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ArroH or "HOinui FAnmu," "itohb or Tunom," "timr 

d^ ^bda aati Ante, 







lionalljr cooaocLciJ b rabJAit; their ajm bcbp u> Ht ouu arCwomuo 
[vlndpliv of art En dmf 1c bghi hcfant riin gfinnriu Hriidfrnt, uift to indi* 
at« QbBir pruticd bo«nng od ini><lvm iiMign, Tbc Uw wbicb it hM 
bwt mj «J!RjnduJly lo iUuilnto im i];c d«|icm]iiui« oToIl ut^ble datgu, 
ID B»y ktnJf ao tfa« Molplar* or paiatiap; of Orfj^ifiio Form. 

TLb U iho Tiullftvr; ^^K *^ ^ ^^^ ^^ *^^ ^^ I li*^4 fi^vr InH 
lo iMoh r«ip«etifig *rohit*Jt£fi or &nj other jirf, U a «!■» iii« U« 
iiuit gobcnllj diMDo^«4. 

f bcUoTc Ihb oujc b« m> bi erorj mI^mL TVo ip* ftll or us willuig 
tma^ to vo«^ ifaftd iraUa ar blualODv; whicb eta U fiU«J honn- 
liafj hva qan oiiiia!^ or ihiouduJ untH a>n;nvil at uiioa oui -jT the 
triv w« boldlD0 oonpboviitl^ tbj) evmoury keft, adi] fuppoimg w« 
yara kvrw^ aomotHnir- Buia«^in|- uutb, with cattb at iU root 
iBd bloHom an ll^brtnohoi; or a iNaohnnt tnith, that can out itt WJiy 
tiiFM^b l«ri»aa<^ w^; iito«l t&»a, it uutui to mo, dulik* Uio *iff^t oi 
«<ttriaUiKKni«(lf bf aajmraiitMdiGvralurTiBiuii luarbvavviiliML 



And, indeed, thta Ls no wonder ^ for one such tmth, tlioroughlj lOCeptad 
coQU^^te itself straagcly ^tb others, «id there ia no njing ^rtut H 
may lead V19 to. 

And thus the gist of what I have tried to imch About >roh]teetai« 
boa been throughout denied by my ftrchitect> raadera, even when tbsy 
thought what I eaid suggedtLve in other ptrtioolan. " Aoyilutig bot 
tlmt, Study IialiHQ Gathio 7-— perhaps it would be u well : bmid with 
poLoted orchea? — there is no objection: naa solid stoDo uid wdl-bomt 
brick ?-^y all means: but-^cam to oarre or punt orginlo fbrm oti^ 
■elTedl How can auch a thing b« aaked? We ftre sbore eH thai 
The ourers and painters are our Ber^ants — quite subordinate peO|de. 
They ought to be glad if we leave room for tJiienu" 

Well : on that it all turnsL For t^ose who wiQ not leam to carro or 
paint, and think themselves greater men because they cannot, it is 
wholly wasted time to read any words of mine ; in Che truest and 
sternest sense they can read no words of mine ; for the moat funililT 
r can use—" form," "proportion," "beauty," ^^currature," "coloor^— 
are used in a sense which by no effbrt I can communicate to snch 
readers \ and in no buildiiig that I pruae, is the thing that I prusa H 
for, visible to Uxem- 

And k is the more necessary for me to state this fully; becaon 
*0-called Gothic or Romanesque buildingg are now rising every day 
around us, which might be supposed by the public more or less to em- 
body the prindples of thoae styles, but which embody not one of the^ 



IP put tUi gieiA Lit, and one or '.wo coUftlctkl onc^ io Icoa loifUmb^ 
it| lacurlu^ «TtD In thj> irfoguUf fi^mi «t kut dcaraett oT itfvrtios. 
for tl>« rcBlf lb« qocetioo »t imu* i« ikot oa» to ^ tUciilud Ijy ugu< 
auot, fast faj ftxperimont, ivUch if the rmdor U diaidoUded lu tOMkn. 
■H dfioUMteOMi coixct bft UfcUoa to Iuul 

Tha Udum *m Ihr ih« m\.M {Mrl priateJ a* bay w«r« roftd, nflod* 
0g onlj obaooTf MfllcQOM hore and llion. Tba p«rt« wluob wm 
tnuted to «xtcaipon t^toJiuiit mo tujjplLod, ta vroU u I ata rcmombct 
(doIj iHlh ft* addltlan hAn* Mil f)iAr» of riling* T fnr|^t to wr), in ihi 
woeili, or ai IcMt tkc kiodof nc-rda, uEwd aI Ike timo; aikd^boy ooa- 
IKXL, ai «a «Tciit% tlM subsUur? of w^at I said man unnntely Ihur 
tnmMd joufnol report I rouJi t>o|( 1117 rcodnr* oot in k*'^'*' to tnut 
lowcb. r9r«T«a in &H ajiMkiuc I u-jiouwwv)^ urvfLitly ; ^riiltu^ 
ftll«mion et Vt^newon will imnelmiM imvilvo t great h^MrtlJoa in 
iMBii^n^ A lUUa *rln1o ^^1 lud ti> hpu^ ir^aii ftrdihrcturd iloalkfu. 
and oaDod It " elp^nc^" meininf^ feundfd oa ^ctod And well '* o^octcd" 
Bwida: tbo printed report Raro ^■c9«Ll«iit'' deaign (Uiat i» lo saj, 
dcaij^^ mnffiflrV g"o^. «bkih I did not m<nn, uid ihauld, qtcq In Utn 
DMHl borriod ipaakiDg^ dcvct baio uid. 

1^ tBoalralJtfDa of Uio locC^nrou trwi wnro aketcLeaioade too rwightj 
it> b* engnvBl aod jet ot too obbar«to <izbj«!i la allow Af nxy drai^ 
ttifr liinn oooiplatalr. Tboa* now aubsljtoted «riU, bovuror, uLswer 
the pnrpoce dcbHj aa in% aoil arc mor« dl/ootij cnnnncLol irlth iha 
mgacta «f Ibo pr«40ditig I«etur«a; ao lii^t I bop>^ OiroijghoQt lb« 
vdaott d» aSndaat ■rtll p«rorir« u insutaaoa opoD ano oialn tnitK 
caa loa« la aj Eoicof diractiaa of i&qnitj tho auuo of Uia taapoui 



faiUly wlodh Um acoeptuuB of Ant trath bBbana apm Unij 
luli^ ft>r dioicc^ dedriTe and ooiidiunTe, botween two oioda of stadj 
whidh involva ultimatelj the derelopuMQ^ or de«detiiii^ of otbij 
poorer he poBsesses. I h&TO tried to hold thit ohoioe dearij o«t to 
\aiOj and to unTeil for hizn to ila &rtbeat the iame of hu tondng (o th^ 
ri^t hand or the left Gnida bo 111117 ^^^ ^""^1 *^ "^ tna&j ; but 
■H Ulam will be in rain onion he haa first raoogniaed the honr and tha 
point of life when the way dividea itael^ one way l«idLEig Ut the Olive 
nogntninfl-ooe to the vale of the Salt Bea, 1%ere an fow era* 
Toadfl, that I know o^ fnm one to th« tthar. Let hsn pMtS it Am 
partiog of Tai two PAToa. 


Eatmm I Hm Dflterionthre Poirer of Ooanntioiial An 

Nst^oi^ . , , il 

LKTuaE n The Unity or Art, ,,,,;• OS 

tiECTURB IIL Uodem Manufacture and Dwgn, , . . ^ 78 

LbTTOBB IT- Tha Influonce oT ImagluatJDD in ArcbEteotnn^ . 113 

LzcrcftS T. Tba Work of Iron, in feature, Ait, ud PoIh^, . IBl 




- NATlO&tS. 


As I passed, last summer, for the first time, through the 
north of Scotland^ it seemed to me that there was a peculiar 
painiiilaeBa in its Bcenery, caused \yj the non-manifestation 
of the powers of humaa art I had never travelled in, nor 
even heard or conceived of such a country before; nor, 
^ough I had passed much of mj life amidst luouQtain 

• A few introductory wordp^ in which, at the opening of this leo- 
ture, I IhAakcd the Chairtoui (Mr. CockereEl), for his support on (he 
' OCC«don, and Baked bie pardon for any hasty exprossiona in my writ- 

higg, which oiight have aeemed discourteous towards him, or olLur 
architects wbose general opiniona were opposed to mine, mar be found 
by those who care for preamblea, not much misreported, m the Build- 
ing ChrtMide; with aucb conuueata as the genius of that jourDal wu 
likely to nggeflt to it. 


cbixriovulttts povtka op 

[L8CT. t 

aoenery in the south, vas I before a\^re how mncTv of iti< 
clmno il(;pcTiiicd on the Lttlc ^^icduliic^ui^ti and tender* 
nesscBofhuiujuiworkf which fin? minglod witL ihebciLUl^of 
tJie AIpA, or ipiLTcd by tlivir dt^i^ktioa. It b tnio th&t thf 
art which cArrcA and colours ttic froLt of a Swiss oottago ii' 
cotOifany very exfll^kind; jetiti^stiflcstoUie corQ]detd-j 
Etca AacI the delicacy of tlio fnoultic.iof the mountiuiiccr 
It ift true ihal Uie tvMifinTiis of tower and battlemenl, wUkih 
afford footing to the wild riuo on the Alpine protnoaitory-|^ 
fiirm liut n jtrnall piirt of t)w ^r»it !u<rraLiiin iif iitt rcic3cM. 
mid yet It id jnet that &ngmcDt of ihcir l^rokon outline 
which gives them their paLhi^ic powi^, and hiatoruul 
miijf^y- And this <»lom<*nt among iho wiids of our own 
conntrr I found wholly \vaiiting. Tho HtghliLxid cotUge 
ia 1it<;r«])y n bcnp of gniy xtriric^ ehohod up, ratfaur UiftO 
roofed over, wUh black pent and withered hcathor; 
cnly apjiron^ih to nii ufToi't n dr:uijinitic>n L-unsistd in 
placing of th-i clods of prot*>etivo peat obliquely AT* -ts roo^j 
Hit? afi to give a diagonal nrmngcinf^ct of lines, 1o<}htng somi 
what ax if the surface had U'cu seorci! over by a gigfiotii 

And, i\i Irjuct itnidiig tho norther!; hills of f'efilland, r-l^^^^ 
neotd of tnoro aociont arehit^tural ]nt*)n7«t aro eqtiaJly^^ 
dniortL TliG solitarjr pocl-hoiifc is lardly divcerniblc by 
' \u9 windiags of th^ «tn?am \ the roo11>>^ ainile of tho prior; 
s IcHt amon^ tho endo^^ir^ of the vilta^ ; iLnd the eapat*! 
lily nf thr Qigldands, Itivemi^ pUctd whrrp ft might 




eiuioble aae uf iUr hwit-U*hI lanONraipisi, Anri by (Tic rtiors of 
Oftoof lhoIoraii<Hloeiiurtce io tlio v^^rld;— pluccdb«twoen 
%lie cn»la of iho Qmi]ij>imia ind tlii^ ftiiwing of tbc Morny 
P>nK as if it wer^ a j^^vel cLMpieig Uu; folftji af ihn mouii' 
tBui0 to Uio blue zono of tiK «iMi^ — ic ooly difltinguiehablD 
from a diflUace by one aniilaLi^tuiul ri^ul.ur^ mkI r-.tnlbi nil 
Lho surrounding JandAOupe by no otbor tutf^ciatioits tbnii 
those wIiH^h CAa be cooncctcd wilb itd luuik^xQ dtfttoUutcd 

While Uicflc oonditioDB of Scoltiali eccncry ilfti'4gi] mf 
very puiufully, it betug ihc iuxL time in mv Hfv tbal T hiid 
b^m Id any oonntry poasowing no voltiablo moDumoaU or 
exntiiplaft of nrl, they aIao foriM^d m« into tkd <ioTiaid«ratiGD 
of ooe or two difUcult quuelloiu rcsrpoctmg the eflvct of art 
oa the hunum mmd ; and Uiey forced thceo qacetiona upoa 
OM eminently fhr tbin rcafun), ih^t wliili^ I vum wntidcriiig 
dltfconaolakjy among tbo moois of ibo GmmpiMLei wh«ro 
Uwra WW no urt to be fiiunfl, new9i of jxH^uli^tr lEit^nsit wvtre 
ov«ry day amving from a coantiy whard th«r« was a gr^it 
deal of ntt,[uici artof uddioate kmd, to be found. Ainocg 
Um modeta set before you in thU inaniitation, and in tho 
Dthomcfitabliabcd tlirougtioat iho kingdom for tho icncbiitg 
M design, tlifrro are, I nuppuHi', ni-ini^ in thf*lr Tcirid nians 
^Imirablo tban llio deoorat^d works of Indin. Thoy arcL 
iodMcl, in all mati-ti^i!* oaittddn t^f coluur, wiHtl, Jiiaiblt^ ot 
mclaJ, alm<^«L inimiublo in tbmr d«)icato npplic^atjori of 
diridcd hu^ and fino amogoneDt of J&aULAtic bno* Nov 




is tliiA p9wor of than exerted by tlio peoplo loicl;, oi 
vr>Lhom«-ujojrm«»l; tlie loviior eubtle dtiaign amms oat 
TOisol in ^c noAy and in clwoloperl iu frr^ry im^voMiiL 
bli&t tbcjr ahai^c, and overjr building tbfit the/ rnisc; b 
•dttcbes iuolT with tke sumo intensity, and witL tli« um« 
lo the service of suporaUtiou, of plcoxuiv or of 
cruelly; and enriches alike, willi one profusion or«»L;iianted 
indotoCDOc, the domo of tho pagodu, th« Mn^ of tb^ gvdl^ 
and the edgo of tlie »irord. 

So iten you have, in thew two great po|)ii]adoTia, Indian 
and lligliland— in ibo r&cc« of tbc jungle Dnd of tlio bioot 
—two n:LUoual capaclues diatpincUy mid accur&ti^ly opposed. 
On tliD one aide you havo a I'ace rejcnuinj^ in &rt, 
eminently Eind iiLtivcreoIIy cnicwed with tbe gift of it; od 
the othor yoa haw a puoplv oiirel^Aa of tx% and apparentJy 
inoapablo of it, their utmost effort Li^^icrto rcdchiog ik« 
&rthur tUan to the varialion of ilie poaitiona of iIi* bare of 
eo!our in square chequers. And wo ore thus urged 
^DatiJinlly to euquire wUat \a the eCfeut on tlie moral 
'4)baniQier, In each nfitioo, of this vast didcavnce in Uiaii 
pumuitA find apparent capacit.iL-4» ? and wbotlier tboee nid« 
chequeraof the lartan, or iht^ i^xr\}twuAy fancied involu- 
tions of Uk Caflhincrc, fold habitually over the noblcal 
bcaria? IVu }iuve bad our nii^ni^r. S^liicw tlu.' nica^ ui moo 
'^gau iu oour»o of ran or this cfirth, nothing has evirr bwo 
done by it 60 aigmflcatiye of all bcM^li And lower than 
^fil dcfrradaiion. fat tlie octf of Ihelndiaa tnco id ik 


Bed- ' 

OD * 



liKir. l] 

coxvEsnoyAL ABr. 


jCATthatlujijtutpawcd by* Oracltjaaficvce may indm] 
IttTo boea wi^^cd, auxl LruuUvv net alx^iniiiAi>iltT 1n-i>q 
pncaiaod bcC^rc, bat n«v%r un'W liko GirounutaaoQA; rn^ 
of proloogcd w», ft:id rcaentmcDt of proloag«d o|^r^oa, 
fciTe rai^e m«n mr cnicl before now ; &nd gnulual dcdina 
toto bi^bansno, wh^rc iu» exsunplca of decency or dviUsi- 
tioa «xi*tai) Bromvl iLein, has &uak, before nuw, isobtod 
popalatioiM to the lowoRt Icrol of |>o«aiblo hucnuiity« But 

\ly str«tich<«d Co ito fic(rc60t «gundt the gentle and un- 
axid oormptioa Ccttcivd to ii* loilhsomoct in tb« 
of tlie witooeaog pivdcncc of a diMupliaod civOiEft- 
lion, — tboo W9 could not lutv« Icnuwn to be witlitn th<i 
praciioablo oornpOB^ of humniL guilt, but fbrtho note of tho 
Tiuiiin multitvux. Ami, hk thuK, oti iVt-ozie liaod,^ou titivt? 
all dxtj^md etiejgj of boMDom displayed by tbeo^ lowra 
of art; OQ tfao o4lierr**4is if to put the queatton bto the 
lianowost compasi— joq have hui aa extn^me energy of 

ic du^lnyod by tbo dcepbcrs of art* Among all tho 
■oldien to whom yrtn nwr; your viclJirioi in Uir Oiimcttf 
aikd jour avcsgiDg >ri the Indite, to noao ore you bouad 
by closirr bonds of gratjtuds llinn W thr mrjn who Iiaro 
bc«n boni and bra<l Among thoae duaoUte Highland moora. 
And tbofl you have ibe dilTi.-Tcncra in oap«cUy and oiroum- 
between the Ivo nations, nnd tli*.^ difference in rraiuli 

the moral habita of two Dation?, put into the moal 

tUleaiil"th« most palpable — tlie most brief oppoeiLion. 
Out of tfao peat oottag'? owitia Hth, ooun^ aelf-docriflco 




purity, knd jnctj, nnd wli.ttcvcr v)^- i« &uitfo1 in th« work 
f>r llcavcri; out of iJi« irory pakce come Uwichery, 
::riii?lijr, cowordloi*, idobtry, beetialtty, — wbalercr elio It 
Truitful in the work of ilolL 

But iJte ilifUEiulty iloot not done here. Tnyrn oiw 
in«tanc^\ of however gr?at fippoi^nt forc^ it would be 
who!lj unfiiir Vj j^Tilher arij geticnO conduaion — wlidljr 
ilTa^jc:i1 to Twu*n llint bccjitiae we had odcc found lovfi of 
arlcouu^t^ i^itb raontl boMn^a, the love of iiit mugtbo 
ihc^ gcnrral rocJt of rnnri! hnHenesa ; and rqiially rmfiiir to 
oaseri thai, becauflu wo had onco found acgleot of art ooaa- 
cidirtit witli uol>lern;sfl of dia|»oaitioc, nrgli-ot of nrt mtjst be 
always the eoiiroe or flign of that nobkncfis. But if wo 
pAJti froin the Indian peninsulix into other countriosof tbQ 
globe ; an:l fVom onr own iwcni experience, to tho recordfl 
of biauiry, wc shall still fled one grwat fafit frontiofi ua, ia 
Btern univfnialily — namely, the Rppirent connection ol 
great Hue4it^^ in art with sTab8t>qiient natioDal degrodatiOQ. 
ITou findj in tbc fitrt place, that the nateons which posficeo' 
od A n^H[i^ Art iVKr« hIwat^ subdtied by those wfio 
pr^ca»^d Dooe: you fl&d tho LydiEiTi subdncd by the 
Mi.^r; ihu AlKfmirin by the Spiirtjio ; the Grt»rk by tbo 
Homftn ; llie Roman by tho Goth ; th© Uurgundian by tbe 
Switxcr; but yoa find, beyond this — that creo where no 
attack by any (External power hns ncprleruted th<» cstfJitrcK 
ph« of llie etotA, tho period in which any ffivcn people 
nnch thcip kig}ic»t power in .-irt in pi*eei*iJy thnt in which 


mint an* 

Xhoj fippcar to agn t'oc warrant of tlivir owu niiR ; 
UuU^ fmin iLe DtKri^nl. jd vhid} :i prrfiriil nl^ilut^ fipjtt^jim 
n Fkwonoc, & pf?rfc*;t piuturo in Vcuioe, or ii porfoct fr\«o<- 
tn Romc^ from thai Loor forvT&rd, probity, imliintry, niiJ] 
ocKuvf^ 0eaa to be oxUed firom ibcir waUe, find thi.*y perieb i 
IB a «^pturcique pamljEia, or « numy-colourcd corrup- 
tioiL I 

Bat CTCQ this e not all. As art tccniA tbniti io tU d«li-j 
OOte fiknOt to be otne of tlie cliief promotere of iiic1aleii«e^ 
tad BGnen&lity,— -90, 1 need hnrdly raniind jou, it luihorto 
btttppearod onljr m vu*^i^i\c mnjnC'.^'Uiiha wbin It woa m 
the aerriM of auperetilioiv. Thu Ibtir gnvtemt inAiiifc«U- 
tM>i» of hoouo intellect wLicIi founiod the four principal 
Idngdomd of arty EgyptUDr Babylouimij Greek, ami Ii&lisn,! 
wqre dcvulopod by tiic tUvng oxoitcmcnt of Actirc viipci^^ 
atltioQ in the woraliijj r>r Oanrlt^ Belu^ Miaerva, aiul tlie' 
QuMii of Henvcti. Tlien:f!:jn^ Ui ffpeak bnufly, it may a^j 
pott Tcry difficult to abov th&t art has ever jet exifltAi in ai 
oQO^icni and thoroughly ener^^tio achool^ rinlem it v?ui 
eog&ged in the piopogiitaon of &]schood, or the cooourago' 
meat of vice I 

And Sanliy, while Ait but thus shown iteelf alwojs ootivel 
ill the aerrice of luxury nnij idolatry, it h&i al50 beeul 
ttrongly dirt^bvl to the nxalution of om^lty. A natiou' 
vrhich Jiroe n jxi^loml and itiiiooLtJl hfc ncv<irdc^/irjit4:i»th^ 
•l]q>herd'4» stofl' vr ihc [}bu>;h-h&n(]k, 1>ul racti who hrf 
by 4epre<Jatioa and slaagbter u«arly alw&ya beston ejc , 



«ttd tH 

i oounaJB 

qun^ft onuimentB OD the quiver, the belioei, and 

DtiLfi it not HtitMn to jou, tbcD, od nil ihf^«c Uiivo 
niom Uiao qoeetioDabk vrWher wo <ir« oj^s^mbled bore In 
Edisingtoc museum to JUiy good purpotc? Miglit wc not 
justly be look^ upon with suepidciD andll^r, rather tlun 
with sirntpatlij, by tho innocent Aud unartiffticAJ publio? 
Am weiBvcn sore ofoureolvc^? Do we know what we nfe 
ftboat? Arc wc met h<^ ud Uoni^t pvoplo? or uru wc not 
rattier m> nmay Catxtincs sttGcnblcd to devi» Uic bi^lj de* 
gnidntioti of our caiutUy, or, like a couolaTe of midaigbt 
witcbcfi. to »uiiiinon uid sgtuI forth, on new and ii&cxpecl^ 
edintsfiioia^ the demons of Idxuij, omelly, and supeiatS- 

I UuhL, u|iO[i the whole, thai it ia rjot ^: T am mmfaS^ 
Ur, ^Jgrftvo and Mr. Cole d-'^ not ni nil includo losulta of 
tlua kind in tbctr coDccirticm of the ultimate objects of iha 
inatituLiou which ow«6 » laucli to thcirvtrvnuoiunrtdw^ll- 
diroct<Mi cxcrtionji. And I iinvc put this punful qucettoo 
Leibro ycUj omly ihut wi* rriiiy fiuw it iharoii)jhly, and^ ii» I 
bopfii ouMiico it If ymi will ^vc- it a littlo sinocrc atton- 
tion this everting, I truat we amy Utid aufljcirntly good rca- 
una for our work, and proceed to It honftftcr, ne all good 
vorkmcn should do^ with clear hcada, and oaXm oonacienoea 

Tii retiim, tli«n, to tha firat point of dilficulty, tho rcW 
tiona botwccn nit nnd mcrntAl diepositioD in India and Soot 
land. It 18 qvite true ikat ihi^ art of TikIla in dr^IicaUf iind 

LBcrr. L] 

cojmcsnoSAL apt. 


reSned. Bat H bus one iroHomi cliurw^or dijUiagubiJiiDg it 
from a11 ctb^r Art of o^t^aI morit in (Ital^^i — U iKver rtjnv- 
pmAr d nohmUfiri. h ehlier forma it* otmipwtioaft out of 
nioaiunjtiieaa th^^irntiof coLoOTAnd Ho^^ngsof tiDo; oril 
it rq>ratcDla any livijig creature, U reprvsie;»iA tJutt i3r;^urc! 
nmlcr soTOe distorted imd moTimrom form. To all ih<i fikoii 
tod fomu of nAttirc it vilfiiU/ Aod rcKlutcIy opposofl 
itoulf^ it will not drs^w a inai], biii an d^ti^arm^ moE>- 
aier ; it wiD not drnvr a llowcf, but onlj a jrptral or n xigmg. 

It thus iadicaua tb&t the people wbo pi.kctisc it ^re cut 
off tfoia dJ poffiib)& aouK<Ji of h<^thy knowledge or ha- 
timt ddight; tbat tbcy bare mIfaUjr scaled up and put 
taaA» Ibe entire voltune of ilje world, and bAv<> ^t noibio^ 
to rcAid, Qotbir^ to dwell upoo, but tbftt iniAginutioii of tbo 
UnouglilAof tbeir btrarta, of wbicb wo£jctold<Ji&t'*itifloii]; 
t^ oontkiiall^*.^ Ov«r di« whole spectacle ofcreatioQ tbey 
haiTC thrown a vdl in which tbcTC i« no rent For then) no 
flUr p«^ through tb? blanket of the dark — for them 
ncstli^tb«ir ioavcn sbince nor their mouctAine me — for 
tliera tbcr flower* do not blo«Bom— (or them tbr myiturc* of 
fldd aD4 ibv^^et do Dot live* Tbey lie bound In thoduogecn 
of flMOTOWiioomiption, a^ooroposscd only b^ doldutphon* 
toma, or by spectral Yaeanoy. 

Need 1 remind jroti wbat an oxoct n^cne of tbia condi- 
Ikm of uiiad, as nspe^^ tbo observance of [inliiii:^ Im pro 
«ent«)d by Uuj people whom we bov^ just been led to con- 
tanplate in controBt wilb tbc ru^lian race? You wit! find 


up^tD rcfldCtioQ, thai all the highc&t points of the Scottish 
chanticltr ariT cuuimjl.L] wIlL Lrii^ittn'iuiifl denveJ atiui^;lil 
from tho aatanU fce&cry of thuir oountry. No nntit>ta hiv 
ever Wore abowu, lu the gcncruJ tone of ild langua^^— Id 
Iks gencm! curreDt of its liti^miure-^ao con»taui u hubii of 
ballovmg Ita p^L^ioos and conliniii&g ite principles hy <lircot 
aflW)cbtioti witli the L'hann, oi- |iL»v/er, of naiaiv. Tho ynii 
iQgB of Scott fltid IftinuE-^nd yet morv, of the fur grofttcr 
lioetaLbatiBurciA whot^iiveSc^tUivl Uei' tmdltioDal btiUAdi^ 
^^Urnifih yoti in vvt*ry ^umxH — olmost in every Im© — with 
cxamplos of tiiifl association of natural scenery Willi tho 
[HUbitJTis;* but :ia iiintaiKu of iu ilirilitT [^riii«<Qtt£U^ with 
moral principle iitni*>k me fojvibly juet ai the time wbco I 
waa mofei bmcnliiig the Abficrn:^ of art nmoug ihc pt'oplc. In 
on« of tht: Iciitclic^ dii^ct^ of Scoilaud^ wWu ifie puatcot' 
tagcsarc darkest, just al the w<^tom fool of that great maM 


* Th9 gnat ponij dT Sootliifid, Lko LFm grwU poaU OT aH (vth^r ecii^ 
tntHj navat wrkia dllK>tuUdy, oillicr ld luiltar dr inctiiod; bi>: v^jtb 

tttom and nwAcoTod QUflnui£f in ctery qrllAbb; Ktrcr'iabiiofdnuiai|.j 
MriE for exaaiplv : 

UPCT. l] 


Ibe Qmnpuis wlirch ciiGlrdcs tbc sources of tbc Spoy mA 
lh« DoPf tfao m&m rovl wKidi iraverseflibediafD winda rounO 
ibo feoi of & broJccn roub called Cm^, cr Craig BllAchia 
'[lere ta nothing renuLrkablc m either its beij^ht or fbnn; 
it ifl dArkoiied with a fLiv scattcrrd pi iir«, luid touched along 
ibsimiiiit wilh a flush of heather; but ii ooiisti^uicfl a ktod 
oflMadJ&od, or leading promontory, io the group of UUIa to 
vbkh it bdongii — a eort of initial Jcttcr of the motmUiiiA, 
tjvi thns scaiids la ih& miad of the iuhabttanU of the <lb- 
trict, tbvClunOnmt, foratTpo oftbriroountryp and of tho 
influcDoo of thai couuirjr upooi ibecnael^ca. Thdr MUfiO of 
dui k bcautifiilly todLontod in the worcry of tho aba, 
'^SUiid &st, Cnog Eilochic^' You mnj tbinic long over 
ihoM fcw word* without exhauaiing the -deep wells of feel* 
JDC and tboi^t oontoaTicd in thcnt— tbc loro of tho native 
knd, the oaaarance of their fiuthiVilnesa to it; the subdued 
Uld j^tio ftMcrtion of indoiaitiiblo courago — I matf nood to 
bo (old to slAod, but, if I do, Craig Ellachicdoca. You could 
aoC but b«Te felt, had jou poucd ht'ii«uth it at the timt 
wlumoo nuto^ of Knglaad'a dcarcal childrcn were hang 
Mboidod by tho Ktr^ngtb ot hi^ort of num T>orn at it^ fiiut^ 
^owofkn among the delioato Indian palacod^-wboau marble 
K» pallid with lium>r Jiud whcvu vrniulitvE) w:i4 ilarkei^eil 
ttitb blood, Uio rttmembraQca of iu rough groy rookH luirl 
porplfc hcBlha mast bare rieenbeCbrt! the alb^htof the IXi^it- 
land 8oldi«tT ; bow oftrn the huling of the «bot and the 
•hnek of baUie would paaa away front his hcahngp and 

!p*vc only ihs whisper of the old pine bmnc^ws — '* 

Vol] bav?^ f tlicsc tm> nntionSf «wd in ^iredt oppoeilt 
iJid e&^cU on mortX s^iuicncnC of art witliout nutun^ imd 
nature vritliotit ait Anil you hoc ciiou^ to juati^ you Id 
Mapeoting — wbile^ if yoii clioose ti) icvw^gaid the aabjcd 
more dfioply bnd with other exampl^a, you will find CDoagb^Li 
to ja4tjf^ yoo ID conclvdiiiff — tlmt art, ro11ow<?d as Boolf^l 
and for ita own anJce, irrMpcotivc of the uiu^rprctation of 
nature by it* is defitrQCti?c of vrhAtcvcr is bcti and oobleet 
hi liumaritty; bui tbut hBtiira, tiovrevur Aimply ob«firved,cr ' 
UDpcrfcctly known, iS, ia tiio dcgrco of tijc afi^tion fcil for 
It, proLecLive and U»lpl>il ta all tliat U noble^i iu huinani^. 

You Okighl tlicn condudo farthcTi tbat nrt, no tor » 
wttEidc/L7i/:(1 to the raciJi-d ur Lbfl luterpnatalJOQ of tiatu 
would be hHpfiil a[iJ [;iirLob)iDg nteio. 

And ;ou would conclude this witJi perfect truth, 
mo Tcpcftt the nfae^ou diMliuctly and aolernnly, ak llie 
l^t I am ponnlticd to mtikc in thid building, dovotcd in & 
wuy iu> nr-M' and so acliniritblt- tu llie ficj'vio^ of ih^ iLri«til> 
dcnte of KngUnd— Wliargwr art it pni(rii*cd for it« *>wn 
waktf uud the delight of the workm^m is lu whxi be doet 
tnd prodi;£e9^ iiatvad of whftt bo tnterpvu or cxfiUnta, 
fchere art baa an infltioucc of tlic most fatal kind on 
and bii*rt, mid it isaue*, if Iftngw pumuedj iu ihti 
iHm 6otl^ of inteliixtual power and f/u'rai principU; wharow 
Alt, dero[«d iKunljly and nclf-foo^lfuUy U) t]i« cJaai Male 

be rfoa i , 
n bnu^H 

LECT- l1 



m*mi anil mn>n] nf dir fsuttn <if ihi,? univ^nw!, iji nlwnj-* 
h«lp^ and bei»6ouii; to iDftnkind, full of oomfon, siivngtfa, 
«ii(1 jcalvnticn. 

Now, wt)«ii von wCT^ OBCT well flA«»r(*d <^f th^ yow 
migbt logictllj infer another Uiiii^, namcljr, tbut wli<rn An 
wnn <nm:piM ir* the ftinctitn) \n wtil<i)i x}ii^ wiu forrvii^i-n^ili*, 
&be woold hcrecif bo stK&g^i^ncd by tho sonncc. ftnd 
whetk tthe wdR tloirg whut Provideiiioe viOiOQt doubt ni< 
lod^ Iwr to do, sb^ would gnm in %'itnlity aa4 dignity 
Jnsl aft sbo ttdiinoed tc uaefUoesiw On the other band, 
job Bugbt gttbitr, tlint wliani tier iiginii^ w:ut dmliJitfril to 
lli«dcDcpticnor dogmduion of mankind, sho would h^reclf 
boeqtuUjrruialcdfmddegTudc^d — tkal ^« would be checked 
Ifi ndvjmcc, or prenipltttcd iii dcdiiic. 

Aod this 13 tbo truth oI»>; and holding Xhw due joa 
will easily aitil Justly uiterprui ibe phBBoradoa of liiAtory. 
So long at An is stoody iu the uo<it<!rap1&t:on luul exhibi- 
tion of OAlnr^ focti so long sbo hciscif lives and grons ; 
and tn her own life and growxb partly jmplit's, portly 
nQBr(«» that of tho nation in tho midst of which aho id 
pnctiaed. But a time has always hitherto conic^ in which, 
having Uiui reaobed a Eingulai- per&otiou, th& begins to 
•otitcmplatc (hat perfection, and to imitate ili, and dcduo« 
rolea and fhnn& from It; and tfaita to Ib^get her duly and 
«iuiutrr aa th^ interpreter and disoovenr of Truth. Aud iq 
the very inrtont wlit^i tbk ilivcTviuD of her [iiitpow and 
fiMgetftUiKse of her fixccdoD uko plao^— forgeil^ln-^ss g«nd- 




roUjcoiDCul^^t WT^ Tin:' Apparent porfuctuin -ia that insoii 
X sfty, be^0 Uerticiujil oatasUoplie; and by 1i^ own J101< 
390 lixr M she Ilm influence — she AooclcnxUti the njio of tb« 
iiatioi^ by vliioti tilie la practiW* 

The study, howev*^, of thu c^Sjot of art en the miod of 
naUoiifi ia o^ie rfttlier for Lhs biatorJaD tbjiD for tm; at «I1 
«rcat« it m ono lor tha diMUsdon of whioH wd hftve to more 
timo this evening. But I wUl ajsk your paticDcc witli mc 
while I try to lUiutnAe, in some fiinher panaculare, tlw 
depcndc&co of tbo healthy stnio nad powor of nrt ilodf 
u(K)n tliK extuuiM* of iijt uppointtid fuiiutiiji: In tha interpio 
tfltioa of fhct. 

You obaorve that T always aay cTfdn^VTtAxfianf nerer WMt 
lotion. My reuwn 1^ bo doing ii, l!ntt, that good iLrt ntrcly 
iinitaKB; it usually on]ydc«:ribc^ or cxpJuinA. But iny 
M!<ioni.l arif] ohief nra^on is that guoil art nlwiiy^ cuiiaisls of 
two things; yiret, ibc obaerraiion of fact; aocondly, 
mauifestjiig of huinftti design nad authority in iha wuy 
fiict is told. Great ujid good ^rt miut unite th^ tvo; it 
cannot exist for a moment but iii tUair unity ; it consi»te ct 
the two Hii eaaenLiiiHy h3 water (Mn^sTs of oxygen 
Lydiogeik or morbid of limo and cEirbonio odd. 

Lnl UA iuquir? it Ui.Uf! inU> the nnture of nnnb nf the 
oicntii. Tiac find cicmtmt, wg Bay, is Iho Ioto of Nal 
leading to the cffon to olwcrve and report btr truly. 
\\vs iv> tlic flret and Iwulingi-lfTiiciitt. Rtvii^w fur ynunMb 
tli« hifltotf^ of brt, and you will lind thix to be a ma£iile4» 




ocruintir, thiktno ^roat xke^i <tcryff exiaUdtohKJi had not 
fur prmtid A%m the trpfcttnltitimi o/ adak* nof unaf j^ lu trul^ 
Of p^anbie. There b&ve only yet appeared in th<i vori<l 
tlirco Achooh of perfect aii — ocUooJa, that ia to cu/, that diU 
Uietr work w well «b Jt aecms po^siblu to do it Th^e ajv 
Uio Athctiiw,* l!^orMiti£io, imd Vcnctiaiu The AUicalaa 
proposed lo iteelf th^ |ieri^ FepreaeulatSon of tlm ftiroi *»f 
tbo hutDAa body. ]t i;uovo to do thcA va vroJI na i\ coiild; 
it did ibat u well aa it can ba done ; aud all ita ^reatucw 
waft li>uiided upon and involved in tlini single and houcst 
eObft The Fioicntiao dcliO(>l pi\>poocd to itsclt' tho perfect 
sxpraMiori of bturatD emotion— tlie ^huAii^g of ihu vtSMtB of 
IMe^oo ia *.ho butnan faoD nod gesture. I call tUis tbc Flo 
KDluae school, because, wkcihi;r joii Ukc Raphanf] for tlio 
outminatin^ maAer of axprettional an ia Ituly, or Leoiutrdo, 
or MH'f^^ Aikgclov you vrill find tbat the vrbolo crcrgy of 
the Dational effort wbich produi^l i\iom m^stora had iu rtxa 
in yioci;aco; not At Urbino or Milan. X say^t theUi ttud 
FJofVuliaeor Loading Italian school proposed to ilAcIf hu* 
IDUL vxproMion for f u aim in nataral tnkcU ; tL strove lo do 
tLat as vroll aa it could— *did i; ja well oji ix con 1>e done— 
and all Itt graauiOM ia rooL«d in ttiat siot^la and honi^i> 
ttlbrt I'birdJj, the Vcitouan BCbor>l pro])oni^d tbu ropn.'«Gn- 
taliun of lUe efiricl of oi>!oiir aad shade on all things ; chicf]j_ 
on tlw hnman fomi. It trk*d to do thai m wi^ll as it couid i 

8m bcViw, ibc fjLnJjcf notice of tliv raI opirit cf Qte»k voih, b tha 
t(*M Kt BrftlMnil 




-*^ii! it an nrfill an it can be done — and all ito groxtuttfl 
fbiinhvl nil tHHt sitigk lutd honc-dt cfTor^ 

Pmy, dd not Icavo this rcom vitLout a poxfcctlr ol 
liolding cf tliiae thme idcna. You nutj liy tJjcm, and ion 
them About afWrwarde, aa much w you li Lo, to m« if thcy'U 
boardhakiog; but do let moput them vcAlandplaicdjr into 
yourpo^fi^on. Attach ihr-m to thnsc trork-H oPurt wht 
you all.havc either aecn or continually Jn^aM ot 
lh(!(«j'^-*lh*l) ^' TlicwTUfl" of th^' %\y^n muMcu. That rep 
BonU tbe vbole end and &im of tbo Atlicnian eokool — ^th9 
DAtorn] form cf the human body. All thc:r cooroiitfoiui 
ATcbiti^tiiro — ihoU gmocful «bnping and painting of pottery 
— vbalBoevcr oiher an they practised-— vm dcrpcndunt Ibf 
ite ^n^itmwtnn tliiw^hi^c^Umrluir orivntnil nimt true ichnpo 
of living jnoXL Tbec t&ko, for your type of the Itolma 
school, llupluttfl'j '^DUputa del B&er^inicmto;" that will bo 
mn ftoortpt^ type by everybody, nnd will involve no possibly 
queetionable points: thoG^nnane Vfill admititi thoKnglisb 
orvidi-miruiiK ivill ^i^lrnil il; nml ilir Enj^lJKh piirijilA iind 
pr^HAphocIJlcs wiU admit iE> Well, thero you have th 
truth of liuuum cxpnrftaioa propuncd ili utt uim. Thnt 
ihtf w.iy p(!aplu louk when they feci thia or th;il— when 
nave this or that other meutal ch&ructar: nn they 
liuMUil, thouj^htrul^ un(<i^timmU% iiuli^nnnt^ or trL^iircd? 
ihfty prophet*, eaintf, pri^:-^ or Icings? tbon^wha 
is tnily thoughtful, :drtx:tioiuit(^ pnjjhclic, pricwtly, kingly 
— ihtu iho Flurttitin^ Acfcu»l tried lo discern, and *how : i^ 



lUoy b&re didiwmed tuid «1iown ; and aJl tbar gicntnets ii 
flrat Ikvteood in tbdr aim aithUcccitrsd truth — the open ex^ 
pruMOP oftlio bving tiumuji ^ul. 

Lwtir, take Tcroncss's '' Ujuriftge in Oana" m tho 
Loavrcb Thcro you have Ibe moat perfect n^prtjaeatfttioD 
poeable oT coloor, aiuI liglit, and dbuij^, u ibt:y affect tho 
oxtenial wpcctofthc humHO igmi, «nd itrt immcdiihtc acce^ 
Bohuo, ATclutCGtort^ furnitiirci and droaa. Tills dtteroal 
m^K%± of n(>bli<itl tutturr! wn^ tli^ finit nim ikf ihti Vrni^Linnt^ 
duid fill ikm greata^s depended on tb^ nKdution t> 
Acbiove, and their pa^cnoe in ncbiering it. 

n«rc, tb^, an) the tUr«e greatest aahools of the iarmor 
world cxctapLflcd for >-oa in ibrco vrelMoioiri: worka. Tha 
Fbidian ''Tbrw^nV nipriwiitft ibc.- Grvi^k school piireiiin^ 
tnitb of foTtn; iJie "DiBpuia'' of Ka|jliac], tbe Florsatina 
•cbool pnimaiiig Initli of nicnLtl t-xprcKiH^tt ; tbo ^' Miirria^ 
in Oaika," tbo Von«tUo school pursuing tnitii of colonr uid 
fighL Bui do Qol BuppoM tkat the law which I am stating 
to you — tbogn<nt law of Jirt'Ufo— oui »iil^tje 3*<tm hi tlicsu^ 
tho moat powciful of all art soboola It is jnflt as inanifb»t 
in eacb and ^\^tj sdio^l ibit ^^cr hua biid Ufu hi it at all. 
Whdvftoevur tibo tcarcboilt^rtriitli bcg^tu^ tlicrc liJb l>egbiiii 
wbcTcsoCTcr tbat search ccaacf^ tbcrc lUc ocoaca As long 
M a aBclxml of art liolibf nny chain of miturul facte^ ttyhij^ to 
iv^rtnorcof them and cxproaetiicm better cbtilyri^cnay 

ly bitlier and ibi^ttr njt it llkca on thb aid^ of tbc ^aio 
*kr ibat; it may d^ij^ grotosc[0<:s and uonventioualini^ 

build tho simplest buiTdin^ n:ivc ihc mofit praeticAl trSIi 
tiefl, yet all ii does wUl bo glf>rion!*lr ileidgiied and ^!orio;ialy 
<locio; i>\xt let it onoc qait h'>ld of the cbain of iiAturiil TiC' 
CGftse to pursue ttiat aa liie doe tf> itA vrork; lot it propaw 
to itdulf nny other tnd than prciic^tirig thi» livinf; wrord, and 
tbiitk limt of ahowini; ;te own skill or its ovm fiinc/, ikncl 
iVom that liour its hW U pr^ipitzttc — its d«etructi'3t] aura j 
nothing tint it iocs or dcaigos will crcr hare life or lovdi 
neas in It moro ; ito hour has cojne, and ibere ia no wot 
[iord«7ioc^Dorlknowl<:»Igo, no'wiadoniintho^TO wMth 
it gocih. 

Let us toko tor <:xainplti chat w^hoot of EU-t over wbieh 
tn&Djr of you itould pcrlmps think thifl law had Vu littlo 
pow*?r — the school of Gothic arehitecture. Many of na 
may hv^ve been in tho tinbit cf thinking of th&t kIioo^^J 
rather aa of one of fonna than of faGt^t— a school of [nil^^^ 
naoloi^ ftni buttrcsHt^ and oonv«ntiottal mouldingi^ and 
di«gui«> of nature by monstrous imaginings — not a «chool 
of truth at all. I think I shall be able, even in the liitla 
time vro have to-night, to show that thi« {« not eo ; and that 
our givnt law hold]4 Just aa good at Amieoa and Sallab 
a« it doca at Athirmi and RIotgelcc. 

I Will go back then flrft to the very bcg^nnicga of Qothi 
*n, aiid before you, tlw dudyuta of Keasingvju, aA an i 
pound led jury, 1 will bring two examples of the barbari 
out of vhit'li Gothic art ernerga^ approximately cooitem 
porury in ds^ and patullcl in executive slcill; but^ the on<^ 

LBO?. L] 



ft bajrbamin Uiat did not gt^ oii, aulI uould i:i(>t ^'C uu; the 
3tlior, a borbftriiim tliat could get onj mid did gut on ; and 
TOO, Uw impfi&ncikxi jurj^', shM jud^ wiu^t i^ tbc cd»;Dltfti 
diiTerence NeCweeu ilje two bcirbariniis, and d^ide for youn 
Kclrcff whftt i» the seed of lilb in the onc> and the eiga o^ 
dc»th in Uie ot1i«r. 

Tbi; fint,— that whicb liM in it tho sign of d«atb, — fur- 
atfkc« lid at the auae time vith an Ulostrutioa &r too uiter- 
cfltiDg to be pottod hy^ofccnjiin prinoi|>]i^ mnoh d(Tj^ebd<Kl 
on hj our common modem dceigncra, l^Ucing tip one of 
oar arcliilfctund puliltoitluiw thv otlicr day, azii opening 
it al nadom, 1 cmmccd npoD this pi«oo of inrormation, put 
laratLer curious PJiigLiab; bul^ODahdlliaveitM itBtand»— 

** AriietoiI« ancrti^ ilmt thj> great«jit i^<vlc*« of the beanti* 
M arc Order, Syuwnclr^, and ibc DcJlail&" 

I ^ould tell j-ou, liovrewr, iliiit this <ii:iUTmait is not^vcn 
on atttbnriuiivi; ; it i« otto cx^^mplo of vanous Ar^UileoiunU 
(^^^'■^ ^ven in a report ia tlie B^i^^ny CfincniofeJbr 
Ifay, 1857, of a luGturc on Proportion; iti wtiE<;Ii the only 
Ihiag the kctnrcr appears to havo proved was tlutt, — 

"7W wjvtOA of ^vidin^ the duuikctar of tbe oliAil of a tolmaui into 
pvftt lor ec>pjriog ihv uiEi'JUt ai^ttfduinl iviualitfi uf Grwui ujit RauM^ 
■UopuhJ hj ucbitccU frxtiu ViUuntu (drua Ilc *i&) lo llw pr^wot 
ptfioi^ m ■ »rll^oil for jir<hlm:LiL^ fiiic;i-nl wcliit«ctare^ U vntinly loe 
bd^ for Ibe MTonil pitf U of Grcdan flrohjCocLure ovut^ bo mluopd ur 
■ubdhUcd by '^kk i> >tem ; aQilhri ilixa it appl^ tu the udiLtctorv d 


Still, tiSkkj anl con mcike U o)i% Uil; t«Giur« a{>]: 
bare bcci3 ju«t one of tboAo of which you vUl a^ prt«ciil 
bear so mftny, tlit* j^n^lc^Litof aivUiuv-tj^ vhu have uo know* 
Icdi^ of flculptttrc — or of tmy other mode of cxproaftitig 
nnlural beuutjr — arfaiwtC imtuixd Xn^nlj; aud \Lcir vxiHetu 
vcur to euWtittilc imtt^umattc^il projiortionfl for tlso kno 
Icdgo of life the/ d^ not pcooem, &ud the Rj^reitiiLUtion 
lii>! nf wbicU tht>j ore inr^|Milj)i*- Now, tliin giibttituiJon' 
of obcdioicc to mathematical Jaw for ayropalbj- vrith 
oljMtTvtxl tifcj !!( Lhci ilntt cliiLractvrkHlJu nf ibi: hnix^lcM wot 
ofoUogWi as ftocb^ you ^H And it emincDtly raoutTve 
in the epeclinen I havu to ^\vt*. jrou of the htypvlKtm Qottio 
b&rbarinn ; tbo bnrbiiriun from which boihing cou 

emerge — ibr whi«K no future w. 
pottiiblo but viLtinotioa 
AmtoicJian principles of 
Beautiful are, yo\i rememlxa^^ 
Ordor^ Symmoliy. and tboDefl* 
nitix Hero you Lavc the tLree^ 
in pi'diiAionj applied to 
ideal of an angoJ, in a pealtor 
of tfy riglith onilury, existing 
ia the libmry of St. Johit> Coir 
!rgi\ CanibridgLV* 
Kow, jciEce thecharaoteristicfi of thisutwrly d^xxd wboot 

• 1 lopy tha woodcat fr*m Wostwood't **P*IiieoBTiiphiB 8«9«k^ 


are, first tlie wilful closing of its eyes to natural fiicte;— -for 
however iguomnt a persou may be, he need only look at a 
hunmn being to see that it haa a mouth as well as eyes; 
and secondly, the endeavour to adorn or idealize natural 
tact according to its own notions: it puta red spots in the 
middle of the hands, and sharpens the thumbs, thinking to 
improve them. Here you have the most puro type possi- 
ble of the principles of ideahsm in all ages; whenever peo- 
ple don't look at Nature, they always think they can 
improve her. You will also admire, doubtless, the exquisite 
result of the application of our great modem architectural 
principle of beauty — symmetTy, or equal balance of part 
by part; you see even the eyes are made symmetrical — 
entirely round, instead of irregular, oval ; and the iris is set 
properly in the middle, instead of — as nature has absurdly 
put it — rather under the upper lid. You will also observe 
the "principle of the pyramid" in the general arrangement 
of tbe figure, and the value of " series" in the placing of 

From this dead barbarism we pass to living barbarism — 
to work done by hands quite as rude, if Bot ruder, and by 
minds as uninformed; and yet work which in every line 
of it b prophetic of power, and has in it tbe sure dawn of 
day. You have oft^n heard it said that Giotto was the 
founder of art in Italy. He was not: neither he, nor 
Giunta Pisaao, nor Niccolo Pisano. They all laid strong 
handa to the work, and brought it firat into aspect above 



gronnd; but the Tounda^oEi had boea laid for tfactn bj] 

tlid AdJa and tbc Arao. It ie in Iho eculpturo of thi 
round urcbvd churcLcA of North Iialy, bi^irluif ditfpubibk 
dntc«, niDging from the cigUtti to tlio twelfth ccrtury, 
tbat vou vr'iU find the lowest struck roots o{ th« an of 
TitiuTj ttnd Hitphael.* I go, therefor^ to tHn cburofa 
which is ccTtftinljr the curliest of th^Ci SL Ambro^o, of 
Mil^D, nuid £ti1I to retain ^oine iKirtionft of the actUAl 
FtrucUiro from which St. Ambrono cxc1ti(3c(^ Thcotlonujo, 
and at ull cvcRlfl iWuishiiig ihc moat ais;b!uc cxflmplcs of ' 
Loirihanliu Hculj^iure in North Iiitly. 1 do not veiiiure to- 
graces their date; thcj aro barbaroufi ooough for anj 

We find tlio pulpii of thi« ehureh covered with ii 
tftiluolQg pattCTiia, closely rcwsmbling tlioee of ihd taani 
Mnpt at Cambridge*, but Among tht^m mfigurtjiiculpturie of 
a very difll'n>ut kinti It Is wrought with moro intumODS in 
th<! i«tiiiir^ iif which tlMi tfTrct nifly be loli-mbly given lij 
Bi&gk lire* ia a drawing, itemembor, iherefon^ for a' 
moment — ak rhjimcUrMlic of ciilmmutin^ Italian urt— 
Mich&ol Anf^Ws fresco of the "Temptation of Eva,** in 
thcSLtiinechiipcl, andy<)uw3]l be more intercetod in eoeing 
\.\n-j}i i^r Tinlinn nrt, illimtmUid liy tht? Maine; Huhjti:!, 

f liawfnirl rlmmliiTM, " rJitf<ruotoffjffxrf IsntJituk Iei ttto clititcn^alJi 
oratury." TUi in qLjiLiT is^iv: butoTcourMf taaia of lit uQalkst fltoui, 
nio lower, aa in this iofianca^ 

dicdeineiitaaf life I[] ihdr Jlnct form. Tlw puoplc who 
coutd do that were sure to get on. For, ob^Tvc, tlic work- 
tojut'tt wliole Aim h air^hl kI Lite fmrln, ivt wrll iuh lie c^o 
^ iliem ; ftod ntjt merely at tbo focti* but at tbo very heart 
of the i^el& A coouiion vorkinan might liave looked al 
tuUuns for luN icrpciit, but he: voiiM Imvu thought only of 
to fOdikA, Btat tliis fellow docs not want acolce, Dor coiU 
he can do jrttbout tlieio; ht; wiuitu die x'qieiit'.i h(-:trt*- 

* Thja cut tf ruder Uua il «IiduU bv : tJi« iociuoaB ia line marbtfl 
ban ft Sgr.wr effort i^n tbece nxijli fclruk liavt; SA It It ^li worU 



tanJioo imd insiQuotion ;— and bo has octuAlly got tbcm M 
■omc extcQt, So abo a coiiunoQ woikinan. even m tbie 
barbiroiu etage of art, might have car^td £ve^ anoH A&d 
bod/ a good deal better; but tlus man doc^ not cnrc nbout 
anna and bodj, if he can only get at Eve's miud — &how 
that abc 14 plcospd at being lUttorud, and fct in a stato of 
UDGoinfortable lu^l^lion. And aotce look of listeDiDg, of 
fiomplacfioc^, and of ca:ibarnu;;GnicBt \iQ bat vurtly got;-- 
note iJto i^yes dightly askanoot tbe lipe compicracd, ajid ihe 
right Land ncrvonaly groa^g the Idt arm : notUif ig oui 
be declared im]K>ai]blo lo the pcoplij who could bcgb thus 
—the world is open lo ihens, wid all that ia in it; wbile, 
on tlio oontrarj, nothing ia poeejblo to the man who did 
tlasj'minetrical angol — Uur w»ddUkfylt^ lo lum; hchaa 
bnilt a cdl for htmxclf in whit;h ho miut nbtde, barred up 
for CTcr — Ihwe is no more hope for bim than for a ej 
or A mfuln*])oreL 

laball not tmco from this embryo tboprogrceBofOothio 
art lit Tt^il^y, luiCfiaHfi it is intidi c<3irniUcaU-"d imd iiirolved 
with tmdiliong of oihav school^ and because moat of the 
vtudfinla will htr. li^t £tmiliar with ite r^iolta than wi A Char 
own northern buildinga So, these two designa tndieaiing 
Death and Life in the bcginmngB of mc^^aoTal art, vo will 
talcc- nn rxaraple nf tin; /jroj^resa of that art fniru oar ncath- 
em work, Now, many of you, doubUeas, bave bseo ia* 
lereated by Lha mnsA^ grundeur^ and gloom of Norman 
arohiTcciare, a^ much tts by Gothic traceries ; and w}ien yoil 




twnr tno tay ikac the iroc tt dl gixid work 1>06 m natunJ 
TmI^ ^ou duubtloH think mftantly oT ^our round ArcliM, 
witli thctr rude cu^ioo ci|}ilalA, arid of the hUlcf, or Ktgag 
work by vrhidi they ftjo sorroandcd, and you conitct aee 
wluU the kuowltxl^ of tijtUiru huM Lo dtj with dilii<r Jio 
simple ptftc or the nidc mouldings. But nil tho6« 8tnipld 
cooditious of Nomuu an ar« mcsrdy llio t-xplnuj; of it to- 
tfrnrxU the exUvmc nor^^ Do not uttid^ Kormnn nrcKi- 
tucurc in Konbiimbcrbindt bul ia Konnandy, and then yo« 
wtU find liuiL il iM juni a pr^^tiUarly macdy, aiid [iraiiUi^ly 
uMlul, form of the wbolo great Fnnch school of roundod 
ftrcliitfeture. And where lus that Frt'Dch adiool iteori^n? 
\7hol)y in tbo rich conditions nf wnlphirCp which, rising 
flnl oat of imitadotia of the Hoinoa bad-rclid^ oovorod 
all tbr? fjbfailm rif tlin Frrrnoh i^nrly cttuivhi'jt with uno ison* 
tinnotw anbe^no of fionit or ntiimAl life, if you waiit to 
study TouEKl-orclied buildings, do not ^o to DurUaxii, ba& 
go to Poic1ieT«, and thoxo yoti wiU *oc bow all the KimpU 
dooontiona which givo you so mucL plcnaurc c^vcn in th^ 
Uolatcd i^^ilimiiUMi wciv invunlt^d by jK-rMJiia ]ir;tt-li^4t:tl lit 
oamQ^ HMD, moDSteiVf wild arumals, birde, and flowers, iu 
iivtTwlKJTuing rvd Hilda noe; aud tht^ti tntoe thi» jUvbitectiiTQ 
forwArd in onitral Fmnce, and you will fiad St lo>e« 
iwClung of iu nchiK^— il only gaiti^ in truth, and thcip- 
Jbro la gruucci, until just at the mcimrMit of triiix'^iuur] iittJ^tUQ 
rototcd atyle, you have the oonfiumuiatc typo of the >cutp 
tOTBof tliv cch^)l ^veii you iu tl»e west tioittcf tbc Ca* 



Lhodiui of ChartJfM. Fr»>m jh^i fViJiit F liavo tAoEU'-n t 
JVaemccnU to illustrate it* 

TliCTo !itJtlu«* hftVft ^wuD longj luiil juittly, coiwitered u 
opr^entaLive of the bigheet ekil] of the twelfth or cjtrliesl 
port of ihc thirteenth century in Franco ; and thcj indcc«i 
po*MP*«a<ligTiUy and flclii-Af-c KWrn, wliiehanp (hrthcmrwl 
part wiLQtia^ in kt^r work& It ib owiog partJ^' to real 
noWcncM nf fratiirc, Imt diirfly to thi? gnuxt, ibui^lcil wilH 
89Voritj, of tho MWn^ lin^j of L^xccasivdy ;EA^ drftpeiy 
weQ as to a mo^l^udiod lim^h :n ccinpOHition, crery 
of the omammtition tcn*li:rrly hamicnisEkiig witVi thfi rvsL 
So 1^ OB their pcvi-or over cxrtala tonoa of rdigious mind 
w owing to A palpabk dogrr« of iioo*nHtiJniliam in llit^, 
do Dotpmi^ it— tiie oiaggeratedihinneMof body and stiff- 
acn of attitude f^hulb^; but thuy atc noble fnult^^ And 
pvo the lrt,^t^KS n sLrangc look of forming part of tho vcfj 
buildin" itself, find auatuitiiag it — not like the Qrtiek oory* 
atid, without eSCoTi — nor lilce tliu Renjua^iinr! cnryntul, by 
punfLtl or impQsaibl^ etion — but Ofl if M that was sil^at 
and AterHf and withdrrtwii apart, and Btifbnf^l in chit] ol 
hcaJtagEunat the terror of o^rtb, had passod iatOAfiha 



■dnimUy tjjr Mr. J. T. Diuig,wlLjf tbcLoljiufL>lLijLoi:i^p]ufr«ai0L*tu« 
■I CborlJd Tlie dravriuip may hi: nccn at |j)x»cnt b( tito Krnaiagtoii 
UuMXim; buttnj tvge phuiogiai^h otlha viv^l fVuut <if Char Urs will 
foiblo ih« rauki bo foUow wZul b autcd in the Iscturtv bb 

1-lCT. Lj 




0torDal mnrhlc : taA ihna tbc Gbost had ^7eD, LO benr up 
ihd piUara of tha oborch on cartli^ all the patient and ox 
pecUnt DAttin; thxt it nooded do idoib Id lieaveD. TUiti b 
ibo ti&DfteeDdcfiial view of tho mtmoing o? ihonj MuJpturM, 
[ do not dvelJ upon it. \ £ do lean upon ia thcli 
puMjF natnnlis^ and Tital power. Th«7 are k11 ponraita 
— unknoiTB, most of tlMitn, I bolit^ve,— but palpably ami 
muBaUkcnbly ptjirtraits, if not tak«n fVum tho acinal p^ii^ 
Km £af whom tbe stalue b1ad4:^ at atl eventa fttudivd &om 
•ome liring penon vbcac f<:utEHc.f mij^ht furly nrprcwcnt 
tboee of thd king or saint iot^ndiKi. SevcTuI of thetD I 
tuppOM to be &utheittic : tlicro ia om of a qucm, who boa 
cTidciiOy, wbilcRbc lived, bocD notable for her bright black 
er«fw Tbe MuJptorbaaout tb^Lris ^^ep into thdBtono, and 
bcr dark <gro» arc iftill su{i;9»ted with ber MmUt, 

ThftT« u anotber thing I viiih you to notioo ftpcdaily in 
tLcdc ffUtucfl — tlio wftj in wbiub the tlcral moulding is aaso- 
dal«<l with thr^ vntticnl tiwai c>f tbr^ iigurtr. Vtiu h;tYc tlitiA 
the utmcMt oompl«xily ikod nchaaasof cnrvaturQaGieicleby 
ade vritb the puro «iid di^licato pamlfi:! linn.^ and both tho 
«baraeteta gain in iDlercflt and bc&uty ; but tborc is Jccpt^r 
ttgniBconoo la the thioj; than Uiat of inur^^ eilixil in oompo- 
ridoTi; — fiigniflcaDCc not iiilfrndet] itn l\xii piirt of th^ wit]|i« 
Ijbr, bat all tho mora valuable bccaDse uDiuUraiJci&al, I 
tljc doK asvocimJon of Lha buiutjr uf lower nulurc in 
Uiitaaibatkd flovrere, with the beauty of higher n&tur^ in 
Ltman for^u You never get this in Greek wcrk. Qreck 




BLaiucfl ore ^w&ya ii»clttt^d ] bkiik fields oretooc^ ^r dqvtl 
of nhsuiow, rrliirving tJif< rL>iTn oftfvr kUUiir, mt tliirwLirlOitf ' 
low«r nftluro wbiob they dcepi»jd rourod in dorkno^ Crorri 
tWrhrjirlff. Huttv Uie clivUiol flgarv nMim^ Uic tj-jteof- 
tbe CtuidtLan spirit — in tosny i\£pocU ft?cb1er and moio' 
contrnctciJ — biJt parcr ; cloUicd jn iti wliite Tobea audi 
crown, £,nd with the rich^^ of all creation at ita nde. 

next at«p in Iho diartgc vill bo scit bc^ora ^ou in ft 
mornonty mHroly by comjiaring ihi?? stutiJc Trom tlic in 
front of ChrJtrtsa with iKil of the Mudonos, irom thoaoQtttI 
transept doctr of Amicn&^ 

This AladoDna, ^ih tbe sculpiure romid her, repreaenU' 
the ciilminaiing power of Oottiic nrt in the thirteenth ecn- 
rjry. Scnlptnre baa be^n gainiztg coiitinnftlly in thf? iater- 
vnl; gnimn^, nimply bcCfl«*o becoming every day more 
truihfhl, mora Le^ukr, ami mora snggcstlTc. By the way,, 
the old DoQglAS motto, " Tender And true," inay wiaely bti 
taken up again by aJ] of us^ for oiir own, in art do lea Ihanj 
bioUi^rihJnga^ Depend upon ii^ the first universal ciin^- 
raeteriiftie of alt great art i* Tcndcrntrttt, as the sceond ii 
Troth, r Hud this more and moTv every day : an inCmtnda 
of tendemcid is the ohiof gift and inhcritanoo of all tbt 
truly great men. It is^ure to involve a rclaLiveintenaty, 
d' dindmri townr*!* bwn things, and nn ftppcnmnco of stern- 

* Tbsro ore auiny photographs of thie tioor uid of ita oentnU viBtWL 
lu tntlpttiv U th« lyrapaaooi U brUior do«uribod ia ili« Fomth , 

and irrogaoco id Uie e/«5 of aII liArd, Mtipld, nod 

pin>p!^-^utLi> U'rrlAo b> iroch, if tlwy are cnpable of 

r, and bau^Ail to tbcm, if ihcj are capable of nothing 

tLau hatred. DLinlc'n in tlii: gn^ tjvpc of tliL« dai« 

of mini. I sftj tlie ^r«r inhoritaticc is Tdudornafls—ilid 

i^lVutb, iMcouae tbo TendenuAi ta In tlic mako of tJi9 

-w^cfUare, t:ic Triitii in bU aoqtiircd hftbia and knowledge: 

beiKdos, the lore cornea fiiat in dignUy aa vdU aa in tinu^ 

thni u nliffAjn pim tintl cHinipIctcr : thn truth, tn 1>ck^ 

To corao back to our Kt^tuc You -aril] oWrvc tbftt tlie 
lAfmigcmeot of thU sctilpiure U exactly ihe same at at 
ivcTC Enlling: drapciy, (ct off by rich floral 
ommient at die side; but tho etatuo is row complrtelj 
nnimalcd: it ia do lonsjer fixod u aa t)pri>?Ut pvllur, but 
bonds Rflids out of its niclur, f^nd th^ florni omament, in> 
ilttd of bdng a convenilonnl trrcatb, U of exquuitely 
VTugcd b&wthom. Tbc vrork, h^wcrcr, as a wbolc, 
AoQgb p«ffitctly ebaracteristtc of the ndTance of ih? a^ in 
v^Ic ncd pnrpocuT u in Homc subtler qnatitica inferior to 
(bat of CharlresL Tbu imlividu^l sculptofp ibougli trainM 
w a moro ftdvanoed icboul, hanbdnibiinvelf nman of iofe- 
fiOT order of mind oonnparcd to the one wbo work^ at 
Gbuttvi^ B[tt I bave not time to potct out to yon t1i 
fftibtlcr cbaro-^ra by which I kn^^w thLn 

IliU ilatu<i, th^n, m&rks the culminaliiig pcont of Gotbif 
vt| booaoflCt tip to thi« tiroo, the oyctt of ite dcu^jfueia bad 




'!^n ateidil^ fix€<l on DAtunJ tmili — thoy hod bden tA 
TEQciDg i>om tlowcr to flower, from fonn to tbrin, from &06 
lo feoe, — ^niiig [lerpftujJly lo knowledgis and verwciiy^- 
tliGTdbrc, porpctnalJjr in power und in gr^oe. Bat at dii* 
puLut u Cital clian^ii iiinui ov»^ Ljirrlr mm. Fn>iii Liie^tatuo 
ticy now Vgiui u> turn the ntb^ntioa chiefly to Lho niuho 
of ilic staiuCf and from ihc floraJ oroametit to liic moiild' 
iiigft lUat earJ^wud the floral orDamaiL The flrat rotitlt 
of this was, bovcvcr, tlicugb not tbc grandest, yet the iik)M 
fiiirahwl up TiorLliRni g^aiiLi You liave, in ihc earlier 
Gothic. ](?«« wonderful construction, 3<!Ms cnn-Xd miwowy, 
fitr Ic38 exprcwcn qF laarmoDy of parU id tbc baUDCC of 
the builfiirig- Kwrlicr w^^rk always hiia TrioriJ or loa of tliis 
ch&nkctcr of a good aolid wall wiili irrcgiilftr holes in it, 
Wftll <3trT''d wlinn-V'-.r thrriT Is morn. But the ladt fili^uttf of 
good Gothia hoa no room to spare; it Hech rn high at it 
cim on nTurowest foundaliott, stands in perfect strcDgth 
With the least possible fiubslnnoe in iu hots ; conncota iticho 
With nidii% and lino with lino, in an exqui&ito h^nnon/ 
fnnn which no sloiie can Le removal, and tu which you can 
ftdi not a pinnoclo ; and yet introducee in rich, thougli uow 
Lore odcukted profusion, the living dement of its sculp- 
ture: sculpture in the quntrofuila— eculpture in thebnAlC' 
ctfr— ftculpturo in Uto gargoyles— Boulplcro in the nidic^^- 
«fni!ptur^^ mtheridges?mi!liollowftof itamoa]diii|p,— nota 
ahadow without meaning, and not a light without li£x^ 

* 1^46 two Inatfpia uf Kuuvu G»ilivil»il iUukIoU U^b ftylc li«r« 


LBCr, Lj 

OQKV£xiio:?AL Arrr. 


Bat vtUi ttu» vdiy per1«3lioii of hi» wor!c cani<] ^tic un- 
happy pride of tbe boiMcr in vital [ic li^ iIujil*. Ah loii^ 
M tM.ltftd been coareljr rulauig Qlum^y vriUU Mad onrriiij 
ihcm like a child, in wftyvrordncis of fAQcy, hia dcJigbt 
vrw in the things bo thought of lis be earved ; but wben 
be bod CQC« rciiuhcd tlii^ pitch of conALnicti^<o ecieoec, h^ 
began to tliink only how ol'rvcrly he uoulJ put the sloniai 
tagetber. The qiMS^on was not now v'tfh him, What con 
[ r^>T<c«cnt7 but» Uovr high cui I build — how w^nslcH'^ij' 
CAn I hang thjfl nTCh in atr, or weave this traoery »cro» ilie 
clouds? Ami ^^ catofitrophc won instant und irrevocable^ 
Am^iiircturv became in Prnnoi^ainerc webof waving line^ 
— in Enf^Uad a more ;^ting of perpend ten lar on«. R^ 
dandiuKC vens 5iibslitntcd for indention, find geometry for 
pessioci; tbe Gothic an becam«fi merd erprtedon of wui< 
Um cxpendidire, nnd rulgiir mathcmatice ; uid was swept 
ftWft/, Bs h ihea dracrrcd ui be swept away, by the »cvcrc? 
pride* and purer leaning, of tbe aohools foundM on cksHt 
Ksl tnditioTift 

Yon cannot nov &il to see faow, taroaghout the hiatorj 
of this ^oiukrful art — from its ear]i«et dawn in Lombard^ 
to 3ta last calaMrophi3 \u Ymncc and Engtand^'^cui^Curi^ 
S>utMi«d OD love of tialur«^ was tbe talisman of its oxtiit 

in pVeAj of photognphft of ihom. £ ijtkt thi< «T)ji<)rtunLl; (f n- 
^Otlittg what t liftT« teroitA limai l^vf^ro fpUtm!, f^ iha loko of 1-itdV 
en, OM SU Ootm, imprcuivo oi ^t ^ Lo cntitdf ia^'itor to ih* trvt- 



[LBOT. 1 

enc^; wberever sculpture was pT&ctisedf architectoTe aroeo 
— wherever that was neglected, ardutecture expired ; and, 
believe me, all you Htudeots who love this medueval arti 
there ia no hope of jour ever d<HDg any good with i1^ but 
on this everlaating pnndple. Your patriotic aawx^atioiu 
with it are of no use ; joai romantio aaKX^ationa with i^— 
either of chivalry or religion — are of no nae; ^kej are 
worse than useless, they are fiilae. Qothic ia not an ut £ra 
knights and nobles ; it ia an art fi>r the pec^e : it ia not an 
art for churches or sanctuariee ; it ia an ftrt for houaea and 
homes : it is not an art for England only, \m!b an att foi 
the world : above all, it is not an art of form or tradil^on 
on!y, but an art of vital practice and perpetual renewal* 
Aad whosoever pleads for it as an ancient or a formal 
thing, and tries to teach it you as an ecclesiastical tradition 
or a geometrical science, knows nothing of its essence, less 
than nothing of its power. 

LeavOi therefore, boldly, though not irreverently, mysti- 
cism aud symbolism on the one side; caat away with utter 
scorn geometry and Icgahsm on the other ; seize hold of 
God*s hand and look full in the face of His creation, and 
there is nothing He will not enable you to achieve. 

Thus, then, you will find — and the more profound and 
accurate your knowledge of the history of art the more 
B^auredlv vou will find — that tbe livliifr power in all the 


all ibat b necessary to form a school. There needg to ho 
much Bnperadded to it, though there never must be any- 
thing superseding it The main thing which needs to ba 
superadded is the gift of design. 

It ia always dangerous, and liable to diminish tbe clear* 
neas of impreaaioii, to go over much ground in the course 
of one lecture. But I dare not present you with a maimed 
view of this important subject; I dare not put off to 
another time, when tbe same persons would not be again 
assembled, the statement of the great collateral necessity 
which, as well as the necessity of truth, governs all nobla 

That collateral necessity is the visible operalion of human 
ttiteUed in the presentation of truth, the evidence of what is 
properly called design or plan in the work, no leas than of 
veracity, A looking-glass docs not design — it receives and 
communicates indiscriminately all that passes before it; a 
painter designs when he chooaea some things, refuses others, 
and arranges alL 

This selection and arrangement must have influence over 
everything that the art is concerned with, great or small — 
over lines, over colours, and over ideas. Given a certain 
group of colours, by adding another colour at the side of 
them, you will either improve the group and xender it 
more delightlnl, or injure it, and render it discordant and 
nninlclligible, "Design" is the choosing and placing the 
colour BO as to help and enhance all the other colours it is sel 


iLKor. t 

bcsldf?. So ©r thought : m a gcwl oonip writ ion, tw^r/ idoi 
lit piuuiitu] In ja^l jJiLiL Oliver, ^iid willi jiifft^ th^t iiircG^ 
wUidi will perf<xily coriii<^t it witli nU tUe otUer thougbn, 
in tlie work, aud wiU iUtutxatc ihc libera HbS wi^U as rccci^^l 
illuatrutioti from ihtrm ; w iliat tUe eniire cbwn of ibougbu ■ 
offered to the bclioldcr^s mind sliiUL bo n^oviTcd bjr him 
wjlh ait TiiucU ilisli^lu £Liid wilii a^ lilile eJTort aa Is poesibl 
And tbiiM jou «uo (ktfigiif propcr3y no ciJl^, ia hutuan i 
Yeutiuu, cooaulUngliamAu capacity. Out of lbs infinite bcap 
oT tiling nround us in clie world, It 4shoo8«8 a co 
bimbcr wbieh it oau Ihorougbly groep* and presents t 
group t» tht^ flpvclMtor in the furiik boeL oalcukieil to en& 
liim to griup it alAO, find to grA«p it with delight 

And aocordiitgly, cbo capacltica of both ^ibttn>r aiui 
r«iciver boing llmlk'd, the object In to maku twa-t^thinj tAat 
hfip/ul and prcciousL if you gi/c one giuin of 
ftoo much, so a^ to iijurenae fati|;ua wubuul pryfit, oi 
bulk without value — tbiU mldcd grain id burtful; if 7 
put one epot cr ono aylltkblf> out of lu proper plao^ 
■pot cr »y11abld uilt be duiUuolive — bow fio- d»tructiv<o 
ifl almost impoasible to tell: a. misplaced toucb may ao 
times KtmibiUte tin* ]nl>our of lionrit 'Sot mm atiy of 
prepared to Qndcmtond tbc w»rk of any great master, 
wo fee) tbia, ani fi^'l U a^ dJaUualy a^ wo do the ralac 
nTTurgviii^Qi iu tbe ooua jf luiuio. Take any noble m 
col air, and you tind, on cxamiai^i^ it, tliat uol one oven 
the f^ntoHt or sboitpei nouw can bo rcj&ovod without 



dcMiicUon Xo tlio wLolc puui^ in wLucL it occurs; aud 
that ererj ntte in tbe pua^^-'i^ iii tweoty lim^ mon; b^-a^it^ 
ftt] so introdnocd, tlun it vroiild tiarc bwn if playc^i eiof^ly 
on iLe ioslniiDifnt PrMTiRelyiLtsde^^oorarran^nitrLt aiii] 
idalioo mast exist bvtwocr even- ioucli* oud line iu & f^rt^t 
piciurCt You mjiy cooaidcr the wboJc afl ft proLoDgcd musi 
eaX ooropofiilioo : lU parU, aia aeparuio ain ooiiii«me<l in tka 
Aory ! itn liuk bit« and fm^mciiU of OiAoMi bsA lino, 04 
aeparsle psa^gw or Irars in melodies; mid Jowu u> tbv mi- 
oat«»t note of the wboJo— down U> the tninLitott UtiirJi^— if 
tiieio is one that con Le £jxuvd — tliat oua h doiug Eui^clucC 
BtfmcfDber iticiKfcrti ulwayaj vou Iielvu two cbftmctcm in 
vliich nH greatness of art consifllfl : — First, tUc Cftnu«t and 
tnieoae aelziug of naiurai iWts; then the oi^lerlng tha«o 
fikcta by Arc£igtb of human in^:IIcctt 00 OjA to make tUeib, 
for all who took upmi ilti^m, tu the uimc^t wrviot-ahli*, mi^ 
r^TuUI^, and Ixautil'al, And ihu» gn^t Art ia nothing oI«g 
ihAA the type of etrong and nobl« life; for, aa tho igno- 
ble pcncHi, in his dealing* vltL all tliat cc<runi in llie world 
about him, fhst scca nolhin^ dc^arlv, — tooka notlilug ilurly 
in ike fiuse, uid Oier allow-* liiin^^lf lo Im Hwepi away by 
the tnmphng torrent, ctsd i:inc«cnpabl« fbrcc^ of the thiiigM 
ihsl li« wiinld uut fanaae, and could u^ underaUtnd: 6c 
ditt noblo person, looking tba fa«U of tW world full in the 
tact, and ^ibomiog tUeni wilh deep flicultHV, then dcjiU 

* Uivnlfj. I ki»tr bov 0Tfi£g«irAt*d tliia iLatocnKei foundi ; but 1 
iMttU it,— vrary lyJIabl* ^iF iL— Sm Arp«Ddi2 IV 



[LBOr. 1 

with them in uiujlarmed intelligence and unhui ried strength, 
and becomes, with his human intellect and will, no un 
conscious nor insigniHcant sf^t, in conaomniatjng theii 
good, and restraining their evil, 

Tbus in human life you have the two fields of rightfal 
toil for ever distinguifihed, yet for ever associated ; Truth 
first — plan or dcfiign^ founded thereon; so in ait, you han 
the same two fields for ever distinguished, for ever amo 
ciated; Truth first — plan, or deogn, founded there^n- 

Now hitherto there is not the least difficulty in the 
subject ; none of you can look for a moment at any great 
sculptor or painter without seeing the full bearing of these 
principles. But a difficulty arises when you come to exa 
mine the art of a lower order, coneerned with furniture 
and manufacture, for in that art the element of design 
enters without, apparently, the clement of truth. You 
have often to obtain' beauty and display invention without 
direct representation of nature. Yet, respecting all these 
things also, the principle is perfectly simple. If the 
designer of furniture, of cups and vases, of dresa patterns, 
and the like, exercises himself continually in the imitation 
of natural form in some leading division of his work; then, 
holding by this stem of life, he. may pass down into all 
kinds of merely geornetrical or formal design with peifcc 
safety, and with noble results.* Thus Giotto, being prima 

L0:r. h] 

0CKfVS^TI0S4l. ABT, 

riljr ft figure painter uiKliflcuIptor, in, aicoond^uSJ^, tiiftri^Kftl 
of ftD d«e^gt»raia mere mosaic of coloured b^rs uid tri&og[c8 : 
lliuii B«fiV(?niiio OHinl, Winjj in all Oio liiglir^r bnnchtn ot 
metal work ft perfect imtutor of aoMrc, is in &U its loxei 
bnuobeB tiie best dcAi^iji^r itf Lutrvn for ]i]H cif l'ujim arm] 
tiftadlos of vasos; thiu Iloibcin, exercised pnoiftiily in Iho 
Hoblo ftrt of tni^ful ^rtrailure, becomet^ »e«oudan]y, tlie 
iDOit exquiicUd dmigner of 4;inbroidcriM of K>b^ and 
bbuconhcfi od wall; and thus M.ichacl Angclo, oxcT\xi6l^l 
primaiit^ m Hie draAii^g uf bixl^ ujid liuib^ diaUlbuUa in 
th« migbtiest nnuacs tbo order of hia pitUn^ And in ilie 
loftiest fhadovr the bellows of hia dome. But oiioe quit 
bold of tbi* liTing flUm, and «et ^'ourself to tlic^ dcngning 
of onftmcDUiioa, dtber in Lbe iguorftut pla/ of >-our cwn 
b«ajlJnm ^iny, t» tho rndiiiii drHv, or nt^/irding In n^nvi<i1 
opplicstioD of bcartlicss Uw8, as tho modcTQ Eiiropctin dood, 
ftnd tben^ is but on<j worl for jrou^^Dc^tb ;**-dcAtb of 
ereiy bealtbv £^ult^, and of enjry noble int^igeibDe, 
Inoftpoidt^r of uiKlcniUnding one f^rcal vork ihnt man liAS 
QVitr diini-^ or nt dning nn^'Uirng tliiit it i^TihII 1h.< hr-lpTil for 
bin to beliold. You faftre eut youT«dvcfi off voliuitoiJy 
pmumptotKialjr, LiufulGOtl/, ftuni tbe wbulti tcticliirg gf 
your Maker in IL« Univerdo ; jou bar* cut jouroolves off 
from it, not bvcauM j'ou irdrc forced to mecbonical Jabtrut 
Ibr 3^oar trviul — not Uirni^c your fali: biut AppolnU-d yrjn 
to woar ftWftv your iifc in wflUod chaiabcre, ox dig your life 
oat of duMlj furruvrs; but, wbnn ^our wbule £]rt^fi:»^4Joii, 




your whole occupation— ^l the neoeasilua ind **^*"*'^— of 

your exifitence, led you straight to the feet of the grett 
T*;acher, and tbniat you into the treaaury rf Hk w<»b; 
Inhere you have nothing to do bnt to live by gimng and 
to grow by wondering; — wilfully you bind up jour eyci 
from the splendonr — wilfully bind up your life-blood fiom 
iu beating — wilfully turn your backs upon all the naje^ 
tif^s of Omni|>otencc — wilfiilly su&toh your hands frran aD 
the aidfl of love ; and what can remain for you, but help- 
lijfisncss and blindness, — except &e iroi&b fiite than flu 
iM.'ing blind yourselves — that of becoming Leadeia of tha 

Do not think that I am speaking under excited feoliug, 
or in any exaggerated terms, I have wrtUen the worda 
I use, that I may know what I say, and that you, if yon 
choose, may see wliat I have said. For, indeed, I Lave set 
before you to-nigbt, to the beat of my power, the sum and 
Bubstance of the system of art to the promulgation of which 
I have difvoted my life hitherto^ and intend to devote what 
of life may still be Bjiared to me. I have had but one 
Btcady aim in all that I have ever tried to teach, namely — 
U) declare that whatever waa great in human art was the 
exprt-asion of man's delight in God's work. 

And at this time I have endeavoured to prove to you — if 
you investigate the subject you may more entirely prove to 



iraportAnt for jou to be nwoird tLai Ui« con- 
IiJ<f anil dctUb >n the an of uauonji an oIm 1I14 
ccoditioDd 'OC life utid <Wth in jroQr oirn; ftnd that >ou 
kAVG It, «ftcb in biA power at ;bss v«r^ instant, to d^urnmiici 
o «hieL directiou Uis stops ftra lumnj^. It bcciqa aljno«4 » 
levhUo tfaiDg to tcU you, thftt all here have dJ the powL^ 
of IdkOwiDg at ocioe what hopd tben b for tbom iv nrtirti; 
jroQ vouU, pcrbapv, like better tli&t there waa aonie onre* 
mombb doubt &bo^it iho chances of ih^ fHiuira— aorae pos 
ntnlity that yon might bo Advaccingr ^^ aiic«Q9o:i>iui vnyit, 
(owutlii unexj)i'ctcJ mcc^s&ea — Aome eicciiFi? or i^ason for 
goiog Bbout, OS AlwloEitt do AO oft^, to ibU muilcr or tlio 
other, a^ng him if they bare gcniu^ And ^Lcihur the/ 
ftra doing righi, and g&th«Tiiig, front his c^relaa or (crmal 
rcplicit TOguc Haflbcs of cfi(;oaragcinciit, or fitlulnca«:a of 
doifxdr. Tli^re u no no«^] fi^r tliijL — no oxc^^at for it^ Ail 
ofyoQ havo tbo Uia! of yonniclvw tii your own power; 
flttcb inay undergo at ihia instant) b«foie bis o»r jodgmcnt 
99at, tbv ordeal by £ro. A^k yotinic^lvdi what la the lead- 
ing motive ^vhich actLiatc^ yoa wbilc you arc at work. I 
<le3 not Uik yoa what your leading motivo e for woiking — 
thai 18 A<£Scrcnt thi(i;c; joii nuy have fomilifv to aup^ort 
«-|iftr«nt« to help— brides to vrin ; you m^j have iJl tln^w, 
orothcr ittch aacnd and preeminent lOOiiTes, t4> prfMS tin? 
moinukg'a laboui fttd prompt the tvrilijchl thought* But 
irh«n you am fiorly «.' ih>i vrork, wluit ijt the inflivc iUi^ti 
vhioh loUaapcncvcry touoliofil? If it i« the lovcof thait 




wbioh your work rqjKscntii— if, being % looistfipc pom 
It w love of Lillfl arid trv4« that moves ^^ on — if, bciDg 
ligure pointor, it is love of htinuui bcfLUtv luid btunAQ soul 
tbut mOTW vou— ii^ Inlu^ a flower or auiouk] painter, it is 
\ottj and woitdcr, ftod ddigbt jn pctiU iinil in IliDb ihsA 
mo7o jou, iheo tiie Spirit ia upon joo, md the conb ia 
jrcnin^ lln>llbi^fDlncMtbr^cof. B tit if, on the other iiatDd, It 
is petty ^lfH)orupUocQcy la your owaakilL, tmrtmprooeptt 
mill Iawh, 1]i>[ir- fiir wjiilrmioiil rjr p<i|iii]nr ii|>|)ri>laliou, or 
ftvajiceofw<<&ltJi,— ici»qait« poasible t^istbyttcAdy bdti»- 
trj, or ovrn by fgrtuTitdc chnjic^ ^ou may wlu Uio a]>pla' 
iha poflhiot], tlie fortuoo, th&t you deare; — but one 
of tno ftrt you vi)l never Iny ou cuTOd or on stona 
long an ynii livF^ 

Mftkc, tlkon, your uboloev boldly ojid oo:iodou6ly, for cao 
ny or other it mu«f be mad^ On lUc dark and duigeinxia 
iadeutaet, the pndewbicli delights JuGdr-oonicmpIalioii— 
tbc indolcnoe which rcvts in unquc^onod fonn* — the i^ao- 
rauw thut lUvpi^^s vbnt la Eidrest among Qod*« crr^tiires 
«ul the dulnces that d^jucs vbat is tnarrcllous in Uia work' 
lag: thetc b alifi; of lEionoLony for your own soiiliH, sod of 
ta^Em<)^ Ibr thoeo of othc^rs. And, on tba other si 
opcB lo joor choice the lifi^ of llie crowned aplri^ too 
m a light in creatioti— discovering alwaya — Jlltimipating 
alwaya, ^aing ^vcry hoxir ia etmigih, yet bowed down 
eray btmr iato deeper humiUty ; siiix- of baag right ia itt 
ila, Pm of boag intsiatiblc in ttfi proigroes; happy 

LECr. 1.] 



wbfit it hsa securely done — ^happier in what, day by day^ it 
may aa aecurely hope ; happiest at the close of life, when 
the right hand begins to forget its cunning, to remember, 
that there never was a touch of ihe chisel or the pencil it 
wielded, but has Added to the knowledge and quickened 
tl|ft hA|H)iiiesB of maokiiid. 


THE uinrr of aat. 

It is sometimea my pleasant daly to visit ot^«r cities, in 

tbe hope of being able to encour^e their art atudents ; bat 
here it is my pleasanter piivilege to oome for enconnige* 
ment myseK I do not know when I have reoedved 00 

mucb asfrom the report read this evening by Mr. Bamraers- 
ley, bearing upon a subject which has caused me great 
anxiety. For I liave always felt in my own pursuit of art, 
and in my endeavours to urge the pursuit of art on others, 
that while there are many advantages now that never 
existed before, there are certain grievous dilTiculties exist- 

* I -was prevented, by press of other engn^menta, fixiQi prepoHj^g 
this address with the care I wished ; and foir^d to trust to such eipre^ 
HioQ as I could g^ve at the momeat to the pomta of prmdpnl import- 
uiGo; reading, however, the close of tbe preceding lecture, which I 
thought centred some tmtha that would bear repetition. The whole 
was reported, better than it deaeryed, by Mr. Pitman, of the AfancAo- 
ttr CourUr^ and publislied nearly verb^Ltim. I have here extracted, 
from thepubUabed report, the facts wluchi wlah especially Co enforce; 

iJcr. IL] 




iog, j^2ft Id the vciy caiitQ tbat ia giving Uie etunultu tc 
art— in the imtaeoM epTtAd of ilic mnnu&ctarcs of twvy 
uountr^ which in now altcniliog Ttgoroaslv U> ut W« 
find ih^t xaaao&ctmo and ort nrc now going ott alwa^fl* 
tq^fclLer; ihal when- Uirn' iit no mutit^tcture there u no 
axt I know bow muoh ihere » of protended Ml wlicrc 
tbcrc \n oo niand&cturc: then; k mucb in TlaljTr ibr 
ioMooe; no countiy oukcfi «> 1»ld pretence to ih^pro- 
daotitm of CMW &rt aa [Ul/ at this tnomca:t ; /ct do ooantiy 
piodtiaBS «D hiWv, Tf yon glitnor ov>7r \\w- mnp of Eiiropo, 
jrou wiQ find ihid where the n)&nufuomn» aro Aroiigcst, 
tbcrv lut aK> i» ifttDtignL And ^-c^ I &1wh^« felt that thGrc 
to immeiKa difflotdty to be «nooimt«r<!d b/ the Andenta 
were in tl^tto centres of modern ntoTcmcnt. Thejr 
IsAd to a?o;d the notion tltat art and mauui^cfirQ were in 
nnjT rci^'ct ona Art mnv be healthily nHociaicd with 
Duiiuractiirc, &ad probably in future will alwayn be so^ but 
the Rtudent mtui b« <tivnuou:±ly w&nied ftgainat SQppostnj) 
(hat th^ can crct be one «ad tbfi auoo tbioev that ait can 
ever be followed on the principles of aunu&ctuie. %mh 
mart be followed flcparat^ljr ; tlio one must i nBncnco the oUicTi 
but each mrot be kvpt dbtincrly leparate fVom (he other. 

It wouJd be well if all students would keep doorty in 
their mind the nnil ill^flrirlion beLniwfi l1j<jse woid^ w^iich 
we UM «o often, " Manufacture," '* Art,'^ nnd '* Fiuo Art," 
^M.u(a7Acrcits" is, oecording to the etjinology auid right 
ow of tbe word, ** tlio nuking of sinytliitLg by bnnda,"-^ 


iHi uHirr or ib£ 


directly or indirectJj, witli or wiflioat Aeh^ of ii 
ments or macbines. Anjdung prooaedmg fio^ tto ^ni 
of man is mana&ctim; botit nnut hara prooppdod fao 
his hand only, acting mech«zicanf, and nninflnniinil tf 
the moment by direct intelligenoe^ 

Then, secondly, Art is the openOkn of tfao band and 
the intelligence of man together; thorn m an art of mJciBK 
machinery; there is an art df Imilding ah^; ^ art cf 
making carriages ; and 00 on, AH thoae, prapalj Oiffled 
Arts, but not Fine Arts; aie pninitB in wfakh ibm hand af 
man and hia head go tc^edier, working at Aeaaaao iirtaat 

Then Fine Abt is that in which the hand, ^ liead, and 
the heart of man go together, 

EccolJect this triple group; it will help you to aolve 
many difTieah problems. And remember that thon^ the 
hand must be at the bottom of ereiything, it must alao go 
to the top of everything ; for Fine Art must bo produced 
by the hand of man in a much greater and clearer sense 
thxin manufacture ia Fine Art most always be prodnoed 
by the subtlest of all machines^ which is the human hand. 
No machine yet contrived, or hereafter contrivable, will 
ev^r equal the fine machinery of the human fingera. 
Tii-'^roughly perfect art is that which proceeds from the 
he-'ft, which involves all the noble emotions; — aasodates 
with tljcse the head, yet as inferior to the heart; and the 

HeoKO it foUowa tli&t eincc M&nu£ii>tarQ j:i sunpljr Ui« 
opcnUioD of tiM IuuhI of maa ia firodLicioj^ tliat wbicli tfl 
tttefol to htm, it eaaenti^Llly Kpamtea iiself i>otn Uto e^<» 
liocis; whco cmotionA interfere wilk m.'icbickcty thcj spoil it; 
iDftclkiiiery most go evenly, without emotioii. Bui tU<! Fin>o 
AfiB ODiinot fQi> cvoiilj ; tLcy olvrayi tnujit have emotion 
ruling th>cir nwcltAntsni, aud until tho pupil begins U> fetl, 
umI UDtU &U lia doea Maoelatee iteelf wiUi ih« aurrcni cf his 
fiseliog; be » not fta artist But ptipib in jxtl ttic ac^ls in 
ihfi country are Dov expoaed to all kinds of t^raptaliocj 
wbicAi Uout their fovlLi^^a, 1 oonatiLntly fcol diaoourogcd 
ID addrcaUDg thoin because I know not bow to tell ihtrm 
boldly wliat Ui«7 ougUt to doy wb^a I fed hov pmcUcaU^ 
difficult it IS for tbcra to do tU Tlivrc an; all soils cf 
derainds made upon ihem in &vcij clirxv:t.ion, nnd money 14 
to be mwk in evoij oonoeiTtbk way but iha riglit vray. 
If you paJat aa you ouglit^ aud study m )'6u ougbt, depend 
Upon It ibc public Kill tako co ooUco of you for a long 
wbilc^ If /oa study wroi^y, aad try to draw tlic atbcu* 
tioQ of tbe pubUo upon you,— auppodng you to be c1ev«t 
■todenta — you will got awift reword ; but tho ruwaxd dota 
not come &st whea itiaMiuglit wiwly^ itiaalwif>« bold 
aloof tor a littte wbile t t^ ngbt Toads of oorly life are very 
q^uiet om^ bodgod Id from nearly oU bdp or pi^udv. But 
tb» wroug nxuLs are uoidty^-^vocie^ua sTcry wb^ro witb all 
Uadft of demand upon you for uri wtiitsb is not properly 
axt at all J and iu tbe vanuua tiieetio^ of modf^ru latcrmt^ 



Tuit uKirr or akt. 

