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s published originally in Latin, under 

jia justa ct ncccssaria quonuulam 

contumcliosc ac ccunmunitcr dicto- 

.sivc BaiTowistarum, per Jouanneu 

iidencnseni, suo et Ecclcsia nomine, 

i. lit Beatus, qui attcndit ad attcnu- 

(\ 1 0." It Wits subsequently translated 

Kr>binson himself, for more (general 

English, both in his native land and 

les. In no edition, cither of tlie Latin 

ICO been found. The "Apology" was 

.* occasional intercommunion between 

nobiusons cliurch and those of tlic 

. also to exhibit the peculiar o])inions 

H'])nratists, in distinction from tliosc 

ind tlicni. The Independents wcro 

1 to liave repudiated baptism, aban- 

ticul Miuistryc," departed from the 

VtTV Trinitie," and conducted them- 

to the magistrates, as to render it 

liould seek ** some farr parte of the 

Tiicy were also charged witli con- 

ilio established religion in the land 

calumnies arc refuted rather by im- 

ont The work contains a clear and 

i»! religious principles and proceed- 

uts of that day, between whom and 

lUionalists there appear to be some 

in ecclesiastical arrangements and 

ential principles tliey are manifestly 

?ad with equal interest and profit by 
pilgrim fathers, as by their venerable 









I. Of the Ltrgcnost of Chmthei. 

n. Of the Adminittntioii of BtptimL 

m. Of Written Liturgies. 

IV. Of the Ecclesiattkal TrtmhyUrj. 

V. OfllolrDftjt. 

VI. Of the Celebration of Marriage hj the Ptston of th«ChtiX€ 

Vn. Of the Sanctification of the Lord's Daj. 

VUL Of the Exercise of Prophecy. 

IX. Of Temples. 

X. Of Thingn Indifferent. 

XI. Of Ciril Magistrates. 

Xn. Of the Church of England. 





A Just and Xccessarj Apology :^ 

Prdktorj Notice And Contents ..•••• 1 
Clupten I.— XII 4 

Two Ijettcn on Christiin FeUowBhip» between Dr. Amet and 

Hr. Rolnnson • • • • • • • 81 

On Beligioui Communion, PriTate and Public :— 

Notice— Contents 91 

Preface 95 

Chapters I.— TI ^ . . .104 

TW People's Plea for the Exerdse of Prophecj s— 

Notice and Preface 280 ii 

An Answer to the Arg;uments of Mr. John Tates • 288 • 

A T^tise on the Lawfulncaa of Hearing Minister! in the 
Church of England :— ^ 

Editorial Notice 339 

The Printers to the Christian Reader . . • • 343 
The Lawfulness of Hearing, Ice. 362 « 

A Letter to the Congregational Church in London . . 379 

An Appeal in Truth's Bdialf 387 . 

An Answer to a Censorious Epistle :— 

Editorial Notice. 395 

Answer to Her. Joseph (Bishop) Hall's Letter . .401 

ACatechism; being an Appendix to Ber. W. Periuns's Found- 
ation of the Christian Bdigioa 421 



Appendix. No. I. :— 

The Church in Soathwtrk, Vj Ber. Jchn Waddiagton • 4S7 

Appendix. No. II. :— ^ 

Hie Exiles, and their Chnrehet in Holland :-« 

The Chnieh in Holland 15$ 

Notice of Her. Bobert Browne • . • W 

The Church at Amsterdam * • 459 

Notice of Ber. H. Ainsworth • • . • . 462 

Notice of Ber. B. dyfton ...•.• 466 

Letters between Churches of Leyden and Amsterdam • 467 

Mr. Bobinson's Letter on Church Power • • • • 476 

The Principles and Begulations of the Churches at Amster> 

damt Lejrdeut New PlTmouth 486 

Chronological Lidex •••••••• 493 

Indexes :— 

SuljecU .494 

Authors • • 606 

Scriptures .• « « • 614 




" The crime of heresy none ought patiently to endure,** 
said Jerome of old; 4" and tliat not without cause, for 
whereas in other accusations, cither a man*s goods, or 
good name, or hodily life, at the most, is endangered; in 
this, the life of the soul, which faith is, cometh in question. 

But well it is for tlie servants of Jesus Christ, tiiat they 
have him, their gracious Lord and Saviour, for tlieir Judge, 
by whose alone judgment, notwithstanding all men*s preju- 
dices, they shall stand or fall for ever. And, if any otliers 
anywhere, surely I, and they with me, have need to get this 
divine comfort deeply printed in our hearts ; whose pro- 
fession gives occasion to many, as doth our condition 
liberty unto all, to spare no seventy of censure upon us. 

Four sorts of heavy friends we have found and felt, in 
sorrowful experience, wheresoever we have become. The 
first whereof is the unhallowed multitude, who living with- 
out God in the world; and walking themselves perversely, 
and in the worics of darkness, John iii. 10, cannot but hate, 
as the light itself, so all tliose, who have received grace of 
Ood, to walk therein with good conscience. And as the 
apostles, in their days, were everywhere most vexed with 
the hatred of the unbelieving Jews, tlieir own countrymen; 
80 are we by the like of ours like-minded. Of whom whilst 
the most do want their country for causes so unlike unto 

^ Hiwfffit ad PMDadu 

.• i 

I • 



ours, no man'el Uiough Uicre be no better concurrence of 
either alTection or action between us. 

The second is of them, who are enamoured on that 
Eomish hierarchy, as on a stately and potent lady. Against 
which, and for the holy preshyteriol goremment, as Christ's 
institution by his apostles, whilst wo do in word and deed, 
give a free and full testimony; alas! with how many, and 
how great waves of affliction, arc we ovei*whclmcd by their 
hatre<l and power! Demetrius of Ephcsus, with his silver- 
smiths, was of all other men, to the apostle Paul, opposing 
himself to tlie majesty of Diana, and their profit withal, the 
most infcstuous.* And who will man-el, if we nothing 
obsequious to the hierarchical Diana, in herself, magnifi- 
cent enough, and enough advantagoable unto hers, be 
abominable unto this kind of people, above all others, even 
atlieists, papists and most flagitious persons not excepted, 
whom they have devout enough and over, unto that god- 

A third kind is of those, who so sen-ilely inbondngc them- 
selves, nnd thrir consciences, cither to the etUcts of prinrcs, 
or to the detcmiinntions of certain doctors, or to both these 
jointly; as thnt tlipy think nothing well done in case of 
religion, which either these tench not, or they comninnd 
not: and on the other side, almost anything wnrrnntfible, 
which is commended by the one of them, or commanded 
by the other. And as of these some are so transported 
witli waspish zoal, as tliey can scarcely without a fit of an 
ague, either speak to, or think of him, who a little steps 
out of their troad;+ so othei's of them are so cunning, and 
wot so well how to make their market, that though they 
be indeed almost like-minded with us in all things, yet do 
tliey vehemently nflect unchristian enmity with us: not 
because they themselves judge us so deserving; but others, 
whom therein they think it a point of their wisdom to 

The fourth, and last sort are they, who, thi-ough credulity 
and lightness of belief, have their ears open to tlie false and 
feigned suggestions of slanderous tongues. These men 
whilst they are over goo<l nnd easy towards the evil and 
injurious, unto whom they give credence, become injurious 
• Troublesome. f Trcod or footsteps. 


themselves to the good and mnocent: though, in truth, it 
be hard to say, unto which of three they do the greatest 
wrong: whether to their bretliren, of whom they cause- 
lessly conceive amiss, whilst eitlier they greedily devour, 
or easily receive such false reports, and vituperies, as veno* 
mous tongues spit out against thom : or to their own souls, 
which they thereby make accessory to others* malice: or td 
the calumniators tliemsclves, whom they put in heart to go 
boldly on in reproaching tlio innocent, whilst they know, 
where to find receivers for their slanders, as do thieves for 
their stolen goods. 

Now, alas, what sufficient bulwark of defence have we 
(poor people) to oppose unto the violence of so many, and 
mighty adversaries ? First, and most, as a brazen wall, our 
conscience before God, and men (so far as human frailty 
will permit) pure, and unstained. Next, thine equanimity 
joined with wisdom, godly and Christian reader, for whose 
cause we have penned and published tliis our just and 
necessary defence : lest being circumvented by prejudice, 
tliou mayest happen " to hate that whereof thou art igno- 
rant:** than which nothing in TertuHian*s judgment, "is 
more unjust, no not though the tiling in itself justly deserve 
hatred." "> By this we do earnestly crave, that, as thou 
safely mayest, so thou wilt ingenuously pass sentence upon 
us and our profession, and not by tlie imsavouiy reports, 
either in wonl or writing, of our adversaries whomsoever: 
who do most commonly take liberty to suggest against us 
(underlings), not what in tnitli and conscience they should^ 
but what eitlier fame reportetli, or ignorance suspectcth, or 
malice inventeth, or proud contempt deems suiting with 
our meanness and simplicity. 

Two opprobnes (amongst others infinite) have been of 
late by our adversaries cost upon us; by which we are not 
only occasioned, but after a sort necessitated to the pub- 
lishing of tliis our Apology: lest by not refuting such 
criminations, " so great and grievous,** we should seem to 
acknowledge a crime, as Cyprian speaketh.f The former, 
by come of those, who in our own country, are reputed the 
chief masters and patrons both of religion and truth; by 
whom there hath been, not a flying bruits spread amongst 

^TcrtuLApoL advert. Ge&tct. f Cjpi^. tract, cont. Demet. 

X Bcport. 


the multitude, but a solemn accusation to them in special 
authority, framed against us: First, that xte (lewd Brown- 
ists) do refuse, and reject one of the sacraments : secondly, 
^at we have amongst us no ecclesiastical ministry, but d o 
gT Ye lit>erty to e^ ^iy mechanical per son tojgreacli publicTy 
in the church. Thirdly, that we are in error about Uie 
veiyTnnlty. Fourthly and lastly, tliat being become so 
odious to the magistrates here, as tliat we are by violence 
to be driven the country, we are now constrained to seek 
some other, and far part of the world to settle in. 

The other contumely is in a Dutch rh^me without name» 
framed it may be, and as commonly it comes to pass, " be- 
tween the cup and the wall,** as saith the proverb. This 
ballad-maker comparing tlie received religion in tlie Dutch 
churches to a tree : tlie sectaries in the countr}*, of which 
ho namcth not a few, to certain beasts cndcavounng this 
tree's ruin, and ovei*throw, likens tlie Brownists to a little 
worm, gnawing at tlie root thereof; and not having less 
will, but less power to hurt, than the residue. We are 
indeed worms and not men, the reproach of men, and de- 
spised of tlie ]>cople, Psalm xxii. 0, whom high and low, 
and all that will, may, without danger, tread and tramplo 
imdcr foot 

But to give thee satisfaction, Cbristinn and indifferent 
reader, whosoever thou art, that cboosest rather to take 
knowledge of men's innocency, than to condemn the same 
unknown; and that it may appear unto tlicc, liow alike 
unhoncst our advei'sarics arc in their accusations, though 
of unlike condition in tJicmsclvcs, we do profess before 
God and men, that such is our accord in the cose of 
religion, with the Dutch reformed churches, as tliat we are 
ready to subscribe to all and every article of faitli in tho 
same church, as tliey are laid down in tlie Harmony of 
Confessions of Faith, published in their name: and one 
only particle (and the same not of Uie greatest weight) in 
the sixth article, touching tlie Scriptures, being con- 
veniently interpreted, and conformably to itself, and the 
general judgment of tlie IcaiTicd amongst tliem. 

The scope of the article is, as appears in the margin, to 
distinguish between the books canonical and apocryphal, 

they are called. Touching which apociyphai notwith- 



standing it is judged* and affinned, that they may be 
read in the church. Which if it be meant of their pri« 
Tate reading by the members of the church, we willingly 
assent: if of public, pastoral, and' ecclesiastical reading, we 
are indeed oUierwise minded: neither admit we any other 
books to that dignity in the church, than such as were 
penned by the "holy men of God, moved by the Holy 
Ghost'* 2 Pet i. 21. And as the apostle James testified 
of the Jews, that *' they had Moses read in the synagogue 
every Sabbath day,** Acts xv. 21 : so we think it sufficient 
for Uie Christian assemblies, that with Moses, Christ, that 
is, the books of the New Testament be joined with the Old, 
and tliey alone be read. 

Neither need we seek further, or for other arguments to 
confirm our opinion, than the article itself afibrdeth us. 
The words thereof are these: — 

Moreover, we put a difference between the holy writ- 
ings and those which they call apocryphal, to wit, so as 
the apocryjihal may indeed be read in the church, and that 
it may be lawful to take insti'uctions from them, so far 
forth as they agree with the canonical books: but such at 
no hand is their authority, or firmness, that upon their 
testimony any doctrine of faith and Christian religion may 
be founded, much less that they have force to infringe or 
weaken the others* authority.* 

And first, If the apoci^'phol books be publicly read in 
the church, as well as the canonical, the differouce which 
in word is professed, seems indeed by this so reading 
them, to be taken nway: since the selfsame religious act, 
viz. public reading, is performed about tlie one and other, 
although not altogether to t)ie some end. And if public 
reading of the canonical Scriptures be commanded of God 
in his worship, eitlier the reading of these apocryphal 
books is a part of God*s worship fdso, (which tlie Belgic 
churches do not believe) or else they must be unlawful to 
be read publicly in the church, especially coming together 
for that only end of worshipping God. Publicly, I say; for 
the private reading of themf as of other books, comes not 
under the respect of worship properly, but of an act and 

^ HarmonT of ConfiBM. Art 6, of the Script CooL 'Bfht^ p. 11. 
KtwEditioQ. By Rev. Peter H«n« MJk. 


exercif^ preparative unto worship, as both lawyers and 
divines speak. 

Secondly, In this very article, tlie canonical books, as 
opposed to tlio apocryphal, are called holy writings. The 
apociyphal tlien are not holy, as not being haliowed to 
this end, that is not commanded of God in tlie holy writ- 
ings of tlic prophets and apostles. Now what have the 
holy assemblies to do, especially convening, and meeting 
together for tlio solemn worship of God, and exercising 
themselves in the same, with books not holy, tliat is, not 
hallowed, or enjoined of God, for his most holy service? 

Thirdly, Seeing these l)ooks are apociyphal, that is, hid* 
den and concealed, tlicir very name may put them in mind 
of their duty in concealing themselves within tlie vail of 
privacy. And surely no small immodesty it is in tliem, 
which ought to contiiiu tliemselves in private use and 
entertainment, tlius boldly to press into public assembly. 
They must tliereforc change either tlicir names or their 
mnnnrrs; as women by their sex, so they by their name, 
well oxprossing their nature, are inhibited all liberty of 
spcalvinj^ in the church. 

T ftfld, mid conrludc out of our countiyman Hugh 
Brougliton,* that those apocr}'phal books are so stuffed 
with trifles, fables, lies, and superstitions of all sorts, that 
the middle idaco between the Old and New Testament, as 
ill becomes them, as it would do a Turkish slave, and 
leper, between two the noblest princes of all Europe. 

Ihit to return whence I digressed. Seeing that, as ap- 
pears in the Preface, the intention of the Bclgic churches 
was, as in divulging their confession, to render a reason of 
the hope which is in them, and plainly to make kno>\7i 
their persuasion in the matter of faith; so also in publish- 
ing the Harmony of Confessions, to give all men to under- 
stand, and take knowledge of that most near conjunction 
which they have with the sacred and truly catholic church 
of God, and all the holy and sound members tliercof:} by 
what right, or rather injuiy, could we be excluded from tho 
fellowship of the same churches, who do far better accord, 
and have greater congruity witli them in the matter of faith 

• Works, 1652. p. 6/>7. 

t PrcDMKS to the ILinn. of ConfcM., p. 31. Ilall's Edition. 





and religion, than the greatest part of tliose, whose con- 
fessions they do pnhlish to the view of all men, as the 
cognisance and badges of their Cliristian consociation? 
And with what conscience of a Christian, or ratlicr licen- 
tiousness of a rhymer, could tliat adversary traduce us to 
the world, as endeavouring the ruin of the reformed 
churches ? 

But, perhaps, that which may be, is suspected to be by 
some, which also the false accuser doth insinuate in his 
libel ngninst us, and that, what in word wo profess, we 
deny in deed ; and what we would seem to build with our 
tongues, we do, as it were, with our hands pull down. If 
so it be, and that indeed we bo found to bo such, I do 
freely confess, that no censure upon us can bo too severe, 
no hatred more grievous tlian we do desen*e. 

Now the guilt of this evil must cleave urito our fingers, if 
at all, one of these two ways, either in regard of oui^selvcs, 
or of the reformed churches. Foroui-sclvcs, and our courso 
of life, for necessity compelleth, as it were foolishly to 
babble out that, wherein modesty persuadoth silence, and 
how we converse witli God, and men, whether publicly in 
tlie church, or privately in the family, wo refuse not, by 
the grace of God bestowed upon frail creatures, labouring 
of the same human infirmities with other men, tlie search 
and censure of our most bitter adversaries, if not destituto 
of all. l>oth honesfy and wisdom. 

Tou ching tfie ref ormed churches, what more s hall I say ? /^ 
We account tliem the true churches of Jesus Chrislilind ^^ 
both'profcss and. practise communion with them in tho 
holy Ulings of God, what in us lieth ; their sermons such 
of ours frequent, as understand the Dutch tongue ; the 
sacraments we do administer unto their known members, 
if by occasion any of tliem be present with us ; their dis- 
tractions, and oUier evils we no seriously bewail, and do 
desire from the Loi-d tlieir holy and firm x>cace. 

But haply, it will be objected, that we are not like- ' 
minded with tliem in all tilings, nor do approve of sundry 
p«^ctices in use amongst them, if not by public institution, 
which it seems tliey want, yet by almost universal consent, 
and uniform custom. I grant it ; neither doubt I, but that 
there are many godly, and prudent men in the same 


cburehes, who also dislike in effect the things which we 
do: and amongst other things, this malapert and un- 
bridled boldness of unskilful men, who make it a very 
May-game to pass most rash censure upon tlie faith, and 
80 by consequence, upon the eternal salvation of their 
brethren, and to impeach their credit, whom they neither 
do, nor perhaps willingly would know: lest that which 
they lust to condemn unknown, tliey should be constrained 
to allow, if they once knew it : and witlial to disallow that, 
into which they tliemselves have been led formerly by 
common error of the times. Which malady is also so 
frequent, and ordinary, as that it may truly be said of 
many, that they then think themselves most acceptable 
unto God, when they can make their bretliren, differing 
from tliem in spmc smaller matters, most odious unto 
men. This raging plague except the Lord God in mercy 
assuage, and bend tlie minds of godly, and modest men, 
the ministers of his Word, to put to their helping hand 
tliat way, it will without all doubt, come to pass, which 
Go<l forbid, that tlic multitude of Christians will come to 
judge of their estate with the Lord, not so much by the 
Christian viilucs, which themselves indeed have, as which 
they imagine others want 

But tliat it may appear unto thee, Cliristion reader, where- 
in we do dissent from the Dutch reformed churches, and 
upon what gromids : and tliat none may take occasion of 
suspicion, tliat tlie things are either greater, or more 
absurd, for which Uiose hateful Brownists are had by many 
in such detestation, than indeed and truth they arc, I will 
briefly, as I can, present unto thy Christian view either all, 
or the most, and our greatest differences, with tlie grounds 



And first, it is evident, that the most, especially city 
ehurches, are so great and populous, as that two or three 
divers temples are not suflBcient for one and the same 
church to meet in at once. We on the contrary, so judge, 
that no particular church under the New Testament, ought 




to consist of more members than cim meet together in 
one place ; because, 

1. The Holy Scriptures speaking definitely of the poli- 
tical, or ministerial, commonly called, visible church, insti- 
tuted by Christ, and his apostles, by his power, understand 
none other than one congregation convening, and coming 
together, ordinary at least, in one place. Matt xviii. 17, 
dO, "gathered together in my name:*' with 1 Cor. v. 4, 
** when you are come together.** Acts ii. 44, " All that 
believed were together:** and chap. v. 12, " They were all 
with one accord in Solomon *s porch.** Also chap. vi. 9, 6 ; 
xiii. 1, 2; xiv. 23, 27; xv. 4, 22, 25; Titus i. 6. So 
1 Cor. xi. 20, " Wlien ye therefore come together in one,** 
to wit, place, not mind, as some conceit, for from tliat the 
Corinthians wore too far : and lastly, chap. xiv. 23, " If the 
whole church come together into some place.'* 

2. There is then had the most full, and perfect commu- 
nion of tlie body in the holy things of God, which is the 
next and immediate end of the visible church, when all 
the members thereof do convene, and assemble together 
in some one place. Acts ii. 42 ; Heb. x. 26. And if nature, 
as philosophers teach, ever intend tliat which is most per- 
fect, much more, grace. Now that the church, commonly 
called visible, is Uien most truly visible indeed, when it is 
assembled in one place ; and tlie communion thereof then 
most full, and entire, when all its members inspired, as it 
were, with tlie same presence of the Holy Ghost, do from 
the same pastor, receive tlie same provocations of grace, at 
the same time, and in Uie same place : when they all by 
the same voice, " banding as it were together,*** do with 
oue accord pour out tlieir prayers unto God : when they 
all participate of one, and the same holy bread, 1 Cor. 
X. 17 ; and lastly, when they all together consent unani- 
mously, either in the choice of the same officer, or cen- 
suring of the same offender, no man admitting a due 
thought of things, can make doubt of. 

3. We have the aposUe Paul giving it in charge to the 
elders of everv particular church, as was that of Ephesus, 
" that they take heed unto all the flock, whereof the Holy 
Ghost made them bishops,** or overseera, ** to feed the 

^ TcrtoL AfoL cap. I8i . . 


church of God, which he hath purchased with his own 
blood.** Acts XX. 17, 128. But surely, as that flock is 
Teiy inordinate, if not monstrous, which for the Uurgoness 
thereof, neither ever doth, nor possibly can feed together ; 
BO that shepherd of the Lord's flock seometli not aright, 
and as he ought, to fulfll his charge, which doth not at the 
least, every LonVs day, minister unto tlic same, tlio wliole- 
8ome food of God*s Word. Add hereunto, that in tliese 
huge and vast flocks, the governors cannot take knowledge 
of the manners of the people, private or public ; no, nor so 
much as of their presence at, or absence from Uio church 
assemblies ; whereby what damage cometh unto true piety, 
any man may easily conjecture, and miserable experience 
makes too manifest in the reformed churches. I conclude 
tlierefore, since, as Junius saitli, '* it concenieth tlic pastor 
thoroughly to know the church committed unto him, the 
persons, Uieir works and courses, without the knowledge of 
which things, he shall profit them no more than a tinkling 
cymbal," A'c.,* that it were a point of good provision both for 
tlie conscience of the officers, and cdiiication of the people, 
that a division were made of the city churches, which by 
continual accession of members, are tluis gro^vIl out of 
kind, into different, and distinct congregations, under their 
certain, and distinct pastors, and elders. 

If any object, that there is one visible, and catholic 
church, comprehending as tlie ports thereof^, all the parti- 
cular churches, and several congregations of divers places ; 
as there is one ocean, or sea, diversely called, according to 
the divei*s regions by whose shores it pivsseth ; and that 
therefore this matter is not wortli labour spending about 
it, I answer, first, that the catholic church neither is, nor 
can be called visible : since only things singular are visible, 
and discerned by sense : whereas univcrsals, or tilings 
catholic, ore either only in the understanding, as some are 
of mind ; or as others think better, are made such, to wit, uni- 
versals, by the understanding abstiucting from tliem all cir- 
cumstantial accidents, considering that the kinds intelligible 
have their existence in nature, that is in the individuals.! 

• Junius Eccl. lib. i. cap. 2. 

t Sadccl. adr. Tur. in soluU 2. SyUog. in Matt. zyiiL Scalig, dd 
Subtil. Exer. 307. . 




2. The catholic church, with due reverence unto 
learned men be it spoken, is \erj unskilfully said to be 
one, as the sea b one. For, first, it is expressly said^ 
Gen. i. 0, 10, that the waters which were under tlie 
heavens, were gathered into one place, or conceptacle, 
which God called sea, or seas. But tlie catholic cliurch, 
which is said to comprehend all particular congregations 
in her bosom, is not gathered togetlier into one place, nor 
ever shall be, before the glorious comuig of Christ 2. 
Tho ocean is a body so continued, as tliat all and every 
part tliercof is continually* fluent, so as the selfsame 
waters, which in their flux do make one sea, do in their 
reflux by contrary winds, make another, and so contnuri- 
wise. But thus to affirm of particular churches, and their 
material constitutive cause, were most absurd. 3. If some 
one particular sea were drawn dry, or should fail liis 
course, a disturbance of all tlie i*est would necessarily 
follow ; but and if the sea should in divers places at once 
happen to be exliausted, or drawn dry, there would then 
be a failing of the ocean : neitlicr were the waters now 
gathered into one place, neither made tliey one sea, and 
body of water, eitlier continued or conjoined. But now, 
on the other side, upon the defection, or dissipation of this 
or that particular church, no such impediment should 
come in the way, but that the rest might hold tlieir. full 
course, as before. Yea, I add moreover, if all and every 
particular assembly in the world should languish, and fall 
away, ono only excepted, that only one did still remain 
the true and entire church of Christ, witliout any either 
subordination, or co-ordination, or dependency spiritual, 
save unto Clurist alone. The reason is plain, because tliis 
smgular and solo assembly may, under Christ the head, 
use and enjoy every one of his institutions : the commu- 
nion of saints combined togetlier in solemn, and sacred 
covenant, tho Word of God, sacituncnts, censures, and 
ministrations whatsoever by Christ appointed, and there- 
with, the same Christ's most gracious presence. 

And upon this ground it is, that the apostle Paul doth 
entitle the partienliur congregation, which was at Corinth, 
and which properiy, and immediately he did instruct, and 
admonish, *'tha body ol Christ^'* *'the temple of God,*' 


and one *' virgin espoused to one husband Christ** 1 Cor. 
zii. 27 ; 2 Cor. vi. 10 ; xi. 2. Wo may not therefore under 
prclence of antiquity, unity, human prudence, or any 
colour whatsoever, remo^'e tlie ancient bounds of the visible 
and ministerial church, which our right fathers, tawit, 
the apostles, have set ; in comparison of whom, the most 
ancient of those, which are so called, are but infants, and 
beardless, as one truly, and wittily saith.4> 

There is indeed one church, and as the apostle spcakcth, 
" one body, as one Spirit, one hope of our callmg, one 
faith, one baptism ;** £ph. iv. 4, 5 ; that is, of one kind, 
and nature ; not one in number, as one ocean. Neither 
was the church at Borne in tlie apostles' days, more one 
with the church of Corinth, than was the baptism of Peter 
one with Paul's baptism, or than Peter and Paul were one. 
Neither was Peter or Paul more one, whole, entire, and 
perfect man, consisting of their parts essential and in- 
tegral, without relation unto other men, than is a parti- 
cular congregation, rightly instituted and ordered, a whole, 
entire, and prrfcct church immediately and independently, 
in respect of other churches, under Christ 

To conclude, since tlic pastor is not a minister of some 
part of a church, but of the whole particular church, Acts 
XX. 28. Attend to tlie whole flock, or church, " whereof 
tlie Holy Ghost hath made you bishops," &c., if the mi- 
nistcrs office bo to be confined within the circle of a 
particular congregation, Uicn also tlie ministerial church 
itself. Now Uio pastors office is either circumscribed 
within these bounds, or else •• the angel of tlio church of 
Ephesus *' was also " the angel of the church of Smyrna ;" 
and so the pastor of this church is also tlie pastor of that ; 
and by consequence, of all ; that is, every pastor is an 
universal bishop, or pope by office ; if not for execution, 
yet for power ; according to which power, we arc to judge 
of the office. 

What then ? will some man say. Is it not lawful for a 
pastor to execute his pastoral office but in the congrega- 
tion over which he is set? I answer, witli the apcsUc, 
" No man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is 
called of God, as Aaron," Heb. v. 4. It is not lawful for 

• Cartwr. on Prov^ 





tbce, reverend brother, to do the work of a pastor where 
thou art no pastor, lest thou arrogate to thyself that 
honour, which appertains not unto thee. Thou art called, 
that is elected, and ordained a pastor of some particular 
church, and not of all churches. It is not onljr lawful, but 
requisite, that Uic pastor of one church, or rather he that 
is the pastor, and so any other member, impart the gift 
either spiritual, or bodily, which he hath received, to other 
ehurclics, out of the common bond of charity in which he 
is obliged : not so, to execute a public office over them by 
the prerogative of autliority, which he hath not but only 
over his own. We will illustrate this by a similitude. 
Any citizen of Leyden may enjoy certain privileges in the 
city of Delft, by virtue of tlie politic combination of the 
United provinces, and cities, under the supreme heads 
thereof, tlie States-general ; which he is bound also to help 
and assist with all his power if necessity require ; but that 
the ordinaiy magistrate of Leyden should presume to exe- 
cute his public office in the city of Delft, were an inso* 
lent, and unheard of usurpation. The very same, and not 
otherwise, is to be said of pastors, and particular churches, 
in respect of that spiritual combination mutual under their 
chief and sole Lora, Jesus Christ 



The Dutch Heformed Cliurches, as is evident by their 
practice compared with tlioir profession, arc neitlier so true 
unto their own grounds, as they ought, neitlier do tlicy so 
well pro\ide for the dignity of the tiling, whilst they ad- 
minister the sacrament of baptism to the infants of such, 
as are not within the covenant, nor have either parent, 
a member of any chnrch,^' because 

1. Baptism now, as circumcision of old, is the seal of the 
covenant of God, Col. ii. 11, 12, with the faitliful, and 
their seed, " I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed,** 

^ Hann. of Confins. Bdg. and French, Hill't edit. p. 361, Caltiiit 
Beta, fte. 

VOL. m. 


Gen. xm. ; and " the seal of the righteousness of faith,'* 
Bom. IT. 11 ; and is one* as '* there is one faith, and one 
baptism,** £ph. iv. 4, 6, and therefoi'e ought not to be 
administered to others, than those witliin tlie compass of 
the same covenant : nor but upon faith coming between, 
either of the party to be baptized, or of one parent at 'the 
least. If any shall answer, that tliis gracious promise of 
God is not to be restrained to the next immediate childi*en, 
but is extended even to those who follow afar off, I grant 
it, except infideli^, or oilier sin come between ; by which 
the parents with tJiemselvcs break off tlieir seed externally 
and actually from tlie communion of tlie church, and holy 
things thereof. And if we be not to insist in tlie next, 
and immediate parent, why in tlie grandfather, or great- 
grandfather, and so for tlie rest, till we climb up, as high 
as to Noah himself? ^yh(*reupon it should follow, tliat not 
the infants of Jews, nor Turks, no, nor of Gentiles neither, 
should liavo baptism denied thcni. Surely the grace of 
Christ must needs be universal, and wherein all have in- 
terest, if the seal thereof appertain unto all. Neither 
should tlie church, amongst whose sacred furniture baptism 
is, by this rule be any more tlic house of God, peculiar to 
his children and sen'ants ; but more like a common inn, 
whose door stands wide open to all tliat pass by the high- 

2. The apostle, 1 Cor. vii. J 4, upon this ground, that 
the one parent is a believer, avowctli the child holy : which 
otherwise he pronounceth impure, in respect of the cove- 
nant and holiness tliereof, leaving unto God his secret 
judgments. Now what have the impure, and unhallowed 
to do with the holy things of God ? And what hath the 
pastor, and shepherd in holy things to do with them, who 
are no portion of the Lord's flock ? ••What have I to do,*' 
saith the apostle, **to judge them that are without? Do 
not ye judge them that are witliin ?" 1 Cor. v. 12. So, 
reverend brethren, what have you to do, to baptize them 
that are without? do jou not baptize them that are within, 
and them alone ? In the number of whom yet you reckon 
not those infants (though baptized by you) nor belonging 
to your charge. Whence also, God knowetli, it cometh to 
pass, for the most part, that they who are thus by you 



Wptized into the name of the Lord, are by their godless 
parents* education made the servants of Satan. 

8. The baptism of infants, in all soundness of judgment, 
serveth, and that immediately, for the comfort of their 
godly parents ; whose hearts it filleth with no small joy, 
whilst they behold the gracious promise of God made to 
them and their seed, ratified and confirmed by this seal : 
■ even as of old the eircumcision of Isaac was granted, and 
enjoined by God unto Abraham, his and our father, first 
and immediately, for the confirmation of his faith. Whence 
I conclude, that the seal of the righteousness of faith, 
which baptism is, doth no more belong to the seed of 
godless parents, than dotli tlie comfort flowing from the 
righteousness of faitli unto the parents themselves. Whom 
as it would effectually move to more serious, and sad 
thoughts of their own estate with God, if tliey beheld their 
infants, so dear unto them, excluded through tlieir default 
from the comfortable seal of God*s covenant ; so can they 
not but by the undue administration of the same, take oc- 
casion of hardening themselves in their accustomed per- 
verseness. I conclude tlien with Tertullian, speaking, as 
Junius interprets him, of the children of such as were 
strangers from the covenant of God, "Let them come, 
when they are grown to years ; let them when they have 
learned, and are taught wherefore they come ; let them 
then be made Christians, when they can know Christ*** 



We cannot but mislike that custom in use, by which the 
pastor is wont to repeat and read out of a prayer-book 
certain forms, for his and the churches' prayers, and that 
for these ruasons. 

1. Because this external mien and manner of worship- 
ping God in prayer is nowhere found in the written Word, 
by the prescript whereof alone he is to be worshipped, 
whatsoever either the Jews* fable of the liturgy of Ezra ; or 
the papists of St Peter s, or St James* liturgies. Isa. xxix« 
^ TertoL de Bq^ eh. IS. Junius AnnoU in idem ta^ 


13; Matt xr. 9; Col. ii. 83. Yea, eontrariwise, I add 
for orerplus, that it did not seem good to the apostles, the 
last penmen of the Holv Ghost, that any sucl^ prescript 
^orm for such end should come in use, in the churches. 
And this seemcth unto me very clear, from the former 
epistle of Paul to Timothy, chap. ii. 1, 3. The kings of the 
earth in those days, and such as were in authority under 
them, l>eing, as it were, so many sworn enemies of the 
name of Christ, tliis conceit might easily, and it seems did, 
creep into the minds of divers Christians, that these kinds 
of men were raUicr to he prayed against^ than for, by tlie 
senrants of Christ And now, what was the medicine pre- 
scribed by the apostle for this malady in that e])istle writ- 
ten to Timotliy for that very end, tiiat he " might know 
how to converse in tlic church of God ?** 1 Tim. iii. 1 5. 
Did he now either send Timothy to any liturgy formerly 
set fortli for his own and otliers' direction ? Or did he 
himself frame any for the purpose, whose beaten troad the 
churches following afterwards should not err? Nothing 
less : although a more fit And full occasion for that busi- 
ness scarce be offered : which without doubt, l^aul would 
no more have let slip, than did the otlicr apostles, tliat 
wliich was more light, for tlie introduction of deacons. 
Acts vi. 3, 3, if it hod seemed good to the Holy Ghost, by 
whose finger ho was guided in the ordering of tlie churches, 
that any such book-prayer should have come into use. 

Three tilings especially are objected, which must hero 
be cleared. The first is, that David, and other prophets 
penned the hook of Psahus for the motlicr church of Isnicl. 
The second, tliat Christ himself drlivcred to his disciples 
a certain fonn of prayer, commonly called, " The Lord's 
Prayer." The tliii'd, that Moses from the Lonl, Numb, vi., 
gave direction to Aaron, and his sons, in what form of 
words they should bless Uie children of Israel. 

I answer first generally, that the consequence followetli 
not from tlie authority of Christ and of Moses, and of the 
apostles, in ordaining tlieso, and these forms of Divine 
worship, for tlie like autliorify in ordinary bishops, and 
pastors, to ordain otlier, and divers forms, for tlie same 
end. What can be spoken more insolently? Christ the 
Lord, Moses, the prophets, and apostles, being immediately 


M i j i n^ 



and infallibly guided by tlie Spirit of Christ; have pre- 
scribed certain set forms of God*s worship ; therefore 
others, tliough not immediately and infallibly guided by the 
same Spirit, may also prescribe Uiem. Why may they not 
by Uiis argumentation, as well frame us a new canon of 
Holy Scriptures, considering that even these very forms, 
wherewith also they equalize their own, are parts, and por- 
tions of the same scriptures? More particularly, andfirat for 
Psalms. I deny that there is tlie same reason of a prayer, 
and of a Psalm; or (whereupon the difference hangcth) 
tliat singing and pniying are all one. For tlic question is 
not, which I desire the reader once for all to bear in mind, 
eitlier of the internal affection of him that singeth, or 
praycth ; or of the subject-matter of the song or prayer : 
bnt of the external act and exercise of pniying and sing- 
ing. Now these two exercises botli tlie Holy Scriptures, 
and common sense in every man, that plc|isetli but to open 
his eyes, and look upon tliem, do plainly difference. 

For first, if to sing bo to pray, then whosoever singeth 
prayeth : but how far from truth this is, the Psalms of 
David, i., ii., and many others in which not the least 
parcel of prayer is to be found, do plainly evince. 

2. '* Is any man sad amongst you," saitli the apostle, 
" let him pray ; is he merry, let him sing." Jmnes v. 13. 
To pray tlien, and to sing, are not tlie same, nor which do 
agree, to wit primarily, with the same constitution of the 

3. In prayer the pastor's voice is only heard, unto which 
the people, as the apostle te^cheth, 1 Cor. xiv. 14, 10, are 
to add their Amen : but in singing, all the multitude have 
as well tlieir part for tuneable voice, as tlie pastor himself. 
Neither can divers possibly sing together, without con- 
fusion, but by a certain and set form, both of words and 
syllables, wluch yet may be done in church prayer, and is 

4. We have the same apostle elsewhere teaching us thus: 
'* Speaking to yourselves m psalms, hymns, and spiritual 
s<mgs." £ph. v. 19. And again, *' Let the word of Christ 
dwell in you plenteously, with all wisdom, teaching and 
admonishing yourselves mutually in psalms and hymns.** 
Col. iii. 10. In ainging then we do speak to ourselves, or 


one to another mutually : but in praying, neitlier to our* 
selves, nor to our brethren, but unto God alone. And the 
reason hereof is evident Whenos we read or sing the 
Psalms of David (for what other tiling is it to sing out of a 
book, than to read witli a loud and harmonious voice ? of 
which harmony singing is a kind) : * these selfsame psalms 
in this very use do still remain, and so are read or sung, 
as a part of the Word of God in the Holy Scriptures : and 
in which God spcakcth unto us : whereas on tlie other 
side, wo do speak unto God, in all our prayers, whether 
mental only, or vocal withal. 

5. Even tliesc vciy psalms, whoso matter is prayer and 
tlianksgiving, were framed and composed by tlie prophets 
into psalms, and spiritual songs, for this very ond, tliat tho 
men of God might in tliem teach us, as in tho ^vritlen 
Word of God, whereof tlicy are ports, both what petitions 
they in Uicir distresses put up to tlie Lord, and also what 
thanksgiving they returned upon their deliverance, that so 
we in reading and singing tlicm, might instruct and ad- 
monish ourselves both publicly and privately, whcilicr by 
way of doctrine, or admonition, or consolation, for tlio 
promoting of the glor}' of God in our hearts. 

I>astly, That I may descend unto them, who arc only 
taught by experience ; if any going out of the tomple, 
whilst the church were singing a psalm, either before or 
after sermon, being asked of one that mot him, what tho 
church were then doing, should answer that it were at 
prayer, would he not be judged by all men to tell a lie ? 
but altogether witliout cause, if to sing, bo to pray, as many 

Touching the Lord's Prayer. We deny it to be tlie mean- 
ing of Christ, teaching his disciples, when they pray to say, 
**Our ratlier,'*&c.,to bind them, and the Holy Ghost in tliem, 
Jude 20, by which they ought to pray, to a certain form of 
words and syllables, which they should repeat by heart, or, 
which is our question, read out of a book. Because, 1. The 
two evangelists, Matthew, and Luke, of whom both tlie one 
and other did aright both understand and express the 
meaning of Christ, do not precisely keep the some words. 
3. By Uiese words, " when you pray," is meant, whensoever 

* Scalig. Poet. lib. i. c»p. 2. 

■i-i> ■"■ "11 ■■■ ■ >■■> tm^mmmmmmm 



you pray : wherenpon it should follow, that we were tied 
to tills stint of words alone, and always : and so might 
lawfully use none other, except it he lawful for us some- 
times to pray rather hy the level of our own device, than of 
Christ's prescript The words therefore of Cyprian* are 
good in a good sense. To pray otherwise than Christ 
hath taught, is not only ignorance, hut guilt, seeing he 
himself hath said, you reject the precepts of God, that you 
may observe your own tradition. Matt vi. G. 3. Amongst 
the many, and manifold prayers of tlie apostles to be seen 
ill tlie Holy Scriptures, this form of words is not found : 
and yet can it not be denied, but they always prayed as 
tliey were taught in tliis place by their master Christ : 
whose meaning therefore it could not be to tie them neces* 
soi'ily to any such certain form of words. 4. It appears by 
tlie context, tliat the purpose of Christ is to speak of private, 
or ratlicr secret prayer, and such as every Christian apart 
from otliers, and in his closet witli the door shut unto him, 
should pour out unto the Lord. Now tliat one alone, and 
by himself, should say, " Our Father,** seems not very congru- 
ous. Lastly, Seeing of the like, there is tlic like considera- 
tion; if tlie apostle James in tliese words, '* Go to now, ye that 
say. To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city,** &e., 
James' iv. 13 ; and verse 1 5, " For tliat ye ought to say. If 
the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that,** do neither 
simply find fault with the form of words, nor prescribe ne- 
cessarily any other, but only (to use Calvin*s words f) wakens 
them from Uieir dream, who without respect of the Divine 
providence, will make Uiemselves masters of a whole vear, 
when tliere is not a moment in tlieir power : so neither 
are we to conceive that our Saviour, Christ, Matt vi. and 
Luke xi., doth enjoin unto his, any sot words to pray in, 
but only shows whither all our prayere and vows ought to 
be referred, as with all other orthodox writers | about this* 
matter, the said author § spcaketli : howsoever diven 
unskilful men cease not still to sing unto us, even to 
loathsomeness, the song, when you pray, sav, as the 
piq[>ist8 do theirs, " This is my body :** as though the con« 

^ Cypriaa. de Orat Domim f C«lv. in Jme. ck. 4, v* 1, 15, 

X Uinatti, BucaaiUy Piieator, Perkins, %e« { Colv. in Matt vi. 7« 


troveraj were about the words, and not rather about the 
meanhig of them. 

But for that we arc ycry odiously traduced by divers, as 
abhorring from this form, and that wo will not, as tliey use 
to speak, say the Lord's l^yor, I will hi few and plain , 
terms set down what our judgment is about it 

J . And seeing that, as the poet hath it, '* the names do 
commonly suit with the things," we may see, and sorrow 
withal, in tlie phrases in common use about this most 
Christian duty of prayer, what it is with tlio unhallowed 
multitude of Christians to pray, namely, to say prayer, to 
read prayer, to hear prayer, and raUier anyUiing than in- 
deed to pray, that is, than to pour out tlio conceptions of a 
godly and devout mind unto God, from faith and feeling of 
our wants, by the Holy Ghost. 

S. Wo do afHrm, that tliis form of words is improperly^ 
how commonly soever, called the Lord's Frnyer: as neither 
being a prayer as it is the Lord s, nor the Lord's as it is a 
prayer. As it is of the Lord Christ, and so tlie Lord's, 
whether by himself uttered in words, or committed to 
writinj; by his evangelists, it Imth tl)e consideration and 
respect of a sermon, and of evangelical doctrine, in which 
Christ taught his disciples ; and not of a prayer put up to 
his Father : as on tlie contrary it neitlicr was, nor could be 
used prayenvise by Christ, in so many words ; with whoso 
most peiicct sanctimony it did not agree for him to say, 
Forgive us our trespasses. 

8. We do firmly believe, that all and every both cliurch 
and person is bound always to pray, as Christ hath tJiere 
taught: whether we respect the matter there propounded, or 
the alTections there enjoined, or the commodious and com* 
pendious simplicity which Christ our Saviour, and only 
Master, there opposeth, both to tlio vain babblings, and 
oft repetitions of the heathens : and that in these things, 
and them alone, the conimaiidnicnt of Christ dotli consist, 
we both firmly believe, and confidently avow. 

4. And lastly, wo doubt not but Uiat tliis very form of 
words may be, and is rightly used in prayer imto God, 
provided tliere be neither opinion of necessity, by which 
superstitious persons think themselves stinted by the Lord 
t6 words and syllables, nor of perfection, by which many. 


or WltlTTEN LITl'irGiriS. 



arc of niind, that they liavc then i\t the la:^t, ami not hoforo 
jpniycd perfectly, when they have repeated this form of 
words. And it is well, if some spot of this mire cleave not 
to the fmgcrs of many ministers ; which moke it a matter 
of great conscience not to conclude their and the churches* 
prayers applied specially to the present state of things, 
with tJiis number and measure of words. Wliich ciistom 
as it is used very commonly, so in my judgment, witli no 
great reason, for these two causes. 

First, It seems to cross all good order, and method, by 
which men should descend from the more general unto 
tliat which is more special : and not go the clean contnuy 
way, as in tliis they do. 

Secondly. Since tlie rule, according to philosophy, and 
good reason, is always bcforo the tiling ruled, and that 
this form is by Christ instituted, for Uiis purpose, that it 
might be tlio rule and square of all our prayers, and as 
Tcrtiillian Raith,^' is premised, as the foundation of all our. 
arccssor}' desires, mcthinks tlio same should ratlicr be 
used in the first place ; upon which as the same autlior 
hatli it, every one should build the circumstances of his 
occasioned requests. 

It romaineth that in a few words I answer tliat, which 
is by some objected touching those solemn blessings, at 
the first imparted by the patriai*chs to their first-born, 
and after by tlie priests to Israel the fii*st-bom of God. 
Exod. iv. 22. 

And to let pass, 1. That tlio composers, and imposers 
of the liturgies now in use have not equal auUiority with 
Closes the man of God, nor arc their writings any way 
comparable with his. 2. That Moses did not prescribe 
unto tlio priests a stint of wonls for blessing, much less to 
1)0 read out of a book, but tlie substance of the tiling ; 
which by many arguments, save that I study for brevity, 
might l>e proved, f 8. If that were Moses* mind, and 
the Lord's by him, the minister were bound to the same 
form of blessing upon the Israel of God now. Gal. vi. 16, 
which the church is : since there is notliing in it not moral, 
and perpetual, or not concerning the chiurch now, as then. 
I do answer this one thing, and the same in Calvin's words^ 
• TertulL lib. do Ortt. « f JTohnaoa on Writtea Liturgies. 


Tiz. that these bleiisinga wore not ordinary prayers, but a 
lawful authority divinely intei*po8ed to testify Uie gi*ace of 
election:'^ which he also confirms by divers reasons. 
Neither can any man who considers tlie words of the text 
make question, but that the priests in blessing Israel, not 
God, do direct their speech unto Israel by way of promise, 
and not unto God by way of pmyer. " So bless you," saith 
Moses, " the children of Israel, saying unto tlicm, The 
Lord bless tliee,** &c, Tlie same is to be judged of tho 
salutations of the apostles in tlieir epistles, whereof they 
are a part, and so a part of the Holy Sciiptures, albeit yet 
they, in them, as the priests in their blessings, desired to 
have their truly loving affection taken knowledge of by 
tliem to whom tliey wrote: and what good things tliey 
both desii'ed at tho hands of the Lord for tliom, and also 
promised tliem in his name. 

3. We dislike all reading of prayer, in tlie act of praying, 
as inconvenient, yea, directly contrnr}' unto that act? In 
prayer we do pour out matter, to wit the holy conceptions 
of the mind, from within to witliout ; that is, from the heart 
to God : on the contrnr}', in rending, wc do receive and 
admit matter from without to within ; that is from tho book, 
into the heart. Let him tliat prnycth do that which he 
doth, not another thing, not a divers thing. Let tho whole 
man, and all that ho is, both in soul and body, be bent 
upon God, with whom he convcrseth. Tho eyes of the 
mind are lifted to God in prayer ; and why not the eyes of 
the body olso? both which, he that prayeth, by intending 
them upon a book, botli deprcsseth and avertcth from 
God. The Apostle exhorteth, tliat ** the men pmy, lifting 
up pure hands to God in every place." 1 Tim. ii. 8. In 
like manner, besides the reason of the thing, we have tho 
patriarchs, prophets, Christ himself, with his apostles, and 
disciples, for ensamples of lifting up the eyes to heaven in 
prayer. Not that tliis gesture of body is simply necessary 
but most convenient, save in some great temptation, and 
depression of mind, both to express and furtlier the 
intention of a godly heart. 

Let devout and learned men, if they please, commit to 
writing their holy meditations, and secret conferences with 

* Calvin in Genet, e. 27* r* I. 




God, as did Austin, and others amongst the ancients ; and 
many of later times : which may be read, and that with no 
Bmall benefit, both bj pastor and people; but privately, 
and for better preparation unto prayer. Now the prepara- 
tion unto prayer is very unseasonable at the self-same time 
^f the solemn performance tliereof ; and unreasonable in 
uid by the self-same act 

3. Seeing that '* public prayer,** as Bucanus saitli,'^ " is a 
second part of the ministiy ;** as also that amongst the gifts 
of the Holy Ghost, wherewiUi tlie pastor is endued from 
above, that is not small, nor to be despised, by which he is 
able conveniently both for matter and form, to conceive a 
prayer according to the church*s present occasion, and 
necessities ; by the reading of this prescript form, that truly 
excellent gift, given of God for this end is made void, and 
of none use, and the Spirit, contrary to that which ought 
to be, extinguished. 1 Thess. v. ] 0. " The manifestation 
of the Spirit,** saith the apostle, " is given to every one,** 
especially to every pastor, " to profit witlial.** 1 Cor. xii. 7. 
But he who reads a form of prayer conceived and con- 
signed by another, dotli not manifest the pastoral gift, (for 
of the internal affectioA our question is not) of the Spirit 
given to him to profit withal, but to that other by whom 
the fonn of prayer was indited. 

4. If to read such a form of prayer be to pray aright, 
and pastor-like, no probable reason can be rendered* 
wherefore to read a sermon, or homily, is not as well to 
preach aright, and as is required of the pastor of the 
church. Which so being, small reason had the apostlo, 
treating of the ecclesiastical ministry, which principally 
consists in these two exercises. Acts vi. 4, to cry out, as he 
did, ** Who is sufficient for tliese things T 3 Cor. ii. 10. For 
who is not sufficient even of the vulgar sort ? who cannot 
read a liturgy, and an homily ? 

6. *' The Spirit,*' saith the same apostlo, speaking of all 
Christians, " helpeth our infirmities, for we know not what 
to pray, as we ought** Rom. viii. 26. Yes, Paul, with 
your leave, right well ; for we have in our praver-book, 
what we ought to pray, word for word, whether the Spirit 
be present or not What then is to be done in this busi- 

^ BoMaosi kw« Com. de Oitt. 







nesB ? That which TcrtuUian saith tho Christians of li 
time did. " We pray," saith he, " witliout any to prompt u 
because we pray from tlie heart"* But ho who reads h 
prayers, or rather tlie prayers of liim tliat penned tlier 
and his lesson out of a book, hath one that prompts liir 
and that diligently, both what, and how much, and aft 
wlmt manner, and witli what words and syllables he oug] 
to pray. 

Lastly, If it would be just matter of shame to any cartli 
father, Uiat his child, who desired of him bread, fish, or c 
egg, should need to read out of a book, or paper, ** Fathc 
I pray you give me bi*ead, fish, or c^g ;** how much moi 
contumelious is it, to our heavenly Father, and his IIo 
Spirit, wherewiUi he fiirnisheth all his children, especial 
hiH ministers according to their place, that an help i 
unwortliy, and more than babyish, and indeed the instr 
ment of a ** foolish shepherd," Rom. viii. 2G; Judo 2( 
Zee. ii. 15 ; xii. 10 ; namely a bare readier, with which kir 
of vermin Rome and Knglnnd are pestered, should be us< 
by such. godly and leanicd pastors, as whercwitli tho r 
formed churches ixvc furnished. 



We do so acknowlcdj^c, and approve of, as divinely ii 
stitntcd, the presbyteries of tho particular churches, \ 
witli all we juilgo thciu sundry ways defective. As fir 
we require, lliut all received into the collogo, and coiupoi 
of elders, even those which are called governors, should I 
•' apt to teach," 1 Tim. iii. 2, and ** able to exhort wil 
soiind doctrine," and ** convince gainsayers," Tit. i. 5, 7, 
and that not only privately, or in the consistory, but in tl 
public assembly also, as the nature of their public offu 
requireth. I am not ignorant, what that learned mc 
Gersom Bucerf in his late treatise hath published aboi 
this matter, neither do I unwillingly assent thereunto : pr 
Tided only, tliat what he requires in those elders, that Ui< 

^ Tcrtul. adrer. Oentcs. 

t Ocnom Due. Disfcrt do Oubcmaticme Ecclcsin, pp. 32, 33, 4 





able to perform publiclj, and in the church-assembly, 
fnot exactly, yet competentiy. 

A second defect, which we wish supplied is, that of 
nnual or triennial or temporary, they might be perpetual, 
nd for life, (except by some casualty, or occurrence they 
€ disabled) as the pastors themselves. This term of years 
or the elders* administration in the reformed churclies, 
he forenamed author in tlie same place doth not so much 
Icfend, as excuse ; but it seemeth rather needful to have it 
eformcd, which is also the desire of the said learned man, 
ind that for these reasons. 

1. The apostle Paul calling unto him the elders of the 
ihurch of £phcsu8 to Miletus, doth pronounce of them 
ill, as well the governors, as those that laboured in the 
kVord, tliat they were made bishops or overseers of the 
same church, by the Holy Ghost. Acts xx. 17, S8. Now 
Jio authority of that the appointcr ought to work in tlie 
nppointed great conscience, not lightly to relinquish that 
charge, which by the disposition of the Holy Ghost they 
bad taken upon them. 

2. The same apostle doth in the same place admonish 
and exhort the same elders tliat tliey should take heed 
unto themselves, and to all the flock, lest the same, after 
his departure should unhappily be damnified, either by 
"wolves entering in among them,'* or such as should "rise 
up from themselves speaking penxrso things.** Acts xx. 
28-— 31. Now if the date of their eldership and charge 
were shortly to be out, they might well tliink >vitli them- 
selves, tliat the apostlo*s admonition for after-times did not 
much concern them, whose term of office should so shortly 
be expired, and were perhaps to follow the apostle*s de- 
parture at the heels. 

3. It was sacrilege for the Levites being consecrated to 
the Lord, for the service of the tabernacle and temple, to 
retire from the office undertaken by tliem ; although, ago 
growing upon them, they were exempted from some the 
more laborious works of that ministration : how then is it 
lawful for the elders, or deacons (being now no more at 
their own disposing, but as the Levites of old, the Lord's 
sacred and consecrated ones) to witlidraw so lightly from 
his special service ? Numb. viii. 24, 25. No man under 



the law might chance a beast, if clean, no, not a better for 
a worse, if once hallowed to the Lord. Lev. xxvii. 0, 10. 
How much less may the church, then, discharge her officers, 
or they themselves, ministering faithfully, and as they 
ouj^ht I 

Lastly, the apostle Paul instructing the church, in 
Timothy, to keep the commandment of Christ unrebukable 
until that his glorious appearing, doth not permit, no, not 
to the widows and deaconesses to relinquish the office once 
taken upon them, 1 Tim. t. 9—19, 31; vi. 14; 1 Cor. 
xiv. 37 ; unto whom for that very cause he forbids marriage 
itself, otherwise permitted to all, and to some enjoined. 
How much less lawful is it for the elders, or deacons of 
tlie church, whose both condition and ministiy is far more 
excellent, for far lighter causes, to look back, and relin- 
quish tlicir vocation, wherein Christ hatli in such sort 
placetl them ! 

A tliird tiling there is, and that of most moment, viz. 
that the elders do not administer their public office pub* 
licly, as tliey should, but only in tlieir private consistory. 
And first, the administration of every office dotli in ri^ht 
follow tlie nature of the same ; whether domestical in tho 
family, or civil in the commonwealth, or spiritual in tho 
church : the elders* office then lieing public, requires an- 
swerable and public administration. Not that it is un* 
lawful for the ciders to convene, and meet apart from tlie 
body, and to deliberate of such things as concei-ns the 
same, and so to do sundry things by virtue of their office; 
but because that is not sufficient, neither do they indeed 
fulfil tlieir public and church-office, which in tlie Lord tliey 
have received, Col. iv. 17 ; except as privately, and in tlieir 
consistory, so also (and that specially) publicly, and in tlie 
face of the congregation, they execute the same. 

2. The apostle beseecheth tliem of Thessalonica tliat 
they, would in love highly esteem for their work's sake, not 
only them which laboured among them, to wit, in doctrine; 
1 Thess. V. 12, 13 ; but tliem also, which were over them 
m the Lord, and admonished them. 1 Tim. v. 17. But of 
tlie work of their elders which govern, tlie reformed 
churches must needs be ignorant ; neither do, or con they 
know, whether they be g(K>d, or bad. Their pastors they 


do prosecute with due love, and honour, out of their own 
certain knowledge of them and their woric, but their elders 
only by hearsay. 

LasUy, The same apostle wameth the elders of Ephesus, 
that they attend and take heed to the whole flock, in 
which they were made bishops. Acts xx. 17, 28. But it 
cannot be, that he should ministerially, as he ought, feed 
the whole church, whose voice the greatest part thereof 
never so much as once heareth. To lead, or receive a 
sheep now and then into tlie shecpfold, to confirm one that 
is weak, or correct one that strayeth, and that apart from 
tlie flock, is in no wise to feed the whole flock, as the 
apostle requireth. 

And that this point may be made the more plain, let 
us descend unto some such particulars, as in which the 
elders' office seemeth specially to consist And they are, 
the admitting of members into the church, upon profession 
of fuitli made ; and tlie reproving and censuring of ob- 
stinate offenders, whether sinning publicly, or pri^-atcly 
with scandal. As we willingly leave the execution and 
administration of these tilings to the elders alone in the 
settled and well-ordered state of Uie churcli, so do wc deny 
plainly, that they arc, or can bo rightly, and orderly done, 
but with tlie people*s privity and consent 

For die first Christ the Lord gave in charge to his 
npostlos to preach in his name remission of sins, and, 
tlierowith, life eternal : and that such Jews, or Gentiles, 
as should believe and repent viz. profess, holily, faith and 
repentance, (for to judge of tlie heart is God*s prerogative), 
they should receive into the fellowship of the church, and 
baptize. And that these all and every of them were pub- 
licly, and in the face of the congregation to bo adminis- 
tered, the Acts of the Apostles do plcnteously moke known. 
And if baptism, the consequent of the confession of faith, 
in them baptized, and the badge of our consociation with 
Christ and his church, be to be celebrated publicly, why is 
not the profession of fiuth proportionably (although by the 
formerly baptized through a kind of unonlcrly anticipation) 
to be made publicly also, and, therewithal, the consocia- 
tion ecclesiastical, as. tlie former ? The covenant privately 
made, and the seal publicly annexed, are disproportionate. 




' I further add, that since persons admitted into the 
church, are hy the whole body, if not of enemies, at least 
of strangers, become and ai*c to be reputed brethren in 
C^ist most nearly joined, and they, with whom they are 
to call upon one common Father publicly, to participate 
of one holy bread, 1 Cor. x. 1 7 ; and with whom they are 
to have all tilings, even bodily goods, after a sort, common, 
as every one hath need, Acts ii. 44, 45 ; it secmeth most 
equal, that not only tlic presbyters, the churches' servants 
under Christ, but the whole commonalty also, should take 
knowledge in their persons, both of tlieir holy profession 
of faith, and voluntary submission made, as unto Christ 
himself, so to his most holy institutions in his church. 

To come to the second head. And 1. Those who sin, 
that is, with public scandal, " rebuke publicly,'* saith the 
apostle, '* tliat others also may fear." 1 Tim. v. 20. And if the 
elders themselves, of whom he spcakcth, for whose credit 
the greatest care is to be taken, much more than any otlier, 
as Beza rightly obscr\'cth.=^ And tliat not for this cause 
alone, tliat when the punishment conies to one, tlio fear 
might reach unto many, which yet wise men in all public 
executions would liavc carefully provided for, but also 
that both he that so sinncth may be the more ashamed, 
and oUiors both within and without niav, withal, take know- 
ledge, how little indulgent the church is to her own 
dearest ones in their enormous sins. 

2. With this also it well consorteth, that Clirist the only 
Doctor of his church, would have not only sins scandalous 
committed in public, publicly reproved, and before the 
multitude, but even those which are private, obstinately 
persisted in, when ho saitli, ** Tell the churah,** &c. Matt, 
xviii. 15 — 17. 

I am not ignorant, how diversely, divers men do inter- 
pret these* words : whilst some, by the church, do under- 
stand the civil court of the magistrate ; others, the hier- 
archical bishop, with his officials; others, the senate of 
elders excluding the people. And tlius whilst these strive 
for the power, and name, witlial, of the church amongst 
themselves, the church indeed, and which Christ the Lord 
meaneth, is well nigh stripped both of ]K)wer and name, 

* Beza annot. in loc. 



The first of these three intorprctntions I will not trou- 
ble myself with; as being almost of all, and tliat worthily 
exploded and rejected, and abundantly refuted by divers 
learned men-> the two latter aro to bo assaulted with 
almost the same weapons. 

The former of these two, though it be in itself the 
more different from Ghrist*s mooning, yet comes it in 
this circumstance now in consideration, the nearer the 
trutli in our judgment, considered in its execution : since 
neither the bishops, nor tlicir officials, chancellors, com- 
missaries, or otlier court-keepers, do exclude the people 
from their consistories and courts, but do offer themselyes 
in their public judgments and censures to tlie view of all 
who please to be present tliereat And I think it a course 
unheard of either amongst Gentiles or Jews, or Christians 
(be it spoken without offence) before tliis lost age, that 
public judgments and otlier acts of public nature, as these 
are, should be privately exercised, and without the i>eople*s 
privity. It was not so in Israel of old, where by God*s 
appointment tlie eldci*s were to sit, and judge in tlie gates 
of the city : nor in tlie synagogues themselves, from which 
many are of mind, how truly, I will not say, that tlie Chris- 
tian eldership was derived, after the Roman tyranny had con- 
fined into them the Jews* civil conventions and judgments; 
nor in tlie primitive church, no not in some ages after 
tlie apostles, as might easily be proved out of Tertullion, 
Cyprian, and others, if I would try tlie matter in that 
court: but it is much more safe, as Austin saith, to walk 
by the DiWnp Scripturcs-t 

And first tlie word ciwXiycr/a, church, originally Greek, an- 
swering to tlie Hebrew brv, doth primarily and properly sig- 
nify a convention of citizens called from tJieir houses by the 
public crier, eitlicr to hear some public sentence or charge 
given : but translated to religious use, denoteth an assem* 
lily of persons called out of the state of corrupt nature 
into that of supernatural grace, by the publishing of the 
gospel. Now the elders, or presbyters, as such, are, and 
80 are said to be, called, to wit, to tlieir office of eldership, 
but called out they aro not, being themselves to call out 

* Besa, Zanchius, Parker, O. BuccTi in loe* 
t Aagoat. de Doct. Chiiat* lib. 3. 
VOL. lu. D 



the church, ond unto it to perform the crier*8 office, 
l^either do I think that the name eccUsia, church, hath 
been used by anj Greek author, before the apostles' times, 
or in their days, or in the age after them, for the assembly 
of sole governors in tlie act of their government, or, indeed, 
before the same governors had seized into their own, and 
only hands the cnurch*s botli name and power. 

But you will say, as learned men use to do, that these 
elders sustain the person of tlie whole multitude, and 
supply their room, for the avoiding of confusion ; and so 
are rightly, as commonly called the church representa- 

In answer, First, No godly, no, nor reasonable man will 
affirm, that this representation is to be extended to all the 
acts of religion, or indeed to others, than tliese, which are 
exercised in the governing of the church. What is it then? 
The elders in ruling and governing the church must 
represent tlie people, and occupy their place. It should 
seem, then, tliat it appertains unto the people, unto tlie 
people, primarily and originally, under Christ, to rule and 
govern Uie church, that is, themselves. But wiio will so 
say of a govemmcnt, not personal but public, and insti- 
tuted as the churches* is? 

2. If the elders in their consistory represent the church, 
then whatsoever they either decree or do, agreeing to the 
Word of God, whether respecting faitli or manners, tliat 
also tlie church dccrccth and doth, though absent, though 
ignorant both what tlic thing is which is done, and upon 
what grounds it is done by the ciders ; tliis being the 
nature of representations, tlmt what the re])rcscnting dotli 
within the bounds of his commission, tliat the represented 
doth primarily, and much more, as but using the other for 
his instrument. Now how dissonant this is to true faith 
and piety, how consonant unto the papists' implicit faith, 
no man can be ignorant ; and I had ratlier wise men should 
consider, than I, aggravate. 

«3. The constant and universal practice of the apostles 
and apostolic churches, do quite cross this consistorian 
eourse. The apostle Paul, well acquainted with tlie mean* 
ing of Christ, doth, 1 Cor. v., so reduce into practice tho 
rule and prescript of his Master, Matt, xviii., or to use the 




words of the Bishop of Chichester,<> " there commands 
to bring into procUce this power, in the name of Christ, 
with his Spirit,** as he seems to leave no place for doubting 
to him who. with diligence, and without prejudice, will 
compare together tliese two places : wlmt the Lord mean- 
eth when he saiUi, '* Tell tlie church.*' This our apostle 
doth in that place reprove, not the elders or governors 
alone, but with them also the whole commonalty and 
body, for tolerating tlie incestuous person amongst them. 
^Vhich therefore, accordingly, as hisautliority apostolical and 
care for all the churches, H Cor. ii. 28, did require ; he ad- 
monisheth and directcth, that as mindful both of the sin- 
ner's repentance and salvation, and therewith of their own 
purity, they would exclude, by due order, tliat wicked man 
from their holy fellowship. And that by these words, 
'* When ye are come together,** the whole church is to be 
imdcrstood, many but heavy friends to tlie people's liberty, 
Jesuits, Prclatistij, and others, do grant But we will 
annex certain reasons for the further clearing of the 

1. They among whom tlie fornicator was, who were 
puffed up when tliey should have sorrowed, and out of tlie 
midst of whom he was to bo put, who had done that tiling, 
they were to be gatliered together in one, and to judge and 
excommunicate Uiat incestuous person. I Cor. v. 1 — 13. 
But tlie fornicator yfrus not amongst tlie elders alone, neither 
were they alone puffed up when tlicy should have sorrowed, 
neither was that wicked man to be taken out of the midst 
of them and still left in the midst of the people ; and 
tlicrcfore not to be judged by them alone, but by tlie 
church with tliem, tliough governed by tliem. 

2. It did not of old appertain only to tlie Levites and 
ciders in Israel, to purge out of tlieir houses the material 
leaven, but to every father of a family also; so by propor- 
tion to tlie whole church now, to purge out tlie leaven 
spiritual there spoken of : which also could not leaven the 
whole lump, or church, in the apostle*s meaning, except it 
bad concerned the whole church to purge it out 1 Cor. 

T. 7. 

3. The apostle 'wrote not to the elders only, but with 

• Epis, Gem. ad M. Tort lib. Rcsp. p. 49. 



them to the whole body, not to be commingled witli forni- 
cators, covetous persons, or tlie like, called brethren ; ho 
therefore admonisheth tlicm, as tlio otlicr, to cast their 
stone at the incestuous man« for the taking him away from 
tlio Lord s people. 1 Cor. v. 0, 11. 

Many more arguments, and the same rcry clear, might 
be drawn to tliis end, out of the text itself; but for 
brevity's sake I will omit them, and minex this only ono 
which followeth, from the second chapter of the second 
epistle. The same apostle, wi-iting to tlicso same Corinth- 
ians, about tlie same incestuous person, but now penitent, 
as before delinquent, seriously exliorts them, that look 
what severity they had formerly showed in censuring him 
for his sin, the like compassion they would now show, in 
receiving him again upon his repentance : therein plainly 
insinuating, that tliis business was not in the hands of tlio 
eldo]*s alone ;' except we will say, tliat they alone wero 
made sad by the apostles* reproof that they alone by their 
study, defence, indi^^iution, /oal, i^'C, testified that they 
were pure in the thing, nnd except it belonged to them 
alone to pardon and comfort the rcpontimt sinner, and to 
confirm their love unto liiiii. Q Cor. ii. 7, 8 ; vii. 0, 11. 

^Vnd whereas some woultl inclose this whole power 
within the apostle's circuit, as if he alone, bishop-like, had 
passed sentence judiciary upon the offender, and only 
committed the declaration and publication of it in tlio 
church to some his substitute, I deem it not lost labour 
bnelly to show how erroneous this opinion is of external, 
monarchical government, yea, power also which is more, in 
the church of Christ. 

And. first, one alone, how great soever, cannot suflico to 
make tlio church, or a congregation, which Christ hatli fur- 
nished witli tlie power of binding and loosing. Matt xviii. 
17 — 10,<< botli reason and Scripture teaching, that for an 
assembly and congregation, at least, two or tliree are 
required. ** The Church, which name signifies a multitudct 
designing by a new trope one alone singular person," as 
saith D. AMiitaker against Stapleton,f going about to prove 

* Vide Episc. Cicen. ad Tort. pp. 41, 42. 

t AVhitak. dc Authoritato Scriptunr, lib. 1, cap. 1, 10. 




tliat *' the name of tlic churdi belongs to the pastors, or 
bishops, or pope alone.** 

2. It is expressly aihrmed, 2 Cor. ii. 0, that the incestu- 
ous person was censured by many : which many or more, 
tlie apostle opposetli to himself alone, as appcai*cth by the 
context, and not to all as some erroneously Uiink. 

3. Tlie apostle plainly and sharply reproveth the Corintli- 
ians for that, before his writing, tliey had not voided tliat 
sinful man tlieir holy felloi\*ship, and so prevented the re- 
port by which such a crime, and tlie name unpunished, came 
to his cars. This their power, then, the man of God doth 
not seize into his own hands, as forfeit by their default in 
not using it, but vehemently, and as became a faithful 
minister, exhorts and admonishos them to use it, as they 
ought, in tlie judging, purging out, and taking from among 
themselves that wicked man. and so any other witliin, or 
called a brother, sinning in the like manner. 

4. If the apostle Paul, being absent from Corinth, had 
excommunicated this sinner, tlien had he judicially con- 
demned and judged a man unaccused, unconvicted, and 
unrcprovcd, at least face to face and before his judge,^ 
than which what more unjust can be imagined of, or 
ascribed unto, the holy apostle? I conclude, tliercforc, 
with Peter ^lartyr on 1 Cor. v., " The apostle, as great as 
he was, doth not so far usuip to himself power, as that he 
one and alone by himself should excommunicate : which 
yet the Pope and many bishops (both Romish and Eng- 
lish) €lai*e do ; in judging he goes before others, as it is 
meet tlie chief in the church should do, that so the less 
skilful multitade might be directed m judging by their 
voting liefore them.'' 

Thus much of this place. The next followeth, which 
is Acts i. 20 — 26. \Mien another was to succeed in tlie 
room of Judas the traitor, not Peter alone, or the apostlea 
with him, but, that the ordination might l)e just and law- 
ful, being made with the knowledge of the people assist* 
ant, and examined by the verdict and judgment of all,f 
the multitude of the disciples together did substitute two, 
whom they deemed most excellent, tliat of them the Lord, 

* QfL Snccairai, Ch« BiidpL, 9 potc Mcth« ci^. 2.. 
. t CTpriaa* L 1, EpUu i« 



who knew the hearts of all men, Acts i. 24, might take 
onto himself tlie man which he knew most fit Gal. i. 1. 
That which belonged unto God, namely, to design an 
ajiostle immediately, was left unto him ; the disciples also, 
m tliis work, retaining what might be their liberty, which 
Calvin notes upon tliis place, to have been a kind of middle 

Tlie third place followeth, which is Acts vi. I — 8, hand- 
ling the choice of deacons, and tliat by tlio same church in 
•Jerusalem, not now small, as before, but (which I wish 
may be marked to stop tlie passage, which some Uiink lies 
-open for escape through smaller assemblies) now becomo 
great and populous. In tliis business tlio apostles iiifoim 
the church what kind of men thev ought to choose : the 
multitude chooseth whom they judge fit and meet accord- 
ingly, and tlie same present to Uic apostles ; upon whom, 
80 chosen by the people, Uie said apostles impose hands as 
a solemn symbol of their consecration, joining therewith 
common prayer. Now if the deacons only be trusted with 
the churches money, were not to bo made but by the 
people 8 sufTingc and election : much less pastors and 
elders, unto whose fidelity under Christ the same church 
doth commit the incomparable (reasuro of their souls. 

To tlie same purpose, in regard of the matter in hand, 
servetli tliat which we read, Acts xiv. 23, where "Paul and 
Barnabas do ordain elders in ever}' church, by suflfrnges," 
not tlieir own, as some fancy, unto wliora to lift up and to 
lay on hands is all one, but the people's ; or ** by the lift- 
ing up of hands,** by which sign the Grecians, as appears in 
Demosthenes and otliers, the people's vote or voice giving 
in tlieir popular assemblies was wont to be made. I add, 
which is especially to bo obsen'ed, that the apostles, in 
doing their part in the ordination of elders, did what tlicy 
did as it were by the way ; staying only, most like, two or 
three days in a place : so as they could not possibly by 
their own experience take sufficient knowledge, what per- 
sons in the church were apt to teach or govern : who able 
to exhort with sound doctrine, and to convince the gain* 
sayers : how unblameable they were, how watchful, given 
to hospitality, temperate, &c., and with these, how manner- 
ed wives and children they had. I Tim. iii. 1 — 7 ; Tit. 



L 7. These things onlj, the brethren, which conrersed 
with them publiclj and privately; could sufficiently take 
knowledge and experience of. Upon their electing thcm» 
did the ordination conferred by the apostles, as the hands 
of the church, depend. By election, the persons elected 
have right to their offices ; into tlio actual i>osse8sioii 
whereof they are solemnly admitted by ordination. 

This troop of proofs, tliat known and notable place. 
Acts XV., shall shut up: in which we have the people's 
liberty in tlie churches, both of Antioch and Jerusalem, 
plentifully confirmed and commended by ax>ostolic practice 
to ensuing churches, and times. 

And first, It is evident, that in the Gliurch of Antioch. 
together witli the elders, which, it appears then it had. 
Acts ziv. 21, 23, the brethren were admitted into the 
fellowship of the business, and disquisition made about 
circumcision :« Paul and Barnabas, with the rest of the 
delegates, tlien sent, being ** brought on their journey by 
the church/* ver. 3, the letters idso being written back 
from Jerusalem " to tlie brctliren which were at Antioch,** 
ver. 23, and which is specially to be noted, then, and not 
before, *' delivered when tlie multitude were come toge- 
ther,** ver. 30. So in the church at Jerusalem the mes- 
sengers from Antioch were received not only *' of the 
apostles and elders,** but of *' the church,** with them, 
ver. 4. And as tlie question was propounded so was it 
discussed before tlie whole church by *' the apostles and 
elders coming together to look unto that business,** rer. 0, 
yet not so as the bretliren were wholly bound to silence, 
seeing that ver. 11, the whole multitude is said to have 
held Uieir peace ; that is, to have yielded to Peter*8 speech, 
and reasons. Iiastly, As '* Silas and Judas** were sent with 
Paul and Barnabas, *' by the apostles, and elders, with the 
whole church,** unto Xntioch, ver. 22, so were the letters 
written back in the name of them all *' to the brethren at 
Antioch,** ver. 23. And although the decrees to be observed 
by the churches of the Gentiles, whereof no one, excepting 
Antioch, had any delegates present, which were also part 
of the Word of God, and holy canon, could come from 
none other than the apostles, immediately inspired by the 
^ 'WUtuk.'dt Author. Benp. lib. I, ch. 5, tect. I. 



Holy Ghost, thej notwithstanding in tho publishing of the- 
some, did not disdain the consenting suffrage of tho 
brethren of that porUcular church of Jorusolem* where the 
assembly was.* 

And surely, if it crer did, or could apportiun to any 
church officers or governors wliatsoevcr to represent the 
church assemblies, in elections, censures, and other cccle- 
siosticol judgments, and occurrences ; then witliout doubt 
unto tho i^ostlcs in on eminent, and peculiar manner, 
especially lining in that rude, and childish state of tho 
church, couHidoring both how superlative tlicir office was,. 
and how admirable tlieir gifts, and endowments of the Holy 
Ghost, together witli their incomparable both piety, and 
prudence ; by which they were both most able, and willing, 
to promote the Christian faith in holiness. And alUiough 
this constant ond uniform botli practice and institution of 
the apostles unto divers iK>litic persons, swelling with prido 
of fleshly reason, dcspisinpr apostolical simplicity, and who, 
as Ircneus spcaks.t would be rectifiers of the apostles, 
seem worUiy of light regiird, yet to us, who believe with 
Theodoret, tliat we " ought to rest in the apostolical and 
prophetical demonstrations ;**t and who, with Tcrtullian, do 
adore the fulness of tho Scrip turcs,§ tlicy seem of singular 
weiglit and moment 

And whilst I consider with myself, in tlie fear of God, 
how it was tlic apostles* duty to teach the disciples of 
Christ ** to observe whatsoever ho commiuidcd them,'* Matt 
xxviii. 20; and how tlic apostle Paul tcstifictli, tliat even 
the things which ho wrote, touching order and comeli- 
ness to be observed in tho cliurch exercises, wcro tlic com* 
mandments of tlic Lord, 1 Cor. xiv. 37 ; as also how the 
same apostle clearly profcssetli, that ho and his fellow- 
officers were only to be reputed as ministers and ambas- 
sadors of Christ, 1 Cor. iv. 1 ; 2 Cor. v. 20; to whom there- 
fore in the execution of tlieir office, it was not permitted to 
do, or speak tho least tiling, which tliev had not in chargo* 
from hun ; it is unto me a matter of great scruple, and 
conscience,, to depart one hairbreadtli, (extroordinaiy occi* 

^ Johan. Wolfluii, in 2 Kings xziii. 
t XnAdv.Usrai. lib. 3. 1 1'hcodor. IUaL 1. 

S TertulL ad Hcnaog. 




dents ever excepted) from their practice, and institution, in 
anything truly ecclesiastical, though never, so small in itself; 
— whatsoever, by whomsoever, and with what colour soever 
is invented, and imposed ; — touching the government of 
the church, which is Uie " house and tahemacle of the living 
God/* 2 Tim. iii. 15. And a partner in this faith 1 do hope 
to live, and die, and to appear before Jesus Christ, with 
boldness in tliat great and fearful day of his coming. 

I add, tiiat seeing the Christian congregation, as the 
spouse of Christ, free and ingenuous, hath the church 
officers whosoever, as Christ Jesus her husband*s, so also 
her scn*ants for Jesus' sake, whom, under Christ, slie 
trustetli with her eternal salvation, and unto whom for 
their labour she owetli wages for relief and maintenance,. 
2 Cor. iv. 5 ; 1 Tim. iv. 10;. v. 17, 18 ; considering also how 
much it mokes boUi to whet on the diligence of the minis- 
ters, and to enforce the diligence of tlie people, whilst 
these on the one side consider witli tliemselvcs, how they 
have tlicm set over tliem, whom above others themselves 
have liked, and made dioice of; and tJicy on tlie otlier 
side, that they are set over those by whom they before 
others were made choice of, and elected: that which 
Cyprian hatli,<^ secmeth most equal, and of institution 
moral, and unchangeable, tliat " the commonalty fearing 
God and keeping his commandments, should have tlie 
special hand citlier in choosing of wortJiy priests, or minis- 
ters, or of rejecting the unworthy : whicli also,*' saith he, 
" we see to be founded upon Divine authority.** 

The same is to be held of excommunication. Seeing; 
that it behoveth the Cliristian multitude to avoid the fel- 
lowship of tlie excommunicated, not only in the course of. 
religion, but even in common and familiar conversation, 
(the rights of nature, family, and commonwealth ever kept 
inviolated) : and tliat whom yesterday I was to repute a 
brother near and dear in Christ, to-morrow I must hold 
as a "heatlien and publican," and as, '* for the- destruction 
of the flesh, delivered to Satan," Matt, xvlii. 17 ; 1 Cor. v. 5 :. 
who is so unequal a judge as not to think it a most equal 
thing, that the multitude should clearly, and undoubtedly, 
take knowledge both of the heinousness of the crime, and 

* Qrpr. Epist. 4, lib. iv..U 



incorrigible eontumacj of the person, after the use of all 
means and remedies for reclaiming him. This, if it be not 
done, then doth not tlie church herein live by her oim, but 
hj her officers' faith, neither are her governors to be 
reputed as servants, but lords unto her ; neither do they 
exercise their office popularly in the church as tliey ought, 
but tyrannically, as Uiey ought not, by Chrysostom's 
verdict His words are these :* " He who bears himself 
upon an external and worldly power, because he rules 
legally, and tliat men must of necessity obey him, doth 
ofttiines, and • that not without cause, exercise authority 
against the will, and wclMiking of his subjects. But on 
the other side, he who will be over those, who voluntarily 
submit unto him, and can him thank, and yet will presume 
to do things as himself likcth, and as if ho wero to give 
account to none other thereof, that man raUier exerciseth 
his auUiority tyrannically tlian popularly.** 

The Lord God put it into tlic hearts of those who bear 
greatest sway in the reformed churches, to endeavour the 
furnishing of the same with such elders, as may both fully, 
and constantly, and popularly, discharge their place, for 
the peace of their own consciences before God, the cdifica- 
Uon of tlie churches over which they are set, as also for 
the abating, if not abolishing, of that contempt in which 
prelatists and supercilious persons use to hold these lay* 
elders, as tliey call them. 

But now lest any should take occasion, cither by tho 
things here spoken by us, or elsewhere of us, to conceive, 
that we either exercise amongst ourselves, or would thrust 
upon others, any popular, or dcmocratical church govern- 
ment ; may it please the Christian reader to make estimate 
of both our judgment and practice in this point, according 
to these three declarations following. 

First, We believe, that the external church government 
under Christ, the only mediator and monarch thereof, is 
plainly aristocratical, and to be administered by some 
certain choice men, although the state, which many unskil- 
fully confound witli the government, be after a sort popular 
and democratical.t By Uiis it appertains to the people 

^ ChrytOBt. in Epist. ad Titum. 
t Bodinum de Rcpub., lib. 2, cap. ult. 




freely to vote in elections and judgments of the church : 
in respect of the other, we make account it hehoves the 
elders to govern the people, even in their voting, in just 
liberty, given by Christ whatsoever. 1 Cor. xii. $28; I Tim. 
V. 17 ; Hcb. xiii.- 17. Let tlie elders publicly propound, 
and order all things in the church, and so give their 
sentence on them ; let them reprove them that sin, con- 
vince Uic gainsayers, comfort the repentant, and so ad* 
minister all things according to the prescript of God's 
Word : let the people of faiUi give their assent to their 
elders* holy and lawful administration : that so the eccle- 
siastical elections and censures may be ratified, and put 
into solemn execution by the elders, either in the ordination 
of officers after election, or excommunicaUon of offenders 
after obstinacy in sin. 

2. Wo doubt not but that the elders both lawfully may» 
and necessarily ought, and that bv virtue of tJieir office, to 
meet apart at Umes from tlie body of the church, to deli- 
berate of such tilings as concern her welfare, as for tho 
preventing of things unnecessary, so for tlie preparing, 
according to just orier, of things necessary, so as publicly, 
and before the people, they may be prosecuted with most 
oonveniency, and least trouble, that may be. Acts xx. 18. 

•1. By the people whose liberty, and right in* voting, we 
tlius avow, and stand for, in matters truly public and eccle- 
siastical, we do not understand, as it haUi pleased some 
contumeliously to upbraid us, women, and children ; but 
only men, and tliem grown, and of discretion: maldng 
account, tliat as children by their nonage, so women by 
their sex are debarred of the use of authority in the church. 
1 Cor. xiv. 84, 35 ; 1 Tim. ii. 12. 



It seemetli not without all leaven of superstition, that 
the Dutch reformed churches do observe certain days con- 
secrated as holy to the nativity, resurrection, and ascen- 
sion of Christ, and. the same idso (as it commonly comes 
to pass where human devices are reared up by the side of 


': '■'■i 


Dirine institations) much mora holy than tho Lord^s-day,. 
by him himself appointed. 

And for this, first we are taught by Moses, thus, speak- 
ing nnto the people of Israel in the name of the Lord : 
"Verily, my Sabbatlis ye shall keep; for it is a sign 
between me and you tliroughoutyour generations, that yo 
may know tliat I am the Lord tliat dotli sanotify you,** 
Exod. xzxi. 13, that it appertains unto Go<l alone (and to 
no man, or angel) as to sanctify whetlier person, or thing,- 
80 to institute the signs, or means of sanctification, of' 
which number holy dayn aix). I add, if tho Lord as Je- 
hovah, and tho Ooa of his people Israel, Exod. xx. 8, and 
supreme lawgiver, do ordain tlie sanctification of a day in. 
the 'decalogue, how far should God's servants be, either 
magistrates from taking tliis honour of God unto tliem- 
selves by commanding a holy day ; or stibjccts by observ* 
ing it, to give the same unto any other save God alone 7 

9. It was not tlie least part of Ismcrs defection, first in 
the wilderness, adcnvards imdcr Jeroboam, that tliey 
ordained a feast to Jchovnli, whom Uioy represented to 
themselves by tlie golden calves which they had made. 

3. Seeing that every first day of tlie week, called by John, 
the Lord*s-(lay, is consccratcul by Christ himself and his 
apostles to Uie memorial of Chnst*s resuiTcction, and 
God*s solemn worship ; it seems too much for any mortal 
man to appoint, or make on anniversary memorial, and the 
same most solemn and sacred, of tlie same resurrection, or 
so to obsen'e it. 

Lastly. That you may see it was a man, from whom this 
device came, and so erred, as one saith, (not to meddle 
witli the uncertainty either of the day of tlie montli, or 
month of tlie year in which Christ was bom, as it is most 
certain on the contrary that tliis twenty-fifth of December 
cannot be the time), what good reason, I would know, can 
be rendered,- why a day should be consecrated ratlicr to the 
birth, circumcision, and ascension of Christ, tlian to his 
death, seeing that tho Scriptures everywhere do ascribe 
our redemption and salvation to>hifl death, and passion in 
special manner? 





Sixthly, and lastly. We cannot assent to the receiyed 
opinion and practice answerable in the reformed churches, 
by which tlic pastors thereof do celebrate marriage pub- 
licly, and by virtue of their office : because, 

1. The Iloly Scripture divinely inspired, that the man 
of God, tliat is tlie minister, may be pcrfccUy furnished to 
every good work, doth no whore furnish or oblige the 
ministiT to this work. 2 Tim. iii. IC, 17. 

2. Marriage doUi, properly and immediately, appertain 
to Uie family, which is primarily framed of man and wife,W 
and cities, and other political bodies consisting of manj 
families. Secondarily and immediately, to the common* 
wealth, and public governors of the same : who, tlierefore, 
weighing their office, and what concemcth tliem do accord- 
ingly, in the Low Countries, comclily and in good order tie 
tliat knot of tliat marriage amongst sucli Uicir subjects, as 
require it at their hands. Neitlier did God as a minister 
join in marriage our first parents, as some would make 
him, but as their common father by right of creation, and 
tlie chief master of tlio marriage,! Gen. i. 27; ii. 22; 
neither ought the pastor's office to be stretched to any 
otlier acts tlian those of religion, and such as are peculiar 
to Christians : amongst which marriage, common to Gen- 
tiles as well as to tliem, hath no place, t 

Lastly. Considering how popish superstition hath so far 
prevailed, tliat marriage in the Bomish church hath got a 
room amongst tlie sacraments, truly and properly so 
called, and by Christ the Lord instituted;! the ^celebra- 
tion, and consecration whereof the patrons, and consorts 
of tliat superstition will have so tied to the priests* fingers, 
that by the decree of Evaristus the First, they account the 
marriage no better than incestuous, which the priest con- 

^ Kcckcrm. Can. PhjL Bisp. 28, c. 6. ' 

t Chcin. Exam. part. 2. de Mar. t Bucanuf in loc. Com. 

I THdcnt. Cone Can. 1. do Sac Uatzi. Fdyd. TirgiL t. ds 
Ihvent. Bcnun, v. 5. 



secrates not ; it the more eoncems the reverend brethren, 
and pastors of the reformed churches to see unto it, that 
by their practice they neither do, nor seem to advantage 
this popish error. 

And these are the points of our difference from the 
Belgic churches, which are neither so small, as that they 
deserve to be neglected ; especially of them unto whom 
nothing seemeth small, which proceeds from the gracious 
either mouth or Spirit of the Lord Jesus: nor yet so great, 
as to dissolve the bond of brotherly charity, and com* 

If any now shall object, that tliere are yet other things 
beside these, in which we consort not so well with them, 
nor they with us ; as for example : — 1. In the sanctification 
of the Lord*s-day, in which we seem even supcrstitiously 
rigid. 2. In a certain popular exercise of prophecy 
amongst us. 3. In our dislike of tlic public temples, and 
sundiy other indifferent tilings, as they are termed; be- 
sides, that wc are accused by some for not having in duo 
estimation tlic magistrate's authority in matters of religion ; 
I do answer, and first, that in tlio two first of these, the 
same churches do not differ from us in judgment, but in prac- 
tice : as appears evidently by the haimony of the Belgic 
s}'nods, lately published by S. R. Of the fonncr of those 
two, the author of the same book, testificth in his preface 
to tlie reader, that the Synod lield at Middleburgh in 
Zealand, 1581, did supplicate unto tlie mogistrate, that by 
his authority ho would decree the sanctifiration of the 
Lord*s-day, abolishing the manifold abuses thereof. That 
sancUfication then of the Lord*s-day which the reformed 
churches do endeavour unto, and desire to have fortified 
by the magistrate's autliority, that, we, considering it as 
immediately imposed by Christ upon his churches, by the 
grace of God, labour to perfoiTn, being thereunto induced 
by the following, amongst other reasons. 



Fust, The sanctification of the Sabbath is a part of tlie 


OF THE aANcnncAXKm of the jjobd s day. 


dectlogae, or moral law, written in tables of stone hj the 
finger of God : of which Christ our Lord pronounceth, that 
" no one jot or tittle shall pass awaj.** Matt t. 18. Now 
if it be impossible for one tittle of the law to be dbsolved. 
much more for a' whole word, or commandment, and ono 
of ten ; by which it should come to pass, that Christians 
now were not to count of ten commandments of the moral 
law, but of nine only. 

If reply be made tliat the fourth commandment is so 
ceremonial, that notwithstanding it hath this moral in it, 
that some time be assigned, and taken for the public 
ministry, and exercises of religion, I answer : 

1. That the same may be said in general, of the 
Mosaical ceremonies whatsoever : all, and every one where- 
of afibrdeth something moral. For instance, the Mosaical 
temple, or tabernacle hod this moral in it, and pertaining to 
us, as well as to the Israelites, that it was a fit and con* 
venient place for the church assembly. Is therefore the 
precept for the tabernacle as well moral, as that for the 
Sabbath ? Exod. xxv. and xxvi. Is it alike a part of the 
decalogue, and moral law ? Is it alike one of the ten com- 
mandments ? Exod. XX. 

2. If the moral sanctification of the Sabbath stand in 
tliis, that some time bo assigned to the public ministiy, 
then were tlie Israelites, especially tlie priests, and Levites, 
bound to an cvery-day Sabbath and sanctification moral, 
being bound eveiy day to offer in the tabernacle, and 
temple, two young lambs, tlie one at morning, the other at 
evening for a daily sacrifice. Numb, xxviii. 3, 4. 

3. If tlie second precept of the decalogue do in the 
affirmative part enjoin all outward instituted worship of 
God ; then also by consequence it requires some set time, 
as a natural cirrsumstance absolutely necessary to every 
finite action, in which the same worship is to be per- 
formed. In vain then is the fourth commandment, and to 
no purpose, if it enjoin notliing at all, but that which was 
enjoined before, namely in the second. 

4. The very essence of the fourth commandment con- 
sists in this, that a day of seven be kept holy, that is 
separated from common use, and consecrated to God, in 
whidi as in a holy day the works of Divine worship, and 



BQch as serve for the spiritual man ought to bo exercised^ 
ms appears plainlj by the reason taken f]*om God's ex- 
ample, upon which the commandment is founded. Take 
this away, and the life of the precept scemeth to suffer 
Tiolence. The truly godly take some time for the exercises 
of God's worship not only public, and ecclesiastical, but 
private also, and domestical : yea in their closets, as Christ 
teachetli. Matt. vi. G. Yet are not tliese either times or 
places, in which such tilings are done, timn others arc. 
Either tliereforo a day in itself must be holy, by Divine 
institution, or the dccaloguo is maimed in the fourtli 

But you will doubtless object the change made from the 
last day, to the first day of the week. I answer, 1, That 
change is merely circumstantial, and in which also tlio 
essence of the precept is not abolished, but established. 
As for example. God promised unto children duly honour* 
ing tlicir parents a long life in tliat land, Exod. xx. 12, to 
wit of Ganiian, then to bo possessed by his people, •'which 
the Lord thy God gave unto them. " The same promise by 
the apostlo*8 testimony 8till stands good to obedient chil- 
dren, Ejihcs. vi. 2, though out of Canaan, and in another 
land, so doth the same precept stand in force for the sane- 
tification of tlie Sabbath, though removed to anotlicr of tho 
seven days by the Lord's hand. 

2. It is evident that this alteration was made both upon 
weifrhty ground, and warrantable authority. Tho ground 
is Christ our Saviour's rcsiurection from the dead : in 
which man*s new creation, (at least in respect of Christ 
working the same in the state of humiliation for that end 
undertaken) was perfected : a new kind of kingdom of God, 
Luke vii. 28, after a sort established : and, as the Scrip- 
tures speak, all things made new. And why not also a 
new Sabbath' after a sort? in which yet notwithstanding 
tho former, as tho creation also by Christ, is not so 
properly abolished, as perfected. 

The authority upon which tliis change Icaneth, is no less 
than of Christ himself : who, first, by word of mouth for 
the forty days after his resurrection, taught the disciples 
the things, which appertained to the kingdom of God, that 
is, as Calvin saith,** " Whatsoever things they published 

* Calv. in Acts i. 3. 


either bj word or wriUng afterward.** 2. By his example, 
or fact, setting himself in tlie midst of the same his apo- 
sties, the first day of the week, Jolm xx. 10, 20; Luke 
xxiv. 36, and as Junius saith,* every eighth day, till his 
ascension into heaven : and therein not only blessing them 
with his bodily, but much more, with his spiritud, and 
that special presence. 3. By his Spirit speaking in his 
i^osUes, whose office it was to teach his disciples to ob* 
serve what tilings soever ho had commanded them, and to 
declare unto tlicm the whole counsel of God : who also in 
their whole ministration were to be reputed none otlxer 
than the ministers of Christ; Matt xxviii. 20; Acts xx. 27; 
1 Cor. iv. 1 ; and lastly, whose both writing (and preach- 
ings accordingly) even about order and comeliness to bo 
kept in the church exercises were the commandments of 
the Lord Jesus. 1 Cor. xiv. 37. Agreeable hereunto it 
was, that the Apostle Paul eoming to Troas, and there witli 
his company abiding seven days, ho did not till the first 
day of the week, which yet was the last of tlie seven, call 
together the disciples to eat bread, tliat is to communicate 
in the Lord's Supper. Acts xx. G, 7. Hereupon also it 
was, that the same apostle ordained, tliat on every first day 
of the week, 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2, as on a day sanctified for tlio 
holy assemblies, and fittest for most effectual provocations 
to Uie supplying of tlie necessities of tlie poor saints, overy 
one of the richer sort should lay something apart, as God 
had blessed him, for the relief of tlie chwches in Syria, at 
that time oppressed with great penuiy, and want Lastly, 
Upon none other ground but tliis, was this day, by Jolm 
tho Apostle, named expressly tlie Lord s-day, Bev. i. 10, as 
being consecrated to Uie resurrection and sen-ice of tho 
Lord Jesus : for which end also it vms kept in tlie primitive 
churches, as appearetli by most ancient and authentic 
writers, t Neither did Patmos more distinctly denote a 
certain and known island, and John a certain and known 
person, than did tho Lord*8-day a day certain, and known 
especially unto Christians, unto whom the apostle wrote. 

* Junitis in Gen. ii« 3. 

t Ignat ad Magnet. Just Uartyr, ApoL 2. TcrtulLdoIdol.£aMli. 
L 4, S, de Dionyk 

VOL. ni. B 




Whereunto also agrectli that of Austin.* This LordVctoy* 
is therefore so colled, because on that daj the Lord rose 
again* or that by the very name it might teach us, how it 
ouglit to be consecrated to the Lord. 

The second reason is, because tlio sanctification of the 
Sabbath, the circumstantial change notwitlistanding, doth* 
as well belong to us in our times, as to the Israelites in 
theirs ; whetlier we respect the reason of tlie command- 
ment, or tlie end. Tlio reason is taken from the example 
of God himself, who rested tlie scventli day from tlie works 
of creation. The ends are, 1. That we framing ouraclves 
to God*s example, after six days spent in servile works, or 
works of acquisition, might rest tlie sovenUi. 2. That we 
might recount witli ourselves, not only with tlionkful, but 
also composed hearts, as the creation of man, and of all 
other things for man's good, so also his re-creation, and 
renovation clearly shining in the resurrection of Christ 
from the dead. 1 Pet. i. 3. 3. That sequestring our hearts, 
tongues, and hands from every senile work, so fur as 
human infirmity will bear, wo might consecraU) unto God 
a certain and set time and day, for the works of piety 
towards him, and of charity towards men. Isa. Iviii. 13. 
And albeit the state of Israel of old compared with ours, 
was childish, and clemcntaiy, and so needed the more 
helps both for rostmint and supportnnce. Gal. iv. 1 ; yet 
have not wo attained to such manlike perfection, as tiiat 
we need none at nil in tliis kind. 

And not to meddle with the rnbblc of Christians, whoso 
aversion from the dtie snnctificiition of this day gives no 
obscure testimony, that tlio same is sacred and of God, 
from which their profane conversation so much abhorreth, 
how behoveful and necessary it is for the true worshippers 
of God, that for some certain, and whole day they should 
empty and clisburden tlicir hearts of their earthly cares, 
though in themselves lawful, that so they might wholly 
consecrate tliemselves to God, publicly in his house, and 
privately in their own; partly by preparing tliemselves, 
and theirs for tlio public worship, and ministry, and partly 
by calling to mind in themselves, and instructing, and ex- 
amining of those which belong imto them, as they ought, 

* August* do Verb. Apost* Senn. Iff. 



touching tho things which tliey havo publicly heard ; ns 
also in meditatuig of tlie most glorious works of God*8 
hands, the vciy experience of even* godly and de\'Out man 
may teach him. He that sells himself to tlie holy, and 
severe observations of this tho Lord's sabbath, "turning 
away his foot from the Sabbath, not to do that wherein he 
delightetli on the Lord's holy day, and calling the sabbatli a 
delight, the holy of tlie Lord, and honoundile, and slioU 
honour liim, not doing his o\mi ways, nor performing his 
own pleasure, or speaking his own words ; tlicn shall he 
delight himself in the Lonl, and he will cause him to ride 
upon the high places of the earth, and fee<l him with tho 
heritage of Jacob his father, because the moutli of tlie 
Lord hath spoken it.** Isa. Iviii. 18, 11. Wlienras on tlie 
contmr}', no man doth or can neglect tlie same without 
apparent prejudice nud wrong to piety and goodness both 
in himself, and those under him. To let pass other things, 
how easily dotli this tliought steal into tho heait not 
thoroughly persuaded of the holiness of this day ? Wlmt 
now ! There is ui tlie day no lifdiness by God's npiK>int- 
ment, save only, as in it, the public K(;niionK of the church 
with prayer and thanksgiving are to bo fi'equented, and 
pei*fonned : for me to be ])i*csent at evciy sennon, K]iecialiy 
made in city, 1»otli on the Luixl's-day, niid owry otlier day 
of the week, my special calling, and worldly atfairs will not 
permit : besides, it were ven* connnodious for me on tliis 
Ix>rd*s-day, to make an end o( such or such a work which 
I have in hand, to deal in such a business, to undeilake 
such a journey; and what bhould hinder me from so 
doing? But provided idways. U2>on this condition, that 
look what this day wants, the morrow, or next dny sliall 
plentifully supply : or, if it so full out, tliix>ugli mine im- 
portunate business, that I be something more behind this 
week in these tilings, I will certahdy, and at Uie fuiihest, 
the next week be so much the more frequent in thcnii 
and so make God, and my soul amends. And why, as is the 
guise of ill debtors, will not men desire, and take longer 
day, even to months, and years also ? considering how on 
tlie ono side tlio heart of man is daily faster token and 
held by the bait of worldly profit and pleasure : and on 
the oUier, less affectioned to God's Uoly Wordi by the less 




53 ▲ jxmr and nccxssabt apoloot. 

frequent hearing of it. And hence, alas, cometh it to paas, 
that true pietj languisheth so much in the most, and with 
it such other ClirisUan virtues as use to accompany it 
Hence flow those tears of sorrow, and lamenting, which no 
true Christian casting his eyes upon tho reformed churches 
can forbear. 

Tlie third reason is taken from that apostolical deter- 
mination, wrested by many to a contrary meaning, GoL 
ii. 16, 17, " Let no man therefore judge you in moat, or 
drink, or in respect of a feast or new moon, or sabbaths; 
which are tlie shallow of good things to come, but the 
body is Christ** Whence it appearcth more than plainly, 
that only those 8abbnths are abolished by Christ*8 com* 
ing in tlie flesh, which were types and flgures of Christ 
to come, of which sort as there were not a few instituted 
of God by Moses, so doth this opostlo here, and elsewhere 
sufficiently declare the abrogating, and abolishing of tho 
same by Christ But tliat the Sabbath of which we now 
speak comes in that reckoning we plainly deny. 

For, 1. In its primaiy institution. Gen. ii., there can 
notliing be found not wholly moral. liCt a man having 
many eyes as Argus, scorch tho same with a candle, ho 
seeks, as wc say, a knot in a bulrush, if he think to find 
in it any eitlier shadow of Christ, or shadow of shadow. If 
any shall except, that God by Moses did enjoin unto the 
Israelites the sanctification of this day, *' that it might be a 
sign between him and Israel tliroughout their generations, 
that they might know that he is the Lord that doth sanctify 
them.** PiXod. xxxi. J 3. I do answer, first, in the words of 
Arminius, that ** the reason upon which God did after- 
wards commend unto his people, the sanctification of tho 
sabbatli because it was a sign between God and his people, 
that it was Jehovah that sanctified them, may be applied 
to the times of the new testament, and further, witli them 
also, the 8abbath*s sanctification. '*<' U. Admit that tins use 
were ceremonial, and typical in the fourth commandment, 
yet were there no force in tlie consequence from one end 
and use typical and ceremonial, superinduced, and 
brought in upon Uie precept, to prove the precept itself 
ceremonial and typical in tho institution. By the same 
* Annin. in TheoL Disp. FHy. pp. 186, 187. 




reason it may be affirmed, that both the eovenant of God 
made with Abraham, " I will bo thy God, and the God of 
thy seed,** as also the right of tlie first-bom. Gen. xlix. 3 ; 
for a double portion, and many things more of like eon* 
sidcration, were merely ceremonial and ty])ical, seeing 
that even unto them also, were annexed, and Uiat by God's 
appointment, divers typical and temporal respects: of 
which notwithstanding none soundly minded will deny, 
that tlie one is evangelical, and the other natural. Gal. iii. 
8, 16, 17. 3. Considering that the observation of this 
sabbath was either enjoined, as I persuade myself it was 
from Gen. ii. 1 — 3, and Exod. xvi. 20, 30, to Adam, in 
innocency and not yet needing Christ ; or at least, that 
the reason of Uie institution did fit tlie state of innocency 
as well, as it did the Israelites afterward, I do undoubtedly 
conclude, tliat the same Sabbath in the primary, and essen- 
tial institution tlicrcof is not to come upon their file, which 
as the shadows of future things had Christ for tlie body. 

Fourthly, I argue from that premonition of Christ, Matt 
xxiv. 20, " Pray that your flight be not in winter nor on the 
Sabbatli.** I am not ignorant how the most divines both 
ancient, and later do undei-stand tliis sermon, as Chrysos* 
torn saith, as made of the Jews ; seeing tliat, as the same 
author hath it, '* neitlier the apostles did observe tlie Sab* 
bath-day, neither yet were Uicy in Judea when tliese tilings 
were done of tlie Romans : many of tliem having de* 
parted tliis life, and tlie rest, (if any survived) having be* 
stowed tlicmselves in otlier places. "<^ But, with due 
reverence to them all be it spoken, it seemetli by the text 
to be otherwise. For 1. Christ made not this sermon to 
the Jews, as Jews, but to his disciples, and tlioso alone, 
and the same coming unto him secretly to be taught by 
him : ver. 3 ; whom he forewarned in tlie same place how 
that first at the hands of tlie Jews in Judea, and after, of 
the Gentiles everyAvhere, they should be evil intreatcd for 
his name's sake, verses 3, 4, 0, 25, 20, with Luke xxi. 12. 
Secondly, Our Saviour in saying " Pray ye,'* makes it plain, 
that he speaks of them, and Uieir associates \mto whom 
he speaks, to wit, Christians. Lastly, How could it be that 
Christ, who by his death, now drawing so near ai that 
* ChryMsU Horn. 77, ex Matt, xxiv. 


there was but a step unto it, was to abrogate, ond abolish 
all Jewish ceremonies, nnd shadows, should so careful!/ 
pfOTide for tho so religious observation of a shadowish 
and ceremonial Sabbath : and that not for a day or two, 
but for so many years after the same his dcntli ? Could 
anything more weighty be spoken by Olirist, or which 
could more deeply imprint in tho hearts of men a religi- 
ons regard of tlie Sabbath, than that it l)Ohoved tliem to 
obtain by prayer at G oil's hands, that they might not bo 
constmined unto that thing although pennitto<l them of 
God in case of urgent necessity, wliidi might violate and 
interrupt the public and Kolenui sane tifi cation tlicreof ? It 
is true tlieu which Chiysostom saith, that the apostles did 
not observe tlic Sabbatli, to wit, Jewish : but tlio Christian 
Sablmtli, or Iiord*s-day, they did undoubtedly celebrate. 

The fifUi and last reason may be fetched from tlic very 
Gentiles themselves, who din?cted by tho glimpso of tho 
light of nature, 1k)w darkly soever shining in them, had 
their holy days, ond some of tlie same such, as in which 
not so much as tho pleading nnd determining of suits 
were admitted.-:' It secinoth nfttnml that some day, and 
moml that some day certain ami distinct, be sacred unto 
Gofl : ami the same, as Junius sait]),|- every seventh day : in 
which men forbearing all sen-ilo works, may consecrate, 
and give tliem selves to (fwl in the duties of piety, and of 
charity to men. AVliich with what hindorancc unto the ono 
and other, is evcrywhen^ neglected, can scarce eithor bo 
uttered, or conceived. I'or what manxl if upon the over- 
slipping of the most seasonable seed-time, a slender har- 
vest follow; or that, tlie market day being neglected, pcnur}' 
of provision should be found in the family ; we Christians 
have the Lord s-dayby the Lord Christ assigned us for the 
exercises of piety, and mercy, in which he offers, and 
exhibits himself in the fruits of his gracious presence in a 
singular manner to be seen, and enjoyed of his, religiously 
observing the same. Let us at no hand, as alike unmind- 
ful of God*8 ordinance and man's infirmity, suffer tho fruit 
of such a benefit to die in our hands : but let us accord- 
ingly ncknowledgo tin; same in thought, word, and work, to 
his honour, and our own good. 

^ Varro, lib. 3, do Ling. lat. t Junius in Ocn. iL 2. 

■■II- ■ immmmmmmmm 





TnEnKoi'o tlioy, whose names I forbear, for llieir credit's 
.sake, Tvho have not spared, and that in their pubhc writings* 
to lay to our charge, Uiat we will needs have all and every 
mcinber of the church, a prophet, and to prophesy pub- f 
lidy. With what minds Uiey let loose their tongues to 
utter Uiese, and many more most false and absurd vita- 
pcrics against us, we leave it to God to judge, who knowetli : 
with what conscience, and desert of credit therein, unto 
tlicc, Christian reader, into whose lumds this our Apology 
shall come. 

AVe leom from tlie apostle Paul, i Cor. xiv. 3, that " ho 
who prophcsieth, spcaketh unto men to edification, exhorta- 
tion, and comfort:" which to perform conveniently, andas 
becomes the church assembly, wo make account comes 
within the compass but of a few of the multitude ; happily 
two or tlirce in each of our chnrchcs, considering their 
weak and depressed ^tatc. Touching prophecy then wo 
tliink the very same, tliat the synod held at Enibden, 1571, 
hath decreed in these words : "1. In in all cliurches, 
whether but springing up, or grown to some ripeness, let 
tlio order of prophecy be obscn'cd, according to Paul's 
institution. 2. Into tlie fellowship of this work are to be 
admitted not only tlie ministers, but tlio teachers too, as | 
also the elders and deacons, yea, even of tlio multitude, ' 
which are willing to confer tlieir gift received of God, to tho 
common utility of the chiu*ch : but so as Uiey first bo 
allowed by the judgment of tlie ministers, and others."* 
And as tlio apostle sometimes said, *'Wo believe, and tliere- 
fore we speak,*' i2 Cor.iv.l^, so because wo beliovo with Uio 
Belgic churches, tliat tliis exercise is to be observed in all 
congregations, tlierefore wo also observe it in ours. Of this 
our botli faith and practice, we have theso amongst other 
special foundations. 

The first we fetch from examples in tho Jewish church, y^ 
where liberty both for teaching and disputing publicly both 
in the temple an^ synagogue, was freely given to all gifted 

** Harm. Synod* Bdg. pp^ 21, 22. 





aecordingljT, withoat respect had to any office. Luke 
46, 47; iv. 15, 10; Acts viii. 4, 11, 10—21 ; ziii. 14— K 
xviii. 24—20. 

If any object, tliat the examples of Christ and the apostl 
in this cose, are incompetent, seeing that Christ vr 
furnished with his own, and the apostles with his authoril 
he allegeth that which is true in itself, but to small pv 
pose, considering we lay not our foundation in this, th 
Christ and his apostles so did ; but in that liberty so to < 
was always had, in all places granted, and somctim 
offered them. Tliis liberty they obtained not by the auth 
rity of Christ, which the rulers of tho s}'nagogues ai 
temple no more acknowledged than they did Christ hii 
self: but by tho onler then received, and still continued 
this day amongst the Jews, that tliey whom, with i 
Scriptures, tlioy call *' wise men,** Jer. xviii. 18 ; Matt xxiii. 3 
1 Cor. i. 20, without all regard of public office, having a] 
word of exliortation to the people, should ** say on," as i 
have it written. Acts xiii. 23. ^Vhcrcunto I add, tli 
divers of tlicm, in whom wc instance, were furnished wi 
no such authority specially from Christ. 

The second wc take from the apostle Paul, 1 Cor. xi 
where to the full he informcth the cluu'cli at Corinth of t! 
order of that exercise, which they had formerly violate 
Which whole order, according to Be/a on 1 Cor. xiv., 
apparently taken from the received custom in the Jewi 
synagogues. Which custom, saith Peter Martyr on 1 C< 
xiv. 31, seeing it was of old both good and laudable in t 
synagogues of the Jews, the apostle disdains not to trar 
fer it to the Church of Christ, of which also he renders tl 
reason, because it was not a Ic^nX ceremony, but scr>'cs 
the edification of the church. If this be so, tlien nmst th 
needs take their marks amiss, who imagine tliat tlie apos 
in this place speaks of the extraordinary gift and exerci 
of prophecy. And although it be not like, that the Chur 
of Corinth was, in that so plenteous ctfusion of tlie gifts 
the Spirit, altogether destitute of exti*aordinary prophe 
yet that the apostle did not in tliat place aim at them, m 
be proved by many more, and tlie same, as I think, fii 
arguments arawn from the selfsame text, ^^llicll thai 
may do the more commodiously, the prudent reader mi 





call to mind, that upon the foundation of the extraordinaiy 
prophets, as well as of the very apostles, the church is 
built, £ph. ii. 20 ; and that that mysteiy of Christ, hy the 
Spirit immediately and infallibly enlightening their mind* 
was in the same manner, tliough not in 8^1 the same 
degree, revealed to tliem, and the other. £ph. iii. 4, 6. 

This so considered, 1. It seems altogether improbable, 
tliat so many prophets of this rank, although inferior in 
gifts, should have been found in that one small congrega* 
lion, as the apostle insinuates, ver. 24, 20, 31, that Corinth 

2. The prophets in Corinth not only behaved themselves 
inordinately in the church, but withal, as by interpreters 
from vcr. 29 and 32, is generally delivered, were subject to 
error in tlio very doctrine which they propounded ; which 
to affirm of the extraordinary prophets, those skilful master 
builders, who together with Uie apostles laid the foimda- 
tion, together participated the same holy Spirit, seemeth 
not a little to shake tlie foundation of the Christian religion. 
And if one of tlicse extraordinaxy prophets might err, why 
not they all ? And if tlio prophets, why not the apostles ? 
And if Uiey might err, how should it appear, that tliey have 
not erred? And so by consequence, what either then 
was, or now is, the firmness and certainty of the Christian 

3. Seeing that tlie apostle, ver. 34, 36, enjoins women 
deep silence in tliis church exercise, not permitting them 
at all to speak ; it seems most plain that he hath no eye, 
nor respect at all, to those extraordinary gifts and endow* 
mcnts of prophecy authorising even women furnished with 
them, to speak publicly, and in mcn*s presence, as appears 
in Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Anna, as also even in Jeze* 
bel herself in regard of order, and others. £xod. xv. 21 ; 
Judges V. 1 ; 2 Kings xxii. 14 ; Luke ii. 36 ; liev. ii. 20. 

I^tly, The apostle, ver. 36, upbraideth tliose very pro« 
phets unto whom he directeth his speech, as such as 
from whom the Word of God came not : but without cause* 
yea, not without notable injuxy, if they were extraordinary 
prophets, that is, inspired with the Holy Ghost, and his 
immediate instruments : seeing that from these kind of 
prophets, as well as from Paul the q)Ostle, the Word of God 
came, though in a different degree and measure. 






I f 



The third foundation of this exercise is laid in the m 
fold, and the same most excellent ends attainable onl] 
-this means. 1. That " God may be glorified, whilst every 
doth administer to anotlier the gift which he hatli rccer 
as good dispensers of the manifold grace of Goil." 1 Pet 
10, 1 1. 3. Tliat *' the Spirit be not extinguished/* 1 Th 
▼. 19, 20, that is, tlio gift of prophecy, or teaching ; in wl 
it may so come to pass, that some in the church, tho 
no ministers, may excel tlie veiy pastors tliemsclves. 
Tliat suehas are to be taken into the ministry of the chu 
may botli become and appear " apt to teach.*' 1 Tim. 
This seeing, the apostle would have done, he would qi 
tionless have some onler for the doing of it ; which, 
eepting this of prophecy, we have none of apostolical ir 
tation. 4. Tliat the doctrine of the church may be presei 
pure, from the infection of error : which is far more ea 
corrupted, when some one or two alone in the chv 
speak all, and all tlie rest have deep and perpetual silc 
enjoined tliem. 1 John iv. 1 ; Bcv. ii. 2, 7, with i. ] 
6. That things doubtful arising in teaching may 
cleared, tilings obscure opened, things erroneous c 
vinccd ; and lastly, that as by the beating togcUinr of 
stones fire appcareth, so .may Uie light of the truth n: 
clearly shine by ilisputations, question^ and ansv 
modestly had and made, and as becomcl the churcl 
saints, and work of God.f Luke ii. 40; iv. 21, 22; 1 
xvii. 2; xviii. 24. 20, 28. 6. For the edification of 
church, and conversion of them that believe not: and 
the rather because it appertaineth not properly to the ; 
tors, as pastors, to turn goats or wolves into sheep, 
rather to feed the flock and sheep of Clirist, in which 
Holy Ghost hath made them overseers. 1 Cor.xiv.4, 24, 
Acts XX. 28.; 7. And lastly, Lest by excluding the c 
monalty and multitude from church afTuirs, the peopl 
God be divided, and charity lessened, and familiarity 
good-will be extinguished between the order of minis 

* Jacob A. cont. Stnitag. Sath. pp. 168, 160. 
t Bus. EccL Ills. 1. 6, c. 32, 30. 
*t Sadccl. adv. Turr. Soph. pp. 67, 68. 
f Pet. Han. in 1 Cor. xiv. S9. 

