? an me Indit amabilis 
InBania ? Audire et videor pios 

C 2 



a. IIORATII FLACCI (4 

Errare per lucos, amoBns 
Quoa ct aquas subeunt et aura;. 

Ma fabulosse, Vulture in Apulo 
Altriuis extra limen Apuliae, 10 

liudo fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova puerum palumbea 

Tcxcre : mirum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celssd nidum Acheroutia), 

Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum iA 

Pingue tenent liumilis Forenti ; 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis ; ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque coUataque myrto, 

Non sine Dis animosus infans. 2C 

Vaster, Camenaj, vester in arduos 
ToUor Sabinos ; sou mihi frigidum 
Prseneste, seu Tibur supinum, 
Sou liquidsB placuere Bais. 

i^tsstris amicum fontibus et chorls 85 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro. 
Devota non exstinxit arbor, 
Nee Sicula Palinurus imda. 



Vtcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem, navita, Bosporum 
Tentabo, et urentes arenas 
L itoris Assyrii viator. 

Visani Britannos hospitibus ieron, 

Bt Istuni equino sanguine Concamun ^ 



1*1 t^AHMJN JM. UBEK III 511 

Visam pharetratos Gelonos 3S 

Et Scythicum inviolatus amaem 

Vo8 Csssarcm aitum, militia simuJ 
Fessas cohortcs addidit oppidis, 
Finire qua)rentem labores, 

Pierio rcciBatis antro : 40 

Vo6 lene consilium et datis, et dato 
Gaudetis almaB. Scimus, ut impioa 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmiue sustulerit corusco, 

Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat 4fr 

Ventosum ; et umbras regnaque tristia, 
Divosqne, mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus a)quo. 

Magnum iUa terrorem intulcrat Jovi 
Fidens, juventus horrida, brachiis, 00 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pclion imposuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhoetus, evulsisque truncis M 

Euceladus jaculator audax, 

Contra sonant em Palladis a3gida 
Possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
Vulcanus, hinc matrona Juno, et 

Nunquam humeris positurus aixmnv 60 

^ rore puro CastalisB lavit 
Siines sc*lutos, qui Lycite tejiot 



a. HORA!»Ii FLACUI |4. 5 

r>umcta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo 

Vis consili expers mole ruit su^* r 5^ 

Vim teniperatam Di quoque prbvoLcol 
In miijuB ; idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo movenUsn. 

Testis mearum cei.timanus Gyas 
Sententiarum, notus et integrs ^t 

Tentator Orion Dianas 
Yirginea domitus sagitta. 

Injecta monstris Terra dolet suis, 
Moeretque partus fulrnine luridum 

M issos ad Orcum : nee peredit 76 

Impositam celer ignis ^tnen ; 



Incontinentis nee Tityi jccur 
Relinquit ales, nequitisB additns 
Gustos : amatorem et trecents 
Pirithoum cohibent catena). 



Carmen V. 

CcbIo tonantem credidiraus Jovem 
Regnare : pra^sens divus habebitiu 
Augustus, adjectis Britannis 
Imperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi conjuge Barbara 
Turpis mantus vixit ? et hostiuiii— 
Proh Curia, inversique mores I— 
Consenuit socerorum in arvis. 



OAbMINUM. ^LIBER ill. Il« 

Sub rege Medo, Maisus et Apulua * 
Anciliorum et nominif^ et togSB 10 

OMitus BBtemajque Vcstae, 

Incolumi Jove et urbe Roma 'i 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli 
Diasentientis conditionibus 

Foedis, et exemplo trahsnti Id 

Pemiciern veniens ir. svum, 



Si non perirent immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. '' Signa ego Punii ift 
AfRxa delubris, et arma 
Militibus sine csede," dixit, 

" Derepta vidi : vidi ego civium 
lletorta tergo brachia libero, 
Portasque non clausas, et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 



Auro repensus scilicet acrior 26 

Miles redibit ! Flagitio additis 
Damnum. Neque amissos colore* 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nee vera virtus, quum semcl excidit. 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

Si pugnet extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Qui perRdis se credidit hostibus ; 
Et Marte Pcenos proteret altero, 

Qui lora restrictis lacertis 35 

Seiuit iners, timuitque nottem 



^ U. UOUATfl FLACCl [5.6. 

Hiiic, uuil3 vitam sumeret aptius : 
Pacem et duello miscuit. O pudor ! 
O magna Carthago, probrosig 

Altior ItalisB ruinis !" — 4C 

Fert ur pudica) conjugis osculum, 

Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse, et virilsm 
. J'orviis humi posuisse vultmn ; 

Donee labantes cousilio Patres 46 

Firmaret auctor uunquam alias dato. 
Interque moerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 




Atqui soiebat, qu® sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen M 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos, 
Et populum reditus moranteii^ 

Quam si clientum longa negotia 
2Hjudicata lite relinqueret, 

Tendens Venafranos in agros, §k 

Aut Lacedsemonium Tarcntum. 



Carmen VI. 

AD ROMANOS. 

DdUcta majorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa refeceris, 
^desque labentes deorum, et 
F<£di nigro simulacra fume. 

Dis te mmorem quod geiis, iiiiperas : 
Hinc omne prir cipium, huo refer exitiilt 



CAUMINUM.' — LIBER 111 09 

Di multa neglec^i iederuRt 
HesperisB mala luctuosa). 

lain bis MonsBses et Pacori iiianut 
Non auspicates contudit impetus Q 

N^stros, et adjecisse prsedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 

Pniie occupatam seditionibiis 
Deievit Urbem Dacu* et ^thiop^ ; 
Hie classe formidatus, ille 10 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Feciinda culpsB saecula nuptias 
Fnmum inquinavere, et genus, et domM ; 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque iluxit HO 

Non his juvcutus orta parentibua 
Infecit sequor sanguine Punico, 
Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 
Antiochum, Hannibalemquo dii ui ; 

8ed rusticonim mascula militutu 
E^les, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
Versare glebas, et seversB 
Matris ad arbitrium recisos 



Portare fustes, sol ubi montiuin 
Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret 
Bobus fatigatis, amicum 

Ten.pns agens abeuntc cumi. 

Damiiosa quid non immimjt diet! 
£ta8 parentum, pejor avis, tulit 



64 a. HORATll FLACCl | B, A 

No8 nequiores, mox daturas 34 

Progeniem vitiosiorcm. 



Carmen VIII. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

Martiis ccelebs quid agam Kalendi^ 
Quid velint flores ct acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris, positusque carbo 
Cespite vivo, 

Docte sennones utriusque linguaB ? I 

Voveram dulces epulas et album 
Libero caprum, prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hie dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit 19 

AmphorsB fumum bibere instituts 
Consule Tullo. 

Sume, MaBcenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucemas 
Perfer in lucem : procul omnis esto 11 

Clamor et ira. 

Mitte civiles super Urbe curas 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen . 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 

Dissidet armis : 20 

Bervit Hispans vetus hostis om, 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena : 
Jam SoythsB laxo nieditantur aico 
Cedere campii. 



R. 0.] CARMINUM. '-'I> BER III bd 

Nogligeus, ne qua populus laboret SU 

Parte privatim nimiuin cavero, 
Dona pnesentis cape l^Btus hone, et 
Linque severa. 



Carmen IX. 

CARMEN AMCEBiEUM 

HoRATrcs. 

Dttnec gratus eram tibi, 

Nee quisquam potior brachia Candida 
Cervici juvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 

Lydia. 

Donee non aliam magis C 

Arsisti, neque erat Lydia post Chloea, 

Multi Lydia nominis 

Romana vigui clarior Ilia. 

HORATIUS. 

Me nunc Thressa Chloc regit, 

Duk*^?> docta modo6, et citharsB sciens • 10 

Pro qua non metuam mori, 

81 parcent animsB fata superstiti. 

Lydu. 

Me torret tace mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti : 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, 11 

Si paicent puero fata superstiti. 

HORATIUS. 

Qaid ? 81 prisca redit Venus, 
Diductosque jugo cogit aeneo? 



Q HORATII FLAGCI [0, 1 ) 

Bi flava rrcutitur Chloe, 

Rejec tsBqiie patet janua Lydin V 9^ 

Lydia. 

^aamquam sidere pulchrior 

lUe est, tu levior cortice, et improbo 
ftacundior Hadria ; 

Tecun vivere amem, tecum olieam IiImhis 



Carmen XI. 

AD LYDEN. 
Mercuri, nam te docilis magistrc 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo. 
Tuque, teRtudo, resonare septem 

Callida ne\*\i8, 

Nbc loquax olim neque grata, nunc el 6 

Divitum mensis et arnica templis. 
Die modos, Lyde quibus obstinataA 
Applicet aures. 

Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeres morari ; 10 

Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 
Janitor aulsB, 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput, eestuetque 
Spiritus tnter, saniesque manct \f^ 

Ore trilingui. 

Qum et Ixion Titjosque vultn 
Risit invito : stetit urua pauluni 
Bicca, aum grato Danai pueliaf 

Canoine mulcfy. QC 



l\. CARMINUM. L BEB ni 07 

Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 
Virginum pcBnas, et inane lymphs 
Doliuni fundo percuntis inio, 
Seraque fata, 

Qu8B inanent culpas etiam sub Ort-o 8fl 

ImpisB, nam quid potuere majus ? 
FmpisB sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multls, face nuptiali 
Digna, perjurum fuit in parentem 30 

Splendide mendax, et in omne virso 
Nobilis SBvum ; 

•* Surge," quae dixit juveni marito, 
*' Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, undo 
Nun times, detur : socerum et scelestas ?d 

Falle sorores ; 

Qua3, veiut nactsB vitulos leasnaB^ 
Singulos, cheu ! lacerant.^ Ego, illis 
Mollior, nee te feriam, neque intra 

Claustra tenebo. 40 

Me patei' saevis oneret catcnis. 
Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum ip agroa 
Ciasse reieget. 

I, pedes qao te rapiunt et aursB, 4^ 

Dam lavet nox et Venus : I secundo 
Ommo ; et nostri mcraorem sepuicio 
sicaipe querela m." 



Q. BOIATIl PLAOOI L^'i* ^^ 

Carmen XII. 

AD NEOBULEM 

Miserarum est, neq ue Amori dare ludun , nerjvo ixXti 

Mala vino lavere : aut exanimari metuer.tes 

Patrus3 verbera linguse. Tibi qualum Cythercaj 

Puer ales, tibi telas, operosseque Minerva! 

Studium aufert, Neobulc, Liparei nitor Hebri, A 

Simiil unctos Tiberinis huraeros lavit in undis. 

Eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 

Neque segni pede victus : catus idem per apertuiu 

Fugientes agitato grege cervos jaculari, et 

Celer alto latitantem fruticeto excipere aprum. 



Caiimen XIII 
AD FONTEM BANDUSIUM 

O fons BandusisB, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribui. 
Cras donaberis hasdo, 

Cui frons turgida comibus 

Priinig, et Vcnerem et proslia desiinat ; ft 

Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Hubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi su boles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora CaniculsB 
Nescit tangere : tu frigus amabii? 

Fessis vomere tauris aO 

Praebes, et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis iinpositam ilicem 

Saxis, unde loquaces 10 

Lymphffi desiliunt tuie. 



1 4.} CARMINUM.-'-LIBER IIL 

Carmen XIV. 

AD ROMANO S. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, O Plel<i 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum. 
Cssar f lispana rspetit Penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Uiiico gaudens mulier marito 
Prodeat, justis operata divis ; 
£t soroT clari duels, et decorsB « 
Supplice vitta 



Vbfginiuu matres, juvenumque uupni 
Sospitum. Vos, O pueri, et puelis t& 

Jam yirum expertes, male nominatis 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies verc mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas : ego nee tumultum, 
Nee mori per vim metuam, tencnte 19 

CsBsare terras. 



i, pete iinguentum, puer; et coronaff, 
£t cadum Marsi memorem duelii, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 
Fallere testa. 

Die et argutee praperet Neserw 
&Iyrrheum nodo cohibere crinem * 
Si per n visum mora janitorem 
Fiet, abito. 



Lenit albescens ani^nos eapillus Vd 

Litium et rixa) cupidos protervs ; 



10 Q. HORATU FLACCl [14 16 

Sun pgo hoc fcrrem, calidus juvenca, 
Consule Plaiico. 



Carmen XVI. 

AD M^CENATEM. 

Inclusam Danaen turris aenea, 
Robu8ta3que fores, et vigilum canura 
Tristcs excubia) munierant satis 
Noctumis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium, virginis abditsB i 

Custodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissoiit : fore enim tutum iter et patuidb* 
Coil verso in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrumpere amat saxa potentiiis \t 

Ictu fulmineo ! Concidit auguris 
Argivi domiis. ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio. Diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo, et submit semulos 
Reges muneribus ; munera naviuin lb 

Sffivos illaqueant duces. 

Crescentem sequitur cura pccuniam, 

Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 

Late conspicuum tollere verticem 

Maecenas, equitum decus ! 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negavcrit, 
Ab Dis plura feret. Nil cupientiura 
Nudus castra pcto, et transfuga divitom 
Partes linquere gcstio ; 



ao 



16. 17. I CAAMINUM. LIBER III 7J 

Con torn ta) dominus splenaidior lei, 26 

Quam 81, quidqnid arat impiger Apulua, 
Occultare meis diccrer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

PunB rivus aquas, silvaque jugerum 
Paucorum, et segetis certa fides meie, 3U 

Fulgentem imperio fer tills AfricsB 
Fallit. Sorte bcatior, 



Quamquam nee CalabraD mella ferunt apoii 
Nee LsBstrygonia Bacehus in amphora 
lianguescit mihi, nee pinguia Gallicis 
Crescunt vellcra pascuis, 



Imix)rtuna tamen pauperies abest ; 
Nee, 81 plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 

Vectigalia porrigam, 4i 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa. Bene est, cui Deus obtulU 
Parca, quod satis est, manu. 



Carmen XVII. 
iiD iELIUM LAMIAI^. 
JElif vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
[Quando et priores hinc Lamias feruiif 
Denominates, et ncpotum 

Per memores genus omne fastoa 

Auctore ab illo ducit originem,] 
Qui Fonniaruin moenia dicitur 



^6 a. HOI ATI FLACCI 17« IB 

Prin 3ep8 et iimaii jem Marien 
latoribus tenuisse Linm. 

Laie tyraimus : eras foliis neznu& 
Multis et alga litus iiiutili 10 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Stem3t| aquas nisi fallit augur 

Aimosa eornix Dum potis, aridum 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mero 

Curabis et porco bimestrii If 

Cum famulis openim solutit*. 



Caumen XVIII. 

AD FAUNUM. 
Faune, Nympharum fugientun; aniator. 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
iEquus alumnis, 

K)i tener pleno cadit hsedus anno, I 

Lai^a. nee desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina crateriB, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 

liudit herboso pecus omne campo, 
Quum.tibi N>n8B redeunt Decembrei : 10 

Festus in ^iratis vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus : 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnof ; 
Spargit agreslBs tibi silva frandei ; 
Gvidet in visa m pepulisse fooaor II 

Ter pedc terram 



I rAKMlNUM.^-LIBBft III 711 



Carmen XIX. 

AD TELEPHUM. 

Quantum distet ab Inaoho 

Codnis, pro patria non liiuidus mori. 
Narras, et genus iEaci, 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio : 
Quo Chiuni pretio cadum 

Mercemur, quis aquam tempeiec ig libue 
Quo prsbente domum ct quota 

Pelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 
Da LunsB propere nova), 

Da Noctis mediaB, da, puer, augurig I W 

MurensB : tribus aut novcm 

Misccntor cyatkis poru'a coinmodis. 
Qui Musas amat imparcs, 

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus jietet 
Vales: tres prohibet supia 16 

liixarum metuens taiigere Gratia, 
Nudis juncta sororibus. 

Insanire juvat : cur Berocyntiae 
Cessant flamina tibisD ? 

Cur pendet tacita iistula cum lyra ? 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 
Dementem strepitum Lycus 

Et vicina seni non habilLs Lvco. 
Spissa te DAtidutn coma, Z^ 

Puro tc similem, Telepiic> Ves^^ro, 
Tempestiva petit Rhode : 

Me lentus GlycorsQ torret anwr nieM* 



74 Q' tJi>AA:"II VLACCi [i\ 



Cahmen XX [. 

AD AMPHORAM . 

O nau niecuia consule Manila 
Sen tu querelas, Mive geris jocos, 
Seu rixam et insanos amores, 
Scu facilem pia, Teista, somnum ; 

Qtiocunquc ioBtum nomine Massicum C 

iServas, mover! digna bono die, 
Descende, Corvino jubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quainquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te negliget horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
SsBpc mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormetitum ingenio admovee 
Plerumque duro : tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum jocoso If 

Consilium retegis Lya)o : 

Tu Bpem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Viresque : et addis comua pauperis 
Post te neque iratos trementi 

Regum apices, neque militum arnm ^ 

Te Liber, et, si Iseta aderit, Venus, 
Begnesque nodum solvere Gratiasi 
VivfiBque producent lucernsd, 
Dum rediens fugat aatra PhcBfeiit. 



119.24.' oAKMINUM.-^-iiittER III. Tt 



Carmen XXIII. 

AD PHIDYLEN 

Coelo Rupinas si tuleris manus 
Nascentc Luna, rustica Phidyic. 
Si thurc placaris et horna 

Fruge Lares, avidaque porcsi \ 

Nee jiestilentem sentiet Africura C 

Fecunda vitis, iiec sterilem seges , 

Robiginem, aut dulces alumiii 
Poiniiero grave tempus aim« 

Nam, qua3 nivali pascitur Algidn 
Devota quercus inter et ilices, 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis, 
Victima, pontificum secunm 

Cervice tinget. Te nihil attine^ 
Tentare laulta ca)de bidentium 

Parvos coronantem marine \t 

Rore decs fragilique myrt 

Immunis aram si tetigit mamv 
Non sumtuosa blandior hostia 
MoUivit aversos Penates 

Farre pio et saliente mic? . iU 



Carmen XXW. 

Intactis opulentior 

Thcsauris Arabum et ditilis Indix 
CBmentis licet occupes 

Tynrhenum omne tuis et /narc Api:d«tiiB, 



fB a. HOKATII FLACCI ['^^ 

8i figit adaraantinos 5 

3ummi8 verticibus dira Nece8&it4ia 
Clavos, noil animum metu, 

Non mortis laqucis expedies caput 
Campestres melius ScythsB, 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahuiit domoi 18 

Vivunt, et rigidi GctaB, 

Immetata quibus jugera liberas 
Fniges et Cererem ferunt, 

Nee cultura placet longior annua ; 
Oelunctumque labonbus 15 

iEquali recreat sorte vicarius. 
Jllic matre carentibus 

Privignis mulier temperat innocent : 
Nee dotata regit virum 

Conjux, nee nitido fidit adultero. 20 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus, et metueais alterius viri 
Certo fcedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas, aut pretium emon. 
O quis, quia volet impias 26 

Caedes et rabiem toUere civicani ? 
Si quaeret Pater Urbinm 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 
flcfrenare licentiam, 

Clarus postgenitis : quatenus, heu nefas ! 30 

Virtutem incolumem odimus, 

Sublatam ex oculis quajriraus invidi. 
Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur ? 
Quid leges, sine moribus r 5g 

VansB, proficiunt, si neque fervidis 
Pars inclusa caloribus  

Mundi, ncc Boreae finitimum latut, 
Duratajquc solo nives, 

Mercatorera abifrunt ? horrida callidi 4|| 



84 25. 1 CARMINUM. — L1BE& 111. 77 

Vincunt tequora navite ? 

Magnum pauperies opprobrium jubet 
Quidvie et facere et pati, 

Virtutisqiic viam deserit ardus ? 
Vel no8 in Capitolium, 4fi 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium 
Vol nos in mare proximum 

Gremmas. et lapides. aurum et inutile, 
Summi materiem mali, 

MittamuB sceierum si bene pcenitet. 50 

Eradenda cupidinis 

Pravi sunt elementa ; et tenene nimis 
Mentes asperioribus 

FirmandsB studiis. Nescit equo rudi» 
Hsrere ingenuus puer, 60 

Veiiarique timet ; ludere doctior, 
Seu GrsBco jubeas troche, 
' Seu malis vetita legibus ale& : 
Quum perjura patrip fides 

Consortem socium fallat, et hospiterA, 6^ 

Indignoque pecuniam 

Hffiredi properet. Scilicet improbo) 
Crescunt divitiae : tamen 

CurtaB nescio quid semper abest rei. 



Carmen XXV. 
AD BACCHUM. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quas nemora, quos agor in ipeona, 
Velox mente nova ? Quibus 

Anths egregii Csesaris audiar 
Sternum meditans decus /i 

Stellis inserere et cousilio Jovia ? 



^ <*. coHATlI PLACCI |_2d.27 

Dieani iubigne, recens ndhuo 

Indicium ore alio. Non secus in jugit 
Exsoumis stupet Euias, 

Hebrum prospiciens, et nive candidam /O 

Tfaracen, ac pede barbaro 

Luatratam Knodopen. Ut mihi devic 
Ripas et vacuum ncmus 

Mirari libet ! O Na'iadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium {^ 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos. 
Nil parvum aut humili modo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce pericuhim. 
O Lensee ! sequi deum 

Ciiigentcm viridi tempora pampino. 20 



Carmen XXVII. 

AD GALATEAM. 
Impios pame recinentis omen 
Ducat, et prsegnans canis, aut ab a^VD 
Rava decurrens lupa Lanuvino. 
Fetaque vulpes : 

Rumpat et serpens iter institutura, 

Si per obliquum similis sagittsB 
Temiit mannos. — Ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Lmbrium divina avis imminentum, 10 

Oscinem oorvum prece suscitabo 
Solis ab ortu. 

6u licet felix, uDicunque mavi«. 
Bt raemor nostri, Galatea i vivany 



VT.k CARMINUM. LIBEB II. TS 

Tequo iiec laevus vetet ire picus, I fl 

Nee vaga comix. 

6ed vides, quanto trepidet tumiiltQ 
Pronus Orion, ligo, quid sit ater 
Hadriffi, novi.. sinus, et quid albus 

Pv*ccet lapyx. 20 

Ho^tium uxoie& puerique csiccA 
8eiitiant motus oriontij Austri, i;t 
w^quoris nign frcmitun>, et treineii jop. 
Verbere ripaa. 

. Sic et Europe niveum doioso 3 

Credidit tauro latus ; at sca2,entem 
Belluis poutum mediasque t'^audes 
Palluit audax 

Nuper iu protis studiosa fi6jtini. et 
DeiiilsB Nymphis opifex cofoi»cu, 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra piieter 
Vidit et undas. 

Qua; simul centum tetigit ;^<en(enk 
Oppidis Creten, '* Pater ! O relictura 
Filise nomen ! pietasque/* rlixit, Sd 

*' Victa furore ' 

Unde ? quo veni ? Lcvk* una mors est 
Virginum culpsB. Vigilahsne ploro 
Turpe comniissum ? an vitio carentein 

Ludit ima^ id 

Vana, quam e porta fugieiis ebuma 
Bomnium ducit '^ JMeliusne tiuctiu 



60 u. IIORATU' FLACCI | 21 

Ire per iongos fuit, an recentes 
Carpere flore* ** 

« 

8i quis mfamem mihi nunc juvencum ^^ 

Dedat iratae, iacerare ferro et 
Frangerc enitar modo multum aniali 
Comua monslri ! 

Impudens liqui patrios Penates : 
Iinpudens Orcum moror. O Deorum 50 

Si quia haBc audis, utinam inter erreni 
Nuda leones I 

Antequam turpis macies decentes 
Occupet malas, teneraeque suocus 
Oefluat prsedffi, speciosa queero M 

Pascere tigres. 

Vilis Europe, pater urget absens : 
Quid niori cessas ? Potes hac ab oma 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 

Lsedere coUum. 60 

Sive te rupes et acuta leto 
8axa delectant, age, te procella) 
Credo veloci : nisi herile mavis 
Carpere pensum, 

(Regius sanguis !) dominseque trad) od 

Barbaras pellex." Aderat querenti . 
Perfidum ridens Venus, et remisio 
Filius arcu 

Mox, ubi tusit satis, '' Abstineto," 

Dixit, '' irarum calidaeque rixs^ ^0 



^7, 28, 2'j>.] GABMINUM. UBER III. 81 

Quum tibi invisus laceranda red del 
Comua taurus. 



Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescls : 
Mitte singultus ; bene ferre magnain 
Diflce fortunam : tua sectus orbi« 71 

Nomina ducet." 



Carmen XXVTII. 
AD LYDEN. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Frome reconditum. 
Lyde strenua, CsBCubum, 

Munitseque adhibe vim sapientisB 
Inclinare meridiem 6 

Sentis ; ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram ? 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum, et virides Nereidum comas ' •O 

Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam, et celeris spicula CyuthisB . 
Summo carmine, qusB Cnidon 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paplion 
Juncti3 visit olori}jus : ' t 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque nsnia 



Carmen XXIX. 
AD MiECENATEM. 
Tyrrhena regum progenies, tiln 
Noa ante verso lene merum cac|o» 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarunii oi 
Prossa tuis balanus capillis 
D2 



89 a. UORATil FLACCl 229 

.Idm dudum apud me est. Fripe t^ mora) , 6 
Ut Beiaper-udum Tibur, et iEsulae 
Declive contempleris arvum. et 
Telegoni juga panicidaB. 

Fastidiosam desere copiara, et 
Molcm propinquam nubibus arduis ; 

Omitte mirari beatffi 

Fumum et opes strepitumque KomiB. 

Plerumque grata3 divitibus vices, 
Mundmque parvo sub lare pauperum 

CoensB, sine aulaiis et ostro, 16 

SoUicitam explicucre frontem. 

Tarn clarus occultum Andromeda) pater 
Ostendit ignem : jam Procyon furit, 
Et Stella vesani Leonis, 

Sole dies referente siccos : SItt 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege laiiguido 
JElivumque fessus quaBrit, et horridi 
D'lmeta Silvani ; caretque 
Hipa vagis taciturna ventis. 

Tu, civitatem quis deccat status, ift 

Curas, et Urbi soUicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens futuri temporis exitura 
Caliginosa nocte premit Deus, M 

Hidetque, si mortalis ultra 

FaA trepidat Qivod adest memento 



M ! CARMINUM. LIliER 111. 89 

Conip^nere sequus : cetera fliimmig 
Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 

Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 ' 

In mare, nunc lapides adesos, 

Stirpesque raptas, et pecus et doniua 
Volvontis una, non sine montium 
Clamore vicinseque silyee, 

Quum fera diluvies quietos 40 > 

Irritat anues. Ille potens sui 
LiBtusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dixisse, " Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato, 

Vel sole pure : non tamen irritum, 45 - 

Quodcunque retro est, efiiciet ; noqutf 
Difimget infectumque reddet 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit ^* 

Fortuna ssevo Iseta negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertiiiax, 00 

Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna 

Laudo manentem : si celeres quatit 
Pennas, rosigno quae dedit, et mea 

Virtute me involvo, probamque (it 

Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

Non est meum si mugiat Africis 
Malus procellis, ad miseras precee 
Decurrere ; et votis pacisci, 
Ne Cypriae Tyriajve rooroas 90 



94 a. JORATII FLACCI CARMINUM. LIBEK III. \20^ 30 

Addant avaro divitiafci fnari. 
Turn me, bireinis prsesidio scaptuB 
Tutum, per -^gaeos tumultus 
Aiira feret gemmusque Pollux. 



Carmen XXX 

£xegi monunientum aere perennius, 
Regalique situ pyramidum altius : 
Quod non iinber edax, non Aquilo impot 
Possit diruere, aut iiinumerabilis 
Annorum series, et fuga temporum. 
Non omiiis moriar ! mullaque pars inci 
Vitabit Libitinam. Usque ego postera 
Crescam laude recens, dum Capitohum 
Scandet cum tacita Viigine pontifex. 
Dicar, qua violens obstropit Aufidus, 
Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 
Regnavit populoriim, ex humili potens, 
Princeps iiColium carmen ad I tales 
Dediixisse modes. Sume supc?biani 
Quesitam meritis, et mihi Delphica 
Lauio eir4(0 volenv, Meljomene, oomam 



Q H OR ATI I FL&UCI 

C A RM I N U M 

LIBER QUAETU8. 



Carmen II. 
AD lULUM ANTONIUM 
PiNPARUM quisquis studet semular 
lule, ceratis ope DsBdalea 
Nititur peimisj vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, mMti^ d 

Quern super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet iromensusque ruit profurrio 
Pindarus ore ; 

Laurea donandus ApoUinari, 
Sue per audaces nova dithyramuiB 

Verba devolvit, numerisque fertur . 
Lege solutis : 

8eu Deos, regesve canit, Deorum 
Sanguincm, per quos cecidere justo 
Marte Centauri, cecLdet tremendad i 

Flamma Chimsera; : 

8ive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma ccElestes, pugilcinve eqinmve 
Dicit, et centum potiore si^nis 

Munere donat SO 



86 a H^RATII FLACCl fsi 

Fiebili sponbCB juvenemve raptuta 
Plorat, et vires anirnumque moretiqua 
Aurcos educit in astra, nigroque 
Invidei Oreo. 

Multa DircaBum levat aura cycnum, '<it 

Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus : ego, apis MatiuiB 
More modoque, 

(irrata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Piunmum, circa nemus uvidique SO 

Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
Carmina fingo 

Concines inajore poeta plectro 
CsBsarem, quandoque trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 'Si 

Froude, Sygambros ; 

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris 

Fata donavere bonique divi, 

Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum 4A 

Concines lajtosque dies, et LTrbis 
Publicum ludum, super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu, forunique 
Litibus orbum. 

Tum meae (si quid loquor audiendum) ^ 

Vocis aecedet bona pars : et, " O Sol 
ISleber ! O laudande !'' canao, r^oept^i 
CflMare fells 



*-, • J CARMINUM — LiBER IV 87 

Tuque dum procedis, "lo Triumph e !*' 
* Non semel dicemus, ** lo Triumphe *' ' SC 

Civitaa omxiis, dabimusque diviK 
Thura benignis. 

Te decen tauri totidemque vaccflb. 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
Mai re, qui largis juvenepcit hcrUs 60 

In mea vota, 

Froute curvatos imitatus ignes 
Terlium LunsB referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri, 

Caetera fulvus. 611 



Carmen III 
AD MELPOMENEN. 

Quern tu> Mt Ipomene, semel 

Nascentvun placido lumine videri**, 
[Hum non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 
Curru ducet AchaVco 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Omatum foliis f?i\vm, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 
Ostendet Capitolio : 

Sed qu8B Tibur aquae fertile prsBfluunt 
£t spisssB nemorum comae, 

Fingent ililolio carmine nobilem 
RomsB principis urbium 

Dignatur suboles inter araabilefi 
Vatum ponere me choros ; 

Et ian^ li^ie minus mordeor iiivido. 



J^ Q. HORATll FLACCI I 3 4 

O, testudiiiis aurea. 

DuJcem quoB Btrepitiinij Fieri, temperas ' • 
O, muCis quoque piscibus 

Donatura cycni, ei libeat, sonuin ! iQ 

Totum muneris hoc tui est. 

Quod monstror digito prsctereuntium 
RoniansB fidicen lyrse : 

Quod Bpiro et placeo (si piaceo), tuum est 



Carmen IV. 

DRUSI LAUDES. 
Qualem miiiistrum fulrninis alitein, 
Cui rex Deorum regniim in aves va^^aa 
Permisit, expertus iidelem 
Jypiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olim juventas et patrius vigor « 

Nido laborum propulit inscium : 
Vemique, jam nimbis remotig, 
Insolitos docuerc nisus 

Venti paventem : mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostom vividiis impetus : 16 

Nunc in reluctanles dracones 
Egit amor dapis atquc pugnte * 

Qualem ve Isetis caprea pascuis 
Intent a, fulvsB matris ab ubere 

Jam lacte depulsum leoncm, 94 

Dentc novo peritura^ vidit : 



Videre Rsetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici [quibuf 
Mos unde deductus per oniuo 
Tern PUS Amazonia lecuri 



t.| UARMINIM. — LIBBK TV 89 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli : 
Nee scire fas est omnia] : 8ed diu 
Tiateque victrices catenrse, 
Consiliis juveuis revictsB, 

Sensere, quid mens rite, qu.i indoles 86 

Niitrita faustis sub penotralibus. 
Posset, quid Augusti patemus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus : et bonis 
Est m juvencis, est in etjuis patrum 30 

Virtus ; neque imbellem feroce^ 
Progenerant aquilsD columbam 

poctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Reotique cultus pectora roborant : 

Utcunque defecere mores, [^h 

indecorant bene nata culpae 

Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Ilasdruba 
Devictus, et pulcher fugatis 

lUe dies Latio tenebris, IQ 

Qui primus alma risit adorca, 
Dims per urbes Afer ut Italas, 

Ceu fiamma per tsdas, vel Euruft * 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post iioc secundis usque laboribus 46' 

Rr mana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata PfBuorum tumiUtu 
FaDji dc36 habuere r*w5lo8 .* 



90 U. flORAIJ Fa^aCCI [4 

iixitquc takdcm peifidus Haiinibai : 
"Cervi, luporum prseda rapacium. fl€ 

Sectamur ullro, quos opimua 

Fallere ^t effugere est triurnphiiA 

€irei_i, quae creniato fortis aL Ilio 
Tactata Tuscis a^quoribus sacra, 
Natosque maturosque patrcs M 

Fertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipeiuiibus 
NigrsB feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per daihna, per coides, ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. bO 

Noii Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem : 
Monstrumve submisere Colcbi 
Majus, EchionisBve Thebse. 

Mcrses profundo, pulchrior cvenit ; Stf 

Luclere, multa proruet integrum 
Cum laude victorem, geretque 
Proelia conjugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
AS it tarn superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnis et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Hasdrubale intereuito 

Nil ClaudiaB non perficient man us : 
l^aas ei benigno numine Jupitor 

Defendit, et curae sagaces If 

£xpediuut per acuta bell ' 



&I UARMINUM -LIBERIA. 91 

Carmen V. 
AD AUGUST JM. 

Diviii ort<; bonis, optime RomulaB 
Gustos gcntis, abes jam nimium diu 
Maturum reditum poUicitus Patrum 
Sancto consilio, redi. 

Lucem redde Iusb, dux bone, patriso : I 

Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuiu 
Aifulsit populo, gratior it dies, 
F]t soles melius nitent. 

Ut mater juvenem, quoin Notus iuvido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris eequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinet a donio. 

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocal. 
Curvo nee faciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 10 

QusBrit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim tuta perambulat ; 
Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas : 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitaj ; 

Culpari metuit Fides ; 2fi 

Nuliis poliuitur casta domus stupris ; 
Mob ct lex maculosum edomuit nefas : 
Lauddntur simili [irole puerperas ; 

(/ulpam Poena premit comes. 

Quia Parthum paveat ? quis gelidum Ssythen . 2§ 
Quig, Geriiania quos horrida parturit 



9^ a. HORAIII FLACCi [S^t 

Fetus, incohimi Cj^sarc ? Quis fbras 
Bellum curet Ibcriin ? 



Coiidit quis:}ue diem collibus in sais. 
£t vitcm viduas ducit ad arlx)rcs ; HC 

Tlinc ad vinh. .edit laetus, et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet Deuin 

Te multa prece, te prosequitur mere 
Defuso pateris : et Laribus tuum 
MLscet iiurneii, uti Graicia Castons 3 

Et oiaj^iii memor Hercuhtf 



'O' 



Liongas O utiiiain, dux bone, ferian 
Pnestes Hesperise ! dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 

Quum Sol oceano subest. 40 



Carmen VI. 

AD APOLLINEM. 

Dive, quern proles Niobea magn» 
Vindicem linguae, Tityosque raptor 
Sensit. et Trojae prope victor altas 
Phthius Achilles, 

CfBteris major, tibi miles impar ; 6 

Filius quamquam Thetidos marinaf) 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax 

iiie mordaci velut iota ierro 

Piiius, aut impulsa cupressus EiinK 10 

Procidit late posuitque coUum in . 
Pulverc TeucTo. 



Ql ^ CAKMINUM. — LIBER lY. 03 < 

lUe ncii, inclusus cquo Minenrr. 
Sacra mentito, male feriatos 

Troas et Isetam Priami choreis 16 

FaJIerct aulam ; 

Sod palam captis gravis, heu nefas ! hcii 
Nescios fari pueros Acliivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latentem 

Matris in alvo : X« 

Ni, tuis flexus Venerisque grats 
Vocibus, Divum pater adnuisset 
Rebus iEnesB potiore ductos 
Alite muros. 

Doctor ArgivBB fidicen ThaliaB, SI6 

Phcebe, qui Xantho la vis anine cnnes, 
Daunia) defende decus Camena), 
Levis Agyieu. 

Spirituin Phoebus mihi, Phoebus anenk 
Carminis, nomenque dedit poetne. 30 

Virginum primae, puerique claris 
Patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, lugacca 
Lyncas et ccrvos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem, raeique 3^ 

PoUicis ictum, 

Rite Latpna) puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucani, 
Prosperam frugum, celeremque pronot 

Volvere menses. 4^ 



» M O. HC»BAT11 FLACCI \y 1 

Nupta jam dices : Ego Dib cnicuai, 
SsDculo festas refeiente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis moduiund 
Vatis Horati. 



Carmen V.ll. 

AD TORQUATUM. 
DiiPagere nives ; redeunt jam gramina campia, 

Arboribusque comsB : 
IMutat terra vices ; et decrescentia ripas 

Flumina prsetereunt : 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audek 5 

Ducere nuda chores. 
Tiomortalia ne speres, monet Anni;g et almum 

QuFB rapit Hora diem 
Frigora roitppcunt Zephyiis : Ver proterxt .^Estaf , 

Interitura, simul 10 

Pomifer Auctumnus fruges efTudorit : et raox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 
Damna tamen celcres reparant ccelestia luns . 

Nos, ubi decidimus, 
Quo pius iEneas, quo dives TuUus et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quis scit, an adjiciant hodiemsB crastina sumnuB 

Tempera Di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas Tugient hsBredis, amioo 

Quae dederis animo 20 

Quum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria : 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas. 
[nfeniis usque enim tenebris Diana pudiciim S3 

Liberat Hippolytum ; 
Nee Ji^thaea valet Theseus nbrumfere caro 

Vinoula Pirithoa. 



9 } CARM1N( M. LIBEE IV 



Carmen VIII. 
AD CENSORJNUM. 

IV)narem pateras grataque commodiis, 

Ceusorine, mcis 8Bra sodalibus ; 

Donarem tripodas, praemia fortiura 

Graiorum ; neque tu pessima munerum 

Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 

Quas aut Parrhasius protulit, aut Scopas. 

Hie fiSLXOf liquidis ille coloribus 

Sellers Dime kominexn ponere, nunc Deuni 

Sed non bnu; mihi vis : imc tibi talium 

Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. lU 

Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 

Donare, et pretium dicere muneri. 

Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 

Per qu8B spiritus et vita redit bonis 

Post mortem ducibus ; non celeres fuga), 1 6 

Rejecteque retrorsum Hannibalis minse ; 

[Non stipendia Carthaginis impiae], 

Ejus, qui domita nomen ab Africa 

Lucratus rediit, olarius indicant 

Laudes, quam Calabrse Pierides : neq le, 20 

Si chartsB sileant, quod bene feceris, 

Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Ilize 

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 

Obstaret mentis invida Romuli ? 

Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus iEacum 29 

Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 

Dignum laude virum Musa vetat raori ' 

CcbIo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest 

Optatis epulis imptger Hercules : 19 

Clarum Tyadaridac sidus ab infunis 



96 ^' ItORATlI FLACCl (Sett 

Quaasas ehpiunt a^quoribus rates : 
Oraatus viridi tenipora ^ampino 
Ttfibftr vota Ix)iiob ducit ad exitus. 



Carmen IX. 
AD LOLLIUM. 
Ne forte credas interitiira, qua), 
Ljiige. soiiantem natus ad Aufiduini 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chordib. 

Non, si priores Mseonius tenet i 

Sedes HomeruB, PindaricsB latent, 
CesBque, et Alcaei minaces, 
iStesichorique graves Cameutti ; 

Nee, SI quid oliin lusit Anacreon. 
Delevit SBtas : spirat adhuc anioi 19 

Vivuntquc commissi calores - 
iSoliai fidibus puellai. 

Non sola comtos arsit adulter! 
Crines, tt -lurum ^e&tibus illitum 

Mirata; regalesque cultus fi 

Et comites Helene LacsBna * 

Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semcl Ilios 
Vexata ; non pugnavit ingens 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve soLas Si 

Dloenda Musis proelia ; non ferox 
Hector, vel acer Deiphobus grave* 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 
Coiijugibis pueriBi^ ie pnmus 



%*] Cy.BM[NUM. LIBER IV. ©7 

fixers fortes ante Agamemnona 86 

Multi : sed omnes illacrimabiles 
Urgentur ignotique longa 

Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum sepultse distal inertis 
Cclata virtus. Non ego to meis Hti 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve luos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 

Rcrumque prudens, et secundis 3/S 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus ; 

Vindex avarse fraudis, et abstinena 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pccuniaB : 
Consulque non unius anni, 

Sed quoties bonus atque fidua #0 

Judex honestum prastulit utili, 
Rejecit alto dona noccntium 
Vultu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem multa vocaveris it 

Recte beatum : rcctius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapientcr uti, 

Daramque callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejusque leto flagitium timet ; 6Q 

Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perira. 



.«»* 



^S a. IIORAT ►LACCI 1 11, 12 

Carmen XL 

AD PHYLLIDEM. 
fist niihi nonum superantis annum 
Plcnus Albani cadus ; est in horto, 
PhvMi, nectendis apium coronis -, 

Est edersB vis 

M'jHa, qua crines religata fulges • 
Ridet argento domus ; ara castis 
Vincta verbenis a vet immolate 
Spargier agno ; 

Cuncta festinat manus, hue et illuc 
Cursitan t mixtoB pueris puellae ; 
Sordidum flammsB trepidant rotante^ 
Vertice fumum. 

Ut tamen noris, quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis, Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
clui dies mensem Veneris marina; kt 

Findit Aprilem ; 

Jure solennis mihi, sanctiorque 
Pffine natali proprio, quod ex hac 
^uce Ma3cenas meus afHuentcs 

Ordinat annos. 20 



Carmen XII. 

AD VIRGILIUM. 

Jam Veris comites, quae mare tcmperant 
Impellun t animse lintea Thraclas : 
Jam iieo prata rigent, nee fluvii strepunt 
Uiberna nive turgidi. 



i9« 14. 1 CARMINUM. LIBER IV 09 

Niduni poiiit, Ityn flebiliier gemens, S 

Infelix avis, et Cecropias domus 
Sternum opprobrium, quod male larbaraa 
Regum est ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in teiiero graniiiio pinguiuin 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 

Delectantque Deum, cui pecus et nigri 
Colles Arcadiai placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili : 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, juvenum liobilium cliens, 19 

Nardo vina merebere. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum. 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus, amaraque 

Cufarum eluere efficax. 30 

Ad qusB si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immuncm meditor tingere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone moras et studium lucri ; 25 

Nigrorumque memor, dum Hcet, ign.um. 
Misco stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulce est desipere in loco. 



Carmen XIV. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Qua) cura Patpira, qun^ve Quiritiuin. 
Plenifi honorum mur.eribus tna«, 



100 a. nORATil FLACCI l\ 

Auguste, virtutes in SBVum 
Fer tituloB memoresque itxiUi^ 

JEtemet ? O, qua sol habitabikw I 

duBtrat oras, maxime principum ; 
Quern legis pxpertes Latinse 
Vindelici iidicere nuper, 

Quid Marte posses ; milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genu». 10 

Breunosque veloces, et arces 
Alplbus impositas tremendis. 

Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave praeliuia 

Commisit, immanesque Rasti? 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis : 

Spectandus in ecrtamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora libersB 
Quantis fatigaret minis : 

Indomitas prope qualis undas 20 

Exercet Auster, Ploiadum chore 
Scindente nubcs : impiger hostium 
Vexaie turmas, et frementem 
Mitt ere equum modios per ignen 

Sic taunformis volvitur Aufidus, 2iS 

Qua regna Dauni prsBflnit Apuli, 
Quum ssBvit, horrendamque cultii 
Diluviem meditatur agris : 

Ut bacbarorum Claudius agmiua 
Wwrr9i*. vasto di'uit irapetUj 



4«ld. I CARMINUM. — LIBER IV. JO 

Pri nosque et cxtrcmos inetendo 
Stravit humum, sine clade victor, 

Te copias, to consilium et tuos 
Praebente Divos. Nam, tibi quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 36 

Et vacuam patefecit aulam. 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 

jfiperiis decus arrogavit. 40 

Te Cantaber non ante domabiliS; 
Medusque, et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Miratur, O tutela praesens 
Italian dominaeque Roma3 : 

Te, fontium qui celat origines, 4 A 

Nilusque, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te belluosus qui remotis 

Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis • 



Te non paventis funera GalliaB 
DursBque tellus audit IberiaB : 
Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
::Jorapositis venerantur armis 



Carmen XV. 
AUGUSTI LAUDES. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Vlctas et urburf, inci-epuit, lyra : 
Ne parva Tyrrhsnum per aBqiiP>^ 
Vela darem. Tua Csesar, a^^g 



103 a. lIOR.iTII FLACCI CAllMINUM. LIBEB IV (15 

Fniges ct agris rctulit ubereti, f 

Kt signa nostro restituit Jovi, 
Dcrcpta Parthorum superbia 
Postibus, et vacuum duelli* 

Januni Quirinum clusit, et ordiiieni 
Rectum evaganti frena Licentias 10 

Injecit, emovitque culpas, 
Et veteres revocavit artes, 

Per quas Latinum nomen et ItaitB 
Crevere vires, famaque et imperi 

Por recta majestas ad ortum ifi 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

Custode rerum Caesare, non furor 
Oivilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira, qua) procudit rjnses, 

Et miseras inimicat urbf^s. 20 

Non, qui profundum Danubium bibnnt 
Edicta rumpent Julia, non GetsB, 
Non Seres, infidive PerssB, 

Non Tanain prope flumen orti. 

Nosque, et profestis lucibus et sarris, 2«i 

Inter jocosi munera Liberi, 

Cum prole matronisque nostris. 
Rite deos prius apprecati, 

Virtute functos, more patrum, ducca, 
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis, 3V 

Trojamque et Anchisen ot almnB 
Progeiiiem Venorig car.eiaus. 



^ HORATll FLACCl 



E P 1) N 



i I B £ R. 



Q. IIORATII FLACCI 

E P D N 

LIBER, 



Carmen I. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

Ibih Libumis inter alta naviuua, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratue oinne Cassari pcriculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo ? 
Quid no8, quibus te vita si supentite i 

Jucunda. si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne jossi persequemur otium, 

Non dulcc, ni tecum simul ? 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, deoet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 10 

Fcremus ; et te vel per Alpium juga, 

Inhospitalcm et Caucasum, 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum smum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges, tuiim labore quid juvem meo li 

Imbellis ac iirmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futunis in metu» 

Qui major absentes habet : 
Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis 

6erpentium allapsus timet 80 

Magis relict is ; non, ut adsit auxili 

Latura plus pra^sentibiu. 

E 2 



106 a. HORATl FLACCl [^1, V 

f iibeuter hoc et orane railitabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratim ; 
Non ut juvencis illigata pluribu» *45 

Aratra nitantur mea ; 
Pecusvc Calabria ante sidus ferviduin 

XiUcana mutet pascuis ; 
Nee ut superni villa caridens Tusculi 

CircaBa tangat mcenia. 30 

Satis superque me benignitas t"a 

Ditavit : baud paravero. 
Quod aut, avarus ut Chremes, terra premam, 

Discinctus aut perdam ut nepos. — 



Carmen II. 

" Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Patema rura bobus exercet suis. 

Solutus omni fenore. 
Neque excitatur classico miles truci, fi 

Neque horret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat et superba civium 

Potentiorum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas iiiaritat populos, 10 

Tnutilesque falce ramos amputans 

Feliciores inserit ; 
Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat errantes greges ; 
Aut pressa puris meila condit ampuoris ; 19 

Aut tondet infirmas oves ; 
Vcl, quum decorum mitibus pomis ^aput 

Auctumnus agris extulit, 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 

Cortnutcra et uvam pirpuro, 



3.] epodOn liber. to*! 

Qua inuneretur te, Priapa, et to, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Libet jaccre, modo sub antiqua >kce, 

Modo in tenaci gramino. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aqua) ; 26 

Queruntur in silvis aves ; 
Frondesque lyuphis obstrepunt /nanai^tibue ; 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At quum Tonantis annus hibernuB Jo vis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, iC 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas ; 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus doles ; 
Pavidumque ]eporem, et advenam laqueo i^nn ui 3*^) 

Jucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum, quas amor cura? babet, 

Hajc inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in parten? jiivt*t 

Domum atque dulces? liberos, 41. 

Sabina qualis, aut peru^ta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Apuli, 
Sacrum et vetustis extruat lignis focum, 

Lassi sub adventum viri ; 
Claudensque textis cratibus Isetum pecus, \5 

Distenta siccet ubera ; 
Et boriia dulci vina promens dolio, 

Dapes inemtas apparet : 
Non me Lucrina juverint conchylia. 

Magisve rhombus, aut scari, O'j 

B: quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hicms ad hoc vertat mare ; 
-Non Afra avis descendat in vent rem ns^un. 

Non attagen lonicus 
Jucundior, quam lecta de pinguis&'niii ^'' 

Oliva ramis arborum. 



\DS 



Q. HORATIl PLACCl 

Aut herba lapath: prata amantis, et jarravi 

Malva3 salubres corpori, 
Vel agna festis caBsa Terminalibus, 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. 
Has inter epulas, iit juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum I 
V idere fessos vomerem inversum bovcs 

Collo tralientes languido ! 
I *(>sitosque venias, ditis examen domiiij» 

Circum renideates Lares I" 
tiicc ubi locutus fenerator Alphius, 

Jam jam fuiurus rusticus, 
Oranem redegit Idibug pecuniam — 

WusBrit Kaleudis ponere ! 



LSI. a 



31 



55 



70 



Carmen III. 
AD M^CENATEiM. 
Parentis olim si quis inipia mauu 

Senile guttur fregerit 
Edit cicutis allium noceiitius. 

O dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in prsecordiis ? 

Num viperinus his cruor 
[ncoctus herbis me fefellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 
Ut Argonautas praeter omnes carididuiii 

Medea mirata est ducem, 
Ignota tauris illigaturum juga, 

Perunxit hoc lasonem : 
EIoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem, 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nee tantus uuquam sidei-um inaedit varoi 

Siticulosas ApulisB : 
Nee niunus humeris efficacis Hcrciilis 

Inarsit cBsluosius. 



6 







If 



&I EPODON I IRKK 109 



Carmen IV. 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit 

Tecum mihi discordia est, 
Ibericis peruste funibus latiiB; 

Et crura dura oompede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, ft 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indiguatio ? 

'* Sectus flageUis hie Triumviralibus 

Frfficonis ad fastidlum, 
Arat Falemi mille fundi jugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit ; 
Sedilibusquo magnus in primis rquus, H 

Othone contemto, scdet ! 
Quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum. 

Hoc, hoc tiibuiio militun V' 2U 



CARME^ V. 

IN CANIDIAM VENEFICAM. 

' Ai, O deorum quicquid in cobIo regit 

Terras et humanum genus ! 
Quid iste feit tumultus ? aut quid omniimi 

Vultus in unum me truces ? 
Per liberos tC; si vocata partubu i 

I^ucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane puq^ursB dccus preoof , 

Per improbaturuiD hac Joveiu, 



110 a. nORATII FLACCi |d 

Quid ut uoverca me intueris, aut uti 

Telita lerro beliua ?"— - I0 

Ut haric tremente questus ore ronstitil 

Insigiuous raptis puer, 
[jnpube corpus, quale posset inipia 

MoWire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia brevibus implicata vi^^ru! \^ 

Crines et incomtum caput, 
Jubet sepulciis caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressus funebres, 
Et uncta turpis ova ranee sanguine, 

Plumamque nocturnal strigis, SIO 

lierbasque, quas lolcos atque Iberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapt a jejuna) canis, 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
A.t expedita Sagana, per totain domum 2* 

Spargens Avemales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus, aut Laurens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 3o 

£xhauriebat, ingemens laboribus ; 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutata3 dapis 

Inemori spectaculo ; 
Quum promineret ore, quantum ei^etant aq'ia ^A 

Suspensa mento corpora ; 
Kxsucca uti medulla et aridum jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Intermmato quum serael fixap. eibo 

Intabuissent pupulaB. 40 

Hie irresectura sajva dente livilo 

Canidia rodens poUicem 
Quid dixit ? aut quid tacuil "* .) rebus ineis 

Non infideles arbitne, 



5. J EPODON LIDKU. 1J| 

Nox, et Diaiia, quae silentium regis, il 

Arcana quum fiuut sacra, 
Nunc nunc adeele, nunc in hostiles (ionu« 

Iram atque numeu vertite. 
FormidolossB duin latcHt silvi^ferse, 

Dulci soporc languidae, 5C 

Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterunr, 

Latrent Suburanas canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Mea3 laborarint man us. — 
Quid accidii ? cur dira barbane minus S«! 

Venena Medea) valent ? 
Quibus Eupcrbam i'ugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creonlis filiam, 
Quum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 

Incendio nuptam abstulit;'* 00 

Sub bsec puer, jam non, ut ante, moUibus 

Lenire verbis impias ; 
Sed dubius, unde rumperet silentium, 

Misit Tbycsteas preces : 
"Venena magica fas nefasque, non valent 6d 

Convertere huinanam vicem. 
i)iris agam vos : dira detcstatio 

Nulla expiatur victiroa. 
Quin, ubi perire jussus expiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 7(1 

Petamque vultus umbra curvis unguibus, 

QuaB vis deorum est Manium, 
£t inquietis assidcns prancordiis 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et hinc saxis petcns 76 

Contundet obscenas anus. 
Post insepulta membra different lupi 

£t Esquilinse alites. 
Noque hoc parentes, hen mihi su|)erstit6S \ 

Effiifi^erit spectaculum." 8f 



118 a HORATII FLAOCl \Q%1 

Carmen VI. 

Quid iinr 3rentcs hospites vexas, caiiis, 

Iguaviui adversum lupos ? 
Quin hue inanesr si potes, vertis iciiuas, 

£t me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam, quails aut Molossus, aut fulvus Laxtii, £ 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
i.gam per altas aure sublata nives, 

QuBBCunque prsecedet fera. 
Tu, quum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimua 

Parata tollo comua ; 
Qualis Lycambas spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
Au. rI quis atro dente me petiverit. 1ft 

Inultus at flebo puer ? 



Carmen VII. 

AD POPULUM ROMANUM. 

Ouo, quo scclesti ruitis ? aut cur dextei • 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis ? 
Non, ut superbas invidsB Carthaginis ^» 

Romanus arces ureret, 
Iiitactus aut Brit annus ut descendei-et 

"Sasra eaten at us via, 
8ed ut, secundum vota Parthorum, gu& 

Urbs hoBc periret dextera. 

Neque hie lupis mos, nee fuit loouibns, 

Nunquam, nisi in di^par, feris. 



t.tf EPOOO.N /ilBER. 113 

Fiirome csbcue, au rapit vis acrior ? 

An cu Ipa ? responsum date. — 
Tacent ; et ora pallor albus inficit, 1 5 

Mentesque perculsse Btupent. 
8i 3 est ; acerba fata Romanos agunt 

Scelusque fraternas necis, 
(Jt immerentis fluxit in terrain Remi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. '^^O 



Caitmen IX. 
M) MiECKNATEM. 

Quando repostum Ca^cubum ad (cstas dapos, 

Victore laBtus Cc'esare, 
Tecum sub alta, sic Jovi gratiim, domo, 

Beate Maecenas, bibam, 
Sonante inixtum tibiis carmen iyra, o 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus quum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit, ustis navibus, 
Minatus Urbi vincia, qusB detraxerat 

Scrvis amicus perfidis. \^ 

Romanus, eheu ! posteri negabitis, 

Emancipatus feminae, 
Pert vallum et arma miles, et spadouibua 

Servire rugosis potest I 
[nterque signa turpe militaria . Id 

Sol adspicit conopium ! 
Ad hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes CaBsarem ; 
Uoetiliumque navium portu latent 

J^uppes sinistrorsum citoB. 
(o Triumphe ! tu moraris aureot 

Cumis> et intactas hoves ? 



Ill Q. UOEATII FLACcl 9« iO 

lo Triumphe I nee Jugurthino parem 

iicllo reportasti duceni, 
Ncquc Africanuni) cui euper Cartha?iut;<v S4 

Virtus sepulcrum eondidit. 
Terra marique victus hostis, Punici) 

Lugubre miitavit sagum ; 
Aut ille centum nobilera Crctaai ur6i"u»«* 

Ventis iturus non suis ; Jt 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto , 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores afTer hue, puer, scyphoi 

£t Chi a vina, aut Lesbia, 
Veli quod fluentem nauseam coercea^ 76 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Caram metumquc CsBsaris rerum ju/at 

Dulci Lya3o solvere. 



Carmen X. 

IN MiEVIUM POETAM. 

Mala soiuta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Majvium. 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus.. 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus, inverse mari, 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
Insureat Aquilo, quantus altis moutibua 

Frangit trementes ilices ; 
Nee sidus atra nocte amicum appareai. 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; 
Quietiore nee feratur ajquore, 

(^uam Graia victorojn mauus, 
Quum Pallas usto vertit iram a^ LUo 

In impiam Ajacis rateux 



^ 



10 13.1 EPODdN MBEK ! l£ 

O |uantus instat navitis sudur Vva \t 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
£t ilia non virilis ejulatlo, 

Proces et avf rsum ad Joveiii. 
loniuB udo quum remugiens sfwa* 

No to carinam ruperit ! 20 

Opima quod si prseda curvo ]itx>re 

Porrecta mergos juveris, 
-dbidinosus immolabitur caper 

£t agna Tempestatibus. 



Carmen XIII. 

» 

AD A M I C O S. 
GEorrida tcmpestas cobIuiii contraxit, et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt Jovera ; nunc mare, nunc nium 
Threicio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici, 

Occasionem de die ; dumque virent genua, 
Et decet, obdiicta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move Consule pressa meo. 
CcBtera mitte loqui : Deus ha3C fortasso benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfundi nardo juvat, et iide Cyllenea 

Levare diris pectora soUicitudinibus. 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 

Invicte, mortalis dea nate, puer, Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et Simoi's , 
Unde tibi reditum. curio subtemine ParcsB \ 5 

Rupere ; nee mater domum csrula te revehet. 
Illic orane malum vino cantuq'13 leva to, 

Deformis a^giunonia) dulcibu alloqiii* 



116 



a* H\:AATn FI.ACCl 



im 



Carmen XVI. 
AD Jf'Ol QLUM ROMANUM 

Altera jam Icritur belUs ciTilibus aotas 

Siiis et ipsa Rcma viribus ruit, 
Quam neque Rnitimi valuerunt perdere M arm^ 

Minacis aut Etrusca PorsensB manus, 
^mula ncc virtus CapusB, nee Spartacus acer, 5 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox : 
Ncc fera csBrulea domuit vxcrmania pube, 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal : 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis a^tas ; 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. I V 

fiarbarus, heu I cineres insistet victor, et ITrbein 

Eques sonante vcrberabit ungula ; 
Quffique carent ventis et solibus, ossa Quirini, 

Nefas videre ! dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut m'^lior pars t fl 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia ; Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas : 
Agros atque Lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : 2(1 

Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per unda* 

Notus vocabit, aut protervxis Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremus in hsec : Simul imis saxa renarint 2A 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea^ quando 

Padus Matma laverit cacumina ; 
In mare seu celsas procurrorit Apenninug ; 

Novaque monetra junxeiit libidiue ^ 

MiruB amor, juvet ut t'gres subsidere cervis, 

AdultereUir ct colurnb.i iniiuj ; 



16. J EPODdN LIBER. |P 

Credula nee flavos timeant armenta leoiies ; 

Ametque salsa levis hircus sequora. 
Hffic, et quae poterimt reditus abscindere dulcet, 35 

Eamus omnis exsecrata civitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grege ; mollis et exspcs 

luominata perprimat cul ilia ! 
Vos, quibiuj est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctiim, 

Etrusca prsBter et volate litora 40 

.^ios manet Oseanius circumvagus : arva, beata 

Petamus arva, divites et insulas, 
R dddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivae, 4d 

Suamque puUa ficus ornat arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
[Uic inj'.i««aB veniunt ad mulctra capella), 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera : 50 

Nee vespertiuus circumgemit ursus ovilo ; 

Nee intumescit alma viperis humus. 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

Gregem sestuosa torret impotentia. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque .'argis 5h 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glebis . 

Utrumque rege temperante Coelitum. 
Non hue Argoo eontendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 60 

Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautaB, 

Laboriosa nee cohors Ulixci. 
Jupiter ilia pisB sccrevit litora genti, 

Ut inquinavit sere tempus aureum : 
MiefL dehine ferro duravit ssBcula ; quorum 65 

Fiis secunda vate me datur fhga. 



119 tt. HORATII FLACCl [17 



Carmen XViT. 

IN CANIDIAM. 

HoBATrjs. 

Jam jam efficaci do manus scientiie 

Supplex, et oro regna per Froserpinai 

Per et Dianas non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Defixa caAo devocare sidera, fl 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, 

Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 

In quern superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum, et in quern tela acuta terser at. 10 

Unxere matres IliaB addictum fens 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Heetor'^uy 

Postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 

Heu ! pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 

8etosa duris exuere pellibus \6 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei, 

Volente Circa, membra ; tunc mens et sonui 

Relapsus, atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque pcenarum tibi. 

Fugit juventsLS, efc verecundus color 30 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus, 

Nullum a labcre me reclinat otium. 

Urget diem nox et dies noctem, neque esi 

Levare tenta splritu praecordia. 24 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina, 

Caputque Marsa dissilire nsenia. 

Quid amplius vis ? O irare ' O terra ! ardeo 

Quantum neque aero delibutus Hercules 3(! 



'.] KPt/DOlV LID BR 119 

Nessi cruorc> nee Sicana fervida 

Fiirens in iEtua flamma. Tu, (Icmcc ciuib 

injuncsis aridus ventis ferar, 

Cales venenis ofiioina Colehicis. 

QusB finis ? aut quod me manet Btipendiuia ' 3fi 

EfTare : jussas cum fide pa3nas 1 lam,- 

Paratus, expiare seu poposceris 

Centum juvencis, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonare Tu pudica, tu proba ; 

Perambulabis aslra sidus aureum. 113 

Infamis HelensB Castor oflensus vicem, 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi preoe. 

Ademta vati reddidere lumina. 

F«t tu, potes nam, solve me dementia, 

O nee paternis obsoleta sordibus, Ifi 

Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus . 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Canidia. 

Quid obseratib auribus fundis prece? ? 

Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 

Neptuhus alto tundit hibernus salo. Ail 

Quid proderat ditasse Pelignas anus 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent : 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc, 

Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. fffi 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 

Egcns benignse Tantalas semper dapiB ; 

Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti ; 

Optat supremo coUocare Sisyphus 

In monte saxum ; sed vetant leges JoTit SO 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 

Modo ense pectus Norico recludere ; 

Fnistraque vincla guttu,' nectes tuo, 



IW ^' HOUATII FLACCl CPODON l.iHFK. 

Fas^'lidiosa trJHtis aegrimonia. 

Vectabor hunieris tunc ego inimicis ei(iu« W 

Meoique terra cedet msolentia). 

Ad, qusB movcrc ccreas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti cunosus, et polo 

Derip;re Lunam vocibus possim meu, 

PoMdm crematos excitare inortuoii, 7C 

Plorem arlis, la to nil agoutis, exiium / 



Q. HO RATI I FLACCI 

IMRMEN SiEClLAliK 

PBO INOOLUMITATE IMPERII 



PacEBEf silvarumquc potens Diana, 
Lucidum caili lecus, O colendi 
Semper ct culti, date, qua3 precamur 
Tempore sacro ; 

Quo Sibyllini moniicre versus a 

Virgines Icclas puerosque castos 
Dig, quibus septem placuere coUes, 
Dicere carmini. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Fromis et ceias, ali usque et idem l€ 

Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Homa 
Visere majus. 

Rite matures apcrire partus 
Leriis, Ilithyia, tuere matres ; 

Sivc tu Lucina probas vocari, 46 

Seu Genitalis. 

Diva, producas suliolem, Patrumqat) 
Prosperes decreta super jugandii 
Femiiiis, prolisque novae feraoi 

Lege marita : ^'^ 

F 



122 a. HORATII FLACCI 

Certus undenos decies per anuoe 
Orbis ut cantus referatque ludos.. 
Ter die clarOi toticsqne grata 
Nocte frequentes 

Vosquc veraces cccinisse, Parcas, M 

Quod semel dictum est, stabilisque reriini 
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis 
Jungite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Hpicea donct Cererem corona ; SI 

Nfutriant fetus et aquaB, salubres 
Et Jovis auraj. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo ; 

8iderum regina bicornis, audi, 35 

Lmia, puellas : 

Koma si vestrum est opus, UisBqud 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmsB, 
Jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cursu, 4U 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus -^neas patrise superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, daturus 
Plura relictis : 

Di; probos mores docili juvcntie, 45 

Di, senectuti placid sb quietem, 
RmnulsB genti date remque proem sin- 
M*- decuH omne. 



tIAKMEN S.1SCULARE. 

Qoique vos bobus veneratur albis, 
Clarus A.nchisaB Vcnerisque sanguw IK! 

linperct, bellante prior, jacentem 
Lcnis in hostem. 

Jam rnari terraque manus potentes 
MeduB Albanasque timet secures ; 
Jam Scythe responsa petunt superbi ' 

Nuper, et Indi. 

Jam Fides, et Pax, et Honor, Pudurqiu* 
Prisons, et neglecta redire Virtus 
^.udet ; apparetque beata pleno 

Copia cornu. Gfl 

Augur, et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus, accoptusque novem Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 
Corporis artiw : 

^i Palatinas videt ax^uus arces, 
Remque Romanam Latiumque, felix, 
Aiterum in lustrum, meli usque semper 
Proroget SBVum. 

QusBque Aventinum tenet Algidumqtie, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 
Curet, et votis puerorum amicas 
Applicet aures 

HsBC Jovem sentire deosque cunctos, 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctua et Phcebi chorus et Di&nie li 

Picere laudes. 



Q flORATII FLACCI 



SERM0NE8. 



U. H > K A T 1 I !• L A C t 1 

S E R M N D M 

L.BER PRIMUS. 

Satira I. 

IN AVAROS. 

Qfji fit, MsL'cenas, ut nemo, quam sibi sortem 
!?eu ratio dederit, seu fore objecerit, ilia 
Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequente« ? 
O Jortunati merca tores! gravis annis 
Miles ait, multo jam fractus membra labore I 

Contra merca tor, navim jactantibus austris, 
Militia est potior ! Quid eiiim ? coucurritur : liof» 
Momento aut cita mors venit aut victoria la^ta. 
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 
Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. \t 

rile, datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbom Mt, 
Solos felrces viventes clamat in urbe. 
Cetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquaooin 
Deiassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 
Quo rem deducam. Si quis Deus, En ego^ dicat. . iA 
Tarn faciam guod vultis : ens tUy qui mode miles, 
Mcrcator : tv consulttis rrvodo, rusticvs : hinc vo$, 
Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus. j£ia I 
Quid statis ? — nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. 
Quid caussD e'^.t, merito quin illis Jupitei ambaa IM 

[ratus buccar inflet. neque se fore posthac 
r. J ^i) •' licat, votis ut prsBbeat aurem ? 



128 Q. HO'SATII FIACCI !l 

Prseterea, no sic, ut qui joculariaj ndens 
Percurram : quamquam ridentem d/sere verum 
Quid vetat ? ut pueris olim daut crust u la bland: ZA 

Dootores, elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Sed tamen amoto quseramus seria ludo. 
llle gravem duro terrain qui vertit aratro. 
Perfidus hie cautor, miles, nautseque, p\^;- omne 
Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 30 

Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, quum sibi sint congesta cibaria ; sicut 
Parvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica labori? 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest, atque addit aeervo, 
Quem struit, baud ignara ac non incauta futur; 36 

Quaj, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum. 
Non usquam prorepit,. et illis utitur ante 
Quaesitis sapiens : quum te neque fervidus ajstus 
Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ierruni ; 
Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Quid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et auii 
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ? — 
Quod, si commi7iieas, vilem redigatur ad assent. -^ 
At, ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ? 
Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum ; 4f 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac mens : ut, si 
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 
Forte veh'^s humero, nihilo plus accipias, quam 
Qui nil portarit. Vel die, quid referat intra 
Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum an ^ 

]\Iille aret ? — At siuwe est ex magna tollere aeervo -— 
Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire reiinquas. 
Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria noslris .' 
Ut tib* si sit opus liquid! non ampli^s.urna 
Vel cyatho, et dicas : Magna d6 jiumine mclxm 64 

Quam ex Jwc forUiculo tantundem sume: 3. Eo 6t 
Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo; 



1.) SERMONUM. LIBBK . 129 

Cuni ripa shnul avulsos forat Aufidiis acer : 

At qui tantuli eget, quanto o?t opus, is neque linio 

Turbatain haurit aquam, neque vitam amittit in uuidi 00 

At bona parn hominum, dccepta cupidine ialso, 
Nil ^tis est, inquit ; quia tanti, qaantum habeas, His. 
Qmd facias illi ? Jubeas miserum esse, libenter 
Qualenus id facit. Ut quidam memoratur Athenis 
ifioididus ac dives populi contemnere voces C6 

Sit: syoli^ us : Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo 
Ips: donii, simul ac nummos contemplor in area. ~ 
'i^ar* talus a labris sitiens fugientia cap tat 
Flumina : Quid rides ? inutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

fndormis inhians, et tanqu3m parcere sacris 
Cogens, aut pictis tanquam gaudere tabellis. 
Nescis quo valeat nummus ? quem prajbeat usurri ? 
Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius : adde, 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 7i 

An vigilare raetu exanimem, noctosque diesque 
Formidare males fures, incendia, servos, 
Ne te compilent fugiontes, hoc juvat ? liorura 
Semper ego optarira pauperriniud esse bonorum.- - 

At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus. x*. 

Aut alius casus lecto te ajjixit^ fiabes qui 
Assifleatj fmnenta paret, mediciim roget, ut te 
Suscitetj ac natis reddat carisque projniiquis. — 
Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius : omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellsB. ht 

Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia pona?, 
Si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem ? 
All sic cognates, nullo natura labor* ; 
Quos tibi dat, retinere velis, servareque ainicos / 
Infclix opcram perdas, ut si quis asellum M 

[a camiK) doceat parentem currere frenis I 

7>oQiaue «*; fuiis ^^uaerendi . quoqae b'^'ieci f ^'^ 

F 2 



130 a. IIORATII FLACCl M» S 

Pauperiem cjetuas minus, et Rnire laboreni 

Incipias, parto quel avebas. No facias, qmvl 

Ummidius, qui, tarn (non longa est iabula) dives» 94 

Tit medretur niimmos ; ita sordidus, ut se 

Non unquam servo melius vestiret ; ad usque 

Supremura tempus, ne se penuria victu? 

()j»primeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 

! ^ivisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 100 

Quid mi igitur suades ? ut vivam Mamius avi. nc 
Ut Nomentanus ? Pergis pugnantia secum 
Fr.Mitibus adversis compojere ? Non ego, avarun: 
Quum veto te fieri, vappan* jubeo ac nebulonem. 
Est inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Visciii : ICt 

Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 
Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

Tlluc, unde abii, redeo. Nemon ut avanis 
Se probet, ac potius laudet di versa sequentes ; 
Quodque aliena capella gerat distentius uber, 110 

TalTescat ? neque se majori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet ? hunc atque hunc superare ]atM>iet ? 
Sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat : 
Ut, quum carcoribus missos rapit ungula currus, 
[nstat cquis auriga sues vincentibus, ilium WS 

Pneteritum temnens extremes inter euntem. 
liide fit, ut raro, qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore, vita 
Cedat, uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi )1?C 

Compilasse putes, verbum non amplius ad lam. 



Satira 11. 

IN MGECHOS. 
Ambubaiarum collegia pharmacopolae, 
Mendici, mimsB, balatrones, hoc genus uinne 
McBfitum ac aollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelh : 



'^•3.] SEKMONUM. 1 BKR 1. 131 



Quippe benignus erat. Contra hi^, ne jirodifiua 

Dlcatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico, /S 

PriguB quo duramque famem propellere pctamt. 

Kline si peroonteris, avi cur atque parentis 

Prseclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem, 

/)mnia coiiductis coemens opsonia nummis : 

Sordid us atque animi parvi qiiod nolit haberi, 10 

Respondet- Laudatur ab his. culpatur db illis. 

Fufidius vappaB famam timet ac nebulonis, 

Dives 9gris, dives positis in fenore nunmuH : 

Qui n as liic capiti mercedes exsecat, atque 

Quanto perditior quisque est, tanto acrius urget ; Ifl 

Nomina sectatur, modo sumta veste virili, 

Sub patribns duris,. tironum. Maxime, quia non, 

Jupiter, exclamat, simul atque audivit ? — At in se 

Pro quastu sumtum facit hie. — ^Vix credere posBiB, 

Quam sibi non sit amicus : ita ut pater ille, Terenli 80 

Fabula quern miserum nato vixisse fugato 

Inducit, non se pejus cruciaverit atque hie. 

Si quis nunc quajrat, Quo res hsBc pcrtinet ? lUoc ; 
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria ourrunt. 



Satira III. 

IN OBTRECTATORES ET SUPERCILHIM 

STOICUM. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 
It nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 
injusei nunquam desistant. Sardus habebat 
[lie Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 
8i peterct per amicitiam patris atque suam. non 
Quidquam proficeret ; si collibuisset, ab ovo 
Usque ad mala citaret Jo Bacche ! modo summa 
Vyoe, xxu^ hac. resonat quae chordis quatuor inuu 



132 a. HORATIl FLACCI [3. 

NiJ aiquale homiiii fuit illi. Saepe velut qui 

Currebat fugiens hostem, persaepe velut qui 10 

Junonis sacra ferret : habebat sajpe ducentos, 

Sffipe deoem servos : nitMlo reges atqu^ tetrarchaa, 

Omnia magna, lofjuens : modo, *S/^ mihi Diemu trit i •% 

Ctmcha salis puri et toga, qua dejhidere frigus^ 

Quamtis crassa, qiLcal. Decies centena dedisset \t 

Huic parco, paucis contento, quinque diebu? 

Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsun 

Mane ; diem totum stertebat. Nil fuit mquum ^ 

S?c impar sibi. 

Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : Qui* • tu ? 
Nullane habes vitia ? Imo alia, et fortaJ*«e minora. 2l0 
Majnius absentem Novium quum carpen'c, Hcus tu, 
Quidam ait, ignoi'as te ? an ut ignotwtu. dare nobis 
Verba putas ? Egomet mi ignosco^ M uinius inquit 
Stultus et improbus hie amor est digi usque notari. 
Quum tua pervideas oculis male lippiis inunctis, 2t 

Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis scutum, 
Quam aut aquila aut serpens Epiuaurius ? At tibi oontia 
Evenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. 
Iracundior est paulo ; minus aptus acutis 
Naribus horam hominum ; rideri possit, eo quod SO 

Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male lax us 
In pede calceus hajret : at est bonus, ut melior vir 
Non alius quisquam ; at tibi amicus ; at ingcuium ingcjiB 
Inculto latet hoc sub corpore : denjque te ipsum 
Concute, num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olira 35 

Natura aut etiam consuetudo mala : namque 
Neglectis urenda filix iunascitur agris. 

I Hue prffivertamur : amatorem quod amicsB 
Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etiam ipsa hwo 
Delectant, veluti Balbiuum polypus Hagu(TS 40 

Vollem in amicitia sic erraremus, et isti 
firrori nomen virtus pc<suissot honestum 



8, I dERMONl.'M. — LIBER ;. 12f9l 

At pater ut gnati, s'c nos debemus amici. 

Si quod sit vitium, non fastidire : straboneni 

Aj»pellat Paetum pater ; et Pullutn, male paivui 4tf 

Si toii iilius est. ut abortivus fuit olim 

Sisyphus : hunc Varum, distorlis cniribus ; illiip 

Balbutit Scaurum. pravis fultum male talis. 

Paicius h*o vivit ? frugi dicatur. Ineptus 

Gt jactantior hie paulo est ? concinnus amieis Vl 

Posiuia. ut videatur. At est truculentior atque 

Plus aequo liber ? simplex fortisque habeatur. 

Caldior e«t ? acres inter numeretur. Opinor, 

Hajc res et jungit, junctos et servat amicos. 

At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus atque ^^ 

Smcerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis 
Nobiscum vivit ? multum est demissus homo ? J lii 
Tardo cognomen pingui et damus. Hie fugit oiinics 
Insidias, nullique malo latus obdit apertum ? 
y^Quum genus hoc inter vitse vcrsemur, ubi acris 6U 

Invidia atque vigent ubi crimina :) pro bene sano 
Ac non incauto fictum astutumoue vocamus. 
Simplicior quis, et est, qualem me sa^pe libeuter 
Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas, ut forte legentem 
Aut tacitum impellat quo vis sermone molestus ? ^^ 

Communi sensu plane caret, inquimus. Eheu, 
Quam tQin&te in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam I 
Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur : optimus ille est, 
Qui minimis urgetur. Amicus dulcis, ut aequuni osl 
Quum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce, /O 

Si mode plura mihi bona sunt, inclinet. Aman 
Si volet liac lege, in trutina ponetur eadem. 
Qui, n3 tuberibus propriis oilendat amicum. 
Fostulat, ignoscet verrucis iilius ; aequum est, 
Peccatis veiiiam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Dcuique. quatenus excidi penitus vilium iraj, 
Hstera item nequtunt etultis haereutia ; cur non 



I'M a. HOE ATI I FLACCl 1. 

Ponderibus .nodulisque suis ratio utitur? ac rca 
Ut quaequo opt, ita suppliciis deli^ta coercet ? 
'li quia eum Bcrviim, patinam qui tollere juasus 80 

fi^emosos pisces tepidumque ligurierii jus, 
n crucc sufHgat, Labeone insanior inter 
6aiios dicatur. Quauto hoc furiosius aique 
Majus peccatum est ? Paulum deliquit amicus ; 
^uod nisi concedas, habeare insuavis ; acerbub 66 

Odisti, et fugis, ut Rusoncm debitor roris, 
Qui nisi, quum tristes raisero venere Kalendo), 
IVJercedcm aut uumrnos unde unde cxtricat, amaras 
Porrecto jugulo historias, captivus ut, audit. 
Comminxit lectum potus, mensave catillum M 

Euandri manibus tritum dejecit : ob banc rem, 
Aut positum ante mea quia puUum in parte catini 
Sustulit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus 
Sit raihi ? Quid faciam, si furtum fecerit ? aut si 
Prodiderit commissa fide ? sp<Jnsurnve negarit ? 9d 

Queis paria esse fere placuit peccata, laborant, 
Quum ventum ad verum est ; sensus moresque repugnant, 
Atque ipsa utilitas, justi prope mater et asqui. 
Quum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 
Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubiha pioptei iQQ 
LTuguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis, quas post fabricaverat usus ; ^ 
Donee verba, quibus vjces sensusque notarent, 
Nominaque invenere : dehinc absistere bello 
Oppida cceperunt munire, et ponere leges, \05 

Ne quis fur esset, neu latro, ne quis adulter. 
Narn fuit ante Helenam mulier teterrima beiii 
Causa : sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 
Quos, Veuerenv incertam rapientes, more terarum, 
V'lribus editior csedebat, ut in grege taurus. .'ii 

jura inventa metu injusti faleare necesse €iit> 
Teinpora si faBtosque veils evolvere raundi> 



21,4 I 8ERMONUM ^LIBBR I. IdJI 

Nix3 nalura potest ju&ti secermre iniquum, 

Dividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendiR : 

NoG rino^t ratio hoc, tantundem ut peocet ideinque 115 

Qu- teneros caules alieni fregcrit horti, 

Bt tai noctumufi sacra Divum legcrit. Adsit 

Rof lila, pc3eatis quto pcBiias irroget aeqiias, 

N»3C v3utica diguum horribili sectere flagello 

Ne l^rula csedas meritum majora subire 1 31 

Verbr'ra, non vereor, quum dicas esse pares res 

Furta latrociniis, et inagnis parva mineris 

Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 

Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens e6t, 

£t sutor bonus, et solus formosus, et est rex ; 1 25 

Cur optas quod habes ? — Non nosti, quid pater, inqiiii,, 

Chrysippus du^at : Sapiens trepiclas sibi nunqua/m 

Nee sdeas fecit ; sutor tamen est sapiens. — Qui?— 

Ut. quumvis tacet Hermogenes, cantor tamen atque 

Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfenius vafer, omni U(l 

Abjecto instrumento artis dausaque taberna, 

TifiSfyr erat : sapiens opens sic optimus omnis 

Est opifez solus, sic rex. — Vellunt tibi bnrbaui 

Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces, 

Urgeris turba circum te stante, miserque 1 3fl 

Rumperis, et latras, raagnorum maxime reguni. 

Ne longum faciam, dum tu quadrante lavatuin 

Rex ibis, neque te quisquam stipator, ineptum 

Praeter Crispiniun, sectabitur, et raihi dulces 

Ignoscent, si quid peccaro stultus, amici ; 4C 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter, 

Privitusque raagis vivam tc rege beatus. 



Satira IV. 
IN OBTRECTATORES SUOS. 
Kupolis a* quo Cratinus Aristophanesque poet», 
Atque ali: quoi-um Comcedia prisca vironim est. 



lSt> CI. UORATII FLAOOl |4 

Si quis era! digiius describi, quod maius, aut liii, 

Quod inoichus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate iiotabaat. 5 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce sec u tug, 

Mutatis tantuin pi.'(libus numerisq le , facet us, 

Emuuctaj naris, durus cornponere versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus, in hora saepo duceutos, 

•lit magnum, versus dictabat -jtans pede in uuo. 10 

Quum fiueret lutulentus, erat quod to Here velles : 

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi lerre laborem, 

Scribend^ recte : nam ut multum, nil moror. Ew:e ' 

Crispinus min'mo me provocat : — Accipe, si vii», 

Accipiam tabulas ; detur nobis locus, hora, 1 6 

Custodcs ; vidcamuSf uter plus scribere 27ossit.— 

Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli 

Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca lofpieiv^is 

A.t tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras. 

Usque laborantes, dum Ibrrum emolliat ignis, 20 

fit mavi«. imitare. 

Beatus Fannius, ultro 
Delatis capsis et imagine I quum mea nemo 
Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis, ob banc rem, 
.:2uod sunt quos genus hoc miiiirae juvat, utpote pluree 
Culpari dignos. Quemvis media elige turba ; ^^ 

Aut ab avaritia aut misera ambitione laborat. 
Hunc capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius aire ; 
Hie mutat merces surgeiite a sole ad eum, quo 
V^esportina tepet regio ; quin per mala prajceps 
Fertur, uti pulvis coUectus turbine, ne quid * id 

Bumma deperdat metuens, aut ampliet ut rem. 
Qmnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. — 
Fenu7n habet in cwnii ; h.ngefiige: dummodo risufn 
Excutiat sibiy non hie culquum panel amico ; 
Etf quodcunqtce seniel chartis illeverit, omn^ 36 

(jfestiet a fumo redemitcs soke lactigue 



4.\ SERMONUM. LIBER I. IB7 

El pue?os et amis. — Agedum, pauca accipe contra, 

Primum 3go me illorum, dedcrim quibus esso p>etis, 

Excerpam numero : nequc eniin corcluderc vcr&um 

Dixeris isso satis , nequc, si qui scribat, uti nos, 4(1 

Sermoni propiora, putcs hunc esso poetar.i. 

Ingonium cui sit, cui mens diviuior, atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis b jjus honorem 

Idcirco quidam, Com«edia necne jjoerna 

Esset, qua'.sivere ; quod acer spiritus ac vis 44 

Nee verbis nee rebus incst, nisi quod pede certo 

DifTert sernioni, sermo merus. — At, jxUer aniens 

ScBvity qvod meietrice nepos insanus arnica 

Filius uxorem grandi cuin dole recuset, 

Ebrius et, magnum quod dcdecus, avibulct ante 60 

Noctem curii facibus. — Numquid Pomponius istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret ? Ergo 

Non satis est puris versurn perscribere verbis, 

Quern si dissolvas, qui vis stomachetur eodem 

Quo personatus pacto pater. His, ego qua; nunc. 55 

Olim qusB scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et, quod prius ordine vei! uiii ett , 

Posterius facias, pra;ponens ultima primis, 

Non, ut si solvas '' Postquam, discordia tetra 

Belli ferraXos posies porta^tie r ef regit y' 60 

Invenias ctiam disjccti membra poetse. 

Hactenus hiec : alias, justum sit necne poeina ; 
Nunc illud tantum quasram, meritone tibi sit 
Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acor 
Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male cumque libellis 65 

Magnus uterque timor latronibus ; at bene si quis 
Et vivat puris mauibus, contemnat u-rumque 
Ut sis tu similis Caeli Birrique latronum, 
Non ego sum Capri neque Sulci : cur metuas mtt ? 
Nulla taberna meos habeat neque piia libeUus, 7U 

Queis man js insudot vulgi Hermogen^ue Tigelli , 



188 a. nORATII FLAOCi [%, 

Nfoc recito euiqt irn, nisi amicis, idquc coactus. 

Non uDivis, coramve quibuslibet. — In medio qui 

Sciipta foro recitent^ sunt multi, quique lavantts 

Suave locus voci resonat conchtsus. — Inanes 74 

Hoc jiivat, baud illud quserentes, nuin sine sensu, 

rcii.pore num faciant alieno. — Lfedere gaudes, 

[nquit, et hoc studio pr aims fads. — ^Unde petitum 

Hoc in me jacis ? est auctor quis denique eorum, 

Vixi cum quibus ? Absentem qui rodit amicuin, 90 

Qui non defendit alio culpante, solutos 

Qui capiat risus bominum famamque dicacis, 

Fingero qui non visa potest, commissa tacere 

Qui nequit ; hie riiger est, bunc tu, Romanc, caveto 

Ssepe tribus lectis videas coonare quaternoR, 8€ 

E quibus imus amet quavis adspergere cunctos, 

PriBler eum, qui praibet aquam : post, hunc quoqu? potU7. 

Condita quum verax aperit prsecordia Liber. 

Hie tibi comis et urbanas liberque videtur 

Infesto nigris : ego, si :isi, quod ineptus 90 

Pastilles Rufillus olet, Gargonius hircum, 

Lividus et mordax videor tibi ? Mentio si qua 

De Capitolini furtis injecta Petilli 

Tc coram fuerit, defendas, ut tuus est mos : — 

Me Capitolinus convictore msus amicoque 9fi 

A puero est, causaque mea perm/uLta rogatus 

Fecit^ et incolumis l<ntor quod vivit in urbe ; 

Sed tamen admiro7\ quo pacto judicium Ulvd 

Pug'irit, — Hie uigraj succus loliginis, base est 

^iliugo mera ; quod vitium procul afore chartis, 100 

Atque animo prius ut si quid promittere de me 

P06RUI 1 aliud verc, prornitto. Liberius si 

Dixero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 

Cum Tenia dabis insuevit pater opt imus hoc m<! 

Ut fugerem, exemplis vitiorum quaeque notando. tO{ 

Qumn me lioitarstur, parce fiugaliter, atque 



i« ' SERMONUM. — IJBEK 1. I3ll 

Vivercni ati contentuF eo, quod mi ipse parassei • 

Nontu lideSy Alhi ut nude vivat Jilius ? utque 

Barnes inops? nuignum documef2tu77i,ne jxitriain lem 

Perderc quis vdit A turpi raeretricis amore 1 1 

Quum dcterreret : Scetani dissimilis sis, 

Aiebat. Sapiens, xdtMu quidque petitu 

Sit mdius, causas reddet tibi ; mi satis est, si 

Traditum ab antiquis moreni strvare, tuamque, 

Dum custodis eges, vitam /a7?iamqice tueri lift 

[ncoVumem possum ; simid ac duraverit cetas 

Metnbra animumqiie tuum, nabis sine cortice. Sic ino 

Furmabat puerum dictis, et sive jubebat 

Ut facerem quid, Habes aitctarem, quo facias h(K ; 

Unura ex judicibus selectis objiciebat : 155U 

Sive vetabat, -4w h<x: inhonestum et inutile factum 

NecTtc sit, addubites, flagret riuiwi'e vi/do quum 

Hie atqu€ ille ? Avidos vicinum fuiius ut sBgros 

Exanimat, inortisque metu sibi parcere cogit ; 

3ic teneros animos aliena opprobria sispe 1^ 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis, 

Peroiciem quaecunque feruut, mediocribus, et quein 

[gnoscas, vitiis tenoor. Fortassis et istinc 

Largiter abstulerit longa aetas, liber amicus, 129 

Consilium proprium ; neque eriira, quum lectulus aut me 

Porticus excepit, desum mihi. Rectius hoc est ; 

B^ faciens vivam myelins; sic dulcis amicis 

cur ram,; hoc quidam. non bdle ; numquid ego illi 

Iir/jytudens olim faciarn si? f die ? Haec ego mccum 

C^^mpressig agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti, 134 

?li»ido chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 

Ex vitiis unum, cui si concedere nolis, 

Muita j)oetarum veniet manus, auxilio qu© 

Bit mihi ; nam multo plures sumus, ac veiuti te 

l\t4m oogemuB m hanc concedere turbam. HQ 



liO a. inRATlI FLACX!! [C 

Carmen V. 

ITER BRUNDISTNUM. 

EgresBum magna me excepit Aricia Korna 

Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes HeiK^dorus, 

GroDCorum longe doctissimus. Inde Forum Appi 

Dificrtum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 

Hoc iter igiiavi divisimus, altius ac nos i 

PraHjinotis uiium : minus est gravis Appia tardi?. 

Hie ego propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, veiitr! 

Indico bellum, ccenantes haud animo aiquo. 

Exspectans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 

Umbras et coelo difTundere signa parabat : 10 

Tum pueri nautis, pueris convicia nauta) 

Ingerere. — Hue apjiclle. Trecentos insens ; ohe 

Jam satis est! — Dum a^s exigitur, dum mula ligalui, 

Tota abit hora. Mali tiilices ranajquc palustrcs 

Avertunt somnos. Absentem ut cautat amicam 14 

Multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 

Certatim, tandem fessus dormire viator 

Incipit, ac missas pastum rctinacula mulse 

Nauta piger saxo religat, stertitque supinus. 

^amque dies aderat, nil quum procedere lint rem 20 

Sentimus ; donee cerebrosus prosilit unus, 

Ac mulse nautasque caput lumbosque saligno 

Fuste dolat. Quarta vix demum cxponimur hoia 

Ora manu&que tua lavimur, Fcronia, lympha. 

Millia tum pransi tria repimus, atque subimiH 26 

Impositum saxis late candentibiis AiLvur. 
Hue venturus erat Miccenas oplinius, atque 
jfocceius, missi magnis de rebus uterquc 
Legati, aversos soliti componere amicos. 
Hie oculiij ego nigra mois coilyria lippus lO 

^linere. fnterea Ma^conao advenit atqiw 



5. I 8CEM0NIJM. LIBER K »4] 

C()co3iu8 Capitoque siinul Fonteius, ad unguein 

Factus homo, Aiitoni, non ui magis alter, amicue 

Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 

Linquimus, insani ridcntes pricmia scribae, SH 

Prtetextain et latum clavum prunanjue batilluni 

lu IMamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 

Mirena pra^bente domum, Capitone oulinam. 

Postera lux oritur multo gratissima, namque 
riotius et Varius Sinuessas Virgiliusque iQ 

Occurrunt, anhna), quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque quels me sit devinctior alti^r. 
O qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. 

Proxima Campano ponti qusB villula tectum Id 

Praebuit, et parochi, quse debent, ligna salemquc. 
Hinc muli Capuse clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it MsBcenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque : 
Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa, 50 

Q IX super est Caudi cauponas. Nunc mihi paucis 
Sarmcnti scurra; pugnam Messique Cicirri, 
Musa, velim memores, ct quo patre natus uterque 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
Sarmenti domma exstat : ab his majoribus orti 65 

Ad pugnam vcnerc. Prior Sarmentus : Equi te 
Esseferi similem dico. Ridomus ; et ipse 
Messius : Accipio ; caput et movet O. tua cornu 
Ni fnret exsecto frons, inquit, quid face^res, quum 
Sic mutilus minitaris ? At illi fceda cicatrix 60 

Setosam la3vi frontem turpaverat oris. 
Campanum in morbum, in facicm permulta jocatua, 
pAStorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat ; 
N.l illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 
Malta Cicirrus ad bsec : Don asset jamne eaten am od 

Et voto Laribus, quajrobat ; scriba quod essct, 



142 Q. HORATII FLACCr [5 

NTihilo deterius doininse j is esso. Rogabal 

Doui(|uc, cur unquain fugissct, cui satis una 

Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamque pusillo ? 

Prorsus jucunde coenam produxiraus illam. 7fl 

Ttndimus hinc recta Beneventum, ubi sedulu.s h t%^ 
PsBne macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni ; 
Nam vaga per vetercm dilapso flamma culinam 
Volcano summum properabat lambere tectimi. 
Convivas avidos ccenam servosque timentcs 7fi 

Tum rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle vidercs 

Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos 
Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus, et quos 
Nunquain erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
Villa recepisset, lacrimoso non sine fumo, 80 

Udos cunl foliis ramos urente camino. 

Quatuor hinc rapiraur viginti et millia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu diccre non est, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima rerura 
Hie aqua ; sed panis longe pulcherrimus, ultra 8/i 

CalHdus ut soleat hunieris portaro viator ; 
Nam Canusi lapidosus, aqua^ non ditior urna 
Qui locus a <brtl Diomede est conditus olira. 
Flentibus hic Varius discedit moBstus amicis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 9i 

Carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri. 
Fostcra tempestas melior, via pejor ad usque 
Bari moenia piscosi. Dehinc Gnatia lymphis 
Iratis exstructa deiit risusque jocosque, 
Dum flamraa sine thura liquoscere limine sacro 9,*! 

Persuadere cupit. Credat Judajus Apella, 
Non ego ; namque decs didici securum agere sevum, 
Nee, si quid miri faciat natura, deos id 
Tristes ex alto cceU demittere tecto. 
Bmaiisium limgse finis cha,rta)que vie>que. lOO 



6w| SBRMONUM. — LIBER I. J 49k 



IN DEPvISORES NATALIUM SiJOUUM. 

Non, quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos 
Inooluit fines, nemo generosior est te, 
Noo, quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus, 
0]iiD qui magnis legionibus imperitarunt, 
iJt plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco ^ 

IgnotoB, ut me libertino patre natum. 
Quum referre negas, quali sit quisque pare>:te 
Natus, dum ingenuus : persuades hoc tibi vere, 
Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile regnum 
Multos sa3pe viros nullis inajoribus ortos IC 

Et yixisee probos, amplis et honoribus auctos : 
Contra Laevinum, Valori genus, unde Superbut 
Tarquinius regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 
Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 
Judice, quo nosti, populo, qui stultus honores *ft 

Ssepe dat indignis, et famas servit ineptus. 
Qui stupct in titulis et imaginibus. Quid oportet 
Vos facere, a vulgo longe longeque remotos ? • 
Namque csto, populus Lasvino mallet hoiiorem 
Quam Decio mandare novo, censorque moveret SC 

Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus ; 
Vel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quicsseiu. 
Sed fulgentc trahit constrictos Gloria curru 
Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tilli, 
Sumere dcpositum clavum, fierique tribune ? 25 

Invi'lia accrevit, private quae minor esset. 
Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit crus 
Pellibus, et latum dcmisit pec tore clavum, 
\ 4.udit continue : Quis homo hie est ? quo patre natusj ' 
lit si qui aegrotet, quo morbo Barrus haberi ' M 

Ut cupiat formosus, eat quacunque, ;f uelUa 



!i4 a. HORATII FIAGCI [b, 

Irijiciat curam qnasrendi singula, quali 

Sit facie, sura, quali pede, dentc. capillo : 

Sic qui promittit, cives, Urbem sibi cur». 

Impcrium fore, el Italiam, et delubra deonun ; SI 

Quo patre sit natus, num ignota matre inhoneitui, 

Omnes mortalea curare et quaerere cogit. — 

T^me Syri, Damce, aut Dionysi filius, avdes 

Dejicere e sazo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? — 

At Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno ; 40 

Namque est ille, pater quod erat meus. — Hoc tibi FauUuM 

Et Messala videris ? At hie, si plostra ducenta 

CoTicurrantgue faro tria funera, magrui sonabit 

Comiia quod vincatqv^ tubas : saltern tenet Imc nos.^" 

Nunc ad me redeo, libertino patre natum, 46 

Quern rodunt omnes libertino patre natum ; 
Nunc, quia sum tibi, Maecenas, convictor ; at olim 
Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribune. 
Dissimile hoc illi est, quia non, ut forsit honoreni 
Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum, 5(1 

PraBsertim cauj^um dignos assumere, prava 
Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 
Me possim, 6asu quod te sortitus amicum ; 
Nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit : optimus olim 
Virgilius, post hunc Varius, dixere quid essem. 66 

Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 
Infan; namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 
Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 
Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed, quod eram, narro. Respondes, ut tuus est mo». GO 
Pauca : abeo ; et revocas nono post mense, jubesque 
Esse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego rluco 
Quod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honestum, 
* Ncn patre prajclaro, sed vita et pectore pure. * 
Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 61 

Mondosa cat naturi, alioqui recta, velut ri 



feERMONUM. LIBER I. Mfi 

Rgregio inspersos reprendas corpore naevos, ' 
Si neque avaritiam ncque sonles aut mala 1 aexxn 
Objiciet vere quisq^am mihi ; purus et insons. 
rjt me coUaiidem, si et vivo carus amicis ; 70 

Causa full pater his, qui macro pauper ageJlo 
Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni 
Qii: pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 
La vo Buspensi loculos tabulamqno lacerto, 
Lbant octouis referentes Idibus sera ; 75 

Bed puerum est ausus Romam port are, docenduni 
ArtC8, quas doceat quivis equcs atque senator 
Semet prognatos. Vestem servosque sequent4?§, 
In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 
Ex re praeberi sumtus mihi crederet illos W 

Ipse mShi custos incorruptissimus omnes 
Circum doctores aderat. Quid multa ? pudicum, 
Qui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omiii 
Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi : 
Nee timuit, sibi ne vitio quis verteret olim, 86 

Si prajco parvas, aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor 
Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus. Ad hoc niiiii) 
Laus ilH debetur et a me gratia major. 
Nil me pcBniteat sanum patris hujus ; eoquc 
Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 90 

Quod non mgenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 
Sic me defeudam. Longe mea discrepat istis 
Et vox et ratio : nam si natura juberet 
A. certis annis SBvum remeare peractum, 
Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes, 95 

0{)taret sibi quisque : meis contentus honestos 
Fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere, demens 
Judicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 
^[ollem onus baud unquam solitus portare molestnii 
Nam mihi continuo major qu8erenda foret res, 11)0 

Ate salutandi plures : du^endus et imua 

G 



14(5 a. HORATII FLA .CI |Q / 

Et comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peiegjavB 

Exirem ; plures caloncs atque cabal li 

Pascendi : ducenda petorrila. Nunc mihi cuno 

Ire licet niulo vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 1 0/j 

Mantica cul lumbos onere ulceret atqu*^ eques aiincs 

ObjicJet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tilli, 

Quura Tiburte via pitetorem quinque sequuiitur 

Te pueri, lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 

floc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, I U 

Multis atque aliis vivo. Quacunque libido est, 

/ncedo solus ; percontor, quanti olus ac far ; 

Fallacera circum vespertinumque pererro 

S^ope forum ; adsisto divinis ; inde domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum. 11 

Coena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 

Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echinus 

Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supt^Uex. 