[iSCf u 

money is to be nia<l<^ in every war ; bnt :irt is to be IbHowtil 
«Jj ia one way, TtKit ia vbat I vrajit mauilv to ear tr 
roij, or if not to yoxi yGantilws (fur, Prom wbal I barr 
heard from j-our ox<n>Ui?iiI maawr to niglat, I know yoo an? 
giMDg OD all rigliily), jrou moat lot me aay it tbiomgh ytm 
toothera. Our St^hooUcf Art fiw confused by the T^rioBs 
kcoctung and various mtoiCflta Uiot arc now abroad amoag 
MS. Everybudy is Uitking *bout iLrt, mid writing about it, 
and more or less inbMxme^ in it; cvnt-ybody wants art, and 
tbere ia not art for uvurybwly, and fuw wbo tdk know nbat 
thev are talking about ; thus Btudenta are led in aU variable 
ways, wbile there ia only one way in which th^ can make 
steady pn^resa, for true art ia alwaja and will be always 
one. Whatever changes may bo made in the customs of 
aociety, whatever new machines we may invent, whatever 
new mann&cCures we may supply, Fine Art must remain 
what it was two thousand years ago, in the days of Phidias; 
two thousand years hence, it will be, in all its principles, 
and in all its great effects upon the mind of man, just the 
same. Observe this that I say, please, carefully, for I mean 
ittothe very utmost There is hut tme right ux^i^dtfingaMf 
pvcn thing required of an artiat; there may be a hundred 
wrong, deficient, or nuujDered ways^ bat there ia only oov 
complete and right way. Whenever two artists are tiying 
to do the same lliirg with the same materijils, and do it in 




r Jir 



m Lifl tamper rui}' nuke hbt wrong plciunntor Uian mty po?^ 
80ii*A ngbtj it may fbr huo, uuderr bia gircn limitations of 
knowled^or temper, he brtter p<^r)utp» tHt be nftould err 
iu lus own W017 ikfln try for aaybody olw'ft— bat toT all 
Uui bin wftj is vrrua^ Aiid iL is fa&eiiliaJ Utt alt inHt<U?ni ot 
Bcboolfl to know wltnt the riglu \r%y ia, fttid wli^t rigbt ain 

oDiI u> ae« }vovf simple and hour single ull rlgUt art Ifi^ 

, rinoc the Ix'ginnitig of it. 
But farthv, noi only is iberv but ooc way of tkiivj 
tlimgn rightly, 1>itt tlirre w oitly (mis wiiy uf trrin^ t}it*m^ 
AAd tliat ifl| seeing tha whole of them, witlioat nny choioc, 
or moTO int^ftiM prtrcr-pli'm of one jHwnt tbin a^DOlhi.-r, ow* 
ing to oar ffp^&l idio«yncnmip*. Thrift, whon Titian or 
TSrtton;! look ni A htiir&n bciiij?, tber aeo at u glance tlio 
wtiole of il« fiatiipe, oiiWick unA m ; nil tfmt ii hnn of form, 
of colour, of paaaon, or of thoxi^t ; snintlinvfis, and love* 
lincm; iIi7«hI/bodytitQil .ijiiriiuiilpnwrr; gmcc, orntimglli, 
or eoftneas, or whatcoevor orhar (ju^lity, those mon will ^ce 
to the foil, and m> puirt, llui% whea narrower people eomn 

look at wlut they have d^n^, o\'ct7 oao may, if he 
chooMft, 6nd hits own npceiol plfVLtary; in ihc work. The 
pensualint will find wn>*iiaility in Tiiim ; the thinV.^r will 
find thought; iho«£ijit, cflncttty ; tlieeolouHjot, colour; ibo 
unatomia^ Cbrm; and yet the picture will acrer bo a popu- 
lar oive in thi; ful! tt-TWi>, f(*r ntma at \hr-iu* nanv>wi'T jwopld 
will tiT^d their special tisio so alone consulted, as that tho 
^tulltit^ w'tiicli wuuH «(xiLuv tfitir ^mlitlojiticiti aliuU bu 






aiJ^ed or sepai^ted from otJier^; thej are clieckcd \ty tlu> 
presecce of tUe other qu/ilitiefi which ensure Lho gnttificsL' 
Lioa of other mczu Thus, Tiliiiii Id uob Eoil eaough for tho 
senauitliat, Correggio suita Lim better; Titian is cot defined 
enough for the formalist^ — Leonardo fiuita him bcttci ; Ti- 
tdau is not pure tiuouglt for the rf^gionist, — Kaphael &ai]« 
bim better; Titian ia not polite eoMl£^ ftr teaHB^ 0* 
world,— Vandyke eoits bim better; Tilnii'v tio(:fqeeib^ 
enough for tbe bveia of ibe pttaxmp^ Buuibwacll writa ' 
him better. SoOorreggioiBpafnikriridiftoertBftMlbeBd 
Vandyke with a oertdn ee^ and Bantmndt wjiliBjieitaaii 
set All are great men, but of inferior stamp, and therefore 
Vandyke is popular, and Rembrandt is popular,* but nobody 
cares much at heart about Titian ; only there is a strange 
uudei^urrent of eTerlosting murmur about his name, which 
means the deep consent of all great men that he ia greater 
than they — the consent of thoae who, having sat long 
enough at bis feet, have found in that restrained harmony of 
his strength there are indeed depths of each balanced power 
more wonderful than all those separate manifestations in 
inferior painters : that there is a softness more exquisite 
than Oorreggio'a, a purity lo^er than Leonardo's, a foree 
mightier than BembrandVa, a sanctity more Bolemn even 
than RaOaelle's. 

Do not suppose that in saying this of Titian, I am return- 


THB twmr or a»t. 


ing to tbc 0^ ccioctic thconca of B<riogii&; for all llone 
euUoUc UKOritffl, ol»ar»r, vfi-re luim-i). not ^pon an rniirjiVDil/ 
to uottc tli9 TOnouat cbAraat4rs of n&tQrc (vbicb it ia po^- 
bk todoX but the Tariona nartuwiiQasaa of toAtc, vrHich ii 
ti impowiUe to do. Eubeni in not m<)ru vigorous than 
Titiiui, bttt Um rigorous; bat bccaueo be ta &> norrovr* 
mluiJ«d b0 to «nJoy vigour oaly, ho jvAifwa Ui givp the other 
quAliticfl of nature, winch would intfirforo with that vigoui 
witb our pereqrtiou of iL Ag^n, Rf^mbr^iidi, i» uota 
gre«ler otfter of chiarMctiro thiui Tiiasin ;-»-Le ii a le« 
DttAler, but bcctiitEC he iaso oairow-miiided oa to CTyojr 
chlaroncum onlj, be wjlhdfuffK fi<nn yon t}»e Hpltitdour erf 
huo wbicb would int<!rforo with thi^ and gives ^ou only 
die shadow in wbtdi you uiii ut oni-e feel it Now nil 
tbow 8pi«ijdtic<ib.avctb«ir own ch^nri in thoirowoway; 
and tlKrre am tim&s wlieii tho porliculir buruour of each 
amn iw rcfhvlting in on JVcm h« very diiiliuc;lne<t ; but tbo 

irt to ftdd any othor <jualitics to thia Tcfmbiag ono 
iuHL-mlJy Uiknt away Lhr ilij(tiiiclivi:nr<t«v mid thttndtirr thr; 
exftct cbaitdcr to bo ocjoy«i in iia appeal to fi particular 
hiuiM>ur in uk. Qui cnjnytTKTt utoa? fmia n wcAkiirwt 
nwcting A weakness iVom a p.-tniaUty in the pninufr fitting 
to A partiality in ub, and ^vtng tui eug&r when wc wantHxl 
nigar, and myrrh when wr WKrit^xl tnyrrh ; but »ii^Lr and 
ttynfa m utA meat: and wheu we wa&t meot and bioad, 
V«inual go to hdLcr wku, 

Tkhi9 vcJoctie Kboolfl endearoiir^ to anit« th«&e oppoeit* 

[]anitt]itj(« hud weaknesaea. They trmnad tbemsolvee nx% 
dcr mastcra of cxagBCTAtion, und trk<l to unibo oppo^ile 
ttggKinlimiH. Tlmt waa iiii|Kmble. They did iml jicw 
tlio oi^tj posnblc oclMtldam had been alrr^uly nccomplish 
ed ; — ihe edectjdsni of tcmperarw, which, hy lli« rrKlrninh 
of forcf>f gstmti higher force; nnd hj; the wlf-dcntal of do- 
light, gnioa UighoT delight. Thia you v^U Gnd ia ultimate 
ly t}ic c!Wo wilh r.vrtry f.nirt iind rigUt mitster ; nt firet^ whito 
we arc tyroK in sirt, or l>M*>.»rG we htivft eamtsilvsttidiod iho 
nu-u; in qucjiUoa, wo ahall sec iiule in Mm; or ptTha|>a «^ 
voi wo ihhik, rttficionciiy* ; we shiiU ffiticy he is inferior to 
this man In that, and to tho o^cr m&n in the otlicr; but 
fls we go on siiiilying him wr !4)iHlt fliiil thnt h^ h.-u; got boifa 
thntund the other; and both in a fi^r htt;h(fr 6<.'n»c than the 
mar wht> Mcmfifl lo powi** tbowqiiHliticfl Iti cxc<*j*. Thin 
in Tumtir** lif^-timCi when fMWpIa firai looked at him, tho4a 
who liked rainy weather, «aid he wwi not equal to Cop! 
Fielding; but those who looked at Turner long enoo 
found that he could be mnch more wet than Copli^y Field- 
ing, when h.?i choae_ Thu j>eople who likt?d fore*>, *"iid that 
" l\jmoP wft« not ftrong onou j^h for them ; he wna cSeml- 
nato; they liked De Wiut,— nice strong tone; — or Ook— 
gu«t, greeny, dark ron»;n< of ooionr^-wlcmn foeliog <fcf 
the frcabn*^ jvnd dejAli of n^tur<^ ; — thr-y liked Oox— ■ 
Torrii?r wa* Uwi hot ri>r tht'Tn.** Had they looked long 
enough they would hove louud that ho hod far more f^roo 
thiui Do Wiut, fur more fW-nhtnw* thnn Cox when lie 


utOT, n-] 

TDK rsiTY or Airr. 


elboaie, — onl^* utiited with other clAmcntx; And llut bc^idu^ 
obooflc to be cool, if ctaturc bad .-ippointfd the weaiber t^ 
beboL Tbo people who likwl Prvijt aioid "Turner Lsul 
not firmiHCB of bttrtd-^ho did not know enough about or- 
cbiimiuro— be wua itob pietnrvitriutT i-noii^li.'^ Harl Uu^y 
looked 3it hU arcbitoctur^ long, ih^v woulti hnvo ibtind tbat 
it oonlAiued svh\h fn»",tnre8<itjeur3M«, infibitdy more picture 
fStjtM thftii arvthing of I'nmt'pL P^iplt? who Ukfd CaUcstrtt 
0^d tlu; ** ruracT wm not ccrrccrt or pure enough— had ac 
efAmcinl uiHtr." H^l ihr.y lixikrd :d Turm?r loii^ ermiigli 
tboy wotild li^ire found him na sororo, when ho chom, p^ 
the grnilrr Poii^n ;— Ciillet>lt, ft lUf^re viilgn^r imitAlor <J 
Other mon'a high brooding And so throuj^hont with nil 
tboroughljr gnsit men, their atrvngth ti not seen at fif»t, 
precml^ bccausa they nnite, in dtie p]a^ And mcAsnre, 
CTCTT prefll qaahly, 

Now the qiiL'*tion IB, whether, cw sttidpnte, wc arc Ut 
•tmly only iheee mi{*fati«et m&o, who uutM all gr^ataett^ or 
wbclbci vc sire to study the work« of infenor men, who 
pmcDl Oft viih th^ gr«Lt&w»'whioh we partieulnrly like ? 
That qiiertirir often oomes before mo when I ace a strong 
Mro^yncRwy in a atndent, sind he ask^. me what he ihould 
•tHiilj. SlftH Lsend him U> n trnc Mflnfcr, who do» not 
fiKT^nl tite c|UHl)tj' in & pro!niii>-iit wajr in tvhidi ihnt stu- 
dent dch^tit, or Mend him to a man with whom he heui 

mjxithy ? H ifl ft hard ritKition. Far very cuilom 

ATG sometimes bee 

jcan, not only bj sludoutd ^llowin;; thaii owii bctit, but 
l);^thcir being nltfadniwu fniin Umcbing altogrllicr. I linirc 
jiut niunod a very ^at oan iu bU own Md — Proot W^ 
iJ] know LIa drawings ntwl love them ; tKny have 4l pecu- 
liar chanctei ^rliicli no other arvhitoctiir^ drji^rings «7cr 
poBMlBcdii and which no othen uin pQacK:da, booaj.'uj all 
Prout*g Hul^^cta are bciDg knocked down or restored* 
(Proiit did not like rcetored bmldiD^ auy mora than I da) 
There will ncyer be any mere Prout diuwings- Nor could 
he havo boeu wbfit be was, orexpreeaod with ilini myaifr 
rioiuly effective touch that peculiar delight in broken a&cl 
old baildings, untuaa he had boon withdrawn fhiiii all hi^ 
ftrt ififlQCDOO* Voa know that Prout waa bom of poor 
pareula — Lliat he wa« eiluuLli'd dtiwn in Cornwall; — iiud 
that, for many yeiir*, all the ort-tciching he hnd wus hia 
cwa, or the iblicrmen's. Under the keels of the fisbing- 
hiiaU, on 'he tmnHn of our BouUnTn gocisEa, Pniut lennu^ 
nil that he noccicd to Icam about ort^ Ktitircly by hiuaficl^ 
be fifh bitt wa^ tu tUia jtarliiiuhir »tyK', and bi^i^oH th« 
patutcroi^pioturoM which I tliink wciihoiili all rvgi'cttoloaa 
Ii bccomce a> very dif^euU qac^tioa what that mau would 
bavi:^ been, had he been bn> jght undi-r «umc entirely whol& 
tome DrtiAticiiiflucnoo. He had immense giitaof compou- 
twu- I do uoL know hi^y miin who had more pnwcr of 
bivjnliou than Prout, or who bad a wubbmcr infltiaot m 
hia treatment of things; but being entirely withdrawn irura 
all artiflticul help, he Uuud^ra his wii^ to ihat £hort-comiag 




L£or. il] 

THE GKirr or abt. 

KpnaeiiUtioo, vMob, by the very rsAdon of ita «l.ort 
eomii]^ hm & oertein c^tann vc nKoald aI] be wrrj to Ioao 
Aikd thev«fi>ni I ibel cmbcuT^used when a student ooiite« tc 
oi£V i<^ irhom X aco & strong induct of iikoX kiad ; and 
omiiot tell wfa(itJicr I cmglit Ut my to htm^ ^^Give up aU 
j^urMudiee^old boat^ C4id keop away £rom lii<: liCft'elior^ 
ftul come up to the lioysl Acndcmy in LodiIod, aL<L Joc^k at 
aothiDK bui TitioD/' It ia a difilcult tbng to tmk^ up o&tt'i 
Ckiiid to My Uul;. Uowcvct, I bclicvc> ou tho whole, wo 
raay irbely leave iucb mantra in ibo liands of Provid>^noa; 
tiiAt if wc havo ibc power of tmclitng tli<f ngbt to any- 
body, we should leaohtbem ihi^rijjlil; if webaTfrthe jjowt? 
of ebowing thctn tbo bM thinfc, wc ctHoukl nhow tbcm tlio 
haH thiikg: tbera wUl always I foai, b« enough want of 
toaebing, and enougti bod t^acbtn^ 1o bHng out ver)- curi- 
cmtical rc«uhs if wc want thcaa. So. if wc ai^ to 
at all, lei lu teai^h Uie rigbt ijiiiiy, and evt-r the right 
thing. TlieTV aro muny attraotivu qualiticn inconvintcnt 
wJtb rigbmon i — do i^ot It't us kacli ibt^ui, — hi na be ouri- 
|isDttowaiTeili«in. TberaareaUnititivc qiutlitKviii Buma, 
and altracttvG qunlltlca in Dickens, whicli ncitljcr of Uicae 
wnU-Ti would have |irR«4i?aMed if tlie one hml heen wlutuiU'd, 
tftd the otb^rr btkd bc«Q atudying higher nature than Umt of 
codcney LiHidoD ; but ilio^is alti-a^jve qualiliott ait not such 
as wa ebonld Mck in a school <>f ti^irutun:. If w^ want to 
latGhyoiDgmenagoodmanncrofwntiiigf we should teach 
it fnxa SbaJtJpeoiv,— DOt from Bunu ; from Waller Sc^^ 


of paiDtlDg are &t priscait ineOioioiii in ibi^lr action, Ikcai 
thoy h«ve Dot fixci) oti iht* Ingl^ pnnciplc vtiftl are t ta ^ 
pnnt^ri to whom to point ; Dor boldt; resolved to point ^H 
tbo bcst> if dctcrmin^tklc. It b becoming ft matter of sl^rr. ■ 
uecesshj tbat they sbniilcl give .1 ample di?yctioE to ilio 
ottciitkm of the Htudcrt, ami ttml the/ ahould Aur^ " Tfaia ^^ 
ths mark you are to aim at; and jou are no^Co£;o about ^^| 
the pnnt-^iop^t ^nd pi^ep in, to 3&q hovr tbia iMigniv^ docvi 
that) iwd tLc otLcr crgravcr docA the olh<^, and how a nice 
Wt of di!U-ftcl»->r has been caught by a new loau, ndiI wby ihii 
odd picture hM caught the popuUr uttcntioti. Vou arc to 
hove nothing to do with all that; you aro not !o mi 
about popular Attention, }uiit now; hut hure isattung wbi 
ttt eUrrnally riybt and good : jou arc to look at ih^il, ati J 
if you caTiTtot do Komolhiug olernatly rij^ht nnd g'.Kni 

But auppow you accept ibia priridple: and rcfiolTc 
look to xotrtc graal mau, Titian, or Turuer, or wboi 
it nuiy Ix', na the motbl of pcrtcctioo io ort; — then 
ijtieftljoii ia; aJnuu llrii^ i^-at tiiiui pursued hiH art in Ttiiu 
uria the Ik'ldrt of Knglund, under totztUy diUVrcnt Aoodi* 
tioua from thoso pooftibk to ub now — how are you to make 
' your study of birn olfLVrtive here in Mai]oha«i4;r ? how bring 
it down into pati<7ms t^ud fill thai you arc called upon aa 
ojieratives loj'iodriLv? how TnnkeiL fhe Tneanaof your V^vc* 
bhood, and Juwocinl'? inlcrior branchwJ cf jut with this groa» 
■rt? That iiiay become a atrloua duubl lu you. Too miiy 

USKTT. nj 


Uunk th^re w eomo o*Jier wj^y of prodoolcig clfrrer, ftod 
preitjr, aad ttlcobU paUi^riu Uim goitig lo l^xilc .tl TiLinn. 
or anj otbn gT«*t m^o. And that brings nne to tho qu«a 
tioo, pcrbAjMi tbQ moM vexed quoation of nlJ omoiigat lu JuM 
now, bAvnm ccoiwintioBBl and pcrfti^t »rr». You know 
tUm Amodg njchitoctB and ortiste tliero arv, nnd btiTo booa 
atEDOflt a1wii5«» rocc Art becnmc & subject of much discus- 
dca, t^ro parti«6, cmo mairttalotng ttuit niit^re should bo 
always tlbTTtd and modii^cd, ncd ^at the artist, ia greater 
Uuui lutara; tboy do not matnlaln, indeed, in vords, but 
they mAirlftiEi in id<^ that ttic arti»b :» i^Atcr than tho 
Di^iMMakcroftbese things, and can improves them; while 
tho other puty aSkj ih^i ho ciUinot!iD|iKtvc nature, and thrit 
OAtiirc CQ the whole »hou)[] improTC him. That is the rtal 
meaning of the i^o partlea^ the essence of them ; the pr&o> 
licol remit of (iicir several thcorii:A being thut the Idcnliflta 
are alwsy* produdng more or fcm foritml condtfioris of art, 
and tho Bealiet^ striving to prodaoa in idl thcjr art dthcr 
■omo image of natunv or record of nature; tbe«^ obaervot 
beJag quite dil&rant tliiu^ the {ma^ being a ratcmblunoQ, 
ami the record, somf^hing which will gi7C tnformndon 
about oatun.\ but not uec-tJ^sarlly iiuitete it 

« fl # « ft 

Tea may wpaiute thnu! Xvin gmups uf arLoHU uiorcj dis 

* Tho portion «f llio Ircluff |ior« MnitLijU ttm a riKnpit lUtloo 
ot that fmtX <t Iho |>nTlouB «no wliiolv opfoud convoaUOTi&l ert lo 



TBB mvirr of abt. 


ttactly ID your nmid as those ^ho seek fbr the |)1ca«iare 
ar^ in tfa« relationa cf ita cototirs and lineSf wtiliout caring 
Id cootc^t any tratb with it ; aad those who fleck for llio 
tmtli 6n<t, nttd tlien go dowrn IVotn tltb tniLli lo tie pleaaun 
of colour and linc^ M^r^g thcoc two bodies difltiiKftlj m 
Be|}ar&t^ and tliiijVirif; ovfs thtiUj yoti inay oanie to eome 
TntbcT notablo oonclwioiut rcffp«^ng tho mcntttl dkpott* 
tions which are mvolred in aick modo of study. You will 
find timt haga rawun^ of the art of iliD world fit! ddbuid 
under one or ihc other of t^ceo heads* Observe, pleasure 
first siDcl truth AnervnrdA^ (j.jv imt iit Etll,) ua with t.h-? Arv 
bioDs and lodiaM ; or, truth Qrat and plcosuru iiitcrwardj^ 
na with Ait^liiv} ntid nil othrr grmt KuinpcAn |ui]nti; 
Tou will Ijnd tlifkt the art wbow end id plca^ni only id pro- 
ccDiQcntly the ^itoTortic] and mvagcnatictiA, cruel ID toiD> 
per, savage in Imbiis and conception ; but that the art wtuA 
b cApcdally dedicated to ncituml &ct always indicmtCB A 
peculiar gentlenees And lendemrs* of mind, and that all ^ 
groat cind €uc<Kisaful work of that kind will osiunylly b4^^| 
the pToducLiou of ibciu^htful, ecn^fitivp, earnest, kiud men, 
Urge in their views of UR% and fiiU of voriouH iotelJcctual 
power. . And farther, when you examine tht men in whom 
^0 g^ils of art arc variously miugted, or usiversally 
.Bungled, you will disocra that the crnamcatid, or plcosunt- 
Lle power, tliotigli it nlny 1)^ jioasi-^aed hy gcxxl men, is cot 
in ittftilf un indiccLtion i>f tli^iir ^uodii^u, but h: mthcr, uuh 
balanced by othci ik:u]tii:»i, iuiUe^^Uve uf vioknet: uTU-oujjeri 


TBB cyirr or akp. 


inclining lo cmelty Aitd to in^igion. On tlie otber hand 
eo 8uro fts you Gud nrij mftn cndcmcd wiUi a koen uid 
oepnmte facultjp of rtprcwnting natural TacI^ to sarcly yotx 
will find that man geniJe and oprigH ^^ ^ nobloDeee aud 
linAddiof tli<MgKu I irill giro jrou two iiutfi&oc«, thcfnt p^ 
caJiarljr Boglisb, ftnd onoiher peculiarly ini«r«8tiD£^ becanw 
it OMun among m Qation aot gontTallr Tcry Icind or gentle^ 
7 &1D iDcLlnoi to ihink iJiat, considunQg all the disadvan- 
laRica of <nTciuncftanc« and udcciLtion tindcrwbich bitf gcniun 
woB derdop^ Uuere was iwiUapa haidly ever bom « man 
vitb a more iDtctiBe and innate gill of iDaightioto natura 
Ihao our owD Sir Josbua Itcybolda. ConEidcnxl aa * 
jntnicr of individuality ia tUd hiimaD Ibrra and mbd, I 
Uunk Iiim, even ad it is, this priDCC of portntit painlcm 
T^liiui iHuntM QoblL't [iiciuiv8, and YaridylcvT had nobler itub- 
jadi^ but ncitbcr of thctn t^nWreil »o KubUy na Sir Joi«huA 
did Itiio the minor vadettca of human heart ncd IcmpcT; 
and vben yoti oonicldic-r tlmt, with a fHghtf^ cotivontEon - 
nljty of social habiludL^ oil itround bimi ho yot conceived 
tlicaimplisl typttfofatl ruminineaiid diildlali lovelim-'a^; — 
that in ft norliiom dimitif, luid wilU gray, and lyUitCf and 
bbek, BH ibo pri[ii:;]]f)il cr^Ioura jL]x>iind bim, he yet became 
aoolofinit who can \>s cruihod by none^ even of the Ven&- 
tlios; — and that wiib Ihnteh painting and Dnwlen obina 
foi tlio pKfTailin^ ^yi"* ^^ ^^^ '" '"''^ saloons or bia day, 1m 
threw himidf at onoo at the fbct of tbd f^reot ranjibjra ef 
luly, aikI anM! from ihtar £vt lo flh^irc tbcil LbXD&&— 1 



TitB rsrrv or aw. 

[rcGT. a 

kn^ir not tliAt in tli<t whole hungry of art jrou <»m prodi 
iinolber irmUriw of &> stniog, w uoaided, ao uncrriDg 
iriMinct for all wjl^ iruc, purn, .and nolil^. 

NoTT, do joQ rocollcjct the evidence respecting the chaiao- 
tcr of ihi* iniui, — thft two foints of bri^^il jiGCulicir efldenoa 
givDO by Uio aayinga of tho two grcaloet litorary men of bit. 
dtiy, Jobnann niid GuIdBinilli? JuliitHon, wlio, aa jroa 
know, wfifl dwaye Reynolds' atUched friend, bad but ouo 
ooinpkint to mnikc ^^inst him^ thut tic ffttod nobody: — 
"Reynolds,*' ho aaid, ^'yatx bate no ono living; I Uko 
goodbatorl" SliU roorc signlfiL^ant is tbo little toudi inj 
floldjimitliV " Hiatal latioi." Yon rocoltrct. how in thai, 
^t^m bo diMorJbt.'d tho various pervonH wbo met at one ct, 
ihcii dinners at St Jn.mc3^fl CoffL-e-lioUHC^ cacb pcTSOU being; 
doaoribed undor lUe aamo of «omd Appropriate di>h. Ten 
will oflcn hear tbc concluding lincaabout Reynolds quoted— 

less often, OT ftt IcEurt leaa attentively, tlic preceding onca, 
fiit more imporUnl — 

■' Stni bom to improTA un in avory pMt — 
nil poncJ cut rM^ Lis manfuri our htatif 

tnd never, the mo:it cliurauLcriiitic touch of all, ceiir llic 

btiginuing ; — 

" Our doftn NbEktl Iw Tvmaont jut»t frnh Axim tLe plnini : 
Our Quik« «1mU bo KHn^iTut, villi « iEoniUli gfbiviu 
Tt> niaKc oul Uiq itinuor, full ccftoln I mu, 

L wr. n.] 



Tbe dlier painter wliom I ivould giv« you u ud tri];taiiG# 
of this gcnticocflS is a man ofaiothcrQdtion, on tlie whole I 
ftLi|ipOiVKifioribi^[n<>«l cruel rjvi1b>*cl nulionit intlio world 
— tbo Spaniunij. 1h*:y prthlucoU but cno grcAl paiotcr 
oiiljr one; btit be among tlio very grtaUst «f itaiuUrTV, V» 
Ifljqiitfs. You troLild cot auppoftc, from looking at YoIaS' 
qncJC^ poTtnits gcncmlly, tbot ko ww an capecuilly kind or 
good mtin; joa ]>f?iv4^ivt' » ])UCQliar atenirirsn nHotJt tli^m, 
for ihcy were ns true asatccl, and t±»c pcisona whom be k»tt 
k> puDt tM^n^ not gi^iL-mllf Ictml ur i^inxl jiniplf*, thi*y vri*rti 
tfumi in cxpvcaaioa, and V<^n«qnGS gave tho 9tonitic«s; but 
he h»A procLttilj tJie AamQ iiat«n«e pexccptloa of tnitli, lid 
ttune iDATCellou^ ii3J^ii;:L for ihu rtmflcring of nil n.-tLviriil 
Boul nx\<l »U Euttml fonn (hat our Re>uold3 Iiad. Lei m&, 
ihco, reaul you hs chAmcter u it ik ^vm by Nfr. Stirtiiig^ 
of Kicr ;— 

"'OcrUifl rhikr^cs cf wtat luiLiire wc are qdL icifurm^iES, Wn^bl 
^lOMlUin tTAu Ilia iJimU;, uuhlu ii tu.iA-RHiiy fur Uii ^xcontur, Futn- 
■didit, to nAlO th^vn nA xinw^Uj ua^u:tu:i: ^-ruiit^ to Ulm bj the king 
br ihil purf-ffB. AJlcr livtcning lo ihc rlrfcacc of bia fVIi^nd, Pbilip 
teiindi«t«Iy Ruilcansvrcr: 't crni buliorokU yoau; of (h« e]c»:«U«it 
dbfaiil>3n oC Dir^ TdiiAques.' HAriufliicdfbrLtiriiiiLHrDineouru^ 
h»THijrrto^«bltiboLh tiTjcravitutUujUitvtwrouLjtAadfatbeiaisrof^ 
Binr4; be uouJd reiuviubvr Uic e*'Iy LjuUEiea «r OUtuca^ TLq fricrid 
oflheexiI«uf Loi^ehr*^ h h iij Iclii vc IhM he *nia aImj Cut ti'tva4 
oTi^aU-povtrril fjiTouilic 4t Buvitrctho. Kuiur«ujc4]ou?x«rsr ls- 
Aienonxl hii conduct to bia broihct artuts; lio cuuM aETord Dot OdI/ i9 

THE uwrrr or akp. 

dkuneter wta «r flol r^rt ond happy IrinJ^ £■ wfHek Mjk nlT$nd«i3i 

ittm^kmper, and wbldi ?<Uo[q &iti td r^*e the pOMCinf ftbotc lu« 
ftltow-mcD, oukitig hii Ulb ■ 

' Uurc.llcii] victory, and smofilb 

1 am aomctiinca liocu^ of trying to mnkc art too monJ 
yctf observe, I do nol fsy in the lejut that in order to bo 
good pdntor you miiit ba a good mtai ; but I do uy 
in order u> be a good natuml p^at^r ilierv must be si 
elemenla of j^ood in iho miud, however wnrped by otber 
IJATtB of the ch^nctcn There aro hundreds of otlkcr giita 
-of paiuim5 wbleb ar« not at nil involved wiili moral condv 
tion«, but tiiij 0Dc> the pcTccption of nuluix^ U norer giTica 
but utider curlaiii niond coi]diiiQLL& ThLnJV^n*, now jou 
buv9 it in yoiir i;h[:iii^*; h<;ro ureyour two paihdilbr you: it 
ifl required of joa lo produce ^conventional onumcait, find 
you may approach lU« Uaik i^ ibe Hindoo doe^ aod « llie 
Ar^b did, without nature ni al), with the chanoa of 
approximhting yonr djspoaltion somewhat to that of tJie 
UindooM and Araba; or ns Sir Joshua iind Vdjuctnea didt 
with, not tht? chanoA, hut iho certainty, of approximntiog 
yciir diKpoaltioo, ooccrding to the «nc»rity ofyonreAbrt— 
lo the diapoeiuon of thow great and good mcri. 

Aiwi do you BUppo*; yon will Ja« anvibin|( by ap* 
'prOAoLing your convcEitioDal lut fW>m thU higber dd^T 
Not BOb I called, wilb deliberate meA^urt^meot of jtij 

LBCT, n.] 

TUB uKmr or art- 


exprcesion, long Aj^ tbo doconOion of the AlbamLra 
^dctcstnUv^^ not mcncljr 1)«carts8 iDilicaiive of ba^e ooridt- 
tiou of moni bdog, bm bccau^ meroty ui ilcconiiive 
wqrk, however capdw^n^ ia some r^pcciSf it b wUolljf 
wanting m the t^ devp, tmd inkiue qti&litic* of omu> 
mcQl&l 'art. Noble coDvcntional dccorattoa bcloQgs only 
CO dire« periods. FS«t^ iHt-n? in tiiA CLi]ivi'nUf>iial dE^uurn- 
tioa of tho Groekfi, oflcd in nboidiniLtioD to their eculptun). 
'Flitre arb tlitii Llie ju>li3e imitivitdu^iiu] ilc^:io[atic>ii of ilia 
cmrljr GoUiic ftclicoln^ sod th< noble cotivcntionAt trftbcA^ua 
of Iht greoL IluUau aohoob. All tbcae fr«r« reached Oom 
abOTt^ :ill Tf^ftchcd hj Ktooping from a knoirledgi* gf th« 
bttttuui hnsL lK:pcrtd upon it you will find, as yoo Jook 
mom luid tnnn* into thr mnltjir, tbnt gciHi wibordlnaM 
ontArmont b^a erer been rooted ia a bigh^ kuowlod^; 
vkl If you 'MVi stffun to pTudoo^ auydiiiig ihat in noble, 
yoci miiat bav4? tbo bighcr kuowlr^lg^; Brvt, and i\rx^(^tn\ Ut 
idl lover w^nricfa ; cotid«accnd :t» much aa you lik<v — con- 
tlrncomdon ncrcrdors any man any bnrni,— >but gi't your 
nobk ataodinfT Hrvt So, tbeo, vritbout auy soruplc, Vi-hal- 
Qirer bnmcb of arci you may bo indiTicd iw a j^tiii^li-nt hero 
Itt Wlow, -wbaUivor'yon are V> maka your bread by, I 
My, ao lar oil you bavc time nnil jxiWE^r, iiKikc younclf 
flfi: a coble and aocomplisboil wrt'isi; tmrlcraTAitd itt Itomv 
what noUo and accampHabod art is, aud tlicn yea will M 
a}ilf< to apply your kuowlvdgQ to nil m?rvicc whaW»uv<.T 
i wn nO«r going to ask your permi^ioa to natae ih« 

in our Schools of An in England, to ooofild^ our ! 
The finit and clii-^f I will not mjAclF presume to n^me; l«a 
Htinii Ix; (listiiigutsliod for jou by tiie jUiUioriiy of those 
two ^^mxl pftinttrra of vrhooi w<» liAvo juat 1>mxl spoAking— 
Itrynoldft nod \>Ifi!u^tio£. You mnj remember 'tbal in 
yoiir Mtuiclicflivr An Treoaurea Exbtbilion tlio most 
imprcMirc things were the works of tho«o two idcd— 
nothing told Qpon ibe eye so much; no otbor pictures 
rctninnil i\ with ^tioh ii j>cnnfEtont T>owt^< Now, I haw tha 
tisLiinony, ^rut of Reynolds to Vda«t^iir^ aikd tbni of 
Vcli^uc:! to the nmn vhom I vaot you to taVo ni 
tnortcr of all your English m^hool^ The testivaony 
Reynolds lo Vclaaques! U very sinking. I tai« it from 
some frftgmcnifl whicii have junt boeu publiahed by Mr, 
Williwn Cotion — previous ftiig me nts— of llrynoH 5' dLiric^ 
which 1 ohancwl upon iLickiLy « I wiu oombg down he«f : 
fijT I wan going to take Vdasqiicz' W»limony a(oac, and 
iljcn fell upoi thii ttstiinony of Reynold* 10 Vclnwiac!i( 
wrillcn most fortunately in IteynoJds^ own band — you 
may swt! lh« mnaaHLTipt^ "What we are alV mid Rey 
ftolda, '*attompting todo-with grtTfit Inbor, Vtia^quem 4ms qA 
OTML** Juat think whut is nnpll^d when a man of 
enorn^oue power And facility thiLt RuynoIdH had, siys h& 
wiw "^ rrywig Icj do with great labai" what YelaiqtKa *' 
at once." 
Having thuA B^ynotd«' testimony to Vclxaq-iczj I 


LBCT, a] 



take Ve]a«i«a&^ k^Gmouy lo »orneUKly dse. You Icikw 
tliat Tdji0qu«£ was f«ut Ivv Pliilip of Sfi&i& to ItaTy^ to \my 
pictures for bim. lie «vont o!l ova' Iloly, nw tlio living 
artists there, ^d ill their beftt pictiire?; ^1i4>Ti IVes^ly pointed; 
•0 that he ^kwA «vorr opporlumly of juiijcin/; nit<I never 
w»i & mnii so cApabTe of Jud^ng, lie w-ni lo Itome anj 
ordered vtrioua workt of living anista ; and wItUo thcr^ 
he TM OQodAj wkiy] br Salvtttor Itmtawbat he thou^lit of 
RaphwL Ilisrf|>]y. ntid iVrrnsiiingonvcntiiion, are thus 
reported bj Bo^cliiiii, iu curious luliaa vo^^, wUioU, thus 
tnnsl&led hy Dr. Dcpna1dflOfl» is qiwtcd in Mr Stirling's Litk 
of TcAaaqiieK: — 

"'Hie BKKc" [T«l»tLjuct} "ctiniy Wmd lui D^urv tall 

I tJwftja umi pUa-vpoka) fmat cif 7i>uih— 
I ouwot mj I Ukohi* wtlu At tH' 

Wtat fou (BO fljii to Ixkoio Ttal/; 
To bun w« aU ■gree to jfitv iLo croiri^' 

"XKcfoattVwvivcl thiu: *I mw b Venice 
Tbv tnie tosl oT lihe eoo4 vid buutJiy ; 
Tint ic :dj jodf^eoL erer vtuidB that school, 
Ajsi Tltiip lini oTallJtBtliti moo U**" 

Leon Ihat lin« br hfairl, and act, at sM ev^ato fer flome 1)om 




to GOnir^ upuu|U4^' u^hueuu In (bat loaUer. "nUNii 
much Ibo «afi:«t maeXcr for yoo. itapbAci*^ power, su«U jti 
it Vfa3f auU gi^eai aa it yioB, depciided wboUj upoa tnuieciea* 
dcntul cUiUMCberx in lib miml; it is " UapW- Wpe/' pri> 
pcriy so coUcJ; bu^ Titian'^ power ia simply t^ povrcr of 
duliig HgliL WlmUrvvr c?i««i bofijre TiUan, lie ltd wbulljf 
tu it ouvfV to be (bnc Do not <uppoHO that now in iisoonv- 
tueuiia^TIlJuuk>>ouflo strongly, and jipcoking of nobody 
cl*c to-iiight] I am retrealjag in any wUo from wbat souio 
of yoKi may pcrhjipa recollect in my works^ tbo cotbuaiadai 
witb yth'idi 1 bavu always spoken of aitcth^ Venolian 
paintL^r. Tlier^ are tbree Vcnotiaiiit wlio aro ncvorioparmtod 
ill my nuud — TiUaiJ, Veroiitae, iwd Tinluret. They all 
huve their own un^t^uallcdgifbtj im<l Tiutoret iMipoeblly Lat 
imagi&ntion nnd depth cf eoul wbicb 1 tliliik rccdcjv 
bidispiiubly ibe gn^i4>rii man; but, equally irLrliaputAbl 
Titian ie Iho grvatoat paiiiU^r; and thorcforo tho 
paiuLur wbo ever lived. Yuu may \k kO weueiij by 'Rol 
rut" ii muny respocts, wrong by ItapbAcl in more; ftll tb: 
you learn from Titian will be rijjht. Tlwn, willi Tittan, 
laVe I*aoTiHr<l*>, Rj.'njWuadt, ami Albert Durvr. InamiUKootO 
thrco iriafllorn iljr thi:: roivaon : Leonardo has powers of sub' 
ih^ drawing wliJcli ara pi!oulmrIy aj^plltsdjlH iti many ways 
tt) ibc drawing of fine omtvment, and an» v^y uaefbl fbt 
all studeala. ReinbrandL and Durer are tha only rooo 

*8if Appcmdix r->" Right aod Wrong." 

LBOr. IL] 

niit cwrrr or abt. 


«lioM Mtufll work of hftQd yon can hjtvd to look t,i ; yoti 
can have Ftcmbraudt's ctduogt^ or Dorer^s cngmviuga ActJi* 
ally bangin^-ouracliooU; cinil >t inn miun point for the tta- 
|dcnttono tho rcAl thin^ flndnroidjudgto^of maatcraai 
iDd-baod. .A«» bovrcTcr, in obcjring this principle, you 
CttonoC otUim havo opponuiiitiod of stadjing Venetian point- 
it tadenrabtotbat ycu should bavtj auM;rul«tanckrdcf 
colour, and I Uiink it U pcwviblo (or yon to obtain tliia* I 
cannot, ind««d, wiibont ^Qler-tog upon ground wbich might 
inToIre the hurting the fochn^ of bring artists, state cx- 
ftoUy what I believe to ba tbe ro!fi£i7o position of varioui 
ptintciv in Bo^jand at present vrith icspcci to powci of 
colour. But I may snj tbi*, that in iho peculiar gifts of 
colour which will bo useful to you tu^ ^tudcntn, there ftro 
only one or two of ihir pnvliaphaolilea^ and William Tlunt, 
of the old Water Colour Society, who would be iafa ^juidcfl 
Jbryoa; and&s qniic a lufo guide, there is nobody but 
WilUam Hani, because the pre-Baphaelit^s are all more or 
lem aflcekd by enthudiaam and by varicua morbid condi< 
ikna of intoUoct and temper ; but old Wtltiam Hunt — T am 
worry to iny "oM," but I say It in a loriu^ way, for every 
that ha» added to hia life hiis ad<ied al^ to \\\9 ftldll^ 
Ultam Hunt a aa rigbt aa the Venetiaos, na f:»r as he goe^ 
what ia more, nearly m intciitable ft» they. And 1 think 
if we raanflge to put in the principal Achtx)Uof England a 
UttJc bit of Qunt'a work, and mako that somewbat of a 
of eolvnr, tUat we can apply his principles of 



OOloujittg lo Etil>jvct6 of lill tcindj. Unli] you Iijlto 1i^ a 
roik of bU long ne&r you; nay, uQl»a you have Iicod 
'lalnmriug at. it, nnti itA-iiig l(^ tiuj^y it, yo\x do uot knovr tlic 
Uiorongbly graixl quAlitccs tisAt an; concentrated id jl., 
Biiiiplii^itj', H-iid iuU^LHhy, both of Litt; liigiwt duimrtar;- 

ipUcity of aim, and mU^naEity cf power and aaccon^ 
involv»;d m that majiV unpretending labour. 

Finally, you caiiaot lk-Ii?^v« tlmt T would omil mj- 
fitvoitnk, Tomer, 1 ft-ar trom ttc very number of 
works \iafi tu tlie ualruTi, lltat tlmn? m a d]H|>u»itJi>ri noi 
rising to look upon biH voAt bcqucn witb Kimo contcmpLl 
I beg of yoi3, if in cotUitig else, to belicre ma m ihrn, tliat 
you cannot furtbor i\v2 aut of Snglnnd in uny vay moiv 
distincUy than by giving attention lo cTcry fbgmcat lliai' 
haa bcHfH Ibfl by t!mt huil Tbe timt; will oiiueu vhcii Tiii 
full power nud right plnccr will bo ficknowicdgod ; tkat fiend 
^11 not be for many a day yet : m^vcrtbelettr be assured — 
fis fur iLs yon are inclined lo give the least Cdili w onyttfaig 
1 may !*ay to yon, bo oMurcd— ibat you can net for tbo 
good of art in England in no better way than iy tuUng 
whatever inHuGnc^ any of you have ^n ODy dii^cticm 
Lurgc the rcTcre.nt study and yet more revcient preeejT&tioti 
■of ilie wnrks of Turner I do not say "tlio exlblbiilcn'' 
of Ilia workup for ire are not oltogctliur ripo fbrit: the j arc 
ttilf too £^Abo7o QS^ umiiiig, aa 1 waa ti^Iling yoii, 
many qualilitu for uk yet to feci fully thi^iT lurgo and tlieiv 
infloKice; — but lat us only try to kt^ep Ui^m ufe ttom 

iJor, jl] the unttt or JlBT. 77 

harm, and -show thorougbly aad convenieDtly what W6 
show of them at all, and day by day their greatness wilJ 
dawn npoD us more and more, and be the root of a 
Rchool of art in England, which I do not doubt may be 
aa bright, u joat, and aa refined as even that of Tenica 
herad£ The dominion of the sea seems to have been 
asaodated, in past time, with dominion in the arts also : 
Athens had them together ; Yenice had them together ; 
bnt by bo much as our anthority over the ocean is wider 
than theiiB over the ^gean or Adriatic, let us strive to 
mskke onr art more widely beneficent than theirs, though it 
cannot be more exalted ; so working out the fulBlment, in 
their wakening as well as their warning sense, of thon 
great words of the aged Tintoret : 

"SeUFB£ fil TA. IL MaE& KaGGIOBL" 




iMwrvd of rtra'IMd, JAvri, iRftt, 

iTiswitli a deep eonsccf noccsftitj" ibryourmduIgcQco H^ 
I T«iiture to ntUln-sK _v»u to-night, or ihjit I V4*nture at aaj 
tiino to uddrc-afl tlio pupils of schools of dcfitgn mtcnd&d Sol 
tluT rtclvrini'i'im^nlof Ltsla in BiiL-dal bmnr-liiM uf nimmnuy 
tuiv. Xo peraon is ubh t> ^vc lunful and deliDite belp 
towards niicli sjiedal applicaucua of art, uiiltiiM lie in <rn* 
tiraly JkmiliiiT with tbe conditions or Jiibour ftad nattir^ of 
icjttcrial involved in tbe work ; aad indeSnitti help it 
little better than no hflp jit alL Nay, thn frw nmnHca 
whkb I propocK to ky before you ihia evening will, I fiior, 
be ratber suggcsLivc of dilTionllira tban bclpf\il in con- 
quoring tUooi : nevtrtbeleaa, it may not be altogisthcr uik< 
■crvi^blc to deBnc clearly for you (and thi^ at I?n$t, I 
am able to do^ one or two of tbe mow st^rn general obstft- 
olca whioh aland at prt^cn^nt in tbt^ woy of oursuccisa lo do' 
; and to warn youagaiMHtexurtionofdlifrt in any vain 
or wAetofuI way, till ibeae mmn obMno1« arc rvradvcd. 


flic Jlnt of thew » our not undorstaudtog tli« wropo Aad 
dign^jr OiT DcoonUivo design. With tM our talk .ibout it^ 
the vcij mcajiittg of lh<? wonJtf "Deconkliv^ an" n-mdiiw 
con^iaed «nd uiidj<^il&L I wtuii, if poootblo, to nctUo this 
i|Qat^ for 70U to-Qigliti atA to ehovr jou tliat the prliid* 
plot 00 wbidi JOU must work ^lt^ likelj 10 be dbe, in pro- 
portion OA tLcj aro najrow ; true;, onlj ati they 01c fbim^lcd 
on apcnx-pliouoribeoonii&ctioQoralJ brauol^Mof art witb 
eadi other, 

ObecTTe, lte», firet — Ao onl> cfiaonli^t di^iucdoit bo 
twceu Deoomtirc And otUer &rt i« the Ix^n^ flttoJ for a ljx«<l 
pUcc; ftnil tn pliK^ related, cither in flubordinaljon or 
eommnnH, fo the effect of other piecoi of nrl And all tb^ 
grcAtcat artvbiiet] the wcrld biui f^rodacod ifi tbu.i fitted Jbr 
s pl«Mi ftbd subordinalrfl to n purpOM', Tbrrc is no exist 
Ing hlgb«t-<>n3er art but is decorauve. The boat Mulptura 
yet piodoccd hw been iho di^cowtioa of a icmpltfi front- 
tbe best pamting, the dccf>ration of a ronm. JiiiphmyVd bi^ 
doing in merely the woU-oolourin;? of a euil« of aprLrtinf>DU 
in the Tatican, and hi« cartoons wr^ made for t4X-3(lr[nK. 
Corrcggio'a bestdomg ia tha deocmtioa of two smaJL church 
oupolaa ai Panna; Michael Ango!o'.-s of a cdhnf: in thg 
Poj«^aprivaiechflp*?l; Tintorct\ of n ceiling and niih^ wnll 
bdoDgmg to aehariliibloaoQlcty at Teoica; wUUo Titian and 
VernoesE thrvw otti their noblest ihoaai^itis riot cfvcn on tho 
tniridc, bat on th<s OQUide of the common brick and plA^tof 
mlb of Vcnna 




G^l ri^ thm^ atanoe ofAiiy idea of Di>eonljv« ai 
A dc^mxlctl or a ln^ionitc: kimJ of Art. lu iLUiarc or 
li simply lU being fi;t€d for a definite pldoc; and, in that^ 
plaoGi foriruQg pari of A gnuil aad liarmonious trholc, 
OonipnnionKhi]> with othi.T iirL ; nml ri (Ht fmm tTii* bomg a 
degmdritioit to it — bo litrfrom Decorative art beta^f inferior 
to oilior art b».*(ytnHe it is fi^ml t> a sjK)t— on ibc whoie ^ 
may be ouii^itlered m ruiker a picco of dogradation tlmt 
abouH be portAbZc Portable Ait — independent otaJI |dace 
^a for tlw most part ignoble art Your little Dutch knd- 
BCApc, whioh you put ovur jour didchoard today* and 
Iween tho windows lo-morrow, ia a for nton? conlt'rnptibl 
piocK^of vrorlc than the cxtciittior^uH tmd f^ircAt viih wbich 
Benozzo Illa nirbdo grccm and bcautlflil tli6 omie jiMrlariobi 
ftroivie of ibe Campo Santo at Piaa; and tU« wild boor 
silYcr which ycni iuhc for 4L ekclI, or lock into a iroJvet cas^ 
iH litile ViVely ti 1)e rto noblti a b^rast aa ihu bnorixo b<3ar who 
Ibomfi forth tho ft-iunlain from under hia tunks id the mar- 
kol-placo of I'^lorancc, It is, iiideod, jKiaaible that lh<? |ior- 
table pieiUTO or jinn;;^ maj be Ilrst-nita of itd kind, bat it 
i.i not fim-mtc boovujw it is portable; nor are TiIuui'a 
fWiscora less than firnVraWi l»>oatwe tJmy am fixcJ; nay, 
VOTy frequently lb« liigheat compUrnont yon can pay 
to a cabinet picture ia to Any — '^It la ad grand na 

Koopin^, then, thi? fact Hxcd in oiir minds, — tJjat all art 
i»«y la; d(XH>rativp, nnd ihat tbe greatest an ye: produced 


12VD DS8I0N. 

biui l)cm lifTDfiLtivr, — 109 rnny proceed lo diitingubh th4 
:wiere and diguti« of I>MdniL^7c art^ ihoa :^> 

I. Tbc first anhxr of k i:s ififit wbicli in m^Aut for pliiceii 
vhef« it ouinoi bo datLU'beU or injur^, oud whan> it cjad 
be pcHcctl/ soon ; nnd Uwn tbe main parte of U should bu, 
ftiid h^ve alwap been made^ by iho great coaaufrst ad jterfo«% 
acd M full of nature ia pouiblc. 

You will Gvcry tiny lu^r It ftbnnrily s:iid ttiit room do- 
oofntioa Abould be by tUt put^crn^ — ^bj dood ooloura — by 
GQOvcQdoaoI monotoiii^ra, \ud I know nol wbit Now, ju&l 
be oanirod of this— nobody evuT yet u»3d oouventionol art 
to deooTJtio vitli, whcA he could do nnjthin^ belter, and 
knew ihfcl what bo did would be s^e. Nay. a great paints 
wiU a^wnya give you tbo natuml art, Atie or noL Oorro;iK^^ 
gets A oommiffnon lo paint a room 01 tkfi ground floor of a 
pnlooe %l Paniu: Any d cur people—brod on our fuio 
cnodcTD priDCtplct^^wotitd have covered it with a dlnpcr, 
or vixk stripes or fl<:>iiri?thF?9f or lao^io paUenia Not ao 
OoTTC^o: — he ptuDtA ft thick trolliji of vinc-loavcfl, with 
oral opening^ and lovelj chitilren leaping th.roiig1i tlwrn 
int4> the room; and lo/dy cbxlJn^ii, depend upou it, are 
tatber raoro dwrabic dccoralioofl tban diaper, if you can 
do them -but they are not q^iite so eaaily done. In like 
DiaoiMr Titt^oret hssA to point the whole end of the Cooneil 
iloll at Venioe. An onbodox decorator woald have set 
himaalf to mako the wall look like a wall — ^TLnto^ think* 
it would be ratbcr beUer, if be can mana^ it> to make il 

(»k ft llnlo Ilka ParodiM;— 3tT«teh<« his ouaviu ligi 
the WB.\\ n^d his cloutla nghtoTcr lii« cAnras; bjiu^ 
fcght ihrouc^ his olDuds^aU blue and cl«ar^ — zodiac boyo 
findioc; roILi awAj the Tjipoivtu^ llfx>d from under tbe fi 
of «un^ leaving them at IsAt in indnttuded of light — UQ 
onliodox in tho Liat do;;ro&, but, oa the whol«^ plcoaont. 

Ami iSQ tri ,111 othrr cmv^ wl^t;;vcr^ the greatest decorft 
dve art ia wholly uoooDv^atioiial— ^worigbt, pure, good 
paioti[i;( And AjulptiiTc, but otwajs fitted fur M place; aod 
itahr>Tt)]natod fo the purprwi) it hu» to aerve in tbdt place. ^H 
IL Bill if art U to b^ pUoed where U U ]ix\Ao to mjui'^^^ 
—to wuAr imd War ; or to nltcntlioa of it» ftirm ; a*, for iu- 
Btanodf cm domestic tit>7in^!^, and arm^r, and weapoiui^ 
ftnd dress; in wtitcli etthor the om«imeitt will be worn Oia^^| 
by tiio usngr? of tiw? tilings nr will l>» rjwt infjj aitcnx^ shape^^ 
by tho play of iis Hds; tUcn it ia wrong to put bcouttfal 
^utd perfect uri to such d&s, and you wnal forms of luru- 
rioT art, Auch ae will bo by their GimpLicity ]«as Liable tc la- 
jury; or, by reason of thdrcompluxLtyaiideonUnuouancaV 
jtay Khow Uj lidviintnffi, however clLitorted by the fol 

'tte/ aro caal into, 

Aiid thus arise the vunous forms oT lufcnor dixomt! 
art, rcujxiicting which the goneral law ^ that the lower 
place and of^^ of the thing, the less of natuml or perfect 
form you tihoaJd have io it- a ^gz^ or a chw^urr i* ihuj 
a betkr^ bccaiiao a moro coosistettt oruainaat For a cup o( 
phitf«r than a lanrfecapc or portnut w: hvoca IImt gene 

uccT, ni-1 

Ain) !>SSI(1!T. 

definition of the tnic fbraof of ooavcntioiml onuuncni Ip, 
Hxnl Uwj GonSDflt lit the beeioiTji] uf tm muuh l^L^auly on tlitt 
objed M abftU be ooannlcnt with iu UftUrrini, itt PJfiocv nnd 

Let QA oaosider tlicae lluve modua of oonaijctuDCj a litilcL 

(a,) ConycbtioDdttta bj c*uflc of mcfiicdcDc^ of msh 

I( loT iiulAiiQe, wo Exro required to TCproMUt a haaiLn ^ 
guro with tftoiic onlj, vrc c^juiikot rcprcMitt ite colour ; vo 
mliioe in colour lo whit^ces. That is not eWanngthe 
bunuLft body, h«it de^ntdingit; onlj it wculd 1>c a mudt 
grctilcrdogr»d>Lioik to give i1^ c*i1oijr fhl^^ly. DiminiAh beaa* 
ty AS mach 00 joa will, t>nt do not miarv'pni^^nt it So 0.^0^ 
when we sin sculpturing a fac<^ wccatiH c^vr ito cjclulica 
Tb« fjtoe U nomo tbs fc«4tfr for wanting its ^elofikeft — it li 
injitrod by tho waol; bQt would bo much cuni iujan^ by 
ft c1iut»y rcprr*c?(t:itif>n uf thrnL 

Keitbor can we carve i\i& liair, Wc moHt bo col1t■^at 
wilb the conventional wm of vile flolid knots and lunips of 
marble, iaftcfid of tho goKUn cloud that enconnpflasoft tb« 
tair biunan JJioo wiib Its iraving myatery. The lumps oE 
mmrbUi nrr noLiui rlrvfttnil mprr^jniiULtirm nf hiilr — tliry nrvt 
a dej^raddd one ; y&i bett>^r timn fuiy att«mpt to imitate 
bfttr wiLh the tncsipabb mut^TiiLl. 

In nil cnfat in wbicli mjcK iicif-^tion in attt^mplcd, ina^nt 
dogiadation to a suU iovrer lovel i^ the leealt. For the 
rflbrt to tnittatt; k]m»wm tliAl tbi? wiirltinMi htut onlv a b«wf 




with whicb I speak ot Michael Angdo, Titian, and l>jnta 
My first stAU'Trniiii ^r ibis fiiiili, now tliiruwa years ^^ 
^££ surely clear cnougli. ^- Wo «ba]l toe bj thiji lighi 
Uinoo coloaeal iiDages aUndiog Ufv aide by adc. loomicig in 
tboir groat rest of iq^irituallty nborij the whole world hoii* 
zon. Pliidi&E^ MicbacI Angclc, 8Jkd Da.Dt£, — from tlicsc wo 
-iiULj go down iGtcp ]jy itt(^[> luncui^ tli^f mighty int^n 
eTory nge» eociarely and certainly obK^rvant of dimi 
luslrt" iu iTveiry upjH'aniui* of ftHl!t:sMiBJW auJ i^ffurl, Liiilil^ 
tbo lafll trace of iDapimtion vatujihos in tlio totwruig ftfleo* 
l&tion or lorlurvd iuauuiUed of modem tiine&" (Uotlvni 
Painters, vol ii., p, 63.) ThJs wn» EUrely pinin i^p^^jdcing 
enouf^b, and frcm tbut day to tUia my effort bos been not 
1c»w cj^ntiTitiulIy bo mnka tlic licvirt of Orettk wnirk knowq 
lUaa tlo heart of Gotbio : aanicly, the tioblei:f«fi of oon- 
ccptigii of f^jrm derived fixjm piTpelual study <jf the figurr- ; 
and my cornpliuiil of tho mod»^m Brchit?ct htm bwa cot 
th&t he foUcvred the Orveko, hut tli&t he denied the d 
lawn of life in thutrd tis m nil oihi-.r nrt 

Tkt iiict is, tliat dl g^Dod subordiuute forms of omiLmi: 
lation ever yet exlat^^nt in thp world have hi>cii invcn 
aiid otbore aa boautifiil ean only "bo inTented, by men prl- 
inwily cxcrascd in drawing or carving the humoJi £guro. 
] will not rvfkftt hi'-Tti w^int T \itivo itlrrtidy twUvi iiuniitrd 
uport, to t1i« etndent? of London And Mancbcetcr, rcapcofr^H 
ing llie dL-^'radftli(ni cf tcrmjitTand inlrlK-ct whidi follow! ^^ 
lh« puTsuit of nrt without refcrcneo to natiiral form, ai 

LfiOT- nt] 

Axv pcaioir. 

ftmong the AiintMi; bcrcv 1 will only ti^poas on your 
pitieDce so fkr w to marlc the inaa^punvblo cc^Dt-ttioii 
betvccn figunvdniwing ftad good oraamcnta] work, io ik$ 
gnal KuropetD iciioolft, aiud all tliat ^trv oonuiH^tud mtli- 

Tell tmev UiCti, first of a]], wbAt omatnciLta] work ta 
vitciftlljr put bdureour HtudcnUi u tho type of dccoralivv 
BApb&crsnnibcsqaGs; oro lUoy not? WeU, 
[iTioet kTii*vr a little alxJUL llii: (i^un^, T .sup^QHrr, Wfon^ ]i« 
IT thera I do cot £iy that I liko thoao arab^aee ; but 
letv are ocftuu qiuJiti^fl m Ibeui whidi &ro miiniubti; by 
ckiftgncmt ; nnd thoiu; qiiftliii^ are jiirt the ft-ait of 
Ihe maetcr's figure study, Wliat ia ^ren tba student u 
next tu Rnpbnd^a nrpr): ? Oltiqanu^tiUi orn^hriirriit gniC' 
[ly. Wcll^ c^fiquoccnto generally, witb ita bird^ ^ud 
^oh^nibs, *od wr^ftihed foliage^ and clust^re>l fruii, tru iho 
unittcn»at uT men who liftbituully and ciiidly carved tho 
I', or painted iu All the truly tin« »pcdincna of it 
ive £gun» or luiiinulii tu raiuri jmrlii uf tit! disign. 
" Nay, but^" fiome ancioDtJy op mcdittndly mindi.^ pcraon 
tixdoim, '^ TFO doti'l want to ittudy ciiiqitcointo, Wa 
LBt MVCTOr, purer conrentionalii^m." What will you have? 
Egjptiati oraaEDcnt? Why, the whole nutas of it is mMU 
up at mult^udiikoua human figures in cvcrrkincl of action 
md-magniSooDt aotioa; thdr hmgadruwing their bow« 
in thdrchanciM, tVnr a^irnvrx of Armwx rjiftling At their 
aboolders; theelam Ming under tbem <» l>eforo n pea 



[LBCT, m! 

UutX'j t]:idr capton driv«u before them iii utortitsl troopt; 
And do yoix expect to iniitdte Bgjrptian omamcDt without 
knowing how lo dmw Uie liurmui figure? Kay, Ijiil }'oil' 
will toko ChrLititm ornomcoit — piiivsl medioDVAl Ubrurtijui 
— tliirtccruUi c^Tituiy I Y^; and do yon aupjxwJ you wiUn 
£nd tW ChrfAtiuii Ie?Ld liumaaf Th&Ieutniiuniliuid mc^t^ 
purely conventional om^micrit of the (Gothic schools i« thall 
of Llieir paintcfd gliuM ; Aud <1o you auppoaa potntttd g1»ti^ 
iu lliQ iinc limec^ van ever wrought mthout figurcfl ? Wo 
have got into llie vtny, amioiag oui other inodtrm ivn^bclied- 
r^essGS, of trying to m/ikc irindowa of leikf diupcni, and of 
rtripsof twiilcd red nndydlowbiLEidfi, looking like the pat< 
icroa of currant jelly on the lop of Chmtm&s cokua ; but' 
cvcTj cnaomcnt of old gloss oontjiincd a ttunt'A history. 
Tlie wiiid<7Wtt of Btiuj^^ OiaitreB, or Koii^U h;tv« Uyi,j 
fiftoen, or twenty nK^tkllions in eooh, nnd each modidlion 
contvitiTi tvk'o HgurcB nt IcaaE^ often mx or seven, rcprcscnl' 
ing every event of intc^n?^ in the bbtery of the «ajat vhow 
life ia in question, Kny, but, you cfiy thoflc figures aro rude 
nnd fiuMLiit, and ought not lo be imitatL^- ^"yt so is ibo 
-loafb^ Tudo otid quaint, yet you imitate tbat The CO- 
liKjir^il Uhrdwr pjilirnj iif gt^iruiium or ivy leaf ia uut una 
wbitbclturclrawn, or more like geriniumsand ivy, than tlifj 
figuKe &re like Ggures ; but you call the geranium leaf id^- 
aliKprl— why don't yrtu odl tho figure sc? Thti iiwt la^i 
ndthoT are idoaliaod, but botk are eoavcntion^lixod on tho' 
■tuEic pritioipleA, and in llie itamt way ; nnd if vou waut lOi 


AK1> niSIOK. 

I^nm how lo treat tlio ko&ge^ tho onlj iray t» to If^um fiR4 

buw Ui Uuit ilu? Higun^ And ifoit nuiy nuon UtmI vouf 

powcn in tbn n«poot Ttioso old workmcQ wor>; not Afnud 

of the uoet ^tuiliar subjects. The wtudoirs of CLtJvnrci 

weno pTt3Ciit<i,-d by tho irodei of the town, nnd at th« bol- 

toTQ of c«oh window ia a icgroecJiilAtioD or the prooMdin^^ 

of tlie L-^deaaiieii At ibe buain^fia wblcli tumfik^ th«n to[m7 

lor the window. Tbcra aro smiths at the forge, curriers at 

tbdr hide^ tdutoera looking into their pita, mdrters aelling 

,|pods orer the coimtor — nil nude into benatifulmed^oiM. 

'Vbcfdoro, whercTcr joa want to know whether yoi baro 

»goi anj wad power of compomtion i<r uJajfUtiou in orna- 

I TDont, don't bo octitont with eticking i<«vcfl together hj tho 

ida, — ftnyhodj' cart do that ; but try to couvtiiiionallKO Al 

fbntchcr^ or n grocngrotxT'd, witti Scittirdiiy night cuMtomerf 

'bujing cabbflgo &nd bccT That will toll you if you can 

loaii fiuMy your losing patience with mo altogether jtint 
iw>w, "WuBflked tiiia fuUvtw dowa lo te!l ourworkmeai 
'bow V> nuke sbawlft, and h« is only trying to t-*acb thom 
bow to CftticAtnrc" But havcalHtlcpatitnco witlimc,and 
examine, lAtr I have doTie, jt JSttle for youhielv<« mty tha 
bistory of omamcntfll Kct, and you will difocover why 1 do 
(inn Tou will diaoiver, T Tv|)cat, iLal nil greut oruaiucntal 
mi whltoTcr » founds on the viTort of the workman lu 
dn&w tlie figure, andf in tho best scIiooIa, to <irfLW nil xk^s^i 
he saw about him In Uvltig natnre. The best nrl cf pot- 


jcojHonr iLunvTAoruu 

[i-EijT. m 

lerjr la Ai^knuwkilged to be llial of Orceu^ ami all tlio 
ipovcrcf dceign oxhilnteJ in it, down to tbe mcTDflt sigxag^ 
fcriafB priinarily &om tlio workmoii having been forced to 
["OUiUrie nvniplu itn'1 knights; from those helmed aod 
draped flj;ur«£ hi> holdalais power. Of Egyptian ornAoaeiit 
I bare just npokca* Yoa have «verytliiag (^rcn then 
that tho worVinaii kilw; people of his nation employed in 
hunting, lighting, fiahing, visiting, making loirr, hiiildinjCi 
^cooking — cvi:iry thing Ihf^y iVui is drawn^ nagT^ificcntlj or 
ihrniliarly^ a& was nrKded. In Byznuiiwi ororundnti aamt^ 
or anitnab vihich are typ^A of vanoas spiritual povfT, an 
the main aubject^; and from the ehurcb down to the )>i«Cfl 
of cnamdlcd metal, figure, — figure, — flg<iTC, always pxiad- 
p!il. In Nnrmn.n anrl Qolhir work yoM ha7e, wiih all ihi?ir 
qnidt aaint^, al^ othor m^<^li di^uicted porvond, hun^ng, 
itangt fighting, and bo on ; or whole horde* of animals 
racing after each other. In the Bayeux tapestry, Qaeen 
Matilda gave, as well oa ebc could,— in many rcspectt 
^RiphiKiIly enough, — the whole liislory of the conquest of 
Hngland. Thcnoc, as you iaoreaue in power of art, you 
moro a.nd more flniuhetl Hgures, up to the Bolemn 
IGulptuntf of VTolIa Cuthedral, or the cherubic cnnchmonti 
uf iJic Venctirtu Madonna dci MiracolL Thorefore^ I will 
tvll you fifarlessly, for I know it is true, you must raise 
your workman np to life, or you will never got from hun 
one line of well-Ema^ned convention^dtsm. We bare ai 
present no giwd omnmoninl dofi^. Vfo can't hnvo it yot 




ui4 vc mt»t be pcUicDl if we waiit lo have it. Tto nol 
^ope lo Jbel Uia efGxA of your flclu^lii at odoc, but rum tbo 
nea aa Itigb u jrou can, and then let tlicni stoop aa low tm 
JQQ need; no groat nan ever m'lttds atooping, Rneountgif 
llMttudenta^ in &kotchiQg occunUdy and ct^ntinuAlly I'rona 
n^tare anytbing thit comes in tlicir way — stiU Ufe^ flowctra 
AQimolB ; but, aboTO all, ftgarcs ; and bo far tu you allow 
of aoy dificrcQce betvcco sd artiftt's tntimng and tbcin, Id 
it ^Tf not in vhnt they draw, bnt in tbo degr^ of conrcn- 
lioiiailiBni you loquira m tbo «ketcb. 

Pot my ovn pAr% 1 nhoiild always endeavour to giT« 
Ukorough ai^tioal traiauig first; bat I am not certain 
(tho cacifcHmcAt being ycl untried) yrhtiX rcsultii loay 
bo obtained by a tnily iniplligcn^ prnriicc of 
diawia^ saoh m ttmt of tbo Ef^ptiana, Grceke, or thi^ 
loootb oontury FrE^nclj, vrlitcb CQ^^i^tn in Uie utinooit po» 
«ible T^ndeiing of natural form by the fewest pcemble 
linear Tbe animal and bin! dr^kvlrig of tbc liigyptiAna 
n^ in tbcir tlno ngn^ <^uiti? tnngnif^GL'tit uniW iu ooib- 
filinta; magm&ocnt iu two w&}%— drat, in kooncet pcroq>- 
tion of tbe mnm JV^htia mid ficta in the onctun-; aud^ 
nooikdiy, in the grandeur of line by which tlidr fuTTan aro 
nbrtncted and inuiibod on, nutktng trexy asp, ibia» and 
vulture a mblime itj)rctm of axp or ibU or vtiTtnn^ piiwrr. 
Tbft way for students to gel soino of tbia ^ again (wm« 
ODly, £jr I bdicve tJic fulmsa gf tLo gifl iLst^if to bo 
ooonectcd witli riud superstition, and witb rcsulti&g in- 

uoDst<N M.ufurACitrex 

tCD^tf of rcTcrcnoc ; people wcro likely to Imow boou> 
Jiin^ tibonl. ImwT(^ aihI tbirv^fi, wht^u to kill uno wan bo 
be irrevocably jxidguil to d<^;tli) in ntrcrto pan a daj 
without drawinff aomo aalin^il ixoru the life, ^llcving Uicra* 
laelvvs tbc fi^wvAt pa^BEibk* Iiih*^ »nd c«j]oim to do it 
with, biat resolving tbat wbatcvcr ia cii&rftclcnsdc of Ui* 
ualnm] sboll In soma vfjiy or otlwr be abo«o * I repeat it 
CAi^Dot jol bo judged wbftt nftrulta nugbt bo obuinM by 
a nob]/ pracli^ed convi^ntioii&Iiam of ttiis kind; but, 
h^Wk^^vcT thut may \ii\ tho first thct, — thd iiWQi«i^ of 
ftalm;ii and ilguro dntviag, ia ftbaolntcly ccrttuD, and no 
person vrho sbHukfl from ll will ever boGome a ^ut 

OtiHjjreat good arises tven fro'm tbrt fiml jrfi?p itj figil 
drawing, ihnt it gtrla the fitiKJcnt quit at cnco of tho notion 
of ibrmal sjmiDetry- If yovL latxa only to draw a. ka( 
wcU] you HT^. Uiuglit in aamo of our schoolsi to Cam it tb« 
Other way, opposite to itaolf ; taid ^o two lo«vo6 act oppo- 
niti^ wnyjt am cjilW ^'n dt-sigti:*' mid t-buK It U smpixned 
poasibla to produce omanontatjoii, though you liaTO do 
more biuiutt than a loukitig^glase or a kaleidcufcopc lirun 
But if you ODCO Icnm to tlrftw tho human flgiu^, you will 
Ond tbat knocking two men's Leada 1ogi:thcr doca not 
nc^!^!3QtArily con^tltulr a gncid drj^ign ; nay, that it icakBA a 
very bad dc^gn, or no design at all ; and you will ace at 

• Ptau T6 la Vol. 7. of Wilkindoc'i " Aiioirni Egypt " vnH giv* 
itodcnt an ldu4>r b^T tn nni lo work. 

[}n I 

txcT. in.j 

jUKB ]>E3uac 


cnoc that to torongu n group of cno or moro Sgoree^ jou 
muai, UloQglt perfiapi it mny b^r (Ij^nble to balimci.* oj 
oppDM tfceiQ, At tbo same Umo vary Uidr atlilu<l«A» la 
foaVe Oitf^ not ibe rewnM.- nf tliQ otLer, but this cnmptuntin 
cf the odicr* 

I had awraeirlutiuni^ngdkcusoiononlhbnubjecivrilb 
n fricfid, only tin otb<y* <f,ay ; ani one cf his rolorts upon 
mo va8»o Doatly put, and cKprc8w« ao corDfileUly all that 
uui etlm^r be; mjil or j<l](iwn uri tbr. <jpjH»KlU' p-mIv, thai it i:i 
w«Il worth wliilo giving it yoa ojcacUj ja ib« foim it waa 
•eal to me. My EHerLd hul bct^n nuuatiiuiiijf tbut the 
CflMniee of omamcrt con<l* in three thing*;— cent rart, 
acricBt and i^'minctry, I replied (by IcKcr) that ^^nonc of 
thciii, nor nil nf tKtvn togrihrr, wnulil prLxJucc <»riiiin(;[ii 
Here "— (makin^r a ragg^ blot with tJie hack 
of inr pen on llii? p<i[Kr)— "yuu hikvocoiilnifll; 
tm it isn^t omatiicnt: here, 1, 2, 3, 4, b, 6,'*-— (writiag 1b« 
maiDefak}-''*jouliaY4;denoa; but il 
«n*t ornament: and hons," — («ketch< 
i&g thia &^r€ at dio sdc) — *'yoti 
lure ayinmotinr ; but it un^t oma* 

My fnoud T^lkd ; — 

"Yoor maMialfi -were no: omameut, beoacse yoo did 
aoi apply them. 1 acod thcfu to you back, roudo D): 
into a choioG eporljQg neilercJiier:^ 

SynLmctricoJ figarc Unit of diaper, ' 

CoQinat Comer omamcnttt 

ScncM BonJcr omanoats. 

Ejich ftgure is converted iiiton harmony by being mrnl 
ed on ila two axos^ lUe wbole oppoaiHl in contnvstiag scries 
My im^wcr wh& — or rdLhcr was to iLo oOoct (for I m^t 
cxpitiid it a liLtlc, lii:v>*])— ilitit Uih wiin!?*, "Ik^uaiuo you did 
not Apply thi?rn," coikt^inod the gist of tb« vbolo mftttor ; 
tlijit tlo a|i|rlicatiori of llictn, or any other tilings, wua pr&-~ 
cwcty thi* rawt^ntx'ikf 'U'flign; — th<j non-applicrttton^ or wrong 
»Hctttion, ibc uo^tioo of dualgn; ibat Lb lUC of tb€ 

idt I 
lid J 

UPCTT. ttL] 

Axp i>x«xav. 

jwjikr matcntilK wiw tn this caw juimirnlilc; and that if he 
could explain to iiw^ m dear words, tlio piiiidpl^ on 
vrHicJi ho had qq (mi»] tlirnif ^c woul^ bt; doifig a ver/ 
gnst acrrice to all stud^&ts oT art- 

"Tell mc, tlierefons (1 aaked), ihem tnain poui^: 

'^L How did J Oil [Itlfrtniiin thn num1>irror llgiirot yoii 
vould put iuto Ibe &<^dce^ubil>^ ? H^ thera been murCt 
it wonld h.tVG been niuin Hiirl inoflijctivv^ — a pcpjxrn 
jutd-aol: spriDkliDg of l^itr«a. Hikd then beec &wer, 
it would hkro bocn motisUaiUL How did jrou iix tlM 
Dumber 7 

" ^ IIov did jou d{»tcnniQC the breadth of the border 
ADd ralaiive iize of tlie DuroeraU ? 

*' tt, Wby are tbort two Hacft outside of the bortkr, and 
ooeouly loaide? Wbjr a« titero do more }itxi%? WUjr 
Dot tlireo luui two, or thr*?*: and fivi:? Wby limx at iiLl to 
Acporato the b«rbaroija iigurca; and wliy^ if linc^ at all^ 
not double or treble instead of siaglo 7 

**4» Whj did joQ pat tbo doable biota sX the oorncrs? 
Wliy not nt tin.' anj^l^ of tbo eU^ueni,— «r lo tbe middle 
of ilic border! 

^U i& prtdsdy your knowiog why nef to do tb«aa 
Ihiiigi, ted why to do jujt what you have done, whieheou- 
Minted your power of dc^g^; aod like all tbo people 1 
haveevi^ known who kid thut jKjwer, yuu mtt eiilirc^Iy un* 
oonscrooaof th<» c«mii^ Iliws by wbicli y<a work, nn 
otlii^r |H.-uj)Ie|iy ttJHu^ lijeiLi lluiiLli(=detu^nde^H.nidjt 




[JJK7I Ul, 

oti Hymmi^trjf mid wrrii^, vrlivn, ui l^t^ it (Ivpf-oiUr-ntia'^lj 
ou your own ©t^n*? uihI j nafinatct.*' 

This WW* til"? nubyji (Kx^ ilf my lut aiiBWor — lo which (>* 
1 knew beforv^tiiuid would b3 tUe case) I got uo reply ; but 
it rttill remains to l>ctjb»cn-cO thnt with ilII thcskillnnd taste 
(cFprcially involving tbo apcliilecfi great trusi, hannony of 
pn^jKirtioD), wliioh my fritnd cc'uld inng to bcfir ou the 
matoriaL) givrn Uim, tW result is still ouily — asportuif 
ai^korchicf— tljfit U to ttby, th« maturiula addrcaw<], fimt, to 
,rcckUjaQQn,iji tbcebapcor ^mcrobloL; tbcn tocomputa- 
ti7CDe«a, In & series of QgnroH; itnd tWn to ubi^urdity «iid 
i^omnoc, in the ah^c of aq ilLdr^vwiicaricataro — ouch mn- 
teriaJa, howaver treat^l, can only work up into wlini will 
p1fiiuuKak]<^0i>mpulali7C and vulgnrpcraon^— tbati^toi 
Boy^ into a «poi1Jiig ncckcjt^kitC The difierenoe Letweuu- 
tlile pieod orom&mentation and Curreg^o^BpftintLog RtPikr* 
jna lies simply and wholly in the additions (aomcwhal ]arg» 
^OQea), cif truth uud of t^iidt-rnv^: in the drmwmg being 
JovclyoawcJl aa oymmctrical— widrcjirc^atativ^of rc&li- 
tifS as w«U as n^i-t'aiWy dis^iaat^d. And trullir Lt^riderutMtp 
nnd invoEitirc npplk'Jition or digpueiitioii Iu^^ indeed tho roott 
of omamcQb — not oontrAst, nor syrnvMsirj. 

It CMglal ytfl fbrtlicr to be ol^vurv^ thut the nobhr A^i 
mofef Hi^, the le£s Oicir 3T/rrtm<try u cnilitrabk. In tho pre- 
sent coat?, till- ^i^isv or lltiteju aud onl^r, producird by thfl 
TCpotition < f the ftgurcfi, neutral i^c«, in aomo dcgrot^ thcdi. 
n?i:kltf« tfulgiuiiy; and ia wholly, lUerofora, beneAoani Id 

booo^c paukful. You mny h:irmir?:*ly bfilrkDcc a mere geo* 
mctncAl rorm, and opjiow one qaatnrfi^il or ct^sp by ^9* 
oikor exoetly liko it. But put :^o Apollo Belvidcrtn bade 
to liAck, and tou vill not Uiink die s^mmetij iinprovca 

nt&rf £< Mhbitf ; ft&d repetition of pcnttf 10 cither the sign of 
utterly bad, hopeleapi, aud ^% wr^rk; or of the inlendi^l 
dcgrodttticD ofthcpartA in which ^uch repetition in uliovrcd» 
u orOGT to foil otliex?4 more nobis. 

Sucht tbcn, ire i few of tbo gredt pHnciplej, by the en* 
lorcGmcAt of which you may hope lo promote ihc buccom 
of tlw modem student of design ; bnL rem^rabtT, none of 
tfaetc prmciplcg will be useful at all, unIc«Q you undciKand 
dicmi lt> be^ ill ou« profoattd and stern seiiiK, uaelcm.^ 

That b to «ij, urLlen ytni fbel that neither you not I, not 
Anjr ooe, can, in the great ultimate sense, teach anybody 
bow to make a good dedgn. 

If dcaigtiing etmid be taught, all the world would Icaxn : 
i0 all the world n?ada— of ealcnlates. But deigning la not 
to be called, nor cummed. Uy men eontinuully oonio to 
m^ in my drawing daai in London^ thinldrkg I ara to teach 
them vhst k inaiantly to enable tbem to gain tIteEr broad. 
" PZeaac, air, ahow ua how to design," '* Make dcaignem 

* I ihall vodcAtovr for th« future to put lu; Mir'<oiitniil)Ct^<'nt id 
fbortaeoaeDoai an J tlirtd Unniv iu «nJ«r te iato wgftoSoiia pcnom 
Ibe tfodtd* of luekiiiK ^^ ilunu- 




of ua." Add you, I doubt oot, partly expect mc lo 
yoQ lo-night how lo make defflj^neiB of jour BradfonJ 
joutb& AIjxsI I conld as aioon t<;II jou boir to maJcc 
jDfinufncliire an car of wlu^t, aa to m&ke a good artist oPI 
any kiD<i. 1 can onalyr^t^ tbc wbcut very leoniiidly for yoit^ 
— ^tell yea there is eUrcb in it^ and carbon, and sihs, I can 
pv« you itorcb, and cKarcoa], and Hiiit ; but you arc m £ii 
from youj €01 of wheat aA you were before AJl that 
poa^ly be doud fbr atiy ooe wlio wonte «ara of wlieat U to 
rfiow them where to lind grains cf wheat, iind how to aow 
llem,and ibto, vrlxh paticiice, lo Hcavt-u's lime, the eaia 
^11 coma— ot will perlmjjs come — ground and wcathorpcT^j 
initliDg. SoiiitbiAcaAttcrofmiikii^artlata — firstyou muA; 
Jliid your artist in tlis grsuu ; then you muat pUnt him 
JoDCC uid weed iha Bcl<l about him ; and with palicnco^ 
ground and woittlier pormitlirig, you xbaj get an artist onl 
of him— not otherwise. And what I have to spc«k toyoi 
about, to-night« is mainly tbc ground &nd the weather, ilj 
being the first and tjuilj? most material question in thiamal* 
Icr, whether the ground and wenthcr of Bradford, or ihtt 
ground imd wcatlicr gf Enghmil In general, — mit wheat 

And observe in the outaet^ it is not 00 much what tho 
prc£cnt cirGumstanccs of England ixre, as what wc wish to 
mate them, that we have tiy (lonrider, If ycu will tell mfl' 
what you uhimatoly intend Bradford to be, perhaps 1 cfta 
tell you what Bradford cim ultimately produce. But yoa, 
must haTC your minds clearly made up, and be di^dnct ia 


Airp DKStGlC, 


Mfing Dkc wlut jou do mnL At prr«cat I iou't koov 
what fou aic aimiBg sit, And pocsibly oo conudozation yoti 
may ibel Moie douM vhc-thcr yen knovr yoonclvoa. A^ 
m^tunm stand^ all or^r EngLintl, m «x>n iia one mill w nt 
work, oooapjiDg two huodrad hands, wd try, by meaaa of 
ii, to >ct AnQthcr mill at work, oocapjring foar hundred. 
*HM IM all nmpU and compivbensive enough— bat what ia 
it to cotbe to ? How mouj milld do wo waiit 7 or d6 wc 
intlrctl nnnt no rrtA of mitU? L^t us cntm^ly undi^olAnd 
eaoU other on thb point befcire we go aay £uthOT< Last 
week, I drove fixjm Itochdalc to Boltun Abbtgr i quietly, 
in order to j*cc tW cou&try, and certainly it waa w&U worth 
whiK I mrcT went ov«r a more intcrt«tiug twenty milud 
than tlv^c btrtViH^n RiX-.hiUlrr uml Rumlrty, Naturiilly, tJio 
VAlk; has been cno of the naoat beautiful m the Laooeehird 
billa ; ooi; of the fur nwjiy SDlltudoA, fall of old xlicplicrd 
wajB of life. At thii time Uwre are not,— I sp^ak delibe- 
nitcly, aad I believe qnile ]it«nlty,— there aru not, I think, 
more than a thonsatid ^anU of rtuul tj> be travf^mxi any- 
where, without poaaiog a furnace or mill. 

}lcw, ia that the Vi[id of thing you wniit to come to 
fftveiywliere? Bccauae, if it be^ and you tell mo ao die- 
liii>ctly, I think I oun malce acrcnU s^iggcfltiona to-night, 
Hid ooiild make more if yon give me timo, which wo^ild 
mAtcnaUy advance y^ur object The extent of our opera 
lioitf at present la more or Icfe limited by ihs extent of coat 
iod iioiiAtone, but we have not yet learned to make propel 



[UEOT. Ul 

ttt» of our dtj Oror llic groitcr pwt of Hngiiknd, loutb 
ofllii" rEiatiufhctiiringdifftrk'tfl, thci» arcmagiificcnt bc<lsof 
vonoTie kinds of uaeful dav ; and I believe that h would 
Dot be diEBcult to point out modcA of cmplojing it vrhicb 
miglit enablo tjs to lum nearly the wtole of the aouih of 
England into a briclcfiuld, aA vrc h.'^vc nlr^^y turned nearly 
tlio wholeof tli»^ nortli into acoal-piu 1 say "nearly" iha 
Vi-liole^ bticnuse, as you aro d'3ubt1oa» awdr^ there arc con* 
eidemblc districts in tbc south oorapoacd of cliallc, itnowood 
tip totlie present time for their downs and muiion. But, ] 
thinlc, by cxamtnmg cairfully into the conociv&ble uses of 
clialk, we mJ^hl -liHoo/or a qutta feasible probability of 
turning all tho chalk didtriotit into a limekiln, a»wc turn 
tlbo clay dlatricts into ^ biickficlfL Thor« would then 
remain nothSng but iHo moantain d)±!ri*Md to be dealt ^th ; 
hnty as wo have not yet ascertained all the aacA of ctfiy and 
chiilk, stJll lofishavu we a.4oi?rtainGd tJioau of stjJite; aiid I 
think, by draining the uselcsa inlets of tho Cumberland, 
Welsbf aud Scolch Ukcs, and turning tlicm, with Lhelr 
nveiv^ into r^avigable nservoirs and, there would be 
no difBculty in working the whole of our mountain dia- 
tricU afl a gigartlic quarry uf slaie and granite, from whic!t 
all the rcet of tho world might be supplied with roofing and 
building iUyn^ 

Is this, then, what you want? Ton are going atraight 
at it ai prewmt ; and I have oiily to ai^k under what limi- 
tstaooa 1 am to conceive oi dt^MCribc your ^ual sucot^t 

tEcr. Ill I 

AlTD DSaiQITt-'- 

Or Abjdl there be nc limitations t l^hat^jttc noxio to ^our| 
poacn ; orcr/ thy puUi ucw miclunciy H,t ^ur disposal, 
ABd inereftae*, wi;h yotir c^Lpital, the vostikte of yout 
uadcttoJoogs. Tbe ch^iLagrs iit tho stale of ;h]s cnuDOT, 
w now w> npid, (tat it vovld bo irhoU^ absurd lb epdM"] 
TOUT to Jft/ dovTD JAVA of urt cducatioEt fbr it ondor 
|>racal au^iccC luid drcaiiiAtAiici» ; nnd tlicrtibrB I thiJit 
Ly isle, bov inuoh cf it do you eerloLul/ iatiMid 
vilbta tbc u^xt M7 years to be cockl-pit, biickficLd, or 
quarry J For tbe sako of disliiicCnesa of conclnsioii, I will 
ntppoeo /oar euooofl absoloic: tb&t from ahoro to sbci 
ihn wbolc of tbc wlncd r^ to be ^n^t im tlii^^k vritb diimDej 
fts the mast0 stand in ibo docks of Liverpool ; tlmt then] 
stiftll he no mcadowa m it ; no troca ; no gnrdcn^ ; on]y 
little corn gro^Km upon tho hottsetcps, reaped and tbresbc 
by st^m : that you do not loavc even room f<jr roiub^ but 
travel dtbcr over the roofs of yi*ur milijs oti vw!ui;t«; or 
ondcr thdr dooi^ in tucaclB : that, ibo smoke having ren- 
derxl tbo light of the sun tin.<«crvic«ableT you ^n?rk always 
by lb* light of your own gas: tbiit no acre of Kngli^h 
ground shall be without ita sbatl and its engine ; and thei 
Ibit^ no t^t nf Fn^^lixh gnniinl h*fl, r»ii whmh it hKhII 
pOflsibLe to stand, without a delinit« and calculable cbnnc* 
of hdag blown off it, at any moiai^nt, into auulU pieces. 

Under thsso ctrcnmitariiy!<^ (if thin im to be the future of 
England,) no designing or any ctb^^r development of 
bcstntiful art will he poovililti. Do not vex your luindi^ 


nt-iT vfttiilr- yolitK&ncy with any tliouglit iir Hfliirl in tli« 
mallei. B^^yitrful art can only be produced bypooplc who 
have be^H^iM lliJii^ uttout tbom, tiud 1^ar« to look al 
thera; and uoleds yovi provide saam dementu i>r bwutty for' 
jvur workmen to be sunxjundcd by, yoa will find thai no 
elements of btButy um be invented by tlieiii, 
- 1 wad struck forcibly by tho benring of thJa great UjA] 
Dpoii our modcn: efibrls ai oniamitiitAtiou in an ftHemoon 
walk, laat week, is the £ubLirb« of one of our largu mftnu- 
fncturiiig towns. I waa tUinking of th« diifercnce in tb» 
effoct i]|:oQ the dL-signur's tnind, biHwiisn ibc ncnis wliicli 
I then came upon, and tlio eccno wLiob would iiave 
piVfwrifcd itfielf to tlie ey*« of any df^eigntir <if th« mtddlo 
agee^ wli^a ha Idl bin work«H»:)p. Ju^tt outsulc the town 
I <Ame Qpou an old Eug-lJah cotbigCf or nuuuion, Z 
bnrdly know which to coll it, a'^ c1o«c undcrr thf? hill^ uad 
beadd tho rivor, pcrbapa buiil somcwhorc in the Cbarl(«'ft 
times, with mullionnd wiiiddWH anil ii ]t>w nmhr-il jumh ; 
round wbioh^ in tho [ittlo tnAngular gardon, ona can ima- 
gine lIiQ Ja.niily as they used to fiit in old nummer Umc^ 
the ripple of th« rivur hi-ard faintly lliroiigh the swcctbiW' 
hcdgtj, and tho fthwp on the fuT-oS wolda shining in th^ 
BVE-nnig HunligbL Tljt^i^ uninhcilntHd for iriiiny iieu) mimy 
B year, it had been . left in unn^gani^d hnvoc of ruin ; 
the gnrdcr-gatc atill swung loose to iu latch ; iho i^uxlen, 
blij^ht^l ait«r1y into a JieUl df omIk^ not crcti A weed 
taking root tbcro; tho roof torn into ehapdcas ranla ; Hlo 

i.Ecr. nx-l 




^uUeiB baB^og about the windowt in ni^ or rotlcn 
w^xtd; before iia gntc, tho «tTCAm which hnd. gloddcucd it 
iii>ir aoakiQg slowly by, black aa eboTiy, and Uiick vitb 
cordliiig scum ; tha bfthk above it trodduu inlo unctuount ' 
sooty dime: fkr id &OQt of iU bciwccii it and Uic old luIH 
th« fUfUftcee of tli« (uiy fbamlog (orth perpetual plague c£ 
nlpbtuoiu dorknctts; tbo volumes of thdr elorm clouds 
ooiTing low orar r waeteof gn»4lc«8 fields, ft^nced fVom 
cM*b otber, not by ho^gM, bat by alaiiti of aqiioio stono, 
Ukc gravostotkce^ riveted to^cibcr with iion. 

That vaa your sceno for the defiigner** oont«mp]atioQ in hid 
aftcniooDinlk at Kochdalc; Now^mcy vhnt ^a» ibc«ccQc 
which predpnted itneir, in his aib?rQoon walV, to a deeigner of 
Ibo Qolhic MhoctofPunk — Nmo Pioano, ct any of hin men. 

On each »dc of a bright, nrer he saw risi? a lino of 
bright^ paUoei^ arched and pillared, and iuhud with de«p 
fcdpcTpbyry, and with Mrpcotioc; aloo^ tbc qaayn bc- 
fbre ibcir gates were riding troops of kulghl^ noble in foo^ 
and fonn, da£«Iing in crcaU and ^hlnld ; bornj and ranQ one 
labyrinth of qiuinl ocloor and gleaming light — th-:: purple^ 
and dlrtT, and BQarI«t AnogBifloiring over the fltrong Lmbi 
aod claahing moil, like sca*wAviea over rooka at sunset 
Opening cm each flido from tho river wi^rc gnrihmjt, ocnirlj^ 
aad cloistccs; long auocoasions of whito pillard oiaong 
wrvalhfl of vin«; l<:rtping of foiintairm thrctigli btuhi of 
pmegnmate and omnj^ : and Ftill along the gardon-path^ 
and onJcr and tlirmigh the onm^on of tht: pun^cj^nate 




lowH, moving;? nlowly, groupii of tht iuircot womcai 
liaSy ever Aan — ^f^in^t, Ixcaubu pareat and t^iou^lilfUIi 
tnuaod in all higli knowl^ad^^ m in oil ccurtvoos ojrt — Si 
(ItDoo, in 6ong, in awcet wtt^ in lohj Ii^oimng, in lofUcr 
courage, m lol^cai love — able &Uke to cbeer, to dnch&n% or 
cuvo, the ttou-ls of men. Abo^o aU this ooonciy of pcrfuct 
liumait Wf**-, TVise dome ^nd l>-lI*tower, burning wiih wLita 
nlubudUtr aiii gold ; beyond domdond beU*tower Uie alopot 
of ini£;hty bili^ hoAry with olirc; £ir in tbc north, 
s purple sea of peaks of solemn Apennine, lie olear, 
cloroD Carrara moLu^buTis ftciil up their Atcadlkst flAmcfl 
murblu tncuiiJt mioanibLT iky; Uit^ gruat i^^a it^eli^ BLiorch- 
in^ with tfxpaosu of light, stK^tdiiiiif from their tout to tUo 
QorgooJac idea ; and over all these, ever prcwot, uear or 
iUr — Been 'through the leaves of vltie, or iinag*^ wiih all 
iU march of clouia in the Arno'e stream, or set with its 
depth of hlue close iiyainat the gu1d<?u Iniir and buTitiiig 
i^cck of ludy and knight,— -thnt untroubled and sacrc<l 
sky, which was U> all iillji, iu thiwu days of iimoueut fiuth, 
Indeed the VTLquoutioDud iibode of sptrits; tu theonrth wttM 
of men ; and which opened straiglit ihrougli iu ^Ua of 
oload and voilu uf dc^w into the awfitlntss of the eternal 
world;— a ho&vcQ in which every cloud that parsed vaa 
Literally llie chjirI<Jl of an angel, and every my of i\a Ev^ 
uing and Morning nircamcd Iron the Ihrono of God, 

What think you of thai for a iwihool of dciign ? 

I do not bnog this contrast bcforo you aa a ground of 


lom in our task - acdther do I look for any p(»Ribl« 
iMBorAtioD of tli« Bcpablio of I'lao, nc JJnulford, in tbo 
luactoCDth GcaXaxy ; but I piit it fadure ^ou ia order tliat 
yoa may be awaro piKciaely of the kind of dilficutty yua 
Uavo to mcott jukI taay then conHidc^r witli yoursojvcs Low 
.r you ca& nw«ei it To mea siuTOnnded by the depreaang 
id moaotoncufl cir^unuttniLcc-s cf KaglUIi tmiau^tariog 
li(c^ drpcitd upoa il^ design ia aimpijr imposublo. Thin ia 
most di^Uiiot of all the esp^riuutM^ I Lav^ had m doal- 
irith the modern woikiaaQ, Qc u intclligonl and 
lioas in ihe higb^flt degree — subtle in loacb and keen 
si^t: but he ia, generally cpcakin^ wholly deatitute of 
igiUBg powen Aod if you want to give bim the powar, 
you must give him tho maturiab, and put hirn in the dr- 
fijT it DLsign ia not tLc ofifipnDg of idlo 
■ftney: histh^ atndiod resuic of accumulative observation 
ftod dcUghtiul habit. Without obacrvntion and tutpcricnev^ 
BO itc^gia^withoiit pcww mid plr.?4sunih1i;acsa in oooupa* 
tK> dodgu — and all the lecturings, and toicbinga, and 
and principles of ait, in the \rorId, ar& of no use, so 
as you don^t surround your man with happy infliiena^s 
tfd bcouttfol thingl. It is iiEpoaAible for them to hsKVQ 
It idcaa aboKit colour, unlc-ai th^y aea itn lovtly colouifl 
of uture vni^iled; impoaslbk for them to fiupply beauti- 
ful incident and action in Uiclr oniamctiti uiilegs they aee 
beaotiful iucidtul and action in the world about them. 
Umui mind^ rcQac thcii habiu, and you. fbrm and 



[Lscr. m 

ftnd m tbe miiUi of unbc^uutita] tliinga, ojid wbatev^ thoy 
tio ihill «till be spuriouit, vulgar, and Talue3cfl& 

I i«peat, that I do not a^k you cor wish you to builJ 
now Pisa for them- We don't want cdiLer the iifa or 
<idcx>rationa of the thlitctfDtK centuiy biLck ikgaia; uid 
circunLttiincj<A with which you mttst sorroUDd your worl 
men aro thoso aimply of happy modern Eagtiah Uf«^ 
eausc the cl<!fligns you bavc now to jwk for fMm your' 
workmen Are such as will make modorD Kngluh life beaih'j 
tiful All that gorgeoufiiieoa of the middle Ag^ beautiful 
&s it qounda in description, noble *s in niany nii^)ects it waa 
ill reality, had, nevcrUicIces, for foandAtion and for ead,^ 
riotltiTLg bot tho pride of lifi^— the priilc of tbu so-uJlc<l 
Boperior clo^oe ; a pride wUi^h 8iipporl«d itaolf by viole&ca 
ftcd robbery, and led In tbc end to the destruction boLli 
of tha arts themsclvM and the States in which they 

The gri;at lessoii of history i^ that nil th« fine nrla 
hitborto— having been supported by the eelfiali power of 
the ntjblcaaQ, and never having exletided their range to the 
ooofon or the relief of tbe maas of the p<H>plo— tlie arts, I 
my, 'huA practtseJ, and thos cmturcd, have only acoelemted 
tbe ri:iir uf tb<; Suti/?s tbcy adorueJ ; unil ii,t the raomrrjt 
irhen, in any Idngdoin, you point to the tiiumpLfl of its 
greatest (LrU^t^ you point also to tbe determined hour of 
tbe kingdom's decline. The namca cf gruat pcuntcrv-uit 

Lxcr. nt] 



bk& paa&ing bells ; in ihe n&me of Vdaaqtiei^ jron bear 
■ounded tbe ^1 ol' Sp«m ; in the xiAinc of I'ttiin, that of 
Toniaf; In tL« Dame uf I^oiiAitio, th^l of Mil^n; in tbe 
auDeof Rapluuslf ^Lit of Homi^. And tLcro in profound 
jiislice in litis ; for ic proporlioa to tbu Doblcncaa of the 
powt-T U tbe ^ilt of iu uih» for purpoMS vuiii cr vilo ; and 
hitiioTto tbc grcot^n' tlic art, the more smtcW hfLS it been 
uaed, and it»i aoleir, for tlw d<?tumtion fif j^ritU^* or tbu 
piorokmg of tcnfUftlity. Another coum; lies open to us, 
W« iwa/ abiLixdt^ii the hojw— c>r if joa like lli« wurda 
btllor— WQ n»y difadnin tb^s lomptation, of the pomp and 
grace of Italy in bcr yontb- For us there can be no mort- 
[b« throDC of inurbTe; — fbr lu no more iho vault of gold — 
bttt for OS there ia ihc loftier and lovelier privil-^gc of brinf^ 
ing ihi; pouTKT Ai:d <^bnnn Eif nil wit}itii tliA Tfsich of the 
hvnblo ftod tho poor; n^Tid &s thd no^iflccnoa of putt 
ngm failed bj ila narmwni^s-i nnd iu pridt^:, otint mny prc- 
Tait and continue, by itx tiniv^rrsftlity and its lovlinoas. 