V '■: 





To speak nothing of t]ic office of the Christian magis- 
tnitc in demolishing the monuments and snares of idol- 
atr}% wliich these temples want not, if themselves bo not 
such, I account that tlie consideration is one of a temple, 
as a temple, that is, a holy place, as it is counted of the 
most, consecrated eitlier to God himself, or to some saint 
mode thorein a false god, though being a true saint, whoso 
name it bears ; and which for its magnificent building, and 
superstitious form agi'ees fai* better to tiie Romish religion, 
pompous and idolatrous as it is, than to the reformed, and 
apostolical simplicity. And another, and the same far 
diverse, of a place, although in the house sometimes con- 
'secratrd for such a temple, partly natural, which is simply 
necossar)' to every finite action ; partly civil, in which the 
•church may well, and conveniently assemble together. 
The former use I deem altogether unlawful; the latter not 
so, but lawful, provided always that the opinion of holinoss 
be removed, and witlial such blemishes of superstition, as 
wherewith things lawful in tlicmselves are usually stained.^ 



Wc do SO repute many tilings as indifferent, or mean in 
themselves and their own nature, and as holding a middle 
place as it were, between the tilings simply commanded, 
and the things simply forbidden of God, as that tlie samo 
things being once drawn into use, and practice, do neces- 
sarily undergo ilie respect and consideration of good or 
evil. This the apostle teachetli, 1 Cor. xiv., in his so dili- 
gently warning the church of Corinth, that all things be 
done decently, in order, and to edification. The things 
.then thus accounted indifferent, when they once come into 
use in tlie church, do either work the exercises of religion 

<• CidT. in Pm. dL 15 r Pet. Hurt, in 2Kingi x. 27 ; Job. Woiaiis 
in 2'Kingi xrii. 10 ; ziz. e. 




the more comely, orderly, and cdificaUTO, and are such as 
without which, the same exercises cannot he performed 
hut confusedly, uncomelily, and unfruitfully, at least in 
part, or else tliey swerve from the apostolical canon. With 
this commandment of the apostle, yea of Christ the Lord, 
agrees tlie rule of the philosophers, the accessory foUoweth 
the nature of the principal. For example. Let tlie prin- 
cipal, as they speak, he some natural good thing, the very 
least accessory or circumstance, by which this principle is 
rightly and orderly furthered, and promoted undergoes 
also the consideration of a natural good. The same rule 
holds in actions civil: much more in the tilings, which 
appertain to religion, and Ood*s worship. I therefore con- 
clude, that the least rite or ceremonv serving richtly and 
orderly to further tlie principal act and exercise of religion, 
doth worthily obtain, after a sort, tlie respect and dcnomi- 
nation of a religious, and ecclesiastical good thing : which 
principal act, if it do not truly and effectually promote 
and advance, it is a vain addition at the best, beseeming 
only vain purposes, and persons, which " worship God in 
vain, teaching for doctrines mcn*s traditions," Matt. xv. : 
seeing whatsoever is to be done in the churcli, is also, and 
first to be taught, that so it may be done. 

2. Wliatsoevcr liath being in nature, is some certain 
tiling first, and properly, and to be reduced to some cer- 
tain and distinct head. Now all things whatsoever in use, 
either in, or about God's worship, may and must be re- 
ferred necessarily to some one of those Uiree heads. 
Either tliey are tilings natural, and simply necessary to the 
exercise ; of which sort are the natural circumstances of 
time, and place, without which no finite action can be 
performed : also for the administering of baptism, eitlicr a 
font or other vessel to hold water : and so for oUier ad- 
juncts absolutely necessary for tlie administering of the 
holy things of the church : or secondly, tliey are things 
civil, and comely : as for example, a convenient place in 
which tlie church may conveniently, and comclily meet 
together, not a stable, ur swine-stye, also that habit 6f the 
minister, that covering of the Lord*s table, those minister- 
ing vessels, and other accessories and qipurtenances what- 
Boerer, without which the holy things of God cannot be 





dispensed so civilly, and comely, as is meet Or lastly, 
they are properly things sacred, and holy, and by conse- 
quence, parts of external Divine worship : and the same 
either commanded by God, and so lawful, or of man*s de* 
vice, and therefore superstitious. 

Now if any shall further ask me, what power then I 
ascribe cither to the civil magistrate, or church-governors 
for making laws about things indifferent? I answer touch* 
ing church-governors first, being to treat by and by of tho 
magistrate, that no such power, to speak properly, belongs 
unto them ; as being not lords but servants of the church, 
under Christ tlie only Lord tliereof : Ezek. xliv. 1 1 ; Matt, 
zx. 25 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6 ; 1 Pet v. 3 : exercising, as saiUi 
Austin, from Clirist and the apostles a ministry, notfa 
lordship:* and who tliercfore are to learn, if they will pe 
content with their scantling, which God hath allowed thetn, 
that a wccding-hook better becomes them, than a sceptre 
as Bernard speakctli.f For to make laws by all men's 
grant, belongs to them, and them only, who do sway 
sceptres, or are lords at least 

Moreover the Holy Scriptures everywhere teach, tliat the 
higlicst church-officers, and governors are but ambassadors 
of God, and interpreters, and proclaimcrs or criers of his 
Word. But '* ncitlicr an ambassador, nor interpreter, nor 
crier, no, nor tlie herald, the'' most honourable of all pro- 
claimcrs, or publishers of edicts, can command anything, 
nor dispose of the least matter by his own authority," as 
Junius saith rightly.t It is certain, that tlio governors of 
churches do stand in need of wisdom and discretion for 
the applying and determining of tho common rules of 
order and comeliness taken from the Scripture, and com- 
mon sense, to certain cases, and according to certain cir- 
cumstances. But what makes this for the power of making 
laws in the church ? which as Mr. Perkins § makes account, 
is a part of Christ's prerogative royal : considering withal, 
that neither the church, nor the meanest member tliereof 
is furtlier boimd unto these their determinations, than 
they appear to agree with order, and comeliness : neither 
are the ministers in anything at all, as are tlie magistrates 

* August, do CSvit Bd, 1. 10. f Bern, do Conf. lib. 2. 

X Juniuf oontr. 3, lib. 5, c 7. { Perk. Gold. Chain, e. 18. 



in many things, to be oboyotl for the authority of the ' 
mander, but for the reason of the commandment,* ^ 
the ministers are also bound in duty to manifest, 
B^pj^jmre unto the consciences of them. ovorinrhom the; 

,' • .■^' 



We believe the venr same, touching tlio ci^-il magist 
witli tlic Bclgic refonne^l churches, and willingly 
scribe to tlicir confession ; and tlic more, bccnuso whi 
I by many restrained to the Cliristion magistmto, tlic; 
I tend indefinitely and absolutely to the niagistmto wl 
I soever. And that surely upon good grotnul : secin^j 
I magistracy is one, and tlio pQwor tlio same, whetlior 
'M person bo Cluristian or heatlicn ; neither is there wiu: 
in an heaUien magistrate, . that he might rule ns ho 01 
authority of order, but will of 2>ei*son: neither in 
power increased by the accession of Christianity, but 
sanctified, as is rii*st his person. The_4U'iuce.xulc2j 
his subjects as he is a prince^ and tlicy subjects simply 
as fttlttrhtror christian', ho or Uioy. Oiily Christ, tlie Lo 
our foilh, hiiCh tlio faitliAiT, iis faithful, for his subj< 
"neiUier oro the subjects of kings, as subjects, any pa 
the church) but of the kingdom.*'! 

Besides, Ulcere is ono and the same Christian fail 
the princo imd subject, and all things common unto 1 
which spring from tlic same ; seeing that in Christ J 
there is ncitlicr sen-ant nor freeman: I odd, nei 
magistrate nor subject, but all arc 0110 in him. As tl 
fore none, no, not tJie least power of public administiti 
comes to the subjects by tlieir Christianity, so neith 
the prince's tliereby at all increased. And, indeed, 
can it? The magistrate, though a heathen, hath pow< 
the minister of God for the good of his subjects, I 
xiiL 4, to command and procure in and by good and 
ful manner and means, whatsoever appertains, eitho 

• Zach« tJninus Catach* on 2 Cknii«. 
t Epite. Cieen. ad Tort. p. Z6. 




their natural or spiritual life, so the same be not contraxy 
to God's Word : upon which Word of God if it beat, God 
forbid that tho Christian magistrato should take liberfy to 
use, or rather abuse, his authority for tlie same ; which 
yet if he do cither- tho one or tlie other, wheUier by com- 
manding what God forbids, or by forbidding what God. 
commands, seeing it comes by the fault of the person, not 
of tlic office, the subject is not freed from the bond of 
allegiance, but is still tied to obedience as active for the 
doing of Uie thing commanded, if it be lawful ; so passive, ( i^^ 
if unlawful, by sufifcring patiently the punishment, though ' ^^ 
unjustly inflicted. 

Lastly, If any ci^-il and cooctive power in things, whether 
civil or ecclesiastical, come to tho magistrate by his Christ- 
ianity, tlien if it so jfoll out that he mako defection fi.t>m 
the same, whether by idolatr)', or heresy, or profoncness*. 
it must follow that tliercupon his kingly power is diminish- 
ed and abridged; whereby how wido a window, or gato 
ratlicr, would bo opened to seditious subjects, under pre- 
text of (specially caUiolic) religion, to roisa tumults in. 
kingdoms, no man can be ignorant 



TnERE remains one, and tliat a great matter of exception^ 
against us, and the some the fountain well-nigh of all our/ 
calamity: to wit, that we seem evil affected towards tho\ 
Qimxh of England, and so averse from tlic samo, as that/ 
wo do no less than moke a plain secession and separation^ 
from it 

I answer, first. That our faitli is not negative, as papists^ 
used to object to tlie evangelical churches ; nor whicli con- 
sists in tlie condemning of otliers, and wiping tlieir names., 
out of tlie bead-roll of churches, but in the edifying of our- ) 
selves ; neither require wo of any of ours, in the^ oon-v 
fession of their foith^ that they eitlier renounce, or, in ono^ 
word, contest with the Church of England, whatsoever the S 
world clamours of us. this way. Our faith is founded upon, jj 
the writmgs o£ the prophets and apostles, in. which nO' ( 





I mention of the Ginreh of England is made. We deem it 
our dntj what is foond in them to ** beliere, with the 
heart to righteousness, and to confess with the tongue to 
flttlration.** Rom. x. 10. 

Secondly, We accord, as far as the Belgic and other 
reformed churches, with the Church of England in the 
Article s of F aiUi and heads of Christian religion, puhlished 
in~9)e name of that church, and to be found in the "Har* 
monv of the Confessions of Faith.** 

Thirdly, If Inr the church be understood the catholic 
church, disperseo upon the face of the whole earth, we do 
willingly acknowledge that a singular part thereof, and 
the same visible and conspicuous, is to be found in the 
land, and with it do profess and practise, what in us lays, 
communion in all things, in themselves lawful and done 
in right order. 

But and if by the word church be understood a spiritual 
politic body, such as was in her time the Gmrch of Israel ; 
and in hers the Church of Rome, Corintli, the seven 
Churches of Asia, and others, with tlicni, partaking of the 
■ sanic apostolical constitution, and as unto which do apper- 
tain tSe oracles of God. sacraments, censures, government, 
and ministrv ecclesiastical, with other sacred institutions of 
Christ; I cannot but confess and profess, thou gh with 
^^at grief* that it is to us a matter of scruple, which we 
cannot overcome, to give that honour unto it which is duo 
from the 8er>*ant8 of Christ to tlic Church of Christ, rightly 
Lcollected and constituted. 

Antl, that there may he place left in tlie eyes of the 
prudent reader for our defence in this case, so far forth as 
equity and reason will permit, he must once and again be 
entreated by me, seriously to weigh with himself, and in 
his heart, tliis one advertisement following. 

That a man may do a thing truly pleasing, and ac- 
ceptable to God. it sufticeth not, tliat boUi the doer in his 
person be accepted of God. the thing done commanded by 
God, and that he do it witli good and holy affection before 
God, except withal, and first he be possessed of that state 
and condition of life, which may afford him a lawful 
calling to tliat work. That a man, though never so good, 
with never so good a mind, should exercise the office, or 



do (though the best) works of a magistrate, father of family* 
husband, steward, citizen, or messenger, except he were 
first lawfully called, and preferred to the state of a magis- 
trate, master of family, husband, or the like ; so far were 
he from deser%'ing any praise for so doing, as on the con* 
trary he most justly incurred the censure of great rashness* 
and violation of all order in family and commonwealth ; ss 
** taking unto himself that honour, unto which he was not 
called of God.'* Heb. v. 4. The same holdeth, and that 
specially in course of religion, which is the special state of 
man*8 life : so as if any either as a pastor dispense the 
holy things of tlie ministerial church, without a lawful 
pastoral culling going l>efore ; or participate in the same* 
out of a just and lawful church-state ; neither that dis* 
pensation, nor this participation can he warranted, but 
both the one and other are usurpations, and in which is 
seen not the tine, but abuse of holy things, and confusion 
of order. And as it l>eliovetli every person first to believe, 
and know, that he is truly a Christian, and partaker of the 
grace of Christ, before he can hope to please God in the 
pfTformancc of this or that particular Christian work; so 
doth it also concern every Christian to provide, that he be 
first possessed of a just and lawful church order, before he 
so much as touch with his least finger the holy things of 
tlio cliurrh thereunto proper and peculiar. Proper, I say, 
and peculiar, amonsrst which I do not simply reckon the 
hearing of the AVord. which botli lawfully may, and neces- 
sarily ought to be done, not only of Christians, thouch 
members of no particular church, but even of infidels, 
profane persons, excommunicates, and any others: as being 
that in which no communion spiritually passeth, either 
ecclesiastical or personal, botw en the teacher and hearer, 
but according to some union, ecclesiastical or personal, 
going before : seeing that Christian faith comes by hearing 
the gospel, by faith, union, and from union, communion. 

This thus premised, I will speak a few tilings of the 
Church of En<;land ; not bv wav of accusation of it, but for 
our own purgation in the eyes of the godly and equal reader, 
of the imputed crime of schism, so far as truth and equi^ 
will bear. 
And first, seeing that the people of God are materially, 


-- < 



•8 they speak, the church of God, it is required to the 
constitution of a holy church of God, tliat Uie people be 
holj, or saints, and sanctified in Christ Jesus, Horn. i. 7; 
1 Cor. i. 3 ; 2 Cor. i. 1 : truly and internally in regard of 
God, and tlieir own consciences ; externally and in appear* 
ance in respect of others, whom it concerns to discern and 
judge of them, according to tlio Word of God and rule of 
charity. And consiflering tliat our queHtion is about the 
diurch external, and visible, as it is callcil, wo are not so 
fond, or rattier iraiitic, as to require, in respect of otherst 
other holiness in the members Uiercof, tlian that which is 
Tisible and external. 

Now how manrellous a tiling is it, and lamentable withal, 
tliat ainonptt Christians, any should be found so far at 
odds with ChriMtian holiness, as to Uiink Unit oUiers tlian 
apparently holy at the least, deserved admittance into the 
fellowship of Christ's church, and therewith of Christ I 
Do, or can the gracious prunuscs of God made to the 
church, tlif* licAvciily blcHsingK due to tlie church, the seals 
of Divine grace given to the church, npportiiin to others 
tlinn such? Are others to be fulmittod into the fiiinily of 
God, the kin<;(lani of Christ, and ns it wore the suburbs of 
hofiven ? The church of God is by hiui called, and dcsti- 
nntcd to advance his glory in the holiness of tlieir lives, 
and convei'sations ; what then have those to do with it, or 
it with those, who, as Calvin saith, in 1 Cor. v., live not 
but with God's dishonour? For they, as the 6ame author, 
on IConi. ii. 24, both tinjly and holily aflinueth, who are 
called, and accounted the people, of God, to bear as it 
were in their foreheads, Kev. vii. 3, the name of God, 
whereupon il cannot but come t/) pass, that before men, even 
God hiuiseir, after a sort should be stained with their tilth. 
And this I deem tlie rather to be obscr^'cd, seeing tliat 
there are tor be found, and these not a few, who would 
tlinist upon the churches of our thrice holy I^nl, a very 
stage-like holiness : stoutly striving to make it good, that 
to constitute a true and lawful member of the visible 
church,no more is required, tlian tliat a man with his moutli 
confess Christ, although in his works he plainly declare 
himself to be of the synagogue of Satan. But what saith 
the Holy Spirit of these impure spirits ? " They profess 





they know God/* saith the apostle, '* but in tlielr works 
they deny him, being abominable, and rebellious, and to 
every good work reprobate.*' Tit i. 16. Are abominable 
persons to be brought into the temple of God? rebellious 
persons into tlie kingdom of God ? such as are reprobate 
unto every good work into the family of God, which is as 
it were tlie storehouse of all good works? ^ If any one that 
is called a brother. Ins a fornicator, or covetous, or idolater, 
or railer, or drunkard, or extortioner,** 1 Cor. v. 11, or any 
way a wicked one, such a one by tlie apostle's direction, is 
to be expelled, and driven out of tlio chiurcirs confines. 
And seeing that, as one truly saith, '* It is a matter of greater 
contumely to tlirust out, than to keep out a guest,** with 
what conscicnco can such plagues ho received into the 
church, to the purging out whereof the Miinc church, 
furnished for that end witli the power of Christ, stands in 
conscience l>ound ? or by what authority, I pray, can sudi 
persons be compelled into the bosom of the s]K)uso of 
Christ, as for tlie expelling of whom far from her fellow- 
ship, and in embracing all authority ought to conspire? 
" lie tliat siiith he hath fellowship with God. and walks in 
darkness, is a liar, and doth not tnily.** 1 John i; G. Pro* 
fession of Christ therefore with the mouth, in tlioso tliat 
work tho works of darkness, and so by conseciucnce, tliat 
by which a man is rather hrandrd for a natural cliild of the 
devil, John viii. ii, than marked for a true mcmlK*r of tlic 
chinch. Lastly. David, that holy man of God, and type of 
Christ, doth holily profess, that **he who works deceit, shall 
not continue in his house,** Psa. ci. 7. And shall the 
workers of deceit, and of all wickedness, not only he ad- 
mitted, but even constrained into the house of tlie living 
God, which the church is? *' O Jehovah, holiness becometh 
thine house to length of days.** Psa. xciii. 5. Which not- 
witlistanding (a sickness desperate of all remcfly) tliat so it 
stands with tlie Church of England, no man to whom 
England is known, can be ignorant: seeing that all the 
natives there, and subjects of the kingdom, although never 
such strangers from all show of true piety, and goodness, 
and fraught never so full with many most heinous im- 
pieties and Tices (of which rank, whether there be not an 
infinite, and far the greater number, I would to God it 




could with any reason be doubted,) are without difTereneer 
eoropell ed and enforced by most severe laws, civil and 
ecclesiastical/ into the bddy~bf {EaTdnxrehT And of UTis 
confused heap, a few, compared with the rest, godly persons 
mingled among, is Uiat national church, commonly called 
the Church of England, collected and framed. And such 
is the material constitution of that church. But if now 
you demand of me, how it is formally constituted; and 
whether upon profession of faitli and repentance, in word 
at least, made by them of years, any combination and con- 
sociation of the members into particular congregations, 
(which consociation doth formally constitute the ministerial 
church, and members thereof, as botli tlie Scriptures and 
reason manifest) eiUier is, or hath been made, since the 
universal and antichristian apostacy and defection in 
popery ? Nothing less ; but only by tlicir parish iieram- 
Dulation, as they call it, and standing of the houses in 
which tliey dwell. Evciy subject of the kingdom dwelling 
in this or that parisli, whether in city, or country, whether 
1 in his own or other man's house, is thereby, ipso facto, 
^ made legally a member of the same poi-ish in which that 
house is situated : and hound, will he, nill he, fit, or unfit, 
as with iron bonds, and all his with him, to participate 
in all holy things, and some unholy also, in that same 
parish church. 

If any object, that yet the minister of the parish may 
suspenci from the Supjicr of the Lord fla;:fitious persons, 
and 60 by complaint niiulc to Mr. Clmncdlor, or Mr. Offi- 
cial, procure Uieir excommunication ; to let pass, that this 
is merely a matter of form for the most part, and a remedy 
as ill as the disease, 1 do answer, that even by this is 
proved undeniably that which I intend : viz. that all these 
parishioners. before mentioned, are not without, but within, 
and members of the church (and the same as before con- 
stituted) whom she judgeth. 1 Cor. v. 12, 13. 

There is besides these a third evil in the way, and the 
same as predominant, and overtopping all other things in 
tliat church, as was Saul higher tJian all the rest of the 
people : and witli whoso llehoboam-like finger we miser- 
able men are pressed and oppressed: and that is, the 
hierarchical church-government in tlie hands of the lord 




bishops &nd their substitutes : the rery same with that of 
Home, the pope tiie head only cut off, upon whose shoul- 
ders also many, tiiough not without notable injury, would 
lilace the supreme magistrate, and administered by tlio 
self-same canon -law. 

Now tliis vast and insatiable hierarchical gulf, swallow- 
ing up and devouring the whole order,, and use of the 
presbytery, and tliercwith the people's liberty, and withal, 
by Mr. Parker's testimony, with whom ** a bishop in £ng 
land is the pastor of the whole diocese, and tlie priests or 
ministers, only his delegates and helpers,**'*' the very o(!iGe 
of the pastors Uicmsclves, as did tlie seven lean and evil- 
favoured kine tlie seven fat, and tlie seven wizened ears 
the seven full tliat went before tliem. Gen. xli. 20, 24 ; and 
HO by consequence, not being of Christ the Lord, but of 
him ratiier, who opi>oseth and advancctli himself against 
whatsoever is called God, or is worshipped ; 2 Tlies. ii. 4 ; 
so as he sits in the temple of God, as God, (for unto God 
nlone dwelling in his temple it appertains to appoint the 
offices of the ministers, 1 Chron. xxix. 11 — 1.*), 10; and 
to prescribe the people's bonds) dur hands are bound by 
that supreme, and sole autliority of Jesus Christ in his 
churches, upon which both the order of preshyteiy, and 
liberty of people, and office of pastor are foundctl, and 
from whom as tlie one only Lord, 1 Cor. v. 4, all ecclesi- 
astical power flowetli, and by whom all ministries, I Cor. 
xii. 5, 28, are instituted, from giving any the least honour or 
obedience to Uie same hierarchical exaltation in itself, or its 
subonlinates, which, as philosophy teacheth, are one witli iL 

AVlierein yet I would not so be understood, as if we 
were at any defiance witli the persons of tlie bishops, 
much less witli Uie king's civil authority whereof tliey are 
possessed, whether in matters civil or ecclesiastical. Of 
their persons, their own lords shall judge, to whom they 
stand or fall. Rom. xiv. 4. There have been of that rank, 
who in our Marian days have preferred tlie profession of the 
truth of tlie gospel before their lives : I hope there are also 
of tlieir successors, who, if pressed witli the same necessity 
(which God forbid) would give Uie same testimony, though at 
the same rate, unto the same trutli of God revealed unto them» 
* Fariicnis, de Ecdott Pol. 3, Z6, ct Ilicrarchia, puMin* 




Now as concerning their civil authority ; albeit we do 
not believe, that the same is at all competent to the true 
ministers of the gospel, especially in that eminency, ex- 
ternal glory, and pomp of this world, in which they far 
exceed many woridly princes, and rather seem to represent 
the triumphant, than the militant church ; vet forsomuch 
as they both obtain the same, by the gift of tlie king, and 
exercise it in his name, we do not unwillingly yield honour 
and obedience unto it, and to his majesty in it. 

But, whereas, it seems unto many, plain and evident, 
that we may adjoin ourselves to the Church of England 
without any subjection, or relation unto tlic spiritual go* 
vemment, and governors Uiereof; that is altogether be- 
yond our capacities : neither can we comprehend it, how 
It may be tiiat he who subjects and joins himself to any 
public and jpolitic To(.ly,.Q£ commul!ftJ,'whet]ier spiritual 
or civn,T>ecomes not in so doing, ipso facto, subject to tho 
public government, and governors thereof, and undergoes 
not a relation and respect actually imto them. They 
rather arc, with oil seriousness, to consider, how faithfully 
and sincerely they quit themselves and tlirir consciences 
before God and men, who contending, and proving in and 
by so many words and nrgumonts, that the hierarchical 
government is papal and antichristinn, do nevertheless 
submit themselves thereunto both in the respect, and rela- 
tion political formerly mentioned, and also in acts properly 
ecclesiastical, into which the ecclesiastical govemment, 
and spiritual policy of the church doth necessarily difluso 
itself. Now I do eanicstly entreat thee, whosoever thou 
art, acquainted "\rith Belgic, or rather Christian liberty, 
and either free from the mists of prejudice, or if any way 
prejudiced, •* yet not choosing rather to sen'c a precon- 
ceived opinion, than to follow an apparent truth,"* that 
thou wouldest truly and ingenuously tell, whether if the 
magistrates here (from which they are far) should by pub- 
lic edict, under severe penalty constrain all and every tho 
native subjects of the country into the bosom of tho 
church, without any diflerence made, either in respect of 
faith or manners, according to tlie place of tlieir habitation ; 
and ahould set over this church so collected and consti- 

^ Thcodorct Di«L 1. 


luted, an hierarchical bishop provincial or diocesan, in 
whose hands alone, with his officials, chancellors, commis- 
saries, archdeacons, and other court-keepers, canonical 
autliority should be placed, to constitute and depose min- 
isters, excommunicate and absolve both ministers and 
people, yea, whole churches (yea, with tlie living, the 
dead that they may obtain Christian burial): whether 
now in tliis confused heap, and under this spiritual lord- 
ship, thou wouldst endure to remain either pastor or 
member. I suppose not You, bretlircn, have not so 
learned Christ; whom you acknowledge boUi for the 
autlior of your faitli, and instituter of your order ecclesi- 
astical. Col. ii. 6. Neitlier yet we, liaving learned other- 
wise by the grace of God. Chnst tlie king doth gather 
and form unto himself another kuid of kingdom amongst 
men, and the same to be administered by other officers, 
and according to other laws. And if no place upon tlie 
face of the earth should be free for us, poor creatures, re- 
fusing upon mere conscience of God, as tliou God the 
judge and searcher of hearts knowest ! to commingle, and 
prostitute ourselves in and unto tliis confusion and domin- 
ation hierarchical, we have most assurcd hope, that heaveu 
itself is open for us by Christ, who is the way, and whom 
in tliis duty also we do Kei*ve, in which wo shall, at the 
length, bo fully free from this, and all otlier incumbrances. 
Our ailversarics bear in hand not only others, but even 
us ourselves also, tliat wo do for certain trifling matters, 
and as tliey speak, circumstantial coiTuptions, sequester 
ourselves from tlie Church of England. And as nurses 
use to lisp with children, so tliey, that tliey might descend 
to our capacities, do oft and much instruct us, that un- 
wortliy membci*s must be bom in tlie church, especially of 
private pei*sons ; that some corruptions at least in the 
discipline and external rites, are to be tolerated ; tliat there 
may be tlie temple of God, though profaned ; the holy city 
though witliout a wall ; tlie field of tlie Lord, tliough the 
enemy sow tares amongst the wheat ; also a heap of wheat, 
though much cliaff commingled therewithal. And that 
we, dul-bayards * as we are, may at the length conceive 

^ laterally, dull or ttapid horMt ; bat used in rdicreiioe to penoos 
duU of oomprebcmiom 


■^' "» •" £1! 




tho66 things, th^ very seriously inculcate and whet upon 
ns in these and the like considerations : us that the 
Israelitish church in its time was stained with almost all 
enormities, botli for manners and faith : tliat into tlie some 
all Israelites and Jews whatsoever without difference, were 
violently compelled hy King Josiah and others ; as also, 
thai in the parable, all were compelled to come to the 
marriage, good and bad, tliat the house might be filled. 
Lastly, that in tJie apostolic churches themselves, tliere 
were not wanting some who practised, and oUiers who 
taught vile, and evil tilings : that in one place tlie discipline 
was neglected, in another tlio very doctrine of faitli cor- 
rupted, and many the like matters, which it were too long 
to repeat 

Surely, foolish were wo if we knew not tlicso tilings, 
impudent, if we denied them to be true for tlie most part ; 
and lastly, unequal, if we acknowledged not, that many tlie 
same, or like blemishes after a sort, will, and do creep into 
the churches of our days : which yet to disclaim as unlaw- 
ful for the same, stood neither with wisdom, nor charity. 
But tlie prudent reader may plainly observe by the pre- 
mises, that they arc otluT matters, n\v\ of pjrcutor weight, 
for the most part, wherewith wc, und our consciences are 

We do not judge it an evil intolerable, though gi*catly to 
be bewailed, that evil men should be sutFcrcd in the 
church ; but that all of most vile, and desperate condition, 
tliat such, and so great a kingdom ufTords. should there- 
into, will tliey, nill they, bo compelled : nor that the dis- 
cipline, as they call it, or ecclesiastical goveniinent insti- 
tuted by Christ, is neglected or violated, but that another 
plain contrary unto it is set up by law, and fully and 
publicly ever}'where exercised. Neitlier lies our exception 
against any personal, or accidentary profanation of the 
temple, but against the faulty fmme of it, in respect of the 
causes constitutive, matter and form. Neither strive we 
about the walls of the city, but about the true and lawful 
citizens, tlie policy and government of tlie city of God, and 
essential administration of tlie same. 

But to give more full satisfaction to tlie indiiferent 
reader, it seems worth the labour to descend particularly 




to a few, and the same the chiefest objections made on the 
contraiy behalf. And of them« that which may and ought 
to be said touching tlie church of Israel, and its condition 
compared with the Christian churdies seems to deserve 
tlie Arst place. And touching it; first, the constitution of 
the church of Israel is not to be considered in that whole, 
much less apostatical nation, but in holy Abraham, from 
whom it came, and in whom it was holy, as' the lump in 
Uie first fruits, and the branches in the holy root, liom. 
xi. 10 : and that by virtue of the gracious covenant, ** I will 
be Uiy God, and tlie God of thy seed,'* Gen. xvii. 7, first 
contracted wiUi Abraham himself, and after renewed with 
his seed, whole Israel. But now to affirm any such thing 
of tlie whole EngliKh nation were foolish ; to prove it 

U. God dotli not now-a-days select and sever from otliers 
as his peculiar, any whole nation or people, as sometimes 
lie did the people of Israel, botli ecclesiastically and civilly, 
Kxod. xix. U ; Lev. xx. i25 : *' but in ever}' nation, they who 
fciir God, and work righteousness are accepted of liim.** 
Acts X. 35. These, in what nation soever combining to- 
gether in holy covenant, and worshipping God after the 
prescript of his Holy Word arc tliat holy nation, tlie com- 
mouwealtii of Israel, tlie Israel of God, tlie temple and 
tabernacle of tlie living God, in which he hatli promised 
to dwell : tlicse he would have scattered in all places of 
the world, and to hold intercourse with the men of the world 
in tlie common affairs of this life, 1 Cor. v. 10, for their 
gaining if it may be unto Christ: " Go<l adding daily unto 
the church such as should be saved." Acts ii. 42. Whereas 
on tlie contrary, unto the Church of England, whereof all 
natural English are together, and at once made members, 
it can hardly be, if at adl, that any at any time should be 

3. The very land of Canaan was legally holy, and the 
land of the LonVs inheritance, and whose fruit was to be 
circumcised, and her sabbaths kept, by the Lord's appoint- 
ment, Amos vii. 17 ; Josh. xxii. UU ; Lev. xix. 23, 25 : and 
in which alone by Divine right tithes were to be paid. Gen. 
xiv. 20 ; xxviii. 22 ; Lev, xxvii. 30. And as holy tilings are 
not to be mingl^ with, or prostituted unto profane, so 



neither was any place in this land to be permitted unto 
profane persons to dwell in. Tlie seven profane nations, 
which formerly hod inhabited it, were altogetlier to be 
destroyed by the Israelites being to possess it for their in- 
heritance, neither was mercy to be showed them. After, if 
any, whctlicr bom in tlie land, or strangers, did aught with 
an high hand, he was to bo cut off from among his people. 
Deutvii. 1,2; Numb. xr. 13. Herewith accords that of David 
the king, "I will botimo destroy all the wicked of tlie land.** 
Psa. ci. 8. Lastly, He that did not seek tlie Lord God of 
Isiacl with all his heart, was to be put to death, whetlier 
small or great, whether man or woman. 2 Cliron. xv. 12, 13. 
Far 1)0 it from godly princes, and other potentates in tlie 
world, to til ink, tliat it behovoth them in this rigorous 
inanucr to deal with their subjects : although there wont 
not, who partly from a preposterous, and Judaiziiig xeal, 
and partly to serve their own ambition, cease not to iucul* 
cate unto the kings of the earth, above that is meet, the 
examples of tlie kings of Judali. 

4. It is not tnie that the kings of Judah or Israel did 
constrain any into the church by force, or conipol them to 
undei*go the condition of ineinbcrs, but only being mem- 
bers, to ilo their duty. All the Israelites and posterity of 
Jacob, had their part in the Lord's covennnt : unto which 
also they were bound to stand under peril of cutting off 
from the Lonl's people, both spiritunlly and bodily, accord- 
ing to the dispensation of the old testament in the land 
of Canmin. But of this our question is not for the present : 
That neither is to be considered, whether king David, So- 
lomon. Jehosliapliat and others did force ciixumcision'and 
other Mosaical institutions upon the Edomites, Ammonites, 
and others by them subdued, and held in civil subjection ; 
or whether they compelle<l them by co-active laws, would 
tliey, nould tliey, fit or unfit into the church of God. That 
this was so, cannot be aflinncd with modesty : which yet 
except it so were, hath nothing in ii, which eitlier can hurt 
our cause, or help our adversaries. 

Lastly, He who well weiglieth with himself what legal 
and t>'pical holiness was in use of old in Israel, shadowing 
out the true and spiritual holiness ; and witlial by how 
much, both the more clear revelation of heavenly things. 


and more plenteous grace of the Spirit is afforded to the 
churches since Christ, than was formerly to Israel, he shall 
see many things making for the tolerating of much in Israel ; 
which in us is plainly intolerable : and that God will not 
use that patience and long-suffering towards any church 
now, Bcv. ii. 5 ; iii. 10, nor permit, or wink attliose things 
in it, which for the hardness of their hearts, he bore in 
that ancient people.* 

Tlie parable of the tares. Matt xiii., followeth; with 
which as with some thunderbolt, men both learned and 
unlearned think us beaten all to fritters. 

But first, these words, ** I^et both grow togetlier till the 
lmr\'cst," vor. 30, (from which alone they do dispute) 
Christ the liOi'd doth not expound nor meddle with, in 
the opening of the parable : fi*om them tlierefore nothing 
film cnn be concludeil. '2. Christ himself interprets the 
field, not the church, but the world, ver. 38, as also tlie 
har\-est not the end of the church, but of the world, rer. 
30. And if by the world, you understand tlie church, you 
nnist needs sny, that Christ in tlie expounding of one 
paniblc, used another. 3. Both the text itself, ver. 28-— 31, 
and reason of the thing do plainly teach that he doth not 
speak at all of excommunication, which sencs for the bet- 
tering of the tares, but of their final roothig up to perdi- 
tion. I^astly, Admit Christ spake of men apparently wicked 
in tlie church, cither not to be excommunicated in certain 
cases, which with Gellius Snecanusj I confidently deny, 
or not excommunicated as they onglit to l>e, and therefore 
to be bom of private members ; the former of which is too 
ordinary, esp<»rially in churches enjoying peace and pro- 
sperity : the latter of which, the church not being despe- 
rately bent on evil, I easily assent to, yet dotli this place 
afford no medicine for our grief; which ariseth not from 
any corrupt or negligent administration of the church's 
discipline, through the carelessness or want of wisdom, it 
may be too much wisdom such as it is, of the administrators 
thereof, which are personal things ; but from the very con- 
stitution of the church itself, and subject of ecclesiastical 
both government and power. Yea, I add unto all these 

* Parcui in 1 Oor. vii. 11. 

t Ch. Di»cip. 2 pitft, Meth. 2, pp. 24, 27. 28. 




things, that we for our parts are willing in the business, 
and controrersy in hand to appeal unto the tribunal of this 
yerj parable, and that expounded by our adversaries them- 
selves, and do willingly condescend, tliat by it alone judg- 
ment be given on this matter. 

Our Saviour Christ doth plainly teach, tlmt tliis field 
was sown wiUi good seed alone ; and tlmt after, ** whilst 
men slept, tlie enemy, the devil, came and sowed tares 
amongst tlie wheat** But on tlie contrary, in tlio sowing 
the Ifjiglish field, whetlier we resjiect tlie national or 
parochial churches, together with the wheat, the tares, and 
tliat exceeding the otlier infinitely, were at first, and yet 
are sown, and that of purpose and under most severe 
penalties. And hence is tlie first and principal prejudice 
to our English harvest, and from which I conceive fdl the 
rest to come. For unto tliis church, tlms clapped and 
clouted together of all persons, of all sorts, and spirits 
without difference, no man equally luid pnidently weighing 
tilings, can deny, but tlmt tlie pompous and imperious 
hierarchical government, togctlicr with all its accessories, 
dotli right well accord. 

To tlie things objected, from the parable of the marriage, 
Luke xiv. and Matt, xxii., I only answer, that those tenants 
were tlie prophets and apostles ; the son, Christ himself; 
tlie compulsion to be made, no othcnvisc than by the 
]ireacliing of tlie Word : " by which," as Calvin hath it, on 
Matt xxii. 0, ** God doth importnnatrly solicit our sloth - 
fulness, not only pricking us with exhortations, but com- 
]>elling us with tlircatcnings to come unto him : ** which 
Word of God, as it is by some wholly contemned, so doth 
it extort from others only an external and hypocritical 
obedience ; but by many is received, through the blessing 
of God, wiUi all holy and <levout affection. 

Now unto these parables of Christ many are wont, and 
tliat very busily, to annex one of their own. A heap, say 
tliey, of wheat although it have much chaff mixed with it, 
anci the same more in quantity than tlie wheat is, remains 
notwithstanding truly, and is rightly termed, a heap of 
wheat; according to the philosophers* rule, — Thedenomi* 
nation is not of the greater but better part 

I answer, first, that this axiom is not simply true: for 

.V-- ■ 


if in the church, or any other conTention popular, or in 
which tilings pass by voices, the greater part happen to 
exceed tlie better, the denomination of that passage or 
decree, and so the whole process of the matter, is accord* 
ing to tlic p^eatcr, (hough tlie worser part 

Second, 'flie chaff in Uiatwheatiscither of the same wheat 
or of other, and brought fi*om elsewhere ; if .of that same, 
then it makes notliing to the present purpose, since wicked 
men appertain not to the persons of the godly, nor are 
their chatT; if of oUicr, and from elsewhere, it may easily 
be added in tliat quantity and proportion, as that neither 
it may dcscn-e the name of a heap of wheat, but of chaff; 
nor ho that sells it for wheat, of an honest merchant, but 
of a dcccitfiil impostor. 

Third. The things objected for the apostolical churches, 
are altogether personal and accidental ; from which tliat the 
churches gathorod of men. and by men governed, should 
l>e exeniptecl, is nithcr to be desired tlian hoped for. But 
for us, the things which most nfllict us in tlie Church of 
England* and press us in the respect fore-mentioned to a 
socossioii fvom the same, do concern the very material and 
formal constitution of the ministerial church, togetiier with 
the essential administration of tlic church policy. And 
how ditlorent these things are, who seeth not? 

Lastly, It is objected. Umt in the Church of England 
lively faith, and tnie piety, arc botli begotten and nourish* 
ed, in the hearts of many, by the preaching of the gos])el 
there. God forbid ! that^ we shouhl not acknowledge that, 
and withaTUTftlbilinilb Hianks for thio^an^o'aro tlub to 
God's great power and goodness, both in respect of oiir^ 
selves and others ; who, notwithstanding tlie great con- 
fusion both of peiNouH and things, tlicre to be found, 
vouchsafcth to his elect so ]>lentiful gnice; covering under 
the veil of his su])end)undant goodness and mercy, by 
their sinceix; faith in Christ Jesus, their sins and aberra- 
tions, whether of ignorance or infirmity. What, tlien, 
must 1)0 done ? Should we continue in sin, tliat grace 
might abound ? or, shall wo against knowledge go on to 
walk inordinatelv, because in our ignorance God hath 
vouchsafed us of his* grace in tliat disordered state of 
thitfgs ? witliout tlie ministerial church, of which we speak* 




the preaching of the gonpcl both may, and nfteth to be had, 
and bj it faith to be ingcneratc<l, except Christian churches 
be to be gathered of infidels and unbelievers. Besides, 
what Minos, or Rhadamant will deny, that even in the 
bosom of tlie Romish church some faitliful persons mar 
be found ? how much more in Uiat of England, in which 
ihe main truths of tlio gospel, tlie most and greatest errors 
of popery l>cing banished, are taught by so many godly 
anu learned men, with such zeal and earnestness? Now 
what of these tilings ? Is it Uicrcforo lawful for a Chris- 
tian, eiUier to content himself with himself, without 
joining to any Christian congregation; or to continue 
still in tlie bosom of tlie Church of Rome, as a mcmlier 
under the Poi>e, the head ? I Uicreforo conclude out of 
Hr. I^rightman, on Rev. ii. QO, whoso words I had rather 
use tlian mine onii, speaking of tlie government andministiy 
of the Church of England, ** Tlic fniit," to wit, of the word 
preached, '* doth no more exempt from blame our corrup- 
tions, Uian a true child doth adultery.** 

And here thou hast. Christian iradcr, the whole order 
of oiu* conversation in the work of Christian religion, set 
down l>oth as briefly and plainly as I conM. If in any 
tiling wc err, advcrti<*e us brotheriy, with desire of our in- 
formation, and not, as onr oouiitrynien^s manner for the 
most part is, with a mind of rejiroaching ns, or gi-atifying 
of others : and whom thou fnidest in en*or, tliou shalt not 
leave hi obstinacy, nor as having a mind prone to schism. 
EiT we may, alas ! too easily : hut heretics, by the grace of 
Gml, wc will not he. Rut and if the things which we do, 
seem right in thine eyes, as to ns certainly they do, I do 
earnestly, and hy tlie Jjord Jesus admonish and exhort thy 
godly mind, that thou wilt neither withhold tliy due 
obedience from his truth, nor just succour from thy dis- 
tressed bredircn. Neither do Uiou endure, that either the 
smallness of tlie number, or meanness of the condition of 
Uiose that profess it, should prejudice with thee tlio pro- 
fession of the tnitli : but have in mind that of Tertullian,« 
'* Do we measure men s faith by their persons, or their 
persons by their faith ?** as also tliat of Austin,! " Let 

^ Tcrtull. dc PriTMir. adr. Ilcret. cap. 3. 
t Auatin contri Maxim. 3, 14. 



matter weigh with matter, and cause with cause, and reason 
witli reason :** but especially tliat of the apostle, '* Mj bre* 
tlircn, have not tlie faith of our glorious Lord Jesus Christ 
in respect of persons.** James ii. 1. But now, if it so come 
to pass, which God forbid, that the most being either fore- 
stalled by prejudice, or by prosperity made secure, there 
be few found, especially men of learning, who will so far 
vouchsafe to stoop, as to look upon so despised creatures, 
and tlieir cause ; tliis alone remainetli, that we turn our 
faces and mouUis unto thee most powerful Lonl, and 
gnicious Father, humbly imploring help from God towanls 
those who are by men left desolate. There is with thee 
no respect of persons, neither are men less regarders of 
thee if regarders of thee for tlie world's disregarding them. 
'Vhoy who tnily fear thee, and work righteousness, although 
constrained to live by leave in a foreign land, exiled from 
conntiy, spoiled of gomls, destitute of friends, few in num- 
l>or, and mean in condition, are for all that unto thee (0 
gracious Goil) nothing the less acceptable. Thou number- 
est all their wanderings, and puttcst tlieir tears into thy 
bottles. Are they not written in tliy l>ook ? Towards thee, 
Lord, are our eyes ; con Finn our hearts, and bend thino 
ear, and suffer not our feet to slip, or our face to be 
ashamed, thou botli just and merciful God, To him 
tlirough Christ be praise, for ever, in tlio church of saints ; 
and to thee, loving and Christian reader, grace, peace, and 
eternal happiness. Amen. 










Vol. in* 





TiiK Prcfnce to the Treatise on " Religious Communion,*' 
following tliese Letters, rcrent to a scurrilous book published 
in 101:^, hy itereons who bnd formeiiy been in conuezioa 
witli the Sl'patutists at AmstcnlADi. but who had citlier been 
cxcommunicatti], or had abanilonciltlieir former conne\ioiis, 
and had returned to the £n--lish Church. Tl)c title of 
their joint ]>rodnction is, " The I'rojdioiie Schism of the 
Urowtiihts, or Si'piirutists, with tlic impietv, dissensions* 
lewd and nhominable vices of that impure sect; discovered 
by Christopiicr Lawnc, Clement Saunders, and Robert 
Buhrnrd, hilcly returned into tlie boson) of the Cliurcfa of 
Enfflaud from the company of Sir. Jobuson. lOia." 

Tht! title indicates the character of the book, and 
awakens suspicions as to tlic credibility of the authors. 
Mr. Itoliinson's allusions to the parties, ns well as Mr. 
Clyfton's reply in his work entitled, "An Advertisement 
concerning n l>ook, lately published by Christopher Lawnc 
nixl olher.-«. against the exiled Church at Amslerdaui, by 
Ilichord Clyl'ton, Teacher of tlie same Church, ini-J/' 
shows timt they were by no menus tnislworthy. Their 
extreme cagomess to destroy the reputation of llieir 
former friends defeats its object, and betrays only tlie 
malignity of their spirit 

While, however, the testimony of Lnn-ne is, in general, 
mon- tliim Riis|>icioiis, there can bo little don lit respecting 
tlic aulbeuticity of the following loiters, which, it would 
appear, had been sunvptllloiisly printed, or clandestinely 
obtained, and afterwards copied nnd circulated. Mr. 
Robinson states in the l*rcf«ce, p. 00, tlmt these Letters, 
with a thiiil. which Dr. Ames piildiiliF<l as a rejoinder, 
were printed "without his consent, privily, or suspicion 
of such dealing." He regnnled them as private, and 
intended only for his correspondent and himself. 

The "learned Amesius " was a distinguished Puntaa la 
Sqgland ; but in coiitequence of the periecuting proceed- 


ings of Archbishop Bancroft, he fled to Holland, iM^lOt) 
and became minister of the English Choroh at the Hague. 
On Abbott*8 soeeeeding to the Archiepiseopal See, he 
wrote to the English Ambassador,* in lOlS, to get Ames 
removed from his charce. This being effected, the samei 
influence was excrtea to prevent his appointment as 
Dirini^ Professor at the University of Leyden. The 
States of Friesland, however, appointed him to the Theo- 
logical Chair at the University of Franelcer, where he 
continued, discharging his professional duties with dis- 
tinguished and growing success, for nearly twelve years. 
His health failing, he retired to Rotterdam, and became 
co-pastor with the Rev. Hugh Peters, over the Independent 
Church in tliat town. He did not long survive the cliange, 
and was buried November 14 th, 1033.^ 

It is not stated in what vear the "Letters** were written; 
but, as they were extant when Lawne publif^hcd his " Pro- 
fane Schism,** in lOltj, they were doubtless written in 1011, 
while Dr. Ames was Minister of tlic English Church at the 
Hfigue, which office he wns compelled to resign in 1G12. 
The correspondonco, tlicrofore, took place three years bcrorel 
Robinson published his Treatise on ** Communion.** I 

The insertion of the Jjettcrs in this part of tlic volume 
has been deemed desirable, as they form nn important 
introduction to the " Religious Communion ;** and without 
the study nf which, certain parts botl) of the j^reface and 
the first part of that work cannot be well understood. 

What influence tlie correspondence with Dr. Ames had 
on Mr. Robinson*s mind does not appear; but it is evident, 
on comparinj; the letters and the work on " Communion,** 
tliat a considerable mmlification had taken 2)lace in his 
views on the subject Dr. Ames in his letters strenuously 
contends against Mr. Robinson *s supposed uncharitable- 
ness in not holding " pri\'ate communion **witli " members 
of the true visible church,** who belonged to the "Assem- 
blies,** or the English Church — while we parties to whom 
Mr. Robinson refers in the treatise, objected to his supposed 
latitudinarianism in holding private and occasional follow- 

• Vide Brooks' Utcs of the Puritanii, vol. ii. pp. 405 — lOS ; Ilsn- 
bvy's UittDrical MtmorUlsv vol. i« p. 257. 



Bliip with pious persons belonging a nationfll ecclesiastical 

In Uie earlier period of his separation Mr. Bobinson was 
more "rigid** in his notions respecting church-fellowship 
and di8cii)line ; but his charity expanded as his years in* 
creased, and he delighted to recognise as brethren, all who 
followed Glirist sincerely and devoutly, though they might 
not feel it to be Uieir duty to leave their church connexions 
and unite themselves wiUi the Separatists. 


*' LETTEns that passed betwixt M. Ames and M. Bobinson 
touching the bitterness of tlie Separation.** Copied from 
LiiiiTie's " Profiuie Scliism,** chap. viii. pp. 47 — 51. 

** One point of scliism which Mr. Gilgate objected unto 
Mr. Ainsworth was, for tlieir separation in private from 
those particular persons, which might be discerned to be 
true visible Cliristions even by Uicir own confession. This 
point, because it is further discussed in divers arguments 
and writings betwixt Master Ames and Master Robinson, 
wo have tJiought it meet to publish them as they came 
unto our hands, because tlicy serve much for the declara- 
tion and manifestation of their schism herein.** 


G. M. and P. {Orace, Mercy, aiirf Peace,) 

Sir, — I do not desire to multiply many letters, nor many 
words in Uiis one letter. I will 2)ass by, Uiercfore, your cen- 
sure. Your manner of Separation also I omit, whether it 
be like or dislike to that of tlie first reformed churches, 
for you have irons enough in tlie Are about tliat question. 
Ncitlier will I trouble you about my associates here, whom 
you deem evil of, though they be unknown unto you : 
only tliat one point whidi containeth indeed the very bit- 
terness of Separation, I would desire you again to con- 
sider of, as you do me: viz. "Whether there be not a 
visible communion even out of a visible church.** These 
reasons seem to evince it. 
']. Whomsoever I can rightly discern to have com* 



munion with Jesus Girist, with him may I hare Tisibid 
eommunion : the reason is, because that from Tisible 
descrying of that inward communion, doth necessarily 
follow external communion. Neither can other sufficient 
reason be given, wliv we should communicate with yisible 
churches, but only oecause we risibly discern that thcnr 
have communion with Christ : Now ** quaieniu ipwm H mt 
'amni converiuntwr,** But wo may discern (even by your 
confession) of some, out of a risible churcli that they naYO 
eommunion with Christ : Erffo^ 

2. That which is lawful for them to do which are no mem- 
bers of a visible church, tliat is lawful for others to join with 
them in : for tlmt which is no sin in the principal is none 
hi tlie accessory, *' ceterii paribui.'* And it cannot be simply 

^ unfawful to join in any action that is. lawful, " qnaienuM 
-^^ talit ;*' but it is lawful for Cliristians converted, even be* 
fore tlioy join in any church (perhaps wanting knowledge 
^ j of the true constitution, perhaps opportunity) to worship* 
'\ God. Therefore, 

3. It is nerossar}', that before the covcnnnt-malcing 
(which you hold to he the form of a church) they that are 
to make it, should join togcUier in prayer for direction, 
assistance, and blessing, yet tlicy are not a church until 
after : therefore, it is not only hiwful, but necessary also 
that Uierc be a communion out of a visible church. You 
may easily conceive the form and force of tins argument 
If you answer that tliey are a cliurcli in desire, that is to 
forsake your position : for desire to be, doth imply that as 
yet they are not : '* A telle ad esse non tequitur ratio.'* I 
will not be further tedious unto you. Fare you well. 

Your loving frend, 


Fib. 96. 


Mercy and peace be with you. Amen. 

Sir, — Because I do understand by many, that you mar- 
Tel I answer not your reasons, having had your writing so 
long in mv hands, I thought good to return you a brief 
answer. XQur reasons to prove visible communion out of 


a visible church follow ; though that be not the question • 
between you and roe, but whether " we which are or deem* 
ourselves to be of a visible church, may lawfully commu- 
nicate with such as be of no church ** ? 
I deny thnt external communion doth necessarily flow 

/ from the discerning of inward communion with Uhrist* 
which is your first reason : for tlicn I have external com- 

/ munion witli tlie angels and faitliful departed tliis life.. 
External commimion is a matter of external relation and 
oi*dcr, under which men out of the church are not The 
order set by Ciirist and his apostles is, tliat such as receive 
Uie Word and are to be saved, Acts ii. 41—47, join them- 
selves forthwith unto the church, and a large remnant it is 
of the confusions which Antichrist hatli brought into the 
world, that men fearing God should remain out of the 
truu church. 

For the further clearing of these things. 
If an innocent person (in mine absence) be excommu- 
nicated from the church, upon tlie testimony of two or 
tluvc, yot will I for order's sake (and so am l>ound) forbear 
cominunion with liim till I have manifested his innoccncy 
to the church. On the other side, though I know some 
great wickedness by a brotlier, which he denies* and I 
Ciinnot prove, I must still for order s sake keep communion 
with him in tlie church, till God discover him. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, that, in cases, I am both to forbear commu- 
nion with a godly man, till we be orderly joined together; 
and to keep communion with a wicked man till we be 
orderly disjoined. 

Add unto tliese tilings, that upon this ground, I may 
also lawfully admit one out of tlie church, to the Lord's 
Supper, to tlie choice of officers, censuring of offenders, 
and all other exercise of external communion ; if by the 
judgment of charity, I deem him holy in his person. 
And how can I deny him one part of external communion, 
to whom I afford another, but I make a schism in the 
communion of saints ? and tliis also may serve for answer 
to tlie latter part of your proof touching visible churches : 
for they have not only internal communion with Christ* 
but external ako in the order which he hath set For 
wliich we stand and for tiie want of which alone, we with* 





dnw ourBelves, as we do in this «ase, not daring to break 
Christ^B order for inen*8 disorder. 

The sum of the second argument, is, that because it is 
lawful for some such as are not yet members of a true 
church to pray, therefore, others of a church may join with 
them in prayer. 

I do first answer, tliat men in a church are bound to 
and from many things, wherein men not in tlie church 
may use more liberty, and upon tlie same ground you 
mi^ soundly argue thus : Because two or tliree persons 
excommunicated upon false testimony, may pray together, 
and, therefore, the brethren of the church may forthwith 
pray with them ; though prayer be in itself a lawful thing, 
and Uicy holy in tlicir persons that peiform it, yet it is 
unlawfully performed out of tlie church, in which men ought 
to be and therein to use it. So tliat alUiough there be 
neither '* Vitium pertona nee vitium rei^** yet tliere is •• Vi- 
tinm ordinit, et rffatiania :** and tliis external religious 
order and relation is the church order; and religious 
communion, a work, doth presuppose religious union of 

Touching men joining in prayer, before thoy enter cove- 
nant, and 80 before thoy be in a church, whence you do 
take your third argument : I do answer, fii'st, for that there 
is not the like reason of them and us, which are, or take 
ourselves to be in the order of an established church : they 
then break no order, tliough we should. Secondly, Such 
persons are joined in will and purpose, at tlie least, tlie 
which is accepted as the deed ; 2 Cor. viii. 12 ; though the 
outward ceremony be not as yet pcrfonned. So is Abra- 
ham said to have offered up Isaac, Hcb. xi. 17 ; and Pris- 
cilia and Aquila to have laid down Uicir own necks for 
PauFs life ; Bora. xv. 3, 4 ; which notwithstanding, they 
did only in will and purpose. Your axiom, *' A telle ad 
€$$€ non iequitnr ratio " hath his use especially " in rebut 
natiiralibuM,** But the urging of it tlius absolutely in mat- 
ters of religion, tends to deprive the church of her greatest 
spiritual comfort. 

Lastly, Consider the covenant "tn eonereto*' and prayer 
is a part thereof. And when men are so met, with a pur- 
pose to unite, and do begin prayer for the sanctification of 



it ; they are in the door coining into the house, tnd not 
without The Jews were not to have religious com* 
munion with persons uncircumcised : and yet, I doubt not« 
but when a godly proselyte was to be circumcised, they 
might lawfully join witli him for the sanctiiicaUon of tlie 

I cease further to trouble you, and do heartily salute 
you in the Lord Ood, wishing you from him all proeperity* 
and in him resting. 

Leyden, this second of the week. 

Your loving friend, 

Jon. BoBixsoir. 

Dr. Ames published a rejoinder to this letter, but Mr. 
Kobinson did not reply again, judging his friend*8 argu« 
ments inconclusive and not requiring refutation. 












" Thf tlmplt btlltrttli t Ttry wor4 x but Um pratent looktlli wtU to hli goliiff . 

PaoT. llT. II. 



The title nnd preface of the following Work sufficiently 
cx])lain its object 

It was doubtless written atLeyden, and probalily printed 
in that city. The first part, *'0n Communion/* shows the 
progress of Mr. Bobinson^s mind towards more enlarged 
and liberal views on Christian fellowship, than tliose he 
entertained when the correspondence took place between 
Mr. Ames and himself, three years previously; and 
famishes an illustration of his remark respecting himself, 
at the close of the Preface, that he was one of those who 
desired *' to learn furtlier or better what the good will of 
God is." 

Tlie second and third parts are more controversial in 
tlicir character, and may be regarded as amplifications and 
eonfiimations of the arguments on similar topics, in the 
"Defence of tlie Doctrine propounded at the Synod of 
Dort,** contained in vol. i., pp. 260—471. 


BDiTomiAL NoncB, 


I. FriTfttc Communion. 

II. Public Communion, 
in. Of Flight in Fenecution. 
IV. like outward Baptiim received in Bngland ia lawftdlf 

T. Of the Baptism of Infanta. 

VI. A Survey of the Confession of Faith, puUiahed in eertain 
Conclusions hj the Remainder of Mr. Smyth's Com- 
pany after his Death. 


1. On Knowledge of Ood. 

2. God's Decrees about Sin. 

3. Adam's Foil and Sin. 

4. Original Sin. 

5. God's Love and Man's llecovcry. 

6. Universal Kedcmption. 

7. Apostacy from Grace. 

8. Christ's SacriAce. 

9. Regeneration. 
' 10. Fcrfcrtion. 

11. The Visible Church. 

12. Magistracy and Oaths. 



Therr passed out, some while since, a defamatory libel, 
iindcr the names of Charles Lawne and three other, his 
brethren in evil;* but certainly penned by some other 
persons, whose greater knowledge did arm their cruel 
hatred Uio more to hurt : making tliem fathers of that 
** generation whose teeth are as swords, and their jaw 
teeth as knives, to devour Uie afflicted from off the earth, 
and the poor from among men.'* Prov. xxx. 14. Against 
whom and whose friends, durst I use the same liberty, in 
]mblishing to the world their personal corruptions which 
1 know, and could soon Icani by the testimony of honestor 
men than Uiesc informers, they who have written of otliers 
what hath pleased them, should read that which would not 
])lcnso them, of their own, if not of themselves. But 
God forbid ! My desire is rather to pacify than to alienate 
iifTcrtions ; remembering Christ's instruction unto his dis- 
ciples, to '* bless those that curse them,** ** to do good to 
those that harm them,** and " to pray for those that 
persecute them.** Matt. v. 44. Besides, in following tlicir 
course, I should, for the faults of a few comipter persons, 
wrong the credit of many honest and innocent men ; fori 
whose sakcs, I would rather cover tlie. otliers* failings, than 
for them blemish tlio credit of tlie rest But herein 
special respect is to bo had to tlie common trutlis of tlio 
Lord Jesus, by them and us acknowledged ; upon the 
honour whei*eof, had they been but half so bent as upon 
our disgi*ace, tlicy would not thus have gratified tlie com* 
mon adversaries thereof, even theirs and ours, and with 
them tlie atheists and epicures in tlie land, by whom their 
book is most affected; blessing themselves in their pro* 
* Vide title of Liwno's book, page 83, wpra. 



fessed eontempt of Ood, tnd of all religion, by the sayings 

of those, whether truly or falsely suggested they regara 

not, who profess his more special fear and service ; and 

eoncluding that all others are as ill as themselves, though 

CVnore covertly. It is the spider s disposition, so she may 

( entangle the silly flies in her web, to weave out her own 


Tliis libel it hath pleased divers persons of note for 
learning and zeal to countenance, witli Uieir writings of 
divers kinds. Amongst the rest, Mr. W. Ames, fearing 
belike lest oitlicr it should want credit, or I discredit, by 
the acccusations in it against tlie persons of other men in 
other churches, (which, tlioiigh they were all true, as I 
know some of tlicm to be wholly false, and others impu- 
dently published by such as were tliemselvcs chief agents 
in tliem, yet did no more concern me and the church with 
me, tlian did the abuses in the church of Corintli, the 
church at Rome ; or those in some of the seven churches 
in Asia, the rest which were free from them.) hath publish- 
ed to the world, in the body of that book, without my con- 
sent, privity, or least suspicion of such dctiling, certain 
private letters,* passing between him and mc, about private 
communion betwixt tlic members of the true visible church, 
and others; though he take advantage and occasion, by 
certain general words of mine, to alter the state of tho 
question. The occasion of which passages, if I should 
also publish, I am sure he would not like it, nor have 

Now, as I neitlier am, nor would be thought, insensible 
of this unchristian enmity, and violent ojiposition by tliem 
against us, in the practice of those things which them- 
selves, OS tlieir writings testify,! do so far approve ; so I 
think a preface very convenient for my present purpose, to 

* Vide I/ctton between Mr. Ames and Mr. Kobinson, pp. 85— S9, 

t Vide Admonition to the Parliament. M. Ch. Sermon upon 
Botn. xii., (suppoflcd to refer to the Rev. Lawrence Chadderton, B.D., 
First Master of Emanuel CoUege, Cambridge.) M. Cart. English 
Puritanism, fce. (Rev. Thos. Cartwright, B.D.) the distinguished 
Puritan and Presbyterian, but opponent of the Brownists and Sepa- 



communicate with others, such grounds as upon which 
they seem to raise the same. 

And, first, all oppositions in religion are carried usually 
with violence, as wherein men liave special i>crsuasion they 
please God in- that, their special work of conscience and 
2eal for him and his trutli. And, as men are in danger to 
niistiike ciTor for tnitli, so to prosecute the same with 
wrath and indignation, instead of tlie true zeal of God* 
And I do much intreat and wain tliose men, in tlie fear of 
tlie Lord, to beware that instead of zeal against our sup- 
posed eri*ors, they nourish not in their hearts wrath and 
hatred against our persons; which is a great iniquity 
wiicre it is foinid, and most contrary unto love, and 
80 unto God, who is love, 1 John iv. 10, and tlie breaking 
of the whole law, which love fulfillcth. Gal. v. 14. 

But, besides tliis goncnd, they take more special occa* 
sion of offoncc at us, and our separation, by which we 
carry our difTcrcnecs; as wherein we do not only in word, 
but even really and indeed reprove their state and stand- 
ing, as imlawful ; and such, as we I'ather choose all calami* 
tics by loss of couutiy, friends, riches, credit, liberty, yea 
and life itself, than by continuance tlierein to willdiold tlie 
tinitli of God in unrighteousness, and uphold the chair of 
apostacy, and so to pull down wratli from heaven upon our 
heads. "Which our soquestmlion is yet the mora ofTensivo 
unto them, by how much the nearer we werc, and y(?t arc 
in many things, united : the contentions of brotlircn being 
as the bars of a castle, Prov. xviii. 10; as also for that 
their party, for the reformation of their jirctcndcd national 
Judah, is thereby weakened. And as any, according to the 
proverb, may easily fmd a staff to beat a dog witlial, so do 
men easily take occasion to Iny loud u[)on us, who are, for 
our fewness in number and meanness of condition, so con- 
temptible in their eyes ; and against whom they have all 
advantages for treading u])on us (save tlic trutli) which they 
can dcsii*c. J3ut tlie Loixl Jesus, in teaching tliat "the way 
to life is narrow, which few find," and that "to tlie poor 
the gospel is preached," and thereupon that "he is blessed 
who is not ofTended at him,** doth plainly forewarn all his 
sen-ants of this oAence. ^latt. vii. 14; xi. 5, 0. Others 
tliere are, also, who, whatsoever they boast of tlic Scrip* 

VOL. iir. 




tares, lutTC for the most part a traditional faith and re- 
ligion; and, as Naaman, tho S}Tian, would not bolieve 
Hiat there could bo any better watc^rs than the rivers of 
Damascus, 2 Kin^ v. V^, so neither do they think it pos* 
aible that there ^lould be any purer manner of worship- 
ing God, than tliat to which they have been always used ; 
unto which Uiey are so superstitiously addicted, as that 
tfaey are ready to tliink it an heretical way for any man to 
step out of tlie beaten trod of tlieir teachers* traditionary 

There are also lussidcs all tlicsc, that luiVe their politie 
ends, and respects, for which tliey affect ojiposition against 
us. Some, of tlic prelates* faction, to gnitify their lords 
and masters, at whose devotion they stand, nnd against 
whom we principally witness : others, thougli th<\v like not 
the bishops, yet think it a point of their wisdom to take 
and hold up professed o])]ioBition against us, that under it 
as a buckler they may cover their own iiTcgularity, and 
moke their jealous miislei*s believe, that they rannot but 
be indifferently well affected towards thoni, being so velie- 
mently bent against us. Yea, otliers perceiving that their 
own grounds do in th<j judgment of otliei-s, wise and im- 
partial, directly lead to the way, in wliich wc walk, and yet 
seeing it not to be for their })Ui*]>oses to have tlie world so 
to esteem of them, do midoubtediy strain and wring the 
neck of tlieir consciences, and courses, to look the con- 
trary way, that they may not bo thought to have their 
faces towards us. 

Lastly, there nre, who fearing belike to be overcome of 
the truUi we profess, if with cpiiet and cnlm thoughts tliey 
come to consider of it, and not having hearts to embrace 
it. do set themselves against it tnmiiltnously ; like those 
cowards,, who feanng tho force of their adversaries, do 
think by debasing and reviling of tliem, to encourage their 
own faint and fccfble hearts against them. 

But good hful it been for tho truth, if at it, offences had 
only been taken by tlu; adversaries thereof, and not also 
given by tliem, who have professed it : and those botli so 
public, as tliey cannot be concealed, and so great, as they 
con receive no sufiicient excuse. Yet are there notwitli- 
standing divers tilings, and tliose such as will seem, I 



doubt not, of weight, to the wise in hcait, whidi both justly 
may, and necessarily must be observed about those nittt- 
tei*s : whether oifcnsive contentions, or otlier |>ersonnl evils, 
laid to our chai*^e, and published to Uie world agiunst us. 

First then> and in the genei*al ; the publishers of those 
accusations cannot be un8us|>ected of any reaKonablc man : 
being such gcnoindly, as are both eneniien to our pro- 
fession, and have cither for their uiifaithful apostacy, or 
otlicr scandalous sins, or botli, been cast out of Uie church 
and t'xcomniunicated.* Now as for the former, it is truly 
and coniiuonly said, tliat no person running away from his 
master, will easily speak well of him : so dotli experience 
coniirni it, for tlie latter, tliat scarce any condemned in 
any court, how justly soever, but will coni]»lain eitlier of 
the malice of tlie evidence, or ignorance of the jury, or 
injustice of the judge. Condcnuicd pei*s<ms must repair 
tlicir own, by ruinating the credits of Uieir judges. 

More especially : and fn*st, of the contentions which 
have fallen out amongst tlie professors of this way. As 
Paul coniplainetli, that sin taking occasion by Uio law, 
wi*ought in him all numner of concupiscence. Item. vii. 6 : 
so indci:d halli the nuilico of Satiui, and man's coiTup* 
tion taken occasion to work much evil of this kind, by 
sundiy good things specially found in the professors of 
this truth; as 1, by their knowledge, il, zeal, and 3. lil»ei-ty 
of the gospel. Ivnowledge, saith the apostle, puHetli up, 
I Cor. xiii. 1 ; i. 5, 7, 1 1 ; iii. o : and hence was it« that the 
same church to which he so writes, exceeding other 
cliuivJies in knowledge, did also pau^s them in contentions, 
and strifes. So tlie churches this wav, which I mav truly 
speak, and without boasting, going before other oiilinaiy 
assemblies in knowledge, are the more hi danger iif 
contentions, witliout special luodosty, and watchfulness. 
Ignomnt perhons, and ])oopIes, are for the most part, 
easily ruled, as being content to trust other men with their 
faith and religion : neitlier was tliere ever so great peace 
in the Christian world, as it is called, as in tiie deepest 
darkness of ]>opery. Sndly, as the greatest zeal for Cod is 
rightly found amongst God's people, so is peace and 
agi*eement gix!i\t]y cndiuigered thci*el)y, if it bo not ten:- 
* Lawnc was excommuiiicatcl July 23, 1611. 





percd with much wisdom, modcmtion, nnd brotherly for- . 
bcomncc : and that they consider not aright,- that botl^ 
■themselves and otlicrs arc frail men, and coiiipassed about 
witli much Ignorance, and infinnity othei*wisc: who arc 
therefore to study, not only how to have that whidi tliey 
like, but also how to bear Uiat in other men (if not in* 
tolerable) which tliey like not : otlienvise, whilst men think 
by their zeal to warm the house, they will bum it over 
their own, and other men's heads. 3rdly, and lastly, tliey 
only, who enjoy liberty, know how hard a thing it is to use 
it aright And when I see them in England wondering at 
tlie dissensions in this way, metliinks I sec two prisoners, 
being tliemselves fust chained and manacled together by 
feet, and hands, wondering to sec tliat other men, at 
liberty, walk not closer together than tliey do. Their 
tliralaom makes tliein unequal censurcrs of the abuse of 
our liberty. How many thousands nrc there, whose very 
hearts are fretted with the chains of ihcir spiritual bond- 
age ! Yea, how many several factions of niinistei-s arc 
there, whose difTerencos, if by smile fear tlioy were not 
ni])pc'd in the hud, would bring fortli no small both dis- 
sensions and divisions : as at this day woeful oxj>eri(*nco 
tcacheth in the rrfornicd cliniTlics, wjiosc dissensions do 
inlinitclv exceed all that ever liavc hccn anionj^stus! As 
Ignorance begot, so tyranny maintained the {greatest peace 
and unity, whrn poj)ish inifpiity mV)st prevailed. 

Now for pei'sonal ofTcnccs ; ai we profess, and avow 
before all men, that, for ourselves, we neither receive, nor 
keep amon;^st us any persr>ns not sandiiied in their mea- 
sure (in our discerning:) so do we not think ourselves any 
way privileged, cither from the common infinnities of 
God's more worthy senants in all aj^'cs, or from the malice 
of Satan jn thnistin*^ upcm us false brethren unawares, 
Jude 4 : whose hypoerisy, and profane nsniimtion of the 
Lord s covenant, and holy thint^s, unto which they have 
xio right, he often punishelh with scandalous sins, and so 
leadeth tliem out amongst the workers of iniquity. AVhich 
scaudjils we could yet cover from tlie eyes of the world in 
a great measure, if we durst, as others do, either let sin 
rest upon our brethren, Lev. xix. 17 : or smother in a con- 
siston such offences, ns ore either public, of their own 


nntnrc, or so made by tlio offender's private impenitencet 
1 Tim. V. 20 : which because we dare not do, nor but re* 
bukc him openly, which so sinnetli, and so judge both his 
sin and person, in which our proceedings, and dealings, 
ne\v otfcnccs are also added ftftcntimes, we do thereby la/ 
open our own shame in the eyes of the worid : an<l so 
walking; in our simplicity, because we dare not be wise 
against the Jjoixl Jesus Christ his order and ordinances, 
wc have in so great a measure our faults written in our 
foreheads, and are a wonder and offence unto others, who 
arc far hotter acfpiainted with our failings, tlian with their 

l^it bcsi<los, if not above tlie rest, great offence hath 
bocn takon, by many, at our extreme straitness in respect 
of the order wherein we walk : and more especially for 
refusing comnnniion in the private and personal exercises 
of rcli«xion with the better sort in the assemblies ; as where- 
in we have not only made a scparaticm from tlie wicked, 
and from the godly also in things unlawful, or unlawfully 
performed, but oven in their lawful actions. This Mr. 
Ames cults the bittoi*ncss of scpanition : and for it, as it 
seems, thinks it lawful to cast upon me tlie reproach of 
the sins of other churches and persons, whetlier truly, or 
falsely laid to their charge, he knowcth not ; as also to in- 
sinuate a«;ninst me, that I despise the writings of Junius,^ 
and so of other learned men :f as justly as otliers have laid 
to his charge the contempt of all luicient writei*H : wherein 
if men deal unjustly with him, and his friends, let him see 
whether God deal not justly, in rewarding him as he hath 
sen'od others. 

For the matter of his letters, if I would strive witli him 
about the arginnents, with whom I agree in the question, 

* Francis JuniiL«, a learned French Protectant dirine, was hnm at 
Bour^^ in 154o. lie wns sucrcMircly minister of tho Walloon 
Church at Antwerp, Chaplain to the army of the Prinec of Orange, 
I'rofcssor at Heidelberg, and Di^-inity reader at Leydcn, where he 
died of the plague in 1G02, about three montlis after he had pab- 
lished his *' Letters*' against the *' Confession of Faith, and certain 
English people living in the Low Couiurics.*' Ho wrote Conuncn- 
taries on the Scriptures, but is best known by hit Latin version of 
the Bible, jointly with Trcmellius. 

t Grotius against the EogUsh Puritans. 





I eoiild mmiifest, I doubt not, how he hath not dealt 
snffiricntly in it. Wlictlicr or no thei'e were in the assem- 
blies faitlifii] and goiUy persons, and the same so appear- 
ing nnto men, I never called into question, nor could 
wiUiout sinning greatly against mine own conscience:* 
I the thing I feared, was the violation, and breach of order 
in the communion between ihc members of the tme visible 
church, and others out of that onler, or in the contrary. 
Mine objection hereabout Mr. A. answerctli not, but only 
makes light account of it-, as a strange onler, which iw 
broken by saying amen to a godly man*s prayer. But all 
men know, that to set light by an argimient is no suthcient 
answer nnto it. And many cases may be put in which 
onler may be sinfully broken in communicating even with 
a godly man s prayei-s ; either privately, as if he will pro- 
fessetUy offer up the prayers of an excommunicate, detected 
heretic, or other ungodly person : or publicly, if he perform 
the same without a true, or by a false calling. Here was 
use of a distinction of religious actions, into personal and 
church actions 'A which if either Mr. A. hnd obscncd unto 
me, or I myself then conceived of, would have cleared the 
question to my conscience: and with which I did wholly 
satisfy myself in this matter, when God gave me once to 
obsene it 

My judgment therein, nnd the reasons of it, I have set 
down in the first part of the book : imto which I bind no 
man further to assent, than he sees grmmd from the Scrip- 
tures. In it I op])ose no article 0(011 r t)on fessi on :* neither 
was it the authors meaning, as it scemeth, furtfTer to con- 
clude and jirofcss sci>aralion than from communion in the 
public worship, and administrations there :§ neither do I 
herein oppose any set order of any chuiTh this way, to my 
knowledge. I myself, and the people with me generally, 
did sepaiate from the formal state of the parish assem- 
blies, 111 this persuasion, and so practised all tlic while we 
abode in England as some there continuing, have done to 

• Vide Vol. ii., A Jiutification, &c., 
t 80c p. 1 of follontin^ TrcatittC. 

i •• The ConfcflPion of Faith," referred to in p. 101, note, published 
at Amsterdam, ld08 ; reprinted, 1607. 
{ Art. 31. 



this day : there having been also sundiy passages between 
Mr. Smyth, and me about it; witli whom I also refused to 
join, because I would ukc my liberty in this point : and for 
which I was, by sonic of tlic people witli him, excepted 
against, when I was chosen into office in tliis church. In- 
deed afterwards finding them of other churches, with whom 
I was most nearly joined, otherwise minded for tlic most 
part, 1 did tlirough my vehement desire of peace, and 
weakness withal, remit and lose of my former resolution : 
and did, to speak as the truth is, forget some of my former 
grounds ; and so have passed out upon occasion, some 
arguments against this practice. Which yet notwithstand- 
ing I have, in the same place, so set down, as all may see I 
was therein far from that certainty of persuasion, which I 
had and have of the common gi'ounds of our separation : 
of which I think this no part at all. But had my per- 
suasion in it been fuller than ever it was, I profois myself 
alwavs one of them, who still desire to loam further, or 
better, what tlie good will of God is. And I beseedi the 
Lord from mine heart, that there may bo in the men* 
(towanls whom I dcsii*e in all things lawful to enlarge my- 
self) the like readiness of mind to forsake every evil way^ 
and faithfully to embrace and walk in the trutli Uiey do, or 
may see, as by the mercy of God, there is in me ; which as 
I trust it shall be mine, so do I wish it may be their com- 
fort also in tlie day of the Lord Jesus. 

Jomr BoDuraoK* 



Thr apoKtIe writing to tlic church at Golosse witli 
much joy for their stablcncss in the grace of God received, 
reduccth the whole matter of tliat his " rejoicing*' to two 
general heads : ••faith," and ••order." Col. ii. 5. Of which 
two, faiUi, tliough Ret after in place, is before, both in 
nature, time, and dignity : as making men in their persons 
severally fit for, and capable of tliat order, wherein tliey 
are jointly to be united. 

Now from those two spring-heads, as it were, tlnis dis- 
tinguished, do issue and arise two sorts of external reli- 
gious actions, or oxcrcisc5„:_iKUjcli we maynot unfitly, for 
distinction s sake, caljr[g£rsoijjiDkn«(^^ By 

personal actions I do undrrstand such as arise from, and 
are performed immediately by the pcrbonal faith, and other 
graces of (rod, in the hearts of holy men. Of whicli sort 
are, private prayer, thanksgiving, and singing of psahns, 
profession of faith, and confession of sins, reading or 
opening the S<Tipturcs, and hearing them so read, or 
opened, either in the family, or elsewhere, without any 
church power, or ministiy coming between. Of the second 
sort, are the receiving in, and casting out of members, tho 
electing and deposing of officers, tho use of a i>nblic 
ministry, and all connnunion therewith. For which works, 
howsoever. " faith " and other personal gmces be recjuired 
tliat men in.fliem may ** please God,*' Hob. xi. 0: yet are not 
these graces suthcic^nt for the doing of them, e.xcept withal 
there concur, and come between, a Church state, and order : 
in, and by which, tliey are to be exercised, as by their most 
immediate and proper cause : from which, by the rule of 
reason, they are to have tlieir denomination, and so to be 
ealled church actions. 

And tliat the actions of the firat kind, and more parti- 




culorly, privnte praver, of which I am specially to speak, 
may, and ou^ht to be performed by godly persons, though 
out of tlic order of a true visible church, botli the Scrip- 
tures and common reason teach : and that not only by 
them severally, and one by one, but jointly, and together 
also, OS tlicro is occasion : they being joint members of the 
mystical body of Christ by faith, and jointly partakers of 
the same Spirit of adoption, and prayer ; from which com- 
mon faith, and union of tlie Spirit dwelling in tliem, tliis 
communion arise tli, they. thereby being privileged jointly 
to say, ** Our Father :** - as was also practised by Cornelius, 
and his holy family, ' though out of a true visible church. 
Matt vi. 8—10, XV. Ji-^,2a; AcU x. 1—3,34,35; liom.viii. 
JiO, X. 10; 1 Cor. xii. 7. Ncitlier is it a matter worthy the 
proving lawful for a godly husband and wife joinUy to 
sanctify their meat and drink by prayer, and tlianksgiving, 
and 80 to beg together at God's hands, or to give thanks 
for other good things upon themselves, and tlicirs, though 
they he out of the order of a tiiie church. Neitlier, indeed, 
do the mcnibci*s of the visible church perfonn private 
l)raycr, or the like exercises, whetlicr sevendly, and by one 
and one, or jointly, by virtue of that their church state, 
or with any reference unto it, but merely as a duty of tlie 
Christian person, or family: (whicli must be before the 
Christian church, as the paits before the whole:) and 
which they were also as well, and' as much bound unto, 
tliough they were of no visible church at all : no more tlian 
was Cornelius, and his family, and friends, which, not- 
withstanding, was his, and their fault. 

Those tilings thus premised, I come to the tiling I aim 
at in this whole discourse, which is, that we, who profess 
a separation from the English national, provincial, 
diocesan, and parochial church, and chui*ches, in tlie 
whole formal state and order thereof, may notwitlistanding 
lawfully communicate in pri>'ate prayer, and other the 
like holy exercises (not peiformed in tlieir church com- 
munion, nor by their church power and ministry,) with 
the godly amongst them, though remaining, of infirmity, 
members of the same church, or churches, except some 
otlier extraordinary bar come in the way, between them 
and us. 




And ftine e the subject and ground of this eoramunion, 
is holr persons, nnd the same so discerned mutitall}', and 
on lH>th sides, I think it heedful, for the clearer passage 
of things, and better information of divers both adversaries 
and friends, having greatlj misinteipreted our writings 
and testimony, hero briefly to note down what our judg* 
ment hath always been of the sincere faitli and holiness 
of many particular persons in tlie assemblies, notwitli- 
standing our testimony againnt the lH>dy of Uie same 
assemblies, in their communion, order, and ordinances. 

And first, our witnessing against the Church of England* 
M called, as Babylon, in her degree, both in rcsi>cct of tlie 
'confusion, as of i>er8ons good and bad, of all sorts, so of 
things Christian, and antichristian, covering all : as also of 
that spiritual bondage, wherein the Lord's people are kept 
under the spiritual lordship of the prelacy, there reigning, 
doth witness for us againt^t all men, that wo acknowledge 
the Lord's peojde, and gorily persons there : out of which 
they are therefore called by the voice of tlie Loi*d from 
heaven, to build up themselves '* as lively stones into a 
spiritual teni])ie ** for the Lord to dwell in, Rt-v. xviii. 4 ; 
1 Pet. ii. 5: as were the TiOrcrs people of old called out 
of Babylon civil, to build the material temple in Jeiu- 
salem, altliough as then was, so now is too slack obedience 
yielded to the Lord s call herein. Ezra i. and vii. ; Nehe* 
miah ii. 

More particularly. Mr. H. Barrowc in that his letter 
written a little l>eforc his death, and so the more advisedly, 
especially in that point, in which a snare was laid for his 
life, to an honoumblc lady yet living,"^ as he acknow- 
ledgeth her in her person, to^have been educated and 
exercised in the faith and fear of God, so professeth ho 
further, that he gladly cmbracetli, and believeth the com- 
mon faith received, and p]*ofessed in the land tm good, and 
Bound : that ho had reverend estimation of 8imflr}% and 
good hope of many hundred thousands in tlio land, 

* Shortly before the execution of Henry Barrowe, he oddrcMed the 
Letter to " an Ilonourablo Ijody, and Countcus of his Kindred.*' It ia 
dated " this 4th or 5th of the 4th month, 1503," and is contained in 
■a ** Apofegy or Dcibnee of tnch tmc Christians as are commonly, 
hot m^ustly called Brownists,*' by Ilenry Ainsworth. 1004. 


though lie utterly dbliked the present constitution of the 
church, A:c. 

Unto which his testimony as tlie authors of the **Apo- 
logy'> do assent, so do they further profess their i>er- 
suasion that of niany the Lord s people in the realm, 
helonging to the Lord*s election of grace, and partakers of 
his mercy to salvntion in Christ, some are furtlicr called, 
and some still remain in defection : further instancing in 
sundiy priests and friai*s, that hare hcon martyrs of Jesus, 
witnessing tlie tiiith tliey saw against the Komish anti- 
christ and yet rotnining their popish functions, and com- 
munion with tliat church, which stands suhject to the 
wrath of God : both Mr. Barrowe, and they accordingly in 
another place, commending the faith of th« English mor- 
tyvs, and deeming them saved, notwithstanding the false 
offices and great conniptions in tlie woi'ship they exercised : 
and so professing the same judgment of others in the 
realm, where the same precious faitli in sincerity and sim- 
plicity is fonnd« ihey neither neglecting to search out the 
truth, nor de-pising it, when they see it, the mercy of God 
through their sincere faith to Jesus Christ, extending, 
and snperahounding above all their sins seen and un- 

Lastlr, Mr. Penrv. a little before his execution, acknow- 
ledgeth in his ** Confession,"! that both of tlie teachers and 
professors of the assemblies have so embraced the truth of 
doctrine in the land established, and professed, that tlie 
Lord rn his infinite goodness hath gi-anted them favour, to 
show' out wherein, in regard of God s election, ho judgeth 
them membei's of the body, whereof the Son of God Jesus 
Christ is the head : only herein praying the Lonl to be mer- 
ciful unto them, as unto himself in regard of his sins, that 
they are not ordered in that outward order which Christ 
Jesus left in his church, but instead thereof, ftc. 

All these, we see, as they rightly distinguish between • 
faith and order, though even order also be a matter of. 

• p. 113, 114. Vide last note. '*Tho Apology*' was the Joint 
production of Jolinson, Ainsworth, &c., though some editions are 
subscribed with AinswortVs name alone. 

t. Vide Examinations of Barrowc, Greenwood, and Penry, ppr. 39, 
4^1 4to edit., no date. 





faith, if it bo not a matter of sin, an<l without warrant 
from God's Word, Rom.xiv. 23 : so do tliey plainly acknow- 
ledge the personal faith, and grace unto salvation in many 
7 though remaining (of ignorance, and infirmity) members 
*> of tliat ehurch against whose constitution, order, and 
I ordinances, they witnessed, divers of them, unto deatli : 
and not only, tliat such people were there in the generaU 
but also tliat tliey did so esteem and judge of many of 
them, in particular. And surely if the Lord's people be 
there, it is no difficult thing for the spiritual man, con- 
Tersing with Uieni, to discern and jud^e ordinarily, which 
^ tliey be. The Spirit of God in one of his people will own 
itself in another of tliem tlioiigh disfigured with many 
failings, especially in outward orders, and oi*dinances : and 
faith, if it be not dead, may bo seen by works, of him that 
hath a spiritual eye, through many infirmities. James ii. 
17,18. "The tree," saith Christ, "is kno>\Ti by tho 
fruits, " Luke vi. 44 : so may the good trees truly planted 
by faith into Christ, and having in thoni the heavenly sap 
and juice of his Sjiirit, tliough growing for the present, 
out of tho Lord's waIlo<l orchard, the true visible church, 
and in the wild wilciomcss of the profane assemblies, 
ordinarily be known by the good fniits of faith nnd of tho 
Spirit evidently appearing in their persons, whom, whilst 
the world can in all places so fur discern, as to hate, de- 
spise, and persecute them, as none of theirs, it were maiTcl 
if we should not discern them to bo children of the same 
common Father with us, and so know and acknowledge 
one another, though tlieuvorld, which knows not him, 
know neither of both. 1 John iii. 1. And passing this 
judgment one upon another mutunlly, though not by the 
rule of certainty, which a man can liave only of himself 
ordinarily, as pnly knowing his own heart, yet more than 
in hope, which extends itself to the apparently profane, 
for we are to hope that they who are not to-day, may be 
to-morrow, and even by that golden rule of love or charity, 
which " thinketh not evil," nor is suspicious, but " be- 
lieveth all tilings," and taketh them in the best part : 1 Cor. 
xiii. 5, 7 : '* covering,*' especially under the gi*aces of God's 
Spirit, where they appear, though in never so small a mea- 
sure, " a multitude of sins ;** 1 Pet iv. 8 ; we shall walk 



in love, after Christ*8 example, and fulfil the law of Christ 
by l)earinp: one another*s burtlen : thereby also proenring 
tlie like merciful measure to be meted out to us again 
both by God, and men, in respect of our infirmities. 
Eph. V. 2 ; Gal. vi. 5 ; Mark iv. 24. 

Lastly, if men were to judge us, even whilst we 
abode in the assemblies of ignorance, or infirmity, men 
fearing God, and sanctified in our persons, by tlie profes- 
sion and appearance which we made : then are we also 
in equity to make the same estimate of the persons of 
othoi*s, though abiding in the assemblies, as wo did, 
making the same manifestation, and ap]>earanee, (and it 
may be greater than) tlie most of us have done. And, as 
we ourselves then having received of God tlie grace of 
sunctification, in our measure ; and making manifestation 
tlicrcof, according to that, we had received ; and being to 
be judged by ot)iei*s according to the manifestation wo 
made ; did, and might justly look, that tliey should deem 
iif? truly faithful, and sanctified, tliough never so weaklj : 
so are wo to have again the like estimation of others, ac- 
cording to their measure received, and manifested : re- 
membering always that most equal rule of Christ our 
Lord, that '*what.soever we would men should do unto us, 
even so to do to them, which is the law, and the prophets.** 
Matt. vii. 12. 

I will, therefore, conclude this point with a double ex- 
hortation : the former, respecting us oui'sclves, who have, 
by the mercy of God, witli the faith of Christ, received liis 
order, and ordinances ; which is, that we please not our- 
selves* therein too much, as if in them, piety and religion 
did chiefly consist : which was not the least calamity of 
the Lord's people of old, for wliich he also sharply re- 
proved, and severely punished tliem ; of which evil, and 
over valuation of tlioso things, howsoever great in tliem- 
selves, we are in the more danger, eonsidenng our perse- 
cutions, and sufferings for them : but that, as we believe 
these things ai*e necessarily to be done, so we consider, 
that other things are not only not to be left undone, but 
to be done much more. The grace of faith in Christ, and 
the fear of God, tlie continual renewing of our repentance, 
with, love, mercy, humility, and modesty, togeUier with 



■M« ^ 




fervent prayer, and hearty thanksgiving nnjto God, for his 

luiKpcokable goodness, are the Uiings wherein cspecinllj 

we must servo God : nourishing them in our own henrtSt 

and so honouring them in oUiora, wheresoever they appear 

to dwell. Pko. xl. 0—8 ; Heb. z. 5; Pso. xxxi. 10, 17 ; 

>^Jer. vii. 4, Ul — 23; Hos. vi. 0; Mic. vi. — 8, And if 

<r God will bo known, and honoured in all his crcatureSt 

[ yea, e>'cn, in the silliest worm that crawletli u]H>n the 

S eartii, how much more in the holy graces of his Spirit 

/ vourhsnfed to his elect, notwitlistanding tlieir failings of 

I iufimiity, espccinlly in outwanl ordinances ! Whicli per* 

' sonal graces whilst too many have undervalued in otlier 

' * men, and neglected in tliemselven, in comparison, God 

hath been provoked to Kutfer so many amongst us to fall, 

some, into hucIi )H*r8onal sins and evils, notwitlistanding 

their advantage in the JjonVs ordinances, as from which, 

without these lieli>s many thousands of tliem have been 

preserved : and others, both from the conscience of God's 

ordinnnc<*s, and of the personal duties of holiness, and 

honesty ; as is ^enonilly to be seen in such as have made 

apostacy from their fonncr professicm with us. 

The other rxhortation, I direct unto Uiom about whom 
I doal : which is, tiiat they content not thcniselvrs witli 
that faith and grace in their persons, which they have 
rt'coivcd, n*jrciing, or nojjlecting, under any jnxrtcxt or 
(*xcuse whatsoever, the order, ordinances, and institutions 
of the Lord Jesus; by tlie use whereof, their faitli 
should be nourished iji itself, and manifested unto othei*s : 
much more, that tlioy continue not their submisKion to the 
contrary*, which is of antichrist ; lest God, besides ^^'eater 
evils, piuiish them with yt»t gi^ater confusion, and bondage 
tlierein : that, under which tJiey are, being such already, 
as, 1 Kuppos<% 1 niny truly afTmn, tliat never church in the 
world, in whicii so many excellent tniths were taught, stood 
in such confusion both of persons and things, imd under 
such a Ijonduge spiritiuil, as tliat of England doth at this 

Now before I come to prove tlie thing I aim at, I tliink it 
fit to satisfy tlie principal objections, wiiich I have taken 
knowledge of against the tiling I intend. 

OF PBiTiTE coiofuiaoy. 



Objection 1. 

And it will first be demanded of me, considering mj 
judpiient of the parieh assemblies, as antichristiaii, aad of 
sundiy the practices there as idolatrous, and withal, what 
judgments tlic Scriptures denounce against sudi estates, 
and prnctices, how I can deem any tlie members of such 
assemblies, and so practising, as truly Giristian ? or how 
I can, wiUiout pollution, communicate with them, who are 
by the touching of so many unclean, both persons and 
things, themselves made unclean ? 


For answer. First, it is true, tliat upon tlic true church, 
the Scriptures do pronounce most excellent blessings ; as 
they do also dcnoimco feaiful curses upon the false : as it 
is also true, tliat whatsoever is spoken of the whole body, 
the one or other, jointly, belongs to each member of 
eithor, severally : provided, tliat in both, tilings be hi their 
ri<^lit state and order : which is, tliat tliere be none but 
faithful and holy persons in tlic tine church, and none but 
unholy and profime persons in the false : for none other 
should he, hi tlie one or other. But, if now it come to 
pass otherwise, and tliat thn)ugh tlic churchs want of vigi* 
lance or zeal, and the party's hypocrisy, which hatli l>een 
always, and is, too, too common, Uiere bo in the true church 
unfaithful and profane persons, shall we say, tliat those 
precious promises made to tlie true church in which tliey 
wrongfully are, do appertain unto them, and unto tlieir 
persons ? and Uiat they are elect of God, saints by calling, 
and sanctified in Christ, to tlie hope of life, &c. ? So if, 
on the contrarj', it come to pass, through her craft and 
cniolty, oud their o\vn weakness, which is, too, too common 
also, Umt godly and faitliful persons be in tlie false church, 
where they should not be, shall we now lay upon their 
])crsons all the curses, and condemnation, which the Scrip 
turcs denounce against tlio estate of tlie false church, and 
the superstitions thereof? Were not tliis to justify the 
wicked, because he is in tlie tnie church, where he should 
not bo ? and to condemn the righteous because he is in the 




false church, where ho should not bo neitlier ? Or, are not 
all godly-wise men in these, and the like disordered state of 
things, to have use of Christian discretion for tlie putting 
of difference between person and {Ksrson, notwithstanding 
their common church-state, and onler, Uie wicked with the 
godly in the true chturch, and under Christ's ordinances, 
and the godly with the wicked in the false church under 
the forgeries of antichrist ? Otlierwisc, our judgment will 
be OS confused as is tlieir estate. Neither is it a moro 
difficult thing, for a spiritual and unpartial eye to discern 
a godly man in a false church where the falseness arisetli 
, ^not from tlie falsity of faitli, but of order and ordinances, 
than to discern a wicked man in a ti*ue church. 

And tliis considemtion had, may serve for answer to the 
chief port of tlie objection : which is also no more in effect, 
than hatli been answered by the authoi*s of the '* Apology,** 
before me, (page 1 13) in their defence against Uiat unjust 
accusation laid upon them by tlieir adversai-ics, that Uicy 
affirmed the whole i*ealm to be drowned in confusion witli- 
out assurance of salvation. 

Their answer is, that ** There is' difference to be put be- 
tween pcrsfins themselves, and between their actions or 
estate otlierwise. The i)crson sometimes is blessed, when 
tlie action or standing in another behalf, may be sucli as is 
subject to cni*se, «fcc. As on the contraiy also, sometimes 
tlie pei-son is subject to curse, when as yet the action or 
standing may be blessed in another respect." And both 
tliose parts of their distinction they prove by sundry in- 
stances from the Scriptures. Some whereof I will hero 
note do\\ii, adding also some others thereunto, for the ron- 
finnation of the first head of tlic distinction, which more 
directly concerns the ])rcscnt question, which is about 
godly pei'sons pei-forming of, or standing in some corrupt 
and cursed acfions or estate othenvise. Thus were Simeon, 
and Levi, botli blessed in their persons, and cui*sed in their 
outrageous act against the Shccheniitcs, Gen. xlix. 5, 7, 
28 : thus were tlie Canaanitish woman and her daughter, 
botli dogs, or whelps, in respect (»f their nation and people, 
and children of Abraham in their persons, ^latt. xv. 20 — 28 : 
thus was Peter both a faithful and beloved disciple, in his 
person, and yet in his counsel to Christ, Satan, ^latt. xvi. • 


16, 17, 23: thus were the Corinthians both unleavened 
and ])oly in their persons, and leavened or impure in tho 
lump of their communion with the incestuous man uncen- 
surcd amongst them, 1 Cor. v. G, 7 : as alno the same 
Corinthians, boUi spiritual (though but babes in Clirist), 
and vet in respect of their strife and divisions, not spiritual 
but c.inial. I Cor. iii. 1, 3. Wliere the apbsUe also noteth 
out tlie original cause of these contrarieties in and about 
tlic same persons : and how it comes to pass, that one and 
the sauie man dotli works so contrary' one to anotlier, and 
so subject, iu respect thereof, to two so contraiy estimates 
and censures. Tho reason then is, because every regene- 
rate man, iu this lift*, hath in him two men : the old man, 
not yet fully cast olT ; and the new man, though prevailing* 
yet not perfectly put on. and i*enewed, Eph. iv. 22 — 24 : and 
tlicsc two, elsewhere called the llesh, and tlic Spirit ; con- 
trary tho one to the other, and lusting the one against the 
other, (ial. v. 17. And so fonuble is this lusting sin and 
rtcsh in tho best, as that, it not only keeps tliem from 
knowing much truth which they should know, and from 
doing much good which they would do, and from doing 
that good tliey do, as they both should and would ; but 
also mi^^leadeth them into sundry aberrations, and cxils, 
besides th(;ir falls into greater mischiefs, at times, out of 
which they are restored by particular repentance, and 
thci-ein continucth them to thc»ir dying day. The apostle 
profcsscth of himself that he knoweth but in part, 1 Cor. 
xiii. 12, and how small a part of his knowledge is orirs! 
The ]u-ophet David teacheth, that no man can understand 
his erroi>i, and so prays God to cleanse him from his secret 
sins. Psa. xix. 12. And amongst, and above, tliose of all 
other kinds, the senants of God are still endangered by tlie 
erroi-s and evils of iXn* times : whose corrupt customs do oflen 
either dini their eyes, as a mist, or cany them along, as a 
strong stream : or otherwise opprcss them witli a Uiousand 
tyrannies. Examples of this mischief we have too many 
in the Scnpturcs. In Abraham*s, Jacob *s, David's, and 
many more holy patriarchs, and prophets, taking at once 
more wives than one, contrary to the institution of mar- 
riag;e, which was, tliat ** two " (and not more) *' should be 
one flesh." Gen. ii. 24 ; Matt xix. 4. Likewise in iisa, 
VOL. in. I 


Amazifth, and Azariah their failinf:^, in not taking away 
the high places, though tho Holy Ghost give testimony of 
the uprightness of their hearts, and works otherwise, in the 
sight of the Lord. 1 Kings xv. 14 ; 2 Kings xiv. 3, 4, zv. 
8, 4. Also, in many of tho church of Corinth ; continu- 
ing their accustomed fellowship, with their friends, and 
kindred, in their superstitious feastings in tho idol temples, 
in honour of the idols, to which they offered.* 1 Cor. riii. 
10; X. 13, 14, 20, 21 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14—10. Lastly, we have 
a plain proof of Uiis evil in the apostles themselves, whom 
, ^the common error of the times, that the Messiah should he 
a great, worldly prince, and exercise a temporal kingdom, 
did so possess, as that it could not he rooted out of tliem, 
by all that they had heard of Christ, and seen touching 
htm ; hut that it still ahodo with them, til] the death of 
Christ, yea, some while after his resurrection. Matt. xvi. 
22. XX. 21 ; Mark ix. 34 ; Luke xxiv. 21 ; Acts i. 6. Which 
consideration, as it must work in nil the servants of the 
Lord, a godly jealousy of the customs of the times, that 
they be not cnptivcd in their evils ; so must it also tench 
them, who by the mer^'y of God biivc escaped them, much 
moderation towards such, bcinj^ oflicr>visc godly, as nre still 
too much abused by their crnft or violence. 

To npply this, then, to the present purpose. Consider- 
ing* the ninny excellent truths tmight in divers of the as- 
semblies, and tlmt with so grcn't fniit in the knowledge, 
zeal, niid other personal graces of ninny ; the constant suf- 
ferings of divers martyi-s for the truths there professed 
against that antichrist of Rome ; the knowledge we had, of 
ourselves, in tlmt estate ; together with the judgment of 
other churches abroad, toucbinj^ the Cbiircb of England, as 
it is called, though indeed ignorniit of her estate, save in 
such general* heads of fnith, wherein we also nssent unto 
her ; as also tlie manifold afflictions upon, and great of- 
fences, and those, ninny too just, ut such as have made 
separation from that church ; it is no mar^'cl. that so mnny 
(though otherwise learned nnd godly) by reason of the 
ignorance and infirmity yet cleaving to the best overmuch, 
are abused, by the times, for the succouring of nntichrist 
in his declining age ; for whose furtherance, in his rising,, 

• Ileiodot. in Clio. 


through the corruptions of times then so many, howsoeTcr 
oUicrwise learned and godly, have, tliough unwittingly, put 
to tlicir Imnds, as ail men, soundly minded, if hut a little 
exercised in their writings, and the stories of tlie times, 
will confess. 

Now for the second part of the ohjection, touching the 
idolatrous practices of the assemblies, I do answer, tliaft 
every idolatry makes not an idolater, any more than eveiy 
ignorance, or other sin of ignorance, an ignorant or wicked 
person. To make an idolater, there is required an ido- 
latrous disposition, which we may not lay to their charge, 
of whom we speak. Besides, by this ground, we should 
challenge the rcfonucd churches generally to be idolaters ; 
for the most of them use a stint form of prayer, less 
or more, Uiough tlicy bo not bound unto it : and so, con- 
scqiiontly, should exclude them from God*s kingdom ; for 
no idolater hath any inheritance in tlie kingdom of heaven. 
Eph. iv. n. And if any furUier object, tliat the Scriptures 
tench expressly, that thoy who partake of the sins of Ba- 
bylon, shall * receive of her plagues : and tliat every man 
woi*shipping that beast, and his image, and receiving his 
mark in his forehead or in his hand, shall drink of tho 
wine of the wmth of God, ^'C, llev. xviii. 4; xlv. 0, 10. 
I answer, as before, that, that estate, and those practices 
arc, indeed, under that curse in themselves ; and further 
also, that every person so walking, as I am perauaded 
every member of tlie Church of pjngland doth, is under 
that condemnation without, repentance : which repentance, 
as it must be particular for sins known, so dotli the Lord, 
in mercy, accept of the geneml repentance of his sen'ants, 
for their sins unknown and secret, and which they dis- 
cern not to be such : otlienvise no flesh could be saved. 
Psa. xix. r^. liastly,' as I cannot excuse Uiem, nor Uioy 
themselves, from gi'cat sin in joining themselves with tlio 
profane parish assemblies, with which God hath not 
joined thom ; and that in the pi*actice of their supersti- 
tions, especially, in such a bondage spiritual under tho 
prelacy, as makes them cease to be the Lonl's free people, 
and deprives them of all power for the reformation of pub- 
lic evils, either of persons, or things ; so that being, as I 
hop6, but their sins of infirmity, and by tliem unseen, 

* . •■ •% 



tliough wc discern them, as it may be, they also discern ( 
some evils in iis, which we see not in ourselves, they no ) 
more dissolve Uie bond of tlic Spiiit between their and j 
our persons, than they destroy the work of the same Spirit/ 
in themselves : neither can these their sins pollute me, ifj 
by tlie default of my place or person I leave no means 
la^vful unused, for their reformation : who, if they eitlicr 
puq>osely nej»lect to search out the truth, or unfaithfully 
wiUihold it in unri^xhteousness, for any tU^shly fear, or 
otlier corrupt rej^ard, bhall not, for our more respective 
judgment of them, or practice towards them, receive the 
more easy judgment at th«* hands of tlie Ix)rd, in the day 
of the revelation of the secrets ttf all hearts. 

Objection *^. 

As he that hath hold of one UK^mhcr of the ho<ly, is not 
sepamted from the body, iu»r any ])art thereof, but hath 
hold of tlic whole body by the imturnl coherence of the 

^ partM : so he tbiit coiiiunniiciitcs with one meuiber of the 
chiurh, coininuniciiti's uiid joins with tho wboh?, nnd every 

\ member thw'of, by aiiswcniblc coborince of tlie parts of 

' that mystical body. 

yf /Mirer. 

, In comnmniciiting with tlio godly, tbor<\ in privato 
prayer, and tin* lilio exrroiscs, wo do not roinnninicate 
with them, as mrnibors of the rburcb, but inorrly as Chris- 
tiaus, privato prayer bring, as liatli been sbowod, no diurch 
action at all, nor porfonncd ritbcr by tbom, or us, by 
virtue of any church state, or mr inbeisbip. or with any 
re.^pcct thereunto : but morcly as by pei'sons, made j>or- 
takers, by the gi-ace of Cfod, oV the Spirit of adoption, and 
prayer, mutually. Piom. viii. 13, *2il, ij7. 

Ohjfctinn t\. 

If we may tllus connnunicate with them in private, and 
they with us, why not also in public? 


It followcth not. that, because I may partake with godlv 
men. in things lawful, and lawfully * done, therefore, in 
things, imlawfiil in themselves, as arc many things, or un- 

OP PBiTATE cosiinnnoK. 117 

lawfully done, as arc all tliin}(8 in tbcir public communion. 
^lore particularly. Li communicating with tlie godly in 
public, even in tbin«^ good in tliemKclves, I partake with 
all tbe profane parish also : tlic minister being tlie min* 
i^ter of tbe whole parisb, and to speak as the truUi is» 
tbe punsb priest; and so in bis public ailministralion, 
' otTering up tlie souls and bodies, and tbe prayers withal 
of tbe parisb cbui*cb, m tlie name of Cbrist, and Uicrein, 
with a few clean, many unclean beasts, u[k>u tbe Lord's 
altiir: wbercas tbe pri^'ato counnunion 1 intend, ik re- 
Rlraiued to tbe godly only, tliougb wicked iK^rsons bo in 
tbo place. Secoudly. wbeix*as, in luivute, i communicate 
only witb tlie persons and pcraonal graces of holy men ; 
in ]>ublic, 1 communicate witb tbeir cburrh-statc and 
onler, as also witb tbe public ministiT, and in, and witli it. 
witb tbe prelacy, whence it is : of wbicb more herenftbv. 
Noitber yet may we admit tbrm into connnuniuu of the 
public ordinuurcs witb us, till tliey be actually members 
of a true and lawful public body ecclesiastical, or visible 
■ church. As tbry are private Cbristian j»ersons, so wo may 
' partake with tbeiu in private Cbristian duties ; but may 
not admit tbcm to public cburcli comnumion, though 
never so boly ]HT.sons, till tliey bavc a tme and lawful 
rhurcb- state, and calling thereunto. And bere tliat geiio- 
Yii\ rule bath place, tliat wbatsocver is done by any pci'son, 
tbougli both be and it. in tbcmselvcs, never so holy, witli- 
out a just calling, is niu unto him. 

Ohjcction 4. 

But with men uncircumcised, and which might not enter 
into tbe temple, tbe Jews were forbidden all communion 
by tbe law of God. Acts xi. 2. 3 ; xxi. 2^. 


But tliey, of wboin we speak, arc not unbaptixed, but 
such as, witb tbe outward ba]>tism, (the same with our 
own) Uiough both unlawfully administered, have, also, ro* 
reived the inwai'd baptism of tlio Spirit: tliougb tbcy can- 
not liave, in tliat tbeir estate, all tlie right ends and uses of 
baptism. Secondly, I find not, wbere tbo biw of Ood m> 
said : but ratber think h may bo proved, tliat tlio circum* 

I .I I J, II Bf w 





ciscd Israelites, eoming out of Eg}'pt, had eommunion in 
the wildeniess, though not in nil. things, t^'ith the uncir* 
cnnicised, hoth Israelites and others. Kxod. xii. 38 ; Nunih. 
xi. 4. But admit the law so forbade. It must he con- 
sidered that the matter of Peters trouhlc was, '*his going 
in to men unciivumcisc'd, and eating with them,** and it 
will then appear that there was a legal and ceremonial 
restraint and bonclage, under which the Jewish church 
was, as a child in his nonage, from which the church now, 
as a man of fuller age. is ircc, Ga\. iv. 1<»4. And bv the 
Jewn not commnnicatiiig privately, or not eating with any 
uncircumciscd (if so. by the law, they were forl»idden, and 
tliat it wore not rather a tradition, as Calvin fhinketh), and 
jy their not admitting any such into the temple, which is 
evident, we are taught not to communicate with, nor to 
receive into the church, any uncircumcised in heart, so by 
us discerned ; but are not forbidden all private religious 
communion with uid»ai»tiz«Ml persons, if n])pearing holy, 
much loss to go in and oat with thi in ; no, nor yet to re- 
ceive such, noitbor into tho now tem]do. tbo church of 
God. 1 Cor. X. tJT, into which indood thov nui<it bo received 
l>efore thoy can be baptized. And. for the instance. Acts 
xi. considering that Clirist. at bis death. bnd''bn»ken down 
the partition wull. and in bis llesb abolished the enmity of 
tho law of conunandinonts, standing in ordinances,'* Eph. 
ii. 14, ir», and that IVter. by his apostolical commission, 
was to •'teach all nations." Matt, xxviii. 10; and how his 
opposiies bad ** braid that the Gentiles bad received the 
word.*' and therewith tbo Spirit of (iod. it could be none 
but thoy of tho cirounicision. that is. such as being them- 
selves circumcised, did think tlu*re couKl be no grace 
without it, (with which mischief Satan biboureth. always, 
to jH^ssess the hearts of suidi as enjoy God's ordinances, 
as tboir-s. on the other side, who enjoy them not. to under- 
value thorn.) whiTuould thus contend, or quarrel with the 
apo>tle of Christ, and tho .•»anie, to spi-ak as the truth is, 
manifesting himself to be too Jewishly atVoctod, for that bis 

1)ractice, Acts x. 14: Gal. ii. 1, 1*2,14. And, methinks, 
»y tlie Lord's charge unto IVter, ** not to call that profane 
which God hadi'uriiitd." Acts x. ir», and with it. by Peter's 
testimonv otienvards. v. 34. -w. tbat "tbev that fear God 

or PBiTATE comicsioar. 


and work righteousness, are aceepted of God,** whether 
circumcised or not circumcised, Imptizcd or not baptized, 
so there be no contempt of God's ordinaiites, but only 
liuuhiu fraihy hindoring, as it was witli Cornelius, in his 
not being circumcised fonnerly ; and so ought to bo ac* 
cvptcM of his i>ef>pU^, so fur as God ucceptctli of tlicni ; 
ami that, by Christ *s example in receiving the prayers of» 
and therein communicating with, tlie faithful centurion, 
though out of the visible church and uncircumcised. Matt. 
viii. b — 1.'(, personally and privately, witli whom he would 
not have communicated in the temple, into which, for 
order's sake, he might not have been admitted; wc, also, 
have warrant for c«)mmunicating with godly pcrsous, 
])rivately : with whom, for their disonlercd estate that way, 
we cmi liave no lawful public communion. 

Fifth Objection, 

Ihit thus to acknowledge nny in the assemblies, for otir 
brethren, and pnrtakors of the same common grace aiid 
faith with us. unto life, is to confirm tliem in their evil 
way>, and as if wo >hr»uM tell them, tliut to do more, or 
othen!vi??c, than they do, wore in vain. 


This exception is unworthy of any godly- wise man, who 
hath learnt aright, either tu worship God, or to converse 
witli men. Exception might, as ju>tly. have been made 
ajraiiist the apo>tle'.s doctrine, and practice, for receiving 
and a]>plying unto tlie weak in things hiwful for their 
edification and gaining, and the discharge of hiso^n duty, 
Koin. xiv. 1 ; 1 Cor. ix. *^*i; and, a.> justly, might men have 
told him, that he had taken a course to continue and 
harden thcin in their sin ; for that, tlieir weakness, was 
their >in. The equity of tlie apostle's doctrine and prac- 
tice is general, and directs all God's people, at all times, 
towards all that are weak in the faith, any manner of way; as 
are those that fear God in the assemblies, (how stronji^ 
soever otherwise,) in respect of their church-state, and 

The same apostle, writing to the Corinthians, whom he 
was, in the body of hi^ epistle, to reprove for many e\ils 




amonp^t tlioin, doth in Iho first ])]iiro givo Uicm thoir dno, 
iriUi the nioBt, nckiiowlo(lgin<( tlicm **Hiin(!lirH*«l in Chrifit 
Jesus, saints by calling, onridicil witli tlic graco of Owl by 
Christ Jesus, in all utterance, nnd in ull knowledgo.** 1 Cor. 
i. 2, 4, 5. Tlie same mnnncr of proceeding, also, the 
ftpostle John uscUi, being directed by the same good Spirit, 
towards tlie churches in Akia, upon the like occasion. Her. 
ii. 1— J3, 12—14, IR— 1!0. And, oh tlicir practices arc (in 
their common equity) our instructions, so doth both tlie 
law of love and nile of reason dirrct us the same course. 
^\^len men nee us ready to take knowledge, and in ac- 
knowledging of the good things in tliem, they will much 
more willingly listc*n to our juKt reproofs of their evils, as 
deeming us equally and lovingly aflfc^ctod towards them : 
which gcKMl things if, on the contrary, we iicghrt or under- 
value in any manner of way, thi*y will, and llmt justly, be 
prejudiced against us, as unequal and looking at tliciu only 
"witli tlie left eye. Besidrs. there arc no argun.'^nts so 
forcible, either for admonition or exhortation, to thcni that 
have any spark of grace in tlicni, as those which arc taken 
from the meixicK of God, whereof they arc made partakers. 
liOm. .\ii. ]. Neither will any of Ood's children, indeed, 
make that use, either of the knowledge which themselves 
have, or aeknowhHlgenicnt whieh others make, of the grace 
of God in them, to he emboldened thereby to go on in 
evil ; for this were to " tuni the grace of (iod into wantcm- 
jiesR,'* which 0!ily the rcj>rol»atcs do, tlude 4, no more than 
will a good child, when he knows by himself, or hears by 
others, Umt his fiither hath made sure his inheritance unto 
him, take, thereby, liberty to despise his comnmndmcntR, 
and no further to rej^ard him : this were a bastardly prac- 
tice, and from which a child naturally disposed would 

To conclude Uien, this our judgment, and answerable 
practice, touchiug the bettc?r sort in the assemblies, as 
iaitliful persons, and under the assm*ance of salvation, is 
no hindmnco to the further manifestation of their faith, 
in withdrawing their feet from ever}* evil way, and the 
planting them in tlie Lord's house ; but on the contrary, 
a real exhortation, and provocation of them to keep safe 
that their precious faith in a good conscience in all things, 


nH tlio passoiif^cr in iho Khip, I Tim. i. 10 : imd in ilio 
uliodioiico of nil CliriKtK coiiimiuuhneiits, to iiiakn Uioir 
clcclioii luoiii buro tc> Uiciiifti'lvcx, Matt xxtiK. lil, S20; 3 
IVt. i. 10, aiul so to work out Uicir nalvation witli fear luid 
ti*cn)l»ling, Phil. ii. 12 ; always providbig for themselves 
the pro])lict s assurance, which was, that ho should not be 
ashamed, when he had respect to all God*8 command- 
monts. And tills may 8er\'e, not only, for an answer to 
the ohjcction, but also, for an argument for the thing 

Objection 0. 

Ihit Christ hatli left an oi*dcr for Uio I'efonnation of 
rvrry brother falling into sin, which cnnnot bo observed 
towunlH nny of them whom wo cannot therefore tbua 
n(knowIc(l;^'e, and connininicato with accordingly. Matt 
xvm. lu — 17. 


