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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



FROM THE GIFT OF 

JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN 

{CLAS9 OF 1SS9) 
OF NEW YORK 



o 

THE 



WORKS OF HORACE 



WITH 



ENGLISH NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY. 



BY CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., 

I>ROl<,KS8(^ OF TIIR QBBKK AND LATIN LAMGUA0K8 IN OOLUMBIA OOLLK01| 
AND BECTTOR OF TUB GUAMMAB BOUOOL. 



A NEW EDITION. 

OORRBCTED AND ENLARGED, WITH EXCURSIONS RELATIVE TO TIIB 
WINES AND VINEYARDS OP THE ANCIENTS; AND K 
LIFE OF UORACB BY M1LMAN. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER 、& BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS. 
FRANKLIN SQUARE. 



1897. 



Harvard OoHe^e Library 
Gift of J. P, Morgan 
March 17,1920 , 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eigbt hundred 

and forty-nine, by 

HARPER & BHOTHEBS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York. 



〃ff 



0/ 



TO THE MEMORY OF 



MY OLD AND VALUED FRIEND, 

JAMES CAMPBELL, ESQ., 

WHO 

AMID TIIE BURDENSOME DUTIES OF AN OFFICIAL STATKWK 
COULD STILL FIND LEISURE TO GRATIFY A PUKE AND 
CULTIVATED TASTE, BY REVIVING THF 
STUDIES OP HIS EARLIER TEABS. 



i 



PREFACE. 



The text cf the present edition has been oorreoted 
throughout, principally by that of Orelli, and the notes 
have been carefully revised and emended. Much ad- 
ditional matter has also been iniroiluoed, iiut only in 
the shape of new notes, but also of Excursions. Tho 
latter have been taken from the larger edition, and will 
oe found to contain much interesting- information re- 
Bpecting the vineyards and wines of the ancients 
Milman's Life of Horace has also ^been appended, 
from the splendid edition of the poet, which has re- 
cently appeared under the supervision of that scholar, 
and likewise a biographical sketch of Maecenas. 

The larger edition contained a list of the authori- 
ties whence much subsidiary matter was obtained for 
the notes. This list was omitted in the previous edi- 
tion of the smaller work, as the latter professed to be 
a mere abridgment, and as it was at that time the in- 
tention of the editor to publish a new edition of the 
larger Horace. This intention being, however, now 
abandoned, it has been thought advisable to tiansfor 
the list of authorities from the larger edition to tho 
present one, the last thirteen works enumerated there- 
in being those from which materials have been more 
immediately obtained for the imprcvement of the pres- 
ent volume. The list is as follows : 



Vlll 



PREI ACK 





f ^oratiits. cum A nnntatiniiiti us \l a 










reti 9 . . . . 


Venet. 


15; &. 




♦ • 


HorAtii Oiiorn f3 ram mntimru m X L. 










Commeutariis • • • • 


Basil, 


1580 




a 


Horatii Opera, ed. Bentleiua • . 


Cantab. 


1711. 






Horatii PofiniQta. ed. Cuiiiiiuumius . 


London. 


1721. 


2 irnlf 


5, 


Horatius, c;l. Sanadon . . • 


Paris, 


1729, 


2 voli 




Horatiils. eiL Watson • 


London. 


1743, 


2 vnli 


7 


Horatius (typis Andreut Foulis) • 


Glasgow' 


1760. 




8 


lloratii KnifltolflD nil Piaones pt Aliens* 










tfim ( T-T 11 nl ^ . . . . 


T^ondoti 


1776. 


3 v"】 塵 


9. 




M JO* 


1770. 




in. 


Horatius ed. Walcefielrl . 


London. 


1794. 


2 volt 


11. 


Horatii Onera cd. Mitsclierlicli . 


Lips" 


1800, 


2 voh 


慕 〜 • 


Horatius etl. Bniid . 


Paris. 


igOG. 




13. 


Horace trail shiti^d t>v Francifl with 










tho notes of Dq Bois . 


London. 


1807. 


4 Ynln 


14. 


Hora.tii Carolina eil .Tatii . 




1809 


<W W WAS 


15. 


Horatius In Us. De】"!i_ . 


London. 


1810. 




16. 


Horatii Onera ed. Ff»u . • 


Roms 


1811. 


2 Tolft 


17. 


Horatii Eclo^in. cum iiotia Bnxteri. 










^mM w 0^1 Xl v V 暴暴 1 屋 • • • 


T.iiia. 


1815. 




lg. 


Horatius. ed. Wieland . # • 


Lips" 


1810. 


3 'ok 


19. 


Horatii Onera ed. Kidd -.. 


Can tab" 


1817. 






Horatii Ooera. ed. Hun tor . # 


Cupri, 


1819. 




'21. 


Horatius ed. Oarfnillo . 

& A w & U» VA M O ■ V*A • 、 filial i • • • 


M ediol.. 


1820. 






(lomtins nil. Pea enm ail (lit. Rothii 


Heidelb. 


1821. 


» 、 *■, 


23 


Horatii Oneva. ed. JiRck . 


Vinar.. 


1821. 




24. 


Horatii Eclogs, cum not is Baxt., 










Gesn.. Zeun.. et Bothii . . . 


Lips., 


1822. 




25. 


Horatius, ed. Batteux, cum addit. 














I803 


I , la 

r 1 v 




Horatii Ciifminft ed- Knox «, 


London. 


\»2A 




27 


HnrRtii Pni^tnla nrl Piaoiios ed. A vl- 










mot* _ « ■ _ _ 


T.ondoii 


1824 




28 

AO 












Horatius, ed. Bip., cum addit Gence. 


Paris, 


1828. 




30. 


Horatii Epist. Libri Primi 2do, ed. 










Obbaiius 


Halbera,, 


1828. 




81 


Horatius, eel. Filon . 


Pa' is, 


1928. 






Mnrklandi in Horat. Not:c ( Clran. 









Jo%rn y vol. xiii., p. 12G, Kqq.) % 



FREFAC55 



SI Bontleii Corse Novissimse ad Horat. 



(Mus. Crie. vol. i., p. 194, teqq.). 



34. Horatius, ed. Braunhard . . . 


Lips" 


f.631-8, 


4 vok 


35. Horatius, ed Heindorf . . . 


Lips., 


1843. 




3p. Horatius, ed. Orelli . 


Turici, 


1843-4, 


2 vols 


37. Horatius, ed. 0"lli (ed. Mill. ) . 


Tuiicf, 


J844, 


2 vo]i 


38. Horatius, ed. Schuiid . . 


Halb" 


1830. 




39. Horatius, ed. Peerlkamp . . • 


Leid. f 


1845. 




10 Horatius, ed. Dillenberger • 


Bonnae, 


1848. 




41 Horatius, ed. Keightley . . 


London, 


1848. 




42. Horatius, ed. Qirdlestoiie, Slc. . . 


London, 


1848, 




43. Horatius, ed. MUman . . 


Loudon, 


1848. 




44. Dflntzer, Kntik und ErklMning der 








Epistela des Horaz . . 


Braunscli. 


1843-6, 


3 VUI3 


45. Jacobs, LeGtiones Venusinw . . 


Leipz., 


1834. 




46. T*te,s Horatius Restitutus . . 


London, 


1837. 





The present edition, it will be perceived, is an ex- 
Diirgated one, every thing being thrown out that could 
offend the most fastidious delicacy. In this respect, 
the edition here offered to the student will be found 
decidedly superior to that recently put forth in En- 
gland by the Rev. Messrs. Girdlestone and Osborne, 
and in which many passages have been allowed to re 
main that are utterly at variance with the idea of au 
expurgated text. 

It only remains for the editor to express his sincere 
obligations to his learned friend. Professor Drisler, foi 
his kind and careful co-operation in bringing out the 
present work 一 a co-operation rendered doubly pleasing 
by the consciousness^ on the part of the editor, of its 
having been the means of rendering the present vol- 
ume far more useful to the student than it woulc 
therwise have been. 

CliiUtLES AlfTHOK 

Oolutnbia College, March ISth, 1840. 



LIFE OF HORACE 

BY M I L M A N. 



CHAPTER I. 

miEOSrCTIOh 一 BIRTH, PARENTAGE, EDUCATION OF HOB ICE 一 ATBliM 

一 FH1LIPPI 一 RETURN TO ROME. 

The Poetry of Horace is the history of Rome during the greal 
change from a republic to a monarchy, during the sudden and al- 
most complete revolution from centuries of war and civil faction tc 
that peaceful period which is called the Augustan Age of Letters. 
His life is the image of his eventful times. In his youth he plunges 
Into the fierce and sanguinary civil war, and afterward subsiding 
quietly into literary ease, the partisan of Brutus softens into the. friend 
of Maecenas, and the happy subject, if not the flatterer, of Augustus. 
Nor is his person&l history merely illustrative of his times in its broad- 
er outlines ; every part of it, which is revealed to as in his poetry, 
ta equally instructive. Even the parentage of the poet is connect- 
ed with the difficult but important questions of the extent to which 
slavery in the Reman world was affected by manumission, and the 
formation of that middle class (the libertini)^ with their privileges, 
and the estimation in which they were held by society. His birlh- 
place iji the romantic scenery, and among the simple virtues of the 
old Italian yeomanry ; his Roman education ; his residence at Athens ; | 
bis itulitary services ; the confiscation of his estate ; his fortunes as 
a literary adventurer, cast upon the world in Rome ; the state of 
Roman poetry when he commenced his career ; the degree in which 
his compositions were Roman and original, or but the naturalization 
of new forms of Grecian poetry ; the influence of the different sects 
of philosophy on the literature and manners of the age ; even the 
state religion, particularly as it affected the higher and more intellect- 
ual orders, at this momentous crisis when Christianity was about tc 
be revealed to mankind ~ every circumstance in the life of the poet 
ii an incident in the history ot' man. The influences which formed 
bis mora 1 and poetical character are the prevalent modes ol' feel- 
^kfr and thought among the people, who had achieved the conque»t 
of the world, and, weary of their own furious contentions, now be. 
gaa to slumber in the proud consciousness of universal empire I, 
him, as in an individual example, appears the change which took 
place in the fortunes, position, sentiments, occupations, estinjation 
character, mode of living, when the Roman, from the oiti ten of 
&,, * ami ttubulciit rspuhlic, became the subject of a p«acftfui inoa 



xu 



LIFii. OF HORACE 



hrchy, disguised indeed, but not, therefore, the less arbitrary , while 
his acquaintance, and even his intimate friends, extcndi.i^ tiirougl 
almost every gradation of stxjiety, show the same influences, as th«y 
aflect persons of different characters, talents, or station. Horace is 
exactly in that happy intermediate rank which connects both ex- 
tremes. His poems are inscribed to Agrippa or Miecenas, even tc 
the eipperor himself, to his humbler private friend, or to his bailiff 
He unites, in the same way, the literary with the social life; hi 
Ihows the station assumed by or granted to mere men of letter^ 
*hen the orator in the senate or in the forum ceded his place to the 
•greeable writer ; the man who excited or composed at hb will the 
strong passions of the Roman people, had lost his occupation and his 
power, which devolved, as far as the literary part of his fame, upon 
the popular author. The mingling intellectual elements blend to- 
gether, even in more singular union, in the mind of the poet. Gre> 
cian education and tastes have nQt polished off the old Roman inde- 
pendence ; the imitator of Greek forms of verse writes the purest 
vernacular Latin ; the Epicurean philosophy has not subdued hi3 
masculine shrewdness and good sense to dreaming indolence. In 
the Roman part of his character he blends some reminiscence of the 
sturdy virtue of the Sabine or Apulian mountaineers with the refined 
manners of the city. All the great men of his day are the familiarp 
of the poet; not in their hours of state alone, but in the ease of so- 
cial intercourse : we become acquainted with their ordinary manners 
and habits ; and are admitted to the privacy of Maecenas, of Augus- 
tus himself, of Virgil, and of Varius. Thus the Uoratian poetry i* 
more than historical, it is the living age it»eir in all its varied reality. 
Without the biography of the poet, oven without that of some of his 
contemporaries, the poetry of Horace can not bo truly appreciated, 
it can hardly be understood ; and by the magic of his poetry the 
reader is at once placed in the midst of Roman society in the Au> 
gustan age. 

Quintus Horatius Flaccus was burn on the 8th of December, ic 
the year U.C. 689, B.C. 65, during the consulship of L. Cotta and 
L. Manlius Torquatus. His father (such was the received and 
natural theory) owed his freedom to one of the illustrious family ot 
the Horatii, whose name, according to general usage, he was per- 
mitted to assume. Recent writers, 1 however, have shown from in- 
scriptions that Venusia, the town in the territory of which Horace 
was born, belonged to the Horatian tribe at Rome ; and that the 
father of Horace may have been a freedman of the town of Venusia 
The great family of the Horatii, so glorious in the early days of the 
republic, certainly did not maintain its celebrity in the later 1in.es. 
With one solitary exception, a legate of C. Calvisius in Africa (Cic^ 
id Fam., xii., 30), it might beem to have been extinct. If the freed* 
oian of an Horatias, tlie father A the poet does not appear to havt 

"L G. F. Orotefend ir " Ersch nnd Gmber'8 Encj clopjBdie, w Horatius : and t 
(. Crotrfrnd in tlx: Parmttadt Lit. 'ournal. Franke. Fasti Horatiniii. notf* I. 



LlPB OF HOKAt P, 



xiii 



kepi vhat connection, or civil relat'onship, which bound tht man 
cipated slave, by natural ties of affection and gratitude, to the lain ill 
of his generous master. The theory of this assumption of a R'mia 画 
name was, that the master, having bestowed civil life on the freedraan. 
Atood, in a certain sense, in the place of a parent. He still retained 
some authority, and inherited the freed man's property in case of hia* 
dying intestate. On the other hand, the freedman wad under the 
obligation of maintaining his patron, or even the father and mother 
of fais patron, if they fell into indigence. 1 But there is no allusion '.v 
the poet,s works to any connection of this kind. At all events, the 
(reedman has thrown a brighter and more lasting lustre aronnd that 
celebrated name than all the virtues and exploits of the older patriots 
who bore it. We know no reason for his having the pi Teamen 
Quintus, nnr the agnomen, by which he was familiarly known, F)ao 
ens. l'he latter name was by no means uncommon ; it is found in 
the Calpurnian, the Cornelian, the Pomponian, and the Valerian fami- 
lies. Horace was of ingenuous birth, ^rhich implies that he was 
born after his father had received his mannmisbion. The silence of 
he poet about lus mother leads to the supposition that she died io 
lis early youth. 

The father of Horace exercised the function of collector of pay- 
uents at auction. 8 The collector was a public servant. This com- 
paratively humble office was probably paid according to the number 
of sales, and the value of the property brought to market ; and in 
those days of confiscation, and of rapid and frequent changes of prop- 
erty, through the inordinate ambition or luxury of some, the forfeitures 
or ruin of opulent landholders, and the extinction of noble familie:) 
in the civil wari, the amount and value of the property brought to 
sale [sub hasta) was likely to enable a prudent public officer to make 
a decent fortune. This seems to have been the case with the eldei 
Horace, who invested his acquisitions in a house and farm in the dis 
trict of Venusia, on the banks of the River Aufidus, flose upon the 
doubtful boundaries of Lucania and Apulia. There he si.'ttled down 
into a respectable small farmer. In this house the poet was born, 
and passed his infant years. One incident, mentioned in Ode iii., 4, 
9-20, can not bat remind the English reader of the old ballad oc" the 



]. Compare Plintf, U. N., xxxi., 2, for an instance of the literary son of a di» 
4ngtti«be(l man in those times paying a tribute of gratitude to his civil parent 
Lssirea Tallras, the poet, whs a freedinun of the great orator. A warm sprinjr h&i 
Voken out in the Academic Villa of Cicero, which was supposed to cure discasci 
«B the eyes. Ihe poetical inscription by L. Tullius (of which the feeling is better 
than the taste) described the spring as providentially revealed, in order that raon* 
eyes might be enabled to read the widply-disseminnr works of his master. The 
freedman and freed woman were ailmitted into tho family matisjleum with thos< 
trbo bad emancipated them. Soe several inscriptiuus, o.-pecial.y a very beautiful 
Grnter, p. 715; Ciampini, p. 173. 

2 " Coaetor exauctionum." 一 Snet. in Vn. Anotl^r reading, exactionum, would 
..take him a collector of the indirect taxes, fanned hy t> ( o publican! ; the Rc*nav 
mnuicipnliticB in Italy being '.-xcmi t from al 1 'irect taxation. 



liv 



LiYE Of HUKACE. 



Children in .hi3 Wood, " and Robin Redbreast pic ;sl) did cover then 
with ! eaves." 

The names and situatio 1 of the towns in this romant"' district (the 
Basilicata) still answer to the description of the poet, the higb-hong 
chalets of Accrenza, the vast thickets of Banzi, and the picturesqun 
peaks of Mount Volmrc. There are no monuments to mark *he site 
of Bantia ; bones, helmets, pieces of armor, and a few bad vases, hn\€ 
teen picked up near Acerenza. 1 The poet cherished through life 
Ms fond reminiscences of these scenes, the shores of the sounding 
Aafidus (to whose destructive floods he alludes in one of his laf^nt 
odes), and the fountain of Bandusia. 3 He delights also in reverting 
to the plain life and severe manners of the rustic population. Shrewd, 
strenuous, and frugal, this race furnished the best soldiers for the Ro- 
man legion ; their sun-burned wives shared in their toils [Epod. ii., 
41-2). They cultivated their small farms with their own labor and 
that oi' their sons [Sat. ii., 2, 114). They worshipped their rustic 
deities, and believed in the superstitions of a religious and simpio 
people, witchcraft and fortune-telling (Sat. i., 9, 29, 30). The 
hardy but contented Ofella {Sat. ii,, 2, 112, seqq.) was a kind of 
lype of the Sabine or Apulian peasant. 

At about ten or twelve years old commenced the more serious and 
important part of the Roman education. It does not appear how 
Horace acquired the first rudiments of learning ; but, as he grew to 
youth, the father, either discerninpr some promise in the boy, or from 
paternal fondness, determined to devote himself entirely to the edu- 
tation of his son. He was by no means rich, his farm was unpro- 
ductive, yet he declined to send his son to Venusia, to the school of 
Flavius, to which resorted the children of the rural and municipal 
aristocracy, the consequential sons of consequential fathers, with 
their satchels and tablets on their arms, and making their regular 
payments every month. 3 He took tlic bold step of removing him at 
once to Rome, to receive the liberal education of a knight ;, s or a 
senator's son ; and, lest the youth should be depressed by the feel- 
>ag of inferiority, provided him with whatever was necessary to make 
% respectable appearance, dress and slaves to attend him, as if ho 
4ad been of an ancient family. But, though the parent thus removed 
ais son to the public schools of the metropolis, and preferred that he 

1. Keppel Craven's Tour in the Abruzzi. Lonbardi, sopra la Basilicata, it 
Uemorie dell' Instituto Arohajologico. 

2. The biographers of Horace had transferred this fountain to the neighborhood 
of the poet's Sabine villa. M. Cnpmnrlhi de Chaupy proved, by a bull of Pope 
Pft»cfaal II., that it was to bu eought in the neighborhood of Venuaia. Some mod- 
ma writers are so pertinaciously set on finding it in the Sabine, district, that they 
bate supposed Horace to hove called some fountain in that valley \y the name e» 
denrcd to him by his youthful roracmbranceB. But do we know enough o/ th< 
£te of Horace to pronounce that he may not have visited, even more time onco 
the scenes of hiB childhood, or to decide that he did nol adtlresa the famous cxk 
(o the Vcnusiau i juntidn {Capmariin de Chavpy. Maismi d Horice, torn, ii., y 
d 3 Sat. i. 5. 71. «f70 



LIFE OP HORACE. 



X、 



B)i(niid associate with the genuind youthful mobility ot the capitai 
rather than the no less haughty, but moro coarse and unpolished 
gentry (the retired centurions) of the provinces, ho took great cart 
that while he secured the advantages, he should be protected from 
the dangers of the voluptuous capital. Even if his son should rise 
no higher than his own humble calling as a public crier or collector, 
his jood education would be invaluable ; yet must it not be purchased 
by the sacrifice of sound morals. He attended him to the dificrerl 
nhools ; watched with severe but adeciionate control over his char 
acter ; so that the boy escaped not merely the taint, but even the r» 
proach of immorality. 1 The poet always speaks of his father witk 
grateful reverence and with aoncst pride. 

His first turn for satire was encouraged by his fathers severe aa' 
imadversions on the follies and vices of his compp f riots, which he 
held up as warning examples to his son. 2 To one of his school- 
masters the poet has given imperishable fame. Orbilius, whose 
flogging propensities have grown into a proverb, had been an ap« 
paritor, and afterward served in the army ; an excellent training foi 
a. disciplinarian, if not for a teacher ; but Orbilius got more reputa- 
tion than profit from his occupation. 3 The two principal, if not the 
only authors read in the school of Orbilius, were Homer in Greek, 
and Livius Andronicus in Latin. 4 Homer was, down to the time of 
Julian, an indispensable part of Greek, and already of Roman edu- 
cation. 5 Orbilius was, no doubt, of the old school ; a teacher to the 
boart of rigid Cato j an admirer of the g luine Roman poetry. Liv- 
(as Andronicus was not only the earliest writer of tragedy, but had 
translated the Odyssey into the Saturnian vers«. the native vernacu- 
«ar metre of Italy. 6 Orbilius may not merely have thought the Eu* 
Oneirism of Ennias, or the Epicurianism of Lucretius, unfit for the 
study of Roman youth, but have considered Accius, Pacuvius, 01 
Terence too foreign and Grecian, and as having degenerated from 
the primitive simplicity of the father of Roman verse. The more 
modern and Grecian taste of Horace is constantly contending witt 



1 Sat. i n 6, 81, segq. 2. Sat i" 4, 105, seqq. 

3. " Docuit majore fnma qu. 气 m cmolumcnto." 一 Sueton" de GrammaL 

4. Bentley doubted whether any pntriciun schoolmaster, at that time, would um 
(be works of a poet so antiquated as Livius Andronicus. He proposed to read 
Lsvius, the name of an obscure writer of love verses (,E/iu)rom"Vwa), to whom 
be ascribes many of the fragments usually assigned to Livius, and which bear no 
Darks of obsolete antiquity. But, with due respect to the great critic, the elder 
Borace might havo objected still more strongly to the modern amatory vorscs o( 
LfBviua than to the rude strains of Liviu& 

5. Epi3t. ii , 2, 41-2. Compare Quint., i., 8 ; Plin^ EpUt ii., 15 ; Statiut, 8ylv. 
霄, 3. D. Heinsius quotes from Thcodorct, rotruv 6e ol vXiiotoi oi>5{ rffv nfiva 
tsw ri/v '^xtXAfbif. Even aa late as that father of the Church it was a mark of 
Sfuorance not to hare read Homer. 

6. Cicero thought but meanly of t ivius : " Nam et Odyssea Latina, est sic tan 
faam opua aliquod Daed«Oi, et 'anse Mul<£ non satis dign&a quw Itemm 5» 
fa^tur,*"— Sr«f««. c 】«■ 



LIFE OF HOKACR. 



^i\p antiquarian school of poetrj, and his iinpieasing ron/embrano« 
,/ (he manner in -which the study of Livias was enforced by his earJy 
teacher may have tended to '■onfirm his fastidious aversion from the 
-ttder poetry. 

Horace, it may 1 e concludeu, assumed the manly robe (toga virilif) 
no his sixteenth or seventeenth year It is probable that he lust his 
excellent and honored father before he set out to complete his edu- 
cation at Athen3. But cf what stirring events must the boy have 
been witness during his residence at Rome ! He might possiblj.. 
soon after his arrival (B.C. 52), have heard Cicero speak his oration 
for Mib. Into the subsequent years were crowded all the prepara* 
tions for the last contest between Porapey and CaBsar. The peace- 
ful studies of the Roman youth must have been strangely intermpt^ 
ed by these political excitements. What spirited boy would not have 
thrown aside his books to behold the triumphant entrance of Cass&* 
into Romo after the passage of the Rubicon ? And while that de 
cisive step was but threatened, how anxiously and fearfully musf 
Rome have awaited her doom —— ignorant who was to be her master, 
and how that master would use his power ; whether new proscrip- 
tions would more than decimate her patrician families, and deluge 
her streets with blood ; whether military license would have frcf 
scope, and the majesty of the Roman people be insulted by the out- 
rages of an infuriated soldiery ! No man was so obscure, so young, 
or so thoughtless, but that he must have been deeply impressed with 
the insecurity of liberty and of life. During the whole conflict, what 
must have been the suspense, the agitation, the party violence, the 
terror, the alternate elevation and prostration of mind ! In the un- 
ruffled quiet of his manhood and age, how often must these turbulent 
and awful days have contrasted themselves, in the memory of Horace, 
with his tranquil pursuits of letters, social enjoyment, and country 
retirement. 

It was about the time of (probably the year after) the battle of 
Pharsalia (for the state of Greece, just at the period of the final con- 
flict, must have been insecure, if not dangerous) that the youthful 
Horace left his school at Rome to study in Athens. "If his fatiiei 
was dead, the produce of the Venusian estate would no doubt suffice 
for his maintenance ; if still living, the generous lovo of the parent 
would not hesitate at this further expense, if within his power. 
During many centuries of the Roman greatness, down to the time 
when her schools were cIosqiI by Justinian, Athens was the uuiver- 
•ity, us it has been called, of the world, where almost ail the dis- 
tinguished )'ctith, both of the East and West, passed a certain period 
of study in the liberal arts, letters, and philosophy. This continued 
e^en after the establishment of Christianity. Basil and Gregory of 
Nazianzus stiidied together, and formed their youthful friendships, 
as Horace did, no doubt, with some of the noble or distinguished 
youth of the dxy. On this point, hovever, his poems are silent, and 
twntain no allusicns to his associates md rivals in study. Thi 



LIFE OP HORACE. 



pranger Quiutns Cicero was at this time UkewUe a ahidfcf.t a< 
Athens, but there is no clew to conne (; t these two nai ie». 1 

The advantages which Horace derived from his residence in 
Athens may be traced in his familiarity with Attic literature, or 
rather, with the whole range of Greek poetry, Homeric, lyrio, 
dramatic. In the region of his birth Greek was s[M)ken almost a, 
commonly as Latin j 2 and Horace had already, at Rome } been in 
structed in the poetry of Homer. In Athens, he stud tod, pArtiooiar 
y, ^he comic writers ; the great models of that kind of poetry whico 
Ifoosists in shrewd and acute observation on actual human life, on 
Society, manners, and morals, expressed in terse, perspicuous, ano 
Aoima^^d verse, which he was destined, in another form, to carry 
to such unrivalled perfection in his own language. But he incurred 
a great danger, that of sinking into a third or fourth rate Greek 
poet, if, in a foreign language, he could have attained even to that 
humble eminence. He represents the genius of his country under 
the form of Romulus, remonstrating against this misdirection of his 
talents. Romulus, or, rather, the strong sense of Horace himsel . 
gave good reason for this advice. 3 The mine of Grecian poetry was 
exhausted ; every place of honor was occupied ; a new poet, partica- 
larly a stranger, could only be lost in the inglorious crowds. But 
this is not all. It is a law of human genius, without exception, that 
no man can be a great poet except in his native speech. Inspira- 
tion seems impatient of the slower process of translating our thoughts 
into a second language. The expression must be as free and spon- 
taneous as the conception ; and, however we may polish and refine 
our native style, and substitute a more tardy and elaborate for an 
instantaneous and inartificial mode of composition, there is a facility, 
a mastery, a complete harmony between " the thoughts that breathe 
and the words that burn," which can never be attained except in our 
mother toague. 

The death of Caesar, and the arrival of Brutus at A' hens, broke 
Dp the peaceful studies of Horace. It had been surpi ising if tho 
whole Roman youth, at this ardent and generous period of lifb, 
breathing the air of Pericles, Aristides, and Demosthenes, imbibing 
the sentiments of republican liberty from all which wa.s the object 
of their study, had not thrown themselves at once into the ranks of 
Brutus, and rallied round the rescued but still imperillol freedom of 
Rome. Hprace was at once advanced to the rank of military trib 
utte, ami the command of a legion. Excepting at such critical 
periods, when the ordinary course of military promotion was super- 
seded by tho exigencies of the times, when it was no doubt difficult 
hr Brutus to find Roman officers for his newly-raised troops, the son 
of a frcedman, of no very robust frame, and altogether inexperienced 
in war, would not have acquired that rank. His appointment, as he 
acknowletlges, on account of bis ignol )e birlh excited jealousy. 4 

1. Wcichcrl de L. Vario, Ac, y. 388. 一 2. SatT, 10, 30. 

3. Sat i , 10^ 31, eeoq. 4 ^iat i. 6, 46, 



\V1I 



IJFE OF UO&ACB 



Yet he lcqairea the confidence of his commanJers, and, uulesis fa| 
has highly color© i ais hard service, was engaged in some difficulties 
and perils. 1 It is probable that while in the array of Brutus h« 
crossed over into Asia. Though it is not quite clear that lie wai 
present at ClazomeniB when the quarrel took place between Persiiu 
and Rupilius Rex, which forms the subject of Sat. i., 7, and his local 
knowledge of Lebcdos, which has been appealed t(', is not absolute- 
ly certain ; 4 yet some of his descriptive epithets appear too distinot 
and faithful for mere borrowed and conventional poetic language 
He must have visited parts of Greece at some period of his life, m 
fie speaks of not having been so much struck by the rich plain of 
f'arissa^ or the more rugged district of Lacedaemon, as by the head 
.ong Anio and the grove of Tihur. 3 

The battle of Philip pi closed the military career of Horace. Hi' 
conduct after the battle, his flight, and throwing away his shield^ 
bave been the subject of much grave animadversion and as grave 
defence. Lessing wrote an ingenious essay to vindicate the morals 
»nd the courage of Horace. 4 Wieland goes still further in his as^ 
sertion of the poet's valor : " Horace could not have called np the 
remembrance of the hero (Brutus), by whom he was beloved, with 
out reproaching himself for having yielded to the instinct of person 
al safety instead of dying with him ; and, according to my feeling 
non bene is a sign of regret which he offers to the memory of that 
great man, and an expression of that shame of which a noble spirit 
alone is capable." 5 The foolish and fatal precipitancy with which 
Brutus and Cassius, upon the first news of defeat, instead of attempt* 
ing to rally their broken troops, and to maintain the conflict for libcA 
ty, took refuge in suicide, might appear, to the shrewd good sen, 
oi' Horace, very different from the death of Cato, of which he has c j» 
pressed his admiration. And Wieland had forgotten that Hora(| 
fairly confesses his fears, and attributes his escape to Mercury, the 
god of letters. 6 Lessing is no doubt right that the playful allusion 
of the poet to his throwing away his shield has been taken mu^i 
more in earnest than was intended ; and the passage, after all, is a 
imitation, if not a translation, from Alcajus. In its most literal sense 
it amounts to no more than that Horace fled with the rest of the de 
fe&ted army, not that he showed any want of valor during the battle 
He abandoned the cause of Brutus when it was not merely desperate, 
but extinct. Messala had refused to taxe the command of l;he broken 
jroops } and had passed over to the other side ; a few only, among 
w'zom was the friend of Horace, Pompcius Varus, threw tbcmselvei 
iaic the fleet cf Sextus Pompcius, a pirate rather than a politic A 



l w Ode ii., 7, 1. 2, Epist. i., 11, 6. 3. Ode L, 7, 11 

4. Werke, ix , p. 126, 173. Lrssing is co-aipletcly successful in rBpellinff a vatm 
disgraceful imputation ,jpon the memory of tlie poet In a paaeage of Senec 
»ome foolish commentator had substituted the name of Iloratiiw for a certnin L. 
Hostius, n man of peculiar profligacy. 

5. melavd, Horazens Brinfe, b. ii., p. IGl. a Ode K„ 7 II 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



letifer. 1 Liberty may be said to have deserted Hciraci, rather inar 
Horao; liberty j and, happily for mankind, he felt that his calling 
was to mere peaceful pursuits. 

Horace found his way back, it is uncertain in what manner, to 
Rome. 8 Bat his estate was confiscated ; some new coactor was col* 
looting the price of his native fields, which his father bad perhapg 
acquired through former confiscations ; for Venusia vras ono of the 
eighteen cities assigned by the victorious triumvirate to their soldiers.* 
On return to Rome, nothing can have been well more dark or 
hopeless than the condition of our poet. He was too obscure to 
marked by proscription, or may havo found security in some gen- 
eral act of amnesty to the inferior followers of Brutus. But the 
friends which he had already made were on the wrong side in poli- 
tics j he had no family connections, no birth to gild his poverty. It 
M as probably at this period ef his life that he purchased the place 
of scribe in the quaestor's office; but from what source he derived 
the purchase money 一 the wreck of his fortunes, old debts, or the 
liberality of his friends —— wc can only conjecture. 4 On the profits of 
this place he managed to live with the utmost frugality. His or- 
dinary fare was but a vegetable diet, his household stuflf of the 
meanest ware. He was still poor, and his poverty emboMenetii 
and urged him to be a poet. 



CHAPTER II. 

STATE OF ROMAN POETRY 一 THEORY OF EARLY ROMAN POETRY ― 
CAUSES OF ITS TOTAL LOSS ~ ENN1U8 ~ INTRODUCTION OF HEXAME- 
TER VEBSS ― GREEK INFLUENCES " DRAMA 一 J.UCRETXUS ~~ CATUL- 
LUS 一 HORACE THE FRIEND OF VIRGIL AND OF VARIl/S 一 POVERTY 
MAKES HIM A POET "~ INTRODUCTION TO MjGCENAS INTIMACY WITH 
M^CENAS ~~ CIRCLE OF HKN OF LETTERS ~~ FIRST BOOK OF SATIRES. 

The state of Roman poetry, and its history, up to the time when 
Horace began 10 devote himself to it, is indispensable to a just esti- 
mate of his place among the poets of Rome. Rome, according to 



1. ManUius, L, 859, seqq. 

9. It is difficult to place the peril /. shipwreck oflF Cape Palinurus, on the west* 
ens coast of Lucania (Ode iii., 4, 28), in any part of the poet's life. It is not unpo» 
dMe that« by the accident of finding a more ready passnge that way, or even faf 
concealment, ho may have made the more circuitous voyage toward llome, and 
to encountered this danger. 3. Appian, B. C,, iv., 3l 

4. " Scriptum qusBstorium coraparavit." (Sueton. t in Fit.) There is only oim 
paasagc in his poetry which can be construed into an allusion to this occupatiovi 
unless the " hated bua'ncss" (invisa negotia) which compelled him to go, at time^ 
to Rome, related to tte duties of his office. The college of scribes seem to hart 
thought that they had a claim to his support in something which concerned ttieii 
•emmon interest (Sat ii., 6, 36, seq.). But in the account which he gives of th« 
nciann;r in which hn. tisurtljy spent the day (Sat. i., 6, 120), the :e is no ailus/cu tc 
official bustccss. 



3LX 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



ije modern thoory, had her mythic and Homerio t^'e ; her ear}) Iuh* 
tory is but her epic cycle transmuted into prose. The prt^abilit} 
that Rome possessed this older poetry, and the internal evidence foi 
.ts existence, are strong, if not conclusive. 

If frosa the steppes of Tartary to the shores of Peru 一 if in various 
degrees of excellence from the inimitable epics of Homer to the wild 
ditties of the South Sea islanders -~ scarcely any nation or tribe " 
without its popular songs, is it likely that Rome alone should hava 
keen barren, unimaginative, unmusical, without its sacred bards, or, if 
ts bards were not invested with religious sanctity, without its ])opa. 
/ar minstrels ; Rome, wi*h so much to kindle the imagination and stu 
Iho heart y Rome, peopled by a race necessarily involved in adveiu 
turous warfare, and instinct with nationality, and with the rivalry 
of contending orJers '? In Rome every thing seems to conspire, 
which in all other countries, in all other races, has kindled the song 
of the bnrH. When, therefore, we find the history as it is handed 
down to us. ihouifh obviously having passed through the chill and 
unimaginative older chronicle, still nevertheless instinct with infolt 
poetry, can we doubt where it had its origin ? 

" rhe early liistory of Rome," observes Mr. Macanlay, "is in 
deed far more poetical than any thing else in Latin literature. The 
lc /es of the Vestal and the God of War, the cradle laid among the 
r< eds of the Tiber, the fig-tree, the she-wolf, the shepherd's cabin, 
the recognition, the fratricide, the rape of the Sabincs, the death of 
Tarpeia, tho fall of Hostus Hostilius, the struggle of Mettus Curtius 
(hronorh the marsh, the women rushing with torn raiment and di- 
shevelled hair between their fathers and their husbands, the nightly 
meetings of Numa and the Nymph by the well in the sacred grove, 
the fight of the three Romans and the three Albans, the purchase of 
the Sibylline books, the crime of Tullia, the simulated madness of 
Brutus, the ambiguous reply of the Delphian oracle to the Tarqatna, 
Che wrongs of Lucretia, the heroic actions of Horatius Cocles, of 
Suievola, and of ClcBlia, the battle of Regillus won by the aid of 
Castor and Pollux, the fall of Creraera, the touching story of Corio- 
lanus, the still more touching story of Virginia, the wild legend 
about the diaining of the Alban Lake, the combat between Valerius 
Corvus and tu« gigantic Gaul, are among the many instances which 
will at once surest themselves to every reader." 1 

But this pocib cycle had ceased to exist in its original metrical 
form long before the days of Livy and of Horace. Wo read of the 
old aival songs, of the Salian verses, of songs sung at triumphs or at 
feasts, by individual guests, in praise of illustrious, men, and at funer- 
als. i>at these w ere mostly brief, religious, or occasicnal. Of the 
|anegyrio, or fawdly songs, Cicero deplores fhe tot&i loss. The 
verses to which Eh-nius 2 alludes, as sung by the Fauns and Bards 
the ancient verses which existed before there was any real poetry 

. Macaulay, Preface to " L ays of Iiixne. w 

% Quoted in the Brutu" 、 i Cicero, whicb refers them to the rcrsea of Nvt^ut 



IFE OP HORACE. 



IX! 



ixy general inspira tion of the Muses (Ennius, no doubt, means pcietr) 
tr f>reeK metres, and L.nitative of Greek poets) were from the Saturn- 
ian poem of Ntevius on the First Punic War. 

Yet how did this old poetic cyule so utterly perish that no vestige 
shoald survive ? 1 Much, no doubt, is to be attributed to the ordinary 
canses of decay chsmgc of manners, of tastes, the complete dominioc 
of tho Grecian over the Rt>man mind, the misfortune that no patriotic 
or pootic antiquarian ross in time, no Percy or Walter Scott, to 
w.ntch out and to record the fragments of old song, which were dy- 
ing cut npon the lips of tho peasantry and the people. There are, 
however, peculiar to Rome, some causes for the total oblivion of this 
kind of national record which may also seem worthy of consideration. 
The Grecian ballad poetry, the Homeric (distinguished from all other 
ballads, and, indeed, from almost ail other human compositions, 
transcendent merit), had an inestimable advantage besides its other 
inimitable excellences. At the time of its earliest, undoubtedly its 
most complete development in the Iliad and Odyssey, the wonder- 
fully and naturally musical ear of the (i reeks had perfected that most 
exquisite vehicle of epic song, the hexameter verse. From Homer to 
Nonnus this verse maintained its prescriptive and unquestioned right 
to be the measure of heroic and narrative poesry. None, indeed, could 
dra\r the l>o\v like the old bard; but even in this conscious fcehle. 
ness the later poets hardly ever ventured to innovate on this estab- 
lished law of epic song. The Saturnian verse was the native meas 
are of Roman, or, rather, of Italian poetry. This Saturnian verse wtt、 
nnquestionahly very rnde, and, if we are to trust the commentator 
on Virgil, only rhythmical. 4 When, therefore, Ennius naturalized 
the hexameter in Latin poetry, it is no wonder that all eyes were 
turned on the noble stranger, who at once received the honors of a 
citizen, and from that time was established in supremacy over Latin 
as well as Greek narrative poetry. In this verse Ennius himself em 
bodied all the early h'story of Rome ; and we have only to look back 
from the fragments of his work, which, though yet indulging in cer- 
tain licenses which were dropped by Virgil and the later writers, 
have some lines of very free How and cadence, to the few Saturnian 
verses which survive from the Punic war of his rival Naevius, and 
we shall not wonder that the Roman ear became fastidious and di ,- 
tasteful ol' its old native melodies. The ballads, if they had still sur- 
vived in common currency, were superseded by the new and more 
nopular poetic' history of Ennius. 3 The Saturnian verse was aban 
doned to farce and jwpular satire ; though even satire began to sot up 
foi a gentleman, ar.d, with Lucilius, to spealr in hexameters The 
Atcliun r arces (pantomimes in dialogue, accoiding to our use of thf 
irord, not that of the classic writers) were still truo to the Saturnian 

1 Mr. Mai'Emlny has acutely obwerred that the words of Dion. Hul., &s iv rj:, 
•uTpiotS bnvoli bird 'Fu/ja'tuv In I'Dv q/ierai, are either trnn slated, or, at farthest 
(Mraphraeed, from Fabius Pictor, one of the earliest of the Ilomau aanttlists. 

% d^ritu in Vire" rmoru. H.. :«5. 3. Hur., Epiat U、 t \X 



1X11 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



measure. Bat the Atellaii farces were Italian not properly llCniar 
entertainments ; they were, perhaps, originally in the Osoan dialect; 
and whether or not they learned to speak Latin before they migrated 
to I",me, they were then taken up by popular poets, Pompoiiius and 
Novius, and became one of the regular amusements oi' the people. 1 

But probably the most extensively operative cause of the rapid 
extinction of the Roman pDpular poetry was the dissolution of the 
Roman people. The old plebeian families which survived had be- 
«ome a part of the aristocracy. As they had attained, either, 
ike Cicero, having struggled upward, the higher rank, or having 
reached it by iess honorable courses, whichever side they might tak« 
in the great contesi between the senate and the democracy, they as* 
fumed patrician manners, tastes, and habits. Except here und Lerc 
some sturdy " laudator temporis acti," some rough Cato, who af- 
fected tho old republican manners, they belonged to that class which 
had surrendered itself "-" which, prided itself on its surrender ― to G rook 
influences. If family pride was still Roman in its reminiscences, if 
it delighted to recall its ancestral glories, it would disdain the rude 
old verse, and content itself with the chronicles which had now as- 
sumed the more authentic tot.e of history. It would appeal to mare 
authoritative public records or private archives. The man of rank 
would be ashamed or afraid, in a more prosaic age, of resting the 
fame of his ancestors, or tlic truth of his genealogy, on such suspi- 
cious testimonies. Cicero might have taste and wisdom enough to 
regret the loss of these ancient songs, both as poetry and as trust* 
wortny records of former times; but in his day they had entirely, 
anil, it should seem, long vanished from the mere refined banquet! 
of the higher classes ; they found no place amid the gorgeous mag- 
aificcnce of the Luculli, or the more enervating luxuries of ihe 
Clod". 

If, then, they lingered any where, they would be on the lips and in 
Ibc hearts of the Roman people. But where were the Roman peo- 
pie ? where was that stern, and frugal, and strongly national plebe- 
ian race, which so long maintained the Roman character for order, 
virtue, freedom ; and which, if factious and unruly, was factious foi 
noble ends, and unruly in defence or assertion of its rights ? In th« 
city there was, and there always had been, a populace, which, fron. 
the first, to a great extent, was not of Roman descent, the mechanio? 
and artisans, the clients of the wealthy 一 now swelled in number^ 
and. though always held in low estimation, debased in character by 
vhe constant influx of si rangers, not merely from Italy, but from re 
moter regions. This half-foreign population was maintained in a kind 
of insol 3nt pauperism by largesses of corn and other provisions, and 
by the distributions of the wealthy with political views. This hybrid 

1. Ths Suturuian was the cuminun measure, no doubt, of all thu rude Italic veraf 
in its various diulectfi. Grotefend profe6ses to have found it iu the Umbruui in 
scriptiuna of the tabula) Eugubose. See a learned trt otisc, De Fabnlin Atriixil . 
bj Dr K Munk. Lipnittf, 1840. 



LIFE OF IIOKACE. 



XXU 



Ana shifting race, largely formed of enfranchised slaves and men o( 
fierx ilo descent, would be but precarious and treacherous guanliani 
of national song, probably in an antiquated dialect : they would keef 
up the old Italic licer.se (so indelible, it should seem, in the fraliac 
character) of poetic lampoon and pastjuinadc : any wild traditions 
which heightened the fun and the revel of the Saturnalia might live 
frinong them ; they would welcome, as we have seen, the low and 
faroical dramatic entertainments ; but their cars would be unmo\od, 
tud iLdit hearts dead, to the old stirring legends of the feuds and 
tecllons, the wars of neighboring tribes, and the heroic deeds of 
arms of the kin^« or of the early republic. The well-known anec 
dote of Scipio A:!";l;anus may illustrate the un-Roman character of 
this populace of Rome. When the mob raised a furious clamor ai 
kb bold assertion of the justice of the death of Tiberius Gracchus., 
" Silence, ye step-sons of Italy ! What ! shall I foar these fellows, 
Dbow they aro fr«e, whom I myself have brought in chains to Rome ?'' , 
These were the operatives (opene) who flocked, not merely from the 
workshops of Rome, but from all the adjacent districts, to swell the 
turbulent rabblo of Clodius. 1 

The territory of Rome, the demesne-lands formerly cultivated by 
Roman citizens, in which resided the strength of ihe Roman people, 
had been gradually drained of the free population. For several cen- 
turies it bad filled the iegions, and those legions had achieved the 
conquest of the world. But that conquest was not won without 
enormous loss. The best blood of the Roman people had fertilized 
ihe earth almost from the Euphrates to tho Western Ocean. TUe 
veterans who returned received apportionments of land, but mure 
frequently in remote parts of Italy : the actual Roman tenntory, there- 
fore, that in which the old Roman language was the native dialed, 
und in which might survive that Roman pridu which would cherbvb 
the poetic reminiscences of Roman glory, was now, for the most pare, 
either occupied by tho rising villas of tho patricians, or by the large 
farms of the wealthy, and cultivated by slaves. The homestead 
whence a Camillus iasued to rescue his country from the Gauls 
may now have become a work-house, in which crouched the slaves 
of some Verres, enriched with provincial plunder, or some usurious 
knight ; a gang of Africans or Asiatics may have tilled the field 
where Cincinnatus left his plough to assume the consular fasces. Foi 
oenturies this change had been gradually going on ; the wars, and 
even the civil factions, were continually wasting away the Rornjw 
population, while the usurpation of wealth and prido wtu &s constant 
|y keeping up its slow aggression, and filling up the void with thf 
daves which poured in with every cunquest. The story )f Sparta 
COS mty tell how large a part of the rural population of Italy wa 
gervile ; and probably, the nearer to Rorac, in the districts former' 
[y iah&bited by the genuine Roman people, the change (with some 



Pattrc^ 1L 2: VaL Max., ▼!, 2; Cic, ad a Frat.,il,3 ; (J. Petrw^ r A ]M 



LIFE OF flOXACK. 



exceptions) wm most complete ; the Sabine valleys might retain avmt 
of the oid rough hereditary virtues, the hardihood and frugality , bnl 
" a distance from the city it would be their own joca] or readout 
traditions which would live among the peasantry, rather than the 
songs which had been onrrpnt. in th« streets among the primitivQ 
fjoinmons of Rome. 

Thus, both in city and in country, had died away the genuine okl 
Roman people ; and with tliem, no doubt, died away the x ast echo 
of national song. The extension of the right of Roman oiiizensh?p^ 
*le diffusion of the pride of the Roman name through a wider sphere. 
tcuJed still more to soften away the rigid and exclusive spirit of na- 
tionality ; and it was this spirit alone which would cling pertinacious 
ly to t hat which labored under the unpopularity of rudeness and bar 
barisra. The new Romans appropriated ihe glories of the old, bul 
dis'-cgarded the only contemporary, or, at least the earliest witnesses 
to those glories. The reverse of the fate of the Grecian heroes hap- 
pened to those of Rome ~~ the heroes lived, the sacred bards perished 

Th« Latin poetry, that which Rome has banded down to poeteri. 
ty, was, like philosophy, a stranger and a foreigner. 1 She arrivod, 
though late, before philosophy ; at least she was more completely 
naturalized before philosophy was domiciled, except in a very few 
mansions of great statesmen, and among a very circumscribed intel< 
lectual aristocracy, ft is remarkable that most of her early poets 
were from Magna Gracia. NaDvius alone, the Saturn ian or Italian 
poet, was from Campania, and even Campania was half Greek. Livius 
Andronicus was from Tarentum ; 3 Ennius from Rudias in Calabria ; 
Accius was the son of a freedman from the south of Italy j Pacuv* is 
was a Brundisian ; Plautus, of the comic writers, was an Umbrian ; 
Terence was an African ; Csecilius was from tho north of Italy. In 
every respect the Romans condescended to be imitative, not directly 
of Nature, but of Grecian models. Ennius had confined her epic 
poetry to the hexameter, whence it never attempted to emancipate 
itself. The drama of Rome, like all her arts, was Grecian ; almost 
all the plays (excepting here and there a tragodia pratextata) of 
Livius Anaronicus, Accius, Pacuvius, Plautus, Terence, were ol 
Grecian subjects. So completely was this admitted by the time of 
Horace, that his advice to the dramatic poet is to study Grecian 
n o«ieis by night and day. (Ep. ad Pis" 268, seq.) But, on the 
other h&nd, the wonderful energies ' which were developed in the 
universal conquests of Rome, and in her civil factions, in which the 
fTMLt end of ambition was to be the first citizen in a state which 

1 " Punico bello sccundu musa pinnato grndu 

Intulit sc bcllicosarn Romuli in gentrra fcram." 

P. Licinins apud A. Qdlitmt 
% C^:ero, Brutus, c. 18. Livias was taken prisoner at the capture ofTrtrakiam. 
、 b supposed that be was a freedman of M. Livius Salinator. The Tarenttawi 
were great admirers of the theatre. PUt"., Memuchini, Prolog. 29, §efg. ; Ikffn^ 
Oyuac., ii. 2SS ugg. lhf\u» repreaented hia own -ilays. Cho., r{L, 9 ITto^ 



UVK OF HORACE. 



ni)e^ at *v :rlJ. could not but awaken intellectual powers ol' tint 
higher ier. The force and vigor of tho Roman character are mair« 
il'est in ihe fragments of their early poetry. However rudo And in- 
harmor..uus these translations (for, after all, they are tramlations), 
they uio full of bold, animated, and sometimes picturesque expre» 
sions . and that which was the natural consequence of the domicilia 
lion a foreign literature among a people of strong and masculine 
minds invariably took place. Wherever their masters in the art had 
Htla'ned to consummate perfection, wherever the genius of the pea* 
plo nad been reflected in their poetry with complete harmony, there, 
nowever noble might be the emulation of the disciple, it was impos 
Bible that he should approach to his model, especially where his own 
genius and national character were adverse both to the form and \o 
the poetic conception. 

Hence, in the genuine epic, in lyric, in dramatic poetry, the Greckf 
blood alone and unapproachable. Each of these successive forma of 
the art had, as it were, spontaneously adapted itself to tho changen 
in Grecian society. The epic was that of the heroic age of the 
warrior-kings and bards j the lyric, the religious, that of the tenple 
end the public games ; the dramatic, that of the republican polky, the 
exquisite combination of the arts of poetry, music, gesture, and rpec- 
(acle, before which the sovereign people of Athens met, which was 
orcsided over by the magistrate, and maintained either at the public 
cost or at that of the ruling functionary, which, in short, was the 
great festival of the city. 

But the heroic age of Home had passed away, as before obsorveil, 
vithout leaving any mythic or epic song, unless already transmuted 
into history. Her severe religion had never kindled into poetry, ex- 
cept in rude traditional verses, and short songs chanted during Uie 
solemn ceremony. The more domestic habits of her austere days 
bad been less disposed to public exhibitions ; theatrical amusements 
were forced upon her, not freely developed by the national taste. 
Wo doubt, from the close of the second Punic war to the age of Au- 
l^ustus, dramatic entertainments were more or less frequent in Rome. 
The tragfjdies of Njevuis, Ennius, Pacuvius, and Ancius, as well as 
the comedies of Plautus, Caecilius, Afranius, and Terence, formed 
part of the great games which were celebrated daring period" of 
public rejoicing. The fame of Asopus and Roscius as actors im- 
pli .'s grout popular interest in. the stage. Still, as has been said, al- 
most all, if not all, the tragedies, and most of the comedies, were 
translations or adaptations from the Greek. 1 The ovation and the 
t riumph were the great spectacles of Rome ; and, when these be- 
came more rare, her lelaxation was the rude Atellan farce, or the 
coarse mime ; but her passion was the mimic war, the amphitheatre 
«*tth its wild beasts an'】 gladiators, the proud spectacle of barbarian 

1. Langp, in his " Vindicise Romanes Tragnedito," and Welcker (" 6riechiich« 
Tra^OBdie") arc indicant at tY 3 general, and aa they asecrt, unjust dbparBfcmff«f 
< Roman tragedy. 

2 



LIFE OF HORACK. 



captives slaughtering each other for her amusement. Romt that 
^ anted the three great sources of poetic inspiration- -an l"m、【c pt ricKj, 
of history,, religion, and scenic representation. She had never, at 
least there appears no vestige of their existence, a enste or order oi 
bnrds ; her sacerdotal offices, attached to hor civ l magistracies, dis* 
iained the aid of high-wrought music, or niythic and haimomoai 
Symns. Foreign kings and heroes walked ner stage, 1 and even iksi 
•jometly represented, in general, the mahfiers of Athens or of Asia 
H 'nor rather than those of Italy. 

Still, however, in those less poetic departments of poetry, if we 
may so speak, which the Greeks had cultivated only in the later and 
Isss creative periods of their literature, the Romans seized the unoc 
.upicd ground, and asserted a distinct superiority. Wherever poetry 
ould not disdain to become an art 一 wherever lofty sentiment, nuv- 
estic, if elaborate verse, unrivalled vigor in condensing and express- 
icr moral truth, dignity, strength, solidity, as it were, of thought 
et,、d language, not 、v: hout wonderful richness and variety, could 
compensate for the chastened fertility of invention, the lite and dis- 
tinctness of conception, and the pure anil translucent language, ir 
which the Greek stands alone ― there the Latin surpasses all poetry 
In what is commonly called didactic poetry, whether it would con. 
vey in verse philosophical opinions, the principits of art, descriptions 
of scenery, or observations on life and manners, tlie Latin poeLs are 
of unrivalled excellence. The poem of Lucivrlus, the Georgics o! 
Virgil, the Satires and Epistles ol Horace, and the works of Juvenal, 
were, no cioub?, as much s,】peri"r even to the poem of Empedocles 
(of which, nevertheless, there are some very fine fragments), or to 
any other G reek poems to which they can fairly be compared, as 
the Latin tragedians were inferior to ^Eschylus and Sophocles, or 
Terence to Menamlor. 

Ennius, in all points, if he did not commence, completed the de. 
naturalization of Roman poetry. He was in every respect a Greek j 

1. Nine names of TnigooditB Praetextat®, tragedies on Roman subjeecs, bav« 
survived, more thtm one of which is doubtful ; four only claim to be of the ear'' 
ler age. I. The Paulus of Pacuvius, which Neukirch (" De Fabula Togata") and 
IVelcker ( u Griechische TragcBdie," p. 1384) suppose to have represented, not 
Paulus ^milius Macedoaicus, but his father, L. iEmilius Paulus, who, after tba 
battle of Cannse, refused to survive the defeat. (Lit., xxii., 49.) Yet, noble m 
whs the conduct of Paulus, the battle of Cannm would have been a strange subject 
ftv Roman tragedy. II. The Brutus of Accius (Cic., Ep. ad Att., xvi., 2 and 5) 
C:.i? 驄 Parraensis wrote also a Brutus ( fVelcltcr, p. 1403). Seo the dreum of Brutu< 
Id C'tc. De Divinat, i., 22, and Bothe (Scenic. Lat. Fragm., i., 191). From this fray 
raent Niebuhr (Rom. Hist, vol. i., note 1078) rather boldly concludes that theaa 
*'«re net iraitntions of the Greek drama, but hietorictd tragedies, like tfaoec of 
^hakspeare. III. The iEncada;, or Dccius of Accius. IV. The Marccllus of Acciuf 
s doubtful. V. The Iter ad Leiitulum, by Balbus, acted at Gadca, represented a 
pa88Rgo in the author's own life. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., x., 32.) The Iftter pnetex- 
tRtw were, VI The Cato ; and, VII. The Domitius Noro of Maternus, in the rcigo 
of Ve.spasinn. VIII. The Vescio of Pershia ; and, IX The Octaria, in tkn work« 
if Scotch, probably at the time of Trjyan. 



\FE OF HORACE. 



tin* 1 old Romnn legends spoke not in their fuli grandeur to hit 
ear. 丄, he fragments of the Annals, which relate the exploits of Ro- 
man valor, arc ay no means his most poetic passages j in almost ail 
his loftier flights we trace Grecian inspiration, or more than inspira- 
tion. If it be true that the earliest anoalists of Rome turned theit 
old rvwtry into prose, Ennius seems to have versified their tame his- 
tory, and to have lei't it almost as prosaic as before. It may bt 
doubted, notwithstanding the fame of Varius, whether there was anj 
Sue Roman narrative poetry till the appearance of the ^Eneid. Bat 
Lucretius had shown of what the rich and copious, and, in his hands, 
flexible Latin language was capable ; how it could paint as well as 
describe, and, whenever his theme would allow, give full utterance 
to human emotion. It is astonishing bow Lucretius has triumphed 
over the difiiculties of an unpromising subject, an:l the cold and ui" 
poetic tone of his own philosophy. His nobler bursts arc not sur 
passed in Latin poetry. Notwithstanding the disrepute in which 
C:cero r s p<?eti3 *Ale:its have been held, there arc lines, especially ir 
his transition of Aratus, which, by their bold descriptive felicity ami 
picturesque epithets, rise above the original. Lucretius was dead 
before Horace settled at Rome, and so, likewise, was the only oth(» 
great Roman p-et who has survived (excluding the dramatists), Ca 
tullus. Notwi : r stand ing their grace, sweetness, and passion, th< 
lyric poems of Catullus do not seem to have been so pleasing a 
sight have be< n expected to the Roman ear. His fame and popu 
larky rested chiefly on his satirical iambics. His lyrics are men 
tioued with ajsparagemcnt by Horace, and are not noticed by Quin 
till an ; yet in his happier moments, what Latin poet equals Catul 
las? Even if more t>f his poems than wo suppose are f ranslation? 
some of them, which we know to be translations, have all the fir 
and freedom of original poetry, tf tho Atys be but a feeble ocb* 
of a Greek dithyrambic, what must the dithyrambics of Greece havt 
been ? 

When Horace returned to Rome, Virgil and Varius, with Asiniu 
Pollio, the statesman and tragic writer, were the most celebrate 
names in Roman poetry. These two great poets soon admitted thi 
young Horace to their intimacy. The fame of Varius, as an epic 
poet, does not appear to have been recognized even by his Roman 
posterity. Quintilian speaks of his Thyestes whh the highest piaise, 
rn wnrthy to be compared with the nobiest Greek tr.agedies ; he does 
oot mention his name among the epic writers. Varius, it should 
seem, wrote fine verses on tho events and characters of the times ; a 
poom on tho dcalh of CoBsar, and a panegyric on Augustus. That 
kind of poetry obtains high reputation in its own day. bat loses itf 
interest with the events which it celebrates. Yet of the few epio 
lines of Varius \^iich survive, all show vigor and felicity of expres- 
sion, somo great oeautj. The Ecio^ncs of Virgil appeared in theii 
collective ft>rm ah〕ut tho samo limo vith the earliest publication of 
Horace, his first book of Satires B it Vir^j J had .ilroady acquiror 



ftune; some of his skoiter ])oemj had oxoiiod great admi ration and 
greater hope ; a few of his Eclogues roust have been already knows 
among his friends ; ho had the expectation, at least, of recovering 
his forfeited lands through the friendship of Asinius Pollio ; ho wtu 
already honored with the intimate acquaintance of Maecenas. 

The introduction of Horace to Maecenas was the turning-point uf 
h 、 fortunes ; but some time (at least two or three years) mus: hav« 

ervened bet svoon his return to Rome, and even his first presenfa« 
^ion to his future patron, during which be must have obtained soma 
ieputation for pottic talent, and so recommended himself to the friend* 
ihip of kindred spirits like Varius and Virgil. Poverty, in his own 
^rords, was the inspiration of his verse. 

" Pnupcrtiis impulit nudnz 
Ut versos faccrcm." 一 EpUt. ii., 2,*51, »eq. 

The interpretation of this passage is the difficult problem in ttia 
oa.'ly history of Horace. What was his poetry ? Did the author 
expect to make money or friends by it? Or did he write mere* 
ly to disburden himself of his resentment and his indignation, at thai 
crisis of desperation and destitution when the world was not hu 
friend, noi the world's law, and so to revenge himself upon that 
world by a stern and unsparing exposure of its vices ? Did the de« 
featetl partisan of Brutus and of liberty boldly hold up to scorn man; 
of tho followers and friends of the triumvir, whose follies and vicei 
might offer strong temptation to a youth ambitious of wiehling the 
course of Lucilius ? Did he even venture to ridicule the all-power- 
ful Mp^cenas himscll'? This theory, probable in itself, is supported 
by many recent writers, and is, perhaps, not altogether without founda • 
lion. 1 In the second satire, one unquestionably of his earliest cont- 
positions, most of the persons held up to ridicule belonged to the 
rsDsarieoi party. The old .scholiast asserts that, under the name of 
Malchinus, the poet glanced at the cQeminate habit of Maecenas, of 
tearing his robes trailing on the ground, wnile more malicious 
<candal added that thijs Was a trick in order to conceal his bad legs 
Arid straddling gait. To judge of the probability of this, wo must 
^ook forward to the minute account of his first interview with Maece- 
nas. If Horace was conscious of having libelled Maecenas, it must 
h&vo been more than modesty, something rather of shame and con- 
fusion, which overpowered him, and made his words few and broken. 9 

Tho dry and abrupt manner of Maecenas, though habitual to him, 
might perhaps bo alleged as rather in favor of the notion that he had 
been induced to admit a visit from a man of talent, strongly rccom, 
mended to him by the most distinguished men of letters of the day, 
though ho was awaro that the poet had been a partisan of Brutus, 
and had held himself up to ridicule in a satire, which, if not publish* 
fcH, had been privately circulated, and must have been known ai 
*ast to Varins and Virgil. Tho gentlemanly magnanimity of M«e« 
fpnas, or even the policy, which would induce him to reconcile al 

1 Wttlkejtaer, Histoirc de \a Vic d'Horace. i., p. 88. 2 Sat I^SmT 



L.IFE OP HOVACE. 



meL isi talent with the government, might dispose Liin to o tt \ 
vrith quiet ccntemft or easy indifference, or even to join in the iau^» 
at tbis touch of satire against his own peculiarity of person or mah 
ner ; bat, still, the subsequent ^uhliccUion of a poem containing such 
an allusion, after the satirist had been admitted into the intimacy of 
Mstoenas (and it is universally admitted that the satire w&s Arst pub- 
lished after this time), appears improbable, and altogether inoonsbtcnl 
with the deferential respect and gnititude shown by Horace to hia 
fMtroii with the singular tact and delicacy through wliic'n the poet 
pratierves his freedom by never trespassing beyond its proper bounds, 
wed with that exquisite urbanity which prevents his flattery from de» 
geaerating into adulation. This is still less likely if the allusion io 
the satire glanced at physical deformity or disease. After all, thii 
aegligence or effeminate aflectation wiis probably much too coirjnoo 
to point the satire against any individual, even one so eminent aa 
MeBcenas. The grave observation of the similarity between th« 
names of Maecenas and Malehinus, being each of three syllables and 
beginning with sn M, remin<ls us irresistibly of old Floellin's Mace- 
don and Monmouth. 

The olfce." rircumstances of the interview seem to imply that 
Horace felt r»u pecuiiar embarrassment, such as he might have ex- 
perienced it b> \v.i3 conscious of having libclied Maecenas. There 
was no awkward attempt at apology, but a plain independence ir 
his manner ; ho told him merely that he was neither a man of fain" 
[y nor fortune, and explained who and what he was 1 The question 
than recurs, wit it were these verses to which Ho^e was impeHed 
by poverty ? Poetry can not have been , f itself a gsdiiful ocenpa- 
lUon. The So?ii were not, like the opulent Ixraksellers of our owd 
day, ready to er.oourage, ard to speculate in favor of, a young a&d 
promising author. In another passage, written late in iil'e, the poel 
pleasantly describes himself as having grown ric h and indolent, and 
as having lost that genial inspiration of want wh ch heretofore had! 
10 powerfully excited his poetic vein. Pope has imitated the hu' 
momnB illustration of the old soldier with more than his usual felicity 

M In Anna's wars, n soldier, poor and old. 
Had dearly earn'd a little purse of gold. 
•Hrcd with a tedious march, one luckless nigfct 
He slept (poor dog), and lust it to a doit 
This put the man in such n desperate mind, 
Between revenge, and grief, nnd hunger join'd. 
Against himself, the foe, and all mankind 
He lctip'd the trenches, scaled n castle wh\\ 
Tore down a standard, took the fort nnd n\], 
• Prodigious well !' his great commander oriod, 
Gave him much praise, and some reward boaide. 
Next pleased his excellence a town to bnttcr 
(Its name I know not, and 'tis no great mHttpr; , 
'Go on, my friend/ he cried ; • sec yonder walli I 
Adrance and conquer I go where gU-ry oa!,« I 

L. Sat i" & 58. nqq. 



MWlW 一崎 Z ^av* . I 國 ■ 一 一 ■ ■ 國 一' ' — »,1 ― ■ 一, -. -.. ■ I ■ 



I If B i)r HORACB. 



Mote honors, more rcwarda, attonj the brmvef 
Doi/t you remember what reply ho gare f 
• D ye think rae, noble general, such a sot T 
Let liim take castles who has ne'er a groat.' r 

From these lines it appears that tne influence of poverty was Okoit 
:hac the independent desiie of exhaling his indignation against ihm 
partisans of the triumvirs, or of wreaking his revenge ; it was th« 
vnlgar dm prudential design, in some way or other, of bettering hit 
ek>ndit^on, wn 3h was his avowed inspiration. In truth, literary di» 
Uxction iu those times might not unreasonably liope for reward 
The most eminent of the earlier poets had not disdained the patron 
hge and friendship of the great statesmen. Ennius had been domi- 
oiliated in the family of the Scipios, and hi^statue was admitted 
after his death into tho family mausoleum. Lucilius had been con- 
nected with the same family. Lucretius lived in the house of the 
Mcmmii ; Terence with Scipio Africanus and Lnelius. Decimus 
Brutus was the admirer and patron of Accius ; as Messala of Tibul- 
Lus ; Vulcatius, or Hius Gallus, of Propertiu&. Varius was him- 
self a man of rank and birth ; bu: VirgiJ owed to his poetical fame 

he intimate friendship of Pollio an \ Maecenas ; 1 and though TTorace, 
As a known republican, could hardiy have hoped for the patronage 
of Meeccnas, there were others to whom the poet might have been 
Trelcome, though much prudence might be required in both parties 
• on account of his former political connections. 

But, whatever the motives which induced him to write, the poeti- 
cal talents of Horace must soon have begun to make themselves 
known. To' those talents he owed, in the first place, the friendship 
of Varius and Virgil, of Pollio, and perhaps of some others in that 
fist of distinguished persons, which he recounts in the tenth satire of 
*he first book. Some of these, no doubt, ho first encountered after 
"e had boen admitted to the society of Mzecenas. Under what other 
character, indeed, could the son of a provincial freed man, who had 
Deen on the wrong side in the civil wars, had lost all his property, 
and scarcely possessed tho means of living, make such rapid progress 
funong the accomplished and the great ? Certainly not by his soeia 
qualities alone, his agreeable manners, or convivial wit. Nothing 
out his well-known poetical powers can have so rapidly endeared 
aim to his brother poets. When Virgil and Varius told Mmcenan 

< what he was," they must have spoken of him as a writer of verses, 
.lot merely of great promise, but of some performance. But were 

1 If Donatus Is to be credited, Virgil received from the liberality of Ma frinndi 
aot lees than centics sesicrtii.m (£80,729 3*. Ad.), b^gides a house in Rome on d» 
BsquiUnc, a villa near Nola, perhaps anotlier in Sicily. (Donatio Vita Virg , ri. 
fiecoo Juren il'a well-known lines : 

" Magn») mentis opus, nec de ludicc paranda 
Attonittu, currus tit equos, faciemque Dourutri 
Aspicore, et quulis Rutulum confundnt Erinys 
Nam si Virgilio pucr ct tolerahile dccs8ct 
Uospitiuir. cadrrcnt mimes e crinibus hydri.**— Bat. tlil. 



LlFR OP HORACE. 



XV XI 



tx\t> two or three satinis, which we ma/ suppose to have bejn writ 
ten before his introdu ! tion to JVLecenas, sudicient to found lliis \ioiMi{- 
reputation ? Tha some of the upodes belong to this early part oi 
bis poetic al career, I have no doubt ; the whoh; adventure witt 
Cnnidia (that one of his poeiical intrigues which has a groundwork 
at least of reality) belongs to a p"riod of his life when he was loose, 
as it wore, upon the world, without an ascertained position in society t 
ai^ettled in habits, and to a certain degree in opinions. Nor doe* 
; here appoar to me any difficulty in the supposition that some of tUe 
ides, which bear the expression of youthful feelings and passion^ 
ttowever coliected afterward, and published in books, may have been 
Among the coupositions which were communicated to his friends, 
And opened to him the society of men of letters and the patronage 
of the great. 1 

Nine months elapsed between the first cold reo« i f ioa of Horace 
by Maecenas and his advances to nearer friendship. 

Maecenas, though still" engaged in public afl'airs, and though be 
had not yet built his splendid palace on the Esquiline, had neverthe- 
less begun to coiiect around him all tho men either eminent, or who 
promised to become eminent, in arts and letters. The friendship 
with Horace grew up rapi»^y into close intimacy. In the following 
year Horace accompanied ui.n on his journey to Brundisium ; to 
which Maecenas prtxjeeded, though on a political negotiation of the ut- 
most importance (the reconciliation of Anton) aud Octavianus), as 
on a party of pleasure, environed by the wits and poets who had be- 
gun to form his ordinary circle. 

The mutual amity of all ihe great men of letters in this period 
fives a singularly pleasing picture oi' the society which was har- 
»aoni/ed and kept together by the eximple and influence of Moeee- 
Tias. Between Virgil, Plotius, Variuj, i nd Horace, between Horace 
and Tibullus, there was not merely nc vulgar jealousy, no jarring 
rivalry, but the most frank mutual acmi/ation. If an epigr&m of 
Martia] be not. a mere fancy of the poet, Virgil carried his delicacy 
so far that he would not trespass on tha poetic provinces which 
seemed to belong to his friends. Though hj might have surpassed 
Varius in tragedy, and Horace in lyric poet.y, he would not attempt 
either, lest he should obscure their fame. 3 

L The most untenable part »>f the Bentlciw chronology, which, however, as fa 
as tfic publication of the separate books, is no doubt true, is his peremptory ar 
sertion that Horace employed himself only on one kind of poetry at a time : thai 
he wrote all the satires, then the epodes, then the three books i «f odea. Dr. TbIb. 
tbe faithful and unshaken disciple of Bentley, quoting thj lines, 

" Neque, si quia scribat, uti noa, 
Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poctam," 
does not scruple to assert thftt Horace, Sat i., 4, " says, m plaiuly as a man cm 
Bay it, that he had not thun written any thing which could entitle hun to the nami 
of a poet ;" therefore, no single ode. " But Horace," as has been well obsenred 
4 use, language much like this in his epistles (Epist. ii" 1 25J. &c.) t written ttftof 
4 11 bla odeA"— Dyer, in Class. Muae im, No. V , p. 215, Ac 
! tartial, RpU. viiL 1R. 



"Xll LIPR OF HORACE 

In *h« enj jyment of this society Horace completed the «bfli«tt »r 
tis « jrks which has reached posterity (if, indesd, we hatv i.r* >ii. 
vrhole published works), the first book of satires. 1 



CHAPTER III. 

•ATIiri POETRY 一 ITS ORIGIN 一 THE COMEDY OF ROMB— <4、'A1 象 O 曹 
§ %> C;ETY SABINE FARM 一 CHRONOLOOV OK THE BOOKS OF tiATlkXfl 
一駕 PODES ~ DATE OF COMPOSITION 一 OF COMPLETION. 

The satiric style of poetry was admirably suited to this way t>:、 
iving. It was the highest order of the poetry of society. It wiU 
bear the same definition as the best conversation ~~ good sense and 
wit in equal proportions. Like good conversation, it dwells enough 
on one topic to allow us to bear something away, while it is so de» 
altory as to minister perpetual variety. It starts from some sub- 
ject of interest or importance, but docs not adhere to it with ruriiJ 
pertinacity. The satire of Horace allowed ample scope to follow 
out any train of thought which it might suggest, but never to pru- 
lixity It was serious and gay, grave and light ; it admitted the 
most solemn und important questions of philosophy, of manners, of 
literature, hut touched them in an easy and unaflfcrtcd tone ; it waw 
full of point and sharp allusions to the characters of the day ; it in 
troduced in the most graceful manner the follies, the affectations, 
even the vices of tho times, but there was nothing stern, or savage, 
or malignant in its tone; we rise from the perusal with the convic- 
tion that Horace, if not the most urbane and engaging (not tho per- 
fect Christian gentleman), must have been the most sensible and de> 
lightfal j)erson who could be encountered in Roman society. There 
is no broad buffoonery to set the table in a roar ; no elaborate and 
exhausting wit, which turns the pleasure of listening into a fatigue { 
'i it trespasses occasionally beyond the nicety and propriety of mod, 
ern manners, it may fairly plead the coarseness of the times, and the 
war t of efficient female control, which is the only true chastener of 

«M> ― 帽 ■ ■ 靈' - '靈 11 1 國一— ■ — ^1^— ■ I 一攀— 

1. Even on the publication of the Fatires, odes, and epistles in separate book?, 
tlu'i e are more difficulties than at first sight appear in the chronology of Bentley. 
Several of the satires in the first, but especially the fourth, show that Horace had 
already made enemies by his satiric poetry. Horace was averse to the fashion of 
reciting poems in public, which had been introduced by AsiuiuB Follio, and com- 
plains that his own were read by few : 

" Cum mea nemo 
Sciipta legat, vulgo rccitarc timentis." 
Compare line 73, et seqq. Sonic recited their works in the forum, some in tho 
public baths. * 

No doubt he is in jest in this compaiison between his poems and those of liig 
rivals Crispinus and Fannius : but it seems to imply that his poems were already, 
some way or other, exposed to popular approbation or neglect. Our notion of 
publication, tlio striking off at once a whole edition, probably misleads us. Before 
the invention of printing, each poem must have been copied ami rccopied 6cpn- 
rateljr; perhaps they may not have been exposed for sale till made up in bookie 



l*iTE OF HGRACE. 



\XXii 



cjDTvrdatioii, but whi^h can only command respect where the fe 
males themselves deserve it. 

The satiric form of poetry was not original ; there was something 
like it in the Silli of the Greeks, and Lucilius had already introdaced 
this style of writing into Rome with great success. The obligauonx 
of Horace to Lucilius it is impossible fairly to estimate from the few 
and broken passages of that writer which have survived. Horace 
cau h&rdly oe suspected of unworthy jealousy in the character wh.ioh 
^ gives of his predecessor in the art. Notwithstanding Quintiian 7 4 
»:atemont that there were some even in his own clay who still pre- 
ferred the old satirist, not merely to all poets of his class, but evet 
Iz evt ry other Roman poet, there can bo no doubt that Lucilius vrtu 
rude, harsh, and inharmonious ; and it is exactly this style of jtoetrj 
which requires ease, and that unstudied idiomatic perspicuity of lan. 
gfuage, that careless, as it may seem, but still skillful construction 
of verse which delights the ear at tho same time that it is widely 
different from the stately march of the Virgilian hexameter, or th« 
smooth regularity of the elegiac poets. It is so near akin to proso 
as to require great art to keep up the indispensable distinction from it 

The poetry of Horace was the comedy of an untheatric&l people 
If the Romans had been originally a thoatrical people, there woul<) 
h^vo been a Roman drama. Their prEBtextatre were but Greek 
dramas on Koman subjects. The national character of the people 
was, doubtless, the chief cause of the want of encouragement to tho 
drama, but we may go still further. Tho true sphere of the drama 
seems to be a small city, like Athens (we reckon its size by its fre« 
population), London in iht time of Elizabeth and James, Paris in 
Chat of Louis XIV., or Weimar at the closo of tho last century. Iq 
these citie«, either all orders delight in living in public, or there is » 
large and predominant aristocracy, or a court which represents o; 
leads the public taste. Rome was too populous to crowd into a thea- 
tre, where the legitimate drama could be effectively performjed. The 
people required at least a Colosseum ; and directly, as el&ewhera^ 
their theatres rivalled their amphitheatres, the art was gone. So 
piety, too, in Rome, was in a state of transition from tho public speo 
tacle to the private banquet or entertainment ; as our own pres- 
ent mode of living requires the novel instead of thje play, aflbrds 疆 
hundred readers of a book to ore spectator «>!' a theatrical perforr^- 
aoce, so Roman comedy receded from tho theatre, in which she hafi 
never been naturalized, and concentrated her art and her observation 
on human life and manners in the poem, which was recited to thfl 
private circle of friends, or published for the general amusement of 
the whole society. 

Lucilius, as Horace himself says, aspired to bo in Rcme whp 
Eapolis, Cratinus, and Aristophanes bad been in Athens (Sat. i., 5, 
1, teqq.) j and more than Csccilius, Plautus, and Terence, excel leoi 
as the two latter at least appear to us, were at Rome. 

Tho tone of society, of which Horace is the representative waa 

2* 



LIFE OK HOHACR 



that into which Home, wean' and worn out with civil ooit^sts. ,«i 
delighted to collapse. The peace of the capitJti xaa no mot a di» 
Curbed ; though the foreign disturbances in Spair. and on ihn othei 
frontiers of the empire, the wars with the sons of Pc^npey, and, Anal. 
1)', with Antony in the East, distracted the remoter woi'ld, Rome 
quietly subsided i"to the pursuits of peace. It was the polioy no lesi 
than the inclinatio:i of Augustus and his true friends to £olten, to 
tunuse, to introduce all the arts, and tastes, and feeniigs v-bich coaU 
ndooo forgetfulness of the more stirring excitements of the rostn 
And the senate ; to awaken the song of the poet, that the agitating 
eloquence of the orator might cause less regret ; to spread the oouob 
of luxury, of elegant amusement, and of lettered ease, on which Roma 
might slumber away the remembrance of her departed liberties. 
Agrippa and Augustus himself may be considered ls taking charge 
of the public amusements, erecting theatres, and alorning the city 
with magnificent buildings of every description, transmuting the 
Rome of brick into the Rome of marble ; exhibiting the most gor- 
geous shows and spectacles ; distributing sumptuous largesses ; and 
compensating, by every kind of distraction and diversion, for the pri- 
vation of those more serious political occupations hi the forum or at 
the comitia, which were either abolished by the constitution, or had 
Iang^ishftd into regular and unexciting formalities/ Maecenas, in 
the mea" time, was winning, if not to the party, or to ]>ersonal attach- 
ment toward Augustus, at least to contented acquiescence in his 
sovereignty, those who would yield to the silken charms of social 
enjoyment. Though in the Roman mansion or Baian villa, as after- 
ward in tho palace on the Esquiline, no test of opinion might be de- 
manded, and no severe or tyrannous restriction be placed on the ease 
And freedom of conversation, republican sentiments, or expressions 
of dissatisfaction at the state of public aflfkirs, would be so out of 
place at the hospitable banquets of Maecenas as to be proscribed by 
the common laws of courtesy or urbanity. Men's minds would be 
gradually reconciled to the suppression, if not to forgetfulness cr 
abandonment, of such thoughts and feelings ; they were gradually 
langht how agreeably they might live under a despotism. 

Horace was not the only republican, nor the only intimate friend 
o*' Brutus, who took refuge in letters : 

" Hjbc est 

Vita solutoruxa misera ambitionc gravique." 

He excused himself from the hopelessness of the cause, of which be 
ftill cherished some generous reminiscences. He still occasionailjf 
betraycJ old associations. a.s in his flushes of admiratirn at the un* 

1. Tho panfomime8 had bejun to supersede the regular drama. 1 ylados was ex 
polled by a faction, but recalled from exile by Augustus. In a dispute with Bathyl 
lu«, who was patronized by Meuccnas, Pylades cried out, " It is wo'l for you, C»- 
flor, thnt the poopls trouble themselves so much about us, the less, th^ircf.ire, aboaf 
yoTO."-: Dio Ca?s., liv., 17. S<:o, on the pantomimes of the R ltuana, an ercJCr-u 
dwscrtnticn by E. J. Grysar, Rhcinischcs Museum. 1834 



LIFK uK" UJUACIfi. 



XXX* 



broken spirit t nd nob t death cf Cato; }'et, nevertheless, he gradual* 
Ij softened into the friend oi the emperor' s favorite, and ut length 
into the poetical courtier cC the emperor himself. Horace, indeed 
asserted and maii^ained greater independence of personal character 
than rr.ost subjects of tho new emp ire ; there is a tone oi dignity and 
self-respect even in the most adulatory passages of his writings. 

Betwef?n the publication of the two books of satires, Horace 
eeived fronv Mujcenas the gift of the Sabine farm, the only product - 
IV0 property which he ever possessed, and on which he lived in mod- 
erate contentment. Nothing could be more appropriate lean thli 
gift, which may have been soO ened olf, as it were, as a compensa 
tion wr his confiscated personal estate ; the act of generosity ma) 
have recommended itself as an act of justice. Virgil had recoven d 
bis own native fields, but the estate of Horace had no doubt been 
irrevocably granted away. The Sabine farm had the recommenda- 
tion of being situated in a country as romantic, nearer to Rome, and 
it no great distance from the scenes in which Horace delighted be- 
yond all others in Italy. 

The Sabine farm of Horace was situated in a deep and romantic 
valley about fifteen miles from Tibur ( Tivoli) . The description of 
the farm, its aspect, situation, and climate, exactly correspond with 
thty valley of Licenza, into which modern Italian ])ronunciation has 
aidted the hard Digentia. The site, with some ruins of buildings, 
was first discovered, and discussed at length by Cnpmartin de 
Chaupy, in his " Maison de Campagne d' Horace." It has since 
been visited by other antiquarians and scholars, who have found al- 
most every name mentioned by the poet still clinging to the mount- 
ains and villages ol' the neighborhood. 

The estate was nat extensive ; it produced corn, olives, and vines; 
it was surrounded by pleasant and shady woods, and with abundance 
ol the purest wator ; it was superintended by a bailiff (villicus), and 
cultivated by five families of free coloni (Epist. i., 14, 3) ; and Horace 
employed about eight slaves {Sat. ii., 7, 118). 

To the munificence of Mnscenas we owe that peculiar charm of 
^jje Horatian poetry that it represents both tho town and country life 
of the Romans in that age ; the country life, not only in the rich and 
luxurious villa of the wealthy at Tivoli or at Baise, but in the se- 
3 laded retreat and among the simple manners of the peasantry. It 
might seera as if ihe wholesome air which the poet breathed during 
his retirement un his farm rciavig crated his natural manliness of mind 
There, notwiths):andin<r his 】ovc of convivial enjoyment in the palace 
Df Ma&cenas and other wea'thy friends, he delighted to revert to his 
3wn sober and frugal mod* 1 , of livir g. Probuhly at u later period of 
life he indulged himself in a villa at Tivoli, which he loved for its 
inild winter and long spr ; ng ; 1 and all the later years ol' his lii'e wen 
jiassed between these tvo country residences and Rome. 

一 r Vm Tibur, ane Carp*. \ 7, 10-14 ; iu, «, 5-« ; id n 4, 91-21 ; W., % 87-31 • itL, 
0-12: Epod i.. 20. 30; t\^\, i , 7. 44-5: 8. 



LlFK OP HOR.";B. 



The frbcoiid Kx>k of satires followed the first. It is e\idenr, frnn 
(lie fit st lines of this book, that the poet had made a strong iir.pres- 
sion on the public taste. No writer, with the keen gocnl sense of 
Horace, would have ventured on such expressions as the following, 
mless he had felt confident of his position : 

" Sunt quibus in Satira videor niinis accr, ct ultra 
Legem tendere opua ; sine nervis altera, quicqnid 
Composui, pars esse pntat, similesquc meorum 
Mille die versus deduci poMe." 一 Sat ii., 1, 1, »eqg. x 

Hiij is the language of a privileged egotist; of one who had ao* 
ai ed a right, by public suffmge, to talk of himself. The victim ol 
cis satire will be an object of ridicule to the whole city : 

" Nec quisqunm noceat cupido mihi pacis ! et ille 
Qui mc commArit (melius non tangcre ! clnmo) 
Flebit, et insignia tota cantabitur urbc."— Ib., 45, »eqq* 

The sixth satire of this book is the most important in the chronol'> 
ey of the life and works of Horace. 3 It was in the eighth year 4 of 
his fomiliarity with Mzecenas that this satire was composed. Tfl 
his must be added the nine monlhs after his first introduction. If 
Horace returned to Rome in the winter after the battle of Philippi 
(A.U.C. 712, 713), time must be allowed for him to form his friend- 
ship with Virgil and with Varius, and to gain that poetic reputation 
by pieces circulated in private which would justify their recommenda- 
tion of their friend to Maecenas. The first introduction could scarce 

I. I fubioin the imitation of his beet interpreter, at least, if not commentator : 
" There nre (I scarce can think it, but am told), 

There nre to whom my satire seems too bold ; 

Scarce to wise Peter complnisant enough, 

And something said of Chartres much too rough ; 

The lines are weak, another's pleased to eay, 

Lord Fanny spins a thousand such a day." 一 Pope. 
2 " Pence is my dear delight, not Fleery'a rncro ! 

But touch me, nnd no minister so sore. 

Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time, 

Slides into verse, or hitchoa in a rhytne ; 

Sacred to ridicule his whole life long, 

And the sad burden of a merry song." 一 Pope. 
& film Sat iL, 6, 40-47. ^Tiis plcnaant passngc is exquisitely adapted by Swift 
" 'Tis Oct mu see) three years and more 

(October next it will be four) 

Since Harley bid mc first attend. 

And chose mc for an humble friend ; 

Would take me in his coach to cliat, 

And question me of this and that ; 

As, What's o'clock ? or How's the wind f 

Whose chariot's that we left behind ? 

Or, Have you nothing new to-duy 

From Pope, from Parnell, or from Gay Y* &c. Ac. 
4. Bama oonstrun " Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus' m otifj «ix 
fmxn and a half. The past fvgerit, surely implies that the seventh year hftd ac 
»vtUy clapsrd. uid above half aypur mora 



tIFE OF HOHA (; B 



X&XV1 



• ly, therefore, be earlier than A.U.C. 715. It is impossible, therefore, 
that this book could be completed before late in A.U.C. 722, th< 
year before the battle of Actium. If, however, there be au allusioc 
to the divjsion of lands U the soldiers engaged in that war, the date 
can not be before A.U.C. 721. 1 

The book of epodes may be cons lered as in one sense the trunsi* 
\ioc from satire to lyrtc poetry. Though not collected or completed 
till ih^ present period of the poet's life, this book appears to contain 
tome of the earliest compositions of Horace. In his sweet youth, 
his strong passions drove him to express himself in the sharp iambic 
verse (Carrn. i., 16, 22-4). Bentley's observation, which all would 
wish to be true, is perhaps more so than would appear from his own 
thsoiy ; that, as it proceeds, the stream of the Horatian poetry flews 
not only with greater elegance, but with greater purity. 8 

The moral character of the poet rises in dignity and decency ; ho 
has cast off the coarseness and indelicacy which defile some of his 
earliest pieces ; in his odes he sings to mttidens and to youths. The 
two or three of the epodes which offend in this manner, I scruple not 
to assign to the first year after the return of the poet to Rome. But 
not merely has he rise.i above, and refined himself from, the grosser 
licentiousness, his bitter and truculent invective has gradually soft 
oned into more playful satire. Notwithstanding his protestation, 
some of his earlier iambics have much of the spirit as well as the 
numbers of Archilochus. 

The book of epodes was manifestly completed not long after the 
last war between Octavianus and Antony. The dominant feeling in 
the. mind of Horace seems now to have been a horror of civil war. 
The war of Perugia, two years after Philippi, called forth his first 
•idignant remonstrance against the wickedness of taking up arms, 
iot for the destruction of Carthage, the subjugation of Britain, but tc 
fulfill the vows of the Parthians for the destruction of Rome by hei 

1. This part of the Bcntleian chronology is, it may almost bo ;' 脚 rted, impossi 
UI«>. Bcntley refers the partition of land alluded to in the celebrated liue, 

" Promis8a Triquetra 
PreBdia Csesar an est Itala tellurc daturas," 
to the division which followed the defeat of Sex. Pompoius. This defeat took 
place A.U.C. 718; the death of Pompeius A.U C. 719. The eight years and a half 
■lone would throw the presentation to Miecenas above the date of the battle of 
Philippi, A U.C. 712. The only way of escape is to supposo that the division wa< 
promised, not fulfilled, and took several years to carry out Bat this is irrcconcilar 
ble with the accounts of this division in the historians, and the allusion in Horace 
In ite first enactment &s to where the lands were to be assigned. 

2. M In caeteris autem singulis pr»cedentis astatis gradus plenissimis signis in 
<fi.cat ; idqae tali ex hac scric jam a me demonstrata jncundum erit uniraadvertere 
eont operibus juvcnilibua multa obscena et flagitiofn insint, quanto annis provec 
Hor er&t, Umto earn ct poetica virtute et argumexAonim dignitate grbvitatoqoe me> 
*lorem semper castioremquc evasisse." 一 Bentleius in pr.ufat But by Benticy'a 
fiheory the w "at of the epodes were written whrn he wts 32 or X\ years old 
hardly "annia jurenilibua. • The 14th beara date after tt\a lotimacy w^s formfj 
-«tth Masccoaa. 



LIFE OF IIORACR. 



owi han is. 1 Both at that time and several years later ilewise, \wst 

befo e the war of Actium, the date of the first epode, the most ardei* 

lover of liberty might deprecate the guilt and evil of civil war. It 

was not for freedom, but for the choice of masters between the sob- 

tlo Octaviauus and the profligate Antony, that the world was again to 

be deluged with bloc. I. The strongest republican, even if he retax- 

ed the utmost jealous) and aversion for Octavianus, might prefer his 

4»ause to that of an Eastei n despot, so Antony appeared, ami so b, 

was represented at Rome, supported by the arms of a baibari&i: 

quoen. 2 It might seem that the fearful and disastrous times had 

bioken up the careless social circle, for whose amusement and in- 

stmnticr. the satires were written, and that the poet was thiowa 

oack by force into a more grave and solemn strain. Msecenas him- 

ieli' is summoned to abandon his delicious villa, his intellectual friends, 

hin easy luxury, and to mount the hard deck of the tall ships of war : 

•' Ibis Liburais inter »lta nnvium, 
Amice, propuguucula." 一 Kpod. i., 1. 

Horace was in doubt whether he slum Id accompany his patron. Mae- 
cenas, however, remained in Italy ; and, after a short absence, re 
Burned the government of Rome. The first epode expresses the 
poet's feelings on this trying occasion, and perhaps has never been 
surpassed by any composition of its kind. There is hardly any piece 
of the same length in which the delicacy of compliment is so blended 
with real feeling, or gratitude and attachment expressed with sc 
much grace and dignity. The exquisite second epode might natu- 
rally appear to have been written after the possession of the Sabine 
estate ; the close, in which lie seems to turn all his own rural senti- 
ment into ridicule, is a touch of playfulness quite in his own man- 
ner. The ninth epode is, as it were, the poet's first song of triumpb 
for the victory at Actium ; the triumph, not in a civil war, but over 
a foreign foe. In the fourteenth there is an apology for his tardi- 
ness in completing the book of epodes which he had promised to 
AfaRcenas : - 

" Inceptos olim ])ro>nisgiim cannen i umbos 
Ad uiEbilicuiu diu ere." 

1 . Read the seventh epode : 

*' Quo quo scelepti niitia ! aut cur dcxtcris," Sec. 
The tone of this poem agrees brttor with tho entirely independent situation d 
Horace at tho time of the war of Porujjia, than later, when ho was at lcaat (a> 
.iioagh he was yet unfavored by Octnvijinus) the friend of the friend ofOctavianiu 
Hie seventeenth ode, in which he pot'tically urges the migration of the Roma 
/y>ple to some happier and secluded hmd, so eras likewise to belong to that peri >d 
S. " Intcrque signn, twrpo, militaria 

Sol aspicit conopium." 一 Epod. ix., 15. 

Br' Viffil, 

' Hiiic ope barbnricn, variisque Antonius armis, 
Victor ab auror* populis et litore rubro 
^gyptiim, virosque Orientis, et ultima secum 
B^tra VrahiU gcquiturque ncfas) ^gyptia conjux." 

JEwii, vlii tV 



LIFE OP HORACE. 



YXX1X 



The whole bMk u p|»eared most probably A..D .C 725, the secoAd 
fA>ar after the battle of Actium, in the thirty-<ixth of the lifu of iriorac^e 



CHAPTER IV. 

SOH iCS A LYUIC WRITER 一 ORIGINALITY OF HIS ODES— DATK OF COM' 
POSITION ― MERITS OF THE ODES ~~ EPISTLES 一 GENERAL CClCPOSf 
TION— CHARACTER OF HORATIAN POETRY. 

Horace how became a lyric poet, or, rather, devoted himself c&, 
Orely to the cultivation of that kind of poetry. The nine or tec 
vears of his life after the battle of Actium (A.U.C. 724 to 734, liAi 
of Horace 35 to 45) were employed in the composition, or the com- 
pletion, of the first three books of odes. 

The odes bear the character of the poet's life during this long 

period. He has reverted to bis peaceful enjoyment of society. The 

sword of civil war is sheathed ; one of his earliest and noblest bursts 

is the song of triumph for Actium, with the description of the death 

of Cleopatra. There is just excitement enough of foreign warfare 

on the remote frontiers of Spain, in Britain, in Arabia, to give an 

opportunity for asserting the Roman's proud consciousness of uni< 

versal sovereignty. Parthia consents to restore the standards of 

Crassus, or, at all events, has sent a submissive embassy to Rome : 

the only enemies are the remotest barbarians of the North and Kani 

with harsh-sounding names. 

" Urbi solicitus times 
Quid Seres, et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent, Tanaisque discora." 一 Carm. iil., 29, 26-8. 

Octaviaims has assumed the name of Augustus ; the poet has ac< 
quiesced in his sole dominion, and introduces him, for the first time, 
into his poetry under this his imperial title. Public afTairs and 
private friendships ~ the manners of the city 一 the delights of the 
country «~ all the incidents of an easy and honorable literary life sug- 
gest the short poem which embodies the feelings and sentiments of 
Hurace. His philosophical views and his tender attachments enable 
him to transport into Rome such of the more pleasing and beautiful 
lyrics of Greece as could appear with advantage in a Latin dress. 
Horace not only naturalizes the metres, but many of the poems of the 
Greek lyrists. Much ingenuity has been wasted in forming a chroo* 
iei« of the amours of Horace, almost as authentic, no doubt, as that 
§o the graceful poem of our own Cowley. However fatal to the 
personality of the poet in many of his lighter pieces, I must profess 
my disbelief in the real existence of tho Lalages , and Lytlias, and 
Glyceras, and Lyces, and Chloes. Their names betray their origin ; 
ibough many damsels of that class in Rome may have been of Greek 
or servile birth, many of them, no doubt, occupy tbo srrae place id 
IQe imitnticn of the Greek poem which they did in the original.' 
L Comj»iire an essay of Bu'tinann, in German, in the Berlin Traneactiona, a^i U 



41 



LiFK OF IIORJlOls 



By a ca refnl examination of each ode, with a fine critical pei'ce^ioft 
ami some kindred congeniality with a poetic mind, much mi^bt per. 
haps be done to separate the reai fiom tho imitative, the origins! 
from tbe translated or transfused. This would, at least, be a more 
hopeful and rational work of criticism than the attempt to dato every 
piece from some vague and uncertain allusion to a contemporary 
event. Some few indeed, but very few, bear their distinct and un* 
deniable date, as the ode on the death of Clc patra (Carm. i., 37). 1 

According to the rigid chronology of Bentley, this poem must 
save been the first, or nearly the first, attempt of Horace to write 
lyric poetry. But it is far more probable that the books of cdes c<,o> 
tietin poems written at very different periods ia the life of Horace, 
finished up for publication on the separate or simultaneous appear- 
ance of the first three books. Even if written about the same time, 
they are by no means disposed in chronological order. The arrange- 
ment seems to have been arbitrary, or, rather, to have been made 
not without regard to variety of subject, and, in some respects, of 
metre. In ihe first book, the first nine and the eleventh might seem 
placed in order to show the facility with which the poet could com- 
mand every metrical variety, the skill with which, in his own words 
he could adapt the Grecian lyric numbers to Latin poetry. The 
tenth, the Sapphic ode to Mercury, is the first repetition. There is, 
likewise, a remarkable kind of moral order in the arrangement of 
these odes. The first, is a dedicatory address to his friend and patron 
Maecenas, the object of his earliest and of his latest song. The sec- 
ond is addressed to the emperor, by his new title, Augustus. The 
third relates to his dear friend and brother poet, Virgil ; then comes 
the solemn moral strain to Sestius, followed by perhaps the most 
finishml of his love songs, to Pyrrha Throughout the whole book 
(r, rather, the whole collection of odes, there seems this carefu) 
etui/ of contrast and variety ; the religious hymn to the god of 
mei'vjurial men is succeeded by the serious advice to Lcuconoe. 

The just estimate of Horace, as a lyric poet, may be more closely 

his Mythologo?. and translated in the Philological Museum, vol. i" p. 439, aeqq 
Buttmann carries out to the extreme his theory, that most of the love-lyrics aro 
translations or imitations from the Greek, or poems altogether ideal, and without 
liny real ground-work. 

1. Within a few yearj there hnve been five complete chronologies of tbe whtl« 
works of Horace, which pretend to assign the true year to the composition of every 
one of liia poems : I. Kiractner, QueBStiones Horatianw' Leipzig, 1834. II. Franker 
Fasti Horatiani, Berlin, 1839. III. Histoire de la vie et des Poesies de Horace, pai 
M. le Baron Walckenaer, 2 vols., Paris, 1840 ; a pleasing romance on the life and 
times of Horace. IV. Quiutuii Horatius Flaccus, ale Mcnsch und Dichter, von 
1>. W. K Weber, Jena, 1844. V. Grotefend. Tho article Horatius iu Ersch and 
Gmber's Encyclopaedie. Besides these, there are, among later writer^ the live 
of Horace by Passow and by Zumpt ; the notes in the FiBnch tranBlatioo of the 
odes by M. Vai'derbourg ; the notes of Heindorf on tbe satires ; and </ Sclitnid 
on the epistlei. Tho irreconcilable discrepancies among qU those ingenious au 
thon show the futility of the attempt ; almost every one begins by admitting tlu 
'inpoMihility ot* success, and then propepcU fcp f|*anie a nevy scheme. 



l.IFB I r HORACE X- 

eonnected fban uppoars at first with these coiuiderattons. Netthei 
was his tho age, nor was Latin the language for the highest atv* 
aoog. The religious, and what we may call the national, the secoi,, 
inspiration of the genuine lyric, were both v anting. The religion m 
tho Horatian ode is, for the most pe rt, tho common-place maehinerv 
of the established creed, the conventional poetic mythology, of whicn 
the influence was effete. There is \\u deep and earnest dovotion ; 
even the gods aio rather those of Greek poetry than of the old Ro 
flBUQ Uith. The allusion to passing events are those of a calm ^nd 
elf-possessed observer, ingeniously weaving them into his occasioniij 
ieccs j not the impassioned overflow of the poetic spirit, seizing and 
pouring forth、 in one long and inexhausted stream, all the thoughts, 
and sentiments, and images, and incidental touches, which are trans' 
muted, as it were, by thr> bard into part of his own moral being. As 
compared with the higLjst lyric poetry, the odes of Horace are 
greatly deficient ; but as occasional pieces inspired by friendship, by 
moral sentiment, or as graceful and finished love verses, they are 
perfect ; their ease, spirit, perspicuity, elegance, and harmony com- 
pensate, as far as may be, for the want of the nobler characteristics 
of daring conception, vehemence, sublimity, and passion. 

The separate or simultaneous publication of the first three books 
of odes, and the date of their publication, mainly depends on one 
question. If ilic voyage of Virgil to the East, on which the third 
ode of the first book was written, be that mentioned in the life ol 
Virgil by Donatas, thai book can not have appeared before the yeai 
U.C. 735, and in such ease the three books must have been publish, 
p'd together about that time. 

Tho epistles were the work of the mature man. The first book 
was written about B.C. 20, 19, A.U.C. 734, 735. No one doubts 
that these delic htful compositions are the most perfect works oi 
Horace ; but k is singularly difficult to define, even to our own con- 
ception, still more in language, in what consists their felt and ac 
knowledged charm. They possess every merit of tho satires in a 
higher degree, with a more exquisite urbanity, and a more calm and 
commanding good sense. In their somewhat more elevated tone, 
they stand, as it Ave re, in the midway between the odes and the 
satires. They are that, in short, which Pope, their best, if not their 
one successful imitator, is to English poetry. 

The (esthetic law, which would disfranchise Horace nnd Pope, 
and this whole class of writers, from the venerable guild of poets, 
must depend upon what we mean by the word poetry. This ques- 
tion had already occurred to Horace himself. Some doubted wheth- 
er comedy was a form of poetry, and whether Ai'istoph'anes and Mc- 
nander were to be honored with the name of poets (Sat. i., 4, 45). If 
poetry mast necessarily be imaginative, creative, impassioned, digni- 
fied, it is also clear that it must become extinct in a certain state of 
society, oi', instead of transcribing the actiuil enintions nnd sentiments 
of men, it must throw itsslf back into n more stirring nnd romantic 



xiii 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



p€r.od. It i.mst make for itself a foreign realm ii the peM cr in t)M 
future. At all events, it must have recourse to s>me remote or ex 
traordia ary excitement ; the ca.m course of every nlay events can af- 
ford no subject of nspiration ; the decencies and conventional pro 
prieties of civilized life lie upon it as a deadening spell ; the assira 
dating and levelling tone of manners smooths uway all which u 
striking or sublime. 

But may there not be a poetry of the most civilized and bighl/- 
t^Hivated state of human society ; something equable, tranquil 
seiene; affording delight by its wisdom &.nd truth, by its grace and 
e 化 gauce ? Human nature in all its forms is the domain of poetry 
and though the imagination may have to perform a different oUice. 
and to exercise a more Hinited authority, yet it can not be thought 
'、,•, rather, can not be feared, that it will ever be so completely ex- 
tinguished in the mind of man as to leave us nothing but the every, 
day world in its cold and barren reality. 

Poetry, indeed, which thrills and melts ; which stirs the very depths 
of the heart and soul; which creates, or stretches its reanimating 
wand over tho past, tho distant, the unseen, may be, and no doubt 
is, a very different production of the wonderful mechanism of »hc 
human mind from that which has only the impressive language and 
the harmonious expression, without the fiction of poetry ; but human 
life, even in its calmest form, will still delight in seeing itself re 
ftected in the pure mirrpr "I poetry ; and poetry has too much re>»J 
dignity, too much genaino sympathy with universal human nature 
to condescend to be exclusive. There is room enough on the broad 
heights of Helicon, at least on its many peaks, for Homer and Menan 
der, for Virgil and Horace, for Shakspeare, and Pope, and Cowper 
May we not pass, without supposing that we are abandoning t'w 
'acred precincts of the Muses, from the death of Dido to the epistle 
;o Augustus ? Without asserting that any thing like a regular cycle 
briiijrs round the taste for a particular style of composition, or thai 
:he demand of the human mind (more poetic readers must not be 
•hocked by this adoption of the language of political economy) re- 
quirts, and is still further stimulated by the supply of a particulat 
kind of production at particular periods ; it may be said, in general, 
that poetry begets prose, and prose .poetry ― that is to say, wheu 
poetry has long occupied itself solely with more imaginative subjects, 
when it has boon exclusively fictitious dnd altogether remote frorr 
the ordinary affairs of life, there arises a desire for greater truth— 
fi»r i more close copy of th/.t which actually exists around us. Good 
,' <ise, keen observation. '3rse expression, polished harmony, then 
•rmmaiid and delight, im possess, perhaps in their turn too exclu- 
sively, tor some time, the public ear. But directl) jis familiarity 
5'ith common life has too cl^"^lv approximated poetry to prose— 
v hen it is undibtinguisheil, o* ^re'y distinguished from prose by a 
f invent ional poetic language, r certain regular forms i)f veife "一 
vhen the poetic spirit bursts away again into freedom ; and, •» gou 



LIFE OP HORACE. 



XJ 



ei-nl, U its fifAt sti uggle for emancipation, breaks out into ex rava- 
gance ; tin unfettsred imagination runs riot, and altogether scorn* 
the alliance of truth and nature, to which it falsely attributes its long 
and ignoble thraldom, till some happy spirit weds n<rnii\ those which 
should never have been dissevered, and poetry becomes once 麵 re, 
in the language of one of its most enchanting votaries, 

" Truth severe in fiaery fiction dress'd." 
Hence may, perhaps, be formed a just estimate of the poetical ohai 
acter of Horace. Of him it may be said, with regard to the iximrt 
perfect form of his poetry, the epistles, that there is a period in the 
fltterary taste of every accomplished individual, as well as of every 
ooun'ry, not certainly in ardent youth, yet far from the decrepituda 
of old age, in which we become sensible of the extraordinary ami 
nndefinable charm of these wonderful compositions. It seems to i e- 
qaire a certain maturity of mind ; but that maturity by no mcan.i 
precludes the utmost enjoyment of the more imaginative poetry. It 
is, in fact, the knowledge of the world which alone completely quali- 
fies us for judging the writings of a man of the world ; our ov T t, 
practical wisdom enables us to appreciate that wisdom in its most 
aAlightful form. 



CHAPTER V. 

POSITION OF HORACE DURING THE DECLINE OF LIFE 一 FRIENDSU11 
WITH AUGUSTUS ~" RELIGION OF HORACE 一 PHILOSOPHY ~~ CL9SE O* 
HIS LIFE ― POETICAL CRITICISM 一 EPISTLES TO AUGUSTUS AND AR^ 
OF POETRY 一 DEATH 一 HIS PERSON. 

Never was position more favorable than that of Horace for t» 
development of this poetic character. The later years of his life 
^rere passed in an enviable state of literary leisure. He has graduai 
*y risen from the favorite of the emperor's friend to the poet in whosf 
compositions the shrewd and sagacious emperor is said himself to 
have desired to be enshrined for the admiration of posterity. The 
first advances to intimacy with the poet came from the emperor him- 
seif. Augustus had at first been his own secretary ; he had written 
hifl own letters to his friends ; he offered that honorable and confiden 
tial pos: to the poet. He requested Maecenas to transfer our Horace 
tts he c undescended to call hin, into his service. When the poet de 
etines the offer, Augustus is not in the least oflended, and does not 
glow cool in his friendship. He almost, tempts him to ask favors ; he 
assures him of his undiminished regard : " If you," he says, "are so 
prond as to disdain my friendship, I shall not become haughty in my 
tain." He writes of him in terms of familiar, and, it may almost be 
? aid, coarse admiration. 1 The fourth book of odes and the secular 

1. " Ante ipse suffiWcbam scribendis cpiatolis Amicorum ; nunc occupatissimiu 
. t infirmas, Ilomtium nostrum to cupio addicero. Vcniat igitur ab ista parasitici 
rensa ad haic reliant, et nos ia cpistolis scribendia adjuvet" Sec the fn^monti 



i.IFE OP (10RA (; K. 



Ivron were wrilten at tho express desiro r.;f the en per ir. ^*a r wa§ 
ttmbitioas thai tho extraordinary virtues ot' his step-sons : 1 «n\:iiu 
&nd Drus»us, should be commemorated in tho immortal s rairis of the 
poet. 

There is no reason to reproach Horace either with insincerity m 
with servility in his praises of the emperor. It is remark ible ho% 
much his respect for Augustus seen" to strengthen, and his aflfectica 
to kindle into personal attachment, as we approach the close of hit 
poetical career. The cpistlo to A,,gustus is almost, perhaps may 
hftve been quite, his latest poem. In the second book of opistlot 
^which no doubt comprehended the Cpistie to Piso, vulgarly called 
the Art of Pinstry), tho one addressed to Augustus, whether prior or 
uot in time of composition, would of course assume the place of 
hemor. Nor is it difficult to account for the acquiescence of the re., 
publican in the existing state 6f things, and that v;ith no dcgrada« 
lion of his indc)>cmlence. With declining years increases the love 
of quiet ; the spirit of adventure has burned out, and body and mind 
equally yearn after repose. Under the new orier of things, as we 
have shown, Horace had found out the secret of a happy and an 
honorable life. His circumsianees were independent ; a« least they 
Batisiied his moderate desires. He enjoyed enough of the busy so* 
ciety of the capital to give a zest to the purer pleasures of bis coun- 
try retirement. He conld repose in his cottage villa near Tivoli, 
amid the most lovely scenery, by tho dashing and headlong Anio, 
at the foot of the Apennines. Hither his distinprii^-hed friends in 
Rorre N delighted to resort, anil to partake of his hospitable though 
modest entertainment. Should he desire more complete retirement, 
he might visit his Sabine farm, inspect the labors of his faithfu 
steward, survey his agricultural improvements, and wander among 
scenes which might remind him of those in which he had spent hi, 
childhood. He could not but contrast the happy repose of this period 
of his life with the perils and vicissitudes of his youth ; do wo won- 
dcr that he subsided into philosophic contentment with the existing 
order of things? 

Augustus himself possessed that rare policy in an arbitrary m。D, 
arch not to demand from his subjects the sacrifice of their independ- 
ence further than was necessary for the security of his dominion. 
The artful despot still condescended to veil his unlimited power un- 
der constitutional forms ; he was in theory the re-eiectod president 
of u free people ; and though these politic contrivances could only 
deceive those who wished to be deceived, yet the}' offered as it were, 
honorable terms of capitulation to the opposite party, and enabled 
them to quiet the indignant scruples of conscience. Horace is a 
ftrikiug illustration of the success of that policy which ^0*、 tran- 
quiUv changed Rome from a republic to a monarchy ; it »«v. •,'、 i,-. h 
ve\[ Augustus knew how to deal with all classes of men ; how wise' 

ol the other letters of Augustus, in Suetonii Vit. Horat : " neque amm si ti «• 
but. amicitiam nostrum sprcvlatl, ido.o nos quoque ai ? 1 ftfntbavot'Mv.** 



JPE O* HORA'.B 



\\\ 



ly he \^oond toe fetters of his personal influence over the Rwnar 
mind Horace, on the other hand, may fairly be taken as i\ ropre* 
senta ive of a large, particularly the more intellectual, class of Ro. 
mans. We see the government stooping to flatter that order of men 
by familiarity, and receiving, in turn, that adulation which eculd not 
out work into the public mind. For the first time, probably, writer* 
began to have much effect on the sentiments of the Roman people : 
and when Virgil and Horace spoke in such glowing terras of Augus< 
Ins, when they deified him in their immortal verses, we may be as- 
mred that they found or made un echo in the hearts of multitudes. 
This deification, indeed, though we can not altogether exculpate its 
adulatory tone, must be judged according to the religious notions of 
Rome, not of Christianity. 

The religion of Horace is the religion of Rome 一 the religion of 
the age ol Augustas. Almost every god in the Pantheon receives 
his tribute of a hymn from Horace ; each has his proper attributes, 
his traditional functions ; but it is the painter or the sculptor framing 
the divinity according to the rules of his art, and according to an 
established type, and setting it up for the worship of others, not the 
outpouring of real devotion. The very neatness and terseness of ex- 
pression shows tho poverty of religious sentiment. Almost the 
latest of his ijric hymns is the Carmen Saeculare. In this there is 
something more of the energy and life of inspiration ; but even this 
taint flash of euthusiasm is in character with tho vrhole of tke la tor 
Komaa religion. The worship of the gods is blended with natural 
pride. They are the ancestral and tutelary deities of the Eternal 
Omnipotent City which are invoked ; the sun, which, in its course, 
cmi behold nothing so great as Rome. It is a hymn rather to tho 
majesty of Rome than to the gods. The poetical apotheosis of the 
emperor is but this deification of Rome in another form ; in him cen« 
tered the administration of the all-powerful republic, and in him 
therefore, its divinity. 

Yet Horace, if we pursue the subject of his religion, is not with 
out his apprehensions, his misgivings, his yearnings alter more serious 
things ; the careless and Epicurean scorner of Divine worship is, of 
fancies, or feigns himself to be, startled from his thoughtless apathy 
by thunder from a clear sky ; lie is seized with a sudden access of 
respect for all-ruling 1 Providence. As in the romantic adventure o'. 
his youth, so in the later accidents of life, his escajie from perils by 
}fliid and sea ― from the falling of a tree 一 he speaks with gratitudo, 
apparently not insincere, of the Divine protection ; nor is he without 
tome vague sentiment of the general moral government of the gods. 
The depravation of manners is at once tho cause and the consequence 
of neglected roJigion : 

■' Delicta inajoi*um immeritus lues, 
Hon^pnc, douce tcnipla refeceris. 
iEilesquc lnbentcs deorum et 
Fui :<a nigi'o Simula cru fumo- 



L1FB OF HORACE, 



Dii miuta negXtdi dcdenint 
Ilespcria) mala luctuogie." 

Aod the cau^c of his vengeance is the gtr.t a t corruption of m;\r 
oera : 

;' Fcpcunda culptB 8«pcu1u nuptloA 
Primum inquinavere, ct genus, v.t d.、m<M, 
Hoc fontc dcrlvaita clades 
In ])atriam populumquu fluxit." 

N »r is he altogether above the vulgar superstitions ol the times, 
Daring bis moining stroll through the city, whether for amusement, 
or not without some lurking belief in their art, he sto|is to consult 
tb« itinerant diviners, " who kept a kind of shop for the sale of ora- 
cles." 1 The Canidia of Horace wants, indeed, the terrific earnest* 
ness of Lucan's Erichtho. The twin passions oi' unbelief and super- 
stition had by the time of Nero grown to a greater height. As Gib- 
bon justly observes, Canidia is but a vulgar witch ; yet, if we may 
juilga from tho tone, Horace is at least as earnest in his belief in her 
powers as in those of Mercury or Diana. 2 The ingrt'dients of her 
cauldron thrill him with quite as real horror as the protection of 
F>iunus, or the rustic deities, which he invokes, fills him with hope or 
feverence. It is singular enou«rh that we learn from Horace the 
existence of the Jews and their religion in the great capital of the 
world, and may conjecture the estimation in which they were held. 
It seems to havo been a kind of fashionable arauscinent to go to the 
tjynagofr'o for the purpose of scoffing. Yet there is an indication of 
respect extorted, as it were, from the more sober-minded by the ration- 
V .acism and simpler worship of this strange and peculiar people. 

The philosophy of the Horatian age, and of Horace himself, can 
not but force itself upon our notice in connection witR his religion. 
How far had our poet any settled philosophical opinions ? To what 
extent did he embrace the doctrines of Epicurus ? The secret of 
his inclination toward these opinions was probably that which had 
influenced many Romans during the disastrous period of the civil 
wars. Weary with faction, unwilling to lend themselves to the am 
bilion of the leaders in either party, when the great and stirring striie 
between the patrician and popular interests had degenerated into the 
contest for personal supremacy between aspiring and unprincipled in- 
dividuals, some lrom temperament and apathy of character, like At- 
ticus, others from bitter disappointment or sober determination, took 
refuge in the philosophy of self-enjoyment. In hortulis quicscet suu 
ubi recuban8 molliter et delicate nos avocat a rostris, a j udtciis, a curia, 
fortasse sapienter, hac prasertim repMica : even Cicero, in tb^s*. 
expressive words, betrays a kind of regret that he has not abandon 
od the barren, ungrateful, and hopeless labors of a public man, ana 

J. " AsaiBto divinis," which the wurthj Mr. Creech renders " wcrt to churp* 
w "ttiy day !" 

•i. Compare the wiu h of Afiddlcton with those; of Hhakf jobre. 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



joined the happy idle rs in the peaceful villa or sha Jy garden. It L 
«i remarkable observation of M. Constant, and shows, after all, the 
singular discrepancy which so frequently exists between the opinion^ 
and actions ol* men, that, instead of unnerving the Roman spii it o) 
liberty, or inducing a contemptuous apathy towaid the public in 
lerests, the Grecian philosophy night seem to have inspired the last 
champions of Roman freedom with their generous sentiments of self 
sacrifice ~ the devotion of their lives to the sacred cause of their 
country. Brutus was a student of every branch oi' Grecian philoso- 
phy ; the genius w hich appeared to him on the field of Philippi is al 
most in the spirit of the later Platonism. Cato died reading the 
Phamlo. Cicero, notwithstanding the occasional feebleness of his 
character, was unquestionably a victim to his own exertions iq the 
<;ause of freedom. Cassius, the dark, and dangerous, and nevor- 
smiling Cassius, was an avowed disciple of Epicurus. 

The doctrines of Epicurus became doubly acceptable to those who 
sought not merely an excuse for withdrawing from public offices, but 
a consolation for the loss of all share in the government. Epicurean- 
ism and Stoicism began to divide the Roman mind. Those of easier 
temper, and whose intellectual occupations were of a more graceful 
«iul amusing kind, forgot, either in the busy idleness of a gay town 
life, or in the ? equostered ease of tho beautiful villa, that the foram 
or the senate dad ever been open to the generous ambition of theii 
yonth. Thos»$ of a sterner cast, who repudiated the careless indo> 
ience of the Epicureans, retired within themselves, and endeavored, 
by self-adoration, to compensate for the loss of self-respect. The 
Stoic, nlthou^h he could not disguise from his own mind that he was 
outwardly a slave, boasted that within he was king of hiimwlf. The 
more discursive, and, if we may so speak, tentative spirit of inquiry, 
which distinguished the earlier attempts of the Romans to naturalize 
Grecian philosophy 一 the calm and dispassionate investigation, which, 
with its exquisite perspicuity of exposition, is the unrivalled charm 
of Cicero's philosophic writings, seems to have gone out of vogue 
Men embraced extreme opinions, either as votaries of pride or of 
pleasure, because the/ centered their whole energies upon the sab* 
ject, and, in the utter want of all other noble or lofty excitement, throw 
themselves with desperate vehemence into philosophy. With Horace, 
however, that period was not arrived, r.^r does he scorn to have em 
braced any system of opinions with thai eager and exclusive earnest- 
a?ss. His mind was hy no means speculative. His was the plain, 
practical philosophy of common sense. Though he could not elude 
thvse important questions in which the bounds of moral and rcligioiw 
#nquirv msct ; though he is never more true and si riking than in nis 
-i"»ervatiocs on the uncertainly of life, the dark and certain approaches 
o death 一- 

" nec quidqunm tibi prodesf, 
ierias tcntivsso lonnjs, nnimoquc rotu data 
Percurrissc poluia, m。rituro " 



xlrm 



LIYR )F ITORACB. 



though tneso sentences are mno solemn, occurring ihcy <] > ftmoim 
tho ga) est Epicurean invitations to conviviality and enjo)' Rent, yet 
• (ke wisdom of Horaro— it may be said without <lMparr»;."ement, for it 
«ras the only real atvainable wisdom was that of tJie world. 

The bost evidence, indeed, of the claims of the poet as a motwi 
philosopher, as a practical observer, and sure interpretei of hiunoi 
naiiire in its social state, are the counties.* quotations from his worksj 
which aro become universal moral axioms. Their triteness is thf 
«eul cf their veracity ; their peculiar terseness and felicity of express 
•km, or illustration, may have commended them to general accept- 
ance, yet nothing but their intuitive truth can have stamped them 
as household words on the memory of educated men. Horace mi^it 
3eem to have thrown aside all the abstruser doctrines, the mere re- 
mote speculations, the abstract theories of all the different sects, and 
selected and condensed the practical wisdom in his pregnant poetical 
aphorisms. 

So glided away the later years of the life of Horace : he was never 
married ; he indulged that aristocratical aversion to legitimate wed* 
ock which Augustus vainly endeavored to correct by civil privileges 
and civil immunities. 

Tho three epistles which occupy the last four or five years of his 
life treat principally on the state of Roman poetry. Horace now 
has attained the high place, if not of dictator of the public taste, of 
one, at least, who has a right to be heard as an arbiter on such subjects. 

The first of these, addressed to tho emperor, gains wonderfully ir 
point and perspicuity if we take the key which is furnished by a 
passage in the life of Augustus by Suetonius. Horace is throughout 
of a modern school of taste ; he prefers the finer execution, the fault- 
lessness, the purer harmony, the more careful expression, to the rudei 
vigor, the bolder but more irregular versification, the racy but anti- 
quated language of tho older writers. In this consisted much of his 
cwn conscious superiority over Lucilius. But Augustus himself was 
vulgar enough to admire tho old comedy ; he was constantly com- 
manding in the theatre the coarse and somewhat indecent plays of 
'Afranius and Plautus. 1 The privileged poet does not scruple pjay« 
fully to remonstrate against the imperial bad taste. His skill and 
address are throughout admirable. The quiet irony is perfectly free. 
yeX never offensive ; tbo very flattery of the opening lines, which ox- 
Bit to tho utmost the power and wisdom of Augustus, which repro- 
sent him as an object of divine power and worship to tho vulgar, ig 
chastened, as it were, and subdued, because the emperor himself, in 
critical judgment, is to appear but one of the vulgar. The art witb 
which the poet suggests, rather than unfolds, his argument, seemi 
&t ono moment to abandon and the next to resume it, is inimitable. 
He first gracefully ridicules tho fashion of admiring poetry becaiuw 
H is old, not bcdijpe it is good ; then turns to the prevailing mad 

1. "Se^ plti>'i 70; malum non irapcritus, dclcctabatur ctiam comnedi* vt»iii»-\, n 
nepc oan fxl'ibait pii' jlicia apectuculis. ' — , Octuvius. ch. 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



xTix 



ness oi writing pofctry, which had seized all ranks, and ihus having 
cast aside the mass of bad modern poetry, ho nobly asserts the dig- 
nity and independence of the poetic function. He then returns, by a 
happy transition, to the barbarous times which had giv^en birth to the 
old Roman poetry; contrasts the purity of the noble Greek models 
with their rude Roman imitators, first in tragedy, and then in come- 
dy ; and introduces, without effort, the emperor's favorite Plautus, 
end even Dossennus, to whose farces Augustus had probably listea 
ed with manifest amusement. He does not, however, dwell on thai 
delicate topic ; he hastens away instantly to the general bad taste 
of the Roman audience, who preferred pomp, spectcxjle, noise, and 
precession, to the loftiest dramatic poetry ; and even this covert in- 
sinuation against the emperor's indifTerent taste in theatrical amuse* 
mont is balanced by the praise of his judgment in his patronage of 
Vfrgil md of Varius, and (though with skillful modesty he afTects to 
depreciate his own humbler poetry) of Horace himself. 

The Epistle to the Fisos was ajready, in the time of Quintiliao, 
called the Art of Poetry ; but it is rather an epistle of poetry com- 
posed in a seemingly desultory manner, yet with the utmost felicity 
of transition from one subject to another, than a regular and syste, 
matic theory. It was addressed to Lucius Piso and his two sons. 
The elder Piso was a man of the highest character, obtained a 
triumph for victories in Thrace, but was chiefly distinguished for the 
dignity and moderation with which he afterward exercised for a \ong 
period the high and dangerous office of priEfect of the city. 

The happy conjecture of Wieland had been anticipated by Colman, 
that the epistle was chiefly addressed to v»»e elder of the sons of Piso, 
who aspired to poetical fame without very great poeticaJ genius It 
was intended to be at once dissuasive and instructive ; to show the 
difficulties of writing good poetry, especially in a refined and fastidf 
•ous age) and, at the same time, to define some of the primary laws 
of good composition. It maintains throughout the superiority of the 
modern, and what we may call the Grecian, school of Roman poetry. 

After all, the admiration of Horace for the poetry of Greece waa 
bj no means servile ; though he wished to introduce its forms, its 
simplicity of composition, and exquisite purity of style, he would 
have even tragedy attempt Roman subjects. And, with Horace, we 
must acknowledge that even if the poet had felt ambition, it was now 
indeed too late for Rome to aspire to originality in the very highest 
branches of poetry. She was conquered, and could only bear th^ 
yoke with as much nobleness and independence as she might. To 
give her song a Roman character, if it still wore a Grecian form, was 
all which was now attainable. Literature was nathe, as it were, to 
Greece, at least the higher branches, poetry and history. It princi' 
pally flourished when the political institutions of Greece were in th2 
highest state of development and perfection ; being a stranger and 
foreigner at Rome, it was only completely domiciliated when the 
ational institutions, and, with them, the national character, had ex 

3 



r 



LIFE OF HORACE. 



perienood a total change. It was not till the Roman cousiituhoi 
approached, or had arrived at a monarchical form, that letters we/« 
generally or successfully cultivated. It was partly, indeed, her con 
\nes\ of tho world which brought Rome the literature and philo8u« 
phy, as well as the other spoils of foreign nations. The distinction, 
nevertheless, must not be lost sight of; the genuine Roman char- 
acter, even under the Grecian forms, might and did appear in he 置 
literary language, and in a 丄 the works of her greater writers : and 
n the didactic or common-life poetry, she could dare to be coraplete- 
\f original. 

In none was this more manifest than in Horace ; he was, after all, 
in most respects, a true Roman poet. His idiom, in the first place, 
was more vernacular (in all the better parts of his poetry he depart- 
ed less from common language, they were 11 sermoni propiora 51 ). In 
the lyric poems we may sometimes detect the forms of Greek ex* 
pression ; be has imitated the turn of language, as well as the cast 
of though , and mechanism of verse. The satires and epistles have 
throughout the vigor and raciiless of originality j they speak, no 
doubt, the language of the better orders of Rome, in all their strength 
and point. But these works are not merely Roman in their idiomati 
expression, they are so throughout. The masculine and practical 
common sense, the natural but not undignified urbanity, the stronger 
if not sounder moral tone, the greater solidity, in short, of the whole 
style of thought and observation," compensate for the more lively 
imagination, the greater quickness and fluency, and more easy ele 
ganoe of the Greek. Of the later Grecian comedy, for which th» 
poetry of Horace, as we have observed, was the substitute, we have 
less than of almost any other part of his literature j yet, if we compare 
the fragments which we possess, we shall perceive the difference 一 
on one side the grace and lightness of touch, the exquisite and un- 
studied harmony, the translucent perspicuity, the truth and the sim* 
plicity j on the other, the ruder but more vigorous shrewdness, the 
more condensed and emphatic justness of observation, the seriour 
thought, which is always at the bottom of the playful expression 
Horace is addressing men accustomed to deal with men 一 men form, 
ed in the vigorous school of public life j and though now reposing, 
perhaps, from those more solid and important cares, maintaining thai 
practical energy of character by which they had forced their way to 
eminence. That sterner practical genius of the Roman people sur- 
vived the free institutions of Rome ; the Romans seemed, us it were, 
in their idlest moods, to condescend to amusement, not to consider itj 
like the Greek, one of the common necessities, the ordinary occupa- 
tions of life. Horace, therefore, has been, and ever will bo, the 
familiar companion, the delight, not of the mere elegant scholar 
alone or the imaginative reader, but, we had almost written, the 
manual of the statesman and the study of the moral philosopher. 
Of Rome or of the Roman mind, no one can know any th'ng -wh^ b 
not profoi wdly versed in Horace ; nod whoever really u idoTstand 



IiIVB OP HOKACK. 



t 



Bemoe wilj have a more perfect and accurate Knowledge cf the Ro- 
mnn manners and Roman mind than the most diligent and luborioiu 
investigator of the Roman antiquities. 

The same year (U.C. 746, B.C. 8) witnessed the death of Mib- 
cenas and of Horace. The poet was buried near his friend, on thf 
verge of the Esquiline Hill. Maecenas died toward the middle of 
the ynar, Horace in the month of November, having nearly com 
J^eted his 57th ytxr. His last illness was so sudden and severe 
that he had not strength to sign his will ; according to the usage o. 
the time, he declared the emperor his heir. 

Horace has described his own person (Epist. i., 20, 24). He 
was of short stature, with dark eyes and dark hair {Art. Poet., 37) , 
but early tinged with gray {Carm. iii" 14, 25). fn his youth he 
was tolerably robust (Epist. i., 7, 26), but suffered from a complain 
n his eyes (Sat. i., 5, 20). In more advanced age he grew fat, and 
Augustus jested about his protuberant belly (Aug.^ Epist. Fragm. 
apud Sueton. in Vita) • His health was not always good ; ho was 
Dot only weary of the fatigue of war, but unfit to bear it (Carm. ii M 
6, 7 j Epod. i., 15) ; and he seems to have inclined to valetudinarian 
habits (Epist. i., 7, 3). When young, he was irascible in temper, 
yat easily plaaabie (Carm. i" 1G, 22, &c. ; iii., 14, 27; Epist. i., 
20, 25). In dress he was somewhat careless [Epist. i., 1, 94) 
His habits, even after he became richer, were generally frugal aua 
Bbstemioas ; though, on occasions, both in youth and in mature tg^ 
be iodnlged in free conviviality. He liked choice wine, and, in Iht 
■oeiety of frianof xrapled not to enjoy the luzuriei of bis tlma. 