And thu^ between liic pirrturn of toolahoriouA Eaglond, 
whieh wti Imagintid en fature, luid the pieturo of too laxu* 
lioos Jtoly, which we remember in tiii> fiast tboro m&y 
csciM'— 4]ier« will CJtwt, if w^ di our i^uiy^tn inti?rmediAlii 
oondition, neither opprvMued by labotir nor wnatod in vanity 
'— Iho condition of a peaceful and thoughtful tcmpcranee in 
ainu, SDd iict^ and arts. 

* WbaAvr trli^iiaorprorAae pTidi^-*:diap«1or binqiiHfTigmsta, - 


[LKcr. m 

W« are about U enter opoa a period of oar world's hit 
lory in which domeftie iLfe, aid^d hy the sjte of petce, 
will idowl/, but at last outirely, supersede public life *nd 
he urtfi of w:4T« For tjur own Fln^laiiL], fibe will not, I 
belieret be blo&tcd throughout with furnaces ; nor wiJi uhe bo 
encuinberctl wiib pAliL(<r-x, I trust she will k^jf ber gixaeu 
fiolda, boroott^igce, and hor homes of middla life; but tbcMj 
(nght tobe, und I trust will be enticbie<l with & useful, 
truihfu], fiubatAQtiat form of art. We waot now no more 
&iu»ta of the gods, nor mart)Tdoin.i of the oiuutft ; wo have 
no Deed of senBiiality, no plaoe for HUper«litJon, or fnr c<>>Uy 
innolcJice. Let us have Icamcdand luithful huAoricol paint' 
ing — touching and thoughtfhl rej^re^enuUona of human 
nature^ lu dramatio paiuUo;; ; p^actiL^nl arid famili&r reiidenDf^ 
of oatund objects aud of biudscapc ; and lotional, deeply* 
fUt Tealizationi of the evt^nta which ore tbe subjects of our 
religioue &ith. And let thc^c things wc want» as far as 
pcmWe, be aoatleted abroad and made acce&iible to all 

So a1-i(», Tti uiaiiufaului^ : we re([uire work f^iibfllnntial 
rathor than rich in make; and refined, ratbor tb&a splen- 
did In design. Your stlufTe neeil not be such as would 
cwtch theeyoof adLichcss; bntihey should be ancb as mfty 
at ouce acrv? thi^ need, aud reCne the taste, of « oottagcr. 
The prsvmltog error in Eoglish dress, especially among ih^ 
lower urdeTBf is a tendeuoy to llimsioe^ and gaudinea% 
anBiug mainly from the awkward ImitAtion of i]u?it suptt* 


rion.* It should be one of tbe fir«t objecta ijf all mono- 
jiifiturcn io pTuduTi: Ktuf& not only bcsutifUl sad qOAifll in 
dceigo, but also adapts for ovcrj'-d&y asmoo, and deco- 
rous iti hutoblc and ncdudcd life* Aiui jrou miut rcmcin* 
ber aliravs thai your bii^nees, as ouLnu^icturer?, is to form 
tlw akArketr w mnoti oa to Aup;>Iy iL If^ in ttbortflightcd 
and recklen eag^exocM for wq»Ji1i, you catcb &t evdiy 
btunour of the populace as it flbapoA itnclf into momcataiy 
dmaad — if, in jcaloita rivalry witb tieigbbouring StAtee^ or 
vitli otber produosn, you try to attract uttoDtion by monfUp 
iaritic«^ noreltic*, and gau^ncMcfl — ^to make every dcngn an 

* If itair iupeHom would gin them ^oipllclty Mid coonomj to 
iaiOMtc, U moli^ ia lh« ixrue, bv wvU fur theoiKlvm, lu well u* (br 
Ibon wboD Itwjgoide. TbvijpbuliIfDVQf (jrpuuun far OnvE^ and aH 
fldMT diqilaj, wliicdi bat Miuck iliu aji|>^r dwini tif Kttrojf« tt iJiJs 
fln^ ii oD« of tlu> loasl dugcrous jiolilical clvaiojitA we havo lo dvkl 
wllh. lu wlutcdccvi I h*ve iltoivit vUfwhi^re (PoUt. Bcoaoiay of 
Ar^ jk.iS^et tf^-); but its (rbki?cLuAs U^ lh tike tainds cf oiceL per* 
moa^ A xatUr of ito itnpurUkn^c. I viah I bad ijuiv also to hLuw tlium 
iBdMigfr. InonotRiMr bpr« hto r"1^^^*^1 Inv^ti^-«titin ; bill i>d« 
k a cerula ftd^ Qiat Iha WMliAil and nln aqtmv^n at pr«neot 
lodolfad la tij lli»cqip«rduK«ftnhul«nb2thn«dvaDc«cjf rapubltcui' 
tm moAt thaa any othnr di?mcnt oT modcini c-hang«h No agliacar^ 
aa c^bi^ DO rpldotnleid crrorn, ptnr were, or will be, fatal lo ■ocUl 
order TC nnj' niilon. Nothrtif biiL tbr< gntlt of tbp tippor duHO, Wkii- 
too, bocmntil&lDd, r«clcl«>«« uid TneroiTrWy ever (>v^rlTiT'ow« ihem. Of 
nch piilt tbi; hare now mudi to wi^wer rbr — let thata look la U la 



adrcrtiACiacnl, and pilfer crcry ido&of ft auocfittTu] c^igii- 
bour*^ that you may tofddinwijy imitiu^- it^<)r jumi|i(Miiily 
«lipae— no good dcei^ will over be poeaibJo to yon, ci 
jierociTRil by you. You may, by accident, imatch tUo mar- 
kot ; or, by cucrgy, cocimsmd it ; yon mny obtjun the oon- 
fidenoe cf tlic public, (uid c^uac tbc ruin of oppoacDt bouKfl 
or you mny, with equftl justjt* of fortoii^ ba ruined by 
tlkom. Hut wbat«7or tiAppctw to you, tl^ia, at loAHt, ia oor* 
lain, ibal the whole of your life will liavc been spent io 
corrupting public taste and enoouragiug publio extrnva- 
gaitco. Every prctctciicc you iinvc woai by gaudincffimost 
have been ba^ed on tbo purt^haser's vAni^; every dema&d 
you hftTt! cr«iitcKi by novelty haa fostered la tbe coniumci 
a kabit of diJ^contcDt ; and when you retire into innctirc 
U&, you may, aa a subject of conaolalioTi for your decliniug 
ycani, reflect that prcciEioIy aocoriing to tiio extent of your 
post opsrstioni^ your life lia« been successHil in rct^nling 
tko arts^ tarulsbin^ tbe vlrtuaa, and oDtifusbg the mauntra 
of yoaj country, i 

hntf or tlic otlicr hand, if you tgsoIvc from tbe flret ibal^ 
BO Jiur aa you otin aa(5artain or diaoem irbat la beat, you will 
produo:' wlmt ie best, on bh intt^dli^ul considuraibn of tbe 
probablo t^udencics and possible taatee of tl^e peopk whom 
you supply, you umy literally become more ini!utnllal for 
all kinds of [jtiod thitn miinyloctiirenoTi art, or mjtn/ irea* 
tiao-wnUfn on tnortdity. Cooaidfring the inatoriala dealt 
Hul Hie GTudt^ ataU? uf ^LrL kciuwted^ at tUo tlmc^ I 

uccr. Ill] 



do not koow tliAt tik]r aoM wide or ofFxtive ioGaence ia 
public laKto "wm crer rztTcist:tt lltin tbjit of tlic BuiTurd 
■bin TDaoQAdQre of pottery niulcr WiltUm Wciljpvood; 
Ukd it only raate wilb the roanu&clurctr io CYerj othor boa^- 
ftnsi III iXctf-nniMi vhf-thi:r htt will, in liki^ iiutnru-r, mnke hin 
«iree«dacatioiui instriuneiiu, or mere dru^ of tha mftrk*^ 
Ycra all sbould be, in u ocrtairi Hcnae, Aiitboi^: you miut^ 
lodged, flntcatdi the public cjc, a« an author muiit xUq pub- 
lio «ftr; but oaco gjuu your Audi«jioc^ or obaervano^, aud na 
it IN in tlic vrritRrV p(}wi<r tHrni^nirwnitt t^) pulilixh whjit will 
tdqooto u U amusw— 60 it ia in yours u> publiab what ^rill 
edoiato iti it uIoniA. ZTor is iIlLh xtircly a nubjrct t:>r ]hx)t 
unbitioQ. I h«ar it said continufJlj that men ara loo ftm- 
bvttoua: ftJosI to mo, it w<ioa they aro nt^Tcr ctioux^i ambi* 
tiocui. Hi>w many am conbrnt to U^ niTivly tJtr thriving 
moichaata of a Btato, when tbcy might bo ita giudos, coun- 
eeDocrf^ and mien — wlaldkig poweia of aubtlfi but gi^'aiiliD 
beneficcniy^ ia rdtmiriiiig ita fblltc wlitlc tboy mippTic^ \Ui 
mats. Ld auc^ diitr, aaoh ambition^ be once ooocpted in 
tlieir ftUnoB^ and the beat ^lory of Kuropeaii art and of 
Buropoanmnnufhcturomay jotbctooome* Tho paintings 
of Bapbad and of Baonaroti ^re force to tlie faJaebootls 
of caperatitioD, and majesty to the ImaginationE of ain ; but 
tho aria of Ktiglood may have, for tLcir taalc, to lufurm tbe 
KKi] wiih tiutt, and tojcfi the heart with compJULsion, The 
vtodof Toledo and thoitlkof Genoa did but pvc strco^b 
toopprcssbonaud Inalre to pride: let it be for lUl- t^nin 



[LECTT. in 

and for thd ](>om of Englaod, as tLey liavo already richly 
eariked, still more abaadaatly to bestow, comfort on the 
indigent, ciyilization on the rude, and to diapeosQ, throagti 
the pcaociul homea of nations, the grace and tho procioiu 
nan of ^mpk adornmeat, and useiiJl poaae^ion. 



lAX iwinii 

fim BiH iflai. 

It va vera to ba uked abruptly, and required to &a>^er 
briefi/i what quAlilice chidiy dii^tingiiiah great artists from 
feeble artiate^ we should aiuwtr, I HTip|>o6e, ftr^t, their mn-* 
sibility And teudcrnogs; a(;coo<Ily, Uacir imfigi nation ; lui 
tkiidly, ^icir iudastrj. Some of us miglit, perL&fia, doul 
ifae Jiiatice of attac)iiog so niTich iinporunce to ihU iMt 
chaiuctcr, bccAUM wd bovc all knoirn clever mcu who 
were trjdolenl) luid doll men who vren iiii3uMlnou8. But 
tboogh jou may hsxve known olovcr men whc w«ro1 
indolctit, jou ncTcT Icocw hjfrttU man who wu vo; and, 
during BOcb inv^gation as I havo been abia to givi^ lo 
tbo liTca of tha artiab wIiom works ara ui all poinia 
noblest^ no ilict ever loomffio large upon miv- nc> tnw roij 
maiDS ao Etdodfasl in tbe uoivers^ity of its application, 
tbafiKtand law that ihty aro all great worken; nDthiu({ 
corkocrning thum \jt mntlLTur more SLAtoniNhmcni thm iho 
quanti^ thoy have accomplished in tha given kri>;lh of 
Juor life; aod wkcu 1 }u'iir a ^ouiig itiiLn Hpiiktiii oJ^ M 

giving promiae of high gennu, the txet qacstion 1 m^ 
uIki^iL \i\m is s}wa.j» — 

Does he work? 

But though this qurtltty of iadaitry u cawntiol to an 
uttKtitilniTSTJormanywiseinjike&nartiBl; mao; people ara 
biuy, wlioae viuings arc LtUo worth, lioitbtu' doca acnsibl 
titjr mitke an artist; since, wa I hope, idadj gaq fed both 
strongly and nobly, who y«t care nothing about art But 
the gift* whk^li diatinctivclj mark tiac arliat — u;i^uf which 
he must be feeble In lif^, forgott^^o in death — witJi which 1m 
may booomo o&a of the phukara of thociLrth, nnd onoof 
tho ni^^ul lighl« in huavcu — arc tho«c of sympathy and 
imagmation* I wOl not oooapy your time^ not incur thft) 
ri*k of your dlwcnt, by endeavouring to givo any cloao 
definition of thia last word. We all have a geneml and 
eutiiotent id^ of ima^pnatioQ, and of itfl work with 04ir 
banda and in oar hnarte: we understand it, I eappoae, u 
tho ima^ng or picturing of ftew thin;^ in ciir thoughts; 
Bud wc always show an involuntary respect for tliia power, 
wherever we ciin reeognjse it, acknowledging it to be n 
grootor pernor than manipuUt]on,orcAluuUtiQni orobflorvft- 
t[r>n, or any otiier human ^ulty. If we see an old wom&n 
^pinning at th<i lirouide, arid di^ributittg her thrcftd doxtcr- 
ou^1y from the difitalT, wc icspcct her for hor mampida* 
tion— if we ask her how mTich ahe expecU to uiiik^ in a 
year, and she nnswcn quickly, wc rcnpci't her for her cal* 
cultttiou — if ahti irt wsiti^lklng at the sauke tJni<^ tlj&t none <if 


UHT. TT.] 


ner grsodcbildrea &Q into the &r«, wc napcct ^cr for btr 
obaervAtioa — j&l for aII Cn% ithc may ictiU be a comrift»i 
pUoo old vroionn enough. But if ^o is iJI the timo tt^lmff 
ber gnuiddiildren a fjary tale out of bcr hi^, wci |>r>ijiii 
her fbr 1i«r unneioadoa, imd vay, she must ba a nthci 
rcQiirknbJo old woman, 

Prccbfcdy in Hlco manner, if nn arohitwrt <lo« liw wort 
mg-drftwing well, wd pndso turn for his mtmpniii^on — ^if 
be ku-'jia dodeljr withiu his ooatract, wq pntine biru for luH 
boDOVt siHthmctJc — if ho lookn well to tbc ixying of hii 
beunflt 8o t^at ooWly ehiJl drop tltrou^h the door, wo 
pnlM Iiim fo- UiK olMt-nrfttioD. But lie mufli, somehovr, idj 
09 a &iTy Ulc out of bi« bead bcai(3c cJI thia, cIbc wo can- 
out jiruise bita for hifi imof^aatiou, nor aj^eak of him iia we 
did of the ^M varaftn, ftji being in any wUo out of theccm* 
moo w&y, a rather remarkable arcbitcct. It ftccmcd to nic, 
tberelbre, aa tf it might tnt4frt«t you to-nij^Iit^ if ve were to 
coMndcT together what laiiy talwarc, in audhy orohitoctuTC, 
la be lold — nkai ther^ in for you to do in thi« scrct^ art of 
yoon " o«t of your hoada," as well aa by your handi. 

Perfattp» the fifvt idea whieh a voang architect ii iLpt io 
be aUnred by. e§ a head-problem in these expsnTnenlAl drtya, 
ia iu bctn^ ineaaibent uf^on him U> inv^ect a ^* rtuw Atylo" 
wonby of modem civilization in genc^ml, and of Engbiid 
iapaKicnlar; aatyle wonhy of ourengin^and telegraphs; 
Of cxfonAVo aa sieaic, and od sparkling aA dcctrioitj. 

B«^ if there are any of tny hearer* who have been in*- 



prossod with Hub sonso of inventive duty, ma/ 1 aak thi 
lli¥t, wWlhi^r ihrrir pUn in that nvrry itjvriitivn iirditi 
Among 03 shall iavcDt a dcw stylo for hkEoat^f, and Kavo a 
eounty not uddc fur liu Go(io;[>tioii^ or a province fiir kU 
practioe7 Or, mu^t cv«ry architi^ct invent \ lUUe piooe of 
the Dcw vtjtc, and alL pil it togr^ther a.i l»t like a dLaaccCiNl 
map? And if aOj when the new style ia invcnu^l, what u 
bo bo clone nc^xt 7 I will grant ycu tliis Eldorado of Ima 
gination-^biit can yoi; liavc inor^ iban otm^ CcilumbiiA ? 
Or, if you saiJ in company, and divide the pii^so of youi 
discovery and the boLoar thereof, \vho is to oomo afWr yon 
dtutordd Colnmbusea? to what fortunate Ubnds of atyla 
arc your arch itcatand dcsorndanle tosuil, avari^ousof new 
lands? When on r d«ii ret! style U invraitet^p will not thebe^ 
WQ oan all do Ira simply— to build in it?— iind uannot you 
now do that in styl\» that arv kriowii ? Observo, I grant, 
Ibrtbd »aVt of your arpnirueat, whut perhaps maoy of yoii 
know that I would not grant other wiao — that a ncwetylo 
tan be invented. I grant jou not only thit^ but that It 
■hal) bo wholly diUvrent from any that vroA ever praotiacd 
before. We will sappoai; ibat cspitaU arc to be at the bot^ 
torn of pillars instead of tho top ; and that buitnwies iJiaU 
be on the tops of pimiacl«a instead of at the bottom ; thai 
you roof your apt^rtures with eton^ which shall neither ba 
orcfaod nor hon»jntal ; nitd tliat you compos your docora* 
lion of Ymta wliich shall neither be crooked nor straigbL 
The fufnucti and tho fbrgp ehall b^ at your aorviod: yoD 


LV jlttCIUTCCrilRB. 


i^^l draw o«t your platcx of gfiw niifl Ixflt onl jour hflr» 
of iroa till you have cDcompofiEvd oa all, — if jrour style i* 
of the practical kindj — with ciuIl*:w<^)OT«pcctivc of black 
ri»l«toii and blindioj; aqoate,— or if your siyle is w> be of j 
tbe ideal kind— you nhlill wrciitb your ^sincU villi diKtUc 
haftge, and roof ih^m wi^ vsrif^ted cr^-^tal— yoi ebiJI 
put, if you vill, all London under one blazing dorac of 
many colouis that sliall ligbt the cJoiida round it with it4 
flaahmg, aa Jiir oa to tbo eotu And »i\Wj I aak you, What 
after lliia? Do you «uppoac tho£c imaginntioos of yours 
wQl evfr lie doim tber^ aat<^ beneath ihe shado of yoar 
iron knfagc, or withiu tltc coloured light of your enchanted 
<lome? Nol«x Those sonls, and funcies^ and aiobitioua 
of yoQi^ aro wholly loiinitc; and, whatever may be douo 
by others, you vrtll attU vihul to do aoineUunif for your- 
adrca; if you cannot rwt contt?nt witli Palladio, Doilhcir 
will you with Paxton; all tho metal and glaa« that ever 
were mdtod have cot af> much weight in thorn as wfll dog 
Uio winge of ouo hnmaa flpirita aspiration* 

If you will think over thla qtiletly by youraalveB, and 
ean g«t the noiao out of your oAra of ibc pcqsotaal, empty, 
inooiniKuubly 'dioue Ulk alx^ut tliu ueo^aaity of domo 
lly in arehitocture, you will ftoon aco that th<j very 
Wl i kc of a StyH properly ao called, ia tlmt it atiould bo 
practised /v <y-*, and applied to all j>Lirpccti3i ; and Lb;it ko 
loug as afty givevi Ptyk is in practico, all that ia loll f>r 
iikGWdnal ima^nation to act-^nniplish miu^ Iw within ths 



[hxcr, V 

tcopc of that rttyla^ nol in t^c invcodon of l new Dit<^ 
there are any here, therefoti^ who hope lo obimn oel«l>r]tj 
by th« inYcnlion of ^»m« strungc woj of buUding whicb 
tniist conTiDCG all Europ<^ into ite adoption, to Iherrt^ fur tlie 
momtnt, X ehubi not bu uader^lood to addr^a mydtlfp but 
ouly to those wlo noiild be coDtcDt wUb that degree of 
celebrity wliicb ttn artist tn&y enjoy wW works in the 
manner oFbie forcflathcre ; — which the builder of Salbbnry 
Oitbrt^rul might enjf>^ in Erj^limtl, tbotigb ho did not 
iDTcat Gothic; and which I'itinn might cnjmf »t Tenicc^ 
tliongti he did iioU invent oil jiaiatiti^f, Addn^^ttig myetdf 
then lo Iboeo humbler, but wuter^ or rikther, only wiae ati- 
denta who txv content lo avail thcinsdvea of aomc system 
of building alivudy uude»UDodf let us consider u>geihei 
vh&t room for ihc cx(7rcv«c of tho ioiA^nation may bo kA 
to u« vndEsr mich cciiUitiojia. Acid, first, I au^pou it will 
beeaid, or thought, tliat tho luchitoc^*^ pTindpol fidd for 
excTiTiiMt of his inrcution lauet be In the dlspo^tion of 
linc^ mouldings, nnd maaaes, in ngrcuible pn^rdooiw 
Indeed, if you adopt some atjlcs of arcbiicctorc, you can- 
not exercise invention in any other way. And I admit 
that it roquirofl genius and special gift to do this rightly, 
Not. by rulcj nor by study, win ibe gift of gract^ful pixi^HJi^ 
tLoniite dof igc be obtain^; only by the intuition of gcxLins 
oun no much as a snglo tier of fiii^ude bo beautifully 
arranged ; and tbo man has just cnuse for pridt*, ai fiu- an 
our gifts can ever be a c^uac Jar pride, nho Qnds bimacU 

LBCr. IT.] 

Vf ARcaiTKcnrKs. 


nbl^ in a dcai^ of tis own, to nval even tJje sim^lci^v 
arnm^cmeal of p^rlB ia otic by Sunmiclieli^ Inigo Jou^ia, or 

Ifiveclioc], dido, ftnd geniui being grani«d, aa necessary 
to ftOOOiDpluli thiOt let mc tak jo^, Wbat, ^^^ o^'l vith 
thta spectfl] giil and genius, you Ariv« aocompli^c^l, when 
you hAvG omu^ged ike linvn of a building buuutifollj? 

In the first place you will not, I ikiuk, tcU mc thAt thd 
beauty there aimnod is of a louching or patlietic kind 
A vcll-dbpcocd group of qoU» in mu^io vr;Il ciako yon 
somoliincA wGcp and Bomelimcs Utigh. You'can expma 
the depili of aJl aJTi^lions hy tho»± duposiiicna of iotwd: 
yott can ^tc courage lo the aoldicr, language to the lover, 
consolfttioQ 1o tUe moarc^, mora Joy to tbc joyfU, mor« 
humittty to tbc devout Cad yoa do ob much by youT 
group of linm ? Do yon suppose the front of Wliiieldll, a 
iingnlorly beautiful onc-fCrvorinMpirafthotwo lloivcGuardi^ 
dmiug the hour tboy sit opposite to It, ^ith military ar 
dour? Do you ibiak tliut tlw Iovi?» iu our London waJk 
down to the Ironl of Whitch&U for consoktion when mi» 
tocMcit an unkind ; or that any pereon wavering in duty, 
or feeble in faith, waa ever coniirmed ia purpooe or in ervec 
by the pathetic Appeal of lho«3 kanuooioua architravcsT 
Ton will not say «j. Then, if they cannot touch, or 
tu^irc, or comfort any one, con your architectural prop^jr 
tiona amow any one? Ohristmaa is jastover; you b^ve 
doubtlcai beon at many merry parties during the period 



Can you nnDCmlxir any in which ArdhikcturaL propartioihi 
ooDtributMi to Uit CQtcTtaiamcBtor ihc cvcuiogT Propot 
tJooi of nous m mnsic wer«, I tm aure, oawatt&l to your 
ftmuaemaat; ^o ecttiiiKof flowom in h^ir, nni of nboFidBon 
(InMWH, were »1«i Mu1tjci:U( of rnHjuent :Lilmir»lirin wilh ^-n'l, 
not iii«n6CtU1 to your liEippiD«E& Ainotif* the Jurenil* 
metnbera ofyoor Aocltfiy ihu jtrO[xirtioii ofourracitH in cAkn, 
nnd of Kug^ in comflbi, bcc»nc mibjccti of scute intorot ; 
and, whoa flach i)ropi>rlioiia wcro barmonioufl, nw>tivcfl iIm 
oTgnilitudR L> oJcik tmtl tu minli^iLLatior, But diJ yov m'ur 
Bde either young or old ftmitMd by the arohltraro of tbe ^i 
do&r? Or otherwiaa tntereetcd in the proporiiooA of tlia^^| 
room tliiin hh ihny odmittal man or il^wi?r frtrmdlj fncw ? 
Kiy, if all the smuAriiient ihra there is in tiic bc*l propor- 
tifmi^ urcliiCtvliin? or TfHtiJoii couUt Ih* cuiLct?nlj^UK! uiU> 
one evening, and joa were to iwuo tickols for nothing to 
tins great pTO[K>rtj^nal «n1eTtmnm«rit ;— how do you tliinl 
\t wr^tild vtiind between yon find th« Drtiry pflntovnimdT 
Yo« arc, then, rcracmbcr, gmnicd to be pwiplc of genii 
^^rent and ndTnlmbk- ; niul yuu ilcvntn ynur livcA to yo«r 
art, but joa admit that you cannot comfort anybody, yo* 
oannoi encourage anybody, you oannot improve any Inxly, 
and yon cannot amuiac anybody, I procood t}t«n&rther to 
ask. Can you inform anybody ? Many ficicnuoa cannot be 
oo[LBudt^n*d jjt highly t/^nchbg or umotiunnl; imy, perkipei 0(4 
ipcciallyamufiug; scientific men m&y fiomcljca«S| in t^sosa 
reapaots^ stand on tli? same ground wttb you. Aa dr aa wa 


can judge hy tb$ rcAulta of iho lat« var, ecionce hdpe out 
»oti[lk-nf ikbi>utiLHiiiiic]in5iIiti front of WLitcliiLU; ondattbo 
OhnstDias partis, tbo cbitdivn wantod no geologists to tdl 
ihcm about the br-liaviour of beam nnd dragontt in Q^tocn 
Elixab-Tth's :ime. Sxill, your m^m of science Utnchcd yon 
domtihit\s^; bonuL7boduUataparty, orbe[pl««inab&ttle, 
bo iJi iKit kIwvjh Uiat; but tu can give yon, aX ntl crontis 
kaowledge of noble Eacte, and opoa to you the secrete of the 
unb and air. Will jour architectural proportions do as 
modi f Your gE*nit]ji i> gmntrH, nnd y4>iir tifo ii gtvcn, and 
wbatdoyou te^hud? — A^otbiog, 1 boUcvc, from ooe end 
of that life to ihf? othcr^ bat that two and two maku foor, 
and that oce U to two a^ three la to sue 

You coanott thca, h is »imUtcd, comfort nxtj one, servo 
or atnofl^ aaj one, nor tcaob any one. Kindly, I oak, Can 
youbcof tttetoanyonc? '*Y«s" you reply; "certainly 
vre &ro of Home nse — we architocts — in a clirnitto like i]uft, 
wbcro it fttwayn raina." You ore of uao oortainly; h^% 
pardon me, only as truUdcra — not aa proportional ist& Wo 
aro not talking of btiildin;:; ^ '^ pn>toctiou, but only of th&t 
special work which your ^mMS U to do ; not of building 
snb«lantia1 and comforUible houses like Mr. Ciibitt^ but of 
putting beautiful fju^adun on them like Iniga Jcrtea. And, 
agidn, r aak — Arc jou of nac to any one? Will your 
proportaoTii of fiigudo heal the sliik, or clothe the nak<5d 7 
Supposing you devoted your lives to bo merchants, you might 
refleet st tl:^ clt>ie of tbem, how oasy, faintiug for want 



jDuUvJ brouglitconi toeustoin; bow tnfiDy, iufbctcd with 
ilincvitt*^ yvn liwl brtjught Imluift U> html ; Low widvljr, 
smoDg molLitLidi^s of tar^my natioDflf you bad scattortd 
%hc linit 5ccds of naticmiU power, And gutdi^i tUc Grvt rayi 
of SMTTpJ light. Had ynn bcpn, in f\ju\n7iifi}smf; Am*, in tlia 
world bul orohiteotonil dt^gnera, you mifilii hnve be^ of 
Btjnio iMo or good tii p1^J]>1l^ Contf^nt to be petty UiuJtdiiKftit 
you would hove saved the time of manldQd ; — Tougb-^cdcd 
dnily laboun^rA, you would heivc iiddixl to their stock of 
ford or (if clothing, tKn\ Wng rnisiiof genius, s-nddevotp 
idg your liv<?B lo iho vxquUito <>xpO(^tion of thifl genius^ 
on whut ac1n?vrnirnt« *io you. UiirJt the tnemorica of yoiiT 
cld ago aro to iast^D 7 Whose gmlitude will gurrouud you 
with its glow, c^ron whAtaccompli.ihcdgood, of thnt ^Jitoib 
kind for whi<ih rnf?n show no gratitudp, witl your life rrst 
the ooulCDtTQOKit of iU cloeo 7 Truly, I fear that th& j^hoebi 
itt proporuonjvU; l!nui will be lliin plmntoma at your bcJ- 
fiidea — very Bpeoolileaa to you; and tlmi oa all ibd 
flnmnationw t>f y^jur Iiigh genius you will look back witb 
Tp« d(^light than yon might hftve done on h cup of cold ^_ 
wfitor given to biiii who was thiraty, or to a tiogtc moracnt ^f 
when you hiul "prctfciilcd with your bn?^ him that flwl,™ 
Do nol nnswoTj nor think to unswcr, that with your great 
workrf ftfid frrejit poymcute of worVmcn in them, you would 
dothiK; I know you would, ftnd will, aa Build^TS; but, I 
TV|r«4it, it is not your htitliin^ thai I am talking about, but 
yuur Irfuuu; it is yowr tuvcjiiion and iiiu^inaUoti nf 

!unr, IT.] 

tx AluitirrjcarD&E. 

rhooe profit I am 5pcakin^ The good Jone ibrotigb tl:u 
building obwTTVp U <ioDe bjr jour employers, Dot by voU" 
yoa ahuQ in the bonofit of iL ' The good Hint you pcnton- 
Ally miut do u by your d«mgning; nod I conipiirG you 
WiUi mnaiduu vho do f^ood by their pathetic corapoflui^ 
as Ibey do good by employing £dd!«irs in the orcl]<5tm ; 

iric is tlie public who in reality do th^t, not the mosiciAOA, 
So oleoriy koq>iog to this oiid quoelioo, what good ira 
aivliilecU nrc to dn by our genius; nnd having round thnt 
on our i>roportioQat<i ayatom we ooo do no f^ood to otliora, 
mil yott lell mCt lastly, what good we cad do to ^urMlumf 
OfaflMTo, ncftrly ov(>ry oth^r liberal art or proi^srion haa 
•Dine iaittisc pleasure con nccbod with it^ irroipcdtvo of any 
good to oibp-r«. As lawyrn^ or phpticiiinn, or chrgymett, 
yoQ wonJd have the pluasare of investigation, and of huito- 
^liual Kading, n» pnrt of yotjr work : tm men of «cimuc yoa 
bo TVTJoJcing in onrioaliy perpetu^y gratified rcspeoi- 
iug tL« Jawa and laotrtof nature; Ofi anisbi you woald have 
dcligtkt m wati-King tb? oxt^mAl formfl of ftftture: sd day 

ibmrCTS or petty tnLdoomfin, suppotung yon to nndortoko 
work With M much intellect it* yon arc going to 
toyourdciiigning, you would find continncd subjects 
of intorcat in the mAnufacturc or llio agriculture which yon 
helped to inipmve; or in tht*. pitiblKnm of comrncnii:; which 
Aon on your bu«tncfiSL But your architoctumi dt^gntng 
loodfl yoa into no plrjisant journeys,— into no seeing of 
lovtily ihings, — no discerning of just laws, — no w&nnths ot 





compiktt!jtc)ti, no tumiUticfl of venejatdoHf no progna&lve^ 
%\>atfi of sfght or flonl. Our conoltistoii i^^mosc b«— tlial 
you will not mnuw, nor itiforro, nor help nnybodjr; jod 
will not amaw.\ nrrr better, tiot inform jroiirselvw ; you wtj 
■iak into ft atate in whiob jou oao neither ahow, nor ftd^j 
n^r Aoe, anytUiag, but that o&« in to two as ibrcc is to six.^ 
Arid in tHafp Btflt*! whtir. shrjuH wo call oiirwlv*?a? McnT' 
J think not, Tbo right aLim<T for ua would bo — niundutor*! 
and ilonomlii/ttora. Vulgfir Fr^tionii, 

Shall we, then, abandon this theory of tha soul of nrchi- 
tecluro being in proportioriul linro, and look wbctbcr we 
c;m flijil anything better to (TXcrt our fancice upon ? 

Kay wc cot, to b<>ffia with, accept thia great pnnoipit 
ihnt, jw our bodir*, t^ hn in health, must b(» yi-jjirra tt^ rtatcr-^ 
ciMdf fio our mindfl, to bo in beotth, mast bo ^ifro% colti- 
\Ued ? You would not c^H a nmn hMiIlhy who bad ntrong; 
nrru but wim p.irjilyti*'. In his feel ; nor one who coul<l wnlk' 
well, but had no uso of hia hands; nor one who ootUd SOOi 
whIIj if h» <sou\6 uta beair. You wo;i)d not vulitntiinly 
T9duoo jTonr bodicfl to any such partmlly dtnrclopcd stal«. 
Much im}re, tUcQ^ you would not, if you could help i\ 
n-ducn your mind* to jL Xnw, your inEDda are t'nd(>wi<d 
wilh a vast number of gifte of totally diffoTcnt nfK«— Umbtf 
of Miiiid aft it vrr.ns wbitsh, if you duu'l eacrciae, you crippl^t 
Odo Is curiosity; that 19 a ^fl, a capacity of pl^nsuro ia 
fcnowiDg; which if you destroy, you make yourtclvos coW 
tnd dulL Another la aympatby; tbe pow*^r of itbaiiDy 10 

L10T, IT.] 



tli« Ibolii^ of liring crefttnrM, whioh if yon dt»tfo^T yoti 
make jounelTce hard and crud. J^&olhrr of your Vnnhn 
nf mind i» wlminitaoTi ; th« |>owcr of enjoj'iiig beauty oi 
iogeanity, which, if yon destroy, you make youreclvcd 
bue nnd irr^vurenL Atiritlier is wit; or Lfir; ihiuttt of 
playing with thd tigbtB on the many eirlea of iralh; whioh 
if you dolroy, yoa muk^: yourwlves gtooiny, a:iJ lt-» lute- 
fill nrul ehtv'ring to oihrrs Oun you might bc« So that in 
cbooatDf your way of vorU ii should be your aiov oa fur au 
pomihlit^ tc> taring out nil Uxw^ ficTitltii':^, iia f^ir ii» \hvy c^xmt 
in yoi ; not ono iner*>ly, nor another, but all of thent. And 
tbc way to hring them out, ia siutply to co&ocni your:K:liri9 
att^tively with the subject of each faulty. To cultivfite 
pyni]>athy you must be imong living crvaturua, and think- 
ing ftWit ihpjti ; iinti to cultivjU/r ndinfrnlioTi, yi>ij muf^t bfl 
nmonj? boautifUl thiii^ and lookiog at thoin, 

All t\xif Hrjuiidfi nitich like truism^ ut feiisL I hope it do^ 
for thou yon will eiirely not refuae to act npoa it; and to 
consider &rthcr, how» aa archlti^^ta, you are to keep your- 
»1vQ8 in contcmp!4tion of living (ir^^itun^a nod lovel.y 

7oii all jirobnhly know tlic hiMLitifuI fifiotograplin which 
oave been publi«hwi within lh« laat year or two of tha 
porches of the Cjithcdral of Amiena. I hold one of theao 
up 10 yon, (nwrcly that you may know whiit I lun ttiking 
about, aa of oourac you oannot soo tho dotail stt thiadi^ 
tance, bat yon will reeoj^nu iJits Kubject) Have you «vei 


zsYLVEsacs or IUAGIXATIOM [LBC?r. I?) 

DOiuuili-red how mitcl] sym^tlij', utal Iidw mtidi liumiitiT, itre 
d9vdc^)e(i in filling tbis aicgle doorway* witb IhoA^ «CQlp- 
tuns cf tlic liiiitory of SL. Hoiiur^ (iici^, by tbc ivajr^ coum- 
dcriiif^ how often we English an^ now driving up and rtowii 
th« Bue St HononS, wc may ^w well know aj* much cf the 
wiinl, iM ihi! nltl iLfifhitjiTC mrv^d u> tf.ll us], Yd^i know in ull 
Icgcoda of eitiuu who ever Wt^ro bishopf^ the first thing you 
lire told of ihcm is tliat tliey iliiln^t wont U> l>e bLnhopai. So 
here la Sl Houop^, who dot^^n't warn to be a bishop, aitling 
eulkiiy ill the cornar; he hugs his book -wilh both handa, 
Aud won't get u{i to tjtki? his urosli^r; &ttd Iji-rc arc nil the 
cityddormon of Amiona oomo to p<^ bim up; and aU 
the monks in the town in ft grcnt passlo what tbcj shall 
3o for a bishop if St^ Ilonord won't be ; ani3 here's one of 
tho mouka in Llic opp^jsilo corner who in quite oool about 
it^ and thirties thcy^ll gisL on woU enough without St. 
lIoQor^ — you see ihut in Ixit. Ihoe pc^rfL^otly. At lost Sl 
iIoDor6 condcQt? to be biabop^ and here he 8tbft in d ttiTonCp 
and hfLS his book now grandly on his d?ak instovl of his 
kuu;:^ and hu direct:^ on<j of hut vjlln^ oariktc^ how tc tind 
relics in a wood; hero is llio wood, and hero is the villagQ 
curate, aod here are the tombs^ witii tha boue^ of St. Victo* 
ricn and Qcntien in thcm< 

After this, St. Honors performs grand maaij and thd 
fniraola ociiUK of tho uppuiinuioo of a hand blcsaiag tho 

* The ijrnijiAfiriiD of tl^o tv^lh UauwpL door; it iat^br (vuad gi 




iTATcr, vhkb oocurmicc ancrwardi? wan poinkil for th« 
annk of UiA libWj. T^rti St Ilonorv ilii^; ard here ia 
hw tomb with bia BlAtuc on tho to]> ; uit<i miraalcs oro boing 
|jcHormed at il— ^ dt^ rnnii linviiig h\si car touctied, aiiti n 
UiEid mdin groping hin wAy op to th^ tomb with hU dQg> 
XhoQ ben ia & sroal proc^uuon Ui honour of tlic relics 
of Sl HoQorA; And uodtjr hU coffin toe some crippled 
Mug liiOAlcd; &ad th<3 coffia JCaalT U put abovo tlto 
Wr wbid) >tt?|iankU9t tbc oniM rniiii iba Iuwit suliject)^ 
bocauRO the traditi^^o le tbiit the figure on tbc cruoifbc of 
tbo Cbwoh of Bt. Firmin br>vrdd ib bood id lokeu of oo* 
Oqjtano*, u tho n^liot <if Sl IIohot^ pM»ril bnniTath. 

Kow jut €oi)^d«r the amount cf avinpatliy wit!i buman 
nBtiin\ ukI obiiKrrjuicK? of iL, kIiowii In lliin om; Ivia-rrlu^f ; 
tlbe lympi^thj with dtspijting monkfl, with puz^^lud a1(L?t^ 
mea, with uiclaiiclioly rcclu.*?, witb prvlnt*?^ 
with pdity-slrickon j>ovt?rlyj wiUi pu/lcjrirwtica! miigni 
fioeniCM, or mi ntcli;- working foitlL Conmdor how moch 
iD^ellcct v/M uocdcd in the architect^ and hovr mudl 
obwrrartiK of naiura, bcfi>To be could f^ve the cxprvonon 
to th««c vanooa 6gurc9 — coat tbc^c multitudinous dr^pcricA 
— ^fflign thc^e rich and quaiDt fragmcnte of tomba and 
nJlois— weitvo vitb purfoct uTLimatioii the ontan);lcd bmncbcs 
of the forest. 

Bat you viU &a«vcr me, tU ihia U not anshiMoluro At nJl 
— it ia •calpturi?. Will you then tell mo prccwcly when* 
the fteparaiioD exiatd bcmeeii ons andthQOtberf We Kili 


begin hi tbc very boginnioj;, I will dhow you a piooc of 
wtmt youwilliwrtainlyadraitto be a piece of pure arcbiteo 
tuTu ;* ii I« drBWQ on th«bad: of anoiber phov>gruph, anotLei 
of ibcflc marrcUoua tympana from Noire Bamcy nbicb yon 
I «uppu8<-, lujpttre. Wi^ll, Wk oti tlila picture, arul on 
Don't ]&iigh; jou muAt not iatigh,thnt'ovcrj improper 
of you, Llila t& chmvatl amhitrctui^, I lave tHkoii it out of 
tlw otsay on ihal subject in iLe " Kncvclop«dm BntiitintcA,'* 
Yd 1 aiijipoMo uoao of you would tlaak yourbolvoa p^r- 
ti<^u]ft.rly iiigc-iiiotu lu-^bitvcu if you bad eloigned notbing 
more thau tbia; nay, I will even let you improve it ioto 
luiy gniEtd i^rojxirtiur you uliuoae, huJ luld to It lui many 
vtnclcvd Ad yon ohooeo ; tho only thing I itisiBt upon in oui 
Bj^ciiueu of jmro aiiJiilectur« L% tliut Uieiu tilijtll l*ti iia 
mouMingi nor ornamenta upon it. And I aiigpect yow 
don't quite tike your archilccturoac **purd" £« Um. Wq 
want % few mouldmg*, yon will say— just a f<*w, Thono 
^7bo sunlit raouIdiQga^ bold up tboir liaud^. We aro 
uiiJiikimotLi, T Llihik. Will you, liipn, design tli« pmfilnftof 
theeo mcuMingt yourselves^ or will you copy thorn? If 
you wtab to copy tbuiiv and tocopy tbciaaIway!t,of coi]R«i 
1 loAve you ^it once to your xutboritk^ and your imagicft 
tiona to ihcir rcpoac But if you irbb to d:'stgn them 

Ei*lvi?s^ how i]o ynii fin it? You ilmw the profile 
lin^ to your tadlo, aad you crdor your inoson to cut 




• Sm Appendix 111., "ClasmoiJ ArehilMtuw." 




it Kmt, viU jou Idl mo the lugicftl diffcnm^e betireeo 
df««n^tiic proAle of a moulilngand giving c4ar to be cotj 
and drftirinsUi^ firids of the drapery of & vtatuo eitid giving 
Auk to \x cut Tb9 lust u much more diSicnlt to tto than 
Ibe ftret; but dc^^rcua of difficulty oonfttituto no Hpcoi£o 
didtrcncc, mad you will not ooct^pt it, surely, a^ a defiiiilioo 
of Uj« difl^reoce Iwiwoen upehitoctnre wid seul[nan-\ iliat 
*'*fobiteotiiro is (Icing nnytbing thftt 10 Cfuy, and Kulpturc 
ftoything th»t is diffic^ult" 

It is tnic", also, that tho carrcd mouli^in^ rqtroAcaita 
no^Qf^ aod the carved draptrry rvpE-fAunisBoui'itlliiEig; but 
yovi vOI not, I atiould Ihinlc, ac<^pt, cm lui oxpknfition of 
tbo diffon^nco between architcfiturc And acuJptuTc, this hny 
more than th« otbor, tliat "ioutptura is urt wbicb bu 
inciuimg, titid architecture art which has none," 

Wh'?rVj llicn, is your diJTorrnce? Tii thin, pwhnpa^ you 
will my; that whatever yrnnmonte wo can direct outmjlveCj 
tod gotaccnraLely cat to ordtrr, we ooiiaider &n:hitecituiaT, 
Tlie ontiQwnts IhAt wc are obliged to leave to the plc^uiuro 
of the woitcm&n, or the flUpcrintcudcDCc of soruo otb^r 
des^i^r, w«oonHHerft(^uIptuni1, FftfiiciJilly if they :inMnore 
or len crKtntnoouie ard incroatod— not an cwcntia) part of 
lUo bujldiug. 

Aocopting thiA (l<ffiiiition, E am ci>mpelled to reply, thai 
h i» in cfi«t uothiiij^ inor^ than an mnplltiCtttifm af my 
dm onr — that whatever \a caay vtju cnll nrcliil^trcaro, 
wbftCcTcr itt diiEcult ycu oiU £<:ul|>turv. For you unnnol 


vjppose Ibo ftma^pomeDt of the place ia which tho &cu^J 
lur& is to be ]iul ia sto lilDlcuH or ^ gn^ul n ji^irt of Uia 
deagn aa tho oculptitro itAoIt For invUQCc : jua M knov 
the pulptl of Nicculo 1^3^110, m lUq buptiaUy al Plaa. Itb 
coni|iiju«jJ of ifcviTii n.^h TUi^m", isumjuinlcd by pand mould< 
in^ and ausUtiucd en mEtrblc ehall3> Do joa euppodo 
Niuoulo Piauuu\< reputittloii — ta\vk purt of it nt loutt lu rvAbt 
on this pulpit (and much doce) — dcp^^nda on tho paocl 
muuldjtkjjA, uT on thn irJir-vi ? The piuicl mouidings aj% bj 
liiflhatid; he would Hato ^liartiun^d lo leave oven them to 
m common Hrorkinan ; but do yon think bd found any diffi- 
culty in thom, or thought ^ere was any cn^ilit in them ? 
Having onoo dono cho scuipturo, those cncJoaing lui«s wora 
Ti\tvr. chilil'Ti pluy tu fiiru ; tlii; ilct^rmitiatjon iiP the itianje- 
ter of shafc and bei;^hl of capitals was an aifair of ininut€8! 
hill work yroA in carving the Onioifiititm and the Dnptiiint. 

Or, again, do you recoliecC Orcj^a's labemacle in the 
church oi" Son Michdc, at Florence? Thftt, abo, ooiuisti 
of rich and mnU.itiiHinoiift bnA^HiP^ ondoBed »n pnnrl 
nouldiugs, with ahalVof mosaic, and foliakd arobcfi atw- 
taining the canopy. Do you think On^ogna, nny more 
than Pia&no, if hin wpint o:>uld riae in the niidat of ua at 
thi.i moment, would tc-II ua that he ha>i trusted hw fnmc to 
tiie f->liaiioo, or tad put his soul'* pride irito the panelling? 
Kot m> ; bo would toll you that bia spirit wa^ in Iho stoop* 
Ciig figiirL?4 thai sUrid round iho coucb of Lh^ dyiLg Virgin. 

Oi; hMiXy, do you think tlic man who dcsigoud tbe pHf 


IN A]tCU!TJe7rQB& 

CtiBBioa 00 ibo portal of AmJcna vaa tbe diibordJoal 
workman? that there vraa an ajrchitoct ovrrr hini^ raitnua-] 
log bim wiiluQ ceH;uji Umiu, &nd ordering of him hill 
bifLope at so mticli u mitre, and hij cripplcM at tfO muob a 
crutch? Not fto. //^ on ihi« tculptnrwi sliield, rrvtvl 
/the UafiCor*^ kuid ; £^i^ ut the &:!ntr>3 of tlio Miiat^r'd ihou^Ut; 
fitioi tfaia, aod iu subonliuaiica b> ihis^ waved ihi^ nrcit arul 
^Hiuig the piuQfLcI& Hairiog dono this, aud being abk to 
give huniaa QXprcKioa and action to the stone, all the rc<t 
-^he rib, the Dich^T Uie foil, ihe ehaJl — were mere toys to 
bid band and aoocs9onc« to hi5 concoption : and il'onoc you 
afao gain tbo ^f\ of duing tltii^ if once joii c«iii cnrve ono 
fronton tncli otf yon bavn ttcrc, I tell you, you vrould bo 
able— 90 Eir aa it dcpeuJt?d on your iaventioii — to soatl 
oaibedrald over Engbnd as fast as cloudi ri»c from 
itrcaoa after suniTncr tmn. 

Kay, but perbajts yon aiiiwor a^Jiin, our wrulplum at 
,pr««at do not diaij^N ctLiliiKirals, and could not. No, th<^ 
«o<iJd not; but that i» merely bcoausc wc bavc made Archw 
lecturv m> dull tb.-Lt they cannot tak^ any int^r^t in it, and,i 
thefe£arO( do not oarc tu add to their higher knowledge tha 
poor and cc^mmnn knowlt^lgo of prlnoiplc^ of bLiilding. 
Von bavo tbns separated buildinfif from B0u1|>tur^ and you 
Iiarc tiktti awrfty the power of both ; for the sculptor lase^ 
noarly aa much by oev^r having room for the development 
Df A oacLttnuou^ work, na you do from baviiig reduced your 
work tr a oontinaity of mechanism. You ara csaenQoll/. 



mid uliorilil always bo, tlie SATne body or men, ndmiuing 
only E^uch diffcrcnoa in opcnilion as tlieru la botwooD tbo 
work of & painter at difff rent tim?9^ whoisointrtiiiii:^ labour* 
oa a Aiimll ptcturVj aiid aomutimea on ibe frescoes <tf & pft- 
IcLCC t^aJItrry. 

ThU coiidoslon, tben, wa arnvo at, mu*f arrive at; lU* 
&kCl being irrevocably so :— tba^t m onicj to give jcur iou* 
[uialion aocl iIl3 oUkt powem oF your 8ou1§ f\il] play, you 
mat do lut aII tbegrcnl jLrubiteotfiof oldtim^did — you mojtB 
■youfsclves bo your ^dptoi-s. Pbidiaa, Micbaol ADgclc^ 
Orcogiu, PLatio, Giotto,— which of tlicse men, do yoii 
think, coald not 11.90 bisctijael? You any, "Jt ifl diffii^iilt; 
quIteoQt of your wiiy.'^ 1 knowUia; notbrngilmi isgraat 
;il cosy: &iid notbinp; thut ia gro^tt, so lon.^ na you stu<iy 
^builtlin^ without soulptun-, can bo *n your way- I waal 
to put it in your way, ond you to iiod your way to it. 
Dat, oti the other hand, do not sbriuk from th^ Uisk ob if 
the rt-firu^d iirt of pLiifetit smilimit* wr<?rH iilways required 
from you- For, tboUj^h arciiiUscturc find *o«lpCurQ arw not 
ia<p:iniLe urW, lh«ru isuti siriilulcclund rrtarififirofMiuJplure; 
EUid it iis i'^ ^^^ majority of itM upplicutioua, a comparatiir^ 
ly tAay oitck Oar great miAflkc ax present, in dealing with 
gtouH ut a!l, lA rtquiTing to huvv aU our work too n^flned ; it 
ii jusl Ibc Ruuc minUiUc 0* \i wc were to require all our 
book. illurilniLtoiis to Ije ;la flrte work oa Itaplind'sK John 
JdCOch docA not Hkutch ho well m Leonardo da Vinci ; bul 
do you think that the pabllc could Cfiaily ap&r« hi^; ov 



u ARCrilTKCrC&B. 


Lh&i bo IB wrortf^ ui Uiinging out his U.leut ic the -n^y in 
rbadi it IN tnatt dlvctivu? WouI<l ^ovi iidvLw hini, if ba 
;kad yoQX odvio^ U> givo up bis woodblocka iwd Uko lo 
i&TM? I know yon wou!J not ; n^thor woulil yoa tell 
hiin, I bcli«7C, ou tbo other honi], Uifit bocftusis ho coiild 
nA draw 03 m^lU as Lconardc^ tUt^zxioi-e be ou^ht to drftw 
feothm^ but fttritight liuoM with & ruler, iwd ciiclc^t with 
oompoaacfl, fmd do fi^uiv^-dubjcoU iLt alL Thai v^ould bo 
IcBM la ^-ou ; wuLid lI iioL? Viiu wuiild i;11 be vcxwl 
MXt wcck^ J^neh had toothing in it but proportionate 
)Sm»l And jct, do not you ace that jou niv doing |irvratsctjr 
Ui^nmcthicgwitli^ur powers cfsculptiini] dwign tbnlbit 
wovld be doing with bis powers of piotonal d^go, if 
be ^vci yiHi niithing but ttaaii llut^. Voii f;v?l thjtt yuu 
oaaoot carro lik^ FbldiaA- tlien^ora yovt will not carvo at 
iftll, but Qn]^ dniw irif^uldings; tnd thua all that inhTrmo 
.iln^ power wbicb ia of <?*pocial valuo in motlcm days, — 
thai popular power of vxprvuion wbieh W within thenttAin* 
tncnC of thouAsmil'^ — and woiiM wlflrrw* ilarlf t^ lens of 
tUBUuii^— 10 utterly 1-Mt to ua in stoue, though in ink nnj 
fpl^r it baa haxana ont: of tb(^ ino#t di>in;d iLixuricn of 
Aodtfn oiTOixadon. 

HerOt thofi, is one part of the nubjoct to wbich I would 
.i«praally tnril^ your atfj^ntior, narnpCy, t1ie distinctive cha* 
tnoUr whi1^]l inay be vriacly pi.-nnittcd to belong to aruhiti^ 
bunt KQlptiEtv, aa dL«tingui:^bt-<l fn>iii porfc-ct «:ul]>lure on 
,000 ado^ aod £raui loero gocmetTLcal doooratioa oa thd otbor 



And dntt, observe vrhat uu indulgence wo have jn Uio dii>, 
lAuoc At which mosb work is U) bs aocu, Supposing wc w 
able tocoririscyesniitl U|>s with tbtt irici0texquiml«iJr4?cUioa, 
il wooid all bo of do iuo as eooa n^ tbo work waa put fjir 
alkiivt^ tbt? eye; but, on ibi? iitbt-r liiiiit], ;ui lit^iulu^ iliwE|>* 
j>oar by biting far witbdrawn, bo will fuulU ; and tli9 luy^- 
tciy flnd coikfiuiioa which uu thu ct^tur*!! uonnequcno? of 
diM^ncc, while ihey would oftco render your bc<t skill but 
Vflia» will od oltoi render your wor^t errora of lilUo conar 
qLU?iu^[i; nuy, more tliim tLis, ufteri a der^p <:nt^ or i« hkU 
augld, will produoo itx Ok^rtoia poaiUoua au tstTiXft of tJGprt» 
Riun both alJirtling auc3 trur, which you never hoped for. 
Not that rtKte dlsunoe will give njilmadou to the work, if 
it hiu none in tbiulf; hut if it linn lilc &t oil, the dirttnnoo 
will mjilcc tli.'jt lifii' mofG- ppn^pptibtc und pow^ri^l by soften- 
ing the ddlK!U of Gxa:utior. Si> tliut you are ploc^^d, o£ 
workmcrHj in thia position of singiilur ndvnnUig^f tbnt you 
may f^vo jcur fiLnoioa frea pl&y, and etriko bard for tlia 
expression tbat yon WADt, knowing that, if you mis^ it, no 
one will deloci yon; if you at all touch it, nature hereelf 
wiU help you, and with every changing shiLdow iLud bo^* 
ing fiUDbc^am bring forth new phases of your fancy. 

But it ie not meivly ihtg prtviJe;^^ of being imperfect 
wbich belongs to arcbikctural eculptun:. It ba^ a true 
privil&|D;e of imngiontioD, farezc^Uingoll that can be ^aut^ 
to the more tinisLc*! work, wbioh, for tbo aakc of distino- 
doo T vUl cidl,— «Lnd I doD^t think we can h»ve a much 



iy AScnnxcruR^ 


hcncT utm — "fumitTUD Bcu^>titre;" scdptare, that Mj 
wKidi cfkA bo moved from pliioo to plfice to f^irultth rooms. 

For obtcrvCf Ut that fcu]ptur« iHc spcctAtor u tuunUj 
broQgiit to a tmoquil or proaruo etaUs of mind; Lo sow i1 
Attooiitttd mUiCT vrj^i w]iiit in stmnfitcunjh thmi HiiMimi*, ^riil 
ondor ciretuikBtA&c<« which fiddroaa thontselv^^ more to hu 
'•^omhn than hla curionitj. Tlw nlAlue whbU b to 1h^ jio- 
UwtiC| MtD between tho t^nAhcs of fbotmcD'a livery rovitii 
UiA diiuaff4ablc, moat hAvo strong cluQcttta of |Mthoain 
itvarlf ; and iIm* xUtue which i* U) h« iLwfLil, id tin? mnlfX of 
Uid goaaip of iho drawing-rixim, mutt have the elcmenUof 

r« vrholljT ut llMclL But tliv: njxct:tt^^ ;» hnxiglit t4> i/tfur 
twork ftlre&dy in an excited and imaginaiive mood. Ilehai 
bcoi imprcflaed bj tht catliHral waII oa it loomed ov?r the 
low Ftrvr-tvi, Itcfont hn lookA up to thr carving of ii? f<:'Pch 
— «iid his lov€ uf mystdry has bc^n touched bj the t^li^ncc 
and die flhndowH of tljc cJoiJitnr, bcl^>ro hi^ can mi \nmsi^]£ 
to dd^pbor tbe boaaca on Jta vaulting. So that when onoe 
bB bccpnfl to obson'c your domga, be vrilJ Ask nothing bet* 
t«r from you, nothing kinder from you, than that you would 
meet thu unnginntive tcimpcr of hiti tuilf way; — that yon 
would fiirtijcr touoh the scnso of terror^ or KatisTy tho 
expectation of things Strang, which have E>eoii prompted 
by Uie mystery or the majesty of the surrounding ecetio. 
^.And ihui, your leaving fonrs more or lese undeflued, or 
iog pat yoTjr fancier however cxtravii^aul, in gn> 
[|Bii|tieiicas of shadow or Btspej viU be for tbe mtwt par* 



ill accDrdnnoc with the ti^mpcr of thn obwrv^ur; and ht> u 
likclj, tUcrdor^, mucU more willingly to lisc UU tVLocy w 
livlp jrour meaning, tbAn bU Jiiil^m«nt to detect yout 


Agaiti. Heiiiejulier lliiiL vlu^ri llu^ iiu^iimljmiauil lUdla^ 
HTO Jtroiigly cxoit;.'d, thcjr \vill not ouly bcsr with fdniiigo 
ihitkgA but they nUl ^^ ii:lo miuuic things vitL a delight 
qiiitA uri1cni)wu ill Uonrft uf tmntjuillity. You mn^y must 
remember rrkomccte of yotir Uvea in which, under sorao 
sUoa^excileuitiuf uj^ fi-i-liug, ail LlieJetaiUof viwHi!i]"bjit'tei 
pnacntod tbwiMlvxa mih & Btrangi? intensity an(i insuiUmcc, 
whether you VFOuld or uo; UTfiiig theni.wJvcs u^icn the 
inlad, and thnixt upon the eye, with a force of foselnsition 
wbicli you could not rcfiisc Now, to n certain extent, tho 
w?njHi5* get iTiLo tliiKKLti<< wlnjnever the imiiginatioii le slruugly 
excited. Things trivial &l other timers o^un^e & dignity or 
^gnificiuncQ which we cannot exjilnin; but which ie only 
the more nttmctivd bocanjte ineKplioable: and ihc powrn 
cf att^^ntion, quickened by the: fcvcriah cxcilem-^t, fasbcn 
find fcvd npttn ihr. mtniitest eiiwinislaua-H cjf dirtml, nm! 
romoteet ti'ocoa of intention. So that what would ^i other 
timcw be fdt on more or \c^ tapmix ov exlmut^outf in a work 
of osulpture, and which would n^iirc^Uy be o^<m«ive to 
6ie perfect taste in ita momenffi of l^m^'iior, or of critJcal 
judgment, will bi^gratcfii), :ind cvrn ^uUititr-, when k mtttU 
till? frightened inquisitive nc^ this faadn^iterd wateUfiilneAi^ 
of the; roused imnginaLion. And tUiKiAjdl fur younulvnB 

UCT. IT.] 

Rt AncntncTCRiL 


liigo ; (or, in tLc bcpitninp of j<Mt scalptore, joa nib 
SSBonrllv dnd itv««ier to imit&tc tniniitv ctrcurnnancotof 
cioatumc or charaolcr, tliaa to perfect Uio uuiom/ ofsunph 
fijrmft or Uie Sow of nc^e uumm»; «Di) U will be cnoQ«- 
nging u> teioember that tbe gnoo you ouuwt peifeet, aod 
dw suDplkdtj voa GUkDot ochtore, woold bo ia gn&t put 
Tiin, eT«a if ^ou ecKiId achiet'o tiboen, in tlidr appeiJ lo 
tbe kt«^ cunoaitj of p«ALO&&to funcy; but that the »;ntt' 
pathy vhicb wiou]dbcrel\iJi«<l to your science will be granted 
to your innooeiUM: cuid Uut tho mind of tbo gcneriLl 
ubwtrrur, tbotigb wholly ooAffoctcd by tlie oorrectaeas of 
taatomy or proprioty of gUAloro, will follow you wttb food 
Abd p!«ah3cd concurretioe^ tA you Ctf v« tUe koola of the 
hur, ftod tbc pAttenB of Uie Tcatar^, 

J^rtiurr ycc AVc ore to remember tbat not only do liic 
UDprinird feiturrH of die lai^er urcliitBBtLiro tend to oxdta 
tho tftrcQgtfa of fiwcy, but tho arclutt?ctunU Iaws to whicb 
ynu Ani'uliltgcd to aubtmt your d<caralioa «tltuu1aln lU in* 
^/muihf. Every crocket irbidi you soKi u> crcjtt with tctilp- 
turc,— «vi£Ty foli&ticn wbioh yon have to &II, prcaontfi itduir 
to the ftpectator'« fiwicy. n^t iitiTy tut jx pruity thing, b«t M 
ft ^iroffoiaAc thini^. It conl^iinod, bo pcrccivoe immedi- 
Alcly, not only n b<<niity whidi yuu wihIliiI b^ diMplay, but 
A Dcccwity which yoi woro forced to meet; and tbo pro- 
l)len\ how to occupy nuuL aitd aucIi a r^pju^u with L>r^ik]o 
fbna in any probable way, or how to turn eoch a bcee or 
tu)ge ioto & coaoeir^iblo unAgi> of lifo, becomca iX oac^, 1c 

nhFLuscci; or tHAatSATtoK 

him asto jou, £L matter of aimiscmcnt as muchaji of admire 
don. Tbe ordinary condiiLons of perfccttou Id form, go** 
Itirc, or feature, arc willingly diapcnsotl with, whc^ tho 
Q^lv dwarf an(3 ungainly gi>blLn haw ouly to gnilier UieTu* 
aolv<« into angles, or crouoh to carry corlu'Id; And the w«i»t 
of akUJ which, in other kinds of work, would have Uvji 
rt^quircd for the iioifiUuig of iho part^ will'at onc<j he toT> 
gJTca hcrcp if you have oaly di*pOicd ingenioualy wL&i 
you ha\'« «!x«OQ[f!d roijgh]y,am! atotusi (or ihe radeuvas of 
your himdB by the quicknefis of your wit4. 

HitJierto, LowuvLT, we bavc buea cooadcni^ oaly tlie 
circiimjilanuea in lUGhiteeturd fuvourubld to the develuf mcnt 
of lie powers of i^iiagi nation. A yci more important point 
for lu ftti^ms, to m^, tbe place wliioli it given to nil tlie 
eiy'ccta of imngination. 

For, T aiipjjo*?, you will not wwli fne to spi-fid Any linia 
in proring^ thnt imagination must be vigorous in p^opo^■ 
tion to tlio quatitity of ni;il«n:d whioii it Kaa to handle ; and 
that, jutt EAi wo inercur^ ilic nnge of wlial w^ tu>e, we in- 
Cf Cflsc^ the richno^ of what wc can imsginc* Granting thia^ 
conaidur wliat a field In ujitTAeil lo yotir t^mcy merely in tlio 
eubJGCt matter whieh architoctaro admits. Nearly orrery 
other art UBevorely limited m iUniEliJecrUi — the laudacAjM 
pftiaUir, for Instanc^f gcta littlo help from the aspeicM of 
bcauciM hunaanity ; the biAtoncal painter, Ie«^ p<u-hnp}^ 
th&n be ought, from the nc^ddcutjt tS wild nattirc ; and tha 
pure 0culp4or, atill less, tVom the minor dotaila of ooiuidod 


Dl ABcavrsctVMtL. 

(c But b tkere aaytltui{{ vritlitn ningn of right, or cnn* 
vhieb oujr not bo of um to ypu, of in whi«li you 

itcital mftj not be excittd with advABtA^ logout aiit 
Frum viKioQA of iiDgt;ls, dovn lottw Icswi importAnt gvMiini 
of ft child at pky, vrlutovcr aiAj bo coucdvud of Divine^ or 
i^bchdd of Humait, nay he dnn^il ot julnptflwl by yciii ; 
fixt the kingdom of SLuruk] U£>, no on^tire ia ao 
or »o auuul«, tW y<fu cmntiot ilciJ with it, or bring it 
iatoaerrioc; tlte Ibo and tho crocodiJo will couch iibout 
TDOT BhnfU; iho moth aud thv bee irill suu thcoiAclrcaupou 
ir fli>wvni; fur yoii, the fftwn will Iwip; for you, tho 

tail be flloK ; for jou, cJlo dove »inooth htst bodom ; ^od 
thn hnwk Fprrad hcrr uring^ Inwjtnl the vjtiilh. All tli<i 
wide world of vi^totioD blooms and bends for you ; tho 
ICATOi trcinblc tlut you may bid them be still under tho 
marble snow; the thorn and th^ tlu^l^ which the canh 
ttalB forth ufl evil, arc t^^ you the kindli^tit scrv^ub; no 
ilyii^ p<4a1, nor drooping tendril, w m fcc^hlc SH to have no 
help fox yoQ; no robed prido of bloaaom ao kinply, but it 
will lay BKtdo ita pur]>]c to receive tX yuur hand^ tbr pivlo 
ifDmortality. Jb there anytldng in cornmoo life loo in^»| 
— Es oonnton things too trivial, — to br? cnnobkd by your 
touch? An tht^rr ia nothing in lifr, eo therre ia nothing in 
tJAk«BM« which h^a not ir^ Ic^oa for yoo, or it« ^fl ; and 
when you are tired of watching the strength of ihc ]>lu[aC| 
and the tAndcnsoot of the leaf, yon may walk down (o 
your rough rivfiMbore^ or into tho thiolraat maikota of yoiu 


DirLUKXOE or IltAQWf atiow [LBCT. 1? 

Uiorougb&LTcs aiid lli«ra ifl not a piece of torn cable tbat 
will not imae into a porfcct moulding ; iLcre is not a frag- 
tncrtt of GOfft'awaj miiltiTig, or shnttcrcd bcLitcct^work, that 
will nL)L work JiLio a oheqni^r or capit&L Yoi: nnd if yoij 
fQftthor up \hc very nnmit '^^^ l>riukk tlic? otono on wliioLi you 
trc&d, among iufm^nciiU of all but inviaiblcsliclU you will 
find foroN tiiftt will uUco their place, and tbat proudly, 
among the starred trFif^erics of your Vftuiting; tmd you, 
who can crowa Ibe mountain with iw fonreaa, and ibe city 
with iU towers, aro thus nblo 4vbv> to giro bcuuty to a^bcs, 
uiid worlbines^ lo HaaL 

Now, in thjvt your art presents all thin motorial to you, 
you Lave already muc!i to rejoioe in. But you havo mora 
to rejoioe in, bocauite iJl ihis ig eubmittsd u> you, not to be 
diaaccted or analyzed, but to be sympiLibiT^d with, and to 
ig out, lln-rT»roiv, wlint may ha BC<:i»rati*Iy cnllwl iko 
part of imagitmtion. Wo saw th^t, if wo kept our- 
mlvea among Iinra ^nly, wu iihi>uKl tmve cjluas Ui unvy thcf 
nuuralist, booause he waa convortant with faoU; but yoa 
will have litUc to envy now, if you make y«urwlv«i oon* 
vcntant with the fillings that arise out of his fojite. For 
indtAQcc, the iiaturuliat coming upon a Uo^jk ol marble, liu 
lii> liii^n considering imniecliiitety how far itfi purple If 
owing to iicn, or ita wbUenesa to loagnceia; ho broaka till 
liicca i>r mjirblcf jioil al the dijse of l»i8 day, baa nothing 
but a little ^nd in hiA orucib]<> and somt data added t^ ihft 
theory of Hit <LcmcnLk But ^u approach your lOfirblo to 

LECT, nrj 



•rmpftUktsft yrfh il, an<i ir^oicc orcr its benntj. Yoa tux 
it & Htdts in3wd ; bnt only to bring oiU iu vcim more por 
£E)etly And al tho end of voiir duy'a work }'OU Icato you. 
D>Arbk* »bal\ vftli Joy And Gomplarnicy in its pi^riVetncm; 
» tnoible. Wli«ii you bftv« to wtitoh un ftnimal in^tfad of 
ftMcn<vyott cUfTcr &om t^o nnttinili^t in the anrnc ir^ty. 
H« mayp porbapi^ if be be an aroi^ble natitnUist, lake 
dHightm b&Yin^ living creatures round bim; — ^\]\, the 
Qi.ijor part of his work is, or had boon, in ooundng Iba- 
tbcrit Mpoiuling ^br^ and andysing f^ructurc^ Dot 
jjtfur work ift »1wzija with tUi^ liviuL^ €nr»turv; t^tie thing 
jou bftvo to got at ia bim iB Lid lite, uni) waya of going 
about tbingH. Tl 3orn not timttcr tn vou bow many cdb 
tk^ro ar? in hia bon^ or how manv filamonta m hia foa- 
tk«ra; wbat you waul U Vi» moral chanhcter and way of 
Whavtng himself ; it U jitft thai whii^h yoLir imaginatioD, 
if baJtby, will firrt acMzc— that wbicb your eUUel, if 
vigwotiF^ will ftrrst ctiL You mu«t g*."! lb« srtJirrn f;pirit into 
your ««gle6, aud tlic EonIIiai»B into your lloiw^ and iJio 
tripping fear into your fhwrts ; and in order to do this, you 
miut be tii ooDtiuual aympatby with every fawu of Uiom ; 
and be hand'in-gloTc with all tbc liotu, and baDd-in-ciavr 
with all the bawka. And don't foncy ibat you will Iowot 
Touradvcs by aynq^iLthy with the lower creatures; yov, 
cannot sympallilze rightly with ibe higher, imlwa you dc 
with thoec: b'« yon have to flytnpnthizc with tli*a higher, 
luo— wttJj ijtietuts mid kinga, aufi uxarLyi^ aiid aagria 


iKPLUEifcii or laAOiSATioN [lkot- n 

Tea, tnd nbovo All, tind mor« tbiui all, with simplo banao* 
nity in a\\ itA tieedA and w;kj-H, fui- Lliifiv ia tiut (>im bujp-Itid 
lauQ thtit ]UL^ee you in the street thai will not bo impro^ 
eivc, if you can on\y tAlikom it All liihtory is open to 
^ou, itU higb thoughts aiiddrtrfims tliut th<; post fortuncfi of 
nion caa surest, ail feiry laud ia open to yen — uo vJalou 
tlmt cv<jr haunted forust, or gleamed qvct hiH-«*3o^ but 
CftUa you to unduT^tarid hovr it cume lato mod's hoarte, and 
iGJiy Nlill U)m;b tJinin; and all PnnulItM] iiio]kexi to jrou*^ 
jefl, and tbe work of PiradJae ; for in bringing ail this, in 
pcTpctiul and ftttriLRtivc tnitb, before ttua <:yoa of your 
fc^ow-mon, you bav« lo join in the cmptoyinctil *^f tlic 
flfigcbi, OS well HA to imrtginc their companies 
« And obst^TTe, in tbis last retyped, what a peculiar impoi^ 
tonc^ and rc^oneibihty, aro nttaclicd to your work, wbon 
yoa coTmider iu i^cnimnorie^, rtiid the iiiultitudos to whom 
it is addrcffieil. AVe frequently are led, by wi»o people, to 
tioriaider what responsibility may somctimcA attach to 
wordjt, wliidi yet, the (^hanl:« la, will be beard by &v, and 
forgotten QB soon ns heard. But none of your norda will 
bo biMird by few, and none will he for<julttfn, fur Qvu or ax 
hundred yoar^ Jf you build wolL You will tollc to all 
who pass by; and all tho^o little symiiUllni^ thoac freaks 
of ffincyt tboAe jciita in atone, those i;vorkingii-ont of pnK 
blcins i[j caprioe, will occupy mlud after mind of utterly 
Gouutlu^ miiltitud(Sj Ii*ng nSU-'T you am goii«. You have 
iu>t, like juthon^ ta plead lor a iicahng, oi U) k&r ohliviCMi 

LBcrr. ETj 

ty AaoBiTEcmjBS. 


Do bQtlmiTd lan^ cih>ii;^, uid carve boldly enough, &ni 
all the world iriJl bear jrou ; thrijr cannot cboooo but look. 

I do not ni«an to swe you by this thought; I <io not 
mttiM that biMau0a you will baro a^ mtmy wjlnoedOA and 
valchinx yon ar« ncvrr tA jintt, or do ii.uytHng {r<uly <^ 
Ughtty; on iU« ooatrary, 1 bave pleadod, from Lbe bv^* 
niiftg, for this art of ycnint^ rvipoci^illy tpc^uiiitn U haa nx>in 
for the wbole of yoar character— if joat ia in yoa, let the 
jest be jested ; if luathcmntionl ingeDUJty iayourSt lutyotir 
problem be pnl^ and your ftoliuinn workivl ont, »t iimunlly 
afl you obooifi ; above all^ soe thai your vork U easily acid 
bapf>ity doi^c, elae it will ncvvr nutkc luiylxxly «lm: hup]iy ; 
but wbile you ihxi» give the rdn to all your iinptila.% 8cq 
thai tbo«c impulacfl be headed and ountretL by one noble 
imptllso; ami let that be Love — ^triple Tov? — for tbo an 
wbioh you practiK, the eruption in which you move, and 
the creatures ta whom you minister. 

L I aay, 6fBt, Love f[;r th^^ art which you procttae. Bft 
uflnucd thill if ever any other luotivo bccoraos a leading 
ott9 ID your mind, &e the principal one for^x^nion, except 
your lovo of art, that moment it ia all ov^ vrith your 
Vl> I do not sny you nrc to desire moni:iy, nor to desire 
Auiu^ nor to doairo poetQon; you cannot but deairo all 
ibicc ; nay, you may— *if yoa are willing that I should nae 
tbo wctd Lovo in a d^^eorai^d afimj—love all Uiree; thni 
i*, poanonatcly covet tbcio, yet you must not covet or lore 
dwm Id ik& first plncc. Hen of strong passions and imaf^^ 



TUtiORA must always core & great dcAl for an^lbing the^ 
core for at &11 but tU^ vholis question is cue of Hxti ot 
psoovuL Does your flit lend you, or your gx\n lend yoLi? 
You may like making cQ'>ncy oxcecdbgly ; but if it como 

to a fiur qnestAon, wbetljtr you lire to mnke five hum^it^ff 
poiinda IGBS by this boamcsa, or to 8ix>U your buildiag, nud 
you clioofw to spoil your building, iLcre's an cud of you. 
So you may b& aa iliiraty Tor fame ris ft cricket is tor oreiini ; 
but, if it oomr, ton fair qu^tion, whotUer you arc to pl< 
tbi? mob, or rlo the thing jifl yon Icnow it. ought to bo done^ 
and you c&n*t do both, ftui oliooarj to plcn^ the mob, it^« 
oJl over with you— thoro's no hope for you ; nothing that 
you Clin do wilt over bo worth u mju/.t glanoc ui he pnwoi 
by. The test i» absolute, inevitable — la your art first with 
you ? Tht'n you aro arijsla - yon mtiy be, afU-r you haro 
made your money, misers xnd usurers ; yon may be, aitcs 
you hftTO got your fune, Jeulou^ aaJ proudf and wretched^: 
and bftBC : but yet, (W lonf; a$ yt>u wonU epoil y^mr wyrk^ you 
ur« btImL*, On tbtr uI^lt band — Is your money fimt witli 
you, and your feme fin*t wttTi you? Then, you may bo 
rery charitable with your money, and v^y magnificeni 
with yf>ur money, and wtj grnoef^l in the wny you weiif 
your reputation, and very oourt'sous to th'^ac beneath you, 
an'] viery a(!i!t^jtUible to those alxfve juu ; but yoti am 
not artists^ You arc mirahuniov, and drudgi?!*. 

n» You iiiiflt love the creation you work in the midat 
o£ For, wholly in proporLlou to tho inton^ty of &vliug 





wblch yon btiDg Lo the nubjcGt you bavo clioArni, ^ill bo 
Ibc depth AnA jiutico of our ]^rc«ptioD of itA cliAnurter 
And ibis depth of feeling iu noi U> be gained on Uie buUtut, 
irben you want to bring it to bcnr on ibia or thAt it itf 
Uie result of lUe general habii of atri^iDg to fee! rightJy; 
utt^ among thoumntlA of variotiv memui of doing tliU^ per 
lupA tke one I ought flpccialiy to name to you, is tiic keep* 
ing jDurftelvec cletr of [jetty and menn cor^^. Wha&?ver 
foa 4<K don't be anxiouR, nor till your beads nitli iitUo 
iluigHna and littte ilmraL I burejn^t A:Lid, tliatyou may 
bo grtoX flrtUtf> nnd yet bo mieorly &nd jcaloug, and trou- 
bled about iiiMiy ih'iin^ Si»yim umy E)e; but I Miid ubti; 
Ifaat tbo miftorlinoQ or trouble ma«t not be in your boarta 
all day. It Ja pcssifcle tbat you may get a babit of ttving 
money ■ or it in povnblrfr nt a tinnc of j^ivat trijJp you may 
jield lo the temptation of speaking unjustly of o rivd, — 
nnd you will ulicirti-n ycjur pEiw^^f* nud dim y<mr sigbtcven 
by ibis ; — but thtj thing ibat yoii bavo to droad far moTO 
tban any nucK unconscious habit, or any Btiiob momi^ntAry 
Wl — is the oon^ancj c/ smaU emotions ; — the anxt^y wh**- 
Iber Mr. So und-tio will liku your work ; whether 3uch And 
ftUflh A workman will dn :d] thai, y*ni want <if him, anil so 
onj — not wroriff foi^Uti^ or anjcit^tiua in tlKimftclvea, b«t 
^n|H^TtiIlcntf and wholly inwm|Hitiblc with the full cicr- 
eiEo of your imngiuaiion. 

Kocp yourselves tbcrofor^, quiet, jjraccful, with your 
€jetopen. It doesn't matter at all what Mr So-nnd-ao 



thinkfi of your work; but il mattetB • gre»t deal wktt , 
tliat bir<.l i.^ (I<^irg up thvre ia lu noal, or how that ^^^flwf 
boik4 child nt the itUx^t comet u maiukging his gftmc of ^ 
Ifnncklg-down. And rcinemtxr^ you cannoc turn aside 
from y<]ur own inicrv^s t<> ^l^*^ birds atLd tbo cbildixii^d 
tnteretilf^ unites you liave long bofure gat iuto tpho liabil of 
loving And wntcLtiiig biri]^ and cbildrva; to thuC ft all I 
come* m last to tlic iorgcttiog youraclvca, aud ihc living 
out of yourselves, in the calm of tbe grcoi world, or if you 
will, in ilfl agJUtiou j bul always in a CjUta of your ovm 
bringing. Bo not lUink it wtuited lime to Kubmit your* 
solTcfi to imj influence whioh m&y bring upon yoa any 
noble fwiling, Rws early, always w&tob lb« AU[iiiae, luid 
tho way tbe clouds brenlc fromi the duwn; yon will ^^Agt 
your fltatue-diftporica in qnit« anoiUcr than your common 
wfty, whi-n the rcmctubnuica of tbjLt cloud moliou ta wiUi 
you, and of tho scarlet rosturo of tha morning Live 
ai'vaya m the spring-tioie m the country; yon d» not 
know what Ic^f-form meane, unless you have socn ibo buds 
buret, and the young Icnvc:^ breathing low in Ulq ennahine^ 
And wonttering lit the iirst ithowcr of nttn. But above all, 
ftociislom youradvcs to look for, and to lore, aU nobleness 
i>r gi'fltiun? JLud r<aiture iu tliH hunmn fiirni ; and remanber 
lluii ibc liighcat Dobloncsa is uaLinlly among tbe aged, tho 
poor, »ind tbe Iiiilnn ; you will iind, in the end, that it ia 
not the strong arm of tb€ soldier, nor the laugh of tli« 
young b«auty, that 4rc the best studtca Jbr yoiL hook at 

L£cr. nrj 

TS ABctnrEcnntB. 


theni, and Icolc at thetn rcvercnllj ; but be aaanred tluit 
endmrnncB U rttbirr liiaii Hlmngtl^p nnci ji.'kticn^^c tli.iii 
beauty ; and that it is nm in the high church pews, ^hero 
Ibe gftj droBBCB ar», but in ihc churuk frsu si:at5, vhcro lh< 
widirws' wrcdA urc, that you may «ro i1ji» fhc«« that will 
b«et bctirecD the imgela' wiogSt in the church pordi. 

]IL And ihorelbne, lantly, ftad cUitflyT ytjii nuul lovon 
iIm creaturai to vthom you minktisr, your (bUow-mon ; fbr, 
if you do Dot love th-:^, not only vUl you be little intc- 
tvst«d in lh9 paMiiug evejit^ it^Wtv, but in dl^rour ^^"^ »l 
humuuty, you wiU bu Apt to bo struok only by oiitvd9^ 
fonji, and h.oi by oxpivaflioE. It is oaly kludncffl and Usn* 
dentess vrliioh vill erer anMt you to aoc what bejiuiy< 
burcisiu lhcdarkcvc» that arc aunk^ith weeping, And ib^ 
lilBpalQCDeBAof thow rlxed iju.'j.'fl whii^li the earth's adv^Tftity 
luA Qompamod about, tU they tiljinc in their pnticncn hko 
dyiELg walebfirw tbmugb twUigtit, Bat it ia not thia onlyi 
which make:* it nocdfuL for you, if you would 1m gnk\ to 
be aJfto kind; tlj<<rc is a moat traportant and all-csscntiaj 
reuon in the vory nattiw of ytmr own art. So kjoh aa 
yon dceird to build Iiir^Jy, nnd with ftddition of noblo 
«ctdptiirtt, you will Slid llmt your work must be iiMaociop 
tiTe. You cannot cftrvoawholo cnthedral youwclf— yoii 
jOao eirv€ but few iind aiHjjIo p&rta of it. Either your own 
work miKt be dii^nurcd in the moKa of Uii^ i^lInU'ral inr^ri' 
ority, or you muat ratee your fcUow-designcro to corrrcpou^ 
derkOK of power. If you baire g^niuA, you will joLirselvetb 

QlIec C]ic Icftd in tbu building you di^ign ; ytm iiitl can*e 
its pOTch ood direct it^ dupomtioQ. But for all «iib9i>^ucnt 
Advnncfiment of Et« dist^il^ you moat iruat u> tliA ageiu-jr 
and the iavcntion of others; nnd it rests with you cithct 
to :cjirviHi wliat fiu-'aUiia _your workman liavf, iiiUi cuimiiig 
0ubori3itation lo yoiir own; or to rejoice in diecovcrtng 
even thu fx>urure that may riv&l you, ttud Junding forth mind 
ftftrT mind into fi<11ownhip witli ^-our 6uii^, aud UMaodhtion 
with vour ftiQiG. 

I ncc;tl Hot t«ll yoM tbai if you do the first — if yon 
epd<r.iTour to dk?pn«i or di^iiifto the talcntB of your eubor- 
dinnto*— you tiTt lost; ibr itothitig uould imply more darkly 
and (l^TlKivcly th?iu lliia, that your art nnd yniir Wiirk vmnt 
not beloved by you ; that it waa your own proejMjrity tJuit 
yoii wrn; wwking, luid your own skill only tiwt you cnred 
to ContcmplaK?. 1 do not say thnt you lonsi not bf» jealous 
eitall; iti.t raix^ly in humau uataro to be wholly without 
jpMloitHy ; ftiid yDiJ iiiny be fijrgiven for going mmn'. tlnj 
aadly homL\ whou you lind some youth, nupmctiwd nnd 
uiiiij)pnjve<lt giving the lifo-etroke to his work which you, 
niter yeara of tmtning, purhapt^ isinriot rciich; but 
your j^alduay must uot conquer — your love of your 
building mnst c<ii»(tner, hel|mi by your kiridnnsn of 
bcuxt Sec — I sot Qo high or difficuU ftuudorl boforo 
you. I do not aay that you ^rc to fiurrender your p» 
triuiuencx: in inert uti*clfi«ih gtiLetOAiCy. But I do mj 
that you must surrender your pro-cmiQcncc in your lot* 

I^XCS. ivj 


of 7<mr building helped by your kiDdocea; and thitt wlic 
Bocver you futd U.-tli/r alilts Lu ilc wli^t will wluni It Ujun 
yoOf^that person you arc tc give y]iJMc to: and to coiuolo 
jotJisdvca for the humiliation, fiiat^ by your Joy in seeing 
the «di£tM grow more beautiful under hU cliisgl^ and 
c«condly, by ycur ecncc of b&ving done kindly wid juBtly. 
But if you are monilly atroFig cquq^Ii 1o niokc ihii kiud* 
aoi and jtiAtico the first motive, tt will bo bi^tur ; — bcjtt of 
otl^f yon do not coiiaidur h ma kiDdtiivi lit &II, but ham 
and ncm juvlice ; Ibr, truly, iiucb help on vcc con give cad; 
olbor io thU world ta a d^t to each other ; atid tlic man 
wh* pcranvrx 4 iupnriorily or n c*pncUy In u siihcm^iimt/^, 
and ucHbcr confcaacs, uor aafliata it, la not mcroly ibo with- 
holds rif kmiln<i9bi, bot the committer oT injury. But 1m 
tha motive wbnt you will, only eee that you do Iho tbiog ; 
and talcc iLo joy of tlio conedousiicaB thai, as your art 
embru^oi a wider field tlmti nil othc>m— and addnsaea a 
vaster multitude ILau oil others— and insurer cf iiudicii04 
tbau idl oLht^TB — BO it la jfruftjuudtir aud huIi-.T in Fullow 
lihip tluin nil others, Thti nrtiflt, when his pupil i& porf^^, 
most «« him Icfive hia side tbsf he ra^y dedore his distinct^ 
periiap* opponent, skill. Man uf e*?iencc wrt^LW wllli 
man of acicncc for priority of di»x>very, and punuea in 
ppgs of jeaJou» haste liia sohuay inquiry. You alone am 
fiilk^d i>y kinJnces, — by n«c^«i^ty, — ^by equity, to fhilornity 
of UyA; and thua, in those misty and moAUVC pih'^ whieh 
riM abovo t^o domej^ilo roo& of oiar ancdeDt citief^ ihcrQ 




OTLtrurcic OF ucaoixatios, Era [lect. it 

W(u — tijrro infLy bt; ngftin— n tnULtilng morcpruround and 
Iri]^ tljun uiiy tL&t furicy 00 commouly bas atUicbed io thRnu 
Mt'iL luiy ibnir pjuuucL-s pt?mt tu heaven, Wliy, so dce9 
o?(*ry triso that bails, and every bird that riaea HB it sings* 
Mnii KAy tLoir iLifi]t!H are good for worship. Why, so is 
ovi^ry in'umtJUM gU'ii, nnd ivjugb wa-ahore. But this they 
hiivo (jf dinUnot and iiidifsjmtiible glory,— that their mighty 
WiilU wore novcr rui*od, iind nover shall be, but by men 
who lovo iiiid aid wwb olh^T in th^ weakness; — that all 
lUnir intorlouing Btrcngtb of vaulted stone h[i3 ita foui:id&< 
lion M]t*m tbo stroller «rob<.'a of manly fdlowahip, and 2]] 
thtur changing graoo of depressed or lifted pinnacle ow€i 
lu eadeitoe aiid ooniplolcDesa to sweeter symmetnefl of 

TBK WOK or CBOBT, m katdrb, art, ASI> rOLICT. 


Irst I b«&rd ihAt jou wULed me to ftddr&u joii 
tbin cvcnii:gt i^ ^<^^9 ^ m/tttfT of 5omc doubt wiUi m« 
wlietW I ccnld tind Any suhject that would posaesA aoy 
nffioiecit inti^rcett for ycu to justify my bnn^ng you out of 
yo«r comforUiblc huuww on a witiler'a nigJil. When I 
vtaituro to »p«dk ftt)Out my own epocid bustnc^g of ut, it 
» nlmotft iUwuys bcibrca stuiji^titfi of itrt^ among w tiom 1 iiuiy 
ionndteea ponoit myself to bo dniJ, if I cau fool that I oju 
mcfal: biit n mere tiilk about art] especially witLout 
examples to refer to (and I have been unable to prepare 
any careful illoitlrubona for thia lecture), is acJdom of mudl 
interest lo & general aiidicnca Aa I was c:)iiaLdt^rLn|f what 
yea ini;;ht beA b^^^ar with me in »r^<^^iiff aboat, thcrro CAme 
iKiturally into my nund a suljcct couDcctcd with the ori^iu 
tod praMfQt proepeiity of the town yoa live in; and, it 
toemcid to mc» lo ttic oitvbrancbic^ of it, cfipalile of a very 
gmcrn] intcrc9>L When, loiig tiff> (I am afniul to tijirdc 
bow loogX Tuubrldgb Welb was my Switflurksd, ami I 


THE WOH% or iROSt 


uited to be brought [Icwn here in tlis fiummer, & auffioacntly 
flcllVP crbild, rrjoidiig in ihv. hofto of d^urbnnngMLiirlgtontf 
cUfl^ of etupondoua boi^bt above the common, tht^ro uaod 
BOiEK'timcK, US, I auppo&e. th?*rrj uju In tLc livra «f «J1 
children ftt iba Wcll^ to bo durk dAya i& my life— ^ys of 
condemnation to thu paiitilcn luiil band — under wHcb 
caLumticfl my only congolation ii«od to bo in vratclLing, at 
ertsry turn in my walk, tbv woJlin^ fortb of tho spring over 
tbe orange riru of ita marhlr Iffisiu. Tb« memory of tHa 
dear wutcr, sparkling over ita milTron a^ain, orinw bock lo 
t:[ig as the strongest inugo connected Kitb llm pkcu i and it 
«ruok me that you might not be unwillinx, to-night^ to 
think a little over the full significance of Ihal salfron stain, 
«nd of, the powtr, in other ways and other fancijona, of tho 
stcclly dement to vrliiob no nany hero owe returning 
stivni^h and life;— chief a8 ithafl l)W!n a1w!tys« and is yet 
moronnd mon^ rmrkcilly ao day by <biy, among the pnmont 
giftfl of the aarih- 

The ftubjeot IS, of cours**, loo wide to be more than 
Hiiggc3tivi?ly trcflt:d ; and even my an^:gCfitiond must be few, 
nml dniwn ohicfly from my own fields of work; nf?v»>rtho 
loss, I think T nhnl! have timo to indicate «>nno courses of 
Ihcnj^-ht ^vliJisb yoc may afVrwjmia follow otil fur youreeira 
if xhf^y mt(iv«t yon; nnd so I will not iJirink from the full 
ftcopc of the Bubjcct which 1 Lave Announced to yoti—tbl 
fanotionsof TK>n, in Naturt^, Art, and P^dicy, 

Withont moTc pirfocc^ I will lake up the firet Lead 



L IROPJ Lv Natl'bb,— You all probably know tbnt the 
uclirr^iu.** stain. wli!;^h, prThnji^T ^ oUcn tltouglit to »polJ 
ilic bA4in of ;ourgpnog,ifi iron in astute of ruflc: aodwhou 
vol 800 rusty iiou in otiior plooea you giJnorftJly think, not 
only t]mt it Kpoib tliu pinery it stHULs, but tb&t it ut «pni!ed 
itaelf— that rusty iron is spoiled ifon. 

For moift of our usls it generally in 90 \ aiic] bRrfLiiw wo 
cannot lua a rittiy knifo or r^2or eo w«ll o^ a polished one, 
VG suppOM it to bo a grtAt defect ia iron tbat it a eubj^ 
to nwt Rnt not at all. On tVii^ ivmtmry, tin; mfiMt |M*rr<v.t 
And qmAi] state of it is that ochrooua at&iri ; and tborcibte 
H is eodoiTcd vritb »:> ready a dispoaition to get ilaelf iuto 
tbal etac*. It tfl not a flmh in the iron, liut a vinuo^ to b« 
ao ioad of getting roatod, for in that condition it fuliils iu 
mofi trnpOTtnnt f^incti»n« in tlir. nnivrrsrr^ und itiiMt Iclndly 
datueto m&nkiDd. Nay, in a c^rttun scn^ and Almoet a 
litem] one, icv may aity thnt iron m.itvsl in Living; but 
-when p!ure or poliehed, Poad. You all pn^bobly know that 
JO the mimd jur wc brcattir, the part of Jt CEwentidly need- 
lb] to ns is called oxygion ; »nd that this ^nb^anco it ro all 
animnH in the meed nocurate senseof the wonJ, " breath of 
ife-" Tbenerffniuipownrof life issdiPV-rfnt tiling: but llio 
upporti&j^ element of the brecith, without wVidi the hloodi 
and therefore the life, eannot be nonnahed, ia this oxygen, 
Kow it la tbia very Bame air wbiaU thn iron breathw vrhen 
it ^ta nir^ty* [t take?* the oxy^n from the atmosphere na 
mffifly « we do, thon^ it uacs it diiferently. Tfaft iroii 



i^&ic; but the m'^td Ab«ol<it«]y ke^pe T>;'h:it it trn^on* 
reottved of tbis notirl gift; iti^d tlic ccLreoua dtist wliich 
«ffiomucK ileapise U, in faci,jii*t so much nobler than 
puro iron, ia ao fkr ii^ it la ijtm «rtri i^tc air. N'lbler, aDd 
iniini UBudul — for, mdecd, as I slmll be nljte to sLow you 
presently — the mnin service of this metal, and or ftll other 
niBtiilB, to ue^ is not in making knives, ftnd Acisaora, and 
pokcn, nrtd puis, bat in making tlie ground we fbed from, 
find nearly ail iho subaUnxd 6mt nccdi^ to car cxistcDcc. 
For llntii^ajft all nolliing but melak and oxjgL'ii — nit'liilK 
with broath pnt into therm. Sand, lime, cluj, and the rest 
cf the carLb»--poi^1) audaoda,and tUerestof tbe&Ikji1ie& 
^^To all of thorn mni^U whic!h huvc xind(<rgone thift, to to 
apcakf vital cbfingc^ fij\d ha,vc been rcndcrod fit for Uie 
nmvifV <if mun bv jitrEnjiriHit unitj' witlt the puret^t nlr 
vbicb bo bimaclf brcnthce. There is only one motal which 
doiw not ri45t rvodilj-; at;d that, in iUt inHuencn on Man 
bithrrto, hiw cnuw^ Dpath rather thnn TiiJc ; it will not bo 
put to its ti^'bt QUO tilJ it la made a paveiuent of^ and m 
tmddon Tindrr ftviL 

la there not eomctbiDj; striking in thia fact, tonadfrred 
liir;gRly aa one of the typeSj or Icasons, funiwU^l hy the 
famnimatc craation? Hero you have your hard, bright, 
cold, ]ifel<56 nn*Ul — gfxjd ciiodgb for Hwords and scwKita 
i— but not for food. You think, pcrlinpa, ttiat your iron 
li wondcrftiHy useful in a pure fonn, but how ffonld 

IJE9LV.] Ur llATUlEi:, xm\ ASD K>UCV.. 

you like Can Korl^l, if nX] jriiur mcnflowfi, rn^XcaH of gmfs; 
grow tiotlaiiig but iron wlro— if all /jur uraUo ground, 
laMead of Imtiu^ umlo of niutd &Dd (^lay, wvrc saJdculy 
tnnicd iDtoflatfiLrfaceaof steel— if Uie whcle eartlj, iuaUmd 
of lie green aud gkwijig aphorc-, rich with forc*t mid Slower, 
diowrd tii^^iing but tho irrkage of ihe vs^t funULOC of a 
gbastl/ QQgJDc— a ^hhc of bktck, lifelcaa, oxconaled metal ? 
Il would he tbitt, — jjrulruUy ilwn^ 0111.1: that; bill ASf^uxcdlj 
U woold be, vend it not tha^t &U the eubfiUnce of wbioL it 
id xaadc Aucksand Lruitbc^ ibcbriUiancj of theAtinospLfire; 
■ad m it bxwidjes, Eoftcning from iw mcmil»:'as LArdnt^s, b 
EUla iato fruiUuI aiLdUbulSeoutdLisi; gathohngitet;lf e.^aij 
Into llicrjirtbsi fnim wliic^li wii for^l^ mid tha i^Umr^ wiili^ 
wUch we build ;— *inu> tlie rock« that frame tbo mOLuitnio^ 
noid t1^ nnda tliAt bind the vex 

Scnceiit ^* impiM^iblu for you to talcs up tho moRt innj 
■lificant pobblc at your foci, without beittg ablo to ruod, if 
yoQ like, thix f^iirioiiH Inwtn In it. Ymi Unik upon iL U 
flrat at if it were earth onlj'. Nay, it anaweis, *' I am not 
caaiit — T am cartb and air in oac; jwu-L blue limvcn 
which you l^v^ and long for, is iklrcady in mo ; il \a all my 
life — without it I »)Li>uId be nothing, uiid ublo for uothiDg; 
I oouH not mintwtj^ to you, nor flourish you — I ahodd be 
acniolandhoIpksethiGg; but, because there is, according t« 
my netid and plaCf^ in cn-tilloii, a kiudof soul in me, I have 
bmoiQc capablo of good, and helpfuMn the circles of viultty.** 

I^Vkfi £m Lhfi ianw inUir^t a£iacho» to all tho eorthd, and 



[i^OT. V 

ftU Vug metold of wbiuh they are maJc; but a deeper mter 
est, and latTgor bcncficrncc belong to Uiai ocbrcou* cArth of 
irou wUioh stains Uio nurble or your spriitga. It suinj 
much bceiJcii tliat mnrblc. It MninA tho great oirtli wbcny 
soever you cwi see ilj Ikr end wide— it is the coloiiricg 
BubstoDoc aj>pc7mtcd to colour tlio globe for tho tafO^U oi 
irell as subdue it to iha eervice cf man. You Lave just 
iftMa your Uillit Qov^vd with enow, ukd, perb^ipa, bav<« 
eqjoycd, at fiial^ the contmM of tbdr f^ur white with tbo 
dark blocks of pine wood* ; bat have yon ever considered 
how joti would like tbcm alwnj-3 white— not pure wbib^ 
Lt dirty wliitd^tlie wtiit4- of tli.Aw^ wilb all iLc chill of 
in itt but nouc of iu bngbinmt? Tbat u wbat tho 
ooloLir of tht3 earth would be \Tithout Ha mm ; tbat wculd 
ho iu colour, not here or there only, but in all pJacuSr 
andntaJJ timoA. Follow out ibut Ldeu LiU you get it in 
«oiiic detxil Ttiink first of your pimty gravel widkn in 
your uardcTfl, yellow tnd Cno, lUc<3 plots of aunsbinc ho 
twccn tbc tJowcf'bcdA; fancy them nil Huddfclj tiutiod to 
tbc colour of allies- That ia what they wouU bo without 
iron ochro. Thitik of ycur wiadju^ wdki over tho oou^ 
non, &« warm to the eye as they arc dry to tW; fhot, and 
inoa^'ne them oU ]nid down euddenly with gray dadcn. 
Then p»wt beyond the common intc the country, niid pauac 
atthef^mt ploughed fl*>ld ihat yon ac-? 8WC(?()ing up the 
hill eidm in tho nuu, with iU dt-vp brown fiirra»w£s and 
wealth of rid^ea all ii*glow, hi^Vizil ludde by th« plough 


LKCT, v.] 