Deinde eo dormitum, non soilicitus, mihi quod eras 

Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 120 

Vultum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoiis. 

Ad quartam jaceo ; post banc vagor ; aut ego, lee to 

Aut scripto, quod me tacitum juvet, uiigor olivo, 

Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. 

Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 18? 

Admonuit; fugio campum lusumque trigonem. 

Pransus non avide, quantum interpellet inani 

Ventre diem durare, domesticua otior. Haec est 

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique. 

His me consoler victurum suavius, ac si 30 

Quaestor avus, pater atque ineus, patruusque fuisset. 



Satira VII. 

IN MALEDICOS ET INHUATANOS. 
ProBcripti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 
Hybrida quo pacto sit Pcrsius riltus, opinoz 



7.J S3ERM0NCJM. LIBER I. 147 

Ommbus ot lippis notum et tonsoribus esse 
Persius hie perinagna negotia dives habebat 
Clazomenis, etiam litcs cum Rege molestas ; A 

Diirus homo, atque odio qui posset vincere E egerai 
Coiitidens, tumidusquc, adeo Ecrmonis amari, 
Siseimas, Barros ut equis prfficurreret albis. 
\d Begem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque 
Convenit (hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti, U 

'Quo fortes, quibus adversum helium incidit : inter 
iiectora Priamiden, animosum atque inter Achiller/) 
Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima dividerct mors, 
Non aliam ob causam nisi quod virtus in utroque ' 
Summa fuit ; duo si di;iCordia vexet inertes, 1 ^ 

Aut si disparibus helium incidat, ut Diomedi 
Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro 
Muneribus missis) : Bruto prsetore tenente 
Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 
Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacohxus. In jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 
Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ah omni 
Conventu : laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem ; 
Solem AsiaB Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 
Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem ilium, 2ft 

liiYisum agricolis sidus, venisse : ruebat, 
Flumen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara securis. 
Tmn Praenestinus salso multoque fluenti 
fixpressa ar]busto legerit convicia, durus 
V^indemiator et invictus, cui ssepe viator 3»i 

Cessisset, magna compellans voce cucullum. 
At GreBcus, postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, 
Pendus cxclamat : Per magnos. Brutes Deos le 
OrOy qui reges consuesti toUere ; cur non 514 

Hunc Begem jug^dusi? operum hvc, mihioredt tttorum tst, 



149 a. IIORATIl FLACCI [H 



Satika VIII. 

IN S13PERSTITI0S0S ET VENEFlCAfi. 

Olim truncus cram ficulnuB, inutile lignum, 

Quum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Friapum, 

Maluit esse Deum. Deus inde ego, furum aviumque 

Maxima ibrmido : nam fures dextra coercet. 

Ast importunas volucres in vcrtice arundo A 

Terret fixa, vetatque novis considere in hortis. 

EIuc prius angustis ejecta cad a vera ecUis 

Conscrvus vili portanda locabat in area. 

Hoc miserse plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 

Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. lU 

MilJe pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 

Hie dabat ; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 

Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua mode tristes 

Albis informem spectaba^.t ossibus agrum, Id 

Quum mihi non tantum furesque ferseque, suetie 

Hunc vexare locum, curas sunt atque labori, 

Quantum carminibus qusB versant atque vencnis 

Humanos animos. Has nullo perdere possum 

Ncc prohibere modo, simul ac vaga Luna decorum 20 

Protulit OS, quin ossa legant herbasque nocentes 

Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla 

Canidiam, pedibus nudis, passoque capillo. 

Cum Sagana majore ululantern. Pallor utrasque 

Fecerat horrendas adspectu. Scalpere terram 2& 

Unguibus, et puUam divellere mordicus agnam 

Cojperunt ; cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 

Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 

Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerea ; major 

Lanea, qua? poBnis compesceret inl'eriorem. W 

Cerea gupplioitcr stabat, servilibus ut qu8B 



^, 9 J SBRMONUM. LIBER 1. 141l 

Jam peritura modis. Hecatcn vocat altera, ecevain 

Altera Tisiphonen : serpentes atqiie videres 

Iiifernas errare canes, lunamque rubentem, 

Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcia. 3f 

Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto altema loquentei 

l/mbrsB cum Sagana resonarent triste et acutiun ? 

!J ique lupi barbam varis cum dente colubrse 

Ahdiderint furtim terris, et imagine cerea 

Largior arserit ignis, et ut non testis inultus 4(1 

Hornierim voces Furiarum et facta duarum ? — 



Satir(JX^ 

IN IMPUDENTES ET INEPTOS PAllASITAb- 

TROS. 
Ibani forte Via Sacra, sicut mens eet mos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 
Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum, 
Arreptaque manu. Quid agis, dulcissime rerum ? 
Suuvitcr, ut nunc est, inquam, et cupio omnia gtuB vis. A 
Quum assectaretur, Num quid vis ? occupo : at ille, 
Noris noSt inquit ; docti sumus. Hie ego, Pluris 
HoCf inquam, mild eris. Misere discedere quserenB, 
Ire modo ocius, interdura consistere, in aurem 
Dicere nescio quid puero ; quum sudor ad imos 10 

Manarot talos. O te, Bolane, cerebri 
Felicem ! aiebam tacit us ; quum quidlibet ille 
Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi 
Nil respondebam, Misere cupiSy inquit, abire, 
Jamdiidum video, sed nil agis, usque tencbo^ 14i 

Versetjuar, Hinc quo nunc iter est tiM ? — Nil opiUi est U. 
CircuTjiagi ; qve7idam volo viseie non tiM notum ; 
Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Ccesaris hortos.^^ 
Nil habeo qu^ agam, et non sum piger; usque $equar te,^ 
Pcimitto auriculaB ut iniquae mentis asellus, 20 




t50 a. HORATII rLACCI ffi 

Quuni gra\^us dorso sujiit onus. Incipit ille : 

Si bem nie novi, non Viscu/ni pluris amicumt 

Nan VariuM facies ; nam quis me scribere plures 

Aut cititis possit versus ? quis niembra movere 

Mdlius ? invideat qtcod et Hermogenes, ego cxinto. 24 

InterpeDandi locus hie erat. — Est tihi mater 7 

Cognatif quels te salvo est opus ? — Haud mihi quisquam, 

Omnes composui. — Felices ! Nunc ego resto ; 

Canfice^ na/nujue instat faXum mihi triste^ Sabella 

*^uod puero cecinit m/)ta divina anus uma : 3(' 

^Ilunc neque dira venevu nee hosticus aufyxet ensis. 

Nee latcrum dolor , aut tussis, nee tarda podagra; 

Garrulus hunc quando consumet cunque ; loquaces, 

Si sapiatf vitet, simul atque adoleverit cetas." 

Ventum erat ad Vestae, quarta jam parte diei 3^ 

Prseterita, et casu tunc respondere vadato 
Debebat ; quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 
Si me amaSf inquit, paulum hie odes. — Inteream^ n 
Aut valeo stare, aut novi civilia jura ; 
Et propero qvx) scis. — Duhius sum quid faciam, inquit ; 40 
Tene relinquum an rem. — Me^ sodes. — Nonfaeiam, iUe, 
Et prsBcedere coepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 
Cum victore, sequor. — McEcena^ quxymodo tecum ? 
Hie repctit. — Faueorum Jiominum et mentis bene sance , 
Nemo dezterius fortuna est usus. Haberes Af' 

Magnum adjutorem, posset quiferre secundas, 
Hunc homine7n vdles si tradere ; dispeream, ni 
Summcsses omnes. — Non isto vivitur illicy 
Quo tu rere, inodo ; domus hue nee purior vlla est, 
Nee magis his alieyia malis ; nil mi officit inquccm, fiO 
Ditior hie aut est quia doctior ; est locus uni- 
Cuique suus. — Magnum narras, viz credibile. — Atqui 
Sis riabet. — Accendis, quare cupiam magis illi 
Proximus esse. — Vdis tantummodo ; quce tua virtue 
Expi^^nabis ; et est qui vinci p^ssit, eoque 




9, lO.J ft£EMONT/M.'— LlfiER I. 

ThfficUes aditus primos Jiahet. — Haud mihi <I«*^io , 

Muncrihus sefvos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 

Exclusics fuerOy desistam ; tempora gua*ram. 

Occurram in triviiSy deducam. Nil sine magno 

Vita labors dedit mortalibus. — Hsec dum a^rit, ecce, 6li 

Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus et ilium 

Qui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. Unde venis ? ot 

Quo tendis ? rogat et respondet. Vellere coepi. 

Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans. 

Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. Male salsus 5f) 

Elidens dissimulare. Meum jecur urere bilis. 

Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 

Aiebas mecum. — Memini bene, sed mdiore 

Tempore dicam ; Jwdie tricesinia sabbata ; vi i' tu 

Curtis Judceis oppcdere ? — Nulla mihi, inquam, 70 

Relligio est. — At mi ; sum, paido injimiiory ufm$ 

Multorum ; ignosces, alias loquar. — Hunccine solem 

Tam nigrum surrexe mihi ! Fugit improbus ac ir«o 

Bub cultro linquit. Casu venit obvius illi 

A.dversarius, et, Quo tu turjnssime ? magna \ 

[nclamat voce, et, Licet antestari ? Ego vero 

Appono auriculam. Rapit in jus. Clamor utrinque^ 

Undique coucursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 



Satira X. 
IN INErTOS LUCILII FAUTORES 

LucUij quam sis m^mdosus, teste Catone, 
Defensors ttco, pervincamy gui malefactos 
Emendare parat versus. Hoc lenius iUsy 
Est quo vir mdior, longe szcbtilior illo 
Qui multuri puer et loris etfunibtis udis 
ExhortatiiS: ut esset o!pem quif^rrt poetii 



r52 U. UORATir 7£iA('JJ (10 

Antiquis posset contra faslidia nostra, 
GrarmnaUcoTwm equitum doctisdmus. lit rcdtiam Hhic: 
Nempe incompotsito dixi pede currere versus 
Lucili. Quis tarn Lusili fautor inepte est, itl 

Ut nou hoc fateatur ? At idem, quod sale inulto 
Urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. 
Nee tamen hoc tribuens dederira quoque cetera , nam sic 
Et Laberi mimos ut pulclira poemata inirer. 
Ergo non satis est risu diducere rlctum 16 

Auditoris : et est qusBdam tamen hie quoque virtus : 
Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 
Impediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures : 
Et scrinone opus est mode triati, sajpe jocoso, 
Defendente vicein mode rhetoris atque poeta3, 20 

[nterdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 
Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 
Fortius et melius magnas plerumque sccat res. 
Illi, scripta quibus ComoBdia prisca viris est, 
lioc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque puichei 2£ 
Hermogenes unquam legit, neque simius iste, 
Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullurn. — 
At mas^num fecit ^ quod verbis Grceca Latinis 
Miscuit. — O sen studiorum I quihe putetis 
-Biffioiteet mirum, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 30 

Contigit ? — ^sex^no lingua concinnus utraque 
Suaviorj ut Chio rvota si'ccrinmixta FaXerni est. 
Quum versus facias, te ipsum percenter, an ef qiuni 
Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli, 
Scilicet oblitus patria^que patrisque, Latine 311 

Quuni Pedius causas exsudet Publicola, atque 
Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 
Verba foris rnalis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 
Atqui ego quum Gra^cos facerem, natus mare citra, 
Vorsicuios, vetuit tali me voce Qu^rinus, 40 

Po8t mediam noctem visus, quum umnia vera : 



iO«J 8BRMONUM. LIBEK T. Ift3l 

In suvam fion Ugnaferas insanitcSy ac d 
Magnas Grcscurum malis implere catcrvi& 
Turgidus Alpinus jugulat duin Memnona, duinquA 
Do&ngit Kheni luteum caput, hsec ego ludo, \t 

Qua; neque in eedo sonent certantia judico Tarpa, 
Nee redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda theoitna 

A]guta meretrice poles, Davoque Chrcxneta 
Eludente senem, comis garrirc libellos, 
Unus vhorum, Fundani : Pollio regum ¥i 

Facta canit pede ter percusso : forte epos acer. 
Ut nemo, Varius ducit : moUe atque facetum 
Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camense. 
Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 
Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, &d 
Inventore minor ; neque ego illi detrahere ausim 
Haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam. 
At dixi iluero hunc lutulentum, ssepe ferentem 
Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis. Age, quaiso, 
Tu nihil in magno doctus reprendis Homero ? 60 

Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Atti ? 
Non ridet versus Eniii gravitate minores, 
Quum de se loquitur, non ut majore reprenaiB f 
Quid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta leg&utes 
QusBrere, num illius, num rorum dura negarit 65 

Versiculos natura magis factos et euntes 
MoUius, ac si quis, pedibus quid claudere senis, 
Hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 
Ante cibum versus, totidem ccenatus ; Etrusci 
Quale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 70 

[ngenium, capsis quem faina est esse librisque 
Ambustum propriis. Fucrit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus ; fuerit limatior idem, 
Quam rudis et Gra^cis intacti carminis auctor, 
Quamque poetarum seniorum turba ; sed ille, 7' 

S» fi>ret hoc nostrum fato dilatus in ev im, 

G 2 






154 a. JRATII FLACCI SERMONUJ!lf.--LlUfiK L [^10 

Dstereret sibi multa, recideret omne, quod ultra 
Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 
Ssspe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Ssepe stilum vertas, iterum quae disma legi siat. 9Q 

Scripturua ; ncqne, te ut miretur turba, labores. 
Contentus paucis iectoribus. An tua demens 
Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis ? 
Non ego ; nam satis est equitem mihi plauderc, ut aud&s, 
Contemtis aliis, explosa Arbuscula dixit. 8f^ 

Men moveat cimex Pantilius ? aut cruciet, quod 
Vel licet absentem Demetrius ? aut quod ineptus 
Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli ? 
Plotius et Varius, MsBcenas Virgiliusque, 
Valgius, et probet hasc Octavius optimus, atque SO 

Fuscus, et hsBc utinam Viscorum laudet uterque I 
Ambitione relegata, te dicere possum, 
Follio, te, Messala, tuo cum fratre, simulquo 
Vo3, Bibule et Servi ; simul his te, candide Funii, 
Compluresque alios, doctos ego quos et amicos UO 

Prudens prsetereo ; quibus ha3C, sunt qualiacunque 
Arridere velim ; doliturus, si placeant spe 
Deterius nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 
Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedrae. 
F, piier, a^nc meo '^itus haoc subscribe liboUo 100 



Q.HOfiAT[l FLAG (J I 

S E R M N U M 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Satira I. 

W QUENDAM, QUI ACTIONEM DE FAMOS/g 
LIBELLIS HORATIO INTENTi\BAT. 

HORATIUS. 

Sunt quibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quidquid 
'Coraposui, pars esse putat, similesque nieorum 
Mille die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 
Quid faciam, prroscribe. 









Trebatius. 












Quiescas. 




* 








Horatius. 






Oniniiio venuB 't 




Ne faciam, 


in<]iiii, 


• 






TREBATroS. 










Aio 


• 

Horatius 












Peream 


malej ij noii 


0|itiinuin 


erat; 


vsrum 


nequeo dormire. 







156 a. HO&ATII FLACCl ^I 

.TuEBATros. 

Ter uncti 
Transnauto Tib«rim, somno quibus est opus alto, 
Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 
Aut si tantus amor scrlbendi te rapit audo 10 

Ciraaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 
VisBmia laturus. 

HORATIUS. 

Cupidum, pater optime, vitm 
IJeficiunt ; neque enim quivis horrentia piiis 
Agmina, nee fracta pereuntes cuspide Gailos, 
Aut labentis equo describat vulnera Parthi. 16 

Trebatius. 

Attamen et justum poteras et scribere fur tern, 
Beipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius. 

HoaATixjs. 

Hand mihi deero, 
Quuia res ipsa feret. Nisi dextro tempore Fiacci 
Verba per attentam non ibunt Csesaris aurera ; 
Tiii male si palpere, recalcitret undique tutus. 30 

Trebatius. 

Quanto rectius hoc, quam tristi Isedere versu 
Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotom ! 
Quum sdbi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, et odit 

HORATIUS 

Quid faciam ? Saltat Milonius, ut semei ictc 

A'^'Cessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis. lUk 

Castor gaudet equis ; ovo prognatus eodem 

Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studic niiu 

Millia : me pedibus delectat claudere verba, 

Lucili ritu, nostrum meliorie utroquo. 



4. 1 SERHIONUM. LIBEE II. 157 

rile velut fidls araana sodalibus olini Vi 

Credebat libris ; neqiie, si male cessirat, unquam 

Decurrens alio, neque, si bene : quo fit, ut onrnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor huac, Lueanus an Apabts aac^pe 

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colomis, 3«i 

Missus ad boc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 

Que ne per vacuum Romano in ^urreret hostis. 

Sive quod Apula gens, seu quod Lucania bellum 

Incuteret violenta. Sed bic stilus baud petet ultio 

Quemquam animantem ; et me veluti custodiet ensis 4U 

Vagina tectus, quem cur destringere coner, 

Tutus ab infestis latronibus ? O pater et rex 

Jupiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum. 

Nee quisquam noceat cupido mibi pacis ! at ille, 

Qui me comrndrit (melius non tangere, clamo), 4fl 

Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urn am : 

Canidia Albuti, quibus est inimica, venenum ; 

Grande malum Turius, si quid se judice certes. 

Ut, quo quisque valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet boc natura potens, sic collige mecum : 

Dente lupus, comu taurus, petit ; imde, nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scsbvsb vivacem crede ne]X)ti 

Matrem : nil faciet sceleris pia dextera (mirum, 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam, neque dente petit bos) ; M 

Sed mala toilet anum vitiate melle cicuta. 

No longum faciam, seu me tranquilla senectus 

Exspectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis, 

Divefi, inops, Romse, seu, fors ita jusperit, exsiil, 

Qxiiequis erit vitae, scribam, color. 

Treb Alius. 

O puei , tit cdi 641 

VTitalis, metuo, ct majorum ne quis amicus 
Frigore te feriat. 



ifiS a. HORATIi FLACC1 ^t 

HORATIUS. 

Quid ? quum est Lucilius auBUi 
PrimiiA n huu3 C|ieri8 componere carmina rnoreni, 
Detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederct, introrsum tur^is ; num La^lius, aut qui 65 

Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomcn, 
IngBnio ofiensi ? aut Iseso doluere Metello, 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? Atqui 
Primores populi arripuit, populumque tributim , 
Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. "' 70 

Quin ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant 
Virtus ScipiadsB et mitis sapientia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo et discincti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, soliti. Quidquid sum ego, quaiavu 
Inira Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 7A 

Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et fragili quserens illidere dentem 
Oilendet solido ; nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 
Difisentis. 

Trebatius. 

Equidem nibil hinc difRndere powum ; 
3ed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti 90 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum : 
Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, jus est 
Jadiciimique, 

HORATIUS. 

Esto, 81 quis mala ; sed bona si qrof 
^udioe condiderit laudatus Csesare ? si quis 
Opprobriis dignum laceraverit, integer ipse ? §4 

Trebatius. 
Bolfontur rigu tabula), tu missus abibis. 



2*1 SERMONUM. — LIBER II 159 

Satira II. 

IN V\ VJE V;HBAN^ LUXURIAM ET INEPTlAcs 

Quae virtus, et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo 

(Nea meus liic sermo est, sed quern prsBcepit Ofellur 

Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassaque Minerva), 

Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes, 

Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus, et quum 

Acslinis falsis animus meliora recusat ; 

Verum hie impransi mecum disquirite. — Cur ho<:'f 

Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat omnis 

Corruptus judex 

Leporem sectatus, equove 
Lassus ab indomito, vel, si Romana fatigat 10 

Militia assuetum grsecari, seu pila velox, 
Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit, pete cedentem aera disco . 
Quum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis, 
Sperne cibum vilem : nisi Hyraettia mella Falerno Ifi 

Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus, et atrura 
Defendens pisces hiernat mare ; cum sale panis 
Latrantera stomachum bene leniet. Unde putas, aut 
Qui partum ? Non in caro nidore voluptas 
Summa, sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria quaere 20 

Sudando : pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea 
Nee scarus aut poterit peregrina juvaro lagois. 
Vix tamen eripiara, posito pavone, velis quin 
Hoc potius, quam gallina, tergere palatum, 
Corruptus vanis rerum, quia veneat auro * 2d 

Rara avis, et picta pandat spectacula cauda ; 
Tanquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vesceris ista, 
Quam laudas, pluma ? cocto num adest honor idem ? 
Carne tamen quamvis distat nihil, hac magis illam 
Imparibus fornis deceptum te petere I Esto : M 

Unde datum sentiS; lup is hie Tiberinus an alto 



100 a. HORATII FLA-^C. | k 

Captus hiet, pontesnc inter jactatus an amnis 

Ostia sub Tusci ? laud as insane trilibrem 

Mullum, in singula quern minuas pulmenta I;f.0f3fl8a est 

Ducit te species, v'deo : quo pertinet ergo -iS 

Proeeros odisse lupos ? quia scilicet illis 

Majoi'?ra natura modum dedit, his breve pondus. 

Jejunus rare stomachus vulgaria temnit. 

Porrectum magno magnum spec tare catino 

Vcllem, ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus : at va^ 4(J 

Praesentes Austri, coquite horum opsonia. Quamquan;^ 

Putet aper rhombusque recens, mala copia quando 

^grum sollicitat stomachum, quura rapula plenub 

Atque acidas mavult inulas. Necdum cmnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum : nam vilibus ovis if> 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus Hand ita pridem 

Galloni prseconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis. Quid ? tum rhombos minus sequora aleban * 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donee vos auctor docuit prsetorius. Ergo 6fi 

Si quis nunc merges suaves cdixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana juventus. 

Sordidus a teuui victu distabit, Ofello 
Judice ; nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud, 
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, 66 

Cui Canis ex vero due tum cognomen adhaeret. 
Qumquennes oleas est et silvestria coma, 
Ac nisi mutatum parcit defunderc vinum, ot 
Cujus odorem olci nequeas pexferre (licebit 
lUe repotia, natales, aliosve dierum 60 

i^estos albatus celebret), cornu ipso bilibri 
3auIibuB instillat, veteris non parous aooti. 

Quali igitur victu sapiens utetur ? et horum 
Utrum imitabitur ? Hac urget lupus, hac cams, aiunt 
Mundub orit, qui non ofTendat sordidus, atque 6«l 

En neutK\ai partem cultus miser. Hie nequo servii, 



2. I b'ERMO.VaM. LIBER 11. - 161 

Albuti Bcnis exempio, dum niuiiia didit, 
SaBvus erit ; nee sic ut simplex Nsevius uncUin 
Coiivivis prsebebit aquam ; vitium hoc qiioque magnum. 

Accipe nunc, victus tenuis qujB quantaque se<'.nm 7U 

A Herat. Inpnmis valeas bene : nam variaD res 
Ut noceaht homini, credas, memor illius escsB, 
Quae simplex olim tibi sederit : at simul assis 
Miscueris elixa, simul conchy lia turdis, 
Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum 75 

Lenta feret pituita. Vides, ut pallidus omnis 
Cceua desurgat dubia ? Quin corpus onustum 
Hesternis yitiis animum quoque prsBgravat una, 
Atque affigit humo divinaB particulam aune. 
Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 80 

Membra dedit, vegetus preescripta ad munia surgit 
Hie tamen ad melius poterit transcurrore quondam. 
Sive diem festum rediens ad^exerit annus, 
Sou recreare volet tenuatum corpus ; ubique 
Accedent anni, tract ari moUius setas f^6 

Imbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam* 
Quam pucr et validus preesumis, mollitiem, seu 
Dura valetudo incident seu tarda senectus ? 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 
IJlis nuUus erat, sed, credo, hac mente, quod hospes 90 

Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius, quam 
Integrum edax dominus consumeret. Hos utinam inter 
Fleroas natum tellus me prima tulisset ! 

Das aliquid famsQ, quae carmine gratior aurem 
Occupat humanam ? grandes rhombi patinaeque 95 

Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus : adde 
Iratum patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Kl frustra mortis cupidum, quum doerit egenti 
Aa, laquei pretium. Jure, inquit, Trausiw. istis 
furgalur verbis ; ego vectigalia vuzgna 100 

Divitiasque liabeo tribics a7nplas regibii& ErgOji 



162 ^ a. HORAril FLACCi 1 2 

Quo! &ii]X;fat, nor. est melms quo insuiu^re posfais ? 

Cur (got inrlignus quisquam, te divite? quaro 

Templa ruunt antiqua Deum ? cur, improbo. car a? 

N>; aliquid patrisB tanto emetiris acervo '^ 10.1 

GFni nimirum tibi rccte semper erunt res ! 

O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Utemo 

Ad casus dubius fidet sibi certius ? hie, qui 

Pluribus assuerit men tern corpusque superbum, 

An qui, contentus parvo metuensque futuri, 1 10 

In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello ? 

Quo magis his credas, puer hunc ego parvus OfeUum^ 
Integris opibus novi non latius usum, 
Qu&ra nunc accisis. Yideas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis for tern mercede colonura, 115 

Non egOf narrantem, temere edi luce profesta 
Quidquam jnrcBter dusfumosce cum pede periKBx 
Ac mihi seu longum post tempos venerat hospes^ 
Sive operum vacito gralus conviva per imbrem 
VidnuSy bene erat, non pisdincs urbe petitis, 120 

Sed pullo atque hcedo : turn pensilis uva secundas 
Et nux ornabat mensas cum duplies Jicu. 
Post hoc ludus erat, culpa potare mugistra : 
Ac venerata Ceres^ ita culmo surgeret cdto, 
Explicuit vino coTitracta set-ia frontis, 12fi 

Scsviat atqiie novos m^oveat fortuna tumidtus : 
Quantum hinc imnninuct ? quanto aut egoparm%%^ aut vrw, 
O pueriy nituistis^ ut hue novus incda venit ? 
Nam propricB teUuris herum natura neque illume 
Nee me, nee quemquam statuit : nos expidit ille ; VSQ 

lUum aut nequities aut vafri ifiscitia juris, 
Postremtwi expellet certe vivador heres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper OfeUi 
Dictus, erit nulli projyriuSy sed cedit in usum 
Nune mi Jii, nunc alii. Quodrca vivite foj *e6j 13^ 

Fortiaqne adversis i)p2'onite pef.'tora rebu^. 



aERMONUM —LIBER 11. i6fl 



Satira IVL 

ORINE:^ INSANIRE, ETIAM IPSOS STOiCOa, 

DUM HOC DOCENT. 

Damasippus. 
iSio raro scribiS; ut toto non quater anno 
Membranam poscas, scriptorum quaf)que retexcns, 
Iratus tibi, quod vini somnique benignus 
Nil dignum sermone canas. Quid fiet ? Ab ipsis 
Satumalibus hue fugisti. Sobrius ergo 5 

Die aliquid dignum promissis : ineipe. Nil est 
Culpantur frustra ealami, immeritusque laborat 
iratis natus paries Dis atque poetis. 
Atqui vultus erat multa et prsBclara minantis, 
Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tecto. J 

Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro, 
Eupolin, Archilochum, comites educere tantos ? 
Invidiam plaeare paras, virtute relicta ? 
Contemnere, miser. Vitanda est iraproba Sireu 
Desidia ; aut quidquid vita meliore parasti, 1 5 

Ponendum asquo anin>o. 

HoRATros. 

Di te, Damasippe, DeBK|uo 
Varum ob consilium donent tonsore. Sed unde 
Tarn bene me nosti ? 

Damasippus. 

Postquam omnis res mea Janum 
Ad medium fracu est, aliena negotia euro, 
Exeussus propriis. Olim nam quserere amabam, 20 

Quo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus aere, 
Quid sculptura iufabrc, quid fusum durius easet : 
Callidus huie ugno ponebam miUia centum : 



L64 U. ORATII FL.ICC! [1 

Hortos egregiasque doraos mercarier unus 

Cum lucro noram ; unde frequentia Mercurialo 25 

f rapoBucro raihi cognomen oompita. 

HORATIUS. 

Novi, 
Et miror morbi purgatum te illius. 

Damasippus. 

Alqui 
Emovit veterem mire novus, ut solet, in cor 
Trajecto lateris miseri capitisve dolore, 
Ut lethargicus hie, quum fit pugil, et medic jni utget JO 

HORATIUS. 

Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libel. 

Damasippus. 

O bone, ne te 
Frustrere ; insanis et tu stultique prope onmes, 
Si quid Stertinius veri crepat ; unde ego inira 
Descripsi docilis praBcepta hsec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 35 

Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 
Nam male re gesta quum vellem mittere operto 
Me capiie in flumen, dexter stetit, et, Cave faxis 
Te quidquam indignum : pudor, iuquit, te mains angit, 
Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 40 

Frimum nam inquiram, quid sit furere : hoc si ent in te 
^olo; nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. 
Quern mala stultitia, et quemcunque inscitia veri 
CaK5um agit, insanum Chrysippi portions et grex 
Autumat. Hsec populos, hsQC magnos formula regM, 4^ 
Excepto eapiento, tenet. Nunc accipe, quare 
Dttfipiaiit onmes SBque ac tu, qui ;.ibi iiomeD 



3.] SEHMONUM. LIBER 11. 16 

Insano pusiiere. Velut siivis, ubi passim 

Palaiitos error certo de tramite pellit, 

rile sinistrorsum, hie daxtrorsum abit ; iinus utrisque tf G 

Error, sed variis illudit partibus ; hoc te 

Crede niodo insanum ; nihilo ut sapientior ille, 

Qui te deridet, oaudam trahat. Est genus unuia 

StuItitisB nihilum metuenda timentis, ut ignes, 

Ut rupes, fluviosque in campo obstare queratiir : 56 

Alterum et huic varum et nihilo sapientius, igncs 

Per medios fluviosque mentis ; clamet amica 

Mater, honesta soror cum cognatis, pater, uxor : 

Hie fossa est ingenSj hie rupes maaima, servaf 

Non magis audierit, quam Fufius ebrius olim, 60 

Quum Ilionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

Mater f te ajypeUo^ clamantibus. Huic ego vulgus 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

Insanit veteres statu&s Damasippus emendo : 

Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? esto. 6A 

Acclpe quod nunquam reddas mihi, si tibi dicam, 

Tune insanus eris, si acceperis ? an magis excors, 

Rejecta pra^da, quam prsesens Mercurius fert ? 

Scribe decem a Nerio ; non est satis : adde Cicutie 

Nodosj tabulas centum ; mille adde catenas : 70 

Effugiet tamen haec scderatus vincula Proteus. 

Quum rapies in jus malis ridentem alienis, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo szixum, et, quum volet, arbc i 

Si male rem gerere insani, contra bene sani est, 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perilli, It 

Diotantis, quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 

Audire atque togam jubeo componere, quisquia 
Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore ; 
Quiequis luxuria tristique superstitione 
Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; hue propius me, 60 

Diim doceo insaniie omnes, vos ordine adite. 

I)anda esl eUebor*«- nulto pars maxima avaris^ 



160 a. UOIIATII FLACCI '4 

Xcscio au Anticyram ratio illis destinet oiimem 

lleredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro : 

N\ sic fccissent, gladiatorum dare centum 8^^ 

Damnaii populo paria, atque epulum arbitrio -Ain. 

Frnrncnti quantum metit Africa. Sive fgo prave^ 

Seu Tccte hoc volui, ne sis patruus mihi Credo 

Hoc Staberi prudentem animum vidisse. Quid ergo 

Sensit, quum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 9C 

lleredes voluit ? Quoad vixit, credidit ingcns 

Pauperiem vitium, et cavit nihil acrius ; ut, si 

Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset, 

[pse videretur sibi nequior. Omnis enim res, 

Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque pulchris 9ft 

Divitiis parent ; quas qui construxerit, ille 

Clarus erit, fortis, Justus. Sapiensne ? Etiam, et rox, 

Et quidquid volet. Hoc, veluti virtute paratum, 

Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 

GrsBCus Aristippus ? qui servos projicere aurum I WO 

In media jussit Libya, quia tardius irent 

Propter onus segnes. Uter est insanior horum ? 

Nil agit exemplum, litem quod lite resolvit. 

Si quis emat citharas, emtas comportet in unum 
Nee studio cithara) nee Musse deditus uUi ; 106 

Si scalpra et formas non sutor ; nautica vela 
Aversus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 
Undique dicatur merito. Qui discrepat istis, 
Qui nummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 
Corapositis, metuensque velut coAtingcre sacrum? 110 

Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum 
Porrcctus vigilet cum longo fuste, neque illinc 
Audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum., 
Ac potius foliis parous vescatur amaris ^ 
Si positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 1 10 

Millc cadis, nihil est, tercentum millibus, acre 
Potet acetimi ; age, si et ptn mentis incubct nnd<^ 



8. I t3£KMONUM. LIBER II. i9? 

Qctoginta annos d'aIuS; cui stragula vestis. 
Blattarura ac tinearum opulsB. putrescat in arcii ; 
Nimirum iiisanus paucis vidcatur, eo quod 1M 

IViaxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 

Filius aut etiam base libcrtus ut ebibat heres, 
Dia iriimico senex, custodis ? ne tibi dosit ? 
Quantulum enim summsB curtabit quisque dierurn, 
Ungere si caules oleo meliore, caputque 12U 

Coepcris impexa foBdum porrigine ? Quare, 
Si quidvis satis est, perjuras, surripis, aufers 
Undique ? tun sanus ? Populum si c(edere saxis 
Tncipias, servosve tuo quos acre paratis, 
Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellse : 130 

Quum laqueo uxorem interimis, matrcmque veneno, 
Incolumi capite es ? Quid enim ? Neque tu hoc facis A rgiB. 
Nee ferro, ut demens genitricem occidit Orestes. 
An tu reris eum occisa insanisse parente, 
Ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis, quam 135 

In matris jugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum ? 
Quin, ex quo habitus male tutse mentis Orestes, 
Nil sane fecit, quod tu reprendere possis : 
Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem est 
Electram ; tantum maledicit utrique, vocando 140 

Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud, jussit quod splendida bilis. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Qui Veientanum festis potare diebus 
Campana solitus truUa, vappamque profestis, 
Quondam lethargo grandi est oppressus, ut heres 14d 

Jam circum loculos et claves laetus ovansque 
rurreret. Hunc medicus multum celer atque fidelis 
Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni jubet, atque 
EfTundi saccos nummorum, accedere plures 
\d numerandum : hominem sic erigit ; addit et lilud : 1^ 
Ni tua custodis, avidus jam ha5C auferet heres. 
Men vivo? — \H vivas igitur, vigila : hoc ^ge : C^id fn$ ^— 



iW U .iORATIi FLA€:Ci [d 

Deficient ino})em vena) te, ni cibus atque 

liigenua accedit stc/macho fultura raenti. 

Tu cessas? agedum, sume hoc ptisanariuni onrza*.. \6t 

Qiianti emtxe? — Parvo. — Qiuinti ergo? — Octiiasilmx.— 

EJieu! 
Q*M refcrt, niorbo, anfurtis percatnque rapinis ? 
Quisnam igitur sanus ? — Qui non stultus. — Qiul ava 
rus? — 
Stultus at msanus. — Quid ? si quis non sit avarus, 
Continuo sanus ? — Minime. — Cur, Stoice ? — Dicain J6C 
Nou est cardiacus, Craterum dixisse putato. 
Hie sBgor : recte est igitlir surgetque ? Negabit. 
Quod lalus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto. 
Non est perjurus neque sordidus ; immolet asquis 
[lie porcum Laribus : verum ambitiosus et audax ; \bt 
Naviget Anticyram. Quid enim difTert, barathrone 
Dones quidquid habes, an nunquam utare paratis ? 
Scrvius Oppidius Cauusi duo prsedia, dives 
Antiquo censu, gnatis divisse duobus 

Fertur, et haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis 17 J 

Ad lectum : Fostqiia7H te tahs. Aide, nucesqtie 
Ferre sinu laxo, donare et ludere vidi, 
Te, Tiberi, nximerare, cavis abscondere tnsteni ; 
Extimui, ne vos ageret vesania discors, 
Tu NomentanurHy tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 17fi 

Quare per Divos^oratus uterque Penates, 
Tu cave ne mintuiSj tu, ne majus fa^a^ id, 
Quod satis esse putat pater, et natura coercet. 
Prceterea ne vos titillet ghria, jure- 
Jurando obstri7igam ambo : uter ^dilis fuentve 18C 

Vestrum Prcetor, is intestabilis et sa^er esto. 
In cicere atque f aba $ona tic perdasque lupims, 
Lutus ut in drco spatiere, et aeneus ut stes, 
Nadus agris, nucCus nummis, ijisane, pat^rnis ? 
Scilicet ut plausus, quosfert Agrippa, fera^ tu^ I8fi 

A </wto ingenuufn vidpes iniitata Ieo?ie7?i ? 



8.] SE^MUNUM. LIBER II. I OH 

Ne quis humasse velit Ajacom, Atrida, vetas cui t — 
Rec sum. — Nil ultra quajro plebeius. — JSt <Bquatn 
Bern imperito ; at, si cui videor nmi Justus^ inulto 
Dit:e7e, quod sentity permitto. — Maxime regiim, 1 ^i1 

Di tibi dent capta classem dcducere Trqja. 
Ergo consulere et mox respondere icebit ? — 
Conside. — Cur Ajax, beros ab Acliille secundus, 
Putescit, toties servatia clarus Achivis ? 
Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inbumato, I9fl 

Per quern tot juvenes patrio caruere sepulcro ? — 
Mille ovium insanus moiti dedit, inclytum Ulixen 
Et Mendaum una ntecuai sie ocddere damans. — 
Tu quum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide natara 
Ante aras, spirgisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 20C 

Rectum aninii servas ? Quorsuin ? Insanus quid cniin 

AJax 
Fecit, quum stravit ferro pecus ? Abstinuit vim 
Uxore et gnato : mala multa precatus Atridis, 
Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulixen.— 
Veru7n cgo^ ut hcerentes adverso litore naves 206 

Erlpereniy prudent placavi sanguine Divos, — 
Nempe tuo, furiose. — MeOy sed nonfuHosus. — 
Qui species alias veris scelerisque tumultu 
Permixtas capiet, commotus babebitur ; atque 
Stultitiane erret, nihilum dista^it, an ira. 210 

Ajax quum immeritos occidit, desipit, agnos ; 
Quum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 
Stas animo ? et purum est vitio tibi, quum tumid um est, x)i t 
Si quis leclica nitidam gestare amet agnain, 
Huic vestom, ut gnataB paret ancillas, paret aurum, 2\t 
Rufam aut Pusillam appellet, fortique marito 
Destine t uxorem ; intevdijto buic omne adimat jus 
PrsBtor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 
Quid ? si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna, 
fnteger eat animi ? Ne dixeri& Ergo ibi panra 2UfO 

H 



t70 a. HORATII FLAG, 1 3 



i 



^tultitia, hie summa est insania : qui scelcratui, 

Ex ftirioBUs erit ; quern cepit vitrea fama, | 

liunc circumtonuit gauderis Bellona crucntis. ^ 

Nunc age, luxuriam et Nomcntamim arripc luecuiD , 

V^incct enim stulios ratio insanire iiepotes. 226 | 

[lie simul liccepit patrimoni mille talcnta, 
Edicit, piricator uti, pomarius, auceps, 
tJnguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici, 

Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro orane macellum jf 

Maue doriium veniant. Quid turn? Venere frequenteg. 230 ^ 

Verba facit leno : Quidquid mihi, quidquid et horunt 
Cuiqice dcmii esty id credo tuwni et vd nunc pete, vpJ crcu, , 

Accipe, quid contra juvenis respondent aequu* • - i 

In nive Lucana donnis ocreatus, ut apiiiTJi 
C(znenfi ego ; tu pisccs hiberno ex ctquore veUis ; 2^ 

Segnis egOf indignus qui tantum possidcctm : ati/er : 
Sunie tibi decies : tibi tcuilimdcm ; tibi triplex. 

Filius -^sopi detract am ex aure MetellaB, 
Scilicet ut decies solidum obsorberet, aceto 
Diluit insignem baccdm ; qui sanior, ac si 240 

lUud idem in rapidum flumen jaceretve cloacam ? 
Quinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum, 
Nequitia et nugis, pravorum et amore gemellum, 
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemtas. 
Quorsum abeant ? Sani ut creta, an carbone notandi ? 24 fl 

iEdificare casas, plostello adjungere miures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si qucm delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 
Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare, 
StQ quidquam differre, utrumne in pulvere, tfimiu 250 
xjuale prius, ludas opuSv an meretricis amoro 
^oUicitus plores : qusero, faciasne quod olim 
Mutatus Polemon ? pona? insignia morbi, 
Fasciolas, cubital, focalia, potus ut ille 
Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas^ 2M 



3. J SERMuNUM. — LinER II. |71 

Po8l;4aam est impransi correptus voce magistri ? 

Porrigis irato puero quum poraa, recusal : 

Sume, CateUe : negat; sinon des, optat. ^raatnr 

Exclusus qui distat, agit ubi secum, eat, an non, 

Quo rediturus erat non arcessitus et haero^ ^0 

Invisis foribus ? Ne nuncy quum me vocat n% *>, 

Acceikum ? an potius mediterjlmre ddores ? 

ExclusiL revocat : redeam ? Non, si obsecret, Ecoe 

Serviis, non pauUo sapientior : O here^ qucb r*is 

Nee modum hahet neque consilium ^ ratione m^odoqut ^65 

Tractari non vult. In am/yre hem sunt mala ; bdlum^ 

Pax 7ursum. Hcec si quis tejjipestatis jrrope ritu 

Mobiliay et cceca Jluitantia sorte^ labor et 

Ueddere certa siM, nihilo plus explicet, ac si 

Tnsanire paret certa ratio?ie modoque 270 

l^uid ? quum Picenis excerpens semina p)mis 

^'xaudes, si camaram percusti forte, penes te es ".' 

Quid ? quum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

iEdificante casas qui sanior ? Adde cruorem 

Stultitiae, atque ignem gladio scrutare modo, inquam. 27ft 

Uellade percussa, Marius quum praecipitat se, 

Cerritus fiiit ? an commot® crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem, et sceleris damna/bis eundem, 

Ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus ? 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 280 

Lautis mane senex manibus currebat, et, Unum 
(Quid tam magnum? addens), unum me surpite morti, 
Di$ elenim facile esty orabat ; sanus utrisque 
Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 
Exciperet dc-minus, quum venderet. Hoc quoque rulgufi 28 fl 
Chrysippus ponit fecunda in gente Meneni. 
Jupiter, ingenues qui das adimisque dolores. 
Mater ait pueri menses jam quinque cubantif, 
Frigida si picerum quartana rdiquerit, illo 
iSane die. quo tu ifuiicisjejunia, nudtM 29C 



172 Q, 40RATII FLACCI \Z 

In JHberi stdhit Casus medicusve levarit 
£grum ex pr£ecipil , mater delira necabit 
In gelida fixum ripa. febrimque reducet. 
Quone malo mentem concussa ? timore Deoruni, 

Haec mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, aniiof 2£t 

Arma dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 
Dixerit insanum qui me, totidem audiet, atque 
Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. 

HORATIUS. 

Stoice; post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris : 

Qua me stultitia, quoniam non est genus^unum, 8U(I 

Insanire putas ? ego nam videor mihi sanus. 

Damasippus. 

Quid? caput abscissum manibus quum portat Ag • 
rS-nati infelicis, sibi turn furiosa videtur ? 

HORATIUS. 

Stultum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 

Atque etiam insanum : tantum hoc edisserei quo wt 80fl 

^grotare putes animi vitio ? 

• 
Damasippus. 

Accipo : primum 
JEdificas, hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo 
Ad summum totus moduli bipedalis ; et idem 
Corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis 
Spiritum et incessum : qui ridiculus minus illo ? 10 

An quodcunque facit Maecenas, te quoque verucQ est, 
Tantum dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 
Absentis ransB puUis vituli pede pressis, 
Unus ubi eHiigit, matri denarrat, ut ingens 
Bellua cognates eliserit. Ilia rogare, ^14 

Quantane ? num tantum. siiffiane se, magna fuiifiK f-- 



8, 4. 1 SERH^NfJM. LIBER 11. l7S 

Major dimxiib. — Num tanto? — Quum mag is atque 

Be magis inflaret ; Non, si te ruperis, in quit, 

Par eris. IIsbc a te i)on multum abludit imago. 

Adoe poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino ; 329 

Qute si quis sanus fecit, sanus facis et tu. 

Von dico hotrendam rabiem. 

HoRAxros. 

Jam desino. 



Damasippus. 

Cull um 



tktbjorem censu. 



IIoRATirjs. 

Teneas, Damasippc. tuis te 
' i major tandem parcas, insane, minori. 32S 



Satira IV. 

LEVES CATILLONES EPICUREiE SECT^ 

DEPwIDET. 

HoRATros. 
LJiide et quo Catius ? 

• Catius. 

Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere sigtia ftovis prseceptis, qualia vincant 
Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Platona. 

HORATIUS. 

Peccatum fateor quum te sic tempore laivo 
Interpellarim : sed des veniam bonus, oro. 
Quod ei interciderit tibi nunc aliquid« repotes mox, 
Sive est natural hoc, sive artis, mirus utroque. 



174 a. HOBATJI FLACCt 4. 

Catius. 
Quiu id erat cursB^ quo pacto cuncta teueremj 
Utpote res tenues, tenui sermone peractas 

HORATIUS. 

Ede hominis uomen ; siinul et, Romauus au hoepeg^ li 

Catius. 

ipsa, mernor pra;cepta canam, celabitur auctor. 

Longa quibus facies ovis erit, ilia memento 
U t succi melioris et ut magis alma rotundis 
Ponere ; namque marem cohibent callosa vitelluni 

Caule suburbano, qui siccis crevit in agris, !fl 

Dulcior ; irriguo nihil est elutius horto. 

Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospee, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam musto mersare Falerno ; 
Hoc teneram fao.iet. 

Pratensibus optima fungit 2U 

Natura est ; aliis male creditur 

Ille salubres 
^Estates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 
Finiet. ante gravem qua3 legerit arbore solcm. 

Auiidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis commit tere venis S6 

Nil nisi lene decet ; Icni prsBcordia mulso 
ProliieriR melius. 

Si dura morabitur alvus. 
Mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae, 
Kt JApathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo 

Lubrica nascentes implant conchylia lunsB ; M 

6ed non omne mare est gcnerossB fertile teste. 
Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris ; 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini , 
Pcelinibus patulis jactat sc mollc Tarentuin 



!•( M^UMONUM. — LIBEh ii Wl 

Ncc sibi ocenarum quivis temere arrogot irteui» Bd 

Non prius exp,ota tenui ratione saporum. 
Nee satis est cara pisces averrere mensa» 
Ignarum quibus est jus aptius, et quibus assis 
lianguidus in cubitum jam se con viva reponet 

Umber et iJigna nutritus glande rotundas 40 

Curvet aper lances camem vitantis inertem ; 
Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguiit. 
V^inea summittit capreas non semper edules. 
FccundsB leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Fiscibus atque avibus qu8B natura et foret aeta.^, 4^. 

Ante meum nulli patuit quassita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit. 
Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam ; 
Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 
Quali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 50 

Massica si ccelo suppones vina sereno, 
Nocturnal si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 
Et decedet odor nervis inimicus ; at ilia 
Integrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 
Surrentina vafer qui miscet fsBce Falerna 66 

Vina, columbine limum bene coUigit ovo, 
Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 
Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 
Post vinum stomacho ; perna magis ac magis hiLitf 50 

Flagitat immorsus refici : quin omnia malit, 
Qusecunquo immundis fervent allata popinis. 

Est oporse pretium duplicis pernoscere juris 
Naturam. Simplex e dulci constat olivo, 
Quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit. 6(1 

Non alia quam qua Byzantia putuit orca. 
Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbier, 
Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 
Pressii Venafrans? cuod bacca nimisit olivse. 



176 a. uorATii flaooi 4 A 

rii/tmis «je(iunt ^mis Tiburtia succo ; 70 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit ollig, 
Rectius Aibanam fumo duraveris uvam. 
Haiic ego cum mails, ego faecem primus et aiiec, 
Pi imus et invenior piper album, cum sale nigro 
fncreluiii; puris circumposuisse catillis. 741 

Immane est vitium dare millia terna macello, 
^ ngustoque vagos pisces urgcre catino. 

Magna mo vet stomacho fastidia, seu puer imctid 
Tractavit calicem manibus, dum furta liguvit, 
Sive gravis veteri crateras limus adhsesit. 80 

Vilibas in scopis, in mappis, in ccobe, quantua 
Ccnsistit suratus? neglectis, flagitium ingens. 
Ten lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 
Et Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 
Obi turn, quanto curam sumtumque minorem 8/1 

Hajc habeant, tanto reprendi justius illis. 
Qua} nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis 'i 

HORATIUS. 

Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 

Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 

Nam quamvis memori referas mihi pectore cuncta. 9(1 

Non tamcn interpres tantundem juveris. Adde 

Vultum habitumque hominis ; quem tu vidisse beitua 

Non magni pendis, quia contigit ; at mihi cura 

Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotes, 

Atquv haurire queam vitae praecepta beatse. 9fi 



Satira V. 
IN CAPTATORES ET HEREDIPETAS 

Ulysses. 
Hoc quociue, Tiresia, praeter narrata petenti 
Pt^esponde, quibus amissas reparare queam red 
^rtibus atque modis Quid rides ? 



ft. I 3ERM0NUM. LIBER 11. 17*) 

TXRESUS. 

Jamne doloB^t 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi, Batiiosque penates 
Adffpicere ? 

Ulysses. 

O nulli quidquam mentite, vides ui 
Nadus inopsquo domum redeam, te vate, neque illio 
Aut apotheca procis intacta est, aut pecus. Atqui 
Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est. 

TlRESIAS. 

Quanao pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 

Accipe, qua ratioiie queas ditescere. Turdus lU 

Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi, devolet illuc, 

Res ubi magna nitet, domino sene ; dulcia poma, 

£t quosounque feret cultus tibi fundus honores. 

Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives ; 

Qui quamvis perjurus erit, sine gente, cruentus . h 

Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus ; ne tamen illi 

Pu comes exterior, si postulet, ire recuses. 

Ulysses. 

Utno tegam spurco DamaB latus ? baud ita Trojs 
life gessi, certans semper melioribus. 

TlRESIAS 

Ergo 
EUuiper eris. 

Ulysses. 
Fortem hoc animum tolerare jubebo ; It 
Et quondam majora tuli. l^u protinus, unde 
Divitias sriFque mam, die, augur, aoervoft. 

12 



179 a. HORATII FLACCl 16 

TiRESIAS. 

riixi equidern et dico. Captes astutus ubique 

Testimenta senum, neu, si vafer unus et aiter 

rnsidiatorem praBroso fugerit hamo, 2i 

Aut spcm deponas, aut artem illusus cmittas. 

Msigna. minorve foro si res certabitur rj'iini* 

/'weX uter locuples sine gnatis, improbus, ultru 

Qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, illius esto 

Defensor : fama civem causaque priorem 30 

Speme, domi si gnatus erit fecundave conjux. 

Quinte, puta, aut Publi (gaudent praenomine raoliai 

AuriculoB) tiM me virtus tua fecit amicum; 

Jus anceps novi, cav^sas defendere possum ; 

Eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi, quam te 30 

Contemtum, cassa nuce pauperet : hcec mea cura esi, 

Ne quid tu perdas, neu sisjocus. Ire domum atquR 

Pelliculam curare jube : fi cognitor ipse. 

Persia atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findet 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso 40 

Furius hibernas cana nive con^puet Alpes. 

Nonne videSy aliquis cubito stantem prope t^ngt ts 

Inquiet, vt patienSy ut amicis aptus^ ut acer ? 

Plures annabunt thunni, et cetaria crescent. 

Si cui prsBterea validus male filius in re 46 

Prseclara sublatus aletur ; ne manifestum 

Ccelibis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spem 

Arrcpe officiosus, ut et scribare secundus 

rieres, *,t, si quis casus puorum egerit Oreo, 

Tn vacuum venias : perraro haec alea fallit. -ip 

Qui testamentum tradet tibi cunque legend um, 

Abuuere et tabulas a te removere memento, 

Sic tamen ut limis rapias, quid prima secuudo 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne coheres, 

Veloci percurr3 ooul(». Flerumqie recoctiii ^b 



6. J ^ SUKMONUM. LIBER 11 171) 

s 

Bcriba ex Quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 
CaptatorquG dabit risus Nasica Corano 

Ulysses. 
N^uui furis ? an prudens ludis me obscuia cane ado } 

TiRESI »s. 

Laertiade, quidquid dicam, aut erit aut non : 

Diviuare etenim magnus mihi donat ApoUo. 69 

Ulysses. 

Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 

I 

TiRESUS. 

Tempore quo juvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto 

Demissum genus ^Enea, tcUure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

Filia NasicaB, metuentis reddere soldum. 66 

Tum gener hoc faciet ; tabulas socero dabit atque 

[It legat orabit. Multum Nasica negatas 

A.ccipiet tandem, et tacitus leget, invenietque 

Nil sibi legatmn prsBter plorare suisque. 

[llud ad hsc jubeo ; mulier si forte dolosa . 70 

Libertusve senem delirum temperet, illis 

Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut abeens. 

IVfe sene, quod dicam, factum est. Ajius improba Thebii^ 

Cx testamento sic est elata : cadaver 

Ukctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit heres : ffi 

Scilicet elabi si posset mortua : credo, 

Quod nimium institerat viventi. Cautus adito, 

Neu desis opersB neve immoderatus abundes. 

Oifficilem et morosum ofiendes garrulus : ultro 

Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus ; atque 49 

Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti 

Obse4uio grassare : mone, si inorebuit aurii, 



i80 a. IIORATII FLACCl ' &, 6 

ft 

Cautus uti velet carum caput : extrahe turba ' 

Oppofiitis huraeris : aurem substringe loquaci. ^^^^ 

Importutius amat laudari ? donee, Ohe jam ! 61 

Ad coelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urge, ct 

Ciescentem tuinidis infla sermonibus utrem. 

Quum te servitio iongo ciiraque levarit, 

Et certum vigilans, Quartce esto partis UlixeSt 

Audieris, heres : Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 90 

Ntisquam est? unde mihi tarn for tern tamque JideCert ? 

Sparge subinde, et, si paulum potes illacrimare. Est 

Gaiidia prodentem vultum celare. Sepulcrum  \ 

I'ermissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstiue : funus  . 

Kgregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quis 9fi I 

Forte coheredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 

Die, ex parte tua, seu fundi sive domus sit 

Emtor, gaudentem nummo te addicere. Sad mo 

l^mperiosa trahit Proserpina : vive valeque. 



Satira VI. 

HORATII VOTUM. 

Hoc erat iu votis : modus agri non ita magnus, 

Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aqusB fons, 

Et paulum silvan super his foret. Auctius atque 

Di melius fecere : bene est : nil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria hsBC mihi munera faxis. fi 

Si neque majorem feci ratione mala rem. 

Nee sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

8i veneror stultus nihil horum, O si angulusiUe 

Pyoximus accedatj qui nunc denormat agdlum ' 

O n umam argentifors qua mihi moTistret, ut illi, 10 

Thesauri invento qui mercenariia agrwm 

lUum ijmtm tnercatus aravit, dives arnica 

Veivule ! Si, quod adost, gratum juvat, hac proce te ov 



6, J SEEMONUM. LIBER If. 181 

Pingue pecus domino laciaii et cetera prsBter 

Tngenium ; utque soles, oustos mihi maxinlus ad sis. lA 

Ergo ubi me in monies et in arcem ex Urbe removi 
(Quid prius illustrem Satiris Musaque pedestri ?), 
Nee mala me ambitio perdit, nee plumbeus Auster 
Auotumnusque gravis, Libitinas quxstus acerbae 

Matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, 20 

Unde homines operum primos vitSBque labores 
Instituunt (sic Dis placitum), tu carminis esto 
Principium. Roma3 sponsorem me rapis. — Ein^ 
Ne prior officio quisqzuim respondeat, urge ! 
Bive Aquilo radit terras, seu bruma nivalem ^4o 

Interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. — 
Postmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locuto, 
Luctandum in turba et facienda injuria tardis.— 
Quid tibi vis, insane ? et quara rem agis irrvprobus ? urget 
Jratis precibus ; tu pulses omne quod obstat, 30 

Ad McBcenatem mcmori si mente recurras. — 
Hoc juvat et melli est ; non mentiar. At simul atras 
Ventum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 
Per caput et circa saliunt latus. Ante secundam ' 
Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal eras. . 35 

'^ De re communi scribae magna atque nova te ^ ^^ 
Orabant hodie meminisses, Quinte, reverti. 
Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas sign a tabeUi&. 
Dixeris, Experiar : Si vis, potes, addit et instat. 
Septimus octavo propior jani fugerit annus, 40 

Ex quo Maecenas me ccepit habere suorum 
In nuraero ; dumtaxat ad hoc, quem toUere rheda 
Vellet iter faciens, et cui concredere nuiras 
Hoc genus : Hora quota est ? Threx est Gallina Syro pai ? 
Matutina parum cantos jam frigora mordent : 45 

Et quae rimosa bene dcponuntur in aure. 
Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 
bividio iioFtcr. Ludos spectavcrit una. 



182 a. HOB Am FLACCI |^fk 

liuserit in cain|)o j^ortunsB fiiius ! oinneffkS 
. v^vFrigidus a llostris manat per compita rumor : , M 

Q\iicunque obvius est, me consulit : O bone, nant to 
Scire, Deoe quoni*)m propiuB contingis, oportet, 
Num quid de Dacis audisti ? — Nil equidem. — ^Ut tu 
Semper eria derisor I — At omnes Di exagitent mc. 
Si quidquam. — Quid ? militibus promissa Triquetra £^ 

Plrsedia Ca)sar, an est Itala tellure daturus ? 
Jurantem me scire nihil mirantur ut unnm 
Scilicet egregii mortalem altique silenti. 
Perditur hsec inter misero lux, non sine votis • 
O rus, quando ego te adspiciam ? quandoque licebit, tO 

Nunc veterimi libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis 
Ducere sollicitsB jucunda oblivia vitsB ? 
O quando faba PythagorsB cognata, simulque 
Uncta satis pingui poncntui oluscula lardo ? 
O noctes coenaeque Deum ! quibus ipse meique \ 6A 

Ante larem proprium vescor, vemasque procaces 
Pasco libatis dapibus. Prout cuique libido est, 
Siccat insBquales calicos conviva solutus 
Legibus' insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 
Pocula, seu modicis uvescit lastius. Ergo 70 

Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 
Nee, male necne Lepos saltet ; sed, quod magis ad nos 
Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus : utruiune 
Divitiis homines, an sint virtute beati : 
Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos : Tfi 

Et qua) sit natura buni summumque qmd ejus. 
X Cervius hsBc inter vicinus garrit aniles >v^ 
Ex re fabellas. Si quis nam laudat Arelli 
Sollicitais ignarus opes, sic incipit : Olim 
Rusticus urbanum murem mus pauperc fertur 8Q 

Aocepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 
Aspei et at tent us quoesi'tis, ut tamen arctuni 
Solveret hospitiis animum Quid multa ' neque ilie 



. -L 






^] 8ERM0NUM. — LIBER H. 1981 

Seposiii cicens nee longsB invidit avensB ; 

Aridum st ore ferf^ns aciaum semesaque lardi 8/1 

Frusta dcdit, cupiens varia fastidia coBiia 

Vincere tangentis male singula dentc superbo 

Quurn pater ipse domus, palea porrectus in homa, 

Esaet ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 

Tandem urbanus ad himc : Quid te juvat, inquit, amice, 9(1 

E^fflrupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? 

Vis tu homines urbemque feris prseponere silvis ? 

Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes ; terrestria quando 

Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 

Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga : quo, bone, circa, 9d 

Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus ; 

Vive memor, quam sis aevi brcvis. ^ Hasc ubi dicta 

Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 

Ambo propositura peragunt iter, urbis aventes * 

MoBnia nocturni subrepere. Jamque tenebai lOll 

Nox medium ccbU spatium, quum ponit uterque 

In locuplete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 

Tincta super lectos canderet vestis ebumos, 

Multaque de magna superessent fercula ccena, 

Quae procul exstructis inerant hestema cauistrui. 105 

firgo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 

Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes, 

Continuatque dapes ; nee non verniliter ipsis 

Fungitur officiis, praelibans omne quod affert. 

Illc Cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 

Rebus agit Isotum convivam, quum subito ingexB 

Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 

Currsre per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 

Sscanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Molossis 

Personuit canibus. Turn rusticus : HaTld milii vita \& 

Est opus liac, ait, et valeas : me silva cavueque 

Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo. 



^. \ 



184 a. IIORATII FLACin II 



Satira VII. 

LEPIDE SE IPSE CARPIT EX PERSONA SERV.' 
ET OSTENDIT, LIBERUM SOLUM ESSE SA 
PIENTEM 

Davus. 

Jamdudum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicere servus 
Pauoa reformido. 

HoilATIUS. 

Davusne ? 

Davus. 

Ita. DavuB, amicuiu 
Mancipium domino, et frugi quod sit satis, hoc eat, 
fit vitalo putes. 

HORATIUS. 

Age, libertate Decembri, 
Quando ita majorcs voluerunt, utere ; narra. & 

Davus. 
Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter, et urget 
Propositunt ; pars multa natat, modo recta capesserji, 
[nterdum pravis obnoxia. SsBpe notatus 
Cum tribus anellis, modo laBva Priscus inani. 
Vixit insBqualis, clavum ut mutaret in horas ; 10 

iEdibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 
IMundior cxiret vix libertinus honeste : 
Jam mcBchus Romse, jam mallet doctus Athenis 
Viveie ; VertumniS, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis 
Scui*ra Volaneiius, postquam illi justa cheragra >5 

Cont idit articulos, qui pro sc toUeret atque 
Mitturot in phimum talos, mercede diurna 






T.j 6ERMONUM. LIBER H. I8d 

Conduct urn pavit : quanto oonstantior idem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser ac prior illo, 

Qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborai. 80 

HORATIUB. 

Non dices hodie, quorsum hsec tarn putida tenduit, 
Fmoifer ? 

Davus. 
Ad te, inquam. 

HORATIUS. 

Quo pacto, peBsinie ? 

Davus. 

Laudan 
Fortunam et mores antiquie plebis, et idem, 
Si quis ad ilia Deus subito te agat, usque recuses ; 
Aut quia non sentis, quod clamas, rectius esse, 2fi 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et hssres, 
Ncquidquam cosno cupiens evellere plantam. 
RomaB rus optas, absentem rusticus Urbem 
Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 
Ad cQBnam, laudas securum olus ; ac, velut usquam 30 

Vinctus eas, ita te felicem dicis amasque, 
Quod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Jusserit ad se 
MsBcenas serum sub lumina prima venire 
Convivam : Nemon oleum fert ocius ? ecquis 
Audit ? cum magno blateras clamore, fiigisque. 34 

iVIulvius et Bcunrao tibi non referenda precali 
Discedunt. Etenim, fateor me, dixerit ille, 
Dud ventre levem, nasum nidore supinor, 
[mbecillus, iners ; si quid vis, adde, popino. 
Tu, quum sis quod ego, et fortassis nequior, ultrt 4fl 

rneectere velut melior ? verbisque decoris 



ISO a. HORATH FLACCI [1 

ObvolvBS milium ? Quid, si me stultior ipso 

Quingenti? emto drachmis deprendcris ? Aufei 

Mc vultu terrere ; manum stomachumquc teneto. 

Tune mihi dorniims, rerum imperiis hominumque 4t 

'L'ot tantisque minor, quem ter vindicta quaterque 

In]|)osita haud unquam misera formidine privet ? 

AdJe super dictis/qucd non levius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est, qui servo paret, 4ti raos 

7eet3r ait, seu conservus ; tibi quid sum ego ? Nempe 6C 

Tu, mihi qui imperitas, aliis servis miser ; atque 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Quisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens, sibi qui imperiosus , 
Quem ueque pauperies neque mors neque vincula terrent ; 
Respopsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 5t 

Fortis ; et in se ipso totus, teres atque rotundus, 
Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari, 
[n quem manca ruit semper Fortuna. Fotesne 
lilx his ut proprium quid noscere ? 

Die age. Noo qiiis 
Urgct enim dominus mentem non lenis, et acres 60 

Subjectat lasso stimulos, versatque negantem. 

Vel quum Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 
Qui peccas minus atque ego, quum Fulvi KutubaBqu9 
. Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror 
Proelia, rubrica picta aut carbone ; velut si ijB 

Re vera pugnent, feriant, vitentque moventes 
Anna viri ? Ncquam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 
Subtilis veterum judex et callidus audis. 
Nil ego, si ducor libo fumante : tibi ingens 
Virtus atque animus coBnis responsat opimis ".' 70 

Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est : cur ? 
Tergo.plector enim ; qui tu impunitior ilia, 
^a^ parvo sumi nequeunt, obsonia captas ? 
Nempe inamarescunt epulsB sine fine petitsB, 
fUusique pedes vitiosum ff>rre recusant 75 



7, 8. J SERMONUM. — LIBER 11. 1^* 

Corpue. An his peccat, sub noctem qui puei uvam 

Furtiva mutat strigili ? qui prsedia vendit. 

Nil servile, guise parens, habet ? Adde, quod idem 

'JSon horam tecum esse potes, non otia rocte 

Ponere ; teque ipsum vitas fugitivus et erro, 94 

Jain vino qusBrcns, jam somno fallere curam : 

Frustra : nam comes atra premit sequiturque fuga<:ein 



HoRvnus. 



Unde mihi lapidcm ? 



Davus. 
Quorsum est opus ? 

HORATIUS. 



Unde sagitUul 



Davus. 
Ant insanit homo, aut versus facit. 

MoB,ATlUS. 

Ocius hip^ to 
Ni rapis, accedes opera agro nona Sabino. 8/t 



Satira VIII. 

IN NASIDIENUM RUFUM CONVP iTOUEM 

VAPIDE GAPwRULUM. 

HORATIUS. 

Ut Nasidieni juvit to ccena beati ? 

Nam mihi convivara qiserenti dictus heri illi< 

I>e medio potare die. 

FuNDANIUa. 

Sic ut mihi uuuquaui 
In vita fueni melius. 



IBH a HOHATll FLACCI [K 

HORATIUS. 

Da, si grave non est, 
QiUD prima iratuni ventrem placaverit esca. ft 

FuKDANros 

;,u piiinis Lucanus aper : leni fuit Austro 

Captus, ut aiebat ccensB pater ; acria circum 

Rapula, lactuc8B, radices, qualia lassum 

Pervellunt stomachum, siser, allec, fsecula Coa. 

His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 10 

Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 

Sublegit quodcunque jaceret inutile, quodque 

Posset coDnantes.ofiendere ; ut Attica virgo 

Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fuscus Hydaspes, 

Csecuba vina ferens, Alcon Chium maris expas 11 

Hie herus, Albanuni, Maecenas, sive Falemum 

Te magis appositis delectat, habcmus utrumque. 

HORATIHS. 

Divitias mis^ras ! Sed queis ccenantibus una. 
Funaani, puHhre fuerit tibi, nosse laborr 

FUNDANIUS. 

Summus ego, et prope me Viscus Thurinus, et iiifra 9^ 

Si memini,Varius ; cum Servilio Balatrone 

Vibidius, quon Mseocnas adduxerat umbras. 

ISIomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius infra, 

Ridiculus totas simul obsorberc placentas. 

Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 20 

Indice monstraret digito : nam cetera turba, 

Nos, inquam, ccenamus avcs, conchylia, piscea, 

lionge dissimilem note celantia succum ; 

Ut vel coRtinuo patuit, quum passeris atque 

fiiguRta^ mihi porrexcrat il'a rhombi. 80 



Kj SERMONUM. LIBER IT 18S 

Post hoc me docuit, melimela rubere minoreni 

Ad lunam delecta. Quid hoc inters! t, ab ipso 

Audieris melius. Turn Vibidius Balatrom : 

Nos nisi damnose bibimus, moricmur inulti ; 

Et calices poscit majoreg. Vertere pallor S5 

Tum parochi faciem, nil sic metuentis ut acres 

Potores, Yol quod maledicunt hberius, vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatumL 

Envertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus : imi 40 

ConvivsB lecti nihilum nocuere lagenis. 

Afiertur squillas inter muraena natantes 

In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus, Hcbc graviaa, inquit, 

Capta est, detwiar post partum camefutura. 

His mixtumjus est : oleo^ quod prima Venafri 45 

Pressit cdla ; garo de succis piscis Iben; 

Vino quinqtienni vet'um citra mare nato, 

Dum coquitur {cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non 

Hoc m^agis ullum aliud) ; pipere alho, rum sine aceto* 

Quod Meth/ifmnaam vitio mutavcrit uvam. oO 

E7'ucas virides, inulas ego primus aTuaras 

Monstravi incoquere ; iUotos CurtiUus erhinoi, 

Ut melitis muria, quam testa marina remittat. 

Interea suspensa graves aulsea ruinas 

In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri 1^1 

Quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. 

Nos majus veriti, postquam nib'l esse pericli 

Sensimus, erigimur. Rufus posito capite, ut si 

Filius immaturus obisset, fiere. Quis esset 

Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 6i) 

ToUerct ? Heu, Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos 

Te Deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 

Elumanis ! Varius mappa compescere risum 

Vix potcrat. Balatro suspendens omnia nasc 

U^c est condicio vivemli, aiebat, eoque ft^ 



190 Q. HORAril FLACCI SERMONUM. — UBRB II (i 

Responsii^a tiw nunquam est parfama lahori. 

Tene, ut ego acdpiar laute; torquerier omni 

SoUidttidine dtstrictum ? nt panis adustus, 

Ne male conditumjus apponatur? ut omries 

rrcecincti rede pueri comtique mi?iistrent ? 7i 

Adde hos pr ester ca casus, atdcea ruant si, 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus fra?igat agaso 

Scd conmvatoriSy uti d^icis, ingenium res 

AdverscB rvudare sclent, cdare secundce. 

Nasiclienus ad hsBc : Tibi Di, qtuecunque preceris TJ 

Cammoda dent ! ita vir bonus cs conmvaque comu 

Ei soleas poscit. Turn in lecto quoque videres 

Stridcre secreta divisos aurc susurros. 

HORATIUS. 

Nullos his mallem liidos spcctasse ; ged il]a 
Kedde, age, quae deinccps risisti. 

FUNDANIUS. 

Vibidius dum 
Quffirit de pueris, num sit quoque fracta lagena. 
Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, duinque 
liidetuT fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo, 
Nasidiene, redis mutatse frontis, ut arte 
Emendaturus fortunain ; deindo secuti Id 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 
Membra gruis, sparsi sale multo non sine farre, 
Pinguibus et iicis pastum jecur anseris albsB, 
£t leporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 
Quam si cum lumbis quis edit. Turn pectore adutto ^^ 
Vidinms et merulas poni, et sine clune palumbe6 ; 
Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 
Naturas dominus quern nos sic fugimus ulti. 
Ut nihil omiiino gustaremus, velut illis 
Canidia afflasset pejor serpeutibus > Una 



Q HORATII ELACCI 



EPISTOLiE. 



Q HO R A Til FLACCI 
EPISTOLARUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 

Epistola I. 

AD MiECENATEM 

^ A dict6 uihi, summa diccndc Camena, 
Speetatum & itis, et donatum jam rude, quaeriH 
MsBcenas, iteAim antique me includere ludo ? 
Nou eadem est setas, non mens Veianius, armia 
Herculis ad postern fixis, latet abditus agio, I 

Ne populum cxtrema toties exoret arena. 
Est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 
Solve senescentem mature sanies eguum, ne 
Peccet ad extremwm, ridendics, et Hia ducat, 
Nuno itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono ; 10 

Quid verum atque decens euro et rogo, et omnis m boo mm > 
Coudo et compono, qu» mox depromere possim. 

Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter ' 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri, 
Quo me cunque rapit tempestas, dcferor hospes. 15 

Nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis, 
Virtutis vera) custos rigidusque satelles ; 
Nunc in Aristippi furtim prscepta reiabor, 
Ct mibi res» non me rebus subjungere conor. 
Lenta dies ut opus debentibus , ut piger annua 
Papillis, qiios dura premit custodia matrum ; 



\ 



194 a. UORATII FLACCI ,1 

Sic mihi t&rda fluunt ingrataque tempora, qua) sgem 

Consiliumque niorantur agendi gnaviter id, quod 

/Eque pauperibus prodeit, locupletibus aque, 

^£que neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit. 26 

Kcstat, ut his ego me ipse regam solerque (>]ein*ii(i8 : 
Non possis oculo quantum contendere Lynctras, 
Non tamcn idcirco contcmnas lippus inungi ; 
Nee, quia desperos invicti membra Glyconis, 
Nodosa corpus nolis prohibere cheragra. 30 

Est quadam piodire tenus, si non datur ultra. 
Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus ? 
Sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem 
Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem. 
Laudis amore tumes ? sunt certa piacula, qusB te 3d 

Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello. 
Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator ? 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit. 
Si modo cultursB patientem commodet aurem. 

Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima 4(1 

Stultitia caruisse. Vides, quae maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum turpemque repulsaui, 
Quanto devites animo capitisque labore. 
Lmpiger extremes curris mercator ad Indos, 
Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per igncs : 45 

Ne cures ea, quae stulte miraris et optas, 
Discere et audire et mcliori credere non vis ? 
Quis circum pages et circum compita pugnax 
Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, 
Cui sit condicio dulcis sine pulvere palmie ? 6(1 

Vilius argentum est auro, virtu tibus aurum. 
O cives, dves, queer enda pecunia primum esC^ 
Virtus post nummos. Hsec Janus summus ab imc 
Prodocet ; hsBC recinunt juvenes dictata senesque, 
LflBvo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. (Ift 

Est animus tibi, sunt mores, ept lin^a fidesque ; 



L| EPiSTOL%RUM. LIBER I. 191 

Sed quadringentia sex septem millia desint : 
Plebs eris. At pueri ludentes, Rex eris, aiuat, 
Si recte fades. Hie murus aeneus esto, 
Nil ccnscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 60 

Roscia, die sodas, melior lex, an puerorum est 
Na;nia, quae regnum recte faeientibus ofTert. 
Et maribus Curiis et deeantata Camillis ? 
Esne tibi melius suadet, qui, rem facias ; rem, 
Si possis, recte ; si non, quocunque modo rem, 68 

Ut propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupi : 
An qui, fortunae te responsare 8uperba3 
Liberum et erectum, praesens hortatur et aptat ? 
Quod si me populus Romanus forte roget, cur 
Non, ut porticibus, sic judiciis fruar isdem, 7C 

Nee sequar aut fugiam, quae diligit ipse vel odit ; 
Olim quod vulpes aegroto caut|i leoni 
Respondit, referam : Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia^ nuUa retrorsum 74 

Bellua multorum est capitum. Nam quid sequar ? a 1 1 quern ? 
-Pars hominum gestit conducere publica ; sunt qu 
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 
Excipiantque senes, quos in vivaria mitt ant ; 
Multis occulto crescit res fenore. Verum 
JSsto aliis alios rebus studiisqi^e teneri : 80 

lidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes ? 
NuUtis in orbe sinus Baiis prcduxxt am^nis 
Si dixit dives, lacus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 

Fecorit auspicium : Cras ferramenta Teanum 85 

Tolletis, fabri. Lectus genialis in aula est : 
Nil ait esse prius, melius nil coelibe vita ; 
Si non est, jurat bene solis esse maritis. 
Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protoa nodo ? 
Quid pauper ? ride : mutat ccenacula, lectos^ 90 

Balnea, tonsores ; conducts navigio aequo 
Nfauscat ac locuples, quern ducit priva triremii 



96 a. HORA'/n FLACCI [ 1« 9 

Si curatuB insequali tonsore capillos 
Occurro, rides : si forte subucula pexss 
Trita subest tunicsB, vel si toga dissidet impar, * 91 

S'ides. Quid ? mea quum pugnat sententia sccum ; 
Quod petiit, spernit ; repetit quod nuper omif^it ; 
^stuat et vitsB disconvenit ordine toto ; 
Diroit, ffidificat, mutat quadrata rotundis : 
Insanire putas soleniiia me ? neque rides ? lUO 

Nee medici credis nee curatoris egere 
A. prsetore dati, rerum tutela mearum 
Quum sis, et prave sectum stomacheris ub imguem 
De te pendentis, te respicientis amici ? 

Ad summam, sapiens uno minor est Jove, dives, \0h 

Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum ; 
Pnecipue sauus, nisi quum pituita molesta est. 



Epistola II. 

AD LOLLIUM. 

Trojani belli senptorem, maxime LoUi, 

Dum tu declamas Romse, Prseneste relegi ; 

Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid nuii, 

I'^lanius ac melius Chr^'sippo et Crantore dicit 

Cur ita crediderim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. i 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Graecia Barbarise lento collisa duello, 
Stultorum regum et populorum continct sestus. 
Antenor censet belli prsecidere causam * 
Quod Paris, ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus, 10 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 
Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden : 
Elunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque 
Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Acbivi. 
Seditione, dolia* scelc^e atque Ubidine et ira li 

Uiacos intra murc^s p(:^catur et q|^ra. 



2. J EPISTOLARUM. LIBER I. IW 

Rursam, quid virtus et quid Bapientia \wssi\ 
Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen ; 
Qui, domitor Trojae, multorum providus urbes 
£t mores hominum inspexit, lanimque per equoi, tO 

Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversis rerum immersabilis undis. 
Siienum voces et Circae pocula nosii , 
Quae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset. 
Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excorS; 25 

Vixisset canis immundus, vel amicp luto sus. 
Nob numerus sumus, et fruges consumere nati, 
Sponsi PenelopsB, nebulones Alcinoique, 
In cute curauda plus aequo operata juventUR ; 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies, et 30 

Ad strepitum citharsB cessatum ducere curam. 

Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latronea : 
(Jt te ipsiun serves, non expergisceris ? atqui 
Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus ; et ni 
Posces ante diem librum cum luroine, si non bli 

Intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis, 
Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 
QuaB laedunt oculum, festinas demere ; si quid 
Est animum, difiers curandi tempus in annum ? 
Dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet ; sapere aude, v^i 

Incipe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 
Rusticus exspectat, dum defluat amnis ; at ille 
Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis aBvum. 

Quaeritur argentum, puerisque beata creandis 
Uxor, et incultaB pacantur vomere silvaB : 4^ 

Quod satis est cui contigit, hie nihil ampl'us optet 
Non domus et fundus, non aeris accrvus et auri 
Mgrotc domini deduxit corpore febres, 
Non animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 
2^1 oomportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. (SO 

Qoi cupit aut metuit, juval^illum sic domus el rei, 



IU8 Q. H>KATIt FLACCI [2,9 

L t lippum pict^B tabulae, fomenta podagrurn, 
Auriculas citharsB coUecta sorde dolentes. 
Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis, accscit 

Speme voluptates ; nocet emta dolore voluptas. V 

Semper avarus eget ; certum voto pete finera. 
Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis , 
[ii'«'idia Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irse, 
Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit ameiis, 60 

Dum pcBuas odio per vim festinat inulto. 
Ira furor brevis est ; animum rege ; qui, nisi paret, 
Imperat ; hunc frenis, hunc tu compcsce catena. 
Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 
Ire, viam qua monstret eques. Venaticus, ex quo ^> 

Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, 
Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 
Pectore verba, puer, nunc te melioribus oHer. 
Quo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 
Testa diu. Quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis 7d 

MTec tardum opperior nee prsecedentibus insto. 



Epistola III. 
AD JULIUM FLORUM 
Juli Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro. • 
Thracane vos, Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus. 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 
An pingues Asiae campi collesque morantur ? 6 

Quid studiosa cohors operum strait ? Hoc quoquo ciiio 
Quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? 
Bella inxa et paces longum difTundit in asvmn ? 
Quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in ora, 
Pindarici Ibntis qui non expalluit haustus, ; I 

(TftBtidire lacus fit rivos a^isus aysrtot ? 



8,4.) EPrSTOLARaM. — L.BER X. 1911 

Ut vale I ? ut meminit nostri ? fidibusne Latin la 

Thebanog aptare modos studet, auspice Musa ? 

An tragica desaevit et ampuUatur in arte ? 

Quid mihi Celsus agit ? monitus niultumque raorLeiidui 1£ 

Privatas ut quaerat opes, et tangere vitet 

Scripta, Palatinus quajcunque recepit Apollo ; 

Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 

Grex avium plumas, moveat cornicula risum 

Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes ? '4\i 

Quae circumvoiitas agilis thyma ? non tibi parvum 

Ingeniunn, non incultum est et turpiter hirtura. 

Seu linguam causis acuis, seu civica jura 

Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen : 

Prima feres ederae victricis praeraia. Quod si 25 

Frigida curarum fomenta relinquere posses, 

Quo te coelestis sapientia duceret, ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi curaB, 30 

Quaiitae conveniat, Munatius ; an male sarta 

rxralla nequidquam coit et rescinditur ? At, vo« 

Seu calidus sanguis seu rerum inscitia vexat 

Indomita ceirvice feros, ubicunque locorum 

Vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere fosdus, 3fi 

Pascitur in vestrum reditum vot* va juvenca. 



EPISTOLA IV. 

AD ALBIUM TIBULLUM 

AUm, nostrorum sermonum candide judex. 

Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? 

Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat, 

An tacitum silvas inter reptare salubres, 

Curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque est ? € 

N^oa iu cor|)us eras sine pectore. Di tibi formanit 



200 a. HORATIl FLACC (4» (^ 

Di tiLi divitias Jederaiit, artemque fruendi. 

Quid voveat dulci nutricula majus aJumno, 

Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui 

Gratia, fania, valetudo contingat abunde, \i 

£t in mdus victus, non deficiente crumena ' 

Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras. 

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 

Grata supcrveniet, quaj non sperabitur, hora. 

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute visei, I 

Qiium ridere voles Epicuri de grege porciun. 



Epistola V. 

AD TORQUATUM. 

Hi potes Archiacis conviva recumbere lectis, 

Nee modica coenare times olus omne patella, 

Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 

Vina bibes iterum Tauro diffusa, palustres 

Inter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. t 

Sin melius quid habes, arcesse, vel imperium fer. 

Jamdudum splendet focus, et tibi munda su^iellex 

Mitte leves spes, et certaraina divitiarum, 

Et Moschi causam. Cras nato CsBsare festus 

Dat veniam somnumque dies ; impune licebit ! t 

iEstivam sermone benigno tendere noctem. 

Quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti ? 

Paicus ob bercdis curam nimiumque severus 

Assidet insane. Potare et spargere florcs 

Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. § 

Quid non ebrietas designat ? operta recludit, 

Spes jubot esse rat as, ad prcelia trudit inerteiii, 

Sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artes. 

Fecundi calicos qucm uon fecere disertum ? 

Contracta quern non in paupertate solutum ? ^ 

UtDO ego procurarc *iX idoaeus irnperor, et non 



&, b.J EPISTOLARUM. LIBEt I. 201 

Invitus, na turpe toral, ne sordida mappa 

Corrugct nares, ne non et cantliarus et laiix 

Ostendat tibi te, ne iidos inter amicos 

Sit, qui dicta foras eliminet, ut coeat par Si 

Jungaturque pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 

Et nisi coena prior potiorque puella Sabinum 

Detinet, assumam ; locus est et pluribus umbris ; 

Sed nimis arcta premunt olidsB convivia caprse. 

Tu, quntus esse vclis, rcscribe ; et rebus omissis 19 

Atria senranteip *Y)stico f^lle clientem. 



Epistola VI. 
AD NUMICIUM. 

Nil adinlrari prope res est una, Numici, 

SoLaque, qiiso possit facere et servare beatum. 

Huno solem, et Stellas, et decedentia certis 

Tompora momentis, sunt qui formidine nulla 

Imbuti spectent. Quid censes inunera terre ? I 

Quid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indos ? 

Ludicra quid, plausus, et amici dona Quiritis ? 

Quo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore ? 

Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem, 

Quo cupicns pacto ; pavor est utrobique mdestus, 10 

Lmprovisa simul species exterret utrumque. 

Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem, 

Si, quidquid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 

Defixis oculia, animoque et corpore torpet ? 

Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui. 1 6 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsani 
I nunc, argentum et marmor vctus seraque et artes 
Suspice, cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colorcs ; 
Gaude, quod spectant oculi te millc loquentem ; 
Gnavus mane forum, et vcspertinus pete tectum, 20 

Ne plus frumenti iotalibus emetat a&rris 

12 



i02 a. HORATII FLACCI [tl 

Mutus, et (indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus) 
HkC tibi sit potius, quam tu mirabilis illi. 
Quidquid sub terra est, in apricum proferot setas ; 
Defodiet condetque uitentia. Quuin bene notum 2J 

Porticus Agripprn et via te conspexerit Appi, 
Iro tamen restat, Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 
Quaere fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere ? quis non ? 
Si virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 

loc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas, et 
Luoum ligna ? cave ne- portus occupet alter, 
Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna uegotia perdas ; 
Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, porro et 
Tertia succedant, et quje pars quadret acervum 36 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote, iidemque, et amicos, 
Et genus et formam regina Pecunia douat, 
Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque 
Mancipiis locuples cget asris Cappadocum rex : 
No fueris hie tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scensB prsebere rogatus. 
Qui jpossum tot ? ait ; tamen et quceram, et qtiot habebo 
Mittam. Post paulo scribit, sibi millia quinque 
Esse domi chlamydum ; partem, vel tolleret omnes 
Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt, 4fi 

Et dominum fallunt, et prosunt furibus. Ergo 
Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum. 
Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittaa 

Si fortunatum species et gratia pnestat, 
Mei cemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevum 60 

Qui fodicet latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram 
Porrigera. Hie multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina ; 
Cu: iibet hie fasces dabit, eripietque curule 
Cu' Tolet importunus ebur ; Frater, Pater, adde; 
fit euique est SBtas, ita queiiique facetus adopt a. 5tf 

Si, bone qui cojnat, bene vivit, lucet eamus 



9, 7. 1 CPISTOLiRUM. LIBER ^ 2('« 

Quo due it gula ; piscemur, venemur, ut olira 

Gargilius, qui inane plagas, venabula, servos 

Diilertum transire forun? populumque jubebat. 

Unus ut e multis populo spectante rcferret 6C 

Emtum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique laveiaur, 

Quid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 

Digni, remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulixci, 

Cui potior patria fuit interdict a voluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque 6fl 

Nil est jucundum, vivas in amore jocisque. 

Vive, vale I Si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Candidu£ imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. 



Epistola VII. 

AD M^CENATEM. 
Qulnque dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum, 
Sextilem totum mendax desideror. Atqui 
Si me vivere vis, recteque videre valentem, 
Quam mihi das ajgro, dabis segrotare timenti, 
Maicenas, veniam ; dum ficus prima calorque t 

Designatorem decorat lictoribus atris, 
Dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet, 
Ofiiciosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 
Adducit febres ct testaraenta resignat. 
Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 1 U 

Ad mare descendet vates tuus, et sibi parcet, 
Contractusque leget ; te, dulcis amice, reviset 
Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non, quo more piris vesci Calaber jubet hospes, 
Tu me fecisti locupletem. — Vescere socles. — \i 

Jam satis est. — At tu quantumvis telle. —Benigne — 
Non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis. — 
Tarn tenea?' dono, quam si dimittar oniistus. — 
Ut iibet ; hoc porcii \odic comedenda relitfquu. 



20^ M. HOKArn flaogi / 

Prodigus et stultus donat, qus spemit et odit : 2C 

Ha3c seges ingratos tulit, et feret omnibus annis. 

Vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratiis, 

Nee tamen ignorat, quid distent asra lupinis. 

Dignum prsBstabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 

Quod SI me noles usquam discedere, reddes Mi 

B'orte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos, 

Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et 

Inter vina fugam Cinarse mcerere proterv». 

Forte per angustam tenuis vulpecula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti, pastaqun rursus JU 

Ire foras pleno tcndebat corpore frustra. 
Cui mustela procul, Si vis, ait, efiugere istinc, 
Macra cavum repetes arctum, quem macra subisti. 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno ; 
Nee somnum plebis laudo, satur altilium, nee 36 

Otia divitiis Arabum liberrima rauto. 
Ssepe verecundum laudasti ; Rexque Paterque 
Audisti coram, nee verbo parcius absens. 
Inspice, si possum donata reponere Isetus. 
Haui male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulixei . 40 

Non est aptus equis Ithace locus, ut neqv4t planvS 
Porrectus spatiis, nee m/ultce prodigus herbce : 
Atride, magis apta tibi tuu dona rdimfuam. 
Farvum parva decent : mihi jam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentum. 46 

Strenuus et fortis, causisque Philippus ageniiis 
Clarus, ab ofHciis octavam circiter horam 
Dum redit, atque Foro nimium distare Carinas 
Jam grandi? natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 
Adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris in umbra, SO 

(JJidtello proprios purgantem leniter ungues. 
Denietri (puer liic non IsBve jussa Philippi 
Accipiebat), abi, qtuere et refer, unde domo, quit^ 
Cujusfoptufue, quo sit peUre quove patrono. 



7*1 EPISTOLARUM. IIBERI 209 

It redit, enarrat : Vulteium nomine Menam, 66 

E^rsBoonem, tenui censu, sine criminei notum ; 

Et properare loco et cessare, et quferere et uti, 

Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus, et lare certOi 

Et ludis, et, post decisa negotia, Campo. 

ScUari libel ex ipso, qtuecunqtce refers : die 60 

Ad camani vcnicU. Non sane credere Mena ; 

Mirari secum tacitus. Quid multa ? Benigne, 

P ^spondet. — Neget iUe mihi ? — Negat improbus^ n U 

Negligit aut horret. — Vulteium mane Philippus 

Vilia vendentem tunicato scruta popello 6^ 

Occupat, et salvere jubet prior. IUe Philippo 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 

Quod non mane domum venisset ; denique, quod non 

Providlsset eum. — Sic ignovisse putcUo 

Me libit si ccenas hodie mecimi. — Ut libel. — JErgo 70 

Posl nonam venies ; nunc », rem slrenuus auge. 

Ut ventum ad coenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus, 

Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hie, ubi sa^pe 

Occultum via AS decurrere piscis ad hamum, 

Mane cliens et jam certus conviva, jubetur 76 

Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. 

Impositus mannis arvum ccelumque Sabinum 

Non cessat laudare. Videt ridetque Philippus, 

Et sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique qusBrit, 

Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 80 

Promittit, persuadet, uti mercetur agellum. 

Mercatur. Ne te longis ambagibus ultra 

Quam satis est merer, ex nitido fit rusficus, atque 

JSulcos et vineta crepat mera, prseparal ulmos, 

Immoritur studiis, et amore senescit habendi. Sfi 

Verum ubi oves furto, morbo periere capella), ^ 

Spem ir.antita seges, bos est enectus arando : 

QfiensuE lamnis, media de nocte caballum 

\rTipit, iratusque Philippi tendit ad mdm. 



20V U. KOD* Til FLACCI [V, N, 9 

Quern simuli adspexit sea brum iutonsumc ue Phi! }ij>uk, :^Q 
Dunes, ait, Vultei, nimis attenttcsque vi'deris 
Esse mihi. — PoZ, me miserum^ 'patrcme, vocares. 
Si velleSt inquit, verum mihi ponere ncrnien. 
Quod te pi€T Genium deztramque Deosque Penates 
Obseao et obtestor, vitce me redde priori. 96 

Qui semel adspexit, quantum dimissa petitis 
Pnesteiit, mature redeat repetatque relicta. 
Mctiii sc qucmque suo modulo ac pede verum est 



Epistola VIII. 

AD CELSUM ALBINOVANUM. 

Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano 

Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaBque Neronis. 

Jb: quaeret quid agam, die, multa et pulchra minautem, 

Vivere nee reete nee suaviter ; baud quia grando 

Contuderit vites, oleamve momorderit aestus, o 

Nee quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris ; 

Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto 

Nil audire velim, nil diseere, quod levet aegnun ; 

Fidis oflendar medieis, irascar amicis, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere vetemo ; >0 

Quas nocuere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam, 

Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam. 

Post base, ut valcat, quo paeto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat Juveni, pereontare, utque cohorti. 

Si dieet, Recte : primum gaudere, subinde 1 fi 

Prajccptum auriculis hoe instillare memento : 

Ut ta fortunam, sie nos te, Celse, feiemus. 



Epistola IX. 

AD CLAUDIUM NERONEM 
ioptimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus, 
Quanti me faeias ; nam quum rogat et preoe cogit, 
Sciliwyt ut tibi se laudare et tiadere coner 



H, lO.J EPISTOl^AKUM. LIBER I. 20*^ 

Dignum monte domoque legentis honeBta Neronis, 

Munere quum fungi propioris censet amici, A 

Quid possim videt ac novit fne valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi, cur excusatus abirem : 

Sed tiniui, mea ne finxisse minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis proprisB, inihi commodus uni 

Sic ego, majoris fugiens opprobria culpaB, \ t 

Frontis ad urbanaB descendi prsmia. Quod si 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorem, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et fortem credo bonumque. 



E PISTOL A X. 

AD FUSCUM ARISTIUM. 

(Jrbis amatorem Fuscum salvere jubemus 
Ruris amatores, hac in re scilicet una 
Multum dissimiles, at cetera psBne gemelli, 
Fraternis animis, quidquid negat alter, et alter ; 
Annuimus paritcr vetuli notique cclumbi. 9 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo ruris amcBui 
Rivos, et musco circumlita saxa, nemusque. 
Quid qusBris ? vivo et regno, simul ista reliqui, 
Quas vos ad coslum fertis rumore secundo ; 
Utque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuse ; id 

Pane egeo jam mellitis potiore placentis. 
Vivere naturae si convenienter oporteyt, 
Ponendaeque domo quserenda est area primum, 
Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 
Efit ubi plus tepeant hiemes ? ubi gratior aura i^ 

Lewat et rabiem Canis, et momenta Leonis, 
Quum semel accepit solem furibundus acutum ? 
Est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura ? 
Deterius Libycis olet aut iiitet herba lapillis ? 
Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, aO 

Quam qusB per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum ? 



^08 a. LORATII FLACCl 10,11 

Nempe inter vanas nutritur silva columnas» 
Laudaturque domus, longos qiiSB prospicit agrofl 
Naturam expellas furca, taniexi usque recurret, 
Et mala perrumpet fiirtim fastidia victrix. M 

Non, qui Sidonio contendere cailidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accipiet damnum propiusvi medullis, 
Quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
^uem res plus nimio delectavere secundsB, 3U 

MutatsB qnatient. Si quid mirabere, pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
Keges et regum vita praeciurrere amicos. 

Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis 
Pellebat, donee minor in certamine longo 3b 

Imploravit opes hominis, frenumque recepit. 
8ed postquam victor violens discessit ab hosta, 
Non equitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 
Sic, qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominuih vehet improbus, atque 4G 

Serviet SBtemum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet ; si minor, uret. 

LsBtus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi ; 
Nee me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura 4^ 

Cogere, quam satis est, ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat, aut servit, coUecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 

HsBC tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunae. 
Excepto, quod non simul esses, cetera laeHus. 5() 



Epistola XI. 

AD BULLATIUM. 
Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos ? 
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Croesi regia Sardie ? 
Bmyrna quid, 3t Colophon ? majora minorave fiuna ^ 



11,12.1 EPISTOIiARUM. LIPEA I. t^M 

Cnnctaiie prs Campo et Tiberino flumine sordeiit ! 

An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una ? 6 

An Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? 

Scis, Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 

Fidenis vicus : tamen illic vivere vellem, 

Oblitusque meorum, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptonum procul e terra spectare furentem .'0 

Bed neque, qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoqne 

Adspcnsus, volet in caupona vivere ; nee, qui 

Frigus collegit, fumos et balnea laudat, 

Ut fortunatam plene prsestantia vitam. 

Nee, si te validus jactaverit Auster in alto, lA 

Idcirco navem trans ^gsBum mare vendas. 

Incolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra facit, quod 
Psenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 
Per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus. 
Dum licet, ac vultum servat Fortuna benignum, 20 

RomsB laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens 
Tu, quamcunque Deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 
Grata sume manu, neu duleia difier in annum ; 
Ut, quocunque loco fueris, vixisse libenter 
Te dicas. Nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 35 

Non locus, eiliisi late maris arbiter, aufert : 
Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans marc ou itint 
Strenua nos excercet inertia ; navibus atque 
Quadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis, hie est 
Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit sequus. 3C 



Efistola XII. 
AD ICCIUM. 
Fruotibiis Agrippes SvjuUs, quos colligis, Icci, 
9 recte frueris, non est ut copia iTtaj n 
Ab Jove donan possit tibi. Telle querelas ; 
Pauper enim sou est, cui rerura <*up{etit urjuk 



Ki a. iioRATii fla:;ci 12. l^i 

Si ventri })3ne si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil • 

Divitiaj j^terunt regjiles addere majus. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vi^es protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus FortunsB rivus inauret ; 

Vel quia naturain mutare pecunia nescit, I C 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miraraur, si Democriti pecus edit agellos 
Cultaqua, dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 
Quum tu i£iter scabiem tantam et contagia iucn 
NL parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures ; 1 6 

^uas mare compescant causae, quid temperet annum, 
Stellas sponte sua, jussasne vagentur et erreut, 
Quid premat obscurum Lunas, quid proferat orbem 
Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors, 
Empedocles, an Stertiniuin deliret acumen. 80 

Verum, seu pisces, seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 
CTtere Pompeio Grospho, ct, si quid petet, ultro 
Defer : nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et ccquura. 
Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamen ignores, quo sit Romana loco red : 2J 

Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 
Armenius cecidit ; jus imperiumque Phrahates 
Csesaris accepit genibus minor ; aurea fruges 
ftalisB pleno defundit Copia cornu. 



Epistola XIII. 

AD VINIUM ASELLAM 

Ut proficiscenlem docui te saepe diuque, 
Augusto redd.';? signata volumina, Vini, 
8i ralidus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 
Nb studio nostri pecces, odiumque libellis 
Sedulus importes, opera vehemente minister. 
Bi te for' mu<f*. g^ravis urot sarcina charta), 



I'%\4.J EPI8T01,ARU!Vf. LIBER I ^1 1 

A.bjicito potiuii quam quo perferre jut>eris 

Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque patera uir 

Cognomen vertas in risum, et fabula fias. 

V"iribu8 uteris per clivos, flumina, lamafc : IC 

Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 

Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 

Fasciculuni portes librorum, ut rusticus agnuiii, 

Ut "vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanaB, 

CJt cum pileolo soleas con viva tribulis. 15 

Neu vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 

Carmina, quae possint oculos auresque morari 

CiBBaris ; oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 

Vade, vale, cave ne titubes, mandataque frai^i 



Epistola XIV. 

AD VILLICUM SUUM. 

Villice silvarura et mihi me reddentis agelli, 

Quern tu fastidis, habitatum quinque focis, et 

Quinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patrtJi* : 

Certemus, spinas animone ego fortius un tu 

Evellas agro, et melior sit Horatius an res. d 

Me quamvis Lamise pietas et cura moratur, 

Fratrem moBrentis, lapto de fratre dolentis 

Insolabiliter, tamen istuc mens animusque 

Fert, et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra,. 

Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe beatum : 10 

Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors. 

Stultus uterque locimi immeritum causatur inique ; 

In culpa est animus qui se non effugit unquam. 

Tm mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 

Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea villicus optas. ifi 

Me constare mihi scis, et discedere tristem, 

Quandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam 

Non cadom nuramur ; eo disconvenit inter 



2i2 a. HORATII FLACCl [14, 15 

Mequc et te ; nam, qusB deserta et inhospita tesqua 
Gredis, amoena vocat mecum qui sentit. et odit 20 

QuaB tu pulchra putas.^ 

Nunc, age, quid nostrum concentum dividat, audi. 
Quern tenues decuere togse nitidique capilli, 
Quern bibulum liquidi media de luce Falemi, 
Ccena brovis juvat, et prope rivum somnus in herba ; 2M 
Nee lusisso pudet, sed non incidore ludum. 
Non istio oblique oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat ; non odio obscuro morsuque venenat : 
llident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 
Cum servis urbana diaria rodere mavis ? 31 

Horum tu in numerum veto ruis. Invidet usum 
Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus, et horti. 
Optat ephippia bos, piger optat arare caballus. 
Quam scit uterque, libens, censebo, exerceat artem. 