'i'his, indeed, showeth, that they are without the order 
of Ciirisit in Jiis church, in which they ought to he; but 
doth not therefore, conclude them not to be our brethren, 
or God's chihlren, or that there is no bond of faitli and 
the Spirit between their and our pei*sons. And, by tliis 
fjTomid, wc Rliould not repute a godly person though actu- 
ally s<'parated, our brother, nor keep jirivatc communion 
with him : nor any at all with the refoinned church, or 
with nny their mendiers ; who are too much wiuiting in 
this order. But, as we may communicate with tliousands 
in Kiiglnnd, as with holy persons, in private exliortations, 
and admonitions, so may wo also, in pnvato prayer, thou^ 
in neither the one, nor other, publicly, as hath formerly 
been showed. And this I, also, conceive to have tlie force 
of another argument for tlic practice. 

Objection 7. 

The Lord Jesus hath promised so far to hear men*s 
prayers, as they agree togetlier in the things they ask : 
which cannot be between them and us, seeing they ore 
to pray for the prosperqus estate of their church, commu- 
nion, government and ministry, against which we both 
pray and witness. Matt xviii. 10. 



13d OF BEU0I0U8 coimuxiOK. 


There are thousands iii the assemblies, who, whatsoever 
tlirough human frailty, Uicir practice be, prav for little 
more, in effect, in tlic Church of England, than wo do. 
And, secondly, though tliere bo between them and us some 
differences, yet may the samo be so carried by Christian 
discretion, and moderation mutual, as tliat our prayers be 
not interrupted. And tliough wo must agree m the par- 
ticulars, whidi we expressly pray for, yet if we may not 
join in prayer with tliem, with whom we have particular 
differences, how shall we pray witli almost any the mem- 
bers of tlie refonncd churches ? yea, what two churches, 
or persons in the same church, should not at one time or 
otlier refuse prayer togetlier? But divers inconveniences 
will, I doubt not, arise in this practice, as there do many, 
in all our doings: which we must, therefore, labour to 
prevent, or moderate by godly wisdom, and not abandon 
for them things othonvise lawful. 

Ohjcction 8. 

If tliis practice may be waiTimtcd witli them, why not 
witli sundiy papists also, aiul much more, with many 
excommunicaiits out of the church for some particular 


The faitli of Pkomc, and so of papists, indeed, cannot 
by tlie AVord of God be proved tine, justifying fuitli ; nor 
tlie spirit received by that faitli, the spirit of prayer, which 
God hath promised to hoar. But tlie faith published in 
tlie name of the Church of England, and professed by 

(many there, personally, is to be esteemed such by the 
Word of God. Neither are wo now come to a diverse faith, 
but to a diverse order, from that tliere prevailing : in sub- 
mission whereunto we tliink ourselves bound to make 
furtlier manifestation of our faitli, than there we did, or 
could do. And for excommunicates, there is this apparent 
difference, that, whereas we are to apply ourselves to the 
other, not yet come so far, what we may for their further 
provocation ; we arc, on tlie contrary, to withdraw ourselves 

or PBiTATB coimunoir. 


from them, what we may for their humbling, both in spiritual 
communion, and civil familiarity : their estate^ in the one, 
and other, putting a special bar between them and us. 
1 Cor.v. 11. 

Objection 9. 

But this will endanger the bringing in ol great confu- 
sion, when one man will thus esteem of, and walk towards 
one, a second anoilier, and a third will be otherwise 
minded towainls them both. 


The vciy same might have been objected against Paul's 
doctrine of application to the weak : and it might have 
been snid ; one will judge this man but weak, anotlier that 
man, but a third neither of tliem, but both obstinate ; what 
confusion will hero bo! Rom. xiv. 1 ; 1 Cor. ix. 22. So, 
for our walking towards tlie members of tlie Dutch, and 
French churches. Have we not adniinistered publicly to 
some of either, which, unto some otliers of tliem, we 
would not do ? The same course we hold in our private 
walking. Yea, do we not sundr)' tiines fall into the. some 
diiliculties in our pul)lic communion, being diversely 
minded in tlic receiving in, and costing out of members ? 
In all which cases, we must have use ojf Christian discre- 
tion in ourselves, and moderation one towards anotlier : 
and nnist study, not only how to effect tliat which ourselves 
til ink best, but how, to bear tlie contrary, witli tho least 
ofTencc, if it he not intolerable. 

And thus much for the objections against this practice : 
the reasons to justify it follow. 

1. Arg. — llie former grounds being held, and more 
specially, that private prayer is no church action, nor 
done by any church power, or order, but merely personal, 
both Mr. Bernard's argument, ** tliat we are taught by our 
Saviour Christ, to join in prayer, and to say, • Our Father,* 
with tliem, whom we judge the children of God ;** as also 
Mr. Ames*, that " we may have visible communion witli 
them, whom wo rightly discern to have communion with 

-im mMm,^ 



Qirist,**^' are of force, to wit, according to the liroitations 
and distinctions formerly made. Matt vL 6 ; Gal. iii. 20 ; 
1 John i. 3. 

2. Arg. — As all comnumion in actions pvesupposeth an 
imion of persons, so dotJi ever)' union of persons, neces- 
Rarily, draw with it conimunion in works, as a natural 
effect thereof. Which, as it is true in Christ the head first, 
irith whose merits and grace no man can communicate, 
till by faith he be united to his person, and witli which ail 
so united do necessarily partake ; so is it in the memliers 
mutually, who must first be knit together by that one faitli, 
and one S]>irit, and so being united must pre8cr\'e the unity 
and walk in tlic communion thereof. John xv. 4, 5 ; Titus 
i. 3; rhih*m. 0; Eph. iv. 3. We are to walk in the common 
works of humanity with every man, according to that com- 
mon bond : in the works of kindn^d, or friendship, as with 
a friend, or kinsman : of common Cliristianity, with a 
Cliristian : and so in the works of church conimunion with 
tlie members of the true church. As, then, God huth 
united us in our pei'sons, by faith, and the Spirit under 
one head, Clirist, with iimny in the assemblies, so are we 
also to unite ours(»lves, in the exercises of those our personal 
graces, notwithst^mding the human infirmities, especially 
about outward ordinances, appearing in us, or them. 

3. Arg. — 'riicrc was between them in the assemblies, 
who feared (tod. and us, before our separation a bond of 
tlie Spirit, and wc mi^lit lawfully pray together for lawful 
things, personally. And hath our growth in the know- 
ledge, and obedience of the will of God, dissolved that 
bond, they remaining the same they were, and it may bo 
growing, further also, therein ? Surely, such is the nature, 
mid so gi'eat the strength of this bond of the Spirit, to them 
who duly consider it with that reverence which is meet, 
as that many and great infirmities cannot break it. And 
by reason of it, and of many other, so excellent things, 
there to be found, it deeply concemetli us to weigh witli 
ourselves, in what respect, and how fiir, we make our sepa- 
ration : that, as we make not the good things there, as 
snares to entangle our souls in the things which are evil, 

* Vide Letters between Mr. Ames and Mr. Rdbinson, pp. 85^87, 


80 thftt neither for the enls» unavoidable in the public or- 
dinances tliere, >ve throw away all at a venture^ as some ill- 
advised do. And if two godly persons of them may law- 
fully pi-ay togclhcr, privately, for lawful things, why not 
wc with either, or boUi of them ? Do wo lose any lawful 
liberty in a common Qiristian duty, by breiUcing of our 
unlawful course, and standing? If not, then neitlier can 
this coni*se be justly reproved, neitlier should wo debar 
ourselves of our Christian liberty herein. Gal. v. 1. 

\, Arg. — As we are not, for infirmities and corruptions, 
to refuse ihc fellowship of a true Christian church in 
tilings lawful, but, by all good means, to cndeavonr ber 
reformation, whilst there is any hope : so, neither, ore we 
to refuse th(r fellowship of a true Christian person, so ajv- 
pearing, in things lawful, for his infirmities and cormp- 
tions, especially, till he appear unto us obstinate and irre- 
covemble therein. 

5. Arj:^. — Ijastly, To repute them holy persons, and par- 
takers of tiie srtni*» precious faith with ourselves, as I have 
showed you befoix?. we have always done, notwithstanding 
their church state, and yet, not to join with them in the 
personal works of faith, no extraonlinary bar coming Ik?- 
tween, scemeth a denial of that in deed, which in word is 
professed : and all one, if not woi*se, as if one man should 
profess of another, that he held him his special friend, 
but would neither perfonn to him, nor receive from him, 
any duty of special friendship : or, that ho deemed him a 
veiy honest mnn, but yet would neither tnist him, nor 
havr othrnvise to deal witli him, for a farthing. 

For conclusion then let us follow the counsel of the 
apostle, lo proceed by one rule, whereunto we arc come, 
Phil. iii. 10 : under hope that God will further reveal the 
tnith in those particulars unto them, who arc othem'ise 
minded : as also following his example, in becoming all to 
all in the things which are lawful. Phil. iii. IG. And above ( 
all things let love abound in us, which will teach us, ' 
as many other good lessons, so tliis amongst the rest, not I 
to cover the good graces of God, in men, under tlieir / 
infinnities, but contrariwise, their inlirmitics, under tlie I 
graces of God*s Spirit in them. Pror. x. 12 ; 1 Pet iv. 8. ^ 

But lest this practice, and the grotmds thereof be further 

'fc '■ " " !■ " "J ■■■' ■^ ■ - ■■ ^'.JW- ip^i fi^ 



than I intend, or than it will reach, I think it 
here meet to add a few things, for the just and lawful 
bounding of it 



As we arc, then, to join ourselves with them, wherein 
God hath joined us ; so arc we, wherein he severetli us, to 
sequester and sever ourselves. And tliis I verily believe 
be doth, in tlicir and our church communion, service, 
order of government, ministry, and ministrations. If the 
parish assemblies, gathered by compulsion, of all the 
parishioners promiscuously ; tlie provincial, diocesan, and 
lordly government ; the ministry thence derived, with the 
service-book, and administrations accordingly, be of God ; 
then is our fellowship, only of pci'sons sanctified, at least 
outwardly, joining themselves by voluntaiy profession 
under tlie government and ministry of an eldership ; 
conceiving prayers and thanksgivings, acconling to Uie 
churches' present occasions, by the teachings of the Spirit, 
and so administering the sacraments according to tlie sim- 
plicity of tlie gospel, not of God, nor from heaven. If on 
tlie contrar}', ours be of God, and of his Christ ; then is 
tlieirs of antichrist, God s and Christ s adversary'. Kither 
the one or other are plantings ^vhich God hath not planted, 
and shall be rooted up. We >vill briefly consider of the 

And first, the word, " kahal,*' in Hebrew ; in Greek, 
•• ccclesia ;" in English, *' church ;" significth, a company 
of people called out; and that in respect both of the voice 
or will of tlie caller, and obedience of the called : and so, 
restrained to religious use, significth a company of people 
called, and come out of the state of nature, into tlie state 
of grace ; out of the world, into the kingdom of Christ. 
AMio are therefore entitled, " saints " by calling, and 
" sanctified,** or separated, " in Christ Jesus :" the temple, 
•• house," and " household of God," and " kingdom of 
heaven," and "of God.** 1 Cor. i. 2; Eph. ii. 19— ai; 
1 Tim. iii. 15; Matt. xiii. 24; xxi. 43; AcU L 3: And 


Since the church is neither a natural, nor a cinl, but S 
a spiritual state, it must not be gathered, nor consist, of i 
natural, or civil, or otlier than spiritual persons. And this | 
will yet better appear, if we consider it, as the Scriptores 
direct us, as the body of Christ, under him the head ; unto 
which therefore it must be conformable in every part, b^ 
the indwelling of his Spirit, effectually working in the 
measure thereof. Eph. i. 22, 23; iv. 15, 16; Col. i. 24. 

2ndly, Unto the true church, appertain the covenant 
and promises, the ministry, sacraments, and services of 
God, with all the holy things of God and of Christ, Bom. 
ix. 4 ; 1 Cor. iii. 21, 22 : which must, therefore, be gathered, 
and consist of such persons, as unto which, these things 
belong in communion, and by common right And both 
the Scriptures, and common reason teach, that whom- 
soever the Lord doth call, and use to and in any special 
work, and employment, he doth, in a special manner, 
separate and sanctify them thereunto. And so the church, 
being to be employed in Uie special service of God, to the 
glory of his special love, and mercy in tlieir happiness, 
and to show forth his virtues, must be of such persons, as 
by, and in whom, he will, and may tlius be worshipped, 
and glorified : and as are by him, both in their persons, 
and fellowship, separated and sanctified thereunto. 

But here, the authors of a certain treatise published 
against M. de Lescluse,* charge him with much falsehood, 
for afhrniing all true churches from the beginning of the 

• •• The Shield of Defence, M-rittcn a^niuHt Mnstcr Dc Lclosc, in 
drfcnec of Master Brightmnn, 1012." Supposed to be ^Titten by 
Christopher liiiwne ond his party, De I/eluse's name is thus variously 
A\Titteu by different authors, Do Cluse, Dc les Clusc, Cluse, Dc la 
Cltise. lie belonged to the French church at Amsterdam, but Uc- 
cnme a Separatist from that church on account of its •• known evils,** 
and held the office of elder in the church, over which Henry Ains- 
worth was pastor. On the death of Mr. Ainsworth, the church di- 
vided; one portion chose M. dc Ix^clusc as their pastor, and tho 
other Mr. Cannc. The title of dc Lescluse's work is not known. IIo 
translated Henry Aiiisworth*s treatise on '* Communion of Saints'* 
into French, and thus subscribed — "Translate d'Anglois en Fima- 
9ois, par Jean de Lesclusc." 

Vide "A Defence of Church Oovemmcnt, &c.," by John Paget, 
1641. And Uonbury's "Historical Memorials," vol. L p. 260, 337,- 
616, and vol. ii« p. 69, 




worid, to bare been established by tliis sepAration, which 
we, whom t]iey call Brownists, as the Church of England 
calls them Puritans, do desire. • And for this they desire it 
may be showed, how the church of God before the flood 
was gathered by such a separation, to wit, of the godly, 
from the profane; for this is tlie separation we desire. 
And know tliey not, that God, in establishing tlie first 
church of the gospel, ** put enmity,*' which is more than 
separation, *' between the seed of the woman, Christ and the 
faithful in him : and the seed of the seqient, Satan, and 
the wicked witli him their father," Gen. iii. 15 ; iv. 12, 16 ; 
John Till. 44 ; which separation also stood so firra, as the 
sons of God might not so much as take them wives of the 
daughters of men. Gen. vi. 2 — 5. Or if these men will 
have marriage, as by their practice they make it, a church 
action, then they see on express separation for church com- 
munion before the flood. 

And where they further allege that the Dutch and 
French churches which we acknowledge for true churches, 
were not established by such a separation, as wo make, 
they accuse them unjustly, to excuse Uiomsclvcs. 

They were, at the first, established of a sanctified people, 
by voluntary profession separating themselves into par- 
ticnliir churches fi-om the j»rofane multitudes in the places 
and parishes where they lived, and that with great perseru- 
tion : and so do still continue a separated people, though, 
through continuance of time and peace, they, as all other 
churches use to do, have lost of their first purity ond zeal. 
AVere or are any conipellctl into them by penal laws ? Or 
do tliey consist of all the parish inhabitants, as the English 
parishional churches were, and do? Doth not M. de Les- 
cluse and we all and these men themselves know, that scarce 
one of ten in the parish, is of the church in the wholo 
country throughout? How do they then reproach the 
churches of God, (contrary to their o^n, and all men's 
knowledge,) as not being a separated people from the profane 
multitude ? The thing is, they would by casting dirt and 
mire in other men's faces, make their own seem the fairer. 

Tlmt the Dutch and French churches condemn our 
separation, or schism, is neither to the purpose nor true ; 
neither can they name one church that erer passed any 


snch censure upon us ; neither hath any one learned and 
godl J man amongst them (to my knowledge) ever gone about < 
to refute our practice or confession, though published both in ( 
Dutch and Latin unto them ; whidi, notwithstanding, thej ( 
have done in their public writings generally, against sueh 
heretics and schismatics as have be^ amongst them. It 
is more boUi pertinent and true, that the Church of Eng- 
land, for which these men plead, condemns them, her 
proctors, as schismatics, and excommunicates for their 
wicked errors. 

If Mr. Johnson confess, as they tell us, the Church of 
England a true church, he must be able to prove it estab- 
lished by separation, and a separated body in the constita- 
tion. He, with the rest, has formerly defined '*a tme 
visible church, a company of people called, and sejiarated 
from the world by the Word of God,** drc, and proved the 
same by many scriptures.* 

And to conceive of a church, wliich is the body of 
Christ and household of God, not sep irated from the pro- 
fane world, which lieth in wickedness, is to confound 
heaven and eartli, and to agree Christ >vith Belial, 1 John 
V. 10 ; and in truth, tlie most profane and dangerous error 
which, this day, prevails amongst them that fear God; and 
by which Christianity is moro exposed tc» the contempt of 
Turks and Jews, than by any oUicr evil. 

But hero a defence, by many made and much set bj^ 
must be considered of; which is. That the wicked and pro- 
fane in tlie parishes, though frequenting tlie some place with 
the rest, are not of the church; but only they who fear 
God, and make conscience of Uicir ways. 

If they said no other should be of the church, though 
coming into the same place, it were true ; but to argue 
from tliat which should be, to tliat which is, when that is 
not which should be, is unsoimd and presumptuous ; as is 
that indeed of all otlier defences, most frivolous. Thus 
might the Corinthians have answered Paul, that the incest* 
uous man was not of the church, though he frequented 
the same place with them. 1 Cor. v. 1 — G. And if this 
defence were good, the greatest part of the ministers of 
the church should not be of the church ; for the greatest 
* ConfMt. of Faith, ApoL Pout, a, Art. 17. 

TOIh tu. K 



iMrt, from the prelate to the poritour,* ore (God knowcth) 
irreligioiis and unconscionable persons. For conclusion, 
then, we all know that the ministers, parsons, vicars, or 
enrates, are appointed, and so called, Uio parish priests, 
and are accoi^nglj to minister ; offering; up the parish 
prqrers and sacrifices, and of the parishes to receive tithes 
and offerings, as tlieir duties; to many, church after 
child-birth, baptize, and bury, all that are married, deliver- 
ed of child, bom, and do die in their parishes ; and so to 
give the Lord's Supper to cveiy one of them at sixteen 
years old. If it be said the minister may suspend, and so 
procure, if they reform not, the excommunication of all 
unworthy persons; admit it; and even this proves the 
whole parish, yea, the most wicked witli the rest, to be the 
church* For, otherwise, what needed they to be suspend- 
ed? or, how could they be excommunicated, since tlie 
church is not to judge them which are without, but them 
which are within ? 

Let all them, then, that fear God, know and consider, 
that when they come to worsliip in the parish assemblies, 
they join themselves where God hatli not joined tliem, and 
acknowledge that society for the true church of God and 
communion of saints, which he hath not sanctified for 
that purpose ; that they offer tlieir solemn sacrifices out 
of the true temple, made of lively stones, 1 Pet. ii. 5 ; 
Deut xii. 6 — 7, where alone they should present Uiem ; 
that in eating of one bread, they make themselves one 
body with tliem, 1 Cor. x. 17, and them members of 
Christ, who ore, for the present, apparent limbs of Satan ; 
and that, in saying "Our Father" with them, they acknow- 
ledge them for tlie children of God, who, in the persua- 
sion of their own coi^scienccs, are of their fatlier, the devil, 
and do his lusts. John viii. 44. 

And, which is most of all to be obsencd, and wherein 
those parish assemblies do differ from all true churches in 
the world, tliis mischief is not casual, and falling in by 
occasion, but of the very first frame and constitution ; into 
which false bretliren and wicked men have not crept 
privilv, as into the churches of God of old, and of late 
also, but have been, and are, by bodily punishments, pub« 
* Apparitor— an inferior officer of the Ecclesiastical Court. 




licly and openly into them constrained, and in them con- 
tinued. Gal. ii. 4 ; Jude 4. Neither, in this confusion, did 
tho wicked intrude and thrust themselves into the fellow- 
ship of holy assemblies, as in true churches is too com- 
monly to be seen ; but, on the contranr, tlie godly, few as 
they were and yet are in comparison, did unite and mingle 
themselves (after their dispersion in popery) in and into 
the profane parishes, where their outward estates and 
occasions lay. And, secondly, Whereas the true churches 
of Christ enjoy his presence and power, for the purging 
out of persons appearing ungodly and incorrigible. Matt. 
xviii. 17 ; 1 Cor. v. 4, 5 ; Heb. zii. 15 ; OaL v. 13 ; U Thess. 
iii. 14; tliese parishional assemblies want not only all 
such power, in tlicm or their ministers, which the prelates 
and tlicir substitutes have seized into their hands, and for 
the stablishing of whose state, and advantage of whose 
honour and profit it is to have them no better, but even 
all possibility of reformation, except they cease to be 
gathered by their parish perambulation, as they are, instead 
of holy, voluntoT}', and personal profession of faith, and 
confession of sins, as they should be. 

Now touching their solemn, and set book-service, thus 
much. Since the Lord hath nowhere commanded, or re- 
quired in his Word, which is tlie only rule for his worship, 
any human, and apociyphal writings to be used in his 
church to woi*ship him by, much less to be read, by stint, 
for prayer, it is unlawful for any of God*s servants to sub- 
mit unto any such voluntary religion, through humbleness 
of mind, or for any other cause, Col. ii. 23 : or to partake 
in the holy things of God by it administered : lest they 
worship in vain, and God reprove them, saying, " Who hata 
required tliese things at your hands?** Matt xv. 0. 

I3ut they tell us, that Christ hath taught his disciples 
when they prayed, to say, " Our Father,** &c. True, but I 
deny it to be Christ's meaning to bind them to these very 
words : as the ministers are bound to say tlieir ** Certain.** 
For neither do the two evangelists use the very same words : 
neither, if that were Christ's meaning, were it lawful to uso 
any other form of words. 

For he saith, '* When you pray/* that is, whensoever you 
pray, " say,** &c., Luke zi. 2 : and he who prays not, as Christ 



there teacheth, offers strange fire before tlio Lord. He, 
then, there teachcth to pray ^vitliout hypocrisy and Tain 
babbling, and with faith, and perseverance: though I doubt 
not, but these words also, being applied to present occa* 
sions, and without opinion of necessity, may be used. But 
admit Christ*s meaning were to tie his disciples to a form 
of words : will the bishops, therefore, presume to impose 
upon men, another form of words, and so another form, 
and manner of worship ? which, if Christ tied his disciples 
to worship him by a certain form of words, they appoint* 
ing another form of words for his worship, they undeniably 
do. Win they thus walk check by jowl with Christ in his 
house, and set up " tlieir thresholds by G6d*s,** £zck. xliii. 
8, and appoint a new manner of worshipping God, and so 
a new wiU of God, as indeed they do ? 

M.deLcscluse*s forcnamed adversaries demand, touching 
a prayer of his in tlie end of his book, whether any of his 
flock in reading of that his prayer, liiay lift up ilieir heart, 
and say Amen to his petition. If not, then, sny they. It is 
a sorry prayer, &c. : if they may, tlicn according to our 
doctrine, ho sets up a golden calf, or erects an idol, by 
sotting down tliis foi*m of prayer : and tliey, which in the 
reading of it, lift up their hearts in prayer to desire the 
same thing, commit idolatry.* 

Nothing is absolutely, or in itself, on idol : but in rela- 
tion to, and respect of tlie end, to which it is appointed 
and used. And we do, thcrcfoit?, repute the service-book 
an idol, because it is, and is appointed to be read by the 
minister, for his, and the church's prayei*s. But what pro- 
portionable to tliis hath M. de Lescluse's prayer ? Is it ap- 
pointed by him to this end, or by tlio church with him so 
used ? It is published by him for the manifestation unto 
others of his desire, that they by reading tlio same pri- 
vately, might be admonished of, and provoked unto their 
duty. It is his prayer, but their instruction, and provoca- 
tion : and so by them to be read, and used. And for tho 
inward lifting up of tlie heart, is notliing to the question in 
hand ; which is about the outward exercise, and manifesta- 
tion of prayer. A man in reading, or hearing read, Paurs 
Epistles : or in singing, or hearing sung, David*8 Psalms, 
« A Shield of Defence, &c., pp. 38, 99. 



or in opening, or hearing opened those, or any other scrip- 
tures in tlic church, may say, " Amen," to any truth, or 
desire in his heart tliat the good things in them contained 
may he accomplished, and como to pass. Are therefore 
these scriptures and sermons the prayers of the church ? 
or, which is the very point, is the reading, singing, preach- 
ing, and hearing of tliem the church's exercise of prayer, or 
praying ? We douht not hut it is lawful to read privately the 
prayers, or sermons of any godly men that come to our 
hands for instruction, and provocation in and unto any 
good duty, and to have the heart therewith affected ac- 
cordingly: hut to conclude, that therefore it is lawful to 
bring the same into the church, and to read them publicly 
for that end, and, which is more, that the so reading of 
them is the preaching, and praying which the ministers of 
Christ are to give tliemselves unto, Acts vi. 4 : and for 
their funiishing whercunto, he giveth tliem the special 
gifts of his Spirit, 1 Cor. \ii. 4, 7, 8 ; is to make ropes of 
sand : both will hold alike, and are indeed alike childish. 
But let us a little further weigh their words. They call it 
De Lcscluse's prayer, because he penned it : acknowledging 
tlierein, that their cliurch ser^'ico is the prayers of the 
bishop or chaplain that penned them : and the manifesta- 
tion of the Spirit given to him, that is dead, and rotten. 
"Whereas the ministers of Christ have received their proper 
measuro of the manifestation of tlie Spirit to profit withal: 
by which their infinnitics are holpen, and they taught to 
pray, as they ought, and as are the church s necessities, 
and occasions. 1 Cor. xii. 7 ; Eom. viii. 28. 

They further cull this ** the reading of De Lescluse*8 
prayer:** and therein confess their church's praying to he 
reading. And is reading praying? or are not these two 
distinct exercises, and for divers ends ? Do men read to 
God, which if to read be to pray, they must do ? In pray- 
ing, we pour matter out of the heart : but in reading we 
receive matter in : as common reason teacheth. How 
ignorant then or obstinate soever men aro in their cus- 
toms, and traditions received from their ancestors, their 
set service read for prayer is but a human device for 
Ood*s worship (and that unreasonable also :) and so an idol 
and against the second commandment; with which no 


OF BEU0I0C8 coxmrxioic. 

fellowship is to be had. Which whilst these men* and 
others will not learn of God, by us, whose persons thej 
despise, but will still plead for it, as they do ; most justly 
do they provoke God to punish them, and their fellows by 
it, as he doth. It is just, that whilst one kindleth, and an* 
other blowcth, and a third offeretli this strange fire, they 
should together be scorched with the flame of it 

It now remains, I add a few things touching the gorem- 
^ment ecclesiastical, and ministry. But for that it be* 
Cometh all honest, and modest men to bo more forward 
in defending their own. than in reproving other men's 
doines ; and that many loud clamours of Anabaptistry, and 
popiuarity are raised against our govemmetit, I think it 
meet, briefly, to insert a few things touching our profes- 
sion, and practice therein. 

The government of the church, then, as it is taken most 
strictly for the outward ordering, directing, and guidance 
of the same church in her aflairs, ^for in a' more general 
sense the whole administmtion of Christ's kingdom by 
himself, or others, inwardly, or outwardly, publicly, or pri* 
vately. may be comprehended under the government of the 
church.) we place in the bishops, or elders thereof, called 
by Clirist, and the church to foed, that is to teach, and 
rule the same. Acts xx. 17, 20 ; 1 Tim. v. 17. ^Vhioh their 
government, and the nature thereof, I will plainly lay 
down in such particulars, as wherein the people*8 liberty 
is greatest: winch are reduced to these three heads: 1. 
Exercise of prophesying : 2. Choice of officers : and 3. 
Censuring of otfenders. 

And 1. For the exercise of prophesying; wherein men, 
though not in oflice, have liberty to move, and propound 
their questions, and doubts for satis^faction, as also having 
received a gift, to administer the same, unto edification, 
exhortation, and comfort. As then Paul, and Barnabas 
coming into tlie synagogue of the Jews, where they were 
no oflicers, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them 
after the lecture of the law, if they hud any word of ex* 
hortation to the people, to say on, Luke ii. 40 ; Rom. xii. 0; 
1 Pet ir. 10; 1 Cor. zir. ; Acts xiii. li, 15 (which order 
the Jews also observe in their synagogues at this day) : so 
with us, the officers after their ordmary teaching, signify, 

or poBuc Gosoiuiaosi. 


and exhort unto the use of, the like liberty, in thmt. and 
the other particulars formerly named : and^so, a9 there is 
occasion, open and explain things obscure and doubtful : 
reprove things unsound and impertinent: and so order, 
moderate, and determine tlie whole exercise by the Wcnrd 
of Go<l. And in this I suppose it appears to all men, that 
the officers govern. 

For the choice of officers, we do take for our directions 
the practices of the apostle.s, and apostolical church. Acts 
i. and vi. and xiv., grounded upon a perpetual equity, that 
men should choose tliem under Christ, unto whose faith- 
fulness, under the same Christ, and by his appointment^ 
tliey are to commit themselves, and their souls: and them« 
as Christ's, and tlieir sen'ants to maintain : in anj one of 
which examples, the conscience of a godly man is better 
established, than in all the canons of popes, or prelates, or 
other devices of politic men whatsoever, departing iirom 
the apostolical simplicity. I will instance in one example 
where this point is most largely and clearly set down; 
unto which therefore the rest must be referred, and by it 
otlicr places, handling the same matter more brieflj, 
explained, and opened. We do read. Acts vi., how the 
apostles call together the multitude ; show them the neces* 
sity of choosing deacons, what their work is, and how thej 
must be qualified, and how many they would have chosen: 
whom, being chosen accordingly, by the multitude, thej 
ordain ; sanctifying the whole action with prayer. Where 
it is evident, that though the calling did chiefly depend 
upon the multitude, yet did the government of d[ie whole 
action lie upon the officers. Conformable whereunto is 
our practice, so near as we can, upon the like occasion. 

Lastly, for our direction in the public use of the cen- 
sures, we propound to ourselves the rule of Christ, Matt. 
zviii. ] 7, touching sins private in tliemselves, but to be 
made public by the sinner's refusing to hear admonition : 
and with it, tlie practice thereof by the doctrine of his 
apostle, 1 Cor. v., about a sin of public nature. For the 
not censuring whereof he sharply reproreth the church ; 
vehemently exliorting them, that being " come together 
in the name of the Lord Jesus,** thev would ** by his 
power,** for the use whereof he shows nis judgment, for 



part scvenillj, and promiscth liis joint assent in their 
public assembly, excommunicate the offender. For neither 
could the apostle being but one, be tho church, or congre* 
gation, which consists of two or tlirce, that is a company, 
though never so small, gatlicred together in Christ's name, 
as he expounds himself, Matt, xviii. 20: neither did he 
seize into his own hands tlie liberty of the Corinthians, for 
their neglecting it ; as oppressors use to deal witli their 
tenants and debtors, taking tlie advantages of forfeitures 
against them : neither indeed could tlie apostle with any 
equity or justice proceed to any censure against the of- 
fender, he not being before sufliciently convinced of and 
rebuked for his sin, as he should have been*. 1 Tim. v. 30. 

Answerable to tlie course by Christ and the apostle there 
directed, and by the Corintliians observed, as appeareth, 
U Cor. ii. 0, we desire our practice may bo. In which, 
sins scandalous, if in themselves of public nature, are 
brought to the church by one of the ofiicers : or, if privato, 
and to be mode public by the sinncr*s impenitence, by the 
brother oiTendcd, and his witnesses, at tlic ofBccr's appoint- 
ment Where the sin, being manifested, and for fact or- 
derly proved against the ofFondcr, is by the elders con- 
demned, and rebuked by tho Word of God, and tlie sinner 
exliorted to repentance, according to tlie quality of tlie sin. 
In which conviction, and admonition lawfully, and sufTicicntly 
made, Uie church rcstetli : the men manifesting their as- 
sent tliereunto by some convenient word, or sign, and the 
women by silence. And so tho admonition which before 
was Christ's, and the officer's, becomes tlie church's : fol- 
lowing the other as their governors, and not otlierwise. 

Upon which admonition if it plcaso God to give the 
sinner repentance, 2 Tim. ii. 25, answerable, and that ho 
so manifest, God tliereby receivcth glory, who was dis- 
honoured by his sin, and nien who were offended, satis- 
faction : and so all farther proceeding is stayed, and the 
person exhorted, and others by his example, to sin no 
more lest a worse thing happen unto him. But if he re- 
main obstinate, and refuse to hear tho church, and in it, 
Christ, admonishing him, then with sorrow for the hard- 
ness of his heart, aU lon^ sufferance, and patience in the 
^ '* usedi accordmg to tho nature and oireum* 


OF FUBUO coioruxio:!. 


stAiiccs of the offence, by the power of the Lord Jesus. 
not given to the church in ram, tlie inix>enitent sinner is, 
for Ills humbling, to be cut off, and excommunicated from 
the fellowship of the church : the elders, as gOTemors. 
going before in decreeing the sentence, and so one of them. 
upon the people's assent, as in admonition, pronouneing 
it in the name of Christ, and liis church. 

But, for tliat the officers are frail men, and tliose not 
"lords over God*s heritage,'* as are princes, and magis- 
trates over their subjects, but ministers and servants of 
Christ the husband, and tlie church tlie wife, whom the 
thing concerns in tlieir places, as well as them, 1 Pet t. 3 ; 
1 Cor. iv. 1 ; 2 Cor. iv. 1, 5, we think it lawfid for the 
brctliren, citlier doubtful of anytliing in the officer's ad- 
ministration, to propound their doubt for satisfaction ; or 
seeing them failing in any material thing, to admonish 
tliem of their duty and that tliey '* look to tlieir office,** 
Col. iv. 17, or, if need stand, to supply the same for the 
further clearing of things. And this wliolo proceeding 
wo make, and use ordinarily on tlio Liords-day, as being 
properly the Lord's work, a work of religion, directly rc- 
Epccting the soul, and conscience : and of spiritual nature, 
as being an administration of Christ's kingdom, which is 
not of this world. John xviii. 80. And tliis also when 
tlie whole church is gathered together, as which it con- 
ccmctli many ways. 1 Cor. iv. 4, 6. 1. Because the 
church which is offended by public sins, must be publiclj 
satisfied. 2. A little leaven, leaveneth the whole lump, to 
wit of the church, being un purged out 3. They that 
sin must be rebuked openly, that the rest may fear. 
1 Tim. V. 20. 4. The ciders, or bishops are to feed tlie 
flock by government publicly, as well as by doctrine ; and 
being by tliem, over whom they are, to be highly loved for 
their work's sake, their work of government must be seen 
by the church which is for the same so to esteem them. 
1 Thess. T. 12, id. And thus we believe, and practise 
accordingly, though, we confess, with great weakness. By 
which our weakness it cometh also to pass, that this comely, 
order is sometimes interrupted, and human frailties inter- 
mingle themselves, either by the officer's fault, in not 
goreming, or the people's in not obeying, as they ought;; 


or BEUOtOQS comcoKiow. 


so ms we are at times orertaken with some things both 
disorderiy, and difficult to determine ; as it also cometh to 
pass in fdl societies, and governments of, and by men, 
whatsoeTor. And as in nature, the corruption of the best 
thing is the worst, so in the breach of the most comely 
order, there is the greatest both uncomeliness, and dis- 
order. But things are not to be defined by their abuses, 
as the philosophers teach, and all wise men know: so 
neither must the Lord's ordinances be esteemed by the 
disorders personally incident unto them, but as they are in 
their right state, and lawful use. 

The order of our government then being such, as I have 
described it, let every indifferent reader jiidge, whether or 
no, in respect of outward order, it bo popular, and wherein 
' the people govern, as many please to reproach us, and it. 
But if men will still shut their eyes against the things we 
plainly and simply lay down, and yet open their mouths 
against us for popularity, and Anabaptistry, we can but, 
miaking this and the like our just defences, commit both 
ourselves, and cause to God. 

And thus much of our order of government. I will now 
go on where I left, to show that the Lord's people may not 
communicate with the Cliurch of England in regard of the 
government ecclesiastical, and ministry tlicnce derived. 

And I. The Scriptures teach us, that tlie Holy Ghost 
hath appointed sundry overseers, or bishops over one flock 
to feed, that is, to teach, and govern it : of which it also 
stondeth in need. It is then the unholy ghost of Anti- 
/^ Christ, which hath devised one bishop over many flocks, 
which he cannot possibly feed, if he would. Acts xx. 
17, 20; xiv. 23; Phil. i. 1 ; 1 Tim. t. 17; Tit. i. 5. Only 
for his government he hath this help, that he is a lord 
over them, and not a minister, and servant unto them, and 
so bears more sway over the profane multitude, whereof 
those churches most-what consist, by lording it with his 
imperious canons, and purse-penalties, than many true 
bishops could do, by their faithful ministiy, and service, 
aeeording to Christ's testament 

3. It is written, Eph. iv. 8, 11—13, that Christ **when 
he ascended on high, gave gifts to men :** " some apostles, 
and some prophets, and some evangelists, and some 

or PUBUO ooMMuiaoir. 130 

pastors, and teachers, for the work of the ministiyv** &e. 
'* until all the saints were met together unto a perfect 
niaT),"'^c. Where the apostle teadieth, how Christ the 
king of his church hath set in it certain orders of officers, 
answcrably gifted, extraordinarily and ordinarily, and those 
also there to be, and continue in their time, till the same 
church and body of Christ were complete, botli for number 
of persons, and measure of graces. Now if the bishops be 
pastors, or shepherds, and teachers, as some would make 
them, over their provinces, and dioceses, how will they 
answer the Lord for not teaching them ? Or how hath the 
Lord Appointed such a ministry, being an office of trust, 
and ^vI)crcin tlie personal ability, and faitlifulncss of the 
minister is required, as which, ho that received it, cannot 
possibly fulfil if he would? Col. iv. 17. Or if the bishops 
be of Uie order of pastors, and teachers, which are the 
lowest ministers, of what order are the parishional minis- 
ters, which are below them? And for the first three, 
apostles, prophets, and evangelists, they were extraordinary, 
for the first planting, and watering of tlio churches. The 
apostles, and prophets laying the foundation, by doctrine 
infallibly true: and the evangelists employed by the 
apostles* direction, here and there, for the perfecting of 
their work, as there was need. Neither were they, one or 
other, tied to any particular flock, diocese, province, or 
nation ; but were general men, and for all places ; being 
thereunto furnished with the knowledge, and use of aU 
ton<^es, as tlicro was occasion. Matt xxviii. 10, !20 ; 1 Cor. 
iii. G, 10, 11 ; Eph. ii. 20; Acts x\i. 1—3; Bom. xvi. SI; 
1 Cor. xvi. 10 ; 2 Cor. viii. 0, IG, 23, and xi. 28 ; 2 Tim. ir. 
5, 21 ; Tit i. 5, and iii. 12. So that whilst our English 
bishops plead tlieir provincial, and diocesan jurisdiction 
from tlie commission of the apostles and evangelists, they 
are found to be of their number, who said they were 
apostles, and were not Bev. ii. 2. They then, in their 
order of ministry, are not of the gifts, which Christ, the 
king of his church gave, when he ascended on high, but of 
the gifts of Antichrist in his ascent to the throne of hia 
apostacy : of whose body also they are natural members, 
without which it cannot consist : as may all other bodies, 
whether civil or ecdesiastieal. And since the officera of 



or BBUOIOTm coioiomion. 


the church are memhers of tho body, 1 Cor. xii. 12, S7, 38, 
of Christ, as tlio eyes, mouth, hand, &c., he \rho adds to, or 
takes from the church an order of ministry or office, presumes 
to add to, or take from Christ's body, a member : and so 
abolishing a member of Uie body, ho doth also abolish a 
gift, and grace of tho Spirit, working effectually according 
to the measure, or proportion of eveiy part ; or adding a 
member, he must be able to quicken, and furnish it vriUi a 
proportionable gift of that same Spirit, who distributeth to 
ereiy member, as it pleasoth, ver. 1 J . And so whcro the 
apostle saith, ver. 4, 6, " that tlicre arc diversities of gifts, 
but tho same Spirit : and diversities of ministries, but the 
same Lord :" he plainly teachcth tliese tw%> things. 1. That 
all lawful ministries in tho church are of Christ : 3. That 
none may appoint a ministry in tlio church but he who 
can bestow an answerable gift of qualification : which is not 
in the power of any man, or angel. 

8. The Lord by his apostle hath ordered, that tho elders, 
or bishops which labour in the word, and doctrine, should 
have double honour, specially, and above tlicni that rule, 
though well : and that upon a ground of peqietual equity, 
that since tl io bishop's, or ciders ofHco is a work, the cbiof 
work, wliicl^preocmn^ is, should have the chief honour. 
1 Tim. T. lY; Ml. IT But this order of Christ, and of 
naturo itself, is clean subverted by the order of the prelacy, 
and ministry in England, where tenfold honour is given 
to ruling, though not well, above the most painful labour- 
ing in the word, and doctrine. It well suits witli the 
spirit of Antichrist, that imperious lording over the souls 
and consciences of men should he advanced above tho base, 
and burdensome work of prcacliing God's Word. 

Lastly, tlie rights, and liberties wherewith Christ the 
Lord haUi in his Word endowed his church, the elders for 
their government, and tho people for their liberty, for the 
calling of officers, and censuring of offenders these op- 
pressors spiritual havo seized into their own hands, as tlieir 
peculiars. Matt xviii. 17; 1 Cor. v.; Acts i. and vi. : in, 
and upon which their usurpation, which is specially to be 
noted, their very office, and order is founded. ** Woe be 
to him,** saith the Lord, «*that buildeth his bouse by un- 
righteousness, and bis chambers by wrong,** Jer. sxiL 18 : 

ovpuBUo coinnmoN. 


how much more then mito them, who build their hig^ 
palaces by such spiritual injury against ^e Lord, his 
house, ministers, and people as they apparently do. 

For conclusion; the tree is known by the fruits: and too 
evident it is by their fruits, upon what root the prelsues* 
tree groweth. Their preferring, and that, in their most 
solemn constitutions, the wearing of a surplice, or making a 
cross in a babe*s forehead by tlie minister, before the preach- 
ing of the gospel; of bowing the knee by the people to, 
tlio Lord 8 Supper, before the most wortliy receiving other* 
wise ; tlic reading, and hearing of tlieir, luther than God's, 
service, by the ono and otlicr, above the performance of 
any part of Ood*s worship appointed in his Word, by either 
of them, do declare them to be no mean members of that 
*' man of sin, and adversary, who exaltetli himself above all 
that is called God." 2 Thess. ii. 3, i. 

Their constraining the ministers to receive from them, 
and by their sole authority, their order of priesthood, and 
institutions to tlieirciu:fia,^ith their licences to preach: 
enforcing them to^Subscri^) and that from their hearts, to 
tlicir devised go verillHeH t; service, and ceremonies, and 
even to swear canonical obedience to them therein ; and 
botli Uicm, and the people to obey their summons, and 
citations, running, and riding to and fro, to sue and serve 
in tlieir courts : to take the oath ex officio, to accuse them- 
selves, and their friends, and that often for well-doing : to 
submit to their censures of all sorts, and not so much as to 
dare to speak against their tyrannies and superstitions, 
under pain of excommunication, ipso facto do proclaim 
unto all men that have ears to hear, that tliey ore in a gpneat 
measure, spiritual Babylonish lords, "pausing all both 
small and great, rich ana poor, to receive their mark in their 
right hand, or forehead, and otherwise not suffering them 
eiUier to buy, or sell.** Rev. xiii. IG, 17. 

Their sale of orders and institutions, and that most- 
wliat unto persons utterly unworthy, to Uie destruction of 
how many thousand souls for whom Christ died, either by 
starving Uiem through ignorance, or poisoning them by pro- 
fane example; of dispensations for pluralities, and non- 
residences, of licences to preach up and down the country, 
and to marry at times hy their canons prohibited : of par- 



dons, and absolutiona, when men are exeommunicaied, 
and sometimes when tliej are dead, before they can have 
Christian burial: ^th tlieir extorted fees, and purse* 
penalties, the very sinews of their kingdom, do clearly 
pronounce against them, that they and tlieir subordinates 
are *' merchants of that great city Babylon, trafficking 
for all manner of ware, and for the souls of men.** Her. 
xviii. 10—13. 

.Now touching the parochial ministers, I have proved 
against Mr. Bernard,* that neither their office, nor calling 
by which they administer it, is of Christ l*he office of 
the bishop is a work, 1 Tim. iii. 1 ; and this work stands in 
feeding the flock. Acts xx. 28 ; and this feeding in preach- 
ing and ruling. Now, as tlie government of their flocks is 
'? not so much as permitted unto them, so neither is preach* 
\^ ing any natural or necessary part of their office, but an 
"' * accessory and casual ornament, and which may be or may 
not be, as the persons can or will. And for their calling, 
whether to their pricsUiood at large, by the archdeacon's 
presentation and bishop *8 ordination; or to their special 
charges, either by the patron's presentation, bishop's insti* 
tution and archdeacon's induction, or by the bishop's sole 
licence ; the very naming of the means by which it is had, 
sufficiently proves it not to be from heaven, but of man, 
even the man of sin, his vain device. Luke xx. 4. But I 
will for the present insist only upon this consideration, 
that the parishional ministry is a branch of tlie prelocv ; 
and so all communion with tlie one, as other, is to bo 
avoided by God's people. 

And for the better discerning of tilings, it must be ob* 
served, that as the whole nation is divided into two pro* 
rinces, under the two archbishops, and tlie two provinces 
into sundry dioceses under the bishops, and Uicy into their 
several parishes under tlie ministei*s tlicreof ; so do the 
archbishops ami bishops share out unto the parish pncsts, 
in their ordination, a part of their charge, to wit, so much 
as concerns the ordinary service of the parish ; as they do 
also unto their chancellors, commissaries, and archdeacons, 
another part for inferior government; reserving unto 
themselves the lordship over both, for the best advantage 
* A Justiflcatioiif ftc.i vol* li«, pp. S70, ke. 

or Fusuo coMXUXiosi. 148 

of their own honour and profit So that the chanceUor in 
the consistory, and the priest in the pulpit 9r desk, doth 
administer by one and the sane power : namely, that of 
the prelate, which from and by him, both the one and the 
other doth receive. And, as Christ told the twelve when 
lie sent Uicm to preach, that '*he who leceived them, 
received him; and tliat he who received him, received 
him tliat sent him,** Matt x. 40 ; so he that receives or 
communicates with the minister, in any parish of the 
land, receives the bishop that sent him, and so indeed* 
originally, tlie Pope that sent him ; and of whose sending 
the Pope is, they and we make no question. The prelacy, 
then, being to be rooted out ss a plant which God hath 
not planted, and the ministry, in the order and offiee of 
which we speak, being a branch of it can the branch sur- 
vive, if the root bo plucked up? or, shall any of God*s 
people, by tlieir maintenance of it submission unto it, 
or communion with it give thereunto any life or preserva* 

But hero sundry defences are made, by tliem who in 
judgment word, and writing, and some practices, dislike 
tlic prelacy : as that ** they are not subject to their govern- 
ment ; that the ministers do not stand by the ordination 
and power received from and by them, but by the people's 
acceptation ; that these Uiings are but matters of outward 
order and government whicli, though tliey may something 
concern tlio ministers tliemselves, yet are they little or 
nothing to private persons.'* 

Wo will briefly consider of tliese defences: and let 
them who make tliem consider and beware, that they be 
not of them, who will not be reformed, but seek excuses 
aftor their own heart. 

And, first They who thus disclaim, in word, the bishop's 
government, confess themselves, tliereiu, to be under no 
spiritual external goveiiiment at all; and so be lawless 
persons, and inordinate walkers, and such as have neither 
tliat conscience which is meet, of the commandments of 
Christ bv his apostles, to give due honour to them who 
rule well, and to " submit themselves to those who are 
over tliem in the Lord," 1 Tim. v. 17; Heb. xiii. 17; nor 
of their own frailty, and in what need they stand of the 

T M^pniliPSPpqMn^pippvpw-iinnPi^ 



IiOrd*8 ordinances, and of this in special, for their guidance 
and consenration m his ways. Secondly, The diuly prac- 
tice of these men, eveiy one of them less or more, m the 
sight of the sun, is a sufficient conriction of their un- 
honest excuse. Their obedience unto the summons and 
eitations, unto their spiritual courts of the prelates and 
their deputies; their suing or appearing there by them- 
selves or their proctors ; the submbsion of the ministers 
to their suspensions and depriyations ; and both of minis- 
ters and people to their excommunications, do really plead 
their spiritual subjection to their jurisdiction. Yea, so far 
are the people from freeing the ministers by their accepta- 
tion from tlie prelates* jurisdiction, as on the contrary, they 
enthral them much more under the same; not only by 
accepting them at the first under their mark of institution, 
or licence, but even ever after, year by year, by choosing a 
churchwarden, or sides-man as they call him, to present 
both their own and minister's defaults in and unto their 
consistories and visitations : as dotli the minister also 
choose anoUicr for the same purpose ; for the perform- 
ance of which presentations they are to bind themselves by 
oath, and so ordinarily do. So that, howsoever many are 
ashamed of their lords and masters, both ministers and 
people, not actually separated from their parish assemblies, 
stand in spiritual subjection to the prelates, and receive 
their mark, though some in their forehead and more pro- 
fessedly ; and oUicrs as effectually, though more covertly, 
in their right hand. 

Now for the outward government, and ordering of the 
house of God, the church, and the outward calling of tho 
ministers thereof, Uiey are not so slighty matters, as politic 
men, out of their fleshly hearts would persuade Uiemsclves 
and others. The apostle unto Timothy, treating at large 
of these things tells him, how the cause why he so writes 
is, that in his absence, he " might know how he ought to 
behave himself in the house of God, which is the church 
of the living God, the pillar, and ground of truth.*' Where 
he adometh the church with most honourable titles, for 
this very end, that he, and all other God's ministers, and 
people, might be admonished more carefully to preserve 
unnokted that sacred economy, and church government 

' * 

or Funuo coioiuxioh. 145 

there prescribed : obtcsUng, and charging him before God* 
and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, to obsenna 
these things impartially, 1 Tim. iii. 15, IG, 31 : as also 
writing unto the (Torinthians he propounds the matter dT 
outward order unto them, as " the commandments of the 
XfOrd Jesus/* 1 Cor. xiv. 37, which are all to bo obscnred 
by his disciples in thr Ir places. Matt xxriii. 20 : in whose 
eyes he is worthy of more honour in his own house, and 
in the ordering of it, than was Moses a servant in hia 
Master's house. Hob. iii. 3, &e. : according to whose direc- 
tion, notwithstanding, all tilings were to be ordered. I add* 
tliat the same aposUe, whatsoever other men despising, it 
seems, his simplicity, think or say, testifietli of the Coloa- 
sians, that they had received Christ, as well in their order, 
as faith : and rcjoiceth as well in tlieir continuance in the 
one, as otlicr. Col. ii. 5, G : as on the contrary he sharplj 
rcprovcUi the Corinthians, for the breach of order, and 
neglect of discipline, as well as for any other evil. 1 Cor. r. 
14. And see how unequal tliese men are. Tlie Pope's 
arrogating to himself to be tlic universal bishop, is in itself 
but a matter of order and government: and yet tliey gene* 
rally, who are soundly minded, deem him properly Anti- 
christ tlicrcin : alleging that of Gregory against John of 
Constantinople, for that purpose. And if the universal 
bishop make Antichrist m the head, surely tlie bishops of 
dioceses, and archbishops of provinces, ana metropolitans 
of nations, may well challenge the parts of arms, and 
shoulders of that body. 

Now touching tlic minister's outward calling, of such 
force it is, tliat he is by it alone, if at all, properly, and 
immediately, a true church ofiiccr ; as is the magistrate in 
the commonweal til, tlie captain in tlie army, the steward in 
the family, by tlie outward calling of those in whom that 
riglit is, a true and lawful magistrate, captain, or steward : 
and witliout which, all, and every of them, are mere usuq>er8, 
howsoever qualified in their persons, and sen-iceablc in 
their administrations. " No man,'* saitli the apostle, " takea 
unto himself tliis honour, but he, that is called of God, aa 
Aaron." Heb. v. 4. And let tliem who think it a small 
matter to usurp, or being usurped, to communicate with, a 
calling without order by God's Word, consider what befel 

TOL. m. L 




them, who nsnrped, or communicated in the nstiipation of, 
the priestlj honour, not being thereunto called, as was 
Aaron. Numb. zi. 16. And how it lieth on all the minis- 
'lers of Christ in hand, to be able to justify their outward 
calling to their offices, the apostle teacheth bj his own 
example, and, specially, in his Epistle to the church of 
Galatia, where it was most colled in question, Oal. i. 1 : 
which Uiey also that cannot do, aro to be served, as were 
Ihey, who could not find tlie writing of their genealogy, 
aDd wcro therefore put from the priesthood. Nch. vii. 64. 
. And, as they know who have experience thereof, what 
eomfort it ministcreth against the manifold triols incident 
to the lawful ministers of Christ, that they are called by 
them thereunto, whom, under the Lord, it most concemeth, 
as over whose souls they aro to watch : so on the contrary, 
I verily suppose, it cometh to pass, that oven the best 
ministers in tho assemblies, do so easily, and unworthily 
forsake their flocks, for their greater case, profit, or credit ; 
and which not, for fear of a little persecution? because they 
want this testimony, and comfort of good conscience, that 
•they have been lawfully called to minister unto them. 
• To conclude then this point also : the samo scripttures 
'and grounds which prove the order of prelacy, and so of 
priesthood, being a branch of it, not to be of God, do also 
prove it unlawful for the people of Ood to partake in the 
administrations of Uie one, or other, and therein to submit 
themselves unto them. 

For 1. Their very administrations, by an unlawful coll* 
uig, are their sins : and so to pnrtako with them in their 
administrations, is to partake with them in their sins, con- 
trary to 1 Tim. V. 22 ; Rev. xv. 4. 

2d]y. The ground of submission unto tlio officers of the 
church is, tliat they are made " overseers of the flock by tho 
Holy Ghost," and ore •• over it in the Lord,** Acts xx. 17, 
28; 1 Thess. v. 12: which subjection therefore neither 
the prelates, nor priests being appointed bv their ghosts, 
can challenge, neiUier con the people by /aith yield the 
some \mto them. The apostle, Kom. xiii., urging submis- 
sion to all sorts of magistrates doth it upon this ground, 
that they are of Ood, and his ordinances : so the ground of 
our submission to any office of ministry in the church, and • 

OP PUBLIC coMiruiaov. 


stiij of our faith, is this, that it is of Chria^ the Medimtor of 
his church, nnd one of his ordiiiaDces. 

3dly. In tlie second commandment of the first table ara 
commanded all external spiritual ordinances, and so the ex- 
ternal spiritual ministry, and government of the diarch : 
neither can tho same be refeired to any other of tlie tea 
commandments : whereupon I infer, tliat erery such go- 
vernment, and ministry not commanded by God, and 
Christ, is as an iilol, tliere forbidden, and ell subjectiosi 
\mto it, as tho bowing doT^n unto an idol. 

Fourthly, They who judge tlie prelacy not to be of Ghrist* 
but of Antichrist, and so speak, and write (to whom more 
principally I direct my speech), and yet stand members of 
the parish assemblies under tlie government, and ministiy 
thereof, do really, and indeed underprop, and uphold that, 
which in word, and writing they would overthrow: they 
would blow or dash it down witli their moutlis, and pens,. 
and yet U[)hoId it witli thoir shouldci's. Far ore tliey from 
giving unto Christ his due honour in his officers and 
orders, whilst Uiey tlius submit unto tho officers and 
orders of his adversary Antichrist, as is that whole hierarchy 
and every onlcr in it, from Uie popo unto tho sumner. 
If any traitor, or rebel should now riso up, and strive with 
tho king for any, the dignities or prerogatives royal of the 
kingdom, and should so far prevail wiUi any ablo men, as 
that tliey should be content to take upon them, by his 
commission and sending, to administer justice publiely, 
were it lawful for any the king's subjects to join with, or 
submit unto them in their ministrations, tliough in tliem- 
sclvcs never so just? or wcro they not all, under pain of 
disloyalty, bound to abandon them, and Uieir courts, or 
assemblies, and to adjoin, and submit tliemsclves unto^tho 
king 8 lawful oflicors, how few, or feeble soever? Even so, 
must all tho loyal subjects of Jesus Christ tlie king of his 
church, withdraw themselves wholly from tlio powers of 
Antichrist, striving with Christ whether shall rule by his 
officers, orders, and laws : whatsoever truths they teach or 
administer : and must adjoin themselves to tho officers of 
Christ, lawfully called, and sent to tgach, and guide his 
church by his \Vord : *and tliereia must show, as in other 
things, their loyalty to tlieur lord and king. 

I ll f 11 II U I 



But here M. de Le8clu8e*8 forenamed opposites step in, 
and plead for submission unto unlawful ministers, 1. That 
*' in Christ's time there were divers officers whose names 
liad not been heard of in the primitive church of the Jews, 
nor ever were instituted by any example of former times, 
in that church, as ^tho names of lawyers, scribes of tho 
people, and rulers of the s}iiagogucs, or archi-synagogues. 
d. If the godly may lawfully submit unto tlie government, 
and guidance by private admonition of such private 
brethren, who for their sects, factions, and superstitious 
observations have had such names as were formerly un- 
known unto tlie church of God ; who also in respect of their 
wickedness deserved to be cast out of the church, and are 
unjustly re tuned, as it was in the communion of the godly 
with tlie scribes and pharisces, then is it also lawful to 
stand under the guidance and government of unlawful 
officers.** * 

In whose defence I observe, first, that they yield the 
ministers of England to be unlawful, and to have had their 
names of primates, metropolitans, lord archbishops, lord 
bishops, deans, nrclideacons, chancellors, commissaries, 
priests, parsons, vicars, curates, given unto them for their 
sect*, factions, and superstitious obscr>'ations : and yet all 
of them make suit, take, pay for, and answer to some or 
other of these names, with tho orders to which they ap- 
pertain. Secondly, I note how vain a pretext it is, tliat the 
persons, whose names are prefixed, are tho authors of tho 
book, as if John Fowler, and his fellows durst take upon 
tliem to set down what names of officers had been heard of, 
or not, in tho Jewish church from tho first institution, till 
Christ*s time. Thirdly, where in their former reason they 
make the scribes of tho people church-officers, in tlie 
second reason they make tlio scribes and pharisces, private 
brethren. Fourthly, tlicy grant one private brother to bo 
under the guidance, and government of another, and so 
establish a popular government, in a sense expressly ; and 
by just consequence, as far as wo intend and do, howso- 
ever they repi-oach us for popularity. Now for their argu- 
ments. First, I deny that, which they take for granted, 
and upon which they build, to wit, that the names of law* 
* A Shield of Defence, ke,, pp. 24. 25. 



yers, scribes of tho people, and rulers of the synagogues, 
were not in the Jewish church, before Christ's time. 

And 1. The lawyers were such as were skilful in the Law 
of God, and the scribes such as gate themselves either to 
expound, or write it, or both : being also Levites for the 
most part, in which respects these their names, as honour- 
able, and not for their factions, were most fitly given them: 
and not first in Christ's time, as is affirmed, but long be- 
fore, as appeareth, Jer. viii. 8, and Ezravii. 6, 11, 12, where 
Ezra is called a scribe prompt in the law of Moses ; which 
Tremelius and Junius translate * a lawyer, or one skilful 
in the law : as indeed these scribes and lawyers were the 
same, as is testified. Matt xxii. 85, compared with Mark 
xii. 28, and so tho Hebrew word f may indifferently be 
turned and is. And if tliere were nothing else, that which 
we read, 1 Maccab. v. 42 reproves these men's peremptory 
afHrmation, that the names of tlie scribes of the people 
were not in tho church of the Jews, before Christ's time. 
But botli better, and more ancient testimony may be 
brought against it : take that one, amongst many, in the 
Greek Bible, Numb. xi. 10, where the seventy interpreters 

have it, np^vfimpoi roO Xaov mi ypofi/iarttt dvr&y, So for the 

names of archi-synagogucs, or rulers of the synagogues 
spoken of, Mark v. 22, 2c., the same interpreters uso the 
same words, Exod. xxxiv. 31; Numb.xxxi. 1 3, ^c, which the 
evangelists do writing in Greek, and herein witliout doubt, 
following them, as in other things. And there being 
synagogues of old among tlie Jews, there must needs be 
rulers of Uiem and the same so called. 

Touching the second argument : I deny the proportion 
upon which they build it. In receiving an admonition 
from an unlawful brother, as they speak, I do submit only 
to that which is good in itself, and of God : but in sub* 
mitting to an unlawful officer, prelate, or priest, I submit 
to that which is evil in itself and not of God, to wit, his 
reiy office, or order. The unlawful brotlier, though in sin, 

Jet doth not perform tlie admonition by virtue of his sin, 
ut out of his personal knowledge, and zeal, at least in ^p* 
pearance, against the sin he reproves in particular, but the 

^ Legii peritoi. 

'f yfiDf Sopbcr* 


OP*BEUGIOUS coinnTXiov. 

unlawful officer doth administer the public doctrine, (as the; 
sacraments) bj virtue, or rather by vice, of his very sin' 
immediatelj, and properly: wherein I may not partake 
with him. These men have refused to submit to Mn 
Johnson's public ministry, and so profess : do they, there- 
fore, think it unlawful to receive anv information, or ad- 
monition, or reproof by the Word of God for tlieir sins, 
firom him, or any tiie people with him privately, and upoa 
occasion ? And, by tiieir largo grounds, it should bo lawful 
to submit to the ministry of any heretical minister : for 
from such a one it is not luilawful to receive a private ad- 
monition for sin, upon occasion. But how much bettei* 
were it for these men, and their friends to' advance by all 
good means a lawful ministry, than thus to support that 
which is unlawful, by pleading for submission unto it. But 
if they needs will, as they plead in tiicir book, submit tiieir 
■ouls to thieves, and robbers, and to such ministers, as wero 
the scribes, and pharisees in Christ's time, in whom they 
instance, notorious heretics denying botii the nature, offices, 
and person of tiio Messiah, teaching justification by the 
works of the law, and power in man to keep it, let them 
rejoice in their ministers, and let their ministers also 
rejoice in them, as Jotliam said of the men of Schechem 
and Abimelech : but for us, we have learnt to give more 
honour to God*s ordinance, and to have more care of 
Clirist's precious purchase, onr souls, than to commit tho 
same to such watchmen's keeping. 

Thus have I briedy noted down, and confirmed the 
principal grounds of our separation from tiie communion, 
and order of tiie church assemblies, notwitiistanding tho 
admission of the personal communion before mentioned. 
And I have of purpose taken ;n, and answered the chief 
reasons brought by M. do Lescluse's accusers, against 
our practice, that it may appear, botii, how they fail of 
tiiat they promise in the Preface of tiieir book; as, also, 
that it is a far more easy thing to reproach men*s persons, 
than justiy to evince tiieir profession. And would the king 
but give toleration, and withhold from bodily violence 
against their persons and estates, I doubt not, but we 
should have many thousands in tiie land concurring with 
lis for substance of practice, as they do now in opinion : 



utiho would speedily unite themselyes in other spiritual 
societies, than the profane parishes : leanng the service** 
book, and ceremonies to the prelates, with their dumb 
priests, and formal clergy: withdrawing from their and- 
their chancellor's, and official's spiritual jurisdiction, neither, 
obeying their summons, nor regarding their censures : 
neither would the ministers sue to them tor their orders and 
licences ; nor the people receive them of their making, 
nor present them by their church- wardens to their courts,, 
nor keep them by their leave, and under their correction : 
but both ministers, and people would find other, and bet- 
ter rules of direction in Christ's testament, for their walk- 
ing, and worshipping of God, than the bishop's canons and 
injunctions. Which so being, he, who indeed **judgetli 
his people with justice, and his poor afflicted ones with 
judgment,*' be judge between them and us, Fsa. Ixxii. 3 : 
and whether, we, submitting ourselves so near as wo can 
discern to all tlie commandments and ordinances of 
Christ in his gospel, reject them ; or they, us, who rather 
choose tlie unhallowed church-state, order, and ordinances 
in and under which they stand, than that, and those, by 
themselves, esteemed more ngrccable to the will of God, 
with persecution : but specially whether we, for these 
things, do deserve that cruel hatred, and those most hostile 
carriages, which many of tliem, who would be thought to 
mourn for reformation, do bear, and use towards us ; 
making it their glory to cast shame upon us, and their 
great matter of rejoicing to add to our afflictions, and who 
say to our souls in the day of our sorrow, " Bow down, that 
we may go over." Isa. li. 23. 

There is yet anoUicr danger, into which men may easily 
fall by occasion of the former doctrine : which is, in taking 
liberty to withhold, or withdraw from tlio church of God, 
and ministry thereof: satisfying themselves in that, their 
private fellowship, with the better sort of people : with 
whom, by tliis means, they may converse with more com- 
fort to themselves, and contentment to them. For the 
preventing of which evil, I will here annex a few reasons 
to enforce the necessity, and conscience of living, and walk- 
ing with ihe church of God, and so under the ministry 
thereunto given, if it-can be had. 


OF BEU0I0U8 oomnmnm. 

And, I. The Scriptures calling the church " the house,** 
** temple,** and " tabernacle of Sie living God," where he 
liath promised that most full presence of his grace, and 
** to dwell with,** and " amongst men/* and " in the midst 
et them, as their God," do, Uierein, effectually admonish 
the people of God to beware, that by their own default, 
they do not any way deprive tlicmselves of the fruit of this, 
God*s so gracious promise and presence, in the true visible 
church, his house, and temple, 1 Tim. iii. 15 ; 3 Cor. vi« 
16 ; Bev. xzi. 3 ; Matt zviii. SO ; 1 Cor. v. 4 : either by 
not adjoining themselves thereunto, as members : or being 
members, by withdrawing from her actual comniunion : 
therein making themselves, to speak as the truth is, but 
idol members, and as *' eyes which see not, ears which 
hear not, and feet which walk not,** at least, in respect of 
the body, whereof they are. 

2. And if we look to the most worthy ser>-ants of God, for 
our examples, we shall find tlicm always to have had a most 
ardent desire unto, and vehement delight in this visible pre* 
gence of God in liis church and ordinances : the neccsftary 
nse and sweet fruit whereof tliey so sensibly found in their 
own experience. Take we David for an instance : whose love 
was such, to the mansion of God*8 house, and place of the habi- 
tation of his glor}% as Umt it was the only thing he desired, in 
comparison, that he might dwell in the LfOrd s house all tlie 
days of his life, and thoi*e behold his glor}% Psa. xxvii. 4 ; 
zxvi. 8 : professing in his absence from it, that the tliirsty 
hind did not more bray adcr the rivers of waters, than did 
his soul for God*s presence, and that he might appear be- 
fore his face in his tabernacle, Psa. xlii. 1, 2: deeming 
them most happy, who did always abide in God*s house ; 
and himself in tliat his sequestration more miserable than 
the sparrows and swallows, which could nestle, and lay 
their young near God*s altars. Psa. Ixxxiv. 1, 3, &c. And 
yet, was he a most excellent prophet himself, and so could 
abundantly instruct both himself, and tliem with him. It 
is likewise testified of Moses the servant of God, that he 
*' rather chose to suffer affliction witli the people of God, 
than to ex^oy the pleasures of sin for a season : esteeming 
the rebuke of Christ greater riches than the treasures of 
Egypt** Heb. xi. 35, 30* A plain, and loud testimony 



ftgiunst th«in, who, because they would not bear their part 
in the rebuke of Christ, and afflicUons of his i>eople, do 
rather withdraw or withhold themselves fh>m Christ's 
church, and ordinances ; or, which is worse, defile them- 
selves with the pleasures of sin in Eg3rpt spiritual : of whom 
without their repentance, Christ Jesu^ will be ashamed, 
before his Father, and the holy angels. Luke ix. 26. 

3. That which the wise man spcaketh more generally, 
" Woe be to him that is alone, for he fallcth, and there is 
not a second to lift him up; but if two be together, the 
other liftetli up his fellow when he falleth,** EccT. iv. 0, 10, 
^'c, is of special use this way. And, considering how 
subject even the strongest are to fall, by occasion, it is 
most necessary, all so walk in the communion of saints, 
as that others, upon such occasion, may by the hand of 
their godly admonitions and exhortations reached out unto 
tliem, again restore them, I Cor. x. 13 ; or, if need so 
require, that they may have use of the stronger hand of 
the church and ministry, strengthened with Christ's 
power, for tlieir recoveiy ; through tlie want whereof, how 
many fall and perish, which by it, and the blessing of 
God t]ierci^>on, might be restored, as we doubt not but 
we may truly affirm from experience I And if any man 
tliink himself to have received that strength of grace, that 
he stands in no great need of these helps, ** let him that 
thinks he stands, take heed lest he fall : '* and let him also 
in love consider, that the less need he hath of the church, 
by reason of his greater measure of grace, the more need 
the church hatli of him and it, unto which and whose ser* 
vice, they of due belong. 

4. '* When tlie Lord Jesus ascended on high, he gave gifts 
unto men,*' to wit, his ministers gifted accordingly, for the 
edification of the body and help of the joy of the faithful, 
and furtherance of their salvation ; unto whom they are 
bound, therefore, to submit, and them, in the Loixl, to 
obey, for their own great good. Eph. iv. 8 — 11; 2 Cor. 
i. 24; 1 Tim. iv. 0; Heb. xiii. 17. From whom, and 
whose ministrations, whilst men without just and necessary 
cause, withdraw themselves, they break Christ's commana- 
ment, lose this fruit of his ascension, and fail in their own 
edification and salvation many ways. 


or BBuoiouB coiunnnow. 

- 6. This duty'yetlieth more q>eciaU7 Upon them that hare 
families and children about them ; whom they shall hardly 
gorem at homo in private, as they desire, if they have not 
imblic encouragement and help from abroad, but they shall 
haye them still in danger to be corrupted with the super- 
stitions of the times, or with greater evils, or both. Which 
dangers yet will be the greater, and that of the first kind 
almost inevitable, if the parents die, whilst their children 
are young and unestablished in the truth ; whereas living 
with the church, they might much more easily dispose of 
them for their education and establishment in the ways 
and ordinances of the Lord ; into the fellowship wherooC 
together with themselves, they are taken. Oon. xviL 
7, 10. 

6. Lastly. It is a great offence to all, who have known 
men, formerly zealous hearers of God*s Word in the parish 
assemblies, to sec tliem hear the same in no assemblies, 
or where no public ministry is in use ; and this, more 
especially, to tlie better sort of people, who will run and 
ride to hear a sermon, if they want at home, though tliey 
go but a borrowing of him who hath indeed no right him- 
self so to dispense it publicly, or any other holy thing of 
God as ho doth. 

But it will here be objected, that " the church's ministry 
and ordinances are indeed to be desired, if men could 
enjoy them in their own country, and amongst their 
friends ; otlierwise, it seems better to witness Uie truth 
and suffer persecution at home, though witliout tliero, than 
for the use of Uicm to flee into a strange country.*' 

It must hero 1)0 known, that tlie truth of the Lord is 
witnessed two ways : first, when men walk in the obedi- 
ence of it, and of all the ordinances thereof, roundly and 
holily, Deut. xxviii. 1 ; Matt vi. 10; xxviii. 20 ; Psa. cxiz. 
4, ; and, secondly, when men, being called tliereunto, 
suffer persecution for the same. And of these two, the 
former is the more necessary, as being commanded of God, 
and by men to be desired and pmyed for ; the latter not so. 
For neither doth God command persecution, neither are we 
to desire it, or to pray for it, but to avoid it bv all good 
means ; and, being laid upon us by the Lord, with patienco 
to bear it Yet they that desire to please God, and to walk 


«C lio 1, 

[i.i ^iol^.■lilp^ 

Hii'l (Mcntdl bv tiic iirclatcs, ftud on tl 
for priv&ii: friends thus we judge, that U. 
to leave her tiuabnnd, but to give him, 
honour, of choosing probkbly, the |iUe« 
ttion : nor children and Mmnti, Uieir j 
ters to their prejudice, without their 
api>iircnt impossibility of doing them kt 
where through their absence, thej shall 
help and comfort But for (hose, who an 
Temors of othen, or free, we think they i 


or ruonr im rKBncunoK. 

Ann here, being thereunto forced by the 

provocation of Mr. Thomas Hclwiue,* wfac 

• The RcT. ThM. IlcUwina wh ao* of Ihs P 

•ufawqucnUj jouicd hinuelf to the ScfwoMiMa. He 

tlio ukc of enjojitig liberty of conacwaice ud eC 

~ xnjMuiied m number of the periccalcd bntberiiood 

renonnced Ui cauiczioa with the Independoit Oh 
UoucU wiUi Ur. SmTth is fanning • Uaptict Q 
' dcMh of Ur. SmTth, in 1006, thechnrchduaallf.I 
"o did not continne long in tbo pwteaat 

pwtoT, lie did not 
BdievlBg that he fcfl 


OF Bxuoious oovmniioif • 


fidenee, and passion, layeth load of reproaches both upon 
our flidit in persecution, and also upon our persons for it, 
1 i^dll (God assisting me) bj the Scriptures, approve the 
same, as lawful, and so answer what he hath written to the 

For which purpose we will consider, for our instruction^ 
what the practice hath been of the holy patriarchs, pro- 
phets, ana apostles, with other godly men in their times, 
m cases of danger for well-doing, and what approbation 
therein they have had from the Lord. 

We will begin with the patriarch, Jacob, whoso two 
notable flights, for fear of danger, the Scriptures mention : 
the former from his profane brother JBsau, the other from 
his churlish uncle Laban. Qcn. xxvi. 42, 43; xxxi. 20. 
Touching whose flights these three thin^ are more spe* 
cially to be observed: ]. That he fled from one country 
io anotlier. 2. That in his vciy flight, the Lord did abun- 
dantly communicate himself with him, comforting and 
blessing him. 3. That it was ho which thus fled, who had 
power and strcngtli, to wrestle with God, and by ^Tcstling 
to prevail. 

Next unto him is Moses the servant of tlio Lord, who 

present and following; sections of Mr. Robinson's treatiso aro 
designed as a reply. Before his return to England, he is supposed to 
have TtTittcn ** A Declaration of the Faith of the Englinh people re- 
maining at Amsterdam,'* — to which Mr. Robinson replies, also, in 
the last section of this rolume, — also two small treatises, entitled 
respectively, •• A Proof that God's Decree is not the Cause of any 
Man's Condemnation, and that all ^len are redeemed by Christ, and 
that no Infants arc condemned," 12mo., pp. Ill ; and, *' An Advcr« 
tlsemcnt, or Admonition, unto the Congregation which Men caU 
New Fryelcrs, in the Low Countries, &c. ICmo., pp. 04. On his 
tctum to England, he settled in London, and founded, it is sup* 
posed, the first general Baptist Church in this country. Nothing 
is known of his historv after the year 1612, beyond the fact of his 
labouring zealously in his Master's cause, and of his suffering greatly 
" for righteousness' sake," till 1620, when he was released £nm ha 
labours and trials by the hand of death. Vide Crosby's History of 
the Baptists, vol. i., jip. 260 — 276 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 
voL ii., pp. 270— 2S2 ; Ivimcy's History of the English Baptists, 
&€., for the yean 1610 — 1700, roU ii., p. 605; Hanbury's Historical 
HenMurials, vol. i., pp. 266, 267, 276, 203, 4 IS ; Hansoti Knollys 
Society's Tracts on Liberty of Conscieiice, and Penecutaoiii 1614— 
1661 ; lepubliahed In 1846. 

• * 

OF FuoBT nr PBBSKOunoir. 


having entered upon the exeention of his office in killing 
tiic £;^tian, and perceiving that the thing, was known. 
fled out of Egypt, for fear of Pharaoh into Midian, another 
country also, and there dwelt, and took him a wife : dor- 
ing whoso time of exile, and ahode there, the Lord also 
did man-ellously communicate himself with him, and called 
him to the greatest dignity in the earth : which was to be 
the deliverer, and guide of his peculiar people. Acts viL 
25 ; Exod. ii. 13, 14, 15 ; iii. 4, 18. 

Descend we next unto David, whose flights, though ha 
wonted no true courage, how many were they, and those 
also from the tabernacle, the only place of God's special 
presence, by reason of SouVs persecution, not only m his 
own country, where he was driven to hide himself in wil- 
dernesses, and caves, and desert mountains, but even into 
strange, and profane countries, as to Gath of the Philis- 
tines, and to Mizpeh in Moab, 1 Sam. xix. 12; xxi. 1. 10; 
xxii. 1,3: all whoso wanderings God did count, putting 
his tears in his bottle, Psa. Ivi. 8: and directing him gra- 
ciously in his flights, and that of times, even for such me- 
ditations, as are left for the instruction, and comfort of God*s 
people in their flights, and other trials, to the world's end. 

We do also read of Jeremiah and Banich, their hiding 
themselves from danger, Jer. xxxvi. 10: and of Elijah tlio 
prophet*8 hiding himself by tho Lord's appointment from 
Ahab*s cruelty : and how the Lord did extraordinarily fur- 
nish him for his further flight in the wilderness, by the 
ministry of his angel. 1 Kings xvii. 3 ; xviii. 10 ; xix. 3, 5. 

Yea, wo have even Christ our Lord himself, when Herod 
thought to kill him, in his infancv, carried into Egypt bj 
Joseph, with Mary his mother, whither they fled to keep 
tlie l)abe from being destroyed, and there abode, till the 
danger was over. Matt ii. 13^15: and therein, as our 
head, sanctifying flight in his mother's arms, to all his 
members in tlieir time, who are partakers of the fellow- 
ship of his afllictions, and of this amongst the rest PhiL 
iii. 10. Which liberty ho did also sundry times in his 
riper years use himself, and so ratify unto us, by avoiding 
the places of danger, where his enemies were, who sought 
to destroy him : and thereby escaping out of their hands, 
till his hour were come, unto him certainly, and iniallibl/ 


. Of RZU0I0U8 oomcumoir.- 

known : diluting his disciples also, that when thej were 
persecuted in one city they should fly unto another: and 
to beware of men, and to look to themselves. Mark. iii. 0, 
7 ; Luke iv. 30, 30 ; John It. 1, 8, Til. 1, z. 30 ; Matt x. 
33. Which liberty tlicy also used time after time, as ap- 
pears in many particulars : as first, in all the church at 
Jerusalem, scattered abroad, and dispersed, save the apo- 
stles, by means of persecution : with whom the Lord idso 
was, blessing them wheresovor tliey came. So, in Petor 
being freed from Herod's tyranny, getting him to another 
place. Likewise in Paul and Barnabas flying from Ico- 
nium to avoid violence, unto Lystra, as Paul had done 
before from Damascus ; where to avoid the lying in wait 
of the Jews ho was let down by night through the wall of 
the citv, by a rope in a basket In which his base flight 
he dotJi also rejoice afterwards, as being one of his infirm- 
ities or sufferings for Chiist Acts viii. 1, zi. 10 — 31, ziL 
3, 4, 17, ziv. 1, 6, ; iz. 33—35 ; 3 Cor. zi. 30. 

Add we in tlio last place, tliat which is wntten of tlio 
servants of God elNowhcro, lliat tlicv of whom the world 
was not wortliy, did by faitli wander up and down, in 
slicepskins, and goatskins, and that in wildernesses, and 
mountains, and dens, and caves of the earth. Heb. zi. 

And for not only flight but even banishment also, we 
have John the servant of Christ in the isle called Patmos 
for tlie word of God, and for the witnessing of Jesus 
Christ, Rev. i. : that is, banished, and confined to that 
isle, by the lloroan emperor, with which also that in Isaiah, 
zvi. 4, consortcth, where the Lord requires of Moab, to 
let his banished dwell with her. Considering then, how 
plainly, and expressly the Scriptures speak in the point it 
is marvel, Uiat any, making them their direction, should 
abridge either themselves, or others ordinarily of the 
liberty of flight in persecution. But we will come to Mr. 
Helwisse*s oppositions against it 

And as he hath abetter faculty in reviling men*s persons, 
til an in refuting their judgments, so begins he his pleawitli a 
bitter accusation against false-hearted leaders, who, as he 
saith, to be sure not to lose their lives for Christ flee into 
strange countries,. and free states, and draw people after 

.^1,, us out of whicli wc ; 

cliil.lrcii. fks he linih Jone. ivlii.-li ivo 
Ciiuu^-h, if without siti. wi^oouhl i)rocurc t 
mui-.; curtlily h.lji nii.l furUiciunec, i» U 
vc live, A3 ho knew well. And for drawing 
I know none of the guides, bnt vera u n 
b^ them, u dnwing them. The tmUi is. 
wisic, who ftboTo oil, either guides or othet 

E usage into struige eonntrios : and if w 
e brought soils, nsl eould show in many 
ss all tliat were acquainted with tlie mannc 
OTor, cnn witness with me. Neither is it li 
the people with him at Amatcrdiun, «ould 
comrortnbly, oa thej desired, that tlie unlawl 
would over have troubled him : but mora U 
that, having scattered the people, hy his hei 
erect courses, and otherwise disabled himsel 
confidence, which abounded in him, took ol 
an appearance of spiritual courage, to press h 
desperate couraes, which he, of late, hath ran. 
might also think it his gloiy, to dare and chalU 
state to their faces, and not to give war to t! 
foot: as indeed it far better agrees with a be 
haughtf stomach, thus to do, than with the 
base ii^rmitjr of Christ to be let down throu 
banket, and to ran awaj. 

But we will weigh his reason against oat 
firet, he aceuseth us, page 905, that, for jasti 
pervert Christ's saying. Matt. x. 33, which is, 
penecatn jou in one cilj, fieo into anotbc 
Christ ihero bids hisdi*^;-'-- 



words* and penrerts the meaning of Christ* in putting 
coing to preach, for fleeing from persecution: which liberty 
if he may lawfully use against the Scriptures, there wiU 
then be for us no lawful liberty of flight indeed. But as the 
word ^cvycrc is properly, and necessarily turned *' flee,'* so 
Christ, saying unto them, *' When they persecute you, flee,** 
saith unto them flee, to avoid their persecution, as they 
abo afterwards did. Yet because he directs his speech, 
immediately, to the twelve apostles designed, who were by 
tiieir office to preach, as to all the wond, so first to the 
Jews, he chargcth them not to think themselves freed, by 
their persecution, from preaching, nor so to flee as to for- 
get, or neglect their office of apostleship, but that still in 
fiieir fleeing they should remember their special calling : 
telling them both for tlieir provocation, and comfort, that 
before they would pass through all the cities of Israel he 
would come, to wit, by the more glorious work of his 
Spirit, for the advancement of his kingdom. So that in 
the words of Christ to his apostles, two thin^ are con- 
tained : the former a liberty of flight in persecution, and the 
same so evidently, as tliat an angel from heaven teaching 
the contrary, were not to be believed ; the oUier, a charge 
so to fly, as that for any persecution, they ceased not to 
preach whithel'soever they were driven. And so the answer 
is easy to tliat which followeth, namely, that we flee to 
cities of a strange countiy to whom we cannot preach, &c. 
For 1. It is the fulfilling of our office if wo preach to the 
particular flocks over which we are set, not being apostles, 
as they were : though I could also allege, that we have so 
preached to others in those cities, as that by the bless- 
ing of God working witli us, we have gained more to tlie 
Lord, tlian Mr. Hclwisse*s church consists of. And secondly, 
I would know, how he, and the people with him have 
preached to the city of London? Surely not as the apostles 
did, in thd synagogues, and public places : much less do 
they flee, being persecuted (or go, if so they will have it), 
from city to city, to preach, as did the apostles. 

"Where he, Mr. Helwisse, further objecteth that our flee- 
ing is to save ourselves from being as sheep in the midst 
of wolves, and from being delivered up to councils, &c.t 
pp. 205 — 207 : I answer, that as these tnals did necessarily 


»; 1 


>aiiie, wc tlicn patiently, and in faith 
Christ's trutli, and testament, by sutTcrin; 
other kind ol" evils. TIh' Seriptures in niai 
unto poverty, hunger, nakedness, loss of g 
for Christ's sake ; must now the servants of 
necessarily be poor, and destitute of outwai 
Some indeed upon tliese grounds have vowed 
as did this man upon the like* vow (it 

Touching the practice of the apostles. Ad 
42, and viii. 1, I answer that at other tin 
apostles did fly persecution ; as did also Pi 
both OS great courage, and zeaU as any other, 
present they were tied to that very place, ai 
depart thence, but were at Jerusalem first soi 
lish and plant the gospel of Christ : as also th 
or go to other places, as they were occasioned. 1 
Acts i. 8. And (excepting the extraordinaiy o< 
aposUes) the latter of tlie scriptures he bring 
against him : where it is said that tlie who 
Jerusalem was scattered abroad, and dispersi 
of persecution. And for their preaching to tl 
men the Jews, where they came ; and, as thcnr 1 
to the Gentiles, it is that we also do, and des 
we have occasion, and means : this being al^ 
bered, that we are distinct and entire cong 
ourselves, which they were not Acts v. 10, 
and xi. 22. 





those places bod been but by the tumultnous multitude, 
bj the proTOcation of tlio Jews, which like a tempest, were 
soon orer, and not by any stablisliod laws, or settled course 
of justice ; and secondly, it was but tlie apostles* duties, as 
being univei*sal men, and having upon them the care of all 
the chui*ches, 2 Cor. xi. 28, and not being tied to any 
certain congregation as we are. 

The commendations given of the churches of Thessa* 
lonica, 2 Thcss. i. 4, and of Pcrgamos, Ilev. ii. 13» for their 
patience in affliction, and tliat dwelling where Satan's throne 
was, they kept Christ*s name, even when Antipas was 
martyred, do not reprove our practice at all, p. 207 : the 
like commendations being elsewhere given of otliers, as I 
have shown, for keeping the faith with holiness, in their 
wandering flight from one place, and country to another. 
Heb. xi. 1, 2, 37, 38. The apostle, 1 Cor. vii., commends 
them who keep themselves single to avoid trouble in the 
flesh, and tliat they may be tlic more free for the Lord : 
doth he tlicrcforc condemn tlicm that marry in the Lord to 
avoid fornication ? Or dotli he not commend both, as do- 
ing well? and cither in doing better, in divers regards? 
He that is in danger of unclcanness doth better to many : 
and he tliat is without that danger, and can more freely, in 
a single state, give himself to the Lord, dotli better in tJiat 
respect, so to abide. So is it in flight, which is allowed, 
nay required, against natural fear, and many other both 
inconveniences, and evils, ordinanly, in persecution, as is 
marriage against fornication besides, as those churches 
knew not, happily, whether to go to bo better, in Uiose days, 
so licit] ler was their persecution such, but tliat tlicy might 
enjoy their mutual fellowship and minister, and bring up 
tlieir children and families in the information of the Lord, 
and his trutli, though with great persecution even of some 
particular men unto dcatli, at times, and by occasions, 
which in England all men know, we could not possibly do. 
That whicJi he adds, p. 2'iO, of Christ's enjoining the 
man dispossessed of the devil, to go home to his friends, 
and show them what great things the Lord had done for 
him, makes as much against themselves as us. For whv 
go not they home eveiy ono to his friends, for that end. 
But abide in London where fewest of their friends are ? 



It is, then, his ignorance to tie all by that special com- 
mandment At another time Christ would not suffer one, 
so much as to go homo, and bid his friends farewell : nor 
another to bury his father, before tliey followed him, Luke 
ix. 50 — 02 ; as here on the contrary he would not suffer this 
man to follow him, but sends him back to his friends : but 
doth not at all therein forbid him flight in persecution, as 
Mr. Hchvisse gaUiereth. 

That we should not fear men, which can kill tlie body, 
but deny ourselves, Ax. : we do acknowledge, and by the 
grace of God, so practise. Wo have not feared men, that 
is 80 feared Uiom, as for tlieir persecutions, to deny any 
part of the truth of Christ known unto us, or any way ta 
sin against the same : but do keep, as frail men, a good 
conscience in the obedience of all the parts thereof: hav- 
ing also (the glor}' be the Loi*d*s I who haUi shown us his 
mercy, and eniiblcd us thereunto) learnt to deny ourselves, 
though with much weakness, in our country, friends, pes* 
sessions, riches, credits, liberty, yea and in our lives also 
in resolution, and will, for Christ's sake, and truth : and, 
witlml, to suffer those kinds of afflictions, for the avoiding 
of which, many have withdra>vn from the same truth, for 
which they have offered their lives to a magistrate, n& 
resolvedly, as this man hatli his for his errors. 

Where he saith fui*ther, that the cities where we ore, 
neither receive us, nor the woi'd we bring, otherwise than 
tliey receive Turks and Jews, he speaks very untruly both 
of them, and us, as, were it of use, I could show evidently. 
And lastly, to his demand, page 211, when wo will shake 
of the dust of our feet for a witness against the city, of 
house, that will not receive us, and depart thence as the 
apostles did? I answer, when we are apostles, as tliey 
were : and do again ask, why did not he, and why do not 
his companions shake off Uie dust of their feet against 
London, which receives them not at all? And if the churches 
of Christ be thus to shake off the dust of their feet against 
the cities, which receive not their doctrine, how could 
tlie church of Pergamos be commended for dwelling, and 
continuing in that city, which received not the truth, but 
hod on the contrary, Satan *s throne established in it, and 
persecuted the martyrs of the truth unto death ? 



For flight, then, thus much. As we read tlmt Christ 
our Lord, the prophets and apostles, did at some times, 
and ordinarily, avoid and flee persecution, and at other 
times not ; so are we to know, that tlicre are times and 
occasions seasonahlo for hoth. Neither are the words of 
Christ, " Wlien they persecute you, flee,** an absolute com- 
mandment, as he tliinketh, any more than those of tlie 
master to his senrant, **AVhcn thou hast served me, eat thou 
and drink thou.** Luke xvii. 8. They are a grant of 
liberty, and a direction how to use it. As we, then, shall 
perceive cither our flying or abiding; to be most for Qod*s 
glory and the good of men, especially of our family and 
Uiose nearest unto us, and for our own furtlieranco in 
holiness ; and as we have strcngUi to wade through the 
dangers of persecutions, so are wo witli good conscience to 
use the one or other. Which, our hope and comfort also 
is, we have done in these our days of sorrow ; some of us 
coming over by banishment, and others otherwise. 

And thus have I answered wliatsorvcr in this book hath 
any colour of reason a^^ninst our flight in pcrscciUion. 
.His rash and ungodly censures, both upon our practice 
and persons, yea upon the vcr)' secret in touts of our 
hearts, I do of pun)osc pass by, as being the fruit of his 
stout stomach, and heart soured witli liis own leaven ; 
assuring myself, that no wise man will for the same, 
either tJiink us the less, or him the more, truly zealous. 

But, for tlmt divei*s weak persons have been troubled 
and abused by some other things in tlio same book, in 
which also he much insulteth, and tlmt over myself 
amongst and above others, I think it fit in this place to 
annex an answer to that part of it which is directed 
against us, whom he, with others, miscalls Brown ists, and 
and against our (falsely called by him, false) profession. 




And to prove our profession of Christ false, and us, tlie 
teachers, false prophet t he takes his flrst ground out of our 



Apology, where a true visible church is described, "a 
company of people called and separated from the world by 
the Word of God," &c. ; and thereupon concludes peremp- 
torily, pages 123, 124, of his "Mystery,** that we are all mere 
infidels, unbelievers, and without Cluist; and taking it for 
our own grant, that before our separation we were of the 
world, that is, of them that hate Christ, and cannot receive 
the spirit of truth, and that believe not in Christ, but lie in 
wickedness, John vii. 7; xiv. 17; xvi. 0; xvii. 25 ; 1 John 
V. 10 ; he goes about to prove, tliat if then we were of the 
world, we are so still, because we have not been joined Uk 
Christ by amending our lives, and by being baptized, and\ > 
so by putting on of Christ by baptism. Acts ii. 38; 6al.( 
iii. 27. 

The effect, then, of all is, that, because we have not 
taken up a new outward washing, or baptism, for that of 
amendment of life, ho but adds for fashion, as he hath 
done, therefore we are of tlio world, infidels, haters of 
Christ, and what not. 

For answer, Uicn, first, we gi'ant tliat, remaining in the 
asscmbHcs, wc were not separated from tlio world, to wit, 
in our fellowship ; but doth it follow, thereupon, that till 
our separation we were of the world, namely in our per- 
sons ? ^Vllich is as if he should conclude, that because 
in a confused heap, as are the assemblies, the good stones 
are not severed from the rubbish, therefore even they, as 
tlie rest, are rubbish also. Were such of the Corintliians 
as through error, or evil custom, or other infirmity, con- 
tinued communion with the idolaters in Uieir idolatrous 
feastings in the idol temples, (whom the apostlo therefore 
exhorts to separate themselves, and to come from among 
them, 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18,) were they, I say, infidels and dark- 
ness? or, doth not the same apostle there. expressly call 
them believers, light, righteousness, notwitlistanding tliat 
tlieir great failing and evil of ignorance, or human fmilty, 
out of which the Lord did call tliem ? Or was Mr. Hel- 
wisse himself, all the while he was unseparated, an infidely 
witliout Christ and his spirit, and hating him ? If so he 
were, considerinpc the great show he made of faith and 
love, in and to Christ, and the singular manifestations of 
the Spirit, he was a notorious hypocrite as, the earth bore : 



but if, on the contrary, he did not then hate Christ, but 
had faith and grace, though in norer so small a measure, 
his proof is of no force, but ho himself proved a vain 
man, that would deny tlie grace of God in hunself, to ad- 
vantage an error against otlicr men ; which is a khid of 
blasphemy against tlio Holy Ghost, though not of malice, 
as was that of tlie Pharisees, yet of prc^posterous and per- 
Tcrse zeal, of which I wish all tlio Lord s people may 

Secondly, It is not true he saitli, that none can come 
and be joined to Christ without lm)>tisiM* The Scriptures 
testify, that so many as helirve in Christ, receive him, are 
cngniftiMl into him, having him living in tlicm, and dwell- 
ing in tlicir hoarts. John i. 1^ ; iloni. xi. *^0 ; Gnl. ii. 20 ; 
£ph. iii. ] 7. Which faitli is before baptism, in some men 
a longer time, in some, a shorter, and in some, also dying 
unbaptixed. Matt viii. 10;xv. SB; Actsx. 4, 35; Luke 
xxiii. 40, kc. And acconling to Uiis was tlie tenor of 
Christ's commiKsion to his apostles, by Umching to mako 
disciples or Christians, and to bring men to believe, and 
afterwards to baptize them. Matt xxviii. 10; Acts xi. UH; 
Mark xvi. IG. And to baptize any of years, but being 
before joined to Christ by actual faith, and so mnking 
manifestiition, were to profane God*s ordinance. Neitlier 
is it Paul's meaning, where he tells tiic Galatians, tliat 
" they which had been baptized into Christ, had put on 
Girist," that tlicy were not joined to Clirist before tlieir 
outward baptibui, but to show that tlioir baptism was a 
lively sign of tlicir union with, and incorporation into 
Christ, and participation of the washing of his blood and 
Spirit as also an effectual means more and more to apply 
the same wito tliem ; being all tlieir life long to put on tlio 
Lord Jesus Christ and the new man, as the same apostle 
teachetli. Item. xiii. 1 i ; Kph. iv. 24. And for Acts ii. 35, 
it shows, indeed, that they who believe and repent are to 
be baptized, to wit being unbaptized before, as tiiey then 
were, and as we now are not ; God having also added to 
the outward washing or baptism, though in the false 
church, tlie inward washing of the Spirit to repentance and 
amendment of life. 

To his mference, pages 127, 128, tliat "if England be 



Babylon, out of which the Lord*8 pooplo are to come, nnd 
baptism the seal of the covenant of grace, as we teach, 
tlien wc retain Uic baptism of Babylon thereby to be 
scaled unto the covenant of grace :** I answer, tliat we re* 
tain the seal of tlio covenant of grace, though ministered 
in Babylon ; and not tlie baptism of Babylon, but the 
baptism of the Lord in itself, and by the Babylonians 
spiritual, usurped and profaned; but, by faitli and the 
Spirit, now sanctified to our use. "Wliich wo thereforo 
retain, as wo do the same gospel or covenant, bv tlie same 
mm and means there taught and administered unto us ; 
bringing both the one and other tlicnco, as wore the* holy 
vessels of the Ijord*H house of old, brought out of Babylon 
civil, after their profunation tlioro. Dan. v. 1 — i ; Exrai. 
T — 0. And as well may the doctrines of faith, thei"0 
ministered and thence brought by us, bo called the stolen 
bread of Babylon, as ho, in wantonness of wit, calls tlie 
baptism the stolen waters of Babylon. 

So that it is neither true he saith, that we were infidels, 
and without Christ, till our separation: nor Uiat men are 
made Cliristians by baptism : nor that we retain tlie baptism 
of Babylon. Neitlier yet, though we ought to receive 
a new outward washing, which we neither think nor he 
proves, it being but our failing of ignorance in an outward 
ordinance, were we thereby debarred from being true 
Christians, no, nor from being a true visible church. 

And as I have elsewhere proved << against others, with 
whom these men consort, and both of them, herein, with 
the Papists, that the church is not gathered, nor men 
thereinto admitted, by baptism; so will I here for the 
same purpose further add these reasons. 

And, fii*st, 'The church is not given to baptism, but 
baptism, on tlie contrar}', to tlie church : as are all other 
the Lord*s public ordinances and oracles. Bom. iii. 2; 
Psa. cxlvii. 10, i20. And since baptism is a public action, 
it cannot be performed but by public authority in and of 
the church, which church, tlierefore, must bo presupposed 
and before it 

2. John the Baptist did, as we know, baptize many, but 
yet neither gathered churches, nor received men intothemt 
* Vide •< JustiAcation." vol. U. pp. 293—303. 




Halt iii. 6, 6 ; but lived and died himself a member of the 
Jewish church. Matt xL 11. Therefore the church is not 
gathered by baptism. 

3. If men bo received into the church by baptism, then 
must tliey, as occasion is, be cast out by being unbaptized ; 
and so if God again give tlicm repentance, tlicy must be re- 
ceived in by a second baptism, and so by a tliird or fourth, if 
occasion be. The trutli is. such men must renew tlieir 
eovenant witli God and his church, by which they wore 
at the first received, but not Uicir outward baptism, to 
which Uieso and otlier men*s fimcy Icadetli. 

4. To receive in and so to cast out members, are dis- 
pensations of Clirist*s kingly office : whereas, baptism is a 
work of his prophecy ; which is, indeed, to be joined with 
men*s admission into Uie church, and to follow upon it 
immediately, if the persons be not before baptized. 

Lastlv, If tlie church bo gatliercd by baptism, tlien will 
Mr. Helwissc*s church appear to all men to be built upon 
the sand, considering tlie baptism it had and hatli : which 
was, as I have heard from themselves, on this manner : 
Mr. Smyth, Mr. Hchvisse, and tlio rest, having utterly 
dissolved and disclaimed their former church state and 
ministiy, came togetlicr to erect a new church by baptism ; 
unto which they also ascribed so great virtue, as that they 
would not so much as pray together before they had it. 
And after some straining of courtesy who should begin, 
and that, of John Daptist, Matt. iii. li, misalleged, Mr. 
Smyth bapti/.cd first himself, and next Mr. Ilclwisse, and 
80 Uie rest, making tlicir particular confcsHions. Now to 
let pass his not sanctifying a public action by public 
prayer, 1 Tim. iv. 4, 5 ; his taking unto himself that 
honour which was not given him, eitlicr iinmcdiatolv from 
Christ or by the church, Hob. v. 4 ; his baptizing himself, 
which was more than Christ himself did. Matt iii. 14 : I de- 
mand, into .what church he entered by baptism ? or, entering 
by baptism intone church, how his baptism could bo true by 
their own doctrine? Or, Mr. Smytlfs baptism not being 
true, nor he, by it, entering into any church, how Mr. 
Helwi8so*s baptism could be true, or into what church he 
entered by it? These things thus being, all wise men 
wUl think that he had small cause either to be ao much 

i M. i .H P MJ i i li W! 

I 01 wliii-li (iod's i>co])!i; 

.■■l, ' 

■all it rebclli 

not to be 
upon tlicir rcpciitaiico (liejr ciuno unto the 
tlic reproof of which our doctrine, he nffini 
iiifeiTctli siuidiT other untrath>. As, first, 
men to retain tfic first uid diicf bodge or mi 
which is thoir baptism, tlio seal of the covt 
ss we nj. 

Ttiis chollcnRO I answered even now; and 
hcrcaTuT, justify, t]ic Lord assisting ma, the 
outward washing witliont reiietition: u li 
proved that liis socond afHnnation, that there 
church of unbnptized Cliristians. 

Besides, it is not true lie saitJi. tliat we hare . 
for our whole Cliristionity, tlian tlie baptism wi 
England. Wo Ikitc, besides the inward s«al < 
Mid fnitli, the promises of tlie gospel, and bi 
Lord, witli many experiments of the lovo of 
and confirming unto us, tliatwo aro Christ's. 

His peremptory nRirmation, page 130, thai 
have cried long enough. Come from Israel, i 
yoursclres from Ismcl, before any fearing Go 

■ Thii fact of Mr. SmjUi'i Ant baptiiuis >ii™— Itj 
ndwiMc, hni been doubled bjr Mr. Smylh^ biO)crap) 

, Smylh^ 

■nd I«ime7, in thdr reipcctiTe Ilutoria oT the £e 
~~ itirclj' tceptical on the •nh:>' 



understanding of liin tniili, would have followed us/* is but 
his wild guess, without warrant. And the fear of God 
being tlie same, in the hearts of his people now, and of old, 
yea, greater conscience of sin being required now, accord- 
ing to tlie gi*eater measure of revelation, why should not 
the conscience of the like estate of England as well persuade 
men to separate tliemselves from tlie apostacy thereof, to 
tlic true church iind ordinances, as it cfid such of all the 
tribes of Israel, iis set tlieir hearts to seek tlie Lonl Ood 
of Jarnrl, to sopurate Uiomselves, with tlie priests, and 
Levitcs, from J<;roboain*8 apostiicy, to Judah and Jerusalem? 
SChron. xi. 13,10. 

Of like truth with the former,* is his after-affirmation, 
pago 1129, tliat if we were true Israelites before our separa- 
tion, tlien all wo left behind us are true Israelites : for so 
all tlie ten tribes under Jeroboam were true Israelites : and 
all we ill the assemblies before our separation were in one 
estate,, ^c. 

It is true, that the ten tribes in their apostacy, were true 
Israelites, nAtumlly, and so were the Ishniaclites, and Kdom- 
ites Abraliiun H true imturnl swd, But what is this to our 
question, wliich is not about men s natural estate, but 
about their religions, and churrli-Htate? Tlie church is not 
a natural esrati5, neither wns Abraham and Israel God*s 
peculiar jieopM nnd church by nature, for lliey were by 
nature children of wralli, as well us others, Eph. ii. 3, but 
by grace, nnd brcause Ood loved them above other peoplr, 
and separated them into covenant with himself. Deut vii. 
— 8. Our question then being about religion, and men's 
religious estate, and as they are worshippers of God, Christ 
our liord teacheth us in Nathaniel's person, who are ti*uo 
Israelites: namely they in whom there is no guile. John i. 
41. And Paul telletli us, that ho is not a Jew, who is a 
Jew outwardly, nor that circumcision, which is outward in 
tlie flesh,, but tliat he is a Jew, who is one within, and that 
circumcision, which is of tlie heart, ^'C. But for the ten 
tribes, or other Abraham *s natural seed, in their [rebellion 
against tlie Lord they were of true plants, degenerate, and 
changed into the plants of a strange, or falso vine. Jer. ii. 
31. They were true Israelites, as a thief is a true man, 
to wit, naturally ; but not he, morally ; much less they, 




spiritually, or in the consideration of religiou, of which 
we speak. 

And for us, it followeth not, that because we came from 
the parish assemblies, therefore all that we leil behind us 
were unie Israelites, as we, For then the mom cause of 
our separation hod been taken away. We did even there. 
by tlio prrcat mercy of God, recciye grace to be in our 
measure Nathaniels, and without guile : and so to serve God« 
and walk with men, though we were ignorant of many of 
Clirist's ordinancos, as was Natlianiel without guile, when 
]ic was ignomnt of his )>erson, which to say of all in tlio 
assemblies, and tliat they are Natlianicls, were false and 
foolish. Neither could Mr. H. witliout being reproved by 
his own heart, say that, when ho was a professor in England 
tlicTC was no difference between him, and tlie atlieists, and 
epi<*ures in tlie parishes, tliough in tliat confused state of 
tilings they, and ho were of one and the same visible 

Lastly, To pass by his misputtiug tlie words, and mis- 
intorpretin^ tlio meaning of tlicm tliat wrote the Apology, 
by taking tliat, as meant of Uio members of tlio assem- 
blies, which was spoken of such as were separated; as 
also his bitter upbraiding them with ignomnt dissimu- 
lation and llatteiy, through his own ra^^h ignonince, that 
whicli ho afiinncth of Judah*s never denying Israel to bo her 
sister, is his saying, without proof or explanation. 

What Judali thought of licr, appears by the speech of 
Abijah tlio king, 2 Chron. xiii. 4 — 7, &c : and what tlie Loixl 
thought of her, we shall show hereafter ; howsoever they 
arc called sisters somf*times in respect of their joint estate 
before the division, Ezek. xxiii. 2 — 4, and so Edom also was 
called Israel's brother, in respect of their first fatliers. 
Numb. XX. 14 ; Obad. x. 12 : sometimes in respect of their 
concurrence in iniquity, and so Sodom also is called a 
third sister with them. £zek. r\'i. 40. And yet were not their 
estates alike, no not the two likest of tliem, tliough both 
evil. For there is, besides good and evil, as was Judah in 
ber integrity, and Israel in her apostacy, evil, and worse, 
both in persons and tilings, though both evil, compared 
togetlier. And so as the evils in England are of divers 
dcgreos, and kinds, we do proportionably, by way of resemb- 




lance, term it apostate Israel, Babylon, Sodom, and Egypt, 
spiritually so called. In respect of the spiritual external 
government there, not in the hands of the son of Parid, 
Christ, the King of saints, but of his usurping ladyersanr, 
the prelacy, and of tlie apostate priesthood thence derived: 
of the will-worship, though of the true God : of the forged 
holy-days, and other the like defections, we call it apostate 
Israel; in regard of the great and monstrous confusion 
there both of persons and things, with the spiritual bondage 
of the Lord*s people to the prelacy, Babylon ; in regard of the 
same bondage, together witli the Egyptian darkness spi* 
ritual, with other the spiritual botches, and plagues, upon 
the souls of the body of thatcliurch, Egypt: and lastly 
Sodom, in respect of the iniquity of Sodom abounding 
there, as pride, fulness of bread, idleness, and want rf 
mercy towards the poor, Ezek. xvi. 40 : with contempt of 
heavenly admonition. Oen. xix. 0, 14.* 

The next thing he reproveth is our distinction of 
churclics, and so of sacrnments into true, false, and none.f 
And having in the first place liberally reproached us, he 
inveighs greatly against our distinctions in general, and 
the scvcnil respects we put of things : betraying plainly 
therein his tumultuous ignorance, by which ho would con- 
found, and blunder all things together : whereas there is 
nothing more necessary for the just knowledge of things, 
and ending of controversies, than distinctions, and respects, 
rightly and seasonably put: which are in disputations, 
like that distributive justice in many suits of law. For 
whereas both parties would have all, for some right, which 
either hath to a part, a just distinction gives unto either 
his several right, and satisfieUi both. 

And having spent his breath in reproaching our distinc- 
tions of tnie, false and none, he for our conviction begins 
witli a distinction of worldly things : in which he grants a 
difference between false and none : as that there is a false 
hour-glass, and no hour-glass, a false looking-glass, and no 
looking-glass, ^. whereas, in the ordinances of God (saith 
he, page 134) as the church, and baptism, there is no such 
difference ; and in so saying he doth indeed offer to the 
Tiew of all wise men. who have their eyos in their heads, 

• Vidi Mr. Perklni' Expodtion upon Jude, p. 147. t Apol. p. UO* 



Eccl. ii. 14, a looking-glass, wherein both the ill-iaTcmred 
face of his own distinction, and the mnitj of his ezeeption 

may appear. 

The use of a looking-glass is to show what manner the 
native face of a man is. James i. 33, 24. And the reason 
why we call such a one false, is, because it doth not that, in 
truth, which it makes show of, but deceives him that looks 
in it, for Uie fashion and portraiture of his countcnanee. 
So Uio uso of an hour-glass is to show when the hour is 
just come about : which we therefore call false, when it doth 
not so indeed, but deceives him that looks unto it, either 
by running short, or over. Hence common-sense teacheth, 
tliat if there may be a church, or assembly of people 
making a profession and show of Christ, and Christiaoi 
baptism, and religion, but not being, and having that 
indeed, which in show and appearance it seems to be and 
have, and so but deceiving him tliat regards it, tlien maj 
there also bo, and so rightly be called, a false church. Xif 
reply be made, thiit tliis fiUse church is no churcli, it may 
as truly be answered, that that false hour-glass is no hour- 
glass : OS in truth, and indeed, it is not an hour-glass, but 
a three, or five-quarter glass, or over, or under. It is evi- 
dent by the same common reason of botli, tliat there maj 
be OS >vell|a false church, which is not no church, as a false 
looking, or hour-glass, which arc not none : and other con* 
viction needs he not, than by his own instance. 

The scriptures he brings for his purpose, which are, 
" They said they were apostles, and were not, and Jews, and 
were not," Kev. ii. 2, 0, and iii. 0, he comiptetli very 
audaciously, tliough, I hope, much of ignorance : instead of 
"not," putting "none:" whereas between these thei*e is great 
difTcrencc. For "not" only den ioth tliat which they said 
tlicy were ; whereas •* none" extcndctli furtlier, as he also 
intends it, and denies tliem to be apostles, or Jews at all, 
or of any sort They said they were apostles, Uiat is true 
apostles, sent, and set a work by Christ immediately; but 
tliey were not, that is not these, or such, as they pretended 
tliemselves to be. They were false apostles, setting them- 
selves a work, and deceitful workers, not, no workers, as 
elsewhere tlie apostle calletli them, 2 Cor. xi. 13. They 
Baid they were Jews, and were not, that is not Jews within. 

ii • 






• I 


\ ': 

nor the circumcision of the heart, as Paul expound 
phrase of speech more at large, Rom. ii. 28, 30. For 
witliout doubt, they wci*c, and circumcised in the flesl 
"which circumcision, with other Jewish ceremonies, 
contended. It is usual witli the Scriptures to spe 
things in rcligioti, as if they were not at all, when Uic 
not, as thoy should be ; and the reason is, because 
doth not accept of tliem, nor tliey tliemselvcs receiv 
right fruit Uicreof. Thus it is said of t)ie inhabitat 
Samaria tlmt Uioy feared not the liord, though it Ih 
immediately before, they feared tlio Lord, 2 Kings x^ 
— 3i: thus Paul saitli tliat ho is not a Jew, which I 
outwardly, nor tliat circumcision, which is outwanl i 
flesh, llom. ii. 28 : as he also tells tlic Corintliians tliai 
cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of d 
1 Cor. 10, 21. They did drink of botli outwardly, bu 
lawfully, and of tlio better without fruit : as he alsc 
the same GorinUiians ch. xi. 17, 18, 20, 21, that by n 
of their contentions, and other abuses, their eatiuj 
LonVs Supper was not to cat the Lord s Supper, tli 
as ho expounds himself, not with profit, or for the b 
but for the worse. Even so these were not npostlos 
is sent of Christ, and whom the churches ought so i 
ceive ; nor Jews, that is such ns whom God would pn 
The same I answer to Eph. iv. 4, 5. which is 
objected, of one body, one church, one fiiith, one bapi 
that is one tnie faith, church, and baptism. And to 
that, besides tlmt one true, justifying and saving faith, 
are not other false faiths, is itself a special point of a 
faith, and persuasion. The apostle, 1 Tim. i. 5, spei 
faith unfeigned, from which love springcUi : showing th 
tliat there is a feigned, or false faith, which James ci 
a dead faith, for tlie want of this love, and the fniits th< 
tlie works of mercy. James ii. 17, 20. Yea, the devils t 
selves bqlieve, and have a kind of faith, ver. 10, as 
also somo wicked men such a faitli, as by which tlie^ 
out devils, and do many miracles in Christ's name, 
vii. 22, 23. And both the Scriptures and experience t 
tliat wicked men have a faith, or persuasion of God*s fa 
and salvation, which is no true faith, and therefore a 
Ceuth, or persuasion, and so rightly called. The same 




bo said of the church, and sacraments, and much more. 
The consideration of one God, and one Christ, is some- 
thing different, but directly against these mto : for there 
may be, and arc assemblies of fiilse worshippers, of this 
one God, and one Clirist: and therefore false churches, 
and so tlieir sacraments, accordingly, false sacraments. 

And thus mueh to show how vain his distinction is be- 
tween God s ordinances, and worldly things, though, even, 
Uicy be also God's ordinances, as ho applictli it: and to 
prove, that false may as w(*ll, and liv the samo reason, be 
A])pli(Ml to the out>\'a]rd ordinances of tlie chiurh, as unto 
wurldly tilings ; as also to answer the scriptures ho brings 
to iIis])rovc tliat part of our distinction, toucliing a false 
elnirch. It now remains I prove by the Scriptures, and 
good reasons grounded thereupon, tliat there are false 
churches, and false church ordinances: and tliat such a 
church the ten tribes were in their defection, and division 
from Judoh. 

And fn*st. Since false is nothing but tliat which deceir- 
olh under a show, and appearance of that which it is not, 
(as the knowledge of tliree Latin words would have tauglit 
Mr. Ilehvisse) and tliat such churches, or assemblies tliere 
arc too many, which under a 2>rofcssion of tlie name, and 
sundiy truths, and ordinances of Christ, do deceive; it 
followeth necessarily, that tliero may be, and ore, false 
churches. And thus much in eiTect ho grants elsewhere, 
viz. that "a false church are they, tliat say, and make 
show, they are a true church, and arc not.** Only he 
labours upon his ordinary disease in misinteqireting Uicsc 
wonls, and are not, as if tlicy were and are none ; whereas 
tliey only deny the tiling affirmed, which is, a true churcli, 
and no more. 

Secondly, In his entrance against us, and everywhere, 
he condemns our profession, as a false profession, and us 
as false prophets ; as he doth also tlio profession and pro- 
phets of tlie prelates, and Puritans, as he calleth tliem, 
and therein yieldeth necessarily, tliat the churches making 
this false profession, under tliese false prophets, by him 
so deemed, are false churches. Neitlicr can he turn off 
the matter, as his custom is, by saying we are no diurehes, 
&nd no prophets ; for he knows the prophets, or teachers 



teach, and the people with tiiem, profess the main troths 
in the gospel: which he therefore cannot say to be no 
prophets, or to make no profession. 

l*hirdly, The apostle, 2 Cor.xi.26, complains of his perils 
amongst false brethren, and Gal. ii. 4, that false brethren 
were crept into the church. Now if there v^bj be (as the 
apostle expressly teachctli) false brethren,' and the same 
also baptized outwardly, Uicn is a church consisting of 
such in the body thereof, a false church, and their baptism 
answerably, false baptism. 

Fourthly, l*he Scriptures, and common-sense teach, that 
there are false worshippers, of God. Christ our Lord 
saith of the Samaritans, who feared tiie Lord and wor- 
shipped the God of Jacob, after a manner, and had a tem- 
ple in Mount Gerixim, 3 Kings xvii. 32, that they wor- 
shipped Uiey knew not what: opposing them to true 
worshippers, and therein calling them false worshippers, 
and their assembly a false church. John iv. 12, 20---23. 
And when a Papist praycth unto God in an unknown 
tongue, or in the name, or merits of the Virgin Mary ; or 
when any other man "draweth nigh unto God with his 
mouth, and honourcth him with his lips, but having his 
heart far from liim :*' or teachcth for doctrines, men's com- 
mandments, Matt XV. 8, 0; he worshippcth, though in 
vain, and his prayers, are prayers and sacrifices, Uiough 
abominable. Prov. xv. 8. He is not then no worshipper, 
but a false worshipper; and so by consequence, a com- 
pany, or congregation of such, so combining, and con- 
tinuing, arc falsely called no church, or congregation, but 
most truly a false church, congregation, or assembly, 
which are all one. 

Lastly, Tliat Israel in Jeroboam's apostacy was a false 
church, though others have done it sufficiently,* I will 
plainly prove, (God assisting me) against mine adversaiy, 
page 135 ; answering, in the first place, what he objecteth to 
the contrary. Which is, that the ten tribes then apostate, 
were the true seed of Abraham, separated from the world, 
under the covenant of God, which was the covenant of 
circumcision. Gen. xvii. 7, 16, as well as Judah in Heze- 
kiah's time, when tiiey came to the passover. 
• Mr. Ainsworth, ia hit ** Counter poyaon,*' and other writings. 