Bhare* like <iccp foI<U of & miiatlc of rufect volvtt^-&iKr 
it aU ubm^ fJiiidd^y iuUt griaj/ Atrrowii iu a ddd 
muJ Ttiut lit iffhnt it would bo Trithout iroD. Faes on, in 
Ikiicy, orcr tiU aui cLiIe, till ycu rt^cli lU« beutlln^ line oi 
Lbe sea aikore - go down upon iu bruCK/ bonch — wfttch tli«, 
vrlutc ibom 6aAhi]tg omoDg the Ajnlx;r cf ii^ aod all 
blikf aea etnbayed in belta of gold ; tli«n ilicoj th 
ciJ«lcU of Ihr fwci'ping J^on luddonly put into moundd of 
uiouraiug — all those golden aaoda turut^ iiiUf gmj ^imi; , 
the &irii» no moro able to ci&ll to each oiber, '*Conio unto 
tbese yellow Hands ^^ but, ''Como unto these drab etrndfl*" 
That in vbHt tlicy would be, without iroo. 

inn is in como vort, therefor:^ the suEishtnc and li^ht of 
landK^x^ » br aa that ligbl depeiLda uu tho ^rjutid ; hul 
it ift t sooiroo of another kEnd of tunvhinct, quite as itn* 
porlant to oa in the vray wc live At prcacDt— aunalunc^ not 
of Undncwpe, Init uf dwelUng-place. 

In these days of 5ffiJl locomotion 1 may doubtless AMumo 
that n]t«i uf my audleiioe have bcL^u MJUiL-wlitrH uuLof 
England — have haen ui Scotland, or Fiudcj^, or Switsccr* 
land. Whatever may baro been their imprcMiou, on t> 
ttmaiDg lo their own oouniry, of iw superiority or inlenoriiy 
in other reboots, tlicy c>anTiot but have f^^lt one thiu;; uboat 
i^-the ooiafurtsUo look of its towns and vil!a^«. ^o- 
reiga towns ara ofWn very picLur^nc, ver^ beautLfhil, Imi 
dwy never have quite that U-^f]t: of warm Aelf-cultioiGnGy 
utd wlioI<»osie quiet with vhich oar villages ncetle them 


TQB WOKE or mos, 

Ito ihwrn Among the green EuHm. If yi>u will Uk^ tbs' 
ible U> exankine into the Aourccs of thiA iirLprcvinn, 
you will fiud tliat by tar Uie greater pan of lUat witrm and 
BnUflfhctory appcartuicc depends upon the rich soarUt oolour 
of the bricka aod tilea. Iz does not belong In i.Vio nnxt 
building — very &C£it building t{;» lui uncomtbrtubto rathi^r 
ihan Si omnibrtablfi look — but it dcpAnda on the warm 
boilding; ourvillA^ arodrcx^ifd in red tile* luoorold 
wmncm are \a jvd dtruka ; and il does noi m&ttvr Uow worn 
the clookji, or bow bent itnd bowed the roof m^y hn^ «o 
long ofl ilicrc arc no holes io citbcr one or the otUor, &ud 
tin; iHiWri-'d bill um'xtinguisliiiblc colour aliU glowj in tli6 
shadow of tbo hood, and bama Among Iho grtjon fnoased of 
tbn g&b]«. And wlin^l dn yon aiijipoju dyi^ your tiles of 
C^ttagis roof? You don't paint tbem. It is naturo wht. 
pulA nW tliul lively vfirinilioti Into lb'; uUy for you; nnd 
nil that lovely vermilion is this oxide of iron, Tlii;ik, 
therdl^n^ what your straita of townH would bccomo— ugly 
vnciiigh, indeed, siready, some of thorn, but Blill comlbrt- 
able-looldng— if inBUi^ oftliat warm britsk r^, the botucB 
becninc al) pe|>p<;r-!intl>9:tU pjAq'IV. Fanny your coaitTj 
villfl^ changing from that homely acarlet of thdrs which, 
in ite Bwcet snggcdtion of laboxioiu pcoco, is ju bonoumble 
W the ftoliJicrs' scArlpt of laborious battle — suppose al] 
ihosc coit4igo roofa, I any, turned at onco into the colour rf 
QulNikcd clay, tlic^ colour of fltrcetpguttera in rainy weather 
Tbat^s wbftt tboy woiald bo, ^thout iron. 


Tli^rc i^ bcwcvcr, yet aBoiher cflfucl of colouf in o 
Gagliah oounwy towns which, piyhapa, you xxuij not all 
four»cIrc« hitrc noticed^ bat for vLioU you must tako ibo 
word of a akotcher, Tliey are uoi so ofWrt merely watci 
KAfio: ofl tboy GTO wftrm poiplc ;— o more beautiful oolo 
Vtill : and lliey <nvo thia colour to a miugtin^ with Uie v 
nulioD of the deop gnyisli or p'lrpld hue of our fioo 
Wctah fdatcA on the moro respectable roofis hlmU mora 
bJtie HtUl by the coloar of interveaiDg atmospbero. Xfyou 
examine one of thoo Wobb slaUs frcsHty broken, jcu wilJ 
Hod ite purple calt>\u^ dear and vivid ; iiDil alihough never 
■thkingly so aSt&r it W been long oxpoMd to lA^cctbor, it 
alwAyi rotfiins enough of the tint to give rich hanoonica of 
diNUot purple in opposition to ibe gn>en of our weeds and 
&cldj* WlmtcTor bhghtncn» or power there 14 in th« hat 
is cptin^jy owing to the oiddfi of iron, WilLoul it t3ie 
tbtfs WKKdd ^tbcT bo pAla ntonc colour, or oold gray, or 

Thus Ut wu have cmly been considering tbo vm and 
picaaantntftfi of In^n iu the coromon earth of day. But tJiero 
are thit!c kinds of fourth which in mixeti mtiasi and pre> 
ralenV quantity, form the world. Those arc. in coiumon 
Iv^giMgi^ tlu)t9trllL» i>f <:lny, nf WiTic, nm\ of fliriL Knn^f 
ollrar ctementa aro mingled with tbcso in sparing quMititios; 
but ibe ^TcSit frame and aubstance of the earth ia inadi; of 
tkaaetbroei so that whurcv<ir you stand on solid ground, 
in OCT country of the globe, tic thin^ that la mamly under 

mw 1 



}rour fe«t vtll ba j^itbor clttj, limestone^ or khm w&ditioo 
of ttio cbtUi cI flint, faiiigled iritH botb. 

Theae beiiLg whiit we bars u^tully to deal with, Xature 
■0017^0 to baTo £et borsclT to inoko thoee three »ubdtAucc3 u 
iiiltinsLiii^ ta 118, imd jui Iw^uutiTiil for us, as she caui. The 
c]{Ljr, being a eot^ and cbntigeabU fiubetaiico, she do^ea^t 
talcL* much {itihis ^ibout, as we hnve sere, LiU U ia baked * 
nhc brings ihe colour into it oiHy when it recfliv€« a per 
manent form. But tliclimcMouofiiid Utatahcpcvutdiinh^jr ^H 
own wjiy^ iTi tlitir r:itivu sLitc: and Imr abj<5et in painting ^^ 
them eeema to bo much the £ame ^ in h^^ painting of 
rflowerv; lo dmw us, ccirvJrss and ItHe Itumjiu cTcutuivs, to 
watch her & little, and £ce what nbe is about — ^tbat being en 
the wbole good forua, — ^Ucrchildron. ForNutuTCiealwaja 
carrying nn vcrystninge work wilb this liTuratxmn rvnd flint 
of huts: laying down bciaof tbom &t tho bottom of tho 
■na; building ii^landf out uf the sen; filling' cbink.i and 
TeiuH ill mountaiug with curicua troa«uro«; pot^jQm^; 
.imodftM, And troea, and abcllfi; in fiict, carrying oo all soiU 
lof bu«acn4, siibU'Tnuir'.-iii or subrniirineT wlnuh it wuuld Im 
liighly dcMrabl« for u^ wlio prufu and liv« by it, lo uotica 
aa it goes on. And fipparc^ntly to lead ud to do tbii^ »h« 
mak4** pi clu re-book a for us of Hmestone and flint; and 
tompta CiS Ittc^ foobf^b cliildrcn roi wc are, to rnml lior boolci 
by tbr pretty oolojre irj iLL-ni. Tlie pretty colours in her 
limffltonc-boolcfl fonu Uto^n vtuio^t^^'d marbli^ wUiob all 
iniuikiud h^vt tskiru dc^'ligbl to \ro\iAk aud buUd with fjtm 



ibe bflgbniag of Uroo ; and the pretty colours in bcr fTiot 
booki dorm tho*o i^tcos josp^Mi^ oonioluiiia, btooJsitouefl^ 
iiiijxest cdrDgorins; c1irjrsr>|>r!is^ which men have in like 
nuEinvr taken delight to out, ftnd polish, taid moke oma- 
mie.ilii of, horn the beginning of lime; nnd jct,»omLich of 
Mtbiesare ttieVjaivdaofond ofl(»kirgatlh«pictiin» instead 
ofKoding tho book, tbjittquttttion whuibcr, after nix tliou 
Band yt^ois of cntLing a[id poIJAbingr thoro ara above two or 
throtipoopk out of uDj given bundi-ed, wbo kiioWiOrcaroto 
know, hovr a bit of a^itc or a bit of marble woa inaclc^ or 

Uow it was made, mny not be oJwAjrs very cosj to «j, 
bu^ wit)i wlistit wasp:iinU?iUlK-reUnn manner of ^^ueMtoa 
AJI those bcfiutifnl violtl vciniogs And varicgntiond of tbo 
morbliai cf SJ^iily aui SjmiTi, \he jjlowlii^ oniin^c mid ainber 
Ooloun of tljotfc of Sicno, the di^{> tubwH of tho Eoj»o 
anlico, and llic blood-colcur of all tbc prociona joApcrs th&t 
coridi tbe templed of Ituly ; ami, dually, all ibu luveljr 
tfMuitioQA of tint in the pcbblos of Soollaikd and tho Rhincs 
inhicb Gjnri, ihou^h noi i^ie etiohL pr^iuiu^ by Ikr Uie [DO>«t 
inlcnaeting portion of our modern j<iwcUei«^ work ; — all 
Acee Kft painted by natiiro with this odd cuaterial only, 
rarioiudy proportioned tind applied--tho oxide of IroEiiliat 
Bbune your Tunbridgc springs, 

B«t ihift is tiot oil, rwr tUi.? best part of the work of iron, 
JtOBcmMin prcdnoing^boflTjiiful stom^ m only ren- 
dered U> rich peoi>lir, who can a^rd to quarry nnd poliah 




UienL But yjunrc ptiiotjr for id\ xha world, poor and rrcb 
together; lod wbilc, tbcrcforci elio tlius itdorna ibc itincr- 
most rooka uf ber hlW*, lo i«mp^ }^ur inveotfgntjoa, oi 
iiidnlgij your iuxuryj^sho pftinta, for moro i^AXcrullr, the 
OUlaidufi of the bills, wUicU arc; fur the eyte tif the hUtipherd 
and the pIoughino-D. I tpoke ju^t now of the dTvct in tlia 
roofs of OUT Tillft^flof tlJcirparpIcaLttofl: but if tiiCflUlcfl 
are bcmutjAil even i» thdr fint and Ixjnnal rows on koiu» 
roofis much more ore tbey bcftiitiful on the rugged crcitfl 
and Jl&uka of their natiye inounUtinA, Have you ever 
Gonnid^rod, in speolcing us we do so ofUrn of diatant bluQ 
btllSf wW it aa that makcatliaa blue? Toaccrtala client 
it ffliliabince; hut ilislflnca idone will not do it. U^myhillfl 
Joofc w\nU^, howcrcr distant That lovely dark puipla 
colour of (jurW^-Ifih ami Highland hills is owing, not to 
their duitnnce merely, but to tboxr rocks. Some of Ihoir 
rocks an:, indeed, too dark to be boautifhl, being black or 
uaby gray; oviog to iraperfi?ct and porou* structure^ But 
when yon 90t Ihia dark colour dashed irith rusaot andblnc^ 
and coming out in ranss^ ainoii;^ thy gn?iL»ii fcrna, so piir|j1o 
that you can hardly toll at first whothorit is rocit or hcathcj; 
|}iMi you must thank your old Tuuhrldgo frieud, tho oxtde 
Cf iron. 

But this >3 not all It la ncccaaary for the beauty of hill 
«?(*nery that Nstiire shouhl ciilotir aot only her toft rooka, 
but hor bard 01100; nnd sho colours them wilh the Aimo 
thing, only more ln'ntil-iftilly- Perhajsyou bare vonderod 

LBCr. v.] ta VAtVBK, ABT, AKI> POUCT, 


«t TB7 i«o of tho word "pmrple," t^cflcn oTntorirviE bui 
the GreeAo!^ and atUi more Uio Romans, who ha/i profound 
na^tt^n lor purple, ua^ it ot ntone long Ago. Ytya hsiVis aU 
liMvdof "porphyry" oa ftmon^ tha tnoat pnooiotu of the 
liardep uL-WHivrt stain*L Tlie cujour wUicU j;ure It Uml 
no^e nam^ aw well aa tJmt which gives ihe fliwh to all the 
n»)' gmnSb^ of Eii>T* — y^N ^"^ ^'' ^^^"^ roeieil aummib- of 
Uie Alpatbcin^Ives — ii^ still owing to the ^-ime siib»;n,]iC9 — 
ji>ar huinl>l« oxide of iron. 

4nd Ustof nil: 

A DOblor oolo^ than all tlieae — tliD noblcAt oo!o(ir ov«t 
mm on thisi earth — otio whiuL brlongs tti as'tnjiigtU grv^lcr 
than ihai of the Egypdaa jminiw, and to a beauty gr«al«l 
lliatithatof lhc9Uiuict or the roae — is «till mystcnoudy 
connected Tilh the presence of thia dark iron. I belidve it 
k not aMcrtuineil on what th^ cninson of blood actiukUy 
dflpenib; 1)Ut t\it^ wloiir U conncckd, of connic, wiTli its 
Tilaliiy, and thai vitality wiih the exlstencd of iron oe one 
of itfl ftubtlAOtial okmc»t«. 

U U not Ftrange to find tbia st^m nrd strong met&l min- 
gled «> delicately in our hnmon life, ihut wo cannot even 
Uluflb irithout ita help? Think of it» niy fair anJ gentle 
(kotct*; how torrtlla thu altcmativtt— sometimaftyoa havo 
aeiiuilly ni choici! but to be brozcn-foccd, or iron-faced t 

In thii alight rei-'i^w of some of the fiiootions of the 
iMtal, yon obwcrvo th-U I oonSnc myself strictly to it« 
operttiona tf a colouring element I should only oonfViae 



jttttf o fl ocqitio tt of dw ^c% if I c 

■r JiAiiiMw^ tr>|yf»rt^ lijr thir i^irw^MBiilini llf lull I 
kKT« ao^ ^enfiire, era ^MMBd «i lOj <i^ Ihs B0» MfliMi 
ttoQi of dw XDC^ m ibe txxnoiny d fiitoj^ Bni vlak I 
««b jpoa to onr dciHj ft«»j vitk joa li ife v^i^ 
famkfie lU£ ta «I1 iJmm ■» tbenflt^^ovld beaolInK 
vitbiMii (bf ur. IVpMvaett] la» «o paver, aad ancr 
MOttDb BilamialL except iBmetroneilDva^ wlwieUI 
■ooasetft aceoani fitf^aod whidi m asekn WIcr Uw7 
bmUkB- fn rhn rifrriaij inV nfihii giwlii,Tfcii iirm !■ 
Brrarublf jaiaed triik tWos^got, ■ttlvodd bi 

n. iMMTcxAn.— Pkva«^tbea,fr3«tiwoSeMorilke ' 

DKtalMdK0peCStMM»fl^MfiUe loite MB KB tfas bttl^ 

cfnio, joa s«l w^mtp.m tfa« owtai^^t^^pt 
wUck kM bee& Ihu ^vca joa, bnr ihs liideaB melil, of ihe 
Actiott of bod J awd »(m1 togrthf, 1ms oofala antttTp« m As 
^T***^** of ftU bsiaia pover. All ut woctk; Ibe anae 
■ Ifaiaiiej ■■■ilMioflteha«aaboi^y*faac,aarQfAc 
^HftMidoaih lM«f boikarita^oaacd&s At 
oiker; caod<nteBaA^ail«cak«f tbafta^^iciaed 
viik food cBodoQ >jd4 woHc of the bean. 
Tteaiiao^ciodvt aorpoaaUejvl^catol vt, waea 

aaitei; jcC 


I/tijin« to 



««ii«tt»]itj, vithout goin; through the uccctaarj raanuaJ 
toil. ThaX is cntirpl^' liopolir^a. Without 9 O^Tt^n Eum- 
l»r, «i<l thAt n very grott rmrobor, of eUcidy actA of hand 
--« pvactioc as cAicfuI and cousUut as would be iiei-vMCiry 
loleam tnyotliei mamuAlbusin^^s— nodntwingivpomblc 
On ilio other ndc, the vrorkmsm, and thoK irho cmplojr 
him, Are cortuiiu&lly irjrjng lo pr^Ouc^ art by trick or h.ihil 
of liogore; without ijeing llioir fancy ot sonelbiliiy. TLal 
lilssj is ]]o]>e1i^i». Wilbi>uL uiEiiglingof lR£&rl-|j^uv<ii>ii with 
kaad^powcr, no art ia powible.* The highest nn v^rnt^ 
both ID their iiit^sk^cat degrees: the actJon of the luuid aI 
Itjt fincMt, with tlmt c>f tlic hiMUt ilI lU fullucl 

Hence it follows thai the utmost power of art c^n only 
he givrri in a mftti-iieil (nij'ri^blr* <>f n^t^ivitig niu] tvldiining 
tho infiiic&oo of the BubtJc^i touch of tho humiui band. 
Uliat hand t5 tlie lootft perfect a|^it of mAtf^rLiil powci 
existing in tho uniTn^ ; ^rd he full nubilcty cnn only be 
sbovm wheu thi» mat^riiil it worka on, or with, ia entirely 
yielding. Tin: cbnnlH of ii jn;rf«?ct instrtimi^it will TT*c-ivo 
it, but not of an impcrleot odc; the soflty bending |)omt 
of l1i« hftlr pencil, an^ iwfl inciting of colciir, will roceivc 
it, but not even the chalk ov pen p<nnt, Htill leefi ibo stoel 
pointi chisel, or inarblc. Tho bnnd of o. »culpt^r mny. 
Iodised, be m fubtJe $s that of a pfdnt«r, but lOl its subtl«ity 
b not bcslombic nor exprcwiblo: iho touch of Titinnt 

* Ko One vtt that k 6«e tL» prcviooa dtfAoiti^ of Bm art J 
p. 64. 

^ ui viA iL nam k 

of «3 

to «^^ 
vU£. Tmrst i 

_ to vae 

jMT Kt TiH aD b« ^MG» nil, 
ij; ie ift nAtere, tn^vaaoC. Xf 
jwn «ft=£'t nd tnnnpiiWTt Id ^m^km^amt, Hooot 
w u sa^ 1 ■ ^■Aj » look iAr ^ o ^i^ r 

■\ vnA ■ ^^ile. If rcn w^A tat 

; if fcr fivadoM, t^« fCveoD; if far 

Ika\ tij to cwa teaAa^ or Itwa, 

^■Btie. riTTii ililii 1bi]ii mil 

vTj tS yiATX^REy ART, A3n> POLICT. 

ft ai ac* tenacioija above all tlinj^ ductile more than mosl. 
Wbeo yott waqI tciuuxljr, th^n'ron?, tiiid involnst fbria, 
take iron. It i« etnioently ntadd for that Ft in tko 
tnttcriol giT€a to tbe sculptor as tJna ootapaciiOD cf m&rbtoi 
wilh u lai^iagr-, tut plnin aa it rati writ lif^ MpcjkiTn, fnmi iha 
lipfl of the canh-motlor, '*Hcrc*6 for you to out, and here** 
for jrou t> tuumcT. Shape tliia, and twial tliat Wtat is 
polkl &D1I «implci carve out; what is ttiin and ^ntioigldd, 
beat out I giv« 7011 jidl kinds of hrma 10 be dclightod in; 
^flttUmng b'Jivnt lut wrOI t»i ftiir bodies; IwisU^il bnuidi^a 
aa well oa open brows. Tbo loaf and tbe branch you may 
beat aod drag Into Uieir imngi^ry : tiki; hotly and bi»w you 
skall ravorentlj toooh into tbeir imagery. And if ycu 
cboooe ngbtl/ and work riglitlj, vrhiLt jou do ab&ll be a& 
afVnrards. Voiir aleoder leavos fihall not brv^k off in my 
len^toua iron, though thej may bo ru^tod ri littlo wttb tm 
iron&utuniit, Ytnjrbmjvl jmrfiioi* nhaW not be unjuntjothrf 
!d mj pars prTatalline marble — no decay sLall touch therm. 
Bnt if you carve in ihc marble what will break with a 
UKJchf or monld in tbe metil what a stain of nist or TOrdi* 
gm wilt spoil, it i& TOUT fault — not mine." 

Thfiai nmthe tnitia prini^iplr* in thismnttcr; whic-h, VtVa 
nfisiily qJ] other light prin^iploa in art, we moderns delight 
in oontradjcting n* directly ncd apFCiAlly as mnjr be- W« 
oofitintiaUy look for^ and pruse, in our dxliibitic4ift] tbo 
•oulpture or veila, and lacx^ and thin Icarcd, and all kinda 
of impoM«blv thin^ pni^hrd a^ f^ wt ponnblo in the fru^U 

'itono, for the ookc of ebowiog the «ciilptor*fi dcxxcn^ 
On tbe other lianrl, w^ cdirf r>ar irt>n into bum — briule^ 
tlicugH AD ino^ tbiot:^-«harpcn them nt tho ctidn, And coij> 
aider f^nooA, and cptUer work, ma«io of sucli matoriiUi^ du»- 
IMivfil I do not believe it wculd hn euij lo ciilculati^ tbu 
amount of miaehicf done to our tialc in England by tbat 
fencct Iroii'Work of oiintatl^me. If h wcrw nsdfod of iw, by a 
dngl^cb&racteriatic, todistin^iah the dflrollkga of a country 
iziUi Ivnt bnifu] !tfl(tl.iiMi^ ; }Lnd to w-L, i>n i>iir- sridt-, Uic plmtst 
vb^ro p^oplo w^t^ for the mo^t part, dmpi?, happy, b^o- 
vol«nl, and honest; atid,oQ tlitioUx^Taidevtlit; pkooa vrhero 
nt hual .1 gTrtit ntienb^^r of the jx*t>ph.> were sopliiRlic^r^, 
unkind, llI^comfo^UbI»-^ and ud principled, there i^ 1 tlurik, 
onn (^ntiirrr thnt you (Viiilil ftx uprni misi pnwUivu Uvit: tho 
unoocofoTiabTo ond unpHnoit^led paH£ of a country vrould 
be ihc pnrtfi whcir^ pet^pl^ lived among iron milingv^ &&d 

• I do not inean to MLiali nny JegPcfiorbbuoototJicoflfbrt topopf^ 
pent IcoHt^ la irarMo forocirtalDciptoiivo parpoMvt, Thoktorirorka 
of Mr, Mi:nr» Unw iltfpta-lftd tap soiaA of t>)ttir oaoat t«iidor thoofhlfl 
en a (lfll-<?al4> ami ikilful um> of mcb ftc<3«uariaa. Xad hi (feivral, kc«f 
Mtilpiara ia ^od oud jutmiriiblo^ U it renders, u b Golbifi work, the 
grkre ond EightooBn of tho Itfnfby Iho umngt^muot of Jight wkI (ludow 
^^upporting tho muee* woU by atroD^U of Hionir b?lov; but «11 
tfftrrinjr JB bmowfudi pr^pOMS tc iteelf 4ii!fhin<^ w &ri turn, aikI UiOA t<3 
bniCAio tho fthioLiU thinnon of tkia or «ti|^ht thln^ m muoli naodtiiD 
irood cvrmp doofl. I aw in Ilalj; • f aw or 1w<> ajfo, a oivblf ^calp 
of birda' owta. 

r. Tj CT ffATURK, ABT, AFfD POtlCT, 


ooDiforUbk and priticiplcd poit^ vhorc tlicy h;ul none 
A broad general ixatJon, ^oa u'ill titiy I Perliiijia a lilUe too 
^eL, in all Kobricty, it will comv tnier thAn you 

imk. OoDsider cvci^' other kmd of &nco or iJi^fcDcc, and 
ron will Slid aome virtue 'in U; but in tbo iron roUiog 
Tbsre i^ first, your cwttlc nniput of etoGC — eomo' 

rbat too gmnd to be coiiaidered bere among our t^pes of 
ibnrTii:j<; nt*xt, your gflrtlfrn or purV wall tjf briok, whicli 
ban indeed o!\cq ah unkiud luokou tbcoulsidi-^bul tbcrc ia 
more modesty m it ibon unki&dnctt. It geju-'raUy meanfi, not 
Ibat the bmld«T of it wnnts to «hut you out from the view 
of biH ganleiir bot (torn the view of hinkSf^P: it b a fHok 
.itatcmont Uuit u ho nocdfi a oorUiin portion of tiin« to him- 
ieIC AO ho nccdii a cerUun portLija of ground to bimsclC 
«nd mttftt not be eiared tt when be di^ tbcie in \m sbin- 
vIccTC^ or plays ui leapfrog with liis boy* from ttchool, or 
tttlks over old times vhh his t^fe, walking up niid dovm in 
tiio evening sonahino. BcAid^t, the bnek wall baa good 
pnctJOi aerWcein it, and sbdicrs yoo from the east vrind, 
ftud ripens your poaoUu* and neolnrines, and glows in aii- 
mxanGkc mnnuy bank. And, monxurcr, your brick wall, 
.if yon buiM it pMperly, po thnt h alull siarri long enough, 
'Sm bcnTitiful tliin^^whrni it ir* olJ, and hoA nssLunud its 
grave purple red, ti>[|clifxi wilh irniw^y grocn* 

N«3tt to your lordly wall, in dignity of enalosurv^ oomei 
ycnr clooe-sct wooden piling, which in more oty'cotionnbTc, 
becnuse itoommonly m*^n* enclosure on a Lirgi>r ^ule than 



THE woitK OP mos, 

[LEGT, Y\ 

people w&nL StUI it ia si^'oificattvo of [>1oa«ant parkf^ and 
wrli-ki-pt fid'i wulLs »nd hcnb of dct-T, and otUor aimh 
jirisfocralic paAW>ralism?(, which bare hero mid there ihcif 
proper plaoo m a coiuitr^-f and oul/ bo poaaod wiUioul 4ny 

N«xt to your paling, oomea your bw stone dyke, your 
mounUin (rm-.r^ iiidii^ilJx'c nt a ghwoc i^illicr of wild hill 
coiintiy, or of beds of stone boneath the *oiI; the hedgo 
cf tlid inountiuna — dcHglitfiJ in all Ita uasodulioiu, and 
yrl ranre in llio vsmcd and craggy forma of tho looso stritica 
it IB built of ; and next to tbu low atono w&ll, your lovland 
hcilgr-, ritljci in trim Imeof mwwvc gnxn, aiiggefilive of 
the pbiKduic^ of eld ElizAbotLan houeed, and emootb 
lUleja &r aged feet, and <iuaiRt iFibynntliii for young onc^ 
or cIao Ilk fhir enUinglemont of eglarttino and virgin'a 
bower, losing its acf^nCod Kxunanoo along onr country 
waysidiw; — how many eiiCb you havo hero among jour 
pretty bilk, IVuitful vrith hlack duat'ijTs of tUo bramble for 
boys in nnttintni nnd ctuhaoti bawtbom bcmcA for bird^ m, 
irint«r. And then last, and most difficult to ctafls among { 
&iic«e, oomra your hnn<lnul, Dxprctedvc of all itorts of 
tliiiign; )cometiirkP9*4ift?ing & knowing and vicioua look, 
vhioli it len.rn£ at raotr-ooumt^; Kimelimcfi nn innoocnt and 
tender WW, wbteb it Icama at rostic bridges over c«>«y 
IjTOoVa; and fiamettinr>« a prudent and protMtifo look, 
ivHch it Itf-mifl on p,v«<v! of tlic Alp.% vthci^ it han [o«bi of 
giBQii.^ nnd Iwrw of pine?, and guards cbe brows of clti& 


LKCT. v.] IS sr^iuai, abt, am> rouor. 

and the bofik^ of torr^nlA. So tbut iu all tbo66 iclada ol 
de&iwe then U wxac good, pleasant, or ikjiLIu mcAQtug 
Act vrbAt meaniog Ilsa tlie iron raUiDg? Either, obaervci^ 
that ^ou &TC living la tlio miist of sucb Wd clmractcnt tliut- 
jrou mttet kwp ibcm out by main foiw of bar, or that joai 
Are youradf of a obiuui;t«r roquiha^ to be kept inadu iD' 
Ibe wcoc manurr. Voitr Ima railing a]»nv:t tncnnK tbicrus' 
outnifi^ or Bedlam ioalde ; — it can mean coihing abe ibaa 
ifaftL If llie pooplc ouUxdc were good for aiij iking, a bint 
in iW w&y of fence would be euoi^h for them; but; 
bfioooM iticj arc riolcct und at enmity witb you, you oro 
lbffi:vd to put tlioclosc bais an<l the spikj.v at the top. Xm»% 
SQJmner I w«s lodging for a little wliik in a cottage in tlis 
country, and in front of my lowr window then? were, UrAt^ 
aomo beds of dBtaie«> ihra a row of gooaeberiy and currft)i(i 
biubus, and tlKitt n low widl About thn^c feet nbovc thft 
grovndf eowrcd with «kinti-cn»). Outride, a cofi>f!ck1t 
vitb its|pv<u o&» Klist6niiig in tbo eun, uid a Held path 
tbioQgb it, jttEt paat the gardea gatCk From niy window I 
Qould Sde et'ery peumut of tba vnllago who pawi±d thai wi^y, 
with boakct on ana for market* or »padc on eliooldcr for 
fl«ld* Wlien I waa iuclined for Jftogtely, I could lain ovar 
my vail, and tAlk to anybody ; wbca 1 woa inclined for 
icienofL, I cuuld botarii/v^ M Jilotig ttio Lop of my wiiJI-* 
tbcm wore fi^r upt^ics of s'^no crcfls alone growing on it; 
sn4 wbco I W30 inclined for «x6roiaer I could jump ovat 
mf wall, bftokwaidu nod hrwnx^ Tbat*a tbo «ort oi 


fonCGloLavc iu a CUmiian wjuiitrj; nut a lUiig wlii< 
3^011 cnri't. walk in^iilo of viUiout making younclf look 
like B. wild bcoat, nor look at out of jour window ic llj« 
momiiig witliouL expecting toae^ aomolKjJ^ iini>al«d upon 
i1 ID the nif^Ht. 

And jet farthar, obs«rv« lliat tl«=i imu luiling ifl a u»dett 
fetioo — it can ii)j(?ltor notliing, and Aupjurt nothmg; yott 
CAn'l nail your peachce to it, nor protect your flower* witli 
ilj nor make aayitiug w!j:tl*jv«r oui of iLa co*ily ijninoy ; 
and besides being usclcsa, it is fin insolent fence; — it aaya 
plainly to everybody wbo pii&s^a — *' You may be aa IiDiu-at 
pereon, — but, also, you may be a tliief : lioui»t or not, you 
shall not get in her?, for I 4111 a respectable pcreon^ aud 
much above you ; you Bhall only <ee wbai a grand pla« 1 
biLvc got to keep you out of— look hor^^ and depart in 

Tbii, bowijver, btring in thi^ pr^^nt state of uirilijuitiou 
a fVcqacnt manner of discourse, and there being uofortu- 
nately many dtfttricu* wbero ibe iiva niiliog \» unavoidabli*, 
it yet remains a q;iGsti^'n wbetbcr yo\i need abaoiately 
make il ugly, no less tlinn sj^nificiiiivi! of Hvil. You must 
bavc railings round your cquarcfi in London, and at iho 
udtifiuf yourareu^; but ate J you ilien-'fure have raiting 
•0 ugly ihiit iho connUmt jiiglit of them in cniough to neo* 
traliau the cfll-cl of all the school* of art in the kingdom? 
You newsi nou Fur fruni wich nvvt-'vuiiy^ it is evi^n in youf 
power to turn all your police loroo of iron h^n actually 



into drawiag nuutcT^ and natural ^^loriut^ Not^ cf 

ivrarac, vithout «>mn CroubTo nnd ienm<> expend; y>a cnn 

lo Dothing mi3cb wortU dotn^, iu tUia worM^ ^vitlout 

itrrKib1f\ yon cah ^i mitfarii^ murli worth liuviiif^ wiiliout 

lens^. Tlie main quo^tion w only— wUat ia woTtb doing 

ImTing :*— Coiu^cler, tlei^fore, if 1,!ii;t be not. Hera ia 
your iron raiLingi u yet, nn untducdtO'J moruttcr; asonn- 
tm Mnaobal, lacoiiable of any word^ except bia porptiual 
'Kflcpoutr' UTjd " AwHjf with y«iit" WmiM it rot bo 
woTlh NOfDti trouble und QO*l u> turu thb ungainly ruAinn 
into a wc11-«tlucQtcd m^rrnat; wbo, while he waa 
Rerera as ever m forblddrng eniranoe to evilly dbpoMnfl 

klc^ ithould yet have n Iciad word lor wcll-dispowd 
|ieo|il<i^ And a pleaaa^t look» aud a lltiltr u^teful itirormatbii 
at k» command, in cam he should be asked a qtic^tion bj 
the paasers-by 7 

We hhVK not time to-ntght la look nt many example'^ of 
.Ifoavork; ond thoA3 1 bFippcn to have by inc arc not tbo 
fantf; ifxjnwork in tjol one uf niy spr*:!!!! !iiihj«-irij* «f study; 
60 thftt I only havo tncmontfida of bite tliat happened to 
eome into picturesque subjc^to wtiich I waa drawirj^ for 
Xtbor wwwoQ* Bwtdtw, cxtiimal ironwork i« more difficult 
to find good ihan any other sort of nnciL-nt art; for wbrn 
il (fptu nuty iind broken, p'tifib? uri? xiirt', if tluty autt itlTcjnl 
it, to send it to iho old iron ehop, and got a flue cow grating 
uwbmd; ftnil in the ^^t^At dtii-^ cif IfA^yi thtr old imn ts 
|thu6 nearly all gone; tbe bc^ bite I the open 



[UKT. V- 

■urwerdatBroaoia;— rantafliic epiujsof UuivI'liku fbUngti 
rinng over the gardcu gciito*; ^nri tlicrc arcf & fovr 3no llii^ 
DicilU at Vorona, and somo gsKwi ln!lIiB»woik c'ticlowing Uia 
SuJa tombu ; but on ihe whole, tbo most intereBting ptocei^ 
tliough bj no mcana ibc purest in tft^lc, ato to be found 
la out-of'tli^WAy provincial towns, wbi^rs people do not 
ooJCi orftrc tmoiblc-, to make polite ullcntiunD. The llttlo 
Icnrn or B^^lUnzi^na, for iiisraiitx', on the H>u;b of tbc Atp^ 
si.d that of Sion on tho itortli, bavo botli of tbom oompSoto 
echoola of irouwork m their bfJcouioe nnd vinc^r&rd g&tcs. 
Thirt of Belli[izona Sa Oie beat, ibouf^li not very old — I 
Buppoac mosL of it of tUc 3cvc&U»rntK century ; still it JA 
very quaint uud bt-aulifuU Ilere, for exampli?, (sw fVonti»- 
piccc>) arc two bolconirfl, from two diRcrer^t houBUs; ono 
lu^ beea a canllnal's, and iha hat ia tbe principal ont^ 
vncnt of tho biJcony ; Lt£ tasfvk b^ing uvrougUt with 
dcli^htfal delicacy and freedom; and cotcbirrg the oyd 
d^url^ even umong the mtw of rioh wreathed lejlvei, 
Tlicac tOBacla and strings ftrc precisely the kind of subject 
fit for ironwork — noble in ironwork, tiiej wojid have been 
<fDtiral7 ignoblo in marble^ on the ^'rouadu above stntod. 
The real plfint of oleander stiinding in the window co* 
ricbed ihe whole gioup of lines very happily. 

The other bnleony, from a vcr/ ordinary looking hoiiS9 
in the ftamo stri'i^t, is much more intere^ling in ite details, 
it ifi shown in the plati> as it appeared lurt summer, wjtii 
'TOUToIvulus twined about the bars^ the i^rrow-shApni living 



IcftTcs mingled ftmong the loavtf of iron: but you may 
ac« in the centre of tlieae n?fll teavma ulcii*t«r of lijjli4<i 

,onoi, vbicb nro ihow of U«; injnworlc itself, Tlii* uluctci 
U worth giving a liitle Imger t[> abow its tnratmcni* l-'ig- 
2 (in Api^ndk T.) bt tljo ik^nL vt«w of it : Fig. 4, it4 
profile^ It ifl composed of a large tu)ip i q the centre ; then 
two tuikrsop liliaa; iben two ptuV^ a liilla eaiiTeatlon- 

^AlisE^; then tiro nnrciwi; tlu-n two nomiwicripti, or, at 

'Icastt flowers I Ju liut know f :md llieii ivi^o ilarlc buds, and 
a Sew Icav«L I Kty, dor^t bud*, for M ihcuis 11ovr<>n liavo 
coloured iu their original stato, Tlic plan of tbo 
group Ift i*xceeding1^- Himple: it iit lOI 4.mdo«fiil hi n poinU.'d 
arch (Kig. 3, Appendix V.); tlio Inrgc tnaj^ of ihc lulip 
fonub^ ihe a{it!x; a sjx-foilM htur on ejuiU aide; tijeti n 
joggod 0tAr; then n iivc-foilcd Mat; tlicn an unJiLggcd ?uir 
or TOM i fiiiAll/ a ainall bud, ao oa to atnbli»li rehition and 
Vf&dknon thron;^ the wholf* gn^'ip- Tht- prvUlo w veiy 

■ttte ftfld fine, and the upper bar of the balisooy exceed- 
ingly l)i<inrliful in ("JTimI; — iioi»« tlii? ]f-tn sd on lUMfmnt of 
tbo manrpiloTialy aimpEc tucana employed, A tliin strip of 
iron is bent over n aqu^ro rod; out of the d<]ge of tlilH Atrip 
an cut n sK'ritTi oftniinguhir opt-nings — widi^t at top, h*itv- 
[ng projecting teclti of iron (Appendix. Fig. 6); then csjc^k 
of tliwe pnijecLiM^ pitcna gcrle a Itltk' sharp Lip wilh iha 
b&mtncr in front, which bcakA ila edge inwards, lenring it 
m IMn opeo at Lie eaiue time, and Iho thing ]» doun. 
Hie Cfvnm4:>D forrni of Swl^ ironwork are Ivtut n/ituratis- 


IHB WOfiK or IBQ^t 

[LBCr. V 

tio than tliMO Itoliiui bnlcomeHf cl<!peni^ag more on bomti- 
fiil AiTflDgem>^ut3 of yjLriou0 carve ; ncvcrtliclosa, thoro hu 
Iwcn :i rich [iiiiutnlist sclicxil at Fribourg, nht^rv a few bell 
liflndlc^ aro Btill bfl^ con^istiDg of rods bmnchcd inta 
liimiil and tjUier kiifaj^e, Al Cl^ueva, luodi'm iitipraro' 
Dientt hoxc left aodiing; but iit Anneey, ii little gooO work 
remoina; tbo balcony of ita old li^td ilc vilk capc^iaJly, 
wiih II trout of ilitj lake— prwiuffial*!/ tie lown amw— fonD«^ 
iDg itfi ccntrxkl omfunent. 

T rmj^l(texpnilijt*r«lliij^'bi— if >ouwouUmt and Lear tuft 
— on tbc tr^fitntent of auoli n^quii'iMl KiibJ^ctf or introdao 
tiou of pZoiAaQl caprice bj tbo old worlcnicQ ; but ire b&TS 
no more tlmo u> spare, and I mtiat <|U]i ibla part of oar 
Bubjoct^thc mthcr tm I could sot explain to you tho 
iiiliijiMle nitiit of auL'b m/iiwork whlioul going JVjlly uibj 
tlie tlioory of curviliiiuur dcsi^'n; only let m^ knvo with 
yon tUifl ono dbtinci nfsertioit — that tbc quaint beauty and 
dmrticter of inaiiy ii:it(irAl objtwle, «itcli a^ inlrlcato 
bnmo)ic#, gnre, foliu^ (ueip<<oiiilly Uioniy brancb<« and 
prickly foliage), n^ well i\^ that of many aiiimalfi, plumed, 
Kpiiiiw], or brielled, ia scLdptLirally c^rpre*ible lo irou ouly, 
and in iron would be iiiJtji.<0t^c mid imprc^vti in ihc bighcet 
degree; itnd that every piece of metal work tou use mtgbt 
bCf righfJy treated, not only n stup^b d<^<oratiOD, bub a molt 
valunblc flb»ti^ct of pcjljaru of natiiriLl f'wmSy lolding in 
dijBtiity predaoly the aame relolioa to tbe paiui^d repiVA&a- 
tatioD of planta, tbat a atntue docs to tlic ptuaUd foriD (/ 



mail- II iadiflkttU togivu ^oii an ideu <f tlic grai:^ uml 
intcK*t wLich the Niinpleftt objo«t« poauMi v/hvn tlicir forrna 
arc lUus abstracted from Among the auiroundiog of ricb 
eirounucuioe whiGh ia nature diaturba tfie fci'bleneM 
tt our Attention. Jn i'lau; 2, a few biodcA of oom- 
mon green grua^ and a wild le^f or two — juAi aa lUey 
wiu>e tliTown by nature^ — ore thus abetiuctiMl from tbc 
liatcd rcdundmoG of ihfi fornifl about thcmt and aLiowa 
a dark grouod; every doster of hei*bage would furnSsh 

iy ifccb groiip«r and every such group would work into 

m (fiuia^ itf of course, riglitly u> iu service) wiLb perfect 
tioM), and endlceg griuideur of result 

in. Iaov in FoLlcr.—^navingthiia obtained some idea 

[Of the Ofleof iron in art, as dependent on itaduclility,! nnwd 

ocrrtoinJr, baj aiijlhing of its uaca in maniifinctaro and 

immerce; ve all cf ua know enough, — perbapa a lltdo 
100 muoh — about CWt. So I poaei k^ly to couikdor ita 
lUGfl in policy ; dependent cbicfly upon ila tenacity — that is 
Ktasy, on Ita power of bearing a poU^ and re<MJvhf7 on 
edge Tbcac powcns wluob enable it to pcro«, to bind, and 
to smite, render it fit fbr ibe three gri?at inatruinent«, by 
which its political jjution may be simply typilkd; namolf, 
the FLoogb, tho Fetter, and the Sword. 

0%. our uDdeifltaoding the li^ht u^ of ibeao t^ree inatru- 
BicnLs dq)Ciid, of counc, all our power as n nation, find aU 
our happin««a aa individuals. 

I. The Pl.oiran. — I euxy, linrt, on our nnclcrstALiU jng tb< 



\XMCT, r 

riglil ijaa oftlie pUmgli, with wTtmlj, In jii!iLic« Ui Ui- fiunrvt 
of our likboutBi^ wo must alwaya aasouvntfl that fcmiaii^e 
plough — the Docdlc. The first requirement Ibr iha Imppk 
cess of & cftdcn U llmt it should undentiuid llit; function in 
tbi? worM of tbcso two great iDBirumcDts : a h^ppv QulJon 
ciaj be defined as one in vrliiu)i tlii^ bunb)tTid*i< tmnd i'a on 
the plongli^ nnd the houAcwifo'ii en the needle ; m in duo 
^me Temping lU golden harve^t^ and shining in goldon Tea- 
lure: und nn unhappy naiicn in one whieh^ ncknottled^ag 
UO iitt of plough nor ocodlo, will asurcdiy at lafft find itfl 
flloretiouae empfy in tha Airmne, and its breast naked to tba 

I^iffhaps you think thU is a mere truism, which I am 
VEUiingyour time In repeating. I wish it were. 

By far the greater pnrl of ttic sutTcring nnd crimo whicb 
eaSat at this moment in tnvilized Europe^ arises simply 
from poopl? not understanding this tmism — nut knowing 
tLat priKlucti or wt^Lih is r;iuMial1y couucct«:d by the lawa 
cf heaven and c:vrth wtih re8c»lut« labour; bat hoping in 
aotno vay to chcAt or ftbrogntc ttus crerlaj^ttng Uw cf life, 
lEtd to. feed where they have not furrowed, and be warm 
where thd^ have not woven. 

I repfutt, ncjiily all oui misery and crime rciult from this 
oiic misappivienisiou, Tho law of namre is, that a certfda 
quantity of work is ncceuary to produce a certain qaautilr 

goi^dfOfany kind whatever. If 3^011 want know]odgp,yoTi 
morttoil for it: if [bodl,yoiiinnEt toilforit; aod if pleuuro. 

LKcr, v.] 



jou miuttoU ibr it. But m«a do not ackoowlixigo tbu 
lam, orslrlre to evade it^ bopiog lo get their knonleflge^ 
ood fjod, and pTuamirtr tor nothing ; and in tliiB effort tbc-jr 
dtbcr fkil of ^cltiug ih^m^ and remaiD ignoniDt end miso 
rabl«, or the^ obtAin ihem by niakio^- otbcr men work for 
their bcnciit ; aad then they arc tyranU and robbom. Yea, 
and worso tbnn robbtrs, T am not one wlio In the leaat 
do4ibl0 or ditq>ut:^ the progress of thi£ €cDlury in many 
iis«rul io Qiankiod ; but it mkeis to tiic .1 very dark 
leap^tiDg Qfi that we look wi^ bo inuch iDdifr^renM 
tpoa diskon<^7 and cruelty io the puinuit of nrcnith. In 
the dream of Nebuchadnezzar it ytas only tho /»i that 
wero part of iron and part of dny ; bu: many cf ua aro 
.now getting 0a cruel in our nvAjicci that it nccns aa if, in 
U% tbe haart wer^ part of iron, and pan of clay. 

From what I have heard of Uic inhnbitaiiit of this town, 

I do not dniibt but thnt T way hn pfrnnitW to dg hero 

thkt I bsvo found it usually thought elsewhero hi^bly 

improper nad ^b^unl to do, namely, trace a ftw Bihlo 

amtenoaft to their prarUical reault. 

You CAitnot but havo Dotiocd how ofUm in thc:iee parts of 

Hw Blblo which arti llkdy tii be ufWienl cj>Au4^ wln^n 

^pOOipIo look fbr gULclatiooT <^'ii'if^jrt, or hrlp iti the niluirs of 

lifo^ aamcfy^ the I'&ilinia and I'rovciba, mention tM 

of (Jie guilt ELU^iiiiig to die Opiir&i^in of iho p<ior. 

^bacrrc: not the negItJt;t of tliO!n\ lut ihc Oppfctsmi of 

ibfoi: ih& Konl m aa frct^ut-ut aa It ia atr&Qg& You uar 

ms WORE OP iDoir, 

bardlj opdii eitlier of t1i(»e books, buisomewW? !» thdr 
pogCfl you wit] find a dcdicnplion cf the vick^ RUUi'd 
&U0mpLflflgaJnftt tiie poor: such oa — '^Ub dotli ravish tbo 
^oor when bogettcth Lim iuto hieiwL" 

'^IIc iillcth iu thc^ lurking pbocs of tlio TtUngcs; Ul 
ey^B are priTilv set against tho p<jar.'* 

" In hill \mdo ho doth pcidccutc the poor, And blcescth 
tb« coT«i4>a3^ whom God abhomith,** 

*'Ilifl mouth is Ml of d*:ixnl flnd li'aud; in the e«criH 
pliK^ doth bo murder tlic innocent* Dnrc tlic Trorkera of 
iuiqtiity no knowle%c, i^bo cat up my people u thc^ oftt 
bread? Tbej bav« dntwD out tho svroid, ftnd bent the 
bow, Ui ewl d»wti tljr» pmir ;iDd nc'jily.'' 

"They arc corrupt, find spcEtk wickedly oonceraiog 

" Pride c;impasd,-ih them hhotxt iia a cbSnin, and vio1oM4 
fts a gnnnrot." 

^'Tlic:!/ poison ia Ukc tfir poiTbon of annqton^ Yo wdgh 
tbo vk>i«aio« of your hands in ibo earth." 

Yc^: " Yd wdgb tlievioleocu of yonr hands :^— weigh 
lb(«c wordsB AK well. The last tfaiogs we ever umally tibiok 
of weighing are Bible words. We like to dre&m and dii^ 
pitto nvrr thoju; but to iffrigb ^en, and see whjtt th4>r 
troo oontcntB firt^— anytbing but that Tm, weigh theee i 
for I have purpooely idcen nil thaw vcraao, pcriiftps mon 
■trikmg to you rritd in iliU conttectkm, iban separately ill 
thdr plaooft, out of the I^ms, bctgLTi».% for aU pc^P^ 


b^^^B^ng to tlie EaUblifl^ed Chunjli of tliis coUDtry th- 
I^ulnu are apjKniitcd It-Hsono, iiorti^iticd out to them hf- 
ilira clergy to b« lY-iul onco tbrough cv^ry raoDtb, Pr»- 
•uoubly, thi!refi>re, wbiik;T<;r portions of ScTLpluro wo amy 
pcwH by or fiirgrt, ihcMc nt »1) crvor^tH, must tiv^ hivnighl 
GoatinuaUy to our obeervaboo && ascfiiJ for diroetic^ uf djuly 
li(e. Now, da vrc orcr fisk oumilvt^ vthai tlic rtnl inclining 
of thea* pafiaoj^ ma^ bd, and who tbcso wicked pco|>Itt 
are^ who are **inmderiog the innoMat?" You know it ia 
rather si ngtilrtr bngungi.^ UiimI— nii.hrrr utrong hmgiirig**, wo^J 
might, poriutpe, coll it— hcanng it for tho Jint timoJ^^ 
Murder! and murder of inuocctit people! — nay, even a 
•on of Clin n thai i«rn. Eetting p<:opk*, — ye«, and God** 
pooplCi too — eating J/y proplc ts if they were brcAdl 
vworda drawn, b<>w8 bt^iii, |rt>iw)n of serpenU inix«il^i 
violoftoe of h^Qda vdghed, m^uured, and traltcked villi^H 
aaao mac^ ooiul where is all this going on? Do you 0up* 
pOTP it wa« only gcjiog on in the tiniu of Divvld, :u]d that 
Dohody but JowES ever munJor thd pooi? If ttOr it would 
■aiv-ly bo wiser not to mutter and mumble for our duiiy 
l«*iOiii what docs not Qonooni m; but if thcro be any 
clioiioo that it may concern un, aEid if this description, ia 
the Psoluu, of hum^Q giili is at all generally applicable, as 
the dv0cnptJoDA m the I'akima of bumaa aorrow are, may 
t nol be advisabJo to know wherein tliis guilL is bdng coni> 
milted ffvund a1}0uI u^ or by ourevlva? and wbcD we take 
Uic Korda of the Bible into our zaoutha in a congrrgntioruJ 



yrajt to bo sura w^her vo mc&n me^ly to cbant a. pieot 

oF nidodioujt |xj(-try irlnting l» iithor j«\jpl(.' — (wc kaovi 

not exflctly to whom) — or to attert oui bt- liof in feci* bear 

ing nomcwIuLt stringontly on ouTHtilved imd oar <hiily 

boflineAs, AncI if jou make ap your minil* u» da ihw nci 

lonj^r, »nd tiike pnina tc examine into tlia matter, you will 

HikI that t)jf-M3 «trmigt; woivIk, occurnng njt dir^ do, nobia 

i. few plaoefl onlj, but almosi in €verj Alternate penlm &nd 

'tTflty altcmAtc cHnptcT of proverb, or propfciCfly, wttb 

trciTiondous reiterntion, wen? not written for one nation or 

ono time ouiy: but for aIJ Dationti and language fornJ 

■plsces and all «mturii_'8; and it is as Inie of Ihc wicked 

now 00 ever it yrnA of NtinbiU or Divve, that " Uk oyoa 

ore set against Lhc poor." 

Set Q/jainst th« poor, mSnd yon. Not merely aet at^y 

the poor, so RA to neglect or lose si^t of thcm^ bat 

Bift a^iiistj HO Hfl to itini^ aiiil dGAlmy Uiern. Tliia is the 

main point I want to fix your attention uf>on. You will 

often bcarsermona about neglect or oLi^lt^daue^of tbepoor. 

Lut neglect and enrolimntaa ard not at all ib^ points. Tho 

tibkhaJd]JCTC^t.^)ksnbootT]cglectof thopoor. It always 

talJra of e^^trrsaiffn of the poor — a vtry diffewnt matter. It 

does not merely «pi^k of pnming by on the other flidc, And 

binding up no wounds^ but of drivwiny iLe awotiJ and ou^ 

•elves £miliikg the men down. It doea not clinrge ua with 

being idle in the pcM-hou^, and giving no medicine, but 

vith being bosy in the pesl-houa^ and giving muob [joIkhl 


Hny vc not Adviacdlj' look isto this mailer m little^ 
Kwiight, inrl Rsic flfct, AVho aid these poor? 

No ooantiT i^ or ever will Ixv without thcTin : tW ia '^ 
nj, wiihdut thi^ cIiim vrliii^h [uinnntf on the Hvnmgr, d<3 
tKWo by lbs labour Ihon ptorido for its aubaiskTOC, and 
which ba» no aocumubiLionM of propcrfjf laii:i by on any 
comdemblo ecaJe* New tbere axe a oeruia number of 
this cluffl whom wo cnnitot opprcw with much severity. 
An flhl^bodi^ and int«llig»^nt worknum^^nbT, hnnc^f^ 
And tndmlraouiA, will almost always oommand a Mp price 
for bis work, and lay by i^Tioiigb in n frw ycsn« to imnbla 
khn tohotdbiaowR inibo labour market. But all inea are 
not &b1c-bodicd, dot intelligent, nor indu«trioiH; «nd jou 
Oftnnot expect them to be, Nothmg appeam to Tte nt onca 
more ludicrous nrd moro mclftnoholj thnn th« way the 
people of the prownl age iJ8iinlly Uilk about the nionvb* of 
hkbourers. You hardly everfidiir^aa n labouring noAn upon 
lufl pTQipccts in lifo, without quickly bs^uming tKnt he iji to 
jMMMfld^ At atartic^, as a amnW moinl cnpilal to begin vith, 
the Tirtoc orSocralcs^ the phdowphy of Plato, und the 
h«Toimn of EpArrunondaA. *'Dd aminxl, my good miin," 
—^you fifty to him,— " tlmt if you work an>adily for tOD bourti 
• dfty &U your lifo long, find if you drink nothing but 
water, or th« very inild^ec beer^ and !iv« on v&ry plain 
boif ind never toac you: t«mpt^n u"<^ ^ ^ churcb 
ewvfj Snnday, and always remain content in the position 
tn which Providc;noc \ua placed yo^ ^^'^ never PTumblo 



[hsat, f, 

UM- fwcaj ; and lUwnys keep joiar cJothcs dcccnti aiiJ tiav 
rJtrljr, aiid iise every opportunitjr of iinproving ytjunaplf, 
you win get on v«ry woU, and nercr come to tbc pari«lL^' 

All thuidcXGOicdiagly true; bulbefbrer giving ttieodrioe 
■o confldently, ll would be wdl if we aometimoa tried U 
pracLicoily oiiraoli^cs, ond spent a ycnr or so at sorac haid 
maiiual hiboiir, not of nii ii'nterljiinltjg ktud — plougltuig oi 
dig^fiDg, for iiititancc, with & very Enodcmk ullowoncc of 
beer; notliuig but bread and checso for dinoer; no p&pen 
nor mulBnK in the morning; do sof^ nor tnogHKUies m 
ntglit; one small Toom for parlour and kitcbcn; and a largo 
family of diildiT.*!! nlwuys in t1ie mlildlB of tbe floor. If 
wc think wc eouldi uDdc>rthoec circuinHtancea, enact Socnilefi 
or Efiuminondiu entirely to our own Baturf^ction, wo sbal) 
1m swmipwli ill jiifit.i fled in (Tquiringthc*ijn<^l»r>iavioiir Aom 
oup poorer nei;? hboun* ; but if not, wo sliould aiirijly oonm- 
drr^liUlr? wbttluT ftrmmg[.hcvjinc»uiifi>rm*of tbcr tif>jir««ioT> 
of tIjG poor, we may not rank ason« of the flret and likelitsl 
■—the oppr«*iion of expecting too much from th<im, 

Btitlcttbi^ pHKS; and let tt he ndmitted that wo can 
Dcvor b4> guilty of opf^rt^ioa towaitU tboeobor, induetrioua, 
iiitrHigrnL, cxcmptiuy Inboun^r. I^irm will alwnyji bcf in 
tbo world some who oto not altcgvth^ iDtolligent and 
cxcinpUry ; we eball. I believe^ to tbo end of time find tbe 
tni^oriiy eomewb^t uDinieUigo^t, a littlo inclined tobeidlc, 
and ocoLtionnllr, on Sutorday ni^Jt, drunlc ; wc muat oven 
be prep^ired to hear of reprobat<M w ho UkcakiUiis ^m Sund^ 



raaniiiig btdtcr ihtm \}niyvxn\ uid t>r uiimiLiirAl pfiitrnta 
wbc» «eftd thdr cbildroa out tg beg instead of lo go U 


If ow tb«90 m the td&d of people whom you can cpprce^ 
Mud whom J011 do opprcjltt, mid tlrAt tn purposr, — eind Wttli 
all iho more crudiy jLitd tlic gn^jtcr stin^ because it ia jusi 
their ova £ialt that puts thorn luio >our power. Yoii 
know tin: w<ir<U about wirkf'd pt'oj}!c aivi, " He diith r.ivish 
thie poor wbcu ho j^tu.'lh him into hie n^t" Thi* getting 
iato tbe ikct ia con^tiLHtljr tlic f^ult or fblJj of the suiTercr — 
his own heodl«esae«s or hig own indoleEce ; but a^r he b 
Onoo ID the nctf t^ic opprunmon of him, and miiking the moot 
of bis di^tme', a^ onrv, Tho mtM which ne iise ngiainst 
iha poor are just thoao worldly oinbarraaamentd which citlior 
ihcir i^onnoc or their improvidmcc arc almont ocncin at 
BCKAdtima or other ut bring them into: then, j oat at the 
line vhcD wo ou^ht to hcmti^ to help thuni, and di^u-ntan- 
glo them, and ivAeh thcrn how lo m^inngv btrttf^r in fiitiirp, 
VG meb forward to ptih^ thoiri, and foroo all we cun out 
of iliem in their adversity. For, lo take ono iostance only, 
rooaoabor this ii lit^mlly and niinply what wo do, when* 
ever wo buy, or try to buy, cheap gooils — goods oficrcd at a 
ipoca wWcb we know cannot be retnanerfltive for the labour 
involved in them. \V honcvcr wc buy 6ueh goocig, remem- 
ber WH are stealing aom^'boiIyV labour Don*: let us ninoe 
the matter. I miy, in pluin Suxon, BTCALINC — taking from 
hiui the proper rr-ward of his WQik, and putting it into our 

uol hLV^ been oifered yo\i at that prioe^ uaIi?3H didir^^ of 
•nmo kind liatl foroud the producer to pari with \L Y 
Ulcd adva&tage of thie distress, aiad you foroc aa much c 
of him M yoM con under the ciroumatAnoc*. The old 
barons of the raiildle ng^s used, in general, the thiiinbeci'ew 
to extort propcrtjr ; vfc mcdcma aac, la prcfcronce, hunger, 
or dotn^tic umio.tioij : bat the f^ct of extortion rem&ins pro> 
ciscly tho samo> Wbothcr wc forco the iDaa*ii propcrtj^H 
fioin Uijii by piiitlung his slomacli, or piiwUing hia fiugcn^^^ 
malcca some ^lilTiireiice tLna^tomicnJly ; — morailEy, noiQo whftt> 
Boevcr: we use « form of torture of some sort in order to 
make him give up Uja jiroperty ; wu uae, ind«ed^ the ninn*t 
own anxjoti<«, iiiatead of the raok ; and hia immediate ponl 
of slAiratioD, itk«tcnd of the; pL«tol ^t the }jcAd ; but other* 
wise we difltr fh>m From de Bceu^ or Dick Turpin, merely 
in bang leas dc3ct<:rou9, more cowftTdljr, &nd more crucL 
Uore oniel, I say, because the fierce bniviii and the redoubled 
tiigbwayronn artr rcj>ortod to hnvo robbed, ilI teoAt by pn>- 
r^rtnci?, ocly the riob ; t*w stftal ]jabitLi;4Jty front iLc poor. 
We buy our liveh<*s, nud gild our pmye^book», with piJ- 
Ebnid pence out of children's and aick moo's wag*^ and 
tliu* ingtfnioiialy dispose & given quanuiy of Tbeft, so lluL 
it may produoc the largi^st powible mcd^uro of dchcatoly- 
distributed sulferljig. 

But tbie is only one form of common opprrfuion of the 
pcor — only one way of rnktug our h&uda off lb'? |iVu|[li 


luruUi^ iLiid biniiing anothcr^n upon itn This; Tint vny of 
itmng it U Ibc economical way — tic way preferred by |)7U- 
deiit aivt virLuoiu j>oap1& Thu bolder wny m ihr^ iiL^fjuiad^ 
Uvo way; — the way ol apcciilatioii. You koow w« 4iro 
CDii«<Ii?rmg lit pntHTiit llie vanimn nuxW In whidi n iLJtibn 
cormpu itecirf by not ncknow lodging the ctcmfil connco 
tion betweca iU plough aud iu plett^urvf — byetriviugto 
g**t p3flMur<", nithnul wortcing for it. Well, I «ay ihcj flret 
aod commonest way of doing eo ia to try to got the product 
of ot-licr jinc»pl['*» work, ninl cnjuy iL imrsip-lvrs, liy cbeupi^.ii* 
ing lh«^r laboor in times of diatre^; thc^D tb(^ second way ia 
ihni gnuid oni: of wiib^hiiig tbr cltano^ cf the imiikct ;^ 
the way of epeccktion- Of coiiree lliere fire Bomo ^peculfl- 
tkmn thttt ore tair an<l honcrt— speculntiona mridc wilL our 
own money, and which do cot ]tivo3vo in thoir aucce^ ihe 
loWf by otUara, of what wo gain. But g(.-ncn&l!y mcdcm 
i^rLilation involves much risk lo othcn^ with chance of 
profit only to oureelvca: even in lU best oonditiona it 
» merely one of the forms of gambling or tr«i»ai-c-liiiril- 
l^gi it U eiih«r kaviag the steady ploTigb and tho 
fftecMly pilgrimage of lifi^^ lo look for ailrcr minra bcsiiio 
the way- or claci it ih tlirr full piop bm^ip ihft rltai- 
tablcn id Vanity Fair— invwtiiiB all the ihoufthts aud paft- 
vioMof lh«: Aoul ID th^^fall of tlic cnTi\$^ and choofiing 
nthtf Um wild aocideaifi of idle fortums thiin th« ctvhn acid 
aocnmnlotivc rewnrdt of toil. And thin i« doatruotiTO 
eoovi^ at l«ast to our {jcacc nnd virtue. But it id nsunllj 



d3strucdve of for more ihan r"r pr^uu i»r our vii 
Havo you ever dtlibcrnnti^'lj ad vo^njeJvoa to tmsigin^ and 
uicjuurctho fudiTring, ihc guilt, and the riiiJrUlity cauaed 
aMeaaarily by the fuilur^ of any krge-dealiiig mrrtlitirH 
or IftTgcIy-brnticlicd bunk? TVikc it At tlic lowmt poeaibl* 
sapposition— count, at ih^ fewest yoii ishniija-, the- fiimiltar 
wboitc mcAn,^ of tiupport Lrivc boca involved m tUe oaU- 
slropha Then, on ihs inoming nJU-r the int^^lligcnc^ vf 
ruin, let UB go forth amongst tbom in ewncet thought ; lot 
us Ufo that imiiginatiioQ vrHch vrc viaalc so ofU^t oa ilati- 
doiia sorrow, to measuiV) thp stem focU of that niullitadi* 
noua distress ; strike open the prlvato doors of HmT cbam- 
bcrt, acd cQkr tik:nt1y into the rnldttt of tlic dotncvtic 
mjaeT7^ look upon the old men, who hsd v^^aTved £)r 
their failing fttrctigth M>mc runjundcTof luit in tljoeTcniap 
tide of life, cfut hcli:i1e^]y back into \u trouble and tumult ; 
look upon tho octivo fitrt^apttl of middle a^ euddenly 
bliuited into incaptmlty^ta hopra cniahf^d^ nnd ibi hardly* 
earned rowardsBnatohedaway in the same iostaot — at onoe 
the heart withered, and tlic right arm t^napped ; look upon 
tho piWotjs chilcircnT ddical*^]y nimiired» wbosasofl eyca^ 
novr large with wonder at their pareritd' grict^ must sooii 
\n\ M^t in the dimnpKH (if firnini^; ntul^ far more thnn all 
this, look forward to the leupfth of eonovr l»yond — to the 
ltUi[ih!;iL labour of lif'i', now to bu undiT^nc eidicr in sll 
ih« scvoriiy of unexpected and inexperienced trial, or ekc^ 
more bitter atill, to be Hn^un again, and cndjrcd ibr tba 


9bd|k'f ] DV XATl'llE, ZRT, AXD FOLIcr. 

•ooond tim^ nmEdtt tli« Tuins of cbcnesbcd hapct^ nitd the 

iMlDg and taust of ihu irinor filling that it ha» all been 
brought About, Dot hy tbc fair course of appoiDtoi dream' 
iiance, bat by miawiitlu cliitiice and wanton ireaobery; 
ascl, la«t of all, look beyond thi^— to the ahattercd dc»ti> 
niee of tluKB wbo have IhJtt^retl uDiler ttie trial, and sunk 
pAit rocoTory to dMpnir. An<l then couftidor whtrthrr the 
Kacid wUidi liaa ijourrd thia pjl*on into all tlie fiiJiIuga of 
lift bo Ono vhit ]c«» guiltily red with buinan blood tb:ui 
that Yihkh literally pours tho hemlock into the cup, or 
guidoA Ui« dagger to the bi^irt? We rvud with bom^r of 
tbc crimen of a 13or^a or a Topbana ; but there ccver lived 
Bori^iia Buch on livfi now iu tht; iiiulht uf ut^ Tbt? cruel 
tody of Ftirmni filev only in tho streuglH of paaiion^shc 
tlevr only a few, those who thwarted her puq}oacfl or who 
rexcxl h«r iif>ul ; the Jilcw sharply find wuddrnly, (TmbittCT' 
ing tho fat*^ of her Tictimfl vrith no ibrctasks of dcetructioil, 
no pru1un^tJ<jriHur|)at<i ; nitLl, finally itiid ehivily, nhe pIow, 
Qol withotat romoreoi nor ^rithout pity. But u% in no 
■tonn of puRtlon — in no blindnim at wratli, — we, in calni 
nnd cle«ra»d unt^mpt^ s^Iflshnefs, pour our poiMon — not 
hr a few oaly, but for multitudes ;— Dot for ihoAO who 
havG wnjiigrd tu, or re«iHtL>1, — but for thuoc who have 
tnialcd Qfl and aided ;— we, not with auddon gift of inorciful 
and Qooomrioufl dmth, but with r^avt vtwU- of bnuger and 
weary ladc of dtiappoiatmcnt and deapjur :— ve^ last wad 



cliiiifly, do our murderiiig, ivut witli -jxty \mu»en of \niy at 
■uorcLing of consoieaoe^ but in Taxiih am) forgvtful caIia oI 
mind — and ao, foreootb, read day by day, complacently, ae 
if they ?neimt any onu e\m lh»u ouraolvc!^ the worIh 
for CTcr dcficribc the irickcd; "'l%o poison of asps ia and 
Uwjir lijie, aiid thi^ir^Air ufs j/rtjrt fc jiAoi hhod" 

Tou may iadoctli P(tLmjtjc, thinlc there in jsomo cxcu^o 
many la tlufl m:iticr, juAt bcc^tuau tbc sin ia »? iiDCCoddcus 
tluLt tbu gitik isi not so great when tt in unnpprcltc?n<l(.'4li nnd 
that it 13 much moro pardonable to sjuy hccdl^aely tlian 
jjuq.iirfV'fully. I U-lif-vu no fcr'ltug I'jm Iht niDru nimbiLrn, 
And Ibnt in rcAlity^ and in tfao sight of hoavcn, tbc callom 
indiffcrejica which pureuds tbi own inlereslA nt any ooat of 
lifr, tbough it ilt.^'JA not dcliQitcly ndopt tbo purpoiao cf m\ 
13 a atfik* cjf mind hi oncu more heinous and moro hopd' 
ihaii the wildfjil .^^^T^:lticl^w^>f ungttvern<^ piUe<ton. Tb 
ntfty be* in the last caso, eomo elomciitB of good and 
icdtimption BitiU minglnl in tftu chu.r;]jctr-r; but, in tbeotb 
fi?w or nonon Thero may bo bopc for iho roan wlv> bas 
Blnia bia enemy in angfr; hope even for tbo inan who liaA 
bcttrftxvd hi« ffii'nd in fi-nr; but wbnt hope for bim who 
tradoe in unrcgaidod blood, und builds bl^ fortune en unro- 
pruUnl tnru30u7 

But, bowt'vcr tbU mftj bo, and wh«revcr yoa may tli 
fouraelvcs boui^ in juatico to imput« the ^'n^tLTr ain, be 
MtiiKd that tlje c^u^tton U otii*. c>r n-Hfxjriiiibititioji only, noT 
of iocta The dctinito result of all our modern haste l^j ba 

ucr. Tj nc rfATCiTK, art, axd polict. 

hell id ftwurtxll?, and oonstantly, t1i« murder of a certmn 
Dumber of porwmB by our hand* every y<%r. I \iarc not 
Irnw to go mio the deuib of aitotlier — on the vhok, tlia 
biOiidrcrt ftnd lc^t>Iu»t vrajr in wliicli we caiUM lU& dcetni4> 
linn Elf; poor — nnrnply, tb« way of luxury imi\ whxIa!, 
destroying in improvidetoc, wbut might have bo&n ibo 
mijiport of ihousands;* biit if you fiilbw out iKc nubjiKit 
for yoUfS^lv^s at borne — and wli.uILft7Q endoavoiur^ to 
Ia/ before you to*iiigbt will only be u^ful to yoa If you do 
— yoa will And ihat whor»?v*?r ai)*\ whcncwr tntrn nre en* 
dcAYonKn^ L> taaJao rjionc^ haatiltf, and lo avoid the labour 
which Prx^drnce bos appointed to be the only a4>uixx: of 
honourxbld proAt; — and abo wherever and whenever they 
pennit thdOsdvcA to ^peni it luxu^huali/, without Tcili^cting 
bow far they Are nusgniding the Ubour ofotbcrs;— there and 
the:], in dlhcr ca^c, th«y aru li(«rally and infallibly causing^ 
for tlieir own bcncGl or thdr own picaaure, !i oertiun aiinnal 

' The ua}y%9 of thia trrvtr will hn faunO mmi^lcZcl/ carried out la 
&IJ iKtOFM an the puliticil teaaamj oT irt And It \t ■■ error worUt 
aoalyirng; f{>r until tl 14 fiimny invUmi mrW friott nu hctilihy pnliliiAl 
cvMiomlcnli or mh»rfJ Af'lkin iii jiuufiA^ h kity ifjirt^ T ilo ruit my l>i' 
inpeUiouB]/ or fuddcDlf, Ibp I hkvn inTr^TiertTril ihljinLibJprtvi dc^plf, 
vid JB lotin, » JEJ ov-o spvdiX naTti™^ "*" "^ ■ ^^ ^^'^ pnndpJp-j of 
poUtiujl trxiimtay w^icll I havi? iFAtod in those Wlur» nra ■xarc u 
ibe pindfilc* of RniilUl, F^if^lUri rvvvTrrn [tcMttiUd tljdr <«r(Aiiiljr, ba- 
nwK I LgJiitlieia I had ''imvnr rvail inj Ivir^on Pvllriml Ko<i(ii>iny/ 
Did ihej Kippucie I tikd £01 nij knowJpftgf* of jtft by rwuliug botifcx F 


ntimber of human dcntba; thal> tboreforo, tlio choice giv^n 
to evuiy iniu: Ihjtii iuLo ibis world in, wtrifly, whclbcr In 
will 1)0 ft Ulioun^r, or nn ns&nfida ; and lliNi whoxo^^rnr biu 
not hid baQd dq the StUt of tkc plough, be£ tl ou tbo Hilt 
of ihf. (Iftggcr. 

It would also be quite Vftin forme to endeavour to follcw 
out thJn CTvmng (ht; lines of tlioitgljt whicb iMi>ald bo sug- 
gntfd by the olbcr two grn^t political as^ of iron in ibc 
Fetter atid tbo S^rord: a few words only I must penmt 
tnyMrlf rrspfcting both. 

a. The Fetter.— Ab the ploagii ia the typicd instfM- 
tneiit of industT^, hi tlic fct,t«:T i» lb« typicn-il inaUiitni^Ht of 
the ro8iniiiit or ^^tjootion neceafiary in a nation — eitber 
literully, for its evil-doers; or figurativclj-t in 4C0cptcd lawi^ 
fbr iu wiflc and good men, Ynn liave to choose between 
this figumtivtr and literal uttc; lor dopcnd upon it, tho 
mt»m laws you a^x^cpt, thu f^^wr^r penalties jou m\\ Iiavc to 
endure, and tbf> f-jwer puni^brDeDts to enforce- For wiw 
Iaws rind jUAt rc9traint« urc to ft uoble nation not cbain^ 
but chain mAil— Etrength and defencf>f tbongh flometbin^ 
also of an iricumbruna?. And tbifi i;oo4^ssity of rctttndct, 
rrni(*mb(*r, i* ju*t jw hnnoiindtK^ in man rm thii ncccmty of 
Iftboar. You b^^or every day greater nombers of foolisb 
people »pe^iD§ about Libcrlyt as if it were Bucli ftu 
bonourftble ibing ; ao far from being that, it i^ on tb« 
wbole, and in flic broadest aeuac, dishoiiounLhio, and urn 
ittn1;ul': of the lower creatiirca. No biviion betn^ iioi><v 



,«v*r gnftt or powerful, ww tx-er so tree lui ft liMh, 
tt aIwaj^ Bomotbing tbot be muct, or most not do j wlii]«j 
Ibe fleb may do wh^U'viT be ItktM. AU iIju Viu^lomd of 
Ihe world put togiftber arc not bulf «o krgc ea the sc%, and 
ftU Ui6 railroadfl and irbccb tbut evtir woiv, ui will Ik-., in- 
veDicd oro not »o tsaiy a^ flnj. You will lind, oo Uarly 
tbjnkixig of it. Uiot it is Lis Itc«iraiiit vbicb is bcitourabtt 
lo Tn^i\ not liiti Liberty ; nnd, wbut u more, it Ih r«tniiat 
wlucb ifl iionounibl^j cvca m tbc lower aoiiDcvlr; A ba;tcHiy 
is mucli iiK>ro U'cn ihati a boe; but you bonotir Ifae 
morSi jiul beoutwo h ii tubj^iot to oortoin law< wbiob iit itj 
fbr ^crly fiinction in bcc Aocicly* And throughout tl 
world, of tbe two abstract itungs, liberty and reatrahii, 
rcAtidnt 14 alwaiTB the moro bonoumblc* U ij«tniC| iadocd, 
tbflrt' ia Ulcm and att other matters yon nevor cau raasoa 
fiballj from the abstradjoa, for both Iib«rty and rcftruiot. 
an good wbcix ibcy arc nobly cbo«cii, ax\t\ both arc bad 
wbett tlwy are basely chosen ; but of the two, I repe&t, it 
ia roatraint wbiob cbonustcnzco Iho higher orcattiro, and 
bettefS the lower crciiiurc: aitd^ from tbc miDislcmig of. 
Ibe arduBgel to tbe Ubour of the iDAeci,— fKim Uic fOiB*\ 
tag of tUc pUaeta to Uie gravitittioo of a groin of Jujtt^^- 
Ibe poirer and glory of all crt^uin^ nnd all maitf^r, <:on^i)>i 
in tiictr obedioDc^t &ot in tlieir freedom. TJje Sun hm uo: 
tiberly — ■ dead Icnf bjs nmcK. TLic diuit of wbioli ywi 
«iti formed baa oo liboriy. Iv liberty will conn^— with in 


THE wcBX or mow, 

[LBCr. T, 

Anri, iberefore, I sny bnMIy, thongh it »wmj( n Gintrga 
tUinj- lo say iu England, ihatoa the first power of a natioD 
coiiHiKtfi m knuwuig bow to gufdo iho Plougb, ils second 

' pow&r ooaaiste in kaoring bow ta wear the Fetter; — 

8- The Svtobd,— Anl its third p^wcr, wbidi pcHbcta tl 

nfl a nnt.ion, cotisrsta in knowing how U^ yvu-ld the sword, ao 

tlat tlic tluMo ulisinana of uatioual exisUrcioo otq oxproSBed 

in thRSf* thnec short wonls — Ijstbt>nr, Law, and Coun^ 

This UiSt virtue w« at least possess; and aU thit Is to bo 

^all^;ed Ag.iinst us is tliAt wo io not b^nour it enough. I 
do not mean honour by ikckriowledginont of aerric^ though. 
BOmutiiaca wo arc slow io doing cvgd that But wo do AOfc 
liocLOtir it enough in consistonl regiird to the liirra and «ouLi 
of out soldiers. How wantonly wq have woBtod thoir Ufes 
youhftyo>ccu lately in the rcporteoT their mortality by dia 
ease, vhich a little cara and ixnonoe might bfivo prevented; 
but wo rc^rd thtiir fioule io3S than their U\<£, by keeping 
them in igtiomncc nnd idlenera, And ri;g?tnliiLg thc-oi merely 
aa instnimenU of batllop The argunient brought forR'axd 
ibr the maintenance of a standing army lasually refers only 
to oxpodioncy in tho caso of unexpected war, whereas^ ono 
uf tho cbiuf rciL'wna for the muintcDanoe of an army \a tbo 
iLtlv»LritJigr! of th(! militiry syftt^tn M a method of education. 
The mcflt fiery and headstrong, who oro oA«n aUo Uie mc«t 
gifted and genenjufl of yam yotjth?., h/ive always a tenden- 
cy both in th'2 lower and upper elates lo offer tbemaelvof 
ibr jOLir aolilit^nt : othent, weuk and unserviceable in a cinl 


Cftpocitjr, sro tempted or entrapped into tlic anny in a fbr- 
mnato bour for tbeiD : out of tliia llery or uocoutli material, 
It is otiljr »oldicr*« diAciplinc which con brijig tho full tilIuia 
nnd powpr Everi ac pi>?fteTit^ by mere (broe of order aoil 
UJtbohtj, Iho army b t^^ ivUvntion of myrindft; und rn^eii 
wbc^ u&dcr other circuinsUhiic^ vonid have i»anlc iDlo 
lethargy or diaaipatioa, lire r«^«emod into noblo ll£^ by a 
Krvioe wtich at once fummonA and directs their cncr^ca. 
HiTW much more than this military eduojitioQ Is ciipable of 
doin;;, you vrill find only ffbcu you iHAko it cdaeotioo 
uidccdi. Wo have do excuse for Idaviri;^ our priratu soldicra 
at Ui^lr present lorol of ignoranoi^ und waut of rciuioment^ 
t)T Ke fihill iuv&riably ^d that, both among ofEoera and 
moi^ tho geotkst and bt^ informiKl are the bravest; attlE 
lOft baro wc cxcobc for dimLiitshing our army, cither in tho 
prosmt siaio of political eveutHj or, as I believe, id any 
other conjonction of them that for mfiny a year will bo 
ixifisible ill tliia woild. 

You nuiy, pcrhap*, b© iufpriaed at my mying ^U;'p«r^ 
bapa turpniMd at mj implying tliat war itaclf can bo righlt 
or neoesaary^ or noble at all* Nor do I spesk of all war on 
nccewaiy, uor of all war aa noble Both peace aad war ara 
noble ox i^utjble aciHirLlirig to their kind ntid oucMuiau, No 
DUB haa a profounder acuao of the horror and guilt of 
i^nobk war thaa I have : I have personally eeeu Ita e^«l^ 
upom DaltoDV, of uiimittgntcd cvil^ on *ou] iLod body, with 
pcrh^pe aa much pity, and as muclt UlU;nia0 of iadi^;iui 

rns WORK 07 irok. 

[t»<7r, V 

don, m QSiy of tbo«G wbom you vill hcftr conttnunllj 
dedfumin^ id the caiuc of peticc But peace iua^ bo aought 
in two wajft. Ori^ way Sa a« Qid«on »ou^bL it, when lie 
!)uilt hU alUx in Ophrati, naming ii, '^ (}od send peace,'* 
jrel AJUglil lliift jpeiLce lliM he Viveil, an lit- wnji urdtircil to 
Beek it, and the peaco was s^nt. Id God's way;— "the 
country was in quictncsa forty years in the dajs of G)do- 
GXL*' And the oihor way of Aeeking peaoe is 6s ^ivunhem 
Bought it wbi^n ho gave iho King of Aesyria a thou-taad 
lalcate of fiiLv>!r, tjia,t ^* \t.i& hand iui^]\i he wiLh UUc" That 
i«, you may either win your peau«. or buy it: — win it, by 
rcwattmcc lo evil ; — buy it^ by compromiso with enl< Yon 
may buy your peaco, with wl«nc^ eoaaoieiic^ ;^you may 
buy It, with broJccn vows,— buy it, with lying wonla, — buy 
it, wiUi hoAt^ conaivAHceA, — hiiy il^ with tJm blood of tha 
fllajn, and the cry of the wptivc, and the ailenoe of Ictft 
bouIb— over heniisphcrea of ilia earth, wMk you ait smiling 
at your serone healths, lisping comfortable prayer* evening 
and tnoroing, and counting your pretty ProtesUint bcwla 
(whieh are flat, and of goJJ, ini^iakjd of round, and of ebony, 
ae the monks' once were), and so mutter continually to your- 
wAves, " P*?are, peiua^" whew there is Nopeaoe; but only 
captivity and death, for yoti, aa well aa for thote yoo leave 
Unsaved ; — arid yoaxa darker than tUeira. 

I cannot utter to you whut I would in thJH nnatter; we 
all see too dimly, aa yet, what cur gredit world-dutiM oio, to 
illon any of ua to try to outline thdr eulargiag ahadom* 



Bitt thick over wltAl I ^t<i: aud, aod fis yon kUitti to your 
quiirt bomcK tCKitigbt, rrrflcGt tlat tbdr pence wns not nron 
for yon ty yoiir own hftn>its ; but by tlietra who long aga 
joopardcd their livca for you, Ihcir children ; and romcinb«r 
iliat neither this InhfrltQi pooc^, nor any otlier, can be ^*^p\ 
but throu^ the witnc jcopwdy. No pence wm ever won 
&om F^l« by aubttir(\Lge or agreement; no peaco is ever in 
■torio ibr A»y of uit, but that which wo ih^klt win hy victory 
over shame or sin ; — victory over th^ stn tLat oppresses, as 
well as over that which oorrupta. For many a year to 
oomc, the ftword of every nghicoa;( untian mui<t bo wbct- 
ted lo mve or to mabdue; nor vnii It ha tjy jmtiJ^noe of 
othera' oufTcrin^, but by tlie offering of your own, tbnt you 
w3I ever draw inarur ti> the time when the great climj^o 
BhftU pn£8 upon theironoflhe cnrth: — when men sball beat 
their ewonia inU» plon^haroa, and their speais into pruu* 
ing'hookji ; neither sh&ll they Iff&ra war any more. 



lie Kn roing tny '* ElurpKiW of Ptiwing'* loaj bo *T3Tprtii»d 
bf tnj njiDK bcre Uiat Tintorft tofl^r ^^ tlicm Triong^ while ia 
tb* *■ Elomtititji^" h« i* ona cif ih« Aiv vow luinwL u boiog "nlw*;* 

t bring Iho Appitrent jDM^BUlcncy rovurd «t iha b^g-lEuting or tbli 
^^pvndix, bcovisD Uw tlliuli^tJoD qT It wiH lje rmt^K^r useTuJ iji uliuw- 
in^ lbs ntJ luEure or the ^If-^ontriutjction which ii oft«a allegod 
■fCftiDsliaQ bj cart Inn rcnilifft. 

Tl U not OTilj ftCMiiibl^, hut 1 fcvqueiit conditlfift oT human vution, to 
di» rifbt ftoJ Ae right — yoi m A£ fo mislcail otl^F.r pr.tiitle if thoy rHihIx 
tmiuto the thing clikn^ For t}ierD »to mnD^ righu whii?h ktb not 
■btoluttl^, but leUtjrftlj Hght — right only f^r lAol poreon t> do under 
iIjm* ctrromTiantw, — not Tor thi* i>«rwu lo rio miiVr otljer ctinram* 

Thi« [I dUrjili betw.'eta Titian nnd Tjnl^nrt, TiUvi i* nlwnyn ibat^ 
Uittdy BitcliL VoL4 aia/ iQiiUte bJm with «allfc Mcufitj Ihftt jcu bcq 
doisglbobAithlpgthittmnpoKiibly bo rtano fbr tbo purpos* la brad. 
!Ralorct u aJwnjfi tcUU^elr ISir^L-^relbliT«ty to \aa onra mmv «Dd pe* 
StbupowviK But yon inisflf. fjiiit* UTnli^rtririft Tiniiirpt b*ifi>r* jrou 
&>[ bf* nue wbftt hi« «^rn wn;^ niiit wi^y lic wm tlicQ riflit in d«in{ 
nliut would not 1>« rijfhl alvayiL U, howiyvKr^yav uki> thi^ pHinn rhiia 
to Qiid<r«lond hint, be hn<^tnti cntiicW initructtvc And cxtrrnplnr, jii^ 
AiTlUialA; ftnd thur^fora 1 hjirc pWiyl him nmonff tho«r n ho >»> 
"■liraT^ rIg1)C' "^ J*^" ^'**' '^°^y study him ri^htty witb tb*" fcir*» 
for binx 



Thfin Hid nrtiaU who &re nuaerl aa *'*dinittuif; q^ivthn of ri^ht aod 
ivi^rn^," Hi^ iJiube wlio Erfrm somi* iiki)«)ianni;t>f L^jroiink^tjuica or fthorE- 
sonUng m tJicir educatiao, <it> ^i>t aIwilJi do ngkt, <rveu wiUi roktioa 
lt> ihdr awn audb tad powers. 

Take fii^r dx&mplo tho quatitif of Lmperfwtion in dming form, 
thvns ttv uuuty piuturt-a of Tiutorel la wliicb l]ic lroir» Afu dnt^A'n with 
• fow curvc^i tlauriaticA ijf the brush ixteU^ciiI of J<^aTCfl. TLutl is [aIiso- 
lijTj'lyj wmug. ir yitii arineii the Ireu ua k modi:^ yuii wouM he ^miiQ 
very wn^Qg mdecil But it U relatively, nod for Tinlor«t*i puqKUto^ 
rigUL In tlik; luturu of the cu|>er^LiU wurk jou will JluiJ llicre miut 
Ijavc bcren d f^uso for Lt Sotnobod/ pcrhnps wonkvl the picture in • 
hurry lo EUl i ddrk ooruer. TintJtet guoJ^uAlurodly dl^l &l] ha cuuld^. 
poiDtvd th.9 figuru^ tolerjitly — Juitl five imQLilGa lei\. only for tJie trp<v^ 
vrh^n l.lii^ survunL uiujl^ " LtrL liini VfAiL fiUOLhi;r five laiuuLtA.'* Auj 
ihia is Uio best Iglii^o ve ann do m the limo. Entiroly, nJminibly, 
(jiLsurpwAally rigit, under ihc caiidiuijas. TilJup wuiitil [lul liftvo 
wofkod tiridcr lh*m, but Tmloret ww hinder and bambler; joiho 
iniy lead yoo wrung if yuu don't undemnQd liim. Or, prthnps^ an- 
cthor day^ romcbody ci^mc in while Tintorct wti« nt work, who toN 
mtfnwl Tiniorvt. An ignoUo Tkina wuuM have hctm 
poljto (O hiEn^ and goi>a on e(i?adl1y wilh his trei'S. Tirtorcl cacnot 
eUlld lll^ I^iicjhleQesfi ; it [;• LmErnduritbSj rfrpulsiri- anil tlLu^nrnntEuj; lo 
btau "^Thfl Black Pln^uc Ukohim — and tho troo^, tooT i^J^nll But;h b 
ftfllow sne mfl paintl" Anti the trees go all to piucra. ThiSj in yon, 
would be antra ill-bn&iin^ aad iJl-temper, In Tintorct It wo^ one of 
thu a^t'Ssary ootidll][>i]s cf his iiLteU3H!(i.'ii3ibiljty ; hail hv btwa cDpAblfi^ 
thc^n, of ki'cping hh tumper, ho oouli norcr have done hi? prcatnt 
^orfca. Let the irttert ^-o 10 pinCM, bjaJl mmoa; it isqnJlO ri^theyj 
Alioutd ; ho LB 4lvay& i^J^ht 

But Id a toiJtgnjuml nf Ciohi'ilnrnitglt yuu would find Che Ire^fl 
vnjriBtifiably gone to piccci. Tho cnrL>!csnoefi cf l<tnn there is dcE- 
rutcly purpowd by hlni ;-^4dopLpd as nn advisable tiling ; and therefore 
it ifl both alr-olnluly aud rclfttjvely wronitj:— it JnilionlCT hie htfSnjf 
JnJfWifiXiTiy wliK'Jili'd KM H |Hiint*r, and not. hnving limii^it out aTl Ml 
|)0V(|F& It niAy Biill happuu (hat tl^ man whoso workisliiusparriiEiII^ 
crroDcoui h gitntar (W, Jmn oihcr» wlm Imve fewer lhult& Oains- 
boruugh'a and Ik-ynolda' wrurt^ ate Tnuro (iharming tfmn Ditnoal 


I ought^ j>«rha|«v td taw nJJi^iI in tliKl MandweCvr *ilLln!«H (cmlj 
«o« <««• not lilm toi^jiliLn^-f Uukttbuck poujilt) mjho w«>iii« arwun-^ 
log ^iliMl |i«jniAni ilknly la uilnl-uuE tlut AUiJiTnL. For IdiIiyh!, Uiaa^< 
&«r« Aiid d>cr^ »i}m£>Llimg cuk^ bo gainl^d bj looking &t bforior mi-a,, 
Uiore a iJwafa mure La bi; ^fuiiuU t>y luukiuj; »i iLv boal; Aud iLvm ii 
Dol tiuM, With aU I^ loolciiij; of Lunuin lir^ <■) c^lukUfiC «ven i>aa kt^I 
p»iai«r'ii LuviTQcdoa. How Ihca mIiaU wc daru tu muic on: nl^hc Aikd 
tlioogbw on ioTorior oom, tTcc if wq oould do *a, wluch wo loraly <«q, 
vriilMUt daii^-ij <]r being hd osLiaj ? Ni»y, slricdy flpvakin^^ wbot 
people ooU inforior pointcn ^ro in ^ini^rul n^ painu*rN ArtiAn an 
diTufed by UL impaasblv gpdf iilUj tim mi^h wbo cuu jiJUJiC^ »ud mIio. 
«wiioC n« men who nn pi^t <>Jlt#a lalJ vliort ol' wlut Ihoy »bouH 

'JiaTe^OTi*;— v* n^wtsaedi or deftAUd, ar othcrwiM' rcnJi-iiMl Lididciv 
paft (o ADoQior : idlJ then u uq Qvorlratia^ barrk^r bctVccQ thom tud 
^ mL^Ei who oftnoot poiai— 'wtio cjlu only m vArloiu po^tuliir wi^ 
pnteid k [»iDt AncliroiKC yaii kaowlho difftnaoa^lhcrowalvByij 
>Dns iTQod u be gul by loukmjf nl a n^al psiuter— oehloui mciy tlunir but 
.mitohivr to W j|ot oai ol^ « IaIm on« ; bat do cot vuppoM rail paLaum 
tn vouiiiujo. J do uct qieidL of HviDg men; but om^Li^ tliow who 
Ulcur DO nxa% is Uia fiueiADd <ff oon, via^ It Bnl hail a •.^hooT, v» 
hare h*4 «&1y Atc ivaI pabt«n; — Q^uuJdB, Qalii&burgui,^!^ Jl-?^1h, 
lUdhtfd Wikon, ud Tumvr. 
Hw iwlar iniy, ix';h»ji% Uuulc I have i\>r>^ilfjcJi Wilkii:. Hu, £ 

'OBM oiuob OTMnUd htm la an exprntuonal df^ii^hUman, Qot harisg 
ibm tcudlcd chc Qpifo kiNg enough to bti able to dctccl aupnTdcial 
MntinMOL BnlliBtooharl hav« rL«v«r pTwUed ; it uootirclyEMboaDd 
nfauleA And U would be ouiEisC to Eogluft art tT I did not hero 
toj ngnt that tho adainCion of Coarrlnbtv. afrni'lj harmful 

'tnvugh ity Sngbn^ h exkwfiu^ ttwu ItiUj Fruitv. Tb4.-rv wa\ ptr- 
lti« SMksB|^ ta Comiabltf, of a a^coad or Uurd-nto jwnK?, if 
csrtdi:! dSvdplhio btd deidopod in him tbo mttioct^ whkb, though 
Sar nsFTV wuca^ worr, u far v 'bey wcut^ imo. But la it 

■ Ai &(«« tftaU Mylf WW IWncd, r«tly |k«v«« She lh«Ad«nika 


1^ «3c li nothing more tbnn aa InduaUiuiu utd infiocviit 
blLinilitrlTiit hit WAy to a nuporlicriikl vxprmnLon of one or tW9 popuki 
A^pocl* of comnioij naturet 

And my risadere ittAy dcpaml upon it, Uiat All bTnmn uhicii I 0Xfrai 
la diU nvrcqjb^ way in Uu^lwofthy. I bare ulL-i^ Loii lo rvpcut o^ 
nvAT-praiw of inferior mcc] and coniiDUiilTy fo repent of irL«uffifi«at 
[]t«i*o of KTHt men ; but of broai ci^ndrmnatioD, &OTcr> Fc« I Jo 
not speak Lt hui. Kll«r iLh most ncmrRJimg Kf KiriiQition of ibo mitl^fi 
and LTodcr atcrn ^n>c cf m^cd Pot Lc: si> that vrLcnevrr tbo r««Jct is 
cstir^y sliwkcil by nhat f Pay, \to may be< oaanrccf or^Ty vrord 1* tmo^* 
It id just bcuuK it fo muctk o^Dds kuu, ili&l it wm iioc<tti*ry : nkd 
knciwirig l.liaT. ii wth^ cTTend him, I alionlrl nor bare venlureH to tmj El, 
wiUjout c<Tt4inty of jUi trutti, f My "cl^^tmnty»^' for it Is juic « 
poMible to hfl f^rinin wti^tlisr tlie drsTing af a ir»t or * ttnntfi U tru4 
or iialu, A3 fflitrther die dttwlag of a tr[fl[]g1e I>; and what I mctfk 
pnnuhly by fnyirif ihnr. a pif!turc ii la all ]-Cffpn?i« worthIrM, It ihat It 
ia in oil roflpcctd Pulic : wliich iB tiol a tnattcr of opinion at all, but • 
iiialtJ^^rnw,i<rrniimb1? Tn^^i, .mK^hiuf 1 tL^vr iL<*4>rt till ! J^ViiaM'^rCaEn^ 
An4 tho thing su cumranaly wt tlinit rny vntinm t^al tl^cy atq 
ratW pflrsHfieivfl iIihu jupt; siiJ (Imr, fhnnph my "lanijiiagn" may bn 
(00^ I am 411 nnufc gtiidi? ici ortcntjciiim, k IJkc loany other piOpulai 
fiadmataa tn ruL-h matrnr^ not irmvl)r nntrur, but [)rr*?T«rly tbe remnta 
of the truth ^ itiA truth, like rcHootioiu] ia wator, rlif-torfod louth bj 
tfafl thaVing TMeplive 4i>r1aiN>, tuiA m ^vi>ry |i:krtif^ri1ar, npiftlA lIawil 
foraiy ^Manj^ajrfl" UTiLiI wlthJn tJmWwi orswvon yc«w,w*»Jao«*^ 
fdiwtipri, nnil Qiar« or 1e>a feeble ; nnd mill, thoni^h I haro ified hard to 
rnfmU it, llit- l>cjit l can lio Is inrorior to much cjDtenjpofory work. No! 
dfltt^FipElfin that I hare ever f^vm of Anything iti vorth fuur lio'tt cf , 
Tcdd^^^d; and Id wriono thouj^t, my halT-pagcs aro gvn«nl3y ^mif* 
worth about a< miirili iiv a f[iiif;li> ^i^nr^nreflit-h^t nr Tiin, orcif Carlyk'iL 
TLcy arfl, I wpQ trual, m trut: anl ncccsoary ; biil thfj arc Dfithcr ao 

■ Ifo muiV Ljwvvtir Ii? camrul ia diallngiij«h blara^— lujirvicr VTonielf 
Otpnaanil. oT kuho apoolal [^iiU otvtror m alniepjtLcilev^^^ini thMragaboraJ 
lWmD«ui4or iiifbrioiiiy or TTortl'luoana Thiie ti^ viU dad Bt» ouCiDually 
- Mghlng ai Vnnia'ft tiw-palnUrL;; doc bccaun WAMua iwukl out pabit, b^ 
bo twl uvr«r 1o(^^ at a trva. 