Epistola XV. 

AD NUMONIUM VALAM 

Quae sit hiems Velias, quod coBlum, Vala, Salemi, 
Quorum hominum regio, et qualis via (nam mihi T aias 
Musa supervacuas Antonius, ot tamen illis 
Me facit invisum, gelida quura perluor unda 
Per medium frigus. Sane myrteta relinqui, 6 

Dictaque cessantem neryis elidere morbum 
Sulfura contemni vicus gemit, invidus aegris, 
Qui caput et stomach um supponere fontibus audeiit 
Clusinis, Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura 
Mutandus locus est, et deversoria nota IC 

PrsBteragendus equus. Qiw tendls ? non mihi ( ^uma$ 
JEst iter aut BaiaSj IsBva stomachosus habena 
Dl/^et eques ; sed equi frenato est auris in ore) ; 
Major utrum populum frumenti copia pascat : 
Collectosne bibant imbres, puteosne perennes I 



t5f l(/.J EPISTOLARUM." •i.lBUR 1. 219 

Jugis aqun (uam vina nihil moroi illius ore. 

Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique : 

Ad mare quum veni. generosum et lene requiro. 

Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 

In venas animumque meum, quod verba ministrei ) 4ll 

Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros, 

Utia magis pisces et echinos squora celent, 

Pinguis ut inde domum possim Phseaxque reverti . 

Scribero te nobis, tibi nos accredere par est. 

Maenius, ut rebus maternis atque potemis 36 

Fortiter absumtis urbanus ccepit haberi, 
Scurra vagus, non qui certum prsssepe teneret, 
[mpransus non qui civem dignosceret hoste, 
Quaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere ssbvus, 
Pemicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 30 

Quidquid qusesierat, ventri donabat avaro. 
Hie, ubi nequitiffi fautoribus et timidis nil 
Aut paulum abstulerat, patinas ccenabat omasi, 
Vilis et agninsB, tribus ursis quod satis esset. 
Nimirum hie ego sum : nam tuta et parvula laudo, 3fl 

Quiun res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis ; 
Verum, ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem 
Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 
Donspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia viUis. 



/ 



Epistola XVI. 

AD QUINCTIUM. 

Ne peroonteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti 
Arvo pascat herum, an baecis opulentet olivae, 
l^oraisne, an pratis, an amicta vitibus ulmo 
Scribetur tibi forma kquaciter, et situs agn. 

Continui montes ni dissocientnr opaca 
V'alle ; scd ut veniens dextrum latus adspiciat Sol, 
[j»vum dccedfvis cUii i fugiente vaporet 



314 ' a. IIOIIATII FLACd ^16 

Temperiera laudes. Quid, si rubicunda benigni 

Corna veprcs ct pruna ferant ? si quercus et ilex 

Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvet umbra ? It 

Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 

Foils etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nee 

Frigidior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebrus, 

Infirmo capiti fiuit u tills, utilis alvo 

HaB latebrsB dulces, etiam, si credis, amosnsB, ] U 

Tncolumem tibi me praBstant Septembribus horis. 

Tu recte vivis, si curas esse quod audis. 
Jactamus jampridem omnis te Roma beatum , 
Sed vereor, ne cui de te plus, quam tibi credas, 
Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum ; 20 

Neu, si te populus sanum recteque valentem 
Dictitet, occultam febrem sub tempus edendi 
Dissimules, donee manibus tremor incidat unctiB. 
f Stultorum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat. • 
/Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 26 

Dicat, et liis verbis vacuas permulceat aures : 
Tene magis sdLvum jKypulus velit, an populum tu, 
Servet in atnbigito^ qui cousulit et tibi et urbi, 
Jupiter ; Augusti laudes agnoscere possis. 
Quum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 3(? 

^k Respondesne tuo, die sodes, nomine ? — Nempe fif 
^ Vir bonus et prudens did delectoi' ego ac tu. 
Qui dedit hoc hodie, eras, si volet, auferet ; ut si 
Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 
Pone, meum est, inquit ; pono, tristisque recedo 3^^ 

Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicimi, 
Contendat laqueo coUum pressisse patemum ; 
Mordear opprobriis falsis, mutemque colores ? 
Falsus honor juvat et mendax infamia terret 
Quem, nisi mendosum et medicandum ? Vir boniu est 
quis? — 4C 

Qui constdta patrutrif qui leges juraque servat, 



lO.J EPfSTOLARUM. — LIBER I. 21^ 

Quo midtcB magnatque seca^Uur Judice lites. 

Quo res spomore, et quo causce teste tenentur. — 

Sod videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 

Litrorsus turpem, speciosum pelle decora. ^fi 

Nee furtum fedy necfugi, si mihi dicat 
Servus : HaJbes pretiuniy loris non ureris, aio. — 
Nim hominem occidi. — Non pasces in cruce corios.— 
Sum bonus etfrugi. — Renuit negitatque Sabelliis. 
Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterquo 50 

Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hamum. 
Oderunt pcccare boni virtu tis amore ; 
Til nihil admittes in te formidine poensB. 
Sit Bpes Tallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 'V 

^^Nam de mille fabae modiis quum surripis unum. 6*> 

^ Damnum est, non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 

Vir bonus, omne forum quern spectat et omne tribuui), 
Qu&ndocunque Deos vel porco vel bove placat, 
Jane pater, clare, clare quum dixit, Apollo, 
Labra movet metuens audiri : Fulchra Lavema^ 90 

Da mihifalleref dajusto sanctoque videri ; 
\Noct.em peccatis, etfraudibus objice rmbefm. y 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus. 
In triviis fixum quum se demittit ob assem, 
Non video. Nam qui cupiet, raetuet quoque ; porro, 6fl 
Qui metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit unquam. 
Perdidit arma, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 
Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 
Vendcre quum possis captivura, occidere noli ; 
Serviet utiliter ; sine pascat durus aretque ; 70 

Vaviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis ; 
Annonae prosit ; portet frur.ienta penusque. 

Vir bonus ct sapiens audebit dicere : Pentheu, 
Rector Thebarum^ quid me perferre patique 
Indtgnum coges ? — Adimambona. — Nempepecus^ re?%t Id 
C^e^toSf argentum ? tollas licet. —Tn fnanicis et 



^16 a. HORATII PLACCI ' lOi. 1^ 

Compec^iinis scevo te sub custode ttfidto — 

Ipse Deiis, simtd atqtte vdam^ me soLvct.— C>]iinor, 

Hoc sentit : Moriar ; mors ultima linea renuii eit 



Epistola XVII. 
AD S C iE V A M. 

Quamvis, ScsBva, satis per te tibi consulis, et scis 

Quo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti, 

Disce. docendus adhuc qusB censet amiculus ; ut a 

Csecus iter monstrare volit : tamen aspiee, si quid 

Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. I 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horati. 
Delectat, si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, « 

8i la^dit caupona, Ferentinum ire jubebo : 
Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia solis, 
Nee vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit tC 

Si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum 
Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 

Si pranderet dus patiefUer, regUms uti^ 
NdleC Aristippus. — Si sdret regihus uti 
Fastidiret olv^, qui me notat. — ^Utrius horum ifi 

Verba probes et facta, doce ; vel junior audi. 
Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. Namque 
Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 
Scurror ego ipse mihi^ popido tu : rectius hoc et 
SpUmdiditcs multo est. JEqutis ut ms portet, aUu f es. SM 
Offidumfado : tu posds vilia rerum^ 
Tkmte minor, quammsfers te nuUius egentem. 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 
Tentantem majora, fere praesentibus SBquum. 
Contra, quem duplici panno patientia velat, fM 

Mirabor, vits^ via si conversa decebit. 
Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 
Quidiibet indutus celebcrrima per loca vadet 



n./d] EPISTOLARUM. — I1BE£1. 217 

Perscnaraque feret non incoucinrius utramque : 

Alter Mileti textam cane pejus et angui HQ 

Vitabit '\'ilamydem ; morietur frigore, si non 

Reltuioris pannum : refer, et sine vivat ineptus 

Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes 
Attingit solium Jovis et CGelestia ten tat ; 
Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 3^ 

Non cuivis homini contiugit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit, qui timuit ne non succederet : esto. 
Quid ? qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter ? Atqui 
Hie est aut nusquam, quod qujerimus. I lie onus htirrel, 
Ut parvis animis et parvo corporo majus ; 40 

Hie subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 
Aut decus et pretium recte petit expericns vlr. 

Coram rege suo de paupcrtate taccntes 
Plus poscentc ferent. Distat, sumasne pudenter 
An rapias : atqui rerum caput hoc erat, hie fona. 4%) 

Indotata mihi rx)ror est^ paupercula inater. 
Et fundus nee vendibilis nee pascere JirmuSy 
Qui dicit, clamat : Victum date. Succinit alter : 
Et Jiiihi dividuo findetur viunere quadra. 
Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet flO 

Plus dapis et rixaj multo minus invidiseque. 



EnsTOLA XVIII. 

AD L O L L I U M. 

Si bene to novi, metues, liberrime LoUi, 
iicurrantis speciem prajbere, professus amicum. 
Est huic diversum vitio vitium prope majus, 
A^peritas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque, 
Quse se commendat tonsa cute, dentibus atris, 
Dura vult libertas dici mera, veraque virtus. 
Virtus est medium vitionim, et utrinque reduclum. 
Alter in obsequiiim plus asquo prcus, et imi 

K 



218 Q. HORATII FLACCI4? [18. 

Dcrisor lecti, sic nutum divilis liorret, 

Sic itemt voces, et verba cadentiii toll it, 10 

Ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro 

Reddcre, vel partes mimum tractare sccundas : 

Alter rixatur de lana saepe caprina, et 

Propugnat nugis armatiis: Scilicet^ ut non 

Sit mihi prima fid es^ et vere quod placet ut non 15 

Acriter elatrem ? Pretium atas altera sordet. 

Arabigitur quid enim ? Castor sciat an Dolichos plus; 

Brundisium Minuci melius via ducat, an Appi. 

Gloria quera supra vires et vestit et ungit, 
Quern tenet argenti sit is importuna famesque, 20 

Quem paupertalis pudor et fiiga, dives amicus, 
Saipe decern vitiis instructior, odit et horret : 
Aut, si non odit, regit > ac, veluti pia mater. 
Plus quam se sapere et virtutibus esse priorem 
Vult, et ait prope vera : Mece (contendere noli) 25 

Stultitiam patiuntur opes ; tibiparvula res est : 
Arcta decet sanum comitem toga ; desine mecum 
Cei'tare, Eutrapelus, cuicunque nocere volebat, 
Vestimenta dabat pretiosa ; beatus enim jam 
Cum pulchris tunicis suraet nova consilia et spcs. 30 

Arcanum neque tu scrutaberis illius unquam, 
Commissumqne teges, et vino tortus et ira. 
Nee tua laudabis studia, aut aliena reprendes; 
Nee, quum venari volet ille, poemata panges. 
Gratia sic fratrum geminorum, Ampliionis atque 35 

Zethi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo 
Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur 
Moribus Amphion : tu cede potentis amici 
Lenibus imperils ; quotiesque educet in agros 
^tolis onerata plagis jumenta canesque, 40 

Surge, et inliumanae senium depone Camenae, 
Coenes ut pariter pulmenta laboiibus emta; 
Komanis solennc viris opus, utile famae, 



18. 1 epist:)Laaum. — liber i. 219 

Vitajquc et membris ; prajsertim quum valeas w 

Vel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum *^ 

Pos&is : adde, virilia quod speciosius arma 

Mon est qui tractet (scis, quo clamore coronaj 

Proelia sustineas campestria) ; denique sajvam 

Militiam puer et Cantabrica bella tuiisti 

Siub duce, qui templis Partborurn sign a refigit SO 

Nunc, et si quid abest, Italis adjudicat arrais. 

Ac (nc te retrahas, et inexcusabills absis), 

Quaravis nil extra numerum fecisse modumquo 

Curas, interdum nugaris rure paterno : 

Partitur lintres excrcitus ; Actia pugna dA 

Te duce per pueros hostili more refertur ; 

Adversarius est frater * lacus Hadria ; donee 

Alterutnun velox Victoria fronde coronet 

Consentire suis studiis qui crediderit te, 

Fautor utroque tuum iaudabit poUice ludum. 60 

Protinus ut moneam (si quid monitoris egen tu) 
Quid, de quoque viro, et cui dicas, soBpe vide to. 
Percontatorem fugito, nam garrulus idem est ; 
Nee retinent patulae commissa fideliter aures ; 
Et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum. bb 

Qualem commeiLdes, etiam atque etiain adspicc , zm mo9 
Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. 
Fallimur, et quondam non dignum tradimus ; ergo 
Qi:em sua culpa premet, deceptus omitte tue^i ; 
At penitus notum, si tentent crimina, serves, 70 

Tuterisque tuo fidentem praesidio : qui 
Dente Theonino quum circumroditur, ecquid 
Ad te post pauio ventura pericula sentis ? 
Nam tua res agitur, paries quum proximus ardet 
Kt neglect a solent incendia surnere vires. 70 

Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici, 
Expertus metuit. Tu, dum tua navia in alto w»i, 
Ifoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura. 



220 a. HORATH FLACCl [18,16 

Oderunt hilarcin tristes, tristemque jooosi, 

Sedatum celeres, agilem gnavuraque reinisfei. 8C 

Potores bibuli media do iiocte Falerui 

Oderunt porrecta negantem ptcula, quamvig 

Nocturnes jures te formidare vapores. 

Dome supercilio nubem : plerumque modestus 

Occupat obscuri speciem, taciturnus acerbi. 8fi 

Inter cuncta leges et percontabere doctos, 
Qua ratione queas traducere leniter aevum, 
Ne te semper iiiops agitet vexetque cupido, 
Ne pavor, et rerum mediocriter utilium spes ; 
Virtutem doctrina paret, naturane donet ; 90 

Quid miriuat curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum . 
Quid pure tranquillet, honos, an dulce lucellum. 
An secretum iter, et fallcntis semita vitai. 

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 
Quern Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore j)agus, 'Jii 

Quid sen tire putas ? quid credis, amice, precari ? 
Sit mihi, quod nunc est ; etiam viinus : et mihi viva'% 
Quod superest cevi, si quid super esse volunt Di : 
Sit bona librorum et pfovisce fi-ugis in annum 
Copia ; neiifluitem dubice spe pendulus horce. 100 

Sed safis est ware Javein, qua donat et aufert : 
Det vitam, del opes; (equv/m mi animum ipse par.ida 



EnsTOLA XIX. 

AD m^cp:natem 

Pnsoo si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 
N^illa placere diu nee vivere carmina possunt, 
Quae scribuntur aqujB potoribus. Ut male sanoe 
Adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas, 
Vina fere dulcea oluerunt mane Camenaj. 
Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus llomerus ; 
Enmus ipse pater cunquam nisi potus ad arma 
Prosiluit dicenda Fanim putealque Libanis 



P.J EPJSTOLARUM. LIBER 1. 32) 

Mandaho SKtis, adimam caniare sevens. 

iloc simul edixi, non cessave^e poetae 10 

Noctumo certare mero, puter) diurno. 

Quid ? si quis vultu torvo I'srus, et pede uudi: 
Bixigiiaque toga, simuletque ex ore Cata icin, 
Virlateinric repraBSoutet moresque Catonis ? 
Rupit larbitam Tiniageuis aemula lingua, 10 

Oum studet urbanus, tenditque disertu* habe.i. 
Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile : quod si 
Pallerem casu, bibereiit exsangue cumin urn. 
O iniitatores, servum pecus, ut mihi sa3po 
Bilem, sajpe jocum vestri move re tumultus I 20 

Libera pet vacuum posui vestigia princeps ; 
Non alien: meo pressi pede. Qui sibi fidit, 
Dux regit cxamen. Paries ego primus iamboa 
Ostendi Latio, numeros animosquo secutus 
Archiloclii, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 2ij 

Ac, ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes, 
Quod timui mutare modes et carminis artem : 
Temperat Archilochi musam pede mascula Sapplio, 
Tempera t Alca3us ; sed rebus et ordine dispar, 
Nee socerum quajrit, quem versibus oblinat atrig, 30 

Nee sponsa) laqueum famoso carmine nectit. 
Huiic ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinun 
Vulgavi fidicen : juvat immeraorata ferenteir, 
Ingenuis oculisque legi manibusque teneri. 

Scire velis, mea cur ingratus opuscula lecto. 3fi 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniu \ i8 '• 
Non ego ventosai plebis sulTragia venor 
Impensis voenarum et tritaj raunere vestib ; 
Non ego, nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor, 
Giammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor : 10 

Hinc illaj lacrimaB I Spissis iiidigna tlieatris 
Scripta pudet recitare, et nugis addere pondus, 
Si dixi : Rides, ait, et Jovis auribvs ista 
Servos J fidis enim manure poetica mella 



22^^ Q. HOBATII FLACCI EPISTOLARUM. LIB. I« [1 9, 20 

Tc scltim, tihi pidcher. Ad haec ego iiaribua uti 4fl 

Formido ; et, luctantis acuto ne secer I'ngui, 
Displicet iste locus, olamo, et diludia posco. 
Ludus enim genuit trepidum certamen et iram, 
Ira truces inimicitias et funebre Wllum. 



Epistola XX. 

AD LIBRUM SUUM. 
ii^ertumnum JaiiumqKc^ liber, spectare videris ; 
Scilicet ut prostes Sosiorum pumice mundus. 
Odisti claves, et grata sigilla pudico ; 
Paucis ostendi getnis, et communia laudas ; 
Non ita nutritus I Fuge, quo descendcre gestia * 
Non erit emisso reditus tibi. Quid miser egi ? 
Quid volui ? dices, ubi quis te IcBserit ; et scis 
In breve te cogi, plenus quum languet amator. 
Quod si non odio peccantis desipit augur,- 
Car us oris RomsB, donee te deserat ajtas. iO 

Couirectatus ubi mauibus sordescere vulgi 
CcBperis, aut tineas pasces taciturnus inertes, 
A.ut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus raitteris Ilerdam. 
Liidebit monitor non exauditus ; ut ille, 
Qui male parentem in rupes protrusit aseDum Ifi 

Iratus : quis enim invitum servare labdret ? 
Hoc quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa doceuteil 
Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 
Quum tibi sol tepidus plures admoverit aures. 
Me libertino natum patre, et in tenui re «V 

Majores pennas nido extendisse loqueris ; 
tJt, quantum generi demas, virtutibus addas. 
Me primis Urbis belli placuisse domique ; 
Dorporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptura, 
trasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 21 

Forte meum si quis te percontabitur aevum, 
Me quater undonos sciat irnplevisse Dccembres 
GoUegam Lepidura quo duxit LoUius unuu 



Q HOKATIl FLAG' Hi 

EPISTOLARUM 

LIBER SECUNDU8. 



EPISTOLA I. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

QuuM tot suBtiucas et tanta negotia solus, 

Res It alas armis tuteris, moriLus omes, 

Legibus emcndes, in publica commoda pcccera. 

Si longo serinone morer tua tempora, Csesar. 

Romulus, et Liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, I 

Post ingentia facta Deorum in templa recepti, 

Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera VeiiA 

Componunt, agros assignant, oppida conduiit, 

Ploravere suis non respondere favorem 

Speratum mentis. Diram qui contudit hydram, 10 

Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 

Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 

Urit enim fulgore suo, qui prajgravat artes 

Infra se po^itas ; exstinctus amabitur idem. 

Praesenti tibi matures largimur honores, i 

Jurandasque tuum per numen ponimus aras, 

Nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale fatentes. 

Sed tuus hie populus, sapiens et Justus in imo, 
Te noBtris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 
Cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque m 

^Istimat, et, nisi quae terris semota suisque 
'^'ernjwribus defuncta videt fastidit et odit; 



224 a. IIORATII FIACVl' fl 

Sie fau .or veterum, ut tabulas peccare vetanU*. 

Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, fcedera return 

Vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis a?quata Sabiiiis, 25 

Pontificum libros, antioga vuluinina vatum, 

Dictitet Albano Musas in monte locutas. 

Si, quia Graiorum sunt antiquissima quaBquo 
Scripta vel optima, Romani pensantur eadem 
Scriptorcs trutina, non est quod multa loquamur : 30 

Nil intra est oleam, nil extra est in nuce duri. 
\^euimus ad summum fortunaj : pingimus atque 
Psallimus, et luctamur Achivis doctius unctis. 

Si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit. 
Scire velim, chartis pretium quotus arroget annus. 3ri 

Scriptor, abhiiic annos centum qui decidit, inter 
Perfectos veteresque referri debet ? an inter 
Viles atque novos ? excludat jurgia finis. — 
Est vetus atque probus^ centum qui perjicit awi<>s. - 
Quid ? qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno, 4(1 

Enter quos referendus erit ? veteresne poetas ? 
An quos et prajsens et postera respuat aitas ? — 
hte quidem veteres inter ponetur honeste^ 
Qui vel mense brevi vel toto est junior anno. — 
Ulor permisso, caudoeque pilos ut cquina3, 4fl 

Paulatim vello, et demo unum, demo et item unum, 
Dum cadat elusus ratione mentis acervi, 
Qui redit in fastos, et virtutem apstimat annis, 
Miraturque nihil, nisi quod Libitina sacravit. 

Ennius, ct sapiens et fortis, et alter Homerus, 50 

(Jt critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur, 
Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. 
Najvius in manibus non est, et mentibus hasret 
Pajne recens ? adeo sanctum est vetus omne poenm. 
Ambigitur quoties liter utro sit prior, aufert ^k 

Pacuvius docti famam senis, Attius alti ; 
DicituT Afrani tog^a convenissc Menandro. 



j.j EP :STOLAllUftl. — LIBEK II. 

Plautua ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicliamii *, 
Vincere Csecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 
Hos ediscitj et hos arcto stipata theatre 66 

Spectat Roma potens ; habet hos numeratque pootai 
Ad nostrum tempus Livi scriptoris ab sevo. 

Intenlum vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peccat. 
^i voteres ita miratur laudatque poetas, 
(Jt nihil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat : 65 

Si qusBdam nimis antique, si pleraque dure 
Dicere ccdit eos, ignave muita fatetur, 
Et sapit, et mecum facit, et Jove judicat apquc. 

Non equidem insector delendave carmina Livi 
Esae reor, memini quae plagosura mihi parvo ""O 

Orbilium dictare ; sed emendata videri 
Pulchraque et exactis minimum distantia miror. 
Inter quae verbum emicuit si forte decorum, 
Si versus paulo concinnior unus et alter, 
Injusto totum ducit venditque poema. 7fi 

Indignor quidquam reprehendi, non quia crasse 
Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 
Nee veniam antiquis, sed honorem et pra^mia p(isci. 
Rccte necne crocum floresque perambulet Attse 
Fabula si dubitem, clament periisse pudorem BO 

Cuncti pa)ne patres, ea quum reprehendere coner, 
Qua) gravis yEsopus, quaj doctus Roscius egit : 
Vel quia nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducuut ; 
V^el quia turpe putant parere minoribus, et, quao 
Imberbes didicere, senes perdenda fateri. S& 

Jam Saliare Numaj carmen qui laudat, et illud, 
Quod mecum ignorat, solus vult scire videri, 
Ingeniis non iile fa vet plauditque scpultis, 
Nostra sed impugnat, nos noslraquc lividus edit. 
Quod si tam Graiis no vitas invisa fuisset, 90 

Quam nobis, quid nunc esset vetus ? aut quid habeiei^ 
Qur¥l lege^ct tereretque viritirr publicus usug? 

K 2 



Vl2d Q. HORAT.I FLACC: \\ 

Ut primuii positis nugari Graecia belli& 
CcBpit, et ill vitium fortuna labier aequa. 
Nunc athletaium studiis, nunc arsit equoroin, ^^ 

Marmoris aut eborif? fabros aut a;ris amavi< 
Snspcndit picta vultum mentemque tabelia. 
Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa tragipdis ; 
Sub nutrice puella velut si luderet infans, 
Quo»l cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. 100 

Qfiid placet aut odio est, quod non mutabile crr^ias ! 
n^c paces habuere bonsB ventique secundi. 

RomsB dulce diu fuit et solenne, reclusa 
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 
Cautos nominibus rectis expendere nuramos, I Oft 

Majores audire, minori dicere, per quae 
Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 
IMutavit men tern populus levis, et calet uno 
Scribendi studio : pueri patresque severi 
Fronde comas vincti ccBnant, et carmina dictant 110 

Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo scribere versus, 
[nvenior Pai'this mendacior ; et, prius orto 
Sole vigil, calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 
Navim agere ignarus navis timet ; abrotonuiii a3gro 
iNon audet, nisi qui didicit, dare ; quod medicorum €«i, 1 16 
E^romittunt medici ; tractant fabrilia fabri : 
Scribimus iudocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hie error tamen, et levis haec insania quantas 
Virtutes habeat, sic collige : vatis avarus 
Non temero est animus ; versus amat. hoc studet u.ium 20 
Dctrimenta, fugas servorum, incendia ridet ; 
Non fraudem socio, puerove incogitat uUam 
Pupillo ; vivit siliquis et pane secundo ; 
Militia) quamquam piger et malus, utilis urbi , 
J8i das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvari. 2 

tWvtenerum pueri balbumquc poeta iigurat, 
TonJ^et ab obscoeuis jam nunc serraonibuii aurem, 



o# 



1 



I.I EPISTOLARUM. LIBER II 231 

Mox rliani pectus pneceptis format amicw, 

Asperitatis et iiividia) corrector et irss , 

Recte facta refert, orient! a ternpora notitf J3C 

[nstruit exemplis, inopem solatur et segrum 

Castis cum pueris ignara ouella mariti 

Disccret unde preces, vatem iii Musa dedisset ? 

Fcsoit opem chorus, et prssentia numina seniii. 

iycelealss implorat aquas docta prece blatulus, 13C 

Avertit morbos, metuenda pericula pellit 

Impetrat et pacem, et locupletcm frugibus annum 

Carmine Di superi placantur, carmine manes 

AgricolaB prisci, fortes, parvoque bcati, 
Ccndita post frumenta, levantes tempore festo 140 

Corpus, et ipsum animum spe finis dura ferenlem 
Cum sociis operum, pueris, et conjuge Ma, 
Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 
Floribus et vino Genium, memorem brevis sbvi. 
Fescennina per hunc inventa licentia morem 146 

Versibus altemis opprobria rustica fudit, 
Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos 
Lusit amabilitcr, donee jam sa;vus apertam 
In rabiem verti coepit jocus, et per honestas 
Ire domes impune minax. Doluere cruento \&Q 

Dente lacessiti ; fuit intactis quoque cura 
Conditione super communi ; quin etiani lex 
Poenaque lata, male quae noUet cannine quemquam 
Describi ; vertere modum, formidine fustis 
Ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. \M 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes 
Lntuiit agresti Latio : sic horridus illc 
Oeiluxit numerus Saturnius ; et grave virra 
Bilunditiae pepulere : sed in longum tamen ffivum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruria. 1 6(1 

Seius enim Gnncis admovit acumina chartis, 
Et post Punica be! I a quietus quserere ccepit. 






228 a. HORATll FLACCl |l 

Quid Sophjcles el Thespis et iEschylus utile ferreut 

Tentavit quoquc rem, si digne rertere pcsset . 

Et placuit sibi, natura sublirais et acer ; 16 > 

Nam spirat tragicum satis, et feliciter audet ; 

Sed turpem putat insciie metuitque lituram. 

Creditur, ex iriodio quia res arcessit, habere 
ifiudoris minimum, sed habet Comosdia tanto 
Plus onoris, quanto venias mimis. Adspice, Plautiis 170 
Quo pacto partes tutetur umantis ephebi, 
Ut patris attenti, lenonis ut insidiosi ; 
Quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis, 
Quam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Geatit enim nummum in loculos demittere.. post hoc 175 
Securus, cadat, an recto stet fabula talo. 
Quem tulit ad scenam ventoso Gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat. 
Sic leve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis avaruiu 
Submit aut reficit. Valeat res ludicra, si me 180 

Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum. 

Sa3pe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam, 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolid ique, et depugnare parati, 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poscunt 185 

Aut ursum aut pugiles ; his nam plebccula gaudet. 
Verum equitis quoque jam migravit ab aure voluplap 
Omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 
Quatuor aut plures aulaea premuntur in horas, 
Dum fugiunt equituni .turmaj pedituraque caterva) ; 190 

Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis, 
Esseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naves ; 
Captivum portatur ebur, captiva Corinth us. 

Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus, seu 
Oiversum confusa genus panthera camelo, 1 9^ 

feive elephas albus vulgi converteret ora : 
8y*H5taret pnpulum ludis attentiub ipeiii, 



I.j £PISTOLARUM. LIBER II. 22y 

Ut Bibi prsebentenj mimo spectacula plura ; 

Boriptores autera narrare putaret asello 

Fabellam surdo. Nam quae pervincere voces 20 C 

Evaluere sonum, referunt quem nostra theatra ? 

Garganum mugire putes nemus, aut mare Tuscuin, 

Tanto oum strepitu ludi spectantur, et arte«, 

DivitisBque pcregrinse, quibus oblitus actdt 

Quum stetit in scena, concurrit dextera larvae. 205 

Dixit adkuc aliquid ? — Nil sane. — Quid placet ergo ?~ 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte putes, me, quaB facere ipse recusem, 
Quum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 
llle per extentum funem mihi posse videtur 210 

Ire poeta, meum qui pectus inauit^r angit, 
Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus iraplet, 
Ut magus, et modo me Th«^' *3s, modo ponit Athenis 
Verum age, et his, qui se lectori credere malunt, 
Quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 2t6 

Curam redde brevem, si munus ApoUine dignum 
Vis complere libris, et vatibus addere calcar, 
TJt studio majore petant Helicona vircntcm, 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saspe pocta^ 
( Ut vineta egomet csedam mea), quum tibi librum 2W 

Sollicito damns aut fesso ; quum laedimur, uimm 
Si quis amicorum est ausus reprendere versum ; 
Quum loca jam recitata revolvimus irrevocati ; 
Quum lamentamur, non apparere labores 
Nostros, et tenui deducta poemata file ; 225 

Quimi speramus eo rem venturam, ut simul atque 
Carmina rescieris nos fingere, commodus ultro 
Arcessas, et egere vetes, et scribere cogas. 
Scd tamen est'opersB pretium cognoscere, quaJ^« 
£dituos habeat belli spectata domique ^i) 

Virtiu, indigno non committenda poeta3. 

Gratus Alexandro regi Magno fuit Je 



^40 Q. HOUATII FLAUCi ;,! 

CkcBiilus, inniltus qui versibus et mab natis 

Rettulit acceptos, regale numisma, Philippos. 

Had veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 83^ 

Atramenta, fere gcriptores carmine foedo 

Splendida facta linunt. Idem rex ille, poema 

Qui tam ridiculum tam ca^e prodigus emit, 

Edicto vetuit, ne quis se, prroter Apellera, 

Piiigerct, aut alius Lysippo duceret sera 24Q 

Fortis Alexandri vultum simulantia. Quod ea 

Judicium subtile videndis artibus illud 

Ad libros et ad hacc Musarum dona vocares, 

BoBotum in crasso jurares aere natum. 

At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia, atque 243 

Munera, qua; multa dantis cum laude tulerunt 
Dilec^i tibi Virgilius Variusque poetse ; 
Nee magis expressi vultus per aenea signa, 
Quam per vatis opus mores animique virorun« 
Clarorum apparent. Nee sermones ego mall«.,na • JtfiO 

llepentes per humum, quam res componere gestas ; 
Terrarumque situs et flumina dicere, et arces 
Montibus impositas, et barbara regna, tuisque 
Auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem, 
Claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Janum, 256 

Et formidatam Parthis te principe Rom am ; 
tsi, quantum cuperem, possem quoque. Sed uequc parviim 
Carmen majestas recipit tua, nee meus audet 
Rem ten tare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem, stulte quem diligit, urget, 860 

PrcBcipue qimm se numeris commendat et arte : 
Discit enim citius meminitque libentius illud. 
Quod aui.8 deridet, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
Nil morur offic.jm, quod me gravat, ac neque ficto 
fn pejus vultu pxoponi cercus usquam, 264 

N «5 prave factis decorari versibus opto, 
N\< mbeani pingui donatus mune^c, et ^ina 



If 2. J EPiSTOLARUM. LIBER 11. 231 

Cum sciiptorc nieo, capsa porrectus aperta, 
Deferar in vicum vendentem thus et odores 
lilt pipet ot quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis ^ 



EnSTOLA II. 

AD JULIUM FLORUM. 

More, bono claroque fidelis amice Neroni, 

6i quis forte velit puerum tibi vendere, natum 

Tibure vel Gabiis, et tecum sic agat : Hie ef. 

CandiduSt et talos a vertice jmlcher ad imos^ 

Fiet eritque tuus nummorum miUibus octo, 4 

Verna miniboeriis ad nutus aptics heriles, 

Literulis Greeds inibutus, idoneus arti 

Cuilibet ; argilla quidvis i7nitadens uda : 

Quin etiam canet indoctuniy sed dulce bilenii. 

Midtajideni promissa levant ^ ubi plenitis ceqiuj iO 

Laudat vencdes, qui vult extrudere^ mercer. 

Res urget me nulla ; meo sum pauper in cere ' 

Nemo hoc maiigonum faceret tibi : non temere a 9i ^ 

Quivis ferret idem : semel hie cessavit ^ ety utfit. 

In scalis latuit metuens pendaitis hahena:. lA 

Des numnws, excepta nihU te sifuga Icedit. 

[lie ferat pretium, posnaj securus, opinor. 

Prudens emisli vitiosum ; dicta tibi est lex : 

Insequeris tamcn hunc, ot lite moraris iniqua ? 

Dixi me pigrum proficiscenti tibi, dixi 20 

Talibus officiis prope mancum ; ne mea ssevus 
Jurgares ad te quod epistola nulla rediret. 
iuid tum profeci, mecum facientia jura 
Qi tamon attcntas ? Quereris super hoc etiam, quod 
fclxspeotata tibi non mittam carmina mendax. 

LucuUi miles coUecta viatica multis 
ilBrumnifl, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assi^m 
Pcididerat : jwst hoc vehemons / jpus ' t sibi et hogn 



282 Q. HOlMTll F^ACCI 1 2 

Iratus paritt^r, jejunis dentibus acer, 

PraDsidium regale loco dcjecit, ut aiuiit, b€ 

Summe munito et multaruixi divite rerum. 

C'larus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis ; 

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummuni 

Forte Bub noc tempus castellum evertere prcelor 

iNescio quod cupiens hortari ccepit eundem 31 

VerbiB, qua) timido quoque possent addere menteni . 

/, bonCt quo virtus tua te vocat^ I pcde fausto, 

Cfrandia laturus meritorum pramiia ! Quid stas ? 

Post haec ille catus, quantum vis rusticus, llfit, 

Ibit eo quo vis, qui zonam perdidit, iiiquit. 40 

liomoB nutriri mihi contigit atque doceri, 
Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles : 
Adjccere bona) paulo plus artis Atl/enas ; 
Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 
Atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verum. 4d 

Dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato, 
Civilisque rudem belli tulit sestus in arma, 
Caesaris Augusti non rcsponsura lacertis. 
Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi, 
Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque patemi 90 

£t laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus facerem : sed, qut^d non dcsit, habentem 
Qua? poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicuta), 
Ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versus ? 

Singula de nobis anni pra)dantur euntes ; tt 

Eripuere jocos, Venerem, convivia, ludum ; 
Tendunt extorquere poemata : quid faciam vis ? 
Denique non omncs eadem mirantur amantque . 
Carmine tu gaudes, hie delectatur iambis, 
Ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. 5< 

Tres mihi conviva prope dissentire videntur 
Poficentes vario nriltum di versa palato. 
Quid dem ? quid non dem ? Renuis tu, quod jubet alter 
Ouod pctis id sane est in visum acidumque duobus. 



2.J EflSTOLARUM. ilBBR II. ^88 

Pneter cetera, me RomaBne poemata censes 6d 

Scribere posse, inter tot curas totque laborcs ? 
Hie sponsum vocat, hie auditum scripta relictiB 
Omnibus officiis ; cubat hie in coile Quirini, 
ffic extremo in Aventino, visendus uterque : 
Intervalla vides humane commoda. — Verum 70 

PurfB sunt platecBy nihil ut meditantibus obstet, — 
Festinat caUdus mulis gerulisque redemtor, 
Torquet nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina tignuni 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris, 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sus : 7fl 

I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus oranis amat nemus, et fugit urbes, 
Rite cliens Bacchi, somno gaudentis et umbra : 
Tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diurnos 
Vis canere, et contacta sequi vestigia vatum ? 80 

Ingenium, sibi quod vacuas desumsit Athenas, 
£t studiis annos septem dedit, insenuitque 
Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit 
Pierumque, et risu populum quatit : hie ego renim 
Fiuctibus in mediis, et tempestatibus urbis, %t 

Verba lyi-ae motura sonum connectere digner ? 

Auctor erat Romae consulto rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius sermonc meros audiret honores ; 
Gracchus ut hie illi foret, huic ut Mucins ille. 
Qui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 00 

Carmina compono, hie elegos ; mirabile visu 
Cajlatumque novem Musis opus I Adspice primum, 
Quanto cum fastu, quanto moHmine circum- 
fipectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus sedem ! 
Mox etiam, si forte vacas, sequere, et procul audi, M 

Quid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 
Cawiimur, et totidem plagis consumimus hostem, 
Onto Samnites ad lumina prima duello. 
I>isccdo AlcflBUS puncto illius ; ille meo quig ? 



234 a. IlOEATil FLACCI [2 

(juis^ fiisi (yallimachus ? si plus adposcere \isu& U 3 

Fit Mimnermus, et optivo cognomine crescit. 

Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatum, 

Quum scribo, et supplex popiili suffragia captu . 

Idem, finitis studiis et mente recepta, 

Obturem patulas impune leg<Hitibus aures. lUi 

Bidcntiii mala qui componmit carmina : veru n 

Gaudent scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultro, 

Si taceas, laudant quidquid scripsere, beati. 

At qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema, 
Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti 110 

Audebit qufecunque parum splendoris habebunt, 
Et sine poudere erunt, et honore indigna fereutur. 
Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant, 
Et versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vesta;. 
Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque 116 

Proferet in lucem spooiosa vocabula rerum, 
Qua;, priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegi^, 
Nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas : 
A.dsciscet nova, quaj genitor produxerit usus. 
Vebemens et liquidus, puroque simillimus amni, 120 

Fundet opes, Latir-mque beabit divite lingua ; 
Luxuriantia compescet, nirnis aspera sano 
Levabit cultu, virtu te carentia toilet, 
Ludentis spcciem dabit, et torquebitur, ut qui 
Nunc Satyrum nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur. 1 2d 

Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 
Dum mea delectent mala me, vel denique fallant, 
Quam sapere et ringi. Fuit baud ignobilis Argis, 
Qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos. 
In vacuo laetus sessor plausorque theatre ; ISO 

Cetera qui vitas servaret munia recto 
McrO) bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 
Comis in iixorem, posset qui ignoscere senriAi 
Et Biguo laiso non insanire lagenas ; 



2.] EPlSrOLARUM. LIBEA II 28A 

Posset qui rupem et puteum vitare pateAtem 1 3* 

flic uli cognatorum opibus curisque refeclus 

Expulil ellcboro morbum bilemque meraco, 

Et redit ad sese : Pol, me occidistis, amici, 

Non sen'astis, ait, cui sic extort a voluptas, 

Et denitus pretium mentis gratissimus error. 40 

Niroirum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 

Et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum, 

Ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latii i& 

Sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vita*. 

Quocirca mecum loquor hsec, tacitusque recorder . 140 

Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphsB, 

Narrares medicis : quod, quanto plura parasti. 

Tanto plura cupis, nuUine faterier audes ? 

Si vulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 

Non fieret levius, fugeres radice vel herba i60 

Proficiente nihil curarier. Audieras, cui 

Rem Di douarcnt, illi decedere pravam 

Stultitiam ; et, quum sis nihilo sapientior, ex quo 

Plenior es, tamcn uteris monitoribus isdem ? 
At si divitiaB prudontera reddere possent, I6fl 

Si cupidum timidumque minus te, nempe rubeie8, 
Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 

Si proprium est, quod quis libra mercatur et sere. 
Quaedam, si credis consultis, mancipat usus : 
Qui te pascit ager, tuus est ; et villicus Orbi, 1 60 

Quum segotes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit. Das nummos, accipis uvarn, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nempe modo isto 
Paulatim mercaris agrum, fortasse trecentls, 
Aiit etiam supra, nummorum millilus emtuni. 61 

Quid refert, vivas numerate nuper an olim ? 
Emtor Aricini quondam Veientis et arvi 
Kmtum coenat olus, quamvis aliter putat ; emtas 
Bub not; tern gelidam Ugnis calefactat aer im; 



23t> a. flOEATII FLACCI [2 

Sed Tocat usque baura, qua iK)pulus adsita certia 170 

Limitibus vicina refug-it jurgia ; tanquain 
Sit proprium quidquam, puncto quod mobilis hone. 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc niorti supreme. 
Permutet dominos et cedat in altera jura. 

Sir, quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et heres 1 75 

Heredem alterius velut unda supervenit undam, 
Quid vici prosunt aut horrea ? Quidve Calabris 
Saltibus adjecti Lucani, si metit Orcus 
Grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro ? 
Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, 180 

Argentum, vestes Goetulo murice tinctas, 
Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere. 
Cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungi 
Pneferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus ; alter, 
Dives et importunus, ad umbram lucis ab ortu )?6 

Silvestrem flammis et ferro raitiget agrum, 
Scit Genius, natale cooes qui temperat astrum, 
NatursB Deus humanm, mortalis in unum- 
Quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 

Utar, et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 1 90 

Tollam ; nee metuam, quid de me judicet heres, 
Quod non plura datis invenerit : et tamen idem 
Scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti 
Discrepct, et quantum discordet parous avaro. 
Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sumtuni 19A 
Invitus facias neque plura pararo labores, 
Ac potius, puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, 
Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. 
Pauperies immunda procul procul absit : ego, utinin 
Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et id^iQ. 901 

Non agimur tumid is velis aquilone secundo ; 
Non tamen advcrs's sntatem ducimus austris ; 
Viribus, ingenio, specie, virtute, loco, re, 
Extrcmi primorura, 3xtremis usque prioret. 



^.| EFISTOLAHUM. LlBER I 237 

Non eft avarus : abi. Quid ? cetera jam sjimil islo 205 
Cum vitio fngere ? caret tibi pectus inani 
Arnbitione ? caret mortis formidine et ira ? 
Somuia, terrores magicos, miracula. sagas, 
Noctunios lemures portentaque Thessala rides ? 
Natales grate numcras ? ignoscis amicis ? 210 

Lenior et melior fis accedente scnecta ? 
Quid te exemta levat spinis de pluribus una ? 
V^ivere si recte ucscis, decede peritis. 
Lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti ; 
Tempus abire tibi est ; ne potum larerius eq^io 215 

Rideat et pulont lasoiTa d<>cciitiQii astwi. 



Q flORATir ILACCj 



EPISTOLA AD PISONEa 



Q H R A T 1 1 F L A C C 1 

eiMSTOLA AD P1S0NE8. 



^t-WANb- oapiti ccrvicem pictor equiuam 

Jujn^ere si velit, et varias iriducere plumas 

Qnaique colUtis membris, ut turpiter atruin 

DeFL^at in pisoem mulier formosa superne, 

Spr<^tatum adnassi risum tenealis, amici ? 

Cre*]lite, Pisones, isti tabula) fore librum 

PerBimilera, cuju^, velut aigri somnia, vana? 

Fingentur species ; ut iiec pes, nee caput uni 

Reddatur forma). — Pictoribus atque jpo'etis 

Quidlibet audendi sctTiper fuit cequa potestas.-^ Id 

Scimus, et banc vcniam petimusque damusque viciMixn : 

Sad non ut placidis cotant immitia : non ut 

Serpentes avibus gcmino.itur, tigribus agni. 

Inceptis gravibus plerumque et magna professiB 
Purpureus, late qui splenJeat, unus et alter 15 

Assuitur pannus ; quum luous et ara Dianse, 
Et properantis aquae per ainoBuos ambitus agros, 
A.ut flu men Rhenum, aut plavius describitur arcus. 
Sed nunc nou erat his locus. Et fortasse cupressum 
Scis simulare : quid hoc, si iractis eoatat exspes 20 

Navibns, sere dato qui pingitur ? Amphora ccepit 
[nstitui ; currente rota cur urceus exit ? 
Denique sit quidvis, simplex duntaxat et unum. 

Maxima pars vatum, pater et juvenes pat re (Ug/u, 
Decipimur specie recti : brevis osse laboro, 81 

Obflcurus fio : sectanterr lenia laeryi 

L 



242 a^ IIORATU FLACC 

Dcficiant niiimique ; professus grantiia turget : 

Sorpit liuir.i tutus nimium timid usque procolla;, 

Qui variare cupit rem piodigialiter unam, 

Delphinum silvis appin£;it, fluctibus aprum. >{ 

In vitium ducit culpap fuga, si caret arte. 

-^milium oircjt ludum faber unus et ungu^H 
Exprimet, et m'>.les imitabitur aere capillos ; 
Infelix operis surruna, quia ponere totum 
Nesciet. Hunc ego lue, si quid com ponere cureia .^8 

Noil magis esse velim, quam tiaso vivere pravO; 
Spectandura nigris oculis nigroque capillo. 

Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, aiquam 
Viribus, et versate diu, quid ferre recusent, 
Quid /aleant humeri. Cui Iccta potenter erit res. 4C 

Nee facundia deseret hunc, nee lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis haec virtus eril et Venus, aut ego fallor, l 

tJt jam nunc dicat jam nunc dcbentia dici, 
Pleraque di Herat et prsescns in tempus omittat. 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, 1^ 

Hoc amet, hoc spernat promissi carminis auctur 
Dixeris egregie, notum si callida verbum 
Reddiderit junctura novum. Si forte necesse e.-it 
Indiciis monstrare recenlibus abdita reiTim, 
Fingere cinctutis non cxauditn Cethegis Sii, 

Continget, dabiturque hceiitia sumta pudenier. 
Et nova factaque nuper habebunt verba lidem. si 
Grfeco fonte cadant, parce delorta. Quid autem 
Cfficilio Plautoque dabit Romanus, ademtum 
Virgilio Varioque ? Ego (!ur, acquirere pauca r,f 

Si jwssum, invideor, quum lingua Catonis et Euti 
Sermoiiem patrium ditaverit, et nova rerum 
NTomina protulerit ? Licuit, semperque lice bit, 
Signatum prsesente nota procudere nomen. 
Ut silvaB, foliis pronoa mutantis in annog, W 

Prima cadunt ; ita vcrborurii vet as in\uv tetai 



EPISTOLA AD PISONKH. ti IS 

Et juvoiiuiJi lit 11 fiorent modo riata vigent juc 

Debexnur niorti nos nostraque ; sive, recepto 

Terra Neptimo, classes aquilonibus arcet 

Regis opus ; sterilisve diu palus aptaque reMis 5C 

Viciiias urbes alit, et grave seiitit aratrurn ; 

Seu cnrsum mutavit iniquum frugibus amnis, 

Doctus iter melius. Mortalia facta peri bunt ' 

Nedur: sevmonum stet bono.- -'i gratia vivax. 

Multa renascentur, qua) jam cecidere, cadeutrjUc 70 

Qun nunc sunt in bono re vocabula, si volet U8ud. 

Quern penes arbitrium est et jus ct norma loqueiiit; 

Res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia beUa 
Quo scribi possent numero, monstravit HomeruA. 
Versibus impariter junctis querimonia primum, 7fl 

Post etiam iiiclusa est voti sententia compos. 
Quis tamen exiguos elegos emiserit anctor, 
Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judico lis est. 
Archilochum proprio rabies armavit ianibo : 
\lmic socci cepere pedem grandesque cotbuvni, 80 

Alternis aptum sermouibus, et populares 
Vincentem strepitus, et natum rebus agcndis. 
Musa dedit fidibus Divos, puerosque Deonun, 
lit pugilem victorem, et equum certamine prim urn 
Et juvenum curas, et libera vina referre. Stf 

Descriptas servare vices operumque colorecK 
Cur ego, si nequeo ignomque, poeta salutor ? 
Cur nescire, pudens prave, quam discere male ? 
Versibus exponi tragi cis res comica non vult : 
Indignatur item privatis, ac prope socco 9^ 

Digiiif? f*'_rminibus narrari coena Thyesta;. 
Singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decentei 
Interdum tamen et vocem Comoedia tollit, 
Iratusquo Chremes tumido dclitigat ore : 
Et tragicus pleruraque dolet sermone pedestri i^fl 

Te\f|ihu6 e\ Pelcus, quum pauper et ex«i\l, u^A^rtfiie 



544 a. fiRATIl FLACC3 

Pr)jicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba. 
hi cor eoectantis curat tetigissc querela. 

Non sails est pulchra esse poeniata ; dulcia suisto, 
Et quojunque volent, anirnum auditoris agunto. 101 

[It ridentibus arrident, ita flentibus aflleut 
Hunxni vultus. Si vis me flere, dolenduin est 
Prirnum ipsi tibi ; tunc tua me infortuiiia lajdeut, 
Telf'plie vel Peleu : male si mandata loqueris, 
Aut dormitabo aut ridebo. Tristia moestum 10£ 

Vultum verba decent, iratum plena minarum, 
L'jdentfcra lasciva, severum seria di^.tu. 
Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem 
Fortunarum habitum ; juvat, aut impellit ad irani. 
Aut ad humum moBrore gravi dedueit et angit ; 110 

Post etlert animi motus interprete lingua. 
Si dicentis eruut fortunis absona dicta, 
Romanl tollent equites peditesque cachinnut i. 

Intererit multum, divusne loquatur an heros, 
Mtiturusne senex an adhuc florente juventa !lfi 

Fervidus, et matrona potens an sedula nutrix, 
Mercatorne vagus cultorne virentis agelli, 
Colchus an Assyrius, Thebis nutritus an Argis. 

Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia fin^r, 
Scriptor. Honoratum si forte reponis Achillera, ) JIC 

Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer. 
Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget armis 
Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Tno, 
Perfidus Ixion, lo vaga, tristis Orestes. 

Si quid inexpertum scenaj committis, et audes iSd 

Personam formare novam, servetur ad imum 
Qualis ab incepto processerit, aut sibi con^tot. 
Difficile est proprie oommuuia dicere : tuque 
Rectius Iliacum carmen diducis in actus, 
Quam si proferres ignota indie 'aquc primui M 

Public a materies privati iuris erit, si 



EIMSTOLA Al> PISONES. 245 

Se^^ circa vilnm patuhtmque moraberis orbeni, 

Nee verbum verbo cural^is reJdere fidus 

Interpres, iiec desilies imitator in arctum. 

Unde pedem profcrre pudor vetet aut opens lex Si 

Noc SIC incipies, ut scriptor cyclicus olim : 
Fortu7mm Friami cdntabo et nobile bellum. 
Quid dignum taiito feret hie promissor hiatu ? 
Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. 
Quanto reetius hie, qui nil molitur inepte : iiQ 

Die mihi, Musa^ vifum, captce post tempora T/ofre 
Qui mores hmninum mtdtorum vidit et urbes. 
Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare luceni 
Co^itat, ut speciosa dehiiic miracula promat, 
Antiphaten, Scyllamque, et cum Cyclope Chary Infin ; \4I^ 
Nee reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleagri, 
Nee gemino bellum Trojanum orditur ab ovo. 
Semper ad event um festinat, et in medias res, 
Non secus ae notas, auditorem rapit, et, qua? 
Desperat tractata niteseere posse, relinquit ; 16<> 

Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiseet, 
Prime ne medium, medio nediscrepet imum. 

Tu, quid ego et populus meeum desiderct, audi : 
Si fautoris eges aulasa manentis, et usque 
Sessuri, donee cantor, Vcs piauditCy dicat, \5n 

iEtatis cuj usque notandi sunt tibi mores, 
Mobilibusquc decor naturis dandus et annis. 
Reddere qui voces jam seit puer, et pede certo 
Signat humum, gestit paribus coUudere, et irani 
Colligit ac pdnit temere, et mutatur in horas. 160 

Imberbus juvcnis, tandem custode remoto, 
Gaudet equis canibusque et aprici gramine campi ; 
Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper. 
Utilium tardus provi&or, prodigus ajris, 
Hublimis, cupidusque, et amata relinquere peioix. 61 

(^4invei«i& studiis astas animnsque virilis 



*^'1<{ U. tlOK ATI FLACC: 

Ljiiitirii opes et ainioitias, i riser vit honori, 

Coinniisissti cavet, quud mo\ mutare laboret. 

Mulla aenem circumveiiiunt iucommoda, vel quod 

Quaiiit, et inventis miser abstiiiet, ac timet uti, I7i 

Vei quod res omnes timide gelideque minUtrat, 

Dilator, spc longus, iners, avidusque futuri, 

Difiicilifj, queruliis, laudator temporis acti 

«^e puero, castigator censorque minorum. 

MuUa feruut anni veuientes commoda secum, \7t 

Multa recedenles adimunt. Ne forte seniles 

Mandeiitur juveni partes, pueroque viriles, 

Semper iu adjunct is aevoque morabimur aptig. 

Aut agilur res in sccnis, aut acta refertur. 
Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurcm, 180 

Quam qua; sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et qua; 
Ipse sibi trad it spectator : non tamen intus 
Digiia geri promes in scenam ; multaquc tuilea 
Ex oculis, qua; mox narret facundia prassens. 
Ne piieros coram populo Medea trucidet, Ifc^fi 

Aut humana palam coquat exta uefarius Atreu«. 
Aut in avem Progne vertalui, Cadmus in anguera 
Quodcurique ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi. 

Neve minor neu sit quinto productior actu 
Fabula, quae posci vult et spectata reponi : 190 

Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident ; nee quarta loqui persona laboret. 

Actoris partes Chorus officiumque virile 
befendat, neu quid medios intercinat actus, 
s) lod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 19' 

lUo bonis faveLtque et consilietur amice, 
Kt regat i rates, et araet pacare tumentes ; 
^' •. dajkis laudet mensae brevis, ille salubrem 
Jastitiam, legesque, et apertis otia portis, 
Mir tegat commissa, Deosque precetur et oret, HK 

Vt riadeat miseris, abeat Forluna superbi* 



EP[l<rOLA AD PIS0NE8. 211 

niiia noil, ut nunc onchalco vincta, tubieque 
/htnula, sed tenuis siniplexque foramine pauco 
4dBpirare el adesse Choris erat utilis, atque 
NonduiL't spissa nimis complere sedilia flatu ; fiiJ5 

Quo sane populus numerabilis, utpote parvus, 
Et frugi castusque verecund usque coibat. 
Postquam coepit agros exiendere victor, et urbein 
Latior amplecti murus, vinoque diurno 
Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 210 

Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major; 
[ndoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum 
Rusticus, urban© confusus, turpis honesto ? 
Sic pnsca) motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 
Tibicen, traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem ; 216 

Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere severis, 
Et tulit eloquiura insolitum facundia praiceps ; 
Utiliumque sagax rerum, et divina fuiuri, 
?5ortilegis non discrepuit sententia Del phis. 

Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircura, 288 

Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit, et asper 
(ncolurai gravitate jocum tentavit, eo quod 
[llecebris erat et grata novitate morandus 
Spectator, functusque sacris, et potus, et exlex 
Verum ita risorcs, ita commendare dicaces 22€ 

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo, 
Ne, quicunque Deus, quicunque adhibebitur horos. 
Regali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 
Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas, 
Aut, dura vitat humum, nubes et inania captet. ^.^''^ 

EfTutire leves indigna Tragoedia versus, 
Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 
Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis. 
Non ego inomata et domina^ntia nomina foIv) « 
Verbaque, Pisones, Satyrorum scriptor aniabo ; ?85 

Meo pic enitar tTap.ico difierre colori. 



fS48 U. HJRATII FLAOCI 

CJt nihil intersit Davusne loquatur ct audar 

Pythias, emuncto lucrata Sirnone talentum 

An cuslos famulusque Dei Silenus alumni. 

Ex no to fictum carmen sequar, ut sibi quh't lii 

B})eret idem ; sudet multum, frustraqi 3 lalK)ret 

A.USU8 idem. Tantum series juncturaque pellet, 

Fantum de medio sumtis accedit honoris. 

Bihds educti caveant, me judJ^e, Fauni, 

Ne, velut innati triviis ac pa;;!'*, forenses, JM* 

Aul niraium teneris juvenentur versibus unquam, 

Aut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta. 

Ofienduntur enim, quibus est equus, et pater, et roi ; 

Nee, si quid fribti ciceris probat et nucis emtor, 

^quis accipiunt animis donantve corona. ^0 

Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur Iambus, 
Pes citus ; unde etiam Trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus 
Primus ad extremum similis sibi. Non ita priden 
Tardier ut paule gravierque veniret ad aures, 2d T 

Spondees stabiles in jura patema recepit 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secunda 
Cederet aut quarta socialiter. Hie et in Atti 
Nobilibus Trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni. 
In scenam missus magno cum pondcre versus, 26Q 

Aut operas celeris nimium curaque carentis, 
Aut ignoratffi premit artis crimine turpi. 
Non quivis videt immodulata poemata judex ; 
Et data Remanis venia est indigna poetis 
Iddrcone vager, scribaonque liccnter ? Ut em i )if «^. \k 
Visuros peccata putem mea: tutus et intra 
Spem venia) cautus ? vitavi denique culpam. 
Non laudem merui. Vos exemplaria Gr.eca 
Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 
At w^ri jrtroavi Plautinos et nume vs ti Wf9 

Zaudaveie sales: niraium patieotei truit^quei 



EPISTOLA AD PISJNES 041 

No ditam slult(», mirati, si modo ego et vch 
Scimus l:iuibanum lepido seponcre dioto, 
Legitimunquc sonum digitis caliemus et aure 

Ignotuin tragical genus invenisse Camenas S7A 

Dieitur et plaustris vexisse poemata ThespiS; 
Qui cancrent agerentque peruncti fa^cibud ora. 
Post hunc porsonaB palla;que repertor honestae 
^sc;iylu8 et modicis instravit pulpita tignis, 
Et docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. iS ^ 

Successit vetus his Comcedia, non sine multa 
Laude ; sed in vitium libertas excidit, et vim 
Dignam lege regi. Lex est accepta, Chor usque 
Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi. 
Nil intentatum nostri liquere poet® : ?S* 

Nee minimum meruere decus, vestigia Grajca 
Ausi deserere, et cclebrare domestica facta, 
Vel qui prsetextas, vel qui docuere togalas. 
Nee virtute foret clarisve potentius armis, 
Quam lingua, Latium, si non oflenderet unum- 390 

Quemque poetarum limsB labor et mora. Vos, O 
Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite, quod iion 
Multa dies et multa litura coercuit, atque 
Prsesectum decies non castigavit ad unguem. 

Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte 294 

Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas 
Democritus, bona pars non ungues ponere cura t, 
Non barbam, secreta petit loca, balnea vitat. 
Nanciscetur enim pretium noraenque poetsB, 
Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 300 

Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 
Qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam ! 
Non alius faceret melicra poemata. Veruni 
Nil tanti est. Ergo fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Iteddero qu8B ferrum valet, exsors ipsa secandi 30^ 

Miuius et ofiicium, nil scribens ip«eu dooebo ; 

L2" 



25i) a. HOBATII FI.ACCV 

Undo parentur opes, quid alat formetque poetiuii 

Quid deceat, quid non ; quo virtus, quo ferat error. 

Scr'bendi recte sapere est ei principium et fciia : 

II cm tibi SocraticBB poterunt ostendere chartse, 311 

^'^erbaquc provisam rem non in vita sequentur. 

Qui didicit, patriaj quid debeat, et quid amicis, 

'juo sit amore parens, quo frater amandus et hospeii, 

<Jick1 sit conscripti, quod judicis officium, qua) 

Partes in bellum missi ducis, ille profecto 3ifi 

Redd ere persor.gB scit converiientia cuique. 

Pwespicere exemplar vitas morumque jubebo 

Doctum imitatorem, et veras hinc ducere voces. 

[nterdum speciosa locis morataque recte 

Fabula, nuUius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 32U 

Valdius oblectat populum meli usque moratur. 

Quam versus inopes rerum nugajque canorsB. 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 

.VTusa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. 

ilomani pueri longis rationibus assem 326 

Discunt in partes centum diducere. — Dicas, 

Filius Albiniy si cle quincunce reniota est 

Uncia, quid superat ?—Poteras dixisse. — Triens.-^ JSu ! 

Rem poteris servare tuani. Redit unciUf quid fit 1 — 

Semis. — An, haec animos aerugo et cura peculi ^330 

Quum semel imbuerit, speramus carmina fingi 

Posse linenda cedro, et levi servanda cupres^eo ? 

Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetaj, 
Aui simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitaj. 
Quidquid prsBcipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta 135 

V*ercipiant animi deciles, teneantque fideles. 
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. 
Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veiis : 
Ne, quodeunque volet, poscat sibi fabula credi ; 
Neu pranssB Lamias vivun puerum extrahat alvo .340 

CenturisB senior uin agitant expertia frugis, 



c:Pi;5T0LA AD i'lSONEb. 25] 

C^Isi piTotereun austera poemata Ramnes ; 

Oinne tulit punctijn, qui miscuit utile dulci, 

Lectorom delectando pariterque monendo. 

Hie meret sera liber Sosiis, hie et mare transit 34d 

Et longum note Bcriptori prorogat SBVum. 

Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus : 
N^am neque chorda sonum reddit, quern vult man us 3t meiui. 
Fosoentique gravem perssBpe remittit acutum ; 
Nee semper fcriet quodcunque minabitur arcuF. 360 

Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
Oflenddr maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. Quid ergo est ? 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem librarius usque, 
Quamvis est monitus, venia caret ; ut citharoedus 355 

Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem ; 
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus ille, 
Quem bis terve bonum cum risu miror ; ct idcra 
Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepcre somnum. S60 

Ut pictura, poesis : erit, quas, si propius stes, 
Te capiet magis, et quondam, si longius abstes ; 
Haec amat obscurum, volet hajc sub luce ridcri, 
I udicis argutum quae non formidat acumen : 
[IsBc placuit semel, haec decies repetita placebit. JM 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum, et per te sapis, hoc tibi dictum 
ToUe memor : certis medium et tolerabile rebus 
Recte ooncedi. Consultus juris et actor 
oausarum mediocris abest virtute diserti 870 

Messalse, nee scit quantum Cascellius Aufus ; 
Sed tamen in pretio est : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non Di, non concessere columnsB. 
Ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors 
Et crassum unguentum et Sardo cum melle papave* 371 
OfHendunt, poterat duci quia cceoa isine istifl ; 



252 Q" UORATII FLACCl 

Si: aiiiiTiis natum invcntumque poema juvand'is. 

Si paulum a summo decessit, rergit ad imum 

Ludcre qui nescit, canipestribus abstinet armis, 

Indoctusque pilfe disci ve trochive quippcit, B8ii 

Ne spisssB risimi tnllanl impunc coronsB : 

Qui nescit, versus tamen audet fingere I — Quiiini f 

Liber et ingenuus^ prcesertim census eqiiestrem 

Sunmiam nummorum^ vitioque renwtus ab omni.-' 

Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva ; 384 

Id tibi judicium est, ea mens : si quid tamen olim 

Scripseris, in Mseci descendat judicis aures, 

Et patris, et nostras, nonumque prematui in annuro. 

Membranis intus positis. Delere licebit, 

Quod uon edideris : nescit vox missa revei*ti. 390 

Silvestres homines sacer interpresque Deorum 
Cffidibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus ; 
Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones : 
Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae conditor urbis, 
Saxa movere sono testudinis, et prece blanda 3M 

Ducere quo vellet. Fuit hasc sapientia quondam 
Publica privatis seccrnere, sacra profanis, 
Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis, 
Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque 400 

Carminibus venit. Post hos insignis Homerus, 
Tyrtajusque mares animos in Martia bella 
Vendbus exacuit. DictJB per carmina sortes, 
Et vitaB mon strata via est, et gratia regum 
Pieriis tentata modis, ludusque repertas, 4^)i 

Et longorum openim finis : ne forte pudori 
Sit tibi Musa lyrsB sellers, et cantor Apollo. 

Natura fieret laudabile cajmen, an arte, 
Quaisitum est : ego nee studium sine divite vena» 
Nee rude quid possit v'deo ingenium ; alterius sie ^^9 

Altera potcit oj^rr: ^^^ m ooninrat amire. 



EPI9T0LA AD PISONES 2^ 

Qui sUidet optatam cursu contingere mctam, 

Muita tulit fccitque puer, su davit et alsit, 

Abstinuit Venere et vino. Qui Pythia cantat 

Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque raagistrum. lid 

Nee fiatis eat dixisse : Ego niira po'emata par go : 

Occvpet cxtremum scaMes ; mihi tu rpe rdinqui eit 

St, quod non didici, sane nescire faten. 

iJt prsBCO, ad merces turbam qui cogit emendaa, 

Assenlatores jubet ad lucrum ire poeta <t2u 

Dives agria, dives positis in fenore nummis. 

81 vero est, unctum qui recte ponere possit, 

Et spondere levi pro panpere, et eripere atrib 

Litibus inplicitum, mirabor si sciet inter- 

Noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. 426 

Tu seu donaris, seu quid donare voles cui, 

Nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 

Lsetitiae ; clamabit enim, Pulchre ! bene ! recte ' 

Pallescet super his ; etiam stillabit amicis 

Ex oculis rorem, saliet, tundet pede terram, 430 

Ut, quae conducta3 plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et faciunt propc plura dolentibus ex animo, sic 

Derisor vero pius laudatore movetur. 

Reffes dicuntur multis urguere culullis, 

Et torquere mere, quern perspexisse laborant, 435 

An sit amicitia dignus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe latentes. 

Quinctilio si quid reci tares, Corrige sodes^ 

HoCy aiebat, et hoc. Melius te posse uegares, 

fiis terque expertum frustra, delere jubebat, 440 

£t male tomatos incudi reddere versus. 

Si defendere delictum, quam vertere, malles, 

Nullum ultra verbum aut operam insumebat maucm ; 

Quin sine rivali teque et tua solus amares. 

Vir bonus ct prudens versus repi ihendet inertes. 44' 

Colpabit duroSj incomtis allir it atram 



254 a. KCRATU FiACCi EflSTCLA AD PISONBB 

TranBvorso calamo signum, arabitiosa recidot 
Ornamenta, parum claris lucem dare coget, 
Arguet ambigue dictum, mutanda notabit, 
Fict Aristarchus ; noii dice! : Cur ego amicum IM 

OJfenclam in nugis ? Hsb nug© seria ducent 
'x. mala dcrisuin semel exceptumque sinistre. 
f mala qiiem scabies aut morbus regius urget, 
/^ut fanaticus error, et iracunda Diana, 
Vesamim tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam, f 6d 

i^ui sapiunt ; agitaiit pueri, incautique sequuntur 
liic dum sublimis versus ructatur, et errat, 
Si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps 
In puteum foveamve, licet, Succuirite, longum 
Clamet, to cives ! ne sit, qui tollere curet. 460 

Si curet quis opem ferre, et demittore funem, 
Qui Bcis, an prudens hue se projecerit, atqne 
i^crvari nolit ? dicam, Siculique poe'.iD 
Narrabo interitum. Deus immortalis iiabun 
Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus iEtnam 165 

Insiluit. Sit jus liceatque perire poetis. 
Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti. 
Nee scmel hoc fecit ; nee, si retractus erit, jam 
Fiet homo, et ponet famosffi mortis amo'sm. 
Nee satis apparet, cur versus factitet ; utrum 470 

Minxerit in patrios cineres, an triste bidental 
Moverit incestus : certe furit, ac velut ursus 
OLjcctos cavesB valuit si frangere clathros, 
fndoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus : 
^em vero airipuit, tenet, occiditque legendo, 475 

N^OB miieuxa cutenQ; nisi plena cnioris, liirudo 



K IPLiNATORY NOllUB 



EXPLANATORV NOTES. 



ODES. 

Thb woaI Ode (from the Greek ud^) was not introduced into the LaOA 
HBDg'ae antil the third or fourth century of our era, and wai then fiistnied 
to denote any pieces of a lyric nature. The grammarians, perceiving 
Ihat Horace had more than once used the word carmen to designate thii 
kind of poetry, ventured to place it at the head of his odes, and their ex 
ample has been followed by almost all succeeding editors. We have ut) 
very strong reason, however, to suppose that the poet himself ever in- 
tended this as a general title for his lyric productions. (Compare Lju 
Poisies D' Horace^ par Sanadon, vol. i., p. 6.) 



Ode I. Addressed to Maecenas, and intended probably by Morace as a 
dedication to him of part of his odes. It is generally thought that the 
poet collected together and presented on this occasion the first th.'ee 
books of his lyric pieces. From the complexion, however, of the last odo 
of the second book, it would appear that the third book was separately 
given to the world, and at a later period. 

The subject of the present ode is briefly this : The objects of buicati 
desire and pursuit are various. One man delights in the victor's prize at 
the public games, another in attaining to high political preferment, a third 
in the pursuits of agriculture, &;c. My chief aim is the successful culti- 
vation of lyric verse, in which if I shall obtain your applause, O Maecenas, 
my lot will be a happy one indeed. 

1-2. 1. Mteccnas atavis^ &c. " Maecenas, descended from regal ances- 
tors." Caius Cilnius Maecenas, who shared with Agrippa the favor and 
confidence of Augustus, and distinguished himself by his patronage of 
literary men, belonged to the Cilnian family, and was descended from 
Blbius Volteirenus, one of the LucumoneSt or ruling chieftains of Etroria. 
He is even said to have numbered Porsena among his more remote an- 
eeslors. Compare Life, p. liii. — ^2. O el prasidiiim, &c. " O both my 
patron and sweet glory." The expression dulce dectta meum refers to tlie 
feeling of gratification entertained by the poet in having so illustrious a 
patron and friend. — The synaloapha is neglected in the commencement 
of this lice, as it always is in the case of O, Heu, Ah, &.c., since the voice 
ifl sustained and the hiatus prevented by the stroug feelinpr which these 
biteijcctions are made to express 

3. Sunt quos curriculo, &c. "There are some, whom it delights tf 
fiftve collected the Olympic dust ia the chariot-course," i. e., to have con- 
landed for the prize at the Olympic games. The Olympic, the chief of' 
ttie Grecian games, are here p-at/car' h^oxH'^ for any ffamcs. Thff Olvir 



'^5S EXPLANAIOBY NOTES. — BOuK K oDB 

pic games were celebrated at Olympia 'n Elis, on the banki of the Ai 
phdas, aiter an in:erval of four years, from U.e eleventh to the fiflconth oi 
the month HecatombosoQ, which corresponds nearly to oar July. Thc]^ 
were celebrated in honor of Jove, and the crown which formed the prize 
was of wild olive {oleaster, kotlvoc). The other great games were th« 
Pythian, the prize, a crown of bay ; the Nemean, a crown of fresh parsley, 
and the Isthmian^ fir^t a crown of pine, then of withered parsley, and 
thea again of pine. 

4 Metaque fervidis, Ac. ** And whom the goal, skillfully avoided by 
he glowing wheels." The principal part of the charioteer's skill wm 
displayed in coming as near as possible to the meta, or goals. In the 
Roman circus, a low wall was erected which divided the Spatium, ai 
roco-gTound, into two unequal parts. At each of its extremities, and rest* 
ing on hollow basements, were placed three pillars formed like cones - 
these cones were properly called metee; but the whole was often collect- 
ively teimed in the singular meta. The chariots, after starting from the 
carceres, or barriers, where their station had been determined by lot, rflkii 
seven times around the low wall, or spina, as Cassiodorus calls it. The 
chief object, therefore, of the rival charioteers, was to get so near tri the 
ftpina as to graze [evitare) the mda in taming. This, of course, would give 
the shortest space to ran, and, if effected each heat, would ensure the 
victory. In the Greek hippodromes, the starting place and goal were 
each markod by a square pillar, and half way between these was a third 

.ve. 5. l^atmaque nohilis. '* And tbe ennobling palm." Besides the 
:nx)wn, a palm-branch was presented to the conqueror at the Grecian 
games, as a general token of victory : this he carried in his hand. (Com* 
pare Pausaniax, 'vm., 48.) — 6. Terrantm domino*. "The rulers of the 
irorld," referring simply to the gods, and not, as some explain the phrase^ 
to tue Romrm people. 

7-10. 7. Hiinc. Understand jiivat. Uunc in this line, ilium in the 
Mb, and gavdcrUein in the 11th, denote, respectively, the ambitious aepi- 
rant aftcf popular favors, the eager speculator in grain, and the content- 
ed farmer — 8. Certal tergeminis, &c. " Vie with each other in raising 
him to the highest offices in the state." Honoribus is here the dative, by 
a GroBcism, for ad honores. The epithet tergeminis is equivalent meielv 
to amplissimis, and not, as some think, to the three offices of Curule iKdile^ 
Prsetor, and Consal. Observe, moreover, the poetic idiom in cerlat tollerTt 
where the prose form of expression would be certat ut tollat, or certtU ad 
icUendum. — 9. J Hum. Understand j'nva^. — 10. Libycis. Oneoftheprin* 
uipal granaries of Home was the fertile region adjacent to the Syrtls Minor, 
tnd called Byzacium or Emporioa. It formed part of Africa Propria. 
Horace uses the epithet Libycis for Africis, in imitation of the Greek 
writers, with whom Libya {AljSvjj) was a general appellation for the ea 
tJte continent of Africa. Other grain countries, on which Rome also i& 
iied hr a supply, were Egypt and Sicily. — Areis.- The ancient thrcshrug 
toor was a raised place in the fveld, open on all sides to the wiod. 

ll-l.'S. n Oaudfintem. "While a third who delights."— <Sarci««f. 
^ Wrtb the hoe.'" .vayrufum is for sarrin'him, from sarrio. — !fJ Ail/ ?»«j 



£:XPLJl^Al .)RY NOT£S.-** BOCK 1., ODE. I. 35^ 

conMtiombus, *' By offer « of all the wealth of Attalua." AUndiiii^ to Atta 
loa £11 ., the last king of Pergamas, famed for hia riches, whicli he be qucath- 
ed, tog^her with his kingdom, to the Roman people. — 13. Trabe Cypria 
Tlie epithet ** Cyprian" seems to allude here not so much to the commerce 
ni'the island, extensi\ 3 as it was, as to the excellent quality of its naval 
^miber. The poet, it will be perceived, uses the expressions Cypria^ 
Myrtoum, IcaHis^ Africum, Massici, &c. kqt' i^oxv^t for ««y sbip, a»j 
lea, any waves, &c. — 14. Myrtoum. The Myrtoan Sea was a part of tha 
iBgean, extending from the promontory of Carystiis, at the southeastern 
extremity of Euboca, to the promontory of Maiea in Laconia, and there 
fore lying off Attica, Argolis, and the eastern coast of Laconia. It reacl>> 
4d eastward as far as the Cyclades. The name was derived from the 
•mall island of Myrtos near E u boca. — Pavidus nauta. " B ecoming a timid 
maiiuer." — 15. IcariUfiiictifmn. The Icarian Sea was part of the iEgean, 
between and also to the south of Icaria and Samos. It derived its name, 
tfi the ancient my thologists pretend, from Icarus, the son of Dsedalas, who* 
nooording to them, fell into it and was drowned, when accompanying his 
father in his flight fiT)m the island of Crete. — Africum. The wind Africut 
denotes, in strictness, the '* west-soathwest." Tn translating the text, it 
will be lufficient to render it by " southwest." It derived its name from 
the circumstance of its coming in the direction of Africa Propria. 

1^-19. \&. Mercator, The Aferca/o/'e5. among the Romans, were thooo 
who, remaining only a short time in any place, visited many countriea. 
and were almost constantly occupied with the exportation or impoitation 
of merchandise. The Ncgoiialoresy on the other hand, generally coo- 
linued for some length of time in a place, whether at Rome or in the 
provinces. — Metuens. "As long as he dreads." Equivalent to dvm 
metuit. — Otium el oppidi, dec. " Praises a retired life, and the rural 
scenery around his native pkoe." Orelli, less correctly, joins in construc- 
tion oppidi 8ui otium ct rurcu Acidalius [ad Vdl, Paterc.) conjectures 
(uta for rura^ which Bentley adopts. But the received reading is every 
way superior. — 18. Pauperiem. " Contracted means." Horace and the 
best Latin writers understand by pauperies and paupertaSt not absolute 
poverty,, which is properly expressed by egeslas, but a state in which we 
are deprived indeed of the comforts, and yet possess, in some degree, the 
necessaries of life. — 19. Massici. Of the Roman wines, the be&t growths 
are styled indiscriminately Massicum and /\7/cru?/m.(vinum). The Massio 
wine derived its name from the vineyards of Mons Massicus^ now Monti 
MassicOf near the ancient Sinuessa. Consult Excursus VIII. 

SO'^l. 20. Partem solido, &,c. Upon the increase of riches, the Romtni 
d *ferreQ tne aena, which used to be their mid-day meal, to the ninth hoQ.i 
(oi three o'clock afternoon) in summer, and the tenth nour in winter, taking 
•nly a sl'ght repast [prandinm) at noon. Nearly the whole of the natnra' 
day was therefore devoted to affairs of business, or serious employmem 
and was called, in consequence, dies solidus. Hence the voluptuary, whv 
^gins to quaff tne old Maasic before the accustomed hour, is said "to 
take away a part from the solid day," or from the period devoted tu more 
active pursuits, and expend it on his pleasures. This is what the poet, 
Ki another occasion (Ode 2, 6, 7) calls ' breaking the lingering day with 
•■^ine.*' dictn moranfem fr»nfft nero WcZf. .ess cujrect.y andoratandi 



5800 EXPi^ANATORY NOTGS. — BOOH 1., ttpE I. 

by the iRords of the text, the taking of an allemc m a\eep.^'Membf% 
stratus. Consult Zumpf., ^ 458. — 21. Arbi4o. The arbnlus (or arbiti im) 
»s the arbnte, or wild strawberrj'-tree, correspoDding to the Kdfiaoo^ of the 
Oieeks, the unedo of Pliny* and the Arbutus uwdo of Linnaeas, class 10 
The fruit itself is called KO/jafjoVt fitinaiKvXoVj or fUfiaiKvXov [Atherutux 
S, 'J5;, and in Latin arbutum. It resembles our strawberry very closely, 
except that it is larger, and has no seeds on the oatsidc of the pulp lik# 
that fruit. 

83-28. 22. Aqua lene caput sacra:. "The gently -marmaring soorte 
ff some sacred stream " The fountain heads of streams were supposed 
to bo the residence of the river-deity, and hence were always held sacred 
F'ou^tain8 generally were sacred to the nymphs ari. rural divinities 
Compare Jacob, Quecst. Epic, p. 13, seq. — 23. Et lituo tuba, &c. ** Au«l 
the sound of the trumpet interminglcd»with the notes of the clarion." 
The tuba was straight, and used for infantry; the lituus was bent a littlt 
at the end, like th? augur's staff, and was used for the cavalry: it had tht 
harsher sound. — 25. Detestata. " Held in detestation." Taken passively 
Compare abominatus, in Epod. xvi., 8. — Manet. " Passes the night.' 
ISqaivalent to pernoctat. Compare Sat., ii., 3, 234. — Sub Jf^e frigido 
" Beneath the cold sky." Jupiter is bore taken figuratively for the highei 
regions of the air. Compare tlie Greek phrase ino £ii6g. — Catulis. The 
dative by a Grsecism for a catulis. Scheller and others erroneously un 
derstand this of the young of the deer. — 28. Teretes. "Well-wrought.' 
The epithet teres here convoys the idea of something smooth and round 
and therefore refers properly tu the cords or strands of the ndt, as being 
smooth, and round, and tapering, and forming, therefore, a well-wrought 
net. Orelli adopts the same general idea, rendering teretes by fcstge 
dreht, " strong-twisted," i. e., ex funiculis complicatis et contortis con 
nexte. — Marsus. For Marsicus. The mountainous country of the Mani, 
in Italy, abounded with wild boars of the fiercest kind. 

29-34. 29. Me doctarum, Sec. Croft conjectured 7*e in place of me^ an 
emendation first made known by Hare, and subsequently approved of by 
Bentley, Sanadon, Markland, Fea, Wolf, and others. The main arga- 
raent in its favor is the antithesis which it produces. But the common 
reading is well explained and defended by Orelli. — Edera. " Ivy-crowns.' 
The species of ivy here alluded to is the Edera nigra, sacred to Bacchofl, 
and hence styled Aiovvaia by the Greeks. It is the Edera poetica of 
Bauhin. Servius says that poets were crowned with ivy, because the 
poetic " furor'' resembled that of the Bacchanalians. — Doctartiin pramia 
^roTUium. Poets are called docti, " learned," in accordance with Grecian 
usage : iioidoi aoi^oi. — 30. Dis miscent superis. *' Raise to the converse 
of the gods above." Literally, "mingle with the gods above," i e., raise 
to a level with them ; raise to the high heavens. Compare the explana- 
tion of Doring, " Corona ederacea ductus deorum admittor concilio.*' — 33. 
Euterpe cohibet, &c. Euterpe and Polyhymnia, two of the muses, are hen 
very appropriately introduced. Euterpe plays on the iU/ia, Polyhymnia ao 
oompanies her voice with the lyre ; hence both are naturally invoked by 
Uie lyric poet. — 34. Lcsboum refngit, dec. " Refuses to touch the Lcsbitti 
.yre." The lyre is called " Lesbian" in allusion to Sappho and AIcbus. 
Hoth natives of Lesbos, ai: i both famed for their lyric pmductions. 



iCXPLANA'rOKV NOTES. BOOK I., ODE II 2H) 

OP'S. LT. OclavianuH assumed his new title of Aai^ustui on tbo I7th of 
. uiuary (xvi. Cal. Feor,), A.U.C. 727. On the following'' \ight lioiud 
».AS visited by a severe tempest, and an inuhdation of the Tiber. The 
i»reseut ode was written in allusion to that event. The poet, regarding 
the visitation as a mark of divine displeasure, proceeds to inquire on what 
deity they are to call for succor. Who is to free the llomans from tbd 
pollution occasioned by their civil strife ? Is ii Apollo, god of prophecy 
Or Venus, parent of Rome 7 Or Mars, founder of the Roman line 7 Oi 
Mercary, meesenger of the skies 7 — It is the last, the avenger of Caesar, the 
imty wbc shrouds his godhead beneath the person of Augustus. Ue alone. 
K heaven spare him to the earth, can restore to us the favor of Jove, ciid na 
hcaal prosperity. — Many of the old commentators refer the subject of thiji 
tdt'i to the prodigies that occurred on the death of Julius Caesar, and somu 
laodem scholars have adopted the same idea ; but this is decidedly inferior 

1-4. 1. Terris. A QToacism for tn terrax. — Nivis. It was not the snow 
itself that formed the prodig}', but the heavy fall of it, and the violence of 
the accompanying storm. Snow may be an unusual visitant at the present 
day in central Italy, but it does not appear to have been so in the time ot 
Horace. Consult the remarks of Arnold on this subject. Hist, of Rome, 
voL i., p. 499, seqq. — IHrte grandinis. Every thing «ent by the wrath of 
the gods [dci ira) was termed dirnvi. — 2. Paler. "The Father of gods 
and men." Jupiter. liariypuvi^fjuv ts^cuv re. — Rube nte dexter a. "With 
bis red right hand." Red with the reflected glare of the thuntlerljolt : an 
deff'very probably borrowed from some ancient painting.^— 3. Sacras nrccs 
' The sacred summits (of the temples)." The lightning struck the Capitoi 
tontaiuing the temples of Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno. It is unusual ta 
tind jaculari with the accusative of the thing that is struck. Compare, 
however, Od.., iii., 12, 11, '*JacnIari centos." — 4. Urhem. " The city," i. e. 
Rome. Compare Qnintilian (6, 2), " Urbem Rornam accipimns." 

5-10. 5. Gentes. Understand timcnten. '• He has terrified the nations, 
fearing lest," &c. Analogous to the Greek idiom, k(^6^7jae /irj.^^. iS^ 
cubum Pyrrha. Alluding to the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly, when, 
according to the legend, Deucalion and his spouse Pyrrha were the only 
mortals that were saved. — Nova rronstra. •• Strange prodigies," i. e., 
wonders before unseen. — 7. Proteus. A sea-deity, son of Oceanus and 
Tethys, gifted with prophecy and the power of assuming any form at 
pleasure. His fabled employment was to keep •• the flocks" of Neptune, 
t. e^ the phocte, or seals. — 8. Viscre. A Graecism for ad visendum. — 10. Pa- 
lumbia. The common reading is colmnbis, but the true one is pahimbis. 
f he •* p'i'umba?," or " wood-pigeons," construct their nests on the brancb- 
99 and in the hollows of trees ; the columbtBt or " doves," are kept in dove* 
M>tB. It is idle to say, \vi opposition to this, that columbte is the generi: 
4am e 

13-1 :. \:i. Flavnm Pibcrim. " The yellow Tiber." A recent travel 
er rema.'ks, witli regard to this epithet of the Tiber : '• Yellow is an ex 
•eediugly ui descriptive translation of tliat tawny color, that mixture of 
red, brown, gray, and yellow, which should answer to fiavus here ; but \ 
nay not deviate from the established phrase, nor do I knew a better " 
[S/**me '"** *h€ Nineteenth Cenini-v. vol. i. p. 84.) — Fctctiis. "Being h«ij4 



262 EXPLANATORY NOflSS. UUOK 1 , OllE li 

e<i back ' — 1 4. LUore Etrusco. The violence of the storm forced the waves 
of the Tiber from the upper or Tuscan shore, and caused an inundation on 
the lower bank, or left side of the river, where Rome was situ%te<i. Some 
anike litgre Etrusco refer to the sea-coast, and suppose that the violence 
of the stoi-m drove back the waters of the Tiber from the mouth of the 
river, and that this retrocession caused the inundation spoken of. Otu 
explanation, however, suits the context better, and especially the **ainis- 
ira labitur ripa^*^ in line 1 8, seq. — 15. Mcniumenta regis. " The venerated 
memorial of King- Numa." Observe the force of the plural in rioiiumenta^ 
which we have ventured to express by an epithet. Tho allusion is to tbe 
f alace of Numa, which, according to Plutarch, stood in the immediate 
Ticinity of the Temple of Vesta, and was distinct from his other residence 
on the Quirinal Hill. {Pint., Vit. Num., c. 14.)— 16. Vesta, What made 
I'tie 9men a peculiarly alarming one was, that the sacred fire was kept in 
this temple, ou the preservation of which the safety of the empire was 
supposed in a great measure to depend. If a vestal virgin allowed the 
■acred firo to be extinguished, she was scourged by the Fontifex Maxi 
mus. Suoli an accident was always esteemed most unlucky, and expiated 
by offering extracirdinary sacrifices. The fire was hghted up again, not 
trora another fire, but from the rays of the sun, in which manner it wai 
renewed every year on the first of March, that day being anciently the be 
qinuing of the year. 

17-19. 17. Ili€B dum ae, Jtc. " While the god of the »*-eain, lending 
too ready an ear to his spouse, proudly shows himself ai> avenger to tho 
too complaining Ilia." We have followed Oi-elli in joinir^g nimium with 
querenti. It may also be taken with uUorcm, " an intem; /crate avenger," 
but the collocation of the wi nils seems to be more in favo of the former, as 
Orelli correctly remarks. The allusion is to Ilia or Kea f.ilvia, the mother 
of Romulus and Remus, and the ancestress of Julius Cspvar, whose assaa- 
siuation she is here represented as making the subject ^f too prolonged a 
complaint, siuce the expiatory sufferings of Rome had i Iready been suffi- 
ciently severe. Ancient authorities difier in relation to ler fate. Eunius 
cited by Forphyrioii in his scholia on this ode, makes /\er to have been 
cast into the Tiber, previously to which she had becon^'3 the bride of the 
Anio. Horace, on the contrary, speaks of her as havin*^ tnarried the goo 
of the Tiber, which he here designates as uxoHus a'k^rjj'i. Serving (o^ 
/En., 1, 274) alludes to this version of the fable, as a/V»p»-.«d by Horace 
and others. Acron also, iu /as scholia on the present pi 8s»^e, speaks of 
Ilia as having married the god of the Tiber. Accordi.i-^ b- the account 
which he gives, Ilia was buried on the banks of the A)\i', ui^ the river, 
having overflowed its borders, carried her remains doivr to ♦^^e Tiber 
hence she was said to have espoused the deity of tho H.sv i<»*«utione€' 
■tream. It may not be improper to add here a remark of Niex^hr's ir 
relation to the name of this female. "The reading Rhea,'' cbjei.v,5S thfi 
historian, "is a corruption introduced by the editors, who \exy UitiSeasoD 
ably bethought themselves of the goddess : rea seems only to have signi 
fied *the culprit,' or *the guilty woman:' it reminds us oireafcminc^ 
which often occurs, particularly in Boccacio." {Niebukrs Roziuzn Hu 
tory, vol. i., p. 176, Cambr. transl.) — 19. Jove non vrobanie. .lupiter di» 
tint approve that the Tiber should undertake to avcrga th? death of Ggnmr 
a task which ho had reservckl for Au^us.hia 



iflXPLANATORl NOTE». BOOK I., ODB I . 2tj'* 

ia^27. 22. Graves Persa:. "The formidable Parthians" Compare 
RH refjards'the forc;e of gravis, the similar employment of(3cpv{ in Green 
Thas Alexander is called (3apbg Hifxratcn. {Theocrit., xvii., 19.i — Persia 
Borace frequently uses the terms Medi and Perstt to denote the l^nrthians 
riie Median preceded the Persian power, which, after the interval of th<» 
3recian dominion, was sacceeded by the Parthian empire. The epithet 
graves alludes to the defeat of Crassus, and the check of Marc Antony.— 
Perirent, For perituri fuissent. {Zumpt, $ 525.) — 23. Vitio parentwn 
rara jumntus. "Posterity thinned through the gnilt of their falhon." 
Alluding to the sanguinary conflicts of the civil contest. — 25 VoctU F<f 
mvocet. — Ruentis imperi rebus. " To the affairs of the falling empire.** 
Uebus by a Graecism for ad res. — 26. Prece qua. " By what supplications." 
-•B7. Virgines sanctte. AUudingtothe vestal virgins. — Minus audientetx 
yirmina. " Less favorably hearing their solemn prayers." Carmen it 
frequently used to denote any set form of words either in proffe or verso 
The reference here is to prayers and supplications, repeated day after day, 
and constituting so many set forms of the Roman ritual. As Julius Caesar 
was Pontifex Maximus at the time of his death, he was also, by virtue ot 
his office, priest of Vesta ; it being particularly incumbent on the Pontifes 
Maximus to exercise a superintending control over the rites of that god 
dess. Hence the anger of the goddess toward the Romanson account of 
Oipsar's death. 

29-39. 29. Parfv.i sceliis expiandi. "The task of expiating our guilt."" 
Sccivs refers to the crimes and excesses of the civil conflict. They who 
were polluted by the stain of human blood were excluded from all partici 
pation in the sacred rites until proper atonement had been made. This 
atonement in the present case is to consist, not in punishing the slayers of 
Jaesar, which had already been done, but in placing the state once more 
on the firm basis of peace and concord. As this seemed too great a task 
hr a mere mortal, tlie aid of the gods is solicited. [Gesticr^ ad Joe.) — 31. 
N^be candentcs, iStc. " Having thy bright shoulders shrouded with a clcud." 
The gods, when they were pleased to manifest themselves to mortal eye, 
were generally, in poetic imagery, clothed with clouds, in order to hide 
from mortal gaze the excessive splendor of their presence. — Augur Apollo 
'Apollo, god of prophecy." — 33. Erycina ridens. "Smiling goddess oi 
Eryx." Venus, so colled from her temple on Mount Eryx in Sicily. — 34 
Qnam Joans circvviy &c. " Around whom hover Mirth and Love." — CI6 
Respicis. "Thou again beholdest with a favoring eye." When the god« 
turned their eyes toward their worshippers, it was a sign o'' favor; when 
Vhey averted them, of displeasure. — Auctor. " Founder of the Romau 
line." Addressed to Mars as the reputed father of Romulus and RemuM 
—39. Marsi. The MSS. have Mauri, for which Faber conjectured Marsi. 
lod this last has been adopted by Dacier, Bentley, Cunningham, Sana 
don, and others. The people of Mauretania were never remarkable foi 
tbeir valor, and their cavalry, besides, were always decidedly superior U 
Ibeir infantry. The Marsi, on the other hand, were reputed to have beeij 
■•SBe of the most valiant nations of Italy. The modem G erraan editors hav« 
y<f:i«rally i-etained Mauri, and give peditis the meaning of " d ^mounted." 
making the allusion to be to the defeat of Juba at Thapsns. Tliis, how 
ever, is extremelj' unsatisfactory. — Crucntum. This e[iithet beast iltill}' 
doscribes the foe, as transfixed by the weapon of the Marsiun and " weJ 
«K'ik'.g in his blood." 



204 t:Xl*LANATORy NOTE?. BOOK !., OUB II 

•;i-51. 41. Sive mulata^ &c. "Or if, 'ivinged son of the benign JilaU 
having changed thy form, thoa assumest that of a youthful hero on 4m 
earth." Mercury, th«^ offspring of Jupiter and Maia, is here addressed 
The epithet " winged" has reference to the peculiar mode in which Mer 
cury or Hermes was represented in ancient works of art, namely, witb 
wings attached to his petasas, or travelling hat, and also to his italfaiMi 
nandals. — Juveiiem. Referring to Augustus. He was now, indeed, thirty 
•iz years of age ; but the term juvenis applies to all in the bloom and 
likewise prime of life ; in other words, it comprehended the whole period 
*3Xim eighteen to forty or forty-five. — 43. Fattens vocteri, &c. "Buft'ering 
ihy««lf to I/U called the avenger of Caesar." An imitation of the Gieek 
kdlom, for /.. vocari Ctusaris uUorevn. — 46. Lcctus. "Propitious."— 47. Ini- 
(Mum. "Offended at."— ^48. Ocior aura. " Too early a blast." Supply 
fticto. Mjre freely, "an untimely blast." The poet prays that the de- 
parture '-A Augustus for the skies may not be accelerated by the crimes 
\,id vici.s if his people. — 49. Magnos triumphos. Augustus, in the month 
of August. A.U.C. 725, triumphed for three days in succession: On the first 
diiy 3\ er ihe Pannoniaus, Dalmatians, lapydie, and their neighbors, to- 
gelhe-f with some Gallic and Germanic tribes; on the second day, for the 
v'.oto'^y at A :tium ; on the third, for the reduction of 'Egypt. The successea 
:'ver the Gauls and Germans had been obtained for him by his lieutenant, 
0. Carinas. — 50. Pater atque Princeps. Augustus is frequently styled on 
medals, Pater Patriot, a title which the succeeding emperors adopted from 
lim. — 51. Mi'dtJs "The eastern nations." Alluding 'particularly to tho 
Parthians. Compure note on line 22 of this Ode. — Equitare inultos. "To 
irunsgress their limits with impunity." To make unpunished inroads into 
the Roman territory. The main strength of the Parthians lay in their 
-avalry. Hence the peculiar propriety of equitare. 



Ode III. Addressed to the ship which was about to convey Virgil to 
the shores of Greece. The poet prays that the vq^age i::ay be a safe and 
propitious one : alarmed, however, at the same time, by the idea of ^e 
dangers which threaten his friend, he declaims against the inventor of 
navigation, and the daring boldness of mankind in general. — According to 
Heyne ( Virgilii vita per annos digexia), this ode would appear to have 
been written A.U.C. 735, when, as Donatus states, the bard of Mantaa 
b&d determined to retire to Greece and Asia, and employ there the space 
of three years in correcting and completing the ^neid. fDonat., Virq 
tit. $ 51.) " Anno vero quinquagesimo secundo," observes Donatus, "w< 
ultimam nanum ^neidi imponcret, statuit in Grceciam et Asiam 8ec& 
derCt iriennioqve continuo omnem operam limationi dare, ut reliqua vtta 
iantuvi philosophic vacaret. Sed cum ingressus iter Athenisoccurrissd 
Augusto, ab Oriente Roman revertenti, una cu^ CcBsare redire statuit, 
Ac eum Megara, vioinum Aikenis oppidum, visendi gratia pcteret, languo- 
rem nactvs est : quern non intermissa navigatio auxit, ita ut gravior in 
dies J tandem Brundisium adventarit, ubi iiebus paucis obiity X.KiL Ch 
l:ibr. C. Sentio, Q. Lucretio Coss. 

X~4. 1. Sic tc Diva,potejis CyprL &c. "O Ship, that owest to Afi 
iboros of Attica, Virgil intrusted by r s to thy care, give him up in flifet} 
(to hiR destined haven), and preserve the one half of mv soul, to mtr the 



KAPLAN .VrUilV NOTES. BOOK 1 JDU III. 30A 

^fuJdef B wlio rules over Cypraa, so may the broth3rs of Helen, bir(|;l)t lO' 
minariu8, and the father of the winds direct thy course, all otViers bein§ 
ooniined except lapyx." Observe that sicj in siich constructions as tlie 
present, becomes a conditional form of wishing : " if you <io as I wish you 
to do, go (i. e., in that event) may such or such a result happen unto you." 
Here, however, in order to render it more forcible, the ix>nditional sic is 
placed first, which cannot, of course, be imitated in translating. — Diva 
poUna CypH. Venus. From her power over the sea, she was invoked 
by t}ie Cnidians, as EvTrAo^a, the dispenser of favorable voyages. [Paii 
§an.t i., 14.) — 2. Fratres Helena. Castor and Pollux. It was the partic 
olar office of " the brothers of Helen" to bring aid to mariners in time uf 
danger. They were identified by the ancients with those luminous ap- 
pearances, resembling balls of fire, which are seen on the masts and yarda 
of vessels before and after storms. — 3. Ventorum paler, ^olus. The isl- 
and 2T& which he was fabled to have reigned was Strongyle, the moJeni 
Strot*,boli. — 4. Obstrictii aliis. An allusion to the Homeric fable oi 
(JlyshCs and his bag of adverse winds. — lapyga. The west-nortliwest. 
It received its name from lapygia, in Lower Italy, which country lay 
partly in the line of its direction.' It was the most favorable wind for sail 
ing from Brundisium toward the southern parts of Greece, the vessel hav 
Ing, in the course of her voyage to Attit^a, to double the promontories (A 
Tsenarv;* and Malea. — Animm dimidium mem. A fond and frequent ex 
pression to denote intimate friendship. Thus the old scholiast remarks 
^O.ia Larl fiia t}wxff kv &voiv autpaaiv. 

sl-15 9. Bit robiir et <bs triplex, &c. " That mortal had the strengtk 
of triple brass around his breast." RoOur et les triplex is here put for ro 
bur eerii triplicis, and the allusion may perhaps be to the ancient coats ol 
mail, that were formed of iron rings twisted within one another like chainsi 
tr else to those which were covered with plates of iron, tripliri orditie, in 
the form of scales. — 12. Africum. The west-southwest wind, answering 
to the Aiijf of the Greeks. — 13. Aquilonibus. The term Aquilo denotes, in 
atrictuess, the wind which blows from the quarter directly opposite to 
that denominated Africus. A strict translation of both terms, however, 
would diminish, in the present instance, the poetic beauty of the passage. 
The whole may be rendered as follows : •' The headlong fury of the south- 
west wind, contending with the northeastern blasts." — 14. Tristes Hya- 
ias. " The rainy Hyades." The Hyades were seven of the fourteen 
daughters of Atlas, their remaining sisters being called Pleiades. These 
virgms bewailed so immoderately the death of their brother Hyas, who 
was devoured by a lion, that Jupiter, out of compassion, changed them into 
stars, and placed them in the head of Taurus, where they still retain their 
grief^ their rising and setting being attended with heavy raius. Hence the 
epithet tristes ("weeping," "rainy") applied to them by the poet. — 15. 
Hadri<B. Some commentators insist that Hadrice is here used for the sea 
in general, because, as the Adriatic ^aces the southeast, the remark of Hcur- 
ace cannot be true of the south. In the age of the poet, however, the 
term Hadria was used in a very extensive sense. The sea which it de» 
j^nated was considered as extending to the southern 3oast of J*.aly and 
A#> western shores of Greece. 