If tho cliurch of God had been in those days a na- 
tural state, and the covenant a natural, eorenant. and 
circumcision a natural sign, or seal, then had tho ten 
tri1>es, indeed, been within that covenant, and of the 
true church : into what apostacy, idolatry, or other wick- 
edness soever tliey did, or could fall: and with them 
tlic Ishmaelites, and Edomites also, for they all were alike 
Abraham *s natural seed: yea, with the one and other, the 
whole world; for there is one common state of natare, 
and tlic Jc>vs by it, children of wrath, as well as others. 
Kph. ii. «3. But since the Lord s covenant with Abraham, 
and his seed, was no natural or universal covenant, but 
a covenant of God s special love and promise with his 
peculiar people, Gen. r\'ii. 1, 7: in which he bound him- 
self to he their God, tliat is, all happiness, unto them ; 
and them to perfect, or upright walking before him, Pf;a. 
cxliv. 15; having circumcision annexed, as a seal of the 
righteousness of faith, Rom. iv. 11, it is ignorance too 
gross thus to measure them by natural respects: or to 
think that any had a part in tliat covenant by nature, or 
natural generation : by which, as l»efore hath been proved, 
and shall be hereafter, more at large, all are under God*8 
curse, and children of wrath. Neither is it true, that the 
ten tribes (in their apostacy) were separated from the 
world under the covenant of God, which was tlie covenant 
of circumcision. They were by, and in tlieir apostacy 
separated from God, his church, onlinances, and worship. 
^ Chi*on. XV. 3. And since tho world lietli in wickedness, 
having the devil for the prince thereof, how were they 
separated from tho world, who scncd devils in all idola- 
tr}', and wickedness? 1 John v. 19; lOph. ii. 2; U Chron. 
xi. 15. Neitlier is the consequence of any force, because 
faithful, and obedient Ahmham, with his seed in his time» 
and so successively continuing in his faith, and obedience, 
were in that the Lord's covenant, and had right to all the 
gracious promises tliereof, tliat therefore, unfaitliful and 
rebellious Israel, the fatliers witli the children, so remain- 
ing incorrigible, were in, and under the same covenant, 
and promises of grace ; of which more, hereafter. 

But, saith he, page 135, '* If they had been the false 
seed of Abraham, tlieii had their circumcision been false, 




and they a false church.** I answer, that, coming of Abra- 
ham naturally, and pretending the same faith, and religion 
with him, and so the same right to the gracious covenant 
of God, and seal thereof, but being indeed without either 
the one or other ; both believing, and worshipping after a 
faJse, and feigned manner; tliey were, tliough his true 
seed in respect of nature, yet in respect of faith, religion, 
the covenant, and worship of God, his false, and adulterous 
seed, and even bastards, and the children of whoredoms, 
as the prophet speaketh, yea, the children of the devil, 
doing his works, and serving him, and so by his own con- 
fession, and undeniable truUi, a false church, to the deceiv- 
ing of themselves, and otlicrs. Hos. ii. 4 ; 2 Chron. xi. 15. 

2ndly. Every true church is truly, and rightly gathered, 
and constituted, for thereby it is, tliat which it is : whereas 
Israel considered in her apostacy, and separation from 
Judah, and as we now speak of her, was not truly, nor 
rightly gatliered, but by most sinful schism, and rebellion 
both against God, and man : and tlierefore was no true 
visible church. 

3rdly. The Lord cxj>rcssly tcstificth by his prophets, 
tliat ho had for licr wickedness, and rebellions, wherein 
she was incorrigible, given her a bill of divorce, and put 
her away : that she was not his people, nor wife, nor he, 
her husband : in which rcs])cct also it is, that he called 
Samaria, Aholah, that is, heroin tabcniaclc: as on the other 
side, he callcth Jerusalem, Aholibah, which is my taber- 
nacle in her. Jer. iii. 8 ; ITosca i. ; ii. 2 ; Ezek. xxiii. 4. 

4thly. There was at that time but one only, ti*uc, visible 
church, one temple, one pricKthood, one altar, one sacri- 
fice, one kingdom of the Ijord, in the hands of the sons of 
David. And so, the .ten tribes in this their apostacy, and 
division, being neither this church, nor any ])art of it, but 
actually divided from it, and that also by a S])ecial hand of 
tlie Lord s providence, for the punishment of botli, could 
not be the true visible church of God, nor any part of it, 
whatsoever good, either person, privilege, or Uiing, is still 
retained above otlier people. Deut xxii. 5, ; 1 Kings 
Tiii. ; 2 Chron. xi. 4 ; xiii. 5, 0. 

lastly. The covenant with Abraham on God*s part was, 
that he would be his God, and tlie God of his seed. Gen. 



zrii. 7 ; and thereof their circumcision was a sign, ver. 
8 — 10. Now we read, 2 Ghron. xv. 8, that Israel had 
been a long time without the true God. By which it 
appearoth, that Israel, was without the Lord*s covenant : 
and that unto them circumcision could not possibly bo a 
sign, that God was their God. It was hj them merely 
usurped, and in that their usurpation, a false and lying 
sign, and like a seal set to a blank, yea, like the king's 
broad seal treacherously usurped, against his express will. 

Wicked men, and such as hated to be reformed, and 
cast God*s Word behind tliem, had nought to do with 
God*s covenant, Psa. 1. 16, 17 ; nor with circumcision, the 
seal tlicrcof : nor with any other of God*8 ordinances. 
Their sacrificing of a lamb was, as if they had cut o£f a 
dog*s neck, Isa. Ixvi. 8 ; and so consequently their circum- 
cising tlieir children, as if they had cut the foreskin of their 
dogs : notwithstanding they were true Israelites, yea, true 
Jews, naturally. They were expressly forbidden by the 
Lord to meddle wiUi his covenant; and in that their 
abuse of it, it was a lying sign in the ends, and uses 
thereof, and no way affording that, which it pretended : 
neither could they so using it, be by it, at all confirmed, 
that God was their God. And yet was not the outward 
cutting afterwards to be repeated, if God gave repentance : 
neither is the outward washing in the name of the Trini^ 
now, tliough merely usurped by them, who are forbidden 
to meddle witli it. Neither matters it whether such per- 
sons be in true church, or false, which Mr. Helwisse calls 
none. Both, profane and usurp it, and have tlie bare 
outward lying sign, as it is said of Ephraim, or Israel, 
that she compassed about the Lord with lies, and deceit : 
whereas Judnh ruled with God, and was faithful with the 
most Holy. Hos. xi. 12. 

But for conclusion of this point If any of the heathen 
joined tliemselves unto Israel in her apostacy, and so were 
circumcised, tliey being neither Abraham*8 true seed, by 
nature, nor by faith, but merely false, and counterfeit, 
their circumcision must be false circumcision by Mr. Hel- 
wisse^s own grant : which notwithstanding was not after- 
wards to be repeated, if God gave them repentance, and 
to come to Judah to eat the passover. There was one law 



or BEL10I0U8 COiniUKIOV. 

for the eating of the possover, to him that was home-bom, 
and to him tliat was a stranger, or sojourner. Exod. xii. 49. 
And here appeareth a direct warrant for ^ our retaining tlie 
outward baptism received and usurped, in the like apos- 
tate estate, and assemblies, wherein they, and their families, 
and synagogues were. 

I add, Uiat eitiicr the outward baptism received out of a 
true church must be retained, or else all other churclies 
must be able certainly to discern, what day, find hour a 
true church falling by degrees, into notorious heresy, ido- 
latry, or otlier impiety, and still baptizing notwithstand- 
ing, becomes a false church, as wo hold ; or, as Mr. 
Ilelwisse will have it, no church. For except otlier churches 
can certainly know, and discern this, they cannot with 
faitli receive such members, as unto whom God may give 
grace, to leave that apostate synagogue, and to come unto 
tliem. Such of them, as were baptized, whilst it remained 
a true church, they must not rcbaptizc : but such as were 
baptized after it ceased to be a true church roust, sny our 
odversarios, be received in by baptism. But it being im- 
possible for otlier churches thus to discern of the day, and 
hour of the removing of a church's candlestick, especially 
for such OS are far oil*, and have had little, or no meddling 
with her, it followeth necessarily, that the outward bap- 
tism administered in a church or assembly di^gcnomtcd 
from a true church into a false, which they call, no cliun;h, 
must be retained upon tlie party's repentance, without 

For conclusion then of this point also, I demand, whether 
a man cast out of the true church for some notorious sin, 
and for impenitence tlierein, have tnia baptism, or no? 
They will not, neither con they say, ho hath, writing of it, 
as they do : neitlier indeed hath ho true baptism, in tho 
ends, and uses thereof. He must then eitlier have a false 
baptism,, or none. Not none, for tlien upon his repentance, 
and re-admission into tlie church he must be reba])tized : 
he hath therefore upon him a false baptism. There is then 
contrary to their doctrine false baptism, which is not none, 
and the same also to bo retained, and by the person's re- 
pentance becoming true baptism. Neither matters it, that 
■Qch a man was baptized in a true church at tho first, since by 


■, lalsr 

iJ of till 

sa for (he nfiplying of the u 
our present occn-tion. 

The pnrticulnrB following in bis book i 
CDiiccn) mjseir, and writiii)^: against vl 
tlirongli lii|;h persuasion of his own know 
iin mortified idTcctionx, together with th. 
whirh I brnr him record he hotl, thongl 
nnio knowledge, he letteth loose his tonga 
tcmpcmlc rage. 

And first he rcproneheth me. page 13f^, foi 
for tlic want whereof I linve just cause to 
which )8 my logic, and philosophy, aa beiti 
gifts, wlicrrwith Christ endued his npostlef 
Tcrifictli the old saying, that, Knowledgn h 
bnt ignomnee. Logic is notliing bat lli< 
nason : as is philosophy the Iotb of wiado 
bamnii. And did tlie apostles wont thei 
llr. Helwixsc envy unto mc my nntdl pitta 
WouldhehavemoanewNGbuchndnezxar, wit 
in a man's l>od}' ? Indeed, tliis his judgment 
Mis of wisdom, nnd rcnson, well agrees witi 
Mid brutish dcnling against mo, and (he tnilh 
terms of art, which he also blameth, th< 
many, nor without cause: nor •-* - 
ordinary rfn-''— - 



it : namely, tlie minister by, and the person upon whom, 
and the communion wherein it is administered. In the 
former respect I affirm tlie baptism true, both in England 
and Rome : but not so in the latter, but on the contraxy 
(alse, and idolatrous, as being against the second com- 
mandment, which forbids notliing but idolatry, and false 

Against t]ie former of these respects Mr. H. speaks 
angrily, as himself confcsseth, and ignorantly, as I sluill 
manifest, God assisting me. Yea, I did so manifest in the 
same place of my book, by the holy vessels of tlie temple, 
carried to Babylon : and yet still remaining such in their 
nature, and right, though m their use, or rather abuse, tliey 
became Belshozzar's quaffing bowls. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 7 ; 
Ezra i. 7 ; Dan. v. 3. Likewise tiie circimicision of tlio 
Shechcmitcs was in in itself true circumcision, and tliey 
circmucised in the flesh, as Jacob, and his sons were cir- 
cumcised. Gen. xxxiv. 19, 23. But to call this true circum- 
cision in the right ends, nnd administration, were to call 
darkness, light ; and profane hypocrisy, the true worship 
of God. So id there also a time outward baptism, or washing 
witli water iu the name of tlie Father, Son and Holy Ghost, 
both in England and Borne also, notwithstanding the unwor- 
tliy profanation of that ordinance, in the one, or other place. 

The things he objecteth, page 139, for substance, are 
tliese. That baptism is a spiritual ordinance ; which water, 
washing, and words arc not That tlicy that are baptized 
into Christ, have put on Christ Gal. iii. 27. That tiiere is 
one baptism of Christ. Eph. iv. 5. That the baptism of Christ 
is the baptism of amendment of life, for the remission of sins. 
Mark i. 4. That excc])t a man be bom of water, and the 
Spirit, he cannot enter into tlic kingdom of God. John iii. 
6 ; lieb. x. 22. That we ought to have our hearts pure 
from an evil conscience, and to be washed in our bodies 
with pure water ; and that, here is the tnie matter, where- 
with men must be washed, which is, water, and the Holy 
Ghost: and tliat we cannot divide the water, and the 
Spirit in this baptism, being joined together by Christ : 
and that he that denies washing, or is not washed witli the 
Spirit, is not baptized : and that he that denies washing, 
or is not washed with water, is not baptized. 

• • 


That which mnst be first, and ehieflj ecmsidered for 
answer, and as tlie ground of tlie rest is thaf, that one 
baptism mentioned, Eph. it. hath in it two parts : tte sign, 
and the thing signified: either of which is idso in the Scrip- 
tures called baptism : the one, the baptism with water. 
wherewith John baptized. Matt. iii. 11; l^Iark i. 8, and 
wherewith all ministers do baptize; which is the outward 
baptism, and sign of tlie Inwanl: the other, the baptism with 
the Holy Ghost, wherewith only Christ, and God do bap- 
tize : as there is in like manner, an outward teaching bj- 
tlie AVord, and an inward teaching bj the Spirit: an outward 
eating of the Lord*s Supper in the use of the signs, and an 
inwanl eating of the thing, by faith in the heart. And even 
this outward washingwiUi water in the name of the Trinitj, 
which he calls "water," ••washing," and ••words,*' is in 
itself a spiritual ordinance, though he take the contrary for 
gnmtcd, as being properly subordinate to man's spiritual 
estate, and appointed of God to signify, and confirm the 
inward washing of the soul bv the blood, and Spirit of 

And this ground laid, I grant, first, that the outward, 
and inward baptism are joined together by Christ, and so 
ouglit not by men to be separated, but joined together in 
their time, and order : but deny that, tlierefore, where the 
inward baptism by tlie Spirit is not actually manifested, as 
in the infants of believers, there tlie outward is not to be 
ministered : or that being administercfl unlaia-fully in apos- 
tate churches, it is no outward baptism at all, nor spiritual 
in itself, though carnally used, nor to be held upon repent- 
ance, without repetition. 

The outward circumcision of the fiesh, and tlie inward 
circumcision in the heart, which it signified, and whereof 
it did admonish the circumcise J, were joined togetlier of 
God, and so were to be by men, and might not be severed 
without great iniquity, Deut. x. 16; Jer. iv. 4: were the 
infants therefore of the true church debarred it ? Or being 
profanely administered amongst the idolatrous, and apos- 
tate Israelites, or to the idolatrous prosel}'tes amongst them, 
did their abuse change the nature of it in itself? Or was 
it no circumcision at all, and so to be repeated, when the 
Lord Touchsafed to add the circumcision of the heart? 

lyiw' J i I I I i n i ^^i. 




The law of God, (and tliosc words. Thou shall not lust, 
and so all the rest) is spiritual in itself, though received, 
and used never so cainnli}', lloni. vii. 11 : ,80 is the gospel 
witli all tlie ordinances thereof much more : and the power 
of God, in itself to salvation, whatsoever use men make of 
it, or Uiem. Rom. i. 10. The apostle teocheth us, that all 
tlie Israelites coming out of Egypt were haptized in tho 
cloud, and in tlie sea, under Moses, that is, under his 
ministry, and that they all ute of that spiritual meat, 
namely manna: and all drank of that spiritual drink, 
namely the rock, or water flowing out of it, which was 
Christ And yet witli nianv of thcni God was not pleased: 
neither were they haptixetl witli the Holy Ghost, or effec- 
tually made partakers of Christ 1 Cor. x. 1 — 5. Where 
also these two tilings are plainly manifested. Tho one, 
tliat the outwaifl onlinance, or sign, may he spiritual, to 
wit, in itself, tliough the inward power, and Uiing signified 
be wanting. Uud/ that there is sometimes an outward 
baptism, and tlie same so to ho reputed, wliere there is not 
the inward baptism by tb(* Holy (Hiost: ns there is also 
sometimes an outward onting of the Lord's 8u])per un- 
worthily, that is, without dihcorning the Lord's body, or 
any inwnrd participation thereof, or profit thereby. 1 Cor. 
xu 20, 27, 20. The same apostle, as 1 have formerly noted, 
complains elsewhere of false brethren creeping into the 
church, Gal. ii. 4 : who, being unbai>tizcd before, were also 
baptized at tliis their (>ntr}'. Take Simon ^lagus for one : 
who being convinced of the tnitli of the gosj)el, and believ- 
ing after a sort, did deceive Philip, through hypocrisy, and 
was by him baptized : remaining notwithstanding in tho 
gall of bitterness, and bond of iniquity all the while, as 
Peter aftenvard perceived. Acts viii. 1 .*), 23. And I would 
know of these double-washers, whether if a man professing 
tlio same faith with them in holiness outwardlv, but in 
hj-pocrisy, . should be baptized by them: and that aftcr- 
wanls his heart should strike him, aiul God give him true 
repentance, (let it be the pcraon they know of, that fled 
from us under admonition for sin, and joining to, and being 
baptized by them, was jjresently after by themselves found 
in tho some sin, and so censured) whether, I say, they would 
repeat their outward washing formerly made, as none, 



bccauso there was not joined with it tlie inward washing 
of the Spirit? Or if they tliink it none, and so tlie fore- 
inrntioncd person not, indeed, received in by baptism, as 
t1i(*y speak, wbcrcforo did they then excommunicate the 
same pcraon ? 

I conclude, therefore, that Uicre is an outward baptism 
by water, and an inward baptism by tho Spirit: which 
lhouj,'h they ought not to be severed, in tlieir time, by God*8 
appointment, yet many times arc by men s default: tliat tlie 
outward baptism in tlio name of the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, adiiiinistcred in an apostate church, is false baptism 
in the afhninistmtion, and yet in itself, luid own nature, a 
spiritual ordinance, though abused : and whose spiritual 
uses cannot be had willmut repentance : by which repent- 
ance, and the after baptism of tlio Spirit it is sanctified, 
and not to be repeated. 

Tlie soconil part of the distinction followctb, page 140, 
wliich respects the manner of administering the outward 
onlinanco of baptism : and namely the person by whomt 
the snlijtTt upon wliicli, and the cunnuunion whereni it is 
to be (lispenscd. In wliich respects I approve it not as 
true, cither in llomr, or England. And here Mr. II. fulls 
into one of his liot fits of raving against mo aftrr im out- 
mgcons manner, for justifying such a baptism: where also 
to make it worse, he adds as my words, these of his own, 
" that the Spirit of God is not there." 

I answer, that there is a great difTerence between the 
justifying of the manner of doing a thing (good in itself:) 
and the lidding the thing done (though unlawfully) not to 
be notliing. Zipporah's wrathful ciiTumcising of her son, 
and the Israelites* profane circumcising of their children 
having nought to do to meddle with tho Lord s covenant, 
could not be justified ; and yet they were not no circumcision, 
nor to be reiterated upon tliem, Exod. iv. S5 ; Psa. 1. 10 ; 
Isa. i. 11 — 13, A'c. Simon Magus's receiving baptism, being 
in the gall of bitterness, and the Corinthians* receivhig the 
Lord's Supper, one hungr}' and anotlier dnuiken, could not 
be justified, and yet the baptism of tho one, and Lord's 
Supper of the other, was not no baptism and no Lord*s 
Supper : nor such as whereof tliere could be no right use 
upon tho repentance of the persons having so profanely 

180 OP BEUOXOUS coimuxioH. 

usurped them. The apostles Peter and Fkul, teach no 
such thing, hut exhort the one and other to repentanee, 
that so they might have the sanctified use of those veiy 
holy things, hy them formerly ahused so nnholily. These, 
our adversaries, do not justify tlioir marriages in the assem- 
hlies, celebrated by the parish priest, as a part of the 
solemn worship of God : and in that respect against the 
second commandment, and idolatrous : neither yet account 
they them no marriages at all, nor cast them away as idols 
of mbprlon : tliough they can esteem them no other, in Um 
administration there. 

But saith he, page 141, if this ground were true, then a 
Turk baptizing a Turk with water, and these words, in 
any assembly whatsoever, it is the true baptism of Christ 

It is true, outward baptism profaned and abused ; as Is 
also tliat of midwives and children. Also touching stage- 
players, of which he speaks in the next leaf, I affirm, that 
if any parts of the Scripture, or other particulars agreeable 
thereunto, or any forms of prayers contained therein, be 
by them uttered upon the stage*, they still remain in them- 
selves, and own nature, the truths of God, and forms of 
prayers conceived by holy men ; vca, their prayers, not- 
withstanding that Hinfiil ]))*ofnimtion of tlicm : although 
tiint uttering of them be nothing less tliim^' true preach- 
ing or true praying. So may tlioro be, and is too com- 
monly, tnic outward baptism, that is, the very outward 
tiling for substance done, where there is no true baptizing, 
that is, no tnic, and lawful manner of administering it. 
And if the washing with water in tlie name of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, of a fit person, by a lawful minister, 
in a lawful communion, and manner, be true baptism 
truly, and lawfully administered: then is washing with 
water in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, by 
an unlawful minister, of an unfit subject, and in an un- 
sanctified communion, and manner, true baptism unlaw- 
fully, and falsely administered. The thing done is tho 
same in botli: the difference is only in the manner of 
doing it. 

But between the baptism of a Turk upon a Turk, and of 
a midwife, I put this difference : that whereas that of a 
* Evidently intended foft anything but. 



Turk is not done as a religious aetion, but merclj in 
mockery ; (as is that of a child, in sport ;) the latter, bj a 
midwife, is performed as a religious action u|K>n a mem- 
9 ber of an apostate church ; of which there is, therefore, 
another consideration to be had, than of that which is 
done in sport, and mockery, which common sense teach- 
etli to be as nothing : as we may see in an oath, which 
being taken in jest bindeth not at all, but if taken in 
earnest, and for a thing lawful, (though profanely) bindeth 
him tliat took it 

For the shutting up, tlien, of this point, let the reader 
obscn'c, that the baptism which we repeat not, is that, 
which hath been ministered upon Uie members, and ac- 
cording to tlie order (how corrupt soever) of such a church, 
as wherein tho Lord hatli his people, and for their sakes, 
many of his trutlis, and ordinances, which he so far bless- 
cth unto his elect, as by them (notwithstanding all the 
«i confusion tliere,) he doth communicate, and confirm his 
saving grace unto them. Of the number of which his 
elect, wc Imve also, by his grace, testified ourselves to bo, 
as othenvise, so in particular, by coming as his people out 
of Babylon, or confusion, at his coll. And wc rather tliink 
i J it our duty to acknowledge Uie great goodness of God 
1 1 towards us, in passing by tho sins of our ignorance, and 
]- in blessing unto us, what was of himself, and his own 
I tlicrc: tlion imtlmnkfully to disclaim tlie least, eitlier 
inward work of his grace, or outward means by which ho 




wrought it 

In tlie next place Mr. H. raisetli himself upon his tip- 
! \ toes, and in vain confidence of his mighty strength, 
Uireateneth terribly to strike me witli a rod of iron, and 
to break me in pieces like a potter*s vessel. And because 
be chooseth as his ground of best advantage, a point of 
our profession, viz. : tlmt baptism comes in the stead of 
circumcision, which neitlier he, nor tliey with him, will in 
another case acknowledge, I will therefore in the first 
place prove that ground, by the Scriptures, and reasons 
unto them agreeable, and so come toward his so sore 
threatened stroke. 

And, first. The apostle dissuading tlie Colossians, ch. ii. 
B^ll, from Jewish ceremonies, and in special (rom dr* 




cumcision, te&oheth them, that in Christ*s person dwelleth 
all fulness: an<l that m him as the head tliereof, the 
church hath all perfection : who by his« circumcision hath 
abolished tlic former, as the shadow by the substance : bj 
whom also, and whose circumcision tlic faithful havo their 
hearts circumcised. But whereas it might be objected, 
that faithful Abraham had his heart circumcised, and yet, 
lie had witlial tho outward sign, and seal annexed; the 
apostle answcroth, rer. 12, that they are baptised into 
Christ : (tho etfccts of which baptism he also notcth dowu 
in the same place) and Uicrefure needed not circumcision, 
as tho falso apostles l)orc them in hand : tlierein directly 
teaching?, that our baptism is instead of their circumcision: 
as is also our Lord's Supper instead of Iheir passover: 
which Supper no unbaptized person may eat of, as could 
no man uncircumcised cat of the passover. Their cir | 
aimcision was not to be repeated, nor our baptism now, 
though our eating the Jjord's Supper be, as their passover 
also was. Likewise tho Israelites in the wilderness want- 
ing the ordinary sacramont.s of circumcision and the pass- 
over, and hiiving instead of thorn the extraonlinary sacra- 
ments of baptisin in the sou an<l cloud, and of manna, and 
the rock ; and that baptism signifying our baptism now, 
and that mnnnn, and water of the rock, the sacrament of 
the body and l»lood of Christ now, 1 Cor. x. 1 — 4 ; it is 
evident that our baptism conicth instead of their circum- 
ciRion. Besid(;s circumcision was their first, and solemn 
ordinanrc of initiation, or ontmnce, by which, say our 
adversaries, they were received into the church : so is bap- 
tism our first and solomn ordinance of initiation, by 
which also (say they) men are received into the church 
now. How tlicn do not they succeed one another, as doth 
the church now, the church then ? | 

Lastly, Their circumcision then was a sign or seal of the j 
covenant of God ; so is our baptism now of the same - 
covenant, as shall bo proved hereafter : tlieir circumcision i 
admonishing tliom of that original corruption of all that 
came naturally of Adam, not to be purged but with the 
shedding of tho blood of tlio promised seed : as doth also 
our baptism admonish us of our original spiritual filthi- 
neas, not to be washed away but by the blood of Christ 


poured upon us : the same outward circumcision jet far- 
ther si^ifying the inward circumcision of tlie heart, as 
doth our baptism witli water the inward baptism of the 
Spirit : which circumcision was also unto tliem a note or 
bodge of distinction from the world, as is also baptism 
now ; though by many usurped, as tliat also then was. 

This ground tlien being cleared, I come to that which 
niust strike tliis stroke so terribly threatened : which is, 
tlmt in my gnmting, and proving in my book, that Ronio 
and Kn gland were never in the covenant of Go<l, as Judah 
wav. I do therefore debar myself from bringing my baptism 
from apostate Israel ; and therefore must prove, Uiat cir- 
cumcision, and so baptism, received in a Babylonish 
assembly, by a Babylonian, upon a Babylonian, might be 
retained : and a man so ciiTumcisod, eat tlio passover. 
pn;;o 14*2. To disprove tliis he quotes Ezra x. 3, and 
Nchem. xiii. 2*1 — 25, for tlie putting away of the chililren, 
though circumcised, bom of the strange wives in Babylon. 

I ]>rofess, as before, that neither the Catholic, so colled. 
Church of lloinc, consisting of many countries and nations, 
nor the national Cliurch of England, was ever witliin the 
covcmmt of the gospel, or new testament ; as was Judoli, 
aiul with her, Israel before the division ; notwithstanding 
either the particular holy persons that aro, or particular 
churches which happily have been tliero. Ncitlier of both, 
therefore, saitli Mr. H. can be apostate Israel, which was 
before her apostacy, the true church, or of it, by our grant. 
I deny the consequence ; and his ignorance it is to think, 
that only tliey can bo apostate Israel, who were formerly 
of Judah. For tlien such of the heathen, as joined to 
Israel in Iier apostacy, wcro not of apostate Israel, because 
they or their parents were never of Judah. And, by his 
ground, neither the national English, nor Catliolic Romish 
Church should bo antichristian, for ncitlier of both wero 
over tlic templo of God, in which Antichrist at first raised 
himself. 2 Thcss. ii. 4. But, as they aro apostolic churches, 
which have received imd do keep the faitli, and order deli- 
vered by tlie apostles, though the apostles did not gather 
them personally; so aro tliey answerably apostatical 
chiurches, which have taken up, and received an apostatical 
state, and condition £rom others, though they were never 



true in themselves : the rule of nature here having place, 
which is that the accessory foUoweth the nature of the 
principal. We do, likewise, most properly, and imme- 
diately call that a schismatical church, which was once 
either of, or a true church, and hath causelessly made a 
division: hut yet if any other assembly, though havinir 
never been of, or a true church, do take up a schismaticu 
profession, and walking, even it is also, though second- 
arily, a schismatical church, and so to be reputed. 80 
that, though England never was, either in the whole 
nation, or several parishes, a true visible church, or 
churches, yet, having taken up the apostate communion, 
worship, government, ministry, and order of Rome, with 
the doctrines which defend them ; and Rome, of that par- 
ticular church, which was once planted there, having dege- 
nerated by degrees from the primitive constitution, it is 
truly called by us apostate Israel, for the purpose in hand : 
and that outward baptism there received, rightly by us 
retained, as was tlie outward circumcision m apostate 
Israel of old. 

The scriptures he brings, which are Ezra x. 3 ; Nchem. 
xiii. 23 — 25, make much against him in the general cause, 
and nothing for him in tlic particular. 

For to let pass other oversights. 1. They prove, tlial 
to be of Abrahanrs seed, carnally, was not enough to 
make one a member of the church, and within the Lord s 
covenant of circumcision. For tliese very children thus 
" put away," as having no part therein, were, and so are 
by Mr. H. acknowledged, the males of the Israelites. 
2. If any of them thus ** put away," had afterwards chosen 
the Lord Go<l of Israel to bo their God, should tliey have 
been re-circumciscd ? Or is there in tlio Scriptures any 
syllable tending tliat way ? 3. Ho is utterly deceived in 
saying, those " children were bom in Babylon :" upon 
which jiotwithstanding, he layetli all the weight of his 
argument They were bom in Canaan, and of the wives 
of the people near adjoining, as in the same places is 
expressed : and so their circumcision nothing at all to the 
circumcision ministered in Babylon :• and yet is he more 
peremptory in tliis his error, than a wise man would be 
in the truth. And thus all may see how his rod of iron is 



proved a broken reed, whose shivers have pierced his own 


The next thing he comes to, is, that other ground of 
ours, for witli his by-babblings, and rerilings, I will neither 
trouble myself, nor tlie reader, tlitia by him related, that 
baptism is tlie vessel of the Lord's house ; and as when 
tlio house of the Lord was destroyed, and the vessels 
tliereof together witli the people carried into Babylon, 
they remained still the vessels of the Lord's house, in 
nature, and right, though profaned by Belshazzar ; and 
being brought again out of Babylon to the house of the 
Lord, were not to be new cast, but being purified, might 
again be used to holy use : so this holy vessel of baptism, 
though profaned, in Babylon, being brought again to 
the house of the Lord, remains still Uie holy vessel of the 
Lord's house. 

Against this he allc^ctli, page 144, Ist That our baptism 
seeing it was administered upon us all in the assemblies 
WHS performed, moulded, and made, in Babylon. 2nd. 
Tliat the true doctrine, or ordinance of baptism either car- 
rieil to Rome, or England was by way of comparison the 
vessel of the Lord's house, and so to be brought back, and 

The administration of baptism is not tlio framing, or 
mouhling of it, but the applying, and using of it, being 
fomierly moulded, and made : and tliis common sense 
tcachetli : othei*wise there should be a new vessel made 
and moulded, or a new ordinance brought into the church 
every time that baptism is administered. The outward 
washing, then, witli water *' in the name of the Father. 
Sun, and Holy Ghost," was first framed and moulded in 
tlic true churches, by John Baptist, Christ and tlie apostles, 
and tlicrc, at tlic first, rightly applied, and administered : 
and was aftcrwanls usurped, and misapplied by, and in the 
apostate churches, and so is in England amongst the rest : 
whence we also by the grace of God, have brought it into 
the Lord*s house, built of living stones, orderly laid to- 
getlicr, for a spiritual building unto him, 1 Pet ii. 6 : and 
there have the rightful use of it, being purified by repent- 

More particularly. • If the true doctrine of baptism be 



the vessel of Uie Lord*8 house, then, cannot this vessel of 
the Lord's house he hrought out of the motlier Babylon, 
which Rome is, because the doctrine of baptism ther« is 
most false in itself: as that, baptism doth by the very work 
done, confer grace, and wholly abolish original sin : that it 
imprinteth in tlie soul of the baptized a character, or mark 
indelible, by which even the damned in hell, which have 
been baptized, are differenced from the unbaptiKed : that 
it is of absolute necessity to salvation : tliat such infants 
are to l>e baptized as neither of whose parents are sancti- 
fied, or faithful : and that it is only to be administered by 
the Pope's anointed ones, save in the case of necessity, and 
that then the midwife may do it, with the like. How then 
can the vokscI of the doctrine of tnie baptism be brought 
from Babylon, where it is not? And so far as the doctnne 
is true, so far tho baptism is true also, being administered 
according unto it. 

The truth then, is, that, as there were, in Uie material 
temple, both the vessels, and doctrine teaching their use, 
so is there, by proportion, in the church now the vessel of 
baptism, or thing ordained, which is most properly called 
the ordinance, I^ev. v. 17 ; Itoni. xiii. 1, 2, and the doctrine 
ordaining, and teaching it : which are two several things 
in all mcn*s eyes, which have sight in them. And since 
baptism aflniinisl(»rcd, besides the doctrine which teacheth 
it, is appointed of (iod. as a moans, to signify, ond apply 
the blood, and Si>irit of Christ thereby signified, it is very 
absurd to deny it to be a vessel for the service of the Lord's 
house, and of the holy things therein : rightly used in the 
tem[de ; usurped in Dabylon, or elsewhere. 

Lastlv, Mr. Snivth. and Mr. H. with him in their Char- 
ttcter of the Beast, A'c, page 51, confess, that if tlie Anti- 
christians had baptized persons, confessing their sins, and 
their faith into the name of the Son of God, and the Trinity, 
it had beofi true baptism, though in the hands of the Anti- 
christians, as the vessels of the Lord's house in the hands 
of the Chaldeans, and therefore, needed not repetition, as 
the vessels needed no new casting : therein acknowledging 
not tho new doctrine, but the outward washing in the name 
of the Trinity to be tlie vessel of the Lord's house in Baby- 
lon : as also, that there might be baptism so far true, with- 



out either lawful communion, minister, or subject, (for all 
are Anticliristian,) as that it might be retained without re- 
petition : which is also justly proved from circumcision, 
administered in a profane usurping family, though uaturallj 
Isrnelitish, either in Babylon, or Canaan, or elsewhere, it 
matters not. and not to be repeated u)>on repentance. 

In the things following, being partly more general, and 
partly already handled, I will be tlie briefer. 

lie first tells us, page 140, that if we be Judah, and come 
from Israel, then we must not war against her as against 
Babylon, since she is the ten tribes, our brethren, which 
were not false Israelites, but tlic true seed of Abraliam. 
1 Kings xii. Si. 

Kdoni also was Israels brotlier, and tlic true seed of 
Abmlmin naturally, against whom he was forbidden to war, 
ns Against Cnnnan, Numb. xx. 14, 21 ; Deut ii. 4, 5, &c, : was 
Edoni therefore the true church or interested in the Liord's 
covenant, as well as Israel then ? And though Judah was, 
at that one time, by special restraint, to forbear fighting 
a^ninst the ten tribes, as there was a time also, when sho 
might not r);;ht against Babylon, yet not so at otlier times ; 
but sho was, contrariwise, holpen of the Lord, to make a 
vory great slaughter amongst them. 2 Chron. xiii. 3, 14 — 1 7. 
But for our fighting against England, it is only by the 
spiritual weapons of our testimony, the Word of God, our 
practice of Christ's ordinances and sufferings, against tlie 
confusion, clergy, and superstitions there : and tlius we 
nuist war against all iniquity, whether of apostate Israel, or 
Babylon, it matters not 

His reasons to prove Judah as well as Israel a false 
church, are of no weight. And 1st, it is not true he saith, 
that the calves set up at Dan and Betliel did no more 
make them a false church, for in speaking of false Israelites, 
ns he doth, he betrayeth too great ignorance, than the 
setting up of the calf in Horeb. For that calf was forthwith 
taken down again, burnt in the fire, and beaten to powder, 
the chief authors of the idolatr}* destroyed, and the rest 
brought to repentance, by which the wrath of tlie Lord was 
pacified, £xod. xxxii. and xxxiii. : whereas the ten tribes 
continued their idolatr}*, and with and for it, their schism 
from the true church Judah, and Jerusalem : and so were 
VOL. m. o 


OF heuoious coMMUiizoy. 

for their obstinfiej and irrepentonco joined with their Bin, 
east out of God's favour. 

Alike friTolous is his second argument : from Solomon's 
following Ashtoreth, Mileom, and otlicr idols : of which he 
also repented, as appears by his writing the Book <^ the 
Preacher, besides other arguments, and whom JudiUi is no- 
where said to have followed in his idolatry, as did the ten 
tribes Jeroboam, in his. And not only so, but they went 
on also from evil to worse : adding to tlie false worship of 
the true Ood tlie worship of false gods, Baal and others. 
1 Kings xvi. 25, t\l, 

Thinlly, Though Jerusalem was at a time (in the body) 
ealled by the prophet, nn linrlot, and her sins said to be 
greater than citlier 8amaria*s or Sodom *s, to wit, consider- 
ing her estate, and means of bettering (for oUierwise her 
sins in theniHclvcs were not comparable to tlieirs) yet, were 
tliere many in her abiding faithful in the Ijord*s covenant, 
and the other brought again into the bond thereof, by re- 
pentance, after the rod of the Jjonrs correction had passed 
over them, and that he had t4ikon tlio chief robelK from 
amongst them, Ezck. xx. 37, ^A ; and in those the true 
church consisted ; tlio rest not being true members tlierc- 
of: but a fiilnc seed, the plants of a strange vine, by right 
to have been cut off from the Lord s people, Jer. ii. *^1 : 
wherras the ten tribes went on in their sin, without re- 
pentance, or return out of tlieir captivity, into the land of 
Caiiatm, the proper scat of tlio church. But of these 
things I have spoken before at large, as also of the 
outward baptism received in England, which he hero calls 
the mark of tlie beast, and us for it, what he .pleaseth : 
whereas, though he, that receives any doctrine, or ordi- 
nance of God ministered by the power of Antichrist, may 
therein be said to receive the mark of tlie beast, yet tliat 
doctrine, or ordinance is not in itself, tlio mark of the 
beast, but an holy thing of God, how unlawfully soever 

His mistaking the speech in the Apology of the seven 
thousand in Israel, I have formerly manifested. The pe* 
remptory doom which here he paisseth upon all in Eng- 
land, and us with tliem, as out of tho stato of grace, and 
salvation, is a fruit of his rashness. Well is it for us, that 


ho is not our ju«1ge : and better much had it been for 
him, if lie hnd judged liimsclf more severely, and others 

more chnritAhly. 

Touching Gal. v. 1, and 2 CJor. iii. 17, teochuig, that, 
"wlicre the Spirit of Christ i«, lliero is liberty:" and that 
wo must *' stand fust in the liberty, wherewith Christ hath 
freed us/* I do answer, tliat as for ourselves, we stand for, 
and enjoy the liberty of Christ in all things, to otur know- 
1(m1;:c. and power : so doubt I not but there are Uionsands 
iu En;;land truly partakers of tlie libeiiy of Clirist, both 
from tlio }^niilt, and tyranny of sin in tlieir measure, not- 
withstanding tliat spintual external bondage in their 
clnirch order, and ordinances, tlirough human frailty. 
Wherein if they, or any of them, either affect ignorance, 
or ]>rctond it, being "condemned of tlieir own hcMirts,** 
because tliey would avoid the cross of Christ, or for mij 
other caiiial rcspectv. "God wliich is gi*eatcr tlian Uieir 
licarts," and searchetl), and knowcth tliem, will condemn 
tliein much more, though wc, through love, be persuaded 
better thiuf^s of them. 1 John iii. iiO, 

It is true he addc^h. that all who come not out of 
Labylon, or receive the least mark, or print of tlie boost, 
that is yield tho least submission imto Antichrist, are 
tlircatcned with her plagues, and under the Lord's ciurse. 
Which shows how greatly the Lord abhorreth, and how all 
liis peo])le ought to abhor from those sins, and also unto 
what wrath they stand subject witliout repentance. But, 
witJial, it must be remembered, that as God rcquireth par- 
ticular repentance for sins known, so dotli ho pardon the 
unknown sins of his sonants ui»on their general repent- 
ance arising from true faith in Christ, and having joined 
with it, an honest and eaniest desire, to know, and do tho 
whole will of God: otherwise no ilesh could bo saved: for 
DO man knowetli how oft ho oiTcndoth. Psa. xix. 12. And 
he who believes not, that as other men may, so God doth 
know much evil by him, even against all tho command- 
ments, which he knows not by himself, (of which he can 
only repent in general) neither hath leanit to know God 
aright, nor other men, nor himself, how much soever ho 
presume of his knowledge, which alas, was too, too much 
this vain man's malady. 




Hit otlier two affirmations, pa^es 153 — 155, tliat, if the 
faith of the Church of £nglan<l ho true faith, tlien the 
church is a tnie church ; and that, if Uie church he not a 
true church, then is it a company of infidels, have alike 
truth in both, and indeed none in citlier. Cornelius and 
his family show tlie faUity of both ; who had true faitli, 
and. therefore, were not a company of infidels, and yet, 
were not a true visible church, of which we speiJc. Acts x. 
True faith makcth a true Christian person : but tlie co- 
Tenanting, and combining of a company of such mto 
Christian order doth immediately make the church. 

iVnd for John xv. 10, and Matt xii. 30, 1 do answer, tliat 
a man may truly in his person be ''chosen out of tlie 
worM, and for Christ,** in his measure, Uiough he be not 
of a true visible church. There must be true faitli, and 
holiness before the true church ; for of faitliful persons 
the church must be gatlicrcd : and in reason, tlie parts 
must Ih} before the whole to be made of them, and the 
stones, and tinibor before tlie bouse. 

Hut he adds, that sinct* all in the Church of England 
drink of one cup, 1 Cor. xi., they are all one body, and so 
no double respect to be had, nor putting of difference of 

It is tnie, tliey are all one body, and there should be no 
such contrary spirits : but all the mrmbci*s of one body 
should be Ird by one spirit in a measure: for there is (to 
wit, in right) "one body, and one spirit,'* Eph. iv. 4, but 
who, having in him any light of the Spirit, seetli not the 
contrai*y ; and that, in that oni; IxNly of the national, and 
parishionid church, and churches, two conti*ary spirits 
nilc? By right, there is none but led by the Spirit of 
Christ in the true church and body of Christ : nor any led 
by tliat Spirit, out of it, or in any other society. Hut tliat 
good, whether in persons or things, wliich Satan hatli not 
had power to destroy, he hath laboured to confound, and 
mingle with evil, what he i>08sibly could, boUi by tlinist- 
ing false brethren into the true church, and by keeping 
godly persons out of it So that the servants of God 
stand in great need as first, of spiritual discerning to know 
good, and evil, so after, of true xeal on the one side, Uiat 
they bo not for the good*8 sake entangled with any ovil; 



as also of godly moderation, and sobrietj, on the other 
side, no way to wrong that which is go<^d for the evirs 
snko, mingled with it : as this man hath done in the fro- 
wardness of his heart instead of xeal« making no difference 
iK^twcen himself, and others, so walking in his and tlieir 
best profession, in England : and tlie most desperate crew 
of atlicists, and epicures in their professed contempt of God. 
His plea which followeth, that tlio Pope and Papists are 
not tnie believers, we do receive : and profess withal, that 
no infaints of such, or of any other parents, the one where- 
of is not faithful, is to be baptized : and practise accord- 
ingly, as he knew well. Gen. xvii. 7 ; 1 Cor. vii. 14. 
And his accusation that we hold all infants, whether of 
believing* or unbelieving parents to bo baptized, and so 
practise, is unjust, and but a mere presumption inferred 
upon our not rcbaptizing tlie baptized formerly in the 
nsscmblics. Which our practice, 1 hope, is sufiieientlj 
justified, against his loud, and licentious clamours, (al- 
though by them he have nffrighted two, or Uiree simple 
people, from that tlicir baptism so received,) as also, tiiat 
Ins peremptory position, tliat whatsoever is not done 
aright, is to be accounted as not done at all, and is to be 
cost away, notwithstiuiding any after-repentance, is but a 
short cut of his haste, and fruit of his ignorance : which 
two being coupled togetlier, cannot but gender many 



Hk proceedetli to the baptism of infants; a point of great 
both difference between us, and weight in itself; and which 
concemeth all churches, at all times, whereas tlio former 
respects only such churches as come out of a state of 

And to prove infants incapable of baptism, he begins 
witli the covenant of tlie gospel, or new testament, which 
he rightly makes one, as, indeed tliey are in substance ; 
thou^i the new testament may be taken in a stricter 
sense, for the gospcfl more clearly dispensed since Christ 





camo in the flesh : touching irhich covenant ho spealccth 
thus: — 

" This is the covenant, snith the Lord, that I will make 
with the house of Isrnol, I will put my law in their inwanl 
parts, and write it in their hearts, and I will be their God, 
and they shall be my people.'* Jor. xxxi. 03; Heb. viii. 10. 
And our Saviour Christ declares this more fully, Mark xvi. 
IG, where he saith, "Go ye into all the world, and preach 
tlie gospel ; he that shall believe and be baptized, shall lie 
saved.'* And here, saith he, pages 10^2 — 106, is the new cove- 
nant set down both on God*8 bolmlf, and theirs, with whom 
it is made. On Go<rs that he would write his law in men*8 
hearts, by the power of his Spirit in the preaching of -the 
gosi>el, and will be their God, and save tliem : and on the 
people's behalf, to believe tlie gospel and to be baptized. 
And hereupon ho infers, and concludes that children are 
not within the covenant of the new testament, or gos^K^l, 
and tlierefore not to be baptized. 

Let the rcadr;r in the fn*st plarc observe, that tlie word 
covenant in the Hebrew, rn^, as Jcromiah Imtli it, signifieth 
any compact or n^jrcenirnt upon a difTorcnee, between two 
or more. Which the LXX. in the Greek liiblc, nnd so the 
apostle after them, turn by a word, iia^iny, signifying a 
will or testament properly. So that he who aright under- 
stands, and well weighs the very word, will plainly sec, 
how Mr. II. errelli in making the writing of God s law in 
men's heaiis, the covenant on God's behalf, or baptism any 
part of it on men's behalf, 'i'he covenant is the vciy agi-ec- 
ment and promise by mutual accord, for tlic things to bo 
done, and not the doing of the things, which is the keep- 
ing of the covenant or promise made. And so all that cim 
be concluded hence is that God receivoth none into bis 
church but such as in whose hearts he promisetli to write 
his law ; which he promised to do to the infants of tli6 
faithful, in promising Abi-aham to be the God of his seed: 
and more particularly in promising to circumcise (which is 
all one with isTiting his law in) the hearts of the seed of 
his peojde. Deut xxx. G. By which it is also evidently 
proved, that the infants of faithful parents are, together 
with them, within the liOrd's covenant 

But to answer more fully: the intent of tlie prophet, and 



SO of tlio apostlo following him, is to oppose tho old core- 
Dont, or testament of works written with^ink in tables of 
stone, And the new testament, or covenant of graec writtca 
in the hearts of men hy the finger of God*8 Spirit Exod. 
xxxi. 1 8 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 20, HI ; U Cor. iii. 3. Now the persons 
with whom the Lord made tliese covenants, primarily and 
expressly, both tlie one and otiicr wero men of years ; but 
in whom their infants wero included, and so within these 
the Lord's covenants, tliough secondarily, and as was 
ngi*coablc to tlieir estate. 

These men profess everywhere, and truly, (although not 
upon ^ooil grounds) that the Israelitish infants wero within 
tlic old covenant, or testament ; and yet when God either 
])roclaimcd it upon Mount Sinai, or wrote it in the tables 
of stone, they knew not what it meant, neiUier could thej 
liavc the same use of it witli their parents, and others of 
discretion, as may appear in tlie particulars contained in 
tlio scri[)turcs, Exod. xix. 10, 11, 15, 21, 25 ; xx. 1, 2, 8, 
11!, 1^. M), amongst others, where it is set down; doth it 
therefore follow that those infants wero not wiUiin tlie com- 
pass of tlie old testament, or law? So neither foHoweth it 
brcausc the infants of the faithful now cannot for tlic present 
observe the conditions of the covenant of grace, or reap all 
tlio fruits thereof, and particularly, to have the law written 
in tlicir hearts by the niinistiy of the gospel, and work of 
the Holy Ghost, that therefore they are excluded from tlie 
covenant of gi*acc, or testament of Christ. Giildren may 
with far better reason be denied to have been within the 
covenant of the old testament, or law, upon which the curse 
followcth, than to be shut out of the new covenant of grace, 
and mercy. Gal. iii. 10. And upon this ground infants 
should not be within either the natural covenant or bond 
witli their parents, or the civil covenant with their magis- 
trates, because they cannot for the present "Honour fatlier 
and mother,** wliich is the condition of those covenants on 
their behalf. His exception then, tliat ** infants cannot by 
the preaching of tlie gospel, have God*s law written in their 
heart,** this being but a condition of Uio covenant, which 
respects men of riper years, is of no force. 

AVhon tho Lord saith to Israel, "I am thy God,** his 
meaning is not to Exclude their infants, though he spake 



not unto them, but to exclude other peoples, and nations: 
so where he makes tliiR new covenant with those in whoso 
hearts he writes his laws, he doth not debar their children, 
but wicked men destitute of the Spirit of God, and from 
under his promise. So for Mark xvi. 15, 10, which he also 
alleges, where Christ sends his apostles into the world to 
preach the gospel, and adds tliat " ho who bclievcth, and is 
Dapti7«ed, shall bo saved,'* he no more intends to exclude 
tlie infants of the faithful from baptism, because tliey 
believe not, than from salvation because they believe not, 
which is yet more plain in the words following, ** but ho 
that believes not shall be damned." Shall children now 
be damned because they believe not ? There is, hence, 
more colour for that, than that they shall not be baptized 
because they believe not: for Christ saitli not, *'he that 
believes not** shall not be Imptixcd, but "shall be damned.** 
The thing then is, Christ neither excludes the children of 
believers from baptism, nor from salvation, for want of faith, 
but unbelievers, and such as refuse the gospel from both. 
So that the stone upon which these men stumble, is the 
ignorance of the opposition in the scriptures tliey bring; 
which is not between believers, or sanctified persons, and 
their cliildren, but between them imd unbelieving imd pro- 
fane persons ; who are shut from the Lord's " covenant, 
baptism, and salvation.** But where in sharing this cove- 
nant '*on man's behalf.** into faith, and baptism, he makes 
tlio one part thereof, his being Impti/.ed, he speaks he knows 
not what, and yet wonders that all men believe him not. 
For as baptism is indeed no part of tlie covenant, but a 
sign and seal of further confirmation, so is it principally 
and in the main end performed, not on man's behalf toward 
God, but on God's behalf towards men ; (fod, by tlie out- 
ward washing of the body with water, signifying, confirm- 
ing, and applying the inward washing of the soul, by the 
blood, imd Spirit of Christ, and for the further testification 
of the admission of the party baptizx^d into the family of 
God, tlie Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, into whoso name 
he is baptized : whereas, in a second, and inferior respect, 
it is a work of man unto God, for the profession, and ex* 
ercise of faith, repentance, and thankfulness, in them who 
received the former covenant, and promise with the con- 




iimiation thereof, on God*t part, towards them, and theirs; 
as it is also, thirdly, a sign of union between the members 
of the cliurch ; and in Uie fourth and lasl place, a badge 
of Christianity, and sign of distinction between the true 
church and all false churches. The same considerations 
are to be had of the Lord s Supper. And they who know 
not tlicse tilings, hail need have the foundation of the doe- 
trine of baptism, and other principles of Christian religion 
laid again. Hob. vi. 1, 2; and yet the want of the knowledge 
of this, and, in especial, that tlie sacraments are in their 
first and main end works of God to men, by which he can 
1k)Ui dcchire.and effect his goodness towards infants, though 
for the present, tliey neither know it, nor can do anytliing 
a;;ain to the I^rd in answer thereunto, is a main ground 
of Unit offence, which Uiesc men take at our receiving and 
hapti/ing of infimts. And if the new covenant or testa- 
ment consist so much in baptism, as these men tliink, tlicn 
could not Adam, and Abnihuin, and oUicr the holy patri- 
oivhs, and prophets unbaptizcd, have been witliin the com- 
pass of the covenant, and promise of grace, or have had 
their ports in the testament of Chnst, the promised seed. 
Also if baptism were, especially so great, a part of the 
covenont, so oft as any either person or church, renewed 
their covenant, especially after any greater sin, they shonld 
so oft renew their baptism also. 

These things tlius laid down by way of answer, it re- 
mains I prove by the Scriptures, and further arguments, 
tliat the infants of tlic faithful arc within the compass of 
the new covenant hero spoken of. 

And since all children coming naturally of Adam, are 
conceived, and bom in sin,- and, by nature, Uie children of 
wrath, Psa. li. 5 ; lOph. ii. U ; if tliese men believe, as they 
do of all, that their children so dying shall be saved by 
Christ, then must tliey have a part in his testament, or in 
this new covenant, which are all one. There are not two 
new covenants, or testaments established in the blood of 
Christ, but one. And since Christ is propounded unto us 
as tlie saviour of his body, which is his church, it is more 
tliaii sUrange, that tlicse men will have all infants saved bj 
Christ, and yet none of them to be of his body or church. 
Eph. T. 23 ; Col. i. W. 



It pleased God, in liis special love, to send his Son to 
take upon him our nature, and so our childhood, that as 
the head Uiercof, he might sanctify even that estate for his 
hodjT, the church : with which he did also in the days of 
his flesh, visihly communicate his f^racc, consecrating unto 
his Father, as tlieir tnie hip^h-priest, the infants of Uie 
Jewish church, hy laying his lumds on Uiem, and blessing 
them. Mark x. i:), 10. 

I add, if any, either children, or men of years, bo to 
" enter into the kingdom of heaven,** tliey must bo bom 
again : and tliis new birUi must be by the Spirit of God 
working in cither, according to their kind, and writing 
God's law in their hearts ; in thoso of years, distinctly, 
and by the preaching of tlie gospel, in infants, otherwise, 
according to tlio cfhcacy of tlie power, and grace of God. 

Lastly, Ft is evident that the children of tlie faithful are 
within Uiis covenant of the gospel or new testament, by 
tliat covenant which God made with faithful Abndiam, 
and his seed, adding the seal of circumcision to ratify it 
Gen. xvii. 10 — 14. But, that this was the covenant of the 
gospel, or new testament, Mr. Hclwisse dcnieth, and op- 
posctli. I will therefore answer what he objcctcth, and 
tlien prove my exposition, and aflimiation by tlie Scrip- 

And first he lays down this covenant. Gen. xi'ii., on the 
Lord*s bchalft thus : " I will establish my covenant bctwoon 
me, and thee, and thy seed after tlice, and their generations 
for an everlasting covenant to be God unto thee, and to 
thy seed after tlicc," vcr. 7, and on Abraham's behalf, and 
his seed, in those words, ** This is tlie covenant tliat thou, 
and thy seed after tlicc shall keep, Let every man child 
among you be cii*cumcised : you shall circumcise the fore- 
skin, &s well of him that is bom in tlie house, as of him 
that is bought with money:" adding for exposition, page 100, 
that'" thus the Lord declares in every particular his cove- 
nant witli his people, as well what ho will do for them, 
OS what he requires them to do, in obedience to him.** 

A great untruth, and full of ignorance. Is the land of 
Canaan all that the Lord covenants and promises to give 
unto Abraham and his seed? What is this but to make 
the Lord's people an herd of oxen which are promised to 





be brought into a fat pasture, tliere to feed at ease ? And 
is circumcision of their males all, in particular, which God 
requires of his people by covenant, which anj profane 
Sliccliomite might do, and did as well, and as |diligent1j 
as they ? and which being done witliout faith, and repent- 
ance, dotli no way please but offend God. Isa. i. 11, 13 ; 
llvh. xi. 0. 

The Lord promised to be a God (even all-sufficient, an 
vcr. 1,) unto Abraham, and his seed, ver. 7, that is, to be 
all Imppincss and bliss unto tliem : for blessed are the 
people that have the Lord for tlieir God. Psa. cxliv. 15. 
Ancl except we will say they had only IkhIIcs, and no souls, 
God in promising to be tlieir God, promisctli not only to 
be tho God of their bellies, and hacks, but of their souls 
most; as tlio soul of a man is most tlie man. And so 
Christ himself teacheth against Uie Sadducees, that God 
in calling himself tlie God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
and so of tlieir seed the Hebrews, means, tliat ho is the 
God of their souls, and thnt most specially, which lived 
wlien tlieir bodies were deml. Kxod. iii. ; Matt. xxii. 32. 

Tlie n])0Ktle Paul, who well understood tho Lonrs mean- 
ing, doth interpret tlie promises of this covenant with 
Abrnliam, as meant of better things than Canaan, and 
indeed as comprehending in them, (though more darkly, 
according to the dispensation of those tunes) Christ him- 
s('lf. and in him all spiiitual blessings. And so spoakinff 
of tliis covenant, or promise, witli, or to Abraliam, and 
hia seed, avouchetli, that by his seed is meant Christ, Gal. 
iii. 15, 10, \\y.., as tlie head witli his boily, tlie church of 
tlie Jews, and Gentiles also in their time *' made one in 
him,*' £ph. iii. ; as he also provcth. Bom. iv. 3, 18, and 
Gal. iii. ; that Abraliam*B believing tlio promise of God 
for the multiplying of his seed, Gen. xv. 5, 6, and xvii. 4 ; 
was imputed to him for righteousness to justification : 
therein teaching, evidently, that in tliis promise was com- 
prehended Clirist, and spiritual tilings: otherwise, how 
could Abraham be justified by believing it? And how 
cumally soever Uiese men are conceited of this covenant, 
and promise, Abraham in it saw Christ's day, and seeing 
it, rejoiced. John viii. 60. 

And for the land of Canaan, albeit in itself, and natu- 



rally, but like other lands, yet was it by the Lord sanctiBed 
to spiritual ends, and uses : as to be the peculiar inherit- 
ance of God*R peculiar people, unto which it was allotted 
from the first division of the sons of Adam, and distribu- 
tion of tlieir possession by the Most High, Deut. xxxii. 8; 
whither he would bring liis people, and there plant them 
in tlie mountain of his inheritance, in tlie sanctuary, which 
his hands harl established, Exod. xv. 17: where he would 
have his tabernacle pitched, and temple built, for his most 
solemn presence, and worship : out of which land whcu 
tlie ten tribes were carried captive, he is said to have pat 
tliem out of his sight, 2 Kings xvii. 18 : tlie veiy land 
being figuratively holy, and a sacrament of God*s presence, 
and the resting of God*s people there a sign of their 
eternal rest in heaven, Hcb. iii. 11 ; iv. 6, 8: into which 
not Moses, but Joshua or Jesus, the type of our and their 
true Jesus, was to bring them. Neither did the Lord 
indeed promise either entrance into, or continuance in that 
land, but upon tlie conditions of eternal life : true faith in 
the gospel, with the love, and fear of God, and faithful 
obedience of his commandments : godlinc5x3 having then 
as it hath now, and always, the promise of good things for 
this life, and the life to come : of earthly things then 
more distinctly and fully, but of heavenly things more 
generally and sparingly: where now on the contrary, there 
is a more clear, and full revelation of heavenly things, 
but thr promise of things eartlily, more general 'and spar- 
ing. Heb. iii. 17 — 10, with iv. 2; Lev. xx. 1,2, Ac; xxvi. 
30 ; Drut. x. 12. i:i, with xi. 1, 8, 0, 22—24 ; 1 Cor. x. 5— 
7 ; 1 Tim. iv. H, 0. It is tliereforc an ill collection ho 
makes, that because God promised eartlily Canaan, tlicrc- 
fore not heavenly. things: the promise of them was con- 
tained in the other, which all amongst them but hypocrites 
understood and tasted of. 

The like folly with thr former showeth he, in afTirming 
tliat the circumcision of their males was all the obedience 
which God required of Abraliaro, and his seed, for the 
keeping of the covenant on their part towards him. For, 1* 
Circumcision (which must be well considered) was not ap- 
pointed of God principally for a work of their obedience 
towards him, but for a sign or seal of confirmation, on his 

,, SLV.1 m iJir wiuicnicss, Hi 
, i l!v"liiih il is fvidti.t 111 

til.- most of till'. 

X tlio hiibstiinco of tbo covcnniit, as 
niudi ns any xulMtaiitial part of it, but onl 
l< tioD, aiitl tliat specially on God'a port. • 
I aeccKKOij- unto iL Hdly. The spoittle, Bo 
\ai^, juotilicntion by faiih, without vorka 
wiUiout circumcision, of which as of a 
Jews mndc account, takes Abraham for i 
■howo, tiiat ho wna tint justified bjr bol» 
pminiHO taudun;; hiii seed, Chrint, and at 
Iiim, OS well as of uncircumcipscd GenUlea 
of circuuiciscd Jews : and ndda, that after I 
the Rcal of circumcision, for the confinnotii 
of pToniisc, on God'a part, haTingthopromi 
Which, circumcision, therefore, whosoerei 
mo, whctlicr upon himsclC or hia infiuit, no 
. the promise of Christ, and faith for jus 
Abnuiam, he did treocberonaly usurp the si 
Xing of hcttvcn and earth. The lawful uaii 
enmcision did prcKupiwsc, both God's pre 
faitli who was to use it, cither upon himsel 
And since without faith no man cither con 
pkaso God, especially, in tlie matter* oi 
v4>creof circumcision was one : and that K 
his people Ro to worship him in it, and all a 
ihc}- might plcAse him tliorein, it followc 
tliat lie renuircd tnio faith in idl, whom li 
ntlher privileged to circi"""'" '' 

with H-i- • 

fiOO op BEUoiom comtnnoy. 

Willi Abnhum nnd them, when they did uae, uid observe 
circumcision verj dili^ntly: which hnd the covenant, on - 
their pmit, stood in circumcision, tliinr had not done. lu. 
zxiv. b; Jer. xi. 10; Ilos.riii. 1. And{forcoRclusion)t]ist 
the Lord God should nepitrate a people, u his own pecu- 
liar, Rbove all tlie peoplos in the earth, into covenant with i 
hiroself, to worsiiip him, and to enjoy bis special presence, ] 
and yet should require no more of them for the keeping of 
this covenant, than tlic cutting of tlicir foreskins, is n mere 
mockeTy, unworthily blemisbms God's ^reat mnjes^-, and 
firoro tlie imagination whereof all godly-wiso men do abhor. " 

Now tliougli this which I have spoken be more than 
cnougli, yot will I, for more cleamess, annex a few other rea- 
sons to prove this covenant with Abmliom, and his seed, the 
covenant of tlic gospel, and tho same with ours, now, lor 
substance ; and nttublislicd in Christ to come, as oura, in 
Cluist come in tlic flesh. 

And. ]. The apostle to tlio GaUtinns, iii. B, expressly 
tcaehcili, that tho gospel wa» prenchrd unto Abrahnm, "la 
tlice shall all tlio Gentiles bo blessed;" and, vor. IT, tliat 
tlic covenant with, nnd in Abraham's seed, was conCtnicd 
of God in respect of Christ, and that <13U ycan< Iwfore tlic 
law, or old tCotnmcnt wan ^iven. And hero also tlio apostle 
answereth Hr. Ilclwisse Ins objection, and rcmovcth that 
great istone of oflcncc, which he, nnd otlicrs cast in tlioir 
own way ; which is, " that llio old tcstanipnl, or oovcnanl 
with tlie ordinances thereof is disonulled, Heb. vii. 18, nnd 
that wo ouglit not to frame tlic new covenant like the old, 
as we do, in tho bnpti/.ing of infunts, because infants tlicn 
were circumcised." The npostlc nnswercth directly (to Ut 
l>ass otlicr tilings) tliat tho covenant with Abi-olioni wis 
conlinncd in rchpect of Glirint : and that it was not the Im 
or old testament, which was added dSO years o^cr for 
transgression, and so is abolished indeed, but could not 
disannul tlie former covenant of tlio gos]>el. 

And because these men (whose recovery I do from mint 
heart dcBiro of the Lord) do especially stumble at tliis, tlikt 
tlie covenant made with Abraham, and bis seed, was the 
covenant of llie law, or old testament, I will (and that briefly 
as I con) ahow tlie clear, and evident difference betwceo 
tbesotwo teaUments. Which hod such of onrlatorwiiten* 
• Calvin, Buecr, Dncanni, 




AS Imvc been most followed observed and put distinctlj, 
AS otlicrs't' have dcme, much light had been given for the 
preventing of this error. 

And 1. This difference appears notoriously, in the time. 
For this old and cancelled covenant was made with the 
people of Israel in tlie day when the Lord took them bj 
the hand and brought them out of Egy^t, Jer. xxxi. 32, 
wliich was 430 years afler the covenant made with Abra- 
Imm, OS the scriptures formerly cited teach. 

2. The law, or old testament, was given in Mount 
Sinni, Exod. xix., whereas the covenant witli Abraham 
was first drawn in Ur of the Clialdeans, and afterward 
confimicd, and renewed in Canaan. Gen. xi., xii., xr., 
and xvii. 

5. Tlio law was given witli great terror of burning, fire, 
and 8inokc, and blackness, and tempest, on the mount, 
with the loud sound of the trumpet, as became tlie glory of 
G(>d*s justice, Exod. xix. IC, 18; Hob. xii. 18: but the 
coveniuit with Ahraliani was free from all terror, and re- 
plenished with all sweetness of love, and mercy, and 
comfort against sin. 

4. The old testament had Moses for tlie mediator, 
Exod. xix. 14, 10; Gal. iii. 10: whereas Abraham himself 
received the other from God, in the mediation of Christ. 
as 1 have formerly sliown. 

5. The law was dedicated in the blood of beasts, and 
established unto the people under the priestliood of the 
IiCvite.s» Exod. xxiv. 0, 7, ^-c. ; Hob. vii. 1 1 : where the 
covenant witli Ahmham was established in Uie promised 
seed Clirist, and in his blood : himself being botli priest 
ond sacrifice. Gal. iii. IG. 

Lastly. The covenant of tlie law, or old testament, had 
indeed the promise of good things heavenly, and cartlily, 
but under the condition of perfect obedience to all tlie 
commandments. Lev. xviii. 5 ; Gal. iii. 10, 12 ; Deut xxvii. 
2G : and under the threatening of the contrary curse to the 
least breach of any of tliem. \Miereui)on, respecting man*8 
con*uption, and inability to keep it. Acts xiii. 38, and xv. 10; 
Rom. viii. 3, 7, it is said to be weak, and unprofitable, yea, 
generating to bondage. Gal. iv. 24, and the power of sin, 
1 Cor. XT. 50, causing wrath, and death, Bom. iy. 15, and 
^ Xlcloncthon, Chcmnitius, Sohniusi Amuniiis. 



or helioious commuxion. 

vii. 5; the letter whicli killeth, and administration, of 
death, and condemnation, 2 Cor. iii. 0, 7. But of the 
covenant, and promise wjiich God made witli, and to 
Abraham, tlie Scriptures do not so speak, neither can any 
man having wisdom, and grace. It was profitable evenr 
manner of way, and Uio moans boUi to begot, and nourish 
faith in him, and his. 

The confounding, then, of tlio covenant given to Abra- 
ham with that given by Moses, is in itself a great error, 
and the ground of this amongst other evils, that it cui*seth 
where God blesscth. For where God promised unto 
Abroliam, and liis seed a blessing in that covenant, this 
otiier of the law bringcth all flesh, as unable to keep it, 
under God*s curse : being given principally for transgres- 
sion ; that is, to discover nif*n*s transgressions, and sins, 
tliat despairing in themselves Uiey miglit fly to tlie gracious 
pn>mise made to Abraham, and in it, unto Christ to come, 
and so find mercy with God through repentance. Wliich 
covenant, therefore, the JiOrd upon their repentance, so od 
renewed with the seed of Ahrnlmm : whereas the covenant 
of the law admits of no rcpnitunro for mercy by it, but 
stands peremptory in, and upon " Do this, and live :" and 
" Cursed be he that abidctli not in all tilings written in 
the book of the law to do them." And this so oft renovation 
of the covenant made with Abraliam doth plainly show it 
not to be the covenant of the law, but of the gospel, whoso 
two general virtues are, faith in Christ, and repentance. 
Mark i. 15. 

Ihit it will be demanded, How the covenant made with 
Abraham could be called the now covenant, and that by 
Moses 4*10 yeai*s after, the old covenant, or testament? 

First. In respect of the object, upon which the law 
worketli properly, which is the old man, or part unre- 
generate : which it convinceth, suppressoth, condemncth, 
and killeth : whereas the gospel, or gracious promise, as 
was that to Abraham, respects properly tlic new man, 
which it begotteth, and nourisheth. 

2ndly. Even tlto same law in substanco witli that given to 
Closes in tables of stone, unto which tlie ceremonial, and 
judicial laws, considered apart from Christ, were subor- 
dinate, the one for explanation of tlie first table, the otlier 



— — 1 • 'dfrl 

^ ■■ X ' J "'^ 



of the Inttcr, and so as accessories following the nature of 
the principal, was in substance before the covenant of the 
gospel, and as old as Adam ; in tlie table of whose heart it 
was cnp^ravcn by creation : as l>eing that image of God in 
which he was made : and which is renewed in us bj the 
Spirit's writing the siiino law in our hearts, in *' wisdom, 
riglitcousncss, and holiness,** Col.iii.lO; Eph. ir. 34; Rom. 
ii. 11, 15 : which is yet more evident in tlie remnontH of 
tlic sanio law iniblotted out in all Adam's natural pos* 
terit}-; wliich covouout of the law was, tliercfore, before 
tlie covenant of tlio gospel with Abraham, yea* or with 
Adam either. 

3rdly and lastly. The whole body of tlie Scriptures may 
be divided into two parts : the law, or old testament, and 
tho gospel, or new. Now, of the old testament Moses is 
propoinided unto us as the minister and mediator: as is 
Christ for tlic minister and mediator of Uio new. For ** tlie 
law was ^iven by Moses, and giiicc and truth by Christ 
Jesus.'* Not as thoup^h Moses preached not tlio gospel, 
for he wrote of Christ: and preai*hc<l tlie gos|M>l to tlio 
Israelites in the wilderness, John v. 40; Heb. iv. 3 : nor 
ns if, on the contraiy, Cln'ist tan^^ht not the law, for wo 
may see tlic contrary, as elsewhei-c, so especially Matt v., 
will re he both opentrth, and enforreth it apiinst tlie cor- 
rupt glosses of the Pharisees, but because the ministry of 
Closes was chiclly legal, and tho miitisiry of Christ chiefly- 
evangelical, or of tho gospel. In whieh ivspcct also it is, 
TJmt wo, thon^'h tho Scriptures never so speak, use to call 
the writings of Moses, and the prophets, the Old Testa- 
ment, and those of the evang(>lists, and apostles, tlie New 
Testament. Now milo those two genei*als ; 1. Tho law 
most fully, and solemnly published by Moses; and 2. Tho 
^'ospc'l by Christ, all the ]mrticulars of what kind soever 
dispersed throughout the whole liiblo must be referred 
iininediately ; and so tlio covenant made witli Abraham, 
being referred to that clear, and full revelation of Christ 
come in tlio (lesh, as a part to tlic head, is after tlie law 
^'iven to, and by Closes : whom tlic Scriptures do every- 
where, in that respect, oppose unto Christ, but never 
Abndiam. I proceed. 

The Virgin Mar)-, speaking of the fruit of her womb, 

VOL. III. p 



Christ, tcsUfieth, that Ood therein rcmemhered his mercy, 
as he spake to Ahraham, and his seed for ever, Luko i. 41, 
42, 54, 55, and Zocharias in Uie same consideration, that 
he performed his mercy promised to their forefathers, and 
remembered his holy covenant, and the oath he sware to 
their father Abraham, Luke ii. 07, 72, 73, Mary and Za- 
charias filled ^ith the Holy Ghost do teach that God in 
his covenant witli Abraham, and his seed promised Christ: 
and, in giving him, remembered the same covenant ; with 
what ghost Uicn do others affirm Uiat in tliat covenant 
ho promised nothing but the land of Canaan? or how con 
godly men put out this clear light of the Scriptures shining 
in Uieir hearts ? 

The apostle. Bom. iv. 11, calls circumcision, which was 
the sign of that covenant, the seal of the righteousness of 
the faith in or of that of the uncircumcision, that is of tho 
faith which he being uncircumcised had, tliat in his seed 
Christ should be justification, for believing, uncircumcised 
Gentiles, as well as circumcised Jews. Wliereupon it 
followcth, if the covenant nnd seal agree in one, tliat the 
covenant itself was of the righteousness of faith, which tlie 
gospel hringcth : opposed to the righteousness of the law, 
which Moses dcscribeth, where he saith, *' The man tliat 
doth these things, shall live in them.** I^om. x. 5, 0. In 
which ploco tho apostle plainly teachcth, that tho covenant 
renewed with Israel, Dent. xxix. and xxx., was the covenant 
of the gospel, and righteousness of faith in Abraham's 
promised seed. 

JiOHtly, The Scriptures do most plainly, and plentifully 
teach, that the covenant with Abraham and his seed, tho 
Israelitish church, was the same with ours in nature (though 
diversely dispensed), and therefore the covenant of tho 
gospel. I will note some special places. 

We are taught by Christ, Matt, xxi, 41, that the vineyard, 
which the Jew:^ had should be taken from tliem, and let 
out to other husbandmen : and more plainly, ver. 43, that 
the kingdom of God should he taken from them, and given 
to a nation, which should bring forth the fniits thereof, 
Luke xix. 14. Hero is the vei*}* same kingdom of God, or 
church whereof they were, ond we are subjects; os tJicy 
elsewhere are called Christ's citizens, and he, their king. 


Abrnliam. Nnnc unci Jiicol.. Tlie 
p.irins ll'c K|.li.>Mims bct'ur,' llicir 
vniili. ■' 'I'Ury "fre in limes post wi 
jinjic, nnd without God in Uio wori' 
therein showing thM the Jews in 
calling, liod all thene ; u thojr also 
EphesiatiB being of far off, niKdfl 
Christ: unto which add that the Gen 
by the preaching of the gospel, eo-l 
with the Jews, who were before the hi 
iii. 4—6 ; Hcb. vi. 37 : and banng aU 
all GRtcn of the same spiritual meat, i 
Bamc spiritual drink, Christ 

And such is the dcameas of those 
coTcnant and church, witli and of Abm 
the fame in nature with ours, and lo 
Fhurch of the gospel, as that he who go 
their light, would cover tlio sun with a n 
as every by-way, and false profession (tu 
otiicr liltely things iu it) hath some or ot 
error, as tliat bU having spiritual ejei 
much some way or other, may diseovn 
liord mark out this profession of Anabai 
heaven, by this error, that the covenant 
will be thy God, and the God of thy see* 
of the law, and not of the gospel. Upe 
standing, doth depend the rejecting of 
church and baptism : aa also Qie rcpeati 
received in false churches, as mar v"—- 
observes their plcftdin" *"- 



of the fiutliful into the church, nnd to the baptism thereof: 
and so, after to answer what is objected, uitemiingliDg also, 
amongst mine answers, other proofs, as occasion Is. 

Now 1. These men grant, that, according to the cove* 
nant mentionetl, Jer. xxxi., and Ilcb. viii., tlie chwrh is to 
be gathered, and baptism to ho administered : and that 
the infants of tlie faitliful (for they hold it of all), are under 
a covenant, or promise of salvation, by Christ; whence I 
conclude, tliat since there is but one new covenant, or 
testament established in the blood of Christ, therefore 
these mfiuits (and of others hereafter) have interest in the 
church gathered according to tliis covenant, and in the 
baptism thereof. 

2. If the covenant made with Abraham and his seed, 
whereof circumcision was a seal, were the covenant of the 
gos]>el, or new testament, as I have formerly proved, 
tlicn standeth it good to all the faithful, imd their seed to 
the world's end, notwithstandhig the diiTiMrnt ordinances 
acconling to the considerations of Chris t's l)cing to come, 
and beinpf come in the fli'sh. And so these men denying 
our seed this covenant, and privilej^e of entrance, do deny 
the gospel and new te^^tamcnt. And if '* tlio kingdom of 
God," or church state of the Jews, which did coniprchcnd 
infants witli their parents, 1k5 given to us. and we nmdo " one 
body" with them, then must tlie chiu'cli now comprehend 
infants also with tlieir parents : otherwise we ore not the 
same body, and kingdom with them. Matt. xxi. 43 ; Eph. 
iii. Ti. Aiul if with the mibelieving Jews, their infmits were 
*• broken oflf " (who are, otlienvise, unbroken off at tliis 
day), then must our infants be planted in with us, whom 
God hath given to believe : otherwise we arc not " planted 
in tlieir place." And if tho Jews shall be ** grafted in 
again,** which "again" shows it to be of them who had 
been grafted in before, if tliey continue not in belief, 
Uien must the infants be gi*nfted in witli their poi'cnts at 
the first, and so our seed with us. Rom. xi. 1 7, 23. 

8. That God did, out of his special love, separate from 
the world, tho infants with their beloved parents into his 
church and covenant imder tlie seal thereof, before Clirist*8 
coming, the Scriptm*es expressly teach, and every one will 
grant. Gen. zvii. 7; Lev. xx. 34, 20; Deut xxix. 10, 11. 



Except these men can show where God hath cast the in* 
fants of tliose beloved pai*ents oat of the church into the 
world, nnd Uiken tliat his love from them, they most 
romnin in the church to tlie world's end. For what God 
hath once CHtahlished, God only can repeal : and that tliis 
covenant with Abraliam was not the old cancelled corcnant, 
or testament, I have proved bcfoit?. Tlicy bid iw prove 
that chihircn are of tlie church, and to be baptized : but 
we require of them proof how they arc cast out of tho 
church, and baptism Uiereof : and how tho grace of God is 
so shortened by Clirist*s coming in the flesh* as to cast out 
of the church, the greatest part of tlie church before, tho 
uifant*? of believers t 

4. The Lord Jesus sent out his apostles, Matt, xxviii. 10, 
to •• teach/* or make disciples, " all nations," and to " bap- 
tize them :** opposing all nations to tliat one nation of tlio 
Jews : as if he should have said thus : I have formerly 
declared my will to that one nation, and circumcised it : 
jjo you now, and ** leach all nations," and bapti/e them. 
Now if Christ's meaning had been, that tliey should not 
with tlie ]):irents (being niaile disciphfS and baptized) bap- 
tize the children, as before they had with tho parents 
(being made disciples and circumcised) circumcisctl tlic 
children, it had been needful he hiul given them a caveat 
to leave tho children of the faithful out in tlie world, 
tliough they had formerly been in the chui*ch. If it be 
objected, that thoy who were taught, and " believed, wero 
to be baptized," tliereforo not infimts, I deny the conse- 
quence : which should be, if it wero true, and tliereforo not 
infidels, and such as I'efuso the gospel. And tliis is the 
opposition which the Scriptures make, setting impenitent 
and unbelieving persons, against the penitent and be- 
lievers, and not cnildren against their parents, whieh is 
childish to imagine. 

5. The apostlo Peter, Acts ii. 3R, 30, exhorts the Jews 
to repent, and to be baptized, upon this ground, tliat " tlie 
promise was made to tliem, and their children, and to all 
afar otT as many as the lK>nl should call.** As if he should 
say, God hath promised unto Abndiam, that he would be 
his God, and Uie God of his*see<l, in that blessed seed 
Christ He. hath now remembered his holy coTenant, or 

\ > i 





promise, and Christ is come to you his own. Luke i. 7S 
John i. 13. Do not by your unbelief, and impenitence d< 
prire yourselves, and your cliildren of the fruit of thi 
gracious promise: but that it may be profitable to yot 
' and them, repent, and so be baptized for your confirm! 
tion : and let the seal bo set to tlie covenant in which yo 
and your children arc. 

To elude this place alleged in my former book, Mi 
Helwisse, in page 1 77, comments upon it in thcso words 
" The apostle saith to and of all the unbelieving Jews, an 
Gentiles, The promise is made to you, and to your childrer 
even as many as tlie Lord shall call :" and so taking hi 
own imagination both for text and exposition, ho bids m 
*' prove that by children there are meant infants/* 

Those words, *' to them that ai*o afar off,** which he leave 
out in his accustomed boldness witli the Scriptures, witi 
the words following, arc not meant of the Gentiles at all 
but of the Jews "far off** in time, as the original Grcc 
beareth it. For ncitlier was Peter himself yet so wcl 
informed of the calling of the Gentiles, neither, had ho s 
been, was it then a fit time to speak of it to the wea 
Jews. He speaks, then, indefinitely of the Jews as th 
seed of Abralmm, and within the JiOrd s covenant, or pre 
mise : whom therefore, Arts iii. 25, ho calls the sons of th 
covenant: and to the Jew alone, as is evident, where, Act 
ii. 14, 16, 2*2, 29, he quotes the prophecies of Joel, ant 
David : which to unbelieving Gentiles had been in vain 
Yea, that of the promise ho directs distinctly to such Jew 
only, as hail the work of gmce begun in them : beinj 
" pricked in their hearts ** for the crucifying of Christ, an< 
earnestly set to know, and do the will of God. ver. 37, 30. 

That by ** children ** here are meant infants, I have, b; 
the drift of the place, and conference of otlier scriptures 
proved ; and that the Holy Ghost speaks of the covenan 
with Abraham, neither was there, otlierwise, cause ofnamini 
their children. 

Where ho further bids me prove that " the inheritanc< 
of the kingdom of heaven goes by succession of genera 
tion, as tlie land of Canaan did,** he begets bastardlj 
errors of his own, and theif would have me nourish tliem 
For neither did the land of Canaan come by succeMion ol 



generation, but by God*s promise made upon condition of 
faitli and holiness, as I have formerly proved ; much less 
doth the kingdom of heaven, but by God s gracious pro- 
mise and gift, both to young and old. These men think 
tlic kingdom of heaven comes to all infants so dying; and 
dotii it, tiiercfore, conic by carnal generation ? If it come 
otluTwise to all, and by the free grace of God in Christ, as 
they suppose ; can they see no otlior way, but it must needs 
conic to the infants of tlie faithful, by carnal generation ? 
as if their estate wore worse than tlio estate of all the rest? 

Add to this scripture that which we read, Acts xvi. 14« 15, 
tliat God having ** opened the heart of Lydia,** to attend 
to and believe tlie word of Paul : *'slio was baptized, and 
her family." Sho believed, and tho fruits and effect 
tlicreof was, she and her family were baptized. Witli these 
tirni;j;*< dotii agree Christ our LordV taking the little children 
(to wit of the Jewish church) in iiis arms, his blessing them, 
tlmt is, his conniiunicating his grace with them, and pro- 
nouncing that of buch is the kingdom of heaven : as also 
]iis comninn<rmg tlie bringing of such unto him. Mark x. 
14, 1(). In bh^ssing them visibly, he sho>vs tlicm to be 
lawful incinhcrs of his visible church or body; and more 
plainly in pronouncing the king«lom of heaven, which is 
his c1 lurch upon earth, to be of such. In commanding 
such to bo brought uiilo him. lie commands tliem by con- 
sctfuence, to be baptized ; since they cannot be brought 
unto him ])ci'sonaliy. as then, nor otherwise outwardly, or 
by men, save by baptism. And if infants be to partake of 
Christ's blood, and S]>irit, there must be some ordinary 
means to apfdy thein, God working onlinarily by ordinary 
means, and the same none but baptism, that lavacher (laver) 
of the new birth, as the apostle calleth it. Tit. iii. 5. 

6. Lastly, Paul testifictli, 1 Cor. vii. 14, that if one of the 
parents be a believer, the " children arc holy,'* viz. with the 
holiness of the covenant (secret things being left to God) 
who olhenvise, are unholy. Neither is it truly answered, 
that are only holy to their parents* use, as is tlic un- 
believing wife to tho use of her husband. For, 1. They 
must cither be holy in Uicir persons, or tliey cannot be 
saved. S. He saidi tlie unbelieving wife is sanctified in, 
or to her believing husband : but he saitli not that childien 







are sanctifiod to their parents, but simply that tliey i 
sanctified, or liolj. A. It in not trite that children ( 
sanctified to the parents there spoken of: the one of th< 
being unbelieving to whom nothing is sanctified. Tit i. ; 
Lastly, The very drift of tlio place proves, that tlie apos 
hath reference to the covenant of Abralmm, '* I will be t 
God, and Uie God of thy seed." The thing he intends, 
to prove it lawful for a believing husband, or wife to abi 
wiUi an unbelieving wife, or husband. This he proves 
the covenant made with Abraham, and with even* faith 
son and daughter of Abraham, that he will l>e tlio God 
his or her seed : and so endow them with the holiness 
the covenant : and that, therefore, they should not mn 
scruple of living with their (though unbelieving, if oth 
wise lawful) wives, and husbands. And in this interprc 
tion is force of argument, botli for the opostle*s moanii 
and Corinthians* satisfaction. And so, the seed of t 
faithful being holy with the hcdinrss of the covenant a 
necessarily, within the same covenant which Imllowcth the 

Now, whereas, some mnr\'ol why th<' Holy Ghost sper 
not more plainly, and cxjiressly of the admission of infai 
into the church and ba])tism thrroof, they must reme 
ber, 1. That none must jiresumo to t^Mich the liord how 
speak, but that nil are with reverence to senixrh out \ 
meaning. 2. That they may with ns much reason mai"^ 
why there is no express mention made of the easting < 
of the Jewish infants with their unbelieving parents, 
the ver}' same places the Holy Ghost speaks of the tnki 
the kingdom of God fmm them, for not bringing foi 
fruit; and of giving it to tlio Gentiles, who wouhl bri 
forth fruit : of breaking off the natural branches for i: 
belief; and of planting in the Gentiles by faith. N 
here is no mention of the infants of either. Both the c 
and other are comprehended for those outwnrd prcro; 
* tires and dispensations, in their ]>arents, as the brand 
in the roots: the infants of the godly, in their godly paren 
acconling to the tenor o^ God*s mercy : tlie infants of t 
ungodly in their ungodly parents, in the tenor of his ji 
ticc, of which more hereafter. 

And here, for the better clearing of things follow! 
thereabout, it is of special use to observe the divers ec 




sidcrntions, mid respects, in which tlio Scriptares speak of 
the Jewish church and ordinances : which are in number 

First, Considering the Israelites, in their just constitution 
iind callinpc of God, they wero tlie first-fruits and root, with 
the mass and branches, holy : Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
faithful ])or8ons, and their posterity an holy people unto 
tlic I^rd their God : separated unto him from all other 
people : beloved of him, and out of his love chosen to be a 
precious people wito himself; above all the people on the 
eartli : in whom God saw none iniquity, nor transgression : 
to wliom belonged the adoption, glory, covenants, consti* 
tiition of the law, worship, and promises : God s diildren, 
liaviii^ him tlieir Father: being the heir, and heirs of pro- 
mise: his dearest son, and the child of his delight: natural 
Inaiiches, and in tlic same regard, Jews by nature, and not 
sinnci*s of the Gentiles : Ghrisfs own : in Christ : without 
wlioni tlie Gentiles were : and the twelve tril)es worship- 
l>inf: Cf od instantly, day and night, in hope of tlie promised 
Clirist. Rom. xi. 10; Lev. xx. 20; Deut vii. 6—8; 
Nuinh. .\xiii. 21 ; Rom. ix. 4; Isa. Ixiii. 10; Exod. iv. 22; 
Gal. iv. 1 ; Heh. vi. 17 ; Jer. xxxi. 20 ; Rom. xi. 21 ; Gal. 
ii. 15; John i. 11 ; Eph. ii. 12; Acts xxvi. 0, 7. So for 
their ordinanees, in their institution and right use ; their 
circumcision was a seal, or sign of the righteousness of 
faith : their ofTerings a sweet savour unto the Lonl, for the 
for;j:iveness of sins, as leading to Christ by faith: tlieir 
wasliings ajiplying the blood of Christ, which tliey figured, 
lioni. iv. 1 1 ; lleh. iv. 2 ; Lev. iv. 20, 31, 35 ; Numb. xr. 
Jil — 20: unto which David had respect, when he pruyed, 
tliat for the forgiveness of his adidter}' and murder, God 
wiHild wash him thoroughly from his iniquities, and purge 
liim with hyssop, Psa. Ii. 4, 0, with Lev. xiv. 4, ^c, that he 
might he clean. Thus wore the oracles given, " lively :" the 
law, "spiritual :** tlio manna and rock, ^* spuritual,** and sacra- 
mentally. " Christ" Acts vii. 38; Rom. vii. 12, 14; 1 Cor. 
X. 3, 4. 

Secondly, The Scriptures, sometimes, speak of tliat 
church and ordinances by way of comparison with the 
church and ordinances after Christ's deaUi, and ascension.' 
And in that -respect the apostle, comparing not person 



with person, but church with church, calls it, though " the 
heir, yet a child, in tlie nonage: and the ordinances 
tutors, and governors, under which it was, Gal. ir. 1; ii.4; 
but the church now a man of full age, and so freed from 
them unto greater liberty. The person is the same both 
a child, and a man grown : tliough not to be trained up 
after ilie same manner: even such is the difference between 
tliem and us. They as a child, hod a harder hand held 
over them, and were stinted sundry ways, where we are 
free. They were taught by signs, and hand-writings, and 
pointings with tlie finger, as it were : where our institution 
is more manlike, and simple. They had earthly Uiings 
more distinctly, and fully ; we, heavenly. In which respect, 
the church since Christ's ascension, and possession of 
heavenly gloiy, is called more especially *' tlio kingdom of 
heaven/* which he dispenseth, witli more tlian kingly 
bounty in the largess of his spirit. Matt. xi. J1. They 
had the gospel by ** the prophets shining as a light in a 
dark place:" we, by Christ, and the apostles, " as tlie dawn- 
ing of the day, and morning star." 2 Pet. i. 19. They had 
the prophecies, and '* shadows of good things to come," 
Heh. X. I : we, the stories and remembrances of tlie same 
good tilings to come, even Christ exhibited acconling to 
Sie promise of the Father. 1 Cor. xi. S-l. In which respect 
it is also said. Gal. iii. 21, 25, that faith was not come to 
tliem : but that ** tlicy were shut np into the faith to bo re- 
vealed :" and that " they died, and received not tlie pro- 
mise,** to wit, Christ come in the flesh. Heb. xi. 54, 40. 
And in this consideration, and comparison, neither Abra- 
ham, nor David received the promise, or had faith come 
unto them, or " were made perfect,** as the apostlo 

Thirdly, I1ic Scriptures do oft speak of the Jewish 
church, and ordinances, in respect of the degenerate state 
of the one, and corrupt abuso of the other, in tliat estate. 
Which, as at otlier times, so were tlio one, and other very 
notable in tlie days of Christ, and his apostles : tlio leaven 
of Pharisaical hypocrisy, besides the worse error of the 
Badducees, having so far infected, as that the greatest part 
of the Israelites being ignorant of tlie righteousness of 
6od» and going about to establish their own righteousness 




(lid not submit themselves to the righteousness of Ood» 
in receiving Christ Rom. x. 3. Thej did not consider 
the law as given for transgression ^and to kill them, as 
revealing Uic will of God in the rigour of justice, and his 
eternal, and unchangeable judgment against sin. Gal. 
iii. 19; llom. vii. 11: unto which also the sacrifices, and 
ceremonies served in their legal, and literal use, that so 
(1cs])airing in Uicmselves, they might fly to the free pro- 
mise of grace in that promised seed of Abraham now come; 
but taking the law, and ordinances thereof, to be for out- 
ward discipline only, they imagined tlicy might by outward 
obedience satisfy it, and therein be justified before God : 
and so did glory in the outward works, and ceremonies 
tliereof: especially in tlicir "circumcision of tlie flesh.** 
Koni. ii. 17. And as tlio most of tliem conceiving carnally 
or fleslilily of tlio Lord's covenant did glory in tlie flesh. 
And that they were Abraham *s seed, and circumcised, and 
so despised the free promise of gmce in Christ, ho others 
of them receiving him in part, did mingle with tlio right- 
eousness of faith the righteousness of the law, Phil. iii. 3,4 ; 
souring also with that leaven many of the Gentiles espe- 
ciidly in the churches of Galatia. Whereupon it was, Uiat 
Uic apostle wrote to the Hebrews, and Galatians as he did, 
both of the persons, and tilings we speak of. 

The persons, whether Jews, or Judaising Christians, 
glorying in the works of the law, especially in their circum- 
cision in the flesh, ho calls Abraham *s seed according to 
the flesh, carnal, and under the yoke of Ishmaelitish bond- 
nffc, of whom Ishmael was a figure ; who being the son 
of the bond -woman, and bom after the flesh, or ordinary 
course of nature, mocked at him who was bom after the 
promise, and was therefore cast out of Abral)am*8 house ; 
and so is propounded as a figure of all tlicm, Jews, or 
Gentiles, who in the confidence of works, reject tlie pro- 
mise of grace, and persecute them that embrace it; bring- 
ing themselves also therein under tlie bondage of the whole 
law. And thus all, whether Jews or Gentiles, then or 
now, despising the free promise of grace, and looking to 
works for justification, were and are rank Ishmaelites, and 
of Abraham *s seed according to tlie flesh, as tlie apostle 
expressly taxetb the Galatians, desiring to be under the 



law, though not descending naturally of Abraham. Phil, 
iii.d; Gal. Hi. 3, and V. 1,3, 4; Geu.xri.l — 4,andxxi. 0, 10; 
Gal. iv. 21— 23, 29— 31. 

Now, that I may apply these things to the present pur- 
pose, what is all this of Abraham's seed, according to the 
flesh, in the apostlo*8 moaning, to the infants of tlio faitli- 
ful, whether of Uic Jews formerly, or Gentiles now? Did, 
or do they, iis Ishmael, glory m the Hosh, and mock at 
God*s pnmiise, or any way reject Christ? Did, or do they 
" establish the righteousness of the law, and of works,'* or 
" persecute him that is bom after the Spirit,*' as all they 
who are '* bom after the flesh,'* in the a]>ostIo'8 meaning, 
did, and always do? Only they, who thus Ishmael-liko, 
glory in works, nnd persecute the true believers, are by the 
apostle railed AbnUmm's seed, according to the flesh, and 
of Ishmaol. So for the ordinances, and works of the law 
tlius abused, and perverted for justification, tliey were 
base, and beggarly, unprofitable, unholy, unhallowing, yea 
dross and dung : yea, pernicious, and hurtful, cursing, and 
killing them, who ?o wrought, or deemed them. And thus 
considered, tin; apo.stle to the Onlatians, Philippiims, and 
Hebrews spciiketh of them ; giving them, as Luther used 
to say, ignominious names, having to do with those, who 
either did, or were in special danger, thus to pervert 

And thcFiO grounds thus laid, unto that his objection, 
page 1 07, that " the covenant made with Abraham was a 
carnal covenant, because it had a worldly sanctuary, and 
priesthood, and camal rites purifying tlie flesh, but not 
purging the spirit," I do answer, tliat those ordinances 
were no part of the covenant made with Abraham, but 
accessories unto the law given 430 years after: tliough 
there might bo a spiritual use of them, and was, by faith, 
as of any ordinances now and as of the moral law itself, 
to them that believe and repent : but in, and according 
unto this lawful use of tliem the apostlo speaketli not, but 
in respect of their abuse, as either severed from Christ, 
as their end ; or joined with him for justification. 

His assertion, so oft repeated, that " God in his cove* 
nant with Abraham, promised but worldly things, and so 
required only carnal obedience^*' I have fonneny. refuted, 



oi; a notorious ground of Judaism and Fliarisoism. Nci- 
t]icr was it the more a carnal covenant, because the sign 
was set in the flesh, tlion is oura now, because baptism is 
aduiiniHtored u^ion tlie flesh, or bodies of the persons 

But whore he adds, Uiat *' the judgment for the break- 
In^ of Uio cuvcniuit of circumcision was a worldly judg- 
ment,** nnd tliat ** no judgment of condemnation as pro- 
nounced against any, thougli presumptuously breaking tlie 
oriVi nances, and law of Moses, but bodily deatli,** quoting 
for tliat puiposo Gen. xvii. 14 ; Numb. xv. 80 ; Heb. x. 28, 
he proceeds on, indeed, from Pharisaism, which made the 
promises, and Messioli carnal, to plain Sadducism, wliich 
denied a resurrection, 08|>ecially unto the Jews, which, as 
it is written of tliem, hatli been the persuasion of divers 
Anaha])tists in fonuer times. For if etcmid death were not 
tlu'eatencd the Jews for breaking the law, and command- 
ments given by Moses, tliough ])rcsnmptuously and blas- 
p]iomonsly, of which ho speaks. Numb. xv. 30, nor for tlio 
worsliipping of false ^ods, of which sin Paul speaks, Heb. x. 
1!>^, compared witli Dcut. xvii. 2, 3, 0, then, for no sin what- 
soever, and so there is no judgment to come, nor needs bo 
no Christ to save from it. 

Tlic scriptures quoted speak indeed of bodily dcatli, 
but including in it spiritual death, without repentance, as 
did their bodily blessings promised include spiritual. The 
a])o.stle Paul speaking of tlic last judgment, llom. ii. 12, 
snith tlmt '* tlic Jews sinning, in or under the law, should 
be condemned,*' (to wit eternally) " by the law.** It is truo 
ho addeth, tliat ** tliey who so sinned, might through re- 
pentance be saved :** and so may they that sin against tlie 
gospel now, except their sin be against tlie Holy Ghost, 
wliich was then unpardonable, as now, and in so saying, 
he grants, though ho obscn'e it not, that tho sm then was 
in itself, and without repentance, damnable. 

He adds, page 170, tliat " by our ground wo must bap- 
tize all our household, and infimts, both bom in the house, 
and bought witli money.** I answer, 1. That it followetli not. 
that if we succeed tho Jews in the covenant of the Lord, 
and our baptism and Loixl*8 Supper, tlieir circumcision 
and passoYer,-therefore there must be on agreement in all 



the particulars about them. The substance of the Lord's 
covenant with Abroliam, was, tliat ho would be his God, 
and the God of his seed : and this about his bond-servants 
was an accessory unto it And of it there was a more spe- 
cial reason for Uiem, than for us : because tliey were to bo 
separated, even civilly, in a more special manner from un- 
circumcised persons, than we now from persons unbap- 
tized, as appeoreth, Etta x. 3, 11, &c. ; Neh. ix. 2, and xiii. 
8, 23, 26, 30; Dan. i. 8; Acts x. 0—11, and xi. 3, &c. 
2. Even the families, and households of the faithful now, 
if they be in the estate of. Abraliam*8 family, are to be 
baptized also. 

And for this purpose, it shall be useful to consider, what 
the Scriptures both promise, and testify of families, and 
houf^eholds. Tlic Lord promised Abraham the fatlier of 
the faithful, that in him all the families of the earth should 
be blessed : bids him circumcise all the males of his 
family, which he knew before he would command to keep 
tlie way of the I^ord. Gen. xviii. 10. As Jacob also purged 
his household from idolatr}% and all unclcnnnoss, that ho 
might Rftcrifice unto God witli them. Thus Joshua pro- 
fcsseth for himself, and his household, that they will servo 
the Lord : and David, tliat he who walked in a perfect 
way should ser^'e him : and that none working deceit, 
should dwell in his house. Accordinp^ly the Loixl told 
Zaccheus, when ho became a son of Abrahnni, that that 
day salvntion was come into his house. We read likewise 
of Cornelius, that he was a devout man, and one that feared 
God with all his household : as was the jailor also con- 
verted, and baptized, witli all his family. Gen. xviii. 10, nnd 
xxi. Ut 3, 12, xii. 3, xvii. 13, xxxv. 2 ; Josh. xxiv. 15 ; Psa. 
ci. 0, 7 ; Lnkc xix. ; Acts x. 2, xvi. 32 — 34. And lastly, 
in tlie places brought by Mr. Helwisse for the gntlicring 
of the church under Christ, the Lord promiseth to make 
his covenant with the house, or family of Israel, and with 
the family of Judah. Jcr. xxxi. 31 ; Heb. viii. 8. In all 
which, with other scriptures, wo see how the tenor of the 
Lord's promise, and blessing nms upon godly governors, 
and their families. Nor but tliat it comes oil to pass 
otherwise, and that faithful governors have unbelievei's in 
their households : but that this is the ordinary, and orderly 

.11,: fatlitr of r)R- fiiiUifnl " of (ii, 
sci.lof llic;i)it, ill >ol 
]i;iil iio |>irl ill it, nor iiromisc of ' 
Uiuii^'li J <loiil)t not but, Uicr uod 
tlie family, majr be admitted into 
iDoniresUtion of a veiy small meui 
misc of lubniission unto bU good i 
lie, and private f as might thejr jet 
liavo l)ccn admitted into the Israel 
tu less menRura of revelation of grac 

Ho luldctli. pnge 108. tliat " baptism 
be tlie batitism of amendment of lit 
sins," Mark i. 4, tlie buij-ing into the t 
men miglit wnlk in nomioss of life, . 
putting on of ChriNt hy faitli. Gal. iii. S 

I answer, that these ore preparatioi 
and uses of baptism for men of j'eoiv : 
idlcgcd to the prejudice of infants : a 
want of fiiitli, by which men of years 
works, by itliich tliey are to bo judged, 
die salviition of infants, which have tliei 
Lord hod the snmo outward circumetH 
anil the Hamo baptism witli us, and ycl 
prci>ai-ation unto, nor ends or uses of 
wiili tlicm or us. Jjuke ii. 91 ; Matt iii 

Besides, upon this ground, any mi| 
against tlio circumcision of infants of < 
licved before he was circumcised, Hon 
ends and uses of circumcision wom " 
righteousness of fa'H' - 



Judges xiT. 3 ; Acts xi. 3 : to confinn faith in tlic time of 
danger es|>eciaUy against Uie uncircumcised : and to be a 
sign of distinction and separation from tho same uncir- 
cumcised Gentiles. These were the ends and uses of 
circumcision, which, notwithstanding infants could not 
possibly propound or have, were Uiey therefore to bo 
kept from it ? So reasons this man against the baptism of 
infants : which followetli in tlio room of tlie other, as I 
have formerly proved. It is sufficient, that the inftmts of 
believers are capable of the manifestation of God*s good- 
ness towanls tliem, in being baptized, as of old they were 
eirciuncised, according to the covenant The other par- 
ticular ends were and are to follow, and to bo attained in 
their times. >\1iero let it also be noted, that whereas, in 
Uie Lord's Supper tlicro are required for the act of par- 
taking, Hinidry works implying understanding, and know- 
ledge in the partaker; as his being put in mind, tliat it is 
Christ's body and blood given for him: that, he take, eat, 
and drink it in remcuihrnnce of Ghrisfs death : there is no 
such thing in the act of i]u\ administering of baptism : but 
only tho person hapti/od in tlie nanio of the Kiithor, Son, 
and Holy (thost Tiie same dilForenco may ho also ob- 
served to have hfcn of old, between circumcision, and tlie 
eating of the piissovcr, prohibited them who were not capa- 
ble of tho meaning of tiic mystery. Kxod. xii. 20, 27. 

That wo " hold, and [>rofcss that Christians beget Chris- 
tians,'* and '• tliiit only wo " (whom he calls Brownists, 
page 172, l)ccauso we are not Anabaptists) '* beget infants 
that aro heirs of salvation, and Ufider Uio covenant of 
graee,** is but his rash, and nnhonest accusation of us. 

All men know we h(»hl tho reformed chun;hes, in all 
places, the true chnrrhos of Christ, and so within tho 
Lord's covenant, the faithful parents with their seed. Tho 
like also we think of such in England in their persons, 
and seed witli them, as are made partakers of the fnitlt of 
Abraham. 2ndly, wo hold, that our, as all other men s, 
children are, by natural generation, tlie children of wradi, 
Eph. ii. 3 : and that it is by the grace of God, that we, 
and they witli us, aro within this the Lord's covenant, as 
was Abmhani and his seed. 

Against our doctrine, tliat baptism is a seal of tho co- 



v«nant of tlio gospel, ho objectcth, that then wnsliiog with 
>vatrr is a seal in tlio flesh, and makes a print, or ini- 
])rcssion. I answer, noting in tlic^first place, how he calls 
tlio very ** outward wasliiug with water, baptism,*' that, 
even tliat washing by God s appointment, is an outward 
seal, or sign of confirmation, of tlic New Testament in the 
blood of Christ ; for that wo mean by a ** seal :** and to 
rcrpiire a print, or impression, is but to quarrel about the 
word, or letter; when even circumcision itself, to speak 
properly, was no print. "NVhero Christ teachcth, Johu 
vi. v!7, that '* the Father sealed him,** dotli he mean tliat 
he set any jirint n])on his soul or body, or more tlmn this, 
that lie dt^sij^cd him to the oflice of the Mediator ? Where 
tlio Lord bids the prophet ** seal up the law among his dis- 
ciples." would he have a print set in their ilesh, or more, 
than that Ik* should more fully declare, and confirm the 
law unto thom? Isa. viii. 10. When Paul tells the 
Coiinthians that they are th<* seal of his apostlesliip, doth 
ln^ moan any nion; than that their conversion from pngan- 
\^m both hy doctrine and signs and wonders of an apostle 
amongst thrni, was a continnation theivof ? 1 Cor. ix. 2 ; 
*-i Cor. xii. 11. So. since haptisni is, by Gods npnoint- 
inont, a declaration, and (^onfinnation of the inward, and 
clhu'tJial washing by that bloml and spirit of Clirist, fix>m 
tho guilt, and coningicm of sin, it is rightly, and truly 
culloti a seal, or sign of continnation of Christ's testament 
ostiihlishod in his blood; as is also tho Lord's Supper, of 
tho breaking of his body, and shedding of his blood for 
our rsins. And for this scaling, and confinning of Christ's 
. tostauirnt in his blood those ordinances especially :icr\-e, 
iuhI are by his ser>'ants. to be nsod. 

Jlo tells us, that "in th«^ new testament there is no 
seal, hut the seal of tlie Spirit:*' and quotes Kjdi. i. 17, and 
other scriptures spoaking of that inward seal, luid j^ronng 
it. indeed ; but not disproving the outward seals, but 
plainly establishing tliem. For if God s teaching of, and 
testifying unto us, inwardly, by his Spirit, tliat we are his 
in Christ, bo an inward seal, tlien is his teaching of, and 
testifying unto us. the same thing outwanlly, by tho gospel, 
fmd sacraments, an outward seal, or seals, and so rightly 
called. Andiiot only the spirit, which is inward, but water, 



i(S6 or utuoiooB comnnnoN. 

and blood, which are outward, do bear record of Christ, 
or confirm, and seal up hii dcaUi unto us. 1 John y. 8, In 
respect of which water and blood isBuing out of bis side. 
our sacraments are said to have flonn Uionce. John zix. 34. 
Lastly, Abraham, our fatlior, w)iod be belierod, was also 
sealed bjrthe Spirit of promise: and yet tliis hindered not. 
but that both he, anfl his seed hod the outward seal of 
eircumcision added ; c^'en so our good God, knoning how 
ftail, and feeble in faith we arc, hath to his gracious cove- 
nant, and promise in word, and writing, annexed, besides 
the inward seal of tlio Spirit, tlio outwurd seals, which we 
call sacramcntB, for tlio cnnfinnation tlicrcof, not in itself, 
but unto us : wliich we are therefore accordingly to use, 
with reverence, and thankfulness. 

His assertion, that " infants are not in the covenant of 
the new testament, and tlicrcforc not under tlio seal," I 
have formerly disproved. If tliey bo under the promiso of 
solvation, they haver a port, or legacy in the will, or testa- 
ment of Christ, or new covenant, which are both one : and 
BO in this seal of initiation, or entrance, baptism. 

To his niTirmalioii, tlint " parciitn cnnnot wet tlic seal 
upon their iiifunlH now, an they could the seal of circiim* 
cision of old, upon theirs," I do answer, that tliey cnnnot 
indeed sot tlic inward seal, no more could tlicy tlicn : hut 
the outward tticy con now, as then tlicy could : unto which 
God also scttctli tlic inward in due time, as ho liatli pro- 
mised, if tltcy make not themselves unworthy thereof. 

He objects in tlio last place against a ground in my book,* 
Iheformer part whereof is this: "The Scriptures evci^'whcro 
teach, Oiat pai-ents by their faith bring their children into tlie 
covenant of the church, and entitle tlicin to the promises." 
ThisIprovedfromGen.xviti.T; Acts ii. 37; which proofs I 
have also con finned against Ins tmjiist except ions. Habere 
objects furtlier, page 1 TO, tliat I "bring in a meritorious faith, 
'where myfaith is littloenough tobringmyscif under the cn ve- 
nantofOod.wereitiiot for his merciful acccptanceinChrisL" 

A vrnin. and ignorant collection : and by which tlte 

apostle teaching justification by faith, might, as tntly, hare 

been accused for bringing in a meritorious faitli, &c, I do 

not, then, make fi^ith a meriturioas cause to deserve, but 

• V«b vol, U. page* 29S, W. 

i 'V *^j w" li r% 

OP TUB BAPnnc or ixfaxts. UHl 

an instrumental means, or hand, as it were, to reeeiTO 
God*s gracious promises in Christ to the ftuthfol, and their 
seed : as Abraliam when God premised him to be *' his 
God, and the God of his seed, did by faith laj hold of, 
and receive this promise, and so interested himself and his 
in it, and the seal tliercof : which promise had ho not 
believed, he had visibly, or before men, dcpriTed himself 
and liis of all interest in it The same I judge of all other 
faitliful parents, leaving merit to free-willers, who hold 
particular election to arise from faith foreseen: and, as 
tiiis man aflirmed unto me and others, that if God showed 
to him any more favour, or mercy, tlian to the profancst 
man in the world, it were partiality in him. 

Ho adds, page 177, tliat "Abraham's faith and oamest 
prayer could not bring Ishmael his child of thirteen ycnra 
old, nor his otlier children by Keturah, under the eovenant.** 
Gon.xvii. 18, 21. Where meaning, as ho must, the corenant 
of circumcision, he overthrows one error, as ho tliat inter* 
feres, strikes down one ill leg, by another. For, 1. Sinee 
Ishmael, and the children by KetuiiUi, were circumcised, and 
yet had no promise of the land of Canaan, his main founda* 
tion, which is, tliat ** God in the covenant of circumcision, 
promised nothing on his part, but the land of Canaan,'* is 
raised, and so all falls, which he builds upon it 2. Sinco 
the covenant tlicre spoken of was the covenant of cir- 
cumcision, and that Ishmael witli tlio rest were circumcised, 
how saitli he, that he and. they were not in tho covenant, 
to wit outwardly? Besides the Jjord tells Abraham, ver. 20, 
that he had heard his prayer touching Ishmael : though he 
meant to establish his covenant with Isaac, as the root; of 
which both the church, and promised seed should come, 
and unto whom Ishmael, witli the rest, should have sub- 
mitted, and adjoined himself; whom because he despised, 
and in him Christ, he was cut off from the church and cove* 
nant afterwards. Which tilings till tliey were revealed 
made no difference between Isaac and Ishmael: neitlier can 
tho like difference in God*s secret knowledge, or purpose, 
till tlie time of revelation, exclude one of the children of 
tlie faitliful now, more than another. 

Of Acts ii. 30, I have spoken formerly, and therefore 
come to the latter part of the ground, which hs putteth 


down tlins, page 176. " Ood takes occasion hy the ntos of 
parents to execute bin justice to condemnation, upon the 
children." " Wliere," ssilh he, "I double uiy sin, in that 
u before I mode the parent's faith the cause of blessing to 
Eslvft^on, 10 here, their infidelity a canse of God's judg- 
ment to condemnation, to tlieir children." Where the 
truth is, he both doubled, and trebleth injuiy upon me, 
■nd just blame upon himself. For first. I neither menUon, 
nor meddle wilh cltlicr tlio salTntion, or condemnation of 
infontx, though he fulxify mj- wonis, as if I did : our ques- 
tion being only nbout tiio outward, or visible covenant of 
the church, and privileges thereof; secret things being left 
to Ood, as J there ejiprcBsly speak, nllepng Deut. xxix. it9, 
for tliat purpose. Secondly, As I mnlto not tlie faith of 
parcntfl a csurc meritorious, as he imaginctl:, of that good 
nnto their children, but only n nictin<) of embracing God's 
gracious offer, and promise : so neither do I write, ns he 
challengetl) mo. that the fatlicr's infidelity is n cause of the 
children's dnjunalioii, but an occasion, which Ood usetli 
for the execution of his justice upon tlie children, being by 
nature the children of wniLh. That then, which I have 
written,* and do aTOUch, is, tliat God onlinnrily includeth 
in the parents, the infants, as branches in tliA root, either 
for blessings, or judgments visibly, or in respect of men, 
reserving to himself, the secret dispensation of things, 
according to tlie tenor cither of his mercy or justice. 
That the children of the faithful are with their parents in 
the visible covenant of God's love, I hnvo at largo proved 
by the Scriptures, and might allege for that purpose mnny 
more, Deut. iv. 37; Psa. xxxvii. 'ib, 20: and those not 
figurative, and shodowinh, but containing in them promises 
of eternal truth : liowsoever tliese men can have no more 
comfort in those promises for tlieir children, than if they 
were the children of Turks and Pagans. 

The other part touching tho administration of God's 
justice I proved in my book^ by sundiy scriptures: which 
because he posseth by, as unseen, I will here insert, as 
there I wrote, word for word. " Cain going out from the 
presence of tlie Lord, carried his posterity with him ; so 

• ridi vol. a. pnsM 2M, 2ST. 

t Ibid. 

or TOE BAFTaM OF nfFANTB. 339 

did Ishmaol and Esau theirs, the Ishmaelites and £dom* 
itcR. ** And if Uie Lord disclaim tlic motlior for an harlot, 
not reputing licr his wife, he i|ccounts the children no 
better than bastards, on whom ho will have no pity." Gen. 
iv. IG ; vi. 2 ; Hos. ii. 2, And if the children of tho Jews 
be not broken off witli tlieir parents, for their unbelief, 
tlicy arc successively within the Lord's covenant, c\-crj one 
of Uioni to tliis day. To llio same purpose we maj con* 
sidor how in the drowning of the old world : tho burning 
of Sodom and Gomorrah : Uie plaguing of Egypt, especially 
in tlie dcatli of tlie first-bom : tlio swallowing up of Datlian 
and Abirnm : tlie stoning of Achan : tlie destruction of the 
Canaan itoH and Amalekites : the rooting out of Eli's, Jero- 
boam's, and Baashan*s families, how I say in all these, and 
many more, though most grievous, yet most just judg- 
ments of God, tlie children were enwrapped in tlieir fathers* 
judgmentH : drowned, burned, swallowed up by tlie earth, 
and otherwise destroyed witli tliem. Gen. vi. 7; xix. 
24, 25; 1 Pet. iii. 20,*2l ; 2 Pet ii. 0; Exod. xi. 6; xii. 
20 ; Numb. xvi. 27, .12 ; Josh. vii. 24, 25. With which 
examples join the testimony of Job, t. 3, 4, ** Tlie liabita- 
tion of the fool is cursed : his children are far from safety : 
they are cnished in the gates, and tliere is no rescue :** and 
that of David. Psa. xxi. 10, " The Lord will destroy tlio fruit 
of his enemies from Uie earth, and tlieir seed from among 
the children of men : ** and again, Psa. xxxvii. 28, '* The 
seed of tlie wicked shall be cut off.** Yea, what need wc 
seek further for tliis dispensation, tlian David himself, . 
though a godly man, because of whoso sin, tlie child bom 
in adultery died tho death. 2 Sam. xii. 14, 18. What 
reason, then, tliis man had in his blind zeal thus to revile 
this doctrine, '* as a doctrine of devils,** and me, for it as ** a 
false prophet,'* let all wiso men judge. 