LIFE OF M.UCENAS 



SMITH'S DICTIONARY OF BIOGAAPHY ,&刁 



Mjscbnas, C. Cilnius. Of the life of Maecenas we must be km 
taut to glean what scattered notices we can from the poets and bf« 
fiarians of Rome, since it does not appear to have been formally 1* 
eorded by any ancient author. We are totally in the daik boti m 
to the date and place of his birth, and the manner of his education. 
It b most probable, however, that he was born some timo between 
B.C. 73 and 63; and we learn from Horace {Ode iv., 11) that hb 
birth-day was the 13th of April. His family, though belonging only 
to the equestrian order, was of high antiquity and honor, and traced 
its descent from the Lucnmones of Etruria. The scholiast on Horace 
{Ode i., 1) informs us that he numbered Porsena among his ances- 
tors ; and his authority is in some measure confirmed by a fragment 
of one of Augustus's letters to Maecenas, preserved by Macrobius 
(Sat, ii., 4), in which he is addressed as " berylle Porw»«. M His 
paternal ancestors, the Cilnii 7 are mentioned by Livy (x" 5) a, 
haying attained to so high a pitch of power and wealth at Arretium 
about the middle of the fifth century of Rome, as to excite the jeal 
ousy and hatred of their fellow-citizens, who rose against and ex 
pelled them ; and it was not without considerable difficulty that thev 
were at length restored to their country, through the inteiference of 
the Romans. The maternal branch of the family was likewise of 
Etruscan origin, and it was from them that the name of Maecenas 
was derived, it Iveing customary among the Etruscans to assume the 
mother's as well as the father's name (Miller, Etrusker^ ii., p. 404) 
It is in allusion to this circumstance that Horace (Sat. i., 6, 3) men- 
tions both his avus maternus atque paternus as having been distin- 
guished by commanding numerous legions, a passage, by the way, 
irom which we are not to infer that the ancestors of Mscenas had 
ever led the legions of Rome. Their name does not appear in the 
Fasti Consulares ; and it is manifest, from several passages of Latin 
authors, that the word legio is not always restricted to a Roman 
legion. (See Liv., x., 5 ; Sail., Cat., 53, &c.) The first notice 
that occurs of any of the family, as a citizen of Roive, is in Cicero, a 
fpeech for Cluentius 55), where a knight named C. Maecenas in 
mentioned among the robora poptUi Romania and as having been in- 
itr omental in putting down the conspiiacy of the tribnne M. Lirius 
Drasns, B.C. 91. This person has been generally considered th< 
father of the subject of this memoir, but Frandsen ia hie life ci 



LIFE JP MMCES.K^. 



Mscenas, thinks, and perhi \\s with more probability, that it was on 
grandfather. Abi^ut the same period, also, we find a Mn$ceuas men- 
tioned by Saliust in the fragments of his history (lib. iii.) as a scribe. 

Although it is unknown where Maecenas received his education, i( 
must doubtless have been a careful one. We learn from Horace that 
he was versed in both Greek and Roman literature ; and his taste 
for literary pursuits was shown, not only by his patronage of the 
most eminent poets of his time, but also by several performances of 
lis own. That at the time of Julius Caesar's assassination he was 
frith Octa/ianus at Apollonia, in the capacity of tutor, rests on pure 
eonj(H.ture. ShcfTtly, however, after the appearance of the latter on 
Ihe {political stage, we find the name of Maecenas in frequent con- 
junction witl his ; and there can be no doubt that he was of great 
ase to him in assisting to establish and consolidate the empire ; bat 
the want of materials prevents us from tracing his services in this 
way with the accuracy that could be wished. It is possible that he 
m&y have accompanied Octavianus in the campaigns of Mutina, 
f'iiilippi, and Perusia ; but the only authorities for the statement 
aro a passage in Propertius (ii" 1), which by no means necessarily 
bears that meaning ; and the elegies attributed to Pedo Albiiiovanus, 
but which have been pronounced spurious by a large majority of the 
critics. The first authentic account we have of Maecenas b of his 
being employed by Octavianus, B.C. 40, in negotiating a marriage 
for him with Scribonia, daughter of Libo, the father-in-law of SextuB 
Pompeius ; which latter, for political reasons, Octavianus was at that 
time desirous of conciliating. (Appian^ B. C., v., 53 ; Bio Cum" 
Klviii., 16.) In the same year, Maecenas took part in the negotiar< 
lions with Antony (whose wife, Fulvia, was now dead), which led 
to the peace of Brundisium, confirmed by the marriage of Antony 
with Octavia, Caesar's sister. (Appian^ B. C, v., 64.) Appian's 
authority on this occasion is supported by the scholiast on Horace 
(Sat. i., 5, 28), who tells us that Livy, in his 127th book, had re- 
corded the intervention of Maecenas. According to Appian, how- 
ever, Cocceius Nerva played the principal part. About two yean 
afterward Maecenas seems to have been employed again in negotieu 
ting with Antony (*dpp>, B. C , v., 93), and it was probably on this 
occasion that Horace accompanied him to Brtmdisiura, a journey 
wkich he has described in the fifth satire of the first book. Maece* 
nas is there also represented as associated with Cocceius, and they 
nre both described as "aversos soliti componere amieos." 

In B,C. 36 we find Maecenas in Sicily with Octavianus, then en- 
gaged in an expedition against Sextus Pompeius, during the course 
of which Maecenas was twice sont back to Rome for the purpose of 
quelling some ' disturbance s which, had broken out there. (Appian^ 
B. C, v., 99, 112.) According to Dio Cassius (xlix., 16), thii 
was the first occasion on which Maecenas became CaBsar's vicego* 
rent ; and he was intrusted with the administration not only of 
Bvrae but of all Italy. His fidelity and talents \wA now been test 



LIFE OF M /ECEN AB 



1, 



«d by severe . years' experience ; and it has probably been fonml that 
cbe bent of his genius fitted bim for the cabinet rather than the field, 
nnctj his services could be so easily dispensed with in the latter. 
From this time till the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) history is silent 
concerning Maecenas ; but at that period we again find him intrust- 
ed with the administration of the civil affairs of Italy. It has Indeed 
been maintained by many critics that Mascenas was present at the 
sea-fight of Actinm ; but the best modern scholars who have discmfr> 
ed the subject have shown lhat this could not have been th« case, and 
that he remained in Rome during this time, where he suppressed the 
conspiracy 3f the younger Lepidus. By the detection of this con* 
spiracy, Maecenas nipped in the bud what might have proved another 
fruitful germ of civil war. Indeed, his services at this period must 
have been most important and valuable ; and how faithfully and ably 
he acquitted himself may be inferred from the unbounded confidence 
reposed in him. In conjunction with Agrippa, wo now find him em- 
powered not only to open all the letters addressed by Caosar to thr. 
senate, hat oven to alter their contents as the posture of affairs at 
Rome might require, and for this purpose he was intrusted with his 
master's seal [Dio Cass., li. y 3), in order that the letters might bo 
delivered as if they had come directly from Octavianus's own hand. 
Yet, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he had 
attained, Meecenas, whether from policy or inclination, remained 
content with his equestrian rank, a circumstance which seems some, 
what to have diminished his authority with the populace. 

After Octavianas's victory over Antony and Cleopatra, xhe whole 
power of the triumvirate centered in the former ; for Lepidus had 
\>een previously reduced to the condition of a private person. On 
his return to Rome, Caesar is represented to have taken counsel with 
Agrippa and Mscenas respecting the expediency of resforing the 
republic. Agrippa advised him to pursue that course, but Maccena* 
strongly urged him to establioh the empire. 

The description of power exercised by Maecenas during the ab- 
sence of CaBsar should not be confounded with the prcefectura urbis. 
it was not till after the civil wars that the latter office was establish, 
e^t as a distinct and substantive one ; and, according to Dio Cassius 
(lii., 21), by the advice jf Mascenas himself. This is confirmed by 
Tacitus (Ann^ vi., 11), and by Suetonius (Aug.^ 37), who reckons it 
Mnong the nova officii. The prcefectus urbis was a mere police 
magistrate, whoso jurisdiction was confined to Rome and the adja* 
eent country, within 6l radius of 750 stadia ; but Maecenas had the 
eharge of political as well as municir>al afTairs, and his administra> 
tion embraced the whole of Italy. It is the more necessary to at- 
tend to this distinction, because the neglect of it has given rise to the 
notion that Maecenas was never intrusted with the supreme adminis- 
tration after the close of the civil wars. It must be confesfjed, how 
9ver, that we have no means of determining with certainty nn what 
»v、casic,s, and for how ,- ong, o^er tho establishment of tho empire 



vi 



LIVE OP MiECBNA.«. 



Mflscenas continued to exercise his political power, though, m be 
fore remarked, we know that he had ceased to enjoy it in B.C. 16 
That he retained the confidence of Augustus till at least B.C. 21 
may be inferred from the fact that about that time he advised hin. 
to marry his daughter Julia to Agrippa, on tho ground that he had 
inade the latter so rich and powerful that it was dangerous to al 
low liim to live unless he advanced him still further. (Dio CassiuB 
Uv.. 6.) Between B.C. 21 and 16, however, we have direct evi* 
ience that a coolness, to say the least, had sprung up between tht 
miperor and his faithful minister. This estrangement, for it ew 
aot be called actual disirrace, is borne out by tho silence of histo 
nans respecting the latter years of Maecenas's life, as well as by the 
express testimony of Tacitus, who tells us (^nn M iii., 30) that, during 
this period, he enjoyed only the appearance, and not the reality, of 
his sovereign's friendship. The cause of this rupture is enveloped 
in doubt. Dio Cassius, however, positively ascribes it to Terentia, 
Vho beautiful wife of Maecenas. . 

The public services of Maecenas, though important, were unob 
trusive ; and, notwithstanding the part that he played in assisting M 
establish the empire, it is by his private pursuits, and more particu- 
iarly by his reputation as a patron of learning, that he has been known 
to posterity. His retirement was probably far from disagreeable to 
him, as it was accompanied by many circumstances calculated to 
recommend it to one of his turn of mind, naturally a votary of ease 
and pleasure. He had amassed an enormous fortune, which Tacttcui 
{Ann.^ xiv., 53, 55) attributes to the liberality of Augustus. It haa 
been sometimes insinuated that he grew rick by the proscripticas ; 
and Pliny (H. N.^ xxxvii., 4), speaking of Maecenas's private sea2, 
Which bore the impression of a frog, represents it as having been ao 
object of terror to the tax-payers. It by no means follows, howevBr, 
that the money levied under his private seal was applied to his pri- 
vate purposes ; and, had he been inclined to misappropriate the taxes, 
>ve know that Cssar's own seal was at his unlimited disposal, and 
would have better covered his delinquencies. 

Maecenas had purchased, or, according to some, had received from 
Augustus a tract of ground on the EsquUine Hill, which had former- 
ly served as a burial-placo for the lower orders. (Hor., Sat, f 8, 
7.) Here he had planted a garden, and built a hoase remarkable for 
its loftiness, on account of a tower by which it was surmounted, and 
<from the top of which Nero is said to have afterward contemplated 
the burning of Rome. In this residence he seems to bavo passed 
the greater part of his time, and to have visited the country but sel< 
4om j for, though he might possibly have possessed a villa at Tibur, 
near the falls of the Anio, there is no direct authority for the fact- 
Tacitus tells us that he spent his leisure urbe in ipsa ; and the dee| 
tranquillity of his repose may be conjectured from the epithet by 
Which the samo historian designates it, " vclut peregrinum otium., 
Uhi、i,, lfiv., 63.) T ae height of the situation seoms to havo render 



LIFE OF ENA8 



J VI 



ed it a healthy abode (flbr., Sat. i., B t 14), ana wo learn from Sue- 
toniob (jiug.j 72) that Augustus had on one occasion retired thithei 
lo recover from a sickness. 

Maecenas's house was the rendezvoas of all the wits and vittuo$t 
of Rome ; and whoever could contribute to the amusement of th« 
company was always welcome to a seat at his table. In this kind 
oi society he does not appear to have been very select ; and it was 
probably from his undistinguishing hospitality that Augustus called 
fcis board u parasitica mema, 19 (Suet., Vit. Hor.) Yet he was naU 
urally of a reserved and taciturn disposition, and drew a broad dis- 
tinction between the acquaintances that he adopted for the amus<v 
ment of an idle hour, and the friends whom he admitted to his inti 
macy and confidence. In the latter case ho was as careful and 
chary as he was indiscriminating in the former. His really intimate 
friends consisted of the greatest geniuses and most learned men of 
Rome; and if it was from his universal inclination toward men. of 
talent that he obtained the reputation of a literary patron, it was by 
his friendship for such poets as Virgil and Horace that he deserved 
it. In recent times, and by some German authors, especially the 
celebrated Wieland in his Introduction and Notes to Horace's Epis 
ties, MsBcenas,s claims to the title of a literary patron have been de、 
predated. It is urged that he is not mentioned by Ovid and Tibul- 
lus ; that the Sabine farm which he gave to Horace was not so very 
large y that his conduct was perhaps not altogether disinterested, and 
that he might have befriended literary men either out of vanity on 
from political motives j that he was not singular in his literary po- 
tronage, which was a fashion among the emuicnt Romans of tho 
day, as Messalla Corvinus, Asinius Pollio, and others ; and that ho 
was too knowing in pearls and beryls to be a competent judge of tbo 
higher works of genius. As for his motives, or the reasons why ho 
did not adopt Tiballus or Ovid, we shall only remark, that as they 
are utterly unknown to us, so it is only fair to put the most liberal 
construction on them ; and that he had naturally a love of literature 
for its own sake, apart from all political or interested views, may ba 
inferred from the fact of his having been hiniseli' a voluminous author. 
Though literary patronage may have been the fashion of the day, it 
would be difficult to poinA out any contemporary Roman, or, indeed, 
any at all, who indulged it so magnificently. His name had become 
proverbial for a patron of letters at least as early as the time of Mar. 
tia) j and though the assertion of that author (viii., 56), that the poeti 
enriched by the bounty of MsBcenas were not easily to be counted, 
is not, of course, to be taken literally, it would have been utterly 
ndiculous had there not been some foundation for it. That he waa 
no bad judge of literary merit is shown by the sort of men whom ne 
patronized ~ Virgil, Horace, Propertius, besides others almost their 
equals in reputation, but whose works are now unfortunately losi, aa 
Varius, Tucca, and others. But as Virgil and Horace were by fai 
Iho greatest geniusea of the %ge, so it is certain that they were irmr* 

- 3* 



iviii 



LIFE OP MiE jENAtl 



beloved by Mscunas, the latter especially, than &w oi tboir coulmi 
porariet. Virgil was indebted to him for the recozery of his fans, 
which had been appropriated by the soldiery in the division oi' lauds, 
B.C. 41 ; and it was at the request of Maecenas that he undertool 
the Georgia^ the most finished of all his poems. To Horace he w&s 
a still greater benefactor. He not only juocured him a pardon foi 
having fought agu:"、l Octavianus at Pbilippi, but presented him with 
the mean^ of a conJ'ortable subsister.ee, a farm in the Sabine country 
U the estate was but a moderate one, we learn from Horace liim* 
■elf that the bounty of Maecenas was regulated by his own content- 
ed views, and not by his patron's waut of generosity (Carm. ii" 18 
14; Ui., 16, 38). Nor was this liberality accompanied with any 
nervile and degrading conditions. The poet was at liberty to write 
or not, as he pleased, and lived in a state of independence creditable 
oliks to himself and to his patron. Indeed, their intimacy was rather 
that of two familiar friends of equal station, than of the royally-de- 
§ueiid«d and powerful minister of Caesar with the son of an obscure 
freedman. But on this point we need not dwell, as it has been al- 
ready touched upon in the life of Horace. 

Of Maecenas's own literary productions only a few fragments cx 
bt. From these, however, and from the notices which we find of bib 
writings in ancient authors, we are led to think that we have nui 
sat&red any great loss by their destruction ; for, although a good 
judge of literary merit in others, he does not appear to have been an 
author of much taste himself. It has been thought that two of his 
works, of which little more than the titles remain, were tragedies, 
namely, the Prometheus and Octavia. But Seneca (Ep. 19) calls the 
former a bo)k (librum) ; and Octavia, mentioned in Priscian (lib. 10), 
is not free from the suspicion of being a corrupt reading. An hex- 
ameter line supposed to havo belonged to an epic poem, another line 
thought to have been part of a galliambic poem, one or two epigrams, 
and some other fragments, are extant, and are given by Meibom and 
Frandsen in their lives of Maecenas. In prose he wrote a work on 
Natural History, which Pliny several times alludes to, but which 
seems to have related chiefly to fishes and gems. Servius (ad Virg,^ 
Mn^ viii., 310) attributes a Symposium to hira. If we may trust 
'he same authority, he also composed some memoirs of Augustus , 
and Horaoe (Carm. ii., 1 2, 9) alludes to at least some project of the 
kind, but which was probably never carried into execution. Mae* 
ocnas's prose style was affected, unnatural, and often unintelligibly 
ukI for these qualities he was derided by Augustus. ( Suct n Jiug^ 
26.) Macrobius ( Saturn ii., 4) has preserved part of a letter of the 
sraperor's, in which he takes off his minister's way of writirg. The 
ftathor of the dialogue De Causis Corruptee Eloquentice (c. 26) enu- 
merates him among the orators, but stigmatizes his aifected style 
by the term calamistros Mcecenatis. Quintilian (Inst. Orat^ xi" ^ 
( 23) and Seneca (Ep. 1 14) also condemn his stylo ; and the laltei 
v.ithor gi^es a specimen of it which is almost wholly iu\intel]ig/ble 



LIFE OF MAECENAS 



ll> 



fet he likewise telb ns {Ep. 19) tbat he would have bi^eu verj 
eloquent if he had not been spoiled by bis good fortune, and allows 
bira to have possessed an ingenium grande et virile (Ep. 92). 
cording to Dio Cassius (I v., 7), Maecenas first introduced short hand, 
and instructed many in the art through his freedman Aquila. By 
other authors, however, the invention has been attributed to varioos 
persons of an earlier date ; as to Tiro, Cicero's freedman. to C cere 
I anself, and even to Ennius. 

, But, though seemingly in possession of all the means and appli 
«aces of enjoyment, Maecenas can not be said to have been altogether 
flappy in his domestic life. His wife, Terentia, though exceedingly 
ooautiful, was of a morose and haughty temper, and thence quarrels 
Were continually occurring between the pair. Yet the natural ux- 
oriousness of Maecenas as constantly prompted him to seek a recon- 
ciliation j so that Seneca (Ep. 114) remarks that he married a wiie 
a thousand times, though be never bad more than one. Her influence 
over him was so great, that, in spite of his cautious and taciturn tem- 
per, he was on one occasion weak enough to confide an important 
state secret to her. respecting her brother Muraena, the conspirator 
(Suet., Aug.^ 66 ; Dio Cast., liv" 3). Maecenas himself, however, 
was probably in some measure to blame for the terms on which ho 
Lived with his wife, for he was far from being the pattern of a good 
husband. In his way ol" life Maecenas was addicted to every species 
of luxury. Wo find several allusions in the ancient authors to the 
effeminacy of his dress. Instead of girding his tunic above his knees, 
be suffered it to hang loose about his heels, like a woman's petticoat { 
and when sitting on the tribunal he kept his head covered with his 
pallium (Scn. f Ep. 114). Yet, in spite of this softness, he was capa- 
ble of exerting himsell* when the occasion required, and of acting 
with energy and decision ( Veil. Pa," ii., 88). So far was he from 
wishing to conceal the softness and efleminacy of his manners, that 
he made a parade of his vices ; and, during the greatest heat of the 
civil wars, openly appeared in the public places of Rome with a couple 
o( eunuchs in his train (Sencc, I. c). He was fond of theatrical en- 
tertainments, especially pantomimes, as may be inferred from his 
patronage of Bathyllas, the celebrated dancer, who was a freedman 
of his. It has been concluded from Tacitus (Ann.^ i., 54) that be 
first introduced that species of representation at Rome ; and, with the 
politic view of keeping the people quiet by amusing them, persuaded 
Augustus to patronize it. Dio Cassius (lv., 7) tells us that he wag 
the first Co introduce warm swimming baths at Rome. His love of 
ointments is tacitly satirized by Augustus (Suet., Aug., 86), and his 
passion for gems and precious stones is notorious. According to Pliny, 
he paid some attention to cookery ; and as the same author (xix. # 
57) mentions a book on gardening which had been dedicatcO to tim 
by Sabinus Tiro, it has been thought that he was partial to that pur 
suit His tenacious, and, indeed, anmar ly love of life, ho has bim 
self painted in some verses preserved hy Seneca (Ep. 101), antf 
vhinh as affording a specimen oi* his stylo, we here insert 



LIF^ OF MiECENAS 



Debflem f&cito mami 
Debi! jin pede, coxa t 
Tuber adetrue gibberaoo. 
Labricos quate dcntes ; 
Vita dum superest, bene e»t 
Hanc mihi, vcl acuta 
Si aede-am cruce, sustine. 

ProiD the&o Hnes it has been conjectured that he b slouged to the wet 
fi ths Epicureans ; but of his philosophical principles nothing oertaii 
known. 

That moderation of character which led him to be content witli 
fa equestrian rank, probably arose from the love of ease and liixurjr 
vhich we have described, or it might have been the result of morfl 
pndent and political views. As a politician, the principal trait in 
his character was his fidelity to his master (Mcecenatis etunt vera 
trof>xa fides, Property iii., 9), and the main end of all his cares waa 
the consolidation of the empire. But, though he advised the establish* 
raont of a despotic monarchy, he was at the same time the advocate 
of mild and liberal measures. He recommended Augustus to put no 
check on the free expression of public opinion j but, above all, to avoid 
that cruelty which, for so many years, had stained the Roman an- 
nals with blood {Senec, Ep. 114). To the same effect is the anec- 
dote preserved by Cedrenus, the Byzantine historian, that when on 
some occasion Octavianus sat on the tribunal, condemning numbers 
to death, Maecenas, who was among the by-standers, and could not 
approach Caesar by reason of the crowd, wrote on his tablets, " Rise, 
hangman !" ( Surge^ tandem carnifex •'), and threw them into Caesars 
lap, who immediately left the judgment-seat (comp. Dio Com" lv., 7) - 
Maecenas appears to have been a constant valetudinarian. If 
Pliny's statement (vii., 51) is to be taken literally, he labored tinder 
a continual fever. According to the same author, he was sleepless 
during the last three years of his lil'e j and Seneca tells us (De Provide 
iii., 9) that he endeavored to procure that sweet and indispensable 
refreshment by listening to the sound of distant symphonies. We 
may infer from Horace (Carm. iii., 17) that he was rather hypo- 
chondriacal. He died in the consulate of Gallus and Censorinus, 
B.C. 8 (Dio Cass" lv., 7), and was buried on the Esquiline. He 
left no children, and thus, by his death, his ancient family became ex - 
tinct. He bequeathed his property to Augustus, and we find that 
Tiberius afterward resided in his house {Suet., Tib., 15). Though 
the emperor treated Maecenas with coldness during the latter yean: 
of his life, he sincerely lamented his death, and seems to have sone< 
times felt the want of so able, so honest, and so faithful a comselUv 
Die Cau, iiv., 9; ly., 7; Sinec, ie Benef., vi., 32). 



METRES OF HORACE 



1. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 

LaUdd\bunt dli\l cld\rdm Rhdddn \ aUt MpVt\lini^. 

The structure of this species of verse is sufficiently wel 
kaown ; it consists of six feet, the fifth of which is a dactyl, and 
the sixth a spondee, while each of the other four feet may ba 
either a dactyl or spondee. Sometimes, however, in a solemn, 
majestic, or mournful description, or in expressing astonish- 
ment, consternation, vastness of size, &c" a spondee is admit- 
ted in the fifth foot, and the line is then denominated spondiuc. 

The hexameters of Horace, in his Satires and Epistles, ara 
written in so negligent a manner as to lead to the opinion that 
this style of composition was purposely adopted by bim to suit 
the nature of his subject. Whether this opinion be correct or 
not must be considered elsewhere. It will only be requisite 
here to state, that the peculiar character of his hexameter versi- 
fication will render it unnecessary for us to say any thing re 
8pecting the doctrine of the caesural pause in this species of 
verse, which is better explained with reference to the rhythm 
and cadence of Virgil. 

2. dactylic tetrameter a posteriore. 1 

The tetrameter a posterior e, or spondaic tetrameter, con 
•ists of the last four feet of an hexameter ; as, 

CirtHs i\mm pro\mlsU A\pOlld. 

Sometimes, as in the hexameter, a spondee occupies the last 
place but one, in which case the preceding foot ought to be a 
dactyl or the line will be too heavy ; as, 

MensO\rem cd1ii\bBnt Ar\jhytd. 

1. He expression a posteriore refers to the verse being considered as taken from 
die latter part of an hexameter lino (a posterior* parte versus hexametri), and is, oocao 
qaently, opposed to the dactylic tetrameter a priore. This last is taken from ttusfirm 
; wrt (u i»riore parted of an tcx&xr eter, nnd trust alw uyj have the last foot a dactyl 



txii 



METRE.J OF UORACR 



3 L%:TTLIC TRIME t£R CATALECTIC. 

The trimeter cataleptic is a line consisting of ihti first ftff 
haif-feet of an liexameter, or two feet and a half ; as, 

Arbdri\bUcque cd\m^ 
Horace uniformly observes this construction, viz., two dk(:ty,fl 
tnd a semi- foot. Ausonius, however, sometimes makes the fir«l 
fcot a spondee, and twice uses a spondee in the second place ; 
! mt the spondee injures the harmony of the verse. 1 

4. ADONIC. 9 

The Adonic, or dactylic dimeter, consists of two ieet, a dac 
tf\ and spondee ; as, 

EisU A\pdUo. 

Sappho is said to have written entire poems in this measure 
dow lost. Boethius has a piece of thivty-one Adonic lines (Ub 
U mctr. 7), of which the following are a specimen : 

Nubibus atris 
Condita nullum 
Fundere possunl 
Sidera lumen. 
Si mare volvens 
Turbidus auster 
Misceat aslum, Sfc. 

The measure, however, is too short to be pleasing, unless oc- 
x>mp&Died by one of a different kind. Hence an Adonic is used 
m concluding the Sapphic stanza. (No. 10.) Ia tragic chorus- 
es it is arbitrarily added to any number of Sapphics, without 
regard to-uniformity. (Fid, Senec., CEdip., act 1; Troades, 
act 4 ; Here. Fur., act 3 ; Thyest,, act 3.) 

5. IAMBIC TRIMETER. 

iambic verses take their name from the iambus, whfch> in 

L This measure is sometimes called Arcbilochtan penthcmlmeris, since it forma) 
in foct, an heroic penfliemimeris, that is, as already remarked, the first five faaii ioek 
rf an hero'^j or dactylic hexameter line. 

% This verso derives its name from the circnnustancc of its being oscd by thf 
Jrenks in thn music which accompanied the celebration of the fcstirnl cf A/icai» 
<fc.it part, probably which rwprcaented the netoration of Adoni» to lif*i. 



METRES OF HORACE 



IX1H 



re ambics, was jhe only foot admitted. £hey are scanned 
measures ?'f twrj feet ; and it was usual, in reciting ihem, tu 
make a short pause at; the end of every second foot, with an 
emphasis (arsis) on its final syllable. 

The iambic trimeter (called likewise senarius, from its con- 
taining six feet) consists of three measures (metra). The feel 
which compose it, six in number, are properly all iambi ; in 
which case, as above stated, the line is called a pure iambit* 
Th9 caesura! pause most commonly occurs at the peDthemime' 
ri8 : that is, after two feet and a half; as, 




Phdse\lus ll\\le quern \ vl^B^tis hds\pitis. || 

The metres here end respectively where the double lines tire 
marked, and the csesural pause takes place at the middle of th6 
third foot, after the word ille. 

The pure iambic, however, was rarely used. This seems to 
have been owing partly to the very great difficulty of producing 
any considerable number of good verses, and partly to the wish 
of giving to the verse a greater degree of weight and dignity 
[d consequence of this, the spondee was allowed to take thb 
place of the iambus in the first, third, and fifth feet. 1 The «d 
mission of the spondee paved the way for other innovations 
Thus, the double time of one long syllable was divided into two 
Bin^le times, or two short syllables. Hence, for the iambus of 
three times was substituted a tribrach id every station except 
the sixth, because there, the final syllable being lengthened by 
the longer pause at the termination of the line, a tribrach would, 
in fact, be equal to an anapaest, containing four times instead of 
three. For the spondee of four times was substituted a dactyl 
or an anapaest, and sometii:ies id the first station, a proceleu^- 
oaticus. 

The scale uf the mixed iambic trimeter is, therefore, as fo" 
*:ws :, 

1. The reason why the iambus was retained in the even places, that is, the seo 
ond, fourth, and sixth, appears to have been this : that by-placing the spondee fin 炙 
•nd making the iambus (o follow, greater emphasis was given to the concluding 
syllable of each metre on which the ictm and pause took place, than would have 
Wwn the caae hud two long syllables stood together. 

2. Th8 scale cC tli" Greek trimeter iambic is much more strict and miut lot hi 



METRES OF UORAOIh. 





2 


3 




5 




W N^X 




― \«/ W 

\^ W ― 




一一 





As an exemplification of this scale, we shall subjoin aonae K 
the principal mixed trimeters of Horace. 
Bpod. Line. 

1. 27. PlcUs\vl Cdld\\brls an\U 8l\\dus jBr\vidHm. 

2. 23. LibU \jdceWrit mddd | siib an\\Llqua l\licl. 
33. AM dm\\tl ra\rd Un\\dlt rl\Vld. ) i 

Aut a\mUl U\xH rd\rd Un\\dlt rl\Oa. \ 1 
35. PdvHdUm\v^ lejJdWrem, U ad\vlnam || IdqulQ | grtta^ 
39. QuOd si I pudl\\cd milU\lr In || pdrtim \juvit. 
57. Ant hSr\bd ldpd\\thl jyrd\ta dmdn\t\s^ U \ grdtH. 
• 61. Has ln\Ur ^pu^lds, at \ j&vdt || pastas | dvis. 
65. Pdsltos\qu^ ver\nds t di\tis Sx\\dmen | domUs. 
67. Hcec ubl \ ldcu\\tus J7k\nerd\\t6r Al\phiHs. 

3. 17. NBc mu\nHs hUme\\rls lf\flcd\\cis Hir\Mu. 
5. 15. Can1di\d br^vi\\bus t?n\plicd\\td vl\pttis. 

25. At Bx\p^dl\\td Sdgdlnd, per || totdm | ddmUm. 

43. Quid dlx\U ? aut \\ quid tdcU\U? \\ ribUs \nUU 

63. Sid dubllUs, un\\d& rum\peret || sUBn\tium. 

69. Quiriy ubl \ peri\\r^ jHs\sils ex\\splrd\verd. 
7. 1. Qud t quo I sceles\\tl rui\il$ ? aut \\ cur dex\ttrU. 
9. 17. Ad hoc \jrlmln\lls vlr\Vtrunt || bis mll\le gqu&s 
10. 7. InsHr\\gdt Aqul^O^ qudn\tus dl\\tl3 m0n\tibHs. 

19. l6rd\H8 u\\dd quum | r^mu\\gicns | sinus. 9 



oojaibunded with this. Porson (Praf. ad Hec^ 6) has denied the admissibility of tlu 
antipwst into the third or fifth place of the Greek tragic trimeter, except in the cmc 
of proper names with the anapesst contained in the same word. In Latin tragedy, 
however, it obtained admission into both stations, though more rarely into tin 
ftird. In the fifth Btation the Roman tragedians not only admitted, bi t seemod a 
have a strong inclination for, this foot 

1. The quantity of the a in amite depends on that of the e in levi. If we read 
Uviy it is Umite, but if Uvi, dmite. This results from the principles of the trimctef 
Uanbic scale. We can not say Umiie levi without admitting an anapaest into the 
pecond place, which would violate the measure ; neither can we read Amite livi 
without admitting a pyrrhich into ihc second place, which is unheard of. 

2. Idnius, from the Greek 'Uviog. Hence the remark of Maltby {Morell.^ Lot 
Q/rmc, Pros., ad voc.) : ,I"tof cpud poetas tnthi nondum occurrit • nam ad Pin(L, 
tfem., 1 87, reete dedil Heynius * r 6vicv non metro '力 hm iut^.te^ vcrum aiam hat 



MBTRE9 OP HORACE 



IX 



BpodL IJns 

17. 6. CdrCidl\d^ pdr\\c^ vO\dibus \\ landlm | sdcrli, 

12. AliVL\bu8 dt\\qui cdni\biis hdmi\\cidam Hic\tirBfK 
41. tnfa\uAs HeU\\na Cds\tdr OfW/SnsUs \ vlcB. 
54. Ingrd\td misl^rd vl\td du\clnda est, | in hoc. 
56. Optdt I quU\\tim Pm\pU ln\\fldl | pdUr. 
65. Victd\bdr hiime\\rls tunc | I go ini\\rMcls \ 
69. DMpl\rl Lu\\ndm vO\cibHs \\ pdsslm | mHs, 

6. IAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

This is the common trimeter (No. 5) wanting the final gylta- 
Ue. It consists of ftve feet, properly all iambi, followed by 4 
catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vdcd\tus dt\\qu^ non \ mdrd\\tus au\dit. 

Like the common trimeter, however, it admits the s^iondec 
Into the iirst and third places, but not into the fifth, which 
would render the verse too heavy and prosaic. 

Trdhunl\qwt slc\\cds md\chinS \\ cdrl\nas. 
Ndnnul\ld quir\\cil sunl\cdvd^ta U ul\mo. 

Tereotianus Maurus, without any good reason, prefers scan 
niog it as follows : 

Trdhuni\qui slc\cds || mdchi\naB cd\r%nds. 

This species of verse is likewise called Archilocbian, from the 
poet Archilochus. 

7. IAMBIC DIMETER. 

The iambic dimeter consists of two measures, or four feet 
properly all iambi ; as, 

Plr&n\xit hoc || id\8dnim. 

It admits, however, tho same variations as the trimeter, though 
Horace much more frequently employs a spondee than any 
other foot in the third place. The scale of this monsure is ai 
finflows: 





2 


3 










一 


一一 ^mm 




mm» 9 一 




― W W 








― 




X-/ «w 





UMWitt regvla, " Si de gentc Graca scrmo tst, semper hoc n men ffo*iM. fm ui: m 
M' de Karl Ionio, temper pa (UKp6w, r - 



METRES GF HORACE 



This spt ciDs of verse is also called Archilochiai) dimetot 
The following L ne.3 from the Epodes will illustrate t】、《 scale 
Spod. Line. 

2. 6*2. Vide\r(S, prdpS\\rdnUs\ddmilm. 

3. 8. Cdnidi\d trdc\\tdvlt \ dct])ls. 
b. 48. Cdntdl\d ro\\dens pol[Ucim. 

8. IAMBIC DIMETER HTFERBffETER. 

This measure, also called Ai'chilochian, is the iambic dinietet 
No. 7) with an additional syllable at the end ; as, 

R^de\git ad \\ virds | timd\\rBs. 

Horace frequently uses this species of vorse in conjuuetkn 
with the Alcaic, and always has the third foot a spondee ; Col 
She line, which in the common editions runs thus, 

IHsjec\td ndn || levl \ rul\\nd, 

is more correctljr read with leni in place of Uvi. 

9. ACEPHALOUS IAMBIC DIMETER. 

This is the iambic dimeter (No. 7) wanting the first sylla 
hie ; as, 

Ndn I tbur \\ nlque du\r^Um. 

it may, however, be also regarded as a trochaic dimeter cata 
lectic, and scanned as follows : 

Ndn e\hur m\\que aure\Um ; 

Lhough, if we follow the authority of Tereotianus (De Metr. % 
738), we must consider the first appellation as the more comd 
one of the two, since be expressly calls it by this name. 

10. SAPPHIC. 

This verse takes its name from the poetess Sappho, who In 
rented it, and consists of five feet, viz., a trochee, a spondee, a 
dactyl, aud two more trochees ; as, 

Dlfia\lt sdx\ls dgi\ldtHs I hUmdr. 

But in the Greek stanza Sappho sometimes makes the seu 
ttod foot 裏 tr":hee, iu whicb she is imitated by Catullus ; as, 

Hal Afj5f J5|Ao7r^6/fe, ^toaofial re. 
Pauc.a I nunVi\ate me^e puclla. 

Horaco, however, uniformly ha? the spondee in the secpntf 



METRES OF HORACE 



iila^e, which renders the verse much more melodious and flow 
ing. The Sapphic stanza, both ia Greek and Latin, is composeil 
of three Sapphics and one Adonic. (No. 4.) As the Adonic 
sometimes was irregularly subjoined to any indefinite numbei 
oi Sapphics (vicl. Remarks on Adonic verse), so, on other occa- 
8iOD8, the Sapphics were continued in uninterrupted succession, 
terminating as they had begun, without the addition of an Adon- 
ic ©von at the end, as in Boiithips, lib. 2, metr. 6 ; Seneca, Troa 
itSi act 4. 

The caesura always falls in the third foot, and is of two kinds, 
camely, the strong and the weak. The strong caesura falls aftei 
the first syllable of the dactyl, and makes the most melodious 
Hf ,s ; as, 

tnte\ger vl\Ue || scelt\ rlsqul | purus 
Non e\get Mau\ri || jdcu\lls nSc | dr^U 
Nec ve\nind\tls || grdvi\dd sd\gUtis. 

The weak csesura, on the other hand, falls after tho secood 
syllable of the dactyl ; as in the following : 

Ldurt\d dd\ndndus || A\pdlli\ndri 
Plnus I out %m\pulsd || cu\prBss^s \ Eurd, 

Horace generally has the strong caesura. If the third foot, 
However, has the weak caesura, it must be followed by a word 
of two or more syllables. Thus, besides the two lines just giv 
eo f we may cite the following : 

Concines majore || poeta plectro 
Caesarem quandoque || trahet feroces, &c. 

With regard to the caesura of the foot, it is worth noticing, that 
in the Greek Sapphics there is no necessity for any conjunctiou 
of the component feet by caesura, but every foot may be term- 
mated by an entire word. This freedom forms the characteris- 
tic feature of the Greek Sapphic, and is what chiefly distinguish 
ep it from the Latin Sapphic, as exhibited by Horace. 

In Sapphics, the division of a word between two lines fre- 
quently occurs ; and, what is remarkable, not compouod^ bul 
simple words, separately void of all meaning ; as, 

Labitur ripa, Jove non probantc, uz- 

orius amnis. 

This \ircumstanf , together with tho facft of su< h a divisiw 



ixvm 



METRES OP IIORACB 



taking place only between the third Sapphic and the codc1ucAo| 
Adonic, 1 has induced aa eminent prosodian (Dr. Carey) to en 
tertain the opinion that neither Sappho, nor Catullus, nor Hor 
ace ever intended the stanza to consist of four separate verses 
but wrote it as three, viz., two five-foot Sapphics and one at 
seven feet (including the Adonic) ; the fifth foot of the lon| 
vorse being indiscriminately either a spondee or a trochee. 

Thb ordinary mode of reading the Sapphic verse has at length 
begun to be abandoned, and more correct one substituted 
which is as follows : 

i/ 4 H • I' 

I 國 闘 I , . 1 1 - w 一 --, ■ —― -、 一一 

There is still, however, as has been remarked, some doubt 
which of the accented syllables ought to have the stronger ac 
cent and which the weaker. (Consult Journal of Education^ 
vol. iv., p. 356 ; Penny Cyclopeedia, art. Arsis.) 

]1. CHORIAMBIC PENTAMETER. 

The chommbic pent«uaeter consists of a spondee, three cDu^ 
\hmbi, aod an iamhus ; as, 

Tu nl I quasUrls, | sclri nefds^ | quern mihi, quim | (Ltl. 

12. ALTERED CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER* 

The proper choriamb ic tetrameter consists of three clioriitn 
bi and a bacchius (i. e., an iambus and a long syllable) ; as, 

Jdn^ pdtir, I Jdnl luens, \ dlvi biceps^ | MformU, 

(Sept. Sereniu 、 

Horace, however, made an alteration, though not an imprt ^e- 
ment, by substituting a spondee instead of an iambus in the tarsi 
measure, thus changing the chori ambus into a second epitnte, 
viz., 

Te dlos 6\rd Sybdrln \ cur prdperes \ dmdndd. 
The choriambic tetrameter, in its original state, was called 

1. The dinsions which take place between the other lines of the Sapphic ttania 
when tfacy are not common cases of synapheia (as in Horace, CUm. iL, 2, 10), wO 
be found to regard compound words only, and not nmple ones. The ode of dor 
•00 (iv" 2) which begins 

Pindarum quisquit studet tmulari 

Ibntishes no exception to this remark. A synasresis operates jd FuU, irhich nuur 
V) read as if written YuU 



METRES OF HORACE 



Piislaecian, from the poet PhalaBcius, who used il iu some of hia 
compositions. 

13. A9CLEFIAD1C CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

This verse, so called from the poet Asclepi&des, consists of d 
qpondee, two choriambi, and an iambus ; as, 

Mace\nds dtdvts || tdiil re\glbus. 

The csesural pause takes place at the end of the first chorW 
tuibus, on which account some are accustomed to scan the line 
M a dactylic pentameter catalectic ; as, 

Mcecl\nds dtd\vis \\ tdlil \ rSgibils. 

But this mode of scanning the verse is condemned by Teroo- 
tianus. Horace uniformly adheres to the arrangement given 
above. Other poets, however, sometimes, though very rarely, 
make the first foot a dactyl. 

14. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER, OR 6LYC0NIC. 

The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) consists 
nf a spondee, a choriambus, and an iambus ; as, * 

Sic tl II diva, pdiZns | Cyprl, 

But the ftrst foot was sometimes varied to an iambus or a tro* 
,.be»; as, 

Bdnls II crede fuga\cibus. (Bo€thius.) 
Vltls II implicat ar\bores. (Catullus.) 

Horace, however, who makes frequent use of this measure, 
mvariably uses the spondee in the first place. As the pause in 
this species of verse always occurs after the first foot, a Glyco- 
nic may hence be easily scanned as a dactylic trimeter, proviu- 
ed a spondee occupy the first place in the line ; as, 

Sic U I dlvd, p6\tlns Cyprt. 

15. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC, OR FHERECRATIC 

The Pberecratic verse (so called from the poet Pherecr&tes) 
ib the Glyconic (No. 14) deprived of its final syllable, and con* 
mis of a spondee, a choriamb as, and a catalectic syllable ; as, 

Grdtd I Pyrrhd 8&b dn\trd. 

Horace unifovinly adheros to this arrangement, and hence in 
him \t mny be scanned as n dactylic trimeter : 



IXX 



M£TAE8 OF HORACE, 



GrdtO J Pyrrhd sfib \ antra* 

Other poets, however, make the first foot sometiniBfi a tr» 
thee or an anapaest, rarely an iambus. 

16. CHORIAMBIC DIMETER. 

The choriambic iimeter consists of a choriamtus and a ba& 
hlus ; as, 

Lydid, dlc % | p^r 6mnis. 

This measure occurs once in Horace, in conjunction with aa' 
other species of choriambic verse. 

17. ionic a minor e. 

Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Iodic a majore aod the Iome 
d minore t called likewise Ionicus Major and Ionicus Minor t and 
bo denominated from the feet or measures of which tbey ai* 
respectively composed. 

The Ionic a minore is composed entirely of the foot or meas 
ure of that name, und which consists of a pyrrhic and a spoudee, 
as ddcul^sent. It is not restricted to any particular number of 
feet or measures, but may be extended to any length, provided 
only that, with due attention to synapheia, the final syllable of 
'Jie spondee in each measure be either naturally long, or made 
'long by the concourse of consonants ; and that each sentence 
or period terminate with a complete measure, having the spon- 
dee for its close. 

Horace has used this measure but once ( Carm. iii., 12), an 豸 
great difference of opinion exists as to the true mode of arrang- 
ing the ode in which it occurs. If we follow, however, the au- 
thority of the ancient grammarians, and particularly of Terenti- 
anus Maurus, it will appear that the true division is into stio- 
phes ; and, consequ3ntly, that CuniDgam (Animadv, in Horat^ 
BentL t p. 315) is wrong in supposing that the ode in question 
was intended to run on in one continued train of independent 
tetrameters. Cuningam,s ostensible reason for this arrange 
ment is, that Martianus Capella (De Nupt. PhiloL, lib. 4, cap 
iUt) has composed an Ionic poem divided into tetrameters : the 
true cause would appear to be his opposition to Bentley. Thii 
latter critic has distributed the ode into four strophes, each cod- 
aisting of ten feet : or in other words, of two tetrametoi's follcv 



METRES QF IIOAACE. 



lxxi 



od by a dimeter. The strict arrangement, he remarks, would 
oe into four lines merely, containing each ten feet ; bat the size 
of the modern page prevents this, of course, from being done. 
The scanning of the ode, therefore, according to the divisin 
adopted by Bentley, will be as follows : 

Mis^rdrum 1st \ neque dmorl | ddrl Judum, * nlqvl dulex 
Mala vino \ lavere, aut exlanimarij | metuentes 

PdtrHSB ver\bird lingua. 

The arrangement in other editions is as follows : 

Miserdrum est | riEque dmOrl | ddrl ludUm, 
Neque dulci | mala vino | lavere, aut ex- 

-dnimdri | mUMntls ! pdtrUa vir\bird llngiSt 

Others, again, have the following scheme : 

Miserarum est | neque amori \ dare ludum, 
Neque dulci | mala vino | lavere, aut ex- 

-animari | metuentes | pairtue 
Virbird \ lingua, &c. 

Both of these, however, are justly condemned by Bentley. 

18. GREATER ALCAIC. 

This metre, so called from the poet Alcseus, consists of two 
feet, properly both iambi, and a long catalectic syllable, followed 
by a choriambus and an iambus, the cssural pause always fall- 
Dg after the catalectic syllable ; as, 

• Fides I ut dl\td || stet idxil cdn\didum. 

But the first foot of the iambic portion is alterable, of coarse, 
to a spoudee, and Horace much more frequently has a spondeo 
Chan an iambus in this place ; as, 

md\trS pul\chrd || fiUd pHl\chirtdr t 

The Alcaic verse is sometimes scanned with two dactyls in 
fStie latter member ; as, 

Vidis I ut dl\td || stet rCivl \ cdndidum. 

The Alcaic stanza consists of four lires, the first and second 
being greater Alcaics, the third an ia nbic dimeter hvpermetci 
(No. 8), and the fourth a minor Alcaic (No. 20). 

For some remarks on the structure of the Mcaic fltanxa cm 
ult AnthoiCs Latin Versification^ p 224, $eqq. 



.'XXII 



MBTBBS OF HORACE 



19* ARCHILOCHIAN HEPTAMETE& 

This species of verse consists of two members, tlie first 騸 tfao- 
tylic tetrameter d priore (vid. No. 2, in notis)^ and the kltor a 
trochaic dimeter brachy c atalec tio ; that is, the first portion ot 
the line contains four feet from the beginning of a dactylie hex - 
•meter, the fourth being always a dactyl, and the hitter portion 
consist, of three trochees ; as, 

Solm&r I dcr^s h^\lma gra\ia vici \[ vBrU | U Fd\vOni 

20. MINOR ALCAIC. 

This metre consists of two dactyls followed by two trochee* 
as, 

Livid I pirsdnu\iri | sdxd. 

21, DACTYLICO-IAMBIC. 

This measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other nvec 
Hoes of the eleventh Epode of Horace, omilted in the present 
edition. The first part of the verse is a dactylic trimeter ctta- 
ectic (No. 3), the latter part is an iambic dimeter (No. 7) ; as* 

Scribe I vir8icu\lds \\ dmo\rl per\cul8Um \ grdvl* 

One peculiarity attendant on this metre will need explanation. 
【n consequence of the union of two different kinds of verse into 
one line, a licence is allowed the poet with regard to the final 
syllable of the first verse, both in lengthening short syllables and 
preserving vowels from elision. 

Hence lines thus composed of independent metres are called 
iiwuprtiToi, or inconnexi on account of this medial license. Ar- 
jhilochus, according to Hephaestion, was the first who employ- 
ed them. (Bentley, ad Epod, 11.) Many editions, however, 
prefer the simpler, though less correct, division into two dit* 
tinct measures ; as 

Scrlbir^ | virsicu\l08 
Amd\r^ pBr\\cul8ilm | grdicfl. 

22. IAMBICO-DACTTL1C. 

Th» measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other erei 
lues of the thirteenth Epode of Horace, as it is arranged in thii 
edition The first part of the verse is an itmbic dimeter (No 



METRES OF HORACE. 



lxxn 



7), the latter part is a dactylic trimeter catalectic ; No. 3). It 
is, therefore, directly the reverse of the preceding. 

6ccd\si6\nlm dl j dU : |] dumqul v1\renl glnu\d. 

The license mentioned in the preceding meusure takes piaci 
also in this ; as, 
Epod Line. 

13. 8. Red 4cet in scdem vic6. Nunc, &c. 
10. Levure dirts pectorfi. sollicitudinibus 
14. Findunt Scamandri fluminft, lubricus, &c. 

These lines are also, like those mentioned in the preceding 
section, called aavvupTTjToi, or inconnexi. Many editions prefei 
the following arrangement, which has simplicity in ite fnvor, 
but o^it atJ^nt accuracy : 

Occd\$id\\nim cU | dU: 
4 



METRICAL INDEX 

TO THI 

LYRIC COMPOSITIONS OF HORACES 



Al% Vetctto 18, 181, 8, 20 

ASqnam memento … 18, 18, 8, 20 
Altera jam teritar . •• 1, 5 
A.n£rastam f amice . . . • 18, 18, 8, 20 

kt, O Deoram 5, 7 

Bauchtim in reraotit • 18, 18, 8, 20 

deatas ille 5, 7 

Caalo sapinaf 18, 13, 8, 20 

Caelo tonantem ia 18, 8, 20 

Cum, tu. Lydia 14, lis 

Car me qacreli« 18, 18, 8, 20 

Oelicta majorum . . . . 18, 18, 8,20 

Descende c<«lo " 18, 18, 8, 20 

Dianam, tenerre 13, 13, 15, 14 

DifFogere nives 1, 3 

Dive, qaem proles "• 10, 10, 10, 4 

Divis orte bonis 13, 13, 13, 14 

Donarem pateros . . „ . 13 
Donee gratoa eram tibi 1 4, 13 

Rhea ! fa^aeea \» t lg t 8» 20 

Eit; mil" nonom 10, 10, 10, 4 

Rt thare et fidibas " 14. 13 
Bxegi monimentam.. 13 
Faane, Nympbaraip . 10, 10, 10, 4 
Feato quid potios die 14, 13 

Herculis rifca 10, 10, Id 4 

Horrid a tcmpestafl. .. 】, 23 
bis Libarnis 5, 7 



Icci, beatis 18. 18, 6 9G 

Ille et nefasto 18, 18, 8, 9C 

Impios parrae 10, 10, 10, 4 

Inclasam Danaen 13, 13, 13, 14 

Intnctis optileatior... II, 13 

Integer vit» 10, 10, 10, « 

Jam jam efBcaci 5 

Jam pauca aratro.... 18, 18, 8. 20 

Jam satis terri 薦 10, 10, 10, 4 

Jam veris comitsi ... 13, 13, 13, 14 
Justam et ten^cem .. 18, 18, 8, 90 
Laadabont alii ...... 1, 9 

Lupis et ^gn'iB ...... 5, ^ 

Lydia, die, per omnes 16, 19 
MtBcenas atavU . 13 

Mala solata 5, 7 

Martiis coelebs 10, 10, 10, « 

MatersievaCapidinam 14, 13 
Mercuri, facande .... 10, 10, 10, 4 

Mercurv nam te 10, 10, 10, 4 

Miseraram est 17 

Montiam custos 10, 10, 10, 4 

Motum ex MeteLlo... 18, 18, 8, 30 
Ma 矗 is amicaa. ••••••• 18, 8. 00 

Natis in asum '.8, 18, 8, 30 

Ne forte credM 18, 18, 8, 99 

Noiis longa fere 13, 13. 13, " 

Non ebur, neqae 9, 6 



* The numbers refer to the gevcrnl metres, as they have Just been explained 
Tliua in the ode beginning with the words Mli^ Vetuato, the first and second Itam 
if each stanza are Greater Monies (No. 18), the third line is an Tambie DimeUr <Vo 
th and tho last line a Minor Alcaic (No. 20), and so of tihe rout 



METRICAL INE^l 



Mon sennet inibriK " 13, 18, 8, 20 

Son asitata... Id, 18, 8, 20 

Nailain, Vare 11 

Nallas ar^ento 10, 10 .0, 4 

Nunc est bibendum 18, ia 8 20 

Diva, gralam 18, 18, 8 20 

O fons Bandusiae 13, 13, 15, 14 

matre polchra 18, 18, 8, 29 

O cata mccam 18, 18, 8, 20 

navis, referant •••• 13, 13, 15. 14 

O sspe mecam 18, 18, 8, 20 

O Venus, retina . -.. 10, 10, 10, 4 

Odi profanam 18, 18, 8, 20 

Otiam Divos 10, 10, 10, 4 

Parcas Deoram 18, 18, 8, 20 

Parentis plim 5, 7 

Pastor qaurn trah<!ret. 13, 13, 13, 14 

Persicos odi 10, 10, 10, 4 

Phrabe, aylvaramque. 10, 10, 10, 4 

Phaibafl volentem 18, 18, 8, 20 

E^indaram quisquia - .. 10, 10; 10, 4 

PufGiinur* 躑 i quid ... 10, 10 】0, 4 

Uu» corn pttnun ... 18, 9 SO 



Q,aalem miuistruiD... 8, IB, S. 9C 
Q,uando repostam ... 5, 7 

daantam distet 14, 13 

Q.aem ta, Melpomene 14, 13 

Claem viram 10, 1J, 10, 4 

aaid bellicosas 18, 18, 8, 91 

daid dedicatam 18, 18, 8, 98 

U.aid immerente 霧 ... . 5, 7 

U.aia desiderio 13, 11, 13, 14 

dais malta gracilu •• 13, 13, 15 1 
Q,uo, me, Bacche .... 14, 13 
U.au, qao, scclesti ... 5, 7 

Eectius vives 10, 10, 10. « 

Scriberis Vario 13, 13, 13, 14 

Septimi Gades 10, 10, 10, 4 

Sic te, Diva 14, 13 

Solvitar acria hyeias . 19, 6 
Te maris et terrae … 1, 2. 
Ta ne quoBsieris -…, 11 
Tyrrhena regam 18 18, 6 20 
Vciox AracBnaro ..... 18, 18 8, 91 

Vides at aita 18, 1£ «. M 

Vile pot&bki …, ,- 10' 10 % 



0. H R A 1 1 I F i A C I 

C A R M I N U M 

LIBER PRIMUS 

Carmen I. 

AD M^ECENATEM. 

MiECKNAS, atavis edite re^ibus, 
O et prsDSiidium et duicc decus 読 uiu 
Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicuin 
Collegisse juvat, nietaque fervidis • 
Evitata rotis palmaque nobiiis 
Terrarum dominos evehit ad Deoe ; 
Hune, si mobilium turba Quiritiuin 
Certat tergeminis tollere honorilus ; 
Ilium, si proprio condidit horreo 
Quidquid de Libycis verrilur areis. 
Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
Agros Attalicis conditionibus 
Nunquam demoveas, ut trabe Cyp/i* 
Myrtoum, pavidus nauta, secet mare, 
Luctantem Icariis fluctibus AfHcuro 
Mercator rnetuens otium et oppidi 
Laudat n ra sui ; mox reficit iatub 
Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 
Est qui nee vcteris pocula Massici, 
Nec partem solido demere de die 
Spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbut<N 
8trat vs. nunc aJ aquso 】ene cap it sacrs 



Q. tlOHATir FLACCI 



nlultos castra juvant, et lituo tubas 
Pennixtus sonitus, bellaque matribus 
Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 
Venator, tcnersB conjugis immemor, 
Seu visa est cat u lis cerva fidelibus, 
Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 
Me doctarum hederse praemia frontiuin 
Dis misccnt superis ; me gclidum nemua 
Nvmpharumque leves cum Satyris chori 
Secern unt populo, si neque tibias 
Euterpe cohibet, nec Polyhymnia 
Lesboum refugit tendcre barbiton. 
(juod si me lyricis vatiLus mncrii, 
Sublimi fen am si^iera vertic". 



Carmen II. 
AD AUGUST 丽 C^ESAREM 

Jam satis terns nivis atque dirso 
Grandinis misit Pater, et, rubente 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces, 
Terruit urbem : 

Temiit gcntes, grave ne rcdiret 
6a3culam Pyrrhse nova mcnstra queatie, 
Oinne quum Proteus pccus cgit altos 
Visere montes, 

Fi«;ium et summa genus hssit uirr o, 
Nota qua) sedes fuerat palumbis, 
Et fuperjecto pavidaB natarunt 
^Equore dara«. 

Vidimus flavum Ti benm, retortu 
Litore Etrusco vioienter undis. 



UAKMINUM. 一 LIBfip 



Ik dejectum monimcDta Regis, 
Templaque VeetaB, 

Ili?) dum so uiaiium querenti/ 
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sini"t"'- 
Labitur ripa, Ji w non probante, uz 
onus amnis. 

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persaj melius perirent ; 
Audiet pugnas, vitio papeiitum 
Kara, juvent,,, o 

Quem voce" ijlvum populus ruentif? 
iniperi rebu»? prece qua fatigent 
Virgines sancto minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

JDui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
Z Jupiter ? Tandem venias, precair ur v 
' * , Nu)»c candentes humeros amictus, 

Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam Jocus circum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotcs 
Kespicis, auctor. 

Heu ! nuiiis longo satiate ludo, 
Q,i«*in juvat clamor galeaeque leve* 3 
A oer et Marsi peditis cnienturp 
Vultus in hostcra ; 

fiive mutata juvenem figura, 
I^Jos, in t orris imitaiis. almiB 



CI. IIORATIl fJU'I 



Filius Mat», patiens vocau 
Caesar is ultor : 

Berus iu coelum rcdeas, diuque 
Lffitus inter si s populo Quirini, 
Neve te, nostris vitiis iniquum 
Ocior aura 

Tollat Hie uagnos potius trium phoe 
Hie ames die; Pater atque Princej». 
New ^iuas Medos equitare iiiultoft. , 
Te duce, Csesar. 



Carmen III 
AD VIRGILIUM. 

Sic te Diva, potens Cypri, 

Sic fratres Heleixas, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater, 

Obstrictis aliis praeter lapyga, 
Navis, quae tibi creditum 

Debes Virgilium fmibus Atticid, 
Reddas incolumem precor, 

Et serves animss dimidium me«. 
Illi robur et ses triplex 

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 
Commisit pelago ratem 

Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus, 

Nec tristes Hyadas, nec rabiem Noti, 
Quo non arbiter HadriaB 

Major, tollere scu ponere vult freta. 
Quern Mortis timuit graduni, 

Qui rectis oculis monstra natatitia. 



& 4. 



CARM1NUM. 一 LIBER 



Qui vidil mare turgidum et 

Tnfames scopulos Acroceraunia 'i SM) 
Nequidquam Deus abscidit 

Prudens Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen impi® 

Non tangenda rates transiliant vuda 
Audax omnia perpeti 4t 

Gens humana ruit ^otitum et nefi 
Atrox Iapcti genus 

Ignem fraude mala gcntibus intulit : 
Post ignem SBtheria domo 

Subductum, Macies et nova Febrium 
Terris incubuit cohors : 

Semotique prius tarda necesteitas 
Leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 
Pennis non homini datis. 

Perrupit Acherorita Hercu]eus labor. 
Nil mortalibus arflui est : 

Ccelum ipsum petimus stultitia : neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 



Carmen IV. 
AD L. SESTIUM. 

BoH"tur acris hiems grata vice verio et Favoni, 

Trahuutque siccas machinss carinas. 
Ac ueque jam stal^ilis gaudet pecus, aut arator igm ; 

Nec prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cythorea choros ducit Venus, imminente I'una, .1 

Junctseque Nymph is GratiaB decentes 
Alterao terrain quatiunt pede ; dura graves Cycl ipura 

Vulcaniw irdene urit officinas. 



G Q. HOBATJI TLACTA [4, 5 

Nunc dece ; aut vir!'di nitidum caput nnpedire myiV, 

Aut floro, terraB quem ferunt solut© ; 1 U 

Nuac et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare luois, 

Seu poscat agna, sive malit haedo. 
Pallida Mors a^quo pulsat pede pauperum taberuaa 

Rftgumque turres. O beate Sesti, 
• r itaB summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. ifl 

Jam te premet nox } fabulssque Manes, 
Gt domu: exilis Plutonia : quo simul mearis, 

Nfir; regna vini sortiere talis, 
Nac tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet juventus 

Nunc omnis' et mox virgines tepebunt. 



Carmen V. 
AD PYRRHAM. 

ijuis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religa? comam, 

Simplex munditiis ? Heu ! quoties fidem 
Mutatosque Deos flebit, et aspera 
Nigris sequora vcntis 
Emirabitur insolens, 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea ; 
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabileui tfl 
Spcrat, nescius aursB 

Fallacis. Miseri, quibus 

Intentata nites ! Me tabula saoei 
V^otiva paries indicat uvida 
Suspendisse potenti 15 
Vestimenta maris [ha 



, 1 



tTARMlNf/M. 一 LIBEK I 



Carmen VI. , 
AD AGRIPPAM, 

Srribcris Vario fortis et hostium 
Victor, Max>nii carmiiis alite, 
Quam rem cunque ferox navibu3 aut eqiiu 
Miles, te duce, gesserit , 

Nos, Agrippa, neque heBC dicere, ncc graveir 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii, 
Nec cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
Nec sa3vam Pelopis domum 

Conamur, tenues grandia ; dum pudor, 
Iiiibellisque lyne Musa poteus vetat 
Laudes egregii Csesaris et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingeni. 

Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit ? aut pulvere Troico 
Nigrum Merionen ? aut ope Palladia 
Tydiden Superis parem ? 

Nos convivia, nos proelia virgin urn 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus, vacui, sive quid uriinur, 
Non pnctcr solitum leves. 



Carmen VII. 
AD MUNATIUM PLANCUM 

w>audabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mytilencn, 

Aut Ephe8on, bimarisve Corinthi 
AfcBnia, vel Baccho Thebas, vel Apolline Delplr 

Insignes, aut Thessala Tempe. 



a. n RATH FLACCl 



Sunt quibus anum opus est intactsB Palladife arcx 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare, 
Indeque decerptam fronti praponere olivain. 

Plurimus, in Junonis honorcm, 
Aptum dicit equis Argos, ditesque Mycenae. 

Me neo tarn patiens LacedaBmon, 
Noc tarn LarissaB percussit campus opiinsu, 

Quam domuE A lbune» resonantis, 
JLlt prseceps Anio, *tc Tiburni lucus, et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila cobIo 

Saepe Notus, ueque parturit imbres 
Perpetuos, sic tu sapiens liuire memento 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, inero, seu te fulgentia si^nis 

Castra tenent, seu dcnsa tenebit 
Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patreiiiqu6 

Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tenipora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes afTatus amicus : 
Quo nos cunque feret melicr For tuna pareute. 

Ibimus, O socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce ct auspice 'I * ^cw 

Cert us enim promisit Apollo, 
Arnbiguam tellure nova Salamina futurair 

O forte-, pejoraque passi 
Mecum ssBpe viri, nunc vino pellite curait ; 

CraR ingens iterabimus aiquor. 



Carmen VIII 
AD LYDIAM. 

二 ydia die. per omnes 

Te Jeos oro, .^yOariK cur properaa atnaudc 
L*erdere ? cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulvjris at que s»). 1 ^ 



CARMINUM. 一 L1BEK 



Cur neque militaris 

Inter sequaies equitat, Galiica nee lupatu 
Temperat ora frcnis ? 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere ? cur ohvuiA 
Sanguine viperino 

Cautius vitat, ncque jam livida gesti t armu 
Brachia, sa)pe disco, 

Szepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expeilito ? 
Qxi latet, ut marinas 

Filiiun dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Troj* 
Funera, ne virilis 

Cult us in csedem et Lycias proriperet catcrvaa ? 



Carmen IX. 

AD THALIARCHUM. 

Vides, ut alta stet iiive candidum 
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto ? 

Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco 
Large reponens ; atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
O Thaliarche, merum diota. 

Permitte Divis caetera : qui simui 
Btravere ventos aequore fervido 
Deprceliantes, nec cupressi 
Nec veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futururn eras, fuge quserere : et 
ij^iem Fors dicrum cunque dabit, :, 丄 c,n> 
Appoue : nec dulces amores 
Spcrne puer, neque tu choreas 



a. hORATH FLACC1 



Donee viienti canities abest 
Morosu. Nunc et Campus et area» ( 
Lcnesque sub noctem susurri 
Coinposita repetantur hora : 

Nunc et .'atentis proditor intima 
Gratus puellse risus ab angulo f 
Pign usque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertiiiar. ; 



Carmen X. 

AD MERCURIUM. 
Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recent 麵 
Voce formasti catus et decorse 
More palaBBtrse, 

Te canam, magni Jcds et deorum 
Nuntium, curvaeque lyraB parentem , 
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocogo 
Condere furlo. 

Te, boves olim nisi rcddidisse» 
Per dolum amotas, puerurn miivac.' 
Vooe dum tenet, viduus pharotra 
Risit Apollo. 

Quin et Atridas, duce tc, ruperbo« 
Ilio dives Priamus relic to 
Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojie 
Caslra fefellit 

Tu pias 】a?tis animas reponis 
fiedibus, virgaque lev em ooercen 
Arnea turbam, buperis deorum 
Gratus et imw. 



12.] CARMINT7M —LIBER 1 



Carmkn XI 

AD LEUCONOEN. 

ru ue quajsioris, scire nefas, quem mi hi, qucm tibi 
Finem Di dcderint. Leuconoe ; nec Babylonios 
Teutaris nuinero? Ut melius, quidquid ent, pati ! 
Seu plures hiemes, seu tribuit Jupiter uitimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
ryrrhenum, sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spen; longam reseces. Dura loquimur, fucrerit invif'a 
IStas. Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 



Carmen XII. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quem virura aut heroa lyra vel acn 
Tibia sumis celebrare, CUo ? 
Quem Deum ? cujus recinot jocosa 

Nomen imago 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 
Aut super Pindo, gelidove in H»mo 
Unde vocalem temere in3ecuta3 

Orphea silvae, 

Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Flummum lapsus celeresque ventos, 
Blandum et auritas fidibus canoria 

Ducere quercu? 

Quid prius dicam solitis Parentis 
Laudibus, qui res horainum ac Deorum, 
Qui m&re ao terras, variisque mundum 

Temperat horis ? 



Id 



a. H0RAT1I FLACCI 



CJnde uil inajus generatur ipso, 

Nec viget quidquam simile aut Becumium : 

Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. W 

PrcBliis audax, neque te silebo, 
Liber, et ssovis inimica Virgo 
Bclluis ; net te, metuendc certa 

Phoebe sagitta. 

Dicam et Aiciden, puerosque I^edab, 2i> 
liunc equis, ilium superare pugnis 
Nobilem : quorum simul alba nautia 

Stella refulsit 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 

Concidunt yenti, fugiuntque nubes, 30 
Et minax, nam sic voluere, ponto 

Unda reoumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem, an superb^i 
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis 96 

Nobile letum. 

Reguluin, et Scauros, animsequ?. magiuB 
Prodigum Paullum, superante roeno, 
Gratus insigni referam Camena, 

Fabriciumque. it 

Hunc, et incomtis Curium capillis, 
Utilem ballo tulit et Caraillum, 
S<BTa pauper :as et avitus apto 

Cum la re funuus 



13, 13.J CARMIXUM. 一 LIBUA 1. 

Crescit, occulto velut arbor »vc, 
Fama Marcel! i : micat inter osaues 
Julium sulus, velut inter ignea 

Luna minores. 

Gentis humanae pater atque custom 

One Saturno, titi cura magni 
CsBsaris fatis data ; tu secundo 

CsBsaie regnes. 

Ille, seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit juste domitos triumpho, 
Sive subjectos Orientl* orse, 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum regat cequus orbetn 
Tu gravi ourru quatias Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittas 

Fuhuina lucis. 



16 



00 



Carmen XIII. 
AD LYDIAM. 

Quain tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicera roseam, cerea Telephi 
Laudas brachia, va3, meum 

Fervcns difHcili bile tumet jecur. 
Tunc nec mens mihi nec color f 

Certa scde manent ; humor et in genas 
Furtiir labitur, arguens 

Quam lcntis penitus macercr ignibus. 
Uror, sou tibi candidos 

Turparunt hunieros immodicae rnero f 
RixsB, sive puer fbrens 

ImproMit memorem dente labris notam 



14 



U. HORATU FLAC(Ji 



N )n, 81 me satis audias, 

Spores perpetuum, dulcia barbare 
Lffidentem oscula, quae Venus ]| 

Quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 
Felices ter et amplius, • 

Quos irrupta tenet copula, nec mahs 
Divuljsus qucrimoniis 

Suprema citius solvet amor die. 



Carmen XIV. 
AD REMPUBLICAM. 
O navis, referunfin m^re te novi 
FJuctus ! O quid agis ? fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus, 

Lt mal us celeri saucius Africo f 
Antennacque gcmunt, ac-sine funibu 露 
Vix durare carina) 
p osfiunt imperiosius 

iEquor ? Non tibi sunt integra Uutea y 
Non Di, quos iterum prcssa voces malo , H 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 

Jactes et genus et.nomen inutile, 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 15 
D^bes iudibrium cave, 

JJuper sollicitum quae mihi taedium, 
dune desiderium curaque non levis 
Interfusa nitentes 

Vites aequora Cynladas 



Carmen XV. . 
NEREl VATICINIUM DE EXCID10 THOJ^S 
Pastor quum traheret per freta navibus 
Idseis Helenen perfldus hospitam, 
Ingrato celeres obruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret iera 

Nereus fata : Mala ducis avi domum, 
Quam multo repetet Graecia mi lite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Heu heu ! quaulus equis, quantus adest vine 
§udor ! quanta moves funera DardanaB 10 
Genti ! Jam galeam Pallas et segida 
Curru&^ue et rabiem parat. 

Nequidquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
Pectes cacsariem, grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides ; 
Nequidquam thalamo graves 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis, strepitumque, et celerera sequi 
Ajacem : tamen, heu, serus adultcros 
Crines pulvere collines. 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tuas 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer ct Sthenelus sciens 

Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equi«, S)0 
Non aurrga piger. Merlonen auoque 



16 



Q. HOKATil FLACCI 



[l^ 16 



N>soea Ecce furit te repenre atrux 
Tydidcs, inelior patre ; 

Quern tu, cervus uti vallis in alteia 
Visum parte lupum graminis immeiiior, 31 
ttublinr fugies mollis anheJitu, 
Nor hoc pollicitus tuas. 

Iracunda diem proferet flio 
JVlatrouisque Phrygum classi? Achiiiei : 
Post certas hiernes uret AchaVcus 54 
Ignis Iliacas domos. 



Carmen XVI. 

PALINODIA. ' 

O matre pulchra fi】ia pulchrior. 
Quern criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma 
give mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit ^ 
Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythiu» i 
Non Liber seque, non acuta 
Sic gcminant Cory ban tes a^ra, 

Tristes ut iraB, quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis, nec marc naufragum, l€ 
Nec ssbvus ignis, nec trcniendo 
Jupiter ipse mens tumultu. 

Fertui Prometheus, addere prmcipi 
JLiiiio ccactus particulam undique 

Deseotam. et insani leonis it 
V?m stomach i» apposui'rse nostiv. 



i«. 17. j 



CARMINUM. » LIBER 



Ira5 Th/esten exitio gravi 
Stravere, et altis urbibns ultimie 
Stetere causes, cur perirent 

Funditus. imprimeretque murtti M 

Hostile aratrum exercitus iusolens 
Compesce mentcm : n.e quoque p«M*,toTJi 
Tcntavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor, et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 25 
Mutare qusero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis arnica 

Opprobriis, animumquc redd as 



Carmen XVII. 
AD TYNDARIDEM 

Velox amccmim saspe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus, et igneam 
Defendit aestatem capellis 

Usque meis pluviosque ventcM 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutoe I 
Quffinint latentes et thyma devue 
Olentis uxores mariti : 

Nec virides nietuunt colubras, 

Nec Martiales Htediliae lupos ; 
Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 攀 
Valles et Usticss cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

l)i me tucntur, Dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hie libi copui 

B 2 



U. H3B ATII FLAttl 



Manabit ad plenum bemgno 1 5 

Rurii honor um opulent & oorau 

Hie in redncta valle Caniculan 
Vita bis rostas, et fide Tei'a 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen. 20 

llic innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra ; nec Semelei'us 
Cum Marte confundet Thyonong 
Prcelia, nec metues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 2ft 
Tucontinentes injiciat manus, 
£t scindat haerentem coronam 
Crinibus, immeritamque vestem. 



Carmen XVIII. 
AD VARUM. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili : 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque 

Mordaces aliter (liflbgiunt sollicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravera militiam aut pauperiein ere pa ? 5 

Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venup ? 

At, ne quis modici transsiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super inero 

】)ebellata ; monct Silhoniis nou levis Euius, . 

Quum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidimun 10 

Disceinunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu. 

(nvitum quatiam ; nec van'is obsita t'rondibus 

^ub divuni rapiata Sojva tene cum Beipcyntio 



IS, 19 20.J ^ARMiNUM. ― LIBfiK 1. 

Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur csecus Anior sui 
Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticein. 
Arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 



Carmen XIX. 
DE GLYCERA 

Mater sseva Cupidinum, 

Thebanaeque jubet me Semeles puei, 
Et lasciva Licentia, 

Finitis animum redd ere amoribus. 
Urit me Glycerae nitor 

Splendentis Pario marmore purius, 
Urit grata protervitas, 

Et vultus nixnium lubricus adspici. 
In me tota ruens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit ; nee patitur Scythae, 
Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum^ dicere, nec quse nihil aitinent. 
Hie vivuin mihi cespitcm, hie 

Verbenas, fjueri, ponite, thuraque 
Bimi cum patera meri : 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 



Carmen XX. 
AD M^ECENATEM. 
Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Condituin levi, datus in theatro 
Quum tibi plausus, 

Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 
Flaminis ripaB, simul et jocosa 
Redderct laudes tibi Vaticani 
Montis ima^o 



20 a. HORATU FLACCI |20, 21 2% 

CaRculiam et prelo domitam Calcno 
Tu bibes uvam : mea nec FalernaB 1Q 
Teniperant vites ncque Formiani 
Pocula colics. 



Carmen XXL 
IN DIANAM ET APOLI.1NEM 

Dianani tenersD dicite virgines ; 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium : 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 

\^os lsBtam fluviis et nemorum coma, 6 
Qua^cunque aut ge】ido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis, aut viridis Cragi ; 

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus, 
Nalalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis, 10 
Insignemque pharetra 

Fraternaque humerum lyra. 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram farneri 
Peetemque a populo, principe Capsaie, in 

Persas atque Britannos t 馨 

Vestra raotus aget prece. 



Carmen XXII. 

AD ARISTIUM FUSCUiM. 

integer vitae scelerisquc purus 

Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque arou, 

Neo venenatis gravida sagittis. 

Fusee, pharetra ; 



; 23 \ ClifiMINUM. ~ LIB1M I 21 

Sivo per Syrtes iter sestuosas, 4 
Sive facturus per inhospital^m 
Caucasum, vel quae loca fabiUoeus 
Lambit Hydaspp*.. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen } et 10 
Terminum curis vagor expeditis 
Fugit inermem • 

Quale portentum neque militariB 
Daunias latis alit SBSculetis, 
Nec JubaB tellus generat, leonum 16 
Arida nutrix 

Pone me, pigris ubi nulla campis 
Arbor sestiva recreatur aura ; 
Quod latus mundi nebuls malusque 

Jupiter urget : * 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis, in terra domibus negata : 
Duloc ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loqucntem. 



Carmen XXIII. 
AD CHLOEN. 
Vitas himiuleo me simLUs, Chloo, 
Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviig 
Matrera, non sine vano 
Aurarum et siluas metu. 

Nam seu mobilibus vepris inhorruit 6 
Ad ventum fo\p&, ispu virides rubum 



a. HORATII FLACCI 



Dimovere lacertsB, 

Et corde et gcnibus treinit. 

4tqui non ego te, tigris ut aspera 
Gffitulusve leo, frangere persequor . 
Tandem desiue matrem 

Tempestiva sequi viro. 4 



Carmen XXIV. 

A D VIRGILIUM. 

Quia desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubrea 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquid&m Y^iet 
Vocem cum cithara dedit 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor 
Urget ! cui Pudor, et Justitiae soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis i】le bonis ilebilis occidit , 
Nulli flebilior, quam tibi, VirgiL ; .. 
Tu frustra pius, heu ! non ita creditum 
Poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vansB redeat sanguis imagiiu', 
Quam virga semel horrida, 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compuler t Mercurius gregi. 
Durum ! Sed levius fit patientia, 
Quidquid corrigere est nefas. 



27,1 GARMINUM. 一 LIBER 1. 

Carmen XXVI. 

DE iELIO LAMIA. 

Musis amicus, tiistitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis ; quis sub Arcto 
Rex gelid® metuatur orae. 

Quid Tiridaten terreat, unice 
Securus. O, quae fontibus inteffris 
• Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
, Necte raeo LamisB coronam, 

Pimpiei dulcis ; nil sine te mei 
Prudunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 
Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro, 
Teque tuasque decet sororcs. 



Carmen XXVII. 
AD SOD ALES. 
Natis in usum laetitias scypliis 
Pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbajmns 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 
Tmraane quantum discrepat ! impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presto 

飞 uitis severi me quoque sumere 
l'artem Falerni ? dicat Opuntiaa 
Frater Megillae, quo beatus 
Vulnere, qua pereat sagitta. 



24 



4 % . HORATil FLACCI 



•27, W 



Cessat Voluntas ? non alia bibam 
Mercede. Qusb te cunque domat V r enui, 

Non erubescendis adurit *l 
Ignibus, ingenuoque semper 

A more peccaB. Quidquid haoes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus— Ah miser, 
Quanta laborabas Charybdi, 

Digne puer meliore flaninia ! Xil 

Qusb saga, quis te solvere Thessalis • 
IVTagus venenis, quis poterit Deus ? , 
Vix illipfatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimasra. 



Carmen XXVIII. 
NAUTA ET ARCHYTiE UMBRA 

Nauta. 

T<i maris et terrac rniincroque carentis aren» 

Mimsorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera ; nec quidquam tibi prodest 
Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum f 

Percurrisse polum, morituro ! 

ArchytvE umbra. 

Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva Deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras, 
Et Jovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 

Tartara Panthoi'den, iterum Oreo 10 
Dsmissum ; quamvis, clypeo Trojana refixo 

Tempora testatus, nihil ultra 
Nenroe atque cutem Morti concesserat atnr ; 

Judi'ce te non sordidus aucU>r 



j^. J CARM1NLM» 一 L1J1ER 1. 9A 

Naturae verique. Scd omnes una manei nux. 16 

£t calcamla semel via lcti. 
Uant alios Furies torvo spectacula Marti ; 

Fxitio est avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac juvenum densentur funera \ /lulluu 

Sajva caput Proserpina fugit. 20 
Mc quoquc devexi rapidus comes Orionis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenas 

Ossibws et capiti inhumato 
Particulam daie : sic, quodcunque minabitur Eurua 

Flactibus Hesperiis, Venusin® 
Plectantur silvae, te sospite, multaquc mercea, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ah Jove, Neptunoque sacri custode Tarcnti. 

Negligis immeritis nocituram 30 
Postmodo te natis fraudem committerc ? Fora et 

» 

Debita jura vicesque superb® 
Te maneant ipsura : precibus non linquar inultia , 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa , licebil )A 

Injecto ter pulvere curras. 



Cahmen XXIX. 

AD I C C I U M. 

! cci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis SabseB 
Regibus, horribilique Mcdo 

Nectid catenas ? Quae tibi virginuia. 
Bpcnso necato, barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum statuetur uncti% 

B 



a. aou at/a ri acci 



Ductus sagittas tendere Seiioa? 
A vcu patent o ? Quis neget ardu» 
PronoR lelabi posse rivos 
Montibus, et Tiberim reverti. 

Quura tu co^mtos undique nobiles 
Libros Pansti, Socraticain el domain, 
Mutare loricis Iberis, 

Pollicitus meliora, tendia ? 



Carmen XXX. 
AD V E N E R E M. 
O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
Spcrne dilcctaia Cyproa, et Yocaatui 
Thure te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum Puer, et solutis 
jrratias zonis, propereatque NyrnphaB 
Et parum comis sine te Juventas, 
Mercuriusque. 



Carmen XXXI. 
A D APOLLINEM 

Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vatea quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opiiuae 
SardirisB segetes feiaces ; 

Non aestuosas grata CalabriiB 
Armenia ; non aurum, aut ebur Indicum 4 
Non ruri, quas Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua, taciturnus aninif 



32 J 



CARMINUM — LIBEE i 



Premant Calena falcc, quibus dedit 
Fortuna, vitem . dives et aureis 
Mercator exsiccet cuiullis 
Vina Syra reparata meroe ; 

Dis cams ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens sequor Atlanticuip 
Impune. Me pascunt olivae 
Me cichorea, levesquo malvn. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones, et, precor, integra 
Cum mente ; nec turpem scnentatii 
Degcre, nec cithara carentem. 



Carmen XXXII. 

AD L Y R A M. 
Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra 
LuBimiiB tecum, quod et hunc in anuiun 
Vivat et plures, age, die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi ; 
Qui, ferox bello, tamen inter arma, 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 
Li tore navim, 

Liberum et Musas, Veneremque, et UU 
Semper haerentem Puerum canebat, 
Et Lyci:ni, nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decus Phoebi, et dapibus supreiai 
Grata testudo Jovis, O laborura 
Dnlce lenimdD mihi ojnqiie sal?e 
Rite vocanti. 



Q. HORATH FLACC1 



Carmli; XXXIV. 

AD S E I P S U M. 

Parous Deorum cultor et infrequeni» 
Imamentis dum sapientisB 

Consultus er=o, nunc retrorsum 
Veia dare at que iterare cursus 

Cogor relic tos : namque Diespiter 5 
Igni corusco nubila dividens 

Plerumque, per purum ton antes 
Egit ctpios volucremque curruin , 

Quo bruta tellus, et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx et invisi horriila Tamari 10 
Sedes, Atlanteusque finis 

Concutitur. Valet ima surnmis 

Mutarc. et insignia attenuat Dens, 
Obscura promens. Hinc apicem rapaj 

Fortuna cum stridors acuto 15 
Sustulit, hie posuisse gaudet. 



Carmen XXXV. 

AD FORTUNA3VL 

O Diva, prratum quss regis Antiura, 
PrsBsens vcl imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphoe, 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece, 
Buris, colonua ; te dominam asqnorif 
Quicunque Bithyna lacossit 
Caipathium pelagus cariiiu 



CARMINIM. 一 LIBER i. 

Te Oacus asper, te profugi Scythas, 
Urbesque, gentesquc, et Latium ferox, 
Regumque matres barlan>ruiri t et 
Purpurei metuunt tyrAn^, 

injurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam, neu populn^, freqaeiu 
Ad arma cessantcs ad arma 
Concitet, imperiumque frax^^X. 

Te semper anteit saeva Necessity 
Clavos tr&bales et cuncos (nanu 
Gestans aena ; nec soverus 

Uncus abest, liquid unique plu"P*.、m 

Te Spes, et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata paimo, nec comitem abnegat, 
TJtcunque mutata potentes 
Veste domos inimica linquis. 

At vulgus infidum et meretrix retrn 
Perjura cedit ; difTugiunt, cadis 
Cum faece siccatis, amici 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 

Serves iturum CaBsarcra in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos, et juvenum recens 
Examen Eois timendum 
Partibus, Oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu ! cicatricum et scelcris pudet 
Fratrumque ― Quid nos dura refugimui 
JEias ? quid intactum nefasti 

I^iquimus ? unie manum juveatiip 



210 



a. HORATII FLACCI 



【35, 36, 37 



Melu Dcorura continuit ? quibus 
Pepercit aris ? O utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massa^etas Arabasque ferrum 4€ 



Carmen XXXVI. 
AD PLOTIUy NUM1DAM 

Et thure et fidibus juvat 

Placarc et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodes NumidaB Deos, 

Qui nunc, Hesperia sobpes ab ultina 
Caris multa sodalibus, Q 

Nulli plura tamon dividit oscula, 
Quam dulci Lamia;, memor 

Acta? non alio rege puertiae, 
MutataBque simul togwt. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 10 
Neu promtaB modus amphorae, 

Neu morera in Salium sit requies pedum. 
Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vir.cat amystide, 
Neu dcsiut epulis rosae, Iff 

Neu vivax apium, neu breve lilium. 



Carmen XXXVII. 
AD S O D A L E S. 

Nunc est InDendum, nunc pede likvro 
Pulsanda tellus ; nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulvinar deorum 

Tempus erat dapibus. sodaies. 



Antehac ncfas depromere Ca3cubwn 
Cellia avitis lum Capitolio 



CHRMINUM. 一 LIBBR U 



Elegina demontes ruinas. 
Funus et iraperio para bat 

Contaminato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impolont 
Sperare, fortunaque dulci 
Ebria Sed minuit furoiera 

Vix una sospes navis ^.b ignibus ; 
Mentcmquo lymphatam Mareotioc. 
Redegit in veros timores 
Cwsar, ab Italia volantem 

Rem is adurgens, accipiter velut 
Molles columbas, aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 
H^monise ; darct ut ca tenia 

Fatale monstrum ; quso ponero^iu 驄 
Pciive quaerens, nec rnuliebritei 
Expavit ensem, nec latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras ; 

Ausa et jacentem visere rcgiain 
Vultu sereno, fortis et asperaa 
Tractare serpen tes, ut at rum 
Corpore combiberet venerium ; 

Deliberata morte ferocior ; 
8iBvis Liburnis scilicet invideiis 
Privata deduci superbo 

Nun humilis mulier tri'.iinpha 



I 



82 Q. UORATI] FLACC! O AR M 1 N UM.. — !A tt K B I }3H 

Carmen XXXV. Hi. 

A. D P U E R U W 

Pereicos odi puer, apparatus • 
v Displioent noxae philyra corcna*. 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 
Sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil allaboreg 
6edulus euro : neque te mitiifiram 
Oeiecet myrtus, neque me sub anst 
Vite bibentem. 



Q H K A T I I F L A C 

C A R M I N U M 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Carmen I. 

AD ASINIUM POLLIONEM. 

Motum ex Metello consule civicum) 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunae, giavesque 
Principum cuuicitias, et arma 

Noudum expiatis uncta cruoribus 
Periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cincri doloso. 

Paulum severaB Musa tragaedia) 
Desit theatris : mox, ubi publu'as 
Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

Ugne moestis prscsidium reis 

Et consuicnti Pollio curiae ; 
Cui laurus eeternos honores 
. Dalmatico peperit triumpho- 

Jam nunc minaci murmure comuum 
Pentriiigis aures, jam litui strepunt ; 

B 2 



U, aUKATU l- LACCl 



Jaji fulgdr armorun fu^acee 
T< rrct equoA cquitumquc vultua 

^udire magnus jam videor dmee 
Non indrroro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuii^ta terrarum subacta 

Praster atrocem animum Catonit* 

Juno et deorum quisquis amicior 
Afri8 inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotea 
Kettulit mferias Jugurthas. 

Quig non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia prcelia 

Testatur, auditumque Med is ' 
Hesperiao sonitum ruinse ? 

Qui gurges, aut quae flumina luguont 
Ignara belli ? quod mare DauniiB 

Non decoloravere caedes ? 
Quas caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne, relictis, Musa procax, jocis, 
Cese retractes munera naBiiisD : 
Mecum Dionseo sub antro 
QuaBre modos leviore plectro. 



Carmen IT. 

AD SALLUSTIUM CP ISPUM 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnad 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Splendcat usu. 



C/iRMINUM. 一 LI BEE II. 



Vivet extento Proculeius scvo 
Notus in fratres animi paterni : 
11] um aget penna metuente solv ; 
Fama supei-stes. 

Latius regnes avidum domandc 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 
Gadibus jungas, et uterque Poenus 
Berviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops 
Nec sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo 
Corpore languor. 

Hedditum Cyri solio Phrahaten 
DiBsiden8 plebi numero beatoruni 
Eximit Virtiis, populumque faisis 
Dedocet uti 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum. 
Quisquis iiigentes oculo irretorto 
Spectat acervos 



Carmen III. 
AD D E L L I U M. 
^Squam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonit 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Lsetitia, moriture Delli, 

8eu moestus omni tempore vixerig} 
Beu te in reraoto gramine -Der dies 



U. HOUAlll FLACCi 



Feslos reclinatum bearis 
Tntcrioro noia Falem* 

Qua pinus ingens albaque populu? 
Umbrara hospitalem consociare amant 10 
Ramis, et obliquo laborat 

Lyrapha fugax trepidare rivo : 

Hue yina et unguenta et nimium urevis 
Flores amcenos ferre jube rosae, 

Dum res et aetas et Sororum 15 
Fila trium paliuntur atra. 

Cedes coemtis saltilms, et domo, 
Villaque, flavus quam Tiberis lant . 
Cedes ; et exstructis in altum 

Divitiis potietur hseres. SO 

Divesne prisco natus ab Inacho. 
Nil interest, an pauper et infima 
Do gente, sub divo moreris, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 

O nnes eodem cogimur : omnium 86 
rsatur urna serius ocius 
Sors exitura, et nos in aBternum 
Exsilium impositura cymbas. 



Carmen VI. 

AD SEPTIMIUM. 

8eptimi, Gades aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura sempei 
iEstuat unda : 



CARMINT.M. 一 LIBEK II. 



Til jr, Argeo positura colono, 
Sit mea^ sedes utinam senectse. 
Sit modus lasso maris et viaruia 
Militineque. 

Undo si Pa rose prohibent iniqus, 
Duice pellitis ovibus GalsDsi 
Flumen ct regnata petam Laconi 
Rura Phalanto. 

ille tcrraruin mihi praeter omnes 
《n^ulus ridet, ubi noil Hymetto 
Mclla decedunt, viridique certat 
Bacca Venafro. 

Vcr ubi lcngum tepidasque prsebet 
Jupiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
^ertili Baccho minimum Falernip. 
Invidet uvis. 

IUe te mecuin locus ct beatsB 
Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amici. 



Carmen VII. 

AD POMPEIUM. 

O ssBpe mecum tempus iu ultimuiD 
Deductc, Bruto militias duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritern 
Dl» patriis Italoque ccbIo 

Poropei, meorum prime sodalium t 
Cum quo inorantem saspe diem meto 



a. HOBATII FLACIJ1 



Vt&gij corona tus nitentes 
MalobathTo Syrio capillos. 

Tecum Philippos et celerem f'ugam 
Sensi, relict a iion bene parmula ; 
Quum fracta Virtus, et minaces* 
Turpe solum tetigere mento, 

Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere ; 
Te rursus in bellum resorbens 
Unda fretis tulit EBstuosis. 

£rgo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea, nec 
Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciborio exple, funde capacibus 
Unpruenta de conchis. Quis ado 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Curatve myrto ? quern Venus arbitruifi 
Dicet bibcndi ? Non ego sanius 
Tiacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce rriihi furere est amico. 



Carmen IX. 
AD VALGIUM. 
Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros, aut mare Caspiuni 
Vexant meequales procellaB 
Uv^ue, nec Armeniis in ori* 



i 

d« 10.] CARMINUM. 一 LIBER II. 311 

Amice Valgi, stal glacies iners 
Mense3 per omnes ; aut Aquilonibue 
Querceta Gargani laborant, 
Et foliis viduantur orni. 

Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
Mysten ademtum ; nec tibi Vesporo 
Surgente decedunt amorcs, 
Nec rapidum fugiente Solem 

At non ter aevo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 
Annos ; nec impubem parentes 
Troi'lon, aut Phrygise sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelarum ; et potius nova 
Cantemus Augusti tropasa 

CaBsaris, et rigidum Niphaten ; 

Medumque flumen, gentibus addituiu 
Victis, minores volvere vortices ; 
Intraque prsBScriptura Gelonos , 
Exiguis equitare campis. v 



Carmen X. 

AD LICINIUM. 

ilectius vives, Licini, neque altum 
Semper urgendo, neque, dura procellaa 
Cautus horrescis, nimiuin premen \o 
Litus iniquum. 

Auream quisquis mediocntaiem ^ 
Diligit, tutu? caret obsoleti 



10 



』 



in 



IIORATC: FLA CC1 



10 It 



Sordibus tecti, caret invidcnda 
Sobrius aula. 

8sBpiu8 ventis agitatur ingene 
Pinus, et celss graviore casu 重 Q 

T>«c:duiit turres, feriuntque sumr ios 
Fulgura montes. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatuin 
Pectus Informes hiemes reducit I 
Jupiter, idem 

Summovet. Non, si male nun6. et olira 
Sic erit. Quondam cithara tacentera 
Suscitat Musam, neque semper annua 

Tendit Apollo. HQ 

flebus anguslis animosus atque 
Forlis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 
Turgida vela. 



Carmen XI. 
AD QUINTIUM. 

Cluid bcllicosus Cantaber, et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quinti, cogitet, Hadria 
Divisus objecto, remittas 

QutBrere ; nec trepides in ubujdq 

.Poscentig revi pauca. Fugit retix> 
Levis Juventas, et P'^cor, arida 
Pellente lascivos amorcs 
Canitie facilemque somaum. 



CAKM1NUM. ― LIBER u 



Non semper idem floribus est hunoj 
^emis ; neque lino Luna rub ens nilet 
Vultu • quid aiternis ininorei.n 
Consiliis auimuin fatigas ••' 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac. 
Pinu jacentes sic temere, et rofed 
Cdnos odorati capillos, 

Dum licet, Assyriaque car do 

E)otamus uncti ? Dis^pat Euius 
Curas edaces. Quis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falcrni 
Pocula prsetcreunte lympha ? 



Carmen XII. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

\c lis longa ferae bella Numantiae, 
Nec dirum Hannibalem, nee Siculuni ma/e 
•Pcmio purp ureum sanguine, mollibus 
Aptari citharse modis : 

Nec ssevos Lapithas, et nimium mero 
Hylaeum ; domitosve Herculea mauu 
Telluris juvenes, unde periculum 

Fulgens contremuit domiiB 

Saturm veteris : tuque pedestribus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 
Maecenas, melius, ductaque per viafi 
Return colla minaciuiu. 



Me dui res douiinsc Musa Licymuiw 
Cantus. mo vc luit dicere luciduro 



49 a. IIOBATil FLACCI [1^. 131 

f ulgenles oculos, et bene mutuis 19 
ridum pectus amoribus 

Quam nec ferre pedem dedecuit chorla, 
Nec certare joco, nec daro brachia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibus, sacro 

Dians colebris die. W 

Nuir. tu. quo; teuuit dives AchsBmenes, 
Aut pinguis rhrygiae Mygdonias opegf 
Permutj* .<s velis crine Licymnise, 

Plonas aut Arabum domon ? 



Carmen XIII. 
In arboreni, cujus casu pasne oppressus ftjer»c 
【Ue et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicunquc primiun, et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciera, opprobriumque pagi. 

Ilium et parentis crediderim sui A 
Fregisse cervicem, et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturno cruore 

Hospitis ; ille veneria Colcha, 

Et quidquid usquam coricipitur neias 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo || 
Te, triste lignun:, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisquo vitet, nunquam homini salii 
Cautum est, in horas. Navita Bos)M)ruii] 

Farius pcrhorrescit, neque ultra t 
? JiBca timet ai'unde fata ; 



CARMINUM. 一 LIBER (I 



Miles Bagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi ; catd-ias Parthus et Italuru 
Rr>bur : sed improvisa leti 
Vis rapuit rapietque gentos 

Quam psBne furvaB regna ProserpinsB; 
£t judicantem vidimus ^Kacum, 
Sedesque discretas piorum, et 
iEoliis fidihus querentem 

Sappho pucllis de popularibus, 
Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
AlccBe, plectfo dura navis, 
Dura fugsB mala, dura belli ! 

U fcrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur Umbrae dicere ; sed magis 
Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

Densum humeris bibit aure vulgiis 

Quid mirum ? ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras bellua centiceps 
Aures, et intorti capiilis 

Eumenidum recreantur aiigues '•• 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur souo : 
Nec curat Orion leones 
Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 

• Carmen XIV. 

AD POSTUMUM. 
£heu ! fugaces, Postume, Postunie, 
Labuntur anni ; nec pietas moiam 
Bugis et instanti senectaB 
Afieret. indomita^que morti * 



<4 Q HORATII FL.t ^CJ 匕1 鲞 ,12 

Noil; si treceuif, quotquot eunt dies, 4 
Amice, places illacrimabilem 
Plutona tauris : qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 

Compcscit unda. scilicet omnibus, 
Quicunque terne munere vescimur, 10 
Enaviganda, she reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Fnistra cruento Marte carebimus, 
Fractisque rauci fluctibus Hadriae ; 

Frustra per auctumnos nocentem 尋 
Corporibus metuemus Austrum : 

Visendus ater flumine languido 
Cocytos errans, et Danai genus 
Infame, damnatusque longi 

Sisyphus iEolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus, et domus, et placeni! 
Uxor ; neque harum, quas colis arborutc 
Te, prsBter invisas cupressos, 
Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet hseres Caecuba dignior 91 
Servata centum clavibus, et mero 
Tinget pavimentum superbis 
Pontificum potiore coBiiis. 

Carmen XV. • 
IN &UI SiECULI LUXURIAM • 
Jam 】>auca aratro jugera regi® 
Moles reliuquent : undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu : platanusque cselebs 



CARM1NUM. 一 LIBEK II. 



Evincet ulmos : turn violaria, et 
Myrtus, et omnis copia narium, 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori : 

Tom epissa ramis laurea fervidos 
JSxcludct ictus. Nou ita Romuli 
PraBscriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis, veterumque norma 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Comnune magnum : nulla decern |^edui 
Metata privatis opacam 
Porticus excipiebat Arcton ; 

Nec tbrtuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumtu jubentes et deorum 
Templa novo decorare saxo. 

Carmen XVI. 

AD GROSPHUM. 
Otium divos rogat impotenti 
Pressus JEgsso, simul atra nubes 
Condidit Lunam, neque certa hiigeni 
Sidera naulis : 

Otium bello furiosa Thrace, 
Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura vf*- 
nale neque auro. 

Non emm gazse neque consularifi 
Snmmovet lictor miseros tumultiiR 
Mentis, *t curas laqueata circum 
Tecta vo?antca 



a. HORATU FLACC 



Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternum , 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinuiu, 
Nec leves somnos timor aut crpuio 
Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur acv > 
Multa ? quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? PatrisB quis exsui 
Se quoque fugit ? 

Bcandit seratas vitiosa naves 
Cura, neo turnias equitum relinquit. 
Ocior cervis, et agentc nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

LsBtus in praescns animus, quod ultra Mt« 
Oderit curare, et amara lento 
Temperet risu. Nihil est ab omni 
Parte Leatum. 

Abstulit clarum cita mors Achilleni, 
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus ; 
Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccse ; tibi tollit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa ; te bis Afro 
Murice tinctsB 

Veetiunt lanas : mihi parva rura, et 
Spirit um Graiae tenuem Camjn» 
Paica non mendax dedit, et malignum 
Speraere vulgiis. 



CAHMINUM 一 LIBER 11. 



Car 丽 XVII. 
AD M^ECENATEM. 

Cur ine querelis exanimas tuis ? 
Nec> Dis amicum est, nec mihi, pna^ 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 

Grande decus columenque remm. 

Ah ! te meae si partem a»ims8 rapit 
Maturior vis, quid inoror altera, 
Nec carus aeque, nec superstes 
Integer ? Ille dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego pcrfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimu8》 
Utcunque praecedes, supremuiu 
Carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nec Chimserse spiritus ignes, 
Nec, si rcsurgat, centimanus Gyas 
Dive! let unquam : sic potenti 
Justitiie placitumque Parcui. 

Sen Libra, seu me Scorpios adBpicii 
Formidolosus, pars violcntior 
Natalis horse, seu tyrannus 
Hesperiae Capricornus undss, 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili mode 
Consentit astrum. Te Jovis in?pio 
Tutela Satumo refulgens 
Kripuit, volucrisque Feti 

Tarda vi t a] as, quum populus frequanf 
L»tuni theatris ter crepuit sonum : 



a. uouATii fla rci 



in, ia 



Me truncus illapsus ceiebro 
Sustulnrat nisi Faunus ic luin 



Dextra levasset, Mercurialium 
Gustos virorum. Reddere victnaa« 
.Edemque votivam memento : 
INfos humilem feriemus agnaro 



韌 



Carmen XVIII. 

Nun ebur ncque aureum 

M 3a renidet in domo lacunar ; 
Nou trabes Hymettiae 

Preuiunt columnar, ultima rccisM • 
A frica ; neque Attali o 

Ignotus hseres regiam occupavi ; 
Nec Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honest® purpuras client®. 
At fides et ingent 

Benign a vena est ; pauper'jinque diref ,C 
Me petit : nihil supra 

Deos lacesso ; nec potentem amicura 
Largiora fiagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, \6 

Novjeque pergunt interire Luna) : 
Tu secanda m armor a 

Jjocas sub ipsum funus ; et, sepulcri 
Immemor, struis domos ; 

Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges M 
Sammovwe litora, 

Pamm locuples continentc npa. 
Quid ? quod usque proxirios 

Keyoiiis agri terminos, et ultra 
Limite3 ciicntium tJX 

Balis a varus ; iwliitur paiernoi 



• I CARM.INUM. 一 LlJIEft Jl. 

fn emu ferens Deos 

Et uxor, et vir, sordidos ^uo natM. 
Nulla certior tamen, 

Rapacis Orci fine destinata 
Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? JEqusl tellua 
Paupcri recluditur 

Begumque pueris : nec satclles Orci 
Callidum Promethea 

Revexit auro captus. Hie superbum 
Tantalum, atque Tantali 

Genus coercet ; hie levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 

Vocatus atque non moratus audit. 



Carmen XIX. 

IN BACCHUM. 

fiacchum in rcmotis carmiua rupibus 
Vidi docentem (credite posteri !) 
Nymphasque discentes, et aures 
Capripedum Satyroruia acutas. 

Euoe ! recenti mens trepidat metu, 
Plenoque Bacchi pectorc turbidiun 
Lsetatur ! Euoe ! parce, Liber ! 
Parce, gravi metuendd thyrao ! 

Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadaa, 
Vinique fontem, lactis et uberes 
Cantare rivos, atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterarc mslla. 

Fas et beatsB conjugis additum 
Stellis honorrm, tectaquc Penthei' 

C 



50 



a. HORATII riiACCl 



119, 20 



Disjecta non leni ruina, ]fl 
ThraoJB et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu dectis amnes, tu mare barbarmu 
Tu separatis uvidus in jugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine frau^e crincs. 

Tu, quum parentis regna per arduiu* 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet impia. ' 
Rhcetum retorsisti leonis 
TJnguibus horribilique mala : 

Quainquam, choreis aptior et jocis 25 
JLudoque dictus, non sat idoneus 
Pugnse ferebaris ; sod idem 
Pacis eras mediusquc beUi. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo. 
Cornu decorum, leniter attcrens W 
Caudam, et reocdentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



Carmen XX. 

AD M^ECENATEM. 
Non usitata, non tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 
Vates : neque in terris morabox 
Longius ; invidiaque major 

Urbes relinquam. Ncn ego pauperarn g 
Sanguis parentum, non ego, quern tocm 
Dilecte, Maecenas, obibo. 
Nec Styga cohibebor unda. 



CARM1NUM. 一 LIBEK II. 

Jam jam residunt cruribus aspera: 
Pelles ; et album mutor iu aliteiri 
Superna ; nascunturque leves 
Per digitos humerosque pliuiie. 

Jam Daedalco notior Icaro 
Vieain gementis litora Bospori, 
Syrtesque Gsetulas canorus 
Ale's Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus, et, qui dissimulat metum 
MarssB cohort is, Dacus, et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni : me peritus 
Discet Iber, Khodanique potor. 

Abeint inani funere nacuia), 
Lucttuqiie turpes et qucrimomis . 
Oompeioe clamorem, ac aepulcri 
Mute Mipervacuo« honon». 



Q il B A T II Jb LACCI 

C A R M I N U M 



LIBER TERTIUS. 



Carmen I. 

Oi>i profanum vulgus et arceo : 
Favete Unguis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 

flegum tirnendorum in proprios greges 
Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triurapho, 
Cuncta supercilio moventis. 

list ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis ; hie generosior 
Descendat in Campum petitor ; 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Conlendat ; illi turba clientium 
Sit major : sequa lege Necessitas 
Sortitur insignes et imos ; 

Orane capax movet urna nomeu 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Ccrvice pendet, non Siculse dapes 
Dulcem claborabunt saporem, 
Non avium citharaeve canUia 



a. HORATII PLACCI CARMINUM. 一 LIBER 



Soninum reducent. Somnus arrest um 
Lcnis virorum non humiles domos 
F&stidit, umbrosamve ripam, 
Non Zephyris agitata Tempe, 

Ddsiderantem quod satis est nequt* 
Tumuituosum sollicitat mare, 
Nec ssbvus Arcturi cadenti? 
Impetus, aut orient is HaBdi : 

Non verberatffi ^randine vines 
Fundusve mendax, arbore nur c aquas 
Culpante, nunc torrentia agrcs 
Sidera nunc hi^mes iuiquas. 

Contracla pi sees aequora sentiunt 
Jactis in altum molibus : hue frequei«p 
CR?menta demittit redemtor 

Cum famulis, dominusque terr» • 

Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minas 
Scandunt eodem, quo dominus ; neque 
Decedit aerata triremi, et 

Post equitera sedot atra Cuia. 

^uod si dolentem nec Phrygius laj»i« 
Nec purpuraram sidere clarior 
Delenit usus, nec Falerna 

Vitis, Achaeraeniumve costnm ; 

Car mvidendis postibus et novo 
Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cui valle perrautem Sabina 
Divitiaf} operogi« res 



a. UORATII FLACCI 



Carmen II. 

Au^starr. ainice pauperiem paU 
Robustus acri militia pucr 
Condiscat ; et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques mctuendus hasta : 

Vitamque sub diva trepidis agat 
In rebu& Ilium et mcBnibus lio,uma 
Matrona beliantis tyranni 
Prospiciens et adulta virgo 

euspiret : Eheu ! ne rudis agmirtuiD 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 
Tactu leoneia, quern cruenta. 
Per medias rapit ira cauW 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mmi 
More ct fugacem persequitur virum. 
Nec parcit imbellis juventai 
Poplitibus timidoque tergc • 

Virtus, repulssB nescia sordidae, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus : 
Nec sumit aut ponit secures 
Arbitrio popularis aursB. 

Virtus, recludens immeritis mon 
CcBlum, negata tsntat iter via : 
CoBtusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit humum fiigiente penn 

Est et fideli tut a si lent io 
Afteroes : vitabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcinse, sub isdem 

Sit trabibus, fra^ilemve ineeuizi 



CARMINUM. 一 LIBER 111. 

Solva: phaselon. Ssepe Diespiter 
Neglectus incesto addidit integrum ; 
Raro antecedentem scelestum 
Deseruit pede Poena claudo. 

Carmen III. 
Justum ac tenacem propositi vinim 
Non civiu m ardor prava jubentium. 
Non vultus instantis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque Auster' 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadrise, 
Nec fulminantis magna manus Jovu . 
Si fractus iUabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinaB. 

Hao arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas : 
Quos inter Augustus recuinbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 

Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tun 
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum 
Collo trahentcs ; hac Quirinus 
Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
Junone divis : Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque judex 
Et inulier peregrina vertit 

In puiverem, ex quo destituit dean 
Heroede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castseque damnatura Miuervao 
Cum populo et duce frauduleata. 



a. HORAT£f. FLAOf 



Jam nec Lacsens splendet adult ; M 
Famosus hospcs, nec Priami dciAUf 
Pcrjura pugnases Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit 

Nostris^ue ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et grart M 
Iras, et invisum nepotem, 
Troi'a quern peperit saceraoi, 

Marti redonabo. Ilium ego lucid&a 
Inire sedes, discere nectaris 

Succos, et adscribi quietis 96 
Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter seBviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet ex«uioi 
In parte regnanto beati . 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

lnsultet armentum, et catulos ier» 
Celent inultse, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens, triumphatisque possit 
Roma fcrox dare jura Media 

Honenda late nomen in ultimas 16 
Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus • 

Aurum irrepertum, et sic melius Bituio 
Quum terra celat, spernere fortior, 
Quam cogere humanos in usui 
Omne sacrutn rapiento dextnu 



«4| 



CaAHINUM. 一 LIB BR III 



61 



Quicunque mundo terminus obetitit 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 

Qua parte debacchantur igaes. ft£ 
Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 

8ed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
llac lege dico ; ne nixnium pii 
Rebusque fidentes avitsB 

Tecta velint repaiare Troj*. 60 

Trojae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat mums aeneus BG 
Auctore PhoBbo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis ; ter uxor 

Capta virura puerosque ploret» 

Non haec jocosss conveniunt lym •• 
Quo Musa teudis ? Desine pervicax ,9 
Referre ceraiones deorum, et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 



Carmen IV. 

AD CALLIOPEN. 

Descende ccbIo, et die age tibia, 
Begina, longum, Calliope, meloe, 
Seu voce ni\nc mavis acuta, 
Sen fidibus cithamque PhoBbi 

Auditis ? an me lndit amabilis 
Ingania ? Audire et videor pios 

C 2 



a. HORATII FLACCI 



Errare per Iucob, amosnse 
Quoa ct aquas subeunt et aurau. 

Ma fabulosse, Vulture in Apulo 
Altriuis extra limen Apuliae, 
Jjiido fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova puerum palumbea 

Tcxcre : mirum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celssB nidum Acheroutise, 
Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum 
Pingue tenent liumilis Forenti ; 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Doraiirem et ursis ; ut preraerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 
Non sine Dis animosus infans. 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
Tollor Sabinos ; sou mihi frigidum 
Prseneste, seu Tibur supinum, 
Sou liquidsB placuere Bais. 

i'estris amicum fontibus et choria 
Non me Philippis versa acies retro. 
Devota non exstinxit arbor, 
Nec Sicula Palinurus unda. 

Vtcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem, navita, Bosporum 
Tentabo, et urentes arenas 
L itoris Assyrii viator. 

Visani Britannos hospitibus ieron, 

Bt lstuni equino sanguine Concaauin t 



t^AHMlN JM. 一 UBEK III 



Visara pharetratos Gelonos 

Et Scythicum inviolatus ainaem 

Vos Csesarom altum, militia simuJ 
FessaB cohortes addidit oppidis, 
Finire qusrentem labores, 
Pierio recreatis antro : 

Vos lene consilium et datis, et dato 
Gaudetis almaB. Scimus, ut impioa 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmiue sustulerit corusco, 

Qui terram inertem, qui maro temperat 
Ventosum ; et umbras regnaque tristia, 
Divosqne, mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus soquo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulcrat Jovi 
Fidens, juventus horrida, brachiis, 
Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pclion imposuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 
Quid Rhoetus, evulsisque truncis 
Enceladus jaculator audax, 

Contra sonant em Palladis a3gida 
Possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
V-alcanus, hinc matrona Jimo, et 
N unquam humeris poaiturus aixmnv 

)u rore puro CastalisB lavit 
Siines solutos, qui Lycite te>oot 



60 



a. HORA^Il FLA GUI 



II 5 



Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo 

Vis consili expers mole ruit su* r 5^ 
Vim temperatam Di quoque pn>voLcol 
In majuB ; idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo movenUsn. 

Testis mearum cei.timanus Gyas 
Sententiarum, notus et integrs ,l 
Tentator Orion Dianas 
Virginea domitus sagitta. 

Injecta inonstris Terra dolet suis, 
Moeretque partus fulrnine luridum 

Missos ad Orcum : nec peredit 76 
Impositam celer ignis ^Etnea ; 

[ncontinentis nec Tityi jccur 
Relinquit ales, nequitisB additns 
Gustos : amatorem et trecents 

Pirithoura cohibent catena). 80 



Carmen V. 

CcbIo tonantem credidiraus Jovem 
Regnare : praesens divus habebitiu 
Augustus, adjectis Britannin 
Iraperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi conjuge barbara I 
Turpis mantus vixit ? et hostiuiii— 
Proh Curia, inversique mores !一 
Conflenuit socerorum in arvb, 



OAbMINUM. ~ LIBER ill. 

Sub rege Medo, Maisus et Apulua ' 
Anciliorum et nomini^ et togSB 
OMitus BBternajque Vcstae, 

Incolumi Jove ct urbe Roma i 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli 
Diasentientis conditionibus 
Fcedis, et exemplo trahsnti 
Perniciem veniens ir. sevum, 

Si non perirent immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. " Signa ego Puni( ik 

Affixa delubris, et arma 
, Militibus sino ceede," dixit » 

" Derepta vidi : vidi ego civium 
lletorta tergo brachia libera, 
rortasque non clausas, et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 
Miles redibit ! Flagitio additis 
Damnum. Neque amissos colore* 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nec vera virtus, quum semcl excidit. 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 
Si pugnet extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus ; 
Et Marte Pcenos proteret altero, 
Qui lora restrictis lacertis 
Sensit iners, timuitque n uriem 



U. UOllATfl FLACCI 



lliiic, umh vitam sumeret aptius : 
Pacem et duello miscuit. O pudor ! 
O magna Carthago, probrosis 
Altior ItalieB ruinis !" 一 

Fert ur pudica) conjugis osculum, 
Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse, et virilsm 
. Tomis humi posuisse vultuin ; 

Donee labantes coiisilio Patres 
Firmaret auctor uunquam alias daUk 
Interque moerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui soiebat, qua) sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen 
Dimovit obstantes propinquos, 
Et populum reditus moranteii^ 

Quam si clientum longa negotia 
2Hjudicata lite relinqueret, 
Tendens Venafranos in agros, 
Aut Lacedsemonium Tarcntum. 



Carmen VI. 

AD ROMANOS. 

Dalicta majorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa refeceris, 
^Bdesque labentes deorum, et 
Fasdi nigro simulacra fumo. 

1)ib te minorem quod geiis, iinperas •• 
Hinc omne prir cipiuin, huo re&r exitml. 



CAUMINUM. —LIBER 111 



Di multa neglect iederun: 
Hesperiss mala luctuosai. 

lain bis MonsBses et Pacori nianut 
Non auspicatos contudit impetus 
N>stros, et adjecisse praedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 

Pnne occupatam seditionibus 
Deievit Urbem Dacu* et ^Ethioj* ; 
Hie classe formidatus, ille 
Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Feciuida culp® saecula nuptias 
Pnmum inquinavere, et genus, et domoi ; 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque iluxit 

Non his juveutus orta parentibua 
Infecit sequor sanguine Punico, 
Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 
Antiochum, Hannibalemquo dii m ; 

8ed rusticomm mascula militutu 
Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
Versiare glebas, et sever© 
Matris ad arbitrium recisos 

Portare fustes, sol ubi montiuin 
Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret 
Bobus fatigatis, amicum 

Tempiis agens abeunlc cumi. 

Damnosa quid non immini jt diet! 
£tas parentum, pejor avis, tulit 



U. HORATIl FLACCI 



Nos nequiores, mox daturas 
Progeniem vitiosiorcm. 



Carmen VIII. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

Martiis ccelebs quid agam Kalendi^ 
Quid velint flores ct acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris, positusque carbo 
Cespite vivo, 

Docto sennones utriusque linguaB ? 
Voveram dulces epulas et album 
Libero caprum, prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu* 

Hie dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit 
AmphorsB fumum bibere institute 
Consule Tullo. 

Sume, MaBcenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucernas 
Perfer in lucera : procul omnis esto 
Clamor et ira. 

Mitts civiles super Urbe curas 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmea . 
Med us infestus sibi luctuosis 
Dissidet armis : 

Bervit Hispans vetus hostis om, 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena : 
Jam SoythsB laxo nieditantur area 
Cedere campis. 



9 ] CARMINUM. — 1> BER III 

Nogligens, ne qua populus laboret 
Parte privatim nimium cavero, 
Dona pnesentis cape 】;etus hora, ct 
Linque severa. 



Carmen IX. 
CARMEN AMCEBiEUM 

HORATIUS. 

Donee gratus eram tibi, 

Nec quisquam potior brachia Candida 
Cervici juvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 

Lydia. 

Donee non aliam magis C 
Arsisti, neque erat Lydia post Chloea, 

Multi Lydia nominis 

Romana vigui clarior Ilia. 

HORATIUS. 

Me nunc Thressa Chloc regit, 

Duk"& docta modog, et citharsB sciens '' 10 
Pro qua non metuam mori, 

81 parcent animse fata supersiiti. 

Lydu. 

Me torret face mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti : 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, II 

Si paicent puero fata superstiti. 



Horatius. 

Qaid ? si prisca redit Venus, 
Diductoeque jugo cogit aeneo ? 



Q HORATII FLAGCI 



Bi flava rrcutitur Chloe, 

Rejec tscque patet janua Lydin V 

Lydia. 

^aamquam sidere pulchrior 
Ille est, tu levior cortice, et improbo 

fiacundior Hadria ; 
Tecur.i vivere amem, tecum olieam iiboiifl 



Carmen XI. 

AD L Y D E N. 
Mercuri, nam te docilis magistrc 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo, 
Tuque, testudo, resonare septem 

Callida ne\-\ is y 

Nec loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 
Divitum mensis et arnica templis. 
Die modos, Lyde quibus obstinataA 
Applicet aures. 

Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeres morari ; 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 
Janitor aulsB, 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput, eestuetque 
Spirit us tnter, saniesque manct 
Ore trilingui. 

Quin et Ixion Titjosque viiltu 
Risit invito : stetit uriia pauluni 
Sicca, aum grato Danai pueliaf 
Canoiue mulcf*. 



CARM1NUM. 一 L BEB III 



Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 
Virginum pctnas, et inane lymphs 
Doliura fundo pereuntis inio, 
Seraque fata, 

Qusb manent culpas etiam sub Oreo 
ImpisB, nam quid potuere majus ? 
Fmpis sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis, face nuptiali 
Digna, perjurura fuit in parentem 
Splendide mendax, et in omne virgo 
Nobilis sBvum ; 

" Surge," qusB dixit juveni marito, 
" Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, undo 
Nun times, detur : socerura et scelestas 
Falle sorores ; 

Quod, velut nactsB vitulos leasnaB, 
Singulos, cheu ! lacerant.. Ego, illis 
Mollior, nec te feriam, neque intra 
Claustra tenebo. 

Me patei* saevis oneret catcnis, 
Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum ip agroa 
Classe releget. 

I, pedes qao te rapiunt et aurse, 
Diun lavet nox et Venus : I secundo 
Omuio ; et nostri mcraorem sepuicio 
dcaipe querela m. 1 ' 



Q. B01ATII PLAOO! 



Carmen XII. 

AD NEOBULEJM 

Miserarum est, neq ue Amori dare ludun , neqvo i 7 丄 loi 
Mala vino lavere : aut exanimari metuer.tes 
Patruro verbera linguae. Tibi qualum Cythercaj 
Puer ales, tibi telas, operosseque Minervss 
Studium aufert, Neobulo, Liparei nitor Hebri, 
Simu! unctos Tiberinis humeros lavit in undis, 
Eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 
Ncque segni pede victus : catus idem per apertuoi 
Fugientes agitato grege cervos jaculari, et 
Celer alto latitantem fruticeto excipere aprum. 



C All MEN XIII 

AD FONTEM BANDUSIUM. 

O fons Bandusise, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribui. 
Cras donaberis hasdo, 

Cui frons turgida cornibus 

Priinis, et Vcnerem et proslia des\ina.t 
Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
.Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi su boles gregis. 



Te flagrantis atrox hora Canicul» 
Nescit tangere : tu frigus amabil? 
Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes, et pecori vago. 



Fies nobilium tu quoque ibntium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilzceio 
Saxis, unde loquaces 
Lymphae desiliunt tuie. 



1 4.} CARMINUM.— LIBER IIL W 

Carmen XIV. 

A D ROMANO S. 

Hercuiis ritu modo dictus, O Plel<i 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum, 
Caesar flispana rspetit Penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Uiiico gaudens mulier marito I 
Prodeat, justis operata divis ; 
£t soror clari duels, et deconB » 
Supplice vitta 

Vl^giimm matres, juvenumque uupni 
8oBpitum. Vos, O pueri, et puelis t& 
Jam virum expertes, male nominate 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies verc mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas : ego nec tumultum, 
Nec mori per vim metuam, tencnte 10 
Csesare terras. 

1, pete uiiguentum, puer ; et coronan, 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 

Fallere testa. 80 

Die et argutee praperet Neserw 
&Iyrrheum nodo cohibere crinem ' 
Si per n visum mora janitorem 
Fiet. abito. 



Lenit albescens anLnos capiilus 
Litium et rixa) cupidos protenrs ; 



Q. HORATll FL ACC1 



Sun ego hoc fcrreia, calidus juvenca, 
Consule Plaiico. 

MM W 一 . 《 

Carmen XVI. 

AD M^ECENATEM. 

lnclusam Danaen turris aenea, 
Robu8ta3que fores, et vigilum canura 
Tristes excubiaD munierant satis 
Nocturnis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium, virginis abditse 醣 
Cuiitodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissout : fore enim tutum iter et patuidb* 
Converso in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrumpere amat saxa potentiiis \t 
Ictu fulmineo ! Concidit auguris 
Argivi domus. ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio. Diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo, et submit sBmulos 
Reges muneribus ; miinera naviuin lb 
Saevos illaqueant duces. 

Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam, 
Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum tollere verticem 

MsBcenas, equitum decus ! 30 

Quonto quisque sibi plura negavcrit, 
Ab Dis plura feret. Nil cupientiuni 
Nudus castra pcto, et transfuga divitam 
Partes linquere gestio ; 



17. 



CAAMINUM. 一 LIBER III 



Con torn t» dominus splenaidior vei» 
Quam si, quidqnid arat impiger Apulua, 
Occultare meis diccrer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

Putbb rivus aquaB, silvaque jugerum 
Paucorum, et segetis certa fides meie, 
Fulgentem imperio fertilis AfricsB 
Fallit. Sorte beatior, 

Quamquam nec CalabraD mella ferunt apoii 
Nec LeBstrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Languescit mihi, nec pinguia Gallicis 
Crescunt vellcra pascuis, 

Iinix>rtuna tamen pauperies abest ; 
Nec, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 
Vectigalia porrigam, 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Cam pis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa. Bene est, cui Deus obtulil 
Parca, quod satis est, manu. 



Carmen XVII. 
iiD iELIUM LAMIAW. 
JE\\ t vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
[Quando et priores hinc Lamias fenuif 
Denominatos, et ncpotum 

Fer memores genus omne fastot 

Auctore ab illo ducit originem,| 
Qui Fonniarurn mGDnia dicitur 



tfi a. HOI ATI FLACCI IT IB 

Prin 3eps et innan jem Marien 
I'itoribus tenuisse Linm. 

Laie tyrannus : eras foliis neznu& 
Multis et alga litus iiiutili 10 
Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Stenut, aquaB nisi fallit augur 

Anxiosa comix Dum potis, aridum 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mere 

Curabis et porco bimestri, ,疆 
Cum famulis opemm solutig. 



Caumen XVIII. 

AD FAUNUM. 
Faune, Nympharura fugientum aniator. 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
iEquus alumnis, 

rii tener pleno cadit hsedus anno, 信 
Lai^a nec desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina cratenB, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo, 
Quum.tibi Nms& redeunt Decembrei ; 10 
Festus in ^ratiB vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus : 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnof ; 
Spargit agres*Bs tibi silva frondef ; 
Gvidet in visa m pepulisse fooaor II 
Ter pedc terrain 



CAKMINUM.- LIBBft 111 



Carmen XIX. 
AD TELEPHUM. 

Quantum distet ab Inaoho 

Codrus, pro patria non limidus mori. 
Narras, et genus iEaci, 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio : 
Quo C liiuni pretio cadum 

Mercemur, quis aquam tempeiec ig lib". 
Quo prsbente domum et quota 

Pelignis caream frigoribus, taccs. 
Da LunaB propere novae, 

Da Noctis mediaB, da, puer, auguris I U 

Murense : tribus aut novcm 

Misccntor cyathis poru'a commodis. 
Qui Musas amat impares, 

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petfct 
Vates : tres prohibet supia 16 

liixarum metuens taiigere Gratia, 
Nudis juncta, sororibus. 

Insanire juvat : cur Berocyntiie 
Ceesant flamina tibia) ? 

Cur pendet tacita iistula cum lyra ? 20 
Parcentes ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat in vidua 
Dementcm strepitum Lycus 

Et vicina seni non habilLs Lyco. 
8pissa te D.iridum coma, 

Puro tc similem, TelepAc, Vespero, 
Tempestiva petit Rhode : 

Me lentus Glycorao torret amor mem, 



Cahmen XX(. 

AD AMPHORAM. 

O nau rnecira consule Manlia 
Sen tu querelas, Mive geris jocos, 
Seu rixam et insanos amores, 
Seu facilern pia v Testa, somnum ; 

Quocunquc lictum nomine Massicum 
iBervas, movcri digna bono die, 
Descende, Corvino jubente 
Promere languidiora yiaa. 

Non ille, quoinquam Socraticis madet 
Seruionibus, te negliget horridus : 
Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Sacpe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormetitum ingenio admovee 
Plerumque duro : tu sapientium 
Curas et arcanum jocoso 
Consilium retegis Lysso : 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Viresque : et addis cornua pauper" 
Post te neque iratos trementi 

Regum apices, neque militum amm 

Te Liber, et, si lseta aderit, Venus, 
Begnesque nodum solvere Gratise, 
VivfiBque producent lucernsd, 
Dum rediens fugat aatra Vhmhvm, 



24. 



oAKMINUM.^-iiittER 夏 U 



Carmen XXIII. 

AD PHIDYLEN 

Coelo Rupinas si tuleris manus 
Nascente Luna, rustica Phidyic. 
Si thure placaris et horna 

Fruge Lares, avidaque porcsi \ 

Nee pestilent em sentiet Africurn 
Fecunda vitis, nee sterilem seges 
Robiginem, aut dulces alumiii 
Pomilero grave tempus ann« 

Nam, quae nivali pascitur Algidn 
Devota quercus inter et ilices, 
Aut crescit Albanis in herbis, 
Victiraa, pontificum secunm 

Cervice tiiiget. Te nihil attine^ 
Tentare multa cscde bidentium 
Parvos coronantem marino 
Rore deos fragilique myrt 

丄 mmimis aram si tetigit mamv 
Non sumtuosa blandior hostia 
Mollivit aversos Penates 
Farre pio et saliente mi.c? • 



Carmen XXIV. 

Intactis opulentior 

Tlicsauris Arabum et ditilis lndix 
CBmentis licet occupes 

Tynrhenum omne tuis el /narc ApiidetiiB, 



Q. HOKATII FLACCI 



8i figit adamantinos 

Sumrnis verticibus dira Necessity 
Clavos, non animum metu, 

Non mortis laqucis expedies caput 
Campestres melius ScythaB, 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt dornoi 
Vivunt, et rigidi Gctas, 

Immetata quibus jugera liberas 
Fmges et Cererem ferunt, 

Nec cultura placet longior annua ; 
Oeiunctumque labonbus 

-^Equali recreat sorte vicariuB. 
Jllic matre carentibus 

Privignis mulier temperat innoceiu : 
Nec dotata regit virum 

Conjux, nec nitido fidit adultero. 
Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus, et metueais alterius viri 
Certo fcedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas, aut pretium emon. 
O quis, quis volet impias 

Caedes et rabiem tollere civicam ? 
Si quaeret Pater Urbium 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 
flcfrenare licentiam, 

Clarus postgenitis : quatenus, heu nefae ! 
Virtutem incolumem odimus, 

Sublatam ex oculis quseriraus invidi, 
Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur ? 
Quid leges, sine moribus r 

Vanes, proficiunt, si neque fervidis 
Pars inclusa caloribus 

Mundi, nec ! Boreae finitimum latus, 
Duratajquc solo nives, 

Mercatorera abi"runt ? horrida callidi 



34 25. ) CARM1NUM. 一 L1BE& 111. 7? 

Vmcunt tequora navite ? 

Magnum pauperies opprobrium jubet 
Quidvie et facere et pati, 

Virtu tisqiic viam deserit ardus ? 
Vel nos in Capitolium. 4fi 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium 
Vol nos in mare proximum 

Gremraas. et lapides. aurum et inutilo, 
Summi materiem mali, 

MittamuB sceierum si beno pcenitet. 50 
Eradenda cupidinis 

Pravi sunt, elementa ; et tenene nimis 
Menles asperioribus 

FirmandsB studiis. Nescit equo rudi» 
Ha;rere ingenuus puer, 60 

Veuarique timet ; ludere doctior t 
Seu GraBco jubeas trocho, 
• Seu malis vetita legibus ale& : 
Quum perjura patrip fides 

Consortem socium fall at, et hospitecn, 6^ 
Indignoque pecuniam 

Hffiredi properet. Scilicet improbflb 
Crescunt divitiae : tamen 

Curie nescio quid semper abest rei. 



Carmen XXV. 
AD BACCHUM. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quas nemora, quos agor in ipeona, 
Velox mente nova ? Quibus 

Anths egregii Csesaris audiar 
•Sternum mcditans decus 

Stellis inserere et consilio Jo via ? 