7-H>. >7 Quern *nortis timuit iridn^n. "What path of death did 

M 



I 
/ 



ttHi C.XPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK !.« ODE IF. 

he fear." i. e.y what kind of death. Eqaivalent to qujm vtam ad Oi'vum 
-IS. Hcctis oculis. *♦ With steady gaze," i. e., with fearless eye. Moil 
editions read xiccis oculis^ which Bentley altered, on conjecture, to rectis 
Others prefery/xe.s oculis. — 19. Et infames scopulos Aeroceraunia. ** And 
the A.croceraunia, ill-famed cliffs." The Ceraania were a chain of looonc 
Kins along the coast of Northern Bpirus, forming part of the boundary be 
tweeii it and lUyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond 
Oricum formed a bold promontory, and was termed Acroceraunia ('Axpo 
kepavvia), from its summit (uxpa) being often struck by lightning (iccpav 
vdf). This coast was much dreaded by the mariners of antiquity, becaoae 
nie mountains were supposed to attract storms ; and Augustus nariowl« 
->caped shipwreck here when returning from Actium. Tiie Acrocerau 
•lA aro now called Monte Chimera. 

^'^'39. 22. Dissocialnli. " Forbidding all intercourse." Taken in an 
vflve sense. — 24. TranssiliunL "Bound contemptuously over." — 2fi. 
Aitdax omnia perpeti. A Greek construction : idpa(Tvc nuvTa tX^vui- 
* Boldly daring to encounter every hardship." — 25. Per vetiium et nefa^ 
** Through what is forbidden by all laws both human and divine." Thfj 
common text has vetiium nefas, which makes a disagreeable pleonasm 
Tlie reading which we have adopted occurs in two MSS., and is decidedly 
preferable. — 27. Atrox lapeti genus. "The resolute son of lapetus. 
Prometheus. We have adopted atrox^ the conjecture of Bothe. The 
common reading is aitdax^ bat the repetition of this epithet appears ex 
tremely unpoetical. As regards the force of atrox here, compare Od.t ii. 
1, 24 : ** Prater atrocem animum Catonis." — 28. Fraude mala. "By at 
unhappy fraud." The stealing of the fire from heaven is called " an un 
happy fraud," in allusion to Pandora and her box of evils, with which Ju 
piter punished mankind on account of the theft of Prometheus. — "19. Pos> 
ignem tetheria domo subductnm. *' After the fire was drawn down b} 
stealth from its mansion in the skies." — 33. Corripuit gradum. *^ Acco' 
erated its pace." We have here the remnant of an old tradition respeci 
ing the longer duration of life in primeval times. — 34. Exvertus (est) 
" Essayed." — 36. Perrupit Acheronta Hercnleus labor. " The toiling Her- 
cales burst the ban-iers of the lower world." Alluding to the descent of 
Hercules to the shades. Acheron is here put tiguratively for Orcus. Tb« 
expression Hercnleus labor is a Greecism, and in imitation of the Homeric 
form Biti 'HpaKXtjsiri. (Od., xi., COO.) So, also, Kacxropof pia [Pind^ 
PytK xi., 93) ; TvJeof /iia {^EscU., ti. C. TK 77), &c.— 39. Ccelum. Al- 
luding to the b^ttl6 of the gia:its with the gods. 



Oi^K IV. The ode commences with a description of the return of spring. 
After alluding to the pleasurable feelings attendant upon that delighttoJ 
leason uf the year, the poet urges his friend Sextius, by a favorite Epicu 
rcan ai-gument, to cherish the fleeting hour, since the night of the grav< 
would soon close around him, and bring all enjoyment to an end. 

The transition m this ode, at the 13th line, has been censured by soma 
as too abrupt. It only wears this appearance, however, to those who are 
anacquainted with ancient customs and the associated feelings of the Bo 
ttans. " To one who did not know," observes Mr. Dunlop, "that the mor 
Inary festivals almost immediately succccd'jd those of Foonus the Itnof 



KXyLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE IV. 20* 

m question might ippear disjointed and iucongraoas. Bat to a itoosai^ 
who at once could .race the association in the mind of the |>oet, the sad 
den transition from gayety to gloom would seem hut an echo of the senti 
meut which he himself annually experienced." 

1-4. 1. Solvitur acris kiems^ &c. *' Severe winter is melting awaj 
beneath the pleasing change of spring and the western breeze." Liter* 
ally, "is getting loosened or relaxed." — Vtris. The spring commenced, 
according to Varro {R. 11., i., 28), on the seventh day before the Ides oif 
?ebniary (7 Feb.), on which day, according to Columella, the wind Favo- 
ivin began to blow. — Favoni. The wind Favonius received its name ei 
?h3r lirom its being favorable to vegetation {favens genitura), or from iti 
fostering the grain sown in the earth (f ovens sata), — 2. Trahuntque sic 
cas mackinte carinas. " And the rollers are drawing down the dry hulls 
(to the shore)," i. e., the dry hulls are getting drawn down on rollers. As 
tho aijcients seldom prosecuted any voyages in winter, their ships during 
that season were generally drawn up on land, and stood on the shore sup- 
ported by props. When the season for navigation returned, they wcr^ 
drawn to the water by means of ropes and levers, with rollers placed i>o 
low. — 3. Igni. '* in his station by the fireside" — 4. Cants pruiui^ 
" With the hoar-frost." 

5-7. 5. Cytlierca. " The goddess of Cythera." Venus : so called trom 
the island of Cythera, now Ccrigo, near the promontory of Malea, in the 
vicinity of which island she was fabled to have first lauded. — Choros du 
mt. '* Leads up the dances." — Imminente luna. " Under the full light of 
the moon." The moon is here described as being directly overhead, and, 
by a beautiful poetic image, threatening^ as it were, to fall. — 6. Junciaque 
Nymphis GratitB dccentes. " And the •comely Graces joined hand in hand 
with the Nymphs." We have rendered decentes here by the epitliel 
" comely." In truth, however, there is no single term in our language 
which gives the full meaning of the Latin expression. The idea intended 
to be conveyed by it is analogous to that implied in the to Ka?MV of the 
Greeks, i. e., omne quod pulckrum et decorum est. Wc may therefoie 
best convey the meaning of GraficB decentes by a paraphrase : " the Graces, 
arbitresses of all that is lovely and becoming.' — 7. Dum graves Cyclo- 
pnm, &c. "While glowing.Vulcan kindles up the laborious forges of the 
Cyclopes." The epithet ardens is here equivalent to Jlammis relncens, 
and beautifully describes the person of the god as glowing amid the light 
which streams from his forge. Horace is thought to have imitated in thin 
passage some Greek poet of Sicily, who, in depicting the approach of 
spring, lays the scene in his native island, with Mount .£tna smoking in 
the distant horizon. The interior of the mountain is the fabled scene ol 
Vulcan's labors ; and here he is busily employed in forging thunderbolts 
for the monarch of the skies to hurl during the storms of spring, which are 
of frequent occurrence in that climate. — Cyclopum. The Cyclope« were 
the sons of Coelus and Teira, and of the Titan race. In the lattr legend 
here followed, they are represented as the assistants of Vulcan. 

9-12 9. Nitidum. " Shining with unguents." — Caput impedire. M 
thebantiuets and festive meetings of the ancientsi, the g-jcsts weie crowD 
•d with garlands of flowrrs, herbS; or leaves, tied and adorned with rib 



24JeJ EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODI V- 

Dons, oi with the inner rind of the linden-tree. Ihesc crowns, ll wm 
thought, prevented intoxication. — Myrlo. The myrtle was sacred t) Ve 
Qas. — 10. Soluta "Freed from the fetters of winter." — 11. Fauna 
Fnunus, the guardian of the fields and flocks, had two annual festivaig 
cal'ed Faunulia, one on the Ides (13th) of February, and the other on th^{ 
Nones (5th) of December. Both were marked by great hilarity and J03 
— 12. Sen poscat a^na, &c. " Either with a lamb, if he demand one, ct 
with a kid, if he prefer that offering." Many editions read agnam ai>d 
i^tedum i but nio^t of the MSS., and all the best editions, exhibit the Iei?« 
tion which we have given. 

lb-16. 15. Pallida Mors, Sec. " Pale Death, advancing with impartial 
^Dotstep, knocks for admitlance at the cottajes ot the poor a/id the loftv 
dwellings of the rich." Horace uses the term rex as equivalent to hutui 
nr dives. As regards the apparent want of «;()unoction between this por- 
tion of thf) ode and that which immediately precedes, compare what has 
^eeu said in tho introiliKitory remarks. — 15. Jnchoare. "Day after day to 
• enow." — 16 Jam ie premel no.c, &c. The passjige may be paraphrased 
as Vuilows : *'Soon will the night of the grave descend upon thee, and the 
mane» of fsblc crowd around, and the shadowy home of Pluto become also 
thine own." The zeugma in the verb prcmo, by which it is made to as- 
sume a new mejming in each clause of the sentence, is worthy of notice. 
By the manes of fabie are meant the shades of the departed, often made 
the theme o^ the wildest fictions of poetry. Observe th&t fabula is not 
the genitive here, but the nominative plural, and equivalent to faOuhsi 
Comjiare Callimachus^ Epigr.^ xiv., 3 : ri 6t nAovrt^v ; Mv^Of : and Per 
<iust Sat., v., 152 : " Cinis el manes etfahnlajies." 

17-\8. 17. Simul. For Simul ac. — 18. Talis. This may either lo the 
itdjective, or else the ablative plural of talus. If the former, the meaning 
of the passage will be, " Thou shalt neither cast lots for the sovereignty 
of such wine as we have here, nor," &c. ; whereas \{ talis be regarded as 
a noun, the interpretation will be, " Thou shalt neither cast lots with the 
dice for the sovereignty of wine, nor," &c. This latter mode of rendering 
the passage is the more usual one, but the other is certainly more anima- 
ted and poetical, and more in accordance, too, with the very early and 
curipus belief of the Greeks and Romans in relation to a future state. 
They believed that the souls of the departetf, with the exception of those 
who had offended against the majesty of the gods, were occupied in the 
lower world with the unreal performawce of the same actions which haj 
formed their chief object of pursuit in the regions of day. Thus, the frieni 
of Horace will still quaff his wine in the shades, but the cup and its coi 
tents will be, like their possessor, a shadow and a dream : it will not \ e 
'fuch wine as he drank upon the earth. — As regards the expression, " sov 
ereignty of wine," it means nothing more than the office (A arbiter bibendi 
•Mc ** toast-master." (Compare Ode ii., 7, 25.) 



Ode V Pyrrha, having secured the affections of a new admirer, is ad 

4Tessed by the poet, who had himself experienced her inconsitancy nuc 

<liuthlessness. 'He compares her youthful love" to one' w^hom a suddnn 

Aiui dangerous tempest threatens to surprise on the deep -hnnsolf to th« 

WHfiner just res7,ucd from \\(^ perils of shipwreck. 



KXPliANATORY NOTES. — HOOK I , OOK VI. 26& 

l-T I. Multa in rosa. " Crowned with many a ro*e." An imitatloi 
of the Greek idiom, tv fTre<i>uvoig nvat [Eurip^ Here. Fur., 677).— 2. U? 
^et. Understand te. •* Prefers unto thee his impassioned suit." Vrp^-ei 
wouUl spera to imply an ufFected coyness and reserve on tf«e part of Pyirha, 
111 order to elicit more powerfully the feelings of bim who addresses her. — 
5. Simplex mil ndiliis. " With simple elegance. ' Milton translates this, 
** Plain in thy neatness." — Fidem mvtalosque dws, ** Thy broken i'aith, 
and the altered gods." Tho gods, who once seemed to smile upon hii 
loit, are now, under the epithet of mutati (•• altered"), represented ai 
frowning upon it, adverfcs to his prayer. 

7—12. 7. Nigris ventis. " With darkening blasts," i. c, blasts darken 
ing the heavens with storm-clouds. The epithet nigri^ here applied tu 
the winds, is equivalent to ** cesium nigrum reddentes" — 8. Emirabitur 
insolens. " Unaccustomed to the sight, shall be lost in wonder »t." Ob- 
serve that emirabitur is a ana^TieyofiEvov for the Golden Age of Latinity, 
but is well defended here by MSS. The verb occurs subsequently in Ap- 
puleius [Met.^ p. 274) and Luctatius Placidus [Enarr.fab.y p. 251,Afu7ic'A.). 
[t means "to wonder greatly at," "to be lost in wonder at," and to indi- 
cate this feeling by the gestures. To the same class belong elaudare, 
emonere, emu tare, everberare. Jtc. — 9. Anrca. "All golden," i. e., posaess- 
ing a lieart swayed by the purest affection toward him. — 10. V€icuam 
"Free from all attachment to another." — 11. Nescius aura fallaet.9 
Pyrrha is likened in point of fickleness to the wind. — 12. Nites. An idea 
borrowed from the appearance presented by the sea when reposing in a 
calm, its treacherous waters sparkling beneath the rays of the sun. 

13. Me tabula sacer, &.c. Mariners rescued from the dangers of ship 
wreck were accustomed to suspend some votive tablet or picture, together 
with their moist vestments, in the temple of the god by whose interposi- 
tion ibcy believed themselves to have been saved. In these paintings, the 
■torm, and tho circumstances attending their escape, were carefully de- 
lineated. In the age of Horace, Neptune received these votive offeringa ; 
in that of Juvenal, Isis. Ruined mariners frequently earned such picturea 
aboat with them, in order Co excite the compassion of those whom they 
chanced to meet, describing at the same time, in songs, the particuli^s of 
their story. (Compare ti.e l<Jpistle to the Pisos, v. 20.) Horace, in likf 
manner, speaks of the vdtive tablet which gratitude has prompted him tn 
offer in thought, his peace of mind having been nearly shipwrecked by the 
brilliant but dangerous beauty of Pyrrha. 



- Ode VI. M. Vipsanius Agrippa, to whom this ode is addressed, was the 
faatimate friend of Augustus, and a celebrated commander, distinguished 
for various exploits both by land and sea. It was he who, as commandet 
of tlie naval forces of Augustus, defeated Sextus Pompeios oft' the coast 
of Sicily, and was afterward mainly instrumental in gaining the victory at 
Actiura. He became eventually the son-in-law of Augustas, having mar 
ricd, at his request, Julia, tho widow of Marcellus. The Pantheon waj 
erected by him. He is thought to have complained of the silence which 
Horace had preserved in relation to him throughout his various piero» 
The poet seeks to justify himself on the ground of **m utter \aabiUty ** 



270 EXPLANAIOfte NOTES. — BOOK I., ODrt VI. 

bandls to lofty a theme. " Varius will sing thy praises, Agri\)p.'i« witi 
all tliu fire of a second Homer. For ray own part, I would as soon attempt 
to describe in poetic numbers the god o' battle, or any of the heroes uf the 
Iliad, as undertake to tell of thy fame and that of the royal Cicsar.' Tbc 
iangaage, however, in which the bard's excuse is conveyed, while it speaks 
a high euiogium on the characters of Augustus and Agrippa, proves, at the 
I am 3 time, how well qualified he was to execute the task which he declines 
Sanadon, without the least shadow of probability, endeavors to trace au 
allegorical meaning throughout the entire ode. He supposes PoUio to be 
meant by Achilles, Agrippa and Messftla by the phrase duplicU Ulireit 
Antony and Cleopatra by the "house of Pelops," Statilius Taurus by thfl 
g3d Mars, Marcus Titius by Meriones, and Maecenas by the son of Tydeua 

1. Scribiria Vario, Sec. "Thou shalt be celebrated by Varius, a bird 
of Mtconian strain, as valiant," &,c. Vano and aliti are datives^ put by a 
Graecism for ablatives. — The poet to whom Horace here alludes, and who 
is again mentioned on several occasions, was Lucius Varius, famed for his 
epic and tragic productions. Quintilian (10, I) asserts, that a tragedy of 
his, entitled Thyestes, was deserving of being compared with any of the 
Grecian models. He composed, also, a panegyric on Augustus, of which 
the ancient writers speak in teims of high commendation. Macrobius 
[SaLf 6, 1) has preserved some fragments of a poem of his ou <!oath. 
Varius was one of thb friends who introduced Horace to the notice of Mee- 
conas, and, along with Plotins Tucca, was intrusted by Augustus with 
the revision of the iEneid. It is evident that this latter poem could not 
nave vet appeared when Horace composed the present ode, since he would 
never certainly, in that event, have given Varius the preference to Virgil. 

8-5. 2. Mcbo-iii carminis aliti. *' A bird of Mseonian song,*' t. e., a poet 
who sings with all the majesty of Homer, and who wings as bold a flight 
In other words, a second Homer. The epithet " Maeonian" contains an 
allusion to Homer, who was generally supposed to have been born neai 
Bmyrna, and to have been consequently of MsQonian {i. e., Lydiau) rlescent. 
The term aliti refers to a custom in which the ancient poets often indulged, 
•f likening themselves to the eagle and the swan. — 3. Quam rem cuftque. 
•* For whatever exploit," i. e., quod attinet ad rem, quamcurtquet &c. Ob 
serve the tmesis. 

5-12. 5. Nee gravem Pclidte stomachum, &c. "Nor the fierce resent* 
ment of the son of Pelcus, ignorant how to yield," i. e., the unrelenting son 
of Peleus. The allusion is to the wrath of Achilles, the basis of the Iliad, 
and his beholding unmoved, amid his anger against Agamemnon, the dia* 
tresses and slaughter of his countrymen. — 7. Cursus duplicis Ulixei. 
'•The wanderings of the crafty Ulysses." These form the subject of the 
Odyssey. -M. Savam Pelopis domnm. "The cruel line of Pelops," i. e^ 
the blood-stimed family of the Pelopidae, namely, Atreus, Thyestes, Aga- 
memnon, 0»"estes, &c., the subjects of tragedies. — 10. Imbtllisque lyra 
Musa potenit. "And the Muse that sways the peaceful lyre." Alluding 
tc his own in'*eriority in epic strain, and his being better qualified to han- 
dle sportive and amatory themes. — 12. Culpa dctei'ere ingcni. "To di 
ttmish by any want of talent on our part," i. e., to wcak«n, Ac. The lil 
eral meaning of dcierere i» '*to wear away," "to ooniumo bv wearingp 



>CXI'LANA'iail\ NO'rt S.-— BOOK I., ODE VII 5J7I 

MDU til:) oietaphor is heru borrowed from the friction mad wear of inetal» 
Compare Orelli, ♦' Tralatio a metallo, qu-od usu deteritur. exUnnutur, at 
$plendore privatur." 

14-20. 14. Digne. "In strains worthy of the theme." — 15. Meriouen 
Meridnes, charioteer and friend of Idomeneus. — 16. Tydiden. Diomeda 
■on of Tydeus. — Superis parent. " A match for the inhabitants of th^ 
•kiet .*' Allcding to the wounds inflicted on Venus and Mars by the Gi'o 
cian warrior. — 17. Nos conviviay &c. "We, whether free from all attach 
ment to another, or whether we bum with any passion, with our woiAeC 
exemption from care, sing of banquets ; we sinj^^ of the contests of maid^^ns, 
briskly assailing with pared nails their youthful admirers." — 18. S& 'ig. 
Bentley conjectures stinciis, ** clinched," and makes the constructioL to 
6e strictis injttvenes ; and, according to Wagner, this emendation of the 
great English scholar was always cited by Hemsterhuis as an iustanoii 
*'cert€B rritices." Still, however, we may be allowed, at the present day^ 
to dissent even from this high authority, and express a decided preference 
for the ordinary reading. Bentley's conjecture, as Orelli well remarks, 
**ne8cio quid haber. furiale et agreste" and even the great critic himself 
appears subseqountly to have regarded his own emendation with less 
favor. Comparo Mus, Crit., i., p. 194. 



Ode VII. Adt^ressed to L. Munatius Plancus, who had become suspect 
ed by Augustas of disaffection, and meditated, in consequence, retiring 
from Italy to soise one of the Grecian cities. As far as can be conjectured 
from the present ode, Plancus had communicated his intention to Horace, 
and the poet r/iw seeks to dissuade him from the step, but in such a way, 
however, as rot to endanger his own standing with the emperor. The 
train of thougHt appears to be as follows : " I leave it to others to celebrate 
tlie far-famed cities Pud regions of the rest of the world. My admiration 
is wholly engrossed by the beautiful scenery around the banks and falls 
of the Anio." (He b'^re refrains from adding, "Betake yourself, Plancas, 
to that lov^^y spot," but merely subjoins), " The south wind, my friend, 
does not nlways veil ^he sky with clouds. Do you therefore bear up man- 
fully under misfortnne, and, wherever you may dwell, chase away the 
cares of Ufe with mAllo v wine, taking Teucer as an example of patient 
endurauvc worthy oK all imitation." 

1. fMudabuntalii " Others (in all likelihood) will praise/' The future 
jere denotes a probable occurrence. — Claram Rhodon. "The sumiy 
Rhodes." The epilhct claram is here commonly rendered by "illustri 
>QS," which weakens the force of the line by its generality, and is deci- 
3<5dly at variance with the well-known skill displayed by Horace in the 
leleotion of his epithets. The interpretation which we have assigned to 
the word is in full accordance with a passage of Lucan (8, 248), " Clar- 
amque reliquit sole Rhodon." Pliny [H. N., 2, 62) informs us of a boasi 
»ii the part ^ f the Rhodians, that not a day passe3 daring which their isl 
fend was not illumined for an hour at least by the rays of the sun, to whicb 
luminary it was sacred. — Mytilerien. Mytilene, the capital of Lesbos, and 
birth-place of Pittacus, Alcaeus, Sappho, and other distinguished individ 
aals. Cicero, in speaking of this city (2 Orfl^r/,iZtt// 14) aayt •f/r6i 



iKTQ fiXPLANi^TOIlY NOTES.- -BOfK I.. OLE VIZ. 

tt natura, el situ et iescr'iplione cEdiJiciorumy et pulchritndinc^ in primu 
nolnlis Tlie true form of the name is M^tilene, not Mityloie^ aa appeax 
trom coins. C/ompare Eckr^l, Doctr. Num., ii., p. 303. 

3-4. 2. Epheson. Ephesus, a celebrated city ov Ionia, in Asii Minoi 
fair'ed for its temule and worship of Diana. — Bimarisve Corinthi mania 
• Of cne walls of Corinth, situate between two arms of the sea." Corintt 
lay on the isthmus of the same name, between the Sinus Corinthiacas 
(Gulf of LcpniUo) on the west, and the Sinus Saronicus (Gulf of £»^/a) on 
the southeast. Its position was admirably adapted for commerce. — 3. K« 
Baccho Tfiebas, &c. " Or Thebes ennoble'! by Bacchus, or Delphi by Apoi 
to." Thebes, the capital of Bosotr'a, was the fabled scene of the birth and 
nurture of Bacchus. Delphi, on Mount Parnassus in Piiocis, was famed fof 
':ts oracle of Apollo. — 4. Tempe. The Greek accusative plural, Tturij, con- 
tracted from Tipirea. Tempe was a beautiful valley in Thessaly, between 
the mountains Ossa and Olympus, and through which flowed the Peneue 

5-7. 5. Intacta PaNadis nrces. "The citadel o fbe vi.giu Pallas.'* 
Alluding to the Acropolis of Athens, sacred to Minerva. /4. cc.«, pluial of 
excellence ihr arcenc. — 7. Indeqve decerpinm fronti, dec. * And to place 
around their brow the olive crown, deserved and gathered by them foi 
celebrating such a theme." The olive was sacred to Minerva. Some 
editions read '*[/udique" for '* Indeque," and the meaning will then be, **T«i 
place around their brow the olive c~own deserved and gathered by numer- 
ous other bards." The common lection Undique decerplafiondi, &,c., must 
be rendered, "To prefer the ohve leaf to every other that is gathered.' 
Oi»r reading Jndeqite is the emendation of Schrader. Hunt or cites, in par- 
tial confirmation of it, the following line of Lucretius (iv., 4) : *' Instg-nemqicf 
rieo capiti petere inde caroiiam,.'' 

9-11. 9. Aptum equis Argos. "Argos, well-fitted for the nurture cf 
uteeds." An imitation of the language of Homer, 'kpytog iTmo^oTOLO ( //.. 
2, 287). — D^iteaque Mj/cencps. Mycenae was the earlier capital of Argolis. and 
the city of the Pelopidae. Compare, as regards the epithet dites, Sopho- 
cles {Electr., 9), Mv/t^vof raf iroXvxpvcovg. — 10. Palietis LacedeBmiiti. AI 
iuding to the patient endurance of the Spartans under the severe institu^ 
tions of Lycurgus. — 11. Larissa campus opimee, Larissa, the old Pclasgio 
capital of Thessaly, was situate on the Peneus, and famed for the rich and 
feT*/.'.e territory in which it stood. Compare Homer, II., ii., 841, XdpKTffa^ 
^nil3o>yuiKa.'-'Tam percussit. " Has struck with such warm admiratiou.* 

12. Domus Alhun&B resonantis. •• The home of Albunea, re-echoing tc 
».he roar of waters." Commentators and tourists are divided in opiniub 
respecting the domus AlhuiiciE. The general impression, however, secm& 
to be that the temple of the Sibyl, on the summit of the cliff at Tilmi 
(now Tivoli), and overhanging the cascade, presents the fa j-est claim ti 
this distinction. It is described as being at the present day a most bean 
Jjful ruin. "This beautiful temple," >bserves a recent traveller, "which 
■tand» on the very spot where the eye of taste would have placed it, and 
on which Ifc ever reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive featurei 
of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its greatest charm." {Ronie in 
fke Ninetoentfi Century, vol. ii., p. 398, An «d.) Among the arg^uoentfl 1x 



IBXFJiANATORY NOTESS. BUUK 1., ODE VII 27«i 

bvor of the opinion above stated, it ma^ be remarked, that Varro, as quoteo 
by Lactantius [De Falsa Rel.^ 1, 6), gives a list of the ancient nibyla, an(> 
among them enumerates the one at Tibar, samamod Albnnea, as the tenth 
and last. He farther states that she was worshipped at Tibur, on the 
banks of the Anio. Suidas also says, AeKurij ij TifSovpTia, dvo/tan 'AX- 
QovvaXa. Eustace is in favor of the " Grotto of Neptune," as it is called 
at the present day, a cavern in the rock, to which travellers descend in 
order t(» view the second fall of the Anio. {-^lass. Tour, vol. ii., p. 230, 
Ldfnd 6i.) Others, again, suppose that the domus Albunae was in the 
eigbborhood of the Aqua Albula, sulphureous lakes, or now rather pools, 
^se to the Via Tilnirtina, leading from Rome to Tibur ; and it is said, 
m defence of this opinion, that, in consequence of the hollow ground in the 
vicinity returning an echo to footsteps, the spot obtained from Horace tli(* 
epithet oiresonantis. [Spence's Polymetis.) The idea is certainly an ia- 
genious one, but it is conceived that such a situation would give rise tu 
feelings of insecurity rather than of pleasure. 

13-15. 13. Pratccjis Anio. " The headlong Anio." This river, now 
the Tevernjte, is famed for its beautiful cascades near the ancient towii 
of Tibur, now Tivoli. — T%(runi.t lucus. This grove, in the vicinity of Tibur, 
took its name from Tihumns, ^ ho had here divine honors paid to his mem- 
ory. — 15. Alhus ut obscuro. Some editions make this the commencement 
of a new ode, on account of the apparent want of connection between 
this part and what precedes ; but consult the introductory remarks to the 
present ode, where the connection is fully shown. By the Albus Notus 
" the clear south wind," is meant the AevKovoTogy or 'KpyitTTTjc Ndrof {11.. 
11, 306) of the Greeks. This wind, though for the most part a moist ant 
damp one, whence its name {i>6toq o. vorlg, "moisture," "humidity"),!, 
certain seasons of the yeer well merited the appellation here given it bj 
Horace, producing clear and serene weather. — Deierget. •• Chases away ' 
Literally, " wipes away." Present tense oi detergeo. 

19-22. 19. Moll i mero. " With mellow wine." Some editions place b 
i!ouinia after tristiliam in the previous line, and regard inolli as a verb ia 
the imperative : " and rfoften the toils of life, O Plancus, with wine." T^iis. 
however, is inferior. — 21. Tui. Alluding either to its being one of his fa 
vorite places of retieat, or, more probably, to the villa which he possessed 
there. — Teucer. Son of Telamon, king of Sal am is, and Hesiono, daughter 
of Laomedon, and, consequently, half brother of Ajax. On his return from 
the Trojan war, he was banished by his fathpr for not having avenged hi» 
brother's death. Having sailed, in consequerxe of this, to Cyprus, he there 
'7uilt a town called Salamis (now Costanza), after the name of his native 
city and island. — 22. Uda Lycbo. " Wet with w ine." Lyajus is from tha 
Greek Kvaloq, an appellation given to Bacchus, in allusion to \\\n freeing 
the mind from care (Avefv, "to loosen," "to free"). Compare the Latin 
epithet Lib^r (*'qui liberal a cura"). 

23-32. 23. Pdpvlea. The poplar was sacred to Hercules. Tencei 
wears a crown of it on the present occasion, eiHier as the general badge 
of a hero, or because he was offering a sacrifice to Hercules. The wniU 
sr silver poplar is the species here meant. — 26, O socii comite»que. " * 
'Oiiuinions in arms and followers." Socli refers to t'.ie chiaftains whs 

IA 2 



o 



274 EXPLANATORY HOTES.— BOOK i. Ot b VlF 

were Lib companions : comUeSf to their respective followers. — 27 Aunpicn 
Teucro. "Under the auspices of Teucer." — 29. Ambignan tellure nova^ 
4cc. "That Salamis will become a name of ambiffuous import by reason 
ol anew land." Anew city of Salamis shall arise in a new land (Cyprus/, 
no that whenever hereafter the name is mentioned, men will be in doubti 
for the moment, whether the parent city is meant, in the island of the 
same name, or the oniony in Cyprus. — 32. Cras i7i<j^ens iterabimus aquor, 
' On the morrow, wo will again traverse the mighty snrface of the deep."' 
They had just returned from the Trojan war, and were now a second tirr*e 
to encountar the dangers of ocean. The verb iterare is employed here in 
a sense somewhat similar to that which occurs in Columella, ii., 4 : 
' Quod jam proscissum est iterare" i. e., " to plough again." 



Ode VIII. Addressed to Lydia, and reproaching her for detaining the 
jrouiig Sybaris, by her alluring arts, from the manly exercises in which he 
had been accustomed to distinguish himself. 

2-5. Z. Amando. "By thy love." — A. Campum. Alluding to the Cain 
pus Martins, the scene of the gymnastic exercises of the Roman youth. 
— Patiens pulveris atque soils. "Tho'jgh once able to endure the dust 
and the heat." — 5  Militaris. " In martial airay." Among the sports of 
the Roman youth were some in which they imitated the costume and 
movements of regular soldiery. 

• 

6-9. 6. ^quales. " His companions in years." Analogous to the 
Greek Tovg ^A:«ci2f. — Gallica jieclupalis, &c. "Nor manages the Gallic 
steeds with curbs fashioned like the teeth of wolves." The Gallic steeds 
were held in high estimation by the Romans. Tacitus [Ann., ii., 5) speaks 
of Gaul's being at one time almost drained of its horses : *'fcssas Gallieu 
ministrandis eqiiis." They w ere, however, so fierce and spirited a breed 
as to render necessary tlie employment of '•frena lupata,*' i. c, curbs 
armed with iron points resembling the teeth of wolves. Compare the cor- 
responding Greek terms 2,vK0i and kxtvoL. — 8. Flavum Tiberim. Com- 
pare Explanatory Notes, Ode ii., 13, of this book. — 9. Olivum. "The oil 
of the ring." Wax was commonly mixed with it, and the composition 
wast^en termed ceroma {KTjpufia). With this the wrestlers were anouit- 
od in order to give pliability to their limbs, and, after anointing their bod- 
ies, were covered with dust, for the purpose of afford %g their antagonist! 
a better hold. 

10-16. 10. Armis. "By martial exercises." — 11. Sape. disco, &.c. 
"Though famed for the discus often cast, for the javelin often hurled, be 
yond the mark." The discus (JiC/iOf), or quoit, was round, flat, and perfo- 
rated in the centre. It was made either of iron, brass, lead, or stone, and 
WII8 usually of great weight. Some authorities are in favor of a central 
aperture, others are siletit on this head. The Romans borrowed thi« ex- 
ercise from the Greeks, and, among the latter, the Laceda}nionians wer« 
particularly attached to it. — 12. Expiidito. This term carries with it th« 
idea of great skill, as evinced by the ease of performing these exercises.— 
>3. Vt marintB, &c. Alluding to the story of Achilles having boon con 
cealed \xs female vestments at the court of L^comedes, kii^ of S/^yros. i/ 



Cf 



EXPLANATORY N'OrKS.— BOOK I., ODE tX 27fl 

irdef to avoid going to the Tr3jan war.— 14. Sub lacrymosa 'J'roJajUTwrm 
'*On tlio eve of the nioarnful carnage of TVoy," i. e., in tlie midst of thu 
preparations for the T.xyan war. — 15. VinHs cultus. "Manly attire."— 
16. In ctcdem et Lycias catervas. A hendiadys. " To the slaughter of th • 
Trojftn bands." Lycias is here equivalent to Trojatias, and refers to tb« 
toUpcted fircea of the Trojans and their allies. 



Odb -X. Addressed to Thaliarchus, whom some event had robbed of 
da peace of mind. The poet exhorts his friend to banish care from hii 
breast, and, notwithstanding the pressure of misfortune, and the gloomy 
■everity of the winter season, which then prevailed, to enjoy the present 
hoar and leave the rest to the gods. 

The commencement of this* ode would appear to have been imitated 
horn Alcseus. 

S-3. 2. Soracte. Mount Soracte lay to the southeast of Falerii, in the 
territory of the Falisci, a part of ancient Etruria. It is now called Afonle 
S. Silvestro, or, as it is by modern corniption sometimes termed, Sunf' 
Oreste. — 3. Laborantes. This epithet beautifully describes the forests as 
itruggUng and bending beneath the weight of the superuKumbent ice and 
vnow. The difference between the temperature of summer and winter in 
aucient Italy may be safely assumed, from this as well as other passages, 
to have been much greater than it now is. Compare note on Ode i., 2, 1 

3-10. 3. Gelu acuta. " By reason of the keen frost." — 5. Dissolve fr^- 
fttS, *• Dispel the cold." — 6. Benignius. " More plentifully," t. c, than 
asnal. We may supply solito. Some regard benignius here as an ad 
jective, agreeing with merum, "rendered more mellow by ago;" but the 
Horatian term in such cases is mitis. — 7. Sabina diota. ** From the Sa- 
bine jar." The vessel is here called Sabine, from its containing wine 
made in the country of the Sabines. The diota received its name from 
its having Irwo handles or ears [6Lg and ovg). It contained generally forty 
eight sextarii, about twenty-seven quarts English measure. — 9. Qui simnl 
ttraverej &c. " For, as soon as they have lulled," &c. The relative is 
Here elegantly used to introduce a sentence, instead of a personal pronoun 
with a particle. — ^quore fervid^. " O ver the boiling surface of the deep " 

13-24. 13. Fuge qucsrere. "Avoid inquiring." Seek not to know.— 
14. Quod Pars dierum cunque dabit. A tmesis for quodcvnque diprum 
fors dabity i. e., quemcunque diem, &c. — Lvcro appone. " Set down at 
gain." — 16. Puer. " While still young." — Neqve tu choreas. The use, or 
rather repetition, of the pronoun before choreas is extremely elegant, as 
denoting earnestness of injunction, and in imitation of the Greek. — 17. Do- 
nee virentif Sec. "As long as morose old t ge is absent from thee, still 
blooming with youth." — 18. Campus el area " Ilauibles both in the Cam 
pus Martins and along the public walks." By area are here meant thosv 
parts of the city that were free from buildings, the same, probably, as the 
iqaares and parks of modem days, where young lovers were fond of stroli 
ing. — Sub noctem. " At the approach of evening." — 21. Nunc et laientis, 
Itc. The order of the construction is, et nunc gratus risus (repetatur) aS 
iruimo angulot proditor hitentis puelUe. The verb repetctwr is unde' 



•^70 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1 , OftE X. 

tfCood. Tbe poet alludes to iiiiue youlhi'u] sport, b}' tho rules of wfunL a 
forfeit was exacted from the pcroon whose place of concealment was di»> 
covered, whether by the .«.geuuity of Another, or the voluntary act of thb 
pmrty concealed. — 24. Male jyertinaci. "Faintly resisting." Pi'^tei^din^ 
9uly to oppose. 



Ode X. In praise of Mercury. Imitated, according to tha Bt:hoUa«t 
P,..''phyriou, from the Greek poet Alco^us. 

1-^ 1. Facunde. Mercury was regarded as the invimtc: of laugaagtt 
i>d the god of eloquence. — Nepos Atlantis. Mercury waA the fabled soft 
\}i Maia, one of the daughters of Atlas. — The word Atlatith mast be pro 
n'^'juced here A-tlantis^ in order to keep the penultimate fiot a trochee 
This peculiar division of syllables is imitated from the Groek. — 2. Feron 
eulfus kominum recentum. " The savage manners of the oarly race <ȣ 
men." The ancients believed that the early state of maakind was buc 
l-ttle removed from that of the brutes. — 3. Voce. "By the gift of- Ian 
guage." — Catus. •' Wisely." Mercury wisely thought that nothing 
would sooner improve and soften down the savage manneru of the prim- 
itive race of men than mutual intercourse, and the interchange of ideas by 
means of language. CatuSy according to Varro, was a word of Sabine or 
igin. Its primitive meaning was " acute" or " shrill," and hence it came 
to signify '♦ shrewd," " sagacious," &c. — Decone more paUBftroi. " B 7 the 
institution of the grace -be stowing palaestra." The epithet dccorte is here 
used to denote the etiect produced on the human frame by gymnastic ex 
ercises. — 6. Curvee 1 yrcs parentem. "Parent of the bending lyre." Mer 
cury [Hymn, in Merc, 20, seqq.) is said, while still an infant, t:> have ibrm 
ed the lyre from a tortoise which he found in bis path, stretching seveio 
strings over the hollow shell [tnra Si av/ji(f>cjvovg dicjv kTavixjaaro xop- 
duf). Hence the epithets 'Epfialij and Kv?i?,.ijvuiij, which are applied tc 
this instrument, and hence, also, the custom of designating it by the terms 
X^^vCt chelys, testtidoy &c. Compare Gray [Progress of Poesy), " En 
Planting shell." Another, and probably less accurate account, makes 
this deity to have discovered, on th^ banks of the Nile, after the flubsiiiing 
of an inundation, the shell of a tortoise, with nothing remaining of the 
body but the sinews : these, when touched, emitted a musical sound, and 
gave Mercury the first hint of the lyre. (Compare Isidor., Orig., iii., 4.) 
It is very apparent that the fable, whatever the true ver»ion may be, has 
an astronomical meaning, and contains a reference to the seven plancts» 
Kud to the pretended music of the spheres. 

&-11. 9. Te loves olim nisi reddidisses,&,c. " While Apollo, in fbrmef 
days, seeks, with threatening accents, to terrify thee, still a mere stripling, 
cnless thou shouldst have restored the cattle removed by thy art, he laughed 
to find himself deprived also of his quiver." — Boves. The cattle of Adme- 
tii were fed by Apollo on the banks of the Amphrysus, in Thessaly, after 
tfaat deity had been banished for a time from the skies for destroying the 
Cj slopes. Mercury, still a mere infant, drives off fifty of the herd, auf^ 
conceals them near the Alpheus, nor does he disclose the place where 
ihcy are hidden until ordered so to do by his sire. [Hymn, in Merc, 70, 
•0^9.) Lucian [Dial., D., 7) mer^-'ons other sportive thefts of the same 



BXPLANATORV NOl E8. - JOOK I., ODE XI. 277 

deity, by ^hich he deprived Neptune of his ti'ident, Mars of his swcid 
Apollo of his bo^v, Venus oi her cestus, and Jove himself of his scepti'e 
He would have stolen the thunderbolt also, had it not been too heavy aii^ 
hot, \El di fir] j3apifTepo( 6 Kspavvo^ yvj /cat noXv to irvp elxe^ xuKelvot 
av w^uXero. Luc\ m, /. c.)— li. Viduus. A GrtBcism for viduum se sen- 
ttens. Horace, probably following Alcseus, blends together two mytho- 
Vogical events, which, according to other authorities, happened at distinct 
pcnods. The Hymn to Mercury merely speaks of the theft of the 'attle, 
after which Mercury gives the lyre an a peace-offienug to Apollc. The 
fgAy allusion to the arrows of the god is where Apollo, after this, ex^jress- 
•■ Hs fear lest the son of Maia may deprive him both of these weapons 
fSsd of the lyre itself. 

^eidia, Maiddo^ vli, d/uKTope, nocKiTiOfiiJTa, 
fifl fioi uvaK?ihl>yg Ktfidpijv koI KafiTcHiXa roftf. 

13-19. 13. Quin et Atridtis, &,c. "Under thy guidance, too, the rico 
Priam passed unobserved the tiaughty sons of Atreus." Alluding to the 
visit which the aged monarch paid to the Grecian camp in order^ ran 
•om the corpse of Hector. Jupiter ordered Mercury to be his guide, and 
K) conduct him unobserved and in safety to the tent of Achilles. (Consult 
Homer, II., 24, 336, seqt/.) — 14. Dives Friamus. Alluding not only to hig 
wealth generally, bat also to the rich presents which he was bearing to 
Achilles. — 15. T/iessalos ignex. "The Thessaliau watch-fires." Hefer- 
ring to the watches and troops of Achilles, theTheK.salif>n leader, through 
whom Priam had to pass in order to reach the tent of thi>ir leader. — 16. Ft^ 
feliit. Equivalent here to the Greek ^^.aOev.^-lt . Tu pias Itetis, &c 
Mercury is here represented in his most important character, as the guide 
v.f departed spirits. Hence the epithets of ^v;^ oTro/iTrof and ve/cpoiro/tirof, 
or veKpayuydQ, so often applied to him. The verb reponis in the present 
stanza receives illustration, as to its meaning, from the passage in Virgil, 
where the future descendants of ^neas are repr<.*sented as occapyiag 
abodes in the land of spirits previously to tiieir being summoned to the 
regions of day. {jEn., 6, 756, seqq.) Hence Mercury is here said "to 
replace" the souls of the pious in, or " to restore" them to their formei 
abodes. — 18. Virgaqrte levem coerce^, &:c. "And with tiy ^^^>lden wand 
A(Mt check the movements of the airy throng." The allusion is to tlie 
euduceus of Mercury, and coerces is a metaphor borrowed from a shepherd's 
j^uiding of his flock, and keeping them together in a body with his pastoraJ 
staff — 19. Swperis dcorum et imis. " To the upper ones and lowest ones 
af the gods,'* t. c, to the gods above and below. A Gr<eci8m for superit 
*i imis dein 



. Ode Xl. Addressed to Leoconoe, by which fictitious name a fe.mnle 
fiitud cf the poet's is thought to be designated. Horace, having discover* 
dd that she was in the habit of consulting the astrologers of the day in or- 
der to ascertain, if possible, the tenn both of her own as well as his ex 
'iCtence, entreats her to abstain trom such idle inquiries, and leave the 
events of the future to the wisdom of (he gods. 

1-4. I Tn Tie quasierts. • Inquire not, 1 ontrcat." The subjni.ctiva 
H^ood \m here used as a soitei>ed imperati y ?, to o :;preM entreaty or reqpiest 



278 fxplanatlky notes. — book i., ode xn 

and the air of earnestness with which the poet addresses his tcmaie 
friend ia iDcreased by the insertion of the personal pronoun. — 2. Fincm 
"Term of existence." — Babylonios nnmeros. "Chaldean tables," t. e^ 
tables of nativity, horoscopes. The Babylonians, or, more strictly speak 
'ngt Chaldeans, were the great astrologers of antiquity, and constructed 
tables for the calculation of nativities and the prediction of future events. 
This branch of charlatanism made such progress and attained so reguiar s 
fcrm among them, that subsequently the terms Chaldean and Astrologfef 
became completely synonymous. JRx)me was filled with these impostors- 
-^, Vtmehus. " How much better is it." Equivalent to quanta sapicJi 
ivn, '"JErit, For acciderit. — 4. Ultimam. " This as the last." 

5-^. 5. Qua nunc oppositis, &.c. "Which now breaks the strengtb 
of the Tuscan sea on the opposing rocks corroded by its waves." By the 
term pumicibis are meant rocks corroded and eaten hito caverns by the 
constant dashing of the waters. — 5. Vi?ia liques. "Filtrate thy wines.'' 
Observe that sapias and liques are subjunctives used as imperatives. 
[Zumpt, ^ 529.) The wine-strainers of the Romans were made of linea 
placed round a frame-work of osiers, shaped like an inverted cone. Ia 
consequence of the various solid or viscous ingredients which the an^ 
cionts added to their wines, frequent straining became necessary to pre- 
sent inspissation. Consult Excursus yi.—'Spatio brevh &c. " In conse- 
quence of the brief duration of existence, cut short long hope (of the fa- 
tare)," i, e., since human life is at best but a span, indulge in no lengthen 
«d hope of the future, but improve the present opportunity for enjoyment. 
—8. Carpe diem. "Enjoy the present day." A pleasing metaphor 
"Pluck" the present day as a fiower from the stem, and ei^^y its ira 
grance while it lasts. 



Odk XII. Addressed to Augustus. The poet, intending to celebrate 
the praises of his imperial master, pursues a course extremely flattering 
to the vanity of the latter, by placing his merits on a level with those of 
gods and heroes. This ode is generally supposed to be in part imitated 
fipom Finder, OL, ii., 1, seq.: 'Avat^'tftdpuiyyEg vfivoii k. t. A. 

1-6. 1. Quern virum aiU heroa. "What living or departed hero." 
Dompare the remark of the scholiast, " Quern virum de vivis 7 quern heroa 
tte mortuis ?" — Lyra vel acri tibia. "On the lyre, or shrill-toned pipe," 
». e.t in strains adapted to either of these instruments. — 2. Celebi'are. A 
Grfficism for ad celebrandum. — Clio. Tl e first of the nine Muses, and pre 
aiding over epic poetry and history. — 3. Jocosa imago. " Sportive echo.'" 
Understand vocis. Literally, " the sportive image (or reflection) of the 
roicc." As regards the term jocosa, compare the explanation of Orelli : 
'Joccfla aulem, quia viatores quasi consuUo ludijicatur, unde auribus ac 
tidat, ignorantes." — 5. In umbrosis Heliconis oris. "Amid the shad^ 
regions of Heliron." A mountain of Boeotia, sacred to Apollo and the 
MjISCs. On its fiumnnt was the grove of the latter, and a little below 
Ihe grove was the fountain of Aganippe, produced from the earth by a blow 
of the hoof of P jgaeus. Helicon is now called Palceovouni or Zc gori.— 
%. Super Pindo. "On the summit of Pindus." The chain of Puidui 
•euArated ThessrJy from Epirus. Tt was sacred U> Apollo and ^h(« M'lseii 



EXrLANATOKY NOTES. BOOK 1., UDE XII. 279 

^HantMK Mount Hoemns stretches its great belt round the nrirth of Thraca. 
in a direction nearly parallel with the coast of the Mgean. The mudera 
uame is Emineh Dagt or Balkan. 

7-15. 7. Vocalem. "The tuneful."— T^tfiwre. "In wild cunfasion/ 
Lkimpare the explanation of Orelli : " Promiscue^ sine o^'dine, cur teeta 
rentur cantorem vix sibi conscia." The scene of this wonderful feat of 
Orpheus was near Zone, on tho coast of Thrace. (Mela, 2, 2.) — 9. ArU 
nuUerna. Orpheus was the fabled son of Calliope, one of the Muses.—- 
U. Blandum el auritas, itc.. "Sweetly persuasive also to lead along 
with melodious lyre the listenings oaks," t. e., who with sweetly persua- 
sive accents and melodious lyre led along, dtc. The epithet auritas if 
here app.ied to qnercus by a bold image. The oaks are represented as fol- 
lowing Orpheus with pricked-up ears. — 13. Quidpriusdicam^Ac. "What 
shall I celebrate before the accustomed praises of the Parent of us all ?" 
dome read pare/Uum instead o^ parentis^ "What shall I first celebrate, 
in accordance with the accustomed mode of praismg adopted by our fa- 
thers ?'' Others, retaining parenhim, place an interrogation after dica.m, 
and a comma after laudibus. " What shall I first celebrate in sung ? In 
accordance with the accustomed mode of praising adopted by our fathers, 1 
will sing of him who," &c. — 15. Variis horis. " With its changing sea 
sons." — Temper at, "Controls." 

17-26. 17. Unde. "From whom." Equivalent to e:e ^ito, and not, as 
Slime maintain, to quare. Compare iSal., i., 6, 12, and ii., 6, 21. — \9. Proxt 
mo8 lamen, &c. "Pallas, however, enjoys honors next in importance te 
bis own." Minerva had her temple, or rather shrine, in the Capitol, on the 
right side of that of Jupiter, while Juno's merely occupied the left. Sonir 
sommontators think that Minerva was the only one of the deities after 
Jupiter who had the right of hurling the thunderbolt. This, however, ih 
dxpressly contradicted by ancient coins. (Raschef Lex. Ret Numism^ 
/ol. ii., pt. 1, p. 1192. Heyne, Excurs. ad Virg., ^n., 1, 42.) — 21. PrasJiia 
dudax Liber. The victories of Bacchus, and especially his conquest of 
india, form a conspicuous part of ancient mythology. — 22. S<evis inimiea 
Virgo bclluis. Diana. Compare her Greek epithets ^qoktovo^ and 
^jaxeciipa. — 25. -Alciden. Hercules, the reputed grandson of Alcseus.— 
Puerosqne Leda. Castor and Pollux. — 26. Hvnc, Alluding to Castor 
Compare the Homeric Yi(iaTOi)a lirirodafjov. [11.^ 3, 237.) — Ilium. Pollux 
Compare the Homeric ttv^ iiyaOov YVoXvdevKea. [11,, L c.) — Pugnis. 
*• In pugilistic encounters," literally, " with fists." Ablative oipugnus. 

S7-3o. 27. Quorum simul alba, &c. " As soon as the propitious stai 
9f each of whom," &c. Alba is here used not so much in the sense of 
lu€ida. and clara, as in that of pinim ac serenum cesium reddens. Com 
pare the expression Albus Notus {Ode i., 7, 15;, and Explanatory Notes 
on Ode i., 3, 2. — 29. Agitatus humo? "The foaming water." — 31. Panto 
recumbit. "Subsides on the surface of the deep." — 31. Ponpili. Nums 
Pompilias.- -Superbos Tarquini fauces. "Tlie splendid fasces ofTarquin- 
lus," t. e., the splendid and energetic reign of Tarquinius Priscus. Some 
commentators refer tliese words to Tarquinius Superbus, but with lest 
propriety. The epithet superbos has the same force bere as m Ode i., 3i 
•-■.i.'». Cnlcnis nohile Id urn. The al'iision is tfi the younfior "ato whi 



i480 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XH. 

pet an end to his uwn existence at Utica. The poet calls his death a ir* 
ble ouo, without any fear of incurriog the displeasure of Augustas, whose 
policy it was to profess an attachme&t to the ancient forms of the repab 
lie, cjid a regard for its defenders. Cunningham conjectures funii fasces 
asakiug the allusion to be to the first Brutus. Bentley, again, thinking 
Calonia too bold, i)roposes CurtU as referring to Curtius, who devoteii 
himself for his country by plunging into t le gulf or chain at liome. 

37-41. 37. Keguliim. Compare Ode iii., 5, where the story of Regnluk 
Ib touched upon. — Scauros. The house of the Scauri gave many distin- 
guished men to the Roman republic. The most eminent among them 
ware M. iEmilins Soaurus, princeps senalus, a nobleman of great ability, 
and his son M. Scaurus. The former held the consulship A.U.C. 639. Sal- 
lust gives an unfavorable account of him {>hig.^ 15). Cicero, on the other 
hand, highly extols his virtues, abilities, and achievements [De Off.^ 1, 2S 
tt 30. Brut., 29. Orat. pro Murtrna, 7). Sallust's account is evidently 
tinged with the party-spirit of the day. — 38. Paullum. PauUus ^railius, 
consul with Terentius Varro, and defeated, along wit^i his colleague, by 
Flanuibal, in the disastrous battle of Cannae. — Pano. "The Carthagiu 
ian." Hannibal. — 40. Fabricium. C. Fabricius Luscinus, the famed op- 
ponent of Pyrrhus and of the Samnites. It was of him Pyrrhas declared 
that it would be more difficult to make him swerve from his integrity than 
to turn the sun from its course. (Compare Cic, de Qff'.y 3, 22. Val. Max. 
4, 3.) — 41. Incomtis Cnrium capillis. Alludin^^ to Mantus Cnrius Denta 
tus, the conqueror of Pyrrhus. The expression incomtis capillis referi* 
to the simple and austere manners of the early liomaus. 

42-44. 42. Camillum. M. Furius Camillus, the liberator of his coun 
try from her Gallic invaders. — 43. Sava pavpertas. ♦' A life of hardy pri 
vation," i. e., a life of privation, inuring to toil and hardship. Paupertas 
retains here its usual force, implying, namely, a want not of the neces- 
saries, but of the comforts of life. — Et avitus apto aim lore fundus. " And 
an hereditary estate, with a dwelling proportioned to it." The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is, that Curius and Camillus, in the midst of scanlr^ 
resources, proved far more useful to their country than if they had beefc 
the owners of the most extensive possessions, or the votaries of luxury. 

4.>-47. 45. Crescit occulta, &c. " The farpe of Marcellus increases like 
a tree amid the undistinguished lapse of time." The term Marcelli here 
contains a double allusion, first to the celebrated M. Claudius Marcellus 
the conqueror of Syracuse, and opponent of Hannibal, and secondly to the 
young Marcellus, tlie son of Octavia, and nephew of Augustus The fame 
of the earlier Marcellus, increasing secretly though steadily in the lapse 
of ages, is now beginning to bloom anew in the young Marcellus, and to 
promise a harvest of fresh glory for the Roman name.— 46. Micat inter 
wnnes^ &c. The young Marcellus is here compared to a bright star, ii- 
laming with its effulgence the Julian line, and forming the hope and 
glory of that illustrious house. He married Julia, the daughter of Angus 
lus, and was publicly intended as the successor of that emperor, but hip 
«arly death, at the age of eighteen, frustrated all these hopes and plunged 
she Roman world in mourning. Virgil beautifully alludes to him at the 
iliise of the sixth book of the iEoeid. — Julium sidus. The star of Un» 



aXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I , ODE XIII. )lb] 

Joliaii lino/' t. r., the glory of the Jnlian house, commencing with Csesftt 
•lid perpetuated in Augustus. — 47. Ignes minores. "The feeUer firosoi 
ire uight " The stars. 

.50- 54. 50. Orte Saturno. Japiter. the Greek KpoWuv. — 51. Tu 8et.v b 
do CtBiiarcregnes. •* Reign thou (in the heavens) with Coesar as thy "n<» 
jfereut (upon earth)," t. <•., Grant, I pray, that thou mayest so paix:*)! ikA 
tiiy empire as to sway thyself the sceptre of the skies, and n!low Augus- 
tus to represent thee upon earth. Observe the employment of the sub- 
junctive for the imperative. — 53. Parthos ImUo imminenles . Horace it 
generally supposed to have composed this ode at the time that Augustus 
Was prepaiing for an expedition against the Parthians, whom the defeat 
of Cresses, and the check sustained by Antony, had elated to such a de 
grec, that the poet might well speak of them as "now threatening the re 
pose of the Roman world." Latio is elegantly put for Romano imperiij>. 
—f>\. Egerit justo Iriumpho. "Shall have led along in just triumph.*' 
The conditions of a *' Justus triumphus" in the days of the republic, were 
IS follows : 1. The war must have been a just one, and waged with foreign- 
ers ; no triumph was allowed in a civil war. 2. Above 5000 of the enemy 
must have been slain in one battle (Appian says it was in his time 10,000). 
%. By this victory the limits of the empire must have been enlarged. 

55-60. 55. Subjectos Orientis one. *' Lyinar along the borders of tho 
ttasit," t. c, dwelling on the remotest confines of the East. Observe that 
ora is the dative, by a Qraecism for sub ora. — Seras. By tl>e Seres are 
evidently meant the natives of China, whom an overland trade for silk had 
gradually, though imperfectly, made known to the western nations.— 
57. Te minor. " Inferior to thee alone." Understand solo. — 59. Parum 
castis. "Polluted." Alluding to the corrupt morals of the day. The an- 
cients had a belief that lightning never descended from the skies except 
»)i places stained by some pollution. 



Odk XIII. Addressed to Lydia, with whom the poet had very proba 
Dly quarrelled, and whom he now seeks to turn away from a passion foi 
Telephus. He describes the state of his own feelings, when praises are 
bestowed by her whom he loves on the personal beauty of a hated rival : 
ar.d, while endeavoring to cast suspicion upon the sincerity of the laSt.er'f 
passion for her, he descants upon the joys of an unintcrmpted union fouod- 
ed un the sure basis of mutual affection. 

3-8. 2. Cervicem roseam. " The rosy neck." Compare Virgil (^». 
I, 402) : " Rosea ceroice refulsit.*' — 3. Cerea brackia. The epithet cerea^ 
** waxen," carries with it the associate ideas of whiteness, glossy sur* 
face, &c., the allusion being to the white wax of antiquity. Bentley, how 
ever, rejects cerea, and reads lactea. — Telephi. The name is purposely 
repeated, to indicate its being again and again on the lips of Lydia.— 
Difficili bile. "With choler difficult to be repressed." The liver was 
hold to bu the seat of all violent passions. — 6. Manent. The plural is here 
Biiiployed, as equivalent to the double ma net. It is given likewise by 
Orelli, and has also stnng MS. authority ir its favor. Bentley, howevm; 
arefers mar^iL O" account of tVe precediner ner .. v/;, and loricthoTii O* 



S82 EXPLAIN/. lORY NOTES. UOUK I., ODE XIV. 

linai syllable of manet by the arsis. Compare Zumpl^ $ 374, and the pa» 
«a/5<» cited from Piiny, Paneg.t 75. — Humor ei in geiias, dec. " And the 
'^^r •steals silently down my cheeks." — 8. Lantis ignibus, " Bv the slow- 
''jr^aming tires." 

9-20. 9. Uror. •' I am tortured at the sight." Equivalent to adspeclh 
jrucior.— 10. Immodica mero. " Rendered immoderate by wine." — 12 
Memorem, "As a memorial of his passion." — 13. Si me satis audias 
• If you give heed to me." If you still deem my words worthy of your bX* 
lention. — 14. Perpetuum, *'That he will prove constant in his attach- 
ment." Understand /ore. — Duleia barbare Ixedentem oscula. " Who bar 
baroasly wounds those sweet lips, which Venus has imbued with the tit'th 
part of all her nectar." Each god, observes Porson, was supposed to 
have a given quantity of nectar at disposal, and to bestow the fifth or the 
tenth part of this on any individual was a special favor. The common, 
but incorrect interpretation o( quinta parte is "with the quintessence." — 
\h. Irrupta copula, •• An indissoluble union." — 20. Suprema die. "Thi* 
last day of their existence." Observe that suprema citius die is an un 
usual coustmction for citius quam suprema die. 



Ode XIV. Addressed to the vessel of the state, just escaped from tnc 
stormy billows of civil commotion, and in danger of being again exposed 
to the violence of the tempest. This ode appears to have been comi>osed 
at the time when Augustus (consulted Maecenas and Agrippa whether he 
should resign or retain the sovereign authority. Some, however, refer it 
to the dissensions between Octavianus and Antony, B.C. 33, which pre 
ceded the battle of Actinm. In either case, however, the allegory must 
not be too closely pressed. . 

1-8. ]. O navis. referunt, &c. "O ship! new billows are bearing 
ti.ee back again to the deep." The poet, in his alarm, supposes the ves 
sel (i. c, his country) to be already amid the waves. By the term navis 
bis country is denoted, which the hand of Augustus had ju3t rescued from 
the perils of shipwreck ; and by mare the troubled and stormy waters of 
civil dissension are beautifully pictured to the view. — 2. Novi Jlnctu-s. 
Alluding to the commotions which must inevitably arise if Augustus aban- 
dons the helm of affaird. — 3. Portum. The harbor here meant is the tran- 
quillity which was beginning to prevail under the government of Augus- 
tus. — Ut nudum remigio latus. "How bare thy side is of oars." — 6. Ac 
sinefunibus carincB. " And thy hull, without cables to secure it." Some 
commentators think that the poet alludes to the practice common among 
tiic ansients of girding their vessels with cables in violent storms, in order 
lo prevent the planks from starting asunder. In carina we have the plu- 
ral used emphatically for the singular, and intended to designate every 
part of the hull. A similar usage occurs even in Cicero : " Quid tarn in 
Ko/rigio necessarium quam latera, quam carinaa, quam prora, quam pup 
pi$ ?* (De Or., iii., 46) where some, less correctly, read cavernte. — Pos- 
sunt We have not hesitated to read gemunt and possunt, on good MS 
antkority, as far more graphic than gemunt and possint, the reading of 
a>any editions Kvsn Bentley approves of the indicative here, though h« 
ices not edit it —3 Imperiosins aquor. " The increasing violence of >he 



EXPLANATCRY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XV. 283 

Mte.' Tne comparative describes the sea as grjwing every i£r.imeni 
•Qore and more violent. 

10-13. 10. Di. Alluding to the tatelary deities, Neptune, or Castor 
and Pollux, whose images were accustomed to be placed, together with 
a small altar, in the stem of the vessel. The figurative meaning of the 
poet presents to us the guardian deities of Rome offended at the sanguis 
aary excesses of the civil wars, and determined to withhold their protect* 
ing influence if the state should be again plnnt^'^d into anarchy and confu- 
sion. — 11. Panlica pinus. "Of Pontic pine." The pine of Pontus was 
bard and durable, and of great value in ship-building. Yet the vessel of 
the state is warned by the poet not to rely too much upon the strength of 
her timbers. — 12. Silvafilia noOilis. "The noble daughter of the forest." 
\ beautiful image, which Martial appears to have imitated (xiv., 90) : 
^j^an sum IdaurtB Jilia silvts." — 13. El genus et nomen inutile. " Bott 
tny lineage and unavailing fame." The idea intended to be conveyed by 
the whole clause is as follows : " Idle, O my country ! will be the boast 
of thy former glories, and the splendor of thy ancient name '* 

14-120. 14. Pictis pvppibvs. Besides being graced with the statues oi 
the tutelary deities, the stems of ancient vessels were likewise embel- 
lished, on the outside, with paintings and other ornaments. Hence Homer 
occesionaUy calls ships fit^roTrdpyoi, " red-cheeked." A purple color was 
also sometimes employed. — 15. Nisi debea ventis ludibrium. "Unless 
thou art doomed to be the sport of the winds." An imitation of the Oreek 
idiom, d^Ae^v yiXijra. — 17. Nuper soUicitum^ &c. " Thou who wast lately 
a source of disquietude and weariness to me, who at present art an object 
of fond 'desire and strong apprehension," kc. The expression sollieitum 
tdsdium refers to the unquiet feelings which swayed the bosom of the poet 
during the period of the civil contest, and to the weariness and disgust 
which the long continuance of those scenes produced in his breast. Under 
the sway of Augustus, however, his country again becomes the idol of his 
warmest affections (deaiderium), and a feeling of strong apprehension 
{eura non levis) takes possession of him, lest he may again see her in- 
volved in the horrors of civil war. — 20. Nitentes CycladcLs. "The Cycla 
des, conspicuous from afar." The epithet nitentes appears to refer, not so 
much to the marble contained in most of these islands, as to the circun 
stance of its appearing along the coasts of many of the group, and rendei 
mg them conspicuous objects at a distance. (Compare Vanderhmirff 
ad loc.) 



Ode XV. This ode is thought to have been composed on the breaking 
out of the last civil war between C^ctavianus and Antony. Nereus, the 
sea-god, predicts the ruin of Troy at the very time that Paris bears Helen 
over the JEgean Sea fj*om Sparta. Under the character cf Paris, the poet, 
according to some commentators, intended to represent the infatuated An- 
tony, whose passion for Cleopatra he foretold would be attended with the 
same disastrous consequences as that of the Trojan prince for Helen ; and 
by the Grecian heroes, whom Nereus, in imagination, beholds combined 
against Ilium, Horace, it has been said, represents the lead^^ r/ the pv 
ty of A agusius 



284 EXPi-AN\TORV NOTES.— -BOOK I., GDI AV. 

1-4. 1. Paslo,-. Paris, whose early life was spent airong the sUep 
herds of Moant Ida, in consequence of his mother's fearful dream. Sanur 
Jon, who is one of those iPat atta.ih an allegorical meaning^ to this odo, 
thinks that the allusion to Antony commences with the very first word of 
the poeir., since Antony was one of the Luperci, or priests of Pan, the god 
of shepherds. — Tralierel. "Was bearing forcibly away." Horace here 
follows the authority of those writers who make Helen to have been car- 
ried off by Paris against her will. (Compare Ovid, Her., xvii., 21.) Borne 
oommentators, however, make trakeret here the same as raperet, i- e., 
tanquam pra:dari secum abdvceret ; while others, again, regard the term 
■s equivalent to lenta navigatione circumdiiceret, since Paris, according 
to one of the scholiasts and Eustathius, did not go directly from Lacedte- 
mon to Troy, but, in apprehension of being pursued, sailed to Cyproa, 
Phoenicia, and Egypt. — Navibus Id^is. " In vessels made of the timber 
of Ida." — 3. Jngrato otio. "In an unwelcome calm." Unwelcome, say 
the commentators, to the winds themselves, which are ever restless, and 
ever love to be in motion. Hence they are styled by ^schylus koko^xo- 
^ot. — 4. Ul caneret f era fata. "That he might foretell their gloomy des- 
iinics." 

5-12. 5. Mala avi. "Under evil omens." Compare Ode iii., 3, 6j, 
** alite lugiibri ;" and Epod. x., 1, " mala alilc." — 7. Conjurata lutis rum- 
pere nuptias^ &c. " Bound by a common oath to sever the union between 
thee and thy loved one, and to destroy the ancient kingdom of Priam." 
A OrsBcism for qiite conjuravit se rupluram. The term nuptias is here 
used, not in its ordinary sense, but with reference to the criminal loves of 
Paris and Helen. — 9. Qiianlus sudor. "Whdttoil." — 10. Quanta fuftera. 
"What carnage." — 11. ^gida. " Her tegis." In Homer, the ajgis [ah 
yiq) is the shield of Jove, which Minerva sometimes bears (77., v., 738), 
and this signification is retained by Seneca [Here. Fur.^ 905). At a Utei 
period, it is Minerva's corselet [Evrip.t lon^ 1012, ed. Herm. Ovid, Met., 
vi., 17). The term is used in this last sense on the present occasion.— 
12. Et rabiem parat. " And is kindling up her martial fury." The zeug- 
ma in paraty and the air of conciseness which it imparts to the style, are 
(k 3culiarly striking. 

13-19. 13. Veneris pntsidio ferox. "Proudly relying on tne aid of 
Venus." This goddess favored him, since to her he had adjudged the 
prize of beauty over Juno and Minerva. — 14. G rataque feminis^ &c. " And 
distribute pleasing strains among women on the unmanly lyre." The ex- 
pression carmina dividere feminis means nothing more than to execute 
different airs for different females in succession. This is Doring's explana- 
tion, and is adopted by Dillenburger. Orelli's interpretation appears stiff 
and far-fetched. It \h as follows : " Cantus vocalis et citharte soni inter st 
eonjuncti totam efficiunt sympkoniam ; jam singulatim %pectatis his par- 
tibus, uolSijv dividit cithara cantus^ uoidh cithartB sofios, id est, altera 
Htra aimidia totius symphonic pars est." The allegorical meaning is con 
■idered by some as being still kept up in this passage : Antony, according 
to Plutarch, lived for a time at Samos with Cleopatra, in the last excesses 
of luxury, amid the delights of music and song, while all the world around 
were terrified with apprehensions of a civil war. — 16. Thalamo. *' In thj^ 
bid-(*hamber," i.e.^hs seeking shelter therein.— 17. CaUimt srticnia Cil^ 



BXri.ANArORY NC/FES. BOOK 1., ODE XV» 2W3 

ftc. C'liusufi was uiie of the oldest and most important cities of Crete, «it 
uate on tiic River Cscratus. Hence Cnosius is taken by synecdoche in 
the sense of '* Cretan." The- inhabitants of Crete were famed for their skill 
in archery. The correct form of the name of the city is Cnosus, as appear* 
*rom coins (Eckhel, Doctr. Num., ii., p. 307), not Cnossus, or Gnossus, a» 
commonly written. Hence the true form of the gentile adjective is 
CnosiuSf not Cnossius or Gnossius. — 18. Strepitumque, el celerem seqw 
Ajacem. "And the din of battle, and Ajax swift in pursuit." The ex 
pression cclercm aeqni is a GrsBcism for celerem ad sequendum. The Oileaa 
Ajax is here meant, who was famed for his swiftness, and whom Homei 
calls 'OlXfiOQ Tuxi'Q Amf. (//., ii., 527.) — 19. Tamen. This particle ifl 
to be referred to quamvis, which is implied in serus, i. e., quamvis serus, 

■amen collides. "Though late in the conflict, still," &c. Paris wcfi 

vlain in the last year of the war by one of the arrows of Philoctetes. 

21-28. 21. Laeriiaden. "The son of Laertes." Ulysses. The Greeic 
form of the patronymic [AaeoTidSjic) comes from Aaiprio^, for Aaiprijc- 
{MaUhi<e, G. G.^ vol. i., p. 130.) The skill and sagacity of Ulysses were 
among the chief causes of the downfall of Troy. — 22. Pylium, Nnstora 
There are three cities named Pylos in the Peloponnesus, two in Elis and 
one in Messenia, and all laid clSim to the honor of being Nestor^ birth- 
place. Strabo is in favor of the Triphylian Pylos, in the district of Tri 
phylia, in Elis. (Compare Hcyne, ad IL, 4, 591 ; 11, 681.) — 23. Salaminiu$ 
l^eucer. Teacer, son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and brother of Ajax.— 
Sr-4. Teucer. A trochee in the first place, to avoid which some read Tcucer 
'e in plfu^e of Tevcer el. — Slhenclus. Son of Capaneus, and charioteer of 
Diomede.— 26. Merionen. Charioteer of Idomeneus, king of Crete. — 
28. Tydides melior palre. " The son of Tydeus, in arms superior to his 
sire." Horace appears to allude to the language of Sthenelus (11., A, 405) in 
defending himself and Diomede from the reproaches of Agamemnon, when, 
the latter was marshalling his forces after the violation of the truce by 
Pandarus, and thought that he perceived reluctance to engage on the pari 
of Diomede and his companion. 'Hjjel^ rot iraTipcjv. fiiy' afieivoveg ev- 
XOfied* elvai, are the words of Sthenelus, who means that they, the Epi- 
goni, were braver than their sires, for they took the city of Thebes, befor« 
which their fathers had fallen. 

29-35. 29. Quern tu, cervus^ &c. " Whom, as a stag, unmindful of iti 
pasture, flees from a wolf seen by it in the opposite extremity of some 
valley, tliou, effeminate one, shalt flee from with deep pantings, not hav- 
ing promised this to thy beloved." Compare Ovid, Her., 16, 356. — 33. Ira- 
cunda diem, &c. Literally, " The angry fleet of Achilles shall protract 
the day of destruction for Dium," &c., i. e., the anger of Achilles, who re- 
tired to his fleet, shall protract, &c. — 35. Posl cerlas hiemes. ** After a 
destined period of years." — Ignis lliacas domos. We have here a tro 
chee in the Grst place, as in line 24. Some editors, in order to bring it 
the ipondee, road Fergameas, whicl makes an awkward change from 
ilio in line 33. Withoflus, with much more taste proposes bcrbarioae. 



f)i>K XV]. Horaca, /u early life, had written some sevorc vcrsbs againal 
a \i>nr4{ female. He now retracts his injurious expressions, and Jays tb« 



O 



1580 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOR I., ODB XVl. 

biame on the ardent and impetnoas feelings of youth. The ode I .tU 
principally on the fatal eifects of unrestrained anger. An old commoiNrftaf 
informs us that the name of the female was Oratidia, and that she is the 
same with the Canidia of the Epodes. Acron and Porphyriim call her 
Tyndaris, whence some have heen led to infer that Gratidia, whom Horace 
attacked* was the parent, and that, being now in love with her daaghtei 
Tyndaris, he endeavors to make his peace with the former by giving up his 
injarioas verses to her resentment. Acron, however, farther states, that 
Horace, in his Palinodia, imitates Stesichorus, who, having lost his sight 
tJt a punishment for an ode against Helen, made subsequently a full re^ 
cantation, and was cured of his blindness. Nov/, as Tyndaris was the 
patronymic appellation of Helen, why may net the Roman poet hav« 
merely transferred this name frooi the Greek original to his own jirodun 
tion, without intending to assign it'any particular meaning 1 

2-5. 2. CHmirtosis iambi». "To my injurioas iambics." , The iambic 
measure was peculiarly adapted for satirical effusions. In the heroic 
hexameter, which preceded it, there was a measured movement, with iti 
arsis and thesis of equal lengths; whereas in the iambic versification the 
arsis was twice as long as the thesis, and therefore its light, trippic_ 
character was adml»-ably adapted to express the lively play of wit and 
sarcasm. — 4. Mari Hadriano. The Adriatic is here put for water general* 
ly. The ancients were accustomed to cast whatever they detested either 
into the flames or the water. — 5. Non Dindymene^ Ac. " Nor Cybele, 
uor the Pythian Apollo, god of prophetic inspiration, so agitate the minds 
of their priesthood in the secret shrines, Bacchus does not so shake the 
soul, nor the Corybantes when they strike with redoubled blows on the 
shrill cymbals, as gloomy anger rages." Understand quatiunt with Cory- 
Gardes and ii^tB respectively, and observe the expressive force of the zeug- 
ma. The idea intended to be conveyed is, when divested of its poetic 
attife, simply this : "Nor Cybele, nor Apollo, nor Bacchus, nor the Cory* 
bantes, can shake the soul as does the power of anger." — DindymeTU 
The goddess Cybelp received this name from being worshipped on Mount 
Dindymus, near the city of Pessinus in Galatia, a district of Asia Minor 
She was worshipped with wild and orgiastic rites. 

6-11. 6. Incola Pythius. The tenn incola beautifully expreases tb« 
prophetic inspiration of the god : ** habitans quasi in pectore." — 8. Cory- 
bantes. The Corybantes were the enthusiastic priests of Cybele, who 
with drums, cymbals, horns, and in full armor, performed their orgiastic 
dances in the forests and on the mountains of Phrygia. — 9. Noricus ensis. 
The iron of Noricum was of an excellent quality, and hence the expressior 
Ncyricus ensis is used to denote the goodness of a sword. Noricum, after 
its reduction under the Roman swAy, corresponded to the modern Carin- 
thia^ Styrioj Salzburg, and part of Austria and Bavaria. — 11. Stgvuf 
ignis. " The unsparing 1 ightning." The^rc of the skies. — Nee tremendo. 
&c. " Nor Jove himself rushing down with fearful thunderings." Can 
pare the Greek expression Zevg KaraiPuT^'c, applied to Jove liurlinfy hn 
thunderbolts, 

la-l^: 13. FeHnr Prometheus^ Ac. According to the legend here fol 
k>we4 by Horace, it appears that Prometheus, or his brother BpirwothpTis 



EXPLANATORY NCTE& — BOOK 1., ODE XV i. 2H1 

Aftving exhausted his stock of materials in the fonuation of other aiiiiuala, 
WhB compelled to take a part from each of them {particulam undiqui de- 
$eetam)t and added it to the clay which formed the primitive element oi 
man {principi limo). Hence the origin of angei, Prometheas having 
** placed in our breast the wild rage of the lion" [insani leonis mm, i. e . 
tnsanam leonis vim). Whence Horace borrowed this legend is uncertain, 
probably from some Qreek poet The creation of the human race on( 
of clay by Prometheus is unknown to Homer and Hesiod, and can not 
be traced higher than Ennna. [Aiithol. Pa/., i., p. 301, ep., 352.) The 
uvdo^ of Prometheus, as given by Protagoras in the Platonic dialogue of 
tiiat name (p. 320), approaches very nearly to it. — 16. Stomacko. The term 
stoMCKkus properly denotes the canal through which aliment descends 
intd the stomach : it is then taken to express the upper p**ifice of the 
stomach (compare the Greek Kapdia), and finally the ventricle in which 
the food is digested. Its reference to anger or choler arises from the cir- 
Rumstauce of a great number of nerves being situated about the uppei 
orifice of the stomach, which render it very sensitive; and from thence also 
9roceede the great sympathy between the stomach, head, and heart. 

17-18. 17. Ira» "Angry contentions," i, «., the indulgence of angry 
feelings between the brothers Alreus and Thyestes. — Thyesten exitio 
^ravi stravere. These words, besides containing a general allusion to the 
rained fortunes of Thyestes, have also a special reference to his having 
been made to banquet, unconsciously, upon the flesh of his own sons. — 18. 
Et cdtis urbibusy &c. ** And have been the primary cause to lofty cities 
why," &«. A Graecism for et vltitn<e ste.t^re causa cur altte urbes fundi- 
Cus perirent. ** And have ever been the primary cause why lofty cities 
perished from their very foundations," i. e., have been utterly destroyed. 
Compare, as regards the epithet nltinnBy the explanation of Orelli: **a6 
ultimo initio repetiite, et propterea pr€Bcipua" The expression altis ur- 
bibus is in accordance with the Greek, ainv nToXledpoVt TroAif aiifeifj 
The elegant use of stetere for exstitere or fuere must be no<:ed. It cairies 
with it the accompanying idea of something fixed and xrtain. Comparu 
Virgil {Ain.f vii., 735) : " Slant belli causa." 

20-27. 20. Imprimeretque muris^ &c. Alluding to the custom, preva- 
isnt among the ancients, of drawing a plough over the ground proviousljr 
occupied by the walls and buildings of a captured and ruined city, alid 
■owing salt, as the type of barrenness, in the funx)WB. — 22. Covtpesee 
fnenlem. " Restrain thy angry feelings." — Pectoris tentamt fervor. "Th* 
glow of resentment seized." Literally, "made trial ofl" The poet lay« 
the blame of his injurious effusion on the intemperate feelings of youth, 
which hurried him away. — 24. Celeres iambos. " The rapid iambics.' 
The rapidity of this measure rendered it peculiarly fit to give expressicv 
to ftngry feelings. Compare note on **criminosis iambis" v. 2, and aisc 
the Epistle to the Pisos, v. 251. — 25. Mitibus mutare tristia. "To ex 
aharge bitter taunts for soothing sti-ains." Mitibus^ though, when render 
rd into our idiom, it has the appearance of a dative, is in reality the ab 
native, as being the instrument of exchange. — 27. Recanfatis opprobriis 
*My injurious expressions being recanted."- -/Iw/r.vwi. "Mv p«ace re 
aiiiid. 



288 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I.. ODE XVr_ 

UDE XVII. Horace, havinp^ In the last ode made his peace with Tyi 
aahs, now invites tier to his Sabine farm, where she will find retirenieoc 
and security fro.n the brutality of Cyrus, who had treated her witli mi 
manly rudeness and cruelty. In order the more certainly to induce au w- 
ceptauce of his offer, he depicts in attractive colors the salubrious position 
uf his rural retreat, the tranquillity which reigns there, and the favoring 
protection extended to him by Faunus and the other gods. 

i~4. 1. Velox amoBmim, &c. " Ofltimes Faunus, in rapid flight, change! 
Mouiit Lycoeus for the fair Lucretilis." Lycteo is here the ablative, as de- 
noting the instrument by whicli the change is made. They who make 
this an hypallage for Lucretili . . . Lyc<eum^ confound the Englisli idiuni 
with the Latin. — Lucrctilem. Lucretilis was a mountain in the country 
of the Sabiues, and amid its windings lay tbe farm of the poet. It is now 
Monte i.;hretti. — 2. LyctBO. Mount Lyc;£us was situated in the south- 
western angle of Arcadia, and was sacred to Faanus or Pan. — Faunus^ 
Fauhus, tlie god of shepherds and fields among tiie Latins, appears tL 
have Lecoiao gradually identified with the Pan of the Greeks. — 3. DefendU, 
"Wards off"." — 4. Flnviosque vcntos. "And the rainy winds." The poet 
sufficieufly declaies the salubrious situation of his Sabine farm, when he ' 
speaks of it as being equally sheltered from the fieiy heats of summer, 
«rid the rain-bearing winds, the sure precursors of disease. 

5-17. 5. Arhutos. Compare the note on Ode i., 1,21. — 6. Thyma. The 
thyme of the ancients is i.ot our common thyme', but the thymus capittUut^ 
qui Dioscondis, which now grows in great plenty on the mountains of 
Greece. — 7. Olcntis uxore.-< mnriti. "The wives of the fetid husband.' 
A periphrasis for capr<p.. — *.♦. Ncc Martiales HadilitB lupos. " Nor the 
tierce wolves of Hsedilia." It appears from a gloss appended to one of the 
earliest MSS., that Hosdilin was a mountain in the vicinity of the poet's 
farm, infested by wolves. All the MSS. have HcEdilicB; but the copyist*, 
not understanding the meaning of the term, changed it to kinnulea, which 
last, Bentley, by an ingenious emendation, and guided by analogy, altered 
into the new word htedulca;., "young female kids." The restoration of the 
true reading of the MSS. was made by Orelli. The epithet Martiales^ ai 
applied to lupos, has a double meaning, since it indicates the wolf not only 
as a fierce and savage animal, but also one sacred to Mars. — 10. Utcunqv^ 
"Whenever." Y or qitandocuiique. — 11. Usticts cubantis. "Of the low- 
lying Ustica," i. f., gently sloping. This was a small mountain near the 
poet's farm.^12. Levia. In the sense of attrita^ " worn smooth by the 
mountain rills." — 14. Hie tibi copia-t &c. " Here plenty, rich in rural hon- 
ors, shall flow in to thee, from benignant horn filled to the very brim." A 
figiuative allusion to the horn of Plenty. — 17. In reducta valle. "In a 
winding vale." — Canicnla. We translate this term by " the dog-star," 
without specifying whether we mean Sirius, the great dog-star, or Pro- 
cyoUf the little dog star. It may, however, be cither, since their heliacal 
risings do not ditfer by many days. But, strictly speaking, canicula ii 
Procyon, and the dies caniculares^ or classical "dog-days," are the twenty 
days preceding and the twenty days following the heliacal risirg of Ca 
\icftla. 

>«-«'i 1 8. Fide Ta4 " On the Teian lyre." t . e. m Aua^etmtic itn 'l 



EXVLANATORT NOTES. BOOK I., 01>E JLVil. 28ft 

An&crcoQ was bom at Teos, in Asia Minor. — 19. LaboratUes in una 
" Striving for one and Ute same hero," i. e., Ulysses. JAxborantes is ex- 
lreme}y graphic here, and implies that anxioas state of feeling which they 
who loTe arc wont to experience. — 20. VUreamqiLe Circen. ** And glass- 
like Ciitre," t. e., as bright and dazzling, bat, at the same time, as frail 
and as onwortby of reliance as glass. Compare SaL, ii., 3, 222 : ** Vitrea 
fama."-^2l. Innocentis Lesbii. The Lesbian wine would seem to have 
(>OfsesBed a dolicions flavor, for it is said to have deserved the name of 
tmbrosia rather than of wine, and to have been like nectar when old. 
{Athsiueus^ i., 22.) Horace terms the Lesbian an innocent or unintoxicat- 
iug wine ; bat it was the prevailing opinion among the accients that all 
sweet wines were less injurioas to the head, and less apt to cause intox 
leation, than the strong dry wines. Consult ExcursusYlL 

2^27. 32. Duces. *'Thou shalt quaff." — 23. Semeleiua T1iyontt^\. 
" Bacchus, offspring of Semele." This deity received the name of Thyo^ 
n«ii8, acooiding to the common account, from Thyone, an appellation of 
Semole. I( is more probable, however, that the title in question was de- 
rived from ^vu, "to rage," "to rush wUdly." — 24. Nee metues protervum, 
frc. " Nor shalt thou, an object of jealous suspicion, fear the rude Cyrus/ 
•—25. Male dispart. ** 111 fitted to contend with him." — 26. Inconlinentes 
-'Rash," "violent." — 27. Coronam. Previous to the introduction of the 
second coarse, the guests were provided with chaplets of leaves or flow- 
ers, which they placed on their foreheads or temples, and occasionally, 
also, on their cups. Perfumes were at the same time offered to such ai 
chose to anoint their face and hands, or have their garlands sprinkled with 
them. This mode of adorning their persons, which was borrowed from 
the Asiatic nations, obtained so universally among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, that, by almost every author after the time of Homer, it is spoken 
«f as the nocessary accompaniment of the feast. It is said to have origi 
Dated from a belief that the leaves of certain plants, as the ivy, myrtle, 
and laurel, oi certain flowers, as the violet and rose, possessed ihe powei 
of dispersing the fumes and counteracting the noxious effects of wine. On 
this account the ivy has been always held sacred to Bacchus, and formed 
the basis of the wreaths with whidi his images, and the heads of his wor- 
shippers, were enciicled ; but, being deficient in smell, it was seldom em- 
ployed for festal garlands, and in general the preference was given to the 
myrtle, which, in addition to its cooling or astringent qualities, was sup* 
posed to have an exhilarating influence on the mind. On ordinary occa- 
sions, the guests were contented with simple wreaths ftom the latter 
shrub; but, at their gayer entertainments, its foliage was entwined with 
roses and violets, or such other flowers as were in season, and recom- 
aiended themselves by the beauty of their colors or the fragrance of their 
imell. Much taste was displayed in the arrangement of these garlands, 
which was usually confided to female hands ; and, as the demand for them 
was great, the manufacture and sale of them became a dit tinct branch vf 
l^ade. To appear in a disordered chaplet was reckoned a sign of inebri- 
^ ; and a custom prevailed of placing a garland, confusedly put togethei 
^j^t^iov aTi<ju:vov)f on the heads of such as were guilty of excess in theit 
nips. {JHendersovk s History o 'Ancient and Modem (Vi'x«s, p. 119^ *^^ 



Li 



fS\M eXPLAfVATOEY MOTES. BOOK I., ODE XVIII. 

Ot»e XVIII. Varas, the Epicoiean, and friend of AngLstas, of whom 
•*.ontioa is made by daiutilian (6, 3, 78), beiug engaged in setting oat 
trees along his Tibaitine possessions, is advised by the poet to give th^ 
** sacred vine" die preference. Amid the praises, however, which he bs 
stows on the jaice of the gi'ape, the bard does not forget to inculcate a 
asefal lesson as to moderation in wine. The Varus to whom this ode it 
addressed must not be confounded with the individual of the same nam« 
wlio killed himself in Germany after his disastrous defeat by Arminiai. 
Ho is rather the poet duintilius Varus, whose death, which Vappeiied 
A U.C. 729, Horace deplores in the 24th Ode of this book. 

1-4. 1. Sacra. The vine was sacred to Bacchus, and hence the epi^ 
thet anK€?,o(ivTMp {** producer of the vine"), which is applied to tbif god. 
^Prius, " In preference to." — Severis. The subjunctive is here uied as 
a softened imperative : ** Plant, I entreat." [Zumpt^ $ 529, note) The 
whole of this Hue is imitated from Alcaeus : Mijdiv &?iKo ^vrc voyf irpore- 
oov 6Evdpeov ufnri2,u. — 2. Circa mite solum Tilniris. " In the soil of the 
mild Tibnr, around the walls erected by Catilns." The preposition circa 
is here used with solum^ as irepi sometimes is in Greek with the accusa- 
tive : thus, l^kucyd^i 6, 2, irtpi irdaav t^v ^ixeTUav, "in the whole of 
Sicily, round about." The epithet mtte, though in gi-ammatical construe* 
tion with solum^ refers in strictness to the mild atmosphere of Tibur. And 
lastly, the particle el is here merely explanatory, the town of Tibur hav 
ing been founded by Tiburtus, Coras, and Catillus or Catilus, sons of Ca- 
tilius, and grandsons of Amphiarans. Some commentators, with less pro- 
priety, render mile solum "the mellow soil," and others "the genial soil." 
The true idea is given by Braunhard : "Mite solum, propter airis mitioris 
temperiem.'* — 3. Siccis omnia nam dnra^ &c. "For the deity has made 
all things appear difficult to those who abstain from wine.'' More literal- 
ly, " has placed all things as difficult before the view of those," &c. The 
meaning is simply this : the deity has made all those things, which tiiey 
who refrain from wine undertake, appear to them as burdensome and 
difficult. — 4. Mordaces sollicUudines. "Gnawing cares." — Aliter. "By 
any other means," i, e., by the aid of any other remedy than wine. 

5-8. 5. Poslvina. *' After free indulgence in wine." The plural im« 
parts additional force to the term. — Crepat. "Talks of." The verb in 
this line conveys the idea of complaint, and is equivalent to "rails at," or 
* decries." In the succeeding verse, however, where it is understood, it 
implies encomium. — 6. Qnis non Ic points, &c. "Who is not rather load 
iu thy praises." Understand crepaL — Deccns Venns. " Lovely Venus.' 
<►- 7. Modlzi mnticra Libert. "The gifts of moderate Bacchus," i. e., mod 
eration in wine. The appellation Liber, as applied to Bacchus, is a tranv 
iation of the Greek epitliet Avcuo^, and indicates the deity who //tees thf 
aval from cares. — 8. Cenlanrea moncl, &c. Alluding to the well-known 
conflict between the Centaurs and Lapithas, which arose at the nuptiali 
of Pirithous, king of the Lapithas, and Hippodamia. — Super mero. " Ovei 
thoir wine." Afcrwrn denotes wine in its pure and most potent state, uu 
mixed with water. The Greeks and Romans generally drank their wines 
diluted with water. Th3 dilution varied according to the taste of the 
drinkers, and the sti-ength of the liquor, from one part of wine and foui 
of water, to two of wine and four or else five parts of water, which last 
leems to have been the favorite mixture. Compare Excursus IX. 



, EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK f., ODE XVIII. 991 

]^.>. 9. Sithoniis non levis. "Unpropitioui to the Thracians/' Aj- 
tudiii[| to the intemperate habits of the Thracians, and the stem iuflaenoi 
which the god of wine was conseqaently said to exercise oyer theic. The 
Bithonians are here taken for the Thracians generally. In strictnesfl^ 
however, they were the inhabitants of Sithonia, one of the three penin- 
«u1as of Chalcidice, snbseqaentl}' incorporated into Macedonia. — Euius 
A name of Bacchas, supposed to have originated from the cry of the Bac- 
:hanalians, evol. Others derive the appellation from an exclamation of 
Japiter [ev vie, •* Well done, son !"), in approval of the valor displayed by 
3a3chas during the contest of the giants. — 10. Cum fas atque nefaSf dec. 
"Wlieu, prompted by their intemperate desires, they distinguish right 
from wrong by a naiTOW limit," i. c, when the only diiference in their eyei 
between good and evil is marked by the feeble barrier which their own 
inclinations interpose. 

11. Non ego te candide Bassareu, &c. " I will not disturb thee against 
thy will, brightly -beauteous Bassareus." The epithet candide is equiya- 
lent here, as Orelli remarks, to " pulchritudine splendens" The mythol- 
ogy of the Greeks and Romans assigned perpetual youth and beauty to 
the god of wine. The epithet Bassareus^ applied to Bacchus here, is de- 
rived by Creuzer from Puaaapog, ** a fox ;" and he thinks that the garment 
called j^aaaapLQt worn in ^.^ia Minor by the females who celebrated the 
rites of this deity, derived its name from its having superseded the skins 
of foxes, which the Bacchantes previously wore during the orgies. [Syr/^ 
bolikf iii., p. 363.) In order to understand more fully the train of ideas io 
this and the following part of the ode, we must bear in mind that the poet 
now draws all his images from the rites of Bacchus. He who indulges 
moderately in the use of wine is made identical with the true and accept^ 
able worshipper of the god, while he who is given to excess is compared 
to that follower of Bacchus who undertakes to celebrate his orgies in an 
improper and unbecoming manner, and who reveals his sacred mysteries 
to the gaze of the profane. On such a one the anger of the god is surci 
to fall, find this anger displays itself in the infliction of disordered feelings , 
in arrogant and blind love df self, and in deviations from the path of in 
tegrity and good faith. The poet professes his resolution of never incm 
ring the resentment of the god, and prays, therefore (v. 13), that he mi^ 
not be exposed to such a visitation. 

lS-16. 13. Qualiam. The verb quatio has here the sense of m(n>e* 
uid alludes to the custom of the ancients in bringing forth from the tem- 
ples the statues and sacred things connected with the woiship of the gods* 
on solemn festivals. These were earned round, and the ceremony begau 
by the waving to and fro of the sacred vases and utensils. — Nee variu olh 
silafrondibns, &c ** Nor will I hurry into open day the things concealed 
under various leaves." In the celebration of the festival of Bacchus, a se- 
lect number of virgins, of honorable families, called Kav7i^6poi, carried 
small baskets of gold, in which were concealed, beneath vine, ivy, and 
•tUer loaves, certain sacred and mysterious things, which were not to hi 
exposed to the eyes of the profane. — 13. Sawa tetie cum BerccriHtio^ dto 
•^ Cease the shrill-clashaig cymbals, with the Berecyntian horn." Bere 
«!yntu8 was a mountain in Phrygia, where Cybcle was particularly wof 
iihinped. Cymbals and horns were us€d at the festivf^ls of this RO'ldes? 



^92 BAFLANATORY NOTES. h*90K I., OD£ XiX 

M at Uiote of Bacchus. — 14. Qva atthsequitur^ 9uc. " In whote (raiu ni. 
iowa." — 1 5. Gloria, " Foalish vanity." — Verticem vacuum, " The empty 
btfad. ' — 16. Arcanijides prodiga. " Indiscretion prodigal of secrets.' 



Onit XIX. The poet, alter having bid farewell to love, confesses that 
the beanty of Glycera had again made him a willing captive. Venus, 
Bacchus, and Licentia are the authors of this change, and compel him tc 
ftbandoa all graver employmeflits. A sacrifice to the first of tLese deities, 
hi order 'to propitiate her iaflaence, now engrosses the attention of the 
ban]. Some commeutatora have supposed that the poet's object in com 
posing this piece was to excuse himself to Maecenas for not having cele- 
brated in song, as the latter requested, the operations of Augustus against 
the Scythians and the Parthians. We should prefer, however, the simpler 
and more natural explanation of the ode as a mere sportive eifDiiou. 

1-5. 1. Mater ztBva Cupidinum. "The cruel mother of the Loves." 
The later poets made Venus the mother of numerous loves, who formed 
her train. — 2. ThebaruB Semeles puer. Bacchus; hence called Se/^^A^- 
ygviTfiq. — 3. Lasciva Licentia. "Frolic License." — 5. Nitor. "The 
brilliant beauty." 

6f Pario marmare purius. Paros was famed for its statuary marble. 
The quarries were in Mount Marpessus. For an interesting account of a 
<xsii to these quarries, consult Clarke's Travels, vi., p. 134. 

8 -IS. 8. El vultus nimium lubricus aspici. "And her countenance 
too dangerous to be gazed upon." Lubricus aspici is analogous to the 
Greek a^aXepbg pTiiTreadah and lubricus, like a^aXspog, carries with it 
the idea of something slippery, delusive, dangerous, &c. — 9. Tola. " In 
all the strength." — 10. Cyprum. The island of Cyprus was the favorite 
abode of Venus. Here she had her celebrated Idalian grove. — Scytkas. 
By the Scythians are here meant the tribes dwelling on or near the banks 
of the Ister, and who were among the most persevering foes of the Roman 
name. Horace professes his inability to sing of Roman triumphs under 
Augustus, or to handle in any way such lofty themes, in consequence of 
the all-controlling power of love. — 11. Versis animosum, &c. " The Par 
thian, fiercely contending on retreating steeds." Compare the language 
of Plutarch in describing the peculiar mode of tight practiced by this na- 
tion. ( Vit. Crass., c. 24 ; ed. Hutten, vol. iii., p. 422.) TTrt'^evyov yap 
ufia puTiXovreg ol UdpOoi, Kal tovto KpdriaTa izoLovai fierd XKvOag' /cat 
aofJKJTaTov koTLV, ufivvofiivovg km ri^ ao^eaOai, rfjg ^vy^g u(^aipelv rb 
ahxpov, " For the Parthians shot as they fled ; and this they do with a 
degree of dexterity inferior only to that of the Scythians. It is indeed at/ 
excellent invention, since they fight while they save themselves, and thus 
escape the disgrace of flight." — 12. Nee quee nihil attinent. Und3rstand 
ad se. " Nor of aught that bears no relation to her sway." 

13-14. 13. Viviim cespiiem " The verdant turf." An altar of turf is 
now to be erected to the goddess. This material, one of the earliest that 
was applied to such a purpose, was generally used on occasions where 
little previous preparation could be made. — 14. Verbems. "Vervain 



BXPLAXATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XX. 2911 

Tlie V-x'iena of the B/omans corresponds to the lepo^druvv w llepio repeCn 
of tLe Greeks, and to the Veibena officinalis of liinnsens (Gen. 43). The 
origin of the saperstitious belief attached to this plant, especially among 
the Gaals, can hardly be ascertained with any degree of certainty. One 
^f the Greek names given to it above {'lepo(3oTuv7i, " sacred plant"), shows 
the high estimation in which it was held by that people. i?he Latin ap- 
peUatior is sappcsed to come from the Celtic /er/izzn, from which last if 
•Iso derived the English word "vervain." It became customary, how- 
vtet, to call by the name of verbena all plants and leaves used for sacred 
fMirposes. Compare Sermus^ ad Virg.^ .dB»., 12, 120 

15-16. 15. Bimimeri. "Of w me two years old." New wine was al 
(i^ays preferred for libations to the gods. So, also, the Romans were ac- 
euatomed to use their own, not the Greek wines, for such a purpose, tho 
foimer being more free from any admixture of water. Hence the remark 
of Pliny [H. iV., 14, 19), **Grteca vina libare nefasy quoniam aquam ha 
beant, ** — 16. Mactata kostia. Tacitus informs us {Hist., 2) that it waa un 
lawful for any blood to be shed on the altar of the Paphian Venus, " Sangui 
nem arte offundere vetitum" and hence Catullua (66, 91) may be explain- 
ed: ** Placabis festis Icminibus Venerem sanguinis expertem." It would 
appear, however, from other authorities, especially Martial (9, 91). that 
animal sacrifices in honor of this goddess, and for the purpose of inispect- 
ing the entrails in order to ascertain her will, were not unfrequcnt. The 
very historian, indeed, from whom we have just given a passage, clearly 
proves this to have been the case. ( Tacit.^ I. c), '* Hostia, ut quisque 
vomt, sed mares deligvntur. Certissima fides hadorum fibris" The ap- 
parent contradiction into which Tacitus falls may be explained away, if 
we refer the expression ** sanguinem ara offundere vetitum'* not to the 
total absence of victims, but merely to the altar of the goddess being kept 
ontoached by their blood. The sacrifices usually offered to Venus would 
■eem to have been white goats and swine, with libations of wine, milk, 
and honey. The language of Virgil, in describing her altars, is somewhat 
in accordance with that of Catullus : ** Tkmre calent ar€e, sertisqve reoen 
Hbus halant." {jEn., 1, 417.) 