APPKJf mi T. 

30nQ<Qtnted vor to wotL poL But 1 ud aa fmtiivly ttFu piiil» m art 
Judfiinrni: tjiil thnr ^mplf ui tb« aeumsAiy r««tiItof m^ liuvLiki£ glvea 
lti« kboor ofhfdbo tbtf Jt^tvrrnifwliciQ of JbcU, rather UikQ to Lho r-JlloHir- 
iiijf of fodingi or UieorioL Nq^ iii*l««J, lJiaI my wi^rk ui f^ frDin 
iiUfUkw; at ftdmiU mikn}', oaA ol-Kayt must wiin^t ta:ti;y, iWrna ila 
soa^lennl nuiK»; hal. In Llia ttm|;ruii, it will bu fuuucj lu cuWr aUrcly 
md vouotUngI; into ttu i:iatur« of wbAt lc 6a*U with, uid it« kt&d uf 
lo^Ulw il AilmiL* Li DKSvt iJu^iuu*— oucui>Un& (iiuiUj, Ui proeiiug 
tfav Injtii too far. It m quitd ouj, for laataaop, u> C&ke ui «aok[«QUl 
irrdguWiLjr in & p[ccc'uf lunlutcclurDi wlucb Ivm cotvfuj ezmnuEwtion 
would D«v«r baT« dAL*cU»ii ftt ^ ri:^ An iaUtaUoaal ii-ntgcilamy ; qu1l« 
pOAAils to ULiinkrjjj«t au obKaic i itMjpt la a jrULttiiOr irhicb a Ini 

inMcl ob«ert«r woold noircr liftv» tdod to mcoipfet But inialaIrM 
<»f (Ha kind— Ijon«(, eotliUHiastifl ouatbkn— a/o nwcr hvnifal ; bocauM 
Itwy m ilIw*j* inadi; io a tvLii* diiMititiyH^ — fnllt forwittl <jn Ui< mfcil, 
not Iblo lh« ditch bniilo it; ko-l lii«x uc turv 10 bo corrvctcd by Ui« 
fMit QODMT. But tho blunt and d«ul mtit«k«fl mad* by loo nn^y oth«i 
wnCcrs on wt— iliv tunLAkra of aUccf i(utt«ni40ik, ouJ ^jLiit of J^yio- 

Lfhj—4U« mortal. Tho cnntc piirpow of ■ grrnt iLinkor fciLy bo 

Icnlt to l«tlioict» and wc may be over hnd OTcr a^iun uioro or IcQ 

la tefpHOiuig at hw ini*jininj£; biiL Thfl rixil, prifouncl, ribj, qtjiT« 

iMiMdIm^ md vnmlwui&blc laijiuke, U tlif r<jijr« ilii>iiiflit~*Uial li« 
bad BO fnumin^T- 

I ^o not refer, m ujing Ga'iM, toanj of Juy nUktcfiionU rta^iccttDtf 
•DbjvirU wbJeh il bu bc«n my lunin work to tfudy i ■■ far n* V am 
•irVF, I bare ii?Tcr jct muiiit«rprct«d my picture of T\jnii7r'«, thouRb 
afUn r^tiMJiiinpE UViml Vi th« fiall' of what li? had tiitMudiid : TiOilbn 

tTO t U yet fiiu»d Hiiiftliiuic ic c^ricot m tny tU(<iuivulA m|ic<itiij|r 

^OTUllaTi arrhtlcoliini;* but LU rmiual rFfcrcncrfl lo whaL hu bt«ii 
Cfukklj Srca> :t b ioipOMbb bo puard wholly agiuaHt rrror, without 
(om^ muoh Tulnabb <ibaprTalinTi, tm« in niTit-ty'iiiTitf taiwi out rjf « 
trandral Kid hannlosB orvn wboa om>auoiUL 

^ TlMffUb Jo jirvpottliMiK oT l}iii B^wiTiUdO PmUtbh. ^vi^ti iit iirvclx** niniviiinx 
Vfota In tho iKOhd TDliirnv of Uid '^StnitM ni Vvtii'H'," WW iillfffnj bf 
■t^bttKtl to bu t'Xiil^Dfrtl irn'i;ijlaritlp& Tbfiy will b« fbuDd» by crcrj onovrho 
wHL Utd Llifl paini to hjiiiiLdd theiD, nuat amjrodly Ui< liiClii[niLitb]7 InUu 
t^nAl,— and not Hjbly Kt, bmt oau of tb* priQcipaliuiyQaiaorUi*daiJgavf'>< 





It V Tvr7 /brtunato thai ui tht hzgUiCal of MuonV MSJl, publidtliad 

UkIj by Mr. Cotton in his " Sir JoHlum Rcyjxo\A^ Kolot,"* n;«ORl 
Ifl pittuifcil of 8lr Joahaa'a Icfliu^-e rHpccting the E«iui#iii4EB lA dn 
Window of New Q.ill'*^, whi'^H might 6(h»rwi>« liAve bma ftuppoaod 
li> giro loa till uDction to tbif moiln of pntQiioff on gliA. Kotlijng 
cut potaibiy ba niori^ ciiKaus, to iny mintt^ ihurj Ui« Kn<4t putiber* ex- 
bvctalJoufl ^ oi hi* Imvinif at hU oiitcrtAiur'd dkt iJtu LlLitt ttiir qnilitJia 
of oobur wlnoh iro poouliat to op^qii* bcdips cOniU tnJ obUinod in 4 
muJ«liii[r:[it uicdiacD ; but solUa: an6 vritb Uic ^mptidl^ ilulI Uum* 
bbnijv of PD cDtifvly grout mo-o hi* hopw that Mr. Jvtvns on (fbm i> 
ti> excel Sir JMhua OD cultu. U^ppilj, HnooQ tclb U3 Uio echiIl 

'* With Ihc &>py Jwrvitf maJu of lJi« pjctiirfl hu wm gr;cvoialj <li^ 
■ppgi^itoiL ' 1 [i/L(l frciim'iitlj/ tiv uiil to uic, ' p^eivod ujKlTbj eeilocL- 
lag, fitWr 1 ilJLJi pr<icSi]ocil wlLDt I ihriLlj^lit A trlUiMlC flfl^t fiT ligtit AXLd 
ehoJovr on nij chavjo, Low fPMtlj ihxX effect ^ouliJ bo Liai^bt'?ai-d bjr 
tiwtma^rcncywbjch lliDpnmUQg on gloswculdbo inrv Cii proji^ft 
U turufid out ^lujtc tljc rcTorect' " 

book wUh iU II u copied frotn il>e 4i>tli plftte of tL« tluid o^tiot oT 
the *^ ED«|dop«Mlia BriTunJiA" (]-^ljnl.iijr|C>i, UllTj, mnil cppr—pf u 

to ofomill ihfl Wi^rk iXM:\T, hs wlU (IbJ in ihe mdio pUtc ■nother ai>in- 
povtioQ of slmil*r projiHot/r ^^^^ disiiiHcd \tr tho wji^tjua of h p&rli- 
ai«ii<t bcncttith die ohvlow of which ^' m |irir*t« gvutJtiiiiut wbo hw ■ 



1 MAP mt«Ji4^ io 0D« or o;h«r <^ i^mm Uclurc* to hav^ v{Mt«D 
BOTOtr k-agltt vt (liu L|ii>lit/ of rtflacojcct in Colour, b^l AjuejiI Ujd But^ 
j«ct woDtd iMd cu too fir. A tow irords ftre, bovercr, tivccsv^ m 
order lo cxpUia ioxoo cxprcadona ia tlio texk 

wluuri ill Llko Irim htur uf Ilic worJ, di>c« not czint 4itttl it ii rclin*^ 
Dirt utiU,— «UliLi «XLR,— WDd fi^cnti ciitt, «a^l;f ciioa£{b iu aI| 
ptocu ; uid wo kid oit cuoljr enou^U hj all buid^^ but Cijknir esutt 
Mily wbi?rv thprt b 1v?adprn«v«, acrl on be UiJ on oiilj bj « hand 
which Iku ftroQi^ life in iL Tha lft«r oonor niiiijt o^ovr i« r^ry 0inng«, 
Y«97 nobl*, kn namft *onM ftlfitont iiwfaL la ovary ^vi^a toudi Uld <>ii 
CuiTBji^ H OQC cT4jn of itic colour U bopcnllT^ uid does not udsv jt« 
IfiiU put in produeitig the hue, tha hup will br inifv*rTbct. Iht g^rdn of 
ooloarwl^di 4ocb not work ^n dr»i ftiuf«t3 alJ abgul U witli ilt 
4lMlh. It must )i» |rr>t qnil fiT, or Ihit l^ii^^h bt tpdninl. Wu mWiow* 
lod|fo i1l!m LQ*ti;iuUv(?]^ ill our ux^ uT ihc phnMS *' Ji'Ad txilor," " ^Ucd 
oolour," " fonl eoJonr.'* Thaw wx^U *m, in some jiori, UUnJJy tra«« 
If mo<r« ^our ia put an tlioc if no^tvoKj^ a h^vvj touch whcA a U^ 
mo wnuld h&v« bern (Tioiig:1i, lh« quaulkj of «jToar that ww not 
iranlfiJr aiiJ ir. crvcrlnid by llio rtai^ !• ai dead, and it pollutM tbo n«k 
Tliore will bt* no good in tbf: Touch, 

Thff art of pamtin^ pTCpcrky ?a callod, c^nibld in Uyinjr oa II4 
>»«Eblo r^iloiir tliht «lI] produim tZi« n^uirvd rpi^lt, inii tida tnittiur^ 
ttiODt, in aU the ullimAtc, Llut is lo njr, the prinGipal, cptnUiauf <if 
eolauriniL m mi dL-licnlt lli;il nnt one luLirmn liwirl in a rciilliun hM ClM 
required LightnOAB. Tlie ^qoI UplkL of any piiiiitfir pn>i>4^ ly » ouned, 
gf CiirrpjTJfi'J— TiLiaij — rutnur— or Eeyntilila — would fra alwayi q^ft«< 

jkFFftNDtx nr. 


to 'ft^p MM wat(Ehii)(? tiiv prt>f:r«M ol' tJio work, Uitr litm uf 
If IkU Ihiuucr tJjui iLr.i Ji;|j(Ji> tji ciif) unxivo iu £uuLhv(-q^ 
pouL Tbo work taa^ b« vwift, Appw^ntl/ctft^liw^ 047, U>thafUkiaL«t 

ds llitiir lifAT iTorlt xf tlbckLTl (4Torl ; bitl &rii>]^'f« Lbo lOrnshM tAcrwani# 
kciJ you yii\i fijid tliv clnivUiTB Mid dvirUi of Ilia UjIuut Uid itiaLliv- 
luAUcaUj-lffCDCEurtrmbbto^ccf liMrftU/toamtoAtiQaovi, tiiolMt UfiHjn- 
«a fating Kw»y h\ tUnr cdgc« bj untnuwAblc EiaiUuon, The 1x17 
MHOMof ■muttf'«vrorL vuj tfauvte nou»v4d tjy » pieturt-^lcoMr 
la UBfohnttfl^ 

Otmtt^ hoimttr, tUi tLinncM asiAEi otily 1& popdewoEUMHillif 
niABe Umfhedi, Ibrwhldi thvt ytriuitmhon Kmy oflnu hli'^ bMft mri 
wicTi >dIiH t!«1oijrii^ ^omfDCmlf, iDd LliyrKll^, c<*^oii "dond aoknTTtng," 
but CTCO tli&t is iklwaj^T oubtlo if a idobCci Iajb it— tnibUo at Ic*H ill 
drawing, if «lmpl« in hus; and fnrthar, obiw» ihoC the rvfin«cu4ntor 
work conriju noi tn Inyiiic nUgHjtctj Wv cokur, but id «Iw»j» bjiiijc 
prtciwly ihfl right qEunilty, To lay on litUe ronln \T\({*fr>d lJi» f;iro 
Bghtncav of hand ; but to lay mgoli, — yot nat one aUnm Aw muah, and 
obUin tiibdelj, not by wit^ihoE^Hnif >iiTn^b, but by pr(«iiioa or patii«, 
^-Utal is the maJt«r'« GuJ aign-nuLDual — powcr^ kcovtodgc, aud ten ^ 
derMMsIl iini[4KL A gmt J^tl of ixjfotir mJiy ofTt^n bit wanL^'l ; [ler- 
bdkjtt qi;j|o A mBM«f il| Aiuli &« kJuII |^]'0j<i<it IV^eii Uio (voitim; but ttio 
rat] pAiribtr Ujrn liijji idam of it* roijuiivJ lliii-Jiiii^ lud »bii|m niLb m 
no^vck prociaioQ w if it wi^n a bud of a dow^ vtnah i^o hod to t^uoh 
into blosoip; <niD of Turnet's IiuhIihI fL'aj(i[u?nUvf wbicti duud [9 niu- 
ilfdlvd tnd gr*d*tudiDBn tD«iJU3t,>fl iriiai<kiL«we» Uj««ubji>olurtho 
pictur*, w1i»iT] iJiH Hkcrifi i|uiiiiiUy of colour, Ludcr anotljor buult would 
Lo L lifoloM lump. 

Bio MlowitLg Ulnct f><in a tetlvr in Hus Liternry (Jtuttie i-t ISLb 
^orrmber, 1^9, n-hI«U 1 vM ubIi^<J to vrnu^ t« di^Ti^ad u ciiK<f(ioi>i>(| 
eicprcoMvn rt?f[)C<cUiLU TurriLT'^ fubtloty uf IihmI f^ujjj a <tiAn;u of \iy- 
j*4]'bolA, conuiiiii Monid iaUrviUitg tod oonduuro aviUvnoa on tlio poini, 
CiuM^ it rdcn !>:> pencil nnd oLtlk drawing only :— 

"I miut uk you to aHow me yet laavo to rvply to iIie> objt^^Eir^u 
yoa Di^ni lo Iwu bLal^n^i^uU lu my iaL4k1oi{UL< h lUu>-i' ^Irjectiuti* wouJil 
i>di«r«ta« citmiaiiih ttt iiiufiilEUkii^ t luiva iitfdr(*d Ouki, m a gtvon 
kirinjf fut^ed ai ooe of tlie djlvf la Ibc icrics), Tnracr*:i pcmil did 




not iitov» <iv«F i}i« tliousandUi of an ^hiIl viihctvit monntng; ud jov 

le In much witk\in the t?iiih| bpiri^ im>foly u maiJj^matireilly itpfimkt# 
UcdcrJijUOQ cif fuUv ^od cxccutioa iu either dru^LUg oi' cii^.'tav iu^. It 
!■ only BfiCfWnry f->mf*iiFiureo piroo of »ny ordinnrj good work Icucer* 
tBia tLi^ Tnkv. for iaatdncc, FimJun's cDi^rairiiiG at tbo IdOtt; pag« 
Jlagap*' pottiiA ; In wFjidi the fhve offti^ G}nii^fmm ihv i^hin ta III* Uif' 
of tht bi^>w, occupiea Just b quiuter of ui Liidi. ujd tla« spiu^ bvtirOMk 
til* tapper liji and vh'm as Qjwly am pi?siblo oiie-flnTfrilo**nUi ofao 
ThQ yrhtjln uiuiil.h acK^Eipii^ onc-tZurd uV Uiia spu^'i!, Hny i>ni»-ii]tje(h oTj 
Jkii iiirh, nrii.1 wiliuii Llmtaiko*^ ZkilU Llic lijtf juiJ Lhmnuoh oaora dil 
fjult inner oormcr of iho moulJi uro porfeutJy (Ir»wo aad rounded, Wll 
qult,n lucoml^il nrid mllicientEy nubtJc ciprc-siLcTL Any onliBi wUl 
UBuro y«u that !□ order to draw « mouth m v^II u Uiij| lliore miuA 
be uiuro (Ji*n tvri<[iljr gnulatJEin^i oT Uiudc Lu [Jlo Upi[(J3i*| LbuL b to 
my, ia ihU oaaa, gmdatioiia duin^i^, wiLli r^icaiUDj;, withlD lev Ihui 
Uir ihouaandlb of on iudk 

** But iJju la Bii^n^ obi!J'« pUy compared to Ui€ rcfinoiucat of A 
ffltc tnGchaniul wcirk— much more of brush or pcincil linkwicig by 
mrmUFB hoed In order at onco to Tumisb you wilJi aitrhoriutivo 
©TidotiM on iJiis poiu% T wrote to Jlr- Kingslpy, ti;tf>r wf Snln^y-Bu^ 
tw Co]l<7^ n Iricud to whom I liLwuyQ Iuivq rccourtv wbca 1 wildI to 
bfl pn<dMi1y rigbt in any mAii«rj Tui iuEi git^l kntjultO^is Uitb oT 
RMLiicmatLca aad i:if uUuiaI acLcaae is jdimi^ not onJy wilb Aiogulaf 
poWL^rs of dclicAU- vxpuriminilA] iniiiiLpul[itJorL, \mt vi(,h a kwu iwiui- 
tivcnose lo bvouty in ilfL Uei unswcr^ in ild liuil HLAloiii«ut r«dpfieLn| 
Turner's wofk, ifl amuxiiig fi\en to lae^ aod wiU* I bIk^uU Uiiuk, bv 
mors M b> yftur riMidurs. Ob^trvo tbo aucoc^ioii* of laouurcd an^ 
t«atcil rcAiiecneut: b«rc la No. 1; — 

** ^ The linost mecbanioiLt work that J know, wliicb ii not opti^^bl^ ii 
tijht iUtUa by NirUt-rL in die ^ay uf ruliiif- lint-s. 1 lidvv u wrii-a t^ilnl 
by t-m on pinv, pving actvinl moIa* from 'OOW-'J innl iKKXilG of ua 
ItdL [Hdrri'cUj uuETrcl to lLt<f« {ilftca of JacJUJikb, mjil tiu lim uxcUkitvd 
Dthcn Ml Itoo 00 ■00UU12, tiiougb I do not knav bow for bo ootLld r*' 
peat Ibcic liiAl with accuracy/ 

"Tbjj is No. I, cffreciBion. Mr. King^'^ proowdi to Na 3:— 

■"^But lltUUnidcf workoompiu^ to Uioaujuracy iuwc»ary fgr tlw 


VDMlniMim of tbo otvect-y-M* of a mlc^rosc^ie »uvL u tUw; (ami 

eempoua; toch > gluvi * m^'Ii i^ wlti<ih irmvi u> t/im-t in ivJiiit amj m 
nrf^MdAll bAveibGlrnxcBiGUEUi;»li.-ia:' but it vroulJ uoL b4 inkl' 
Ij^btewitliout the figure by whicb it u illuitrac*d; Mlpoa toUr- 
"*'! vn tolvrablj runiliM"/ ho protved^ *vith t2u kotua! ^adLog 
■ad p(:diiluii4e of Umus aad «p«:uiat and Lat* produircd ity toy oi>ii 

liMlld Mfna by bO EDAIDS bvi cptK'nl Vi^rk, Hfi'l I lur« ciiporl no tniAll 

•asouniof Tunier'i work^ had f^iU ivok wtlitatut at fhr eau^itwl lioti' 
auf and fr«a$ii>n <t/ hu land; ir anxr* cptk^^l vtobe o^^sor tianx. 
Ill «f1icd woi^ aa in rt£c«d dnwiac, the haaa gam beyond the nyp, 
and on* hn ui d»p«nd upon tli« /M; aiul vrhMi odv tibt ttttca lA&n^d 
irliaiadBllc*l«airklrlouGhi\oii«KBlaaborrDr oTaU coara* work,atjO 
U taadjr ti>fhigfva«n;Lmouniof fMblaiuflivacnverthAn that Mdncaa 
wkack ia akin to impudono?^ la optica Ihe diaiiDOtbii is eaaily 9ctn 
wbai The wank i* put to Uial; but lifira U>o, M In dni^inj^^ ii n-z^tiin^ 
aji oducaE«d ojre to l«Il tie diflfrOEioa wUcn liifl twork iaocilj laud^rnuly 
bail ; but wllh " bolrt " wnrt, nothing piw he* wen tut, [lisMriJnrj anrl 
fojc: ariJ [ hc&rtilj Miih iLc mmc result nould follow the tnmc kind 
of luandliQg in driving ; bi^t hi>rr, the bolilnna oWiU Ihr rinlrarDi^l by 
looUejc liko Uto procirian at ihc tiuc mao. It is vary sMnn^c hoif 
QKKfa better our e&rvii^ Thnu onr fyt^ in chiniYiimf.ry: if xn ij^rvnnt 
iiMiiwecv to be "b^ii*' wiiIl a viaUn, tin vould act ^t iiutnj Adtninn^ 
diOilgh hiaboldnfjn wvi lUr bnlow that of ninety -ninri oaiof ft hiiTlitr«d 
dfawkua one aoM.* 

■ 'nia wcirib whlr^h I have put In ItAlitu \a the ibove aatniet are 
dicao wluch vrctc Durpriting to mc I kotfir that Tunivr'a wu ai r^ 
Ikac4 Maigr option wltL, but hid n^ idtb ofii^ ^i^K bayond tt Air 
Sa^ny'a word '■v?c'«xtirfiriK ji»* bcfor*, i?» ^lOTfevcr, aa I hate 
ollm frit, pfffilariy ihn rlgl^t «"''- Wbm «nfio we bfgln at *T! rn un- 
4enE«od llto baiLdliag of aoy tmlj grul i^^mitot', «uch m ILaI ^f aoy 
^ tka tfarao gFtat Teat^tianNp of Corn'p'gii:^ or Tiiru4*r, the awe of It la 
KmeUuDg f^iPeator thno onu bit IrJL iKFia tLa mo^t vtnpHuJojit natunJ 
wemtrj. For i,h* ivnufnn nf Kiirb « »y«U-m iti a high Kimirin inTiitli- 
fenoc^ cadowad wilii its im^ably perfect iiuinuncntd of ojc oAd Land, 



io^«iJiar ofsMB ormounui&a, 

** Aftv Uiut Uw^J)j(7ny to tJiu ojniplpdua at Tui-uvri tivork, T 
iLOl tX knflii deToaJ iny»all^ Iruin ttia oLfkrge of byptTbolo in tlw vUl^ 
monL tltJki, 'a* fur ui 1 kmrvi/, tlic if aiUHnFU uT Enr^n) ma; ti» <ibaUmi0Bd 
t> pioduoo one Kkiftdi* Uiai liiaU equal tLo dWk ilutly No, t&, 9t Cba 
fwUL^at (jT Ulc Dieuiotuijili in the Tlst ikiid fuUcjwing fincictf;* whifih 
iDOcaorui(fiif liovcwrp itebouU have beon at^orvcii, an sUtod bt cbo 
44lJl i^KV Ut hts III iii»]D« nfK{>vuU 'liia grudwl wfirk )l ^'/ Or^t b0 
dill in bU IU«.' For I boUoro iLot, tt cnuttrpuktoflv iKmo but tbtt Icwr 
maa wUam I bave just nuaed (lie liirw Venctiaiu ftD^ Gorrccila) 
Vor« iiquol to Turtjfrr ; uid, u far as 1 know, none of thc«Q foot «vcr 
put iJif^ir full aLti'tigth iutu akL-L.'lit& BuL wbL'tiicr thef ^ gf 00% 
my BUWmijiit ia ihi- toulogi^o ls Jiitiii^U hy my owa kJiowlvdgv: uid| 
fts far (w 1 Ciiit (fuaL that koo^ilml^ jC la out «u oulIiidiMliO BUt^ 
moDf, but an cntiroly calm oad coiUBdorod ooo. It may bo a ainuLt 

but il u ikjI (k byperbuUw" 


[ ci» only gire, to iUualrit^ lius bnloony, fnc-sunilH! of toi^ memo 
rundjk mide oel nsa^le Ipof of my ui>t£-1»ook, wifJi n tir^'l hviilj but 
El Qiny b<] useful to ytniDg AtiulcnU to ;<v iht^ni, in unter t^^^t llit^y ;iuy 
knoiT tha difTer^ni^^ hoii^ei^n norta moJle I0 j^ aI Uin jftnL and b^aft 
ijf a thinp. and DoLca mode lacrcly to \o<M ncaL Only it moat be ol^ 
wrv«ij Tliat the best i?h&raQlcni of l>vo drawing *n< ftlways lo«( tytn in 

* A ikvtfh. olirvrTf^ — not a ttpt^hod drawtnif. Skot^hn >je oaly piOfMr 
nbjcoli of compailttiii wiib Ajub nllipr ffbiii Uivy mnlnln iil»ril Cin Ann* 
qunoiy of vcirk! Ilia t«t<%F (Mr inorit k Eti# r[tjiiiiti(y of irnh told villi a 
given Dumbor «r CoufJtM. Thi* aMrrilna In Uio CaUiIlkud wj^ch U.'u latter 
»aB wrii«FU (u dtifirDd. tvoi muiu rcBp<:cil:'f ^c akc/XSh tit Rani^ f£a IDt, 



tin mm euttid hc^jaHit:; aiid I ihonh! ou Rhmr eno th«i» ilii^lii 
Ottla In vrood-cut iviuttoa, Lialtrn Ok: fc*dcr bad tt jn tiU power, br 
a gtecoQ ftl ihe 21sLor S^iIj plaTn tn ^1odi<m Funteni (ind yi^t N^'T^r. 
bjr trjin^ to cop/ • piftK ofuthvr of Uktri), to OMVitiin how f^r I car 
dntir Of noL I mfnr to llimrs (it&tint, 1iiyTii]j>i>, thuii^h 7 jlJ?'dni:Ujr 
m»M6 b Ihe profocc Uial ttof, togrihor with 0.0 Ulh, llOtO, Sith, 
■ud 37Ui, vrere «i«cvwJ on tba atr^et b/ uiy duq buii3, (Uic tue of tie 
drjr point )u lh« fjr«|[Tumiiia of Um iSlh arni 3ltt (ibEm bdnjc mar*' 
OTR Vfbijllj iliffrttTfiL from lb« <^iiinu»ii firocofuwt (if <il«Jmi^) I Und Li 
oobiCuill/ oMUffWd Out tlioy voro toj^oTod fof nii^— us it direct 
^}riay In mkAi icaltcni wen? n ihing of qulu* nommon uuge; 

Fig. 3 ia thd nntro-picoo of the balMJtij, but > tevf-^pnj u omitte^l 
go On niclit-luuiJ *uile, Latio}; bwi: lou iiiudi tiuriud aujoo^ di« uMiJ 
loATw to ba drawn. 



JR^ 3 aL«wa Uu* intcadod gcDcnd effect ot 
Its iiitfnfat Oitr nvu-Iutv^vd nnd nk-1eJiVf.-i] 
flDV?n bffiufi d«Ar1r i^:flliTLf^iih*bto al any 

F^ 4 i* ita profitvy ntlivr ^rvfijlly d^D^^'Il 
M lh« IClJi tv ahuw Oio tulift ciEiiI tiirLiE:ap 
Glr l«anL Cad«ra«aOi thum m a pbl« 



of iron bniea ioto brovJ ihia Icatoi, wlilclk g^^K» Uie cvoCrv 
tbe boloocj ■ gTidutl iHMip oatirArd% lilu Ifae Mido of • ilup 


w, TtuB cuDtnl profilo k oT the grMtal im^iorUnM io tit mU'W ^ 



•ariwM, u iu mirbb Cftrvtn^, but id thtttr iDCcnvetioai, wli«a (be ildo 
I* imi UirQDgb tiic ff^aU The Ugbtcr leaves, &b^ »ro ted bioiJwc^nL 

n^ & ibowa Iwo of Ulo tooth of tJiis _^^_ 

bor^, UluBtratiitg their irregulBritj uif 
ibRn, which IaIcw p1iio«qmi« to the osteal 

F^ fl u th« boHet at tb« fide of tha 
bakouj, tbovkf the moat mLBr««tiog 
Ctraututftno* in lh« IrektmeDl of tbo vbolr<i, Qiimelj, th« «ii1nrg«mcnl 
ADd rdncUoQ of ih« lectJi of tfaio oonuc^v as il ippTuuibaa ilu wall 






Tbii ItMtmoDt or tb« wlolo oonuoo u • ktrifJ of wrrath roiiDd Ui» 
Inlcimjr luTlRif tu \tnvta flung lottw «t fite Ijiu-k, und u^i cIom *t tho 
froTil, a« a gir] wouIJ lUruw n nTi<*tL of Wvoet round ber tmiF, Ifl pro- 
dsd; tbo iDoat riQishod bdirjition of ■ good norkroau's mlad ta b^ 
fbnnd in ibo whoto tHa^- 

fv iTM adtcd la the lexl Uml (lio whijk of lh[» Iroaiviork had bean 
oolcurcl The difflcitlly of cokuriaar ironwork rigbUj, and tbs 
aooiHl^ ^ doiii^ It in Kiittf) wny at cotter. Lav« bern lJi« prmciphJ 
fMSOOf lor mj nvrcr luving crrtmvd IxuMitj into tbi* iubji>ot ; liir ftll 
Ibe tmwork t have (nvr kcei lock brkuuTuI mv taiaty, aud ru-ty iiw 



nlll not uuTTcr moJcni puipiMc^ Kcrertljdui It uuj \m |)nnt«d{ 

ivt it Dcpda kcmc one to do it vrhc knows ubut pojiLUn^ iDUiai^ uij 

few of lu 4o— o«rUiiil/ DObc^ aa yo\ of our rcAtorcra of dccoc^Cioa ai 

writ«T« 00 colour, j 

It LP t uBTvdloui tiiinff to Qfl tfa>t book nTtcr t>ocik riiould ■E'I>Ov ^ 

Xh\a liul lutyKT, wilhoui. np{u.'tntlf tht^ iCighlHl caniclaoiauw on Et^j 
pub of ihf iriit^rg that the Giat licoc^aUy of buuutj ia cUom l> ffi^K^ 

pcTCon'I iKociMity to oubor a mir«tciT or subtJ^ty, u (he eccor.d 
«iiy LB Liao Id Kol^TiftflL Colour uD|frArl>t«d ift wholly rdttolMi- ool 
uma/akdoiM U mIjoII; UiUtoux Unlitf* it lc«ca il«df *iiil 
ftWHj toar«n5ft oihcr n^iourf, n^ a ctug line loan lUttir and tndt« a 
towds oUicc Inca, colour Lua ao proper exifltcooa, la ihc Doblo Mfi 
of llie word. Wivtl » irube, or letrvhmlroiif ia to or^gftoio form, ungrv^ 
iktod and unooaluMd coJoar u to ot|^lo oolour ; sod > p«rvoD irfad 
adampu la arrnn^ ci^lour hATmanicg wiihoiit j^iliti^n of line 1* AQI 
fvecipio]; Lh« Piunc c&U^ory, aa an vtiU wUo »kou1d try to cocnpoa^ 
B bemitiful pioum out of m >u<cum(i1a^on of cuboi md pftm!lctopi> 
pcdn j 

Ttin riJtiA of lioft In all HTuminjitiona on p&lni«d glius of fln^ pvnodi 
diopcodapriuuu'Lly on (Jul cipcJtL-nU used to tuoUe ibo colourr p&lplutd 
Uld tbustUt/U:; ifif^ali/y of brilhoiii^y bomg IJl« tfmifAbn of t)L'aHuu!7| 
jtut as i^cqun^ity of occont Is the conditiou of power and lovoliota* in 
■ound^ ThD iVlII with which ihe tlitrte«mh ocnturj Municitoni in 
books^ ud ihc ladlmiA in cbAwla aod urpcts, um th« mioutcet Mooart 
of colour to grmlntv olh^r i^oloiim, *uil oonftirti^ Lh« tj^ bi tlie ^leii 
BPCTot in ibcif t'ifl '^ eplrjiilour ; naaoirmtod, lioWOTCr, wilii «o tnnriy 
otJi*r fcfiirtft*a whrc^h »« qiiiie Ensjfcnctlvo ntit! antcprfuihlo, thot U u c| 
liul« UAC to dwell upon Ui«uL Dc]ic*cj of oF^QJKAtion in the dcaJgc^i; 
given, yoQ will Hvin h%ve iV, and without it, nothing. HowoTcr, 130^ 
to doflc mj book with d«9pondin;; word<, l«t mc set down, u mnj; 
of nt nk« Etidi fhin^^ fivi^ Ijiw? ro uhidi iIiptvi Ik no nxc^tiotl 
f^^AloTAri And wlai^ilL, if tin/ t-an cunhlc do fnkc lo ftfoduco |C00^ 
OoJour, mm tt |pfl*t, u for u ll]**^ ri^ndi, nceuratt-Ij cocdeinnoUii; of 
bftd colour. 

1, Aln soon ooLOVH IB OBAOiTiD. A Musli rofp C^r, b«tt«r ttil 
• blush jt«DlOi ia the Ijpo ol' ri^bLnvci in bmogouKci of pure btto. 



1 All, AtRHoiint* OF oonom DBiom voR nmn TrrAr-rrr o* i« 
MmoK Aita m.rt(TL criKATioir or trBtr rjtRtKu or :obocn rimr 

3; Tin I7MAL rAimoua or cotODft fOEOxatfAiiT w nil ooun-rnnu* 
or A Oni^iTft ntTThin^iT are Ar,njT« tvmiriTtuT *h^Ll; tttllttr Uirl hy 
UDiDomnbJj oabLlc toudiM of the poricil, vr prcjducsd br porticciA of 
Ihaooloailag ■DbBtntioa, howoTnr dlatrltiulKl. vhtrh tm vn thfclriuily 
BBtfU M to boooino Bb tbo intcndod dbtuico SttBcluIy »o lo the tft* 

i. No cOLOiri MAMUoifT IE or laav omdrie rvLva it iNVOLtErt ivi>m- 
■ORlUtU Tiin& It id tLc bc^ ptisaibfb lu^ of « ooEoiir wbtr; ncjUc)djr 
wbo «>ttl It knows vbat to chll ic^ or liour lo ^va mh Maji or It Ui hqj 
ooo cIml Evoq uaoa^ bimplc hatm Ujo oioit voluoblo luc tlicaa 
wUdi cwmoi b« ricfinffd ; thn moat |irfii^lo"3> purplra wiQ looSc brown 
bMtda pur« piirp[«, And purple bcflidc piiru brgim; and iho nioftt pr^ 
dkna gi^nu witi be (»]1til blue it neon beside pur? /rvrvn, tvmt i^two tf 

& Tiv rraxR thk etv tor nni/iTm, tite le^ it wi^-u niiQitriui m 
om^nrr tr nmnauu-r. Bot iLat Uttla muiit bo HiLprcmdy ^od itiJ 
pore* u iJiB fLcoit notcfl cif a pRnl s[Dgor, vliid^ htd au crzLr tu Bfl^UiOL 
AoA A ^roAl oolounAt will moke crcn Iha Absenoe of colour lorolj, ■■ 
dw QdJDit oT lh« perfiwt vokts jDAk«a bTIi^dw iwcr«*L 


R us SIN. 





■omuuHT nTTDEvr or cmun- omntm 
or Fun aa 








" 2, ThH Rb JkTION OF AJBT to TiELIQION , 36 

** 3, The Relation of Art to MoftM^e - 69 

" 4, TnB Relation of Art to Ubk , , 99 

-^ 6. Lot 129 

« 6. Light 155 

« 7 CoLocB 187 

^tttixtt 1. 


Sfrt«« !. 


Tme duty whidi te to-day laid on mo, of introducing 
MDong iJie elemeiite of vduc^tlim appoLut4<d ui tUia great 
Univ^rBity, oda not only new, Imt aiicli a« to involve in 
ltd poeatble results acinic tni^fiiiiiiuUon of dtc I'OAt, \f^, u 
Jim yfi'W U^Ay so ^mve, ibnl. no rimi could uiidtTiiiilcn U 
viUi[)Ut Uyitig ttltiiwLf o|x?u to ih<t Imputntion of a Idrid 
of iii»otuDoo; and no man oonld undertake it nghtly, 
without iMriiig m <]atigrr cjf litiriiig luii liiuiiU Hhrjirti7ncd 
hy drffftd nf liU tiii;k, and miHtnii;! nf lihnALflf. 

And it hoA cJinncod to mo, of lato. to be m little fto- 
t^oaint^ eitbci with piide, or liopc* that I can ficm'celjr 
recxjver 90 much n« I now need of the one for ett^n^th, 
and of tho other f'>r Eoreeight, oxcoftt by roiTieiubcriUjH: 
tlmt nobln pentouK, mid fritrnfls uf tlitu 1i[g1i trtEi|>c<r Uiat 
jndjfoa mo«t <;1carly whirre it luvot; l>cHt, hiivo dai^^vu^ 
thiA tntvt nhonld be given me; and by ttvring alK> in 
llic convic-tion that iLe f^oTKily tr^e, wIkjiw r*'n»ts, by God*a 
help, tpe set la oarlh today, wnll not fail of ita hHght 
becattfle tba planting of it le under poor aiuitpicuif or tbp 
flnt aJiooti of iL eiifMiblcHi by iTI ^rdemng. 


S. The inunificerLce of tlie Erigli^K ^iitJnnian to wlt^nn 
wo owe the founding of ihU ProEp^s/iriihijj sit once in 
oiir tliroo groftt Cuivei-sitioa, ha& a<'^^ompliftbcd llicr finrt 
greet gi'ovip of a Bciioa of cUan^cs uf>w takm^ gradLial 
effflci in our eystL-m of pnlilic Gdni.*arioji ; nnd whitrlij m 
3*oa well know, aro the aign of a vital change In Uia 
natiucia] mindT respectiTig buili the pnaciplea on ^Uiob 
tlmt ("diiojitlon fthoiild he <?<niJiu1fi*l, and ihe muks of 
Bocioty to Avhiv'h it eluiuld extend. For, wheroru! it wud 
formerly iLougLt that the diM;ii>[]nc iictx^swinr to f^vxc 
the chai-acWT of youth was beet given jii tbi> Btiidy of 
abAtmct hrauuks of Utorftluro and ]*hiloBotihv, it w 
ii»w tliiiiigbt that the wiitWj tir a betf*ir, dSM-jjilhi^ maj 
1>43 given by infunTiii^g mon in e^hrly yea» of tliiugi 
it canaot but bo of d:iicf practical advantage to tbcm 
uflL'iwardn to know; and b^ [icrmitt-lng to iheiik rJi^ 
choice of Mtiy field of study wliiol» tlioy may foel to bo 
boftt adapted to their iKn*oiiitl di^pwlh^nn- L have al- 
vnty^ iiMjd what poor inflnpiit^a T p^iiaaffivod in Hilvnncinif 
tliia cban^; nor oan any one rejotoo tnoro than I in 
ita practical resultA^ Utit the ci>n]pletioii — I wtU not 
leature to eajj correct ion — of a &>fcteiii eslaldihh^ bjt 
the Uig^li«ct wiadom of noble atiocetore^ cannot be tjii 
rererontlj undertaken: and it la tieoMdarr ^ tho 
Knglifih pt-Dpb", tvlio (in? ^cnjittiinL** violrtil. la phangu in 
proportion to tlic? rohiotriTictv with which tZiov admit ita 
Docc^ity, to be tn^vr oftciier than at otlier timo« r«- 
iDindt^d thut lbs objectt of imtmcCion here U not pri* 


muily ftttoimucnl, but diMiplSue; and that a youth It 
Milt ic our Umvereittta, uot (Lllbf^iUi hi ltfa»l} Lo bo 
Aji|ir«iitJCM?d to a tnulo, nur ei-eii a1u'u>H Kj be mlvanciKl 
ID a prcjf cwion ; but, olwayv, to b& mado o gicntlomoii 
and a sGholar. 

^ To be made tlieao,— if there Id ia him die miikln^ 
of either. The populace of all ci^-Uucd uoimtriiw have 
lately been utider a fuverlrJi ii])pixv«i<ju tbat it iH p(B* 
aible tir all men to be IxjUi ; and That UavEiig acoo 
bccoiDC) by passing [.hr;>iigh rt;rt.iuiL nu.-C!LiiUL4MLl pru;ic«aot 
of itkrtnidion^ ^iitlo and Icaninl, t^icy &nt sitro to 
attain in the eet^oel the conBuminate bcaiitiii^e of being 

Cicb, 111 the wii) and iTiuriAure in whidi it ia well 
far them to bo no,tliej mnr, witlioutd^iubt, ii// l>Cfc;oiu& 
There ia indeed a laud of llarjlab open to tli^tn* of 
whiidi the wonderful aoiiIi-riGe h liu^rall^v tiiie— 'Tlie guTd 
of rtal latid ii i-^xid.' But tbej ninai firat uDdei-atand, 
that educfiktioQ, in ita doopc^t at-iiao, ia Dot the equalizer, 
but, the diavenier, uf man; and tJial, ^» fnr fiviin being 
Iiutnmeiita for the collccticjii of riclic^n, the first lc««Qn 
of vritfdoiD it to dudnin them, and of goutlenm, to 

It i« rot therefore^ a? far wo can jud^, yet poeBthle 
aU men to be jrontlcni^n and echolar^ Even iindor 
hot Iratiiiii*; Aome will I'uiiiAin ttxj eellMi to refufte 
\reaJUL, and come too dtUt to dceiro k^ifiurc. But riant 
more migtU be to than are now ; nay^ pcrlia^a all n\c:t^ 

H. .And tfaea, ibe aatnln^ t 
vUi not t>e b^ UitiveruCio i^t uU kDimkd^, but by 

fal for every cIa»; in yK\\\<Ai, ^nl the principles cf tbelr 
tpdd&l IjiiamcM inaj 1m perfectly taught, ftTul wllatl^^'6^ 
bi)c]><^r ItwrriTiig, itml cuUivuiiuii c»r ih" fiifTiiUjcu A»r i-ts* 
ceiviiig ui<l gi^^ng |>lc»an>, iim^' bo pnijjoi'iy jriiitctl u^iUi 
thftt Ubonr, taught in conm^clion witli it. Thiu, 1 do 
not dpspair of eeE>in^ a School a? A^iiriiUnrvy w-flh Ita 
fnJIyendon^diJ instiinloa of molo^^ b'-tAn3\ snd dioniid- 
tn-; £n>l & School i>f Alen^autile Beatnan^ihip, vritb lU 
fiutktitfM (jf MlniTLoiiiv, im^(i*nrolfigi^ and iintTirAl liUtory 
of tbdMA: and, to r&mo only ono of tlio Stior, I do not 
ft»y higher, wtej wa nlmll. I hope, iu u lUlW time, hiiv« 
a perfect vihooi of Metal-work, Bt die head of wliii-h will 
bCr not the irrmm Aliens but tlic goIdMnitl»; luid tliax^in, 
I bcliuvci tJtat Artj»t»^ bviiig tAiit>lil Iiiav to d<--nt w]»«ly 
vrith the moet procffia of motAls^ aiU tiko into diKO 
govoniDifint tbe nfio^ of all otbcra; Lavini^ in conncctioft 
vrttli Uititr prai^tical ^urk ajrluiulM iiintitulvK (jf r1t(:<iTiifitry 
And niinonJr^, and Ot cthiool unci iiiio^nativo liter 

And IbiiAl coiifivii mjwiif mcinc hit«*rftftf;d in tfjfr linid 
iwiie of tbe dian^v in our 8T«tcni of oentr^l cdncntion^ 
vrbich i» t'>day onsiuii mated Ijr the a^Jnuo^i^u of the 
cnaiinal arlj? Into itii Hi^itinej tJian in uuy diieot «ffi3ct 
Ukrij to rwnlt upon cnirvcUxs frnm tlio inDoratioiL 
Bot I miiflt not pcimit myvclf to f&U in tlio v«timat« of 



mj immediate ^uty« while 1 debate vh&t [Jiat dutj mftj 
horcftfttir leoom« ID thd hands ot oUi<ira; arid I vnjl 
Ibfri^foii; iiow^ f(> fur an t um ub!i\ I:iy iK^fiTC ^~<ii] a hiiui 
g(rnoni1 vi'nw iif tiiu oxiiiting fiUtlu vf tli4! arfH in Rng1u)d| 
tnd of tho intlupnco which hor UnivcreiUo^i throng 
thcae nowly-foimded Icctui^feliipe, maj', 1 think, bring hi 
hear upoD it for j^ood. 

B. Aiul &T«t, wc have to consnldcr tbe iaipulvc whirh 
luui bccrn given t(^ tht ]>rucrti<;i? of nil tlic nrtf- <if which 
thfi objdct if tho pUHhif;tiu:i ai brftutifiil thinp;^ by the 
eitcnBiuQ of our coramcroc, and of Iho mcaiia uf lator- 
<3ut]nMf Willi fi-M^i^r iiatiuu^ liy wlm^h \ve hmw IjatTOuie 
mora fumiliaHy acquainted wiUt their wot-U in pOAt aud 
in projciit timet*. Tlic itmntditttc ru»dt cf tid» new Ituow- 
le^gp has bewn, T riTgrr.Tt Ui wij'j to tnaWn us room jealfins 
of the f*^iuu£ of otiiera, Uuin consoitjits of the linutfttiovu 
of OUT owu^ and to make us rather dodre to onbirge 
onrwcahii hy tliomle of liri, Uiau tu eU'vuib our enjoy* 
montc by iht oc^cjiii^itioTu 

Now, whatover cffoil* we m&k^ with % irtie desire lo 
produce, aud poaaeas, aa tbembsh'^a a coiuttta&iit |>firt of 
true wealth, thiu^ Umt urc intrineiicAU/ hcantifu), hflvc 
in them nt luaat uitc uf tlic Cfvcntinl L^1ciDcnt« of biigccse. 
liuteffom having origin only in th« htf^ of onricbing 
oai^lree hj tlio sale of onr prodiiclirma, aro aeaiu'cdly 
CDiidiiiuLcd lo di»hi>riimnLblis faihir^; Qut U^iaoAe, nltl* 
lUbtoljr a well'tmiitod jiritio]i may not prollt by tho 
•vAiv^iiw of \U pci^uliAT firt'flkiU ; but bocnu«s tljut i>cca' 


Bftr nrtakm t«ji never bo dereloped with % vtevr 
prifHt. TIl<: ri^lit fullilmciiL of iiaLiou^il pOM'cr 111 Art 
dejKTriiU utwitjK <m lliif 4]n<i:?ti<>u uf iTi. lilin by Vlie ex 
pchciiAO ci fjgufl. ikJf kriGWlc(igc ie col lc«* diIli«iJ:» 
ngr lofl 11GCCM&17 for ihs directiou of ii* genius, to 
people Umu to an individual, and it Is neitlier to 
a<jqiim>d by llio eap^nic«fl of un^r&ciidccl pride, nor 
daring Oie Jhii3iiuticn cjf infj»r<>ridt;ut i)ilHi\^^ y^ nutit^ 
firer had, or will Imve, U:e pow^r of suddenly dev'clnijiii^, 
wider ti^c prcRturc of ii<i4.iL't«it\\ fui^iikioa it hod iif*{;tdctod 
wbvn it wu at caeo; nor (if tcudintg itncilf m [lovrrt^i 
dw ikiH to prodncQ, what it had ncror in opulence bad 
fte mhw to admire. 

H Goiirwc'U^ nlw] vviUi wjme iif Uit- wmiit partn 
<ntr coci«l (L3\itcni, hut vapnltlo of living directed to b 
result than tlii> commcrci&l f^udcavonr, xtg see UUiy ft 
most powerfdl iinp;iW ^iwn t<i tho prinltirriuii of i)(«lly 
voricB of ai-t by the \itrjouf cfiiigoa whioh pr-imole tho 
Auddcn a^ciimuiati'Jii u£ weidUi in tJio Jiandauf pti^vto 
,p6nocK. '^Ve liave tliiia a vatA and fi^w jrou-tJiiugtt, 
irhleh, in it^ ^irei^ut a^ncy, tit iujurtiiim tu cHirfdi<)o!w; 
but wUicb ie ii^vortliolvAa ju a ^'rt^t dnj^nx; cnmc^t And 
€oiucit^aLuJbA, jmd fur fnmi Inniig iitfliufriccil ctiirllT by 
tnotivdi of o«icniutiuii. M<«t of our ricli m«ii would 
bo gW to pr<fmi»to tJkC tmo iutcrc»tfi of art lu tliii» 
oonnFrr; aid evi>u tlii^o who bay for vatiUy, fnund 
tliQir viuiity on tho pL«cOwio]) of wkat tiioy auppooo tc 
be beat 


It la tlierefofo in a great mea«nre the Fftolt of attiatt 
ttiemwrlveB if liiej^ «nlTcr fmm iIiea {jmrllj uiiiiiti*Jtigent, 
fine thoroisglily wdU-iut^nded patroiuige. If tboy iook 
to utt.rivct it by occcntricityj to deceive it by ftupcrficift] 
4]^tniUrti*j;, or riiWr' ai:)vntiiag<> <if if by rhrnt^1iili>« nnil 
facilo pnxluutioii, they neoe^iftriky d^^grarlo iJioniFtelr-ea aad 
it to^thoTp and h&vd no i-ight t<» coMiplaiu afterwarda 
that It will injf ackor>wfleilg9 1>tftT«Tr^gtiJUuded cJ 
But If every painter of real ix>wer woiild do cnly 
be kucvr to bu wortljy of tiiEUBelf, and refi^^ to 1>a in* 
v«>1v4id ill thn onritmlicin fur iiiiilc^erved or ni'j^lilt-iitiJ 
Bucc-oii», tlicre ia iiideod, Tv-liatwer irmy bavo l>ocn llionglit 
or Haid to tliu contrary, tnio iiiiitinct enough in tlio 
[iieIiIIc iTthid 1i> follow furh firm g[Ei<]HiK'J\ Tt i» otRi of 
tho fuot^ wliitih th^ (5!;por]«uoe of thirty year^ enables 
iHd to BMcrt witliout qaal Location. thaL a ideally good 
picttireis nUiinately always appri>vod anil btiii^ht, iinlefiB 
it ia wilfully readorod otTen^Tvti to th.e public by faults 
yrhxcU thu artibt huA }t*M*u citli^r too i>roud to a' 
i¥r tiK) wcdLk to ivirnHit 

S. Tlio dovolopiTicnt of whatever ia lieiilthful aiid 
vicoablo in the two modoa of imptilee which vre haro 
been onittldeHnpj de|]eikda htiwever, ultiiontely, on the 
din^utlon taken hy the Lruo int^reet in art whioh has 
laf^ily befjn aroLiflcd l>y tho great and active gt-nitiK tif 
many of our linng^or but lately hi*tj painh-m, WTnlj>to» 
and archilec1& Jt inay pci'hnp* »ar}>riic, but I think it 
viUpleaM you to hear mi% or (if ym will ft»rgim m 


<y lauin 



in my own OscJotd, Iho preeiimptlon *f :hncving tlml 

^fwati may reiMguiKO rue by an olJ unn«) t** hftir ilia 

Bultiorof 'MoiWii Pniiittrt' ajiy, tliat liirt v\iiL-i cm>T iv 

eftflter dkjrt WW not fn ovorediiumtitif?, but in tuc 

Blightlj •dcnowlrclging iJio merit of living men. The 

grvmt jiainti^ wl»**» |jnwrr, xrbEir bi- whr yt^l amiinp iw 

I w» i^ilo to pgrcoivo, WM tbo fir&t lo improve mc foi 

my disregard of tbc ekill of bis fcUow-arLists ; and, 

vriUi thi* IjiftngTirarion of tlie etndy of the art of all 

time, — a study wliiuh esn only by tnio modesty end 

tn "mtc Admiration,^ t h siiiy^lj veil tlmt I conne<:t 

die reni^t) i>f fb^itifi nrmlg uf biA, Apnkcii tiieti too truly 

Co myffilf, and 1ru« ulway* mora or loes for all vho 

are nntnuncd in tliat "toil, — ^'You don^t know bow 

difHi-Tilf. it \k* 

Yon vritl iiot cx]>cct me, intliin tlio comp^A of tlui 

lecture, to givv; yoii lUiy HEialyHLs of tlte uiHiiy kinds of 

excoHcot Art (in fill the tbroe f^iwit diviftion^) wfaleli tho 

complex deinELiida of modem life» and yet more varied 

fnstinrU of luinlerri gt*TiiiiK» liiiv** <lt?vE«bi|ic<i! fi>r plunimre 

or SQTViwx It mnflt be my cmlonvoitr, in conjimction 

vStfa OQjooUoa^cfl in tbc other Univci^iticft, bcrcaflcr to 

etiftb!«yoTi to apprceUtr tbcwo wurtbily; in rho bi>|ie Ibnt 

iliO Ihe membera of the ICoynl Acftilorny, and tho^ of 

tim luljtutff of UritUb AitJiitecU, ni&y bo inducod to 

itt^Btf and giii'^le^ lliG cfTiirlfi of tlie Uiii%~Gr>itie«, by 

org»»iun^ tiidi a nyfttotii of art cdacatioD tor tlioir own 

tCiukntB A« jibnll ill f[itiiiic jircvcut tJic waatu of guiiiiit 

oe to the proper fiubaUnc(> ahiI iim i>f mftterida; ftad 
ji;<|iiirin^ uami>liaiice vnik cciinin c^emerUary priiiciplM 
uf nght, ill i>vei-^ pli^liire mid d^^igii BxlitMt^ witli tii«ir 
ioiiuiiim. It ii^ uut iudcod pce^tble for talent b<i ^^oriod 
ae that of Engli^b &rti»tn to lio com]>ell«d inbci die 
Tnallttes of a detGrminGd school; boc it inn^^t wrtHiiil 
bo the fuuctiou cf o^ci-y aoadctnlcal body to aoo that 
HiXsiT yonugtsT tituduuU fti-e guarded frum wlutt mtiflt in 
«T«t7 p^hfxA bo error; and that Uji>y ar« praodied ia the 
beat mcdiodi of work hitherto kriuwn, bofnti? thoir ingo 
nuUjr ia dtroctod to the hivvntion of GtlienL 

d. I need scaruQly refer, excopi for the sako of co 
pletoncee in m/ etatellleIl^ to one form of dctimud 
tirt wUii;b h wboHy uuonlifihteued, atid puwerfid udIjf 
evUi — namely, iIiq demand of the classes oocnpled aoldy 
ill tlte purt^iiit Iff ^IcaBurOi fur <jbjef.-ta ctud motion cf oii 
lliat <»LU aiuiLso luiulDiico or gatlafy dcnNibility. Thoro \%. 
ui> HGvii for any dtscasaton of tlio^io roquircnicnti^ co* 
tlLcir fcrmis of influoiicOf tlKm^U Uioy aro very deadly 
pretciit In iJiijir opemtion fiu Aculpf.urt;, and on jowolla 
wcrk> They cannnt be cbockad by blatno, nor giuded 
by inetrnution; tboy aro nioroly tho neceseary roeultt of 
v/lmtever defeutd exlftl In the lisEiijitir and |iriiLdph» tjf 4 
Ifixuricus aocluty; and It la only by moral cliiui^oj;, n 
by flrtHsritidAm, tbat tlidr artimi can be modilicd 

10. liefltly, thci^' I8 a continually iin;if!!L8iii^ doniau 
for popiU&r art, multipbable by tho priniju;; j^ruu, iltna- 


ImtlTe cf daily ovctits, vf gcnerfti litt'ntitre, &»d ui 
nftinrftJ ^goioo, Adinir»ljlc likilt^ nml smnc of tfjtf )x^ 
tftl^ut of modem tiincflf oi^ occupied in eupi^lyin^ Uiii 
wiuit; and tliore lb ii<j limit to the good wliich iiiuv ha 
edTect^d by rigUtljr taking advoEtv^ of tlie powora wc 
now ponoM of pludng gr>ud and lovcty ait U'itldn tlio 
null of tliQ ptHkfFbt chiMUrt. Huch liiitf Ijcvti ntrojuly 
MCOuplJBhod ; but grent liartn biw bceti doiie alim. — Unif 
bjr forme of art dotinitciy dddrctecd to dc]>ravcd Inetoft; 
Slid, wjcouUlj, iu a tuoie bublie way, by tc«lly l>tia(itaful 
aud ^fu] oiigravinfTfi wlikl; are yet oc-t good enough 
to retain their influence: on tbo public mind ; — which 
wc^iiry it iy rWundstnt <|na]il.ity nf Tiinmit<iiMiis iivemgci 
illosice, And dimini«]) i>r deetiMy iu pow«r of accLirata 
attoDtion to vrork of a higlifir order. 

E^clally tlib Li t<3 ba w^retled In Uie oiTciut pro- 
dauod on tlio ^lioole uf Hno etigrav'iug, wliidi liad 
reached in Eu^'Innd on executive ekiU of a kind befum 

iaxi>mpM,aTid ivlijrh uf late have Wt mudi <^f tl^eir 
6tcr)iDg and legiiimat-} mvlhf>d0. B^W, I have ewcu 

iUm produced '|iiit« recently, more brn-iaif"), T fbinlc, in 

qualtties.tbnn an)ibing ever before aitnmcd by tho 

bortu : and I have not tha ftUg]it4^t four tljat pliotc^raphr, 

ornny oUiwrndvereo *ir corii[Hif.(tiv(i cipi^ratjon, ulll i:i the 

nltiinotely dinnniaJL, — 1 belioro thoy will, on tlio 

'oooLrary, frtlinnUte and ejcalt — the jfi^nd old po^nzre of 

dw wood and tbe »teeU 

11* Suoli ftrOf 1 think, bnc% the present <!(jndit]Oua 





^ art with wLkh wo liavo to doal; and I ccmcci'-'G tt 
bo the funcHoD of tliia lV>fca«'T»hiii, mih rc»pnct 
tbeiD, tocMlnbliiihlKjth a prufrtictl aiid urltlL-al M^linol <;|1 
iinc Alt fr>r Ert^liith gonllunidTi : pnuTtiviilf ^» ikflt if llioy 
draw at all, ihc}- niajf draw nglitiv ; and critical, «o thai 
Ihe^ may both be diretricd to snch worts of PVi^Ting art 
aa will bo&t reward Uicdr atad^; aod oiiablod to make 
llio exeTx^Iee of tlicir patPLinn^ g{ Jiviii^ aitiMd de1i(;htf 
to dicm&elvce hy tboir onntdtmBiiew ttt it* jiiBtloo, and, 
lo tho utiTi^^t, bencfidal to their cfJimtry, by Icing gi\-ou 
oolf to the men who iJeeerve it; asd, to tbc««, in 
wlj period of their liv^^e, whon tlioy both need it ni 
and can be inllucnocd by it to the boat adi'antu^ 
13, And etpedally w]ih refereiu* t-.HhiH fuiurlitm 
patronage, I bdisve myself jiuttficid in talc big into anoount 
fntitro probabilitiea as to tho char^tcr ard range of 
in Kiij^land ; and I eJiall ortdf^ionr at once to oi;ga.Blze 
with you a e^'atom of study eftlcwUfod to de\-olope uhlofl; 
tho knowledge nf thftfc bian^jhes in which the Engli 
ac-JuKilfl have ahowm, and jiro likely to ahnw, pepiili&r 
coUenoc >'ow, in asking your aanctJon both ior 
nattire of tJic gciier&l plans I wish to adopt, a:iiI 1 
what I GC^neoivQ to be noci^rtfiiry trniftntiona of tlicm, 
wifih you to be fully aware of niy reasons for both: and 
I will tlieicforo riak tJie bur<ienln^ of yoni patiQiice while 
i »Eate tlie diroetions of effort in whidi I thitik Eugli 
ariiita arc liable to ^i1tire> and tho» al»o in which 
'aj^rierce hat ehovn tliey are secure of SQcceVL 



I referred, but oow^ to tlio ^•fffirt wo »rp mnlLiiij^ 
to iinprCTO the (ktdgim of our uKUiiifActiin^fl. 'VVitliin 
ccrtftiD limit* I livUuvt; tliiit Iirtpnj^Giuetit ma,}' indeed 
\ln\n* offin^; «n tlint uta muy iio moru litEitmur uiouietitaii'y 
' fuliiona by ;igly rteitlra oi c-liiLncc iiM^od nf ile«igii ; ukI 
J may produce boUi good tlMiLc«, of banuoniou^ coloitrv^ 
juid good fonui and aubfitaoce of potio/y and f-1ji«6. But 
|vc tliitll nt^vCT cxcei 1:1 dc<?ornttve denign. Sucji (lcf<igD 
-in twudlr pnicliirnd hy jK^npIr of gn<(ii tinliirnl ]rtjwpr« of 
Isuad, who have no vai-ioty cf Bubjrct* it) oni])!<iy tliem- 
^■dvea OD, no oppr(^«8i>c mixivticd, and are iu clruuui- 
^mmce aj either of tmiund atif-net^ or of dnily life, wbidi 
^^^■■(BAiirablc fJEoitoinonL Wo cfuiTuit dc«gn li«caneo 
Iwe D^Te too much to Uiink of^ iLiid we thiuk of if, too 
jIADxiuiiTfily. It haa long been observed how Ucite real 
Juuiet^ osiAtfi in the minda of Uio partly wvi^ hlcq* 
prliich exec] in dccorutive art; iitid vn: tiiuitt imt. inip* 
|K)«(! tliiit t}io tezriper of rJuf nBtddle ng^it wiut a n^jiiblod 
^«nc, bccyuimj v\cry day brcjug^lit itit <lftrgcr or its cbangca. 
IjThe very cvontfiilDc«i of tlio life rendered it i^rLileM, an 
jgenorully is still tho eajw with iu>7dierB and Bailors. ICow^ 
Jwliea tLoft) ftro pwit powoi-a of thiDOffht, and little to 
I llibik of, all the wa&tc oneij^y and foniiy aru tlmmri lufn 
tnanuaJ work, and you have aa ninch iiitulleol a« 
Ld dii'cut tlic affnir* of 11 Lirgc incrcautiJo concCJll 
|{or A day, tjicnt all nt onr^ qalto iitJcoiiM^oualy, in 
dravinj^ m ingcnioitA tpirfil. 

po^Tere of doing lino ornamcntat work vc only 

to bo reodiod b^ a pcr]>otuft1 iluicipUno of tho biuid «f 
vmM u of the f&Doy ; discipIiQo &s ottcndvo and patT\1 
as that which & jti^ler has to put lilinaelf llkn>iigb, 
cvorvomo tho tnoro [lali^Mv dif^ciilHm of litA pr\>fvw:« 
Tlic oxocntion of tho best artietB is a1vr&^ a fplcndii 
toiir-de-farce, aiiJ mtich that in painting i» wipjHwMl 
be ddpcnd^Qt on cmtcrial i& uideod oitly a lovcli 
and quite iiumitiiMs 1c!y;ei'denm]ii, Nour, when pawc] 
of' fiuit-'y, HL]Eit:1]i1e<t \ty diiit inuitipliiDtt |>re4.:itiioii of 
mafiuiLl (3(;xtcrity, dcAccnd nruntciriipt^ilj from gCDoni- 
lioQ to ^oneiatton, jou have at last, what it not ao 
tauch a trained anlst as a new epccieB rf animal, with 
wb(^ In^tinctivQ ^fta you lin\o no obinoo uf c>>iitcaid- 
iQg. And tliEiA all otir imilaliEftm of otiifrr i>eoi>1ea' 
work HTQ fattlci W« lui^t ItMuii Arst to make Iioncat 
Englifih warcfl, and aftorvrardA t^ dccorato thctn a» vna^ 

14. Soooncllj'— nnd this i& au iiioapacfity rJ n |^ni^' 
kind^ jct bft^'ing its own good in it also— wc elinll ncvoi 
btiitiioccvtf^fiil ill tbr Liglmst fi^ldg '^f \6v»\ ort!iiu>Tr^t 
art For thero ia one etmngo, but quito e^ecntial* cJim- 
Iftctor in ua: ever eince tlie C(»iKiuesl, if n*it earliftr:-'^ 
a d«ligbt in tli« ffimiJi of huHogqno whi-b are cniii:o*'ti'd in' 
■orao dcgrco with tho foulnosB in en\. I think the nnoflt 
perfect ty[)c of a irut^ Eiiglbb iiiiiii] i^i iln b^t pfittibl 
toropcr, in that of C!iciLH!4>r ; and vou will find tlint, -nrhil4 
it i^ for tht nififrt part fiiU of thongbt* of bcAHtv, pm 
and wild MVn thnt of an April morning, rlmi^ aro ei 

Ill (lie mtilftl of |])IM, luiiiioriTitra mnnK^iilnii'ljf jvAthig ]ia9- 
iai^<« whicit »tOt>p to ])lay witli ftvil — while tho pow^rrof 
listening to ^ud cojojaig the jeBtiD^ of «ntireljr grow 
porvma, wl Aleve r l1i« fi^eliii^^ mnv }>& uliif^h ]v>nii:tA It, 
ftfierworda dcj^iiciutuu iuti> funiiA of Jiuiiu>iir wivutb 
raader tom^ of qtiitc iKc git^utGot, wiswrt, «nd ruort pv 
itifin] o^ RngliAb vmtcm nni;v (Oritoef nn^lm for cut 
yotith. And yot jou will f&iid tbat whcnoTOr KiijrUah- , 
in«n aro wIioUj ^vUlicjut tliU iuMintrt, thear gcotits la 
comparadvoly weak and i^iHulod. 

15. Now. tiio fii^t iLcccwity for Itio douig of (my 
gTTAtH-oriL ID idi>a1 art. 14 tJifl Imiking ii|Mjn a.1) fcwlnon 
with liormr, na a contomj^tible tlioiif;b dretdfiil ^Denj. 
You may easily imdervfand wliat 1 uiean, by comparing 
tlie feeJJiigs wil.b whi(^i Dunlin n^fraidti miy dnm ijf ol>- 
fceoitj' or of bruo jnttt^ vHtlt tl^o totn|]<'i' in whicli tk« (^mo 
things arc rc^ai-dcd by tihakc^pcarc And tliU »tniTi^ 
t^artliljr iimtinct of uutv>^ <^>u]>b)d lU it ift. In uui ^Lud ii^en, 
vith ji^at ■dmplicitv' and tximmon veiuo, rciidera lliem 
ehrewd and porfoct ob^rvcre and delineators of actual 
natore, lowor high; but preclndoa theni from that tp«- 
ciaticy of art whiah ia proporly <«1Iod ftubUniA, If over 
«e tr7 v^ything in the tnannerof Afich.iol An^^lo or of 
DftitT^ tre catrli a f»1l, ev«»ii In liiri-ntnzv-, »m Miliim in 
thd battlo of tbo angoU,apon«d from Iloaiod: while in 
nri, eveiy ntti^mpt In thi* «ty1o hiia hidiorto been ihts 
Rgn cither of th^ praetimptiioiia c^<iU:ii '>f (lenM-iu wIk 
had never really learned Ic bo w-jrkmon, <n it haa beoti 

cOTtnrsctod witJi very tragic fonna of Iho COnWtmpl»tioii 
dcntbi-^it baft ftlwa^e been p&i-Llj liksvte, and never unit 

But wo need not fee) aay dUcomfort in tlici« li 
iilji^im t>f our DU[uu^ity. Wd crtti dn) tnneli ttiat odiem 
ciftEmoty und mora tliuji wo Lftvc over ret oiuwlvc* eom< 
pletelj done. Our ^n^i grcut gift is in tho portrai 
of living iHi'i'lc! — !i jwiwi^r nlrrTidy m-t iu;rittnj)lLfJied 
both lioyncilds anJ Gainabfinmgh, lb»t nolhinjj u Uft 
for fnturo master* but to odd Uio calm of perfect work 
manahip to tlieir vig<jur and fBlidi./ uf ]*en^ti'irL And 
of \?hat value a tma Acboo) of poiiraltnra Jiiav beoome 
in tho future, when worthy uicii will deoiro only to be 
known, Eiml nlJicsnt will nut h^nr Ui know tliein fur wUat 
thoy truly wcr^, wro cannt»t frf»m any |inst rcoorda of art 
mHncncc jct conceive. But in my next oddrca it will 
be pailly my enrleavonr Ui eliow yon hmv rniicb more 
Qiofiil, because more liiimblef die labour of ^eat laas 
mi^ht have t>cct], had they been cxinteul to ]>car rec 
Elf tlie Twnils UiaL were dAelling wLtli ilmm un uuth, 
iuftt^ad of striving to give a diKseptlve glory tn 
tJicy Ureoincd of in h&avicn. 

1(t. SciMiridly, wu have jui Inti^use pewer of inreD 
and expniBEuon il domefitiu drama; C^ing T^^ir 
Jlamlvt bcin^ ctuoiitinlty dr'HicstJe in fJxesr «Cron 
dioUtcb nf inlc'iL'hl). Tl^ere is » teJidi.'iicy at tliis monmut 
towards n ii'>hlo devdoptnont of our art in tliifi dirafr 
lion, checked by many advem) couditionA, which maj 



lod in one,— the insiifficicncj of gcncroiis civic or 
iotic jiu^iiin ii\ tlt€ he^ci of iJie l^t^U^li [luupio; 
a fault which niAkes \u domafltlc affections ^U^ eoii 
traot«d, ftfid, thercfon>, ErivolouA, 

IT TInnllj', in inmn<-i?liou willi tntr wmplicutir, Mud 
good-humf)nr, uid partly witli Uiat rixry I'lvc of tli« 
grotcoqtic vtIiigK dcl>Mc« our idcnl, wc have a t^jmtiraCLy 
wilh tiie Ic^wer animals which is |iceii1i»'Lj^ our ovni; mid 
v^chf though it hits alrcruly fi^tiiid fjjtn« oatqaisita 93c- 
pTC«u<m 10 tho works of Jic^riok nit<l JLai)dACcr, ia yot 
quite QndGvel':»pcii< TIJs ejiniraUij', with ihc aid €>f our 
DOW luitljoHtatit'o ftciucicc of physiology, and in aatodatlon 
with our British love of advi^nturcr, will, 1 Iw^, cuabJo 
tm to givu lu lh(; fiitiim iidiEiliitHrilM uf IJit- glolK» aii 
Almo^ perfect record of the pn;;*«ut furms of ftutmol lif« 
cpon it, cf irLidii many arc uii the point of leiug ox- 

Liwtlj', but out tm the biut iiT^i>ort&nE of tnr vpicinl 
powcn, I hnvo to iic^tc our »Uill in landaotLpt^ of which 
I will proeODtly 8pc&k m«>ix^ particuUrly. 

18, Sncbf I conceive^ to be thd dtrccdona in which, 
principally, wo have the power to excel ; tJid 7011 nwiel 
at GDce iea hovi' th« cuiiMdi^mUi/u of ibem mu^C' lufjilifv 
die ftdvlMhle method^'of our art fttudy. For if mu 
profctticiiu] painters were likely to prixjuco (Accce of nit 
IciAily idtml in thoir ch^nictc^rr It would bo de^ii-alilo Is 
iorm Uw tiuito of ^q Ftiideiil* here by sotting h^ftirs 
Hicm only tho pure«t exAmplM of Cmek, aud the 


vr^^eat ti H^n, art. Btf I te Mt A«k jw 4 

ac&Dlm. m^ AcKfian, 1 ^d odflBfwr to rv«i 
d«riytiteilwEtewtob>laArffig^Ml ' liaaw 

c&rt to MLiilite Ob '■-^'r*=~ %d I^cb; Bod, aln^ 

aO ihia^ I dsll tij to prolv in 70^ lad to 

ifee K&ecatkn nrto wUcb it ■ evj to Ul, 

m -ie^T, — of ehber CBdeaToariiie to *lauj« * ^nadenr 

wlib ifhicK *e !:a"e elv* nar::^ fvmparkj^, or l_-en^ die 

V-^Aszi^ Tt n^rrht tak^ ic the =ri^'iv of fainiliAr dungs, 

bj c'ErMerrz it a r:^ ff r^riirriient tr- l-.-ot for what 

1^. A^ain, If -T'nr arfl^ar^ were likely to att»in any 
disccTTiiihed sk:ll in '.manier.ral de&iim, it w^nld be in- 
'^irber.t -;> n me t-* make mv c'a^ her^ accurately 
aor::a:L:e^ -jrch the f-HncifOe^ ^r-f earth and metal vtt>r^ 
atd :hj acc:L^-:ni tLem to take pleasure in conventional 
arrar^-^mt:- J "f c-! -tir and f -nii, I b"pe, indeed, to do 
tt^- ^'^ far af t/j enab'e theru t-> discern the real merit 
'f r:.iT,j =tyl€s r-f ar^ -.vlift-h are at present neglected; aV>Te all. t.f read the ni;rtd= -A s^nii-barbaric nad'^nJ 
in the ^jTiW lar^nia^ by wVjiob tbeir feeUiiirs were capable 



tho profotuKi ficlda of invcflta^ticm wbtch mHt ftrt. 
eicaillitied oarefnlly, wHI ojM^rt b? them, and wl]tf!h bolnri^ 
Co tt ftlon^; for tiilK in a pcinnmt Inn', tlutt^ «npp*^iiig 
tlio ii^tcUcct of the vrorkmari tLc Bailie^ tlio more imila* 
xWaXv complete Ws art, die less he wtll mean ]>y it ; tm<\ 
tliQ ruder the i^mbol, the dGOper u itA iutoTition. rfovoi- 
UioLfiNS wlicn I have mn'n lufficieutlj iKnrilcJ out tli9 
nntiin^ anil va1ii« «f tliU <?i>nvrailtnnnl vmrkj and vindicated 
it frQin tho contempt %rith ^hich it ie too f^eucrallj' rc» 
garded, I etall leave tbe student to hi» owu pleMAUiv In 
it! piiniuit; and evon, so far ad I may, diu^OLUiigo all 
ftdmirfttion fonTulcd on iitiaintuoad 'ir T^u^riiliaritj of stifle ; 
mrul nrprtw miy i4lnT uhmIi-* rif Wling whMi art* Ulcdj 
to loa4 ratlicr to fajduliuits ^olkitioii »f cEiriociti^;, tiian 
to tho intelligent approciatii>n of work wkicJi, bo!n^ ex9- 
In oompliance with «^oii«t&nt laws of nglit^ cannot 
ju^qIat, and must 1>& distingnUhod only by exeellenoe 

20- Wliil«, tlierefum, hi tlie*ie ami *ucfi other ilinro 
tSoni, I iJulII endeavour to put every ai1c<]uat« moana of 
tdTance ^bhin rcvteli of the mcmlK'm of my c!a», 1 a1u.11 
hm my oirn bo«t ener^gy to show ihciii wh^t la <xinaujii-' 
Butely beautiful and veil done, by men who have pa«( 
thnm^ tJio symbolic or BUggr^tiTC stngt; of dcsigrit and 
ha\*o enabled thom^etvea to comply, by tnith of re- 
praseutation* wilh the strititetl nr ni* et oojfCr dcimaiidfl of 
MKurstif ttekiiefJ, vidordiBL-ipluieilpiuoifin. IhIiuII tlicrrn* 
fore direct your obecrratioii, during tlio grt-At«r paH 


the time jrou m^}' *[nuti to me, Ijj wIihI in itiiltriiJiiUihl 
best, both in imlntltig luad Aviilp>nm> ; triutiiig that j-^jo 
Ivill oftonvardA riK^iigiiiw; tlio niuit^ont Mid {lArtiAl «kill 
of fijrmcr da^ butli with grcmlwr iut7i-wt bikI greaU^r 
Kup^otf wlion you h&ow the fuH difiioulty of uh&t it 
attempted, and the complete ranse of what ll foretold. 

91, And with tliU view, T ^lalt at onca cEtdaavoiir 
do what hiu for iimuy yoara lucn in my Uioit^Uts, 
ncrw, with the ndi-ico and nwistaimc oi the cui-aTon 
tho Unlvierelij OnllpripH, I do Tirjt donljt may be 
pljehed h^rd in Oxford, juet whore it will bo pro^ 
useful — nameljf to armn^ an educatiotiat eotica of e 
pica of (txtreUoiit art, HlnndiirdB la which you may at on 
rofor on any qncetloiiablo jHiant, ftud by tho etiidy 
which you may giadually atiaiii an Iiuitutctlve bcdhi of 
right, whioh will aftei*wa»dft be liable to no serious error. 
Such a GoUcctJon may bo fumuiKl, both mure perfectly, 
ami infire enaily^ llmti ^vcJtdil O'lntnoitly Ik< xuppiMil. F 
tho real iitiiiT^- i>f tha fionea xnll d^i^ond nn ita rwtric 
extent, — on tJia eevere cxchieion of all sccond-nit^ aupor- 
flmni<| or Q\en attiv<^tn el}' varied exarnpleA, — and 
the gon fining the BtndentA* Dtterttiou lo a few ty|i«fl of 
what :& inauperably (rO'>d. More pnigre« in jiower 
jiid^iM'.rit may be uiade in h Itiiiit«fl tinm by lUe v 
aintiiati^m c*f one wort, than by tlie review of many ; 
acortaia degree of vitality it given to the luipreeeu'CD 
of every ehai^ctemrj^i;, by tlH b&iitg exhibited in €lGft~< 
toiitraet, and witlioiit ra[>etittuD. 



Ho grcfttcT riimbor of ihe c^ftinploc I Bh&U chooM 
inll «t fipBt i»M be ooetly ; many of tbem, only engravingft 
or T)ho(o;^rapha : thoj' eliall b« luraugcd ^> 110 to bo cidiL/ 
toccafiiblo, Aiid I will ]>™|"ftn* n ryifajogiir, prtititing init 
my purpose In tbe ^ot^tion of «aclj. But in |>n>coii of 
lime, I have g*Kid hopo that a^iAlnn<M> will bo given mo 
\iy tlxe ETigliidi |ii]!>lic in Tnnklitg tbc twrins bera no Im 
»jjleii(li<I ihan wrviopsblc ; aru] itj pUcnn^ minor cnlloo- 
lioiw, ftTTMigod on a similar principlo, at tbo ccmmand 
rIjo of liie atudenU Ea our publin biJiooK 

^ In the aeoocd pJiiee, I ahaU entleavam' to prOTAlI 
upon aXl the younger moruUji'it oF tb<] Uuivor^lty who viah 
to attond tiic Krt Iccturcii, to givR at !n;t«t iu> tnnch timet 
to manital practio^ aa may ei^able tliom to msdoreUtnd tha 
D&ture&nd diiQctUtyof exwsutive akitL lliotimesoapdQt 
will iJiA be Wt, even e* rcgiinlK Uielr otJier atiidlofl at 
tiio Univorvity* for I will prGjicire the ]>ractioal oxoruked 
in a double «©nca^ one illusti'atixe of bietory, tLc otbw 
of natnnilBdened. And vrbetbcryim nre dniwuigjipiecn 
of Greek itnnom-r or u Imwk's boafe, or a ljon*s paw^ you 
will f rid timt tilt! inrtix? rccessity <>f ufilng the b^ad com- 
pela attoutton lo oir*mnutariiii-9 wbit^b -wmld otberwbo 
havo escaped notico, and fastens diom in tbc memory 
witlumt ritrlber elTorL But were It even otlicnriw^ w^^ 
thii practi<<ii1 tmintn^ did really involve some B&cHti(?o of 
ycQT timOf 1 do not fcjir but that it vUl be ju^tifiod to 
you by !tM foUresullfl: Knd T iK'nlc Ibut gi:r)i?nd publla 
r^clinx is alflo tonding to tbo admiMion that aai^om- 


plished education moBt include, not only full oonunuid cl 
expresaion bj language, but commajid of tme mcuiGal 
sound b^ the Toice, and of true form by the hmnd. 

23. While I myseU hold this profettorehip, I flhtU 
direct you in these exercises very de&iitely to natora] 
liidtory, and to limd&c£ii>o ; not only because in these two 
bnuiL-hce I am probably able to show you tmths vrhich 
tui^Ut be despised by my successors ; but because I think 
tlho vital and joyful study of natural histoij quite the 
l^rin^i^ial element requiring introduction, not only into 
ruivvrsitv, but into national, education, from highest to 
l»wwt ; attd I even will risk incurring your ridicule by 
cv>ufi*iwiuj: \ni»? of my fondest dreams, that I may suc- 
i'ihhI iu mHkiit^ ^'^me of you Englisli youths like better 
to Uh^k at a bird tlian to shoot it; and even desire to 
mjtko vriUl crv:tlur\>^ tnme, in^^tead of tame creatures wild. 
And fxir tlio mt^\y of laiul&cai>e, it is, I think, now cal- 
culntod to l>t> of use in deeper, if not more important 
iii^hK^ tliiui that of natural science, for reasons which I 
will tt?k you to lot me etate at Bome length, 

24. Obsorre first ; — no race of men which is entirety 
bred in \rild coiuitry, far from cities, ever enjoys land* 
scape. They may cnji'y the bcautv of animals, but scarcely 
even that: a true poiu^ant camiot see the beauty of cattle; 
but only the qualities expressive of their serviceableness 
I waive discussion of tliis to-day ; permit my assertion 
of itj undor my confidant ^arantee of future proo£ 
landscape can only be enjoyed by cultivated person§- 


ftftd it is trnly hy mufic, lit^rfttnrc^ ftrtd p&iiiting, tliat 
cnltivntion can be ^vcd. Alto, the f^culticf wlijcb 
Ara thus rcixlved are heivlitary ; K) that tLe diild c>f 
ui odncftted rtcQ bas &n innate iiwtinoC for bc«uty, 
deiiTed from arts pnutbed himdre<lB of yt^rt tjcfoi^ iu 
birlli. Xow fnrhljrr mAp tliJK, iiiiii of tlit; Uin^lict^L Utiii^ 
Ijt hvmnii nntnrc. In the cLildrxin of ncil>la raoci, trained 
bjr 5urrcrua>Jing art, aiid at the Mitiic time; in tlic priM* 
tic8 of grcBt def<dB, tliore f£ on inTctise delight In the 
lAiidfCft])0 of (Loir uotmtry ru vxetrioruil ; 6 egiuo not 
taiigHt to t]i«ni, nor tcA«:I;jil>hT t» &iiv fjtlicr^; but, !n 
tbciPj innstc; kq<1 tJiu itcnl nmt n^wniil of jiL'i-Kiaieiico !n 
greAt actional lifo ;— tho obodionco ard the poauo of Of^ 
liavlog cjLteiided ^udiutUjf the %\ory of the mvered 
anoe«u>r« aUo to llic aiiL^eiird huid ; utitU tlie MoiLerhood 
of tlic du£t, tlio mystery of tlit^ Dtiiiclur iruni whuns 
bottom wc iTiumi, and lowhim: Iioshoiu \i\*. v^UwiXy viimmmLt 
and uufiirui, 4jr(;rywhi]r«j tho louul n-wo uf Uvld aiid fcniii- 
tain; tho facrcdnc«a of landmark tli&t none may rcntorc, 
and of wav-e lliat n^^ne viay jKllnto; while rct^orda of 
proud days, and of dear p«rsr<nj), make even' rock monu- 
tDoital wit^ ghostly inaoription, and ovory path lovely 
vlUt ii^-ble deftJatoueeo. 

!^, Nc>w, liowe^'er cheelcod by b'j^htncds of teuijH^ra- 
iDcntf the iiutiiictive lo^c of l&]iJucu].io in na liae thliS 
d«c|> txiot, wliicJi, ill jonr itiiTid*, I will pmy you to di* 
enonxabfif from whatever may oppr^ee cr mortify it, and 
to strive to foel whb a11 tlie strength cf }-our youtli 




t^fit ft QftdoQ la onlj ^ortLy of llio $cn\ und ttw icdTiei 
t it Lda luHeriti^ vrheii, bj nJl it« nctA tnA ktU, it 
J 16 mftking iLpsi lunro Tnvcly for \tA chWdtvti^ 

AndnoTT, I trust, you ^^ilI feel tJi&t it ifl cot m more 
^'icIJiiig to my own faucioB lliiit 1 Ua^e cli'«v>jj, for lli© 
^ist tlut'G Bnl>ji*cU in your DOuttfttiuiml M>ri^ liuuUoapa 
EOO»os ;— two in England, und rmo in Fronco,— tho aaw- 
cUttoii <rf t!icw! l>elHj^ not willinut |mqKjHe: — bjiJ for tlie 
fonitiij Albert JUQrer'fi dreain of the S|jlril of Labour. 
And of tJic lftndfii:npt> fiubjo{jt», 1 iiiunt tell yov tliiB 
vDUcJi. Thi» ^r§t i« nn cngmihig "■''jf ^^ ortgiiinl 
drawiE;* by Tnrndr wo* dcstit^jcd hy firo twciity yuani 
ago, For ^hich lc« 1 wiah ytiu to bo fiorry^ and to 
nuuciubur, lu ^^►naet:tIon i^jlli tliis firat citaiaiilo, Lbat 
wbuto^^r rcriiuiitf to ub of poue^^on in the arts U, 
compared to what wo miglit liiLvc bad if we hiui cared 
fur tiieiii, jnfit wliat thjit riigmviiig is to tbe IfWt dr&wTit^. 
Tou will find aUo that its £iibj?ct has meaning in it 
wbidi \i.-ill not be Iiarmfnl tc you. The ftooond cxjuuplo 
la a n^al dra%'a;g by Turner, in the wtint!) aETitui, and wry 
rc-arly of tbo samo pliu^e; tbo tu^o bc'ctlch aro within a 
quarter of a imk of 6ach other. It will »how you tlio 
cbaranr.or nf th« wcjrh tJiat wni* dustniysil. Tt will nbow 
jOQi in procc«i oi tiino, mucb mora; but diiolly, and 
ttild is my main rca«on for cho<.>&ing both, it vH\ bo a 
perutiLMeiit <-i(>i^t^7nn to yoti of wlmt English laadscapo wai 
cnfie:^ud muat, if we are to remain a natioo, ba agAiH. 
^ok it farther richt to tell you, fun 



fni<*M hftrdly pay rc^&rd euoujjb Ui w«rk apparentlj m 
iijiipltf, llul hy A oliaiLET? ipxliit^li ih not nlLn^gi'tlKir dit^ 
fik^Aiu^ to mo, thi* drawing, vAik-L it }iwt locoino, for 
tlic«e reasons, nocctvaiy fur mo to pvo ycm, is — not 
indood tli« iNvt T liaur^fl hnvo scvoral &s good, thou^ 
nooe better) — but, of all 1 have, tbe ouo I Iiad Icrwt 
miod to part v-'ltli. 

Tlie tliird exantiile i» hho a Turnur Jraa-ing — a acon« 
Ou tho Ixriro — ni^vi^ ciigrax-ccl. It in un inttvcluction to 
the t^rics mt tho L^jirc^ wliicJi jrou bavc abcady; It tj&t 
In ita pre0i?iit pliLce a due Li.^ncurreiice w!th the expr^gp 
doaal purpose cf lu comptuiioiiB; and tUoijgh aiuall^ it 
b vcrj predoini, being a fanbJiw, oihI, I bdicT^i iiiuur 
psmblo «xani|>1o of wulf>r-fic>[our pniiitiiig. 

Chiefly, however, rcnionibor tUo t-bjoct of thow thno 
fint cxuupln U t^) giv<3 _viki kh Ii^i-lex to your lni«il 
ledlDf^ about Kurt^pn^n, nm] iTA[iCK.'i[dly alxmt your EAti^y) 
landscapOf aa it ie ^ica^i^'o nnd luatoncol; luid flu fur ai 
j'on vouT^KeB mabo aiij effort at itH ropiVK^Titation, tG 
give you a mutivo for fidalit}' In Luudiv^rk nioro auL- 
tiuLiing tbaii an^v oc'Uncctcd witli uiuro allu^cmo in tlio art 


2^, With r^flpcot to aotunl mothodflof prance I will 

not Incur lli« iefi|rt>ii*iibilU/ of doleiiikuun>; Ihcoi Utr >ou. 

We will luk© Liiwardo'ii irt'titiiio on traiuiu^ for our fij<( 

tcxt-bool: ; and I tliiuk you need not fear bting mbLlod 

l>v 1110 if I iwk you In do oiiTy ivbaf T-vmardo biits, or 

wbat will bo aocaesary u> «iiaMe vou to do bia bidding 


But yoit need not pOMew tho b(K>V, nor rciid U throtigh, 
I ^11 traneJato UiG pjdces to tho fioiJionty of which I 
bLuxU appefti ; aiid, in proaon of time, hj analysia uf thid 
frjigriirmlAr}' trcatUiffSlMW vfiTiHcKiir; cJ]Arttiit«?rM mit iinuully 
I3iii3or«lo<>tl of tho simplicity »« vo\l sa tii\bt\nfy eom- 
mon to TttoAi great workman <if diat Age* A1tcrwAi\lfl 
we Will cuUo(!t lice nihtnmtiotis t^f other inidL^puted 
mutdn, till wo hare f^blaitiod a oodo of kws dearly 
I'esting ou the coDAcnt of antiqmtj'. 

Wl»il€, hf'WGTer, I thus Jti nomn itiPiwiire Uriiit fiir tho 
preaoct tltd m^xhode of }'oiir practice, 1 tAiM «nd6avoar 
to make the coui'sea of my Uoivcraitj lectnrcs as wide to 
tJieir r&nga as iiiy knowledge will pennitv The r^i\g& 
eo ccnccdod will be narrow ccoTigh; l>iit 1 buliovo tbat 
my pra|)er fuucticju la n*jt to acquaint you with th^ 
general histery, but with tlie e^eiiTlal principles of art ; 
aud with itd history only when it hm been both groat 
and £o<id, or wlient «i:»me s^xtcial e\c«!lli?Tice of it requii^ea 
oxamio&tion of the oaiise^ to wbic^li it must be a^cnbed. 