U. coHATl'I FLACCI 



L25, 27 



Dicani iiibigne, recens ndhuo 

Indictum ore alio. Non secus in jugit 
Exsoiiinis stupet Euias, 

Hebrum prospiciens, et nive candidam 
Thracen, ac pede barbaro 

Luatratam Knodopen. Ut mihi devic 
Ripas et vacuum ncmus 

Miraxi libet ! O Naiadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 
Nil parvxim aut humili modo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce pericuhiin, 
O Lerisee ! 6equi deum 

Ciiigentcm viridi tempora pampino. 



Carmen XXVII. 

AD GALATEAM. 
Impios pamB recinentis omen 
Ducat, et prsegnans canis, aut ab a^vo 
Rava decurrens lupa Lanuvino. 

Fetaque vulpes : 

Rumpat et serpens iter institutura, 
Si per obliquum similis sagittSB 
Temiit mannos. — Ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Lmbrium divina avis imminentum, |Q 
Osciiiem corvum prece suscitabo 
Solis ab ortu. 

8u licet iehx t uoicunque mavi«. 
Et raemor nostri, Galatea, vivam 



<0 



CARM1NUM. 一 LIBEB II. 

Tequo |iec Ibbvus vetet ire picus, 
Nec vaga comix. 

6ed vides, quanto trepidet tunm'Jtu 
Pronus Orion. Ego, quid sit ater 
HadrieB, novi, sinus, et quid albus 
Poccet Iapyx. 

Ho3tium uxoie& puerique caeco* 
8eiitiant motus oriontu Austri, at 
^quoris nign frcmitun" et tremeu jop. 
Verbere ripaa. 

Sic et Europe niveum doioso 
Credidit tauro latus ; at sea intern 
Belluis pontum mediasquc "dudes 
Palluit audax 

Nuper in protis studiosa fi6j tim. et 
Deiiilse Nymphis opifex coroi»cu, 
Nocte sublustri nihil astra pi^ter 
Vidit et Hildas. 

Quas simul centum tetigit \^tentem 
Oppitlis Creten, " Pater ! O relictura 
FilifiB nomen ! pietasque," dixit, 
" Victa furoro 1 

Unde ? quo veni ? Lcvk- una mors est 
Virginum culps. Vigilahsne ploro 
Turpe comniissum ? an vitio carentein 
Ludit imago 

Vuia, quam e porta fugieus eburna 
Bomnium ducit ? JMeliusne tiuctug 



U. HORATlf FLACCI 



Ire per longos fuit, an recentes 
Carpere flore* , 

Si quis mfamem mihi nunc juvencum 
Dedat iratae, lacerare ferro et 
Frangerc enitar modo multum amati 
Cornua raonslri ! 

Impudens liqui patrios Penates : 
Impudens Orcum moror. O Deorum 
Si quis hmc audis, utinam inter erreui 
Nuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies descentes 
Occupet malas, teneraeque suocus 
Defluat praedffi, speciosa qusero 
Pascere tigres. 

Vilis Europe, pater urget absens : 
Quid niori cessas ? Potes hac ab orna 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 
LsBdere collum. 

fiive te rupes et acuta leto 
8axa delectant, age, te procella) 
Credo veioci : nisi herile mavis 
Carpere pensum, 

(Regius sanguis !) domineeque trad) 
Barbaras pellex." Aderat querent! . 
Perfidum ridens Venus, et remisao 
Filius arcu 

Aftox, ubi tusit satis, " Abstineto," 
Dixit, " irarum calidaeque rixs. 



47, 28U.】 ― UBER 111. 

Quum tibi invisus laceranda red del 
Cornua taurus. 

Uxor invicti Jovis esse nesciB : 
Mitte singultus ; bene ferre magnain 
Diice fortunam : tua sectus orbi« 
Nomina ducet." 



Carmen XXVTII. 
AD LYDEN. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Promo reconditum. 
Lyde strenua, CsBCubum, 

Munitseque adhibe vim sapientisB 
Inclinare meridiem 

Sentis ; ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram ? 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum, et virides Nereidum comas • 
Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam, et celeris spicula Cynthise • 
Summo carmine, qusB Cnidon , 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paplian 
Juiicti^ visit olori)jus : 

Dicetur mer ita Nox quoque nssnia 



Carmen XXIX. 
AD MiECENATEM. 
Tyrrhena regum progenies, tiln 
Noa ante verso lene merum cado» 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum t ei 
Prossa tuis balanus capillis 
D 2 



a. UORATil FLACU1 



J dm dudum apud me est. Fripe mora) , 
Ut semper-ucium Tibur, et iEsute 
Declive contempleris arvum. et 
Telegoni juga parricidae. 

Fastidiosam desere copiam, et 
Molcm propinquam nubibus arduis ; 
Omitte mirari beatfB 

Fumum et opes strepitumque Komie. 

Plerumque gratae divitibus vices, 
MundaBque parvo sub lare pauperum 
Coense, sine aulaiis et ostro, 
Sollicitam explicucre frontem. 

Tarn clarus occultum Andromeda) pater 
Ostendit ignem : jam Procyon furit, 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 
Sole dies referente siccos : 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege laiiguido 
fUvumque fessus quaBrit, et horridi 
D?imeta Silvani ; caretque 
H:pa vagis taciturna ventis. 

Tu, civitatem quis dcceat status, 
Curas, ct Urbi sollicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent Tanaisque discora. 

Prudens f'uiuri teraporis exitura 
Caiiginosa nocte premit Deus, 
Hidetque, si niortalis ultra 

Fm trepidat Qwd adest memento 



CARMINUM. ― LUiER 111 



Conip^nere sequus : cetera fluminig 
Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 
Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 
In mare, nunc lapides adesos, 

Stirpesque raptas, et pecus et domua 
Voivontis una, non sine montium 
Clamore vicineBque silvse, 
Quum fera diluvies quietos 

Irritat anues. Ille potens sui 
Lsstusque deget, ciii licet in diem 
Dixisse, " Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato, 

Vel sole puro : non tamen irritum, 
Quodcunque retro est, efficiet ; noqu« 
Difiinget infectumque reddet 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit 

Fortuna ssevo leeta negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax, 
Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna 

Laudo manentem : si celeres quatit 
Pennas, rcsigno quae dedit, et mea 
Virtute me involvo, probamque 
Pauperiera sine dote quasro. 

Non est meum si mugiat Afriois 
Malus procellis, ad miseras precee 
Decurrere ; et votis pacisci, 
Ne Cypriae Tyriasve rooroas 



94 a. JORATII FLACCI CARMINUM. ― LIBEK UI. \2Q % 30 



Addant avaro divitia« fnari. 
Turn me, bireuiis prsesitlio scaptiiB 
Tutum, per iEgseos tumultus 
Aura feret gemmusque Pollux. 

Carmen XXX 

Exeqi monunientum aere perennius, 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius : 

Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis 

Annorum series, et fuga temporum. 

Non omnis moriar ! multaque pars mci 

Vitabit Libitinam. Usque ego postern 

Crescam laude recens, dum Capitohum 

Scandet cum tacita Viigine pontifex. 

Dicar, qua violens obstropit Aufidue, 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 

Regnavit populorum, ex humili potena, 

Princep8 iiColium carmen ad Italos 

Dediixisse modos. Sume supc?biani 

QueMtam meritis, et mihi Dclphica , 

Lauio eir^o volen», Mel[K>inene f oomam 



Q HO RATI I F L A U C 1 

C A R M I N U M 

LIBER QUAETU8. 



Carmen II. 
AD IULUM ANTONIUM 
Pinparum quisquis studet semular 
Iule, ceratis ope Dsedalea 
Nititur penniE, vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis y i» vr^ d 
Quern super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet iromensusque ruit profurrio 
Pindarus ore ; 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Sue per audaces nova dithyramuiB 
Verba devolvit, numerisque fertur . 
Lege solutis : 

8eu Deos, regesve canit, Deorum 
Sanguincm, per quos cecidere justo 
Marte Centauri, cecidet tremendad i 
Flamma Chimseras : 

8ive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma ccBlestes, pugilcinve eqinmve 
Dicit, et centum potiore si^nis 

Munere donat SO 



86 



U H >RATII FLACC1 



Flebili sponfcCB juvenemve raptuta 
Plorat, et vires animumque moretiqua 
Aurcos educit in astra, nigroque 
Invidel Oreo. 

Multa DircaBum levat aura eyenum, '<it 
Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus : ego, apis Mathue 
More modoque, 

Grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique SO 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
Carmina iingo 

Concines majore poeta plectro 
Cssarem, quandoquc trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 91 
Fronde, Sygambros ; 

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris 

Fata donavere bonique divi, 

Nec dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum 4A 

Concines lsctosque dies, ct CJrbis 
Publicum ludum, super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu, forunique 
Litibus orbum. 

Turn meae (si quid loquor audienduni) it, 
Vocis aecedet bona pars : et, "O Sol 
ISleber ! O laudande !" canao, rdoep^i 
CflMare felis 



J 



CARMINUM 一 Li'BER IV 



Tuque dum procedis, "Io Triumphs ! 
Non semel dicemus, " Io Triumphe 8 
Civitaa omnis, dabimusque diviK 
Thura benignis. 

1e decen tauri totidemque vaccflb, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
Mai re, qui largis juvenescit hcrUs 
In mea vota, 

Froute curvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium LunsB referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri, 
Caetera fulvus. 



Carmen III 
AD MELPOMENEN. 

Quern tu> M' Ipomene, semel 

Nascentvun placido lumine videri'', 
Qlura non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 
Curru ducet Achaico 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis f?i\ vm, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas 
Ostendet Capitolio : 

Sed qus Tibur aquae fertile prsBfluunt 
£t gpisssB nemorum comae, 

Fingent Aolio carmine nobilem 
RomaB principis urbiuia 

Dignatur suboles inter araabilefi 
Vatum ponere me choros ; 

Et iair jk,nte minus mordeor iiivido. 



Q. HORAT1I FLACCI 



O, testudinis aurea. 

DuJcem qu8B strepitum } Pieri, temperas , 
0, mutis quoque piscibus 

Donatura cycni, ei libeat, sonuin ! 
Totum muneris hoc tui est. 

Quod monstror digito prsetereuntiuni 
Romans fidicen lyra : 

Quod epiro et placeo (s: placeo), tuum est 

Carmen IV. 

DRUSI LAUDES. 
Qualem miiiistrum fulrninis alitem, 
Cui rex Deorum regnum in aves va^aa 
Permisit, expertus fidelem 
Jypiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olim juventas et patrius vigor 
Nido laborum propulit inscium : 
Vernique, jam nimbis remotig, 
Insolitos docuerc nisus 

Venti paventem : mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostcm vi vidua impetus •• 
Nunc in reluctanles dracones 
Egit amor dapis atquc pugnte • 

Qualem ve lsetis caprea pascuis 
Intent a, fulvae matris ab ubere 
Jam lacte depulsum leoncin, 
Dentc novo peritura ; vidit : 

Videre Rsetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici [quibuf 
Mos unde deductus per omuo 
TeroDUfl Amazonia wcuri 



I 



UARMINl M. ― LIBBK IV 



89 



Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli : 
Nec scire fas est omnia] : Bed diu 
Lateque victrices catervse, 
Consiliis juveuis revictw, 

Sensere, quid mens rite, qu.i indoles 86 
Nutrita faustis sub penotralibus. 
Posset, quid Augusti paterntis 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus : et bonis 
Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum 30 
Virtus : neque imbellera ferocef* 
Progenerant aquileD columbam 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Reotique cultus peciora roborant : 

Utcunque defecere mores, :仏 
indecorant bene nata culpae 

Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Ilasdruba 
Devictus, et pulcher fugatis 

Ille dies Latio tenebris, 4Q 

Qui primus alma risit adorca, 
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Itala?, 

Ceu fiamma per tsedas, vel Euruft * 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 
mana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata PfBnorum tunuiltu 
Fami do 36 habuere rwuw •• 



90 U. flORAIJ F^.aCCI 

iixitquc takdcm peifidus Hannibal : 
"Cervi, luporuin prseda rapacium. 
Sectamur ultro, quos opimua 

Fallere eifugere est triurnphiiA 

Geij, quae cremato fortis aL Ilio 
Tactata Tuscis sequoribus sacra, 
Natosque maturosque patrcs 
Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipeiuiibus 
NigrsB feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per danina, per cscdes, ab ipso 
Ducit opes animumque ferro. 

Sou Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem : 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Majus, Echioniteve Thebse. 

Mcrses profundo, pulchrior evenit : 
Luctere, multa proruet integrum 
Cum laude victorem, geretque 
ProBlia conjugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
M it tain superbos : occidit, occulit 
Spes omnis et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Hasdrubaie interemto 

Nil ClaudiaB non perficient maiuifi : 
l^aafi et benigno nurnine Jupitor 
Defendit, et curae sagaces 
£xpediuut per acuta bell ' 



(; ARM1NUM -UBER I 



91 



Carmen V. 
AD AUGUST JM. 

Divin ort<; bonis, optime Romulas 
Custos gcntis, abes jam nimium diu 
Maturum reditum pollicitus Patrum 
Sancto consilio, redi. 

Lucem redde tusB, dux bone, patriso : I 
Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuiu 
Aifulsit populo, gratior it dies, 
F:t soles melius nitent. 

Ut mater juvenem, quoin Notus iuvido 
Flatu Carpathii trans mari» sequoia 10 
Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinet a donio. 

Votis ominibusque et precibuj? vocat. 
Curvo nec faciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 10 
- Quaerit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim tiita perambulat ; 
Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas : 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae ; 

Culpari metuit Fides ; £0 

Nuliis poliuitur casta domus stuprig ; 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas : 
Lauddntur simili prole puerperaj ; 

Culpa m Poena premit comes. 

Quia Parthum paveat ? quis gclidum Ssythea . 2§ 
Quia, Gernania quos horrida parturit 



a. HORA1II FLACCi 



Fetus, incohimi Cjpsare ? quia ibras 
Bellum curet Iberian ? 

Condit quis^ue diem collibus in sais. 
£t vitcm viduas ducit ad ar1x>rcs ; 
Tlinc ad vinh. .edit laetus, et alteris 
Te mensig adhibet Deurn 

Te multa precc, te prosequitur mero 
Defiiso pateris : et Laribus tuum 
MLscct numen, uti Grsucia Castoris 
Et magui memor Hercuhtf 

Longas O u tin am, dux bone, ferian 
Pnestes Hesperise ! dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 

Quum Sol oceano subest. 



Carmen VI. 

AD APOLLINEM. 

Dive, quem proles Niobea magn» 
Vindicem linguae, Tityosque raptor 
Sensit. et JTrojae prope victor alias 
Phthius Achilles, 

Cieteris major, tibi miles impar ; 
Filius quamquam Thetidos marinaf) 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax 

liie niordaci velut icta ferro 
Piiius, aut impulsa cupressus Eiii«k 
Procidit late posuitque collum in . 
Pulverc Teucro. 



CAKMINUM. 一 LIBER IV. 

Ille ncu, inclusus cquo Minenrr. 
Sacra mentito, male feriatos 
Troas et lsetam Priami choreis 
FaJlerct aulam ; 

Sod palam captis gravis, heu nefas ! hcu 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latentem 
Matris in alvo : 

Ni, tuis ilexus Venerisque grats 
Vocibus, Divum pater adnuisset 
Rebus JExiesB potiore ductos 
Alite muros. 

Doctor Argivae fidicen Thaliae, 
Phcebe, qui Xantho la vis anine cnnes, 
Daunia3 defende decus Camcna), 
Levis Agyieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phosbus artenk 
Carminis, nomenque dedit poetne. 
Virginum primae, puerique claris 
Patribus orti, 

Delis tutela deae, iugacca 
Lyncas et ccrvos cohi}>entis arcu, 
Lenbium servate pedem, raeique 
Pollicis ictum, 

Rite Latpnso puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucani, 
Pmperam frugum, celeremque pronot 
Volvere menses. 



O. HC«BAT11 FLACCI 



Nupta jam dices : Ego Dis cnicuat 
SsdcuIo festas refeiente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis moduinai 
Vatis Horati. 



Carmen V.U. 

AD TORQUATUM. 
DiiPagere nives ; redeunt jam gramina campi% 

Arboribusque comsB : 
Mutat terra vices ; et decrescentia. ripas 

Flumina prsetereunt : 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audek 5 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Tiomortalia ne speres, monct Annus et almum 

Qu« rapit Hora diem 
Frigora roitepcunt Zephyiis : Ver proterxt .>Estaf, 

Interitura, simul 10 
Pomifer Auctumnus fruges efTudorit : et mox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 
Damna tamen celeres reparant ccelestia lun» . 

Nos, ubi decidimu8 } 
Quo pius iEneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quia scit, an adjiciant hodierneB crastina sumnuB 

Tempora Di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas rugient hseredis, amioo 

Quae dederis animo 20 
Quum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria : 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas. 
[nfemis usque enim tenebris Diana pudicuni S3 

Libcrat Hippolytuin ; 
Nec Ji«thiEa valet Theseus nbrumfere caro 

Vinoula Pirithoa. 



CARM1N0M. 一 LIBER IV 



Carmen VIII. 
AD CENSORJNUM. 

Ponarem pateras grataque commodus, 
Ceusorine, mcis sra sodalibus ; 
Doitarem tripodas, praemia fortium 
Grab 画 ; neque tu pessima m 蘭 ruin 
Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 
Quas aut Parrhasius protulit, aut Scopas. 
Hie na.xo t liquidis ille coloribus 
Sollers mmc kominem ponere, nunc Deum 
Sed non b*«c mihi vis : imc tibi talium 
Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 
Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 
Donare, et pretium dicere muneri. 
Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 
Per que spiritus et vita red it bonis 
Post mortem ducibus ; non celeres fugen, 
Rejecteque retrorsum Hannibalis minse ; 
[Non stipendia Carthaginis impiae], 
Ejus, qui domita nomen ab Africa 
Lucratus rediit, olarius indicant 
Laudes, quam CalabrsB Pierides : neq io, 
Si chartsB sileant, quod bene feceris, 
Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 
Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 
Obstaret meritis invida Romuli ? 
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus iEacum 
Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 
v atura divitibus consecrat iiisuiis. 
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mon ' 
Coelo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest 
Optatis epulis imptger Hercules : 
Clarum Tyndaridao sidiis ab infuius 



96 



a. HORATII FLACOl 



(a IT 



Quaasas ehpiunt scquoribus rates : 
Oraalu8 viridi tenipora ^ampino 
T«ihf*r vota boiios ducit ad exitus. 



Carmen IX. 
AD LOLLIUM. 
Ne forte credas interitiira, quao, 
Ljnge. sonantem natus ad Aufiduin, 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chonlib. 

Non, si priores Mseonius tenet I 
Sedes Homerus, PindaricsB latent, 
Ccnque, et Alcaei minaces, 

Stesichorique graves Cameuw ; 

Nec, si quid oliin lusit Anacreon. 
Delevit aBtas : spirat adhuc amoi 19 
Vivuntquc commissi calores ' 
JEohsi fidibus puellae. 

Non sola comtos arsit adulteri 
Crines, it -\urum ve&tibus illitum 

Mirata, regalesque cuitus !赢 
Et comites Helene Lacsena , 

Primus ve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semel Iliofs 
Vexata ; non pugnavit ingeiiB 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve solas Si 

Dioenda Musis proelia ; non feiox 
Hector, vel acer Deiphobus graTe» 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 
Coiijugibis pueriBij ie primus 



Cy.ilM[NUM. 一 LIBER IV. 

fixers fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi : sed omnes illacrimabiles 
Urgentur ignotique longa 

Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum sepultse distat inertias 
Cclata virtus. Non ego to meis 
Chartis inornatum silcbo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 
Rerumque prudcns, et secundis 
Temporibus dubiisque rectus ; 

Vindex avarse fraudis, et abstinena 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pccuniao : 
Consulque non unius anni, 
Sed quoties bonus atque fklua 

Judex honestum prajtulit utili, 
Rejecit alto dona noccntium 
Vultu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem multa vocaveria 
Recte beatum : rectius occupat 
Nomen beaii, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapientcr ut;, 

Daramque callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejusque leto flagitium timet ; 
Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perira. 



9S 



a. IIORAT ^LACCl 



111, 12 



Carmen XL 

AD PHYLLIDEM. 
£8t niihi nonum superan tis annum 
Plcnus Albani cadus ; est in horto, 
n)v,li, nectendis apium eoroms ; 

Est ederss vis 

M'uUa, qua crines religata fulges • 
Ridet argento domus ; ara castis 
Vincta verbenis a vet immolato 
Spargier agno ; 

Cuncta festinat maims, hue et illuc 
Cursitan t mixtsB pueris puelhe ; 
Sorclidum flammsB trepidant rotante^ 
Vertice fumum. 

Ut tamen noris, quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis, Idus tibi sunt agendas, 
iui dies mensem Veneris marina; kt 
Findit Aprilem ; 

Jure solennis mihi, sanctiorque 
Peene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Ijuce Ma3cenas meus afHuentcs 

Ordinat annos. 20 



Carmen XII. 

AD VIRGILIUM. 

Jam Veris comites, quae mare tcmperant 
Impellun t animse lintea Thraclao : 
Jam iieo prata rigent, nec fluvii strepunt 
Uiberna nive turgidi. 



參 



I9« 14. 1 CARMINUM. ― LIBER IV 09 

Nidum pouit, Ityn flebiliier gemens. S 
Infelix avis, et Cecropias domus 
Sternum opprobrium, quod male larbaraa 
Regum est ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in teiiero gramino pinguiuin 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 
Delectantque Deum, cui pecus et nigri 
Colles Arcadiac placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili : 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, juvenum nobilium cliens, 
Nardo vina merebere. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus, ainaraque 
Cufarum eluere efficax. 

Ad qum si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immuncm meditor tingere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone moras et studium lucri ; 
Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ign;um. 
Misco stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulce est desipere in loco. 

• • taw «w «w 

Carmen XIV. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Qua) cura Patpira, qureve Quiritium« 
Plenis honorum mur.eribus tuan, 



25 



a. OORATil FLACCI 



Auguste, virtutes in 8Bvum 
Per titalos memoresque faeto? 

JEternet ? O, qua sol habilabikw 
IHustrat oras } maxime principum ; 
Quern legis pxpertes Latins 
Vindelici ! lidicere nuper, 

Quid Marte posses ; milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genuF, 
Breunosque veloces, et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis. 

Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave praeliufa 
Commisit, immanesque Hasti? 
Auspiciis pepiilit secundis : 

Spectandus in ccrtamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora liberse 
Quantis fatigaret ruinis : 

Indomitas prope qualis undas 

Exercet Auster, Ploiadum choro 
Scindente nubcs : impiger hostium 
Vexaie turmas, et frementem 
Mittere equum modios per igiien 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 
Qua regna Dauni praeflnit Apuli, 
Quum saevit, horrendamque cdtii 
Diluviem meditatur agris : 

Ut bacbarorum Claudius agmina 
Wwrr^t*. vasto dioiit irapetu. 



15. I CARMINUM. 一 LIBER IV . JO 

Pri nosque et cxtrcmos metendo 
Stravit humum, sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente Divos. Nam, tibi quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 36 
Et vacuam patefecit aulam. 

Fort una lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 

丄 periis decus arrogavit. 40 

Te Cantabcr non ante domabilis, 
Medusque, et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Miratur, O tutela praesens 
Italian dominaeque Roma3 : 

Te, fontium qui celat origines, 
Nilusquc, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te belluosus qui remotis 

Obstrepit Oceanus Britannia - 

Te non paventis funera GallisB 
DursBque tellus audit Iberiae : M 
Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
^ompositis venerantur armia 



Carmen XV. 
AUGUSTI LAUDES. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Vlctas et urburf, increpuit, lyra : 
Ne parva Tyrrhsnum per SBqup^ 
Vela darem. Tua Csesar, a^^g 



a. K0R.1TII FLACCI CA11MINUM. 一 LIBEB IV 



Fniges ct agris retulit ubereti, 
Kt signa nostro restituit Jovi, 
Dcrcpta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus, et vacuum duelli' 

Januni Quirinum clusit, et ordineni 
Rectum evaganti frena Licentiae 
Injecit, emovitque culpas, 
Et veteres revocavit artes, 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Itaius 
Crevere vires, famaque et imperi 
Por recta majestas ad ortum 
Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

Custode rerum Caesare, non furor 
Oivilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira, quae procudit arises, 
Et miseras inimicat urbos. 

Non, qui profundum Danubium bibnnt 
Edicta rumpent Julia, non GetaB, 
Non Seres, infidive PersaB, 

Non Tanain prope flurnen orti, 

Nosque, et profestis lucibus et sairis, 
Inter jocosi mimera Liberi, 

Cum prole matronisque nostns, 
Rite deos prius apprecati, 

Virtute functos, more patrum, ducca, 
Lydis rernixto carmine tibiis, 
Trojamque ct Anchisen ct almnB 
Progeiiiem Venorig car.emus. 



H0RAT11 



E P 1) 

L I B £ R. 



Q. HORATII F L A C C I 
E P D N 



LIBER. 

Carmen I. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

Ibih Liburnis inter alta naviuua, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratue omne Caesari pcriculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo ? 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si supentite 

Jucunda. si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne jassi persequemur otium, 

Non dulec, ni tecum simul ? 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, deoet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 
Fcremus ; et te vel per Alpium juga, 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum, 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pec tore. 
Roges, tu-ani labore quid juvem meo 

Imbellis ac iirmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futunis in metu, 

Qui major absentes habet : 
Ut assitluns implumibus pullis avis 

6erperitium allapsus timet 
Magis relict is ; non, ut adsit auxili 

Latura plus pra^sentibiu. 

E 2 



100 



a. HORATl FLACCl 



f iibenter hoc et orane railitabitui 

Bellum in tuae spem gratim ; 
Non ut juvencis illigata pluribus 

Aratra nitantur mea ; 
Pecusvc Calabria ante sidus fervidum 

XiUcana rnutet pascuis ; 
Nec ut superni villa caridens Tusculi 

CircaBa tangat mcenia. 
Satis superque me benignitas t" _a 

Ditavit : haud paravero. 
Quod aut, avarus ut Chremes, terra premam 

Discinctus aut pertlam ut nepos. 一 



Carmen II. 

Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 

Solutus orani fenore. 
Neque excitatur classico miles truci. 

Neque horret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat et supcrba civium 

Potent io rum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 
Tnutilesque falce ramos amputans 

Feliciores inserit ; 
\ut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat err antes greges ; 
Aut pressa puris meila condit ampnoris ; 

Aut tondet infirmas oves ; 
Vcl, quum decorum mitibus pomis 、aput 

Auctumnus agris extulit, 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 

Cortnutcra et uvam p irpuro, 



epodOn liber 



Qua rnuneretur te, Priapa, et to, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Li bet jacere, modo sub antiqua >kce, 

Modo in tenaci gramino. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aqua) ; 

Queruntur in silvis aves ; 
Frondesque lyraphis obstrepunt /nanartibue ; 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At quum Touantis annus hibernus Jo vis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 
Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas ; 
A.ut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos ; 
Pavidumque 】eporem, et advenam Jaqueo gn" m 

Jucunda captat praemia, 
Quis non malarum, quas amor cura? babet, 

Hacc inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in parten? ]\\vci 

Domum atque dulces? liberos, 
Sabina qualis, aut perusta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Apuli, 、 
Sacrum ct vetustis extruat lignis focum, 

Lassi sub adventum viri ; 
Ciaudensque textis cratibus lsetum pecus. 

Distenta siccet ubera ; 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio, 

Dapes inemtas apparet : 
Non me Lucrina juverint conchylia. 

Magisve rhombus, aut scari, 
S: quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hicms ad hoc vertat mare ; 
Nou Afra avis descendat in vent rem nxun. 

Non attagen Ionicus 
Jucundior, quam lecta de pinguisafnua 

Oliva ram is arhorum, 



Q. H0RATI1 PLACC1 



Aut herba lapath; prat a amantis, e! jorravi 

Malvse salubrcs corpon, 
Vel agna festk caesa Terminalibus, 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. 
Has inter epulas, ut juvat pastas ovcs 

Videre properantes domum ! 
V idere fessos vomerem iaversum bovcs 

Collo tralientes languido ! 
I ^ositosque vernas, (litis examen domn^ 

Circum renideates Lares !" 
tiicc ubi locutus fenerator Alphius, 

Jam jam fuiurus rusticus, 
Oranem redegit Idibus pecuniam ― 

Wuserit Kaleudis ponere ! 



Carmen III. 
AD M^ECENATEiM. 
Parentis olim si quis inipia mauu 

Senile guttur fregerit 
Edit cicutis allium noceutius. 

O dura mcssorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in prsBCordiis ? 

Num viperinus his cruor 
【ncoctus herbis me fefellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 
Ut Argonautas praeter omnes carididuui 

Medea mirata est ducem, 
Ignota tauris illigaturum juga, 

Perunxit. hoc Iasoncm : 
EIoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem, 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nec tantus unquam sidei-um inaedit varoi 

SiticulossB Apuliae : 
Nec munus humeris cfficacis Hcrculis 

Inarsit cBsluosius. 



EPODON I IRKK 



Carmen IV. 

Lupis ei agnis quanta sortito obtigit 

Tecum mihi discordia est, 
Ibericis pcruste iunibus latiiB ; 

Et crura dura oompede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Videsne, Sacram metieate te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indigiiatio ? 
" Sectus flagellis hie Trii]mviralibu« 

Prajconis ad fastidium, 
Arat Falerni mille fundi jugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit ; 
Sedilibusquo magnus in primis rquea, 

Othone contemto, scdet ! 
Quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum 

Hoc, hoc tiibuiio militun 



Carmej* V. 
IN CANIDIAM VENEFICAM. 

Al» O deorum quicquid in coelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus ! 
Qaid iste feit tumultus ? aut quid omnittni 

Vultus in unum me truces ? 
Per liberos te, si vocata partubu i 

Lucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purjiuras decus preoor, 

Per improbaturuiD hac Joveni, 



110 



U. IIORATII FLACCl 



Quid ut noverca rne intueris, aut uti 

i'eUta lerro bellua ?" - 
Ut huic tremente questus ore ronstiti I 

丄 nsigiuouB raptis puer, 
bnpube corpus, quale posset impia 

MoUire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia brevitus implicata vi^ria 

Crines et incomtum caput, 
Jubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressus funebres, 
Et uncta turpis ova ranee sanguine, 

Piumamque nocturnal strigis, 
lierbasque, quas Iolcos atque Iberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta jejunse canis, 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
A.t expedita Sagana, per totam domum 

Spargens Avemales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus, aut Laurens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 
£xhauriebat, ingemens laboribus ; 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque rnutata3 dapis 

Inemori spectaculo ; 
Quum promineret ore, quantum e: A «tant aq ia 

Suspensa mento corpora ; 
Kxsucca uti medulla et aridum jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Interminato quum semel fixap. eibo 

Intabuissent pupulaB. 
Hie irresectum sajva dente liy i lo 

Canidia rodens pollicem 
Quid dixit ? aut quid tacuil 9 .) rebus ineis 

Non infuleles arbitne, 



EPODON LIDKU. 



Nox, et Diana, quae silcntium regis, 

Arcana quum fiuut sacra, 
Nunc nunc adeele, nunc in hostiles (ionu« 

Irani atque numen vertite. 
Formidolo6» dum latcHt silvi^ferse, 

Dulci soporc languidae, 
Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulteruir, 

Latrent SuburansB canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Me© laborarint man us. ― 
Quid accidii ? cur dira barbane minus 

Venena Medea) valent ? 
Quibus supcrbaia fugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Quum palla, tabo munus imbutum, nov«irri 

Incendio nuptam abstulit?. 
Sub hsec puer, jam non, ut ante, mollibus 

Lenire verbis irapias ; 
Sed dubius, unde rumperet silcntium, 

Misit Thycstcas preces : 
"Venena magica fas nefasque, non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 
Oiris agam vos : dira detcstatio 

Nulla expiatur victiroa. 
Quin, ubi perire jussus expiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 
Petamque vultus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Qusb vis deorum est Manium, 
£t inquietis assidens prancordiis 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et hiuc saxis peuns 

Contundet obscenas anus. 
Post insepulta membra difTereut lupi 

£t Esquilinse alites. 
Noque hoc parentes, heu mihi guperetites \ 

Effii^erit spectaculum." 



119 



Q. H OK AT 1 1 FLAOC1 



Carmen VI. 

Quid iinr 3rentcs hospites vexas, canis, 

Igaavui adversum lupos ? 
Quin hue inanesr si potes, vertis loiuas, 

£t me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam, qualis aut Molossus, aut fulvus Lax<n, 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
tgam per altas aure sublata nives, 

QusBcunque praBcedet fera. 
Tu, quum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 
Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimua 

Parata tollo cornua ; 
Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
Au. si quis atro dente me petiverit. 

Inultus at flebo puer ? 



£ 



Carmen VII. 

AD POPULUM ROMANUM. 

Ouo, quo scelesti ruitis ? aut cur dextei 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parurnne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis ? 
Non, ut superbas invidsB Carthaginis 

Romaiius arces ureret, 
Int actus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

"Sasra catenatus via, 
6ed ut, secundum vota Parthorum, gu& 

Urbs hffic periret dextera. 
Neque hie lupis mos, nec fuit loouibns, 

Nunquam, nisi in di^par, feris. 







EPOOO.N LIBER 



Furorne csbcus, au rapit vis acrior ? 

An cu Ipa ? responsum date. 一 
Tacent ; et ora pallor albus inficit, 

MenteBque perculsse Btupent. 
813 est ; acerba fata Romanos agunt 

Scelusque fraternsB necis, 
fit immcrentis fluxit in terram Remi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 



Caitmen IX. 
AD MiECKNATEM. 

Quaiido repostum Csccubum ad (cstas dapos, 

Victore laetus Csesare, ' 
Tecum sub alta, sic Jovi gratiim, domo, 

Beate MsBcenas, bibam, 
Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen Jyra, 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus quum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit, ustis navibus, 
Minatus Urbi vincla, qusB detraxerat 

Scrvis amicus perfidis. 
Romanus, eheu ! posteri negabitis, 

Emancipatus feminae, 
Pert vallum et arma miles, ct spadonibua 

Servire rugosis potest ! 
Intcrque signa turpe militaria 

Sol adspicit conopium ! 
4d hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes Cxsarem ; 
Uoetiliumque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsum citx. 
lo Triumphe ! tu moraria aureot 

Cumu> et intact as hoves ? 



Hi 



Q. UOEATII FLACcl 



9, 10 



[o Triumphe ! nec Jugurthino parem 

iicllo reportasti duceni, 
Neque Africanum, cui euper Cartha^iu^tv 

Virtus scpulcrum condidit. 
Terra marique v ictus host is, Pumco 

Lugubre mutavit sagum ; 
Aut ille centum nobilem Crctaai urd *u»** 

Vent is iturus non suis ; Jt 
Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Not" , 

Aut f'ertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores affer hue, puer, scyphoi 

£t Chi a vina, aut Lesbia, 
Vel t quod fluentem nauseam coercea* 76 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Caram metumquc CsBsaris rerum ju/at 

Dulci LysBo solvere. 



Carmen X. 

IN MiEVIUM POETAM. 

Mala soluta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Maevium. 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus.. 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus, inverso wari, ^ 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
Insurerat Aquilo, quantus altis moutibua 

Frangit trementes iliccs ; 
Ncc sidus atra nocte amicurn appareai. 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; ) 
Quietiore nec feratur soquore, 

(^uam Graia victortun mauus, 
Quum Pallas usto vertit iram LUo 

In impiam Ajacis rateux 



10 13.1 EPODdN MBER ! l£ 

O |uantus instat navitis sudur t ,"羞 \t 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
£t ilia non virilis ejulatio, 

Proces et avfrsum ad Jovem. 
Ionius udo quum remugiens sf\\a* 

Noto carinam ruperit ! 20 
Opima quod si praeda curvo 】itore 

Porrecta mergos juveris, 
. r «ibidinosus immolabitur caper 

Et agna Tempestatibus. 



Carmen XIII. , 
AD A M I C O S. 
GEorrida tcmpestas cobIuhi contraxit, et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt Jovera ; nunc mare, nunc nium 
Threicio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici, 

Occasionem de die ; dumque virent genua, 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move Consule prcssa meo. 
CeBtera mitte loqui : Deus hsec fortassc bcnigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfundi nardo juvat, et fide Cyllenea 

Levare diris pectora sollicitudinibus. 10 
Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumuo : 

Invicte, mortalis dea nate, puer, Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et Simois t 
Unde tibi reditum. curto subtemine ParcsB \ 5 

Rupere ; nec mater domum c»rula te revehet. 
Illic ornne malum vino cantuq'i^ leva to, 

Deformis sbgiimoniaD dulcibu alloqiii* 



116 



a* H«:HATri FI.ACCl 



Carmen XVI. 
AD J'Ol QLUM ROMANUM 

Altera jam leritur bellis civilibus aotas 

Suis et ipsa Rcma viribus ruit, 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marm^ 

Minacis aut Etrusca PorsenaB manus, 
^mula ncc virtus CapuaB, nec Spartacus acer, 5 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox : 
Ncc fera caerulea domuit vxermania pube, 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal : 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis a^tas ; 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. 1 

fiarbarus, heu ! cineres insistet victor, et llrbein 

Eques sonante vcrberabit ungula ; 
Qussque carent ventis et solibus, ossa Quirini, 

Nefas videre ! dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut m^lior pare i fl 

Malis carere qusBritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia ; Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas : 
Agros atque Lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : 2d 
Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per undat 

Notus vocabit, aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremus in hasc : Simul imis gaxa renarint 2A 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea ) quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina ; 
In mare seu celsas procurrorit ApenninuB ; 

Novaque monetra jiinxeiit libidiue 1Q 
Minis amor, juvet ut t'gres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur ct colurnb.a miiuj ; 



epod6w liber 



Credula nec flavos timeant armenta leoues ; 

Ametque salsa lev is hircus sequora. 
Hacc, et quae poterunt reditus abscindere (iuice», 

Eamus omnia exsecrata civitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grege ; mollis et exspcs 

Iuominata perprimat cul ilia ! 
Vos, quibuij est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctum, 

Etrusca praeter et volate litora 
.^ios manet Oseanius circumvagus : arva, beata 

Petamus arva, diviles et insulas, 
R dddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannia, 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivae, 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
[Hie :nj!i^ae veniunt ad mulctra capellao, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera : 
Nec vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovilo ; 

Nec intumescit alma viperis humus. 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius asm 

Gregem sestuosa torret impotentia. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque .'argis 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nec siccis urantur eemina glebis . 

Utrumque rege temperante Coelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 
Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua tiautae, 

Laboriosa nec cohors Ulixci. 
Jupiter ilia piaB sccrevit litora genti, 

Ut inquinavit sere tempus aureum : 

rea dehinc ferro duravit saBcuia ; quorum 

l,iis secunda vate me datur fhga. 



tt. HORATII FLACC1 



Carmen X VJT. 

IN C A N I D 1 A M. 

HoBATrjs. 

Jam jam efficaci do maims scientiie 

Supplex, et oro regna per Froserpins 

Per et Dianas non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Defixa cobIo devocare sidera, 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, 

Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nerei'ura, 

In quern superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum, et in quem tela acuta torser&t. 

Unxere matres IliaB addictum fens 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectoryny 

Postquam relictis mcenibus rex procidit 

Heu ! pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 

8etosa duris exuere pellibus 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei', 

Volente Circa, membra ; tunc mens et annul 

Relapsus, atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque pcenarum tibi. 

Fugit juventais, et verecundus color 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus, 

Nullum a labcre me reclinat otium. 

Urget diem nox et dies noctem, neque est 

Levare tenta splritu prsecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina, 

Caputque Marsa dissilire nsenia. 

Quid amplius vis ? O m are ' O terra ! ardeo 

Quantxim neque aero delibutus Hercules 



KPt/DON LIDBR 



Nessi cruore, nec Sicana fervida 

Farens in JEina, flamma. Tu, deMec ciuib 

丄 njunosis aridus ventis ferar, 

Cales venenis offioina Colchicis. 

Qusb finis ? aut quod me manet stipendiuia , 

EfTare : jussas cum fide pa3nas 1 :am,< 

Paratus, expiare seu poposceris 

Centum juvencis, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonare Tu pudica, tu proba ; 

Perambulabis aslra sidus aureum. 

Infarnis Helen© Castor oflensus vicem, 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi preoe. 

Adcmta vati reddidere lumina. 

Et tu, potes nam, solve me dementia, 

O nec paternis obsoleta sordibus, 

Nec in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus . 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Canidia. 

Quid obseratis auribus fundis prece- ? 
Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 
Neptuhus alto tundit hibcrnus salo. 
Quid prodcrat ditasse Pelignas anus 
Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 
Sed tardiora fata te votis manent : 
Jngrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc, 
Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 
Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 
Egcns benignae Tantalus semper dapin ; 
Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti ; 
Optat supremo collocare Sisyphus 
In monte saxum ; sed vetant leges Jotis 
Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 
Modo ense pectus Norico recludere ; 
Fmstraque vincla guttu- r * uectes tuo, 



\\iO a. HOUATII FLACCI CPODON l.ulFK. 

Fa^lidiosa triHtis aegrimoma. 

Vectabor humeris tunc ego inimicis equra W 

Meajque terra cedet uiBolentiaB. 

Ad, quae moverc ccreas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti cunosus, et polo 

Deripore Lunam vocibus possim nieu, 

Ponim crematos excitare raortuoA, 7《 

Plorem arlis, in to nil ageutis, exiium / 



Q. HO RATI I F L A C C I 

BARMEN S C [) L A U K 

PBO 1NOOLUMITATE IMPERII 



Phcebe, silvarumquc potens Diana, 
Lucidum coeli lecus, O colendi 
Semper ct culti, date, quae precamur 
Tempore sacro ; 

Quo Sibyllini nionucre versus 
Virgines lcctas puerosque castos 
Die, quibus septem placuere colles, 
Dicere carmen. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Fromis et celas, ali usque et idem 
Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Homa 
Viscre majus. 

Rite maturos apcrire partus 
Leriis, Ilithyia, tuere matres ; 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari, 
Seu Genitalis. 

Diva, producas suliolera, Patrumqat) 
Prospere3 decreta super jugandii 
Femiiiis, prolisque novae feraoi 
Lege marita : 
F 



a. HORATH FLACCI 



Certus undenos decies per annoe 
Orbis ut cantus referatque ludos.. 
Ter die claro, toticsque grata 
Nocte frequentes 

Vosquc veraces cccinisse, Pare®, 
Quod semel dictum est, stabilisque reruni 
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis 
Junglte fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Hpicea donct Cererem corona ; 
Nfutriant fetus et aquas, salubres 
Et Jovis aura?. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Suppliceg audi pueros, Apollo ; 
8iderum regina bicornis, audi, 
Luna, puellas : 

Koma si vestrum est opus, IlisBque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 
Sospite cursu, 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus ^Encas patrise superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, dalurus 
Plura relictis '- 

Di; probos mores docili juventae, 
Di, eenectuti placid sb quietem, 
RmnuisB genti date remque pro'ero ! in' 
E A deciiH omne. 



(; AKMEN SACULARE. 

Qoique vos bobus veneratur albis, 
Clarus A.nchisaB Vcnerisque sanguw 
linperct, bellante prior, jacentem 
Lcnis in hostem. 

Jam rnari terraque manus potentes 
Medus Aibanasque timet secures ; 
Jam Scyths responsa petunt superbi 
Nuper, et Indi. 

Tarn Fides, et Pax, et Honor, Pudurqiu* 
Priscus, et neglecta redire Virtua 
Audet ; apparetque beata pleno 
Copia cornu. 

Augur, et fulgente decorus area 
PhcebuB, acccptusque novera Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 
Corporis artiw : 

gi Palatinas videt suquus arces, 
Remqiie Romanam Latiumque, felix, 
Alterum in lustrum, meli usque semper 
Proroget sbvuiii. 

QueBque Aventinum tenet Algidiunqtie, 
Quifldecim Diana preces virorum 
Curet, et volis puerorum arnicas 
Applicet aures 

Hsbc Jovem sentire deosque cunclos, 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctua et Phoebi chorus et Di&nie 
Pi cere laudes. 



HORATII FLACCI 



«. H ) K A T 1 I t L A C t 1 

8 E R M N U M 

L : B E R PRIMUS. 



Satira I. 

IN AVARO&. 

Qui fit, Maecenas, ut uemo, quam sibi sortcm 
!?eu ratio dederit, seu fors objecerit, ilia 
Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequente« ? 
O jortunali merca tares f gravis annis 
Miles ait, raulto jam fractus membra labore 
Contra merca tor, navim jactantibus austris, 
Militia est potior ! Quid euim ? concurritur : Horn 
Momento aut cita mors venit aut victoria lseta. 
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 
Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. 
File, datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbom dst. 
Solos felrces viventes clam at in urbe. 
Cetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquaooin 
Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 
Quo rem deducam. Si quis Deus, En ego, dicat. 
Tarn faciam quod vultis : ens tu f qui modo miles, 
Mcrcator •• tv consultus modo, rusticm : hinc vo$, 
Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus. j£ia ! 
Quid statis ? — nolint. Atqui licet esse beat is. 
Quid caussD e".t, merito quin illis Jupiter ambaa 
Iratus buccar inflet. neque sc fore posthac 
F. j licat, votis ut prabeat aurem ? 



126 Q. HO'{ATIl PI ACCI ! I 

Prseterea, no sic, ut qui joculariaj ndens 
Percurrani : quamquam ridentem d: ::ere verum 
Quid vetat ? ut pueris olim dant crust u la bland: ZA 
Dootores. elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Se«l tamen amoto quseramus seria ludo. 
丄 lie gravem duro terrain qui vertit aratro. 
Perfidus hie cautor, miles, nautseque, po/ omne 
Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 30 
Sese ferre, series ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, quum sibi sint congest a cibaria ; sicut 
Parvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica labon? 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest, atque addit aeervo, 
Quern struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futur 36 
Quaj, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum. 
Non usquarn prorepit,. et illis utitur ante 
Quaesitis sapiens : quum te neque fervidus ajstiis 
Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ierruni ; 
Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 
Quid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et ami 
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ? ― 
Quod, si commi?iieas f vilem redigatur ad assem.— 
At, ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ; 
Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum ; 4f 
Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac incus : ut, si 
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 
Forte veh^s humero, nihilo phis accipias, quam 
Qui nil portarit. Vel die, quid referat intra * 
Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum an ^0 
Mille aret ? 一 At szcave est ex magna tollere acervo ― 
Dam ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire reiinquas, 
Cur tua plus laudes curaeris gran aria nostns 
Ut lib* si git opus liquidi non amplips m'tia 
Vel cyatho, et dicas : Magna d6 jiumine mclxm 64 
Quam ex Jwc fonticulo tantundem sum^s e. Eo ii t 
Plenior ut si quos d elect et copia justo; 



I) 



SERMONUM. 一 LIBBK 



CiiHi ripa annul avulsos forat Aufidus acer : 

At qui tantuli eget, quanto o?t opus, is neque limo 

Turbatain haurit aquam, neque vitam amittit in uiutu 

At bona par» hominum, decepta cupidine ialso, 
Nil ^ktis est, inquit ; quia tanti, qaantum habeas, «s. 
Qmd facias illi ? Jubeas miserum esse, libenler 
Qualenus id facit. Ut quidam memoratur Athenis 
• j6oi didus ac dives populi contemnere voces 
Sic so\i1 us : Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo 
I ps: dorni, simul ac nummos contemplor in area. 一 
Tar' talus a labris sitiens fugientia cap tat 
Flumina : Quid rides ? mutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 
rndormis inhians, et tanqusm parcere sacris 
Cogens, aut pictis tanquarn gaudere tabellis. 
Nescis quo valeat nummus ? quem praebeat ueurn ? 
Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius : adde, 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 
An vigilare raetu exanimem, noctosque diesque 
Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos, 
Ne te compilent fugiontes, hoc juvat ? Horuni 
Semper ego optarim pauperriniud esse bonorum.- • 

At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus. 
Aut alius casus lecto te affixit, habes qui 
Assideat, fomenta paret, medicum roget, ut te 
Suscitely ac natis reddat carisque pwpinquia, 一 
Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius : omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 
Miraris, quum tn argento post omnia pona?, 
Si nemo praestet, quem non merearis, amorem ? 
Ail sic cognatos, nullo natura labor*; 
Quos tibi dat, retinere velis, servareque amicos ! 
Infclix opcram perdas, ut si quis asellum 
[a campo doceat parentem currere frenis ! 

Donicme «*; fuiis ^uaerendi . quoqae b^'ieci f ,ve» 

F 2 



!30 



U. IIORATII FLACCI 



Pauperiem caetuas minus, et Rnire laboreni 
lncipia3, parto quel avebas. No facias, qmvl 
Ummidius, qui, tarn (non longa est fabula) dives % 
"t medretur mimmos ; ita sordid us, ut se 
Non unquam servo melius vest ire t ; ad usque 
Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victu? 
O^primeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 
! 、ivisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 

Quid mi igitur suades ? ut vivam Mcsnius aui. nc 
Ut Nomentanus ? Pergis pugnantia secum 
Fr.Mitibus adversis compojere ? Non ego, avariun 
Quum veto te fieri, vappan* jubeo ac nebulonem. 
Est inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Visciii : 
Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 
Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

Tlluc, unde abii, redeo. Nemon ut avanis 
Se probet, ac potius laudct diversa sequentes ; 
Quodque alien a capella gerat distent ius uber, 
Tabescat ? neque se majori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet ? hunc atque hunc superare 】abo,et ? 
Sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat : 
Ut, quum carcoribus missos rapit ungula currus, 
[list at equis auriga suos vincentibus, ilium 
Prieteriturn temnens extremos inter euntem. 
Inde fit, ut raro, qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore, vita 
Cedat, uti conviva satur, reperire queanius. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi 
Compilasse putes, verbum non atnplius ad lam. 

Satira II. 

IN MGECHOS. 
Ambubaiarum collegia pharmacopoljB, 
Mcndici, mimsB, balatrones, hoc genus oinne 
McBfitum ac sollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelii : 



2. 3. ] SEKMONUM. 一 1 BKR 1. 131 

Quippe benignus erat. Contra hh, ne yirodi^ua esn 
Dicatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico, H 
Prigus quo duramque famem propellere poatut. 
Knnc si perconteris, avi cur atque parontis 
Prseclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem, 

mnia conductis coemenB opsonia nummis : 
Sordid us atque animi parvi quod nolit haberi, 10 
Respondet- Laudatur ab his. culpatur db illis. 
Fufidius vappae famam timet ac nebulonis, 
Dives ^gris, dives positis in fenore nuniiiiiH : 
Qui n as hie capiti mercedes exsecat, atque 
Quanto perditior quisque est, tanto acrius urget ; 1fl 
Nomina sectatur, modo sumta veste virili, 
Sub patribus duris,. tironum. Maxime, quia non, 
Jupiter, exclamat, simul atque audivit ? 一 At in se 
Pro qucEStu sumtum facit hie. Vix credere poniB, 
Quam sibi non sit amicus : ita ut pater ille, Terenli 80 
Fabula quem miserum nato vixisse fugato 
laducit, non se pejus cruciaverit atque hie. , 

Si quis nunc qi 腦 at, Quo res hffic pcrtinet ? Illoo ; 
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria ourrunt. 



Satira III. 

IN OBTRECTATORES ET SUPERCILHIM 

STOICUM. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 
Jt nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 
injussi nunquam desistant. Sardus habebat 
[lie Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 
Si peterct per amicitiam patris atque suam. non • 
Quidquam proficeret ; si collibuisset, ab ovo 
Usque ad mala citaret Io Bacche ! modo summa 
Vyoe. xxu^do hac. re 謹 at qua chordU quatuor inuu 



132 



a, HORATll FLACCI 



NiJ aiqiiale homini fuit llli. Saepe velut qui 

Currebat fugiens hostem, persaepe velut qui 10 

Junonis sacra ferret : habebat saepe ducentos, 

Ssepe deoem servos : mmlo reges atqu a tetrarchaa, 

Omnia magna, l()f;uens : modo, Sit rrdhi Diemo, trit 4 •% 

Ctmcha salis pari et toga, qua defendere frigm、 

Quamtis crassa, qucat. Decies centena dedisset " 

Uuic parco, paucis contento, quinque diebu? 

Nil erat in 】oculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsun 

Mane ; diem totum stertebat. Nil fuit mquurn ^ 

Sic impar sibi. 

Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : Qui' • tu ? 
Nullane habes vitia ? lino alia, et forta^«e minora. 20 
Maenius absentem Novium quum carper", Hem tu, 
Quidam ait, ignoras te ? an ut ignotwu. dare nobis 
Verba putas ? Egomet mi ignosco, M umiius inquit 
Stultus et improbus hie amor est digi usque notari. 
Quum tua pervideas oculis male lip pus inunctis, 26 
Cur in arnicorum vitiis tarn cernis scutum, ' 
Quam aut aquila aut serpens Epiaaurius ? At tibi oontia 
Evenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. 
Iracundior est paulo ; minus apt us acutis 
Naribus homm hominurn ; rideri possit, eo quod 50 
Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male lax us 
In pede calceus hseret : at est bonus, ut melior vir 
Non alius quisquam ; at tibi amicus ; at ingeuium iiigciis 
Inculto latet hoc sub corpore : denique te ipsum 
Concute, num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 
Natura aut etiam consuetudo mala : namque 
Neglectis urenda filix iimascitur agris. 

I Hue prjevertamur : amatorem quod amicsB 
Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etian) ipsa hwo 
Delectant, veluti Balbinurn polypus Haguro 40 
Vollem in amicitia sic eriuremus: et isti 
firroTi nomen virtus pc 4 «uissct honestum 



dERMONl.'M. 一 LIBER 



At pater ut gnati, s^c nos debemus amici. 

Si quod sit vitium, non fastidire : strahonera 

Afipellat Paetiim pater ; et Pullum, male paivui 4tf 

Si vui iilius est. ut abortivus fuit olim 

Sisyphus : hunc Varum, distortis cniribus ; ill xw 

Balbutit Scaurum. pravis fultum male talis. 

Paicius Ilo vivit ? frugi dicatur. Ineptus 

fit jactantior hie paulo est ? concinnus amicis VI 

Postuia. ut videatur. At est truculentior atque 

Plus aequo liber ? simplex fortisque habeatur. 

Caldior est ? acres inter numeretur. Opinor, 

Hajc res et jungit, junctos et servat amicos. 

At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus atque 5" 
Smcerum cupimus vas incnistare. Probus quis 
Nobiscum vivit ? multum est demissus homo ? J lii 
Tardo cognomen pingui et dam us. Hie fugit oiiuics 
lasidias, nullique malo latus obdit apertum ? 
、Quum genus hoc inter vitse vcrsemur, ubi acris 6U 
Invidia atque vigent ubi crimina :) pro bene sano 
Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocaraus. 
Simplicior quis, et est, qualem me saope libeuter 
Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas, ut forte legentem 
Aut taciturn impellat quo vis sennone molestus ? 6f> 
Cornmuni sensu plane caret, inquimus. Eheu, 
- Quam tom&te in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam ! 
Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur : optimus ille est, 
Qui minimis urgetur. Amicus dulcis, ut sequuni ust 
Quum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce, /0 
Si modo plura mihi bona sunt, inclinet. Aman 
Si volet hac lege, in trutina ponetur eadem. 
Qui, n3 tuberibus propriis oiiendat amicurn. 
Fostulat, ignoscet verrucis iilius ; aequum est, 
Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Dcuique, qua ten us excidi penitus vitium ir», 
nstera item nequtunt etnltis hasreutia ; cur non 



I'M 



a. HOE ATI I FLACCI 



t 



l,on(k'rilms .nodulisque suis ratio utitur ? ac rca 
Ut quaequo opt, ita suppliciis deli )ta coercet ? 
'li quia eum servum, patinam qui toll ere juasus 80 
Semcsos pisces tepidumque ligurierii jus, 
n cruce sufHgat, Labeone insanior inter 
6anos dicatur. Quanto hoc furiosius atque 
Majus peccatum est ? Paulum deliquit amicus ; 
Quod nisi concedas, habeare insuavis ; acerbub 66 
Odisti, et fugis, ut Rusoncm debitor ssris, 
Qui nki, quum tristes raisero venere Kalenda), 
iVJ ercedem aut uumrnos unde unde extricat, amaras 
Porrecto jugulo historias, captivus ut, audit. 
Comminxit lectum potus, mensave catillum ^0 
Euandri manibus tritum dejecit : ob hanc rem, 
Aut positum ante mea quia pullum in parte catini 
Sustulit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus 
Sit mihi ? Quid faciam, si furtum fecerit ? aut si 
Prodiderit commissa fide ? sp<Jnsumve negarit ? 9d 

Queis paria esse fere placuit peccata, lalborant, 
Quum ventum ad verum est ; sensus moresque rcpuguunt, 
Atque ipsa utilitas, justi prope mater et asqui. 
Quum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 
Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia pioptei iQQ 
LTiiguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis, qusB post fabricaverat usus ; 警 
Douse verba, quibus vjces sensusque notarent, 
Nominaque invenere : dehinc absistere bello 
Oppida coeperunt munire, et ponere leges, \06 
No quis fur esset, neu latro, ne quis adulter. 
Nam fuit ante Helenam mulier teterrima beiii 
Causa : sed ignotis perierunt mortibus ilh, 
Quos, Venerenv incertam rapientes, more teramiu, 
V r iribu8 editior csedebat, ut in grege taurus. 'ft 
Jura inveiita metu iiijusti faleare necesse €Mt> 
Tempora si fsustosque veiis evolvere raundi' 



4 I SERMON UM 一 LIBER I. 13d 

nalura potest ju&ti secernt re iniquum, 
Dividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendis : 
Noo rino-et ratio hoc, tantundem ut peocet idemque 1 15 
Qu- teneros caules alieni fregcrit horti, 
Bt 'ai nocturnus sacra Divum legcrit. Adsit 
Ref -ila, peccatis quto pcsiias irroget aequas, 
Noc vsutica dignum horribili sectere flagello 
Ne i^rula cseclas meritum majora subire 1 31 

Verbr*ra, turn vereor, quum dicas esse pares res 
Furta latrociniia, et inagnis parva mineris 
Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 
Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens 66t, 
Et. sutor bonus, et solus formosns, et est rex ; 1 25 

Cur optas quod habes ? 一 Non nosti, quid pater, inquil^ 
Chrysippus dicat : Sapiens crepidas sibi nunquom 
Nec soleas fecit ; sutor tamen est sapiens. 一 Qui ? — 
Ut. quumvis tacet Hermogenes, cantor tamen atque 
Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfeniits vafer、 omni UO 
Abjecto instrumento artis clausaque tabema, 
Tort^or erat : sapiens opens sic optimtcs omnis 
Est opifez solus, sic rex. 一 Vellunt tibi bnrbaui 
Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces, 
Urgeris turba circum te stante, miserque 1 3fl 

Rumperis, et latras, magnorum maxime regum. 
Ne longum faciam, dum tu quadrante lavatum 
Rex ibis, neque te quisquam stipator, ineptum 
Praeter Crispinurn, sectabitur, et mihi dulccs 
Tgnoscent, si quid peccaro stultus, amici ; 4C 
Inque viccm illorum patiar delict a libenter, 
Privitusque magis vivam tc rege beatus. 



Satira IV. 
IN OBTRECTATORES SUOS. 
Kupolis a*quo Cratiuus Aristophanesque poet», 
Atque ali: quorum Comoedia prisca viromm est. 



st> 



CI. UORATH FLAOt)! 



14 



Si quis era! digims describi, quod maius, aut liit, 

Quod iiuBchus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate notabaat. 5 

Hi nc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutug, 

Mutatis taiitmn pedibus numerisq le , facet us, 

Emuuctae maris, durus componere versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus, in hora s?epo ducentos, 

»Ut magnum, versus dictabat -stans pede iu uuo. 10 

Quum fiueret lutulciitus, erat quod to Here velles : 

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi lerre laborem, 

Seribend; recte : nam ut multum, nil moror. Eoce • 

Crispirius miD : mo me provocat : — Accipe, si vi、 

Accipiam tabulas ; detur nobis locus, hora, 1 5 

Custodcs ; vidcamus f uter plus scribere possit. — 

Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli 

Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquenis 

A.t tu conclusas hirciuis follibus auras. 

Usque laborarites, dum Ibrrum emoiliat ignis, 20 
f.Jt mavis, imitare. 

Beatus Fannius, ultro 
Delatis capsis et imagine ! quum mea nemo 
Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis, ob hanc rem, 
々uod sunt quos genus hoc minirae juvat, utpote plum 
Culpari dignos. Quemvis media elige turba ; %z 
Aut &b avaritia aut misera ambitione laborat. 
Hunc capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius sure ; 
Hie mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum, quo 
V^esportina tepet regio ; quin per mala prajceps 
Fertur, uti pulvis collectus turbine, ne quid • id 

Bumma deperdat metuens, aut ampliet ut rem. 
Qmnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. ― 
Fenum habet in cwmi ; h.ngefitge : dummodo rimtn 
Excutiat dbi、 rum hie cuiquam parcel amico ; 
Et t qtiodcunqtce seniel chartis illeverit, omn^% 36 
Qestiet a fumo redeuntcs scms lactigue 



SERMONUM. — 一 LIBER I 



El jjuttos et anus. 一 Agedum, pauca accipe contra, 

Primum 3go me illorum, dedcrim quibus esso p >etis, 

Excerpam numero : nequc enini corcluderc vcr&um 

Dixeris (esc satis , nequc, si qui scribat, uti noe, 4(1 

Sermoni propiora, putcs hunc esso poetai.i. 

Ingonium cui sit, cui mens diviiiior, atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis b jjus honorem 

Idcirco (juiclam, Com«edia necne jjoema 

Esaet f quaisivere ; quod acer spiritus ac vis 44 

Nec verbis nec rebus incst, nisi quod pede certo 

Difiert sernioni, sermo merus. 一 At jxUe/' aniens 

Scevity quod mei'etrice nepos insanus arnica 

Filius uxorem grandi cum dole recuset, • 

Ebrius et, magnum quod dcdecus, avibulct ante 60 

Noctem cum facilms. 一 Numquid Pomponiu^ istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret ? Ergo 

Non satis est puris versurn persciibere verbis, 

Quern si dissolvas, qui vis stomachetur eodem 

Quo personatus pacto pater. His, ego quay nunc. 55 

Olim quas scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et, quod priua ordine veil um ett , 

PoBterius facias, prauponens ultima primis, 

Non, ut si golvas il Postquam discaidia tetra 

Belli ferrcUos postes portasqtie ref regit," 60 

Invenias etiam disjccti membra poetae. 

Hactonus hiec : alias, justum sit necne poema ; 
Nunc illud tantum quasram, meritone tibi sit 
Buspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acor 
Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male cumque libellis 65 
Magnus uterque timor latronibus ; at bene si quis 
Et vivat puris mauibus, contemriat u-rumque 
Ut sis tu similis Caeli Birrique latronum, 
Non ego sum Capri neque Sulci : cur metuas ? 
Nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila libeUus, 7U 
Queis man as insudot vulgi Hermogen^sque Tigelli , 



188 



a. HOBATII FLA0C1 



N"ec recito euiqijurn, nisi amicis, idquc coactus. 

Non uDivis, coramve quibuslibet. 一 In medio qui 

Saipta foro recitent, sunt mvlti, quique lavaiUts 

Suave locus voci resonat conchtsus. 一 Inanes 74 

Hoc juvat, baud illud quaerentes, num sine sensu, 

rcn.pore num faciant alieno. 一 Lfedere gaudes, 

[nq"it, et hoc studio pravus fads. ^« Unde petitum 

Hoc in me jacis ? est auctor quis denique eoruni, 

Vixi cum quibus ? Absentem qui rodit &micuin, 90 

Qui non defendit alio culpante, solutos 

Qui captat risus hominum famamque dicacis, 

Fingero qui non visa potest, commissa taeere 

Qui nequit ; hie niger est, hunc tu, Romane, caveto 

Ssepe tribus lectis videas cconare quaternoR, 8€ 

K quibus imus amet quavis adspei-gere cunctos, 

PriBter eum, qui praibet aquani : post, hunc quoqu? potu?. 

Condi t a quiun verax a peri t prsecordia Liber. 

Hie tibi comis et urban as liberque videtur 

tufesto nigris : ego, si :isi, qucid iueptus 90 

Pastillos Rufillus olet, Gargonius hircum, 

Lividus et mordax videor tibi ? Mentio si qua 

De Capitolini furtis injecta Petilli 

Tc coram fuerit, defendas, ut tuus est mos : 一 

Me Capitolinus convictore msus amicoque 9 & 

A puero est, causaque mea permulta rogatus 

Fecit, et incolumis Untor quod vivit in urbe ; 

Sed tamen admirm\ quo pacto judicium illvd 

Pug'irit. 一 Hie nigraj succus loliginis, hsec est 

JRiugo mera ; quod vitium procul afore chartis, 100 

Atque animo priu» ut si quid promittere dc me 

Pomui l aliud verc, promitto. Liberius si 

Kxero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 

Cum Tenia dabis insuevit pater opt imus hoc me 

Ut fugerem, exemplis vitiorum quaequc notando. IN 

Quum me lioitarstur, parc« ft ugaliter, atque 



SERMONUM. 一 IJBEK l. 



136 



Vivercni ati contentuF eo, quod mi ipse parasset - 

Nomu tide&y Albi ut male vivat flius ? utgue , 

Barms inops? magnum docwmentum, mjxitriain tern 

Perderc quis vdit A turpi meretricis amore 1 1 

Quum dcterreret : Scetani dissimilis sis, 

Aiebat. Sapiens, vif'atu quidque petitu 

Sit melius, causas reddet tibi ; mi satis est, si 

Traditum ab antiquis moreni strvare, tuamgue, 

Dum custodis egos, vitam faviamque tueri lift 

[ncohmiem possum ; simuL ac duraverit cetas 

Membra animuviqiie tuum、 nobis sine cortice. Sic me 

Furmabat puerum dictis, et sive jubebat 

Ut facerem quid, Hades auctorem, quo facias hoc ; 

Unura ex judicibus selectis objiciebat : 12M 

Sive vetabat, An hoc inhonestum et inutile factum 

Necnc sit, addubites, flagret rumor e vialo quum 

Hie atque ille ? Avidos vicinum flams ut asgros 

Exanimat, mortisqiie metu sibi parcere cogit ; 

3ic teneros animos aliena opprobria saepe 12^ 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis, 

Perniciem quaecunque ferunt, mediocribus, et quein 

[gnoscas, vitiis tenoor. Fortassis et istinc 

Largiter abstulerit longa aetas, liber amicus, 129 

Consilium proprium ; neque enirn, quum lectulus aut me 

Porticus excepit, desum mihi. Rectius hoc est ; 

B^c faciens vivam melius ; sic dulcis amicis 

curram; hoc quidam non belle ; numquid ego illi 

Ifyjfrudens olim faciarn si?tdle ? Haec ego mccuia 

CV 、! npressig agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti, 134 

? li»iilo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 

Ex vitiis unum, cui si concedere nolis, 

! Vlulta jxjetarum veniet manus, auxilio quro 

Bit mihi ; nam multo p lures sumus, ac veluti te 

iuJmi oogemuB in hanc concedere turbam. 



a. II)RAT1I FLACX!! 



Carmen V. 

ITER BRUNDISTNUM. 

Egreseum magna me excepit Aricia Roma 
Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes HeiK^dorus, 
Groocorum longe doctissimus. Inde Forum Appi 
Dificrtum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 
Hoc iter ignavi divisimiis, altius ac nos 
Prapcinotis unuin : minus est gravis Appi a tardi?. 
Hie ego propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, veutr! 
Indico bellum, coenantes haud animo SDquo . • 
Exspectans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 
Umbras et coelo diffundere signa parabat : 
Turn pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautsc 
Ingerere. 一 Hue appclle. Trecentos insens ; ohe 
Jam satis est! 一 Dum aps exigitur, dum mula ligatui 
Tota abit hora. Mali rulices ranaequc palustrcs 
Avertunt somnos. Absentem ut cautat amicam 
Mult a prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 
Certatim, tandem fessus dormire viator 
Incipit, ac missas pastum rctinacula mulsB 
Nauta piger saxo religat, stertitque supinus. 
r araque dies aderat, nil quum procedere liatrein 
Sentimus ; donee cerebrosus prosilit uiius, 
Ac mul'dd nautasque caput lumbosque saligno 
Fuste dolat. Quarta vix demum cxponimur hoia 
Ora manu&que tua 】avimur, Fcronia, lympha. 

Millia turn praiisi tria repimus, atque subirniH 
lnipositum saxis late candentibus Aimir. 
Hue venturus erat Miccenas optiinus, atque 
jfocceius, missi mairnis dc rebus uterquc 
Legati, aversos soliti componerc amicos. 
Hie oculis ego nigra mois collyria lippus 
^linere. fitterea Msbconao advenit atqiw 



5.1 



SCEMONliM. 一 LIBER I 



Coccus Capi toque simul Fonteius, ad unguein 
Factus homo, Autoni, non ut magis alter, amicue 
Fundos Aufldio Lusco praetore libenter 
Linquimus, insani ridentes prdsmia scribae, 
rr«etextam et latum clavum prunsoque batilluni 
hi IMamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 
Mirena prssbente domum, Capitone oulinam. 

Postera lux oritur multo gratissima, namque 
Flotius et Varius Sinuessas Virgili usque 
Occurrunt, anima), quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque queis me sit devinctior alter. 
O qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. 

Proxima Campano ponti quae villula tectum 
Prffibuit, et parochi, quse debent, ligna salemquc. 
Hinc muli Capuse clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it MsBcenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque : 
Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa, 
Q ix super est Caudi cauponas. Nunc mihi paucis 
Sarmcnti scurrse pugnam Messique Cicirri, 
Musa, velim mernores, ct quo patre natus uterque 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
Sarroenti domma exstat : ab his majoribus orti 
Ad pugnam vcnerc. Prior Sarmentus : Equi te 
Esse feri similem dico. Ridomus ; et ipse 
Messius : Accipio ; caput et movet O. tua cornu 
Ni fnret exsecto frons, inquit, quid fac^res, quum 
Sic mutilus minitaris ? At illi foeda cicatrix 
8etosam lajvi frontem turpaverat oris. 
Campanum in morbum, in faciem permulta jocatua, 
l、AStorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat ; 
N.l illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 
Malta Cicirrus ad Lsec : Donasset jamne eaten am 
Et voto Laribus, quserobat ; scriba quod essct, 



命 



142 



Q. HORATII FLACCf 



15 



NTihilo deterius dominee j is esso. Rogabal 

Doui(|uc, cur unquam fugissct, cui satis una 

Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamquc pusillo ? 

Prorsus jucunde c<enam produxiraus illam. 7fl 

Tmdimus hinc recta Bene vent um, ubi sedulu.s h 
Paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni ; 
Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flam ma cuhnam 
Vulcano summum properabat lambere tectum. 
Convivas avidos cceriam servosque timentcs 76 
Turn rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videros 

Incipit ex illo ir.ontes Apulia notos 
Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus, et quos 
Nunquain erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
Villa recepisset, lacrimoso non sine fumo, 80 
Udos cunl foliis ramos urente camino. 

Quatuor hinc rapimur viginti et millia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicerc non c&t, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima reruru 
Hie aqua ; sed panis hmge pulcherriraus, ultra 85 
CalHJus ut soleat humeris portaro viator ; 
Nam Canusi lapidosus, aquBB non ditior urna 
Qui locus a <brtl Diomede est conditus olim. 
Flentibus hie Varius discedit mcBstus amicis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum di 
Carpentcs iter et factum corruptius imbri. 
Fostcra tempestas melior, via ppjor ad usquo 
Bari moenia piscosi. Dehinc Gnatia lymphis 
Tratis exstructa deiit risusque jocosque, 
Dum flamnia sine thura liquoscere limine sacro 9ft 
Persuadere cupit. Credat Judajus Apella, 
Non ego ; namque deos didici securum agere aevum, 
Nec, si quid rairi faciat natura, deos id 
Tristes ex alto cceli demittere tecto. 

Bniaiuuum ltuigse finis cha.rta>que vi«r>que. lOO 



, 



SBRMONUM. 一 LIBER 



1491 



Sat^aCvx) 

IN DEPvISORES NATALIUM SUOUUM. 

Non, quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos 
Inoo]uit fines, nemo generosior est te, 
Noo f quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus, 
0】im qui magnis legion ibus imperitarunt, 
iJt plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco d 
Ignotos, ut me libertino patre natum. 
Quum referre negas, quali sit quisque pare>:te 
Natus, dum ingenuus : persuades hoc tibi vere, 
Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile regnum 
Multos saepe viros nullis majoribus ortos IC 
Et yixisee probos, amplis et honoribua auctos : 
Contra Laevinum, Valori genus, unde Super but 
TarquiniuB regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 
Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 
Judice, quo nosti, populo, qui stultus honores ,ft 
Ssepe dat indigiua, et famas servit incptus, 
Qui stupct in titulis et imaginibua. Quid oportet 
Vos facere, a vulgo longe longeque remotos ? • 
Namque csto, populus Laevino raailct hoiiorem 
Quam Decio mandare novo, censorque moveret SO 
Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus ; 
Vel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quicssein. 
Sed fulgento trahit constrictos Gloria curru 
Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tilli, 
Sumere depositum clavum, fierique tribuno ? 25 
Invi'lia accrevit, privato quae minor esset. 
Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit crus 
Pellibus, et latum dcruisit pectore clavum, 
4.udit continuo : Quis homo hie est ? quo patre natus J ' 
Ut si qui 3Bgrotet, quo morbo Barrus haberi ' M 

Ifi cupiat formosus, eat quacunque, ^uellu 



Ii4 



a. HORATII FI AGCI 



Injiciat curam quaerendi singula, quali 

Sit facie, Bura, quali pede, dentc. capillo : 

Sic qui promittit, cives, Urbem sibi cur». 

Impcrium fore, et Italiam, et delubra deoriun ; SI 

Quo patre sit natus, num ignota matre inhoneitui, 

Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. 一 

Time Syri t Damce t aut Dionysi JUius, avdes 

Dejicere e sazo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? 一 

At Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno ; 4U 

Namque est ille、 pater quod erat meus. 一 Hoc libi PtiuUuM 

Et Messala videris ? At hie, si plostra ducenta 

CoTtcurrantgtce faro tria funera, magna sonabit 

Comua quod vincatque tubas : saltern tenet )u>c wo*.-- 

Nunc ad me redeo, libertino patre natum, 46 
Quern rodunt omnes libertino patre natum ; 
Nunc, quia sum tibi, MsBcenas, convictor ; at olim 
Quod mi hi pareret legio Homana tribuno. 
Dissimile hoc illi est, quia non, ut forsit honorem 
Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum, 5(1 
Praesertim caictum dignos assumere, prava 
Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 
Me possim, 6asu quod te sortitus amicum ; 
Nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit : optimus olim 
V^irgilius, post hunc Varius, dixere quid essem. 66 
Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 
Infair; namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 
Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 
Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed, quod eram, narro. Respondes, ut tuus est moft. GO 

Pauca : abeo ; et revocas nono post mense, jubesque 

Ease in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego rluco 

Quod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honcstum, 

Ncn patre prasclaro, sed vita et pectore puro. • 

Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 66 

Mondosa cat aatur i, alioqui re( ta, velut m 



feERMONUM. 一 LIBER 1. H4fi 

Rgregio inspersos reprendas corpore naevos, ' 
Si neque avaritiam ncque sonles aut mala ] aexxn 
Objiciet vere quisq^iam mi hi ; purus et insons. 
Ut me collaudem, si et vivo cams aniicis ; 70 
Causa fuil pater his, qui macro pauper agello 
Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, inagni 
Qii: pucri magnis e centurionibus orti, 
La vo suspensi loculos tabulamquo lacerto, 
Lbant octonis referentes Idibus sera ; 73 
Bed puemm est ausus Romam portare, docenduni 
Artcs, quas doceat quivis equea atque senator 
Scmet prognatos. Vestem servosque sequent^, 
In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 
Ex re praeberi sumtus mihi crederet illos W 
Ipse roShi custos incorTuptissimus omnes 
Circum doctorcs aderat. Quid multa ? pudicum, 
Qui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omni 
Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi : 
Nec timuit, sibi ne vitio quis verteret olim, 86 
Si praeco parvas, aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor 
Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus. Ad hoc nuno 
Laiis illi debetur et a me gTatia major. 
Nil me poeniteat sanum patris hujus ; eoquc 
Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 90 
Quod non mgenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 
Sic me defendam. Longc mea discrepat istis 
Et vox et ratio : nam si natura juberet 
A certis annis SBVum remeare peractum, 
Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes, 95 
OJ)taret sibi quisque : meis contentus honestos 
Fascibus et seilis nollem mihi sumere, demens 
J udicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 
Nollem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestmi 
Nam mihi continuo major quserenda foret res, 11)0 
ktc salutandi plures : du?endus et unua 

一 G 



14(5 



a. HORATil FLA XI 



Et comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peiegjavB 

Exirem ; plures caloncs atque cabal li 

Pascendi : ducenda petorrita. Nunc mihi cuno 

Ire licet niulo vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 1 0《 

Mantica cu: lumbos onere ulceret atqu^ equeg anncs 

Objiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tilli, 

Quum Tiburte via pnetorem quinque sequuntur 

Te pueri, lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 

Hoc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, I U 

Multis atque aliis vivo. Quacunque libido est, 

/ncedo solus ; percontor, quanti olus ac far ; 

Fallacera circum vespertinumque pererro 

Siope forum ; adsisto divinis ; inde domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum. 11 

Coena minis tratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 

Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echinus 

Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supt^llex. 

Deinde eo dorraitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod eras 

Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 120 

Vultum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 

Ad quartam jaceo ; post banc vagor ; aut ego, lecto 

Aut scripto, quod me taciturn juvet, uiigor olivo, 

Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. 

Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 12? 

Admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem. 

Pransns non a vide, quantum interpellet inani 

Ventre diem durare, domesticua otior. Haec est 

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique. 

His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si 30 

Quaestor avus, pater atque meus, patruusque fuisset. • 

Satira VII. 

IN MALEDICOS ET INHUATANOS. 
Proecnpti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 
Hybrida quo pacto sit Pcrsius nltus, opinoz 



7. J S3ERM0NCJM. 一 LIBER I. 靈 47 

Omnibus ot 】ippis notum et tonsoribus esse 
Persius hie permagna negotia dives habebal 
Clazomenis, etiam litcs cum Rege molestas ; fi 
Diirus homo, atquc odio qui posset vincere E egera, 
Coiitidens, tumidugque, adeo Ecrmonis amari, 
Si3eimas } Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 
Vd B egem redeo. rostquam nihil inter utrumque 
Oonvenit (hoc etcnim sunt omnes jure molesti, U 
Quo fortes, quibus adversum bellum incidit : inter 
iiectora Priamiden } animosum atque inter Achillem 
Ira fuit capi talis, ut ultima dividerct mors, 
Non ali am ob causam nisi quod virtus in utroque - 
Summa fuit ; duo si dUcordia vexet inertes, 1 5 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 
Cuid Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro 
Muneribus missis) : Bruto praetore tenente 
Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 
Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacohxiis. In jus 20 
Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 
Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni 
Conventu : laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem ; 
Solem AsiaB Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 
Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem ilium, 2Si 
Lmrisum agricolis sidus, venisse : ruebat, 
Flumen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara seciu'is. 
Tiim Praenestinus salso multoque fluenti 
fixpressa ar]busto legerit convicia, durus 
\ r indemiator et invictus, cui ssepe viator 3rf 
Cessisset, magna compellans voce cucullum. 
AX Greccus, postquam est Italo perfusvs aceto, 
Persius exclamat : Per magnos f Brute, Deos U 
Oro、 qui reges consuesti toUere ; cur rum if4 
fJunc Begem jug^dm ? operum hoc, mihi credt tttorum (st, 



149 a. HORATIl FLACCI 【H 



Satika VIII. 

IN S13PERSTITIOSOS ET VENEFlCAfi, 

Olim truncus cram ficulnus, inutile lignum, 

Quum faber, mcertus scamnum faceretne Friapum, 

Maluit esse Deum. Deus inde ego, furum aviumque 

Maxima Ibrmido : nam fures dextra coercet. 

Ast importunas volucres in vertice arundo A 

Terret fixa, vetatque novis consulere in hortis. 

Hue prius angustis ejecta cadavcra ecllis 

Con»crvus vili portanda locabat in area. 

Lloc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 

Panto] abo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. ]U 

MilJe pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 

Hie dabat ; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 

Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes 

Albis infonnem spectaba 4 .t ossibus agrum, 15 

Quum mihi non tantum furesque ferseque, suetiB 

Hunc vexare locum, curse sunt atque labori, 

Quantum carminibus quas versant atque venenis 

Humanos animos. Has nullo perdere possum 

Ncc prohibere modo, simul ac vaga Luna decorum 180 

Protulit os, quia ossa legant herbasque nocentes 

Vidi egomet nigra succinct am vadere palla 

Canidiam, pedibus nudis, passoque capillo, 

Cum Sagana majore ululantern. Pallor utrasque 

Fecerat horrendas adspectu. Scalpere terram 2 & 

Unguibus, et pullam divellere mordicus agnam 

CoBperunt ; cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 

Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 

fiane& et effigies erat, altera cerea ; major 

Lanea, quae poBnis compesceret inl'eriorem. W 

Cerea guppliciter stabat, servilibus ut queB 



£1, 9 J SBRMONUM. 一 LIBER 1. 14k 

Jam peritura modis. Hecatcn vocat altera, ecevain 
Altera Tisiphonen : serpentes atque videres 
Infernos errare canes, lunamque rubentem, 
Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcia. 
Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto alterna loqueatei 
UmbnB cum Sagana resonarent triste et acutiun ? 
!J ique lupi barbam varis cum dente eolubraB 
Ahdiderint furtim tenia, et imagine cerea 
Largior arserit ignis, et ut non testis inultus 
Hormerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum ? 一 



Satir(JX) 

IN IMPUDENTES ET INEPTOS PAllASITAb- 

TROS. 

Lbam forte Via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 

Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 

Accurrit quidam not us mihi nomine tantum, 

Arreptaque manu, Quid agis t dulcissime rerum ? 

Suuvitcr f ut nunc est, inquam, et cupio omnia qtuB vis. A 

Quum assectaretur, Num quid vis ? occupo : at ille, 

Noris nos t inquit ; docti sumus. Hie ego, Pluris 

Hoc, inquam, mihi eris. Mi sere discedere quterenB, 

Ire modo ocius, interdura consistere, in aurem 

Dicere nescio quid puero ; quum sudor ad imos 10 

Manarot talos. O te, Bolane, cerebri 

Felicem ! aiebam tacitus ; quum quidlibet ille 

o arriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi 

Nil respoadebam, Misere cupis, inquit, abzre, 

Jamdiidum video, sed nil agis, usque tencbo、 16 

I'ersetpmr. Hinc quo nunc iter est tibi ? ~ Nil opuii est U 

Circuniagi ; qvendam volo vise? e non tibi notum ; 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Ccesaris hortos. — 

Nil habeo quod agam, et non sum piger; usque $eqnar te 、一 

》omiUo auriculaB ut iniquae isentis asellus, 20 




iSO 



a. HORATII rLACCI 



Quum gra^us dorso sujiit onus. Incipit ille : 

Si bem me novi, non Viscum pluris amicum. 

Nan Varium fades ; nam quis me scribere plures 

Aut citius possit versus ? quis membra movere 

Mollius ? invideat quod et Hermogeries, ego canto. 24 

[nterpellandi locus hie erat. 一 Est tibi mater ? 

Gognati, queis te salvo est opus ? 一 Hattd mihi quifquam, 

Omnes composui. 一 Felices ! Nunc ego resto ; 

Canficet na/nujue instat fatum mihi triste, Sabella 

^uod puero cecinit mota divina anus uma : 3C 

t IIunc neque dira venma nec hostiaf>s avfyfet ends, 

Nec latcrum dolor, aut tussis, nec tmmi^podagra ; 

Garrulus hunc quando consumet cunque ; loquaces, 

Si sapiat, vitet, simul atque acloleverit cetas." 

<^ Ven ! um erat ad Vestffi , q uarta J' am P arte ^ ^ 
^/^PraBterita, et casu tunc respondere vadato 

Debebat ; quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 

Si me amas, inquit, paulum hie odes. ― Inteream, si 

Aut valeo stare, aut novi civiliajura; 

Et propero quo scis. ― Dubius sum quid faciam, inquit ; 40 

Tene reiinqttam an rem, ― Me, socles. 一 Nan faciam, iUe, 

Et praBcedere coepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 

Cum victore, sequor. — McEcenas quomodo tecum ? 

Hie repctit. — Paucorum lwminum et mentis bene sance , 

Nemo dexterius fortuna est usus. Haberes 4^ 

Magnum acljutorem, posset qui f err e secunclas, 

Hunc hominem vdles si tradere ; dispeream f ni 

Sttnvmcsses omnes. — Non isto vivitur UUc, 

Quo tu rere, inodo ,• donius hue nec jrurior ulla est, 

Nec magis his alie>ia mcdis ; nil mi officit inquctm, AO 

Ditior hie aut est quia doctior ; est locus uni- 

Cuique suus. ― Magnum narrow viz credibilc. ― Atqui 

Sis iwbet. 一 Accendis, quare cupiam magis illi 

Proximus esse. 一 Velis tantum-inodo ; qua tua virtus, 

Expi^nabis ; et est qui vinci possit f eoque 



9, 10.J 



ft£EMONT/M.- — LIBER 1 



)9k 



Dtfficiles adit us primos habet. 一 Hand miki d^ro , 
Muncribus servos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 
Exclusus fnerOy desistam ; tempora gua*ram. 
Occurram in triviis, deducam. Nil sine magno 
Vita labore dedit mortalibus. 一 Hsec dum ag:it, ecce, 
Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus et ilium 
Qui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. Unde venis ? et 
Quo tend is ? rogat et respondet. Vellere caepi. 
Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 
Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. Male salsus 
Elidens dissimulare. Meum jecur urere bilis. 
Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 
Aiebas mecum. ― Memini bene, sed mdiore 
Tempore dicam ; hodie tricesinia sabbata ; vi i 1 tu 
Curtis Judceis oppcclere ? 一 Nulla mihi, inquam, 
Relligio est. ― At mi ; sum paulo infirmioir、 unm 
Midtorum ; ignosces y alias loquar. 一 Hunccine solein 
ram nigrum surrexe mihi ! Fugit improbus ac ir«o 
Bub cultro linquit. Casu venit obvius illi 
A.dversarius, et, Quo tu turjnsswie ? magna 
Inclamat voce, et, Licet antestari ? Ego vero 
Appono auriculam. Rapit in jus. Clamor utrinque v 
Undique coucursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 
^> 

Satira X. 

IN INEPTOS LUCILII FAUTORES 

LucUij quam sis mendosus, teste C atone, 
Defensore ttw, pervincam 1 qui mole factor 
Emendare parat versus. Hoc lenius iUe, 
Est quo vir mdioi\ longe mbtilior iUo 
Qui multuri puer et loris et funibus udis 
Exhortatm ; ut esset apem qui f^rrt poetii 



6(i 



70 



r52 



U. HORATH 7tiA( 'JJ 



MO 



Antiquis posset contra fasiidia nostra, 

GrammaUcorum equitum doctissimus. (ft rcdtiam illuci 

Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 

Lucili. Quis tarn Lusili fautor inepte est, in 

IJt nou hoc fateatur ? At idem, quod sale inulto 

Urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. 

Sec tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque cetera , nam s':c 

Et Laberi mimos ut pulclira poemata mirer. 

Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 15 

Auditoris : et est qusedam tamen hie quoque virtus : 

Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 

Tmpediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures : 

Et scrinone opus est modo triati, saepe jocoso, 

Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 20 

[riterdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 

Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 

Fortius et melius magnas plerumque sccat res. 

llli, scripta quibus ComoBdia prisca viris est, 
Lloc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque puichei 21 
Hermogenes unquam legit, neque simius iste, 
Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullurn. 一 
At magnum feci" quod verbis Grceca Latinis 
Miscuit. ~ O seri studiorum ! quihe putetis 
-~ Biffioite^etjnirum , Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 30 
Contigit ? ^Aisex^no lingua concinnus utraque 
Suavior } ut Chio nota d'eommixta Fcderni est. 
Quum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an ef q lum 
DnTa tibi pcragenda rei sit causa Petilli, 
Scilicet oblitus patriaeque patrisque, Latine 3d 
Quum Pedius causas exsudet Publicola, atque 
Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 
Verba foris rnalis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 
Atqui ego quum Graecos facerera, natus mare citra, 
^onucuios, vetuil tali me voce Qu ; rinus, 40 
Post mediam noctem visus, quum »mnia vera : 



蟄 



10«J 8BRMONUM. 一 L1BEK I. Ift3l 

In suvam fion Ugna feras insanim, ac si 
Magnas Grcscorum medis implere catcrvt& 
Turgidus Alpinus jugulat duin Memnona, duinque 
Do&ngit Kheni luteum caput, hsec ego ludo, \t 
Qua; neque in eedo sonent certantia judico Tarpa, 
Nec redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda theoitria 

•A】guta meretrice potes, Davoque Chrcmeta 
Eludente senem, comis garrirc libellos, 
Unus vn orum, Fundani : Pollio regum *)U 
Facta canit pede ter percusso : forte epos acer, 
Ut nemo, Varius ducit : molle atque facetum 
Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camense. 
Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 
Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, 
Inventore minor ; neque ego illi detrahere ausim 
Haerentem capiti cum mult a laude coronam. 
At dixi fluero hunc lutulentum, ssepe ferentem 
Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis. Age, quaiao, 
Tu nihil in magno doctus reprendis Horaero ? 60 
Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Atti ? 
Non ridet versus Enui gravitate minores, 
Quum de se loquitur, non ut majore reprenaiB f 
Quid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta leg&ntes 
QuaBrere, nam illius, num rorum dura negarit - 65 
Versiculos natura magis factos et euntes 
Mollius, ac si quis, pedibus quid claudere senis } 
Hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 
Ante cibum versus, totidem ccenatus ; Etrusci 
Quale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 70 
IngeniuiD, capsis quern fama est esse librisque 
AmbuBtum propriis. Fucrit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus ; fuerit limatior idem, 
Quam rudis et Graccis intacti carminis auctor, 
Quarnque poetarum seniorum turba ; sed ille, 7* 
S» fbiet hoc nostrum fato dilatus in »v im, 

G 2 



154 Q. JRATII FLACCI SERMONUM -LIUfiK L 



Dstereret sibi multa, recideret omne, quod ultra 
Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 
SsBpe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Saepe stilum vertas, iterum quae disma legi siat. 9Q 
dcripturus ; ncqne, te ut miretur turba, labores. 
Contentus paucis lectoribus. An tua demens 
Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis ? 
Non ego ; nam satis est equitem mihi plaudcro, ut audjis, 
Contemtis aliis, explosa Arbuscula dixit. 8fl 
Men moveat cimex Fantilius ? aut cruciet, quod 
Vel licet absentem Demetrius ? aut quod ineptus 
Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli ? 
Plotius et Varius, MsBcenas Virgiliusque, 
Valgius, et probet hasc Octavius optimus, atque 50 
Fuscus, et hsec utinam Viscorura laudet uterque I 
Ambitione relegata, te dicere possum, 
Follio, te, Messala, tuo cum fratre, simulquo 
V03, Bibule et Servi ; simul his te, candide Fumi, 
Compluresque alios, doctos ego quos et amicos U0 
Prudens prsetereo ; quibus Iisbc, sunt qualiacunque 
Arridere velim ; doliturus, si placeant spe 
Deterius nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 
Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedrae. 
【, puer } al/^uc meo ixiws hanc subscribe lib»Uo 100 



Q. H li A T 【 1 F 丄 A (MJ I 

8 E R M N U M 

LIBER SECUNDU8. 



Satira I. 

CN QUENDAM, QUI ACTIONEM DE RAMOS 
LIBELLIS HORATIO INTENTS BAT. 

HORATIUS. 

Sunt quibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quidquid 
, 'Coraposui, pars esse putat, similesque raeorum 
Mille die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 
Quid faciam, prroecribe. 

Trebatius. 

Quiescas. * 

Horatius. 

Ne faciam, iiuiuii, i 

Ornnino venus '! 

Trebatius. 

Aio. 

Horatius 

Peream male, t! noii 
0|itimuin erat ; vsnim nequeo dormire. 、 



156 



U. HO&ATff FLACC1 



•Trebatius. 

Ter uncti 

Transnauto TiWrim, somno quibus est opus alto, 

Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 

Aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit audo 10 

Ciraaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 

VisBmia laturus. 

HORATIUS. 

Cupidum, pater optime, vitm 
Ueficiunt ; neque enim quivis horrentia piiis 
Agmina, ncc fracta pereuntes cuspide Gailos, 
Aut labentb equo describat vulnera Parthi. 16 

Trebatius. 

Attamen et justum poteras et scribere furtem, 
Beipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius. 

HoaATivs. 

Haud mihi deero, 
Quuia res ipsa feret. Nisi dextro tempore Fiacci 
Verba per attentain non ibunt Csesaris aurera ; 
Cm male si palpere, recalcitret undique tutus. 30 

Trebatius. 

Quanto rectius hoc, quam tristi laedere versu 
Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotom ! 
Quum sdbi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, et odit 

HORATIUS 

Quid faciam ? Sal tat Milonius, ut semei ictc 

Access" fervor capiti numerusque lucernis. lUk 

Castor gaudet equis ; ovo progaatus eodem 

Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studic ruin 

Millia : me pedibus delectat claudere verba, 

Lucili ritu, nostrum meliorie utroquo. 



SERHIONUM. 一 LIBER II 



157 



Ille velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim VI 

Credebat libris ; neque, si male cesst rat, unquam 

Decurrens alio, neque, si bene : quo fit, ut omnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor huac, Lucanus an Apalus aac^pe 

Nam Venusinus arat finexn sub utrumque colomts, 3«> 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 

Que ne per vacuum Romano in ;urreret hostis. 

Sive quod Apula gens, seu quod Lucania beliura 

Incuteret violenta. Sed hie stilus haud petet ultio 

Quemquam animantem ; et me veluti custodiet ensis 4U 

Vagina tectus, quern cur destringere coner, 

rutus ab infestis latronibus ? O pater et rex 

Jupiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum, 

Nec quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! at ille, 

Qui me comrn6rit (melius non tangere, clamo), 4fl 

Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urn am : 

Canidia Albuti, quibus est inimica, venenura ; 

Grande malum Turius, si quid se judice certes. 

Ut, quo quisque valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet hoc natura potens, sic collige mecuin : 

Dente lupus, cornu taurus, petit ; undo, nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scsbvsb vivacem crede nepoti 

Matrem : nil faciet sceleris pia dextera (mirum, 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam, neque dente petit boa) ; M 

Sed mala toilet anum vitiato melle cicuta, 

Nc longum faciam, seu me tranquilla senectus 

Exspectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis, 

Dives, inops, Romse, seu, fors ita jiisperit, exsul, 

Qxiieqiiis erit vitae, scribam.. color. 

Treb Al'IUS. 

O puei , titcdi 641 
Vitalis, metuo, ct majorum ne quia amicus 
Frigore te feriat. 



ifi8 



a. HORATIi FLAC 



1* 



HORATIUS. 

Quid ? quum est Lucilius aueui 
PrimiiA n hum cperis componere carmina rnorem, 
Detrahere et peilem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederct, introrsum tui^is ; num Lselius, aut qui 65 
Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomcn, 
IngBnio ofiensi ? aut lseso doluere Metello, 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? Atqui 
Primores populi arripuit, populumque tributim , 
Scilicet uni sequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. ' 70 
Quin ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant 
Virtus ScipiadsB et mitis sapienlia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo et discincti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, soliti. Quidquid sum ego, quaiavu 
Inira Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 74 
Cum magnis vixisse in vita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et fragili quserens illidere dentem 
OfTendet golido ; nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 
Dissentis. 

Trebatius. 

Equidem nihil hinc diffindere powum ; 
3ed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti 90 
Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum : 
Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, jus est 
Jadiciiinique. • 

HORATIUS. 

Esto, si quis mala ; sed bona si qrof 
,udioe condiderit laudatus Csesare ? si quia 
Opprobriis dignum laceraverit, integer ipse ? $4 



Trebatius. 
Bolfontur rigu tabula), tu missus abibis. 



2.1 



SERMON (JM.- 一 LIBER 11 



159 



Satira II. 

IN V\ YM V;HBAN^E LUXURIAM JET INEPTlAa 

Quae virtus, et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo 

(Neo meus hie sermo est, sed quern praBcepit Ofelliir 

Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassaque Minerva), 

Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes, 

Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus, et quum 

Acslinis falsis animus meliora recusat ; 

Verum hie impransi rnecum disquirite. 一 Cur hoi) / 

Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat omnis 

Corniptus judex 

Leporem sectatus, equove 
Lassus ab indomito, vel, si Rom ana fatigat 10 
Militia assuetum grsecari, seu pila velox, 
Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit, pete cedentera aera disco . 
Quum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis, 
Sperne cibum vilem : nisi Hyraettia mella Falerno 】fi 
Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus, et atrum 
Defendens pisces hiernat mare ; cum sale panis 
Latrantem stomach um bene leniet. Unde putas, aut 
Qui partum ? Non in caro nidore voluptas 
Summa, sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria qusere 20 
Sudando : pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea 
Nec ecarus aut poterit peregrina juvaro lagois. 
Vix tamen eripiam, posito pavone, velis quin 
Hoc potius, quam gallina, lergere palatum, 
Corruptus vaiiis rerum, quia veneat auro * 2d 

llara avis, et picta pandat spectacula cauda ; 
Tanquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vescoris ista, • 
Quam laudas, pluma ? cocto num adest honor idem ? 
Carne tamen quamvis distat nihil, hac magis illam 
Imparibus formis deceptum te petere ! Esto : 9il 
Unde datum sentis. hip is hie Tiberinus an alto 



' 100 



Q. HORATII PLA-?C. 



Captus hiet, pontesnc inter jactatus aa amnis 

Ostia sub Tusci ? laudas insane trilibrein 

Mullum, in singula quern minuas pulmenta u.oeasa est 

Ducit te species, v^deo : quo pertinet ergo -i5 

Proceros odisse lupos ? quia scilicet illis , 

Majoi'^ra natura modum dedit, his breve pondus. 

Jbjunus raro stomachus vulgaria temnil. 

Porrcctum magno magnum spec tare catino 

Vellem, ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus : at vcm, i(J 

Praesentes Austri, coquite horum opsonia. Quamquan^ 

Putet aper rhombusque recens, mala copia quaiido 

^Egrum sollicitat stomachura, quura rapula plemib 

Atque acidas mavult iuulas. Necdum cmnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum : nam vilibus ovis 4f> 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus Haud ita pridem 

Galloni prseconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamk. Quid ? turn rhombos minus sequora aieban , 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donee vos auctor docuit prsetorius. Eigo 6fi 

Si quis nunc raergos suaves cdixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana juventus. 

Sordidus a teuui victu distabit, Ofello 、 
Judice ; nam frustra vitiurn vitaveris illud, 
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, 66 
Cui Canis ex vero ductum cognomen adhsBret, 
Qumquennes oleas est et silvestria oorna, 
Ac nisi mutatum parcit defunderc vinura, ot 
Cujus odorem olci nequeas pexferre (licebit 
'Jle repotia, natales, aliosve dierum 60 
i^estos albatus celebret), cornu ipso bilibri 
3aulibus instillat, veteris non parous aooti. 

Quali igitur victu sapiens utetur ? et horum 
Utrum imitabitur ? Hac urget lupus, hac cams, aiunt 
Mundus orit, qui non offendat sordidus, atque 69 
En neutmi partem cultus miser. Hie nequo servii, 



2.. I 



b'ERMONaM. 一 LIBER 11 



161 



Albuti scnis exemplo, dam niuina didit, 
Sa3vus erit ; nec sic ut simplex NsBvius uncUin 
Convivis prsebebit aquam ; vitium hoc quoque magnum. 

Accipe nunc, victus tenuis quae quantaque ser'mi ,U 
A Herat. Inpnmis valeas bene : nam variaD res 
Ut noccaht homini, credas, memor illius escaj, 
Qase simplex olim tibi sederit : at simul assis 
Miscueris elixa, simul conchy lia turdis, 
Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum 75 
Lenta feret pituita. Vides, ut pallidus omnis 
Cceua desurgat dubia ? Quia corpus onustum 
Hesternis yitiis animum quoque prsBgravat una, 
Atque affigit humo divirue particulam aune. 
Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 60 
Membra dedit, vegetns preescripta ad munia surgit 
Hie tamen ad melius poterit transcurrcre quondam. 
Sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus, 
Sou recreare volet tenuatum corpus ; ubique 
Accedent anni, tractari mollius SBtas ^fi 
linbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam t 
Quam puer et validus prsesumis, mollitiem, seu 
Dura valetudo incident seu tarda sencctus ? 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 
IJlis nullus erat, sed, credo, hac mente, quod hospes 90 
Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius, quam 
Integrum sdax dominus consumeret. Hos utinain inter 
Fleroas natum tellus me prima tulisset ! 

Das aliquid famss, quae carxnine gratior aureia 
Occupat humanam ? grandes rhombi patinseque 95 
Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus : adde 
Ira turn patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Kl frustra mortis cupidum, quum deerit egenti 
\A t laquei pretium. Jure, inquit, Trausiw. istis 
Turgatur verbis ; ego vectigedia viagna 100 
Dimtiusque lwbeo trilnts amplas regibu& Ergoii 



162 



a. HOUA III FLACCi 



Quol Hipoiat, nor. est melius quo insuiu 3re pos&is ? 

Car (got inrlignus quisqaam, te divite ? quaro 

Templa ruunt antiqua Deum ? cur, improbo; cara? 

N>; aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo 7 10.1 

GFm nimirum tibi recte semper erunt res ! 

O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Uterao 

Ad casus dubius fidet sibi certius ? hie, qui 

Pluribus assuerit mentem corpusque superbum, 

An qui, contentus parvo metuensque futuri, 1 10 

In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello ? 

Quo magis his credas, puer hunc ego parvus Ofellum, 
[ntegrig opibus novi non latius usum, . 
Qiiarn nunc accisis. Videas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonura, 115 
Non ego, narrantem, temere edi luce profesta 
Quidquam prater olus fumosce cum pede pern^ t 
Ac mihi seu longum post tempos venerat hospes, 
Sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 
VicinuSy bene erat t non pisciinis urbe petitis, 120 
Sed pullo atque hcedo : turn pensilis uva secundas 
Et nux ornabat mensas cum duplice ficu. 
Post hoc Indus erat f culpa potare magistra : 
Ac venerata Ceres^ ita culmo surgeret alto, 
Explicuit vino amtracta seria frontis. 
Scsviat atqxve novos moveat fortuna tumulttcs ; 
Quantum hinc imminuct ? quanto aut ego parnn^ aut vo9、 
O pueriy nituistis, ut hue novus incola venit ? 
Nam proprice teUuris herum natura neque ilium, 
Nee me y nec gtiemquam statuit : nos expidit ille ; VSQ 
Ilium aut nequities aut vafri inscitia juris, 
Postremvm expellet certe vivacior heres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper OfeUi 
Dictus, erit nulli projyrius y sed cedit in usum 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii. Quocirca vivite fos*^ IS 看 

Fortiaque adversis t^onite p&.'tora rebm. 



aERMONUM —LIBER II. 



16fl 



Satira 1VL 

INSAN1RE, ETIAM IPSOS S rOICOa, 
DUM HOC DOCENT. 

Damasippus. 
raro scribis, ut to to non quater anno 
Membranam poscas, scriptorum quaf)que retexcns, 
Iratus tibi, quod vini somnique benignus 
Nil dignum sermone canas. Quid fiet ? Ab ipsis • 
Saturnalibus hue fugisti. Sobrius etgo 5 
Die aliquid dignum promissis : incipe. Nil est 
Culpantur frustra calami, immeritusque labor at 
iratis natus paries Dis atque poetis. 
A.tqni vultus erat multa et praeclara rainantia, 
Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tec to. 】 

Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro, 
Eupolin, Archilochum, comites educere tantos ? 
【nvidiam placare paras, virtute relicta ? 
Contemnere, miser. Vitanda est improba Siren 
Desidia ; aut quidquid vita meliore parasti, 1 5 

Ponendum asquo aniipo. 

HoRATros. 

Di te, Damasippe, Deax|uo 
Verum ob consilium donent tonsore. Sed unde 
Tarn bene me nosti ? 

Damasippus. 

Postquam omnis res mea Janum 
Ad medium fracu est, aliena negotia euro, 
Excussns propriis. Olim nam quaerere amabam, 20 
Quo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus »re, 
Quid sculptura iufabre, quid fusum durius easet : 
Callidus huic ugno ponebam millia centum : 



164 



ORATII FL.ICC! 



Horlos egregiasque domos mercarier umis 
Cum lucro noram ; unde frequentia Mercurial" 
f raposucro raihi cognomen oompita. 

Horatius. 

Novi, 

Et miror morbi purgatum te illius. 

Damasippus. 

Atqui 

Emovit veterem mire novus, ut solet, in cor 

Trajecto lateris miseri capitisve dolore, 

Ut lethargicus hie, quum fit pugil, et medk jni UTget 

Horatius. 

Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libet. 

暑 

Damasippus. 

O bone, ne te 
Frustrere ; insanis et tu stultique prope omnes, 
Si quid Stertinius veri crepat ; unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis praecepta hsec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 
Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 
Nam male re gesta quum vellem mittere operto 
Me capite in flumen, dexter stetit, et, Cave faxis 
Te quidquam indignum : pud or, inquit, te malus angit, 
Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 
Frimum nam inquiram, quid sit furere : hoc si ent in 
^olo ; nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. 
Quem mala stultitia, et quemcunque inscitia veri 
Csocum agit, insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 
Autumat. Hsec populos, haec magnos formula regM, 
Excepto eapiento, tenet. Nunc accipe, quare 
D«npiaiit omnes »que ac tu, qui ;.ibi nomeo 



3.] 



SEHMONUM. ― LIBER II 



16 



Insano pusuere. Velut siivis, ubi passim 

Palantos error certo de tramite pellit, 

file sinistrorsum, hie daxtrorsum abit ; iinus utrisque tfG 

Error, scd yariis illudit partibus ; hoc te 

Crede modo insanum ; nihilo ut sapientior ille, 

Qui te deridet, oaudam trahat. Est genus unuia 

StultitisB nihilum metuenda timentis, ut ignes, 

Ut rupes, Buviosque in campo obstare queratur : 56 

Alterum et huic varum et nihilo sapientius, ignes 

Per medios fluviosque mentis ; clamet arnica 

Mater, honesta soror cum cognatis, pater, uxor : 

Hie fossa est ingem, hie rupes maxima, servaf 

Non magis audierit, quam Fufius ebrius olim, 60 

Quum Ilionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

Mater, te a/pydLo、 clamantibus. Huic ego vulgus 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

Insanit veteres status.3 Damasippus emendo : 

Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? esto. 

Accipe quod nunquam reddas mihi, si tibi dicam, 

Tune insanus eris, si acceperis ? an magis excors, 

Rejecta prscda, quam prsesens Mercurius fert ? 

Scribe decern a Nerio ; non est satis : adde CicuUe 

Nodosi tabulas centum ; mille adde catenas : 70 

Efiugiet tamen hsec scderatus vincula Proteus. 

Quum rapies in jus malis ridentem aliems, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo saxum, et, quum volet, arbc i 

Si male rem gerere insani, contra bene sani est, 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perilli, It 

Diotantis, quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 

Audire atque togam jubeo componere, quisquia 
Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore ; 
Quiequis luxuria tristique superstitione 
Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; hue propius me, 60 
Dum doceo insaniie oranes, vos ordine adite. 

I^anda esl eUeK>r'«- nulto pars maxima avaris ^ 



160 



a. HOIIATII FLACC1 



9 4 



Nescio au Anticyram ratio illis destinet oiimem 

Lleredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro : 

Ni sic fccissent, gladiator um dare centum 8ft 

Damnaii populo paria, atque epulum arbitrio Am. 

Frurncnti quantum metit Africa. Sive tgo prave t 

Sen rccte hoc volui, ne sis patruus mihi Credo 

Hoc Staberi pnidentem animum vidisse. Quid ergo 

Sensit, quum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 9C 

lleredes voluit ? Quoad vixit, credidit ingens 

Pauperiem vitiura, et cavit uihil acrius ; ut, si 

Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset, 

[pse videretur sibi nequior. Omnis enim res, 

Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque pulchris 9ft 

Divitiis parent ; quas qui construxei.it, ille 

Clarus erit, fortis, justus. Sapiensne ? Etiam, et rox, 

Et quidquid volet. Hoc, veluti virtu te paratum, 

Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 

Gisbcus Aristippus ? qui servos projicere aurum MIO 

In media jussit Libya, quia tardius irent 

Propter onus segnes. Uter est insanior horum ? 

Nil agit exemplum, litem quod lite resolvit. 

Si quis emat citharas, emtas comportet in unum 
Nec studio citharro nec Musse deditus ulli ; 106 
Si scalpra et form as non sutor ; nautioa vela 
A versus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 
Undique dicatur merito. Qui discrepat istis, 
Qui nummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 
Compositis, metuensque velut coAtingcre sacrum ? 110 
Si quis ad ingentera frumenti semper acervura 
rorrcctus vigilet cum longo faste, neque illinc 
Audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum, 
Ac potius foliis parcus vescatur amaris , 
Si positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 1 10 

Millc cadis, nihil est, tercentum millibus, acre 
Potet acetiun ; age, si et »tn mentis incubct ""一 



8. 



t3£KMONUM. 一 LIBER II. 



Qctoginta annos d'aUis, cui stragula vestis. 
Blattarura ac tinearam opulss. putrescat in area ; 
Nimirum iiisanus paucis videatur, eo quod 
! Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 

Filius aut etiam hasc libcrtus ut ebibat heres, 
Dia iriimico senex } custodis ? ne tibi dosit ? 
Quanlulum enim summsB curtabit quisque dicrurn, 
Ungere si caules oleo meliore, caputque V4k 
Coepcris impexa foBdum porrigine ? Quare, 
Si quid vis satis est, perjuras, surripis, aufers 
Undique ? tun sanus ? Populum si credere saxis 
Tncipias, servosve tuo quos sere paratis, 
Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellse : 130 
Quum laqueo uxorem interimis, matremque veneno, 
Incolumi capite es ? Quid enim ? Neque tu hoc facis A rgis } 
Nec ferro, ut demens genitricem occidit Orestes. 
An tu reris eum occisa iasanisse pareate, 
Ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis, quani 135 
In matris jugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum ? 
Quin, ex quo habitus male tutse mentis Orestes, 
Nil sane fecit, quod tu reprendere possis : 
Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem est 
Electram ; tantum maledicit utrique, vocando 140 
Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud, jussit quod splendida bilis. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Qui Veientanum festis potare diebus 
Campana solitus trulla, vappamque profestis, 
Quondam lethargo grandi est oppres&us, ut heres 14d 
Jam circum loculos et claves laetus ovansque 
rurreret. Hunc medicus multum celer atque fidel m 
Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni jubet, atque 
EfTundi saccos nummorum, accedere plures 
VI numerandum : hominem sic erigit ; addit et u!ud : 1^0 
Ni tua custodis, avidus jam hscc an fere t Jieres. 
Uen vivo ? 一 Ut vivas igitur, vi^ila : hoc ,ge : i^uid vi$ ,一 



U J OR ATI; FLACCi 



LA 



Deficient inopem vena) te, ni cibus atque 
lugenua accedit stc/macho fultura raenti. 
Tu cessas ? agedum, sume hoc ptisanariuni oryza».. \6t 
Qiianti emtxe ? ― Parvo. 一 Quanti ergo ? 一- Octuasihux.— 
EJieu ! 

Q*dd refcrt, morbo, an furtis percamque rapinis ? 
Quisnam igitur sanus ? 一 Qui non stultus. ~> Qu;1 ava 
rus ? 一 

Stultus et insanus. — Quid ? si quis non sit avarus, 

Continuo sanus ? 一 Minirae. — Cur, Stoice ? 一 Dicain J6C 

Nou est cardiacus, Craterum dixisse putato. 

Hie sBgor : recte est igitlir surgetque ? Negabit. 

Quod latus aut rencs morbo tentantur acuto. 

Non est perjurus neque sordid us ; iramolet acquis 

[lie porcum Laribus : verum ambitiosus et audax ; \bt 

Naviget Anticyrara. Quid enim differt, barathrone 

Dones quidquid habes, an nunquam utare paratis ? 

Scrvius Oppidius Canusi duo prsedia, dives 

Antiquo censu, gnalis divisse duobus 

Fertur, et haec moheris pueris dixisse vocatis 17 J 

Ad lectum : Postqiiam te talos, Aule t nucesque 

Ferre sinu laxo^ donare et ludere vidi, 

Te, Tiberi, nximerare, cams abscondere tnsteni ; 

Eztimuiy ne vos ageret vesania discors, 

Tu Nomentanum, tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 17fi 

Quare per Divos^oratus uterqtte Penates, 

Tu cave ne minuas, tu, ne majus facias id, 

Quod satis esse putat pater, et natura coercet. 

Pratei ea ne vos titillet ghria, jure- 

Jurando obstrmgam ambo : uter ^Edilis fuentve 18C 

Vestrum Prcetor t is intestabilis et sacer esto. 

[n cicere atque faba $ona tu perdasque lupims, 

Lutus ut in circo spatiere, et aeneus ut stes, 

Nadus agris t rmdus nummi^ insane, paternts ? 

Scilicet ut plausus, quos fert Agrippa, /eras tu t 1 8fi 

A \(uta ingenuum vidpes imitata Jeonem ? 



3.1 



SE^MUNUM. 一 LIBER II 



Ne quis humasse velit Aj acorn, Ati'ida, vetas cui l ― 
Ret sum. 一一 Nil ultra quaero plebeius. 一 JSt cequam 
Hem imperito ; at, si cui videor non justus、 inulto 
Dicere, quod sentit, permitto. ― Maxime regiim, 1 911 

Di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troja. 
Ergo consulere et mox respondere icebit ? ― 
Consule. 一 Cur Ajax, heros ab Acliille secundus, 
Putescit, toties servatia clarus Achivis ? 
Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque in^umato, 19fl 
Per quern tot juvenes patrio caruere sepulcro ? ― 
Mille ovium insanus morti dedit, inclytum TJlixen 
Et Menelaum una niecuai occidere damans. 一 
Tu quum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide natara 
An to aras, spirgisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 20C 
Rectum aninii servas ? Quorsum ? Insanus quid cnini 
Ajax 

Fecit, quum stravit ferro pecus ? Abstinuit vim 
Uxore et gnato : mala multa precatus Atridis, 
Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulixen.— 
Veram ego, ut hcerentes adverso litore naves 20b 
Eriperem, prudens placavi sanguine Divos. 一 
Nempe tuo, furiose. ― Meo t sed non furiosus. 一 
Qui species alias veris scelerisque tumultu 
Permixtas capiet, commotus habebitur ; atque 
Stultitiane erret, nihilum distant, an ira. 210 
Ajax quum immeritos occidit, desipit, agnos ; 
Quum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 
Stas animo ? et purura est vitio tibi, quum tumid um est, xn t 
Si quis leclica nitidam gestare amet agnain, 
Huic vestom, ut gnatse paret ancillas, paret aurum, 2\t 
Rufam aut Pusillam appellet, fortique marito 
Destinet uxorem : intevdioto huic omne adimat jus 
Praetor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 
Quid ? si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna, 
fnteger eat animi ? Ne dixeri& Ergo ibi panra 2SiU 

H 



i70 



a. HORATII FLAC, 1 



3 



Stultitia, hie summa est insania : qui scelcratui, 
£t ftiriosuB erit ; quern cepit vitrea fama, 
liunc circumtonuit gauderis Bellona crucntis. 

Nunc age, luxuriam et Nomentanum arripc iiiecuni 
V r incet cnim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. 226 
[lie simul nccepit patrimoni mille talcnta, 
Edicit, pidcator uti, pomarius, auceps, 
Unguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici, 
Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro orane macellum 
Mane domum veniant. Quid turn? Venere frequenteg. 230 
Verba facit leno : Quidquid mihi, quidquid et horum 
Cuique domi csf,, id credo tuum et vd nunc pete. vpJ cnu. 
Accipe, quid contra juvenis responderit aequu« • 
In nive Lucana dormis ocreatus, ut apmm 
Coenem ego ; tu pisccs hiberno ex ctquore veUis ; 2U5 
Segnis ego, indignus qui tantum possidctdm : attfer : 
Sunie tibi decies : tibi tantundem ; tibi triplex. 

Filius ^Esopi detract am ex aure Metellas, 
Scilicet ut decies solidum obsorberet, aceto 
Diluit insignem baccdm ; qui sanior, ac si 240 
Illud idem in rapidum flumen jaceretve cloacam ? 
Quinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum, 
Nequitia et nugis, pravorum et amore gemellum, 
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemtas. 
Quorsum abeant ? Sani ut creta, an carbone notandi ? 249 

iEdificare casas, plostello adjungere mures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si qucm delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 
Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare, 
Sec quidquam differre, utrumne in pulvere, tfimiu 250 

prius, ludas opuSv an meretricis amoro 
Sollicitus plores : quaero, faciasne quod olim 
! Vlutatus Polemon ? pona? insignia morbi, 
Fasciolas, cubital, focalia, potus ut iUe 
Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas 



3. J 



SERMuNUM. 一 LIDER II 



171 



PoBl^uam est impransi correptus voce magiBtri ? 

Porrigis irato puero quum poraa, recusat : 

Sume, Catelle : negat ; si -non des, optat. Araatnr 

Gxclusus qui distat, agit ubi secum, eat, an non, 

Quo rediturus erat non arcessitus et haeroi 

Invisis foribus ? Ne nunc, quum me vocat u: 力, 

Accedam ? an potius mediter Jinire dolores ? 

ExclusiL revocat : redeam ? Non, si obsecret. Ecoe 

Servus, non paullo sapientior : O here, qua res 

Nec modum habet neque consilium, ratione w/odoqut ^65 

Tractari non vult. In amove hcec sunt mala ; bdlum、 

Pax ?ursum. Hcec si quis tenvpestatis jrrope ritu 

Mdnlia t et cceca Jluitantia sorte t laboret 

Reddere certa sHd } nihilo plus explicet, ac si 

Tnsanire paret certa ratione modoque 270 

l^uid ? quum Picenis excerpens semina pomis 

Maudes, si camaram percusti forte, penes te es '! 

Quid ? quum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

iEdificante casas qui sanior ? Adde cruorem 

Stultitiae, atque ignem gladio scrutare modo, inquam. 27ft 

Uellade percussa, Marius quum praecipitat se, 

Cerritus fiiit ? an commotsB crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem, et sceleris damna/bis eundern, 

Ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus ? 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 260 
Lautis mane senex manibus currebat, et, Unum 
(Qaid tarn magnum ? addens), unum me surpite morti t 
Di$ etenim facile est, orabat ; sanus utrisque 
Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 
Exciperet dc-minus, quum venderet. Hoc quoque rulgus 28 11 
Chryeippus ponit fecunda in gente Meneni. 
Jupiter, ingentes qui das adimisque dolores, 
Mater ait pueri menses jam quinque cubantif, 
Frigida si picerum quartana rdiquerit, illo 
Mane die, quo tu iruiicisjejunia t nvdm S9C 



172 Q. 40RATII FLACCI \Z 

In Tiberi stahit Casus medicusve levarit 
£grum ex prrecipil , mater delira necabit 
In gelida fixum ripa. febrimque reducet. 
Quone malo mentem concussa ? timore Deorum, 

Haec mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, aniio# 2£t 
Arma dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 
Dixerit uisanum qui me, totidem audiet, atque 
Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. 

HORATIUS. 

Stoice ; post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris : 

Qua me stultitia, quoniam non est genus^unum, 90(1 

Insanire putas ? ego nam videor mihi sanus. 

Damasippus. 

Quid ? caput abscissum manibus quum portat A 篡 • 
Cnati infelicis, sibi turn furiosa videtur ? 

Horatius. 

Stnltum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 
Atque etiam insanum : tantum hoc edisser^ quo at 80fl 
^Bgrotare putes animi vitio ? 

Damasiffus. 

Accipo : primum 
JEdificas, hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo 
Ad summum totus moduli bipedalis ; et idem 
Corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis 
Spirit um et incessum : qui ridiculus minus illo ? 
An quodcunque facit Maecenas, te quoque verucq est 
Tantum dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 
Absentia ransB pullis vituli pede pressis, 
Unus ubi eliugit, matri denarrat, ut ingens 
Bellua cognatos eliserit. Ilia rogare, 
Quantane ? num tantum. siiffiane ae, magna AumK 




», 4. J 



SERH^NIJM. 一 LIBER II 



蘆 7» 



Major dimx lib. 一 Num tanto ? 一 Quum mag is atque 

Be magis inilaret ; Nbn f si te ruperis, in quit, 

Par eris. IIsbc a te »on multum abludit imago. 

Adoo poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino ; 329 

Qute si quis sanus fecit, sanus facis et tu. 

Sov dico hotrendam rabiem. 

HoRATros. 

Jam desino. 

Damasippus. 

Cullum 

tktbjorein censu. % 

IIoratids. 

Teneas, Damasippc. tuis te 
、 i major tandem parcas, insane, minori. 32S 



Satira IV. 

LEVES CAT1LLONES EPICUREiE SECT^S 

DEPwIDET. 

HORATIUS. 

Jude et quo Catius ? 

- Catius. 

Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere sigtia ftovis prseceptis, qualia vincant 
Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Flatona. 

Horatius. 

Peccatum fateor quum te sic tempore lsevo 
Interpellarim : sed des veniam bonus, oro. 
Quod a interciderit tibi nunc aliquid, repotes mox, 
Sive est natural hoc, sive artis, minis utroque. 



174 



a. HORATII FLACCt 



Catius. 

Quiii id erat cursB» quo pacto cuncta teneremj 
Utpote res tenues, tenui sermone peractas 

Horatius. 

Ede hoxainis uomen ; sirnul et, Romanus au hoepe 

Catius. 

ipsa, memor prcucepta canam, celabitur auctor. 

Longa qui bus facies ovis erit, ilia memento 
Ut succi melioris et ut magis alma rotundis 
Ponere ; namque marem cohibent callosa vitelluni 

Caule suburbano, qui siccis crevit in agris, 
Dulcior ; irriguo nihil est elutius horto. 

Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam musto mersare Falerno ; 
Hoc teneram faciei. 

Pratensibus optima fungit 
Natura est ; aliis male creditur 

Ille salubres 
^Estates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 
Finiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solera. 

Aulid'ms forti miscebat mclla Falerno, 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis committere venis 
Nil nisi lene decet ; lcni prsBcordia mulso 
Proliierift melius. 

Si dura morabitur alvus, 
Mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae, 
Kt [apathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo 
Lubrica nascentes implent conchylia lunsB ; 
8ed non omne mare est generosaB fertile teste. 
Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloids ; 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini ; 
I^clinibus patulis jaclat »c mollc Tarentuin 



M^UMONUM. 一 LIBEh 11 



Nec sibi ocenaram quivis temere arrogct irteui» 
Non prius ex?,ota tenui ratione saporum. 
Nec satis est cara pisces averrere mensa, 
Ignarum quibus est jus aptius, et quibus assi 秦 
lianguidus in cubitum jam se con viva reponet 

Umber et iJigna nutritus glande rotundas 
Curvet aper lances camera vitantis inertem ; 
Nam Laurens maius est, ulvis et arundine pinguiit. 
Vinea summittit caprcas non semper edules. 
FecundsB leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Piscibus atque avibus quee natura et foret aeta.^, 
Ante meum nulli patuit quassita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingeaium nova tantum crustula promit, 
Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam ; 
Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 
Quali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 

Massica si coelo suppones vina sereno, 
Nocturna, si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 
Et decedet odor nervis inimicus ; at ilia 
Integrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 
Surrentina vafer qui miscet fsece Falerna 
Vina, columbino limum bene colligit ovo, 
Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 
Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 
Post vinum stomacho ; perna magis ac magis h\Lia 
Flagitat immorsus refici : quin omnia malit, 
Quaecunquo immundis fervent ailata popinis. 

Est oporse pretium duplicis pernoscere juris 
Naturam. Simplex e dulci constat olivo, 
Quod pingui miscere mero muriaquo decebit. 
Non alia quam qua Byzanlia putuit orca. 
Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis, 
Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 
Pressii Venafrana? cuod bacca rcmisit olivse. 



lit 



U. HOfATIl FLAOOl 



rit/tmis (fedunt ^omis Tiburtia succo ; 
Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit oliie, 
Recti us Aibanam fumo duraveris uvam. 
Hanc ego cum malis, ego faecem primus et aiiec. 
Pi imus et invenior piper album, cum sale nigro 
fncretuui; puris circumposuisse catillis. 
Inimane est vitium dare millia terna macello, 
^ ngustoque vagos pisces urgcre catino. - 

Magna movet stomacho fastidia, seu puer nnctid 
Tractavit calicem manibus, dum furta liguvit, 
Sive gravis veteri crateras limus adheesit. 
Vilibas in scopis, in mappis, in ccobe, qwantua 
CcQsistit surntus ? neglectis, flagitium ingens. 
Ten lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 
Et Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 
Obi turn, quanto curam sumtumque minorem 
Hsdc habeant, tanto reprendi justius illis, 
Quob nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis 5 

Horatius. 

Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 
Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 
Nam quamvis memori referas mihi pectore comma: 
Non tamcn interpres tantundem juveris. Adde 
Vultum habitumque hominis ; quem tu vidisse beitua 
Non magni pendis, quia contigit ; at mihi cura 
Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos, 
Atquv haurire queam vitro praecepta beatse. 



Satira V. 

IN CAPTATORES ET HEREDIPETA3 

Ulysses. 

Hoc quoque, Tiresia, praeter narrata petenti 
B.c6ponde } quibus amissas reparare queaxin re« 
^rtibus atque modis Quid rides ? 



ft. I 



3ERM0NUM. 一 LIBER II 



TlRESUS. 

Jamne dolobu 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi, Batnosque penates 
Adtpicere ? 

Ulysses. 

O nulli quidquam mentite, vides ui 
Nadus inopsquo domum redeam, te vate, neque illio 
Aut apotheca procis intacta est, aut pecus. Atqui 
Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est. 

Tiresias. 

Quanao pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 
Accipe, qua ratioue queas ditescere. Turdus 
Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi, devolet illuc, 
Res ubi magna nitet, domino sene ; dulcia poms», 
£t quosounque feret cultus tibi fundus honores. 
Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives : 
Qui quamvis perjurus erit, sine gente, cruentus 
Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus ; ne tamen illi 
Pu comas exterior, si postulet, ire recuses. 

Ulysses. 

Ulno tegam spurco DamaB latus ? haud ita Trojat 
Me gessi, certans semper melioribus. 

Tiresias 

Ergo 

EUuiper eris. 

Ulysses. 

Fortem hoc animum tolerare jubebo \ 
Et quondam majora tuli. Tu protinus, unde 
Divitias sripque ruam, die* augiir, aoervoft. 

12 



1TO 



a. HORATII FLACC1 



16 



TlRESIAS. 

Hixi equidern et dico. Captes astutus ubique 

Testimenta senum, neu, si vafer unus et alter 

Cnsidiatorem praBroso fugerit hamo, 21 

Aut spcm deponas, aut artem illusus cmittas. 

Magna minorve foro si res certabitur cjiim, 

,ivet uter locuples sine gnatis, improbus, ultru 

Qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, illius esto 

Defensor : fama civem causaque priorem 30 

Speme, domi si gnatus erit fccundave conjux. 

Quinte, puta, aut Publi (gaudent praenomine raol'tai 

Auriculss) tibi me virtus ttca fecit amicum ; 

Jus anceps novi, causas defender e possum ; 

Eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi, quam te 3。 

Contemtum cassa nuce pauperet : hcec mea cura esi f 

Ne quid tu perdas, neu sisjocus. Ire domum atqun 

Pelliculam curare jube : fi cognitor ipse. 

Persta atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findct 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso 40 

Furius hibernas cana nive con^puet Alpes. 

Nonne vides, aliquis cubito stantem prope t^ngt ts 

Jnquiet, ut patiens, ut amicis aptus, ut acer ? 

Plures annabunt thunni, et cetaria crescent. 

Si cui prseterea validus male fUius in re 46 

Prseclara sublatus aletur ; ne manifestum 

Ccelibis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spera 

Arrcpc officiosus, ut et scribare secundus 

Heres, i.t, " quis casus puorum egerit Oreo, 

【a vacuum venias : perraro haec alea fallit. 

Qui test amentum tradet tibi cunque legend urn, 

Ahuuere et tabulas a te removere memento, 

Sic tamen ut liiuis rapias, quid prima secuudo 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne coheres, 

Veloci perourr^ ooulo. Plerumq ie recoctiw fiO 



SUKMONUM. 一 LIBER U 



17U 



Bcriba ex Quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 
Captatorquc dabit risus Nasica Corano 

Ulysses. 

Nuui furis ? an prudens ludis me obscuia cane ado } 

Tires 了 »s. 

Laertiade, quidquid dicam, aut erit aut non : 

Diviaare etenim magnus mihi donat Apollo. 69 

Ulysses. 

Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 

TlRESIAS. 

Tempore quo juvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto 

Demissum genus ^Inea, tellure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

Filia Nasicae, metuentis reddere soldum. 66 

Turn gener hoc faciet ; tabulas socero dabit atque 

[It legat orabit. Multum Nasica negatas 

A.ccipiet tandem, et tacitus leget, iuvenietque 

Nil sibi legatuin pneter plorare suisque. 

[llud ad hsc jubeo ; mulier si forte dolosa . 70 

Libcrtusve senem delinun temperet, illis 

Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut abeens. 

IVfe sene, quod dicam, factum est. Anus improba Thebi» 

Cx testamento sic est elata : cadaver 

(Jkctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit heres : t§ 

Scilicet elabi si posset mortua : credo, 

Quod nimium institerat viventi. Cautus adito, 

Neu desis opersB neve immoderatus abundes. 