Ode XX. Addressed to Maecenas, who had signified to ihe poet his in 
tention of spending a few days with him at his Sabine farm. Horace 
warns him that he is not to expect the generous wine which he haa been 
accustomed to quaff at home ; and yet, while depreciating the quality of 
ftat which his own humble roof affords, he mentions a circumstance re< 
fpectiug its age, which could not but prove peculiarly gratifying to hii 
f atron and intended guest. 

1-3. \. Vile Sabinum. " Common Sabine wine." The Sabine appean 
Id have been a thin table-wine, of a reddish color, attaining its maturity 
jto leven years. Pliny (//. JST., xiv., 2) applies to it the epithets crudnm 
an i austemm. — 2. Cantharis. The cantharus was a bowl or vase fop 
hif.ding wine, furaished with handles, and from which the liquor was truia 
'erred to thi3 drinking-cups. It derived its name, according to most ao 
tticriHes, from its being made to resemble a beetle {Kiivdapog). SomA 
lynreveTr deduce the appellation from a certain Cantharus, who waa the 



IS4 BXPLiNATOET NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XX. 

mveiitoi^ if the article. The canlkarua ^ u peculiarly sacred to BaochLa 
— Testa, The testa, or "jar," derived its name from baviog been aab 
jected, when first made, to the action of fire [testa, quasi tosta, a torrto) 
The vessels for holding wine, in general nse among the Greeks and Bo 
mans, were of earthenware.— 3. Levi* ** I closed ap." When the wine 
>¥essels were filled, and the disturbance of the liquor had subsided, the 
oavors or stoppers were secured with plaster or a coating of pitch, mixed 
with the ashes of the vine, so as to exclude all communication with the 
external air. — Datus in tkeatro, && Alluding to the acclamations widi 
which the assembled audience greeted Miecenas on his entrance into the 
theatre, after having, according to most commentators, recovered from a 
dangerous malady. Some, however, suppose it to have been on occaak*o 
3f the celebrating of certain games by Mascenas ; and others, among whom 
is Faber, refer it to the time when the conspiracy of Lepidus was detect- 
ed and crushed by the minister. (Compare Veil. Patere., ii., 88, 3.) The 
theatre alluded to was that erected by Pompey, probably after the termi 
nation of the Mithradatic war. It was overlooked by the Vatican on the 
other side of the river, and is generally supposed to have stood in that 
part of the modem city called Campo 'di Fiore. 

6-9. 5. Care Miecenas eques. *' Dear Msdcenas, contented with cfiues 
trian rank." We have paraphrased rather than translated eque^. Msb« 
oenas, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he attain- 
ed under Augustus, remained ever contented with his equestrian rank. 
Hence the term eques here is meant to be peculiarly emphatic. Bentley, 
following one of his M8S., reads Clare, Maecenas, eques, in order tu give 
tques a& epithet ; but Care breathes more of the feeling of true friendship 
"Paierni fiuminis. The Tiber is meant. The ancestors of Mmcenas 
were of Etrurian origin, and the Tiber bebnged in part to Etruria, as it 
formed, in a great measure, its eastern and southern boundary. — ^7. Vati- 
cam mentis. The Vatican Mount formed the prolongation of the Janicn> 
lum toward the north, and was supposed to have derived its name from 
the Latin word vates^ or valicinittm, as it was once the seat of Etruscan 
divination. — 8. Imago. "The echo." Understand vocis. — ^9. C^scubam. 
The Ceecuban wine derived its name from the Ctecubus ager, in the vicin- 
ity of Amyclse, and is described by Galen as a generous, durable wine. 
Out apt to affect the head, and ripening only after a long term of years 
{AtheTueus, i, 21 .)'~Caleno. The town of Gales, now Calvi, lay to the 
south of Teanum, in Campania. The ager Calenus was much celebrated 
Jur its vineyards. It was contiguous, in fact, to that famous district, so 
well known in antiquity under the name onager Falemus, as producing 
the best wine in Italy, or, indeed, in the world. Compare £a;curstM VIII. 

11-12. 11. Formiani. The Formian Hills are often extolled for the 
superior wine which they produced. FormisB, now Mola di Gaeta, was 
a city of great antiquity in Latium, near Caieta. — 12. Mea tempera^U poo 
via. ** Mix my cups," t. e., with water. The meaning of the whole clause 
may be best axpressed by a paraphrase : " Neither the produce of the 
Falemian vin»s, nor that of the Formian hills, mingles in my cups with 
llie tempering water." These were the drinking-cups, into which th e wins 
;va8 poured after having been diluted with water in the crater. oi- mixur 



EJSriiAN'iTOBy NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XXI. 2^t 

OOA XXI A hymn in praise of Apollo and Diana, which haA give* 
tike to much diversity of opinion among the learned. Many regard it as £ 
piece i;itended U be sung in alternate stanzas by a chorus of youths anc 
maidens on some solemn festival. Acron refers it to the Ssecular Oamea. 
and Sanadon, who is one of those that advocate this opinion, actually re- 
moves the ode from its present place and makes it a cconponent part o! 
the Sascular Hymn. Others, again, are in favor of the Ludi Apollijim-ex 
All this, however, is perfectly arbitrary. No satisfactory arguments cajQ 
be adduced for making the present ode an amcebaean composition, nor cao 
It be fairly proved that it was ever customary for such hymns to be aong 
in alternate chorus. Besides, there are some things in the ode directly 
It variance with such an ophiion. Let us adopt, for a moment, the distri 
bution of parts which these commentators recommend, and examine the 
result. The first line is to be sung by the chorus of youths, the second by 
l^e chorus of maidens, while both united sing thu third and fourth. In the 
■occeeding stanzas, the lines from the fifth to the eighth inclusive are as- 
signed to the youths, and from the ninth to th<> twelfth inclusive to the 
maidens, while the remaining lines are again svng by the doable chorus. 
In order to effect this arrangement, we must c) auge, with these critics, 
the initial Nic in the thirteenth line to Htec, in t-llusion to Diana, making 
Uie reference to Apollo begin at hie miseram. Now, the impropriety of 
Esaking the youths sing the praises of Diana (verses 5-8), and the maid- 
ens those of Apollo (v. 9-12), must be apparent to every unprejudiced ob- 
server, and forms, we conceive, a fatal error. Nor is it by any means a 
feeble objection, whatever grammatical subtleties may be called in to ex 
plain it away, that motus occurs in the sixteenth line. If the concluding 
■tanza is to commence with the praises of Diana as sung by the youths, 
then evidently motus should be motOt which would violate the measure. 
The conclusion, therefore, to which we are drawn, is simply this : The 
present ode is merely a private efiiision, and not intended for any public 
solemnity. The poet only assumes in imagination the office of choragus, 
and seeks to instruct the chorus in the proper discharge of their genera) 
datios. 

1-8. 1. Dianam. Apollo and Diana, as typifying the sun and mooq 
were ranked in the popular belief among the averters of evil {Dii aver 
funci^ ^eoi ouT^pe^t uXe^UoKOij &c.), and were invoked to ward off fani 
ine, pestilence, and all national calamity. — 2. Intonsum Cynthium 
** Apollo ever young." Compare the Greek ikKcpaeKdfiriv. It was cus 
tomary among the ancients for the first growth of the beard to be conse- 
crated to some god. At the same time the hair of the head was also cut 
o£^ and offered up, usually to Apollo. Until then they wore it uncut 
Hence the epithet intonsus (literally, " with unshorn locks"), when ap 
plied to a deity, carries with it the idea of unfading youth. —The appella 
tion of Cynthius is given to Apollo from Mount Cynthus in the island of 
Delos, near which mountain he was bom. — 4. Dilectam penitus. * Deep 
ly beloved." — 6. Quacunque aut gelido, dec. *' Wliatsoever (foliage at 
groves) stands forth prominent to the view, either on the bleak Algidns, 
w," &c. Commentators complain of tautology here ; but they forget thai 
nemus is strictly speaking a part, and silva a whole. — Algido. Alg/doi 
was a mountain in Latiura, consecrated to Diana and Fortune. It ap 
osars to have been, stnctly speaking, that chain which stretched from 'iie 



^96 EXPLANATORf NOTES. BOOR 1., OD£ XXII 

rev of the Alban Moant, and ran parallel to the Toacnlan HiU4, t»ei / 
leparated from them by the valley along^ which ran the Via batiim 
7. ErymafUki, Erymanthas was a chain of moantaina in Arcadia, on tH( 
borders of Elia, and forming one of the higbeat ridges in Greece. It wal 
celebrated in fable aa the baant of the savage boar destroyed by Herea- 
les^— 8. Cragi. Cragas was a celebrated ridge of Lycia, in Asia Minor, 
extending along the Olaacos Sinos. The fabolons monster Chimera, said 
to have been sabdued by Bellerophon, frequented this rango. according Ic 
the poets. 

VI 5. 9. Tempe Compare the note on Ode i., 7, 4. — 10. NtUalem Ddom 
Deloa, one of Uie Cyclades, and the fabled birth-place of Apollo and Diana. 
—12. Fratema Lyra. The invention of the lyre by Mercary has already 
been mentioned. (Compare note on Ode i., 10, 6.) This instmment ha 
bestowed on Apollo after the theft of the oxen was discovered.— 15. Per- 
gas atque Britannot. Marking the farthest limits of the empire on the 
east and west. By the Persts are meant the Parthians. (Compare note 
nn Ode i., 2. 22.) 



Ode XXII. It was a very prominent feature in the popular belief of 
antiquity, that poets formed a class of men peculiarly under the proteo* 
tion of the gods ; since, wholly engrossed by subjects of a light and pleas- 
ing nature, no deeds of violence, and no acts of fraud or perjury, could evef 
be laid to their charge. Horace, having escaped imminent danger, writes 
the present ode in allusion to this belief. The innocent man, exclaim9 
the bard, is shielded from peril, wherever he may be, by his own purity 
of life and conduct. (The innocent man is here oniy another name fui 
poet.) The nature of the danger from which he had l|een rescued is next 
described, and the ode concludes with the declaration that his own in 
tegrity will ward off every evil, in whatever quarter of the world his loC 
may be cast, and will render him, at the same time, tranquil in mind, and 
ever disposed to celebrate the praises of his Lalage. 

The ode is addressed to Aristius Fascus, to whom the tenth Bpistle (ff 
the first book is inscribed. 

l-€. 1. Integer vita^ A:c. '* The man upright of life, and free from 
guilt. ''^2. Mauris jaeulis. For Mauritanicis jacidia. The natives of 
Maurit&nia were distinguished for their skill in darting the javelin, the 
frequent use of this weapon being required against the wild beasts which 
infested their country.— 5. Syrtes testuoscu. " The burning Syrtes." The 
allusion here is not so much to the two remarkable quicksands or gulfs on 
the Mediterranean coast of Africa, known by the name of the GrecUer and 
Smaller Syrtis (now the gulfs of Sidra and Cabe*)^ as to the sandy coast 
tying along the same. (Compare Orelli, ad loc.)—6. Iiikospiialem Can- 
sasum. The name Caucasus was applied to the ridge of mountains be- 
tween the Euxine and the Caspian Seas. The epithet inkospita!^m re 
fers to the dreary solitude, and the fierce wild beasts with which it wai 
supposed to abound. 

7*13. 7. Vd qu<t loca, <fcc. ** Or through those regions which the Hy 
daapea* source of many a fable^ aves " The epithet /a^w/osus refers tc 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ^BOOK ty ODE XXII. jSUl 

(he ■b'aHge accoants which were circnlated respecting this liver^ its gold 
en sands, che monsters inhabiting its waters, &c. The Hydaspes, no^ 
the Fylum, is one of the five eastern tributaries of the Indns, which, b} 
their union, form the Punjnub^ while the region which they traverse is de 
nominated the Punjdb, or country of the five livers.;— 9. Namque. Equiv- 
alent to the Greek koI yap. Supply the ellipsis as follows : ** And this 1 
have plainly learned firom my own csLBe,for" &c. — Silva in Sabina. Hc 
refers to a wood in the vicinity of his Sabine farm. — 10. Ultra terminunk 
** Beyond my usual limit." — 11. Curis expedUis. " With all my cares dis 

elled." Some read curis expeditus, " frep<^ from cares." — 12. Incrmem 

Though unarmed." 

12-17. \^. Militaris Daumas. " Warlike Daunia." Daunias ish^r^ 
the Greek form of the nominative. The Daunii were situate along the 
northern coast of Apulia. The Apulians, like the Marsi, were famed for 
their valor among the nations of Italy. — 14. Juba tellus. "The land of 
/uba." Mauritania is meant. The allusion is to the second or ypnngef 
Juba, who had been replaced on his father's throne by Augustus. — 17 
Pone me pigris^ &c. "Place me where no tree is refreshed, in torpid 
plains," &,c., t. e., in the torpid or frozen regions of the north. For the 
connection between this and the previous portion of the ode, consult the 
introductory remarks. The poet alludes in this stanza to what is termed 
at the present day the frozen zone, and he describes it in accordance with 
the general belief of his age. The epithet pigris refers to the plains of 
the north, lying sterile and uncultivated by reason of the excessive coi-^. 
Modem observations, however, assign two seasons to this distant quarter 
of the globe : a long and rigorous winter, succeeded, often suddenly, hy 
insupportable heats. The power of the solar beams, though feeble, from 
the obliquity of their direction, accumulates during the days, which artt 
extremely long, and produces effects which might be expected only in th<) 
torrid zone. The days for several months, though of a monotonous mag- 
nificencei astonishingly accelerate the growth of vegetation. In thre^ 
days, or rather three times twent>'-four hours, the snow is melted, and 
the flowers begin to blow. {Malte-Briin, Geogr., vol. i., p. 418.) 

19-32. 19. Quod latus mundi, dec. "In that quarter of the world, 
which clouds and an inclement sky continually oppress." Complete the 
sentence as follows : In eo latere mundi, quod latus mundit d:c. — 21. Nim- 
ium propinqui. " Too near the earth." Understand terris. — 22. Domt" 
bus negata. "Denied to mortals for an abode." Most of the ancient* 
conceived that the heat continued to increase from the tropic toward the 
equator. Hence they concluded that the middle of the zone was nnin- 
habital'le. It is now, however, ascertained that many circumstances 
flombine to establish even there a temperature that is supportable. The 
eloods; the great rains , the nights naturally very cool, their duration b« 
Ing equal to that of the days ; a strong evaporation ; the vast expanse of 
the sea ; the proximity of very high mountains, covered with perpetual 
enow ; the trade-winds, and the periodical inundations, equally contribute 
to diminish the heat. This is the reason why, in the torrid zone, we meet 
irith all kinds of climates. The plains are burned up by the heat of the 
•un. All the eastern coasts of the great continents, fanned by the trade 
W9nA% enjoy a mild temperature. The elevated districts are «^veti etti} 



2W BXPLANATOBY NOTES. BOOK I.« ODE XXIV. 

the ▼alley ol' QMJto u always green ; and perhaps the interiur of A friu 
contains more than one region which natiure has gifted with the sum 
privilege. {Malte-Brun^ Geogr., vol. i., p 416.) 



Odm XXIII. The poet advises Chlbe, now ofnabile years, no longer to 
eUow her parent li^e a timid fawn, alarmed at every whispering breest 
■nd nutling of the wood, bat to make a proper retom to the affection of 
•ne whom she had uo occasion to view with feelings of alarm. 

1-10. 1. Hinnvleo. The term hinnuleus is here useJ for hinniilui. — 
Pavidam. Denoting the alarm of the parent for the absence of her off- 
<^ing. — AvitM, "Lonely." — 5. Veprii. The common reading is verii 
instead of veprit, and in the next line adveniut instead of ad vtnJtwm. Th« 
one which we have adopted is given as a conjectural emendation by Bent- 
ley, though claimed for others before him. Great difficulties attend the 
commop reading. In the first place, the foliage of the trees is not sofii 
ciently pot forth in the commencement of spring to justify the idea of its 
being ^turbed by the winds ; secondly, the yousg fawns do not follow 
the parent animal antU the end of this season, or the beginning of June *. 
and, in the third place, it is very suspicious Latinity to say ad»€ntu$ veru 
inhorruit foliist since more correct usage would certainly require /o/iVi 
inkorrtieruni adventu verts. — 6. Inhorruit. " Has rustl^." — 10. Gmlvr 
luive leo. That part of Africa which the ancients denoininated Getuli^ 
appears to answer in some measure to the modem Bdad-d-Djerid.^ 
Frangere. This verb has here the meaning of " to rend," or '* tear iv 
pieces," as dyvwai is sometimes employed in Greek. 



Odk XXIV. The poet seeks to comfort Virgil for the loss of their mu 
Vaal friend. The individual to whom the ode alludes was a native of Ore* 
mona, and appears to have been the same with the Q,uinctiliu8 of whom 
Horace speaks in the Epistle to th§ Pisos (v. 438). 

1-7. 1. Desiderio tarn cart capitis. "To our regret for the loss of so 
dear an individual." The use of caput in this clause is analogous to that of 
tu^^ij and Kapa in Greek. — 2. Pracipe Ivgubres cantns. ** Teach me the 
strains of woe." Literally, " precede me in the strains of woe." — 3. Mel- 
pomene. One of the Muses, here invoked as presiding over the funeral 
-dirge, but elsewhere the muse of Tragedy. — Liquidam vocetn. ** A clear 
and tuneful voice." — Paler. The Muses were the daughters of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. — 5. Ergo Quinctilium. The muse here commences the 
funeral dirge. — 7. Nudaque Veritas. " And undisguised Truth." An a) 
Isjitm to the sincerity that characterized his thoughts and actions. 

11-16. 11. Tufrustra pins, Ac. "Thou, alas! fruitlessly displaying 
a pious affection, dost ask the gods for duinctilias, not on such terms in« 
trusted to their care." The meaning is this : When with vows and prayen 
thou didst intrust Q^uinctilius to the care of the gods as a sacred deposite. 
^n didst not expect that he would be so soon taken away by a cm^ 
fate. Thy pious affection, therefore, has proved altogether unavailing 
and it has not been allowed thee to obtain him bask again from the gudf 



EXPLAW/TORY NOTES. — ^BOUK I., ODE XXVI. 299 

OreUi, ad loc.) — 13. Buindius moderere, " Thou rale with mure porsua 
live melody." Observe the employment of the subjunctive here, and alsc 
in redeat. The meaning is, that even if there be a possibility of hli ruling 
or swaying the lyre more sweetly than Orpheus, still there is no possibil- 
ity of his friend's being restored to existence. The allusion is to the le- 
gend of Orpheus and Eurydice. — 16. Virga horrida. ** With his gloomy 
wand." Alluding to the cadnceus. The epithet horrida regards iti 
dreaded influence over the movements of departed shades, as they pass on- 
ward to the fatal river. — 17. Non leniSf &c. " Not gentle enough to opea 
the fatal portals in compliance with our prayers," t. e., sternly refusing to 
change the order of the fates, Ac. Lenu recludere^ a Grsecism for lenis ad 
redudendum. 



Ode XXVI. In praise of ^lius Lamia, a Roman of ancient and iliua 
trious family, and distinguished for his exploits in the war with the Can> 
iabri. The bard, wholly occupied with the Muses and his friend, con8i,^n8 
every other thought to the winds. As regards the Lamian line, consult 
notes on Ode iii., 17. 

2-5. 2. Mare Creticum. The Cretan, which lay to the north of the 
island of Crete, is here put for any sea. — 3. Poriare. " To waft them." 
— • Quis sub ArclOf dec. "By whom the monarch of a frozen region be 
neath the northern sky is feared," &c., t. e., by what people, &c. The 
present ode appears to have been written at the time when Phrahates, 
king of Parthia, had been dethroned by his subjects for his excessive 
cruelty, and Teridates, who headed a party against him, appointed in his 
stead. Phrahates fled for succor to the Scythians, and a monarch of that 
nation was now on his march to restore him. The king of the frozen re- 
gion is therefore the Scythian invader, and the people who fear his ap 
proach are the Parthians with Teridates at their head. Dio Cassius in« 
forms us that Phrahates was reinstated in his kingdom, and that Teridates 
<led into Syria. Here he was allowed to remain by Augustus, who obtain- 
ed from him the son of Phrahates, and led the young prince as a hostage 
to Rome. This son was subsequently restored to the father, and the 
standards taken by the Parthians from Crassus and Antony were deliv 
ered iu exchange. (Compare Dio Cassius, 51, 18, vol. i., p. 649, ed. Reim 
Justin., 42, 5.) Strabo, hov/ever, states that the son of Phrahates was le 
ceived as a hostage from tir e father himself) and along with him sons and 
grandsons {izaldag Kal iraiSuv iraidag. Strab., 6, extr.). Compare with 
this the language of Suetonius {vU. Aug., 43), who speaks of the hostages 
of the Parthians (** Parthorum obsides"). — Unice securus. "Utterly re 
gardlest." 

<J-11. 6. Fontibusintegris. " The pure fountains." 3y the fontes in- 
legri lyric poetry is designated, and the poet alludes to the circumstance 
if his having been the first of his countrymen that had refreshed the litera- 
tore of Rome with the streams of lyric verse. Hence the invocation of 
the mase. — 6. Apricos nectefiores. "Entwine the sunny flowers." By 
apti^ Jlores are meant flowers produced in sunny spots, and therefore 
of tweeter fragrance and brighter hue. These " sunny flowers" anJ 
the chaplet whicli they f jrm are flgurative expressions, and mean sim 



oUO KXPLANATORY NOTES BOOK 1., ODE XXVIf. 

nly a lyric eflPasion. The miue is solicited to aid th« bard in celebradoi 
the praises of his friend. — PimplH. The Mases were called Pimpleidet 
fmm PimplAa, a town and foontain of Pieria, sacred to these goddesses 
Orpheus was said to have been bom here. — ^9. Nil tine te met,' Ac, 
''' Without thy favoring aid, the honors which I have received can prove 
of no avail in celebrating the praises of others." By the term konoret 
the poet alludes to the reputation he has gained for his successful cul- 
tivation of lyric verse. — 10. Fidiims novi*. ** In new strains." t. «.. in 
lyric verse. Hence the bard speaks of himself as the first that bad adapt 
id the iEolian strains to Italian measures {Ode iii., 30, 13). — 11. Lesbte 
fiectro. ** On the Lesbian lyre." The plectrum^ or quill, is here ttkeu 
figuratively for the lyre itself. Compare Ode i., 1, 34. This verse is ob- 
jdction^ble in point of rhythm, and is the only instance of the kind in 
Horace*. On all other occasions, if the fourth syllable of the minor alcais 
end in a word, that word is a monosyllalle. Compare Lachmannt ap 
Prank., p. 239. — Sacrare. " To consecrate to immortal fame." 



Ode XXVII. The poet is supposed to be present at a festal party 
where the guests, warming under the influence of wine, begin to break 
forth into noisy wrangling. He reproves them in severe terms for conduct 
BO foreign to a meeting of friends, and, in order to draw off their attention 
to other and more pleasing subjects, he proposes the challenge in vorie 
loth, on which the rest of the ode is made to turn. 

1-6. 1. NeUis in tuum, &c. " Over cups made for joyous purposes." 
The scyphus was a cup of rather large dimensions, used both on festal oe 
casions, and in the celebration of sacred rites. Like the cantkarus, it was 
sacred to Bacchus. — 2. Thraeum est. Compare note on Ode i., 18, 9. — 
3. Verecundum. ** Foe to excess." Equivalent here to m(7itcum. — 5. Ft- 
no et lucernis, A:c. " It is wonderful how much the dagger of the Parthian 
is at variance with nocturnal banquets," literally, " with wine and lights." 
Immane quantum is analogous to the Greek havfiaarbv 6aov. Vino and 
lucemis are datives, put by a Ormcism for the ablative with the preposi- 
tion a. — Modus. Compare 0<2e i., 2, 51. — Acinaces. The term is of Per- 
sian origin. The acinaces was properly a small dagger in use among tbe 
Persians, and borrowed from them by the soldiers of later ages. It was 
worn' at the side. Hesychius, in explaining the word, calls it 66pv Tleo' 
jixovt ^i^oC' Buidas remarks : aKtvaKTjgt fiiKpov dopv IlepaiKdv, and 
Pollux (1, 138), UepaiKov ^Kpidiov ti, t^ /^vp<t> TrpogijpTv^hfov. This last 
eomes nearest the true explanation as given above. — 6. Impittm clamo 
rem. The epithet impius has here a particular reference to the violation 
of the ties and duties of fi-iendship, as well as to the profanation of the 
table, which was always regarded as sacre d by the ancients. 

8-8. 8. Cubito remanete presso. " Remain with the elbow pressed oi 
(the couch," t. e., stir not from your places. Alluding to the ancient ci* 
torn of reclining at their meals. — 9. Severi Falerni. All writers agree la 
describing tbe Falemian wine as very strong and durable^ and so rco^fa 
m its recent state that it could not be drunk with pleasure, but rfMjuirci! 
to be kept a great number of years before it was sufficiently n:oIk»T 
7or fartnei remarks on this wine consult Exenrsus VIII. 



fiXPLAN ATORl NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXV HI. 3(li 

•-14. 10. OpuntuB. So called from Opus, the capital of tihe Opon 
ftEn Locri in Greece, at the northern extremity of Bceotia.^-lS. Ces8€A 
nolufUas. ** Does inclination hesitate ?" t. e,, dont thou hesitate so to do I 
•-^^on alia biham mercede, "On no other condition will I drink."— 14 
Qtue ie eunque &c. An encominm well calculated to remove the bashfn. 
veierve of the yoath. The whole sentenco may be paraphrased as foi 
lows : '* Whoever the fair object may be that sways thy bosbm, she csnsei 
it to hem with a flame at which thoa hast no occasion to blash, fo* thou 
always indnlgest in an honorable love." The allusion m ingemto nmort 
!■ to a female of free birth, as opposed to a slave or freed-woman. 

19-S3. 18. Ah miser ! The exclamation of the poet when the secret 
is divulged. — 19. Quanta laborabast kc. "In how fearful a Charybdis 
WASt thou struggling !" The passion of the youth is compared to the dan- 
gers of the fabled Charybdis, and henoe the expression Quanta laborabas 
Chary bdi is equivalent in effect to Quam pericuJosam tibipuellam ama- 
bas. — 21. Thessalig venenis, Thessaly was remarkable for producing na 
merous herbs that were used in the magical rit^ of antiquity. — 23. Viz 
illigatum^ &c. " (Even) Pegasus will hardly extricate thee, entangled by 
this three-shaped ChimsBra." A new comparison is here made, by which 
the female in question is made to resemble the fabled CbimoBra. This 
animal, according to the legend, was a lion in the fore part, a serpeat in 
the hinder part, and a goat in the middle ; and it also spouted forth fire 
It was destroyed, however, by Bellerophon mounted oo the winged steed 
Pegasus. 



OoK XXVIII. The objrct of the present ode is to enforce the useful 
lesson, that we are all subject to the power of death, whatever may be 
our station in life, and whatever our talents and acquirements. The dia- 
logue form is adopted for this purpose, and the parties introduced are a 
mariner and the shade of Archytas. The former, as he is travelling along 
the shore of Southern Italy, discovers the dead boily of the philosopher, 
which had been thrown up by the waves near the town of Matinum, on 
the Apolian coast. He addresses the corpse, and express its his surprise 
that so illustrious an individual could not escape from the Uominiou of the 
grave. At the seventh verse th0 shade replies, and continues on until tho 
end of the ode. "Be not surprised, O manner, at beholding me in this 
stattj,*' exclaims the fallen Pythagoreau- " Death has selected far nobler 
victims. Bestow the last sad o^ces on my remains, and so shall prosper 
VfQS fortune crown your every effort. If« on the contrary, you make light 
■f my request, expect not to escape a just retribution." 

lie ode would appear, &om its general complexion, to have been imi- 
'AiAi ^m the Greek. 

2 . Ti maris et terra^ &c. The order of construction is as follows : " Par 
M Itinera exigui pulveris (negata tibi) cohiherU te. See. " The scanty 
inrasent of a little dust (denied to tby remains) confines thee," &c. The 
•lUpsis o£ negata tibi mast be noted, though required more by the idiom 
»f our own than by that of the Latin tongue. According to the populal 
belief^ if a corpse were deprived of the rites of sepulture, the shade of tht 
fiwieuaed was compelled to wander for a bandied y^ars either aro^n/1 tbs 



30!^ IXPLANATOKY NOTiSS. BOOK I. ODB XXV If I 

dead body or along the banks of the Styx. Hem e the pecaliar p.'D|ii;etf 
tt eohibeiU in the present patiagc. In order to obviate ao lamentable a 
reaalt, it was esteemed a most solemn daty for every one who chanced tc 
encounter an anburied corpse to pe'.form the last sad offices to it. tiprifik 
ling dust or sand three times upuu the dead body was esteemed ampiv 
sufficient for every purpose. Hence the language of the text. **pulveru 
txigui parva munera" Whoever neglected this injunction of religioa 
was compelled to expiate his crime by sacrificing a S3w to Ceres. Borne 
aditors maintain that pulveris exigui parva munera is a mere circumlo 
eation for locui exiguiutt and that cohibenl is only the compound used for 
ttie simple verb. Hence, according to these commentators, the meaning 
will be, " A small spot of earth now holds thee," &c. This mode of ex 
plaining, however, appears stiff and unnatural. — Maris et terra mensa- 
rem. Alluding to the geometrical knowledge of Archytas. — Numeroqvt 
carentit aterue. The possibility of calculating the number of tl e graikj 
of sand was a favorite topic with the ancient mathematicians. Arcbime- 
des has left us a work on this subject, entitled b 'fafifiir^c {Arenariut)^ in 
which he proves that it is possible to assign a number greater than that 
of the grains of sand which would fill the sphere of the fixed stars. Thia 
singular investigation was suggested by an opinion which some persona 
had expressed, that the sands on the shores of Sicily were either infinity 
or, at least, would exceed any numbers which could be assigned for them 
and the success with which the difficulties caused by the awkward and 
imperfect notation of the ancient Greek arithmetic are eluded by a device 
identical in principle with the modern method of logarithms, affords one 
of the most striking instances of the genius of Archimedes. 

S-7. 2. Arekyta. Archytas was a native of Tarentum, and distinguish 
ed as a philosopher, mathematician, general, and statesman, and was no 
leas admired for his integrity and virtue both in public and private life. He 
was contemporary with Plato, whose life he is said to have saved by bit 
influence with the tyrant Dionysius. He was seven times the general 
of his native city, though it was the custom for the office to be held for no 
more than one year; and he commanded in several campaigns, in all of 
which he was victorious. As a philosopher, he belonged to the Pytha« 
gorean school, and, like the Pythagoreans, paid much attention to mathe- 
matics. He was also extremely skillful as a mechanician, and construct- 
ed various machines and automatons, among which his wooden flying 
dove in particular was the wonder of antiquity. He perished in a ship 
wreck on the Adriatic. — 3. Matinum. Some difference of opinion exists 
with regard to the position of this place. D'Anville makes the Matiniao 
■bore to have been between Callipolis and the lapygian promontory od 
the Tarentine Gulf; and the town of Matinum to have lain some little 
distance inland. Later investigations, however, place Mitincm, and  
mountain called Mons Matinus, in Apulia, near the promoiitory of Gargft- 
mom, and northeast of Sipontum. — 5. Aerias tentasse domos^ ice. '* To have 
essayed the ethereal abodes." Alluding to the astronomical knowledge 
of the philosopher. — Rotundum polum. " The round heavens."— 6. Mt^t'i 
turo. " Since death was to be thy certain doom." — 7. Pclopis genltoi 
Tantalus. — Conviva deorum, " Though a guest of the gods." The com 
mon mythology ncakes Tantalus to ha'^'e been the entertainer, not the 
fuest, of the goes, and tc have sen^d up his own son as a bnnqnct u, or 



£X?LANATO&Y NOTES. BOOK 1., ODE XX VII I. 30S 

der tfj test their divinity. Horace follows the earlier fable, by which Tan 
talas is represented as honored with a seat at the table of the gods, aao 
as having incurred their displeasure by imparting nectar and ambrosia tc 
mortals. {Pind., Olymp^ i., 98, seqq.) 

8-14. 8. Tithonusque remolus in auras, 'And Tithonus, thoagh^ 
translated to the skies." An allusion to the fable of Tithonus and Aurora. 
«— 9. ilrcanu. Understand' confit/tis. — Minos, In order to gain more rev* 
eren^e for the laws which he promulgated, Minos pretended to have had 
•ecret conierences with Jove respecting them. — 10. Panihoiden. ** The 
ion of Panthous." Euphorbus is here meant in name, but Pythagoras in 
reality. The philosopher taught the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, 
and is scid to have asserted that he himself had animated various bodies, 
and had been at one time Euphorbus the Trojan. To prove bis identitj^ 
with the son of Panthous, report made him to have gone into the Temple 
of Juno at or near Mycenae, where the shield of Euphorbus had been pre 
served among other offerings, and to have recognized and taken it down 
•^Iterum Oreo deiKissum. Alluding to the doctrine of the transmigration 
of souls. — 11. Clypeo rejixo. " By the sbieid loosened from the wall of the 
temple." — 13. Nervos atque cutem. " His sinews and skin," i. e., his body. 
—14. Judice te, &c. " Even in thine own estimation, no mean expounder 
of nature and truth." These words are addressed by the shade of Archy 
tas to the mariner, not by the latter to Archytas, and they are meant tc 
indicate the widespread reputation of Pythagoras as a Natural and Moral 
Philosopher, since his name had become so well known as to be even in 
the mouths of the lower classes. In this explanation, Doring, Orelli, Brann- 
hard, Dillenburger, and most other commentators agree. Some read me, 
ipplying the remark to the speaker himself, but without any necessity 

15-8S. 15. Una nox. This expression, and also semd immediately 
after, contain nothing inconsistent with the Pythagorean tenets, since 
ihey merely regard the end or limit of each particular transformation. — 
18. Avidum mare. "The gre.edy ocean." Some editions read avidis 
<** greedy after gain") as agreeing with nautts. This, however, would 
Imply a censure on the very individual from whom the favor of a burial ife 
supposed to be asked. — 19. Mixta senum, &c. " The intermingled funer- 
als of the old and young are crowded together." Densentur is from den 
.leo, 'trCt an old verb, used by Lucretius, and after him by Virgil and Pliny 
The common text has densantury from denso, -are. — Nullum caput, &e 
**No head escapes the stem Proserpina." An hypallage for nullum 
taput fugii savam Proserpinam. The ancients had a belief that no one 
oonld die unless Proserpina, or Atropos her minister, cut a lock of bail 
(torn, the head. The idea was evidently borrowed from the analogy of ani- 
mal sacrifices, in which the hair cut from the front, or firom between the 
horns of the victims, was regarded as the first offering. Compare Virgil^ 
^n., iv., c98, seq. — ^21. Devexi Orionis. "Of the setting Orion." The 
tetting of this star was always accompanied by tempestuous weather. 
It took place on the fifth day before the Ides of November, or, according 
to our mode of expression, on the ninth of the month. — 22. Illyricis undis. 
** Amid the Illyrian waters." The allusion is to the Adriatic Sea in gen- 
oral. The Ulyrians, besides their settlements on the northeastern shorec 
sf the Adriatic, had at one time extended themselves as far as Ar<K.a.i 
nn the coast of Italy 



804 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1. ODE XXIX. 

83-35. 23. Ne parce malignus dare. ** Do not ankindly refine to h^ 
■tow. —24. Capiti inhumaio. Observe the apparent hiatal henft, ui 
reality, however, no hiatoa whatever takes place between the two worda^ 
bat one of the two component short vowels in the final syllable of eapiti 
is elided before the initial vowel of the next word, and the remaining one 
is then lengthened by tlie arsis. There is no need, therefore, of oar read- 
ing inlumulalo with some editors. — 25. Sic. ** So," t. e., if yon do so, ot 
on this condition. — ^26. Fluetihut HesperiU. "The western waves." The 
•eas aroond Italy, which country was called Hesperia by the Greeks. — 
Venusina piectarUur iilva. " May the V enasian woods be lashed by it.'* 
-28. Unde potest. Equivalent to a guibus hoe^eri potest^ ** For they ara 
able to enrich thee." In construing, place unde potest at the end of the 
sentence. — ^29. Sacri eustode Neptuni. Neptune was the tutelary dei^ 
of Tarentum. — Negligis immerito^ dec. "Dost thou make light of com* 
mitting a crime which will prove injarions to thy unoffending posterity f * 
The crime here alluded to is the neglecting to perform the last sad oflloef 
to the shade of Amhytas.— 31. Postmodo ie natis. Equivalent to nepott 
bus. Te is riere the ablative, depending on ncUis. — Fors et debitajurot 
&c. *' Perhaps both a well-merited punishment and a haughty retribu 
tion may be awaiting thee thyself." — 33. Inultis. ** Unheard." Literal 
ly, "unavenged." — 35. Licebit injeetOt &c. "Thou mayest run on aftei 
having thrice cast dust on my remains." Three handfuls of dust were oo 
Buch an occasion sufficient for all the purposes of a burial. 



Ode XXIX. The poet, having learned that his friend Iccias had aban 
doned the study of phibsophy, and was turning his attention to deeds of 
arms, very pleasantly rallies him on this sti'ange metamorphosis. 

1-5. 1. Beatis gazis. " The rich treasures." Bealus is often used, ai 
in the present instance, for dives^ from the idea of happiness which the 
crowd associate with the possession of wealth. — Nunc. Emphatical, re* 
ferring to his altered course of life. — Arabum. Augustus, A.U.C. 730 
(which gives the date of the present ode), sent ^lius Gallus, prasfect <A 
Egypt, with a body of troops against Arabia Felix. The expeditioi\ 
proved unsuccessful, having failed more through the difficuldes which thi 
coantry and climate presented than from the desultory attkck# of the un 
disciplined enemy. It was in this army that Iccius would seem to have 
bad a command. — Sab€ea. Sabsea, a part of Arabia Felix, is here put fv 
the whole region. The Sabcsi would seem lo have occupied what cor 
responds to the northernmost part of the modern Yemen. — HornbUiqut 
ii&io. "And for the formidable Parthian." It is more than probable^ 
from a comparison of Ode i., 12, 56, and i., 35, 31, with the present passage, 
Ihat Augustus intended the expedition, of which we have been speaking, 
not eaerely for Arabia Felix, but also for the Parthians and Indi. — 5. Nectu 
yttenas A pleasant allusion to the fetters in which Iccius, already vio 
torious in imagination, is to lead his captives to Rome. — Qu^e virginum 
harbara. " What barbarian virgin." A Grecism for quie virgo barbara 

7-15. 7. Puer quis ex aula. Equivalent to quis puer regius. The 
feefm avrla may rofer to the royal court either of the Arab'aiis or the Par 
d4ians —8. 4d et/atkum statuetur. "Shall stand as t*»y cufi-hearer' 



fiXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1., ODE XXXi, 302 

€itei*a/ly, "shall bo placed/' &c. — ^9 DoctVA tendere. "Skilled in aim 
ing." A Grsecism. — Sericas. The Seres were famed for their manage 
ment of the bow. The reference here, however, is not so mach to these 
people in particular as to the Eastern nations in general. In relation tc 
tbe Seres, compare Explanatory Note, Ode i., 12, 56. — 11. Rdabi posx. 
** Can glide back." In this sentence, montihus is the dative by a Ghne 
ciim. Prose Latinity would require ad monies. Some make mtnUUms the 
mblative, with which they join proiu>$ in the sense of decurrentes. This 
arrangement is decidedly inferior to the one first given. As regards the 
idea intended to be conveyed, it may be observed, that the poet compares 
wu friend's abandonment of graver studies for the din of arms to a UAtk 
•Iteration of the order of nature. The expression appears to be a pro- 
verbial Cine, and is evidently borrowed from the Greek. — 12. Revet ti, 
'* Return in its course " — 13. Coemtos undique. ** Bought up on all sides.'' 
A pleasant allusion to his friend's previous ardor in philosophic pursuita 
--'4. PawBti, FanaBtins, a native of Rhodes, holds no mean rank among 
cb? Stoic philosophers of antiquity. He passed a considerable part of hia 
life at Rome, and enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with several eminent 
Romans, particularly Scipio and LsbHus. Cicero highly extols his moral 
doctrine in his treatise " De Officiis." Toward the end of his life Panss' 
tins removed to Athens, where he died. — SocrtUicam et domum. " And 
the writings of the Socratic schooU" Alluding to the philosophical invea- 
tigaHons of Plato, Xenophon, iEschines, and others. — 15. Loricia IberU 
The Spanish coats of mail obtained a decided preference among the Ro 
mans, from the excellence of the metal and its superior temper. Com- 
pare Shakspeare : " It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper :" Othd^ 
lo. v., 11, referring to the blades of Toledo. 



Ode XXX. Venus is invoked to grace with her presence, and witi 
that of her attendant retinue, the temple prepared for her at the home ot 
Glycera. 

1-8. 1. Cnidi. Cnidus was a Dorian city, on the coast of Caria, at the 
extremity of the' promontory of Triopium. Venus was the tutelary god 
dess of the place. — Paphique. Paphos was a very ancient city of Cyprus, 
on the southwestern side of the island. It was famed for the worship of 
Venus, who was fabled to have been wafted from Cythera to the coast in 
its vicinity afker her birth amid the waves. — 2. Sperne. " Look with con- 
tempt on," i. e., leave. — 3. Decoram. " Adorned for thy reception." — 5 
ftrvidus puer. Cupid. — Solutis zonis. Indicative, as Braunhard re- 
marks, oi^riegligeiUia amabilis." — 7. Parum comis sine te. " Little able 
to please without thee." Observe the inverted form of expression, fof 
'* deriving additional attractions from thee." — Juventas. The goddess of 
TOfuth, or Hebe, who appears also in the train of Venus in the Homeric 
H^mn to Apollo, v. 195. — 8. Mercuriusque. Mercury is enumerated 
among the retinue of Venus, in allusion to his being the god ot languaga 
and pGrBnaeive eloquence. 



Ods XXXI. The poet raises a prayer to AjoUo on tlie daj when Aa 
gditus dedicated a temple to this doity on the Palatint Bill. Stawlina 



306 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XXXI. 

amid the crowd of worshippers, each of whom is offering up some petition 
to the {^d, the bard i8 supposed to break forth on a sudden with the abrupt 
inquiry', " What does the poet (t. e., what do I) &sk of Apollo on the dedi- 
cation of his temple ?" His own repl}- succeeds, disclaiming all tliat tho 
world considers essential to happiness, and ending with the simple and 
beautiful prayer for the ^^mens aana in corpore sano." 

1-8. 1. Dedicatum, *' On the dedication of his temple." — 2. Novum 
Uquorem, It was customary to use wine of the same 3'ear*s make in liba- 
tions to the gods. Compare Peiron., c. 130 : *' Spumabit pateris homus 
liquor." — 1. Sardinia, Sardinia was famed for its fertilit}-, which com- 
pensated in some degree for its unhealthy climate. —jSej^etex. ^'Har- 
vests.'* — 5. Grata amenta, **The iine herds," — ^stuosa Calabria, 
** Of the sunny Calabria." Calabria, in Southern Italy, was famed for its 
mild climate and excellent pastures. — 6. Ebur Indicum, The ivorj' of 
India formed one of the most costly instruments of Roman luxur}-. Com- 
pare Virgilj Georg.^ i„ 67 : '^^ India mUtit ebur." — 7, Liris. This river, 
now the Garigliano^ rises in the Apennines, and falls into the Tuscan 
Sea near Minturn«. The Liris, after the southern bonndarj' of Latium 
was extended below the Circsean Promontory, separated that re^on from 
Campania. Subsequently, however, the name of Latium was extended 
to the mouth of the Yultnrnus und the Massio Hills. (Compare Cramer^s 
Ancient Italy ^ vol. ii., p. 11, and the authorities there cited.)— 8. Mordet, 
** Undermines" or ** eats away.** 

9-16. 9. Premanf. ** Let those prune " — Catena fdlce. An allusion 
to the Falernian vineyards. Compare note on Ode i,, 20, 9. — 11. Exnc^ 
cet. Equivalent to d>ibat, " Let the rich trader drain " — CuluUis, The 
culullua was properly of baked earth, and was used in sacred rites by the 
pontiiices and vestal virgins. Here, however, the term is taken in a gen- 
eral sense for any cup. — 12. Syra reparata merce, ' ' Obtained in exchange 
for Syrian wares." B}' Sj'rian wares are meant the aromatic products of 
Arabia and the more distant East, brought first to the coast of Sj-ria by 
the overland trade, and shipped thence to the western markets. — 16. C»- 
chorea. ** Endives." The term cichoreum (jaxopeta or Ktxcjptov) is, 
strictly speaking, confined to the cultivated species of Intuhum or Inty- 
hum. The wild sort is called oipig by the Greeks, and answers to our 
bitter succorj'. The name cichoreum is of Coptic or Eg^-ptian origin, the 
plant itself having been brought from Egypt into Europe The appella- 
tion Endive comes from the barbarous word endivia, used in the Middle 
Ages, and an evident corruption as well of the Arabic hendib as of the 
classical intybum. (Compare Fee^ Flore de Virgile^ p. 70, 71. Martyn 
ad Virg.^ Georg.y i., 120.) — Levesque malvcB, "And mallows, easy of di- 
gestion." Compare Orelli; ^^ stomachum non gravantes, jacUe conco- 
quendtB." Dioscorides (ii.. Ill) and Tkeopkrastus({.yd) both designate 
mallows as aliment : the first of these two authors speaks of the garden 
mallows as preferable, in this respect, to the uncultivated kind, from 
which it may be fairlj' inferred that several species of this plant were 
used as articles of food. The Greek name of the mallows {jLLa?iuxv)i ^^om 
which both the Latin and English arc said to be deduced, has reference 
to their medicinal properties- It is formed from pakdooUj " to soften," 
&o. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK L, ODE XXXIV. 307 

^7-20. 17. Prui paratis, &c. " Son < f Latona, give me, I pray, to en- 
joy my present possessions, being, at the same time, both healthfal in 
i'rame and with a mind onimpaired by disease." Or, more freely, " Givo 
me a soimd mind \n a sound body, that I may enjoy, as they should be en- 
ioyed, the possessions which ai 3 mine." The expression dones miki vol- 
ido, iLCtfrui paratis^ is a GrsBcism for done$ ut ego validus, kc.,fnuir 
fkiratis. Compare, in relation to the idea here expressed, the weU-known 
line of Javenal (x., 356) : " Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpcre sotio.^ 
Compare also, in reference to the stnicture of the whole sentence, the ex 
planation of Dillenborger : " DtM voti Horatiani partes sunt : dones pre- 
wr et veUido miki et integra cum mente paratis fmi ; turn denes degere 
aenectam nee turpem nee cithara carentem, Hunc ordinem verborum ipse 
Horatius indicavit artificiose positis particulis, et . . . et, nee . . . nee." — 
19. Nee turpem senectam degeret &c. ** And to lead no degenerate old 
n^ f t -::i of the lyre," ». e., no old age unworthy of my present 

contentmeukr ~u«»««dvoid of the charms of poetry and music. {Osborne 
«jm2 loc.) 



Odk XXXII. The bard addresses his lyre, and blends with the address 
the praises of Alcseus. The invocation comes with a peculiar grace from 
one who boasted, and with truth, of having been the first to adapt the 
£oH.an strains to Italian measures. (Compare Ode iii., 30, 13.) 

1-15. 1. Poscimur. **We are called upon for a strain." Compare 
Ovidt Met., v., 333, "Poscimur, Aonides,*' The request probably came 
from Augustus or Maecenas. Bcntley reads Poscimus, which then becomes 
a part of the apostrophe to the lyre. — Si quid vctcui lusimus tecum. " If 
we have ever, in an idle moment, produced in unison with thee any sportive 
effusion." — 3. Die Latinum carmen, **Be responsive to a Latin ode." 
—5. Lesbio primum,&,c, "Attuned to harmony most of all by a Lesbian 
citizen." Primum is here equivalent to maxime. Horace assigns to 
Alcseus the merit of having brought lyric poetry to its highest state of 
perfection. — 6. Ferox bello. Understand quamvis. — 7. Udo litore, " On 
liie wave- washed shore." Supply «7t.— 9. Illi semper karentem. "Ever 
clinging to her side." — 14. Laborum dulce lenimen, " Sweet solace of 
toils." — 15. Miki cunque, &c. "Be propitious unto me whenever duly 
mvoking thee." Cunque for quandocunque. 



Ode XXXIV. Horace, a professed Epicurean, having heard thunder in 
a cloudless sky, abandons the tenets which he had hitherto adopted, tnd 
declares his belief in the superintending providence of the gods. Such, 
at least, ap;>ears to be the plain meaning of the ode. It is more than 
probable, however, that the poet merely wishes tc express his dissent 
from the Epicurean dogma which made the gods take no interest what- 
ever in the affairs of men. The argument employed for this purpose is 
trivial enough in reality, and yet tc an Epicurean of the ancient school i| 
Would carry no little weight along with it. Thus Lucrstius positively 
states that thunder in a serene and cloudless sky is a physical impoM' 

»illty : 

** Fuimina fntrm de crasi is, alUque, putandum esU 



808 EXPliANATU£y NOTES. — BOOK I.. ODB IHV 

Niihibus exsirucHt : nam cato nvUa gereno. 
Nee leeiter densis mittuntur nubibus unq^tatn.*' 

De R. N.t vi., '-^A s<vy> 

1-7. 1. ParcuB dearum^ &c. . The Bpicareans would appear unly tc 
bave oonformed to the outward ceremonies of religion, and that, tijo, in nt 
very strict or careful manner. The doctrine of their founder, after all th« . 
may be said in its praise, tended directly to atheism ; and there is strong 
reason to suspect that what he taaght concerning the gods was artfully 
designed to screen him from the odium and hazard which would have at* 
tended a direct avowal of atheism. — 2. Insanie,Uis dum phUotophue, &c. 
" While I wander from the true path, imbued with the tenets of a Tisioo- 
ary philosophy." The expression insanientU iapientue (literally, ''an 
unwise system of wisdom") presents a pleasing oxymoron, and is levelled 
directly at the philos'jphy of Epicurus. Consultus is here equivalent to 
versatus in doctrine^ as in the expression j'tcm consultus. Compare Ltv., 
X., 22: "Juri» atque doquentia con8uUu8."^-4. Iterare cursus rdictot, 
**To return to the course which X had abandoned." Heinsius proposes 
relectos for relictos^ which Bentley advocates and receives into his text. 
— 5. Diespiter. " The father of light." Japiter. — T.Perpurum. "Through 
a cloudless sky." Understand caium. Thunder in a cloudless sky was 
ranked among prodigies* 

9-14. 9. Bruta tdlut. By the " brute earth" is meant, in the language 
of commentators, " terra qum sinesensu immotaet gravis manet*' — -10. /»- 
viii horrida Tanari sedes. The promontory of Taenaras, forming the south- 
ernmost projection of t!ie Peloponnesus, was remarkable for a cave in ita 
vicinity, said to be one of the entrances to the lower world, and by which 
Hercules dragged Cerberus to the regions of day. — 11. Atlanteusque finis. 
** And the Atlantdan limit," i. e., and Atlas, limit of the world. The an- 
cients believed this chain of mountains to be the farthest barrier to the 
west. — 12. Valet ima summisy Jtc. ** The deity is all powerful to change 
the highest things into the lowest." Literally, " to change the highest 
things by means of the lowest." Observe that summis is the instru 
mental ablative. — Attenuat. "Humbles." Literally, "weakens," or 
« makes feeble." The train of thought is as follows : Warned bj this 
prodigy, I no longer doubt the interposition of the gods in human aftairs ; 
nay, I consider the deity all-powerful to change things from the lowest to 
the highest degree, and to humble to the dust the man that now occupies 
the loftiest and most conspicuous station among his fellow-creaturea. — 
1 i. HiTic apicemt &c. " From the head of this one, Fortune, with a sharp, 
rushing sound of her pinions, bears away the tiara in impetuous fligbki 
on tho head of that one she delights to have placed it." Sustulit is here 
taken in an aorist sense, as denoting what is usual or customary. As re- 
gards the term apicem, it may be remarked, that, though specially signify- 
ing the tiara of Eastern royalty, it has here a general reference to the 
crown or diadem of kings. 



Ode XXXV. Augustus, A.U.C. IZd, had levied two armies, the one 
Intended against the Britons, the other against the natives of Arabia Fe- 
\ix acd the East. The former -^f these was to be l^d by the emperor in 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODB XXXV. 301 

pefson. At this period the present ode is sappQsed to have been written 
It is an address to Fortune, and invokes her favoring influence for th€ 
ones of Augustus. 

The latter uf these two expeditions has already been treated of in ih€ 
Introductory Bemarks on the 29th ode of this book. The first only pro 
ceeded as far as Gaul, where its progress was arrested by the Britons 
■aing for peaoe^ and by the troubled state of Gallic affairs. The negotia 
lions, however, were subsequently broken off, and Augustus prepared 
•new for a campaign against the island ; but the rebellion of the Salassi, 
Cantabri, and Astures intervened, and the reduction of these tribes en- 
grossed the attention of the prince. (Compare Dio Cassiust 53, 22» and 
85, vol. i., p. 717 and 719, ed. Reim.) 

1-8. \. Antium. A city on the coast of Latium, the ruins of which arw 
DOW called Porto d'Anzo^ celebrated for its temple of Fortune. — 3. Prm- 
sens tollere. " That in an instant canst raise." By preesentes dd are meant 
those deities who are ever near at hand and ready to act. — 3. Vel super- 
doSf &c. " Or convert splendid triumphs into disasters.' Funeribus is 
the instrumental ablative.-^5. In this and the following line, we have 
adopted the punctuation recommended by Markland, viz., a comma after 
precet and another after ruriSf which latter word will then depend on dom 
inam understood, and the whole clause wiU then be equivalent to "pau 
per colonusy soUicita prece, ambit te, dominam ruris ; quicunque kicessit, 
<8cc., te dominam tequoris (ambit)." — Ambit soUicita prcce. " Supplicates 
in anxious prayer." — 7. BUhyna. Bithynia, in Asia Minor, was famed 
for its natural productions, which gave rise to a very active commerce be> 
tween this region and the capital of Italy. The expression in the text^ 
however, refers more particularly to the naval timber in which the coan- 
try abounded. — 8. Carpalhium pelagvs. A name applied to that part of 
the Mediterranean which lay between the islands of Carpathus and Crete 

9-13. 9. Dacus. Ancient Dacia corresponds to what is now, in a great 
measure, Wallachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, and that part of Hungary 
which lies to the east of the Teiss. — Profugi Scytha, " The roving Scytlb 
ians." The epithet profugi is here used with reference to the peculiu 
habits of this pastoral race, in having no fixed abodes, but dwelling in 
wagons. — 10. Latiumferox. "Warlike Latium." — 11. Regum barbaro- 
rum. An allusion to the monarchs of the East, and more particularly to 
Parthia. — 12. Purpurei Tyranni. "Tyrants clad in purple." — 13. Inju 
Hoso ne pedCt &c. " Lest with destructive foot thou overthrow the stand* 
ing column of affairs." The scholiast makes stantem columnam equiva> 
lent to proisentem felicitatemy and the allusion of the poet is to the exist- 
ing state of affairs among the Dacians, Scythians, and others mentioned 
In the text. A st and^ng column was a general symbol among the ancients 
cf public security. Some editions f lace a colon or period after tyrannic 
•nd the meaning tben is, ** Do not with destructive foot overthrow the 
•tanding oolumn of the empire," alluding to the durability of the Bomao 
■way. The interpretation first given, however, is decidedly preferable « 
the change in the latter is too sudden and abrupt. 

11-16. 14. Neu populus frequens, ice. *' Or lest the throngu/g popu 
lace arouse the inactive to anas ! to arms \ and destroy the public reiioffo ' 



810 EXILAJfATOBf NOTES. BOOK 1., ODE XXXV. 

The repetition of the phrase <m2 arma ia intended to express the red j ablet 
oatcries of an aj^tated throng, calling apon the dilatory and inactive M 
add themselves to their namher. Ck)mpare Ovidt Met^ xi. 377 : **€uncti 
eoeamus et arma^ Arma capessamus." The term imperium in this pas 
sage is equivalent merely to publicam qnietem^ or reipubliem itatum, tak 
ing respuldica in the general sense of ** government."— 17. Te semper an- 
tcitt &c. The id 3a intended to be conveyed is. that all things most yield 
to the power of Fortune. This is beantifully expressed in the language of 
(he text : ** Thee thy handmaid Necessity ever precedes." — Anteit mnn 
be pronounced antytt^ as a dissyllable, by synasresis. — 18. Clavos traba- 
/es. Necessity is here represented with all such appendages as may 
serve to convey the idea of firm and unyielding power. Thus she bears 
in her hand clavos trabales^ *' large spikes," like those employed for con 
nectirg closely together the timbers of an edifice. She is armed also 
with *' wedges," used for a similar purpose, not for cleaving asunder, as 
some elLplain it. lu like manner, the ** unyielding clamp" [severus uncus) 
makes its appearance, which serves to unite more firmly two masses of 
stone, while the ** melted lead" is required to secure the clamp in its bed 
Some eomme^tators erroneously regard the clavos trabaleSf dec, as instra 
nents of punishnrsut. 

31-29. 21. Te 8p*9 et alhc, &c. The idea which the poet wishes to 
-:onyey is, that Hope 'Uid Yidf lity are inseparable from Fortune. In othef 
words, Hope always «he**Ti le unfortunate with a prospect of better days 
to come, and a faithful fribnd only adheres the more closely to us under 
the pressure of adversity The epithet rara alludes to the paucity of true 
friends, while the expression a,"w vdata panno refers in a very beautifiil 
manner to the sincerity and caroor by which they arc always distinguish- 
ed. — 23. Utc'dnque mutata, Ac. "Whenever, clad in sordid vestments, 
thou leavest in anger the abodes ofth^ powerful." Prosperous fortune is 
arrayed in splendid attire, but when thj anger of the goddess is kindled, 
and she abandons the dwellings of the mfghty, she changes her fair vest' 
nients for a sordid garb. — 26. Cadis cumfiBce siccatis. " When the casks 
are drained to the very dregs." Faithlesr Heuds abandon us after ouv 
resources have been exhausted in gratifying thdr selfish cupidity. — 2f 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. A Graecism for do^.osiores quam ut ferani 
kc. " Too faithless to bear in common with us the yoke of adversity."— 
29. Ultimas orbis Britannos. In designating tho Pritons as **ultim(Xf 
orbis," Horace must be understood to speak more as a ooct th.vi a geog 
rapher, since the Romans of his day were well acquainted \r\tb the exist 
ence of Hibernia. It must be acknowledged, however, tnat it WM no nn 
common thing to call all the islands in this quarter by the general namt 
oflnsulrr Brilanniat [BpeTTaviKal vfjaoi). 

3(^-')3. 30. Juvenum recens examen. '* The recent levy of youthTul w«r 
riors." These are compared to k fresh swarm of bees issuing from, tb^ 
parent hive. — 32. Occanoqne Rubro. "And by the Indian Sea." The al 
[usion is to the Mare Erytkraum or Indian Ocean, not to the Sinus Arab 
iciiSt or Red Sea. — 33. Eheu ! cicatricum, Ac. "Ah ! I am ashamed of oui 
gears, and our gpilt, and of brothers — " The poet was going to add, " slais 
by the hand of brothers," but the thought was too horrid for utterance, and 
tne sentence is therefore abruptly broken ofi^. Hence we have placed t 



BXPLANArORV NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXVI. 311 

dash tJlter fratrumque. He merely adds, in general language, "What 
in fine, have we, a hardened age, avoided ?" &c. The reference throogfa 
oat the Btanza is to the hloody struggle of the civil wars. 

38-39. 38. O utinam diffingas. " O mayest thou forge again.'' The 
poet's prayer to Fortune is, that she would forge anew the swords which 
had been stained with the blood of the Romans in the sivil wax, so that 
they might be emifloyed against the enemies of the republic. While 
pdlated with civil blood, they must be the objects of hatred and aversion 
to the gods. — 39. In Massag-elas Araha^que. "To be wielded against 
the If assagetaa and the Arabians." The Massagetaa were a branch of the 
great Scythian race, and, according to Herodotus (i., 204), occupied a level 
tract of coontry to the east of the Caspian. They are supposed by some 
lo have occupied the present country of the Kirgish Tatars. 



Ode XXXVI. Plotius Numida having returned, after a long absence 
from Spain, where he had been serving under Augustus in the Cantabrias 
war, the poet bids his friends celebrate in due form so joyous an event 
This ode would appear to have been written about A.U.C. 730. 

1-10. 1. Et thure et^dibus,'&c. "With both incense and the musiij 
of the 13-re, and the blood of a steer dae to the fulfillment of our vow." 
The anci'snt sacrifices were accompanied with the music of the lyre and 
flute. — 3. Numida. A cognomen of the Plotian and ^milian lines.— 
4. Hesperia ab tUlima. "From farthest Spain." Referring to the situs 
tiou of this country as farthest to the west. Hespcria was a more com 
mon name for Itdy, as lying to the west of Greece. For distinction' 
sake, Spain was sometimes called Hesperia ultima.—^. IHvidit. " Dit 
tributes." — 8. Non alio rcge. "Under the same preceptor." — Puertia 
Contracted for ptteritia. — 9. Mutatteque simul toga. Young men, amon^ 
the Romans, when they had completed their seventeenth year, laid astd< 
the toga pr/Btexta^ and put on the toga vir^is^ or manly gown. — 10. Cressr 
nota. "A white mark." The Romans marked their lucky days, in thr- 
calendar, with white or chalk, and their unlucky days with black. 

11-20. 11. Neu promtoii &c. "Nor let us spare the contents of the 
wine-jar taken from the vault." Literally, "nor let there be any limit tc 
the wine-jar," dec. ; t. e., any limit to an acquaintance with its contents.- 
12. Salinm. The Salti, or priests of Mars, twelve in number, were in 
stituted by Numa. They were so called because on solemn occasions 
±ey used to go Uirough the city dancing {aaltantes). After finishing their 
ulemn procession, they sat down to a splendid entertainment. Henco 
Saliares dapes means " a splendid banquet."— 13. Multi Damalis meri 
" The hard-drinking Damalis." — 14. Tkreicut amystide. " In tossing off 
the wine-cup after the Thracian fashion." The amystia {dfivtrric) ^** > 
iiH>de of drinking practiced by the Thracians, and consisted in draining 
tfie cup without once closing the lips. (d. priv., fivut to close.) It denotes 
also a large kind of drinking-cap. — 16. Vivax apium. " The parsley thai 
kmg retains its verdure." The poet is thought to allude to a kind of wild 
pars.ey, of a beautiful verdure, which preserves its freflinMS for a long 
perkx] —Breve lilium " The short-lived lily." 



312 tiXPLANATORV QUOTES BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. 

Ode XXXVII. Written in celelrratioii of the victory ftt Actian. nm 
€iie final triamph of Angtistafl over the arms ot Antony and Cleopatra 
The "hamo o( the oiiibrtanate Roman, however, ii stadiously concealed 
and the indignation of the poet is made to fall apon Cleopatra. 

S-6 2 Nunc Saliaribus, &c. "Now wai it the time to deck die 
tcmplea of the gods with a splendid banquet." The meaning becomes 
plainer by a paraphrase : " We were right, my friends, in waitmg niria] 
the present moment : this was indeed the true period for the expression 
(C our joy." We mast imagine these words to have proceeded from tha 
poet alter the joyons ceremonies had already began —-Saliaribui dapibtu. 
Liberally, " with a Saliau banq'^et." Consult note on verse 12 of the pra 
^eding ode. — 3. PtUviuar. The primitive meaning of this term is. a cash* 
Ion or pillow for a couch ; it is then taken to denote the couch itself; and 
finally it signifies, from the operation of a peculiar custom among the 
B4>mans, a temple or shrine of the gods. When a general had obtained 
a signal victory, a thanksgiving was decreed by the Senate to be made in 
all the tei:3i)lcs, and what was called a Lectistermum took place, when 
oouches were spread for the gods, as if about to feast ; and their images 
were taken dowa from their pedestals, and placed upon these couchea 
around the altars, which were loaded with the richest dishes. Dr. Adam, 
in his work on Roman Antiquities, states that on such occasions the imago 
of Jupiter was placed in a reclining posture, and those of Juno and Minerva 
erect on seats. The remark is an erroneous one. The custom to which 
he refers was confined to solemn festivals in honor of Jove. Compare 
Val. Max.^ ii., 1, 2. With regard to the meaning we have assigned piiU 
vinar in the text, and wliicrh is not given by some lexicographers, con- 
sult Erncstit Clav. Cic, ft. v. Schitiz, Index Lat. in Cie. Op.^ s. v. — 
5. Anleltac. To be pronounced as a dissyllable [ant-yac). The place of 
the CflBBura is not accurately observed either in this or the 1 4th line. Con* 
suit Classical Journal vol. xi., p. 'i^A.^CcBCubum, Used here to denote 
any of the more generous kinds of wine. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 9. 
~-6. Dum CapitoliOf &c. " While a phrensied queen was preparing ruin 
for the Capitol and destruction for the empire." An hypallage for dum 
Capitolio rcgina demons^ tec. Horace indulges here in a spirit of poetic 
exaggeration, since Antouy and Cleopatra intended merely, in case they 
proved victorious, to trannfer the seat of empire from Rome to Alexandrea. 
Dio Cassius (50, 4, vol. i., p. 606, ed. Reimar) states as one of the rumon 
of the day, that Antony bad promised to bestow the city of Rome ar a 
present upon Cleopatra, and to remove the government to Egypt. 

9-14. 9. Contajmnato cum grege, &c. "With a contaminated herd of 
followers polluted by disease. "—10. Quidlibet impotens sperare. "Weak 
enough to hope for any thing." A GrsBcism for impotens ut quiMibet 
nperaref. Observe that impotens is here equivalent to impotens sui, i. c, 
having so little control over herself as to hope for any thing. — 11. For' 
tunaq-ae dulci cbria. "And intoxicated with prosperity." — 13. Sospes ah 
ignibus. " Saved from the fiames." We have here somewhat of jpoetio 
exaggeration. Cleopatra fied with sixty ships, while three hundred were 
taken by Augustus. Many of Antony's vessels, however, were destroy- 
ftd by fire during tti*? action. — 14. Lymphaiam Mareoiico. "Maddened 
witli Mareotin wiae '' A bitter, thoag'h not stricby acimrate, allusioi U. 



KXPLANATOKY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. HlJl 

the laxurioas habits of Cleopatra. The poet pretends ia this way to ac- 
ootint for the panic which seized her at Actiam. — Mareottco. Thc.Mareotic 
wino was produced along the borders of the Lake Mareotis, in Egypt. It 
was z, light, sweetish white wine, with a delicate perfume, of easy diges 
tion, and not apt to affect the head, th( agh the allusion would seem to im 
ply that it had not always preserved its innocuous quality. 

\6~23. 16. Ab Italia volanfem, Ac. " Pursuing her with swift galleys 
as she fled from Italy." The expression ab Italia volantem is to be ex 
plained by the circumstance of Antony and Cleopatra's having ihtended 
to make a descent upon Italy before Augustus should be apprised of their 
coming. Hence the flight of Cleopatra, at the battle of Actium, was in 
reality ab Italia. — 20. Htemonia. Hsemonia was one of the ejarly names 
of Thessaly. — Catenis. Augustus did not proceed to Alexandrea till the 
veer following; but the poet blends the defeat with the final conquest. 
[Osborne^ ad /<?c.)— 21. Fatale monstrum. " The fated monster," i. c, the 
fated cause of evil to the Roman .world. — Qu4B. A syllepsis, the relative 
being made to refer to the person indicated by monstrum^ not to the gram 
matical gender of the antecedent itself. — S3. Expavit ensem. An alius >ati 
to the attempt which Cleopatra made upon her own life, when Proculeius 
was sent by Augustus to secure her person. — Nee latentes^ &c. "Nor 
sought with a swift fleet for other and secret shores." Observe the force 
of reparavitt and compare the explanation of Orelli : " Spe npvi regm 
Mndendit alias sibi parare el assequi stvduit regiones" &c. By latentes 
areu are meant coasts lying concealed from the sway of the Romans. 
Plutarch states that Cleopatra formed the design, alter the battle of Actium, 
of drawing a fleet of vessels into the Arabian Gulf, across the neck of laud 
called at the present day the Isthmus of Suez, and of seeking some remote 
country where she might neither be reduced to slavery nor involved in 
war. The biographer adds, that the first ships transported across were 
burned by the natives of Arabia Petreea, and that Cleopatra subsequently 
abandoned the enterprise, resolving to fortify the avenues of her kingdom 
against the approach of Augustus. The account, however, which Dio 
Cassios gives, differs in spme respect from that of Plutarch* since it makes 
the vessels destroyed by the Arabians to have been built on that side of 
the isthmus. Compare Plutarch^ Vit. Anton., c. 69, vol. vi., p. 143, ed 
Hutten, and Dio Cassius, 51, 7, vol. i, p. 637, ed. Reimar, 

25-26. 25. Joixntem regiam. " Her palace plunged in afRiction."— 
26. Fortis et aspereut Ac. " And had courage to handle the exasperated 
serpents." Horace here adopts the common opinion of Cleopatra's deat^ 
having been occasioned by the bite of an asp, the animal having been pit* 
viously irritated by the queen with a golden bodkin. There is a great 
deal of doubt, however, on this subject, as may be seen from Plutarch's 
statement. After mentioning the common account, which we have just 
given, the biographer remarks, " It was likewise reported that she car- 
ried about with her certain poison in a hollow bodkin which she wore in 
her hair, yet there was neither any mark of poison on her body, nor was 
thure any serpent found in the monument, though the track of a reptile 
was said to have been discovered on the sea-sands opposite the wiudowa 
of ber apartment. Others, again, have affirmed that she had two smal. 
punc/t7«res on her arm, apparently occasioned by the asp's stingy and ti 

n 



814 EXPLANATORY WOTE8. BOOK ., QUE XXX\itt» 

kbli Csaar obvionaly g&ve credit, for ber effljsy which he carri«)d ii 
triamph had an asp cm the arm." It is more than probable that tlie asi: 
oo the arm of the eiiigy was a mere ornament, mistaken by the pupulac* 
kx a symbolical allosion to the manuer of Cleopatra's death. Or we may 
eonclnde with Wrangham that there would of coarse be an asp on the 
diadem of the effigy, because it was peculiar to the kings of Egypt. 

29-30. S9i Deliberata morte ferocior. " Becoming more fierce by a de 
lermined resolution to die." Compare Orelli : "Per mortem deliberatam 
ferocior facta." Morte is the instrumental ablatio e. — 30. Saevis Libumia 
&c. ** Because, a haughty woman, she disdained being led away in the 
tiostile galleys of the Liburnians, deprived of all her former rank, for the 
purpose of gracing the proud triumph of Augustus." Siiperbo triumpko 
is here put by a Oriecism for ad superbum trinmphum. The fiaves Lir 
burnte were a kind of light galleys used by the Liburnians, an lUyrian race 
along the coast of the Adriatic, addicted to piracy. To sliips of this con- 
struction Augustus was in a great measure indebted for his victory at Ac- 
tium. The vessels of Antony, on the other hand, were remarkable for 
their great size. Compare the tumid description of Flomt (iv., 11, 5) : 
** Turribus atqxie tabulatis alievat€Bf castcllorum et urbium specie, non nM 
S^emttu maris, el labore ventorumferebantur." 



Ode XXXVIIL Written in condemnation, as is generally supposed^ 
of the luxury and extravagance which marked the banquets of the day 
The bard directs his attendant to make the simplest preparations for his 
entertainment. 

1-5. 1. Persicos apparatus. " The festal preparations of the Per 
sians," ». e., luxurious and costly preparations. — Nexa philyra coroiiO'- 
" Chaplets secured with the rind of the linden." Chaplets, as already re 
marked, were supposed to be of efficacy in checking intoxication. Amon^ 
**tte Romans they were made of ivy, myrtle, &c., interwoven chiefly witl 

jolets and roses. If fastened on a strip of bark, especially the inner rind 
of the linden tree, they were called sutiles. — 3. Mitte sectari. " Give ovei 
searching." — 4. Moretur. "Loiters beyond its season." — 5. Nihil alia- 
bores sedulus euro. The order is nihil euro (ut) sedulus allabores. " I am 
not at all desirous that you take earnest pains to add any thing." We 
have given euro with Orelli, Dillenburger, and others. Wakefield [tiitv. 
Crit.i ^ 55) proposes cura, joining it in construction with sidulus. Can- 
Bingham, Yaiart, and Doring adopt it. Bentley roads cura^ taking (r»<r» 
■fl m imperative in the sense of cave 



BOOK 11. 



Odb I. C. Asitiias PoUio, distingciahed as a soldier, a ploadcr, and i 
tragic writer, was engaged in writing a history of the civil war. The 
poet earnestly entreats him to persevere, and not to return to the paths 
if tragic composition until he should have completed his promised uarra 
ttve of Roman affairs. The ode describes in glowing colors the expects 
tions entertained by the poet of the ability with which PoUio would treat 
GO interesting and difficult a subject. 

1-6. 1. F4X Metello consuls. ** From the consulship of Metellus." The 
narrative of PoUio, consequently, began with the formation of the Brst 
triumvirate, by Osesar, Pompey, and Crassus, A.U.C. 694. B.C. 59, in the 
consulship of Q,. Caecilius Metellas Celer and L. Afranius. This may 
well bo considered as the germ of the civil wars that ensued. The Ro- 
mans marked the year by the names of the consuls, and be who bad most 
suffrages, &c., was placed first. The Athenians, on the other hand, des* 
ignated their years by the name of the chief archon, who was hence call 
ed 'Apxtitv 'Kncjyvfjtog. — S. Belliqve causas^ &c. ** And of the causes, and 
the errors, and t^e operations of the war." The term vitia has here a 
prrticular reference to the rash and unwise plans of Pompey and his fol 
lowers. — 3 Ludumque FortuncB. " And of the game that Fortune play 
e^.'^^-Graresque principum amicitias. "And of the fatal confederacies 
of the chiefs." An allusion to the two triumvirates. Of the first we have 
already spoken. The second was composed of Octavianus, Antony, and 
Lepidus. — 5. Nondum expiatis. Compare Ode i., 2, 29. — 6. Periculosa 
plenum, &c. " An undertaking full of danger and of hazard." Opus ia 
applied by some, though less correctly, we conceive, to the civil war itsol£ 
The metaphor of the poet is borrowed from the Roman games of chance. 

8-12. 8. Cinen. The dative, put by a Grncism for the ablative.—' 
9. Paullum severa, &c, " Let the muse of dignified tragedy be absent 
for a while from our theatres," i. e., suspend for a season thy labors in th^ 
field of tragic composition. The muse of tragedy is Melpomene, who pr« 
aided also over lyric v«rse. Compare Explanatory Notes, Ode i., 24, r 
—10. Ubi publicas res ordinaris. " Wlicn thou hast chronicled our puU 
He affairs," i. e., hast completed thy bistpry of our public affairs. The paa- 
■age may also be rendered, *' When thou hast settled our public affai's,'' 
i «., when, in the order of thy narrative, thou hast brought the history of 
our country down to the present period of tranquillity and repose. The 
former interpretation is decidedly preferable. — 11. Gratide munus^ &c 
** Thou wilt resume thy important task with all the dignity of the Atho* 
niaii tragic muse," i. 6., thou wilt return to thy labors in the walks of trag 
edy, and rival, as thou hast already done, the best efforts of the dramatic 
poets of Greece. — 12. Cecropio cothurno. Literally, " with the Cecrojuan 
buskin." Cecropio is equivalent to Altico^ and alludes to Cecrop.s as tiie 
mythic founder of Athens. The co/kurnus was tho buskin worn by x^te 
£ra.q:ic actors, and is hero taken (ijjuratively for tragedy its'^lf. 



816 £XrLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II. ODE i. 

IJ--2.7. lU. Insigne tnoesttSf 6:c. ** Distinguished soarce of aid Ui ttit 
sorrowful accused." Alluding to his abilities as an advocate. — 14. Com 
iulenti curioi. "To the senate asking thy advice." It was the duty of 
the consul or presiding magistrate to ask the opinions of the individuA 
senators {ernsulere senatum). Here, however, the poet very beautifully 
assigns to tho senate itself the office of him who presided over their delib 
orations, and in making them ask the individual opinion of Pollio, repre* 
sents them as following with implicit confidence his directing and coau* 
celling voice. — 16. Dalmatico trivmpko. Pollio triumphed A.U.C. 71Is 
B.C. 38, over the Parthini, an Illyrian race, in the vicinity of Epidammub 
—17. Jam nunc miruici, &c. The poet fanaies himself listening to the re 
eital of Pollio's history, and to be hurried on by the animated and graphio 
periods of his friend into the midst of combats, and especially into tlie 
great Pharsalian conflict. — 19. Fugaces terret eqyos, &c ** Terrifies the 
flying steeds, and spreads alarm over the countenances of their riders." 
The zeugma in terret is worthy of attention. — 21. Audire magnos, Ac. 
'* Already methinks I hear the cry of mighty leaders, stained with no is 
glorious dust." — 23. Et cvncta terrarumt &c. " And see the whole world 
subdued, except the unyielding soul of Cato." After cuncta understand 
toea. Cato the younger is alluded to, who put an end to his existence at 
Utica. Compare note on Ode i., 12, 35. 

25^0. 25. Jujio et deorum^ &c. "Juno, and whosoever of the gods, 
more friendly to the people of Africa, unable to resist the power of the 
Fates, had retired from a land they could not then avenge, in after days 
oflered up the descendants of the conquerors as a sacrifice to the shade of 
Jugurtha." The victory at Thapsus, where CoBsar triumphed over thj 
remains of Pompey's party in Africa, and after which Cato put an end tc 
his own existence at Utica, is here alluded to in language beautifully po- 
etic. Juno, and the other tutelary deities of Africa, compelled to bend to 
the loftier destinies of the Roman name in the Punic conflicts and in the 
war with Jugurtha, are sum>osed, in accordance with the popular belief 
4n such subjects, to have retired from the land which they found them 
selves unable to sav^e. In a later ago, however, taking advantage of the 
civil dissensions among the conquerors, they make ths battle-field at Tbap 
sus, where Roman met Roman, a vast place of sacrifice, as it were, in 
which thousands were immolated to the manes of Jugurtha and the fallen 
fortunes of the land. — 29. Quia non Latino, dec. The poet, as an induce* 
ment for Pollio to persevere, enlarges in glowing colors on the lofty and 
extensive nature of the subject which occupies the attention of his friend 
— 31. Auditumqtie Medis, bio " And the sound of Xhe downfall of Italy 
heard even by the distant nations of the East." Under the term Medii 
there is a special reference to the Parthians, the bitterest fues to the Ro- 
man name —34. Daunue cades. "The blood of Romans." Daunite; it 
here put for Jtala or Romana. Compare note on Ode i., 22, 13. — 37. Sed 
me relictis, ice. "But do not, bold muse, abandon sportive themes, and 
resume the task of the Coean dirge," i. e., never again boldly presume to 
direct thy feeble efforts toward subjects of so grave and mournful a char- 
acter. The expression Caai neenite refers to Simonidss, the famous bare 
of Ceos, distinguished as a writer of mournful elegj', and who flourisheu 
about 60.5 B.C. — 39. Dioiueo snb antro. " Beneath some cavo sacred tc 
Venus " rvione was the mother of Veuus, whence the epithet Diofiaus 



ISiCPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK U., (. DB II. 31*) 

applied ti> the latter goddess and what concerned her. — 40. Levioie pl» 
tro, '• Of a lighter strain. ' Compare note on Ode i., 26, 11. 



Ode II. The poet shows thatttie mere possession of riches can nevpi 
bestow real happiness. Tliose alone are truly happy and truly wise wlic 
know how to enjoy, in a becominj^ manner, the gifts which Fortune may 
bestow, since otherwise present wealth only gives rise to an eager desire 
for more. 

The ode is addressed to Crispus SaHusfius, nephew to the historian, and 
% intended, in fact, as a high encomium on his own wise employment uf 
the ample fortune left him by his uncle. Naturally of a retired and philo- 
Bophic character, Sallust had remained content with the equestrian rank 
in which he was bom, declining all the offers of advancement that were 
made him by Augustus. 

1-12. 1. Nulliis argento color. " Silyer has no brilliancy." — 2. Inimta 
lamrne nisi temperato^ ice. *' Thou foe to wealth, unless it shine by mod- 
erate use.*" LamruE (for lamiruB) properly denotes plates of gold or silver, 
t. e.t coined money or wealth in general. — 5. Extento <evo. "To a distant 
age." The dative used poetically for in cxtentum, cEvum. — Proculeius. 
C. Proculeius Varro Muraona, a Roman knight, and the intimate friend ol 
Augustus. His sister was the wife of Maecenas. He is here praised for 
having shared his estate with his two brothers, who had lost all their prop- 
erty for siding with Pompey in the civil wars. — 6. Notus infrcUreSy Jkc 
" Well known for his paternal affection toward his brethren." — 7. Penna 
nietuente soki. " On an untiring pinion." Literally, "on a pinion fearing 
to be tired cr relaxed." The allusion is a figurative one, and refers to a 
pinion guarding, as it were, against being enfeebled. Compare the Greek 
ire^vXayfiEvy Xveadai. — 11. Gadihus. Gades, now Cadiz^ in Spain. — 
Uterjue Pamu. Alluding to the Carthaginian power, both at home and 
along the coast of Spain. Thus we have the Pcsni in Africa, and the Bas- 
tjli Pceni along the lower part of the Mediterranean coast, in the Spanish 
peninsula, and, again, a Carthago at home, and a Carthago nova in Spain. 
— 12. Uni. Understand libi. 

13-23. 13. Crcscit indulgens sibi, A^. " The direful dropsy iucrea&ca 
by self-indulgence." Compare the remark of the scholiast : ** Est autem 
hydropico proprium ut quanto amjplius biberit, tanto amplius sitiat." 
The avaricious man is here compared to one who is suffering under a 
dx*opsy. In either case there is the same hankering after what only servei 
to aggravate the nature of the disease. — 15. Aquosus languor. The 
dropsy [v6p(^) takes its nan^e from the circumstance oi water {vdup) be- 
ing the most visible cause of th£ distemper, as well as from the pallid hue 
which oversoreads the countenance {ui})) of the sufferer. It arises, in fact, 
from too lax a, tone of the solids, whereby digestion is weakened, and aL 
tht parts are filled beyond measure. — 17. CjfH solio. By the ** throne of 
Cyrus" is here meant the Parthian empire. Compare note on Odd i., 9 
22. — Phrahaten. Compare note on Ode i., 26, 5. — 18. Dissidens pleln 
"Dissenting from the crowd." — 19. Virtus. "True wisdom '-^Popn 
h^mquefalsis, ice. ** And teaches the popu'.ace to disuse false names C'4 
thiniTf." — 29 Propiinmque laurum. • Anil the never-fadin£ l^cwl."- 



31H EXPtANATORY KuTfiS.— BOOK 11., ODE IH. 

•3. (Jciih irrtUtrto. "With a steady gaze," t. e., without an enviooi 
Sook. Not regarding them with the sidelong glance of envy, bat with th« 
stendy gaze of calm indifference 



Odk ni. Addressed to Q.. Dellias, and recommending a calm enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of existence, since death, sooner or later, will bring 
all to an end. The individual to whom the ode is inscribed was remark- 
able for his fickle and vacillating character; and so often did he change 
■ides during the civil contest which took place after the death of Cssar, 
as to receive fYom Messala the appellation of desvUorem bellorum civili' 
Km ; a pleasant allusion to the Roman desultores^ who rode two horses 
joined together, leaping quickly from the one to the other. Compare 
^ieiieca {Suasor.^ p 7) : •* Bellissimam tamen rem Dellius dixit ^ qiiem Mes 
pala Corvinus desuUorem bcllontm civilium vocat^ quia ab DolabeMa ad 
Cassium transitunis salulem sibi pactus est, si Dolabellam occidisset ; ei 
a Caxsio deinde transivit ad Antoninm : novissume ab Antonio transfugil 
fid Ctesarem." Consult, also. Veil. Palerc^ 2, 84, and Dio Cass., 49, 39 

2-8. 2. Non secus in bonis, &c. " As well as one restrained from im 
moderate joy in prosperity." — 4. Moriture. " Who at some time or other 
must end thy existence." Dacier well observes that the whole beauty 
and force of this strophe consists in the single word moriture, which is 
not only an epithet, but a reason to confirm the poet's advice. — 5. Ddli. 
The old editors, previous to Lambinus, read Deli; but con^xxit Ruhnken, 
ad Veil. Patera., 2, 84, on the orthography of this name. — 6. In remote 
gramine. "Jn some grassy retreat." — Dies Festos. Days among the 
Romans were distinguished into three general divisions, the Dies Festi, 
Dies Profesti, and Dies Inlercisi. The Dies Festi, " Holy days," were 
consecrated to religious purposes ; the Dies Profesti were given to the 
common business of life, and the Dies Intercisiwere half holidays, divided 
between sacred and ordinary occupations. The Dies Fasti, on the other 
hand, were those on which it was lawful {fas) for the praetor to sit in 
judgment. All other days were called Dies Nefasti, or " Non-court days." 
— 8. Interiore nota Falerni. ** With the old Falernian," i. e., the choicest 
wine, which was placed in the farthest part of the vault or crypt, marked 
with its date and growth. 

»-19. 9. Qua pinus ingens, &.c. •" Where the tall pine and silver pop 
(ar love to unite in forming with their branches an hospitable shade." 
The poet is probably describing some beautiful spot in the pleasure- 
grounds of Dellius. The editions before that of Lambinus have Quo, foi 
which he first substituted Qua, on the authority of some MSS. Fea and 
others attempt to dofend the old reading, but qjia is more elegantly used 
in the sense of ubi than quo. — 11. Et obliquo laborat. Sec. "And the 
iwiftly- moving water strives to run murmuring along in its winding chan* 
ael." The beautiful selection of terms in laborat and trepidarc is worthy 
of particular notice. — 13. Nimium brevis rosa. " Of the too short-lived 
rosft " — 15. Res. "Your opportunities" Compare the explanation of 
Of eili : •' Res : iota vitee tuce conditio, ac singula occasiones." — Sororum, 
The Fates. — 17. Cocmptis. " Dought up on all sides." — Domo. The tcra 
4/ymuk here denotes that part of the villa occupied by the prouristnr l>:nc 



fiXl'LANATORV NOTES. — BOOK II., ODB VI. 318 

Mli; «r)L. le vt7/a designates the other bnildings and appurtenances of the 
estate, designed not only for use, but also for pleasure. Compare Braun^ 
Hardy ad Inc. Hence we may render the words ct domo villaque as follows : 
^ and fro.ja thy lordly mansion and estate." — 18. Flavus Tiberis. Com* 
pare note on Ode i., 2, 13. — 19. Exstructis in altum. " Piled up on high/ 

21-28. 21. Dwesne p'nsco, &,c. " It matters not whether thoa dwellest 
beneath the light of heaven, blessed with riches and descended irom lua- 
chus of old, or in narrow circumstances and of the lowliest birth, since in 
either event thou art the destined victim of unrelenting Orcus." The ex- 
pression prisco ?iatus ab Inacho is equivalent to antiquissima stirpe ori' 
nndust Inachus having been, according to the common account, the most 
ancient king of Argos. The term moreris derives elucidation from Cicera 
de Sen., 23 : " commorandi natura dcversorinm nobis, non kabitandi lo- 
cum dedil." — 25. Omnes eodem cogimur, " We are all driven toward the 
same quarter." Alluding to the passage of the shades, under the guidance 
of Mercury, to the other world. — Omnium versalvr nma, &c. " The lots of 
all arc shaken in the urn, destined sooner or later to come forth, and plac6 
us in the bark for an eternal exile." The urn here alluded to is that held 
by Necessity in the lower world. Some editions place a comma after 
urna, making it the nominative to versatur ; and urna omnium will then 
signify " the urn containing the destinies of all." But the construction is 
too harsh; and the cJBSura, which would then be requisite for lengthening 
the final syllable of urna, is of doubtful application for such a purpose.— 
'28. Cynba. The dative, by a Groccism, for the ablative cymba. 



Ode VI. The poet expresses a wish to spend the remainder of his days 
\long with his friend Septimius, either amid the groves of Tibur, or the 
(air fields of Tarentum. 

The individual to whom the ode is addressed was a member of the 
equestrian order, and had fought in the same ranks with Horace during 
the civil contest. Hence the language of Porphyrion : " Sepiimium, equi- 
tern Romanum, amicum et commilitonem suum hac ode alloquitur." From 
•he words of Horace {EpisL, i., 3, 9-14) he appears to have been also a 
votary of the Muses, and another scholiast remarks of him, " Titius Sep- 
Hmius lyrica carmina H tragctdias 8cHp!>it, Augusti tempore: sed libri 
:qus nulli extant" 

1-2. 1. Gades aditure mecnm, •' Who art ready to go with me to Ga 
ies." We must not imagine that any actual departure, cither for Gades 
or the other quarters mentioned in this stanza, was contemplated by the 
poet. He merely means, to go thither if re luisite ; and hence the Ian- 
gnage of the text is to be taken for nothing more than a general eulogium 
a/a the tried friendship of Septimius. As respects Gades, compare Ode ii., 
2, 11. — 2. Et Cantabrum indoctum, &c. " And against the Cantabrian, 
antaught as yet to endure our yoke." The Cantabri were a warlike na- 
tion of Spain, extending over what is at present Biscay and partof .^s^m- 
rias. Their resistance to the Roman arms was long and stubborn, and 
hence the language of Horace in relation to them. Ode iii., 8, 22 : " Can^ 
faber sera domitus catena." The present ode appears to have been wnt 
ken previous to their fhial subjugation 



820 EXPLANATORY NOTES. DOOE II., OOB VII 

3-11. Z. Barbaras Syrtes. " The Larbanan Syrtos." Ai.udtag tj tin 
two well-kuown galfs on the Mediterraaean coast of Africa, tho Syrtii 
M^or, or Qalf of Sidrek^ and the Syrtis Minor, or Qu[( of Cal/es. The tcnn 
barbarus refers t« the nide and uncivilized tribes in the vicinity. — Maura 
By synecdoche for Africa unda. — 5. Tibur^ Argeo positum colono. Com- 
pare note on Cde i., 7, 13. — T. Sit -.nodus iasso^ &c. "May it be a limif 
of wandering 'into me, wearied oat with the fatigues of ocean, land, and 
military serv);,e." The genitives maris, viarum, and militia are put by 
a Qr89cism ft ablatives. — 8. Militiaque. The single campaign ondec 
Bratas, and fit disastroas close at Philippi, formed the extent c^the poet's 
warlike exp'irience. — 9. Prohibent. "Exclude me." — 10. Dulce pellitu 
tvibus. " 7l«/asing to the sheep covered with skins." The sheep that 
'ed alon^ 'ta banks of the Galsesus, now the Galcso, and the valley oi 
Anion, '.P'J h wool so fine that they were covered with skins to protect 
iieir Pe'iO'/'i from injury. The same expedient was resorted to in the case 
jf th'j /.k.t*iM sheep. The River Galaesus flowed within five miles of Ta- 
^'eutno), and fell into the inner harbor. — 11. Laconi Phcdanto. Alludic^ 
to 4.hC/ scory of Phalantas and the Partheniee, who came as a colony froL 
Qparta to Tarentum, about 700 B.C. 

13-22. 13. Mihi ridet. "Possesses charms for me." Literally, ''looks 
laughingly upon me," "smiles upon me," i. e., pleases me. A similar 
Qsage prevails in Greek in the case of the verb yeXau. — 14. Uln iioaHy 
mettot See. "Where the honey yields not to that of Hymettus, and the 
olive vies with the produce of the verdant Venafrum." — Hynietto. Hy- 
mettus was a mountain in Attica, famed for its honey, which is still in 
high repute among the modern Greeks. It has two summits, one ancient- 
.y called Hymettus, now Trelovouni ; the other, Anydros (or the dry Hy- 
mettus), now Lamprovouni. — 16. Venafro. Venafrum was the last city 
of Campania to the noith, and near the River Vultumus. It was cele 
brated for its olives and oil. The modem name is Venafro. — 17. Tepidcu- 
qiie brumas. "And mild winters." — 18. Jupiter. Taken for the climate 
oi" the region, or the sky. — 19. Fertili. " Rich in the gifts of the vintage." 
The common text hsAfertilis. Aulon was a ridge and valley in the neigh- 
borhood of Tarentum, and very productive. The modem name is Terra 
di Melone. The term aulon itself is of Greek origin {av^6v), and denotes 
any narrow valley or pass. — Minimum invidet. " Is far from envying," t. e., 
is not inferior to. Literally, " envies least." — 21. Beata colics. "Those 
delightful hills." — 22. Ibi tu calentem^ ice. " There shalt thou sprinkle, 
with the tear due to his memory, the warm ashes of the poet, thy friend.* 
^-"Caleniem Alluding to their being still warm firom the funeral pile 



Ods VII. Addressed to Pompeius, a friend of the poet's, who had fought 
on the same side with him at the battle of Philippi. The poet returned 
to Rome, but Pompeius continued in arms, and was cmly restored to his 
native country when the peace concluded between tho triumvirs and 
Bextis Pompey enabled the exiles and proscribed of the republican party 
to revisit their homes. The bard indulges in the present effusion on th6 
restoration of his friend. 

Who this friend was is far from being clearly ascertained. Most com 
lacntators make hit& to have been Pompeius Grosphuf, a Re ma*} kn'^bi 



 ji 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK II.. 01»E Ml. 32l 

tuad freedman of Pompey the Great. If this opinion be correct^ ho wiL 
oe the same with the iudividaal to whom the sixteentli ode ^f the presenl 
book if inscribed, and who is also mentioned in Epist. i., 12, 23. Vander 
bourg, however, is in favor of Pompeios Varus. "Les M^S.," observei 
this editor, "ne sont point d' accord sor les noms de cet ami de notre 
po6te. J'ai era long temps avec Sanadon, et MM. Wetzel et Mitscher 
lich, devoir le confondre avec le Pompeius Qrosphus de I'Ode 16 de ce 
^▼re, et de I'epitre 12, da liv. 1. Mais je pense aujoard'hui avec lea aji 
eiens concmentatears, saivis en cela par Dacier et M. Voss, que Pompi,iua 
Viras ^toient ses nom et samom v^ritables." 

1-8, 1 . O sape mecunit &c. The order of oonstraction is as foUowii 
O Potnpei, ptrme ineoruvi sodcdium^ stepe deducte mecum in uUimum ttm^ 
piM, Bmto duce militia!^ quis rcdonavit t¥ Quiritem diis patriis Italoqut 
C€bIo 7 — Tcmpus in vltimvm deducte. " Involved in the greatest danger." 
Compare Catullus, Ixiv., v. 151 : " supremo in tempore;" and v. 169 : "e* 
tretno tempore steva Fors.*' — 3. Quis te redofULvit Quiritem. " Who has re 
stored tbee as a Roman citizen ?" t. e., with thy fall rights of citizenship. 
The name Quiritem here implies a fall retam to all the rights and privi^ 
leges of citizenship, which had been forfeited by his bearing arms against 
the established authority of the triumvirate. — 6. Cum quo morantemy &c 
"Along with whom I have often broken the lingering day with wine.' 
Compare note on Ode i., 1, 20. — 8. Malohatkro Syrio. *' With Syrian 
malobathram." Pliny [H. N., 12, 26) mentions three kinds oimalobathrnm, 
the Syrian, Egyptian, and Indian, of which the last was the best. The 
Indian, being conveyed across the deserts of Syria by the raravan-trada 
CO the Mediterranean coast, received from the Romans, in common with 
the first-mentioned species, the appellation of *' Syrian." Some diversity 
of opinion, however, exists with regard to this prodaction. Pliny describes 
it as follows : *^ In paludibus gigni tradunt lentis modo, odoratius croco^ 
nigricans scabrumque, quodam salts gustu. Minus prohatur candidum. 
Cderrime situm in vet7isfate sentit. Sapor egus nardo similis debet esse 
sub lingua. Odor vero in vino svffervefacti antecedit alios.** Some have 
supposed it to be the same with the betel or betre, for an account of which 
consult De Maries, Histoire Generate de Clnde, vol. i., p. 69. Malte-Bran, 
however, thinks that it was probably a compoand extract of a number of 
plants with odoriferous leaves, such as the laurel, called in Malabp Fa- 
mala, and the nymphea, called Famara in Sanscrit ; the termination &a* 
thrum, being from patra, the Indian word for a leaf. (System of Geog.^ 
vol. iii., p. 33, Am. ed.) Weston's opinion is different. According to this 
writer^ the malobathrum is called in Persian sadedj hindi or sadedj of India 
{Materia Medico Kahirina, p. 148, Forskal., 177.5), and the term is com 
posed of two Arabic words, inelabalhra or esra, meaning an aromatic pos 
scssing wealth, or a valaable perfume. 

9-13. 9. Tecum Pki/ippos sensi, &c. Compare "Life of Horace,"' 
pixviiLof this volame. Philippi was a city of Thrace, to the northeast of 
Ajnphipolis, and in the immediate vicinity of Mount Paugoeus. It was 
C'';lebrated for the vicU)ry gained here by Antony and Octavianns over 
Umtus aid Cassius. Its ruins still retain the name of Ftiibah. — Relicta 
w>n bene parmula. " My shield being irgioriously abandoned " Consult 

Lifo if l7oi'ar«»." p xviil- -11 Qntim frajta virh * * When vabr ftseW 



H22 bxplanatob/ notes. — boor ji. ode vn. 

4ras overnoine " A manly aud withal troe enlogiom on cho spirit tntf 
bravury of the republicau forces. The better troops were in reality on iht 
side of Brutus and Cassius, although Fortune declared fur Uctavianus and 
Antony.— 13. Turpc. "Polluted with gore." — Solum teligcrtmtnto. Com 
pare the Homeric form of expression (//., ii., 41), 7rf}7iviec iv Koviyjiv bAai 
^Q^oiaTO yalav. — 13. Mercurius. An imitation of the imagery of the 
Iliad. As in the battles of Homer heroes are often carried away by pro- 
t<»ctixig deities from the dangers of the fight, so, on the oresent occasioa 
llercury} who presided over arts and sciences, and especially over the 
Httavic of the lyre, is made to befriend the poet, and to save him from the 
dangers of the conflict. Compare Ode ii., 17, 29, where Mercury is styled 
*cu$to8 Mercurialium, virorum." 

14-23. 14. Denso aere. "In a thick clond." Compare the Hementi 
lorm, ^ept noXXy. — 15. 7^e rursus tn bellum^ &c. " Thee the wave of bat- 
tle, again swallowing up, bore back to the war amid its foamhig waters.' 
— 17. Obligatam dapem. "Thy votive sacrifice," t. e., due to the fulfill 
ment of thy vow." He had vowed a sacrifice to Jove in case he escaped 
the dangers o^ the war. — 20. Cadis. The Roman cadus was equivalent 
to forty-eight sextarii, or twenty-seven English quarts. It was of earthen- 
ware. — 21. Obliirioso Massico. "With oblivious Massic," i. e., care-dis- 
pelling. The Massic was the best growth among the Falemian wines 
[t was produced on the southern declivities of the range of hills in the 
neighborhood of the ancient Sinuessa. A mountain near the site of Sin- 
uessa is still called Monte Massico. — 22. Ciboria. The ciborivtn was 
a large species of drinking-cup, shaped like the follicule or pod of the 
Egyptian bean, which is the primitive meaning of the term. It was 
larger below than above. — 23. Conckis. Vases or receptacles for per 
fumes, shaped like shells. The term may here be rendered " shells."— 
24. Apio. Compare note on Ode i., 36, 16. 