But, saith he, *' I propound tliis doctrine for a general 
rule.'* I do, for the ordinary course of God*s justice of 
which we speak, ^^llich notwitlistanding hinders not, but 
that his extraordinary mercy may, and dotli oil, and much, 
rejoice against his judgment. But let us see, what ho 
objcctoth. 1. That Abijali tho son of wicked Jeroboam, 
though young, yet was not cursed for his father's sin, 1 Kings 
xiv. First, I speak nowhere of any such cursing, as he casts 

S30 ' or BEuaioDB cohhomiok. 

out 3. Abijoli was not so young but he disliked his 
fiiUier's couims : and " had good found in him towards tha 
Lord," ver. 13. 3. It is e\-i<]cnt, ver. 10, that the Lord 
punished hia father's ain, in his death, ver. 11. Tliat in 
£zok. xriii. 14, 17, is impertinent, being spoken of a son 
forsaking his father's sin, and doing tlto contraiy ; villi 
whom the Lord dot)) not deal in the eourse of his justice, 
but of his mercy. So for Josiah, nt ci^it years old, he for- 
sook the wicked ways of his fatlier Ainmon, " and sought 
after the God of his father David." it Chron. xxxir. 1—^. 
And yet eren for him, it appears in the Scriptures, that 
the Lord in giving him into the hands of the king of Egypt, 
had respect to the sins of Judah, and so of his father, 
amongst and above tlie rest. In his lost example, he 
aflirmeth untruly, that the Lord did not punish tlie people 
of Israel's children for their great tmnsgression, Nnmb. 
xiT. 20, 2T, ic. It is expressly affirmed, ver. 33, tliat tlioir 
" children should wander in the wilderness forty years, and 
bear their whoredoms :" though respecting their fore- 
fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and his promiso to 
them, he brought tlie mostof tlicm into the land of Ca- 
naan, at the lost : which Mr. Hctwissc grants to have been 
God's mercy, and therein, that in his justice he might have 
token them away also. And so. ver. IS, t1)0 Lord plrunly 
showetli, llint his justico moved him to the destroying of 
them altogctlier, save tliat his singular mercy did rejoice 
a^inst judgment And so this instance is clear against 

Wliere he further confesscUi with me, that all are by 
nature, children of wrath, conceived, and bom in sin ; and 
tlien demands, page 178, whether I hold not all children 
alike children of wrath : or that some parents confer grace 
by generation, more than otliers; or if not, which he 
assures himself we will confess, how I con prove, that God 
, should execute bis justico to condemnation upon some 
children, for the sins of their parents, and show mercy 
upon others, for the faitli of uieir parents, seeing God 
hath said, that every one shall receive salvation, or con- 
demnation, according to that, which ho hath done in the 
^esb, and not according to that his parents hare done, I 
uinrer aundty things. 



And, first, as before, that I do not say that infants are 
saved or condemned for tlie faith or sins of their parents* 
as ho most untruly accnseth me. ^ The infants saved, are 
saved by the grace of God in Christ ; which their faithful 
parents also believe, according to God*s promise, *'I will 
be tby God, and the God of thy seed.** Those thatperi^. 
(though I desire, if such were tho will of God, and so 
could gladly believe, if tlie Scriptures taught it, that all 
were saved) do perish for that original guilt and eorrup- 
tion, wherein they are conceived and bom, being "the 
children of wrath by nature,** and therein liable to God s 
curse every way. But for that parents are, in a sort, in 
tlicir children, and so punished in tlieir punishments, their 
sins also may and do concur as con-causes, or causes with 
other of God*s judgments : both the Scriptures and reason 
teaching, that many causes may meet togethor in one 
effect Yet it must be here and always remembered, 
tlmt our question is not about the peremptory salvation or 
condemnation of any, but about their admission or non- 
admission into the visible church. And strango it is for 
tliis man to make it all one to be saved and to be of the 
visible church ; and to bo condemned, and to be out of it, 
specially for children ; since he will have them all saved, 
and yet none of them at all to be of the church. Secondly, 
If he were assured, as ho saith, that wo would ** confess 
that no parents do confer gi'ace by generation more than 
others," I am a«;surcd he showed the less grace in accusing 
us in atiothcr place, page 172, against his conscience, to 
hold, "that Christians beget Christians by generation.** 
Thinlly, Since all are by nature alike children of wrath, I 
would know of these free-willers, how some, become the 
children of God and believers, and some, abide under the 
wrath of God ? To make tho things or persons, which are 
nltogetlier alike in themselves, unlike, there must come 
sometliing from elsewhere, and that not alike, unto them 
both. For either let them alone which are alike, or add 
alike unto tliem both, and they will remain alike stilL 
It must not tlien be any universal grace alike common to 
all, which makes them who are alSce to become unlike 
one to another. 

Mr. Helwisse, elsewhere and rightly, disclaims all free- 


3na OF HEUoiocs oonnmioH. 

will, or power in a man's self to work out his Balvadon, 
but teacheth, thnt " tliia grace, wliich is liis mere/ in 
Christ, God hath giTcii to all, tliougli all receive it not ;" 
for which ho quotes Phil. i. 10, II; Acta vti. 61 ; xiii. 46. 
Where first he lays a notorious error for Iiis foundation, in 
making all and every person in Uie world partakers of the 
grace of God in Christ. For they to whom God gives 
grace in Clirist, must tlicmtiGlvcs bo in Christ ; and so all 
the unbelievers and wicked in the worhl should be in 
Christ, which is expressly contrary <o tlie Scriptures. Rom. 
x-iii. ] : Gal. V. 34; £ph. ii. IS; John iii. 3. So that 
wicked and unrcgenernte men liavo noitlier power in them- 
selves nor in Clirist (in whom thoy are not), to work out 
their salvation. Tliey, inilecd, who aro in Christ by faiUi, 
' and have received his spirit, ore tliereby enabled to work 
out tltcir salvation ; which Phil. i. 10, 11, provcth ; as tho 
rest also tiro able nn<l hnvo power to despise and reject the 
grace of God olTcrcd to condcmnntion, and iliis tlie other 
two i4criptures, Acts vii. 51, anil xili. JO, do prove. Which 
yet a great part of the wicked in tho world do not ; as not 
having BO much as lieiu'd of Clirist, at least in any com- 
petent mensurc for solvation l>y him ; but xhnll be judged 
according to tlio low of nature, written in tlie crenlurea, 
and in their natural consciences. Roni. ii. 13. Again, ho 
Epcnks con trad ic lions in saying, that all have this grace or 
power in Christ, and Ihnt God givelli it to all, and yet con- 
fessing that all receive it not. For thotigb tlici-o may be a 
purpose, will, and offer to give, yet there can he no giving 
so as tho person have tho thing, especially tliat tiling 
which none con have against his will, as none can have 
grace, except there ho also a receiving. Since, then, all 
men aro not in Christ, and so not partakers of Uio grace of 
God in him ; nor yet, if tliey were, could a common, 
universal, and equal graco make tiicni unequal who were 
formerly equal, it followctli that tlicre is a special and 
peculiar grace, which God in Clirist giveth unto some, and 
not to others ; by which llicy ore enabled to understand 
and hehcvo tlie gospel, and to repent; and so by con- 
sequence, a special and particular election of tliose persona 
before the world, since God's works are known unto him 
of old, Acts XV, 18; neither doth he anything in time, 
which he did not purpose to do before time. 


LasUj, Since all diildren are hj nature children of, or 
subject to, ^Tath, and which God might in justice destroy, 
wliy slioulcl it seem harsh unto these men, that he should 
cxccuto his justice upon some, and show mercy upon 
others, and save them ? If he might in justice hare con- 
demned oil, (which they must needs grant, if they beliere 
that all are ** by nature the children of wrath,** and that 
God ^ave his Son in his mercy, and that it liad been no 
injustice if he hod given him for none, no more than he 
did for the angels tliat sinned,) will tliey sue God at the 
law, because ho hatli not given him effectually for all, or 
saved all by him ? Will they have him give tliem account 
wliy lie takes some into tlie arm of his mercy, when he 
nii^lit have left all to tlio hand of liis justice? If he con- 
donni any, tliey have tlieir due : those whom he saveth, he 
doth it of free mcrcv, unto which he is not bound. And 
is any nian*8 eye evil, because his is good? or because men 
know no reason wliv God should rather choose and save 
sotnc than others, all dcscn'ing condemnation, will they 
yield liini to be no more wise, and no more holy tlian tliey? 
** 'i'ho depth of tlie riches, botli of the wisdom and know- 
ledge of God, and the unsearchableness of his judgments** 
a])pcars in this, if in any other thing; as dotli also man's 
intolerable presumption, who will yield him no more than 
he sees reason for. 

Now tljough I have done it fully before, yet will I further 
clear by the Scriptures, tliat. tliough all children are by 
nature alike, yet in respect of tlie grace of adoption, they 
arc not alike, especially unto us, and in that judgment, 
'whicli wo arc to pass upon them, leaving unto the Lord 
his secrets. 

And 1. "NMio will say, tliat Isaac, being separated from 
the infants of tlic hcatlien into the covenant of God*8 love, 
and so sip^^ed, as one of the Lord s peculiar people ; and 
those infants of the world, from whom he was separated, 
for example, the infants of the Sodomites, about his time, 
who were in God*s fierce wrath destroyed with fire, and 
brimstone from heaven, were alike in God's acceptance ? 
We have Isaac set forth as an example of God*s mercy, and 
love ; and them, with their parents, of his justice, and 
vengeance. Judo 7. And who will say that the Israelitish 
children received into solemn covenant by and with the 




Lord, Neh. x. 28, 29, and the children of the heathenish 
women, which were shut out with their mothers, and 
separated, before the other could enter it, were to be 
accounted alike acceptable ? Noh. ix. 2. The Prophet Ma- 
lachi testifieth for the Lord that he " loved Jacob, and 
hated Esau** (to wit in the decree of his love, and hatred, 
by just means to be applied), "before they were bom:** 
and this the apostle, Rom. ix., applieth to the question of 
election, and reprobation, touching the two parties, pri- 
marily, and distinctly; and tlieir posterity, secondarily, 
and indefinitely, both for persons, and things. And lest 
any should say, that Ood tlius decreed, in respect of any- 
thing, which he foresaw they would do, or prove, the 
apostle prevents this shift, and shows that this was not in 
respect of works, but that the purpose of God might stand, 
according to election, ver. 11. Besides had Uiis been 
primarily in respect of faith, or works foreseen, and for 
that the one would receive the grace of God, and not the 
other, the apostle needed not to have broken out as he did, 
speaking of the reason of this his love, or hatred. " But 
what art thou, O man, whopleadcst with God,** &c. ver. 20. 
The answer had been coHy for a child to have given, 
namely, that the reason why God purposed to love Jacob 
was because ho foresaw he would receive of himself the 
grace to be offered, and believe : and so to hate Esau for 
his sin in not receiving the same grace to be offered as 
effectually on God's part^ as unto his brother. 

It is also noted of John the Baptist, that he was '* filled 
with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb," Luke 
i. 16 : which to afBnn of all children were a vanity not 
worthy the refuting. Lastly, Christ our Saviour blessed 
the infants of the Israelites, being of the church, when 
tliey were brought unto him. Matt. xix. 13 — 15 : but with 
the little daughter of the Ganaanitish woman he refused to 
eommunicato his grace, accounting her as a dog, or whelp, 
till her mother by her faithful, and zealous confession, had 
obtained for her, interest in tlio children's bread. Matt xv. 
22. And thus it appoareth, besides the things formerly 
laid down, that though all children be alike in nature, yet 
are they not all alike in respect of God*8 adoption, especiidly 
outwaraly manifested, of which we apeak. 


He adds, that " every one shall receWe salvation, or con- 
demnation according to that which he hath done in the 
flesh," &c. And for answer, I weald know of him, how 
any infants, ro dying, who have done neither good, nor 
evil, shall either he saved, or damned? He must answer, 
that the Scriptures he hrings concern not infants at all, 
but men of years ; and, therefore, are, by him, misapplied 
to them, whom they nothing concern. 

And hero note, that as the church in heaven, or of gloiy, 
and tills in earth, or of grace, is one in substance ; this, 
the beginning of tliat, and that the consummation of this, 
so they, who come into the church here, must enter by the 
profession, which tliemselves make : and they that come 
into tlie church there, by Uie profession, which Christ shall 
iDiikc of, and for tlicm, according to their works. Matt zxr. 
But as it were absurd to say, that infants cannot enter into 
tlie church and state of glory, because Christ cannot pro- 
fess of them, that they have **fcd tlio hungry,** A'c: so is it 
as absurd to exclude them from the church or state of 
grace, because they cannot tliemselves make profession of 
faith, and repentance. This man by one, and the same 
error, which is tlic perverting, and misapplying of the 
Scriptures to infants, which are peculiar to men of years, 
debars them of botli. 

TIicso things considered. I hope it will appear to the 
godly, and wise reader, tliat the Uiings for which he 
challengeth mo in tliis, as in otlier points, are only false, 
wherein *thoy arc, by him, falsified. Yea and if tliere were 
nothing else, two of the three last scriptures, wliich he 
brings against me, do undeniably prove as much as, yea, 
more than, I speak : which is, that wicked parents do en- 
wrap their children in the same evils visibly (for so I speak), 
with themselves, adding in the same place, tliat '* this is 
not so, as though the children were without fault, but as 
being by Adam's transgression, and their natural, and 
original corruption children of wrath, and liable to all God's 
curses, which ho also takes occasion by the sins of tlie parents 
to execute upon the children, in whoso punishments he 
also pimisheth the parents themselves after a sort*' The 
former scripture is Bom. r. 14, which proves by his own 
exposition, ihfii all infiints are by the sin of theur common 


93C OF Bxunoos 

father Aclun, under the reign or tynnny of death : tho 
cailt, nnd eonlBgion of which sin is, by their next parent! 
immediately conveyed unto them by natural generation. 
And that God bath usually punisiicd tl)c nine, even of the 
next parents, hotli in tlio death of their children and other- 
wise, ia so evident in tlie Scriptures, as that no modest man 
will gainsay iL Yea, even for them of yean, that other scrip- 
tare which ho brings, Exod. xx. &, tcacbeth plainly, that 
" the Tjord visits" not only their own " sins, who hate him, 
upon them," but the " sins of tlieir fatJicrs" also. That ia 
Exek. xviii. U, 17, as before I hnre oaswered, is not of an 
infant, but of a child of years, " forsakint; his father's sins," 
and doing tho contrary: witli whom tlicrefore tlie Lord 
deals not in the course of his justice, but of liis mercy ; 
and so is not pcrUnent to tlie question in hand : which is 
about infants, and those sui^h as witliwhom tlie Lord deals 
in the eourae, and tenor of his justice. 

And thuH have I ansu-erad alt the parttcniars in his book, 
which citlicr respect mine own writings, or our special 
cause, and practice. My purpose also was to have sliowcd. 
how, whilst ho pretends " Uio discovery of tlio mystery of 
iniquity," himself is deep plunged in mimy points of popish 
iniiptity. Dut for that I have dmwn out tlio lliroad of 
mine answer further than I intended ; and that most of 
llie particulars will come, for substance, under considera- 
tion, in tlio " Survey of Mr. Smytli's Confession," in the fol- 
lowing chapters, I will hero conclmlc fur the iiiatler of his 
writing: adding CHpccially for the manner tliercof, only 
thus much ; that in him, and some others I Imvc liad great 
cause to oliNcrve, and bewail, in a special regard, man's 
misery, in lying open to this, amongst other, of Satan's 
dangerous practices: which is, when mnn liavo escaped 
hilt snares of gross ignorance, and profoncness, and are 
come to some measure of knowledge, anil conscience of 
godliness, and have lufTered someUiing for the truth, thtn 
to bring tliem into love with themselves, and tlieir own 
knowledge, teal, and other graces : and wtthol into the 
contempt of the knowledge, judgment, seal, and graces of 
all other men : that, so soaring aloft upon the wings of 
▼ain presumption, and beholding all others afar off, and ai 
•carce creeping upon the earth, whilst they mount on high, 
they might fiul by rising, and that their fidl might be 


great. But let all God*8 people he exhorted, and ad- 
monished to serve him in modesty of mind, and meekness 
of wi}«dom. with reverence, and feAr : avoiding, as the sands 
of hnnihlo hj-pocrisy, in pinning their faith and ohedienc« 
upon the sleeves of others, so much more the rock of 
proud presumption : which is so much the worse than the 
other, as it is more dangerous for any to overvalue lumselC 
than another man. James iii. 13; Heh.zii. 38; CoL iL 18. 



In honour of the truth, and lovo of them, who tm* 
ft'ipiedly seek it^ and more especially of tlie persons, 
under whose names this confession pusseth out, I have 
tliouf^ht myself oven called to examine, and censure hy tlie c 
AVord of (fod, such errors, as by the light tliercof, I do ' 
disrrni in \t, as als6 in the other writing annexed unto it: j 
purposing herein to pass by (us approving it) what I find 
a^ceable to the Scriptures, albeit not set down in so con* 
vcnient terms : to exjdain, and clear what may seem doubt- 
ful, and so to evince by the same Scriptures, what I deem 
contrary to the wholcsqiue doctrmo of godliness and form 
thereof. In all which I desire my endeavours may so far 
be blessed of God, and accepted of men, as they contain 
in them his simple truth, and proceed from him, who en* 
tirely loveth all that seek the same tioith in holiness. 


And first, the TUi conclusion which is, ** That to under- 
stand and conceive of God in the mind, is not tlie saving 
knowled{;e of God ; but to be like to God in his effects and 
properties, to bo made conformable to his Divino and 
heavenly attributes, this is the truo saving knowledge of 

* '* A Declaration of tho Faith of tho English People rcmauiing 
At Am»tcrdam, in Holland," 1611, supposed to hare bm written by 
Mr. Ilelwisse, in behalf of himself and tho surriving mc m bci i of 
Mr. Smyth's* church, of which he became pastor. Vii$ Grosl»y^e 
History of tho Baptists, voL ii«, Appendix. 

— ' . *■ ■■■ I II Ll l III 




God, d Cor. ill. 18 ; Matt r. 48 ; d Pet i. 4 ; whereunto 
we ought to give all diligence,** stands need of explana- 
tion. For tfOLing the former part of the sentence either 
exclusirelj, tliat wvation stands not in these things alone, 
or comparatively, that it stands not therein principally, 
according to that form of speech, Bom. i. 19 ; 1 Cor. i. 17 ; 
it is true, and the scriptu res brou ght do prove it: but not 
so, if the words be takei ttiegaU vfiiy, as though it stood not 
in these tilings at all.^ FoF^^without faith,** which is 
wrought in the mind and understanding, "no man can 
please God:** nor come unto him. Heb. xi. 6. "And 
this,** saith Christ, " is eternal life to know God the 
Father,** John x\'ii. 8, A:c., and eveiywhero the Scriptures 
teach, Uiat by faith Christ is received, and salvation ob- 
tained, John i. 12; Bom. iii. 28: as is also that renewing 
of God*R image in us, first, in the undcmtanding, in which 
we are first joined to Ood by true knowledge. Col. iii. 10; 
L and secondly, in our heart by sincere love : and so after in 
( the other affections, and parts of soul and body. 


The 0th position, where it is said " that Ood, before tlio 
foundation of the world did foresee, and determine the 
issue and event of all his works,*' Acts xv. 18, cometh 
much short of the trutli, though there bo no untruth in it 
For God hath not only foresee^, and determined the 
issues, and events of his works, but hath also decreed and 
purposed tlic works Uicmselves before tlie foundation of 
tlie world. And so much the place in the Acts provetli : 
where James teaching that **all the works of God are known 
unto him from eternity,** purposcth to prove that the calling 
of the Gentiles, of which work he speaks, is not a thing 
nc^wly cmniLinto. the thoughts of God, but that which ho 
liatli promised, and purposed before. Which the other 
place also after alleged plainly proves : where it is said, 
that God " worketh all thin^ according to tlie counsel of 
his will.** Eph. i. 11. And to conceive that God doth 
anything, in time, which he did not from eternity pur- 
pose to do, as he doth it is derogatory to his infinite 
wisdom and power ; and, indeed, to deny him UTbo God, 
and to ma&e nim finite j in whom Uiere is a change 


wrought, and a beginning, and growth of counsels. And 
this I note for two purposes. First, that we may know 
that the condemnaUon of wicked'nien by God, for sin, hy 
their free will to be wrought, was purposed of God before 
the world : it being a good work of God, and effected bj 
his infinite power for the holiness, and gloiy of his justice : 
:2ndly, tliat since ** every good giving, and evenr perfect 
f^ift is from above, descending from the Father of li^ts,*" 
James i. 17, and that, to know God, to believe in him, to 
love, and obey him, to receive Christ, and the gospel of 
salvation offered, are the good gills of God, we may also 
know, tliat God not only foresees, that those graces will 
bo in men, but also fore-purposes, from eternity, himself 
to work and effect tlicm : tliat if any should tell us* as 
many do, tliat God hath indeed predestinated sudi men 
unto salvation, as he foresaw would believe in Christ, and 
receive the grace in him offered, we may answer them, 
that God foresees indeed tliose graces in tliose men, but it 
is because he fore-puqiosetli to work tlicm. He works 
tlicin, in time, because, of his free grace, ho purposed to 
work tliciii before time was : witliout which, his piurpose, 
ho could not have foreseen them. And as tlio Lord in the 
beginning " saw ** tliat the things *' he had made were all 
^ood ** when he had made tlieiii such : so did ho foresee 
all otlicr good graces in men, because he fore-purposed so 
to work and effect tliem. 

The beginning and end of the tentli position : viz. "Tliat 
God is not the author, or worker of sin : and that he gives 
110 iiillucncc, instinct, motion, or inclination to tlie least 
sin," I embrace. But the middle part thereof, viz : that 
God only did foresee, and detenuine what evil the free will 
of iiKrn, and angels would do, I except against, as deroga- 
tory to the inrmiteness of God*8 power, and wisdom: neither 
indeed is it sensible to say, that God determined, wliat the 
will of otliers would do. 

But what the forethoughts and purposes of God hare 
been from eternity about sin, so far as the knowledge 
thereof concemetli us, will best appear, if we consider, what 
tlie work of his providence is, in and about it, in time, and 
when it is wrought by men or angels. 

And, first, .since sin is tlie work of men and angels* it 


940 or iiKuaioca commusiok. 

followcth thnt sin is from them, 'ivho nro themselves Irom 

Goil : tlioiigh tlie I'in bo not, hut of thcmsclvcft : yea, not 

only (lie nntureR luid pprsons, but rven the nnttiml powen, 

fnciitticfl, nnd inntrumcntfl togothcr , with tlioir nntuml 

motions luiil stations, in and by which sin is vronght, arc 

of God Also; by him sustained, and upheld, and artcd by 

Hi« almiglity power, which is tho cause of evciy rrealurc, 

and uplioldeth all tilings, and so of every action, as Ui 

■ction, AclB x\i\. M ; flom. xi. HU; Col. i. 17 ; Heh. i. 

S ; HiD not b«ing r rcatt^d of (io<l, nor any part or power of 

man, or angel, nor any motion or artion, but only thn 

depravation, rorruption, crooked and inordinate abuNc and 

VI anpltcation of llio same created part, power, or motion. 

tfO or example : the very pow^r, nnd una of seeing the forbid- 

f/den fruit, the natural desire of it, nn a pleasant lliin^;. the 

[jjpowcr and ability of taking, ns also of eating it, were of 

WGod in themselves : but the sin stood in the in ordinal en ess 

'^and abuse of the sense, appetite, ond power upon tlint, 

U^hieh was forliidden )>y fioil. Ami this will yet appear 

more plainly, if we consider that the vrrj- same Kense, n|>- 

petite, ajid work both iif body, and mind set upon anotlicr 

fruit not forliidden by Goil, had been no ain at nil. 

Secondly, God dolh administer the occasions, by which 
the creattn-e through his own default, is provoked, and 
incited unto sin ; a^ in the creation of the forbidden fniit 
" vpi'j' plciu'innt to the eyes," and of " the seqient subtle," 
and fit to lie used by Satan for temptation. Gen, iii, Tho* 
even the law of Go'd ii the ocrn^iou of all liiKt, ond sin, 
Horn. vii. fi ; the gos]>el of tire, nnd sword, nnd nil rnrinnee, 
nnd debnte. Matt. x. .14, WT,; Luke xii. 40. Thus God'a 
commandment to Plinmoh to let his people go. the miracles 
which Moses did in his si[,'ht, his conviction of conscience, 
nnd remomo of heart, which by them tho Lord wTonpbt in 
him, were occasions of sin unto him, )iy his own rebellion, 
and Goil's jud^onent; and did li.arden his hcnrt, and God 
hy them, not as by causes, but occasions, which are olso 
nsed of God, an all other tbo like occBj'ians, to all men. for 
the trial, discovery, and conviction of his creature, and to 
make way for his owii furtlier work of morq', or justice. 
Exod. viii. 6. 
Thirdly, God dolh permit, and suffer sin, and that, both 



willingly and wisely, not by giving the ereature leave to 
sin, for that is impossiblo; but by not putting the effectual 
inipo<limcnts which might hinder sin, as he both could and 
lawfully might, if ho would. He could and might, had he 
so ploa5e<l, not have created men and angelfi, which have 
sinned : or by irresistible grace, restraint, or other disap- 
pointment have prevcnttHl their sin. He, therefore, per« 
mittcth it willingly, and when he could hinder it, if he 
would ; otherwise it were no permission, though he did 
not hinder it ; no more than a man con be said to permit, 
or suffer the sun to shine, or rain to fiUl, that hinders tliem 
not Andtlius sin, though it be always against the decrees 
of the commanding, approving, and effecting will of God, 
yot is not at all against his permitting will, or against that 
tU*cn^ of manifestation of that one in itself, and simple 
will of God : neither is it wrouglit, ho absolutely Billing it 
For bo Wing in heaven doth whatsoerer he pleaseth. 
INo. cxv. n. **IIis counsel shall stand, and he will do what- 
siH^vorho will," saith the prophet Isa, xlvi. 10. This sin 
he doth also suffer, not, as men oft suffer things to come to 
pa>is, without care or consideration of it, but of purpose 
and with infmite wisdom, as knowing how to bring light 
out of darkncHs, and by the creature*s sin, to effect his most 
holy work, according to his unsearchable counsel: tho depth < 
whereof may swallow up the mind, but cannot be sounded ' 
by it, and in tho meditation whereof, tho best bound, and ^ 
l>ottom is for man to consider and confess, that God is ^ 
both more wise, and more holy than he. 

And so in the fourth place, God doth most wisely, and 
most powerfully determine, order, and direct the sins of 
men, and angels, in respect of tlio continuance, extent and 
use thereof by him to be made: bringing light out of dark- 
ness, by his almighty power, and wisdom : and effecting 
by the creature's unrighteousness his own most holy, and 
righteous purposes. And thus he sometimes punisheth 
one sin with another, in the same persons, giving them 
over to reprobate minds, for holding his truth in unrigh^ 
cousness : sending upon them tho ofTicacy of delusion to 
believe lies, that they might be damned, who have not 
roceived the love of the truth, that they might be tared : 
Hearing vdih an hot iron their consciences, who hare 

toTm hi. b 

349 or HEUoiouB ooionnnoH. 

spoken lies in hypocrisy, and punishing the neglect of 
former convicUon, witli want of feeling, and ntunbness of 
heart ofterwnrdB, Horn. i. 3R, 29; 3 These, ii. 10: and 
sometimes tlie Bin of one man by the sin of another : and 
thus he punished David's adultery and murder, by Absa- 
lom's treason and incest, 2 Sam. xi., xii., xv., xvi., xviii.: 
and the Israelites' idolatries, and other iniquities, by the 
pride and cruelty of the AsByrians, and Babylonians. 

' S Kings xvii., xxiv., xxv. Sometimes also he useth, or 
rather abuseth, thn sins of wicked angels and men, for the 
trial of the fnilli and ptiUcnce of liis servants, as we see in 
the story of Job : and sometimes to make way for his own 
most excellent works ; as the redemption of mankind by 
the death of liia Son, for wliicit ho used the envy of the 
Pharisees, the malice of Baton, the treason of Judos, and 

^ the injustice of Pontius Pilate. And in tJiis ordination of 
\ evil. Ood givoth us to sec, that notliing is absolutely, and 

I infinitely evil, as ho is absolutely and infinitely good ; 

1 who also, in these oi-dinations, triumphoth over sin and 
init^uity : wliich lie surely woulil never sufTcr, save as 
he IS able to servo his most Itoly purpose of it, and of 
them tliat work it : and, in this rCHjiect, ospcciiUly, God 
is said to do tlicsc things, which indeed are done by wicked 
angels and men, and by him ordered, and determined to 
his most holy purposes. 

And lastly, God doth cillier mercifully pardon, and bo 
aboli»)h in Clirist, or punish in tlic course of justice, sin, and 
sinners, ns the Scriptures everywhere teach. 

And by these ttio works of God in and about sin, it ap- 
pearcth what tlio purposes of God were touching it from 
eternity: fur whntsoover God doth, in time, whether about 
sin, or otlierwixc, tliat ho purposed to do, before Uine, ero 
the worid was : and so for tlio contrary. 

BECnOX lit. — 0!I ADAU'S rAtl. AKD Silt. 

The sixtcentli Conclusion : "That Adam died tho same 
day that ho sinned. Gen. ii. 17, for tliat tlio reword of sin 
is dead), Itom. vi. 33, and that his death was loss of inno- 
ccncy, peace of conscience, and of tho comfortable presence 
of God," Gen. iii. T — 11, must be further opened and 
better cleared than, I suppose, the author intendeth it 

For by death tlircatened. Gen. ii. 17, is not only meant 


spiritual deilh suLnding in loss of innorencj. pcmee of con- 
science, and God*s comlbrtAble presence^ bat, withal, 
ctcmal death, whereof the och^ is but the beginning : as 
one of tlie noted scriptures prorcth. ** The wages of sin 
is dcatli. but the gifi of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus 
our Lord«** Rom. tL 23 ; where the ^>ostle opposeth nnto 
dcatli. eternal life, and therefore intendeth eternal death of 
soul and bodj. In which death threatened was ineloded 
bodilj dcatii also, with all the means, and miseries, 
which lead unto it And thb appears in the last scripture 
all«:'^cd. which is Gen. iiL 16, 19, where God, after manj 
bodily calamities both upon the woman and man for that 
sin. dcnouncoth, as their end, and consummation, death 
aiid dissolution of body into the earth from which ihej 
were taken. 

It is true, tluit Uie body being made of corruptible crea- 
tures, was subject, in itself, to corruption, and mortality : 
yet must it be remembered, tliat even the heavens them- 
selves were made of one and the same first common 
matter, that rude lump and unformed chaos, and so are, 
also, in themselves subject to dissolution. Gen. i. 1, 2. 
Yea, whatsoever, hatli a beginning, and is a creature, is 
buhjcct to come to an end naturally : as witli which is com- 
municated hut a finite power and virtue ; and so the Ycry 
souls of men, and tho angels arc m tlicmselves subject to 
death, and mortality, save as tlicy arc by Uio continual 
influence of the Divine power and providence, sustained 
and prcser>'ed. But^God now having ennobled the whole 
man soul and body with Ilis imago and joined them 
together in one person : Uic soul to infonn, and quicken 
tho body, and the body to be quickened, and used by it, as 
an active, and lively instrument for her operations, and 
works : the separation of these two, which death is, being 
a dissolution of so gi*eat a work of God, and of the habita- 
tion of his own imago, could not come, but bv sin. Not 
tliati think Adam should always have continued in that his 
natural estate, in tilling, and keeping the garden of Eden, 
in eating, drinking, procreating of children, governing the 
family, and tho like: or should always have had an earthly, 
heaxy, gross, and dark body, but Uiat, in the Lord's ap- 
pointed time, there should have been a change of all those ' 
earthly imperfections, as there shall be in the bodies of all 



the faitliful, who shall be alive at Ghrist*s second coining, 
I Cor. XV. 51; 1 Thess. iv. 17: but the same without all 
grief and pain ; much more without all separation of soul 
and body : most of all, without the bodies corrupting and 
rotting in the grave : which are the proper fruits of sin. 
And, therefore, as God gave him '* a living soul,** so ho 
gave him '* the tree of life in tlie garden," as an effectual 
sacrament of life : he made all things good in themselves, 
and for him : subject unto him, and serviceable to his use. 
So that though his body were, in itself, capable of violence 
by fire, water, and otherwise, yet should the providence of 
Uod, the ministry of angels, and his own perfect wisdom 
BO have directed, and ordered both them, and himself, as 
that no hurt, but good every way should have come unto 
him, by tliem. 

'* Wlierefore,*" smth the prophet, " doth the living man 
complain ?** he answercth, man complaineth for his sins : 
Lam. iii. 30. So tlint all the sorrows of this life, all 
the grievous pangs and passions of the mind, all the tur« 
moilings of the body, by hunger, thirst, wcarisomcncss, sick- 
ness, diseases, and so death unto which they lead, and 
which is tlio extremity of them all, are for sin, inflicted 
by God, and by man borne ; which the Scriptures every- 
where testify, and that, in examples so well known, as 
in vain it were to trouble the reader with noting tlicm 

To conclude: The apostle, Rom. v. 13, 14, speaking 
of bodily death, aflirmeth expressly that for sin, it reigned 
even before the law was given by Moses, and that, over 
them who hod not sinned as Adam, that is actually : and 
more plainly, 1 Cor. xv. 21 — 20, where speaking of the 
bodily resurrection, after bodily death, he teacheth, that 
by man and in Adam, all die : and that even this bodily 
deatli is one of Christ's enemies to be destroyed at Uie 
last: which these men themselves do also confpss, though 
they obsen-e it not, (Conclusion «14,) and that death and 
the grave are vanquished b^ Christ upon the cross. And 
since Christ suffered nothmg but for our sins, if bodily 
death had not been a punishment of sin, why should 
Christ have suffered it, as he did, and that for our sins, 
according to the Scriptures? 1 Cor. xv. 8. But it will 

ox ADAlt'a FALL A>D llll. 945 

here be dcinnnd(>d, if God threftteced bodily death upon 
Adnin, tlie day lie linned, whj he did not oeeordinf^j 
execute it? I Answer that the threatening ns legil. ana 
according to the course of justice, and, therefore, did not 
hinder but God in mercy nii^t find a remedy, as he also 
did : and so tho Lord's meaning was no more, bat that 
in the day wherein Adam ate, he should be subject to, 
and guilty of deatli, and the cune of God. In the very 
same form of speech, Solomon tbreateneth Shimei, that 
the dny he went out of Jerusalem any whither, he shonM 
surely die. 1 Kings ii. S7 : that is, bo guilU of death : for 
neitlicr did, neither almost possibly could, he actually kill 
him that vciy day. Tho truth, then is, that God threat- 
ened not only spiritual, and eternal death, which is the 
contiummntion of the former, but bodily also, and with 
it, all bodily, and temporary cnlomitics leading unto it. 
And of tliis, it is most needful, the seiYants of God should 
be firmly persuaded, and continually mindful, that in their 
sorrows both of life, and death, tlioy might be led to the 
rcmcmbronco of their sins, and for them bo humbled 
imder tlie hand of God, of which fruit of their ofHietions 
these men's doctrine bcrcavcth them. I Kings xrii. 18; 
1 Cor. xi. ua. no. 

The ITth conclusion: "That Adam being fallen did 
not lose any natural power, or faculty, which Uo<l created 
in his soul, because the work of ilie devil, which is sin, 
cannot abolish God's works, and creatures : and, therefore, 
l>cing fallen, ho still rclajnc<l freedom of will. Gen. iii. 
fin, 34," is in part doubtfully set down, and in part. 

That Adam had, as well, freedom of will after, as before 
his fall, is as true as that he was a man after, as before. 
For take away will from a man, and ho ceaseth to be & 
man : and take away freedom from tlie will, in that which 
', it willeth, and it ceaseth to be will. But here is the differ- 
' encc, that the same natural power of free will, whieh 
,' before, was nghtly orden?<l, and disposed only to good 
^ actually, though chongeably, was afterwords eorrupted. 
. disordered, and clean controrily disposed, till by super- 
natural grace, it was rectified and renewed. It is trae. 
' then, that sin destroyeth not the natural powers, or parts 

d4S or Retjoiora cohmukiox. 

of Boul, or body, bat onlj comipteth, infecteUi, and dis- 
onlereth them : vbeneo nlno nrisetli in the mind, ignor- 
ance, error, doubting, and unbelief; and in tlto will, and 
affections, perverscness, and disorder, witli manifold lusts, 
to the fulfilling anil execution whereof, the bodily mstrU' 
ments aro disposed. But the renson brought, " that sin 
cannot alwUsh God'i work, or creatures," is frivolous: 
for God suffering sin to enter, aiiffereth, therein, an ahoU- 
tioD of his own work anil creature. It is confessed. Pro- 
position It: "That Adam sinning, died the deatli, and 
lost innocency, peace of conscience, and tlie comfortable 
presence of God." Now, was not this spiritual deatli 
which Adam died, an abolition, and destruction of his 
ipiritunl life, innocency, Ac. works of God, and his crea- 
tures ? tlie same may lie said of tho wholo image of God. 
What were these, but works of God. creatures, and created 
graces, and endowments, wrought in him, and bestowed 
on him by the hand of the Ci'eator, which sin abolished 
both in him, and in his posterity by natural pro]>agatJon ? 
as will appear in the refutation of the 18th Conclusion, 
which is, 


" That original sin is an idle term, and that there is no 
such tiling as men intend by tlte word, £xek. xviii. 30. 
Because God threatened death only to Adnm, Gen. ii. IT, 
not to his posterity, and becauso God created the soul. 
Heb. xii. 0." 

That original sin is an hercditaty evil, I shall prove 
hereafter. Ood assisting, and do answer to tlie Scriptures ; 
and first to that in Ezekie), " The soul that sinueth shall 
die ; tlie son shall not bear the iniquity of the father." 
The prophet speaks of Ruch children as forsake sin, and 
repent, as tlio whole context showeth, which was to re- 
prove the hypocrisy of tho Jews, who complained of 
injuxtice from God in punishing them, who are holy, for 
their fatliers' sins. Desides, all Adam's natural posterity 
wer« souls sinning in him; whom, in tliat his sin, we 
must not consider as a private person, but as the common 
father of mankind, communicating with the nature, the 
sin, which wag not merely personal, but natural, irith his 

natural pCBteritf : bolli which an also thdr own ; m, m 
tlio contnuy, tlie kcoiuI Adam. Christ, and his rigfateoiu- 
ncsH ore so communicated witli the membors of bis bodj, 
ns flTci7 foitliful pcraoD may tniljr aaj. that both be, and 
it arc liis. iVn<l, hence, was it, that in the pimiahineDt 
of tliiM sin, tlie cBTtli was cuned, not to him uonc, bat to 
hia ensuing posterity : neither was Eve alone to suffer tbs 
Korrows of conception, and childbtrtli, hut all ber dang- 
lers afu!r her: neitlicr were the chenibims set to keep 
tlicm two alone, but all their after posteri^ out of tbs 
Ipii'dcii of l-Alcn : and so is it for dcalli itself, and all tbe 
passages which lead unto it: according to tliot of ths 
apostle, " jVs by one man sin entered into the world, and 
dcatit by Din, even so death went over all men, in whom 
all have sinned," Item. v. 19. ^\1tero they further allege, 
" that because God created the soul," tliat is, dotli-imms- 
iHutcly croato tlio soul cif every particular pcraon, Heb. 
xii. tl, "tlit're is therufore no original sin," they take 
too much liberty, both for the exposition of tbo scripture, 
and their inference upon it, showing no reason for the 
onn or otlier. 

I'irst then, by npnot. ftcnh, lleb. xii. 9, for so it should 
bo turned, and not bodies, is not meant tlie bodies of men 
without souls, which tlic parents do not correct, tliat is 
correct with instruction, as the word wmiryrm, signifieth : 
nor by spirits, souU witliout bodies, since Ood is tbe 
fntlier of tlic bodies of men, and of all creatures. Job 
x.rxviii. 38; Luke iii. 38 ; but, as by flesh is oft, in tbe 
Scriptures, meant earthly tilings, for which our natural 
parents train us u]), and correct us, and as God is our 
spiritual master, and guide, so the meaning may well be. 
that if, for the convcniciicy of this life, we submit to tbe 
chastisement of our eartlily father, much more ought we 
to humble ourselves to the disciidine of our heavenlj 
Knther, for spiritual tilings. Secondly, Since they, gene-^ 
rally, who tliink tlio soul to bo created immediately, and^ 
infused, do not only liold original sin, but nlso show howj 
tliey conceive it to be propagated, it ii but presumption { 
in tJiese men, without answering what others so ordiosij \ 
bring to the contrary, thus to conclude, that, because tba ) 
soul is. thus immediately created, therefore, thus U bo | 


original Bin. But as I E«e small reason to penuodo me, 
tbst tbo dead body, before die soul be unitcd^uiliii, can 
be tfae proper subject of sin, or means to ^^uc^it, or 
indeed anj waj sinful, mora dian after it bo'separated 
imia the soul : and loss reason, that the same body can 
infect the soul, being of spiritual nature, with any con- 
tagion of sin, lltough it might hinder, or fail it, in some 
outward execution ; bo seemeth it to me much more 
agreeable unto truth, Uiat the " blessing of God to in- 
crease, and multijdy," Gen. i. SS. 38, did as well give 
virtue, and power unto mankind, as uoto other kinds, to 
beget, aiid generate tlieir like : and not only a dead car- 
case, and lifeless l»ody, inferior to tJie issue of brute beasts, 
which do procreate their kind, both body and soul, or life. 
Neither Bce 1, how Adam could bo said to have " begotten 
a son after his own image," Gen. v. 3, oiiposod to God's 
image, vcr. 1, tliat is, sinful, and corrupt, if ]io only had be- 

fotten the body, and not tlie soul also : which I think ho 
id, even tlio whole, after a manner convenient to either 
nature. And if tbeso two positions cannot stand togctlicr, 
that God creatcth the soul immediately ; and that Uicro is 
original sin : where Hieso mm conclude, tliat there is 
tlicreforo no original sin, I conclude, contrariwiKC, that, 
therefore, tlie houI is not immediately created, nor tlio 
place in tlic llcbi-ewx, so to be expounded; since the 
proofs for original sin are so certain, and evident. 

And tlint it is no idle term, as in imagined, but a miser- 
able calamity, possessing all tlio poslurily of Adam by 
natural generation, and ever by them to be bewailed, and 
purged out, I hope plainly to prove, and witliol, tliat by 
reason of it, tlioy are naturally unable to choose, or will 
anytliing Hjiiriiiially good, or truly pleasing God. 

And for Uiis, n^ni umbering what I have formerly noted 
front Itom. v. 13, about all men's sinning in tliat one and 
first man, observe we. Hut tlicse men confess ovRiywhere, 
and truly, that a man must bo regenerate, or "bom 
anew, before be con enter the kingdom of God," John 
ill. 3, t), whereupon it foUoweth necessarily, that, by the 
first birth, and generation, all men are excluded from the 
kingdom of God. And if, by the first birth, men he not 
OoiTupt, then ii not the second birth simply necesBaiy : 



but all arc, rather, to endeavour to preserve the purity of 
the foroicr. And tliis my argument is further eoDiimiGd. 
where Christ our Lord teacheth. tliat ** that wliich is bom 
of Uic flesh, is flesh,'* that is sinful, which he therefore 
opposctli to the Spirit, John iii. : and so the second* or 
ucw birth by the Spirit, required for tliat entering the 
king<loni of heaven, to the first, or old birtli, by which all 
Dicn are naturally excluded. And tlie same it is which we 
read, John i. 12, 13, that *' the sons of God are bom 
not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will 
of man.'* In which respect also Job treating of *'nian 
bom of a woman,** saitli, that no man *' can bring a clean 
tliiupf out of iilthiness,** Job xiv. 4. Hence also was it» 
Uiat David bewailing his sins of adultery and murder, ia 
particular, and 1 calling both himself and otliers from the 
stronin, to tlic fountain, doth confess that '* he was bom 
in iniquity, and conceived in sin,** Psa. li. 7. Join, with 
nil these, that which the apostle testifletli both of Jews 
anil Gentiles, that tliey were by nature children of wratli, 
that is bom such, as the word nature importctli, Eph. ii. 2. 
Hence is it, that Judo speaking of such deceivers, as had 
crept into the ciiurch, and taken upon them the profession 
of Christ, and after *' turned that grace of God into wan- 
tonness,*' calls tlicni '* cormpt and rotten ti*ees, and twice 
dead," ver. 4, 12, who had they not been flrst dead in Adam 
in trc<<passcs and sins, Eph. ii. 1, how could they have 
been twice dead ? Add we unto these, the consideration 
of the circumcision of tlie Jjord s people of old, livelily 
teaching, that nothing, coming of mans unclean seed . 
imturally, could be clean, as Job saitli, which was alsoS 
furtlicr declared in the unclcanness, and so in the purifi- ' 
caiion of every woman after childbirth, by burat-ofleriiigs. , 
and Hin-oiTcrings. ^ 

Lastly, Even common sense, and experience, which 
teachetli the most simple, confimieUi Uiis (loctrine of origi- 
nal sin. Who seeth not in children, even from their cradles, 
the fruit of this bitter root? crying (as Austin confessetli 
of himself) to be avenged of their nurses, being naturally 
prone to lying, for complaints, or excuses, tliough so . 
brought up, as they hear no lie told: also priding them-^ 
selves in any gay, or gorgeous thing, and despising others 


350 or itBUOiom coinnnnosf. 

which want the like : and so erident is this to tenaa, nod 
experience, as that the firo i> warm, and a stone hettry. 

Now the same scriptures, which prove this natural and 
original sin. servo also to disprove dl original and natural 
freedom of will or other power to any good thing trulj 
spiritual, or pleasing Ood. I will apply somo of the fore- 
named scriptures, and add some otiiers to that purpose. 

And fint, since all must be rcgenerato, or begot, and 
bom anew, before they can enter, or see, the kingdom of 
heaven, th is wholly di.sarnicth the natural man of tdl p ower 
unto spiritual thing s , witliout a Bunematuml rcgcnciia tion. 
Or new birth by that Incorruptible seed of ttio WonTbf 
God and Spirit of life : which must oIm he of llie whole, 
and of all tlie jtarts, as is the first generation, John iii. 3, & ; 
1 I'ct i. 23. Agreeahle whercunto is UiotEph. it. 1, when 
all arc noid to be dead in trenpaxses and sins. These men 
grant it of Adam, by liis ofTenco : and that scripture, with 
others, tench the same of nil men by nnturo, and through 
that hJM " one olTi'nce." And as no motion, or ocUon of 
imtiirnl lifir, can jKiSHibly be miulc, or perfonned, by a man 
naturally d<<nd ; so neitlier any spiritual motion, or action, 
by any dead splritunlly, till Gnd breathe into him anew tliot 
hia quickening Spirit, the Hpirit of life. And ns of things 
imknown tlicro in no desire, or will, so is it not possihlo 
tliat the natural or animal man (for that title is given him 
of his morn noble part tlie sou!) which knows not, nor is 
capable of the things of the Spirit, being discerned Rpirit- 
unlly, shniild will, or desire them. Kom, viii. 10-, Q Cor. 
iii. fi. Yea. being offercil hy the preaching of the gospel, 
they are foolishness nnto him, and things which ho savoureth 
not: tlicveiy wisdom, or minding of the flesh being enmity 
against God, which is "not subject to the law of (Jod, nor 
indeed con be." Itom. viii. Ti. If it bo asked, why doth 
God tlien require it should be, or puninh men where it is 
not? it is easily answered, that this inability cometh by 
man's own default God made all men, in Adam, able to 
keep the law: and tlio obedience thereof is due debt unto 
God : now the inability of the debtor, and his hein, espe- 
cially by tlieir own default, is no sufficient discharge of the 
debt unto the creditor who lent it : so neither doth man's 
iiutbili^ pnrjudice the Lord's right, but that he may in the 

OK OBioiKAL sur. 351 

course of ju5(tic6, require tliat obedience to his holj law. 
unto irhich by creation he enabled mankind. And for faith 
in Christ, and repentance, which are the sum of the gospel, 
God doth not require them, as due from the creature* to a 
Creator, by order of jubticc, but as conditions conveDient 
unto man, dead in sin and misery, if he will be modo [lar- 
takers of timt life and light to come into the world ; and 
offered by Christ : which >vhil8t men despise, loTing dark- 
ness more than light because their works are cril : their 
condemnation followeth upon their impenitencj, and un- 
belief, as doth the death of a wounded man upon his wilful 
contempt of the sovereign salvo offered for his healing. 
Jolm iii. 10. 

To conchidc, tlien, they of whom God requires this faith, 
repentance and obedience, eitlier yiehl it him nnswcrably, 
or not ? If not ; as they cannot, so their own hearts and 
consciences will witness ajjainst them, that they will not ; 
bnt do, on the contrary, willingly withstand, and withdraw 
fnnn tlie liord s commandments : who ore, Uicreforo, inex- 
cusable, and have no cnnso to complain, save u|>on tlicm- 
Sf'lves. And for them who yield submission by tho eflectuul 
work of (fod s Spirit wnting faith and Uic law in their 
hearts, much less have they cause of complaining against 
Go<l, hut only of thanksgiving for the grace receiviil, by 
which he hath even created them anew as his workmanship : 
not being fit of tlicm selves, as of themselves, so much as 
to think a good thought, but having God working in tlicm 
both t1)c will, and deed, according to his good pleasure. 
E])h. ii. 10; ] Cor. iii. 1. 

It is added, that '* If original sin might have passed from 
Adam to his posterity, yet is the issue thereof stayed by 
Christ's death, which was effectual, and he, tlio Lamb of 
God, slain from the beginning of the world.** Eev. xiii. 8. 

I answer, that he was indeed from eternity that Lamb 
of Crod, in time to be slain : but to take away tho sins of 
the world, as John witnessed of him : and so his death was 
effectual. John i. 20. It is confessed, and truly, Conclu- 
sion 30, ''That Christ is become tlie Mediator of the 
new testament, and Priest of the Church.** This new 
testament, is established in his blood : and he, a Priest 
for us, as he offered, and gave himself a sacrifice, and ran* 

353 or BKUGiooa cohhdhioh. 

8om for US : and his liloodshcd waa Tor tbo w^ahing awaj 
of Bins : this Bacrifiee for procuring pardon : uid this ran- 
som for the freeing of them, that ore taken captive bjr gin, 
and Satan. This stopping then of the issue of sin, as it ia 
intended, is but a fiction. 

" That infants are," as is further affinned, " conceived, 
and bom in innocency without sin" is contrary to the Scrip- 
tures, SOtli Concluxion : as, that " they are all undoubtedly 
saved, " is a peremptory affirmation, but without grouad. 
Unto the scriptures brought to prove it, ivhich are Gen. v. 
S, and i. S7, compared with I Cor. xv. 40, I answer, that 
by the imago of Uie earthly Adam, in the last scripture, ia 
not meant the image of God, " in wisdom, righteousness, 
and holiness," according to which Adam wob said to bo 
created in the former places, Gol. iii. 10; Kpb. it. 34: but 
that corruptible and ignoble state of the body in death, from 
which at tl\e resurrection of tlie just it shall be freed: which 
therefore, verso 00, is called flesh and blood, which cannot 
inherit the kingdom of heaven : and corruption, which 
cannot inherit incorruption. It should ratlicr he minded, 
that Moses speaking of Adam's estate in innocency, stiitii he 
was created after God's image and likeness, Gen. i. 20,37: 
but speaking of liim after his fall, and of bis estate then, 
saith tliat " be bcgnt a son in and after his own likeness and 
image," tliat is, sinful and miserable. Gen, v. 1. It is furtlier 
objected, from Kom. iv. 15, that " Where there is no law 
there is no transgression, or sin," and again from Bom. v. 
13 ; Matt. xiii. ; Nch. viii. 3, ttmt " the law xros not given 
to infnntt, but to tliem tliat could understand," I answer, 
that the law is either given vocally, and in the letter, spoken 
and written, and so it is not given to infanta, no, nor to 
thousands of men and women in their persons : or written 
in the heart by creation with the fmgcr of Ood : and so 
all infants have it given, oa both experience, and also tlie 
Scriptures testify, where they teach that tlic Tciy flcntiles, 
to whom it was never vocally preached, show tlie effects of 
it written in their hearts, Itora. ii. IS : unto the fulfdling 
of which law, all infants by nature corrupted are averse, 
and disposed to all disobedience, even as the whelps, and 
cobs of foxes, and wolves, are disposed to prey, and raven 
liroin the first, though they cannot actuaUy ao practise. 



Besides, in Adam the common father of mankind, all his 
posterity being in his loins rcccired, as tho image of God. 
and lordship over the creatures, so the law of Ood ; as 
'* Levi,** long before he was bom, did in Abraham his lather. 
" in whose loins he was, pay tithes to Melchiscdee.** Heb. 
'\ii. 0. 

'* That all actual sinners bear the image of the first Adam 
in his innoccncy, fall and restitution in tho offer of grace. 
1 Cor. XV. 40, and so pass under this threefold estate,** is 
imsound sundry ways. — 21st Conclusion. The great mis- 
interpreting the Scripture, I have showed in the last Con- 
clusion : as also Conclusion 18, that neither all, nor any of 
his naturally conceived posterity bear the image of his 
innoccncy : neiUicr, yet all of tiiem in tho offer of grace ; 
though the offer of grace not received, is a reiy naked 
image of restitution. How many thousands never had the 
gospel, the only means of tiieir restitution, offered them ? 
ibut sinning against the law of nature written in Uieir hearts. 
and in tho creatures, and " holding that truth of God in 
unrightousncss/* have been given over of God to reprobate 
minds, and so perished in tiicir sins, as tiie aposUe teacheth, 
Eom. i. and ii. 


Conclusions 22—25.—" Tliat Adam being fallen, Ood 
did not hate him, but loved him still, and sought his good, 
Gen. iii. 8, 15. Neither doth he hate any man, that ffdleth 
with Adam, but that ho lovetii mankind, and from his love 
sent his only begotten Son into the world, to save that 
which was lost. John iii. 10. And tliat God never forsaketh 
tlic creature till there be no remedy, neither doth cast away 
his innocent creature from all eternity but casteth away 
men irrecoverable in sin. Isa. v. 4 ; Ezech. xviii. 23, 82, 
and xxxiii. 1 1 ; Luke xiii. C, 0. And that as there is in all 
creatures an inclination to their young to do them good, so 
in the Lord towards man infinitely : who therefore doth 
not create, or predestinate any to destruction, no more 
than a father begets his child to tiie gallows. Esek. 
xxxiii. 11 ; Gen. i. 21, 15, 40; Gen. v. d,** must be reoeiTed 
witli sundry limitations. 

For first, it is true, that Ood hateth nothing that he hath 


Mi OF BBUOtODt COHMinilOll. 

made, bo for m it is his work : but u ain, coming in, hatii 
deBtroyod the work or God, though not in respect ot tb« 
nature, or being, yet of tlie integrity', and holy being of the 
creature ; so Uod, througli his unchangeable holiness, 
hating sin, doth, also, most fervently hate and abhor from 
the sinful creaturo, in whom it reigneth, in respect of it, as 
, the Scriptures do expressly and plentifully toach, Mai. ii. 
\ 3 ; Psa. V. 6, 6 ; Frov. xvi. S ; TiL i. 10. And God loving 
( himself and his own holiness in Uio first place and most, 
/ and the creature and bis good, bnt in the second nlaco, the 
] love of tlio creature must give way to tlie love of himself, 
j and so he, noccssarily, hate the obstinate sinner. And this 
it is most needful for all men firmly to beliere, and con- 
tinually to bear in mind, tliat they may always bewail 
their sins, and nourish in Uiomselves the hatred of that 
which God so hatcUi, and for it, tlie creature; and for 
which he punishctli it with most horrible curses, and 
punishments for ever. 

And yet, even in tlio VC17 execution of his most fearful 
vengeance upon the reprobate, mm and angcU, ho retainclh 
the general love a( a Creator ; and out of it, prcscncth tlie 
/ being of the creature, which in itself, and in respect of the 
universal is better tlian not to be, tliongh notsoin tliu sense 
: of tlic person : and also modcrateth the exli'eniity of tJiat 
1 torment, which he boih could, nnd might in justice, inflict 
Secondly, Though God do love all men, even sinning, as 
ho did Adam sinning, yet not with the some degree of love 
wherewith lie loved him : neither dotli ho ecck thoir good, 
OB he did hiN. AVhcn he bad tinned, and so fled from God, 
as his enemy, ho, notwithstanding, followed after him, and 
for his recovery, preached unto hiin tlio gospel of salvation 
in tlio seed of (Jie woman. Gen. iii. ID : and not only so, 
but gave htm also on heart to believe his promise; and 
repentance, to turn unto him : whereas many thousands in 
the world (oven the body of the Gentiles to speak of, before 
Christ, and how many now 7) never had the gospel bo much 
OS once published unto them, nor Christ named amongst 
them: Psa. cxlvit. 10, 20; Isa. Iii. IG; nom. xt. 20, 91; 
but had and have only the sound and preaching of the 
creatures, and of their natural conscience!, too much cor- 
rupt, by which they were and are taught, that thero is a 


God, and he the Maker and Governor of the world, and 
Judge of all persons and things ; and to be honoured and 
inquired iifter, tliat his will being known, he might ha 
worshipped accordingly. Acts xiv. 10; Psa. six. 1,5; Bom.x. 
1 : for the neglect whereof, and the "withholding** <( of that 
truth offered, in unrighteousness, they were and are given 
over of God to reprobate minds, and to all vile affections, and 
filthy lusts of their own hearts, that so sinning without the 
law (to wit which tlie Jews had, much more without that 
cleai'cr revelation of Christ vouchsafed to many others) thej 
might perisli by God s judgment, Rom. i. 18^20. Much. 
less doUi God seek after all, for their roeoTeiy, as ho did 
after Adam, by giving them his Spirit in their hearts, -and 
by it faith and repentance, to believe and to be saved* 
as he did him. Matt xi. 25; xiii. 11; John iii. 8; 
1 Cor. ii. 10, 11, &c. ; PhU. i. 29; 2 Tim. ii. 25. And for 
tiie love of God in sending his Son into the world to save 
tliat which was lost, John iii. IG, it is determined in the 
same place, to those that believe on him. But for tliose tliat 
believe not, but continue in unbelief, God did not lovo 
thorn unto salvation, so as to give his Son, effectually, to 
redeem tliem from their sins, of which more hereafter. 

Secondly, It is also true tlmt ** God doth not cast away 
his innocent creature, nor hath created or predestinated 
any man to destruction," to wit, eitlier remaining as he 
created him, or because he would destroy him: and tliis, 
some of the scriptures, Conclusion 25, do prove, the rest 
being impertinent: but tliat God hatli from eternity de- - 
creed tlio condemnation of some for sin, fore-purposed by 
him to be suffered, and so foreseen to be wrought by man, 
is evident, both by the Word of God, as Judo tcstifieth of. 
ccilain wicked men that thoy were ordained of old to con- ; 
dcmnation : and God is said to have hated Esau, before 
ho was bom : that is, to have purposed the hatred of him 
for his sin, foreseen, and fore-purposed to be suffered : and 
also by the work of God, in tliat he doth, in time, cast 
away and condemn impenitent sinners: for all God*s 
works are known unto him fi*om the beginning of the 

* The earlier versions generally employ "withholding," hittead 
of the modem term "holding,*' and in the scnso of detaining or 

mmtmmmimmmmtmmmimii'^itr^M i n i pi. i . . n.iwii.j 


world: and God's reiy doing r thing, in time, is an un- 
answerable proof that he purposed the same thing, before 
time and from etemit;. Juae 8, i ; HaL i. 3 ; Bom. ix. 
11, 13; Actsxiii. 18. 

And, for God's forsniting, or leaving a man nnto him- 
self, as he usually doth it, for a punishment of former 
sins, so did he Uius leave Adam without any such respect 
•^o could, if ho would, either have kept him firom being 
^tempted, or hnve delivered him out of his temptation, hj 
/his almighty power, and grace, and the irresistible efficacy 
( of his Spirit : but God, for the trial of the will of man, and 
I to manifest how weak the most excellent creatures are, 
/ not depending wholly upon the Creator, and not seeking 
/ their good and happiness, by clearing unto him, the cbm 
■ and unchangeable good : as also, to make way to the fnr> 
thcr declnration of his mercy and justice, did suspend, 
and withhold from Adam in his temptation, (hat efficacy 
of grace, by wliich he could, if he would, have established 
him irresistibly unto pencremnrc. 

So ol^o, could God by his all-sufficient power, if such his 
good will were, recover thousands, tliat perish in and by 
their sins : otherwise he were not almighty, nor that true, 
which is said of him in tho psalm, " He doth whatsoever 
pleaseth him," Psa. exv. 3. Besides, it should else follow, 
that sin and Sntnn were stronger than he : and which he 
could not possibly defeat and withstand : which is as 
impossible, as that God should not be God. He is able 
by his almighty power, if such his good pleasure be, to 
raise, of the vcrj- stones, children unto Abraham. Luke iii. 
8 : and by taking nwny the stony heart, to, give an heart of 
flesh, tender nnd sensible, and to write in it his will and 
law. ETck. si. 10. 

And what the Lord's power is, in remedying, and re- 
covering of most desperate sinners, may be seen in some 
parUculors. In tlic recover}- of Klanatsch, nn horrible and 
apostate idolater, a vile sorcerer and wizard, and most 
cruel murderer, "filling the streets with innocent blood," 
3 Kings xxi. 1, S, 16; 3 Chron. xxxiii. 13. 19: of Maiy 
Magdalen jHiBsessed with seven devils, Luke viii. 3 : and 
of Saul, a persecutor, blasphemer, and oppressor, and 
that when the fire of most violent persecution burned 

•_ « • 


hottest in his breast: causing him to breathe out of his 
moutli thrcatenings and slaughter, as smoke. Acts ix. 1 ; 
1 Tim. i. 13. And since all^men are, by nature, diildren 
of wratli and dead in sins, £ph. ii. 2, so that thcj who 
are tlie Lord's, have new lifo put into them, jea, are boni« 
yea, which is more, created anew, it showeth, that the 
whole being and life of tlie spiritual man, with all the 
motions nnd inclinations thereof, are of God*8 special and \ 
supernatural grace; as also that tliough men in them« 
solves bo utterly remediless, and irreeovcnihle, yet are j 
tlicy by God*s grace, and power recoverable, if such his I 
good will be. — * 

The scriptures, Isa. v. 4; Ezek. xviii. 23, 33; Luke 
xiii. 0, 0, spcuk of tlie Lord's dealing with his church in 
tlic outward ministry of the Word, and other common 
motives to repentance : as is also further manifest. Matt. 
xxi. d>), 34, &c., and so are neither to l>o understood (as 
here they are) of the Lord's dealing with all men, nor at 
all of the uttcnnost efficacy of his 8)>int, when he pleaseth 
to work by it, what ho can for the recovery of sinners. 

Lastly, Touching the similitude brought from a natural 
father, I must use two limitations: the former tliat a 
natural father would not suffer his son to come to the 
gallows, or desert thereof, if he could possibly in his ut* 
most power hinder it: ho would rather wish not to beget * 
him at all, or that he might never be bom : but so is it 
not with God, who both willingly produceth, and pre- 
scr\'eth the creature, whom he purposeth to destroy for 
sin, which he foreseeth tlie creature will work, and sufTer- 
eth him to fall into, though he could, would he use the 
utmost of his power, hinder both the sin, and punish- 
ment. And secondly, tlie hanging of tho child is no way ; 
to the honour of his natural fatlier, but to his grief, and 
shame ever}* way : but, on tlie contrary, the destruction of 
tho wicked for their sins, is to the great gloiy of the 
justice of the Creator, which than it should not be magni* 
fied, better all men and angels perish. ^^ 

Touching the 2Gth Conclusion, God hath not only de- 
termined before the world, tliat the way of salvation shall 
be by Christ : and foreseen who would follow it, (as thej 
teach) but hath also determinedt in particular, whom he 

TOL. m. 8 



958 OF BELiaiODS amnvmoti. 

would effectu&llj call to the participation of that grace t 
which being hi§ own work, in timo, he hath therefore pur- 
posed, before tlmo. It is he that revcaleth this waj unto 
man from heaven : which flesh and blood cannot do : who 
also must draw them who come unto it. MolL xi. 35; 
£ph. i. 5, 7, 0, 11; Horn. ix. 11, 1&. And this he doth 
first bjr sending his gospel of salvation to such, as ore his 
(in his decree), Acts ziii. 47, 46; xviii. 0, 10, then by open- 
ing the heart, as of Lydia, lo listen unto it. Acts xvi. i, 
and so working in their hearts by his Spirit to believe and 
obey it, ho penecteth their happiness in gloiy. Bom. viii. 
30, 31. tio tliat, God foresceth that such and such will 
believe, and choose the way of life, because he fore-pur- 
poseth to give them this grace, knowledge, will, and power 
to believe, and to choose the good way : and all this of his 
good and gracious pleasure towards them, on whom ho 
will show mercy. And this, the places brought by thoso 

I men, Eph. i. 4. 5 ; 2 Tim. i. 0. do most directly prove ; so 
also dolh. Judo i, exprcBsly teach, not that God foresaw 
who would follow the way of infidelity and impenitence, 
for which they allcf^o it : but whom God hotli foreordained 
I to condemnation for their wickedness. The Scriptures, 
then, do, nowhere, prove any such idle foresight in God, as 
is imagined by tliese men, and others: as if God were in 
truth, but ft prognosticator and reader of linen's destinies: 
who could only foretell what should be done by, and be- 
come of these and tlieso men. 


Touching tl)e3Tth Conclusion: That "a.<i God created all 
men acconling to his image, so hnlli lie redeemed all 
that fall by actual sin, to the same end : and that God in 
his redcm]>tion batli not swerved from his mercy, which 
he manifested in his creation:" and tliat part of Con- 
clusion 28tl), whore it is said, " that God in his love to his 
enemies gave Christ to die, and so bought tliem tliat deny 
him ;" sundfy things ore to be observed. 

And first, that God did not manifest any mercy, but 
only goodness, in the creation : for mercy prcsupposeth 
misery in him tuwards whom it is shown. Secondly, it 
is no Bwerving at all of Ood's goodness, if ho extend not 



the f^race of redemption to as man j as he did the gnuse of 
creation: for then Christ should hare redeemcxl the 
An[;c)s, who were partakers of a greater grace of creation, 
which he in no sort did. And if God did in justice pass 
hy tlic nngels that sinned, Heb. ii. 10: might he not in 
the same justice have passed bj men also? And if he 
mi^ht in justice have passed by all, (where he could not, 
in justice, nor possibly, create one man unjust, as no man 
will deny but our redemption by Christ was a work of 
God's mercy and not of his justice) is it injustice in him 
to pass by sonic, who also on their part tidce pleasure in 
unrighteousness, and so continue in their estate of im- 
])onitencc, and unbelief, loving darkness more than light, 
because their works are evil ? 

Of the scriptures brought : first, that of John i. 3, shows 
that by Christ, to wit, as God, sll things were made or 
crcatcil, which is nothing to the present matter. And 
where, ver. 1 0, he saitli, of his fulness we all have received, 
ATid grace for grace, he speaks not of all men, but only of 
all those, who receive Christ, and believe in his name* as 
vcr. 12, and are bom of God, ver. 13. So 2 Cor. v. 19, by 
tlie world which God reconciled to himself in Christ, ure 
not meant all tliat actually sin, but such as by tlic word 
of reconciliation preached imto them, and believed by 
tlicm, have their sins forgiven Uiem. 

By all men, 1 Tim. ii. 6, is meant all sorts of men, as 
well kings and magistrates, whom, because they were for 
tlio ])rcsent, persecutors of the saints, it seems some 
tliought they were not to pray for, as for otliers. Ver. 1, 
he exhorts to pray for all men : and ver. 2, he shows his 
meaning to be for all sorts, as kings, and them in author- 
ity under them, whom, ver. 4, he saitli God would have 
saved as well as others : as for whom Christ died, and so 
redeemed tliem, as well as others. Of Ezek. xxxiii. I have 
spoken formerly, as also of John iii. 10. 

By the enemies spoken of, Ilom. v. 10, are meant only 
such, as are, in time, actually reconciled to God, and 
saved : as appears plainly, if the place be well considered ; 
whom God is said to love, and that not with the common 
love of a Creator towards the creature, but with the love * 
of a Redeemer, in respect of his decree of love, and not of 




tlio actual application of it, as he is said to hare lorod 
Jacob, aiid hated £sau, before tliey were bom. Actually 
he did not hate, or love the o^e, or other, neither doth or 
can God love actually vricked men so remaining, Psa. y. 
6, 0. LaHtly, Christ is said, 3 Pet ii. 1, to have bought 
tliosc deceivers, in respect of the former profession of 
holiness which tlicy made ; by which in the judgment of 
charity, they were so esteemed: as appears evidently in 
Jude, who speaking of tlie same persons saith, ver. 3, they 
were "ungodly men crept** into the church. 

Now for Christ's redemption, it must be known, that 
the word Xvrpmins^ redemption, used in tlie Scriptures, is 
borrowed from tlie custom of freeing prisoners, taken in 
war, from deatli, or bondage, by paying a just price, or 
ransom for them. And so to aflimi tliat ** Christ hatli 
redeemed all that fall by actual sin," is to affirm, tliat he 
hath paid a price to the justice of God, for all such, and 
freed Uiem from the guilt and boiulngo of sin and Satan ; 
and so, consequently, that all who have sinned, actually, 
have faith, and repentance : without which they cannot 
have forgiveness of sins, nor freedom from the bondage, 
and guilt thereof. It is confessed, and truly, Conclusion 
35, tliat the efficacy of Christ's death is only derived to 
them which mortify their sins, &c., and, therein, directly 
granted that Christ k death is not effectual for all men ; 
and that it is in itself sufficient for all, being tlie death of 
him that was God, Acts xx. ^8, we acknowledge, as also 
tliat no particular person, not having sinned against the 
Holy Ghost, can be excluded either by himself, or us, 
from the number of them, for whom Christ died. John iii. 
30 ; Acts X. AW; H Cor. iii. 1 7. It were against faitli, to 
prav that God would save all the men, tliat are, and shall 
bo in the world to the end thereof: but love teacheth mo 
[to pray for any person particuliirly, upon occasion. 

Now, for that these men allege, Ilom. v. to prove tliat 
" Christ redeemed all who sin actually :** and Mr. Helwisso 
and others much insist upon tlie same place, to prove that 
he redeemed all, who sin in Adam : and so would have a 
free-will though not by nature, which they dislike, but by 
grace given to all : as if Turks, and Pagans, and all the 
wicked world were in Christ, and so free from condemna- 




lion, Kom. viii. 1, and \}\ey who had crucified tho flesh 
and tlic lusts thereof, Gal. iv. 24, which they Tnust be, 
before they can be partaken^ of tlio grace of Ood through 
Christ, or of any free-will Uirough him. John xr. 5. I 
will plainly, and briefly prove, the Lord assisting me, that 
the apostle intends neither the one, nor the oUicr, but tlie 

The apostle's nicaninj: there is to show the privileges of 
the faithful : Uiat, notwithstanding all their nflUctionSt 
•* they have peace with God :" •• acc4*ss unto his grace 
and hope of glorv," having by faith assarance of •• the 
love of God 8he(f into their hearts by the Holy Ghost** 
Tliis love of God he confinrneth unto them, by tlic work 
of their redemption : and proveth that since out of the 
love of God, •• Christ died for them when they were sin- 
ners, and justified them by his blood, much more should 
thoy be saved from wnith tlirough him ;" and that if " when 
they were enemies, they were reconciled to God by the 
death of his Son, much more being rcconcileil they should 
be saved by his life :'* and again, " that they who had 
received tliat abundance of grace, and gift of righteous- 
ness, should reign in life by Jesus Christ :** and in the 
last place, that " that grace should reign through right- 
eousness unto eternal life by Jesus Clirist our Lord.** 
Rom. V. 3, 3, 8 — 10, 17. Which grace he also amplificth, 
and confirmeth by comparing Christ as the second Adnm, 
with the first Adnm ; teaching that both tho one, and the 
other did, and do propagate to all theirs, what theirs ^ras : 
the fn-st Adam, sin and death to all coming of liim 
natuniUy : tho second Adam, Christ, righteousness and 
eternal life to all that are in him spiritually, and for whom 
ho died. Tho meaning then of the apostle seems unto 
mo plainly to be tliis : that, for whomsoever Christ did 
indeed and eflfoctually die, they should certainly be saved ; 
and that, whomsoever God did reconcile by his deatli, he 
will much more save by his life, notwithstanding their 
afflictions and all other tho enemies of tlieir salration : 
and so to be tlie same in effect with that which the same 
apostle hath, Rom. viii. 28, that *' All things shall work 
together for the best unto them that love God even unto 
them who are called of purpose :** and that " those who 




are predestinate are also called, and justified, and glori*' 
fied ;'* and verses 32, 09, that to them, ** for ivhom God 
hath not spared to give his , Son, he vrill give all things 
witli him :** and so victory over sin, and Satan, and their 
own flesh, with all temptations, so as " nothing shall sepa- 
rate them from the love of God.*' 


From Hom. v. then, may he more truly, and I am per- 
suaded undeniably, concluded, tliese two Uiings. 1. That 
Christ did not efTcctually die for, or reconcile, by his 
death, all men in particular : for then all should be saved 
by his life : and 2ndly, That whomsoever he so died for, 
and effectually reconciled, they shall be kept by tlie power 
of God, and of his grace, unto eternal life : yea '* He that 
believcth in the Son," saith John the Baptist, *'hntli 
eternal life,** John iii. 30 : and drinking once of tlio water 
which Christ givcth, " he shall never t1iii*st again, but it 
shall be in him a well of water, springing up to eternnl 
life,** John iv. 14. A well-spring, wo know, is never wholly 
dry, though a ditch bo : as it is also one thing to drink of 
tliis water of life : and another thing only to taste of it : 
which they that do, may fall away, as never having had 
their tliirst indeed quenched in them, nor having drunk in 
the rain of grace, as ver. 7 ; Hcb. vi. 4 — 0. And it is 
well to bo obscn'cd by us, how cai*efully the Holy Ghost, 
in this, and in other places, preventotli botli tlio offence 
at, and error about men*s falling away from their holy 

We I'ead of some, in the parable of the sower, who receive 
the seed of the Word with jov, and in whom it hatli also 
got some kind of growtli, and yet tliey come to nothing : 
but we find in the same place, that tlie soul of those men*8 
hearts, was never indeed good ; but at the best, as stony 
and thorny ground : but the seed sown in the good 
ground indeed, decays not, but grows up, and is fruitful to 
the harvest. Matt. xiii. 6, 7, 20, 23. 

So Paul, 2 Tim. ii. 18^20, showeth that some there 
are, who have their faith destroyed bj heresies, and evil 
lies: but he gives us to understand in the same place* 
that these men were never indeed under the seal of God*8 

■— -^•*^" -i* 


election, nor known of him, nor retsels of honour, of 
silver, and of gold. 

The apostle Peter, 2 E^ms: ii. 1, 21, 22, likewise spcaketh 
of soino, who denied the Lord tliat hought them, to wit, 
hcing judged hy their former profession, hut in the same •• 
])lncc, he shows tliat the same persons were hnt indeed 
do<^ and swine, at the hest, though outwardlj washed, 
and disburdened of such sins, as clogged their consciences, 
as is the dog by vomiting of his surchargure. And Jude, 
vcr. 4, speaking of those vexy men express! j chaigeth 
tlicm, but to havo crept in, at the first, ^. 

liastly, John, 1 £pis. ii. 18, 10, speaking of " many Anti- 
christs,*' who "went out** from the true church and 
Christians, saith plainly tliat they "were not of them,"* 
that is, not of the number of God*s truly anointed ones : 
and tliat by tlieir not continuing with tliem it appeared, 
" they were never of them." " I or they that are bom of 
God cannot commit sin, because tlio seed of God's Word 
abidcth in them,** as it followeth in tlio samo Epistle, chap. 
iii. 1) : and thus much in effect these men confess, when tlicy 
teach, as tho truth is and Scripture proveth. Conclusion 
47, '* That tho regenerate man shall bo a pillar in the 
house of God, and shall go no moro out** Hev. iii. 12. 
And if men truly justified, and sanctified should wholly 
fall away, they could not possibly bo recovered, hut were 
as trees twice dead, and so to be plucked up by the roots, 
Jude J 2 : neither can there bo two new births, any more 
tlian two first bii-ths : and if there might, then must there 
be also an answerable repeating of baptism, which is tlie 
lavacher of tlio new birth. Tit iii. 6. 

To conclude tliis point, they who citlier hold, tliat 
Christ effectually redeemed all from tlieir natural corrup- ^ 
tion, or, tliat any truly justified and sanctified, may wholly > 
fall away and perish, do divide Christ from himself, and > 
make him a party Saviour; and a priest for some, to 
redeem Uiem by his death, to whom he is not a king to 
save tliom by his life ; and a Saviour, in part, to the very 
damned at the last day : freeing all of them from tlie 
guilt of their original sin ; and many of them, even from 
one part of their actual sins, namely, so much as they 
wrought, before the time of their falling away, but not 

1 ' ^" nn "^lpgWi> 

261 or REuatoDS 

from tlio rest Which, how rtdn a tiling it is to imi^e, 
and how derogatory to the excellency and porfecLion of 
Christ's flacriflce and mediation, needs not be' shown. 
All who haTD any port in Christ, ore in Christ, and so 
free from condemnation, Ilom. viii. 5 : and unto whomso- 
erer he shall appear a Sarionr they ore his people and 
he shall save thorn from all their sins, and not bom some 
part of them only. 


Thnt "the Hacrifico of Chriat's botlyond blood oflcrod unto 
God, his Father, upon tho cross, tliough a socnfico of sweet 
savour, and tlmt God be well pleased in him, doth not re- 
concile Ood unto UB, who did never hate us, nor wba onr 
enemy, but reconcilcth us unto God, 3 Cor. v. 19, and 
slayoth tlic enmity and hatred, which is in us against Ood," 
Eph. ii. 14, 10 1 i. 80, In moat untrue, mid, indeed, 
a very pcmiRious doctrine, destroying tho main fruit of 
Christ's sacrifice, and dcnUi. 

As one of tho Bcriptm-es quoted, which is Rom. i. 30, 
speaks of wicked men's haling of God, so ore the rest meant 
erf* God's hatro<1 towards wicked men ; whicli tlicy also fully 
provo. And if tho sacrifice of Christ'ti body and blood upon 
the cross, were a swect-smclling savour nnto his Father, is 
it not oviilpnt tlmt we did formerly stink in God's nostrils 
by rco-son of our Fiin8?,_l^ero he gave himxelf a sacrilico 
for us, was it not to ^^tug^Uio Fatlicr's \vro ,th towards us ? 
In ^'bich rcKpcct ho is said to be our "propitiation and 
advocate if wc sin, 1 .Tohn ii. 1, 9 : being as our eternal 
High-]iriest, sprinkled with tho blood of his cross, entered 
the most holy place, the heavens, and there appearing con- 
tinually to pacify the wrath of his Father, and to procure 
for us all grace. Who also to redeem us from tho curso of tho 
law under which we, witJi oil flesh, were, was mode a curse 
for us : paying a price for us" to satisfy tlio justice of his 
Father. Gal. iii. iO ; 1 Cor. vi. QO. And if God he woll- 
pleascd in him, dotli it not follow that he is displeased 
without him 7 Matt. iii. 17. So by " the reconciliation of 
the world unto God through Christ,"/!) Cor. T. 10, is not 
meant our laying aside of hatred, and enmity agunstOod, 
though that follow upon the other, bnt the taking away of 


his hatred and enmity towards us, as is evident in that the 
npostle in the former verso placeth this reconciliation in 
God*s not imputin;^ our sins unto us : the end of his exhort^ 
ation, vcr. 20, heing to provoko us to the growth of faith 
for Uic applying of tlio same. Neitlicr speaketh he, Eph. ii. 
1 i — 1 G, of Uic slaying of the enmity and hatred in us against 
God, as is said : hut first of tho slaying of the hatred 
hotweon Jews and Gentiles, by breaking down the partition 
wall of ceremonies : and secondly, and more principally, of 
slaying tlio hatred wherewith God hated both, for sin, 
being the one, and otlicr by nature "children of wrath," 
vcr. •!, tliat is, under tlio wratli of God, as their deserved 
inheritance. So that tlie chief and first work of our re- 
demption by Christ, is the freeing of us from tlie guilt of 
sin and most fearful wrath of God, by pojcingHho price of 
his prrcious blood for a ransom to the in^Jica^ his Father, 
tJicrcby procuring him, of a most sevei^^d fearful Judgo 
to become unto us a gracious Father, and to love us unto 
life : which love of his " bcin^ shed into our hearts by Uie^ 
Holy Ghost," and we being thereof persuaded, dotli efiec- 
tualiy allure us to love him again, who hath so loved ns in 
his Son. 


Now whereas in Conclusion 57tli, and so forward, many 
things concerning faith, repentance, the regenerate man, 
and new creature : are set down both unsoundly and un* 
orderly, I tliink it best briefly to note do'v^ni in the first 
place, tho tiiith, and order of thoso tiling^ : and so to com- 
pare tlierewitli tlie particulars in the confession. 

This work of grace, then, in the general, God beginneth 
ordinarily by the ministry of his Word, and first of the law: 
which, tlirough man's inability to keep it, convinceth and 
condemnetli him, and so leaves him under God*s curse : 
from whence also ariseth in tlie inind, a servile fear of God 
and his judgments, with grief and sorrow in respect thereof, 
which is commonly called legal repentance, or (better) peni- 
tency, and so a despairing of all remedy in a man's self. 
Bom. viii. 8, and chap. vii. 7 ; Gal. iii. 10. Then eometh 
the gospel of glad tidings, offering grace, and mercy onto 
those,, who ** l^ing weary and heavy laden,** do come unto 


"t _^ - 

xm or BELiaioQs coiuidhiom. 

Christ for ease and rest, by believing in him, Matt. xi. S8 ; 
which BO many do as are ordained of Ood to eternal life. 
Acts xiii. 48; a Cor. iii. 0; ii. 10— IS: God with and 
hj the same gospel niiniBl«ring, and conveying the gracos 
of his Spirit into tlie heart, by which a nian becemos of a 
natural man, a spiritual man, and of tliese graces, first and 
principally failh, by which Christ is received, John i. 13, 
and the life of grace begun, as Paul testifielh, Gal. ii. 90, 
that he lived by faith in the Son of God. From which 
faith and assurance of the forgiveness of sins, and so great 
loTo of God shed into the heart of a miserable sinner, 
ariseth, by reflection, as it were, a love again towards 
God, and from this love, a godly sorrow for sin wrought 
agiuDst BO good a God : and from this sorrow, true repent- 
ance, and tlio turning of the heart from evil to good, with 
an hatred, fear, and earnest endeavour to avoid sin in re- 
spect of God's mercy ; as on the contrary a love, desire, 
and constant endeavour of and unto whatsoever pi easeth 
him. Now all tliese, and all oUicr truly spiritual graces, 
howsoever wrought by that one Spirit, and at one time, yet 
are in the order of nature and manifcsta^on, one before an- 
other, and so faith tlie cause of tlie rest. Luke vii. 47 ; 2 Cor. 
Tii. 10 ; Psa. ciii. 4. and cxxx. i ; I Cor. xii. 4. 

Where then it is Maid, Conclusion GO, that "the now 
creature followeth repcnlancc," it is not bo in tniili, nor 
the scripture brought, which is Luke iii. 0, anything perti- 
nent, though to our sense and manifestation, it seem so to 
be. For this repentance is a work of man immediately, 
though formerly wrought in him of God, 3 Tim. ii. 35, and 
so followctli Uie work uf our regeneration or re-creation, ' 
which is God's work, llcpcntance nrisetli from a " godly 
sorrow," which can only he in a godly man, as a fmit of a 
good tree ; and this godly man, oil being ungodly by nature, 
must bo a new creature, or regenerate of God : though for 
the perfecting of our new creature, and till tho old man be 
wholly crucified, repentance be required, as a cause, or 
means thereof. 3 Cor. vii. 10; Matt vii. 16. So neither 
doth repentance go before faith, as it is put. Conclusion 5 S, 
but followeth it a> a fruit Uiereof ; without which no man 
ean please God ; and so not repent aright, Heb. xi. 6 : our 
repentance arising from a sorrow for the offending of God, 


this sorrow from the knowledge of his loTe towards us. 
which is faith : which faith purifieth the heart, and is the 
beginning of all spiritual Ufe in as. as I hars fonnerlj 
proved. Acts xv. 0. 

That "man,** viz. natural, "hath power to reject the 
motions of God*8 Spirit,** as is affirmed, I acknowledge, and 
the two scriptures, Matt xxiii. 37; Acts vii. 61, besides 
woeful experience prove it : but deny, that he hath power 
to receive these motions, till God by the supernatural gift 
of grace open his eyes, and change his will thereunto, as 
hatli formerly been proved in the 18th Conclusion. The 
third scripture, which is Acts vi. 10, speaks of no such 
tiling, but only shows how mightily Stephen confuted his 
adversaries in disputation. 

The last place, which is Bom. z. 14, showeth that none 
can believe without preaching: and ver. 18, tliat tlie 
Gentiles had God preached unto them from the beginning, 
by the sound of tlie creatures, as Psa. xix. 5, neither can 
more be thence proved. Lastly, in the 58tli Conclusion, 
the " new creature** is ill and dangerously, made a part of ' 
** our justification before God,** which tlie Scriptures do 
ascribe only to faith : and ** tlie free grace of God, through 
tliat redemption that is in Christ Jesus." Hom. iii. S4, 25^. 
S8. Our redemption, tlien, or justification properly token, | 
is in Christ, and not in ourselves; as it should be, if it ^ 
stood in our sanctification or tlio new creature, which is ) 
nflirmcil. Our sanctification, or renovation is an insepa- ' 
rablc work of that faitli by which we are justified. Acts xv. 
0, but doth not answer the rigour of God*s justice, nor can / 
pi*c6ciit us innocent, before his judgment-seat, being im* 
perfect in this world, by reason of the "root of sin yet 
abiding in us, which we cannot pluck up out of our hearts,** 
as is confessed. Proposition G7, though elsewhere denied. 
That only the righteousness of Christ can do, being imputed 
by grace, and by faitli received : " who was mode sin for 
us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in 
him.** d Cor. v. 21. Now as Christ became sin for us. 
not by having our sin dwelling in him, but imputed unto 
him, so we become the righteousness of God, that is, per- 
fectly righteous before God, by his righteousness imputed 
to us,, and not by that whidi dwelleth in us : which was 

368 Of REUoious connjKiox. 

alRO livelU; fi^reil in, and is efTGctually proved by the Boeri- 
fices under the law, by the ofTcring wlieroof, as tbe uncleui 
pcnoD, or ho that had sinned, was legnlly cleansed and 
puriricd, and his sin for(;ivcn : so by the merit, and puri^ 
of that one oblation of Cliriet oflercd once for all, aiid 
applied by faith, are we cleansed from the guilt of sin, and 
reconciled to God for over. Lev. v. 10, 13, 10, 16 ; xii. 8. 

" That God doth not, in our ref;eneration, use the help 
of any creature, nor dotli it, by ^e doctrine of faith and 
repentance, but immediately in tlic soul," SOtli Conclusion, 
is an old error of tlic Anabaptists, condemned expressly bj 
the Bcriptun-s brought to jumify it. llio first whereof is 
James i. lH, where God is said to "have begotten us by 
the word of truth : " which woni therefore we are " to h« 
Bwift to hcar,"ver. 19, which is elsnwherc called good seed, 
and the word of life, which word even that which was 
preached by the apostles, ver. M ; is also called, 1 Pet. i. 23, 
tlie imniortnl Mocd, which falling in good ground never 
pcrishcth, but bringcth fortli fruit to eternal life. Matt. niii. 
5— 3.1. 

Not to trouble tlic render with many scriptures for the 
proofof that, which every regenerate man's experience doth 
confirm, tho aposUc calling himself the father of tlio 
Corinthians, who bad in •Testis Christ begot them by the 
gospel, and them his children in tlic same respect, ver. 14, 
and OncNimus his son, whom ho begot in his bonds: and 
Titus his nntuml son, according to the common faith, 
expressly tenchoth thn use of man's ministry for the re- 
goncration of the elect, and ministration of tlie Rpirit of 
life. S Cor. iii. C ; 1 Cor. iv. l.t ; I'hilcmon 10 ; TiL i. 3. 

Alike, if not more deceitful, and dangerous is that other 
proposition. Conclusions OO — Oil. 

" That the new creature, which is begotten of Go<l, 
needeth not the outward scriptures, creatures, or ordi- 
nances of tho church to support him, hut is above them, 
1 Cor. xiii. 10 : 1 John ii. ST, seeing he hath in himself 
three ^'itneBses,t)ie Father, tlie Word, and tho Holy Ghost, 
which ore better than all scriptures, or creatures, though 
such as have not attained the new creature need them, lor 
mstniction, comfort, and to stir them up, Ac 3 Pet L 19; 
1 Cor. xi. SO; Eph. W. 13, 18." 


Let the Bcriptores brought be judge, and thej will plead 
their own dignity against them, by xfhojsk thej are thus 
vilely debased. In 2 Pet i. 10, the apostle doth not 
compare tlie inward Spirit with tlie outward Scriptures, bntj 
tlic Scriptures with Uicmselves, tlie writings of the prophets, 
which he compares to a light shining in a dark place, unto 
the writings and preachings of the apostles, which reveal- 
ing Christ come in the flesh, he compares to the dawning 
day, and morning star. Besides even thev whom Peter 
exhorts to attend u|>on the Scriptures, had obtained the 
new creature : as having obtained the same precious faith 
witli Peter, and all things belonging to life and godliness, 
by the Divine power, 2 Pet i. 1,3: who are also expressly 
said to be regenerate unto a lively hope, 1 Pet. i. 3, and 
ver. !23, to be bom anew, by the immortal seed, the Word 
of God. So were tlic Corinthians also bom anew, in that 
they were, though but babes in Clirist, and having much 
flesh yet nbidiug in them, 1 Cor. iii. 1 ; Phil. i. 6; 1 Thess. 
V. 2 ; Arts i. 11: who were to use the Lord^s Supper, to show 
forth Iiis iloatli till he come, tliat is, till his general coming 
to jud;^mcnt, or special, at their death, 1 Cor. xi. 20, wliich 
is tlic second scripture. 

So for the third scripture, £ph. iv. 12, 13, tlie apostle's 
meaning is not. that the godly should have no further need 
of the niinistr}' for tlieir cdiflcation, when tliey were *'come 
to a perfect man,** as there he speaks, that is, when tlicy 
ceased to be as children, wavering-minded, and carried 
about with every wind of doctrine, but tliat tliey should so 
use it, as tlicreby to bring tliem to that perfect and manly 
estate, and tJiercin to establish them. Neither docs the 
particle '* until** import a ceasing of tlie use of tlie ministiy 
when men become perfect, and growing post tliat childish 
waveringncss there reproved, but a not ceasing before then : 
as it is also used sundiy times in tlie Scriptures, as, 
1 Tim. iv. 13 ; Bov. ii. 25, and elsewhere. 

In 1 Cor. xiii. 10, 12, the apostle doth not speak of tlie 
estate of perfection in this life, but in tliat to come, when 
the measure of our knowledge shall be perfect, which is now 
but in part, and but as a child *8 in comparison of a man*s : 
as it shall also be immediate, and we see God Cuce to face: 
when there shall be no use^of the glass of the Word, and 




ordinances, when prophesying and tongues shall cease, yea 
when even faith and hope shall cease : the things helieved 
and hoped for heing fully attained, and only love shall 
abide, which is therefore called the greatest of the three, 
ver. 13. 

The apostle*s meaning also, 1 John it. 37, is greatly mis- 
taken : which is not that the anointing, or Spirit which 
they had received, set them above the Scriptures, and all 
outward teachings : but Uiat ho needed not teach them, as 
Ignorant of these tilings, which by that anointing, or 
Spirit, were sealed up unto their consciences : as where 
Paul tells tlio Thessalonians ** that he needs not write unto 
them of brotherly love, because they were taught of God one 
to love anotlier," his meaning only is, that thev were not 
without that grace, but did practise it : yet doth ho in tlie 
very same place, ver. 10, exhort them to inci*case more and 
more. 1 Thcss. iv. 0. So dotli John also write that his 
, Epistle to teach and admonish those anointed ones to 
beware of false prophets and Antichrists of whom they were 
in danger, as of otlicr evils. 

Two other scriptures are intended, but so misput, as I 
cannot find which they are, and therefore pass them by ; 
being also assured they can give no confirmation to tliis 
vain presumption, deceiving under a show of angelical 

The reason, to prove the Scriptures unnecessary from the 
inward witness of the Father, Word, and Spirit, is veiy 
deceitful ; since the inward grace doth not abolisli but 
establish the outward means, by which it is wrought, and 
increased. David had this witness in his heart, being a 
man after God s heart, and was regenerate, and yet he 
desires God to teach him the way of his statutes : and that 
he would open his eyes Uiat he might see tlie manxls of 
his law, which lie professes he will not forget Psa. cxix. 
10, 18, 33. And being driven from tlie tabomncle, and 
visible ordinances of God, how did he bewail his want, 
and n isery ? Far was he from tliis imagined spirituality. 
The apostle calls the gospel tlie power of God to salvation : 
and exhorts Timothy to continue in it, to the saving of 
himself and otliers : by the ministry whereof, he also 
laboured to present tlie Corintliians a pure virgin unto 


ON PEBrscnoir. 271 

Christ Rom. i. 10 ; 1 Tim. ir. 16 ; % Cor. xi. ft. All 
which places prove the necessaiy use of it till death, eren 
for the most perfect 

And sec whither these tilings lead. The natural, imx«* 
generate, and unsanctified man, can have no right use of 
the gospel, and holy things: and the spiritual, regenerate, 
and new creature, needs Uiem not 1 Cor. ii. 14 ; Tit L 15. 
To whom tlicn are they given : or by whom ean they be 
rightly used ? And hehold here, the malice and craft of 
tlie devil, who assailing Ood*8 people continually with his 
temptations : from which, Peter and Paul were not bee, 
Luke xxii. 31 ; 2 Cor. xii. 7, no nor Christ himself, who 
was " tempted in all points, like as we are, but without 
sin," Heb. iv. 15: would yet persuade them, they had no 
need of their spiritual armour, in special, of the sword of 
tlio Spirit the Word of God, £ph. vi. 17; whereof OYen 
Ciirist himself also in his temptations had use, yea, need 
to drive away Satan, as he had need of meat and drink to 
drive away hunger, and tliirst: though he could hy his 
Divine power have resisted botli, witliout means. Matt. ir. 
1, 4, 7, 10. Our victory, saitli John, is our faith, 1 John ▼. 
4 : and the foundation of our faitli, are the writings of the 
apostles and prophets: and is the foundation of no use for 
the standing of the building? or will not the enemy of 
our salvation easily overthrow the building, when he hath 
undonnined Uie foundation ? Eph. ii. 20. 

Add to these things, that the Scriptures, the law and 
gospel, shall be the judge of all to whom they come. And 
is any man above his judge? or if this be not what is it 
for man to exalt himself above all that is called God? 
Ilom. ii. 12. 10 ; 2 Thcss. 2. 4 ; 1 Pet iv. 18. 

Lastly, The regenerate are continually to grow in grace, 
and for tliat end to desire tlie sincere milk of the Word to 
grow tliereby. 1 Pet ii. 2. 


But, lo! here another mischief; tlie |>er8uasion of per- 
fection in holiness, which tliese men would also have us 
Uiink Mr. Smyth had attained, a little before his death. 
And it made well for the credit of tlie doctrine, that he did 
not survive: for then the imperfections of his life, would 


• t 




have discovered the error of tlio doctrine. Yea, verily, if 
this were his faith here published, it is too evident how 
tor he was from perfection. And for the help of ihose who 
ore in danger of this great and deep seduction, I will hero 
insert a few things toiidtiiig perfection. 

And first. We acknowledge all the faithful perfect, and 
that perfectly, by Christ's perfect obedience and right 
eousness imputed utito thcnt for their justification : for 
by one oblation he hatli perrected or consecrated for ever 
thera that ore sanctified. Heb. x. U. Secondly, We ac- 
knowledge in them an inherent perfection of righteousness 
and holiness, which is Uieir sincerity, integrity, and up- 
rightness of heart in all things before God : usually colled 
the perfection of parts : as a child, tliougli new bom, is a 

Eerfect man in all the parts : and thus James Boitb, that 
who sins not in wora, is a perfect num, that is, he ia 
able to bridle all the body. James iii. 3, 3. And this com- 
mendation tlio Scriptures give of men, notwithstanding 
tlieir frailties, tJiat are not hypocrites, and hollow-hearted : 
tlio whole man being sanctified, though not wholly. 1 
Kings xv. M ; Job i. 1. Thirdly, Wo ocknowleilgo also in 
aome men a perfection in degree, not absolute, but in com- 
parison of others, though godly : and that, whereas some 
ore but ns children and babes in grace, others ore as 
grown and perfect men in comparison, boUi for know- 
ledge, Glablcncsa of fnitli, and all grace. Which tiro sorts 
of men ore usually opposed as strung and weak, in the 
Scriptures : unto which peifection all must strivo to attain, 
and not continue always children and babes, which is 
both nhntncful and dangerous. Heb. t. 13 — U; Eph. ir. 
n— la; riiil. ili. 16; Horn. XV. 1. 

Dut, for any such perfection in this world, as wherein a 
man stands not need continually to renew his repentance, 
and to purge himself of the remnants of sin, "casting off 
the old man," and " putting on Uie now man," and to grow 
in tlic knowledge, and grace of God by the use of tlio 
Scriptures, and other God's ordinances leading tlioreunto, 
it is none other but a most dangerous delusion of that 
" princo of darkness Inuisforming himself into an angel of 
And to let pan the common infirmities, yea (by occa- 






sion) the greater falls, noted in the Scriptures, of those 
holy men, of whose perfection the same Scriptures testify: 
as also the daily, monthly, and yearly sacrifices ordinarily 
to he oiTercd of old, for all and eveiy one of the congrega- 
tion, as evidences of their guilt Solomon teacheth, 1 Kuigs ' 
viii. 40, tliat there is no man, Uiat sinneth not; according 
to which, is tliat in the Preacher, Eccl. vii. 20, *' There is 
not a wiso man upon earth tliat doth good, and sinneth 
not.** And who can say (saith the vise man) **I have 
made my heart clean, I am clean from mr sin?" ProT. zx. 
0. And if any man do say that he hath no sin, he de- 
ceivctli himself, and there is no truth in him. For though 
ho who is horn of God sinneth not, tliat is commits not, 
or works not sin, making it his course and trade, as it 
were, which only he doth, who is of the devil, yet puts 
John himself in the number of them, who cannot say 
without lying, that they sin not 1 John i. 8 ; iii. 4 — 8. 
Thus David acknowlcdgcth in general, that no man can 
know his errors, and so doth pray to be freed from secret 
faults, Psa. xix. 1*^: ond so doth tlie apostle profess of 
himself in particular that he is not perfect; but only fol- 
lows after, and presses hard toward the mark, Phil. iii. 12, 
13 : and however in tliat his race, he was so cumbered 
witli that his clogging and pressing sin. Hob. xli. 1, as 
that like a law it forced him botli fi*om the good whidi he 
would have done, and to tlie evil which he would not have 
done, and tliat when he would liave done well, evil was 
present with him: though in his inward man, that is, so 
far as ho was regenerate, which was far beyond any now, 
'* he delighted in tlie law of God, and served it'* Bom. 
vii. 7—^5. 

Lastly, If any in this life come to tlie perfection of loav- . 
ing sinning, they must also leave pmying, and so leave { 
being Christ's disciples : for ho hath taught all his dts- t 
clplcs every day to ask the forgiveness of Uieir trespasses, / 
I^Iatt vi. 12 : yea, they must be past being godly, for '* for i 
this,** because God is merciful in forgiving sins, "every 
godly man shall pray unto him in an acceptable time.** Psa. 
xxxii. 0. And lastly, they must be past hope of Christ's 
coming in glory, for " eveiy one that hatli tliis hope in him, 
purgeth himself,** as he is pure. 1 John iii* 3. . So long, 

▼OL. in. T 




therefore, as we are absent fromjCliriatiand till our gloiy 
in him appear, we must still b^^pgrg ing ^urgcIvo B ; which 
if the filth of sin were not still in us, less or more, we need 
not be: as we must also grow in grace, and edify ourselves 
in our most holy faith, being, as we are from the truth, so 
far from the vain presumption of any such perfection, as 
is by these men intended. 

SEcrroN xT.*-ox the vtsiblb cuurch. 

That "tho outward or visible church consists of penitent 
persons, and believing only,'* Conclusions 01— 71, opposing 
them to impenitent and unbelievers, and that such only 
are to be baptized, I acknowledge, and the scriptures 
brought confirm ; but deny it, opposing believers to their 
infants, which arc neitlier unbelievers and impenitent, nor 
innocent, a<s is affirmed. The vineyard and kingdom which 
was taken from the Jews, is lot out, and given to us. Matt 
xxi. 43, in which though no briars, nor brambles, nor fruit- 
less trees might grow, yet young plants, and imps, not yet 
bringing forth fruit actually, both might and may ; as child- 
ren might and may bo in God*H kingdom, though no rebels. 

In Conclusion 05, the viftiblo church is unfitly called, 
•• a figure of the invisible ;" as is the " invisible " untruly 
said to "consist only of the spirits of just and perfect men.*' 
He who hath in iHinJru^ faith, and holiness, is a member 
of thcinyiaibTe cliui'ch;. and the same person, making holy » 
prolcssipn thereof, outwardly, in the order left by Christ, 
a jpenibcr of the visible church : and the whole man of 
both, and not the soul of the one, and body of the other : 
though of the invisible in respect of the inward faith seen 
of God ; and of the visible in respect of Uie outward mani- 
festation before men, arising from the former. Tlio scrip- 
tures brought, which are Rev. i. 10, with xxi. 2, 13, 27, speak 
of the visible church only, and so are impertinent 

The particulars which I deem amiss. Conclusion 08, 1 
have roted in the 5Gth proposition : and refer the reader 

*' That the sacraments have the same use that the Word 
hath, and teach to the eye of them that understand, as the 
Word teacheth the ears of them, that have ears to hear, 
ProT. ii. 3, and that therefore they pertwi no more to 


iiifiints, than tho Word doth," Conclusion 74 ; is xieither 
tnic in all points, nor well applied in any. 

For First, Tho WoM servos to convert men, FMl six. 7, 
and is to be ministered to unconverted and profane persons: 
which uso tlie sacraments have not, nor most be adminis- 
tered to such. Secondly, If this, applied to infants, were 
true, tlien should not circumcision have been administered 
to the Israelitish infants, who had not ears to hear. Yet is 
tho ground good, being rightly laid, nnto which that also, 
Conclusion 73, is agreeable, though tlie Scriptures be 
brought hand over head to confinu it. For as God by 
promising Abniliam that ho would be his God« mud the God 
of his seed, preached to his ear, so by giving hira, and his 
seed circumcision, ho preached to his eye, for the ratifiea- 
tion of the same promise. And so is it now with us* who 
have received grace to be of the faitli of Abraliam, haring 
the same covenant, promise, or gospel preached by doctrine 
to our car, and con tinned by baptism to our eye, for our- 
selves and our seed. 

To the 82nd Conclusion, "that there is no succession in 
tlmt outward church, but Uiat all the succession is from 
heaven, and tliat tlie new creature only hath the thing 
signiticd, and substance, whereof the outward church, and 
ordinances are shadows,** Col. ii. 10, 17, I answer, 
1. Tliat the apostle. Col. ii., speaks only of tho Jewish 
onlinances, which are abolished, and not of tlie church 
ordinances now. Smlly. If it be meant that all succession is 
from heaven, immediately, it is a phantasy : if, mediately,, 
then must the outward succession, to wit of ministry, be 
in the outward church, whereof it is an ordinance. And 
whereas ^ho clmrch, and new creature are opposed, it is 
amiss, since the church is to consist only of such men as 
are in their measure renewed by the Holy Ghost, and 
sanctified : and if by Uie new creature they mean any other 
thing, it is a new creature of their own making. 


In Conclusion 83, where tlie office of the magistrate, 
is called a "pennissive ordinance of God,** it is both a con- 
tradiction, and evil speaking of them in authority. Whera 
it is called " an ordinance of God,** it is confessed good. 


Sift or BBUGIODa cohkukiok. 

for "evoiy creature ofOod ia good," aud all bis ordinancot 
■r« his creatures ; and bo, many things are ascribed to tlie 
office of magistrates in this, and the other GoncluHions about 
it, which prove it to bo good, and lawful in itself; but 
where it is made "prnnisaive," it is condemned as evil: 
since only evil is permitted, or suffered of God. 

And where it is objected, Proposition B5, tlint Christ's 
disciples must love their enemies, and not kill tliem: pray 
Jo£_^em, and not punish them. Ike, I answer, that tlm 
^^j/magistiaLQ may do botli. Doth not God punish witii 
lemporaiy death those that ho lovctli? and why may not 
Ood's deputies, tlie gods upon cortli, bo minded as God 
herein? I'sa. Ixxxii. 1, 6. When tho godly kingii, ond 
governors in Israel were commanded to execute judgment 
and justice upon the people for their transgressions, were 
they commanded not to lovo tliem, nnd not to pray for 
them 7 Wlien Mr. Umytli in hit sickness, tolls his children, 
as it is in tho end of Die hook, " that if ho live, ho must 
correct and beat them, not bccau»o ho hntcs them, but 
because ho loves them, as God did him," doth he not 
answer the' objection, nnd show that those two may well 
Stand together, as in Uie piivate father, so in tho public 
father, the magistrate? Where again it is snid tlmt "Chnst's 
disciple!) must with him bo pcrGccutod, atllictcd, munld'cd," 
&e., and " that by tlie authority of the magistrate:" I do 
answer : tlmt those things are not simply necessary for all 

CerRons, but tm Uod calls men unto them. And second, 
otli the Scriptures, and other stnries do testify that godly 
magistrates themselves, have suffered these things for tho 
Lord and his trutli, and for well-doing: sometimes tho 
inferior magistrates, l>y the superior, and sometimes the 
governors by the pcoi)le under tliem. Instances wo havo 
hereof in Moses, David, Gednliah, .'Daniel, Shodrach, 
Mcslmch, nnd Abednego, witli Nicodcmus, and otlien many 
more. Exod. iii. IJ, lit, )6; Acts vii, 90; xvi. 'i. 0; Numb. 
xW. 9. 10 ; xvi. 1—3 ; 1 Sam. xviii. fl, 0, 19 ; Dan. vi. 8 ; 
iii. 1:2 ; John vii. 52 ; Tit. i. A, And much it is that tliese 
men shoidd acknowledge tbat magistrates aro to be prayed 
for, and given thanks for, as the Scriptures teach, 1 Tim. ii. 
1, U, and tliat their ordinance is of God, and for the good 
of mankind, Horn. xiil. 1, in the works whereof they may 



plcaso God, 2 Kings x. 30 ; and in all tliese, that it is a 
good and lawful thing, for no unlawful thing is of God, nor 
pleasctli him, nor is lo be prayed, or given thanks for, and 
vet for it should exclude tliem from the church, as not 
being Christ's disciples. Doth any good and lawftil tiling 
liindcr a man from being Christ's disciple, unto whom all 
creatures and ordinances are sanctified, and pure ? or are 
men to be kept out of the church for well-doing ? Surel;^ 
even as lawfully as to be received in for evil-doing. Thej 
add " that the magistrate is not to meddle with religion, or 
matters of conscience, nor to compel men to this, or that 
form of religion, because Christ is the King, and lAwgivcr 
of the church and conscience.** James iv. 12. I 

tliat this indeed pro%'es tliat he may alter, de vise, or etta- 
blish nothing in religion otli erwiso than Christ liatli ^ ~ 
pohitcd, but proves not, tliat he niay n ot use nis tawnd 
power lawfully for tlie furtherance of Chrisrs king dom and 
IawjS« The prophet Isaiah Bpeaking of the church of Christ, 
foretells " that kings shall be her nursing fathers, and queens 
her nursing mothers :** which if tliey meddle not with her, 
how can tliey be? Isa. xlix. 23. And where these men make 
this, the magistrate's only work, " that justice, and civility 
may bo prcsencd amongst men,** the apostle teacheth 
S another end, which is. " that wo may lead a peaceable life 
) under them in all godliness.** 1 Tim. ii. 2. It is true they 
have no power against tlie l aws, doctrines, and npli gfon of 
Christ : but for the~same,' if tlie ir power be o f G od, they may 
use it lawttlTIy.^ancFafCainat the cgy itrory. ~KnSi so it was m 
special foretold by John, that *' tlie kings of tlie earth should, 
make the whore desolate, and naked, and eat her flesh, and . 
bum her witli fire.** Rev. xvii. 16. ^ 

This Mr. Helwisse frivolously intei'prets " of tlieir apt- 
ritual weapons,** which are no other than the spiritual 
weapons of all other Christians; besides that it is contrary 
to the clear meaning of tlie Holy Ghost, which is, that these 
kings should first use tlieir civil power for the "beast** and 
** whore,** and after against them to their destruction. 

To conclude this point tlien ; both tliese men, and Ur. 

H. especially, in his whole discourse about this matter, 

labours of tlie common disease of all ignorant men, in 

- pleading against the use of the ordinance by the abuse; 



376 OF RELioiotm coiimiKiOK. 

which stands either in prohibiling anjrtliing vlitch God 
hftth cominandod, or in comnmiidini:; anything which he 
bftth forbidden ; u indeed lie Imth wlintDOerer ho hath not 
eommanded, either expressly or by consequeoce, in his 
religion and worship. 

iMtly, It IB not truly nflirmed " thnt Christians muitC 
judge all their cnuNCS of dilTcrciice amongst tbemsclvos, J 
and may not go to invr bi-fure inu^istrntcs, nor usa on oalh."< 
For the first head is altrtfed 1 Cor. vi. 1, 7. I 

1 answer tliat Panl dutli not there simply forbid tlie 
saints goinf; to law, hut ^'^ing to law undecluridcls ', and 
that wronging and opprooting ono another, when they 
should rather have su^crod wrong, or at lesst have ap- 
pointed some able men for arbttnitors, to have ended things. 
>Vbtch eoursc.wlicn (loubtrnldifTcicnees of weight do arise, 
the members of tlic chnrdi ought to take, and so to rest 
in their equal dct4.'n)iit)ationH. Itiitwh&t if nono of tlis ■^ 
eburch ciin Hulhriently judge of the things, or settle them 
in pence foi' after posterity '.' as it may well conio to pass, 
in cnses of inhcrilanco chpcciully, tlie matter may, mid 
ought, quietly nnil pi-acenhlj to be referred to the msgis* 
trato's determination. IUh ofhco being of God, God's 
people may have the sanctified use of any lawful work 

Touching on oath. It h nut tlic meaning of our Saviour, 
Matt. V. 34,07, norof his upo»tlo Jaoics, v. 19, ahaulutcly tn 
forbid the use of it: ond to rentrain all speech to "yea and 
nay :" for tiien Christ had broken bis own ruio in bis so 
usual anscve rat ions of "'verily, verily," or "amen," which 
ire more tbnu bare "yea and nay." 

The meaning of Christ won to free the law from tlie cor> 
mpt gloss of tlie Phoriseee. who tAu^ht that it was no 
binding oatli, in which the name of God was not expressly 
mentioned, but tho creatui-e's only; as it was both bis and 
his apostle's meaning to reprove needless swearing in 
ordinanr communication. Christ our Lord professcth of 
bimhclf "that he came not to doxtroy tlie law," or ten words, 
" but to fulfil it." MntL v. IT : and having taken awny tho 
curse thereof by bis death, to "write tho sains in our hearts," 
that we might also obflcrve it, and so use God's name holilr 
u ft part thereof. Jer. uui. 33 ; Hob. riii. 10. We reftd 

ox MAomuar axd oaths. 5^ 

bow God himself swore sondiy times for nun's eoufinna- 
tioQ and usuranco. And is any man cither more holj, or 
bolter to bo trusted tlisn he, that an oath should be either 
unbolj or grievous to bim 7 Wo havo also for our wanaiU 
the examples of Uig holy patriarchs and prophets, Abraham, 
iHoac, Jacob, and die rest, sometimes giviog unto others, 
and Homctimes taking oatlis of them, which being d<ma 
religiously, wtks oliio a port of, and sundry times put for the 
whole solemn worship of God ; and tho same, not ccro- 
Rionial and shadowish, but mond and otcmol. Iho. xIt. 33; 
Jcr. xil. 10; I'sa. Ixiii. 11. And since strifes will always 
bo amongst men,' and those many times such, as in which 
no Kuflicicnt testimony by men, or otlicr proof, ean be bad, 
an oatli, ivhcrcin God is colled to witness tlie tnitli, and 
to avenge the contnuy, is always of use: whieh tlie aposlla 
directly tcochcth, Hel>. ^-i. 10, "An oath for confimtation 
la unto men an end of nil doubts." The lawfulness where- 
of tho same apostle dolli plainly eonfinn, hf his own prac- 
tice, " taking (iod for liis witness," Rom. i. 0, and again, 
"tAking God for a record upon liis mu)," tliat is to be 
revenged upon him therein, that ho "lied not" unto them. 
S Cor. i. li». 

And tliiis much for tliis conclusion, whcrcwitli I will alto 
conclude the book ; entreating of God through Christ, that 
all who seek his tnitli in sincerity, tliat in the knowledge 
and obedience tlicrcof, tlicy may please him, may both find 
tho same, and with myself, mercy and forgiveness in all 
ourerrora and failings of tliis life, which how many ther 
are no man knowetli, nor con know, while he knowcth but 

t, OS all men but do, wh 

e absent from the Lord. 






secondly, of Mr. RobinsOD's replj to each argument ; utd, 
thinllj, of K general view of the whole subject, conGnning, 
illuslrating, and amplifying the argnmenU already ad- 

lAy-preaching has long been a eontrorerted subject 
among viirioua partios. The CongregaUonalists them- 
selves hare not always been agreed respecting its validity 
and expediency. Oeaerolly, howoTor, it has been allowed 
and encouraged by them, as a means of supplying the lack 
of ministerial sertice. 

Mr. Hanbuiy* has giren an extended list of woriu oa 
the sattject, which were published shortly after the dealli 
of Mr. Bobinson. 

• KiEi*Hl«to>ictlUenwiUs,TCl.Lpi«n»e,U7. 

P K E F A C B. 

To my Ckriitian Friendi in Norvich and thereaboutt, Orace 
and Salvation from the Ood and Givtr tlureof. 
That loving and Uinnliful rcmcnibnuicc in which I 
dwaj's hnvo you, rnj Chri»Lian friends, provoketli me oa 
continunllf to commend unto God }'our wclfoi-o, bo to le- 
Joice greatly when I understand thereof, and espcci&ll/ 
tliat your souls do prosper. And (13 tlio proRpcrit/ of tlie 
soul IB priDcipally furtticrcd by tlie zculous preaching of 
the gospel, so hath it been matter of unfeigned rejoicing 
unto me, to hear how God hath of late Rtin'cd up amongst 
you divers instruments, whoso zealous endeavours he hath 
used tliat way, aiid covering in nici-cy what is evil of 
ignorance and infinuity on iLeir parts (I hope) in tlieir 
ontniDce and ininislmtions, doth bless what is of himself 
to lliD good of his chosen. But, as it fallctli out in noturo 
that the pure waters (hnw off tho tainturo of the soil 
through which tlicy run, so vith you, it seems, the pura 
trutlis of tlio gospel have BuBcrcd by some, too great 
mixturo with sundry poiiisli cirors about tho church and 
ministry, in nnd by which, tlioy are propounded r and this 
more especially by Mi'. Yates, a man of good gifts in liim- 
self, and note amongst you; pleading tlic cause of the 
whore of Babylon, tho Church of Home, as Christ's wife; 
Olid of Antichrist's clei-gy, as of Christ's ministry. And 
as tills clergy's exhortation Is not a little furtlierod by usur- 
pation on tho people's liberty, which it swalloweth up, and 
thereby swclleth above proportion, so in oU his pleading 
.'for the one, he doth necessarily implead tlie oUier; and u 

in other thiDgs, so espcciallr in the exercise of prophecjr, 
or teacliing in the church bj tn ordinaiy gift; in which 
every one uiat is able, bringoth his shot (redconing, Bbere) 
in due time and order, for ajoint feast of that heavenly i 
repast, the Word of God. 

The arguments in his writing, (sent unto me by W. E,, 
with his consent, and that, hcforo the mngistrate,) I have 
set down word for word, and answered, and therewith con- 
finnod what I have clscwhore published,* in justification 
of this exercise against his exceptions and answers, which 
being scattered, here and tliere, in his large discourse and 
divers of them divon Umes repeated, I have collected, con- 
tracted, and set in orderly opposition to their contraiy 
arguments; and that witliout any the least wrong (to my 
knowledge) unto him or his cause; as, having left out 
nothing in his writing, which might seem to bring advan- 
tage to his purpose. 