Oifficilem et morosum ofiendes garrulus : ultro 

Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus ; atque 49 

Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti 

Obse4iiio grassare : raone. &i inorebuit aur^ 



160 



a. 1IORATII FLACC1 



Cautus uti velet carum caput : extrahe turba 

Oppositis huraeris : aurem substringe loquaci. 

Importunus amat laudari ? donee, Ohe jam ! 61 

Ad coelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urge, et 

Ciescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrem. 

Quum te servitio longo curaque levarit, 

Gt certuiu vigilans, Quartce esto partis Ulixes, 

Audieris, heres : Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 90 

Nmguam est ? unde mihi tarn fortem tamque fidelem ? 

Sparge subinde, et, si paulum potes illacriraare. Est 

Gandia prodentem vultum celare. Sepulcram 

Permissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstiue : funus 

Kgregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quis 9fi 

Forte coheredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 

Die, ex parte tua, seu fundi sive domus sit 

Emtor, gaudentem nurnmo te addicere. Sed mo 

FmperioBa trahit Proserpina : vive valeque. 



Satira VI. 

HORATII VOTUM. 

Hoc erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnus, 

Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquas fons, 

Et pauluin silvse super his foret. Auctius atque 

Di melius fecere : bene est : nil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria hssc mihi munera faxis. S 

6i neque majorem feci ratione mala rem, 

Nec sum facturus vitio culpa ve minorem ; 

8i veneror stultus nihil horum, O si angulusille 

Proximus accedatj qui nunc denormat agdlum ' 

O ii urvam argenti fors qua mihi momtret, ut illi, 1 

Thesauri invento qui mercenaHia agrum 

lUum ipsum tnercatus aravit, dives amico 

Wetvule ! Si, quod adost, gratum juvat, hac proce te opi 



SEEMONUM. 一 LIBER II 



18] 



Pingue pecus domino facias et cetera prater 

Tngenium ; utque soles, oustos raihi maxinlus adsis. !A 

Ergo ubi me in montes et in arcem ex Urbe removi 
(Quid prius illustrem Satiris Musaque pedes tri ?), 
Nec mala me ambitio perdit, nec plumbeus Auster 
Auotumnusque gravis, LibitinaB quxstus acerbae 

Matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, ^0 

Unde homines operum primos vitaeque labores 

Instituunt (sic Dis placitum), tu carminis esto 

Principiuni. Romas sponsorem me rapis. ― JEinr^ 

Ne prior officio quisquam respondeat, urge ! 

Bive Aquilo radit terras, seu bruma nivalem *4o 

Interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. 一 

Postmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locu'co, 

Luctandum in turba et facienda injuria tardis.— 

Quid tiM vis, insane ? et quam rem agis irwprobus ? urget 

Jratis precibus ; tu pulses omne quod obstat, 30 

Ad Mcecenatem memori si mente recurras. 一 

Hoc juvat et melli est ; non mentiar. At simul atras 

Ventum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 

Per caput et circa saliunt latus. Ante secundam • 

Roscitis orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal eras. 、 35 
•** >、 

re communi scribas magna atque nova te 、 、、 
Orabant hodie meminisses, Quinte, reverti. 
Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas sign a tabelli&. 
Dixeris, Experiar : Si vis, potes, addit et ins tat. 
Septimus octavo propior jani fugerit annus, 40 
Ex quo Maecenas ine coepit habere suorum 
In nuraero ; dumtaxat ad hoc, quem tollere rheda 
Vellet iter faciens et cui cot.credere nusras 
Hoc genus : Hora quota est ? Threx est Galiina Syro pai ? 
Matutina parum cautos jam frigora mordent : 45 
Et qusB rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 
Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 
biyidio noftcr. Ludo» spectavcrit una. 



90 



to 

罐 



182 U. HOBATll FLACCI \^ 

liuserit in rainpo ortunae filius ! omne^S 
、、、、Frigidu8 a llostris manat per compita rumor •• , 
Q\iicunque obvius est, me consulit : O bone, nam te 
Scire, Deoe quoni^m propius contingis, oportet, 
Num quid de Dacis audisti ? 一 Nil equidem. ~ Ut tu 
Semper eria derisor ! ― At omnes Di exagitent mc. 
Si quidquam. ~ Quid ? militibus promissa Triquetra 
Plrsedia Caesar, an est Itala telluro daturus ? 
Jurantem me scire nihil mirantur ut unum 
Scilicet egregii mortalem altique silenti. 
Perditur hsec inter misero lux, non sine votis • 
O rus, quando ego te adspiciam ? quandoque licebit, 
Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis 
Ducere sollicitsB jucunda oblivia vitas ? 
O quando faba Pythagorse cognata, simulque 
Uncta satis pingui poncntui oluscula lardo ? 
O noctes coenaeque Deum ! quibus ipse meique 
Ante larem proprium vescor, veraasque procaces 
Pasco libatis dapibus. Prout cuique libido est, 
Siccat inssquales calices con viva solutus 
Logibus" insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 
Pocula, seu modicis uvescit laBtius. Ergo 
Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 
Nec, male necne Lepos saltet ; sed, quod magis ad nos 
Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus : utruiune 
Divitiis homines, an sint virtute beati : 
Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos : 
Et qua) sit natura boni summumque qmd ejus. 
^ Cervius htec inter vicinus garrit aniles 、 
Ex re fabellas. Si quis nam laudat Arelli 
Sollicitaii ignarus opes, sic incipit : Olim 
Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur 
^.ocepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 
A^pei et attentus quoesi'tis, ut tamen arctum 
Solvere! hospitiis animum Quid multa 9 neque ilie 



70 



75 



8Q 



a] 



8ERM0NUM. 一一 LIBER 11 



Seposili ciceris nec longsB invidit avenss ; 
Aridum 3t ore fer«ns acinum semesaque lardi 8', 
Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia coBna 
Vincere tangentis male singula dentc superbo 
Quurn pater ipse domus, palea porrectus in horna, 
Esaet ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 
Tandem urbanus ad hunc : Quid te juvat, inquit, amice, 9(1 
Prawupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? 
Vis tu homines urbemque feris prsBponere silvis ? 
Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes ; terrestria quando 
Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 
Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga : quo, bone, circa, 9d 
Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus ; 
Vive memor, quam sis aevi brcvis. , Hasc ubi dicta 
Agrestem pepiilere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 
Ambo propositura peragunt iter, urbis aventes 
Mcenia nocturni subrepere. Jamque tenebal lOll 
Nox medium coeli spatium, quum ponit uterque 
In locuplete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 
Tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburuos, 
Multaque de magna superessent fercula ccena, 
Qusb procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistrii. 105 
£rgo ubi purpurea porrectum iu veste locavit^" 
Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospee, 
Continuatque dapes ; nec non verniliter ipsis • 
Fungitur officiis, piaelibans omne quod aiiert. 
Illc Cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 
Rebus agit lsotum convivam, quuin subito inger» 
Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 
Currsre per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 
Sscanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Moloasis 
Personuit canibus. Turn rusticus : HaTld mihi vita \& 
Est opus liac, ait, et valeas : me silva cavueque 
Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ©rvo. 



184 



a. U0RAT1I FLACin 



n 



Satira VII. 

LEPIDE SE IPSE CARPIT EX PERSONA SERV.' 
ET OSTENDIT, LIBERUM SOLUM ESSE 
riENTEM 

Davus. 

Jamdadum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicere servus 
Pauoa reformido. 

HoitATIUS. 

Davusne ? 

Davus. 

Ita. Davus, ainicum 
Mancipium domino, et frugi quod sit satis, koo egt, 
fit vitalo putes. 

HORATIUS. 

Age, libertate Decembri, 
Quando ita majores voluerunt, utere ; narra. A 

Davus. 

Pars honiinum vitiis gaudet constanter, et urget 

Propositum ; pars multa natat, modo recta capesserj^ 

Cnterdum pravis obnoxia. Saspe notatus 

Cum tribus anellis, modo lasva Priscus inani. 

Vixit insBqualis, clavum ut mutaret in horas ; 10 

i£dibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 

Aiundior exiret vix libertinus honeste : 

Jam mcBchus Roraae, jam mallet doctus Athems 

Vivere ; VertumniS, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis 

Scui'ra Volaneiius, postquam illi justa cheragra >5 

Cont ldit articulos, qui pro tolleret atque 

MitUrot in phimum talos, mercede diurna 



7.i 



8ERMONUM. 一- LIBER II. 



Conduct urn pavit : quanto oonstantior idem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser ac prior illo, 

Qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborai. 80 

HORA.TIU8. 

Non dices hodie, quorsum hssc tam putida tenduit, 

Davits. 

Ad te, inquam. 

Horatius. 

Quo pacto, peseiinie ? 

Davus. 

Laud&i 

Fortunam et mores antiquie plebis, et idem, 

Si quis ad ilia Deus subito te agat, usque recuses ; 

Aut quia non sentis, quod clamas, rectius esse, W 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et hseres, 

Ncquidquara cosno cupiens evellere plantam. 

RomaB rus optas, absentem rusticus Urbem 

Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 

Ad cQBnam, laudas securum olus ; ac, velut usquam 30 

Viactus eas, ita te felicem dicis amasque, 

Quod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Jusserit ad se 

MsBcenas serum sub lumina prima venire 

Convivam : Nemon oleum fert ocius ? ecquis 

Audit ? cum magno blateras clamore, fugisque. 34 

iVIulvius et Bcurrao tibi non referenda precali 

Discedunt. Etenim, fateor me, dixerit ille, 

Duci ventre levem, nasum nidore supinor, 

[nibecillus, iners ; si quid vis, adde, popino. 

Tu, quum sis quod ego, et fortassis nequior, ultrt 4d 

fnacctere velut melior ? verbisque decoris 



ISO 



a. HORATH FLACCI 



Obvolvas milium ? Quid, si me stultior ipso 

Quingenti ? emto drachmis deprenderis ? Aufei 

Mc vultu terrere ; manum stomachumquc teneto. 

Tune mihi dornimis, rerum imperiis hominumque 4t 

Tot tantisque minor, quem ter vindicta quaterque 

Iraposita haud unquam misera formidine privet ? 

AdJe super dictis, qucd non levius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est, qui servo paret, iti mos 

7eet3r ait, seu conservus ; tibi quid sum ego ? Nempe 6C 

Tu, mihi qui imperitas, aliis servis miser ; atque 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Quisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens, sibi qui imperiosus , 
Quem neque pauperies neque mors neque vincula terrent ; 
Respopsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 5c 
Fortis ; et in se ipso totus, teres atque rotundus, 
Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari, 
【n quem manca ruit semper Fortuna. Potesne 
Ex his ut proprium quid noscere ? 

Die age. Nod qiiig 
Urgct enim dominus menteir. non lenis, et acres 60 
Subjectat lasso stimulos, versatque negantem. 

Vel quura Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 
Qui peccas minus atque ego, quum Fulvi Kutubaequv 
Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror 
Proelia, rubrica picta aut carbone ; velut si (/a 
Re vera pugnent, feriant, vitentque moventes 
Anna viri ? Ncquam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 
Subtilis veterura judex et callidus audis. 
Nil ego, si ducor libo fumante : tibi ingens 
Virtus atque animus coBnis responsat opirais '! 70 
Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est : cur ? 
Tergo.plector enim ; qui tu impunitior ilia, 
Qasc parvo sumi nequeunt, obsonia captas ? 
Nempe inamarescunt epulaB sine fine petit», 
lUusique pedes vitiosura f^rre recusaut 75 



7,aj 



SERMONUM. 一 LIBER II 



Corpus. :\n hi 3 peccat, sub noctem qui puei uvam 
Furtiva mutat strigili ? qui prsedia vendit. 
Nil servile, giilse parens, habet ? Adde, quod idem 
INon horam tecum esse potes, non otia rocte 
Ponere ; teque ipsum vitas fugitivus et erro, 
Jain vino qussrcns, jam somno fallere curam : 
Frustra : nam comes atra premit sequiturque fuga<:ein 

Horatius. 

Unde mihi lapidcm ? 

華 Davus. 

Quorsum est opus ? 

Horatius. 

Unde sagitUul 

Davus. 

Ant insanit homo, aut versus facit. 

Moratius. 

Ocius hip^ to 
Ni rapis, accedes opera agro nona Sabino. 



Satira VIII. 

IN NASIDIENUM RUFUM CONVP iTOUEM 

VAPIDE GAPwRULUM. 

Horatius. 

Ut Nasidieni juvit to ccena beati ? 

Nam mihi convivain q iserenti dictus heri ill" 

De medio potaro die. 

Fundanius. 
Sic ut inihi uunquaui 

In vita fuerii melius. 



3d 



I8H 



a HOHAT1I FLACCI 



HORATIUS. 

Da, si grave non est, 
Quffi prima iratum ventrem placaverit esca. 

Fukdantos 
』 primis Lucanus aper : leni fuit Austro 
Captus, ut aiebat ccenas pater ; acria circum 
Rapula, lactucsB, radices, qualia lassum 
Pervellunt stomachum, siser, allec, fsecula Coa. 
His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 
Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 
Sublegit quodcunque jaceret inutile, quodque 
Posset coDnantes. ofiendere ; ut Attica virgo 
Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fuscus Hydaspes, 
Csecuba vina ferens, Alcon Chium maris expas 
Hie herus, Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falemum 
Te magis appositis delectat. habcraus utrumque. 

Horatihs. 

Divitias mis«ras ! Sed queis ccenantibus una, 
Funaani, puHhre fuerit tibi, nosse laborc 

Fundanius. 

Summus ego, et prope me Viscus Thurinus, et iiifra 
Si memini,Varius ; cum Servilio Balatrone 
Vibidius, quon Mseocnas adduxerat umbras. 
ISIomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius infra, 
Ridiculus totas simul obsorbere placentas. 
Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 
Indice monstraret digito : nam cetera turba, 
Nos, inquam, coBnamus aves, conchylia, piscea, 
Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 
Ut vel continuo patuit, quum passeris atque 
(iiguRtata mihi porrexcrat ilia rhombi. 



SERMONUM. 一 LIBER IT 



Post hoc me docuit, melimela rubere minorem 
Ad lunam delect a. Quid hoc intersit, ab ipso 
Audieris melius. Turn Vibidius Balatrom : 
Nos nisi damnose bibimus, moricmur inulti ; 
Et calices poscit majoreg. Vertere pallor 
Turn parochi faciem, nil sic metuentis ut acres 
Potore8, vol quod maledicunt liberius, vel 
Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 
Envertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 
Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus : imi 
Convivae lecti nihilura nocuere lagenis. 
Affertur squilias inter muraena natantes 
In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus, Hoc graviaa, lnquit, 
Capta est, dettrior post partum carnefutura. 
His mixtum jus est : oleo, quod prima Venafri 45 
Pressit cella ; garo de succis piscis Iben; 
Vino quinquenni verum citra mare nato t 
Dum coquitur (cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non 
Hoc magis ullum cdiud) ; pipere cdbo t non sine aceto % 
Quod Meth^mrusam vitio mutavcrit uvam. oO 
Eincas virides, inulas ego primus amaras 
Monstravi incoquere ; iUotos Curtillus erhinos, 
Ut melius muria、 quam testa marina remittat. 
Interea suspensa graves aulsea ruinas 
In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri S 暴 

Quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. 
Nos majus veriti, postquam nih'l esse pericli 
Sensimus, erigimur. Rufus posito capite, ut ei 
Filius immaturus obisset, flere. Quis esset 
Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 6i] 
ToUerct ? Heu, Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos 
Te Deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 
Elunianis ! Varius mappa compescere risum 
Vix potcrat. Balatro suspendens omnia nasc 
fftBC est condicio vivemli, aiebat, eoque 



190 Q. HOB AHI PLACCI SERMONUM. 一 I'IBF'B II (i 



Responsma Uio minquam est par fama labori. 

Tene t ut ego accipiar laute : torquerier omni 

SoUidtudine dtstrictum ? nt panis adustus, 

Ne male conditum jus apponatur ? ut omries 

Frcecincti recte pueri comtique ministrent ? 7€ 

Adde has prceterca casus } atdcea ruant si, 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus fra?igat agaso 

Scd convivaixyris, uti diccis, internum res 

Adversce nudare sclent, cdare secundce. 

Nasitlienus ad hsec : Tibi Di、 qtuecunque preceris Ti 

Cammoda dent ! ita vir bonus cs convivaque comu 

Et soleas poscit. Turn in lecto quoque videres 

Stridcre secreta divisos aure susurros. 

Horatius. 

Nullos his mallem ludos spcctasse ; eed il]a 
Kedde ( age, quae deinceps risisti. 

FUNDANIUS. 

Vibidius dum 

Quffirit de pueris, num sit quoque fracta lagena. 

Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, duinque 

liidetur fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo, 

Nasidiene, redis mutatsB frontis, ut arte 

Emendaturu8 fortunam ; deindo secuti Id 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 

Membra gruis, sparsi sale multo non sine farre, 

Pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albffi, 

Et leporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 

Quam si cum lumbis quis edit. Turn pectore adutto 90 

Vidimus et merulas poni, et sine clune palumbe^ ; 

Suaves res, si non causas narraret earuin et 

Naturas dominus quern nos sic fugimus ulti. 

Ut nihil omiiino gustaremus, velut illis 

Canidia afflasset pejor serpeutibus > Una 



♦ 

I 



Q H0RAT1I FLACCI 



EPISTOL J: 



I 



I 

J 



« H 



R A T I I FLA 



C C I 



E 



PISTOLARU 



M 



LIBER PRIMUS. 



Epistola I. 



AD MiECENATEM 



^4 a dict6 uihi, summa diccndc Camena, 
Speetatum & "is, et donatum jam rude, quaerin 
Msecenas, ite/um antiquo me includere ludo ? 
Nou eadem est setas, non mens Veianius, armia 
Herculis ad postern fixis, latet abditus agio, I 
Ne populum cxtrema toties exoret arena. 
Est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 
Solve senescentem mature sanus eguwn, ne 
Peccet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia ducat. 
Nuno itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono ; 10 
Quid veram atque decens euro et rogo, et omnis in boo mn > 
Coudo et compono, qu» 匪 depromere possim. 

Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter • 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri, 
Quo me cunque rapit tempestas, deferor hospes. 15 
Nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis, 
Virtutis veno custos rigidusque satelles ; 
Nunc in Aristippi furtim prscepta relabor, 
Et mihi res, non me rebus subjungere conor. 
Lenta dies ut opus debentibus , ut piger annua 90 
Papillis, qiios dura premit custodia matrum ; 



194 



U. UORATII FLACCI 



Sic mihi t&rda fluunt ingrataque terapora, qua) sgem 

Consiliumque niorantur agendi gnaviter id, quod 

/Eoue paaperibus prodeit, locupletibus seque, 

"Eque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit. 26 

Kcstat, ut his ego me ipse regam 6olerque o]ein »n(i8 : 
Non possis oculo quantum contendere Lynctras, 
Non tamcn idcirco contcmnas lippus inungi ; 
Nec, quia dcsperos invicti membra Glyconis, 
Nodosa corpus nolis prohibere cheragra. 30 
Est quadam piodire tenus, si non datur ultra. 
Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus ? 
Sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorera 
Pussis, et magnam morbi deponere partem. 
Laudis amore tumes ? sunt certa piacula, qusB te 3d 
Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello. 
Iayidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator ? 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit, 
Si modo culturse patientem commodet aurem. 

Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima 4(1 
Stultitia caruisse. Vides, quae maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum turpemque repulsam, 
Quanto devites animo capitisque labore. 
Impiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos, 
Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per igncs ; 45 
Ne cures ea, quae stulte miraris et optas, 
•Discere et audire et nicliori credere non vis ? 
Quis circura pagos et circum compita pugnax 
Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, 
Cui sit condicio dulcis sine pulvere palm» ? 5(1 
Vilius argentum est auro, virtu tibus aurum. 
O cives, cives, qucerenda pecunia primum est. 
Virtus post nummos. Hsbc Janus summus ab imc 
Prodocet ; hssc recinunt juvenes dictata senesque, 
ladyo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. (Ift 
Est animus tibi, sunt mores, ept lingua fldesque ; 



赢' I 



EPiSTOL ARUM. 一 LIBER 



Sed quadringentia sex septem millia desint : 
Plebs eris. At pueri ludentes, Rex eris t aiuat, 
Si rede fades. Hie murus aeneus esto, 
Nil ccnBcire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 60 
Roscia, die sodes, melior lex, an. puerorum est 
Na;nia, quae regnum recte facientibus offert, 
Et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis ? 
【wie tibi melius suadet, qui, rem facias ; rem, 
Si possis, recte ; si non, quocunque modo rem, 68 
Ut propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupi : 
An qui, fortunae te responsare superba3 
Liberum et erectum, praesens hortatur et aptat ? 
Quod si me populus Romanus forte roget, cur 
Non, ut porticibus, sic judiciis fruar isdem, 7C 
Nec sequar aut fugiara, quae diligit ipse vel odit ; 
Olim quod vulpes aegroto caut|i leoni 
Respondit, referara : Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia t nulla retrorsum 74 
Bellua multorura est capitum. Nam quid sequar ? a t t quern ? 
-Pars hominum gestit conducere publica ; sunt qu 
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 
Excipiantque senes, quos in vivaria mitt ant ; 
Multis occulto crescit res fenore. Verum 
JSsto aliis alios rebus studiisqqe teneri : 80 
lidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes ? 
NuUus in orbe sinus Baiis prceltccet amanis 
Si dixit dives, 】acus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 

Fecorit auspicium : Cras ferramenta Teanum 85 

Tolletis, fabri. Lectus genialis in aula est •• 

Nil ait esse prius, melius nil coelibe vita ; 

Si non est, jurat bene solis esse maritis. 

Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protoa nodo ? 

Quid pauper ? ride : mutat ccenacula, lector 90 

Balnea, tonsores ; conduct© navigio seqvie 

Nfauscat ac locuples, qnem ducit priva triremii 



96 a. HORAVIl FLACCI [ 1, 9 

Si caratus insequali tonsore capillos 
Occurro, rides : si forte subucula pexsB 
Trita Bubest tunicsB, vel si toga dissidet impar, * 91 

Sides. Quid ? mea quum pugnat sententia sccum ; 
Quod petiit, spernit ; repetit quod nuper omifdt ; 
^Sstuat et vitas disconvenit ordine toto ; 
Diroit, ffidificat, mutat quadrata rotundis : 
Insanire putas soleniiia me ? neque rides ? 1U0 
Nec medici credis nec curatoris egere • 
A. prsetore dati, rerum tutela mearum 
Quum sis, et prave sectum stomachehs ub unguem 
Oe te pendentis, te respicientis amici ? 

Ad Bummam, sapiens uno minor est Jove, dives, 1 OA 
Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum ; 
rnecipue sauus, nisi quum pituita molesta est. 



Epistola II. 

AD LOLLIUM. 

Trojani belli dcnptorem, maxime Lolli, 

Dum tu declamas Romse, Praeneste relegi ; 

Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid nmi, 

】,lanius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit 

Cur ita credidcrim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. i 

Fabula } qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Graecia Barbarise lento collisa duello, 
Stultoram regum et populorum continc.t sestiw. 
Antenor censet belli praecidere causam • 
Quod Paris, ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus, 10 
Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 
Inter Feliden festinat et inter Atriden : 
Elunc amor, ira quidem comniuniter urit utrumque 
Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 
Seditione, clolia* scelw atque libidine et ira In 
Uiacos intra muros p"catur et q^tra. 



3.J 



EPISTOLARUM. 一 I,】BEH 【 



Rursam, quid virtus et quid Bapientia possit 
Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen ; 
Qui, domitor Trojae, multorum providus urbes 
£t mores hominum inspexit, lanimque per equoi. 10 
Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversis rerum immersabilis undis. 
Siienum voces et Circae pocula nosii , 
QuaD si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset. 
Bub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excors ; 25 
Vixisset canis immundus, vel amicp luto bus. 
Nob numerus sunrns, et fruges consumere nati, 
Sponsi PenelopsB, nebulones Alcinoique, 
In cute curauda plus aequo operata juventus ; 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies, et 30 
Ad strepitum citharsB cessatum ducere curam. 

Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones : 
(Jt te ipsum serves, non expergisceris ? atqui 
Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus ; et ni 
Posces ante diem librum cum himine, si non &暴 
Intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis, 
Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 
Qusb laedunt oculum, festinas demere ; si quid 
Est animum, difiers curandi tempus in aiuiurn ? 
Dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet ; sapere aude, 
fncipe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 
Rusticus exspectat, dum defluat amnis ; at ille 
Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis ssvum. 

Quaeritur argentum, puerisque beata creandis 
Uxor, et incultsB pacantur vomere silvae : 晷^ 
Quod satis est cui contigit, hie nihil ampl:us optet 
Non domus et fundus, non eeris accrvus et auri 
Mgrotc domini deduxit corpore febres, 
Non animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 

oomportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. (SO 
Qui cupit aut metuit. juvat^illum sic domus el re^ 



IU8 



Q, H>KATIt FLACCI 



[2,9 



L t lippum picUB tabulae, fomenta podagrurn, 
Auriculas citharsB collecta sorde dolentes. 
Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis, accscit 

Sperne voluptates ; nocet emta dolore voluptas. V 
Semper avarus eget ; certura voto pete finera. 
Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis , 
[nVidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur ine, 
Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit ameiis, 60 
Dum poBiias odio per vim festinat inulto. * 
Ira furor brevis est ; animum rege ; qui, nisi paret, 
Imperat ; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 
Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 
Ire, viam qua monstret eques. Venaticus, ex quo " 
Tempore cervinara pellera latravit in aula, 
Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 
Pec tore verba, puer, nunc te melioribus oiler. 
Quo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 
Testa diu. Quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis 7d 
MTec tardum opperior nec praecedentibus insto. 



Epistola III. 
AD JULIUM FLORUM 
Juli Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro. • 
Thracane vos, Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus. 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 
An pingues AsiaB campi collesque morantur ? 6 
Quid studiosa cohors operura stnit ? Hoc qnoquo ciuo 
Quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? 
Bella «uis et paces longum difTundit in asvmn ? 
Quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in ora, 
Pindarici ibntis qui non expalluit haustus, ; 暴 

(TftBtidire lacus fit rivos a ,! sus ayortot ? 



3, 4.] 



EPrdTOLARUM. 一 L BER 



Ut valet ? ut meminit nostri ? fidibusne Latin is 

Thebanos aptare modos studet, auspice Musa ? 

An tragica desaevit et ampullatur in arte ? 

Quid mihi Celsus agit ? monitus raulturaque numeiuh ,應 

Privatas ut quaerat opes, et tangere vitet 

Scripta, Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo ; 

Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 

Grex avium plumas, moveat cornicula risum 

Fur ti vis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes ? 

Quae circumvulitas agilis thyma ? non tibi parvum 

Ingenium, non incultum est et turpiter hirtura. 

Seu lingaam causis acuis, seu civica jura 

Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen : 

Prima feres ederae victricis praeraia. Quod si 

Frigida curarura fomenta relinquere posses, 

Quo te caelestis sapientia duceret, ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi curaB, 

Quaiitae conveniat, Munatius ; an male sarta 

rxralla nequidquam coit et rescinditur ? At, vo« 

Seu calidus sanguis seu rerum inscitia vexat 

Indomila ceirvice feros, ubicunque locorum 

Vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere faBdus, 

Pascitur in vest rum reditum vot'va juvenca. 



E PISTOL A IV. 

AD ALBIUM TIBULLUM 

AiU, nostrorum sermonum candide judex, 
Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? 
Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat, 
A.n taciturn silvas inter reptare salubres, 
Curantem quidquid dignum sapicnte bonoque est ? 
N^oa iu corpus eras sine pectore. Di tibi formam t 



200 



a. HORATIl FLACC 



f4, & 



Di tiLi divitias Jederant, artemque fruendi. 

Quid voveat dulci nutricula majus alumno, 

Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui 

Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, \i 

Et in indus victus, non deficiente crumena } 

Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras. 

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 

Grata supcrveniet, quse non sperabitur, hora. 

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute visei, I 

Quum ridere voles Epicuri de grege porciun. 



Epistola V. 

AD TORQUATUM. 

Hi potes Archiacis conviva recumbere lectia, 

Nec modica CGenare times olus omne patella, 

Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 

Vina bibes iterum Tauro difiusa, palustres 

Inter Mintumas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. t 

Sin melius quid habes, arcesse, vel imperium fer. 

Jamdudum splendet focus, et tibi munda supellex 

Mitte leves spes, et certamina divitiarum, , 

Et Moschi causam. Cras nato Csesare festus 

Dat veniam somnumque dies ; impune licebit ! t 

iEstivam sermone benigno tendere noctem. 

Quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti ? 

Paicus ob hercdis curain nimiumque severus 

Assidet insano. Potare et spargere florcs 

Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. § 

Quid non ebrietas designat ? operta recludit, 

Spes jubot esse ratas, ad prcelia trudit inertem, 

Sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artes. 

Fecundi calices qucm non fecere disertum ? 

Contracta quern non in paupertate solutum ? ^ 

「co ego procurarc *i\ idoaeus imperor, et non 



&, b.J £ PISTOL ARUM. — LIBEt I. 

rnyitus, ne turpc toral, ne sordida mappa 
Corruget nares, ne non et cantliarus et laiix 
Ostendat tibi te, ne iidos inter amicos 
Sit, qui dicta foras elimiiiet, ut coeat par 
Jungaturque pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 
Et nisi coena prior potiorque puella Sabinum 
Detinet, assumam ; locus est et pluribus umbiis ; 
6ed nimis arcta premunt olidss convivia caprse. 
Tu, quntus esse vclis, rescribe ; et rebus omissia 
Atria servanteip "^ostico fidle clientem. 



Epistola VI. 
AD NUMICIUM. 

Nil adinlrari prope res est una, Numici, 
Solaque, qnso possit facere et servare beatum. 
Huno soleni, et Stellas, et decedentia certis 
Tompora momentis, sunt qui formidine nulla 
Imbuti spectent. Quid censes munera terra ? 
Quid maris extrcmos Arabas ditanlis et Indos ? 
Ludicra quid, plausus, et amici dona Quiritis ? 
Quo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore ? 
Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem, 
Quo cupiens pacto ; pavor est utrobique m( lestus, 
Lmprovisa siinul species exterret utrumque. 
Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem, 
Si, quidquid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 
Defixis oculis, animoque et corpore torpet ? 
Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui. 
UltTa quam satis est virtutem si petat ipdam 
I nunc, argentum et marmor vetus seraque et artes 
Suspice, cum gemmls Tyrios mirare colorcs ; 
Gaude, quod spectant oculi te millc loquentem ; 
Gnavus mane forum, et vespertinus pete tectum, 
Ne plus frumenti iotalibus emetat agris 

12 



102 



Q. HORATII FLACCI 



Mutus, et (indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus) 
HkC tibi sit potius, quam tu mirabilis illi. 
Quidquid sub terra est, in apricum proferct setaB ; 
Defodiet condetque nitentia. Quum bene no turn 2J 
Porticus Agripprn et via te conspexerit Appi, 
Iro tamen restat, Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 
QusBre fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere ? quis non ? 
Si virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 
loc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas, et 
Luoum ligna ? cave ne- portus occupet alter, 
Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas ; 
Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, porro et 
Tertia succedant, et quae pars quadret acervum 3d 
Scilicet uxorem cum dote, fidemque, et amicos, 
Et genus et formam regina Pecunia donat, 
Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque 
Mancipiis locuples eget asris Cappadocum rex : 
No fueris hie tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 
Si posset centum scensB praebere rogatus, 
Qui possum lot ? ait ; tamen et qucBram f et quot hdbebo 
Mittam. Post paulo scribit, sibi millia quinque 
Esse domi chlamydum ; partem, vel tolleret omues 
Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt, 4fi 
Et dominum fallunt, et prosunt furibus. Ergo 
Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 
Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittaa 

Si fortunatum species et gratia pnestat, 
Mei cemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevura 50 
Qui fodicet latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram 
Porriger3. Hie multura in Fabia valet, ille Veliaa ; 
Cui libet hie fasces dabit, eripietque cunde 
Cu: rolet importunus ebur ; F rater, Pater, adde; 
Ut euique est SBtas, ita quemque facetus adopt a. 6Q 

Si, bone qui coenat, Lene vivit, lucet eamus 



CPIST0L4.RUM. 一 LIBER k . 



Quo due it gula ; pisccmur, venemur, ut olira 
Gargilius, qui inane plagas, venabula, servos 
Diilertum transire foruiv populumque jubebat. 
Unus ut e multis populo spectante rcferret 
Emtum mulus aprura. Crudi tumidique laveiaur. 
Quid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 
Digni, remigium vitiosura Ithacensis Ulixci, 
Cui potior patria fuit interdict a voluptas. 

Si, Miranermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque 
Nil est jucundum, vivas in amore jocisque. 

Vive, vale ! Si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Candidu£ imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. 



Epistola VII. 
AD M^ECENATEM. 
Quinque dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum, 
Sextilem totum mendax desideror. Atqui 
Si me vivere vis, recteque videre valentem, 
Quam mihi das aegro, dabis segrotare tiraenti, 
Majcenas, veniam ; dum ficus prima calorque 
Designatorem decorat lictoribus atris, 
Dum pueris oranis pater et matercula pallet, 
Ofiiciosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 
Adducit febres ct test amenta resigiiat. 
Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 
Ad mare descendet vates tuus, et sibi parcet, 
Contractusque leget ; te, dulcis amice, reviset 
Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non, quo more piris vesci Calaber jubet hospes, 
Tu me fecisti locupletem. —— Vescere socles. 一 
Jam satis est. ― At tu quantumvis telle. 一 Bmigne 
Non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis. 一 
Tam tenea?' dono, quam si dimittar onustus. 一 
Ut iibet ; hoc j)orcu hodic cornedenda rdinguis, 



^04 



U. HOKa Til FLAOGI 



Prodigus et stultus donat, qu® spernit et odit : 2C 

Hasc seges ingratos tulit, et feret omnibus anms. 

Vir bouus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratiis, 

Nec tamen ignorat, quid distent asra lupinis. 

Dignum prsBstabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 

Quod si me noles usquam discedere, reddes 

Forte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos, 

Redd 68 dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et 

Inter vina fugam Cinane moerere proterv®. 

Forte per angustam tenuis vulpecula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti, pastaqun rursus JU 
Ire foras pleno tendebat corpore frustra. 
Cui mustela procul, Si vis, ait, effugere istinc, 
Macra cavum repetes arctum, quem macra subisti. 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno ; 
Nec somnum plebis laudo, satur altilium, nec 35 
Otia divitiis Arabum Uberrima muto. 
SeBpe verecundum laudasti ; Hexque Paterque 
Audisti coram, nec verbo parcius absens. 
Inspice, si possum donata reponere lsetus. 
Haui male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulixei • 40 
Non est aptus equis Ithace locus, ut neqv4t planvS 
Porrectus spatiis, nec multce prodigtis herbce •• 
Atride, magis apta tibi tua dona rdinquam. 
Farvura parva decent : mihi jam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentuin. 46 

Strenuus et fortis, causisque Philippus ageiKlis 
Clarus, ab ofHciis octavam circiter horam 
Dum redit, atque Foro nimium distare Carinas 
Jam grandi? natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 
Adrasum quondam vacua tonsoris in umbra, SO 
(Jliiltello proprios purgantem leniter ungues. 
Demetri (puer hie non IsBve jussa Philippi 
Accipiebat), abi, qucere et refer, unde domo, quit^ 
Cujus fortune, que sit patre quove jxUrono. 



1 



7.| EPISTOLARUM. 一 IIBER I 209 

【仁 redit, enarrat : Vulteium nomine Menam, 66 

PrsBoonem, tenui censu, sine crimine t notum ; 

Et properare loco et cessare, et quierere et uti, 

Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus, et lare certo, 

Et ludis, et, post decisa negotia, Campo. 

ScUari libel ex ipso, qtuecunqtce refers : die 60 

Ad ccenam vcmcU, Non sane credere Mena ; 

Mirari secum tacitus. Quid multa ? Benigne, 

P ^spondet. 一 Neget iUe mihi ? 一 Negat improbus t n U 

Negligit aut harret. "- Vulteium mane Philippufi 

Vilia yendentem tunicato scruta popello 66 

Occupat, et salvere jubet prior. IUe Philippo 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 

Quod non mane domum venisset ; denique, quod non 

Providisset eum. 一 Sic ignovisse putato 

Me tibi, si casnas hodie mecum. 一 Ut libel. 一 Ergo 70 

Post nonam venies ; nunc i, rem strenuvs auge. 

Ut ventum ad coenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus. 

Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hie, ubi srope 

Occultum via as decurrere piscis ad hamum, 

Mane cliens et jam certus conviva, jubetur 76 

Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. 

Impositus mannis arvum ccelumque Sabinum 

Non cessat laudare. Videt ridetque Philippus, 

Et sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique qusBrit, 

Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 80 

Promittit' persuadet, uti mercetur agellum. 

Mercatur. Ne te longis ambagibus ultra 

Quam satis est morer, ex nitido fit rusticus, atque 

ISulcos et vineta crepat mera, prsBparal ulmos, 

Immoritur studiis, et amore eenescit habendi. Sfi 

Verum ubi oves furto, morbo periere capella), 、 

Spem ir.antita seges, bos est enectus arando : 

Qflensus lamnis, media de nocte caballum 

\rripit, iratufique Philippi tendit ad mdm. 



U. HOU.^ I'll FLACCI 



「/• N 



Quern simul adspexit sea brum intonsumc ue Phil pjnib. 
Dunes, ait, Vultei, nimis attenttcsque vi'deris 
Esse mihi. 一 Pol、 me miserum, patrone, vocare &、 
Si velleSt inquit, verum mihi ponere nomen. 
Quod te 'per Genium deztramque Deosque Penates 
Obseao et obtestor, vitce me redde priori. 

Qui semel adspexit, quantum dimissa petitis 
Prsesteiit, mature redeat repetatque relicta. 
Mctiri sc quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est 

Epistola VIII. 

AD CELSUM ALBINOVANUM. 
Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano 
Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaeque Neronis. 

quaeret quid agam, die, multa et pulchra minantem, 
Vivere nec recte nec suaviter ; haud quia grando 
Contuderit vites, oleamve momorderit aestus, 
Nec quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris ; 
Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto 
Nil audire velim, nil discere, quod levet segnim ; 
Fidis offendar medicis, irascar amicis, 
Cur me funesto properent arcere veterao ; 
Qusb nocuere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam, 
Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam. 
Post haec, ut valcat, quo pacto rem gerat et se, 
Ut placeat Juveni, percontare, utque cohorti. 
Si dicet, Recte : primum gaudere, subinde 
Praccptum auriculis hoc instillare memento : 
\Jt ta fortunam, sic nos te. Celse, feiemus. 



Epistola IX. 

AD CLAUDIUM NERONEM 
6optimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus, 
Quanti mc facias ; nam qunm rogat et preoe cogit 
8cilic4>t ut tibi se laudare et tiadere coner 



H, 10. 1 EPISTOl^AKUM. 一 LIBER I. 20, 

Dignum monte domoque legentis honesta Neronis, 

Munere quum fungi propioris censet amici, A 

Quid possim videt ac novit pie valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi, cur excusatus abirem : 

Sed timui, mea ne finxisse minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis propriaB, mihi commodus uni 

Sic ego, majoris fugiens opprobria culpas, \ % 

Frontis ad urbanaB descendi prsmia. Quod si 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorem, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et fortem crede bonumque. 



E PISTOL A X. 

AD FUSCUM ARISTIUM. 

(Jrbis amatorem Fuscum salvere jubemus 

Ruris amatores, hac in re scilicet una 

Multum dissimiles, at cetera psene gemelli, 

Fraternis animis, quidquid negat alter, et alter ; 

Annuimus paritcr vetuli notique cclumbi. 9 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo ruris amcBni 

Rivos, et muico circumlita saxa, nemusque. 

Quid quseris ? vivo et regno, simul ista reliqu:, 

Qu(E vos ad coelum fertis rumore secundo ; 

Utque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuso ; id 

Pane egeo jam mellitis potiore placentis. 

Vivere naturaB si convenienter oporteyt, 
PonendsBque domo quserenda est area primum, 
Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 
Edt ubi plus tepeant hiemes ? ubi gratior aura 
Leniat et rabiem Canis, et momenta Leonis, 
Quun. semel accepit solem furibundus acutum ? 
Est ubi divellat soranos minus invida cura ? 
Deterius Libycis olet aut riitet herba lapillis ? 
Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, 
Quam qusB per pronum tropidat curi murmure rivuni ? 



208 



a. i ORATII FLACCI 



Nempe inter vanas nutritur silva columnar 
Laudaturque domus, longos qusB prospicit agrofl 
Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret, 
Et mala perrumpet fdrtim fastidia victrix. 

Non, qui Sidonio contendere cailidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accipiet damnum propiusvi medullis, 
Quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
^uem res plus nimio delectavere secundsB, 
MutatsB qaatient. Si quid mirabere, pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
Reges et regum vita praecurrere amicos. 

Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis 
Pellebat, donee minor in cert amine longo 
Imploravit opes hominis, frenumque recepit. 
Sed po8tquam victor violens discessit ab hosta, 
Non equitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 
Sic, qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominum vehet improbus, atque 
Serviet SBternum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet ; si minor, uret. 

Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi ; 
Nec me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura 
Cogere, quam satis est, ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat, aut servit, collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 

Hsbc tibi dictabam post fanum putre VacunaB. 
Excepto, quod non simul esses, cetera laeHus. 



Epistola XI. 

AD BULLATIUM. 
Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos ? 
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Crasi regia Sardie ? 
Smyrna quid, 3t Colophon ? majora minorave fiuna 



11, 12.1 EPISTOIMRUM. 一 LIP Eft I. tflM 

Cnnctaiie pr» Campo et Tiberino flumine sordeut ! 

An venit in votum Attalicis cx urbibus una ? 6 

An Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? 

Scis, Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 

Fidenis vicus : tamen illic vivere vellem, 

Oblitusque meorum, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptanum procul e terra spectare fiirentem ."0 

Bed neque, qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoqne 

Adspcnsiis, volet in caupona vivere ; nec, qui • 

Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat, 

Ut fortunatam plene prsestantia vilam. 

Nec, si te validus jactaverit Auster in alto, IA 

Idcirco navem trans ^gsBum mare vendas. 

Incolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra facit, quod 
Psenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 
Per brumam Tiberis, Sextiii mense caminus. 
Dum licet, ac vultum servat Fortuna benignum, 20 
Roms laudetur Samoa et Chios et Rhodos absens 
Tu, quamcunque Deus tibi fortuna verit horam, 
Grata sume manu, neu duleia differ in annum ; 
Ut, quocunque loco fueris, vixisse libenter 
Te dicas. Nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 25 
Non locus, efiiisi late maris arbiter, aufert : 
Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans marc ou itint 
Strenua nos excercet inertia ; navibus atque 
Quadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis, hie est 
Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit sequus. 3C 



Efistola XII. 
AD I C C I U M. 
Fruotibiis AgrippBB Svjulis, quos colligis, Icci, 
S recte frueris, non est ut copia maj n 
Ab Jove donan possit tibi. Tolle querelas ; 
Pauper enim sou est, cui reruni «*upi«tit ura. 



Ki a. I10RATII FLA ^Cl 12. ltt 

Si ventri hme si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil • 

Divitiaa potcrunt resiles addcre majus. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbia 

Vivis et urtica, sic vhes protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus FortunsB rivus inauret ; 

Vel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit, I C 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miraraur, si Democriti pccus edit agellos 
Cultaqua, dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 
Quum tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucn 
NL parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures ; 1 6 

^uas mare compescant causae, quid temperet annum, 
Stellae sponte sua, jussasne vagentur et erreut, 
Quid premat obscumm Lunae, quid proferat orbem 
Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors, 
f " Empedocles, an Stertinium deli ret acumen. 20 

、.• 

Verum, seu pisces, seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 
口 tere Pompeio Grospho, ct, si quid petet, ultro 
Defer : nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et ccquura. 
Vilis ami cor um est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamcn ignores, quo sit Romana loco red : 2J 
Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis • 
Armenius cecidit ; jus imperiumque Phrahates 
Csesaris accepit genibus minor ; aurea fruges 
f tali SB pleno defundit Copia comu. 



E pistol a XIII. 

AD VINIUM ASELLAM 

Ut proficiscenlem docui te saepe diuque, 

A.ugusto redd.';? signata volumina, Vini, 

Bi ralidus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 

Nb studio nostri pecces, odiumque libellis 

Sedulus importes, opera veheraente minister. 4 

Bi te for' mc-ar*. gravis urct sarcina charta), 



|.% \ i.\ EPI8T0i,ARU!Vf. 一 LIBEK I 

A.bjicito potiiu quam quo perferre ju t>eris 
Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque patera uir 
Cognomen vert as in risum, et fabula fias. 
Viribus uteris per clivos, flumina, lamao : 
Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 
Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 
Fasciculuni portes librorum, ut rusticus agnuiii, 
Ut "vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanaB, 
CJt cum pileolo soleas conviva tribulis. 
Neu vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 
Carmina, qusB possint oculos auresque morari 
CeBaris ; oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 
Vade, vale, cave ne titubes, mandataque frai^tus. 



Epistola XIV. 

AD VILLICUM SUUM. 

Villice sil varum et mihi me redden tis agelli, 
Quern tu fastidis, habitatum quinque focis, et 
Quinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patre» •• 
Certemus, spinas animone ego fortius a.u tu 
Evellas agro, et melior sit Horatius an res. 
Me quamvis Lamise pietas et cura moratur, 
Fratrem mosrentis, rapto de fratre dolentis 
Insolabiliter, tamen istuc mens animusque 
Fert, et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra. 
Rure ego vi vent em, tu dicis in urbe beatum : 
Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors. 
Stultus uterque lociini immeritum causa tur inique ; 
In culpa est animus qui se non efTugit unquam. 
Tm mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 、 
Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea villicus optas. 
Me constare mihi scis, et discedere tristem, 
Quandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam 
Non eadmn nuramur ; eo disconvenit inter 



2j2 



a. HORATII FLACC1 



[U, U 



Meque et te ; nam, quss deserta et inhospita tesqua 
Gredis, amoena vocat mecum qui sentit, et odit 20 
Qusb tu pulchra putas. 一 * 

Nunc, age, quid nostrum concentum dividat, audi. 
Quern tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli, 
Quern bibulurn liquidi media de luce Falerni, 
Ccena brovis juvat, et prope rivum somnus in herba ; 2M 
Nec lusiBsc pudet, sed non incidore ludum. 
Non istio obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat ; non odio obscuro morsuque venenat : 
ilident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 
Cum servis urbana diaria rodere mavis ? 3 疆 

Horum tu in numerum voto ruis. Invidet usum 
Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus, et horti. 
Optat ephippia bos, piger optat arare caballus. 
Quam scit uterque, libens, censebo, exerceat artem. 



Epistola XV. 
AD NUMONIUM VALAM 

Qu© sit hiems Velias, quod coslum, Vala, Salerni, 
Quorum hominum regio, et qualis via (nam mihi I aias 
Musa supervacuas Antonius, ot tamen illis 一 
Me facit in visum, gelida quurn perluor unda 
Per medium frigus. Sane myrteta relinqui, 6 
Dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 
Sulfura contemni vicus gemit, invidus aegris, 
Qui caput et stomach um supponere fontibus audent 
Clusinis, Gabiosque petunt et frigid a rura 
Mutandus locus est, et deversoria nota 1€ 
FrsBteragendus equus. Quo tendis ? non mihi ( 1 uma$ 
JEst iter aut Baias, laeva stomachosus habena 
Di^t eques ; sed equi frenato est auris in ore) ; 
Major utrum populum frumenti copia pascat : 
Collectosne bibant imbres, puteosne perennes I 



C5 9 IC/.J 



EP1STOLARUM.- ^1B£R J 



219 



Jugis aqun (nam vina nihil moroi iilius ore. 

Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique : 

Ad mare quum veni, generosum et lene requiro. 

Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 

In venas animumque meum, quod verba uiinistref 、 4ll 

Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros, 

Utia magis pisces et echinos sequora celent, 

Pinguis ut inde domum possim Phseaxque revert; . 

Scribero te nobis, tibi nos accredere par est. 

Maenius, ut rebus maternis atque poternis 36 
Fortiter absumtis urbanus ccepit haberi, 
8curra vagus, non qui certum prsssepe teneret, 
[mpransus non qui civem dignosceret hoste, 
Quaelibet in quemvis opprobha fingere bsbvus, 
Pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 30 
Quidquid qusesierat, ventri donabat avaro. 
Hie, ubi nequitiffi fautoribus et timidis nil 
Aut paulum abstulerat, patinas ccenabat omasi, 
Vilis et agniniB, tribus ursis quod satis esset. 
Nimirum hie ego sum : nam tuta et parvula laudo, 3d 
Quum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis ; 
Verum, ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem 
Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 
Coaspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis. 



Epistola XVI. 

AD QUINCTIUM. 

Ne peroonteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti 
Axvo pascat herum, an baccis opulentet olivap, 
l)oraisne, an pratis, an amicta vitibus ulmo 
Scribetur tibi forma kquaciter, et situs agn. 

Continui montcs ni dissocientur opaca ft 
V'alle ; 8cd ut veniens dextrum latus adspiciat Sol, 
[jflBVum decedfvis ctiri i fugientc vaporet 



214 



a. HOIlATil FLACCI 



1 16 



Temperiera laudes. Quid, si rubicunda benigni 

Corna vepros ct prima ferant ? si quercus et ilex 

Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvet umbra ? If 

Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 

Fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nec 

Frigidior Thracam nec purior ambiat Hebrus, 

Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo 

Hsb latebrsB dulces, etiam, si credis, amoensB, 】& 
Tncolumem tibi me praBstant Septembribus horis. 

Tu recte vivis, si curas esse quod audis. 
Jactamus jampridem omnis te Roma beatum , 
Sed vereor, ne cui de te plus, quam tibi credas, 
Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum ; 20 
Neu, si te populus sanum recteque valentem 
Dictitet, occultam febrem sub tempus edendi 
Dissimules, donee manibus tremor incidat unctiB. 
t Stultorum incurata pudor malus uicera ce】&t. • 

quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 26 
Dicat, et liis verbis vacuas permulceat aures : 
Tene magis salvum populus vdit, an poptdum tu, 
Servet in amhiguo, qui cousulit et tibi et urhi, 
Jupiter ; Augusti laudes agnoscere possis. 
Quum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 3(? 
Respondesne tuo, die sodes, nomine ? ― Nempe // 
^ Vir bonus et prudens did detector ego ac tu. 
Qui dedit hoc hodie, eras, si volet, auferet ; ut si 
Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 
Pone, meum est, inquit ; pono, tristisque recedo 3^ 
Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 
Contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum ; 
Mordear opprobriis falsis, mutemque colores ? 
Falsus honor juvat et mendax infamia tenet 
Quern, nisi mendosum et medicandum ? Vir bomu est 
quis ? 一 4C 
Qui constdta patrum t qui leges juraque servat, 



1(5. J 



EPISTOLilRUM. 一一 LIBER I 



21^ 



Quo midtct magnatque secantur judice lites. 

Quo res sponsore, et quo causa teste tenentur. 一 

Sod videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 

lutrorsus turpem, speciosum pelle decora. ,fl 

Nec furtum feci, nec fugi, si mihi dicat 
Servus : Hades pretium, loris rum ureris, aio. 一 
Non hominem occidi. 一 Non pasces in cruce corios. ' — 
Sum bonus et frugi. ― Renuit negitatque Sabcllus. 
Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterquo 50 
Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hamum. 
Oderunt pcccare boni virtutis amore ; 
Tu nihil admittes in te formidine poensB. 
Sit spes iallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. *V 
Nam de mille fabsB modiis quum surripis unum. 
^ Damnum est, non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 

Vir bonus, omne forum quern spectat et omne tribuui), 
Qu&ndocunque Deos vel porco vel bove placat, 
Jane pater, clare, clare quum dixit, Apollo, 
Labra movet metuens audiri : Pidchra Lavema、 90 
Da mihi fallere, dajusto sanctoque videri ; 
\Noct-em peccatis, et fraudibus objice nubem. 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus, 
In triviis fixum quum se demittit ob assem, 
Non video. Nam qui cupiet, raetuet quoque ; porro, 6A 
Qui metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit unquam. 
Perdidit arraa, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 
Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 
Vendere quum possis captivura, occidere noli ; 
Serviet utiliter ; sine pascat durus aretque ; 70 
Vaviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis ; 
Annonse prosit ; portet frar.ienta penusque. 

Vir bonus ct sapiens audebit dicere : Pentheu, 
Rector Tbebarum^ quid me perferre patique 
[ndtgnum coges ? 一 Adimam bona. 一 Nemjpe pecm、 re?t, It 
Cectos, argentum ? tollas licet. —Tn tnanicis et 



"6 a. HOBATII PLACCI ■ ,A> 1, 

d 鶴 pedihts scevo te sub custode ttnAo 一 

Ipse Deus t simtd atque vdam、 me solvct. 一 Opinor, 

Hoc seatit : Moriar : mors ultima linea reniui eit 



Epistola XVII. 
AD S C V A M. 

Quamvis, Scasva, satis per te tibi consulis, et scin 

Quo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti, 

Disce, docendus adhuc queB censet amiculus ; ut a 

CsecuB iter monstrare volit : tamen aspice, si quid 

Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. | 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horatr. 
Uelectat, si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 
Si lscdit caupona, Ferentinum ire jubebo : 
Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia sohs, 
Nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit tf 
Si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum 
Te tract are voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 

Si pranderet olus patienter, regilrus uti, 
Ndlet Aristippus. 一 Si sciret regibus uti 
Fastidiret olus, qui me notat. ~ Utrius horum ifi 
Verba probes et facta, doce ; vel junior ami" 
Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. Namque 
Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 
Scurror ego ipse mihi, poptdo tu : rectius hoc et 
SpUmdidim multo est. JEqutis ut me portet, alat fee. M 
Officium facio : tu poscis vilia rerum, 
Dante minor, quamvis fers te nzdlius egentem. 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 
Tentanteni majora, fere praesentibus SBquum. 
Contra, quern duplici panno patientia velat, fM 
Mirabor, vit» via si conversa decebit. 
Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 
Qoidlibet indutus celehcrrima per loca vadet 



il . /8.] EPISTOLARUM. 一 IIBE£ :. 217 

Perse naraque feret non incoucinnus utramque : 

Alter Mileti textam cane pejus et angui HQ 

Vitabit ^llamydem ; morietur frigore, si non 

Rettuloris pannum : refer, et sine vivat incptus 

Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes 
Attingit solium Jovis ct coeleetia ten tat •• 
Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 3^ 
Non cuivis homini contiugit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit, qui timuit tie 11011 succederet : esto. 
Quid ? qui pervenit, feci trie viriliter ? Atqui 
Hie est aut nusquam, quod qu?erimus. I lie onus htirret, 
Ut parvis animis et parvo corporo majus ; 40 
Hie subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 
Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens v;r. 

Coram rege suo de paupcrtate taccntes 
Plus poscentc ferent. Distat, sumasne pudenter 
A.n rapias : atqui rorurn caput hoc crat, hie fona. 4%) 
Indotata mihi rx>rar est, paupercula inater. 
Ei fundus nec vendibilis nec pascere firmus y 
Qai dicit, clamat : Victum date. Succinit alter : 
Et mihi dividuo findetur munere quadra. 
Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, habcret 00 
Phis dapis ot rixac multo minus invidiseque. 



Etistola XVIII. 

AD L O L L I U M. 

Si bene to novi, metues, liberrirae Lolli, 
^currantis speciem prajbere, professus amicum. 

Est huic tliversum vitio vitium prope majus, 
A^peritas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque, 
Quse se commendat tonsa cute, dentibus atris, 
Dura vult libertas dici mera, veraque virtus. 
Virtus est medium vitioium, et utrinque rcductum. 
Alter in obsequiiim plus ajquo pre. .us, et imi 

K 



218 



Q. HORATII FLACCID 



[18. 



Dcrisor lecti, sic nutum divitis liorret, 

Sic Herat voces, et verba cadentiu toll it, 10 

Ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro 

Redd ere, vel partes mimum tractare sccundas : 

Alter rixatur de lana saepc caprina, ct 

Propugnat nugis armatus : Scilicet, ut non 

Sit mihi prima fides, et vere quod placet ut non 15 

Acritcr elatrem ? Prethim atas altera sordet. 

Arabigitur quid enim ? Castor sciat an Dolichos plus; 

Brundisium Minuci melius via ducat, an Appi. • 

Gloria quera supra vires et vestit et ungit, 
Quern tenet argent i sit is importuna famcsque, 20 
Quem paupertalis pudor ct fitga, dives amicus, 
Saepe decern vitiis instructior, odit et lionet : 
Aut, si non odit, regit 、 ac, veluti pia nrnter, 
Plus quam se sapere ct virtutibus esse priorem 
Vult, et ait prope vera : Mece (contendere noli) 25 
Stultitiam patiuntur opes ; tibiparvula res est : 
Arcta decet sanum comiiem toga ; desine mecum 
Cei tare. Eutrapelus, cuicunque nocere volcbat, 
Vestimenta dabat pretiosa ; beat us enim jam 
Cum pulchris tunicis sumct nova consilia et spea. 30 

Arcanum neque tu sci'utabei is illius unquam, 
Commissumque tegep, et vino tortus et ira. 
Nec tua laudabis studia, aut aliena reprendes ; 
Nec, quum venari volet ille, poemata panges. 
Gratia sic fratrum geminorum. Ampliionis at que 35 
Zcthi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo 
Conticuit lyra. Fratemis cessisse putatin* 
Mori bus Amphion : tu cede potentis amici 
Lenibus imperiis ; quotiesque educe t in agros 
^Etolis onerata plagis jumenta canesque, 40 
Surge, et inliumnnse senium depone Camense, 
Coenes ut pariter pulmenta laboiibus emta ; , 
Komanis solennc viiis opus, utile famae, 



18. 1 EP1ST ^LAAUM. ― LIBER I. 219 

V r itajquc et membris ; prajsertim quum vaieas m 

Vel cursu superare caiiem vel viribus aprum •々 

Possis : adde, virilia quod speciosius arma 

Won est qui tractet (scis, quo clamore coroiuc 

Praelia sustineas campestria) ; denique saevam 

Militiam puer et Cantabrica bella tuiisti 

Sub duce, qui templis Parthorurn sign a refigit SO 

Nunc, et si quid abest, Italis adjudicat armis. 

Ac (ne te retrahas, et inexcusabilis absis), 

Quaravis nil extra numerum fecisse modumquo 

Curas, interdum nugaris rure paterno : 

Partitur lintres excrcitus ; Actia pugna dA 

Te duce per pueros hostili more refertur ; 

Adversarius est frater • lacus Hadria ; donoc 

Alterutrurn velox Victoria fronde coronet 

Consentire suis studiis qui crediderit te, 

Fautor utroque tuum laudabit pollice ludum. 60 

Protinus ut moneam (si quid monitoris egen tu) 
Quid, de quoque viro, et cui dicas, sespe vide to. 
Percontatorem fugito, nam garrulus idem est ; 
Nec retinent patulae commissa fideliter aures ; 
Et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum. bb 

Qualem commerides, etiam atque etiani ad spice , zm inos 
Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. 
Fallimur, et quondam non dignum tradimus ; ergo 
Quern sua culpa premet, deceptus omitte tue^'i ; 
At penitus notum, si tentent crimina, serves, 70 
Tuterisque tuo fidentem praesidio : qui 
Dente Theonino quum circumroditur, ecquid 
Ad te post paulo ventura pericula sentis ? 
Na【n tua res agitur, paries quum proximus ardet. 
ILt neglect a solent incendia surnere vires. 7d 

Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici, 
Expcrtus metuit. Tu, dum tua navia in alto 
Ifoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura. 



220 



a. HORATH FLACC1 



118, id 



Oderunt hilarem tristes, tristemque jooosi, 

Sedatum celeres, agilem gnavuraque reiniafei, 

Potores bibuli media do nocte Falerni 

Oderunt porrecta negantem ptcula, quamvig 

Nocturnos jures te formidare vapores. 

Dome supercilio nubem : plerumque modest us 

Occupat obscuri speciem, taciturnus acerbi. 86 

Inter cuncta leges et percontabere doctos, 
Qua ratione queas traducere leniter aevum, 
Ne te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido, 
Ne pavor, et rerum mediocriter utilium spes ; 
Virtutem doctrina paret, naturane donet ; 90 
Quid minuat curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum , 
Quid pure tranquillet, honos, an dulce lucellum. 
An secretum iter, et fallcntis semi t a vitai. 

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 
Quern Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore pagus, IK, 
Quid sentire putas ? quid credis, amice, precari ? 
Sit mihi, quod nunc est ; etiam minus : et mihi invat 
Quod mperest cevi, si quid mperesse volunt Di : 
Sit bona librorum et pfovisce frugis in annum 
Copia ; neu fluitem dubice spe perululus horce. 100 
Sed safis est ware Joveni, qua donat et aufert : 
Det vitam, dct opes ; cequwm mi animum ipse par.ido 

EnsTOLA XIX. 

AD JVLECENATEM 
Prisoo si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 
N:illa placere diu nee vivere carmitia possunt, 
Quae scribuntur aquiB potoribus. Ut male sanos , 
Adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas, 
Vina fere dulcea oluerunt mane Camenac. t> 
Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Horaerus ; 
Enmus ipse pater ounquam nisi potus ad arma 
Prosiluit dicenda Famm putealque Libanis 



EPJSTOLARUM. ― LIBER 



Mandabo siotis, adimam caniare sever". 
Hoc simul edixi, non cessave^e poetae 
Nocturno certare mero, puter ) diurno. 

Quid ? si quis vultu torvo i*3rus, et pede uiu\t: 
Kxiguaque toga, simuletque ex ore Catoc icin, 
Virtatemnc repri»sontet moresque Catonis ? 
Rupit Iarbitam Tiniagenis aemula lingua, 
Oum studet urban us, tenditque disertu* habe.i. 
Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile : quod si 
Pallerem casu, biberent exsangue cumin urn. 
O iniitatores, servum pecus, ut mibi sa3po 
Bilem, saepe jocum vestri move re tumultus ! 
Libera pet vacuum posui vestigia princeps ; 
Non alien: meo pressi pede. Qui sibi fidit, 
Dux regit cxamen. Parios ego primus iambos 
Ostendi Latio, numeros animosquo secutus 
Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 
Ac, ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes, 
Quod timui mutare modos et carminis artem : 
Temperat Archilochi musam pede mascula Sapplio, 
Temperat Alcseus ; sed rebus et ordine dispar, 
Nec socerum quaerit, quern versibus oblinat atris, 
Nec sponsa) laqueum famoso carmine nectit. 
Huiic ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinun 
Vulgavi fidicen : juvat immeraorata ferenteii', 
Ingenuis oculisque legi manib usque teneri. 

Scire velis, mea cur ingratus opuscula lecto. 
Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniu \ is 
Non ego ventosae plcbis suiTragia venor 
Impcnsis voenarum et tritae raunere vestib ; 
Non ego, nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor, 
Giammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita digrior : 
tlinc illaj lacrimas ! Spissis iiidigna theatris 
Scripta pudet recitare, et nugis addere ponclns, 
Si dixi : Rides, ait, et Jovis auribvs ista 
Servos ; fidis enim manare poetica mella 



22^ Q. HOB ATI! FLACCI EPISTOLARUM. ― LIB. 【《 [19,20 

Tc solum, tibi pulcher. Ad haec ego naribu£ uti 4fl 
Formido ; et, luctantis acuto ne secer I'ngui, 
Displicet iste locus, olamo, et diludia posco. 
Ludus enim gcnuit trepidum certamen et iram, 
Ira truces inimicitias et funebre Wllum. 



E PISTOLA XX. 

AD LIBRUM SUUM. 
ij^ertumnum Janumqi:?, liber, spectare videris ; 
Scilicet ut prostes Sosiorum pumice mundus. 
Odisti claves, et grata sigilla pudico ; 
Paucis ostendi geinis, et communia laudas ; 
Non ita nutritus ! Fuge, quo descendcre gestis • 
Non erit emisso reditus tibi. Quid miser egi ? 
Quid volui ? dices, ubi quis te lajserit ; et scis 
In breve te cogi, plenus quum languet amator. 
Quod si non odio peccantis desipit augur,- 
Gar us eris RomaB, donee te deserat ajtas. 10 
Contrectatus ubi manibus sordescere vulgi 
Cceperis, aut tineas pasccs taciturnus inertes, 
A.ut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. 
Liidebit monitor non exauditus ; ut ille, 
Qui male parentem in rupes protrusit asellum |fi 
Iratus : quis enim invitum scrvare labdret ? 
Hue quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa doceuteil 
Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 
Quum tibi sol tepidus plures admoverit aures. 
Me libertino natum patre, et in tenui re «V 
Majores pennas nido extendisse loqueris ; 
Ut, quantum generi demas, virtutibus atldae. 
Me primis Urbis belli placuisse domique ; 
Corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptura, 
Irasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 21 
Forte meum si quis te percontabitur aenira, 
Me quater uudonos sci;it irnplevisse Dccembres 
GoUegam Lepidura quo duxit Lollius unuu 



Q H K A T I I F L A U C i 

LIHER SECUNDU8. 



Epistola I. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quum tot sustincas et taut a negotia solus, 
Res It alas armis tuteris, moriLus orne3, 
Legibus emendes, in publica commoda peccera, 
Si longo sermone morer tua tempora, Caesar. 
Romulus, et Liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, 
Post ingentia facta Deorum in templa recepti, 
Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera VeiiA 
Componunt, agros assignant, oppida conduiit, 
Ploravere suis non respondere favorem 
Speratum mentis. Diram qui contudit hydram, 
Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 
Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 
Urit enim fulgore suo, qui prasgravat artes 
Infra se pogitas ; exstinctus amabitur idem. 
Praesenli libi maturos laTgimur honores, 
Jurandasque tuum per numen ponimus aras, 
Nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale fatentes. 

Sed tuus hie populus, sapiens et Justus in iuio^ 
Te nostris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 
Cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque 
£stimat, et, nisi quae terris semota suisque 
^'ernjwribus defuncta videt fastidit et odit ; 



224 



«l. I10RATII FI AtVI 



Sie iau .or veterum, ut tabulas pec care vetant^i, 

Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, fcedera regura 

Vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabiiiis, 25 

Pontificum libros, anuoga vulumina vatum, 

Dictitet Albano Musas in monte locutas. 

Si, quia Graiorum sunt antiquissima quseque 
Scripta vel optima, Romaui pensantur eadem 
Scriptorcs trutina, non est quod multa loquamur •• 30 
Nil intra est olearn, nil extra est in nuce duri. 
V enirnus ad summum fortunas : pingimus atque 
Psallimus, et luctamur Achivis doctius unctis. 

Si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit. 
Scire velim, chartis prctium quotus arro^et anuus. 3ft 
Scriptor, abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter 
Perfectos veteresque referri debet ? an inter 
Viles atque novos ? excludat jurgia finis. ― 
Est vetus atque probus, centum qui perjicit antv^s. - 
Quid ? qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno, 40 
【uter quos referendus erit ? veteresne poetas ? 
An quos et prsesens et postera respuat actas ? 一. 
hte quidem veteres inter jxmetur honeste. 
Qui vd mense brevi vel toto est junior anno. 一 
Utor permisso, caudaeque pilos ut cquinae, 4fl 
Paulatim vello, et demo unum, demo et item unum, 
Dum cadat clusus ratione mentis acervi, 
Qui redit in fastos, et virtutem cpstimat annis, 
Miraturque nihil, nisi quod Libitina sacravit. 

Ennius, ct sapiens et fortis, et alter Homerus, 50 
Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur, 
Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. 
N®vius in manibus non est, et mentibus haeret 
Paine recens ? adeo sanctum est vetus omne poeran. 
Ambigitur quoties liter utro sit prior, auiert 6i 
Pacuvius docti famam senis, Attius alti ; 
Dicitur Afrani toga convenissc Menandro . 



Li 



EP :STOLARUftl. — LIBEh II. 



29S 



Plautus ad exemplar Siculi propcrare Epicharnii ; 
Vincere Csecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 
Hos ediscitj et hos arcto stipata theatro 66 
Spectat Roma potens ; habet hos numeratque poi;ta 邐 
Ad nostrum teinpus Livi scriptoris ab sevo. 

Intenlum vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peccat. 
Si voteres ita miratur 】audatque poetas, 
(Jt nihil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat : 65 
Si qusBdam nimis antique, si pleraque dure 
Dicere ccdit eos, ignave muita fatetur, 
Et sapit, et mecum facit, et Jove judicat apquc. 

Non equidem insector delendave carmina Livi 
Esee reor, memini quae plagosum mihi parvo "0 
Orbilium dictare ; sed emendata videri 
Pulchraque et exactis minimum distantia miror. 
Inter quae verbum emicuit si forte decorum, 
Si versus paulo concinnior unus et alter, 
injusto to turn ducit venditque poema. 7fi 
Indignor quidquam reprehendi, non quia crasse 
Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 
Nec veniam antiquis, sed honorem et prsbmia posci. 
Rccte necne crocum floresque perambulet Attse 
Fabula si dubitern, clarnent periisse pudorem BO 
Cuncti paene patres, ea quum reprehendere coner, 
Qua) gravis yEsopus, quae doctus Roscius egit : 
Vel quia nil Tectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducunt ; 
V^el quia turpe put ant parere minoribus, et, quao 
Imberbes didicere, senes perdenda fateri. 
Jam Saliare Numaj carmen qui laudat, et illud, 
Quod mecum ignorat, solus vult scire videri, 
Ingeniis non ille fa vet plauditque scpultis, 
Nostra sed impugn at, nos nostraque lividus odit. 
Quod si tam Graiis no vitas invisa fuisset, 90 
Quam nobis, q"ul nunc esset vetus ? aut quid habere^ 
Qur¥l lege^ct tereretque viritirr puhlicus usug? 

K 2 



»2d 



Q. HORAT.I FLACC 



Ut primuu positis nugari Graecia bellis 
CcBpit, et in vitium fortuna labier aequa. 
Nunc athletai um studiis, nunc arsit equorow, ^ 
M armoris aut eborif fabros aut eeris amavi* 
Snspcndit picta vultura mentemque tabella, 
Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa traga?(iis ; 
Sub nu trice puella velut si luderet infans, 
Quod cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. IOC 
Quid placet aut odio est, quod non mutabile crwlas ! 
Hx; paces habuere bon8B ventique secundi. 

RomaB dulce diu fuit et solenne, reclusa 
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 
Cautos nominibus rectis expendere numrnos, tOd 
Majores audire, minori dicere, per qu£B 
Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 
Mutavit mentcm populus levis, et calet uno 
Scribendi studio : pueri patresque severi 
Fronde comas vincti CGBXiant, et carmina dictant 110 
Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo scribere versus, 
[nvenior Pai'this mendacior ; et, prius orto 
Sole vigil, calamum et chartas et Bcrinia posco. 
Navim agere ignarus navis timet ; abrotonum asgro 
Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare ; quod medicorum €«1, 1 16 
Promittunt medici ; tractant fabrilia fabri : 
Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hie error tarnen, et levis haec insania quantas 
Virtu tes habeat, sic coDige : vatis avarus 
Non temero est animus ; versus amat, hoc studet u .ium 20 
Dctrimenla, fugas servorum, incendia ridet ; 
Non fraudem socio, puerove incogitat ullam 
Pupillo ; vivit siliquis et pane secundo ; 
Militiae quamquara piger et malus, utilis urbi , 
Bi das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvari. 2t 
LW\tenerum pueri balbumquc poeta iigurat, 
Ton^et ab obscoeuis jam nunc serraonibu^ aureni, 



I.I 



EPISTOLARUM. ― LIBER II 



231 



Mox rliam pectus pneceptis format amicw, 

Asperitatis et iiividiso corrector et irss } 

Recte facta refert, orientia tempora notitf J3C 

[nstruit exemplis, inopem solatur et segrum 

CastiB cum pueris ignara ouella mariti 

Disccret unde preces, vatem ni Musa dedisset ? 

Fosoit opem chorus, et prasentia numina seniii. 

0cele3ls8 implorat aquas docta prece blatulus, 13C 

Avertit morbos, metuenda pericula pellit 

Impetrat et pacem, et locupletem frug^Kis annum 

Carmine Di superi placantur, carmine manes 

Agricolae prisci, fortes, parvoque bcati, 
Ccndita post frumenta, levantes tempore festo 140 
Corpus, et ipsum animum spe finis dura fereniem 
Cum sociis operum, pueris, et conjuge fida, 
Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 
Floribus et vino Genium, memorem brevis sbvi. 
Fescennina per hunc inventa licentia morem I4d 
Versibus altemis opprobria rustica fudit, 
Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos 
Lusit amabiliter, donoc jam saevus apertam 
In rabiem verti coepit jocus, et per honestas 
Ire domos impune minax. Doluere cruento \&Q 
Dente lacessiti ; fuit intactis quoque cura ' 
Conditions super communi ; quin ctiam lex 
Poenaque lata, malo quae nolle t cannine quemquam 
Describi ; vertere modum, formidine fustis 
A.d bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. \M 

Graecia capta fcrum victorem cepit, et artes 
Lntuiit agresti Latio : sic horridus ille 
Oeiluxit nunierus Saturnius ; et grave virra 
Aluuditiae pepulere : sed in longum tamen acvum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruria. 1 6(1 

Seius enim Gnncis admovit acumina chartis, 
Et post Punica bella quietus quserere ccepit. 



228 



U. H0RAT1I FLACC1 



Quid Sophjcles et Thespis et iEschylus utile ferrent 
Tentavit quoquc rem, si digne rertere pi'sset , 
Et placuit sibi, natura sublimis et acer ; 
Nam spirat tragicum satis, et feliciter audet ; 
Bed turpem putat insciie metuitque liturain. 

Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere 
<8udoris minimum, sed habet Comosdia tanto 
•Plus oncris, quanto venias minus. Adspice, Plautiis 
Quo pacto partes tutetur umantis ephebi, 
Ut patris attenti, lenonis ut insidiosi ; 
Quantus sit Dosseimus cdacibus in parasitis, 
Quam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere.. post hoc 
Securus, cadat, an recto stet fabula talo. 
Quern tulit ad scenam ventoso Gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat. 
Sic 】eve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis avaruiu 
Subruit aut reficit. Valeat res ludicra, si me 
Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum. 

Saepe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam, 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolidique, et depugnare parati, 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poscunt 
Aut ursum aut pugiles ; his nam plebccula gaudet. 
Verum equitis quoque jam migravit ab aure voluplap 
Omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 
Quatuor aut plures aulcea premuntur in horas, 
Dum fugiunt equitum .turmae pedituraque catervao ; 
Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis, 
Esseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naves ; 
Captivum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus. 

Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus, seu 
Oiversum confusa genus panthera camelo, 
feive elephas albus vulgi converteret oia : 
8y*H5taret pnpulum ludis attentiub ipeiii, 



£PISTOLARUM. 一 LIBER II 



22V 



Ut flibi prsebentenj mimo spectacula plura ; 

Boriptores autem n arrare putaret asello 

Fabellam surdo. Nam quae pervincere voces 20 C 

Evaluere sonum, referunt quem nostra theatra ? 

Garganum mugire putes nemus, aut mare Tuscum, 

Tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur, et artes, 

DiyitisBque peregrinsB, quiLus oblitus acttfr 

Quum stetit in scena, concurrit dexter a laevaB. 20S 

Dixit adkuc aliquid ? ― Nil sane. ― Quid placet ergo ?一 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte putes, me, quaB facere ipse recusem, 
Quum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 
llle per extentum funem mihi posse videtur 210 
Ire poeta, meum qui pectus inaniter angit, 
Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus iraplet, 
Ut magus, et modo me Th" ]s, modo ponit Atheuis 
Verum age, et his, qui se lectori credere malunt, 
Quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 2t6 
Curara redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum 
Vis complere libris, et vatibus addere calcar, 
Tit studio majore petant Helicon a vircntcm, 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saspe pocta^ 
(Ut vineta egomet csedam mea), quum tibi librum 2V0 
Sollicito damus aut fesso ; quum laedimur, uuum 
Si quis amicorum est ausus reprendere versura ; 
Quum loca jam recitata re vol vim us irrevocati ; 
Quum lamentamur, non apparere labores 
Nostros, et tenui deducta poemata filo ; 225 
Quum speramus eo rem venturam, ut simul atque 
Carmina rescieris nos fingere, commodus ultro 
Arcessas, et egere vetes, et scribere cogas. 
Sod tamen est' operaB pretium cognoscere, quak« 
£dituos habeat belli spectata domique 23 i) 

Virtus, indigno non committenda poeta). 

Gratus Alexandra regi Magno fuit Je 



^A0 



Q. HOUATil FLAUCi 



CkcBiilus, in mltus qui versibus et mab natis 

Rettulit acceptos, regale numisma, Phiiippos. 

Hed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 23^ 

Atramenta, fere gcriptores carmine foedo 

Splendida facta linuut. Idem rex ille, poema 

Qui tarn ridiculum tarn ca*e prodigus emit, 

Edicto vetuit, ne quis se, prseter Apellera, 

Pingerct, aut alius Lysippo duceret sera 24Q 

Fortis Alexandri vultum simulantia. Quod ea 

Judicium subtile videndis artibus illud 

Ad libros et ad haec Musarum dona vocares, 

BoBotum in crasso jurares aere natum. 

At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia, atque 243 
Munera, quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt 
Dilec^i tibi Virgilius Variusque poetse ; 
Nec magis expressi vultus per aenea signa, 
Quam per vatis opus mores animique virorun« 
Clarorum apparent. Nec sermones ego mall«^ti - 260 
llepentes per humum, quam res componere gestas : 
rerrarumque situs et flumina dicere, et arces 
2Montibus impositas, et barbara regna, tuisque 
Auspiciis to turn confecta duella per orbem, 
Claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Janum, 256 
Et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam ; 
(si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque. Sed uequc pumim 
Carmen majestas recipit tua, nec mens audet 
Rem tcntare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem, stulte quern diligit, urget, P>bO 
Pnecipue qnum se numeris commendat et arte : 
Discit eiiim citius meminitque libentius illud, 
Quod aui.s deridet, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
Nil morur offic.jm, quod me gravat, ac neque fjcto 
fn pejus vultu pxoponi cercus usquam, d64 
N «5 prave factis decorari versibus opto, 
N\< mbeam pingui donatus mune'e, *?t ,! na 



2.J 



EPiSTOLARUM. ― LIBER II. 



Cum scrip tore meo, capsa porrectus aperta, 
Deferar in vicum vendentem thus et odores 
Et pipet ot quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis 



EriSTOLA II. 

AD JULIUM FLORUM. 

More, bono claroque fldelis amice Neroni, 
8i quia forte velit puerum tibi vendere, natum 
Tibure vel Gabiis, et tecum sic agat : Hie ef. 
CandiduSy et talos a vertice jndcher ad imas, 
Fiet eritque tuus nummorum miUibus octo、 
Verna miniboeriis ad nutus aptus ? leriles, 
Literulis Greeds imbutus, idoneus arti 
Cuilibet ; argilla quidvis imitaberU uda •• 
Quin etiam canet indoctum, seel dulce biienli. 
Mult a Jideni promissa levant, ubi plenius cegito 
Laudat venales, qui vult eztrudere, merccs. 
Res urget me nulla ; meo sum pauper in cere • 
Nemo hoc ma?igonum faceret tibi : rum temere a 91 ^ 
Quivis ferret idem •• seniel hie cessavit, et t ut fit, 
In scalis latuit metuens pendaitis habena. 
Des numnwSj excepta nihil te si fuga lesdit. 
[lie ferat pretiurn, posnae securus, opinor. 
Prudens emisti vitiosum ; dicta tibi est lex : 
Insequeris tamcn hunc, et lite moraris iniqua ? 

Dixi me pigrum proficisceiiti tibi, dixi 
Talibus officiis prope mancura ; ne mea ssevus 
Jurgares ad te quod epistola nulla rediret. 
juid turn profeci, mecum facientia jura 
:Q\ tamcn attcntas ? Quereris super hoc etiam, quod 
fclxspeotata tibi rion mittarn carmina mendax. 

Luculli miles collecta viatica multis 
ilBrumiiifl, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assam 
Poididerat : post hoc vehemons / jpus ' t sihi et hewn 



282 



Q. H01M ril PaACCX 



Iratus pari tor, jejunis dentibus acer, 

PraDsidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiuut, b€ 

Summe munito et multarum divite rerum, 

Ciarus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis ; 

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum 

Forte sub noc tempus castellum evertere prcBtor 

iNescio quod cupiens hortari ccepit eundem 31 

Verbia, qua) timido quoque possent addcre mentem ; 

I, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat, I pede fausto, 

Crrandia laturus meritorum pramiia ! Quid stas ? 

Post haec ille catus, quantum vis rusticus, Ibit, 

Ibit eo quo vis, qui zonam perdidit, inquit. 40 

lioniaB nutriri mihi contigit atque doceri, 
Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles : 
Adjecere bonae paulo plus artis Atl/enae ; 
Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 
Atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verura. 4d 
Dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato, 
Civilisque rudem belli tulit sestus in arma, 
Caesaris Augusti non rcsponsura lacertis. 
Unde simul primum me dirnisere Philippi, 
Decisis humilera pennis, inopemque paterni 90 
Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus facerem : sed, quod non desit, habentem 
Qusc poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicutic, 
Ni melius dor mi re putem quam scribcre versus ? 

Singula de nobis anni praodantur euntes ; 5fi 
JEripuere jocos, Venerem, convivia, ludum ; 
Tendunt extorquere poernata : quid faciam vi3 ? 
Denique non omncs eadem mirantur amantque . 
Carmine tu gaudes, hie delectatur iambis, 
Ule Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. Si 
Tres mihi conviva prope dissentire videntur 
Poscctites vario nriltura di versa palato. 
Quid dem ? quid non dem ? Renuis tu, quod jubet alter 
Ouod petis id sane est in visum acidumque duobus. 



2. J EFISTOLARUM. 一 1IBBR II. ^88 

Pneter cetera, me RomaBiie poemata censes 6d 
Scribere posse, inter tot curas totque laborcs ? 
Hie bponsum vocat, hie auditum scripta relictis 
Omnibus officiis ; cubat hie in colle Quirini, 
Hie oxtremo in Aventino, visendus uterque : 
Intoryalla vide3 humane commoda. ― Verum 10 
Purre sunt platecB i nihil ut meditarvtibus obstet, 一 
Fe8tinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemtor, 
Torque t nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina tignum 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris, 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sus : 7d 
I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus omms am at nemus, et fugit urbes, 
Rite cliens Bacchi, somno gaudentis et umbra : 
Tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diurnos 
Vis canere, et contact a sequi vestigia vatum ? 80 
Ingenium, sibi quod vacuas desumsit Athenas, 
£t studiis annos septem dedit, insenuitque 
Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit 
Plerumque, et risu populum quatit : hie ego reram 
Fiuctibus in mediis, et tempestatibus urbis, %t 
Verba lyrae motura sonum connectere digner ? 

Auctor erat Rornae consulto rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius sermonc meros audiret honores ; 
Gracchus ut hie illi foret, huic ut Mucius ille. 
Qui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 00 
Carmina compono, hie elegos ; mirabile visu 
Csclatumque novem Musis opus ! Adspice primum, 
Quanto cum fastu, quanto molimine circum- 
fipectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus aedem ! 
Mox etiam, si forte vacas, sequere, et procul audi, W5 
Quid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 
Caedimur, et totidem plagis consumimus hostsm, 
Onto Samnites ad luraina prima duello. 
I>i«ccdo AlcaBUs puncto illius ; ille meo quig ? 



234 



a. II0EAT1I FLACCI 



(juis, nisi (yallimachus ? si plus adposcere \isu& 
Fit Mimnermus, et optivo cognomine crescit. 
Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatum, 
Quum scribo, et supplex populi suffragia captu • 
Idem, finitis studiis et mente recepta, 
Obturem patulas impune leg*nitibus aures. 
Bidcntur mala qui componuiit carmina : veru n 
G audent scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultro, 
Si taceaei, laudant quidquid scripsere, beati. 

At qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema, 
Cum tabulis animum censor is sumet honesti 
Audebit qnfecunque parum splendoris habcbunt, 
Et sine pondere erunt, et honore indigna ferentur. 
Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant, 
£t versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vesta;. 
Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque 
Proferet in lucem spooiosa vocaLula rerum, 
Quae, priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegig, 
Nunc situs in for mis pvemit et deserta vetustas •• 
A.dsciscet nova, qua? genitor produxerit usus. 
Vehemens et liquidus, puroque simillimus arnni, 
Fundet opes, Latit'mque beabit divite lingua ; 
Luxuriantia compescet, nimis aspera sano 
Levabit cultu, virtu te carentia toilet, 
Ludentis speciem dabit, et torquebitur, ut qui 
Nunc Satyrum nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur. 

Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 
Dum mea delectent mala me, vel denique fallant, 
Quam sapere et ringi. Fuit haud ignobilis Argis, 
Qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos, 
In vacuo laetus sessor plausorque tbeatro ; 
Cetera qui vitas servaret munia recto 
Mere, bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 
Comis in uxorem, posset qui ignoscere aenriAi 
Et —10 lsuso non insaiiire lagenas ; 



2.1 



EPISrOLARUM. 一 LIBEA II 



Posset qui rupem et puteum vitare pateAtem 
Hie ul i cognatorum opibus cu risque refectus 
ExpuliL elleboro morbum bilemque meraco, 
Et redit ad sese : Pol, me occidistis, amici, 
Non serv&stis, ait, cui sic extorta voluptas, 
Et denitus pretium mentis gratissimus error. 

Nirairum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 
Et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum, 
Ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Lath i& 
Sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vita*. 
Quocirca mecum loquor hsec, tacitusque recordor . 
Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphae, 
Narrares medicis : quod, quanto plura parasti. 
Tanto plura cupis, nulline faterier audes ? 
Si vulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 
Non fieret levius, fugeres radice vel herba 
Proficiente nihil curarier. Audieras, cui 
Rem Di donarcnl, illi decedere pravarn 
Stultitiam ; et, quum sis nihilo sapientior, ex quo 
Plenior es, tamcn uteris monitoribus isdem ? 
At si divitiaB prudentera reddere possent, 
Si cupidum timidumque minus te, nempe ruberea, 
Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 

Si proprium est, quod quis libra mercatur et sere, 
Quaedam, si credis consultis, mancipat usub : 
Qui te pascit ager, tuus est ; et villicus Orbi, 
Quum segctes occat tibi mox fruraenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit. Das nummos, accipis uvami, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nempe modo isto 
Paulatim inercaris agrum, fortasse trecentis, 
Aiit etiam supra, nummorum millit us emtuni. 
Quid refert, vivas numerato nuper an olim ? 
Emtor Aricini quondam Veientis et arvi 
Knitum coenat olus, quamvis aliter putat ; emtas 
Suh notitera gelidam lignis calefactat aen im; 



23t> 



a. IIOEATII FLACCI 



Seni vocat usque baura, qua populus adsita certia 170 
Limitibus vicina refug-it jurgia ; tanquam 
Sit proprium quidquam, puncto quod mobilis hone. 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc niorti supreme. 
Permutet dominos et cedat in altera jura. 

Sir, quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et heres 1 75 

Hcredem alterius velut unda supervenit undam, 
Quid vici prosunt aut horrea ? Quidve Calabria 
Saltibus adjecti Lucani. si metit Orcus 
Grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro ? 
Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, 180 
Argentum, vestes Goetulo murice tinctas, 
Sunt qui non. habeant, est qui non curat habere. 
Cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungi 
Pneferat Herodis palmetis pinguibiis ; alter, 
Dives et importunus, ad umbram lucis ab ortu 
Silvestrem flammis et ferro raitiget agrum, 
Scit Genius, natale cooes qui temperat astrum, 
Naturae Deus humanm, mortalis in unum- 
Quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 

Utar, et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 1 90 
Tollam ; nec metuam, quid de me judicet heres, 
Quod non plura datis invenerit : et tamen idem 
Scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti 
Discrepct, et quantum discordet parous avaro. 
Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sumtura 19A 
Invitus facias neque plura pararo labores, 
Ac potius, puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, 
Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. 
Pauperies imraunda procul procul absit : ego, utitun 
Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et id^eiQ. 901 
Noa agimur tumid is velis aquilone secundo ; 
Non tamen ad versus jRtatem ducimus austris ; 
Viribus, ingenio, specie, virtu te, loco, re, 
Extrcmi primorura, 3xtremis usque priori 



^.) EFISTOLAHUM. 一 LlBER I 237 

Non e» a varus : abi. Quid ? cetera jam sjmul isto 203 
Cum vitio fngere ? caret tibi pectus inani 
Ambitione ? caret mortis formidine et ira ? 
Somnia, terrorcs magicos, miracula. sagas, 
Noctumos lemures portentaque Thessala rules ? 
Natales grate numcras ? ignoscis amicis ? 210 
Lenior et melior fis accedente scnecta ? 
Quid te exemta levat spinis de pluribus una ? 
Vlvere si recte ncscis, decede peritis. 
Lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti ; 
Tenipus abire tibi est ; ne potum larerius eq^io 21 5 

Rideat et pulont lasoiTa d<>cciitiQii astwi. 



ft flORATII I LACCJ 

EPISTOLA AD riSONES 



9 



Q H R A T I I F L A C C 1 

E 1M S T L A AU PIS ONE 8, 

Jit^iANi> oapiti ccrvicem pictor equinam 

Ju"gere si velit, et varias iriducere plumas 

Qnaique collatis membris, ut turpi ter atrum 

Deraat in pisoem mulier formosa superne, 

Spr^tatum adnassi risum teneatis, amici ? 

Cre 4 ]lite, Pisones, isti tabulae fore librum 

Pereimileni, cuju^, velut segri somnia, vana? 

Fingentur species ; ut nee pes, nec caput uui 

Reddatur forma). 一- Pictoribus atque po 'etis 

Quidlibet audendt Somperfuit cequa potestas.— it 

Scimus, et hanc vcniam petimusque dam usque viciMim : 

Sed non ut placidis cot ant immitia : non ut 

Serpentes avibus gcmino.itur, tigribus agni. 

Inceptis gr avibus plerumque et magna professiB 
Purpureus, late qui splenJeat, unus et alter 15 
Assuitur pannus ; quum luous et ara Dianse, 
Et properantis aquae per ainoenos ambitus agros, 
A.ut flumon Rhenum, aut plavius describitur arcus. 
Sed nunc non erat his locus. Et fortasse cupressum 
Scis simulare : quid hoc, si imctis eoalat exspes 20 
Navibus, sere dato qui pingitur ? Amphora ccepit 
[nstitui ; currente rota cur urceus exit ? 
Denique sit quidvis, simplex duntaxat et unum. 

Maxima pars vatum, pater et juvenes pat re (Ug/u, 
Decipimur specie recti : brevis osse laboro, 81 
Obscurus fio : sectanterr lenia 3aerri 

L 



242 



a. II0RAT1I FLACC 



Dcflciant nnimique ; professus grantiia turget : 
Scrpit huir.i tutus nimium timid usque procollae , 
Qui variare cupit rem pi odigialiter unam, 
Delphinum silvis appin^it, fluctibus aprum. 
In vitium ducit culpap fuga, si caret arte. 

^Emilium drcjt ludum faber unus et ungues 
Exprimet, et nv>.les imitabitur aere capillos ; 
Infelix operis surtnua, quia ponere totum 
Nesciet. Hunc ego me, si quid com ponere cureia 
Non magis esse velim, quam tiaso vivere pravo ; 
Spectandura nigris oculis nigroque capillo. 

Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, tcquam 
Viribus, et versate diu, quid ferre recusent, 
Quid /a leant humeri. Cui lecta potenter erit res. 
Nec facundia deseret hunc, nec lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis haec virtus eril et Venus, aut ego fallor, 
Ut jam nunc dicat jam nunc debentia dici, 
Pleraque di Herat et prsesens in tempus omittat. 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, 
Hoc amet, hoc spernat promissi carminis auctur 
Dixeris egregie, notum si callida verbum 
Reddiderit junctura novum. Si forte necesse 
Indiciis monstrare recenlibus abdita rerum, 
Firigere cinctutis nou cxauditn Cethegis 
Continget, dabiturque liceiitia sunita pudenier. 
Et nova factaque nuper habebunt verba lidem. si 
Grfeco fonte cadant, parce delorta. Quid autem 
Csecilio Plautoque dabit Romanus, ademtum 
Virgilio Varioque ? Ego cur, acquirere pauca 
Si possum, invideor, quum lingua Catonis et Euti 
Sermonem patrium ditaverit, et nova rerum 
Nioraina proiulerit ? Licuit, semperque lice bit, 
Signatum prsesente nota procudere nome.n. 
Ut silvaB, foliis pronoa mutantis in annog, 
Prima cadunt ; it a verborur'i vet as in f ,uv eetai 



EPISTOLA AD PlSOiNKH. 



Et juvonuii) ritu florerit modo nata vigent ju«! 
Debexnur niorti nos nostraque ; sive, recepto 
Terra Neptimo, classes aquiionibus arcet 
Regis opus ; sterilisve diu palus aptaque reMȤ 
Vicinas urbes aiit, et grave scutit aratrum ; 
Seu cursum mutavit iniquum frugibus amnis, 
Doctus her melius. Mortalia facta peri bunt ' 
Nedur: se/monum stet hoi"'.、 *i gratia vivax. 
Multa renascentur, qua) jam cecidere, cadentfjiic 
Qun nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usiui. 
Quern penes arbitrium est et jus ct norma loqueiiit; 

Res gestae regumque ducumque et trislia beUa 
Quo scribi potssent numero, monstravit HomeruA. 
Versibus impariter jimctis querimonisi primum, 
Post etiam inclusa est voti sen ten ti a compos. 
Quis tamen exiguos elegos eraiserit auctor, 
Grammatici certant, et ad hue sub judicc lis est. 
Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo : 
Hunc socci cepere pedem grandesquc cotbuvni, 
Alternis aptum sermonibus, et populares 
Vinceiitem strepitus, et uatum rebus agcndis. 
Musa dedit fidibus Divos, puerosque Deorurn, 
lit pugilem victorem, et equum certamine prim um 
Et juvenum curas, et libera vina referre. 

Descriptas servare vices operumque colore^ 
Cur ego, si nequeo ignomque, poeta salutor ? 
Cur nescire, pudens prave, quam discere malo ? 
Versibus exponi tragicis res comica non vult : 
Indignatur item privatis, ac prope socco 
Di^nif? f_rminibus narrari ccena Thyestay. 
Singula quaeque locum teneant sortita deeenter 
Interdum tamen et vocem ComoBdia to] lit, 
Iratusquo Chremes tumido dclitigat ore : 
Et tragicus pleruraque tlolet sermone pedestri 
Te\fphu6 e《 Pelcus, quum pauper et ex*i\l, u 4 A!r(|iie 



M4 



a. fi :RATII FLACC3 



Pr)jicii ampullas et sesquipedalia verba. 
Hi cor soectantis curat tetigissc querela. 

Non satis est pulchra esse potiniata ; duicia suisto, 
£t quojunque volent, anirnum auditoris agunto. 
[It ridentibus arrident, ita flentibus aflleut 
Humni vultus. Si vis me flere, dolenduin c«t 
Prim ii m ipsi tibi ; tunc tua me infortiiiiia lacdeut, 
Telt^plie vel Pcleu : male si mandata loqueris, 
Aut dormitabo aut ridebo. Tristia moestum 
Vulturn verba decent, iratum plena minarum, 
L -j den tern lasciva, severum seria di^.tu. 
Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem 
Fortunarum habitum ; juvat, aut impellit ad irani. 
Aut ad humum moBrore gravi deducit et angit ; 
Post eflert animi motus interprete lingua. 
Si dicentis erunt fortunis absona dicta, 
Roman! tollent equites peditesque cachinnut 1. 

Intererit multum, divusne loquatur an heros, 
Mfit.urusne senex an adhuc florente juventa 
Fervidus, et matrona potens an sedula nutrix, 
Mercatorne vagus cultome virentis agelli, 
Colchus an Assyrius, Thebis nutritus an Argis. 

Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia fimTr, 
Scriptor. Honoratum si forte reponis Achillera, 
Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer, 
Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget arrnis 
Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Trio, 
Perfidus Ixion, Io vaga, tristis Orestes. 
Si quid inexpertum scenae committis, et audea 
Personam formare novam, servetur ad imum 
Qualis ab incepto processerit, aut sibi constet. 
Difficile est proprie oomrnunia dicere : tuque 
Rectius Iliacum carmen diducis in actus, 
Quam si proferres ignota indie l aquc primui 
Public a materies privati iuris erit, si 



E PISTOL A Al> P1SONES. 245 

Nw circa vilnra patuhimque noraberis orbem, 

Nec verbum verbo curaVis reJdere fid us 

Interpres, nec desilies imitator iu arctum. 

Unde pedem profcrre pudor vetet aut opens lex Si 

Noc sic incipies, ut scriptor cyclicus olim •• 
Fortmtam Priami canfubo et nobile bellum. 
Quid dignurn tanto feret hie promissor hiatu ? 
Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus muR. 
Quanto recti us hie, qui nil molitur inepte : i、40 
Die mihi, Musa t virum, captce post tempora Trofa 
Qui mores hmninum mtdtorum vidit et urbes. 
Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem 
Co^itat, ut speciosa dehinc iniracula promat, 
Antiphaten, Scyllamque, et cum Cyclope Chary bchn ; 
Nec reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleagri, 
Nec gemino bellum Trojanum orditur al) ovo. 
Semper ad event um festinat, et in medias res, 
Non secus ac notas, auditorem rapit, et, qua? 
Desperat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit ; 15*) 
Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa rem i see t, 
Primo ne medium, medio ne* discrepet imum. " 

Tu, quid ego et populus mecum desiderct, audi : 
Si fautoris eges aulasa manentis, et usque 
Sessuri, donee cantor, Vcs plaudile、 dicat, 15/i 
iEtatis cuj usque notandi sunt tibi mores, 
Mcbilibusquc decor naturis dandus et annis. 
Reddere qui voces jam scit puer, et pede certo 
Signat humum, gestit paribus colludere, et iram 
Coliigit ac ponit temere, et mutatur in horas. 160 
Imberbus juvenis, tandem custode remoto, 
Gaudet equis canibusque et aprici g^ramine cainpi ; 
Cereus in vitium fleet" monitoribus asper. 
Utilium tardus provi&or, prodigus aeris, 
Hublimis, cupidusque, et amata relinquere peioix. 64 
^4invei«i& studiis astas animnsque virilis 



U. tTOK ATI FLACC; 



Ljiiitirii opes et ainioitias, i riser vit honori, 
Coinmisis8ti cavet, quod mo\ mutare laboret. 
Malta seneni circumveniunt incommoda, vel quod 
Quaiiit, et invcntis miser abstiuet, ac timet uti, 
Vel quod res omnes timide gelideque ministrat, 
Dilator, &pc longus, iners, avid usque futuri, 
Difiiciliu, querulus, laudator temporis acti 
4e puero, castigator censorque minorum. 
Multa ferunt anni veuientes commoda secum, 
Mulla recedenles adiraunt. Ne forte seniles 
Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque vi riles, 
Semper in adjunct Is aevoque morabimur aptis. 

Aut agitur res iti sccnis, aut acta refertur. 
Seguius irritant animos demissa per aurem, 
Quarn quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quu 
Ipse sibi trad it spectator : non tamen in tug 
Digna geri promes in sceuam ; multaquc toilea 
Ex oculis, quae mox narret facundia prscsens. 
Ne ptieros coram populo Medea trucidet, 
Aut hum an a palam coquat exta uefarius Atreu«. 
Aut in avem Progne vertalur, Cadmus in anguera 
Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi. 

Neve 【niuor neu sit quinto productior actu 
Fabula, quae posci vult et spectata reponi : 
Nec Deus iutersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident ; nec quarta loqui persona laboret. 

Actoris partes Chorus officiumque virile 
befendat, neu quid medios intercinat actus, 

lod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 
lllo bonis faveLtque et consilietur amice, 

regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes ; 
n •• da[)es laudet mensae brevis, ille salubrem 
J astiliam, legesque, et a pert is otia portis, 
Mir tegat commissa, Deosque precetur et oret, 
Ut riadeat miseris, abeat For luna superbi* 



I 齊 J 



180 



190 



EP^rOLA AD PIS0NE8. 



211 



riliia nou, ut nunc orichalco vincta, tubieque 
/htnula, sed tenuis siniplexque foramine pauco 
4dspirare et adesse Choris erat utilis, atque 
Nonduni spissa nimis complere sedilia flatu ; 
Quo sane populus numerabilis, utpote parvus, 
Et frugi castusque verecund usque coibat. 
Postquam coepit agros exiendere victor, et urbein 
Latior amplecti munis, vinoque diurno 
Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 210 
Accessit numerisquc modisque licentia major ; 
[ndoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum 
Rusticus, urbano confusus, turpis honesto ? 
Sic piisca) moturaque et luxuriem addidit arti 
Tibicen, traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem ; 216 
Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere severis, 
Et tulit cioquium insolitum facundia pra^ceps ; 
Utiliumque sagax rerum, et divina futuri, 
? 5ortilegis non discrepuit sententia Del phis. 

Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircura, 288 
Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit, et asper 
(ncolumi gravitate jocum tentavit, eo quod 
Illecebris erat et grata novitate morandus 
Spectator, functusque sacris, et potus, et exlex 
Verum ita risores, ita commendare dicaces 22€ 
Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo, 
Ne, quicunque Deus, quicunque adhibebitur horos, 
Rcgali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 
Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas, 
Aut, dura vitat humum, nubes et inania captet. 2;,、 
EfTutire leves indigna Tragoedia versus, 
Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 
Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda proten is. 
Non ego inornata et domin^ntia nomina foIvi « 
Verbaque, Pisones, Satyrorum scriptor aniabo ; ? 
Neo pic enitar trap,ico difierre colori, 



1248 



U. H JRATII FLA«:C1 



CJt nihil intersit Davusne loquatur et audax 

Pythias, emuncto lucrata Sirnone talent um 

An custos famulusque Dei Silenus alumni. 

Ex no to fictum carmen scquar, ut sibi qui\ t li| 

Speret idem ; sudet multum, frustraqi 3 laboret 

A.USUS idem. Tantum series juncturaque pollet, 

Fantum de medio sumtis accedit honoris. 

Bihds educti caveant, me jud>e, Fauni, 

Ne, velut innati triviis ac paun^ forenses, JM* 

Aul niraiura teneris juvenentur versibus unquam, 

▲ut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta. 

Ofienduntur enirn, quibuB est equus, et pater, et roi ; 

Nec, si quid fribti ciceris probat et nucis emtor, 

^Bquis accipiunt animis doiiantve corona. y M 

Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur Iambus, 
Pes citus ; undo etiam Trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus 
Primus ad extremum similis sibi. Non ita priden 
Tardior ut paulo graviorque veniret ad aures, 2dT 
Spondeos stabiles in jura paterna recepit 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secuada 
Cederet aut quarta socialiter. Hie et in Atti 
Nobilibus Trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni. 
In scenara missus magno cum pondcre versus, 26Q 
Aut operas celeris nimium curaque carentis, 
Aut ignoratse premit artis orimine turpi. 
Non quivis videt immodulata poeraata judex ; 
Et data Romanis venia est indigna poetis 
Idcircone vager, scribaonque liccnter ? Ut om i ^ \\ \| 
Visuros peccata putem mea : tutus et intra 
Spem veniao cautus ? vitavi denique culpam, 
Non laudem merui. Vos exemplaria Gr.eca 
Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 
At t*%£ri proavi Plautinos et nume vs en Wf9 
Zaudavete sales : nimium patieotei truflqiu. 



EPISTOLA AD PISJNES 



No ditam slult(», mirati, si modo ego et vch 
Scimus i;i uibanum lepido seponcre dioto, 
Legitimunquc sonum digitis callemus et aur»? 

Ignotuin tragicaR genus invenisse Camenas 
Dieitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis ; 
Qui cancrent agerentque peruncti faecibuss ora. 
Post hunc porsonaB palleL'que repertor honestae 
^sc^iyiue et modicis instravit pulpita tignis, 
£t docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. 
Successit vetus his Comoedia, non sine multa 
Laude ; sed in vitium libertas excidit, et vim 
Dignam lege regi. Lex est accepta, Chor usque 
Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi. 
Nil intentatum nostri Hquere poet® : 
Nec minimum meruere decus, vestigia Graeca 
Ausi deserere, et celebrare domestica facta, 
Vel qui prsetextas, vel qui docuere togatas. 
Nec virtute foret clarisve potentius armis, 
Quam lingua, Latium, si non oflenderet unum- 
Quemque poetarum limse labor et mora. Vos, O 
Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite, quod non 
Multa dies et multa litura coercuit, atque 
PraBsectum decies non castigavit ad unguem. 

Ingcnium misera quia fortunatius arte 
Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas 
Democritus, bona pare non ungues ponere cura t, 
Non barbam, secreta petit loca, balnea vitat. 
Nanciscctur enim pretium noraenque poetsB, 
Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 
Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 
Qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam ! 
Non alius faceret melicra poemata. Veruni 
Nil tanti est. Ergo fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Iteddero quaB ferrum valet, exsors ipsa secandi 
Miuius et officium, nil scribens ip«eu dooebo ; 

L 2" 



25i) 



Q. HOBATII Fl.ACC' 



Undo parentur opes, quid alat formetque poetmii 

Quid deceat, quid non ; quo virtus, quo ferat enor. 

Scrbendi recte sapere est et principium et fciia : 

LI cm tibi Socraticse poterunt ostendere chartse, 31 蠢 

^ r erbaquc provisam rem non invita sequentur. 

Qui didicit, patriae quid debeat, et quid amicis, 

'}uo sit amore parens, quo frater amandus et hospes, 

々】od sit conscript i, quod judicis officium, qum 

Partes in bellum missi ducis, ille profecto 31fi 

Redd ere persons scit converiientia cuique. 

Respicere exemplar vitas morumque jubebo 

Doctum imitatorem, et veras hitic ducere voces. 

[nterdum speciosa locis morataque recte 

Fabula, nullius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 32U 

Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur. 

Quara versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorsB. 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 

.VTusa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. 

ilomani pueri longis rationibus assem 326 

Discunt in partes centum diducere. 一 Dicas, 

Filius Albiniy si cle quincunce reniota est 

Uncia, quid superat ? —Poteras dixisse. 一 Triens. — JSu ! 

Rem poteris servare tuam. Redit uncia t quid fit 1 一 

Semis. — An, haec animos aerugo et cura peculi ,330 

Quum semel imbuerit, speramus carmina fingi 

Posse linenda cedro, et levi servanda cupres?eo ? 

Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetaj, 
Aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. 
Quidquid praBcipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta 135 
Percipiant animi dociles, teneantque fideies. 
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. 
Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veiis : 
Ne, quodeunque volet, poscat sibi fabula credi ; 
Neu pranssB LamiaB vivu 二 puerum extrahat a】vo ,340 
Centuri® senior "m agitant expertia frugis, 



EP1ST0LA AD i'〖SONEfc>. 



25] 



(J^Isi piTOtereun austera poemata Ramnes : 

Oinne tulit puncti jn, qui miscuit utile dulci, 

Lectorom delectando pariterque monendo. 

Hie meret sera liber Sosiis, hie ct mare transit 348 

Et longum noto scriptori prorogat aevum. 

Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus : 
N^am neque chorda sonum reddit, quern vult man us at mem. 
Fosoentique gravem persaBpe remittit acutum ; 、 
Nec semper fcriet quodcunque minabitur arcuF. 360 
Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
Oflendar maculis, quas aut incuha fudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. Quid ergo est ? 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem librarius usque, 
Quamvis est monitus, venia caret ; ut citharoedus 355 
Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem ; 
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus ille, 
Quern bis terve bouum cum risu miror ; ct idcra 
Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepcre somnum. S60 

Ut pictura, poesis : erit, quaB, si propius stes, 
Te capiet magis, et qusedam, si longius abates ; 
Haec amat obscurum, volet haec sub luce ridcri, 
) udicis argutum quae non formidat acumen : 
[Isbc placuit semel, haec decies repetita placebit. 36d 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum, et per te sapis, hoc tibi dictum 
Tolle memor : certis medium et tolerabile rebus 
Recte concedi. Consultus juris et actor 
oausarum mediocris abest virtute diserti 870 
Messalse, nec scit quantum Cascellius Aufus ; 
Sed tamen in pretio est : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non Di, non concessere columnsB. 
Ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors 
Et crassum unguentum et Sardo cum melle papave* 371 
Offendunt, poterat duci quia coeoa giue istifl ; 



252 



Q. UORATII FLACC1 



Si: aiiiitiis natum inventumque poema juvand'is, 

Si paulum a summo decessit, rergit ad imum 

Ludcre qui nescit, campestribus abstinet armis, 

Indoctusque pilfe disci ve trochive qui^pcit, 

Ne spisssB risuni tollanl impune coronse : 

Qui nescit, versus tamen audet fingere ! ― Quiiini ? 

TAber et ingenuus, prcesertim census eqiiestrem 

Summam nummorum, vitioque remotus ad omni.— 

Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva ; 

Id tibi judicium est, ea mens : si quid tamen olim 

Scripseris, in Mseci descendat judicis aures, 

Et patris, et nostras, nomimque prematur in annum. 

Membranis intus positis. Delere licebit, 

Quod non edideris : nescit vox missa reverti. 

Silvestres homines sacer interpresque Deorum 
Cffidibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus ; 
Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones : 
Dictus et Amphion, ThebanaB conditor urbis, 
Saxa movere sono testudinis, et prece blanda 
Ducere quo vellet. Fuit haec sapientia quondaia 
Publica privatis seccrnere, sacra profanis, 
Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis, 
Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 
Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque 
Carminibus venit. Post hos insignia Homerus, 
Tyrtaeusque mares animos in Martia bella 
Vendbus exacuit. Dictae per carmina sortes, 
Et vitaB mon strata via est, et gratia regum 
Pieriis tentata modis, ludusque repertas, 
Et longorum opemm finis : ne forte pudori 
Sit tibi Musa lyras sollers, et cantor Apollo. 

Natura fieret laudabile cajmen, an arte, 
Quscsitum est : ego nec studium sine divite vena, 
Nec rude quid possit v : deo ingenium ; alterius sie 
Altera potcit ov^rr w nt o.om'nrat amire. 



EPI9T0LA AD PISONE8 



2^ 



Qui st\idet optatam cursu contingere mctam, 

Mu>ta tulit fecitque puer, sudavit et alsit, 

Abstinuit Venere et vino. Qui Pythia can tat 

Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque magistrum. lid 

Nec Katis eat dixisse : Ego mira po 'emata par, go : 

Oca/ pet cxtremum scabies ; mihi tu q)e relinqui eii 

St, quod ? ion didici, sane nescire futeri. 

lit pr»co } ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas, 

Assent atores jubet ad lucrum ire poeta '±2\S 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummis. 

8i vero est, unctum qui recte ponere possit, 

Et spondere levi pro pauperc, et eripere atnb 

Litibus inplicitum, mirabor si scict inter- 

Noscere mendacem verumque beat us amicum. 426 

Tu seu donaris, seu quid donare voles cui, 

Noli to ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 

Lsetitise ; clamabit enim, Pulchre ! bene ! recte ' 

Pallescet super his ; etiam stillabit amicis 

Ex oculis rorem, saliet, tundet pede terrain, 430 

Ut, quae conduct© plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et faciunt propc plura dolentibus ex animo, sic 

Derisor vero pms laudatore movetur. 

Reffes dicuntur multis urguere culullis, 

Et torquere mero, quern perspexisse 】aborant, 435 

An sit amicitia digitus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe latentes. 

Quinctilio si quid recitares, Corrige sod&t 

HoCy aiebat, et hoc. Melius te posse uegai'es, 

fiis terque expertum frustra, delere jubebat, 440 

£t male tornatos incudi reddere versus. 

Si defendere delictum, quam vertere, malles, 

Nullum ultra verbura aut operam insumebat iuaiu k 7n ; 

Quin sine rivali teque et tua soius am ares. 

Vir bonus ct prudens versus repi ihendet inertes. 44* 

Colpabit duros, incomtis allir it atram 



I 

254 a. KORATIl Fi ACCI EriSTCLA AD PISONBB 

Tranavorso calamo signum, arabitiosa recidot 
Omamenta, parum claris lucem dare coget, 
Arguet ambigue dictum, mutanda notabit, 
Fiet Aristarchus ; non dicet : Cur ego amicum 番 M 

OJfenclam in nugis ? Hsb nugee seria ducent 
*t mala dcrisum semel exceptumque sinistre. 
f mala quern scabies aut morbus regius urget, 
/^ut fanaticus error, et iracunda Diana, 
/esanum tctigittse timent fugiuntque poetam, f6d 
i^ui sapiunt ; agitaut pueri, incautique sequuntur 
Hie dum sublimis versus ructatur, et errat, 
Si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps 
En puteum foveamve, licet, Succurrite, longuni 
Clamet, to cives ! ne sit, qui tollere curet. 460 
Si curet quis opem ferre, et demittore funem, 
Qui Bcis, an prudens hue se projecerit, atque 
aJcrvari nolit ? dicarn, Siculiquc poe'.in 
Narrabo interitum. Deus immortalis habun 
Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus JEiaam 465 
Insiluit. Sit jus liceatque perire poetis. 
Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti. 
Nec scmel hoc fecit ; nec, si retractus erit, jam 
Fiet homo, et ponet famossD mortis amo'sm. 
Nec satis apparet, cur versus factitet ; utrum 470 
Minxerit in patrios cineres, an. triste bidental 
Moverit incestus : certe furit, ac velut ursus 
OLjcctos caveae valuit si frangere clathros, 
fiidoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus : 
^uern vero airipuit, tenet, occiditque legenAo, 475 
Han miieuxa cutem ; nisi plena cmoru, liirudo 



拳 



I 



EXPLANATORV NOTES. 



ODES. 

Thk won? Ode (from the Greek Cj6^) was not introduced into the Latu 
HBDgne until the third or fourth century of our era, and wai then fii &t nsed 
to denote any pieces of a lyric nature. The grammarians, perceiving 
lhat Horace had more than onoe used the word carmen to designate thif 
kind of poetry, ventured to place it at the head of bis odes, and their ex 
ample has been followed by almost all succeeding editors. We have un 
very strong reason, however, to suppose that the poet himself ever in- 
tended this as a general title for his lyric productions. (Compare Ln 
Poisies D' Horace, par Sanadon, vol. i., p. 6.) 



Ode I. Addressed to Maecenas, and intended probably by Horace as a 
dedication to him of part of his odes. It is generally thoaght that the 
post collected together and presented on this occasion the first th. a ee 
books of his lyric pieces. From the complexion, however, ot' the last odo 
of the second book, it would appear that the third book was separately 
given to the world, and at a later period. 

The subject of the present ode is briefly this : The objects of hancati 
desire and pursuit are various. One man delights in the victor's prize at 
the public games, another in attaining to high political preferment a third 
in the pursuits of agricaltare, &c. My chief aim is the saccessfal culti- 
vation of lyric verse, in which if I shall obtain your applaase, O Maecenas, 
my lot will be a happy one indeed. 

1-2. 1. Mteccnas atavis, &. c. " Maecenas, descended from regal ances- 
tora." Caius Cilnias Maecenas, who shared with Agrippa the favor and 
confidence of Augustus, and distinguished himself by his patronage of 
literary men, belonged to the Cilnian family, and was descended from 
Blbius Volteirenas, one of the Lncumone8 t or ruling chieftains of Etraria. 
He is even said to have numbered Porsena among hi 靂 more remote an- 
eeslors. Compare Life, p. liii. "- 2. O el preesiditim, &c. " O both my 
patron and sweet glory." The expression dulce decus meum refers to tlia 
feeling of gratification entertained by the poet in having so illustrious a 
patron and friend. 一 The synalaapha is neglected in the commencement 
of this lice, as it always is in the case of 0、 Heu y Ah, &. c, since the voice 
]m sustained and the hiatus prevented by the strong feeling which these 
biteijcctions are made to express 

3. Sunt quos curriculo y &c. " There are some, wham it delights t, 
tOLve collected the Olympic dust ia the chariot-course," t. e., to have con- 
tended fur the prize at the Olympic games. The Olympic, the chief of' 
ttiD Grecian games, are here p-at ./car' h^oxn v f。 r any ffamcs. The Olvm 



'^5S EXrLANAI OBY NOTES. 一 BOuK I. OOB 



pic games were celebrated at Olympia 'n Elis, on the b&nki of the Ai 
phdas, aifcer an in;erval of four years, from U.e eleventh to the fiflconth oi 
the month Hecatomboson, which corresponds nearly to oar July. Tlioj 
were celebrated in honor of Jove, and the crown which formed the prize 
was of wild olive {pk'aster, kotlvoq). The other great games were th« 
Pythian^ the prize, a crown of bay ; the Nemean, a crown of fresh parsley, 
and the Isthmian^ fin<t a crown of pine, then of withered parsley, and 
thea &gain of pine. 

4 - Mttaque fervidis, Slc. " And whom the goal, skillfully avoided by 
he glowing wheels." The principal part of the charioteer's skill w«f 
displayed in coming as near as possible to the meta, or goals. In tha 
Roman circus, a low wall was erected which divided the Spatium, cx 
roco-gToundf into two unequal parts. At each of its extremities, and re«t> 
ing on hollow basements, were placed three pillars formed like cones - 
these cones were properly called metee; but the whole wa3 often collect- 
ively teimed in the singular meta. The chariots, after starting from the 
carceres, or barriers, where their station had been determined by lot, rftn 
seven times around the low wall, or spina, as CassiodoniB calls it. The 
chief object, therefore, of the rival charioteers, was to get so near to the 
spina as to graze [evitare) the meta in taming. This, of course, would give 
the shortest space to ran, and, if effected each heat, would ensure tlie 
victory. In the Greek hippodromes, the starting place and goal were 
each marked by a sqaare pillar, and half way between these was a third 

5-6. 5. l*almaque nobilis. " And tbe ennobling palm." Besides the 
3rown f a palm -branch was presented to the conqueror at the Grecian 
^arnes, as a general token of victory : this he carried in his hand. (Com- 
pare Pausanias y viit., 48.) ― 6. Terrantm domino*. "The ralers of the 
world," referring simply to the gods, and not, as some explain the phrag^ 
to tue Romrm people. 

7-10. 7. Hunc. Understand jiivat. Hunc in this line, ilium in the 
Mb, and ^av dent em in the 11th, denote, respectively, the ambitious aepi- 
rant aftci* popular favors, the eager speculator iu grain, and the content- 
ed farmer ~~ 8. Certal tergeminis y &c. " Vie with each other in raising 
him to tho highest offices in the state." Honoribus is here the dative, by 
a GroBcism, for ad honorcs. The epithet tergeminu is equivalent moielv 
to amplissitnis, and not, as some think, to the three offices of Curale iKdile^ 
PrsBtor, and Consal. Observe, moreover, the poetic idiom in certat toiierT, 
where the prose form of expression would be certat ul tollat, or certat ad 
icllendum. 一 9. Ilium. Understand juvat. 一 10. Libycis. One of the prin* 
uipal granaries of Rome was the fertile region adjacent to the Syrtis Minor, 
tnd called Byzacium or Emporiaa. It formed part of Africa Propria. 
Horace uses the epithet Libycis for Africis, iu imitation of the Greek 
writers, with whom Libya {Atf3vrj) was a general appellation for the ea 
tJte continent of Africa. Other grain coantries, on which Rome also io 
iied for a supply, were Egypt aud Sicily. 一 Areix.- The ancient thrcshrug 
toor was a raised place in the field, open on all sides to tbe wiod. 

11-15. 11 Oaudfintem. " While a third who delights."— Sotcum. 
M Wrtb the hoe/' .vayruhim is for sarrin'him, from sttrrio, 一 !fJ Ail/ l*a» 



£XPL.,、A*I )RY NOT«8.— BOCK I., ODE I. 25> 

cthJUtiombus, " By offer « of all the wealth of Attalua." Alluding to Atta 
lot £11 ., the iast king of Pergamas, famed for hi« riches, which he bt qucath- 
ed, together with his kingdom, to the Roman people. 一 13. Trabe Cyyvia 
The epithet *' Cyprian" seems to allude here not so roach to the commerce 
ni'the island, extensi\ 3 as it was, as to the excellent quality of its naval 
mber. The poet, it will be perceived, uses the expressions Cypria^ 
Myrtoum, IcaHis % Af ricum, Massici, Sec. Kar' k^oxv v * f° r an V ship, a»j 
lea, any waves, &c. 一 14. Myrtoum. The Myrtoan Sea was a part of tha 
Agean, extending from the promontory of Carystus, at the southeastern 
extremity of Enboca, to the promontory of Ma— lea in Laconia, and there 
fore lying off Attica, Argolis, and the eastern coast of Laconia. It read> 
«d eastward as far as the Cyclades. The name was derived from tbo 
•mall island of Myrtos near E u baca. — Pavidus nauta. " B ecoming a timid 
maiiuer." 一 15. IcariU jlnctifms. The Icarian Sea was part of the iEgean, 
between and also to the south qf Icaria and Samos. It derived its name, 
tfi the ancieut mythologists pretend, from Icaras, the son of Dsedalas, who, 
nooording to them, fell into it and was drowned, when accompanying hi 編 
father in his flight fi"m the island of Crete. 一 A fricum. The wind A fricut 
denotes, in strictness, the " west-goathwest." In translating the textf it 
will be infficient to render it by " southwest." It derived its name from 
the circumstance of its coming in the direction of Africa Propria. 

1»-19. 16. Mercator. The Mercalores, among the Romans, wero thooo 
who, remaining only a short time in any place, visited many coantriea. 
and were almost constantly occupied with the exportation or itupoitation 
of merchandise. The Ncgotialores y on the other hand, generally cod- 
linued for some length of time in a place, whether at Rome or in the 
provinces. 一 Metuens. "As long as he dreads." Equivalent to dum 
metuit. 一 Otium el oppidi, &c. " Praises a retired life, and the rural 
scenery around his native pkoe." Orelli, less correctly, joins in construc- 
tion oppidi sui otium ci rurcu Acidalias [ad Veil. Paterc.) conjecture! 
(uta for rura t which Bentley adopts. But the received reading is every 
way saperior. 一 18. Pauperiem. " Contracted means." Horace and the 
best Latin writers understand by pauperies and paupertas t not absolute 
poverty^ which is properly expressed by egestas, bat a state in which we 
are deprived indeed of the comforts, and yet possess, in some degree, the 
necessaries of life. 一 19. Massici. Of the Roman wines, the be" growths 
are styled indiscriminately Massicum and Falcrnvm. (vinam) . The Massio 
wine derived its name from the vineyards of Mons Massicus t now Monti 
Mastsico, netir the ancieut Sinaessa. Consult Excursus VIII. 

20-^1. 20. Partem solido, &c. Upon the increase of riches, the Bomtnl 
d *ferreo tne caena, which used to be their iaid-day meal, to the uinth hoo.i 
(01 three o'clock afternoon) in summer, and the tenth nour in winter, taking 
•nly a sl : ght repast (prandium) at noon. Nearly the whole of the natara' 
day was therefore devoted to affairs of business, or serious employmem 
ami was called, in consequence, dies solidus. Hence the voluptuary, whv 
logins to qaaft tnc old Massic before the accustomed hour, is said "to 
lake away a part from the solid day," or from the period devoted to mow 
active pursuits, and expend it on his pleasures. This is what the poet, 
mi another occasion (Ode 2, 6, 7) calls ' breaking the lingering day with 
*ine.*' diem moranfem frun^ft nero WcZf. .eu txjrrevi.y. andoratandg 



2ii0 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — ROOK 1., ,、D11 " 

by the words of the text, the taking of an adernc m sleep. ^ Membra 
stratus. Consult Zumpt., 》 456. 一 21. Arbi4o. The arbutus (or arlnti im) 
»s the arbnte, or wild strawberry-tree, corresponding to the ndfiaoo^ of the 
Greeks, the unedo of Pliny, and the Arbutus uwdo of Linnaeas, class 10 
The fruit itself is called K0/jafjov t fAEfxaiKvXov^ or fupiatKvXov [Atherutux 
3, 35), and in Latin arbutum. It resembles our strawberry very closely, 
except that it is larger, and has no seeds on the outside of ths pulp lik# 
tbtt frait. 

83-28. 22. Agua lene caput sacra. " The gently -m armaring soarte 
ff some sacred stream " The fountain-heads of streams were supposed 
to bo the residence of the river-deity, and hence were always held sacred 
PoiDtaiM generally were sacred to the nymphs ari. rural divinities 
Compare Jacob, Queesl. Epic, p. 13, seq. 一 23. El lituo tuba, &c. 44 Ami 
the sound of the trumpet interminglcd.with the notes of the clarion." 
The tuba was straight, and used for infantry ; the litu us was bent a littlt 
at the end, like ths auger's staff, and was used for the cavalry : it had tht 
harsher sound. 一 25. Detestata. " Held iu detestation." Taken passively 
Compare abominatus, in Epod. xvi., 8. 一 Manet. " Passes the night.' 
fSqoivalent to pernoctat. Compare Sat., ii" 3, 234. 一 Sub J (me frigido 
" Beneath the cold sky." Japitcr is hore taken figuratively for the bighei 
regions of the air. Compare the Greek phrase ino Ai6f. 一 Catulis. The 
dative by a Grsecism for a catulis. Scbeller and others erroneously an 
derstaud this of the young of the deer. 一 28. Teretes. "Well-wrought.' 
The epithet teres here convoys the idea of something smooth and round 
and therefore refers properly to the cords or strands of the ndt, as being 
smooth, and round, and tapering, and forming, therefore, a well-wrought 
net. Orelli adopts the same general idea, rendering teretes by festge 
dreht, " strong-twisted," i. e., ex funiculis complicatis et contortis eon 
nexte. -- Marsus. For Marsicns. The monntainoas country of the Marti, 
*n Italy, abounded with wild boars of the fiercest kind. 

29-34. 29. Me doctarum, &c. Croft conjectured Te in place of me, an 
emendation first made known by Hare, and subsequently approved of by 
Bentley, Sanadon, Markland, Fea, Wolf, and others. The main arga' 
ment in its favor is the antithesis which it produces. But the common 
reading is well explained and defended by Orelli. 一 Ederee. " Ivy-crowns.' 
The species of ivy here alluded to is the Edera nigra, sacred to Bacchaa, 
and hence styled Aiovvaia by the Greeks. It is the Edera poetica of 
Bauhin. Servias says that poets were crowned with ivy, because the 
poetic " furor'' resembled that of the Bacchanalians. 一 Doctartim pramia 
e rontium. Poets are called docti, " learned," in accordance with Grecian 
usage : iioidol ao<^ol. ~~ 30. Dis miscent superis. " Raise to the converse 
of the gods above." Literally, " mingle with the gods above,*' i e. % rais« 
to a level with them ; raise to the high heavens. Compare the explana- 
tion of Doring, " Corona ederacea ductus deorum admittor concilio." >~ 33. 
Euterpe cohibet, &c. Euterpe and Polyhymnia, two of the muses, are hen 
very appropriately introduced. Euterpe plays on the tibia, Polyhymnia ao 
oompanies her voice with the lyre ; hence both are naturally invoked by 
Uie lyric poet. ~ 34. Lcsbonm rtfngit, dec. " Refases to touch the Lcsbitn 
•yre." The lyre is called " Lesbian" in allasion to Sappho and Alcnus. 
both natives of Lesbos, ai: 1- both famed for their lyric prrxiactioni. 



liXPLANA I'ORV NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE II 2H) 

Oz^i LT. OclavianuH assumed his new title of Augustus on tbo 17th of 
. aiuary (xvi. Cal. Fehr.) t A.U.C. 727. On the followin^r \ight liomn 
k.M visited by a SL'vere tempest, and an inuhdation of the Tiber. The 
i»reseut ode was written in allusion to that event. The poet, regurdmg 
the visitation as a mark of divine displeasure, proceeds to inquire on what 
deity they are to call for succor. Who is to free the llomans from the 
pollution occasioned by their civil strife ? Is ii Apollo, god of prophecy 
Or Veuas, parent of Rome 7 Or Mars, founder of the Roman line 7 Oi 
Mercary, messenger of the skies 7 一 It is the last, the avenger of Cassar, the 
ioitj" wbc abrouds his godhead beneath the person of Augustus. lie alone. 
K heaven spare him to the earth, can restore to as the favor of Jove, end na 
hcaal prosperity. 一 Many of the old commentators refer the subject of thijf 
i da to the prodigies that occurred on the death of Julius Caesar, and somu 
taoJern scholars have adopted the same idea ; but this is decidedly inferior 

1-4. 1. Terris. A GroDcisra for in terra*. 一 Nivis. It was not the snow 
itself that formed the prodigy, but the heavy fall of it, and the violence oi 
the accompanying storm. Snow may be an unusual visitant at tho presert 
day in central Italy, but it does not appear to have been so in the time ot 
Horace. Consult the remarks of Arnold on this subject, Hist, of Rome, 
voL i., p. 499, seqq. 一 Dine grandinis. Every thing sent by the wrath of 
the gods (dci ira) was termed dirmn. 一 2. Pater. "The Father of goda 
and men." Jupiter. Tlarrip uvt)fj(jv Tt^cuv re. 一- Rubentedextera. "With 
bis red right hand." Red with the reflected glare of the thamlerl»olt : an 
deff*very probably borrowed from some ancient paintiDg.— 3. Sacras arces 
' The sacred summits (of the temples)." The lightning struck the Capitoi 
tontaiuing the temples of Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno. It is unusaal tn 
tind jaculari with the accusative of the thing that is struck. Compare, 
however, Od.、 iii" 12, 11, " Jaculari cervos.'* -一 4. Urbcm. " The city," i. e. 
Rome. Compare Quintilian (6, 2), " Urbcm Rornam accipimus." 