25-27. 25. Qiiem Venus^ &.c. The ancients, at theirfeasts, appointed a 
person to preside by throwing the dice, whom they called arbiter bibendt 
((TVfjLTToaidpxvch " nia.ster of the feast." He directed every thing at pleas 
ure. In playing at games of chance they used three tesseree, and four tali. 
The tessercR had six sides, marked I., II., III., IV., V., VI. The tali had 
four sides longwise, for the two ends were not regarded. On one side was 
marked one point {unio^ an ace, called Canis)^ and on the opposite side 
six {Senio,) while on the two other sides were three and four [ternio el 
quaternio). The highest or most fortunate throw was called Venus, and 
determined the direction of the feast. It was, of the tesscne, three sixes 
of the talif when all of them came out different numbers. The worst or 
lowest throw was termed Canis, and was, of the tesseree, three aces, and 
of the tali when they were all the same. Compare Reitz,ad Lucian^ 
Am,j vol. v., p. SijS, ed. Bip. ; Sucton., Aug , 71, el Cnisius, ad loc, and the 
Dissertation *• De Talis," quoted by Gesner, Thes. L. L., and I'v Bailey^ 
In his edition of /^o?Y>.'//i»r, Lex. Tot. Lat.-^26. Non ego mniiks^ &c. "I 
will revel as wildly as the Thracians." The Edoni or Edones were a 
well known Thracian tribe on the banks of the Strymon. Their name ii 
often used by the Greek poets to express the whole of the nation of whict 
ibey formed a ->art, a custom which Horace here imitates — 27. Rivi^pf^i 
furei'e amico ' To induli^e in extravagance on'th? recovery of o fri.-^jid ' 



GXPLANiirOtLY NOTES. BOOK 11., ODE IX. H^ZH 

OOE IX. Addressed to T. Valgius Rafuis, inconsolabla at the loss ofhia 
•ou Mystes, wh3 had been taken from him by an ar timely death. The 
Dard counsels his friend to cease frora his anavailing sorrow, and to sing 
with him the praises of Augustus. 

The individual to whom tbe ode is inscribed was himself a poet, and .'i 
oieutioued by TibuUus (iv., X, 180) in terms of high commendation : " Fo«:'- 
ffius ; ccUrno propior 7wn alter Homero." It is to the illusion of friends 
ship, most probably, that we must ascribe this lofty enlogium, since Q,uin' 
tili'an makes no mention whatever of the writer in question. Horace 
Dames him among those by whom be wishes his productions V> be ap- 
proved. {Sat^ i., 10, 82.) 

1-7. 1. Non semper, &c. The exj)ressions semper, usqtiey and merftet 
per om.7te8y in this and the succeeding stanza, convey a delicate reprool 
of the incessant sorrow in which the bereaved parent so unavailingly in- 
dulges. — Hispidos in agros. "On the rough fieHs." The epithet hispi- 
dus properly refers to the effect produced o,» ih^ aurface of the ground by 
the action of the descending rains. It approximates here very closely to 
the term squalidus. — 2. Aut mare Caspinm, &c. '* Nor do varying blasts 
continually disturb the Caspian Sea." According to Malte-Brun, the north 
and south winds, acquiring strength from the elevation of the shores of 
the Caspian, added to the facility of their motion along the surface of the 
water, exercise a powerful influence in varying the level at the opposite 
•xtremities. Hence the variations have a range of from four to eight feet, 
Bud powerful currents are generated V)th with tbe rising and subsiding 
of the winds. {System of Geogra^iiy, vol. ii., p. 313.) — 4. Armeniis in 
oris. ** Ou the borders of Armenia The allusion is to the northern con- 
fines. Armenia forms a very elevated plain, surrounded on all sides by 
oflty mountains, of which Ararat and Kohi-seiban are crowned with per- 
petual snow. The cold in the high districts of the country is so very in- 
tense as to leave only three months lur the season of vegetation, including 
«eed-time and harvest. (Compare Malte-Brun, System of Geography, 
vol. ii., p. 103.) — 7. Querccta Gargani. "The oak-groves of Garganus." 
The chain of Mount Garganus, now Monte S.Angelo, runs along a part of 
the coast of Apulia, and finally terminates in the Promontorium Garga 
lum, now Punta di Vicsta^ fc/'*'*>ing a bold projection into the Adriatic. 

i>~10. 9. Tu, semper urges, c. " And yet thou art ever in mournfoJ 
itrains pursuing thy Mystes, torn from thee by the hand of death." Urges ' 
'm here used as a more emphatic and impressive term than the common 
orosequeris, and implies a pressing closely upon the footsteps of another 
n eager pursuit. — 10. Nee tibi vcspero, &c. "Nor do thy affectionate sor 
Mws cease when Vesper rises, nor wh«i he flees from before the rapidly- 
ascending sun." The phrase Vespero surgente marks the evening period, 
irhen Vesper (the planet Ven>:s) appears to the east of the sun, and im- 
parts its mild radiance after that luminary has set. On the other hand, 
tho expression /i//^2t'7i/6 solem indicates the morning, in allusion to that 
portion of the year when the same planet appears to the west of the sun, 
mtA rises before him. The poet, then, means to de&rgnate the evening 
and morning, and to conv<^v the idea that the sorrows of Vnlgius admit of 
no cessation or repose, b.tt ontinue unremitted throughout the night ai 
well as day. The planet Venus, when it goe& before the fun, is cabled ir 



S24 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK 11., ODE X. 

■trictneM. LucijcTy or the racrning star ; bat wben it follows the luu It 
termed Hesperus or Vesper ^ and by us the evening star. 

13-V3. 13. Ter an?o functus senex. "The ago J Warrior who livud tbr<M 
gsnerations." AUnding to Nestor. Homer mnkrs Nestor to have passed 
tbrongh two generations, and to be ruling, at rne time of the Trojan war, 
among a third. — 1-t. Antilochvm. Autilochos, son of Nestor, was slain in 
defence of his father by Meiuuon. (Uom.^ Od., iv., 188.) — 15 TroUnn. 
Trcnlos, sin of Priaui, was slain by Achilles. {Virg., ^n., i., 474.) — 1< 
Pkrygi€B Put for Trcjante. — 17. Desine mollium^ Sec. "Cease, then, 
tfiese unmanly complaints." Prose Latinity would require, in the plac« 
of this Grascism, the ablative qucrelis or the infinitive qneri. — 18. Nova 
Augusti trop4ta. Alluding to the successful operations of Augustus with 
the Armenians and Parthians, and to the repulse of the Geloni, who had 
crossed the Danube, and committed ravages in the Roman territories.— 
*^0. Rigiibtm Niphaten. " The ice-clad Niphates." The ancient geogra 
phers gave the name of Niphates to a range of mountains in Armenia, 
forming part of the great chain of Taurus, and lying to the southeast of 
the Arsissa palus or Lake Van. Their summits are covered with snow 
throughout the whole year, and to this circumstance the name Niphates 
contains an allusion (Nt^ariyf, quasi vnperudTjg, " snowy"). — 21. Medum 
Jlumen, kc. " And how the Parthian river, added to the list of conquered 
nations, rolls humbler waves." By the Parthian river is meant the Eu- 
phrates. The expression gentibus additum victis is equivalent merely to 
in populi Romani potestatem redactum. — 23. Intraque prtescriptum, Sec. 
** And how the G-eloni roam within the limits prescribed to them, along 
their diminisheil plains." The Geloni, a Sarmatian race, having crossed 
the Danube ^nd laid waste the confines of the empire in that quarter, 
were attacked and driven across the river by Lentulus, the lieutenant of 
Augustus. Hence the use of the term prcescriptvm, in allusion to tho 
Danube bplng interposed as a barrier by their conquerors, and hence, too 
the check given to their inroads, which were generally made by them on 
horseback, is alluded to in the expression exigux ^ equitare campts 



Odt. X. Addressed to Liciniua Murena^ afterward, by adoption, Teren 
liuB Varro Murena, brother of Proculeius Varro Murena, mentioned in the 
second Ode (v. 5) of the present book. Of a restless and turbulent spir- 
it, and constantly forming new schemes of ambition, Licinius was a total 
■tranger to the pleasure inseparable from a life of moderation and content. 
It is the object of the poet, therefore, to portray in vivid colors the securi- 
ty and happiness ever attendant upon such a state of existence. 

The salutary advice of the bard proved, however, of no avail. Liciniai 
Lad before this lost his all in the civil contest, and had been relieved by 
the noble generosity of Proculeius. Uninstructed by the experience of 
the past, he now engaged in a conspiracy against Augustus, and was 
butishcd and afterward put to death, notwithstanding al the interest ai 
Procnleius, and Maecenas, who had married his sister Terentia. 

1-21. 1. Rectius. "More consistently with reason." — Neque altnm 
temper utgendo. "By neither always pursuing the main ocean," i. e^ 
by neithei always launching out boldly into the deep — 3. Nimivm tr* 



IfiXPJ ANATORY NOTEi!.- BOOK JI., OIlE XI. 325 

ji.Ati6 lilu9 tniquuitt. ''By keepiug too near the perilous shore. -^ 
5. Akt iam quisquis mediocritatem^ &c. The change of meaning iii ca\'e% 
(whicf is required, however, more by the idiom of oar own language than 
by thui of the Latin) is worthy of notice. The whole passage may h4 
parapl rased as follows : *' Whoever maKes cnoice of the golden mean, 
•ale fn>m all the ills of poverty {tuttis), is not compelled to dwell amid 
(caret) the wretohedness of seme miserable abode ; while, on the okhci 
hand, moderate in his desires {sobritLs)^ he needs not {caret) the splendi 
palace, the object of envy." — 9. Stepius. *'More frequently," i. c, thaL 
trees of lower size. Son e editions have sttvius. — 10. Et celstt gravior . 
etuu, Ac " And lofty structures fall to the ground with heavier ruin,' 
f.«., than humble ones. — 11. Summos montes. " The highest mountains.' 
•—14. Alteram sortem. "A change of condition." — Bene prceparat'um 
pectus. "A well-regulated breast." — 15. Informes hietnet. "Gloomy 
winters." — 17. Non si male nuncj &.c. "If misfortune attend thee now, 
it will not also be thus hereafter." — 18. Quondam cithara t€u:entem^ &c 
'* Apollo oftentimes arouses with the lyre tlie silent muse, nor always 
'jends his bow." The idea intended to ^e conveyed is, that as misfortune 
is not to last forever, so neither are the gods unchanging in their anger 
toward man. Apollo stands forth as the representative of Olympus, pro 
pitious when he strikes the lyre, oif'uided when he bends the bow. — 
19. Suscitat musam. Equivalent, in fact, to edit sonos, puisa cithara. 
The epithet tacentem refers merely r t an interval of silence on the part 
of the muse, t. e., of anger on the part of the god. — 21. Animosus atqtu 
fortis. " Spirited and firm." 



Ode XI. Addressed to Cluincj;ius, an individual of timid character, and 
wonstantly tormented with the anticipation of future evil to himself and 
Lis extensive possessions. The poet advises him to banish these gloomy 
thoughts from his mind, and give to hilarity the fleeting hours of a brief 
existence. 

1-19. 1. Quid hellicosus CarUaher, &c. Compare note on Ode ii., 6, 2 
— 2. Hadria divisus objecto, ** Separated from us by the intervening 
Adriatic." The poet does not mean that the foes here mentioned were 
in possession of the opposite shores of the Adriatic Sea ; such a supposi 
tion would be absurd. He merely intends to quiet the fears of Quinctina 
by a general allusion to the obstacles that intervened. — 4. Nectrepides in 
'jLsum, &c. " And be not solicitous about the wants of a life that aski 
but few things for its support."^5. Fugit retro. For recedit. — 11. Quia 
mtemis minorem^ &c. " Why dost thou disquiet thy mind, unable to take 
in eternal designs V* i. e., to extend its vision boyond the bounds of human 
existence. — 14. Sic temere. "Thus at ease "--15. Canos. Equivalent 
to albescentes. "Beginning to g7ow gray." — M.Euius. Bacchus. Com 
pare note en Ode i., 18, 9. — 19. Restinsruct ardentesy &c. "Will tcmpei 
tbo cups of fiery Falemiaii witb the stream that glides by our side." Thi 
tncients gene i ally drank their ^ine diluted with water, on account of it 
atBngtb. 



820 EXrLAKATORV NOTES. B .OK il., ODE Xil. 

Oi)i. XII. Addressed tu Maecenas. The poet, having been requeited 
by his patron to sing the sxploits of Augustas, declines attempting m 
urdaous a theme, and exhorts Maecenas liimBclf to make them the sabjeni 
ct' an historical narrative. 

l-ll. 1. Nolig. **Do not witrii.' The subjunctive is here employed tt 
a aoilenc*! form of the imperative.— -Lonn^a/erce bella NumatUia, No- 
mautia is celebrated in history for ofiering so long a resistance to tho Bo 
man arms. It was situate near the sources of the River Darius, now the 
Douro, on a rising ground, and defended on three sides by very thick 
Voods and steep declivities. One path alone led down into the plain, and 
vhis was guarded by ditches and palisades. It was taken and destroyed 
Hy the younger Africauus subsequently to tho overthrow of Carthage.— 
3. Siculum mare. Tlie scene of frequent and bloody contests between 
the fleets of Rome and Carthage. — 3. Mollibus cilhara modis. ** To the 
soft measures of my lyre." — 5. Sttvos. " Fierce." — Nimium. " Impelled 
to unrestrained desire," i. c, to lewdness. Alluding to his attempt on the 
person of Hippodamia. Compare Braunhard : " Nimius mero, quit vino 
largivLs polo caiefactus^ ad libiditiem proclivior f actus est^ iiKpar^g ycvo* 
uevoc knidv^Lov" — 7. Tcllui'is Juvenes. "The warrior-sons of earth." 
Referring to the giants, Vriyevelg' — 8. Periculum contremuit. "In 
trembling alarm apprehended danger." An active intransitive verb with 
tlie accusative. — 9. Pedestrihus historiis. " In prose narrative." Com 
pare the Greek TrcCof "koyoq. — 11. Melius. "With more success," i. e^ 
than I can aspire to. — Ducta. "Led in triumph." — VicCS. Referring to 
the streets of Rome through which the triumphal procession would pass, 
but in particular to the Via SacrOy which led up to the Capitol. 

13-28. 13. Domina Licymnia. " Of thy lady Licymnia." By Ll 
eymnia is here meant Terentia, the young and beautiful wife of Msecenas, 
And Horace, in speaking of her, employs, out of respQct, a fictitious name, 
observing, at the same time, the rule of the ancient poets, namely, that the 
appellation substituted be the same in number and quantity of syllables 
as the one for which it is used ( Ttreniid, Llcymnta). The epithet domirut 
indicates respect. They who make Licymnia the name of a female friend 
of the poet himself, will find a difficulty to overcome in v. 21, seqq.-- 
15. Bene mtUuis Jidem amoribns. " Truly faithful to reciprocated love." 
—17. Ferre pedem choris. " To join in the dance." — 18. Joco. "In 8por^ 
ive mirth." — Dare hrachia. Alluding to the movements of the dance, 
when those engaged in it either throw their arms around, or extend their 
hands to one another. — 19. Nitidis. "In fair array." — 21. Num tu^ qua 
tenuity &C. " Canst thou feel inclined to give a single one of the tresses 
oi' Licymnia for all that the rich Achaamenes ever possessed," &c. Crin4 
]m put in the ablative as marking the instrument of exchange. — Achatme 
%C8. The founder of the Persian monarchy, taken here to denote the op- 
ulence and power of the Kings of Persia in general. Achaemenes is s'lp- 
poaed to be identical with Djemschid. — 22. Aut pinguis PhrygicB Myg- 
ionias opes. " Or tho Mygdonian treasures of fertile Phrygia,' f •., tha 
^•eaaures (rich produce) of Mygdonian Phrygia. Tho epitl^et Mygdonian 
is applied to Phrygia, either in allusion to the Mygdones, a Tbracian trilx 
who settled in this country, or with refere/ice to one of the ancient irro 
archsof the laid. The former is probably the more correcj opinion. 



•EXPLANATORY NOTKS —BOOK II., ODE XIIV. 8ST 

Ode XIII. The poet, having naiTowly escaped destrnction fiom the fall- 
ing CK a tree, indalges in strong and angry invectives against both th3 
tree and the individual who planted and reared it. The subject naturally 
leads to serioas reflections, and the bard sings of the world of spirits to 
which he had been almost a visitant. The poet alludes to this same acct< 
dent in tne 17th ode of the present book (v. 28), and also in the 4th ode of 
the third book (v. 2?), where he speaks of his celebrating the aunivemar 
of bifl deliverance on the Calends of March, the date of the accidoiit. it 

agh 

1-11. 1. Ille et fuffaslo, &c. " O tree, whoever first plantedis fbr 
planted thee on an unlucky day, aild with a sacrilegious hand really mo 
fior the ruin of posterity and the disgrace of the district." Paguf^ size.'' 
to the village district of Mandela, to which Horace's Sabine farm ^ Tityos, 
With quicuttque primum understand posuit te. Beutley rea(*n by th6 
for Ille ett and places a semicolon after jKigi in the fourth linea. ** That 
■age, as altered by him, will then be translated as follows : " j^ oiscilicett 
I believe that he whoever first planted thee," &c., and thei— 10. Terra 
line, "1 say, I believe that he boih made away with the life 01*6 to divites^ 
4<J- — Nefasto die. Compare note on Ode ii., 3, 6. — 5. CrcdidenvarQ the 
my part, I believe." The perfect subjunctive is here used with t 
of a present, to express a softened assertion. — 6. Fregisse cermcem. 
" Strangled." Supply laqneo. — Et penetralia^ &c. ** And sprinkled the 
inmost parts of his dwellmg with the bUx)d of a gttest slain in the night- 
season." To violate the ties of hospitality was ever deemed one of the 
greatest of crimes. — 8. Ille venena Colcha^ &c. "He was wont to handle 
Colchian poisons, and to perpetrate whatever wickedness is any where 
conceived," &c., i. e., all imaginable wickedness. The zeugma in tracta 
vit is worthy of notice. Observe the force of the aorist in tractavit^ as in 
dicating custom or habit. — VeJiena Colcka. The name and skill of Medea 
gave celebrity, among the poets, to the poisons of Colchis. Colcka for 
Colckica. — 11. Triste lignum. "Unlucky tree." Lignum marks con- 
tempt. — Caducum. Equivalent here to "quod prope casurum erat." 

13-18. 13. Quid quisque vitet, &,e. "Man is never sufficiently aware 
of the danger that he has every moment to avoid." — 14. /-f tsiporum. Al- 
luding to the Thracian Bosporus, which was considered peculiarly dan- 
gerous by the early mariners on account of the Cyanean rocks at tbe en- 
trance of the Buxine. — 17. Sagittas et celerem fugam Parthi. Compare 
note on Ode i., 19, 11. — 18. Italum robur. "An Italian prison." The 
term robur appears to allude particularly to the well-known prison at 
EKome called TulliarMm. It was originally built by Ancus Marrins, and 
afterward enlarged by Servius TuUius, whence that part of it which was 
under gi*ound, and built by him, received the name of Tullianum. Thus 
Varro {L. L ■. 4) observes : " In hoc, par& qua sub terra Tullianum^ idee 
q-uod addituiTi a TtiIUo rege." The fuL expression is " Tullianum ro* 
bur,'' from its walls having been originally of oak. In this prison, captive 
monarchs, after having been led through the streets of Rome in triumph« 
were confined, and either finally beheaded or starved to death. 

30-28. 20. Improviaa Icti vis, dec. " The unforeseen at^ack of death 
has harried off, and will continue to hurry off the nations of the world."— 
21. Qua m pane furva, Sec. " How near were we to behoWics tliu realmt 




iZS KXPIiANATOBY NOTES. DOOK II.. OVB XIII. 

D( lable Pioseqiina." — 22. Judicantem. ''Dispensinf^jnaticc. " PUto, ic 

til Gorgieu (p. 524, A.), re{ resenta JKacas aa judging the shades fiviT*: 

Jfiarupe, and Bhadamaotha* those frum Asia, while Micas sat ns 8U{>reiue 

iudge to hear appeals. The case of Horace, therefore, would have fallen 

under the jarisdiction of iEacus. — 23. Sedesque di*cr^ia» piorum. "The 

separate abodes of the pious," t. c, the abodes of the good separated bam 

those of the wicked. Tlte allusion is to the Elysian Fields.-— 24. jSoliis 

^Unu quereniem^ dec. ** Sappho, complaining on her iEolian lyre of the 

sels of her native island." Sappho, the famooa poetess, was born 9% 

j^ ene, in the island of Lesbos, and as she wrote in tlie £olic dialect, 

^^' was that of her native island, Horace has designated her Ijnre by 

. . ^et of •* iBolian." — ^26. Et te tonantem plenivs aureo, Ac. "An 

the '^^'^^ sounding forth in deeper strains, with thy golden qaill, the 

2 S'culu^^ ocean, the hardships of exile, the hardships of war." Alcseas, 

.1* iiggfg Jdytilene, in the island of Lesbos, was contemporary with t3ap> 

A. j>s, and Stesichoros 'CliiUon's Fasli Hellenici^ p. 5, 2d erf.), 

to unrestrair* ^®^^ ^^^ *"• resistance to tyranny and his unsettled life, af 

oerson of HP^^°^^^^"'* ^^^"^{s <uded Pittacus to deliver his country 

I* • ^^nts which oppressed it, he quarrelled with this friend when 

le of Mytilene had placed uncontrolled power in the hands of the 

(atter, and some injurious verses which be composed against Pittacus 

caused himself and his adherents to be driven into exile. An endeavor 

so return by force of arms proved unsuccessful, and AIcsbus fell into the 

power of his former friend, who, forgetting all that had passed, generously 

granted him both life and freedom. In his odes AIcobus treated of various 

topics. At one time he inveighed against tyrants ; at another, he deplored 

the misfortunes which had attended him, and the pains of exile ; while, 

on other occasions, he celebrated the praises of Bacchus and the goddess 

of love. He wrote in the iSolic dialect. 

29-39. 29. Utnimqve xacrOt &c. " The disembodied spirits listen with 
admiration to each, as they pour forth strains worthy of being heard in 
sacred silence." At the ancient sacred rites the most profound silencu 
was required from all who stood around, both out of respect to tbe deity 
whom they were worshipping, as also lest some ill-omened expression, 
casually uttered by any one of the crowd, should mar the solemnities ot 
the day. Hence the phrase " sacred silence" became eventually equiva- 
lent to, and is here used generally as "the deepest silence." — 30. Sedma 
gis pugncM, &JC. " Bat the gathering crowd, pressing with their shoulders 
to hear, drink in with more delight the narrative of conflicts and of tyrants 
driven from their thrones." The phrase " Oibil aurc" (literally, "drink in 
with the ear") is remarkable for its lyric boldness. — 33. Illis carminilm* 
itupens. " Lost in stupid astonishment at those strains." — 34. DemitUt 
* Hangs down." — Bellua centiccps. Cerberus. Hesiod assigns him onlj 
fifty heads. {Thcog., 312.) Sophocles styles him 'Aidov TpiKpavov (jku 
XoKO. {Track., 1114.) — 37. Quin et Prometheus, &c. "Both Prome 
tbeus, too, and the father of Pelops, are cheated by the sweet melody iuh* 
ft fargetfulness of their sufferings." Deci}^lur labornm is a GrsBoiam 
By PdofiU farens is meant Tantalus. — 39. Orion. Consult n >te on Qd6 
kii, r,7l. 



JSXI'LANATORY NOTES. HOOK II., ODE XV 32if 

OuK XIV. Adaressed to a rich bat avaricious friend, whom aaxiet;^ 
for the future debarred from every kind of present pleasure. Ihe poel 
depicts, iu strong and earnest language, the shortness if life, the certainty 
of death, and thus strives to incnlcate his favorite Ep' .ureau maxim, that 
existence should be enjoyed while it lasts 

1-27. 1. Fugaces labiintur anni. " Fleeting years glide swiftly by.** 
—3. iHstanti. "Rapidly advancing." Pressing on apac^.— 5. Non ii 
treeenist Ac. " No, my friend, (it will bring widi it no delay), even though 
ttioa strive to appease the inexorable Pluto with three hundred bulls for 
•very day that passes ; Pluto, who confines," &c. After Tion supply mo 
mm qfferel. — 7. Ter amplum Geryonen, " Geiyon, monster of triple size.'' 
.Alluding to the legend of Geryon slain by Hercules. — T'Uyon. Tityoa, 
son of Terra, attempting to offer violence to I'i»tona, was slain by the 
3UT0WS of Apollo and Diana. — 9. Scilicet omnibus ePMviganda. " That 
stream which must be traversed by us all." Observe the force o( scilicet, 
which we liave expressed by a repetition of the noun undo. — 10. Terra 
munere. " The bounty of the earth." — Reges. Equivalent here to divites, 
a common usage with Horape. — 12. Coloni. ' Tenants." Compare the 
explaaation of Orelli : " Qui agrum alienum colunt, vcl mercede, vel pen- 
sionem domino solventes." — 18. Cocytos, One of the fabled rivers of th« 
lower world. — Danai genus infame. Alluding to the ttory of the Danal- 
ilss. — 19. Damnatus longi laboris. ** Condemned to eternal toil." An 
mitation of the Greek construction. Thus KaTayvuatslc ^avuTOV. — 23. 
£nvisas cupressus. " The odious cypresses." The cypress is here said 
to be the only tree that will accompany its possessor to (he grave, in allu 
£ion to the custom of placing cypresses around the funeral piles and the 
tombs of the departed. A branch of cypress was also (placed at the door 
xi the deceased, at least if he was a person of consequence, to prevent the 
Pontifex Maximus from entering, and thereby being poUated. This tree 
was sacred to Pluto, because, when once cut, it was supposed never to 
grow again. Its dark foliage also renders it peculiarly pioper for a func' 
real tree. — 24. Brevem dominum. " Their short-lived master." — 25. Dig- 
nior. ** More worthy of enjoying them." — ^^6. Servata centum clavibus. 
•* Guarded beneath a hundred keys." Equivalent merely to diligentis- 
sime servata. — 27. Huperbis pontijicum potiore canis. " Superior to that 
which is quaffed at the costly banquets of the pontiffs." The banquets of 
the pontiffs, and particularly of the Salii, were so splendid as to pass intc 
a proverb. — Some editions read superhum, agreeing with pavimentufn^ 
and the phrase will then denote the tessolated pavements of antiquity. 
Orelli and others read superbo, agreeing with mere. 



Ode XV. The poet invoighs against the wanton and luxurious expen* 
diture of the age, and contrasts it with the strict frugality of earlier Uues 

1-7. I. Jam. "Soon." — Regiti moles. " Palace-like structures." A.I- 
bding to the splendid dwellings or villas of the Roman nobility, scattered 
over Italy. — 3. Lucrino lacu. The Lucrine lake was in the vicinity of 
BaifB, on the Campanian shore. It was, properly speaking, a part of the 
flea slKit in by a dike thrown across a narrow inlet. The lake h<ui ent^o- 
ly disappeared, o'vin^ to a subtarraueous eription which took planv 'v 



S3U EXI ..ANA. iKY N3TE8. BOOK II., ODR XVI. 

I538« whereby the hill called Monte Nuovo was rauoil. and tbu vratoi 
displaced. This lake was famed for its oysters aiid other shell i}iih. — 
StqgAa, "Fish-ponds." Bqaivalent here to piscina.^'Platanusqut 
ealebSf &c. '* And the nnwcdded pianc-tree snail take the plane of the 
elms." The plane-tree was merely ornamental, whereas the elm« wei« 
useful for rearing the vines. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that utility 
shall be made to yield to the mere gratification of the eye. The plane> 
tree was never employed for rearing the vine, and hence is called arieb^t 
whereas the elm was chiefly used for this purpose. — 5. Violaria. ** Bedi 
of violets."-^. Myrtus. Nominative plural, fourth declension. — Omnti 
copia narium. " All the riches of the smell," t. «., every fragrant flower. 
L'terally, " all the abundance of the nostrils." — 1. Spar gent olivetis odorem, 
"rihall scatter their perfume along the olive grounds," t.e., the olive shall 
he made to give place to the violet, the myrtle, and every sweet-scented 
plant. 

9-20. 9. Fervidos ictut. Understand salts. — 10. Non ita Romul% &c. 
" Such is not the rule of conduct prescribed by the examples of Romulus 
and the unshorn Cato, and by the simple lives of our fathers." As regards 
the epithet intonsh which is intended to designate the plain and austere 
mauners of Cato, consult note on Ode i., 12, 41. — 13. Privatus illis^ &c. 
" Their private fortunes were small, the public resources extensive." — 
14. Nulla decempedis, &c. " No portico, measured for private individuals 
by rods ten feet in length, received the cool breezes of the North." The 
decempeda was a pole ten feet long, used by the agrimensores in meas 
nring land. The allusion is to a portico so large in size as to be measured 
by rods of these dimensions, as also to the custom, on the part of tl>e Bo- 
mans, of bavins those portions of their villas that were to be occupied in 
summer facing the north. The apartments intended for winter were turn- 
ed toward the south, or some adjacent point. — 17. Nee fortuitum^ &c. 
" Nor did the laws, while they ordered them to adorn their towns at the 
public charge, and the temples of the gods with new stone, permit thera 
(in rearing their simple abodes) to reject the turf which chance might have 
thrown in their way.' The meaning of the poet is simply this : private 
abodes ip those days were plain and unexpensive: the only omameutaJ 
structures were such as were erected for the purposes of the state or the 
V^rorship of the gods. — 20. Novo saxo. The epithet novo merely refers to the 
circumstance of stune being in that early age a new [i. e., unusual) materia/ 
for private abodes, and appropriated solely to edifices of a public nature. 



Ode XVI. All men are anxious for a life of repose, but all do not pur 
sue the true path for attain! ng this desirable end. It is to be found neither 
In the possession of riches, nor in the enjoyment of public honors. The 
contented man is alono successful in the search, and the more so from hia 
3(mstaut!y remembering that perfect happiness is nowhere to be found 
»n earth. Such is a faint outline of this beautiful ode, and which proves, 
ire tnist, how totally unfounded is the criticism of Lord Kaimes {Elements, 
tcL i., p. 37), with refe.'ence to what be is pleased to consider its want of 
tonnectiou. 

1 15. l.Otium " For repose." — Impotenti. "Sto«*ray.'' Thcooirjtiia 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I ., ODE XVI 33' 

lext has mpaUnti. We have given impoienti with Bentley ami otliera — 
^. Pressus Understand periculo. The coramon reading is preiisiis. — St 
nul. For $ \mul ac. — 3. Condidil LuAam. "Has shrouded the moon from 
riew " — Cei'ta. "With steady lustre." — 5. Thrace. The Greek nom- 
inative, Qp^Kij, for Thracia. — 6. Mcdi pharctra decori. " The Parthiana 
adorned with the quiver." Compare note on Ode i., U M. — ^7. Grospke 
non gemmist Sec. In construing, repeat the term olium "Repose, O 
Qrosphus, not to be purchased by gems, nor by purple, nor by gold." — 
0. Gaza. " The wealth of kings." — Consniaris lictor. ** The lictor of the 
consul." Each consul was attended by twelve lictors. It was one of theif 
duties to remove the crowd [turbam submoverc) and clear the way for tha 
magistrates whom they attended. — 11. Curas lagueata circum, &,c. "The 
cares that hover around the splendid ceilings of the great." Laqueata 
tecta is here rendered in general language. The phrase properly refers 
to ceilings formed into raised wcrk uid hollows by beams cutting each 
other at right angles. The beams and the interstices {laeus) were adorn 
ed with rich carved work and with gilding or paintings. — 13. Viviturpar 
vo bene, &c. " That man lives happily on scanty means, whose patema 
salt-cellar glitters on his frugal board." In other words, that man is hap- 
py who deviates not from the mode of life pursued by his forefathers, who 
retains their simple household furniture, and whose dwelling is the abode 
not only of frugality, but of cleanliness. Viritur is taken impersonally 
understand iV/i. — 14. Salinum. Among the ]Kinr, a shell served for a salt- 
cellar ; but all who were raised above poverty had one of silver, which 
descended from father to son and was accompanied by a silver plate or 
patten, which was used, together with the 8alt*cellar, in the domestic sac- 
rifices. — 15. Cupido sordidus. •• Sordid avarice." 

17-26. 17. Qidd brcvi fortes, &c. "Why do we, whose strength is of 
short duration, aim at many things? Why do we change our own for 
lands warming beneath another sun ? What exile from his country is «n 
exile also fh}m himself?" After mutamus understand nostra {scil. terra), 
the ablative denoting the instrument of exchange ; and as regards the 
meaning of the phrase brcvi fortes cbvo, compare the explanation ofBraun- 
hard : " Quid nos, qui ad brete tern pus Jloremus, valemns, et vivimus,mul 
ta nobis proponimus,*' &c. — 19. Patrite quis exsul. Some commentators 
regard the expression patrite exsul as pleonastic, and connect patrim with 
the previous clause, placing after it a mark of interrogation, and making 
it an ellipsis for patrite sole. — 20. Se quoquefugit. Referring to the cares 
and anxieties of the mind. — 21. jflratas naves. " The brazen-beaked 
galleys." The ancient ships of war usually had their beaks covered with 
plates of brass. — Vitwsa aura. "Corroding care." — 23. Agente nimbos 
**As it drives onward the tempests." — 25. L<Btus in prtBsens, &c. "Let 
tlie mind that is contented with its present lot dislike disquieting itself 
about the events of the future." —26. Lento risu. " With a careless 
smile,'' t. e., with the cidm smlU jf philosophic indifference. Lentus here 
to passionless, as opposed to violcntus. The common readings is laUo, 

30-38. 30. Titho-iium minuit. " Wasted away the powers of Tithe 
nna."— i32. Mora. " The :-hanging fJjrtune of the hour." (Compare JRuhu 
ken, ad Veil. Pa fere., ii., 18, p. 127.)— 34. Hinnitum. The last syllable 
bciu^cnt vff befare <pta by ectiilips!.*) ar i synalospha, n% bscumes <he last 



692 KAPlMNATOay NOTES. BOUK II., (JDE XVn. 

■yllable of the verse, and may conseqaently be luado short.— 35. Apttk 
quadri^is. "Fit for the chariot." The poet mertviy wishes to express 
the generoos properties of the animal. The ancients gave the preforeuoo 
in respect of swiftness to mares. The term quadriga properly denotes i 
chariot drawn by foar horses or mavea. The Romans always yoked the 
animals that drew their race-chariots abreast. Nero dnive a decemjugu 
at Olympia, bat this was an nnasual extravagance. — Bit Afro muriu 
tinet<B. Vestments twice dyed were called dibapha {di^a^c^. The ob 
lect of this process was to communicate to the garment what was deemed 
Ifae most valaable parple, resembling the color of clotted blood, and of a 
blackish, shining appearance. The purple of the ancients was obtained 
from the juice of a shell-fish called murex, and found at Tyre, in Asia Mi- 
nor ; in Mcninx, an island near the Syrtls Minor ; on the Gastulian shore 
of the Atlantic Ocean, in Africa, and at the Taeoarian promontory in thv 
Peloponnesus. — 37. Parva rura. Alludius^ to his Sabine farm. — 38. Spir- 
itutn GraicBt Slc. " Some slight inspiration of the Grecian muse," i, e., 
some little talent for lyric verse 



Oos XVII. Addressed to Maecenas, languishing under a protracted and 
painful malady, and expecting every moment a termination of his exist- 
ence. The poet seeks to call uflT the thoughts of his patron and friend 
from so painful a subject, and while he descants in strong and feeling lan- 
guage on the sincerity of his own attachment, and on his resolve to accom- 
pany him to the grave, he Bi>f ks, at the same time, to inspire him with 
brighter hopes, and with the prospect of recovery from the hand of disease 

The constitution of Miecenas, naturally weak, had been impaired by 
effeminacy and luxurious living. ** He had labored," observes Mr. Dun 
lop, " from his youth under a perpetual fever ; and for many years before 
his death he suf!'ere.d much from watchfulness, which was greatly aggra 
vated by his domestic chagrins. Maecenas was fond of life and enjoy 
ment, and of life even without enjoyment. He confesses, in some verses 
preserved by Seneca, that he would wish to live even under every accu- 
mulation of physical calamity. {Seneca^ Epint.^ 101.) Hence he aiix 
iously resorted to different remedies for the cure or relief of this distress- 
ing malady. Wine, soil; music sounding at a distance, and various other 
contrivances, were tried in vain. At length Antonius Musa, the imperial 
physician, obtained for him some alleviation of his complaint by means of 
distant symphonies and the murmuring of falling water. But all these 
resources at last failed. The nervous and feverish disorder with which 
be was afflicted increased so dreadfully, that for three years before hii 
jeath he never closed his eyes." [History of Roman Literature^ vol. iii., 
p. 42, Lond. ed.) 

Whether this ode was written shortly before his dissolution, or at some- 
orevious porioa, can not be ascertained, nor is it a point of much imp(>rtance 

1-14. 1. Querelis. Alluding to Uie complaints of Miccenaa at the 
dreaded approach of death. Consult Introductory Remarks to this ode.— ' 
3 Obire. Understand morr^m, or diem suprem\»m. — 5. Mc(b partem an* 
Mur. " The one half of my existence." A fond expression of int/mat< 
friendship. — 6. Maturior vis. "Too early a blow," i. <?., an untimel5 
death. — Quid mora? altera, &c. ""Why do I, th<» remaining porlir , lio 



ISXPLANArOKY NOTES.- -BOCK II., ODE XVIIi. 339 

get here behind, neither equally dear to myself, nor survivinjj entire ? — 
9. Utramqnc ducel ruinam. "Will bring ruin to us each." — 10. Sacra 
meiUum. A iigarative allusion to the oath taken by the Roman soldiers, 
the terms of which were, that they would be faithful to their commander, 
and follow wherever he led, were it even to death. — 11. Utcunque, 
Equivalent to quandocunqne. — 1 4. Gyas. One of the giants t^iat attempt* 
ed to scale the heavens. He was hurled to Tartarus by the thnuderbolti 
of Jove, and there lay prostrate and in fetters. Goettling reads Fvi/c* i** 
Hesiod, Theog.^ 149, which would make the Latin form Gyes. We hB.\$ 
Uowed Meinecke and others in giving Gyas* 

17-28. 17. Adspicit. " Presides over my existence." The reference 
IS here to judicial astrology, according to which pretended science, the 
■tars that appeared above the horizon at the moment of one's birth, aa 
well as their particular positions with reference to each other, were sup- 
posed to exercise a decided influence «pon, and to regulate the life of the 
individual. — 18. Pars violentior^ &c. "The more dangerous portion of 
the natal hDur.". — 19. Capricornus. The rising and setting of Capricor- 
nns was usually attended with storms. (Compare Propcrtius^ iv., 1, 107.) 
Hence the epithet aquosus is sometimes applied to this constellation. In 
astrology, Libra was deemed favorable, while the influence of Scorpiug 
and Capricornus was regarded as malign. — 20. Utrumque nostrum^ &c. 
•* Our respective horoscopes agree in a wonderful manner." The term 
horoscope is applied in astrology to the position of the stars at the moment 
of one's birth. Mitscherlich explains the idea of the poet as follows : "/n 
quocunque zodiaci sidere koroscopus meusfuerit inventus, licet diveiso n 
tui horoscopi sidere, tamen koroscopus mens cum tuo quam maxima con- 
tentiat necesse est." — 21. Impio Salurno. "From baleful Saturn." — 23 
Refulgens. "Shining in direct opposition." — 26. Latum ter creputt so- 
num. "Thrice raised the cry of joy." Acclamation)i raised by the peo- 
ple on account of the safety of Maecenas. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 3. 
— 28. Sustulerat. For sustulis set. The indicative here imparts an siroi 
liveliness to the representation, though in the conditional clause the snb* 
jonctive is used. {Zumpt, ^ 519, b.) As regards the allusion of the poet, 
compare Ode ii. 13. 



Ot)K XVIII. The poet, whfle be censures the luxury and profusion o( 
the age, describes himself m contented with little, acceptable to many 
friends, and far happier than those who were blessed with the gifts of for- 
tune, but ignorant of the true mode of enjoying them. 

1-7. 1 . Aureum law naj . " Fretted ceiling overlaid with gold." Com 
pure note ca Ode ii., IP, 11. — 3. Trabes Hymettia. " Beams of Hymettiar 
Aarble." The term trabes here includes the architrave, frieze, cornice, &f 
The marble of Hymcttus was held in high estimation by the Gomaiis 
0omi; editions have Hymetlias, and in the following line recisa^ so thai 
crabcs lecisa ultima Africa will refer to African marble, and Hymettiai 
solumnas to Hyraettian wood ; but the wood of Hymettus does ndt appear 
to have ^eou thought valuable by the Romans. — Ultima rccisas Africa 
Alluding to tho Numidian marble. The kind most highly prized had a 
dark snrfarc variegated with spots — 6. AUali. Attalus the Third, famed 



534 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., OI#Aj AViT:. 

for his inimense riches, left the kiugdum of Pergpjnus and all Lis tieaiiurei 
by will to the Roman people ; at least, such was the construction which 
the latter put upon it. (Compare Duker^ ad Flor,^ ii., 30.) After hii 
deatl), Aristonicas, a natural son of Bumenes, father of Attains (Livy, 
xlv., 19; jHslin^ xxxvi., 4), laid claim to the kingdom, hat was dcfeatet 
by the consul Perpema and carried to Home, where he was ^vt to death 
2a prison. It is to him that the poet alludes under the appellation ^ h.4tres 
ignotug. — 7. Nee Laconicas mihi, &c. *' N'^r do female dependents, of no 
ig;noble birth, spin for me the Spartan purpie." The purple of Laconiai 
obtained in tlie vicinity of the Teenarian promontory, was the most highly 
prized. Compare note on Ode ii., 16, 35. By honesta elicnUe are meant 
female clients of free birth ; not freed women, but citizens working for 
^eir patronus. 

9-22. 9. At fde^ el ingenl^ &c. "But integrity is mine, and a liberai 
Teinoftalent." — 13. Potentem amicnm. Alluding to Maecenas — 14. Satit 
beatuSt &c. " Sufficiently happy with my Sabine farm alone.' — 15. Tru- 
ditur diea <Jin. The train of thought appears to be as follows: Contented 
with my slender fortune, I am the less solicitous to enlarge it, when I re- 
flect on the short span of human existence. How foolishly then do they 
act, who, when day is chasing day in rapid succession, are led on by their 
eager avarice, or their fondness for display, to form plans on the very brink 
^f the grave. — 16. Pergunt interire. "Hasten onward to their wane." — 
1 7. Tu secanda marmora^ &,c. " And yet thou, on the very brink of tlie 
^ave, art bargaining to l.ave marble cut for an abode." Directly opposed 
to locare, in this sense, is the verb redimere, " to contract to do any thing.' 
whence the term redemlar, " a contractor." — 20. Marisque Baiis^ &.c. B aiae, 
on the Campanian shore, w.is a favorite residence of the Roman nobility, 
cud adorned with beautiful villas. There were namerous warm springf^ 
also in its vicinity, which were considered to possess salutary properties 
for various disorders. — 21. Snmmovei'e. " To push farther into the deep," 
ft. e., to erect moles on which to build splendid structures amid the waters. 
- -22. Pantm lociiples^ iui. " Not rich enough with the shore of the main 
Kvd," i. C-, not satisfied with the limits of the land. 

23-.'>. 23. Quid! quod usque, &c. "What shall I say of this, that 
thou e.von removest the neighboring land-marks?" i. e., why need I tell 
of thy rerc ^ving the land-marks of thy neighbor's possessions 7 The allu 
sion is to the r.'rsh man's encroaching on the grounds of an inferior. This 
offence was tl <i more heinous, since land-marks anciently were invested 
with a sacred chr-acter, as emblems of the god Terminus. — 24. UUra 
sails. 'fLeapest ■•ver." The verb «a/to is here used to express the con- 
temptuous disregard (x" the powerful man for the rights of his dependents 
Hence sails ultra ma/ be freely rendered " contemnest." — 26. Avarus, 
"Prompted by cupidity."- "^7. Fcrens. "Bearing, each." — 28. Sordidos 
"Squalid." In the habil.Taentr of extreme poverty. — 29. Nulla certioi 
tatnen, &c. " And yet no homr awaits the rich master with greater cer- 
tainty than the destined limit of rapacious Orcus." Fine beautifully marks 
the lastlimit of our earthly career. Conre editions have sede instead ofjinc, 
and the use of the latter term in the feminine (jerderhas been mndo proh 
ably the ground for the change. B ut^/iJs i.'* u' e^ i.y t'\c fer^icinc b;' sc me 
'jf the host write '8—32 Quid ultra u'n(?is. M"h • stri es* t]*ou U 



eXPLANATOKY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XIX. 334 

fBOfd V Death mast overtake thee in the midst of thy u>arse.— ^^ur 
cellus. *' The impartial earth." — 34. Regnmqve pueris. Tlie allusion if 
to th») wealthy and powerful. — Satelles Orci, Alluding to Charon.— 
35. CMidum Promethea. Alluding to some fabulous legend respecting 
Prometheus which has not come down to us. — 37. Tantali genus, Pelops, 
Atreus, Thyestes, Agamemnon, Orestes. — 40. Moratus. The common 
ktixt has vovatus, for which we have given the elegant emendation of 
Withofius. Ijevare depends on vocatus. 



Ode XIX. Celebrating, in animated language, the praises of Bacchus, 
and imitated, very probably, from some Greek dithyrambic ode. There 
is nothing, however, in the piece itself to countenance the opmion that it 
was composed for some festival in honor of Baccuas. 

1-30. 1. Carmina docentem. "Dictating strains," t. e., teaching how 
to celebrate his praises in song. Compare the Greek form of expression, 
dtduaKeiv dpufia. As the strains mentioned in the text are supposed to 
have reference to the mysteries of the god, the scene is hence laid in re- 
motis rupibus, " amid rocks far distant from the haunts of men." — 4. Acutas, 
"Attentively listening." Literally, ** pricked up to listen." — 5. Evoel 
The Greek £vo£. The poet now feels himself under the powerful in- 
fiaonce of the god, and breaks forth into the well-known cry of the Bac- 
chantes when they celebrate the orgies. — Rccenti mens trepidat metu, 
kc **My mind trembles with recent dread, and, my bosom being filled 
with the inspiration of Bacchus, is agitated with troubled joy." Both 
trepidat and Uelatur refer to mens, and turbidum is to be construed as 
equivalent to turbide. The arrangement of the whole clause is purpose- 
ly involved, that the words may, by their order, yield a more marked cchc 
to the sense. — Gravi metuende thyrso. Bacchus was thought to inspiro 
with fury by hurling his thyrsus. — 9L Fas pcrvicaccSt Ac. " It is allowed 
me to sing of the stubbornly-raging Bacchantes," i. e., my piety toward 
the god requires that I sing of, &c. — 10. Vinique fontem^ &c. The p#«t 
enumerates the gifts bestowed upon man in earlier ages by the miracu- 
lous powers of the god. At his presence all nature rejoices, and, under 
his potent influence, the earth, struck by the thyrsi of the Bacchautea, 
yields wine and milk, while honey flows from the ti^es. The imagery if 
here decidedly Oriental, and must remind us of that employed in many 
partf of the sacred writings. — 12. Iterarc. " To tell again and again of.' 
-~14. HoHorem. Equivalent to ornamentum or decus. The allusion is to 
the crown of Ariadne [forona boi'ealis)^ one of the constellations, consist 
uig of nine stars. The epithet lteal<Bt applied to Ariadne, refers to hei 
having been translated to the skies, and made one of the " olossed" im- 
mortals. — Penthei. Alluding to the legend of Pentheus, king of Thebes, 
who was torn in pieces by his own mother and her sisters, and his palace 
overthrown by Bacchus. — 16. Lycurgi. Lycurgus, king of the Edones iu 
Thrace, punished for having driven the infant Bacchus from hi? kingdom 
•••IS. Tu Jleclis amneSf &c. "Thou tumest backward the courses of 
riTers, thou swayest the billows of the Indian Sea." Alluding to the won 
dcTS performed by Bacchus in his fabled conquest of India and other ri^ 
pooffi of the East. The rivers here meant are the Oroutcs and Hydaspea 
—28. Tu spparatis iVc " Ou t'lc lonely raourlain tups, moist Arith v« u\e 



9HQ BVPL.'lNATORI NOTES. BOOK It,, ODE \X, 

iboa iTonfinest. without barm to them, the locks of the Bacchantes wltii t 
knot of vipers," t. e., onder thy influence, the Bacchantes tie up their luckti 
Jcr» — ^20. Bistonidvm. Literally, "of the female Bistones." Hore, how 
ever, equivalent to Bacckarum. 

93-31 ;i23. I^fionin unguibtis. Bacchus was fabled to have assumed oo 
this occasion the form of a lion. — 35. Quanqnam choreist dtc ** Though 
•aid to be fitter for dances and festive mi .th." — ^26. Non got idoneus. **Ndl 
equally well suited." — 27. Sed idem^ &c. " Yet, on that occasion, thou, 
Che saine deity, didst become the arbiter of peace and of war." The poet 
itieans to convey the idea that the intervention of Bacchus alone put an 
end to the conflict. Had ^lot Bao^hns lent his aid, the battle must have 
been longer in its duration, and diiferent perhaps in its issue. — 29. Insons 
"Without offering to harm." Bacchus descended to the shades for the 
purpose of bringing back his mother Semele. — Aureo eornu decaras. A 
figurative illustration of the power of the god. The horn was the well- 
known emblem of power among the ancients. — 31. Et rccedentis trilingui^ 
9tc.. The power of the god triumphs over the fierce guardian of the shades, 
who allows egress to none that have once entered the world of spirits. 



Ode XX. The bard presages his own immortality. Transformed intc 
a swan, he will soar away from the abodes of men, nor need the empty 
honors of a tomb. 

1-23. 1. Non usitata^ &c. " A bard of twofold form, I shall be borne 
through the liquid air on no common, no feeble pinion." The epithet 
biformis alludes to his transformation from a human being to a swan, 
which is to take place on the approach of death. Then, becoming the 
favored bird of Apollo, he will soar aloft on strong pinions beyond the 
reach of envy and del;raction. The common text has nee tenuis but we 
have read non tenui, as more forcible, with Mitscherlich. Doring, and 
others. — 4. Invidiaqne major. " And, beyond the reach of envy." — 5. Pau 
perum sanguis parentum. "Though the off^spring of humble parents." — 
8. Non ego quern vocas, &c. " I, whom thou salutest, O Meecenas, with 
the title of beloved friend, shaU never die." Dilecie is here a quotation, 
and therefore follows vocas as a kind of accusative , in other words, it is 
taken, as the grammarians express it, materially. The reading of this 
paragraph is much contested. According to that adopted in our text, the 
meaning of the poet is, that the friendship of Maecenas will be one of his 
surest passports . to the praises of posterity. — 9. Jam jam residunt^ &c. 
**Now, even now, the roiij^h skin is settling on my legs." Tlie transforma 
tion is already begun : loy legs are becoming those of a swan. — 11. Su 
perna. "Aoove." The neuter of the adjective used adverbially. Quod 
ad superna corporis membra attinet. — Nascunturque leves plumtE. "And 
the downy plumage is forming." — Notior. The common text has ocioTt 
which appears objectionable in a metrical point of view, since the word, 
as it stands in the common text, presents a solitary instance of a vowel in 
kiatu between the iambic and dactylic parts of the verse. From the na- 
ture, also, and succession of the metrical ictus, the final letter of DadaJyn 
is left even without the pretence of ictus to support it as a long syllable 
Bcntley conjectures tutior but this seems too bold a change. — 14. Bospari 



EXrLANATORV NOTES. BOCK £1., ODE XX 337 

OonBLlt note .i. Ode ii., 13, 14. — 15. Syrlesque Gtetulas, Cousalt note ol 
Ode i., 22, 4. — Canorus ales. " A bird of melodiona note." Consult note 
on Ode i., 6, 2. — 16. Hyperboreosqne campos. "And the Hyperborean 
fields," t. «., the farthest plains of the north. More literally, ** the plains 
beyond the northern blast." — 17. El qui dissimulate &c. AUading to the 
Parthian. The Morsi were regarded as the bravest portion of the Ro- 
man armies, and hence Marstt is here equivalent to Romana, Consul* 
note on Ode l, S, 39. — 18. Dacvs. Consult note on Ode i., 35, 9. — 19. G<v 
loni. Consult note on Ode ii., 9, 23. — Peritus Iber. *• The learned Spau 
iard." The Spaniards imbibed a literary taste fram the Romans, as these 
ast had from the Greeks. — 20. Rhodaniqve potor. "And he who quaffs 
tlie waters of the Rhone." The native of Gaul.— 22. Turpes. " Unman* 
•y." —23. Supervacuos. The poet will need no tonr.b : death will nevei 
claim him for his own, since he is destined to live foifcver in the praisev 

P 



BOOK TIL 



OvB I T!.ie general train of thonglit in this beautiful Odu is pimfly ai 
failowi : True happiness consists not in the possession cf po>irer of pabli 
Itonon, (/r of extensive riches, but in a tranquil and contented mind. 

1-4. 1. Odi profanum vulgus^ &c. '* I hate the uninitiated crowd, and 
i keep them at a distance." Speaking as tbe priest of the Muses, and be* 
idg about to disclose their sacred mysteries (in other words, the precepts 
of true wisdom) to the favored few, the poet imitates the form of language 
by which the uninitiated and profane were directed to retire from tbe 
oiystic rites of the gods. The rules of a happy life can not be compre- 
bendt .1 and may be abused by the crowd. — 2. Favete Unguis. ** Preserve 
a religions silence." Literally, " favor me with your tongues." We have 
Qcte another form of words, by which silence and attention were enjoin- 
ed on the true worshippers. This was required, not only from a piinciple 
3f religious respect, bat also lest some ill-omened expression might casual* 
(y fall from those who were present, and mar the solemnities of the oc- 
casion. Compare the Greek €V(f>i]uelTe. — Carmina non print audita 
"Strains before unheard." There appears to be even here an allusion *.j 
the language and forms of the mysteries in. which new and important 
truths were promised to be disclosed. — 4. Virginibus puerisque canto. 
Tbe poet supposes himself to be dictating his strains to a chorus of virgin« 
and youths. Stripped of its fisrurative p:arb, the idea intended to be con- 
veyed will be simply this ; that the bard wishes his pH'ecepts of a happy 
ife to bef carefully treasured up by the young. 

5-14. 5. Regum timendorum, kc. The poet now unfolds his subject 
Kings, he observes, are elevated far above the ordinary ranks of men, but 
Jove is mightier than kings themselves, and can in an instant humble 
their power in the dust. Royalty, therefore, carries with it no peculiar 
"claims to the enjoyment of happiness. — In proprios greges. "Over their 
own flocks." Kings are the shepherds of their people. — 9. Cuncta super 
cilio moventis. ••Who shakes the universe with his nod." Compare 
Homer, 11. , i., 528. — 9. Est ut viro vir, dec. " U happens that one man 
arranges his trees at greater distances in the trenches than another,'* 
i. e , possesses wider domains. The Romans were accustomed to plant 
their vines, olive-trees, &c., in trenches or small pits. Some editions have 
Esto for Est : " Q-rant that one man," &:c., or " suppose that." — 10. Hie 
fcnerosior descendaty Sec. "That this one descends into the Campus Mar- 
tius a nobler applicant for office." — '^. Moribus hie meliorqve fama, &c 
Alluding to the novushomo, or man of ignoble birth. — 14. ^qua lege Ne» 
cessitas, &c. " Still, Necessity, by an impartial law, draws forth the lota 
of the high and the lowly ; the capacious urn keeps in constant agitatioc 
the names of all." Necessity is here represented holding her capacioui 
urn containing the names jf all. She keeps the urn in constant agitation, 
and the lots that come forth from it every instant are the signals of deatt 
to Lho individuals Mhose names are inscribed on them. The train 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK HI., ODE I, 8311 

kboagnt, commencing w.th the third stanza, is as follows : Neither ezteuf 
live posiCBsions, nor elevated birth, nor parity of character, nor crowds 
of dependents, are in themselves sufficient to procare lasting felicity, since 
death sooner or later must close the scene, and bring all our schemes of 
irtterest and ambition to an end. 

17-^1. 17. Destrictus ensis. An allusion to the well-known story of 
Damocles. The connection in the train of ideas between this and the pre- 
v*eding stanza is as follows : Independently of the stern necessity of death, 
the wealthy and the powerful are prevented by the cares of riches and 
ambition from attaining to the happiness which they seek. — 18. Non Sieu- 
Ub dopes, &c. " The most exquisite viands will create no pleasing relish 
in him, over whose impious neck," dec. The expression Sicuia dapes is 
equivalent here to exquisitisstma epul<B. The luxury of the Sicilians in 
their banquets became proverbial. — 20. Amum cithartBque cantus. ** The 
melody of birds and of the lyre." — 24. Non Zcphyris agitata Tempe 
'* She disdains not Tempe, fanned by the breezes of the west." Tempe 
is here put for any beautiful and shady vale. Consult note on Ode i., 7. 4. 
— 25. Dcsidcrantem quod satis est, &c. According to the poet, the man 
" who desires merely what is sufficient for his wants," is free from all the 
cmrcs that bring disquiet to those who are either already wealthy, or ea& 
eager in the pursuit of gain. His repose is neither disturbed by ship, 
wrecks, nor by looses in agricultural pursuits. — Arcturi. Arctums is n 
star of the first magnitude, in the constellation of Bootes, near the tail of 
the Great Bear (dp/crof, ovpu). Both its rising and setting were accom 
panied by storms. — 28. Hcedi. The singular for the plural. The H<Bdi, 
or kids, are two stars on the arm of Auriga. Their rising is attended by 
stormy weather, as is also their setting. — 30. Mendax. " Which disap- 
points his expectations." Compare Epist., i., 7, 87 : '* Spem mentita se- 
ges." — Arhore. Taken collectively, but still with a particular rcferencn 
to the olive. — Aquas. ••The excessive rains." — 31. Torrentia agros si' 
dera "The influence of the stars parching the fields." Alluding partic- 
alarly to Sirius, or the dog-star, at the rising of which the trees were apt 
to contract a kind of blight^ or blast, termed sideratio, and occasioned by 
the excessive heat of the sun. Compare note on Ode i., 17, 17. 

S3-4'*. 33. Contracta pisces, &c. In order to prove how little the mere 
possession of riches can minister to happiness, tlie poet now adverts to 
the various expedients practiced by the wealthy for the purpose of ban- 
tshiug disquiet from their breast;s, and of removing the sated feelings that 
continually oppressed them. They erect the splendid villa amid the wa- 
ters of the ocean, but fear, and the threats of conscience, become also \*m 
inmates. They journey to foreign climes, but gloomy care accompanies 
them by sea and by land. They array themselves in the costly purple, 
oat it only hides an aching heart; nor can the wine of Falernus, or the 
perfumes of the East, bring repose and pleasure to their minds. "Why, 
then," exclaims the bard, " am I to exchange my life of simple happiness 
fiir the splendid but deceitful pageantry of the rich V — 34. Jactis in altwn 
moltbus. " By the md.es built out into the deep." Consult note on Odt 
iu, 18, 20, — Frequens redemtor cum famulis. "Many a contractor with 
his attendant workmen." Consult note on Ode ii., 18^ 18 — ^35. Ctjementa. 
By C(Btnen(a ve here meant rough and broken stones, m they como frntr 



SiO EXPLANATORY NOTES. — DOO.C III., OOB 11. 

(1)0 qaarry, nied for the purpose of filling ap, and of no great eize. ~ Ji^ 
Terr<B foitidioiUB. ''Loathing the land," t. c, weary of the lann, nwt 
Qenee bailding, as it were, on the sea. Compare Ode ii^ 18, 22 : ^t^amnk 
u)cupiet continente ripa." — 37. Timor et MintB, " Fear and the. threa 
of conscience." — tl. Phrygiui lapis. Referring to the marble of Synuada. 
in Phrygia, which was held in high estimation by the Romans. It wai 
3f a white color, variegated with red ipots, and is now called pcujnazxefto 
It was used by Agrippa for the colujnns of the Pantheon. — 4J. Purpura- 
rum iidere clarior usui. " The ase of pnrple coverings, brighter than any 
star." With purpurarum sajiply vesiium, the reference being to the vep 
tea $tragul(By and constni:} clarior as if agreeing with vesiium in case.— 
43. Falerna vitis. Consult note on Ode i , SO, 9. — 44. Ach^Btneniumve cot 
tum. " Or Eastern nard." AchcBmenium is equivalent literally to Perth- 
cum (i. e.. Partkicum). Consult notes on Ode if., 12, 21, and L, 2, 22. — 
45. Invidendis. " Only calculated to excitu the envy of others." — Nova 
ntu, " In a new style of m agnificence." — 47 . Cur valle permulem Sabtna. 
^* Why am I to exchange my Sabine vale for more burdensome riches?" 
I. •;., for riches that only bring with them a proportionate increase of care 
and trouble. Valley as marking the instrument of exchange, is put in tho 
ablative. 



Ode II. The poet exhorts his luxurious countrymen to restore the stncc 
discipline of former days, and train up the young to an acquaintance witb 
the manly virtues which once graced the Roman name. 

1-17. 1. Angustam amid, &c. " Let the Roman youth, robust of 
frame, learn cheerfully to endure, amid severe military exercise, the hard 
privations of a soldier's life." The expression amid pati is somewhat 
analogous to the Greek dyanijTcJc (jtipetv, to bear a thing kindly, i. e., with 
patience and good will. The common text has amici. — Puer. The Ro 
man age for military service commenced after sixteen. — 5. Sub divo. 
"In the open air," t. c, in the field. — Trepidis in rebus. " In the midst 
of dangers," i. c, when danget threatens his country. The poet means, 
that, when his country calls, the young soldier is to obey the summons 
with alacrity, and to shrink from no exposure to the elements. — 7. Mairona 
bellantis tyranni. " The consort of some warring monarch." Bellantis 
is here equivalent to cum Populo Romano bellum gerentis. — 8. Et adulta 
virgo. "And his virgin daughter, of nubile years." — 9. Suspiret, eheul 
ne rudis agminum, &c. " Heave a sigh, and say, Ah ! let not the prince, 
affianced to our line, unexperienced as he is in arms, provoke," &c. By 
sponsus regius is here meant a young lover of royal origin, betrothed te 
the daughter. — 13. Dulce et decorum, &c. Connect the train of ideas ai 
follows : Bravely, then, let the Roman warrior contend against the fosi 
remembering that "it is sweet and glorious to die for one's country."- - 
17. Virtus repulsa nescia, &c. The Roman youth must not, however 
oonfino his attention to martial prowess alone. He must also seek aftei 
true virtue, and the firm precepts of true philosophy. When he has sue 
ceeded in ^his, his will be a moral magistracy, that lies not in the gift of 
the crowd, and in aiming at which lie will never experience a disgraccfuJ 
repulse. His will be a feeling af moral worth, which, as it depends net 
on the breath of popr^ar favor, caii uuitliorle given nor taken awayLy tn^ 



&JLi'L.AN'ArCBk NOTES. — BOOK III., ODK III. ^i 

&Ltbt mil titade. — Secures A figurative allasion to ibe axes aiid fascet 
of ihe lictors, the emblems of ofiice 

21-31 21. Virtus recludens^ &c. The poet mentions another incite 
o&ent to the possession of true virtna the immortality which it confers. — 
B8. Nega'ti via. ** By a way denied to others," t. 6., by means pecaliarlj^ 
her own. — 23. Coetusque vulgares, Ac. "And, soaring on rapid pinioDi 
spams tho vulgar herd and the cloudy atmosphere of earth." As regards 
the force of the epithet vdam here, compare the explanation of OreUi: 
' Crasso aire obsitanij ac propterea minime digiiam in qua virlus more- 
<«rr."— 25. Est et Jideli^ &c. Imitated from Simonides : Ian Kai aiydi 
ixiydvvov yipag. This was a favorite apophthegm of Augustus. [Plut^t 
dpoph.y t. ii., p. 2C?. Fr.) Thus far the allusion to virtue has been general 
ID its nature. I^ now assumes a more special character. Let the Roman 
youth learn in particular the sure reward attendant on good faith, and the 
certain pun'ihment that follows its violation. — 26. Qui Cereris sacrum, 
he. Thoso who divulged the mysteries were punished with death, and 
their property was confiscated. — 29. Phaselon. The phaselvs {(^ariXog) 
was a vessel rather long and narrow, apparently so called from its resem 
blance %o the shape of a phaselns, or kidney-bean. It was chiefly used 
by thv Egyptians, and was of virions sizes, from a mere boat to a vessel 
adapted for a long voyage. It was built for speed, to which more atten- 
tion seems to have been paid Cl.an to its strength, whence the epithetyra 
^em here applied to it by Ho'.ace. — 30. Incesfu uddidit integrum. "In 
volves the innocent with t'.io i;\i\\ty.*' — 31. Raro Antecedentem scelestum.. 
Sec. "Rarely does pnnyjhj:-:Qt, though lame of foot, fail to overtake the 
cricked man moving oi* \e':'ie her," t.c, justice, though often slow, is sure 



Ode hi. Tho rd^ f p ms with the praises of justice and perseverin^ 
irmness. Their r^Ay^^pense is immortality. Of the truth of this remark 
iplendid examples »ie cited, and, among others, mention being made of 
Romalus, the pcet dwells on the circumstances which, to the eye of ima- 
gination, attP'iidtsd his apotheosis. The gods are assembled in solemn 
conclave to decide upon his admission to the skies. Juno, most hostile 
before to the line of iSneas, low declares her assent. Satisfied with past 
triumphs, she allows the fou ider of the Eternal City to participate in the 
ioys of Olympus. The loit}* destinies of Rome are also shadowed forth, 
uid the conquest of nations is promised to her arms. But the condition 
which accompanies this expression of her will is sternly mentioned. The 
city of Troy must never rise from its ashes. Should the descendants of 
Romalus rebuild the detested city, the vengeance of the goddess wiS 
again be exerted for its downfall. 

It is a conjecture of Fabers (Epist., ii., 43) that Horace wishes, in tb 
;,tre8ent ode, to dissuade Augustus from executing a plan he had at this 
time in view, of transferring the scat of empire from Rome to Ilium, and 
of robailding the city of Priam. Suetonius {Vit. Jul.) speaks of a similar 
project in the time of Csesar. Zosimus also states that, in a later age, 
Conatantine actually commenced building a new capital in the plam of 
Troy, bat was soor. induced by the i uperix sitiatiop sf ByzanStoiD to 
akandm his projeut 'Zos.t ii., 30.) 



Si!2 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOR III., CLE II . 

1-22. I. Justum el tenaeem, &c. '*Not the wild fury of his follow citi 
weoM ordering evil measures to be parsaed, nor the look of the threaten 
mg tyrant, nor the soathem blast, the stormy ruler of the restless AdriatiR. 
nor the mighty hand of Jove wielding his thunderbolts, shakos from hif 
settled purpose the man who is just and firm in his resolve." In this nu 
ble stanza, that firmness alone is praised which rests on the basis of in- 
tegrity and justice. — 2. Pravajubentium. Equivalent, in fact, to " iniqvat 
leges feretUiutn." The people were said jubere leges, because the formulf 
by which they were called upon to vote ran thus : Vdiiis, jubeatis Qui 
rites ? {Braunhard^ ad loc.) — T. Si fr actus illabatitr orbis, &c. " If (ha 
■battered heavens descend upm him, the ruins will strike him remaining 
a stranger to fear." — 9. Hac luie, " By this rule of conduct," t. e., by in 
tegrity and firmness of purpose. — Vagus Hercules. "The roaming Her 
cules." — 12. Purpurea ore. Referring either to the dark-red color of the 
nectar, or to the Roman custom of adorning on solemn occasions, such as 
trinmphs, &c., the faces of the gods with vermilion.- — 13. Hac merentem. 
" For this deserving immortality." — 14. Vexere. " Bore thee to the skies." 
Bacchus is represented by the ancient fabulists as returning in triumph 
from the conquest of India and the East in a chariot drawn by tigers. Ha 
is now described as having ascended in this same way to the skies by s 
singular species of apotheosis. — 16. Martis equis, &c. Observe the ele- 
gant variety of diction in the phrases arces atligit igneas, quos iuirr Au- 
gustus recumbeuSt vexere tigres, and Acheronta fugit, all expressive of 
the same idea, the attaining of immortality. According to the legend^ 
Mars carried ofi'his son to heaven on the nones of Cluinctilis, and during a 
titander-storm. Compare Ooid, Fast., ii., 495; Met., xiv., 816. — 17. Gra- 
turn elocuta, &c. *' After Juno had uttered what was pleasing to the gods 
fleliberating in council." — 18. Ilion, Ilion, dec. An abrupt but bcautifid 
'V>2:7.niencement, intended to portray the exulting feelings of the triumph* 
a; t Juno. The order of construction is as follows : Judejcfatalis incestus- 
qiie, ei muUer peregrina, verlit in pulverem Ilion, Ilion, damnatvm mihi 
(astaque Minei'va, cum populo et fraudulento diice, ex quo La^medon des- 
lituit deos pacta mcrcede. — 19. Fatalis incestvsque judex, &c. *'-f\ judge, 
the fated author of his country's ruin, and impure in his desires, and a fc 
male from a foreign land." Alluding to Paris and Helen, and the legend 
of the apple of discord. — 2L. Ex quo. " From the time that," i. e., evei 
since. Supply tempore. — Destituit deos, &c. "Defrauded the gods of 
their stipulated reward." Alluding to the fable of Laomedon's having 
refused to Apollo and Neptune their promised recompense for building 
the walls of Troy. — 22. Mihi castceque damnatum Minervm. " Con«^*gned 
for punishment to me and the spotless Minerva." Condemned oy thu 
gods, and given over to these two deities for punishment. The idea is 
borrowed from the Roman law by which an insolvent debtor was deliver 
fid over into the power of his creditors 

25-48. 25. Splendet. " Displays his gaudy person." It is simplest tc 
make Lacaiue adulteris the genitive, depending on kospe^. Some, how 
ever, regard it as the dative, and, joining it with splendet, translate, " Di» 
plays his gaudy person to the Spartan adulteress." — 29. Nostris ductttn 
seditionibus. "Protracted by our dissensions." — 31. Invisum nepotem 
Romulus, grandson to Juno through his father Mars. — Troia saeerdo* 
Uia— 34. Discere "To learn to know " The common text has iucere 



^m 






PXPLANArORY NOTES. BOOK 111., ODE IV »43 

*to qaaft'." — 37. Dum longiu inter, &c. " Provided a long lr( ct of »ceui 
rage between Iliam aud Rome." Provided Rome be separated from the 
plain of Troy by a wide expanse of inteivening w&ters, and the Romanti 

-^Haild not the city of theii forefathers. Consult Introductory Rcmarka 
—3d. Exsules. The Romans are here meant, in accordance with the pop- 
alar belief that they were the descendants of ^neas and the Trojans, and 
exiles, conseqaently, from the land of Troy, the abode of their forefathers. 
—39. Qualibet in parte. *'In whatever (other) quarter it may please 
diem to dwell." — 40. Btisto insultet. ** Trample ipon the tomb." — iX 
Catulos eelent. " Conceal therein their young." Catulus is properly the 
jroang of die dog, and is then applied generally to the young of any ani 
mH.^- A3. Piilgchs. "In all its splendor." — 44. Dare jura. "To give 
laws." — 45. Horrenda. "An object of dread." — 46. Medius liquor. "The 
intervening waters."— 48. 'Arva. Understand jEgypti. 

49-70. 49. Aurum irrepertum spernere fortior. " More resolnte in ttu* 
■pising the gold as yet unexplored in the mine," t. e., the gold of the mine. 
Observe the GrsBcism in spernereforlior. Compare, as regards the idea 
intended to be conveyed, the explanation of Orelli : " Nulla prorsus cu- 
piditate accendi ad auri venas investigandas." — 51. Quam cogere, &c 
Than in bending it to human purposes, with a right hand plundering 
every thing of a sacred character." The expression oynne sacrum rapt- 
enle dexira is only another definition for boundless cupidity, which re* 
spccts not oven the most sacred objects. Among these ol jecta gold is 
enamerated, and with singular felicity. It should be held sai red by man i 
it should be allowed to repose untouched in the mine, co uiidering thi 
dreadful evils that invariably accompany its use. — 53. QuicJiaque mundo 
&c. "Whatever limit bounds the world." More literally, "whrteve 
limit has placed itself in front for the world," i. c ., in that p« «ticu1ar qnai 
ter. (Compare Orelli^ ad loc.) — 54. Visere gestiens^ &c. "Eagerly de 
siring to visit that quarter, where the fires of the sun rag«4 with ancon 
trolled fury, and that, where mists and rains exercise coninual sway.' 
We have endeavored to express the zeugma in debacchi itur, without 
losing sight, at the same time, of the peculiar force and beauvy of the term 
The allusion is to the torrid and frigid zones. Supply the ellipsis in the 
text as follows : visere earn partem qua parte, &c. — Hac leye. " On thii 
sondition." — Nimium pii. " Too piously affectionate (towarJ their parent 
city)." The pious affection here alluded to is that which, according to 
ancient ideaa, was due from a colony to its parent city.— ^1. Ai^ite lugubri. 
'Under evil auspices." — 62. Fortuna. "The evil fortune." — 65. Murus 
oineus. "A brazen wall," ». e., the strongest of ramparts. — 66. Auctori 
PfuBbo. As in the case of the former city. Auctore is here equivalent to 
90nditore.— '70. Desinc pervicax, &,c. " Cease, held one, to relate the dia- 
of the erods, and to degrade lofty themes by lowly measures.' 



Oi>B IV. The object of the poet, in this ode, is to celebrate tbe praises 
if Augustus for his fostering patronage of letters. The piece opens witli 
•a invocation to the Muse. To this succeeds an enumeration of the bene 
flta conferred on the bftrd, from his earliest years, by the deities of Heli 
SOD, under whose prttecting influence, no evil, he asserts, can ever ap 
D roach bim The name of Augustus is then introduceU If the ^*aa)b)e 



844 KXPLANArOHY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE IV 

poet is defended from harm by the daaghtera of Mnemosyne, much inort 
will the exalted Caesar experience their favoring aid ; and he will alto gin 
to the world an illostrioas example of the beneficial effects resulting tram 
power when' controlled and regulated by wisdom and moderation. 

1-20. I. Die longKtn melos. "Give utterance to a long meUxLoai 
strain."— i^^na. A general term of honor, unless we refer it to Uesiod* 
Tkeog.t 79, where Calliope is described bb npo^^epeardr:^ &7ra(Tfo» 
lyLovaauv). — 3. VoiX acuta. "With clear and tuneful accents."— 4 i*^ 
461M citharaqve. Tor JidibuB cilharas. " On the strings of Apollo's lyre." 
^5. Auditis f " Do you hear her 7" The poet fancies that the Mof?, 
having heard his invocation, has descended from the skies, and is pourmg 
forth a melodious strain. Hence the question, put to those who are sup* 
posed to be standing around, whether they also hear the accents of the 
goddess. Fua, one of the modem commentators on Horace, gives on con- 
jecture Audiris ? in the sense of " Are you heard by me V* ** Do you an- 
swer my invocation ?" — Amabilis insania. " A fond phrensy. ' — 7. Amantt 
quos elf &c. A beautiful zeugma. ** Through which the pleasing waters 
glide and refreshing breezes blow." — 9. Fabulosa. " Celebrated in fa- 
ble." — Vulture. Mons Vultur, now Monte Voltore, was situate to the 
south of VenusiOf and was, in fact, a mountain ridge, separating Apulia 
from Lucania. As it belonged, therefore, paitly to one of these countries, 
and partly to the other, Horace might well use the expression AltrieU 
tactra limen Apulia^ when speaking of the Lucanian side of the mountain. 
•"Apulo. Observe that the initial vowel is long in this word, but short 
in Apulia in the next line. Some, therefore, read here Appulo ; but for 
this there is no need, since the Latin poets not unfrequently vary the 
quantity of proper or foreign names. Thus we have Pridmus and Piid' 
mides ; Sicdnus and Sicdnia ; Itdlvs and I /alia ; Bdtdvus and Bdldvus 
—•10. Altricis Apulia. "Of my native Apulia." — 11. Ludo fatigatumque 
somno. "Wearied with play and oppressed with sleep." — 13. Mirum 
quod foret, &c. "Which might well be a source of wonder," &c. — 
14. Celsa nidum Acheroniia. "The nest of the lofty Acherontia." 
Acheroutia, now Acerenzaj was situated on a hill difficult of access, south 
of Forentam, in Apulia. Its lofty situation gains for it from the poet the 
beautiful epithet of nidus. — 15. Saltusque Bantinos. Bantia, a town of 
Apulia, lay to the southeast of Venusia. — 16. Forenti. Forentum, now 
Forenza, lay about eight miles south of Venusia, and on the other side 
of Mount Vultur. The epithet kumilis, " lowly," has reference to its it- 
uation near the base of the mountain. — 20. Non sine dis animosus. " De« 
riving courage from the manifest protection of the gods." The deities 
tore alluded to are the Muses. 

21-36. 21. Vester, Camaena. "Under your proteotion, ye Muses."-- 
/ft arduos tollor Sabinos. " J climb unto the lofty Sabiues," i. &, the 
fofty country <:f the Sabines. The allusion is to his farm in tho monut- 
ainous Sabine territory. — 23. Prteneste. PraBueste, now Paltestrina, wai 
situate abot^t twenty-three miles from Rome, in a southeast direction 
The epithet frigidum, in the text, alludes to the coolness of its tempera- 
lore. — Tibur supinum. "The sloping Tibur." This place was situate*! 
on the slope of a hill. Consult note on Ode i., 7, 13. — 24. Liquidth BauB. 
••Baise with its waters "' Cousu't note on Ode ii., 18, i20.—26 Philtppit 






EXPLANATORY N 31 ES. BOOK lll.j ODE IV 344 

ta iir iieies retro. **The army routed at Pbilippi.' Consult ''Life ol 
ll»ra«;e," p.xviii, and note on Ode ii., 7, 9. — 27. Devota arbor. "The ac- 
imiBed tree." Consult Ode iU 13. — 28. Palinurus. A promontory on tba 
roast of Lucania, now Capo di Palinuro. Tradition ascribed the name 
to Palinurus, the pilot of ^neas. ( Virgil^ ^ii.^ vi., 380.) It was noted 
for shipwrecks. — 29. Utcunque. Put for quandocunquc. — 30. Bosporum, 
Consult note on Ode ii, 13, 14. — 32. LittoHs Assyrii. The epithet Assyrti 
is beie equivalent to Syrii. . The name Syria itself^ which has been 
transmitted to as by the Greeks, is a corruption or abridgment of Assyria, 
and was first adopted by the lonians who frequented these coasts after 
tbe Assyrians of Nineveh had made this country a part of their empire. 
The allusion in the text appears to be to the more inland deserts, the 
Syria Palmy rcncB soliludiu^ of Pliny, H. N., v., 24. — 33. Britannos has- 
pilibusferos. Acron, in his scholia on this ode, informs us that the Brituui 
were said to sacrifice strangers. St. Jerome informs us that they were 
cannibals. {Adv. Jovin., ii., 201.) — 34. Concanum. The Concani were 
Cantabriau tribe in Spain. ' As a proof of their ferocity, the poet mention! 
their drinking the blood of horses intermixed with their liquor. — 35. Ge 
lonos. Consult note on Ode ii., 9, 23. — 36. Scylhicum amrkem. The 
Tanais, or Don. 

37-64. 37. C<Bsarem allum. "The exalted Caesar." — 38. Fessas cu- 
hi)rte8 abdidU oppidis. AUnding to the military colonies planted by Au- 
gustus, at the close of the civil wars. Some editions have reddidit for 
abdidity which will then refer merely to the disbanding of his forces. — 
40. Pierio arUro. A figurative allusion to the charms of literary leisure. 
Pieria was a region of Macedonia directly north of Thcssaly, and Tabled 
to have been the first seat of the Muses, who are hence called Pieridef. 
— 41. Vos lene consilium, &c. "You, ye benign deities, both inspire 
CiBsar with peaceful counsels, and rejoice in having done so." A com 
plimentary allu.siou to the mild and liberal policy of Augustus, and his pa 
ironage of letters and the arts. In reading metrically consilium et must 
be pronounced cousil-yet. — 44. Fulm ine stLstulerit conisco. " Swept away 
with his gleaming thunderbolt."'^r)0. Fidens brachiis. " Proudly trusting 
m their might." Proudly relying on the strength of their arms. — 51. Fratrcs. 
Otus and Ephialtes. The allusion is now to the giants, who attempted 
to scale the heavens. — 52. Pclion. Mount Pelion, a range in TliesQaly 
along a portion of the eastern coast, and to the south of Ossa. — Olympo. 
Olympus, on the coast of northern Thessaly, separated from Ossa by the 
Jale of Tempe.— 53. Sed quid T'yphoeua, &c. Observe that Typhdciis is a 
trisyllable, in O-eek Tv^uevf. The mightiest of the giants are here 
anomerated. 7ne Titans and giants are frequently confounded by the 
ancient write^j.— 58. Uinc avidus stetit, &c. " In this quarter stood Vol 
■san, burning fjr the fight; in that, Juno, with all a matron's dignity." 
in illustration oi' avidus here, compare the Homeric XikaL0f4.EV0Q no7Jfioio. 
The term viairona, analogous here to irorvla, aud intended to designate 
the majesty and dignity of the queen of heaven, conveyed a much strong- 
ar idea to a lioman than to a modern ear, — Gl. Jiore pnro Casialia. " Ii 
the limpid waters of Castalia." The Castalian fount, on Parnassus, wae 
lacrod to Apollo and the Muses. — 63. Lydte dumeta. "The thickets ol 
Lycia." Lycia was one of the principal Aeats of the worship of the .s ju 
stjj '-Xafalem silnim. "His natai wjod." on Mount Cyiithus. in d; 



S40 EXFJ.i^NATORY NOTES. — BOOK III., ODE tr. 

ttiand of D3I0S. — 64. Delius et Patareus Apollo. " Apollo, god of Do 
aud of Patara." Literally, "the Del an andPatareon Apolb." The citj 
of Patara; in Lycia, waa sitaate on t'lie southern coast, below the moatl 
of the Xanthus. It was celebrated for an oracle of Apollo, and that deit^ 
was said to reside here daring six months of the year, and daring €tie rt 
mainiag six at Delos. {Virg.t .^n., iv., 143. Serv^t od loc.) 

65-79. 65. Vis eonnh expert^ &c. "Force devoid of judgment sinkf 
Bnder its own weight,*' i. e., the eSbits of brate force, without wisdooB, 
BfA of no avail. — 66. Tcmperatam. ** When under its control," i. e^ whei 
fBgolated by judgment. Understand consilio. — Provehunt in majus. ** In- 
crease.'* — Animo movenies. "Meditating in mind.'' — 69. Gyas. Gyas, 
Cottus, ind Briareus, sons of Ccelus and Terra* were hurled by their father 
to Tartarus. Jupiter, however, brought them ba ^k to the light of day, and 
was aided by them in overthrowing the Titans. Such is the mythological 
narrative of Hesiod. {Theog:, 617, seqq.) Hcrace evidently confounds 
this cosmogonical fable with one of later date. The Centimani ('£/ca 
Toyxsipe^) are of a much earlier creation than the rebellious giants, and 
fight on the side of the gods ; whereas, in the present passage, Horace 
seems to identify one of their number with these very giants. — 71. Orion 
The well-known hunter and giant of early fable. — 73. Injecla monstrvt. 
A GraBcism for se injeciam esse delete &c. " Earth grieves at being cast 
upon the monsters of her own production." An allusion to the overthrow 
Hnd punishment of the giants, ijitiyevelq.) Encelados was buried undei 
Sicily, Polybotes under Nisyrus, torn off by Neptune from tho isle of Cos. 
Otus. under Crete, &c. {Apollod., i., 6, 2.) — Partus. The Titans are now 
meant, who were also the sons of Terra, and whom Jupiter hurled to Tar 
tarus. — 75. Nee peredit impositam, dec. " Nor has the rapid fire ever eaten 
through ^tna placed upon (Enceladus)," i. e., ea]»en through the mass of 
thd mountain so as to reduce this to ashes, and free liim from the superin- 
cumbent load. More freely, "nor is Enceladus lightened of his load.'* 
Pindax {Pylh., l, 31) and-fischylus {Prom. V., 373) place Typhoeus nodef 
this mountain. — 77. Tityi. Tityos was slain by Apollo and Diana for at- 
tempting violence to Latona. — 78. Ales. The vulture. — Nequitia addi- 
tus cusios. " Added as the constant punisher of his guilt." Literally, 
'* added as a keeper to his guilt," nequilia being properly the dative. 
— ^79. Amxitorem Pirithoum. "The amorous Pirithous," i. e., who sought 
to gain Proserpina to his love. Pirithous, accompanied by Theseus, de- 
scended to Hades for the purpose of carrying off Proserpina. He was 
seized by Pluto, and bound to a rock with "countless fetters" {treccntis 
oatenis). His punishment, however, is given differently by other writew. 



Ode V. According to Dio Cassius (liv., 8), when Phraates, the Parthian 
monarch, sent ambassadors to treat for the recovery of his son, then a 
Hostage in the hands of the Romans, Augustus demanded the restoratiov 
of the standards taken from Crassus and Antony. Phraates at first re- 
fused, but the fear of a war with the Roman emperor compelled him at 
length to acquiesce. The odo therefo re opens with a c implimentary al- 
lujsion to the power of Augustus, and the glory he has acquired by thus 
wresting the Roman standards from the hands of the Parthiaos. Th< 
oard th«B dweUa for a time upon the dis^rareful defsat jf Crassus. afta? 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BODK /II., ODE V. 341 

irbich the noble example of Keg^ulas is introduced, and a tacit coin^iansor 
li then made duriiig the rest of tl.e piece between the high-toned priuci 
pies of the virtaoas Roman and tiv^ strict disci plii e of Augustus. 

1-3. 1, Ccdo tonantcm^ &c. "We believe from his thundering thai 
Jove reigns in the skies." — 2. Prassens divus, &c. Having stated tbu 
common grounds on which the belief of Jupiter's divinity is founded, name- 
fyt bis thundering in the skies, the poet now proceeds, in accordance with 
the flattery of the age, to name Augustus as a " deity upon earth" (priesena 
divus)t assigning, as a proof of this, his triumph over th» nations of tne 
fiuthest east and west, especially his having wrested from the Parthians, 
l^y thn mere terror of his name, the standards so disgracefully lost by Cras 
•us an*? Antony. — 3. Adjeclis Britannis, &c. "The Britons and the for- 
midablc Parthians being added to his sway." According to Strabo, some 
0) the princes of Britain sent embassies and presents to Augustus, and 
i^aced a large portion of the island under his control. It was not, how- 
e rur, reduced to a Roman province until the time of Claudius. What 
Borneo adds respecting the Parthians is adorned with the exaggeration 
ot i^-^try. This nation was not, in fact, added by Augustus to the empire 
of }tnme ; they only surrendered, through dread of the Roman power, the 
standards taken from Crassus and Antony. 

5-12. 5. Milesne Crassi, dec. ** Has the soldier of Crassus lived, a de- 
graded husband, with a barbarian spouse 7" An ollusion to the soldiers 
of Crassus made captives by the Parthians, and who, to save their lives, 
had intermarried with females of that nation. Hence the peculiar force 
of vi:tUt which is well explained by one of the scholiasts : " uxtTTits a vie 
toribus acceperantj ut vitam inererentur.'* To constitute a lawful mar 
riage among the Romans, it was required that both the contracting parties 
be citizens and free. There was no legitimate marriage between slaves, 
Dor was a Roman citizen permitted to marry a slave, a barbarian, or  
foreigner generally. Such a connection was called connubium, not mcUri 
monium.-^l, Proh curiae irversique mores I "Ah I senate of my coun- 
try, and degenerate principles of the day 1" The poet mourns over the 
want of spirit on the part of the senate, in allowing the disgraceful defeat 
of Crassus to remain so long unavenged, and over the stain fixed on the 
martial character of Rome by this connection of her captive soldiery with 
their barbarian conquerors. Such a view of the subject carries with it a 
tacit but flattering eulogium on the successful operations of Augustus. — 
6. Consenuid. Nearly thirty years had elapsed since the defeat of Cras- 
sus, B.C. So,— 9, Sub rege Medo. "Beneath a Parthian king." — Matsua 
et Apulus. The Marsians and Apulians, the bravest portion of the Ro- 
man armies, are here taken to denote the Roman soldiers generally. Un 
Mie quantity of Apulus, consult note on Ode iv., 9, of the present b(X)k.- 
10. An9iliorum. The aucilia were " the sacred shields" carried round in 
procession by the Salii or priests of Mars.:— £^ nominis ct tos^<e. " And 
sf the name and attire of a Roman." The toga was the distinuuishiug 
ptrt of the Roman dress, and the badge of a citizen. — 11. ^Etcrntequt 
Vesta. Alluding to the sacred fire kept constantly burning by the vestal 
rirgins in the temple of the goddess.^-12. Incolumi Jove et urbe Ronm. 
"The Capitol of the Roman city being safe," i. e., tnongh ttie Roman powet 
emains still superior to its foes. Jcve is be* pbt for Jo-^^fc Ccpitthmo 
eaniva.]ent. in fart. t4) Capi*olio. 



348 KXP1.ANATOUY' NOTK». BOOK II., OLE V. 

i3>38. 13. Hcc caverat, &c. The example of Regolus is now nitftii 
who foresaw the evil effects that would rcsalt to bis country if the Uomax 
soldier was allowed to place bis hopes of safety any where but iu arms. 
Hence the vanquished commander recommends to bis countrymen not to 
accept the tarms offered by the Carthaginians, and, by receiving back Ibe 
Roman captives, establish a precedent pregnant with ruin to a future 
age. The soldier must either conquer or die ; he must not expect that, 
by becoming a captive, be will have a chance of being ransomed and tLna 
icstored to bis country. — 14. Dissentientis conditionilnit, ice. ** Dissent' 
kig from the foal terms proposed by Carthage, and a precedent pregnant 
iritli ruin to a future age." Alluding to the terms of accommodation, Gt 
which be himself was the bearer, and wbich.be advised his countrymen 
to reject. The Carthaginians wished peace and a mutual ransoming of 
prisoners. — 17. Si non perirent^ Ac. " If the captive youth were not to 
perish unlamented." The common reading is periret^ where the arsif 
lenq:theDs the final syllable of periret. — 20. Militibus. " From our sol* 
diery."-~23. Portaaque non clusas^ &c. *' And the gates of thev&>e stand 
ing open, and the fields once ravaged by our soldiery now cultivated by 
their bands." Hegulus, previous to his overthrow, had spread terror to th« 
very gates of Carthage. But now her gates lie open in complete security 
— 25. Auro repensus, dec. Strong and bitter irony. " The soldier, after ba> 
ing ransomed by gold, will no doubt return a braver man!" — 28. Mcdicala 
^cOj^ JlWhen once stained by the dye." — 29. Vera virtus. "True valor." 
—30. Deterioribus. Understand animia. *' In minds which have becomd 
degraded by cowardice." — ^35. I tiers. "With a coward's spirit." — Ti 
muitqne mortem^ &c. "And has feared death from that very quarter, 
whence, with far more propriety, he might have obtained an exemption 
from servitude." He should have tnisted to his arms; they would havA 
saved him from captivity. Vitam is here equivalent to salutem. There 
must be no stop after mortem. The common text has a period after mor 
(em, and reads Hie in place of Hinc, in the next line. — 3d. Pacem et duello 
miscuit. " He has confounded peace, too, with war." He has surrender* 
ed with his arms in his hands, and has sought peace in the heat of actio» 
from his foe by a tame submission. Observe the old tbi-m duello for bello 

40-56. 40. Probrosis altior ItaliiB minis. " Rendered more glorioiu 
by the disgraceful downfall of Italy." — 42. Ul capitis minor. " As one no 
'onger a freeman." Among the Romans, any loss of liberty or of the 
rights of a citizen was called Deminulio capitis. — 45. Donee labantet^ 
4rc. "Until, as an adviser, he confirmed the wavering minds of the fa- 
thers by counsel never given on any previous occasion," t. e., until he set- 
tlod the wavering minds of the senators by becoming the author of advice 
before miheard. Regulns advised the Romans strenuously to prosecute 
the war, and leave him to his fate. — 49. Atqui sciebat, &c. There is cod* 
•iderable doubt respecting the story of the sufferings of Rcgulus. — 52 
Reaitt'.s. The plural here beautifully mu 'ks his frequent attempts to re- 
tun, and the endeavors of his relatives and friends to oppose his design 
Abstract nouns are frequently used in the plural in Latin, where our own 
Idiom does not allow of it, to denote a repetition of the same art, or the 
existence of the same quality in ditferent subjects. — 53. J^onga nee^otia. 
' The tedious concerns "--55. Venafranos in agros Consult note on Ode 
li, (5. Irt — •5ti. Lactdaimoj.iHvi Tarentnm. Oousult note on Ode ii , **, II 



EXPLANATORY N07£S. — BOOK III., 01* E V^ 34U 

Ode VI. Addressed to the corrupt and dissolute liomans of )us a^a 
And ascribing the national calamities which had befallen them to th'j au 
ger o.* the gods at their abandonment of public and private virtue. T« 
heighten the picture of present corraption, a view is taken of the simpit 
manners which marked the earlier days of Rome. 

Although no mention is made of Augustus in thii piece, yet it would 
aeera to have been written at the time when that emperor was actively 
pa^raged in restraining the tide of public and private corruption ; when, 
AS Suetonius informs us ( Vit. Aug., 30), he was rebuilding the sacred edi- 
fices which bad either been destroyed by fire or suffered to fall to ruin, 
while by the Lex Julia, "De adulteriis," and the Lex Papia-PoppoBa 
"De maxitandis ordinibas," he was striving to reform the moral condition 
uf his people. Hence it may be conjectured that the poet wishes to cele 
brate, in the present ode, the civic virtues of the monaitsh. 

i-11. 1. Pelicla majorum, ice. "Though guiltless of them, thou sb alt 
atone, O Roman, for the crimes of thy fathers." The crimes here alluded 
U) have refereno^t principally to the excesses of the civil wars. The 
offences of the pR>'euts ai'e visited on their children. — 3. ^du». " Tlie 
shrines." Equivalent here to delubra. — 4. Fada ntqro, &c. The statues 
uf the gods in the tf^ixiples were apt to contract impurities from the smoke 
of the altars, Arc. H'^nce the custom of annually washing them in running 
water or the nearest sea, a rite which, according to the poet, had beec 
long interrupted by Mie neglect of the Romans. — 5. Iviperas, "Thou 
noldest the reins of empire." — 6. Hinc omne priitcip urn, &c. "l^rnm 
them derive the com*<aencement of every undertaking, to them ascribe its 
issue." In metrical r eading, pronounce principium hue, in this'liue, as il 
written priiicip-yuc' '9. Hesperia. Put for Italia. Consult note on Od- 
i., 3C, 4. — f>. MoncBset et Pacori vianus. Alluding to two Parthian com 
manders ys\r> had p? ived victorious over the Romans. Monceses, more 
commonly known by \he name of Surena, is the same tliat defeated Cras 
lus. Pa ;orus was t'^e son of Orodes, the Parthian monarch, and defeated 
Oidius P^^xa, tlie lieutenant of Marc Antony. — 10. Non augpieatos coniu- 
dit imp^us. **Havn crashed our inauspicioas efforts." — 11. Et adjecUu 
prmdvm, &c. "And proudly smile in having added the s| oils of Romans 
to tb<»ir military orui ments of scanty size before." By torques are meant, 
amnng the Roman writers, golden chains, which went round the neck, 
be«tuwed as militr^T rewards. These, till now, had been the only oma> 
nent or prize of th'* Parthian soldier. The meaning is, in fact, a figurative 
one. Tlie Ps.rthi'^na^ a nation of inferior military fame before this, now 
exalt in their victories over Romans. 

13-45. 13. Ociupatam scditionibus. "Embroiled in civil duseusions." 
According to thti poet, the weakness consequent on disunion had almost 
given the capital over into the hands of its foes. — 14. Dacus et ^thiops. 
An allusion to the approaching conflict between Augustus and Antony 
By the term ^ilrops are meant the Egyptians generally. As regurcli 
fhe Dacians, Dio Cassius (a I, 22) states that they had sent ambassadors 
to Augustus, but, not obtaining what they wished, liad thereupon incliuea 
to the side of Antony. According to Suetonius ( Vit. Aug., 21), their in**ur 
•ions were checked by Augustus, and th^ec (■'' their leaders slain -'I V 
.\Hptias inq''*'*navere " Have polluted the pur "^y of the nuptial coiTi|»aci 



360 BXPLANATORT NOTES. BOOK HI., OtB Vlll 

Compare the account given by Heiaeccias of the Ijtx Julia, '* IX* adtiUt 
rto," and the remarks of the same writer relative to the laws against thil 
offenre prior to the time of Aagastns. {Anliq Rom., lib. 4, tit. 18, ^ 51 
«d. Hail bold, p. 782.) Consult, also, Snetonius, Vii Aug., 34. — 20. In pu^ 
triam populnmque. The terra patriam contains aa allasion to public ca- 
lamities. while populvm, on the othd .land, refers to such as are of a pri 
vate nature, the \om of lu-opcrty, of rank, of chc-'acter, &.c. — ^21. His parent- 
tbns, ** From parents such as these." — 23. Cccidit. ** Smote." — 25. Riif 
tieorvm militum. The best portion of tb^ Roman troops were obtained 
from the rustic tribes, as being most inched to toil. — ^26. Sabellis legwni- 
t>Hs. The simple manners of earlier times remained longest in force 
ttmong the Sabines and the tribes descended from them. — 30. Etjuga dt 
merfl, &c. Compare the Greek terms (SovXvctc and 0ov7^vt6c- — ^32. Agea$ 
"Bringing on." Hestoring. — 33. Damnosa dies. " Wasting time." Die* 
«8 most commonly mascaline when used to denote a particular day, and 
feminine when it is spoken of the duration of time. 



OdIi: VIII. Horace had invited Maecenas to attend a festal ce^bratiua 
OD the Calends of March. As the Matronalia took place on this same day, 
the poet naturally anticipates the surprise of his friend on the occasion. 
** Wouderest thou, Moscenas, what I, an unmarried man, have to do with 
a day kept sacred by the matrons of Rome ? On this very day my life was 
endangered by the falling of a tree, and its annual return always brings 
with it feelings of grateful recollection for my providential deliverance " 

1-10. 1. Martiis ccdebs, &c. " Moecenas, skilled in the lore of eithof 
tongue, dost thou wpnder what I, an unmarried man, intend to do on the 
Calends of March, what these flowers mean, and this censer," &c., i, e^ 
skilled in Greek and Roman antiquities, especially those relating to 
sacred rites. — 7. Libera. In a previous ode (ii., 17, 27) the bard attributes 
his preservation to Faunus, but now Bacchus is named as the author ot 
his deliverance. There is a peculiar propriety in this. Bacchus is not 
only the protector of poets, but also, in a special sense, one of the gods of 
the country and of gardens, since to hira are ascribed the discovery and 
culture of the vin^ and of apples. {Theocr., ii., 120. Wartoih ad'loc 
Athenaus, iii., 23.) — Dies festus. Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 6. — 10. Cor 
ticem adstrictum^ &c. " Shall remove the cork, secured with pitch, from 
the jar which began to diink in the smoke in the consulship of Tullus ' 
Amphora, the dative, is put by a Grsecism for ab amphora. When the 
wine-vessels were fill(;d, and the disturbance of the liquor had subsided, 
the co'.-'jrs or stoppers were secured with plaster, or a coating of pitcc 
mixel with the ashes of the vine, so as to exclude all communicatiou 
with the external air. After this, the wines were mellowed by the ap- 
plication of smoke, which was prevented, by the ample coating of pitch 
or plaster on the wine-vessel, from penetrating so far as to vitiate the 
(genuine taste of the liquor. Previously, however, to depositing the am 
phorsB in the wine-vault or apotheca, it was usual to put upon them a 
tabel or mark indicative of the vintages, anr'J of the names of the consuls 
in authority at the time, in order that, when tley were taken out, thcii 
ftge and growth might be easily recognived. II by t'ae consulship of Tnl 
Ins, mentioned in the text, he meant that of L. Volet tias Tu''1ufi who hmc 



EXFLANATORY NU'I E3.~ BOOK III., ODE IX. 35l 

If. iBmilins L«pida8 for his coUeagae, A.d.C. C£6, and if the present i^de, 
u would appear from verse 17, seqq.x was composed A (J.C. 734. the wine 
^ered by Horace to h:s friend mast have been more than forty -six yean 
old. 