S7> But if either our work, or tmr criquirio), are to 
be mdutn] ■ut-c-isBfal hi thvir own fu»l(l, Uu?y nitut ba 
oonnectod witJi otbcrs of a stomor ebaracter. Now lidea 
to mc, if 1 have in these pafit detail l^t or burdened 
ynur attention ; for ibis h what I have chiefly to eay to 
you> The art of nny otmutry i& Uie wcpouont of its 
Bo<^ and ^>(i1flir»I virlucK 1 will »how you tJiat it ia 
io In soni6 detflil^ in the secc^nd of my xitbi^'i^ut^nt eounw 
^ leclur««; moantimo accept tJds oa cno of tie tliiii^ 

mA tbe moU Imp-jrlaDt cif aJI ibing^ T mn |>i»ilivi*l5 
rlechfe to yuKK Th« art, or ^noral prudtioUvo wid fonua- 
tiTu uiJergT, of «jy country, i* sn t'xa<.-t <':^[ioT>eiit of itt 
etlucul life;. Toil csji Imve m^Mc urt <4i1y frdiii nobis 
ponio&«, »wx;iAtoi nnd^r k^-s Gticd to tlicir time and 
cin^Qiiut&Dcee. And llxe b»t nkiU iUni &ny tcikcher of 
art ooulil s|wud bare iu your M^i^ wuuld oot coiit hi 
cD&1>luig }'Ou «T«]] *a BiU4jh tM rightlj- to dnw Uio 
witter-lilic0 in tbe CbcrKcU [rqcJ though k cli<t, tbo 
wcirk ■w\trn <kme would not ba wnrtli lUo lltlea them- 
Bftlre«) niJott botb ha and ^ou irore BOt^luii^, Ba 1 tniet 
vo fthatl toj^tthcr eeek, iu tbe Iaw» vrliicli tvgulAle t1i« 
Snoet bulaatri<«, t)i« oIub Id tl)G lawK u!iLch it^jpiktc 4^ 
indtutrioA, And in better obedience U> whieh we BbftL 
lutnally have hencoforward to live, not iu«ti}Ij hi ootu* 
pliimce widi oar own ««n4e of what la Hj^ht, bat und«r 
iJiQ vreif^ht of quite literal riooeedty. Fur tiio tmdwb/ 
nbLidi tilt) Brh^rb |h?(ijiIr Iivt lifiliFTVidl it to be tbo blgticat 
oF do%ihii<-i to ntaiuULa itjteir, caEinct n'-w Wg remain 
iiDdiffiiivd Ml ita Uniid:i; itji uiioujili i)-cd poor arc daily 
br^cvnniri^ mmo violttiirly r-nuiiiLi:] ; and m rcvircbin^ dlB" 
trK«a in ttie niiddio c\ufie&i^ ari^inff partly tttmt t]ioLr 
vanity in living always tij> lo ihislr ino/>niea, and partly 
fnrm tli/fir fcilly hi iningSmiig tliat tliiry c-nn lulifiifit in 
idlcRon opon im^ry, %n[1 at last fiQnipel Iho eona and 
dangUtrta of Eaglifili ^nuljce to acqiiaiut lheULftelt«i 
with ititf* prbicipl^tt of pru^d^rttlul ecxinoiny; and tc 
kam tliat food em oidy be got out of Uio gronndi 



aiul compctoneo tmly Mrctircnl liy fni^lity; Ant &M 
althoDgb It is uot po»il>}e for all to 1>o occn^ncd in 
tbil lii|^i^«t «jtk, iKir fur uiy, guiUJi^^l^-, to jmam Otair 
do^tC in a enocOBOD of plcMttrc^> tJic tmc^t porf^'ct ni^tital 
Gultni-c poMiblQ to tiicti 14 f<-UTidcd oil iWn nt^bil 
01 GTgks, arid thi*'\T b<st aits rtuI bH^hto^t Iia|)pineea 
ATft co&dateutf an<) coiigistcnt only, wiiL tbeir virtue 

S8. Tliid 1 nrjieat^ geJtll«meu, wtU >uoa become muii* 

f4«t to tJuHiiO flmoii|^ im, mid \ham ai'O jet muiv, who 

ATO h^ncE^hefh^^od. And tlio future fate of Kns'laDd 

diiju'ud:! tLjii)ii ihe ;M)^iut>u llie> Uieu tuke, aiiil uoi tbtnr 

[iOoui^o ii) niaiDtuiniiig it, 

Inhere i» a detftinir ii<>vr pu^iliJo to ue — the bigbcvtt 
ovi^r M'i. Ijt'fon? n iiariitii to bit iic-tM^jiti^d iir n'fiiiwd. We 
ftro still undc^n^raiQ in race ; a raoo minj^Icd of the 
]>edt uoiibem bluud. Wo arc not .vet diaeolutu lu temper, 
but KttU ba\^t tlii^ fJnnticiw ti> garcni, and tb« graco to 
oboy. Wo bavo l>0(jn taught a roligiuu of puni m^Kjr, 
urbidi wo uiiist citbcr n.>w fiiiaUj bclrav, or Iftim to 
d«*f<!ttd by fulfilling. And ue iirv ricb in on iidivritmit^ 
of Ik<)«iocr, bor|uoaUicxl tu ii» tliroi^^b a tbntittfitid jcon of 
lloblc \iMimy, n-birh it fhould t>o uiir dinly tliint to 
inoreafid with splendid a^-arioe, so that EngliiibmeU; if it 
bd a 6in to obTti honour, nbould be tbo tivtft clFcntHtig 
mubi nliiu. Witliiii Hm IiipT. fttw j-i?tirH w<i bnvu hud th^i 
ftOTt of nftturo) Boicuco irpcnod to ua with a ra|nditv 
M'hich baa bcco bliudini; hy ittf bri^btncca; aiid meaM 
of t»iu<It and lu-'iniuuikicatiou gUon tu iia, wbivb bu t 



iDAde but one kfi^cmi of thft hmbitaUe globo. Oiw 
kEt^filom;— but vho l» to be it» kingl 1« there tn b« 
iiu kitig in il, tltink yiui, antl every man to ilo that 
wliicli is n^ht in his own eyeeV Or only kinp;a of 
terror^ and tho oliBccn« ^npircsof Mftnioh'^n uid Belial I 
Or will yiiu, yunih% of Kii^Uml, mtiTir ji»iir mMtifrr ngnin 
ft rttyal thrcno of kin^; a eccptrcd iftlc^ for ^1 the world 
a AOLirte of %Ut, a centre i>r peitue ; ii)iHlix«a uf I^eflrniug 
and of the Arte; — favlbful guardSan of great metnoriefl 
in tlio mjdfit t'f iircven^nt am] rphc-uicrat visions ;—fi]ith- 
fal f«rvant of titii«i-triL*d |ii-iiii^ple», and^r tomptatjon 
from fond oxperim«&ta and Ucvniiom d«iiroi ; and, tioldat 
thd craol aud ulani<in>iui jlmiIoumm of tho nutiotia, wur* 
i^upjKHl ill lier fltrutige^ viilonr, i>F gcuKlurill towurtb iiitrfil 

29, ' Vexilln regi* prfjdount.' Yw, bnt of wlikJi king! 
There are tlio t^ro oriflammcs ; wlttch shall wo plaiit od 
die fa.rtlji<Kt Maiidfl — tlitf iitict llt%i fl'taia in heavenly fire, 
orthut han^ bcuvy with foul tijuuo of torrodtrial p[>ld1 
Th&ru ia indcod a ootirvo of benuficcnt glory open to 
w, ftii;.'li lui :)i:\'i'r M'lut v<:t olFcrtH] b> luiy |HXir gnixip u( 
mortal 9<juU. lEut it niufit bo — it ia with na, now, ' Goign 
cir Die? And if it nbil) lie mid df tliu cuuutxy, 'Fectt 
[wr ^illKtc, il grail riliiHo ; ' that ntf uxal cf the ciovu wlil 
be, of all }<et recorded in luAlory, the sh&mefitllcet tmi 
luost mitiinely. 

And tl)u IA vrhiu nhe mutt either do, or periib; iJia 
most fotind colouict ad fa«t and a< f ar as «be » oblo, 
fnrmcdof licr mo&t energetic niid vortbfdst oi^ti ;^-wxib^ 



BT^ry piocs of fniitful wA£te f ruimd eIib c&ii hH Itor foot 
Oft, atrd there loai^liin^ tlif^e li^^r culonkt^ tbat Lbeir dikf 
TUtoo u to be lidf.lih: t^ tlii:ir ^>nntry, oikI that llioii 
Jlret aTtii 10 tn be Ui advBTico tlin |inwT*r of F.itgUml hy 
land and soa: and thsf^ thoi]p;h tbey live on a dista&t 
flot of ^fTOund, thtjy are no Tiiortr to ronflidor thcmeelTCt 
|}i«rcfure dUfniridiim**! frijin tlwir iiutist WJ tLari tlio 
astlon of hot floots do, tK^muio tlicy fioat on distant 
vravGE. &o that literally, thcfio cokiiicv mvti be futencd 
fleets, and every man of iliem mtiet be imder atttboH^ 
of capburut and cllioorn, wboM better umninand b to bfi 
over fluids and fttrcrt* tiittrad uf rfiij)* of tlic- luw; mid 
Enf^laud, in theeo ber raotionleu navi^e (oi\ in the trae 
aTid ndglitieot Aen^, moticriilt^ cliuivbea, ruled by pilott 
on tli« Galilii»in Ukis of nil lb» wurlil) i* U> ' [?\jH-ct ev*rj' 
maa to do hU diity;^ recognliun^ that duty u indcod 
poflaible &o Icafi in peace tliaii ^Far; and that if wo oojk 
get Tpeiir ftir little j^uy, to raat theniRelveH a^ain^t cannon- 
months fnv* love of England, wc nmy ^nd inon also who 
•nrih plough and sow for her, wh^ will bcbaro kindly and 
ri^titeonsly f>>r her^ who will brin» up tli&ir ddldren to 
loA-G her, and who will g^Uddcn tliemselvea iu the bright 
neas ol ber ghiry, mnro than in all tlio light of Urrpio 

But that tljfiy may be able to do this, she roust mako 
herovru majca«ty kIiutiIumic; «ho muat give litem ihoughla 
cf their homo cf which tliej oao l^e proud. Tho England 
is to bo mutrcs! of half tlic earth cannot remain 

a heftp of ciii<Ie7S, rrni]i|)led by coniendiog ajk] 
Udnnble crow^ ; aho mtial >c<t agaui bccxjinc the Engluul 
abd vru osoe, wd iu all buantlfitl vmyT uiun^ ; »» li»)>i^, 
m MTcltidnl, Kiiil 1^1 piin^, tlmt in litfr xkj' — |»o11ntio<l by no 
miLioly clo«<U — ehc riMv be al>lo to £j>cll rit?lilly<Tf every 
£lar that boQvon itotb ebow ; Aud id her iicbK <inlere(] 
and vidd And fair, of e^ry faer1> thai fcij« the di*w ; and 
under tbc grccu avenitm oE bcr ciicbMt1<!4 gnrdea, n u<Tcd 
Oirt!if, tnu; Daiigbtrr (if tlui 8rifi, pIic? mivt girttUi t}in 
ImniAn arte^ and ^ikor tW diribo knowlcd^, of dieUtii 
natiotia, tranflformed fram sava^^onoas to maiUloodf iLfid 
KddeuiM fnjEii deti|<hIriNg into Peace. 

$0, Yoa thinh that nn iirtptwlblo id^al. Be it «o; 
rcfii«c to accept it if yot: will ; but fioo tbat von f jrni 
joar own in tU ef'wcl. All tbjit t wslc nf ycni fe to^vQ 
■ (bead paq>oAC (;f et^'ino kind fcr ^<mr ountry and your> 
selves; no matter bow rcsUktcd, ao xIihI it be £A<;d oud 
MtiaJflA J luiow ubat Mbjut bcarOi aro in yon, tv 
anavor ackiM>w1odg«d need \ but it ia tbe fata1lc«t fcirm of 
earror in Eng1i«b yontb to Indo ttwir be«t bat'JIIjfJi.d rJll 
It bdm for lack of BnnBhiDe, and to acrt fu dktlain of 
purpose^ till all p<iui>C60 la vmx\. It b not by liiTlibcntc^ 
but by carffI<flA etlfuJukett; xuA. by (Hmi|jroinW wTib iivil, 
bot by doll fbUcjd]^ of good, tbni titc weight »f n-'^tionnL 
erjl incrcftaca npnn n* duityn ifrcak tbrong^b fit loa^t 
tJiia pmtcnctt of cxistonco; determine what yon will be^ 
and wbat yoa vonld win. Tom nill not dccido wrcm^Xy 
if yoc tcoqItc to decide at alL Wert areu the cboiot 

bolweea lawlesa pleasure and loyal Buffering, Ton wem]* 
not, I believe, t^lM-oee basely. But your trial !o not 
Klmip. It I* between drifting iii lamfijfied wretik anion 
tlie castaway of Fortune, who conJerans to asaiireU rniii' 
thosQ who know not either how to reeiBt her, or obey; 
between this, T aay, and the taking your apponited p^ 
[n tbe heroism of Eest ; the resolving to share in lh( 
victory which ib to tho weak rather than tho strong; 
and tho binding yourseivea by that law, which, thciughfrj 
on through lingering night and labouring day^ niakes 
man's life to be as a troo planted by the wator-side, that 
brin^cth fffrtb his fruit in his seaBon ;— 


rr ouNtA, Qu jEcmf QUE faciet, PEosptfRABmnum.' 

^tetnxt 2* 


{nvt \vLlHliiiiit Imnn Uy iho n*t> Tli^y arg fonnded first In 
mast<^ry, \jy «tr«a^i of ann, of the tortli nnd wc in agil- 

leuUnrcund »caiiian«}Lip; thcD tboIriDvontJic power l>egiiii^. 

[%ith llm cUy in (hra Jijind of ihe |x:rtter^ vli<iso 4rt li 
tliohumbl(Mt^bi»t tru^?at typo of tJio firming of the htimaii 
bod^ and Ei*lnt; ami in iIh- iTjiriHTnti-r'* wrjrk, wtirlL 
pnjbubly was iLe early em^loytDcni of the Founder ofi 

^^Vor roligioE. Aird until men Imvc p<:rft!<:tli' ]oftnicd tb« 
Lvs of urt iti iilny }Uid wikhI, t.hc^y <»]i coiisaniniateljr 
Itocv no otlicrfk Ifor in it without tho stnuif*^ tj^^nift--^ 
cunoo whtcb yon will dnd in ^bat at tir^t seemed dui 
in sU nable hiBtories, as «oon aa you c&n j^ad tliBjn 
rightly, — ti^fit tbo Atfituo of Atbonfi Folioi wa« of oUvo- 
wood, and that tbe Greek Ic^mple and (ifdbic opire on 
botii merely tlio jiennitiieiit i'e|»rvsentati(iiiti of tiMiful 
Igti strueturea. Gu tbt^Q tivo Gr&t tvrU follow bmld- 
ing in stone, — flcnlptn re,— metal ^vtjrk,— und pninliog; 
every art being pn>peHy called 'iine^ which ctornandi 
tlio cxerui^o of tho full facilities of heart and intelloct. 
Por tliough the fine arte are not iieceeflarily iuiLtLtii-« of 
npra^nlativo^ for their esseurfe U l^hig **tfii ^^Mtfit 
ooij^piod in the nctnal ]nv)f]tiutu)U uf beautiful totm or 
colour — Blill> tliG Lighctt of them aro ap[Kiititcd iiWt to 
relate to tha th« ntmfv-t surt^rtsuTtJibld tnitli n>ti[]f fitting 
vjflible thin}*B and moral feelinj-a: and tbia punuit of 
I tlio vital floment of the art power; — that m 

"^rttich alone it can ilflvi^bipci ittelf Uy {u utinrjfttv 
will anticii^ak by an aescrtk-n nhieh you vrill at } 

ART TO Ria.TJiinK. 

dunk too bold, but which I om willing tbftt yon should 
tliink eo, in order thai you tnav well roimniber it, — the 
lii^wt UuD^ that art «£Ui do is to wjt before you lh« 
Crao image of tha prnoncQ oF a tiMti hiiuiui \tenitg. 
It hu nev^dr done mord than thb, and H ought not to 
do loao. 

S2. Tlie great arbi — fonuhig lliiu oiie pirrfcct ftchonm 
of hiimoiE nlcii], ^.^f w1ii<-h it h Mnt n^ht lo caH i^-no 
division nioro honourable, though it may be more eubtk, 
thjui aiiuUier — liavG hailT aud iMti h^re, but thi^ee [iriit- 
dpal directions of purpoae: — flret, that of enforuiuj^ 
tbo rcli^on of incu; fti^tsondij, Uiitt of perfecting tEicir 
ittliical fttaio^ tlunllj', tluit uf dtiing tluriii iiiatrri&l «(*x> 

89. i do not doubt biit th^t yoa are euipriBCd at 
myuyinj^ the arU i^Lri in thi^ir Hfi^rmi] fititction tjaily be 
directed to th^ perfectinj^ of etlucal state, it bdnj^ our 
OBual Impreeucn that they are often d»ti-uctirc oE 
lil^. Ilut It ift itii|>0tt4Ue to diifict iliie art Co mi 
^Inunora] end, except by fpvin^; it uliaraetunR tiTiO(>niieoted 
with ite tiucnoM, or by addrcming it to pcreons who 
cannot percci^-e it to tic tinv. WboKoover rrtcof^kftra It 
18 exalted by it On tl^e (;thcr haud^ it UnA been oou- 
motily thought that art wm a moet fittiog nicam for 
the enfon<einent oF re1i^u/L» d■)l^t['i^ee uiid ein'tlutTia; 

whereua there ia, a< I niuel proeently try lo ahow yoU; 
for gra^v doubt whetlier it liod not lu thit^ function 
Idlhotto dtmu civil raUiur thiui good. 

^. In thifi ftod the two next foUovioj; IvcIiitm, | 
thail DDdcavonr thorcforo t^ sbovr von the grave relalioiM 
of hitniftD ait, 111 these t1irc« fttnclh.iii«, to humftn Ufa 
{ uAr do tills but miiglil}', fui ytm nriftj w«1) flupposa— 
Fittco each of those eubjccta would roqnirc for Its liglit 
tie^tinettt >(«»» iiwl<™l (^f kmw, Oulj-, rememlTer, I 
hax-e ftlrendy plvcn yeara, net a few, to CAch of Uiem; 
niifi whut I tiy to tell jou now will ho cnl^ so mncb m 
in fUw(>!iiti?1y ncx.'cssiiry to tef. <inr wnrli *ni a i-lrar fifTirfllH.* 
i\*'t\, Vou may not, at pros-ont, ac© th« nocoesity for 
arty foimdatjonf and may think ttiat 1 oiigbt to put 
p^iioIL and pa|)er in your hfti^dfl at once. On that pofot 
I mast simply anavrer, * Trust mo a little while,* asking 
j-ou hc>wcvcr alift to remcmher. thfit—bre^^^e*: lively of 
wliJit ^tm tilt Wt, or lirst — my true J'tmcticm liere is not 
that oi y^MT ni&fiter in painting, ex eciilpluro, or pottwy; 
but my rcs.1 duty \e to «hoiv yon yvhat i% id t]iAt makci 
any of thesa arts fini*, or ill© omlrary of fiiio; ossen- 
tially tfood, cr eeaontially base- Tou ceod not fear my 
not beini^ practicftl enough for you; all tho iDdnatry^ 
you ehooae lo give rne I ^-ill lake; but far Uie Iwtler 
part of wlmt you may gAin by tucli indnitry would be 
K>at, if I did not finjt !cad you to soo what every fona 
«r arl-ini)tirttry int^nd^ and why Bcme of it U JUB^J 
cttllcd ri^cbt, and some WKHig. 

S5. It VDiiM be vrelL if you wurc to look over, vltk 
n*peut to th\% inniti^r, llu- end of ih» ?uvonr1, nnd vrW 
Inter^tcjonof the thini hookvF PlataV l£u|itihlic; noting 



■p«ckk in tliU And my ii(;xt WtTin-: fii^^ thi? powfirwlilch 
PIftto eo franklyf fiiid qnlto ju^l^, sttributcfl to &rt, of 
fmlffifjririg our tkincpplions 4>f T>cihr; nbli'li jiciwnr Im hjr 
ffttnL error put]j^ ^oip^icfi rtmj bo tiiwd ^flcly for go^d, 
«iid t}iflt tho feigning \& only wrong when it is of 
evil, ' imt Trt W M^Jt ^iciJijtcf;' atkI you maj tivc« 
tbroogh oil tbal foUo^i-a die beglnnSng of tlie change 
of Greek iJc-iJ tat into a bcn«tiful expediency, uifftcixd 
of what it w«A in tlie ^fiye of Pindar, tW aFAtomcnt of 
wbftt * could not bo othcrwtdo than &o^ But, in tlie 
KCoud pUcc, you wiD find m tlnee Uwlca of ttie Polity, 
Atatcd widi far greater a^ctknt«y of oxpreii&ion tliau otir 
KogliAb Iftiiguo^o admits, rJjo ctscjitird rdjitioTiA of nrt 
to morftlitj ; the eam of these bHng given in one lovoljf 
Miitctice, whi<Ji, contidcrmg timt we liJive tivday graoo 
done Ui \>y iuir e<>Tni>nTiion^hi{\ von will pardi^m me for 
tmwUting. ^Mnst it be then only vitb our ]>oct» that 
WD i(Hij>t tbi?y shftll either erefite for ns the imA^ of 
A noble irorftlity, op amf:.Bi- ob create nonel orahidL w« 
Dot »l»o Ke«p guard over kW cjtl^er workers fi>r thfi peojifle^ 
mid forbEd tliom to nmUn wimt h tl1-ei»tninod, nnd ttn- 
netrained, and uti^iitle, nnd without order (;r flhnpoi 
gather in likcitceeEia of Uvii^ tUiuj^ or £ii building or 
In any otlier thini- whataoever that ta niado for the 
pooplot and aball we not ralhor «eck for wi^rKcre who 
can UaAik the inner iiaUini of all that iiinjr ha HwftetJ^ 
febenii^ ; to Ihat the young mon, ae Uvini* in & whol^ 

8om« pUoe, maj b© profit^ by eveiTtHng tL^t, fn w»A 
^rl; vrougLt, may toiuih Uiom throu^ licaring off 
ftiglil, — «K if il wrrc B hnTOTtr 1>i'In^ng binltJi to tlKm 
from plaocbt Mtmiig for llfxit* 

56. And new— l>nt oup word, boforc wo «Dter co o«r 
U«k, as to tliD way you muet undoKtaad wbat I may 

KendcAToiir to t«ll you. 

^^ Let ino l»og yi>ii— low biuj always — not to tLi&k tlt4t 
1 trienii mort^ llmti I hlj'. In all pK^Uability, Tinean 
just what 1 say, and ou)y tbaL At ftll ovents I do 
fully moan tbatf aad if tlidre in Anything rMcrrc4 in 
my minil^ U will \m jiruUildv iIilTcTrznt (nan wliat ytAi 
would gnott. Yua arc povicctly wolc-^Rio to kncrw all 
that I tliii^ki &• «oon aa I have pat bofora yoa all mj 
pounds for thinking it; tut by iho time I bavft don* 
0'>, yon will bo alio t^ fdrm an opinion of your own; 
iLnil niinc will thou bo of nc coiisoqaertco to you. 

Z7s I uso tlai?n to^d^y, aa 1 shall In fucnio UM, Ih* 
word 'religion' aa aigtLifynig the feelings of lore, rov^ 
n^miti, i>r dn^ul witJi wh!i*h Uto hnitiHU mmd h nfTcrtod 
by ite conccptume of spiritual boing; &nd you kuovr 
well how neccwaiy it is, both to the riglitnMB of our 
own life, and to tli3 mid^ii»UiKliiig tlii^ lives nf iithcia, 
that we ehonld ahrikv^lc^^op dearly di^tlTij^uiAl^ our idoM 
of religion, fid thuB doHncd, and of inonlity, aa the Uw 
of rightii(?ft» in hiimuTi (^oiidnot, Fcr there are irumy 
^ religionjB, bat tlioru i« <;rLly orio morality. Tlicro art 

^haord and ira[nt>ml rcligJon^, wlu^Ji diilcr a« mad) in 


AET T1> BTLEatOlf. 


praeopt ae In omotion ; but lh©re b only ono momlitT, 
wbidi ltA« Ijei-n, ie> aud uiiul Its fur cr^r, nii iiEatiDut lu 
tliti bf-airiA (if tiM riviU»-<] ttil-u, iu ra^it-'iiii aihI miali(.-r> 
able u tbcir rjiitwnrd bodilv fi>rin, mi<\ whw\\ rC(^iv<4 
from religion neither bw^ nor peace ; l^iit oiilj hope, txi 

SS. The i>urt forma or ftlatcs of reli^'Sou IiJfhcrtr> 
knonn, are tlioac In vhidi a iLtraltliy humnniiy, fiudlng 
In IInt^ maiijr foible^i nril f^Ih^, h^ ImAginei^ or brvi* 
zosdd coiu&i>iL« of, tho ^xit^noQ of Ljghvr s))lritiiftl p«r- 
ootLftJity, llaUo to no hucL fATtU or btsiu; and liu b««a 
Swbl«Kl iu elfort, and ct^dKoU^d in pniiif by reft^iv^iioo ta 
tbewilt or •ym|tfithy ^if cudi more pure ti»itiE*, "''»c^^'* 
iiiu|^iiwd or r«4iL I am compelled U> uw tlieso painful 
Imtitudci of «xf>rc«&lon, beciuiao no acialy^i* biu hitherto 
anfiiccd to dvtin^iir^h auounit.Hr» in liic^t-^iLcnl narmtivc, 
tbe difTerFiiro bctif*ien impn'nijoiift rrwiIHng Snmi tho 
imapnatioD of tbo wi>r¥Jiip|>»-, nnd tb'^^o made, if uiy, 
by tie actually local and Unnponirv pn^iMic^ of an<:4hcr 
fjiIHu For iiittaiiee, take Ute vlAlctrit wlili'b of all 
4>tb<Tra haa Veen »{iiee iimdft mo*t fi"<n]ncntly the *rib- 
jo^t of physical rcpicwrifnti^n — iLc appcaninro t« Kjuc- 
Itiel mid 8t. John <>F tlic fVnir liriiif^ (-r(^t,iim(, wluitti 
thron^hciit CbHstoudotn have h&an neod W eymbolito 
tfao E^nfrcliBtn.* 8Lip]>o«mg eiich intci'pittatLoa just, 
OD0 of tliiiae tli;iLrc« van either itm iii<?ro ajTitbol to 
St, JoUd of bim£ti!f, or il waa Ibo pon'cr ^hich iiwpuiatf 

* Only ihA OiBiw1«, ' IV CniiffiliA,* ■enir^iiig 1i> St JvranV- 


'&*^m thk unlooked-for and imd«^nbb corabutttifm t* a 
•onMl t«Adt of lb* ftcCko of m oUg n to Foraei. 

4L KofVf I VMl T<f7 etraMlj vam too, in tiM 

ignaii^ off laj work wich jm bere, a^^aiist aDowNg 
flftlur <if Uieao fonni of ^-otuni to niterfen witb joqr 
Jodputit or pracdoe of att, Od ti>e one hfttid, jim 
mat iKit allow tbc exprnwinn of toot ovb iaronntfr 
Vifigioui fooling br anj: pftrtimlu- fona of att to tnod* 
ifjr j'tir jnd^moat of ita aibaolote merit ; nor Myw tbo 
art ItMrlf to beoonifl an !]]e;-Jtimiite means of de«pciuiig 
and oofiflrmJof^ foot ooovktioTH, br n^llnn? to yonr 
<7«a vbait jon disdr oonoolvc vith the hmn; as if thfl 
graatcr cflitamMa of this ttiMgR wfm. a vJjtiigvr pruif of 
Sti ijutlL On the otk«r luuid, Ton miwt not al[<>w your 
tcicctiiio babit of tmrtisg Dotliiiig bat wliat jotj faaTu 
aac«Ha[n«d, lo firevent yon from apprecIalFng, <ir at Icwt 
audcavourjnji; to qualify j^jukcIvim to appreciate tbo 
wur^ of tlie liiglust faculty of the human mind, — ^al 
liji»^(!iiaLion, — H'liGii it in (<Jt!iug in tbr pnsvnce (it tliii 
tbat 0011 rjct Ito d<talt with br any :4hcr power. 

4i^ Thcec aro botli ^ltal condiLion» of your itcatth; 
progran. On the one hand, observe tbat ytm do not 
wilfully use tlie realistic po^^'cr of art to convince your* 

Ivoa of luatoricfll *jr the'>b>^*--al fltattmeuTa wlAcU yon: 
IDOt otlitir^'iMB ]>ro\'e - and uhidt you u'lidi to prove; 
-H>n tUe otbor bniKl, tliat j-ou do not chock your fniagi- 

lt»Q and i:onM:iunco while vcTctn^ tLo triitba t4 vrlu^] 



Uu7 alone aJ*« cogniaant. Ixjcauac jfa Ttluo too lii^hl^ 
tho si^'entlllc Enlere»t ^^-hEi^Ji alliLolice to the tnvegdgiitff^n^ 
of eocond caiuGa. 

Fljt in*tBnc«. it nijiy be qtiite pc<wiblo to *h<iw tUo 
Dtkilltidiut In wnl"r iind iTU»rtririf,y wliuJi iinf'-™«inly |mw' 
Iduoo tho crftf^py oiitlmo, tbo apparently &o1f-c«ntaiTif4 
fl:i1v€3y lt{;ltt, and the eiilptiLuvitte bluo fttutdow of si 
tliuiKlor-cIomlf and wIluiIi scjiarntc ihese from tlie d^pll 
of the ^Iden pi^aod in tbo daim of a Biiimner niomin;;. 
BiimJarly, it may be ixja^iMo to ahow the neceaaitios of 
Btnictare wMi>U gmoi^e tbe fari^ and d^pram tlifi browj 
of tbo a^p, and vrliidi dUtiii^iiKb Hits cliaraf^tcr <it \U 
be^i from tiut of tbo fa.oG of a jom^ ^irJ. But it 
»f» tile fnnctloD of the riglitly-tralndd Imjigimttl'jn tO' 
rooogi^itc, in Hi^eiCy and such othor relative ai^pootef th9 
tuuty of teanluug wblrb imprcfihc«, alika <m <n»r scnecftl 
ftiul oiircitiiiMikneo, the otonml liilTerenoe between ^*ood 
and evil: and tlie ruJc, over the cLr>udB of beaten and 
over the cnatores id Uie earth, of \hG Bame Split wltlt^h 
tMohofl to our cwD hearts the bIttemcBa of death, and 
■trcngthof lovo. 

43. "SoVf t):ctrfnrr, ii])]>rvxu<iiing <nir nulijtHrt in t3i1« 
tMdnncod temper, whkh will noither roiolve to «ce on^y 
wJitt it woiild desire, nor expecrt to ace only what H 
cui 4ii|i1jun^ we flmTi fiTsiI our eivjuiry into the relation 
cC Ajt tol^Jl]jp^Tl ift distiiioTty tfii-eofnli: fi«t, we lonvo 

«ek how far art may ha^o boon literally dirOL'hid hj 
eplritn&] power»; aei-AMidly, hn^n far, if not inM|itrt^, il 



maylLavo boos oxalto^ bj thorn; lutlj, hov fat, id uij 
t^f ltd R^udee, it ht^ advancod tUe cause of tbe creedft il 
linn Itocrt u^d lo ri?i;fjiEiTJteiid. 

4&. Firri: ^Vliut ground li&vo wo for tliinkuij; tliAt 
art h^M erer been inspired as a mcsoge or icvclatioflil 
^^hflt internal evidence ia there in llie work of gftui 
artisu of tbolr haWng ]>oea nudcr tho Anthontatava 
guidauoe i>£ luporimturtd poweia t 

It itt true tli&t tliG answer to so tnj^tcrioua a qceittOD 
cannot rott alone npou JntoniJLL cvLdi^nt^; but it ta well 
that /ou should know wlijit might, fnmi tlmt 4jvid«noe 
alone, bo coit<7ladiM]^ Atid t}re rt^^re ini]uiilU]ty yioa 
examine tho pkoucoueua i-f Lina^iuAti<.'a, tho mom ^rmly 
yi)ii will 1)0 ]|m1 ti) cDiu-iutlci tUul i\itiy mru th» n»ult 
of tho influence of the common and ^tal) but not, thefo- 
fore, lc«A Wvine, spirit^ of which eome portion h gireti 
to fill living LTL'JttKnai lu ftut'h iiniriiLor au may 1>a 
ailaf}tod to their rank in creation ; and Tli&t ovcrylhiug 
whidi men nghtlJ^ acc^ronpUsh ia indeed done b v Divine 
lielp, bnt under & oonsiatcnt Uw whidk Is never depailed 

The Ftrougth of tlus Binntiml life witbm ii* mit/ ba 
incroiued or losiaeued b^ our own conduct; it rariee from 
timo to timo^ aa ph)-eicai etrcngth varies; it b aiiiib 
tnonod on differeiiitt fieumiiwis hy tmr will, mid dejeclad 
by our dlstrees, or our biu; but it ia nhmys equally 
human, and cqtmUy Divine. We are meii, and not 
iKm jLuim^iU^ hriTaiii;e a special form of Et la with Hi 

Am TO nid,irHO!V. 

ilvajs; vre wm nobler and 1)ii#or mcn^ na it id witli ni 
mrt or leis ; bnt it U novor ^virn to ns in &ny dcgro« 
wliicii can tnako ua more Ui&n nicti. 

45, Oljierve; — I |pT« jnu tlii* gent^rfij stAtcment 
Joubtfullvj ond only m tlmt towards which on fnopArt 
lial n^Morcr ttill, I think, be iticlincd hy existing data. 
But I ili&II be ftbla tm bhow }'<>Ttj witJiciat ai»j~ doitbt^ in 
tibe eovine of our studicta, ih^t the aclkiosTrieiits of ^rt 
lAJoK EiaTe been uauAlIy louked upon ae Iba re^ultfl o£ 
])«9cu1imr i]iii|ii.nili»n, liiivi* liepii nrrivi'd ni </ii1jr tbniugh 
GourftOA of vriwljr-diroctcd )abi>tir, ktul inider tb^ 
LQcnco of feelings vrhlch arc conunon to all liu- 

Bat of ihCflO focUi^-a and fi-owcra wlueb in different 
Icgroca ftro conunon to htimauitjr, roi: arc to Di>to that 
at« t]ire« priuHpol dtvl-ilcjiu: flrvt, Ibe in^tincbi of 
I'AoiTUtti'UQUoa or meb^/, wlii(-b we abnro with l^jwcr 
aiunuiU, nnd whioh Are in ns as nadvc as the ixatlu 
of tiiw b«*o or nigbtitipitn ; BmyttidlVf lh« facnlty ot; 
vuiciif or of dK&miii;;^ wliothcr in slucp or in conBoious 
trttiii;^^ or by voluutttrJlj ext'rfi?ii funtj' ; aitd lastly, tbo 
iwer of nttumKi iiifi-n-ii£'j> mid colb^ution, of bi-tb tho 
bm und f(>rnu of beauty. 

4<i, Now tiift fucuhy of Tiw^m, being clnroly nm^ 
<tfilt4Hl will] the iniu'ntJcvt iptritiml uqLiin\ U tlio one 
rhioh bu by nioet rca^>ncra l>con held for the peculiar 
cAntmet i»r Divine fOicbliL^: aiid it w a fucd tlmt grcTnt 
;i*£t^f puiYty di^lftctic ftrt tiuii bu«n tlie nscord, wbotbat 



in Iftngiiflge, or by linear rvprcAenti^on, of actnal ibsoc 
liiTi.iIimtnnlj rerioiveij at (he monieiir, thcnij^h ^asX ta 
mental retinft llancliod by iLo p«£l uotirao of faithful 
1if& Dnt it ia also trua tliut 1'lcm vlmuu;s vfImu'c nnxit 
Li»tf[u.-Oy received, are olva^-^— I apeak deliberately^ 
r, tho flig;n of aoono mciifiJ limitatiuii or dcraiig^ 
niRTiti anil tlmt iJw iHrnvuui wlio moat clearly rot-cgniao 
their Mibic, rxAggi*rui<^1y i*&tiT]iata it^ rUiifving what 
thoy fitjd to b* Ti&of 111, and tnlliiig that *in*|iirod,' arid 
cliBJvj^anluig nbat ihcy perceive to be tecloae, ibon^ 
proaeoted to the ^-idorary bj an <N|nal anthnri^. 

47. Thim tt b pr^bablo tliat no work of art haa 
Ik?chi iJiore widcl}- didattic than Albei'' Dut'er'e lingiar- 
mg, known aa ihe 'Kni^Ut tnd DeLJ*.**' Put that 
ia only Alio of a writA of worka r^jroncuting fiinilorly 
rivid drecuru, of whidi ttatn^ arc miitittrraiting, 0Kc«|»i 
ffir tbo manner of tJiHr rcrfm^^nttatu^, aa tlu? 'St Ua- 
ln^rt^* and others aro tmintolli^iblo; &orio, fii^^hfful, and 
wlmll}' ijujirjiJlable ; so lliat nu fiud IIhj ^Uztituiry 
faenlty in that gL't?at j^r^IntEr^ "vdien aociinttely examlQcd, 
t^ bo a morbid utjltioiiec^ ab^njj bin akill inoro £ra» 
qnEMttly llum nmnnira^lu^ it, uad Nicrinciii^ ibo ^'ftter 


Airr TO iMCT^rr.inir. 

bears Qtoro tlio aj{ject cf k ti-t^OKurc obtained at greni 
c'vt of siifTcring, tliHii of & diiv;;!]^ gmtitcd gift friin 

4S. On Cli« contraiy, not onlj tke lu^Iieat, but dia- 
ntiKt cnnRlsfj'nt rrBuItx Ijjive beon atfafned Ie art by 
iDon in ^d^oni tho fiioulLy of vjeioD, bowev&r atronj^, waA 
^subordiuate tf> Uifit of dcHb^mtivc tletiigii, mid tnui* 
qiiilluied hy a mcnsuitM), i^uiiiiuual^ not foTcriidi, but 
affvotjonat^, ubEc^^lIlC^□ ot tlw <[uilo iirivitd'^iiar}' fucltf of 
Ova snuTTwndmg v<>rld. 

And »i f»r as wo cnti traiT. tim roniiprfniri *>F tliHr 
powers with tliQ moral charoctor cf thoir Jivo?^ wo filiall 
find tiial Hie beet art is Ibe irt^rk of good> but of not 
■distinctively religf'-Hs tiieti, uh*!. at Icnst, are cnuH^-i'iii* 
of no inEpImtionf and often ^ ncconfiCLons of Uioir enpo- 
riority to otlici^ ihat one of iho %ery grealttit uf Ibt^ii, 
cltTceivcd by Iiia ni<Td(>Mtr] bw iu»prti;d tlmt ' ul] tliiugii 
ittTO pcwsiblo to woll-direct^rd^ 

49. Tbe socond qucFtiuD, namul/, bow fai' ail, if not 
liupttvd, ha* yet been ennobled by relJ^loTi^ I £ba1l not 
toocji opoQ lo-day; for It both requires tochniual cntt* 
<^i, and would dWi-i-t you too long froui tlie inaiu 
qnctftion of allj — How fur rGlijrjon baii been liolped b; 

Tou will find ibat die opeialion of formative art— {I 
win not epeak lonJay of moBli^j—tbe operotton of forma* 



tive art on religioim creed is essentiollj twofcAd; tfw 
realisation^ to the eyes, of imnglucd epiritaal peisons; 
and tLc limitation of their imagined presence to certain 
places, ^e mil examine these two functions of it ano- 

50. And first, consider accnrately what the agency 
of art is, in realising, to the sight, cor concepUoiu of 
epiritual persons. 

For instance. Assume that we believe tiiat the Ma- 
donna is always present to hear and answer our prajera. 
Assume also tliat this is true- I think that peiBons in 
a perfectly honest, faithful, and hnukble temper, would 
iu that case desire only to feel to muc-h of the Divine 
presence as the spiritual Power her^lf chose to maico 
felt; and, above all things, not to think they saw, or 
knew, anything except what might be truly perceived or 

But a mind imperfectly f;iithful, and impatient in its 
distress, or craving in its diilucsa for a more distinct 
and convincing sense of the Divinity, would endeavour 
to complete, or perhaps we should rather aay to eon- 
tract, its conception, into the definite figure of a woman 
wearing a blue or criuison dress, and having fair fea- 
tures, dark eyes, and gracefully arranged Jiair. 

Suppose, after forming such a conception, that we 
have tlie power to realise and pi'escrve it, this image 
of a beautiful figure 'i^'irh a plea^mt expression cannot 
but have the tendency <»f uf tenvards leading us to thinl: 


K\l Uw Ylrpik fls |>nw<Dr, when aUe is not ao1iiii]ly pro 
MDtf or » ]>lc<L»ed with \t^, when alje b ntit nctnaTI^, 
pIcsKoJ; tyr if we t^M'hAoXy prt^Tt^nl rutntulvfu fmni atii 

linlfltt u* wfill ofteu tura our Oiouj^htd UivhAn]^ suV 
jecia of rell^oD, when otherwise thpj would liav© beer 
difi«reutlj ocoupod; an*!, in tho midfit of oilier cccm 
paLiunft, wlII fnnnlim'inij mcma »r liue^ uiid cveri in< 
chftniculty uf^&to with commt^n or fitultful eiatos ctj 
mind, tbo fippeomico of the eiippo^d Ui^nc person. 

51, There are tlms Ivto diblmct oporationa iipou. o\ 
toAnd: fl»t, the art maL-^ 110 believe what wo vooldi 
not otlicrwi^ huro bcU(y(%d; and ocoondty, it makee UA 
think iiF HubjirtK wt! kIumiIiI ii<it iHlKTrwtiw huxrt thaughl 
of, inlnnliiig them ftinidfit otir oidiunry tlioii^hlK 11 
ftconfoMxl and btmiliar mannci'. VVcf cannot with ftnjj 
<!ertAl?kty afHnn tho advaiitaffo or th^ linTm of ma 
AcddejiUd piedes, for their effect will bo vory iHi^kroiil 
on dilTcrtnt chainctcr«: biit^ witlioiil any qncofiori, the 
ttriy vtWit'h mntiw tin hi-lii'\« vrhtxi wrt wutihi iiol luivu 
odicrwifto boiiovcd, i« mu;itppli(fd, and in ux<*t iiidtarkct^l 
veT7 dan^^cTJUsly to. Our duty ia to bcllcvo in 
©lifttonce of ^>i^1■^f», .ir fitly othnr^ (ioisojik, only rpon 
rational proofa of their exi^tonoo; und not boc-Aiieo wo 
hhte Been pictitroa of ^eia. And Aincft dte roal ro*-' 
iatjona betwuen na and higher H[>ii'iu ar^, of all fnola 
'OUDoenun]; our liCfiTiff, Hi'mi whtt^h it in m^vrt importnut 
to kiKMr aocrumtcly, if w>a knovr nt all, it is x ftdty bo 


to ffCftl, 

to mihw 

k£ tboH iditwM to 

bgr o«r ova imrtlirliiBMJ faa^. 

M Btt 

ti0V cfatera, Jt i> 
io MilHte tbftt in 

to dnw 

wiib Imib it ia 

tfl^ bat the wotiiag cf josr Kindft is maltcii oi 
pimal tnanoBt to joq, ^{wd^ oa tbo ^Jit 5110 mtkm 
to BlBim tUi dirtactton scroop/. Tba ^rt «tit^ iW- 
hM ft cT«ttxm c^ die ino^UMticti m 081I5 misducTOBt 
liHC itdiMiiai b ounoeUvd Do fimpl^r, or 4lo» 
Indiiflo A Mlcf kit ^ v^bI uli«eno« of the 
iia^angJ pamtDMfs^t ooptnrj t<s or unjiutified bj tfad 
otlirr trrklctir*! of ifai i^&teiMr. But if tlio Kit only 
tho pofvcvttgo on tbo iuid«n4aa^iig iliAt ilt 
ii imag^uT, then the effort at t«»liMioa 
bfiftliiiful ftod beiieSciaL 

For hmmofc I shnU pUce in jmv Standard Mikt 
ft Or<«k dengn of ApoUo ctKwiag tbe atft to Delplii^ 
h ttn i-uui>|il& i*t <iii0 of the htgfaoil tjpea of 
or onj other vL So far aa thai dea^ ia oaly 
CD cxpraMOOi under tbo gambol of a bfunan hAXUf of 
«4iat mxy be nghtlv imagimtl r^|wcting tho aolar^ 
pcmw, the ut ifi ri^ht An4 annobfin^ : but so far oa 
it €oatt(jtdL to tbe (ireck tho ideft of there beiBj^f a t«al 
AfuOoy it ms miMbieTouBf w1j«tL«r there be, or be noC| 
fwl ApoUo. If tbera u no real A|h>]1c^ tbun tho art 

Airr TO iu;uQiov. 

v/m mieebJe^oua liGcauts It dccd^^; but it fhoro U ti 
rottl ApulJo* thou it won ptlll t\v:tc iiiuchi^rouB, for it tutt 
cmlj began tbo d«gndHti(jii of t!ie iniRge of tliat Liie 
guiI into A docontioo for luclim, mid & device for UAlt; 
bat prcvcntotl flnv truo witiioea VwiUff borne U> bU cxirt- 
OQcc For if tUo Oreek^ Lisleail of ijinlti]ilj'iiig^ rt-j^nv 
•antatioTiB of what they itna^meJ to be tlio Hgure of 
the ^d, had gii'eii ua uccuraio dniwiiigs d tic hcrocfl 
and htttH^ r>f Mantrjioi) mirl SalmLiUf iind luid fnrii^if/ 
Lold tii ill plain Oret^k wUnt cvidotico tliey \md of tli« 
power of Apollt^, citJicr thivti^h hitt oiu<fl«, liifl Jiclp or 
chwtii^iMrLuiit, or l^ ininiviLiatc vmm, Uwj iroiiM Lavo 
MTvsd tlbcir roligion tqch-o tnily tluin by fill tha vaso- 
puntings &ud fiuo eUitncfi that over wcro buried cr 

&3. Xow In this pordciilnr in&tSTicOf and in many 
oHier examploe of fino tircok art. iho two oirnditiona 
of ihtiugfiiy 8/inboLic abd rediaixct at< tnin^led; and 
tho urt ia lielpftil, as 1 will hereaft«>r «boiw yon, in ooo 
functic^u, and in iho odEcr ao deadly, th^t I tliink no 
dt^radaLiOD c:f iHHicepLiun of Dvlty liu ever been qull« 
•o W*^ tt» lJi:it riiplii'd by Uia defiigiift oF Greek tasaA 
in t}io prriod f>f (U^liiiu, uiy uLouL 250 d.c 

B*it though a^nong tho Creek* it la tliiu nearly 
always diHlcLdt to fmy wtmt ta aymbiilii; and what n^aU 
ifltiOi ID LtiB run^ of Cluietian art tho drntinction is cloor. 
Li Hiai, a ^B^t diviMon of Imag^nAtivo work \a ooctifM 
in dic aytuloliini cf Tlrtuoi, Tloee^ or ELalnral powan 


or paasioDA ; and iu tLc rcprcscalatjon of pcrftODOgvc vliO| 
UiougU nonuDally rml, 1>«come in conccfitioQ ft)iuholk. 
In tbo Rpeaier part ol ihia work tlier© b no inMnti<*a 
oE iniplruig tlin exi^toiico of tlic rcpmcntcd crektiiro} 

vid uaof 111 when it ie tL« work of g^ naeiu 

54. A^iiii, rliere Is ntir^r^uer dnisloii oC C1iHh!I&ii 
in wliidi tliQ perE<>iis rvpn:*Js<*iJtod, tUi^u^i noiruimlly reid| 
v*c treated onl^ ns <hntiAti^pcrt^mt^ of a p^cm, and 
preaeured confc^wdly as mitijc^.tfl of imst^nfltion. Atl 
^la \tooiic art ie (blao good v^hau it is tlio work of good 

05, Tb»ro rcmaiui only tUomforo to bo conijUoml, ni 
tmly roUj^ons^ the work wbich definitely implio* and 
iitt>dil1eH t!ie otmi^epUou of tJie existence of a it^iil |>ei«c 
TUero U liflrdlj- nny grcflt art wliicjti entirely belo&gs 
tills cl(i3a; but Uiiplut^L^s Ihtufluajna d«Ua Scf^ola la 
tiA tu-nnrats a !}']« t>f it ns I i^ori give >ou; Ilulbeiii'a 
Madonnu fit Dr&^dGn, the ^HdoimiL di Son Buto, 
the Madijima of Titiaii^a A»u]U]}ti<»i, alJ belong miU 
to ih]s L'Ia88, lnjt are reiniived Hoint^wliat from it (: 
I repeat, nearly all j^reat art U) m^n r.ho po«ti<.<al ona 
It ifl only tlio Moody crucitixca and gildod virgins 
^tiker 8(idi liiwer font^fc t>f iiua^ry (Ijy wLlcU, to llifl 
honour of the EhjjIibIi Chmxli, U La* been imly cUhnod 
for her, tlint 'olu: luui iiovcr appedcJ to ttio madnifiia of, 
dtilnefis of hor jieoplt,*) wliitli belong to tiie . 


chfis ill tidiA liialtatton, aitd wlutJi prcpcHf ccxisUtuI 
the 1j]>a of IL 

There U inUcod ah importnut teliool of iwulptiiro 
Sjiain, AinouUrl to tlic «amo objccI«t but nat dcnmndirigi 
ftt prof^iit any spocial attention. And liiiallv^ there il 
tho Tigorooft (uid mciat intort^atin;; realistic school of our 
own, la modam tJmeH. tnakitily Ictlowii to tike public IjjJ 
Holnaoik HnntV piutiira tif t]io I.i^ht of tho ^orld. tfaou^'l 
1 1roli«T«, ddiving tte Eret oii-^a {nrni the genius nf tli 
painter to ^ffhom yirti owe also the revival of Mit<»r<i 
ftfftt hero in Oxford, ftud tlion utiivorAoUy, in tiie cjt 

56, The effe*!l of tliiu re«li*Hc art on tht* relipi^iu 
mind of Europe Tariff in ecopo moire thau any other 
art power; for In tia li^'lii-r limzki^iL'H It loimlum the 
mo0t sincere reli^oufl mmd^, iifEccting ou tutrut^ oliuM 
of pe«on» who cannot be roaclicd by merely poetical 
ilcMgii; wliilrT, in lit lowcnh, it mblrcwra ilwilf not ttn\j 
to tho meet nil^-jir do«iro« for reli/;;ion& exoitetn^ut, but 
to the mere tlurat ft>r aonaatioa of iiormr wlifcli chamo 
renees the iiiiei]uL*iiled ord^rri of |»urtiu.lly (.'iviliHiHl touD- 
triei; uor iner«ly to tljo tliimt fur horror, but to the 
■tmige U}rc of dcatb, u sucli, whic;li baa sonicUmea 
in OitbohV iMHitif.Hcfi shnwed it&clf j^wcnUarly by tlie 
cndoftvour to iknint tbo iin&|!^^ in llie ohapoU of the 
Sepulchre eo w to look dece]>tj\ely like r/irjisiai. The 
wind morbid fuatliiLl hiu ulio &ffoc;tod tJic tiiiuda of 
nuuay amouj; the more imn^uatiTe and powerful artieti 


-mx sa-xrtos aw 

will) H fa!r<-rig1i gltMiin wliiiib diatorU \hv\v fiiitxt wyvIg; 
Hiiii lufitXy — Olid tbts is tlio w<»Tit of all iu &ff«ctt— it h&t- 

in larnL'uring Uih Euffmtijf* of ClirUt, tufiteud of prfr 
veating thu^ <*f Hie people 

57. Wbon any of jou next g*> abroad, obftcrret and 
[ooMJdor tlie meaniog of, tbo ficu1pture« luid jininttn^ 
vrliicJi of €vorjr i-fuik in art, and in oveT3' 4.-|iii|x!l aud 
(^atUudnilf and l>v ev«ry mi'iiiiljib] pitUi, rcniall ihit huuni, 
Uid ri'pE'UdiOUt Uiu ii^<ni<3it, of Utt^ PaiAtfi'Jci t-f Clm^t: and 
try to itimi noino MliinatHC <jf ibo ufli^rtA timt have been 
made by die four orta of clEKjiienoe^ iniuJc^. jtatndikg^ 
^.izid i^pture, hiqcd tLo twelfth ^^iitnry, t-i wi'itig f>iit 
'OE tlie bcurfa of women tJic liirt dnipn uf pity tlittt rotild 
be oxcitod for ihi^ in(*r«i1y pli^'nTml «g»ny i frir thrt strt 
inearly al^iiye dwelU on Uia pliyBical wonnde or eat 
haiittioD (Jilefly, aud dc^radiat, fur inon; tlian tt animate*, 
Uio conception of pain. 

Then try to coacciTO tho qnanUty of time, and pt 
cxi'lUHl luid tJinlliiEg i>iTiiiliifiT, wlitdi lm\0 lietiii wjuLled 
by the tender arid delicate women uf CbrUtcudom 
during tbciw liut fix htmdrcd ycnr*» in thua pictiiri:ig: 
U> tl^i^iiHi^lvoi^^ iiTidcJ' fJio infliiciic:^ of eiicli imn^ryf tho 
Dodily p-ain, loc^ sine© passed, of Ono Person ;—which( 
60 far HM tJiey inJcod conctivcd it to be stmtnincd by % 
IKvine Natcirc^ could vol for timt rcacfin hnvo bei^n len 
endnrablo than the ai^nica of oxiy Mtnplo human doatb 
tjr toflurc: and tbcD try to eetimato ^^liat lai^ht 

ART W HKUtiloii. 


been lite Ijeller result fur Uie rij^litr(«i*nr« %n{\ f»1i(-ttj 
of loiuikibJ, Lf tli»o iiftmo 'wx>m«ii liiul t>ocii tft3i>)it t]i< 
deep meaning of tho Innt worfla that tfcro ercr spoken 
by their Maatar to iIkk^ ^vho !iad inSriiftUrred to Kim of 
their ffub&t4uaoo ; ' Dau^liton of JcrtBuiloin, weep not for 
.m^ but vccp for joBrftolT«f, and for ymr children/ If 
-'^187 hftd but bwii tAttf^t to mefteure viih tJieir pldfiU 
tliotiglits the tortnrcfl of baHI£^-fIulds;— tiio dowl^ o>^n* 
ntmiii^ |r1agit^ of dcwtb in this aliirThig dillilntri^ luid 
^Wtfted age, oi tlio Innumenblfl doftokce tfao*c hnttlo^ 
left: — jmy in oui own life of pcftoc, tbo agony of 
onnurCurufB, uabizight, ttnlicIpcH vrwiturw, »Lvnl(in|^ nt 
itbo giuv«** «ilge t" know how thoyshouUi havo lived; 
ftod tlio VO170 paiu of tlioao M'boeo exiBttincet not tlio 
OCHBiDg of It, in iIkhUl; ihtKtn it* whom tlin ftrmllo wm 
ft eune, ftDd for i;^'bom tlto vcird]i they cannot hoari 
*aih» to uhce,' arc a)L that tbcv hiive ev^ T«<«iTed 
of beiwdictioD, Thfi»e^ — jon who would fain have wept 
St Hid feet, or stood by Hie orow^— thcM rim havtt 
ftlwA^ with you^ IHin you have not alwn^-a. 

98, Tlic u'raldiud in tU^alh ymi liavu nlwmyi witb toil 
Tc*, tuiii Iho bravo and gortd in life yon liiiro always; — 
tlicM^ id«o ncvdi&g bclp^ though you supposed they hod 
only to Iiolp oflwrK ; ilnj^n xlm rlnimiti^ Ut bn tluiuffbl for^ 
ftjfed nmombcrod. And yoii will find, if yon Tix*k into hi*- 
toij witli tkio cliio, that one of qiiit« the cltief r<;&»>m 
foe ibo oorJtinuiLl mit*cu-y of niaiiUnd i« th«t ^hej 
nro ulw&y* <lividcd in their Trorship between angels «f 




to ^H 

uiiitr, who tm cct of ih^lr nght, ftad sodd no bol 
ukI pn>Q<i and cTiJ-mind^ mciif who aio too deihiiba 
In Uioir ^Iglit, Anil oiiglit not lo Itara their liel[. 
Gowidor how the ar1« li&^-e Oiiu foltovod thft wonhip of 
the cromj. T<jii liare jiaintin^ of uints and angekf 
fnnnineniltlG ; — of poMy cniirli^nt, and cuntomptiblo ur 
omd tung«, innuinotnblo. I'ow, how fbw y<m have (bat 
tliMef obMTf^ ahnoA aiwaya hj great painteia) of the 
beat mon, or of thur actljua. But ihinlc for ^urMtvta^ 
— I ha^ DO time now to cnttr upon the mighly fioldt 
Dor iiuagin&lion enough to giudc rnc bcj^ond tfao 
hold of it, — think, what hittoTT might havo hemi 
now; — nay, what a di0cront lustoij that of alt Europo 
cnJ^hlhave hui^r.imtf^ if h had Ijitt been tlia object both 
of tho poople to diaceni, and of tboir aria to hcnour 
and bear iccord of, the great d€cd« of tlicir vtortljicrt 
men. And ifj iustcad ^f living, ns they have alwaya 
hitherto dono, Ib a hcUiih cloud of ooutention and re- 
venge, lighted li}^ fantastic dreams of cloudjr aauctttto, 
thay had eongbt to reward aiitd pTinUli ju»Aly, whanror 
rcHOrd and punishmont 'were duo, but cJuolly to ifr 
ward; utd at Teaet rather to hear tcatlmouy to thm 
biiman acta which deserved OcdV angcir or Ilia hletfJafTj 
than only in prc«iunptiioiu iinn^natit>n to dvp Inj 
aacretfl of Jud^nont^ or tbo bealitiidoa of Ktcmitjr. 

ti9. Such I conceive ^ndi-ally, though indeed wi 
good arittitig cut of it, for even' great o?U bnngi 
virue gtHxl ill its Imirltwanl eddictt — Bueh I Gijnceit« 


bftv6 been Um deodl^r fimctiL«i of art in ib mlnU^jj te 
iffliAt, ^rltcUier iu iMrnlUcii or OitiArJAn ImiiUf and wlieUwi 
in tho pagoaxttry of wi>rdB, or cj>l»i»^f nr fsiir fonm:, it 
trvly, and in tho deep »cndO^ to bo ^Milled Idotatiy— Iha 
MKrviu^ Willi tlie lien! of aiir lirurlit and iiiliida, toui« 
iloftr or Md foiitMy wUk^ ^o ]iixt4! irtnde for ounclv^Si^ 
white wo dJK-bcy the ^rtvoit call of Hm JiImUt^ vrho ii 
tK>c doad, and who id not tion- fainting imdoi* Iltt otmi^, 
but r^ninnj- ob to tak» up ours. 

60. I pan to tJie accond ^reat fmictioD of roIigicoB 
mtty llie Ilmitafion of tJie Idea of Divine prMenoe to 
puiicalar ]ocalitJc«. It U c>f course impoafilllo within 
mj pTOCnt limitA to touch nimm thitf p&n^cr of art, n4 
on tho Mrmplm of thtt ginl^ <»f vgrioiw reli- 
^gloru; wo will oi&mi&o thftt aa fnturo OGc&&ioiid, To- 
daj, 1 w&nt only to map oat doin idc£4, and t csid do 
Chift liatt by speaking exola^veljr of Uiia loc-alShljig iuflu-j 
mus^ OA it affoetd our own faiUi. 

Obccrvo dntt that tlkd localiHiition ia aimoflt ctitirclj 
'dopoudont u|)pn humun art. Y<rii uniBt at l<uu>i lako 4 
lAtoDQ and BOt it up for a pillar, if jom aro to mark tlto 
place, 10 as to know it i^^ain* wl>or« a vi^on n|v 
pearad. A pe:'&«crtitod people, nodding to conoeal their 
kplttoei of worfiliip, tnay perform oxery relij^om core- 
'tnony fint nuder ono cia^ of tho UUiaidc, and then 
nndor a»c;tli6r, without iiivalidullng tho eaier\H!na« of 
Ifac rilca or eacrramcDtd thua adtului^tdrod- It ]%' 
lhenforc> wc all acknowledge, inccaciitiul, tlmt a par>: 

tmc lOELA-noK or 

lUr ajiiit hluniTtl lie siirnni mini widi ft ting nf nttnir^! 

melL^ed witliiii wdU (J n vOTtiiiii Mrle of Arr-liitp<;tttf% 
otid 00 tot ftpurt oi tliG fMiW i>Ucc irbcrc wch ccrtmonitt 
umy ho prti^wrlj porfgnnoJ; &nd it is Uuw k«» Ij/ut 
dircK*t appeal to cxpori^^nce or to rosaon, but in c(»- 
Bci^uonco of tbc cdcct upuu our eeucs producod bjr the 
ATcliitecrturo, tlmt we roc«Ivo iJie fln^ strong {inpr«flHlc<» 
E>f whftt wo &it€rwftrda contend for oa aUoluie tnith. 
1 piLrticuIurly wi^i yinx to i^otieo liQW lb U ftlwnj* bjr 
bolp iif liiEiTmn itrl, ihut Mwh x nniiU ih tiUiiiiin], bnc&isHif 
rvmanibor nlwAyn, I sin nuiUicr dUi^utiriir iior martui(f 
tlio truth of any thcolo^c&l dcctiinc ;— *d]at is not my 
[iro\mcc; — I oiii only qu(«tioiiing \he vtK\tcdviacy of €D- 
forciiif: tTial doctrine l>y tlie b(*lp o-f nrcbttocturc Fat 
a rough »tfjiLc for mi filt^ir under titc lia^rthom on » 
vUlHgo prpcn; — Kjinriito h |HirtIi>ii of tlio grouti iCnU 
vjth ail ordinary paliui* from tbo r»t ; — tbeo 
vri\h wbakv^jr fiMin yuu diixw, rim ^imiti; t^f 
bavo iifi(tlf«C(]j htiU meet witUiu tliv wix>dcti foiioo 
oftoa £Lfi ^on dceirc to pmy or prcvach; ^i^t yon vrill aot 
eaejl^ ffi^teD an iinprcwtcn in t)i« mludsoF thu viHa^rs, 
tiitt God inbablr^ the spaeo of graie inaide tlie fctu<c, 
ftod doci not extend Uia prc«eiic:(^ to tlio conmion lit^vomj 
It: fln^ that the datKiiv ktk] viiflrt* oti fiim i;]du of tim 
milium are hoK, — on tlie other, profane- Bnl, 
of m vrtwdcii funce, l^uld a wnW ; pave the tnt^Trinr t^ 
roof it OTifr, w ai^ to nmko it ciini]oirHtivu1y dark ;->«Md 
nay pcreo&dc the vill»r^xrs with vimc 

;routi lomx 
F gnuRs J^t^l 

of thu 

Am- in xRr,iaio?f. 


I^uilt ft hcpntfc H'likli Deit7 inhnUib, r^T tiint ^c^i hftTa 
tieoaoG^ {n iho old Fh*]ii^i plinu^, n Mn^iir i3ii B(ic 

81. And f&rtlior, Uiongh I have no (IreniT to intn> 
due© anj qne«tEon u to Che tnitli of wlmt wo thin 
sjcliitectnru]]}' ten*:}}, I nvnim ctcwiro yoij ttu«t ttncTJjr 
to del4TriTitiic viltAt Ih inlcitflrd to la* taught. 

rXi IM think I niuli'rrttto — I flm amtinp tho la^t men 
living who woul4 tndcn-ato — tlie importance of tfic fcw* 
tiniBiiU «)oiiitt<vt<!f! witli t)]mr dntnrTi tii thn pcipiiUtTriti 
of pneEoml vjlIft<jo. 1 mlmit, in Jt& fnllcet cstont, 
tlio moral Tftluo of the iccnc-, wliit^h ii hIuk-aI ahvatv 
one cf perfect \mniy and poaee; iind (j£ i!ic wiiiw* ol 
m^nialtiral Itne a»d pnitoc-tioa, wJnch 3t]« mid mt< 
ronatjtt tlic 1<jt aialCH and hi:4me1y pnrclu I^it llio 
H^aettSini T di*!ro Minit^ll/ to tcavp wifli }>iii U, whotlwr 
all tlio cortli cniglit nrjt to bo pcnroftil and parfi, 
nnd the ftckno^vZcdgaicnt ol the Pivine prolocUoa hh 
nniv'anal, u itB reality 1 Thttt in a >D}«terIoiu vn.y tlio 
p»eet>ceof Poitv is votich^ufi^d w)i«!re it is 0Otig1)t, and 
wittidrawTi wLero it in ror^iLLori, iniinl ni cftur^^ lio 
gnaitMl lUi tbo llM pwUihite id the ciiqiiirv: Imt tho 
pDJnt for our <Ji>cifaon iB jujit thU, whether it ought 
alvravD to be eought in one pl&cc ontj-, and fcr:g^ittai hi 

It may t>o replied, that «mco it la Impowthlc Uy con- 
eecrate tlio eutira a|ia<:e uf Lhe e;irtli, it \% lH4t«r thna 
to facni^ a p-jition of it tliitn nono: but Burely^ if m^ 

0it HIE asLLTlOS 09 

we cmgbi to Di&ke aome effort to culargu Uw &vi>ared 
^rround, find evQn look forward to a dmd whcni In 
Kngli»li vtllogcd tliero majr be a God'i ncro toiutitod 
by lliu livings n'it llw fU-juI ; and wlum vte *1miI1 niibct 

I lot>k with tLvonion snd foar to thu reaiiuiit of ^ivund 
that is eot apart aa proi'att«, thim with rotorDiioo to a 
liarrow porLiim i>r it «Dd<jaed aa holj/, 

C2. But uow, ffuthor. SuppoAu it be tdmltted tbftt 
by onclwiing ground! witli walljt, and pcrfomui^ ocrtftiD 
wrrtncmTcfl tlwre liftMlnftlly^ watio kind of miictit/ U 
indood eeciirod within that spioo,— «^ the qiiCBtNO 
i-emaiLia ^puu whether it beadviMiUlo fur reltipoiu (muv 
jxj6<» to dG(?ortte the enchRni-e. Tar adjuration t^ 
i:ioro wulb would bo ciioiigh, Wlmt 3« tho p4iipoao of 
your decoration t 

IjEt i]» UlEft an inctanc^e — the m<«t nnMe with wfali^ 
I am aoqitaliitcd, tho CuUicdral of Chartj-OB, You havo 
tliL'ii] tliu uifMt »plcii<]i(l ccJimn^l gla», nitd tlie nrl;c*t 

' ■ci]1]>lurc, aud tho grAJidt^^l propoitlcmi of building, 
[inilcd to produce a BcnfiGition 4>f |>lca^irc nnd awc;. We ■ 
|<r<»fi?»i thub thia i« to hoiiotir thit T)i.ity ; fir, in ot}»Tr H 
words, that ii is pleaaicf^to nim that wd ahonld d^^t ^ 
our e^'ca with bhte luid goldcu colonrv, aud ^olemniae ^^ 
oiir K^iiritM by thu night nf Uirgii Khine* laid oua oil ^M 
another, and inj-oniou£ly carved. H 

63l I do nut tbiiik it <^&ii bo d^nihiod that It m B 
ph'Asing t*i nim whoii WIT do thiw ; for Ite ha^ Iltins^U " 
orcparcd for ufl, nearly every tnomirig and ev^uliiff, win- 

i I 

down patutod wtdi Dirtnti nn, in blno tni] g<ld and 
Yemulkm; i^iudowa Uj^ed f]x>ui nitbin by the litftm 
of tlut luwvcn wUirb we may Aaeuut^^ at least wEtIi 
more ccitaiatf than aa^ c^iuocrutod gronud, to bo ona 
(if Il£fidtteUiiig'pIa«e& -Afcaio, lu evory mountnla eiJc, 
and diff of mde aaa ihore. He lias li>?apd ?tcKiea oao 
QpOQ BUOtLcu* of grcfitcT tnflf^tudo tbiui Iboeo of 
Ohartni Oadiv<:li«l> and tculptared Uieia with ilonJ 
ornaiDctit^-'-curely not tow uerad bccaiua lirLu^t 

M. Ma»t it not tbcD bo only boc^iiao wo love cai 
own vork !>cttcr tlian Hi*, that we r^psirt Ui& luecmfc 
glflAi, but Qot the lno«itt c]oiid§ ; tliat wo wava cn^ 
broidered vcbes wiih ing^nion^ fini^rs, and niabo bright 
l]i«s gOded vaulu we Itata bt^miliCullv oTdaiii«d— whito 
yet T& b*te not conddei-ed ilie beavens the wni-k o£ 
Hit fingen; nor tJio atan of the etran^ ^-atilt which 
Oe had ordained, Aod do w<t dream that by carvlnj^ fuiib 
and liftinf* pEUatfl in His honour, %iio cut» the way of 
the ri^'cn amonj; the roolca, and at vbodo reprcx>f tho 
paDaiv of tJie earth are oxLuiiUliBd, we fJiaU obtain [nrdon 
for Hm diAhonour done t> the hilU and stfeamft by whiuh 
Ho haa appointed onr dwolling-placo;— ^fur the inrcutioaj 
of their aweet air wltli p^Jisriti ; — U/r tlie burtimg up iiC' 
their l<iadar ^w axid :l!>w<sn} wifJi Etro, and for ipn>ad< 
[ng acch a riiame of mixed luj^uty nxid miacry over our 
ladve land, as if we laboured oidy tbat^ at ivwFt hem in 
EsglaDd, we mif^lit be able lo give tho lie tolbaeoni^, 
ithcthor of the Cherubim above^ or Church beneath — 

*Uf>\y Ui-Hy, loi'd Ocd of nl) creAtores; Keti^a — om 
Sartl^tm full ot TJiy glory r 

OS. And how much mons there U tluit I Ir^ng fotAj) 
to fou; und how much, 1 hopo, that yon wonld liM 
f^ uii5Wt;r U> lii^p or Ur qLt«Hti(JlL me of! But I CRO «•/ 
ho iiw;to to-day. W« are nut, I iniBt, at the end 
our talks or t3i<iijghto tc^tlior; but, il it word ^ 
1 never epoke to ymi mcjrr^ tU!n tlmt I Imvo Bild 
yoii I flhotild have been ^Itn] in hnvti hctm j)emiUt€d 
toaaj; and tlii?, fartbcr^ which is tlic ftum oE it.— Tlia: 
we wwr^ latve i^Aeiiduur of art a^n, and with ihat^ wo- 
[aay truly prmlM and honour our Maker, and witJi th« 
0vt fi>nh the hE^utdy uiid b*>HiLci« o£ nil tbnt He hn^ 
tnath'-: hnt, inilj- wfter wo hnvr Ktriv<!ii with rnir wWW 
heorte fiffit to aatictify the tempk of tho body and 
epirit of every cliild tJuit hoa no rooi to covor its head 
frmn the cnU\, mid ii<) wiiIIk ttJ gnimH ix» lutiil fmm eon-i 
.rnption, in titie our £Dgli&h load. 

Ouo ward luore. 

What 1 have 6nggi?9ti?d liiibcrto, ree|iecdng the rda 
Uons oE Art to Kcllgion, you muet nH!ci\^ thi-oii^lioul 
■fl merely niotl^v of thmiglit ; tliuii^h you titnst Imvo 
woU «con that my own consietions \c<fro wiablbbed 
Stially en aome <jf the poiuU in ijuc-ntl-JD. But I miLat, 
m niDeliiHiim, tulT j^m iHiiiuithirf; ihiit T hnmt ^^v\nAt^ 
U you truly labour^ you will one day know a1»u; aiul 
which I truBt ftomc of you will hclie^^ now, 

During t)ie mtniUos in whick you Ilhto been Uataidsf' 


to me, I enppcee that almoet ti tvetry other ecnteof^ 
tliMe wliuae liabit of mind Uoa been one of veit^miicii 
for cftabtiabed fonu^ ftTid faitlia, mtiit Ilbvo Vtujn hi 
dreaid tiial I ^tju atioiit to nuj^ or iTi pang of n^rct At 
HIT luiviug laid, vrliTil NH?mi;i tii tlirm iin in^iMiTiiritt or 
rCoklMA wofd touohing vitftUy iiopiirtaiit thing*. 

So fta fiom tJiie bclnj; tbc fact^ ll le ju^t bcQAUM 
feelings lliat I meat desire lo ctiltEvnte hi yur niltii 
ikr« tlioeo of rovorouco ujid cuiuiiratiuii, tbut I tan 
c&rue^ to |ircveiit yon from being nifjved ti> cither by 
trtvinl w falit) *0[tibIiLnLi?ii. TAw U tlie tiling which 
I Dflo V — and M-hiuh, if you laliinir faithfully, ymi nlmll 
kXiOw aW, — that in Itcvcircncc b tJio chit;f yjy and pwTCcr 
of lifo f— tti-vi<rt^iK^(fj r»>r what Ih punt and bright In ytJiir 
own vonth; for what ia truo and tried in thv a^ <if 
others; for all that is gimJoue among the h^-ing, ^cat 
aiDon^ tlio doad, — and narvi'tlmui in tJio Powtrn 
oumot die. 

^teimt 3t 


|CMu« 3. 


06 Vo7 probublj rccollcut tLnt, in ibc b^-^unliig 
if m^ liut loctLim^r^ tt WfW etnt^4 llml fine art Imr], and 
f*iflld h*\'©, bnt Ihrao f unction a : the onfurcing of the 
reU^i^>ua scutimeiib of men, iho pcrfoutin;- tlicJr vtliicftl 
eta(&» arid Uie dulu^ ttautn mat«rittl servii^o, We Lmve 
to-^ny to ewunine the mode of its action In tlie aeoond 
power, Uiat of pcifccting tlio rociralitjr or etltical *toto 
of incu. 

Porfectinpr, olwervo — not prodnciiiff. 

Toil muKt h&iro ^6 riglt moral stAte fir»tt or 70a 
cannot havo tlie art. Gnt wtk^ii tTio art ih ork<« obtAinod, 
ita rtdoctod action onhancoa and complotca tlic moral 
atato out of wliidi it aroee, and, abo;-« all, comiuunicatea 
die eiEoltation to ether minds which are already moratl 
capablo of ttte like 

67, F<^r iimtuMcCj take the art of tfliigin;]:, and tKe 
■iniplcet perfoot mast&r of it, (up to iho liniitg of hifl 
natnro] wlioia yo\i can tind — a akjiarlc. From hiti) jou 
uiujF kani wluiL \\ ]'» u.\ 'Hiiig fur jojr,* Yoti inuat get 





tlie moi'al efAto Qret, ih« pure fj^Udneea, theai p|iT« ii 
fiiiift]j«d e;Eprc»iofi; n!id it la perfccte^L lu itoclf, And 
nindo c<iinmuiiit;Al>!o to c«ihcT crvnturCA vn^tile of ttwAi 
jojr. But it ia iDccinmuTiicablo to dioco who w ti<A 
l>rcpan^ lo receiTc it, 

Ni>^', all right bnn^an sorg Ia, flmtlarly, tbe finished 
cxprceaiunj by art, of tlio joy or f:rief of Dollo jwreona, 
I(1T I'l^ht caiiece. And accurately in proportion to the 
rightnofis of tlie cfiiiee, and pimly of the frnKition, ij 
tlie poesibility of the iino Art. A maiden tnny sisg of 
Lirr l(«t love, bdt a mieer i-aunot dug of Ula k«t laooiey. 
And witli alieoluta preaiuon from lil^Uwt to Icwea^ 
the £ncrv£6 of the po^blo art iB an indojc of t)je moral 
jmrity and iiiH}cMy tif Uie v-iiloIJimi it t-Apn-ftwa You 
may test it j>rsurlically at any inAtiuit. Qnortion irhh 
yom^lvca respecting aty fcoUn^ that hoa taken &fix>ng 
poGsessUia of your iniuO, 'Could tJiis Ue sung by m 
moetor, ftnd BtiTip nobly, witli a tnio melody and aitt* 
Then U ia a li^'ht fcelirg. Could it not bo sitng at all, 
oi only song ludici^iulyl It ie ft ha^ on«. And that 
is eo ill all the arts; bo Uiat wttli mjitljoinnticLd praauicn, 
eubject to no i?rror or exccpliun, tlic art ot n, 
80 far at it exists, ie nn oiq^on^nt of its utMcal stato. 

^8. An exponent, obaorvc, and exalting infiuence; 
Lnt ijot tha root ar i»U!io. You imnaoL iwlitt or alng 
jou;vo1v«g into l>Ging good men; you must bo g^tod 
JFD yon can cithtr paint or ting, find then the 
IP and sound \nl1 complete in yon all ^at ia bctiL 



And QtJS it wM that I csJled upcai ^on lii Iteiir. mj- 
Ingj MisteD u> me at loaii now,' in the fini locit»r«^ 
Damely, thftf no ui-Uacrhing c^iuUI be of tuw to you, 
b&t would mtlicr Ix; Kunafiil, tiiilj^w it wus grafted on 
■ometliing dcopar than M fill. For indeod roc only 
wjlb this, of which U la my fum^tiim to tthow you the 
Inw, but ruuch mom witli thu art cf vM v\t^\, which 
J0& cAitiG hen) chiolly to tonm, that of Lait^tLgo^ tha 
chief viccA of educatkrn havo uibcd frc^m tbc odc great 
follaoy of Biippoamg that coble langna^ Is a coTnmunl- 
cable tn ok of gruminar Olid aocont, instead of aimply tlio 
cuvful oxpnwiou of right thought* All iha virtu» of 
l3u^(ia;«e ftre, in their toota, moral; it bflGomaa suscunito 
if the fipcakcr de&irc^ to bo truo ; clear, if ho speaks vnth 
aympalhy aiul a du&ir« to he lutelli^Ible ; powerful, If 
he hii« comeUnota ; plcaftant, if he hna Bsnse of rhythm 
and order. There arc no ether vtttitea (if larjgaago i^ro- 
duelhlo hj art tlmu tltf^: but let me injuk luunr deo]4/ 
far an iuetant tlie Ei;!piif oanoo of <jno of tliom. I^jm- 
gua^i 1 said, is <ful/ clear whcm it is sympathotia 
Ton can. Id truihj understand s. man's word only by 
undemanding hb bami^r. Tonr ovm word ie aUo as 
of. an unUnown tqingiiu to him nnleas he uudcT«Und9 
yotiriL And It U tliU whirli mul(ni Ihn art Cif Lui* 
(Eua^, if any on^ ia to ba chosen cepantely from tlie 
rot, tlut vvhich 18 fittest for Ihe instrninent cf a gentle- 
man** wlucjatiou- To leoijh the ineoiJnp tif a word 
thnrvnighly is Uj teach the nature if tlie q)iril tlikU 

coined U; the secret of language h iIm *«cre4 ol 
p}}', and Jte full chann iA potatllo only to the 
gt'iitlc. And lliu* the prinriplwi «f lii-jujlifiil »^>ecdi 
bave all been fi^ed by Hirw>ro ntid tiiidly cjvvc'h. On 
the 1av» v'hioh havo bocn dolcrmlDcd by siuccrtty, falfc 
ftjiL'^di, ajj^arttullj' beauliful, may aftemardfi |je €01»- 
fttrueied; but al) fiuob utterance, whether In oration ct 
poetry^ lA Dot only willicnit permanent p>wer, but it la 
dwtructivfl of the jinnnplrs it liw iis[ir[>pd. So loitg 
afl no words are vtt8i<er] but in faith fnlnesfLj m> Ioe^ 
cho art of tangu^c goee on oxaltiuj* iteoLC; but Uia 
iiiuiiient It U shaped find eh!iH>el1dd tJii ejttenml pncicTples, 
it fallji into frivolity, and pt^ri^hcft. And Uiid tnilh would 
tfivc Lccn long ngu iiiai]ifcst> hnd it net been that in 
peni'idfl of ftdvnncuni juraclrrnif^l Hf^Senira ihrrnt in tdvayM 
a lendonoy to deny the sinoenty of the firat muteiB 
of larij^ua^. Ouco Icani to write gracefully in the 
mtinner nf nn anotmrt author, and we arc apt tu think 
ti^ ho iJeso vvrott^ iu flie iniumcr o£ oomo one eltfO. 
But no noblo nor right »ty1e waa erer yet founded bivt 
out ef a filncero hoart 

No man is worth roadh^i* to fonn your etrle^ vdiA 
doee nut uieau wh&t he f&js ; nor vraa amy great Bty le 
ever invented but by aome man who meant what he 
■aid. Find ont the beginner of a gront manner ot 
wntiTii^ and yon have rIad fr>iind the rluolurer of aome 
true facta or aiccere pMaUma; and your ^lolo method 
of reading wtU thun ha ijuklccued, fqi, l>diig aure 

fmir Antlior rcall/ me^nt whut be E^aid, yen wiJ 
muiili aiurtj mirerul tu iiH.ierlJULt mIiilL U Is Lhut lie ineaiis. 

6fl. And of yet gi-eater iiupcrtanco is it deeply to 
kQ<>w that «^r7 bcan^ poBBceeed hj the lAcgnago iJ 
u njitiim m nigiiilicuit nf tha miic?niiri>i(. kwtt uf iu bmiij;. 
Kc«p tho tompor i^ tlic p^opld Ktoni mid miuilj ; iniik« 
their sffociatiom grarc, conrtcoots axtd for wortlrr oV 
jecl8; occupy th€ni in just deeijs; &nd tJieir tnrguQ mnrt 
De^da bd a ^rsnd ono. ^or b It poaalblo, thcrefcro — 
obaorvo the nocca^ry R^ecttKl ncticiii — that Jkuy tuuguo 

ilioald 1k! II Hn}t\ii iniR, uf whidl Lhu WTHliri uru ||i<t M» 

many truinpot-uolliL to octiuii. All great kuguftgei in* 

TAriabljr nttcr f^rcat things, Mid cciDtnand tiieoi ; tiicy 

canii'^ be mimicWcd but by oTxttHpnci?; tlio biwith of 

dwm id inaparatit^Q bueaiieo it ii not only vocal, tut 

vital; and ycjij cau fuily leiirii tii 5|>cak aa thtMi) mmi 

■pol:Oj by liecstitniiig wliul tl)««o nioii wi^ro^ 

79. Kov for diroct coniirmaticni of tliia, I vftiit yoa 

to tLink orer tlio rehLtauD of exprc»«kjn to cttaiactm' m 

nro l^reat mutere of die ftb»ulut« Art of kngufl^. Yirgil 

and Pupc Toiii nre pi-rlmjiH Hurpriacd at tbo Jaat uiuno; 

and iudc«:d you liAvii in English mucli higher gnwp and 

iDilodj of lan^tago frum nii>ro powionate mindA, but you 

ha*^ DOlluni; <tle0f in, its rixti^ ao perfect. I name, 

t}ieii;fim^ tJieMe two men, bur^iiiie liiey nre llie twi; moet 

aevcmplbJiod Artist*^ meroly fut »uc^, whom I know tn 

HteMure; and becauao I think yea will be aftcrwardi 

tntCMSted In InveetigatJng httv the inflnlre gruce in tba 

nmrfh of tlio ono, tbo M^ieritj in thr«e of the ofter, 
acid Ihe prooJsioQ in thcao of both, atieo wliLdly <mt of 
the nuim) L^li^mcnb uf tlu?-Ir iiiiiifis: — oiit <it t]u: divp 
tenflvnKiB In Yirgit whi(?h cimbU'd him ti wnto tfa9 UoriM 
of ^'i£ui and L&nsiu; and the ^rcnc and just boBdro- 
lonco wUtli i'boed Fopo, in lii& tli«i>l(/^v, tw^ eeniuntiA tu 
advauee of bla dme, aad onabted him lo Bum the lav oC 
noblo lifo in two Imcfl which, ao £br ra 1 kuc%r» are the 
moat coinj*lotc, the rnrnt tJfuiciw^ mn] ihu nn»t Kiftj- 
prmiou of mcrfil tdmpcr exi^tinf^ in Kngliab wr>rd4 : — 

I vEfth 70L1 alec to remcmhor tho«e ltiic« 1^ Pixpo^ 
to make yonreelves entirely mart«ra of liU «j9tcm of 
«!tJn(4; becanacr^ pntting 8liii,koij>okni nxirio ha mlher tho 
world** ihan oure, I hold Po|»6 to bo tha m<»t perfcot 
reprtttt^i^i alive vro lia^e, since Ohanoor, of tiie tnw 
EngliKh TiLinil; avid T thiiilr tha Dmicirui h Oiu nici«t 
ftbeohitcly duwlicd D.nd moniinnnital work 'cxnotcd' id 
our country. You will find, OA yon etndy Pope, that 
1)6 Itaa 03Epro6«cd for you, in th& etncle^C lanj^naf^o and 
witiiin tlio hritifc«t litnite, crvcry law uf Art, iff ariticiuna 
i>f <T<'nnmy, of polu^y, aud, liriully, of a hiMiiTvoloCOi^ 
bumklo, rational, and rc^ignvdj c^nt^iiUNj with its fdloi- 
U>d iJj&re of Ufc^ artd tritatli^g tho problem of its 
vatiou to Illm In ^iIuhu? hand lies ^a1 uf the Dnivenei 

71. And now 1 pAA^ t<> tho arts wiiJi vrliicJi I bfl 
special oJiiccni, in wbk^, though tho faots are vx 

ibt Mme, T ihftJ bnvo mrm dillicully in pi^x-iiijr xr\v 
Mficrtion, bocaiwo vcrr few of na aro M c^f^nizant of _ 
tJie nierit of pajiitliif; aa M'e iki« of thut iif IiuiguHge; 
and I can only ahuw you tvbt^tico that merit «prinp 
frcai, ftfter luiving; tlii^tro^iglilT aIiowh jcpti in irlmt it 
omnidK. But, iti tli« ini^iTifirnp, T !isi\-t^ itJiTijily tn tpll 
you, that tlio mantijil aii't arc lu of^oiirntc cxp^^onlj' of 
ethical fttatCt lu^ ollici* modcE^ of cxpi-&F«iMn; &nty ^lih. 
absolnts precii^inn, of that of ihe workman, ar<) ili^i 
with preci^'.ir, dif^nieed by many distoiiirtf^ infliidncMj 
of that of tbo natiou to which Iw belonji^ia, 

Attd, first^ tiiev mv a p«rfi>L>t <*x^iitikenT, of lUa iriSrid of 
ihA workattn; hut, bving *<>, njiiiembor, if-tliu mind 1m 
great or Gomplcx, tlic art is n^:/t an c:»y book to read ; 
for wa mimt, iiiirH^lviw f«i)H>:rH nil llii* iniiTitiil rhnmirtC'ri 
of which wo aro t^a trad tbo t;i|^p. N<k man can read 
tho oridencd of labour who ia uol himself laloiiout^ for 
he does not tiitw wliat tit© woilc ooat: wor can bo 
road t]ie o%'idettc^ t^f tmo yfasfkiii if be iit iKft pfuni-'iiiat-o j 
uor uf girntWtir^n if he ia nr^t gi^atlr : and tlic iiX'M 
sntrtLo eignft of fuiUt nn<l ^'liLkrk'Js^ nf cJiavA^i^tor hi? t^an 
only jud^^o by baring biid tlio eaino fanlta to ftjflit with. 
I iii)-peir, for iniil&ace, know iii]]mtitiril wurk, aud tired 
work, bcllnr than trtuitl «ritica, b«tau»a 1 am ni^-aolf 
aluraya impntknt, aittl often tired; — no ai^ the pntiaiit 
and indcfati^blt; t^nicli of n tni^hly inastor lr«comei 
mnra wooderfid to mo than to otliei?, Yet, wcmdorfut 
In no mean mcaeiirc it will bo to yon aH, M-bcn 1 maka 


mfe ucLATios or 

it inanifttft;— cind oe soon as ve f>o^ti wir nM worl^ 
BJid jou hftTQ Icarnod whnl it lA to draw a Inic line, i 
fliftU bo ftbU to rtiokc niuniftvt b> ^on,— -<uul irilrApu^ 
iftblv BO,--lhnt tho tUy'ft work of u mtin liko ?kfniitc^tMi 
or r^iul V«rc:ine^ con^i^U of ar nTifnlt^^ring, ttnlntcr' 
mpted surco^ion of nvA-emetitj; nf ^lif< huml tiiarit {irvtriwi 
^ubQ tbceo of tho tiRoet fcncor; tho poncU loavliif; ODO 
pi>iiit and uTtring ut aiKfllier, tU}i only wlUi uikormig 
precision At ihf^ oxtnnnitT of tho liiu^ tjiit i^ith un tin 
OJTitig &nd yet Tflricd oaureo— «nnctiinc« ovct opaoci n 
foot or mono iti tstciit — yet a conr«c «o dctcrminod cvcij- 
whoro tLftt oithoi- of tb«M men f>ontd, stnd V4?rcinn«o often 
,dooa, ilmw u tinidlicrd prtifitc, t>r any otlier pcirlion of th« 
Mmtnnr nf » fkc-i>, willi iriw litii', mtl aft-crrAiirOn i^liazij^^d. 
Try, firstj to poaliw U> yoiiraftlvw lIiD mTjitciilar prvt-iiifoi 
of that action^anJ tlio iiif<rllcctLinl ^tnLin of it; for tliQ' 
movement of & fencer ]« perfect in practl^c^d moiiobotiy 
but tlic movement t^f the hand of a great palntor ifi tt' 
evciy jiuitnnt govunic*] by ilirw^t aud now ini«tttJ"n. 
Then imM^Eit; tlinl. mtiMrular Crmiiiwit and nllbtl(^ty, amlt 
tho in&EfLTitAncoiuly ecloutiro aTid nrdinonl tmcrgy **§: UiO 
br^:i, anfttaiiiod all day \<*0S' ^*^ ^^^y wiHi'^nt fatigue, 
bat with a vLril>le y>y in ib* esortitai, IJko tlmt vbicli 
an ctt^lc »c<^md to titko Li tho wu^e of hie wloj^a; and* 
llii» alj Lifo long, and tliroiigh long lifo, n^rt (inly witli- 
oot failure of power, but with viaiblo ircroaso oF it, imti1< 
^Bfad aoiually organic <ThaD;:ofi of old ik^c. And than coiv 
laitkr, iN> f nr aM yuu kiiuw iniytliitig of plij-dology^ wlial 



iCkit <jI ac «^ioA] state of 1>i>^y and mind ihnt mcnnal 

mmt be to gat it, wlint oicquiFito LoUrco Bad ajmiiictrj 
t>£ Uie vital powcrel And tJicn, fiiinllj, deteniiiiio for 
y4hijrH<Wc« w1ii?t>ier a roatkhood Uko t!ifit la cojifilsdMit 
will; ary viciouaDCes of soul, xrith oiiy mcnn ansictTi 
acj ^QBwiik^ lufit, all/ wri?t<Jit:druwi ii£ Kpita or ii'tnirTBie!, 
wj mrscl(Ai«m«s of retwHum ngiiiriAt ]uw I'f Gnd "f 
niAD, or any uctuul, Utoii^j iiDutmAfioiw, rjolutit)!! of ovgu 
thfi Icftnt law to in'hu:^ olicdiriic<£ ih^ntiol for the glory 
of Utvj ftml tliv |i)ftH>.iiig of itK Givr-T. 

7^ it ie, of cc-iir««, tnw Uiat inuijr cf tho etronf 
ntaeten liad dt^cp fanl£d of 4;baracterf but Uieir faidta 
aliTftva show in iliclr work. It U Vme th»i Biivie cunld 
not |;fyrcm tlieir |>tL«&ioi:e; if eo, tjioy died yiniiK, or 
ihty iJiunlrti ill ^Ilrq vU. But tlic grL*alcr intt <jf <>ijr 
mIttpprdieiitkiD Id tlio wlmle iTiaiti^r i* ftmri ^mr not 
liKTic^ woU known vrhc^ tbo ^t^bX pumtcrs woro^ and 
tJikluif de%lit iu llie i^etly tik'Al tljut was bi-ed lu tliu 
ftutic» of tlt« lavGi-utof t-ku Xi^rili, Jiifttcad of tlic-ir« wlio 
brcAtlicd ccnpyroft) air, ac^s of the moniuig, under tbo 
woods of AftJ^i find tlie oragB of Cadore, 

7S. It ia mi« biiwcver alfto, oa I bavo pointed out 
Igug iigo^ tlmt fJir; rtrmg mwstcTR full into two gmd 
diviftioiK, one k^^ading Kimplo ui(i tiaLnml Mvok, Utttoilior 
mtnLinod in a Furituiino of tho vorahip of bcniity; 
ood tkeae two niannera of life you may rocogniM in a 
moment by their work. Gcn^i-itl^ tJie nantrnliBTA arct ihf 


TUB iwLiTTOx or 

Mroiii;r^t ; tmt there aro two of the Puritana, wbots vcvk 
if I iwn MUE'(-etn3 iti irinkiri^ i^Ifjirl}- uiidrniljuKtiitili^ to ytm 
Jiirinj* my tliroo Tifore li<?rdt it U bII I need cuuv to dix 
But of tlic^u ti^'c PuritniiAonc 1 cannot n^tijc to yoo, Mid 
the other I at present will not. One I cannot, for no 
O01O Lnj^wA liU riAim^, ffxnopt tlio briptiftofll ono, Dcnmrd, 
ist 'denr liitlc iiemard' — iJci'nonlino, called, from lib 
blrrJ)|jla(^ (Ltitno, en the lago Ma^ore^ Benttrd of 
Luino. Tli« otliorid a y^iuctiuu, ol wboia nuny ol jon 
[ffx>b&blj' biivc novcr hmril, and of wbnon, tbrovgh mi^ 
ymi ghflll not hiTHr tiiilil 1 Imvi: triml to g«rt M^mv picttm 
by biia over to En^Uud. 

74. Ob*crvo then, this Pnrilaniam in the vonUp 
erf Ijeanty. tlioTigh eomeiim^ weak, Is alwayn hcnoarabltt 
and liiniablo, ami the cocnot rovuno of tlic fal^ Fiui- 
tADisin, which cotihsIa in tha drE^iii or ditdaiii of beuu^*. 
And In order Cc» treat my Gubject H^litly^ I orxght to 
proceed from tiiQ fikiH of ivrt Ui tlin 4'1vn>^o of lU piihject, 
miul ikhriw yiiii h'jw the iiioriil tr.mjx^roF thn workitiun M 
fthr>wTi hy lu£ (oeking Lovely fcnns and thoughts to 
cxpTCM, M well AS by tJie force of h]« hand to capraatfoiu 
Hut 1 need ncit now ur^ Ibis [>arl <if the jiroof un you, 
heoaueo you are already, I believe, aijfildontly con0ci»u» of 
t)i« tnith 10 this Diattcr, and a1«o 1 h&vo alreajy aa!d 
cjioitgh nf It in my writings; wlier^sis I havo not at all 
mid onoiigli of tho In^liblenofls of 6n« t^ckdod work 
M a i>rouf of ereiy otJier ^xA pfwcr. And iiid<«d it 
WR8 Ifmg bofore I myvelf iitido»toud tlib truu incanii?^ oi 



Uie pnd« of Uio grcAtCflt men in tbcar n^cro cxcontiotii 
di^inx, W a permanent Icwijn to lu, iti tlio htvricii 
n^hicl)^ whether tme cr not, indleato with ab^ltito 
ftcourftin- llio general oomnotion of gixnl Arti3l*;™tJw 
BUirim (]f ihtr. r-imNwt nf AjhOIiw nnil PM«g«ncii in a lino 
caily, (of vrliicU 1 can promieo jou, you elmil kiifj^v t^m 
EaeaniD^ tj suuo i^iiqHdc in « little wliflo). — i)io »t*My 
oi die drtile <tt Qiottn^ mid GNpncmlly, w)iicU yon may 
pcrhapft Dot bavo obsonod, tJio oxprciwon of Darer la 
Lia inaciiption cm tlio drawin^ra &?Dt \nai hr Ra^iliati). 
These flpmrea, he Baya, 'ItiipUael dr(*w iiud eent w 
Albert Durcr in Nurubcrg, to sbovr him' — \niatt Kot 
hia invention, nor lila beaut}' of expra^l^n, btit 'Adln 
Q&nd cu ^eoina,' 'To diow tiim bis himd.^ And Ton 
irill find, a^ you exaninc farthor^that all iiiferior &rU«ta 
aro contintinlly tiding to escape from tha net^e^it^^ of 
aotind work, and either indnl^'uii; Cbctnselved m thc£r 
deliji^htA io aubjeet, or plnaiiiig llicmaelvefl on tlieir 
nobk modTcs for attempling what iliey carrnot perforai^ 
(and obAorvi^, by tlic way, tttal a grout d^l of what U 
miHUkea for coEitMsiuntloiifl tiKJtivo h, tintbiii^ liut a very 
paitilent, Ufeauitc very MubtlerC^mdilirm nf vsuity); wHsiv- 
u tbo ^n?at men always iiiidcMand at onco that Iho 
lirEi monility of a painter, as of ewijbody «W, la to 
know Ilia bnabi^a; pxid ao cnntc^t a?o tli«y En ihia, tliat 
many, vtIuim Uvea yoti Vp-otild Udiih, liy tho rMalu (jf their 
Vrork, bud bi^i^ii [mwnj in nti^mg mooticin, lumr lix nuiUtl 
nibdued tbtimo-.'-lves, thuuj^h capablo of the vory irtTongMl 

80 nm wOAiiuy or 

(taaBl'>n^ iut> ^ calm u ftbioluto aa ilut oE » dco]4y 

of UkO tiiundu in tli« i&ky, nnd I'vorf' (rhuiigD of tlui »JtftJotn 
on lUc hilU, but ia it*<:lf nic4ionU^«, 

IS. VitiaWy^ ytm nirjtt frmi.vnlM.T that great ob^unrl^ 
}i£tA been brought tip-jii Uio tnith Id tbU m&tior by tlid 
want of integrity and &itti|»]idty Ln our modern) liEia, 1 
mtaa liiU*grity in tliG I.alU! »ei)Ae, i;«-buI&ucM(. EYcrytliing 
U brokon np, and mingloJ m confufutjo, hath, in our 
babttfl and tlioughte; bceidcE bciAf; in great pftrt imita- 
li^~e : Ao ihac ^cn not cnly canTiot tell wliat a raaii la, but 
Kinittiiacs yoo oaimot IcU wUotUar bo w, at all !— ^hcUier 
jnmi bavu itnincil b> do wtlh & Sjiirit, or onl^ ^itb w^vt 
vidin. And tlmit Uiu iianic iiicoruiUKfiicic* uppCAr now, 
between the \yi>rk cf ftrliBt« of moiil mid their pwioiial 
o,La/a^er&, ££ tficiHe wbicb you &nd cotiliitbally dia- 
ftfipt^iitin^ expMlation in tJio livcA of toeti 4tf niodoni 
literary power ;--the scmio conditions cf frucictj tiAving 
obseiuied or misdirected thn b^t qimlititi* <if the bu- 
ii^nuliou, both in our Utcntture and art. TbnB there i« 
IKI icrioiift qucsLitrn v\ih any iii U5 u tr^ the p<?ryi)i>nl 
cbitraclur of I>uiil£ and Gi(4:to, cif Sbal^i^ufXTiinr and 
lUilbciu; but wc pnuw titnidty in iho attempt to 
aual^^o the moral 1a>v^ of ibc tat »kjl] in recent 
novi?liBta^ nnd painlora. 

7ti. Lift m& odjnro yon onco f^r ftllf tliM m you grow 
oldfir, if yoQ enable yoitrsclvae to dbtinfi^iuab, by tbe tnttli 
of jrotir own Uvoi, wbat Ib irnc9 lit Uioie of otber rwD, 



jtm wifl gnvlniilly |]^^(^n\rl tJml nil g'w] ItM lU ongtr; in 
f>ood^tiovci in evil; thnt tho fact of cithor lilcrfttiiio oi 
poUiting Ueiiij{ Irulj line of tlitli- kind, whatefcr tlioii 
mS^Al;en aim, or partial emir, h proof of Ibelp in-l>U! 
ori^u: ftnd tliAt, it tiioi-o U indccfl fitorlitij;; xa-lva in thf 
tiling d«no, it tju c<>rno of n tftcrliiic: wr>rlh In llic »>u1 
tlut did it, howcror alloj'cd or ^It^filtNl hy oiTidifumA d 
mn vliioh uro sonotini«« iii<jro appallini^ 'ir itiom Fti-aii^ 
than thoM which aU may delect in tlieir own hcailB, 
bocaUBC ih^v ar« part of a pcnonallty filtr^iLer largoi 
tlian cttjt, aru£ a» far hcjoiid our jud^iticnl iit iVd dark- 
tusm aa tcvonil our filliiwing iu iln li^ltt. And it IM 
nflldcnt; varrting agRiTiEt wLnt luimo mi^lit dread Wr i\\o 
probable eflfoct of c^ucb ft iK^nvicti'im on your otra ToindB, 
Jiaawl/, tbat yoii uii^'ht permit }'oijii^Ivcm hi the ivc«1c- 
veiiia vbicb you ima;,']Ttod to be allterj to ;*enlua, when 
ibej took tbe form of poTfional toinptfttioua ;^it ia ftureljr, 
I tnjj nunicifTut waniiiig ngniiiHt vq mean a fci)]^, to 
diMreni, OB you may vritJj little paina, timt, of all biiFTun 
ox^tcnuod^ tLiA livc6 of men of tbat <tidti>iliKl and tnitiicd 
(BObilily of inU?lfcct, arc pri>biiMy Ibo iTti-At iriE^crnible. 