5-10. 5. Gentes. Understand timcr,ten. " He has terrified the nations, 
fearing lest," &c. Analogous to the Greek idiom, k(^6^7jae /irj.S. Sa- 
cutum Pyrrha. Alluding to the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly, whon. 
according tu the legend, Deucalion and his spouse Pyrrha were the only 
mortals that were saved. -一 Nova rronstra. '• Strange prodigies," i. e., 
wonders before unseen. ― 7. Proteus. A sea-deity, son of Oceanus and 
Tethys, gifted with prophecy and the power of assuming any form at 
pleasure. His fabled employment was to keep •• the flocks" of Neptune, 
t. " the phocte, or seals. ― 8. Viscre. A Graecism for ad visendum. ― 10. Pa- 
lumbis. The common reading is columbis, bnt the true one is palumbis. 
The " p'i'umbro," or " wood-pigeons," construct their nests on the brancb- 
99 and in the hollows of trees ; the columba, or " doves," are kept in dove* 
U is idle to say, in opposition to this, that columbte is the generi: 

aam e 

13-1 ?. 13. yiavum nbcrim. " The yellow Tiber." A recent travel 
er rema.'ks, witli regard to this epithet of the Tiber : " Yellow is an ex 
ieediugly ui descriptive translation of that tawny color, that mixture of 
red, brown, gray, and yellow, which should answer to fiavus here ; bat } 
nay not deviate from the established phrase, nor do I knew a better " 
[it-otne *、• *he Nineteenth Cenim-v. vol. i. p. 84.) 一 Bclc^iis. "Being li«u< 



EXPLANATORY NOflSS. ― BOOK 1 , OliE iL 



ed back , -- 1 4. Liiore Etrusco. The violence of the storm forced the waves 
of the Tiber from the upper or Tuscan shore, and caused an inundation on 
the lower bank, or left side of the river, wnere Rome was situ%to<l. Some 
a«ike litore Etrusco refer to the sea-coast, and suppose that the violence 
of the storm drove back the waters of the Tiber from the mouth of the 
rivor, and that this retrocession caused the inaDdation spoken of. Otu 
explanation, however, suits the context better, and especially the u sinis- 
tra labitur ripa," in line 1 8, seq. 一 15. Mcniumenla regis. " The veneratod 
memorial of King- Numa." Observe the force of the plural in nonumenta^ 
which we have ventured to express by an epithet. Tho allusion is to the 
f alace of Numa, which, according to Plutarch, stood iu the immediate 
Ticinity of ttie Temple of Vesta, and was distinct from his other residence 
on the Qairinal Hill. (Pint., Vit. Num,, c. 14.) 一 16. Vesta, What made 
t'tie 9m en a peculiarly alarming one was, that the sacred fire was kept in 
this temple, on the preservation of which the safety of the empire was 
HupposeJ in a great measure to depend. If a vestal virgin allowed the 
■acred firo to be extinguished, she was scourged by the Fontifex Maxi 
mas. Suoli an accident was nlways esteemed most unlucky, and expiated 
by offering extracirdinary sacrifices. The fire was lighted up again, not 
trora another fire, but from the rays of the sun, iu which manner it waf 
renewed every year on the first of March, that day being anciently the be 
qinuing of the year. 

17-19. 17. Ilia dum ! te, Jtc. " While the god of the »*— eain, lending 
too ready an ear to his sponse, proudly shows himself ai> avenger to tho 
too complaining Ilia." We have followed Oi-elli in joinir^ nimium with 
qverenti. It may also be taken with ultorem, " an intern; /crate avenger," 
but the collocation of the wt irds seems to be more in favo of the former, as 
Orelii correctly remarks. The allusion is to Ilia or Kea Silvia, the mother 
of Romulus and Remus, and the ancestress of Julias Cw ? ar, whose assaa- 
sination she is here represented as making the subject »f too prolonged 9 
complaint, since the expiatory sufferings of Rome had 1 Iready been aaffi- 
niently severe. Ancient authorities differ in relation toJ er fate. Eunius 
cited by Porpliyrion in his scholia on this ode, makes /\er to have been 
cast into the Tiber, previously to which she had becoir i the bride of the 
Anio. Horace, on the contrary, speaks of her as having tnarried the goo 
of the Tiber, which tie he r e designates as uxoHus a>^K7t. Servias (ao 
/En., 1, 274) alludes to this version of the fable, as a/V»p»-.«d by Horace 
and others. Acron also, in ;:is scholia on the present pt s"?e, speaks of 
ilia as having married the god of the Tiber. Accord ^1^ b - the account 
which he gives, Ilia was buried on the banks of the A)\i' , ui^ the river, 
having overflowed ite borders, carried her remains doivr to Tiber 
hence she was said to have espoused the deity of tho H.3v l^ntionec' 
stream. It may not be improper to add here a remark of Niex^hr's ir 
relation to the name of this female. " The reading Rhea," cbjei.v^s thfi 
historian, "is a corruption introduced by the editors, who \ery u"aeasoD 
ably bethought themselves of the goddess : rea seems only to have signi 
fied *the colprit,' or *the guilty woman:' it reminds us of reafemina^ 
which often occars, particularly in Boccacio." (Niebukr s Rorxan Hu 
tory、 vol. i., p. 176, Cambr. transl.) 一 19. Jove non vrobanie. .lupiter di» 
t)ot approve that the Tiber should undertake to avcrga Xhz death of GmMr 
% task wlii?!' ho bad reserved for Auirus.hia 



iflXPLANATORl NOTE». 一 BOOK I. } ODE I . 2t}'^ 

S*-27. 32. Graves PerscR. "The formidable Partbians " Compare 
n* regards the force oi gravis, the Bimilar employment of (3cpv( in Green 
Thaa Alexander is called (3apbg Hifxratcn. ( Theocrit.. xvii., 19.J 一 Persnt 
Horace frequently uses the terms Medi and Persa to denote the I'nrthiaQs 
The Median preceded the Persian power, which, after the interval of th« 
3recian donxinion, was succeeded by the Parthian empire. The epithet 
graves allades to the defeat of Crassus, and the check of Marc Antony.— 
Perirent, For perituri f uissent. (Zumpt, $ 525.) — 23. Vitio parentwn 
rara juvantue. u Posterity thinned through the guilt of their fathori." 
Alluding to the sanguinary conflicts of the civil contest. 一 25 Vocti. F<f 
mvocet. ~~ Rnentis imperi rebus. " To the affairs of the falling empire. 41 
Uebus by a Graecism for ad res. 一 26. Prece qua. " By what sapplicaticms." 
••87. Virgines sanctte. Alluding to the vestal virgins. 一 Minus audienteti 
yirmina. " Less favorably hearing their solemn prayers." Carmen it 
frequently used to denote any set form of words either in proffe or verso 
The reference here is to prayers aud supplications, repeated day after day, 
and constituting so many set forms of the Roman ritual. As Julius Caesar 
was Pontifex Maximus at the time of his death, he was also, by virtue ot 
his office, priest of Vesta ; it being particularly mcambent on the Pontifes 
Maximas to exercise a superintending control over the rites of that god 
dess. Hence the anger of the goddess toward the Romans on account of 
Cesar's death. 

Q9-39. 29. Parfv.i scelna expiandi. " The task of expiating our guilt."" 
Scclvs refers to the crimes aud excesses of the civil conflict. They who 
were polluted by the stain of human blood were excluded from all partici 
pation :n the sacred rites until proper atonement had been made. This 
atonement in the present case is to consist, not in punishing the slayers of 
Jaesar, which had already been done, but in placing the state once more 
on the iii*m basis of peace and concord. As this seemed too great a task 
5or a mere mortal, tlie aid of the gods is solicited. {Gesncr, ad he.) 一 31. 
N 楚 be candentcs, &c. " Having thy bright shoulders shrouded with a clcud." 
The gods, when they were pleased to manifest themselves to mortal eye, 
were generally, in poetic imagery, clothed with clouds, in order to hide 
from mortal gaze the excessive splendor of their presence. 一 Aug^ur Apollo 
' Apollo, god of prophecy." 一 33. Erycina ridens. Smiting goddess oi 
Eryx." Venus, so colled from her temple on Mount Eryx in Sicily. 一 34 
Qnam Jocus cirrum, &c. " Around whom hover Mirth and Love." ""- o6 
Respicis. "Tboa again beholdeat with a favoring eye." When the god 窗 
turued their eyes toward their worshippers, it was a sign o r favor; when 
Viiey averted them, of displeasure. ― A uctor. " Founder of the Itomau 
line." Addressed to Mars as the reputed father of Romulus and RemuM 
—39. Marsi. The MSS. have Mauri, for which Faber conjectured Mtirsi. 
tod this last has been adopted by Dacier, Bentley, Cunningham, Sana 
don, and others. The people of Mauretania were never remarkable foi 
tbeir valor, and their cavalry, besides, were always decidedly superior to 
Ibeir infantry. The Marsi, on the other hand, were reputed to have been 
nee of the most valiant nations of Italy. The modern G erraan editors hav« 
jf«f^"rally i-etained Mauri, and give peditis the meaning' of" d emoanteci." 
a&ftking the allusion to be to the defeat of Juba at Thapsua. Tliis, how 
ever, is extremely unsatisfactory. 一 Crucntum. This epithet beast Hiill)' 
dosoribes the foe, as transfixed by the weapon of the Marsi an mid " wel 
«K-ik.g in his blood." 



204 KXPLANATORy NOTES?, — BOOK !., OUB li 



41. Sive mutata, &c. " Or if, winged son of the bcmg» MaU 
having changed thy form, thoa assumest that of a youthful hero on 4m 
earth." Mercury, tho offspring of Jupiter and Mai a, is here addrossed 
The epithet " winged" has reference to the peculiar mode in which Mer 
cury or Hermes was represented in aucieut works of art, namely, witb 
wiugs attached to his petasas, or travelling hat, and also to his ttaii' and 
nandals. 一 Juvetiem. Referring to Augustus. He was now, indeed, thirty 
•iz years of age ; but the term juvenis applies to all in the bloom and 
likewise prime of life ; iu other words, it comprehended the whole period 
*3xmn eighteen to forty or forty-five. 一 43. Pattens vocuri, Sec. "Suft'ering 
ihyi«lf to l/u called the avenger of Caesar." An imitation of the Gieek 
kdioin, for vocari Ctesaris ultor&m. 一 46. Lcctus. "Propitious."-— 47. Ini- 
{uum. "Offended at."— ^48. Odor aura. " Too early a blast." Supply 
^ucto. M jre freely, 41 an untimely blast." The poet prays that the de- 
parture of Augustus for the skies may not be accelerated by the crimes 
lad vie" if his people. 一 49. Magnos triumphos. Augustus, in the month 
of August. A.U.C. 725, triumphed for three days in succession: On the first 
dixy 3、 er the Pannonians, Dalmatians, Iapydae, and their neighbors, to- 
gelhe-f with some Gallic and Germanic tribes; ou the second day, for the 
viotcy at A Jtium ; on tbe third, for the reduction of "Egypt. The saccessea 
:'vt'r the Gauls and Germans had been obtained for him by bis lieutenant, 
0. Carinas. ― 50. Pater atque Princeps. Augustus is frequently styled on 
medals, Paler PatritK, a title which the succeeding emperors adopted from 
lim. ― 51, McdtJS "The eastern nations." Alluding 'particularly to tho 
? arthians. Com pure note on line 22 of thin Ode. 一 Equitare inultos. "To 
irttiisgress their limits with impunity." To make unpunished inroads into 
the Roman territory. The main strength of the P arthians lay in tlieir 
-avalry. Hence the pec-uliar propriety of equitare. 



(3D£ III. Addressed to the ship which was about to convey Virgil to 
the shores of Greece. The poet prays that the vq^age may be a safe and 
propitious one : alarmed, however, at tbe same time, by the idea of {ho 
dangers which threaten his friend, he declaims agaiust the inventor of 
navigation, and the daring boldness of mankind in general. 一 According to 
Heyne ( Virgilii vita per annos digesta), this ode would appear to have 
been written A.U.C. 735, when, as Donatas states, the bard of Mantaa 
b&d determined to retire to Greece and Asia, and employ there the space 
nf three years in correcting and completing the ^Eneid. iDonat., Virq 
tit. $ 51.) " Anno vero quinquagesimo secundo" observes Donatas, "■ui 
ultimam nanum ^Eneidi imponcret, statuit in Grceciam et Asiam sec& 
dtre, trienniogve continuo omnem operam limationi dare, ut reliqua vtta 
iantuvi philosophic vacaret. Sed cum ingressus iter Athenis occurrissd 
Augusto, ab Oriente Roman revertenti, una cu^fi CcBsare redire statuit, 
Ac eum Megara, vioinum Athenis oppidum, visendi gratia pcteret, languo- 
rem nactvs est : quern non intermissa navigatio avxit, ita ut gramar in 
dies, tandem Brundisium adventarit, ubi iiebus paucis obiit, X. K. il- Chs 
l^br. C. Sentio t Q. Lucretio Coss. 

,-~4. 1. Sic tc Diva, poterist Cypri dec. "O Ship, that owest to tiifi 
iboros of Attica, Virgil intrusted by i's to thy care, give him ap in aifet} 
【t» his destined hnveu), and i reserve the one half of ray soul, to m«r the 



K.XPLA^.VI'Oi;y NOTES. 一 BOOK 1 )DE III. 30A 

^uJdefB wlio rules over Cyprus, ao may the brothars of Helen, birght la 
minariu8, and the father of the winds direct thy course, all others bei"g 
ooniined except Iapyx." Observe that sic t in sach constructions as tlie 
present, becomes a conditional form of wishing : " if you <io as I wish you 
to do, go (i. c, in that event) may sach or such a result happen unto you." 
Here, however, in order to render it more forcible, the boaditional sic ifl 
placed first* which cauuot, of course, be imitated in trauslacing. 一 Diva 
poUtm Cypri. Venus. From her power over the sea, she was invoked 
by tlie Cnidians, as EvirAoia, the dispenser of favorable voyages. (Pau 
*an. t i., 14.) 一 2. Fralres Helena. Castor and Pollux. It was the partic 
olar office of " the brothers of Helen" to bring aid to mariners in time uf 
danger. They were identified by the ancionts with those luminous ap- 
pearances, resembling balls of fire, which are seen on the masts and yarcli 
of vessels before and after storms. ~ 3. Ventoi-um pater, ^olus. The isl- 
and its which he was fabled to have reigned was Strongyle, the moJeni 
Strot*,boli. 一 4. Obstrictis aliis. Au allusion to the Homeric fable oi 
(Jlyghes and bis bag of adverse winds. 一 Iapyga. The west-northwest. 
It received its name from lapygia, in Lower Italy, which country lay 
partly in the line of its direction.' It was the most favorable wind for sail 
ing from Brundiaiam toward the southern parts of Greece, the vessel bav 
Ing, in tbe course of her voyage to Attica, to double the promontories of 
Tsenarv^ and Malea. 一 Animm dimiditi m mem. A fond and frequent ex 
pression to denote intimate friendship. Thus th« old scholiast remarks 
^ikia LotI iiia ^rvxh ^ ^>oiv adfiaaiv. 

sl-15 9. Hh robiir et <bs triplex, &c. " That mortal had the strength 
of triple brass around his breast." RoOur et tes triplex is here put for to 
bur ttrii triplicis, and the allusion may perhaps be to the ancient coats ol 
mail, that were formed of iron rings twisted within one another like cliainsi 
tr else to those which were covered with plates of iron, triplitri orditie, in 
the form of scales. ― 12. Africum. The west-southwest wind, answering 
to tho Airff of the Greeks. 一 13. Aquilonibus. The term Aquilo denotes, in 
ttrictuess, the wind which blows from the quarter directly opposite to 
that denominated Africas. A strict translation of both terms, however, 
would diminish, in tbe present instance, the poetic beauty of the passage. 
The whole may be rendered as follows : " The headlong fury of the south* 
west wind, contending with the northeastern blasts." 一 14. Tristes Hya' 
ias. "The rainy Hyades." The Hyades were seven of the foarteen 
daughters of Atlas, their remaining sisters being called Pleiades. These 
virgins bewailed so immoderately the death of their brother Hyas, who 
was devoured by a lion, that Jap iter, out of compass ion, changed them into 
■tars, ttnd placed them in the head of Taurus, where they still retain their 
grieK their rising and setting being attended with heavy rains. Hence the 
epithet tristes (" weeping," "rainy") applied to them by the poet. ― 15. 
Hadri<B. Some commentators insist that HadritE is liere used for the sea 
in general, because, as the Adriatic faces the southeast, the remark of lior- 
ace cannot be trae of the south. In the age of the poet, however, the 
term Hadria was ased in a very extensive sense. The sea which it de* 
j^nated was considered rs extending to the southern 3oast of J*.aiy and 
Mm> western shores of Greece. 

>7 Quern mortis timuit irnlu^i. " What path of death did 

M 



ttHi EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK I. % ODE If. 

He fear." i. e. y what kind of death. Equivalent to qujm mam ad Oixwn 
-IS. Hcclis oculis. " With steady gaze," i. e. t with fearless eye. Moil 
editions read xiccis oculis, which Bentley altered, on conjecture, to reciis 
Others prefer Jixis oculis. 一 19. Et infames scopulos Aeroceraunia. "And 
the A.croceraunia, ill-famed clitts." The Ceraania were a chain of inoonc 
Kins along the cuast of Northern Bpirus, forming part of the boundary b» 
tweeu it and lllyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond 
Oricum formed a bold promontory, and was termed Acroceraunia ('Axpo 
%epavvia) t from its summit (uxpa) being often 8 track by lightning (Kepav 
voq). This coast was much dreadod by the mariners of antiquity, becaiue 
me mountains were supposed to attract storms ; and Augustus nariowl« 
->caped shipwreck here when returuing from Actium. Tlie Acrocerau 
•iA aro now called Monte Chimera. 

-*-39. 22. Disstociabili. " Forbidding all intercourse." Taken in an 
vttve sense. 一 24. TranssiliunL "Bound contemptuously over." 一 
Andax omnia ptrpeti. A Greek constraction : ^paavg ndvra rX^vat- 
* Boldly daring to encounter every hardship." 一 25. Per vetilum et nefas 
** Through what is forbidden by all laws both human and divine." Thfj 
common text has vetilum nefas f which makes a disagreeable pleonasm 
The reading which we have adopted occurs in two MSS., and is decidedly 
preferable. 一 27. Atrox Iapeti genus. "The resolute son of Iapetus. 
Prometheus. We have adopted atrox、 the conjecture of Bothe. The 
common reading is andaz^ but the repetition of this epithet appears ex 
tremely anpoetical. As regards the force of atrox here, compare Od.、 ii. 
l t 24 : '* Prater atrocem animum Cflf^owts."— 28. Fi'audc mala. " By cu 
unhappy fraud." The stealing of the fire from heaven is called •' an un 
happy fraud," in allusion to Pandora and her box of evils, with which Ju 
piter punished mankind on account of the theft of Prometheus. ~ "29. Pos> 
ig)tem af.he.ri a do mo subductnm. " After the fire was drawn down bj 
stealth from its mansion in the skies." 一 33. Corripuit gradutn. " Acco' 
erated its pace." We have here the remnant of an old tradition respect 
ing the longer duration of life in primeval times. ― 34. Exvertus (est) 
" Btsayed." 一 36. Pcrrupit Acheronta Hercnleus labor, " The toiling Her* 
cales burst the bairiers of the lower world." Alluding to the descent of 
Hercales to the shades. Acheron is here pat tigaratively for Orcas. Tb« 
expression Hercnleus labor is a Greecism, and in imitation of the Homeric 
form Bi" 'Hpa« 又 j?" 力. (Od., xi., COO.) So, also, Kacxropof ,3ia {Pind n 
Pytk" xi., 93) ; TvJeof /iiu {^E»ch., ii. C. Th., 77), &c— 39. Calum. Al- 
luding to the hfi.tt\6 of the giants with the gods. 



O^k IV. The ode commences with a description of the return of spring. 
After alluding to the pleasurable feelings attendant apon that delighttaJ 
iea»on of the year, the poet urges his friend Sextius, by a favorite Epica 
rcan argument, to cherish the fleeting hour, since the night of the grav< 
would soon close around him, and bring all enjoyment to an end. 

The transition in this ode, at tlie 13th line, has been censured by soma 
as too abrupt. It only wears this appearance, however, to those who are 
anacquainted with ancient customs and the associated feelings of the BLa 
ttmns. " To one who did not know," observes Mr. Dunlop, " that the mor 
Inary festivals almost immediately succeeded those of Faoniu the ltnof 



KX?LANATORY NOTES. 一一 BOOK !., ODE IV. 204 

m question might ippear disjointed and iucon^raoas. Bat to a itoouai^ 
who at once could .race the association in the mind of the poet, the sad 
den transition from gayety to gloom would seem but an echo of the senti 
meut which be himself annaally experienced." 

1-4. 1. Solvitur acris kiems t dec. " Severe winter is melting awaj 
beueath the pleasing change of spring and the western breeze." Liter* 
ally, "is getting loosened or relaxed." 一 Vtris. The spring conamenced, 
according to Varro (R. 11., i., 28), on the seventh day before the Ides of 
?ebruary (7 Feb.), on which day, according to Columella, the wind Favo- 
iVi% began to blow. 一 Favoni. The wind Favonius received its name ei 
? har irom its being favorable to vegetation ( favens geniturat) % or from iti 
fostering the grain sown in the earth (fovens sata). "-" 2. Trahu ntque sic 
cas mackinte carinas. " And the rollers are drawing down the dry hulls 
(to the shore)," i. e., the dry balls are getting drawn down on rollers. As 
tho ancients seldom prosecuted any voyages in winter, their ships during 
that season were generally drawn up on land, and stood on the shore sup- 
ported by props. When the season for navigation returned, they wcr ^ 
drawn to the water by means of ropes and levers, with rollers placed i>o 
low. 一 3. I^ni. •* In his station by the fire-side " 一 4. Cams pruiuU 
" With the hoar-frost." 

5-7. 5. CyUierea. " The goddess of Cythera." Venus : so called trom 
the island of Cythera, now Ccrigo, near the promontory of Malea, in the 
vicinity of which island she was fabled to have firat landed. ― Choros du 
eit. •* Leads up the dances." 一 Imminente luna. " Under the full light of 
the moon." The moon is here described as being directly overhead, and, 
by a beautiful poetic image, threatening, as it were, to fall. 一 6. Jundceqnt 
Nymphis Gratite decentes. 44 And the •comely Graces joined hand in hand 
with the Nymphs." We have rendered decentes here by the epithet 
" comely." In truth, however, there is no single term in our language 
which gives the fall meaning of the Latin expression. The idea intended 
to be conveyed by it is analogous to that implied in the to Ka?.6v of the 
Greeks, i. e., omne quod pulckrum et decorum est. Wc may therefoie 
best convey the meaning of Grafi<B decentes by a paraphrase : " the Graces, 
arbitresses of all that is lovely and becoming.'' 一 7. Dum graves Cyclo- 
piim, 6cc. " While glowing.Valcan kindles up the laborious forges of the 
Cyclopes." The epithet ardens is here equivalent to Jiammis relncens, 
and beautifully describes the person of the god as glowing amid the light 
which streams from his forge. Horace is thought to have imitated in thio 
passage some Greek poet of Sicily, who, in depicting the approach of 
■pring, lays the scene in his native island, with Mount ^Stna smoking in 
the distant horizon. The interior of the mountain is the fabled Bcene of 
Vulcan's labors ; and bere lie is busily employed in forging thunderbolts 
for the monarch of the skies to hurl during the storms of spring, which are 
of frequent occurrence in that climate. 一 Cyclopum. The Cydope« were 
the sons of CgbIus and Terra, and of the Titan race. In the lattr legend 
here followed, they are represented as the assistants of Vulcan. 

9-12 9. Nitidnm. " Shining with unguents." 一 Caput impedire. M 
the bantiaets and festive meetings of the ancients, the guests weie crown 
ad with garlands of flowers, herbs, or leaves, tied and adorned with rib 



2M EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE V- 

Dons, 01 with the inner rind of the linden-tree. Ihese crowns, it w%i 
thought, prevented intoxication. 一 MyrLo. The myrtle was sacred to Ve 
oas. 一 10. Soluta " Freed from the fetters of winter." 一 11. Fauna 
Fnunus, the guardian of the fields and flocks, had two annual festivaig 
called Fau nulia, one on the Ides (13th) of February, and the other on th^ 
Nones (5th) of December. Both were marked by great hilarity ami jo) 
一 12. Seu poscat agna、 &c. " Either with a lamb, if he demand one, ct 
with a kid, if lie prefer that offering." Many editions read agnam aj,d 
iMdum i but moot of the MSS., and all the best editions, exhibit the let?* 
don which we have given. 

lb-16. lb. Pallida Mors. &c. " Pale Death, advancing with impartial 
footstep, knocks for admitlunce at the cottajes ot the poor and the lofty 
dwellings of the rich." Horace uses the term rex as equivalent to beatxa 
nr dives. As regards the apparent want of counoctiun between this por- 
tion of thh ode and that which immediately precedes, compare what liaa 
^eeu said in tha introiluctory remarks. ― 15. Inchoare. " Day after day to 
• enow." 一 i6 Jam le p rem el no.c, &c. The passage may be paraphrased 
as Vullows : "Soon will the night of the grave descend upon thtse, and tliti 
uiane» of i'sblc crowd around, and the shadowy iiome of Pluto become ulso 
thine own." Tlie zeugma in the verb prcmo, by which it is made to as- 
sume a new meaning in each clause of the sentence, is worthy of notice. 
By the maues of iabie are meant the shades of the departed, often made 
the theme o f the wildest fictions of poetry. Observe that fabula is not 
tho genitive here, bat the nominative plural, and equivalent to fabuiosi 
Compare Call'imachus, Epigr.、 xiv., 3 : ri 6i HAovtuv ; MOdof : and Per 
<ius t Sat n v., 152 : " Cinis el manes et jabula Jies." 

17-\8. 17. Simul. For Simul ac. 一 18. Talis. This may either in the 
adjective, or else the ablative plural of talus. If the former, the meaning 
of the passage will be, " Thou shalt neither cast lots for the sover3igflt> 
of ouch wine as we have here, nor," Sec. ; whereas if talis be regarded as 
a noun, the interpretation will be, " Thou shalt neither cast lots with tho 
dice for the sovereignty of wine, nor," &c. This latter mode of rendering 
the passage is the more usual one, but the other is certainly more anima- 
ted and poetical, and more in accordance, too, with the very early and 
curipus belief of the Greeks and Romans in relation to a future state. 
They believed that the souls of the departetf, with the exception of those 
who had offended against the majesty of the gods, were occupied in the 
iower world with the unreal perform awce of the same actions which haj 
formed their chief object of pursuit in the regions of day. Thus, the friem 
of Horace will still quaff his wine in the shades, but the cup aud its coi 
tents will be, like their possessor, a shadow and a dream : it will not t e 
,uck wine as he drank upon the earth. 一 As regards the expression, " sov 
creignty of wine," it means nothing more than tlie office of arbiter bibendi 
•vc " toast-master." (Compare Ode ii., 7, 25.) 



Ode V Pyrrha, having secured the affections of a new admirer, is ad 
Messed by the poet, who had himself experienced her inconstancy nnc 
faithlessness. *He compares her youthful love - to one whom a suddnn 
aikI daiii;erons tempest threatens to surprise on the det*i) - h.nnsolf Ui tiitf 
wwriner just rescued from \\n uurils of shipwreck. 



KXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK I , OOK VI. 26& 

1 一" I 1. Multa in rosa. " Crowned with many a ro*e.,, An imitatioi 
of the Greek idiom, tv frre<i>dvoig elvai (Eurip^ Here. Fur., 677).— 2. U, 
gel. Understand te. " Prefers unto thee his impassioned suit." Vrpel 
would apera to imply an ufFected coyness and reserve on tf«e part ofPyiTha, 
In onier to elicit more powerfully the feelings of bim who addresses her. 一 
5. Simplex munditiis. "With simple elegance. * Milton translates this, 
" Plain in thy neatness." 一 Fidem mvtatosque dws. " Thy broken iaith, 
and the altered gods." The gods, who once seemed to smile upon hi 廳 
loit, are now, under the epithet of mutati (•• altered"), represented ai 
frowning upon it, advent to his prayer. 

7—12. 7. Nigris ventis. " With darkening blasts," i. e., blasts darken 
iog the heavens with storm-clouds. The epithet nigri, here applied tu 
the winds, is equivalent to " caelum nigrum reddentes" 一 8. Emirabitnr 
insolens. " Unaccustomed to the sight, shall be lost in wonder »t." Ob* 
■orve that cmirabitur is a ana^ ? ieyofiEvov for the Golden Age of Latinity, 
but is well defended here by MSS. The verb occars subsequently in Ap- 
pulein8 {Met., p. 274) and Luctatius Placidus (Enarr.fab., p. 25l t Munck.). 
It means "to wonder greatly at," "to be lost in wonder at," and to indi- 
cate this feeling by the gestures. To the same class belong elaudare, 
emonere t emutare, everberare. Jcc. ― 9. Anrca. "All golden," i. c, poMest- 
ing a heart swayed by the purest affection toward him. — 10. Vacuam 
"Free from all attachment to another." 一 11. Nescius aura fallaeu, 
Pyrrha is likened in point of fickleness to the wind. 一 12. Niles. An idea 
borrowed from the appearance presented by the sea when reposing in a 
calm, its treacherous waters sparkling beneath the rays of the sun. 

13. Me tabula sacer, &c. Mariners rescued from the dangers of ship 
wreck were accustomed to suspend some votivo tablet or picture, together 
with their moist vestments, in the temple of the god by whose iuterposi- 
tion they believed themselves to have been saved. In these paintings, the 
■torm, and tbo circumstances attending their escape, were carefully de- 
lineated. In the age of Horace, Neptune received these votive offerings ; 
in that of Juvenal, lsis. Ruined mariners frequently carried such picture! 
tbout with them, iu order Co excite the compassion of those whom tbey 
chanced to meet, describing at the same time, iu songs, the particulvs of 
their story. (Compare tl.e Epistle to the Pisos, v. 20.) Horace, in likf 
manner, speaks of the votive tablet which gratitude has prompted him to 
offer in thought, his peace of mind having been nearly shipwrecked by the 
brilliant but dangerous beauty of Pyrrha. 



. Ode VI. M. Vipsauiu 驕 Agrippa, to wbom this ode is addressed, was the 
faatimate friend of Augustus, and a celebrated commander, distingaishod 
for various exploits both by land and sea. It was he who, aa commandet 
of Hie naval forces of Augustus, defeated Sextus Pompeios oft' the coast 
of Sicily, and was afterward mainly instrumental in gaining the victory at 
Actiam. He became eventually the son-in-law of Augustus, having mar 
ricd, at his request, Julia, th<j widow of Marcellas. The Pantheon wej 
erected by him. He is thought to have complained of the silence which 
Horace bad preserved in relation to him throaghout his various piero» 
The poet seeks to justify himself on the groand of **m utter inability " 



270 EXPLANAI'OIie NOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODA VI 



bandls to lofty a theme. " Varius will sing thy praises, Agripp:^ wtti 
all thu fire of a second Homer. For my own part, I would as soon attempt 
to describe in poetic numbers the god o' battle, or any of the heroes of tte 
Iliad, as undertake to tell of thy fame and that of the royal Caesar.' The 
iangaage, however, in which tho bard's excuse is conveyed, while it speak* 
a high euiogiam on the characters of Aagnstas and Agrippa, proves, at the 
time, bow well qaalified he was to execute the task w hich he declines 
Sanadon, without the least shadow of probability, endeavors to trace ma 
lUegorical meaning throughout the entire ode. He supposes Pollio to be 
meant by Achilles, Agrippa and Messftla by the phrase duplicU Ulireit 
Antony and Cleopatra by the " house of Pelops," Statilias Taarus by thfl 
g3d Mars, Marcus Titius by Meriones, and Maecenas by the son of Tydetu 

1 . Scribiris Vario, &c. " Thou shalt be celebrated by Varias, a bird 
of Mtconian strain, as valiant," &c. Vario and aliti are dative s» pat by a 
Graecism for ablatives. 一 The poet to whom Horace here alludes, and who 
is again meutioned on several occasions, was Lucius Varias, famed for hi, 
epic aud tragic productions. Quintilian (10, 1) asserts, that a tragedy of 
his, entitled Thyestes, was deserving of being compared with any of the 
Grecian models. He composed, also, a panegyric on Augustus, of which 
kbo aDcient writers speak in terms of high commeDdation. Macrobias 
[SaL t 6, 1) has preserved some fragments of a poem of his ou < loath. 
Varias was one of thb friends who introduced Horace to the notice of Mn- 
conas, and, along with Plotias Tucca, was intrusted by Aagnstas with 
the revision of the iEneid. It is evident that this latter poem could not 
nave yet appeared when Horace composed the present ode, since he would 
never certainly, in that event, have given Varias the preference to Virgil. 

8-5. 2. Mttonii carminis aliti. " A bird of Mseonian song," i. c, a poet 
who sings with all the majesty of Homer, and who wings as bold a flight 
In other words, a second Homer. The epithet " Mseonian" contains an 
allasiou to Homer, who was generally supposed to have been born near 
Bmyrna, and to have been consequently of MaQonian {i. c, Lydiaa) descent. 
The terra aliti refers to a custom in which the ancient poets often iiulalged, 
•f likening themselves to the eagle and the swan. 一 3. Quam rem cutique. 
" For whatever exploit," i. e., quod attinet ad rem, quamcunque, &c. Ob 
serve the tmesis. 



5-12. 5. Nec gravem Pclidce stomachum, &c. "Nor the fierce resent* 
ment of the son of Peleus, ignorant how to yield," i. e., the unrelenting son 
of Peleus. The allusion is to che wrath of Achilles, the basis of the Iliad, 
and his beholding unmoved, amid his anger against A.gamemnon, the di«* 
treasea and slaughter of his countrymen. 一 7. Cursus duplicis Ulixei. 
u The wanilerings of the crafty Ulysses." These form the subject of the 
Odyssey. - M. Savam Pelopis domnm. "The cruel line of Pelops," i. e, 
the blood-st uned family of the Pelopidae, namely, Atreus, Thyestes, Aga- 
memnon, O r eates, &c. t the subjects of tragedies. 一 10. Jmbtllisque lyra 
Mnsa potewt. " And the Muse that sways the peaceful lyre." Aliading 
to his own inferiority in epic strain, and his being better quiilitied to han- 
dle sportive and amatory themes. 一 12. Culpa deterere ingeni. "To di 
ttinish by any want of talent on our part," i. e. f to wcak«n, dec. The lil 
era) meaning of dcierere i» **to wear aw%y," "to oonsumo bv weariogp 



XSXI'LANA'I01l\ NOTl S.— BOOK l M ODE VII S71 

mdu ti" metaphor is heru borrowed from the friction mad wear of metal» 
Compare Oi't'lli, " Tralatio a metallo, quod usu deteritur. exUnnutur, at 
$plendore privaiur." 

14-20. 14. Digne. " In strains worthy of the theme." 一 15. Merionen 
Meridnes, charioteer and friend of ldomeneus. 一 16. Tydiden. Diomeda 
■on of Tydeus. ― Superis parent. "A match for lhe inhabitants of 
•kiet." Allcding to the wounds inflicted on Venus and Mars by the Gro 
ciaa warrior. 一 17. Nos convivia, &c. " We, whether free from all attach 
fluent to another, or whether we burn with any passion, with our woLtet* 
exemption from care, sing of banquets ; we sing of the contests of maidens, 
briskly assailing with pared nails their youthful admirers." ― 18. S& 'ig. 
Bentley conjectures stricUis, "clinched," and makes the construction to 
oe strictis in jttvenes ; and, according to Wagner, this emendation of the 
great English scholar was always cited by Hemsterhuis as an instanon 
** certcB rritices. 1 ' Still, however, we may be allowed, at thd present day,, 
to dissent even from this high authority, and express a decided preference 
for the ordinary reading. Bentley's conjecture, as Orelli well remarks, 
u nescio quid haber. furiale et agreste," and even the great critic himself 
appears subseqountly to have regarded his own emendation with less 
finvor. Coraparo Mus. Crit., i., p. 194. 



Ode VII. Adaresaed to L. Manatius Plancus, who had become suspect 
ed by Augustus of disaffection, and meditated, in consequence, retiring 
from Italy to some one of the Grecian cities. As far as can be conjectured 
from tbe present ode, Plancus had communicated his intention to Horace, 
and the poet r/iw seeks to dissuade him from the step, but in such a way, 
however, as rot to endanger his own standing with the emperor. Tbe 
train of thougHi appears to be as follows : " I leave it to others to celebrate 
the far-famed cities }»ud regions of the rest of the world. My admiration 
is wholly engrossed by the beautiful scenery around the banks and falls 
of the Anio." (He b^re refrains from adding, "Betake yourself, Plancns, 
to that lov^y spot," but merely subjoins), " The south wind, my friend, 
does not niways veil ^hc sky with clouds. Do yoa therefore bear up man- 
fully un^er misfortune,' and, wherever you may dwell, chase away the 
eves of life with m"llo'v wine, taking Teucer as an example of patient 
endurauvc worthy (A aU imitation." 

1. JjaudabuTd alii " Others (in all likelihood) will praise/' The future 
iiere denotes a probable jeearrence. 一 Claram Rhodon. " The sunny 
Rhodes." The epUhct claram is here commonly rendered by " illastri 
)as,,, which weakens the force of the li。e by its generality, and is deci- 
3<3dly at variance with the well-known skill displayed by Horace in the 
leleotion of his epithets. The interpretation which we have assigned to 
the word is in full accordanco with a passage of Lucan (8, 248), " Clar- 
amque reliquit sole Rhodon." Pliny {H. N.、 2, 62) informs us of a boaai 
»n tbe part ^ f the Rhodians, that not a day passe 3 daring which their isl 
ind was not illumined for an hoar at least by tbe rays of the sun, to whicb 
luminary it was sacred. ― Mytilenen. Mytilene, the capital of Lesbos, and 
birth-place of Pittacus, Alcaeus, Sappho, and other distinguished individ 
aals. Cicero, in speaking of this city (2 Orat. i'" Ruli li\ sayt 1 Urbt 



iKTQ fiXPLANATOUY NOTES.- -BO TK I" OLE Vll, 

tt natura, el situ et lescrtpltone cedijiciorum^ et pulchritudinc^ in fnimu 
molnlis The true form of the name is Mytilene, not MUylene, as appe«x 
trum coins. Compare Eckr^l, Doctr. Num., ii., p. 303. 

3-4. 2. Eplieson. Ephesus, a celebrated city or Ionia, ia As" Minoi 
fair'ed for its temrUe and worship of Diana. ― Bimarisve Corinlhi mania 
* Or cne walls of Corinth, situate between two arms of the sea." Corintt 
lay on the isthmus of the same name, between the Sinas Corinthiacas 
(Gulf of Lcpnido) on the west, and the Sinus Saronicus (Gulf of Engta) on 
the southeast. Its position was admirably adapted for commerce. 一 3. Vet 
Baccho Tfiebas, Sec. " Or Thcbos ennobled by Bacchus, or Delphi by Apoi 
to." Thebes, the capital of Uasntrk, was the fabled scene of the birth and 
nurture of Bacchus. Delphi, on Mount Parnassus in Piiocis, was famed fo( 
';ts oracle of Apollo. ― 4. Tempe. Tlie Greek accusative plural, Tluttij, con- 
tracted from Ti/nrea. Ternpe was a beautiful valley in Thessaly, between 
the mountains Ossa and Olympus, and through which flowed the Peneug 

5-7. 5. Intacta FalladtH nrces. "The citadel o fbe vi.yiu Pallas/* 
Alluding to the Arropolis of Athens, sacred to Minerva. A > ces, plut al of 
excellence for arcenc. 一 7. Indeqve decerpinm fronli, &c. 4 And to place 
around their brow the olive crown, deserved and gathered by them few 
celebrating such a theme." The olive was sacred to Minerva. Some 
editions read "Uudiqite" for tl Indeque," and the meaning will then be, "TVi 
place around their brow the olive c~«wn deserved and gathered by numer- 
ous ntUer bards." The common lection Undique decerpfetf tondi, &>c., mast 
be rendered, "To prefer the olive leaf to every other that is gathered.' 
Oi»r reading Jndeqne is the emendation of Sclirader. Hunt or cites, in par- 
tial cotiHrn>ation of it, the following line of Lucretiu3 (iv., 4) : " Instgnernqnt 
rieo capiti petere inde coronam." 

9-11. 9. Aplum equis Argos. " Argos, well-fitted for the nurture ct 
uteeris." An imitation of the language of Homer, 'Apytog imto^oToio ( //.. 
2, 287). 一 D^iteaque Mj/cences. Mycenae was the earlier capital o( Argolis. and 
the city of the PelopidaB. Compare, as regards the epithet dites, Sopho- 
cles {Electr., 9), ^vnTjvag rug TroXvxpvcovg. 一 10. P aliens Laced^emim. Al 
luding to the patient endurance of the Spartans under the severe institi^ 
tions of Lycurgus. 一 11. Larissa campus opimce. Larissa, the old Pclasgio 
capital of Thessaly, was situate on the Peneus, and famed fot a the rich and 
ferule territory in which it stood. Compare Homer, II., ii., 841, AdpiO"<ra> 
*oi/5cl>/la/if a.— Tarn percussit. " Has struck with such warm admiration.* 

12. Domu8 Albun&B resonanHs. " The home of Albunea, re-echoing tc 
».he roar of waters." Commentators and tourists are divided in opinion 
respecting the domus Albimets. The general impression, however, secm& 
to be that tlie temple of the Sibyl, on the summit of the cliff at Tibai 
(now Tivoli), and overhanging the cascade, presents the fairest claim ti 
this distinction. It is described as being at the present day a most bean 
Siful ruin. " This beautiful temple," ibserves a recent traveller, "which 
矚 tantia on the very spot where the eye of taste would have placed it, and 
on which it ever reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive feature! 
of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its greatest charm." (Rome in 
tkt Nineteenth Century, vol. ii., p. 398, An «d.) Among the ar^uoentfl 1i 



ISXFJiANATORY NOTESS. — BUUK l., ODE VII 214 

bvor of the opinion above stated, it ma》 be remarked, that Varro, as quoteo 
by Lactantius [De Falsa Rel., 1, 6), gives a list of the ancient nibyia, ai»> 
among them enumerates the one at Tibar, sarnamod Albunea, as the tenth 
and last. He farther states that she was worshipped at Tibur, on the 
banks of the Anio. Suidas also says, Askutij tj Ti—(3ovf*Tt'a, 6v6/zau 'AX* 
QovvaXa. Eustace is in favor of the " Grotto of Neptune," as it is called 
tt the present day, a cavern in the rock, to which travellers descend in 
o«rler to view the second fall of the Anio. ("! ass. Tour, vol. ii., p. 230, 
Ldfnd 6 1.) Others, again, suppose that the domus Albunae was in the 
«igbborhood of the Aqua Albulcc, sulphureous lakes, or now rather pools, 
^oae to the Via Tiburtina, leading from Rome to Tibur ; and it is said, 
m defence of this opinion, that, in consequence of the hollow groand in the 
vicinity returning an echo to footsteps, the spot obtained from Horace tli« 
epithet oi resonantis. (Spence's Polymetis.) Tlie idea is certainly an ia- 
genioas one, bat it is conceived that such a situation would give rise Ui 
feelings of insecurity rather than of pleasure. 

13-15. 13. Pratccps Anio. " The headlong Anio." This river, now 
the Tever'me, is famed for its beautiful cascades uear the ancient town 
of Tibur, now Tivoli. 一 Txtntrm lucus. This grove, in the vicinity of Tibur, 
took its name from Tibarnns, who had here divine honors paid to his mem- 
ory. 一 15. Albus ut obscuro. Some editions make thw the commencement 
of a new ode, on account of the apparent want of connection betw eea 
this part and what precedes ; but consult the introductory remarks to the 
present ode, where the connection is fully shown. By the Albus Notus 
" the clear south wind," is meant the AevKovorogy or 'KpyitTTijc Ndrof {II.. 
11, 306) of the Greeks. This wind, though for the most part a moist ant 
damp one, whence its name [i>6toq o, vorig, " moisture," " humidity"), i, 
certain seasons of the ye pi* well merited the appellation here given it bj 
Horace, producing clear and serene weather. 一 Deierget. " Chases away ' 
Literally, " wipes away." Present tease of detergeo. 

19-22. 19. MoUi mero. " With mellow wine." Some editions place b 
i;omnia after tristiliam in the previous line, and regard molli as a verb ia 
the imperative : " and soften the toils of life, O Plancas, with wine." Ttiis, 
however, is inferior. 一 21. Tui. Alluding either to its being one of his fa 
vorite places of reheat, or, more probably, to the villa which he possessed 
there. 一 Teucer. Son of Telamon, king of Sal am is, and Hesionc, daughter 
of Laomedon, and, consequently, half-brother of Ajax. On his return from 
the Trojan war, he was banished by Ins fath.er for not having avenged hit 
brother's death. Having sailed, in consequence of this, to Cyprus, he there 
; 7uilt a town called Salamis (now Costa?iza), after the name of his native 
city and island. ― 22. Uda Ly<Bo. " Wet with wine." Lyscus is from tha 
Greek KvatOQ, an appellation given to Bacchus, in alias ion to his freeing 
the mind from care (Aveiv, "to loosen," "to free''). Compare the Latin 
epithet IJb^r (" qui liberat a aira"). 

23-32. 23. Pdpvlea. The poplar was sacred to Hercules. Ter'ce' 
wears a crown of it on the present occasion, either as the general badge 
of a hero, or because he was offering a sacrifice to Hercules. The wnit* 
w silver poplar is the species here meant. 一 26. O socii comite^que. " * 
'ouii mions in arms and followers." Soch refers to t'.ie chiaftains whs 

M 2 



£74 EXPLANATORY HOTES. — BOOK i. OLh VlF 



were companions : comites y to their respective followers. 一- 27 AunpuM 
Teucro. ** Under the auspices of Teucer." 一 29. Ambignan tellure nov(\ 
4cc. "That Salamis will become a name of ambiguous import by reason 
ol a new land." A new city of Salamis shall arise in a new land (Cyprus/, 
no that whenever hereafter the name is mentioned, men will be in doubt, 
for the moment, whether the pa*ent city is meant, in the island of the 
•ame name, or the oniony in Cyprus. ~~ 32. Cras in^ens iteralrimus aqnor, 
1 On the morrow, wo will again traverse the mighty surface of the deep."" 
They had just returned from the Trojan war, and were now a second tLme 
to encountar the dangers of ocean. The verb iterare is employed here io 
a sense somewhat similar to that which occurs in Columella, ii n 4 : 
' Quod jam proscissum est iterare" i. e. t " to plough again." 



Ode VIII. Addressed to Lydia, and reproaching her for detaining ttie 
jroir.ig Sybaris, by her alluring arts, from the maiily exercises in which he 
had been accustomed to distinguish himself. 

2-5. 2. Amando. " By thy love." 一 4. Campum, Alladiiigto the Cain 
pus Martias, the scene of the gymnastic exercises of the Roman youth. 
一 Patiens pulveris atque solis. " Though once able to endure the dust 
aud the heat." ― 5 - Militaris. "In martial array." Among the sports of 
tho Roman youth were some in which they iiaitated the costume and 
movements of regular soldiery. 

6-9. 6. ^Equalei. "His companions in years." Analogous to the 
Greek robe ^Xixa^. 一 Gallica nec lupatis, &c. " Nor manages the Gallic 
steeds with curbs fashioned like the teeth of wolves." The Gallic steeds 
were held in high estimation by the Romans. Tacitus (Ann., ii., 5) speaks 
of Gaol's being at one time almost drained of its horses : "fessas Gallieu 
ministrandis equis." They were, however, so fierce and spirited a breed 
as to render necessary tlie employment of %i jrena lupata," i, e. t curbs 
armed with iron points reaembling the teeth of wolves. Compare the cor- 
responding Greek terms Xvkoi and ixlvot. 一 8. Flavum Tiberim. Com- 
pare Explanatory Notes, Ode ii., 13, of this book. 一 9. Olivum. "The oil 
、 of tho ring." Wax was commonly mixed with it, and the composition 
was t^ten termed ceroma (K7jpu}fia). With this the wrestlers were anoint- 
ed in order to givo pliability to their limbs, and, after anointing their bod' 
lea, were covered with dust, for the purpose of afford %g their antagouisti 
a better hold. 

10-16. 10. Armis. "By martial exercises." 一 11. Sape disco, du, 
" Though famed for the discut often cast, for the javelin often hurled, be 
yond the mark." The discus (dicTKO^), or quoit, was round, flat, and perfo- 
rated in the centre. It was made either of iron, brass, lead, or stone, and 
Avas usually of great weight. Some authorities are in favor of a central 
aperture, others are siletit on this head. The Romans borrowed this ex- 
ercise from the Greeks, and, among the latter, the Lacedemonians wer« 
particularly attached to it. 一 12. Expudito. This term carries with it th« 
idea of great skill, as evinced by the ease of performing these exercises.— 
>3. Ul marines, &, c. Alluding to the story of Achilles having boeo coo 
cealed in female vestments at the court of L^-comodes, of S"yros. i/ 



镟 



EXPLANATORY N'OrKS.— BOOK ,•, ODE tX 27 fl 

irder to avoid going to the Tr)jan war.— 14. Sub lacrymosa Trqjm Jurwrm 
'*On the ove of the mournful carnage of TVoy," i. e., in tlie midst of tho 
preparations for the T.xyan war. 一 15. Viri T is cultus. "Manly attire."— 
16. In cccdem et Lycias catervas. A hendiadys. " To the slaughter of* th < 
Trojftn bands." Lycias is here equivalent to Trojatias, and refers to tb« 
tollpcted hrceu of the Trojans and their allies. 



Odb ^X. Addressed to Thaliarchas, whom some event had robbed of 
da peace of mind. The poet exhorts his friend to banish care from hif 
breast, and, notwithstanding the pressure of misfortune, and the gloomy 
•overity of the winter season, which then prevailed, to enjoy tbe present 
hoar and leave the rest to tbe gods. 

The commencement of this* ode would appear to have been imitated 
horn Alcams. 

3-3. 2. Soracte. Mount Soracte lay to the southeast of Falerii, in the 
territory of the Falisci, a part of ancient Etruria. It is now called Afonle 
S. Silvestro, or, as it is by modern corruption sometimes termed, Sutif 
Oreste. 一 3. Ldborantes. This epithet beautifully describes the forests as 
struggling and bending beneath the weight of the saperiiKumbent ice and 
vuow. The difference between the temperature of summer and winter ic 
aucient Italy may be safely assumed, from this as well as other passages, 
to have been much greater than it now is. Compare note on Ode i., 2, 1 

3-10. 3. Gelu acuto. " By reason of the keen frost." 一 5. Dissolve fr^- 
fus. " Dispel the cold." ~~ 6. Benignius. " More plentifully," i. c, than 
aerial. We may supply solito. Some regard benignius here as an ad 
jective, agreeing with merum, " rendered more mellow by ago;" bat the 
Horatian term in such cases is mitts. 一 7. Sabina diota. w From the Sa- 
bine jar." The vessel is here called Sabine, from its containing wirifl 
made in the country of the Sabines. The diota received its name from 
its having two handles or ears [6Lg and ovg). It contained generally forty 
eight sextarii, aboat twenty-seven quarts English measure. 一 9. Qui simnl 
itravere, &c. " For, as soon as they have lulled, " &c. The relative is 
Here elegantly used to introduce a sentence, instead of a personal pronoun 
with a particle. ^Equore fervido. " Over the boiling surface of the deep *' 

13-24. 13. Fuge quterere. " Avoid inquiring." Seek not to know.— 
14. Qvod Fors dierum cvnque dabit. A tmesis for quodevnque dierum 
fors dabit, i. e., quemcunque diem, Sec. ― Lvcro appone. " 8et down at 
gain." 一 16. Puer. " While still young." 一 Neqve tu choreas. The use, or 
rather repetition, of the pronoun before choreas is extremely elegant, aa 
denoting earnestness of injunction, and in imitation of the Greek. 一 17. Do- 
nee virenth &c. "As long as morose old f ge is absent from thee, still 
blooming with youth." 一 18. Campus et area " Rambles both in the Cam 
pns Martius and along the public walks." By area are here meant those 
parts of the city that were free from buildings, the same, probably, as the 
iqaares and parks of modern days, where young lovers were fond of strolt 
ing. 一 Sub noctem. "At the approach of eveuing." 一 21. Nunc et laientis, 
Jtc. The order of the construction is, et nunc gratus risus (repetatnr) ab 
ineimo angttlo, proditor hitentis puellas. Tho verb repetctwr is un«Je, 



•^70 EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK 1 , OftJfi X. 

«tood. Tb« poet alludes to tnuie youlhiul a port, by tho rules of whinL a 
forfeit was exacted from the pcraon wl<ose place of concealment waa di»> 
covered, whether by the .*.genuity of Another, or the voluntary act ot'thb 
party coucealed. ―" 24. Male pertinaci. " Faintly resisting." P"«tei、<ling 
9uly to oppose. 

一^^ 

Ode X. In praise of Mercury. Imitated, according to tha Bttholiiurt 
P t .»phyriou, from the Greek poet Alca^us. 

i-^i 1. Facunde. Mercury was regarded as the inv^mto: of laugaagtt 
i>d the god of eloquence. 一 Nepos Atlantis. Mercury was tbe fabled soft 
of Mai a, one of the daughters of Atlas. 一 The word Ailanth mast be pro 
n">'Jiiced here A-tlantis, in order to keep the penultimate fiot a trochee 
Tins peculiar division of syllables is imitated from the Groek. 一 2. Feron 
eultus kominum recentum. " The savage manners of the oarly race (、f 
men." The ancients believed that the early state of maakind was bac 
l-ttle removed from that of the bmtes. 一 3. Voce. "By the gift of- lan 
fuage." 一 Catus. " Wisely." Mercury wisely thought that nothing 
would sooner improve and soften down the savage manaeru of the prim- 
itive race of men than mutual intercourse, and the interchange of ideas by 
means oflanguage. Catus, according to Varro, was a word of Sabine or 
igiu. Its primitive meaning was " acute" or " shrill," and hence it came 
to signify " shrewd," " sagacious," &c. 一 Decorts more pahsftrcs. " B 7 the 
iiiHtitutioa of the grace-bestowing palaestra." The epithet decora is here 
used to denote the effect produced on the ham an frame by gymnastic ex 
ercises. ~ 6. Curves lyres parentem. " Parent of the bending )yre." Mer 
cury [Hymn, in Merc, 20, seqq.) is said, while still an infant, t;> have lbrm 
ed the lyre from a tortoise which he found in bis path, stretching sevea 
strings over the hollow shell (iirru Si avfi^uvovg buav kravifcraaro x°P' 
duf). Hence the epithets 'Epfiaiij and Kv?i?^ijvuiij, which are applied tc 
this instrument, and hence, also, the custom of designating it by the terms 
XeXvg, chel^s, testudo, tec. Compare Gray (Progress of Poesy), " En 
"hanting shell." Another, aud probably less accurate accoant, makes 
this deity to ha ve discovered, 011 th» banks of the Nile, after the flubsiiiing 
of an inundation, the shell of a tortoise, with nothing remaining of the 
body but the sinews : these, when touched, emitted a musical sound, and 
gave Mercury the first hint of the lyre. (Compare Isidor., Orig., Hi., 4.) 
it is very apparent that the fable, whatever the true ver»ion may be, has 
an tutrouomical meaning, and contains a reference to the seven planct6» 
ftud to tbe protended music of tbe spheres. 

"11. 9. Te boves olim nisi reddidisses, &c. "While Apollo, in former 
days, seeks, with threatening accents, to terrify thee, still a mere stripling, 
unless thou shoaldst have restored the cattle removed by thy art, he laughed 
to find himself deprived also of his quiver." 一 Boves. The cattle of Admc- 
tis were fed by Apollo on the banks of the Amphrysus, in Thessaly, after 
tfaat deity had been banished for a time from the skies for destroying tbe 
Cj slopes. Mercury, still a mere infant, drives off fifty of the herd, an^ 
conceals them near the Alpheus, nor docs he disclose the place where 
tbey are hidden until ordered so to do by his sire. [Hymn, in Merc, 70, 
•e^Q.) Lucian (Dial., D. ; 7) mer^'ous other sportive thefts of the same 



BXPLANATORV NOl BS. * JOOK I., ODE Xi. 27"> 

deity, by which he deprived Neptune of his trident, Mars of his swcid 
A.polln of his bo,v, Venus of her cestas, and Jove himself of bis sceptre 
He would have stolen the thunderbolt also, bad it not beeu too heavy aii^ 
hot. 《EZ firj (3apvTepo( 6 Kepavvog ijv, Kal noXv to nvp eZ^e, xuKetvot 
av v^uXero. Luc\ m, I, <r.)— li. Viduus. A GrsBcism for viduutn se sen- 
ttens. Horace, probably following Alceeua, blends together two mytho- 
Vogical events, which, according to other authorities, happened at distinct 
period 釁. The Hymn to Mercury merely speaks of the theft of the *attle t 
after which Mercery gives the lyre an a peace-offienug to Apollc. The 
QcAy allusion to the arrows of the god is where Apollo, after this, excreta- 
•■ Hs fear lest tLe son of Maia may deprive him both of these weapoua 
«Ssd of the lyre itself. 

Aeidca, Maid6o^ vli, d/uKTope f nocKi?iOfi^Ta t 
fifl fioi uvaKXhl^g Ktfiapijv Kal KayLT^ka rofa. 

13-19. 13. Quin et Atridaa, &, c. M Under thy guidance, too, the ricn 
Priam passed unobserved the tiaughty soos of Atreas." Alluding' to the 
visit which the aged monarch paid to the Grecian camp in order^o ran 
•om the corpse of Hector. Jupiter ordered Mercury to be bis guide, and 
to cundact bira unobserved and in safety to the tent of Achilles. (Consult 
Homer, II" 24, 336, seqq.) 一 14. Dives Priamus. Alluding not only to hi 鳙 
wealth generally, bat also to the rich presents which he was bearing to 
Achilles. 一 15. Tliessalos igneft. "The Thessalian watch-fires." Hefer- 
ring to tlie watches and troops of Achilles, the Thessalien leader, through 
tirhom Priam had to pass in order to reach the tent ot thi'ir leader. 一 16. 
feUit. Equivalent here to the Greek i^atiev. 一 17. Tn pias ! atis, &c 
Mei'cnry is here represented in his most important character, as the gaide 
v.f departed spirits. Hence the epithets of ^v^o7ro/i7r6f and veKpoirofiw6^ t 
or veKpayuydQi so often applied to him. The verb reponis in the present 
stauza receives illastratiou, as to its raeaniug, from tl)e passage iii Virgil, 
where the fitture descendants of tineas are represented as oocapying 
abodes in the land of spirits previously to their being suoimoned to the 
regions of day. 6, 756, seqq.) Hence Mercury is here said "to 

replace" the soals of the pioas ia, or " to restore" them to their formei 
abodes. 一 18. Virgaque levem coerces^ ice. " And with tl:.、. golden wand 
do«t check the movements of the airy throng." Tho allusiun is to the 
eadnceus of Mercury, and coerces is a metaphor borrowed from a shepherd '廳 
guiding of his flock, and keeping them together in a body with his pas tor aJ 
*taff — 19. Swperis dcornm et imis. " To the upper ones aud lowest one 矚 
af the goda,'" i. e., to tho gods above aud below. A Gr<ecism for superit 
" imis dein 

■ I 圍,, 

. Ode X】. Addressed to Leuconoe, by which fictitious name a fe.iunle 
fiitud cf the poet's is thought to be designated. Horace, having discover • 
ad that sbo was in the habit of consulting the astrologers of tho day in or- 
der to ascertain, if possible, the term both of her own as well as his ex 
jitence, entreats her to abstain troui such idle inquiries, aud leave the 
erento of the future to the wisdom of (he gods. 

i-4. l Tn Tie quasierts. • Inquire not, 】 '? "treat." The subjai.ctiva 
«,jOo6 \m here used as s softeued imperati , ?, tu o^preM eutreaty or reqpiett 



278 FXPLANATLKY NOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODE Xll 



and tiio air of earnestness with which the poet addresses his (cmaie 
friend ia increased by the insertion of the personal pronoun. 一 2. Fincm 
"Term of existence." ― Babylonios nnmeros. *' Chaldean tables," i. 
tables of nativity, horoscopes. The Babylonians, or, more strictly speak 
s ng t Clialdeans, were the great astrologers of antiquity, ind constructed 
tables for the calculation of nativities and the prediction of future events. 
Xhis branch of charlatanism made such progress and attained so regulars 
fcrm among them, that subsequently the terms Chaldean and Astrologfef 
became completely synonymous. JRx)iiie was filled with these impostors- 
-«3* Vt melius. " How much better is it." Equivalent to quanto sapieJi 
ivn -"JErU. For acciderit. 一 4. Ultimam. " This as the last." 

5-8. 5. Qua nunc oppositis, &, c. " Which now breaks the strengtb 
of the Tuscan sea on the opposing rocks corroded by its waves." By the 
term pumicibis are meant rocks corroded and eateu hi to caverns by the 
constant dashing of the waters. ― 5. Vina liquet. "Filtrate thy wines.'' 
Observe that sapias and liques are subjunctives ased as imperatives. 
{Zumfit, 》 529.) The wine-strainers of the Romans were made of linea 
placed round a frame-work of osiers, shaped like an inverted cone. In 
consequence of the various solid or viscoas ingjedients which the an' 
ciouts added to their wines, frequent straining became necessary to pre. 
vent inspissation. Cousalt Excursus YL—'Spatio brevi, &c. " In conse- 
qaence of the brief duration of existence, cat short long hope (of the fa- 
bare)," i, e., since human life is at best bul a span, indulge in no lengthen' 
«d hope of the future, but improve the present opportunity for enjoyment. 
—8. Carpe diem. " Enjoy the present day." A pleasing metaphor 
" Pluck" the present day as a flower from the stem, and eiyoy its fra 
grance while it lasts. 



Odk XII. Addressed to Augustus. The poet, intending to celebrate 
the praises of his imperial master, pursues a course extremely flattering 
to the vanity of the latter, by placing bis merits on a level with those of 
gods and heroes. This ode is geuerally supposed to be in part imitated 
from Pindar, Ol., ii., 1, seq. : ' Ava^'^dpur/yEg vfivoLy k. t. A. 

1-6. 1. Qnem virum aiU heroa. "What living or departed hero." 
Doiupare the remark of the scholiast, " Quern virum de vivis ? quern heroa 
Oe mortuis f" ― Lyra vel acri tibia. "On the lyre, or shrill-toned pipe," 
». e. t in strains adapted to either of these instruments. 一 2. Cdebrare. A 
GreDcism for ad celebrandum. ― Clio, Tl e first of the nine Muses, and pre 
tiding over epic poetry and history.— 3. Jocosa imago. " Sportive echo.'" 
Understand vocis. Literally, " the sportive image (or reflection) of the 
roicc." As regards the term jocosa, compare the explanation of Orelli : 
'Joccfia aulem, quia viatores quasi consulto ludijicatur, unde auribns ac 
tidat, ignoratites." 一 5. In umbrosis Heliconis oris. " Amid the shad^ 
regions of Heliron." A mountain of Boeotia, sacred to Apollo and the 
Masc8. On its sumnut was the grove of the latter, and a little below 
toe grove was the fountain of Aganippe, produced from the earth by a blow 
of the hoof of P jgaeas. Helicon is now called PaltBovouni or Zc gora.— 
$. Super Pin do. "On the saznmit of Pindus." The chain of Pindui 
•AuArated ThesspJy from Epiras. Tt was sacred to Apollo and '.h« M'lsen 



EXfLANATOKY NOTES. ― BOOK 1., ODE XII. 278 

一 iianno. Mount Hoemas ttretchet ita great belt round the mirth of Thraca. 
in a direction nearly parallel with the coast of the Mgeaxu The mudera 
Uttiue is Emineh Dag t or Balkan. 

7-15. 7. Vocalem. " The tuneful." ― Temere. "In wild cunixuion: 
Lkimpare the explanation of Orelli : " Promiscue % sine o"dine, cur tecta 
rentur cantorem vix sibi consciee." The scene of this wonderful feat of 
Orpheas was near Zone, on tbo coast of Tlirace. (3/e/o, 2, 2.) 一 9. ArU 
materna. Orpbeus was the fabled son of Calliope, one of the Muses. 一 
U. Blandum el auritas, ice. " Sweetly persuasive also to lead along 
with melodious lyre the listening oaks," i. e., who with sweetly persua- 
«ive accents and raelodioas lyre led along, ice The epithet auritas i 疆 
here app.ied to quercus by a bold image. The oaks are represeuted as fol- 
lowing Orpheus with pricked-up ears. 一 13. Quidprius dicam^ dtc. "What 
■hall I celebrate before the accustomed praises of tl,e Parent of us all ?" 
dome read pare/Uum instead of parentis^ " What shall I first celebrate, 
in accordance with the accastomed mode of praising adopted by our fa- 
thers ?'■ Others, retaining parenlum i place an interragation after dicam, 
and a comma after laudibus. " Wh*t shall I first celebrate in sung ? In 
accordance with the accustomed mode of praising adopted by oar fathers, 1 
will sing of him who," &c. 一 15. Variis horis. " With its changing sea 
Moat." 一 Temper at, " Controls." 

17-26. 17. Unde. " From whom." Equivalent to ex quo, and not, aa 
some maintain, to quare. Compare Sal. t i., 6, 12, and ii., 6, 21. ― \9. Proxi 
mos tamen, &c. '* Pallas, however, enjoys honors next in importance te 
bis own." Minerva had her temple, or rather shrine, in the Capitol, on the 
right side of that of Jupiter, while Juno's merely occupied the left. Sonir 
sommontators think that Minerva was the only one of the deities after 
lapiter who had the right of hurling the thunderbolt. This, however, i& 
dxpresuly contradicted by ancient coins. [Rasche^ Lex. Ret Nurnism" 
/ol. ii., pt. 1, p. 1192. HeynCy Excurs. ad Virg., ^En., 1, 42.) 一 21. Praeliis 
dudax Liber. The victories of Bacchas, and especially his conquest of 
india, form a conspicuous part of ancient mythology. 一 22, Stevis inimica 
Virgo bclluis. Diana. Compare her Greek epithets ^ijpoktovo^ and 
ioxeaipa- 一 25. -Afciden. Hercules, the reputed grandson of Alceeua. — 
Puerosqne Leda. Castor and Pollux. 一 26. Hvnc. Alluding to Castor 
Compare the Homeric Kdaropa litnodafiov. (7/.,3, 237.) ~ Ilium. Pollux 
Compare the Homeric nv^ iiyaObv UoTivdevKea. {11^ L c.) 一 Pugni». 
44 Jn pugilistic encounters," literally, " with fists." Ablative of pugnus. 

37-35. 27. Quorum simul alba, &c. " As soon as the propitious stai 
of each of whom," &c. Alba is here used not so mach in the sense of 
lucida and clam, as in that of p mini ac serenum cesium reddens. Com 
paro the expression Albus Nolus (Ode i.. 7, 15;, and Explanatory Notes 
on Ode i" U, 2. 一 29. Agitatus humo? "Tfee foaming water." 一 31. Panto 
recumbit. il Subsides on the surface «f the deep." 一 31. Ponpili. Nums 
Pompilias.- -Supcrbos Tarquini fauces. "Tlio Bplendid fasces ofTarquin- 
iu»," i. e., the splendiil and energetic reign of Tarquinius Priscus. Some 
commentators refer these words to Tarquinius Superbus, but with lett 
propriety. Tlie epithet xu per bos has the same force bere as m Ode i., 3i 
» Cnlcnh nohde h'lum. The »l'iision is to the younfior "ato whi 



SiWO EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XH. 

put an end to his own existence at Utica. The poet calls bis death a ir< 
ble ouo, without any fear of incurriog the displeasure of Augustas, whose 
policy it was to profess an attaclime&t to the ancient forms of the repab 
iic» tJid a regard for its defenders. Cunningham conjectures htniifasctk 
asakiug the allusion to be to the first Brutus. Bentley, again, thinking 
Caionis too bold, proposes Curti, as referring to Curtius, who devotetl 
himself for his country by plunging into t le gulf or chara at liome. 

37-41. 37. Kegulum. Compare Ode iii" 5, where the story of Regnlut 
Ib touched upou. 一 Scauros. The house of the Scauri gave many distin- 
guished men to the Roman republic. The most eminent among them 
were M. iEmilius Soaurus, princeps senalus, a nobleman of great ability, 
and his son M. Scaurus. The former held the consulship A.U.C. 639. Sal- 
last gives an unfavorable account of him (•/,'§"., 15). Cicero, on the other 
band, highly extols his virtues, abilities, aud achievements [De Off" 1, 
et 30. Brut., 29. Orat. pro Murtrna, 7). Sal lust's account is evidently 
tinged with the pai*ty-tptrit of the day. ― 38. Paullum. Paullus ^Bmilius, 
consul with Tereutius Varro, and defeated, along wirti his colleague, by 
Flanuibal, in the disastrous battle of Cannae. ― Pano. " The Carthagiu 
ian." Hannibal. 一 40. Fabricium. C. Fabricias Lascinus, the famed op- 
ponent of Pyrrhu 躑 and of the Samnites. It was of him Pyrrhus declared 
that it would be more difficult to make him swerve from his integrity than 
to tarn the sun from its coarse. (Compare Cic., de Qff., 3, 22. Val. Max. 
4, 3.) 一 41. Incomtis Curium capillis. Alluding to Manias Carius Deuta 
tas, the conqueror of Pyrrhus. The expression incomtis capillis refers 
to the simple and austere manners of the early Romans. 

42 - 44. 42. Camillum. M. Farius Camillus, the liberator of his coun 
try from her Gallic invaders. 一 43. Sava pavperlas. " A life of hardy pri 
vation," i. e., a life of privation, inuring to toil and hardship. Paupertas 
retains here its usual force, implying, namely, a want not of the neces- 
saries, but of the comforts of life. ― Et avitus opto cum lare fundus. '* And 
an hereditary estate, with a dwelling proportioned to it." The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is, that Curius and Camillus, in the midst of scanlr^ 
reaources, proved far more useful to their country than if they bad beefc 
the owners of the most extensive possessions, or the votaries of luxury. 

4->-47. 45. Crescit oeculto, &c. " The farpe of Marcellus increases like 
a tree amid the undistinguished lapse of time." The term Marcelli here 
contains a doable allusion, first to the celebrated M. Claadias Marcellus 
the conqueror of Syracuse, and opponent of Hannibal, and secondly to th« 
young Marcellus, the son of Octavia, aad nephew of Augustas The fame 
of the earlier Marcellas, increasing secretly though steadily in the lapse 
of ages, is now beginning to bloom anew in the young Marcellus, and to 
promise a harvest of fresh glory for the Roman name. 一 46. Micat inter 
tmnes^ &c. The young Maroellas is here compared to a bright star, ii- 
lamir.g with its effulgence the Julian line, and forming the hope and 
glory of that illustrious house. He married J alia, the daughter of Augus 
tus, and was publicly intended as the successor of that emperor, but his 
«arly death, at the age of eightoen, frastrated all these hopes and plunged 
she Roman worM in moarning. Virgil beautifully alludes to him at the 
ilage of the sixth book of the iEoeid. 一 Julium sidns. T!ie star of Un» 



SXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK I , ODE XIII. 2^1 

Yoliaii lii»o," t. e.. t the glory of the Julian house, commencing with Csesftt 
•ud perpetuated in Aagustas. 一 47. I g ties minores. "The feel ler firoaoi 
•r e uight " The stars. 

50. Orle Saturno. Japiter. the Greek Kpovluv- 一 51. Tn ae^v * 
do Cteaarc regnes. " Reign thou (in the heavens) with Coesar aa thy "H<» 
jfereut (upon earth)," i. Grant, I pray, that thou mayest so parcwl ikA 
thy empire as to sway thyself the sceptre of the skies, and s!low Augus- 
tus to represent thee upon earth. Observe the employment of the sub- 
junctive for the imperative. 一 53. Parlhos Lnlio imminenles . Horace it 
generally sapposed to have composed this ode at the time that Augustui 
Was preparing for an expedition against the Parthians, whom the defeat 
of Cresses, and the check sustained by Antony, had elated to such a de 
grec, that the poet might well speak of them as " now threatening the r© 
pose of the Roman world." Latio is elegantly pat for Romano imperii. 
—St. Egerit jus to trinmpho. u Shall have led along in jast triumph.** 
The conditions of a "just us triumphns" in the days of the republic, were 
is follows : 1. The war must have been a jast one, and waged with foreign- 
era ; no triumph was allowed in a civil war. 2. Above 5000 of the enemy 
must have been slain in one battle (Appian says it was in his time 10,000). 
%. By this victory the limits of the empire mast have been enlarged. 

55-60. 55. Subjectos Orientis one. " Lymar along the borders of tho 
ttasit," t. c, dwelling on the remotest confines of the East. Observe that 
ora is the dative, by a Graecism for sub ora. ― Seras. By the Seres are 
evidently meaut the natives of China, whom an overland trade for silk had 
gradually, though imperfectly, made known to the western nations.— 
57. Tc minor. " Inferior to thee alone." Understand solo. 一 59. Parum 
casfis. " Polluted." Alluding to the corrupt morals of the day. The an- 
cients had a belief that lightning never descended from the skios except 
on places stained by some pollution. 



Odk XIII. Addressed to Lydia, with whom the poet had very proba 
Dly quarrelled, and whom he now seeks to tarn away from a passion foi 
Telephus. He describes the state of his own feelings, when praisee are 
bestowed by her whom he loves on the personal beauty of a hated rival ; 
ar.d, while endeavoring to cast suspicion apon the sincerity of the laSt-er'f 
pasaion for her, he descants apon the joys of an nnintcrrapted union found- 
ed on the attre basis of mataal affection. 

3-6. 2. Cervicem roseam. " The rosy neck." Compare Virgil (^Bn. 
1, 402) : " Rosea ceroice refulsit." 一 3. Cerea brackia. The epithet cerec^ 
14 waxen," carries with it the associate ideaa of whiteness, glossy sur* 
facp, Jcc., the allusion being to the white wax of antiquity. Bentley, how 
ever, rejects cerea, and reads lactea. 一 Telephi. The name is purposely 
repeated, to indicate its being again and again on the lips of Lydia.— 
Difficili bile. " With choler difficult to be repressed." The liver wu 
hold to bu the seat of all violent passions. 一 6. Manent. The plural is here 
employed, as equivalent to the doable ma net. It is given likewise by 
Orelli, and has also stn ng MS. authority ir its favor. Beatlcy, howevm; 
areten ma net' o" ancoant of tYe precediner nec aad ]o:ictliOT>i 



2S2 EXPLAIN ; ^RY NOTES. 一 UOUK I., ODE XIV. 

linal syllable of ma net by the arsis. Compare Zumpl, $ 374, and the pa» 
»ag<» cited fruni Pliny, Paneg" 75. 一 Humor ei in geitas, dec. " And tiie 
^ear steals silently down my cheeks." 一 8. Lantis ignibus. " Bv the slow- 
。"】rajiig fires." 

9-20. 9. Uror. I am tortured at the sight." Equivalent to adspecth 
jrucior.— 10. Immodica mero. " Rendered immoderate by wine." 一 12 
Memorem. "As a memorial of his passion." 一 13. Si me satis audias 
* If you give heed to me." If you still deem my words worthy of your a& 
lention. 一 14. Perpetuum. " That he will prove constant in his attach- 
ment." Understand fore. 一 Duleia barbare Ixedentein oscula. " Who bar 
baroasly wounds those sweet lips, which Venus has imbued with the tit'th 
part of all her nectar." Each god, observes Porson, was sap posed to 
have a given quantity of nectar at disposal, and to bestow the fifth or the 
tenth part of this on any individual was a special favor. The common, 
but incorrect interpretation of quinta parte is " with the quintessence." — 
16. Irrupta copula. "An indissoluble union." — 20. Suprema die. "Thp 
last day of their existence.'' Observe that suprema citius die is an an 
asual coustraction for citius quam suprema die. 



Odk XIV. Addressed to the vessel of the state, just escaped from tnc 
stormy billows of civil commotion, and in danger of being again exposed 
to the violence of the tempest. This ode appears to have been composed 
at the time when Augustus mnsulted Msacenas and Agrippa whether he 
should resign or retain the si>ve reign authority. Some, however, refer it 
to the dissensions between Octavianas and Aatony, B.C. 33, which pre 
ceded the battle of Actiam. In either case, however, the allegory Diust 
not be too closely pressed. . 

1-8. 】. O navis. referunt, dec. "O ship ! new billows are bearing 
ti ee back again to the deep." The poet, in his alarm, supposes the ves 
sel (i. e" his country) to be already amid the waves. By the term navis 
bis country is denoted, which the hand of Augustus had jaat rescued from 
tbo perils of shipwreck ; and by mare the troubled and stormy waters of 
civil dissension are beautiiiilly pictured to the view. 一 2. Novi Jlnclm. 
Alluding to the commotions which mast inevitably arise if Augustus aban- 
dons the helm of afi'aird. ~~ 3. Portum. The harbor here meant is the tran- 
quillity which was beginning to prevail under the government of Augas- 
tUB. — Ut nudum remigio lotus. " How bare thy side is of oars." ~~ 6. Ac 
$ine funibus carincs. " And thy hull, without cables to secure it." Some 
commentators think that the poet alludes to the practice common among 
tiic ansients of girding their vessels with cables in violent storms, in order 
to prevent the planks from starting asunder. In carina we have the pla- 
ral used emphatically for the singular, and intended to designate ever) 
part of the hall. A similar usage occurs even in Cicero : " Quid tarn in 
Karigio necessarium quam latera, quam carinaB, quam prora, quam pup 
pi$ V (De Or., iii" 46) where some, less correctly, read cavernte. ― Pos- 
suni We have not hesitated to read gemunt and possunt, on good MS 
Authority, as far more graphic than gemant and possint, the reading ul 
a>anj' editions Kvsn Bentley approves of the indicative here, though b« 
ioe 鵬 not edit it —3 Imperiosins aguor. " The increasing violence of >he 



EXPLANATCRY NOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODE XV. 289 

Mh.' Tne comparative describes the sea as grjwmg every tfir.aneni 
•uore And metre violent. 

10-13. 10. Di. Alluding to the tutelary deities, Neptune, or Caator 
and Pollux, whose images were accustomed to be placed, together with 
a small altar, in the stern of the vessel. The figurative meaning of th« 
poet presents to as the guardian deities of Rome uffended at the sangui' 
nary excesses of the civil wars, and determined to withhold their protect* 
bag influence if the state should be again planed into anarchy and confu- 
■ion. 一 11. Panlica pinns. "Of Pontic pine." The pine of Pontas wri 
bard and durable, and of great value in ship-building. Yet the vessel of 
the state va warned by the poet not to rely too much upou the strength of 
her timbers. 一 12. Silva Jilia nobilis. "The noble daughter of the foreat. w 
\ beautiful image, which Martial appears to have imitated (xiv., 90) : 
S^on sum Maura Jilia silvts." 一 13. El genus et nomen inutile. " Bott 
tSy lineage and anavailing fame." The idea intended to be conveyed by 
the whole clause is as follows : " Idle, O my country ! will be the boast 
of thy former glories, and the splendor of thy ancient name '• 

14-20. 14. Pictii pvppibv8. Besides being graced with the statues of 
the tutelary deities, the sterns of ancient vessels were likewise embel- 
liahed, on the outside, with paintings and other ornaments. Hence Homer 
occesioaaixy calls ships fit^TOTrdpyot, " red-cheeked." A purple color waa 
also sometimes employed. 一 15. Nisi debea ventis ludibrium. " Unless 
thoa art doomed to be the sport of the winds." An imitation of the Greek 
idioan, 6^*lv yiXijra. 一 17. Nuper sollieitum, &c. " Thou who wast lately 
a soarce of disquietude and weariness to me, who at present art an object 
of fond«de»ire and strong apprehension," &c. The expression sollieitum 
tadium refers to the anqaiet feelings which swayed the bosom of the poet 
daring the period of the civil contest, and to the weariness and disgust 
which the long continuance of those scenes produced in his breast. Under 
the away.of Auguatus, however, his country again becomes the idol of hit 
warmest affections (deaiderium), and a feeling of strong apprehension 
[cur a non levis) takes possession of him, lest he may again see her in- 
volved in the horrors of civil war. 一 20. Nitentes Cycladas. "The Cycla 
des, conspicuous from afar." The epithet nitentes appears to refer, not so 
much to the marble contained in most of these islands, as to the circan 
■tance of its appearing along the coasts of maoj* of the group, and rendei 
tag them conspicuoas objects at a distance. (Compare Vanderbourff 
ad loc.) 



Ode XV. This ode is thought to have been composed on the breaking 
out of the last civil war between C^ctavianus and Antony. Nereus, the 
sea-god, predicts the rain of Troy at the very time that Paris bears Helen 
over the JEgean Sea fi-om Sparta. Under the character cf Paris, the poet, 
according to some commentators, intended to represent the infatuated An- 
tony, whose passion for Cleopatra he foretold would be attended with the 
same disastrous consequences as that of the Trojan prince for Helen ; and 
by the Grecian heroes, whom Nereus, in imagination, beholds combined 
againtt Iliam, Horace, it has been said. represert« the lead^B r/ the par 
ty of Aagasius 



284 EXPi-AN \TORV NOTES.— -BOOK I., ODI XV. 

1-4. 丄. Pasto.-. Paris, whose early life was spent airong the sl»ep 
herds of Moant Ida, in consequence of his mother's fearful dream. Sanur 
Jod, who is one of those ti?at attach an allegorical meaning to this odo, 
thinks that the allusion to Antony commences with the very first word of 
the poeir', since Antony was one of the Luperci, or priests of Pan, the god 
of shepherds. 一 Tralteret. " Was bearing forcibly away." Horace here 
follows the authority of those writers who make Helen to have been r«r- 
ried off by Paris against her will. (Compare Ovid, Her., xvii., 21.) Borne 
oommentators, however, make traheret here the same as raperr-t, i. e., 
tanquam "prtcAan tecum abdveeret ; while others, again, regard the term 
M equivalent to lenta navigatione cirenmditceret, since Paris, according 
to one of the scholiasts and Eustathius, did not go directly from Lacedso- 
mon to Troy, but, in apprehension of being pursued, sailed to Cyprua, 
Phoenicia, and Egypt. 一 Navibus I dais. " In vessels made of the timber 
of Ida." 一 3. Jngrato otio. "In an unwelcome calm." Unwelcome, say 
the commentators, to the winds themselves, which are ever restless, and 
ever love to be in motion. Hence they are styled by ^schylas KaKoax ' 
Xoi. 一 4. Ut caneret /era fata. "That he might foretell their gloomy des- 
iinics." 

5-12. 5. Mala avi. 44 Under evil omens." Compare Ode iii., 3, 6J, 
M alite lugiibri ;" and Epod. x., 1, " mala alilc." 一 7. Conjurata lucu rum- 
pere nuptias, dec. " Bound by a common oath to sever the union between 
thee and thy loved one, and to destroy the ancient kingdom of Priam." 
A Graecism for qn/e conjuravit se rupluram. The term nuptias is here 
ased, not in its ordinary sense, but with reference to the criminal loves of 
Paris and Helen. 一 9. Quanlus sudor. " Whdt toil." 一 10. Quanta fnftera. 
"What carnage." 一 11. Agida, "Her tegis." In Homer, the aegis (at- 
yig) is the shield of Jove, which Minerva sometimes bears (77., v., 738), 
and this signification is retained by Seneca [Here. Fur., 905). At a Utei 
period, it is Minerva's corselet [EvHp. t Ion, 1012, ed. Herm. Ovid, Met., 
vi., 17). The term is used in this last sense on the present occasion. — 
12. Et rabiem 'par at. " And is kindling up her martial fury." The zeug- 
ma in paraty and the air of conciseness which it imparts to the stylo, are 
p 3culiarly striking. 

13-39. 13. Veneris prasidio ferox. 44 Prondly relying on tnc aid of 
Venus." This goddess favored him, since to her he had adjudged tho 
prize of beauty over Juno and Minerva. 一 14. Grataque feminis, &c. " And 
distribute pleasing strains among women on the unmanly lyre." The ex- 
pression carmina dividcre feminis means nothing more than to execute 
different airs for different females in succession. This is Doring's explana- 
tion, and is adopted by Dillenburger. Orelli's interpretation appears stiff 
and far-fetched. It it as follows : " Cantus vocalis et cithara soni inter se 
eonjuncti totam efficiunt sympkoniam ; jam singulatim %pectatis hit par- 
tibus. uotdyv dividit cithara cantus, uoidh cithara sotios, id est, altera 
ntra aimidia totius symphonies pars est.'* The allegorical meaning is con 
■idered by some as being still kept up in this passage : Antony, according 
to Plutarch, lived for a time at Samos with Cleopatra, in the last excessea 
of luxury, amid the delights of mnsic and song, while all the world around 
were terrified with apprehensions of a civil war. 一 16. Thalamo. •' In tfa^ 
b^d~rhamber," i. e. % seeking shelter therein.— 17. CaUim* ftjjiculn Cao 



BXri.ANAI'ORY NCyTES. 一一 BOOK 1., ODE XV » 2Hd 

ftc. r',"sus was une of the oldest and most important cities of Crete, "I 
uate on the River Cscratus. Hence Cnosius is taken by synecdoche in 
the sense of " Cretan." The inhabitants of Crete were famed for their skill 
in archery. The correct form of the name of the city is Cnosus, as appear* 
f rom coins (Eckhel, Doctr. Num., ii., p. 307), not Cfiossus, or Gnossus, a» 
commonly written. Hence the true form of the gentile adjective it 
Cnosiust not Cnossius or Gnossius. 一 18. Strepitumqm, el celerem seqw 
Ajacem. "And the din of battle, and Ajax swift in pursuit." The ex 
pression eclerem aequi is a GraBcism for celerem ad sequcadum. The Oilcan 
Ajax is here meant, who was famed for his swiftness, and whom Hornet 
calls 'OlXf^OQ Tuxi'Q Amf. (//., ii., 527.) ― 19. Tamen. This particle ifl 
to be referred to quamvis, which is implied in serus, i. e., quamvis serus, 

■amen collides. 44 Though late in the conflict, still," &. c. Paris ww 

•lain in the last year of the war by one of the arrows of Philoctetes. 

21-28. 21. Laertiaden. " The son of Laertes.*' Ulysses. The Greek 
form of the patronymic (AaeoriuSjic) comes from Aaepnof, for Aatprijc- 
{Malihi<e t G. G" vol. i., p. 130.) The skill and sagacity of Ulysses were 
among the chief causes of the downfall of Troy. 一 22. Pylium Nestora 
There are three cities named Pylos in the Peloponnesus, two in Elis and 
one in Messenia, and all laid clSim to the honor of being Nestor^ birth- 
place. Strabo is in favor of the Triphylian Pylos, in the district of Tri 
phylia, in Elis. (Compare Hcyne, ad II., 4, 591 ; 11, 681.) ― 23. Salaminius 
T&icer. Teacer, son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and brother of Ajax.— 
Sr-4. Teucer. A trochee in the first place, to avoid which some read Tcucer 
*e in place of Tevcer eL 一 Sthenclus. Son of Capaneus, and charioteer of 
Diomede.— 26. Merionen. Charioteer of Idomeneus, king of Crete. 一 
28. Tydides mclior patre. " The son of Tydeus, in arms superior to hia 
sire." Horace appears to allude to the language of Stheaelas 4, 405) in 
defending himself and Diomede from the reproaches of Agamemnon, when, 
the latter was marshalling his forces after the violation of the truce by 
Pandaras, and thought that he perceived reluctance to engage on the pari 
of Diomede and his companion. 'H〃e?j* rot iraripQu fiey' ufieivoveg ev- 
XOfied' elvaif are the words of Sthenelus, who means that they, the Epi- 
goni, were braver than their sires, for they took the city of Thebes, befor« 
which their fathers had fallen. 

29-35. 29. Quern tu t cervus t &c. " Whom, as a stag, unmindful of its 
pasture, flees from a wolf seen by it in the opposite extremity of some 
valley, thou, effeminate one, shalt flee from with deep pantings, not hav- 
ing promised this to thy beloved." Compare Ovid, Her., 16, 356. ― 33. Ira- 
cunda diem, &c. Literally, " The angry fleet of Achilles shall protract 
the day of destruction for Ilium," &c, i. e., the anger of Achilles, who re- 
tired to his fleet, shall protract, &c. 一 35. Post cerlas hiemes. " After a 
destined period of years." 一 Ignis lliacas domos. We have here a trc 
chee in the flrnt place, as in line 24. Some editors, in order to bring ii 
the spondee, road Pergameas, whict makes an awkward change from 
(lie in line 33. Witbofius, with much more taste proposes bcrbarioae. 

()i>k X V】. Horaca. in early life, had written some severe vcrsbs against 
« female. He now retracts his iajurioiis exi>re8sions J and Jnyn tb« 



1580 EXPLANA TORY NOTES. 一 BOOR T. t ODE XVI. 

biame on the ardent and impetaoas feelings of youth. The ode I 
principally on the fatal eifects of unrestrained anger. An old commowatof 
informs as that the name of the female was Oratidia, and that she is the 
aame with the Canidia of the Epodes. Acron and Porphyrinn call her 
Tyudaris, whence some have been led to infer that Gratidia, whom Horace 
attacked* was the parent, and that, being now iu love with her daaghtei 
Tyndaris, he endeavors to make his peace with the former by giving uphii 
injurious verses to her resentment. Acron, however, farther states, that 
Horace, in hig Palinodia, imitates Stesichoras, who, having lost his sight 
tJt a punishment for an ode against Helen, made subsequently a fall re- 
cantation, aud was cured of his blindness. Nov/, as Tyndaris was the 
patrouymic appellation of Helen, why may net the Roman poet hav« 
merely transferred this name from the Greek original to his own jirodun 
tion, without intending to assign it' any particular meaning 1 

2-5. 2. CHmitLosis iambia. "To my injurioas iambics." The iambic 
measure was peculiarly adapted for satirical effusions. In the heroic 
hexameter, which preceded it, there was a measured movement, with its 
arsis and thesis of equal lengths ; whereas in the iambic versification the 
arsis was twice as long as the thesis, and therefore its light, trippinjj 
characftr was admirably adapted to express the lively play of wit and 
sarcasm. ― 4. Mari Hadriano. The Adriatic is here put for water general* 
ly. The ancients were accastomed to cast whatever they detested either 
into the flames or the water. 一 5. Non Dindymene^ Sec. u Nor Cybele, 
uor the Pythian Apollo, god of prophetic inspiration, so agitate the minds 
of their priesthood in the secret shrines, Bacchus does not so shake the 
soul, nor the Corybantes when they strike with redoubled blows on the 
flhrill cymbals, as gloomy anger rages." Understand quatiunt with Cory- 
Gardes and irce respectively, and observe the expressive force of tho zeug- 
ma. The idea intended to be conveyed is, when divested of its poetic 
attire, simply this : "Nor Cybele, nor Apollo, nor Bacchus, nor the Cory, 
bantes, can shake the bouI as does the power of anger." 一 Dindymem 
The goddess Cybelp received this name from being worshipped on Mount 
Dindymus, near the city of Pessinas in Galatia, a district of Asia Minor 
Sbe was worshipped with wild and orgiastic rites. 

6-11. 6. Incola Pythius. The term incola beautifully expresses tb« 
prophetic inspiration of the god : " habitans quasi in pectore." 一 8. Cory' 
lanles. The Corybantes were the enthusiastic priests of Cybele, who 
with drums, cymbals, horns, and in full armor, performed their orgiastic 
dances in the forests and on the mountains of Phrygia. 一 9. Noricus ensis. 
The iron of Noricura was of an excellent quality, and hence the expressiar 
Naricus ensh is used to denote the goodness of a sword. Noricam, after 
its reduction under the Roman swmy, corresponded to the modem Carin- 
thiOy Styridy Salzburg, and part of Austria and Bavaria. 一 11. Smvut 
ignis. " The unsparing lightning." The^rc of the skie 鵬. 一 Nee tremendo. 
&c. " Nor Jove himself rushing down with fearful thanderiags." Can- 
pare the Greek oppression Zevg KaTau(3dT,'e, applied to Jove liurlinfy hn 
thunderbolts. 

13-1^ 13. Ferlur Prometheus, Sec. According to the legend here fol 
k>we<i by Horace, it appears that Promethens. or his brother BpirwotliRTis 



EXPLANATORY NCTEfe ― BOOK l., ODE XV i. 2H1 

Attving exhausted his stock of materials in the formation of other aiiiiuala, 
whb compelled to take a part from each of them {particulam undiqtu de- 
teelam)^ and added it to the clay which formed the primitive element oi 
aian ( principi limo). Hence the origin of angei, Prometheus having 
•' placed in our breast the wild rage of the lion" (insani leonis mnt, i. e . 
tnsanam leonis vim). Whence Horace borrowed this legend is uncertain, 
probably from some Greek poet The creation of the human race oa| 
of clay by Prometheus is unknown to Homer and Hesiod, and can not 
be traced higher than Ennna. {Anthol. Pa/., i., p. 301, ep.、 352.) The 
uvdog of Prometheus, as given by Protagoras in the Platonic dialogue of 
tliat name (p. 320), approaches very nearly to it. 一 16. Stomacko. The term 
ftlonutckus properly denotes tbe canal through which aliment descends 
intd the stomach : it is then taken to express the upper pnfice of the 
stomach (compare the Greek xapJta), and finally the ventricle in which 
the food is digested. Its reference to anger or choler arises from the cir- 
Rumstauce of a great number of nerves being situated about the uppei 
orifice of the stomach, which render it very sensitive ; and from thence ^so 
proceeds the great sympathy between the stomach, head, and heart. 

17-18. 17. Ira* " Angry contentions," i, < !., the indulgence of aagry 
feelings between the brothers Atreus and Thyestes. 一 Thyesten exitio 
gra"i stravere. These words, besides containing a geueral allusion to the 
rained fortunes of Thyestes, have also a special reference to his having 
been made to banquet, uuconsciously, upon the flesh of his own bod«. 一 18. 
Et altis urbibu8、 dec. " And have been the primary cause to lofty cities 
why," Aq. A Graecism for et ultima ste.iere causa cur altte urbes fundi- 
Cus perirent. "And have ever been the primary cftase why lofty cities 
perished from their very foundations," i. e" have been utterly destroyed. 
Compare, as regards the epithet ultima, the explanation of Orelli : u ab 
ultimo initio repetila, et propterea prtecipua." The expression altis ur- 
bib-us is in accordance with the Greek, alirv nroXledpoVt TroAif aiif€irj 
The elegant use of stelere for exstitere or fuere most be nototl. It carried 
with it the accompanying idea of sometliing fixed and -xrtain. Compvu 
Virgil (^f£n. t vii., 735) : " Stant belli causa." 

20-27. 20. Imprimeretque muris 1 &c. Alluding to the custom, preva- 
isnt among the ancients, of drawing a plough over the ground provioagljr 
occupied by the walls and buildings of a captured and ruined city, and 
瓤 owing salt, as the type of barrenness, in the furrowB. ~ 22. Covtpesee 
tnentem. " Restrain thy angry feelings." 一 Pectoris teatavit fervor. "Th, 
glow of resentment seized." Literally, "made trial o£" Tbe poet lay* 
the blame of his injurious effusion on the intemperate feelings of youth, 
whicli hurried him away. 一 24. Celeres iambos. " The rapid iambics/ 
rho rapidity of this measare rendered it peculiarly fit to give expressicv 
to ftnjp'y feelings. Compare note od u criminosis iambis," v. 2, and alic 
the Epistle to the Pisos, v. 251. ― 25. Mitibus mutare tristia. " To cx 
shange bitter taunts for soothing strains." Mitibus, though, when render 
rd into our idiom, it has the appearance of a dative, is in reality the ab 
native, as being the instrument of exchange. 一 27. Recant a tis opprobriis 
"My injurious expressions being recantod."- 'Anir.vm. "Mv ponce re 



288 EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK I., ODE XVJL 



UDE XVII. Horace, having in the last ode made his peace with Tvi 
aahs, now invites tier to his Sabine farm, where she will find retiremeoc 
and security fran the brutality of Cyras, who had treated her with an 
manly radeness and cruelty. In order the more certainly to induce au at'- 
ceptauce of his offer, he depicts in attractive colors the salubrioas position 
uf his rural retreat, the tranquillity which reigns there, and the favorlog 
protoclion extended to him b》 Faunas and the other gods. 

1--4. 1. Velox amoBmimj &. c. " Ofltimes Faanus, in rapid flight, change 睡 
Mouiit Lycoeas for the fair Lacretilis." Lycato is here the ablative, as de- 
noting the instrument by whicli the chauge is made. They who make 
this an hypallage for Lucretili . . . Lycaum, confound the English idiom 
with the Latin. 一 Lucretilem. Lacretilis was a mountain in the coaotry 
of the Sabines, and amid its windings lay tbe farm of the poet. It is now 
Monte i.-'bretti. 一 2. Lycteo. Mount Lycaeua was situated in tbe south- 
western angle of Arcadia, and was sacred to F annus or Pan. 一 Faunus, 
{Taahas, the god of shepherds and fields among the Latins, appears U 
have Lecoiao gradually identified with the Pan of the Greeks. 一 3. DefendU, 
"Wards off." 一 4. Plnviosque ventos. " And the rainy winds." The post 
sufficieutly declares the saiubrioua situation of iiis Sabine farm, when he 
•peaks of it as being equally sheltered from the fiery heats of summer, 
•rid the rain-bearing winds, the sure precursors of disease. 

5-17. 5. Arbutos. Compare the note on Ode i., 1, 21. 一 6. Thyma. The 
thyme of the ancients is l.ut our common thyme*, but the thymus capilatus, 
qui Dioscondis, which now grows in great plenty on the muuntains of' 
Greece. 一 7. Olcntis uxore.、 mnriti. " The wives of the fetid hasbazid/ 
A periphrasis for capr<p.. 一 ;*. Nec Martiales Hadilite lupos. " Nor the 
tierce wolves of Hsedilia." It appears from a gloss appended to one of the 
earliest MSS., that Hasdilin was a mountain in the vicinity of the poet'a 
farm, infested by wolves. All the MSS. have Htedilia ; but the copyist*, 
uot understanding the meaning of the term, changed it to kinnulea, which 
last, Bentley, by an ingenious emendation, and guided by analogy, altered 
into the new word kadulca, " young female kids." The restoration of the 
true reading of the MSS. was made by Orelli. The epithet Martiales, aa 
applied to lupos, has a double meaning, since it indicates the wolf not only 
as a fierce and savage animal, but also one sacred to Mars. 一 10. Vtcnnque 
"Whenever." For qvandocunque. 一 11. Usticts cubantis. u Of the low- 
lying Ustica," i. e. t gently sloping. This was a small mountain near the 
poet's farm.— 12. Levia. In the sense of attrita^ " worn smooth by the 
mountain rills." 一 14. Hie tibi copia, Sec. " Here plenty, rich in raral hon- 
ors, shall flow in to thee, from benignant horn filled to the very brim." A 
ligiu ative allusion to the horn of Plenty. 一 17. In reducta valle. "In a 
winding vale." ― Caniatla. We translate this term by " the dog-star," 
without specifying whether we mean Sirius, the great dog-star, or Pro- 
tyon、 the little dog star. It may, however, be cither, since their heliacal 
risings do not differ by many days. But, strictly speaking, canicula i 醑 
Procyon, and the dies canicularea^ or classical dog-days," are the twenty 
days preceding and the twenty days following the heliacal risirg of Ca 

>«-«i 18. Fide Tt k " On the TeUn lyre," t. e. fn Auo^reontic ttn ; l 



拳 



EXVLANATORT NOTES. 一 BOOK I., 01>E AVil. 28ft 

An&crcoo was born at Teos, in Asia Minor. 一 19. Labor antes in una 
" Striving for one and toe same hero," i. e. t Ulysses. Jjzboranles is ex- 
ireme}y graphic here, and implies that anxioas state of feeling which they 
who lore arc wont to experience. 一 20. Vitreamque Circea. " And glass- 
like Ciitre," t. e. t as bright and dazzling, bat, at the same time, as frail 
tnd as onwcurtby of reliance as glass. Compare SaLf ii" 3, 222 : " Vitrea 
/aiiki." — 21. Innocentis Lesbii. The Lesbian wine would seem to have 
^Ofveaae'l a dolicioas flavor, for it is said to have deserved the name of 
tmbrosia ratbcr than of wine, and to have been like nectar when old. 
{Athsiueus % i., 22.) Horace terms the Lesbian au innocent or unintoxicat- 
iug wine ; bat it was the prevailing opinion among the accients that all 
鼯 weet wines were less ii^jarioas to the head, and less apt to cause intox 
feation, than the strong dry wioes. Consult ExcursusVLL 

22-27. 92. Duces. "Thou shalt quaff." — 23. Semeleias TIiyoneuA. 
" Baochosi offspring of Semele." This deity received the name of Thyo> 
was, acooiding to the common account^ from Thyone, an appellatiou of 
Semole. I( is more probable, however, that the title in qaestion was de- 
rived from ^vu, "to rage," "to rush wildly." 一 24. Nec metues protervum, 
kc. " Nor shalt thou t an object of jealous saspicion, fear the rade Cyru»/ 
—25. Male dispart. " 111 fitted to contend with him." 一 26. Incontinente$ 
••Rash/' " violent." 一 27. Coronam, Previous to the iatroductiun of the 
*econd coarse, the guests were provided with cbaplets of leaves or flow- 
ers, which they placed on their foreheads or temples, and occasionally, 
alao t on their caps. Perfumes were at the same time offered to 露 uch ai 
chose to anoint their face and hands, or have their garlands sprinkled with 
them. This mode of adorning their persons, which was borrowed from 
the Asiatic nations, obtained so universally among the Greeks and Bo- 
mans, that, by almost every author after the time of Homer, it is spoken 
«f aa the nocegsary aooompaniment of the feast. It is said to have origi 
nated from a belief that the leaves of certain plants, as the ivy, myrtle, 
and laurel, oi certain flowers, as the violet and rose, possessed ihe powei 
of dispersing the fiunes and coanteracting the noxious effects of wine. On 
this account the ivy has been always held sacred to Bacchus, and formed 
the basis of the wreaths with which his images, and the heads of his wor- 
shippers, were enciicled ; but, being deficient in smell, it waa seldom em- 
ployed for festal garlands, and in general the preference was given to the 
myrtle, which, ia addition to its cooling or astringent qaalities, waa sap* 
posed to have an exhilarating influence on the mind. On ordinary occa* 
sions, the guests were contented with simple wreaths ftum the latter 
■hrab; bat, at their gayer entertainments, its foliage was entwined with 
rose* and violets, or such other flowers aa were in Beaaon, and recom* 
aiended themselves by the beauty of their colors or the fragrance of their 
imell. Much taste was displayed in the arrangement of tbeae garlands, 
which was usually confided to female hands ; and, as the demand for them 
was great, the manufacture and sale of them became a dittinct branch vf 
l^ade. To appear in a disordered chaplet was reckoned a sign of inebri- 
ety ; and a custom prevailed of placing a garland, confusedly put togethei 
iXP^^ov ari^cvov), 3n the heads of sach as were guilty of excess in theit 
■apt. (ffenderto-^s History o 'Ancient and Modem Wx", p. 1】龟 *eqg.\ 



攀 



fiXPLANATOEY MOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODE XVII I. 

Ot»e XVIII. Varas, the Epicoiean, and friend of Angcstas, of whom 
••ontioa is made by daiutilian (6, 3, 78), beiug engaged in setting oat 
trees ftlong his Ttbaitine possessions, is advised by the poet to give th^ 
'• sacred vine" the preference. Amid the praises, however, which he bs 
讓 tows on the juice of the grape, the bard does not forget to inculcate a 
useful lesson as to moderation in wine. The Varus to whom this ode i 慮 
addressed mast not be confounded with the individual of the same nam« 
wlio killed himself in Germany after his disastroaa defeat by Arminiai. 
He is rather the poet duintilius Varus, whose death, which Vappened 
A U.C. 729, Horace deplores in the 24th Ode of this book. 

1-4. 1. Sacra. The vine was sacred to Bacclms, and heuce the op>> 
thet a/iK€?,o(hiTMp (" producer of the vine"), which is applied to tbif god. 
— PWas. " Id preference to." 一 Severis. The subjunctive is here need aa 
t softened imperative : " Plant, I entreat." {Zumpl t 》 529, note.) The 
whole of this line is imitated from Alcoeus : Mijdiv &? iKo <fn'revayc irpore- 
aov 6iv6peov ufiniXu. 一 2. Circa mite solum Tibnris. " In the soil of th« 
mild Tibar, aroaud the walls erected by Catihis." The preposition circa 
is here used with solum f as irepi sometimes is in Greek with the accusa- 
tive : thus, Thucyd.、 6, 2, irtpt 7rd(rav ttjv XixeTUavt "in the whole of 
Sicily, round about." The epithet mite, though in grammatical oonstrac* 
tion with solum t refers in strictness to the mild atmosphere of Tibur. And 
lastly, the particle et is here merely explanatory, the town of Tibar hav 
ing been founded by Tibartas, Coras, and Catillus or Catilus, sons of Ca- 
tillas, and grandsons of Amphiaraas. Some commentators, with less pro- 
priety, render mile solum '* the mellow soil," and others "the genial soil." 
The true idea is given by Braanhard : "Mite solum, propter airis mitwrit 
temperiemy 一 3. Siccis omnia nam d,ira、 Sec. "For the deity has made 
all things appear difficult to those who abstain from wine." More literal- 
ly, "haa placed all tilings as difficult before the view of those," Sec. The 
meaning is simply this : the deity has made all those tilings, which tiiey 
who refrain from wine undertake, appear to them as burdensome and 
difficult. 4. Mordaee8 solliciludines. u Gnawing cares." 一 Aliter. " By 
any other means," i. e. t by the aid of any other remedy than wine. 

5-8. 5. Post vina. • 1 After free indulgence in wiue." The plaral bn' 
parts additional force to the term. 一 Crepat. " Talks of." The verb in 
this line conveys the idea of complaiut, aud is equivalent to " rails at," or 
•• decries." In the succeeding verse, however, where it is understood, it 
implies encomium. >~ 6. Qnis non le pot lit 8、 kc. "Who is not rather load 
Ui thy praises." Uudcrstaud crepat. 一 Decern Venns. " Lovely Venus.' 
—7. Modlzi mnticra Libert. "The gifts of moderate Bacchus," i. e., mod 
eration in wine. The appellation Liber, as applied to B acchus, is a tranv 
;«tion of the Greek epithet Avcuo^, and indicates the deity who frees th# 
• >al frutu cares. ― 8. CenlantTa monct, &c. AUading to the well-kuown 
conflict between the Centaurs and Lapithas, which arose at the naptiak 
of Piritliuus, king of the Lapithos, and Hippodamia. 一 Super mero. " Ovel 
their vr ine." Afc ntrn denotes wine in its pure and most potent state, uu 
mixed with water. The Greeks and Romans generally drauk their wiaen 
dilated with water. Th3 dilation varied according to the taste of tha 
drinkers, and the strength of the liquor, from one part of wine and foai 
of water, to two of wine and four or else five parts of water, which last 
ieeni8 to have been the favorite mixture. Compare Excursus IX. 



、 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOR f M ODE XVI II. 201 

H 9. Silhoniii non levis, " Unpropitioni to the Thracians/ 1 Aj- 
hiding to the intemperate habits of the Thracians, and the stern iuflaenoi 
which the god of wine was consequently said to exercise over theic. The 
Bithomans are here taken for the Thracians generally. In strictness 
however, they were the inhabitants of Sithonia, one of the three penin- 
sulas of Chalcidice, sabseqaentl}' incorporated into Macedonia. ~~ Euiu$ 
A name of Bacchus, supposed to have originated from the cry of tho Bao 
; banalians, evol. Others derive the appellation from an exclamation of 
•apiter (ev vli, " Well done, son !" ), in approval of the valor displayed by 
Saschas during the contest of the giants. 一 10. Cum fas atque nefas f dec. 
"When, prompted by their intemperate desires, they distinguish right 
from wrong by a narrow limit," i. e., when the only difference in their eyef 
between good and evil is marked by the feeble barrier which their own 
inclinations interpose. 

11. Non ego te candide Bassareu, ice. " I will not disturb thee agaiost 
thy will, brightly-beauteous Bassareas." The epithet candide ia equiva- 
lent here, as OrelH remarks, to " pulchriludine splendens." The mythol- 
ogy of the Greeks and Romans assigned perpetual youth and beauty to 
the god of wine. The epithet Bassareus f applied to Bacchas here, is de- 
rived by Creazer from Puaaapog, " a fox ;', and he thinks that the garment 
called ^aaaaptQt worn in Minor by the females who celebrated the 
rites of this deity, derived its name from its having superseded the skiua 
of foxes, which the Bacchantes previously wore during the orgies. (S^^ 
bolik t iii., p. 363.) In order to understand more fully the train of ideas io 
this and the following part of the ode, we must bear in mind that the poet 
now draws all his images from the rites of Bacchus. He who indulges 
moderately in the use of wine is made identical with the trao and accept* 
able worshipper of the god, while he who is given to excess is compared 
to that follower of Bacchus who undertakes to celebrate his orgies in an 
improper and unbecoming manner, and who reveals his sacrod mysteriei 
to the gaze of the profane. On such a one the anger of the god is sarci 
to fall, And this anger displays itself in the infliction of disordered feeling, , 
hi arrogant and blind love 6f self, and in deviations from the path of in 
tofjrity and good faith. The poet professes his resolution of never incm 
ring the resentment of the god, and prays, therefore (v. 13), that he 
not be exposed to sach a visitation. 

12-16. 12. Qnaliam. The verb quatio has here the sense of move* 
uid alludes to the custom of the ancients in bringing forth from the tem- 
ples the statues and sacred things connected with the woiship of the godi, 
on solemn festivals. These were earned round, and the ceremony begau 
by the waving to and fro of the sacred vases and utensils. — Nec varits oh- 
silafrondibns, &c " Nor will I hurry into open day the things concealed 
auder various leaves." Ia the celebration of the festival of Bacchaa, a se- 
lect number of virgins, of honorable families, called Kav—dpod carried 
■mftll baskets of gold, in which were concealed, beneath vine, ivy, and 
etder lenves, certain sacred and mysterious things, which were not to hi 
exposed to the eyes of the profane. 一 13. Sawa late cum Berecyutio, ko 
* Cease the sbriH-claslvaig cymbals, with the Berecyntian horn." Bere 
oyntus was a mountain iu Phrygia, where Cybcle was particularly woi 
khinpod. Cymbals and horns were us€cl at tho festivals of this Roldefp 



^192 BAFLANATORY NOTES. ― b*9GK I., OD£ XI 1. 

ai at Uiote of Bacchus. 一 14. Qva aitbsequitur^ dus. " In whote traiu ibi 
kfWB." 一 1 5. Gloria. " Foalish vanity." 一 Verticem vacuum. " The empty 
b«ad. ' "» 16. Areanijiies prodiga, " Indiscretion prodigal of secrets.' 

Odx XIX. The poet, alter having bid farewell to love, coniesftes that 
the beauty of Glycera had again made him a willing captive. Venus, 
Baocbua, and Licentia are the authors of this change, and compel him tc 
Abandon all graver employments. A sacrifice to the first of these deitiea,, 
hi order "to propitiate her iaflaence, now engrosses the attention of the 
bard- Some commentatora have supposed that the poet's object in com 
posing this piece was to excuse himself to Maecenas for not having cele- 
brated in song, as the latter requested, the operations of Augustus against 
the 8cythi&ns and the Parthians. We should prefer, however, the simpler 
«m, more natural explanation of the ode as a mere sportive effb 睡 iou. 

1-5. 1. Mater sceva Cupidinum. " The cruel mother of the Loves." 
The later poets made Venus the mother of numerous loves, who formed 
her train. 一 2. Thebarue Semeles puer. Bacchas; hence called ^efitTifi- 
yePiTtfg. 一 3. Lasciva Licentia. 44 Frolic License." — 5. Nitor. "The 
brilliant beauty." 

6t Pario marmare purius. Paros was famed for its statuary marble, 
^he qaarries were in Mount Marpessns. For an interesting account of 鵬 
to these qaarrieSi consult Clarke's Travels, vi., p. 134. 

8-12. 8. El vultut nimium lubricus aspici. " And her countenauce 
too dangerous to be gazed upon." Lubricus aspici is analogoug to the 
Greek a^aXepbg pT^ired, and lubricus^ like a<f>aXepog t carries with it 
the idea of something slippery, delusive, dangerous, &c. 一 9. Tota. " In 
til the strength." 一 10. Cyprum. The island of Cyprus was the favorite 
abode of Venus. Here she had her celebrated IdaUon grove. 一 Scythas. 
By the Scythians are here meant the tribes dwelling on or near the banks 
of the Ister, and who were among the most persevering foes of the Romas 
name. Horace professes his inability to sing of Roman triaiuphs andoi 
A.agastas y or to handle in any way such lofty themes, in consequence of 
the all-controlling power of love. 一 11. Versis animosum^ Sec. " The Par 
thian, fiercely contending on retreating steeds." Compare the language 
of Plutarch in describing the peculiar mode of light practiced by this na- 
tion. (Vit. Crass" c. 24; ed. Hutten, vol. iii" p. 422.) *^Cnt^evyov yap 
ufia puTi^ovreg ol HupQoL, Kal tovto Kpariara noiovat fieru XKvOag' /cat 
awfKJTaTov haTLVt ufivvonivovQ kni t<^ au^eadait rijg ^vy^g u^atpelv rd 
ahxpov- " For the Parthians shot as they fled ; and this they do with a 
degree of dexterity inferior only to that of the Scythians. It is indeed at/ 
excellent invention, since they fight while they save themaclvea, and thai 
eicape the disgrace of flight." 一 12. Nee qua nihil attinent. Undsrstand 
aJf se. " Nor of aught that bears no relation to her sway." 

13-14. 13. Viviim cespitem " The verdant turf.'* An altar of turf m 
now to be erected to the goddess. This material, one of the earliest that 
was applied to such a purpose, was generally used on occasions where 
little previous prepar fttion could be wade. 一 14. VtrUen js. " Veivain 



BXPLAXATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODE XX. 29h 

Tlw Vviena of the B^>mans corresponds to the 'Sepo^oTdvij w llepio repe6* 
of tLe Greeks, and to the Veibena officinalis of Iiinnseas (Gen. 43). Tbo 
origin of the superstitious belief attached to tbis plant, especially among 
the Gaals, can hardly be ascertained with any degree of certainty. One 
the Greek names given to it above ['lepofSoTuvrj, " sacred plant"), showi 
the high estimation in which it was held by that people. The Latin ap> 
peUatior is supposed to come from the Celtic /er/azn, from which last if 
also derived the English word " vervain." It became customary, how- 
vtet, to call by the name of verbena all plants and leaves used for sftcred 
porposes. Compare Servius, ad Virg., ^En.、 12, 120 

15-16. 15. Bimimeri. ** Of "wme two years old." New wine was al 
ways preferred for libations to the gods. So, also, the Romans were ac- 
euatomed to use their own, not the Greek wines, for such a purpose, tho 
former being more free from any admixture of water. Hence the remark 
of Pliny (H. N.、 14, 19), 44 Greeca vina libare nefas、 quoniam aquam ha 
beant, ,' 一 16. Mactata kostia. Tacitus informs us {Hist. t 2) that it was tin 
lawful for any blood to be shed on the altar of the Paphian Venus, M Sangui 
nem arte offundere vetitnm" and hence Catullus- (66, 91) may be explain- 
ed : ** Placabis festis Icminibus Venerem sanguinis expertem" It would 
appear, however, from other authorities, especially Martial (9, 91), that 
animal sacrifices in honor of this goddess, and for the purpose of inspect- 
ing the entrails in order to ftscertain her will, were not unfrequcnt. The 
very historian, indeed, from whom we have just given a passage, clearly 
proves this to have been the case. ( Taci" I. c.) t " Hostia, ut quisqtte 
vovit, ted mares deligvntur. Certissima fides hadorum JibrisJ* The ap- 
parent contradiction into which Tacitns falls may be explained away, if 
we refer the expression " sanguinem arm offundere vetitum" not to the 
total absence of victims, bat merely to the altar of the goddess being kept 
untouched by their blood. The sacrifices usually offered to Venus would 
黼 eem to have been white goats and swine, with libations of wine, milk, 
and honey. The language of Virgil, in describing her altars, is somewhat 
in accordance with that of Catullas : M Tkmre calent ara, seriisque reeen 
Hbui halant." {jEn., 1, 417.) 



Ode XX. Addressed to Maecenas, who had signified to ihe poet his in 
tention of spending a few days with him at his Sabine farm. Horace 
warns him that he is not to expect the generous wine which he has been 
accustomed to quaff at home ; and yet, while depreciating the quality of 
ttiat which his own humble roof affords, he mentions a circumstance re- 
•pectiug its age, which could not bat prove peculiarly gratifying to hii 
f atron and intended guest. 

1-3. 1. Vile Sabinum. " Common Sabine wine." The Sabine appeani 
Id have been a thin table-wine, of a reddish color, attaining its maturity 
<to 廪 even years. Pliny {H. N., xiv., 2) applies to it the epithets rrudnm 
an 1 austerum. 一 2. Cantharis. The cantharui was a bowl or vase fup 
hef-ding wine, famished with handles, and from which the liquor was truig 
'erred to th<3 drinking-enps. It derived its name, according to most ao 
thcriHes, from its being made to resemble a beetle {Ktivdapog). Souia 
tynrever r deduce the appellation from a certain Cantb«raB, who was th« 



BXPLiNATOET NOT ES. 一 BOOK I., ODE XX. 

mveiito^ if the article. The canlkarus w u peculiarly sacred to Baochu 
一 Testa. The tata, or "jar," derived its name from having been 露 
jected, when first made, to the action of fire [testa, quasi tosta, a torrto) 
The vessels for holding wine, in general nae among the Greeks and Bo 
mauB, were of earthenware.— 3. Levi. ** I cloied up." When the wine- 
vessels were filled, and the distarbance of the liquor had tabsided, the 
oavon or stopper! were secured with plaster or a coating of pitch, mixed 
with the ubes of the vine, io ai to exclude all oommanicatioii with the 
ozternal air. ― Datut in iheatro, he Allading to the aoclamatiooB widi 
which the aMembled Aadience greeted Miecenas on bii entrance into the 
theatre, after having, according to moat commentatora, recovered from a 
dangeroiu malady. Some, however, 'appose it to have been on oocask*o 
?f the celebrating of certain games by MaBceoas ; and others, among whom 
ib Faber, refer it to the time when the conapiracy of Lepidiu was detect- 
•d and craahed by the minister. (Compare Veil. Paterc. % ii" 88, 3.) Th# 
theatre alluded to was that erected by Pompey, probably after the termi 
nation of the Mithradatic war. It was overlooked by the Vatican on tha 
other side of the river, and u generally Bapposcd to have stood in that 
p&rt of the modern city called Catnpo 'di Fiore. 

6-9. 5. Care Miecenas eques. " Dear Madcenaa, contented with eqaei 
trian rank." We have paraphrased rather than translated eqii^a. M»* 
oenas, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he attain- 
ed under Aagastns, remained ever contented with hu equestrian rank. 
Hence the term eques here is meant to be peculiarly emphatic. Bentley, 
following one of his If 88" read 鼯 Clar" Mascenas, eques, in order tu give 
eques a& epithet ; bat Care breathes more of the feeling of true friendBbip 
" Paterni fiuminu» The Tiber ia meant. The anceitora of MuicenM 
were of Etrurian origin, and the Tiber belonged in part to Etruria, as it 
formed, in a great measure, its eastern and southern boundary. 7. Vati- 
cam montis. The Vatican Mount formed the proiongatioa of the Janicu' 
mm toward the north, and was supposed to have derived its name from 
the Latin word vale», or valicinium, as it wsb once the seat of KtruBcan 
divination. 一 8. Imago. " The echo." Uudenitand vocis. ~~ 9. C^ecubam. 
The Ceecuban wine derived its name from the Ctecubus ager, in the vicin- 
ity of AmyclaB, and is described by Galen as a generoai, durable wine. 
Out apt to affect the head, find ripening only after a long term of yean 
{Athe7utus t i, — Caleno. The town of Cales, now Calvi, lay to the 
■oath of Teanum, in Campania. Tho ager Calenus was much celebrated 
ior its vineyvda. It was contignous, in fact, to that famous district, m 
well known in antiquity under the name of ager Falemut t as producing 
the best wine in Italy, or, indeed, in the world. Compare Excurtut VIII. 

11-12. 11. Formiani. The Formian Hills are often extolled for the 
miperior wine which they produced. FonuisB, now Mola di Gaeta, was 
A city of great antiquity in Latiao^ near Caieta. 一 12. Mea tempera?" poo 
via. " Mix my cups," t. e. t with water. The meaning of the whole clause 
may be best axpressed by a paraphrase : " Neither the produce of the 
FMlernian viuss, nor that of the Formian bUl,, mingles in my cups with 
Hie tempering water." These were the drinking-caps, into which tb e wiot 
poured after having been dilated with water in the crater, or mixur 



EJSrLAN ^TOBY NOTES. ― BOOK I., ODE XXI. 

Ooa XXI A hymn in praise of Apollo and Diana, which hsA give* 
rifee to much diversity of opinioc among the learoed. Many regard it as £ 
piece intended U be sung in alternate stanzas by a chorus of youths anc 
maidens on some solemn festival. Acron refers it to the Ssecular Oamea. 
and Sanadon, who is one of those that advocate this opinioa, acta Ally re- 
moves the ode from its present place and makes it a component part o! 
the Sascular Hymn. Others, again, are in favor of the Ludi Apollinarex 
All this, however, is perfectly arbitrary. No satisfactory arguments ca£ 
be adduced for making the present ode an amoebae an composition, nor cao 
It be fairly proved that it was ever customary for sacb hymns to be sang 
in alternate choras. Besides, there are some things in the ode directly 
it variance with such an opinion. Let us adopt, for a moment, the distri 
bution of parts which these cotumentators recommend, and examine the 
result. The first line is to be sung by the chora.4 of youths, the second by 
the chorus of maidens, while both united sing tbn third and fourth. In the 
■acceeding stanzas, the lines from the fifth to the eighth inclasive are as- 
鼯 igned tu the youths, and from the ninth to the twelfth iuclusivo to the 
maidens, while the remaining lines are again svng by the doable choraB. 
In order to effect this arrangement, we mast c\ tuige, with these critics, 
the initial Hie in the thirteenth line to Htec, in t-llasion to Diaua, making 
Uie reference to Apollo begin at hie iniseram. Now, the impropriety of 
csaking the youths sing the praises of Diann (verses 5-8), and the maid- 
ens those of Apollo (v. 9-12), zuast be apparent to every unprejudiced ub- 
■erver, and forms, we conceive, a fatal error. Nor is it by any means a 
feeble objection, whatever grammatical subtleties may be called in to ex 
plain it away, that motus occurs in the sixteenth line. If the concluding 
■tanza is to commence with the praises of Diana as sung by the youths, 
then evidently motus sboald be mota^ which would violate the measure. 
The conclusion, therefore, to which we are drawn, is simply this : The 
present ode is merely a private efiiiBion, and not intended for any public 
■olemnity. The poet only assumes in imagination tho office of choragns, 
and seeks to instruct the choras in the proper discharge of their genenU 
duties. , 

1-8. 1. Dianam. Apollo and Diana, as typifying the son and mooq 
vrere ranked in the popular belief among the averters of evil (Dii aver 
runci $ ^eoi aur^pe^ uXe^UaKoij &c.), and were invoked to ward off fani 
ine, pestilence, and all national calamity. 一 2. Intontum Cynthium 
H Apollo ever young." Compare the Greek &K€paeK6fiijv. It was cos 
tomary among the ancients for the first growth of the beard to be conse- 
crated to some god. At the same time the hair of the head was &lso cat 
and offered ap, osaally to Apollo. Until then they wore it aucut 
Hence the epithet inionsus (literally, " with unshorn locks"), when ap 
plied to a deity, carries with it the idea of unfading youth. 一 The appella 
tion of Cynthia s is given to Apollo from Mount Cynthus in the island of 
Delos, near which mountain he was born. 一 4. Dilectam penitus. ' Deep 
ly beloved." ~~ 6. Quacunque aut gdido, dec. " Whatsoever (foliage at 
groves) stands forth prominont to the view, either on the bleak Algida«, 
',r," dec. Commentators complain of tautology here ; but they forget thai 
nemus is strictly speaking a part, and silva a whole. 一 Algido. Alg;dai 
WMB a muantain in Latiara, consecrated to Diana and Fortune, It ap 
osan to have been, stnctly speaking, that chain which stretched from *iie 



*96 EXPLANATORf NOTES. 一 BOOR I., OD£ XXII 

rev of the Alban Moant, and ran parallel to the Toacnlan Hiu«, t»ei / 
■eporated from them by the valley along which ran the Via bAtinm 
7. Erymanthi. Erymanthas wu a chain of moantftins in Arcadia, on tH( 
border, of EHs, and forming one of the highest ridges in Greece. It wmt 
celebrated in fftble bb the baant of the savage boar destroyed by Herea- 
le«^ — 8. Cragi. Cragas waa a celebrated ridge of Lycia, in Asia Minor, 
extending along the Olaacoe Sinas. The fabaloai monster Chimera, said 
to have been sabdued by Bellerophon, freqaented this rango. aooordiDg Ic 
the pocti. 

VI 5. 9. Tempe Compare the note on Ode i., 7, 4. 一 10. Natalem iPdom 
Delot, one of Uie Cyclades, and the fabled birth-place of Apollo and Diana. 
••12. Fraterna Lyra. The invention of the lyre by Mercury has already 
been mentioned. (Compare note on Ode i., 10, 6.) Tbi* instrament h€ 
bestowed on Apollo after the theft of the oxen was discovered. — 13. Per- 
tas atque Britannot. Marking the farthest limits of the empire on the 
east and west. By the Persa are meant the Partbians. (Compare nota 
in Ode i., 2, 22.) 



Ode XXII. It was a very prominent feature in tbo popular belief of 
antiquity, that poets formed a class of men peculiarly ander the proteo* 
kion of the gods ; since, wholly engrossed by subjects of a light and pleu* 
ing nfttare, no deeds of violence, and no acta of fraud or perjury, could evef 
be laid to their charge. Horace, having escaped imminent danger, writef 
the present ode in allasion to this belief. The innocent man, ezclaimfi 
the bard, is shielded from peril, wherever he may be, by his own parity 
of life and condact. (The innocent man is here oniy another name fui 
poet.) The nature of the danger from which he bad l|een re»coed is next 
described, and the ode conclades with the declaration that hi' own in 
tegrity will ward off every evil, in whatever quarter of the world hit lot 
may be cast, and will render him, at the same time, tranqail in mind, tnd 
ever disposed to celebrate the praises of his Lalage. 

The ode is addressed to Aristios Fascus, to whom the tenth Bpistle (ff 
the first book is inscribed. 

1-C. 1. Integer vita, &c. " The man upright of life, and free from 
gailt. '^2. Mauris jaeulis. For Mauritanicis jactUis. The natives of 
Mauritknia were distinguished for their skill in darting tho javelin, the 
frequent nse of this weapon being required against the wild beasts which 
infested tfaeir country.— 5. Syrtes testuoscu. " The burning 8yrte«." The 
allasioD here is not so macb to the two remarkable qaicksaods or gulfs on 
the Mediterranean coast of Africa, known by the name of the Greater and 
Smaller Syrtis (now the gulfs of Sidra and Caie*、, as to the sandy coast 
tying along the same. (Compare Orelli, ad loc.)—6. Jiikospitalem Cau- 
sasum. The Diune Caucasus was applied to the ridge of moautaiiui be' 
fween the Eaxine and the Caspian Saas. The epithet inhospitalem re 
fen to the dreary solitude, and the fierce wild beMts with which it w«i 
gnppoted to abound. 

7-19. 7. Vel qu<t loca, Sec. " Or tbroagh those regions which the Hy 
dMp«k wrarce of many a fable: myen " The epithet fabvloiut refen U 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ~ BOOK L f ODE XXII. 



(he ■b'ahge accoants which were circulated respecting this river, its gold 
en sands, che monsters inhabiting its waters, &c. The Hydupes, now 
the Fylum, is one of the five eastern tributaries of the Indas, which, by 
their union, form the Punjnub, while tho region which they traverse is d» 
nominated the Punjdb, or country of the five livers.— 9. Namque. Equiv- 
alent to the Greek koI yup. Supply the ellipsis as follows : " And this 1 
have plainly learned from my own case,/<w*," &c. 一 Silva in Sabina. He 
refers to a wood in the vicinity of his Sabine farm. 一 10. Ultra terminum 
u Beyond my asaal limit." 一 11. Curls expeditts. " With all my cares dii 

•lied." Some read curis expeditus, " freed from cares." 一 12. Incrmem 

Though nnarmed." 