13-25. 13. Sume Afttcenas, &c. "Drink, dear Maecenas, a handred 
caps in honor of the preservation of thy friend." A cap drained to tho 
health or in honor o' any indi^ idaal, was -styled, in the Latin idiom, hi» 
. eap {tju8 poculum) ; hence the language of the text, cyathos amid. The 
Oaeaning of tho passage is not, as some think, " do thou drink at thy home, 
I being about to drink at mine ;" but it is actually an invitation on the 
part of the bard. — Cyathos centum. Referring merely to a large number 
— 15. Perfer in Ivcem. "Prolong till daylight." — 17. Mi/te civiles^ dtc. 
** Dismiss those cares, which, as a statesmaL, thou feelest for the welfare 
of Ilorae." An allusion to the office of Prcefectus urbitf, which Meecenas 
held daring the absence of Augustas in Egypt. — 18. Dad Cotisonis agmen. 
The inroads of the Dacians, under their king Cotiso, were checked by 
Lentulus, the lieutenant of Augastus. [Suel.t Vit. Aug., 21. Flor., iv., 
12, 18.) Compare, as regards Dacia itself, the note on Ode i., 35, 9. — 
19. Medus tnfcstvs sibi. *' The Parthians, taming their hostilities against 
themselves, are at variance m destructive conflicts." Consult note on 
Ode i., 26, 3. Orelli joins sibi luctvosis. Dillenburger explains the clause 
by ijifestus sibi, sibi Inctuosis, making it an example of the construction 
dTTo KOLVov. The construction, however, which we have adopted, is in 
every point of view preferable. — 22. Sera domitus catena. " Subdued 
after long-protracted contest." The Cantabrians were reduced to subjec- 
^on by Agrippa the same year in which this ode was composed (A.U.C. 
734), after having resisted the power of the Romans, in various ways, for 
more than two hundred years. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. — 23. Jam 
Scytha laxo, &c. "The Scythians now think of retiring from our frontiers, 
with bow unbent." By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous 
tribes in the vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Geloni, 
whose inroads had been checked by Lentulus. Consult note on Ode ii., 
9, 23. — 25. Negligens ne qua, &c. " Refraining, amid social retirement, 
from overweening solicitude, lest the people any where feel the pressure 
df evil, seize with joy the gifts of the present moment, and bid adieu for a 
time to grave pursuits." The common text has a comma after laboret, 
and in the 26th line gives Parce privatus nimium cavcre. The term neg- 
ligens will then be joined in construction vrith parce, and negligens para 
will then be equivalent to parcn alone, " Since thou art a private person 
3e not too solicitous lest," &c. The epithet privatus, as applied by the 
poet to Maecenas, is then to bi explained by a reference to the Romas 
mage, which designated all individuals, except the emperor, as privaii. 
The whole reading, however, is decidedly bad. According to the lectiosj 
adopted in our text, iiegligens cavcre is a Graeciim for i^gligens cavendi 



Ode IX. A beautiful Amcebcan ode, representing tie reconciliation ol 
two lovers. The celebrated modern scholar Scaliger rega^led thir ode 
ani the third of tlie fourth book, as the two most beatitifu' .yrfc produ^ 
t'orif of Ho-Hce. {ScuL Pwi., G.) 



i52 EXF^ANArOKY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE Xl. 

2-24 i. Potior. •• More favored." — 2. Dahat. * Was accuatomed ta 
bhrow." — 4. Persaniit vigui^ dec. '* I lived happier than the monarch cf 
Che Persians," t. f., I was happier than the richest and most powerfal ot 
kintj's. — 6. Alia. " For another." — 1 . Mulli nominis, "Of distinguished 
faniQ "—8. Ilia. Ibe mother of Romalas and Remas. — 10. Dulces docta 
ntuMioSf dec. "Skilled in sweet measures, and mistress of the Ivre." — 
12. Anima gnperslili. "Her surviving soul." — 1.3. Torret face mutita 
" Burns with the torch of mutual love." — 14. Thurini Ornyti. " Of thn 
Thurian Omytns." Thurii Tfas a city of Lucania, on the coast uf the Si 
BUS Tareutinus, erected by an Athenian colony, near the site of Sybaria. 
which had been destroyed by the forces of Crotona. — 17. Pri$ca Venvs* 
•Our old affection." — 18. Diductos. "Us, long parted." — 21. Siderepit/ 
chrior. " Brighter in beauty than any star '' — 22. Levior cortiee. " Light 
or than cork." Alluding to his incoufitnnt and fickle disposition. — Im- 
probo. " Stormy." — 24. Tecum vivere artiemy dec. '• Yet with thee I shall 
iove to live, with thee I shall cheerfully die." Supply tamen, as required 
by quamquam which precedes. 



Ode XI. Addressed to Lyde, an obdurate fair one. Horace mvoke» 
Mercury, the god of music and of rhetoric, to aid him in subduing he? 
aversion. 

1-22. 1. Te magistro. " Under thy instruction.'' — 2. Amphion. Ani 
pbion, son of Jupiter and Antiope, was fabled to have built the walls oi 
Thebes by the music of his lyre, the stones moving of themselves into 
their destined places. Eustathius, however, ascribes this to Amphion 
conjointly with his brother Zethus. — 3. Testudo. *' O shell." Consult 
note on Ode i., 10, 6. — R£sonare seplem, dec. " Skilled in sending forth 
sweet music with thy seven strings." Callida resonare by a Grsecism 
for callida in resotiaiido. — 5. JVec loq^iax oliiriy dec, " Once, neither vocal 
nor gifted with the power to please, now acceptable both to the tables of 
the rich and the temples of the gods." — 9. Tu potes tigrest dec. An allu 
sion to the legend of Orpheus. — Comites. " As thy companions," i. c, in 
thy train.— 12. Blandienti. " Soothing his anger by the sweetness of thy 
notes." — 16. Avla. " Of Pluto's hall." Orpheus descends with his lyre 
to the shades, for the purpose of regaining his Eurydice. — 13. Furiale ca- 
put. " His every head, like those of the Furies." — 14. JEstuet, "Bx)Uc 
forth its hot volumes." — 15. Teter. "Deadly," "pestilential." — Sanies. 
"Poisonous matter." — 18. Stetit urna paulum, &.c. "The. vase of each 
«tood for a moment dry," i. e., the Danaldes ceased for a moment from 
their toil. — 22. Et inane lymphee, dec. "And the vessel empty of water, 
from its escaping through the bottom." Dolium is here taken as a gr n 
i.rvl term for the vessel, or roceptacle, which the daughters of Danaus 
were condemned to fill, and the bottom of which, being perforated with 
luxuet .<UB holes, allowed the water constantly to escape. 

26-48. 26. Nam quid potvere majus, dec. " For, what greatei crime 
could they commit?" Understand scelus. — 29 [/ua de multis. Alludin{» 
to Hypermnestra, who spared her husband Lynceus. — Face nuptiali dig 
ua. At the sjicient marriages, the bride was escorted from her father*!! 
M>ii«fl to tha» of her husband amid the light of torches. — 30 Perjurun JnU 



L'XPLaNATORV notes. BOOK UL, ODR XII. 353 

^ par^it^mi &c. ** Proved glorioasly false to ber p srjurcd parent." The 
OanaideB were boand by an oath, which their parent had imposed, to do* 
"stroy their hasbands on the night of their naptials Hypermnestra aloiM 
broke that engagement, and saved the life of Lynceus. The epithcr per- 
inrum, as Applied to Danaus, alludes to his violation of good faith toward 
his sons-in-law. — 31 Virgo. Consult Heyne, ad Apollod.^ ii., 1, 5. — Unde, 
** From a quarter whence," i, e., from one from whom. — 35. Socerum el 
ncelesiaSf dec. "Escape by secret flight from thy father-in-law uid my 
wicked sisters." Falle is here equivalent to the Greek Xude. — 37. Nacta. 
" Having got into their power." — 39. Neque intra claustra tenebo. " Nor 
will I keep thee here in confinement," t. e., nor will I keep thee confinod 
m this thy nuptial chamber until others come and slay thee. — 43. Mepa/et 
sicvist &c. Hypermnestra was imprisoned by her father, but afterward, 
on a reconciliation taking place, was reunited to Lynceus. — 47. Memorem 
quereJam. "A mournful epitaph, recording the story of our fate." 



OoE XII. The bard laments the unhappy fate of Neobule, whose affec- 
tion for the young Hebrus had exposed her to the angry chidings of an 
offended relative. 

1-10. 1. Miserarum est. ** It is the part of unhappy maidens," i. c^ 
unhappy are the maidens who, &c. — Dare ludnm. " To indulge in." Lit 
erally, " to give play to." — ^2. LavSre. The old stem-conjugation, and the 
earlier form for lavdre. — Ant exanimari^ Ac. " Or else to be half dead 
witci alarm, dreading the lashes of an uncle's tongue," i. e., or, in case 
they do indulge the tender passion, and do seek to lead a life of hilarity, 
to be constantly disquieted by the. dread of some morose uncle who chances 
to be the guardian of their persons. The severity of paternal uncles was 
proverbial. Compare Erasmus, Chil.^ p. 463, ed. Steph., "Nesis patnius 
mihif** and Emesti, Clav. Cic, s. v. Patruus. — 4. Operosaqite Minerva 
studium. "And all inclination for the labors of Minerva." Literally, 
•• all affection for the industrious Minerva." — 5. Liparei. ♦* Of Lipara." 
Lipara, now Lipari^ the largest of the InsulsB iBoli», or VulcanisB, off the 
coasts of Italy and Sicily. — 6. Unctos humeros. The ancients anointed 
themselves previously to their engaging in gymnastic exercises, and 
bathed after these were ended. The arrangement of the common text is 
<3oa8equently erroneous, in placing the line beginning with Simul unctos 
tfter segni pede victus. — ^7. Bellerophonte. Alluding to the fable of Bel- 
lerophon and Pegasus. In Bellerophonte the last syllable is lengthened 
from the Greek, BtAXepo^ovrr?. — 8. Catus jacvlari. A Graecism for catu$ 
faculandi. — 10. Celer arcto latitanteniy &c. "Active in surprising tha 
boar that lurks amid the deep thicket." Celer excipere for celer in ejD- 
npiendo or ad excipiendum. 



Ode XIII. A sacrifice is promised to the fountain cf Bandusia and tt 
immortalizing of it in verse. 

1-15. 1. Ofons Bandusia. The common text has BlaudusutthTlttha 
tme ivna of the name is Banduna^ as given in mtuxy MSS. Foa cites 
alw an ecclesiastical r cord in its favor 'Priviletr Pattekalit TI anni 



8d4 EXPLANATORY NDIEB —BOOK III., ODE XIV. 

1103, ap* Ughtll. Ital. Sacr,, tont. 7^ col. 30, ed. Ven^ 1721), in the fi II4111 
iiig wonUi : ** In Bandusino fonte apud Venusiam," &nd, a littlo aftok 
'*cum aiiis eccleaiis de castello Bandusii." From this it would appeal 
that the trae Bandasian foant was near VenutiOt in Apulia ; and it hat 
been coojectured that the poet named another fountain, on bis Sabine 
farm, and which he here addresses, after the c le near Venasia, which he 
had known in early boyhood. — ^3. Dulci digne merot &c. Tbe nymph of 
the foantain is to be propitiated by a libation, and by garlands hang aroond 
thn brink. — Splendidior vitro. " Clearer than glass. "-^. Donabcrih. 
**Thoa shalt be gifted," t. e., in sacrifice. — 6. Frustra. Be. tetas eum Ve 
neri et prieliis destineU. — Nam gelidos inficiett ice. Tbe altars on which 
sacrifices were offered to foantains, were placed in their immediat4> vicini- 
ty, and constructed of tarf. — 9. Te JlagraiUis atrox^ &c. "Thee the 
fierce season of the blazing dog-star does not affect." Literally, " knows 
not how to affect." Consult note on Ode i., 17, 7. — 13. Fies nobiliwm tn 
quoqve fontium. " Thoa too shalt become one of the famous foantains.' 
By the nobiles fontes are meant Castalia, Hipix>crene, Dirce, Arethnsa 
dec. The constraction^/7e5 fiobilium fontium is imitated from the Greek 
—14. Me dicente. "While I tell of," i. c, while I celebrate in song.— 
15. Loquaces lymphiEtua. "Thy prattling waters." 



Ode XIV. On the expected retam of Augustus from bis expeditk>o 
against the Cantabri. The poet proclaims a festal day in honor of so 
joyous an event, and while the consort and the sister of Aagastas, accom 
panied by the Roman females, are directed to go forth and meet their 
prince, he himself proposes to celebrate the day at his own abode witli 
wine and festivity. 

What made the return of the emperor peculiarly gratifying to the B4> 
man people was the circumstance of his having been attacked by sick 
ress daring his absence, and confined for a time at the city of Tarraco. 

1-6. 1. Herculis ritu, &c. " Augustus, O Romans, who so lately was 
■aid, after the mauner of Hercules, to have sought for the laurel to be 
purchased only with the risk of death, now," &c. The conquests of Au- 
gustus over re:j3otc nations are here compared with the labors of the fa- 
bled Hercules, and as the latter, after the overthrow of Geryon, retamed 
in triumph from Spain to Italy, so Augustus now comes from the same 
distant quarter victori.)tts over his barbarian foes. The expression morie 
venalem petiisse laurum refers simply to the exposure of life in the achiev 
ing of victory. Compare the remark of Acron : " Mortis contemtu lau$ 
vietoriiB qucsritur et triumphi.'' — 5. Unico gavdens mulier marito, &c. 
** Let th& consort who exults in a peerless husband, go forth to offer sacri- 
fices to the just deities of heaven." The allusion is to Livia, the consort 
>f Augustus. As regards the passage itself, two things are deserving of 
Uttention : the first is the use of unico, in the sense o{ praeslantissimo, on 
which point consult Heinsius, ad Ox id. Met., iii., 454; the second is the 
aieaning we must assign to operata, which is here taken by a poetic id 
iom for ut operetur. On the latter subject compare IHbnilux, v., I, i». ed 
Heyne ; Virgil, Georg., i., 335, ed. Heyne, and the comments of Mitscher 
lich and Uoring on the present passage. — 6. Jnstis divis. The gcds ar« 
her» flt\'led "just" from their granting tc Augustus the sancess which hi« 






BXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 11/ . OOE Jt V'l. 359 

valor Jeserved. This, of coarse, is mere flattery. Augustas was oevef 
i^emarkable either for personal bravery or military talents. 

7- -29. 7. &oror clari duels. Octavia, the sister of Augustus. — Decora 
.supplicc vitta. ** Adorned with the suppliant fillet," i. /.. bearing, as be- 
comes them, the suppliant fillet. According to the scholiast on SoplKnIe« 
{CEd. T.J 3), petitioners aciong the Greeks asualiy carried boughs wrap- 
pod around ir\th fillets of wooL Sometimes the hands were covered witb 
Ibese filled, not only among the Greeks, but also among the Romans.— 
P. Vir/^inttm. " Of the young married femalea," whose husbands wore 
nsturniag in safety from the war. (Compare, as regards this usage of 
Virgo^ 0&& ii., 8, 23; Virg.^ Ecl.^ vi., 47; Ov^ Her.^ i., 115.) — Nvper, 
Refeiring to the recent termination of the Cantabrian confiict. — 10. Vos^ 
O pveHt dec. " Do you, ye boys, and yet unmarried damsels, refrain firou 
ill-omened words." Virum is here the genitive plural, contracted foi 
virorum. Some editions read expert<B, and make virum the accusative. 
by which lection puell<B jam virum experla is made to refer to those but 
lately married. — 14. Tumultum. The term properly denotes a war in 
(taly or an invasion by the Gauls. It is here, however, taken for any dan 
(^erous war either at home or in the vicinity of Italy. — 17. Pete unguentum 
it coronets. Consult note on Ode i., 17, 27. — 18. Et cadum Marsi^ Ac 
** And a cask that remembers the Marsian war," i. e., a cask containing old 
wine made during the period of the Marsian or Social war. This war pre 
vailed from B.C. 91 to B.C. 88, and if the present ode was written B.C. 28 
as is generally supposed, the contents of the cask must have been from sixty 
five to sixty-eight years old. — 19. Spariacum si qua^ &c. *' If a vessel o. 
it has been able in any way to escape the roving Spartacus." With qui 
onderstand ratione. Qua for aliqua^ in the nominative, violates t^e metre. 
Spartacas, a Thracian gladiator, who headed the gladiators and slaves in 
the Servile war, B.C. 73-71. Four consular armies were successively 
defeated by this daring adventurer. He was at last met and completely 
routed by the prsetor Crassus. He " roved" from Campania to Mutina, 
and thence into lower Italy, until he was defeated by Crassus nearPetilia 
in Lucania. — 21. Argutat. "The tuneful," t. e., the sweet-singing. • - 
22. Myrrheum, " Perfumed with myrrh." Some commentators errone* 
ously refer this epithet to the dark color of the hair. — 27. Hoc, Alluding 
to the conduct of the porter. — Fcrrem. For tulissem. — 2i?> Consule Planco 
Plancus was consul with M. ^milius Lepidus, B.C. 41, A.U.C. 712, at 
which period Horace was about twenty-three years of arc. 



Odx XVI. This piece turns on the poet's favorite top^i\ tliat bappincsi 
unuiiits not in abundant possessions, but in a contented mind. 

1-19. 1. Inclusam Danain. The story of Danae and Acrisius is well 
iCDown. — Turris ainea. ApoUodorus merely mentions a brazen cham 
ber, constructed under ground* in which Danae was immured (ii., 4, 1) 
Later writers make this a tower, and some represent Danae as having 
been contined in a building of this description when about to become i 
mother. [Heyne, ad Apollod.t I. c.) — 3. Tristcs, •♦Strict." Bqnivalenf 
to tevercB. — Munierdnt. " Would certainly have 8<wi«red." Observe thi 
M€)fu]iar force of the indicative, taking: the place i the ordinary tAuniu 



too EXPLaWAT(.RV notes.— boor III., ODE AVI. 

tent. [Zu nptt ^& i, b.) — 4. AdulUrU. For ar/uktoribui. Compare Orelk 
'*Eliam di its dicUur quivirginum castitati insidianfur." — 5. AtrUtwrn 
AcriBias was father of Dana^, and king of Argos in the Peloponnevoa.— 
4. Custodem pavidum. Allading to his dread of the falfillment of the ora 
tie. — 7. Fore enim, Sec Understand iciebant. — 8. Converso in preltum. 
" Changed into gold." By the teim pretium in the senae of aurum, tha 
poet hints at the trae solution of the fable, the bribery of the gnards. — 
9. Ire amat, ** Loves to make its way." Amal is here equivalent to the 
Greek 0iAeZ, and much stronger than the Latin solet. — 10. SaxcL **The 
■trougest barriers." — 11. Auguris Argivi. Amphiarans is meant. Poly- 
vices bribed ^riphyle with the golden collar of Harmonia to persaade 
Amphiaraas her husband to accompany him in the expedition of Adrastns 
against Thebes, although the prophet was well aware that no one of the 
leaders but Adrastus would return alive. Amphiaraus was swallowed up 
by an opening of the earth ; and, on hearing of his father's death, his sou 
Alcmaeon, in obedience to his parent's injunction, slew his mother Eri- 
phyle. The necklace proved also the cause of destruction to Alcmaeon at 
a later day. — 12. Ob lucrum. **From a thirst for gold." — 14. Vir Macedo 
Philip, father of Alexander. Compare the expression of Demosthenes. 
Mairedcjy uv^p. How much this monarch effected by bribery is known in 
all. — 15. Muitera navium^ &c. Horace is thought to allude here to Meno 
iforus, or Menas, who was noted for frequently changing sides in the war 
between Sextns Pompeius and the triuinvirs. Compare Epode^ iv., I7 
^16. Savos. " Rough." Some, however, make savos here equivalent 
to fortes. — 17. Crescentem sequilur^ &c. The connection in the train of 
ideas is this : And yet, powerful as gold is in triumphing over difficulties, 
and in accomplishing what, perhaps, no other human power could effect 
still it must be carefully shunned by those who wish to lead a happy life, 
for *' care ever follows after increasing riches as well as the craving desire 
for more extensive possessions." — 19. Late conspicuum^ Ice. " To raise 
the far conspicuous head," t. e., to seek after the splendor and honors 
which wealth bestows on its votaries, and to make these tho source of 
vainglorious boasting. 

22-43. 22. Plura. For tanto plura. — Nil cupierUmm, Sec. The ricn 
and the contented are here made to occupy two opposite encampments.— 
83. Nudus. " Naked," i. e., divested of every desire for more than fortune 
has bestowed. Compare the explanation of Braunhard: ** Pauper, et in 
paupertate sua sibi placens.'" — 24. Linquere gestio. "1 take delight in 
abandoning." — 25. Contemta dominus, &c. "More conspicuous as the 
possessor of a fortune contemned by the great." — 30. Segelis ccrtajidef 
mece. " A sure reliance on my crop," i. e., the certainty of a good crop.--- 
ol. Fulgentem imperio, &c. "Yield a pleasure unknown to him who ii 
distinguished for his wide domains in fertile Africa." Literally, " escapes 
the observation of him who," &c. Fallil is hero used for the Greek Xov- 
fiavEi. As regards the expression /er<i/z» Afric€P., consu.t note on Ode i., 
1, 10. — 32. Sorte beatior. " Happier in lot am I." Understand sum. The 
common text places a period after beatior, and a comma after fallity a 
harsh and inelegant reading even if it bo correct Latin. — 33 OMabrte, 
fee. An allusion to the honey "^f Tarentum. Consult note on Ode ii., 6 
14.— ?1. Nee LcBstrt/gonia Bacchus, &c. " Nor the wine ripens for me iq 
« /iiastrygonian 'ar." An allusion to the Fonnian v» ino Formia: was 






EXPLANArORV NOTES. BJOK III., ODE XVll. 3511 

snegardeJby the ancients as having been the abode and capital of tho Lib 
fltryieroDCs. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 11 ~35. Gallicis pascuia Tho 
pastures of Cisalpine Gaul are meant.^37. Importuna tameriy &c. " Yet 
the pinching^ of contracted means is far away." Cojisalt note on Ode i.. 
12, 43. — 39. Contracto melius^ &c. " I shall extend more wisely my hum- 
ble income by contracting my desires, than if I were to join the rea^m of 
Alyattes to the Mygdonian plains," i, e., than if Lydia and Phrygia were 
mine. Alyattes was King of Lydia and father of Crccsus, who was t^ 
famed for his riches. As regards the epithet '* Mygdonian" applied to 
Phrygia, consult note on Ode ii., 12, 22. — 43. Bene est. Understand e% 
" Happy is the man on whom the deity has bestowed with a sparing ban'' 
irhat is scfHcient for his wants. ' 



Ode XVII. The bard, warned by the crow of to morrow's storm, ez 
horts his friend L. ^lius Lamia to devote the day, when it shall arrive, to 
joyous banquets. 

The mdividual to whom this ode is addressed had signalized himself in 
the war with the Cantabri as one of the lieutenants of Augustus. His 
family claimed descent from Lamus, son of Neptune, and the most an- 
cient monarch of the Laestrygones. a people alluded tc in the preceding 
(kle (v. 34j. 

1-16. 1. Veiusto nobiliSf dec. " Nobly descended from ancient Lamus." 
—2. Priores hinc Lamias denominatos. " That thy earlier ancestors of 
the Lamian line were named from him." We have included all from line 
2 to 6 within brackets, as savoring strongly of interpolation, from its awk- 
ward position. It is thrown entirely out by Sanadon. — 3. Et nepotum, 
kjc. ** And since the whole race of their descendants, mentioned in re- 
cording annals, derive their origin from him as the founder of their house.'' 
The Fasti were public registers or chronicles, r\nder the care of the Pon 
tifex Maximus and his college, in which were marked, from year to year, 
what days were fasti and what nefasti. In the Fasti were also recorded 
tho names of the magistrates, particularly of the consuls, an account of 
the triumphs that were celebrated, &c. Hence the splendor of the La- 
mian line in being often mentioned in the annals of Rome. — 6. Foi-mia- 
rum. Consult note on Ode iii., 16, 34. — 7. Et innaiitem, &c. "And tho 
Liris, where it flows into the sea through the territory of Mintumae." The 
poet wishes to convey the idea that Lamus ruled, not only over Formim, 
but also over the Minturnian territory. In expressing this, allusion is 
made to the nymph Marica, who had a grove and temple near Mintumae, 
and the words Maricee litora are used as a designation for the region 
ajx)und the city itself Minturnas was a place of great antiquity, on the 
haziks of the Liris, and only three or four miles from its mouth. The 
country around abounded with marshes. The nymph Marica was fabled 
by some to have been the mother of Latinus, and by others thought tc 
have been Circe. — 9. Late tyrannus. *• A monarch of extensive sway.' 
Tyrannus is used here in the earlier sense of the Greek rvpavvog. — 12. 
Aqiite augur cornix. Compare Ovid, Am., ii., 6, 34 : " Pluvifi graculut 
augur aqua." — 13. Annoia. Hesiod {Fragm., 50) assigns to the crow, 
f(v the duration of its existence, nine a|.';es »f men. — Dum pods. " Whilt 
\\>u can," t. e., while the weather wMI nuow you, and Uie wood is stil^ 



tf5b EXPLANATORY NOTEt). BOOK ill.. ODE Xl\. 

ary. Sipply «.— 14. Cra$ gentum tnero. «:c. "Oa the morron. tkit 
■aalt Donor thy genias with wine." According 'x. the popalar belief of 
antiqaity, every individual had a gonial (daificjv), cr tutislary ipirit, which 
waa lappoied to take care of the person during the whole of life. — 16 
Operum solutis. ** Released from their labors." A Groecism for cUf operv 
iolviis. 



Ode XVIIl. The poet invokes the presence of Faunas, and seeks lo 
propitiate the favor of the god toward his fields and flocks. He then de 
scribes the rustic hilarity of the day, made sacred, at the commencement 
<!>f winter, to this rural divinity. F annus had two festivals {Faunalia): 
one on the Nones (5th) of December, after all the produce of the year had 
been stored away, and when the god was invoked to protect it, and tc 
give health and fecundity to the flocks and herds ; and another in the be 
ginning of the spring, when the same deity was propitiated by sacrifices, 
that he might preserve and foster the grain committed to the earth. This 
second celebration took place on the Ides (13th) of February. 

1-15. 1. Fauno, Consult note on Ode i., 17, 2. — 2. I^^nis incedas 
•• Mayest thou move benignant." — Abeasque parvis^ &c. " And mayest 
thou depart propitious to the little nurslings of my farm," t. r., lamhs, kids, 
calves, &c. The poet invokes the favor of the god on these, as heing more 
exposed to the casualties of disease. — 5. Pleno anno, "At the close of 
every year." Literally, "when the year is full." — 7. Vetus ara. On 
which sacrifices have been made to Faunus for many a year. A pleasing 
memorial of the piety of the bard. — 10. Nome Dectmbits. Consult Intro- 
ductory Remarks. — 11. Festus in praiisy &c. "The village, celehrating 
thy festal day, enjoys a respite from toil in the grassy meads, along witli 
the idle ox." — 13. Inter audaces, &c. Alluding to the security enjoyed by 
the flocks, under the protecting care of the god. — 14. Spargit agrestes, 
Sic. As in Italy the trees do not shed their leaves until December, tha 
poet converts this into a species of natural phenomenon in honor of Fau- 
nas, as if the trees, touched by his divinity, poured down their leaves to 
cover his path. It was customary among the ancients to scatter leaves 
and flovs'-srs on the ground in honor of distinguished personages. Compare 
Virgil, Eclog., v., 40: ** Spargite humum foliis." — 15. Gaudet invisam 
&c. An allusion to the rustic dances which always formed part of tha 
selebration. 



Ode XIX. A party of friends, among whom was Horace, intended to 
JOlebrate, by a feast of contribution {kpavog), the recent appointment of 
Murena to the office of augur. Telephus, one of the number, was ecu 
ipicuous for his literary labors, and had been for some time occupied in 
composing a history of Greece. At a meeting of these friends, held, as a 
matter of course, in order to make arrangements for the approaching ban 
quet, it may be supposed that Telephus, wholly engrossed with his pur 
suits, had introduced some topic of an historical nature, much to the an* 
Qoyance of the bard. The latter, therefore, breaks out, as it w i^re, wito 
an exhortation to his companion to abandon matters so foreign to the snb 
^ect under discussion, and attend to things of more immediate in* portancf* 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. UUi^K 111.. ODE XIX. 359 

c f eiently, fancjlng himgelf already in the midBt of tho feaat, he issuoi bil 
edicts as symposiarch. and reg^ilates the number of caps to be drunk lo 
Honor of the Moon, of Night, and of the augur Murena. Then, as if impa* 
tient of delay, ho bids the music begin, and orders the rosos to be soatter 
od. The oJe terminates with a gay allusion to Tolephus. 

l-il. 1. huicho. Consult note on Oie ii., 3, 21. — 2. Codms. Tl\e itaf 
jf the Athenian kings, who sacrificed his life when the Dorians iavaded 
Attica. If we believe the received chronology, Inachas founded the kii.'g- 
dam of Argos about 1856 B.C., and Codrus was slain about 1070 B.C. The 
interval, therefore, will be 786 years. — 3. Genua jEaci, The .fiacidn, or 
descendants of .£acus, were Peleus, Telamon, Achilles, Teuoer, Ajax, &c. 
-^5. Chium cadum. " A cask of Chian wine." The Chian is described 
by some ancient writers as a thick, luscious wine, and that which grew 
on the craggy heights of Ariusium, extending three hundred stadia alon^^ 
the coast, is extolled by Strabo as the best of the Greek wines.— 6. Mer- 
eemur, "We may buy." — Quts aquam temperet igiiibuB. Alluding to 
the hot drinks so customary among the B/Omans. Orelli, Braunhard, Dil 
lenburger, and others, make the allusion to be to the preparing of warm 
baths, the party being a picnic one, and one individual furnishing the 
wine, another house-room and warm baths before sapper. The arrange* 
ment, however, of quts aquam, temperet ignibus before quo prahcnte do- 
mumy and not after this clause, seems to militate against this mode of ex- 
plaining. — 7. Quota, Supply hora. — 8. Pelignis careamfrigoribus. " I 
may free myself from Pelignian colds," i. e., may fence myself against the 
cold, as piercing as that felt in the country of the Peligni. The territory 
of the Peligni was small and mountainous, and was separated from that 
of the Marsi, on the west, by the Apennines. It was noted for the cold* 
ness of its climate. — 9. Da luna propere noviB^ &c. " Boy, give me quick- 
ly a cop in honor of the new moon." Understand poculum, and consult 
note on Ode iii., 8, 1.3. — 10. Auguris Murena. This was the brother of 
Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. — 11. Tribus aut novem^ dec. " Let ow 
goblets be mixed with three or with nine cups, according to the temper- 
aments of those who drink." In order to understand this passage, we 
must bear in mind that the poculum was the goblet out of which each 
guest drank, while tho cyatkus was a small measure uscH for diluting the 
wine with water, or for mixing the two in certain proporti«.^s. Twelve 
of these cyaihi went to the sextarius. Horace, as symposiarch, or master 
of the feast, issues his edict, which is well expressed by U:e imperative 
form miscentoTt and prescribes the proportions in which the ^ine and wa> 
cer are to be mixed on the present occasion. For the hard drinkers, 
therefore, among whom he classes the poets, of the twelve cyatht that 
compose the sextarius^ nine will be of wine and three of water ; while 
for the more te nperate, for those who are friends to the Graces, the pro 
portion, on tho contrary, will be nine cyatki of water to three of wine 
Ta the numbers here given there is more or less allusion to the mystic no* 
iions of the day, as both three and nine were held sacred 

l*~S7. 13. Mnsas impares. "The Muses, uneven in number." — 14. At- 
tonitus vcUes. "The enraptured bard." — 18. BerecyrMte. Cc insult note 
on Ode i , 30, 5. The Berecyntian or Phrygian flute was of 8 crooked 
torw. whence it is sometimes called cornu. — 21. larcenies dexterat 



.?60 EXPIANATLKV NOTES.— -BOOK lit., ODK XTil, 

*8parii4^ baiiflii/' t. e., not liberal with the wine, flowers, perfamea, ^ 
—24. Vieina. •• Our fair yoang neighbor." — Non habiHs. " 111 saitivd.' 
i. e., in point of years. — 25. SptBga te niiidum coma^ &c. The connectJos 
if M fi^ows : The old and morose Lycas fails, as may well be expectedf 
in securing the affections of her to whom he is onited. Bat thee, Tel«> 
phos, in the bUx)m of manhood, thy Rhode loves, becaase he** years an 
matched with thine.— 26. Puro. " Bright."— 27. Tempativa. " Of nu- 
bile years." 



Or>E XXI. M. Valenus Messala Corvinos having promised to snp wift 
khe poet, the latter, fall of joy at the expected meeting, addresses an sjn 
phora of old wine, which is to honor the occasion with its contents. To 
die praise of this choice liquor sacceed encomiums on wine in general. 
The ode is thought to have been written A U.C. 723, B C. 31, when Cor- 
viPus was in his first consulship. 

l-ll. 1. O nata meciim^ &c. *'0 jar, whose contents were brought 
into existence with roe during the consalship of Manlius." Nata^ though 
joined in grammatical constraction with testa^ is to be construed as au 
epithet for the contents of the vessel. Manlius Torquatus was consul 
A.U.C. 689, B.C. 65, and Messala entered on his first consulate A.U.C. 
723 ; the wine, therefore, of which Horace speaks, must have been thirty 
four years old.— 4. Seufffdlcm^pia^ somnum. " Or, with kindly feelinga, 
f^entle sleep." The epilliet jtna must not be taken in immediate construe 
tion with testa. — 5. Q,uocunqxte nomine. Equivalent to in quemcunqm 
Jinemi " for whatever end." — 6. Movcri digna bono die. " Worthy of be- 
ing moved on a festal day,'' i. c, of be'ing moved from thy place on a day 
like this, devoted to festivity. — 7. Descende. The wine is to come down 
from the korreiim, or uKodifKri. Consult note on Ode iii., 28, 7. — 8. Lan- 
futdiora. "Mellowed by age." — 9. Quanquam Socraticis madet ser- 
monibus. " Though he is well-steepei in lore of the Socratic school," 
{. ff., has drunk deep of the streams of philosophy. The term madet con 
tains a figurative allusion to the subject of the ode. — 10. Sermonibui 
The method of instruction pursued by Bocrates assumed the form of famil 
iar conversation. The expression Socraticis sermonibuSf however, refers 
more particularly to the tenets of the Academy, that school having been 
founded by Plato, one of the pupils of Socrates. — Horridus. " Sternly." 
— ^11. Narratur et prisci Calonis^ &c. " Even the austere old Cato is re 
fated to have often warmed under the influence of wine." As regards the 
idiomatic expression Catonis virtus^ consult note on Ode i., 3, 36. The 
reference ii to the elder Cato, not to Cato of Utica, and the poet speaks 
merely of the enlivening effects of a cheerful glass, of which old Cato is said 
Id have been fond. 

13-23. 13. Tu Icne tormentum^ bcc. " Thou frequently appUest gentle 
ricdence to a rugged temper," t. e., thou canst subdue, by thy gentle vio 
ence, dispositions cast in the most rugged mould. — 1 4. Sapientium. " O) 
die guarded and pnident." — 15. Jocoso LytBO. "By the aid of sportiva 
Bacchus." — 18. Et addis cornua paupcri. "And addest confidence tc 
hiiu of humble means." Pauper implies a want, not of the neceasariei^ 
hnt of the comfoits of life. I^he exorsssion cornua addis fs one of a Dr6 



^ShH 



AXl'LANAT^RY NOTE^. BOOK III., OUIf XXIII. 3^\ 

rerbial character, the ham being symbolical of coafidence and power 
Cousalt Bote on Ode ii., 19, 29.— 19. Post te. "After tasting of thee.*'— 
20. Apices, " Tiaras." A particular allasion to the costame of Parthii 
and the EMt.—Militum, "Of foes in hostile array."— 21. Lasta. "Pro 
nitioas." — 22. Segnes nodum solvere. " Slow to loosen the bond of anion." 
k GrsBcism for segnes ad solvendum nodum. The mention of the Gracei 
allades here to the propriety and decomm that are to prevail throughout 
the banqoot.— 23. VivcBqtte IticemcB. " And the living L>hts." — Produee%„ 
" Shall prolong." The expression te producent is equivalent, in fact» tm 
€oninvium producent. 



Odr XXI U. The bard addresses Phidyle, a resident in the coantiT; 
whom the hamble nature of her offerings to the gods had filled with deep 
Bolicitade. He bids her be of good cheer, assuring her that the vMae of 
every sacrifice depends on the feelings by which it is dictated, and that 
one of the simplest and lowliest kind, if offered by a sincere and pioqi 
heart, is more acceptable to heavea than the most costly oblationa. 

1-20. 1, Supinas manus. " Thy suppliant hands." Literally, " thy 
bands with the palms tamed upward." This was tht, ordmary gesture 
of those who offered up prayers to the celestial deities. — 2. NcucefUeluna 
'* At the new moon," t. e., at the beginning of every mouth. The allusion 
Is to the old mode ol computing by lunar months. — ^3. Placaris, The final 
syllable of this tense'^is common: here it is long. {Coxxfmit Anthon* s Lat 
Pros.t p. 94, note.) — £t homafruge. " And with a portion of this year's 
produce." — 5. Africum. Consult note on Ode i., 1, 15. Some commenta- 
tors make the wind here mentioned identical with the modern Sirocco.-— 
6. Sterilem robiginem. "The blasting mildew." — 7. Dulces alum%A. 
"The iweet nurslings of my farm." Compare Ode'm., 18, 3. — 8. Pom% 
fero grave tempus anno. " The sickly season in the fruit-yielding perin^ 
of the year," i. e., in the autumn. As regards the poetic usage by wfain^ 
annus is frequently taken in the sense of a part, not of the whole yen 
compare Virgil^ Eclog., iii., 57 ; Hor.^ Epod.^ ii., 39 ; SlatiuSi Sylv.t i-t 
8, &c. — 9. Nam qua nivalin &c. The construction is as follows : JVa«. 
victimOj diis devota^ qtuB paseitur nivali Algido, inter quercus et ilio «. 
aut creseit in Albanis herbis^ tinget cervice secures pontijicum. The idt. - 
involved fh)m the 9th to the 16th verse is this : The more costly victir«'ii 
thall fall for the public welfare ; thou hast need of but few and simple t 
ferings to propitiate for thee the favor of the gods.— Algtdo. Consult nd^ 
on Ode i., 21, 6. — 11. Albanis in kerbis. "Amid Alban pastures." Al 
lading to the pastures around Mons Albanos and the ancient site of Alba 
I onga. — 13. Cervice. " With the blood that streams from its wounded 
neck." — Te nihil attinet, &c. " It is unnecessary for thee, if thou crown thy 
dttle Lares with rosemary and the brittle myrtle, to seek to propitiate 
thoir favor with the abundant slaughter of victims." The Lares stood in 
the atrium or hall of the dwelling. On festivals they were crpwned with 
garlands, and sacrifices were offered to them. Consult note on Ode u 7 
II. — 16. Fragili. The epithet /ra^w here means, in fact, "whose little 
iitalkfl are easily broken."— 17. Jmmunis. " Without a gift." Eqaiva 
'cut to liber a munerCt the reference being to one whr needs no gift tc 
offer Riuce bis life and conduct are unstained by guilt Henno arises tb« 

Q 



SdQ EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK III., ODE XXJV. 

oil »re general meaning of ** innocent" (Orellh ad ^.)— >18. Non «MMltii«»ii 
n/andior kostiOf &c. ** Not rendered more acceptable l^ a ooatly a%un> 
flee, it is voot to appease," &G., t. e., it appeases the gods as effeotaaUv 
as if a costly sacrifice were offered.— 20. Farre pio et toLienU tnt^Ai 
-* With the pioas cake and the crackling salt." Allading to the salte4 
cake {mtha Bolaa), composed of bran or meal mixed with salt, which was 
fprinkled on tlie head of the victim. 



\ 



Ode XXrV. The bard inveighs bitterly agaimt the laxoiy and hcon 
Imiraess of the age, and against the anprincipled cupidity by which thef 
irere constantly accompanied. A contrast is drawn between the pure 
■nd simple manners of barbarian nations aiul the nnbridled corruption of 
feia oonntrymen, and Aagtfstus is implored to save the empire by inter 
Voeing a iMTrier to the inandation of vice. 

l^l.l. 1. Intaetis opnlentior^ &c. The constraction is as follows- 
* Licet^ opulentior intaetU thesauris Araimm el divitia Indue, octupes 
9m ne Tyrrhenum el Apuliciim mare luis canicntiSf tamen si diraNeces' 
tilcLsJigil^ &c. " Though, wealthier than the yot unrifled treasures of the 
Arabians and of rich India, thou coverest with thy structures all the Tus 
can and Apulian Seas, still, if cruel Destiny once lixes her spikes of ada 
mant in thy towering pinnacles, thou wilt not free thy breast from fear 
thou wilt not extricate thy life from the snares of death." The epithet 
inlactus, applied to the treasures of the East, refers to their being as yet 
free from the grasp of Roman power. — 3. CaemerUis. The term ctemerua 
literally means '* stones for filling up." Here, however, it refers to the 
structures reared on these artificial foundations.— 4. Tyrriienuni omne^ 
&c. The Tyrrhenian denotes the lower, the Apolian the upper or Adriatic 
dea. — 6. Summis verticibns. We have given here the explanation of 
Orelli, which seems the most reasonable : *' Duin homo tile locuples ar- 
Bidue moles jacit, dfdesque exslruit^ necopincUo supervenit "ElfiapfiivTi 
['kvuyKrj)t clavoique suoSf quibus nihil resistere potest^ in cBdium eulmine 
figity domino veluli cKclamans : Hucusque nee uUra: adesljatn tibi ler- 
minus falalis /" Bentley, however, takes verticibus to denote the heads 
of spikes, so that summis veriidbus will mean, according to him, ** up tc 
the very head," and the idea intended to be conveyed by the poet will be 
*'8ic clavos figit necessitas summis verticibus, ut nulla vi evelli possint.^' 
—8. Campestres melius Scylhcj &c. '* A happier life lead the Scythians, 
that roam along the plains, whose wagons drag, according to the custom 
of the race, their wandering abodes." An allusion to the Scythian modfl 
^living in wagons, along the steppes {campi) of Tartary. — 10. RiAe. " Ao 
wording to the custom of the race." Compare the explanation of Doringi 
•• tUjcrl eorum mos et vita ratio." — 11. Rigidi Gela. ** The hardy Getaa: 
The GctsB originally occupied the tract of country which had the Danuba 
to the north, the range of Hoemus to the south, the Euxine to the east, 
ftnd the Crobvzian Thracians to the west. It was within these limits that 
Ferud(tus knew them. Afterward, however, being dislodged, probably 
hy the Macedonian arms, they crossed the Danube, and pni*sued theit 
N'omadic mode of kfe in the steppes between the Danube and the Tyraa^ 
^ Dniester. — 12. Immttata jugera. ** Unmeasured acres," i. c, unmark 
bv biiandaries Alluding to the land bein;; in common. The term ? v 



EXPLANATORY NOTBS. BOOK Ilf., OlIE XXIV 363 

18 what the grammariaiui term a dira^ Xtyofievov, since it oocuril 
only in this passage of Horace. — Liberas fruges et Cererem. "A narveit 
fr<>e to all." Cererem is here merely explanatory oifrugea. — 1 4. Nee em* 
tmra placet, Slc. ** Nor does a caltiire longer than an annual one pleaM 
tiMOL" Ailading to their annaal change of abode. Compare CsBawr'i ao 
etnnt of the Germans, B. G.^ vi., 22. — 15. Defunctumqtie laboribut, ko. 
**' iknd a Saccessor, upon equal terms, relieves him who has ended hii la- 
Kxt of a year." 

17-40. 17. lllie matre careiUtbus^ Jbc. *' There the wife, a stranger ti 
§pa\tt treats kindly the children of a previous marriage, deprived of a 
Jiother's care," i. e., is kind to her motherless step-children. — 19. DotcUa 
sonjux. "The dowered spouse." — 20. Nitido adtdtero. "The gaudy 
adulterer." — 21. Dos est magna parentium, dui. A noble sentence, bat 
requiring, in order to be clearly understood, a translation bordering upon 
paraphrase. "With them, a rich dowry consists in the virtue instillcid 
by parental instruction, and in chastity, shrinking from the addresses of 
another, while it firmly adheres to the marriage compact, as well as io 
the conviction that to violate this compact is an ofience against the laws 
of heaven, or that the punishment due to its commission is instant death " 
— 27. Pater Urbium subscribi statuis. " To be inscribed on the pedestals 
of statues as the Father of his country." An allusion to August!^, and to 
the title of Pater Patri<B conferred on him by the public voice. — 28. In 
domitam licentiam. "Our hitherto ungovernable licentiousness." — 
30. Claws postgenitts. "Illustrious for this to after ages." — Quatenus 
"Since." — 31. Virlutem incolumem. "Merit, while it remains with us," 
i. e., illustrious men, while alive. — 32. Invidi. Compare the remark of 
the scholiast, " Vere enim per invidiam JU^ ut boni viri, cum amissi sint^ 
deitiderentHr"—34. Culpa. "Crime." — 35. Sine moribus. "Without 
public morals to enforce them." — 36. Si nequefervidis, &,c. An allusion 
to the torrid zone. Consult note on Ode i., 22, 22. — 38. Nee Bore<BjinUi 
mum lotus. " Nor the region bordering on the North." — 40. Horrida cal 
lidi,lkc. "If the skillful mariners triumph over the stormy seas? If 
narrow circumstances, now esteemed a great disgrace, bid us," &c. 

45-58. 45. Vel nos in Capiiolium, dec. The idea intended to be con 
veyed is this : If we sincerely repent uf the luxury and vice that have tai 
nished the Roman name, if we desire another and a bettor state of things 
let us either carry our superfluous wealth to the Capitol and consecrate it 
to the gods, or let us cast it as a thing accursed into the nearest sea. The 
words in Capiiolium are thought by some to contain a flattering allusion 
\o a remarkable act on the part of Augustus, in dedicating a large amount 
i»f treasure to the Capitoline Jove, exceeding 16,000 pounds' weight of 
gold, besides pearls and precious stones. {Suet.^ Aug., 30.) — 46. Pavm- 
ttum. "Of our applauding fellow citizens." — 47. In marc proximum. 
Things accursed were wont to be thrown into the sea, or the nearest run- 
ning water. — 49. Materiem. "The germs." — 51. Eradenda. " Aie to b* 
eradicated."— 52. Tener<B nimis. " Enervated by indulgence."— 54. Net 
eit equo, mdis, &c. " The free-bom youth, trained up in ignoraace of 
<nanly accomplishments, knows not bow to retain his seat on t1io steed, 
tnd fears to hunt." Among the Homans, thoso who were born of paientB 
that had always l)oer Troc wrve styled ingenvi, — 57. Or.rcr trocho Tht 



964 F.XPLANATOBir NOTES. BOOK ((I ODE XXir. 

Iiroehut (rp6x<K) ^^ (^ circle of brass or iroa, set roand witb ring^s, iiuC 
with which yooog men and boys used to amase themselves. It was bor^ 
rowed ftom the Qreeks, and resembled the modem hoop. — 58. Siu malt» 
** Or, if thoa prefer." — Vetita Icgilnit alea. All games of chance were 
Ibniidden among the Romans except at the celebration of the Satomalia 
These laws, howovei were not strictly observed. 

S^S^. 58. Perfura patrisfida. ** His perjured and faithless parent.' 
*^. Consortem soeium, et hoapUem, " His partner and guest-costonior. 
Contortem tocivm is equivalent to sortit socium, son being the capiUk 
which each brings in. By hospitem is meant a guest and, at the sama 
time, customer. — 61. Indifrnoque peeuniam, &.& '* And hastens to amass 
wealth for an heir unworthy of enjoying it." — 62. Scilicet improba crescuni 
dwtti<Bf &c. " Riches, dishonestly acquired, infrcase, it is true, yet somo 
thing or other is ever wanting to wiiat seems an impertect fortuna in th« 
eyes of its possessor." 



Ode XXV. A beautiful dithyrambic ode in nonor of Augustus. The 
bard, full of poetic enthusiasm, fancies himselt borne along amid woods 
and wilds, to celebrate, in some distant cave, the praises of the monarch. 
Then, like another Bacchanalian, he awakes from the traoce-like feelings 
into which he had been thrown, and gazes with wonder upon the scenes 
that lie before him. An invocation to Bacchus succeeds, and allusion is 
again made to the strains in which the pratscs of Augustus are to be 
poured forth to the world. 

1-19. 1. Tui plenum. " Pull of thee," i. «., of thy inspiration. — Qua 
nemora. Supply the preposition from the clause which follows. — 3. Vclo:t 
mente nc^a. '* Moving swiftly under the influence of an altered mind.' 
Nova refers to the change wrought by the inspiration of the god. Quibm 
antris, &c. The construction is as follows : " In guibus antris audiai 
meditans inscrere, Sec. — 5. Mcditans inserere. *' Essaying to enroll." Med 
Uans refers to exercise and practice, on the part of the bard, before a fuH 
and perfect effort is publicly made. — 6. Cotmlio Jovis. Alluding to th(- 
twelve Dii Consenles or Majores. — 7. Dicam insigTie, &c. " I will pend 
forth a lofty strain, new, as yet unuttered by other lips." The pleonaivtiu 
cum of expression in *'recens, adhuc indicium ore alio" accords with the 
wild and irregular nature of the whole piece. — 8. Non aecus injugis^ &c 
**So the Bacchanal, awaking from sleep, stands lost in stupid ast-onish- 
mont on the mountain tops, beholding in the distance the Hebrus, an*) 
Thrace white with snow, and Rhodope traversed by barbarian foot." llie 
poet, recovering from the strong influence of the god, and surveying witb 
■larm the arduous nature of the theme to which he has dared to approachi 
compares himself to the Bacchant, whom the stern power of the dei^ 
*^hat she serves has di^yen onward, in blind career, through many a strange 
And distant region. Awakeliing from the deep slumber into which ex 
hausted nature had at length he&o. compelled to sink, she finds hersell, 
when returning rc(X>llection comeS| to her aid, on the remote mountais 
tops, far from her native scenes, and gazes in silent worder on the pros 
pect before her : the dark Hebrus, the snow-clad ^elds cf Thrace, and th« 
chain of Rhodope rearing its suk-SMltts to the skiek Fev/ passages can b« 






tfXPLANATOBir NOTES. BOOK III., OOh IXVil. d(j;') 

Mtea fnrai any ancie it or modem wi iter containing more of the tme spiril 
Bs poetry. — 10. Hebrum, The modem name of the Uebms is the Maritza 
~12. lihodopen. lihodopa, now Despoto-Dagh^ a. Thracian chain, lyin^ 
along tlie northcaBtera borders of Macedonia.- -l/i mihi devio, &c. ** How 
it delights me, as I wander far from the haunts of men." — 13. Vacuum 
memus, **Tho lone.y grove." — 14 O Naiadum potetis, &c. "O god of 
the Naiads and of the Bacchantes, powerfal enough to tear up/' &c/— 
19. O Le^n4ee. " () god of the wine-press." The epithet Lenaiu comes 
finm the Greek XqvaioQ^ which is itself a derivative from Xi/vof, " a wine* 
press." Mitscherlich well explains the concluding idea of this ode, which 
lias couched under the figurative language employed by the bard: *'Ad 
•rgumentom carmlnis ; si postrema transferas, erit : Pro/ectisiitna qui. 
ieui audacia est^ At gutlum cdebrare ; $ed aleajacla e*toJ* 



Odk XXVII. Addressed to Galatea, whom the poet seeks to dissuade 
from the voyage which she intended to make during the stormy seasoi 
of the year. The train of ideas is as follows : "I will not seek to detet 
thee from the journey on which thou art about to enter, by recounting evi 
omens ; I will rather pray to the gods that no danger may come nigh 
thee, and that thou mayest set out under the most favorable ausprces 
Yet, Galatea, though the auguries forbid not thy departure, think, I en- 
treat, of the many perils which at this particular season are brooding over 
the deep. Beware lest the mild aspect of the deceitful sales lead thoe 
astray, and lest, Jke Europa, thou become the victim of thy own impru 
dence." The poet then dwells upon the story of Europa, and with this 
the ode terminates. 

X^iL. 1. ImptOh parrte^ dec. "May the ill-omened cry of the noisy 
■creech-owl accompany the wicked on their way." The leading idea in 
the first three stanzas is as fohows : Let evil omens accompany the wick- 
ed alone, and may those that attend the departure of her for whose safety 
[ am solicitous, be favorable and happy ones. — 2. Agro Lanuvino, Lanu- 
vium was situate to the right of the Appian Way, on a hill commanding 
an extensive prospect toward Antium and the sea. As the Appian Way 
was the direct route to the port of Brundisium, the animal mentioned io 
the text would cross the path of those who travelled in that direction. — 
5. Rumpat et serpcnx^ &c. " Let a serpent also interrupt the journey juat 
begun, if, darting like an arrow athwart the way, it has terrified the 
liorses." Mannus means properly a small horse or nag, and is thought to 
be a term of Gallic origin. The reference is here to draught horses, of 
tiiose harnessed to the chariot. — 1. Ego cut timebo^ &c. The oonstructioii 
m aa follows : Providux auspex, suscilabo prece illi, cut ego timebo, otci 
men corvum ab ortu golia, atUequam avis divina imminentum imbrium 
repetat stanies paludes. " A provident augur, I will call forth by pt ayer, 
oa account of her for whose safety I feel anxious, the croaking raven from 
the eastern heavens, before the bird that p*esages approaching rains shall 
ffsvisit the standing pools." Among the Romans, birds that gave omens 
%y their notes were called Oscines, and those from whose flight auguriei 
were drawn received the appellation of Prapetes. Hence oscinem means 
nere, more literally, *' giving omens by its cry." The cry of the ravea 
wbec heard from the east was deemed favorable.— 10. Imbrium iivina 



806 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOO*. 'JI., CDfc XX VH. 

ttvit tmMtneiUUTn The crow is here meant. — 13. Sis . icelfelix. -*M Aye«t 
thon be happy.*' The train of ideas is as follows : I oppose not thy wishea. 
Gala^a. // t> permitted thee, as far as depends on mc. or on the omene 
which I am taking, to be happjf wherever it may please thee to dwells- 
15. luevus pieut. "A wood-pecker on the left." When the liomacf 
made omens on the left unlucky, as in tho present instance, they spoke 
In accordance with tKe Oreciau custom. The Qrecian augurs, when they 
made observations, kept their fooes toward the north ; hence they had the 
•ast or lucky quarter of the heavens on their right hand, and the west on 
their left On the contrary, the Romans, making observations with their 
hce» to the south, had the east upon their left hand, and the wost opoa 
tiieir right. Both sinister and /<rru«, therefore, have, when we speak 
Romano morCt the meaning of lucky fortunate, dec, and the opposite im 
port when we speak Gr<tco more. 

17-39. 17. Quanto trepidet tumultu, dec. "Witli what a loud and 
stormy noise the setting Oiion hastens to his rest," t. e., what tempests 
are preparing to barst forth, now thai Orion sets. Consult note on Ode Lt 
28, 21. — 19. Novi. Alluding to bis own personal experience. He knows 
the dangers of the Adriatic because he has seen them. — Et quid albus 
ptccet lapyx. **And how deceitful the serene lapyx is." As regards 
the epithet albus^ compare Ode i., 7, 15 ; and, with regard to tlm term 
lapyx, consult note on Ode i., 3, 4.- -21. CiBcos motus. "The dark com- 
motions." — 24. Verbere. "Beneath the lashing of the surge." Under 
Btand fluctuum. — 25. Sic, "With the same rashness." — Europe. The 
Greek form for Europa. — 26. At sccUentem belluis, dec. " But, though bold 
before, she now grew pale at the deep teeming with monsters, and at the 
fraud and danger that every where met the view." The term fraudes, 
in this passage, denotes properly danger resulting to an individual from 
fraud and aitifice on the part of another, a meaning which we baAe en- 
deavored to express. — 28. Palluit. This verb here obtains a transitive 
force, because an action is implied, though not described in it. — Audax, 
Alluding to her rashness, at the outset, in trusting herself to the back of 
the bull. — 30. Debita Nymphis, " Due to the nymphs," in fulfillment ol 
avow. — 31 Nocte sublustri. "Amid the feebly-illumined night." The 
stars alone appearing in the heavens. — ^33. Centum potentem urbibus 
Compare Homer, //., ii., 649 : KpijTTjv iKaTOfinoTiiv. — 34. Pater^ O relic- 
tum^ dtc. "Father! O title abandoned by thy daughter, and filial affec> 
tion, triumphed over by frantic folly !" Nomen is in apposition with pater^ 
and ^lue ia the dative for the ablative. (Orelli, ad lac.) — 38. Vigilans. 
" In my waking senses." — ^39. An vitio carentem, dec. " Or, does some 
delusive image, which a dream, escaping from the ivory gate, brings wicfa 
it, mock me, still free from the stain of guilt V* In the Odyssey (xix., 56% 
9eqq.)^ mention is made of two gates through which dreams issue, the one 
of horn, the other }f ivory : the visions of the night that pass through the 

ormer are true ; through the latter, false. To this poetic imagery Hoi ace 

eie alludes. 

47-75. 47. Modo. " But a moment ago." — 48. Monstn. A mere ex« 
orcssion of resentment, and not referring, as some commentators have sup* 
p'>sed, to the circumstance of Jove s having been concealed un ler th^ 
form of the animal, since Europa could not as yet be at all awaro cf tlii* 



EXi'LANATORT NOTfiS. BOOK III.> Ol>e XXVIll 30? 

^^S Impudent hqutf ice. " Shamelessly have I abandoned a father's 
iDof; sbamelessly do I delay the death that I deBeive."'^-<54. Tenertt 
putdm. The dative, by a Orncism, for the ablative. — 8%Myiu **Tbe 
side of life." — 55. Spetnosa. ** While still in iie bloom of early years,' 
and hence a more inviting prey. So nuda in the 52d lL*e.— 57. Vilu 
Europe. She fancies she hears her father upbraiding her, and the addrett 
oi the angry parent is continued to the word pellex in the 66th line.— Pa/fr 
urgei ttbsrns. A pleasing oxymoron. The father of £aropa appears 
if piresent to her disordered mind, though in reality far away, and angrily 
mrgea her to atone for her dishonor by a voluntary and immediate deatb 
*Thy father, though far away, angrily urging thee, seems to exclaim. 
fhd stadent will mark the zeugma in urget^ which is here equivalent 
to acrUer insitlent clamat. — 59. Zona bene te »eeiUa, " With the girdle 
Ihat has luckily accompanied thee." — 61. Acuta leto, ** Sharp with death.' 
t. e., on whose sharp projections death may easily be found.— 62. Tepro 
tell^ erede veloei. ** Consign thyself to the rapid blast," «. 6., plunge head 
long down. — 67. Remisso arcu. As indicative of having accomplished his 
object. — 69. Ubi lusit »<Uis, ** When she had sufficiently indulged her 
mirth." — ^70. Jrarum calidaque rix<e. The genitive, by a Griecism, fur 
the ablative. — ^71. Quum tibi invisus^ &c. Venus here alludes to the in 
tended appearance of Jove in his proper form. — ^73. Uxor invicti Jovik 
&c. *' Thou knowest not, it seems, that thou art the bride of resistless 
Jove." The nominative, with the infinitive, by a Groecism, the reference 
being tc the same person that forms the subject of the verb. — 75. Sectuh 
orbis. ** A division of the gbbe." Literally, ** the globe being divided.'' 



Odk XXVIII. The poet, intending to celebrate the Neptunalia, or festi* 
val of Neptune, bids Lyde bring the choice Ciecuban and join him in song 
The female to whom the piece is addressed is thought to have been the 
same with the one mentioned in the eleventh ode of this book, and it is 
supposed, by most commentators, tliat the entertainment took place under 
her roof. We are inclined, however, to adopt the opinion, that the day 
was celebrated in the poet's abode, and that Lyde was now the superin 
tcndent of his household. 

1-16. 1. Feslo die Neptuni. The Neptunalia, or festival of Neptunoi 
look place on the fifth day before the Kalends ot August (28th July). — 

2. Reconditum. '* Stored far away iii the wiue.room." Alluding to old 
irine laid up in the farther part of the crypt. Compare Ode ii., 3, 8.— 

3. Lyde strenua, ** My active Lyde." Some commentators, by a change 
if puixstuation, refer slrenuat in an adverbial sense, to prome. — 4. Muni- 
ktque adhdbe, dec. *' And do violence to thy guarded wisdom," t. e., bid 
flkrowell, fer this once, to moderation in wine. The poet, by a pleasing 
f gore, bids her storm the camp of sobriety, and drive away its accustomed 
dafenders. — 5. Inclinare sentis, &c. "Thou seest that the niontide is in- 
dining toward the west," t. «., that the day begins to decline. — 7 Parcia 
deripere horreot Sec. " Dost thou delay to hurry down from the wine room 
the lingering amphora of the consul Bibolus?" t. e., which contains wine 
made, as the mark declares, in the consulship of Bibnlus (A U.C. 695, B.C 
59). The wine, therefore, would be, according to Orelli, aCKmt thirty-five 
vean o The epithet ce»»antem leautimlly expresses the impat^eu-:* 



368 KXI'LANAIORK NO'-ES. BOUK lll.i ODE XXIA. 

of the ^3et hiiUBelf. — TU« lighter wines, or sach u lasted only from oim 
rintage to another, wero kept in cellars ; bat the stronger and moto dam 
ble kinda were transferred to another apartment, which the Greeks called 
diro^«9, or vtBuw, and the poet, on the present occasion, karreum, Witk 
tho Romans it was generally placed above ttke fumarium. or dr3ring 
kiln, in order that the vessels might be exposed to soch a degree of smoke 
as was calcalated to bring the wines to an early matarity. — 9. luviceik. 
" In alternate strain." The poet is to chant the praises of Neptnne, w c 
Ljfd« those of tho Nereids. — 10. Virides. Alluding to the color of the seti 
•«12. CyfUhim. Diaua. An epithet derived from Mount Cynthus in D» 
k)i, h'3r native island. — 18. Summo carmine^ Ace. '* At the conclusion of 
the strain, we will sing together of the goddess who," &«. The aliusioi 
is to Venus. — Guidon. Consult note on Ode i., 30, 1. — II. Pulgente$ Cyc- 
iadoM. ** The Cyclades, conspicuous from afar." CJonsult note on Ode L 
14, 20. — Pafhon. Consult note on Ode i., 30, I.-^IS. Junctis oloribus 
"With her yoked swans." In her car drawn by swans. — 16. Dictiut 
merited && ** Night, too, shall be celebrated, in a hymn due to her praise." 
The term noBnia is beautifully selected here, thoui^b much of its peculiax 
meaning is lost in a translation. As the rksnio, or funeral dirge, marked 
the cln8<) of existence, so here the expression is applied to the hymn thai 
ends the banquet, and whose low and plaintive numbers invite to repose 



Ode XXIX One of the most beautiful lyric productions of all antiqui. 
ty. The bard invites his patron to spend a few days beneath his humble 
nooC far from splendor and affluence, and from the noise and confusion of 
a crowded capital. He bids him dismiss, for a season, that anxiety far 
the public welfare in which he was but too prone to indulge, and tells bin 
to enjoy the blessings of the present hour, and leave the events of the fu 
tare to the wisdom of the gods. That man, according to the poet, is alone 
truly happy, who can say, as each evening closes around him, that he has 
enjoyed in a becoming manner the good things which tho day has be- 
stowed ; nor can even Jove himself deprive him of this satisfaction. The 
surest aid against the mutability of fortune is conscious integrity, and he 
who possesses this need not tremble at the tempest that dissipates the 
wealth of the trader. 

1-19. 1. Tyrrhenaregum progenies. ** Descendant of Etrurian nilcrs." 
Consult nolo on Ode i., 1, 1. — Ttbi. " In reserve for thee." — 2. Non anU 
verso. '* Never as yet turned to be emptied of any part of its contents," 
i e.t as yet unbroached. The allusion is to the simplest mode practiced 
among the Romans for drawing off the contents of a wine vessel, by inclin 
ing it to one side, and thus pouriug out the liquor. — 1. Balantu. "Per- 
fnme." The name balantu, or myrohalanum^ was given by the ancients 
to n species of nut, from which a valuable nugueut qr perfume was ex- 
tracted.— 5. Eripe te morce. " Suatch thyself from delay," i. e., from every 
thing in the city that may seek to detain thee there — from all the eugrosB« 
ing cares of public life. — 6. Ut aemper-udum. We have followed here the 
very neat emendation of Hardiiige, which has received the commenda- 
tions of many eminent Bnglish scholars. The common text has ne aeTn- 
per udum, Ayhich involves an absurdity. How could Msecenas, at Rome, 
contemplate Tibur, which was twelve or sixteen miles of[ f—Tibur. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODb XXIX. 3Gb 

Consult noto on Ode i., 7, 13. — jEsuIa deeltoe solum. ** The slopiDgf Mi. 
of iBrala." This town is supposed to have stood in tne vicinity of Tibaii 
and from the language of the poet mast have been situate on the slope of 
a hiU. — 8. Tehgoni jnga parricidee. Alluding to the ridge of hills go 
which Tnscalam was situated. This city is said to have been founded 
by Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, who came hither after having 
killed his father without knowing him.— 9. Fastidiosam. '^Productiye 
only of disgust." The poet entreats his patron to leave for a season tiiat 
* abundance," which, when uninterrupted, is productive only of disgusti— 
10. Molem propinquam, &:c. Alluding to the magnificent villa of Mieoe 
oas, on the Esqniline Hill, to which a tower adjoined remarkable for itt 
leight. — W. Beata Rom<B. "Of opulent Rome." — 1^. Vices. "Change." 
«-14. Parvo sub tare. "Beneath the humble roof." — 15. Sine aulmi'< ei 
Oitro. ** Without hangings, and witliout the purple covering of the couch." 
Literally, " without hangings and purple." The auUea^ or hangings, were 
suspended from the cielings and side-walls of the banqueting rooms. — 16. 
Sollteitam explicueirefrontem. " Are wont to smooth the anxious brow," 
«. e., to remove or unfold the wrinkles of care. Explicuere has here the 
force of an aori^t, and is equivalent to explicare solent. — 17. Clams An- 
dromediB pater. Cepheus ; the name of a constellation near the tail of the 
Little Bear. It rose on the 9th of July, and is here taken by the poet to 
mark tlie arrival of the summer heats. — OccuUum ostendit ignem. Equiv- 
alent to oritur. — 16. Procyon. A constellation rising jest before the d(^- 
itar. Hence its name IXpoicvcjv (Trpo, ante, and kvuv, cani*)^ and its Latin 
appellation of antecanis. — 19. Stella vesani Leonis. A star on the breast 
9f Leo, rising on the 24th of July. The sun enters into Leo on the SOtfa 
nf the same month. 

*23-64. 22. Horridi dumeta Sihani. "The thickets of the rough Sil- 
ranus." The epithet horridus refers to his crown of reeds and the rough 
pine-branch which he can'ies in his hands. This deity had the care of 
proves and fields. — 24. Ripa taciturna. A beautiful allusion to the still- 
Qess of the atmosphere. — 35. Tu civitatem quis deceat status , Sic. "Thou, 
in the mean time, art anxiously considering what condition of affairs may 
ne most advantageous to the state." Alluding to his office of Prmfeetus 
(frbis.^-^l. Seres. The name by which the inhabitants of China were 
known to the Romans. — Regtiata Bactra Cyro. " Bactra, ruled over by 
in Eastern king." Bactra, the capital of Bactriana, is here put for the 
whole Parthian empire.->-28. Tanaisque discors. "And the Tanais, whose 
hanks are the seat of discord." Alluding to the dissensions among the 
Parthians. Consult note on Ode iii., 8, 19. — 29. Prudens futuri. Sec. "A 
wise deity shrouds in gloomy night the events of the future, and smi.es if 
a mortal is solicitous beyond the law of his being." — 32. Quod adesi in^ 
mitUo, &c. " Remember to make a proper use of the present hour."— 
93. Cetera. "The future." Referring to those things that are not nn« 
der our control, but are subject to the caprice of fortune or the power of 
icstiny. The mingled good and evil which the future has in store, and 
the vicissitudes of life generally, are compared to the course of a stream, 
at one time troubled, at another calm and tranquil — 41. Ille potens suu 
tc. "That man will live mastet of himself."— 42. Jn diem. "£act 
day,"..^'). Vixi. "I have lived," i. e., I have enjoyed, as they should bo 
wi^Soyed, the blessings of existence. — 44 Occupato A zea;;mn operates 



870 EXVi'ANArORY NOIES. BOOK III., ODB X .. 

in tfaifl 7erb : in the first claiie it hai tlie meaning of " to sfaroad, ' in tut 
gecond ** to iUumine."— 46. Qtiodeunque retro est. ** Whatever ia gout 
by."^7. Dijffinget infeetumque reddet. ** Will be change and undo.'*-*' 
49. Savo Iteta negotio, Sec. *' Exulting in her crael employment, and pep 
■iating in playing her haaghty game." — ^53. Manenieni. " While the v» 
^ains."— 54. Reaigno qua dedit. *' I resign what she once bestowed. 
Reaigna is here i.»od in the sense of resm6o, and the latter is a term bbk* 
lowed from the UiLiian law. When an individual borrowed a som ot 
Woatty, the amount received and the borrower's name were written fa 
Im banker's books ; and when the money was repaid, another entry wtf 
•de. Hence scribere nummost " to borrow ;" reseribere^ ** to pay back.' 
Mea virtute me involvo. The wise man wraps himself op in the mantle 
Df his own integrity, and bids defiance to the storms and changes of km- 
tane.^— 57. Non est meum. ** It is not for me." It is no employment of 
mine. — 58. Et votis pacisei. " And to strive to bai^ain by my vows."- 
62. Turn. *'At snch a time as this." — 64. Aura geminusque Pollux 
** A favoring breeze, and the twin-brothers Castor and PoUnx." Consolt 
note on Ods i., 3, 2. 



Odx XXX. The poef s presage of immortality. It is generally va^ 
posed that Horace intended this as a conclading piece for his odes, and 
with this opinion the accoont given by Saetonias appears to harmoniae, 
since we are informed by this writer, in his life of the poet, that the fourth 
book of odes was added, after a long interval of time, to the first three 
books, by order of Augustus. 

1-16. 1. Exegi monimentum, &c.  " I have reared a memorial of my 
self more enduring than brass." Compare the beautiful lines of Ovid, at 
the conclusion of the Metamorphoses : "Jamque opus exegi quod necJovts 
tia, nee ignes," dec. — 2. ^galique situ^ &c. *' And loftier than the rega) 
structure of the pyramids." — 3. Imber edax. '* The corroding shower.' ^' 
4. Innumerabilis annorum series^ Sec " The countless series of years, 
and the flight of ages." — 7. Libitinam. Libitina, at Rome, was worship 
ped as file goddess that presided over funerals. When Horace says 
that he will escape Libitina, he means the oblivion c* ..ne grave. Libiiina 
and Venus were regarded as one and the same deity, so that we have 
here, as elsewhere, a union of the power that creates with that which 
destroys. — Usque rt'cens. "Ever fresh," i. e., ever blooming with the 
fresh graces of youth. — 8. Dum Capitoiium, &c. On the ides of every 
month, according to Varro, solemn sacrifices were offered up in the Capi- 
ton. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that so long as this shall be doue^ 
oo long will his fame continue. To a Roman the Capitol seemed destined 
§att eternity. — 10. Dicar. To be joined in construction with princeps de- 
duxissc. "I shall be celebrated as the first that brought down," &c.~- 
Aufidus. A very rapid stream in Apulia, now the Ofanto. — 11. Et qua 
auper aqv4e^ &c. "And where Daunus, scantily supplied with water, 
uied over a rustic population." The allusion is still to Apulia (the epi- 
thet being merely transferred from the country to the early monarch of the 
same), and the expression pauper aqua refers to the summer heats of thai 
countr}'. Consult note on Ode i., 22, 13.— -12. Regnavit populorvm. Am 
imitation of the Greek idiom, lypfr Xac*' --JJa: humilt potent '»! be 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXX. 371 

•jme powerfal from a lowly degree." Alladiug to the hamble origin anil 
gabseqncnt advancament of the bard. — 13. Solium carmen, A general 
allasion to the lyric poeta of Greece, but containing, at the same time, a 
more particular reference to Alcasus and Sappho, both writers ir the 
iBolic dialect. — 14. Deduxisse. A figure borro ^ed from the leading down 
of streams to irrigate the adjacent fields. The stream of lyrin verse is 
drawn down by Horace from the heights of Grecian poesy to irriga':e and 
lefreah tlie bamb'er literature of Rome. — 15. Ddphica lawro. ** Witk 
k* Delphic bay,** f e with the bay oi Apollo.— Itf. Voieiu. "Pr&|ii 



BOOK IV. 



*i9m II. fuc dy^xntbri, Usipetei, and Tenctheri, wbc dwelt bofwfk 
tiM iUiioe, b»»i]ig hiade frequent inroads into the RomaL temiury, Aa 
|u*taa proceeded a^ainai (hem, and, by the mere terror of lk!j name, ooni' 
^Ued them to aoe tw peȣe. (Dio Cassiu^t 54, 20, vol. i., p. 750, ed. Rei 
nar,) Horace ia therefoi«. reqaeeted by loloa Antonias, the same yeai 
in which this event took pla *« ( A.U.C. 738), to celebrate in Pindaric strain 
rbe saocessfol expedition oi' ihe emperor and bis expected return to the 
capital. The poet, however, declines the task, and alleges want of talent 
as an excuse; but the ver> language in which this plea is conveyed 
shows bow well qualified he sras to execute the undertaking from which 
be shrinks. 

lulus Antonius was the younger son of Marc Antony and Fulvia, and 
was brought up by his stepmother Octavia at Rome, and after his father's 
death (B.C. 30) received great marks of favor from Augustus, through Oc- 
tavia's influence. Augustus married him to Marcella, the daughter of Oc- 
tavia by her first husband C. Marcellus, conferred upon bim the pnetw* 
ship in B.C. 13, and the consulship in B.C. 10. In consequence, however, 
cf bis adulterous intercourse with Julia, the daughter of Augustus, he was 
condemned to death by the emoeror in B.C. 2, bat seems to have antici- 
pated his execution by a \ oluntary death. Ue was also accused of aim 
ing at the empire. 

1-11. 1. ^mulari. "To rival." — 2. lule. To be pronounced as « 
dissyllable, yu-le. Consult Remarks on Sapphic Verse, p. Ixviii— Cero/ts 
ope Dadalea. " Secured with wax by Daadalean art." An allusion to the 
well-known fable of Daedalus and Icarus. — 3. Vitreo daturus, die. ''Des- 
tined to give a name to the sparkling deep." Vitreo is here rendered by 
some *' azure," but incorrectly ; the idea is borrowed from the sparkling 
of glass. — 5. Monte. ** From some mountain." — 6. Notas ripas. " ^ts ac- 
customed banks." — 7. Fefvet immcnsuzque^ &c. " Pindar foams, and '^s 
on unoonfined with a mighty depth of expression." [Osborne^ ad loi. ^ 
The epithet immensus refers to the rich exuberance, and prof undo ore to 
the sublimity of the bard. — 9 Donandus. " Deserving of being gifted." 
—10. Seu per audaces^ dec. Horace here proceeds to enumerate the sev- 
eral departments of lyric verse, in all of which Pindar stands pre-eminent. 
These are, 1. Dithyramincs ', 2. Paanx^ or hymns and encomiastic efia* 
sions ; 3. Epinicia {k'lnviKia)^ ai songs of victory, composed in honor of 
the conquerors at the public games ; 4. Epicedia {iniKrfdeiajt or funeral 
songs. Time has made fearful ravages in these celebrated productions : 
all tbat remain to us, with the exception of a few fragments, are forty-five 
of the iiriviKta ^afiara. — 10. Nova verba. ** Strange forms of expression, 
%, e., -; ew and daring forms of style. Compare the explanation of Mitscb 
erl*<L.'n : ** Composiiioney juncluroy stgnijicatu denique innovattt, cum novo 
jTcUionii habitu atque stntctura" and also that of Doring: ** Nova se» 
tentiamm lumincL, novo effictas grandiBonoruvfi verborum formulas.* 
Horace alludes to the peculiar licence enjoyed by dithyrambic poets, m:H 



£XPLANATUR1 NOlES BOOK IV., ODE XI. 37d 

nore eipcKdally by Pindar, of formiog novel componndi, introducing novel 
Arrangemeuto in the structure of their sentences, and of attaching to terms 
a boldness of meaning that aknost amounts to a change of signiGcaticm. 
flence the epithet ** daring" (andaces) applied to this species of poetry. 
Ditbyrambics were originally odes in praise of Bacchus, and their very 
ebaracter shows their Oriental origin. — 11. Numeris lege soltUis. **in 
unshackled numbers." Alluding to the privilege eiigoyed by dithyrtmUe 
poeta, of passing rapidly and at pleasure from one measure to another 

'^-32. 13. Seu deoSf regetve, du:. Alluding to the Pasans. The reg^t, 
Jltorum sanguinetn, are the heroes of earlier time* ; and the reference to 
Ihe centaurs and the chimaBra calls up the recollection of Theseus. Piri- 
liious, and Belleropbon. — 17. Sive quos Elea^ &c. Alluding to tbe £pi 
fiL\ciK,-~Elea pcdma. " The Elean palm," t. e., the palm won at the Olym- 
pic games, on the banks of the Alpheus, in Elis. Consult note on Ode 
)., 1, 3. — 18. Ccelestes. ** Elevated, in feeling, to the skies." — Equumve. 
Not only the conquerors at the games, but their horses also, were cele- 
brated in song and honored with statues. — 19 Centum potiore ngnin. 
*" Superior to a hundred statuea." Alluding to one of his lyric etfusions. 
— Flebili. "Weeping." Taken in an active sense. The allusion is now 
to the Epicedia^ or funeral dirges. — Juvenemve. Strict Latinity requires 
that the enclitic be joined to the first word of a clause, unless that be a 
3ionosyllabic preposition. The present is tbe only instance in which Hor- 
ace deviates fropi the rule. — 22. Et vires animumqtte^ &.c. "And extols 
his strength, and courage, and unblemished morals to tiie stars, and res- 
cues him from the oblivion of the grave." Literally, ** envies dark Orcus 
the possession of him." — 25. Multa Dircaum. *'A swelling gale raises 
on high the Dircapan swan." An allusion to the strong poetic flight of 
Pindar, who, as a native of Thebes in Bceotia, is here styled ** Dircaaan," 
from the fountain of Dirce situate near that city, and celebrated in the 
legend of Cadmus. — ^27. Ego apis MatintCt ^^c " 1, after the nature and 
habit of a Matinian bee." Consult note on Ode i., 2M, 3. — ^29. Per laborem 
plurimum, " With assiduous toil." — 31. Tiburis. Alluding to his villa 
at Tibur. — 32. Fingo. The metaphor is well kept up by this veri^ which 
has peculiar reference tn the labors of the bee. 

33-59. 33. Majore poeta plectro. " Thou, Antunim, a poet of loftier 
^jrain." Aiitonius distinguished himself by an epic poem in twelve hooka, 
mtitled Diomedeis. — 34. Quandoque. For quandoeunqve. — 35. Per seh 
trum clvoum. " Along the sacred ascent." Alluding to the Via Sacra, 
Ae street leading up to the Capitol, and by which triumphal processions 
were conducted to that temple. — 36. Fronde. Alluding to the laurel 
erown worn by commanders when they triumphed. — Sygamhros. The 
Bygambri inhabited at first the southern side of the Lupia or Lippe. 
They were afterward, during this same reign, removed by the B,omans 
into Gaul, and had lands assigned them alrng the Rhine. Horace hero 
alludes to them before this change of settlement took place. — 39. In 
isurum priseum, "To their early gold," i, r, to the happiness of the 
Qolden Age. — 43. Forumque litibus orbum. " Auii the forum tree from 
litigation.'' The courts of justice were closed at Rome not merely is 
eases of public mourning, but also of public rejoicing. This cessation o* 
boaisess was called Justitium^ — 45. Tvm. i>.llnding to the cspocte<' 



874 BXPi[.ANATU&y NOTEB. BOOK . V. DUE III. 

trianplial entif of Acgastiu. No triamph, however, took placcv u td« 
empemr avoided one by coming privately into tbe city. — Mca vocu Oonu 
ttan accede. " A large portion of my voice shail join the general cry 
—46. O *ol pulcker. ** O glorious day ."^9. Tuque dum procedis, ic 
•* And while thoa art moving along in the train of the victor, we will cfteo 
raise the shoat of triumph ; the whole state will raise the shout of 
triumph." The addreus is to Antonius, who will form part of the^tn- 
aiD{ihal procession, while the poet will mingle in with, and help to sweB 
Che acclamations of the crowd. With civitas omnit nndezstand dicH.^ 
10 TV. Understand tolventt ** shall free thee from thy vow." Alluding 
%D the fulfillment of vows offered up for the safe return if Augustus. — 
65 Largix herbia. *< Amid abundant pastures." — 56 Inmeavota. "Fot 
the fulfillment of my vows." — 57. Curvaios ignes. "The bending fires 
of the moon when she brings back her third rising,'' t. «., the crescent of 
the moon when she is three days old. The comparison is between the 
orescent and the horns of the young animal. — 59. Qua notam duxit^ ice 
** Snow-white to the view where it bears a mark ; as to the rest of itf 
l>ody, of a dun color." The animal is of a dun color, and bears a oonspi 
cuous snow-white mark, probably on his forehead. — Niveua videri. A 
draccism, the infinitive for the latter supine. 



Ode in. The bard addresses Melpomene, as the patronesft of lyrtc 
T9rse. To her he ascribes his poetic inspiration, to her the honotirs which 
he enjoys among his countrymen ; and to her he now pays the debt of 
gratitude in this beautiful ode. 

1-24. I. Quern tu^ Mdpotnene^ he. ** Him on whom thou, Melpomene 
mayest have looked with a favoring eye, at the hour of his nativity ."~ 
3. Lab&r Isihmius. " The Isthmian contest." The Isthmian, celebrated 
at the Isthmus of Corinth, in honor of Neptune, are here put for any games. 
—A. Clarabit pugilem. "Shall render illustrious as a pugilist" — 5. Curru 
Ackaico. " In a Grecian chariot." An allusion to victory in the chariot 
race. The whole of lower Greece was at this time called Achaia by the 
Romans, so that the allusion here is to the Grecian games in general 
—6. Res bellica, " Some warlike exploit ." — Deliisfoliis, " With the De 
lian leaves," i. e., with the bay, which was sacred to Apollo, whose nata 
place was the Isle of Delos.— 8. Quod regum tumidas^ &c. " For hav 
ing crushed the haughty threats of kings." — 10. Prarfluunt, For praUer 
fiuunt. "Flow by." The common text has perfiuunt^ "flow through.** 
The reference is to the waters of the Anio. Consult, as regards Tibus 
and the Anio, the note on Ode i., 7, 13. — 12. Fingent ^olio, Sec The 
Idea meant to be conveyed is this, that the beautiful scenery aroun^i 
Tibur, and the peaceful leisure there enjoyed, will enable the poet to cul 
tivate his lyric powers with so much success as, under the favoring in 
flnence of the Muse, to elicit the admiration both of the present and com- 
ing aee. As regards the expression ./fio/io carmine, consult note on Ode 
*iL, 30, 13. — 13. Roma, principis urbium, Ac. "The offspring of liome, 
queen of cities." By the " offspring of Rome" are meant the Romans 
toemselves. — 17. O testudinia anrete^ &.C. "O Muse, that rulest the 
sweet melody of the golden shell." Consult notes on Odea in.. 4, 40, and 
I,, 10, 6.— 20. C7ycnt «o««m. " The melody c f the dying *wau " Consdl 



feSXFLANATOKf^ NOTES. BOOK 1\,, ODE IV 37 

BoCe on Ode i., 6, 2. — 22. Quoa nu/nstror. " That I am pointal oat. '- 
n. RomajuB Jidi(xn lyrtt. " As the minstrel of the Boman Ijrre." - 
f 4. €^od spvro. " T^at I feel poetic inspiration ' 



M\i% IV The Rieti and Vindelici having made freqaent inruuds intf> 
Ute Boman territory, Aagustas resolved to inflict a signal chastisement as 
Iheae barharoni tribes. For this purpose, Dme is Nero, then only twenty 
three years of age, a son of Tiberius Nero and I ivia, and a step-son con 
tfqaently of the emperor, was sent against then: with an army. The ex 
•dition proved eminently snccessful. The young prince, in the very fim 
Utttle, defeated the Reeti at the Tridentine Alps, and afterward, in oon 
jaocticm with his brother Tiberius, whom Augustus had added to the wan 
met with the same good fortnne against the Vindelici, nnited with the 
remnant of the Rseti and with others of their allies. (Compare Dio Ca»- 
tiuSf liv., 22 ; Veil. Paterc^ ii., 95.) Horace, being ordered by Aagnstoa 
{Sueton.f ViL Horat.) to celebrate these two victories in song, composed 
die present ode in honor of Drusus, and the fourteenth of this same book 
in praise of Tiberias. The piece we are now considering consists of three 
divisions. In the Brst, the valor of Drusus is the theme, and he is com- 
pared by the poet to a young eagle and lion. In the second, Augustas ia 
extolled for his paternal care of the two princes, and for the correct cul- 
feare bestowed upon them. In the third, the praises of the Claudian line 
are song, and mention ia made of G. Claadias Nero, the conqueror of Has 
drobal, after the victory achieved by whom, over the brother of Hannibal 
Fortune a^ain smiled propitious on the arms of Rome. 

• 

1-21. 1. Qnalem ministrum, ice. The order of construction is as fol 
tows : Hualem olim jv/oentas et patrius vigor propulit nido inscium labo 
rum alitem ministrum fulmiriist cui Jupiter^ rex deorum, permisil regnum 
in vagus aveSt expertus (eum) fidclem in fioeoo Ganymede^ vemique ventu 
nimbis jam remotist docuere paventom insolitos nisus ; max vividus ini 
peluSf &c., (talem) Vindelici videre Drusum gerentem beUa sub lUeti* 
Alpibus. " As at first, the fire of youth and hereditary vigor have im 
polled from the nest, still ignorant of toils, the bird, the thunder-bearer, to 
whom Jove, the king of gods, has assigned dominion over the wandering 
fowls of the air, having found him faithful in *he case of the golden-haired 
Ganymede, and the winds of spring, the storus of winter being now re- 
uoved, have taught him, still timorous, unusual darings; presently a fierce 
impulse, &c., sach did the Vindelici behold Drusus waging war at the 
foot of the Reetian Alps." — Alitem. Alluding to the eagle. The ancients 
l««lieved that this bird was never injured by lightning, and 'they therefore 
Rsado it the thunder-bearer of Jove. — Vernique, The eagle hatches hei 
•gga toward the end of April. — 12. .4 wot dapis atque pugna. " A desire 
iir foo<l and fight." — 14. Fulva matris ab ubere, &c. " A lion just wean 
ed from the dug of its tawny dam." — 16. Denle novo peritura. " Doomed 
Id perish by its early fang." — 17. Ra'.is Alpibus. The Reetian Alps ex 
tended from the Str^Gothard^ whose namerous peaks bore the name of 
Adala, to Mount Brenner in the Tyrol. — 18. Vindelici. The country of 
the Vindelici extended from the Lacns Brigantinns (Lake of Constaneei 
U> the Danube, while the lower part of the G«nas, or Inn^ sep^r^ted i* 
tn»in Noricnm- — Quibus mm unde dpdawtus dec. "To whom 6'»m wh«* 



376 EXPLANATORY HOTKS. HOOK IV., ODB l>. 

•oarce the caatom be derived, which, throagh every age, arms thuir rigtit 
hands against the foe with an Amazonian battle-axe, I have omitted to 
inquire." The awkward and prosaic tnm of the whole claase, from guilmt 
i > omnia, has very justly caused it to be susftected as an interpolatioo 
wo have tk erefore placed the whole within brackets. — 20. Amazonia «• 
euri. The Amazonian battle-axe was a double cme, and, besides its 
edges, it had m sharp projection, like a spiket on the top^ — ^21. Obarmd 
Che ^ er': obarmo means " to arm against another." 

S4 -33. 24. Consiliis juveni* revicta. " Subdued, in their turn, b} lbs 
ikiUfbl operations of a youthful warrior." Consult Introductory Bemarks. 
i5. Sensere, quid mens, &c. ''Felt what a mind, what a disposition, duly 
cartured beneath an auspicious roof— what the paternal affection of An* 
goatus toward the young Neros could effect." The Vindelici at first be- 
ktid Drusus waging war on the RsBti, now they themselves were destined 
ko feel the prowess both of Drusus and Tiberius, and to experience the 
force ( f those talents which had been so happily nurtured beneaUi the 
roof of Augustus. — 29. Fortes creantur fortibus. The epithet ybr/i* ap- 
pears to be used here in allusion to the meaning of the term Nero, which 
was of Sabine origin, and signified ** courage," "firmness of soul." — 30. 
Patrum virtus. " The spirit of their sires." — 33. Doctrina sed vim, Sus. 
The poet, after conceding to the young Neros the possession of hereditary 
virtues and abilities, insists upon the necessity of proper culture to guide 
tiiose powers into the path of usefulness, and hence the fostering care of 
Augustus is made indirectly the theme of praise. The whole stanza may 
We translated as follows : ** But it is education that improves the powers 
implanted in us by nature, and it is good culture that strengthens the 
aeart : whenever moral principles are wanting, vices degrade the fair en- 
dowments of nature." It is evident from this passage that Horace was 
familiar with the true notion of education, as a moral training directed to 
the formation of character, and not merely the communication of knowl 
edge. {Osborne, ad loc.) 

• 
37-64. 37. Quid debea.i, O Roma, Neronibus, &c. We now enter on 
the third divisbn of the jioem, the praise of the Clandian line, and the 
(toet carries us back to the days of the second Punic war, and to the vie 
ory achieved by C. Claudius Nero over the brother of Hannibal. — 38. Me- 
Uiurum fiumen. The term Metaurum is here taken as an adjective. The 
lletauras, now Metro, a river of Umbria, emptying into the Adriatic, was 
rendered menL:}rable by the victory gained over Hasdrubal by the consuls 
C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius Saliuator. The chief merit of the victory 
was due to Claudius Nero, for his bold and decisive movement in march 
iDg to join Livius. Had the intended junction taken place between Has- 
d'Mbal and his brother Hannibal, the consequences would have been most 
llsastrous for Bomo. — 39. Pulcher tile dies. "That glorious day." PttZ- 
siler may also be joined in construction with Latio, " rising fair on Latium." 
/Lcooviing to the first mode of int3rpretation, however, Latio is an abla 
tive tenebris fugatis Initio, " when darkness was dispelled from Latium.' 
- 41. Adorea. Used hero in the sense of victoria It properly means a 
distribution of com to an a.nuy, after gaining a victory.— 48. Dirui pst 
urbes, &c. ' From the time that the dire son of Afric sped his wa3 
thio:igb the Italian ciriea. as the flame does through the pMiea. or th» 



EXFLANATOKY NOTES — BOOK IV., ODE V. 371 

•itMheuit wind over the Sicilian waters." By dirus Afer Hannibal il 
meant.— 45. Laboribus, Bqnivalent here topraliis, — 47 TumuUu, Ces- 
salt note on Ode iii.,.14, 14. — 48. Deos habuere rectot. "Had their godj 
again erect." Allnding to a general renewing of sacred rites, which bad 
been interrapted by the disasters of war. — 50. Cervi. '*Like stags."«* 
51. Qvos opimus fallertt &c. ** Whom to elade by flight is a glorious 
triumph." Tho expression /o/Zere eL ^ugere may be compared with the 
Greek idiom XaOcvrag ^evyeiv, of which it is probably an imitation.— 
53. Qum eremato fartiSf Ac. ** Which bravely bore from Ilium, rodiioed 
to ashes." — 57. Ton$a. " Shorn of its branches." — 58. Nigra feraeifroi^ 
iiSt dec. ** On Algidas, abounding with thick foliage." Consult note oa 
Ode i, 21, 6. — 62. Vinei doientem, " Apprehensive of being overcome.'* 
—^3. Colchi. Alluding to the dragon that guarded t^e golden fleece.~- 
44. EckionuBve Theb<B, '*0r Echionian TLebes." Echion was one of 
uie number of those that sprung from the teeth of the dragon when sown 
\»;f Cadmus, and one of the five that survived the conflict. Having aided 
Cadmus in building Thebes, he received from that prince his daughter 
Agaue. 

65-74. 65. Pulchrior evenit. " It comes forth more glorious than be 
fore." Orelli adopts erte/, given by Meinecke from Valart, as more in ac 
cordance'with the futures proruet and gerett which follow. Bat there is 
no good classical authority for such a form. We meet with it only in 
Tertullian {adv. Jud., 13), and so redies in Apuleius (MeL^ p. 419). In Ti- 
ballus (i., 4, 27) we must change transiet to transUt. — 66. Integrum 
** Hitherto firm in strength." — 68. Conjugibus loqvtnda. "To be made a 
theme of lamentation by widowed wives." Literally, ** to be talked of by 
wives." Some prefer conjvgibus as a dative. The meaning will then 
be, ** to be related by the victors to their wives," «'. «., after they have re- 
turned from the war. — ^70. Occidit^ ocddit^ due. ** Fallen, fallen is all our 
hope." — ^73. Nil Claudia non perfident manus. " There is nothing now 
which the prowess of the Claudian line will not effect," t. 6., Rome may 
now hope for every thing from the prowess of the Claudii. We can not 
but admire the singular felicity that marks the concluding stanza of this 
beautiful ode. The future glories of the Claudian house are predicted by 
the bitterest enemy of Rome, and our attention is thus recalled to the 
yoong Neros, and the martial exploits which had already distinguished 
their career. — 74. Qucu et benigno numine, &c. "Since Jove defends 
them by his benign protection, and sagacity and prudence conduct then 
■afely Cnrough the dangers of war." 



Op£'V. Addressed to Aognstos, long absent from his capital, and fa» 
fohing his return. 

1-94. 1. Divis orte bonis. " Sprung from propitious deities. ' Allod* 
Dg tD the divine origin of the Julian line, for Augustus had been adopted 
jy Julius Cassar, and this latter traced his descent from Venus through 
^nlus and ^neas. — 2. Abes jam nimium diu. " Already too long art tboo 
absent from ns." Augustus remained absent from bis capital for the space 
of nearly three years, being occupied with settling the affai*^ of Gaul (fh^m 
A U C 738 to 741).— S. Luocn edde tua. &c. " Auspi 3ious pnr ce, rostnrc 



378 EITPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE \. 

me light of tby presence to thy coantry." — 8. £t 8oles msit^a nttent 
'* And the beams of the san shine forth with purer Bp1endor."'~lO. Car 
peUkti maris. Consalt note on Ode i, 35, 8. — 11. Cunetantem speUio, ho 
''Delaying longer than the annual period of his stay." — ^12. VoeeU. "lb- 
vokes the return of." — 15. DeBtderiis icteJidelibuB, ** Pierced with faitn* 
ftil regrets." — 17. Etenim, Equivalent to k(U y&p. " And qo wonder she 
does so, for," &c. — Tuta. The common text has rMro, for which we have 
given tvtiit the ingenious emendation of Bothe, thus avoiding tha awk* 
Wardness of having rura in two consecutive lines. TSe blessings fA 

Cade, here described, are all the fruits of the rale of Augustus *, and 
Qce, in translating, we may insert after etenim the words **by tliy 
froardian care." — 18. Almaqfte Fauititas. " And the becign luvui of neav* 
en/' «'. «., benignant prosperity. — 19. Volitant. ** Pass swiftly, * i. e^ are 
hnpeded in their progress by no fear of an enemy. — 20. Cntpari metnk 
fides. ** Good faith shrinks from the impatation of blame." — 21. Nullis 
polluitur, &o. Alluding to the Lex Julia **de Adulterio,'' passed by Au- 
gustus, and his other regulations against the immorality and licentious 
bess which had been the order of the day. — 22. Mos et lex maculosumj olc 
" Purer morals and the penalties of the law have brought foal guilt to sub* 
jtfction." Augustus was invested by the senate repeatedly for five years 
with the ulfice and title oi Mafnster morum. — 23. Simili prole. , ".'For an 
effspring like the father." — 24. Cvlpam Peena premit comes. "Punish* 
m3ut presses upon guilt as its cuustant companion." 

25-36. 25. Quis Parthuni paveatf &c. The idea intended to be oou< 
veyed to this: The valor and power of Angastns have triumphed over the 
Parthians, the Scythians, the Germans, and the Cantabri; what have we, 
therefore, now to dread 7 As regards the Parthians, consult notes on Ode 
i., 2fi, 3, and iii., 5, 3. — Gelidvm Scylhen. *' The Scythian, the tenant of 
the North." By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous tribes in the 
vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Qeloni. Their inroads 
nad been checked by Lentalus, the lieatenant of Augustas. — ^96. Qut«t, 
Gevmania quos horrida, &c. "Who, the broods that horrid Germany 
orings forth," The epithet horrida has reference, in fact, to the wild and 
lavage appearance, as well of the country as of its inhabitants. — 29. Con 
dii quisqiie diem^ &c. " Each one closes the day on his own hills." Un^ 
dor the auspicious reign of Augustus, all is peace ; no war calls off the 
vine-dresser from his vineyard, or the husbandman from his fields. — 
30. Viduas ad arbores. "To the widowed trees." The elms have been 
widowed by the destruction of the vineyards in the civil wars. — 31. Ei 
Mteris te mensis^ &c. " And at the second table invokes thee as a god.' 
The c^na of the Romans usually consisted of two parts, the mensa primm, 
or first course, composed of different kinds of meat, and the mensa seennda 
or alP^rat second course, consisting of fruits and sweetmeats. The wine 
was set d^wn on the table with the dessert, and, before they began drink 
log, libations were poured out to the gods. This, by a decree of the senate^ 
was done, also, in honor of Augustus, after the battle of Actium. — 33. Pro 
'tquitur. " He worships." — 34. Et Laribus tuum, &c. " And blends thy 
protecting divinity with thit of the Lares, as grateful Greece does those 
of Castor and the mighty Hercules." Under the name Castoris, the 
Oioscuri, Castor and Pollux, are meant. The Lares here alluded to art 
the J^rrft Publicit or Dii Patriit supposed by some to bo ideittical wit^ 



LIZU 



EXPI.ANAroU\ NOTES. — B0C?;^1 / , UDE Vi. 379 

tbe FeuateH. — 37. Longi&s O utinam, &c. " AuspiciouB prince, mayeet 
thou afford long festal dajs to Italy," t. e., long mayest thj>a rale aver of 
—38. Dicimus integro, dec. ** For this we pray, in sober mood, at eariji 
dawn, while the day is still entire ; for this we pray, moistenet' with tha 
jnioe of the grape, when the sun is sank beneath the oc^v Iniegtt 
dies is a day of which no part has as yet been ased. 