77- I pRM &) tlio Hcnond, and f'lr nA th? mcr9 prac- 
tically important qQceltcn, ^V'Jiat is the effect, of Doble art 
upon otlior meik; v^trnt Uzta IL dmic fi-^r nall^inul imfnatjJv 
in time paat ; and ivbal effect la tlie exteoded kit^ivlodgc 
ct pcasoaaiou of it 1-keIy tu Lave upon ue nowi And 
lie» wo ara at <mtx mat by tlio faota, wliic^i ara a* 
gloomy MA indiJipntablOy that, while mnny pcaKant popa 

lattons, sinion^ wlinm rn'-nrvt^y llic ruilcbt prurdco tif tai 
hflfi evor been attiimptod^ lian- UvcO in compmitire 1ii- 
Doconcd^ bcoioiir, and liappincfls the voiyt fnialiicro And 
(-rti»Uy of aava^ trlb^^ [iavo ItGeii fivqLiontly aaiKkciatod 
vi-ilh fme itt|^uitioa ^ doouratiru dodp^D; alao, di&t 
|ico3>lc linA ever attmncd the bighcr »tii^ of art al 
€XC0pt At & period of itM dvilivfttinii lA'ltK^U wiu iciDiud 
frequent, viobnt, Hud cvon tnrpngtroafi i;rEtnc; and, Lutl^, 
tli&t tho atlaioiug of pcrhction in art jKi^or, Iim bc«o 
hitherto, in every DAtion, ths nccurAte signal of tho 
fiin^ of itA rain. 

73. lt(!«])ectang wliicli plionoinaiA, o1>Aorve fint, 
Although good noccr gprin^^ out uf evil, it is d(fi«!< 
to itt highest by contention vith evil. ThcTo Aro 
g]-oup8 of peaaaotry, in far-away nooks of Olimtian 
b4e*, wlio «re nearly aa innocent a» laniU; but ihd 
mcrulUy wliicK givea jiowor to art i« tlic jnonti^ 
tncti, not of cntr.le. 

Secondly, the virtttea cf tLe inhabilanta of m&ity 
country districtft arc apparcut, not real; tlicir lirw uo 
indeed artTt«s, but not innocent; aud h is only Vhi ido- 
nofony of eiFoumatanooB, and tlie abaenoo of t«nip-alioai, 
Mrhich ;>rcvc!nt tJic cxhibit^<;>n of erjl pnmono rw4 leH 
it;al b(M-Jiuso often dunniuit^ nor Um fiml l>ef-niu(o rWrrwii 
c^ly in pctr^ foiilts, or inaotive raalif^itie«. 

70, But yon will ^ibsa^i-xe «l*i> that ti^f/tttlnU art.!e!«nci^ 
U: men In arty kind of iitoml fi(?atll], in imp «aiihlc ' rlioy 
liaro always, At looet, tiio art by v>udi tht^v live- 





or aeam&riBlilp ; and in t}i<iw inOtmiriai. AkHfull^ 
jou will diul tlio law iif tLvif rioral tniiiuEi^ ; 
wlu1«^ 'wb&iet^r the adveraitj of uircnniAlAnccA^ ox^rj 
righlly-nuTiiliid jKiWHUftiy, muh an \}iat of 8n-i»d^ T)eTi 
morU^ Bftvoria, or SwitzorlAr^, Il-w uMiUcintod with ite 
aocdful industry » qiutc rtudicd H-Jicfol of picuarableait 
in dre8A ; find j^eLtdraHj' bIso in Btin^ auJ feiiiipla tltjrii^tlc 

80. AgnSn^ I need nd repent to jou hei'e vlmt I 
QDdeavouied to expUin In the fi«t ieeture in the book 
I called 'Tbe Two Patlia/ respecting Die arl9 of aavni^e 
reea: but 1 nm^v now inrtu biicfly Unit *ii«Ii art* are lie 
remit of an intelldotnal ftctintj* v^hidi Lafi found no room 
to expand, and which the tyraunj of nature or of man 
has i^iindernnGd lo (liaotme tlinjit^h nrr^t^d gn^wlh. And 
whoro neitlier CbmLianity, u<>r \iny <>tlicr religion con- 
wjing fti-rata nn^nl help, hiw itjtrhi^l, the aninial vut^j 
oi mch rat<cft neceeEurily flamcH into ghnHtly conditiona 
of evil, and the grotescpc or fri^^btfnJ forms fu«nnicd bj 
thdr art are previfteljF indicative of thetr dldtt^rted moral 

81. But tho tndj great nntionn nearly al'^i begin 
fritti a rcifvi |>oaM«iing this iiiinginntivr puwrr ; am) for 
Rome time tlicir progrcffi k very vIq^, and tlk^ir i^tiLto not 
one f.f innocence, bnt of fcvcririb and faiiUfid animal 
eiier^, TltUiigradiiallyBiibdueJ and exalted Into bright 
human life; tho art ioBtinet purifying itaolf witli the 
rc^t of Uie nature^ until oociul ]>erfectiiece Ia ue^dr 


rns KZLATIOV 07 

roarlipd ; aTuI iLph rnmcB fli<i prnod wlien <vm«cio7ipe 
JnU^lIiHit avo to highly do^elopej, Umt now lomv of 
«rnir begin in U)o inability t<> fultiL tlje ^cfniatt<U cif tin 
onis, cir to iuiBw<^r tJio <3oii1itA frf tbe c)f-hi»r. Thrr lh« 
wholcnc-sa oF tJw people i» l<Mt; all krlnia of hypocrisoff 

ftitli i« qiJOf^tioncd on otio luiUv luid cotnpiiimii^ ^Ih 
on tho otter; vcolth commorly incrDfi«cfi s&t tlse camo 
period to a deetrcctlv^ extent; liixnrr fuHowsj and Uie 
ruin of the nutlon h then certain: vltilo tlio aH^ oU 
thiB tiutc, arc eimplj-, of I teXi nt lii^t, tbo cxpr^ncntE of 
«&cli phaio of !f« moral $t«t&, nnd no more eontrol it in 
ftd |3i-Iitt<'ikl cnrcct than tlio ^leam of the fireHy Knidea fti 
<»nT1liiMi>ii^ It i« tr'iHi Umt ihitir iiiuit 9j>1i-<iidif1 nvnlbi 
are nstially obtained in tlio fi^iftnc^w of t)io power which 
Id huJTj'in^JE to ttc precipice; but t-> Jay tto diir^ erf 
the L*aUitn)]i1ie to IIlo art l>y which it ia Illitjniiicfd, Idta 
find n ciLUKO fi^^T the antj-nu^t in tlie htuM of its iriA. It 
U true that IIjc ri"il<»»fll y'uXA htlcmghx^ to periods of 
f^at n»lii>Tin1 wtMibh (for wr.'jillli, ytm vill find, w itin 
ical root of all evil) can turn ovioiy |^d gift and aki]] 
of lULtniB or of man to evil piirpoeo. If, in biudi ti 
fair pic^iurcA have bcc?n mii&ii^uO. Ii^w rniidi more 
realltJceV And if Miraiidft is immoral to Calibnn, la 
Minuidu^^ Uin\t ? 

82. And I could cafiily njo on to tJ*eo for yo*i trhat, 
at the moment I epcak, i« si^iticd, in cnr o^n nitiom] 
ebaracter, by the farms of art, and iiiihftp|iily aW by tlia 



fonntt of wlut le n<jt Art, btit •>tx"X ^'^^^ ^^^ AJOOnx 
tin. Tint thfi RhirM irapn-Unt qiiwiion !«, WEuit unTf b6 
a;^:iiod l>y thcni; Trbat 10 there in ub uoir of worth 
and &lreii^ vhlch, under our new nutl jxLttlv nrdilcttrAl 
ImptUiN) touArdi form&tivo IaIkjt, may ho by tliat ox- 
f fHtftcJ^ and by thiit fortified? 

Vould it mti \h3 \rall to know thUI ^aj, irmipoctiTo 
of all i^vom work, ii it not Iho lii^t tbin^^ «ro «boiil<t 
want to know, what stuff vro a» nuuttf tif — Ikov r«r uii 
ara iv**" or »*>« — good, or good for nothfngt Wo 
may aU know tluit, ciicL of ourtQlvos cowly cnovgh. If 
WB liko to |»iit Olio ^ruve ^jUMticin koU liomo, 

8S. Suppc«in^ it were told any f>f you by a phy* 
aictAQ w!jc«c word }x^ oonM not but inmt, llmt yon bnd 
not moro tluin wven dnys to livp. Aud *«|»pnTO alw 
that, by the initnner of yxmr edu<3a1toD it had bappoiicd 
Id yoii, HA It Iuia }ui\tiJtnc*\ to inutiy, never to have heard 
of any fiituro utate, or not to buvo credited wluit yen 
board; and therefore that yoo had bo faco this ^ct 
of tlifi approadi of dealh En ita Ft[tip1icity : feannj^ no 
pmnshmcnt for any iin Uiil you miglit liiivo Ijof^ti'o 
cotntnittod, or in tlio ooimng dayit mig^t dctomiinD lo 
eommlt; aad having timilarly no bopo of reward for 
p4Ul, or yet possihlej virtue ; nor even f>f any conadoua- 
mm irJintercr to bo left to you, after tlie Bo^xaith day 
bad cndoil, eUhur of llifi Tenitltfl <]f yoiir act* to thi«o 
vbom you IovckI^ or of tlie fevltngft of nny aurviTon 
towvdB 70Q, Then the manner in ^vhich you vcniJd 



Upend Uic n( ^on dikjf ia ftu i^nct mcoffun oi d>c nit 

91. I know Uiat eomo of jou, and I beUo^^ Hx 
greater ntunber of jrou, w^mld, iii »uch ft caao, spend tLi 
granted daja entirely ai yuu oijgliL Kdtbcr In KUtn 
boring thu tmvni, cr deploring the plcnmircfl of the pojit; 
nor in ^rwi>irg at vilo goofl in tljc prnMcit^ ncir mtti; 
Umeiitinj!? th« d&rknese of ihe fntmi9 ; btit in in^tftnt and 
eamo£t esocutioti of wliatover it ini^it t>o poeeJblo for 
^«ii U) jiu^mipHtJi ill thb Uiiiu, lit tteltlu]^ jfuur affain 
in order, and In pro\'idiiig iov tbc futoi-e cooorkfofft, azid 
— eo fnr u jou might by any nacfvo^ or record d 
jxmrMiH, ft»r Uio pdJisoljil.iuri — nf tUfws whom you loTcd, 
imd by wliom yoii do^iiod t) be ronkoaiiberod, not fcr 
your good, but for thcire. How far you uu-^i fail 
thrgngh Liunan wetilaie^ in tliamd ttjr tbe past, dc«pak 
at the little llmt could in the renrukant of Ufa be aeeom- 
plt>]]i^d, or llie ittt^lur-nlile p^ii ci bn-kon affec^ou^ would 
dopond wljLjIly on tht^ do^rco in nlueb your uittim had 
been dcprc9«ed or fortified by the inwmer of your |«*t_ 
life. But I dtinlk tlicro sira few of you who would 
■peed tboflo but days better tlian all tliat bnd preceded 

85, Tf you look iwmimti'Jy tlirongli fJio rcso^irdti of 
lirot tJiat have boon mott nwful to humimity, you will 
End that all that hfifl been done bc^lise bcea doDo»o; 
'—thai t'> llie c]enn%t irifellEH^fi^ iind bS^baar. etmla, — to 
Ihp tnic children oi the Fuilici', ynrh whran a tboii 



u (mc i&y, thmr poor fic^-oiity jc^re arc but 
daye. The removal of tii9 fiJudov of death 
frctin tbciD to on uncortaiTi, bul alwav£ tiarn>w, distsnco, 
UBver Ukfis away b^a Lliom their iutaitii^i of Ita 
ipproadL; the eiCendlr^ to tUdrn of a feir bnnrA more 
or loH udF light ohaUxt not tJi^r a«klLot^lcdgmcnt iff tho 
itkSjiitiide tbftt mi»t rein^D to he Ltcrwu Lwjr'Eid tJicir 
kunwI«H]gi?j — doud beyfind llteirdwdn: tJji^iiriim^riUliknuM 
of tiiotr nif>mcnlarj" ecrrici* ia wri>ught in a mjiginticcnt 
dcepaiff and tliedr vcrr hoaonr is bn^u^^thcd br thcni for 
the joj of othon, ££ Uiey lie down to thcdr r^t, rognrdlitg 
for tluoM^Jw tbo vmoe of toon no mar^ 

86l The be«l tbluga, I Ttj^ai to yuu, bare Iil'^ii iime 
flioa, and tljereforo, Bijirowfull/. Eat the gr-cat««c part 
of tbo fzooi ^vork of tho wurld ii* done either in puro 
and tiikvuxOil iiLfftinaoE diiLj-/ I hnvi; eUd>))»l Tbornabjr 
vrvta^ or ditto, juul bvtti^r, it m c^Ui^rfut and bolpful doing 
of vbot tho hand finds to io, hi nuroty that at evening 
\Um, whatftoc^-OT k right, the Master will j^ve. And 
tiiatitbo wi^irtliiljcifmi?, drjwmU wlidlly on that utdmate 
quantity of wortii wluoh you can mea&un^oach mUm- 
»t\i, hy ibe toet I lift^« juat ^ven ycjn. Fi^r Ibnt tcnt^ 
oUorvo, will mark to yon dio pnMi«o f'.>rco, firet of yoiir 
ah«^>luto c^umgo, and tlicu of 1h« energy in you for the 
right ordering of thing^i and tlio kindly dealiii^ vuilh 
(■orsofWv You bavo cut &wfly &)m thedO tt^'o initinl^tl 
evety eolfiab or coniRkon in^Jtive, and left nothing bat tli< 
eiier^IcB of Ordur nuil nI T^>vu 

S7i Xov, wh«ro thoec tiro t^x^ aro act, all tl>o oUm 
fiowcn and <lG»if€» fmd light noiirinliJijeEii, aud beuooM 
to Uwir o^m ntinoet, helpful to othen aod pletaiutibk to 
mirschTA. And efi fur lu tlxec two iprio^ of ftctinc 
HntTiiiiin tiK^ nil iitliTT |hnviin« I.Nwmtii^ ncimii^t or rliwl ; 
9von the lovo <i1 truilt^ nytiTt fnim ttirKC, IkAnlt^n* into&n 
insolent iind c<>ldnvfkncc of knowledge, wluch imu24;dr u 
more valu iJiAn unused ^>1d. 

6S. T7]Q»c, tlien, are tho two «ttaitSiil iJiitiiiGU 
humanity: iJiclovo^'f Order and tho ItA'c of lundncn. 
By (he love of rinJcr tho mum] onw^ is to deal wiih 
tho earth, and to dnwe it, and koop it; and vltb 
robolliou£ said diasoliitc forecfl in [jwor crofttartti or 
Our^Blve^, By the lov& r^f doing kindnees ft Is to ddal 
rijE;bElv wiUi all surrounding Ufe, Ajsd thon^^oftcd on 
th«*Ci uie an) t> cuako every other paad^ai perfect; ao 
tbat tlioy may oveiy ^irie have full ntnmglh and yet 
abaoltitoly under ciintrr>1> 

fi9. Kvitry ime must be slroug^ every ujiu pirfectj 
oue obedient aa a war horse. And it S« among 
moat bcantifiil picc^c* *>f mysticism to which eternal (mtb 
Ib Attftclufd, lliELt. thi^ (ihtLriot rwxr, u-hti.^h Plato uBCa ad 
aniinft|-eof moml ^remm«nt, and \vhi«h b indcodtbo 
uioet perfect typo of it in any vi*il}lc *kill of nitii, 
ihould Iiaie Iteeu ttiade by the Qieoka the eoiitiDoa] 
■ubjuot of their best poetry and b»t art KoTertbaloa, 
PlntoV [tfo cif it ia ni>t ult^^^hej- true. TTicro la 


driverV wont fBults U iu stArrint; U!« hor^pcs; another, 
not bi^^kln^ tlieiTi ejirl^ iii<yiigh: t>uL lU&f Are all 
ffuod. Take, fi>r ^^cftukple. t^ie u^uall^ thou^t of 14 
wboll^' cTvil — tiiat of Aiij^r, tca<liii^ to Yci^eftno& 1 
hi^^fTi! it t» Itii <^uibj nil!! of ihu cniu'iiiiig wi4tk<'itiintp«« 
4d thU Ago that wo hav« starved ttnd chilkd onr f&ctil^i 
of ]n<li|.:iiaLioTi^ and neither deaijc war dam lo jnmiek 
cnirwe jij?^f]y. VCq hii\& laketi up llie Uunevol^nt id«af 
fonootb] that jntitioe h to be prm-widve iiiet<*ad of vin- 
dictive; uijd we imAgLuo that we arc (c jnuufih, not in 
ftngi-r, but III rx|M ■cHcriov ; not lliHt vris nuy give U*;- 
tBomxl pain to tlio poi-flon ir fault, but tliat wo maf 

ightcn other people from coinmittinf^ the iamo fault* 
Thft tcuntifnl theory of t^^e non-vludicdvo jiieHco l<, 
Uiat baviDj* coDviotdd a man of a &nii:c >vQTthy of doatb, 
WG entirely paidon the criinmul^ r<«Loi-e hiiu to htfi place 
III OLir afrt*4Ttfoii and ovlceiD^ mid than kurig bim, not m 
» nisJofaiTtor, but m a »c«rcctow. 'HuH h the tlicory. 
And the practice Ji, tJial wo ecnd a child to prisoii for 
■% moDth for Etenliii^ « bandfiil of waliiitUf for fear tlmi 
otbor ohildr^Mi fihoiUd ocime to hIi-uI moro of our i^alnnta. 
And we do not jituibh a Awtiidlor for nimhig a thou«and 
famfUtt, becmuw we tbiiik nwtndlmg i« a wboTovinio 

Eistomctit t-i tnwie. 

00. Bill all imti jii^ee !■ rindicHvc to vice na it m 
wcwnnMwg to vimio^ Only — and herein it ia dUtingnitbed 
from pcnKual rc^^i^— -it ift vindlctavv of tb6 wrong 
done not of the vrnm-^ di^iie fo ilt. It U ike luvtitnuJ 



of deliberate fui^r, m of ^libarftte /^ratUadn; 
fit ift not eicempUry, tjr even uorreiTtiv^ t>iit oaecatiall^ 
TVtribulive; It te tJie ftlrtk>lule art of iii«iiAured recom- 
I, gii'ing honour vhcird bomnir k du4&, and tliotne 
wlici'e ^hfimo i» due, and jV-j^ where joy is due, aiid imiD 
wlii-nt pnin in iltin. It h m'ilSrr ^diifMitionnl, for nvfrn 
are to bo cdnontod by ^pholcsomo habit, not by lowiuda 
and punlahnioiitB ; nor U it prevcnnve, for it » to bo 
execaled witli<iiit I'c^rd Ut btijt coiktuyjiKtnt^ps ; Imt only 
for rifi;titooiifiiiea£' pak^ ft n'^htcou natiiffl doofl jndj^ment 
nnd jncticc. But m tlii^ od in iJt other u:Atai>cea, tlie 
ri^tiMM cif Old Afksfnidary pKUiion dep'iLdri f>Ti FU bollig 
on thcfio two primuy in^tini^tA, tho 1ot« <>f order 
'nnd of lcindner*,eo (liat indigtintton ifwH h a^iiuft dio 
m>iiii'1ing af W«. T)i> ytm tliinV thi^ ^ti« *Ajc^*« cmnn 
of fl hard boart in AehiUo*, or tho ' TV1Ia« to hoc viilncre, 
PatUs^' of « hixrd ho-art in Ancliijiw' *on! 

91. And luiw, if wiHi ihU <j1iip ilinm^i ib« UUyrintli 
■of them} j-oo r«Hiciiibor the tjniinan of tlio arta of crrcAt 
latioite^ yoa will perceiro that whatever haa proe^rcd, 
UJid l>«5i>in8 lovely, had !t» bcgirmhig — for no other wad 
do— in th^ lovo of order in material thinf-a aeacv 
eaatfid with Irno hnnt^nm^ and Ibc do^ro oi bcaaly hi 
irtalenal tliin^ which, ia as»odatod with truo alTeiTUi-ii, 
t^arila^; and wlrh tlie innnmeroM^ eondldont of trae 
ttoacM otprCHMd by tlio ditfereiit iia« of EJio ^rordl 
%iM Hnd gratia. Toil will flud thai Odn lore of boatity 
i0 an eafcntiiU part of all Jiealtby bumau natuiv, ftnd, 

Airr TO unHATitL 

though tt can Vnig etHiXi»t vitK aialce of life in man^ 
oiJier n5i|)Gi!U im^imioua, h in iuclf wIwjUv jp^xI ;—'*'' 
flirevt tdi«i8aiy of «nvy. uvarico, meoi) vr«i-M)y cure, iiiu] 
eaireciully of aodty. It ^utirulf pt^shcfl when (boeo ure 
wtiriill^ iiiilulgtHl; uii] llm Kirn in tvhcirn it Iihji bn 
nio«t «tnjtig luii« AlwitVA 1>Qon ciMnpiu«ioiifit«f %nti lovom 
of jnsdce^ ar&d t]i« ciiilicAt di#ccnicr» and dcicUrcf? 
thtngB onTLducEve Vi flie liajiphteHA of mankind, 

Sil. Keatly overj loiportAut tnitli nepeotiiiji; the lo 
of boanty ill ito fftrniliiir relatione to hnnmn lifA 
iiiythicjdljr (txitn-nui! Ij^ tin? Qretrk* III tlioir vimo 
aocotmts of tlid pureutii^ mid ofltce^ of the Q 
But one fact, the niuat viliiJ <>f all, tJicj could not 
ttN fulii(!)M ]M^n<invi?, riiuiir^ly, ifiaL llin iitl^Tuntj [>f 
psrm^OTW of bnauty ii exnctl)' coinmoniitirTtlfr with th« 
iiDflguiatiTO piint^ of the pA«v>ion of lo\c, and with the 
sngl«ne»fof it» dm^)Hoin Thuy wur« not fully fHniwioiw 
of| and oQiild not ihcrcfc^v tjjtlier mytlucftlly or phO 
AOpliioaUj €3ipn:«^ tJio dcop relation wilhm tbcanaolvofl 
butwi!vn tlieiT jitiwer af jitTivlvhi^ Witiil.^. Hird Oie Ucuiour 
of doTOMtiQ afTcotioTi Vp!iii.<h found th^tr au^nn^t tliemw 
cf tragedy in ^c iiifnn^niont cf iCa lawe;— which mudo 
line ni|Ht (if HoVji llin diic^r Huhjectnf thiffir ffjiio |Miittry, 
and which fn«toncd llt^ir cli^ATvidt «_vnib<>liKni of raHmrvo- 
tlfm on the BU>f7 of Alccstin, t'liliappily, tho Bubordinata 
puiidt'ii of ibelr mofrt reierod vcintrn, and llw partial 
Cconiption nf feetin;; t^waT'da thcin hy tlie prOfiOOaa 
vf ocrUun i^tticr •inguiax atat^a of infaior pac^iou whitA 




TnR skLpXtion or 

it i« OA difficult u gncvom la uuljw, mrrMled tli* 
Dfliicnl oa wyl! na ihc f<jmmtivo pnigrcttb of One UiDck 
DLinil; and it was iK^t until tkftvr nn iiitcnvl cf ncvl; 
tA'o llutiiiiiLiid ycam of vnticmv vTTt>t lULtl [lAin, ihiit, pnrtlji 
Off tbo tnio rcwArd of CbrittinrL w^rfai-c T\My 8U«taiiiod 
through ccntui'ice of tnaU aud pnitljr as flic liciortaiy 
euliulQatl<m cf tbe faith uludi »aw itL a luaidoo'B puriiv 
tikO link b<ftwGGik Qixl and hoT rai^e, 't]>c liighoit uhI 
holienl etrejigth nf TiiorVal ]ov« wtia i-endici^! ; and, lo^thet 
with it, ill tho ■u>ng of Diiiit4>, am) tlto painting ol 
Jfemard of Luino arid lua fellows, the perception, aad 

.1>oi1iirieat for over of wLatefiever fliEti^ aie pure 
vlukCio&vor thingfl nro lovt-ljj what^i^Tor things an> ol 
Kri*ort; — (hat, if ihtro be Any virtiifi, and if thcTt 
aiij; pMiiM?, TTK-ii ini^^ht thitilc cm ihrKe tilings. 

93. You prolmbly olniorvixl tiho oxprc«eioQ I need i 
uujnicnt ago, tbc imc^^inoHvt purity of the paa^in ol 
Invc. I havG not yet Kpo1c«n, iior Ib it |><j8h!1iIo for loe 
t<Hla; lo speak rtdequatoly, of tho uioi-a] phm^t <-f ilic iro* 
Ifinatiou; but you may for yiiiufeehit!d erii'mgh di»ccm_itc 
na»tnre merely by Lonipjirhig the dignily cjf fJw rvlationa 
between thd aexofl^ from thoir loxk'Ctt level in moths oi 
wollusca, tbroiL|rl"i fJio liigh^ir <:TOiturf* in vh^fui fJiey 
iNHriirni^ li ihimn^liiT innEirin^t iitul Uw, iip X»y the love of 
pure men find woniuii; and, finally, t>> tlio Id^ love 
which animn.t-?d cliivnlry. Throit^j^ioul tlan va»t tmtsexA 
\t iH ihL' gmdiifil iiirj*eaa» nT llie iaiii^inative fncnlt^ 
vrliioh exolTfl and enlarf^** EJio iintlioiit)' of lljo paMton 


until, at tU keu;1i1, it ia t)i« bulwark of pAticnco, tba 
tittor of h'>iiour, and the jwrfoetupw of praise, 

M. You will find fiirUion that li of love, eu of ftll' 
|}ic <kt}ier pnimiflQft, tltp nglil giitt ntrnf^nt luid rinltittiok 
btf^t in that <ii tliQ Inio^^ruition, whirji i« lord ovi 
dxcL For to 6%thduc the pii»ion«t vhich » tliocght b(> 
oftan to l>e tho tiiini nf ditfv re^peotEng diBtii, Es po»- 
ei1>te eDOQ;;!! U> a pTCud dtilneaa; but to ^ot^^ tbdm 
ri^ttly, and make them &tnmg for gcod, U die -vrork <»f 
tlie mi>einH[i itti^iginntiun. IL \% ooTiMliuitljr miM lliiit 
human nttttre k UcanleAS. Do not bellove it. Human 
nature lit kind luid gcTicrc^iut; l»ut it \a narrow and l>Liiid; 
and «an onlj wkli diffir.iillj' nnnorivn unwilling hut wSi 
It immediAtely Boea and faoli;. IV-pIo would In&tantly 
for otlion a* wt^ll as tiieDiselvca if only the}- oouM 
ima^nf, olher« iu« ^£*ll iia tl^CTtii^eU'OiL Lut a eliild full 
Into tb<> river buf^^rc tho roc^li^t man^B eyce;— bo wilt 
Moally do'^bat ho am to got it ont^eveo at aome ri»k 
lo hiniAolf ; and all the tou-n will tmimpb in the HLritig' 
of one littlo bfo. Let tho 6&nio man bo ahc-wn that 
'litnidjBda of cliildreu aiv 'l.'n^g ^f fovor fur w&ut oE 
•omo mnitary ineej^ure wliit^h it will u^t liim troubln 
bo tirgc, and he will make my ciFort; and probably idJ 
tiio town wioald n»»t him if he did. 80, alAO> tbc li-ca 
of many doecrviug wcitTicn stN^ paMad En a »a<we<tfiijEi oC 
petty anxioticA about tlimneolro», and f^loanin^ of nunntfl^ ■ 
futorosla aiid itiaui pltra^ureB m lEieir imuMMliaie ciniti-, ^| 
bfletme tboy aro nover taught to inake any effort to 1 



look bej'ond h; or to know inylHiig Abont tli« mi^tj 
world in wbMi ihvlr Uvh lui? fiuliiigf Ulce lilmdcK ut 
bitter grj^e m fruitlovat £eI<U. 

&5» I hod ajitaidcd to chIai^ on this — oiid y^ct mom 
nil tJ)U kiiigrlofi] wliii'li nvenr tnuti hnldn in liin vum- 
«Qptivo faculty, to bo paoplcd with octivo tbougbts iiu) 
lo^L/ |ireecc€c«, or left WfL£te for the q>rii^pii^ up o£ 
thiso daHt decree and droaiiis of wLkli it is written tJiBt 
'o^ery ima^ailoQ cS the (hoiiglite of u&q'b heart ki 
evil continnaUjr.* T]iie\ fttid a tKotigAtid tttncff true it' 
in, tliftt, hers at least, 'piTftter is hr tlmt nititii hb 
spirit, that! ho that tokt^th a city,' But Uu« you cab 
partly follow out for yooiBelvee without help, partly we] 
xntist leavio it for future enquiry. I proes to the ood- 
oluBion wU<:h I wiAli tu luiLvo with yoxi, that all you < 
rightly do, (*r homnirHhly hccnino. dci>ci]d« <m the g6van^ 
Kbenf; of thoM two instiiiclii of ortJt^ and kiiidr^c», by 
thi« great ImaginatiFo faculty, which gives you tnheri 
lauii:© of lUb pHat, gru*p tjf tha ]ir«w?iilj uiilhorily ovori 
tho fiittiro. Ifap nnt thg epucoe of your poe&ble livei 
by iti^ help ; mcnaurc tho range of their poeeiblo ftgonc^l- 
On tJio walls aiid towera of tJiis your fair city^ there 14 
not an ornament of wUioh tho first ori^pii may not b« 
tracod hack to the thoughts of meu who died two 
iI^.>iJHtiiid je*irn Hgix Wlunii will i/fu he gtjtvruiu^ bj 
your thou^it»j tvro thnntjmd year* honuot TJiink of it|. 
stnd ytm will Imd that bo fai- from art being iimncuralv 
little flIsB except art \& moral ; that life without iudusti; 

ABT TO >IDftAl& 

is gniH) and ludttati^r wftltoitt art ia brnUHtj; aiid fcf 
ibe wurdd *grjL«r «tk1 *wiok<*d.' u«'<l of mf^n, )^ju iiwy-^ 
aJmuit luUtituto Uw v.\mh ' Mdccnt' or * Dc«tivj4?iv/ For 
the greater ])art fjS the AccmJng prcwpcrH^ i>F the vc»Hd 
iiL, m fur iw onr piTMnit kurtwlwlpji i>ittr^tif!«, vain ; wholly 
dtoloM fur any kiiid of [^^, but liaviiig aaei^i^^d to it 
a certain iucilable sequctjoc of dcstmcnon And of sorroifr. 
It8 ^tvealfi only Llio ^Irt^w trf ^d^itderiiigfitiinn; its beauty 
the beijtie of plri^no: and whaX ia ciilled t]i« history of 
tiian)ditd u too often (ho rcuord of tbc whirln-ind» and 
tlvp mup rjf tJif; Hj>n^uj3]iijj (jf UiD ioprcHy. BuL tm(l(.<rni<ut]i 
oU that« or in rfiirow »ipaoc« of domini'>n in tlic midst 
oE it) the work of evct^ man, ^qui nou accepiC in vani- 
flnimam Bnam/ cndnreB aud proep^n; a small 
t or ;;rc6n bud of it prov^Utip; at laat over eviL 
Uioiigh faiTtt vritli Evickit«0a, and 6it^iunberuJ in luu:, 

e true workc-r* riHletrm fiidi by iu^Ai tJie wiMj^nwui 
into gaMcn groiitid ; bjr th« liclp of tbuir joinud Laiub 
the order of all tiling i« aun;ly ec«tuiticd and vitall/ 
sxpatided, and alihouf-h with stranj-e vacillatioD^ Ta the 
ejee of the wutchcr, the tnormn^ coraetli, and abo tho 
iiigbt, tbcra la no hour of human existence that doea not 
draw en towards tli6 ]>erfoot day. 

Od, And perfect tlio daf ahall be, vrhon it ia id all 
mam nndcnttf^td lAiat tlie beauty of llnlinofei^ nttut be fn 
labour as vol! aa £n r«dL Na^ I m&T'f, if it may bo, in 
kbonr; in our atrAn^, mthtr than in dux -v/t^ucM; 
and \n tlic clmit^) of abaL wc^ nliull work for tliruogli tbs 



fiiTt flavB, and may know to be good at their eTcnii 
tiiiiep LlmD in the chutt^Q uf wha.t we pra^j^ fur en tlie 
ECventlif of reward or repose. Witli the inoltitude tJiM 
kcc|i iu*lidaj, 'we may perliape sometlmea vmnly have 
gone u[> to tbe house ()f tlie Lord, and vs.iuly Lhsro 
aeked for wbat wo fancied would be niorciy^ but for 
the fow who labour as their Lord woiild Lave them 
t!io inerey needs no aeeMng, and their wide Lome no 
hanowiniif. Surely goodness and mercy ehall/JjZ/t'W thorn, 
all the days of their life; and they ah&U dwell in the 
boiiae uf the Lord — fob ZTOt 

^(ttisxt 4. 


ftT. Ora subject of enquiry to^ny, 70a will re* 
momlx^r, ie tbo toode in atIiicU line art IB foimded upon, 
or may ct>ntnbiito to, iho practico] I'cquirom&uta 
he man life. 

lU offloea In ihi£ respect &re mainly twofold; it 
gives Tonp tc knowledge, and Cjracc to atili^; that 
ia to ea/, U makea penuaotiiUy nwWe to us thin^ 
which otberwi&e could ncit^ier te (leicn1>cd by our 
eciiKnoo> nor rotabcd by our memory ; and it g^^as 
dcli^btfulncffi aud wortli Ui ih& iDfplemeotA of duly 
Tse, and in«teHalfl of di'cas, fiirnicar^r aud lod^iig. Id 
thd first of tbeee ofilow it i;i%«e preeition and charm to 
Irutb; in tJie jrocoml it give* pnjdi^ou and cbarm to 
Mrrico. For, tbaj mc^ntent we make arytliing nsoful 
thoroiJgblv« it U a law of nature tbat wo ehail bo 
^CMod with ounclt-cs, and with tho thing wo have 
made; and becoino deGirouu therefore Co adt^m or txaa- 
plote it, in Boms djuuty way, with fiuor art oxproadTd 
of our j>leuAure. 

And die pjiiit I v\sh chle% to bring beforo yoQ 

Tifx nvT.A-notr w 

tho iitmoat, end as far aa I bnov U tit neret eb^wliert 
broiiglit out ofi tluiroTi^lily, lui in prkiiitiTig oa^ man or 
wonmiL, ard the smil tliat waa Jn t]iem; dot tlmt 
always the lii^li^At Boiilf tint often only a tli^jrajrted 
orie tlml was cujiablo of beiglit ; or perhaps in^ even 
that,, hut, fnulrfiil aiul |KK)r, yi^t Korti tJirtnigli, t(t Ui9 
poor bc^ of \ty by iKo mn^torfbl eiphL So that i] 
ordeor to put before you In jcnr Btand&ni sonee tliaj 
boit ftrt ponnililf, T nm ci!»1igcd^ ei-rni fnwn Uie verr 
Btrongcat xuont to tako the portraits, bcfK^rc I faiUc tli« 
idealifiuu Nay^ ivbato^er 1b beet in tlie great com- 
poaitione theiuselv^s bae depended on portrattnrG ; aodi 
liio fltudy noccpaary to ctmhb you to iiiiderBtiind iu^ea* 
tioii will alito t'Jiiivitiec ycu t-hjtL ihn uriiiil of man ij(?rer 
iuvtinted a ^-eatii^r tbiijg tlinii tlic fonn of mau, onS- 
mattd by ffiithhil lifs. Svcry attempt tc refine or 
eiicb ki^ahhy hiiNjaiiity hnn weakened or carioitiired It J: 
or eUe oonalela only in ffivin^ it. tc ploacpo oor fancy, 
tbc wings of Lirda, or Uio eyeB of autelo]>ea. WhatOTvr 
IB truly great In intlmr Greek or Clinstinn art, it abo 
re«triufed1y human; and ev&a tho rajitiaros of the r9-i 
doeniGd bouU ^bo outer, * cdcfitomentc ballando/ the 
'j>at« vf Aii^uHuo'a Paradlsi?^ wers seen i\ni in tJid ter^ 
rostriaJ, yet muet pure, mirtli of FJoroutino maidona. 

104. I am aware tliat 'ht> cannot hut at prcacat 
appear gmvcly qii4v;iiiiT]nh1i> to lbiu;4f i>f ray aiidioiictt, 
who arc ttiiutly oogiiiMnni of tho pbajso* of GnwW art; 
for thoy know tJiat tbc moment of iti dcc-lloe la uouq- 



icmlfleaoaa; and wliliour. tlir^f* tiiuw nttithi^r iJiit nkill 
nor rfjeEp Wauty will kvtui; *mly by t.hoao can c'lthet 
Ic^timatclj- ix-ign. AIJ ihc grai^hic arte begin in keep 
ing the oiitlmo cf nhfulgw timt wo have lov^d^ atk) thejr 
end in ^ring to it tho ftRpoct of lifo; and all the a^ 
irfl) urtd hc^in in tlic elmpin;* of the cnp and 
Ifttlcr, and tlicy end In a j^^loi'Ifl^d nx)f. 
Thorofnre, y<m ecd^ io the i^fhtc arta jcm liav'G SHU 
Bcantj, and likctiosfi; and in the arcluUfctural arta 
Skill, Beauty, iiu'd Ubo; heuI ymi muaC liavo Ui« tliret 
En each p^n^tip^ halaiii.'od atid co-ordicalo; and uM the 
duel erruia at art cork^dt in losing or cxogguratiiig <in€ 
of tliew) clcinctirjt. 

100, Tor iwatnnc9, iilmoet the wbol9 aj'stoni and hf^po 
of iDi>dom hfo am f<fnndcd on the notion that yon may 
flolistltnto niGchiinTi^Tn for Bkrll, pliulo^rapU for pfclura, 
caet^iron ^yr ecnlpiuro. TImt i^ your Diain ninotoeuth- 
century fnith, or infidelity. Yon tliink yea con get 
rti^rjrthing hy grin*iiiig — niimc-, lldrrMiurn, and pitint> 
ing, Twi will find it grievoualy not «o; y<iii am pot 
nothiniE bnt dnet hy mere ^niidin^. Etch to have tlif 
barley-meal ont of it, yrni mnst hav6 the barley f^ret; 
and that comce by gmwlb, iirA (^tidiiis- But ceaeii 
tially^ vro ba\-o lort our Jcli^^ht in Skill; in thftt ma- 
jc»ty nf it ^chifJi I W3U1 tryiu|^ in make olewr t.i yi>n in 
my lact addrcci?, and which long a^ I tried to oicproaE, 
tmdcr the hcftd of idea* of power, Tho enlin? aense cd 
thatr u-e havo lost, beeauae vf& ouriel^e* do i\oi tak* 


diflooTcrie£ to ^ul|^ ejcs, hnn hcnolf lost true m 
cf wLfLt wn* chiefly prcciouft in ihcxn, 

106- Take Bofanr, foi' inetiuiG«. Our fdcnlifiG bote- 
niwte are, 1 ttjiik, uliioily at pPWdil cooupiwl iu d 
tJiiguisluug hpeL-tM, vihinh jHirfecl. luefiiotJit i>f f]Mliui:Ti( 
viJl probably Iu the ftitm^e &liow to he iudiiitifkct ; — Sd 
iiiT«ntirLg do«»cn[]tiv& tiamc^ of wHch a more tuivAticed 

to he tuuidceesoryr and cUjore inadmifvibW; — SDd ia 
o.'^oopic iQve£tlf:&U(rnB of atrncture, %rbioh throii|;h 
ttUtinitili? lliilw trf tritimi^lmat illai»ver> tEuit Utbue a 
po«ed of vefiiclflT aud that veaaaU are compceed of ti«ii^ 
hftvo rot liilberto comfilettjlv cx]>Ubvd lo tie citlicr tbo 
ongiii, lh» fjiergy, or l)i(? (Miurw uf tliu nnp; «ttd whitih, 
how&i'vr nubtlc or ftt]0ceft;fii1, l>«ftr to tiio nai} uaiim] Ijji- 
tory of pliLnt« cnly tfic rcUtioii tlint nnatoiiij oud nrguiic 
ch«iiU8trj^ l> to tho hirUtry <ji nicm. In the? (iiuantime^ 
our&rtiflte &r«i eo ^onomlly amvincipid c^ the tnith of th* 
Dftrwiniwi ihoorv, lliat tlicy do not always tliiuk it iieo»^ 
Niry t4> i^iow any ilifTensriiTc btrtue^ii Llie Miuji^e of aji *Am 
ond an oak ; and tlio ^ftlxMikft of ObrtKtiiiai htkvti ovory 
pago aimroiindcd with Inborionsly engraved garlands of 
-irmQf aliHinrock^ llif^tle, and f^.irj^t-uie-nol^ vkitlKiLt iU 
being tJioiigbt proper l>y tlio draitji^htimon, or dctimble by 
the public, o^'on in the c-ntc of tboife nncoamnon fiowcn^ 
in otiHVrvCf tliu n-ii} jtbjijw* uf x^m jM^talft of any one fif dionx. 
107. Now wliat wu ufpccitilly nood nt prtwoat for odii' 
Ctttiockil purpcece it to kuow, nu-t tlic anatoffoy of 

AXr to CSB. 

bott tlieir blii^r^phy — \low aiid wlicro tLoy tvo and <lic^ 

irtucfl. Wc wiLiit them dniwiL from thar yontb 
ihvir «^, (wttt \nii to fniit^ We ouj^lit to wo IIm 
vftnuiu fonn« uf tlidr diniitiiAliod bnt luinly growth la 
«(*Id cUmaU«, or imxt httiU; and tlidr nmk or wild' 
Itixuriiutct-, wboii fnU-fed. Hud wannly mimed. Aud all 
ihifl wo ctti|*bt to liaxo drnwn $Ci acc^initol/, tliftt wd 
tl at once comp&rc oJij given part of a ]>I&nt v.-ith 
thd mme ijurt of any olhcrj dratm nn tbi? liiti? con- 
dttione- Vow, i» not thie a work which wo may «oC 
ibout here in Oxford, witL good bopo and much plea- 
sure? 1 think 11 ao important, Ui&t the fli%t ex3rc:iA« 
iu dmvinjB; I fthall put boforo you vriJl be on outlina 
of A Uurel leaf. You will find in tlac opening ftcntcooo, 
of r.icinsirdfkV tJvariHC, our prwcnt toxt-b«x>k, th^t yoo 
miiit not at Hmt dr&^ from nature, but hxmi a good 
faafftor** work, 'per aaeuofana a buouo mtmbra,^ tc 
ftcciutoin yiiiiuselvesj thai is, to entirely good repre^entA- 
ttvo cr|*&iiio formjk So your fint exercise ahall bo the 
lop of iho Uurcl PtM^tro cf Apo1lL», dj-awn by an ItjiKaii 
engmver of Llonardo^ii owil time*, thcrt wn will draws 
laurel loaf it«clf; And little by little, 1 thiuk vo may 
bntit IcaiTi eui'Eclvce, and teatrL U> many l>cfiidc8^ aoubevrliat 
nujn; Oiaii wa ko-'w yot, of the wild olivei of GTeeo6j 
and the yn\d roew of England 

103. Keirt, la Geoli^, which I in1) taku Ic-jirc to 
confiJder as on ctitlrely ^oparato Keience frciia the zoology 


THE klEL.vnfMC QT 

of th9 ]wwt-y wliiirh haa lately nenrpod ftK nunt 
intoreet. In ^"»lo^ itaeU wc iiud (ho &tTCti|:tli oi tmxiy 
able men iK*j;Lijni*tl in ilfilmtftt^ i|ui^i<I.tiJiiH oi wliiuk 
Lh^are are vttt no dntfl ovon for tlio vloftr aUiteioeiit ; iiui 
in seizing odvaikccd thcorcticJiL potiitii^ne on the mcro 
oontiii^etii^y *>r ihair lioiiig iift**rwfcrdA lenaMp ; wliile, fn 
tha nieatitinKi, lui aiinplo |jCTnti:ai, taking u holiday in 
Cumborlmtd, CAH get ivn intelligible eection (?f SkiildaWj 
or a clear account erf thfl orjgiti of the Skt4!daw sUtM 
Mid while, thau;-h half the odnoat^sd eocictj- of London' 
travel every tuimner over tlio great plain of tiwitcor- 
laiid, n-:>iie Ictiow, (^r eure m know, whj llial Is a plain 
%x\d tho Alp6 toiho eoutliof itu'O Alps; and whether or 
nut Ibe gravel of llitt uuv Iuia nuytblug to do Willi 
>tli« rockfl of t)io other. Aud tlu^ugh every palaee 
ISnropo o%rc% part of it« dc<?oriLti'>n to vitric^tcd iniiHjlci,'^ 
^nd iiearly e\vt^ wouinn in Kumpn pvt, nf hi7 drromtuni 
U> pieeea of jasper or ehabodony, I do not Uiink anj 
peolo^Bl ciiTild at llxi* moiucut yvhh authority tell m 
«ftlii*r buw » piuci^ uf inurhlo m BliJijedf or wlmt miifies 
tlio stroalu in n S(H^h pi>M>lc. 

109. Now, at soon cw yoti liaTO obt^inud the power 
of di"awlng, I do not 6fl.y a mntintsin^ hTit, ^'vrTi n ftt'tiio, 
ftcoTiratoly, every Jinostion of tliU kind will bt^oonio tc 
ytj<i at onui ailrjwjlive and dctinilo; you will find that* 
In dm ^miiL, t!iu hiKtrr, and the di^nvrige-lEuui <*f the 
>mo]le#t fragment of rock, tliere arc recorded forece of 
every oi'dcr and niagmtudc, from ihoAo whicli m«e a con 

ic<aMi7 pitrin, to trif«ie whloh 
■UDt ATVi poliihing tho appnrentt; ccmfitcto cr,v«t4il in 114 
DMtt ftnd coDdoctiug tho apparoiuly luf^ikmlcw motftl ir 
iUvr<Lii; tkJtd tliftt <inl^ l>y llio art uf ^tfur own luaod, tuid 
fidelity of ei^Lt which it devolcpce, yon can obtaiii true 
peroopdonof dio&d invmcible uiid iriimitJiMe ftrbi o£ the 
ttuth bentelf: while Oie irom^mnitivcd)' tiligTifH ofTurt n*- 
oonuy to cbtftin ao miidi clnll ne tuny £cm<^4i1}ly dra^ 
monataiDA in distani effect ivill be iii£tauttj~ rewarded \ry 
wliAt n ainia&t eqntv&lent to a new e^iue of the coudl- 
ions of their atruetoro. 

111). Aru), bfft^AiiK^ itn ijt wcrll At rinen tn ktiriw cc:mo 
direction iii iclilch <jiir w<jrlc m^y bd <lclltiito, tot mo 
■Dggoit ta thoeo of you who may intond partus their 
vacation In Swit/eHaiid, and ^vlio car« aliouL iiiHmti> 
tailMj (hat tf lliey will firvl qualify tliontielvea to tako 
ati^l^ <ii fKMiitioTi and tilc^'[&tir>u with corroctiicoB, aud 
to druw iiulJuitw wilh n|j|jr(iAliruil« fiUtrlity, tJiere are a 
■arte of pniblonm of tha high«4t irttere^t to he ^rorkcd 
cult oil iho Bf'Uthcni f-ilgp^ of tho Swi** i>laiii, iij tho 
aiiiJy of tike relatJLtiu^ of 11^ iiio1i«>it betU iti lUe i'm?ka 
vhiuli are eharaot^rii^tL tally df^v^lnpod in the chain of 
tha 8tockh»mif UeHt«ab<ii^r FUatc, Mytbcn aboro 
Sdiwyts!, am) Ili^h Seiitia of Appen^ell ^ tho puieiut 
ot vrhU^t may luail thein icto many pldowuit, a« well tm 
«roditab1y danparciUB* ^c^lke^and ciinoiitf ditfcOTCrica; and 
will h^ good for ite disi^iplliia <jf tlt^ir fingon hi t]>ff 
peii<;lLliiig of arag fonu. 

111. I vUl T ODiild »mV ynii to diRW^ nwtcvl 4if Hit 
Alpfli Uio oKflts of rama?ei]9 and Oljmpue, and tb% 
tAvinw of Delphi and of T«nip9> i bavo not loted 
die ftrta (if Greece aa otJicra hat«; yet I lora IbeOD, 
tuxd hor, Ko nLii<di, that il iff to me Amiptf a staadtof; 
nuirrtd how m.holnra cau ciidnro ft^r nil tJidso oenliiriee^ 
dtinng lA^hif'h th[^rdiirr rilttciLticiii hnn l»y*.n iii tlte Uu- 
gung^ a»d policy of Gjwtoo, to hov» only tlio tiAruMfif 
hor hill* and rivera tipon tbcir lips, and never one Un« 
")f crmf^oirf.ion of tliem in rlipir nifrid'a eigtit. WhlcJi ^if 
na knows wliat Die ^nllev <'f Sparta h hk^j or the ^p^Mt 
moiuitalfi vaae of Arcadia ? whicli of ua, cscopt in mtr« 
airy avlta.hUng of nami^, knouii aii^ht tif ^atuidy Ladon^i 
lili^bftulc«, orild Lvciunfl» or CylloTie hoar!' 'Tou can- 
not travel in OrccccV*— I kitcw it; nor in Mugtia Qrti 
ttitu Biitj gf^ntl^mpn cf Ent^land, vnn )mu\ boMfrr And 
ont why yon cannot, and put an end to that horror of 
European *Iiame, before you hope to learn Grecfk art 

113, I Hi-arc-ulj know whotliBr to p1ac« aniuii^ lL» 
Uung» iwefiil to art, or to sdenco, tbo ^atonutio 
reeord^ hy drawing, of phenometia of the akj. Dnt I 
am quite sar© tJiat your work eaanct in any direction 
ho inoro uftofiil to jouwelrca, titan m enabling' yon Ut- 
poi^'dva rhe (juite u(i]ianil!rltnl lubtiltim of colomr and 
iDorgaiiic form, which ooctir out an^ o«d!narlly One 
morning or evening hcrieon ; and [ will even oonfesf 
to y^nJ an^ftlicT of n*y pei'liap* loi) nanjjrnin^i rxpoR- 
tafi'inji, that in finmo far dlBtout tiiiid it inov cr^ntA Ui 



pom, tfiiit yvting Knglmlimru nrul EtigliHliwumiTii mnir 
thiuk tho broath of the tD'<niiiij^ $!cv pTcaj^ftntor ihnn 
that of midnight, and il4 light prettier tlimi tlmt i)f 

113. Liwtljr, ill Zoology, WIioi the Groeks did for 
the hcflr^ ond whnt, u fcir && ly^fiixla dcitocetic md 
•xprcMionfl] djFxrnctffrw tiUMlAci^r hint doiii^ fi>r iltu dof; 
•nd tho deor, roTiiftins to bo donn hy urt for nearly »U 
other animala of liij^h ori^^^lion, Thci^ arc few l>Ij'<U 
or b*a*te tliat have not a mTig« of i-lKntKhir wltuli, if 
net «qftal to thai of the horfiO or d'.^, is yet aa intflrttt- 
ing witliin imrrower limits, and ofUn in groUwquenfla^ 
Jtit«Dflity, or vild ami xirn\d pstlicic, mere iJnguLu* and 
my9t«HoiiA. Whatever lo\-e of humour y<m hftvo, — 
vrluUever a/ni|wth^ with iiin>erfwt, l>at moat aabtl^ 
fidoIlD^, — wliatevar perception of inblimity in oondiHona 
of fiilAl |]oux-r, iiuiy here ftiid fiilloit; ocoupation: all 
HidM bviti|^ jollied, ill tlie ntpnuijc HuiiJial r&e^, to a 
vnriaMo aiid fautctAric boautj' far boyond aiiytliitig tluit 
morcly fdnnnttrc urh }tnrt yatt concdvod. I hncc plmotl 
I iAjWU" Edut^lioiial sprif^w it wing by Albert Dflror^ wbUh 
W^Sm la l5ir as art yet }ias r^mehcd in doliiiftatirm of 
plamafll^ ; wliilo for tlto Bimplc action of tho pinioHt it 
la iiii|K»Hi1>1» u> ^> Ixi^ntii what hvn beeii doii« atrGady 
by TUi^n and Tintorct ; but yoti cannot eo much aa 
i>ncc took at the ni1^iiig« of tho plamca of a poliean 
pluming itaolf After It liaa been in tho wator^ m t-jtn*- 
fully dm« tho otrntoum of lUe wing cnthixr frf a niliara 



or ft cotnnfm ewift, w paiiii tlio r^«9 and TDrmilfoQ 
tJiat ot ft (JaiiiiMp>, witJi;?itt romving almoil a nov c 
CQptloiL of the liieauiiig of funn uid colour in ervallun. 
114. Lazily, Tour work, la &!! direutScoii I Lavb 
Mtiierto ii.dicftted, inu}' be ti» icYihcmUf as yon rhotJdO; 

spoclce of Hawort '>r onmiiilt; nud tlic A1|)4, jukI ^allt^y 
of Spfiito,^!! ivftit ^our Leisure, 1 fcftr too Iwig. Bnl 
tile feudal nnrl iiiiitiw^IIr liutldiit^ uf Kiii\k]M%H.nd titill 
more tho str^^ta of Iier aiicioTit citi^, ar*' vaiufhfnr^ likv 
<ircani8: aud it U diiHuult toiiiiapnc the mingled envy 
ftiid ifonternpt wirh wliidt fiilnre gonerarlonB will look 
back to OB, who alill poaictfed fludi things. j«t ro&de 
no effort to prcscnc, and pcartcV any b> licltncAto 
tht^m: for, when uspd s« mairrinl of lattidRf-ajio t»y llto 
eaodern iirliAt, thoy arc nearly always eiip^rficinHy or 
(lutt<rnrigly ri^i'rcwTiitrd, witliout ical Rii<n»gli ti> j)cuj«^lnLto 
tJi<?ir cfiunt'tcr, or paticniec oiumgd to rondi^ !t \n 
mixlc6t Lnrtiiony. Ae f<.-T pliicc^ of tradi1i<>naL io- 
tot'tttC^ I do not kiu>xv an cittirely faithful di-aving 
of &uy liietoHcal site, exocpt <^e err tnro etudioa mado 
by <TnthLisiiiatio youijg palatora ia Poleatiiio and ERvpi: 
firr whiE^li, tlimilcH bi llu'-ni ulwayA^ Iml ^6 uiaut worlf 
n<!iLrcr homo. 

116. Now it ifl <iiuto probaMo that oomo of yon, 
who will iKit earn t(» j^i throiij^h titc lahoiir oocr^Aary 
t^ draw flow«re or animala, may yot have pWnffurp in 
attaiiilnj; aonic toodcnklcly liixtimte fckijl of Bbclduni 

Airr -ro dpl 

ftrchltovfun), and greater pkumire BtiU 111 dii<dotiDi- it 
twcfully. &a]>|?i.«c, i*xc iiibtauce, ve vcre tu Uiko up Uio 
hictorical ncciicry iti Carlvlc'* ' FiT<krifk.* Tu jiwtl^' iha 
hUton'oa ocauw Uio goiutia of ]>ci«t siH> in tliot, t/inaft 
o£ too lunnv BUck cUcnhcrc, t1^ gallaica of Jkrlin*— 
'bto insulo iipj like other gAllenc.^, of ^^tal-foolod Patii 
Europo's U41II, I&>uiLiItii»'& S^UuWolft aiKl the Ccrreg- 
gic«itj of Com^^'if^ aitd coittiiin, Lir ijisiuiiut!^ 110 pot- 
trutt of FrUJriiii 11k^ Gieal^ — uo KIcettMft M ftH, or 
txcxt bo iLL>iji3 at allj of tlic uoMc eei-io^ of HtininTi 
Jlcalidcf, 01' of aT)^ part of tlicni, who ttnvo »j>ning, 
not from tlto idle brains of drcAiiitiig d3*^auti^ but 
froia tli« bo^ of Ood ALini^ht^, c^ mako ihie poor 
ftiillkL'tiLto eiu'Lli £1 UtLiu ]|]i-iii<iiut)le fur us, and t) do a 
titdo Work tbnc m^y be ewnml theiiv' So Carljlo tclk 
a* — loo truly 1 We cannot novr dm^T rHedi'Ich for hiin, 
but w« C3UI draw »r>nic of ihc old ciuftli*«« wid dduo Ui»£ 
iKrorothocradWof Gcnnan lifo — HobciiR"niTni,]rtt|Hbiirg, 
Mflfbur^t and «uc1i otlicrs;^wc uiay kcx^p eoitic aitt^icn- 
lie UiLeiiUM Iff Uitfft^ fur llit- futi^n?. Supi^uwi? we wei-Q lo 
take up dutt tbint volume of Trt^dri^h,' mid put outlines 
Co Ui «lukLL wxj begin tjr Icxjljiig f<ir Ilcurjr the I'cwler'a 
liHtdi — Cnrlylij Iiiiit^Of lukfi if lin ljs»9 nny — nt QiitfilliiL- 
bnri*, and fio down^ai^ds, reEciun;j; what wo caul Tliiit 
irould ccrtAiidy be cnaklug uiir WLjrk of «om« tru& um. 
IIQ. But I faavi* tuld y»u snougTi, U ftecrni to me, 
>at loMt to-day, of tbia fLnction of art in rocoi'dlng fact; 
let me iiow fiiiallyf and nllli aU dbliucUit^ LKo^liio to 




mo, atato to jou its main l^uAincea of qU; — its Venice fc 
the iu.:t\tii\ Line? of thu\y lift-. 

Voii flv^ fiiirprised, |>crlLft]>s^ to Iicar mo call tliii 
ltd m&UL l^iulue^a. Tbat td iiideed so, hovr«i'er. 11i« 
gniiij^ l»r]ght[j(>^ la [iJcturc ii much, but tbo ^vtDg 
brightness to lifo monix And roracmljcr, were it M 
liftttcnifl onlv, you cannot, witJioiit the i-caliticd, have 
llw pK^hiive- Ton rAnnot hftVR ei IniuUcflps hy Tumor, 
^diOQt a eountry for him to paint; you catmoc have 
a pjrliTut l]_v Tiliaii, wilbout a maii to Ije i>ourtraj©d. 
I iiewi not pnrte thiit to jtjw, T iin^i|w)itftj Ui tliofic tJiort 
lerim; but iu llio outeoitie I can got no iiuul to 1>eIiovo 
that the bcgimiiuic *i i^'t J* tu i^etUng our ooojitij 
clean aud our people beautiful. I liaise bwa ten 
trying to ^t tbifl very ])lain i-ortAlntj — 1 do not any 
heljcTc(l--hnC <ni.'ii thought oF, a* luiylliing but a ini>n- 
stroufl propoeitJcD. To p;ot your ootintry clean, aud 
your people lovely ; — 1 a^guro you, that le a nccca&ary 
wiirk of art !.o hv^Ui vviih! Tlmru h\w nnli?ftcl lieeii art 
in eonntrie* where I'ci'plc livwl in tlirt to i^orvo Godf but 
uo*cr in *r<>L»itriw whprc tiicy lived in dirt to ten e the 
do^il. Tlicrp bh» Hidwd l>een art whero Hip pi'^^plo wei 
not all lovely, — where evon tlietr Kp* v.*ore ihick^and 
thoir gklnd blacky because t!m ann bad loijkcd upon them; 
:iitt rt43ver ill n wirin try where tlie petiiOe were pale w1i 
loiiiohiblo toil and deadly fhado, and whoro tlio lf|j« oi 
i^outb, infllead of being full with blood, were pinched 
ftyfainlne>cr waited with poiflou> And now, tl»CT^iffT% 



Hole this well, tlie gist of all ihose lon^ jirvf&lory IaHcb. 
I said tb&t the two f^roiit nioml inetinote m>re lh<we od 
C>rJer and Kindness. Kow, &11 Lho arU an? founded on 
Hgtwull.utv 1>/ eJiq lijtii^l, uid till EJLE* ^niii^H) ittid kiiidiicWA 
of fc^Iii^ atid dre^Tt^, titid lodgiiiif yo^u* ]icop1fti 
Gj-cek art bogina in the g&rdcnft of AJcinoiia — iJcifeot 
unlcr^ In^kn in Iw^iIr, hukI f(ninisi\i\f, ir pIpcH. Am] 
Climtian art, as it ar:^o out *>f thivaln', u-as only pi«- 
Biblc eo far aa diiralry ti>utjw>ikd IkiUi kiiiga and kni^tft 
to oare ivr iLe right personal Irairiiiig of Uieir people; 
It perished ult«v1y wheii tbotto kin^ nud knights beeamo 
V^w^'i^'r doTourcr* of tJit people^ And it will bccijmo 
poaslblo ngain only, when , literally, Uie crrord is beateil 
into tho ploii^hflhara, ^hoa ymir St> Oeor|*e of Et^ 
laijd sliiilL JEisilfy Lia naaie, and Olu-Jfitiau art dhaU bo 
loi'^^^Ti, US It* Ikfjvuit'r wuK, 111 broiikirig ftt hn*jitl. 

in, J*Jow look at tho worlfiing out of tliia hrotiA 
prindpld in minor dc'^l ; obscrrc Low^ from hi^bcet to 
lo^edi, health of art has fimt df'prttdcd on reference to 
ii^da»tnat uso. TliQre \b fint tbo ncod of Dup ftod platter, 
49pc>cinlly of ctJp; fur ytm am put your iiteat tJii Hit 
Jiafpk*', c<r any otlwr, tablw; but y*»u luutt hiiv<; your 
cop to drink from. And to hold il conTcnicatly, you 
■iiu^f put a IjAtidIo to It ; aod U>iiU it wben it ia emptr 
joa muit hare a 1arg« pitobcr of aomd A&rt ; aud to can y 
flxc pitcher yOTi may rnoat advisably havo two bandliia 
Modify the forms of th^n nr^dful pnwHit-iidns afw.nliim 
to tho votiona roquiremenu of driMkiug Lately and 


driiikiii^ Uolicnkvly; of iwiiring easily out, or of keep 
hip for yonw tlio iH^rfmno in; of storiug in ecllara, oi 
liiMiriui; frrnu fiumtrtin*; v»f Hicrifiwal libation, of PaHj 
Htlii'itnio livasittt^ t^f oil, luid H^pulchral treasure of 
HKhi'H unit vou hitvt? tk resiiUaut eeriee of beautiful fonu 
Diul il^v^'ntiiim, frvmi the ntde amphora of red earth up 
t.« iVUiuiV \ajiOii of jrvms Aud onvtalj in which eericfi, 
\\\i\ \'fi\wU\V.\- 'v.\ tho luotv si:T:j>ie ivnditions of it, are 
*lo> »*'''l^\l t^,o tu**: lvA',:r:t\;l and moet perfect 
(\t\>. Y*{ T!**\**rv o.^r.*.v>i:;:o:; \irr,:ch ha^-*? yet been attained 

'. 'S ^* .: s.:v\ -"a: y - riy z.\ 7 -r cnp \ritb 

■/ A' ^* .< .■. ^ ■; '■ >: r^ ' ' ■ ^ ";V- :r 5:r?v*rr; yon 

. ^^\- * -.. .\- ^: . X ' ." - ; "- r:-:'! ^.z^Lt rube or 

-- ■:- - -■' ^-. -j: ^l.-i ?c?va:2 at the 

'' . ,* ' % ',v :Lr^':.T :- a-T dig- 

. ' ^ , *<'■, ■' '^i-c i:::ednct; 

^. '-. '^■■- --:■;- -z ^<r. :: free, 

■ .* ' -■ ' ---s!.-— -^w r: let it 

* -' * -'^ -i, .•^- - ■:-;-5* J-,'- have 

< - ^: ,^." iT-ijj iL ;f tlie 

^> A ■LZ.T'T-f. ij-'i : V'i ?i iL.^,"tt= of 

• . .■j>. ,i»i'*- l:_; .;.' r. : ;-~.^ v-j.-^rv the 

^ ^^^ -r r:ii.-'->r- -:.--:- l: -:.t .:rr f:ci::aiTu 

w.-^tf-. * far^;,':.- r-:L',:, f »■ :^,^ -^ ■fart 

v^ !, jii« otfi'rr f/.;i'<:r]^il ?^;rvi".;', 5.;. fsr as we 

,^ wxpT*^* 't\tr n:v*'r''ij':'; I'jr tiLankfitlneti. 

^ ^ ■ati'in tti In ilr H^Hit mind, it al^rays hai 

^ ^ ' 




ft <ltfup MQM of (Jivinily in Ibe ^ft of i&ii^ ttxtm hvnvgii, 
fillinff iu lumit with for-d uid j*ladnee6; acd all Uifli 
Oioro vhCD tJuit p)'l buooiiicfl i^iiUo Uid permmi&l in 
l}ie fUiwiii^ of ttytrlagf: It IjEi^nill^ im luif pM^iMi? that. 
Riiy fruitful povp-er of the KiiAe^ aliould bo put forUi 
>Q|>im ft |>coplo vhioh diMlftiiu tliHr lldicoD; «tiU IcM.i 
ift jt |vml)Jo thut nii^ Oimfiai) tifttion irlioaid grew up 
^Unqn&m Ui^ntim ^tird plntitatnni ^t E«cufi deointift.^ 
ftquonim,* vrlitcli cannot recu^ilcftc tlw Icv^in mmrt bi 
IbrJr hitiiig fcild <jf thn jiliu'** whrrct TU-lxtlcali whu irctj 
— nhM<o Itftch^l, — ^where Zippamh, — and eho vho Wfts 
a»k«)d for water nndcr Moimt (lorizLm bj ft Straii|^, j 
ifsary, who bad nothSng to dmw witlL 

119. Aod truly, vrheo our mountain spring i^re i^ 

•poit in vflio or cn^EKX fl^i ^^ S^^^ ^ ^^'^ K*^^™ 
llirriiigli Old dnHi|f1ii liT itmnnwr, fur fniai intit^t, t)uin^| 
k u t)MC let tJiCJn Atftv in tbnir owti Uflf]]iy ponce; but ^^ 
if near to^nUf and liable tticrcforc to bo defiled hy com- 
mon tiMLf^e, w« could not ii«e the lijvelicil art mort 
wortlulv tlift& by fibeltonng tlie 'pring ftnd itt &vt 
poolt with prccKiu» marblcft: nor on^lit ftnjlliing to be i 
fftt'.otmpil mmm lm|H)fTHut, jla % mnniw of IwaMiy edvcaHon, 
than tho caro to keep tbo fftroAind cf k aftommrdB, to aft 
graU a dlHtiniro w piimible, pure, fiiH o( fitli, mid eaAiljr 
iftccMiiblu to cbiHivn. Tlu^ iiwmI to bn, tliirty J«u«^B 
«^ a llttio miikt of the Wandcl, about nn itiuh d^xjp^ ^^ 
vbiiii mn irvar llae G«rHa^t>-riud atid uiidera foot-brnlge 
Jnet nnder the hist chalk hill netr C^OJrd^)n. Alas 


THfi nn^ATiov OP 

dHnking delicately; of pi>iinTig otn^ly out,vf 4>f k«9|> 
fng fur ycaiis the t>edruiac In ; of etonnj; iti cdlora, «a 
hearing tmtn ft>iiiitjui]»; of Biurtll':Tlftl inmtkjii, uf Pau, 
iillieiikuci treiwuro of oil, and «ef>ii1rfhml titttnire of 
uhcA — luid ytAi Imvc a rc^iillant eoiicft of bc^ntiftjl fOTTii 
end Jecfiratioii, froin ibe rndo amphora of n>d i^artli up 
III CeUiurG \a£c« of goniB aitd cr^'^lii], in vbivb ecriw, 
hat t»{Jt»^hd\^ In tlie more simple c^iiiOit.ii:iw of it, iiro 
d^velop^ the moat b«aiirifid lin^a and toDst pojfoet 
tyiH*« of aevere cmiiyoflitioii vrliidi liaro yet been attained 
l>v art. 

US- Btit flf^ain, that you may fill yonr cap witfi 
pure 'wni^Vj you must go to the well or *j>nag; yoii 
it(H-i) u feiu^e raiiiid The vkA\\ y^n nocd M>nio t:i1)0 or 
tn>iigb/or otiier mean* of twdiniuj; iLc atTenm at the 
spring. For tho convejn&nc» of tJie uuTreitt lo any din* 
tance you Tiiust bnild eith*ir enclosed or opea nquedtict* 
mid 111 Uic Lot Ei<)iiitre t^f tlic city wlicrc vow net it frW| 
jriMi firiil it giH<r1 fiir hiuiltli nml pVwuiiilrratf in Ifrt it 
l^ap iiitcj ft foiiiJlAtn. On th«»c eevdrsd ii^oda yoti liavo 
ft Mbool of sculptui^e fuiinded; iu Iho defiomtion of the 
W^llfe of welld ill Itvel c?imuTrle«, and ot fJu> *i/»tirei» of 
epi'Iii^ ill moimtniutma outw, mid cHofly of alt, wlicrc the 
wrnneo of LouftftlujUl tr nnrl^et meet at flic city fonnhun. 
Tliere w, luiwc?«Tr, n farl.hpr nTwmi ftir ihi^ iwo of art 
Here thuii in luiy other material eorvicc^ eo hir aa uro 
cnfty, by art, expraee our re\e]-ence or UiAiikfutoefA. 
Wliencver a CLHtion £fi In £t» r\^ mind, it always hii 



B dcq> fonto of divinity in the e^ft of ii^ from hoftvervj 
fLllln;; ila tiout vitli IV^-d &iii] ^IuJiumi; aiid all itio 
more when that ^ift b(»i>im<» gcmlo mid |>urc]ittfiLl in 
tbc flowing nf e^priii^^. It litcinllj^ h not ^cmble tliat 
aii_v fnjiLful j«iwt"r tjf On? l^lmra nhdiilfl Uty put frirtli 
upon a pc-opk uhtch tIUc]»ins ihoir 1Itj1i<;fin; still ksH 
j« it pnMJblo thftt itny Christian nation uUouid f;n>w tip 
'tanqiiiuii li^nm rjitod p1;LTi1at[|]ii ofal uwua <teom%» 
ariiutriim,' ivUich cannot rccogiiW ilio Icsfoii meant in 
their being told of tho pliccs whcvc Ilc1:>cl^&h waft met; 
— vliero IWrliel, — wh^iTO Zipporah, — and aho who woi 
Btfkcd f<ir water nndor Mount GoriziiD by a Str flpger, 4 
VDftry, who liad notliin;: to dmw vrith. H^^H 

111^. And tniWj wlien our DumntiLiM fpnn^ nro eot 
iqmrt in valo w ctoks? K'^^i *^r (c'"*'*^ *'* w<v>d greim 
thnjiif:li tlm drc-ii^ht of mjtninri', f^ir fi^riu cltd^^i^ llicti 
Et ]i lint l«t tlwra itfny in thoir owp tinppy pORco; but 
if Tioar tcwnw, nnd liablo thoroforo to be dcfilod by 0010- 
mon lu^af-fi^ we t^idd il<<I u^ the luvLdiFst nrt mora 
worthily iljau by ilielrericg the ajirin^ and itg fii«t 
pooLi witli prceiooa muri^ke: nor onf;}it Anrthiiig to bo 
wtceinnd tnom itniMrriniit^iiAa tiu^sLTiniif htmtthv e<Iiicatimi, 
than the care lo koop the etrecuna of it afterwards^ Xo as 
S:reui a didtanrc bm poMible, pure, full of lUli, and eaaily 
aei%>MEbIu i/> cluldn*n. Thcru hhwI Ut b«?, tliJity jtHwi 
agC) a little nmlet of Uio Waii<lcl, about tin inch doop^ 
which rao oror tbo carriairc-road aud w:td<sr a foot-brid^ 
|im under the last ch&lk hill near Croydon. A.1ofi ] men 

THB ni^JiTiiw or 

came and went;. and h — did n'A go on f^r«v«r It luu 
Idd^ BUiGC bocj) tiricUcd cncr L>y tho jnuirJi nutti^tnticA ; 
l>ijt lliero vras niuro edumtion in thni ftmiTii niili itn 
iiuiknows»n ymi uould ^t out of ft !itmdro(l poirndt 
epoDt yoarly in tho p&rieh suhoot, even thong^li jon 
were to fi[<ead Gvcr> furlblii^ of it in leKcltiu^ tire Daturft 
of oxyj^n dnd Ujdroj^n, ui^d Uio nam««, uid n^ per 
niiiiutc, of All tho riven m A;iii And America. 

120h Wdl, tlic gi#t of t]ki« ntattvr lic« bcrc thnt. 8n{> 
pose W3 w^nt a i<^1ioo) of potteij nf;ai]i in ^-Tigland, All 
wo poor artl&tfl are i-cady to di? tiio best ire can^ to ohow 
j'ljii liuw pnstlj' V. lin<! ujjlj^ be iIimL i» twiated fimt tooDO 
»ide, and tluMi to tlLfi <rthcr; and bov,- a p1«Eti boiueb^ld- 
blue will make a ptittorn an white ; and bow ideal art may 
be gtit uiit of tbu #]iatiii?lV i-uUmrv, of liliutk ami lau. 
Gut I toll yon beforehand, oil that we aax do hill be 
utterly uacleei, unlee* you teach ymit pciuiant to say grnoc, 
tiot only before meat, but Li^fo]^ drink ; and havjjiij pro 
^1ded him with Orouk citp« and pliLttoiv, pn>vlilg liitik also 
witli sonaothiDj; tbat U not poiflonod to put mto thcitu 

1^1, Tliere <^imot he any ni^ied tliat I ebould ti^ace 
for you tlie ooiidldonfl of ait th&x are diivctly fovmded 
oa ecrnctialloiiefie of druds, atjd of armuur; hut it 1^ my 
doTy to aSlnii to yojj, in the twmi pimitjve nmiiiier, that 
after recovering, for the pcxjr, wb*^le«jnien«ii of ftHxl, your 
not 0tv]i t4>n'anLi icimdin^' sdiovla oH art id £aj>tand mufit 
be in wcovoritig. for ilio poor, deoency and wbol<«oDie- 
ocea of drc6d; thorongbty good iu AulifitaJicei fitted for 

tlicir <lfit]y vrorV. l««i>miEi^ to tli«ir riuik iii Uf^, u^d n^rn 
wilb order ntul digint^v. And tliU ordi^r aiul dl^itjf 
mufit bo tati^bt them by the woni«a of tW ti| jvcr aiid 
middk elttBfioe, wLo&c tnlude €%t\ bo in mlliiiij; n^tt^^ 
iiH liJiig Hit tlii!^- An? ruj wroii^ iii t1ii» iniiUer mt Ui cnilum 
the vjiiAlor cf llie poor, ti-hil4> Utt^y tIkeiD»e]T6S dm^ guUy. 
And cm the proper pride and coinfurt oi both p(xa'aiid 
riob in dnw», must be foiiiidcd tlio true luts uf dnwi ; 
c&rriad on by inn^t«r« of niftniifficnire no lets carofnl of 
tbc perfcctikc^ and bcaulj cf ibcir tia&uce, aud of all Hint 
bi ^u1wUtu»! mill tii iWigii c;;n bo Insihivrvd upon iboiii, 
tbaa «i'«r tJiQ onnouro» of Wihn ujid Damucnu wcro 
cnnfftil of tlicir «tocl. 

13i Tlijinj itt tbf! ibml pljw'i*^ linviiii^ iTiWivrri'd stnno 
whol«ifiome habits of lif« u& to fuod and drOfW, ^c niuut 
rvcot'cr lliem a^ Lu bxl^iiig. I n^Id jimt now timt lli<f 
best arcliitetrttire veiu but u gliirifiiid rocif. TluEik erf it. 
^nifi dome of tLti Vatican, tlio pc>rel]Cv of lUiouna at 
ChftrtrOf, tlic Tftnlt* aiid archer f^f their aialc^, tlic canL.-ijy 
of llui tJ>ri]b, tttid tl»o sjiirrj i.*f tli© bclfryj af^ all fonitB 
r««ultiiig from tbo men roqulroiitcnt that & oortaiu e\^KC 
Bliall h^ etrougljr cx^vvrvd frirtn liuiit aiiiJ mln. ^furo 
Ibsa that^-afi I bare tried nil tbiYingU 'TLic Stt>iiw of 
Venice* to abow — tbo lovclj fi>niuof xlttxc wctv* cvtry 
one of tbem dc^'e1opcl) iti civil And domebtii: biuMJnKr^ 
and onlv aftnr tlicrir invention employed euc;letJa«tioally 
on Ui4> gnndcst ecal^ 1 do not knon- vbvtber ]rou 
liftv« noticed, but I lliuik yr^u <^tit)01 bur Imvi^ mitii^ed; 


THE RtcLA-noH or 

- J ■ 

At try 1 
aT. tit I 

here Tit Oxford, » cbo^-hcro, thai our modem ardiil 
iie%«r neeoi to knovr wbnt to do with thnr roofn, 
anurod^ untO the roofs are ri;^)t, noticing e\sn^ viU bo; 
And tbere are jn»t (wo wftv* rf keeping Ihem riff 
Kt?viTr btiilil llh^Tii i*f ircm, bt it. only of wi>mI or Bloue^ 
and seeondlr, t»k3 care tlMvt in evorj- towii i!ic littla 
roofe are bntit before tbe la:^ otiMt and tb&t 
body wlici wants oiis Laa got coie* And we miffit 
abo to n)&l:o ertry\*ody wuiit one. Tlrnt b ti ia^, at 
Mtne not ^rrj Adviuiocd ^ic^ioil of life, men nbouUl dcsiro 
to liam a hnmii. vhii-li ihtay d^i not. vitti ti q«it a 
moro, suited to thoir babite of lif^ and likely to be 
mom ruid more MiiluMu to tliein until ihvir ilvntli. A 
men niUKt dci^re to hu\'c thctKf tbclr dwcUin^plit^oi bui 
aa stnni;^iy ££ poealbie, and fnniifilicd and decoratod 
dttiutllV} HiOd i^vl ill pli^niitiTit jiWiv, in briglit ligtit 
and gocid nir, bcTiii^ ablo to cUomo for tbcmsdvcs that 
at lca«t u wctJ a« »walioiA?. And •nhtn tlio hoosea are 
ffocfed t/^^hiTT in HtirP, nn?n nnitt bavo »o rnncb cl 
fellowship aa to STibject tln^ir Lrcbilecturo to a oomm 
1aw» and so mncb civic: pride oa to de^ire ^lat tbc w 
gvtherL'd gnitrp of bi.imim dw*'!!!!^-* tliould bo a Jor^!y 
thing, iii>t a ffigbtftil r-nc, on ibo face of tlio oojth. 
Kot jitan/ wcclcA ago ar Englliib elei'<^'man, a nsafiUv 
of fill*; t'niTeraity, a man not j^t^td to scfitFrn^Mit, 
odE niid<I]e s^^ f^nd ^rc^t praotscal 9i?rwQ, told me^ by 
acc4<1<-ijt, and wlmlly ivilboiit nvfcnmov to the siibjecl 
oov bcfora u^j lliAt ho novcri ccnid 9ntar London 

lue coontty pareoiiAgo but wieli clt^e^ oycBj lo»t the 
Mg^t of Uie blocks of hoiiM'B wliiiJi tlic* r:iiln«^ iLltfr* 
sected Id llie tuburbe elkonld uiiHt Liin, b/ tlio horror ot 
itf for hia day^e work. 

1331. Kov, It ia not potdble— and I rcpoftt to yoo, 
CJkiy in xnoro delibomlo (yu;crti<>n, wh^t I wirpto jmt 
tvrflDty-two vears ngo m tlic lH*t clinjrtDr at tbc'Scvun 
Lampa of AnthtU^cturo ' — it lu not poMiblo to havQ 
ony right morality, happirca, or &rt in ftny country 
where the clliea are thufe buiU, or itiis. let ma rather 
BB^, clotted aDd conciliated ; epoU of a dreadful mildew 
^rcttdtii^ by pitdivn niid blolchca ovor tlie cotuitry thuy 
consume. You niiiet have lovely «^tJo«, cryslfltlii^edf not 
coa;*iihLtedi into form; limited in sizG, and not auting 
out tiic dcuia and scnrf of them into an encircling cmp- 
(ion of sliumpj btit pirJed cat^h with ila sacred poniG»- 
nam, and with ^arlauda of ^;ardoDe fiill of bloffiotmug ' 
Ireea, and ftoflly guided elrcaiDS. 

Tlial !i lmpo*aMe, yoii eay ! It may be bo- 1 have 
rotljitig to do with its jjc^dibiUty, but only wjlh it^ 
indiF^icTisability. More tlinn numt be j^iasiblt^ 
liowevoTj before yon can bflv« a school of art ; namely 
that yoa Hud pla<^cd elsewhere than in Kngland, or at 
lottC in othenviM uii&crvk'cablo parts of Englf^nd, for 
Iha eUal>1i»Jiin«iit of nmuiifaeiorleB needing the help of 
£rtf that ia to paj'n <>f all tJie v/jt**' $*»*^^ and 
iwiffwtm^ of which it was long ago known to Iw the 
ooji^Unt raturo that 'A^xt^i^ tt^Ai^* *x**" "^ f^^ 




vA wixi^ rwtw fttxtTv^* and to i^iK?o iiu(^ cifinit- 
fiacttircA to tbcir l<nvcrt lirait, m tJuU notini g mar ever 
be tnnde of Iron that r-an oa ^ectii&llr bo mude oT wood 
or stone; and aotiuc^ lUfA^ed bj flteeta: that eui be m 
Ttn&lly moved t>jr natural forcM. And oWrre, tbil 
«U naecli&nical dtort n>c|ijinxl in Anciid life ai>d in 
^eitioSf Tutor powor le infimt<»Ij moro tiuui enough; for 
ftDcLorod mlUfl on Ibe lar^ rivers, and milU moved 1)j 
»lii!cefl from reservoir* filled bj tlie tide, will give yen 
OOmnuLTid of flxiy ^luantit/ of coii»t&nt motivo power yen 

Agncultiiro by t.^io hand, then, and a1^>lute refusal 
or baniabjnent of DUtiecessnTy igiioon* foroc, are tho firat 
eoDdiUotiH nf a ^hool of art fii luiy <H»iiiitry. Aiul until 
'you do ihifl, be it Btxm or Iato> tliio^ will contiiiue in 
that tntunphant stato to which, for want of fiii«r artr 
mecbaiusin has brought Ebem;--llut, tlicu^ Kiijf 
'land 13 dcafoned ^ith e|]iniiiiig wlu^ Li^r p<H)]>!o Imvc 
not clotlica — lla*>iigli sbe is black witi digging of fi«I, 
ibey dift of c<^\d — artd ihaijgli she bua sold bcr «oiil 
for gmti, tliey die of biin^r. Slay in that tiinniph, if 
yoa chooic; but be auured of tJtia, it iB not one vHioh 
the flue art* will ever ftharo with you. 

li-l- Now, I have given you my mtw^^ contaiuinj^ 
la I Inov, ofToncG cnonglij and !iaelF, it may aeem to 
many, tmneoesaai^' enough. But jnat in prt^portiou to 
jJla apparent ron-ncuctwlty, aiid to its ccrtniii offence, wa« 
n?al ri«-il» ami nir rrjil iliity Ut itjinaV it Tlwj fitudj 

Mrr TO i-mL 


of di« fin^ aH£ coulJ not be rifihilj fuai>^atcd vitli 
the ^r^ve wotk of EicglTnEi Uriivu^idM, without dno 
uid cJanr ]>T^>toU n^itiEt tbn miArl inaction of nntl'mal 
QticigT, which for the pi'cseiit jcndcw all (^kxI it^iilU 
of each «tudy on a greai. Acalc, iiuiNitibiME-*. I mn 
jOAsUy teach yon, aa any othci- moderately gp(A druuj^lLt^* 
Dkan couM, bow tc hold your pendb, imd bow u> luy 
ymir cokinnfi; \mi it ix litllt; lue my dning tJiAt, whilo 
.the nutioii IS »]Wuling milliuiit l>F ttxaney in th(> tkvtmo- 
of «lIL timt pcnt^il lt colour hftVi^ t> ropicecnt, and 
ill tho pn>ii)otii:»n <if falee fomii^ of art, ^rliich AVd only 
tke eoctbcflt and tlio li>iut cnjo^aliU of fol)ift> Anil 
tkerefere thOM aro the thm^ tliut L have ^mt utd 1n«t 
to t«l1 ymi ill dilh p1tti3^: — llml tltt line hKa urr not 

loaniod by J^occiiKiti^m, but Uy making* ihe lifinc« vr^ 
U\i! in lovely, and by slaung in thcni;^lliat tlie fioie 
artfi ari^ not to be leunitid by ComivtilF* m, but by dohj^ 
o\ir qiiiot Lc¥t bi our ovm \L-ay;— Uiat the 6»e arta ar« 
not 1x> hm leAniec! by Kxlublttmi, tint by iluiiig v,'lia£ it 
right, and mokiDfi; what ia lioftcat, wlietbcr it be ox* 

Libitcd or not ; — and, for tbc num of nU, tbrtt men murt 
pftfnt and build tinrtlirr f-»r |iridrf iu>r for in-itiry, but 
fdr love; for love of tlicor sirt, for lovo vf tlioJr nmfi^h- 
bour, and whatever better Joto may be than IbcaOi 
lonnded on tlio*©. I know that 1 gave aome i»lii, 
fVhich I vaa mott unwUbi^ to ^vo, in iqyiatcingr of 

10 pnmibbi abiac« of religions art; hxti thcns caa b4 
no daiigrr of iuiy« lui hin^ w> ire miioiiib^r tbnt OimI 




iuUiiMtn o>ttngcB n* well 00 <:hiirc1ic», und ought to bt 
well IfHlgi'd tJnTTC rIwa Brgin \rith wi«i(]rij fl.rfu^; thfl 
bwftcibtcd on^ will t%ke caro of th^m^lvGe ; Ws^n with 
tJiatclitn]> ro-nFs, and yon filial! end by epIcT^didly vmtjll- 
ing tbom; bei^Iu liy taking ciii-e that cui old Dj^en fiul 
over tlidr Biblea, nor jomsj; ouea o^er their uecdl««f for 
Vfftnt of ra*hlight, niid tticm you tniLy hnvo wbolcrcr tnifl 
giHwl in bi W gilt cmf, r>f (^ilniin^d glitfM nr wkx citndlivt, 
Af>d in thna pnttiitj^ thd art« to unii-CTBal use, jroa 
will tbd alA>j tJ;oir iinivomul kepiratiim, their TmivenaT' 
tiem-clifatcm. I U*)t[ jou tJn-w l\^l^* lui i*videii(?e uf A 
apceial DivincnMw in nny ii^>pli<fiLtit>ii of tlicm; thtt 
they were alwayA cc^nnlly hnn^an and crcjUAlly Pividq; 
and Li cloalng th^ee Inaii^j^TE'al 6enf?» of lociDir^^ Into 
whidi I havo evulcavourcd t<j cun^proea llic piiucdples' 
thai An? to I1C1 tlio fiiuiidalii^iiH nf ytmi ftitui^ ivork, il 
ia my li^t duty to laay wmnc? pwitiie \^)rda aa tn tho 
Uivmity of all art» when it ia tni!y fiur, ct tnily «p- 

li5. Every eevoinb day, If not of!eii«r, the ^ealer 
number <if vr^jIInK^anin^ j^or^iia Sii Kii^lattd tliitnkfnlty 
reoelvfi from tlicir Irui-lifrre a buno'lidifift, iKiirlujd \n 
.tboeo tormfl: — 'The Oraco of r>tir I^rd Chriitl, ai 
th6 LcYO of (lodf and the IcllowBliip of tho Holy 
Ghiirt, l<i xvilh you.' N(*w [ d<3 not luiow preciaeiy 
what acnfio is attncLod in tlio Knglieli public mind to 
Oit^ae expieeuona. Unt what 1 have to tcU yon pov* 
lively i», that the tJirotk tiling do stcMiaUy cxii-1, anj 

AST TO tntE. 


Cftn bo Vnowr if joii cure to laiow iTiem, nrid pcriguMMlj 
if you c&ro (/> p(;edes^ tlicm; ruid tJiat annlJior Uiing', 
cjubU, beddc0 tbcec, of wbich vq aUciutjr know bxi 

fint, Uy ftim|]ly obeying tJio ordor^ of die FoundfiT 
of your ndigioii, nil grrtt^r, gn4t:i<nmn(»«, ur bonatf 
and fftvonp ut gcutlo Ufi^, will lui givi-n t(j y<ni in 
iniad and body, iu srork and in rc«t Tho Grace of 
Cbrittt exhiiUj ami i^atri Ijv luid !f you uill Secumily, tta 
you know more and more of the created world^yon wUI 
^n^ that fJic truo wiCl of iU ACakor la tliat ilB crcttturGt 
should bo htpjiv; — tlmt Ui* luw irnuK? rvrrytbing brnwi* 
ttfnl la ita time and its place, nnd thai it h chi«ily 
by th<6 fatilt of mon, when th«y are allowed the li}>art/'| 
of tliwartbig His law's, tl>at Creaticii gnmn* cir trttvajla 
in pain. Ths Jj.ive of God oxistc, aiwl you may soo it» 
and live in it if juii \\ilL Lastly, a Kpii-ii doca ^icLtmlly 
eadit wluch tcochee tho aiic her path, the bii-d hor 
bonding, and men, in an itirttincitivo and marvcliona 
way, whatever lii^ely ail* and tjoMi? dcwls are ^xisflible 
lo them. Withonl it yon can do no pxxl ihin^j. To 
tiio gnof of it yon can do many bad oilca. In tho 
uuiL of It iti }tnLr limcti and your jKiwiTr, 

And there U a funrth thin^, ^if whitb wo alreidy kwyw 
too miicli. Thfrrc i« an evil apirit whoec doininiou h in 
btindnaw and hi <^iwar(li<«^ as the doniiniuti of Uie Spirit 
of ^^ifldom ia In oloar ei>;ht and in oouragc 

And ttiia blind aiui cowardly Apirit t« fur ^^\ tftV\\v\^ 

I cr-ttn^e ae well na elmivhcs, and cmg})i 
-j;f*<l lijQt& filsc". ^vi^n with w«NKi<-n fl<)o 
itGaaelAtett ora» will tikr tjim of thcaTij(Dlv4>; b«gin with 
llijiriOiittg nKif«] mid ymi (dinll friid hy f^pUfnilidly r&nlt- 
iTig them ; begin by taking oarc tliat no old cy« fftil 
oxer their Bibles nor >ouiii- ttncs over tlicir ucodlcs, for 
vraot of ni^hlii-hl, and then jou uKiy Jmvo vrliaterDr troo 
pxril ie to be ^t out of Gol[>urcd ^Loaa or w&x ctt&dlflA^ 
AtuI ill tliiiH ptilting tlm nrtK f<^ univnr^iil nhe^, jroa 
will lind ftl^ their imivorval itu^-i ration, their iinirereftl 
bcncdicticn- 1 told jon ttcro woa no cvitlcnco of a 
^edal Di\tiieii(isSfl in niiy ftjiplSofttiirm of Ibem; ibsl 
they wero alw&ys cqn&lly hniiifln and equally Plvine* 
arid lU (^lo^iiig thcvf-' iiijiitjitira) aci'li^^ of Icctureflf into 
w}il<-]i T linvii i'ri<lc-»votin^l Ui (^tiiirprf^vit th«f prineijilea 
timt ai'o to bo tlio foundntiotie of ymir futiiro work* 
is my lost duty u> say some positirc ^ords as to 
Divinity of alT art, wUbd it ie tnjljf f&ir, or truly ser- 

126, Eveiy aerentli day, if Dot oftciier, tJio irreiLtex 
niimWr (if wclt-rnfiiiniiig pifnunui !d Kiij^land tlLunlefitlty 
recei^'O from tlicir teftchere a ticii*diet]i>i% «oiiobt4 in- 
tlicee tcnns: — "Xhc tirflcc of our Lord Chml, add 
llw LoTO of Gi^, fumI the Fell^iwiihip of the Jloly 
GhoDt, ha vritb ytM* liow I do not know ]>r6ci0eiy 
what sense U attadied in t!je Englii^h public mind 
tlicflo eKprcsBtooa, Hut what I have to tell y^iii pc*i- 
tivolv !a, that the three Lhin^ do actually cKi*t, uni 

■ API- I 


can !« luiciwn if ytni cure Uj knmr tiecn, ai]<l piiesff^wa 
if yoit caro to ^xji^bou Ui«ru; and tliAt uncjtber thing: 
ciiflts bosidcA t}tc«c, of whtdi MTO iilreftdy knvw tod' 

FSr»t, by Bimyly obeyioj* tiie oivlcv^ of the Fciaidcrj 
of jronr religiuiT, ail gnvot^ ^ndoueneea, or b«aa1 
kik! fiivoiiT (if gtiulu life, uUI he f^tveii to ^m Iti' 
mind and UhIv, in wrtrk lujd in rott. Tho Gmco (>f 
Ohi-i£t GxiflU, and can be hnd if ^ou wSlT. Secondly^ as 
foa know more and inom oF t]m nrrntcd world, ymi vil 
find timt tbo tmo will of ita MnJcor id that ite oroatarei'' 
tliuiild he bapp^ ; — tlutt IIo ha« made evor^lhing beai 
tiful in il« time and iU phicL', uud ihat It id <iLi<<fl^^ 
by UiQ fault of men, whon tlic/ am ullowcd \ho lib(>rtyi 
of thwaitia^ Ha L^wf, that Cn^alion giMaoft or tiavaila 
in pain. Tbe Love of God ^ial», and yon Di&y iOd ll, 
ftnd li^-D iu it if yim wiJL Lfititly, a spirit dootf EictuuU/ 
oaHvt wbictli tcf»irh«« tb« niit hur jkiilh, tin; bird Imr 
btuldin^. ftnd Ri^n, in an inHtincttiro und marvelloua 
vr&y, whatever lovely arU aud Doblo deeds &ro poaa!bl« 
to tliein. AVilbont h you iran do no good tliliig. To 
tbo f^ricf of it yon can do many bud on^ In tho 
IxvACMion of It ia yonr peace and yonr power. 

And llu^ni it; a fourth tliiug, «F which we n^rendy know 
too mncb. Tlicro ia nri eviJ epirit iihoM domiuion ia in 
blind&e«c and in «o\vurdice, aa the dominion t>f tlie Bpixtt 
of wlftdotn la In clear «igbt and in coiirfigo. 

And this blind und LvmLrJly vpint 10 fur ever tclluij{ 



employing, the mothodi of ku1l£i^ iU ro«ult» painmru^Dt u 
loi^ lui th€ lftw« of NfttnrD ullcw. It ia suroljr a scvora 
]«Mon tone ill th:A iimtti^r, tJiftt tlifr Uv.t, worltKof Tiimnr 
ooiild not be ehuvm ti> tho pTiblic for six months without 
being destr[>yed, — and iJiat hid rriont juiil>itic.>uA ou«fl fbr 
the mt*t part pemlteti, aven \iCforti \\my tmuld be nhi^wti- 
I will break thronph my Uw of POti<*nco, ^idwo^or, so 
far M to tell jou that I have hope of imc d«y in- 
toresting you greatly (wirli the hplp of th** FloriiTitino 
mftet«ra), iii tbo etudy of tho arte of monJdii)^ and 
p&intio^ pcrcekiri; and to induce ouido of yoo to qbo 
your futiiro [K>wer tit ynilrtma^ m 4itu*xtmugU\g the 
voriouA hrAiiclicB of tliia art, fird tuniin" tbo attention 
of tho workmeu of Iitilv fnnn tho viilgur tnck» of 
minDte and peri^halkle Mn^nle to the eicqnUko bu&- 
t;]tic«of form and colour {)iii«il>lo in the p^rectlr diKtilo, 
aftpnvarda nnftltcrabli? ^Oaj, Anrl niw of tho nhliTiiitti 
rosulta of ench ci-aftanait^iip rrii^ht bo the prodviction 
of picturoa afl hriUi«ut ba palntod (claas, — a« dclicato aa 
thu iat»l 8Ji]jtte walor-(?i>hjijrH, and irK>re ^nii^ieiit 
than tho Fyraniida. 