Now if any sliall ask me why I have not rather answered 
Mr. Hall's large and learned volume against mc,| and the 
general cauiio which I profcsfl, my rcitsons arc, — First, 
Because it is a large volume so full farced by him, as it 
seems, that he might prevent further answer. Secondly, 
His treatise is as much (and more immediately) against 
the RcformiHts, nnd their cause in tlio main, as against us 
and ours. TliirUly, The truth rcqulrcth not Uiat persons 
but tilings be answered; and things in it know I none, not 
answered in my defence ^ against Mr. Bernard. Lastly, 
I do put OS grcnl difference between him and Mr. Yates, as 
between a word-wise orator, both labouring more, and 
being better oble to feed his reader with the leaves of 
words, and flovcrs of rhetoric, than witlt the fruits of 
knowledge, as also striving rather to oppress tlte person 
of bis adversoiy witii false and proud reproaches, tiion to 
convince his tenet by sound arguments: and between a 
man sincerely zealous for the truth, and by his simple and 
solid dealing by the Scriptures, as Mr. Yates doth, giving 
testimony of his unfeigned love thereof. Which truth my 

■ ridJivoLU. A JuitiflcatiiHiof Scparstion, p*(ci MO^Ul. 
t A Coaunon ApcHoirj of Uu Church of England, Ae. ftc, br J, H, 
"" ' HaU), 1610. Vol. Ix. page* 37S— tSO. Pntt's Sditioo. 1806. 
' ToLU. AJ«tiAMtk>nof8ep«atioa,ke. 


prayer to QoA is, thut ho, with mjnelf, and all othen so 
Becking it, may find, and Uicrcin accord ia all things. 

And for you, my Ghristlun friends, towards whom, for 
your persons I am minded, even as when I lived with you, 
bo you admonished by me (which I olxo entroat at the 
hands of tlio Lord on your betuklO that you carefully bo- 
ware, lest in anything you foil from your steadfastness; 
but on tlie contrary, grow in grace, and in the knowledge 
and obedience of the Lord Jesus in his whole revealed 
will. And let mo tho more cnniestly exhort you hereunto, 
by how much the controty evil is the more both dangerous 
and common. A man may fail forward, and in so doing 
endanger his hands and face; but in falling backward, the 
danger is far greater, as we sec in old £li, otwhom we read, 
that ho fell bockn-ards and his neck brake and he died. 
1 Sam. iv. 18. And how common a thing ia it for men 
amongst you and tlio whole land throughout, in their do- 
clining ago to decline in grace, woeful exponcnce tcoohetli; 
there being few old disciples to bo found, who in their age 
do hold the same temper of zeal and goodness, which they 
had upon them in their younger times; this being uno 
main reason thereof, — That tho means amongst you are for 
more for convcndon tlian preservation ; and for birth than 
nourishment: whereas they (by the Lord's gracious dis- 
pensation in tlie orderly state of things) who are planted 
in llie house of tlie LonJ, in the courts of our Ood, shall 
flourish, yea, shall sprout, in old age, and are fat and green, 
to show that Uie Lord is just and with him is none un- 
righteousness. Pso. xcii. 1 3 — ] S. Of this grace, he who is 
the author and finisher of our faith, make Doth you and us 
partakers always. Amen. 




Argument Fir$t. — Mr. J, YaUt, 
"Fbou the coniminsioii of Cliriet, John xx. 91 — il!), all 
prophecy in public U to remit an<l rotiun sins : nnd Christ 
gnuits Uiis power to nono but Hiich as ho bcikIh, ver. 31, 
an'l ordains tlicrcunto, vcr. 22. 13ut men out of ofTico oro 
neither sent nor oi-dained thereunto, tlicrcroro in public 
ought not to mcddlo witli tlio power of Iho keys. I know 
tlie exception will bo this, tlint many out or ofBcc have 
prophesied, Ui« Scriptures approving it. I answer, an ordi- 
nary rule is never infringed by on extraordinary example, 
but ever by on onlinatj-. To marry my sister ii incest, 
yet in Gain it was no incest, because tlio example was ex- 
traordinary. I may not titeal; and yet it was lawful for 
the Jews to rob tlie £g}-ptinns, because that was God's 
extraordinary permission. Extraordinary examples, as tlicy 
moke no i-ulea, so they break none; but ordinary examples 
must ever follow the rale; and if they do not, they break 
it GhriHt therefore laying down a perpetual rule of bind- 
ing and loosing to all such ati arc sent and ordained, either 
by himself immediately or by such as ho shall appoint 
thereunto, it must neeosaarily follow Uiat any ordinary ex- 
ample will break this rule, if it be not framed accordingly; 
therefore, 1 constantly affirm that no ordinary prophefty 


ought to be out of office. A< for extnordinar;, that can- 
not oppose this nile, bocnuM it is of uioUier nature, nnd 
therefore is not to be limited within tlie compass of ui 
ordinoiy rule. Secondly, I answer, that all the prophecies 
out of office were by the secret motion of the Spirit, which „ 
was warrant for all such as hod no calling, by office, there- 


That all prophecy in public (and in prirato also) is for 
the mnitting and retaining of sins I scknowlcdi^: but 
that Christ grants tlils power to none but to such as h« 
■ends and ordains by tlie commission given, John xx. 3), 
&c., I plainly deny, and require his proof. IIo tihould then 
grant it to none but to apostles; for llic commission there 

g'vcn is peculiar to such, conveyed to tliem immediately I 
i>m Christ, cunfiraied by the miraculous in-breathiug of 
the Holy Ghost, and by them to be exercised and dispensed 
principally towards unbelievers; of all which, nothing is 
common to ordinniy officers. As Christ then gives power 
of binding rmd loosing sins to the apostles tliere, so else- 
where to ordinary pastors. Eph. iv.6 — 12. Elsewhere to tlie 
whole church gathered together in ono. Matt xviii. 17, 18; 
I Cor. T. 4 ; 3 Cor. ii. G — 10 ; and lastly, in otlier places, to 
every faithful brother, confessing Jcaus Clu-ist. Katt. xvl. 
18, 10, and chap, xviii. 15; Luke x^ii. 9. And since the 
power of binding and loosing sins is only by way of mani- 
festation and declaration of the Word of God, tlis law, 
and tho gospel; look unto whom tlioWord of God isgiven, - 
unto him the power of binding and loosing sins is ^vfln, 
though to be usod by divers states of persons after a diverse 
order, which order doth, in no sort, abolish tho being of tlie 
thing, but only preserves it from confusion. 

And where ho takes it for granted that the examples for 
prophesying out of office, in the Scriptures, were extra- 
ordinary, as Cain's marrying his sister, and the Jews' (the 
Israelites he should tmy*) stealing from the Kgyptians, 
his comparisons ore without compass, and his affirmation t- 

* The deaccadimla of Abrahuu were not generally called " Jew*" 
tni titec tlio return from tho BubflonUh CapClTlty. Calmct's Die- i, 
tioniryof the Holj Bible, Art. "Jews." jj 

Tfli^ lit. n ' 


vithoiit trnth. These their practices were agminst th» 
I light of nature, and mora) law, then written in the tablet 
of men's hearts, and a^rwords written in the tables of 
stone, snve as there was an extmordinnrr dispensation by 
the Lord of the law, and God of nature. But what like 
is there in this that a man, out of office, having receired a 
gift of Ood (whether extraordinary or ordinal^) hy which 
be is enabled to prophesy, that ia to speak to edificadon, 
eshortntion, and comfort of the church, should so uso the 
uune good gift of God, in his time and order? What 
eclipse is here of the light of nature, or violntion of natural 
honesty? If Mr. Yates had remembered the law which 
forbade men to plough with an ox and ass togctlier. Dent, 
xxii. 10, he would not thus haTO yoked together things of 
so unlike kind. 

And for the nccrct motion of tlic Spirit by which, in his 
second snswer he nffirmeth " tliat all prophecies out of ofTice 
were," he spcAkclh both that^hich is true and againit 
himself. For what were tlipsc secret motions of tlic Spirit, 
but the prophets' zeal for God's glory, and man's good? 
which also were sufficient on their put, for the use of the 
gift, whether ordinary or cxtmordinnry ; whether in men, in 
office or out of office, it was not material. So tliat for the 
use even of an extraordinary gift there was, required (at 
least at all times) no extraordinary motion of the Spirit, 
but only that which was, and in, ordinary to them and us. 
God therefore for his own glory, and the good of his 
people, giving tlie gift, whclhFr extraordinarily or onli- 
naruy unto a man, he hath warrant suHicient from his seal 
to God's glory, and man's salvation, to use the same gift 
in his time, place, and order. Of which hereafter, 
ilfr. YaUt. Argument Second. 
"From the execution of a public function in the church. 
Prophecy ordinary, is by preaching to bring the glad tid- 
ings of peace and good tilings to God's people; and this 
the apostle says is not warrantable without sending, Rom. 
X. 15. We must feed tlie Hock because we are set over it. 
Acts IX 30; to prophesy to God's people is an honourable 
calling, and none ought to take it upon him but he that is 
callod of Ood, M was Aaron, Heb. t. i. The \ilUA o( 


Judos iR colled o charge. Acta i. SO ; the miuisters are ths 
light or the world. Klott v. 14. Slant io the right hand of 
Clirist. Rev. i. 90. John was a man sent from God. John 
i. 0. Christ sent his apostles in the midst of wolves. Matt. 
Z. 10. I have not sent these jtrophets, soitli tlie Lord, aad ,, 
yet thejr ran. Jer. xxiii. SI. As mony u found not tltmr 
genealogy to be from Levi (from Anron he should soy) were 
nut from the pricatliood. Neh. vii. 04. AIL, these places 
keep us to on ordinary rule, ond for all ordinary propbeay- 
ing there con be no exception from it, witliout an open 
' breach thereof; as for all your places of prophesying out 
of office, thuy ore nil of tlieni to be undci-stood of the extr&- 
ordinnry; which cannot bo tied to ordinary rules. For so 
we sliould abridge God of his liberty : but we must beware 
of imitation, lest wo become licentious." 

Here is a long hon'est for o small crop. All that caa 
be gotlicrcd licncc, cither by reaping or gleaning, is oo 
more, than tliat no man may excrciiic a publia function, or 
office of ministry in tlio church, without a lawful sending 
or calling from Uio Lord, by the means which he has sanc- 
tified, which, 08 it conccmcth Mr. Yates well to consider 
of, especially reckoning, as he pi-ofcsscdiy dotli, his gene- 
alogy from tlie Pope of Homo ; so doth it not impeach 
oiu" prophets nt ail, who have a lawful calling for the use 
of their gift, though not bo solemn, uoitlier need tliey, os 
tliey who nrc to exercise and fulfil n constant ministiy and 
charge. But for the word " sending," which he so much i 
orgctli, it must be known, tltot as all that teach lawfully, 1 
whctlicr in office or not, are sent by ChriBt in respect of 
tlicir personal gl^ and graces, so ordinary oEGcura ore not 
sent by those vho appoint them to minister, as were the 
extraordinary apostles sent by Christ, who appointed 
them. Sending importeth a passing of the sent from the p 
sender to onotlicr; and so the apostles were sent by 
Christ to preach the gospel to the Jews and Gentiles ; but 
so aro not pastors sent by the church, which collclh (hem, 
unto olliers, but by her appointed to minister unto her- 
self. Tbcy who were, in their time, apostles, were first 
eolled in their persons by Christ to be his disciples, that 

'ft93 ' IBB PeOI>U*8 FLEA 

u apoGlIes afterwords they might be sent to minister: 
they who are poatora, i\re xcnt by Christ, first as memherB, 
or in tlieir persons nnd personal gifts, tliat as pastors they 
maj aflenrnrds be called to miniBt«r. And that Mr. Yates 
may have for the calling of our prophets, vhereon to in- 
sist, thus we practise. After the eiercise of the public 
ministiy ended, the mlcrs in the church do publicly 
exhort, and rcqnira that such of their own or other church, 
as have a gift to speak to the edification of the hearers, 
should use the same ; and tins, according to that which 
is written. Acts xiii. 14, tc, where Paul and Barnabas 
coming into the synagogue, Uio rulers, after tho work of 
the oiSinary ministry was ended (considering tliem not as 
iqwstles, which tl)cy acknowledged not, but only as men 
having gifts) sent unto them, that if they had any word 
of exhortation to the people, tlioy should say on. 

Mr. Yttle$. Ariptmmt Third. 
" From the true causrs of prophecy in tho New Testa- 
ment, which oro two, eitlicr immediate revelation, or im- 
position of hands ; the first is Acta ii. 17, nnd x. 44 ; tho 
second, Acts viii. JT, and xix. 0. A third cause of public 
. prophecy cannot be given ; therefore, ordinaiy prophecy 
' in public, out of ollicf, being neither by immediate revela- 
tion, nor imposition of hands is unlawful. You may say 
the contrary, but it will be without all warrant of tho 

In tliis nrgiiinent are Hundry errors, logical and theo- 
logical. Anil first, ^Vhy doth he not make Christ's brcnth- 
ing upon tlie n)instle^, Jolm xx. 33, ond tlie descending 
and sitting of tlie cloven fiery tongues upon them, Acts 
ii. 3, 4, causes of prophecy, as well aa imposition of 
hands ? Secondly, Imposition of hands is no cause at 
al' of prophecy, to spook properly, as Mr. Yotes should 
do, affecting tlie name of a logician. It is no natural 
eanse; for to imogine that men took tlie Holy Ghost in 
their hands ond reached it to others, were ridiculous } 
neither is it a moral cause, ns in it there are pro- 
pounded no arguments and motives of persuasion. It is, 






indeed, no more tlinn a sign denotinf^ the person, not a / 
causo effecting the thing. Thirdly, If it wero a cause, 
yet should it not be made the member of a diTjsion op- 
posed to revelation, but a cause or means anbordinate 
unto it, as unto tlie end; since it served to the conTcring* 
of the Spirit, by wliich Spirit all revelation is, and bj 
reveltttion, all prophecy — extraordinary by immediate le- 
velation, ordinary by mediate — both which, tlien, were in 
the church, as is tlio latter now, even in men out of offiee« 
by means of their study, and God*s blessing upon the 
same, else could tlicre never be lawful office, pastor or 
teacher clioscn in the dmrch to the world*8 end. The 
gift of prophecy comes not by the office, but being found 
in persons before, makes them capable of the office by due 

2Tr. Tatci. Argument Fourth. 

** From distinction of spiritual gifts, administrations, 
and operations. 1 Cor. zii. 4 — 0. All these are to be 
referred to tliat general, vcr. 1. Gifts, therefore, in this 
I)laco must be but one kind of spiritual gifts, and be 
di^tingiiislied from the other two. The first, then, are 
merely drifts ; tlie second, gifts mid offices together ; tlio 
third, ratlier the eflcct of a gift, than the gift itself; and, 
tlicrofore* tlie Holy Ghost knowing how to speak aptly, 
gives more to tlio effect, than tlio cause ; the work, than 
the worker ; for, in truth, miraculous works exceed all the 
viituo tliat possibly can bo imagined to be in a mere crea- 
ture ; and, therefore, it is only a passive belief, or iiuth, 
wliercby man is rather a patient tiian an agent in the 
work. These three general heads arc divided again, or 
rather exemplified by many particulars. First, ver. 8^. 
10, all lay down a kind of spiritual gifts; 1, a word of 
wisdom ; 2, a word of knowledge ; 8, of miraculous faith ; 
4, of healing; 5, operations of great works; 0, prophesy* 
ing ; 7, discerning of sx)irit8 ; 8, of tongues ; 9, of in- 
terpretation. Tliat some of these gifts are extraordinary, 
no wise man will deny ; yet that I may prove them all 
extniordinary, consider three things: First, the cause; se> 
eondly, the effect; thirdly, the subject The cause with- 
out all doubt is the Spirit ; yet question may be of tba 


991 THK people's flea 

manner and mciurare. For manoGr, whether the Spirit 
alone, or the Spirit assisting our industry and pains. I 
saj alone, because all these efTects depend equally upon 
the some cause ; and I have no reason to say, that pro- 
phecy should be more by my pains and industry, then 
strange tongues, or any otlicr gi(^ : for then I should 
mogniCy the Holy Ghost in one gift more than another. 
That which is given bv tl)e sole operation of the Spirit is 
more than that which is como by, tlirough ordinaty pains. 
Z bless Ood for his ordinary providence, where my hand 
goes with the Iiord in any ordiuoty aiTairB. But wherein 
I find tlie Lord do for me where I hod no hand, there I 
ought to magnify him much more. So in these gifts, if 
Bome were ordinary, some extraordinary, then the Spirit ' 
should not have equal praise in them all. The orator, 
proving Cirsar to deserve more praise for his clemency 
towards Mnrcclhiq, than nil liiti famous viclorics, uscth the 
manner of llic cnuso to show it ' In tliy wars, O em- 
peror! thou hadsi captains and soldiers, virtue nnd 
valour, weapons and munition, &c. ; but sparing Marcellus 
thou alone didst it, to thee alone it belongs, and all the 
glory of it.' So, if prophecy in tliis place, above all tlie 
rest, must como in for an ordinary gift, tlien may I say, 
' blessed Spirit, prophecy is tliy gift I yet do I acknow- 
ledge Ihy ordinary blessing upon my labours in tliis ; hut 
OS for strange tongncs and tlio rest, I aclinowlcdge Ihcy 
are thy mere giAs, without all pain and labour of mine i 
therefore the greater praise I give tliee.' Were not tliia 
to diminish prophecy in regard of tlic rest, which the Holy 
Ohost prefers before them all ? and, therefore, did show as 
great power in tliat gift as in any other. The manner, 
Uien, being all one in giving, the second question is, whe- 
ther they were given in the same measure. I answer. 
No. Kom. zii. 6. And, hereupon, the i^ostle commanded 
that one prophet should be subject to anotlier, and wil- 
lingly yield place 'o him, tlial hod the greater mcaaure. 
I leave the cause, and come to tl)c effects, which learned 
men cannot distinguish. I will show you my Judgment, 
and follow it as you please. To the two first gifts is fpven 
I word, by words we e^ipreas onr meanings, therdbro, 
the Spirit doth not only give ft gift, but on obili^ and 


poiTcr to litter that gift for the greatest good of the 
hcnrcrs. Brother, it a tiic port of a divine, to study for 
apt and fit words ; and, indeed, when God hatli given us 
learning hy exceeding great pains, yet we find great im- 
perfection for wnnt of words. Now, here I leam ilmt the ' 
Spirit of God did extraordinarily supply this wont, by 
giving unto men excellent utterance of hoavenlj' things, 
Tlic first two gifts are wisdom and knowledge ; wisdom is 
a holy understanding of heavenly things, with a prudent 
application of them to their several uses. Knowledge, or 
science, if on insight into divers heavenly truths, yet 
wanting that prudent application; these two gifts witli a 
fruitful utterance of tliein, could be no ordinary gift« 
studied out by tlicir own pains, but such as the Holy 
Ghost did immediately inspire into tliem. I should bo 
very glad to hear that your congregations were full uf 
these wise and understanding men, then I doubt not but 
ynii would tlio sooner rccal j'oiirsolvoa. The tlirce next 
gifts of faith, healing, and great 'works, are undoubtedly 
extraordinary, and were never to ho ohtaiiied by any study 
of ours. For tlic four lost, I doubt not hut you will grant 
three of tliem cxtraordinni^-. Discerning of spirita was not 
by ordinoT}' nicnn.s, but extraordinary, as you may see in 
Jtjianias and Sapphira, Simon Magus, and others, which 
were seen by nn extraordinary spirit, l-'or sti-ango tongues, 
I hope you will not stnnd in granting it, if you consider 
but the first original of them, Acts ii. 2 — 4. and for in- 
tor])rotation of tliese tongues, that was as dilTicult as the 
Other: why should you now stick at prophecy, which I will 
plainly show is morn difficult than both tlic rest? For bow 
should eitlicr you, or I come to be able to prophesy, except 
there were somo skilful in the original tongues, as likewise 
the helps of commentaries aud inteipretationa? You see 
God appointed tlicse as means to help us to prophesy: ' 
and where tlicy are wanting, it is simply impossible for any. 
man to become an ordinary prophet Indeed, tlie Holy 
Ghost can supply tlio want of botti tliose, and tlierefore 
will you, nill you, it must be grantod tliat this prophecy 
was extraordinary. For take away the ordinary means of 
■ prophecy, and then tlie thing itself will cease. Now, you 
may phunly understand that the primitive ohurch bad not 

I 1 .11 ,a\^ 

91)8 THE FEOna'B FtBA 

these moHiB of propbccy, that yon see we hare : tbojr had 
not the origiuoi tongues traiiBlatcd, and therefore Qod 
gure men extraordinary gifta in spcidcing and intei-preting 
Uiem. Sec, then, I intrcat you, how thoM two means 
being cxtraordiniu}-, enforce yoa to yield the other of the 
same nature. Were it possiulo for you to become a pro- 
phet, wanting the translation of tlie New and Old Testa- 
ment, as likewise all inteipretations with which, now, 
through God's blessing the whole work is replenished f 
I know you will answer, and say No ; then sny, propliecy 
ia the primitive cliurch was extraordinary, becnuse the 
Gentiles had not ordinary translations and interpreto- 
tiona of them." 

It I should follow Mr. Ynles in his course, I should 
rather write one sermon a^ninKt another, tlian bring an 
answer to nn argnnieiiL liricfly then as I can, omitting 
other tilings to that which conceniM directly our present 
purpose; his afhmiation tliat the giftx montioiied, 1 Cor. 
xii., are only extroordinnry, I do deny and answer iiis 
reasons as foUowcth, and, First: tliat, contraiy to his un- 
reasonable reason, wo botli may and ought to magnify the 
Holy Ghost more in one gift tlian anotlier, since tlie same 
Holy Ghost worketh more excellently and for our good in 
one gift tlian in anotlicr. Secondly: ns a fnrthcr ti-uth 
and more contrary to bis strange assertion, tliat in soma 
works of tlio Rpirit, llioiigli not here expressed, in wliich 
the Lord itsetli our industry and care, he is infinitely 
more to be magnified, than in any whaL<iaovor, tlio imme- 
diate and miraculouH work of tlie saino S|)trit, wherein ho 
nseth it not; for example, in saving faith and repont- 
■Qce: for the working of which by his Spirit, God uscth 
our careful hearing and meditation of his Word, the law 
and gospel. Tliinlly: compare we even extraordinary 

S'fts witli extraordinarr 1 we see that God used the in- 
iitiy, and pains of the extraordinary prophets, for the 
reading and meditating in and of the luw, Dan. ix. 18, 
and of the latter prophels, of the former prophets' writings. 
Dan. ix. 9. As iJso of Uie apostles in the reading, know- 
ledge and memory of them both ; yea, eren of the very 



heathen authora whose sajings they BOineUmes quote in 
tlieir prophecies or sermons, Acts XTii. 28; Bom. it. 
3—10; 1 Cor. xv. 83; Tit L 12; a Tim. ir. 13; the 
like industry or care not being required for the gill, or use 
of strange tonnes, and jet did the Holy Ghost much 
niore excellently utter itself in tlieir prophecies and ser- 
mons, than in their tongues, as Mr. Yates oft and tnily 

Upon vcr. 8 he rightly dcscribeth wisdom, ** a holy 
understanding of heavenly tilings, with a pmdent applica- 
tion of them to Uicir several uses and knowledge ; an in- 
sight into divers heavenly tilings, yet wanting that prudent 
applicntioii, with the fruitful utterance of them;** bat» 
that these could be no ordinary gifts, studied out by their 
own pains, but such as the Holy Ghost did immediately 
inspire into tliem, ho barely affirmcth; and I thuik, 
singularly, but am sure, untruly. I marvelled what he 
tv'ould say to these two gifts of wisdom and knowledge, to 
prove that tliey could not bo ordinar}', and did expect 
some special reasons for his so singular interpretation ; 
but, behold a bare bone of affirmation brought by hiin« 
witliout marrow, flesh, skin, or colour of proof. Wherein ho 
is also tlie more blamewortliy, considering tliat ho cannot 
be ignoraiit, how tlio most judicious both at home and 
abroad, do undei*stand these two gifts as meant of tiic two 
special qualifications of the pastor and teacher, ordinary 
gifts of ordinary oHices ; of which ministries amongst the 
rest ordained by Christ, tlic one Lord of his church* the 
apostle speaketh ver. 5, as ver. 4 of their gifts by that 
one Spirit. Which ordinary gifts, all lawful pastors and 
teachers, ordinary offices, Uien had, and besides them, 
many others not in office. And by tlie grace of God, 
some amongst us. and tliat by tlic help of nature, study, and 
prayer, and the blessing of God*8 Spirit thereupon ; which 
blessing of God I will not deny to have then been for degree 
extraordinary upon mcn*s weaker endeavours for their fur- 
nishing with tliese ordinary gifts; whidi makes nothing 
against our purpose. That the gift of faith is undoubtedly 
extraordinary, is said by him, but doctors have doubted 
of it See for one, Beza, in his great annotations upon tha 
words, both affirming and proving, that by iaith is meant 


908 THE feople's plea 

on usent unto the doctrine propounded, vrhich is aa 
ordinniy giFt of the Spirit 

^Vhere be makes no doubt, but we will ffrant that three 
of the four last were extraordinary, belmt "threaps* 
kindness" upon us, as we use to say. That Peter's 
gill of discerning was extraordinary iu the case of 
Ananias, Acl^ v., we confess, but not bo in the case of 
Simon Magus, Acts viii., of whom he judgetli by his words, 
as of the tree by the fruit, in which ho did notoriously 
belray himself to be in the gall of bitterness, to tlio dis- 
cemntcnt of any ortlinnr}- Christian. The gift of discerning 
both of doctrine and manners, is in a measure required of 
exery Christian, Phil. i. 9. 10 ; 1 John It. 1 ; Heb. v. U ; 
but is bestowed by tlie Giver thereof upon some more 
liberally; sometimes extraonlinnrily, as then upon some, 
in some cases ; Bometimes ordinarily, as both Uien and 
now on all sucli at had, and have more Christian discrO' 
lion than other men. 

That interpretation of tongues was as diflicuU tis strange 
tongues immediately inspired, is not true. They who, 
Acts ii.6'— 9, beard the apostles speak in tlicirown tongue, 
and were able to Kpcnl; tlie Jews' language tl>en in, 
miglit interpret these sirango tongues unto the Jews 
without any cxtraonliDnry gift; as Mr. Yates hearing a 
glorious formalist speak mucli Latin in his scmion, can 
interpret that strange tongue of his unto U)o people, 
without any extraortlinni^' gift of interpretation; and so 
might it well be in the eliurch of Corinth with some, 
though the tongue were given cttmordinarity. 

Lastly. It doth not hliom- plainly lliat prophecy was 
more diificult than utrangc tiingiios, though nil were true 
which he speaks of tlie difliculty tlicreof. For. by all 
reason and experience, a man tlien might, and now may, 
become an ordinary prophet for ability, by oi-dinniy helps; 
but BO neitlier could, nor can he speuc a strange tongue, 
as there me'uit, but by extraordinary inspiration. That 
simple necessity of commentaries and interpretations 
which he requireth for a man's becoming an ordinal^ 

Erophet, I dare not acknowledge ; of great use they are, 
ut not of simple necessity ; tliat prerogatire royal of 
• Thts^— to Insist upon • thiag pcrtlnadonilf . 


simply necessaij, I would challeDge as peculiar to tha 
bolv Scriptures ; which, are able to make the man of Ood 
peifect, fully furnished to every good work, 3 Tim. lii. 16. 
] 7 ; but where he adds that the primitive church bad not 
the original tonics translated, it is something for his. 
yea, and for tlio Pope's purpose also, if it be true, and that 
the church, especially some good space after her consti- 
tution, might be iKntliout tlie Scriptures in a known tongue. 
But how unadvised and unskilful is he in so saying I How 
detracting from GocFs gracious providence towards His 
Church ! and how partial on tlie clergy's part, and against 
tlie commonalty of Gods inheritance! For tlie thing 
tlien. The Old Testament was wholly translated by the 
seventy interpreters, at tlie uistance of Ptolemj Phila* 
delplius/King of Kg^-pt,* into Greek, the mother tongue of 
the Corinthians; Corinth being in Achaia and Achaia in 
Greece, in which, the same tongue, tliey hod also eveij 
part of tlie New Testament tlien written, as the most was. 
\Vl)ich Iangua<^c was also so universally known throughout 
tlie whole world, by reason partlv of tlie Greek moiiarchj 
under Alexander, and partly of the Greek learning at 
Athens, as that the apostle could write his Epistle in 
Greek to tlie Romans, though in Europe, as understanding 
the tongue sufficiently. Besides the Corinthians had had 
Pauls and other apostolical mcn*s preachings and confer- 
ences amongst them a long time ; which were incompara- 
bly better than all the commentaries in the world. And 
for the Corinthians* ability for tliis work, it is but reason 
wc respect this apostles testimony of them, which is, that 
tlicy were enriched in all utterance and in all knowledge. 
1 Cor. i. 5. In which two giAs as the ability for ordinary 
prophecy doth properly consist, so to appropriate tliem 
unto extraordinary prophets, considering the generality of 
tlie apostle's speech and drift, with other circumstances 
elsewhere observed, were to fetter them in unjust bonda of 

And having thus wiped off his colours of reason, that the 
apostle, ) Cor. xii., speaks only of extraordinaiy gifts, I } 
will, by the grace of God, plainly show the contraiy ; and 
that he speaks of ordinaiy also. And first : in teaching, 
• JoM^ai, Antiq. hb. zii. chap. 2; Irau lib. iii. C Si, S^. 





Ter. 3, that no man can call Jesus the Lord, but by the 
Holy Ghost, he points out a gi/l and grace of the Spirit* 
ordinary and common to all Christians ; secondly, 'ver. 6, 
he speaks of diversities, that if, of all the divers and 
several ministries, ordinary and extraordinary, in the 
church under Christ the Lord ; and ver. 4, of the several 
gifts for the same, and so necessarily of tlie ordinary gifts 
for the ordinary ministries then and now ; thirdly, from 
ver. 8, where mention is made of the word of wisdom, 
and the word of knowledge, ordinary gifts of ordinary per- 
sons, both in and out of ofTice now and then ; fourtJily, 
Ter. 112, he compares the church at Corinth to a body 
having Christ tlie head, and each of them membcra for 
their parts : of whom, one had this gift, another that, given 
of God for their mutual good ; but by them abused other- 
wise. Whereupon I conclude, except tliere were in Co- 
rintli no ordinary gifts in paators, teachers, or oUicra, of 
God given, and by tlicm abused, that he speaks not of ex- 
traordinary gifts only; fidhly, ver. d8, after apostles 
and prophets, he mcntionetli teachers, which were ordi* 
naiy officers, and tiiorcforo speaks of ordiiinry gifts and 
teaching ; as also, helpers and governors, who, what were 
they but deacons and elders ? Or take Uie words as they 
are, " helps and governments,** tlian which, what is now, 
or was then, more ordinary both in respect of ministry and 
gifts ? Whereupon, I conclude witli good assurance, that 
the apostle, 1 Cor. xii., treats of the gih of the Spirit both 
extraordinary and ordinary. 

Mr, Yates, Argument Fifth. 

"From comparison of prophecy and strange tongues, 
which are laid together through all the I Cor. xiv. ver; 1» 
prophecy is prefcired before all other spiritual gifts, wliich 
cannot be ordinary : for no ordinary and common gift is 
to be preferred before all extraordinary and spiritual gifts. 
But, you will say, though it be not more excellent, yet it 
is more profitable. I answer, it is both more excellent 
and more profitable ; for the apostle intends both extolling 
it for the end, which shows how good and excellent it is, 
as likewise for the use, making known the profit and benefit 
of it That which it the best object of our desire, must 


needs be the best ; but, of splritcud gifU, prophecy is the 
best object of oar desire. 1 Cor. xii. 81. ' Desire the best 
gifts, chap. xiv. 1. CoTct spiritual gifts, but rather that ye 
inaj propliesj. Secondly : as it is the best to oorselTes, 
so it is tlio best to others, as may appear by the whole 
chapter. Thirdly : all other gifts are giyen for the good of 
prophecy, and not prophecy for them. As it is the best 
gift, so it is tlie most profitable, as being especially for 
edification, exhortation, and comfort But it may be you 
y,'\\\ object. Is not an onlinary gift of prophecy better than 
the extraordinary gift of tongues, or at least, more profit- 
able ? I answer. No. For the tongues. Acts ii. 3, 4, 
wcro more profitable to the church than ever was the or- 
dinary gifl of any men. But compare ordinary with ordi* 
naxy, and extraordinary with extroordinaiy, and we grant 
prophecy tlio privilege." 


To tliis argument, he himself gives a sufficient answer 
in our name, only lie sets it down something lamely; 
where, if it camo in tlic full strength, it would easily with- 
stand Uio force of his argument. For where he should say 
for US, if he spake out, tiiat ordinaiy prophecy is more ex- 
cellent tlian tongues, because more profitable ; ho mokes 
us to stammer tlius, though it be not more excellent, yet 
it is more profitable, it being most plain tliat tlio 
apostlo prefers prophecy before tongues, because it tends 
more to edification of tho church; according to which 
respect alone we are to measure the excellency of 
church ordinances, and so to frame tho object of our desire 
unto them. But what speak I of more excellent, and 
more to edification, sinco the strange tongues as tliere 
used without an interpreter, wcro so far from being com- 
parable to ordinaiy prophecy, for any good end or use, as 
they were on tlie contrary, most vain and ridiculous, as 
appeiu*s, ver. 11, 2*J2, 23. That, then, which ho brings for 
the commendation of tongues from Acts ii. 3, 4, is nothing 
for tongues as used at Corinth. The former were, as of 
simple neccBsity in themselves, and to the apostles, for 
the spreading of the gospel unto all nations, so then 
and there profitably used ; but ui Corinth, ambitiously 



^ ^ ^ 

803 THX fxopls'b plea 

and profaneljr abused, which Mr. Yates should have ob- 
sertea, but bath nAt in his compftrison. ImsHj, I odd, 
u ■ JQSt answer to whatsoerer he hath objected, that 
tongues coDBidered in thomaclves, how rightlj soever used, 
ore not eoroparoble for use ; and so for excellenc/ unto 
ordinary prophesying or preaching considered in itself; 
seeing that by it, as welt as by cxtraordinaTj, saving faith is 
wrought, Rom. x. 14, 17 ; which none can say of strongo 
tongues in themselves, without a strange tongue both from 
truth and sense ; no, nor of any otiicr spiritual gift. And 
a* it doth not appear by the apontle's preferring of pro- 
phecy before tongues, that therefore the prophecy waa 
extroordinoiT, so it apponra unto me, by the Corinthians' 
preferring or tongues before it, that it was but ordinary, and 
therefore diarcgFutloii by tlicm in comparison of the extra- 
ordinary and mimculouH gift of tongues; whereas, had it 
also been extraordinary, immediate, and miraculous, most 
liliely it would bavo carried with it, the like with Iho other, 
or greater regord in their eyes. 

Mr. YaUt. Argument Sixth. 

"From exempli fication, vcr. 0, 'If I come unto you, 
&c.,' I hope you will gnint tlint the npostlo Paul hau all 
those spiritu^ gifts ; and Uicrofore spcnliing of such pro- 
phecy as he had himself, ho must needs spcnk of extraor- 
dinary. Liltowiiic, he hod the knowledge of tongues, and 
yet prefers prophecy before all his languages, tliough ' ho 
spnke more than they all.' Now the example in lus own 
person, muHt needs set forth tlic general ; nnd, tJiereforo, if, 
in tl)e gencml, lie should spoiik of ordinary nrophcsying, 
and in tlio particular of extraordinary-, it would prove idto ; 
for nn example is of tlto same kind witli tlio general. 
Again, in bringing four porUcuton, ho putx rcvi-Iation flntt, 
OS the cause of all tlio rest, which shows plainly he speaks 
of such prophecy as came by rcvotntion, for revelation 
brings K man knowledge, and knowledge teoclieth whole- 
£ome doctrine, and prophecy serveth to utter it." 

I do plainly dony tlio ground upon which ho builds tho 
whole weight of his argument, which is, tliat tho examplo 
and th« thing oxcmplified must b« of the some kind. 


ron TUX EXERciai or rBOPitEor. 303 

How oft doth Christ exemplify the suffcringB of his dia- 
ciplcs hj hii own BufTorings, aiid the sending of hig 
apostles, by his Father's sending of liim ? Were thej, 
therefore, of tha Biune kind ; their Bufferings meritorious, 
snd tlicir sending mcdiatorious, because his were such? 
Dut amongst other evidences against liim, wlierewith all ' 
writings, divine and liuman, are stored, see one fitly pairing 
with (liis in hand. I'bo apostle provoking the Oolationa, 
chap. i. <t, unto just detestation of such as preached another 
gospel amongst thorn, takes an example from his own 
preaching, Ter. 6 : " But though we, or an angel from 
heaven preach another goiipcl unto you, than that which 
we have preached unto you, let him be accursed." As if ho 
should say, I linvo preoclicd unto you formerly justification 
by faith, witliout the works of tUo law of Moses ; tliey now 
preach unto you justification by tlie works of tlte lav 
joined with Christ, kc. Ho exemplificth their preaching 
by his : were tlicy therefore of one kind, both apostoliciU 
because Paul's was such ? It is sufficient for an example, 
if it agree witli the thing which it is brought to exemplify, 
in that for which it is bro\iglit. And so the coming of 
Clirist to jiidgnicnt is by the apostle exemplified by the 
coming of a Uiicf in tlie night, 1 Thess. v. 3. An thero' 
fore tlieir comings of tlic same kind ? or is it not suf&cicnt 
that, being most contmiy in their kind, tliey do yet agree 
in tlie adjunct of suddenness? So is it snlVtcient, if Paul's 
GXtraordinaty prophesying, and the Corintliions' ordinary, 
agree in the adjunct or effect of profitableness or oditica- 
Lion, which thing alone, the nponlle in Iiis exemplification 
liatti respect unto. Ilis obscrvulion about revelation aoomx 

Itnio and good in itself, but shows not plainly that for 
wliich ho brings it ; no, nor liatti so much as n plain 
show fur it, For wlmt show Imtli it of proof tlint ho speaks 
of extraordinary prophecy, because it comes from revela- 
jUon, except he takes it for granted, that there is in Iho 
I church no revelation of the ijplrit for teaching but extra- 
' brdinaiy, or miraculous ; which how con I grant, or he 
Jilfirm 7 Of this more, in Argument 6. 

Jifr. Yates. Ar^ment Stventk. 
" Ttom the fruition of spiritual ^fts, 1 Cor. xiv, 90, htOi 


a psalm, that is, some admirable praise of God, or doc- 
trine, that is, some wortlij point of instruction, or a 
tongiic, tliat is, can speak mysteries wlUi admiration, or 
revelation of some secrets either for doctrine or prediction. 
Lastly, or interpretation, wliotlier of tongues, doctrines, or 
Scripture : all these must needs be had citlier by the or* 
dinary pains of the church, or by the extraordinary gift of 
the Spirit; you say, by Uio *one, and I say, by tlio otlicr: 
and that I agree more witli the Heripturo than yourself, 
consider but tlio distinction of the gilM, and tlioir admir- 
able matter. A psalm must needs consist of metre, which 
required art to compose it. Secondly : it could not, for 
the matter of it, but sound forth some worthy praise of 
God. Do you tliink the Gorinthiaus did study the art of 
music, or likewise read some admirable Divine books to 
find out sweet matter to make their songs of? Alas, 
brother, cive God the gloiy, it was no doubt some sudden 
motion of Uie Spirit, tliat did inflame the hearts of believers 
with some wortliy matter of praising God. Doctrine, 
that is, laid down by our ordinnry pains, is that which wo 
nsnally give nnlo doctors, which after long study, ond 
reading tJie Scriptures, is drawn to some profitable heads, 
pitliily proved, and contrary errors refuted by it. I think 
in Corinth, there wore none of Uiese doctors, and yet I 
doubt not but i\wy were as oxcollont ; for such doctors as 
delivered Uicho doctrines, had them after a more easy 
manner; oven the immediate work of the Spirit. I hope 
without any further dispute you will yield that Uio having 
of a strange tongue was extraordinary, as likewiso tlio 
revelation, and interpretation.'* 


Not to meddle witli his description of a psalm, doctrine, 
Arc, further than concerns our present occasion : The Tirt^«> 
a psalm, was not so undoubtedly as he niaketh it, some 
\ sudden, to wit, extraordinary motion of the Spirit, ^. 
The Scriptures rather insinuate tlie contrary, and tliat 
these psalms and spiritual songs were also, beside the 
psalms of David, and tlioso then made by extraordinary 
motion, which I will not deny, even ordinary, and conceiv(!d 
by ordinary men and motions, Eph. t. 18, 10 ; Col. iii. 1(L| 





Jonies v. 13. The Scriptures are to be extended ms 
Ifti^cly, and to as common uso as maj be, neitlior is anj- 
tiling in Uicm to l»o accounted extraordinaiy. save that 
^vliich cannot possibly be onlinar}% which Uicso might bo. 
For tbo finding out of swcot matter, tlicj had adniirablo 
Divine books to read, even tlio wonderful Dirino Scriptures. 
For music, as witliout doubt many in tliat most rich and 
delicate city wore expert in it, so what reason ho hath to 
rcquiro for tlie cliurch sinking tlicu in use, suck studj 
and nrt, I bco not, except it be because ho dwcllM too near 
a cathedral church. He may see, for tlio plainness of 
singing used in former times (and before tlio spouse of 
Christ, the church in all her ordinances, was by Antichrist 
stripped of her homely but comely attire, and tricked out 
witli his whorish ornaments) tliat which Austin hath of 
this matter. Confess, lib. x. c. 13. 

For the second, which is doctrine, ho but thinks thers 
were no doctors in Corinth ; but ho may well chango liis 
thoughts, if he botli consider how that church abounded, 
in tlio body of it, even to excess, in all knowledge and 
utterance, tlie doctors* two special faculties ; as als«o, how 
tins apostle, in this Epistlol ch. xii., vcr. US, aninnctli ex- 
pressly, tlnit God had not in the church amongst otlier 
otricers, doctoi*s or teachci*8 : besides that, it is enough for 
my purpose, if there wei'o any in Corinth, though, not 
oHiccrs able by ordinaiy gift to deliver doctrine : which, 
considering the fore-sign itied state of tliat church, both 
in rcs]>ect of Paul's ministry among tlicm, and testimonj 
of tliem, being in that city which was the chief of all 
Greece for goveniment, (Greece also being the fountain of 
learning and eloquence) cainiot I tlnnk bo reasonably 

To yield you without further dispute, that revelation and 

interpretation wei*e, viz. only, the immediate work of tho 

) 8i)irit, wero in us, more courtesy than wisdom. For in- 

: torprctation, I sec not, but that either he himself who spake 

^ the tongue by an extraordinary gift, or any otlier man 

} that undci*Mtood it, having ordinary ability to interpret tho 

j matter delivered, botli lawfully might, and in conscience 

• ought so to do ; except he would quench the Spurit both 

in respect of the extniordinary gift of the tongue, and or* 






dinaxy gift of intorpretation, but that the pastor or toacher 
might DOt do this by his orditiaiy gift, which is yet a fort, 
strong enough to keep us from yielding, were strange to 
imagine. Besides, let it be noted how the apostle, ver. 18, 
exhorts to pray for the gift of interpretation. Now, how 
a roan might pray for an extraordinary and miraculous 
gift, which he wholly wanted, without an extraordinary 
motion, or promise, and merely upon the apostle's exhort- 
ation general, I see not, but would learn of him that could 
teach me. 

2fr* Yate$. Argument Eighth. 

** From present revelation, vor. 80. In the Terse 
going before is laid down in what order they shall pro- 
phesy, even as it was before for strange tongues : yet here 
IS a further injunction and timt is of silence, if anything 
of more weight shall be revealed unto another: why 
should the other keep silence if it were known before Uiat 
this man should speak after him ? If it were ordinary 
prophesying, and such as our pains and study brought us 
unto, then were it fit Uiat we should have our liberty to 
go on and not be interrupted by another : but the apostie, 
upon the revelation to anotiier even sitting by, enjoins 
silence to the present speaker, which if his revelation had 
been studied before, could not be any motive or persua- 
sion why he should yield to the other, that is, now upon 
the sudden, to take his place : this were for one prophet 
to disgrace anotiier : but the clear sense is to any man 
tiiat will not wrangle, that because it plcaseth the Spirit 
to inspire one sitting by, with some more excellent matter, 
either in regard of the same subject or some other, the 
apostie enjoins silence.*' 


To his question, "Why the former speaker should keep 
silence, if it were known before tiiat a second should spcax 
after him ? It is easily answered ; that even therefore he 
was to keep silence ; tliat is, to take up himself, in due 
time, as beinff to think, in modesty, that the conduits of the 
Spirit of Qod did not run into his vessel alone, but that 
otiien idso might receive of the fulness of the same Spirit, 


to Bjteak BomcthinR further to tlio edirication of tbe church. 
Kspecially sitting ilown, in Bome oppoiiit«d plwe which it 
should Beem, ver. 30, and Acts xiii. 1 4, ho that purposed 
to prophesy UMd to take, and which order I think the 
JewB yet obsci-ve in tlicir sj-naeogues. And where he odda,.' ' 
that if it wcro ordinary prophecy, and such as our study 
brought us unto, tlion were it fit we sliould have our liberty 
to go oil, ftiiU not to bo iuttri-uptcd byaiioUicr, which ho also 
nccoiinu a disgracing of tbo former; I would know of him 
whctliCT it wcro not as Tit, and mnch mora, that the ex- 
tmordinary prophets immediately inspirod by the Holy 
Gliost, and who could not err, should liave Uteir liberty to 
go on unintomipted ? Is not this without all compass of 
rcopon, tliat the extraordinary prophet immediately in- 
Rliired, should not Imvo an much liberty to go on without 
being interrupted, as the ordinary, who might worthily 
deserve to be interrupted for speaking untruly or impor-- 
tiiicntly 7 Altliougli I do not tliink tlint tlio apostle re- 
quiras nny intemipting of the former by Uie latter, which 
were nido if not worse, but only a convenient cession or 
place-giving to a second by tlio iirst speaker, as hath been 
said. Now tlic exception of disgrace to tlie fomicr by dio 
latter's speaking is well to bo minded, tliut it rany appear, 
how evil customs do infect the minds of godly men, ho as 
Utcy tliink it a tlisgmce lliat one should give ptncc to an- 
oUier, to speak after him, further or otlienviso tlion he 
huth done. But it was not so from the beginning: but 
Ginco tlicy, who under Christ, should lie scnonts of tbe 
church, Imvo been her musters, and have exercised this 
magisterial teaching notv in use, where ordinarily, one 
alono in a church (divci-s otliors in divers places, better 
able tluin be, sitting at his feet continually to team), must 
bo heard all his life long; tliinking it a disgrace, to have 
another speak anjUiing further than ho hatli done : which 
was tlie very disease of tbo clnirch at Corinth, wherein he 
that spake first would take up nil the time himself ; whereas 
he should in modesty have conceived, tlmt a second or 
third, eB]iecially seeming proTidcd to speak by seating 
themselves in the same place with him, might have somo- 
thing revealed further, or otherwise than he had. 
' Which zerelatioQ tho apostle doth not oppose to fort- 

808 THE PE0rLB*8 PLEA 

going study, as Mr. Yates tliinketh, but unto emulation, 
and study of contradiction : teaching tliat the Spirit alone 
must be heard in the church, speaking bj whoso mouth 
soever. And that there is in the church an ordinary ^Spirit 
of revelaUon ; besides comfortable experience, these places 
amongst many others do clearly prove. Matt xi. 35, 28 and 
xvi. 17; £ph. i. 17; Phil. iii. 15. 


Mr. Yate$. Argument Ninth, 

'* From vocation, ver. 20, 32, 37, these spiritual men are 
called prophets, and to imagine a prophet without a 
calling, is that which the Scripture will not endure ; there- 
fore all theso prophets either had immediate calling from 
Ood, or mediate from men, or else they took it up tliem* 
selves ; the two first, wo grant lawful callings, but this, in- 
tolerable. The ser^'ont of Moses says, 'Forbid Eldad 
and Medad to prophesy.* Numb. xi. 28. His reason was, 
because he tliought they had no calling, which had been 
true if they had taken it up without immediate inspiration ; 
but Moses, knowing tliat it was from God, wished that tlie 
like gift might bo upon all God s people ; so that those 
were true pro]>hcts for tlie instant, by an immediate call 
from God ; and the text says, Uioy added no furtlier, show- 
ing, that as the gift ceased, so did tliey.** 


It is true that spiritual men are called prophets, or 
rather pro])lict8, spiritual mm. AVhat is it, tlien, that 
makes a spiritual man, but a gift of the Spirit? And what 
a prophet, ordinary or extraordinar}', but the gift of pro- 
phecy, ordinary or extraordinary? Whereupon it follow- 
eth undeniably, that so many, with us or elsewhere, as 
have the ordinary gift or ability to prophesy, are prophets, 
though out of oflicc. In this argument ho hath made a 
•N^ snare, wherewith himself is taken unavoidably. Secondly, 
We affirm tliat our prophets have a calling, which 1 have 
declared formerly, not to make tiiem prophets by condition 
or estate, for tliat, they are bv their gift, but for the use or 
exercise of the same gift before bestowed upon them by 
the Lord, through their labour and industiy. Of Eldad*8 
and Medad*s prophesying, we shall speak herei^ter; only 

^ • . 




note vre, in the meanwhile, how Mr. Yates, and ri^tlj, 
fipportioncth their prophesying to their gift, as we do also 
our8. according to that of the apostle, " haring then gifts 
dilToring according to the grace that is g^Ten to us, whether 
prophccj, let us prophesy according to the proportion of 
faith; or a ministry, let us wut on tlie minisby." Bom. 
xii. 0, 7. They, Uien,* that hare a gift, must prophesy M- 
cording to their proportion. 

3fr. Yate$. Argumgnt Tenth. 
" From distinction, ver. 37, tlie apostle from the whole 
church, turns himself to tlicir prophets and spiritual men, 
showing plainly tliat these had some particular place abore 
the rest ; and he gives them special charge to observe the 
things ho writes to the church, tlicrefore, tliose were in 
some calling above otliers ; and to imagine the contrary, is 
to run wide of the current of tlie whole scripture : to set 
men in public place without calling, is the samo with con- 
fusion and disorder." 


This argument is founded upon the groundless presump- 
tion with the former : namely, tliat tliere is in the church 
no lawful calling for men able to prophesy, but by officing 
them. And for Paul's turning his speech to the prophets, 
ver. d7» it shows indeed that they were above the rest after 
a sort ; and so tlicy arc witli us rightly preferred before 
others which want tliat endowment of tlie Spirit, by 
whicli they ore enabled to speak to the edification of the 

The Con/innation of the Scriptures, and Reasons brought in 
wy Book to prove Public Prophesying out of Ojfficm hg em 
Ordinary Oift, 

And before wc come to examine Mr. Yates* answers to 
the scriptures by me produced, I desire tlie reader to ob- 
sen-e with me tliese two things : First, That I do not affirm 
in my book,* tliat all tho there alleged scriptures are 
meant of ordinary prophecy ; but that the samo is proved 
by them. Neitlier will he, I presume, deny, but that many 

• Vide vol. ii., A Justification of Scporation, ftc, ptgoi 246 — ^251 ; 
. and vol. iii., A Just and Necetsory Apology of Certain Christians, te.» 
pages 60^63. 




THE people's plea 

things ai^ sufficiently proved from a scripture, by necos- 
saiy consequence and just proportion, besides the particu- 
lar properly intended in it Secondly, That Mr. Yates so 
puts the question, as that it is hard to say whether he do 
me or himself the more injury : viz. whether the places 
prove an ordinary gift of prophecy out of office. For, as 
I do not say that they prove the gift, but tlie use and ex* 
erciso of the gift bestowed by God, whether ordinary or 
extraordinary; so neither would ho have denied, had he 
not leaped before ho looked, but tliat others besides 
ministers have an ordinary giH; of prophecy. Where the 
apostle requires of him that desires the office of a bishop, 
that he be apt to teach, 1 Tim. iii. 1, 2, and able to exhort 
with sound doctrine, Tit i. 0, doth he not therein most 
evidently teach that the gift and ability to teach, preach, 
and prophesy, not only may, but must both be and appear 
to be, in the person to be called to tlie office of ministry ? 
Ho that is not a prophet, or hath not tho gift of prophesy- 
ing or preaching (for by his gift he is a prophet, and by 
the use of it he occupies tho place of a prophet) before ho 
be appointed a pastor, is an idol-shepherd set up in the 
temple of God ; neither doth tlie office either give, or so 
much indeed as increase the gift, but only gives solemn 
commission and charge to use it. The first scripture by 
me brought, is Numb. xi. 20, where Moses tlie man of God 
wisheth that tlie whole people of tho Lord were prophets, 
•• the Lord putting his Spirit upon them." 

This place, saith Mr. Yates in his answer, speaks of the 
pouring out of tlio Spirit in an extraordinary manner, as 
may appear by the occasion of the speech, ver. 24, &c, 
"^Miere also, in a tedious manner (as his manner is), ho 
proveth the gift of prophesying given to the seventy 
ciders to have been extraonlinary, which, as I deny not, so 
neither needed he to have proved. But this I affirm, that hence 
\ is proved the lawfulness of ordinary prophesying out of 
office, by men enabled thereunto. And First, As Moses 
wisheth tliat all the Lord's people were prophets, tlie Lord 
giving his Spirit unto them ; so the minister may, and 
ought to wish that the Lord would so bless the ondinaiy 
endeavours of his people now by his Spirit, as that they 
all might be prophets, that is, able for gifts to speak to 





edification. The minister who desireth not this, 
for his own, and the clergy*! sake, wliich Moses would not. 
that Joshua should do for his. Secondly, Moses makes it 
all one to he a prophet, and to have the Lord putting his 
Spirit upon a man. Now if the Lord*s so giring his Spirit 
unto a man, as that he he thereby enabled extraordinarilj to 
prophesy, make him an eitraordinaiy prophet, why should 
not, by due proportion, such a gift of tlie Spirit given by the 
Lonl to a man, as by which he is enabled to prophe^ 
ordinarily, sen-e also to make him an ordinaiy prophet? 
And so by consequence, if there be amongst us any, though 
out of office, so enabled to prophesy, or prenuch, wluit 
hindcreth Uicm from being prophets, even of the Lord's 
own making by his Spirit's gift and work upon their stadj 
and endeavours ? And if tliey be prophets, then may they 
prophesy, which Moses also in that place insinuates ; for 
in wishing that they were all prophets, he wishcth as well 
tlic use, as the possession of tlie gift. Mr. Yates may see 
a vciy learned man, Joh. Wolphius, in his Commentary 
upon 2 Kings xxiii., showing by this place, tlie liberty of 
private Christians that are able to speak, and teach not 
only in ordinaiy congregations, but even in most solemn 

The next place is 2 Chron. xvii. 7, where King Jeho- 
shaphat sent his princes to teach in the cities of Judah, 
and with tliem thu Levitcs, &c, 

Mr. Yates accounts it a monstrous conceit that the 
princes should be public teachers, which, saith he, were 
only by their presence and autlioritv to back tlie L«vitos : 
adding that tlic translation is mended by Junius and Tre- 
mcllius, &c, ; but if tlio Jews heard him, professing the 
knowledge of Closes and the prophets, so speak, they would 
marvel at his ignorance of a thing so frequent and evident 
in Uieir writings; with whom it is, and ever hath been a 
received tnitli, that any of their {zncn) or wise men, as they 
after the scriptures. Matt xxiii. 34 ; 1 Cor. i. 20 ; Jer. 
x>'iii. 18, call them, may, and ought to teach in their syna- 
gogues without respect had to office : neidier doth the 
translation of Junius and Tremellius by any necessity make 
. for him : neither can it be set against the without violenee 
to the original : from the simplicity whereof they do (with 


913 IBK people's flu 

due rererenee nnto them be it spoken) seem imto roe some* 
thing to turn aside in the 8th vene. Faniinus, the Soventjr 
Interpreters, Jerome, and all our finglish Biblen, carry it 
directly to our sense. And if the conceit bo monstrous 
that these princes preached publicly, it is not bred only in 
my brain : the very same scripturo having been alleged 
Tory lately by the public professor in the University of 
Leyden, in a solemn assembly, as expressly proving it law- 
ful for others than ministers to teach pubhclr. And 
because much «ci;^Iit lioth on tliis ground, which yet he 
thinkcth veiy sonUy and light, I will moke it clear to all 
indifferent men's judgnicntH, that these princes, and so 
ollicrs in Israel, and Judoli, Uiough no Levitcs nor church 
officers, might lawfully teach and preach publicly in the 
temple, synagogues, and cities. 

' First tlicn, oil princes, magistmt^B, judges, ond go- 
Tcmors, were bound to open, expound, and apply the laws 
by whieh they governed, according to the seveiul occasions 
offered, oDierwise, they ruled by tyranny and appetite; 
whicli laws, for all tlio administrations even of tlio com- 
monwealth, were only the written Word of God: whereupon 
I conclude, tliat if to open, expound, and apply tlio Word of 
God, be to preach and teach, tliey tlien hod not only 
power, but charge so to do. 

Secondly, It may appear what these princes of Jelto- 
shaphnt. partaking of liis power, wore to do in tliis case, by 
that which be himself, nnd other godly kings have done. 
The sum of his most pilliy sermon wc havo recorded, 
SChron.xix.i unto the JudRcs, t.G,7, and unto llie Levites, 
T. 9, 10, 1 1 ; as also his divine prayer unto God in the 

{lublic congregation, chnp. xx. r>, 0, &c. Likewise, tlie excel- 
ent sermon of king Ilezckinh unto the priests and Lovitci 
in tlie very temple, 9 Cbron. xxix. 4, D, tec; also of Nehe- 
mioh with others, teaching the people tlio law of tlie Lord, 
A Neh. viii. 10, the kings and princes being as shepherds lo 
feed tlie people, od by government, so by instruction in the 
law of their God. Descend we down lower, lo the time of 
Christ, and we shall see this matter put out of all question- 
Do w« not read everywhere, how the Scribes, Pharisees, and 
lawyers, did teach publicly amongst the Jews, of whom, yet 
many wers no Levites, or church officers, but indifferently 


I of any tribe, Phil. iii. 6. And if it were not the received order 
4 in Israel of old, for men put of office to speak and teach in 
if public, how was Jesus, the Son of Mary, admitted to dispute 
tj in tlic temple with tlie doctors, Luke ii. 40, and to teach 
C and preach in*the synagogues so frequently as he did? Matt. 
l| ix. 35; Luke iv. 10, 17; and how were Paul and Barnabas 
* sitting do^vn in the synagogue, sent unto, after tlie lecture of 
the law, by tlie ruler, that if they had any word of exhorta* 
tion unto the people tliey should say on? Actsziii. 14, 15. 
But if any man shall answer that these were extra- 
ordinary persons, and so taught by an extraordinary gift, 
he speaks the truth, but to no purpose. For what was that 
I to the order received in the temple and synagogues, and 
I to tlio rulers Uicrcof, who did not believe in Christ, nor 
acknowledge either his, or his apostles* authority; but only 
admitted tJiom unto the use of tlieir gift, as they would 
have done, and did ordinarily, any other men able to 
teach: as also the rulers of the synagogues of the Jews do 
at this dav. 

The tlurd place is mistaken by the printer, in omitting 
only one prick, which was corrected iu many copies, and 
might easily have been observed by the reader. For Jer. 
1. 45, it should be Jer. I. 4, 5. Mr. Yates, therefore, upon 
tliat scripture refutes his own guess and not my proof. 

The fourth place is Matt x. 1, 5, 0, where Christ calling 
unto him his twelve disciples sends tliem to preach the 
kingdom of heaven to the lost sheep of Israel. 

His answer is. That the twelve apostles were called into 
office, and had their calling from the first election of Christ, 
but had a further confmnation after, and greater measure 
of God*s Spirit to lead them into all truth, as a justice of 
peace may be put in office and yet receive a further con- 
finnation, yea, and greater means to perform his place. I 
affirm, on tlie other side, (and shall evidently prove it, God 
assisting me), that tliese twelve were not actually possessed 
of their aposdeship till after Christ's resurrection, but were 
only apostles elect, as you call him the mayor elect, who 
hath not the office of mayor committed to him of a good 
space after. Neitlier am I herein of the mind of the 
Papists, to put Mr. Yates out of fear, that Peter was not in 
oftee xintil Christ gave him charge to feed his sheep, John 


814 THE rEonx'n plea 

xxi. 15— IT, (which j'et I nm persuaded oerer Papist held 
of his nposdcship, but of hii priniacj' and universal head- 
ship, or bishopric) hut of the some mind whereof himself 
it, in his first argument, to vit, that hia commission apos- 
tolic was actual! J conferred upon him jointly with the rest 
John XX. 32, S3. 

Now if tho commission apostolic were hut then ^ven, 
they were but then, and not before, actually apostles; 
except he will say they were apostles before they bod com- 
misxion, thnt is, calling from Clirist so to be. I would now 
see how he can solte the wound which he hath ^Ten bim- 

Secondly, After that the Lord Jesus had. Matt. xi. II, 
preferrcfl Jolm the Baptist above all the prophets which 
were before him, he yet adds in the atone place, that the 
least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. The 
lenst, i.t. tho least minister. In tlie kingdom of heaven, 
i.f. ill the church of tho new testament properly called, 
which began not till after tlio death of Christ, who lived 
and died a member of the Jewish church. Tlie apostles, 
then, being officers of tho church of the new testament, 
and kingdom of heaven, and not of the old Jewish church, 
it cannot be that they were apostles in act before Christ's 
death, except an adjunct con bo before the subject, and on 
officer before the corpora^on in and of which, he is an 

Thinlly, Considering the ignorance of these disciples at 
■ that time in tho main mysteries of Christ: of the nature 
of his kingdom, his death, and his resurrection, Mattxi. 
31 ; Luke xxiv. 30, 31, Ac. ; John xx. ; Mark xvi. U : ss 
also, how utterly unfumisliFd thej- were of ^fls befitting 
apostolical teaching, for which, as being an extiuordinaiy 
dispensation, and that in the highest degree, extraordinary 
and infallible revelation and direction of the Spirit was 
refjnisite, wherewith they were but first, ns it seemetb, 
sprinkled, John xx., and afterwords more plentifully filled 
al the day of Pentecost ; tlicy wero as fit for an apoatlesbip 
OS David was for Saul's amour, which be eonid not wield 
or go with. 

Fourthly, Besides, if they hod the o£See of apostleship 
eonunittea to tbeni. Matt x., how w»s it that they eoa- 


v-'iKid Drn Uinr aiibiisnstoc il due -n&is : Imt jWAjiaiinr 
i/'.^ k lirw dnv t» ibeir Kancr. C&inK. iubusiubo v3& 

jr>-c7' b ec>r^;'L£T of ZiTO-rRna^zf alicim Las Jar 2iis d>»- 

C.m: uornied '.rn i-i^ lit ^art pfa vaa» men. Bjtosileii, 
- ''.j-Lru. ke. Tjjc ii^'OBJet ibra wen £na pnw meaaUr 

i>cf/»e a^-^Mlt^ or cfibf-'Jet eiert. boi nr( -ardiised. Bcr 
^okM-'rWii of ar.!- of.oe : Okd iLmfon J««*c3k0d. and tStia 
vi:'i wn.-.t trom CliritL. tjukwi ofire. T^ sexx «cnp- 
V..-'.' i« Ltik« rlii. M, W Ur. YaiM ihua «itciM>d. CZoiia 
h'''>iri^ •I'JjTTC'd the aun poKM^HW^ U^» hja ^ «sd ^tov 
viiut irn-at thic^ GmI h*d dome frvkim: Kid it » said 
j.c v.tit uol i>rp;icJied. that u. if i; ^« u ihnr pQT7>o«v. In- 
'^ri-utry ptitis uni siLidj, be prearbed ibe p>-ptl. And 
w.L'i j.iir upon i:> i^xit soal« Liisi «ui&ot dit'Jcrnitli the 
I'UUi«liin^ of a inir:u:I«. ai.i ihe ^fi ibe sfapuM rst the 
w'Th if l.e (Iihtir.;^iflic-1 u he ought'i ot picarhin^: be 
[•')•]<.:}(. that if Cbri^t had mindMl u hmn made Uu a 
i''iMie prfinchcr. he wqu]<l firm have takes bim viih bun, 
arxl ■r.^imci'^d him, and then bare cent him abroad. 

Fin-t, I,et it he- ohMrred, that the word lued hj Marie dw 
Kii jinrnchinr. r^pwritr. a the wuae irard which is eom- 
uioiilj' uxcil for Uie most Mlemn preacliiDg. that is, bj ibe 
ajKMtlet an-l I'vunt^RlisL:. 

hi'r'm'Jly. Cliriit bids him, ilxA t. 19, go home and 
•l<-rlnni how gry^it ihiiigi the Lord had donr for him, and 
huil liad ciimi'iiHoion on hlni : and rer. Si>, he is said to 
liAve ]>iilili<i]ii'<l in Docapulit iLnkc hnth it ihrougltont tbe 
«li(;Ie i-iiy) hoy KTcat lhinK» Jcsms hail done for him. 
Wliich he 'J'lin^-, what else did he but preach, publish, and 
•lielare the great love and mercy of God in and by Jesai 
Christ towiirU* miserable sinners for the euriog of tbeir 
hoilily and Kpiiituai maladies? 

Thirdly, Whero bn makes the pahlishin^ of tbe miracle, 
and tlie preachioK of the gospel <]ivorM tilings, and pities 
us poor aouU that wo cannot distinguish between them, as 
Chritt bade tbo women of Jesiisalem not lo weep for him 
but tbemtelrea. Luke uiii. 37, 28, bo rarely had bo ne«d 

810 THE people's plea 

to pit/ not us herein, but himself in hii bo great niiitak- 
ing. Are not the miracles of Christ, storied in the Scrip- 
tures, a main part of the gospel? and the publishing of 
them, A port of the preocliing of the gospel ? And when 
Mr. Yates opens and publishes a miracle of Christ, as this 
tnoD did, dotli he not as well, and as truly preach the 
gospel as at anj other time 7 Let tlie vriso judge who la 
to he pitied. To sliut up this point, it is said, Jolm xz. 30, 
that Jesui did many oilier signs, &c., and ver. 31, "But 
these are written that ye might believe that Jesus is the 
Qirist, the Son of God; and that beliering ye might 
have life through his name." The publishing then of the 
signs and miracles which Christ did, is the preaching of 
iaith in his name to solvation : which this man, therefore 
did, especially amongst them which were not ignorant of 
the law of Moses, and promise of the Messiah to come; 
which by his glorious miracles, done by his own power, 
and in his own name, he botli declared, and prored him- 
self to be. John v. 30 and x. 37, 38. And where lie odds 
that Christ gave this man commission to do tliat which he 
did, but ho admires who gave ours any such autliority, I 
answer, Even the same Christ, as then inimedialely, to 
now mediately, by those unto whom ho hath given autho- 
rity under himself, for the ordering of the gifts of hii 
Spirit in his church. And suKicicnt it is for tlie question 
between him and me, if it appear, as in this person, tlitt 
Christ hath given commission to men out of office by sn 
ordinary gift to publish, and preach in public the gospel 
of salvation. I do quote next in my book Luke x. I, B, 
which for that Vf. E. omitteth and leaves out, Mr. Yates 
thankcth God ; but in trutli ho hatlt more cause to thank 
him for sparing him in a place which so pregnantly provcth 
the preaching of the kingdom of God by men out of office: 
except he can assign some new-found office, and the snme 
but of two or three days' lasting as, ver. 17| to tbost 
seventy thero sent. 

We are in the next plaee to come unto John ir. US, 90, 
8B, which he openeth and answereth with admiration, 
u the former place, with pity and compassioa on this 
manner: "O simplicity, with contradiction to his own 
irriting I Simplicity which cannot see between preaching 



of the gospel and caiT}'ing tidings of a man that told her, 
to wit, the woman of Samaria, of all things that erer aha 
aid. Is not this, saitli she, the Christ? But besides sim- 
plicity, here is contradiction ; for sa}'s 3Ir. Bobinson, and 
that truly, a woman is not suffered to exercise an ordinary 
gift of prophecy in the church ; and shall the woman of 
Samaria serve your turn, tliat it is lawful for men to exer- 
cise such a gift T 

It is indeed my simplicity to think that the gospel, as 
tlic word importcth, is nothing else but glad tidings ; and 
Uiat to preach the gospel, is nothing else but to eany or 
bring glad tidings of Christ before promised, then come 
into the world. It is also my simplicity to think, since bj 
the tidings which tliis woman brought, many of the Sama- 
ritans believed on Christ, in a measure, ver. 30, and that 
witliout preaching of the Word of God none can believe. 
Bom. 3L 14, 17, that therefore she preached unto the 
Samaritans, the same Word of God in a measure also, and 
t)mt as truly and effectually, as ever Mr. Yates did to his 
parishioners, though she went not up into a pulpit as he 
docs. And tliat he may judge aright of this matter, let 
him call to mind that those Samaritans received the books 
of Closes, as did the Jews : and as Uiey looked for the 
Mcssiidi, or Christ promised to, and of Abraham : bearing 
themselves for the children of tlie patriarchs, and true 
worshippers of God, as they had been, ver. 20, 28, and 
being so prepared were easily made as regions or corn- 
fields white unto the harvest, ver. 35. And so this woman, 
by declaring unto them tliat, by which this Jesus, the Son 
of Mai^', proved himself to bo the Chi-ist or ^lessiah pro- 
mised, preached faith unto them most properly and effect- 
ually, even that main point of faith, men in controversj 
both in Judca, and Samaria, and Galilee, and the countries 
thereunto adjoining ; which was, that Jesus was tlie Christ. 
I suppose Mr. Yates hatli not sufficiently thought of these 
tilings, and do hope, tliat in godly modesty, he will suffer 
himself to be better informed. 

And for contradiction, between these two propositions : 
A woman may not teach in the church, and a woman majr 
teach out of the diurch, or where no church is, as it was 
in Samaria, it must be by other logic than I have learned : 

• • 




but he will then demand, as he doth, how this woman's 
preaching can serve my turn? I answer, veiy well, bj 
good consequence of reason, thus, if a woman may law* 
fully teach out of Uie church to the begetting of faith, as 
this woman did, but not in the church, because she is a 
woman by sex : then a man, against whom that reason of 
restraint of sex lieth not, may lawfully teach both within, 
and without, the church. Of which consequence more 

Another scripture is, Acts viii. 1, 4, with chap. xL 
19 — 21, where it is recorded how all the church at Jem* 
salem were scattered abroad, except the apostles, and that 
they which were scattered abroad went everywhere preach* 
ang the Word, ice. 

Mr. Yates answeroth, " that besides the apostles which 
were in office, there were seventy disciples, whidi Christ 
before his death hod mode labourers in his han^est; snd 
therefore these might preach, or any other that had an ex* 
traordinar)' gift of prophecy : the one, by virtue of his office 
and gift together, tho other, by commission from the Holy 
Ghost to exercise that gift which they had received on the 
day of Pentecost, or any oUicr. But says your author, 
Compare tliis place witli Acts xi. 10 — Ul, and Uic trutli will 
fully appear. I answer, it will fully appear against you: 
for Christ charged both his apostles, and likewise the 
seventy disciples, tliat they should preach to none but the 
Jews : and therefore it is sufficient that they had so mtny 
preachers in office already by the commission of Christ, to 
go through all those places : neither will I deny tliat there 
might be othoi-s whom the Holy Ghost immediately raised 
up to manifest Uie excellent gifts that were to be poured 
down upon tlie church in tho primitive times.** 

His answer is veiy dark and ambiguous, but in which 
are contained sundry errors evident enough. First, He 
makes those of the dispersion, which went about preachinir 
the Word, to be of tho seventy disciples, Luke x., and 
otliers the like furnished with an extraordinary ^h of 
prophecy ; but seems to allow them for no officers, m the 
beginning of his answer, when he tlius speaketh : *^ Besides 
the apostles which were in office, there were seven^ dis- 
ciples,** Scc.t yet afterwards, in these words: " And therefore 

M iM I ill 


it is sufficient that they liad so many prcadien in office 
already, by tlie commission of Christ, to go throng all 
these phices,'* &c., he bestows some office or other npoa 
them. Secondly, He misseth in two scriptaix», which, in 
his answer, he pointeth out ; the former is Acta ii., where 
he gatlieretli, that otliers besides the twelve rcceired the 
gift of prophecy extraordinaiy at the day of Pentecost 
Second, (if I mistake not) is Matt x. 5, G, where he racks 
tlie edict of prohibition of Clirist, laid upon the apostles, 
and, as he saith, upon the seventy disciples, of preaching 
to any but Jews, for above the reach thereof; even onto 
tliis time of tlie dispersion, whereas it reached only to the 
dcaUi of Christ, when tlie wall of partition between Jews 
and Gentiles was broken down ; ailor which tliey were, hj 
the express words of tlieir commission, to preach to all 
people, beginning indeed at Jerusalem and tarrying tliere, 
till they were endued with power from on high, and so 
proceeding unto all nations, Lukexxiv. 47, <10, as it is also 
recorded, Acts xi. SO, that some of this dispersion preached 
tlie Lord Jesus to tlio Grecians in Antioch. Thirdly, It 
is plain by tliat which I have formerly said, that ncitlicr 
tlicse seventy disciples, no, nor the twelve, were by Christ 
possessed of any office, before his deatli; no, nor 3'et 
furnished with any extraordinary gifts of prophecy: the 
evangelist, who knew well and is worthy to be believed, 
bearing also witness with mo, tliat the Holy Ghost was 
not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified. 
John vii. 80. Lastly, II is altogetlier mireasonable to 
imagine tliat they who were scattered, and preached abroad, 
being the body of tlie church at Jerusalem, excepting 
tlie apostles, wero all officers ; and little more reasonable 
to think that they were all extraordinarily endued witli the 
spirit of prophecy. For, First, There is no circumstance 
in the text, leading that way; and to imagine extraordinaiy 
and miraculous things, witliout good eridence, is extra- 
ordinary licentiousness and presumption. Secondly, The 
only tiUes given unto them, are, all tlie church which were 
at Jerusalem ; they that were scattered abroad ; and again, 
chap, xi., they which were scattered abroad, some of them 
were men of Cyprus, and Cyrene, Sec., nothing insinuating 
toy office of ministry. Thirdly, Thour preaching here and 

I * 

r^^^ -^ -i-^ 



there is only noted to be by reason of their scattering 
hither and hither through persecution, and not of any 
extraordinarv gift and dispensation committed unto them. 
Fourthly, If they had been extraordinoiy prophets imme- 
diately and extraordinarily inspired, there had been no 
need of so speedy sending of Barnabas from Jerusalem to 
Antioch with supply, though he were a man full of the 
Holy Ghost, for so were such prophets, as well as he, 
Eph. ii. 20, and iii. 5. I conclude, therefore, as before, 
that these men*s preaching was by a glH; and liberty, com- 
mon unto tliem and us. Tlie next scripture is, 1 Pet iv« 
10, 1 1 : "As every man hath received tlic gift, so minister 
tlie same one to another as good stewards of the manifold 
grace of God. If any man speak, let him speak as the 
oracles of God ; if anv man minister, let him do it as of 
the ability which God giveth, that God in all things may 
be glorified." Ac. " This," saith Mr. Yates, •' is little to the 
puq>ose, only thus much would the apostle persuade, 
tliat we ought to be Imrbourcrs one of another, and that 
witliout gnulging. because all that we have is given us of 
God, who hath left us not as engrossers of his benefits, but 
as good disposers to his glory, and our brothers* good?'* 

Ho that but viewetli tlie place witliout prejudice, cannot 
but see that the apostle would persuade more than so 
much ; and that Mr. Yates dotli injuriously inclose the 
apostle*s words, ver. 10 witli ver. 9, which, though they 
lie in common to both, yet belong much more to tlie verse 
following. Ver. 0, ho exhorteth to hospitality, and ver. 
10, riscth from tliat particular, to tlie more general use of 
all gifts or graces, and so ver. 11, bringeth, for example, 
two specialities. First, The gift of prophecy in speaking. 
Secondly, The ministering of tlie ability which God giveth, 
bodily or otherwise, in the church. Neither can the apos- 
tle's meaning without extreme violence be restrained to 
ver. 0, which speaks only of hospitality; which is, but tlie 
use or ministering of that one gift or grace of liberality. 
Ho saith in the lOtli verse, " As every man hath received 
the gift ;" that is, as one hath received tliis gift, another 
that, and eveiy one some, so minister tho same one to 
another ; that is, so let every such person mutually in the 
bond of love, as ver. 8, communicate his gift; as good 



disposers of tho manifold grace of God ; that is, knowing 
that every one, what gift soercr he hatli reccired, is but as 
the Lord's steward therein. Is liberality alone a manifold 
grace? and hospitality alone, the ministering of a manifold 
grace of God? To the ministering of a manifold grace, 
the apostle persuades, and therciore not only that we 
ought to be harbourous one to another, which is but the 
ministering of one grace. 

Two other scriptures from tho Bevelation follow. The 
former is chap. xi. ver. 3, " I will give to my two witnesses, 
and they shall prophesy a tliousand two hundred and three- 
score days, clothed in sackcloth.*' This is meant, saith 
Mr. Yates, " of the two testaments, and tho instruments 
that God should raise up to use as faithful witnesses 
against Antichrist : but what is this for an ordinary o^ft of 
prophecy? Surely in tliis, there is some eztraordinaiy 
tiling, because it is said God will give power, that is, gire 
them life again, for Antichrist did kill these witnesses 
when ho stopped tlio current of tlie holy Word of God, 
and shut the mouths of tlio ministers,'* &c. 

His exposition I will not deny, nor need to fear, save as 
with great partiality on tlie clergy's part, ho makes the 
ministers of the Word of God, tliat is, men in ofBcc, the 
only faithful witnesses against Antichrist; whereas the 
contrary is most true ; and that in Antichrist's reign no 
church officer, as an officer, witnessed against him, but all 
for him : as both having tlieir authority by him, and bind- 
ing themselves to submit their doctrine to his censure. 
The persons indeed that wero also officers, oven mass- 
priests, monks, and friars, witnessed some of them, against 
him, but so did not their offices, or tliey in respect of 
them, which is all one, but ratlier with him, as advantag- 
ing his state and hierarchy. Something extraordinary I do 
with him acknowledge to liavo been in tliem, in respect of 
the order then prevailing, and of the bondage spiritual 
under which, all, both things and persons wero : as also, 
of the degree of their ordinary both gifts and graces, to 
put them forth in service of tlio truth: but that these 
witnesses against Antichrist had any extraordinaiy or 
miraculous gift of prophecy, which he insinuateth and 
must affirm, if he will draw thorn from our part, is meielj 


833 XHB nons'a fiba 

imagined, both agunst experienoa and (hdr own plet 
But for the opening of this place, I refer the reader to onr 
learned countryman, Mr. Brightman, where he ahall find 
■ffirmed and proved, tlint these two pnjphats were the 
H0I7 Scriptures, and tlie assemblies of the faithful. 

The other scripture is Rct. xiv. 0, where the angel flieth 
" in the midst of heaven having the everlasting gospel to 
preach unto tliem that dwell on the earth, and to every 
nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people." 

" By heaven," saith Mr. Yates, "is to be understood the 
visible church, and \)j the angel, the learned men tliat God 
bad ever T^sod up in the midst of popcrf, to carry the 
blessed Word of God in the midst of heaven, that ia, rused 
from the earthly corruption of Antichrist, but not as yet at 
the height of purity," &c. 

As I do not conceive of any such mystery in these words, 
" flying in the midst of heaven," but only that these angel* 
should roundly and clcariy, cBpeciolIy in respect of former 
times, publish tlie gospel far and near, &a is the flying of a 
bird in the niiy heaven, or firmament, Epeedy and evident: 
BO (that signilicd) I assent to his exposition, as being also 
no vaj prejudicial, hut much advantagcablo to my purpose. 
For, if thoRe learned and nngcl-Ukc men were to publish 
the gospel in the midst of popery, and that, neither by any 
extraordinary or miraculous gift, nor by virtue of their 
office, then is puiilic prophesying out of ofEce by an 
ordinary gift opprovable. The fint part I hope be will 
easily grant ; if not, let him name the man miraculously 
inspired in Uie midst of popery. For the latter, the office 
itself, or function, was no ministry of Christ's appointment, 
U being tJie office of a friar, monlt, or mass-pricxt, so thinr 
power to ndminislcr it, was from or by, the Pope, as uni- 
versal bishop -. that is, as Antichrist In respect then of 
the gospel which they preached, and of tltcir personal gifts 
and graces, hy which they were bolh enabled and provoked 
thereunto, they were angels of God ; but in regard of their 
office and power ecclesiastical, and hierarchical, angels of 
Antichrist Besides tliat, when they gave their clearest 
testimony against Antichrist, thej' were, for the most part, 
all excommunicated out of the Church of Rome : and so 
being no members, ooald not be officers of any chuieh. 




Wliereupon I conclude, that the witness wliich thej gmve 
tin to the trutl), was but personal, and not ministerud, so 
for forth as it was of God, or by him i^pioTed. And thus 
it appcareth how, in the quoting of those scriptures, we 
have not ofTcred abuse to God's Word, as he aboseth us, 
but have, with good conscience, as in the sight of God, 
notod tlicm, ns scning to prove hiwful, xmblic prophecj by 
an ordinary pft out of office. 

Lastly, 1 Cor. xiv. comes into handling with tlie prooHs 
tlicncc taken ; which, what weight they have shall appear* 
nftor rehearsal of some more general considerations pre- 
mised in my book, in the same place, for the better under- 
standing of the point ; as, first, "That the church of Corinth,. 
above idl other churches, did abound with spiritual pits, 
both ordinary and extraordinary. Secondly, That they 
abused those gifts too much unto (action and ambition. 
Thirdly, That thereupon tlie apostle takes occasion, in the 
beginning of tlie xiith chap, and so forward, to draw them 
to the right use of tlicsc p^ts of God, which was the employ- 
mi\\t of Uiem to the edifying of the body in love. Fourthly,. 
nnJl lastly, That ha\ing laid doi^-n, in chap, xiii., a full 
destrription and large commendation of that grace of love,. 
in chmp. xiv^ and the beginning of it, he (^orts to pro* 
phe.U-ing, and to the study and use of tliat gift; which 
thoii^h it were not so strange a tiling as ^va8the sudden gift 
of t( ligues, nor which drew witli it such wonder and admira- 
tion, yet was it more profitable for the church, and Uiough a 
matter of less note, yet of greater charity, which must bear 
sway in all our actions.^* Whereupon I lay down the first rea- 
son for brethren's (tliough no officers) liberty, in Uieso 
wonls: "Because tlie apostle speaks of the manifestation 
of a gift, or grace common to all persons, as well brcthron 
as ministers, ordinary or extraordinaiy, and that at all 
times, which is love ; as also of such fi*uits and effects of 
that grace, as are no less common to all, than the grace 
itself, nor of less continuance in the churches of Christ, 
to wit, of odi£cation, exhortation, and comfort: rer. 8, 
compared with 1 Thess. v. 11, 14." 

In answering the former part of the reason, he is yexj 
Jarge but more negh^ent, as appears in his denying that 
the apostle speaks oi a gill, common to all persons; 

324 THE pioplk'm plea 

in more than dcnjring, ^for his nido tenn I will 
his credit's sake,) that it was common to all ] 

I will conceal for 
I persons, at 
all times, admiring Iiow I dare affirm anr such thing: 
adding, that love was enjoined to all, but wis gift onljr of 
such as did excel amongst them. Whereas, the vcij giil 
which I speak of in tlint place, or grace rather, as I then 
call it, was none other but the grace of love; as onj 
that will may seo in the reason, which general grace 
ought to manifest, and express itself in the edifying use of 
all the special gifts of the Spirit, which by it ore set at 
work and moved, as the lesser wheels of a clock by the 
greater ; and from which grace the apostle provokeUi the 
church to the stirring up of the gift of prophecy, unto 
edification, as well now as tlicn. And whereas, to my 
ground (as lie puts it, and as after a sort I intend it, frOm 
ver. 3, compared wilh 1 Thcsa. v. 11, 14, viz. that since fhe 
end, which is edificaUon, exhortation and comfort ebn- 
tinuoth, tlicrcforc the gifl of prophecy also continucth,);hs 
answcrcth : " That there arc many means to effect one end, 
and yet some of tlicm may cease, yea nil of them, ^d 
others come in their room, as, for extraordinaiy gifts, drdi- 
nary ; and so for apostles, ordinary ministers ; instancing 
further, in tongues, which, ver. SO, are for edification ; T be 
neither speaks so properly as is meet, nor (all admitted 
which ho saith) takes awny the force of the orgurhcnt 
Strange tongues, to speak properly and prcssly, ^ in 
disputing, aro no means of edifying ttie church; but the 
interpretation and application of the matter of the 
tongues : neitlier doth the office of tlio ministiy in itself 
edify, but the use and oxorciso of it, in teaching and ex- 
horting; no, nor yet the gift of propbesying, but as it is 
used in speaking: as ver, 3, "He that propnesieth," that 
is, useth the giit of prophecy, "speaketh unto men, to 
exhortation, edification, and comforL" There being, then, 
no other means to edify, exhort, and comfort in the church, 
but prophesying, the apostle, as appcarelh by the two 
j>laces sot together, laying thesa duties, from the common 
grace of love, as well upon brethren as officers, ordinaiy 
as extraordinary, and at alt times in the churcli, therein 
gires warrant to an ordinary exercise of prophecy in the 
church, by men out of office, to wit, having guts and 
abilities answerable, to tha end of the world. The 




second argument is from Ter. 21, where the apostle suth, 
'* Yc majr all prophesj, one bj one* that all maj learn, and 
all maj be comforted :** he speaks of all's prophesjrmg, as 
largely as of all's learning. 

** This." saith he, ** is absord. Are all the ehnreh pro- 
phets ? If all may prophes}*. who shall learn? The Uolj 
Ghost says all, but that is to be understood of sach as 
Imvo gifts ; all ought to have the gift of hearing, but the 
hke is not prophesying ; and I saj this gift was extraordi- 
nary , for how could all men study the Scriptures when 
tiiey hod them not in tlieir natire tongues ?** It were absurd 
indeed if I tliought that every person in the church were 
to prophesy, but why should he challenge me, or I purge 
myself of this absurdity? Whereas the contrary is moet 
evident, both in Uie words of tlio question, which are, '* that 
others having received a gift thereunto, may, and ought to 
stir up tlie same, and to use it in the church,** and everj- 
where in the handling of it** By " all,** then, I mean all that 
have f^ifts ; and so take " all '* for prophesying as largely* 
(yet in the subject, accoinling to the received rule of ex- 
pounding the notes of universality) as the other, '* all** for 
loiiming. His question, " If all may prophesy, who ^.^^all 
leani ?** is easily answered. For tliey who prophesy at ont> 
time, may learn at another. It is the disease of the ex* 
altod clergy, to scorn to learn anything of others, than 
themselves, and almost one of another. Where he further 
saith, tliat "all ought to have the gift of hearing, but the 
like is not prophesying/* it is true, and tliat every particu- 
lar person ia the church is not bound to have tlio gift ; but 
if he speak anything to the purpose in hand, he must go 
further, and say, that no ordinary brethren out of office 
ought to have the gift of prophecy ; which if it were true, 
then ought none to strive for ^tness to become officers ; 
neither were the reproof just, which the apostle lays not 
only, nor so much, if at all, upon the officers, as upon the 
brethren, Heb. v. 13, " that for the time they ought to be 
teachers." Of his unworthy mistaking about the Scrip- 
tures not being in the Corinthians* native tongue, which he 
makes tlie only ground of his answer (I have taken notice) 

To conclude this argument The apostle writing to the 

• Vid€ pages 2M, 3<». 


church of Corinth, " Ye mnjr all prophesy oda bj one," 
cstmot be understood of extroordinaij prophets, except we 
conceive that the body ot that church wu, or might be, 
prophets extraordinary, and niiraculoaaly isspired ; which, 
considering the super-excellencj of tliat state by me elw* 
where laid down, is a presuraption above mj reach, and 
least of all agreeing with Mr. Yates' judgment in hii 
answer to the next armament, which is, ^at extraordinoty 
prophecy did Qien begin to cease in the ehnrch. 

llko third orgimient is from ver. 34, where tl)e apostle "ie> 
■tnun» women from prophe^ing or other spealung in the 
chnrch with authority, aa luso 1 Tim. ii. 11, IS: and in 
forbidding women, gives Ubcr^ to nil men gifted accord* 
ingly; oppoxing women to men— sex to sex— and not 
women to officers : and ngiun, in restraining women, shows 
his meaning to bo of onlinary, not extraordiiMi^r. prophesy* 
ing : for women iniinediab'ly, estmordinnrily. and niiracu. 
luiisly innpini), miiflit a|)i'iilc without restraint. Exod. xr. 
90; JudgcH iv. 4; Luke ii. M; Acts ii. 17, 10. 

It is a piteous tiling to see how Mr. YotcH entangles 
himself about tliiif argitraeiit, straining all tho veins of bis 
wit, if not of a moro tender part, hia conscience, to dniw 
soma force of anitwcr upon it. That which hath any show 
of answer, either in tliot place, or any other tlirougbout 
his tedious and perplexed discourse, I will relate and re- 
fute, confirming the argument clearly, as I am persuaded to 
any indilTcrcnt judgment. 

His first answer, or exception is, " Tliat it is most abnunl 
to imagine that the Corintliion women did follow their 
study, and tnlio ordinary pains tu mako serraooB. Secondly, 
That extraordinary prophecy did cease ; and tliat, not all at 
once, but first in women, and that the apostle therefore 
ospocially aims at them, as tlioiigli, to wit, in their own 
judgment, the snme measure were still upon them, as well 
OB in former times, when Christ, that saves both man and 
wnnan, would extraordinarily manifest himself in both, yet 
first after a sufficient mantfestatian of hia groco and good- 
ness, he witlidrew those extraordinary gifts from that sex, 
then afterwards from the other." His third answer, npon 
which he doth most insist is, " That the aposUo forbids two 
general fanlti id the women ; the one thai they would prq^ 



aiid prophcsj uncovered, 1 Cor. xL 5, imiUtinff the IV- 
thoncsscs and the Sibyls of tho Gentiles in lajing aside 
ii\e'\r veil, and spreading their hair ogainat decency and 
comeliness. The second is, that in their husbands* pre- 
sence they would be as ready to speak as they : and there- 
fore the apostle, finding the women to abuse this gift, pro- 
hibits the use of it, whether simply or no, he eannot judge. 
Fourthly, lie admires by what logic this will foUow; 
women are forbidden to prophesy, therefore men hare 
liberty ; which," says he, " is an ill consequcmce.** 

In his first answer, or rather exception, ho mistakes both 
the state of tlio question, and also tho nature of tho ordi- 
nnnco. The question is not of the study, or ability of these 
women, which yet I think was greater tlian he nuiketh ac- 
count of, but of their fonvardness to teach, which was cer- 
tainly too groat. And what consequenco is tliis? The 
Corinthiim women wero not HuHiciently furnished to touch 
by an ordiimiy gift, therefore they needed not to be ro- 
Mtniincd from t»*aching. Nay, therefore, they needed much 
mnro Huch bridle of restraint to bo cast upon Uicm ; cs]>e- 
ciully considering their mannish boldness and immodesty, 
insinuated agiiinst them here, by tho apostle in part, but 
nnich more, chap. xi. 

Ncitlier, for tlio second point, are they tliat speak in the 
exercise of prophecy to make a sermon by an hour-glass, 
as Mr. Yates gatht^rs : that, wero to abuse tlio time and I 
wrong t]io gifts of otlicrs ; but briefly to spoak a word of 
exhortation as God enable th, and that, after tho ministerial 
teaching be ended, as Actsxiii., questions also about things 
delivered, and with them, even disputations, as tlicrc is 
occasion, being part, or appurtenances of tliat exercise. 
1 Cor. xiv. fi5 ; Acts xvii. 2 and xviii. 4. For tho prophets* 
gifts and abilities then, as under tlic law, a *' bullock or 
lamb that had anything superfluous or lacking in his 
parts might yet bo offered for a free-will offering; but for 
a vow it was not to be accepted,'* Lev. xxii. 23, so, in this 
exercise of prophecy, as in a free-will offering according 
to the gift of God, that which is less perfect and exact may 
far better be accepted, than if the same were presented in 
, the pastor's vowed service and ministration. 

For his second answer. As it is true that extroordinaiy 



prophecj did cease by degrees, so, is it not certain, but a 
mere presumption, that it ceased first in women: but 
most untrue it is that the apostle there aims at all at the 
ceasing of that gift in women. Ecclesiastical histories 
worthy of credit in this kind, do testify, tliat the stream of 
the Spirit was 90 far from being near dry at this time, 
as, that it ran a strong current well nigh a hundred years 
after, for all the extraordinary gifts thereof; as for tlie cast- 
ing out of doTils, foreseeing and foretelling things to come, 
healing the sick, and raiHing tlie dead, of whom, divers so 
raised, lived many years after; witness amongst others, 
Ircnieuu, adv. Her. lib. ii. c. 67, whom also for the same 
purpose Eusob., Hist. EccL, lib. v. cap. 7, allcgetli, and 
oven for women. Evident it is by the Scriptures, that 
extraordinary prophecy in a very plenteous manner by 
them, and tnat, in the presence of men, continued in the 
church for many years after Paul's writing of this Epistle. 
" Philip the evangelist had four daughters, virgins, which 
did prophesy,*' and that, in tlie presence of the apostle. 
Acta xxi. 0. Lo, four extraordinary prophetesses in one 
bouse, and the daughtei*s of one man : so that hitherto 
tlie conduit of tlie Spirit of prophecy, kept his course 
as well upon tlicir daughters as sons. Joel ii. 28 ; Acts ii. 
17. So Uev. ii. 20, wo read how tlie woman Jezebel, 
calling herself a prophetess, taught, and by teaching, 
seduced tlie Lord*s servants in the church of Thyatira. 
In which place, as tlie errors and evils of the person are 
condemned, so is tlie formal order of the church mani- 
festcd to be that women, prophetesses extraordinary, might 
teach. Lastly, The prohibition of women by tlie aposUe 
is perpetual, and not witli respect to tliis, or that time, as 
appears by tlie reasons tliereof both in this place, and in 
the Epistle to TimoUiy, and such as equally belong to 
former times and latter : and no more to tlio latter end, 
than to the beginning or middle time of the manifestation 
of the grace and goodness of Christ 

What can be more absurd than to say that these reasons, 
" The woman must be under obedience, 1 Cor. xiv. 34, and 
not usuip authority over the man, but be in silence, be- 
cause Adam was first formed, then Eve, and Adam was not 
seduced, but the woman,** ice. 1 Tim. ii. 12^-14, were not 


moral and perpetual? Wero not those reasons and 
grounds for women's silence in the cliurch, without extra- 
ordinary dispensation by miraculous inspiration, of as great 
force seven years before, as when Paul wrote this Epistle ? 
It is therefore most clear that the apostle aims not at all 
At any ceasing of Uio gift of extraordinary prophecy now 
going on, but at tlio univcrnul and abHoluto restraint and 
prohibition of women's prophesying, not oxtraordinary but 

In his third answer he dcaleth worse Uian in any of tlio 
oU'er, in labouring to Hniother one ti'utli under anotlior. 
For (Ubeit Uie women of Corintli were become so mannish 
as tbat they would prophesy uncovered and witliout their 
veil, Uic ensign of their subjection, yet dotli not the apo- 
stle meddle at all witli that malady in Uiis place, but in 
tlie xitli chapter of tlie epistle as himself noteth. Here* 
and in Timotliy, he simply forbids the thing, there tlie 
manner of doing it. Likewise for their being as forward 
to speak as tlieir husbands, and in their presence, it may 
be true in part, and in some. But what then ? Dotli the 
apostle in these places only forbid their speaking un* 
covered, and permit them to teach so it bo veiled ? or for* 
bids he only tlieir being as forward as their husbands, but 
gives them leave to speak in tlie church, so it be witli 
good manners, and after them, which his answer insinu- 
ates? Or, is it not evident to all that will not shut tlieir 
eyes, that he simply, and that severely prohibits tliem all 
speaking whatsoever in tliis excrciKC ? Are not the words 
plain enough ? " Let the women keep silence in tlie 
church, for it is not permitted to them to speak, but to bo 
under obedience as tlie law saitli.'* And again : *' It is a 
shame for women to speak in the church," and in 1 Tim. 
ii. 12 — 14, *' Let the women learn in silence witli all sub- 
jection. And I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usuri) 
outliority over tlie man, but to be in subjection : 4br Adam 
was first formed,'* Sec, Do not all and 'every one of these 
reasons bind women to all peace and deep silence in tho 
church, yea, to such, and so absolute, as that they may 
not so much as ask a question for learning anything them- 
selves, ver, 35, much less teach others anything? I 
therefore conclude this as a most certain and undeniable 

• I 







troths that the apostle speaks here of such a gift and 
ercise as women are simply forbidden to use in the char 
and, therefore, not of an extraordinary gift or exercise vrh 
thej might use lawfully, and did bo& before^ and a h 
time after the writing of this Epistle. 

His last answer now comes in consideration, whicl 
that the '* consequence is ill, women are forbidden, i 
therefore men are permitted to propliesy in the church 
an ordinary gift." 

If tlie consequence seem not good, why dotli he 
struggle as before, otlierwise, to make an escape from 
argument ? Let us consider of the force of it, which 
peareth to me irresistible in tliese tliree things. H 
The apostle in, and for this work, opposeth the men to 
women, sex to sex, and so in prohibiting women, he ] 
mits men. When the Holy Ghost, opposing faith i 
works in the case of justification, denies that we are ju 
fied by works, is not tlic consequence good, that, therefc 
we are justified by faith ? Where he opposeth beliei 
and unbelicTors in the case of salvation, and teacheth t 
believers shall be saved, doth he not teach, consequen 
that unbelievers shall perish ? If these consequences 
not good, I must confess myself far to seek both in k 
and divinity. 

Secondly, Tlie reasons of tlie prohibition of won 
prove the consequence, which are all such as prefer 
men before the women, and subject tlie women to the ni 
in the church, and in this very work of prophecy of wh 
he treateth. But now, if in prohibiting women, he g 
not liberty unto men, where were the prerogative of n 
above women, which is tlie only ground upon which 
buildcth his prohibition ? 

Thirdly, AVhcre, vcr. 34, 35, " it is not permitted 
women to speak, but if they will learn anything to ; 
their husbands at home,** if their husbands might ; 
speak neither, nor any more than they, what reason can 
rendered of the apostIe*s so speaking ? 

Lastly, Mr. Yates in denying this consequence, showc 
that so he might deny something he took no great h 
what it were. The apostle in this whole chapter ta 
order for soma to propnesy I And debarring women th< 



from, eitlicr admits men to the use of that libertjr, or else 
wo must have some third kmd of persons thoogkt of which 
arc Dcithor male nor female* 

My fourth argument b from vcr. 20, and 93^ ** Let the 
prophets speak, two or three, and let the rest judge, axid 
the spirit of the prophets are subject to the prophets.** 
Wliencti I offinn that the apostle speaks not of extraor- 
dinary prophets or prophesying^ since they m their doc^ 
trines could not err, and so were not subject to any such 
judgment or censure of others. He answereth roundly, 
thoii;:Ii brietly, in this place, *'that these prophets were not 
infallibly assisted :** and more largely in another phice, 
*' that such prophets as hare an infallible assistance, are 
not subject to tills rule, but others that had but, as the 
apostle said, Rom. xii. G, meaner gifts, wero to be ex- 
amined according to the proportion of faith; so that extra- 
ordinary prophets might mix some of their own with the 
cxtmordinar}' gifts of God's Spirit, which was to be cen- 
siu-ed by such as liad a greater measure : for none are to 
think that all who bad these extraordinary gifts were free 
from error in their very doctrine. Wo see the strange gift 
of tongues was abused, and so might the rest be.** 

That one extraordinary prophet had a greater measure 
and proportion of gifts than anotlicr, I acknowledge, but 
that any one of them could err in doctrines, or was not 
infallibly assisted therein by the Spirit, Idcny, as a most per- 
nicious cnx>r, weakening the foundation of faith and truth 
of the Word of God : neither hath Mr. Yates so much as 
enteq^rised on answer unto the scriptures brought by me 
to i)rove the contrary : whicli were Eph. ii. 20» where the 
Ephesians as the household or church of God, are said to 
be built upon tlie foundation of the apostles and prophets, 
^'c; and iii. 5, where he speaks of the mystery of Christ* 
which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of 
men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and pro- 
phets by the Spirit. AMience it appears that the church 
is as well built upon the foundation of the prophets, to wit 
extraordinary, which then were (for of them he speaketh) 
as upon the doctrine of the apostles, and they as infallibly, 
even for the veiy foundation, inspired by the Holy Ghost 
as the other. So that, if the prophets coiUd err in daetiine» 



then the apostles, and if in doctrine taught, why not 
written? and if one alone, why not more, or all? and if 
they might err, how know we that they did not err? If he 
say the meaner in gifts might err, hut not the greater; 
first, the same followeth also toucliing the apostles, how 
much more touching the prophets before Christ, not com* 
parable to those after him : why then may there not be 
errors in the writings, especially of those of meaner gifts, as 
withoutdoubt some were, in comparison of the rest? What 
weather this wind will bring, who seeth not ? Moreover, 
whereas we propound such interpretations and doctrines 
as we gather from tlie Scriptures by discourse of reason, 
and so may err ; they on the contrary, every one of them 
delivered doctrine by immediate inspiration of the Spirit, 
in which by reason of the Divine impression which it made 
in their hearts, differencing it from all both human col- 
lection and diabolical suggestion, they could not err, nor 
be mistaken, but knew infallibly when, and wlierein, they 
were moved by the Holy Ghost Besides there is not like 
reason of strange tongues and prophecy for the considera- 
tion in hand, since the church is not built upon the 
foundation of strange tongues, as upon the foundation of 

Srophecy. Neither was tlie matter of the speech inspired, 
ut the language only ; except the same persons were pro- 
phets also. 

Lastly, If there were the like reason of tongues, and 
prophecy, yet, except men might err in a tongue, and deem 
themselves inspired extraordinarilv when they were not 
(which were absurd to Affirm), it could not evince any possi- 
bility of erring in doctrine by extraordinary prophets. The 
last argument of my book I take from ver. 87, 38 : '* If 
any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let 
him acknowledge that the things which I write unto yoii 
are the commandments of the Lord: but if any be ignorant 
let him be ignorant** 

Mr. Yates taxeth me for making a prophet and spiritoal 
man all one, since by a spiritual man is meant such m 
excelled in any spiritual gift, prophecy, or other. Bat 
without cause, since I neither mean more, nor need more 
for my purpose, than that a prophet be included in the 
general of a spiritual man. But wherefore doth he not 



answer the argument, or mind where the force thereof 
lieth ? which is, in the words following, "Let him acknow- 
Irdgo that the things that I write are the commandments 
of the Lord. But if anj man be ignorant, let him be 
ignorant.** The extraordinanr prophets were guided as * * 
im mediately and infallibly hy the revelation of God's 
Spirit, as Paul himself, and might as well hare required 
of him to " acknowledge that the things which they spake 
were the commandments of the Lord,** as he of them ; 
neither was it possible that they, or any of them should be 
ignorant that tlie things which he spake were the com- 
mandments of the Lord. AMiich argument is also much 
strengthened, and made, in my judgment, unanswerable, 
by that which wo find, vor. 36, *' Game the Word of God 
out from you, or came it unto you only ?** which words the 
npostle doth not direct unto tlie women (as Mr. Yates mis- 
conceiveth with great error, and contrary both unto reason* 
and tho express Greek text, which will not bear it), but to 
tho prophets with whom he dcaleth, and that by way of 
comparison with himself from whom, to wit, by immediate 
revelation, tlic Word of God came after a sort to the 
Corinthians. Which plainly proves that they could not be 
extraordinary' prophets, from whom the Word of God came 
unto the church as well as from himself, they being in- 
spired immediately by tlie Holy Ghost as well as he. 

The Christian reader may find besides these, other 
reasons from the scripture laid down by our worthy 
countryman, Mr. Cartwright, in his Confutation of the 
Bhemists, sect. 6, for the justification of this exercise, as 
ordinary and continual. 

The other arguments in the some place of my book to 
the same purpose, though Mr. Yates could not but take 
knowledge of, yet hatli he not thought good to meddle 
with. One of them only I will annex in this place, word 
for word, as there I have set it down. 

It is the commandment of the Lord by the apostle, that 
"a bishop must be apt to teach, and that such elders or 
bishops be called as are able to exhort with soimd doctrine 
and to convince the gainsayers.** ] Tim. iii. 2; Tit i. 0. 
Now except men, before they bo in office may be permitted 
to manifest their gifts in doctrme, and so in prayer. ^ * ' 




are the two main works requiring special qnalifieations in 
the teacliing ciders, Acts tL 4, how shall the church, which is 
to choose them, take knowledge of their sufficiency, that with 
£uth and good conscience they may call them and submit 
imto them for their guides ? If it he said, that upon such 
occasion trial may be taken of men's gifts, he that so eaith« 
grants the question; but must know besides, first, tliat 
men*s gifts and abilities should be known in some measure, 
before they be once thought on for officers : and secondly, 
that there is none other use or trial of gifts, to wit in, and 
by the church, but in prophesying ; for e^'crylhing in the 
Lord's house is to be performed in some ordinance — there 
is nothing thrown about the house, or, out of order in it: 
and otiier ordinance in the church save this of prophecy is 
there none, wherein men out of office are to pray and 
teach, &c. Lastly, Mr. Yates, in denying this liberty, 
besides other evils reproveth the practice of all reformed 
churches and of the Church of England with them. It ii 
not only permitted as laifv-ful, but required as neccssaiy 
where I live,* that such as have bent their thoughts 
towards the ministry, should beforehand use their gifts 
publicly in the church ; and intolerable bondage it would 
be thought by them to have pastors ordained for them, as 
all there are unto the places in which they are to minister, 
of whose ability in teaching they had not taken former 
experience. And not only so, but it hath been further 
decreed in solemn s^nod, " that in all churches, whether 
springing up or grown to perfection, the order of prophecy 
should be obser\'ed according to Paul*s institution; and 
that into this fellowship, to wit of prophets, should be 
admitted not only tlio ministers but aJso the teachers, and 
of tlie elders and deacons, and even of the Teiy common 
people {ex ipsa plthe\ if tliere were any which would confer 
their gifts received of the Lord to the common benefit of 
the church,*" &c. Harmon. Synod. Belg. de Prophetica, 
ex Synodo Embdaiia, Can. 1, 2. And for England itself 
what will Mr. Yates say to Uie ^ Common places,** as they are 
called, or sermons, as indeed they are, in the colleges not 
only permitted unto, but imposed upon divers who never 
received orden of priesthood ? What to such as "ptttif^ by 

* Leydea. 



the bishop *B licence without anj such order? Tea. to all 
such as are ordained and called ministers, but hare not 
actual charge, and so are like the popish accidents in the 
sacrament without a subject ? Lastlj, It might be shown 
if need were, tliat greater liber^ than he alloweth is used 
by divers in the Bomish Church, tlie spiritual Egypt, and 
house of bondage for God*8 people : so as the bondage of 
the very Hagar of Rome is not so great in this case^ as he 
would bring upon Sarah herself. 

Tlie Jiord giro unto his people courage to stand for this 
liberty amongst the rest, wherewith Christ hath made them 
free, Gal. v. 1 ; and unto us who enjoy it, grace to use the 
same unto bis glory, in our mutual edufication. Amen. 













The first Congregational Church in London belDg with- 
out a pastor, tho Rev. Henry Jacob, their minister, hmTing 
recently emigrated to Virginia, wroto letters to the sister 
churches at Amsterdam and Leyden, soliciting adrice on 
various points in wliich they were deeply interested ; and 
particularly respecting tlieir duty towards some members 
wlio bad occasionally attended tlie services of the Esta- 
blished Church in England. 

The letter to the church at Amsterdam occasioned much 
contention, and led to proceedings utterly at variance with 
tlio spirit and principles of tlie gospel. It would seem one 
of their number, who had formerly been transferred from 
Lcjrden, had been guilty of the ofrence of hearing the 
gospel in an English Church, and was obnoxious on some 
other grounds; he was tlierefore proceeded against as an 
offender, and, tlirough tlio influence of a small party in 
tlio church, was, witliout being allowed a fair opportunity 
of vindicating himself, censured and excommunicated. 

The church at Amsterdam, it would seem, wrote to Mr. 
Bobinson and his people, to explain and justify their pro- 
ccedings. But neither the pastor of Leyden nor his chorch 
were satisfied; and in their name he wrote the ** Appeal in 
Truth's Behalf,** in which he protests againsl their nn* 




ecripturol proceeding, and declines nil further consultation 
or conference with that church, having had in previous 
yean much punful discussion and correspondcnco there- 

" The Letter to the Cliurch in London," in reply to 
Uioir application, vras written by Mr. Robinson six months 
proviousl/ to the " Appeal," in which be adverts to the 
proceedings at Amslonlam, and advises tho London church 
by no means to reject tboso Aicndi who, under some pecu- 
liar circumittancos, had occanionall/ worsliippod in (ho 
English Church. 

He, moreover, wrote the " TrenUse on the Lawfulness 
of Hearing the ^^rDi^te^s of the Church of England," about 
the same time. It was evidenHj designed for the press; 
but he died without publishing it ; the manuscript was 
found in his denk after his decease. It was carefully 
prescrrcd by tho church for more thau nine years. It is 
probable that n copy hod been taken by some parties, with 
the intention of printing it when opportuqi^ should offer. 

The work was, at length, published by persons who desig- 
nate themselres only as "the printers," and whoso nddresi 
"to the Christian Reader" states the reason of publication. 

Int«mal evidence, furnished by the Prefnce. shows tbit 
these "printers" were intimately acquainted with tlie pro- 
ceedings of tlio church at Leydon, and probably they Iiad 
been actual mcmbcn at licydcn, though it would seem 
they were now resident in London or Amsterdam. Learn- 
ing that proceedings had lately been adopted in the church 
at Leyden, similar to those which bad taken place at 
Amsterdam ten years previously, and against which Mr. 
. Robinson and his friends had so earnestly protested in the 
"Appeal," and to which ha had adverted in his Letter to 
the Church in London, they resolved to print the Treatise, 
that the deliberate opinions of their former pastOT respect- 
ing the "Lawfulness of Hearing llinisten in tfa« Chnreb 



of England,** might be generally known, and to show' that 
such an occasional practice ought not to be considered as 
A violation of Christian dutj, nor a compromise or aban- 
donment of Nonconformist principles, masmuch as tlia 
mere hearing of a discourse in the Established Chureh 
was not an " act of church commimion,** and did not 
necessarily imply concurrence in the ecclesiastieal Tiews 
of tlie preacher, nor approbation of the National Church, 
as nn institution. 

The ''printom** supply two or three objections and 
answers in tlicir Address, additional to those found in lir. 
Robinson's Treatise, stating that such objections had been 
urged by the factious party in the Leyden chureh, as a 
justification of their proceedings. 









im. joiiN noDiNsz, 

Printed nccordine lo the copio that wu found in hiittudisaAeThU 
dMue, and now publiahcd for the conunon good. 

Together with a letter nritlcn bjr tho uaaa Aulhoro, uid apprauAd 
bf hi* church, which followcth aftci Iliii TrcatiM. 

" laig* aM uegrdiBf I* punao, but Judn rf] 


• • 


CiiKisTiAK reader, however tho very naming of the Author 
of this following Treatise were sufficient reason for ns to 
publish the same unto the worlcU in regard of those lai^ge 
Abilities above many others which the Jjord had bestowed 
upon him ; and in regard, he being now at rest with the 
Lord, and so having finished long since his course in ^is 
Ills pilgrimage, we cannot expect to have any more use of 
his help this way; and although it were great pity that 
such a work as this should be concealed for so long time« 
consiilcring the work was perfected and written by his 
oun hand, and so found after his death, which is nine 
years since, in his study, yet have we thought it good all 
tliis while to conceal it, in respect of that desire we had 
to tho peace of that church whereof the Author of this 
Treatise was for so many years a pastor. In regard, we 
did perceive that some, though not many, were contrazy- 
minded to the Authors judgment expressed in tliis Trcun- 
tise ; and this we judge to be a sufficient reason of oor 
so long delaying of publishing this Treatise to the world : 
yet to our grief, we have now just cause to put this same 
on foot ; for, as when a city is in danger of enemies to be 
surprised, it is tlien high time to take up all those wariike 
munitions which happily before that time were east 
aside and not regarded, that so they may the better main- 
tain their city and the privileges of it, against their 
onemies ; so we judge it as nocessaiy, if not more, when 
we see the enemies of God's church to encroach upon the 
privileges of the same, especially when they aim at the 
utter ruinating of it, that then it is high time for ns to 
defend the cause of Christ: and it was the msdom of 
Jehoiada, the high-priest, perceiving the malieo of AtfaaUa* 

■eeking to destroy the whole seed of Jehoshapbat, to hid« 
Jouh, the right hoir of the kingdom, and when he saw a 
fit opportunity, then to reveal him and make him knowti ; 
■o we, who have observed Athalia's spirit in part, to be in 
some who have laboured to assume the power to'them- 
Belvea, which is proper to the church, onu so Diotrephei- 
like, would cast out whom they please, and retun whom 
they thought good ; and rather than they will be hindered 
in diiB their attempt, they will labour to rend that church 
in pieces in which they have lived for many years toge- 
ther; and that we may not seem to accuse tliem of any- 
thing without juat reason, we desire the Gliristian reader 
and tlieraselves to consider this that follows : — 

First, Their schism, or, as they call, it their leaving nt 
the church, doth arise upon this occosion: to wit, that two 
who are members of the same church with Uiem, having 
upon some occasion heard some of the miniHters ia 
i^gland preach, and it coming to the knowledge of some 
of these, who have now made this rent in the churcb, ihej 
would presently have tLeeo persons dealt witlial as for sin, 
and if they did not repent after dealing, tlicy would luTa 
the church proceed to excommunicate them, ipto /aelo; 
which the church not willing to consent unto, tlicse men 
could not be satisfied, but they would have their own willi 
done, or else tliey would rent fi'om the church, which pro- 
ceeding of theirs, if it were approved of nnd fallowed, no 
church could long continue together in peace ; for what 
these four or five men have done, that mny any other nisn 
do ; so that if any man do conceive any of his brethren to 
walk in any such sin, which he judges doth desene ei- 
eommuni cation, if the church will not thereto consent, he 
may rent himself from the same. Although the Author of 
this Treatise hath taught them otlierwise, to wit, " that if 
the church see not that to be sin, which I see to he a sin, 
I, having informed the church tliercof, according to my 
place, I have discharged my duty, and tlie sin lies upon the 
church, (if it be a sin,) and not upon me." But it seems 
these men do look for that in the church on earth which 
ia only to be found in heaven ; for themselves haro a£Gnned, 
and that before divers wttnesseB. that there is no sin, smiU 
' or grwU, that ia to be bom* withal, and that the niy 


tpekking of a word, through fraiUjr, about vorldlj buainees 
on the Sabbtth-dur, should have as severe t. sentence u 
ho thftt shall openlj and profsnolj' tnmsgresi a^Dst the 
fourth commandment ; the very naming of which, their 
opinion, is sufficient to discover their weakness. And that 
we ma^ jet further discover these men's folly to tbo worid 
more fullj, we will show jou how contmiy they are to 
Uiemselvca in this thoir judgment; for, as they say, and do 
■ilirm, there is no sin which is to be borne withal in the 
church, yet themselves, or at least, the chief of them, 
do practise the contmiy: as for example— one instead of 
many mny serve the term~-Tha chief of tlie authon of 
tliii trouble dolli hold, and so hath for many yean toge- 
ther, to wit, that it is unlawful for the membora of one 
church to have communion with another church, and yet, 
notwithstanding this his judgment, he can bear with one, 
who hath, eontraty to this his judgment practised, and so 

Erofesseth smi to do upon occasion ; and yet notwithstand- 
)g his BO practising, and so professing, he is received 
among them, and is Uieir chief, if not tteir only teacher 
which they hare ; so that we may here easily perceive 
that though this man doth use Jehu's pace agiunst the 
sins of others with whom he desires to be alienated, 
yet he can bear with as great sins in others in his 
judgment, with whom he desires to walk. We could show 
many more reasons to prove bis partialis, but then we 
should exceed the bounds of an epistle. Only ws desire 
the render to take notico of these two things — First, That 
this practice of hearing the mioiRters of the church of 
England is not against any article of faith which Is by 
this church professed, whereof the Author of this Treatise 
was a pastor, it being no act of church communion; for, 
if hearing simply were an act of communion, then, ev6ry 
bereUe or atheist, or whataoever he were that should come 
into the church of Ood, should have communion with 
them, which if it were true, (as this following Treatise 
proves the contrary,) then it were good for eveiy church 
that will avoid communion with profane men, to meet 
in private, and then to shut their door when their own 
company is met together: else I cannot see how they 
can avoid hani^ communioa with wicked taaii j to wit, 


if ban hearing be an act of eommunioii. Socondlr, Aa 
this bearing is not against aay article of thoir faiiL, lo 
likewise, it was not in the judgment of the church es- 
teemed as a thing that might not be home withal; and 
this majr appear by a copy of a letter vdiich we hara 
here following publislied, wlicre the church, in the coun- 
sel which they give to the church of London, do suiE- 
ciently make it appear that their judgment did manifestly 
differ from that of those who now have made this breach ; 
and, which is well to be marked by the reader, how that 
the church, wliea this letter was written, enjoyed ths 
pastor; and their company was fire times greater than it 
was when this breach was made ; and because these men 
in this their error are willing to rcstraia it, and not 
being able to moke any suflicient reply to the answer 
mode in thin Treatise to their objections, though the 
manuscript thereof hath been in their bonds for many 
yean; yet, because they will find something to say mora 
than others have done heretofore, tliough of less force, 
therefore they have joined some new objections, which 
both the seducer and the seduced do tliink are unsn- 
•werablc, Uicrefore it will not be amiss for us to pro- 
pound llicra. and to give some answer to them, that so 
if tlicir stomachs serve tlicy may reply to nil at once. 