12-17. 12. Militaris Danmas. "Warlike Daunia." Daumas is hor^ 
the Greek form of the nominative. The Daunii were situate along the 
northern coast of Apalia. The Apnlians, like the Marsi, were famed Tot 
their valor among the nations of Italy. 一 14. Juba tellus. "The land of 
/aba.'* Mauritania is meant. The allusion is to the second or ganger 
Jaba, "who bad been replaced on his father's throne by Aag^nstus. 一 17 
Pone me pigris t &c. 44 Place me where no tree is refreshed, in torpid 
plains," &. c, t. e" in the torpid or frozen regions of the north. For the 
oonnection between this and the previous portion of the ode, consult tke 
introductory remarks. The poet alludes in tbis stanza to what is termed 
at the present day the frozen zone, and he describes it in accordance with 
tbe general belief of bis age. The epithet pigris refers to the plains of 
the north, lying sterile and ancnltivated by reason of the excessive coi,. 
Modern observfttions, however, assign two seasons to this distant quarto? 
of the globe : a long and rigorous winter, succeeded, often suddenly, by 
insapportable heats. The power of the solar beams, though feeble, from 
the obliquity of tbeir direction, accumulates during the days, which arti 
extremely long, and produces effects which might be expected only in th<) 
torrid zone. The days for several months, though of a monotonoas mag- 
aificeuce t astonishingly accelerate the growth of vegetation. In thre^ 
days, or rather three times twenty-foor hours, the snow is melted, and 
the flowers begin to blow. {Malte-Brun, Geogr. t vol. i" p. 418,) 

19-22. 19. Quod lotus mundi, &c. "In that quarter of the world, 
which cloads and an inclement sky continually oppress." Complete the 
sentence as follows : In eo latere mundi, quod lalus mundU &c. 一 21. Nim- 
turn propinqui, " Too near the earth." Understand terris. 一 22. Domv- 
bus ntgata. " Denied to mortals for an abode." Most of the ancient* 
conceived that the heat continued to increase from the tropic toward the 
equator. Hence they concluded that the middle of the zone wag onin- 
habital*le. It is now, however, ascertained that many circumatancei 
eoinbine to establish even there a temperature that ia supportable. The 
eloodB; the great rains , the nights natarally very cool, their daratiou b« 
Cng equal to that of the days ; a strong evaporation ; the vast expanse of 
the sea ; the proximity of very high mountains, covered with perpetual 
扉 now ; the trade-winds, and the periodical inundations, equally contribute 
to diminish the heat. This is the reason why, in the torrid zone, we meet 
irith all kinda of climates. The plains are burned up by the heat of the 
•un. All the eastern coaHta of the great continents, fanned by the trade 
winA% enjoy a mild temperature. The elevated district, are 。vet> *s*J.I 



2W EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK I., ODE XXIV. 

the ▼alley d' Quito u always green ; and perhaps the interiur of h friu 
contains more than ono region which nafeore has gifted with the mom 
privilege. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. i., p 416.) 



Od 蠤 XXIII. The poet advises Chloe, now of nabile yean, no longer to 
«Uow her parent li^e a timid fawn, alarmed at every whispering breest 
■nd nulling of the wood, bat to make a proper retarn to the affection of 
•ne whom gbe had uo occasion to view with feeling 霧 of alarm. 

1-10. 1. Hinnuleo. The term hinmUeu$ is here useJ for hinnttlui.—^ 
Pavidam. Denoting tbe alarm of the parent for the absence of her off- 
*ing. ~~ AvitM, "Lonely." 一 5. Veprii. The common reading ia verit 
instead of veprii, and in the next line advetUu$ instead of ad veiUum. Th« 
one which we have adopted is given as a conjectaral emendation by Bent- 
ley, tboagh claimed for others before bim. Great difficaltief attend tbe 
commcp. reading. In tbe first place, the foliage of the trees u not gofii 
cientiy pot forth in the oommencemeot of spring to justify tbe idea of iti 
being ^Btarbed by the wind« ; secondly, Uie youag hwna do not follow 
the parent animal until tbe end of thia Beason, or the beginning of Jane 
and, in the third place, it U very suspicious Latinity to say adcentu$ veru 
*nhorruU foliis, since more correct usage would certainly reqaire folia 
inkormerunt adventu verts. 6. Jnhorruit. " Has rastl»]." 一 10. Gmtvr 
lu$ve leo. That part of Africa which tbe ancients denominated Getali^ 
appears to answer in some measure to the modern Belad-tl-Djerid.^- 
Frangere. Thig verb has here the meaning of " to rend," or " tear iv 
pieces," as dyvwai is sometime 麟 employed in Greek. 



Odk XXIV. The poet eeeks to comfort Virgil for the loss of their mu 
Vaal friend. The individual to whom the ode alludes was a native of Cre* 
mona, and appears to have been the same with the Q,uinctilia8 of whom 
Horace speaks io the Epistle to th§ Pisos (v. 438). 

I- 7. 1. Desiderio tarn cari capitis. "To our regret for tbe loss of so 
dear an individual." The ase of caput in this clause is analogous to that of 
nt^akij and Kapa in Greek. ~~ 2. Pracipe Ivgubres cantm. " Teach me the 
•trains of woe." Literally, " precede me in the strains of woe." 一 3. Mel- 
pomene. One of the Moses, here invoked as presiding over the funeral 
-dirge, but elsewhere the muse of Tragedy. 一 Liquidam vocem. " A clear 
and tanefal voice." 一 Pater. The Mases were the daughters of Japiter 
and Mnemosyne. 一 5. Ergo Quinctilium. The muse here commences tbe 
funeral dirge. 一 7. Nudaque Veritas. " And undisguised Truth." An a) 
l<jian to the sincerity that characterized bin thoughts and actions. 

II- 16. 11. Tufrustra pius t &c. " Tboa, alas! fruitlenaly displaying 
a pious affection, dost ask the gods for dainctilias, not on gach terms in* 
trusted to their care." The meaning is this : When with vowb and prayeri 
thoa didst intrust dainctilius to the care of the gods as a sacred depoaite> 
tfioa didst not expect that he would be so soon taken away by a cm^ 
f«te. Thy pioas affection, therefore, has proved altogether unavailing 
»nd it has not been allowed thee to obtain bim bask again from the nudf 



EXPLAW/TORY NOTES. -" ^BOUK I. t ODE XXVI. 299 

OreUi, ad loc.) 一 13. Buindius moderere. " Thou rale with mure porsua 
live melody." Observe the eotployment of the subjunctive here, and alsc 
in redeat. The meaning is, that even if there be a possibility of hli ruling 
or swaying the lyre more sweetly than Orpheus, still there is no possibil- 
ity of his friend's being restored to existence. The allasion is to the le- 
gend of Orpheus and Earydice. 一 16. Virga horrida. 44 With his gloomy 
wand." Alluding to the cadaceua. The epithet horrida regards iti 
dreaded influence over the movements of departed shades, ag they pass on- 
ward to the fatal river. 一 17. Non leniA, &c. " Not gentle enough to opea 
the fatal portals in compliance with our prayers," t. e. t sternly refusing to 
change the order of the fates, &c Lenis recludere^ a Grsecism for lenis ad 
rtdudendum. 



Ode XXVI. In praise of Hius Lamia, a Roman of ancient and illu» 
trioas family, and distingciahed for his exploits in the war with the Cai> 
iabri. The bard, wholly occupied with the Muses and his friend^ consign' 
every other thought to the winds. As regards the Lamian line, console 
notes on Ode iii" 17. 

2-5. 2. Mare Creticum. The Cretan, which lay to the north of the 
island of Crete, is here put for any sea. 一 3. Poriare. " To waft them, 
一 Quis sub Arclo f dec. " By whom the monarch of a frozen region be 
neath the northern sky is feared," &c., i. e. t by what people, &c. The 
present ode appears to have been written at the time when Phrahates, 
king of Partbia, had been dethroned by his subjects for hi, excessive 
cruelty, and Teridates, who headed a party against him, appointed in his 
■tead. Phrahates fled for succor to the Scythians, and a monarch of that 
aation was now on his march to restore him. The king of the frozen re- 
gion ig therefore the Scythian invader, and the people who fear his ap 
proach are the Parthians with Teridates at their head. Dio Cassias in- 
forms as that Phrahates was reinstated in bis kingdom, and that Teridates 
4ed into Syria. Here he was allowed to remain by Aagastas, who obtain- 
ed from him the son of Phrahates, and led the young prince as a hostage 
to Rome. This son was subsequently restored to the father, and the 
standards taken by the Parthians from Crassas and Antony were deliv 
ered iu exchange. (Compare Dio Cassius, 51, 18, vol. i" p. 649, ed. Reim 
Justin., 42, 5.) Strabo, however, states that the son of Phrahates was te 
ceived as a hostage from tlr e father himself) and along with him sons and 
grandsons (izaldag xal iraiSuv iraldag. Strab" 6, extr.). Compare with 
this the language of Saetonias (vit. Aug. t 43), who speaks of the fiostagei 
of the Parthians (" Parthorum obsides"). 一 Unice securus. "Utterly re 
gardleif." 、 

(J-ll. 6. Fontibus integris. " The pure fountains." By the fontes in- 
1egri lyric poetry is designated, and the poet allades to the circumstance 
if bis having been the first of bis countrymen that had refreshed the litera- 
tore of Rome with the streams of lyric verse. Hence the invocation of 
the mase. 一 6. Apricos nectefiores. " Entwine the sunny flowers." By 
apri^i Jiores are meant flowers produced in sunny spots, and therefore 
of tweeter fragrance and brighter hue. These " sunny flowers" anJ 
»ba chaplet which they fjrm are figurative expresaions, and mean sim 



oUO fXPLANATORY NOTES 一 BOOK 1., ODE XXVIt. 

nly a lyric eflPasion. The muse is solicited to aid th« bard in celebr&dni 
the praises of his friend. 一 Pimplei, The Mases were called Pimpleidet 
fmm PimplAa, a town and foantain of Pieria, eacred to these goddesses 
Orpheas was said to have been bora here. 9. Nil $ine te mei t "&o, 
^ Without thy favoring aid, the honors which I have received can prove 
of no avail in celebrating the praises of others." By the term konoret 
the poet allades to the reputation he has gained for his sncceBsful col- 
tivfttion of lyric verge. 一 10. FidHnts novi*. " In new strains." i. e., in 
lyric verse. Hence the bard speaks of bimeelf as the first tfaat bmH adapt 
id the iEolian strains to Italian measures (Ode iii., 30, 13). ― 11. Lesbte 
plectro. " On the Lesbian lyre." The plectrum, or qaill, \§ here token 
figuratively for the lyre itself. Compare Ode i., 1, 34. This verse it ob- 
jdCtion*ble in point of rhythm, and is tbe only instance of the kind in 
Horace*. On all other occasions, if the fourth syllable of the minor alcaif 
end in a word, that word is a monosyllat le. Compare Lachmann^ ap 
Prank., p. 239. ~ Sacrare. " To consecrate to immortal fame." 



Ode XXVII. The poet ii supposed to be present at a fostal jttaty 
where tho gaests, warming under the influence of wine, begin to bre^ 
forth into noisy wrangling. He reproves them in severe terms for conduct 
bo foreign to a meeting of friends, andf in order to draw off their attention 
to other and more pleasing sabjecta, be proposes the challenge in vcirie 
10th, on which tbe rest of the ode is made to tarn. 

1-6. 1. Natis in tuum, &c. " Over cups made for joyous pnrposet." 
The scyphus waa a cap of rather large dimensions, ased both on festal oe 
casions, and in the celebration of sacred rites. Like the caniharus, it wu 
■acred to Bacchus. 一 2. Thraeum est. Compare note on Ode i., 18, 9. 一' 
3. Verecundum. " Foe to excess." Eqaivalent here to modicum. 5. Vi- 
no et lucernt8 t &c. " It is wonderful how mach the dagger of tbe Parthian 
is at variance with nocturnal banquets," literally, " with wine and lights." 
[mmane quantum is analogous to the Greek havfiaarbv baov. Vino and 
Iwcernis are datives, put by a GraDcism for the ablative with tbe prepoii' 
tion a. 一 Modus. Compare Ode i" 2, 51. 一 Acinaces. The term is of Per' 
si an origin. The acinaces was properly a small dagger in use among tbe 
Persians, and borrowed from them by the soldiers of later ages. It wat 
worn at the side. Hesychius, in explaining the word, calls it 66pv Xleo^ 
uxovy ^'0of. Suidas remarks : ukivukij^, fiiKpbv dopv Jlep<riK6v t and 
Pollux (1, 138), UepatKov ^KpLdiov t" fiiipu Trpogiyprrffiivov. This last 
eomes Dearest the true explanation as given above. 一 6. Jmpittm clamo 
rem. The epithet impius has here a particular reference to the violation 
of the ties and duties of friendship, as well as to the profanation of the 
table, which was always regarded as sacre d by the ancients. 

8-8. 8. Cubito remanete presso. '* Remain with the elbow pressed o 纖 
(the couch," i. e" stir not from yoar places. Alluding to the ancient ci* 
torn of recliniug at their meals. 一 9. Severi Falernu All writers agree ia 
describing the Falernian wine as very strong and durable, and so rco^fa 
in its recent state that it could not be drank with pleasure, but required 
to be kept a great number of years before it waa safficiently rcoll^r 
Wot fartaei remarks on tfaia wine oonealt Excursus V【【I, 



fiXPLAN NOTES. ― BOOK I.. ODE XXVU1. 3(1 i 



9-14, 10. Opuntus. So called from Opas, the capital of the Opim 
tien Locri in Greece, at the northern extreznity of Bceotia. — 13. Cessai 
nolunias. " Does inclination hesitate ?" i. e, t Smt thoa hesitate so to do I 
— ISfem alia bibam mercedt. "On no other condition will I drink."— 14 
Qtue ie eunque &c. An encomium well calculated to remove the bashfa. 
veierve of the youth. The whole sentence may be paraphraaed as foi 
lows : " Whoever the fair object may be that swaye thy bosbm, she cause 薦 
it to bcrn with a flame at which thoa hast no occasion to blush, fo* thoa 
always indnlgest in an honorable love." The allusion in ingemto nmort 
b to a female of free birth, as opposed to a slave or freed-woman. 

1& - 83. 18. Ah miser ! The exclamation of the poet when the secret 
is divulged. 一 19. Quanta laborabas, kc. "In how fearfal a Chary bdii 
冒 《st thou Btruggling !" The passion of the yoath is compared to the dan- 
gers of the fabled Cbarybdis, and henoe the expreuion Quanta laboraba$ 
Charybdi is equivalent in effect to Quam pericuJosam tibipuellatn ama- 
bos. — 21. TheBsalis venenis. Thessaly was remarkable for prodacing na 
merous herbs that were ased in the magical rit^ of antiquity. 一 23. Viz 
illigatum^ &c. " (Even) Pegasas will hurdly extricate thee, entangled by 
chia three-shaped ChimsBra." A new comparison is here made, by which 
the female in question is made to resemble the fftbled ChimoBra. This 
animal, according to the legend, was a Uoo in tbe fore part, • serpeat in 
the hinder part, and a goat in the middle ; and it also spouted forth fire 
It woa destroyed, however, by Bellorophoo moonted oo the winged steed 



Odk XXVIII. The objret of the present ode if to enforce the ofefal 
lesson, that we are all subject to the power of death, whatever may be 
oar station in life, and whatever our talents and acquirements. The dia- 
logue form is adopted for this purpose, aud the parties introdaced are a 
mariner and the shade of Archy tM. The former, as he is travelling along 
tbe shore of Southern Italy, discovers the dead body of the philosopher, 
which had been thrown up by tbe waves near the town of Matinam, on 
tbe Apalian coaat. He addresses the corpse, and expresses his snrprise 
that so illastrious an individual coald not escape from the dominiou of the 
grave. At the seventh verse the shade replies, and contiuaes on until the 
end of the ode. "Be not surprised, O mariner, at beholding me in thia 
•t""," exclaims the fallen Pythagorefii). " Death bas selected far nobler 
rictiias. Bestow the last sad o 毋 ces on my remains, and so shall prosper 
vu fortune crown your every effort. If' ojx the contrary, you make light 
§£my request, expect not to escape a just retribution." 

lie ode would appear, &om its general complexion, to have been imi- 
ftom the Greek. 

1 . Ts maris el terra, &c. The order of construction is as follows : " Par 
M Miunera exigui pulveris (negata tibi) cohihent te % &c. ■' The scaaty 
ftntent of a little dust (denied to thy remains) confines thee," &c. Tb« 
#1Upsis of negata tibi mast be noted, thoagh required more by tbe idiom 
of oar own than by that of the Latin tongue. According to tbe populal 
belief if a corpse were deprived of the ritea of sepulture, the shade of tht 
^ceased was compelled to wander for alandred jqwcb either aromvl tbt 



30% IXPLANATOKY NO TAB. 一 BOOK I. ODB XXVUI 

dead body or along the bank 霧 of the Styx. Hem e the pecaliar p"|a;et, 
of eohibeiU in the present passage. Iu order to obviate ao iameutable « 
reault, it wrb eeteemed a most solemn duty for every one who chaoced tc 
encounter an anbaried corpee to pevform the lant sad offices to it. tipruik 
dast or sand tbree times upuu the dead body waa esteemed ampiv 
cient for every purpose. Hence the language of tbe text, "pvlveris 
txigui parva munera " Whoever neglected this injunction of relifpoa 
was compelled to expiate his crime by sacrificing ")w to Ceret. Bom« 
aditon maintain that pulveris exigui parva munera is a mere circamlo* 
eation far locus exigutui, and that cohibenl U only the compoand ased far 
ttie eimple verb. Hence, according to these commentators, the meaning 
Will be, " A small ■pot of earth now holds thee," &c. This mode of ex 
plaining, however, appeara stiff and annaturftl. 一 Maris et terra memo- 
rem. AUading to the geometrical knowledge of Archytu. Numeroqvt 
earentis aterue. The possibility of calcnlating the number of tl e grai" 
of sand wu a favorite topic with the ancient m athematicians. Arcbime- 
des has left us a work on this sabject, entitled b "fafifiir^c {Arenarivs) t in 
which he proves that it is possible to assign a number greater than that 
of tha grains of sand which would fill the sphere of tbe fixed stars. Thit 
Bingo] ar investigation was eaggested by an opinion which some persons 
bad expressed, that the sands on tbe shores of Sicily were either infiait^ 
or, at least, would exceed any numbers which could be araigned for them 
and the snccess with which the difficulties caased by the awkward and 
imperfect notation of the ancient Greek arithmetic are eladed by a device 
ideatical in principle with the modern method of logarithms, affords one 
of the most striking instances of the genius of Archimedee. 

a-7. 2. Arckyta. Archytas waa a native of Tarentam, and distinguish 
ed u a philosopher, mathematician, general, and statesman, and was no 
lets admired for his integrity and virtue both in public and private life. He 
was contemporary with Plato, whose life be is said to have saved by bit 
influence with the tyrant Dionysias. He was seven times the general 
of his native city, though it was the custom for the office to be held for no 
more than one year; and he commanded in several campaigns, in all of 
which he was victorious. As a philosopher, he belonged to the Pytha- 
gorean school, and, like the Pythagoreans, paid much attention to mathe- 
matics. He was also extremely skillfal as a mechanician, aod coastract- 
ed various machines and automatons, among which his wooden flying 
dove in particular was the wonder of antiquity. He perished in a ship 
wreck on tbe Adriatic. 一 3. Matinum. Some difference of opinion exists 
with regard to the position of this place. D'Anville makes the Matiniao 
shore to have been between Callipolis and the Iapygian promontory on 
tfae Tarentine Galf; and the town of Matinnm to have lain some little 
distance inland. Later investigations, however, place Mitincm, and a 
monntain called Mons Matinus, in Apulia, near the promoritory of Oargs- 
nnm, and northeast of Sipontum. 一 5. Aerias tentasse domo8 t fee. !i To have 
essayed the ethereal abodes." Alluding to the astrouomical knuw\odga 
of the philosopher. 一 Rotundum polum. " The round heavens." — 6. Mwi 
turo. " Since death was to be thy certain doom." 一 7. Pclopis genitoi 
Tantalus. 一 Conviva deorum. " Though a gneat of tbe god&." The com 
mon mythology makes Tttntalus to ha^-e been the entertainer, not the 
voeet, of the gocn, aud tc have sen' >d up his own son as a bnnqmrt vl or 




£X?LANATO&Y NOTES. ― BOOK l., ODE XXVUU 303 

der fe> test their divinity. Horace follows the earlier fable, by which Tan 
talas is represented as honored with a seat at the table of the gods, aao 
u having incurred their displeasure by imparting nectar and ambrosia tc 
mortals. (Pind., Olymp^ i" 98, seqq.) 

8-14. 8. Titkonusque remolus in auras. 'And Tithonas, tboagtr 
translated to the skies." An allusion to tbe fable of Titbonus and Aarora. 
•—9. Arcanis. Understand' consiliis. 一 Minos. Id order to gain more rev* 
eren-e for tbe laws which he promulgated, Minos pretended to have had 
•ecret conferences with Jove respecting them. 一 10. Panlhoiden. " The 
ion of Panthous." Eaphorbos is here meant in name, but Pythagoras in 
reality. The philosopher taught the doctrine of the transmigration of soalai 
and is scid to have asserted that be himself had animated various bodies, 
and had been at one time Eaphorbas tbe Trojan. To prove his identity 
with tbe son of Panthoas, report made him to have gone into the Temple 
of Juno at or near Mycenae, where the shield of Eupborbas bad been pre 
•erved among other offerings, and to have recognized and taken it down 
•^Iterum Oreo deinissum. Alluding to tbe doctrine of the transmigration 
af soalg.— 11. Clypeo re/ixo. " By tbe shield loosened from the wall of tbe 
temple." 一 13. Nervos atque cutem. " His sinews and skin," i. e., his body. 
—14. Judice te, &c. " Even in thine own estimation, no mean expounder 
of nature and truth." These words are addressed by the shade of Archy 
tas to tbe mariner, not by the latter to Archytas, and they are meant tc 
indicate the widespread reputation of Pythagoras as a Natural and Moral 
Philosopher, since his name had become bo well known as to be even in 
tbe mouths of the lower classes. In this explanation, Doring, Orelli, Braan- 
hard, Dillenburger, and most other commentators agree. Some read me, 
tpplying the remark to the speaker himself, bat without any necessity 

15-8S. 15. Una nox. This expression, and also semel immediately 
after, contain nothing inconsistent with the Pythagorean tenets, since 
they merely regard the end or limit of each particular transformation. 一 
18. Avidum mare. "The gre.edy ocean." Some editions read avidis 
《" greedy after gain") as agreeing with nautvs. This, however, would 
Imply a censure od tbe very individual from whom the favor of a burial ife 
■upposed to be asked. 一 19. Mixta senum, tec. " The intermingled faner- 
nh of tbe old and yoang are crowded together." Densentur is from den 
.teo, -Sre, an old verb, used by Lucretius, and alter him by Virgil and Pliny 
Tbe common text has densantur t from denso, -are. 一 Nullum caput, &c 
•'No head escapes the stern Proserpina." An bypallage for nullum 
taputfugit savam Proserpinam. The ancients had a belief that no one 
ooald die unless Proserpina, or Atropos her minister, cat a lock of hail 
from the head. The idea was evidently borrowed from the analogy of ani- 
mal sacrifices, in which tho hair cut from the iront, or from between the 
horas of tbe victims, was regarded as the first offering. Compare Virgil, 
/En n iv., c98, seq. -"" 21. Devexi Ononis. 44 Of the setting Orion." The 
•etting of thif star was always accompanied by tempestaoaa weather. 
It took place on the fifth day before the Ides of November, or, according 
to oar mode of expression, ou the ninth of the month. 一 22. Illyricis undis. 
M Amid the Ulyrian waters." The allusion is to the Adriatic Sea in gen- 
eral. The Ulyrians, besides their settlements on the northeastern shorec 
sf the Adriatic, bad at one time extended themselves as far ts XrtKM 
wi the coast of Italy 



804 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK 1. ODB XXIX. 

83-35. 23. Ne parce malignus dare. " Do not ankindly refine to b» 
■tow. —24. Capiti inhumato. Observe the apparent hiatas ber^. ui 
reality, however, no hiotos whatever takes place between the two wortla, 
but one of the two component short vowels in the final syllable of eapitt 
is elided before the initial vowel of the next word, and the remaining one 
is then lengthened by the arsis. There u no need, therefore, of our read- 
ing inlumnlalo with some editors. 一 25. Sic. " So," t. &, if yon io fo, ot 
on thig condition. ~~ 26. Fluctibun HesperiU, "The weftern waves." The 
•eas aroond Italy, which country was called Hesperia by the Greeks. ~> 

Venusina pUctanlur silvee. " May the Venasian woods be lashed by it." 

-88. Unde potest. Equivalent to a quibus hoe fieri potest, " For they ara 
able to enrich thee." In constrniDg, place unde potest at the end of the 
■entenoe. — 29, Sacri euttode Neptuni. Ncptane was the tutelary deity 
of Tarentum. ~ Negligis immerito, &,c. "Dost thou make light of com- 
mitting a crime which will prove izijarioos to thy unoffending posterity T* 
The crime here alladed to is tbe neglecting to perform the lait lad offloef 
to the shade of Arnhytas. — 31. Postmodo ie ruUis, Equivalent to nepott' 
bus. Te is riere the ablative, depending on ncUit. 一 Fori et debita jurat 
&c. " Perhaps both a well-merited pnnishmeat and a haughty retriba 
don may be awaiting thee thyeelf." 一 33. Inuliis. " Unheard." Literal 
ly, «* unavenged." 35. Licebit injeeto, &c. "Thou mayest ran on aftei 
having thrice cast dust on my remains." Three handfnls of dast were oo 
Bach an occasion safflcient for all the purpose' of a burial. 



Ode XXIX. Tbe poet, having learned that his friend Jccias had aban 
doned tbe study of phibsophy, and was turning his attention to deeds of 
arm 露, very pleasantly rallies him on this strange metamorphosis. 

1-5. 1. Beatis gazit. " Tbe rich treasures." Bealus is often med, 9x 
in the present instance, for dives, from the idea of happiness which the 
crowd associate with the possession of wealth. ~> Nunc. Emphatical, re* 
ferring to his altered coarse of life. 一 Arabvm. Augustus, A.U.C. 730 
(which gives the date of the present ode), sent ^Elius Gallus, prasfect oi 
Egypt, with a body of troops against Arabia Felix. The expedition 
proved unsacccssful, having failed more through the difficalcie> which thi 
coantry and climate presented than from the desultory attkck# of the an 
disciplined enemy. It was in this army that Iccius would seem to hav« 
bad a command. 一 Sabaea. Sabsea, a part of Arabia Felix, is here pat fo 1 
tbe whole region. The Sabcsi would seem to have occupied what oor 
responds to the northernmost part of the modern Yemen. 一 Horribiliqtu 
Medo. " And for the formidable Parthian." It is more than probable^ 
from a comparison of Ode i., 12, 56, and i., 35, 31, with the present passage, 
that Aagastus intended the expedition, of which we have been speaking, 
not eaerely for Arabia Felix, but also for tbe Parthiana and Indi. ― 5. Nedit 
yttenas A pleasant allusion to the fetters in which Iccius, already wio 
torious in imagination, is to lead his captives to Rome. 一 Qua virginum 
barbara. " What barbarian virgin." A Grrecism for qva virgo barbara 

7-15. 7. Puer quit ex aula. Equivalent to quis puer regius. The 
feefm a%la may rofer to the royal court either af the Arab:' ana or tbe Par 
^iaos 一 8. Ad &t/atkum statuetur. *' Shall itand as t l ,y enjt-hearer ' 



CXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK 1., ODE XX tl. 30S 

€itera/ly, "shall bo placed," &c. ~ 9 Doctva tendere. u Skilled in aim 
ing." A Grsecism. -一 Sericas. The Seres were famed for their manage 
oaent of the bow. The reference here, however, is not so mach to theie 
people in particular as to the Eastern nations iu general. In relation tc 
the Seres, compare Explanatory Note, Ode i., 12, 56. ~ 11. RdaH posse. 



" Can glide back." In this sentence, montibus is the dative by a Ghne- 
cism. Prose Latinity would require ad monies. Some make mtyntihus the 
ablative, with which they join pronot in the sense of decurrentes. Tbia 
arrangement is decidedly inferior to the one first given. As regards tlie 
idea intended to be conveyed, it may be observed, that the poet compare! 
w»m friend's abandonment of graver studies for the din of arms to a tottk 
•Iteration of the order of nature. The expression appears to be a pro 
verbiiu cine, and is evidently borrowed from the Greek. 一 12. Revet ti, 
'* Return in its coarse " 一 13. CoenUos undique. "Bought up on all aides*" 
A pleasant allasion to his friend's previous ardor in philosophic pursoitf 
— "4. Panati. PanaBtiiu, a native of Rhodes, holds no mean rank among 
tb ? Stoic philosophers of antiqaity. He passed a considerable part of hi 薦 
life at Rome, and enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with several emineut 
Romans, particalarly Scipio and LsbHus. Cicero highly extols his moral 
doctrine in his treatise " De Officiis." Toward the end of his life PansB' 
tins removed to Athens, where he diod. 一 Socraticam et domum. 44 And 
the writings of the Socratic school" Alluding to the philosophical inves- 
tigaHons of Plato, Xenophon, iEschines, and others. 一 15. Loricit Iberia 
The Spanish coats of mail obtained a decided preference among the Bo 
mans, from the excellence of the metal and ita superior temper. Com- 
pare Shakspeare : " It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper :" OthH- 
lo. v., 11, referring to the blades of Toledo. 



Ode XXX. Venus is invoked to grace with her presence, and witl 
tihat of her attendant retinae, the temple prepared for her at the home ot 
Glycera. 

1-8. 1. Cnidi. Cnidas was ft Dorian city, on the coast of Caria, at the 
extremity of the' promontory of Triopium. Venas was the tutelary god 
dess of the place. ~~ Paphique. Paphos was a very ancient city of Cypnu, 
on the southwestern side of the island. It was famed for the worship of 
Venus, who was fabled to have been wafted from Cythera to the coast ia 
its vicinity after her birth amid the waves. 一 2. Sperne. " Look with con- 
tempt on," i. e., leave. 一 3. Decoram. " Adorned for thy reception." — 5 
ftrvidus puer. Cupid. 一 Solutis zonis. Indicative, aa Braunhard re- 
mnrkB, of" riegligentia amabilis." 一 7. Parum comis sine te. " Little able 
to please without thee." Observe the inverted form of expression, foi 
" deriving additional attractions from thee." Juventas. The goddess of 
jaatti, or Hebe, who appears also in the train of Venus in the Homeric 
H》mn to Apollo, v. 195. 一 8. Mercurittsque. Mercury is enumerated 
among tbe retiuoe of Venus, in allusion to his being the god ot languagt 
tnd pcrmiftBive eloquence. 




Ods XXXT. The poet raises a prayer to ApUo on tb« da, when An 
gdstai dedicated a temple to this doity on thi Palatint Bill. Staivlin* 



306 EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK I" ODE XXXI. 

amid the crowd of worshippers, each of whom is offering up some petition 
to the ^od, the bard is supposed to break forth on a sudden with the abrupt 
inquiry, " What does the poet (i. e., what do I) ask of Apollo on the dedi- 
cation of his temple ?,, His own reply succeeds, disclaiming all that tbo 
world considers essential to happiness, and ending with the simple and 
beautiful prayer for the kl mens aana in corpore sano." 

1-8. 1, DediccUum. " On the dedioation of his temple." ― 2. Novum 
Uquorem. It was customary to use wine of the same year's make in liba- 
tions to the gods. Compare Petron., c. 130 : " Spumabit pateris hornus 
liquor." ~~ L Sardinia. Sardinia was famed for its fertility, which com- 
pensated in some degree for its uniiealthy climate. —Segetei. u Har- 
vests." 一 5. Grata amenta. "The fine herds," 一 ^Istuosa Calabria. 
" Of the sunny Calabria." Calabria, in Southern Italy, was famed fori Is 
mild climate and excellent pastures. 一 6. Ebur Jndicum. The ivory of 
India formed one of the most costly instruments of Roman luxury. Com- 
pare Virgil, Georg.、 i,, 57 : "India mitt it ebur," — 7、 Liris, This river, 
now the Garigliano^ rises in the Apennines, and falls into tbe Tuscan 
Sea near Minturn». The Liris, after the southern boundary of Latium 
was extended below the CircsBan Promontory, separated that re^on from 
Campania. Subsequently, however, the name of Latium was extended 
to tbe mouth of tbe Yultumas und the Massio Hills. (Compare Cramer, , 
Ancient Italy, vol. ii., p. 11, and the authorities thero cited.)— 8. Mordet. 
" Undermines" or " cats away.'* 

9-16. 9. Premanf. " Let those prune " ― Calena falce. An allusion 
to the Fulernian vineyards. Compare note on Ode i,, 20, 9. 一 11. Exsic^ 
cet. Equivalent to ebibat. " Let the rioh trader drain " 一 Qulullis. The 
culullus was properly of baked earth, and was used in sacred rites by the 
pontiiices and vestal virgins. Here, however, tbe term is taken in a gen- 
eral sense for an}* cup. 一 12. Syra reparata merce. Obtained in exchange 
for Syrian wares." By Syrian wares are meant the aromatic products of 
Arabia and the more distant East, brought first to the coast of Syria by 
the overland trade, and shipped thence to the western markets. 一 16. Ci- 
chorea. " Endives." The term cichoreum {jiixopeta or Ktx^piov') is, 
striotly speaking, confined to the cultivated species of Intuburn or Inty- 
bum. The wild sort is called oipig by the Greeks, and answers to our 
bitter succory. The name cichoreum is of Coptic or Egyptian origin, the 
plant itself having been brought from Egypt into Europe The appella- 
tion Endive comes from the barbarous word endivia t used in the Middle 
Ages, and an evident corruption as well of the Arabic hendib as of the 
classical intybum. (Compare Fee t Flore de Virgile^ p. 70, 71. Martyn 
ad Virg,, Georg. t i., 120.) ― Levesque malvas, "And mallows, easy of di- 
gestion." Compare Orelli : " stomackum non gvavantes , jacile conco- 
quendtB." Dioscorides (ii., 111) and Theophrastus (i., 5) both designate 
mallows as aliment : the first of these two authors speaks of the garden 
mallows as preferable, in this respect, to the uncultivated kind, from 
which it may be fairly inferred tliat several species of this plant were 
used as articles of food. The Greek name of the mallows \fiakdxv)t f rom 
which both the Latin and English arc said to be deduced, has reference 
to their medicinal properties- It is formed from fiakdoaui^ " to soften," 



J 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. —— BOOK L, ODE XXXIV. 30? 



..7 -20. 17. Frui paratis, &c. u Son (f Latona, give me, I pray, to c» 
joy my present possessions, being, at the same time, both healthful in 
i'rame and with a mind onimpftired by disease." Or, more freely, " Give 
me a sound mind in a sound body, that I may enjoy, as they should be en- 
ioyed, the possessions which ai 3 mine." The expression dones miki vol- 
ido, &c.,/>*tt* paratis, is a GrsBcism for dones ut ego validus, fcc, fruar 
paratis. Compare, in relation to the idea here expressed, the well-known 
line of Javenal (x., 356) : " Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpcre sano. n 
Compare also, in reference to the stracture of the whole sentence, the ex 
planation of Dillenbarger : " Du4g voti Horatiani partes sunt •• dones pre- 
cor et valido mihi el Integra cum mente paratis frai ; turn denes degere 
senectam nec turpem nee cithara carentem. Hunc orddnem verborum ipse 
Horatius indicavit artificiose positis particulis, et . . . nec • . • nec." 一 
19. Nec turpem senectam degere, &c. " And to lead no degenerate old 
f 1 -' A of the lyre," i, e. t no old age unworthy of my present 

conteutmeuir 一 u^^dvoid of the charms of poetry and music. {Osborne 
ad loc.) 



Odk XXXII. The bard addresses his lyre, and blends with the address 
the praises of Alcseas. The invocation comes with a peculiar grace from 
one who boasted, and with trath, of having been the first to adapt the 
£ol ; .an strains to Italian measures. (Compare Ode iii., 30, 13.) 

1-15. 1. Poscimur. " We are called upon for a strain." Compare 
Ovidt Met., v., 333, " Poscimur, Aonides" The reqaeet probably came 
from Augustus or Maecenas. Bcntley reads Poscimus, which then becomes 
a part of the apostrophe to the lyre. — Si quid vacui lusimus tecum. " If 
we have ever, in an idle moment, produced in unison with thee any sportive 
effiuion." 3. Die Latinum carmen. "Be responsive to a Latin ode." 
—5. Lesbio primum f SLC, "Attuned to harmony most of all by a Lesbian 
citizen." Primum is here equivalent to maxime. Horace assigns to 
A.lcseaa the merit of having brought lyric poetry to its highest state of 
perfection. ―" 6. Ferox bello. Understand quamvis. 一 7. Udo litore. " On 
lile wave- washed shore." Supply «7t.— 9. Illi semper karentem. "Ever 
clinging to her side." 一 14. Laborum dulce lenimen, " Sweet solace of 
toils." 一 15. Miki cunque, &c. "Be propitious anto me whenever daly 
invoking thee." Cunque for f/uandocunque. 



Ode XXXIV. Horace, a professed Epicurean, having heard tbander in 
a cloudless sky, abandons the tenets which he had hitherto adopted, tnd 
declares bis belief in the superintending providence of the gods. Sach, 
at least, appears to be the plain meaning of the ode. It is more than 
probable, however, that the poet merely wishes tc expreae his dissent 
from the Epicurean dogma which made the gods take no interest what- 
ever in the affairs of men. The argument employed for this purpose i 薦 
trivial enough in reality, and yet tc an Epicurean of the ancient school i 食 
Would carry no little weight along with it. Thus Lucrstius positively 
states that thander in a serene and cloudless gky ia a phyiical impoM 7 
»ilitjr : 

•' Fulmina fftgm de crasi is, al'/gue, putandum etU 



808 EXPliANATU£Y NOTES. ― BOOK I. ODB 1HV 



Nubibus exatrueiis : nam cato nulla ureno. 
Nee leeiter densis mittuntur nubibus tinqua,iu" 

De R. N. t vi., 245^ 

1-7. 1. Parens deorum, &c> The Bpicareans would appear unly tc 
bare conformed to the outward ceremonies of religion, and that, tijo, in nt 
very Btrtct or carefal manner. The doctrine of their (bander, after all tha . 
may be said in its praise, tended directly to atheism ; and there i 霧 strong 
reason to suspect that what he taaght concerning the gods waf artfally 
deaigned to screen him from the odiam and hazard which woald havo at* 
tended a direct avowal of atheism. ― 2. lnsanie.Ui$ dum philosophic, Ac, 
" While I wander from the trae path, imbued with the tenets (rf" a Tisioo- 
ary philosophy." The expression iruanientis sapientue (literally, M an 
unwise system of wisdom") presents a pleasing oxymoron, and is lerelled 
directly at the philosophy of Epicaras. Consultus is here eqaivalenC to 
venatus in doctrine^ as in the expression ,;t£m consultus. Compare Ltv. t 
x., 22: ** Juris atque eloquentia consultus."— 4. Iter are cursus rdictos, 
"To return to the course which I had abandoned." HeinsiaB propoaeg 
relectos for relictos, which Bentley advocates and receives into his text. 
-- 5. Diespiter. 14 The father oflight." Japiter. ~ 7. Perpurum. "Through 
象 doadleae iky." Undenitand ealum. Thander in a cloudless sky wu 
ranked among prodigies. 

9-14. 9. Bruta tdln$. By the " brute earth" is meant, in the lan{piaga 
of commentators, " terra qum sine sensu immola et gravis manet." ~ 10. In. 
visi horrida Tanari sedes. The promontory of Tsenaras, forming the south- 
eramost projection of t!ie Peloponnesus, was remarkable for a cave in iti 
vicinity, said to be one of the entrances to the lower world, and by which 
Hercules dragged Cerberus to the regions of day. 一 11. Atlanteusque finis. 
u And the Atlantdan limit," i. e. t (md Atlas, limit of the world. The an- 
cients believed this chain of mountains to be the farthest barrier to tba 
west. — 12. Valet ima summis, &c. "The deity is fdl powerful to change 
the highest things into the lowest." Literally, " to change the highest 
things by means of the lowest." Observe that summis is tbe instra 
mental ablative. 一 Attenuat. " Humbies." Literally, " weakens," or 
u makes feeble." The train of thought is as follows : Warned bj this 
prodigy, I no longer doabt the interposition of the gods in human affairs ; 
nay, I consider the deity all-powerfal to change things from the Iciest to 
the highest degTee, and to humble to the dust the man that now occupies 
Che loftiest and moat conspicuous station among his fellow-creatures. ― 
1 1. Hinc apicem. Sec. " From tbe head of tbis one, Fortune, with a sharp, 
nuhing sound of her pinions, bears away the tiara in impetuous flight | 
on tho head of that one she delights to have placed it." Sustulit is here 
taken in an aorist seuse, as denoting what is usual or customary. As re* 
gsrda the term apicem, it may be remarked, that, though specially signify- 
ing the tiara of Eastern royalty, it has here a general reference ia tho 
OKDwa or diadem of kings. 



Ode XXXV. Augustus, A.U.C. 72fi, had levied two armies, the oao 
Intended against the Britons, tbe other against the nativos of Arabia Fe- 
\ix acd tbe East The former these was to be V»d by the emperor io 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK I.. ODB XXXV. 3UH 



pefaon. At this period the present ode is sappQsed to have been written 
It ia an address to Fortune, and invokes her favoring influence) for the 
one 廳 of Augu stiis. 

The latter of these two expeditions has already been treated of in th<! 
Introductory Bemarks on the 29th ode of this book. The first enly pro 
ceeded as far as Gaul, where its progress was arrested by the Briton' 
■aing for peaoe^ and by the troubled state of Gallic aiTairs. The negotia 
lions, however, were sabsequently broken off, and Aagustus prepared 
•new for a campaign against the island ; but the rebellion of the Salassi, 
Cantabri, and As tares intervened, and the redaction of these tribes en- 
grotsed the attention of the prince. (Compare Dio Cassiu8 t 53, 9S 4 and 
85, vol. i., p. 717 and 719, ed. Reim) 

I- 8. I. Antium. A city on the coast of Latiam, the rains of which 
now called Porto d'Anzo^ celebrated for its temple of Fortune. ~~ 2. Prm- 
sens tollere. " That in an instant caost raise." By pmsentes dd are meant 
those deities who are ever near at hand and ready to act. ~- 3. Vd super- 
bos、 &c. " Or convert splendid triumphs into disasters.' Funeribm i 薦 
the instrumental ablative.— 5. Id this and the following line, we have 
adopted the panctaation recommended by Markland» viz., a comma after 
precet and another after rwm, which latter word will then depend on dom 
inam understood* and the whole clause will then be equivalent to "pau 
per colonu8 t solUcita prece, ambit te, dominatn runs ; quicunque leuxssit. 
Jcc" te dominam tequoris (ambil)." ~~ Ambit sollicita prcce. " Supplicates 
in anxious prayer." 一 7. BUhynct. Bithynia, in Asia Minor, was famed 
for its natural productions, which gave rise to a very active commerce be> 
tween this region and the capital of Italy. The expression in the text^ 
however, refers more particularly to the naval timber in which the coaa- 
try abounded. ~* 8. Carpalhium pelagvs. A name applied to that part of 
the Mediterranean which lay between the islands of Carpathus and Crete 

9-13. 9. Dacus, Ancient Dacia corresponds to what is now, in a great 
measure, Wallachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, and that part of Hungary 
which lies to the east of the Teiss. 一 Profugi Scythe " The roving Scytlb 
ians." The epithet profugi is here used with reference to the peculiu 
habits of this pastoral race, in having no fixed abodes, but dwelling in 
iragous. 一 10. Latium ferox. "Warlike Latiam." 一 11. Regum barbaro- 
rum. An allusion to the monarchs of the East, and more particularly to 
Parthia. 一 12. Purpurei Tyranni. " Tyrants clad in purple." 一 13. Inju 
Hoso ne pedc^ &c. " Lest with destructive foot thou overcrow the stand* 
ing column of affairs." The scholiast makes stantem columnam eqaiv«> 
lent to prausentem felicitatcm, and the allusion of the poet ia to the exist- 
ing state of affairs among the Dacians, Scythians, and others mentioned 
In the text. A at And ; ng column was a general symbol among the ancientf 
cf public security. Some editions f lace a colon or period after tyranni, 
•nd the meaning tben is, " Do not with destructive foot overthrow- the 
•tanding oolomn of the empire," alluding to the durability of the Bomao 
■way. The interpretation iirst given, however, is decidedly preferable • 
the change in the latter is too sadden and abrupt. 

I I- 1 8. 14. Neu populus frequens, fcc. "Or lest the throngit/g popu 
tace arouse the iaactivo to anas ! to arms \ and destroy the poblic repom) , 



810 EXILAJfATOBf NOTES. ― BOOK 1., ODE XXXV. 

The repetition of the phrase ad arma is intended to express the red j ablet 
outcries of an a^tated throng, calling upon tfae dilatory and iu active M 
add themselves to their number. Compare Ovidt Met^ xi. 377 : •* Cuncti 
eoeamus et arma f Arma capessamus." The term imperium in this pa» 
•ago ia equivalent merely to publicam quietens, or reipubliete statutn t tak 
ing respublica ic the general sense of " government."— 17. Te semper an- 
tcit、 &c. Tho id 3a intended to be conveyed is. that all things most yield 
to the power of Fortune. This is beautifully expressed in the language of 
che text : " Thee thy handmaid Necessity ever precedes." 一 Anteit man 
be pronoancod awt y%t % as a dissyllable, by synasresis. 一 18. Clavos traba- 
/es. Necessity is here represented with all such appendages as may 
■erve to convey the idea of firm and unyielding power. Thus she bears 
in her hand clavos trabales, " large spikes," like those employed for cou 
nectirg closely together the timbers of an edifice. She is armed alio 
with " wedges," ascd for a similar parpose, not for cleaving unndcr, aa 
some explain it. Iu like manner, the " unyielding clamp" (severus uncut) 
make* iti appearance, which serves to unite more firmly two raaiaes of 
stone, while tbe u melted lead" is required to secure the damp in its bed 
Some txymnce^tators erroneously regard the clavos trabales, &c, as instni 
» exits of punithirstit. 

21-29. 21. Te 8p*9 et albr, &c. The idea which the poet wishes to 
convey is, that Hope 'Uid FiA' tity are inseparable from Fortune. In othef 
words, Hope always «he**i ie unfortunate with a prospect of better day 歸 
lo come, and a faithful frtbnd only adheres the more closely to u 薦 under 
the pressure of adversity The epithet rara alludes to the paucity of trae 
friends, while the expression a!bo velata panno refers in a very beautifal 
manner to the sincerity and c ardor by which they are always distinguish- 
ed. ― 23. Utcunque mutata, Slc. ** Whenever, clad in sordid vestmentg, 
thou leavest in anger the abodes ofth, powerful." Prosperous fortune i 薦 
arrayed in splendid attire, bat when thj anger of the goddess is kindled, 
and she abandons the dwellings of the mfjhty, she changes her fair vest' 
ments for a sordid garb. 一 26. Cadis cumf<ect siccatis. " When the caaki 
are drained to the very dregs." Faitblesr Heuds abandon us after oov 
resources have been exhausted in gratifying their selfish cupidity. 一 2f 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. A Graecism for do w .osiores quam ut ferani 
kn. " Too faithless to bear in common with us the yoke of adversity."— 
29. Ultimos orbis Britannos. In designating tho Prisons as " ultima; 
&rbu^ Horace must be understood to speak more as a T>oet th.^n a geoff 
rapher, since the Romans of his day were well acqnainteJ vith the exist 
ence of Hibernia. It mast be acknowledged, however, tnat \t wm no an 
common thing to call all the islands in this quarter by the general namt 
of Insula BrilannitM {BpeTTaviKal vfjaoi). 

3&.t3. 30. Juvenum recens examen. " The recent levy ofyoathTTil 
riora." These are compared to s. fresh swarm of bees issuing from. thf> 
parent hive. ~ 32. Occanoqne Jtubro. " And by tbe Indian Sea." The al 
[union is to the Mare Erytkraum or Indian Ocean, not to tfae Sinus Arab 
ievs, or Red Sea. 一 33. Eheu ! cicatricum, &c. "Ah ! I am ashamed of oai 
gears, and our gpilt, and of brothers 一 " The poet wai going to add, " slais 
hy the hand of brothers," but the thought was too horrid for otterance, and 
tne scnteacd i, therefore abruptly broken off. Hence wo have placed $ 



BXPLANATORV NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XXXVI. 31 1 

dash after fratrumque. He merely adds, in general language, M Whtf 
in fine, have we, a hardened age, avoided 7" &c. The reference through 
oat the Btanza is to the bloody straggle of the civil wars. 

38-39. 38. O utinam diffingas. " O mayest thoa forge again/ 1 The 
poet's prayer to Fortune is, that she would forge anew the swonls which 
h«d been stained with the blood of the Romans in the sivil wai, so that 
they might be emifloyed against the enemies of the republic. While 
pdlated with civil blood, they mast be the objects of hatred and avergtoo 
to the gods. 39. In Massag-elas Araba^que. "To be wielded against 
the Maasftgetaa and the Arabians." The Massagetaa were a branch of the 
great Scythiau race, and, according to Herodotus (i., 204), occupied • level 
tract of ooontry to the east of the Caspian. They are supposed by some 
lo have occupied the present coantry of the Kirgish Tatars. 



Ode XXXVI. Plotias Namida having returned, after a long absence 
from Spain, where he had been serving under Aagastas in the Cantabrias 
war, the poet bids his friends celebrate in dae form so joyous an event 
This ode would appear to have been written about A.U.C. 730. 

I- 10. 1. Et thure et fidibu8,'&c. " With both incense and the mnaiij 
of the lyre, and the blood of a steer due to the fulfillment of our vow." 
The ancient BacrificeB were accompanied with the masic of the lyre and 
flate. ~~ 3. Numida. A cognomen of the Plotian and ^milian lines.— 
4. Hesperia ab ultima. "From farthest Spain." Referring to the situs 
tiou of tbis coantry as farthest to the west. Hespcria was a more corn 
mon name for Itdy, as lying to the west of Greece. For distinction' 
sake, Spain was lometimes called Hesperia ultima.—^. IHvidit. " Dit 
tributes." ~~ 8. Non alio rege. " Under the same preceptor." ~> Puertia 
Contracted for ptteritia. 9. MiUatteque simul toga. Yoang men, amon^ 
the Bom ana, when they had completed their seventeeDth year, laid askU 
the toga pr/etexte^ and pat on the toga virifis, or manly gown. 一 10. Cressr 
nota. "A white mark." The Romans marked their lacky days, in thr- 
cftlendar, with white or chalk, and their nnlacky days with black. 

II- 20. 11. Neu promtat, &c. " Nor let us spare the contents of the 
wine-jar taken from the vault." Literally, "nor let there be any limit tc 
the wine-jar," &c. ; i. e. % any limit to an acqaaintanco with its contenta.- 
12. Salinm. The Salti, or priests of Mara, twelve in number, were in 
stitnted by Nama. They were so called becaase on solemn occasionn 
±cy used to go tiirongh the city dancing [saltantes). After fiuuhing their 
ulemD procession, they sat down to a splendid entertainment. Henco 
Saliares dopes meant " a splendid banquet."— 13. MvXti Damalis meri 
" Tho hard-drinking Damalis." 一 14. ThreictU atnystide. " In tossing off 
the wine-cup after the Thracian fashion." The amystis (dfivtrric) wa * s 
n«ode of drinking practiced by the Thracians, and consisted in draining 
the cap without once closing the lips. (d. priv., fivu, to close.) It denotes 
•lao a large kind of drinking-cap. 一 16. Vivax apium. " The parsley th»| 
kmg retains its verdure." The poet is thought to allude to a kind of wild 
para.ey, of a beautiful verdure, which preserves its frefliD ws for a long 
periud —Breve lilium " The short-lived lily." 



312 tiXPLANATORV ! llJTES 一 BOOK I., ODE XXX VII. 

Ode XXXVII. Written in celelrrfttion of the victory at Actia n, aim 
die final triumph of AagustaB over the arms of Antony and Cleopatra 
The "hamo of the miibrtanate Roman, however, is studiously concealed 
■ud the indignation of the poet is made to fall apon Cleopatra. 

8- 6 2 Nunc Saliaribus, &c. "Now waa it the time to deck the 
temples of the gods with a splendid banqo«t." The meaning beoomag 
plainer by a paraphrase : " We were right, my friends, in waiting until 
the presont moment : this was indeed the true period for the exprenioa 
0l our joy." We mast imagine tbeBe words to have proceeded from th« 
poet alter the joyous ceremouies had already begem —-Saliaribus dapibtu. 
Liberally, " with a Saliaii banquet." Coiuuk note on verse 12 of the pra 
^eding ode. ~~ 3. Pulvinar. The primitive meaning of tbia term is. a caBh* 
Ion or pillow for a coach ; it ia then taken to denote the coach itself; and 
finally it signifies, from the operation of a peculiar custom among the 
Banians, a temple or shrine of the gods. When a general had obtained 
a signal victory, a thanksgiving was decreed by the Senate to be made in 
ali the temples, and what was called a Lectistermum took place, when 
oooches were spread for the gods, aa if about to feast ; and their image 龌 
were taken dowa from their pedestals, and placed upon these couche* 
around the altars, which were loaded with the richest dishes. Dr. Adam, 
in Iub work on Roman ADtiqaities, states that on sach occasions the imago 
of Japiter was placed in a reclining posture, and those of Juno and Minerva 
erect on se«t8. The remark u au erroneous one. The castom to which 
he refers was confined to Bolemn festivals in honor of Jove. Compare 
Vol. Max. % ii" 1, 2. With regard to the meauing we have assigned pul^ 
vinar in the text, and wliidi is not given by some lexicographers, con- 
salt Eriicsti, Clav. Cic, a. v. Schtitz f Index Lai. in Cie. Op. t s. v. 一 
5. Anleltac. To be pruuounoed as a dissyllable [ant-yac). The place of 
the cflssara is not accurately observed either in this or the 14th line. Cod* 
salt Classical Journal, vol. xi" p. 354. — Cacubum, Used here to denote 
any of the more geoeroas kinds of wine. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 9. 
~-€. Dum Capitolio % &c. " While a phrensied qaeen was preparing rain 
for the Capitol and destraction for the empire." An hypallage for dum 
Capitolio rcgina demens, &c. Horace indulges here in a spirit of poetic 
exaggeration, since Antony and Cleopatra intended merely, in case they 
proved victorious, to traiinfer the seat of empire from Rome to Alexandrea. 
Dio Cassius (50, 4, vol. i., p. 606, ed. Reimar) states as one of the ramon 
of the day, that Antony bad promised to bestow the city of Rome ar a 
present upon Cleopatra, and to remove the government to Egypt. 

9- 14. 9. Contajmnato cum grege, &c. "With a contaminated herd of 
(bllowers polluted by disease. "—10. Quidlibet impotens sperare. "Weak 
enough to hope for any thing." A GraBcism for impotens ut quiMiba 
nperaref. Observe that impotens is here equivalent to impotens sui, i. e.、 
having so little control over herself as to hopo for any thing. 一 11. For> 
tunaq-ae duki cbria. "And intoxicated with prosperity." 一 13. Sospes ah 
ignibus. " Saved from the flames." We have here somewhat of jpoetio 
exaggeration. Cleopatra fled with sixty ships, while three hundred were 
taken by Augustas. Many of Antony's vessels, however, were destroy* 
ftd by fire during ftio action. 一 14. LymphcUam Mareotico. " Maddened 
with Mareotio wiae " A bitter, thoag'h not 麵 tricky accurate, alloeioi U 



KXPLANATOKY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XXX VII. 5U:1 

the laxurioas habits of Cleopatra. The poet pretends in this way to ac- 
count for the panic which seized her at Actiam. 一 Mareottco. Tlic.Mareotic 
wino waB produced along the borders of the Lake Mareotis, in Egypt. It 
was a, light, sweetish white wine, with a delicate perfume, of ea«y Higes 
tion, and not apt to aflect the head, th( agh the allasion would seem to im 
ply that it had not always preserved its innocaoas quality. 

16-513. 16. Ab Italia volanfem f &c. " Parsamg her with swift galleys 
us she fled from Italy." The expreflsidn ab Italia volantem is to be ex 
plained by the circumstance of Antony and Cleopatra's hftving ihtended 
to make a descent upon Italy before Augustas should be apprised of their 
coming. Hence the flight of Cleopatra, at the battle of Actiam, was in 
reality ab Italia. 一 20. H<tmonia. Hsemonia was one of the enrly names 
of Thessaly. 一 Catenis. Augustas did not proceed to Alexandrea till the 
vear following ; bat the poet blends the defeat with the final conquest. 
{Osborne, ad /oc.)— 21. Falale monstrum. " The fated monater," i. e. t the 
Fated caose of evil to the Roman .world. 一 Qua. A syllepsis, the relative 
being made to refer to the person indicated by monslrum^ not to the grnm 
matical gender of the antecedent itself. ~~ S3. Expavit ensem. An alius''"" 
to the attempt wbich Cleopatra made upon her own life, when Procaleius 
was sent by Augustas to secure her person. ^ Nec latentes t &c. " Nor 
•ought with a swift fleet for other and secret shores/' Observe the force 
of reparavit, and compare the explanation of Orelli : " Spe npvi regm 
Mndendi^ alias sibi parare et assequi stvduit regione3、" &c. By latentes 
areu are meant coasts lying concealed from the sway of the Romans. 
Plutarch states that Cleopatra formed the design, after the battle of Actium, 
of drawing a fleet of vessels into the Arabian Gulf, across the neck of laud 
called at the present day the Isthmus of Suez, and of seeking some remote 
country where she might neither be reduced to slavery nor involved in 
war. The biographer adds, that the first ships transported across were 
burned by the natives of Arabia Petreea, and that Cleopatra subsequently 
abandoned the enterprise, resolving to fortify the avenues of her kingdom 
against the approach of Augustus. The account, however, which Dio 
Cassias gives, differs in spme respect from that of Plutarch, since it makes 
the vessels destroyed by the Arabians to have been built on that side of 
the isthmus. Compare Pldtarch^ Vit. Anton., c. 69, vol. vi., p. 143, ed 
Hutten^ and Dio Cassius, 51, 7, vol. i., p. 637, ed. Reimar. 

25-26. 25. Jatxntem regiam. " Her palace plunged io^ affliction."' - 
26. Fortis et asperas, Slc " And had courage to handle the exasperated 
serpents." Horace here adopts the common opinion of Cleopatra's deat^ 
having been occasioned by the bite of an asp, the animal having been prt« 
vioasly irritated by the queen with a golden bodkin. There is a great 
deal of doubt, however, on this subject, as may be seen from Plotarch'i 
itfttement. After mentioning the common accoant, which we have jast 
given, the biographer remarks, " It was likewise reported that she car- 
ried about with her certain poison in a hollow bodkin which she wore in 
ber hair, yet there was neither any mark of poison on her body, nor was 
thure any serpent found in the monament, though the track of a reptile 
wm Mid to have been discovered on the sea-sands opposite tbe wiudowa 
of ber apartment. Others, again, have affirmed that she h«d two «mtd. 
punc/^rcs on her arm, apparently occasioned by the asp's stingy and ti 

O 



314 EXPLANATORY WOTE8. 一 BOOK •, QUE XXXVill. 



kbi« Cssar obviously g&ve credit, for her efflgy which be carriod it 
triumph had an asp on the arm." It is more than probable that the M|: 
oo the arm of the eiiigy was a mere ornament, mistaken by the pupulac* 
» aymbolical allasion to the manuer of Cleopatra's death. Or we majf 
eonclude with Wrangham that there would of coarse be an aap on tbe 
diadem of tbo effigy, because it was peculiar to tbe kings of Egypt. 

29-30. 29i Deliberata morle ferocior. " Becoming more fierce by » de 
lerxuined reaolatkm to die." Compare Orelli : "Per mortem delibenUam 
ferocior facta.' ' MorU is the iustramental ablatio e. — 30. Saevis Libumia 
Ac. M Because, a haughty woman, she disdained being led away in the 
bostile galleys of the Liburnians, deprived of all her former rank, for tbe 
purpose of gracing the proud triamph of Augustas /' Superbo triumpho 
in here pat by a Oroecism for ad superbum trinmphum. Tbe naves Lir 
burna were a kiud of light galleys used by the Libarnians, an IUyrian race 
along the coast of tbe Adriatic, addicted to piracy. To sliipg of this con- 
"ruction Augustas was in a great measure indebted for his victory at Ac- 
tiam. The vessels of Antony, on the other hand, were remarkable for 
their great size. Compare the tumid description of Flams (iv, 11, 5) : 
" Turribut atqm tabulatis allevat<B t castcllorum et urbium specie, non nM 
^emitu marU t el labore ventorum ferebantur," 



Ode XXXVIII. Written in condemnation, as is generally lupposed^ 
of the luxury and extravagance which marked the banquets of the day 
The bard directs his attendant to make the simplest preparations for hi4 
entertainment. 

1-5. 1. PersicoB apparatus. " The festal preparations of the Per 
Biaus," i. e. t luxurious and costly preparations. 一 Nexa philyra corona 1 . 
" Chaplets secured with the rind of the linden." Chaplets, as already re 
marked, were supposed to be of efficacy in checking intoxication. Amoa^ 
**ae Romans they were made of ivy, myrtle, &c., interwoven chiefly witl 

iolets and roses. If fastened on a strip of bark, especially the inner rind 
of the linden tree, they were called sutiles. ~~ 3. Mitte sectari. " Give ovei 
searching." 一 4. Moretur. " Loiters beyond its season." 一 5. Nihil allar 
bores sedulus euro. The order is nihil euro (ut) sedulus allabores. " I am 
not at all desirous that you take earnest pains to add any thing." Wa 
have given euro with Orelli, Dillenburger, and others. Wakefield {Silv. 
Crii. f § 55) proposes cura, joining it in construction with s€dulus. Can' 
ningham, Vaiart, and During adopt it. Bentley roads euro, taking cttrt 
■fl in imperative in the sense of cave 



BOOK 1 且 



Odb I. C. Asiuias Pollio, distinguished as a soldier, a plosdcr, mod 霍 
tragic writer, was engaged in writing a history of the civil war. Tfac 
; earnestly entreats him to persevere, and not to return to the patba 
agio composition until be should have completed his promised liarra 
tive of Roman affairs. The ode describes in glowing colors the expects 
tions entertained by the poet of the ability with which Pollio would treat 
co intereiting and difficult a subject. 

1-6. 1. Ex Metello comule, M From tbe consulship of Metellus." The 
tiarrative of Pollio, consequently, began with the formation of the Brst 
triumvirate, by Osesar, Pompey, and Crassas, A.U.C. 694, B.C. 59, in tbe 
consulship of Q.. Caecilias Metellas Celer and L. Af rani us. This may 
well bo considered as the germ of the civil wars that ensued. The Ro- 
mans marked the year by the names of the consuls, and be who bad most 
suffrages, &c, was placed first. The Athenians, on the other handt des- 
ignated their years by the name of the chief archon, who was hence call 
ed 'Apx<JV 'Kncjyvfjtog. 一 2. Belliqve causas, &c. " And of the causes, and 
the errors, and the operationB of the war." Tbe term vitia has here 龜 
prrticular reference to the rash and unwise plans of Pompey and his fol 
lowers. 一 3 Ludumque Fortuna. " And of the game that Fortune play 
ed." — Graresgue principum amicitias. " And of the fatal confederacies 
of the chiefs." An allusion to the two triumvirates. Of the first we have 
already spoken. The second was composed of Octavianus, Antony, and 
LepidaB. 一 5. Nondum expiatis. Compare Ode i., 2, 29. ― 6. Periculosa 
plenum, &c. " An undertaking fall of danger and of hazard." Opus ia 
applied by somo, though leas correctly, we conceive, to tbe civil war itsol£ 
The metaphor of tho poet is borrowed from tbe Roman games of cbancft. 

8-12. 8. Cinen. The dative, put by a Grsscisni for the ablative.—* 
9. Paullum severa, &c " Let the muse of dignified tragedy be absent 
for a while from oar theatres," i. e., suspend for a season thy labors in th^ 
field of tragic composition. The muse of tragedy is Melpomene, who pr« 
aided also over lyric verae. Compare Explanatory Notes, Ode i., 24, r 
—10. Ubi publicas res ordinaris. " When thou hast chronicled our pab* 
lie affairs," i. e., hast completed thy bistpry of oar public affairs. The paa- 
■age may also be rendered, "When tbon hast settled our public affai's«" 
i e., when, in the order of thy narrative, thou hast brought the history of 
our country down to the present period of tranquillity and repose. Tbe 
former interpretation is decidedly preferable. 一 11. Grande munus, &as 
** Thoa wilt resame thy important task with all the dignity of the Athe* 
niau tragic muse," i. thou wilt return to thy labors in tbe walks of trag 
edy, and rival, as tboa hast already done, the best efforts of the dramfttic 
poets of Greece. — 12. Cecropio cothurno. Literally, " with tbe Cecrojuan 
Imakin." Cecropio is equivalent to Altico t and alludes to Cecropn as the 
mythic founder of Athens. The cothurnus was tho buskin worn by t,i« 
tragic actors, aud is hero taken figuratively for tragedy itself. 




316 £1TLANAT0RY NOTES. — BOOK II. ODE i. 

16- '21. I'J. Insigne moestts^ 6:c. u Distinguished 纖 oarce of aid Ui tut 
sorrowful accused." Alluding to his abilities %a an advocate. 一 14. Com 
iulenti curia. "To the senate asking thy advice." It was the daty of 
the consul or presiding magistrate to ask tho opinions of the individus 
senators [crnsulere senatum). Here, however, the poet very betuitifall, 
assigns to tho senate itself the office of him who presided over their deli 幺 
erationf, snd in making them ask the individual opinion of Pollio, repre* 
■enU them as following with implicit confidence his directing and coou* 
celling voice. 一 16. Dalmatico trivmpko. Pollio triumphed A.U.C. 711s 
B.C. 38, over the Parthini, an IHyrtan race, iu the vicinity of EpidamniUb 
—17. Jam nunc minaci» &c. The poet fanaies himself listening to the re 
eital of Pollio' s history, and to be hurried on by the animated and graphio 
periodB of his friend into the midst of combats, and especially into tlie 
gTcat Phanalian conflict. 一 19. Fugaces terret eqyos, " Territies the 
flying steeds, and spreads alarm over the countenances of their riders." 
The zeugma in terret is worthy of attention. 一 21. Audire magnos t &o. 
" Already methinks I hear the cry of mighty leaders, stained with no o 
glorious dust." 一 23. Et evneta tcrrantm. Sec. "And see the whole world 
subdaed, except the unyielding soal of Cato." After cuncta understand 
loea. Cato the younger is alluded to, who put an end to bis existence at 
Utica. Compare note on Ode i., 12, 35. 

25-40. 25. Juno et deorum, Slc. "Juno, and whosoever of the gud,, 
more friendly to the people of Africa, unable to resist the power of the 
Fates, had retired from a land they could not then avenge, in after dayi 
offered up the descendants of the conquerors as a sacrifice to the shade of 
Jugartha." The victory at Thapsas, where CoBsar triaraphed over th j 
remains of Pompey's party in Africa, and after which Cato pat an end tc 
his own existence at Utica, is here alluded to in language beautifully po- 
etic. Jqdo, and the other tutelary deities of Africa, compelled to bend to 
the loftier destinies of the Roman name in the Punic conflicts and in the 
war with Jagartha, are supposed, in accordance with tho popular belief 
ctn sach subjects, to have retired from the land which they found them 
■elves unable to sav^e. In a later ago, however, taking advantage of the 
civil dissensions among the conquerors, they make th« battle-iield at Tbap 
sua, where Roman met Roman, a vast place of sacrifice, as it were, in 
which thousands were immolated to the manes of Jugurtha and the fallen 
fortunes of the land. 一 29. Quis non Latino^ &. c. The poet, as an induce' 
ment for Pollio to persevere, enlarges in glowing colors on the lofty and 
extensive nature of the subject which occupies the attention of hi' friend 
一 31. Auditumque Medis t &xs " And the sound ofxhe downfall of Italy 
heard even by the distant nations of the East." Uuder the term Medi$ 
there ia a special reference to the Parthians, the bitterest foes to the Ro- 
man name —34. Daunue cades. "The blood of Romans." Daunite; Lt 
here pat for Jtala or Romana. Compare note on Ode i" 22, 13. 一 37. Sed 
ue relictis, &c. "Bat do not, bold maae, abandon sportive themes, and 
reaame the task of the Coean dirge," i. c, never again boldly presume to 
direct thy feeble efforts toward subjects of so grave and mournful a char- 
acter. The expression Caat nesnicB refers to Simonidss, the famous bare 
of Ceos, distinguished as a writer of mournful elegy, and who flourished 
•boat 605 B.C. 一 39. Dioncbo sub antro. " Beneath some cave sacred tc 
Venus " fVione was the mother of Veuus, whence the epithet Uionaut 



ISXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK 11., (. DE II. 31*) 

applied to the latter goddess and what concerned her. ~~ 40. Levioie pl» 
tra " Of a lighter strain. ' Compare note on Ode i., 26, 11. 



Ode II. The poet shows that the mere possession of riches can aevpi 
bestow real happiness. Those alone are truly happy and truly wise wlic 
know how to enjoy, in a becoming maimer, the gifts which Fortune may 
bestow, since otherwise present wealth only gives rise to an eager desire 
for more. 

The ode is addressed to Crispas Sallusfias, nephew to the historian, and 
% iuteuded, in fact, as a high encomium on his own wise employment uf 
the ample fortune left him by his ancle. Naturally of a retired and philo- 
sophic character, Sallast had remained content with the equestrian rank 
in which he was born, declining all the offers of advancement that were 
made him by Augustus. 

1-12. 1. Nullu8 argento color. " Silver has no brilliancy." 一 2. Inimtce 
lamme nisi temperato t &c. " Thou foe to wealth, unless it shine by mod- 
erate use, Lamnce (for lamina:) properly denotes plates of gold or silver, 
i. e. t coined money or wealth in general. 一 5. Extento avo. " To a distant 
age." The dative used poetically for in cxtentum <evum. 一 Proculeius. 
C. Procaleius Varro Maraona, a Roman knight, and the intimate friend ol 
AiUgastus. His sister was the wife of Maecenas. He is here praised for 
having shared his estate with bis two brothers, who had lost all their prop- 
erty for siding with Pompey in the civil wars. 一 6. Notus infraires, 6us. 
" Well known for his paternal affection toward his brethren." 一 7. Penna 
metuenle soki. " On an untiring pinion." Literally, "on a pinion fearing 
to be tired cr relaxed." The allusion is a figurative one, and refers to a 
pinion gaarding:, as it were, against being enfeebled. Compare the Greek 
ire^vXayfievy Xveadai. 一 11. Gadihus. Gades, now Cadiz % in Spain. 一 
Uterjue Paenus.. Alluding to the Carthaginian power, both at home and 
aiong the coast of Spain. Tims we have the Pomi in Africa, and the Bas- 
tjli Pceni along the lower part of the Mediterranean coast, in the Spanish 
peninsula, and, again, a Carthago at home, and a Carthago nova in Spain. 
一 12. Uni. Understand tibi. 

13 -23. 13. Crescil indulgens sibi, Slc. " The direful dropsy iucrea&ca 
liy self-indalgence." Compare the remark of the scholiast : " Est aulem 
kydropico proprium ut quanto amplius biberit, lanto ampliux sitiat.*' 
The avaricious mau is here compared to one who is suffering under a 
dropsy. In either case there is the same hankering after what only Bervei 
to aggravate the nature of the disease. 一 15. Aquosus languor. The 
dropsy (vdpui/) takes its name from the circumstance of water {vdup) be- 
ing the most visible cause of th£ distemper, as well as from the pallid hue 
which oversoreads the countenance (u 1 ^) of the sufferer. It arises, in fact, 
froto too lax a. tone of tbe solids, whereby digestion is weakened, and aL 
tbv parts are Ailed beyoad measure. — 17. Cyri solio. By the " throne of 
Cyrus" is here meant the Parthian empire. Compare note on Ode i., 9 
22. — Phrahaten. Compare note on Ode i., 26, 5. 一 18. Dissidens pleln 
*' Dissenting from the crowd." 一 19. Virtus. " True wisdom '^-Popn 
hK'nquefahtSt &c. " And teaches the popa'.ace to disuse false aames Crt 
thinirf." -- 33 Propimmque laurum. • Ami the never-fading l»cwl.,- 



31H EXPLANATORY KuTfiS.— BOOK 11" ODE III. 

S3. Ocnlo irrtUrrto. "With a steady gaze," i, e.、 without an enviooi 
:ook. Not regarding them with the sideloug glance of envy, bat with th« 
•tendy gaze of calm indifference 



Odk III. Addressed to Q.. Dellias, and recommending a calm enjoy' 
cnent of the pleaaures of existence, since death, sooner or later, will bring 
all to an end. The individual to whom the ode is inscribed was remark- 
able for his fickle and vacillating character ; and so often did he change 
■ides daring the civil contest which took place after the death of Cssar, 
M to receive f>oui Messala the appellation of desvltorem bellorum civile 
um ; a pleasant allusion to the Roman desultores, who rode two horse 钃 
joined together, leaping quickly from the one to the other. Compare 
/Seiieca (Suasor., p 7) : •* Bellissimam tamen rem Dellius dixit, quern Mes 
pala Corvinns desultorem bcllontm civilium vocat, quia ab Dolabella ad 
Cassium transiturus salulem sibi pactus est, si Dolabellam occidissel ; et 
a Cassio deinde transivit ad Antoninm •• novissume ab Antonio transfugil 
fid Cetsarem." Gnaaalt, also, Veil. Paterc. % 2, 84, snd Dio Cass., 49, 39 

2-8. 2. Non secus in bonis, &c. " As well as one restrained from im 
moderate joy in prosperity." 一 4. Moriture. " Who at some time or otheT 
mast end thy existence." Dacier well observes that the whole beauty 
and force of this strophe consists in the single word moriture, which is 
not only an epithet, but a reason to confirm the poet's advice. 一 5. Delli. 
The old editors, previous to Lambinus, read Deli ; bat consult Ruhnken, 
ad Veil. Paterc. t 2, 84, on the orthography of this name. ~ 6. In remoto 
gramine. " Jn some grassy retreat." ~» Dies Festos. Days among the 
Romans were distinguished into three general divisions, the Dies Festi, 
Dies Profesti, and Dies Intercisi. The Dies Festi, " Holy days," were 
consecrated to religious purposes ; the Dies Profesti were given to tho 
common business of life, and the Dies Intercisi -were half holidays, divided 
between sacred and ordinary occupations. The Dies Fasti, ou the other 
baud, were those on which it was lawful {fas) for the praetor to sit in 
judgment. All other days were called Dies Nefasti, or " Non-court days." 
一 8. Interiore nota Falerni. " With the old Falernian," i. e., the choicest 
wine, which was placed in the farthest part of the vault or crypt, marked 
with its date and growth. 

V-19. 9. Qua pinus ingens. &c. Where the tall pine and silver pop 
(ar love to unite in forming with their branches an hospitable shade." 
The poet is probably describing some beautiful spot in the pleasaro- 
groandi of Dellias. The editions before that of Lambinus have Quo f foi 
which he first substituted Qua, on the authority of some MSS. Fea aud 
others attempt to dofend the old reading, but qua is more elegantly used 
in the sense of ubi than quo. -一 11. Et obliquo laborat, Jcc. " And the 
iwiftly- moving water strives to ran murmaring along in its winding chan- 
nel." The beautiful selection of terms in laborat and trepidarc is worthy 
of particular notice. 一 13. Nimium brevis rosee. " Of the too short-lived 
rosft " 一 15. Res. " Your opportunities." Compare the explanation of 
Ofcili : " Res : lota vitte turn conditio, ac singula occasiones.' 1 一 Sororum, 
The Fates. 一 17. Cocmptis. " Doaght up on all sides." 一 Domo. The tern 
domus here denotes tliat part of the villa occapied by the prouristnr 



fiXl'LANATORV NOTES. 一 BOOK II., ODE VI. Bl^ 

Mli ; ^rl. le villa designates the other buildings and appurtenances of the 
estate, designed not only for use, bat also for pleasure. Compare Brants 
nardt ad Inc. Heuce we may render the words ct domo villaque as follows : 
、 and fro.n thy lordly mansion and estate." — 18. Flavus Tiberis. Com* 
pare note on Ode i., 2, 13. 一 19. Exstructis in altum. " Piled up on high/ 

21-28. 21. i>/"eswep'mco, &c. " It matters not whether thoadwellest 
beneath the light of heaven, blessed with riches and descended from Iua' 
chas of old, or in narrow circumstances and of the lowliest birth, since in 
either event tboa art the destined victim of unrelenting Orcus." The ex- 
pression prisco ?iatus ab Inacho is equivalent to antiquissima stirpe ori' 
nndus, Inaclms having been, according to the common accoant, the moflt 
ancient king of Argos. The term moreris derives elucidation from Cicero, 
de Sen,, 23 : " commorandi natura deversorium nobis, non habitandi lo- 
cum dedit." 一 2G. Omnes eodem cogimur, " We are all driven toward the 
same quarter." Alluding to the passage of the shades, under the guidance 
of Mercury, to the other world. 一 Omnium versatur uma, &c. " The lots ot 
all arc shaken in the urn, destined sooner or later to come forth, and plac6 
as in the bark for an eternal exile." The urn here alluded to is that held 
by Necessity in the lower world. Some editions place a comma after 
urna y making it the nominative to versatur ; and urna omnium will then 
signify " the urn containing the destinies of all." But the construction if 
too harsh ; and the cjesura, which would then be requisite for lengthening 
the final syllable of urna, is of doubtful application for such a purpose.— 
'28. Cynba. The dative, by a Groecism, for the ablative cymba. 



Ode VI. The poet expresses a wish to spend the remainder of his d&y 鱅 
、long with his friend Septimias, either amid the groves of Tibur, or the 
(air fields of Tarentum. • 

The individual to whom the ode is addressed was a member of the 
equestrian order, and had fought in the same ranks with Horace daring 
the civil contest. Hence the language of Porphyrion : " Septimium, cqui' 
tern Romanum, amicum et commilitonem suum hac ode alloquitur." From 
•he words of Horace {Epist., i., 3, 9-14) he appears to have been also a 
votary of the Muses, and another scholiast remarks of him, " Titius Sep- 
iimius lyrica carmino H tragasdias scHp^it, Augusti tempore : sed libri 
^jus nulli extant. u 

1-2. 1. Gades adihtre rneenm. "Who art ready to go with me to Ga 
ie«." We mast not imagine that any actual departure, cither for Gadei 
or the other quarters meutioned in this stanza, was contemplated by tfaa 
poet. He merely means, to go thither if re laisite ; and hence the lan' 
g^iage of the text is to be taken for nothing more than a genera) eulogium 
sm the tried friendship of Septimias. As respects Gades, compare Ode ii., 
•2 t 11. -一 2. Et Cantabrum indoctum, dec. And against the Cantabrian, 
antaaght as yet to endure oar yoke." The Cantabri were a warlike na- 
tion of Spain, extending over what is at present Biscay and part of Astu- 
rias. Their resistance to the Roman arms was long and stubborn, and 
hence the language of Horace in relation to them, Ode iii., 8, 22 : " Cant 
faber sera domitus catena" The present ode appears to biiTe boon writ 
ken previous to their final sabjugfttion 



820 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — DOOR II., ODB VII 

3-11. 3. Barbaras Syrtes. "The Larbanan Syrtoa." A""diog tj tin 
two well-kuown gulfs on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, tho Syrtii 
M^jor, or Qulf of Sidrck, and the Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cabei. The term 
harbaru* refen t« the rade aud uncivilized tribes in the vicinity. 一 Maura 
By synecdoche for Africa unda. 一 5. Tibur、 Argeo positum colono. Com- 
pare note on Cde i., 7, 13. ~ 7. Sit \nodus lasso t &c. " May it be ft limif 
of wandering 'into me, wearied oat with the fatigues of oceau, land, and 
military serv/^e." The genitives maris, viarutn t and militia are put by 
■ Qrocifm f 鳜 ablativea. — 8. Milt t tag ue. The single campaign ondec 
膨 ratas, and fit disastroas close at Philippi, formed the extent c^the poet' 龌 
warlike ex p'lfience. 一 9. Prohibent. " Exclude me." — 10. Dulce pellitu 
wibus. " 7i'/asing to the sheep covered with skins." The sheep that 
*ed alon^ *Va bank 龌 of tbe Galsesas, now the Galcso, and the valley oi 
A.nlon, h wool so fine that they were covered with skim to protect 
iieir Pe'iO'/'i from injury. Tbe same expedient was resorted to in the case 
jf thj sheep. The River Galaesus flowed within five miles of Ta- 
and fell into the inner harbor. 一 11. Laconi Phcdanto. Alladic, 
to »hC/ scory of Phalantas and tbe Partheniee, who came as a colony froL 
Qparta to Tarentum, about 700 B.C. 

13-22. 13. Mihi ridel. u Possesses charms for me." Literally, looki 
laughingly apon me," 4< smiles upon me," i. e., pleases me. A similar 
asage prevails in Greek in tbe case of the verb yeXau. 一 14. Uln no a Hy 
metto, dec. " Where the honey yields not to that of Hymettns, and the 
olive vies with the produce of the verdant Venafrum." 一 Hyvxttto. Uy- 
mettus was a mountain in Attica, famed for its honey, which is still in 
high repute among the modern Greeks. It has two summits, one ancient- 
.y called Hymettas, now Trelovouni ; the other, Anydros (or tbe dry Hy- 
mettas), now Lamprovouni. 一 16. Venafro. Venafram was the last city 
of Campania to the north, and near the River Valtnrniis. It was cele 
brated for its olives and oil. The modern name is Venafro. 一 17. Tepidcu- 
que brumas. " And mild winters." 一 18. Jupiter. Taken for the climate 
oi" the region, or the sky. 一 19. Fertili. " Rich in the gifts of the vintage." 
The common text hsajfertilis. Anion was a ridge and valley in the neigh- 
borhood of Tarentum, and very productive. The modern Dame is Terra 
di Melone. The term anion itself is of Greek origin {avXuv), and denotes 
any narrow valley or pass. 一 Minimum invidet. " Is far from envying, " i. e, 
is not inferior to. Literally, " envies least." 一 21. Beata colles. "Those 
delightful hills." 一 22. Ibi tu calentem, dec. " There shalt tbou sprinkle, 
with the tear due to his memory, the warm ashes of the poet, thy friend.' 
^Caleniem Allading to their being still worm from the funeral pile 



Ods VII. Addressed to Pompeias, a friend of the poet's, who bad fought 
on tbe same side with him at the battle of Philippi. The poet returned 
to Rome, bat Pompeias continued in arms, aud was c-nly restored to bi 钃 
native country when the peace concluded between the triumvirs and 
gextis Pompey enabled the exiles and proscribed of the republican party 
to revisit tbeir homes. The bard indulges in the present effusioo «»n th6 
restxi ration of his friend. 

Who this friend was is far from being clearly ascertained. Most com 
lacntators make hitt to have been Pompeiufi Grosphuf, a Rcma*} knvmbi 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK II.. OI»E \ II. 32l 



wad freedman of Pompey the Great. If this opinion be correct^ ho wil 
oe the same with the individual to whom the sixteenth ode )f the present 
book if inscribed^ and who is also mentioned in Epist i., 12, 23. Vander 
bourg, however, is in favor of Pompeias Varus. "Les MSS-," observe' 
this editor, " ne sont point d' accord sur les noms de cet ami de notre 
po^te. J,ai era long temps avec Sanadon, et MM. Wetzel et Mitscher 
lich, devoir le confondre avec le Pompeius Qrosphas de l'Ode 16 de ce 
^▼re, et de l'epitre 12, da liv. 1. Mais je pense aajonrd'bui avec lea sli 
eieu cone mentatears, suivis en cela par Dacier et M. Voss, que Pompiiua 
Vinu 6toient ses nom et sarnom viritables." 

1-8. 1. O sape rnecum, &c. The order of ooustraction is as follows 
O Pompeii pfime ineoruvi sodalium t seepe deducte mecum in ullimum ttn^ 
pus t Brnto duce militia:, quis redonavit t¥ Quiritem diis patriis Itcdoqu% 
caio ? 一 Tcmpus in ultimum deducte. " Involved in the greatest danger." 
Compare Catullus, lxiv., v. 151 : " supremo in tempore ;" and v. 169 : il ex 
trerno tempore steva Fors.*' 一 3. Quis te redonavit Quiritem. " Who has re 
stored tbee as a Roman citizen ?" i. <?., with thy full rights of citizenship. 
The name Quiritem here implies a fall return to all the rights and privi- 
leges of citizenship, which had been forfeited by his bearing arms against 
the established authority of the triumvirate. 一 6. Cum quo morantem t &c 
M Along* with whom I have often broken the lingering day with wine.' 
Compare note on Ode i., 1, 20. 一 8. Malobatkro Syrio. " With Syrian 
malobathram." Pliny [H. N., 12, 26) mentions three kinds of malobathrum, 
the Syrian, Egyptian, and Indian, of which the last was the best. The 
Indian, being conveyed across the deserts of Syria by the raravan-trada 
co the Mediterranean coast, received from the Romans, in common witb 
the first-mentioned species, the appellation of " Syrian." Some diversity 
of opinion, however, exists with regard to this prodaction. Pliny describes 
it as follows : lt In paludibus gigni tradunt lentis modo, odoratius croco、 
nigricans scabrumque y quodam salts gustu. Minus probalur candidum. 
Cderrime situm in vttustate sentit. Sapor egus nardo similis debet esse 
tub lingua. Odor vero in vino svffervefacti aniecedit cdios** Some have 
supposed it to be the same with the betel or betre, for an account of which 
consult De Maries t Histoire Generate de Plnde, vol. i., p. 69. Malte-Bran, 
however, thinks that it was probably a compound extract of a number of 
plants with odoriferous leaves, such as the laurel, called in Malabar Fa- 
mala t and the nymphea, called Famara in Sanscrit ; the termination ba> 
thrum being from patra, the Indian word for a leaf. (System of Geog^ 
vol. iii., p. 33, Am. ed.) Weston's opinion is different. According to thii 
writer, the malobaLhrum is called in Persian sadedj hindi or sadedj of India 
(Materia Medica Kahirina^ p. 148, Farskal.、 1775), aad the term is com 
posed of two Arabic words, melab alhra or esra, meaning aa aromatic pot- 
fessing wealth, or a valuable perfume. 

9-13. 9. Tecum Pki/ippos seiisi t dec. Compare " Life of Horace,"' 
pixviii.of this vol a me. Philippi was a city of Thrace, to the northeast oi 
Ajnphipolis, and in the immediate vicinity of Mount Paugoeus. It wai 
celebrated for the victory gained here by Antony and OctavianiiB over 
Urntus aid Cassius. Its ruins still retain the name of Filibah, >~ Relicta 
w>n bene parmula. " My shield being ir.gioriously abandoned " Cnnsalt 

Life if i 丁 on»r*»." p xviil- 一 "1】 Q^twm frajtn virh * ' When vfcbr itself 

() Si 



BXPLaNATOB i NOTES. 一 BOOR ODE Vn. 

<ras oveffiorae " A manly aud withal trae ealogiom on cho spirit tn4 
bravory of the republicau forces. The better troops were in reality on U14 
side of Brutus and Cassius, although Fortune declared fur UctaviaDas and 
Antony.—- 12. Turpc. "Polluted with gore." 一 Solum teligcrt mtnto. Com 
pare the Homeric form of expression (77., ii., 41), 7rf}ijviec iv Koviyjiv bAai 
^olaTO yalav. 一 13. Mercurius. An imitation of the imagery of the 
Iliad. As in the battles of Homer heroes are often carried away by pro- 
Uwting deities from the dangers of the fight, so, on the Dresent occasiaa 
llereory; who presided over arts and sciences, and especially over the 
HttQ«ic of the lyre, is made to befriend the poet, and to save him from the 
daiigers of the conflict. Compare Ode ii., 17, 29, where Mercury u styled 
1 cu"o, Mereurialium viromm." 

1 1- 23. 14. Denso aere. "In a thick cloud." Compare the Hemem 
lor 1x1, ijkpi noXXy. 一 15. Te rursus in bdlum, Slc. " Thee the wave of bat- 
tle, again swallowing up, bore back to the war amid its foaming waters.' 
一 17. Obligatam dapem. "Thy votive sacrifice, " t. e., due to the falfiU 
ment of thy vow." He had vowed a sacrifice to Jove in case he escaped 
the dangers of the war. — 20. Cadis. The Roman cadus was equivalent 
to forty-eight sextarii, or tweuty-seven English quarts. It was of eartheu- 
ware. 一 21. Oblivioso Massico. "With oblivious Massic." i. e., care-dis- 
pelling. The Massic was the best growth among the Falernian wines 
【t was produced on the southern declivities of the range of hills in the 
neighborhood of the ancient Sinaessa. A mountain near the site ot' Sin- 
uessa is still called Monte Massico. 一 22. Ciboria. The ciborium waa 
a large species of drinking-cup, shaped like the follicule or pod of the 
Egyptian bean, which is the primitive meaning of the term. It wafl 
larger below than above. 一 23. Conckis. Vases or receptacles for per 
fames, shaped like shells. The term may here be rendered " shells."— 
24. Apio. Compare note on Ode i., 36, 16. 

25-27. 25. Qiicm Venus t &. c. The ancients, at their-feasts, appointed a 
person to preside by throwing the dice, whom they called arbiter bibendt 
{avfinoaiupxvih " ni aster of the feast." He directed every thing at pleas 
are. In playing at games of chance they used three tesseree, and four tali. 
The tessera had six sides, marked I., II., 【11., IV., V., VI. The tali had 
foar sides longwise, for the two ends were not regarded. On one side was 
marked one point (u?iio f an ace, called Canis) t and on the opposite side 
six (Senio f ) while on the two other sides were three and four [ternio et 
quaternio). The highest or must fortunate throw was called Venus, and 
dotermined the direction of the feast. It was, of the tessera, three sixes 
of the tfdi % when all of them came oat different numbers. The worst or 
lowest throw was termed Canis, and was, of the tesseree, three aces, and 
of the tali when they were all the same. Compare Reiiz y ad Lucian^ 
Am^ vol. v., p. &58, ed. Bip. ; Sudon., Aug , 71, et Crvsius, ad he" aud the 
Dissertation " De Talis" quoted by Gesner, Tkes. I" L. t and l>v Bailey, 
\q his edition of Forodlini, Lex. Tot. Lal.-^IQ. Non ego fnniiki % &c. "I 
will revel as wildly as the Thracians." The Edoni or Edones were 飜 
9fell known Thracian tribe on the banks of the Strynion. Their name ii 
often used by the Greek poets to express the whole of the nation of whict 
ihey formed a. ,art» a custom which Huraco here imitates -— 27. Jttvvpf^ 
fnre:^ amico 4 To indulge in extra vagaace on'th? recovery of fri.-^jul , 



GXPLANil TORY NOTES. — BOOK 1I M OOR IX, ^^; i 



Ode IX. Addressed to T. Valgius Rafus, inconsolabla at the loss ofhia 
•ou Mystes, whD had been taken from him by an ur timely death. The 
Dard coansels his friend to cease from his unavailing sorrow, aod to ging 
with him the praises of Augustus. - 

The individual to whom tbe ode is inscribed was himself a poet, and . r i 
meutioued by Tibullus (iv., 1、 180) in terms of high commendation : " Vcu'.- 
qius ; cctarno propior non alter Homero." It is to the illusion of friends 
ship, most probably, that we mast ascribe this lofty eulogium, since Q,uin< 
tili'an makes no mention whatever of the writer in question. Horace 
names him among those by whom be wishes his productions V> be ap- 
proved. (Sat., i., 10, 82.) 

1-7, 1. Non semper, &c. The expressions semper, usqtie y and mer/tet 
per om?te8 t in this and the succeeding stauza, convey a delicate reproo/ 
of the incessant sorrow in which the bereaved parent so unavailingly in- 
dulges. 一 Hispidos in agros. "On the rough fieHs." The epithet hispi- 
dus properly refers to the effect produced o" th^ surface of the ground by 
the action of the descending rains. It approximates here very closely to 
the term squalidus. 一 2. Aut mare Caspinm, &c. " Nor do varying blasts 
continually disturb the Caspian Sea." According to Malte-Bran, the north 
and south winds, acquiring strength from the elevation of the shores of 
the Caspian, added to the facility of their motion along the surface of the 
water, exercise a powerful influence in varying the level at the opposite 
•xtremities. Hence the variations have a range of from four to eight feet, 
Bud powerful currents are geaorated V)th with tb e rising and subsiding 
of the winds. (System of Geogra?tiy, vol. ii., p. 313.) ― 4. Armeniis in 
oris. " On the borders of Armenia The allusion is to the northern con- 
fines. Armenia forms a very elevated plain, surrounded on all sides by 
oflty mountains, of which Ararat and Kohi-seiban are crowned with per- 
petual snow. The cold in the high districts of the country is so very in- 
tense as to leave only three months ior the season of vegetation, including 
«eed-time and harvest. (Compare Malte-Brun, System of Geography, 
»ol. ii., p. 103.) 一 7. Querccta Garganu "The oak-groves of Garganus." 
The chain of Mount Garganus, now Monte S.Angelo, runs along a part of 
the coast of Apulia, and finally terminates in the Proraontorium Garg» 
nam, now Punta di Vicsta, fusing a bold projection into the Adriatic. 

iWLO. 9. Tu semper urges, c. " And yet thoa art ever in mournfoJ 
itrains pursuing thy Mystes, torn frum thee by the hand of death." Urges 
m here used as a more emphatic and impressive term than the common 
oro8equeris, and implies a pressing closely upon the footsteps of another 
n eager pursuit. 一 10. Ncc tibi vespero, &c. "Nor do thy affectionate sor 
\>ws cease when Vesper rises, nor wb<m he flees from before the rapidly* 
Ascending sun." The phrase Vespero surgente marks the evening period, 
when Vesper (the planet Ven»:s) appears to the east of the sun, and im- 
parts its mild radi8ice after that luminary has set. On the other hand, 
tho expression /tf^cw/e solem indicates the morning, in allusion to that 
portion of the year when the same planet appe ars to the west of the sun, 
ar— d rises before him. The poet, then, meaua to de&rgnate the evoniug 
and morning, and to conv°iv the idea that the sorrows of Valgius admit o? 
a" cessation or repose, b.tt c )ntiaue unremitted throughout the night ai 
well as day. The planet Venus, when it goe& before the fun, ia ca^ed ir 



i24 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK II., ODE X. 

■tricfcDesB. Lucifer^ or the racrning star ; bat wben it follows the iua It 
termed Hesperus or Vesper t and by as the evening star. 

13-V3. 13. Ter <bvo functus senex. " The 9Lgn2 Warrior who livud tbr<M 
gsnerations." AUading to Nestor. Homer mnkrs Nestor to iiave pmaaed 
tbroogh two generations, and to be ruling, at rne time of the Trojan war, 
among a third. 一 14. Antilochvm. AiitilochuB, son of Nestor, was slain in 
defence of his father by Meiuium. (//。m., Od. t iv" 188.) ― 15 Troilntn. 
Trailas, snn of Priaui, was slain by Achilles. ( Virg n ^iSn., i., 474.)— li 
Pkrygt€B Put for Trcjana. 一 17. Dexine mollium, &c. "Ceaae, then, 
tfiese unmanly complaints." Prose Latinity would require, in the plac« 
of tbifl Grascism, the ablative qucrelis or the infinitive qneri. 一 18. Nova 
Avgusti tropaa. Alluding to the auccessfal operations of Augustus witfa 
the Armenians and Parthians, and to the repulse of the Geloni, who had 
crofl8ed the Danube, and committed ravages in the Roman territories.— 
20. Rigid nm Niphaten. " The ice-clad Niphates." The ancient geogra 
phers gave the name of Nipbates to a range of mountains in Armenia, 
forming part of the great chain of T auras, and lying to the southeast of 
the Arsuisa palas or Lake Van. Their sammita are covered with snow 
throughout the whole year, and to this circumstance the name Nipbate 龌 
contains an allusion (Nt^ariyf, quasi vL^erddrj^ " snowy"). 一 21. Medum 
Jlumen, dec. " And how the Parthian river, added to the list of conquered 
nations, rolls humbler waves." By the Parthian river is meant the Eu- 
phrates. The expression gentibus additum victis iB equivalent merely to 
in populi Romani polestatem redactum. 一 23. Intraque prtescriptum, Sec. 
" And bow the G-eloni roam within the limits prescribed to them, along 
their diminisheil plains." The Geloni, a Sarmatian race, having crossed 
the Danube pnd laid waste the confines of the empire in that quarter, 
were attacked and driven across the river by Lentulas, the lieutenant of 
Augustas. Hence the use of the term prtgscriptvm, in allasion to tho 
Danube being interposed as a barrier by their conqaerors, and hence, too 
the cfaecV given to their inroads, which were generally made by them on 
horseback, is alluded to in the expression exigux , equitare campis 



Odf. X. Addressed to Licioiiv} Murena, afterward, by adoption, Teren 
lias Varro Marena, brother of Proculeius Varro Marena, mentioDed in the 
second Ode (v. 5) of the present book. Of a restless and tarbalent spir- 
it, and constantly forming new schemes of ambition, Licinius was a total 
stranger to the pleasure inseparable from a life of moderation and content. 
It is the object of the poet, therefore, to portray in vivid colors the securi- 
ty and happiness ever attendant upon such a state of existence. 

The salutary advice of the bard proved, however, of no avail. Liciniu 
Lad before this lost his all in the civil contest, and had been relieved by 
the noble generosity of Proculeius. Uninstructed by the experience of 
the past, he now engaged in a conspiracy against Augustus, and wai 
butished and afterward pat to death, notwithstandiag a l the interest ai 
frocnleias, and Maecenas, who had married bis sister Terentia. 

1-21. 1. Rectius. " More consistently with reason." 一 Neque allnm 
temper vtgendo. "By neither always pursaiag the main ocean," i. 
by neithei always launching out boldly into the deep 一 3. Nimium tr* 



tfiXPJ ANATORY NOTEi!.- BOOK, II. 9 OilE XI. 325 

it-Ati^ lilu9 tniquum. ** By keeping too near tbe perilous shore. -— 
5. Akt iam quisquis mediocrUaiem, &c. Tbe change of meaning in caret 
(whicf is required, however, more by tho idiom of oar own language than 
by thui of the Latin) is worthy of notice. The whole passage may \u 
parapl rased as follows : " Whoever makes cnoice of the goldeu mean, 
•ai*e from all the ills of poverty (luius), is not compelled to dwell amid 
[caret) the wretchedness of Bcme miserable abode ; while, on the okhci 
hand, moderate in his desires (sobrius), he needs not (caret) the splendi 
palace, the object of envy." 一 9. Sttpius. "More frequently," i. e., thaL 
trees of lower size. Son e editions have sttvius. 一 10. Et celsa gravior . 
CKWU, &c " And lofty structures fall to the ground with heavier ruin/ 
t. e. t than humble ones. 一 11. Summos monies, " The highest moantaius.' 
•—14. Alteram sortem. "A change of conditiuu." 一 Bene prceparaLum 
pectus. "A well-regulated breast." 一 15. I "formes hiemet. "Gloomy 
winters." — 17. Non si male nunc r dec. " If misfortune attend thee now, 
h will Dot also be thas hereafter." 一 18. Quondam cithara taceuiem, &c 
" Apollo oftentimes arouses with tbe lyre tlie silent mase, nor alw»y« 
lieuda his bow." The idea intended to conveyed is, that as misfortunu 
Is not to last forever, so neither are the gods unchanging in their anger 
toward man. Apollo stands forth as the representative of Olympus, pro 
pitioas when he strikes the lyre, oif'tnde<J when he bends the bow. 一 
19. Suscitat musam. Equivalent, in fact, to edit sonos, pulsa cithara. 
The epithet tacentern refers merely r t an interval of silence on the part 
of the muse, i. e. t of anger on the part of the god. 一 21. Animosus atqui 
fortis. " Spirited and firm." 



Ode XI. Addressed to dainc'tius, an individual of timid character, and 
wonstantly tormented with the anticipation of future evil to himself and 
Lis extensive possessions. The poet advises him to banish these gloomy 
thoughts from his niiud, and give to hilarity the fleeting hours of a brief 
existence. 

1-19. 1. Quid bellico8us CaiUaber, Sec. Compare note on Ode ii., 6, 2 
一 2. Hadria divisus objecto. " Separated from as by the intervening 
Adriatic." The poet does not mean that tho foes here mentioned were 
in possession of the opposite shores of the Adriatic Sea ; such a supposi 
tion would be absurd. He merely intends to quiet the fears of dainctina 
by ft general allusion to the obstacles that intervened. 一 4. Nec trepides in 
'jLsum, &c. " And be not solicitous aboat the wants of a life that ask 薦 
but few things for its support. ,,一 5. Fugit retro. For recedit. 一 11. Quia 
gUemis minorem, &c. " Why dost thou disquiet thy mind, unable to take 
in eternal designs V i. e. t to extend its vision boyond tbe bounds of hamao 
exUtence. 一 14. Sic temcre. " Thus at ease "- -15. Canos. Equivalent 
to albescente8. "Beginning to gitrw gray." — 1/. Euius. Bacchus. Com 
paro note en Ode i M 18, 9. 一 19. Restinsruct ardenles, &c. " Will tcmpei 
tbo caps of fiery Falemiai) witb the stream that glides by our aide." Thi 
incients gem i ally drank their vine dilated with water, on account of it 
tt^ngtb. 



820 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — B .OK il.. ODE Xil 



Oi". XII. Addressed tu Maecenas. The poet, having been requeited 
by his patron to sing the sxploits of Augustas, declines attempting m 
nrriaous a theme, and exhorts Maecenas himBclf to make them the sabjenl 
d an historical narrative. 

1-11. 1. Nolig. 44 Do not wifA i.' The subjunctive is here employed tt 
a soilenc*l form of the imperative.— -Longa fene bella Numantia. No- 
mautta U celebrated in history for offering so long a resistance to tho Bo 
man arnu. It was situate near the soarces of the River Dariai, now the 
Douro, on • rising gjoand, and defended on three sides by very thick 
Voods and steep declivities. One path alone led down into the plain, and 
vhis was guarded by ditches and palisades. It was taken and destroyed 
tty the younger Africaims subsequently to tho overthrow of Carthage.— 
2. Siculum mare. The scene of frequent and bloody contests between 
tbe fleets of Rome and Carthage. 一 3. Mollibus cilhane modi,. " To the 
soft lueaficres of my lyre." 一 5. Setvos. " Fierce." 一 Nimium. " Impelled 
to unrestrained desire," i. e -、 to lewdness. Alluding to his attempt on the 
person of Hippodaniia. Compare Braanhard : " Nimias mero, qui, vino 
largiu* polo caief actus, ad libidinem proclivior f actus est, iiKparrj^ yev& 
uevoc kmdv^iLov" 一 7. Tclluris Juvenes. "The warrior-sons of earth." 
Referring to the giants, Triyevelg. ― 8. Periculum contremuit. "Id 
trembling alarm apprehended danger." An active intransitive verb with 
the accusative. 一 9. Pedestribus historiis. "In prose narrative." Com- 
pare the Greek ne^bg Xoyof. 一 11. Melius. " With more success," i. e, 
than I can aspire to. 一 Ducta. " Led in triumph." 一 Vied. Referring' to 
the streets of Rome through which the triamphal procession would pasi, 
but in particular to the Via Sacra y which led up to the Capitol. 

13-28. 13. Domina Licymnia. " Of thy lady Licymnia." By Ll 
eymnia is here meant Terentia, the young and beautiful wife of Msecenas, 
uid Horace, in speaking of her, employs, oat of respejet, a fictitious name, 
observing, at the same time, the rale of the ancient poets, namely, that the 
appellation substitated be the same in number and quantity of syllables 
as the one for which it is used ( Ttrenlid, Llcymntd). The epithet domina 
indicates respect. They who make Licymnia the name of a female friend 
of the poet himself, will iind a difficulty to overcome in v. 21, seqq. 一 
15. Bene mutuis Jidem amoribus. " Truly faithful to reciprocated love." 
—17. Ferre pedem ckoris. " To join in the dance." ― 18. Joco. "In spoit- 
ive mirth." 一 Dare brachia. Alluding to the movements of the dance, 
when those engaged in it either throw their arms around, or extend tbeir 
hands to one another. ~ 19. Nitidis. " Iu fair array." 一 21. Num tu, qua 
tenuit, &c " Canst thou feel inclined to give a single one of the tresses 
oi' Licymnia for all that the rich Achaamenes ever possessed," Jtc. Crim 
U pat in the ablative as marking the instrument of exchange. 一 Achatme 
%C8. The founder of the Persian monarchy, taken here to denote the op* 
(ilcnce and power of the Kings of Persia in general. Achaemenes is sip- 
poeed to be identical with Djemscbid. ― 22. Aut pinguis Phrygia My^- 
ionias opes. " Or tbo Mygdonian treasures of fertile Phrygia,' '• tb« 
treasures (rich produr.c) of Mygdonian Phrygia. Tho epithet Mygdonian 
•u applied to Phrygia, either in allusion to the Mygdones, a Tbracian tritx 
who settled in this country, or with reference to one of the ancient irro 
arcbs of the laid. The former is probably the more correcj opioion. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES —BOOK II" ODE XIIV. 321 

Ode XIII. The poet, having narrowly escaped destruction fiom the fau- 
bag ck a tree, indulges in strong and angry invectives against both ths 
tree and the individual who planted and reared it. The subject naturally 
leads to serious reflections, and the bard sings of the world of spirits to 
which he had been almost a visitant. The poet alludes to this same acci< 
dent in tne 17th ode of the present book (v. 28), and also in the 4th ode of 
the third book (v. 27), where he speaks of his celebrating the auniveniar 
of hifl deliverauce on the Calends of March, the date of the accident. "• 

agh 

1-11. 1. Ille et nefastto, Jtc. " O tree, whoever first plantedis for 
planted thee on an nnlacky day, aitl with a sacrilegious hand really mo 
for the ruin of posterity and the disgrace of the district." Pagut^ size.'* 
to tbe village district of Mandela, to which Horace's Sabine farm 1 Tityos, 
With quicunqtie primum understand posuit te. Beutley rea(:n by th6 
for Ille et, and places a semicolon after pagi in the fourth linea. " That 
•age, as altered by him, will then be translated as follows : "1-5 of scilicet, 
I believe that he whoever first planted thee," &c. t and thei— 10. Terra 
line, "1 say, I believe that he both made away with the life ci*e to divites, 
<fc- 一 Nefaslo die. Compare note on Ode ii., 3, 6. ― 5. CrcdidenvarQ the 
my part, I believe." The perfect sabjanctive is here used with t— . 
of a present, to express a sofleued assertion. 一 6. Fregisse cervicem. 
" Strangled." Supply laqneo. 一 Et penetralia, Sec. " And sprinkled the 
inmost parts of his dwelling with the blood of a guest slain in the night- 
•eason.'' To violate the ties of hospitality was ever deemed one of the 
greatest of crimes. 一 8. Ille veaena Colcka, Sec. "He was wont to handle 
Colchian poisons, and to perpetrate whatever wickedness is any where 
conceived," &c, i. e., all imaginable wickedness. The zeugma in tracta 
vit is worthy of notice. Observe the force of the aorist in tractavit, as in 
dicating custom or habit. 一 Venena Colcka. The name and skill of Medea 
gave celebrity, among the poets, to tho poisons of Colchis. Colcka for 
Colchica. ― 11. Triste lignum. " Unlucky tree." Lignam marks con- 
tempt. 一 Caducum. Equivalent here to "quod prope casurum erat." 

13-18. 13. Quid quisque vitet, &e. " Man is never sufficiently aware 
of the danger that he has every moment to avoid." 一 14. H ^parum. Ai- 
lading to the Thracian Bosporus, which was considered peculiarly dau- 
geroas by the early mariners on account of the Cyanean rocks at tbe en- 
trance of the B ax tne. 一 17. Sagittas et celerem fugam Parthi, Compare 
note on Ode i., 19, 11. 一 18. Italum robur. "An Italian prison." The 
term robur appears to allude particularly to the well-known prison at 
EKome called TulliarMtn. It was originally built by Ancus Marrias, and 
afterward enlarged by Servius Tallias, whence that part of it which wa£ 
under ground, and built by him, received the name of Tvllianum. Thaa 
Varro (L. L ; 4) observes : " In hoc, parf, qua sub terra Tullianum t idee 
quod addihm a TtiIHo re^e." The ful. expression is " Tullianum ro> 
bur^' from its walls having been originally of oak. In this prison, captive 
monsrehs, after having been lod through the streets of Rome in triumph« 
were confined, and either finally beheaded or starved to death. 

30-26. 20. Imprmnaa Icti vis, dec. " The unforeseen attack of death 
has hurried off, and will oontiuue to hurry off the nations of the world." — 
21. Qnam panefui-va, dec. " How near were we to behoWir.2 tliu realm. 



iZS KXPIiANATOBY NOTES. ― DOOK II.. OVB XIII 



d( sable Pioseqiina." -一 22. JudicanUm. *' Dispensing jnaticc." PUlo, ic 
til Gorgieu (p. 524, A.) t re【 re^enta JKacas aa judging the shades fivi?*: 
flarupe, and Bhadamaotha* thote frum Asia, while Micas sat ns supreiue 
iudge to hear appeals. The caae of Horace, therefore, would have fallen 
under the jarisdictiou of iEacus. ~ 23. Sedesque dUcr^ia» piorum. "The 
separate abodes of tbe pious," t. c, the abodes of the good separated bum 
those of the wicked. Tne allusion U to the Elysian Fields.-— 24. jSoliis 
^tAu* querentem % dec. " Sappho, complaining on ber iEolian lyre of tbe 
maif e ^ a °f h er na " ve i>luid." Sappho* tbe famooi poete 騸騸, was born ,t 
Qour^ net i n ^ e "1*°^ 。f Lesbos, and as she wrote in the MclLic dialect, 
iroo j^ | wa« that of ber native island, Horace has designated her lyre by 
vhi, w ^ et °^ " -^olian." ~ 26. Et U tonantem plenivs aureo t Sus. "An 

the ?fleas * ■oanding forth in deeper Btrains, with thy golden quill, the 
2^ S,'ct^u f °° e 叫 the hardships of exile, the hardships of war." Alcseas, 

fleets (^y"lene, in the island of Lesbos, waa contemporary with riap> 
soft ineasui >s * *°已 Stesicborag 'Clinlon's Fasti Hellenici, p. 5» 2d ed.), 
to unrestrair 8 we ^ ^ or l" a resistance to tyranny and bis unsettled life, at 
of gprodactioas. Having aided Pictacas to deliver hia country 
lar^ius v^" 11 ^ which oppressed it, be quarrelled with this friend when 
― , -^fffft of Mytileae had placed anoontrolled power in the hands of the 
(atter, and some injarious verses which he composed against Pittacus 
caused himself and bis adhereuta to be driven iuto exile. An endeavor 
so retani by force of anus proved an'uccessfol, and Alcasas fell into the 
power of his former friend, who, forgetting all Chat had passed, generously 
granted him both life and freedom. In his odes Alcieas treated of variocui 
topics. At one time he inveighed against tyrants ; at another, he deplored 
the misfortunes which bad attended him, and the pains of exile ; while, 
on other occasions, lie celebrated Che praises of Baccbas and tbe goddesi 
of love. He wrote in the MoVic dialect. 



29-39. 29. Utrumqve »acro, ice. " The disembodied spirits listen with 
admiration to each, as they pour forth strains worthy of being beard io 
•acred silence." At the ancient sacred rites the most profound silencu 
was required from all who stood around, both oat of respect to tbe deity 
whom they were worshipping, m also lest some ill-omened expression, 
casually attercd by any one of the crowd, should mar the solemnities ot 
the day. Hence the phrase " sacred silence" became eventually eqaiva- 
lent to, and is here used generally as " the deepest silence." ~> 30. Sedma 
gis pugncis, &jc. " Bat the gathering crowd, pressing with their shouldera 
to hear, drink in with more delight tbe narrative of conflicts and of tyrant 騸 
driven from their thrones." The phrase " bibil aurc" (literally, " drink in 
with the ear") is remarkable for its lyric boldness. 一 33. Illis carminilm* 
stupens. " Lost in stupid astonishment at those strains." 34. Demittit 
M Hangs down." 一 Bellua centiccps. Cerberus. Hesiod assigns him odIj 
fifty beads. ( Thcog., 312.) Sophocles styles him 'Atdov TfHKpavov oku 
huca. (Track., 1114.) — 37. Quin et Prometheus, &c. "Both Prome 
tbeas, too, and the father of Pelops, are cheated by the aweet melody iuh* 
« fsrgetfalness of their saft'erings." Deci}^itur laborum is a GrsBciam 
By PelopU parens \» meant Tantalaa. ^ 39. Of ion. Comult i>>te on Qdt 
^ii, 《". 



JSXI'LANATORY NOTES. — HOOK If., ODE XV 32b 

OhK XIV. Addressed to a rich bat avaricious friend, whom aaxietry 
for the future debarred from every kind of present pleasure. Ihe poel 
depicts, iu strong and earnest language, the shortness *»f life, the certainty 
of death, and thus strives to incnlcate his favorite Ep .ureau maxim, that 
existence should be enjoyed while it lasts 

1-27. 1. Fugaces labuntur anni, " Fleeting years glide swiftly by/ 1 
—3. Iiistanti. " Rapidly advancing." Pressing on apac^.— 5. Non ti 
treeenist &c. " No, my frieud, (it will bring witii it no delay), even thoagh 
ttura strive to appease the inexorable Plato with three hundred bulls for 
•very day that passes ; Plato, who confines/' &c. After non supply mo 
mm qfferei. 一 7. Ter amplum Geryonen. " Geryon, monster of triple size.'' 
.Alluding to the legend of Geryon slain by Hercules. 一 Tityon. Tityos, 
son of Terra, attempting to offer violence to I'»tona, was slain by th6 
iirows of Apollo and Diana. 一 9. Scilicet omnibus enaviganda. " That 
stream which mast be traversed by us all." Observe tbe force o(scilicet t 
which we liave expressed by a repetition of the noun undo. 一 10' Terra 
munere. " The bounty of the earth." 一 Reges, EqaivaieDt here to divites t 
a common usage with Horape. ― 12. Coloni. » Tenants." Compare the 
explanation of Orelli : " Qui agrum alienum colunt、 vcl mercede t velpen- 
tionem domino solventes." 一 18. Cocytos. One of the fabled rivers of the 
lower world. "- Danai genus infame. Alluding to the ttory of the Danai- 
ilsa. ~- 19. Damnatus longi laboris. " Condemned to eternal toil." Ad 
mitation of the Greek construction. Thus Karayvuatuc ^avlrov. 一 23. 
£nvisas cupressus. " The odious cypresses." Tbe cypress is here said 
to be the only tree that will accompany its possessor to (he grave, in alia 
tion to the custom of placing cypresses around the funeral piles and the 
tombs of the departed. A branch of cypress was also placed at the door 
^of the deceased, at least if be was a person of consequence, to prevent the 
Pontifex Maximus from entering, and thereby being pollated. This tree 
was sacred to Pluto, because, when once cut, it was supposed never to 
grow again. Its dark foliage also renders it peculiarly pioper for a fane' 
real tree. 一 24. Brevem dominum. " Their short-lived master." 一 25. Dig- 
nior. " More worthy of enjoying them." 一 ^6. Servata centum clavibus. 
" Guarded beneath a hundred keys." Equivalent merely to diligentU- 
8ime servata. 一 27. Huperbis ponti/icum potiore canis. " Superior to that 
which is quaffed at the costly banquets of the pontiffs." The ban que ts of 
the pontiffs, and particularly of the Salii, were so splendid as to pass intc 
a proverb. ―" Some editions read superb um, agreeing with pavimentum, 
and tbe phrase will then deuote the tessolated pavements of antiquity. 
Orelli aud others read superbo, agreeing with mero. 



Ode XV. The poet invoigbs against the wanton and luxurious vsxpeiv 
diture of the age, aud coutrasts it with tlie strict frugality of earlier U ues 

1-7. 1. Jam. " Soon." -一 Remits moles. " Palace-like structurei." 
lading to the splendid dwelliugs or villas of the Roman nobility, scattered 
over Italy. ― 3. Lucrino lacu. The Lucrine lake was in tbe vicinity of 
BaifB. on the Campanian shore. It was, properly speaking, a part of tbe 
flea 軀 bat in by a dike throwu across a narrow iulet. The lako h<ui ent^T^ 
ly disappeared, o*vin« to a gubterraaeous er lption which took pianv »t 



330 exi :.ana. mr notes. — book ii., odr xvi. 

1538, w hereby tbc hill called Monte Nuovo was rauoil. and tbu wmtoi 
displaced. This lake was famed for its oysters aiid other shell diili. ~- 
StqgAa. " Fish-ponds." Bqaivalent hero to pisci na.^Plata nusqut 
taelcbn % &c. " And the nnwedded pianc-tree snail take the plane of the 
elms." The plane-trco was merely ornamental, whereas the elm* wei« 
useful for rearing the vines. Hence the meaning of the poet ia, that utility 
■hall be made to yield to tho mere gratification of the eye. The plane> 
tree was never employed for rearing the vine, and hence is called arieb$ t 
whereas the elm was chiefly used for this purpose. 一 5. Violaria. " Bedl 
of violets."— 6. Myrtus. Nominative piaral, fbarth declension. 一 Omntt 
copia narium. " All the riches of the smell," i. e. t every fragrant flower. 
L'terally, " all the abundance of the nostrils." ~ 7. Spargent olivetU odorem. 
u rib all scatter their perfume along the olive grounds," i,e., the olive shall 
te made to give place to the violet, the myrtle, and every sweet-scented 
plant. 

9-20. 9. Fervidos ictus. Uoderstam] tolis. 一 10. Non ita Romuli, Ajc 
" Snch ia not the rule of conduct prescribed by the examples of Homalai 
and tho unshorn Cato, and by the simple lives of our fathers." As regard 蕭 
the epithet into mi, which is intended to designate the plain and austere 
maimers of Cato, consult note on Ode i., 12, 41. 一 13. Privatus illis. Sec. 
" Their private fortunes were small, the public resources extensive." 一 
14. Nulla decempedis, &c. " No portico, measured for private individualu 
by rods ten feet in length, received the cool breezes of the North." The 
decempeda was a pole tea feet long, used by the agrimensores in meas 
aring land. The allusion ia to a portico so large in size as to be measured 
by rods of these dimensions, as also to the custom, ou the part of the Ro 
mau8, of having' those portions of their villas that were to be occupied in 
summer facing the north. The apartments intended for winter were tam- 
ed toward the soatli, or some adjacent point. 一 17. Nec fortuitum, &c. 
" Nor did the laws, while they ordered them to adoru their towns at the 
public charge, and the temples of the gods with new stone, permit theiu 
(in rearing their simple abodes) to reject the turf which chance might have 
thrown in their way.' The meaning of the poet is simply this : private 
abodes ii» those days were plain and unexpensive: the only ornameutaJ 
•tructares were such as were erected for the purposes of the state or the 
Worship of the gods. 一 20. Novo saxo. The epithet novo merely refers to the 
circumstance of stune being in that early age a new (i. e., unusual) materia/ 
for private abodes, and appropriated solely to edifices of a public nature. 



Ode XVI. All men are anxious for a life of repose, but all do not par 
■ae the true path for attnini ng this desirable end. It is to be found neither 
in the possession of riches, nor in the enjoyment of public honors. The 
contented man is alone successful in the search, and the more so from bia 
3tmstaut!y remembering that perfect happiness is nowhere to be found 
•n earth. Sach is a faint outline of this beautiful ode, and which proves, 
ire trust, how totally unfounded is the criticism of Lord Kaimes (Elements, 
tdi i., p. 37), with refe:ence to what be is pleased to consider its waut of 
tonnection. 

1 15. 1. Otium 14 For repose." 一 Impotenti. " Sto«*ray.'' The coir jtiia 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK I ., ODE XVI 33 } 

lest has in patuiti. We have given impotenti with Bentley and others -— 
9. Press us Understand periculo. The coramon reading is pre?mis. 一 St 
nul. For $ \mul ac. ~ 3. Condidit LuAam. "Has shrouded the moon from 
view" — Certa. " With steady lastre." 一- 5. Thrace. The Greek nom- 
inative, Qp^Kij, for Thracia. 一 6. Mcdi pharctra decor i. ' 4 The Parthiana 
adorned with the quiver." Compare note on Ode i., :《 .M. "- 7. Grospke 
non gemmis, &c. In construing, repeat the term olium u Repose, O 
Qrosphas, not to be purchased by gems, nor by purple, nor by gold." — 
0. Gaza. " The wealth of kings." 一 Consnlaris lictor. " The lictor of tbe 
Oonsal." Each consul was attended by twelve lictors. It was one of theif 
duties to remove the crowd [turbam submoverc) and clear the way for tba 
magistrates whom they attended. 一 11. Cur as lagueata circum, &, c "The 
cares that hover around the splendid ceilings of the great." Laqueata 
tecta is here rendered in general language. The phrase properly refers 
to ceilings formed into raised work uid hollows by beams catting each 
other at right angles. The beams and the interstices [lacus) were adorn 
ed with rich carved work and with gilding or paintings. 一 13. Vivitur par 
vo bene, Sec. " That man lives happily on scanty means, whose paterna 
salt-cellar glitters on his frugal board." In other words, that man is hap- 
py who deviates not from the mode of life pursued by his forefathers, who 
retains their simple household furniture, and whose dwelling is the abode 
not only of frugality, but of cleanliness. VirUur is taken impersonally 
understand illu ― 14. Salinum. Among the |Kmr f a shell served for a salt- 
cellar ; bat all who were raised above poverty bad one of silver, which 
descended from father to son and was nccompanied by a silver plate or 
patten, which was used, together with tbe saltcellar, in tbe domestic sac- 
rifices. 一 15. Cupido sordidu8. " Sordid avarice." 

17-26. 17. Quid brcvi fortes, &c. " Why do we, whose strength is of 
short daratton, aim at many things ? Why do we change oar own for 
lands warming beneath another sua ? What exile from his country is sn 
exile also from himself?" After mntamus understand nostra (scil. terra), 
the ablative denoting the instrument of exchange ; and as regards tho 
meaning of the phrase brcvi fortes cbvo, compare the explanation ofBraun- 
hard : " Quid nos, qui ad brett tempus Jloremus, valemns t et vivimus,mul 
ta nobis proponimus" Sec. 一 19. Patria quix exsul. Some commentators 
regard the expression pcUrite exsul as pleonastic, and connect patrim with 
the previous clause, placing after it a mark of interrogation, and making 
it au ellipsis for pat rite sole. 一 20. Se quoquefugit. Referring to the caret 
and anxieties of the mind. 一 21. jflratas naves, " The brazen-beaked 
galleys." The ancient ships of war usually bad their beaks covered with 
plates of brass. 一 Vittosa cura. " Corroding care." ― 23. Agente nimbos 
♦* Ai it drive 藝 onward tbe tempests." 一 25. L<bIus in prtB8Pns t &c. " Let 
the iniud that is contented with its present lot dislike disquieting itself 
aboat the events of the future." 一 26. Lento risu. " With a careless 
■mile," i, e" with tbe ctdm smlU jf philosopbic indifference. Lentus here 
to pessionless, as opposed to violcntus. Tho common reading is Imto, 

30-38. 30. Tithonum minuit. " Wasted away the powers of Tithe 
bob."-. 32. Hora. " The changing fortune of the hour." (Compare jRuhn 
ken, ad Veil. Paterc.、 ii., 18, p. 127.)— 34. Hinnilum. The last ayllable 
being rat vff before <pta by ectlilipsis nt .1 synalaspha, ni bscumes <he last 



S>7S2 KAPiMNAToay notes. 一 bouk 11" cde xvn. 

syllable of the verge, and may consequently be iu ado short.— 35. Apetk 
quad-rig is, " Fit for the chariot." The poet menviy wishes to expreM 
the generous properties of the animal. The aDcieuts gave the preforeuoo 
in respect of swiftness to mares. The term quadriga properly deuotbs , 
chariot drawn by four horses or maves. The Romans always yoked tho 
animalfl that drew their race-chariots abreast. Nero drove a decemjugu 
at Olympia, bat this was an anasual extravagance. 一 Bis Afro muriu 
tinet<B. Vestments twice dyed were called dibapha (6ij3a^dj. The ob 
|ect of tbig process was to communicate to the garmetx what was deemed 
Ifae most valuable purple, resembling the color of clotted blood, and of a 
blackish, shining appearance. The purple of tbe ancients was obtained 
from the juice of a shell-fish called tnurex, and foand at Tyre, in Asia Mi- 
nor ; in Mcninx, an island near tho Syrtis Minor; on the GaBtalian shore 
of the Atlantic Ocean, in Africa, and at the Taenarian promontory in tb» 
Peloponuesas. 一 37. Parva rura. Alladiu? to his Sabiae farm. 一 3d. Spir- 
itutn Grates dec. " Sume slight inspiration of the Grecian muse," i, 
some little talent for lyric verse 



Oos XVII. Addressed to Meecenas, languishing aiider a protracted and 
painful malady, and expecting every moment a termination of his exist 
euce. The poet seeks to call off the thoughts of hia patron and friend 
from so painful a subject, and while he descants in strong and feeling lan- 
guage on the sincerity of bis owu attachment, and on his resolve to accom- 
pany him to tbe grave, he Bftks, at tbe same time, to inspire him witb 
brighter hopes, and with the prospect of recovery from the band of disease 

The constitution of MsBcenas ( naturally weak, bad been impaired by 
eft'eminacy and laxurirms living. " He had labored," observes Mr. Dun 
lop, " from his youth under a perpetual fever ; and for many years before 
his death be suffere'd mach from watchfulness, which was greatly aggra 
vated by his domestic chagrins. Maecenas was fond of life and enjoy 
caent, and of life even without enjoyment. He confesses, in some versef 
preserved by Seneca, that he would wish to live even under every acca- 
malation of physical calamity. (Seneca t Epist" 101.) Hence he aiix 
ioasly resorted to different remedies for the care or relief of this distress- 
ing malady. Wine, soft music sounding at a distance, and various other 
contrivances, were tried in vain. At length Antonius Masa, the imperial 
physician, obtained for him some alleviation of his complaint by means of 
distant symphonies and the murmuring of falling water. But all these 
resources at last failed. The nervous and feverish disorder with which 
be was afflicted increased so dreadfully, that for three years before bii 
ieath be never closed his eyes." {History of Roman Literature^ vol. iii, 
p. 42, Lond. ed.) 

Whether this ode was written shortly before his dissolution, or at some- 
ore v ions perioa, can not be ascertained, nor is it a point of much importance 

1-14. 1. Querelis. Alluding to Uie complaints of Mnscenaa at tho 
dreaded approach of death. Consult Introductory Remarks to this ode.— 
3 Obire, Understand mon^m, or diem supremum. 一 5. Me<B partem ant 
nut. " The one half of my existence." A fond expression of int/mat< 
friendship. 一 6. Maturior vis. " Too early a blow," i. e., an antlaiel5 
death. 一 Quid moro? altera. &c. "Why do I the remaining porlir 、 Ho 



EXPLANATOKY NOTES.- -BOCK II" ODE XVIIt. 339 



get here behind, neither equally dear to myself, nor surviving entire ?'' 一 
8. Utramquc dvcet ruinam. "Will bring ruin to us each." 一 10. Sacra 
meittum. A figurative allusion to the oath taken by the Roman soldiers, 
tbe terms of which were, that they would be faithful to their commander, 
and follow wherever he led, were it even to death. 一 11. Utcunque. 
Equivalent to quandocunqne. 一 1 4. Gyas. One of the giants that attempt* 
ed to scale the heavens. He was harled to Tartaras by the thanderbolti 
of Jove, and there lay prostrate and in fetters. Goettliag reads TwjCt i n 
Hesiod, Theog., 149, which would make the Latin form Gyes. We hw$ 
Uowed Meinecke and others in giving Gyas, 

17-28. 17. Adspicit. " Presides over my existence." The reference 
is here to judicial astrology, according to which pretended science, the 
starg that appeared above the horizon at the moment of one's birth, a 騸 
well as their particular positions with reference to each other, were sup- 
posed to exercise a decided influence «pon, and to regulate the life of the 
individual. — 18. Pars violentior, Sec. " The more dangerous portion of 
tbe natal liDur." 一 19. Capricornus. The rising and setting of Capricor- 
una was usually attended with storms. (Compare P roper tius、 iv., 1, 107.) 
Hence the epithet aquosvs is sometimes applied to this constellation. In 
astrology, Libra was deemed favorable, while the influence of Scorpim 
and Capricornus was regarded as malign. 一 20. Utrumque nostrum, &c. 
" Onr respective horoscopes agree in a wonderful manner." The terra 
horoscope is applied in astrology to the position of the stars at the moment 
of one's birth. Mitscherlich explains the idea of the poet as follows : "In 
fuocunque zodiaci sidere koroscopus meus fuerit inventus, licet diverso n 
tui horoscopi sidere, tamen horoscopus mens cum tuo quam maxima con- 
tentiat necesse est." ― 21. Impio Salurno. " From baleful Saturn." 一 22 
Refulgens. ** Shining in direct opposition." ~ ^6. Latum ter cmpuit so- 
num. " Thrice raised the cry of joy." AcclamatioiDi raised by the peo» 
pie on account of the safety of Maecenas. Compare note oq Ode i., 20, 3. 
― 28. Sustulerat, For sustulisset. The indicative here imparts an aircrf 
liveliness to the representation, though in the conditional clause the snb* 
joactive is ased. (Zvmpt, 》 519, b.) As regards the allusion of the poet, 
compare Ode ii. 13. 



Ot)R XVIII. The poet, wh?.le be censures the luxury aud profusion o( 
the age, describes himself m contented with little, acceptable to many 
friends, and far happier than those who were blessed with tbe gifts of for- 
tune, but ignorant of the trap mode of enjoying them. 