Odf. VI. The poet, being ordered by Aagnstas to prepare a hymn te 
b9 approaching Secular celebration, composes the present ode as a ■oil 
tf prelude, and entreats Apollo that his powers may prove adequate to 
fta task enjoined apon him. 

1-23. 1. Magna vtndicem lingum "The avenger of an arrogant 
tongue." Alluding to the boastful pretensions of Niobe, in relation to 
her offspring. — ^2. Tityosque raptor. Compare Ode ii., 14, 8. — 3. Sc%sit 
** Felt to be." Supply esse. — Troja prope victor alta. Alluding to hit 
having slain Hector, the main support of Troy. — 4. Pkthius Achilles. The 
son of Thetis, according to Homer (//., xxii., 359), was to fall by the hands 
of Pari^ and Phoebus. Virgil, however, makes him to have been slain by 
Paris (-^n., vi., 56, seqq.) — 5. Caleris majors tibi miles impar. "A 
warrior superior to the rest of the Greeks, bat an unequal match for fhee.*' 
— 7. MordLadferro. "By the biting steel," i. e., the sharp-cutting axe. — 
10. Impulsa. "Overthrown." — 11. Posuitque. "And reclined." — 13. Ilh 
nout inclusus, &c. The poet means that, if Achilles had lived, the Greeks 
would not have been reduced to the dishonorable necessity of employing 
the stratagem of the wooden horse, but would have taken the city in opes 
fight. — Equo Minervce sacra mentito. " In the horse that belied the wor 
ship of Minerva," i. e., which was falsely pretended to have been an offer 
ing to the goddess. — 14. Malcferiatos. " Giving loose to festivity in an 
evil hour." — 16. Falleret. Y or fefellisset. So, in the 18th verse, urerei 
for ussisset. — 17. Palam gravis. "Openly terrible " — 18. Nesdos fan 
infantes. An imitation of the Greek form, v^nia tiKva. — ^21. Flexvg 
"Swayed." Bent from his purpose. — 22. Vocibus. "Entreaties." — Ad 
nuisset. " Granted." — 23. Potiore ductos alite. " Reared under more 
favorable auspices." 

25-39. 25. Doctor ArgivfB, &c. "God of the lyre, Instructor of th« 
Grecian Muse." Thaitte is here equivalent to Musa lyriatt and Apollo 
is invoked as the deity who taught the Greeks to excel in lyric number*, 
or, in other words, was the xopodiduoKaXog fAovcuv. — ^26. JCantko. Al 
oding to tlie Lycian, not the Trojan Xantlius. This stream, though the 
largest in Lycia, was yet of inconsiderable size. On its banks stood a 
fllty of the same name, the greatest in the whole country. About sixty 
■tadia eastward from the mouth of the Xanthus was tlic city of Patara, 
amed for its oracle of Apollo. — 27. Daunia dcfende deciis Camesn<t. 

Defend the honor of the Roman Muse," i. e , grant that in the Saeculat 
bgrc^:!, which Augustus bids me compose, I may support the honor of the 
Roman l;re. As regards DaunitR, put here far Jtala, i. e., Romana 
eooault the notes on Ode ii., I, 34, and i., 22, 13.-28 Lems Agfieu. <«0 
yruthful Apollo." The appellation Agyieus is of Greek origin ('Ayvic^f) 
■id. ifthe common deriyation be ccrrect (from rb'vm, " a street*), deuouw 



9bi) ■XPJjANATO^V X0T£S. BOOK IV.. ODE Vli« 

*■ tbo guardian deity of streeta." It waa the cnitom at Athena t) ereA 
■miil conical eippij in honor of Apollo, in the vestiboles and before die 
tioors of theur hoaao. Hero he was invoked aa the aveiter of evil, and 
wna worshipped with perfumes, garlands, and fillets. — '29. Spiritum Phm- 
bug miki, &c. The bard, fancying that his supplication has been heard, 
DOW addresses himself to the chorus of maidens and youths whom he sup- 
poaes to be standing around and awaiting his instructions. My prayer ia 
granted, " Phoebus has given me poetic inspiration, Phcebus has given me 
ttie art of song and the name of a poet." — Virginum primate &c. **Ye 
•oblest of the virgins, and ye boys sprung from illustrious sires.'' The 
naidens and youths who composed the chorus at the Ssecular celebratioiii 
and whom the poet here imagines that he has before him, were cboaaa 
fivm the first families. — 33. Delia tutda detB. ** Ye that are protected by 
tiie Delian Diana." Diana was the patroness of moral purity. — 35. Lu- 
bium ii^vcUe pedem^ dec. " Observe the Lesbian measure and the •triluiijj 
of my thumb." The Sapphic measure, which is that of the present one, 
is meant. The expression poUicis ictum refers to the mode of marking 
the termination of cadences and measures, by the application of the thumb 
to the sitings of the lyre. — 38. Crescen'emjface Noclilucam, "The god- 
dess that illumines the night, increasing in the splendor of her beams."— 
30. Prosperam frugum. *' Propitious to the productions of the earth. 
A GrsBcism for frvgibtis. — Celeremque proHos^ &c. ** And swift in rolling 
onward tbo rapid months." A Graecism for cderem in volvendu pronii 
tnensibus. 

41-43. 11. Nupta jam dice*. "United at length in the bands of wed 
lock, thou shalt say." Jam is here used for tandem. The poet, in the bo 
ginning of this stanza, turns to the maidens, and addresses himself bo tiie 
leader of the chorus as the representative of the whole body. The induce- 
ment which he holds out to them for the proper performance of their part 
m the celebration is extremely pleasing ; the prospect, namely, of a hap- 
py marriage ; for the ancients believed that the virgins composing thf 
thoras of the Sascalar and other solemnities were always recompensed 
with a happy union. — 42. Scsculo festas referente luces. " When the Ssb 
alar period brought back the festal days." The Ssecular games were 
celebrated once every 110 years. Before the Julian reformation of the 
calendar, the Roman was a lunar year, which was brought, or was meant 
to be brought, into harmony with the solar year by the insertion of an in 
tercalary month. Joseph Sccliger has shown that the piinciple was to in 
tercalate a month, alternately of twcntj'-two and twenty-three days, eveiy 
i^er year during periods of twenty -two years, in each of which periods 
■Qch an intercalary month was inserted ten times, the last biennivm he- 
faig passed over. As five years made a lustrum, so five of these periods 
BUido a saculum of liO years. {Scaliger^ de emendat. temp.^ p. 80, seqg. ; 
t^iebuhr's Roman History ^ vol. i., p. 334, Cambr transl.) — 43. Reddidi 
earmen. "Recited a hymn." — Docilis modorum, &a "After having 
laamed, with a docile mind, tbe measures of the poot Horace." Modorum 
eefers here as well to the movements as to the singing of the nborua. 



Odc Vir. Tliis piece is similar, in its complexion, to the fourth ode «if 
\be fumt book, in lK>th these productions the same topic is enforced, tbs 



**— - 



JBVPLANATOBY NOTES. — BOOK IV., ODE Vll 881 

tniity of life aud the wisdom of present enjoyment The indiTidaal ta 
vrbom the ode if addressed is the same with the Torqiiatas to whom the 
&f^h epistle of the iirst book is inscribed. He was grandson of J«. Manliai 
Forqaatas, who held the consalship in the year that Horace was bora 
{Ode iii., 21, 1.) Vanderboarg remarks of him as follows : **On ne con 
naSt ce Torquatas qae par Tode qui nous oocupe, et I'^pitre 5 du livre 1, 
qn'Horace lui adresse pareillement. II en r^sulte que cet ami de notre 
poete 6tait an homme Eloquent et fort estimable, mais un pen attaqu^ de 
la manie de th^sauriser, manie d'antant plus bizarre chez 7ui, qu'il 6tai^ 
ditoo, c^lihataire, et n'entassait que pour des collat^raux." 

1- 26. I. Diffugere nives, &c. •* The snows are fled : their verdure is 
DOW returning to the fields, and their foliage to the trees." The student 
most note the beauty and spirit of the tense diffugere. — 3. Mutat terra 
vices. **Tbe earth changes its appearance" Literally, ** changes its 
changes." Compare the Greek forms of expression, nbvov TTOveZvi fi^TCt^ 
udxeadaii as cited by Orelli, and also the explanation of Mitscberlidi, 
'* Vices terrm de colore ejttSt per annvas vices apparente^ ac pro diversa 
anni tempestate variantet dictte." — Et decrescentia ripas, &c. Marking 
die cessation of the season of inundations in early spring, and the ftp< 
proach of summer. — 5. Audet ducere choros. ** Ventures to lead up the 
dances." — 7. Immortalia. " For an immortal existence." — 9. Mbyiet an 
nus. ** Of this the year warns thee." The vicissitudes of the seasons re 
.nind us, according to the poet, of the brief nature of our own existence. — 
d. Frigora mitescunt UStphyris, "The winter colds are beginning t$ 
moderate under the influence of the western winds." ^phyri mark the 
vernal breezes. — Preterit. "Tramples upon." Beautifully descriptive 
of the hot and ardent progress of the summer season. — !•. Interitura^ 
iimul, &c. " Destined in its turn to perish, as soon as fruitful autumn shall 
have poured forth its stores." Simul is for simul ac. — 12. Bruma tners. 
** Sluggish winter," i. e., when the powers of i.ature are comparatively at 
ie«t. Compare the language of Bion (vi., 5) x^^f^^ dvgepyov. — 13. Damna 
tzmen celeres, Sec. " The rapid months, however, repair the losses occa 
sioned by the changing seasons." Before the Julian reformation of the 
calendar, the Roman months were lunar ones. Hence luna was fre* 
quently used in the language of poetry, even after the change had taken 
place, as equivalent to menses. — 15. Quo. ** To the place whither." Vn 
derstand eo before quo^ and at the end of the clause the verb deciderutkt 
— Dives Tullus et Ancus. The epithet dives alludes merely to the wealth 
■ad power of Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius as monarchs ; with  
reference, at the same time, however, to primitive days, since Claudian 
(xv., 109), when comparing Rome under Ancus with the same city undei 
the emperor, speaks of the ** mmnia pauperis Anei.^* — 16. Sumus. *' There 
m'e remain." Equivalent to manemus. — 17. Adjidant. ** Intend to add." 
•^Crastina tempara. "To-morrow's hours." — 19. Arnica qiue dederu 
animo. "Which thou shalt have bestowed on thyself." Amico is here 
equivalent to tuot in imitation of the Greek idiom, by which ^/Xof is pot 
for i//df, adf, kd^. — 21. Splendida arbitria. "His impartial sentence/' 
The allusion is to a clear^ impartial decision, the justice of whicl is in- 
Ptantly apparent to all. So the Bandusian fount is called {Ode 111., 13, 1) 
Ypleudidior vitro. ♦« Cleai'er than glass." — 24. Restituc. "Will restore 
t>) the Vitiht of day."- -26. Infernis tenebris. " From the iarknuss of thf 



8Hti EXFLANA10EY NOTES. BOOK IV., 0D1. VUf^ 

kfwer world.*' Horace does out follow here the common legend. Amord 
ing to this last, iEacalapias, at the request of Diana, did restore NippoH 
tns to lite, and he was placed under the orotection of the nymph E^eria 
•t Aricia, ui Latium, where he was also worshipped. Compare Vir^ 
^£»., vii., 761 -^iMkaa vincula. ''The fetters of Lethe/' t. e., of leati; 
The reference is to Lethe, the stream of ohlivion in the lower woild, 
which is here taken for the s';ate of death itself. 



Odx VIU. Sapposed to have been written at the time of the Satamali% 
•if which period of the year, as well as on other stated festivals, it wai 
sastomary among the Romans for friends to send presents to one another 
The ode before as constitates the poet's gift to Censorinus, and, in order 
to enhance its value, he descants on the praises of his favorite art. There 
were two distinguished individuals at Rome of the name of Censorinus, 
the father and son. The latter, C. Marcius Censorinus, is most probably 
the one who is here addressed, as in point of years he was the more fit of 
the two to be the companion of Horace, and as Velleius Paterculus (ii., 
102) styles him, virum demcrcndis hominibut genitum. He was consul 
along with C. Asinius Gallus, A.U.C. 746. 

' 1-11. 1. DonarcKi paterast Jtc. " Liberal to my friends, Censorinus, 1 
would bestow upon them cups and pleasing vessels of bronze," i. e., I 
would liberally bestow on my friends cups and vessels of beauteous 
bronze. The poet alludes to the taste for collecting antiques, which theo 
prevailed among his countrymen. — 3. Tripodas. The ancients made very 
frequent use of the tripod for domestic purposes, to set their lamps upon, 
and also in religious ceremonies. Perhaps the most frequent application 
of all others was to serve water out in their common habitations. In these 
instances, the upper part was so disposed as to receive a vase. — 4. Ncque 
tu pessima muTierumferres. " Nor shouldst thou bear away as thine own 
the meanest of gifts." A litotes, tor iu optima et rarissima munera ferre*. 
— 5. Divite me scilicet artium^ &c. " Were I rich in the works of art 
which either a Parrhasius or a Scopas produced ; the latter in marble 
the former by the aid of liquid colors, skillful in representing at one time 
a human being, at another a god." — Sollers ponere. A G-rtecism for soU . 
lers :n poTiendOt or sollers poiiendi. The artists here mentioned are takes 
by the poet as the respective representatives of painting and stalMary 
Parrhasius^ one of the most celebrated Greek painters, was a native of 
£phesus, but practiced bis art chiefly at Athens. He flourished aboat 
B.C. 400. He was noted for true proportion and for the accuracy of his 
outlines. Scopas^ a statuary of Pares, flourished shortly before Parrhasina 
His statue of Apollo was preserved in the Palatine library at Rome.** 
I. Sed nan hoc miki m's, dec. " But I possess no store of these thi^ga, 
aor hast thou a fortune or inclination that needs such curiosities." Id 
other words, I am too poor to own such valuables, while thou art too rich 
and hast roo many o^ them to need or desire any more. — 11. Gaudes car 
minibys, Sec. " Th]^ delight is in verses : verses we can bestow, and caa 
fix a value on the gift." The train of ideas is as follows ; Thou carest fai 
less for the things that have just been mentioned, than for the produ 3tiaDf 
of the Muse. . Here we can bestow a present, and can explain, moreover 
kht tki^Gvilueofthegift. Cups, and rases and tripods are estimated ib a * 



LD 



EXPLANATORY NOTKB. BOOK IV., ODE VIII. 389 

iwordaoee with the caprice and luxury of the age, but th^ fame of vena ii 
immortal. The bard then proceeds to exemplify the ucvor-dying honora 
which hifl art can bestow. 

13-33. 13. Non tnctsa notts, &c. '*Not marbles marked with pubiiq 
inscriptions, by which the breathine of life returns to illustrious leaden 
after death." Incisa is literally "cut in," or ** engraved."— 13. Noj* cde- 
res fug^t A:c. " Not the rapid flight of Hannibal, nor his threats hurled 
back upon him." The expression celeres fuga refers to the sudden de- 
parture of Hannibal from Italy, when recalled by the Carthaginians to 
make head against Scipio. He had threatened that he would overthrow 
the power of Rome ; these threats Scipio hurled back upon him, and hum* 
bled the pride of Carthage in the field of Zama. — 17. Non stipendia Car 
thaginis impia. "Not the tribute imposed upon perfidious Carthage^." 
The common reading is Non incendia Carthaginis impia, which involves 
an historical error, in ascribing the overthrow of Hannibal and the destruc 
tion of Carthage to one and the same Scipio. The elder Scipio imposec. 
a tribute on Carthage after the battle of Zama, the younger destroyed the 
city. We have given, therefore, stipendia^ the emendation of Doring. 
Orelli supposes tliat two lines are wanting before ejus^ in accordance with 
bis idea that odes in this particular metre run oil in quartrains. — 18. Ejus 
qui domitOt dec. The order of construction is as follows : Clarius indi- 
cant laudes ejuSf qui rcdiit liLcratus nomen ab Africa domita^ quam^ &c. 
Scipio obtained the agnomen of " Africanus'' from his conquests in Africa, 
A title subsequently bestowed on the younger Scipio, the destroyer of 
Carthage. — ^20. Calabra Pierides. * The Muses of Calabria." The allu- 
sion is to the poet Ennius, who was bom at RudisB in Calabria, and who 
celebrated the exploits of his friend and patron, the elder Scipio, in his 
Annals or metrical chronicles, and also in a poem connected with these 
Annals, and devoted to the praise of the Roman commander. — Neque st 
charta siicantf &c. " Nor, if writings be silent, sbalt thou reap any ro' 
ward for what thou mayest have laudably accomplished." The construe 
lion in the text is mercedem (illius) quod benefeceris. — 22. Quidforet Ilia, 
dtc. " What would the son of Ilia and of Mars be now, if invidious silence 
had stilled the merits of Romulus ?" In other words, Where would be 
the fame and the glory of Romulus if Ennius had been silent in his praise 7 
Horace alludes to the mention made by Ennius, in his Annals, of the fa- 
bled birth of Romulus and Remus. As regards Ilia, compare note. Ode 
iii., 9, 8. — 24. Ubstarct. Put for obstitisset. — 25. Ereptum Slygiis Jlucti- 
bus ^acunit &,c. *' The power, and the favor, and the lays of eminent 
bards, conse<n'ate to immortality, and place in the islands of the blessed, 
iEacus rescued from the dominion of the g^ave." Stygiis fiuctibus is 
here equivalent to morte. — 27. Divitibus consecrat insulis, AlAiding le 
the earlier mythology, by which Elysium was placed in one cr moro of 
the isles of the Western Ocean. — 29. Sic Jovis interest, dec. * By this 
means the unwearied Hercules participates in the long-wished-for ban 
qaet of Jove." Sic is here equivalent to tarminibus poitarum. — 31. Cla 
rmm Tyndarida sidus. " By this means the^Tyndaridae, that bright coo 
rtellation.'' Understand 57V; at the beginning of this clause. The allnsioti 
Lf to Castor and Pollux. Consult note on Ode i., 3, 2. — ^33. Omatus viridi 
ifmpora pampino. We must again understand sic. "By this meant 
bacchus. having' his temples adorned with the verdant vine-leaf, leads ti 



^4 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— ifOOK IV.. ODE IX 

t ■nocesffiil issae the prayera of the hnibandmen." In other worrif, Bj 
the ■ongi of die bards Bacchai is gifted with the privileges and attri 
bates of divinity. Consult note on Ode iii.. 8, 7. 



Ode TX. In the preceding ode the poet asserts that the only p&tn to 
immortality is through the verses of the bard. The same idee. agaiB 
meets us in the present piece, and Horace promises, through the medium 
of his numbers, an eternity of fame to Lollius. ** My lyric poems are not 
destined to perish," he exclaims ; ** for, even though Homer enjoys tiM 
first rank among the votaries of the Muse, still the strains of Pindar, Si* 
monides, Stesichorus, Anacreon, and Sappho, live in the remembrance of 
men ; and my own productions, therefore, in which I have followed the 
footsteps of these illustrious children of song, will, I know, be rescued 
from the night of oblivion. The memor}' of those whom they celebrate de* 
scends to after ages with the numbers of the bard, while, if a poet be 
wanting, the bravest of heroes sleeps forgotten in the tomb. Thy praises 
then, Loll i us, shall be my theme, and thy numerous virtues shall live io 
the immortality of verse." 

M. Lollius Pali(^anus, to whom this ode is addressed, enjoyed, for a long 
time, a very high tsputation. Augustus gave bim, A.U.C. 728, the goV' 
ernment of Galatia, with the title of propreetor He acquitted himself so 
well in this office, Miat the emperor, in order to recompense his services, 
Damed him consui, in 732, with L. iErailius Lep^dus. In this year the 
present ode was written, and thus far nothing had occurred to tarnish his 
fame. Being sent, in 737, to engage the Germans, who had made an ir- 
ruption into Gaul, he had the misfortune, after some successes, to expe- 
rience a defeat, known in liljtory by the name of Lolliana CladeSf and in 
which he lost the eagle of the fifth legion. It appea**s, however, that he 
was able to repair this disaster and regain the confidence of Augustus , 
for ibis monarch chose him, about the year 751, to accompany his grand- 
son, Caius Caesar, into the East, as a kind of director of his youth {"vduti 
moderator juventa." Veil. Pat., ii., 102). It was in this mission to the 
Kast, seven or eight years after the death of our poet, that he became 
guilty of the greatest depredations, and formed secret plots, which were 
disclosed to Caius Caesar by the king of the Parthians. Lollius died sud- 
denly a few days after this, leaving behind him an odious memory. 
Whether his end was voluntary or otherwise, Velleius Paterculus de- 
clares himself unable to decide. We must not confound this individual 
with the Lollius to whom the second and eighteenth epistles of the first 
book are inscribed, a mistake into which Dacier has fallen, and which he 
endeavors to support by very feeble arguments. Sanadon has clearly 
•hown that these two epistles are evidently addressed to a very young 
man, tJje father, probably, of Lollia Paulina, whom Caligula took away 
from C. Memmius, in order to espouse her himself, and whovn he repudi* 
atod soon after. We have in Pliny {N. H., ix., 35) a curious passage re- 
■pecting the enormous riches which this Lollia had inherited from hei 
grandfather. 

1-9. 1. Ne forte credas, &c. "Do not perchance believe that those 
svtH'ds are destined to perish, wl^ich I, bom near the banks of the far 
^Cfounding AuiiduL am wont to c.tter, to be accompanied by the strings 



EJCI'LANATOay NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE IX 3S5 

of kiiO lyre through an art before unknown." Horace alludes to hinifloU 
at the first that introduced into the Latin tongue the I>Tic maasures ol 
Ureece. — ^2. Longe sonantem natus,.SLC, Alluding to his having been born 
Id Apulia. Consult Ode iii., 30, 10. — 5. Non si priorcst &o. ** Althougb 
the Moeouian Hom«;r holds the first rank among poets, still the strains of 
Pindar and the Cccan Simonides, and the threatening liaeh of Alcsus, and 
^.he difrnified effusions of Stesichorus, are not hid from the knowledge of 
posterity." More literally, *' The Pindaric and Csean muses, and the 
tbeatening ones of Alcaeus, and the dignified ones of Stesichorus." Ai 
fegards the epithet McBonius^ applied to Homer, consult note on Ode i., 6. 
2.^7. C<r<e. Consult note on Ode ii., 1, 37. — Alcai minaces Allading to 
the effusions of Alcaeus against the tyrants of his native island. Consult 
note on Ode ii., 13, 26. — 8. Stcsicfiorique graves Camcena. Stesichorus 
was a native of Himera, in Sicily, and bom about 632 B.C. He was coc 
temporary with Sappho, AIcobus, and Pittaous. He used the Doric dia 
lect, and besides hymns in honor of the gods, and odes iu praise of heroes, 
'composed what may be called lyro-epic poems, such as one entitled ** The 
Destruction of Troy," and another called ** The Orestiad." — 9. Nee, si quid 
olim, Sec, ** Nor, if Anacreon, in former days, produced any sportive effu- 
sion, has time destroyed this." Time, however, has made fearful ravages 
for us in the productions of this bard. At the present day, we can attrib* 
ate to Anacreon only the fragments that were collected by Ursinus, and 
a few additional ones, and not those poems wliich commonly go under his 
name, a few only excepted. 

11-49. 11. Calores ^olitB puella. *' The impassioned feelings of tho 
£olian maid." The allusion is to Sappho. Consult note on Ode ii., 13 
U4. — 13. Non sola comtos, &c. The order of construction is as follows : 
(Mcasna Helcne non sola arsit comtos crities adulleri, et mirata (est) au 
rum, ** The Spartan Helen was not the only one that burned for," dtc— 
U. Aurum vcstibus illitum. ** The gold spread profusely over his gai 
ments," «. e., his garments richly embroidered with gold. 15. RegaUsqut 
eultus et comites. "And his regal splendor and retinue." Cultus here 
refers to the individual's manner of life, and the extent of his resource* 
— 17. Cydonio arcu, Cydon was one of the most ancient and important 
-sities of Crete, and the Cydonians were esteemed the best among the 
Cretan archers. — 18. Non semel llios vexata. ** Not once merely has Z 
Troy been assailed." We have adopted here the idea of Orelli. Oth'^ 
eommentators make the reference a distinct one to Troy itself: " Not o» • 
merely was Troy assailed." Troy, previous to its final overthrow hu* 
been twice taken, once by Kercules, and again by the Amazons. — 19. In 
t^cns. *' Mighty in arms." — 22. Acer Deiphobus. Deiphobus was regard 
ed as the bravest of the Trojans after Hector. — 29. Inertice, The dativa 
for ab inertia by a Groscism. — 30. Ctlata virtus. ** Merit, when uucelo* 
brated," t. «., when concealed from the knowledge of posterity, for waol 
(^ a bard or historian to celebrate its praises. — Non ego te meis, &c. " ] 
wOl not pass thee over in silence, unhoncred in my strains." — 33. Lividtis 
^Envious." — 35. Renimque prudens, &c. "Both skilled in the manage- 
ment of affairs, and alike unshaken in prosperity and misfortune." The 
poet here begins to enumerate some of the claims of Lollius to an immor 
tality of fame. Hence the connection in the train of 'deas is as fbuows • 
Kad worthy art thuu, O Lollius, of being remembered by al>er ages, fgi 

R 



880 RXPLANATORY NOTES. DC OK IV., CDE XI. 

■* Uioa liast t m'.nd/' &c. — 37 Vindex. Pjt in appoBition with animiu -* 
B\ Duccntis ad s€ euneta. "Drawing a I things within the sphere of ita 
influence." — 39. Cotuulque non vnius ar^ni. "And not merely the coii' 
•uJ of a single year." A bold and beantiful personification by which the 
term consul is applied to the mind of LoUias. Ever actuated by the pur- 
est principles, and ever preferring honor to views of mere private iuten 
est, the mind of Lollias enjoys a perpetual consulship.— 42. ReJecU alto 
dona mjcentivnit &c. "Rcjerts with disdainful brow the bribes of shp 
gii'ty; vi ;torious, makes for himself a way, by his own arms, amid lyp 
posing crowds." Explicuit sua arma may be rendered more Utora'ly 
though less intelligibly, "displays his arms." The "opposing ?rowda 
are the difficulties that beset the path of the upright man, as well from 
the inherent weakness of his own nature, as from the arts of the flatterer, 
ftud the machinations of secret foes. Galling, however, virtue and firm> 
b?M to his aid, he employs these arms of purest temper against the host 
that rarrounds him, and comes off victorious from the conflict. — 46. Recte. 
•* Consistently with true wisdom." — Rectius oocupat nomen bcati. " With 
far more propriety does that man lay claim to the title of happy." — 49 
Ca:!ct. "Well knows." 



Ode XI. The poet invites Phyllis to his abode, for the purpose of eels' 
b rating with him the natal day of Maecenas, and endeavors, by various 
arguments, to induce her to come. 

1-19. 1. Est mihi nonum, &.c. " I have a cask full of Alban wme 
more than nine years old." The Alban wine is ranked by Pliny only ai 
third rate ; but, from the frequent commendation of it by Horace and Juve- 
nal, wo must suppose it to have been in considerable repute, especially 
when matured by long keeping. It was sweet and thick w?ien new, but 
became dry wiien old, seldom ripening properly before the fifteenth year 
— 3. Nectendis opium coronis, "Parsley for weaving chaplets." Nee 
iendis coronis is for ad nectendas coronas. — 4. Est ederas vis multa, 
"There is abundance of ivy." — 5. Fulges. "Thou wilt appear more beau 
teous." The future, from the old verb fulgo, of the third conjugatiooj 
which frequently occurs in Lucretius. — 6. Ridet argento domus. "The 
house smiles with glittering silver." Alluding to the silver vessels {i.. e., 
the paternal salt-cellar, and the plate for incense) cleansed and made 
ready for the occasion, and more jiarticularly for the sacrifice that was to 
take place. Compare note on Ode ii., IC, 14. — Ara castis vincta vrrbenis. 
The allusion is to an ara cespititia. Consult notes on Ode i., 19, 13 tmd 
14.— 8. Spargier. An archaism for spargi. In the old language the syi- 
lable er was appended to all passive infinitives. — 11. Sordidnmjlaminat 
trepidant, &c. "The flames quiver as they roll the sallying smoke 
dirough the house-top," i. c, the quivering flames roll, &c. The Greeks 
and Romans appear to have been rmacqnainted with the use of chimneys. 
The more common dwellings had merely an opening in the roof, which 
allowed the smoke to escape; the better class of edifices were warmed 
by means of pipes inclosed in the walls, and which communicated with a 
large store, or several smaller ones, constructed in the earth under the 
building. — 14. Idns tibi sunt afrcndas, &c. '• The ides are to be celebrated 
by Uioc, a day that cleaves April, the month of sea-born Veuus.*' t. e , thov 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE XIJ S8*l 

Bx'i to ceiebrate alon^ with me the ides of April, a mouth sacred to Vcnua, 
wl.o rose from the waves. The ides fell on the 15th of March, May, July, 
uid October, and on the 13th of the other months. They received theil 
Dame from the old verb iduarci " to divide" (a word of £trarian origin, ao 
cording to Mctcrobius, Sat.t i., 15), because in some cases they actually, 
■nd in others nearly, di>ided the month. Hence^ndit on tho present oo 
casion.— 15. Mensem VeneHs. April was sacred to Venas. — 17. Jure so- 
wennis tnihiy &c. "A dny deservedly solemnized by me, and almost held 
Vore sacred than that of my own nativity." — 19 AJluentcs ordinal annos, 
* Coaots his increasing years." Compare, as regards aJ/Luentest the exp)a 
lation of Orelli : " sensim sibi succedentes." 



Ode XII. It has never been satisfactorily determined whether th« 
present ode was addressed to the poet Virgil, or to some other individual 
of the same name. The individual here designated by the appellation of 
Virgil (be he who he may) is invited by Horace to an enterlaiumcnt where 
each guest is to contribute his quota. The poet agrees to supply the wine, 
if Virgil will bring with him, as his share, a box of perfumes. He bega 
bim to lay aside for a moment his eager pursuit of gain, and his schemes 
i>f self-interest, and to indulge in the pleasures of festivity. 

1-27. 1. Jam vcris comiteSy dec. " Now, the Thracian winds, the com 
panions of Spring, which calm the sea, begin to swell the sails." The al- 
bision is to the northern winds, w^iose home, according to the poets, wafl 
the land of Thrace. These winds began to blow in the commencement 
of spring. The western breezes are more commonly mentioned in de> 
Bcriptions of spring, but, as these are changeable and inconstant, tho poet 
prefers, on this occasion, to designate the winds which blow more steadi- 
ly at this season of the year. — 4. Hiberna nive. "By the melting of the 
winter snow." — 6. Jnfelix avis. The reference is here to the nightingale, 
and not to the swallow. Horace evidently alludes to that version of the 
story which makes Procne to have been changed into a nightingale and 
Philomela into a swallow. — Et Cecropia domus^ Ac. " And the eternal 
reproach of the Attic line, for having too cruelly revenged the brutal lusts 
of kings." CecropifB is hero equivalent simply to Aitiaty as Pandion, 
the father of Procne, though king of Athens, was not a descendant of Ce- 
crops. — 11. Deum. Alluding to Pan. — Nigri colles. "The dark hills," i. 
f., gloomy with forests. Among the hills, or, more properly speaking, 
mountains of Arcadia, the poets assigned Lycaeus and Msenalus to Pan as 
his favorite retreats. — 13. Adduxere sifim tempora. "The season of tho 
year brings along with it thirst," i. e., the heats of spring, and the thirst 
produced by them, impel us to the wine-cup. The heat of an Italian spring 
almost equalled that of summer in more northern lands. — 14. Pressum 
Calibua liberum. "The wine pressed at Gales." Consuls note on Odt 
\., 20, 9. — 15. Juvennm nobilium cliens. Who tlie "juvcncs nobiics" were, 
to whom the poet here alludes, it is impossible tu say : neither is it a mat> 
tor ot'the least importance. Those commentators who maintain that the 
ode is addressed to the bard of Mantua, make them to be the you.'Hg Neroa, 
Drasas and Tib srius, and Doring, who is one of the number that advocate 
Ihis opinion relative to Virgil, regards cliens as equivalent to the Germac 
GUnsHing, ' favorite." — 16 Nardo vina vcrcberis. " Thou sbalt earn thj 



9S8 RXPI^ANATOEY NOTES. ^BOOK IV., ODE XIV 

ffine with ■pikeaard." Horace, as we bave already stated in tlie luinc 
dactoiy remarks, invites the individaal whom he here addresses to aa 
eotertaimnent, where each guest is to contribute his quota. Our poel 
agrees to furnish the wine, if Virgil will supply perfumes, and heuco tells 
liim he shall have wine for his spikenard. — 17. Parvus onyu:, ** A small 
alabaster box." According to Pliny {H, N^ zzzvi, 12), perfume boxes 
were made of the onyx alabaster. — Eliciet cadum, '* Will draw forth t 
cask," t. e., will cause me to famish a cask of wine for the eutertainmeat 
The opposition between parvut onyx and cadut is worthy of notice.— 
U. Q,%ii nunc Sulpiciut &c. ** Which now lies stored away in tlte Sol- 
pkian repositories." Consult note on Ode iii., 20, 7. According to For 
phyrion in his scholia on this passage, the poet alludes to a certain Sul 
picius Oalba, a well-known merchant of the day. — 19. Donare largus. A 
Oroscism for largus donandi, or ad donandum. — Amara eurarum, "Bit- 
ter cares." An imitation of the Greek idiom (rd iriKpH rCtv fiepiftvdiv), in 
place of the common Latin form amareu euros. — ^21. Cum lua meree. 
"With thy club," t. c., with thy share toward the entertainment; or, in 
other words, with the perfumes. The part furnished by each guest to< 
ward a feast is here regarded as a kind of merchandise, which partners 
in trade throw into a common stock, that they may divide the profits. — 
22. Non ego te meis immunemy &c. " I do not intend to moisten thee, at 
free cost, with the contents of my cups, as the rich man docs in some well* 
stored abode." — 26. Nigrorumque memor ignium, ** And, mindful of the 
gloomy fires of the funeral pile," i. e., of the shortness of cxistenco.— • 
37. Misce stultitiam eonsiliis brevcm, &c. " Blend a little folly with thy 
«rurldly plans : it is delightful to give loose on a proper occasion." Dm% 
pere properly signifies " to play the fool," and hence we obtain other kin 
dred meanings, such as " to indulge in festive enjoyment," " to unbend*' 
'give loose," Ac. 



Ode XIV. We have already stated, in the introductory remarks to tL» 
Cbarth ode of the present book, that Horace had been directed by Augas 
tus to celebrate in song the victories of Drusus and Tiberius. The piece 
to which we have alluded is devoted, in consequence, to the praises of 
the former, the present One to those of the latter, of the two princes. In 
both productions, however, the art of the poet is shown in ascribiog the 
success of the two brothers to the wisdom and fostering counseh of Augus- 
tus himself. 

1-15. 1. Q««c cura Patrum, &c. " What care on the part of tlie fa 
ttiers, or what on the p&rt of the Roman people at large, can, by ofibnngi 
fk'h with honors, perpetuate to the latest ages, O Augustus, the remem* 
Hrance of thy virtues, in public inscriptions and recording annals?"—* 
2. "Muneribus, Alluding to the various public monuments, decrees, &c., 
proceeding from a grateful people. — 4. Titulos. The reference is to pub 
tic inscriptions of every kind, as well on the pedestals of statues, as oa 
arches, triumphal monuments, coins, &c. — Memoresque fastos» Consult 
note on Ode iii., 17, 4. — 5. ^ternet, Varro, as quoted by Nonius (ii., 5)), 
Dses this same verb : " Littcris ac laudibus aternare,"-^. Principum 
This term is here selected purposely, as being tho one which Augustui 
%9ected for a title, declining, at the same time, that of dictator' or king 



eXFLANATOUY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE XlV. aWH 

Con yiare Taeit.^ Ann., i., 9.-7. Quern legts expertea Latin<B, &c. " Whon 
the Vindelici, free before from Boman sway, lately leariiod what thoa 
coaldst do in war." Or, more freely and intelligibly, " Whose power i« 
war the Vindelici, &c., lately experienced." We have here an imitation of 
a well-known Greek idiom. — 8. Vindelici, Consult note on Ode vr. 1, 18 
— 10. Genaunogf implacidum genus, Breunjsque veloces. The poet hen 
substitutes for the lUeti and Vindelici of the fourth ode, the Genauni and 
Brouui, Alpine nations, dwelling in their vicinity and allied to them is. 
«rar. This is done apparently with the view of amplifying the victoriaj 
>f the young Noros, by increasing the number of the conquered nations, 
rho Genauni and Breuni occupied the Val d'Agno and Val Brauniat, ta 
the east and northeast of the LagoMaggiore (Lacus Verbanus).— 13. D& 
jecii accr plus vice simvlici, "Bravely overthrew with more than aa 
equal return." — 14. Major Neronum. " The elder of the Ncros." AUading 
to Tiberias, the future emperor. — 15. Immanesque Raios auspiciis, ice 
** And, under thy favoring auspices, drove back the fercxiious Raeti." In 
the time of the republic, when the consul performed any thing in person, 
be w as said to do it by his own conduct and aujpicea [duclUt vel imperii, 
tt auspicio suo) ; but if his lieutenant, or any other person, did it by his 
command, it was said to be done, auspicio ccnsulis, ductu legati^ under 
the aaspices of the consul and the conduciiof Ihe Vjgatus. In this mannet 
the emperors were said to do every thing hj tlioir own auspices, although 
they ivmained at Home. By the Raeti ia the Icxt are meant the united 
forces of the Raeti, Vindelici, and their allies The first of these consti- 
tuted, m fact, the smallest part, as their strength had already been broken 
by DroAus. Compare Introductory Remarks to the fourth ode of this book 

17-33. 17. Spectandus in certamine Martio, &c. " Giving an illustri- 
oas proof in the martial conflict, with what destruction he could overwhelm 
those bosoms that were devoted to death in the cause of freedom." The 
poet here alludes to the custom ]irevalent among these, andolher barba^ 
ous nations, especially such as were of Germanic or Celtic origin, of de- 
voting themselves to death in defence of their coantry's freedom. — 21 . Ex- 
trcet. "Tosses." — Pleiadum choro scindenle nubes, &c. "When the 
dance of the Pleiades is severing the clouds." A beautiful mode of ex- 
pressing the rising of these stars. The Pleiades are seven stars in the 
neck of the bull. They are fabled U. have been seven of the daughters ot 
Atlas, whence they are also called Allantides. ( Virg., Georg., !., 221.) 
They rise with the sun on the tenth day before the calends of May (22d 
of April), according to Columella. The Latin writers generally call them 
Vergilia, from their rising about the venial equinox. The appellation 
of P^ade^ is supposed to come from nXiu, " to sail," because their rising 
marked the season when the storms of winter had departed, and every 
■bing far:red the renewal of navigation. Some, however, derive the 
Bftme iron TrXaovef, because they appear in a cluster, and thus we find 
Manilias calling them " sidus gloToerabile" — 34. Medios per ignes. Some 
Bommentators regard this as a proverbial expression, alluding to an affaii 
full of imminent danger, and co xipare it with the Greek dm vn)po^ fio^ciif. 
The icholiast, on tnc other ban 1, explains it as equivalent to "per medium 
yugryefervoretn" We rathe.' think with Gesner, however, that the ref 
erence is to some historical ev jnt which has not come down to us. — 25. Sit. 
tauriformis volvitur Aujidus " With the same fury is tho bull forme/ 



390 EXPLANAIOEY NOTES. BOOK iV., ODE XIV. 

AaSdas roll id along." The epithet tauriformiM, analogous to the UrtnV 
ravpOfica^oq^ alladea either to the ball's head, oi to the horns with which 
the gods of rivers were anciently represented. The scholiast ob Eorip 
ides [Ore.$t,t 1378) is qaite correct in referring the explanation of this to 
the roaring of their waters. Consult note on Ode iii., 30, 10. — 26. Qua 
regna Dauni, &.c. "Where it flows by the realms of Apulian Daanus,*' 
i. «., where it waters the land of Apulia. — Pnefluit. For p:'aterfluit 
Compare Ode iv., 3 10. — 29. A gminaf errata. " The iron-clad bauds."— 
81. Metendo. " By mowing down." — 33. Sine clade. " Without loss to 
hlm8-?lC" t. e., with trifling injury to his own army. — 33. Consilium et tuos 
th'vos. "Thy counsel and thy favoring gods/' i. e., thy connsel and thy 
auspices. By the expression iuos divot, the poet means the favor oif 
heaven, which had constantly accompanied the arms of Augustus: hence 
the gods are, by a bold figure, called his own. A proof of this favor is 
given in the very next sentence, in which it is stated that, on the fifteenth 
anniversary of the capture of Alexandrea, the victories of Drusns and Ti- 
berius were achieved over their barbarian foes. 

34-52. 34. Nam, tibi quo die, &c. "For, at the close of the third lui 
trum from the day on which the suppliant Alexandrea opened wide tc 
thee her harbors and deserted court, propitious fortune gave a favorablo 
issue to the war." Ou the fourth day before the calends of Se(/iomber 
(August 29th), B.C. 30, the fleet and cavalry of Antony went over to Oo- 
tavius, and Antony and Cleopatra fled to the mausoleum, leaving the pal- 
ace empty. The war with the Raeti and Viudelici was brought to a close 
on the same day, according to the poet, fifteen years after. — 36. Vacuam 
aulam. Alluding to the retreat of Antony and Cleopatra into the mauso- 
leum. — 37. Lustro. Consult note on Ode ii., 4, 22. — 40. Laudemqnc e£ op- 
talum, dec. " And claimed praise and wished-for glory unto your finished 
campaigns." — 41. Cantabcr. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. — 42. Medus 
que. Compare Introductory Remarks, Ode iii., 5, and note on Ode i., 26, 
3. — Indus. Consult note on Ode i., 12, 55. — Scythes. Consult notes on 
Ode ii., 9, 23, and iii., 8, 23. — 43. Tuiela prasens. Consult note on Ode 
iii^ 5, 2. — 44. Domina. " Mistress of the world.'' — 45. Fontium qui celat 
origines Nilns. The Nile, the largest nver of the Old World, still con- 
ceals, observes Malte-Bran, its true sources from the research of science. 
At least scarcely any thing more of them is known to us now than was 
known in the time of Eratosthenes. — 46. Ister. The Danube. The poet 
alludes to the victories of Augustus over the Dacians and other barbarous 
tribes dwelling in the vicinity of this stream. — 46. Rapidus Tigris. The 
reference is to Armenia, over which country Tiberius, by the orders of 
Augustas, A.U.C. 734, placed Tigranes as king. The epithet here applid'} 
Co the Tigris is very appropriate. It is a very swift stream, and its greali 
rapidity, the natural effect of local circumstances, has procured for it the 
name of 7'igr in the Median tongue, Diglito in Arabic, and Hiddekel la 
Hebrew, a I which terms denote the flight of an arrow. — 47. BelluosuK. 

Teeming with monsters." — 48. Britannis. Consult note on Ode iii., 5, 
t.^9. Non paventis funera Gallia. Lucan (i., 459, seqq.) ascribes the 
contempt of der.th which characterized the G.%uls to their belief in the 
metempsychosis, as taught by the Druids. — 50. Audit. "Obe^a" — 51. 
Sifgambri. Consult note on Ode iv., d, 36 —52 Co^posUis armis * ThefT 
srms being lai'!^ up ' 






EXI'LANAIORY NOl'ES. DUUK IV., UDE XV 3>ll 

oma XV. Ths poet feigns that, when about to celebr&te in song the 
Datties and victories oi' Augustas, Apollo reproved him for his lasli at 
teinpt, and that He thereupon turned his attention to subjects of a lefts 
daring nature, and more on an equality with his poetic powers. ^The bara 
therefore sings of the blessings conferred on the Roman people ay the 
glorious reign of the monarch ; the closing of the Temple of Janus ; tha 
prevalence of universal peace; the revival of agriculture ; the re-estab- 
lishment of laws and public morals ; the rekindling splendor of the Romas 
aame. Hence the concluding declaration of the piece, that Augustof 
•hall receive divine honors, as a tutelary deity, frcm the hands of a grato 
fb. people. 

1-31. I. Phoebus vohntem.&c " Phcebns sternly reproved me, by tte 
striking of his lyre, when wishing to tell of battles and subjugated cities, 
and wMiied me not to spread my little sails over the surface of the Tus- 
can Sea." To attempt, with his feeble genius, to sing Uie victories of Aa 
giistus, is, according to the bard, to venture in a little bark on a broad< 
tempestuous ocean. As regards the expression increpuU lyra, compare 
the explanation of Orelli: **lyra plectro tacta hoc nefacerem vetuit."-^ 
5. Prunes uberes. " Abundant harvests." Alluding to the revival of agri 
culture after tho ravages of the civil war had ceased. — 6. Ei signa nostrc 
reslituit Jovi. " And has restored the Roman standards to our Jove." 
An allusion to the recovery of the standards lost in the overthrow of Cras* 
BUS and the check of Antony. Consult note on Ode i., 26, 3, and Introduc* 
tory B.emarks, Ode iii., 5. — 8. Et vacuum dudlis^ &c. ** And has closed 
the temple of Janus t),uirinus, free from wars." The Temple of Janus was 
open in war and closed in peace. It had been closed previous to the reign 
of Augustus, once in the days of Numa, and a second time at the conclu* 
•ion of the first Punic war. Under Augustus it was closed thrice : once in 
A.U.C. 725, after tho overthrow of Antony (compare Orosius, vi., 22, aP'i 
Dio Casstus, 51, 20^ ; again in A.U.C. 729, after the reduction of the Can 
laibri (compare Dio Cassius^ 53, 26) ; and the third time when the Dacians, 
Dalmatians, and some of the German tribes were subdued by Tiberius 
and Drusus. (Compare Dio Cassius, 54, 36.) To this last Horace is here 
supposed to allude. As regards the expression Janum Quirinum^ com- 
pare the language of Macrobius {Sat.t i., 9) : *' Invocamtts Janum Quiri- 
num. quasi bellorum potentem^ ab hasta^ quam Sabini curim vacant.*' — 
9. Et ordinem rectum^ dec. The order of construction is as follows : et in 
jecit frena LicenttoB cvaganti extra rectum ordinem. "And has curbed 
licentiousness, roaming forth beyond the bounds of right order." i. e., an 
bridled licentiousness. Consult note on Ode iv., 5, 22. — 12. Vetcres artes 
•*The virtues of former days." — 16. Ab Hesperio cubili. " From his rest- 
Dg-place in the west." — 18. Exiget otium. " Shall drive away repose." 
—20. Inimicat. " Embroils. ' — 21. Non qui prof undum^ &c. Alluding to 
the nations dwelling along the borders of the Danube, the Germans, RsstL 
Dacians, &c. — ^22. Edicta Julia. " The Julian edicts." Tho reference ii 
to the laws imposed by Augustus, a member of the Julian line, on van- 
quished nations. — GetcB. Consult note on Ode iii., 24, 11. — 23. Seres. Con- 
sult note on Ode i., 12, 55. Florus states that the Seres sent an embassy 
with valuable gifts, to Augustus (iv., 12, 61). — Infidive PerscB. "Or the 
faithless Parthians." — 24. Tanain prope Jlnmen orti. AUndiag to the 
Scythians. Among the embassies sent to Augistus was cne frjm tb« 



392 EXFl ANATORY NJTES. BOCK IV., ODE Iv 

Bcythians — 35. El profutis lucibus et saeris. "Both on commoa and ■• 
sred days.*' Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 7. — 26. Munera Liberi. Consnli 
note on Ode i^ 18, 7. — 29. Virtulefunelos, *' Aathoni of illastrioas deeds." 
—30. Lydis remixto carmine tibiit. "In long, mingled alternate with 
the Lydian flates," t. e., with alternate vocal and instmrnental mastc. 
The Lydian flates were the same with what were called the left-handed 
flatcs. Among the ancient Bates, those most frequently mentioned are 
the tibia dextra and sinistrtSt pares and impares. It woold seem that 
the double flute consisted of two tubes, which were so joined together aa 
to have but one mouth, and so were both blown at once. That which th« 
musician played on with his right hand was called tibia dextra^ the right 
banded flute ; with his led, the tibia sinistra^ the left-handed flute. The 
former had but few holes, and sounded a deep, serious bass; the other hai^ 
many holes, and a sharper and livelier tone. The left-handed flutes, u 
has already been remarked, were the same with what were called the 
Lydian, whiletbe right-handed were identical with what were denomina- 
ted the Tyriao. — n*.. Alma progeaiem Veneris. An allusion to Augustus, 
irho had passed hy adoption into the Julian family, and consequeotlsr 
dftimed de>r«rt, xi i^h that line, from Ajcan'.os, the grandson of AadiiMi 
tadVexiB^. 



E P O D E S. 



The term Epode ('E7r«f>(56f) was ased in more than one ■igmflcatlOKi 
tt was applied, in the first place, to an assemblage of lyric versei imm» 
iiately sncceeding the strophe and antistrophe, and intended to close th€ 
period or strain. Hence the name itself from M and <^di^t denoting some- 
tJbing sutiff after another piece. In the next place, the appellation was 
given to a small lyric poem, composed of several distichs, in each of which 
the first verse was an iambic trimeter (six feet), and the last a dimeter ' 
(four feet). Of this kind were the Epodes of Archilochas, mentioned by 
Plutarch in his Dialogue on Music (c. xxviii., vol. xiv., p. 234, ed. Hutten), 
and under this same class are to be ranked a majority of the Epodes of 
Horace. Lastly, the term Epode was so far extended in signification as 
to designate any poem in which a shorter verse was made to follow a long 
one, which will serve as a general definition for all the productions of 
Horace that go by this name. Compare, in relation to this last meaning 
of the word, the language oi Hephceslion [De Metr.^ p. 129, ed.Gaisf.),£lai 
d' iv Tolg noii^ptaai Koi ol uP/ievLKcig ovtcj KaXovfievoi iircpdoi, drav fu- 
yiiktfi (TTix<fi nepiTTov tl eni(}>ipijTai' where irepiTTOv corresponds to the 
Latin impar^ and refers to a verse unequal to one which has gone before, 
«r, in other words, less than it. 



Epode I. Written a sliort time previous to the battle of Actium. The 
Wd offers himself as a companion to Maecenas, when the latter was on 
^e eve of embarking in the expedition against Antony and Cleopatra, and 
expresses his perfect willingness to share every danger with his patron 
and friend. Maecenas, however, apprehensive for the poet's safety, re- 
fused to grant his request. 

1-19. I. Ibis Uburnis, Sec. " Dear Maecenas, wilt thou venture in the 
iight Libumian galleys amid the towering bulwarks of the ships of An- 
tony?" If we credit the scholiast Acron, Augustus, when setting out 
against Antony and Cleopatra, gave the command of the Libumian gal- 
leys to Maecenas. — 5. Quid noSy quibus te, ice. The ellipses are to be 
supplied as follows : Quid nos faciamus^ quibus vita est jucunda si te 
^nperstiie vivitur, si contra acciderit, gravis 1 " And what shall I do, to 
whom life is pleasing if thou survive; if otherwise, a burden?" — 7. Jussi. 
Understand a te. — 9. An hunc laborem^ Sac. " Or shall I endure the tcili 
of this campaign with that resolution with which it becetnes the brave to 
bear them ?" — 12. Inhospitalem Caucasum. Consult note on Ode i., 23, 
6.--*13. Occidenlis usque ad ultimum sinum. **Even to the farthest bay 
of the west," i. e., to the farthest limits of the world on the west. — 18. Ma- 
jorhabet. "More powerfully possesses." — 19. Ul assidens implumibut. 
ftc. "As a bird, sitting near her unfledged young, dreads the approaches 
of serpents more for them wheikleft by her, unable, however, though she 
be with them, to render any greater aid on that account to her offsprine 
placed before her eyes. ' A poetical pleonasm occurs in the term prtt 



894 EXPLAKATORV NOTES. EPODE I. 

tentibitSt and, in a free translation, the word may be regarded as ei£&iva 
lent simply to ii». The idea intended to be conveyed by the who^e sen 
tence is extremely beaatiful. The poet likens himself to the parent bird, 
and, as the latter sits by her young, tboagh even her presence can ncH 
protect them, so the bard wishes to be with his firiend, not becaoae he is 
able to defend him from hai-m, bat that he may fear the less for his safety 
wbild remaining by his side. 

2ri-P9. 23. Libenter hoc el o.niie^ &c. The idea intended to be convoy^ 
•d is as follows : I make not this request in order to obtain from thee mare 
•xteniiive possessions, the usual rewards of military service, bot in tli€ 
ipirit of disinterested aifection, and with the hope of securing still more 
firmly thy friendship and esteem. — 25. Non ut juvencis^ &c. An elegant 
hypallage for iion ut plures juvenci illigati meis aratris nitantvr. " Not 
that mure oxen may toil for me, yoked to my ploughs," t. «., not that 1 
may have more extensive estates. — 27. Pecusve Calabris, &c. "Nor that 
my flocks may change Calabrian for Lucanian pastures, before the bum 
ing star appears," i. e., nor that I may own such numerous flocks and 
herds as to have both winter and summer pastures. An hypallage for 
Calahra pascua mvtet Lucanis, The more wealthy Homans were accus- 
tomed to keep their flocks and herds in the rich pastures of Calabria and 
Luc&nia. The mild climate of the former country made it an excellent 
region for winter pastures ; about the end of June, however, and a short 
time previous to the rising of the dog-star, the increasing heat caused 
<hese pastures to be exchanged for those of Lucania, a cool and woody 
i*x)uotry. On the approach of winter Calabria was revisited. — 29. Nee ut 
Bupernit &c. "Nor that ray glittering villa may touch the Circaean walls 
of lofty Tusculum," i. c, nor that my Sabine villa may be built of white 
marble, glittering beneath the rays of the sun, and be so far extended as 
to reach even to the walls of TuscuKm. The distance between the poefs 
farm and Tuscolura was more than twenty-five miles. Bentley considers 
iuperni an incorrect epithet to be applied to Tusculum, which, according 
to Cluver, whom he cites, but whose meaning he mistakes, the critic 
makes to have been situate " in clivo leviter assurgente." The truth is, 
ancient Tusculum was built on the summit, not on the declivity of a hilL 
— Candens. Alluding to the style of building adopted by the rich. — Tits- 
acli Circtta mania. Tusculum was said to have been founded by Tele- 
gonus, the son of Ulysses and Circe. Compare Ode iii., 29, 8. 

33-34. 33. Chremes. Acron supposes the allusion to be to Chremoa, h 
character in Terence. This, however, is incorrect. The poet refers to 
•jne of the lost plays of MenanJer, entitled the "Treasure" {&Tfijavp6g]t 
tn outline of which is given by Donatus in his notes on the Eunuch ot 
Terence {Prol.i 10). A young man, having squandered his estate, sends 
a servant, ten years after his father's death, according to the will cf the 
leceased, to carry provisions to his father's monument; but he had before 
old the ground in which the monument stood to a covetous old man, ta 
n hom the servant applied to help him to open the monument, in which 
they discovered a hoard of gold and a letter. The old man seizes the 
treasure, and ke^ps it, under pretence of having deposited it there, foi 
safety, during times of war, and the young fellow goes to law with hin^ 
— 34. I^iscinctus au* *i€rdam vt nepos. •' Or squander 9 way like a disso 



BIFLANATORY NOTES.- -KPOKIE 11. 39A 

fote Bpendtiirilt." Amon? the Unmans, it wai thua^ht eifeminate to ap 
jear abroad with the tanic loosely or carelessly girded. Hence cinettn 
and succinehts are put for industriuSf expeditus or gnavnSf diligent, ar 
tive, clever, because they used to gird the tunic when at work ; and, on 
*he other hand, discinctus is equivalent to tner<, mollis^ ignavuSf ftc.-* 
Nepos. The priraitivj meaning of this term is "a grandson:" from the 
loo great indulgence, however, generally shown by grandfathers, and the 
ruinous consequences that ensued, the word became a common desigi.ar 
• lion for a prodigal. 



Ehods II. The object of the poet is to show with how much difficCkity 
a co\etous man disengages himself from the love of riches. He there 
fore supposes a usurer, who is persuaded of the happiness and tranquil 
lity of a country life, to have formed the design of retiring into the ooun 
try and* renouncing his former pursuits. The latter calls in his money, 
breaks through all engagements, and is ready to depart, when his ruling 
passion returns, and once more plunges him into the vortex of gain 
Some commentators, dissatisfied with the idea that so beautiful a descrip 
tion of rural enjoyment should proceed from the lips of a sordid usurer 
have been disposed to regard the last four lines of the epode as spurious 
and the appendage of a later age. But the art of the poet is strikingly 
displayed in. the very circumstance which they condemn, since nothing 
can show more clearly the powerful influence which the love of riches ca^ 
exercise over the mind, than that one who, like Alphius, has so accurate 
a perception of the pleasures of a country life, should, like him, sacrifice 
tbpm all on the altar of gain. 

1-22. 1. Procul negotiis. "Far from the busy scenes of life." — 2. Ui 
prisca gens mortalium. An allusion to the primitive simplicity of the 
Golden Age.^^. £a:crcc^ "Ploughs." — A. Solutusomiufienore. "Freed 
from all manner of borrowing or leading," i. e., from all money transac 
tions. The interest of moneywas called /crniij!, or usura. The legal in 
cerest at Borne, toward the end of the republic and under the first em- 
perors, was one cu monthly for the use of a hundred, equal to twelve per 
cent, per annum. This was called usura anlesima^ because in a hun- 
dred months the interest equalled the capital. — 5. Neque excUaiur, &c. 
** Neither as a soldier is he aroused by the harsh blast of the trumpet, noi 
does he dread, as a trader, the angry sea." — 7. Forum. "The courts of 
law." — Superba civium^ &c. *' The splendid thresholds of the more pow- 
erful citizens." The portals of the wealthy and powerful. Some, how 
ever, understand by superba^ an allusion to the haughtiness displayed by 
the rich toward the clients at their gates. In either case, the reference 
b to the custom, prevalent at Rome, of clients waiting on their patrons tc 
offer their morning salutations. — 11. Inutilesque^ &c. All the M3S. and 
early editions place this and the succeeding verso after the IStli and 14th, 
with the exception of a single MS. of H. Stephens, in which tltey are ar- 
ranged as we have given them. Many of the best editors have adopted 
Chis arrangement. After alluding to the marriage of the vine with the 
trees, it seems much more natural to make what immediately foUowi 
have reference to the same branch of rural economy. — 12. Inserit. **Ii» 
vaiU."— 13. Muffientium. IJndersta.'d bourn- W Erra^f. ' Qm 



S&6 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE i. 

iag.**-'l6. Infirma*. "Tender." Compare the reir ark of I'driiig: •A'oi 
ura enim sua imbeciUes su nt oves. ' — 17. Decorum m itibut poiais. " Adoro 
ed with mellow frait." — 19. Inrltiva pira. ** The pears of his own graft 
ing." — 20. Cerfantem et utsm, &c. "And the grape vying in hoe wit* 
the purple." Purpura is the dative, by a Oroecism, for tho ablative.— 
SI. Priape. Priapus, as the god of gardens, always received, as an rffer 
ing, the first produce of the orchards, 6lc. Compare note un Ode iii., if 
t4.— 82. Tutor Jinium " Tutelary god of boundaries.** 

'24-47. 24. In tenaei gramine. "On the matted grass." The epithet 
titHoei may also, but wnth less propriety, be rendered "tenacious," civ 
strong-rooted." — 25. Lahuntur allis, dec. " In the mean time, the streams 
glide onward beneath the high banks." Some editions havo rivis for ripis, 
bnt the expression alUs rivis ("with their deep waters") does not suit 
the season of summer so well as altis ripis^ which iilli des to the decrease 
of tho waters by reason of the summer heats.— 26. Quervutur. "Uttet 
their plaintive notes."— 27. Frondesque lympkis, &c. "And the leaves 
murmur amid the gentlv flowing waters," t. e , the pendant branches mur- 
mur as they meet the rippling current of the gently-flowing stream. — 
28 Quod. " All which." Equivalent to id quod. — 29. Tonantis annus 
kibernus Jovis. " The wintry season of tempestuous Jove." The allu- 
sion is to the tempests, intermingled with thunder, that aro prevalent ir 
Italy at the commencement of winter.—- 30. Cumparat. " Collects to 
gether." — 31. Multa cane. " With many a hound." — 33. Aut amite lem, 
&c. . " Or spreads the nets of large meshes with the smooth pole." Ames 
denotes a pole or staif to support nets. — Ijyvi. We have rendered this 
epithet, as coming from Uvis ; it may also, however, have the meaning 
of "light," and be regarded as coming from lih^is. Consult note, page Ixiv 
of this volume. — 35. Advenam. " From foreign climes." Alluding to the 
migratory habits of the crane, Aid its seeking the warm climate of Italy 
at the approach of winter. Cranes formed a favorite article on the tables 
of the rich. — 37. Qiiis non malarvm^ &c. "Who, amid employments 
such as these, does not forget the anxious cares which love carries in its 
train ?" Complete the ellipsis as follows : Quis non oblivisdtur malarum 
curarum, quas curas^ &c. — 39. In partem, juvat. Sec. " Aid, on her side, 
in the management of household afluirs, and the rearing of a sweet off- 
spring." — 41. Sabina. The domestic virtues and the strict morality of 
the Sabmes are frequontly alluded to by the ancient writers. — Aut perusta 
solibus^ &c. " Or the wife of the industrious Apulian, embrowned by the 
sun." — 43. Sacrum. The hearth was sacred to the Lares. — Vetusiis It 
the senie of aridis — 45. Leelum pccus. " The joyous flock." — 47. Horna 
vina. " This year's wine." The poor, and lower orders, were accustom 
ed to drink the new wine from the dolium, after the fermentation had sub- 
iided. Hence it was called vinum doliare. The dolium was the large 
vessel in which the wine was left to ferment, before ii was transferred to 
the amphora or cadus. 

49-54. 49. Lucrina ci nchylia. " The Lucrine shell-fish." The La 
«.rine lake was celebrated for oysters end other shell-fish. — 50. Rhombuo 
" The turbot."— Scan. The Scams (" Scar" or " Char") was held in high 
estimation by the ancients. P''ny {H. iV., ix., 17) remarks of it, that It ia 
i.ho only fish which ruminates : an observation which Sp/^ been made b< 



EXPLANATORY VOTES. EPODE III. 397 

Anrtotle beiore him ; and hence according to this latter write t, toe name 
Mi^pvf, given to it by the Greeks The ancients, however, were mistaker 
on this point, aod Baffon has corrected their error. The roasted Hoarai 
was a favorite dish (compare Athenttus^ vii., ed. Schtoeigh^ vol. iii., p. 
175), and the liver of it was particalarly commended. — 51. Si quos Eais, 
&c. ** If a tempest, thundered forth over the Eastern waves, tarn any of 
their nomber to this sea." — 53. Afra avis. " The Gainea fowl." Some 
oommentators suppose the turkey to be here meant, but erroneously, since 
ttiis bird was entirely unknown to the ancients, its native country ii 
America. On the other hand, the Guinea fowl [Numida meleagris) was 
a bird well known to the Greeks and Romans. — 54. Attagen lonicus. 
"The Ionian attagen." A species, probably, of heath-cock. Alexander 
liie Myndian {AtheMBus^ ix., 99, vol. iii., p 431, ed. Schweigh.) describes it 
M being a little larger than a partridge, having its back marked with 
numerous spots, in color approaching that of a tile, though somewhat more 
reddish. Mr. Walpole thinks it is the same with the Tetrao Francolinus 
{ Walpole' s Collect.^ vol. i., p 262, in ttolis.) 

57-67. 57. Herba lapathi. The lapalhum^ a species of sorrel, takes its 
name {Xuizadov) from its medicinal properties (^a7raC<>>, purgo). — 58. McU- 
vm. Compare note on Odei.^ 31, 16. — 59. Terminalibiis. The Termina- 
ka, or festival of Terminus, the god of boundaries, were celebrated on the 
23d of February (7th day before the calends of March). — 60. Hadus ercp- 
tu8 Ivpo. Compare the explanation of Gesner: **Adfrugaiit€Uem rus- 
tieam refcrtur. Non maelaturus paUrfamUiaa hadum integrum^ epultt- 
tur ereptum lupo, ct alioqui periturum** — 65. Potito.-que vemaSf &c. 
** And the slaves ranged around the shining Lares, the pitx)f of a wealthy 
mansion," t. e., ranged around the bright fire on the domestic hearth. The 
epithet renidentes is well explained by Doring: ** Ignis infoeo accenst 
tplendore re/ulgenles." — 67. H<bc ubi locutus^ &c. "When the usurer 
Alphius liad uttered these words, on the point of becoming an inhabitant 
of the country, he called in all his money on the ides — on the calends (of 
the ensuing month) he seeks again to lay it out!" The usurer, convinced 
of the superior felicity which a country life can bestuw, calls in all his out- 
standing capita' for the purpose of purchasing a farm ; bnt when the ca- 
lends of the next month arrive, and bring with them the usual period for 
laying out money at interest, his old habits of gain return, the picture 
which he has just drawn fades rapidly from before his view, and the in* 
tended cultivator of the soil becomes once more the usurer Alpbius 
Among the Romans, the calends and ides were the two periods of the 
month when money was either laid out at interest or called in. As the 
interest of money was usually paid on the calends, they are hence called 
fristes {S&rm.^ i., 3, 87) and celeres {Ovid, Rem. Am., 561), and a book ia 
which the sums demanded were marked, was termed Calendarium 
[&ineet Bcnef., i., 2, and vii., 10. Id., Ep., xiv , 87.) 



Bpode III. Maecenas had invited Horace lo sup with him, and had 
•yortively placed amid the more exquisite viands a dish highly seasoned 
with garlic (morelum alliatum. Compare Donalus, ad Terent. Pliorm,, 
ii« 2). Of this the poet partook, but Iiaving suffered severely in cxinse 
QiMncA, he here wreaks h's vengeance oatbc offending plant desriihins 



898 BXPLANATORY N01E9. EPODR IV. 

Ik as a sufflcisnt punishment for tlie blackest crimesi and as fonoing OM 
:>f the deadliest ol poisons. 

1-17. 1. OUm ••Hereafter." — 3. Edit cic-^tis, dec. "Let him eni 
garlic, more noxi^as than hemlock." The poet recommends garlic as i 
panishment, instead of hemlock, the usual potion among the Athenians. 
Edit is given for edaf, according to the ancient mode of inflecting, e<2iif» 
edist edit ; like sm, «zs, sit. This form is adopted in all the best editions 
The common reading is edat. — 4. O dura mesxonim ilia. Garlic and wil j 
thyme {sirpyllum)^ pounded together, wero used by the Roman farm«^n 
lo recruit the exhausted spirits of the reapers, and those who had labored 
in the heat. The poet expresses his surprise at their being able to endure 
fach food. — 5. Quid hoc vetieni, &c. *' What poison is this that rages is 
my vitdls ?" — 6. Viperimis cruor. The blood of vipers was regarded by 
the ancients as a most fatal poison. — 7. Fefellit. In the sense oSlatuit. 
-—An malas Canidia^ &c. " Or did Canidia dress the deadly dish V 
Canidia, a reputed sorceress, ridiculed by the poet in the fifth epode. 
Compare the Introductory Remarks to that piece. — 9. Ut. "When." — 
11. Ignota tauris, &,c. An hypallage for ignotis tauros illigaturumjugis. 
An allusion to the fire-breathing bulls that were to be yoked by Jasoo ai 
one of the conditions of his obtaining from ^etes the golden fleece. — 12. 
Perunxit hoc lasonem. Medea gave Jason an unguent, with which he 
was to anoint his person, and by the virtues of which he was to be safe 
from harm. The poet pleasantly asserts that this was noneH)ther than the 
juice of garlic. — 13. Hoc delibutis^ &c. " By presents infected with this 
having taken vengeance on her rival, she fled away on a winged serpent." 
Alluding to the fate of Creusa, or Glauce, the daughter of Creon, and tliQ 
flight of Medea through the air in a car drawn by winged serpents. — 15. 
Nee tantus unquam^ &c. " Nor hath such scorching heat from the stars 
ever settled on thirsty Apulia." The allusion is to the supposed influence 
of the dog-star in increasing the summer heats. — 17. Nee munvs humeris, 
&c. " Nor did the fatal gift bum with more fury on the shoulders of the 
indefatigable Hercules." The reference is to the poisoned garment whidi 
Dejanira sent to Hercules, and which had been dipped in the blood of tha 
centaur Nessus, slain by one of the arrows of Hercules. 



Epode IV. Addressed to some individual who had risen, amid the 
troubles of the civil war. from the condition of a slave to the rank of mili* 
tary tribune and to the possession of riches, but whose corrupt morals and 
intolerable insolence had made him an object of universal detestation. 
The bard indignantly laments that such a man should be enabled to dia* 
play himself proudly along the Sacred Way, should be the owner of ex- 
tensive possessions, and should, by his rank as tribune, have it in his 
power to sit among the equites at the public spectacles, in advance of the 
est of the people. The scholiasts Acron and Porphyrion make this epode 
Id have been written against Menas, the freedman of Pompey, an opinion 
adopted by the earlier commentators. In most MSS., too, it is inscribed 
to hiin. The more recent editors, however, have rejected this supposi 
lioE, and vfith perfect propriety. We read nowhere else of Menas's hav 
tng obtained the office of military tribune, nor of any aervile punishment* 
which he had undergone itl a peculiar d<>gree while still in a state of tint 



£Xf LAVATORY NOTES. EPODE IV. 39B 

ecy, neithc* is any mentien made here of that perfidy and freqaenl chang 
ing of sides which formed so great a blot ia the character of this iudivid 
aaL Cousalt note on Ode iii., 16, 1 3. 

l-&. 1. Lvpis et agnis, &c. "There is as strong an aversion on luj 
part toward thee* O thou whose back has been galled by the Ibcriaa 
lash, and whose legs have been lacerated by the hard fetter, as falls by 
nature to the lot of wolves and lambs." — 3. Ibericis funibvs. Alluding to 
a lash coipposed of ropes made of the spartuniy or Spau^ah broom. Thin 
plant grew in great abundance near Carthago Nova, on th6 coast of Spain. 
—4, Dura compede. Among the llomans, the worst kind of slaves were 
flompelled to work in fetters, as well in the ergastulum^ or work-house, as 
in the fields.— r7. Sacram metiente te via'm.. "As thou struttest proudly 
alung the Sacred Way." The term metitnit ivell describes the affected 
dignity of the worthless upstart, in his n^easuring, as it were, his very 
steps. — ^Sacram viam. The Sacred Way was a general place of resort 
for the idle, and for those who wished to display themselves to public 
riew. Compare Sat.^ i., 9, 1. — 8. Cum bis tnum ulnarum toga. The 
wealthy and luxurious were fond of tippearing abroad in long and loose 
gowns, as a mark of their opulence and rank.---9. Ut ora verlat^ Ac. 
* How the indignation of those who pass to and fro, most openly express- 
ed, tarns their looks on thee." 

11-20. 11. Sectiis fiagellis^ Ac. " This wretch, (say they), cut with thtj 
pods of the triumvirs until the beadle was weary," Ac. The allusion i» 
to the Tnumviri CapitaJes, who judged concerning slaves and persons of 
the lowest rank, and who also had the charge of the prison and of the ex 
ecution of condemned criminals. The prtsco used to proclaim the offence, 
and the sentence passed upon it, while that sentence was being inflicted 
-«-13. Arai. In the sense oipossidet. — Falcrni fundi. The wealthy Ro 
mans were accustomed to have large possessions in the fertile territor^f 
of Campania, which is here designated by the name of its celebrated vine 
yards. — 14. Et Appiam mannis tent. " And wears out the very Appian 
Way with his horses," i. c, is constantly frequenting the Appian Way with 
his long train of equipage. The Appian Way led first to Capua, and after 
ward to Brundisium. It was commenced by Appius Claudius Cuecus. in 
his censorship, B.C. 312, and carried on to Capua. The part from Capua 
to Brundisium was begun by the consul Appius Claudius Pulcher, grand* 
■on of Caecus, B.C. 249, and was completed by another consul of the same 
family thirty-six years after. — 15. Sedilibusquc magnust &c. According 
Ut the law of L. Roscius Otho, passed A.U.C. 686, fourteen rows of benches, . 
immediately after the orchestra, a place where the senate sat, were ap^ 
propriated in the theatre and amphitheatre for the accommodation of the 
knights. As the tribunes of the soldiers had an equal right with the 
oqaites, they were entitled to seats in this same quarter; and hence the 
(niliridual to whom the poet alludes, though of servile origin, boldly takes 
hif place on the foremost of the equestrian benches, nor fears the law of 
Otb?. — 17. Quid attintt, dec. " To what purpose is it that so many ve» 
■elf, their beaks armed with heavy brass, are sent against pirates and a 
banl of slaves, if this wretch is made a military tribune ?" The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is as follows : Why go to so much expense ic 
cf,r.ippim? fleets against pirates at i slaves, when slaves at home elevKt*-' 



400 EXPLANtTORY NOTES. EFODE V. 

fihemselvea to the bighesw stations 7 The allasion appears to be to tb« 
armament fitted oat by Octavianas (Aagnstns) against Sextiis Pompeiaa, 
A.U.C. 718, whose principal strength consisted of. pirates and fagitir^ 
fiayes. — 20. TribuTio militum. In each legion there were six mU^tary 
tribunes, each of whom in battle seems to have had charge of ten ce» 
caries, which, when fall, would amoant to a thousand men : hence the 
pfiuding Greek appellatioa is x^'^'-^PX'li' 



Bpode V. T)" e bard ridicules Canidia, who, herself advanced in yev% 
was seeking by incantatiors and charms to regain the affections of the old 
and foolish Var as. A straage scene of magic rites is introduced, and the 
)iece opens with the piteous exclamations of a boy of noble birth, whom 
ysnidia and hf>r associate hags are preparing to kill by a slow and dread- 
ful process, and from whose marrow and dried liver a philter or love- 
potion is to be prepared, all-powerful for recalling the inconstant Varua 
It will bo raadily perceived that the greater part of this is mere fiction, 
and that tlic real object of the poet is to inflict well-merited chastisement 
on those females of the day, in whose licentious habits age had been able 
to prcdcce no alteration, and who, when their beauty bad departed, had 
Tecoorse to strange and superstitious expedients for securing admirers. 

1 -24. 1. At^ O deorum, &c. The scene opens, as we have already re- 
marked, with the supplications of a boy, who is supposed to be surround- 
ed by the hags, and who reads their purpose in their looks. He conjures 
them to have compassion on him by the tenderness of mothers for their 
children, by his birth, and by the justice of the gods. — 4. Truces. " Fierce- 
ly turned." — 5. Partubus veris. Alluding to the frequent stealing of in 
/ants on the part of these hags. — 7. Per hoc inane, &c. '• By this vain or- 
nament of purple." Young men of family wore a gown bordered with 
purple, called the to^a pratexta, until the age of seventeen, when they 
put on the toga virUis. The epithet inane expresses the disregard of 
Oanidia for this emblem of rank.- -9. Aut uti petita^ &c. " Or like a savagt* 
^easfc of prey wounded by the dart." — 11. UL hccc trewnte, &c. " When 
the boy, after having uttered these complaints with trembling lips, stooo 
among them, with his ornaments stripped off, a tender body," &c. Undet 
the term insignia, the poet includes both the toga prcBtexfa and the buUa- 
This latter was a golden ball or boss, which hung from the neck on the 
breast, as some think in the shape of a heart, but, according to others, 
•X)und, with the figure of a heart engraved on it. The sons of freedmen 
and of poorer citizens used only a leathern boss. — 15. Canidia, brevi/mi 
implicata, &c. "Then Ganidia, having entwined hor locks and dishevel- 
led head with small vipers," &c. The costume most commonly assigned 
to the furies is here imitated. — 17. Jubet sepulcris, &c. Preparations are 
now made for the unhallowed rites ; and first, the wood to be used %}r the 
Ire must be that of the wild fig-tree, torn up from a burying-place. The 
Wi.od supposed to be employed on such occas'ons w as always that of pomfl 
JDauspicious or ill-omened tree, and in this class the wild fig-tree was par- 
ticularly ranked, both on account of its sterility, and its springing up spon- 
taneously among tombs. — 18. Cupressusfunebres. " Funereal cypresses.*^ 
Consalt note on Ode ii., 14, 23. — 19. Et uncta turpis ova rana sanguinm 
^0 The order of construction is as follows: FJ ova noctumo) striin* 



^--, 



BXPLANAl'ORY NOTES. EPODE V. 401 

mmcta sangiit^e turpia rarue, plumamque nocturnes strigiB. "And the 
eggs, smeared with the blood of a loathsome toad, and the plumage of a 
midnight screech-owl." The ancients believed the blood of the toad, like 
..nat of the viper, to be poisonoas. — 21. lolcos. A city of Thessaly, all 
which country was famed for producing herbs used in magic rites. lolcoi 
was situate, according to Pindar (Nem^ iv., 87), a^* the foot of Mount Pelion, 
and was the birth-place of Jason and his ancestors. — Iberia, A tract of 
country bordering upon, and situate to the east of Colchis. The allasloa 
li consequently to the same herbs in the use of which Medea is reputed 
Id have been so skillful. — 24. Flammia aduri Colckicit. ** To be conco'A- 
•d with magic fires." The epithet Colckicit is here equivalent to inag%2k§ 
i. «., such fires as the Colchian Medea was wont to kindle, from the wood 
tf baleful trees, for the performance of her magic rites. 

25-39. 25. Expedita. "With her robe tucked up." The term may 
•lao be simply rendered " active." Consult note on Epode i., 34. — Sch 
gana, Sagana, Veia, and Folia were sorceresses attendant on Canidia. 
— 26. Avemalei aquas. Waters brought from the Lake Avernus, one of 
the fabled entrances to the lower world, and used here for the purposes 
of magic lustration. — 27. Marintu echinus. ** A sea-urchin." The sea- 
urchin among fishes is analogous to the hedgehog among land animals, 
and hence the name echintts (ix^^og) applied by the ancients to botb. 
The sea-urchin, however, has finer and sharper prickles than the other, 
resembling more human hair in a bristly state. — ^28. iMurens apcr. The 
marshes of Laurentum, in ancient Latium, were famous for the number 
and size of the wild boars which they bred in their reedy pastures. — 
5^9. Abacta nulla conscienlia. ** Deterred by no remorse." — 30. Humum 
exhauriehat. " Began to dig a pit."— 32. Quo posset infossus puer^ &c. 
** In whidi the boy, having his body buried, might pine away in full view 
of food changed twice or thrice during the long day." The expression 
longo die is well explained by Mitscherlich : ** Qui puero fame excruciate 
'longissimus videbalur.'* — 35. Quum promineret ore, &c. "Projecting 
with his face above the surface of the ground, as far as bodies suspended 
by the chin are out of the water," i. e., as far as the persons of those who 
swim appear above the level of the water. — 37. Exsucca medulla. *' Hii 
marrow destitute of xcoisture." — 38. Amoris essel poculum. " Might form 
the ingredients of a potion for love." A philter, which had the power of 
producing love. — 39. Interminato quum semel, &c. " When once his eye 
balls had withered away, fixed steadily on the forbidden food." Quum 

»emel is here equivalent to simul ac. 

» 

41-60. 41. Hie irresectum, &c. Tho long, uncut nail occupies a prom- 
(nent place in the costume of the ancient sorceresses. — 43. Quid dixUt 
avi qui I tacuit ? Equivalent in spirit to Nefaria quaque effata el palam 
ptofessa est. — 45. Nox et Diana. Canidia, after the manner of sorceress- 
es, invokes Night and Hecate who were supposed to preside over magio 
rites. — Qua silentium regis. An allusion to Diana's shining during the 
filence of the night, the season best adapted for the ceremonies of magic 
—47. Nunc, nunc adeste, &c. Mitscherlich makes this an imitation of an 
old form of prayer, and equivalent to '^Miki propUiai sitis, ira vestra in 
kostes oHigata." The scholiast is wrcng in supposing the meaning of 
tbe latter part to lie " in Varim tram vestram ^tndite"-^^ Numen 



iU3 BXrLAKATORY NOTES. EPODE V. 

"Pui^rer." ~.M. Sejiem^ quod omnes sideant^ kc. "May the dogi of tl'if 
B'lbura drive him hither with their barking, that all may laagh at his e.« 
pense, tae aged profligate, anointed with an essence more powerful than 
any which my hands have hitherto prepared." — Senem adulterum. Th« 
allusion is to Varus, and the manner in which he is here indicated by Ca- 
iiidia tends indirectly to cast ridicule upon herself for seeking to reclaia 
■urh an admirer. — 52. Suhvrana canes. The Sabura was the most profli 
gate quarter of Rome, and the rambles of Varus, therefore, in this part ci 
tfie capi':al, were any thing else but creditable. — 53. Nardu perunctum. 
The allusion here is an ironical one. Canidia does not refer to any actual 
onguent of her own preparing, but to the virtues of the magic herbs, whidi 
are to be all-powerful in recalling the inconstant Varus. — 55. Quid acci 
ditt &c. The dash at the end of the preceding verse is placed there to de 
note that Canidia, after having proceeded thus far with her incantations, 
pauses in expectation of the arrival of Varus, which is to be their intended 
result. When this, however, is delayed longer than she imagined it 
would be, the sorceress resumes her spell : " What has happened ? Why 
are my direful drugs leas poweiful than those of the barbarian Medea V 
i. e., why have these once efficacious spells lost all their power in bring- 
ing back the absent Varus ? — Barbara. This epithet, here applied to 
Medea, in imitation of the Orcck usage, ia intended merely to designate 
her as a native of a foreign land, i. e., Colchis. — 57. Quilms superbamfugit, 
<Stc. Consult note on £[/7o^ iii., 1 3. — 59. Tabo. Equivalent to t;£neito. — 
60. Incendio abstulit. Compare the graphic picture drawn by Euripides 
[Med.f 1183, seqq.) of the unearthly fires which consumed the unfortunate 
rival of Medea. 

61-79. 61. iSjtb hcec. "Upon this.' - -62. Lenire. "Attempted to move. ' 
The infinitive is here put for the imperfect of the indicative. This con- 
straction is usually explained by an ellipsis of ccepit or cceperunt, which 
may often be supplied ; in other cases, however, it will not accord with 
the sense. In the present instance, teniavil may be understood. There 
appears to be some analogy between this usage of the infinitive in Latin, 
and the idiom of the Greek, by which the same mood, taken as an abso 
lute verbal idea only, is made to stand for the imperative. — 63. Uvde 
" In what words." The unhappy boy is at a loss in what words to ex- 
press his angry and indignant feelings at the horrid rites practiced by the 
hags, and at the still more horrid cruelty which they meditate toward him- 
self. — 64. Thyesteas preces. " Imprecations." Such as Thyestes uttered 
against Atreus. — 65. Venena magica, &c. " Drugs, of magic influence, 
may confound, indeed, the distinctions bet\yeen right and wrong, but they 
dan not alter the destiny of mortals." The idea intended to be convoyed 
if this : The spells uf the sorceress may succeed in accomplishing the 
darkest of crimes, but they can not avert the punishment which such of- 
fences will inevitably receive. — 67. Dh'is agam von. " With my curses 
will I pursue you." After diris understand precibus. — 70. Nocturnus oe 
eurram furor. " 1 will haunt you as a tormentor in the night season."— 
72. Qute zis deorum, &c. "Such is tl o power of those divinities the Ma- 
les.'' The ellipsis is to be supplied as follows : "£a vi quce vis est," &,o 
»— 75. Vicatim. " From street to street." — 76. Obscetias anus. " Filthj 
hags" — 77. Different. "Shall tear." — 78. Esquilincs alites. The birdi 
'if pre} frequented the Esqoilme quarter, because here the bodius of xta.^ 



^_L 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. £rODE VI. 4IM 

fcfactons were left exposed, and here, also, the poor and slaves were in- 
terred. Sabseqaently, however, the chara3ter of the place was entirely 
changed by the splendid residence and gardens of Maecenas. Consult 
note on Ode iii., 29, 10. — 79. Negue hoc parentes, &c. The boy's last 
thoughts, observes Francis, are tenderly employed in reflecting upon tba 
grief of his parents ; yet he seems to comfort them, and at the same time 
to confirm the truth of his prediction, by that oonsolation which they sK«U 
Vaceive in the death of these sorceresses. 



Bpode VI. Addressed tu a cowardly and mercenary slanderer. It la 
commonly thought that this piece was written against Cassius Severua, 
and, in many editions, it appears with an inscription to this effect. Sacb 
a supposition, however, is perfectly gratuitous. It is probable that the 
title in question originated with some scholiast, who, having read in Taci- 
tus [Ann., i., 72, and iv., 21) of the licentious spirit and defamatory pen (if 
Cassius Severus, erroneously imagined him to be the one whom the pot.1 
nere attacks. 

1-14, 1. Quid immerentest &.c. "Thou cur, why, being cowardly 
against wolves, dost thou snarl at inoffensive strangers V By the term 
iotpilcs are here meant those who are entirely unknown to the individ- 
ual, but whom he, notwithstanding, makes the subjects of his envenomeu 
attacks. — 3. Inanes. As proceeding from a cowardly and spiritless cur. 
—4. Remorsurum. " Who am ready to bite in return." — 5. Molossus, aut 
fulvus Lacon. "A Molossian, or a tawny Laconian dog." The Molos- 
sian and Laconian dogs were of a robust make, aud valuable as well in 
hunting wild beasts as in defending the flocks from nocturnal thieves and 
from the attacks of wolves. TraveUers still describe the dogs in this quar 
ter as remarkable for size and extremely fierce. The Molossi occupied 
the northeastern part of Epirus. — 6. Arnica vis. " A friendly aid." — 7. 
Agam qutBcunque prcBcedet fera. " I will pursue whatever savage beast 
shall go before me." — 10. Projectum odoraris cibum, "Smell at the food 
thrown to thee." A figurative mode of expressing that the individual 
whom he attacks was easily bribed to silence. — 12. Parata tollo comua. 
The poet alludes to his iambics, with which he stands prepared to assail 
all evil-doers, as the ball is ready with its horns against every one who 
provokes it to the attack. — 13. Qualis Lycamb^By &c. " Like him who was 
rejected as a son-inlaw by the faithless Lycambes, or like the fierce en^ 
emy of Bupalus." Lycambas is the dative, by a Grascism, for the abla* 
tive, and, by another Grsecism, Bupalo^ the dative, is put for Bupali.-" 
LyeambtE. The allusion is to Archilochus. Lycambes had promised him 
bit daughter Neobule in marriage, but afterward changed his mind and 
gave her to another. Archilochus, in revenge, wrote a poem against him, 
in iambic verse, so cruelly satirical that both father and daughter hung 
ttiemselves in despair. Such, at least, is the common account. It would 
feem, however, from some authorities, that Neobule killed herself, loI 
an account of the verses of Archilochus, but through despair at the bat 
df her father (Compare SchoeU^ Hist. Lit. Gract vol. i., p. 1&9.) — 14 
Bupalo. The allusion is fo the poet Hipponax, and the brothers Baja^Qi 
9jA Antbermns. 



434 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODB IX. 

£poDE Vll Afler tiie overtlirow of Sextna Pompcias, the repabNt 
•eomed once more destined to taste of repose. The respite, howevec; 
WMM of shcrt duration, and the enmity of Octavianns and Antcny soon re* 
kindled the flames of war. It was about this period that the present 
poem was written. The bard mourns over the intestine divisiocs of hii 
eooutrymen, and baputes the horrors of the civil wars to the evil destlnj 
entailed npcn the Romans by the blood of Remus. 

1-20. 1. Scdesti. *' Stained with guilt." An allusion to the guilt and 
loodslied of the civil wars. — 2. Conditi. " So lately sheathed." Under- 
stand vaginU. The poet refers to the short period of repose which ensued 
after the overthrow of Sextus Pompeius. Compare Introductory Remarks. 
—3. Campis atque Neptuno super. " On the fields .and on the ocean." 
Equivalent to terra marique. Compare Ode ii , 1, 29.-5. Non ut super- 
bus, &c. The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows : These swords 
are not drawn against the enemies of our country, as they wero in formet 
dnys against haughty Carthage, and as they now should be against the 
Britons, still bidding defiance to our arms : they are to be turned upon 
ourselves, they are to enter our own bosoms, in order that the wishes 
o( the Parthians, of our bitterest foes, may be accomplished, and that 
Rome may fall in ruins by the hands of her sons. — 7. Ititactus. ** Still 
unsubdued." — Descenderet Sacra catenatus via. "Might descend in 
chains along the Sacred Way," i. «., might be led in triumph through the 
streets of the capital, and, after this, be consigned to imprisonment and 
death. In the celebration of the triumph, the Roman general, when he 
reached the spot where now is the Arch of Severus, and before he as- 
cended the Capitoline Hill, gave the signal to conduct the captive kings 
and leaders of the enemy to prison, and there put them to death. — 11. 
Hie mos, "This custom" of raging against their own species. — Puit. 
The aorist, in the sense of deprdienditur^ " is found." — 12. Nunqvam 
nisi in dispar fei-is. "Which are never cruel except toward animals 
of a different kind." — 13. Vis acrior. " Some superior power," i. g., that 
of destiny. — 14. Culpa. "The guilt of your forefathers, entailed upon 
their offspring." The allusion is to the guilt of Romulus, which is to be 
atoned for by posterity. — 15. Pallor albus. " A deadly paleness." Con 
suit note on Ode iii., 10, 14. — 16. Mentesque perculsas stvpent. "And their 
conscience-stricken minds are stupefied." — 17. Sic est^ &,c. After a pa* 
thetic pause, as Sanadon remarks, Horace adheres to the last two causes 
he had mentioned. He therefore imputes the civil wars to the destinies 
and to the death of Remus, as if the destinies had condemned the Ro- 
mans to expiate the fratricide of that prince by destroying one another 
with their own arms. This was going very far back in order to remove 
*lie idea of the real canse of their present calamities. — Agunt. " Harass." 
—18. Scelusqu^ fraiern<B necis. The guilt of Romulus in slaying hii 
biotlier Remus. — 19. Ut. "Ever since." — 20. Sacer nepotibus. "Ac- 
enrsed for posterity," t. e., fatal to them. Compare the explanation of the 
scholiast, as cited by Zeune : " Quem suo cruore expiaturi erant* 



n 



Epot>e IX Written when the news of the victory at Acticm was tirM 
received at Roma. The bard addresses his patron, then at the sceno a 
tction 



EXfLANATORf NOTES. EFODE IX. 40b 

1 ' i5. 1. RepoJitum Caeuhum adfestas dopes. *< GsBCuban wine, itoie^ 
«way for joyous feuts,'* i. e., put away in some inner and secret crypt, 
and porposeiy preserved foe some joyous occasion. Consult note on Odt 
i., 20, 9.-3. Sub alia domo, ** Beneath thy stately abode." Consult not« 
on Ode iii., 29, 10. — Sic Jovi gratum. " Bo is it pleasing to Jove," i, e^ 
in doing th:8, we shall be performing an act agreeable to Jove, the guard 
lan of our empire. — 4. Beate. This epithet has reference to the opulence 
of Maecenas, to his loflv abode on the Esquiline {alta domus)^ his bcautifd 
g^ardens, &c. — 5. Sonante mixium tibiis^ &.C. " Wliile the lyre sondi 
Ajrth a strain intermingled with the music of flutes, that uttering the Uo' 
rian, these the Phr^'gian mood." With hac undersvapd sonante ; with 
illiSf sonantibus. The m::sic of the lyre and the flute are to succeed each 
Dther alternately : the strains of the former are jo be grave and severe 
fuch being the character of the Dorian mood ; the music of the flates, oc 
the other hand, is to be jf a wild and bacchic character, in accordance 
with the Phr^'gian mood. Donkin, in explanation of this passage, remarks 
as follows : ** If the ancient Dorian and Lydian octave were employed, 
the former being of the fourth species, while the latter was of the second, 
and pitched two tones higher, the series of intervals heard would consia' 
of fourths and major thirds, or rather double tones." — 7. Actus cum freto 
Neptunius dux. " When the Neptunian chief, driven from the Sicilian 
strait." The allusion is to Sextus Pompeius, who boastingly styled him 
self the son of Neptune, because his father had once held the command 
of the sea. Agrippa, m B.C. 36, defeated him off the northern coast of 
Sicily, olFMylae, and again ofi'Naulochus. — 10. Servis amicus perfidis. Ao- 
tording to Dio Cassius (xlviii., 19), the number of fugitive slaves who went 
Dver to Pompeius was so great, that the Vestal Virgins were accustom- 
ed, during the performance of sacred rites, to offer up prayers for a ces- 
sation of this evil. — 11. Romanus^ The allusion is to the Romans in the 
army of Antony. — 12. Em^ancipcUus femina. "Subjected as a voluntary 
slave to a woman." The reference is to Cleopatra. — 13. Fert vallum et 
arma miles, &c. " Bears the stake and arms as a soldier, and can yield 
obedience to withered eunuchs." The poet expresses his indignation 
that Romans, hardy enough to endure the toils of military service, can, at 
the same time, be so wanting in spirit as to yield obedience to the orders 
of eunuchs. The allusion, in the words /er^ vallum^ is to that part of Ro- 
man discipline which compelled each soldier to carry, among other things, 
a certain number of stakes (usually three or four) to be used in encamp- 
ing. — Spadonihus. The allusion seems to be principally to the eunuoh 
Mardlon, who, according to Plutarch, along with Pothinus, Iras, and Char- 
mion, had the chief direction of Cleopatra's aflairs (v0' uv tu fityiara 
iioiKelrai T^f Tjyeftovlag. Plut., Vit. Ant., c. Ix., vol. vi., p. 132, ed. Hni- 
ten). — 15. Turpe conopium. " A vile Egyptian canopy." The eonopium 
was a canopy, curtain, or veil of nut-work, used for the purpose of keep- 
ing off gnats and flies. It was principally employed by the Eg^'ptiazis 
on account of the great number of these insects produced by the marshes 
of the Nile. The scholiast, in his explanation of the term, furnishes us 
with its etymology : ** Genus retis ad muscas et culices {KUfiniraf;) abi 
gendos, quo Alexandrini potissimum utnntur pt Dpter culicum illic abun 
dantiam." To a genuine Roman spirit the use of sv h an article appev 
8fl degT'i'^g effeminacy. 



106 EXi jANATORY notes.-— SPOOE 1a. . 

17-Q2. ^7. Ad hoc frementes^ &c. "ladigoant at this apectm;Je« cw« 
thousand Gaols tamed about their steeds, bidding Caesar hail.'' The poet 
dvidenUy alludes to the defection of Deiotaras and Amyntas, two leaders 
3f the Oallo-Onecians, or Oalatians, ivho went over to Angustas a shon 
time previous to the battle of Actium. In the motive, however, whicli 
Horace assigns for this step, there is more of bitter sarcasm than histori 
sal truth. — Verlerant. The penult is here shortened by systole, as it is 
called.^-~19. Hotliliumque nxvium portu latent^ &c. ** And the Eterns of 
hostile ships, impelled toward the Icflt, lie concealed in the harbor." Id 
order to understand clearly this somewhat obscure passage, we most beai 
in mind that the present piece was written before any very definite par- 
ticulars respecting the battle of Actiom had reached the capital. The 
poet, therefore, exercises some licence on the occasion, and supposes 
that a division of Antony's fleet, equally indignant with the Gallic horse- 
men, retired from the fight into the harbor, and, in order that their defec- 
tion might be less apparent, rowed their vessels astern, or impelled them 
{nto the harbor stem foremost. (Compare the Qreek expression Trpvfivav 
KpoxfoaaOai, and Valckenaerj ad Herodot.^ vili., 84.) In executing this 
fvovement they would have necessarily to move toward the left, as Anto- 
ny's fleet was drawn up on the right and facing Italy. — 21. lo Triumphe f 
&c. The poet, personifying Triumph, addresses it as a god, and complains 
of its tardy approach. The idea intended to be conveyed by the whole 
passage from the present line to the 26th, both inclusive, is simply as fol 
ows : When shall we celebrate the triumph due to this most glorious 
victory, a triumph to be ranked far before both that of Marius over Ju- 
^urtha, and that of Scipio for the overthrow of Carthage ? — Aureos currus. 
Alluding to the triumphal chariot, which was wont to be adorned with 
gl^old and ivory. — 22. Intactaa boves. The Roman triumphs always ended 
with a sacrifice to Jove, and the victims, as in every other offering to the 
gods, were to be such as had never felt the yoke. With intactas^ thero 
fore, we must understand ^'wg-o. 

23-38. 23. Nee Jugurthino parem, &c "Thou didst neither bring 
back a leader equal to him from the war of Jiigurtha, nor Africanns, unto 
whom valor reared a monument upon the rains of Carthage," i. c, Marius 
di 1 not return with equal glory from the subjugation of Jugurtha, nor the 
younger Africanus from the destruction of Carthage. — 27. Punico lugubn 
mutavit sagum. " Has changed his purple robe for one of mourning." 
An hypallage for mntavit Punicum sagum lugubri sago. The Romao 
fagnm was properly a military robe : here, however, the term is taken 
in a more extended sense. The allusion in the text is to Antony, and the 
apithet Punico may either refer simply to the color of his paludamcntHm, 
or general s robe, or else, what appears preferable, may contain a general 
censure on the previous luxury and splendor of his attire.-— 29. Aut ilh 
eeTUutn nobilenit &c. This passage would seem to confirm the truth of the 
remark made in a previous note {v. 19), that nc accurate accounts had as 
yet reached the capital either respecting the details of the fight itself or 
the ulterior movements of Antony.— 30. Ventis non suis. "With unp.'o. 
pitious winds." — 31. Exercitalas Noto. "Agitated by the blast of the 
South." As regards the Syrtes, consult note on Ode i., 7, 22. — 32. Incerto 
man. "In dcubtful course ever the sea," i. e., as if not knowing wliere 
to ano*'^.— 33. Cajpadores offer huc^ Ac. The joy of Horace was toe 



EXPLANAIORY NOTES. EPOOE X. 407 

lively, as Dacier remarks, to wait the return of MseceDas Ho calebratet 
the victory the moment he receives the news, and ho thinks his appro* 
hensions for the safety of Octavianns ought now to cease, for it was not 
known at Rome that he intended to complete his ccnqnest by pursuing 
Antony, and exposing himself to new dangers. — 35. Flnentem Jiauseam^. 
"The rising qualm." — 37. Rerum. "For the interests." — 38. Lycso, Coo 
salt note on Ode i., 22, 4. 



Epode X. Addressed to Meevius, a contemptible poet of the day, wfaa 
was on the eve of embarking for Greece. The bard prays heartily thil 
he may be shipwrecked, and vows a sacrifice to the storms if they will 
but destroy him. This Moevius is the same with the one to whom Virgil 
satirically alludes in his third Eclogue {v. 90) : " Qui Bavium non odit, 
amet tva carmina^ Meeui." He would seem to have incurred the resent- 
ment of both Virgil and Horace by his railing and slanderous propensities. 

1-24. 1. Mala solutay &c. " The vessel, loosened from her moorings, 
sails forth under evil auspices, bearing as she does the fetid Moevius."— 
2. Olentem. Compare the explanation of Mitscherlich : " Hircini adcris 
kaminem.'* Rutgersius {Led. Vcnus.^ x., 10)