First, They object, ami tiny, tliat wo hold tlie Church of 
England to bo a false cliurch, and the ministers tlioreof 
to be aaticbrisUnn, and yet wo go thither to worxtup 
the true Goil. Before we answer directly to this objw- 
tion, we shall intrcat tlio reader and tlicmBclves to con- 
sider <^ this tliat follows : 

Finit, A church may be said to be false in divert 
respects, and according to those respects wo are to hsva 
divers con hi deration a tlicreof; as first, a church may be 
said to be false in respect of outward order, to wit, when 
a church is gathered togctlier not accordiug to the mla 
of Christ, neither in tlieir outward government do they 
eonfimn thereunto; now this church cannot be said ta 
be the churdi of Christ being thus erected, and govenMid 
oontrary to the nile of Christ, but is false and anti- 
cfaristian, and yet notwitha landing, the faith professed hj 
this church, and the dodrinea taught in this ehurch mMj 
be sound and according to God. 




SeconJlj, A ehnrch xnaj be false, not only in respect 
of outward order, but likewise in respect of fiuth. and 

Now to this latter we counsel no man to go, because 
from thence no good can be expected, and that is the 
esteem we hare of the Giurch of Bonie. But now, as 
in a true church, in respect of outward order, there may 
bo many false doctrines taught, so, in a church that is 
false in respect of outward order there may be manj 
sound and seasonable truths taught, and this esteem we 
liavc of the preaching in England: namely, that the 
doctrine there taught, according to the articles of their 
faith is sound, and the effects of it have appeared in 
tlie working of faith in tlio hearts of many thousands. 
For tlic outward order, or meeting there as a church* 
that concerns themselves, and thoso that are in union 
with that church estate, but not all that hear them. 

Now that worshipping of God, which consists in hearing 
bis Word, is warrantable for us to do in England, we 
proTo it by this argument : 

That preaching which ordinarily begets men to the 
faith of Christ may lawfully be heard. 

That the preaching of many ministers in the Church of 
Enf^lond hatli, and dotli, ordinarily beget men to the faith 
of Christ 

Tlicrcfore tho preaching of many ministers in England 
may lawfully bo hoard. 

The first part of tliis syllogism is proved out of Bom. x., 
whcro the apostle telling what is tho ordinaiy way God 
uses to beget men to tlic faitli of Christ, tells us it comes 
by hearing the Word of God preached ; if faith comes by 
hearing tlio Word of God preached, to wit, if that be the 
outward means, then there is no question but that a man 
may hear such preaching, and any man may blush for 
shame that shall deny tliis : so that the major part of the 
argument is clear. And for the minor part they cannot 
deny it, no more than a man at noon-day can aeny the 
sun to shine ; for if any man make question whether faith 
comes ordinarily by the preaching and hearing in England, 
it is a great question whether they ever had faith or no, 
yet because some are so gross as to deny this* we 
tliercfore prove the contraxy by this argument:— 


M^ ^ \ ■ 



That preaching and hearing which make them who were 
altogether carnal, and so not capable of a church-estate, to 
become saints, and so fit for a church-estate :. that preach- 
ing must needs beget men to the faith. 

But the preaching and hearing in England made them 
that were unfit and carnal to b^ome saints, and so fit 
members to the true church, which were not so before. 

Therefore the preaching in England and hearing the 
same doth beget men to the faith. That the preaching and 
hearing in England hath done this, witness the church 
of Leyden, and of Amsterdam. 

Let tliem toll us where they received their faiUi : if they 
say thoy had it not till they joined in these bodies, how 
could thoy tlicn bo true to their own grounds ?— -That none 
but visible Christians arc fit matter for Uie church, wlicrcai 
none can bo so esteemed, cxcopt in tlie judgment of charity 
wo judge thorn to have true faith. 

But some of ilioso Uiat have mode Uiis division have not 

denied, but faitli is wrought by Uio preaching and hearing 

in England, and yet, which is wonderful contradiction, thoy 

say it is not the Word of God, as it is there preached ; so 

that it seems there is sometliing besides tlie Word of God 

which is on ordinary means to be^et men to the faith, and 

thei*e is another word besides God*s Word that will do it; 

tlie like absurdity hath seldom been heard from any that 

profess themselves to be Christians. And that they may 

not seem to say this without some reason, mark tho reason 

that they bring to prove it : say Uiey, We do deny that to 

be the Word of God, as it is there preached, by a false 

ministry, though the word itself be of God. yet as it is by 

them preached it is none of God's Word. So God*s Word 

here stands at fast and loose : it is God's Word, and it is 

not God's Word ; as if they should say it is God*s Word, if 

Mr. Canne shall preach it, but if another that is a minister 

in England preach the same, it is none of God's Word ; so 

that men*s outward calling, true or false, makes the Word 

to be the Word of God, or not to be the Word of God, an 

assertion rather to be pitied than refuted, being little better 

than blasphemy. That which they bring to make this 

assertion good, to wit, that any man having an outward 

calling wmch is unlawful, makes the Word of Ood which 


he preaeheUi not to bo the Word of God. And this, saj they, 
to prove it. It was true incense which Nadab uid Abihu 
took to offer up unto the Lord, Lev. x. 1 ; but beeauw they 
took stniTigc liri-. anJ not tlie firo which was from the 
attar, as the Lord had appointed, therefore the Lord sent a 
fire to destroy tiicm ; bo say they it is Uie true Word of Qod 
which is prcnched in Engknd. but becauHe they preach the 
same by an uiiliiwful office, therefore tlie Lord abhors it : a 
stranger collection, I think, can hardly be heard, for here 
strange lire is opposed to an unlawful outward colling, than 
which, nothinft can bo more absurd; for Nadab and Abihu 
liad a true outward calling to ottor ; tliey wore the sons of 
Aaron, Kaich the toxt; therefore if anything hence might be 
cottrliidcil, in jiiHt proportion, it niunt be to tlic doctrino 
taiij'ht. and not in tho Ica^t to tho calling ; so tliat we may 
from liicncc giiihcr thus much, tliat if a ministor, in rogurd 
of \m outward calling true, slmll toacli anytliing tliat is 
not from tho Lord, tlicy arc to expect God'n judgment for 
tliCRnmc, and mora cannot licnco be collected; further, lot it 
be Rliown that ever any prophet in tho Old or New Teitn- 
uicnt was ever termed a fiLlte prophet in respect of bis 
outward callint;, but ahvivya in respect of his doctrine ; wo 
can fmd that such as had truo outward calling in tho true 
church, yet wci-e false prophcw in regard to tJieir doctrino 
in many particulars, as Christ teaches concerning the 
ScribcH and Pharisees, for their false expounding of the 
law, let tlicm show the like for outward callings. Thus 
have we thought good, having been careful witooaaes of 
these things here propounded, to set down our censure of 
them, desiring the Lord In mako this whole work, for the 
general good now setfortli, to take effect in those that lore 
the truth. 
Fare you well. 

:■ ^ 





As thej that afTcct alienation from others, make their dif- 
ferences aa great, and the adverse opinion or practice as odious 
as they can, thereby tofurtlier their desired victory over them, 
and to harden themselves, and thoir side against them, so on 
the contrary, Uiey vrho desire peace and accord, Uoth inteipret 
things in tlio best part they reasonably can, and seek how 
and where they may find any lawful door of entiy into me- 
oord and agreement with others : of which latter number, I 
profess myself (by the grace of God) both a companion and 
a guide ; especially in rcganl of my Christian coimtrymcn, 
to whom God hath tied me in so many inviolable bonds; 
accounting it a cro ss that I am, in any particular, compelled 
t<r3Tssent from tlicm ; but a benefit, and matter of rejoic- 
ing, when I can in anything with good conscience unite 
with tliem in matter, if not in manner, or, where it may he, 
in both. And tliis affection, the Lord and my conscience 
are my witnesses, I have always nourished in my breast, 
even when I seemed furthest drawn from them : and so all 
that have taken knowledge of my course can testify with 
me, and how I have ^i\\\ opposed in otliers, and repressed 
in mine own people, to my pow«»r, all sour zeal against, and 
peremptory rejection of, such as, whose holy graces chal- 
lenged better use and respect from all Christians. And in 
testimony of mine affection this way, and for the freeing 
of mine own conscience, and information of other men*s, I 
have penned this discourse ; tending to prove the hearing 
of tlie Word of God nreached, by the ministers of the 
Church of England, able to open and apply tlie doctrines 
of faith by tliat church professed, both lawful, and in cases 
necessary for all, of all sects or sorts of Christians, having 
▼OL. ra. A A 





opportunity and occasion of so doing, tliough sequestering 
themselves from all communion with the hierarchical order 
there established. 

Three sorts of opposites I make account to meet withal. 
The first, of them who truly desire and carefully endeavour 
to have their whole course both in religion and otherwise 
framed by the holy and right seal of God's Word, either 
for their confirmation in the truth, or reformation, wherein, 
through human frailty they step aside. And unto them 
especially I direct this my discourse, begging at His hands 
who is the Father of lights, and from whom cometh down 
every good and perfect gift, James i. 17, for them as for 
myself, that as he hath given us to set our faces towards 
heaven, and to seelc him with the whole heart, so, he 
would not suffer us to wander from his commandments, 
to the right hand or to the left Psa. cxix. 10. 

A second sort, is of them, whose tender and scrupulous 
conscience makes them fearful and jealous of everything 
which hath in it Uie least appearance or show of evil, lest 
coming too near it, tliey be defiled by it one way or otlier. 
This their godly xeal, and tenderness of heart is to be 
loved of all men, and cherished by all good means. Only 
such are to be entreated for their own good to take know* 
ledge of a distinction most useful for their direction in 
things lawful in tlieir kind, and good in tlieir right use : 
of which some are only naturally good in their kind, but 
not simply commanded of God : as to get and keep the 
riches and credit of tlie world, to enjoy outward peace or 
otlier bodUy comfort. Others are morally good in their 
kind, and commanded of God : as, to hear tlie Word of 
God, obey the magistrate, and the like. Now in tilings of 
tlie former sort, it is very requisite, considering botli Uieir 
nature and ours, tliat we keep a jealous eye and strait hand 
over ourselves, and our ways. For them, they are not in 
their kind enjoined as the other ; neither do the Scriptures 
anywhere require of men to be rich or the like ; as they 
do* to hear God*s Word, obey authority, &e. And for our- 
selves we are prone and in danger to overstrain for the 
getting and enjoying of them, as being naturally pleasing 
good Uiings ; so as if, out of a godly jealousy over our 
hearts towards them, we keep not ourselves irom going 




too near the side, for the getting or keeping of them, we 
shall hv one storm of temptation or otber, be blown into 
the ditch of sin and destruction. Bat now for the prmetice 
and performance of duties simplj mond and commanded 
in their kind, as is the hearing of God s WonL espeeiailj 
bv Go«i's people, we ought to strain to the utmost, and to 
go as near the wind as mar be ; seeing nothing bat appar- 
ent sin in the war. can excuse the withdrawing from it, 
when occasion of enjoying it is offered. Oh that thei« 
were not to found! — who being Terr scmpuloos of coming 
noar to anything amiss in outward ordinances, or to any 
person failing in them, yet make no scruple of complying 
and conforming with the worid, so fitr in the eager parsoit 
of worldly profits, immoderate use of worldly delights, and 
fulfilling the lusts of the world, and flesh dwelling in them, 
as that there appears scarce a hair-breadth or differenco 
between them and mere worldlings which know not God ; 
which latter evils are both worse in themselves, as being 
expressly condemned by the law of God and light of nature, 
and more odious in the persons, as being more personal, 
free, and voluntary than those in the other, to which thej 
are carried by tlie violent current of the times. 

A third sort of opposites I make account to meet with, 
more un tractable than the former, and more vehemently 
brnt against the thing propounded by me. out of prejudice 
and passion, than the other by scruple of conscience or 
show of reason. To them I can hax^ily say anything, it 
not being their manner to read, or willingly to hear that 
which crosActh their prejudices, yet something I must say 
touching thcin, out of the woeful e3q>enence of many years 
taken of them,* though not much, I tliank the Ix>rd, 
amongst them, unto whom I have ministered. 

Some of these I have found carried with so exeessiTe 
admiration of some foimer guides in their course, as they 
think it half heresy to coll into question any of their deter- 
minations or practices. We must not think that only the 

* Referring doubtless to the contentious spirit of the church at 
Amsterdam in former yearn, and which produced diviaoa in the 
church itself, as well as led to 3Ir. Robinson's retirement from it to 
I^den. Vid€ Bradford's Journal, quoted in Haabury^t Historical 
voL L page 469. 




Pharisees of old, and Papists of later times, are super- 
stitiouslj addicted to the traditions of the elders and 
authority of the church. In all sects, there are divers, 
especially of the weaker sort, who being the less real in 
their conceptions are the more personal, that rather choose 
to follow tlie troad* of blind tradition, if beaten by some 
such foregoers as they admire, than the right way of God*s 
Word by others to be shown them afterwards. 

Some, again, are as much addicted to themselves as the 
former to others, conceiving in effect, though tliey will not 
profess it, the same of their own heads, which the Papists 
do of their head— tlie Popc'^— viz., tliat they cannot err or 
be deceived, and this especially in such matters, as for 
which they liave suffered trouble and oflliction formerly, 
and so having bought them dear, tliey value them highly. 
But it is too merchant-like, to strive to overseU a thing, 
which we have formerly overbought: we must buy the 
trut]i, and not sell it at any rate : but must account no* 
tiling eitlior true or good, according to the valuation which 
we have sot upon it, but God. 

Tlicre is uIko a tliird sort highlv advancing a kind of 
privative goodness and religion, and who bend their forco» 
rather to the weakening of otlier men in Uicir courses, 
tlian to the building up of tliemsclves in their own : and 
in truth, ratlier to separation from men, not only in evil, 
but even in tliat whicli is good, for some other evil con* 
ceivcd in them, than to union with God, and his people, 
in his holy onlinanccs ; and half imagining tliat they 
draw near enough to God, if they can withdraw far enough 
from other men. Great /x^al tlioy have against the false 
churcli, ministry and worship so being, or by tJiem con- 
ceived so to be, and against any appearing evil in tJio true, 
but little for tliat %vliich is true and good, as their practice 
manifests; but evil is as contrary to evil, as good is to 
evil; and so is that zeal plainly carnal, which carries a 
man further against evil than for good, seing no evil is so 
evil, as good is good. 

Fourthly, Tlicre are some to be found so soured with mood* 
ings and discontentment, as that they become unsociable, 
and almost Lukanthropoi, ( wercwol fs,) as they speak. If they 

* Trodden path. 

TiiB unanxBM or thb cmmca or zmoijlsi d. S$7 

see nothing lamentable, thej are ready to lament. If they 
take contentment in any, it is in them alone whom they 
find discontented. If they read any books, they are only 
invectives, especially against public states and their go- 
vernors. Mi things tending to accord and nnion any 
manner of way, are unwelcome unto them. They haTO 
their portion in Ishmaers blessing. Gen. xvL 13. 

Lastly, There want not who (as Jehu in lus fierce march- 
ing covered his ambition, crucl^, and zeal for hia own 
house, undor tlie pretext of zeal for God*8) think to eoTcr 
and palliate their own both grosser and more proper and 
personal corruptions, undor a furious march not only 
against the failings, but tlie persons also failing of in* 
fi nnity, in matters of chiurch order and ordinances, who, 
if they were well acquainted, and duly affected with thoir 
own both more voluntary and greater sins, woold alack 
their Jchu*s pace, yet turn their course, though not to 
walk with otliers in evil, which God forbid 1 yet to apply 
and acconiniodftte themselves unto tliem in that whidi is 
good, 80 fiu* as possible tlicy could observe any way 
by the Lord opened unto Uiem. I could instance and 
name divers particular persons monstrously grown out of 
kind Uiis way; but that course I leave unto them who 
ratlicr desire the disgracing, than tlio bettering of them 
agaiDst whom they deal : or perhaps conceive in their 
leavened hearts, that there is no other way of bettering, 
especially persons of mean condition, than by shaming 
and disgracing them. But let not my fouI come in tlieir 
secret, in whose habitations are such instruments of cm- 
elty ! Grn. xlix. 5, 0. 

These things Urns premised, the objections follow which 
I have either heard from others, or con conceive of m3'8elf, 
most colourable against the practice by me propounded. 
And they are of two sorts. Some of them are framed npoI^ 
supposition, that the ministers in tluit diurch are in them- 
selves lawful and of God, but not yet to be heard by reason 
of the abuses and evils to be found in tlidr ministrationa. 
Others withdraw hearing, and those the more, upon the 
contrary supposition* to wit: that the very order and con- 
stitution of that church and ministry is papal and unlaw- 
iuL Now the examination of the grounds of Ilia ona or 

i I 

I S Ml T wi ^M j^ i iii im iii 

368 OH TiiB uwFDLXEas or BEjutna 

Uio other I will not in thia nlnco modtUo with, but, tliouoh 
both cannot bo truo, will for tho satiifying of thfl wiui- 
drnwcra on botli parts, grant for tho profient to either part 
their grouiitl, and so examine distinctly what ozcoptioni 
they can or do build tliereupon. 

But first far tho former. Supposing a church and the 
ministry thereof essKntialljr lawful, it cannot but be lawful 
for the members of other churches in general union and 
association willi it, to ooramunicate tliorowitli in things 
lawful and lawfully done, seeing tho end of union is com* 
munion. Ood hadi in vain united persons and states to- 
Rotlicr, if tlioy may in nothing coinmunieato together, 
jjut he, who would have us receive the weak in faiih, 
whom Ciod hatli received, would not have us rofusa tlio 
followHhip of churches in tliat which is good, for any 
woaknefts in them of one sort or otlior ; and tliis wo hnro 
so plainly and plentifnlly commended unto us, bolJi by 
tho prophet*, yen, by Clirint himself in tho Jewish church, 
and npOBtlcs, and apuBtolical men in the first Cliristian 
churches, in which many errors and evils of all kinds 
were more llion manifest, and tlio same ofttimes both so 
far spread iitid deeply rooted, an the reforming of tlicm 
waa rather to be wished, than hoped for; as that no place 
is left for doubting in tliat case, by any who desire to 
follow their holy steps in fnith towards Ood, and charity 
towards men, and elleclual •)' siro of their own edification. 

The objections of the fwn»er sort follow. 

Fir$t objection. 

"There is danger of being seduced and misled by the 
errors taught in the assemblies." 


First, We must not lose the benefit of many main trutlis 
taught, for danger of some few errors, especially in lesser 
matters, This were to foor tl)o devil, more than to trust 
Ood. Secondly, There were in the Jewish church in 
Christ's time, and in divers of the apostolical churches af- 
terwards, mora and greater errors taught, than are in any, 
or all the churches of England : of whidi also there are 
not a few, which if their mioiitert did u Ailly and faith- , 

«"'. lo,^^" effort 



botf gift, wliicli bcforo wos not on offering actnoUjr, but 
only goltl, 8ilvcr, or otbor inatorial; so doth not lh« 
cbnrcli mako any man's uin to become bis sin, wliich it 
vroa not bcforo, but only suiTcTfl Ui« gin that was. But to 
■train llie Etringa of tliis imagined proportion, to make 
them moot, and to snpjioxa th« church in a lonso to be as 
tlie altar, yet tliis only followH thorvnpon : that aa he who 
partnlics witli the nltnr in tlio upbolding of the offering, 
partakcR with tlio ofTcring ; so ho that partakes with the 
church in tbc upholding of any evil, hath his part in the 
evil also. And tliis I grant willingly, but deny as & most 
vain imagination, tliat evcnr one that partakes with a 
church in tilings lawful, jums witli it iu upholding the 
things unlawful to be found in it Christ our Lord joined 
witli the Jewish church in tilings lawful, and yet upheld 
nothing unlawful in it. 

Third objection, 

"But this courso of bearing will offend weak brethren, 
not porsuadcd of tlic lawfulu^s of iL" 


I'irst, It will offend more, and many of them weaker, 
and that more grievously, if it bo not performed. Socondl^, 
It in an offence token aud not (I'lten, seeing the tiling is in 
itself good in its kind, commanded by God, and in that 
particular by men in authority; and directly tending to 
mine cdifti^ation, and not like unto eating of flesh, or 
drinking of wino, or the tike tilings of indifferent nature, 
tod left to my free liberty to use or not to use. 

And thcNo are the principnl objections on tlio former 
ground ; they npon the latter follow : — 

Tbci« ifl in tho biiiids of many a Treatise published by a 
man of note,* containing "certain reitsonH lo prove it 
unlawful to hear, or have spiritual communion with tfae 
present ministry of the Church of England." This hath 
been answered, but indeed sophlslically, and in passion- 
Neither hath the answorerj much regarded what bo said, 

* Trutei* Johiuan, of Amiterdam. 4t0. IMS. 
^t RcT, W, Bradshaw, la hi* "Vnnwmtiioatm.ot BtpvUiiw.'' 
Dorlfto. KM, 



or unsaid, so ho might gninsaT his adversary. WiOi that 
answer was joined another, durcctcd to myself** and tlie 
5ame doubled, pretending to prove public commnxiion 
upon private, but not pressing at 4U i» tho body of the 
discourse that cousequence« but proceeding upon bther 
{^rounds, and in truth consisting of a continued eqniToca- 
tion in tlie terms, "public licence," ••government," ** minis- 
tr}'/* and tho like, drawn to another sense tlian either I 
intended them, or than tho matter in question will permit. 
Whereas, he that will refute another, should rdigiouslj 
take and hold to his adversary's meaning, and if, in any 
particular, it bo not so plainly set down, should spell it, as 
it were, out of his wonls. But it is no new thing even fur 
learned and godly men to take moro than lawful liberty ia 
dealing witli them, against whom they have tlie advantage 
of Uie times, favouring them like the wind on their backs ; 
but God forbid I shotdd follow them therein ! I will on 
the contrary use all plainness and simplicity as in the 
sight of God, that so I may make the naked truth appear 
as it is, to the Christian reader*s eye, what in mo lieth. 

And, for the treatise mentioned, it must bo observed 
how, both in tlio title and body of the book, the author 
confounds as one, *' hearing of,** and *' having spiritual 
communion with, the ministry," i^c, which, as it is true of 
such as stand in spiritual and political church union with 
a church and the ministry tliereof, who accoixiingly have 
church communion in the public acts and exercises of that 
church, so is it not true of others who are not members 
of, nor in ecclesiastical union or combination with the 
said church. 

For the better clearing of things, let us in a few words 
consider distinctly of religious actions, according to tlio 
several ranks in which tliey may rightly and orderly be 
set. Some such actions ai*e religious, only as they are 
performed by religious persons ; and of this sort is hear- 
ing, and so reading, of God s Word. Tho Scriptures teach, 
and all confess, that hearing tlie Word of God goes before 
faith; for "faith comes by hearing,'* as by an outward 
means, Kom.x. 17; 1 Tim. i. 5; Rom. x. 10; GaL ii. IC, SO; 
hearing then being before futh, and faith before all other 
• A MmudictkOB for lir. BobinMm, ac. ito. Boct. 1614, 





acts of religion inward or outward, it must needs follow 
that hearing is not simply, or of itself a work of religion, 
and so not of religious communion. Hearing is properly 
and of itself a natural action, though it be the hearing of 
the Yery Word of God. And I call it a natural action in 
itself in a double respect First, For tliat the light of 
nature tcachcth every man to hoar and listen to another 
that can and will teach and inform him in anything for his 
good, divine or human. Secondly, For that a mere natural 
man — Jew, Turk, infidel, or idolater, lawfully may, yea 
necessarily ought to hear God's Word, that so of natural, 
he may become spiritual. 

In tlie second rank I place preaching and prayer, which are 
properly acts religious and spiritual, as being to be per* 
formed, the one by a gift, the other by a grace of God*i 
Spirit Psa. 1. 10, 17 ; Prov. xv. 6; John ix. 31. 

Ofatliird sort is the. participation in tlio sacraments, 
which, ordinarily at least, requires a membership in some 
particular and ministerial church, in the participant; thcj 
being public church ordinances. 

In a fourth order I sot tlio power of sufTrogo, and voice- 
giving in electing of ofTiccrs, and censuring of offenders, for 
which Uicre is requisite an interest of the person so voting 
in that particular church, as a member thereof. 

Of the last sort is the ministration of sacraments, which 
requires with the rest fore-mentioned, a public state of 
ministry in the person administering tlicm. 

Now for preaching by some, and hearing by others, 
which two always go together, they may be, and oft are 
performed, without any religious or spiritual communion 
at all passing between the persons preaching or hearing. 

Wlicn Paul preached to the superstitious Athenian!, 
Acts xvii. 22, shall we conceive he had spiritual communion 
with that heathenish assembly? How much less had thej 
spiritual and religious communion with him, who pc^ 
formed not so much as a religious work in their hearing 7 
As God gave any of them to believe, they came into invisi- 
ble or inwardly spiritual personal communion with him ; 
as they came to make personal manifestation and decls* 
ration of their faith, they came into outward personal 
communion with him. Lastly, As they came to jom in, or 



unto some particular chnreh, inUf church communion with 
l^im — else not So when there come into th« church 
assembly, unbelievers, heathens, Turks, Jews, atheists, 
cxcommunicants, men of all religions, men of none at aH, 
And there hear, 1 Cor. xir. 33, what spiritual communion ' 
bavo they with the church, or state of the teacher, or one 
with another, cither in regard of the nature of the act done, 
or by God's ordination and institution ? Hearing simply, 
is not appointed of God to be a mark and note, either of 
union in tltc same faith, or order amongst all that hear, or 
of difTercncing of Christians from no Christians; or of mem- 
bora from no members of the church : as the sacraments are 
notes of both in the participants. The hearing of the Word 
of God is not so inclosed by any hedge, or ditch, dirine or ^ 
human, mode about it, but lies in common fov all, for the 
good of all. 
The particular objections follow :— 

Firtt objection. 

*' No nmn may submit liis conscience to bo wroughtupon 
by an unlawful, and antichristian ministry, ncitlicr hnth 
(iod promised, or doth Afford, any blessing upon it, neither 
con any have the sanctified use Uicrcof.** 

A miter. 

It cannot bo said properly, tliat tJio ofTicc of ministry | 
works upon tlio conscience of the hearer. The ofhco only 
gives power and chargo to tlio teacher, to teach in such or 
such a chui*ch state : and, as it resides in tho person of 
tho oflicer alono, so tlie communion, lawful or unlawful, 
wliich any Imtli witli it, is in regard of the lawful or unlawful 
ccclesiasticAl relation and union foregoing between the 
persons, and not in any working of Uio office upon the 
conscience of any. Secondly, Though God bless not the 
unlawful office of ministry, which is not of himself, yet he 
may and doth bless tho truths taught by the officer, which 
ore of himself, and from hoaven. Gen. xlix. 5, 6. To deny 
this of many in the Church of £ngland is, Balaam-like, to 
curse, where God would have us bless. 






• Second objection. 

" To hear such a minister, is to honour, approre, and 
uphold his office of ministiy.* 


First, If this be simply true, then trhen the heathenish 
Athenians heard Paul preach; or, when an unbcliercr 
comes into the church assembly, and hears tlie preacher, h^ 
approves, honours, and upholds the otBce of ministry, 
which — what it means he is altogetlier ignorant 

If any reply. But wo know the ministiy of tho church 
to be as it is : — I answer, that Uie knowing of it, makes not 
our act tho more or less an act of approbation. If I do an 
act wherein I indeed approve of a thing, if I know tlio 
thing, I really approve of it upon knowledge — if I know it 
not, I really approve of it but ignomntly. Secondly, If I 
approve of tlio office simply bccauso I hear the officer 
preach, then, I much more approve of all tlio doctrines 
which he delivers, because I hear him deliver them. If 
tho latter seem unreasonable, so is the former much more 
so, except I bo in church communion witli the officer, and 
then indeed I really approve of his office, as I also do of his 
doctrine, if it be according to the confession of faith made 
by me. for tlicn I am in formal union with him in tlio one 
or other, and so have communion in tlic acts thereof. If 
this were a good ground, that evciy one approves of tho evil 
done in matter or manner, where he is present, none could 
live witli good conscience in any society of men upon 
earth. Persons so minded aro best alone, for with others 
tliey will keep no peace, no, not with themselves neither, if 
they be true to their own ground. But they plainly balk 
themselves in their courses, eitlier in weakness of judgment, 
or partiality of affection, or tlirough want of due considera- 
tion of their ways. 

Hiird objection* 
. " By this then it seems a man may bo present at any act 
of idolatry, and do as others do, that practiao idolatry, jet 
not approve of it And so, tho throo nobles in Daniel 
neoded not to have put themselves upon such pikes of danger 


as they did, for not filling down as othen did m tho 


First, In the preaching of tlie tmths of the gospel, no 
idolatrous act is performed, as there was. Secondly, It 
must be known that approbation is properly in the heart, 
and only the manifestation of approbation in outward 
gesture, speech, or writing. Both tho one and the other 
are c\'il, if tlie thing be evil : but here it must be con- 
sidered, that I may in cases, do tho same outward act which 
others do, and wlicrein tlicv manifest their approbation of 
idolatr}', or other evil, and yet I be five, in truth and in 
deed from all such approbation and stain thereof. Tho 
Jcu-8 after Christ K death, and the taking away and abolish- 
ing the lep:al ordinances thereby. Col. ii. 14, circumcised 
tlieir infants, and frequented the temple for purification, 
and other Mosaical ceremonies as parts of God*s worship, 
and still remaining of Divine institution. Paul also cir- 
ciuncised Timotliy, entered tho temple for purification, and 
yet did not approve, any manner of way, the error and eril 
in the Jewish worshippers. To come nearer home. It is 
the custom in popish countries, that all that pass by across, 
must in honour of it, leave it on tlie right hand, as they 
may, by reason of the placing of it, coming or going. Now 
if i ride witli others that way. I may do tho Uiing that they 
do, and keep company with them, and yet not honour the 
cross as they do. It is besides the former, tlie manner 
tliat such as so pass a cross, should in further honour put 
off their hat to tho said cross. But if I do this also, I 
plainly manifest an approbation of Uie superstition. The 
reason of tlio difference is, because I have another just 
cause to do tlie former thing, namely to keep on with my 
company, but have no just cause of the latter. But now 
suppose that at the very place where the cross stands, I 
meet with some friend or other to whom I owe tliat civil 
respect of uncovering my head. I may then do that law- 
fully also upon the former ground. So if I had just and 
reasonable cause eitlier of coming and standing by the 
maffistrate, to whom I owe this civil honour, whilst he is 
penormiog some act of idolatry in the streets or elsewhere,' 




I might upon the same grounds go and stand uncovered hj 
him without just blame. To apply these things to the 
objection moved : seeing no other cause could reasonably 
be conceived of tho king's commanding such a thing, or of 
their doing the thing at his commandment, savq the 
worshipping of tho idol, thcv in so doing, could not have 
escaped the just blame of iaolatry. But now I have just 
causes more than one of my hearing, and amongst the rest 
mine edification, and therefore cannot be challenged therein 
to approve of the ministers* state or standing. Besides 
that, as I formerly answered, here is no idolatrous act per* 

Fourth objeetion, 

*' He that hears them preach, hears them as ministers 
of the Church of England, and as sent hj the bishops; 
and so in hearing them, hears and receives them that 
send them, according to that of our Saviour, 'He that 
hears you, hears me, and he that despiseth you, dcspiseth 
me, and he that despiseth me, despiseth him that sent 
me,' Luke x. 10; John xiii. 20.** 


I grant the former part of the objection, and account 
the denying of it a point of familism, seeing the officers of 
public states in the executing of their offices, are to be 
esteemed, according to the public laws and orders of tliose 
states, and not according to any underhand, either course 
or intention, by tliemsolves or otliers. Tlicv are heard as 
they preach, and preach as ministers of the oishop's send- 
ing and of the parishes receiving, to which they are sent 
by them. And so I profess I hear tJiem as the ministers of 
tho bisliopV sending, and of tlie parishes sent to, but not 
as my ministers' eitlier sending or sent to, except I be of 
those parishes, or at least in ecclesiastical union with them. 
Every one, whctlier of a false church, or of no church, or 
excommunicated from the church, that hears me, hears 
me as the pastor of the church which I serve, but not as 
his pastor, I suppose not in way of any, his spiritual 
commuhiou with mine office of pastorship. Secondlv, By 
" hearing and receiving,'* there, Christ means properly the 



hearkening too, believing and obcjing the doctrine taught 
by the apostles; which many doapised, unto whom he 
opposeth the former that heard it Now the miniateni in 
tiie parislies, have not the doctrines of the gospel firom the 
bishops OS they have their office; but from God in his 
Word, and so far forth as a man hears, that is, hearicena to. 
and receives them by receiving it, he so fSur hearkena to 
and receives Christ 

F{fth objection. 

"Yet such as hear them have communion with their 
office of ministry what in them lies.** 


That is, they have no communion at all with it, if it lie 
not in them to have any ; as it doth not If I hold up 
my hand as high as I can, I touch heaven with taj finger, 
vliat in me lies. Do I therefore at all touch it? If auch 
think to have, or that they have any such commimion, it ia 
their error and i^orance, but makes not the thing to be 
the more, than if they thought not so. 

Sixth objection. 

" Is there then no communion at all between the teacher 
and tlio taught? What profit then comes there by auch 


The church officer feeds the flock and church over which 
he is set, as tlie object of his ministry. Acts xx, 28. Such 
as come in, being not in church-union therewitli, hear him 
so doing; and, as a standcrby, hearing me talk U\ or 
dispute with, another, tliough I speak not a word to him, 
may reap as much, and more fniit by my speech, tlian he 
to whom I directed it, so may and doth it often come to 
pass with him, that hears tlie minister feed the flock whoao 
minister he is, though he be no part of it ; he may reap 
fruit by hearing him feed his flock, or seeing him minia- 
ter baptism to any member thereof. Here is communion 
only in the effects of the truths taught It were usurpa- 
tion in any, to partake in a church privilege, which the 



office of ministrj is, that were not in a ehnroh' state first 
And so, if hearing simply, imported churoh-eommunion, 
' none but church m€ml>er8 might lawftilly bear. 

Seventh ohjeeii&tu 

'* In the true cliurch indeed is order, tliat the chureh 
covenant go before ol*urch*oommunion : but not so in the 


. In the true church there may be unlawful church-corn- 
mttnion without a preceding church-covenant, as well as in 
tlio oilier, to wit, ir an act of communion, properly, pass 
between the church, and him tliat is no church-member; 
as for example, participation in tlie sacraments. But 
hearing being not properly an act of communion, cannot 
import communion necessarily with tlie one, or otiier: 
nor otherwise than according to o foregoing church- 
union ; whereas to partake in the Lord*s Supper imports 
communion in both ; lawful in him that is a lawful church- 
member, and unlawful in him that is not in such a church- 

Eitjhth ohjection, 

«' But it is the order of the Chureh of England, that all 
that hoar, are, and so are reputed, members of tliat church.*' 


1 deny that there is any such order. Let the law or 
canon cither be shown that so orders things. Excommu- 
nicates arc permitted to hear sermons, tliough not Divine 
service, as they call it Secondly, What if there vrere such 
an order ? It no more either made or declared me to be 
a member there, than doth my dwelling in such or such a 
parish, make me a member of that parish church, which 
latter is indeed the law and order there. If tlio church 
with me should make a law, canon, or order, that all that 
come in and hear me preach should thereby become mem- 
bers of it, we were the more foolish in making such an 
order, but they never a whit the nearer, either for member* 
ship or communion. 



Ninth ohjeciion, 

" He that hears, appears to have communion with the 
church and ministiy, and all appearance of evU is to be 
avoided. 1 Thess. v. 33." 


The Scriptures are not to bo understood of all that 
appears evil to others, out of an erroneous and deceived 
judgment ; for tlicn we must abstain from almost all good, 
seeing there are some to whom almost all good seoms 
evil ; but it is meant either of the doctrine in prophecy of 
which I have some probable suspicion, of which the 
apostle seoms properly to speak, or of that which appears 
evil to a rightly discerning eye. By this imagined expo- 
sition I might not hire a house in a parish where I were 
not known, seeing thereby I appear a parish-member. 

Tenth objection. 

" None con hear without a preacher, nor preach except 
he be sent, Rom. x. 14, 15 ; therefore I cannot lawfully 
hear him that hath not a lawful sending.*' 

First, That conclusion is ncitlicr in text, nor sound. I 
may lawfully hear him that hath no lawful calling, as I 
have formerly shown. Secondly, The apostle's meaning 
tlicre is not to show what is unlawful, but what is impos- 
sible. It is impossible to believe without hearing, and 
impossible to hear without preaching, and impossible to 
preach witliout the sending there intended ; that is, with- 
out God's gracious work of providence, in raising up of 
men, by enabling and disposing them to preach for the 
effectual calling of the elect of God, of which he there 
speaks. If any make question whether faith come by the 
hearing of the preachers there, it is more questionable 
whether tliey themselves want not faith, which are so 
barren of charity, in which true faith is fruitful. If faith 
come by tlie preaching in England to any, it follows 
thereupon, that such preachers are sent in the apostle's 






Eleventh ohjeetion, 

*'Th6 sheep of Christ hear his voice; but Btraagers they 
will not hear. John x. 8» 8» S7.** 


Christ doth not Uiere speak of Uie outward hearing, but 
of the hearkening unto ; that is, as he expounds himself, 
ver. 8—6, 14, 10, 27, of the knowing and beliering of his 
voice and following it So chap. ix. 27, ^ I told jou before, 
and ye did not hear;** tliat is, not believe. And God 
hears not sinnors, ver. 31, that is, approves not of tliom 
and their prayers. Bo chap. xi. 43, *' I know tliat tliou 
hearcHt me always,** and a tliousand times in the Scriptiures. 
The drift of Christ in this place Is, without question, to 
show tlio difference between such as were his sheep, and 
such as were not his sheep. His sheep heard his voice, 
and they which were not his sheep, hcanl not his voice. 
But they which were not his sheep, nor heanl his voice as 
there lie speaks, licard him preach outwardly, as well as 
the rest which wore his sheep. Besides they which were 
his sheep, and would not hear strangers in the Lord's 
sense, hoard outwarrlly tliose strangers preach, and by 
hearing them, discovered tliem to be strangers, that is, 
false prophets. The strangers of whom he speaks were of 
the true church, and of Israel, but brought false doctrine, 
tending to kill the soul. . Such strangers none should 
hear, tiiat is, believe and follow. 

Twelfth objection, 

*' The Scriptures both of tlio Old and New Testament 
warn Qod s people of false prophets, which the ministers 
of that chiurch are, having an unlawful calling.** 


First, They warn not to hearken unto them, nor to 
believe them/ but to try them, Deut. xiii. 3 ; 1 John iv. 1, 
which, witliout hearing them, cannot bo done. Not that 
all false prophets are to be heard by all, that they might 
try them ; for that were to tempt God : but I now answer 
tho scriptures cited, which speak of prophets in the true 



church, which were to he heard, till they were orderlj- 
represscd, or at least, plainly discovered by their doctrine 
bcflxd to bo such. Secondly, No man's unlawful outward 
calling mokes him a falso prophet; nor lus outivard law-- 
ful calling a true ; but his true or false doctrine only, 
makes him a true or false prophet A man may have a 
lawfiil office of ministry, and yet be a false prophet, if ]y> 
teach fidso doctrine; so may he be a true prophet, if ha 
teach the tniUi, though in an unlawful and antiehriatian 
state of ministry. Yea, Balaam was both a fklse prophet 
in cursing (in purpose) where God would have him blcea, 
and in teaching Balak to put a stumbling-block beforo the 
people of Israel; and yet a true prophet in blessing Imnel,. 
by the spirit of prophecy, and word of the Lord put into 
his mouth. Numb. xxiiL 25 ; Josli. xiii. 39; U Pet ii. 16,. 
IG ; Rev. ii. U. Ho is a prophet tliat speaks or dedarea 
a thing past present or to come. Numb. xxiiL 6, 9, 10; 
.xxiv. U, 3, &c. And to prophesy in our sense is notlilnr 
else but to speak to edification, exhortation, and comfort 
1 Cor. xiv. 3. Ho tliat doth this is a true prophet; he 
tliat speaks tlic contrary, a false. It were good if they in 
^vhoso mouths tho challenge of false prophets is rifcst 
Avould better weigh liow themselves expound and apply the 
Scriptures in Uieir prophesying, lest uotwitlistonding any 
outward lawful church-state, tJiey bo deeper wounded by 
tho rel>ound of their accusations this way, than their ad- 


ThirUcnth ohjcction, 

** Tlie Lord forbids Judah going to Gilgal, or to 
Bethel." Hos. iv. 15, 10. 

Answer , 

The meaning is plain, and the words express, tliat they 
were not to go thither " to offend, and play tlie harlot, in 
joining to idols," ver. 15— 17* This I grant is to ba 
done in no place ; but deny any such thing to bo done in 
the hearing by me pleaded for. The Scriptures oveiy- 
whcre forbid tiio going or coming to sucli places, or per- 
sons, as in. or by which some evil is done ; to wit for the 
doing of anything evil, or unlawful in or with them. 





Fourteenth objection. 

" They that eat of the 8a<^rifice partake of the altar, 
1 Cor. X. 18, so they tliat receive the word from an luolaw- 
ful officer, partake with his office.*" 


• I deny the consequence. The office is not to the word, 
as the altar is to tlie sacrifice. The altar makes the thing 
to he ofTcred, actually to hecome a sacrifice, which it was 
not hefore, save only in destination; as Christ plainly 
teacheth, saying, " The altar sanctifieth the gift** Matt, 
zxiii. 10. But so doth not the office make that to become 
the Word of God, which was not so actually before. This 
argument hatli its special weight, being applied to sacra- 
ments, or proper institutions. The church and ministry 
under God, make, in a good sense, the bread and wine 
sacramental, in tlicir use, which before they were not 
And to the sacraments, specially the Supper of the Lord, 
the apostle, in the place cited, hath an eye, showing the 
proportion between the eating of the sacrifices in Israel, 
which in that use became their sacrament; and the 
eating of the sacrifices of the heathens, which were their 
sacraments ; and the eating' of the Lord's Supper, as the 
sacrament of Christians. With these things join in the 
last place, that sacrifices, considered as proper institu- 
tions, might not be offered or eaten, but in the place chosen, 
Deut. xii. 6 — 7, and sanctified by the Lord, for that 
purpose. No more may sacraments now be eaten, but in 
the church ; whereas the Word may be preached to any 
as well out of the church as in it 

Fifteenth objection, 

" The places called temples and churches, having been 
built for idolatry, should be demolished, and therefore are 
not to be frequented, specially, being accounted and made 
holy places. Deut xii. 8." 


First, The difference of places under the law, when all 
other places for the most solemn worship, as opposed to 


that one ploco as holj, wore unholj. is now taken mw%j ; 
BO AS no place now is holy, or unholy as then. John iv. 
21, 23, 24; 1 Tim. ii. 6. ^eondly. Suppose it to bo the 
magistrate's duty to destroy tliem, (of which I now dismita 
not, nor how far he should proceed therein,) yet I deny 
tiie consequence, and that I may not use that lawftilly 
which lie ought to destroy. 

The magistrate ought to have destroyed Ruch dtios in 
Israel, Dcut. xiii. 12 — 15, as whose inhabitants had been 
corrupted with idolatry. Yet might the cities, if spared 
by the magistrates, lawfully be dwelt in afterwards ; and 
synagogues in them both be built and frequented for God*s 
mond worship. Jericho should hare been an execration 
and heap for ever, Josli. vi. 17, 20 ; 2 Kings ii. 3, 5 ; yet 
being built again and standing, was the seat of a school of 
the prophets. The murderer ouglit to be put to death ; 
yet if he be spared and survive, his wife, children, and 
scnants, la^^'fully may, and in conscience ought to con- 
verse with him, according to the natural and civil rela- 
tions between them and him. Tliirdly, I know no law in 
force, nor doctrine received, in the Cliurch of England, 
that ascribes any holiness to the places. And for errors 
and abuses personal, they rest in the persons so erring. 
I suppose some such holiness to be ascribed unto them, 
as to holy churches, holy buildings, consecrated places, Ac. 
Yet I sec no sufficient reason, why I may not use lawfully 
a natural and civil place in Uiom, for any lawful work, 
civil or religious, private or public ; for there is one reason 
of all these. If any think those places like the Idola- 
thytes, he mistakctli therein. The tilings offered to idols, 
and eaten in the idoKs temple and feast, were in propor- 
tion, as tlie bread and wine, being blessed, in the Lord's 
Supper; as both the apostle, and reason of the thing 
manifests. 1 Cor. x. Sviicrcas the place which I use, 
though for a religious action to be performed in it, 
whether in the temple, or in mine own house, hath only 
the consideration of a natural and civil circumstance. 
The temple as a temple (which yet I do not think is done 
in England, by anv either received doctrine or law) mar 
be made an idol l>y consecration; and yet ereiy parti- 
cular place in it not made unlawfid for all uses. 




If mnj further object, that, in preadiing and hearing 
Ood*i Word therein, we have a religious use of it, ther 
err, not conaidenng, that though tlie work 4one be reU* 
gioufl, yet the place is no more religious therefore, than 
the time in which I do it Time and place are natural 
eirovmstances, and without which no finite action can be 
performed ; and some time and place more commodious 
and fit than others, for the doinc of things of all kinds. 
I have no more religious use of the place in which I hear 
publicly, than in which I praj privately in my house or 

Swteenth objection. 

*' Seeing whatsoever is not of faith is sin, what word 
of God, and so of faith, is there for this practice ?*' 


Every scripture tliat either commands tlie hearing of 
Ood*8 Word, Matt vii. 24, and proraiscth a blessing to 
thorn that hear and keep it, Lukexi. 26; or tliat commands 
me to edify and build to myself, 1 Pet. ii. 5 ; or to obey the 
magistrate, Tit iii. 1; or to follow after peace, Hcb. xiL 
14; or to prevent offences, 1 Cor. x. 32, warrants, and in 
casos, ei\)oins this practice, supposing no sin to be in tlie 
way, of which in answering Uie former objections, to 
which I sup|K>so all otlicr of weight or colour may be 
referred, I hope I have cleared it 

And for any unsatisfied, or otherwise minded, I wish I 
knew their reason, either for tlieir good, by a sufficient 
answer to be given unto them; or for mine own, by 
admitting of them, as there may appear weight in them. 
In the meanwhile, let me entreat of tlie differently minded, 
one way or otlier, that they would exercise mutually that 
Christian charity one toward anoUier, and compassion one 
of another's infirmities, which become all that will be in 
truth and deed followers of Christ Jesus; and which is 
most needful, specially in things df this kind, for the 
preserving of the unity of the spirit in tlie bond of peace. 
Which bond of peace, whilst men are not careful to keep 
inviolated, by brotherly forbearance in matters of this 
nature, th^ miserably dissipate* and acatlar themselvesi 

nsz xnemsBB of ike cuijcs op ehgulkd* 

mnd one waaother; ereu as the tan in a eheaf are Mat- 
tered, when the bond breaketh. 

Bat as few or no good thmgs of anr kind are so veil 
n»eri hr same, but others as much abose them ; so is it to 
be feared, that there will not want who win change their 
lawful IJbcrtT this war into lawie^s licentiousness, and so 
take up instead of all other religious ezezvtses, a hearing 
course onlr. 

And those ^periallT of them, who disliking the pre<«cnt 
ihurcli -state in England, yet want due zeal and love to. 
thst, which thcmselTcs approre, — ^let me turn a little mj 
fpeo%*h to 5uch, for the prerenting in some, and remedj- 
inc: in others, of tliat inordinate and broken course. 

And first, I demand of such. What is this eonrse of hear- 
ing: fciich ministers, as whose state of ministiy thej ^>proTe ' 
not? I*; it anr particular ordinance left bj Christ, and 
enjoined all Christians in all ages and places? Verilj no. 
It were to be wished that no churrh-ministiy were to be 
found, which is not approvaWe by the Word of God, not- 
with<i landing any good act performed by them tliat possess 
it Tliis lioarinpr is only a woik of natural liberty in itself, 
as I have showed, and sanctified to believers by tlicir faith. 
It is lawful to uso it upon occasion, as it is to borrow of 
other men ; but to makeit our course, is to live by borrow- 
hig. which no honest man that can do otherwise possibly, 
would do. Yea, what differs it from a kind of spiritual 
Tn^abondry in him tliat can mend it, though with some 
ditticulty, to live in no certain church-state, and under no 
church order and government 

To print deep in our hearts tlie conscience of our duties 
this way, lot us briefly consider how many bonds of neces- 
sity the Lord hath laid upon us, to walk m the fellowship, 
and under the ordinances of the ministerial and instituted 

First We have lying upon us the necessity of obedienee 
to Christ our Lord in the commission apostolical, enjoin- 
ing, iliat after we be made disciples, as the word is. and 
baptised, we be withal taught to observe whatsoever he hath 
commanded, Matt xxviii. 19, 20. It must not then suffice 
us, that we are disciples and Christians, but we must join 
hei^ewith the entire observation of all the ordinancea of 




Christ, as we can find means, from the greatest to the least 
And let us heware that, like the Scrihes and Pharisees, we 
call none of God*s commandments little. Matt t. 19, J20, 
hecause we would make ourselves* and others heliere, that 
little and light account is to he made of ohsenring Uiem, 
lest we ourselves be called little, that is, be indeed none in 
the kingdom of heaven. Our sins of ignorance and human 
frailty, alas, are too many; let us not add thereunto 
presumptuous sins, either of commission or omission, to 
provoke God withal. 

Second, The church and ministrations therein are not 
needless, but most needful means sanctified of God, and 
given of Christ for our salvation and edification thereunto, 
Acts ii. 47; £ph. iv. 11 ; which he that despiseth, that is, 
doth not submit his body and soul unto, as he hath means, 
and converse therein with good conscience, though in 
affliction and persecution, despiseth not man, but God and 
Christ to the depriving of himself of the fruit of God*s 
most gracious precious presence in his house and temple, 
where he hath promised to dwell, 1 Tim. iii. 16, and of 
Christ's ascension into heaven, for the pouring out of all 
kingly gifts and largesses upon men for tho work of the 
ministij. 3 Cor. vi. 10. 

Third, Our great infirmities, whereof both the Scrip- 
tures everywhere, and our own experience warn us, show 
in what great need we stand of all the Lord's holy ordi- 
nances and instructions, for the supplying of what is 
wanting in us, and correcting of what is amiss, and con- 
tinuing and increasing of what is good, unto the coming 
of the Lord ; where we must also take knowledge, and 
remember, that it is one note of difference, and the same 
veiy clear, between the wisdom of the flesh and the wisdom 
of the Spirit tliat the former will be sure to provide for 
the body and outward man what may be, though with dan- 
ger and prejudice of the spiritual ; the other will take care 
and order for the spiritual state, though the outward, pinch 
for it And if any, out of the view and persuasion of his 
own strength of grace, come to conceive, that he stands in 
no such need of Christ's ordinances, or of any Christian 
fellowship for the dispensing of them ; let such a man 
consider, that the less need he hath of others by reason of 



his greater plenty of grace received, the more need othen 
have of him for their supply. But whatsover any imagine 
of himself, the apostle, who was not partial, teacheth, that 
tlie Tcr}' head, the chief and highest member, cannot Bay to 
the feet, the lowest and meanest members, I have no need 
of you. 1 Cor. xii. 31. 

Lastly, It is necessary for our sound and entire comfort 
with tlie Lord our God, that our obedience be entire in respect 
of all his holy commandments, which we do, or can discern 
to be such, and to concern us ; according to that of the man 
of God, '* Then shall I not be ashamed when I have respect 
to all tliy commandments.'* Psa. cxiz. G. That so wo may 
have our part in tlio testimony given bv the Holy Ghost of 
Zacharios and Elizabeth, which was, '*Uiat they were right- 
eous before God, walking in all tlie commandments and • 
ordinances of tlic Lord, blameless,** Luke i. 6, ; that is. 
both in the moral precepts, and sacred ceremonies, and 
ijistitutions of the Lord, whoso example we, in oar place' 
and times are to follow, not balking with tlie Lord in any- 
tliing, great or small, nor seeking storting-holes, whereby 
to escape from him, in his Word, which is wholly good and 
pure. Prov. xxx. 5 ; Heb. vi. 5. Good, as coming from 
our good God, good in itself, and good for us, if we con- 
verse therein as we ought, in good conscience towards God. 
zeal for his ordinances, modesty in ourselves, and charity 
towards other men, specially towards them with whom 
God hatli joined us in tho most and best things, taking 
heed lest, by any uncharitable eitlier judgment of, or with- 
drawing from, their persons, for such human frailties as 
unto which, into one kind or otlier, all Adam's sinful 
posterity are subject, we sin not more by our course held 
against them, tlian they by theirs in tliem, which God forbid. 

To conclude : For myself, thus I believe with my heart 
before God, and profess with my tongue, and have before 
the world, that I have one and the same faith, hope, spirit, 
baptism, and Lord, which I had in tlie Church of England, 
and none other ; that I esteem so many in that church, of iX 
what state, or order soever, as are truly partakers of that 
faith, as I account many tliousands to l>e, for my Christian 
bretliren, and myself a fellow-member with them of that 
one mystical body of Christ scattered far and wide through* 




out the world ; that I liave al^'ayg, in spirit and affection, 
all Christian fellowship and communion with tlicm, and 
am most read/, in all outward actions, and exercises of 

^ religion, lawful and lawfully dchne, to express the same; 
Snd withal, tliat I am persuaded, tho hearing of the Word 
of God there preached, in tho manner, and upon the 
grounds formerly mentioned, is both lawful and, upon occa- 
sion, necessary for me, and all true Christians, withdraw- 
ing from that hierarchical order of church ^vemment, and 
ministry, and appurtenances thoreof ; and uniting in the 
order and ordinances insUtuted by Christ, the only King 
and Lord of his church, and by all his disciples to be 
observed ; and lasUy, that I cannot communicate with, or 
submit unto the said church-order, and ordinances there 
established, either in state or act, without being condemned 
of mine own heart, and therein proroking God, who is 
greater than my heart, to condemn me much more. And 
for my failings, which may easily be too many, one way or 
other, of ignorance herein, and so for oil my other sins, I 
most humbly crave pardon, first and most, at the bonds of 
God ; and so of all men, whom therein I offend, or have 
offended any manner of way; even as they desire and look 
that God should pardon their offences. 









I * 




i} ! 

* • i 

'I i 

* V 




Herk followeth a true copy of a letter 8ent to Loz 
written by the author of the former treatise, and rci 
public, and by the whole consent of the Church was 
to London, in answer to a letter sent by the Chun 
London to the Church of Amsterdam and Leyden ; n 
wo have thought good to print, only to let the work 
what the Church's opinion was, of hearing in England ; 
contents whereof followeth. . 





Grace and peace from Ood the giver thereof; and in him our 
loving ialutatione. 

It may seem strange unto you, brethren, and that not 
Avitliout cause, tliat wo should liavo deferred thus long our 
answer unto your letter, and as unseasonable, that after so 
long delay, wo should now fromo on answer. Our defence 
in the former case, is, partly, tlio otlicr church's keeping 
tlio same so long in tlicir hands, before tlicy sent it unto 
us, and partly, their contentions arising about it, of which 
wo boUi desired to see some issue, and hoped withal that 
by occasion thereof, wo might como to communicato our 
counsels together, as wo conceive by your joint letter, your 
desire to have been. But both in vain. For the letters then 
(partly, fearing lest wo should seem to neglect you, and 
])artly, hoping that somo use might bo modo tliercof for 
after times and occasions), wo tliought it better late than 
never to address this our answer : yet, so as you arc, in 
the first place, to be entreated by tlio pastor of tlio church 
liore, to tako knowledge that ho was not very willing to 
read publicly that, your letter, for two reasons. Tho one 
a lothncss, that either strangers or bretliren should toko 
knowledge of tliat inordinuto and lawless course held hy 
such tlieix), as both in regard of their years and learning, 
and especially of tlieir place in tlie church, should have 
been an example to the rest in wisdom, sobriety, and 
Christian forbearance ; especially in a case tlu'eatening 
division and dissipation; following therein Christ, our 
Great High-priest, who being touched with the feeling 



of our infirmitioB, can have compassion on the ignomni 
Hcb. iv. 14; v. 1, 3. The truo natural mothor would 
not consent to have the living child divided, but the 
counterfeit was easily moved thereunto, how earnest 
soever she seemed to have it accounted hers. 

Secondly, For that he conceives it not orderly that 
the bodies of churches should bo sent to for counsel, but 
some choice persons. Power and authority are in the 
body for elections and censures, but counsel for direction 
in oil affairs, in some few; in which regard every particular 
church has appointed its eldership for ordinary counsellors, 
to direct it and tlie members thereof in all difTiculiles ; 
with whom others are also to oilvisc upon occasions, 
specially ordinary. The prioHt's lips should preserve 
knowledge, and tlicy should seek the law at his mouth, 
for he is tlio messenger of the Lord of Hosts. Mai. ii. 7. 

These things premised, our general answer to the 
questions propounded by you followeth. You demand,— 

1st. Wliether you have done well in retaining her, (to 
wit, tlie maid about whom tlie difference was), she leaving 
practice according to her promise ? Answer. We judge, 
tlmt therein you did well, yea, tliough she had continued 
her practice upon occasion, and without neglect of the* 
church whereof she was a member, how much more 
leaving it, as she did. €k>nsidering the action itself, the 
hearing of the Word of God, tlie great provocation she 
had thereunto, the state of the other church about which 
your next question is moved, and with all these, that 
excommunication is the heaviest censure which the church 
can inflict for the most heinous offence, most obstinately 
stood in, we deem it against that brotherly forbearance 
which the stronger owes to the weaker, so severely to 
censure a failing (so supposed) of that kind. 

To their assertion that she was an idolater, having 
broken the second commandment, for that Mr. Jacob's 
people were judged idolaters in (heir going to the assem- 
blies, and therefore from 1 Cor. v. 1, *'If any called a 
brother, be an idolater,** ice.; we answer, tliat here are 
divers consequences and collections, made without rule 
of charity, or ground of truth. 

To grant, as the truth iS| that many things in the 


coKOREOATiosAi. cmntcu nr loxdox. 383 

ARVRmbliei aro against Uio second com maud men t, whidi 
forliida noUiin; but idolatiy cxprcnslT, and b; consc- 
iiucnco wlmuoovur tends tliereunto ; tuid wiibnl that llr. 
Jncob'a pcopio tlid pnrtoko witli divers of these crils, yet 
wo ileny ta agroo cither with Chriatianitf, or eivilitf, in 
common courso of Bpeccb. to challenge eTciy luch pne- 
tice u the committing of idolatry, or nucb persons, as 
idolai«ra. Tbc Lonl Jcsiu tcnchoth. Matt. v. SI, 23, that 
oil unndnscd angur is against Uio Kixth commandment, 
" Thou sbalt do no murder ;" in therefore every man that 
iDonifcstti upon occasion, any the least unadvUod anger, 
to bo cliallcugcd 09 a committer of imirder or miinlorcr? 
So by ])ri)purlion, ever}* ti>si< mndcMt iron], gC!«tiirc, or 
r«i}iiim uf appiirel, is against the snvcntli eomiiionilineiit, 
"Tliim ahall not comiuit oiliiltrrj- ;" every vrroncinc of 
anotlicr liy nc;,'li|;encc, impro\-idence, or partial afTvctiona, 
wliiclt every one, lesa or more, bears to himself, tlioiif;li 
but in a ha1f|>cnny, is againU tl)o eiclitli commandment, 
" Thou shalt not steiil;" are all, therefore, bo doinrf. to be 
pronounced and prosecuted, oh tliicres and adulterers? 
% tliCHO vain rollccticns, and bold cliallcn;;et<, scatcc on^ 
so goo<l and godly, but might be branded as idolaters, 
tliicvea, munlcreni, adultt?rcrs and what not. Z'oi' who 
ran understand his errors and si'Cret faults? Words aro 
unto UiingH, as clotlieN unto the body. And as it wto 
a vain course to put upon a child a iiinn's cont, tIii>u<,'K 
never ko eustly, to niakc him Hccm a man ; so is it not 
uidy vain, but also injurious to put ui>on the things wliich 
wo disliko, oilioun phfoses, tliough taken out of tho very 
Scriptures, to make them seem worse thait in truth 
they arc. 

Indeed, ho tlint i.i under tho law, and judgment tliereof, 
doing tlie least evil against tlic first or second command* 
ment, is on idolater, and against the eixth a murderer, 
and fQ for tlio rest in regard of God, and tlio rigour of 
justice. Wliom yet for men so to call and prosecute, 
were rash and rude at tlie IcoKt: but now if tlio person 
fan in respect of oUior good tilings, by tlio Word of God, 
and utmost extent of charity, be deemed to have ouy tlia 
least interest in tlio gmco of the gospel, to censure imch 
ta one as on idolater, thief, murderer, and tho Ukei is 



against both charity and godliness. The apostle, 3 Cor. 
Yi., teachcth us to judge and speak otherwise, where he 
calls such of the Christian Corinthians, as by occasion 
of friends and corruptions of tiipes wore drawn to par* 
talce in the idol feasts, and tables of devils, of which 
they had also before been by him most seriously admo- 
nished, 1 Cor. 8—10, righteousness, light, Christ, be* 
lievers, and the temple of God, opposed to unbelievers, 
unrighteousness, &e. As it is one thing to have sin, which 
if we sav we have not, we deceive ourselves, and the truth 
is not m us; and anotlier thing, to be sinners in the 
Scripture phrase, 1 John i. 8, 10 ; Psa. i. 6 ; John ix. 3, 
29; so all that practise through ignorance or infirmity, 
some acts, less discernible, of idolatry, are not idolaters : 
but such in whom it reigneth in action or disposition; 
lastly, if all in the Church of England, and of Mr. Jacob*8 
church be idolaters as the apostle there speaks, tlien are 
they all excluded from the kingdom of Ood, 1 Cor. vi. 0, 
10, and are under the curse and condemnation of the law, 
which censure the most rigid this way have disclaimed as 
rash and unjust 

2nd. Whether Mr. Jacob*s congregation be a true church 
or no. We have so judged, and the elders of the church 
at Amsterdam, and the body of the church with them as 
we conceive ; and so do we judge still, having sent you 
with our letter, a copy of certain papers, in which Uiat 
matter is handled. 

3rd. Whether Mr. Starcsmore and his wife are received 
and retained in our churches by tliat covenant which they 
made with God in Mr. Jacob's church, or whether they 
have renounced it as false and made another ? 

Answ€r, Their receiving here was only by that cove- 
nant made with God, ^nd the church there continued, and 
none otherwise. The persons having testimony, and .dis- 
mission from the church tliorc, and so were in tlio virtue 
of the same covenant by us commended and conveyed to 
that other church in Amsterdam. 

4th. To your fourth demand about your carriage to- 
wards your teacher, and other brethren renouncing com- 
munion with you, it is both unseasonable now to answer, 
and difficult for us who are ignorant of such circumstances, 




and manners of carriage by them, as bj whiehf offences 
are much agf^ravatcd or extenuated. 

nth. Whether their pretence of having the tnxth be 
nuflficicnt to make tliem the church, and to warrant their 
above-mentioned dealing ? 

Afuveer. Neither the pretence of haTing, nor the 
having of tlie truth indeed makes the churdi in the sense 
in hand, no more tlian the having some other particnUr 
commendable virtue by some, makes them the church, 
oxchiding Uicm that vrant it; as Revelation ii., iii. the 
visible and ministerial church is the whole body and every 
member thereof. Not some parts, of which, some of 
these members have more comeliness, and some less. 
Acts XX. 28 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 23 ; Eom. xii. ; 1 Cor. zii. The 
church is a state, spiritual; and political, not personal 
error thereof or other sin, makes any cease to be a mem- 
ber thereof. And if tlie greater number be members still, 
though in error, tlie smaller cannot be the body : besides, 
if some particular sin or error make tlie greatest port not 
to be members, tlicn much more two or tiirce particulars. 
Wliicli thereupon, tlio church might not censure for any 
error or other sin, to wit, if they were not members. 
Lastly, this confinns that popish and presumptuous ground, 
that ** the church cannot err.** 

0th. \\1icthor women have voices with men in the 
judgments of the churches ? 

Answer, The apostle teach etli plainly the contnuy, 
1 Cor. xiv. 34 ; 1 Tim. ii. 12, 14. And though he speak 
particularly of prophesying and teaching, yet lays he down 
a more general rule, forbidding all such speaking, as in 
which authority is used tliat is usurped over tlie man, 
which is done specially in judgments. And if a woman 
may not so much as move a question in tlie church for her 
instniction, how much less may she give a voice or utter 
a reproof for censure ? 

And this answer we return at the length, brethren, to 
your letter and demands, and tlierewitli our loving soluta* 
Uons in tlie Lord. In whom, wishing your peace and wel* 
fare, wo rest, your loving bretliren, 

Joirx RoDiMsz, and Church with him. 
Leydeii, 6 April, 1024. 

VOL. III. . 


^ - 


Our opposites, after much and long straggling, as wild 
creatures taken in the snare, poreeiving neitlicr friend 
nor foreigners knew how to yield them anj relief (though 
they crept hasoly for it), being yet set to hold it out, truth 
failing Uiem, now they unconscior.ably invent slanders; 
hoping, after so long time past, they may now boldly 
change the causes of our ditTerence, and say, ** We were cast 
out for seducers and for attempting to lead Uiem to idolatry, 
and so all we have published is no other tlian liea, which 
they now threaten to manifest to all tlie world;*' boasting 
now before all, ** tlicy are able to make good tlicir proceed- 
ings against us before God and men ; * yet, hitherto, all 
know they have ever shunned to come to trial with us 
before any, or to take other's advice for common good, as 
this letter manifests ; where also, contrary to their saying, 
is confirmed tlmt they censured us, for not acknowledging 
intrapping demands for Christ's government, and a lawful, 
peaceable meeting, for faction. 

The judgment of the Church of Leyden upon the pre- 
sent differences, occasioned by our opposites themselves.* 

To our Beloved, the Elders and CriuRCQ at Axsterdait, grace 

and peace from Ood ilu giver thereof, and in him our 


We received your letter, brethren, but not answering 

either our expectation or the weightiness of tlie business 

in hand ; and are withal rather driven to gather your 

moaning out of it, than finding the same in it expressed. 

Only we see plainly your intent of imputing speciid blame 

to one, by 70U accounted the chief adversary, as offering 

* Vide Prefatory Notice to the foregoing TVeatise, pages 939 — 341. 


boastingly, as you say, to prove, that he doth worship the 
God of his fathers, in writing a letter in opposition to the 
church's agreement, and in rehellious refusing and despis* 
ing of the some church. First, t6uching the person in- 
tended by you. It should not seem strange to any, if he 
were most forward, who was deepliest interested in the 
business ; and that, so far as his church-estate and mem* 
bership must necessarily stand or fall with that covenant 
impugned by you, as the branch with the root. As Zilpoh 
was not, nor could be, rightfully, Leah*s handmaid, except 
she hod been Laban*s first, rightfully, Oen. xxix. 24, by 
whose gift she was transmitted and conveyed unto her; 
so neither could he be truly a member there with you but 
by transmission, dismission, or conv^ance (call it as you 
will) from this church to that, and so from that at London 
first to us here, by virtue of that first covenant there made 
by profession of faith; which covenant, howsoever by some 
light person accounted no better than the Turks might 
make, was by the churches both there and here, also in 
the time of those worthy governors, now at rest in the 
Lord, esteemed truly Christian. The party intended by 
vou should, by your grounds, not have been cast out, but 
left out of Uie church. And for the things by you imputed 
unto him, wo are certified, by many eye and oar witnesses, 
that his speech was as followetli : '* As Paul, in his case, 
when he was accused unjustly, said, * In the way they call 
heresy, worship I the God of my fathers,* so hapl^ I in 
this, that which you call and have censured for faction, ot 
a factious action, tending to the breach and division of the 
church, I judge to be noUiing less, but rather a Christian 
duty, tending to love and not to division in the church in 
tlie least, either in action or, intention. And if way may 
be given to speak our minds freely, witliout interruption, 
as hath been solemnly granted, it may and will so appear, 
I doubt not to Uie hearts,** Sec. And that this speech he 
used not till all hope was taken away of any moderate course 
of proceeding, or of other than by simple confession of the 
sin of faction. And surely, brethren, it is not credible that 
he would speak of the worshipping of the God of his 
fathers, or that any one endued with common sense would 
offer to prove unto others that he worshipped God by that 


T • 







which ho know tlicy esteomcd sinful and evil. If he had 
proved that ho had so worshipped God, what else had it 
been, i>ut to have proved that ho had worshipped God hy 
doing cvU, in their conscience, with whom he had to do 7 
This liad been an ofTer fit for him to moke, that meant to 
prove himself guilty, and so to persuade others that ha 
was ; but not for him who means, as he did, to avow his 
innoconcy in Uie tiling. Brethren, let us be mindful, as 
we ought, that no relation of a cause, nor plea for or against 
it, cmi make cither ours the better, or our adversaries the 
worse, in the eycM of tlic Supreme Judge both of our x>erBoni 
and jud^^ncnts, and all otlicr our actions. 

And whereas tlie course, well begun and tending to |)aci« 
fication, was, as we understand, interrupted and broken of[t 
u]>on a ground taken from tlio course of not calling again 
into question, civil judgments once passed by tlie judge 
according to right ; let it not be grievous unto you if we 
a little warn you of that dangerous foundation, upon which, 
it seonis, you too much build your manner of proceeding 
in the ch\irch ; and to let pass, tliat it were more for the 
tnie peace of the judges of the world with God, Uiough 
Fomo diminution of tlieir credits in tlie eyes of vain men, 
if tlioy not only revised, but often, upon better information 
or advice, even reversed tlieir former sentences. We pray 
you call to mind howgi-ievous it was unto the body of you, 
and dangerous in itself, when some of place amongst you, 
a few years since, would pattern the government of the 
church now, by tlie government of the elders in Israel, 
which is, in truth, to transform a senice into a lordship. 
^lore specially for the matter in hand, ^\llen tlie civil 
judge hath passed sentence, and tliat execution is done 
accordingly, and that every one hath his due, Uiero is an 
end of the matter ; but in spiritual judgments thcro ia a 
further thing which tlie mamstrate meddles not witli — tlie 
repentance of tlio censured to follow in time by God a 
blessing. The end of excommunication is not Uiat Uie 
]>er8on might be excommunicated, but tliat repentance 
might follow; for the furthering whereof many tilings 
may and ought to be done in Christian discretion by the 
church towards the excommimicated, as being, as it were, 
the churches prisoner, 1 Cor. v. 0, by which he and hia aina 




are bound upon oartli, an our Lord toachoth, Matt xviii. 18. 
And a larger extent of discretion tliis way, few cases in an 
age can persuade to, than this in hand, considering both 
the ground and carriage of the tl>ing, and the number of 
tlie persons opposite, and with these the interest of all 
other churches in the business. And now understanding, 
brethren, that competent satisfaction for tlie manner of 
the carnage hath been tendered by the ))artie8 censured, 
for the matter to be reduced, as we conceive, to these two 
heads following, we can do no less, in honour of the truth, 
discharge of our own consciences before God, and due 
respect unto them in their distressed state, than to signify 
and profess, 

1 . That in a matter of mere counsel and advice, more 
tlian which neither the church of London required nor 
you could afTonl tlicni, any particular persons advised with 
and having their reanons of diflerence from tlie churches 
persuasion, may, and, in cases of weight, such as this was, 
ought by speech or writing as tliero is occasion, signify 
that their different iudgment and advice to them whom it 
concerns, provided the same be done in good manner and 
witli due respect to the church. Solomon snith, Prov. xi. 14, 
tliat *' in the multitude of counsellors tlici*e is safety;** 
and every man*s common sense teacheth, tluit he who 
propounds a tiling to otliers for comiscl, should hear every 
man*s opinion, and the reason thereof for his help and 
direction. To dony tins is to deprive him of liberty that 
should give counsel, and him of help that should receive 
it. The church was not in tins ease to use authority, but 
to show reason. 

2. That, seeing both Moses in tlie law, Deut. xix. 15, 
and Christ in tlie gospel. Matt xviii. 15 — 17, ordains 
that every matter should be established by two or three 
witnesses, and that in that order the church should be 
told or complained to of a brother; for the officer to 
traduce or complain of a brother to the church, witliout 
witness of an offence done, and to proceed witli him by 
questions and interrogatories, tending to his prejudice, 
and for the church to censure him for refusing to answer 
such interrogatories so ministered, is both against Moses 
and Christ' and the law of nature itself, Acts xxir. 8, J 8^ 


and XXV. 5, 16, which Uught tho wiso of tko heathen not 
to proceed in judgment with anj but by waj of accusation 
and proof of oril against him. And tiiese persuasions of 
tlie things and defence of our own and aU otlier Christians*, 
jea, of all men*8 lawful libertj, we are willing and able, 
hy tlie grace of God, to justify agauist idl gainsajers. 

And now, bretliren, what shall we saj more unto jou? 
Our and all other churches* advice you reject, in confidence 
of your own unerring judgment and proceeding in this 

In your letter you mention the great weakness of the 
church. Oh, that you would indeed manifest such persuasion 
of yourselves ! Then would you not proceed with tKft^ 
confidence in a matter and manner before unheard of in 
tlie churches ; tlien would you both be glad of and desire- 
tlio advice and counsel of otliers, able and willing, in the 
fear of tlie Almighty and in a good conscience, to afford 
you the best help Uiey can ; and not so carry tilings as if 
the Word of God cither canie from you or unto you alone. 
And for tlic church here, which is iiearlicst united unto 
you, what other use have you had of us, since tlie death of 
your wiHC and modest govcniors, in all your differences, 
and troubles, save to help to b(*ar part of tJiat scandal and 
opprobr}' wherewith, specially in Uic public coiTiago of 
matters, you have laden tlie ordinances of God and pro- 
fessors of the same in the eyes of all, witliin and witliout 
But in vain we speak unto you, whose ears iircjudice hath 
stopped. Wo purpose not hencefortli to trouble you any 
more in this kind ; but taking part as occasion in tho good 
things amongst you, and professing ourselves innocent of 
the tilings amiss, will bewail your state, which is indeed to 
be bewailed, and commend it, as we do, to tlio Lord for 
bettering. His grace be with you always more and more. 

Your loving brethren. 
The Pastor and Church at Leyden, 

JOHlf BoDixaoK. 

Leydsn, September 18, 1024. 









1 1 



Op tlie authenticity of this Epistlo there can be no 
doubt, tliough published, it would seem, anonymoiialjr. 
Its history is as follows :^- 

Tlio Rov. Joseph Hall, B.D., then Rector of Halstead, 
but aflerwanls Bishop of Norwich, published a Liettor, in 
1008, the year of Mr. Robinson*s departure to Amsterdam, 
addressed to " Mr. Smytli and Mr. Rob(inson), Ringleaders 
of the lato Separation at Amsterdam.*' Tlie Letter bears 
no date, but must have been written at the time referred 
to, inasmuch as Hairs Reply to tlio " Answer ** was 
published in 1610; in tlio "Dedication** of which Reply, 
" To our gracious and blessed Motlier, the ClHirch of 
England,** he states, "that no less tlian a year and half is 
past. Rev. Dear and holy Motlicr, since I wrote a loTing 
monitory Letter to two of tliino unworthy sons, which I 
heard were fled from tlieo in person, in afTcction, and 
somewhat in opinion ; supposing tliem yet thine, in the 
main substance, tliough in circumstances their own.*** 

That Mr. Robinson was the Author of the "Answer ** is 
placed beyond doubt, from the fact that Mr. Hall states in 
tlio " Dedication,** that since he wrote the Epistle, " one 
of tliem,** referring to Mr. Smyth, who had in the moan* 
time become an Anti-p(cdobaptist, " hath washed off thy 
font water as unclean ; and hath written desperately both 

* Ilnll's Works, toL ix., paso 970, Edited by Ilsv. Jotiah Pratt. 
B.D., F.A.S., £d« 1808. London. 



against thee and bis own fellows.**"^ In the "Apology,** he 
addresses Mr. Bobinson : " I wrote not to you alone : what 
is become of your partner, yea, your guide ? Woe is me 1 
he hath renounced our Giristendom with our church, 
and hath washed off his former water with new; and 
now condemns you all for not separating further, no 
less than we condemn you for separating so far.** And in 
the closing paragraphs of the "Apology,** Mr. Hall ex- 
plicitly alludes to Mr. Bobinson by name.f 

Mr. Bobinson must have received the "Censorious 
Epistle** shortly after his arrival at Amsterdam, in 1608, 
and replied to it immediately. Hall's Beply is long and 
elaborate, and must have occupied considerable time in its 
composition; but was published in 1610, thus furnishing 
internal evidence as to the date of Bobinson's "Answer** 
being 1008, before he left Amsterdam for Leyden. 

No separately published copy of Mr. Bobinson's 
"Answer** has been found, but is, it is presumed, care- 
fully and accurately reprinted in Hall's Beply to the 
"Answer,** entitled, "A common Apologie of the Church 
of England, against the unjust challenges of the over- 
just sect, commonly called Brownists : wherein the grounds 
and defences of the Separation are largely discussed; 
occasioned by a late Pamphlet, published under the name 
of 'An Answer to a Censorious Epistle,* which the reader 
shall finde in tlie margent.'* By J. H. 4to., London, 1010. 

As the title-page indicates, the "Answer** is copied into 
the "Apologie,** and forms the text-book of the Author*s 
criticisms and animadversions. 

As Mr. Bobinson follows the order of the "Censorious 
Epistle,** and adapts his ireplies to the paragraphs sue* 
oessively, without quoting them verbatim, the Letter 
itself is reprinted before the "Answer,** that the subjects 

* Chanctcr of the Bestt, by John Smyth, 
t Hdl's Works, voL ix. psgo 184. 



in diiptito iDKj b« th« better nndnstood bj- tile n«lcr- 
ond tLst thg differraces jf opinion bt t w e e u Xx. ff»tl .wj ' 
Mr. Bobinson, rapocting the >pirit ud iKngtun o/ t^ 
•' CenMrioufi Epistle " 11U17 be teen, a few lines an tniis- 
(Tibod from Mr. HtU'a "Apologie." Mr. Bobbuoa't 
opinion will be Icemed from his "Answo',' iriuefa ht, 

clcriral nntogoniat calls "a stomacUiil pamphlet': 

" There was no gall in my pen, no insnllatiMi : I wrote 
to 7011 as brethren, and wished jron companions. Then 
\Tai more danger of BmtUry in my style, than bitterecsa. 
My opposition was not too Tchemcnt, but too slight and 
KicnJcr: so, strong champions blame their advenair for 
striking too eaHy. You might have ibrborae this taJt- 
i[ wss my fnrour. that I did not my worst: yoa an worthy 
jM I ( [ uf more weiglit, that complain of ease. 

"The diKourae that I rolled down upon yon was weak 
„nd weightless : you shall well find this was my leniu, not 
Tiiy impotence. Tlie fault hereof is partly in your ezpecU- 
tisn. not in my letter. I meant but a short epUUe • you 
liioked belike for a volume or notliing. 

'■I mOMit oulyn general monition; you looked for a 
Milid prosecution of particulars. It is not for yoo to eiTe 
uikl W otliors' pens. By what law must wo writ« nothinff 
but Urge scholnslieal discourses, such tomes as yours? 
Mny we not touch your sore, unless we wUl lance and 
icsrchit? I was not enough your enemy; folate tne this 
MTor, snd you shall smart more."^ 

Mr. Robinson did not reply to Mr. HaU's " Common 
Apology." iudging it a needless task; and characteriang it 
■•being "stuffed with popish principles," and "m being 
w much and more immediately agamst the Refonoisu and 
Ditlr e«U0, in the main, as against na and ourB."f 

• EsU'i Works, Tol. ix, ps^ 383, 

t rM>TaLui.Pleafiir:^op]iec7,Frcbee,iM«sl». 



Settinf; fortli their injury done to the Church, the Injas- 
licc of iliL'ir Gnusc, And Fearfulneas of their OfTcnce. 
Censuring ntid Hdvixiug them. 

We henr of your Noparntion, and mourn; yet not m 
much for you, os for your wronf^. 

You coutd not do a greator injury to your motlier. th«a 
to lice from licr. Say. slio were poor, ragged, weak ; gay, 
Gho were dcfoi-mcd ; yet she is not infectious ; or, if ahe 
were, yet hIio is yours. 

Tliis were cnuso enough for you, to lament her, to 
pniy for her, to labour for her redress ; not to avoid her. 
This unnatnraluess is sliamcful : and more heinous in you, 
nlio arc reported not parlies in iliis evil, but auihore. 
Your lli);ht is not so much, na your misguidance. 

I'load not : tliis fault is post excuse : if we oil should 
follow you, this wcro llie way of a church, as you pleMj, 
imperfect. W niako no church ; and of a remedy, to maka 
n disease. Still the fruit of our charily to you, is besides 
our grief, pity. Your leal of truth halli misled you, uid 
you, others; a zeal, if honest, yet blindfolded, and leil br 
self-will. Oh, that you loved peace, but half so well a^ 
truth, Ihcn, tliis breach had never been; and you that ora 
yet brethren, had been still companions. 
" Go out of Babylon," you say : " the voice, not of 

TOI_ ill. BO 



Bchism, but of holiness.** Know you where you are? 
Look about you, I beseech you ; look behind you ; and see 
if we have not left it upon our backs. She herself feels, 
and sees, that she is abandoned : *and complains to all the 
world that we have not only forsaken, but spoiled her ; and 
yet you sav, '* Come out of Babylon.** And except you will 
bo willingly blind, you may see the heaps of her altars, tlie 
ashes of her idols, tlie ruins of her monuments, tlic con- 
demnation of licr errors, tlio revenge of her abominations. 

And are we yet in Baltylon? Is Babylon yet amongst 
us ? Wliere are the main buildings of tliat accursed city? 
those high and proud towers of tlieir universal hierarchy, 
infallible judgment, dispensation with laws of God, and 
sins of men ; disposition of kingdoms ; deposition of 
princes ; parting stakes witli God in our conversion, 
through freedom of will ; in our salvation, through the 
merit of our works ? Where are tliose rotten lieaps (rotten, 
not through age, birt corruption) of transubstantiating of 
bread, adoring of images, multitude of sacraments, power 
of indulgences, ncccMsity of confessions, profit of pilgrim- 
ages, constrained and approved ignorance, unknown devo- 
tions? Where arc tliose deep vaults, if not mines, of 
penances and purgatories, whatsoever hath been devised 
by tliose popclings, whetlier profitable or glorious, against 
the Lord and his Christ? Are they not all rased and 
buried in tlie dust ? Hath not the majesty of her gods, 
like as was done to MyUira and Scrapis, been long ago 
offered to the public laughter of tlie vulgar? What is 
this, but to go, yea, to run, if not to fly, out of Babylon 7 

But OS every man is a hearty patron of his own actions, 
and it is a desperate cause that hath no plea, you allege 
our consorting in cercittonies, and say, still we tarry in 
the suburbs. Grant tliat tliese were as ill as an enemv 
can make them, or con pretend them : you are deceived, if 
you tliink the walls of Babylon stand upon ceremonies. 
Substantial errors are both her foundation and frame. 
These ritual observances are not so much as tile and reed ; 
rather like to some fane upon the roof, for ornament, more 
than use; not parts of the building, but not necessary ap- 
pendances. If you take them otherwise, you wrong the 

• I 



church : if thus, and yet depart jou wrong it and yourself: 
as if you would have persuailed righteous Lot not to stay in 
Zoar, because it was so near Sodom. I fear, if you had seen 
the money-changers in the temple, however you would hare 
prayed, or taught there : Clirist did it, not forsakini; the 
place, but scourging tlio offenders. And this is the valour of 
Christian teachers to oppose abuses, not to run away from 
them. \Miero shall you not tlius find Babylon ? Would 
you have run from Genera because of her wafers ? or from 
Corinth, for her disordered love-feasts f 

Either nm out of the world, or your flight is in vain. If 
experience of change teach you not tliat you shall find your 
Babylon cver3rwhere, return not Compare tlie place you 
have left with tliat you have chosen ; let not fenr of seem- 
ing to repent over-soon make you partial. Lo ! there a 
common harbour of all opinions, of all heresies, if not a 
mixture : here, you drew in tlio free, and clear air of the 
gospel, without that odious composition of Judaism, Arian- 
ism, Anabaptism : there, you live in the stench of tliese, 
an<l moro. You are unworthy of pity, if you will approve 
your misery. Say, if you can, tliat tlie Church of Eng- 
land (if she wore not yours) is not a heaven to Amsterdam. 
How is it, Uicn. that our gnats are hanler to swallow than 
their camels ? and that, wliilo all Christendom mniniifios 
our happiness, and a)>plauds it, your handful alono so de- 
tests oiir enormities that you despise our graces ? 

See whether in this you make not God a loser. The 
thank of all his favo.urs is lost, because you wmit more : 
and. in the meantime, who gains by this sequestration, but 
Borne and hell? How do they insult in this advantai^e 
that our mothers ovm children condemn her for uneleiui' 
that we are daily weakened by our divisions, tliat tlie rude 
multitude hath so palpable a motive to distnist us. Sure 
you intended it not: but if you had been their hired agcnti 
you could not have done our enemies greater 6ei*vico. 

Tlie God of heaven open your eyes, that you may see 
the injustice of tliat zeal which hath transported you ; and 
turn your heart to an endeavour of all Christian satisfac- 
tion : otherwise, your souls shall find too late, that it had 
been a thousand times better to swallow a ceremony, than 


^ 4 
^ I 

1: i" 


M'.TTr.n nv iirv. jnsi'.nr hall, ild. 

to rond a church ; yoa, that oven wliorccloinn and 
shall abide an oanlor atiHwor than Hoparation. 

I havo done, if only I havo fulviRcd you of tlia 
threatening of Uio wi8o mnn : *' The oyo tliat i 
his father, and despiseth the government of his 
the ravens of the nver shall pick it out, and th« 
eagles eat it** Prov. xxx. 17. 

•t i 

i I 






" It is a linrd thing oycii for sobcr-minilod men, in cascf 
of conlrovoray, to hag, Hobcrly, tlio odviuitngOH of Uie iiiiiai; 
ii|>on which, whilst men are mounted on higli» tlicj uso to 
boliold such as tliey oppose too overly, and not without con- 
tempt ; and so are ofttimes emboldened to roll upontliem* 
as from aloft, very weak and weightless discourses : tliink- 
ing any blight and slender opposition sufficient to oppress 
those underlings whom they have, as tliey suppose, at so 
groat an advantage. Upon tliis verv presumption, it 
comoth to pass, tliat tliis AuUior uudertaketh tlius solemnly 
and severely to censure a cause whereof, as appearcth in 
the sequel of the discourse, he is utterly ignorant : which, 
had ho been but half so careful to have understood as he 
hatli hoen foni'urd to censure, he would either have been, 
I doubt not, more equal towards it, or moro weighty 
against it As this Epistle is come to my hands, so I wish 
tlie Answer of it may come to the hands of him tliat 
occasioned it Entreating the Christian reader, in the 
name of the Lord, unpartially to behold, witliout cither 
prejudice of cause or respect of person, what is written on 
boUi sides ; and so from the court of a sound conscience, to 
give just judgment 

"The 'crime* hero objected, is 'separation:* a thing 
very odious in tlie eyes of all tliem from whom it is made ; 
as evermore casting upon them tlie imputation of evil, 
whereof all men are impatient And hence it conieth to 
pass that Uio Church of England can better brook the 
vilest persons continuing communion with it, thaa any 
whomsoever separating ^m it» though upon nerer so jost 

t T 




and well-grounded reasons. And yet separation from the 
world, and so from the men of Uie world, and so from the 
prince of the world that reigneth in tliem, and so from 
whatsoever is contrary to God, is*the first step to our com- 
munion with God, and angels, and good men, as the first 
step to a ladder is to leave the earth ! 

**The separation we have made, in respect of our 
knowledge and obedience, is indeed late and new; yet 
is it, in the nature and causes thereof, as ancient as the 
gospel, which was first founded in the ' enmity,* Gen. iii. 
15, which God himself put betwixt the seed of the woman 
and the seed of the serpent; which * enmity' hatli not only 
been successively continued, but also visibly manifested by 
tlie actual separation of all true churches from tlie world, 
in their collection and constitution, before the law, under 
the law, and under the gospel. Gen.iv. 13, 14, 10 ; vi. 1, 2 ; 
vii. 1, with 1 Pet i. Ud; iii. 30, SI ; Gen. xii. 2 ; Lev. xx. 34, 
30: Nch. ix. 3 ; John xvii. 14, 10; AcU ii. 40 ; xix. ; 1 
Cor. vi. 17. Which separation the Church of England 
neither hath made nor doth make, but stands actually one 
with all tliat part of tlie world within the kingdom, without 
separation : for which cause, amongst otliers, we have 
chosen, by the grace of God, rather to separate ourselves 
to the Lord from it, than with it from him, in the visible 
constitution of it. 

"To the title of a ' Ringleader,* wherewith it pleaseth tliis 
*pistler to stylo me, I answer. That if the tiling I have be 
goo<l, it is good and commendable to have been forward in 
it ; if it be evil, let it bo reproved by the light of God*s 
Word ; and that God, to whom I have done tliat I havo 
done, will, I doubt not, give me both to see and to heal my 
error, by speedy repentance : if I have fled away on foot, 
I shall return on horseback. But as I durst never set foot 
into this way, but upon a most sound and unresistable con- 
viction of conscience by the Word of God, as I was per- 
suaded, so must my retiring bo wrought by more solid 
reasons, from the same Word, than are to be found in a 
thousand such pretty pamphlets and formal flourishes as 
this is. 

" Your pitying of us, and sorro>¥ing for us, especially for 
the wrong done by us, were, in you, commendAble i^ec* 

1. 1 1 









; ' 






tions, if by us justly occasioned ; but if your church I 
deeply drenched in apostocy, and you cry *PeAce« i>eac^ 
when su<lden and certain desolation is at hand, it is yc 
that do wrong, though you make the compUint. Ai 
so, being cruel towards yourselves, and your own, who: 
you flatter, you cannot be truly pitiful towards others idioi 
jou bewail. But I will not discourage you in thin affe 
Uon, lest wo find few in the same fault : the most, instei 
of *pity' Aud compassion, affording nothing but fury an 
indignation. • 

** The fipit action laid against us is of * unnaturalnes! 
and ingratitude, towards our * mother, the Church of Enj 
land, for our CAusele!<s separation from her.* To whic 
unjust accusation, and trivial querimony. our moat ju 
defence hath been, and is. That to our knowledge, we hai 
done her no wrong. We do freely, and witli all Uiankfu 
ness, acknowledge every good thing she hath, and whic 
ourselves have Uiero received. The superabundant grac 
of God covering and passing by the manifold cnomiitic 
in that church, wlierowith these good tilings are inscpan 
biy commingled : and wherein we also, tlirough ignoranc 
and infirmity, wort? inwrapped. But what then ? Shoul 
we still have continued in sin, that graco might hav 
abounded ? If God have caused a further tnitJi, like 
light in a dark place, to shine in our hearts, should w 
stiil have mingled that light with darkness, contrary to th 
Ijord 8 own practice, Gen. i. 4, and express precept, 3 Coi 
vi. U ? 

** But, the Chun*h of England, say you, is our ' mother 
and so ought not to bo avoided. But, say I, we mui^t n€ 
so cleave to • Holy Motlier ' Church as [that] wo noglec 
our heavenly Father and his commandments : which, w 
know, in that estate, wo could not but transgress : and tlifl 
heinously, and against our consciences; not only in th 
want of mnny Christian onlinonces, to which wo were mos 
straitly bound, both by God's Word and our own neccs 
sities ; but also in our most sinful subjection to many anti 
christian enormities, which we are bound to eschew as hel 
She is our ' mother;* so may she be, and yet not the Lord' 
wife I Every mother of children is not a wife. * Amna 
and Buhamah' were bidden to ' plead* with their * mother 



"- - — 



apostate Israel ; and ' plead * that she was ' not ' the Lo'rd*8 
'wife/ nor he her 'husband.* Hos. ii. 1, 2. And though 
you forbid us a tliousand times, yet must we ' plead.' Not 
to ' excuse* our 'fault,* but to justify our innocency : and 
that not only, nor so much, in respect of ourselves, as of 
the truth which, witliout sacrilege, we may not suffer to be 
condemned unheard. And if you yet hear her not, rather 
blame yourselves as deaf than as dumb. Is not ' Babylon* 
the motlier of God s ' people ;* whom he, tlierofore, com* 
mandetli to ' depart out of her,* lest, beings ' partakers of 
her sins,* tliey also partake of her 'plagues?* Ilev. xyiii. 
4. And, to concluue, What say you more against us, 
for your ' mother,* tlie Cliurch of England, than the 
PupiMts do for their motlier, and your mother s mother, the 
Church of Rome, against you, whom tliey condeuni as un- 
natural bastards, and impious matricides, in your separa- 
tions from her? And were not Luther, Zuinglhis, Cran- 
mer, Latimer, and the rest, begot to tlie Lord in tlie womb 
of the llomish Church 7 Did they not receive the know- 
ledge of his truth when they stood actual members of it ? 
Wliom, notwithstanding, aftcrwanls, they forsook, and 
tliat justly, for her fornications ! But hero, in tlio name of 
tlie Church of England, you wash your hands of all Baby- 
lonish abominations, which you j^rctend you have forsaken, 
and her, for and with them. And, in this regiutl, you, [we] 
speak thus, ' The rcfonnation you have made of the many 
and main corruptions of tlie Romish Church wo do in- 
genuously acknowledge, and do, withal, embrace witli you, 
all tlie truths which, to our knowledge, you have received 
instead of them; but Rome was not built all in a dav.* 

•' The 'mystery of iniquity' did advance itself by de- 
grees ; and as the rise was, so must the fall bo. That * man 
of sin,* and lawless man, must languish and die away of a 
consumption. 2 Thess. ii. 5, 7, 8. And what though many of 
tlie highest towers of Bal)el, and of the strongest pillars also, 
be demolished and pulled down ; yet may the building stand 
still, though tottering to and fro, as it doth, and only under- 
propped and upheld with tlie shoulder and arm of flesh ; with- 
out which, in a very moment, it would fall flat upon and be 
level with tho earth. You have renounced many false doc- 
trinea in Popery, and, in their places, embraced the truth. 



•lit rr-j- 

ne «wne jazerui 
~*-«r7-. ind ■-•on- 

'.ir:;«. :nav 

c'-irr no niier 

r^tic ' .Vau iorii 

zcr )r TTxuunera. 

- • 



r. ;_"w .i>u*a lis -mrk 

-■ ii-. ▼:::. I ini-r 'JiiTJui, 
Ju; c vaiii.' TO :unin*r 

--NO* u: ■*>r ;"oiir most 


.■ >. 

... ■ r :.. :: . — .r r. "r..-"^. uii .».iv.» now -he 

■... ... Ti. ^' ;. " ivi -;;H rr.tTiu'trH u' \nat '.joiiy. 

-.■ ;-- ..I... 1. r^e. -e 'It );:"■* Aad so ia id -he 
-•■-:. . :. .r-:; * u ::t' v-^r: .. n -v:ii»><? :c**;:mony you 

■ m 

• '-ii-^l.L .1 'i.*.riiini. ' • ': s^'ems Lit! Sacred, so ^nuleu. 
r^n-ju. te^uraviii -k:iio .ess mto Jersoil in h«r ieterauna- 



she doth, touching things rq>uti*d ' indifTercnt ;* natneljr, 

* That all mon, in all places, must submit unto thera, with« 
out exception or limitation '? Except she could infalliblj 
determine tliat those her ceremonies, thus absolutely im« 
posed, should edify all men at all times, how durst she thus 
impose them? To exact obedience in and unto them, 
whether they offend or offend not, whether they edify or 
destroy, were intolerable presumption.** 

"Dispensation with laws of God and sins of men.** 
" To let pass your ecclesiastical consistories, wherein 
sins and absolutions from them are as venal and saleable 
as at Rome,— is it not a law of the Eternal Ood, tliat the 
ministers of the gospel, tlie bishops or elders, should be 

* apt * and * able ' to * teach *7 1 Tim. iii. d ; Tit. i. 9. And, 
is it not their grievous sin to be unapt hereunto? Isa. Ivi. 
10, 1 1. And yet« who kiioweth not tliat the patrons amongst 
YOU present, that the bishops institute, tlie archdeacons 
induct, the churches receive ; and the laws, both civil and 
ecclesiastical, allow and justify ministers unapt and unable 
to 'teach*? 

" Is it not a law of the Eternal God, that the ' elders * 
should ' fee<l the flock,* over which they are set, labouring 
amongst them in the Word and doctrine ? Acts xx. 28 ; 
1 Pet V. 1,2. And is it not sin to omit Uiis duty ? 

*' Plead not for Uaal. Your dispensations for non -residency 
and pluralities for benefices, as for two, three, or more ; 
yea, tot, quot,, as many as a man will have, or can get, are 
so many dispensations of the laws of God and sins of men. 
These things are too impious to be defended, and too 
manifest to be denie<l.** 

" Disposition of kingdoms, and deposition of princes.** 
" You are wiser, and I hope honester than thus to at- 
tempt, though that received maxim amongst you, ' No cere- 
mony, no bishop, no bishop, no king,* savours too strongly 
of that weed. But what though you be loyal to eartlily 
kings, and tlieir crowns and kingdoms, yet if you be traitors 
and rebels against the king of his church, Jesus Christ, 
and the sceptre of his kingdom, not suffering him, by his 
laws and officers, to reign over you ; but, instead of them, 
do stoop to Antichrist in his offices and ordinances ; shall 
your loyalty towards men excuse your treasons against the 

( t I 

I tl 

\ f. 




Lord ? Thon;;h you now cry never so loud, * Wc hare no 
king but Cn)8Ar.* Jolin xix. 15, yet is there ' another king, 
one Jesus/ Acts x\ii. 7, which sliall return and pass a 
hcav}' doom ui>on the rebellious : ' Tliese mine enemies, 
which would not that I should reign over them, bring 
them, and slay tlicm before me.* Luke xxix. 29.** 

** Parting stakes with God in our conversion.** " Not 
to speak of tlic error of universal grace, and consequently 
of free-will, that groweth on apace amount you; what 
do you else but put in for a part with God in conver- 
sion, though not tlirough freedom of will, yet in a devised 
ministry, the means of conversion. It being the Lord's 
peculiar, as well to appoint the outward ministry of con- 
version. OS to give the inward grace. I Cor. iii. 0. 

** * Wiicre.* say you, ' are those rotten heaps of tninsnb- 
stantiating of bread? * And where, say I, learned you your 
devout kneeling to or before the bread, but, from that error 
of transubstnntiation ? Yea, what less con it insinuate 
than cither that or some other the like idolatrous conceit? 
If tlicre were not something more in the bread and wine 
than in tlic water al baptism, or in the Word read or 
preached, wliy shouhl sucii solemn kneeling be so severely 
pressed at that time, ratliertlian upon tlie other occasions? 
And well and truly have your own men aflfinncd, that it 
were far less sin and appeanmee of an idolatr\- that is no- 
tiling so gross, to tie men, in their prayers, to kneel before 
a crucifix, than before the bread and wine : and tlie reason 
followcth, for that Papists commit an idolatry far more 
gross and odious in worshipping the bread, tlion in wor- 
shipping any other of tlicir images or idols whatsoever.*** 

•' Adoring of images." " To let pass your devout kneeling 
unto your ordinary, when you take tJie oath of canonical 
obedience, or receive absolution at his hands, which, as the 
main actions are religious, must needs be religious adora- 
tion I what is the adoring of your truly human, though called 
'Divine,* senice-book, in and by which you worship God, as 
the Papists do by tlieir images ? If the Lord Jesus, in his 
testament, have not commanded any such book, it is ac- 
cursed and abominable. If you think he have, show us the 
place where, that we may know it with you : or manifest unto 
* Apology of the Min. of Lincoln Dioc. put 1» page 60. 


0tm ■* ■■ — 








118, that ever the apostles used tliemselves, or commended 
to tlie churches after tliem, any such service-book! Was 
not the Lord, in tlio apostles* time, and apostolic churches*, 
purely and perfectly worshi])ped, >vhen the officers of the 
church, in their ministration, manifested tlie spirit of 
prayer which Uiey had received according to the present 
necessities and occasions of the church ; before tlie least 
parcel of this patchery came into tlie world ? And might 
not the Lord now be also purely and perfectly worshipped, 
though this printed image, with the painted and carved 
images, were sent back to Rome; yea, or cast to 
hell, from whence both they and it came? Speak, in 
yourself, might not the Lord be entirely worshipped witli 
pure and holy worship, though none other book but tlie 
Holy Scriptures were brought into Uie church : if yea, 
as who can deny it, tliat knows what tlie worship of God 
meaneth, what, Uien, doth your service-book there ? The 
Word of God is perfect, and admittetli of none addition. 
Cursed be he tliat addeth to the Word of tlie Lord ; and 
cursed bo that which is added ; and so, be your great 
idol, the communion-l>ook, tliough, Ifke Nebuchadnozzar*8 
image, some part of tlio matter bo gold and silver, which 
is also so much Uie more detestable by how much it is the 
more highly advanced amongst you." 

" Multitude of sacraments. " *' The number of sacraments 
seems greater amongst you, by one at the least, tlian Christ 
hath lefi in his testament; and tliat is marriage, which, how- 
soever, you do not, in express terms, call a sacrament, no 
more did Christ and tlie apostles call baptism and the supper 
'sacraments,' yet do you, in trutli, creato it a sacrament, in 
the administration and use of it There are the parties to be 
married, and their marriage, representing ' Christ and his 
church,* and tlieir * spiritual* union; to which 'mystery,* saith 
the oracle of your service-book expressly, God hath * con* 
secrated ' them. There is tlio ring, hallowed by the said 
service-book, whereon it must be laid, for the element ; 
there are the words of consecration, ' In the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of tho Holy Ghost ;* there is 
the place, the church ; the time, usually the Lord*s-da^ ; 
the minister, tho parish priest And being made, as it is, 
a part of God*8 worship, and of the minister*8 office, what 



AKAinraBTO " 

L CEnoBToin Eprnix." 


n it, if it be not & sacnment? It is do part of pnyer. 
or preaching; uid with the aacreineiit it hath the graftlest 
eontiiinilitude ; but an idol I am sure it is, in the cele- 
bration of it, being made a ministerial dut7. and part of 
God's wonliip, without warrant, call it bj what name 
jou will." 

" Power of indulgences." " Your court of faculties, from 
whence }'our dispensations and tolerations for non-resi- 
dency, and plnrality of benefices, are had ; togetfaer with 
your commuting of penances, and absolving one man from 
another : take away this power from the prelates, and yon 
maim the ' beast ' in a limb." 

"Necessity of confession." " In your high eommission 
court, very absolute, where, by tlie oath <x officio, men an 
constrained to accuse thcmKelves of such things as whereof 
no man will or can accuse them ; what neccssi^ is laid 
upon men in thix case, let your prisons witness." 

"Profit of pilgrimngcs." "Though you have lost the 
elirines of sniuta. yet you retain their days, and tliosc holj 
as the Lord's-day ; nnd llint with good profit to your spi> 
ritual cumnl courts, from such as profane tlicm with the 
least nnd most lavTitl Inbour, notwithstanding tlie liberty of 
the six days' labour which the Lord bath given. And as 
mucl) would the masters of tliese courls be stirred at the 
casting of U)C5o saints' days out of ibe calendar, aa were 
the ■ mn.'ttcrs' of tlic possessed maid, when ' the spirit of 
divination' was cast out of her. Acta xvi. 10." 

"Coiistmincd nnd approved ignorance." " If an igno- 
rant nnd iinprcBchiiig ministry he njiproved amongst you, 
and ilic pcojilo constmiucd, by all kinds of violence, to 
submit unto It, and therewith to rest, as what is mora 
usual lliroiiglioiit the kingdom, Uicn let no modest man 
once open his luouih to deny that 'ignorance' is 'con- 
strained and appi'ovcd' amongst you." 

" Unknown devotions," "If the service, said or sung. 
in tlko parish church, may he called ' devotion,' tltcn sure' 
there is good store of unknown devotion ; the greatest 

" Penances snd puigatories." " What are your sheet 
penances for adultery, snd all your pune pensoces for 


all Other sins ? Than which, though some worse in 
popery, yet none mora common. 

" Touching * purgatory,* though you deny the doctrine 
of it, and teach the contrary, vet how well your practice 
suits with it, let it be considered in these particulars: 
Your absolving of men dying excommunicate, after they be 
dead, and before they may have Christian burial: your 
Christian burial in holy ground, if tlio party will be at the 
charges : your ringing of hallowed bells for the soul : your 
singing tlio corpse to the grave from the church stile 
your praying over, or for the dead; especially in these 
words, ' That God would hasten his kingdom, that wo with 
this our brother,* though his life were never so wretched 
and deatli desperate, * and all other departed in the true 
faith of thy holy name, may have our perfect consumma- 
tion both in body and soul.* Your general doctrines, and 
your porticular practices, agree in tliis, as in the roost 
other things, like * harp and harrow !* In word, you pro- 
fess many truths, which in deed you deny. These and 
many more popish devices, by others at large, discovered 
to the world, both for pomp and profit, are not only rased, 
and buried in the dust, but are advanced amongst you, 
above all that is called God. 

" You are far from doing to the Romish idols as was 
done to the Egyptian idols * Mytlira and Scrapis,* whose 
priests were expelled tlieir ministry, and monuments ex- 
posed to utter scorn and desolation ; their temples demo- 
lished and rased to the very foundation. 

** But your temples, especially your cathedrals and 
mother churches, stand, still, in their proud majesty, pos- 
sessed by archbishops and lord bishops, like the flamcns 
and archflamens amongst the Gentiles, from whom they 
were derived, and furnished with all manner of pompous 
and superstitious monuments; as carved and painted 
images, massing copes and surplices ; chanting and organ 
music, and many other glorious ornaments of the Iloniish 
harlot, by which her majesty is commended to and ad- 
mired by the vulgar ; so far are you in these respects, from 
being gone, or fled, yea, or crept either, out of Babylon 1 
Now, if you be thus Babylonish where you repute your* 
selves most Sion«like, and thus confounded in your own 

pwp^mppnyiiii i pii i nm II .iu..i ! . i iiy ^ 

A A 



f.imk. colli. T*a. sa^B- jl Ae ~iiini9 

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I '^cf zui» V'-aT •^ccs^rTun: «i;ii se Junscs a 

i -.'*■ -•:::- - -S V*. ^TTIt —'Li j" TIU lUkTB 

-.'"?•* trvt-i-. i:: s-» JkU ; "nu ^ iiii«" ji 

. - . • ■-::;: '^ ^^ i. I i-»r.- i u uu 

-.U-. -^" ■■■-.:..."■» ; .^"iT .r»:U IlfP* i&lT^U il" •■JIU" 

. &. .k * 







■4 '■ ■ 1 

.•~: • ■ irti'^-A ;.r«Xl. o^XU 1X11 mil;!, 12» uL 

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..-' ::. :.:' \^'. ^i-.-iTuiiV. -^rn^iai:: a z^in^. urn. t^-.h- 

.T« .:^ ■-::: • ".•■ a'»* ▼•: -"irl" irTHUUiiHi ii" •^uai. 

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: wi> • . :.-.h r*'-^. u:a •» u»tv:'> ji iiii& JXiui if <hzi« 
«...*• ; ;«c- -^ .'»- ^ ii ui. kUii aIu iiTtiUiii^. Miiiiutiiii'^ 

:.;.. -■ «' . ". r nu" ';-i-'fr. -^-s iii >-us«*iii vi- ur* it" -ii** 

L;i=r I'l^i? 



^'**iu::i .-^r^!Zii/nii»k iiifrv'i.i:KUkiii- 

^3y)7t!i. Zl » miuti 'iiuL :air' itficii one m s xasl Ae» 
:«wii. lar arj jnts ji sin juiiiiinif, jn jou. ^cvooui. 





should overturn the best builders Amongst you as they do. 
The proportion betwixt 'Zoor* and Uiem holds well: Zoar 
was a neighbour unto Sodom, both in place and sin, and 
obnoxious to the same destruction with it; and it was Lot's 
error to desire to have it spared, Oen. xix. 15, 18— '20; and 
80 he never found rest nor peace in it, but forsook it for 
fear of tho same just judgment, which had overtaken Uie 
rest of the cities, vcr. i)0. Tho application of this to your 
' ceremonies,' I leave to yourself; and them, to that de- 
struction to which they are devoted by the Liord. 

"How we would have behaved ourselves *in the temple,* 
where the 'money-changers* were, and tliey tliat 'sold 
doves,* we shall answer you when you prove your church 
to be the 'Temple of Ood,* compiled and built of spiritu- 
ally 'hewn* and 'lively stones,* 1 Kings v. )7, 18; vi. 7; 
1 Pet ii. 5; and of the 'cedars, firs,* and 'thyme,* 
trees of Lebanon, d Ghron. ii. 8, framed and set 
together in tliat comely order which 'a greater than 
Solomon* hath prescribed; unto which God hath promised 
his presence. But whilst we take it to be, as it is, a con- 
fused heap of dead, and defiled, and polluted stones, and 
of all rubbish of briers and brambles of the wilderness, 
for the most part fitter for bum in g than building ; we take 
ourselves rather bound to show our obedience in departing 
from it, than our valour in purging it : and to follow the 
prophet 8 counsel in flying out of Babylon, 'as tlie he- 
goats before the flock.* Jer. 1. 8. 

"And what, I pray you, is the valour which tlie best 
hearted and most zealous Bcformers amongst you, have 
manifested in driving out 'the money-changers*? Dotli it 
not appear in this, that they suffer themselves to be driven 
out Willi tho two-stringed whip of cereniouics and sub- 
scription, by 'the money-changers* the chancellors and 
ofhcials which sell sins like 'doves;* and by tlie chief- 
priests, tlie bishops, which set them on work? So far arc 
the most ssealous amongst you, from driving out the 
'money-changers,* as [that] they tliemselves are driven ont 
by them ; because they will not change witli them to the 
utmost fartliing 1 

" For the ' wafers,* in Geneva; and disorders, in Corinth; 
they were corruptions which may and db, or the like unto 




tbcm, creep into tlio purest churches id the world : for the 
rcfurmatloQ whereof Christ luitli given his power unto liis 
church, Uiat such evils as ure hrouglit iu hy human tnUty 
mny, hj divine authority, ho pur^'rd out. This power ouil 
presence of Clirist you wnnt; liolding oil hy homage, or 
ratlier by villoiiago, under tlic prelates ; unto whoso sinful 
yoke you sloop, in moro tlinn Bnbyloiiisli bondage, boiT' 
iiig and approving, hy personal contm union, infiiiito abo- 
minations. - Mid in tlieso last two rcsiKCts priucipiilly; 
yourUahylonishconfudion of all sorts of iicoplo in the body 
of your church, witlioiit sciuinilion, and your Ilobylouish 
bondage under your spiritual lords, tlio prelates ; we ae> 
count you Babylon, and fly from you. 

" Master U., baring formerly expostulated with us on our 
supposed impiety, in forsaking a ' ceremonious' Babylon 
in England, proceeds, in tlio next place, to lay doirn onr 
tnadncss, in choosing a ' substontiid' ])abylon in * Amster- 
dam.' And if it bo so found, by iluo trial, as ho suggesteth, 
it ift liard to say, wliotlier our iniplcty or madncNs be the 
grcalcrt Uclike Master 11. thinkn wo gather cliurches 
here, hy town-rown, as tliey do in England ; and tliat all 
witliin the parish procession ore of tlic same church. 
Wliercforo else, tclla ho us of Jews, Arioiis, and Ana- 
baptists i witli wliom wo have nothing common but tlie 
etrocts and niui-kct-pliicc? It is tlio condition of die 
churcli, to livo in tlic world, and to have civil society widi 
tl)o men of this world. 1 Cur. v. 10; John xvii. n. But 
what is tliis, to tluit spiritual communion of the saints in 
the fellowship of tho gospel, wherein they oro separated, 
and sanctified, from tlic world unto tho Lord? Johu xvii. 10; 
ICor. i.ajaCor, vi. 17, 18. 

"AVc, indeed, have much wickedness in tiio city w}icra 
wo livo ; you, tn tlie church : hut, in, do you imagine 
we account tho kingdom of Kngland ' Ualiylon,' or the city 
of Anistei'Jiini, 'Sion?' It is tlio Cliurch of England, or 
StAte-Ecclesioaticul, which wo account Uabylon ; and from 
which wo withdraw in spiritual communion. But for tho 
commonweoltli and kingdom, as wo honour it abovo all the 
States in tho world, so would we tliankfuUy omhraco tlio 
meaneRt comer in it, at tlie extrcmest conditions of any 
peojdo in the kingdom. The hellish impieties in the city 
VOL. m. K X 



of ' Amsterdam* do no moro prejudice our heavenly com** 
munion in Uie church of Christ, than the frogs, lice, flics, 
murrain, and oUier plagues overspreading Egypt, did the 
Israelites, when Goshen, the portion of tlieir inheritance, was 
free, Exod. viii. U2 ; ix. SO ; nor than tlie deluge, wherewith 
the whole world was covered, did Noali, when he and his 
family were safe in the ark. Gen. vii. ; nor than ' Satan*s 
throne* did tlie church of Pergamos, hcing established in 
the same city with it Ilev. ii. 12, 13. 

" It is the will of God and of Christ, that his church 
should abide in the world, and converse witli it in tlie 
affairs thereof, which are common to hoth« But it is the 
apostacy of Antichrist to have communion witli the world 
in tlio holy things of God, which are the peculiars of the 
church, and cannot, without great sacrilege, be so prosU* 
tuted and profaned. 

" The air of tlie gospel which you draw in, is nothing 
so free and clear as you make show. It is only because 
you are used to it, that makes you so judge. The thick 
smoke of your Canom, especially of such as are planted 
against tlie kingdom of Christ, the visible church and tlie 
administmtion of it, do both obscure and poison the air 
wliich you all draw in, and wherein you breatlie. The 
plaguy spiritual leprosy of sin risiug up in the foreheads 
of so many tliousands in the church, unshut up, imcovered, 
infects all, both persons and things, amongst you. Lev. 
xiii. 45 — 47 ; 2 Cor. vi. 17. The blasting hierarchy sutfeni 
no good Uiing to grow or prosper, but witliers all, both 
bud and branch. The daily sacrifice of tlio service-book, 
which, instead of spiritual prayer sweet as incense, you 
offer up, morning and evening, smells so strong, of tlie 
Pope's, portuiBe<< as it makes many hundreds, amongst your- 
selves, stop tlicir noses at it ; and yet you boast of ' the 
free and clear air of the gospel* wherein you breatlie I 
. '* That * all Cliristendom should so magnify* your ' hap- 
piness,* as you say» is much ; and yet yourselves, and the 
best amongst you, complain so much, both in word and 
writing, of your miserable condition under the imperious 
and superstitious impositions of the prelates ; yea» and 

* Bxtviary or Must-book. 