1-7. 1 . Aureum law nai . " Fretted ceiling overlaid with gold." Com 
pure note Ode ii., IP, 11. -- 3. Trabes Hymctlia. " Beams of Hymettiar 
Aarble." The term trabes here includes the architrave, frieze, cornice, &c 
The marble of Hymcttas was held in high estimation by the Gomaii» 
0omi: editions have Hymettias, and in the following line reciste, so thai 
erodes recisa ultima Africa will refer to African marble, and Hymettias 
solumnas to Hyraettian wood ; bat the wood of Hymettus does ndt appear 
to have ^een thought valuable by the Romans. 一 Ultima recisas Africa 
Alladiiig to tho Numidian marble. The kind most liiglily prized liad a 
dark snrfarc varipgated with spots 一 6. A f tali. Attalus the Third, fitmec' 



334 EXPLANATORY NOTES. —— BOOK II., Ohfc AVlT" 

for his immense riches, left the kiugdum of Pergpjnus and all Lis ti eaiurei 
by will to the Roman people ; at least, such was tho coiiBtraction wbich 
the Utter put upon it. (Compare Dnker t ad Flor. % ii" 30.) After hil 
death, Aristonicas, a natural son of Bumenes, father of Attalas (Livy, 
xlv M 19; Justin, xxxvi" 4), laid claim to the kingdom, bat was defeatet 
by the consul Perperna and carried to Home, where he was p^t to death 
in prison. It is to him that the poet alludes under the appellation fibres 
ignotus. 一 7. Nec Laconicas mihi, Sue. N^r do female dependents, of no 
ignoble birth, spin for me the Spartan purpie." The purple of Lftconiat 
obtained in the vicinity of the Teenarian promontory, was the most highly 
prized. Compare note on Ode ii., 16, 35. By honesta clienUe are meant 
female clients of free birth ; not freed women, but citizens vrorking for 
iheir patronus. 

9-22. 9. At fde^ el ingeni, dec. "But integrity is mine, and a liberai 
reinofralent." 一 13. Potentem arnienm. Alluding to Maecenas 一 14. SatU 
beatuSt &c. " Sufficiently happy with my Sabine farm alone.' ― 15. Tru- 
ditur diea ilio.. The train of thought appears to be as follows : Contented 
with my slender fortune, I am the less solicitoaa to enlarge it, when I re- 
flect on the short span of human existence. How foolishly then do they 
act, who, when day is chasing day in rapid succession, are led on by their 
eager avarice, or their fondness for display, to form plans on the very brink 

the grave. 一 16. Pergunt interire. "Hasten onward to their wane." 一 
1 7. Tu secanda marmara, &. c. " And yet thou, on the very brink of the 
^rave, art bargaining to l.ave marble cut for an abode." Directly opposed 
to locare, in this sense, is the verb redimere } " to contract to do any thing.' 
whence the term redemlar, " a contractor." 一 20. Marisque Baiis, tec. B aire, 
on the Campanian shore, w." a favorite residence of the Roman nobility, 
cud adorned with beautiful villas. There were numerous warm springs 
also in its vicinity, which were considered to possess salutary properties 
for various disorders. ― 21. Summovei'e. " To push farther into the deep," 
». e" to erect moles on which to build splendid stractares amid the wateni. 
- -22. Parum locuples, &c. "Not rich enough with the shore of the main 
lid," i. not satisfied with the limits of the land. 

23-.*>. 23. Quid ? quod usque, &. c. "What shall I say of this, that 
thou e.von removest the neighboring land marks ?" i. e" why need I tell 
of thy rer t ^>ving tbo land-marks of thy neighbor's possessions ? The allu 
sion in to the i.'rsh man's encroaching on the grounds of an inferior. Thi, 
offence was tl <j more heinous, siuce land-marks anciently were invested 
with a sacred chr-acter, as emblems of the god Terminus. 一 24. Ultra 
salis. *J Leapest iver." The verb salio is here used to express the con- 
temptuous disregard i\ the powerful man for the rights of his dependents 
Hence salis ultra ma/ be freely rendered " contemnest." 一 26. Avarua. 
"Prompted by cupidity."- ^7. Fcrens. "Bearing, each." 一 28. Sordidos 
44 Sqaalid." In the habil.Taentr of extreme poverty. 一 29. Nulla certioi 
tamen, &, c. " And yet no homr awaits the rich master with greater cer- 
tainty than the destined limit of rapacious Orcus." Fine beautifully marka 
the last limit of oar earthly career. Co ire editions have sede instead ofjinc, 
and the use of the latter term in the feminine gender has been mndo prol> 
ably the ground for the change. B ut Jin" i.、 u' e 卩 i > t'\c fer^iiiinc b:' sc ,rif 
uf the best writes —32 Quid ultra wn^is. Wh/ stxi cs* tl*ou U 



CXPLANATOKY NOTES. 一 BOOK II" ODE XIX. 334 

fBOfd V Death must overtake thee in the midst of thy umrse.-- j^qur 
tdlus. " The impartial earth." ― 34. Regumqve pueris. The allusion ii 
to tho wealthy and powerful. — Satelles Orci. Alluding to Obaron.— 
35. CMidum Promethea. Alluding to some fabulous legend respecting 
Prometheus which has not come down to as. 一 37. Tantali genus. Pelopg, 
Atreas, Thyestes, Agamemnon, Orestes. 一 40. Moratus. The common 
koxt has vovatus t for which we have given the elegant emendation of 
Witbofiau. fjevare depends on vocatus. 



Ode XIX. Celebrating, in animated language, the praises of Bacchus, 
■od imitated, very probably, from some Greek dithyrambic ode. Tbere 
is nothing, however, in the piece itself to countenance the opinion that it 
was composed for some festival in honor of Bacctias. 

1-20. 1. Carmina docentem. "Dictating strains," t. e. t teaching bow 
to celebrate his praises in song. Compare the Greek form of expression, 
diSdaKciv dpupta. As the strains mentioned in the text are supposed to 
have reference to the mysteries of the god, the scene is hence laid iu re- 
motis rupibm, " amid rocks far distant from the haunts of men." 一 4. Acuias. 
H Attentively listening." Literally, ** pricked up to listen." — 5. Evoe I 
The Greek "Evoc. The poet now feels himself under the powerful in- 
fiaonce of the god, and breaks forth into the well-known cry of the Bac- 
chantes when tbey celebrate the orgies. 一 RccerUi mens treptdat metu % 
&c " My mind trembles with recent dread, and, my bosom being filled 
with the inspiration of Bacchus, is agitated with troubled joy." Both 
trepidat and Uelatur refer to mens t and turbidum is to be construed ai 
equivalent to turbide. The arrangement of the whole clause is purpose- 
ly involved, that the words may, by their order, yield a more marked cchc 
to the sense. — Gravi metuende thyrso. Bacchus was thought to iaspiro 
with fary by hurling his thyrsus. ― 9L Fas pcrvicaccs t &. c. " 】t is allowed 
me to sing of the stubbornly-raging Bacchantes," i. e" my piety toward 
the god requires that I sing of, &, c. 一 10. Vinique fontem, &, c. The p#«t 
eunmerates the gifts bestowed upon man in earlier ages by the miraca- 
loas powers of the god. At his presence all nature rejoices, and* under 
his potent influence, the earth, struck by the thyrsi of the Bacchautea, 
yields wine and milk, while honey flows from the ti^es. Tho imagery if 
here decidedly Oriental, and must remind us of that employed in many 
partf of the sacred writings. 一 12. Jterare. " To tell again aiid agaia of.' 
—14. Honorem. Equivalent to ornamentum or decus. The allusion is to 
the crown of Ariadne [porona borealis), one of tbe constellations, consut 
ing of nine stars. The epithet ItecU^ applied to Ariadno, refers to hei 
having been translated to the skies, and made one of the " olossed" im- 
mortals. 一 PeiUhei, Alluding to the legeud of Pentheas, king of Thebes, 
who waa torn in pieces by his own mother and her sisters, and his palace 
overthrown by Bacchas. 一 16. Lyeurgi. Lycurgas, king of tbe Edooes iu 
Thrace, punished for having driven the infant Bacchus from his kingdom 
"18. Tu flectis amnes, &c. " Thou tamest backward the couraea of 
riTers, thou swayest the billows of the Indian Sea." Alluding to the won 
dvn performed by Bacclius in hia fabled conquest o「 India and other rs- 
ion 鼻 of the East. The rivers here meaut are the O routes anJ Hydaspet 
—18. Tu separate iVc " Ou t'ic lonely raourlaiu tops, moist with wiuf 



BVPL^NATORI NOTES. 一 BOOK I'., ODE XX, 



iboa crmfineat without barm to them, the locks of the Bacchantes wltii • 
knot of vipers," i. e. t under thy influence, the Bacchantes tie up their luckti 
4f» 20. Bistonidvm. Literally, "of the female Uistones." Hore, how 
ever, equivalent to Bacckarum. 

23-31 23. IjKfni* unguibus. Bac?hus was fabled to have assumed oo 
this occaiiion the form of a lion. 一 35. Qutinqnam chords, Ac. "Though 
零 aid to be fitter for dances and festive mi .th." 一 26. Son tat idoneus. "Ndl 
equally well suited." ― 27. Sed idem, Slc. " Yet, on that occaBion, thou, 
Che sa2Xie deity, didst become the arbiter of peace and of war." The poet 
ineana to convey the idea that the intervention of Bacchus alone put an 
end to the conflict. Had pot Bao^hns lent his aid, the battle mast have 
been longer iu its daration, and diiferent perhaps in its issue. 一 29. Insons 
"Without offering to harm." Bacchas descended to the shades for the 
parpuse of bringing back bis mother Semele. 一 Aureo eornu decora- . A 
figurative illastratiou of the power of the god. The horn was the well- 
known emblem of power among the ancients. 一 31. Et recede niis trilingui^ 
9tc.. The power of the god triumphs over the fierce guardian of the shades, 
who allows egress to none that have once entered the world of spirits. 



Ode XX. The bard presages his own immortality. Transformed intc 
a swan, he will soar away from the abodes of men, nor need the empty 
hunors of a tomb. 

1-23. 1. Non usitata, &, c. " A bard of twofold form, I shall be borne 
through the liquid air on no common, no feeble pinion." The epithet 
biformis alludes to his transformation from a human being to a Bwan, 
which ig to take place on the approach of death. Then, becoming the 
favored bird of Apollo, he will soar aloft on strong pinions beyond the 
reach of envy and detraction. The common text has nec tenui, bat we 
have read non tenui, as more forcible, with Mitscberlich. Ddring, and 
others. 一 4. Invidiaque major. " And, beyond the reach of envy." 一 5. Pan 
perum sanguis parentum. " Though the offspring of humble parents." 一 
6. Non ego quern vocas, Sec. " I, whom thou salatest, O Meecenas, with 
the title of beloved friend, sha!l never die." Dilecte is here a quotation, 
and therefore follows vocas as a kind of accusative , in othefr words, it is 
taken, as the grammarians express it, materially. The reading of this 
paragraph is much contested. According to that adopted in oar text, the 
meaning of the poet is, that the frieudship of Maecenas will be one of hu 
surest passports . to the praises of posterity. ― 9. Jam jam residunt, &, c 
"Now, even now, the rough skin is settling oq my legs." The transforma 
tion is already began : icy legs are becoming 1 those of a swan. 一 11. Su 
perna. " Aoove." The neuter of the adjective used adverbially. Quod 
ad superna corporis membra attinet. 一 Nascunturque ! eves pluma. " And 
the downy plumage is forming." 一 Notion The common text has ocior t 
which appears objectionable in a metrical point of view, since the word, 
as it gtands in the common text, presents a solitary instance of a vowel in 
kiatu between the iambic and dactylic parts of the verse. From tbe na- 
ture, also, and succession of the metrical ictus, the final letter of Deedalca 
\» left even without tbe pretence of ictus to support it as a long syllable 
Bontley conjectures tutior but this seems too bold a change. 一 14. Bos pari 



EXrLANAT ORV NOTES. — BOCK il., ODE XX 337 



OonBLlt note a. Ode ii., 13, 14. 一 15. Syrtesque Gtetulas, Cousalt note ol 
Ode i., 22, 4. 一 Canorut ales. " A bird of melodioaa note." Consult note 
on Ode i" 6, 2. — 16. Hyperboreosqne campos. "And the Hyperborean 
fields," t. e. t the farthest plains of the north. More literally, " the plains 
beyond tho northern blast." 一 17. Et qui dUsimulat t &. c. 人 Hading to tho 
Parthian. The Morsi were regarded as the bravest portion of the Ro 
ulaq armies, and hence Marsa is here equivalent to Romana, Consul* 
note on Ode i., 2, 39.— 18. Dacvs. Consult note ou Ode i" 35, 9. 一 19. 
loni. Consult note on Ode ii" 9, 23. 一 Peritw Iber. " The learned Spau 
iard." The Spaniards imbibed a literary taste fram tlie Romans, as theae 
ast had from the Greeks. 一 20. Rhodaniqve potor. "And he who qaaffi 
the waters of the Rhone." The native of Gaul. 一 22. Turpea. " Unman* 
•y." —23. Supervacuos. The poet will need do tomb r death will nevei 
claim him for hi 騸 own, since bo is destined to live foiever in the praisev 
•f poiteri^y. 



BOOK III, 



Ovb I The general train of thonglit in thig beautiful Odu is pimply uk 
blow 讓 : True happiness consists not in the possession cf poxrer of pabli 
konon, (/r of extensive riches, but in a tranqail and contented mind. 

1-4. 1. Odi profanum vu1gus % &c. " I hate the aniuitiated crowd, and 
I keep them at a distance." Speaking as tbe priest of the Mases, and be* 
\ag about to disclose their sacred mysteries (in other words, tbe preceptf 
of true wifdom) to the favored few, the poet imitates the form of language 
by which tbe aainitiated and profane were directed to retire from the 
oaystic rites of the gods. The roles of a happy life cau oot be compre- 
bendt.1 aud may be abased by tbe crowd. 一 2. Favete Unguis. " Preserve 
a religions ailence." Literally, " favor me with your tongues." We have 
acre another form of words, by which silence and attention were enjoin- 
ed on the trae worshippers. This was required, not only from a piinciple 
}f religioas respect, bat also lest some ill-omened expression might casual' 
(y fall from those who were present, and mar tbe solemnities of die oc- 
casion. Compare the Greek ev^rjueire. 一 Carmina non prius audita 
" Strains before unheard." There appears to be even here an allusion *.j 
the language and forms of the mysteries in. which new and important 
traths were promised to be disclosed. 一 4. Virginibus puerisque canto. 
The poet sapposea himself to be dictating liis strains to a chorus of virgiiM 
and yoaths. Stripped of its fiirarative garb, the idea intended to be con- 
veyed will be simply this : that the bard wishes his precepts of a happy 
ife to bef carefully treasured up by the yoang. 

5-14. 5. Re gum timendorum, &c. The poet now unfolds his subject. 
Kings, he observes, are elevated far above tbe ordinary ranks of men, bat 
Jove is mightier than kings themselves, and can in an instftnt humble 
their power in the dast. Royalty, therefore, carries with it no peculiar 
claims to the enjoyment of happiness. 一 In proprios greges. "Over their 
own flocks." Kings are the shepherds of their people. ― 9. Cuncta super 
cilio moventis. "Who shakes the universe with his nod." Compai'M 
Homer, II. , i., 528. 一 9. Est ut viro vir, &. c. " U happens that one man 
arranges his trees at greater distances in the trenches than another/* 
i. e , possesses wider domains. The Romans were accustomed to plant 
their vines, olive-trees, &c., in trenches or small pita. Some editions have 
E»to for Est : " Grant that one man," &c., or " suppose that." 一 10. Hie 
fcneronior descendat, &, c. "That this one descends into the Campus Mar- 
tius a nobler applicant for office." 一 1^. Mori bus hie meliorqve fama, &c 
Alluding to the novus homo, or man of ignoble birth. 一 14. jEqua lege Ne» 
cessitas, &c. " Still, Necessity, by an impartial law, draws forth the lota 
of the high and the lowly ; the capacious urn keeps in constant agitatioc 
the names of all." Necessity is here represented holding her capaciom 
arn containing the names jf all. She keeps the urn in constant agitatioiv 
and the lots that come forth from it every instant ore the signals of deatt 
to Lho individuals m hose names are inscribed on them. The train 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK HI" ODE I. 83U 

kboagnt, commencing w.th the third stanza, in as follows : Neither extent 
live posicasions, nor elevated birth, nor parity of character, nor crowds 
of dependents, are in themselves sufficient to procure lasting felicity, sines 
death sooner or later must close the scene, and bring all our schemes of 
interest and ambition to an end. 

17-^1. 17. Destrictus en sis. An allosion to the well-known story of 
Damocles. The connection in the train of ideas between this and the pre- 
v*eding stanza is as follows : Independently of the stern necessity of death, 
the wealthy and the powerful are prevented by the cai-es of riches and 
ambition from attaining to the happiness which they seek. ~> 18. Non Sieu- 
Ub dapes, &c. " The most exquisite viands will create no pleasing relish 
in him, over whose impious neck," &c. The expression Siculee dapes ig 
equivalent here to exquisitisstma epul<e. The luxury of the Sicilians in 
tbeir banquets became proverbial. ― 20. Avium ciihar<tque cantus. " The 
melody of birds and of the lyre." 一 24. Non Zcphyris agitata Tempe 
" She disdains not Tempe, fanned by the breezes of the west." Tempe 
is here put for any beautiful and shady vale. Consult note on Ode i., 7, 4. 
一 25. Dcsidcrantem quod satis est 7 &c.' According to the poet, the iuao 
" who desires merely what is sufficient for his wants," is free from all the 
cmrea that bring disquiet to those who are either already wealthy, or anB 
eager in the pursuit of gain. His repose is neither disturbed by ship, 
wrecks, nor by losses in agricultural pnrsaits. 一 Arcturi. Arctaras is n 
star of the first magnitude, in the constellation of Bootes, near the tail of 
the Great Bear (dp/crof, ovpu). Both its rising and setting were accom 
panied by storms. ― 28. Hcedi. The singular for the plural. The Hcedi^ 
or kids, are two stars on the arm of Auriga. Their rising is attended by 
stormy weather, as is also their setting. 一 30. Mendax. " Which disap- 
points his expectations." Compare Epist., i., 7, 87 : " Spem mentita se- 
ges." 一 Arbore. Taken collectively, but still with a particular rcferencn 
to the olive. 一 Aqvas. "The excessive rains." ~ 31. Torrentia agros si' 
dera " The influence of the stars parching the fields." Alluding partic- 
alarly to Sirias, or the dog-star, at the rising of which the trees were apt 
lo contract a kind of blight, or blast, termed sideratio, and occasioned by 
the excessive beat of the sun. Compare note on Ode i., 17, 17. 

33-4"'. 33. Contracta pisces t &c. Iu order to prove bow little the mere 
pogflession of riches can minister to happiness, tihe poet now adverts to 
the various expedients practiced by the wealthy for the purpose of ban* 
【藝 bing disquiet from their breasts, and of removing the sated feelings that 
continually oppressed them. They erect the splendid villa amid the wa- 
ters of the ocean, but fear, and the threats of conscience, become also \*m 
inmates. They journey to foreign climes, but gloomy care accompanies 
them by sea and by land. They array themselves in the costly purple, 
oat it only hides an aching heart; nor can the wine of Falernus, or the 
perfumes of the East, bring repose and pleasure to their minds. " Why, 
then," exclaims the bard, " am I to exchange my life of simple happinesi 
fiir the splendid bat deceitful pageantry of the rich ?" 34. Jactis in altwn 
moltbus. " By the md.es built oat into the deep." Coasalt note on Od* 
it, 18, 20, — Freq,ten8 redemtor cum famulis. " Many a contractor with 
his attendant workmen.*' Consult note on Ode ii., 1S、 18 ― 35. C^menteu 
By c<Btne.n(a are here meant rough and broken stones, m they como fmtr 



iiiO EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOO 乂 III,, ODE II. 

(ho qaarry, ued for the purpose of filling ap t and of no great txzh - J* 
Terrm fastidiotus. " Loathing the land," i. c, weary of the lana, 瓤 u《 
oenee bailding, as it were, on the sea. Compare Ode ii" 18, 22 : ^famnk 
U?cuple, continente ripa." 一 37. Timor el MintB. " Fear and the. thren 
of conscience." ― ~ fl. Phrygim lapis. Referring to the marble of Synasda. 
in Phrygia, which was held in high estimation by the Roman 霧. It w 翁, 
Df a white color, variegated with red ipots, and is now called paonazxetto 
It was used by Agrippa for the colajnns of the Pantheoa. 一 Pnrpuni' 
rum tidere clarior usu». " The ase of purple coverings, brighter tban aay 
star." With pui-purarum sajiply vestium, the reference being to the v» 
tea $tragul<By and canstni^ clarior as if agreeing with vestium in caM.— 
43. Falerna vith. Consult note on Ode i , 20, 9. ~< 44. Ach^emeniumve cot 
turn. " Or Eastern nard." Achamenium is equivalent literally to Per" 
cum (i. e., Parikicum). Consult notca on Ode if., 12, 21, and L, 2, 22. "― 
45. Invidendis. " Only calculated to excitu the envy of others." 一 Nova 
ritu. " In a new style of magnificence." ~~ 47. Cur valle permulem Sabtna. 
" Why am I to exchange my Sabine vale for more burdensome riches T" 
i. for riches that only bring with them a proportionate increase of care 
and trouble. Valle t as marking tbo instrament of exchange, is pat in tho 
ablative. 



Ode II. The poet exhorts his luxurious coantrymen to restore the strict 
discipline of former days, and train up the young to an acquaintance witb 
the manly virtues which onco graced the Roman name. 

1-17. 1. Angiistam amid, &c. " Let the Roman youth, robust ol 
frame, learn cheerfully to endure, amid severe military exercise, the bard 
privations of a soldier's life." The express iou amici pati is somewhat 
analogous to the Greek dyanijTcjc (jtipeiv, to bear a thing kindly, i. e., with 
patience and good will. The common text has amici. 一 Puer. The Ro 
man age for military service commenced after sixteen. ― 5. Sub divo. 
"In the open air," i. e., in the field. 一 Trepidis in rebus. "In the midst 
of dangers," i. e., when danget threatens his country. The poet means, 
that, when his country calls, the young soldier is to obey the summons 
with alacrity, and to shrink from do exposure to the elements. 一 7. Mairona 
bellantis tyranni. " The consort of some warring monarch." Bellantist 
is here equivalent to cum Populo Romano helium gerentis. 一 8. Et adult a 
virgo. " And bis virgin daughter, of nubile years." ― 9. Suspire^ eheti I 
ne rudis agminum, &c. " Heave a sigh, and say, Ah ! let not the prince, 
affianced to our line, unexperienced as he is in arms, provoke," &c. By 
uponsus regius is here meant a yoang lover of royal origin, betrothed te 
the daughter. ― 13. Dulce et decorum^ &c. Connect the train of ideas ■■ 
follows ; Bravely, then, let the Roman warrior contend against the foet 
remembering that "it is sweet and glorious to dio for one's country."-- - 
17. Virtus repulsa nescia^ &c. The Roman youth must not, however 
oonfino bis attention to martial prowess alone. He must also seek adtei 
true virtue, and the firm precepts of true philosophy. When he has sac 
ceeded in ^his, his will be a moral magistracy, that lies not in the gift of 
the crowd, and in aiming at which he will never experience a disgraceful 
repulse. His vviil be a feeling af moral worth, which, as it depends not 
on the breath of popr^ar favor, cas ueithorte given nor tahon away Ly inv 



&JLl'L.AN'ArCB k NOTES. ~~ BOOK III., ODK III. 34i 

Atfce mu titade. 一 Secures A figurative allusion to the axes and fascet 
o( ihe lictors, the emblems of office 

21-31 21. Virtus reel h dens t Sec. The poet mentions another incite 
o&eQt to the possession of true virtna the immortality which it confers. —- 
88. Nega x .i via. " By a way denied to others," i. e. t by means peculiarly 
h«r own. 一 23. Coetusque vulgares, &c. " And, soaring on rapid pinioDi 
spurns tho vulgar herd and the cloudy atmosphere of earth." As regardi 
the force of the epithet vdam here, compare tbe explanation of Orelli : 
1 Cra&80 aire obsitam, ac propterea minime dignam in qua virtus more- 
<*rr."~ 25. Est et Jideli^ dec. Imitated from Siixionides : lari Kai aiydi 
ixiydvvov yipag. This was a favorite apophthegm of Augustus. [Plut^ 
4poph. y t. ii., p. 2C7. Fr.) Tbas far the allusion to virtue has been general 
in its nature. IK now assumes a more special character. Let tbe Roman 
yoath learn in particular the sure reward attendant on good faith, and the 
certain pun ; ihment that follows its violation. 一 26. Qui Cereris sacrum, 
he. Thoso who divulged the mysteries were punished with death, and 
their property was confiscated. 一- 29. Phaselon. The phaselvs [(^dariXog) 
was a vfxsel rather long aud narrow, apparently so called from its resem 
blance to the shape of a phaselns, or kidney-bean. It was chiefly used 
by thv Egyptians, and was of v irioas sizes, from a mere boat to a vessel 
adapted for a long voyage. It was built for speed, to which more atten- 
tion aeeius to have been paid Cl.an to its strength, whence the epithet fra 
f^i/em here applied to it by Ho'. ace. ― 30. Incest u uddidit integrum. "In 
solves the innocent with t'.io guilty.'' — 31. Raro Antecedentem scelestum.. 
Sec. " Rarely does punb 卜: r.、'nt, though lame of foot, fail to overtake the 
kicked man moving Kp .r/e her," i. c, justice, though often slow, is sare 



Ode III. Tho rd*- t p 山 s with the praises of justice and perseverin^ 
Srmness. Their rx^^p ense is immortality. Of the truth of this remark 
tplendid examples cited, and, among others, mention being made of 
Bomalns, the pcet dwells on the circumstances which, to the eye of ima- 
gination, attP'iid^d his apotheosis. The gods are assembled in solemn 
conclave to decide upon his admission to the skies. Judo, most hostile 
before to tbe line of iSneas, low declares her assent. Satisfied with paat 
triamphs, she allows the fou ]der of the Eternal City to participate in the 
ioys of Olympus. The lofty destinies of Rome are also shadowed forth, 
hnd the conquest of nations is promised to her arms. But the condition 
which accompanies this expression of her will is sternly mentioned. The 
city of Troy must never rise from its ashes. Should the descendants of 
Homalus rebuild the detested city, the vengeance of the goddess wiS 
again be exerted for its downfall. 

It is a conjecture of Fabers (Epist., ii., 43) that Horace wishes, in tb 
;, resent ode, to dissuade Augustus from executing a plan lie had at thii 
time in view, of transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Ilium, and 
of robailding tbe city of Priam. Suetonius ( Vit. Jul.) speaks of a similax 
project in the time of Csesar. Zosimus also states that, in a later a^e, 
Coiutautine actually commenced building a new capital in the plain of 
Troy, bat was soor. induced by the luperix sitiatioc pf ByzantiuiD to 
nivid >n Ins projeut f Zos. t ii., 30.) 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOR III., VLt II . 

1-22. 1. Justum el tenaeem, &c. "Not the wild fury of his follow citl 
reus ordering evil measures to be pursued, nor the look of tbo threaten 
mg tyraot, nor the southern blast, the stormy ruler of the restless AdriRt^R, 
nor the mighty hand of Jove wielding his thunderbolts, shakos from hif 
settled purpose the man who is jast and firm in his resolve." In this nu 
ble stanza, that firmness alone is praised which rests on the basis of in- 
tegrity and justice. 一 2. Pravajubentium . Equivalent, in fact, to "iniqvat 
leges feretUiutn." The people were said jubere leges, because the formulf 
by which they were called upon to vote ran thas : Vdiii-, jubeatis Qui 
ritet ? (Braunhard f ad loc.) 7. Si fractut illaOatitr or bis, &c. " If iba 
■battered heavena descend npm him, the rains will strike bim remaining 
a fltranger to fear." ~ 9. Hac arte, " By this rule of conduct," i. e., by in 
tegrity and firmness of purpose. 一 Vagus Hercules. "The roaming Her 
cales." 一 12. Purpureo ore. Referring either to the dark-red color of the 
nectar, or to the Roman custom of adorning on solemn occasions, such ai 
triamphs, &c., the faces of the gods with vermilion.' ^> 13. Hac merentem. 
" For this deserving immortality." 一 14. Vexere. " Bore thee to the skies." 
Bacchus is represented by the ancient fabulists as returning in trinmpli 
from the conquest of India and the East in a chariot drawn by tigers. Ha 
if now described as having ascended in this same way to the skies by a 
■inguiar ppecies of apotheosis. 一 16. Martis equis, dec. Observe the ele- 
gant variety of diction in the phrases arces attigit igneas^ quos inirr Au- 
giutug recumbeits, vexere tigres, and Acheronta f ugit y all expressive of 
the same idea, the attaining of immortality. According to the legend 
Mars carried ofi' his son to heaven on the nones of Claiiictilis, and during a 
tbander-storm. Compare Ooid t Fast" ii., 495; Met., xiv., 816. 一 17. Gra- 
turn elocutcit Sec. " After Jano had uttered what was pleasing to the goda 
deliberating in council." — 18. Jlion t J lion, &c. An abrupt bat bcaatiflil 
^rj.mencement, intended to portray the exulting feelings of the triampb* 
a; t Jano. The order of construction is as follows : Judex fatalis incestus- 
que, ei mulier peregrina, vertil in puherem Ilion, Tlion, damnatvm mihi 
(astaque Mhtervte, cum populo et fraudulento duce, ex quo Laomedon des- 
lituit deos pacta mcrcede. 一 19. Fatalis incestvsque judex, &c. u A judge, 
the fated author of his country's ruin, and impure in his desires, and a fe 
male from a foreign land." Alluding to Paris and Helen, and the legend 
of tbe apple of discord. 一 2L. Ex quo. " From the time that," i. e., evet 
since. Supply tempore. 一 Destituit deos, Sec. " Defrauded the goda of 
their stipulated reward." Alluding to the fable of Laomedon'g having 
refused to Apollo and Neptune their promised recompense for building 
tbe walls of Troy. 一 22. Mihi castccque damnatum Minerva. " CoD» : gned 
for punishment to me and the spotless Minerva." Condemned oy thu 
gods, and given over to these two deities for punishment. The idea is 
borrowed from the Roman law by which an insolvent debtor was deliver 
fid over iuto the power of his creditors 

25-48. 25. Splendct. " Displays his gaudy person." It is simplest tc 
make Lacpeiue adulters the genitive, depending on kospes. Some, how 
ever, regard it as the dative, and, joining it with splendet, translate, " Dis- 
plays bis gaudy person to the Spartan adulteress." — 29. Nostris ductutK 
seditionibus. " Protracted by our dissensions." 一 31. Invisum nepotem 
Romulus, grandson to Jano through his father Mars. 一 Troia saeerdo* 
Ui、 34. Discert "To learn to know " The common text has iucen 



PXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK HI., ODE IV SI'W 

•to qaaft'." ~> 37. Dum longus inter, ice. " Provided a long lr( ct of »ceui 
rage between Ilium and Rome." Provided Rome be separated froip the 
plain of Troy by a wide expanse of inteiveniDg w&ters, aud the RomaDK 
-, Huild Dot the city of then forefathers. Consult Introductory Rcmarka 
—38. Exsules. The Romans are here meant, in accordance with the pop- 
alar belief that they were the descendants of ^neas and the Trujans, md 
exiles, consequently, from the land of Troy, the Abode of their forefathers. 
—39. Qualibet in parte. "In whatever (other) quarter it may please 
Aem to dwell." 一 40. Busto insultet. " Trample ipon the tomb." 一 iX 
Catulos client. " Conceal therein their young." Catulus is properly the 
yoaag of the dog, and is then applied generally to the yoang of any ani 
aal. — 43. Fulgch8. "In all its splendor." 一 44. Dare jura. "To give 
laws." 一 45. Horrenda. "An object of dread." 一 46. Medius liquor. u The 
intervening waters."-—48. Arva. Understand ^Egyptu 

49-70. 49. Aurutn irrepertum spernere fortior. " More resolnte in ttu* 
■pising the gold as yet unexplored in the mine," i. e., the gold of the mine. 
Observe the GraBcism in spernere fortior. Compare, as regards the idea 
intended to be conveyed, the explanation of Orelli : " Nulla vrorsus cu- 
piditate accendi ad auri venas investigandas." 一 51. Quam cogere t &c 
Than in bending it to human purposes, with a right hand plundering 
every thing of a sacred character." The expression omne sacrum rapt- 
enle dexcra is only another deHuition for boandlesa cupidity, which re* 
spccU not oven the most sacred objects. Among these ol Jects gold is 
eaamerated, and with singular felicity. It should be held sai red by man i 
it shoald be allowed to repose untouched in the mine, co isidering th« 
dreadful evils that invariably accompany its uae. 一 53. Quicmique mundo 
hjc. ** Whatever limit bounds the world." More literally, " whrteve 
limit has placed itself in front for the world," i. e., in that pa «ticular qnar 
ter. (Compare Orelli, ad loc.) 一 54. Visere gestiens t &c. M Eagerly de 
■iring to visit that quarter, where the fires of the san rag«« with ancon 
trolled fury, and that, where mists and rains exerciae con inaal sway.' 
We have endeavored to express the zeugma in debacchi itur, without 
losing sigbt, at the same time, of the peculiar force and beauvy of the term 
Tho allusion ia to the torrid and frigid zoues. Supply the ellipsis in the 
text as follows : visere earn partem qua parte, &c. 一 Hoc leye. " On thif 
sondition." 一 Nimium pii. " Too piously affectionate (towarJ their parent 
city)." The pious affection here alluded to is that which, according to 
undent idew, was dae from a colony to its parent city.— €1. AOte lugubri. 
''Under evil auspices." ~ 62. Fortuna. " The evil iortane." ~ 65. Murus 
oineu8. "A brazen wall," i. e. % the strongest of ramparts. ~> 66. Auctori 
Phabo. Ab in tho case of the former city. Auctore is here equivalent to 
tonditore. — 1 70. Desinc pervicax, &c. " Cease, bcld one, to relate the dia- 
mines of the gods, and to degrade lofty themes by lowly meurare 鼹., 

Oi>b IV. Tho object of the poet» in this ode, is to celebrate tbe praiset 
if A agastus for his fostering patronage of letters. The pieco opens witli 
•a invocation to the Mase. To this succeeds an enumeration of the bene 
fits conferrod on tho bard, from his earliest years, by tho deities of Heli 
son, under whose protecting influence, no evil, he asserts, can ever ap 
D roach bim The name of AQguatiu is then intPoduceU If the VavUe 



844 KXPLANArOHY NOTES. — 一 BOOK HI.. ODE IV 



poet is defended from harm by tbe daughters of Mnemosyne, mucb inort 
will the exaltod Caesar experience their favoring aid ; and be will alto girt 
to the world an illustrious example of the beneficial effects resolting tram 
power when' controlled and regulated b》 wisdom and moderation. 

1-20. I. Die long <m mclos. "Give utterance to a long lualtNLooi 
8 train.' '-^Reffina. A general term of honor, unless we refer it to Ueaiod* 
Tkeog. t 79, where Calliope is described m npo^epeardr^ &7ra<r(o» 
(Movaduv). 一 3. Voce acuta. " With clear and tuneful accents/'— 4 
ibwt citharaqve. For Jidibus citharas. " On the strings of Apollo's lyre." 
—5. Auditis f " Do you hear her ?" The poet fancies that the Mom?, 
having heard his invocation, baa descended from the skies, and is pouring 
forth a melodious strain. Hence the question, put to those who are Bap* 
posed to be standing around, whether they also hear the accents of the 
goddess. Fua, one of the modern commentators on Horace, gives on con' 
jectare Audiris ? in the sense of" Are yoa heard by me V " Do yoa an- 
swer my invocation ?" 一 Amabilis insania. " A fond phrensy.' ' 一 7. Amantt 
quos el, &c. A beaattful zeagraa. " Through which the pleasing waters 
glide iind refreshing breezes blow." 一 9. Fabulosa. " Celebrated in fa- 
ble." 一 Vulture. Mom Vuliur, now Monte Voltort, was situate to the 
■oath of I'enmiOf and was, in fact, a mountain ridge, separating Apulia 
from Lucania. As it belonged, therefore, partly to one of these coantrieii 
and partly to the other, Horace might well ase the expression AltrieU 
oxtra limen Apulia, when speaking of the Lacanian side of the mountain. 
一 Apulo. Observe that the initial vowel is long in this word, but short 
in Apulia in the next line. Some, therefore, read here Appulo ; but for 
this there is no Deed, since the Latin poets not unfrequently vary the 
qaantity of proper or foreign names. Thus we have Pridmus and Piid' 
tnides ; Sicdnus and Sicdnia ; Ildlvs and Italia ; Bdldvm and Bdldvus 
—10. Altricis Apulia. "Of my native Apulia." 一 11. Ludofatigatumque 
ttomno. " Wearied with play and oppressed with sleep." 一 13. Mirum 
quod foret, &c. "Which might well be a source of wonder," dec. ― 
14. Celsa: nidum Acherontits. "The nest of the lofty Acherontia." 
Acherontia, now Acerenza, was situated on a hill difficult of access, south 
of Forentum, in Apulia. Its lofty situation gains for it from the poet the 
beautiful epithet of nidus. 一 15. Saltusque Bantinos. Bantia, a town oi 
Apalia, lay to the southeast of Venasia. 一 16. Forenti. Forentam, now 
Forenza, lay about eight miles south of Venusia, and on the other side 
of Mount Vultur. The epithet kutnilis, " lowly," has reference to its it- 
uation near the base of the mountain. 一 20. Non sine dis animosus, " De« 
riviug courage from the manifest protection of the gods." The deities 
tore alluded to are the Muses. 

21-36. 21. Vester, Camaencs. " Under yoar proteotion, ye Mu 躑 es." — 
in arduos lollor Sabinos. " J climb unto the lofty Sabiues," i. e., th« 
lofty country <:f the Sabines. The allusion is to his farm ui tho monut- 
uiioiis Sabine territory. 一 23. Prteneste. Praeneste, now Pakestrina, wai 
situate abo" twenty-three miles from Rome, in a southeast direction 
The epithet frigidum, in the text, alludes to the coolness of its tempera* 
lore. 一 Tibiir supinum. "The sloping Tibur." This place was situated 
on the slope of a hill. Consult note on Ode i" 7, 13. 一 24. Liquids BauB, 
«Baise with its waters " Coiisu't note on Ode ii., 18, 20. — 26 Phihppu 



EXPLAN ATORY N 31 ES. — BOOK III.; '.)0£ IV 341 

t« «ir tieies retro. " The army routed at Philippi.' Consult " Life ol 
LI* race," p. xviii, and note on Ode ii" 7, 9. 一 27. Devota arbor. "The ae- 
inured tree." Consult Ode ii" 13. 一 28. Palinurus. A promontory on tba 
roast of Lacania, now Capo di Palinuro. Tradition ascribed the name 
to Palinaras, the pilot of ^neas. (Virgil, ^En. t vi., 380.) It was noted 
for shipwrecks. 一 29. Utcunque. Put for quandocunquc. 一 30. Bosporum, 
Consalc uote on Ode ii, 13, 14. 一 32. Littoris Assyrii. The epithet Assyrti 
is heie equivalent to Syrii. . The name Syria itself which has been 
transmitted to as by the Greeks, is a corruption or abridgment of Assyria^ 
and was first adopted by the Ionians who frequented these coasts after 
toe Assyrians of Nineveh had made this country a part of their empire- 
The allusion in the text appears to be to the more inland deserts, the 
Syria PalmyrcncB solitudiu^s of Pliny, H. N., v., 24. 一 33. Britannos hot- 
pilibus feros. Acron, in hia scholia on this ode, informs as that the Brituna 
were a aid to sacrifice strangers. St. Jerome informs us that they were 
cannibals. (Adv. Jovin., ii., 20 丄 •) ~ 34. Concanum. The Concani were 
Cantabri&u tribe in Spain. ' As a proof of their ferocity, the poet mention! 
their drinking the blood of horses intermixed with their liquor. ~~ 35. Ge 
lonos. Consult note on Ode ii., 9, 23. 一 36. Scythicum amnem. The 
ranais, or Don. 

37-64. 37. Ccssarem allum. "The exalted Caesar." "-" 38. Fessas cu. 
hortes abdidU oppidis. AUnding to the military colonies planted by Au- 
gustas, at the close of the civil wars. Some editions have reddidit for 
abdidit t which will then refer merely to the disbanding of his forces. ― 
40. Pierio antro. A figurative allusion to the charms of literary leisure. 
Pieria was a region of Macedonia directly north of Thcssaly, and Tabled 
to have been the first seat of the Muses, who are hence called Pieridet. 
一 41. Vos lene consilium, dec. " You, ye benign deities, both inspiro 
CiBsar with peaceful counsels, and rejoice in having done so." A com 
plimeutary alla.sion to the mild and liberal policy of Augustas, and his pa 
ironage of letters and the arts. Jq reading metrically consilium et must 
be pronounced cousil-yet. 一 44. Fulm ine sustulcrit corusco. " Swept away 
with his gleaming thunderbolt."— 50. Fidens brachiis. " Proudly trusting 
m their might." Proudly relying on the strength of their arms. 一 51. Fratrcs. 
Otus and Ephialtes. The allusion is now to the giants, who attempted 
to scale the heavens. 一 52. Pclion. Mount Pel ion, a range in Tlies^aly 
along a portiun of the eastern coast, and to the south of Ossa. 一 Olympo. 
Olympus, on the coast of northern Thessaly, separated from Ossa by the 
fa\o of Tempe.— 53. Sed quid TyphOeus, &c. Observe that Typhociis is a 
trisyllable, in O-eek Tv^usvq. The mightiest of the giants are here 
anomerated. Tne Titans and giants are frequently confounded by the 
ancient writer. — 58. Hinc avidus steiit, dec. " In this quarter stood Vol 
inn t bn rning fjr the fight ; ia that, Juno, with all a matron's dignity/* 
lu Lllustratioa avidus here, compare the Homeric XikaLOf4.Evoq iro?JfiOio- 
The term mairona, analogous here to irorvla, aud intended to desigoat« 
the majesty and dignity of the queen of heaven, conveyed a much siroug- 
ar idea to a Roman thau to ^ modern ear. 一 Gl. liore puro Castalia. " Ii 
Ihe limpid waters of Castalia." The Castclian fount, on Parnassus, wa« 
lacrod to Apollo arid the Muses. ~ G:J. Lt/cite dumcta. " The thickota ol 
Lycio." Lycia was uue of the principal aeats of the worship of the a ju 
stiJ '-Xafakm silram. "His natal waod." on Mount CyutlmR. in th 



840 EXFI^NATORY NOTES. ― BOOK lit.. ODE 



Inland of D3I0S. 一 64. Delius et Patareus Apollo. " Apollo, god of Do 
aud of Patara." Literally, "the Del an and Patarean Apolb." The citj 
of Patara, in Lycia, waa situate on t'ne southern coast, below the moatl 
of the Xanthas. It waa celebrated for an oracle of Apollo, and that deiu 
was said to reside here during six months of the year, and daring €tie rb 
mainiag six at Delos. ( Virg., ^£n., iv., 143. Scrv" ad loc.) 

65-79. 65. Vis conxih cxpers, &c. " Force devoid of judgment ainkf 
Bnder its own weight," i. e. t the efforts of brute force, without wisdom, 
of no avail. 一 66. Temperatam. " WIiqa under its control," i. whel 
fBgolated by judgment. Understand consilio. 一 Provehunt in majus, "In- 
craaie.'* 一 Animo moventes. " Meditating in mind." 一 69. Gyas. Gyaa, 
Cottas, ind Bri areas, sons of Ccelus and Terra* were harlod by their father 
to Tartarus. Jupiter, however, brought them ba to the light of day, and 
was aided by them in overthrowing the Titans. Such is the mythological 
narrative of Hesiod. ( Theog.., 617, seqq.) He race evidently confound! 
this cosmogonical fable with one of later date. The Centimani ('E«a 
Toyxsipec) are of a mach earlier creation than the rebellious giants, aud 
fight on the side of the gods ; whereas, in the present passage, Horace 
seems to identify one of their number with these very giants. 一 71. Orion 
The well-known hunter and giant of early fable. 一 73. Injecta monstrvt. 
A. GraBcism for se injeclam esse dolet t dec. "Earth grieves at being cast 
upon the monsters of her own production." An allusion to the overthrow 
und punishment of the giants. (Tjjy€Veic-) Enceladns was buried undei 
Sicily, Polybotes under Nisyrus, torn off by Neptane from tho isle of Cos. 
Otus.uoder Crete, dec. [Apollod., i., 6, 2.) 一 Partus. The Titans are now 
meant, who were also the sons of Terra, and whom Jupiter hurled to Tar 
tarus. 一 75. Nec peredit impositam, dec. " Nor has the rapid fire ever eaten 
through MtriB. placed upon (Enceladus)," i. e., e&^en through the mass of 
thd mountain so as to reduce this to ashea, and free liim from the saperln- 
enmbent load. More freely, " nor is Enceladus lightened cf his load." 
Pindar 、Pyth.、 i., 31) and ^Ischylus [Prom. V. t 373) place Typhoens nodef 
this mounlain. ― 77. Tityi, Tityos was slain by Apollo and Diana for at- 
tempting violence to Latona. ― 78. Ales. The vulture. 一 Nequititt addi- 
tus custos. " Added as the constant punisber of his guilt." Literally, 
"added as a keeper to his guilt," nequititt beiug properly the dative. 
"― 79. Amatorcm Piritkoum. " The amorous Pirithous," i. e., who sought 
to gain Proserpina to his love. Pirithous, accompanied by Theseus, de> 
gcended to Hades for the purpose of carrying off Proserpina. He wai 
seized by Plato, and bound to a rock with " countless fetters" [treccntis 
oaterds). His punishment, however, is given differently by other writew. 



Ode V. According to Dio Cassius (liv., 8), when Phraates, the Parthian 
monarch, sent ambassadors to treat for the recovery of bis son, then « 
Hostage in the hands of the Romans, Augustus demanded the restoratiov 
of the standards taken from Crassus and Antony, Phraates at first re 
fased, but the fear of a war with the Roman emperor compelled him at 
length to acquiesce. The odo therefo re opens with a c »mplimentary al- 
lujion to the power of Aagustas, and the glory he has acquired by thui 
wresting the Roman standards from the hands of the Parthiaos. Th< 
oard thea dweHa for a time upon the diaffracp.ful defeat jf Crassug, sStai 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK III., ODE V, 341 

irbich the noble example of Keg^alas is introduced, and a tacit cmai'ansor 
ti then made during the rest of tl.e piece between the liigh-toned [>riuci 
pieB of the virtaoaa Roman and th^ strict disciplir e of Augustus. 

i-3. 1, Ccelo tonantcm f dec. "We believe from his thundering thai 
Jove reigns m the skies." 一 2. Prassens divus % &c. Haviug stated tbu 
common gTounds on which the belief of Jupiter's divinity is fouuded, uamo- 
iy t his thandering in the skies, the poet now proceeds, in accordance with 
the flattery of the age, to name Augustus as a " deity upon earth" (priesena 
divus), assigning, as a proof of this, his triumph over th» nations of tne 
fiuthest east and west, especially his having wrested from the Parthians, 
by thn mere terror of Iub name, the standards bo disgracefully lost by Craa 
•us and Antony. ~~ 3. Adjeclis Britannis, &c. " The Britona and the tbr- 
midablc Parthians being added to his sway." According to Strabo, soma 
o) the princes of Britain sent embassies and presents to Augustas, and 
iVaced a large portion of the island under his control. It was not, how- 
e'rtsr, reduced to a Roman province until the time of Claudias. What 
B ornce adds respecting the Parthians is adorned with the ex agger Atioo 
ot poetry. This nation was not, in fact, added by Augustas to the empire 
of >tnme ; they only surrendered, through dread of the Roman power, the 
Btaadards taken from Crassus and Antony. 

5-12. 5. Milesne Crassi, dec. " Has the soldier of Crassus lived, a de- 
graded husband, with a barbarian spouse ?" Au allusion to the soldion 
of Cra 霹 sua made captives by the Parthians, and who, to save their liveo, 
had intermarried with females of that nation. Hence the peculiar force 
of vixii., which is well explained by one of the scholiasts : " uar«m» a vie 
toribus acceperantj ut vilam inererenturJ* To constitute a lawful mar 
riage among- the Romans, it waa required that both the contracting parties 
be citizens and free. There was no legitimate marriage between slaves, 
nor was a Roman citizen permitted to marry a slave, a barbarian, or a 
foreigner generally. Sach a connection was called connubium, not matri 
monium, — ,• Proh curia, irversique mores I "Ah t senate of my cuan- 
try, and degenerate principles of the day !" The poet mourns over tbe 
wrant of spirit on the part of the senate, in allowing the disgraceful defeat 
of Crassus to remain so long unavenged, and over the stain fixed on the 
martial character of Rome by this connection of her captive soldiery with 
their barb.arian conquerors. Sach a view of the subject carries with it a 
tacit bat flattering ealogiam on the successful operations of Aagustad. 一 
8. Consenuit. Nearly thirty years had elapsed since the defeat of Cras- 
sus, B.C. 5«>,— 9, Sub rege Medo. u Beneath a Parthian king." 一 Mat .sua 
tt Apulus. The Marsians and Apulians, the bravest portion of the Ro- 
man armies, are here taken to denote the Roman soldiers generally. Un 
Hie quantity of Apulus, consult note on Ode iv., 9, of the present b(x>k.- 
10. Antiliorum. Tbe ancilia were " the sacred shields" carried rouad in 
procession by the Salii or priests of Mars.— £^ nominis ct to^re. " And 
af the name and attire of a Roman." The toga was the distinuuishiug 
p«rt of the Homan dress, and the badge of a citizen. 一 11. ^Etcmtequt 
Vesta. Alluding- to the sacred fire kept constantly burning by the vestal 
rirgina in the temple of the goddess.— 12. Incolumi Jove ct urbt Roma. 
"The Capitol of the Roman city being safe," i. e" tnoagh me Roman powet 
emains still superior to its foes. Jcve is he* pet for Jove d'pHWima 
eoniva.]ent. in fart. tt> Capi*olio. 



348 KXP1.ANATOUY NOTKtf. 一 BOOK II.. OLE V. 



i*3>38. 13. Hcc caverat, dec. The example of Regalus is now nitmi 
who foresaw the evil effects that would rcault to bis country if the Uomu 
soldier was allowed to place bis hopes of safety any where but ia anus. 
Hence the vanquished commander recommends to bis ooantrymen not to 
accept tlie tarma offered by the Carthaginians, and, by receiving back I be 
Roman captives, establish a precedent pregnant with ruin to a future 
age. The 霹 oldier must either conquer or die ; he mast not expect that, 
by becoming a captive, be will have a chance of being raniomed and tLu 藝 
■cstored to hia country. — 14. Dissentientis conditionibus, &c. M Dissent- 
kig from the foal terms proposed by Carthage, and a precedent pregnant 
irith ruin to a future age." Allading to the terms of accommodatioD, of 
which be h : .mself was the bearer, and which .he advised kin coantrymen 
to reject. The Carthaginians wished peace and a mutual ransoming of 
prisoner'. — 17. Si non peri rent, &c. " If the captive youth were not to 
perish anlamented." The common reading is periret, where the arsif 
lengthens the final syllable of periret. 一 20. Militibus. " From our sol- 
diery." 一 23. Portasque non clugas, &c. " And the gates of the 一 '-&>e stand 
ing open, and the fields once ravaged by our soldiery now cultivated by 
their hands." Hegulua, previous to his overthrow, had spread terror to th« 
very gates of Carthage. But now her gate 霹 lie open in complete aecarity 
一 25. Auro repemus, &c. Strong and bitter irony. " The soldier, after ba> 
ing ransomed by gold, will no doubt return a braver man !" 一 28. Mcdicala 
fucc^JtWhen once stained by the dye." 一 29. Vera virtus. " True valor." 
—30. Deterioribu8. Understand animis. " In minds which have becomd 
degraded by cowardice." 一 35. Iners. "With a coward's spirit." 一 Ti 
muitqne mortem, &c. " And has feared death from that very quarter, 
whence, with far more propriety, be might have obtained an exemption 
from servitude." He should have tmsted to his arms; they would havA 
saved him from captivity. Vitam is here equivalent to saluiem. There 
mast be no stop after mortem. The common text has a period after mor 
ccm, and reads Hie in place of Hinc, in the next line. 一 3d. Pacem et duello 
miscuit. "He has confounded peace, too, with war." He has surrender* 
ed with his arms in bis bands, and has sought peace in the heat of actio» 
from bis foe by a tame submission. Observe the old form duello for bello 

40-56. 40. Probrosis altior Italia minis. " Rendered more glorioiu 
by the disgraceful downfall of Italy." 一 42. Ut capitis minor. " As one no 
'ooger a freeman." Among the Romans, any loss of liberty or of the 
rights of a citizen was called Deminutio capitis. 一 45. Donee labante»、 
4rc. M Until, as an adviser, he confirmed the wavering' minds of the fa- 
thers by counsel never given on any previous occasion," i. e., until he 鼹 et> 
tlod the wavering minds of the senators by becoming the author of advic« 
before unheard. Regains advised the Romans strenuously to prosecute 
the war, and leave him to his fate. 一 49. Atqui sciebat, &c. There is cod* 
•iderable doubt respecting the story of the sufferings of Rcgalas. 一 52 
Reaitr.s. The plural here bcautii'ally ms 'ks his frequent attempts to re. 
tun, and the endeavors of his relatives and friends to oppose his design 
Abstract noaus are frequently ased in the plarai in Latin, where our own 
Idiom does not allow of it, to denote a repetition of che same art, or the 
oxistence of the same quality in different subjects. 一 53. Longa negotia. 
1 The tedious concerns "- -55. Venafranos in agros Consult note on Ode 
ti. (5. Irt •— 5ti. Lactdamo 7. in vt Tarentum- Oousult notn or/ Ode ii , II 



EXPLANATORY N07 ES. ― BOOK HI., OLE V fc 34U 

Ode VI. Addressed to the corrupt and dissolute liomans of his a^a 
And ascribing the national calamities which had befallen them to th'j an. 
ger the gods at their abandonment of pablic and private virtue. T» 
heighten the picture of present corruption, a view ii taken of the simpli 
maimers which innrked the earlier day a of Rome. 

Although no mention is made of Augustas in thii piece, yet it would 
teora to have been written at the time when that emperor was actively 
"gaged in restraining the tide of pablic and private corruption ; when, 
as SaetoDios informs us ( Vit. Aug. t 30), he was rebuilding the sacred edi- 
fices which bad either been destroyed by fire or suffered to fall to ruin, 
while by the Lex Julia, " De adultehis," aud the Lex Papia-PoppoBa 
"De maxitandis ordinibas," he was striving to reform the moral couditiou 
uf his people. Hence it may be conjectured that the poet wishes to cele 
brate, in tbe present ode, the civic virtues of the monarah. 

1-11. 1. A^jWa rum, &c. u Thodgh guiltless of them, thou sbalt 
■atone, O Roman, for the crimes of thy fathers." The orimeB here alluded 
to have reference principally to the excesses of the civil wars. The 
offences of the pweuts are visited on their children. 一 3. ^Sdes. " The 
shrines." Equivalent here to del u bra. ~- 4. Faeda n'igvo, &, c. The statues 
uf the gods in the tewplea were npt to contract impurities from the smoke 
of tho altars, »Vc. H^nce tho custom of annually wasliing them in running 
water or the n cares 4 ' 霹 ea, a rite which, accordiug to the poet, had beec 
long interrupted by Mie neglect of the liomaus. 一 5. Iviperai. " Thou 
nuldest tbe reins of empire." ~ 6. Hinc omne priitdp urn, " From 
them derive the commencement of every undertaking, to them ascribe its 
issue." In metrical r eading, pronounce principiutn hue, in this"liue, as ir 
written priiicip-ync- -8. Hesperia. Pat for Italia. Consult note on Od ' 
i" 3C, 4. 一 f\ MoncBsei el Pacori manus. Alluding to two Parthian com 
manders 、v?r> had p: ived victorious over the Romans. Monceses, more 
oommooly known by Mie name of Sarena, is the same tliat defeated Cras 
■us. Pa :orns was t k « son of Orodea, the Parthian monarch, and defeated 
Oidius P^^xa, the lieutenaut of Marc Antony. 一 10. Non augpieatos conlu- 
dit impetus. "Ha" crashed oar inauspicious efforts." 一- 11. Et adjecisu 
Tprmdvm, Sec. "And proudly smile in having added the m oils of Romani 
to tb^ir military orn. ments of scanty size before." By torques are meant, 
unnug the Roman writers, golden chains, which went round the neck, 
be«tuwed as militr. 一 t rewards. These, till now, had been tbe only oma> 
nent or prize of t\v* Parthian soldier. The meaning is, in fact, a figurative 
one. Tlie Ptrthi^na, a nation of inferior military fame before this, now 
exalt in their victories over liomans. 

13-45. 13. Oaupatam gcditionibus. " Embroiled iu civil duaeusionB." 
According to thu poet, the weakness consequent on disunion had almost 
giren the capital over into the bauds of its foes. 一 14. Dacus et ^Ethiops. 
Ad allusion to the approaching conflict between Augustus and An tuny 
By the term ^EtJrops are meant the Egyptians generally. As regurcli 
che Daciana, Dio Cassias (al, 22) states that ihey had 躑 ent ambassador! 
to Augustas, bat, not obtaining what they wished, liad tliereujjon incliuea 
to the side of Anton" According to Suetonius ( Vit. Aug" 21), their io^'ur 
•ions were checked by Augustus, and tlr'ec i.i' tl'eir leaders slain —IV 
Suptias inq'^*navere " Have polluted tho pur of the nuptial coiri|»aci 



350 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK Id., OtB VI" 

Compare the account given by Heiaecclas of the Ijtx Julia, " IX*. adttUt 
rto,'* and the remarks of the same writer relative to the laws against thil 
offence prior to the time of Augustus. {Antiq Rom., lib. 4, tit. 18, , 51 
«d. Haubold, p. 782.) Consult, also, Sttetonius, Vif Aug., 34. 一 20. In pa- 
triam populnmque. The term patriam contains allusion to public ca- 
lamities, while populvm, on the othd .iand, refers to such u are of a pri 
vftte nature, the lo^s of property, ofrauk, of clic.acter, dec. ~~ 21. His parent- 
tbns. "From parents such as these." 一 23. Cccid.it. ** Smote." 一 25. Riif 
tieorvm militum. The best portion of tb^ Roman troops were obtained 
from the rustic tribes, as being most inc.'ed to toil. 一 26. Sabellis legwni- 
tns. The simple manners of earlier times remained longest in force 
ttmong the Sabines and the tribes descended from them. 一 30. Etjnga dt 
merft, &c. Compare the Greek terms (3ovXv(jtc and 0ov?^vr6c. ~ 32. Agea$ 
"Bringing on." Hcstoring. 一 33. Damnosa dies. " Wasting time." Die% 
«s most commonly mascaline when used to denote a particular day, and 
feminine when it is spoken of the duration of time. 



Odk VIII. Horace had invited Maecenas to attend a festal ce^brttiua 
on the Calends of March. As the Matron alia took place on this same day, 
the poet naturally anticipates the surprise of his friend on the occasion. 
*• Wonderest thoa, Mascenas, what I, an unmarried man, have to do with 
a day kept sacred by the matrons of Rome ? On this very day my life wu 
endangered by the falling of a tree, and its annual return always brings 
with it feelings of gratcfal recollection for my providential deliverance " 

1-10. 1. Martiis calebs, &c. " Moecenas, skilled in the lore of eithot 
tongue, dost thou wpnder what I, an unmarried man, intend to do oa the 
Cftlends of March, what these flowers mean, and this censer," &c, i. e H 
skilled in Greek and Roman antiquities, especially those relating to 
sacred rites. 一 7. Libero. Id a previous ode (ii., 17, 27) the bard attribute' 
bis preservation to Faunas, bat now Bacchus is named as the author ot 
his deliverance. There is a peculiar propriety in this. Bacc^ius is not 
only the protector of poets, but also, in a special sense, one of the gods of 
the country and of gardens, since to hira are ascribed the discovery and 
culture of the vinQ and of apples. (Theocr., ii., 120. Warton, ad'loc 
Athenaus, iii., 23.) — Dies festus. Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 6. 一 10. Cor 
iicem adstrictum^ &c. " Shall remove the cork, secured with pitch, from 
the jar which began to drink in the smoke in the consulship of T alias • 
Amphora, the dative, is put by a Graecism for ab amphora. When the 
wine-vesseU were filled, and the disturbance of the liquor bad aabsided. 
the co'/'jrs or stoppers were secured with plaster, or a coating of pitcc 
mixel with the ashes of the vine, so as to exclude all communicatiou 
with the external air. After this, the wines were mellowed by the ap- 
plication of smoke, which was prevented, by the ample coating of pitch 
or plaster on the wine-vessel, from penetrating so far as to vitiate the 
Rename taste of the liquor. Previously, however, to depositing the am 
phoraB in the wine-vault or apotheca, it was usual to pat upon them a 
tabel or mark indicative of the vintages, anr'J of the names of the consuls 
in authority at the time, in order that, when t\ ey were taken ont, thcil 
ftgn and growth might be easily recognised. Ii by t'ae consalship of Tul 
In 駕, mentioned in the text, be meant that of L. Volci tias Tu,lu,' who hmc 



EXFLANATORY NUXE3.— BOOK III., ODE IX. 35 1 

If. Smiling L«pidat for his colleague, AU.C. C6B, and if the pTesent 14)6, 
u would appear from verse 17, seqq. x was composed A (J.C. 734. the wine 
offered by Horace to his friend mast have been more than forty -six yean 
old, 

13-25. 13. Sume Macenas, &c. " Drink, dear MaecenaR, a hundred 
caps in honor of the preservation of thy friend." A cap d rained to tho 
health or in honor {/ any indh idaal, was -styled, in the Latin idiom, hi* 
. eap (tjus poculum) ; hence the language of the text, cyathos amid. The 
1 aeaning of the passage is not, as some think, " do thou drink at tby home, 
I being about to drink at mine ;" but it is actually an invitation on the 
pmrt of the bard. 一 Cyathos centum. Referring' merely to a large number 
一 15. Perfer in Ivcem. 44 Prolong till daylight." — 17. Mifte civiles, dec. 
** Dismiss those cares, which, as a statesmaL, thou feelest for the welfare 
of Ilorae." An allusion to the office of Prcefectus urbiff, which Meecenas 
held daring the absence of Augastns in Egypt. 一 18. Dad Cotisonis agmen. 
The inroads of the Dacians, under their king Cotiso, were checked by 
Lentnlas, the lieutenant of Augustus. [Suel., Vit. Aug., 21. Flor. t iv. f 
12, 18.) Compare, as regards Dacia itself, the note on Ode i., 35, 9. 一 
19. Medus mfestvs sibi. " The Parthians, turning their hostilities against 
themselves, are at variance 111 destructive conflicts." Consult note 011 
Ode i., 26, 3. Orelli joins sibi luctvosis. Dillenbarger explains the clause 
by ivfestus sibi, sibi luctuosis, making it an example of the constraction 
tinb koivov. The construction, however, whioh we have adopted, is in 
every point of view preferable. 一 22. Sera domitus catena. " Subdued 
after long-protracted contest." The Cantabrians were reduced to subjec- 
tion by Agrippa the same year in which this ode was composed (A.U.C. 
734), after having resisted the power of the Romans, in various ways, for 
more than two hundred years. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. 一 23. Jam 
ScythtB laxo、 Sec. "The Scythians now think of retiring from our frontiers, 
with bow unbent." By the Scythians are here meant the barbarona 
tribes in the vicinity of tlie Danube, but more particularly the Geloni, 
whose inroads had been checked by Lentulas. Consult note on Ode ii., 
9, 23. 一 25. Negligens ne qua, &c. " Refraining, amid social retirement, 
from overweening solicitude, lest the people any where feel the pressure 
df evil, seize with joy the gifts of the present moment, and bid adieu for a 
time to grave pursuits." The common text has a comma after labored 
and in the 26th line gives Parce privatus nimium cavcre. The term neq- 
h'gen.8 will then be joined in construction with parce t and negligens para 
will then be equivalent to parce. alone, " Since thoa art a private person 
be not too solicitous lest," dec. The epithet privatus, as applied by the 
poet to Maecenas, is then to bi explained by a reference to the Romas 
usage, which designated all individuals, except the emperor, as privaii. 
The whole reading, however, is decidedly bad. According to the lecticuu 
adopted in oar text, negligens cavcre is a Grecitm for ^gligens cavendi 



Ode IX. A beautiful Am(Bbean ode, representing t\ e reconciliation ol 
two lovers. The celebrated modem scholar Scaliger rega'ied thir ode 
ani the third of the fourth book, as the two most bea'itifb: .yrrc prodv 
t'orif of Ho-Hce. {ScuL Pwt., G.) 



i52 EXF^ANATOKY NOTES. — BOOK III., ODE Xl. 

2-21 i. Potior. il More favored." 一 3. Dabat. *Was accustomed ta 
whrow." 一 4. Persamit vigui, &c. " I lived happier than the monarch of 
the Persians," t. e. t I was happier than the richest and most powerful ot 
Icings. 6. Alia. For another." 一 7. Multi nominis, " Of dlstingutBhed 
farao "—8. Ilia. Ibe mother of Romalaa and Remas. ― 10. Dulces docta 
miMios t Jtc. " Skilled in aweet meaaares, and mUtresB of the iyre." 一 
12. Anima guperstili. "Her surviving soal." 一 13. Torret face mutua 
"Burns with the torch of mutual love." 一 14. ThuHni Ornytu "Of thn 
Thuriao Oniytus." Tharii \ras a city of Luconia, on the coast uf the Si 
Bus TareutiDas, erected by an Athenian colony, near the site of Sybaru. 
which had been destroyed by the forces of Crotona. 一 17. Pri$ca Venvs* 
•Our old affection." 一 18. Diductos. " Us, long parted." 一 21. SiderepiU 
chrior. " Brighter in beauty than any star ,• 一 22. Levior cortice. " Light 
or than cork." Alluding to his incoiu:tnnt and fickle disposition. 一 Im' 
probo. " Stormy." 一 24. Tecum vivere arnem, dec. " Yet with thee 1 shell 
love to live, with thee I shall cheerfully die." Supply tamcn t as required 
卜,' quamquam which precedes. 

Ode XI. Addressed to Lyde, an obdurate fair one. Horace invoke* 
Mercury, the god of music and of rhetoric, to aid bim in subduing he? 
aversion. 

1-22. 1. Te magistro. " Under thy instruction.'' 一 2. Amphion. Ani 
pbion, son of Jupiter and Antiope, was fabled to have built the walls oi 
Thebes by the music of liiff lyre, the stones moving of themselves into 
their destined places. Eastathias, Low ever, ascribes this to Amphion 
conjointly with his brother Zethus. 一 3. Testudo. " O shell." Consult 
note on Ode i., 10, 6. ― Resonare seplem, dec. " Skilled in sending forth 
sweet music with thy seven strings." Callida resonare by a Grsecism 
for callida in resotiando. 一 5. Nec loguax olim, &c. " Once, neither vocal 
nor gifted with the power to please, now acceptable both to the tables of 
the rich and the temples of the gods." ― 9. Tu poles tigres. Sec. Au alia 
sion to the legend of Orpheus. 一 Comites. " As thy companions," t. c, in 
thy train. —12. Blandienti. " Soothing his anger by the sweetness of thy 
notes." 一 16. Avla. " Of Plato's hall." Orpheus descends with his lyre 
to the shades, for the purpose of regaining his Eurydice. 一 13. Furiale ca- 
put. " His every head, like those of the Furies." 一 14. JEstuet, "Rollc 
forth its hot volumes." 一 15. Teter. " Deadly," " pestilential." 一 Sanies, 
M Poisonous matter." 一 18. Stetit urna jmulurn, Sec, " The. vase of each 
stood for a moment dry," i. e" the Dan aides ceased for a moment from 
their toil. 一 22. Et inane lymphs &c. "And the vessel empty of water, 
from its escaping through the bottom." Dolium is here taken as a grn 
f'ral term for the vessel, or roceptacle, which the daughters of Danauii 
were condemned to fill, and the bottom of wliich, being perforated with 
luxuei .'ua holes, allowed the water constantly to escape. 

26-48. i!6. Nam quid potvere ma jus. Sac. " For, what greatet crime 
could they commit?" Understand scelus. ― 29 Una de multis. Alluding 
to Hypermnestra, who spared her husband Lynceus. -一 Face nupticdi dig 
ua. At the sucient marriages, the bride was escorted from her fathe" 
M>iw« to tba^ of her husband ami,! the light of torches. -- 30 Perjurun Juit 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ― BOOK Hi., ODR XII. 353 

<k pay^\t4m^ &c. " Proved gloriously false to ber p srjured parent." The 
Oan aides were bound by an oath, which their parent had imposed, to de* 
^troy their husbands on the night of their naptials Hypermnestra alon« 
broke that engagement, and saved the life of Lynceus. The epithcr per- 
in rum, as npplied to Danaua, alludes to his violation of good faith toward 
his Bons in-law. 一 3* Virgo. Consult Heyne, ad Apollod.、 ii., 1, 5. 一 Unde. 
" From a quarter whence," i. from one from whom. 一 35. Socerum el 
ncelestaSy Sec. u Escape by secret flight from thy fatber-in-law uid my 
tricked sisters." Falle ia here equivalent to the Greek Xude. ~~ 37. Nacta. 
•'' Having got into their power." ~> 39. Neque intra claustra tenebo. " Nor 
will I keep thee here in confinement," i. e. % nor will I keep thee confinod 
m this thy nuptial chamber until others come and slay thee. 一 43. Me pa/et 
savis^ &c. Hypermnestra was imprisoned by her father, bat afterward, 
on a reconciliation taking place, was reunited to Lynceus. 一 47. Memoretn 
quereJam. "A mournfal epitaph, recording the story of oar fate." 



Ooe XII. The bard laments the unhappy fate of Neobnle, whose affec- 
tion for the young Mebrus had exposed her to the angry chidings of «n 
offended relative. 

1-10. 1, Miserarum est. " It is the part of unhappy maidens," i. c, 
unhappy are the maidens who, &c. — Dare lud"m. " To indulge in." Lit 
erally, " to give play to." 2. LavSre. The old stem-conjagatioa, and the 
earlier form for lavdre. 一 Ant exanimari, &c. " Or else to be half dead 
witci alarm, dreading the lushes of an uncle's tongue," i. e., or, in case 
they do indulge the tender passion, and do seek to lead a life of hilarity, 
to be constantly disquieted by the . dread of some morose ancle who chances 
to be the gaardian of their persons. The severity of paternal nncles was 
proverbial. Compare Erasmus, Ckil.、 p. 463, ed. Steph., " Ne sis patruus 
mi hit" and Ernesti, Clav. Cic, s. v. Patruus. 一 4. Operosasqfte Minerva 
studium. " And all inclination for the labors of Minerva." Literally, 
" all affection for the indastrious Minerva." 一 5. Liparei. " Of Lipara." 
Lipara, now Lipari, the largest of the In 霹 uIsb <£oli», or ValcanisB, off the 
coasts of Italy and 8icily. 一 6. Unctos humerox. The ancients anointed 
themselves previously to their engaging in gymnastic exercises, and 
bathed after these were ended. The arrangement of the common text is 
soaseqaently erroneous, in placing the line beginning with Simul unctos 
tfter segni pede viclus. 一 7. Bellerophonle. Alluding to the fable of Bel- 
leropboD and Pegasus. In Belleropkonte the last syllable is lengthened 
from the Greek, ^tXkepo^ovr^. ~ 8. Catu$ jacvlari. A GraBcism for cattu 
jaculandi. 一 10. Celer arcto latitantem^ &c. "Active in surprising tha 
boar that larks amid the deep thicket." Celer excipere for celer in ex- 
npiendo or ad excijnendum. 



r>DE XIII. A sacrifice is promised to tbe fountain cf Bandasia and Wk 
immortalizing of it in verge. 

1-15. 1. Ofons Bandusia. The commoa text has Blaudusue, bit tha 
me ima of tbe namo is Bandusia t as given in many MSS. Foa citei 
«]w ui ecclesiastical r cord in its favor ( Privilesr Panekalit 11 anm 



8d4 EXPLANATORY NDTEB —BOOK 111., ODE XIV. 

1103, ap t Ughill. Ital. Saer. t torn. 7, col. 30, cd. Ven, 1721), in the fi U4111 
lug worda : " In Bandusino fonte apud Venusiam," &nd, a littlo u&o* 
"cum aliis ecclesiis de cmtello Bandusii." From this it would appeal 
that the trae Bandasian fount was near Venntia^ in Apulia ; and ib hat 
been conjectured that the poet named another fountain, on his Sabib«i 
farm, and which he here addresses, after the c le near Venaiia, which he 
had knemn in early boyhood. 2. Dulci digne mero t &c. Tbe nymph of 
the foantain is to be propitiated by a libation, and by garlands bung aroond 
tiin brink. 一 Splendidior vitro. " Clearer than glass. "--3. Donabcrih. 
M Thoa shalt be gifted," i. e. f in sacrifice. ~ 6. Frustra. Be. astas eum Ve 
ueri et praliis destinat. 一 Nam gelidos injiciet t &c. Tbe altars on which 
•acrificeg were offered to foantains, were placed in their immediate vicini- 
ty, and coDstracted of torf. 一 9. Te flagranti* atrox, &c, " Tbee the 
fierce soason of the blazing dog- 霹 tar does not atiect" Litorally, " koowi 
not how to affect." Consult note on Ode i" 17, 7. — 13. Fies nobiliwm tn 
quoqve fontium. " Thou too shalt become one of the famous fountains.' 
By the nobiles fontes are meant Castalia, Hippocrene, Dirce, Arethuaa 
&c. The coiutraGtion^es itobUium fontium U imitated from the Greek 
—14. Me dicente. " While I tell of," i. c, while I celebrate in song.— 
15. Loquaces lympha tua. " Thy prattling water 霹." 



Ode XIV. On the expected return of Augustus from bis expeditioo 
against the Cantabri. The poet proclaims a festal day in honor of m 
joyous an event, and while the consort and the sister of Augustas, accom 
panied by the Roman females, are directed to go forth and meet their 
prince, he himself proposes to celebrate the day at his own abode witli 
wine and festivity. 

What made the return of the emperor peculiarly gratifying to the Ro 
man people was the circamatance of his having been attacked by sick 
ress daring his absence, aud confined for a time at tbo city of Tarraco. 

1-6. 1. Herculis ritu, &c. " Augustas, O Romans, who so lately wss 
said, after the manner of Hercules, to have Bought for the laurel to be 
purchased only with the risk of death, now," &c. The conquests of Aa- 
gastas over remote nations are here compared with the labors of the fa- 
bled Hercules, and as tbe latter, after the overthrow of Geryon, returned 
in triamph from Spain to Italy, so Aagustus now comes from the same 
distant quarter victorijaa over his barbarian foes. The expression morte 
venalem peiiisse laurum refers simply to the exposure of life in the achiev 
ing of victory. Compare the remark of Acron : " Mortis contemtu laus 
oietorue qucsritur et triumphi." 一 5. Unico gavdens mulier marito, &c. 
M Let th& consort who exults in a peerless husband, go forth to offer sacri- 
fices to the just deities of heaven." The allusion is to Livia, the consort 
>f Aagastus. As regards the passage itself, two things are deserving of 
Uttention : the first is the use of unico, in the sense of praesta ntissimo, on 
which point consult Heinsius, ad Or id, Met., iii., 454 ; the second is the 
Sieaning we must assign to operala, which is here taken by a poetic id 
iom for ut operelur. On the latter s abject compare Tilmllus, i,., I, 9, ed 
Heyne ; Virgil, Georg" i., 335, ed. Hcyne^ and the comments of Mitscher 
lich and Uoring on the present passage. 一> 6. Jnstis divis. Tbe geds ar« 
her» fltvlcd "just" from their prranting tc \ugastns the sances« which hu 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK II, , QUE X VI. 3 59 

valor Jeserved. This, of coarse, is mere flattery. Augustas waft oevei 
remarkable either for personal bravery or military talents. 

7--2S. 7. Soror clari dncis. Octavia, the sister of Augustus. 一 Decora 
.supplicc villa. ** Adorned with the suppliant fillet," i> '•• bearing, as be- 
comes Ihem, the suppliant fillet. According to the scholiast on SophcnIe« 
《CEU. T.j 3), petitioners aciong the Greeks asaaliy carried boagbs wrap- 
pod i.roand ^r*.tli fillets of wooL Sometimes the handi were covered witb 
Ibese fillets, not only among the Greeks, but also among tbe Romans.— 
9, Vir/^inum. " Of the young married femalei/' whose husbands wore 
nsturDing in safety from the war. (Compare, as regards this usage of 
Virgo, Ode ii" 8, 23; Virg., Ecl. f vi., 47; Ov" Her., i., 115.) 一 Nvper. 
Referring to the recent termination of the Cantabrian conflict. 一 10. Vos } 
O ptieri, &, c. " Do yon, ye boys, and yet unmarried damsels, refrain from 
illoniened words." Virum is here the genitive plural, contracted foi 
virorum. Some editions read expert^ and make virum the accusative, 
by which lection puell<B jam virum experlm is made to refer to those but 
lately married. 一 14. Tumultum. The term properly denotes a war in 
(taly or an invasion by the Gauls. It i 鼹 here, however, taken for any dan 
geroas war either at home or in the vicinity of Italy. 一 17. Pete unguentum 
tt coronas. Consult note on Ode i., 17, 27. 一 18. Et cadum Marsi % &c 
M And a cask that remembers the Marsian war," i. e. t a cask containing old 
wine made daring the period of the Marrian or Social war. This war pre 
vailed from B.C. 91 to B.C. 88, and if the present ode was written B.C. 23 
as is generally supposed, the contents of the cask mast have been from sixty 
five to sixty-eight years old. — 19. Spartacum si qua, &c. " If a vessel o. 
it hejs been able in any way to escape the roving Spartacas." With qui 
anderstaod ratione. Qua for aliqua, in the nominative, violates the metre. 
Spartacas, a Thracian gladiator, who headed the gladiators and slaves in 
the Servile war, B.C. 73-71. Four consular armies were successively 
defeated by this daring adventurer. He was at last met and completely 
routed by the praetor Crasaas. He " roved" from Campania to Mntina, 
and thence into lower Italy, until be was defeated by Crassus near Petilia 
in Lncania. 一 21. Argut<t. " The tuneful," t. e.、 the sweet-singing. - - 
22. Myrrkeum. " Perfumed with myrrh." Some copunentators errone* 
oasly refer this epithet to tbe dark color of the hair. 一 27. Hoc. Allading 
to the conduct of tbe porter. 一 Fcrrem. For tulissem. 一 Consule Planco 
Plaacus was consul with M. ^milius Lepidus, B.C. 41, A.U.C. 712, at 
which period Horace was about twenty-three years of arc. 



Odx XVI. This piece tarns on the poet's favorite topSrv that bappincsi 
ujosista not in abundant possessions, bat in a contented n>tnd. 

1-19. 1. Inclusam Danaln. The story of Danae and Acrwiiu ig welJ 
Icoown. 一 Turris ainea. Apollodorus merely mentions a brazen cham 
ber, constracted under groan d« in which Dauae was immured (ii., 4, 1) 
Lftter writers make this a tower, and some represent Danae as having 
been contined in a building of this description whea about to become 霍 
mother. [Heyne, ad Apollod., I. c.) ~ 3. Tristes. •* Strict." Bqoivalenf 
to teverce. 一 Munierdnt. " Would certainly have s<w«red." Observe thf 
M€)fa])ar force of the indicative, tak'ng: the place i the ordinary viuniu 



6b6 EXPLAWAT(.RV NOTES.— BOOR III., OD£ XVI 



•en/. (Zu nptt 》 S I , b.) 一 4. Adulteris. For awatoribui. Compare Orelk 

^Eliam its dicitur qui virginum castitati insidianfur." 一 5. Acristum 
Acrisias was father of Dana^, and king of Argos in the Peloponnefftui. 一 
4. Custodem pavidum. Alluding to his dread of the fulfillment of the ora 
tie. 一 7. Fore enim, Sec Understand idebant. 8. Converso in preltum, 
" Changed into gold." By the teim pretium in tbe senee of aurum t thu 
poet hints at the trae solution of the fable, tbe bribery of the gpaarde. ― 
9. Ire amat. " Loves to make its way." Amat is here equivalent to the 
Greek 0iAeZ, and mach stronger than the Latin solet. 一 10. Saxa. "The 
■trongest barriers." 一 11. Auguris Argivi. Amphiaraas is meant. Poly- 
vices bribed ^riphyle with the golden collar of Harmonia to peraaade 
Amphiaraas her husband to accompany him in the expedition of Adrastai 
against Thebes, although the prophet was well aware that no one of the 
leaders but Adrastas would return alive. Amphiaraas was swallowed ap 
by an opening of the earth ; and, on hearing of his father's death, his sou 
Alcmaeon, in obedience to his parent's injunction, slew his mother Eri> 
phyle. The necklace proved also the cause of destruction to Alcmaeon at 
a later day. 一 12. Ob lucrum. "From a thirst for gold." 一 14. Vir Macedo 
Philip, father of Alexander. Compare the expression of Demosthenes. 
MaKeduv uv^p. How mach this monarch effected by bribery is known te 
all. 一 15. Muiiera navium t &c. Horace vt thought to allade here to Meno 
iloras, or Menus, who was noted for frequently changing sides in the war 
between Sextas Pompeius and the triumvirs. Compare Epode^ iv., 17 
一 16. Savos. " Rough." Some, however, make savos here eqnivalem 
to fortes. 一 17. Crescentem sequilur t &c. The connection in the train of 
Ideas is this : And yet, powerfal as gold is in triumphing over difficulties, 
and in accomplishing what, perhaps, no other human power could effect 
■till it mast be carefully shunned by those who wish to lead a happy life, 
for 44 care ever follows after increasing riches as well as the craving desiro 
for more extensive possessions." 一 19. Late conspicuum, &c. " To raise 
the far conspicaoas head," t. c, to seek after the splendor and honors 
which wealth bestows on its votaries, and to make these tho iource of 
vaaoglorious boasting. 

22-43. 22. Plura. For lan to plura. Nil cupientium, &. c. The ricn 
and the contented are here made to occupy two opposite encampments.— 
S3. Nudus. " Naked," i. e. } divested of every desire for more than fortuiie 
has bestowed. Compare the explanation of Braunhard : M Pauper, et in 
paupertate sua sibi placens. n 一 24. Linquere gestio. "1 take delight id 
abandoning." 一 25. Contemlce dominus, &. c. "More conspicuous as the 
possessor of a fortune contemned by the great." 一 30. Segelis ccrta Jidef 
meat. " A sure reliance ou my crop," i. e., the certainty of a good crop.— 
ol. Pulgentem imperio t &c. " Yield a pleasure unknown to him who if 
distinguished for his wide domains in fertile Africa." Literally, " escapes 
the observation of him who," &, c. Fallit is hero used for the Greek "kov 
fiavEi. As regards the expression fertilis Africa!, consu.t note on Odei. t 
1, 10. 32. Sorte beatior. " Happier in lot am I." Understand sum. TIib 
common text places a period after beatior, and a comma after fall.it、 a 
harsh and inelegant reading even if it bo correct Latin. ~ 33 OMabrte, 
fee. An allusion to the honey Tarentnm. Consult note on Ode ii., 6 
14.— ?1. Nec LcBstrygonia Bacchus, dec. " Nor the wine ripens for me in 
h Jiiastry^onian 'ar." An all as ion to the Foraiian v» ino. Formias wai 



EXPLANAVORV NOTES. 一 B:X)K 111., ODE XV!!. 



snegardeJ by the ancients as having been the abode and capital of tbo Lib 
atrygones. Compare note on Ode i. t 20, 11 —35. Gallicis pascuis The 
pastures of Cisalpine Gaul are meant.— 37. Imporluna tamen, dec. " Yet 
the pinching of contracted means is far away." Cojisalt note oa Ode i.. 
12, 43. 一 39. Contracto melius, Ac. " 1 shall extend more wisely my hum- 
ble iuoouie by contracting my desires, than if I were to join the rea^m of 
Alyattes to the Mygdonian plains," i. c, than if Lydia and Phrygia were 
mine. Alyattes was King of Lydia and father of Crccsas, who was 
famed for his riches. As regards the epithet " Mygdonian" applied to 
Phrygia, cons alt note on Ode ii., 12, 22. 一 43. Bene est. Understand e% 
" Happy is the man on whom the deity has bestowed with a sparing ban* 
what is sufficient for his wants. ' 



Ode XVII. The bard, warned by the crow of to-morrow's storm, ex 
horts his friend L. Hias Lamia to devote the day, when it shall arrive, to 
joyous banquets. 

The individual to whom this ode is addressed had signalized himself in 
the war with the Cantabri as one of the lieutenants of Augustus. Hii 
family claimed descent from Lamas, son of Neptuue, and the most an- 
cient monarch of the Laestrygones. a people alluded tc in the preceding 
ode (v. 34j. 

1-16. 1. Veiusto nobilis, dec. " Nobly descended from ancient Lamas." 
—2. Priores hinc Lamias denominatos. " That thy earlier ancestors of 
the Lamian line were named from him." We have iocluded all from line 
2 to 6 within brackets, as savoring strongly of interpolation, from its awk- 
ward position. It is thrown entirely out by Sanadon. 一 3. Et nepotum, 
9cc. " And since the whole race of their descendants, mentioned in re- 
cording annals, derive their origin from him as the founder of their house.'' 
The Fasti were public registers or chronicles, r\nder the care of the Pon 
tifex Maximas and his college, in which were marked, from year to year, 
what days were fasti and what nefasti. In the Fasti were also recorded 
the names of the magistrates, particularly of the consuls, an account of 
the triumphs that were celebrated, &c. Hence the splendor of the La- 
uiian line in being often mentioned in the annals of Rome. ― 6. Foimia- 
rum. Consult note on Ode Hi., 16, 34. — 7. Et innaiitem, Sec. "And tho 
Liris, where it flows into the sea through the territory of Minturaae." The 
poet wishes to convey the idea that Lamas ruled, not only over Formim, 
bat also over the Minturnian territory. In expressing this, allusion ii 
made to the uymph Marie a, who had a g^rove and temple near Minturnae, 
and the words Maricce litora are used as a designation for the region 
around the city itself. Minturnae was a place of great antiquity, on the 
banks of the Liris, and only three or four miles from its mouth. The 
country aroand abounded with marshes. The nymph Marica was fabled 
by iome to have been the mother of Latinus, aud by others thought tc 
have been Circe. 一 9. Late tyrannus. " A monarch of extensive sway/ 
Tyrannm is used here in the earlier sense of the Greek rvpavvog. 一 12. 
Aqutt augur cornix. Compare Ovid、 Am., ii" 6, 34 : " Pluvin graculut 
autpir aqua." 一 13. Annoia. Hesiod (Fragm., 50) assigns to the crow, 
(or the duration of iU existence, nino ap;es »f men. 一 Dum potis. " Whil* 
\\>u can," i. e. t whilo the weather nuow you, and Uie wood is «ti^ 



tf5b EXPLANATORY NOTEH. 一 BOOK ill.. ODE XIX. 

ary. Sipply es. 一 14. Cras gemum mero, *:c. "Oa the morron, tkit 
■aalt Donor thy genias with wine." According tc the popalar belief of 
antiqaity, every individual had a gonial (daifiuv), or tuttslary ipirit, which 
wm supposed to take care of the person during the whole of life. 一 16 
Operum solutis. M Released from their labors." A Graecism for ah operv 
tolvtis. 



Ode XVIII. The poet invoke! the presence of Faaaas, and seeks lo 
propitiate the favor of the god toward his fields and flocks. Ho then de 
scribes the rustic hilarity of the day, mado sacred, at the commencement 
<9f winter, to this rural divinity. Faunas had two festivals (Faunalia) : 
one on the Nones (5th) of December, after all the produce of the year had 
been stored away, and when the god waa invoked to protect it, and tc 
give health and fecandity to the flocks and herds ; and mother in the be 
ginning of the spring, when the same deity was propitiated by sacrifices, 
that he might preserve and fuster the grain committed to the earth. Thif 
«econd celebration took place on the Ides (13th) of February. 

1-15. 1. Fauno, Consult note on Ode i" 17, 2. 一 2. Lenis incedas 
" Mayest thoa move benignant." -一 Abeasque parvis. Sec. " And mayett 
thou depart propitious to the little nurslings of my farm," i. e n lambs, kids, 
calves, &. c. The poet invokes the favor of the god on these, as being moro 
exposed to the casualties of disease. 一 5. Pleno anno. u At the close of 
every year." Literally, " when the year is full." 一 7. Vetus ara. On 
which sacrifices have been made to Faanus for many a year. A pleasing 
memorial of the piety of the bard. 一 10. Nona Dectmbres. Consult Intro- 
ductory Remarks. 一 11. Festus in praiisy &c. " The village, celebrating 
thy festal day, enjoys a respite from toil in the grassy meads, along with 
the idle ox." ― 13. Inter au daces, &c. Alluding to the security enjoyed by 
the flocks, under the protecting care of the god. 一 14. Spargit agrestes t 
kc. As in Italy the trees do not shed their leaves until December, tha 
poet converts this into a species of natural phenomenon in honor of Fac- 
aas, as if the trees, touched by his divinity, poured down their leaves to 
cover his path. It was customary among the ancients to scatter leaves 
and flowsrs on the groand in houor of distinguished personages. Compare 
Virgil, Eclog., v., 40 : " Spargite humum foliis." 一 15. Gaudet invisam 
dec. An allusion to the rustic dances which always formed part of thd 
selebration. 



Ode XIX. A party of friends, among whom was Horace, intended to 
J<olebrate, by a feast of contribution (ipavog), the recent appointment of 
Marena to the office of augur. Telephus, one of the number, was cau- 
■picaous for his literary labors, and had been for some time occupied in 
composing a history of Greece. At a meeting of these friends, held, as a 
matter of coarse, in order to make arrangements for the approaching ban 
quet, it may be supposed that Telephus, wholly engrossed with his pur 
■aits, had introduced some topic of an historical nature, macli to the an' 
noyance of the bard. Tbe latter, therefore, breakn out, as it w ,re, wito 
an exhortation to his companion to abandon matters so foreigu to the sab 
( ect ander discusiioih and attend to things of more immediate ior portancf* 



BXPLANATORY NOTES. ― UUi>K 111.. ODE XIX. 359 



c veiently, fancj-ing himgelf already in the midst of tho feaat, he Imuob bil 
edicts as symposiarch. and regelate! the number of caps to be drunk 10 
ncmor of the Moon, of Night, and of the augur Murena. Then, u if imps* 
tient of delay, ho bids the masic begin, and orders the rosos to be scatter 
od. The oJe terminates with a gay alias ion to Tolephus. 

ll. 1. Inacho. Coiualt note on Ode ii., 3, 21. 一 2. Codrus. TI\e itat 
jf the Athenian kings, who sacrificed his life when the Dorians iavaded 
Attica. If we believe the received chronology, Inachas founded the kipg* 
Horn of Argos about 1856 B.C., and Codrag was slain about 1070 B.C. Tha 
interval, therefore, will be 786 years. 一 3. Genus jEaci, The ^acidn, or 
descendants of £acus, were Peleus, Telamon, Achilles, Teaoer, Ajax, &o. 
一 5. Chium cadum. " A cask of Cbian wine." The Chi an is described 
by gome ancient writers as a thick, luscioas wine, and that which grew 
on the craggy heights of Ariusiam, extending three hundred stadia alon ft 
the coast, is extolled by Strabo as the best of the Greek wine'. — 6. Mer- 
eemur, "We may buy." 一 Quts aquam temperet ig?iibua. Alluding to 
the hot drinks so castomary among the Romans. Orelli, Braunhard, Dil 
lenbarger, and others, make the allusion to be to the preparing of warm 
baths, the party being a pic nic one, and one individual furnishing the 
wine, another house-room and warm baths before sapper. The arrange* 
inent, however, of quts aquam temperet ignibua before quo prabcnte do' 
mum, and not after this clause, seems to militate against this mode of ex- 
plaining. ― 7. Quota, Supply hora. 一 8. Pelignis careamfrigoribus. " 【 
may free myself from Pelignian colds," i. e., may fence myself against the 
cold, as piercing as that felt in the country of the Peligni. The territory 
of the Peligni was small and mountainous, and was separated from that 
of the Marsi, on the west, by the 'Apennines. It was noted for the cold- 
ness of its climate. 一 9. Da luna propere nova, &c. " Boy, give me quick- 
ly a cop in honor of the new moon." Understand poculum, and consult 
note on Ode iii., 8, 13. 一 10. Auguris Murena. This was the brother of 
Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. 一 11. Tribus aut novem, dec. " Let ow 
goblets be mixed with three or with nine caps, according to the temper- 
aments of those who drink." In order to understand thig passage, we 
mast bear in mind that the poculum was the goblet oxxt of which eacb 
guost drank, while tho cyatkus was ai small measure aseH for dilating the 
wine with water, or for mixing the two in certain proporti^s. Twelve 
of these cyaihi went to the sextarias. Horace, as symposiarch, or master 
of the feast, issues his edict, whicli is well expressed by *.ke imperative 
form miscentor t and prescribes the proportions in which the ,ine and wa> 
cer are to be mixed on the present occasion. For the hard drinkera, 
therefore, among whom he classes the poets, of the twelve cyath.% that 
compose the scxtarius, niue will be of wine and three of water ; while 
for tbe more te nperate, for those who are friends to the Graces, the pro 
portion, on tho contrary, will be nine cyatki of water to three of wine 
Ta the number 廳 here given there is more or less allasion to the myitic no* 
iions of tbe day, as both tbree and nine were held sacred 

l^~S7. 13. Mnsas impares. "The Muses, uneven in numW." 一 14. At- 
toniius votes, "The enraptured bard." 一 18. Berecyntite. Ccrxsult note 
on Ode i , 30, 5. The Berecyntian or Phrygian flute was of 8 crooked 
fonp. virhouce it is sometimes called cornu. 一 21. larcenies dexterat 



360 EXPl ANATLRV NOTES.— -BOOK 111., ODK XXK 

'Sparii^ baiif1n f " t. e., not liberal with the wine, flowers, perfameft. ft« 
—24. Vidna. " Oar fair young neighbor." 一 Non habihs. " 111 saitivd.' 
». e M in point of years. 一 25. SpUsa te nitidum coma^ Slc. The connectios 
if mi firflows : The ol'l and morose Lycos fails, as may well be expectedf 
in securing the affections of tier to whom he is united. But thee, Tel«> 
phiu, in the bloom of manhood, thy Rhode loves, becaaae he- yean art 
matched with thine. 一 26. Puro. " Bright." 一 27. Tempativa. " Of nu- 
bile years." 



Or>E XXI. M. Valenua Messala Corvinos having' promised to rap wift 
Jie poet, the latter, fall of joy at the expected meeting, addresses ao am 
phora of old wine, which is to honor the occasion with its oontente. To 
die praise of thin choice liquor succeed encomia ms on wine ia genersi. 
The ode is tboagbt to bave been written A U.C. 723, B C. 31, when Cor- 
vipus was in his first consulship. 

1-11. 1. O nata mecurn^ &c. "O jar, whose contents were brought 
into existence with me during the consulship of Manilas." Nata, tboagii 
joined in grammatical conBtraction with testa^ is to be construed as au 
epithet for the contents of the vessel. Manliaa Torquatas was consul 
A.U.C. 689, B.C. 65, and Messala entered on his first consalata A.U.C. 
723 ; the wine, therefore, of which Horace speaks, must have been thirty 
four years old.— 4. Sen f "cilcm, pia, somnum. " Or, with kindly feeliDgs, 
gentle sleep." Tlie epilliet j9»a mast not be taken in immediate construe 
tion with testa. 一 5. Quocunque nomine. Equivalent to in quemcunqm 
finem, " for whatever end."— 6. Movcri digna bono die. " Worthy of be- 
ing moved on a festal day,' - t. c, of being moved from thy place on a day 
like tlus, devoted to festivity. 一 7. Descende. The wine is to come down 
from the korreum, or "nodij 叫 Consult note on Ode iii, 28, 7. 8. Lan> 
futdiora. u Mellowed by age." 一 9. Quanquam Socraticis madet ser- 
monibus. " Though he is well-steepei in lore of the Socratic school," 
i. <r., has drank deep of the streams of philosophy. The term madet con 
tains a figurative allusion to the subject of tbe ode. ― 10. Sermonibus 
The method of inBtraction pursued by Bocrates assamed the form of famil 
iar conversation. The expression Socraticis 8ermonibu8 t however, refen 
more particularly to tho tenets of the Academy, that school having been 
founded by Plato, one of the pupils of Socrates. 一 Horridus, " Sternly." 
― 11. Narratur et prisci Calonis t dec. " Even the austere old Cato ia re 
lated to have often warmed under the influence of wine." Ag regards the 
idiomatic expression Catonis virtus, consult note on Ode i., 3, 36. The 
reference ii to the elder Cato, not to Cato of Utica, and the poet speakf 
merely of the enlivening effects of a cheerful glass, of which old Cato ia saiJ 
Id have been fond. 

13-23. 13. Tu lene. tormenlum t dec. " Thoa frequently appliest gentle 
ricdence to a ragged temper," i. e. % thoa canst subdue, by thy gentle vio 
ence, dispositionB cast in the most rugged mould. — 1 4. Sapientium. " 01 
die guarded and prudent." 一 15. Jocoso Lyeeo. 44 By the aid of sportiva 
B»cchas." 一 18. Et addis cornua paupcri. "And addest confidence tc 
hiiu of humble means." Pauper implies a want, not of the nece 騸 jiarie* 
Imt of the comforts of life. The exDrsssion cornua addis fa one of a or6 



AXl'LANAT^RY NOTE^. — BOOK III" ODI? XXIII. 46) 



rerbial character, the liora being symbolical of confidence and power 
Coiiaalt aote on Ode ii., 19, 29.— 19. Post te. "After tasting of thee." — 
20. Apices. " Tiaras." A particular allasion to the costame of Parthii 
and the East. 一 Militum. " Of foes in hostile array." ~~ 21. Lata. "Pro 
nitioas." — 22. Segnes nodum solvere. " Slow to loosen the bond of anion." 
k GrsBcism for segnes ad solvendum nodum. The mention of the Gracei 
allades here to the propriety and decorum tbat are to prevail througbont 
the banquet. — '23. Vivaque lucernes. " And the living lights." — Producer 
M Shall prolong." The expression te producent is equivalent, in fact» tm 
convivium producent. 



Odb XXI U. The bard addresses Phidyle, a resident in tbe coantiy, 
whom the hamble nature of her offerings to the gods had filled with deep 
solicitude. He bids her be of good cheer, 8S8oring her tbat the vuae of 
every sacrifice depends on the feelings by which it is dictated, and that 
one of tbe simplest and lowliest kind, if offered by a sincere and pioqi 
heart, is more acceptable to heaven than the most costly oblationtk 

1-20. 1. Suptnas manus. " Thy suppliant hands." Literally, " thy 
bands with the palms turned upward." This was the ordinary gesture 
of those who offered up prayers to the celestial deities. 一 2. NascefUeluna 
•' At the new moon," t. e., at the beginning of every mouth. The allusion 
Is to tbe old mode ol computing by lunar months. ~ 3. Placaris. The final 
syllable of this tense— is common : here it is long. (Consult Anthonys Lat 
Prog., p. 94, note.) Et homafruge. " And with a portion of this year's 
produce." 一 5. Africum. Consult note on Ode i., 1, 15. Some commenta- 
tors make the wind here mentioned identical with the modern Sirocco. 一 
6. Sterilem robiginem. "The blasting mildew." -一 7. Dulces alnm%A. 
"The sweet nurslings of my farm." Compare Ode iiL, 18, 3. 一 8. Pom% 
fero grave tempus anno. " The sickly season in tbe fruit-yielding perin^ 
of tbe year," i. e. t in the aatumn. As regards the poetic usage by whi',、 
annus in frequently taken in the sense of a part, not of the whole yen 
compare Virgil, Eclog., iii" 57 ; Hor.、 Epod. f ii., 39 ; Statius, Sylv., i" 
8, &c. 一 9. Nam qtus nivalin &c. The constraction is as follows : JVa«. 
victima, dits devota, qua pascitur nivali Algido, inter quercus et ilio «. 
ant creseit in Albanis herbis % tinget cervice secures pontificum. The idt.- 
involved from tbe 9th to the 16th verse is this : Tbe more costly victir^^ 
•bull fall for the public welfare ; thou hast need of bat few and simple t 
feringi to propitiate for thee the favor of the gods. — Algido. Consult noi 一 
on Ode i" 21, 6. 一 11. Albanis in her bis. "Amid Albaa pastures." Al 
Lading to the pastures aroand Mons Albanos and the ancient site of Alba 
I ooga. 一 13. Cerviee. " With the blood that streams from its wounded 
neck."— Tc nihil attinel, Ac. " It is annecessary for thee, if thoo crowo thy 
tittle Lares with rosemary and the brittle myrtle, to seek to propitiate 
thoir favor with the abundant slaughter of victinu." The Lares stood in 
the atrium or hall of the dwelling. On festivals they were crpwned with 
garland 騸, and sacrifices were offered to them. Consalt note on Ode i., 7 
11. 一 16. Fragili. The epithet fragilis here means, in fact, "whose little 
fftelkfl are easily broken." — 17. Immunis. " Without a gift." Eqaiva 
'cut to liber a munere t the reference being to one whr need 廳 no gift tc 
offer siu"e bis life and coitdact aro unstained by guilt Heimo ariiee tb« 



SdH EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK III" ODE XXJV. 

mi 're general meaning of " innocent." (Orelli, ad toe.) — 18. Non tumhn^ 
n/andior hostia, &c. " Not rendered more acceptable by 氤 OMtly Muo 
flee, it is voat to appease," &c t t. e. t it appeases the gods u effeotaailv 
m if a costly siichfice were offered.— 20. Farre pio et •aliente mtta. 
* With the pioas cake and the crackling 灘 alt/' Alluding to the salted 
cake (m<na ud»a、, composed of bran or meal mixed with salt, which w«i 
fprinkled on the bead of the victim. 



Od 廛 XXIV. The bard inveigh 灘 bitterly agaiiut the laxoiy and hcon 
iimiraess of the age, and agaiiiBt the anprincipled cupidity by which they 
ir are ooiutautly accompanied. A contrast if drawn between the pure 
■nd limple manners of barbarian nations and the aobridled corraption of 
feu ooantrymen, and Aagitotu 軀 U implored to save tbe empire by inter 
yosing a barrier to the inandation of vice. 

1-15. 1. IntactU opnlentior, &c. The constraclion is ai follows - 
4 Licet t opulentior intaeti* thesauris Araimm el divilis Indue, octupet 
9m ne Tyrrhenum et Apulicwn mare tvis canicntis, tamen si dira Neces> 
tilcLs Jigit, ice. " Thoagb, wealthier than the yot unrifled treasares of tho 
Arabians and of rich Iadia, thoa coverest with thy stractares all tbe Tas 
can and Apalian Seas, still, if cruel Destiny once iixes her spikee of ada 
mant in thy towering pinnacles, thou wilt not free thy breast from fear 
thoa wilt not extricate thy life from the snares of death." The epithet 
irUactus, applied to the treasures of the East, refers to their being as yet 
free from the grasp of Roman power. 一 3. CcBmerUis. The term ctemciao 
literally means " b tones for filling up." Here, however, it refers to the 
stractares reared on these artificial foundations.— 4. Tyrrhenum omne^ 
Slc. The Tyrrhenian denotes the lower, the Apalian the upper or Adriatic 
dea. ~- 6. Summis verticibns. We have given here the explanation of 
Orelli, which leems the most reasonable : " Dum homo tile locupUs as- 
sidue moles jacit t dtdesque ex8truit t necopimzio supervenit "Elfiapfiivr^ 
['kvuyKfj) t clavozque tuos, quibus nihil resistere potest, in odium eulmine 
figit, domino veluti acclamans : Hucusque nee uitra: adestjam tibi ter- 
minus fatalia /" Bentley, however, takes verttcibus to denote the heads 
of spikes, so that summis vertidbus will mean, according to him, "up tc 
the very head," and the idea intended to be conveyed by the poet will be 
• ; sic clavos figit necessitas summis verticibua, ut nulla vi evelli poasint/' 
— 0. Campestres melius Scythe, &c. " A happier life lead tbe Scythians, 
that roam along the plains, whose wagons drag, according to the caitom 
of the race, their wandering abodes." An allasion to the Bc>tbiaa modfl 
W living in wagons, along the steppes (campi) of Tartary. 一 10. RUe. " Ao 
warding to the custom of the race." Compare the explanation of Doringi 
ut jcrl eorum mos et vita ratio."-~ll. Rigidi Geta. "The hardy Getm: 
Tho GcIbb originally occupied the tract of country which bad tbe Danab6 
to the north, the range of HoBmas to the south, the Eaxine to the east, 
«nd the Crobyzian Thracians to the west. It was within these limits that 
Ferudctus knew them. Afterward, however, being dislodged, probablj 
hy the Macedonian arms, they crossed the Danube, and pursued theit 
^omadic mode of kfe in the steppes between the Danube and tho Tyraa^ 
^ Dniester. 一 12. Immetata jugera. "Unmeasured acres," t. e., unmark 
bv boan'lariea Alluding to the land be ins: in common. The term ? v 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK III., OIIE XXIV 363 

mttata is what the grammarians term a Xtyofievov, since it uccn:^ 
on!y in this passage of Horace. ― Liberas fruges et Cererem. " A Darvett 
froe to all." Cererem U here merely explanatory of fruges. 一 1 4. Nee etu» 
tura placet, &c. " Nor does a calture longer than an anaaal one pleaM 
tiimiL" ^ilading to their annual change of abode. Compare Cbbiv's ao 
etant of the Germans, B. G., vi" 22. 一 15. Defunctumqtie UUnnHms, to 



**• hnd a ■ accessor, upon equal terms, relieves him who has ended hie la- 
Kxt of a year." 

17-40. 17. lllie matre careatibus, See. •' There tho wifo, a stranger ti 
^oilt, treats kindly the children of a previous marriage, deprived of • 
Jiother's care," i. e. t is kind to her motherless step children. 一 19. Dotata 
sonjux. "The dowered apoase." — 20. Nitido adultero. "The gaudy 
adolterer." 一 21. Dos est magna parentium t Jbc. A noble sentence, bat 
requiring, in order to be clearly understood, a translation bordering upon 
paraphrase. "With them, a rich dowry consists in the virtue instillcid 
by parental instruction, and in chastity, shrinking from the addresses of 
another, while it firmly adheres to the marriage compact, as well as in 
the conviction that to violate this compact is an offence against the law* 
of heaven, or that the punishment dae to its commission is instant death " 
一 27. Pater Urbium subscriln statuis. " To be inscribed on the pcdestalf 
of statues as the Father of his country." An allusion to Aagust^a, and to 
the title of Pater Patri<B conferred on him by the public voice. 一 28. In 
domitam licentiam. "Our hitherto angovernable licentiousness." ― 
30. Clarvt postgenitts. u lllastrious for this to after ages." 一 Quatenut 
" Since." ~ 3L. Virlutem incolumem. " Merit, while it remains with ai," 
i. e., illastriocis men, while alive. ― 32. Jnvidi. Compare the remark of 
the scholiast, " Vere enim per invidiam Jit、 ut boni viri, cum amissi tint, 
d&nderentur. 1 ' —34. Culpa. "Crime." ~~ 35. Sine moribus. " Without 
public morals to enforce them." 一 36. Si nequefervidis, dec. An allasion 
to the torrid zone. Coasalt note on Ode i., 22, 22. ~ 38. Nec Boreajintt; 
mum latus. " Nor the region bordering on the North." ― 40. Horrida cal 
lidi, '(kc. "If the skillful mariners triumph over the stormy seas? If 
narrow circumstances, now esteemed a great disgrace, kid as," &c. 

45-58. 45. Vel nos in Capitolium, dec. The idea intended to be con 
veyed is tbis : If w& sincerely repent of the luxury and vice that have tai 
nished the Roman name, if we desire another and a better state of things 
2et us either carry oar saperflaous wealth to the Capitol and consecrate it 
to the gods, or let us cast it as a thing accursed into the nearest sea. The 
vrords in Capitolium are thought by some to contain a flattering allusion 
\o a remarkable act on tho part of Augustus, in dedicating a large aniouoft 
of treasure to the Capitoline Jove, exceeding 16,000 pounds' weight of 
(jold, beiides pearls and precious stones. (Stiet. t Aug., 30.) 一 46. Favcn- 
txum. "Of our applauding fellow citizens." 一 47. In marc proximum. 
Things accursed were wont to be thrown into the sea, or tho nearest run- 
sing water. -- 49. Maleriem. " The germs." '一 51. Eradcnda, "Aie to 
eradicated." — 52. Tenera nimis. " Enervated by indulgence." — 54. Net 
eit equo, rttdfs, Sec. " The free-born yoath, trained up in ignoraace of 
<nanly accomplishments, knows not how to retain his seat on flio steed, 
«n«l fears to hunt." Among the Horn ass, thoso who were born of |>ai«nt8 
that haH always l>ocr froc wore styled ingenvi, 一 67. Or.rcr trocho Tlit 




964 F.XPLANATOBIT NOTES. ― BOOK (II ODE XXir 



troehus (rp6x<K) was a circle of brass or iron, set roand witb rings, i^iC 
with which yoaog men and boys used to am use themselvM. It was bo^ 
rowed from the Qreeke, and reicmbled the modern hoop. — 38. Stu malts 
** Or, if thoa prefer." 一 Vetila legibus alea. All games of cbaDce were 
Ibmiddeo among the Romans except at the celebration of the Satarnalis 
Theee laws, bowovei were not strictly observed. 

58. Perjura patris fides. " His perjured and faithless parent.' 
—40. Consoriem todum % et hoapUem. " His partner and guest-cofltonior. 
Contortem socivm is equivalent to sortit socium, tort being the capita, 
which each brings in. By hospitem is meant a guest and, at the 灘 anu 
time, customer. ~~ 61. Indifrnoque peeuniam, Sec '* And hastens to amass 
wealth for an heir anwortby of enjoying it." ~ 62. Scilicet improba crescunk 
dwttictj A.c. " ILtchei, dishonestly acquired, inrrcase, it is trae, yet somo 
【)iing or other is ever wanting to what seems an imperfect fortuna in th« 
dyes of its possessor." ' 



Ode XXV. A beantiful dithyrambic ode in Donor of Augagtus. Tbo 
hard, lull of poetic enthasiaBm, fancies himselt borne along amid wood* 
and wilds, to celebrate, in some distant cave, the praises of the monftrch. 
Then, like another Bacchanalian, he awakes from the traoce-like feelingM 
into wbich he had beeu thrown, and gazes with wonder apon the scene 鑭 
that lie before him. An invocation to Bacchus aacceeds, and allasioo ia 
again made to the strains in which the pratscs of Aogastas are to be 
poured forth to the world. 

1-19. 1. Tui plenum. " Pull of thee," i. e M of thy inspiration. 一 Qua 
nemora. Supply the preposition from the clause which follows. 一 3. Vclos 
mente nc^a. " Moving swiftly under the influence of an altered mind.' 
Nova refers to the change wrought by the inspiration of the god. Quibm 
antris, Slc. The construction is as follows : " In guibus aiUris audiai 
meditans inserere, dec. 一 5. Mcditans inserere. " Essaying to enroll." Mtdr 
itans refers to exercise and practice, on the part of the bard f before a faH 
and perfect effort is pablicly made. ― 6. Cotmlio Jovu. Alluding to tin' 
twelve Dii Consenles or Majores. 一 7. Dicam insigne, &c, " I will reD(l 
forth a lofty strain, new, as yet anuttered by other lips." The pleona^tiu 
turn of expression in " recens, adhuc indicium ore alio," accords with tho 
wild and irregular nature of the whole piece. ~ 8. Non secus in jug%8 % &o 
"So the Bacchanal, awaking from sleep, stands lost in stupid astonish 
mont on the mountain tojps. beholding in the distance the Hebnzs, anj 
Thrace white with snow, and Rhodopo traversed by barbarian foot." The 
poet, recovering from the strong influence of the god, and surveying witb 
■larm the ardaoas nature of the theme to which be has darad to approachi 
compares himself the Bacchant, whom the stern power of the dei^r 
^hat she serves has dr^yen onward, in blind career, through many a strange 
«nd distant region. Awakening from the deep slumber into which ex 
haasted nature had at length been compelled to sink, she finds hersell, 
when returning rc ollection comes } to her aid, on tha remote monntais 
tops, far from her native scenes, and gazes in silent worder on the pros 
pect before ber : the dark Hebrus, the snow-clad *ields cf Thrace, and th« 
chain of Rhodope rearing its wKStntta to the skiek Fev/ passages can b« 



tfXPLANATOBlT NOTES. 一 BOOK III., OOb IXVil. dQ;^ 

Mled ttvm any ancie it or modern wiiter containing more of the trae ipiril 
as poetry. 10. Hebrum, The modern name of the Hebras is the Maritza 
—12. lihodopen. Jlhodoi^, dow Despoto-Dagh t a Thracian chain, lyin^ 
Bkmg the DortbcaBtern borders of Macedonia.- -Ut mihi devio, &c. " How 
it delights me, as I wander far from the haunts of men." — 13. Vacuum 
meatus. "The lone.y grove." 一 14 O Naiadum potent dec. "O god of 
the Naiads and of the Bacchantes, powerful enough to tear op," dec/— 
19. O Ldiuee, " () god of the wine-prcss." The epithet Lenaut comei 
from tho Greek \tfvatog t which is itself a derivative from Xijvo^ t " a wine* 
promt." Mitscherlich well explains the concluding idea of this ode, which 
lias couched under the figurative language employed by the bard: "Ad 
•rgamentom carmuiis ; si postrema transferas, erit : Prq/ectissitna qui. 
iem audacia est. A* gustum celebrare ; sed alea jacla esto. 1 * 



Odk XXVII. AddreMed to Galatea, whom the poet seeks to diwaadc 
from the voyage which she intended to make daring the stormy seasoi 
of the year. The train of ideas is as follows : "I will not seek to detet 
thee from the journey on which thoa art about to enter, by recounting evi 
omens ; I will rather pray to the gods that no danger may come nigb 
thee, and that thoa mayest set oat under the most favorable auspices 
Yet, Qalatea, though the angaries forbid not thy departure, think, I eu- 
treat, of the many perils which at tbis particular season are brooding over 
the deep. Beware lest the mild aspect of the deceitfal a&ies lead thoe 
astray, and lest, Ake Earopa, thoa become the victim of thy own impra 
deuce." The poet then dwells apon the story of Earopa, and with thif 
the ode terminates. 

1. ImptOb parrtg f &c. May the ill-omened cry of the nolfy 
■creecb-owl accompany the wicked on tbeir way." The leading idea in 
the first three stanzas is as follows : Let evil omens accompany the wick- 
ed alone, and may those that attend the departure of her for whose safety 
【 am solicitous, be favorable and happy ones. 一 2. Agro Lannvino. Lana- 
viam was situate to the right of the Appian Way, on a hill commanding 
an extensive prospect toward Antium and the sea. As the Appian Way 
was the direct route to the port of Brandisium, the animal mentioned io 
the text would cross the path of those wbo travelled in that direction. 一 
5. Rumpat el serpen*, &c. " Let a serpent alao interrapt the joaraey jail 
begun, if, darting like an arrow athwart the way, it has terrified the 
liorses." Mannus means properly a small horse or nag, and ii thought to 
be a term of Gallic origin. The reference ii here to draught horse,, of 
those harnessed to the chariot. 一 7. Ego cut timebo, &c. The oonstrucdoa 
M m follows : Providus auspex, suscilabo prece illi, cut ego timebo t o$ei 
•em eorvum ab artu sol is, atUequam avis divina imminentum imbrium 
repetat stantes paludes. "A provident augur, I will call forth by pikyer, 
tm ftcconnt of her for whoie safety I feel anxiooB, the croaking raven from 
the eastern heavens, before the bird that p-esages approaching raine shall 
rsvisit the standing pools." Among the Romans, birds that gave omeu 
%y their notes were called Oscines t and those from whose flight aogariei 
were drawn received the appellation of Prapetes. Hence oscinem mean* 
Here, more literally, " giving omens by its cry." The cry of the rmvea 
«rbec heard from the east wta deemed favorable.— 10. Imbrium itvina 



806 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK. ,JI" GDIs XX VH. 



ttvii rm^vtnenium The crow ia here meant. 一 13. Sis . icetfelix. -*MayMt 
thou be happy.*' The train of ideas ia as follows : I oppose not thy wishei. 
Gal»^ea. It is permitted thee, as far as depends on mc. or on the omene 
which I am taking, to be happy wherever it may pleaie thee to dwells- 
15. Ijtvus pieus. " A wood-pecker on the left." When the ttomacf 
made omens on the left anlucky, as in tho present instance, they spoke 
In accordance with tKe Grecian castom. The Grecian nagurs, when tbey 
made observations, kept their foocs toward the north ; hence tbey had the 
9ut or lucky quarter of the heavens on their right hand, and the west on 
their left On the oontraiy, the Romans, making observations with their 
hce» to the south, had the east upon their left hand, and the wost opaa 
tfieir right. Both sinister and laru', therefore, have, when we 灘 port 
Romano more, the meaning of lucky fortunate, and the opposite im 
port when we speak Graco more. 

17-39. 17. QuatUo trepidet tumultu, &c. "With what a load maa 
itormy noise the setting Orion bastens to his rest," t. e. t what tempest! 
are preparing to burst forth, now that Orion sets. Consult note on Ode i, 
28, 21. 一 19. Navi. Alluding to bis own personal experience. He know 廳 
the dangers of the Adriatic because he haa seen them. 一 Et quid albus 
peccet Iapyx. " And how deceitful the serene Iapyx is." As regards 
tbe epithet albus, compare Ode i., 7, 15; and, with regard to tlm term 
Iapyx, consult note on Ode i., 3, 4.- -21. Cacos motu8. " The dark com- 
motions." 一 24. Verbere. M Beneath the lashing of the iinrge." Under 
stand ^fluctuum. — 25, Sic, " With the same ra8hne88. ,> 一 Europe. The 
Greek form for Europa. 一 26. At sccUentem beUuis, &c, " Bat, though bold 
before, she now grew pale at the deep teeming with monsters, and at the 
fraad and danger that every where met the view." The term fraudes, 
in this passage, denotes properly danger resulting to an individual from 
fraud and artifice on the part of another, a meaning which we ha、e en- 
deavored to express. 一 28. Palluit. This verb here obtains a tranftitiTe 
force, because an action is implied, tboagh not described in it. 一 Audax. 
AHading to her rashness, at the oatset, in trusting herself to the back of 
the bull. ~~ 30. Debila Nymphis, " Due to the nymphs," in fulfillment ol 
a vow. 一 31 Node iublustri. " Amid the feebly-illumined night." The 
■tars alone appearing in the heave as. ~~ 33. Centum potentem urbibut 
Compare Homer, II., ii" 649 : KpijTrjv iKarofiKoXiv. 一 34. Pater, O relic- 
turn, &c. "Father! O title abandoned by thy daughter, and filial affec> 
tion, triumphed over by frantic folly !" Nomen is in apposition with paler^ 
and flitt ia the dative for the ablative. (Ore//t, ad loc.) 一^ 38. Vigilans. 
" In my waking senses." — 39. An vitio carentem, &c. " Or, does some 
delusive image, which a dream, escaping from the ivory gate, brings with 
it, mock me, still free from the stain of guilt ?" In the Odyssey (xix, 56% 
9tqq.) t mention is made of two gates through which dreams issue, the one 
of born, the other )f ivory : the visions of the night that pass through the 

oruier are true ; tLToagh the latter, false. To this poetic imagery Hoi ace 

eie alludes. 

47-75. 47. Modo. " But a moment ago." 一 48. Monsln. A mere ex> 
T>rc88ion of resentment, and not referring, as some commentators have 8ap» 
p,aed, to the circumstance of Jove's having been concealed nnler th^ 
form of the animal, since Europa coa:d not as yet be at all awaro cf tliu 



EXl'LANATORT NOTfiS. 一 BOOK III., UbZ \XVl\l 307 

^£ Impudent hqutf ice. " Shamelessly have I abandoned a fatker'i 
roof; ibamelessly do I delay the death that 1 deseive."44. Tenerct 
ptmUs. The dative, by a Oraci8m f for the ablative. ― S-uecu* "The 
side of life." 一 55. Speciosa. "While still in iie bloom of early yem.' 
and hence a more inviting prey. So nuda in the 52d lL*e. ― 57. Vilu 
Europe. She fancies she bears her father upbraiding her, and the addreM 
ol khe angry parent is continued to the word pellex in the 66th line.— Po/er 
urget absrns. A pleasing oxymoron. The father of £uropa appear, 
if psreient to her disordered mind, though in reality far away, aud angrily 
mrgea her to atone for her dishonor by a voluntary and immcdiato deatb 
•Thy father, though far away, angrily urging thee, seems to exclaim, 
fhd stadent will xairk the zeagma in urget f which is here eqaivaleDl 
to acriter inshlens clamat. 一 59. Zona bene ie sectUa. " With the girdle 
lhat has luckily accompanied thee.' ' >~ 61. Acuta leto, " Sharp with death.' 
t. on whose sharp projectiooa death may easily be found.— 62. Te pro 
tdLm erede velaei. " Consign thyself to the rapid blast," t. e M plunge head 
long down.— 67. Remisso arcu. As indicative of having accomplished his 
object. » 69. Ubi lusit satis. " When she had sufficiently indalged her 
mirth."— 70. Irarum ealidaque rixa. The genitive, by a Griecism, fur 
the ablative. ― 71. Quum tibi invisus t &c. Venas here alladen to the in 
tended appearance of Jove in his proper form. 一 73. Uxor invicti Jovih 
&c. " Thoa know est not, it seems, that thoa art the bride of resistlefi 
Jove." The nominative, with the infinitive, by a Groecism, the reference 
being tc the some person that forms the subject of the verb. 一 75. Sectuh 
orbU. " A divifioL of the globe." Literally, " the globe being divided.' 4 



Odk XXVIII. The poet, ictending to celebrate the Ncptunalia, or feiti* 
valof Neptaoe, bids Lyde bring the choice Caecaban and join him in 軀 ong 
The female to whom the piece is addressed is thought to have been the 
same with th« one mentioned in the eleventh ode of this book, and it ii 
fupposedt by most commentators, that the entertainment took place under 
her roof. We are inclined, however, to adopt the opinion, that the day 
was celebrated in the poet's abode, and that Lyde was now tho superin 
.tendent of his household. 

1-16. 1. Festo die Neptuni. The Neptunalia, or festival of Neptune 
look place on the fifth day before the Kalends ot August (28th Jaly). 一 

2. Reconditum. " Stored far away in the wine.room." Alluding to old 
trine laid ap in the farther part of the crypt. Compare Ode ii M 3, 8. — 

3. Lyde strenua. " My active Lyde." Some commentators, by a cbangb 
•f punctaation, refer slrenua t in an adverbial sense, to promt. -~ 4. Muni- 
Utque adhdbe, &c. " And do violence to thy guarded wisdom," i. e. t bid 
flkro welli fcr thig once, to moderation in wine. The poet, by a pleasing 
fgore, bids her storm the camp of sobriety, and drive away iu accustomed 
4»fendeni. 一 5. Jnclinare sentis, Jbc. "Thou seest that the n- lontide is ia- 
olining toward the west," i. e. t that the day begins to decline. 一 7 Parch 
deripere horreo t &c. " Dost thoa delay to hurry down from the wine -room 
the lingering amphora of the consal Bibalas ?" t. c, which contains wine 
mftde, m the mark declares, in the consalship of Bibalus (A U.C. 695, B.C 
59). The wine, therefore, would be, according to Orclli, about thirty-five 
vetn o The epithet ce»»antem leautimlly exprestes the impatie»:« 



368 KXi'LANA k i)R\ NO-ES. ― BOUK III" ODE XX1A. 

of the ^>3et hiniBelf. TU« lighter wines, or each u luted only fTom oim 
rintage to another, wero kept in cellars ; bat the stronger and moto dam 
ble kinds were traosferred to another apsrtment, which the Greeks called 
diro^7«9 ( or viBuv, and tho poet, on the present occasion, karreum. Witk 
tbo Romans it was generally placed above the fumarium. or drying 
kiln, in order that the veseels might be exposed to sach a degree of smoke 
u waa calculated to bring the wines to an early matorifcy. ― 9. Iuviceik. 
u In alternate strain." The poet is to chant the prai3es of Neptune, w c 
Ljf d« chose of the Nereide. 一 10. Virides. A Hading to the color of the 軀0% 
•-12. CytUhim. Diaua. An epithet derived from Mount Cyntba 軀 in D» 
lot, h'3r native island. 一 13. Summo carmine, Ac. " At the oonclasion af 
the strain, we will sing together of the goddess who," SiAs. The aliosioi 
u to Venus. 一 Gnidon. Consalt note on Ode i., 30, 1. 一 11. Fulgente$ Cyc- 
ladat. " The Cyclades, couspicaoas from afar." Consult note on Ode L 
14, 20. ― Pa^hon. Consalt note on Ode i" 30, 1.— 15. Junctit olorilms 
"With her yoked avrans." In her car drawn by swans. 一 16. Dictiut 
merited Sec " Night, too, 纖 hall be celebrated, in a hymn due to her praise." 
The term nania is beautifully selected here, thoa^b much of its peculiax 
meaning is lost in a translation. Aj the ? ksnio, or funeral dirge, marked 
the clnso of existence, so here the expression ia applied to the hymn thai 
ends the banqaet, and whose low and plaintive nuuben invite to repose 



Ode XXIX One of the most beautiful lyric productions of all antiqni. 
ty. The bard invites bis patron to spend a few days beneath his homblo 
root, far from splendor and affluence, and from the noise and oonfasion of 
a crowded capital. He bids him dismiss, for a season, that anxiety far 
the pablic welfare in which he was bat too prone to indulge, and tells bin 
to enjoy the blesaiags of the present hoar, and leave the events of the fu 
Care to the wisdom of the gods. That man, according to the poet, is alono 
truly happy, who can say, as each evening closes around him, that he hat 
enjoyed in a becoming manner the good things which tho day haa be- 
stowed ; nor can even Jove himself deprive him of this satisfaction. Tbo 
■arest aid against the raatability of fortune is conscious integrity, and he 
who possesses this need not tremble at the tempest that dissipates the 
wealth of the trader. 

1-19. 1. Tyrrhena regum progenies. M Descendant of Etrurian raicra." 
Consalt note on Ode i., 1, l. ― Tibi. " In reserve for thee." 一 2. Non anlt 
verso. " Never as yet tamed to be emptied of any part of its contents/' 
i e. t as yet anbroacbed. The allasion is to the simplest mode practiced 
among the Romans for drawing off the contents of a wioe vessel, by inclin 
ing it to oue Bide, and thus pouriug out the liquor. ~~ 1. Balantu. " Per- 
fnme." The name balantu, or myrobalanum^ was given by the ancients 
to n species of nut, from which a valuable uugueut qr perfume was ex- 
tracted.— 5. Eripe te morce. " Snatch thyself from delay," i. e.、 from every 
thing in the city that may seek to detain thee there ― from all the engross, 
ing cares of pablic life. ~~ 6. Ut semper-udum. We have followed here the 
very neat emendation of Hardiuge, which has received the commenda- 
tions of many emineut English scholars. The common text has ne «em> 
per udum f \yhich involves an nbsnrdity. How could Msecenas, at Rome, 
contemplate Tibar, which was twelve or sixteen miles off? 一 Tibw. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK Id., ODb XXIX. 3Gb 



Consult note on Ode i" 7, 13. ~ ^Esula deelioe solum. " The slopingf Mi. 
of ^Iiala." This town is supposed to have stood in tne vicinity of Tiboti 
and from the language of the poet mast have been situate on the slope of 
a hill. 一 8. Telegoni juga parricidee. Alluding to the ridge of hills go 
which Tnacalam was situated. This city is said to have been founded 
by Telegonua, son of Ulysses and Circe, who came hither after having 
killed his father without knowing him. ~> 9. Fastidiosam. M Prodactive 
only of dug^ast." The poet entreats his patron to leave for a season tiiat 
* abundance," which, when uninterrupted, is productive only ofdisgiuti— 
10. Molem propinquam % &c. Alluding to the magnificent villa of Mieoe 
oaa, on the Esquiline Hill, to which a tower adjoined remarkable for itt 
wight.— 11. Beata Roma. "Of opulent Rome." — ]3. Vices. "Change." 
—14. Parvo sub lore, "Beneath tbe lmmble roof." 一 15. t$ine attUeix et 
ostro. M Without; hangings, and without the purple covering of the ooncb." 
Literally, " without hangings and pnrple." The aulaa, or hangings, were 
«aspended from the cielings and side-walls of the banqueting rooms. 一 16. 
Solltcitam explicuerefrontem. " Are wont to smooth the anxiou brow," 
«. e., to remove or unfold the wrinkles of care. Explicuere has here the 
force of an aori^t, and is equivalent to expiicare solent. 一 17. Clams An- 
dromeda pater. Cepheas ; the name of a constellation near the tail of the 
Little Bear. It rose on the 9th of July, and is here taken by the poet to 
mark the arrival of the sommer heats. 一 Occultum ostendit ignem. Equiv- 
alent to oritur. ~ - 16. Procyon, A constellation rising jest before the d<^- 
•tar. Hence its name Upoxvov {irpd, ante^ and kwjv, eani*) y and its Latin 
appellation of antecanis. 一 19. Stella vesani Leonis. A star on the breast 
9f Leo, rising on the 24th of July. The sun enters into Leo on the 20tfa 
i»f tbe same month. 