* • J 






-J- - -— =- r •"!- «-. z. -:^j ^3 iijvv 'ir.ignify* 

^ - _- iir^* " * «. rl.-.j*- 1 d'^ul): not.othcr 

— ^ - «- . . — -v^ * r' lLt K&inc nooo<s-*irv were 

_ - - _-7:_ ^' - .' r ; . ^r ■ rri^c^," we * iiespi«e' inom 

-'-- T r L. — :"«^-l M — i:z.:r.^^ vo- : no more tJian you 

c-,- _ 7—1 .r. ^r,- r"-. - ■— — ^~ ^* •^^ lo ws found in the 

•- -^— -_ - -■ I.' -_ - i—ii t:_:1 J :■ - s^ipante notwithbtantling- 

"L ^ :,,-.- .- ->i - --r-j •!.■? r-r^ and right use of the 

— . ,;. -j> V- , j-vt* :: 0>i 11- Cliri.51'5 ordinance, which 

* - . T ^^-^ v . . .L 1 r 'J^-i ly- r- ? pt -.pie, nor die holy vessels, 

V -.. - - '_£» L^ - :r 5.V- : iliough botli the one and the 

.... - i-:^ -i-- -\,^ : r a time. 

. - . -, -_- -j-i-- ".5 a g:J.ncr, tlic Lord, which is 
7i -— t'r.' '. l- *iil-»■^•:-' N'.'itiicr are • tho thanks' of 
in:. - : :ra '.-t.' axii"n:rsi tljoiu which still press on 

. .. . . . -_p .-. ,,-„ Uii'Ji-i.Kfiil aro ihev unto tlic 

..-i.. i 7 , .>:v cf Go*!, and unfailliful also, which, know. 
_7 _. .^ ^* ^ \ ..:'::.r.r Master, do it not. but go on prosur..:- 
•-:i i-'.T. :n .r.-oi^C'Iicnco i(T many, tho holy ordinances :: 
•-'-* Li V'V fLni of iii-^ Christ, which they know, an: :- 
"B-'ri *..o ttckTiO'.vl.-diro, he hath j,'lvon to his chiircli :' .•: 
ci-'.nffd; find not for idle speculation and ai<p-::i:::z 
wiiiiout ohcdicncc. It is not by our • soquo>tni::cr." ". .: 
'i.vvour ronfiisiun. that • Homo and \IA\ ^:a'::.>.' \.- 
odious r«iinn»ixturo of idl sorts of people in il:-: \^>:^ :: 
vour rhunli, in whoso lap tlic vilest nu<or:\:LU« u-: 
dandli'd ; hui-kint,' hor breasts, as her natui-al c'-.-lr-.r lz . 
arc bc-hlost by her, as having right tiic re -:::,•. ■*-._ w 
her holy things, as prayer, saci-anionis, ai.i o:..£r :■:.-::=..> 
des; is that which advantagetli 'Hell/ ii\ in: rril ..:.iL 


ration and perdition of tlie wicked, whoiu. .y -. 
you Hatter and deceive. The Rowisa :^^-'^7 ^- J''^^ 
hood amongst you. witli tlie appurter.isr^^ ^:^ -.^iir Hii*::- 
tenancc and ministrations, aw Rome* ii^iz,U;ri v'x.i:n. 






therefore, she challengeth as her own; and by which, she 
also still holds possession amongst you, under the hope of 
regaining her full inheritance, at one time or other. And 
if the Papists take ' advantage' i^t our condemnation of 
you, and separation from you, it concerns you well to see 
where tlie blame is, and there to lay it ; lest, through 
light and inconsiderate judgment, you justify the wicked, 
and condemn tlie righteous. And for the suspicion of the 
' rude multitude,* you need not much fear it They will 
suspect nothing tliat comes under tlio king's broad seal ; 
they are ignorant of this fault Though it were the mass 
that came witli authority of the magistrate, they, for the 
most part, would be witliout suspicion of it ; so ignorant 
and profane are they in the most places. It is the wise- 
hearted amongst you, that suspect your dealings, who will 
also suspect you yet more, as your imsound dealings shall 
be furtlier discovered. 

** Lastly : The terrible threat von utter against us, ' That 
even whoredoms and murders shall abide an easier answer 
than Separation,' would certainly fall heavy upon us, if 
this answer were to be made in your Consistory Courts, 
or before any of your Ecclesiastical Judges; but because 
we know that not Antichrist, but Christ, shall be our Judge, 
we are bold upon tho warrant of his Word and Testamenti 
which, being sealed with his blood, may not be altered, 
to proclaim to all the world, separation from whatso^ 
ever riseth up rebelliously against the sceptre of his king- 
dom ; as we are undoubtedly persuaded the communion, 
govemment, ' ministiy, and worship of the Church of 
England do I" 






1 ■ . : I 




teiaocL V. ur Iik 

nannenianabh' br Ur. SobtnBim, sod anS 
;Tr iniiL ni ■""■■*" puliliBhed dncar fti 

UK of tiiE aduli ponidiL of bis cbaiA ni 

■cniimcDS tau^t in tliis C&techisin are idmtkaiST 
uupn bv Ut, Ilobmscm throo^lunit his vinks, nl 

ttie most eoncliiBiTe, intBiuJ nidenee, thtt Ai 

wnb genniiK md aaflie&tie. 










' I* 




i { 


1 . 
• f 




An Appendix to Mr. Perkins* Six Principles of thi 
Christian Religion. By John Bodiksok. I64d. 


A Bricfe Catechism concerning Church Oovcmment, h; 
that Revered Divine, Mr. John BonnmoK, and may be fitl; 
a^oyned to Mr. Perkins* Six Principles, as appendi 
thereto. 1 Timothy iii. 14, 16. London : printed in th 
year 1643. 


An Appendix to Mr. Perkins, his Six Prmciples of thi 
Christian Religion ; touching the more solemn fellowshi] 
of Christians (tlie Chureh of Ood), as being a Divine In 
stitution. Very fit and necessary to be learned by a] 
sorts of people in these perilous times. Acts ii. 41 
Printed by J. L., for N. Bourne, and are to be sold at hi 
shop, at the South Entrance of the Royal Exchange, ii 
Comhill, 1655. 


"The Foundation of tbo CbiUtUn Beligion, gUhen 
into Six Principles. 

" And it 18 to bo leuned of ignorant people, that the 
may bo fit to heu urmoni with profit, and to zcceiro th 
Lonl'i Supper with comforL Psiucziz. 130: 'Tbe entnne 
into thy wordi Bhewetli light, and giveth understanding t 
the sioiple.' London : printed by John IjOgfttt. 1 COe." 

Mr. Perkins was n distinguished Puritan minister dario| 
the reign of Eliubclh. He woa bom in 1508. and wbi 
educated in Clirist's College. Cambridge. He 'was electet 
Fctlow of liis College at die age of 34, and officiated at St 
Andrew's Church with great success for nearly SO yean 
Ho iras deprived 1^ Arelibishop Whitgifl. He died in 
1003. His writings ore numerous, and are comprisod 
in tliroe folio volumes. Job Orton says, respecting Mr. 
Perkins, "I think him an excellent writer. His style is the 
best of any of that age or the next; and many passagoa in 
bis writings are equal to those of tbe best writers in mo- 
dem times. He is judicious, clear, full of matter md 
deep Christian experience." 




Umto the former priDciplos published by that reverend 
man, Mr. Will. Perkins^ fully coDtaining what every Chris- 
tian it to believe touching Ood and himself, I have 
thou^t it fiti for the good of tlioso especially over whom 
I am set (the younger sort of whom I have formerly cate- 
chised in private, according to tho same principles), to 
annex a few othelrs, touching the more Solemn Fellowship 
of Christians; tho Church of Ood as being a Divine Insti- 
tution, Bev. ii. 7 ; the Spiritual Paradise and Temple of the 
living God, 3 Cor. vi. 10 ; Bom. ix. 4 ; in which his most 
solemn services are to be performed; and to which he 
oddeth daily such ds be saved, promising to dwell in the 
midst of them by his most powerful and gracious pre- 

Joiiar BoiuxsoK. 


IT. : 

'~ '»• ■'■ S^ 




i V:2X 5 He :: 

•€•.".. ::iJ.i-^ jv ae "V. ru js -iiu utu 7uuiic rjvfuiuaz "ncii J 
r-TTr^ -14 "■..nic!'; utizs-^i^. '-. "; r nutxiai. :EiIii"«T>iun jx / 

« ^ .! «.:ki =4/R jr lux&iirr ii 71^1311* 3iui>c uiui ram- 
iii'i 1111.4 tUiL uiziiiUL'U if nil Ljm'^ur-' 'Jai. ai« i:? 

".I .- - ' I ' ir — • ■ -i »ll TIT ■■•I 









JtfTSk uerrLijri. «uim«ti it; rjniLT3xal;ui jl khzw 
i\ if ill. ID a 2urn ripiu oi "iid :u^^eiulc jc inca 

aiiiiiirar^ 3b 

in«i Miii^ 




Q. 4. But are not hjpoerites mingled with the fiuthful 
in the church ? 

A. None ought to he hy the Word of God, and where 
such arc, they are not truly added by the Liord to the 
church, but do creep in through their own hypocrisy, and 
not \?ithout tlio church's sin fllso, if tliey may be discerned 
to he such. 

Q. 5. ])v what means is the church gatliorcd 7 

A. By tJie Word preached, and by faith received by them 
that hear it. Matt xxviii. 10, 30 ; Acts ii. 14, ite,, xi. 10| 
XX. 21 ; Rom. i. 6 ; 1 Cor. xt. 1, d. 

Q. 0. Is every believer a member of the visible church? 

A. No ; but he must also, by his personal and public pro- 
fession, adjoin himself to some particular fellowship and 
society of saints. Acts ii. 41, 47, viii. 37, ix. 18. 

Q. 7. How prove you the seed of the faithful to be of 
the church with them ? 

A. By the covenant whicli Ood made with Abi*almm 
and his seed, which was the covenant of the gospel, and 
confirmed in Christ ; tlie seal tlicreof, circumcirtion, being 
tlie seal of the righteousness of faith. Gen. xvii. 7, &o, 

Q. 8. What are the essential marks of tlie church^ 

A. Faith and order, as tlie church in them may be secn« 
and be held to walk in Christ Jesus, whom she hath re- 
ccivcd. Faith professed in word and deed, showing the 
matter to be true ; and order in the holy things of God, 
showing the forms to be true ; which are the two essential 
parts of tlie church.* Gal. iii. 8, 16,17; Bom. iv. 11; 
Col. ii. 6, 6. 

Q. 0. Arc not the preaching of the Word and adminis- 
tering of tlie sacraments certain marks of tlie true church? 

A. No, for tlie Wonl may, and that rightly, be preached 
to assemblies of unbelievers for their conversion, as may 
the sacraments also (tl)ough unjustly) be administered 
unto them, and so be made Tying signs. Besides, the tnie 
church may for a time want the use of divers ordinances 
of God, but hath always right unto them ; as may also the 
false church usurp and id>use them, but without right 

.* Aitrus matter and form i or two s ti c nUil parti of othor thiagt-t 
•8 a hoose, tomploi or taberooelo. 

mmmmmm^ i \ u MM \ nm 



ici -' if nzaxaziA:? sxzjGzosr. 




I * ? 


U. •'i'.ii.'.ii'ni.r.^s . i ilaiTi X7U- i.!. cc. ; Hoh. :. ). 

2 C;r X*.. '— *3. 

A. Ir* -i-.i ir.-i'v:H.:i;^ ind .:r»:nuioii ot iJio giia .lad 
rrvi"^ '-.'::''ri:i ii'-r.v'V.'iti i-rsQi Clinic oa ilj.j iioui, "finu die 
.?:: ;.••;. u >..i Iji'.iij. !£.>! r.ioniI:cr» cr.i3 of anoclior. ^Vhcxii;e 
1.-. 11... n*':»ic 4::rus osii a>:ac ^orjimcuon. dt 
Tiri.. .•.;.. w cv u..: ".ivil oor-ii ot' ixi:imj:r»3 dio mail jjid w:m 
ar«: • i.'i r't'^n. <o tixy tt-io irc iLu?* joined U7 Chrus axe 
or..' -; ..•;:. 7.r-l\. ;;. ^•^. iv. 15. I 'i; 1 Cor ▼£. 17. 

f'^. ri. ilo-v mjn/ are Hie odiccs of 3iinls;r7 ^ ^^ 

A I-'.vo. i.':*il.:s 'J.*: oxu^icni:r..ir7 ocTico!? of apostles, 

A. l'\i-.i;.-, [.•'/ ti.o S :n[ :'ire«. wLich boUi mention uieir* 
CTl'T''■:^^\J, r-ri i •I-jtonuo uicm by their principal iziiis and 
woi-ft-^ ; ^r;l partly, uy reason aj^recable to the Scriptures. 

U U. Siiow me nhlch those ofifces be, with their an- 
s^^ral/.e i;»:'i.s and worka ? 

X A. 1. Tae pastor lexLorter), to whom is given the gift 
of ai5«jo:n for cxiiortation. '2. The teacher, to whom is 
given tii»; gift of knowlcilge for doctrine. 3. Tho govern- 
ing elrlor. wlio is to rule witli diligence. Eph. iv. 11; 
J Cor. xii. H\ Rom. xii. 'j; I Tim. v. 17. 4. The dcncon, 
who ii Uj O'liniiiihtcr tho holy treasure witli simplicity. 
5. The widow or deaconess, who is to attend tlic Hick and 
impotent with compassion and cheerfulness. Aj^ \i. 2~- 
7; 1 Tim. iii. h, lo, &c., v. 9, 10; Rom. xvi. 1. ^ 

Q. 15. What is the reason for tho proving of these 

/a. liecause these are necessary and tlicsc alono sufE* 
cicnt for tlio church, as being the most perfect society and 
body of Christ, which ncidier faileth in that which 19 








necesRory, nor cxceodcUiin anything superfluous.^! Cor.xu. 
37 ; Eph. ii. 12, woklrtta ; vcr. 10, orv^uroXirai ; Rom xiL 7, 8. 

Q. 10. Whonco arisoth tlio nocesslty and suiRciency of 
tlicso ministries in Uio dmrch ? t 

A. From tlio condition, partly of the souls, and partly of 
. the bodies of the members. 

Q. 17. How dotli that appear? 

A. 1. In tlio soul is the faculty of understanding, about 
which the teacher is to be exercised for information by 
doctrine. 2. The will and affections upon which tlie 
pastor (exhorter) is especially to work by exhortation and 
comfort 3. For that doctrine and exhortation without 
obedience are unprofitable, tlio diligence of the ruling 
elder is rerjuiKite for that purpose. 

Q. 18. llow are the other two ministries to be exercised 7 

A. As the church consisteUi of men, and they of soids 
and bodies, so are tlie deacons, out of the church s treasure 
and contribution, to provide for tlie common uses of the 
church, relief of the poor, and maintenance of the ofHoers, 
Acts vi. I — 8, iv. 35 ; (i al. vi. 0, Koiwmmirm \ 1 Tim. r. 18 ,* as 
are tlie widows to aiTord unto tlio sick and impotent in 
body, not able othcnviHO to help tliemsclvcs, their choerful 
and comfortable service. 1 Tim. v. 3, 0. 

Q. 19. Wherefore call you those offices by the name of 
ministries or service ? 

A. For two causes: — 1. For that they ore no lord- 
ship, but mere services of Clirist and of tlie church. Matt 
XX. 25 — 27. 2. Because tliev consist in administering only 
of those things which are Ghrist*s, and the church's undfV 
him. 1 Cor iii. 21—23. iv. 1 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6. / 

(^ Q. 20. By whom are these officers to have their outward 
eolling ? 

A. By the church, whereof they are members for the 
present, and to which they are to administer. 

Q. 21. How doth that appear? 

A. 1. The apostles, who taught only Christ's command- 
ments, so durectcd the churches.^ Acts i. 16—23, vi. 1, 2, 


2. The people, amongst whom th^ have been convers- 
ant, can best judge of their fitness, both in respect of their 
•persons and families. Acts vi« 1—^; I Tim. hi. 2-^6/ ^ 





LC2 isia aiinniiness of 

soua5 ; IS al>o ii liinds die 
iiTc ni a»; c ciiuicc of. 




--*:, ■-d Lcri. -< Ji ij. r* 

^-rjxrrxdcn spiritaal 
a is.i eriTiiqr lo choose 
lau Wiioci. also, she 
i -unjur. Acts xLt. 23 ; 


»L . 

^^ « r^p«? aecessirr. for ft 

'. -i A» ii-r ;x:*: Sirstrrii: ia pe cirr o-d comiaoc- 
-j.. ;r *u.^ir*. Ji "-11 iizi^j, wii^oni whicii uieT usnm 

~ ■■■' ■** a*j«^cr. w^ew^er m meir giiu or 

■■:«•. _ic 

— J .1 — 

... -= J. —•_ __*.-.. -^ .u ^irr.»M 10 SiAo tieeu to ius 

, ..- U.C ^.i:::o :.i-x^ir ^-::.cL •<: l:..-; nn. ho ij iC bo 
. v: ^■;, .t^cs*.u. ;.oiii^ wL«;d^i ^;La as a uiDtiier. 

• "•"--: i.-: v-e :u:-virl wcrki of ilio ciiurch's com- 

A l.::-^ 1^ ~* Pnver. 2. The reading and open- 
^:j ;: -.: \^:rl 5. lio sacrasiciiis. 4."'Sininn!? of 
I ».. ■- ' C-.r.surcs. 0. CcuU'iLu-ion to the nccessTties 







• ' "'.1.0.-:.* n: 7;:: vc-; rnijor in ilio £r^t place ? 

1 ::;•>.: L; .: .l.I 'J.o rc^; .ir». >.uio:i:ic«l to tho fiiitliful. 
::. .:. 1. 1*. : ; .lu-Io, vcr. • . Zioii. xil. 10; Rom. viii. 15, 

r r ^rav'i-. '^*^- -I'-o cn-I cf :iio ftftii prmoii»lc, ivitii ilic 
?;::.;..* oclvadvl Uiis, ui^ in Uic actof our »po«ikiii'^ unto 

^. "^".u;: 15 p rarer? 

A :*.i:; •pcccli witl\ God, in tlic luinc of Chiiit, 1 Tim, u, 
Iv^ IT. -s. in wliicli wc ciiocr cn\x tiungt needful, or cive 
'^ :'-r :>Lii:jk rcccircd. 

Ill 34xir.g ihingii needful, what is required ? 
Two i hin ja ; an eameit dcKXC, and iaith. 




Ood by prayer, we are not to use the help of any book, beads, 
crucifixes, or tlie like, to teach or provoke us, but only tlie help 
of tlie Spirit of adoption and prayer, working in our hearts 
effectually, and teaching us botli what and how to pray as 
we ought. 

Q. 26. What believe you, touching the Word? 

A. Besides the things observed in the fifth principle and 
exposition, that the whole written Word, audit alone, is to 
be read and openqd in the church. 

Q. 37. Wlicrcforo are the whole Scriptures to be road 
and opened ? 

A. Because tlie whole Word of God is pure, written for 
our learning and comfort, given by Divine inspiration, and 
is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction and instruc- 
tion, and from which nothing may be diminished. Prov. 
. 6, ; Bom. xv. 4 ; Deut. iv. 2 ; 2 Tim. iii. 10, 17. 

Q. 28. How prove you tliat tho Scriptures only are to be 
read, and opened in the church ? 

A. Because they alone are sufficient for faith, and the 
obedience which is of faith, and able to make the man of 
Ood perfect, thoroughly furnished unto 4(11 good works; 
and unto wliich nothhig may be added^Jolm xx. 31; 
Heb. xi. ; Bom. xvi. 17; Bev. xxi. 10. 

Q. 20. Who are to open and apply the Scriptures in the 
church ? 

A. 1. Principallv the bishops or elders, who, by the Word 
of Life, are to feed tlie flock, both by teaching and govern* 
ment Acts xx. 28. 2. Such as are out of office, in the 
exercise of prophecy. 

Q. 90.. How is that exercise proved in the Scriptures ? 

Q. What things muBt a Chriitian man't heart dcaire) 

A. Six thing! ctpccially. 

Q. >Vhat arc they? 

A. 1. That ho may glorify Ood. 2. That Ood may rdgn in hif 
heart, and not tin. That he may do Ood'a will, and not the luata of 
tiie fleah. 4. That ho may rely himself on Ood'a providence for all 
the means of his temporal life. 5. That ho may be justified« and bo 
at peace with Ood. 6. That, by the power of Uod, ho may be 
etrengthcned against all temptations. 

a What is faith? 

A« A persuasimi (Amen) that those things which wo truly desire, Ood 
wiU grant them for Christ s sake.^"The fifth prindplo expoundedy" 
ia Bev. W. Perkins' ** Foundation of Christian VM^Ma. 


W l i U iii M ii H 

_:rnu. Ell- CiCIT 

^ on BUI 




Q. 85. May all the faithful partake in the sacramenta ? 

A. No, except they he added also to some particular 
congregaUon, unto which tlie public ordinances and 
ministry doth appertain. Acts ii. 41, 43, 47.( 

Q. 86. Which are the ends and uses of the sacraments f 
' A. The first, is from Ood to tlie church, opened in the 
exposition of the fifth principle, where it is shown what a 
sacrament is. The second, is from the church to God, in 
which it tesUfieth the acceptance of the covenant, and 
bindeth itself to the performance of the conditions. Tlie 
third, is in respect of the members themselves, mutually, as 
being badges of tlicir association. The fourtli, in respect 
of all other assemblies, between whom and the churches 
they are notes of distinction. 1 Cor. xii. 18. 

Q. 87. What is required touching singing of psalms in 
the church ? 

A. That they bo such as are parts of the Word of God, 
formed by tlie Holy Ghost into psalms or songs, which many 
may conveniently sing together, exhorting and admonish- 
ing themselves mutually, with grace in tlieir hearts. Matt 
xxvi. 80; Kph. v. 10; Col. iii. 10. 

<^ Q. 88. What believe you touching the censure of excom- 
munication ? 

A. That it is to be used by every particular church, ac- 
cording to the rules of Christ 

Q. 89. How prove you this power to be in every parti- 
cular congregation ? 

A. 1. By donation and gift of Clirist the Lord. Matt 
xviii. 17 — 19. 2. The particular church of Corinth had 
this power, for the neglect whereof it is reproved by tlie 
apostle. 1 Cor. r. 18. 8. Every particular church hath 
right to tlio Word, sacraments, and prayer, within itself, 
which are greater, and tliercforo to this, which is lesser 
than they. 

Q. 40. 'NVhat are the rules of Christ for excommunica- 
tion ? . 

A. 1. Tlie sin thus to be censured must be scandalous, 
and the person obstinate, after due conviction and patience 
used. 9. The church excommunicating must be that 
particular congregation gathered together in the name of 
Christ, whereof the sinner is a member. Matt zviiL 
15^17, 19; 1 Cor. T. 4(6, 11. 

i ^ 


C, Q. 11. Howprove you tbatbfthfl church, Malt-xviiL 17, ii 
Bot meant the bishop or presbytct? representing the bodj ? 
A. !• One man cannot be a churcli, which, as Ghnst 
teocbcth Matt, xviii. 19, 30, must be s company, how souU 
soercr, gatliercd togeCiicr in liis name. 

2. 'ilicword there UBcd never signifieth in tlie Serip- 
tnrGS an officer or officers, excluding the people. 

3. The apostle, 1 Cor. v. 4, expounds Christ's meaning 
to be of the wliolo body comb together. 

4. The elders, being public officera, are to exercise th« 
solemn works of their c^cc ; and particularly tlie work of 
rebuking them Uiat sin openly and before the churdi, both 
tbnt otliers may fear, and tlic church, of fiuth, consent to 
tlio excommunicnlion ; and, therefore, cannot represent 
the cliurch, it being actually present. 1 Tim. v. QQ. 

&. Arcprcscntatirecburali, in a case of faith and cod- 
science, witliout tlic consimt of the represented in tlio pu^ 
ticular decree, established tho popish doctrine of implieit 

Q. 43. What is the order of proccoiling in this ccnsuro ? 
A. That tlic brotlicr ofTundiug be admonislicJ prirutcly, 
and after (ivilliout his repcntitncc) witli a witness or two, 
who niny give testimony botli of tlic otfcuco nnd Atlmont- 
tioii ; and lastly, that by Die brother odmonisliing with his 
witnesses (tlic sinner remaining obstinate), complaint be 
made to tlto church, which last complaint alone is sulfieicnt 
in public olTences. 

<j. 43. ^Vbnt order is to be observed after complaint 
thus mndc ? 

A. The officers and tho governors of the church arc by 
tJio Scriptures clearly to convince and seriously to ad- 
monish and exhort the ofTcndcr, and upon his impenitence, 
Willi due conviction and patience, to decree against liini 
the sentence of excommunication; and lo^ttly, witji tho 
people's free consent, to pronounce and exccuto tho same. 
Q. 44. How appearctli the necessity of this ordinance ? 
A. Alany ways: 1. By tho commandment of Christ, 
and practice of tlio apostolical chiuches. Matt, xviii, is ; 
1 Cor. ». 4. 

it. For tlio gloi;- of Christ, which is much impeached 
liytlieprofuncness of those who profess his serrice. Kom. 




AK appehdix to iou PEnKnia caixchxsic. 

8. For the humbling of the sinner, and the salvation of 
bis soul. 1. Cor. v. 4 — 8. 

4. To prcrent tlio infection of otliors. Heb. xii. 16. 

5. T)mt by tho zeal And hcUincjis of tho church, thqr 
without may bo gained by tlio gospel. \ 

Q. 45. liow is tlic church to walk towards a person ex- 
communicated ? 

A. So as they may make him ashamed, by withdrawing 
^m him all spiritual communion, and civil familiarity 
also, so far as may be without the violation of any natural 
or civil bond. 2 Thess. iii. — 11 ; 1 Cor. v. 11. 

Q. 46. What is to be observed for the church*s contri- 
bution ? 

A. That in their public meeting [every first day of the 
weekj^c they contribute as Ood hath prospered them to the 
public treasury, 1 Cor. xvi. 1, by Uie deacons to be re- 
ceived and distributed as there is need, to tlie relief of the 
poor, maintenance of the ministry, and other necessarv 
uses of the church first, and after, of others also, as need 
requireth. Acts vi. I'— 4 ; Gal. vi. 10'; Ilom. xv. 20. And 
whosoever will walk according to this rule, peace be upon 
them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God. Gal. vi. 10. 


John Boimcsoic. 

* Tho words in brackets arc in the London Edition, without 
jirintcr't or publisher's name, 1642, and, so iSur as ean be ascertained, 
m no other. 







o'clock, Borrowe was put into a boat, and as he was rowed 
to Lambeth, in tlic custody of the pursuivant, a letter was 
placed in his hand, explaining Uio cause of his arrest On 
landing at the palace, he was brought before the commis- 
sioners, specially summoned by Arclibishop Wliitgift for Uio 
occasion, and subjected to an examination intended to 
involve him in the meshes of prelatical power. 

At a subsequent period, tliese noble confessors were, 
twice, taken in a cart to the foot of tlie gallows, and 
bv alternate tlireats and expostulations, urged to recant. 
They adhered to Uieir convictions, however, and shortly 
oilerAvard suffered together, on the 0th of May. 1 503, at- 
testing, in Uiis way, by a kind of triple martyixlom, their 
firm persuasion of tJie trutli.* In the ** Dialogues of 
Governor Bradford,'* an interesting account is given of 
Barrowe's conversion.! 

During an imprisonment, which extended over five or 
six years, BaiTOwe and Greenwood found opportunity, 
though not witliout diiTiculty, to write in defence of their 
scriptunil views, and sent their manuscripts to Holland 
for publication. Amongst other important documents 
transmitted for tliis purpose, was a ti*catise containing tlieir 
joint answer to the writings of GifTard. Bespecting this 
prison production, tlie '* Ancient Men,'* in Governor Brad- 
ford's ** Dialogues,** relate the following particulars : — 

**^Vllen Mr. Barrowe's and Mr. Greenwood's refutation of 
Giffard was privately in printing in this city(^Iiddleburgh), 
Francis Johnson not only was a means to discover it, but 
was made the ambassador's instrument to intercept them 
(the copies) at the press, and sco them burnt ; the which 
charge he did so well perform, as ho let tliem go on until tliey 
were whollv finished, and then, by the magistrate's autho- 
rity, caused tliem to be speedily burnt ; himself standing 
by until tliey were all consumed to ashes. Onlv he took 
up two of them, one to keep in his own study, Uiat ho 
might see their errors, and tlio other to bestow on u spe- 
cial friend for tlie like use. But mark the sequel. When 
ha had done this wozk, he went home and superficially 

* Alii8Wortli*t Apdlogr, 1S04, pages 80 — 05, 

t Hsnb. Hist. Mem. voL i. page 49 ; Young't Chroaiclet, page M. 


A". .1- *-£ 

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I. V.-.'.s ' Z-r, :. •ir--T. ::-'i nr iii* u.iru: rf 

ELLi-Tn. . F^-Ci*; J'TXl^ n r-.-rETL ic 






be dissolved, and to live in the blessed kingdom of heaven, 
with Jesus Christ and his angels ; witli Adam, Enoch, Noah, 
Abraham, Moses, Job, David, Jeremiali, Daniel, Paul, tlie 
great apostle of tlie Gentiles,* and the rest of the holy 
saints, both men and women ; with tlie glorious kings, pro- 
phets, and martyrs, and witnesses of Je8us Christ, tli^it 
have been from tlie beginning of the world; particularly 
with my two dear brethren, Mr. Henry Barrowo and Mr. 
John Greenwood, which have, last of all, Yielded their blood 
for this precious ' testimony ;* confessmg unto you, my 
brethren and sisters, tliat if I might live upon the earth tlie 
days of Metliuscloh twice told, and tliat in no less comfort 
than Peter, James, and John were in tlie Mount; and 
after tliis life, might be sure of ' tlie kingdom of heaven,* 
that yet to gain all this, I durst not go from tlie fonner 

' testimony.* I would indeed, if it be His 

good pleasure, live yet with you, to help you to bear tliat 
grievous and liard yoke which yet ye are like to sustain, 
either here or in a stnmge land. 

" And, my good bretliren, seeing banishment, with loss 
of goods, is likely to betide you all, prcpai'e yourselves for 
this hard entreaty, and rejoice tliat you are made wortliy 
for Chri8t*s cause to suffer and bear all tilings. And I 
beseech you, * in the bowels of Jesus Christ,' tliat none of 
you, in Uiis case, look upon his particular estate ; but re- 
gard the general state of the church of God, tliat the same 
nn^y go> And be kept together, whitliersoever it sliall please 
Ood to send you. 

'* Let not tliose of you, tlien, tliat eitlier have stocks in 
your hands, or some likely trades to live by, dispose of 
yourselves where it may be most commodious for your out- 
ward estate, and, in tlie mean time, suffer the poor ones, 
that have no such means, eitlier to bear the whole work 
^opon tlieir weak shoulders, or to end tlieir days in sorrow 
and mourning, for want of outward and inward comforts, in 
the land of strangers ; for the Lord will be an avenger of all 
such dealings. But consult with tlie whole church, yea, 
with the brethren of otlier places, how the churcli may be 
kept together and built, whitliersoever they go. Let not 
the poor and Uie friendless be forced to stay behind here, 
and io hreak a good conscience, for wont of your support 

mc ciiDRcii » BouTtnrAiuc. 443 

j I Mid VimlncNs unto tlicni, that Uicy nifty go with you. And 
, I licro I humbly bcnooch you, not in any outvord regard, u 
' I BholL ftnitwcr before my God, tlint you would take my 

i poor nnd desolate widow, luid my mess of fatlicrleu and 
I friendless oiplmns, willi you into exile, vhithcrsoc\'er yott 
I go: and you shnll find, I doubt not, tbnt the Llcitsod pro- 
1 mi^C!i of my God mailo unto me nnd mine, will accompany 

ithcm, and cvon Uio whole church, for tlicir sakea : for this 
also is tho Lonl'a i>romiHo unto the holy seed ; as joa 

; shall not need much to demand what tlicy shall eat, or 
vherewilh they shall Im: clotlied; nnd in sliort time, I 
doubt not but they will be found helpful nnd not burden* 
some to the churcli: only, I bcHccch you, lot them not con- 
tinue in this hind, where (Jiey must be forced to go again 

' into K^-pt, nnd my God will bloss you even witli a jojfot 
return into your own country for it. Thcro oro of you, I 
doubt not, will bo careful of tlio pcrformnnco of tlia will of 
your dead broUier, in this point, who may yet lire to show 
tliiH kindness unto youi's : I will say no more. 

" Dc kind, loving, uiid tender-hearted, tlic one of you to- 
wards ibe other; labour every way to incrcitsa love, and to 
show the dntiex of love one of you towards another ; by 
TiRiiing, comforting, nnd relieving one tlic other, even for 
' tho reproach of the heathen' tbat arc round about us, as 
the Lord snitli. Be watching in prayer; csprriolly rc- 
nicml>er tboso of our bretlircn tlint nro espccinlly endan- 
gered Pmy for them, my brctliren, nnd for our 

brother, Jlr. J-'mncis Johnson, and for me, who am likely to 
en<l my days citlier with tJicni or before them ; that our God 
may spnro us unto his church, if it bo his good picnsurc, 
or give us exceeding faitli fulness. And bo every way com* 
fnrlnhle unto tho sister and wife of the dead, I mcnn unw 
my beloved M. Ilnrrowe nnd M. Greenwood, whom I most 
heartily !iahile, and dexiro much to bo comforted in their 
God. who, by his blessings from above, will counten-nil 
unto iliem the want of xo notable a brotliernnd a liushnnd, 
I would wish you cameslly to wTilc, yen, to sond, if you 
may, to comfort tho bretlircn in tlic west and north coun- 
tries, thnt they faint not in these troubles ; and that also 
you may have of tlicir advico, and they of yours, what to 
do in these desolata times. . . Yea, I wish you mod 



them to bo together, if you may, whithersoeyer yon shall 
be banished, and to tliis purpose, to bethink you before- 
hand where to be ; yea, to send some who may be meet to 
prepare you some resting-place.' And, be all of you as* 
sured, that Ho who is your God in England, will be your 
God in any land under the whole heaven ; for the eai*th 
and the fulness tliercof are his, and blessed are tliey that 
for his cause are bereaved of any part of tlie same.*** 

He died in faith. In tlie " Protestation before his 
Death,** addressed to tlio Lord Treasurer, he says: — 
** Being now to end my days before I am come to the 
one half of my years, in the likely course of nature, I 
leave the success of my labours unto such of my countoy* 
men as tlie Lord is to raise afler me.*' 

The righteous succession was maintxuned. Francis 
Johnson, one of the ^'specially endangered,** took the 
place of the martyrs. Greenwood and Barrowo, and while a 
prisoner in the Clink, in 1 5 OG, wrote in defence of Separation. 

Henry Jacod, M.A., beneficed at Cheriton, in Kent, en- 
tered into a controversy witli him, conducted on both sides 
with great earnestness and ability. The publisher of 
Jacobs treatises on tlie "Defence of tlie Churches and 
Ministry of England,** tells us in the preface, tliat " Mr. 
Jacob, having sonic speecli with certain of Uie Separation, 
concerning tlieir peremptory and utter separation from the 
churches of England, was requested by them, briefly to 
set down in writing, his reason for the defence of the said 
churches, and they would either yield unto his pi*oofs, or 
procure an answer imto Uie same. Wliereupon, tlio argu- 
ment following this preface, was set down in writing by 
Mr. Jacob, which the said parties did send to Mr. F. John- 
son, being tlicn a prisoner in the Clink, Southwark.** 

In reply to the argument that the martyrs of the Re 
formation did not formally separate themselves from the 
Establishment, Mr. Johnson writes : " 'NVhen M. Cranmer, 
Bidley, Latimer, &c., died martyrs for the truth of Christ, 
they neither had themselves, nor joined in spiritual com- 
munion with such as had, the prelacy and ministry now 

• • Httib. IDft. MenuToL L pagf 78. SCrypo's Whitgift, App. A. viu. 
Bk. iv. psgs 17«i 


7^^3,25 »3l 





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* 2 z.u jr. i-e<vr^ ucc ^or; j-.T^n us l^s Wori lo I* Li* 

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■wLi :':.":-wi£ :t :..* -rjrjk en * T:l€ri::va* :a !• -.' ; .--..i is 
t.-: *-::;•:■ I -r';Cir A77<^rc«i h.* :n£^-«*" on " TLo Diri::* 
I.:r--r Tiri Ii:-:::-^l i of Clr>:V ir^^ \"i>iili cr Minis- 
;. r. - -f^ .r-i ' Tl.:* i:::-rc:.. he .;£:"; :-.c« :o l-o " & x:ur-b<i 
cf :*•. I.:-', r-x"!-. tlzvI. Ij -.l.i.:r ^^lii: j censor.;, in i 
<;..-;. •-! :-;^iri *j^:>::t. or l-r-.v-pMliiic. crulr.4rlli 
c*:-'r ::r-;:lfr :n:o one p'.ice: ::-.*:i:u:cxi bv Clirlst ir 
:..* N;-r ~ t-^uzi-.r.:. sj:»i Lading Ui-* ro*cr 'to cierci?* 
-:r'!>.-.«'..r.\; rc^cmriiiit. &nd &II Go-is o:her spihtTii 
crl.:.-r.::>. O.: =:cjj^ cx's^VAticc. i& £j:J for ii^cli iniiiic- 
te.jb.--. .• .. . »^ ^..ns^ 

A; ■-.:• r<r;>i he ins at Levdcn. in close conference wiib 
?.:• ■r.«-?r. •" We. scaeof ns. kr.ew Mr. Parker. I>r. Ames, 
S.T.1 Mr. Jicob. inHcHsLni'say the "'Axicicii: Men," "irLei 
tlcvfojoumed for atinie in Lcvdcn, and all ibrec bearded 

• Jchmgn't Am v«r to Kuttcr H. Jmo1>« Lit Ddcnoe, ke^ 1600, p, 19 




together; .... and after Mr. Jacob returned, and Mr. 
Parker was at Amsterdam, he printed some of his books.*** 

The return of Mr. Jacob here mentioned was in 1616. 
The work of the greatest difficulty, and that which was 
attended with the most serious peril, was to continue the 
" testimony borne by the confessors and martyrs in the 
immediate scene of Uieir sufferings.** 

For this arduoMs service Mr. Jacob was eminently quali- 
fied, by his talents, his courage, his discretion and humility. 
Ho came to Southwark, the 'furnace* of Evangelical non- 
conformity, to collect the remnant of tho London congre- 
gation, and to form them into a church state, on tho model 
of tho New Testament The first meeting of this martyr- 
band was held in a private dwelling, on the southern bank 
of tho Thames. The names of Staismore.f Browne, Prior, 
Almey, Troughton, Allen, Gilbert, Farre and Goodal, are 
mentioned as present on that memorable occasion. " These, 
with oUicrs (we arc told), having observed a day of solemn 
fasting and 'prayer for a blessing upon Uieir undertaking, 
towards the close of the solemnity, each of them made open 
confession of tlieir faith in our Lord Jesus Christ: and 
then, standing togctlier, tliey joined hands, and solemnly 
covenanted witli each other in the presence of Almighty 
God, to walk together in all God*s ways and ordinances, 
according as He had already revealed, or should further 
make them known to them. Mr. Jacob was then chosen 
pastor by tlie suffrage of the brotlierhood, and others were 
appointed to the office of deacons, witli fasting and prayer 
and imposition of hands.^ 

^ Governor Bradford's Dialogues in Young's Chronicles, pages 

t DoubtlcM the Mr. Starcsmorc referred to in Mr. Robinson's letter 
to the Church in London, page 3S4, iupra, 

X ** Thcflc fathers of Independency, in that old house of the seven* 
tecnth For rather sixteenthj century, iirith hearts panting for reli* 
sious liberty, their hands locked in each other, and solemnly rowing 
before Ood, to follow the light he should grant them, has in it a 
toudi of the moral sublime, which, though tlio background of tho 
picture differs, and the spirit which animated that forgotten buid 
was peaceful instead of warlike, reminds us of the oath of Rutli, and 
the tlirce-and-thirty who clasped hands under the Seclisberg, by the 
Lake of Uri, swearing before Ood tho famous league of Swiss 
liberty."— Stoughton's Spiritual Heroes, p. 02, teooiid edit. Htiib. 
^Gbt. Mem« roL i. p. 203, 









■ - ^ *» 

* *'* — "-^^ : - c" _ — .£ TT—. "7n::eL :r. ihc samt 

--'" —' -:.~ii-:r •: ii- i-eXi unicnis. Uic 

~- ~ : ^. T-*,. i.^ii*. CL itiercfs: is the 
^"-^•— ^^ J rtis: !;*£ ciuLTcr of maL 5 
"- ^* ^^-'^ -*r?-m- :i iiit liaiuf of b:« brc Uiren, 
- —■ '— =-a*»UT^ .v" Zi4ris::aL iit*crtT. frt^om 
. t ::--.- :r.*.— : ^^^..^^-lor. :;-euoir. of worship, fite- 

■ : - ' ■ -:'r--t:.-:. a*. r^*uon. 12. iu€ Fupport of Chhstiia 

! " ■-:•'• — .--^-.-Tn n nxft vu^i'C. ou coQ^cience. re^- 

' *i-- ' :'-:^ ^iL T-eTi-ci'.L zr. ciiiLnrv. 

..:;-- . fr^^-.r*. o '..zu: yjur-.. Xr. Jorob. with the con- 

.-'-:. :., -7:.r-*-rttU'^i. c:i»BM-d the AUantic, to join the 

- r-::- ;: ^.r..- -icl. Hi^ motive f^ir tliis removal was the 

^'- -: cTi-.^rj-w u'^'-fuiuesB.'' liut Lis career was near 

.. : — . i.* r-a'-iii-L ::ic jiiizrims oiilv to mingle his 

■ ■ .. : r;:: i.iu'j-' c aus: . Du: iiis* tostimony caniio: die. 

V :. - ..,.':.. c'.M.j'.'iiCfr he Kiid. " Tiie I^nl, I Joui.: 

i : T.. n..,. u: ii-.tji-r- ihti sii.iU more eiTfctuall*- I>c£r 

I T.::.-- u!iiJ :a.j- :-;::h in tiuc time, licing witliir-urh 

-• ..•■::."!*"; •.■liL'T'"- iiui: for ho just cjuiso I have refiis^ei 

- 1 ■ 'm ;• ::.'. riiun.h orilcr in Enghind, I couIJ :hcrc- 

.'• u- !ii 1".^ i'u: pve out. yoA, unto rosTiiMTT, il.t- -jue 
LI. i:i"s: .:i.!t'ir^ai;: r'/a*»on»» o f my iHsscnting licrcir;.'" 

-':.' T'.cTiii;'' rt-rc i2n}«*'lIod hy tJic same nioiivo :o G0T>6r» 
L' ;^'"'- iJvi l^rirc of Uiis is furnished in a snia^l v.-iiiuf 
vr.Mv; ii. j'.il* iihe year heforc the sailing of tlif ''Mr^- 
ii -v.;", •I,: tltu "An Answer to the Ten Couuict !•«- 
ini.rrj*-. tt.'.. Ac. hv Wiiliam Kurinpr." 

JL ui'-vrf-r to tJic demanti, whetiior tlie disrlpl^n: n:* tiif 
S?;»iiruLifc.i*: can be of God, since tJiey pai;. 2tc r,-»3 
fr::L ih*: " nidu and profane," Mr. Kurlnp sf.v.^. * Jo:- 
srifT. •*ir. we arc a poor, weak, despised jh' hcri ir 
Lr;rliuj'l, Ijated and persecuted of aii. or m*»s:*T>4i-: 11 l\: 
ikiiii ; and. tJiirefore, if wo liave any meri:2j;7<. or riiiuiiij 
loi'fliier on iJic Lord Way, tliey mu.«it he rc-^ ^»- \.;:. 
forfvarof such persecuting adversanes a> runno. i'iu;;:rt 
and are ipiomnt of the Irulli of GocI'« ordi nan .-.-». ^ j*. 
taught and prociised ; so tliai ' pApist5> ontl AUh':>i> ^r.^ 
such liko ' profane * come not at our cxctciac^ at.^ --^^ 

• Hub. Uiit. Mem. r. L p. 293. * Inu. r- Z^ 



is it possible wo should conrert any that come not to 
hear ua? Amongst the chmnchea in thia waj, bejond 
the seas, whicli have their more free meetings and able 
ministries, thia blessing of C(od, in conrerting men, ii 
mora seen. 

" Your following words, whorcin you please to term us 
' refined reformers,* saying that we seduce only the soimd, 
and pervert and estrange from you those that are otherwise 
well affected, and of some understanding, &o., are worth 

" It is true, that you say, our causo hath wrought most 
upon such as havo some ' understanding * and knowledge, 
and are of tender consciences, pliable to the trutli ; others, 
of more corrupt consciences, have set against us, and 
against our cause, and blasphemed it.** 

In answer to tlic demand, ''Whether it were not the 
Separatists* best course to return, or, for tlie avoiding of 
scandal, to remove to Virginia, and make a colony there, in 
hope to convert Infidels to Christianity,** Mr. Euring says, 
" Although I con partly guess in what humour you pro- 
pounded tliis your demand, yet I will not answer you ac 
cording to that your humour. # 

..." I do once again entreat you to show us the true 
form and fashion of your church ; and lay you apart all 
if^Tath and envious anger, that so we may togeUier, in peace 
and love, you witli us, and we with you, take a view, and 
consider of your church, and compare the form and fashion 
thereof with tlie form and fashion of the true and visible 
church of Christ, as it is described unto you in the Scrip- 
ture. And if this good and godly course may be accom- 
plished, not only by myself, but all of us that are now 
separated from you, would much more willingly and gladly 
return again, and labour to plant ourselves again in the 
meanest part of England, to enjoy 'peace witli holiness,' and 
to follow tlio truth in love, among our kindred and friends 
in our own native country, tlian either to continue where 
now many of us live, or to plant ourselves in Virginia, or 
in any other country in the world, upon any conditions, or 
hope of anything in thia lifo whatsoever I Yet even for 
Virginia thus much-— when some of ours desired to havo 
planted ourselves there, with his majesty's leare, upon 


tlirne three gronmls : — first, that thkt maat bb ue ii£a» 


thnt llipy [ni;;lit live iindcr the king's goveniinent ; thinllj, 
llint they mit^lit mnlce may for and unite witli oibers, what 
in thrill Until, whose ronscicnces arc grieved with the aiatt 
of the rliiirrh in Kn(;lnn<l ; tlic bii>hi>[)M did, bjr oil meaiu, 
ojiiioof th<'in Dnil tlidr friends t]icreiii."* 

A fiiiihfiil Nucci^tisor to Mr. Jacob was found in John 
T^lhnip, A mail of enmcst hut humble npirit. who, for con- 
Krii'itrc !>nke, rrliniiiiKhcd ordcn in the £stahhshincnt 
On the titiih A]iril, iM'2, fortj-lwo of tlie meiitbcr* (incluil- 
Int; iliiir drroh-d miniKlcr) were npprchciidcd, and tea- 
tciirt'il 1(1 iit)|ii-iHoniiiriit fur two yean. 

" During; ihe term of Mr. Lnlhrop'i imprinonment," san 
Nnlliiiiiicl Morton, nuthor of 'New Englnnd*B McmoriJ,' 
ixildi-hrd in inni), "Ilia wife fell flick, of which sii-knesi 
hIip dic<l. Ho prurnrcd lilicrtY nf the hishop to visit hif 
wifo lit-fon^ liiT di'nlli, niid commended her to God by 
prni rr, wlii> Kocpn nficr gnvc up die ghost. At liis return to 
iiiivoii. liis }«)or i-liildreii being tnnn}', repaired lo the 
bioliKp nt Liiinlirtli, nnd niiulc known unto him tlicir 
iiiiwiiil'li- i-iHiiliiion, by roason of their good fnthcr's being 
ei<nliiiiii'd hi close duranec, who coniniiscraUrd tlicir con- 
itilii'ii so fur as to grunt him hbcrty, who soon after came 
ovor into Now Knglnnd." 

Witli lliiriv of his congregntion he nnived in Boston, 
mill Sopi.-inbi'r. 1034, in the ship " GriDiii," nnd in a few 
djiv> iifiiT In- ]iiiu-ooded to nn cwly soiilcmcnt, in the wil- 
di'iiirvs iiiUi'il Sciluato, not many miles from UoniKtuble, 
wi'i'ii l'<i|'o K'm). 

'I'lioiigli di'i'rivcd of (lie counsel of their pastor, tlie 
bn-llnvn in Sonlhwnrk were not left «.-ilhout the nieiins of 
F|)iiitiiiil Mi-tonniii-e. Mr. Cnnne, imihor of the '• Mnrginai 
Itcfoivncc Kiblc," in the enrlicr pnrt of bis rai-eer, ah uell 
ns Mr, Jossov, mimolinin rector of St. George's. miniKtered 
to tlicir foinfiirt mid instruction. In the first instance, 
Mr. ,Tt-sse_v diclinrd the ovcilure mnde to him im the put 
of llic church, on the ground tlint he bnd on enniest desir« 
to sciilc in New Knglntid. The people reminded hiin that, 
innsiiiuch as their necessities wei-c greater, their claim oa 
* An Answer ftc., bjr Will. Euiinf, ftgrn 7—9. 

VOL. III. • O 



his tervicet was the stronger. They said, " New England 
was much better provided with able godly preachers than 
this nation, in t]io which so many flocks were destitute.*** 

"After Mr. Ganne,** says Mr. Neal, the historian of the 
Puritans, " Mr. Samuel How undertook the pastoral care 
of this little flock.** During his ministry the church 
endured great afllietion, and to' avoid tlie violence of per- 
secution, its members were often compelled to meet in the 
fields and woods. On the death of Mr. How, after an 
interval of borcavcmcnt, Mr. Stephen More, a beloved and 
faitliful deacon, at the request of the bretliren accepted 
the oversight of Uiem. Ho was a man of pmperiy, and 
had valuable connexions in tlie City : but at the hazard of his 
estate, and of personal liberty, he did not shrink from the 
duties of his self-denying oflice. [An interesting work 
written by him, entitled, •• Tlie Wise Gospel Preacher," is 
still extant.] Hie face of afliiirs beginning now to change, 
this poor congivgation, which had HubMistcd almost by a 
miracle for abovo twenty-four yrars, sbifLing from ]>lace to 
place to avoid the notice of tJie public, ventured to open 
their doors in Deiulman's-place ; but it was not long before 
they were discovered, and many of Uicm committed to 
prison .f 

On tlie 18th of January, 1041, the church l>eing as- 
sembled on the I/ord s-(lay for religious worship as usual, 
though not with their former secrecy, they were discovered 
and taken, and by Sir John lienthall. Marshal of the 
King's ]k!nch, committed to the Clink prison. The next 
morning, six or seven of the men were summoned to ap- 
pear before the Houso of liOrds : tlieir names are given in 
the Jounials of the Ijords, vol. iv. p. ld«*l: Edw. Ghillen- 
don, Nic. Tvne, John Webb, Richard Sturges, Tbomas 
Gunn, Jo. Kllis. The Lords examined them strictly con- 
cerning their principles, and they as freely acknowjeilgcd 
tliat they owned no other head of the church but Clirist 
Jesus ; that no prince ha<l power to make laws to bind the 
consciences of men : and, tliat laws made contrary to the 
law of God were of no forces. " Thereupon the House did 
order that the said sectaries should receive for this time 

• life of Jetfty, p. 8. 

t Vtlf voL L eh* vL 





an A^iinoniiion from the House, tluu ther shall her?«f:f r 

Impair to their M^crad parish chuiT?«es to hesr D>::« 

^'?rMce. aiui to pro oltc«lionce accorviiTtg to :le 

Acu« of r«rl lament of tliis realm. To that p'.-.rpC'«o 'm 

oixirr was read unto tlicni. matle br tiie Honce the IO:h cf 

January*. IGlO. and to l>e told that, if hereafter lisej do r.o: 

oii!^r^'e tlioso command*, iher shall U? sevenzlj punlfhcd 

acvV-tnLii;; M law." Some of the p«^er» inqixircd where li.-? 

I'laco of their mating was. and intima:«^d tl'^at u^cr wc-tiM 

coino and hear them. And accord in'jlv tlirro or focr cf 

tiie peers did co to tlicir meetin:; on tiie Lonr«<d:;v fo!!'**- 

iiij;. lo tlie great surpriv? and wor.dor of manj Ti.e 

p«^ople wtf'nt on in their usual met}:rHi. harin:; two ««r- 

mon«. in hoih of which liicv treated o: ;ho«k? phncipie* for 

which tiiev had been accused, prnundiri; tiieir discourses 

on tiio wori* of oisr Sanour. "All power is irivcn unto r.:« 

in hf-avcn in earth." Malt- xxviii. 1^. Afu^r tiiis. :;.•:■▼ 

rccei*«d llio Iii»ni's SupjH^r. una lli.-'n !nn«h» a col'ivt^n 

fnr llic p'^rtr. In »iiii'h llio lorils* roi.trii'iurd Iil»rrai!v tt;:!; 

til* :ii. and at liicir dij..irl»ro *i;:iiii";».»i iliC'r •»a:i*f.u'::cn 

a: «iiat lii* y iiaii lir.inl mid sc^n, ai;<I tli. ir inrlir.ntion :^ 

coino a;*.un. ])ul ma>le u>o mucli noi^o, and *^,\yc ico 

;;rciU an alarm to Uic mob, for tlicm to veiisurt- a «cconi 


Afu^r tbiji excicement iJie church seems to have er^.-vcJ 
an iiiterwii of re«l. Tiie calm, however, wa.* but tcrr.- 
p.iran-. and wn* followed l»y a succo«>ion of per«ocu::r.r 
c:iar:inents. aiming at notlim? less than tlie annihilaiion 
of NfncoTifomiitv. Witliin twelve vears \ho r.irr.amer: 
p.i-s-'od *ix l.iw« for this onjoi'i : tho Corporation Act. in 
Jitiii : tlie Act 01 rnifoniiity, in l«'nV2: an Act to supprc-* 
Soditi-">us Cun*t*nticlc'». ICiU : dr-irlarinj; it to be a irax.«- 
poruble otTonce for more than tive persons to unite in 
rrli^inus wnr^iiip, except acconlinj* to the fonn« of the 
Church of i:n<:ianil : the Oxford, or Five Mile Act, in 1C'>S. 
bani'ihing all Nonconformists from coq>oratc towns ; the 
Conventicle Act. in 1670, witli some severe additions ; and 
the Test Act, in lOlX 

The storm was violent and of long eontinuanee, but the 

• Oosbj, HisL Bap. toL liL p. 40. 




immortal confessors of religious freedom braved it out 
8trong in tbeir wealcness, and sheltered in their obscurity, 
thej could not be subdued. Amid the desolations caused 
hy the plague, and the fire of London, in IGGO, they 
found an entrance for tlie Gospel. In tlie absence of the 
court and clergy, who fled from the infected capital, tliese 
*' spiritual haroes** gained converts from the afflicted 

Thomas Wadsworth, M.A., a native of Southwark, the 
successor of Stephen More, we find at that calamitous 

Bmod making collections for his distressed brethren at 
eadman*s-place,* and dispensing to tlio people the Word 
of Life. Richard Baxter says, ** The churches being burnt, 
and Uie parish ministers gone, for want of place or main- 
tenance, tlie Nonconfonnists were more resolute tlian 
ever to preach till tiiey were imprisoned. Mr. Wadsworth 
aind otliers, he tells us, did keep their meetings very 
openly, and prepaid large rooms, and some of tliem plain 
chapels, with pulpits, scats, and galleries, for the reception 
of OS many as could come." [The timber edifice at 
Dead man 8 -pi ace was of this character, and stood on the 
present site of the Park -street Breweiy, at a short distance 
from tlie Globe Theatre.] In 1077, the author of the 
** Saint 8 Best** occupied himself tlie pulpit of this ancient 
sanctuary. Beferriug to* tliis interesting circumstance, 
he writes, " It pleased God to take away that excellent 
faithful minister (Mr. Wadsworth) in Southwark ; and just 
when I was kept out at Swallow-street, his flock invited 
roe to SouUiwark, where, tliongh I refused to bo their 
pastor, I preached many montlis in peace, there being no 
justice willing to disturb us.** Calamy gives this short 
account of the next minister, Mr. James Lambert: — *' He 
was a celebrated preacher in Southwark, and had a con- 
siderable congregation of Dissenters there. He succeeded 
Mr. Wadsworth. He died August 0th, 1G89, and was 
buried at Bunhill.** His successor, Jonatlian Owen, pub- 
lished a sermon in 1700, dedicated to his congregation in 
Deadman*s-place. During his pastorate, the four silver 
cupa, still used by tlie church, were introduced ; the date, 

• liDi of Wadsworth, printed for Thomit Ptrkhurtt, 1690. 

T T— * '^-^ 






IGOl, 18 engraTCQ on each cup. Mr. Killingfaall wi 
chosen pastor ahout 1702, and was followed* in 1740, b 
Dr. Zephaniah Marryat, who died Sept. 15di, 1754, nc 
many hours after having preached to his congregatioi 
from tills test : *' Casting all your care upon Him. for H 
caretli for you.** Mr. Lamb was pastor from 1755 to 176*^ 
His identity in tliis honourable lineage, like that of Mi 
Owen, is proved by a discourse published with a dediea 
tion to the church in DeadmanVplacc. He was held b 
great esteem. On his removal, nrom failing health, Di 
James Watson was elected to tlie pastorate, and during i 
ministry of twenty years disdiarged the duties of hi 
otlice witli exemplaiy fidelity. He was tlie tutor of Alex 
andor Cruden, compiler of the *' Concordance,** whos4 
remains were deposited in the burial ground adjoininj 
the chapel, in 1770. 

Dr. llumphrys, — uncle of Mr. Hanbury,* — and whoM 
memory is precious to many, accepted the pastoral care oi 
this ancient church in 1783; four years after his settle 
mcnt, tho con^gatiou removed from Dead man *8 -place u 
Union-street, where tliey still worship. 

Subsequently, for more tlian twenty years, Mr. Arundel 
the late excellent secretary of the London Missionai} 
Society, laboured amongst them. 

Further it is not needful to trace the history of thii 

* Benjamin Ilanbury, Em^. tho senior deacon of tho Church, m^ 
the Tcncrablc compiler of the "Ilihtorical Mcmoriala rdmtini 
to the Inclcpcndcnt« or CongregationaliiitA : from their Kiso to thi 
Itcstoration of the Monarchy, a.d. mdclx.,*' 3 vols. Sto., Lon< 
don, 1839, no frequently referred to in tho notes of thin work 
The '* >Iemorial8 arc a valuable compendium of all the cx< 
tont or known writings of tho Independent and Con^ rcgmtioiialifi 
brotherhood, during the period apecified in the title-page. The] 
supply authentic material!i for tho IliBtonr of Independency. N< 
ecclesiantical library can bo complete without the ** Memoriali^* 
nor should any Nonconformist, especially, deem his library properli 
furnished without these precious records of tho life, labours, am 
writings of his noble ancestors. Mr. Ilanbury is also well kaowi 
in the literary world by his edition of '* The Ecdcuastical Politj 
and other works of Richard Hooker," ke,, 8 Tola., Sto,, Ixmdon 
1830— to which he has supplied numerous and eopious illustra 
tiTo notes, and *' Life of Thomas Cartwright, B.D.;'* aad hyTarioo 
other publications. 






witnessing community. From the rapid sketch now given, 
the links of the historic chain, extending through nearly 
three centuries, may he distinctly traced. In no part of 
its eventful course has the church departed from its first 
principles in doctrine and discipline. It has long heen 
distinguished for its unity and affection, and has ever 
maintained a character for practical usefulness. 

• • • 

Supplement by Hie Editor. 

A new era is now dawning on this ancient church. The 
huilding in which it has long worshipped must shortly he 
relinquished ; its lease having neai*iy expired. Efforts are 
heing made to remove from tlie present ohscure locality in 
which it worships, and to erect, in a more puhlic situation, 
a chapel worUiy of its name and history ; and " to connect 
therewith a Pilgrim's Hall and Library, in which shall bo 
securely deposited every document or publication that can 
be procured to elucidate tlie course and extend the influence 
of Uie pilgrim-fathers — those immortal pioneers of religious 
freedom.*' Appeals have been widely circulated tlirough 
England and America, to which most cheering and cordial 
responses have been given. Most gratifying assurances of 
interest and support have been tendered by Abbot Law- 
rence, Esq., Ambassador of the United States to the English 
court; the Hon. Amos Lawrence, brotlier of the ambas- 
sador ; the llev. Dr. Cheever, and numerous other distin- 
guished gentlemen and ministers of America; and especially 
by the liev. Sctli Bliss, and Kev. E. A. Lawrence, who, on 
July i^8th, 1851, met the congregation in tlieir time-hallowed 
sanctuary, and assured tliem of tlieir deep personal interest 
in tlie undertaking ; and also tliat they were authorised by 
their brethren in America to assure tliem of the sympathy 
they felt in tlie object, and of their readiness to co-operate 
witli tlie church in its accomplishment 

With the new Pilgrim Chapel a new impulse will be 
given to the zeal and labours of this ancient church with 
its bishop and deacons ; and thus will the sacred princi- 
ples they have so long and consistently maintained, be more 
widely diffused, and through a long succession of years 
~ and perpetuated. 



TiiK commerce and manurftctures bo flztensiveljr cairied 
on liy tlie Dutch during the Utter part of tfae lOth and 
the beginning of the iTtli ccDturicii, had iDduced nun/ 
UntiHli mci-chmits and oUicrs Ui settle in the priacipu 
tuwiis of ttiu United Provinces. 

Tlic wan tlircntcucd by Spain against Holland impelled 
the Dutch to malcc application to tlio English goTcmment 
for oHiiisUiiicc agnioiit their common foe. Trcaticn were 
formed between Queen Klizabcth and the Seigniors, bj 
which Kngtond engaged to furnish both troops and moncjr 
to her allies, on ccrtiiin conditions, for the secure fulfil- 
ment of which some important tewna vcro to be held bjr 
the British forces. This alliance between the two gorem- 
mcnts occasioned tlie residence of on addilioaal number 
of British subjects in llie Netherlands. 

One article of the treaty of l&Sft containa a stipulation 
tliat tiio Dutch " will permit to the governor and garrison 
tlie free cxeixisc of religion as in England, and to thia 
end n church will be provided for them in each town." 

The places of wonthip thus provided for tlie British 
troops, were open also to other Britiah reaidenta who 
. might choose to frequent them. 

Urants were also mode from the public treasur7, on 
application, to assist the merchants and settlers elaewhen 
in establishing worship according to (heir rupeotiTe 


Hence at Amstenlain, tho Hague, Amheim, Middleburg, 
Lejrden, Itottenlam, Bnigfls, and other towns, English 
worship vas constantly performed in buildings erected or 
appropriated for tliat purpose by the goremment, as well 
as ID the garrison and mititaty chapels appointed according 
to treaty.* 

Other British suhjecli were finding their way to Hol- 
land during this period. Humble and godly men, they 
would liavo gladly remained in their native land. Neitlier 
military glory nor commercial enterprise forced tlieir 
expatriation. Ilcligious poraeciition, under episcopal 
tyranny, had well nigh impoTcrished and ruined them; 
and titill threatened tlie exUnclion of their liberties, if not 
of their livex. Many of their companions and predecessors 
liod fallen victims to tho fury of tlie ecclesiastical op- 
pressor. Royalty, too, instead of throwing its shield of 
protection OTer all its subjects, Imd hurled its denuncia- 
tions against such as should dare lo question its prerogi^ 
lives in religion, or refuse to obey its imperious mandates. 
At tho gibbet, and the stake, as well as in the awful, death- 
producing dungeons, many a " martyr of Nonconformity" 
had sealed his testimony for truth and conscience. 

Puritans, Anabaptists, Romanists, Separatists, were 
names odious to the authorities ; and hence the extermina- 
tion, imprisonment, or banisliment of all, to whom they 
applied such names, was resolved on. Tliacker, Copping, 
Barrowe, Greenwood, Fenry, Dennis, were among the 
public martyr) of Independency ; while a larger host of 
Baptist worthies, hotli English, and also Dutch who had 
come to England for protection against the horrible inqui- 
sition set up by Spain in Holland, had been even more 
obnoxious to the powers that be, and " were tortured, not 
accepting deliverance," and stand high on the roll of 
martyr fame.t During the early port of the reign of Elixa- 

■ VUt BtCTCn'i nittoTj of tho Scoltilh Church, Ilottcrdain, 8to, 
K3S ; Bumner'i Ucmnin af the PUfcrimi at LcTdon, Appcnilix, No, 
], ftge Si : Itcv. A. 8. Thdwcll'i Preface to tho Heidelberg Cats- 
chum of the Itefomicd RcliKlon, reprinted in London, IBdt. 

t VHt IMco'i Ilbtorj of NonconioRnily ; Fletcher's Iliitory of 
Indrpcndcncj ; Uartyr* of Nonconfonnitf In th« Dsyi of Queen 
EUubcth, by the Anti-State- Church Aaeodatiow t snd Iha Dnteh 
UartTiology, by HaoMnl KooUji Bodety, ' 



both, numbers fled to Holland to escnpc the death which 
tlireatcned them ; and at a later period, when the toWj of 
killing men to convert tliem was perceived, and banish- 
ment or imprisonment wm trieo to prevent defection from 
the cfltablished church, otliera followed the example, and 
became exilei (o the United Provinces, where liberty of 
conscience and of wonfaip was freely allowed. 

Many of these exiles being PuritanH, and not Separal- 
ists, attached tlicmsclves to tlie congregations of the 
English settlers in various ports of tlie provinces ; while 
somo of tlicir pastors, who hod accompanied or followed 
them, became ministers of tlicse English churches. Tbo 
Kcv. Fnmcis Johnion was one of tliis class, and became 
minister of tlie English congregation at Middlcburg. llie 
onlcrof woriibip wasebicfly I'rcsbytennn, as distinguished 
aiiko from the episcopal and the congregational. Such 
exiles as were Separatists or Drownists worshipped either 
i>rivat«:1y, or in less prominent places than thoso occupied 
by their merely Puritan brctlircn. 

One of the eariiesl of tlie^e Separatist)!, and whose 
name was attached to tlie entire party for a soasou, whs 


of Tolctltorpe, Rutland, a clergyman of high family, and 
related to the Lord Treasurer Builclgli. Ho w'n.i rhn]>- 
hiin to tbo Duko of Norfolk. He joined tlie I^iritnn 
parly, and odvucated the refonnatlon of the nntinnal 
church. Ho bucame a Separatist, and collected scverol 
small congregations on Separatist principles in the county 
of Norfolk. He was frequently cited in the cedes in.4ticid 
courb, and imprisoned for his attacks, both from the 
pulpit aud tlie press, on the episcopal establishment 
His high connexions saved him from peri>ctual impri- 
sonment, or dentil. He fled to Holland, having >[r. Har- 
rison, a Bcboolmnxter, and scveml of his friends, as his 
companions in flight. He settled at Hiddleburg, where 
he formed a congregation, over which he and Mr. Harrison 
presided. Disagreeing witli his people, he returned to 
England, and pursued an itinerating course, preaching 
the gospel and inveighing against the ohnrch. He took 



. J 

up hit abode at Northampton, and renounced hit Sepa- 
ratist principles, and was rowiurded for his tergiversation 
by the rectorship of Achurch in that county. His temper 
and habits in later years were of a dubious character, and 
for striking a constable in Uio execution of his duty, it is 
stated, he was committed to gaol, where he died in the 
81st year of his age. He is reported to have said, " that 
he had been in tliirty-two prisons, and in some of which he 
could not see his hand at noon day.** 

Different opinions have been formed concerning the 
sincerity of Browne. Mr. Fletcher, in his " History of 
Independency,** tliiiiks Justice has not been done to his 
character. The common enemies of the Separation unite 
in the denunciation of the man, principally on the ground 
of his opposition to tlie established .church. But even 
those who could have no sympathy with these opponents, 
and even adopted the general sentiments of Browne as 
their own, are equally united in his condemnation. Ains- 
worth, Johnson, Kobinson, Bi'ewster, and otliers, exhibit 
him in a most unfavourable light, and earnestly disclaim 
the appellation of Browuihts. 

Though it is to bo feared without principle himself, he 
advocated the noblest principles of freedom both in con- 
science and worship. A doubtful expression or two have 
been quoted from his works by Mr. Underbill, in his 
Preface to " The Broadmcad llecordM,** wliicli ai)pcar to 
justify the interference of the magistrates in n'ligious 
ahiiin«; but tliis is to make the man an offender for a 
wtinl, and to put a construction on the expressions which 
seems at variance witli his general argunients. rostority 
is deeply indebted to him for his writings and labours. 
He collected and condensed the scattered rays of tnith 
which had been gleaming tlirough the darkness from the 
days of Wickliffe, and presented them in a glowing, genial 
light in his works. As the champion of religious liberty 
and the independence of the Church of Christ, all honour 
is due to his memory ; would that he could be venerated 
for his character and life ! He was an earnest and energetic 
man ; an enUiusiast and a genius. He pursued an erratic 
course, heedless of consequences. Bold and courageous 
bj impulse, rather than bj eonviction, he became a coward 

tas Bznx* Ain> tbdb OBOBCBSi nc bouamv. 4i9 

and quftiled before hia peneeuton. Hie troth had bo 
viul power in him. Ho acquired no mu^r fune, but 
died inglurioualy and disfpnced in Iha priaon, a warning 
and a beacon to eominff generations. 

It is surely with an ill graeo that ecclesiastical wiitcn 
reproach Noneonformitj for the errors and incouiiBtencies 
of Browne, sinco, all acapegraco ss he was. when ho repu- 
diated his ■eparatiiRi, he was welcomed into the church, 
was honoured with her preferment, and died in her fd- 

Mr. Harrison, the colleague of Browne, continued stead* 
fast to the end of his course, and it is believed died at 


now claims consideration. The dato of ita origin is un- 
recorded. It lias been conjectured tliat 1SU3 or ITiOl was 
(ho period of ila formation ; but prulNibilitics are rather in 
favniir of 1 HDD, lieintt nliout llie time when Krancib .ToHKMif 
and Hknri AiNSwoHTii became putomand tcucliera in ilmt 
ciiy. Jolinitnn, in liiii self-exile in 1^113. went to Middleburg, 
liccaino Knglisb preacher of tlie Puritan order, aiid ilicre 
manifested his opjiojtitiou to the Scpnnuists as described 
hy Mr. Wnddington.f lie could not Imvo been banished 
fnjm Irf»idon allcr liiit visit to Itnrruwo and <ln>cMwood. 
much nirlier tliiui IAl)0. llo Hrltlrd at AiiiHtvrditiii, and 
found Ainitworth tliorc. cvei^ way qnnlilicd lu bccuiiio his 
ONiiDriiito in niinisterini InUmr. They jointly fortncd a 
church of such Knglidh Sr iiuralists, both exiles and otliors, 
oa nero n<Nidiiig in tlint city. 

This cliurch, consiHling eventually of tlirce hundred 
members, was exceedingly uuhapj>y in ita history ; |>eT«ons 

* rUfFallcr'* Church History, book ix. page 168; Biographis 
Briunnica, lub. Una. ; X«al'> Uiiu Pur, voL i. psgo 301, Svo. Ed. 
1833 ; Brook'* Live* of th« Purituu, TOl. ii. page 366 ; I^b. Iliat. 
Mem. vol. i. chap. iL ; Ben, Undcrhill'* Pirocc to Broadmcad Ke- 



were united with it, whose characters became disreputable. 
Amsterdam was a common refuge for the persecuted and 
destitute. Hall speaks of it, contemptuously, as the com* 
mon harbour and sink of all sectaries, and that Johnson's 
church was formed of heterogeneous parties, entertaining 
all kinds of opinions. 

Beside the fact that Johnson and Ainsworth presided 
over it. little is known of the church except its contentions 
and divisions. Three secessions took place between its 
formation in 1600, and the year 1610, and on three differ 
ent grounds. 

The FIRST SECKssioN happened in 1604, and was oe* 
casioned by the marriage of Mr. Johnson with the widow 
of a merchant, who, being accustomed to genteel life, 
dressed according to the style and fashion of U)o circle 
to which she belonged. Mr. Johnson's father, and his 
brother George, who were both members of tlie church, 
with otliers, were scandal ixod at this apparent conformity 
to tlie world, and sought her exclusion from the church. 
This led to disputes, parties, controversies, and finally to 
the excommunication of Mr. Johnson, sen., Mr. George 
Johnson, and several others, whose doubtful characters 
had come to light in tlie course of the disputes. * 

It must have been a sore trial to Mr. Francis Johnson, 
as the pastor, in tlie name of the church to excommunicate 
his father and his brother : but the decision of tlie church 
was founded, doubtless, on just principles, and executed 
only after long delay, in the hope of reconciling the various 
parties. Mr. Ainswortli concurred in tliis excision, snd 
justified it as the only means of securing the purity anci 
peace of the church. 

The SKCOND SECESSION was tlie retirement of Rev. John 
Smyth and his adherents from the fellowship of the church. 
Mr. Smytli, an account of whom is given in formei 
volumes,! was the pastor of the Separatist church in Lin- 
colnshire, and came as an exild with many of his followers 
to Amsterdam, in the year 1006. They united themselves 
to Mr. Johnson's church, and remamed in fellowship till 

• Vuh vol. U. pa|;e ffO, note* 

t Vid$yoL L p«g« 462, note ; vol. Ui. pagt IM, note i with pagM 
168, 169. 





the unhappy dUferencM on MconntofMr.SniTtli'B change of 

opinion respecUng evangelical doctrine and infant baptism 
led to their aeceBsion. This controversy must have arisen 
■liout tlie time of Mr. nobinson's urriTnl in 1 1>0@, as it would 
sectii he retired to Xjeyden witl) his exiled company, io order 
tliot he might escajie from tlie broiU and contentions at 
Amstcnlom. Mr. Umyth embraced tlic doctrinal views of 
Anniiiiui respecting general rcilcmption, and advocated 
the practice of helicvci-s' nnd tululta' baptism, to the exclu- 
sion of infAiits from thnt ordinance. >Iellwissc and 
Murton cspouied his cause, and together witli Mr. Smj-tfa, 
left Mr. Johnson's church, and cstablislied luioiJier of 
their own in Amsterdam, which continued a few years, and 
tlien wa.1 broken up ; the principal pnrt of the people, it it 
siip|io!(ed, rctumiuj^ to Knglniid. This niovcmcni of Mr. 
Siiivth's orensioneJ a very gcmml conlrovfr*;-, in which 
Joh'uson, Ainhwortli, Clyfion nnd Ituhinnon took an active 
pnrt. The subjects of dcbiite at tlint period are not yet 
setlled. Calvinism and picdo-baptinni. as hcII as ihrir anta- 
gonist syxlcms, Mill conliniic, and the eoiitrovcivy on botli 
sides probably will not he tcnniimtcil till the clearer li}*ht 
of heaven shall reveal tlic tnith. ajul the rcopoctive parties, 
tlinii^h holding these diKsiuiilnr views, shall be ]ilaeed 
tngctlier in regions where no jirejudiec shall becloud the 
understanding, nor sin nlicnnto the afTeclinn.s. 

It is a rather lingiilnr fact, that zealous as wore Mr. Smvth 
and his friends for believen' hnplisni. nnd earnest ns were 
their ojiponnitM in belintf of infant bnpiisni, the riueslion 
of tbo mode of haptism wai never mooted by rithi-r parlv. 
Immersion hftjttisiii docs not appear to have heeii practised 
or plemled for by either Smyth or Hrllwissc, the alleged 
founders of the gencnd Ihiptist denomination in Kiigland. 
Nothing appears in their con tro vers ial writings to uaiTam 
the stipjwsition thnt they regarded immersion ns the ]>ix>per 
and €inly mode of administering that orJinonco. Inci- 
dental allusions there arc, in tlicir own works and in the 
replies of Robinson, that tlie baptism which Mr, Snivih 
perfornii-'d on himself must have been rather by affusion 
orponring. Nor is this snjiposition improljablc, fmin the 
fact tlint the Dutch Unptists, by whom thry were surrounded, 
unifonnly odmiuislcrod baptism by affusion. 



It is asserted plainly and unequivocally by the Baptist 
historians, Crosby, Ivimey, and Adam Taylor, as also by 
Hanbuiy, Brook, and other writers among the Independ- 
ents, that Smyth and otliors wdre immersed ; but sufficient 
grounds for believing that such was tlie fact do not appear. 

Before we proceed to the tliird division that took place, 
it seems desirable to give a brief account of the Reverend 


the colleague of Mr. Johnson, and teacher of the church. 
He was one of the most lennied and accomplished of tlie Puri- 
tans. Of his early history notliing is known. PcrKccution 
drove him into exile about 150;). He prabably accompimicd 
Mr. Johnson and his friends to Holland, but remained 
himself at Amsterdam, while Mr. Johnson proceeded to 
Middleburg, a.s tlie minister of the English church in that 
town. He resolved on obtaining a livelihood in any way 
that Providence might direcL Ho became a porter in a 
bookseller's nhop, where his taste and learning were soon 
discovered by his employer. It would be interesting to 
know whether he pursued his ministry while Urns engaged 
in his secular calling, and was at this time collecting a 
congregation over which Mr. Johnson and himself should 
hereafter preside. But history is at fault on this point. Con- 
jecture only can surmise, llis position as teacher only, 
and not pastor in the church, would afford him tlie oppor- 
tunity of engaging in other employments than those of the 
ministry. Jle pursued his studies, and composed many of 
llis works, while united with Mr. Johnson in the ministra- 
tion of tl)c church. A man of largo heart and loving spirit, 
as well as erudite and accomplished, he must have been a 
blessing to the people ; his soul must have been riven with 
distress, when he witnessed tlie contentions among tlie 
brethren, and especially when the providence of God seemed 
to necessitate his own separation from tlie Cliristiiui society 
of his friends. His works are numerous. Controversiid 
and Biblical Divinity compose the bulk of his treatises. His 
Annotations on tlie Pentateuch, tlie Psalms, jind the Songs 
of Solomon, are generally known and deservedly esteemed* 
His treatise on the " Communion of Saints,** is an admir* 





Me pcrformancfl. tnd discuvcra hii Christian spirit, tod 
liift iDtimittc AcquiunUmee with the Rocrcd omclcs. 

It won ihfl intention of tlie "WyelifTc Society," had it 
continued in cxiatcncc, to liavo reprinted tlic principal devo- 
tiiMial and pmctieal works of Ainswortli. But tlic entcrpriBs 
fkilinj;. no otlicr parties have been induced to take the rc- 
•ponsiliility of publishing tlicm.'* 

■ Viilt Uronk'i IiOTo of tha Poritaiu, toI, ii. p*^ 30fi ; life of 
Ain*w(>ith, prcftird to hii " Communion of Sunta," rcpri&tad in 
£iUnbur|;h, page ITBV ; Iluib. llist. Ucniarial*, rol. i, chapa. t., z„ 

Mr. lI*nbuT7 Iim dircclcU the aitcntion of the Ixlimr to an intra- 
ntiiiK ii«>>nKC mpcitinK Ainnirurlh, in Ur. W>iriliin;;tr>n*i thini 
klicr III Mr. lUnlili, uiiilrr Unto of June II, ICCO, incluilcd in a 
volume of " Miccrllanlra by Dr. Julin Wurtliin^on, Miiiie time Klnatcr 
of Jc*u> Cull^e, Cunbridec." publiahcd in London, I70( : — 

"There in *nfll1irr Aulhor, whoxc rnnainn are nuwi worthy to be 
retriftcil 1 I mran Mr. Ain«wc>itli, whoac excellent AnnoLilion* upon 
the I'eiituleurh, ke., aulHeiently diicovcr hin irrcut lonmins. and hi* 
mnul exai't nliH'rvation of the pnijwr iiliomt of ihc holj lExt, with 
every iuin and little of whirh he u-cnu to be a« murli nequnijiicd w 
■ny cf the >lniu>n;ihii of Tibcria*. I hare brcti luld that tlu'rc are 
Ihi'sc MSS. of hin, vii. hin Cinnment Ujion llnva, Notes u|Hin St. 
Miitlhew, and Noleo upon the Epi«tle to the Hebrew* ; whieh Initet 
lie wiu the mnre prcpareil for, by renwin of llic rnrnier latioura upon 
the I'entateurh ; the Epiillc to the Ilebnwi, beinK iloam unveiled. 
Mr. (Tule, ■ boak»cller at tlie l'riiitins-pre», in Uonihill, lold mo 
thnt he hnd once Ihene MRS. in hi* kccpin);, and thuu|>ht to h>t« 

Criiilod lliem ; but (hat a kinsman, or a ison, I do nol ao wdl remcm* 
err, of Mr. .Mnaworth'n, at AmRlcnlun, and John Conne, could not 
well ikinnv, either alnut the Ti|;ht uf dinpming the it>py. fir the price 
for ihe MISS. I hnve heani that Mr. Njrc, or iU. Jrtti-rj, knew 
wimethiti): nf ihcAC >1S^. ir tliey could be rceoTeml, ao tlicj be like 
tho oilier printed wnrki of the Author, it would bo a Rouil n-ork 
indeed, and niiclit be uf niiiciilnr u-e. X.iy, if Ihey be nut Ihrnu;;!)- 
nut M eomplclcd ■■ the Autltnr intended, }-ct the whole ia too cnod 
to be loiit nr embeuled. I'l'rhnp^ you or Mr. Dury may be nequaint- 
eil with tlic fimmentioned peraona in Kn^land i or eoulil hy aono 
undentnndinK pcrwtn* inijuire of thin busino* at ArnKtrrdam. If 
the MSS. ean be bund, and may bo purchased at a At rate, there ia 
no fear of beinK a loner; hi* other work* haiT alwaya aold well, and 
at a Rciiid price, and wrre bought by men of (lifll'Tcnt peniuaaiona 
from )iim ; who did cutcem him f>ir hii mwlcnty and ainituliir Icara- 
inn, >nd were much oblined to liim for bia akill in Jcwiah Aatiquitiea, 
lighting their eandlc by hi*. 

" Thu buaincM, I think, ia worthy of coufdciation." 
lleee worka do not appear to hare been recorered or 



On Uie removal of Mr. Robinson and liia friends to 
Jioydcn, and Bhortly after Uia retirement of Mr. Smyth 
and )iis party to anoUier part of Amsterdam, a dilTerence 
of opinion arose between Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ains worth, 
V respecting the eldoi*ship and church power, and tlie true 
interpretation of Matt xviii. 17, respecting excommunica* 
lion. Mr. Johnson would restrict cliui*ch power to the 
ciders and officers, while Mr. Ainsworth, like liis friend 
llobinsoir nnd all true Separatists, considered it as belong- 
ing to the whole society. The subject was discussed in tlie 
meetings of the church, parties were ranged on each side 
of tl)e question, angry feeling arose, and che Johnsonians 
were di8]H>Ked to exclude from fellowKhip all such as would 
not concur in the opinion of their pastor. 

So hopeless did reconciliation ap]>ear among themselves, 
that Mr. Ainswortli desired th^ counsel and advice of the 
church at Iicyden, and wished that a deputation might be 
. sent The majority, with Mr. Johnson, objected on various 
grounds to such a deputation ; especially, as deeming them- 
selves competent to settle tlieir own dillerenccs. 

Mr. Ainsworth, however, forwarded a letter to Ley den, 
signed by thirty of the members, in treating that Mr. 
Kobinson and some messengers from the church might 
be sent to hear the slntements of both ]>arties, and to a<lvise 
accordingly. Tlie messengers came : various jiropositions 
were considered ; one, tliat the respective ]mrticM should 
continue and worship together, the objectors having given 
in their protestation against the pnictico ado])te<l by Mr. 
Johnson nnd his friends ; nnother, tJiat the parties objecting 
might continue to hear at Amsterdam, but should unite 
with the clnirch at licyden, tliat church adojiting the prin- 
ciple contended for by Mr. Ainswortli ; a third and middlo 
coursov by way of compromise, as ])roposed by Mr. Robin- 
son, that all the business of the church should bo first 
considered and resolved on by tlie pastors and elders pri- 
vately, and then submitted to tlie church for confinnation 
only. None of these proposals gave satisfaction, especially 
as the Johnson party were urgent that the objectors shOnld 
remove out of tho city. Tlie subject having been under 
discussion twelve months, and no liopo of agreement ap- 



pcftrinK probable, Mr. Ainsworth and his adherents wiih 
drew from the cborch, Dueember Iftth and ICth. lC10,ao< 
formed a teparato aocictjr. The two congregations wer> 
M!vcn>Uy ilenignatcU hj tlieir cornmon enemies, Frsnciscai 
Brownistv, and Ainnwortliinn Brownbts, aceonling to tb 
names of ihrir reapectiro leaders.* 

The Hot. Richard Cltftox, «ho had gone orer to Hoi 
land, between the times that Smyth and Robinson ecTerall; 
exiled thcniKelrcs, and who had been asnociated with boti 
in tlia Separatist ehurch in the Midland Countries, waif ■ 
this period in connexion with the Amsterdun diurcli 
He took a decided part against Smyth in referenca to hi 
bap^miial ticwb, and wrote extensively and rigorously <n 
the suhject. in Uii " Ilea for Infants and Elder people 
concerning their Baptism," IGIO. 

He alNO coincided in Johnson's views respecting chuiel 
power, and, on the retirement of Ainswortli, b(»:nine asso 
ciated with Johnson in the pn-otorship of the chureh. 

" He was a grave and faiherly old man when lie came firs 
into Holland, having a great white beard : and pity it wk 
tlint duch a reverend old man should bo forced to leave hi: 
comitry, and at tliose years to go into exile. Hut it wai 
his tot' and he bore it palienlly. Much good hod he done 
in the conntry where he lived, and converted many to God 
by his faithful and painful ministry, botli in prcocliing and 
catechiHiiig. Sound and orthodox ho always was, and so 
continued to his end."t 

Differences agnin nroso in the church over which John- 
son and him»elf presided, after the retirement of Mr. Ains- 
worth. Lawno and his party having boon cut ofT for their 
impieties, tlicy published their " Ihofniio Schisra of tba 
Brownists," ^r., and " ItrowniNme turned tlie Inside Out- 
ward," i'c, and to which Mr. Clyftnn replied in his "Adver- 
tisement concerning a Book lately published by Christophar 

* 'llio controvnwjr between Johnaon uid Ainfmrth is referred to 
by Ned, Brook, Iluibuir, Fletcher, Young in hii ChTonicUa of the 
Pilrrimi, Stuart in bin Liii! of Ainiwonh, *nd more ftill j b j Clyftoa, 
in hi* " Advcrtitnnent," and Aini worth, in bii " Animadversioo " 
»« Cljrftin't Advcitiwmcnt. 
t i'iJ* Bradford Dialopics in Tovng'i Chnnii^ page 4H. 




Lawne nnd others,** 1613. To which work, in eonseqneneo 
of its allusions to Ainsworth's proceedings, Mr. Ainsworth 
replied in his *' Admonition.** 

He continued his mintoterial senrice till death summoned 
him to rest. 

Mr. Johnson remoTcd after a few years with a portion of 
his church to Emhden ; he subsequently returned to Am- 
sterdam, where ho died. 

&fr. Ainsworth oontinued in the pastorate over his flock, 
to which it is probable after the retirement of Johnson 
and death of Clyfton. the original church united itself, for 
13 years ; he died suddenly, in 1693, not without suspicion 
of having been poisoned through the covcteousness or 
malignity of a Jew in the city. He was succeedctl by Mr. 
Canne, who went out from England in 1634, and jointly, 
as some suppose, with Mr. de Lescluse presided over the 
church : while others conjecture, that the church was again 
divided, and that they became pastors respectively of the 
churches thus formed into two Christian societies.^' 

Ths Church at Leyden, 

Mr. Robinson removed wiUi his friends to Leyden in 
1600, and formed their church, as soon as tliey could 
assemble for worship, in that celebrated city. Tlie num* 
hers were at first comparatively small, but were gradually 
augmented by exiles from England and other parts of tlie 
United Provinces, till it was nearly as large as the mother 
church at Amsterdam, in its most palmy state. The pastor, 
with the older, Mr. Brewster, and the church, appeared to 
live in peace and harmony. They were frequently consulted 
by the church at Amsterdam, on occasion of the differences 
between Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ainsworth. 

A letter from the church at Amsterdam to that at Ley* 
den, on the subject of the differences, with Mr. Robinson's 
reply in behalf of his church, and the rejoinder, are preserved 
in Clyfton*s " Advertisement,** and are reprinted in the fol- 
lowing pages :— 

ftflKWiet to Hr. de LetcluM, paft W9 ttym. 


" hftUr/rom titt Cluirtk at AmtUrdam to tkat of Leydt*. 
" Beloved, touchiDg the things that liare now latelj- been 
spokfii of between tlie two churcbeB, jours and ours, aboDt 
the diHmisMion of luch, on either part, as ara not content 
with ])roleHtation, pcaecabljr to walk in their dilTcrence of 
judgnicDt, we liuvo occasion to entreat tlie conticun^co of 
your cnnRidcration yet furllicr tliereabout. Jst, Because 
yoiirsi'lveH sigiiificil it enmc suddenly upon your eliurcli : asd 
if either you or we minded otlKTwiiio by tlic Word of God, 
wc sliould after signify it : wherefore . wc expect to hear, 
whetlior you continue likemiudcd. as- heretofore. Snd, 
Bccan«c there is with tu a new motion of our walking 
togetlier tlius, by hearing one witli another, so as for peace, 
to permit of a double practice amon? us, that those that are 
minded either way sliould keep a liko course together, as 
we would do if wo we.r« asunder, according as tho persons 
shall be that have Uis. cnu!>cs. Which war, if it may be 
found wnrrantAble by. the Word of God, luiJ- peaceable unto 
and amon^.oiiritclvoii, we hope. all ihat love pcaco in holi- 
ness will accord. Theso things as wo are to consider of, 
so pmy we you to do tho like with us and for us, timt we 
may do tlint which is most to Cod's. glory oud our mutual 
eomfoi-t Tlius, Ac. 

" Amtterdam, Norember S, old HgU, 1010." 

" TIf/ity of tht Cliunh at Leyden to that of Am»trrdam. 
" Touching tlitf agreement, brethren, between the 
chiirchcH for our mutual' peace and tlie relief of the eon- 
sciences of otir brethrrn, we did and do re])Ute tho same as 
full and abaoliito on both sides, escrpt cither some better 
course can be thought on, or tliis manifested to bo evil, 
and tliat it be reversed, witli tho mutual consent oi both 
churches. And for tliis latit mo^on about a double prac- 
tice, OS we are glad of the great and godly desire to continue 
togctlicr, in it manifested, so we do not see, how it can 
stand eitlier with our peace or itself: but tliat it will not 
only nourish, but even necessarily beget endless conten* 
tions, when men diversly minded shall have business in 
the church. If therefore it would please the Lord so far 
to enlar^ your hearts on both sides, brethren, u Ibat 



this middle waj be held, namelj, that the matter of offence 
might first be brought for order, preparation, and preven* 
tion of unnecessary trouble, unto the elders, as the church 
goremors (though it is like we for our parts shall not so 
practise in this particular) ; and after, if things be not there 
ended, to tlie church of elders and brethren, there to be 
judged on some ordinary known day ordinarily, the admo- 
nition being carried according to the alteration practised 
and agreed upon by all parts, till it shall please the God 
of wisdom and Father of lights, by the further consideration 
and paities discussing of things, oitl)er in word or writing, 
to manifest otherwise for our joint accord : it would surely 
make much to the glory of Ood and tlio stopping of their 
mouths, which are so wide opened upon us in respect of 
our daily dissipations, and should bo to us matter of 
great rejoicing, whose souls do long after peace and abhor 
Uio contrary ; and that thus, walking in peace and holiness, 
we mig]it all beg at God's hands the healing and pardon 
of all our infirmities, and so be ready to heal and forgire 
the infii-mitics of one another in love. And with this 
prayer unto God for you and for ourselves, we re-salute you 
m Uie Lord Jesus. 

" Lfyden, November 14, 1610.** 


Reply of the Church of Am$tsrdam to that of Leyden. 

•• Your letter, brethren, wo received and read publicly. 
Concerning which wo have occasion to signify some things 
unto you thereabout. And first touching the agreement 
treated of between us, that for such of us as will not como 
thitlier to remain with you. but purpose still to live here, 
in this city, apart from us : albeit tliere be some that could 
be content, notwithstanding, so to dismiss them, yet there 
are others of us,' that having more considered of it, think 
it not lawful to have any hand in consenUng thereunto, 
and mean therefore to reverse our former agreement unto 
it ; besides tliat divers of us say, they never consented here- 
unto. And, further, some of us also begin to think tliat 
it will be found unlawful to keep spiritual communion with 
them in such estate, however we may still retain with them 
citU society. 

■ i 

* < 


■ J 

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I 4 














_& '•is.^ns 


ir : z iie »^»/rQ, 


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• • • 

,'. — u:s* -1*:=" ""rise ' 3 c» ... "w ica -ct?r • czsrsixnicnx 
"■■— rT:«:*T.;.'.ini z. z^iiLr ..3;-rmc«; ■: 'lii-znt^ni. 

••■ r. -s^ r* "T^ — "us. ;ur »i.k.n lit 7" kits rnm xs. 

"-.. "--•'- :•• .. -- ' .7^ y i.r — Pi liii^' Tnr:% ipun \;ji!ir 
:■■■ "^ ' w ■ .-■ .1-7 ;.t-:r -.-iiiG. uia u r*mt*nc. ind 

:.,» T ij.. -.- ;;ir"-.-. "lit- V'iicii * •' u'^ -wi HiUiitfii jt' is. 

fci":. - ■■:*::■ us-- -m ^-1.1: •» u:—iriinc 'ai -iid -vll :i" G-jii 
: r" ::. v.r -u...*. I oil T'lliuc, it* r'lui"^ w aI mrtfiva «:;,i 

ri*L. •*: ■» r .:•» Tr's^^n:, 4»imi» Ji* la zi'.n'A ..a* "j^itidr of --*. 
-21.1x1 ii" 1 iiu"".:i'j )«Il -ii! jr-Vinn L^'T.z:-^ i'^cn u^ v.H 
iiic i4i:n;:. u' ::. >"f!L.;.ir "V'.ll ^Utiy j'.t^i'i ^: tl:j^ sLJdltf 

-le .tM-ni?r -:..::r*. -: -iii::- ri-rJ:i!r «r..*;«i^'rit;or.. And 
jii«TS4:i!"ir .:. 'jfii:ki«!U i^t* Lcri v: d^<»poi§«f ot uj. our mm 
j». :uiic .id 'vui wirA i^ ji ;a« end ao uie iarthieraac« of his 



truth and peace of his church in Christ Jesus. To whose 
gracious protection and guidance wo commend you, &o. 
*'Am$Urdam, November 10, 1010.*** 

Some misapprehension having arisen as to the course 
pursued and advice ffiven, by Mr. ilobinson and tlie mcsson* 
gers sent from Leyden to Amsterdam, tlicy, at the request 
of Mr. Ainsworth, published the following document : — 


Tks Teitimony of the Elden qf the Church at Leyden. 

'* Though we much rather desired to have been mediators 
of the peace of our brethren, than witnesses of their strife, 
vet may we not, because that which we desired could not 
be effected by us, withdraw from that, which botli may, and 
ought by us to be done. We, tliercfore, being desired 
tliereunto by Mr. Ainsworth, and occasioned bv tJiat which 
boUi Mr. Johnson and he liave written, and takinir the 
evils which liave bofiillon others, as matter l>oth of hum- 
bling and warning to ourselves, do signify what we know 
and have found in our dealings thereabout. 

*' And First. Our special calling to intermeddle in this 
uncomfortable business, was a letter sent unto us by some 
thirty of the bi*etlircn there ; in which, mentioning in the 
beginning of it, their long and grievous controversy, they 
signified how tlicy had oft desired of the church to request 
our help tliercin, and that the elders would no way approve 
thereof, but would only permit our coming, citlier of our- 
selves, or at their request. Wherein tliey also certified us, 
how some of them had charged tlie ex^iosition of these 
words. *' Tell Uic Church,** Matt zviii. 17, Tell Uie Elders, 
with some other particulars thereupon depending, to be 
error ; and so were to prove their charge ; and therefore 
earnestly requested us to help in that great business ; that 
the truth might be maintained, and not by tlieir weakness 
injured, and the innocent condemned ; and that we would 
help the Lord against the mighty, &e. 

*' And the reason why they tlius earnestly requested our 

* ** An AdveftiBcment eonccming a Book lately publiihad bj Chris- 
tophtr Lswno and othcn, againat too exiled Church at AAttardam^ 
bj Biehard CkjUbn^ taaeber of the same Church*" 1612* 





TBB Exnn Axa xBcn CBOBCHn at bouaxd. 471 

help wu, bocaoH Mr. AiDtworth wu so spuing in oppoung 
of Mr. Johnton's tww doctrine (thougli ^Iwajs mislikuig it^ 
U Uiey Bcorce luicw how ho was miuiJcd in tlio tliinga ; m 
loUi WAS he to come to taij profcsBed and public opposi- 
tion with him, whom he raUier hoped to pacify by moden- 
tion, than by opposition to stop in his intended course. 
Besides, he was careful not to glvo uty cncourugomcul lo 
the too violent oppositions of some brelliiua, thou^ 
minded as tliojr were, in the things themselves. 

" This tlieir letter, and camest request in it, notwitlistand- 
ing, we went not, but wrote to the church, and showed them 
wliat tlie substance of the letter was, desiring by them to be 
informed how things stood with them, and signifying 
wiihal, our unwillingness to iateipose, but upon a due and 
necessaiy calling, and that, also as much as might be under 
the conditkous ot best liope of good issue. 

" Tliey, OS before, denied to approve of our coming, and 
would only pvmiit it, and that under Lhe terms of jealousy 
aitd ttJvuiiUtgu, as appcora by that which themselves have 
publiiitH'd ; and did oft and conicetly require of us a copy 
of tliu letter before mentioned, with the names of the i>er. 
sous subscribed unto it; which though we judged, and still 
do, an liurd and extreme imposition in itsvlf, considering 
tlicy tlicmsclvea bad permitted them to send unto us, and 
knew from us whereabout tliey wrote, and had nut laid it 
upon them to show tliem their letter before they sent it ; 
yet had we given way to their desires herein, hod it not 
been for one pbroMe in iJie end of tlie letter, which being 
bonvwed from Dcboroli's speech ogoiniit Siscro, Judges 
V. 2!), uitd applied as it was, miglit give olTctnce, and minister 
oecasiun of furtbcr suirc, which phrase also wc reproved 
in the writers of the letter, and they acluiowledgcd aiuiss ; 
professing, notwithstanding, they liad no evil meaning in 
It. but only a dosiro to provoke us the more effectually to 
sujiply tlieir inability against tliose with whom they had to 
deul. Now, for our withholding the copy of tlio letter, 
though since that time, for their importunity we sent it 
litem, as also for our purpose of coming unto them, and 
the ends thereof, wo will here insert what we wroto unto 
tliem in (wo several letters tliereaboot. 

"For the former thus: — 'If the letter whereof you d«sii» 




ft copy, might further your common peace, or procure good 
to any, we should easily answer your desire; but if, on the 
contrary, there were tlie least evil in it, we should hold it 
our duties to deal witli the parties offending ourselves, and 
not to discover their sin.* And loth would we bo either to 
minister matter of further scanning amongst you, or that 
any register of unkindncss should come unto you from our 
hands. And tlie fear of this was in truth tlie only cause 
why we refused to send this letter, as they required. 
Wherein if we failed, as we see no cause so to think, yet 
was it tlie error of our love, and great desire of their peace. 

*'About our coming we thus wrote: — 'Our purpose Uiere- 
fore is, according to the request of the bretlircn which have 
moved us, and our duty, to send or come unto you ; not 
to oppose any person, or to maintain any charge of error, 
but by all other brotherly means to help forward your holy 
peace (if so the Lord's will be) ; which how precious it is 
unto us, we hope to manifest to the consciences of all men; 
than which we know nothing in this world we hnve more 
cause to endeavour, botli with Qod and yourselves. Of 
which our coming we pmy you to accept, and to appoint us 
some such time, as seems to you most convenient. Whore 
also we shall satisfy you to the utmost, botli touching the 
letter, and other particulars in all equity, yea, so far as we 
can without apparent sin.* 

'* These Uiings, notwithstanding Uiey would not approve, 
but only permit of onr coming?, as men use to permit of 
that which is evil, and which indeed tliey could not hinder. 
And so we came unto tliem ; first of ourselves, and after- 
wards at the request of Mr. Ainsworth, and tlicm with 
him, being sent by tlie church, whereof we are : and so 
enforcing ourselves upon tliem, for the delivering of the 
church's message, did reprove what we judged evil in them, 
and that, we confess, with some vehemencv. And in tliat 
regard it was, tliat (upon the motion made by Mr. Johnson 
for tlie free dismission of such members with them, unto 
us, as could not there walk with peace of conscience, tliere 
lying no other cause against tliem, which should lUso be 
mutually performed on our part) we signified, as he writeth, 
that 'we little thought they had been so inclinable to peace, 
and that if we had to thought, we would have earriea our* 




church sinee we were officers, but we took knowledge of it 
before, either by mutual consent on botli sides, or at least, 
by the party accused ; with whose Christian modesty and 
wisdom we think it well sorteth, that being condemned by 
two or three brethren, he should not trouble the church, 
or hazard a public rebuke upon himself, without counsel- 
ling with them who are set over him, and who either are, 
or should be best able to advbe him. 

'* Thirdly, and which was the chief cause, we were without 
all hope of doing good, when they once misliked the 
motion which made it. Whilst tliey liked it, we had hope, 
though it were witli hard measure to tlie other, and so did 
furtlier it, to the utmost of our power ; but when tliey laid 
it down, wo knew all our labour would be lost in endeavou^ 
ing their second liking of it 

** Lastly, where Mr. Johnson affirmetli, tliat at the first 
treating of tlio matter, we conceived that tlioso by tliom 
dismissed should remain at Lcyden wiUi us, uotwitiistand- 
ing their want of means of living, it may well be, as he 
saitli, tliough we well remember it not And tlierein all 
men may see how we were even overcarried with a vehe- 
ment desire of peace with tlicm, and amongst themselves, 
and how far we were from being partial towards them with 
whom we agreed in the things in controversy. Yea, the 
trutli is, we were boldest with tliem, both because we would 
prevent ail jealousy in the other, and preserve in tliem all 
the interest we could for tlie common peace ; and also be* 
cause we were w^^ll assured of Mr. Ainswortli*8 great 
moderation, upon whom the rest did much depend. 

But howsoever we conceived at the Arst, it is certain 
tliat both tliey and we conceived otlierwise in the agree- 
ment; and, therefore, when one amongst them made 
exception, that we should not dismiss them back, which 
came unto us, to live a distinct congregation in the same city 
with them, it was presently answered, both by Mr. Johnson 
and Mr. Studley, that, tliat concerned not them, but that 
they would leave it unto us ; though that appeared after- 
wards to be the only thing for which they broke off their 
purpose and promise. And hero the work of God*8 pro* 
vidence is to be observed, that thepr who would have no 
peace with their brethren, abiding in the same city with 


them, m ibout to Imts it themKlres, and to seuls l(<«ir 
abode cUewhere. ^liich thing, tiut it migbt well come ta 
pus in short Ume, the; were bj us put in mind of beiat- 
band, if God gave them not again to re-unite, vhieb bj 4 
peaceable parting, might biTe been furthered. Which fao» 
much better had it been tbejr bad admitted of. all thmgi 
conudered, than throogh extreme Blfvitness in theouebes 
(not to meddle with the m«in eause) thus to hare mad* 
their brethren tbetr adTeraaiies, and thenuelna. yea. and 
u all, a bf-word to the whole worid. 

"JoHx IloBunox. 

"WiLLUM UaewnxB."* 
Mr. JuhnsoB having written "An Answer touching ths 
Uivinion," ic containing au animajvcniion on a j-nwtFt 
iu Mr. Itobinson's rcpljr to Ucninnl,t ies|>ectiug ehur^ 
antliority, which was so stroDgl^- dubatcd nt tliat time, Mr. 
Aiuiwuiili colled Mr. llobiuMUt's s|H,-cial aucntion to it, 
and desired him to suMwer it 

" Mr, Roliinton't Atinrer. 
" Because Mr. Johnson halli in his 'Answer touching the 
Division.' J expressly uwcd mj- hook against ilr. liemarJ. I 
think it meet U> insert a brief answer to his e^cei>uons, as 
followctli. Ho there writedi thus — 

" ' %\1icrcas we hud Iconicii sud professed that Clirist wss 
the only king and lord of his cliurcli, and had left unto it 
sniuii); men, but a niiiiistcriul guvcniment. uud tliut all ilie 
miUitiidt! of tJio niGmbuni. tliu soiiiu ought to ubi'y, and 
submit to (lie clder^liip in cvcr^- diurcli. Kuw wo have 
latelj- been Liuglit, iJiot tlic pcoi)lcm kings huve power one 
over oiioUicr, and tliat the saints being kings lu-u suix-rior 
to their olliccrs, because the order of kingii is Uic highest 
order in the church, ie. Also, that tlio church may in 
relation to the officers being sen'ants therein, be colled a 
lord, Ac i ' and for this he quot(.-th mj book, adding that 
I ' advance the people one above another as lungs, 
entitle them with kingly and lordly power iu the out> 
ward policy and affairs of tlie church, by which aa the 

* Tiit Aliuiratth'i AnimadTcnun to Ur, lUchsid ClTftoB. ttt. 
psgta 111— 136. f yUtnUii. ptget III, SU. { Jf,gt 17. 



prelates on the one hand, so the people on the other hand 
become idols.* 

'* Acknowledging the former and latter part of that, he 
saith we have formerly professed, I except against the 
middle clause of the sentence, in sundry respects. First, 
in that he draws the question, which is about the power of 
Christ in the church, common to all, to the government 
and guidance of the church in the use of this power, which 
is peculiar to the officers; which may also more clearly 
appear to him that reads tlio places he quotes in the mar- 
gin, wherein he concludcth, though more covertly, a double 
untruth ; the one, that, because the government of the 
officers is only ministerial and not kingly, therefore there 
is no kingly power left unto the church, or communicated 
with the saints for tlie suppressing of sin : the other that, be- 
cause the officers are the only governors of the church, and so 
by us acknowledged, therefore tliey only have the power of 
Christ And thus he would closely wrap up the church's power 
in the officers* government, and not be seen in it For the 
clearing tlien of the difference between government and 
power, it must be considered, that by government may 
either be understood the whole dispensation of Christs 
kingly office, whether inward or outward, whether by him- 
self or by others; and so this power we speak of is compre- 
hended under it as a part thereof. Or. it is taken more 
strictly for the guidance and ordering of tlio church in her 
public affiiirs, and the administration and execution of 
them ; and so it appertaineth to the officers, and is clean 
another thing than the power in question. For the proving 
of this difference, the apostle Paul writes to the whole 
Church of Corinth to excommunicate the incestuous man, 
by the power of the Lord Jesus Christ 1 Cor. v. 4, 5. This 
power he would have tlie whole church to use, but yet 
would not have tlie whole church to become governors, nor 
to take upon them government, but the officers only ; by 
which it appeoreth Uiat government and power ore diverse 
things. I do further add, what if the whole eldership should 
be charged by two or Uiree witnesses, with heresy, blas- 
phemy, or the like crime, and complaint thereof be made to 
the church? Mr. Johnson, in this his Answer,* eonfesseth 

• Page 17. 



■ r 




t ii 


■ •■ 

that the church (he would be asked whether women and 
cliildrcn or no) may depose all her officers jointlj, persist- 
ing; in transgression, though in tlie same place he mince 
Uie matter too small, in saying Uiey may depose, or refuse 
ihoin, and separate from them ; and again, refuse tliem. 
^Vho^ea9 to depose, and to separate from, or refuf^e, are 
very diverse; for first to separate from the eldersiiip requires 
no power, but liberty, and therefore may be done by one 
man or woman, upon just occasion : so cannot deposition 
be upon any occasion, but by tlic church ; for which depo- 
sition of uil the ollicers of tlio kingdom of Christ, the 
church, a man would tliink tlie power of Christ were need- 
ful, and that by it such a judf^ient should pass out. Be- 
sides, the church in deposing her officers, doth not separate 
herself from them (to speak properly), but tlicm from her. 
Well, to take the least liberty ho will ^vc the people. If 
they may separate from all tlieir oflicers. persisting in 
transgi-ession. then they must receive tlie complaint ofsin. 
which is orderly brought, and by sufficient witnesses, 
against them, and must examine and judge tlie matter. 
Now. if it argue power to receive a complaint of sin against 
one brother, and to examine and judge it, and so to censure 
him by excommunication, if there be cause : doth it not 
also ar^uc power to receive a complaint of sin against all 
tlie oflicers, to examine and jndge it, and so to censure 
them, as there is cause, by deposition ? But what now shall 
the elders do accounting themselves innocent, and wrong- 
fully accused, whilst the church tlius examineth things, and 
judgeth of them? Shall tliey surcease their government, 
and fail the church in so great a need? and would Mr. 
Johnson so practise ? or arc they not now to do a special 
work of their government, not only in preserving order, 
hut in directing, instructing, and guiding tlic church by the 
Word of God in her whole proceedings? By which it 
appcareth, tliat judging of sin, and power to suppress it, is 
one tiling ; and government for the right use and ordering 
of the same, another thing. The officers which are judged 
do govern, and the body of the church which judgetli them. 
18 governed by tlicm. We may yet further see tliis differ* 
ence even in the lordly governments of this world, and that 
both in peace and war. 





" In the civil government of our own land, than the which 
none in the world, in the right use of it, is more excellent 
when a malefactor comes to he arraigned at the assizes 
or sessions, he is to he tried hj his country (a competent 
company, where all cannot possihly pass upon him), 
which they call the iury, whose power and sentence is of 
such force, as that the lord chief justice himself, and all 
the hench with him, cannot proceed against it, either for 
the quilting or condemning of the person ; and yet the 
hench govemeth the whole action, and the jury is hy them, 
according to law, to he governed. I wish the elders with 
whom we have to do would allow the hody of the church 
the like liberty at their sitting, as they call it, that is, at 
their spiritual sessions ; or rather, that they would better 
consider that they aro as ministers to stand and serve, 
and not as lords, to sit and judge. Numb. xvi. ; 3 Chron. 
XXXV. 3 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6. 

'* Lastly, when an army is sent against the king's and their 
own enemies, the government is in the captains and 
officers, but so is not all the power for fighting with, and 
subduing of their, and their king's, enemies. Keitlier is all 
the power of the church, which is an army with banners, 
in Uio officers alone, fof the subduing of Christ's and 
their enemies, sin and Satan, tliough the government be. 
Thus may the difference plainly bo seen betwixt power and 
government; in tlio opening of which I have been the 
longer, 4( because, 1. I think it a main ground of our con- 
troversy. 2. Our oppositcs do much insult over us, as 
speaking contradictions, when we yield the officers all the 
government, and yet deny them all the nower. 3. The 
weaker sort are much misled, and carried away through 
want of discerning this difference. 

" I proceed to a second thing, and affirm that Christ hath 
not left to the church among men only a ministerial power 
(which he confusedly calleth government), as he saith. He 
haUi left the Word of God, and gospel in the church, which 
is lively, and mighty in operation, piercing even to the 
dividing asunder of the soul and spirit, &c., Heb. iv. Id ; 
3 Cor. X. 4, 6, ruling, and reigning in and over the very 
heart! and lives or men; binding their consciences, and 
• rid^ voL ii. JTiutit of Scpantkm^ pagss 141— 144. 












bringing into capttTity ererj thought to the obedience of 
Christ. I know men can only minister tliis power, whether 
in doctrine or discipline, as Uiey speak ; but it is one thing 
to say the power is only ministerial, and another thing, 
tliat men can only minister it ; for men may be the minis- 
ters only of that power which is kingly and lordly in itself, 
and so over men, as this is. So the saints can only 
minister their kingly power, by participation of Christ's 
anointing, an one special grace tliey hare receired; of 
which more hereafter. 

** Now in laying down the things wherowith he chargeth 
me, he alters my words, misinterprets my meaning, and 
conceals that which I have written ; and he read in my 
book for the explaining of tlie same. 

" And first he saith, I have taught that the people are as 
kin<:s one over another; tliat I advance them one over 
another as kings, and above their governors, entitling them 
with kiii«3y and lordly power (tlmt is government, as he 
explains himsolO In the outward policy of tlic church. 

*' 1 ilo not in these places, or any other, advance the people 
one over another, much less over tiicir officers, in the out- 
ward policy of the church, that is, as he explains liis mean- 
ing, ill Uio government of it I do eveiywiicrc profess 
the oilicors the governors, and the pooplo tho governed 
hy them. 

•• Ncitlior do I anyi^hore affirm that the pooplo are kings, 
or as kings one over another, as ho chargeth nic. I say in 
one plaoo,^' tliat the saints are not kings for thems«2lvesi 
alone, \mi for their brethren also ; as they are not priesta 
only for themselves, but for their brethren. And in 
anoUier place.f that every one of the faithful is a king, not 
only to himself, but to every other member, as he is a priest 
and a prophet. &c. Hero is a king one for another, and 
one to another, biit not one over anotlier, much less ovei 
the officers, for government, in the external policy of the 
church. The plain and simple trutli then, is, whatsoevei 
men either mistake of ignorance, or suggest of an evil 
mind, that we do not call the saints kings in respect oi 
outward order and government, as though they were U 
order and govern the church in her public affairs, which U 

• Kirfi YoL ii. page 237, t ^H* 1*0. 


the work of the officers; but as they are partakers of 
Chri8t*8 kingly anointing, by his Spirit, common to the 
head and the members, and so kings by participation, and 
endowed with kingly power for the conquering and subdu- 
ing of the power of sin and Satan, not only in themselves, 
but in their brethren' also, by the sword of the Spirit, the 
Word of God, which they are to minister unto them, as all 
other graces in their order. 

'* And this meaning being held, it may safely be taught 
that they are over one another, that is, to watch one over 
anoUier, and so as kings to conquer their spiritual enemies, 
one in anotlier mutually. But I will rather insist upon 
mine own words, ** for or to one another,** as being most (it 
to show that communion of the saints in tliis grace, as iu 
the rest, which he also in all equity should have done. 
And tlius I will prove this royal communion of the saints. 
And for tlicm that make themselves merry herewith, let 
them suffer me to speak, and when I have spoken, let 
tliem mock on. Job xxi. 3. 

** And first, it must bo observed, tliat the place and scrip- 
tures which Mr. Johnson notes in our Confession, to prove 
Christ the only king of his church, pi*ove him as well, and 
that truly, to be the only priest and prophet of his church. 
And if notwithstanding his sole prophecy and priesthood 
peculiar to him, as the head, the saints may be prophets 
and priests as members, by communication, they may also 
be kings by communication, notwitlistanding his peculiar 
imperial power. And so the Scriptures testify that he hatli 
made us kings nnd priests unto God, even his Father, and 
so our Father. Rev. i. 0; and v. 10. 

** But it will be answered, tliat Christ hath made us kings 
to resist, subdue, and conquer our spiritual enemies, sin, 
Satan, this world, and our worldly lusts, by the sword of the 
Spirit, the Word of God, and tlie work of the Spirit, in and 
by tlie same. Eph. vi. 11, 17. I grant it, and thereupon 
conclude, that since God's people are also by the same 
weapons and means to resist and subdue the power of sin 
in their brethren, they are also kings in the same respect 
unto them. 

*' The saints are Christians, Acts xi. U6 ; Bom. xiv. 4, 5 ; 
1 Gor. zii. *i7, and that for, and in respect one of another. 


1 :i 

/ I 


1 ; 

* li 

I : 


TiiE EXii£9 Asro rnnin chcbcucs ix bollaxd. -i 

AS members under Christ, one of onotiier, and theref 

kingA. For to be a Cliristian for another, is notliixag € 

but by participation of Christ*^ oiioiutin^, to be a prit 

prophet, and king for another. Add unto this, liiat wi; 

sopvcr grace any member of the bodv hath received, ii 

for the use and cdiiication of tlie rest, and so in onier to 

Aihninlstcrcd by him as a good disposer of the grace 

God. I l*ot. iv. 10. And must this roval grace then. «bi 

tbe saints have received, find do time nor pLice for t 

dispensation of it unto others ? 

'* When a brotlier comes to subdue, and make conqacst 
some spiritual enemy, or sin, appearing in his broths 
cither privately or