*23-64. 22. Harridi dumeta Sihani. " The thickets of the rough Sil- 
ranus." The epithet horridns refers to his crown of reeds and the rough 
piae-branch which be carries in bis hands. This deity bad the care of 
proves and fields. 一 24. Ripa taciturna. A beautiful allasion to tbe ttill- 
oess of the atmosphere. ~> 25. Tu civitatem quis dececU *tcUus % dec. "Thoa, 
m the mean time, art anxiously considering what condition of affairs may 
ne most advantageous to tbe state." AUading to his office of Prmfeetttt 
Urbis. 一 27. Seres. The name by which the inhabitants of China weru 
known to the Romans. 一 Regnata Bactra Cyro. " Bactra, ruled over by 
in Eastern king.*' Bactra, the capital of Bactriana, is here put for the 
whole Parthian empire .—28. Ta naisque discors. " And the Tanais t whjose 
hanks are the seat of discord." Alluding to the dissensions amoug the 
ParthiaiiB. Consult note on Ode iii., 8, 19. 一 29. Prudens futuri. Sec. 
wise deity shroads in gloomy night the events of the future, and smi.ei if 
龜 mortal is solicitoaB beyond the law of hU being." ― 32. Quod adest m&> 
m<TUo, &c. " Remember to make a proper use of the present hoar."— 
33. Cetera. "The future." Referring to those things that are not no* 
der oar control, bat are subject to the caprice of fortune or the power of 
icstiny. The mingled good and evil which the futare has in store, and 
the vicissitudes of life generally, are compared to tbe coarse of a stream, 
at one time troubled, at another calm and tranqail 一 41. Hie potens suu 
tc. "That man will live mastet of himself."— 42. In diem. "Eact 
day."—- 4). Vixi. "I have lived," t. e., I have enjoyed, as tbey should bo 
«ijoyed f tbe blcssiugs of existence. 一 44 Occupato A zoa^mn opera tef 



870 EXVi^ANATORY NOl £8. 一 BOOK III., ODB X .、 

in tiiu 7erb : in the first claua it hu tlte meaning of " to sfaroad, ' in tut 
gecond M to {nomine."— 46. Quodcunque retro est. " Whatever ui gout 
by."— 47. Diffing^ infeetumque reddet. u Will he change and undo."〜 
49. Savo Ueta negotio, &c. " Exulting in her crael employment, «nd pep 
■iidog in pitying her haogbty game/' 53. Manenient. " While ibe v» 
^naios."— 54. Resigno qua dedit. " I resign what the once bestowed. 
Reaigna is here z.no<\ in the sense of reseribo t and the latter ic a term bu* 
lowed from the linaian law. When an individual borrowed a torn ot 
Woney, the amount received and tbe bor rower's name were written fa 
be banker's books ; and when tbe money was repaid, another entry wtl 
•de. Hence tcribere nummos, " to borrow ;" reseribere, " to pay back/ 
Mea virtute me involvo. The wise man wraps himself ap in the mantki 
of bii own integrity, and bids defiance to the storms and changes of fiir* 
tune. —57. Non est meum. " It is not for me." It is no employment of 
mine. ― 58. Et votis pacitei. " And to strive to bw^ain by my vowa."- 
62. Turn. "At snch a time as this." ― 64. Aura geminusque Pollux 
M A favoring breeze, and the twin-brothers Castor and Pollux." Consult 
note on Ode i., 3, 2. 



Odx XXX. The poefs presage of immortality. It is generally ua^ 
posed that Horace intended this as a oonclading piece for his odes, auU 
with this opinion the acooant given by Saetonias appeura to harmonise, 
•ince we are informed by this writer, in hU life of the poet, that the fourth 
book of ode 灘 was added, after a long interval of time, to the first three 
books, by order of Aagustus. 

1-16. 1. Exegi mommeTUum, &c. • " I have reared a memorial of my 
•elf more enduring than brass." Compare tbe beautiful lines of Ovid, at 
the oonclaBion of the Metamorphoses : "Jamque opus exegi quod necJovit 
h% nec ignes" &c. 一 2. ^tegalique situ t &c. "And loftier than the regal 
•tractnre of tbe pyramids." 一 3. Imber edax. " The corroding abower.' — 
4. Innwmerabilis annorum series. Sec " The coantless series of years, 
and the flight of ages." ~ 7. Libitinam. Libitina, at Rome, was worship 
ped as tiie goddess that presided over funerals. Whea Horace sayi 
that he will escape Libitma, he means the oblivion ^ne grave. Libiiina 
and Venas were regarded as one and the same deit/ t so that we have 
here, as elsewhere, a union of the power that creates with that which 
destroys. 一 Usque rt'eens. u Ever freah," i. e. t ever blooming with the 
fresh graces of youth. 一 8. Dum Capitolium, &c. On the ides of every 
month, according to Varro, solemn sacrifices were offered up in the Capi 
ton. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that so long as this shall be doue^ 
ao long will his fame continue. To a Roman tbe Capitol seemed destined 
§aa eternity. 一 10. Dicar. To be joined in construction with princeps de- 
dvxissc. "I shall be celebrated as the first that brought down," &&一 
Aufidns. A very rapid stream in Apalia, now the Ofanto. 一 11. Et qua 
auper aqua, dec. "And where Daunus, scantily supplied with water, 
uied over a rustic population." The allasion is still to Apalia (the epi- 
thet being merely transferred from the country to the early monarch of the 
lame), and the expre 廳 sion pauper aqua refers to tbe gammor hoats of thai 
coanUy. Consult mite on Ode i., 22, 13.— 12. RegnavU populorum. Am 
imitation of the Greek idiom, i^pfr 凡 cc "一、 £:r hvmili jwfe», *' I. b« 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK III., ODE XXX. 371 

•jme powerful from a lowly degree." Alladiug to the hamble origin anil 
gabsequcnt advaacament of the bard. 一 13. ^Eolium carmen, A general 
allasion to the lyric poets of Greece, but containing, at the same time, 鷉 
more particular reference to Alcasas and Sappho, both writers ir the 
Aolic dialect. 一 14. Deduxisse. A figure borro wed from tbe leading down 
of streamB to irrigate tbe adjacent fields. The Btream of lyric verse is 
drawn down by Horace from the heights of Grecian poe 露 y to irrigate and 
DB&reth die bamb'er literature of Rome. '一 15. Delpkica Za«n>. " Witk 
Delphic bay," i e with the bay of Apollo.— 1«. Voimu. " Pr»|ii 




BOOK IV. 



*3am II. /iw 9y^\ntbri, Usipetes, and Tenctheri, wbc dwelt b。,tm 
IhM JUiioe, b»»isig hiade frequent inroads into the RomaL temtury, Aa 
|u*tas proceeded a^MMi (hem, and, by tbe mere terror of U^m u^me, com- 
gelled them to ioe fok* pe»«e. (Dio Caa"u', 54, 20, vol. i" p. 750, ed. Jtei 
mar.) Horace u therefou requested by IoIob Antonias, the 露 ame yea 
is which tbii event took pU (A.U.C. 738), to celebrate in Pindaric strain 
rbe saoceasfal expedition oi the emperor aod bis expected return to the 
capital. The poet, however, declines tbe task, and alleges want of talent 
m an excuse ; bat the ver> language in wbicb this plea i» conveyed 
•how 藝 how well qualified be «ras to execute tbe andertakiog from which 
be -brink 露. 

Iola 露 Antonia 藝 was tbe yoanger 露 on of Marc Aotony and Falvia, mad 
wbm brought ap by his stepmother Octavia at Rome, and after bia father*! 
death (B.C. 30) received great mark 露 of favor from Aagastaa, tbroagh Oc- 
tavia' b infloence. Aagastaa married him to Marcella, tbe daughter of Oc- 
tavia by her first biuiband C. Marcellas, conferred upon bim the pnetw* 
ship in B.C. 13, and the consalship in B.C. 10. In cooseqaence, however, 
cf bia adulterous intercoarse with J alia, the daaghter of Aagnstas, he was 
condemned to death by the emoeror in B.C. 2, bat seems to have antici- 
pated his execution by & \ olantary death. Ue was also accaved of aim 
ing at the empire. 

1-11. 1. ^Emulari, "To rival." 一 2. lule. To be pronounced u « 
鼻 syllable, yu-le. Consult Remark 露 on Sapphic Verse, p. Ixviii— Cera/M 
ope Dadalea. " Secured with wax by DaBdsdean art." Aii allaBioo to th« 
well-known fable of Daedalus and learns. 一 3. Vitreo datum, Slc "Dei- 
tined to give a name to the sparkling deep." Vitreo is here rendered by 
some " azare," bat incorrectly ; the idea is borrowed from tho sparkling 
of glass. — 5. Monte. " From some mountaiu." 一 6. Notas ripas. " ^ta ma- 
customed baoka." 一 7. Fefvet immcn$usque t &c. " Pindar foams, and 纏 
on unooniined with a mighty depth of expression." (On borne, ad 1<k x 
Ther epithet immensus refers to the rich exuberance, and prof undo ore to 
the Bubliinity of the bard. 一 9 Donandus. " Deserving of being giftod." 
一 10. Seu per audaces^ &c. Horace here proceeds to enamerate the sev- 
eral departments of lyric verse, in all of which Pindar stands pre-eminent. 
These are, 1. Dithyramlncs ; 2. Paanx t or hymns and encomiastic efia* 
傷 ioni ; 3. Epinicia (imvUia), or soags of victory, composed in honor of 
the cooqaeroni at the public games ; 4. Epicedia (iniKrfdeta) t or funeral 
■ongt. Time has made fearful ravages in these celebrated prodactioos : 
til t^Mt remain to as, with the exception of a few fragments, are forty-five 
of the imv'iKta ^afiara. 一 10. Nova verba. " Straoge forms of expression, 
%, e" -; ew and daring forms of style. Compare tbe explanation of Mitscb 
erl^ti : M Composilion£y juncture^ stgnijicatu denique innovate^ cum nova 
jrcUionii habitu atque stntctura" and also that of Doriug : " Nova se» 
ientiamm lumincL, novc effictas grandisonorum verborum formulas,* 
Horace alludes to the peculiar licence enjoyed by dithyrarobic poet*, 



£XPLANATUR1 NOl £8 一 BOOK 1V. 9 ODE XI. 37d 

nore espctcially by Pindar, of forming novel compound 藝, iotrodncing novel 
arrangemento in the structure of their gentencea, and of attaching to termi 
a boldne 露 a of meaning that almost amounts to a change of BigniGcatimi. 
flence the epithet " daring" [audaces) applied to this specieR of poetry. 
Ditbyrambics were originally odes in praise of Bacchus, aod their very 
ebaracter shows their Oriental origin. 一 11. Numeris lege soltUis. 44 In 
unshackled numbeni." Alluding to the privilege enjoyed by ditbyrtmUe 
poeta, of passing rapidly aod at pleasure from one meuare to mother 

"*-32. 13. Seu deo8 t regesve, dec. Alladiog to the PeBans. The regt^ 
sanguinetn, are the heroes of earlier time* ; and the reference to 
Ihe centaara and the chimaBra calls up the recollection of Tbesena. Piri' 
Ifaoos, and Bellerophon. 一 17. Sive quo$ Elea t &c. Alluding to tbe £pi 
aicia.— £/ea paltna. " The Elean palm," t. e., tbe palm won at the Olym- 
pic games, on the banks of the Alpheas, in EUb. Consalt note on Odt 
\. t 1, 3. 一 18. Ccelestes. " Elevated, in feeling, to the akies." ― Equumve. 
Not only the conqaerora at the games, but their horses also, were cele- 
brated in song and honored with stataes. 一 19 Centum potiore ngnin. 
** Soperior to a hundred statuea." Alluding to one of his lyric etfxisiafui. 
一 FLebili. " Weeping." Taken in an active Bense. The allasion i 露 now 
to the Epicedia t or funeral dirges. 一 Juvenemve. Strict Latiuity requires 
that the enclitic be joined to tbe first word of a clause, unless that bs a 
3ionosyllabic preposition. The present is tbe only initancc in which Hor* 
ace deviates fVopi tbe rale. 一 22. Et vires animumgtte, &. c. "And extols 
his strength, and courage, and anblemished morals to tlie stars, and res- 
caes biin from the oblivion of the grave." Literally, " envies dark Orcus 
the poB 露 easion of bim." 一 25. Multa Dircaum. *'A swelling gale raises 
on high the Dircapan swan." An allusion to the strong poetic flight of 
Pindar, who, as a native of Thebei in Bceotia, is here styled " Dircfean," 
from the fountain of Dirce situate near that city, and celebrated in the 
legend of Cadmas. >^ 27. Ego apis Mating &c " 1, after tbe nature and 
habit of a Matinian bee." Consult note on Ode i., 2M, 3. ~- 29. Per laborem 
fdurimum. " With assidaous toil." ~~ 31. Tiburis. Alluding to bii villa 
at Tibur. 一 32. Fingo. The metaphor ia well kept op by this verb^ which 
has peculiar reference to the labors of the bee. 

33-59. 33. Majore poeta plectro. " Thoa, Anttmiiu, a poet of loftier 
f;rain." Aiitonias distingaiflhed himBelf by an epic poem in twelve booka, 
mtitled Diomedeis. « 34. Quandoque. For guandoeunqve. ~~ 35. Per seh 
trum clvoum. " Along the sacred ascent." Alluding to the Via Sacra, 
title street leading up to the Capitol, and by which triumphal proceMiooa 
were conducted to that temple. ~~ 36. Fronde. Alladiog to the laurel 
erown worn by commander! when they trivanphed.-^-Sygambros. The 
Bygambri inhabited at first tbe southern side of the Lupia or Lippe. 
They were afterward, daring this same reign, removed by the Romans 
into Gaul, and had lands assigned them alrng the Rhine. Horace hero 
alladei to them before thin change of settlement took place. ~~ 39. In 
murum priseunt. "To their early gold," u r, to the happiness of the 
Qolden Age. 一 43. Forumque litibus or bum. " Aud the forara tree from 
litigation. 9 The courts of jastice were closed at Rome not merely is 
eaves of public moarning, bat alio of public rejoicing. This cessation o* 
bo«iseBB was called Jusiiiium 一 45. Turn. iUlading to the cspocte^ 



874 BXP>[.ANATU&y N0TE8. 一 BOOK . V. DUE III 



trionptial entif of Acgasbu. No triamph, however, took placev u tM 
emperor avoided one by coming privately into tbe tity. 一 Mat vocu batM 
ttars accede. " A large portion of my voice shaxl join the general cry 
— «46. O sol pulcker. " O glorious day."— 49. Tuque dum procedis, &c 
•* And while thoa art moving along in the train of the victor, we will cfteo 
raise the sbont of triumph ; the whole state will raise the shout of 
triumph." The addreHs is to Antonias, who will form part of tb6 Xrt 
UDfihal proceBsiou, while the poet will mingle in with, and help to sweB 
Che aoolamations of the crowd. With civitas omnis andezstand dicet." 
10 Te. Understand solvent, " shall free thee from thy vow." Alluding 
#D the fulfillment of vows offered ap for the safe return 《 Aagastas. 一 
55 Largu her bis. M Amid abundant pasture 露." 一 56 1 n mta vota. u Fot 
the folfUlment of my vows." 一 57. Curvatos ignes. "The bending firef 
of the moon when she brings back her third rifling/' t. the crescent of 
the moon when she is three days old. The comparison is between the 
orescent and the liorus of the young animal. 一 59. Qua nolam duxit、 ice 
** Snow-white to the view where it bears a mark; aa to the rest of itf 
\tody, of a don color." The animal is of a dan color, and bean a oonspi 
cuoas snow-white mark, probably on his forehead. 一 Niveus videri. A 
draccism, the infinitive for the Utter supine. 



Ode III. Tbe bard addresses Melpomene, aa the patronesA of lyrtc 
T«rse. To her be ascribes his poetic inspiration, to her the honobre whifib 
he enjoys among his ooantrymen ; and to her he now pay 露 die debt at 
gratitade in thi« beautifal ode. 

1-24. I. Qnem 《v, Mdpomene % &c. " Him on whom thoa, Melpomene 
maye 露 t have looked with a favoring eye, at the boar of hia nativity."— 
3. Lobar Isthmius. " The Isthmian contest." The Isthmian, celebrated 
at the iBthmtui of Corinth, in honor of Neptune, are here pat for any game 藝. 
—4. Clarabit pugilem. "Shall render illastrioaa as a pagilist" 一 5. Curru 
Ackaico. "In a Grecian chariot." An allasion to victory in tbe chariot 
race. The whole of lower Greece was at this time called Achaia by the 
Romans, so that the allusion hore is to the Grecian games in general 
—6. Res bellica. " Some warlike exploit." 一 Deliisfoliis. " With the De 
lian leaves," %. e. % with the bay, which was sacred to Apollo, whose nata 
place was the Isle of Delos.— 8. Quod regum titmidas, &c. " For hav 
ing crashed the haaghty threats of kings." 一 10. Prarfluunt. For praUer 
fiuunt. " Flow by." The common text has perjlunnU " flow through.** 
The reference is to tbe waters of the Anio. Consult, as regards Tibus 
and the Anio, the note on Ode i., 7, 13. 一 12. Fingent ^Solio, &c Tbe 
}dea meant to be conveyed is this, that the beautiful scenery sroand 
Tibar, and the peaceful leisure there enjoyed, will enable tho poet to cul 
tivate his lyric powers with so macb saccess as, under the favoring in 
flnence of the Muse, to elioit the admiration both of the present and com- 
ing %ee. As regards the expression j!Eolio carmine, consult note on Ode 
%^ 30, 13. 一 13. Roma, principis urbium, Ac. " The offspring of liome, 
queen of cities." By the " offspring of Rome" are meant the Romans 
toemselvcs. 一 17. O testudinii anrea t See "O Mnse, that rale" tbe 
■weet melody of the golden shell. " Consult notes on Odett iii. 4, 40, and 
i. 10, 6. —20. Cycni sonum. "The melody cf the dying ««*ati ,• Conscll 



feSXFLANATOKf NOTES. 一 BOOK ODE IV 37 

■oCe on Ode i" 6, 2. 一 22. Quoa nu/nslror. " rhat I am poiiital oat. '- 
Mo f nana: Jidicen lyrtt. " As the minstrel of the Itoman lyre." - 
t4. Quod spiro. " That I feel poetic inspiration , 、 



Ul/X IV The Rieti and Vindelici having made frequent inrouds into 
Ute Bomaii territory, Aagustus resolved to inflict a signal chastiscmeDt as 
Ihe 霧 e barbaroai tribes. For this purpose, Draris Nero, then only twenty 
three yean of age, a son of Tiberias Nero and L ivia, and a step-son con 
tfqaently of the emperor, was sent against theic with an army. The ex 
•dition proved eminently snccessfal. The young prince, in the very fir* 
Utttle, defeated the lUeti at the Tridentine Alps, and afterward, in oon 
jaoctkm with his brother Tiberius, whom Augustus had added to the wan 
met with the same good fortune against the Vindelici, united with the 
remnant of the Rseti and with others of their allies. (Compare Dio Cos- 
fhts, liv., 22 ; Veil. JPaterc" ii., 95.) Horace, being ordered by Aagnstoi 
(Sueton.f Vit. Horat.) to celebrate these two victories in song, composed 
die present ode in honor of Drusus, and the fourteenth of- this same book 
in praise of Tiberias. The piece we are now considering consists of three 
divisions. In the Brst, the valor of Drasas is the theme, and he is com- 
pared by the poet to a young eagle and lion. In the second, Augustas ia 
extolled for his paternal care of the two princes, and for the correct cul- 
ture bestowed upon them. In the third, the praises of the Claadion line 
•re sung, and mention is made of C. Claudias Nero, the conqueror of Has 
cirabal, after the victory achieved by whom, over the brother of Hannibal 
Fortane afirain smiled propitious on the arms of Borne. 

1-21. 1. Qiialem ministrum, &c. The order of construction is aa fol 
tows : (^ualem olim juve?Uas et patrius vigor propulit nido inscium labo 
rum alitem ministrum fulminis, cui Jupiter, rex deorum t permisit reg^num 
in vagus aves t expertus (earn) fidclem in fioeoo Ganymede^ verniqve vewtu 
nimbis jam remotis, docuere paventom insolitos nisus ; mox vividus im 
petus t &c., (talem) Vindelici videre Drusum gerentem belia sub Rati* 
Alpibut. " As at first, the fire of youth and hereditary vigor have im 
pelled from the nest, still ignorant of toils, the bird, the tbander-bearcr, to 
whom Jove, the king of gods, has assigned dominion over the wandering 
fowls of the air, having found him faithful in *he case of the golden-haired 
Ganymede, aud the winds of spring, the s torus of winter being now re- 
moved, have taught him, still timorous, anusual darings ; presently a fierce 
impulse, &c. f sach did the Vindelici behold Drasas waging war at the 
foot of the Beetian Alps." 一 Alitem. Alloding to the eagle. The ancient! 
believed that this bird was never injured by lightning-, and 'they therefore 
loado it the thunder-bearer of Jove. 一 Vernique. The eagle hatches bei 
9ggi toward the end of April. 一 12. Amat dapis atque pugnas. " A deaire 
fcr food and fight." 一 14. Fulvm matris ah ubere, dec. "A lion just wean 
ed from the dag of its tawny dam." 一 16. Denle novo peritura. " Doomed 
|o perish by its early fang." — 17. Ra'.is Alpibus. The Beetian Alps ex 
tended from the St^GotkarA, whose numerous peaks bore the name of 
Adala, to Mount Brenner in the Tyrol. 一 18. Vindelici. The country of 
the Vindelici extended from the Lacns Brigantinas (Lake of Constance^ 
to the Danube, while the lower part of the G2nas, or Jnn, sep^mted i* 
tntin Norinnm^ ~~ Quibus mm nnde dpdawtug dec. "To whom wh«* 



376 EXPLANATORY HOTKS. 一 HOOK IV., ODB l>. 

•oarce the ca 藝 torn he derived, which, through every age, arm 露 thuir rigtot 
htnda against the foe with an Amazonian battle-axe, I have omitted to 
inquire." The awkward and prosaic tare of the whole clause, from quifmt 
i ) omnia, hun very justly caased it to be suspected as an interpolafcioo 
wo have tk erefore placed the whole within brackets. 一 20. Amazonia 
can. Tho Amazonian battle-axe was a double cme, and, besidei iU 
edge 露, it had a sharp projection, like a spiket on the top^ ― 21. Obarmet 
Che 、 er: obarmo mean 露 " to arm against another." 

S4-33. 24. Consiliis juveni* revicta. " Sabdued, in their tarn, b》 lbs 
ikillfbl operations of a yoatbfnl warrior." Cod 露 ult Introductory Bemwkik 
25. Sensere^ quid mens, dec. "Felt what a mind, what a dinpoaitioii, duly 
cartured beneath an auspicious roof— what the paternal affection of An* 
RHUtut toward the young Neros could effect." The Vindelici at first be- 
htid Drnsns waging war oa the RaBti, now they themselves were destined 
ko feel the prowess both of Drasas and Tiberius, and to experience tbe 
force \ f those talents which had been so happily nartored beneaUi the 
roof of AagOBtns. 一 29. Fortes creantur fortibus. The epithet fortis ap- 
pears to be ased here in allasion to the meaoing of the term Nero, whicb 
was of Sabine origin^ aod aigni6ed ** courage," " firmneM of soul." 一 30. 
Patrum t^t*《u 廖, " The spirit of their sire 藝 •" >~ 33. Doctrina ted vim, Ac. 
The poet, after conceding to the young Neros tbe possession of hereditary 
virtue 露 and abilities, insists apon the necessity of proper culture to guide 
Kboie powers into the path of aaefukies 露, and hence the faltering care of 
Augti 露 ta 露 iB made indirectly the theme of praise. The whole stanza may 
We translated m follows : " Bat it is education that improvei tbe poweni 
implanted in as by nature, and it is good caltare that strengthens tLo 
Heart : whenever moral principles are wanting, vice 露 degrade the fair en- 
dowments of nature." It is evident from this passage that Horace was 
familiar with the true notion of education, as a moral training directed to 
tbe formation of character, and not merely the oommanication of knowl 
edge. [Osborne, ad loc.) 

37-64. 37. Quid debea.< t O Roma, Neronibus, &c. We now enter on 
the third division of the poem, the praise of the Claadian line, and the 
poet carries as back to the days of the second Panic war, and to the vie 
<ory achieved by C. Claudius Nero over tbe brother of Hannibal. ~~ 38. Me- 
laurum fiumen. The term Melaurum is here taken as an adjective. The 
lletaaras, now Metro, a river of Umbria, emptying into the Adriatic, wa« 
rendered memorable by the victory gained over Hasdrabal by the consals 
C. Glaadias Nero and M. Livias Saliuator. The chief merit of tbe victory 
wai due to Claadias Nero, for his bold and decisive movement in march 
ing to join Livias. Had the intended junction taken place between Hai- 
d"*abal and his brother Hannibal, the conseqaences would have been moat 
lliastroa8 for Romo. ~ 39. Pulcher ille dies. "That glorious day." Pul 
sker may also be joined in constractioo with Lalio, " rising fair on Latiam." 
/Lcooviing to the first mode of intsrpretation, however, Lotto is an abla 
tive ienebrii fugaiu iMtio, " when darkucss was dispelled from Latiam.' 
- 41. Adorea. Used hero in the sense of victoria It properly means a 
dUtribation of corn to an army, after gaining a victory. 一 49. Dirut ptr 
urbes, &c. • From the time that the dire son of Afrio aped h'u wa3 
tl»U3g:b the Italian ciriea, as the flame does through the ppies. or tba 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 一 BOOK IV., ODE V. 371 

•oMheut wind over the Sicilian waters." By dirus Afer Hannibal il 
meant.— 45. Laboribus. Equivalent here to praliis. 一 47 Tumultu. CWs- 
•alt note on Ode iii.,.14, 14. >~ 48. Deos habuere rectot. "Had their godj 
Again erect." Alluding to a general renewing of sacred rites, which bad 
been interrapted by the disasters of war. -~ 50. Cervi. u Like stags."— 
51. Qvos opimus fallertt &c. " Whom to elade by flight is a glorioaa 
triumph." Tho expression fallere el ^ffngert may be cbmpured with the 
Greek idiom XaOcvrag (^evyeiv, of which it is probably an imitation.— 
53. Qum cremato fortis, &c " Which bravely bore from Ilium, rodiioedl 
to tflheB," 57. Ton»a. " Shorn of its bruiche 露." 一 58. Nigra feraeifrom- 
ii», dec. " On Algidas, aboanding with thick foliage." Consalt noto om 
Ode i" 21, 6. ~~ 62. Vinci dolentem. " Apprehensive of being overcoma." 
—^3. Colcki. Alluding to the dragon that guarded t*»o golden fleece. — 
Eckionueve Theb<B, "Or Echionian TLebes." £cbion was one of 
uie number of those that sprang from the teeth of the dragon when sown 
uy Cadmus, and one of the five that survived the conflict. Having aided 
G«dmut in building Thebes, he received from that prince his daughter 
Agaae. 

65-74. 65. Pulchrior evenit. " It comes forth more glorious than be 
fore." Orelli adopts exiet, given by Meinecke from Valart, as more in ac 
cordance'with the futures proruet and ger^ t which follow. But there is 
do good classical authority for sach a form. We meet with it only in 
Tertullian (adv. Jud. t 13), and so redies in Apaleina (Me/., p. 419). In Ti' 
ballui (i" 4, 27) we mast change tramiet to transUt. 一 66. Integrum 
M Hitherto firm in strength." 68. Conjugibus loqvtnda, "To be mado 膽 
theme of lamentation by widowed wives." Literally, " to be talked of by 
wives." Some prefer conjvgibus as a dative. The meaning will then 
be, " to be related by the victors to their wives," i. e. t after they have re- 
turned from the war. 一 70. Occidit, occidit, ice. " Fallen, fallen is all oat 
hope." 一 73. Nil Claudia non perficient mania, " There is nothing now 
which the prowess of the Claadian line will not effect," t. e., Rome may 
qow hope for every thing from the prowess of the Claadii. We can not 
but admire the singalar felicity that marks the oonclading stanza of thif 
beaatifal ode. The future glories of the Claadian hoase are predicted by 
the bitterest enemy of Rome, and oar attention is thus recalled to tho 
ycrang Neros, aod the martial exploits which had already distinguished 
their career. 一 74. Quas et benigno numine t &c. "Since Jove defend! 
them by his benign protection, and sagacity and prudence condact then 
Mfely Cnroagh tbe dangera of war." 



OpK'V. Addressed to Aogoitiu, long abgent from hii capital, tnd i» 
fohing hi 霧 return. 

1-94. 1. Dwis orte bonis. " Sprang from propitioaa deities. ' Allnd* 
ftg tD the divine origin of the Jalian line, for Aagustas hftd been adopted 
jy Julian Caesar, and this latter traced hia descent from Venus throagb 
一 nlu 藝 and ^neas. » 2. Abes jam nimium diu. " Already too long art tboo 
»V«ent from us." Aagustas remained absent frura bis capital for tbe space 
of nearly three years, being occupied with settling the affair of Ganl (fr^m 
4 U C. 738 to 741).— S. Luoc n edde tiuc, Sus. " Anspi ;ious pnr ce, ro,ur< 



378 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BOOK IV., ODE \. 



the light of thy presence to thy country." 一 8. Et soles mslttt nttent 
" And the beams of the son shine forth with purer •plendor." — 10. Car 
patkii maris. Consult note on Ode i, 35, 8. 一 11. Cunctantem 8patio、 k%y 
M Delaying longer than the annual period of hi 藝 »tn,y" ― 12. VoeaL " lb- 
vokea the return of." 一 15. Desideriis icte Jiddibut. '* Pierced with faiuv 
(hi regrets." 一 17. Etenim. Equivalent to kou y&p. " And no wonder the 
doe 藝 M, for," Slc. ― Tuta. The common text bas rwra, for which we have 
given tutOt the ingeniom emendation of Bothe, thns avoiding tha awk* 
Wardneis of having rura in two coMec'ative lines. The blesiings ci 
feide, bere described, are all the fraita of the rale of Aagastm ; tnd 
muce, in translating, wo may iaaert after etenim the words "by tliy 
froftrdian care." 一 18. Almaqtte Fauttitas. " And the becign lu7ui of near* 
en/ 7 i. e., benignant prosperity. 一一 19. VolitatU. " Pass nwiftly, * i. e, are 
hnpeded in their progress by no fear of an enemy. 一 20. Cntpari metnk 
fides. " Good faith shrinks from the imputation of blame." 一 21. Nullit 
polluitur t &o. Allading to the Lex Julia **de Adulterio^ passed by An- 
gnstns, and hii other regttlationB against the immorality and licentious 
aess which kad been the order of the day. 一 22. Mos et lex maculo8um t aus. 
" Purer morals and the penalties of the law have brought foal guilt to 藝 ab> 
jection." Augustas was invested by the senate repeatedly for five years 
with the ulfice and title of Master morum. 一 23. Simili prole. • " ."For an 
offspring like the father." 一 24. Cvlpam Peena premit comes. H Puoish* 
mont presses apon guilt as its cuustant coop anion." 

25-38. 25. Quis Parthuni paveat t &c. The idea intended to be oou< 
9 eyed to this: The valor and power of Augastns have triumphed over the 
Parthians, the Scythians, the Germans, and the Cantabri ; what have we, 
therefore, now to dread T As regards the Parthians, consalt notes on Odt 
i., 2fi t 3, and iii., 5, 3. 一 Gelidvm Scythen. " The Scythian, the tenant of 
the North." By the Scythians are here meant the barbaroas tribes hi the 
vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Qeloni. Their inroads 
nad been checked by Lentalas, the lieutenant of Augustas. ~> 96. Qy,ut f 
Germania quos horrida t Jcc. "Who, the broods that horrid Germany 
oriugs forth." The epithet horrida has reference, in fact, to the wild and 
•a\ age appearance, as well of the country as of its inhabitants. 一 29. Con 
dit qnisqiie diem, Ac. " Each one closes the day on his own hills." Ui> 
dcr tho auspicious reign of Augustus, all is peace ; no war calls off t)i€ 
vine-drcsser from his vineyard, or the husbandman from his fields. ~ 
30. Viduas ad ar bores. " To the widowed trees." The elms have been 
widowed by the destraction of the vineyards in tbe civil wars. 31. Et 
MUris te mensis, dec. " And at the second table invoke 露 thee as a god.' 
The cana of the Romans usually consisted of two parts, the mensa prima, 
or first course, composed of different kinds of meat, and the mensa setnnda 
or (dt^ra t tecond coarse, consisting of fruits and sweetmeats. The wine 
Wat fet d、wn on the table with the dessert, and, before they began drink 
log, libations were poured out to the gods. This, by a decree of the senate^ 
was done, also, in honor of Augustas, after the battle of Actiam. 一 33. Pro 
tquitur. " He worships." 一 34. Et Laribus tuum, dec. " And blends thy 
protecting divinity with th" of the Lares, as grateful Greece does thoie 
of Castor and the mighty Hercules." Under the name Castoris, the 
Dioscuri, Castor and Pollax, are meant. The Lares here alluded to art 
tbe J^irrst Publicit or Dii Putrii, sapnosed by somo to bo idetttical wit 1 . 



EXPI.ANA IOU\ NOTES. 一 BOC^I / , UDE Vi. 379 

the Penates. 一 37. Longa.8 O utinam, Clc. " Auspicious prince, mayeet 
thoa afford long festal days to Italy," i. e. t long mayest thj>u rale over of 
—38. Dicimus integro, &c. " For this we pray, in sober mood, at earij 
dawn, while the day is still entire ; for this we pray, moistene* 9 with tha 
jnioe of the grape, when the sun is sank beneath the oow Iniegtt 
dies is a day of which no part has as yet been used. 



Odf. VI. The poet, being ordered by Aagu«tas to prepare a hymn te 
approaching Secular celebration, composes the present ode as a M)il 
tf prelude, and entreats Apollo that his powers may prove adequate to 
H:8 talk enjoined apon bim. 

1-23. 1. Magna vtndicem lingum "The avenger of an arrogant 
tongue." Alluding to the boastful pretensions of Niobe, in relation to 
her offspring. ― 2. Tityosque raptor. Compare Ode ii., 14, 8. ""- 3. Sc%sit 
" Felt to be." Supply esse. 一 Troja prope victor alta. Alluding to hif 
having slain Hector, the main support of Troy. 一 4. Phthius Achilles. The 
藝 on of Thetis, according to Homer (II" xxii., 359), was to fall by the hauda 
of Paxw and Phoebus. Virgil, however, makes him to have been slain by 
Paris (^En.j vi" 56, seqq.) 一 5. Ceteris major, tibi miles impar. "A 
warrior superior to the rest of the Greeks, but an unequal match for fhee.'' 
一 7. Mordaciferro. "By the biting steel," i. e., the sharp-cutting axe. "― 
10. Impuha. " Overthrown." 一 11. Posuilque. "And reclined." 一 13. Hh 
non, inclusus, dec. The poet means that, if Achilles had lived, the Greek 着 
would not have been reduced to the dishonorable necessity of employing 
the stratagem of the wooden horse, but would liav e taken the city in opes 
fight. ~ Equo Minervce sacra mentito. " In the horse that belied the wor 
ship of Minerva," i. e. t which was falsely pretended to have been an offer 
ing to the goddess. 一 14. Male feriatos. " Giving loose to festivity in an 
evil hoar." 一 16. Falleret. For fefellisset. So, in the 18th verse, urerei 
for msi8set. 一 17. Palam gravis. 44 Openly terrible " 一 18. Nescios fan 
infantes. An imitation of the Greek form, vrjma tiKva. ~> 21. Flexvg 
M Swayed." Bent from his purpose. 一 22. Vocibus. u Entreaties." 一 Ad 
nuisset. Granted." 一 23. Potiore ductos alite. u Reared under more 
<Avcrable auspices." 

25-39. 25 Doctor ArffivtB, &c. "God of the lyre, instructor of th$ 
Qrecian Muse." ThaittR id here equivalent to Muscb lyrics and Apollo 
is invoked as the deity whu taaglit the Greeks to excel in lyric namberft, 
or, in other -words, was the x°P°^ 1 ^CFKaTiog lAovcdv- 一 26. Xantho. Al 
oding to the Lycian, not the Trojan Xaut^ms. This stream, though the 
largest ici Lycia, was yet of inconsiderable size. On its banks stood 詹 
Bity of the same name, Che greatest in the whole country. About u\xiy 
■tadia eastward from the mouth of the Xanthus was tlie city of Patara, 
vned for its oracle of Apollo. 一 27. Daunia defende decus Camesn<t. 

Defend the honor of the Roman Muse," i. e , grant that in the Saecalat 
)tyts^i, wbich Augustas bids me compose, I may support the honor of the 
iloman ljre. As regards Daunias^ pat here ibr J tola, i. e., Romana 
eoosalt the notes oo Ode ii" 1, 34, and i" 22. 13.— Sj8 Lemt Agfieu. "0 
yrathful Apollo." The appellation Agykus is of Greek origin {'Ayvtc^f) 
■id. iftbe common derivation be « rrect (frorn <Vnnci, " 龜 stroet ,)• deQoUw 



^80 薦 JLPJ'AWATO^ XOT£S. 一 BOOK IV., ODE Vli« 

騸 tho guardian deity of itreeta." It was the en 露 tom at Athene t) ereA 
■mai 1 conical eippi^ in honor of Apollo, in the vestibule! and before At 
doors of their hoaso. Hero he was invoked as the aveiter of evil, wad 
wna wunhipped with perfumes, garlands, and fillets. 一 '29. Spiritum Phm- 
bus mihi, dec. The bard t fancying that his supplication hu been heard, 
dow addrc 露 sea himself to the choras of maidens and youth 露 whom he «np- 
poses to be 露 tanding around and awaiting his instructions. My prayer it 
granted, " Phoebus has given me poetic inspiration, PhcBbos has given me 
tte art of song and the name of a poet." 一 Virginum primes dec "Ye 
•oblest of the virgins, and ye boya sprang from illustrioas 藝 ires." The 
naidens and yoaths who composed the choras at the Secalar celebrationi 
and wbom the poet here imagines that he has before him, were cboua 
from tbe first families. ~ 33. Delia tutda dete. " Ye that are protected by 
tfce Delian Diana." Diana was the patroness of moral purity. ― 35. Let* 
bium •create pedem, dec. " Observe the Lesbian measure and the 纏 trikia^ 
of my thumb." The Sapphic measure, which is that of the present oae, 
is meant. The expression pol licit ictum refer 露 to the mode of marking 
tbe termination of cadence 露 and measures, by the application of the thumb 
to the BttingB of the lyre. ~~ 38. Crescen'em face Noctilucam. " The god- 
dess that illumines the night, increasing in the splendur of her beams."— 
30. Prosperam frugum. " Propitious to the productions of the earth. 
A GraBcism for frugibns. 一 Celeremque pronos, Xc. " And swift in rolling 
onward tbo rapid months." A Graecism for celerem in volvendis pronii 
inensibus. 

41-43. 11. Nupta jam dice*. "United at length in the bands of wed 
lock, thou shalt say." Jam i 露 here used for tandem. The poet, in the bo 
giuniog of this stanza, turns to the maidens, and addresses bimBelf to the 
leader of tbc choras as the representative of the whole body. The induce* 
ment which be holds out to them for the proper performance of their part 
in the celebration is extremely pleasing ; the prospect, namely, of a hap- 
py marriage ; for the ancients believed that the virgins composing th, 
thoras of the Sascalar and other solemnities were always recompensed 
with a happy union. 一 42. Scsculo festas referente luces. " When the &m 
alar period brought back the festal days." The Ssecalar games were 
celebrated once every 110 years. Before the Julian reformation of tbe 
calendar, the Roman was a lanar year, which waa broagbt, or was meant 
to be brought, into harmony with the solar year by the insertion of an in 
tercalary month. Joseph Scdiger has shown that the principle was to in 
tercalate a month, alternately of twontj'-two and twenty-three days, eveiy 
ltiier year daring periods of twenty-two years, in each of which period 纏 
inch an intercalary month was inserted ten times, the last biennivm be' 
big passed over. As five years made a lustrum, ao five of the 露 e periodf 
nuido a saculum of HO years. [Scaliger % de emendat. temp. t p. 80, seqq. ; 
tfiebuhr'i Roman History, vol. i" p. 334, Catnbr transl.) 一 43. Reddidt 
carmen, "Recited a hymn." 一 Dodlis modorum, Ao. "After having 
learned, with a docile mind, tbe measures of the poot Horace/' Modorum 
eefbra here ai vrell to the movements as to the aiuging of the nboran. 



Odc Vll. This piece i« similar, in its complexion, to the fourth ode of 
\be finit book, id both these productions the same topic is enforced, tb« 



JBVPLANATOBY NOTES. 一 BOOK IV.. ODE Vll. 381 



in i ity of life aud the wiidoro of present enjoyment The indmdaal ta 
vrbom the ode i 藝 addressed i 露 the same with the Torquatas to whom the 
h epistle of the tiret book is inscribed. He was grandson of J" Manliai 
rorqaatuB, who held the consulship in the year that Horace was bora. 
[Ode iii., 21, 1.) Vanderbourg remarks of him as follows : "On ne con 
naSt ce Torquatas qae par l'ode qui nouB oocnpe, et 1'^pitre 5 da livre 1, 
qa'Horace lai adresse pareillement. II en r^salte qae cet ami de notre 
poete 6tait an homme Eloquent et fort estimable, mais un pea attaqa^ de 
la manie de th^saarifler, manie d'aatant plas bizarre chez qa'il 6tai^ 
ditoo, c^liliataire, et n'entassait qae pour des collat^raax." 

1- M. I. Diffugere nives, &. c. "The snows are fled: thoir verdure is 
now returning to the fields, and their foliage to the trees." The student 
most note the beaaty and spirit of the tense diffugere. ― 3. Mutat terra 
pices. ** The earth changes ita appearance " Literally, "cbuige 露 iti 
changes." Compare the Greek forms of expression, novov irovelv t fiVLXT^ 
udxecdait as cited by Orelli, and also the explanation of Mitscberlidi} 
•' Vices terrm de colore ejus t per annvas vices apparente t ac pro divcria 
anni tempestate variante, dicta. 一 Et decrescentia ripas, Jtc. Marking 
die cessation of the season of inundations in early spring, and the ap< 
proach of summer. — 5. Audet ducere choros. " Ventures to lead up the 
dances." 一 7. Immortalia. " For an immortal existence." 一 9. Monet an 
nus. " Of this the year warns thee." The vicissitude 露 of the seasons re 
mind us, according to the poet, of tbe brief nature of oar own existence. 一 
d. Frigora mitescunt UStphyris. "The winter colds ure beginning t$ 
moderate ondcr the influence of tbe western winds." Zephyri mark the 
vernal breezes. 一 Prolerit. u Tramples upon." Beautifully descriptive 
of the hot and ardent progress of the summer season. 一 】•• Interitura^ 
iimul, &c. " Destined in its tarn to perish, as soon & 8 fruitful autamn shall 
have poared forth its stores." Simul is for simul ac. 一 12. Bruma triers. 
u Slaggish winter," i. e., when the powers of l.atare are comparatively at 
lent. Compare the language of B ion (vi., 5) Svgepyov. 一 13. Damna 
tzmen celeres, &c. " The rapid months, however, repair the losses occa 
•ioned by the changing seaaons." Before the Julian reformation of tba 
calendar, the Roman months were lunar ones. Hence lurue waa fre* 
qaently ased in the language of poetry, even after the change bad taken 
place, as equivalent to menses. 一 15. Quo. " To tbe place whither." Vn 
derstand eo before quo、 and at the end of the claaae the verb deciderutkt 
~ Dives Tullus et Ancus. The epithet dives alludes merely to the wealth 
■ad power of Tallas Hostilias and Ancus Marcias as monarchs ; with 膽 
reference, at the same time, however, to primitive days, since Claadian 
(xVf 109), when comparing Romo under Ancus with tbe same city nodei 
the emperor, speaks of the " matnia pauperis Anei. n ― 16. Sumus. " There 
we remain." Equivalent to manemus. 一 17. Adjiciant. " Intend to add" 
一 Crastina tempara. " To-morrow's hours." 一 19. Amico qiue dederU 
animo. 44 Which thoa shalt have bestowed on thyself." Amico is here 
equivalent to tuo, in imitation of the Greek idiom, by which i 露 pot 
for ifid^t g6(, i6g. 一 SI. Splendida arbitria. "His impartial lentenoe." 
The allosioo is to a clear, impartial decision, the justice of whirl is in- 
stantly apparent to all. So tho Bandaaian fount is called (Ode '.:i., 13, 1) 
splendidior vitro. " Clearer than glass." 一 24. Restituc. " Will restore 
t>、 the light of day."- -26. Infernis ienebrix. "From the iarknuss o( thf 



SHU EXFLANAIOEY NOTES. ― BOOK IV., OD1 VI"' 

lower world." Horace doet out follow here the common legend. Amord 
ing to this last, iEscalapias, at the request of Diana, did restore NippoU 
tu to lite, and be wm placed under the orotection of the nymph Egeri» 
•t Aricia, in Latium, where he was also worshipped. Compare Vir^ 
ASn^ vii., 761 一 iMhaa vincula. "The fetters of Lethe," i. e n of tettfc 
The reference i 霧 to Lethe, the stream of oblivion in the lower world, uki 
霄 hicb is here taken for the 0';ate of death itself. 



Odx VII I. Sapposed to have been written at the time of the Satarn«h% 
9t which period of the year, as well as on other stated festivals, it wm 
saBtoinary among the Romans for friends to send presents to one another 
Tbo ode before us coostitates the poet' 露 gift to Censorinup, and, in order 
to enhance its value, he descants on the praises of his favorite art. There 
were two distinguished individuals at Rome of the name of Censoriuaa, 
the father and sod. The latter, C. Miarcias CenBorious, is most probably 
the one who is here addressed, as in point of years he waa the more fit of 
ihe two to be the companion of Horace, and as Velleias Paterculas (ii., 
102) styles him, virum demcrcndis hominibus gentium. He was consul 
along with C. Asinins Gallas, A.U.C. 746. 

" 1-11. 1. Donarem pateras f Jtc. "Liberal to my friends, Censorinas, 1 
would bestow apon them caps and pleasing vessels of bronze," t. e., I 
would liberally bestow on my friends caps and vessels of beaateon* 
bronze. The poet alludes to the taste for collecting antiques, which then 
prevailed among his countrymen. — 3. Tripodas. The ancients made very 
freqaent ase of the tripod for domestic purposes, to set their lamps npon^ 
and also in religions ceremonies. Perhaps the most frequent applicatioo 
of all others was to serve water out in their common habitations. In these 
instances, the upper part was so disposed aa to receive a vase. 一 4. Ncque 
tu pessima munerum ferres. " Nor shoaldst thoa bear away as thine own 
the meanest of gifts." A litotes, for tu optima et rarissima munera ferret. 
一 5. Divite me scilicet artium, &c. " Were I rich in the worki of art 
which either a Parrhasias or a Scopas produced ; the latter in marble 
the former by the aid of liquid colors, skillfol in repre 露 enting at one time 
a human being, at another a god." 一 Sollers ponere. A Grtecism for soU . 
ten in ponendo t or sollers potiendi. Tbe artists here mentioned are takes 
by the poet as the respective representatives of painting and stalMary 
Parrhasius f one of the most celebrated Greek painters, was a native of 
£phesas f but practiced bis art chiefly at Athens. He floariBhed about 
B.C. 400. He was noted for true proportion and for the accuracy of hi 藝 
ontlineB. Scopas, a Btatnary ofParoa, floarished shortly before Parrhaiixui 
His statue of Apollo was preserved in the Palatine library at Rome. 一 
I. Sed non hac mihi vis, &c. " Bat I possess no store of these things, 
aor bast thou a fortune or inclination that needs such cariosities." In 
other words, I am too poor to own snch valuables, while thoa art too rich 
and basfc coo many o f them to need or desire any more. 一 11. Gaudes car 
minibus, dec. " Thj delight is in verses : verses we can bestow, and caa 
fix a value on the gift." The train of ideas is as follows : Thoa carest fmi 
less for the things that have just been mentioned, than for the produ 3tianf 
of the Mase. . Here we can bestow a present, and can explain, moreover 
kht t«i;G vilue of the gift. Caps, and rases and tripods are estimated ib a ' 



EXPLANATORY NOTKB. 一 BOOK IV. , ODE VIII. 389 

iwordtoee with the caprice and luxary of the age, bat tho fame of vena i 薦 
immortal. The bard then proceeds to exemplify the ucvor-dying honor 麟 
which his art can bestow. 

】3~33. 13. Non tnctsa notis, &c. " Not marbles marked with pubiiq 
inscriptions, by which the breathing of life retaras to illaitrioas leaden 
after death." Incisa is literally "cat in," or " engraved."— 15. No% cde- 
res fuga t &. c. " Not the rapid flight of Hannibal, nor his threats hurled 
back upon him." Tbe expression celeres fuga refers to the sadden de- 
parture of Hannibal from Italy, when recalled by the Carthaginiaiui to 
make head against Scipio. He had threatened that he would overthrow 
tbe power of Rome ; these threats Scipio hurled back upon bim, and ham* 
bled the pride of Carthage in the field of Zama. 一 17. Non stipendia Car 
(kaginii impia. "Not the tribute imposed upon perfidious Carthage." 
Tho common reading is Non incendia Carthaginis impia, which involve! 
an historical error, in ascribing the overthrow of Hannibal and the destnic 
tion of Carthage to one and the same Scipio. The elder Scipio impose*, 
a tribute on Carthage after the battle of Zama, the younger destroyed the 
city. We have given, therefore, stipendia, the emendation of Doring. 
Orelli supposes that two lines are wanting before ejus t in accordance witb 
bia idea that odes in this particular metre run oil in quartrains. 一 18. Ejus 
qui domita, Jrc. The order of construction is as follows : Clarius indi- 
cant laudes ejus t qui rcdiit lucreUus nomen ab Africa domita, qnam t Slc. 
Scipio obtained the agnomen of " Africanus" from his conquests in Africa, 
si title subBequently bestowed on the younger Scipio, tbo destroyer of 
Carthage. ~~ 20. Calabra Pierides. •' The Mases of Calabria." The alla- 
iion is to the poet Ennias, who was born at Rudiffi in Calabria, and who 
celebrated tbe exploits of bis friend and patron, the elder Scipio, in hia 
Annals or metrical chronicles, and also in a poem connected with these 
Anoals, and devoted to the praise of the Homan commander. Neque si 
charta si/cant, Sec. " Nor, if writings be silent, sbalt tboa reap any re* 
ward for what thoa mayest have laudably accomplished." The conatrac 
tkia in tbe text is mercedem (illias) quod bene feceris. 一 22. Quid for el Ilia, 
A:c. " What woald tbe son of Ilia and of Mars be now, if invidious silence 
had stilled tbe merits of Homulas ?,' la other words, Where would be 
the fame and the glory of Rom alas if Ennias had been silont in his praise ? 
Horace alludes to the mention made by Ennias, in his Annals, of the fa- 
bled birth of Bomalas and Remus. As regards Ilia, compare note, Ode 
iii^ 9, 8. «~ 24. Ubstarct. Put for obstitisset. 一 25. Ereptum Stygiis Jlucti- 
bus Aiacum % &c. " The power, and the favor, and the lays of eminent 
bards, conse<:rate to immortality, and place in the islands of the blessed, 
Mvma rescued from the dominion of the grave." Stygiis finctibut is 
here equivalent to morte. 一 27. Divitibus consecrat insulis. AiAiding Is 
the earlier mythology, by which Elysiam was placed in one cr moro of 
the isles of tbe Western Ocean. 一 29. Sic JovU interest, dec. * By thit 
means the unwearied Hercules participates in the long-wished-for ban 
qaet of Jove." Sic is here equivalent to i arminibus poitarum. ~ 31. Cla 
rum Tyndarida sidus. " By tbis means th^ Tyodaridae, that bright cod 
rtollation.*' Understand sic at the beginning of tbis claaae. The allosiotj 
U to Castor and Pollux. Consult note on Ode i., 3, 2. 33. Omatus viridn 
irmpora pampino. We must again anderotand sic. "By this meant 
bacchas. having his temples adorned with the verdant vine-leaf, leads U 



^84 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— HOOK IV., ODE IX 

1 10(»68|1111 issue the pray era of the hmbandmen." In other worrii, Bj 
kbe aongs of the bards Baccbn 霧 is gifted with the privileges and 龜 ttri 
bates of divinity. Consult note on Ode iii" 8. 7. 



Ode TX. In the preceding ode the poot as 露 erls that the ouly p&tti to 
(mmortality is through the verses of the bard. The samo idee, agaia 
meets as in the present piece, and Horace promises, through the m^srai 
of hifl numbers, an eternity of fame to Lollius. ** My lyric poems are not 
destined to perish," he exclaims ; " for, even though Homer enjoys the 
first rank among the votaries of the Muse, still the straim of Pindar, Si* 
monides, Stesichoras, Anacreon, and Sappho, live in the remembrance of 
men; aad my own productions, therefore, in which I have followed the 
footsteps of these illustrioas children of song, will, I know*, be rcscoed 
from the uight of oblivion. The memory of those whom they celebrate de> 
■cend 露 to after ages with the nnmbers of the bard, while, if a poet be 
wanting, the bravest of heroes sleeps forgotten in tho tomb. Thy praise 霧 
then, Lollius, shall be my theme, and thy numerous virtues shall live io 
the immortality of verse." 

M. Lollius Palicaaas, to whom this ode is ad4rcBBed t enjoyed, for a long 
time, a very high tsputation. Augustas gave him, A.U.C. 728, the gov- 
ernment of Galatia, with the title of propreetov He acquitted himaelf so 
well in thia office, 4 hat the emperor, in order to recompense bis services, 
Darned him constti, in 7H2, with L. iErailius Lep*dus. Io this year the 
present ode was written, and thas far nothing had occurred to tarnish hii 
fame. Being sent, in 737, to engage the Oermanv, who had made an ir- 
ruption into Gaul, he had tho misfortune, after some successes, to expe- 
rience a defeat, known in liijtory by the name of Lolliana Clades, and in 
which lie lost the eagle of the fifth legion. It appears, however, that he 
was able to repair this disaster and regain the confidence of Aagastas , 
for ibis monarch chose him, about the year 751, to accompany his grand- 
son, Cains Ceesar, into the East, as a kind of director of his youth (" vdtiti 
moderator juventa." Veil. Pat., ii., 102). It was in this mission to the 
East, seven or eight years after the death of our poet, that he becamo 
guilty of the greatest depredations, and foriqed secret plots, which were 
disclosed to Cains Caesar by the king of the Parthians. Lollias died sud- 
denly a few days after this, leaving behind him an odious memory. 
Whether his end was voluntary or otherwise, Velleias Patercalas de« 
clares himself unable to decide. We mast not confound this individual 
with the Lollias to whom the second and eighteenth epistles of the fint 
buok are inscribed, a mistake into which Dacier has fallen, and which he 
eodeavors to support by very feeble argnmcnts. Sanadon has clearly 
■hown that these two epistles are evidently addressed to a very yoang 
man, the father, probably, of Lollia Paalina, whom Caligula took away 
Crura C. Memmius, in order to espouse her himself, and w'hovn he repudi* 
atod soon after. We have in Pliny (N. H,、 ix., 35) a carious passage re- 
■pecting the enormous riches which tbis Lollia bad inherited from bet 
grandfather. 

1-9. 1. Ne forte credos, &c. "Do not perchance believe that tbase 
w<H*dfl are destined to perish, wtich I, bora near the banks of the far 
,ctoun'Ung Auiidu& am wont to c.tter, to be accompanied by tbe string 



EJCI*LANATORy NOTES. 一 BOOK IV., ODE IX Sbb 



VK tiiO lyre through an art before unknown." Horace alludes to himiolf 
u the first that introdaced into the Latin tongue the lyric maanares oi 
Greece. <~ 2. Longe sonantem natus t .Scc. Alluding to his having been bom 
in Apulia. Consult Ode iii., 30, 10. 一 5. Non si priores, &o, "Although 
the Moeonian Horner holds the first rank among poets, still the strains of 
Piudar and the Cccan Simon ides, and the threatening liae^ of Alcscus, and 
r .he dignified effusions of Stesickoras, are not hid from the knowledge of 
posterity." More literally, " The Pindaric and Csean muses, and the 
tbeatening ones of Alcaeas, and the dignified ones of Stesichorus." Ai 
fegards the epithet Afaonius, applied to Homer, consult note on Ode i., 6. 
2. — 7. C<r<c Cousult note on Ode ii., 1, 37. 一 Alcai minaces Alluding to 
the effusionB of AlcaBas against the tyrants of his native island. Consult 
note on Ode ii., 13, 26. 一 8. Stcsiciu>riqut graves Cameena. Stesichorcui 
was a native of Himera, in Sicily, and born about 632 B.C. He was coc 
temporary with Sappho, AIcobus, and Pittaous. He used the Doric dia 
iect, and besides hymns in honor of the gods, and odes iu praise of heroest 
uompoBed what may be called lyro-epic poems, sach as one entitled " The 
Destraction of Troy," and another called " The Orestiad." 一 9. Nec, si quid 
olim t Slc, " Nor, if Anacreon, in former days, produced any sportive effu- 
biou, has time destroyed this." Time, however, has made fearful ravages 
for us in the productions of this bard. At the present day, we can attrib* 
ate to Anacreoa only the fragments that were collected by Uninu 露, ant] 
a few additional ones, and not those poems which commouly go under bii 
name, a few only excepted. 

11-49. 11. Calores J^oliat puella. " The impassioned feelings of tho 
£olian maid." The allusion is to Sappbo. Consult note on Ode ii., 13 
24. — 13. Non sola comto8 t &c. The order of construction is as follows : 
(Mcasna Helcne non sola arsit comtos crities adulteri, et mirata (est) au 
rum. " The Spartan Helen was not the only one that burned for," dtc— 
14. Aurum vestibus illitutn. " The gold spread profasel^ over his gai 
mentB," i, e" his garments richly embroidared with gold. 15. Regalesq-ut 
eultus et comites. "And his regal splendor and retinue." CuUub here 
refera to the individual's maimer of life, and the extent of hia resoarce* 
一 17. Cydonio arcu. Cydon was one of the most ancient and important 
,itiei of Crete, and the Cydonians were esteemed the best among tbe 
Cretan archers. 一 18. Non semel llios vexata. " Not once merely has Z 
Troy been assailed." We have adopted here tbe idea of Orelli. Oth〜 
eommentators make the refereuoe a distinct one to Troy itself: " Not o» - 
merely was Troy assailed." Troy, previous to its final overthrow hu^ 
been twice taken, once by Kercales, and again by the Amazons. 一 19. In 
tfcm. u Mighty in arms."— 22. Acer Delpkobus, Deiphobus was regard 
ed as the bravest of the Trojans after Hector. 一 29. IneriicB, The dativa 
for ab inertia by a GroBcism. 一 30. Cdata virtus. " Merit, when uucelo* 
brated," t. when concealed from the knowledge of posterity, for want 

a bard or historian to celebrate its praises. 一 Non ego te meis, &c. "】 
wOl not pass thee over in silence, unhoncred in my strains." <~ 33. Lividas 
' A Envious." 一 35. Rerumque prudens, lec, "Both skilled in the manage- 
ment of affairs, and alike unshaken in prosperity and misfortune." The 
poet here begins to enumerate some of the claims of Lollius to an imuior 
tality of fame. Honce the connection in the train of 'deas is as fbuows • 
Kad worthy art thuu, O Lollius, of being remembered by al>cr ages, fgi 

R 



880 RXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 BCOK IV., CUE XI. 

- Uioa hast t m'.nd,'' &c. ~ 37 Vindex. Pjt in apposition with animiu 、 
3\ Duccntis ad u euneta. " Drawing a l things within the sphere of ita 
influence." 一 39. Cotuulqne non vntus arjni. "And not merely the cost 
•uJ of a singlo year." A bold and beautiful peraonificatioo by which the 
term consul is applied to the mind of Lollias. Ever actuated by the pur- 
est principles, aud ever preferring honor to views of mere private iuten 
est, the mind of LoUiaa enjoys a perpetual consulship.— 42. Rejecit alio 
dona mjcentivm t &c. M Rcjerts with disdainful brow the bribes of shp 
% li'ty ; y\ ; torioua, makes for himself a way, by his own arms, smid *yp 
posing crowds." Explicuit sua arma may be rendered more Utora 1 !; 
though lesa intelligibly, " displays bis arms." The "opposing *、rowds 
are the difficulties that beset the path of the aprigbt man, aa well from 
the inherent weakness of his own nature, as from the arts of the flatterer, 
&ud the machinatioas of secret ibea. Galling, however, virtue and firm* 
b?M to hia aid, he employs these arma of purest temper against the host 
that aarroands him, and comes off victorious from the conflict. 46. Recte. 
" Consistently with true wisdom." 一 Rectius oocupat nomen bcati. " With 
far more propriety does that man lay claim to the title of happy." 一 49 
Cailct. " Well knows." 



Ode XI. The poet invites Phyllis to his aUode, for the parpose of cel8> 
br&ting with him the natal day of Maecenas, and endeavors, by variouf 
arguments, to induce her to come. 

1-19. 1. Est mihi nonum, &. c. " I have a cask full of Alban wine 
more than nine years old." The Alban wine is ranked by Pliny only al 
third rate ; but, from the frequent commendation of it by Horace and Javo- 
nal, wo mast suppose it to have been in considerable repute, especially 
when matured by long keeping. It was sweet and thick w?ien new, but 
became dry when old, seldom ripening properly before the fifteenth year 
一 3. Nectendis apium coronis. " Parsley for weaving chaplets." Nee 
! endis coronis is for ad nectendas coronas. 一 4. Est ederas vis mulla, 
"There is abundance of ivy." 一 5. Fulges. "Thou wilt appear more bcaa 
teoas." The future, from the old verb fulgo, of the third conjugation, 
which frequently occurs in Lucretius. 一 6. Ridet argento domus. "The 
honae smiles with glittering silver." Alluding to the silver vessels (i. e. f 
the paternal salt-cellar, and the plate for incense) cleansed and made 
ready for the occasion, and more particularly for the sacrifice that was to 
take place. Compare note on Ode ii., 1(5, 14. 一 Ara castis vincta vrrbenis. 
The allusion is to an ara cespititia. Cons alt notes on Ode i., 19, 13 tmd 
14 —8. Spargier. An archaism for spargi. In the old language the syl- 
lable er was appended to all passive infinitives. ― 11. Sordidu m Jlammm 
trepidant, &c. " The flames quiver as they roll the sallying smoke 
diroagh the house-top," t. c, the quivering flames roll, &c. The Greeks 
and BLomaus appear to have been rinacqaainted with the use of chimneys. 
The more common dwellings had merely an opening in the roof, which 
allowed the smoke to escape ; the better class of edifices wero warmed 
by means of pipes inclosed in the walls, and which commanicatcd with a 
large store, or several smaller ones, constructed in the earth under the 
building. — 14. Idus tibi sunt asrendas^ &c. " The ides are to be colebratod 
by Uioc, a day that cleaves April, the month of sea-born Veuus. *' i. 9> , thov 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IV., ODE XII 383 

tu'i to ceiebrate along with me the ides of April, a 動 nth sacred to Vciiua, 
wl.o rose from the waves. The ides fell on the 15th of March, May, July. 
hnd October, and on the 13th of the other months. They received theh 
Dame from the old verb iduare, " to divide" (a word ofBtrurian origin, ao 
cording to Macrobius, Sat.、 i., 15), because in some cases they actually, 
■nd in others nearly, di>ided tbe month. Hence Jindit on tho present oo 
casioa.— 15. Mensem Veneris. April was sacred to Venas. 一 17. Jure so- 
%ennu miki, &c. "A day deservedly solemnized by me, and almost held 
Wore Bacred than that of my own nativity." 一 19 Affluentcs ordinal annos, 
• Coaots bis increasing years." Compare, as regards ajjluentes, the exp)a 
ifttkm of Orelli : '* sensim sibi succedentes." 



Ode XII. It has never been satisfactorily determined whether th« 
present ode was addressed to the poet Virgil, or to some other individual 
of the same name. The individual here designated by the appellation of 
Virgil (be he who he may) is invited by Horace to an entenaiumcnt where 
oach guest is to contribute his quota. The poet agrees to supply the wine, 
if Virgil will bring with him, as his share, a box of perfumes. He begs 
bim to lay aside for a moment his eager pursuit of gain, and his schemes 
*>f self-interest, and to indulge in the pleasures of festivity. 

1-27. 1. Jam vcris comites, dec. " Now, the Thracian winds, the com 
panions of Spring, which calm the sea, begin to swell the sails." The al- 
bision is to the northern winds, whose home, according to the poets, wm 
tbe land of Thrace. These winds began to blow in the conimencemeDl; 
of spring'. The western breezes are more commonly mentioned in de> 
Bcriptions of spring, but, as these are changeable and inconstant, tho poet 
prefers, on this occasion, to designate the winds which blow more steadi- 
ly at this season of the year. 一 4. Hiberna nive, "By the melting of the 
winter snow." ― 6. Jnfelix avis. The reference is here to the nightingale, 
and not to the swallow. Horace evidently alludes to that version of the 
Btory which makes Procne to have been changed into a nightingale and 
Philomela into a swallow. 一 Et Cecropicc domus, &c. " And the eternal 
reproach of the Attic line, for having too cruelly revenged the bratal lasts 
of kings." CecropitB is hero equivalent simply to Mtictt % as Pandion, 
the father of Procne, though king of Athens, was not a descendant of Ce- 
crops. 一 11. Deum. Alluding to Pan. 一 Nigri colles. "The dark hill 醮," i. 
e. t gloomy with forests. Among the hills, or, more properly speaking, 
mountains of Arcadia, the poets assigned Lycaeus and Msenalug to Pan as 
hU favorite retreats. 一 13. Adduxere sitim tempora. "The season of the 
year brings along with it thirst," i. e., the heats of spring, and the thirst 
produced by tbem, impel us to tbe wine-cup. The heat of an Italian spring 
almost equalled that of summer in more northern lands. 一 14. Pressum 
Calibua liberum. " The wine pressed at Cales." Consuls note oo Odt 
U. 20, 9. 一 15. Juvennm nobilium cliens. Who the "juvencs nobilcs" were, 
to whom the poet here alludes, it in impossible to say : neither is it a mat> 
tor ot'the least importance. Those commentators who maintain tbat the 
ode is addressed to the bard of Mantua, make them to be tbe yoimg Neros, 
Draaas and Tib srius, and Doring, who is one of the number that advocate 
Ihia opinion relative to Virgil, regards cliens as equivalent to the Germac 
G&wtHing, ' favorite." 一 16 Nardo vina vcrcberis. " Tho a sbnlt earn thj 



988 RXPI#ANATOEY NOTES. ~ BOOK IV., ODE XIV 



wine with spike aard." Horace, as we bave already stated in tbe iuik. 
dactoiy remarks, invitei the individual whom be here addreaso* to a> 
entertainment, where each guest is to contribute bu qaota. Oar poel 
Agrees to famish tbe wine, if Virgil will tapply perfamea, and Ueuco tellf 
liim he shall bave wine for bin ipikenard. ~ 17. Parvus onyu:, " A 應 maU 
alabaster box." According to Pliny (H. JV" zzzvi, 12), perfame boxei 
irere made of tbo onyx alabaster. ― Eliciet cadum, " Will draw forth 龜 
cask," i. e. t will caaae me to famish a cask of wine for tbe eutertainmeat. 
Tbe opposition between parvvt onyx and cadus ig worthy of notice.— 
U. Qui nunc 8ulpiciis t &c. " Which now lies stored away in the 8al- 
pkian repositories." Commit note on Ode iii" 20, 7. According to Par 
phyrio& in his scholia ou this passage, the poet alludes to a certain Sal 
picius Oalba, a wcll-kDown merchant of the day. 一 ID. Donare largug. A 
Oroscism for largus donandi, or ad donandum. ~ A mora eurarum. "Bit- 
ter cares." An imitation of the Greek idiom (rd mxpil tuv fiepiftvdiv), in 
place of the cummon Latin form amareu euro*. - ~ 21. Cum tua meree. 
"With thy club," t. c. t with thy share toward tbe entertainment; or, in 
other words, with the perfumes. The part furnished by each gucat to- 
ward a feast i 露 here regarded as a kind of merchandise, which partner! 
in trade throw into a common stxx^k, that they may divide the profit'. — 
22. Non ego te mei* immunem y &c. " I do not intend to moisten thoo, at 
free cost, with tho contents of my caps, as tbe rich man docs in some well* 
stored abode." 一 26. Nigrorumque memor ionium. " And, mindful of the 
gloomy firea of tbe foneral pile," i. c, of the shortness of existence. — 
27. Misce "uUitiam coruiliis brevcm. Sec. " Blend a little folly with thy 
«rurldly plam : it is delightful to give loose on a proper occasion/' Dm% 
pert properly signifies " to play the fool," and hence we obtain other kin 
dred meanings, such as " to indulge in festive enjoyment," " to unbend*' 
' give loose," &c. 



Ode XIV. We have already stated, in the introductory remarks to tL» 
fourth ode of the present book, that Horace bad been directed by Aagas 
tafl to celebrate in song the victories of Drasua and Tiberias. Tbe piece 
to which we have alluded is devoted, in consequence, to tbe praises of 
tbe former, the present One to those of the latter, of the two princes. In 
hoth productions, however, the art of the poet is shown in ascribing the 
•uccess of the two brothers to the wisdom and fostering counseh of Anga»- 
tns himself. 

1-15. 1. Quit cura Patrum, Sec. " What care on the part of the fa 
ttiera, or what on the part of the Roman people at large, cau, by offenngi 
rich with honors, perpetuate to the latest ages, O Augustus, the reniem' 
Hrance of thy virtues, in public inscriptions and recording annals ?"— • 
8. "Muneribus, Alluding to the variona public monuments, decrees, kc、 
proceeding from a grateful people. 一 4. Titulos. The reference is to pub 
tic inscriptions of every kind, as well on tbe pedestals of statue 露, as ub 
ftrches, triamphal monuments, coins, &c. 一 Memoresqne fastos» Consult 
note on Ode iii., 17, 4. 一 5. ^Btemet. Varro, as quoted by Nonius (ii" 5^), 
Dses this same verb : " Littcris ac laudibus aternare. ,, —-6. Principum 
riiis term is here selected purposely, as being tbo one which Aagustui 
%9ected for a title, declining, At the same time, that of dictator or king 



KXFLANATOUY NOTES. 一 BOOK IV. , ODE XlV. HHfi 

Con /are Tacit" Ann., i., 9.-7. Quern legts expertes Latina, dec " Whon 
the Vindelici, free before from Bomaa sway, lately learned what thou 
coaldst do in war." Or, more freely and intelligibly, " Whose power i« 
war the Vindelici, Scc. t lately experienced." We have here an imitation of 
a well-known Greek idiom. 8. Vindelici. Consult note on Ode iv. l t 18 
一 10. Genaunog t implacidum genus, Breitn nque veloces. The poet hen 
substitutes for the lUeti and Vindelici of the fourth ode, the Genaani and 
Broaui, Alpine nations, dwelling in their vicinity and allied to them is. 
•rar. This is done apparently with the view of amplifying the yictoriaj 
,f the young Noros, by increasing the number of the conquered nationt. 
rho Genaani and Breani occapied the Val d'Agno and Vol Braunitz, ta 
the east and northeast of the Lago Maggiore (Lacas Verbanaa) .—13 . D& 
jecii acer plus vice stmvlici. "Bravely overthrew with more than 
equal return." 一 14. Major Neronum. " The elder of the Ncros." Alluding 
to Tiberias, the fa tare emperor. 一 15. Immanesque Ralot auspiciis, ice 
M And, under thy favoring 1 auspices, drove back the ferocious Raeti." In 
the time of the republic, when the consul performed any thing in person, 
be w as said to do it by his own conduct and aajpicea (duclu t vel imperii, 
tt attspieio »uo) ; but if his lieutenant, or any other person, did it by his 
command, it was said to be done, auspicio con8ulis t ductu legati, under 
the aaspices of the consul and the condac* of Ihe l'jgatua. In this manner 
the emperors were said to do every thing Y j tlioir own auspices, although 
they ivmained at Home. By the Raeti ia the text are meant the united 
force* of the Rsti, Vindelici, and their allies The first of these conati- 
tated, *n fact, the smallest part, as their strength had already been broken 
by Drosus. Compare Introductory Remarks to the fourth ode of this book 

17-33. 17. Spectandus in certamine Martio, &c. " Giving an illustri- 
oas proof in the martial conflict, with what destruction he coald overwhelm 
those bosoms that were devoted to death in the cause of freedom." The 
poet here alludes to the custom prevalent among these, andolher barbar* 
oas nations, especially such as were of Germanic or Celtic origin, of do* 
voting themselves to death in defence of their country's freedom. 一 21 . Ex- 
trcet. " Tosses." 一 Pleiadum choro scindente nubes, &c. "When the 
dance of the Pleiades is severing the clouds." A beautiful mode of ex- 
pressing the rising of these stars. The Pleiades are seven stars in tha 
oeck of the ball. They are fabled U. have been seven of the daughters at 
Atlas, whence they are also called Atlantides. ( Virg. t George i., 221.) 
They rise with the son on the tenth day before the calends of May (22d 
of April), according to Columella. The Latin writers generally call them 
Vergilia, from their rising about the venial equinox. The appellatioa 
of Pleiades is supposed to come from nXicj, " to sail," because their rising 
marked the season when the storms of winter had departed, and every 
■bing far ;red the renewal of navigation. Some, liowever, derive tha 
Bftme iron ttXelove^ because they appear in a cluster, and thas we find 
ManiliaB calling them " sidus glomerabile." 一 24. Medio* per iff ties. Some 
eommentators regard this as a proverbial expression, alluding to an affaif 
full of imminent dnnger, and co npare it with the Greek 6ia mipbg fioXclif. 
The icholiast, on tiic other ban 1, explains it as equivalent to "per medium 
fntgiuefervorcm." We rathe : think with Gesner, however, that tho ref 
erence is to some historical evjnt which has not come down to as. ― 25. 8u 
tauriformit volvitur Aufidus " With the same fury is tho buH forme/ 



390 EXPLANAIOEY NOTES. 一 BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 

AaSdas roll id along." The epithet tauriformi» t analogous to the HtmY 
ravpbfica^oq^ allades cithor to the ball's head, 01 to the horns witb which 
the gods of rivers were anciently represented. The scholiast ob Eorip 
ides (Ore§L t 1378) is quite correct in referring the explanalioa of thii tc 
the roaring of their waters. Consult note on Ode iii M 30, 10. 一- 26. Qua 
regna Dauni t &. c, " Where it flows by the realms of Apalian Daanut," 
i. e., where it waters the land of Apulia. -一 Prajluit. For jr.'aterfiuit 
Compare Ode iv., 3 10. 一 29. A gminaf errata. " The iron -clad bauds."— 
31. Metendo. " By mowing down." 一 33. Sine clade. " Without lou to 
hlms?l^" i. e. t with trifling injury to bia own army. 一 33. Consilium et tuos 
d^vos. " Thy coanael and thy favoring gods," i. e. t thy counsel and thy 
aiupices. By the expression tuos divo8 t the poet means the favor oif 
heaven, which bad constantly accompanied the arms of Augustas : hence 
the gods are, by a bold figure, called his own. A proof of this favor is 
given in the very next sentence, in which it is stated that, on the fifteenth 
anniversary of the capture of Alexandrea, the victories of Drasas and Ti- 
berias were achieved over their barbarian foes. 

34-52. 34. Nam, tibi quo die, &c. " For, at the close of the third lai 
tram from the day on which the suppliant Alexandrea opened wide tc 
tbee ber harbors and deserted court, propitioas fortune gave a favorablo 
usae to the war." Ou the fourth day before the calends of September 
(August 29th), B.C. 30, the fleet and cavalry of Antony went over to Oo- 
tavius, and Antony and Cleopatra fled to the mausoleam, leaving the pal- 
ace empty. The war with the Raeti and ViudeUci was brought to a cloae 
oa the same day, according to the poet, fifteen years after. ~~ 36. Yacuam 
aulam. Alluding to the retreat of Antony and Cleopatra into the manao- 
leam. 一 37. Lustro. Consult note on Ode ii., 4, 22. 一 40. Laudemqnc et op> 
tatum, &. c. " And claimed praise and wisbed-for glory unto your finished 
campaigns." 一 41. Cantabcr. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. — 42. Medus 
que. Compare Introductory Remarks, Ode iii., 5, and note on Ode i., 26, 
3. 一 Indus. Consult note on Ode i., 12, 55. — Scythes, Consult notes on 
Ode ii., 9, 23, and iii., 8, 23. 一 43. Tutela praseits. Consult note on Odt 
5, 2. 一 44. Domina. " Mistress of tbe world.'' 一 45. Fontium qui celat 
origines Nilus. The Nile, the largest nver of the Old World, still con- 
ceals, observes Malte-Bran, its true sources from the research of science. 
A.t least scarcely any thing more of them is knows to us now than was 
known in the time of Eratosthenes. 一 46. Ister. The Danube. The poet 
allades to the victories of Augustus over the Dacians and other barbaroat 
tribes dwelling in the vicinity of this stream. ― 46. Rapidus Tigris. The 
reference is to Armenia, over which country Tiberius, by the orders of 
Augustus, A.U.C. 734, placed Tigranes as king. The epithet here applied 
Co the Tigris is very appropriate. It is a very swift stream, and its great 
rapidity, the natural effect of local circumstances, lias procured for it the 
Qamo of Tigr in the Median tonga e, Diglito in Arabic, and Hiddekel is 
Hebrew, a 1 which terms denote the flight of an arrow. 一 47. Belluosnf.. 

Teeming with monsters." 一 48. Britannis. Consult note on Ode iii., 5, 
49. Non paventis funera Gallia. Lucan (i., 459, seqq) ascribes tbe 
contempt of der'th which characterized the Gauls tu their belief in tho 
metempsychosis, as taught by the Druids. 一 50. Avdit. "Obe》a" — 51. 
Sifframbri. Consult note on Ode iv., 3, 36 —52 Co'nposilis armit * ThefT 
srms being lai^ ap * 



EXI'LANAIORY NOl'ES. 一 DUOK IV., UUB XV 

、-, *«■ XV. The poet feign 廳 tha^ when about to celebr&te in soog the 
Dattiea and vi"tories ol" Augustus, Apollo reproved him for his rasli at 
tempt, and that He thereupon turned his attention to snbjectB of a lefts 
daring iiatare, and more on an equality with his poetic powers. # Tbe bara 
therefore sings of the blessings conferred on the Roman people Dy the 
glorious reign of the monarch ; the closing of tbe Temple of Janus ; tlia 
prevalence of universal peace ; the revival of agriculture ; the re-estab- 
lishment of laws and public morals ; the rekindling splendor of the Romas 
aame. Hence the concluding declaration of the piece, that Aagastoi 
•hall receive divine honors, as a tutelary deity, from the bands of a grato 
fb* people. 

1-31. 1. Phabus vohntem, &c "Phoebus sternly reproved me, by tte 
ftrikiug of hia lyre, when wishing to tell of battles and subjugated cities, 
and whined mo not to spread ray little sails over the surface of the Taa- 
can 82a." To attempt, with his feeble genias, to sing *he victories of Aa 
giistus, is, according to the bard, to venture in a little bark on a broad < 
tempestuous ocean. As regards the expression increpuit lyra, compare 
the explanation of Orelli : " lyra plectro tacta hoc nefacerem vetuiL" 一 
5. Fniges uberes. " Abundant harvests." Alluding to the revival of agri 
calture after tho ravages of the civil war had ceased. ―" 6. Et signa nostra 
restituit Jovi. " And has restored the Roman standards to oar Jove." 
An allusion to tbe recovery of the standards lost in the overthrow of Cras* 
gas and the check of Antouy. Consait note on Ode i., 26, 3, and Introdac* 
tory B'emarks, Ode iii., 5. 一 8. Et vacuum duellis, &c. " And has closed 
the temple of Janus Q,airiDus, free from wars." The Temple of Janus wu 
open in war and closed in peace. It had been closed previous to the reign 
of Aagnstas, once in the days of Nnma, and a second time at the conclu* 
•ion of the first Panic war. Under Augastns it was closed thrice : once in 
A.U.C. 725, after tho overthrow of Antony (compare Orosius, vi., 22, ar^ 
Uio Casstus, 51, 20、 ; again in A.U.C. 729, after the redaction of the Can 
^abri (compare Dio Cassius t 53, 26) ; and the third time when the Dacians, 
Dalmatians, and some of the German tribes were subdued by Tiberias 
and Dni8us. (Compare Dio Cassius, 54, 36.) To this last Horace is here 
娜 upposed to allade. As regards the expression Janum Quirinum^ com- 
pare the langnago of Macrobius {Sat. t i., 9) : *• Invocamus Janum Quiri- 
num quasi bellorum potentem, ab hasta, quam SaMni curim voeant." 一 
9. Et ordinem rectum^ dec. The order of construction is as follows : et in 
jecit frena UcerUtaB cvaganti extra rectum ordinem. " And haa carbeO 
licentiousness, roaming forth beyond the bounds of right order." i. e. % ud 
bridled licentiousuess. Consult note on Ode iv., 5, 22. 一 12. Veteres artes 
•"The virtues of former days." 一 16. Ab Hesperio cubili. " From his rest- 
ng-place in the west." — 18. Exiget otium. " Shall drive away repose." 
一 20. Inimicat, " Embroils. , 一 21. Non qui profundum t &c. Alluding to 
the nations dwelling along the borders of the Danube, the Germans, Rnti. 
Dacians, dec. "― 22. E dicta Julia. " The Julian edicts." Tho reference if 
to tbe laws imposed by Augustus, a member of the Julian line, on van- 
quished nations. 一 Getcc. Consult note on Ode iii., 24, 11. 一 23. Seres. Con- 
■nk nolo on Ode i., 12, 55. Floras states that the Seres sent an embassy 
with valuable gifts, to Aagustas (iv., 12, 61). 一 Inftdive PerscB. "Or the 
faithless Parthians." 一 24. Tanain prope Jlnmen orti. Altndiag to the 
Scythians. Among the embassies sent to A agiRtas waf cne frjm th 醮 



392 EXFl ANATORY fOTES. — BOCK IV., ODB lv 



Bcythians 一 35. El profutis lueibus et saeris. u Both on oommoa and m 
sred days." Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 7. ~~ 26. Munera Liberi. Consult 
note on Ode " 18, 7. 一 29. Virtute funelos. " Authors of illastrioas deeds." 
—30. Lydis rtmxxto carmine tibiii. "In long, mingled alternate with 
the Lydian flutes," i. e. f with alternate vocal and instramental mosic. 
The Lydian flutes were the same with what were called the left-handed 
flatcs. Among the ancient Bates, those most frequently mentioned are 
the tibia dextra and sinistra t pares and impares. It would teem that 
the doable flate consisted of two tabes, which were bo joined together aa 
to have but one moatb, and 廳。 were both blown at once. Tbat whioh th« 
magician played on with his right hand was called tibia dextra t the right 
banded flate ; with his \etty the tibia sinistra^ the left-handed flute. The 
former had bat few holes, and soanded a deep, serioas bass; the other hnt, 
many holes, and a sharper and livelier tone. The left-handed flutes, u 
has already been remarked, were the same witb what were called the 
Lydian, while tbe right-handed were identical with what were deDomioa- 
led the Tyri«o. ~~ a'.. Alma progeaiem Veneris. An allusion to Aagtuitu, 
irho had p«.«ved by adoption into the Julian family, and conteqaeotly 
dftimed de^oevl, w that line, from Ajcan ! .oa, the gjaodcoQ of AadiiMi 
iad Venn*. 



E P O D E S 



The term Epode ('ETr^dof) was ased in more than one HgniflcatlOKi 
ft was applied, in the first place, to an assemblage of lyric verses imm» 
iiately sncceoding the strophe and antistropbe, and intended to close th€ 
period or strain. Hence the name itself from knl and <^6^, denoting some- 
tfun^ sung after another piece. In the next place, tbe appellation waa 
given to a small lyric poem, composed of several distichs, in each of whicb 
the first verse waa an iambic trimeter (six feet), and the last a dimeter 
(foar feet). Of this kind were tbe Epodes of Archilocbus, mentioned by 
Plutarch in his Dialogue on Music (c. xxviii., vol. xiv., p. 234, ed. Hutten), 
and under this same class are to be ranked a majority of the Epodes of 
Horace. Lastly, the term Epode was so far extended in signification as 
to designate any poem in which a shorter verse was made to follow a long 
one, which will serve as a general definition for all the productions of 
Horace that go by tbis name. Compare, in relation to this laat meaning 
of the word, the language of Hephcsstion {De Metr., p. 129, ed. Gai»f.) t elai 
d' iv Tolg 7rot^/jiaai aai ol a^eviKug ovto xaXovfievoi iir(f)6oi, 6rav fie- 
yvikt^ arix<ti 7^£piTTov tl eiTi<f>ipijTai' where 7repiTT6v corresponds to tba 
Latin impar, and refers to a verse ancqaal to one which has gone before, 
•r, in other words, lesa than it. 



£pode I. Written a short time previous to the battle of Actium. Tho 
Wd offers himself as a companiou to Maecenas, when the latter was on 
<he eve of embarking in the expedition against Antony and Cleopatra, and 
expresses ins perfect willingness to share every danger with his patron 
and friend. Maecenas, however, apprehensive for the poet's safety, re- 
fused to grant his request. 

1-19. 1. Ibis Libumi8 t &c. " Dear Maecenas, wilt thou venture in tho 
iight Liburnian galleys amid the towering bulwarks of the ships of An- 
tony ?,' If we credit the scholiast Acron, Augustus, when setting out 
against Antony and Cleopatra, gave tbe command of the Liburnian gal- 
leys to Maecenas. 一 5. Quid nos, qnibus tc、 &c. The ellipses are to be 
•applied as follows : Quid nos faciamus、 qui bus vita est jucunda si te 
mperstite vivitur, si contra accident, gravis ? " And what shall I do, to 
whom life is pleasing if thoa survive ; if otherwise, a burden ?" 一 7. Jussi. 
Understand a te. 一 9. An hu?ic laborem, &c. " Or shall I endare the tcila 
of this campaign with that resolution with which it becemes the brave to 
bear them ?" ― 12. Inhospitalem Caucaium. Consult note on Ode i., 22, 
6. — 13. Occideniis usque ad ullimum sinum. "Even to the farthest bay 
of tbe west," i. e. t to the farthest limits of the world on the west. 一 18. Ma- 
jor habet. "More powerfully possesses." -- 19. Ut assidens implutnibut, 
ftc. "Ai a bird, sitting near her unfledged young, dreads the approachef 
of serpents more for them whe»left by her, unable, however, though she 
be with them, to render any greater aid on that account to lier offspring 
pUcad before her eyes. ' A poetical pleonasm ocoars in the term prtt 



894 EXPLAKATORV NOTES. 一 EPODE 1. 

tentil>its t and, in a free translation, the word m 竃 y be regarded as c 
lent simply to Us. The idea intended to be conveyed by the wbo^e sen 
fcence ia extremely beautiful. The poet Ukena himself to the parent bird, 
aud, as the latter sits by her young, though even her presence can uH 
protect tbem, so the bard wiahea to be with his friend, not became he ia 
able to defend him from barm, bat that he may fear the leas for his safety 
wbild rexnaining by his side. 

2TI-P9. 23. Libenter hoc et o.nne, &c. The idea intended to be convey % 
•d ii as follows : I make not this request in order to obtain from thee more 
•xtennive posses 廳 iona, the usual rewards of military service, bat in th€ 
ipirit of disinterested aifection, and with the hope of securing still more 
firmly thy friendship and esteem. 一 25. Non ut juvencis t &, c. An elegant 
hypallage for non ut plures juvenci illigati meis aratris nitantvr. " Not 
that mure oxen may toil for me, yoked to my ploughs," i. e" not that 1 
may have more extensive estates. 一 27. Pecusve Calabris, &. c. "Nor that 
my flocks may change Calabrian for Lucanian pastares, before the barn 
Ing star appears," i. e., nor that I may own snch numerous flocks and 
herds as to have both winter and summer pastures. An hypallage for 
Calabra pascua mvtet Lucanis. The more wealthy Romans were accus- 
tomed to keep their flocks and herds in the rich pastures of Calabria and 
Lac&nia. The mild climate of the former country made it an excellent 
region for winter pastures ; about the end of June, however, and a short 
time previous to the rising of the dog-star, the increasing heat caused 
<heso pastures to be exchanged for thoae of Lacania, a cool and woody 
raaotry. On the approach of winter Calabria was revisited. 一 29. Nec ut 
$uperni t Sec, " Nor that my glittering villa may touch the Gircaean wall 廣 
of lofty Tuscalum," i. e. % nor that my Sabine villa may be built of white 
marble, glittering beneath the rays of the san, and be so far extended m 
to reach even to the walls of TascaKm. The distance between the poefs 
farm and Tuscolura was more than twenty-five miles. Bentley considers 
iuperni an incorrect epithet to be applied to Tasculum, which, according 
to Cluver, whom he cites, but whose meaning he mistakes, the critic 
makes to have been situate "in clivo leviter assurgente." The truth it, 
ancient Tasculum was built on the samrait, not on the declivity of a hill 
一 Candens. Alluding to the style of building adopted by the rich. 一 Tus- 
culi Cirata mania. Tasculum was said to have been founded by Tele* 
gonus, the son of Ulysses and Circe. Compare Ode iii., 29, 8. 

33-34. 33. Ckr ernes. Acron supposes the allusion to be to Chremog, h 
character in Terence. This, however, is incorrect. The poet refers to 
me of the lost plays of Menan'Jer, entitled the " Treasure" (&jjijavp6g) 9 
tn outline of which is given by Donatus in his notes on the Eunach ot 
Terence (Prol. t 10). A young man, having squandered his estate, sendt 
a servant, ten years after his father's death, according to the will cf the 
ieceased, to carry provisions to his father's moo anient; bat he bad before 
old the ground in which the monument stood to a covetous old man, 
n horn the servant applied to help liim to open the monasieiit, in wliicb 
they discovered a hoard of gold and a letter. The old man seizes the 
treasure, and keeps it, under pretence of having deposited it there, fof 
safety, during times of war, and the young fellow goes to law with him. 
一 34. I^iscinctus au* *>erdam vt nepos. Or squander , way like a disso 



B1FLANAT0RY NOTES.-- -KPOUE 11 



! ate spendtlirift." Among the Unmans, it was thought eifeminate to ap 
jear abroad with the tunic loosely or carelessly girded. Hence cinctm 
and succinetus are put for industrials^ expeditus or gnavtis, diligent, ac 
tive, clever, because they used to gird the tunic when at work ; and, on 
»he other hand, discinctus is equivalent to iners t mollis, ignamts f &c— 
Nepos. The primitive meaning of this term is "a grandson :" from the 
loo great icdulgence, however, generally shown by grandfathers, and the 
minous consequences that ensued, the word became a common desig" 
tioo for a prodigal. 



Ehods II. The object of the poet is to show with how much difficulty 
B covetous man disengages himself from the love of riches. He there 
fore sapposes a usurer' who is persuaded of the happiness and tranqail 
aty of a country life, to have formed the design of retiriug into the ooun 
try and* renouncing his former pursuits. The latter calls in lii 廳 money, 
breaks through all engagements, and is ready to depart, when his ruling 
passion returns, and once more plauges him into the vortex of gain 
Some commentators, dissatisfied with the idea tliat so beautiful a descrip 
tion of rural enjoyment shoald proceed from the lips of a sordid usurer: 
bave been disposed to regard the last four lines of the epode as spurioas 
and the appendage of a later age. But the art of the poet is strikingly 
displayed in. the very circumstance which they condemn, since nothing 
can show more clearly the powerful influence which the love of richea cap 
exercise over the mind, than that one who, like Alphius, has so accarftte 
a perception of the pleasures of a country life, should, like him, sacrifice 
tb^rn all on the altar of gain. 

1-22. 1. Procul negotiis. " Far from the basy scenes of life." 一 2. Ut 
prisca gens mortalium. An allusion to the primitive simplicity of the 
Golden Age.— 3. Exercet. "Ploughs." 一 4. Solutus ommfaenore. "Freed 
from all manner of borrowing or leading," i. e. t from all money tr ansae 
tions. The interest of money waa called fanus, or usura. The legal in 
cerest at Borne, toward the end of the republic and under the first em- 
perors, was one as monthly for the use of a hundred, equal to twelve per 
cent, per annum. This was called usura "nlesima, because in a hun- 
dred months the interest equalled the capital. 一 5. Neque exciiaiur, &c. 
" Neither as a soldier is he aroused by the harsh blast of the trainpett noi 
does he dread, as a trader, the angry sea." 一 7. Forum. "The courts of 
law." 一 Superba civium t &c. " The splendid thresholds of the more pow- 
erful citizens." The portals of the wealthy and powerful. Some, how 
ever, understand by superba, an allusion to the haaghtine«s displayed by 
the rich toward the clients at their gates. In either case, the reference 
it to the caatom, prevalent at Rome, of clients waiting on their patrons tc 
offer their morning salutations. 一 11. Inutilesque, &c. All the MS3. and 
early editions place this and the succeeding verse after the 13tli and 14th, 
with the exception of a single MS. of H. Stephens, in which tliey are ar- 
ranged as we bave given them. Many of the best editors have adopted 
Chia arrangement. After alluding to the marriage of the vine with the 
trees, it seems much more natural to make what immediately follow 嚴 
b 囊 ve reference to the same branch of rural economy. 一 12. Inserit. u la 
vtfU." — 13. Muffientium. TJndersta.'d bourn - 14 JBrraV*«. * Qru 



3 & 6 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 EPODE 



iug/'— 16. Jnfirmtu. "Tender." Compare the reir ark of 1'oriug : * AVa 
ura enim gua imbeciUei $u nl ova. ' 一 17. Decorum m itibui porais. " Adoro 
ed with mellow fruit." 一 19. Imitiva pira. " The pears of his own graft 
ing." 一 20. Cerfantem et utsm, 9lc. "And the grape vying in hno wit* 
tbe purple." Purpura is the dative, by a Orflecism, for tho ablative.— 
21. Priape. Priapus, as the god of gardens, always received, as an rffer 
ing, the first produce of the orchards, 6lc. Compare note un Ode iii., if 
AL~^t2. Tutor Jinium " Tutelary god of boundaries.** 

24-47. 24. In tenaei gramine. " On the matted grass." The epithet 
tmaei may alio, but wnth less propriety, be rendered 14 tenacioas," civ 
strong-rooted." 一 25. Labuntur allis, 6lc. " In the mean time, tbe stream 纏 
glide onward beneath the high banks." Some editions bavo rivis for ripU, 
bnt the expression allis rivis (" with their deep waters") does not sait 
the season of summer so well as altis ripis, which iilltdes to the decrease 
of tho waters by reason of the sammer heats.— 26. Quervntur. *• Uttet 
their plaintive notes."— 27. Frondesque lymphis, ice. u And the leaves 
murmur amid the gentlv flowing waters," i. c , the pendant branches mur- 
mur as they meet the rippling oarrent of the gently-flowing stream. 一 
26 Quod. " All which." Equivalent to id quod. 一 29. Tonantis annu$ 
kibernus Jovis. " The wintry season of tcmpestuons Jove." The allu- 
sion is to the tempests, intermingled with thunder, that aro prevalent ir 
Italy at the commencement of winter.—- 30. Cumparat. " Collects to 
gether." ― 31. Multa cane. " With many a bound." 一 33. Aut amite levt, 
ice. . " Or spreads the nets of large meshes with the smooth pole." Ame» 
denotes a pole or staff to support nets. 一 Levi. We have rendered this 
epithet, as coming from UvU ; it may also, however, have the meaning 
of " light," and be regarded as coming from livis. Consult note f pagelxiv 
of this volume. ― 35. Advenam. " From foreign climes." Alluding to the 
migratory habits of the crane, Aid its seeking the warm climate of Italy 
at the approach of winter. Cranes formed a favorite article on the tables 
of the rich. 一 37. Quis non malarum, &. c. "Who, amid employments 
such as these, does not forget the anxious cares which love carries in its 
train ?" Complete the ellipsis as follows : Quis non obliviscitur malarum 
curarum, quas curas^ ice. 一 39. In partem juvat, Sec " Aid, on her side, 
in the management of household affairs, and the rearing of a sweet off- 
spring." 一 41. Sabina. The domestic virtues and the strict morality of 
the Sabrnes are freqaontly alluded to by the ancient writers. 一 Aut perusta 
solibux, Sec. " Or the wife of the industrious Apalian, embrowned by the 
gun." ― 43. Sacrum. The hearth was sacred to the Lares. 一 Vetustis \i 
the senie of aridis 一 4^. Leeium pecus. " The joyous flock." 一 47. Horna 
vina. " This year's wine." The poor, and lower orders, were accustom 
ed to drink the new wine from the dolium, after the fermentation had «ab> 
rided. Hence it was called vinum doliare. The dolium was the large 
vessel in which the wine was left to ferment, before it was transferred to 
tbe amphora or cadus. 

49-54. 49. Lucrina ct nchylia. "The Lucrine shell-fish." The La 
«-riue lalce was celebrated for oysters end other shell-fish. —— 50. Rhombuo 
" The turbot." 一 Scari. The Scares (" Scar" or " Char") was held in higii 
estimation by the ancients. P'''ny (If. N" ix., 17) remarks of it, that it u 
ihn only fish which rominateg : an observation whicb Sp/ 1 beon made hi 



EXPLANATORY VOTES. 一 EPODE 111. 397 

4ralotle before him ; and hence according to this latter write t, toe osme 
M^pv^ t given to it by the Greeks The ancients, however, were mistsker 
on this point, and Baffon has corrected their error. The roasted Hoarai 
was a favorite dish (compare Atherutus、 vii., ed. Schweigh^ vol. iii" p. 
175), and the liver of it waa particularly commended. ~~ 51. Si quos Eais, 
&c. "If a tempest, thundered forth over the Eastern waves, tarn any of 
their number to this sea." ~~ 53. Afra avis. " The Guinea fowl." Some 
oommentators snppose tho turkey to be here meant, bat erroneoasly, 廳 ince 
ttiie bird was entirely unknown to the ancients, its native country i 疆 
America. On the other hand, the Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) w«i 
a bird well known to the Greeks and Romans. 一 54. Attagen Ionicus. 
"The Ionian attagen/' A species, probably, of heath-cock. Alexander 
llie Myndian (Athenaus, ix., 99, vol. iii., ji 431, ed. Schweigh.) describes it 
m being a little larger than a partridge, having ite back marked with 
oamerous spots, in color approaching that of a tile, though somewhat more 
reddish. Mr.Walpole thinks it is the same with the Tetrao Francolinus 
( Walpole's Collect" vol. i., p 262, in ttofis.) 

57-67. 57. Herba lapathi. The lapaihum, a species of sorrel, takes lUi 
aame (Xuiradov) from its medicinal properties (XaTru(o) t pur go), 一 58. Mai' 
V4B. Compare note on Ode i., 31, 16. 59. Terminalibus. The Termina- 
Ua t or festival of Terminus, the god of boundaries, were celebrated on tho 
23d of February (7th day before the calends of March). ― 60. Hadus ercp' 
tus Ivpo. Compare the explanation of Oeflner : " Ad frugalitatem rus- 
ticam refertur. Non maetaturus paterfamilicu hadum integrum, epula- 
tur ereptum lupo t ct alioqui perilurum." 一 65. Potito.-que vemas y &c. 
••And the slaves ranged around the shining Lare', the proof of a wealthy 
mansion/' t. e., ranged around the bright fire on the domestic hearth. The 
epithet renidentes is well explained by Doring : " Ignis in foeo accenst 
ijpUndort re/ulgenles" 一 67. Hoc ubi locutus, &c. "When the usurer 
Alpbias had uttered these words, on the point of becoming an inhabitant 
of the country, he called in all his money on the ides »~ on the calends (of 
the ensuing month) he seeks again to lay it out !" The asarer, convinced 
of the saperior felicity which a country life can bestuw, calls in alibis oat- 
ttanding capita' for the purpose of purchasing a farm ; bnt when the ca- 
leuds of the next month arrive, and bring with them the usual period for 
laying oat money at interest, his old habits of gain return, the picture 
which he haa just drawn fades rapidly from before his view, and the in* 
tended cultivator of the soil becomes once more the usurer Alpbim 
Among the Romans, the calends and ides were the two periods of the 
month when money was either laid out at interest or called in. As the 
interest of money was aaaally paid on the calends, they are hence called 
iriste* (Serm. t i., 3, 87) aud celeres {Ovid, Rem. Am., 561), and a book in 
which the sama demanded were marked, was termed Calendarium 
[&mee, Bcnef^ i" 2, and vii., 10. / 丄, Ep„ xiv , 87.) 



Bpode III. Moecenas had invited Horace lo sap with liim, and harf 
•yortively placed amid the more exquisite viands a dish highly seatoned 
with garlic [moretum alliatum. Compare DoncUus, ad Terent. Pkorm, % 
li- 2). Of this the poet partook, but tiaving suffered severely in consa 
qimiica, he here wreaks b'» vengeance oa tbc offending plant desnihitit 



39S BXPLANATORY NOl E9. '一 EPODR IV, 



Ik as a sufflci mt punishment for tlie blackest crimes, and as fonoing oa« 
?f the deatllicst ol poisonB. 

1-17. 】. OUm "Hereafter.' ,一 3. Edit cic^tis, Ac. "Let him eiu 
garlic, more noxbaa than hemlock." The poet recoiuuiendfl garlic as , 
panishnient, instead of hemlock, the usual potion among the Athenians. 
Edit is given for edaf, according to the ancient mode ot* inflecting, edim 
edis, edit ; like sim, sis, sit. This form is adopted in all the best editions 
The common reading is edat. 一 4. O dura mesxorum ilia. Garlic aud wilj 
thyme {sirpyllum)t pounded together, wero used by the Roman farm«^ri 
lo recruit the exhausted spirits of the reapers, and those who had labored 
in the heat. The poet expresses his surprise at their being able to endure 
gach food. 一 5. Quid hoc vetieni, &c. " What poisou is this that ragea i 黡 
my vitals ?" 一 6. Viperimis cruor. The blood of vipers was regarded by 
the ancients as a most fatal poison. 一 7. Fcfellit. In the sense of latuit. 
一 An malos Canidia, dec. " Or did Canidia dresa the deadly dish V 
Canidia, a reputed sorceress, ridiculed by the poet in the fifth epode. 
Compare the Introductory Remarks to that piece. 一 9. Ut. " When." 一 
11. Ignota tauri8 t dec. An hypallage for ignotis tauros illigaturumjugis. 
An allasiou to the fire-breathing balls that were to be yoked by Jason u 
one of the conditions of bis obtaining from ^£etes the golden fleece. — 12. 
Perunxit hoc Iasonem. Medea gave Jason an unguent, with which he 
was to anoint his person, and by the virtues of which he was to be safe 
from harm. The poet pleasantly asserts that this was nous^otber than the 
juice of garlic. 一 13. Hoc delibutis, Sec. " By presents infected with tbii 
having taken vengeance on her rival, ahe fled away on a winged serpent." 
Alluding to the fate of Creusa, or Glance, the daughter of Creon, and th9 
flight of Medea through tho air in a car drawn by winged serpents. 一 15. 
Nee tantus unquam, &c. " Nor hath such scorching heat from the stan 
ever settled on thirsty Apulia." The allusion is to the supposed influence 
of the dog-star in increasing the summer heats. 一 17. Nec munvs humeris, 
&c. " Nor did the fatal gift burn with more fury on the shoulders of the 
indefatigable Hercules." The reference is to the poisoned garment whidi 
Dejanira seut to Hercules, and which bad been dipped in the blood of tba 
centaur Nessas, slain by one of the arrows of Hercules. 



Epode IV. Addressed to some individual who had risen, amid the 
troubles of the civil war. from the condition of a slave to the rank of mili* 
tary tribune and to the possession of riches, but whose corrupt morals aad 
intolerable insolence had made bim an object of universal detestation. 
The bard indignantly laments that such a man should be enabled to di»> 
play himself proudly along the Sacred Way, should be the owner of ex- 
tensive possessions, and should, by his rank as tribune, have it in hi* 
power to sit among tho eqaitea at the public spectacles, in advance of the 
est of the people. The scholiasts Acron and Porpbyrion make this epode 
to have been written against Menas, the freedman of Pompey, an opinion 
adopted by the earlier commentators. In most MSS., too, it is inscribed 
to him. The more recent editors, however, have rejected this supposi 
tioc, and vrith perfect propriety. We read nowhere else of Menas's hav 
tng obtained the office of military tribaue, nor of any servile punishment* 
which he bad undergone irt a pecaliar degree while still in r state of «l«t 



£Xf LAVATORY NOTES. ― EPODE IV. 



398 



ecy, neithc is any mentien made here of that perfidy and frequent chang 
ixkg of sides which formed so great a blot in the character of this fudivid 
ad. Cousult note on Ode iii., 16, 13. 

I- &. 1. Lvpis et agnis, &c. "There is as strong an aversion on my 
part toward tbee, O thou whose back lias been galled by the Iberian 
lasb. and whose legs have been lacerated by the hard fetter, as falls by 
natnre to the lot of wolves and lambs." 3. Ibericis funibvs. Alluding to 
親 lash coipposed of ropes made of the spartum, or Span.' ah broom. Thin 
^Ust grew in great abundance near Carthago Nova, on iht coast of Spain. 
—4. Dura compede. Among the llomans, the worst kind of slaves were 
flompelled to work in fetters, as well in the ergastulum t or work-house, as 
in tbo fields.— ?7. Sacram metiente te viem. "As thou strattest proudly 
aluag the Sacred Way." The term melitnte well describes the affected 
dignity of the worthless upstart, in his n^easuring, as it were, bis very 
steps. , Sacram viam. The Sacred Way was a' general place of resort 
for the idle, and for those who wished to display themselves to public 
riew. Compare Sat" i., 9, 1. 一 8. Cum bis trium ulnar um toga. The 
wealthy and luxurious were foqd of appearing abroad in long and loose 
gowns, as a mark of their opulence and rank.— -9. Ut ora vcrtat, dec. 
* How the indignation of those who p^ss to ^nd fro, most openly express- 
ed, tarns their looks on thee." 

II- 20. 11. Sectus flagellis, &c. " This wretch, (say thoy), cat with tht» 
pods of the triumvirs until the beadle w^s weary," &c. The allusion i» 
to the Triumviri CapitaJes, who judged concerning slaves and persons of 
the lowest rank, and who also had the charge of the prison and of the ex 
ecution of condemned crimiuals. The prtsco used to proclaim the offence, 
and the sentence passed upon it, while tbat sentence was being inflicted 
-«-13. Arat. In the sense of possidet. ― Falcrni fundi. The wealthy Ro 
mans were accustomed to have large possessions in the fertile territory 
of Campania, which is here designated by the name of its celebrated vine 
yards. 一 14. Et Appiam mannis terit. " And wears out the very Appian 
Way with his horses," i. e., is constantly frequenting the Appian Way witb 
his long train of equipage. The Appian Way led first to Capaa, and after 
ward to Brandisium. It was commenced by Appius Claudius Cuecas. in 
his censorship, B.C. 312, and carried on to Capua. The part from Capua 
to Brandisium was begun by the consul Appius Claudius Pulcher, grand* 
■on of Caecus, B.C. 249, and was completed by another consul of the tame 
fnmily thirty -six years after. ~> 15. Sedilibusquc mag7ius, &c. According 
Ut the lavr of L. Roscius Otho, passed A.U.C. 686, fourteen rows of benches, . 
immediately after the orchestra, a place where the senate sat, were ap^ 
propriated in the theatre and amphitheatre for the accommodation of the 
knights. As the tribunes of tbe soldiers bad an equal right with the 
oqa : te8, they were entitled to seats in this same quarter ; and hence the 
(mliridual to whom the poet alludes, though of servile origin, boldly takei 
hii place on the foremost of the equestrian benches, nor fears the law of 
Otb). — 17. Quid attinet, dec. " To what purpose is it that so many ve» 
■e!g, their beaks armed with heavy brass, are sent against pirates and a 
banl of slaves, if this wretch is made a military tribune ?" The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is as follows : Why go to so mncb expense in 
cf,r.ippin? fleets against pirates at i 露 laves, when slaves at ho.'ne alevuti' 



400 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 EFODE V 



tbemielvea to the bighesw stations ? The allusion appears to be to tb« 
armament fitted oat by Octaviana 廳 (Aagnstns) against Sextiia Pompeiot, 
A.U.C. 718, whose principal strength consisted of. pirates aud fagitiy^ 
fiaves. 一 20. Tribuno militum. In each legion there were six miJuary 
tribunes, each of whom in battle seema to have had charge of tea ce^ 
tarieii, which, when fall, would amount to a tboaaand men ; bence the oar 
rMpfiading Greek appellatioa is ^lAtdp^f. 



Bpode V. T> e bard ridicules Canidia, who, herself advanced in yev% 
曹 m Becking by incantatior* and charms to regain the affections of the old 
%ad foolish Var as. A Btraage scene of magic rites is introdaced, and the 
)iece opens with the piteous exclamations of a boy of noble birth, whom 
yanidia and hr»r associate hags are preparing to kill by a slow and dread- 
ful process, and from whose marrow and dried liver a philter or love- 
potion ia to be prepared, all-powerful for recalling the inconstant Vanu 
It will bo raadily perceived that the greater part of this ia mere fiction, 
■nd that the real object of the poet is to inflict well-merited chastisement 
on those females of the day, in whose licentious habits age had been able 
to predece no alteration, and who, when their beauty had departed, had 
Tecoane to strange and saperstitioas expedients for securing admirers. 

】 '24. 1. At, O deorum, &. c. The scene opens, as we have already re- 
marked, with the sapplications of a boy, who is supposed to be surround- 
ed by the hags, and who reads their purpose in their looks. He conjaref 
them to have compassion on him by the tenderness of mothers for their 
children, by his birth, and by the justice of the gods. 一 4. Truces. " Fierce- 
ly turned." — 5. Partubus veris. Alluding to the frequent stealing of in 
/ants on the part of these hags. 一 7. Per hoc inane, &. c. " By this vain or- 
nament of purple." Young men of family wore a gown bordered with 
purple, called the toga pratexta^ until the age of seventeen, when they 
pat on the toga virilis. The epithet inane expresses the disregard cf 
Oanidie for tbis emblem of rank.- -9. Aut uti petita, &c. " Or like a savage 
kea" of prey wounded by the dart." 一 11. Ut hece trewnte y &c. " When 
the boy, after having uttered these complaints with trembling lipa, stooo 
unong them, with his ornaments stripped off, a tender body," &c. Undet 
the term insignia, tbo poet includes both the toga prcstexfa and the bulla. 
X'hia latter was a golden ball or boss, which hang from tbe neck on tho 
breast, as Borne think in the shape of a heart, but, according to others, 
•wind, with the figure of a heart engraved on it. The sons of freedmen 
and of poorer citizens used only a leathern boss. 一 15. CanidieL, brevilms 
implicata, &. c. " Then Canidia, having entwined hnr locks and dishevel- 
lod head with small vipers," &c. The costume mosc commonly assigned 
tn tbe furies is here imitated. 一 17. Jubet sepulcris, &c. Preparations are 
now made for tbe unhallowed rites ; and first, the wood to be used %jr the 
醫 re must be that of the wild fig-tree, torn up from a barying-place. The 
Wi.od supposed to be employed on sach occas'ons was always that of comfl 
jiautpicioiis or ill-omened tree, and in this class the wild fig-tree wm par- 
ticularly ranked, both on account of its sterility, and its springing ap «pon< 
kaneoasly among tombs. 一 18. Cupressusf unebres . 14 Funereal cypresaes/ 
Cons alt note on Ode ii., 14, 23. 一 19. Et uncta turpis ova ranm sanguinm, 
The order of construction if as follows : Et ova noctarnao %tns6M 



BXPLANAl'ORY NOTES. 一 EPODE V. 401 

mmcta sangw/je turpis rana t plumamque nocturnas strigit. "And the 
eggs, smeared with the blood of a loathsome toad, and the plumage of a 
midnight screech-owl." The ancionts believed the blood of the toad, like 
«nat of the viper, to be poisonous. — 21. Iolcos. A city of Thessaly, ali 
which country was famed for producing herbs used in magic rites. Iolcoi 
vras situate, according to Pindar (Nem. t iv" 87), at the foot of Mount Pelion, 
•nd was the birth-place of Jason and bis ancestors. 一 Iberia. A tract of 
country bordering apon, and situate to the east of Colchis. The allasioa 
If consequently to the same herbs in the use of which Medea is reputed 
to have been so skillful. — 24. Flammis aduri Colchicis. " To be conco'A- 
•d with magic fires." The epithet Colchicis is here equivalent to mag%2k§ 
t. e. t sach fires as the Colcbian Medea was wont tn kindle, from the wood 
tf baleful trees, for the performance of ber magic rites. 

25-39. 25. Expedita. "With her robe tucked up." The term may 
also be simply rendered " active." Consult note on Epode i" 34. 一 S» 
gana. Sagana, Veia, and Folia were sorceresses attendant on Canidia. 
一 26. Avernales aquas. Waters brought from the Lake Avernas, one of 
the fabled entrances to the lower world, and aged here for the parposei 
of magic lestration. 27. Marinus echinus. "A sea-urchin." The sea- 
urchin among fishes is analogoas to the hedgehog among land animals, 
and hence the name eehintts (^? vof) applied by the ancients to both. 
The sea-archin, however, has finer and sharper prickles than the other, 
resembling more hamnn hair in a bristly state. -~ 28. Laurens apcr. The 
marshes of Lanrentam, in ancient Latiam, were famous for the number 
and size of the wild boars which they bred in their reedy pastures. 一 
Abacta nulla eonscienlia. " Deterred by no remorse." 一 30. Humum 
exhauriebat. " Began to dig a pit."— 32. Quo posset infossus puer t &c. 
M In whidh the boy, having his body buried, might pine away in fall view 
of food changed twice or thrice daring the long day." The expression 
longo die ia well explained by Mitscherlich : " Quipuero fame excruciato 
'longissimus videbatur.'* ~~ 35. Quum promineret ore, &. c. " Projecting 
with his face above the surface of the groand, as far as bodies suspended 
by the chin are out of the water," i. as far as the persons of those who 
■wim appear above the level of the water. ~ 37. Exsucea medulla. " Hit 
marrow destitute of xcoistare." 一 38. Among essel poculum. " Might form 
the ingredients of a potion for love." A philter, which had the power of 
producing love. 一 39. Interminato quum semel, &. c. " When once his eye 
balls had withered away, fixed steadily on the forbidden food." Quum 
»emel is here equivalent to simul ac. 

41-60. 41. Hie irreitctum, Sec. Tho long, uncut nail occapies a proia- 
(nent place in the oostame of the ancient sorceresses. 一 43. Quid dixit t 
av£ qui I tacuit ? Eqaivalent in spirit to Nefaria quaque effctta el palam 
pt ofessa est. ~ 45. Nox et Diana. Canidia, after the manner of sorcereii- 
e«, invokes Night and Hecate who were supposed to preside over magio 
rites. 一 Qua silentium regis. An allasion to Diana's shining daring the 
■ilence of the night, the season best adapted for the ceremonies of magic 
—47. Nunc, nunc adeste, &c. Mitscherlich makes this an imitation of an 
old form of prayer, and eqaivalent to " Mihi projntias silts, ira vestra t', 
kostes oNigata." The scboliut is wrong in sapposing the meaning of 
the latter part to be " tn Varim tram vestram ^ff indite" -^A^ Nurmn 



IU3 



BXI'LAKATORY NOTES. 一 EPODE V 



^PoTrer." —M. Senern^ quod omnes "dean" &c. *May the dog> of th, 
B'ibura drive bim hither with their barking, that all may laugh at his e* 
pense, tie aged profligate, anointed with an essence more powerful than 
any which tny bands have hitherto prepared." 一 Senem adulterum. Th« 
allusion ia to Varus, and the manner in which he is here icdicated by C«- 
iiidia tends indirectly to cast ridicule upon herself for seeking to reclaim 
黼 uc Ii an admirer. 一 52. SuburanxB canes. The Sabura was the most profli 
gate quarter of Rome, and the rambles of Varus, therefore, in this pert ol 
the capital, were any thing else bat creditablo. 一 53. Nardo perunctum. 
The allusion here is an ironical one. Cauidia does not refer to any actaal 
angaent of her own preparing, but to the virtues of the magic herbs, whidi 
are to be all-powerfal in recalling the inconstant Varus. 一 55. Quid acci 
dit, &c. The dash at the end of the preceding verse is placed there to de 
Dote that Conidio, after having proceeded thus far with her incantations, 
pauses in expectation of the arrival of Varus, which is to be their intended 
result. When this, however, U delayed longer than she imagined it 
would be, the sorceresi retinmes her spell : " What has happened ? Why 
are my direful drags leti powerful than those of the barbarian Medea V 
i. e" why have these once efficacious spells lost all their power in bring- 
ing back the absent Varus ? 一 Barbara. This epithet, here applied to 
Medea, in imitation of the Greek usage, ii intended merely to designate 
her as a native of a foreign land, i. e. f Colchis. 一 57. Quilms superbamfugit, 
<Stc. Consalt note on Epode iii^ 13. 一 59. Tabo. Equivalent to veneno. 一 
60. Incendio abUxdit. Compare the graphic picture drawn by Earipidei 
[Med., 1183, seqq.) of the unearthly fires which consumed the anfbrtunftte 
rival of Medea. 

61-79. 61. Sub hcec. "Upon this.' - -62. Lenire. "Attempted to move. • 
The infinitive is here pat for the imperfect of the indicative. Tbis coa- 
straction is usually explained by an ellipsis of ccepit or cceperunt, whict 
may often be supplied ; in other cases, however, it will not accord with 
the sense. In the present instance, teniavit may be understood. There 
appears to be some analogy between this usage of the infinitive in Latin, 
and the idiom of the Greek, by which the same mood, taken as an abso 
lute verbal idea only, is made to stand for the imperative. —~ 63. Unde 
" In what words." The unhappy boy is at a loss in what worils to ex- 
press his angry and indignant feelings at the horrid rites practiced by the 
bags, and at the still more horrid cruelty which they meditate toward him- 
•elf. "― 64. Thyesteas preces. " Imprecations." Such as Tbyestes uttered 
against Atreas. ~ 65. Venena magica, &c. " Drugs, of magic infiaenco, 
may confound, indeed, the distinctions between right and wrong, bat they 
dan not alter the destiny of mortals." The idea intended to be convoyed 
il this : The spells of the sorceress may succeed in accomplishing the 
darkest of crimes, but they can not avert the punishment which such of- 
fences will inevitably receive. -"" 67. Diris agam von. " With my carsei 
will I pursue you." After diris understand precibus. 一 70. Nocturnus oe 
eurram furor. " 1 will haunt you as a tormentor in the night season."— 
72. Quee zis deorum, &c. "Such is tl o power of those divinities the Ma' 
aes.'' The ellipsis is to be supplied as follows : " Ea vi qua vis ett," &. o 
—75. Vicatim. " From street to street." 一 76. Obscetias anus. " Filthj 
hags"— 77. Different. " Shall tear."— 78. EsquilincB alites. The birdi 
r »f pre》 frequented the E3qailine quarter, because here the bodiua of x&a^ 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — £FODE VI. 41 M 

fcfactons were left exposed, and here, also, the poor and slaves were in- 
terred. Subsequently, however, the character of tbe place was entirel* 
changed by the splendid residence and gardens of Maecenas. Consult 
note on Ode iii., 29, 10. 一 79. Negue hoc parentes, Sec. The boy's last 
thoughts, observes Francis, are tenderly employed in reflecting upon tba 
grief of his parents ; yet he seems to comfort them, and at the same time 
to confirm the truth of his prediction, by that oonsolation which they sK«U 
Vaceive in the death of these sorceresses. 



Bpode VI. Addressed tu a cowardly and Mercenary slanderer. It la 
oommonly thought that this piece was written against Cassias Severus, 
and, in many editions, it appears with an inscription to this effect. Sucb 
a sapposition, however, is perfectly gratuitous. It is probable that the 
title in question originated with some scholiast, who, having read in Taci- 
tus [Ann., i" 72, and iv., 21) of the licentious spirit and defamatory pen "f 
Cassias Severus, erroneously imagined him to be tbe one whom the pot.1 
nere attacks. 

1-14. 1. Quid immerentes, &, c. " Thou cur, why, being cowardly 
against wolves, dost thoa snarl at inoffensive strangers ?" By the term 
koapitcs are here meant those who are entirely unknown to the individ- 
ual, bat whom he, notwithstanding, makes the subjects of his envenom eu 
attacks. 一 3. Jnanes. As proceeding from a cowarjily and spiritless car. 
—4. Remorsurum. " Who am ready to bite in return." 一 5. Molossus, aut 
fulvus Lacon. " A Molossian, or a tawny Laconian dog." The Molos- 
sian and Laconian dogs were of a robust make, aud valuable as well in 
hunting wild beasts as in defending the flocks from nocturnal thieves and 
from the attacks of wolves. Travellers still describe the dogs in this quar 
ter as remarkable for size and extremely fierce. The Molossi occupied 
the northeastern part of Epirus. ~ 6. Arnica vis. " A friendly aid." "― 7. 
Agam qutecunque prcecedei /era. " I will pursue whatever savage beast 
shall go before me." 一 10. Projectum odoraris cibum. " Smell at the food 
thrown to thee." A figurative mode of expressing that the individual 
whom be attacks was easily bribed to silence. 一 12. Parata tollo comua. 
The poet alludes to his iambics, with which he stands prepared to assail 
all evil-doers, as the ball is ready with its horns agaiust every one who 
provokes it to the attack. 一 13. Qualis Lycamba, &. c. " Like him who waa 
rejected as a son-in-law by the faithless Lycambes, or like tho fierce en- 
emy of Bupalua." Lycambas is tbe dative, by a Grsecism, for tbe abla* 
tive. and, by another Grsecism, Bupalo t tbe dative, is pat for Bupali.-~ 
Lyeambte. The allusion is to Archilochas. Lycambes had promised iiim 
bit daughter Neobule in marriage, bat afterward changed his mind and 
gave bcr to another. Archilochas, in revenge, wrote a poem against him, 
in iambic verse, so cruelly satirical that both father and daughter hung 
ttiemfielves in despair. Such, at least, is the common account. It would 
feem, however, from some authorities, that Neobule killed herself, 乙 ol 
OH account of the verses of Archilochas, bat through despair at the btt 
q( her father (Compare SchoeJl, Hist. Lit. Grac % vol. i" p. 1&9.) 一 " 
Bupalo, Tho allusion U to the poet Hipponax, and the brothers Baja^Qi 
%»\ Antbermai. 



434 EXPLANATORY NOTES. 一 EPODB IX 



£pode VI 1 Afler tbe overthrow of Sextos Pompcias, the repabtt. 
teomed once more destined to taste of repose. The respite, howevei; 
•ru of ahcrt duration, and the enmity of Octavianas and Antctiy soon re- 
kindled tbe flames of war. It was about this period that tho present 
poem was written. The bard mourns over the intestine divisioci of hii 
eoaiitrymen, and bapates the borrors of the civil wars to the evil destinj 
entailed open the Romans by the blood of Remaa. 

1-20. 1. Scdesti. " Stained with gailt." Aa allusion to the guilt and 
loodshed of the civil wars. 一 2. Conditi. " So lately sheathed." Under- 
stand vaginu. The poet refers to the short period of repose which ensaed 
after tho overthrow ofSextas Pompeias. Compare Introdactory Kcmarks. 
—3. Campis aique Neptuno super. " On the fields .and on tbe ocean." 
Equivalent to terra marique. Compare Ode ii , 1, 29.-5. Non ut super- 
bus, Sec. The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows : These swordi 
are not drawn against the enemies of our coantry, as they wero in former 
dnys against haughty Carthage, and u they now thoald be against the 
Britons, still bidding defiance to our arms : they are to be turned apon 
oarselves, they are to enter oar own bosoms, in order that the wishes 
of the Parthians, of oar bitterest foes, may be accomplished, and that 
Rome may fall in rains by the hands of her sons. 一 7. Ititacttis. " Still 
uusabdaed." 一 Descenderet Sacra catenatus via. " Might descend in 
chains along the Sacred Way," i. e. t might be led in triamph through the 
streets of the capital,- and, after this, be consigned to imprisoument and 
death. In the celebration of tbe triumph, the Roman general, when he 
reached the spot where now is the Arch of Severas, and before he as- 
cended tbe Capitoline Hill, gave the signal to conduct tho captive kings 
and leaders of the enemy to prison, and there pat them to death. 一 11. 
Hie mos, " This custom" of raging against their own species. 一 Fuit. 
The aorist, in the sense of deprehenditur f " is found." 一 12. Nunqvam 
nisi in dispar feris, " Which are never cruel except toward animals 
of a different kind." 一 13. Vis acrior. " Some superior power," i. that 
of destiny. 一 14. Culpa. " The guilt of your forefathers, entailed upon 
their offspring." The allusion is to the gailt of Romulus, which is to be 
atoned for by posterity. 一 15. Pallor albus. " A deadly paleness." Con 
gult note on Ode iii., 10, 14. 一 16. Mentesqne perculsas stvpent. "And their 
conscience-stricken minds are stupefied." ― 17. Sic est, &. c. After a pa* 
thetic pause, as Sanadon remarks, Horace adheres to the last two caaseH 
he had mentioned. He therefore imputes tbe civil wars to the destinies 
«nd to the death of Remas, as if the 'destinies had condemned the Ro- 
mans to expiate the fratricide of that prince by destroying one another 
with their own arms. This was going very far back in order to remove 
*lie idea of the real canse of their present calamities. 一 Agunt. " Harass." 
—18. Scelusqwi fraiernm necis. The guilt of Homalus in slaying liii 
biotlier Remus. — 19. Ut. "Ever since." 一 20. Sacer nepoHbus. " Ac- 
enrsed for posterity," i. fatal to them. Compare the explanation of the 
scholiast, as cited by Zeune : " Quern suo cruore expiatnri erant" 



Epot>e IX Written when the news of the victory at Acticm was tint 
received at Roiva. Tbe bard addrenses his patron, then at the sceno a 
tction 



EXFLANAT0R7 NOTES. 一 EFODE IX. 40d 



1 • 15. 1. RepoJttum Cacubvm adfestas dapes. " CsBcuban wine, stored 
«way for joyous feuts," i. e. f put away in some inner and secret crypt, 
ftud porposeiy preserved foe some joyous occasioiL Consalt note on Odi 
i., 20, 9.-3. Sub alia domo. " Beneath thy stately abode." Consalt not« 
on Ode iii., 29, 10. 一 Sic Jovi gratum. " So is it pleasing to Jove," i. 
in doing this, we shall be performing an act agreeable to Jove, the guard 
ian of our empire. 一 4. Beaie. This epithet has reference to the opulence 
of Maecenas, to his lofty abode on the Esqailine [alta domus) t his bcaatifd 
gardens, &o. 一 5. Sonante mixtum tibiis, &.c. " While the lyre sondi 
«jrth a strain intermingled with the music of flates, that uttering the Do* 
rian, these the Phrygian mood." With hoc ondersvapd sonante ; with 
illis, sonantibus. The m:sic of the lyre and the flute are to succeed each 
other alternately : the strains of the former are jo be gTave and severe 
«uch being the character of the Dorian raood ; t.ue music of the flates, oc 
the other hand, is to be a wild and bacchic character, in accordance 
with the Phrygian mood. Donkin, in explanation of this passage, remarks 
as follows : " If the ancient Dorian and Lydian octave were employed, 
the former being of the fourth species, while the latter was of the second, 
and pitched two tones higher, the series of intervals heard would consia* 
of fourths and major thirds, or rather doable tones." — 7. Actus cum frelo 
Neptumus dux. " When the Neptunian chief, driven from the Sicilian 
strait." The allusion is to Sextas Pompeias, who boastingly styled him 
self the son of Neptune, because his father had once held the command 
of the sea. Agrippa, in B.C. 36, defeated him off the northern coast of 
Sicily, off Mylas, and again offNaalochus. 一 10. Servis amicus perfidis. Ac* 
wording to Dio Cassius (xlviii., 19), the number of fugitive slaves who went 
over to Pompeias was so great, that the Vestal Virgins were accustom- 
ed, during the performance of sacred rites, to offer up prayers for a cea- 
satiou of this evil. 一 11. Romanus^ The allusion is to the Bomans in the 
army of Antony. 一 12. Emancipatus femina. " Subjected as a volantary 
slave to a woman." The reference is to Cleopatra. 一 13. Fert vallum et 
arma miles % &. c. " Bears the stake and arms as a soldier, and can yield 
obedience to withered eunachs." The poet expresses his indignatiou, 
that RomanB, hardy enough to endure the toils of military service, can, at 
the lame time, be so wanting in spirit as to yield obedience to the orders 
of eanuchs. The allusion, in the -words fert vallum^ is to that part of Ro- 
man discipline which compelled each soldier to carry, among other things, 
a certain number of stakes (usually three or four) to be used in encamp- 
ing. ― Spadonibus, The allusion seems to he principally to the eunaoh 
Mardion, who, according to Plutarch, along with Pothinus, Ires, and Cbar- 
mion, bad the chief direction of Cleopatra's affairs ({'0, uv tu fityiara 
dioiKtlrcu r^g Tjyefiovlag. Plut. t Vit. AtU., c. lx., vol. vi., p. 132, ed. Hnt- 
ten). 一 13. Turpe conopium. "A vile Egyptian canopy." The eonopium 
was a canopy, curtain, or veil of nut-work, ased for the purpose of keep- 
ing off gnats and flies. It was principally employed by the Egyptians 
on ftccount of the great number of these insects produced by the marshes 
of the Nile. The scholiast, in his explanation of the term, furnishes as 
with its etymology : " Genus retis ad muscas et culices {Kotifonraf;) ab\ 
gendos, qao Ale