12i>- And DOW to bcijin our own work. In order that 
W© may know how rightly to li?an> t^ dniw^ and tn jttJnt, 
it will ho noeoftaary, iviU it not, that we Imow first wbal 
are to aim at dtriiig; — what kind rif rq>n»Gtitatioi3 

nature tft I>c3-l1 

I will toll yen in the wortia of Lumarda *Tha1 

iho motil j^raiaeworthy pamtUJg which hna moot C0t» 



fonnit}' mih itie Uii&i; represented/ 'quelUk |>itUini q pin 
JAudubile, Ia qiiate ha ]>lii ituiifiiniiiU iron la 4:l«^a tiiii- 
thift,' (dmp. 9tfl). Ill ]>!iiiu Um'ihh, ' t)i« jiuiiLllTig \k'hu*li \t 
likflit nututv i« tlio LokI.' And yoa wilt find bv rcfcmra 
to tJi€ preceding cka[>tBr, ^coirie \o epcccliio e mocftna 
^9* pittori.' bow atfii.ilutoly Lloniirdo means wliat he ^'^ 
Lot Lbe livlii;; Ui)ii^> Qic telln un,) be kIIucU^iI in a 
mirror, tlioii put ^mr jnutiire liettidu the rtrtlectii^u, and 
match tlio cmo with tlio utlier. And liidui^d, tli« ^vrj 
b&at painting is unquestionably to llko tho Taim>n.'d 
trtitj], lliat aU til© wiirld admit il?* cxo^lltrnci^. Kntii^W 
Urst^nite work h bo quiet and Dntural ibat iberc* can 
ba no dupiita ovor it; you may uot |»artlcu]jaily ad- 
mire it, but you will Cnd m» fmilt vriLli iL 8tM.<ouil' 
Tn1« paiirtting [d<;a£<M one |>vr«oii mncT^ and ()U[ili*!vci 
another; but tirst-Tatc painting plcaM# aU a littk, and 
liif«tka^ly pteaflofl Lbot« who cmt rei!i:^iisB \i£ untBtL^nta- 
tiauA ilcill 

UO. Tliis, dion* ie what wo have fint got to do — to 
intko our dniwlnfr look hs like th^ thinj^ W9 haro tc 
drtw aa we c!An. 

Now, all ohjcctfi art) semi Ivy tlio ejrc an pilcTbcii of 
eoloiir of a <M;rtaiii slmpe^ with ^mdatioiu of <?o1cmr within 
thorn. Aad» unless their colcnre be achinlly lmDiii<in«, 
as thwo of ibt^ Miii.fT of jkro, HieMi pat<;b(«o( difforaiit 
hues are enl^oicntly imitablo, eiccept bo far as they art 
Mon eten.'oecopiciJly. You u-ill tind liounrdo a^n and 
■j^n inmiitir^ mi llir Kti^u«i?eipic priwvr <jf tlw thntbt* 

mo »kjipo, and lo fill thoci witb oolouro Tv^hiek 
iiittjoJi ih&lr culuTini; ijiiJte a ui[)i>1c ihlug in lltu 
nltJim 9f (% not cjuit* io envy iu die dulu^^ of JL 

Uiit U iff loiiKfUiiiig to i^A Uiitt iQEupIo di^fiuttiim; 
ftlid 1 vhili yiAi tu mdco tliAt HiC t«nnn of it niin c>iit^ 
|iMvi| llictvigfi I 4<> Uiit hlU^H]lIC<l tluf turnip *lii^ht' or 
'4liiilow«* IMiiitcti^ Hrlio hs^« no ^70 for colour hA\ii 
$X^td\y ctM\luMt\ lUiU fiilnidtHl tbc ptKsiMJe ttf art b,v fJur 
ihpivjr tiM aIimIuw in am sbioice (»f ooluitr. Sluid^iv is, 
tin thik ccaUmt, itv<oc«f«rT to tbo fuU [krcvctiGvyf ojIoiu-; 
ftir oiwrj i»Ki«r U a diiuiiiuhcd quuitiiy or CBeq^r of 
UgikI t ftud, ]uwti<«llT^ it fuU-wt, bum vlul I Im^« jnM 
|i.>M yvm (Uud eii^ty li^ in pMtitiiig a « AaAm %o 
kiyhar lii^tft, and mrmjtAaAamm li^ to kvOTr ite^Mi) 
dot «lw •wy wtMv lA paiMuip* BWt W ft ibaJov ti> 
fc«Ae bv^eUtr eok«r» ainl a li^ W «»e daiier oae afl 

h 1Ua>*» faOiit nd te 


ftud lenders perfect |.«itili]ig tur rviir >rDpn«jl>1ti iti 
■diooli, ftad itU that frillc^n^ tliom. 

1^-, Every Tiabk fpaoc, tltcny he it <iark or li^lit) I* n 
»|aj^ of colour of aome kind, or of Ma4?k or \vhfto. And 
Ton h*re to e&o1c«e it vitli a Irue outline^ ajid lo pftini 
it v-Slh Ha true colour 

But before coiiftidoritig Low wo are to draw tJiift ei^ 
dMipg l£u«, I iDUHt statd to yon ioraotliin^ nl>uut Liii«tf 
in general, aitd ttiuir uoe bj different acKooIk. I Miid jiutt 
now tW- tlnTrtt \viu mi <!iir»-rfni*<' hrh^'i'i^n iJm niTiHM'S fif 
^'>iir of whic^h nil ^-ibihlii iiulum U compiled, <ix<?(fpt m 

1. Texturm are priiicipilly of tJir'ee ktiida : — 
(1) Luetroiu, oe of water flud ^luaa. 
{B) BUwmVj or velvetv, lU of a. rtisp-lenf or pcacJu 
(5) LEiioar, prodtiw^d Uy fllaiiU'utA or thn-uds »* <n 
£ont^i6rSj fiir, liair^ and woren or roticulatc^l 

All liie tbrwt fionrr,»:-K *if pT*'nwirv tr) tbo (rvti iti tmitinB 
are united iu tlio bast omamcTilal work. A fino pictare 
hy Fra Ai3gi:]i4]c>, (<r a lliio illmnumted pn^ of uiifi&uJ, 
Itui IfiTgi? K^)ac(« of jT^ld, partiv biintisdtvd and ImtmiV^ 
paHly dead; — eomo of it choecd and c-nri^^hed wiih linear 
texliire, and miiiglttl ullli]iii|>;*cd oriiiHcl culourF^ sc^ftiii 
bloom tiko that of Uic rccc-leaf. I^nt many eclinold of art 
dffpeiid f[jrtli0 nitvt part mi oiie kind of torture cnljr, 
pjid a xiut quaaiity of tlic art of nil Lge« reats fiT gi«al 
part^ ita poWr<>t|>cciallv om toxtaro |irodti9od bj mnl 


titodinous llnoa. Thiu, wood engrnvioj^, Itue ongmTl] 
pmpcrly «o cjvll^d, tiud countlcM vAncticn of jwnlptur^, 
]Det»i1 wor]i, and toAtilo fabric, *lri»cijJ ftJT grimt ]>*rt 
the ^eot of their colors, or elmdM, for tlioir mj 
softncM, find clonrncDA, on modifii^^^tion of tho Aurfaoctt 
by lincfl or thrcAils; and cvcu in advaucod oil paiatingt 
lli« work often dcpeikda for eomo part of Ita efi«ct «i 
tlio t«sture oi tho canvas 

ISd. A^iii, Uie aiiA of et^uii^^ and mezj^uLict eoigr^v- 
ing depend pi-lnclpally for iLeir effect on th© velt'eiy, or 
bloom/ t<>3tLirc of tlteir dju-kncf^, ottd the best of nil 
painting ik Uiu fn^scci work of grffit cfJourUf^ in wliuJi 
|}i« cc-loure arG what is UEually c^llod dead; bnt thej 
arc anytUin^ liut dead, tX\ty glow with tlio ltimin< 
li]<Mrtn nf lifu, Tlie fi-esL-*!^ of Gorreggio, wTiwi not 
paitit€d, aro snpromo lu tliia quality; n.nd yon liaro 
lively cxamplo in the Lnivoraity Gallcricsr ui tho 
Ukucbud ptoiion of the f^Djale Tiead Ly Raphael, partlj 
roared by J^wrcnc«3. 

137, Willie, linwevcr, in all pei'iods fil art these diffoTi* 
cut: toxiurca are thus used m various afylea, and for varioua 
piiipoccis you will jiiid that thorQ 10 a bruad historic*! 
divieioD nf ai^^ioliU, whidi will rnriti^nnlly &»J«t you 
undoratandinp: theia Tho earliest art in m«t conntrii 
la linear, cunfiiaiin^ of Interwoven, or richly Bpiral 
otlierwiKO involv-ed arraiigcTiii^uU of AL-iilpiLued or p^nl 
liiicet on etOQO, wood, motal, or day. It ia gcnai 
th:iniiTlcLi>t]i: uf eavA^ life, aad of feverish energy 

!i«rca.Ft(ir, under tho geiioi-nl liotd of tho '6t4ioo1s gi 

SeooTidl?^ even In the earUut j^erioda, amonj^ powor* 
fv] natJon«| this liitcar doufimHon i« m-iro or IcM 
fill4N! vitli GhoqnGred or bam^ ^liadir, and bq^iij; at 
onco to rq)T««ent animal or floral form, first in mere 
c>ntluie, fLTid thoD by outliuce filled with fiat ali^dow, or 
witU flatocjlour. Anil here wh uiHUnrlj find twu ^r«aL 
divUtonA uf tempur ftTid thouj^ht. Tbci Greek* Ictok npon 
&U colour Si-st &s light ; thi>y air, as comparod with other 
moeSy uiseiiaifivB ro hus, e^quisltelj wn^'dve to ph&* 
nwKtena of M^U And their linmr eohool pasMa into 
one of ilat niAFcca <ti light nxid flnrknrNt, ropreoentod in 
the rutuu by itinr tints, — w}ut<?, hhu-k^ untl two nnlM, oiw 
brick oolonr, more or le&6 vivid, the other doik purple; 
lheE»e two reproMjulIng tliclr favoiirile r^^^'^m iroloar, 
In ftt lij^ht hiid dark powcrm. On thti c;Uk-t liuTid, nmnjr 
of the Northern natioiia arc at liret entirely iRsctiuble 
to li^t aod eliadfi, hut eiquiaitety »iinflIUTo to colour, and 
their linear decoration b Mled with t1i;t tiuU, infinitely 
TAjied, haviiiju; no cjrprOMiim of liglit and cdifid<^. lioth 
tlicwi AohcH^U liJtvtt n liniilrd hut nlmnliifiT iMrfrrtion of 
their owit, &Dd their pecnliar enoceaeee can id no wim 
bo imitated, except by the etrictest obaorvBnce of the 
Bame liinifaticma. 

138. Ton havti tticu, Line for tlie corlieit o^t, braseh 
log into— 



(i) Greek, Lino with Lij^bt 
(2) Oothic, Lino witU Coionr. 

K»w, 3L(t aire uoiEijplctH^ Itself] eadi of tlieee M.h(KU reh 
tlwtr ML'pfLrato (<iuiractoi-«, but they coom to <leT>oti<l <xi 
linc«, and IcAm to rvproaciit ma^fics inatcod, Wcconti 
more reJlnod At the same time In all tnodc« of pvi 
tion and cxcctiiioc. 

Aiid IhiLH t,lir]« ume the t^ri^ «wit rnedirei'o] AtduKj] 
I c( flat «nd infinitely xnficA uilcAir^ with cxqnJi 
character and fiontimcnt nddcd* in tho forms rq^rctfcntod \ 
but lilllo pei'wptioij of fihjiddw. Tho nUier, of li^bt and 
shade, witJi exqtiUite dra^ir^ of EoUd form, ftrid Uill«. 
porccption of colour: Bomi>tJiDce as littlo of 6oiiUmcal 
Of die^e, thti FtLtlKHil (jf Hal tuilour [i» tlxi more vilnl «ti0j 
3t is alwaye uatnral and eiinpld, if not ^froat; — and wli 
it ia great, it i& Teiy threat 

Tlie fcchinil <tf light nTid ahatie aaaodatoa Itself vi\ 
that of oiigrivjrif^ ; it ia c^nutmlly an itcodmniciil tchoe^j 
broadljF dmdiit^ Light fiom darkncMf aud boj^as 
aaauniin;^ thai the light akl^ of all objecTs ghall bo 
|freio:itcd by wbile^ and thij cxItvEtio t^hadow hy bli 
Ou tlii< ajiivoiitigiiftl principk^ it rcraejiw a limited 
collence of its own^ in wh'mh the boat ^xistin;* ^TV^ 
of OTigraviDg are executed, and [dtlinatcl)^, tho 
re^ilar i*)r|»po«^iLinfl of oi^tdc fonri hi jnuntirig. 

Thuzi, WtI}',— tho ^uhrx>l« of colour mlvADcu etondil 
tUl they adcppt frt>m thoco of tight and almde, whaie^ 
b rompatibig with their awn powoTj — and then y< 

IiftT« perfect art* r^preaentcd ceBtnJly ]>y thitl of the 

Tlio iL-IuM^la (jf light Riid wlmtJr, <jri tlio r^thrr ImniJ, 
ftrt portly, ill their ftcodcmical formulas, too hanghtv, 
UiA pATtljT, in tlicir uarrovntSM i>f ima^uatiou, t^xi we^k, 
bo kMm niKih from the ftcboola of colaur; and they paae 
into fl dooad€DCl^. conaielin^ portly in proud cndc^voun 
to give painting the qiialltit^ii <iF e^iniliHurcT, and partly 
in fiio pnreiiit of efTecU of lij^ltt anil iJiai^o, carHiril at 
U«t to extrcmo ecneational enbtlety by the Dutch echooL 
In tljeij' fall, tliey cIih^ i]n> t»cli.>iilH fif colour down hiIIi 
tbccu; nsd tlic recent bi^tor/ of art U on« of confiiMct 
eSbrt to iind lost roads, and rcanmc allcgianco to TioUt«d 

13t^> Tkat, brieU)-, is tlio ina]> of tiio great schooti^ 
Auiily remembered by this fijrni:*— 

Mam AW3 OoLoum 

(BvprOHDtol hj Tttiftft, 

C win endeavonr hnrpafwr In ^how yan the varioni 



relatione of all tho9o brunches; at prwont, I am 011I5 
coticenied w!t}i jotir cnm practice M5 vish ie that 
you ftlioiild with your own ©yes ar^d fingeire l.i'acc*, and 
iu your own progress follow, tiie metbod of &dviut4?o 
tjQGcd for yoii by these gi-cot scW)!*. I wisb ym hi 
bef>iQ by getting conunanfl of line, that ia lo any» by 
kanun^ to dmw a steady Uuo, Uniitin^ with abgohitd oor- 
nM*tiifHH (lit? f jrm or Hpaoii y^m uiti-tid it tu limit; to prc^ 
co<^d by getting commtirid over ilnt tiiitn^ «o that you 
may bo sbic to liU the epacos you have cnoIoAcd, cvonl/i 
oldicr vitli ehado or colour; according to tli9 Bchool yott 
adopt; and flnally to obtfun the power of adding sitcfa 
fiaone^ of drawing iviMim the mri^s^, (u fihiiW expri 
their undiiluljori, ntid their uh!inL4:Lers tif form ani 

140. Tho«o who arc ^miliar with the taothoda of cx- 
tB&ig BchooU mn^t bo awaio that T tlitiH nE?ar1y invert tbofr 
praodoe of teaoliing. Students at preeent loam to draw 
dotuls fir$t, aiid to c^>lm]r aiid innaa Uiom aftarwardn. 
I shHll endaavoTir U> teudi y<Jii to arntiigti Imutd maiMm 
And oolonm dret; and yoii ^bnll put the details into thont 
lifterwards. I hare several reasfpiis for thi« aiidar^ty, of 
wMch yon tnjiy jii«fly ri?qujre me to etat« the principal 
onea* Tho first ia ili^tj ua I have ehown you, thiirl 
method I wiah you to fnllovr, ia tho nn.tiinil tma. All 
pmnt arliiit nattirtit /lar^m a(*tiifllly Wnird tij worlc m thia 
\FJiy, and I boliovo it thoroforo tlfco righit as the liitJiortt 
suci;efibful uue. Sco^iiidly, yoit wHl ftiid it less irkarrud 

tlian tlio rerotw modiodt and more dciii it?. Wli^m n. hcv 
net ia set nt cqc« to rlmw <]rt»ilit, nml mak» finiK^u'il 
diee in light and aliodo, no ma^^tor can i^rrcct hU 
innunienitile erroni, or tt^ttcue btm out cf blfl cndleM 
dritic'vUiei. But fti the nnturil mctliod, he can oorreot^ 
a he will, liifl own crroie. Yon will have p<^itivo linM 
It* draw, presenting no more difl^uutl^, cxcrpt ir rc]uinrjg 
greater Atoadindaa of hand, than the oatluiofl of a niAp. 
Tlicj Will be gcurrtilly t»wee[}lng Mul eiinpl^, instead of 
bring ja^i^d inUi jiriHrifffiUiniw ntitl itujts; bul, ushuht'I!/, 
tUo^ may id drawn rif*hLlv (with patient*), unci Ui^ir 
rigfatnesA tested wlih matijematt^^al accnracj. Von b&ro 
only to foUrtw your own line wWi tniriug paper, and 
1^1/ it to your c^y- If lh«y do ncrt corrcqiond, yoa 
ftre vron^% ajid you need no iua£tcr to thow you whfirdi 
Ag^; in waehiDj* in a Gat tone of colour or tbodo, you 
can ftlwayB Bee youtself if it \s A^t, and kept troll within 
IliAMlgnH; nml yim onn n^i a pirrtu) i)f ynur cnlonr nidfi 
by Bjdo with that «f the copy; if it dooa not match, you 
arc wron^; and, again, you ncod no ono lo tell yon 30^ 
if your eye for colour U true. It liappens, Indeed, mora 
frequdntl/ than would l»e aupponwl, that there 'u real want 
of power in tli« eye to diMlnguii^li colonri; and this I 
evmi Ktn]MH'£ lo hrt a tTonrlhion whl^li linR Infou i;(iinc?tiini>i 
attiiiidaiit on high degrees of oorobral tonsiti^'^n<?es iu othcf 
directi^ims; but such want of faculty would be detected in 
yoTir tiTht two or three eienjaes hy tlilfi ajniple method, 
TfiJto, ciherwiao you tiii;fhl go ou for youtH imdeavc^tirinnf 



to oolcmr from nnturo in vain. Luiftljr, nnd fhh ia a totj 
MTci^lifj^ CJ>11nt(iral ruiwjn, Mitili n niHliod rnAhW mo to 
ehow you THAny tliinf^ l>wn"<loa fhc urt of dmwfng- 'Evmy 
cscrcieo Hiat I pi-oparc for yo\i wiJI l^o either a ^xirtkm ol 
mmie im^)ijrl4i'it I'xrntnilt" i»f nttdfid art, nr <if siinit? iiiilLinil 
ohjoct ITowovor nijoly rir im»TtcciCv«ftil1y yoia niaj dm^J 
it (tliougli I aiificipato froin yon neither want of care not 
fliK'CNL-sfi)f yoti will neiGrtJjelcw Imvc learned what no word* 
ccuM hivvo ua foruihiy or oorupIotijlY tAiiKht yout eitier 
respecting early flit <jr orgnnic rtmetiirc; nnd 1 atn thit» 
CATfsiin tltnt viA ft ninn«»nt ynn »jM*nd fttt*»nT!Tc!y will ho 
nlt-t^j^cthcr wjuifod, nii'l ihjit, gt^iiomlly, yon vrill bo twice 
j^mer« hv every effort There w, hoHcver, jet another 
pofnt fn wblf^ I UiiiLk x oLnngc of exliting mcthudjt wiI7 
bo ftdvimblc 

141, Yr-H hn\c Li^rc in Oxford ono of tbo fini?st col 
lections in Europe of dm^In^ tn pen, nTid cTiulk, by 
Idlcliftel Art^-fllo and J^pliciul, Of iho whole tmniber, 
yi>]i ruiiriot but hi\e iioti<*4^il thiif ikjI uni> ib weulc or 
Ftudenllilco — M fire evtdLMitly moftfor'n work. 

You TOBj look the galbnc* of Eumpc tbrongh, and w 
far aft t fcrow, or m it is ponftibk nmko with ftafety aiiy, 
Eo\rido fijPTieralizatioTi, jouwill not find iiilhem a childinfa 
or feeblo drttwiug, by thceo, or by any other great m**tflr. 

And farther: — by tbe grehfost rnen — by Tliitiii, Teilaii' 
<]TM!%, or Vcroneep — yim will hardly fiud nn anthontici 
drawiitj* fit all. I'or the fact ia, thnt while we nn 
bave alwajB leanu'd, or trif'd U^ lo»rrt, t/i paint by drawings' 



tlie oDdeuts learned U> draw by pamttnf;— ^' l>y en^mt ■ 

tn^, luoTO ditHcuU atill. Tim hrtir^h wjul put into tlicir 

liaiida wlitfii thev ut-re cITKlivii, aitd tlwiy \T<Tr« f(*n:wl 

t€ draw ^vitlt tlint« untiU if they mcii the poo or 

cnyon^ thcr ti^d it cither with the li^itECM of a briifib 

or the dc^isioii of t f;nt?cr. MIcbael At/»«lo ubos hjfl 

pdn like a chiaol; but all of ihcm ictm ta una it only 

wbcn Lhdy are in llic beiglit \jt tlieir |Kiwer, and tlicti for 

rapid Dotation cf thought or for itudy of iiicKluk; but 

novftr na a pniijtico hclpirig them Ut piifrt. Fo^bably csc- 

f^MM of t}m »ovon»t kind wcra p»ie throoj^h In mliiutfi 

dntwlng hy the approDdeoi of the goldamitha^ c^ wtii^ib n^ 

bcv And know Jittlo, and which were entirely a laMer vi 

conrvo. Tu tlirjM% und tf) thtr laquiMtrncM i>F car« And 

toiiob d9ce)optid in WOTkini* precious metals, ntay probably 

h^ attributed Ibo final triumph of Ituhan sculpturop Mi' 

cliael Angi^lfi, wlieu ahoy, baaSd iclmvecitpicdeagrai'IngB 

by Sabtiij^auor aud othan with hid pou, in ^oainuld flo 

true tlmt he conU pn^ hUdi:awLi]^ as the oingiiialA. But 

I thonld iinly dificiiiunge yoti from all furllKtr at1<rrnptii 

in art, if I a^lEod yon ti) ([uttnto any cf tbcso accompliEhod 

irawiuj^ of the ^otn'artifii:<-'ra. Yoq havo, fortnualely, 

A mo»t intcrctting collection of thom already lu 

your gnUcrioe, and may try joiir hands on thcTa If yoit 

wilL Il^tt [ d(«irc ralhrr th;it ym nlumM alltmpt 

mMhinj^ cccc«pt whAt can by dtficrnnnntum ha abMilulcly 

accompiirfied, ajid he known and felt by yon to bi 

ai^compUdied when it ia m. Kow^ tberofovt^ I an 



I^Tip at onoo to comply with that jt^yniUa iiiRtifHrt 
which, i hope, eo ^ B£ yon caro for drawing at all, 
yoii are fttill hoyt eDoUf^i U> feel, TJje deafre to poliil 
Piviut you tliall ; but rom^xcbor^ 1 undomiAiid by poinliiig 
"(vliftL you will net find easy. PjunL j^ou aball ; bat daub 
or blot yon aliall not: and there \dll W even more car* 
roqnirod, though oaro fjf a |>louaaatGr luud, to follow IhD 
IhiCA ti'u<:vd for you with tike point of tlic liruali tlmu if 
theylttd been druwn with tluit of a cmyon. But from 
tho ^«ry bc^nning [Ihoiigh carrying on at the famo 
dnie an incidental practice with crayon and lead pcDcIl)) 
yon shall try to draw a line of abficlute cotTDCtn^as vdih 
the poiuty not of pon or cnyon, but of tlic Ifruflh, 
MM Apvlloa did, and tui all (.-i^uurcd liiita an) drawn 
on Greek Taa«B. A line of abaohite t'orreeiTiea*, o^j^orve. 
I do not euro how nJowly ^X)!] ic it, or u'lth ho%^ cnnny 
alteiationa, jimotionn, or rcbindiingv; Hk imo tiling I wk 
of j^CTi Ib, that the line fihall be Hf^ht, and right by mena- 
nreiubtit^ to the a&nio mimitencfls which yon w^-iild haro 
to givn hi a Govi-niniKiil rluu't lo tlit? ninp ul a duzigrruiM 

143- This question of meaBuremont !s» afl yoa aro 
prot ably aware, oDe mucli vexed in art sclioolsj hat It 
ift detormirLcd ludUpmably by the vor>' flrat worda writ- 
ten hy Lioimnlo: '11 gi^jvauo devo pniii^ iuip&i'ara 
inv?*!^!!^!'!^ ]jar le injuiire d' o^rd ut^a.' 

Without abeoliitc pnfcJHion of muaAuromoDt, it ia oar 
lainly impciaaihle for you to Icnm pcsmpectiro rightly ; ftnd^ 



M ^ M 1 can ji^^c, unpgeeibJo to le^nt aajtUu^ ebo 
rig£itly. And in mj past expcri4-uce i^f toacliiuj;, I k&v« 
Eourid tluit EucL prccifiLcu is i>f all UiiiigH tlic mo«t <]il^]ailt| 
Ut vndouHi oji tlic piipitik Tr, U luiav T'^} j^'^rsttude to diti- 
i^rnce, or prrjvoke Ut citEhuiiiibtni; L>ttt 1 Uitvo fijiiud it 
lutUorU> impijeaiilc to humiliate one et.udcnt into pcrft 

It is, therdfor9, neoeasttry, In bej^^niiu; a mtem 
diwin^ for tho UntTcraty, tliat no opoiun^ ationld 
hit fcji- fiiiltu^ in Uilfi eseeutial niattet-. I hopo >ou wiU! 
tru^ Uid wor^ oi tlid moat accompHsLed draiij^UtuDaii 
of Ilalj'r and tlio painter of Hio f;roiit tiuinird piiilim 
wliEcIi, |it*rlmj« iKncruI uU ullitni, hux iiiflifinioiTi) tlii^ mind 
of Eimipo^ when lie t4sl\jt jtoli tliuf, yonr fiivt t\uiy U ' 
kam poTvjjecUvo by the m^a^una of ovci^thiug.* Fe 
pcrsjicctivt*, I will uuiloilJiht tliiii, it sli«ll hu mndr, \^j:mo^ 
tically, qntlc easy to you ; but I wh)i fiivt li.» wmke ap- 
[lUcation to tiic Tnutoc* of the Nalionjil Gallery for tha< 
toftn to Oxfui^ of Tuiiict^i^ peifipecUve dlfigrauia^ whiubl 
are at present lying uaelesa in a folio in tLo ^Catlonal 
Gallery; &nd tJicn-fiiro wc wjU u-jt tn^ubJc otitscl%-cfln 
alxiut pcti^^H-i:tiv(> till \\\tt hijluiiui ; utih^fu, iti tLu ini!«ii- 
whilu, y<}n eu'C tj n^iut^T tlio ninthcmutJciil tli«x)ry of il 
whicJi 1 have carried nv fur us 10 nocuwiity for ycM io mj 
trcHliN^ written in l$f>ft, (rf whHi copi^ sWI be pl&crj^ 
at joiir disi^^isoJ in yoiir working roorn. Cut the habit 
and dexterity of iccMurciuciit yoii nui^t ac^^ulro at odc€v 
aiid tluiL wjib tsii^iieer'a aocara4:y, I hu|it! tlia: In oui 



nftw gr^ilnjillj doreloping nyirtctii of education clcmcnTar* 
nInT<n!tijnJ in* niililnrj i^niwing will \m nH|iiir».Hj at all 
nMUi i<chiK>U; so that wlitni votithi; coin^ tn thd Uni 
Toi-silj, it may bo no more ucccawty for tliem to i>aM 
lfan>iig]i tJie prBlJin1ii&n> oiercit^i^B of dravlii^ ilian oE 
gmirmiar: for tlie pn*^ur, I ^vill place in joor Uri«« 
oxamplus umjilc ni^d severe ciLr)iigh for all neccfvaiy 

143. And wttile you aro loaniin^ to maunre, and 
to 4lrn.w^ nn<! Iiiv iIaI IhiTs* ^^-irJi iLi! Uriultf you mu»t 
ftl*n g<?t m*y ''omtiiJiml of the* |>i'ii ; fur iJjal i* iK>t only 
tho ^'leat iDfltniinoiil i.'V llio fijicet Bkotohitif*, bat it4 
riglit 11MS in tlie rutiniltifion of llifi Hit <]f JlluniirmtJoii. 
In tiotliing in fino art more ijircctty onniicctcd witb 
Mrnco than in tlm rl(w<! dr-jMrmlnK*** nf dixoratlvc ilhimi' 
BaHon on pcod wi-jimg. Pcvfea illnminatton la only 
writing made lorciy; ihe niomciil it p&ssc« into picture- 
niadSng il 1ia» U»t Ila di^ilty aud fiincduii. Fur iJicturw^ 
small cr great. If beautlfn], ought aitt to b© painted on 
Icavcflof lioftk*, tobo wom\vitb*<5rviuo; andpi^tm'i^Araall 
i>r gfpiLt.j not licjiiitiful^ aIhiuM lit! pruiittad Lo^thci-u, But 
to insiko wrictii^ iueif boimtiftil, — to idaI^c clia Mvocp tt 
the pen loifclv,— is the tnio art of illumination; and I 
pactUMilkr]^ \\\\A\ you to ni:>t<^ lliie^ hcT^a^o it liappeiu 
conUniially tliat young gIrU wlio are iitcapablo of trying 
a nn^le cnn-o with ateadincea^ iDudi more of delincatii^ 
my omaniPtitRl or orgmiti? fomi witTt f^trntr-tnivii, tliinV 
Ihfi^ tbo work w}u<jh would be Intol^rabla in o^-dinai^ 



trwriiK becoiuoa tolemblt? ahen It in «Ti)p1ii^] for Iha 
i]e<)Cinition of texta; oiid thuii thoy Tondor nlL litialttiy 
frrc^TcflS impowiMo, b; pTOtcctioi; lhcmeo1v<-4 in tne^ 
cieney iindi?r the filifeld of a go<jd moTJ>o. '^VhereA* Um 
right way of Mttiri^ t^) wftv\i in to ninkc t))om«clvo* liml 
mistrccsmof tlio arf. of writing hrsiiUfnllj ; and ihcii W 
apply that ftrt in in proper de£;T<ce of devolcfprr^Qt to 
whateTer (iwy doalre pcruioncntly to wrilo. .And it h 
tndmtd n nmrh rihim truly rvligii>ii« ihxiy fur gtrU ui 
Boqciro a haMt of delibomtt*^ 1<^1j1o, and lovely potiraan- 
Bhip In their daily ube 'rf Ute pen, th&n to lUutaiiiole sdv 
qTitmtlty of texts, HiLvliig ddno m, thoy wmy fiext dU<i< 
plino their hanclct v\t<i tlio control of tincti tit any lon^th, 
and, finally, add the Loauty of coloui' aird funu Ui Uit» 
flowing of the^ {lerfcct linee. Ditt it iB only afl«r yeara 
of prauticM) tliat tlioy wtll be ablo to illuniiiuito Doblft 
witHh nglitly fiir tlic it}T«s iw ft ik only afto jrjin <»E 
pnictLco Uini thoy can make lh©m molodiona nglitly, 
with the voico. 

144. I iJinll not attenipt, In tJiifl lecture, To give you 
BJ^ RO<»]tmt of the tifi6 of tbepe(CRfladr&^vill^in8tnJIDen>, 
Thftt UAe ia coiiiL«cted ttk many wairv with pniii:]pl6a lN>th 
of shatting aoij of ptigniviTiG^ hftrpafter U' l>o f^XAiriiniH) at 
Ifln^. But I may f^ncniUy etace to yon that iu beat 
amployineut m !ri f^^^'^n^ dcrteriiiinatinn to tlie forina In 
drawingit wilkIimI wffli iiirncn*! lint ; and (lint, 'n tlna una 
of it, Uollicin i* qnito without a riTftl, I kfivo therefore 
placod many eujuplee of bid >voik umong juui cuv^vc^. 1\ 



9 employed for ruiiid »iniy hy Raphael and of}iicr cii«t4>n 
of iJctlincAturn, v>:h*', m *?iiidi lywus, givu uilii it. idM 
pEiitiiil indications cf ehadi^w; but it ie not % pro)*^r 
inatniiiteut for dL&dtnjz, whtm drnwinga are iiitcjiddd to 
he deliliei'fttt* and OLimpli-'le, tn*r Oli l](t? gitut mimtiTii t^xcr 
BO evnplgy iL lu virtual i« ilid pgwur u£ pivducing a 
perfbctly dclJcntc, c<lua1, and decisive Ijco iffith gr«at 
rapldifj; and the temptAlioii allied with that vIrtTie ii 
to Ucfiutioutt bfi£ldf and cliaiiC'U-swi>pt iiigtciKl of ittrictly- 
connnandnd curvature. In tl]Q liaii'la of \ct-T great 
^"punterft it obtaiiis, liktr the etcliiiig ne&ll*?, qiialitiea of 
oxquieite cLarm in this froo uee; but tU attorapta at 
iuiilaUuii uf theae i^citifij^ aiid suggtKtJve Klcrlduw Tnunt 
^bo ab«oliit<»1j' douicd to yocrEclvue whil« atndenU. Ton 
maylancy joa have produood somethitig like tlietu \ndi 
little troiiblej hut, bo aht^ur^d, it \a in ivalitj' ha iitil{k« 
tLoiti u u^^uBeiiEc h uulike ^iist>; and Uiat^ if you pvnitt 
ia BiicL vvork, you will not only prevent jour own «ro- 
cntiTe pn^c'sa, lint y'n^ vrrl\ ntmrr tnjrtpivfftiid in All your 
live* wii&t good paiating hk^mia. \VlvtnG\^r you take a 
pen in your liand, if yoii caniiot count ovcry line yon lay 
with it, and say vAiy yon make it flo lon^ und no lon^, 
and why you drew it in tiiat direction and no other, your 
work IH hml- The only mau whit i^i pur liiii jnm to full 
^•pead, attd yet retain comumnd ever evtary fl^paraio Una 
cC it, lA Dtiror. lio hoe dono this in tho iUiiAtt&liaiift of 
a mia^at [krt«crvvd at \ruiiiuh^ which have been fairly 
bcMimittid ; aitd of iJicae I lia^'e plaoed ecvon! in your 


copying Ffti-iw, with bthti^ of Titm^t^ft lanclFicap^ ^Mn 
ftnd ofJicr oxamplce of doliborate pen vKrk, eiioh u wiL 
ftdvauV^'t) y-\m ill wu'ljf etiidv. TJie [injiicr uao of tlie 
jvu will find expUiiit<d hi tlic '*iitHl(jgin^. 

115, Audf uow, but ono word me^ to-d^y. Do n 
hnpnte b> me tlie im peril nmcic nf *«tting bcf<>TQ jr 
rv]\Al \ft iL((tr in ihiv RyuXcm iif pnurtico w being cer- 
tainly tho bwt nn^thixL No Engliflh ftrti«to are rot 
fif^rced entui^ly on earlj methods ^ and oven Bcrytioltii 
e^reescs with some hedt&tioit hi6 ronvlctioi] of the 
c^podieocy of Icfimiuj^ to druw with the bnteh. But 
tbii lUclhud tl^t I ahcjw you rmt^ iu uU ec«ciiti&l poiuU 
cu hk aulbiinty, ou UmmrdoX or ou Hie evident ee^i 
vmU ju rooonlod prauLico of fJia meet splendid Gr»k^H 
and It^iliftn dniugUtwncii ; and yon may Ic (u«un*d it 
will If^ttil ytni, Uowovur nlowly, U) u gnint and c-ortutii wkill* 
To (That degree of ak]ll,inijst dopond;;r<tatly on j^nreejvce;, 
but I know th&i ill prai^Uud <jf tUin kiiid >oq caii 
epeud oil hour u'lthout dcfiuii4*]y gnloin^, butli in trxi 
Icnowlcdcc? nf art^ and in tmchjl power of Imnd ; and for 
wlint ntHv a[j|>0Jii' in it too JiUli^idt, I inii«t ii^ic'Uer nr 
iuppart mytelf, a» in boginnin^, eo in clo&mf*, this fit^:' 
lecture on prac:tice, by tho w.>rd9 of lioynoldd : ' Tio iai' 
petuofiit^ of 3*ut]i b difl^iBted al the hluw api>iciaclwft [^ 
a regular aEcgo, and dejtin^ imm nuTd iiuputieuoc of lubi)Lir 
to tako tli4j citadel by ab^na. 'i'hey tnLi«t tlicrufcirc be told 
agnin Anil i^tii tliut, IiiboLir iw the imTy pric^ of i;o1id fame, 
and Uial, vvLalevor tholr force of poniiis may be, tlioro '■ 
Be eaj^t method of becximiiig & gfKK\ ^ml«x> 


146, The plan of tho dimionn of &rt-edlo6b wKi ah 1 
gavQ joa in tlio la^ lecture Ia of oourro only a first gorm 
t^ cla^fniHlloa, urt U'lik-lr He are ti:i foiirtd fiutlicT ttnA 
moro defined eiateineiit; but for Uiis very reaa-jn it U 
noo(«darj^ that ever^ lena of it ehould ho voij doar 
in ;our miJtda, 

And especlalty I mtwt aflk j'ou to note tlie flcnse In 
xrhicb I iwo the word 'inaaa.* Artiste iiaually emj^Ioy 
that wiird tu oxpresA tLe spruces of H^lit iiiid dj)j'kiiea<r 
or of Gok>iir, into vhidi & picture is dlvnd^d* Biit thU 
h^it of thcira ariecd partly from tJieir ai^vavR Rjietikir^g 
of picturee in wliicli the light* tv|irGeei[t enlid form. 
If Ihoy liad trtetend been epealiiii;^ o£ flat linle, as, fof 
iiuUuicc, cf the gold and bino in tliie mm^l pag« (S. 7), 
t]i«/ woiitd not tiaiTT cnllr^d them 'tnasec^,* but *Bpaeee' 
of oolotir. Now botJi for accuracy and convoulBnce' iukct 
you will find it wcU to ob^j^rve Ibb dlatlnctiuD^ and 
lo tall a iliiiple tint tint a ii^iiu<e of tohmr; und only 
the reprweotAtiou of aolid or projecting form a mafis. 

At all evcoCny 1 DiettD myjuAi alwnya to make tUf 



JialmctidD ; which I tMiik you wiU M!c the uk of l>/ 
cumjmniig the miFsal pnge (S. 7) wiOi n piuuo of GniiJ^eil 
paintinj; (Edu. 2). The one I call ep&«c with C()lour ; Uio 
ullier, iiiiu* wilIi (^uluitrj I xiAo liuwever lli« wi>rd ^Uiie* 
n.Uitir than 'apute' in air geiieml «chcmo, because \on 
coBDOt limit n flat tint but by a line, or tiic locun of 
alJR^: ^hej<eii8 a gradated tint, c?;]nTf«No()f njaf«s bi^aJ' 
he IceC at itA od(*ce in ancthor^ n-itbont uny fixed limit; 
arid practically tA a^i in ll>c wc^rka of tho grcfttctit 
m astern. 

14T. Ton have thus, irt yonr hcxuf^onal ecJicmoT tbo 
exprcceion of llie iiinven4»d niuniier nf advuiit^ in painting . 
Line first; tLen liiie euc-lowiug flflt *jiiic?im coWrod op 
eJmdcd; then tlic lince vimir-li, nnd tKc %<>\k\ fcrme ftro 
seen witliin tlie pjiat^cfi. That, ie tlio univerval law of ad- 
vance: — IfUno; fifflftt Bptu^e; S, moiscd or «olid »piio& 
But, as j^oa ecd, tliis advance mnj?' be madct tutd hof 
been made, hy tuti flifTi-Tc»nt iimds ; one nilvHrn'in]* hIwhth 
tbrough colour, the other through lip^lit and ehada. 
And tbeec two roada arc tatoD by H-q entirely different 
kinds of raeiL TJie way by colour is taktri by men of 
cheerful, natural, and entirely eime diepf*itJon in body 
and mind, much rcwrmlling, «Trn at iti *trorgr»t, the 
tpniper of w**ll'bnrt[ght'"p cliildrpn : — tj»n bnppy 1^" think 
deeply, yet with powers of imaj-inatijn by which tiey 
van live otlii^r llvce than their actual unea; uiake-belleve 
livcfi, whll4? yut lliey renimn couM'ioiia all the wliile that 
they ortf making bolicvc— thoroforc entirely eumo. Tloy 



ftre ^^ aWltitply cvi(itpnl<*<1 ; tlipj 8*1; for no tTurre ti^hl 
UiaD ia immediatoly aiwiind tiiom, and caiiiiLit aeo any- 
Uiiug like dArkiieiGi, but oiity gret-u hthI 1>Itie, in iVn 
Cfti'tb and »vit. 

lis. The witj ^y Ugh( Mul nhndo ift, fifi the contrary, 
tttken bjF men of iJie Iiighc«t |>ovr«n» of lliou^it, Hrd 
mnst Qameet dmire for trnxh ; t)i«y long for li^fht^ ncd 
for knowledj>o of all thnt li^ht onn ehow. ]lut eeekinf 
for %bi, tlie^' i>en;eikG olhu darkucaa; eeekixij; for Irulli 
and finbetance, (bey find vjintty. They look for fonn 
in tha cQiili, — for dawn in ibo ek y ; and ^cc^kjuj; thoao, 
diey fiod fu-mle&fiuc6a lu tlio e^rlli, and iiigbL in t]i« 

Now rcniombcr, in those iiitr*"«Inctoiy Icctiirca 1 am 
pattiti|^ before jmi the nxttft of thioffs wlacb are 
itran^a, and dark, and often, Et may ficoiu, im<.*om]('otL<d 
nith tbe brandits^. You may uot at prc^cmt tliitik theda 
i]i«lA|>]iyt<!uiil MF^tlijfntfiibi iL«(?i<Mtmry ; biiL ns yuii go on, 
you will find tliat linviiif; hold of tho duft tu motbodfl 
of vrork through their iipring:" in human diaradcr, ycnx 
may inirtxiitr; niiiMriiigly ubrru tlwy Inwl. aud what 
ciutwtlttitcft thdr wrtm^vui aiul ligHtnMK; And when 
we hove tho mail) principles laid down, all otboi'S will 
dovelope llieniitQlvfl* in due ftLn:u!«ioii, and everjUjing 
wUl bocome moro cltparly intoUi^bla to yon in die «Ld 
for having ly>c]i h]>fii;reiilly vi^u<3 ir ttiQ t>cgiiiumg 
T<Hi know whim cmc in tayjiig llii^ foiindHlinn of a bniai^ 
It d<io« not vbotr cUi^ectly whoro tlie rcroTos ar9 to 



149. 1 ,>u liAv« tbu IhoM tvogr^t ditiiion^of bninl 
mind: one, <x)iit<Mit with thr <y>Ii>iirft of Lhingfi, wlicthAt 
they Jiro dark or liglit; tlio <;tijCT •Mkin^ Upht pwri, 
as ench, and droading darknoBfi aa such. Ono, aIao, uud- 
toiit wiQi idib i;*»iuiired ii*|iL*L-tJi tuid vj3j\i»ury prliii|»eA id 
things; Ihe other #e<;tiiij» their form ftud tuhitance. 
Ai]<i, aa 1 eaidj the echoul <>f knowlc^lgc, wrcUing light, 
perceives, and baa to accept and deal with obecmtji 
fmd sdolditf* fonn, it hoe to accept and deal with formp 
[cseuGM, or dfiftth, 

FurJjjtr, Uic &^hool of eiilour in EHro]irt, nnug thv 
word <ic<tliic in its brD[u]cet ecnot^f is eBstrnti^Uj Q4>tlue< 
Olimtiftti ; and fitll of coinfon and peace. AgfLin, the 
B(Jjt»<»1 of light Is p«tfi?rjtinlly flrppk, ^nd fiill Df ecjrrow. 
I c&QDc-t lell you which is li^-htj or leaaf wrc-np;. I loll 
jtm only what 1 Itnow — i\m \iUi\ dii»tjiif:tiun Ijetwden 
thein : Uj« Gothic lu- PEjlmir ftdirKd in klwa}-* cli^orful, tlw 
Gr€clc always o|>proftwd by tho phadf^w of doatli; iind tlio 
fitran^'cr '\i& iiia^lcrs &re^ the dinger thai hody cjf death 
(pdpB them. The etn:mgeet whose work I can show yon 
ID recent pciioda is llolboin; neit to him ia Lionordo; 
aud tltcu l>iirer : but of the tlu-ee Iloll^a in Uie Atrongcat, 
and wltU biA lielp I will put tlio two Kcboolft in tiitif 
full clitLrficfcr before jon in a moment. 

150. Ilf [V isj ilrsl^ an etitirt^ly dianurlunntiu piece of 
tbe f^reat <:o]our gdiool. It U ]>y CInia of OLme^^liano^ 
% Qiouut^iccr^ like Liiini^ bom under the Alps of I'^rinlt. 
BiH OhriTithui uAmtt w»K John Itapti^t: be U here 


])}iiTitin;; lib njimfv^nint - tho whole picture full «f |icac& 
nrul ii]t4*fi^ 61J1I1 Anil lio|>ef aticI dei'p joy if\ Vi^Ui of 
eky» ATLiI fruit nod flowor and weed of cartlu Tiio pio 
lura wne pai&tcd for the churcli of Our Lndy of titc 
Garden at Venfw, I.t MadoriiuL 04^11' Orto (properly 
MrtdoTina of iho Kikleii Garden), and it U fall of sim- 
ple Aowi^rjt, iiml Imn llie M^ild f<trA^vb^■rrr tif Otm»'M 
llfltiTo ID 91111 Ijtitif glairEiing tltroiigli iSxe gniRc. 

Bosidd it 1 vixW pnt n picuc of &troii»cet wi^rfc of 
the ttubtnil i>f light and diacT*v-6trougeet, bet-AiiH*? Iltjllidn 
vnu n colour ist nUo; bol Uo Iwlon^, neveitlielei^, eiscn- 
tiAlly to ttio dtittniscnro #cliool. Toil know thut Ilib nnmcifl 
CQiiik«cli?d>iii iiJi-ftl workjcliw'fly with liis * Dhiacp of IK'StU.' 
I wiU Dot allow you Any of Uio tenor of tliat ; only hia 
deej>t:»t thought of du»tlt, liia welUknown ' D<^id Chn&t,* 
Ic will III onc« eliow yon ]h>w ooiiipUTti?!^ llo Ohristmn urt 
of tbifl eohool it oppposeod by its vcracily, and forced 
toaee wli^t U feHrfiil, even in what it iiiofct inibU, Ton 
m%y lliiiik I Am fthowlng yon contrasii lucrdy lo fit my 
theories But there i* UC:rcr'« ' Knight wiid Diiath,* Ina 
gimtosC pkco; and if I hat] LioitiU'do^ 'llirdii^* here^ 
vliidi ho paintud when only a boy, you would have f!Oc;n 
iayw ho wo* hold Ijy the aania chain. And you caiinot 
but wonder v?hy, tbU betn^ the melancholy temp4<rof the 
great Greek or nritui-alintic achool, 1 nhoiiM have calW 
it the ncrhool of light I c:r]] U m> b4^enii>« it t» thrmigh 
ill iQt^nm tovo of Ii|^ht thnt ttio d^rkiioM becomiM appa- 
rout to il, and tlirou^i it£ intonac lovo of traLU sind form 



timt all myetory bot^mcw ftttrnctivo to it And wholly 
hiLTirg Ic&nkcd thceo thin^ it U joined to tho echool of 
eulouTj you Lave llie jH.'rfyoc» Uiuu^'U alwaj'ft, m 1 will 
fthow joTi. ]>oriBix-p, art of TUiiin mid liicv folli vrcsri. 

ICl. Hut reitieiubtirj ila filial devcluimitiil, »nd fill iU 
llml powor, depei^rls on Greek norrow, ftud Greek re- 

The Bcliool of L^'bt is fuundod in tJio Doric wor*Tiip o( 
ApcUo and llie luiilo woreblp of AtJieiia^ ^ the lipirfti 
of Ljfo in Ulo ltg)it> niul of life iti tlio oir, oppc^cd CAoli 
to dioir oi<[m contmry dcit^ of dentli^— A[xj11o U) tlio 
Fytbon, AthQDA to the Gor^n — Ai>ollo aa Ut^in li^t, 
to tli6 earth Hpirit of oormplwn in darkneift, Allcna A3 
life 1i^- rmili^JUj 111 LIih Gijrgmi ►jiiritnf tirut.h hy jicmwi', 
frcoxiii^, or turning t^ rt<jn<* : botli of tlie tfttttt dh'itjitJtW 
takiu^ their glory from the evil tbey have ocnqucrcd; 
both Lif thetn, uhen Aiigry, f&kiu^ to men T.Le form 
of the ovil whic?U m tlioir oppoaJto — Apoll4j vkym^ bjp 
poiivoncd itrrow^ bj pcatil^nce ; Alhcnn by cold, the black 
mffo^ on ht^i* hrtmst. Thcsn art? lh<? df^iiriite and diraot 
cxproesionfl of the Greek thoughts roq^ctin;; death and 
Life- Hut nnderMii^ bcfth tlie*e, and far iiH^re mj'»tcrIoiiat 
Ndreadfid, and yet beautiful, there ia tho Greek eom!e[>tioa 
of fpirituiil dJhrkneMi; of the anger of fate, wliothcr 
forrdoomed cr avenging; th<> rrwt and thfjinc of all 
GwH^k Intp^ly ; tlit* anjfer of l.lio Erinnyo*, and Demetpr 
£rinnyB, ci^iiiparcd to ^^'hiu]1 the anger cillmr of ApoUc 
or ALJienu m t4?itijHirury and parLml : — and aldc, whib 


ApoTl4> or Ath^a onlv slay, thp power of Demeter atnl 
the EutTLomdoe ia over ilio wlw*)c Hfo; eo that in ilm 
eUiri(£ uf BelU'rupIuii:, of UJi^jjiiIvIuhj uf On'rtai, uf 
(Edipiis, yon hjtvD lui ittcoi]i|i]ir;iMy rltH'jK^r i(!i]ul4>w tlmri 
ujj tJiftt wa* poidblo to the Lhcnif^lit of Utcr ai;i*, whcu 
tbalixipeof die I^urrcctiou had bcuomo dt^Smtc And 
if you keep iJiie lu mind, yon wlU find c^orj' luuue and 
to|^nd of tlio oldest liinUiT)' bccumc full cl moAiuiig tti 
ytiu. AU tlie uijrtliic wur^uiitii uf GnM'k a^iilpLLjru bi'giii 
Lq the Icj^fTiidft of tlio fnmUy »f I'nritaliic Tin* iQAiii ono 
b Ihc making of tljo iTOrv ehouldcr <>f I'obp* itftcr Dcmc- 
tor lias eAtoD tlw shoulder of iWk \Vi11i dml you bare 
Dfotctta, tLd brothor of Fel^, carviii;^ ilio Gi^t statao of 
tlio motlier of tiiegocla; tiud you lifivc hin sifitcr, Nu^bc* 
wisopng hcreclf In Btoiio imdjT ll»r nngrrfif tfii* di.^liuv 
of light TI11311 Pok>p« hira^lf, tho d»ikfncccl, pvos 
Danw to the PclopoimoftUfl, wliidi you may Uioi-cfoj-o read 
ks the 'iflleof diirku^Bs;' hut ita (^eutrid c!ti>', Spurta, tJia 
* sown oily,* ie oontioctG*! with a.]\ tho idcoft of tho oartb u 
llfo^givii^- And fiviTii hor yen la^'c Helen, tlic rcprc* 
Mutative of light in I'oainy, and tJii? FiutJ-ca Ifeltna*^ 
' lucidft eidera ;* tuid, en tUo vtlicr nidc lif rJtc hilld, tlM 
knj^htricM of Argiw, wil.}i lU «HirnTln1ivi! diirktii.'H* ovtir 
tlie Atrei^lio, marknd to you by Iloliij« turning nvrny Lii 
Hce from the feast of 'Xlijcetcs, 

15^ Tlieii join u'lih itu^e tlm Nortiieni legends con- 
ni!cXi.-d \xitU tlie air. It d^>CR* not maitor whether 3'oa 
talic Dcrua u tho ion of Aji-jIIo 4^ tlio «on of Iletlon ; hi 



tfN{i]]Ll1y flvmbolizfls th© power of lij^ii : whilo hU brt>ttwr 
^ijhjfi, tlip^ugh nil hie dcscomlauU, chiofly iu Siejpliufi, ft 
confused or aeeociftted with ibo real gud of l)io wiadB, and 
ivpres^TitB to you the power of tho air. And tken, aa this 
conception enters into art, you have tbc lujtha of Dicd&- 
hiB, tlie fligTjttif IrJirus, niid llio story of Plirixtia ilimI 
Tltflle, giving you coiitiitnul afiSf^dsilloiis cif f!ie pUyslval 
air ivnd light, ending in tho power ni Atlicna over CoiinlK 
afi woll as OTor Adtcns. IsoyCf once Karing the clue, jou can 
work out Iho s*.^f|i^'lA for yonni«lrpg 1>ettrr than I can for 
you ; and you will soon ftud ovicii tlio oai'licst or slightest 
groteflqueft of Greek art l>ecom« full of lulereet to yoiL 
For noiliing Is more wooderfvi! tlian the depth of meonkig 
wbieh natioxiB iu their ^rat Jays of thought, like cJiildren, 
cati atfftcL to the rudi»t fivmbiils ; and nhat to ii« U gro* 
tesi^ue or ugly, like a liftle child's cloll^ cau t]K<ak to them 
the loveliest things. I have brought yon to-day a fev 
mora examples of caily Qrt^ek vaiiL' paSiLtiiig, re&pedJng 
which remember generally that Ita fliieit develepment 
is ftir tho meet pnrt scpiikhral. You ba^'C iti tho 
fii«t |K!nod, alwayfl ontugy in the figure*, light in th» 
skyor upon the figuree ; ■ in the eeoond period, while tha 
wmceptlfiii of tJie divine pow'er remains the sojue, it la 
ttuii^ght o( as iri repisej HTid the light in in theg^wl^ not 
Iq the iky; in the time of decline, the divine power ia 
gradtiolly diahclieved, and ail form and tight mro lost 
tcgrther. With that jieriod I wish you to liave nothing 

* &CO Note in tbd C*tALo£ua tm Tfa 301. 



to dfX Yea f^liftll iir^t Itttvn n i-iTi^lf* i*Knin|>T(i of it nnl 
beforo^oit^ but elisll rjLtl»r»r loftrn lo rpc^i^in" nltprwar^U 
irbat it) 1>a»e hy lU strangeness. Tbc«c, which tA-c to 
coiiie eurly tri ibe tliiTii ^jroiip of voiir SliLni^Wxl w^rw*, 
wUl duou^li TeprteOnt to you the elem^Dts of early An<1 
L*t« cunceptlooi in tho Gniek lamd of the deiti«e of 

l&3v Firtt (6. ^04), roii Lave Af>olLo Mcr»ndjDg 
&oni the ic«; tlioiight cif m the phjinuol «i]Tiri»c; 011I7 
m cinjio nf liglit for Ltm hi^qd * hix chnnnt hrjivnit, fitvtn 
forofihorlonodt hlftct n^aintt tho dar-brcftk, thoir foot nrrf 
TCt naca Ahore the ton^iu UDdcmc&th u tho paiiit 
Ing trvm the oppo^iie siclo ot ilio oLtme vue; Atiieua 
M tho momjog breozo, and HcnnOM bb the ifioniin^ 
ctond, fij^ng acroefi thfi wiiTcts bofkTO the siums^p At 
tlid dixUiTic^ [ iiuw hold tlmir fntni, It U wart^ly 
pOAiblo far joQ to »vo thnt t^ior aro fi^ires at all, so 
like arc tLcv to broken fn^mcnts of tiding mUt i and 
vrlien jou look close, yon ^U b^ tliRt es Apo1l(/H fac« 
ifl lurkiblo io th« cirolo of light, Morotiry'a is iiivi€dl>1o 
in tliB broken form of cloml: but T civt t^H \on that 
It Ed ccnrnvod as rovertcxl, lookinj* back to Athena; 
tho grotesque Appcamncc of fcftturo in tho front u Xh& 
outliiie of Us Laii. 

Theee two paintir^ are cxceaei^ly rude, and of rha 
archoio period; tl^o d^^itico L>cing yd thought of <jlii«d/ 
aa |jhyiuuil |Hin<-n< in vioWt 9j^-i\i'.j. 

Undemmth ttuMU two aro Athona and UormM, in 



tbti tjpaa Altttuied fllxnit the time of X'tudlafl j but, of 
i?<tiirHe>, rudely drawn on the \iuw?, and fttill fnore nidely 
in tbift print fiom I^ Xormiiiit uTid Do Witte. For It 
ifc jmpo»;blc (m jou will w>Qn find if yna trj' foryour- 
ROlf) to j^V(> on a jiIrjht wirfac^ ibp ^'aou f^f Hgiin* 
drawn on one of eoUd cnr\Bturd, and adapted to all 
itfl currea: and amon^ otJier minor dilTeroucw, Aihoua'a 
lojioe b iu ibe origiiml nearly twice ua tall oj* lier*elf, 
and bnit to be utit eliort Co c^mc into the print at alL 
Btill, tbcrc ia eno^igli bero to bIiow yon wluit 1 vranl 
you to fiee^tbe repoee, and entiioly ronlizod j^orAonaUty, 
o£ tbo dcutice lu c^mct^ived in tlio Plndinn jiariotL Tho 
reUUon of Ilia Lwu duitlts w, I believe, tlie eame as in 
tbo painting above, dioiigb prubably tbere U another 
addod cf more dcStiito kli^d. ICiit tlLO j^byaicol mean- 
ing etill reinaine^ Allien a [mL^luLc1«t1, na the gaUle 
inotTunfs; wind, commanding lite clond TIdiinea bi bIow 
flight, n^p pctaena is elun;^ at bia Lack, moatiing- that 
llie clonda aru in?t yet tipenod or expanded in tbe eky- 

154. Kext (S, 205% you have A^ena, a^n im* 
hetmeted and crowned with Icnvcv, walking bctvr<icn 
two ujmpba, wlirj are <:rMWiied also with leave* ; and 
all the throe )iold flowers in their hands, and tliere b 
a fnwn walking nt Athena's feot. 

ThU ift still Athena aa the morning aii, hut njX'ii fho 
Mith iiiAt«»ad of ill the elcy^ with the nympli* ttt the 
dow beaido bcr; tho flowers i^nd leaves opcriiiu^ a« tfaoy 
bituhlhe u])uii Hi&in, Note the white ^'Ic^uu of light oc 

UGHT. 108 

tht fjfcw-nV liremtt; uid v^mparD it with llto r^xt ^A- 
Itwjng oxaniplctt: — (nrtdftniimth this on© is iho c^ti»<«t l 
f'f AUioiia aud Fo^idoo, wlJcJi dooa not boar c-q ou^^ 
[<t-««cnt «nbjoct). ^H 

New (S. M6), Aitcmie as ilie moon of mondngf 1 
walking low OQ the UiUa, atid Ain^rui^ ^^ bcr Ijre ; tli6 
fawD bttiide licr, wJtJi tbu glimni nf liglit of anjurixc on | 
!t* eAT arid breast Th^Mi? of v^m wb^t um uflen cii* 
10 the diiwii-time kn^w tliat tiicrc ia no moon «o g]<>ruin£ 
as that gU'auUiig crefit^eut wcfiudinj^ beforo tbe suOj 
tiiovj>b in ita wane. 

L'ndenicaU^ jVrtemis and Apollo, of PhidJen time. 

Xe»t (S. 2C7), AimjUu walklog «n Ibo oaJiL, god 
of iho momiog, an^ng ti> hie Ivre; tbe fa^m besCdd 
kim, ngiitn with th<^ glviuti oi li^lit oo iU bromtt. And 
iindc?ni<Uktb, Apolt(^ croe^ng tLc r^n to Delpbi, of thfi 
Pbidftiii t£rai>^ 

15G. ^ow jrou c&nnot btit bo ttrudc In tha^^ Uuco 
OTEampIcA vlth the Fiiniloritj- of action in Athouft, ApcUo, 
mid Artcmift, drawn ju d<?itkw of tbo morning; and 
with tbe fta&ociatiou iu every caao of the fown with 
tbom. It luA liccm wiid (I will not jiit<imi|it you with 
■mthoritiog] that tbo fnwii bulmi^ to Apollo and BiiLfiti 
lecibuee eCa^ ajc sotifithc to mxi^k ; (aro tbov V)< i^nt 
)'on iwe tbo fawii U here uitb Athena of itio di?w, ibougb 
■he hiui 110 lyn>; and I bav« myaelf ^o doiibt thftt in this 
particolAr »latioD to tbe godd of morning It alti-ayj 
Btands HB th^ Rynibol iif wft^(?Hiig huil ^luni^ng niuUon 



ou th« frronnd, ii wqW Ai of the ligM r.nd vLodoit 
through the Icatcr, chcqtJoring tLo ground ha tlio fiivc 
in cl»]^]>lerL SiiEiIlArl^- tha spofjt on t)ii? iiiilirU <if Olo- 
nyeuB, thoufflit of Bonietimes Ofl Wftre (i^l Wr ••» ir*^*" 
r«MfAfdK, Uiodurcs, 11. 1), aa well lu 1h<«« of hU pan- 
tlw^ntj arul tliG clonilirigB i>f tJie tuHoi«^«Tlf^U of TlermeA, 
are nil iii|>niftcftnt of tliis light of tlio slcy br<jkoii by 

156. You oh&erve also diat in nil the tliree examples 
Uio faHm lum liglit en ite cnj^y mid faoo, he well BB 
its breast. In the earlifrst, Greek dra^vings ol nnminla, 
bars ftf white aro used fta one means of d«T»<:vliing the 
tigur«6 from the ^^and; ordinarily on t.h& under eide 
of Ui^uij iimrldiig the ligliUT c.ihmr nf thif lin^ir in wild 
onliiiftlfl. But the fflaciiig of ihU hnr *>£ white, or the 
dircuticn <if the fjxcc hi dcitie* of light, (the h^c* nnd 
Il*inh of wmiicit hi^ini^ alwavs roin'r-H-ntcrl a* wliitp)^ mj^y 
becckmo espree&ive of the direction of tiie li;,'ht, when 
tlut direction \a imp<jrtant. Tbua we are enabled al 
mivn to read Llie iiitentjfm ttt ilila Greek njinlKfl <if tite 
oeiinte of a da}' (ii^ iha o^utr^plcue cf B. *20S, wLich 
givce yon the typcn of Hcrniff). At tha top you hare 
an archaic rejirwentation of Herrieg etcaling lo from 
Argue, Ai^us is horo the Nighty hifi ^n.kt«qne foatiirea 
numstruos; hla hair ore r*kai3i» wing hiB siKinldera; Ilei^ 
mes on \:yUte, sfoalijitr njv>n hiiu, and taking rho ofrd 
which ia fji^oncd ti tiio horn of lo ont of hie hand 
witfcout hU ieeling !t Tlueii, midui-tieuUi^ you haTe 



llie eoyxvHi of an entire dftv. Apollo firat, on tlic left, 
dsrk^ oiileriDg Iii^ i^liunul^ tlit* tiiu uot yei nseii. lu 
front of Mm Arlomis, m tho miMiin, aflcendiiij; bef^>ro 
lunij p1a}-jng oox hor l^vrc, and looking bock to tlio 
Bun. Tn thr €iMitT(i, iM^hiiicI tlm Imnir-K, FTrnni*, B* T,ko 
Qumolus cloud at mid-dav, wearing: hu pota*iia hei;;lil- 
eoedtea cone, ftud holding & jlmverhi Iiie* ngkt Iinikdj 
Iniliontiiig the nourtKljiiumt of tlio l!ikWors hy tlic rain 
(rcnn tlio lioatoloud. Fiiial1^-f cm Uic right, I^tono, 
going down tt* tlac <ifc.ning. lighted hom tlie rif-IiL by 
tliOBiin^ now sunl;; und with her foot reverted, signify- 
ing tlio unwilJiDptL^se of tlio (Icporttii^ dav, 

Fiuallj^, undemejith, jau have Ilcimes of ihv PUidinn 
[)«rfL3d, m the floating cumulus clozul, ftlmi^t «}iapvlew 
(as jo(i see tiim at thi:: diiitancc) ; ^^ith the t<>rt^QPC elicll 
lyre in hia ImnO, bfliT*nl with Mdi;kj and a, flc^e*« I'f whlltf 
cloud, not lovol, but obli^^, nnder hig feet. (ComfiarQ 
Uic ''(- t*> uf'Aifx— irA<i> 1^,' and tho rclati<JU3 u£ tlaa. 
* «Jyfii( i!n*xtt 'Afi'A,^ Willi thr. dirndl im Lh« itiu>ii\i 
moaaen^cra, in Anetoph&nos; nnd unto of KcnncK ^lo- 
rallj, that you never find hiiii Afms; afi a Victory fli«» 
bnt alwaya, If mcn'lng fast at all, clambering along, m 
It KOTO, aa a cloud gatUora ond boaps iucif : tbo Got* 
gon* stretch and Btrido in their flight, hnlf kneeling, for 
the (Aine reason, running or gliding ahapel«e&ly along io 
tliift stealthy way.) 

157. And iK>w tidtn thtA lovt Illu-itr^iUou, of a very dif- 
ferent kind. Hero ifl &n cScct of ninrniag li^ht by ToiTiei 




o^^when Ap<>Uo,ftiid Art(TmiiB,nrLiI AtbciiA^ ctill tanwtimct 
vei'O wen, nnd fc1t,cvpn ncav Lcc<l«. Tlie oiigina] draving 
b *>nG of Cl]« great Fnmley fleriei, and eniirolj' bonQtrfnL 
1 tiAvo ciliowD, iu tlio Imil vtJiimo of 'Modern Pniiitere,' 
Low well Timiur kii(?w the mrJiiiUig of Orucrk l<rgriidi(: — 
be WHA iiiit tluiikiiAg of them, ^lowr^v^r, when be made 
tbia d<'si^Ti ; but, ui)ii)tcnlion&Lly, baa given tie the tctj 
cffetit of moniiDg Ilgbt we u'^iil: tbo j^TiUcrJnj; of Uio 
Biiiiahlike on dewy grass, half dark ; and the d&itow 
gleam of it on the ddce and head of Hiq stog mid 

15S. There few inttftnees wiH be wimiprh to show 50a 
how wo may rcud m early uit i)f tJw Orf^eks tbtJr •uoijg 
hiiim^MiluMH i>f tbu ^MW-er of light, Tim will fitiil llm kii!*. 
jed entered into at Af^meu-lmt ^atcr kii^b :ii my ' Queen 
of the Air;' aiid if you will look at tJtc beginning oi 
tbo *lh book of Plata's * Polity/ and rmd cftTOfTtHy thg 
\tu&npQ6 in ihe context I'eepociiii^ tho e«n aiid Intel 
Icctual Pight, yon will sec licrv iittimatt^ly tliiA p1iy*ic»l 
lovfl of light WM eoiiiiw?te*l with tlitrir pliihutojihy, in 
it9 eoareb, as blind and captivt^, fir hotter knowJcdpo. 
T ?h»ll not ntkiinit to define for jou U^Hay llm more 
complex but mueh sljftllover forms whkh iliU !o\"e of 
Ught, and tbo i^jiiltflri>hy that oc^compftnic^ it, take ic 
tbe ncdiii^'^-nl mind; only remember that in futnra, 
nhen I bnefiy flpenk of tbe Greek echoed r.f art with 
rcfcicuce to cineatioiia of dolmeation, 1 mean iho mh' 


tins TimfiC of tbe sehixrb, frorD IIornor'A ddTS to mit 
^own, wMirh c^^iiceni thRriiflelvea with the representfttW 
light, ATid tlie fiCfoL'U ft prodTtc^in tm maienul 
'*fonn — bogirnmg practicnUy f'lr iw with these Orcok 
YAite imintittgKT kti<) d<Ming |krHiTtic'ji1!v fir rs u-itli 
Tvmer'e sunset on the Teinerait^ ; botu^ tbrou^hout a 
>cIi<kj1 «f citptirilj' arid fladuei^T ^'^t of iiiti^i!*e ptmer; 
and vHich iii ite t^^-hnu-al iTiiitlwid *iF nhiul<iw c»h 
ta&tcrial form, afi vrcll aa in it;B ceecntial temper, U 
^xidraWy ivi>re*euted to yon by Dllrer^B two ^rcat 
engrarii^ga af tlio ' MelencoUa ' and ihc *KiUg:ht and' 
Death.* (>n tho other Lnnil, wIictl I hrittl/ !(|>cfll: t« 
'yon of t.lir* Gntliic schixilj witU rpfiirirneo f,o dnlirjc^tioili 
I iDoan the entire and mtich more cxteiieivo r&nge of 
seboob dxtCDding &om tho carliuft art in Central Asia 
■ftlid Egypt dowii To <nir t\'wn dtiy hi rndla and Clihtn.:^- 
whivh hn^'e hw?n coulcnt to i>ht[iiii bcautifitl 
lianncauo of colour witlioiit any rt!pn?nciitntioi) of l^ht; 
and wliIc-U tinvtf, tnuny iif tlifrn, n^hlinl in Kticth iinji^frrtv-t 
£*3q3TO0»oiiB ol fditn at oonid be eo obtained ; fiirhoola 
^QflQallr in aome meuure childitdt, ^r rMlrlnt^d in tnteb 
l(3d, and slniSlarly LdiildinU cir reT*trk*teii in tliftir pUfliv 
BOphic^ or faiths: but oontuntcd in tho rC!ntnction ; and 
in tlic irn^rtn powcrftj] racc^ capable of admjio-c to rmblcr 
doveIii[jineiit than llie Grauk HtrhuEjU, tlioiigli did cuii* ^J 
Bummuto art of ELir<ii>o htw only l>cou uofjompliAlicd by ^H 
tJie tiuitjn of both, iio^ that union was eSceti^ I 
will i^n<hwv»Mr d* latiow yon in my next lecture; to-dsy 




[ kIulII tftke not« only of tlid pointt boftriog on cur 
immediate pruoticc. 

1C9, A o*)rU»ri number of ^nii, hj fii«iilty and iialnnil 
dUpoditioD, — &]LdftlI,eofar as vou oreiiiterOfltedin inodcru 
iirt, — vrill iiecettariljr have to put jrouraulvea under tlia 
dUe]|diii« of tlifi Greyk or (^bhin*euro sdiiwjl, which li 
dinaulud primarily Xaj tlu itttuimnont of tlio pow«r cif 
j'Qpi'i^ontiii^ form hy pure coiitiikst of light &nd «ha<3o. 
I aay, the ' dintipliite ' of the Greek erhool, bolh bccjniH*, 
followed fLithfutly, it is indeed a aevoro one, and becaTiso 
to follow it at M t«, fur pervotis iuxid of colour, often 
a course of punifi^l etrlf-deninlj frum whiiOi pmrg iitiid(?]iN 
aro eager to ctcapo. And yet, when the lawfl of btith 
schools oj'o rightly ube^'ed, lli« luobt jicrfci^t dlHL-Jplinc is 
thutof the colourihU; for ihey see and draw everything, 
vrhilo thu diiiLnw^urtKU intiah leave much indcE(>nDiii&to 
in mystery, or invii^ililk- iit g1m>iu : and there &ra thortTf»>ra 
loiuiy Ueoatioua and ^-nlgur fonna of art cnuneoled with lite 
chiaroscuro scIkxiI, U>tli in imindng and otching, which 
h&vu tm p»mlTfil among thiT r^ilniirints. Hnt both ot^hoolt, 
lightly foUowod, roqiiiro fii^tof all AhaoLnte accuraoy of 
dellueution. Tliia you ntjt'd not lioj>e ^? escape. ^Vheiher 
you fill your fipat-es with t-olours, or with ^udowa, they 
muet equally be of tha trui^ oiitliuo aiul in tniegmdationa. 
I hrivc hcen ihirty yeujfi tnclling rnodcni stiidetits of ai 
thi* in vain, I moan to say it tri yon only onte, Atr 
fttat«mont ie too important to be woakcned tj rcpotitloa^ 

Without pt-rfiiuE. d«Ua«?al.ion of furin and p(nfe<;L|^rj 


bon of spacc> ndthcr njblo colour le poteiUo, nor nobis 

10Q. It rxiOif make thie more bellcvablo to 
put bc^dc each other a pl^ce nf dvtitil frorii cai:Ji rdjtjob 
I jptve you tLe Sl JoUn of Clma da Ouncgliiuio for « 
type of Ibc cclonr tcUouL Hens i* one oi tbo fpiviys ot 
oak whlcb Hm; against the sl^j of it in iLc di^laiici;, 
eiiUi^^ 1j> ftboiit ite real Ki2« (EdiL- IS). I hope to 
draw it better for you at Venice; but this 7»ill ahov/ 
jou with >^'tiat ^)ej"fe*:t <!iiro lJm lA^Vjurlht \imt £ttM*i'Att6 
thd outline of every leaf in tLo aIcv. JkviOo it, I put 
ft chiAKWctirjet drawiiLg (ftt Icoet, a photograpb oE oiio), 
Dlnsr**! f ix>]n iiatiircf of tlio common wild wall-i^bbBgo 
(Edn. 3^. It is thd meet perfout pi^ce of dolinoatioa 
by flat tint I bftve over eccik, in its nifittcr^ of tbo 
|ei^|jeutivi* uf overy Imf, &ru] lie allaimiKiiit utriioAt; 
of iho ljI»oni of toxtme, merely by itA ei^qoiiitely 
tender and dcciHtrc^ IajtIiij^ of Uio eolour. Tb(»»e t^ 
rKiunplm cniglit, I tiunltj ti> Mtli^y you ua Lci iIlv pruittnit 
vi outlino of hi.>i}i ficWiLi^ uid-tJie powur of exprcMdo^i 
which may be obtamod by flat tints laid within v»cb 

16L Next, here are two eiicampleft of tbo ^j 
dlioding 6xprcK»)ve of tijc formA wit.luu the <mtl]ne, by^ 
muttn of tli0 cljiai-osctn'o 6ci!nw.l. Tlic fimt (S, V2) %howt 
you Lioiiard^*a method of work, bc-tb wilh cbalk ard the 
fdlvrr iH'hit. T\\n Miatmd (S. 30^), TitriierV wcirk lu ma»> 
lotint ; l>oth ma^tcna doing xlioiv bu«t. ObMon-e thai 



llik plate of Tiimer^H, whicli he wurkwl on bo long thfti 
U waa iievor published^ la of a flubjeot peenlljtrlj' do 
|>emling on effed* of luyi^Giy tuA omccflbrnmt, tli<? full ■»! 

(llie fl/</ bridge; r^x\ itiav gt\\\ *oe it utidor l!ie i>:dMii^ 
cflie, ii*hlch wad buUt iiiiic^ Tttniei''^ dm^v-iiigwju lamtr). 
If ever cutlinti finnlfl he ^IU|x*TiJBr'd M"if,!i, ycni wmuUI think 
il might bo a* in thtg cvmfijsifm of cloud, fonm, Bind 
daitnoBs. But hero is Tumci'V o\\i\ ot;:hujj;r on llm 
plaie^ (EdtL S5 F), mnde under the mezEotlnt; and of 
all tha etiidios of rook outiino mado hj IiU tmnd, it i« 
the nnvt Av-i'.l^yc iini) i|niutl^' compltito. 

1C3. Ai>ftin ; in Iho Liour^rd** il:etchP9, many ports nr* 
lost in ohflcuritv', or are left iiiti?utii-"imlly iincertniiv luid 
in^'iitt^riuiiFVf et^eii En iJic ll^lit; and yrm iiiij^ht at tirKt 
imagine *omO]ieninanoa of o^t-ik|»o had bflen hero given yoii 
from tho tcmble law of ileUiK^&tic^n. Hat the (lightest 
atlem^vta to cfjty them wi?l nhi»u yciti timt tli*» fi?'nninAl 
linofl ore inimitably 8iibUe, nnaL*£ru8flbiy tiiie^and fiIlL*d by 
gradaticm)! of ahado ao dctorminod and mcaaiirAil, that tJ^e 
addition of r gra,\i\ of llie kad or rOmlk aji iargtf nn Ili« 
fUaiDont of a moth's wing, %\'oiild inako an approciablo 
diJTt'rvnciT in (hcin. 

Till* It grievonfl^ you thEnk, and hoi^el^aa. No, it !» 
dcligittfid and full of hf>pe: delightfnl, to soo what m*r- 
vellouft things can be done liy intai ; and full fjf Iiojh*, If 
yout hop© is lh« right on**, of taping our day ahlo to 
ijoice more id >('hQt othrra arc, tbnn in what yon :irfl 


F, and raoro ih the *ftn>n^h that h for ever ftbovo 
ynii, ttmn ill ihftt joii cnii eter Alliiin. 

les. Hut wu can attain niiicl:, if yon vrill work wre- 
TCB'ty Mid paticniljr, mid ho|Kj for no bhcocm througti 
lU'rc^lfited effort. It U, howcvflr, nioi;t flwnrpdly ft< 
tJiid ]xjmt of your fitiidy that the ftiLI fitrain on yonr 
itiuioo will bef:iD. llie exerciser in Imo-dir^witi^ aiid 
tt lAjHiig of coVjurjare irkaume; but ihev nn» di^iinito, 
md vrithin certain lii]rit4,stirctc bo suocofofitl if jiriLC^i^'d 
wirJi moderate care. But iJic i^xpi'CaBioa of fono by 
ibftdovr T^rjiiiree more Hiibtle pntleiicej and iriTolvefl the 
aeeesaity of froqiicnt and moiiiXjiii^ failure, not to' spcalc 
of fiie eeirdemal wbidj I tmid wan iirteilfwl lu jierw>rw dmi] 
ofcolotir, CO draw In mere light faid almdo. f f, iiidocd, 
JOM were going to ho artintA, or anlci give any ^rcat 
leDgtJi of time h>ffi-udy, it iiiij^hl l»i? iHi**ibTo for jon lo 
leam wh<11y in the Venetiaji school, and Co roach form 
IbroiTgli ctjloiir. But wiUiout tho iai*t iuteiuo appUtatiou 
thia ia nut piwihlo ; nrid (imtitii^rillyf it will h« ni-ifmniry for 
jwi, M 6oon OA you Iiai-o g[xiuL<0 llio jjim'or trf outlining 
a«cnrfttely, and of laying H/it ci.rkiiir, :<> learn to oxpieefl 
•olid form as ehnwn hy light and ^fiada odI^. And 
tere ia Uiia j-roat CLdraiitQf-e m doinjj ao, tJiat mopy 
fonna Bltc; more or l(?;ia di^uiHcd lir i-i^lour, and iKat ivc con 
TOilv reprotout tlnjm uiHupletoly tn mliijr*, or mpidly 
ftnd eaaily rocord tliom for our«olrc&, by tho nfio of 
tliado aluna. A ain^le instance will »hijv joa wliat 
1 tneon. FeHiaps ihm-e aro few ttowen of ithtch ibe 



Impreiuiicn qd tW eye is mure driimti*lv fif Hnt inilr^ir 
tlifti] the scarlet goronitim. Biit you wxnild find, if 50a 
to trv to paiul il, — firtl, ibni no pigment could 
l^roaeh ihe beauty of Ju acarlol; and seooudly, i}mt 
tLo 1ji'igljtnc«£ of the hue diu^Iod tlio ej-o^ and prD^'cntcd 
Ua following lie real wrmugiernwit of tint clupUir of ilowvre. 
I hftve dravD ftir ycM here (nt loast ttU is » mGOotiat 
from my drawing), aeing^o cliif^torof thcecnrlotf^nuiium, 
in mere light and Bbadt (Kdu. 32 B.), and I ibiiik ^ou 
will feel that ita domed foi'm, and tlie flat Ij^ing of tho 
petals oriQ over the other, in the vaulted iXK>f of it, can bo 
seen J setter thus than if tlicy had hei.m pjunted ecarlet, 
J64 Alfio ihia Gtiidy will be UBcful to you, in ehouing 
ho'tt' entirely effects of ligJit d(;|»eiid oJi dcliTicatioOr uii] 
grudatHfU of sjiu(>(«, and not on irp.tliods of shading. 
And tJiis IB tho eocond (^s>i piiicticiil matter I waut 
)"ou to rememhet t>daj-. All cffoclaof light and »ha<]c 
depend not on tho mt-thud or L'xeeuti'jn of ».hadr>«^ but 
Oil thoir rightncHG of placOi form, and dei^tlu There 
ia indeed a loveliucfie of execution <iddai to the rightneea^ 
by the great inastars, but you caniiot ^kbtaia tliat till yon 
bcccmft die. Stiadmv t^aniiLit hu laid tliorcmghly well, 
any mete tlian lines can hr. ilnwvn Kli'aclUy, hut by a hm^f 
prac^tised hand, and tliB attempts to imitate tlic fihodin^ 
oi lino di'aiightemcn, by (L^^ttitig and batvhtng, are jmt 
iA i-idicttli^jg as It would I>g tu endeavour lo iinitafe tlwEr 
inatantaneoiu liueG by a series of re-tonchin;^. Ton 
Vrill often indeed see hi Lionardo's >rork, and iu Michad 

.Atigc)(^«, shadow vrroiight tal^onoiuljr to an extreme 
oF fineupw; btit when yi>iJ look hiUi it, voli vviH fmi 
Uiat tl^e}' Imve a]vii\-g been dinwiii^ mot-e and more 
f^rni v'iUiiu tLu »piicc, uiid novcr ftiii^iii^ fur U\e ^ko 
of liilili.d Inxturcij l)[it r>r nild^d fiuH. Ami iilt lL:B(a< 
^#0(!ets of trui^ip&roiicy niid refl^'toU lij^^it, uiiicd At ia| 
ijOtDmon clmlk dranin^, a.ra wli'jlij iipurion& I'Vi tiDcOf 
BA I ti)ld jruu, all li^liib uTvi tA\aih6 voinjiaiBJ tii higher 
U^Iittf, Uid lighte only a« oam]>fLred to 1i/\l'^ ones, £t^ 
(t>l]owB dmt Uicrc uiui bo no difTcrcitcc iii tlieir qi^ftJit/ 
as siicli; but ibut ]\^\ix U o]iaf]ii« wWn it oxpreiAQfl 
8ubBtAtico, and d'oiiEparvnt wben it exprc^ea ep&eo; 
ftud 0liud(* in nlwi iipaqiii; whr-n It ox|)ni»M^ii Kulmbuicc^i 
and tranhi^uront wbcn it cxpvotfCfi Hpace. But U 
&ct, even tlicn, tran^parcat iu tho coiuiuirn ecn^o of that' 
vrord; nor h it^ itjijiearatiee tu l>e obUiiied hy tlitUing' 
or crosB Latcliing, but by touehea »:> tender as u> loofe- 
hke mint And now ytt fiud Llie luie of having Liotiardo 
f(jr utir giiidt\ Ho i« Kit|infniif ui a)! ijutsKtiuiiH of cju^ 
cutiou, aitd In Ida SSUi ehu^Jtur, jou will Dnd tliat 
ahadtjw* arc to be 'dulcc c vfmnoec/ to be tender, and 
louk M if thtsj Vivre rxlxalud, or brmthcid on the pajwr. 
Tbon, look at Kny of Micbftcl An^l^« liniabed driiwin^^e,. 
or of UorrcggtoB skctclics, and you will ece tljflt iLc tnia 
ouiw of lijfbl iti ill art^ aii In nature, ilio ddud ; a niLily 
and tender durkneea, made lively by ^riidutkm. 

165. And how ab«olntely indc:i>^ndL'nt it jb of nm- 
Eonal or metbml ut iinrdikiTtlan, Kow nlHuilutPly d(>|>i?iid«Ti| 



oTi TTgiitiie«» of piftco and depth, — there are ii6w Ixifore 
yaxi irwtsuiooe CTioTJ^jh to piv(v«, H«ro la Dtirei'** work in 
iifit coloiir>roprescntcd bj Iho i^hotoj^raph, in ito smulrf 
hruwu ; Turner's, in wadn?(l sepia, and in iiici/ofiut ; TJf^ 
nni-iJ<j\ in ponuil and iu ehalk ; on tUo »<*reeti in fr<*nt of 
you a large *tijdv in c-hnr<M>RL In ovcrv tmo of thc*c draw- 
ings, the insLi^ria] of i^batlow is absolutely' o^}a(]iie. But 
phot(^;raf>h- stain, ohallc, lead. Ink, or ulmrcoul,— ei-'wy 
one of tlifni, liiid bj t!ic! ina^tcr^a Imtid, heci'ince fall 
«f light hy gnulntiDii only. Ht-re is a JiKKjrdigbt (Edii. 
Zl Bi), iu wluch you wonid thii^k the moon filioaiv thii>Tig1) 
ev^ry cloudy yet the clouda arc mere Ain^Le daflhea of 
ftopiaj iniitfttod by tlio Irro^n Main of e photf >j;^ph ; 
HTOilarly^ m the»e plate* from the 1-ibcr StndJonun 
the whife jia^jur hi'iri>iTieH traii^jiai^Lt or ^ijiHijije, «x* 
aetly aa the master (dioo^ca. Uere, on the gTaolCe 
rook of tlio St Gotliani (S. Sfi)2), h white |»aper niode 
«[ja<[nT% o\-('ry liglit represfiat* *Jiil hoswm uf n>i-lc, nr 
balls of foam- B:it in this eln^y of twilight ^. 30^ 
tho aame white paper (coaree old stufl it io, tool) 
Ib made aa transparent &a ci^tal, and every frag- 
Tncnt of it reprceoTile dear and fur nway light in tho 
»ky of cTctiing in Italy, From which the piiictical 
conclttalon for you is, tliat yoti nrp n^ver to twmhls 
yourechos with any qncctioiia aa to the mcona of efafld? 
or light» hnl only with the ii^hc govonimeut of the 
jm*an» at y<iijr diij>LHi»l, And it is a Tii(«t giTt^e ermt 
la the sjBlcra of mniiy of "tir pnblir dmwifig«i»rfl 

tikflt the ettidcntfl &re pcrmittc^d to spend wcoke of Inhtmt 
in ^viri*5 sitr.ractivo ap|>pfti'aii(.*c, by dclicjwjf of tpxlure, 
to chian^cnn> dra^Ti^ in v^hit-h every form h fa1««), 
and ewry tv^latjon oi dopth imtme, A raoet unbappy 
fonu of error ; Im it uot ouly dcla^i^, and utteii nhi^Uy ar- 
reats, thetr advaoo© !a lii*?lr o\«i art ; but U prewau what 
OQght to lako j>lacc <M>-n"!itivcIy witli t-bdr «xociitivo 
pnctjcef the fiinimtKrn of tlic-ir l.nste liy the m:ounUd 
study of the modcli from whioh Hicy diaw* I do nc>t 
doubt but that you havo moTO plcaeurc in looking at 
(lie W^ dmu'iJLg of tJie arrli of BourgM, fii?1iiru] ii»p, 
(H^. l)j OiOQ at cummuu akotchce cf iculptiiro. The 
rcaacpD 70a tiko U ia, that tho wholo cffcrrt of tbo 
vorhuTiLU biu! brrn h» ulujw }'o«, not hi* own sTrfll 
in fihading:, bnt tbo piny ^f tha lip;ht ou tho surfocea of 
the leavce^ wlilch h li.>^'ely, hec^aiL>m tic ttuulptura iUcTf 
b fif*^nltt. And I mnst s« far ttiili(?ipnle irUut we 
fihall clificover ^hon wo c<mio to tho subject of Gcnlptnro^ 
as to toll yoa the two moia piiDdplea of good Bculptnrc: 
firfll^ that iU majitcrs think before all other mattera of 
the right placing of tuaseee \ eoccudly, that th<iY give 
life by ilcxnie of Gurface, not by qnoiLdty of detail; 
far ftctilpturti ift indeed only light und thude dniwb)(( 
in Ftono. 

103, Much thftt l Jinvo [^udpttvdnrcd tr tcAcli im lhi« 
suhjeot haa b€cn gravely i]Ufiiin<lpr*to(>cl, by both yming 
pftintere uid eculptv^r^, et^pcoially by the latter. UcmiuMs 

I uni iilw^B iin^iiig llcni to hoil&te organic forine, tJicy 




thmk ]£ tlLcy cajm <}uanUtioe of Qowon and Icavoe, tnd 
ropy tlicm fri>in tlL« llfe^ tJicij havcjdrjrio nil tli&t U iiecdvii 
But the dilTictiltr U mit tii carvn r|n)uiCttiiTi uf Ii-urt^ 
Anybody can do that* The ditHcnlty i*i, nuvcr noj^hcrfl 
b» luivn ttri uiiiievmaar,T leiat Over the arcb oatbe right, 
you >oo there la a cluster of Ber«ii, with th^^ir ehon 
Htftlks Apriitgiiig fn>m ti tlnck r^tcin. Kow, you could not 
ttini one of thi>tAo Iwives a htthVbn?»"llh out "f it» plaor, 
nor tlui^D ono of th«ii etcme, nor alletr the ftn^le At 
vluoh udi ilipd ov<M- tlio no^ct ooff, mthout spoUing 
Uw whola^ aft miicsh a» you wcmld a |>leoe of melody liy 
miitfini; n note. That iir diit|>o^tion of xnftEfiec. Again, 
in the group on the Icft^ while the placing of cvoiy 
leaf la jiist as skilful, tiey are Enade moi« InieresUug 
yet l>y the lovely undulation of tlioir our&ccit, «o that 
iu>t <>nc i>f iIkthi i» in vtjiial light with nnotlicr. And 
thftl k ») in all ^hxI etjulptupp, u-ith^mt 9\t'cpli<^. Firun 
the Elgin marbles down to Iho Ujfhtoat tendril llial 
vnrlH niuiid a impilnl hi tliu tliirLcHiith i^i^utiiry, every 
pieco of Btcoio tliat ha» boon tou^od hy the Hand cf 
a mMUrr, becomes smft with mider-life, not rosombling 
nature merely in sklu-texture, nor In fibres of leaf, 
or tM&b of fleah ; but in the hroadj tsnddr, unspeakabl; 
eiibtle undulibtiuu of tto organic iurm. 

Ift7- Riluniiiig th"a tji lJi« <]n™tiiin uf our imu 
practif^, I bchtivo tlmt nil diRiuultioit in mothod will 
vanishr if only yon cultivate with care enough tho hflbil 
of aworato obwrTaUon, and If yon iMnk <:inljr of 



jntikUtg jtrtir li^rlit ami nliiwl^ true, wlifrf.lipr U b« (!i?ll 
c«t« or not. I^ut tlioiti lira tliree clivii^ic^iiB tjr (lugrcc* ot 
tmth to be soitght for* in li^Lt And shade, b^ thref 
^evorftl modes of atud}', vhlisli I mnttt aak j'ou to il£» 
linj*uUli carefully. 

I- IVliflu (^hjocte aro llglitcd by fJic direct raya <d 
tbc nun, <ir hy direct light cnt<rririg fivim ft witidow^ 
OT10 ftido cf tbom is of oouifc in iigbt, the other in 
shade, and ihfi forma ia the lOAaa »re exhibited ey»- 
t«liiftt!ra1ty by die forc« of tte rays fii1l]n;jf on it ; 
(thoae having nioat pu^cr of UluimiuitiL^ti which etrJkti 
inofit vrftlcAlly); mid iicitc tliat diEirc ia, Uien^rnre, to 
every *oIid cnrvaturo of enrfacc, a »io«&s*iarily propop- 
tk^cd jp^dfltion of h'ght, tlio j;radatIoa on a parabolic 
juuliil Iftiii^' dlfTunJul fixmi tin* ^nulnLiun on uij eUijttica] 
or spli&i-Iiuil oil*. Now, when your iJDr]>o^ ia to njpresenl 
and IcAni tlt6 tiiutomy, crr citbcxwiM cliaruotcrifitio f<^nnH, 
of any object, it Is heel Ui plitnfi it iu thlAlciitd nf direct 
li^htf and to draw it na it h eaen whon we loolc at it 
In a diicction a£ right angles to that of Uie ray. Xliis ia 
the ordinary atiuli-rtiiijal way of ttiMytng fornix Lionardo 
•«ldoTn prtic-tieoa any otlidr in hU real work, though he 
dtrocta ivany cQien in his trealiM. 

IflvS, Thn groat im|iorlam"ii I'f uriiitiimiiTal 1ciii>w1rd^ 
to tho paintore of t^»o Iijtli contury roiidirr^d this moibod 
of atady ver^- frot|iioiit ^th tJiem; it almoet vhoJly 
rvgLth&ttN] t1i«ir Achi>::ilK of oiigraving, Eind baa beeu the 
nKi^t frcquont eyatcin of drawing in art^cbools eXmic (to 




ihQ very jnoxpcdiont o^clneion of cllicre). When jot 
study ohjcvCd In ttiiA way, — ajid it T\IUiii<ioed bo wiUtt 
do 80 often, thongb not eschulvely,— obwr^e iilwn}i ot3€ 
main priociplo. I>Lvi«!o the light fi-om tlio darhnofH 
frniilcly ftl first: all orrr tlic eulijcnt kt (horo 1« no 
doubt whlfAi h wliich. Sopomtc tliem end htAn iho 
otkor Ad tliay lire vcpiiratcd in tlic moon, or on the 
wctrlil itKi^lf, in (Iny fuid ing]it. TIiiiti gnuliitn jonr 
ite witli tho ulraoet eublilty poreibb to you; bnt let 

»tir abadona aloDC, luitU near tho toniuuatioQ of tlio 
drawing : tlien put quickly intj) them 'what farllicr 
enerp;y tliay uood, tUua gaining tjie refi^cted Ufc^to out 
of tlcir original flat gltKim; bnt gcnnnlly not looking 
mucb for rcflectwl ligli(B. Nearly nil ymnng siTidonu 
(and too many advanood nm<ttoi«} c^iaggcmtc tliem. It 
lit good tti Kttff a drawing come ovit ui Ita gi'oniLd liko 
a vinvm <if light nnly ; thii shadow* list, or d:ereprardod 
ill the ^aguc of epacc. In nilgar chianiicpro the shades 
ara Ao full tif rvfii^i^tiim tliat Uioy look aa if tHiuiG cnio 
had been walking round the object wfth a candle, and 
tlic student, by that help, pe«Hng into lia cmnnica. 

l$6, TL But, in flic reality nf nature, Ttry fuw ob- 
jects aro Meu m tlila accurately InKTal mantior, or lighted 
by uncciiifuscd dirct^t ra^u Some arc aiJ in ahadov, 
acme wS^ hi hgirt, srjTuct near, and vigorously doflncd; 
otbert dim uud faint m aeHal difttanco. The etudy o! 
thc!i4 Tnri<'un effect* and f(>rcca of light, which we raay 
call aerial chlaposcnro, !b a far moro sabllit 'Hin tlian 



tliAt of the r%j% exMbiting organHo foim (w}iScti fo« 
dif^tim^Ws r-ulcc wu muj' iM 'i-irtnal- cluar('*\TuroX 
eirce llio degreoa of liglit FrHmi tlie ^iiii iUolf to itic 
Vlaolmcea of uight] ard far Leyond any lllcrol iiziiia- 
UoE. In order to produce !i nnjninl littprCNiiuu vt llw 
f&ctitf twu diHliiict itit-t1)i)<U luny ha Colldwi-d: — tin? Hnit, 
to sbiide downwards from tbu ligU^, making iivorytldng 
dftrkor in duo proportii>ii, untiJ tlic icolc of oiir powei 
bifing trndcil, tlia iniufl of tlia picture n Wt in sbado. 
The seoctod, to aasQiii& tlie pointa of Gstreiuio dorkneai 
for & h^JoBj ftod bo light cvcr^'lliiu^ nl)0^~o tlioio in 
du& [irop*jrtiou, till tl&e EnnKM cf tlio i* Imi in 

170, TUofl, 111 Tiirtier'a ftrpia dmiivirg ^La*' (Edu. 
dl), be 1>egln« wiili the L-xiroiBk(> light jn tli« (L'y, 
And bliadcv di^wn from tlin-t till Jic ift forced lo rcpro- 
Bcnt tltc D<?JLr tixx9 and [kjuI om ij^o m»M of Diuik- 
UMil 111 Ma drawing fif tltu Grcto (^ S), he br^ns 
with the dfu-k brown ehadovv of the bank on tho lofl, 
and ilhuiuuau^ iip Itxjm that, liU, in IIa distance, 
trocn, hilU, ftk^-, aud tlLmd*, are all lc«t En broad light, 
00 th&t yov din hardly btM tlio dibtindiou bctvrwn 
hilU ujid nky. TIhj wiimid uf tbt^^a lutTrfuhdH i* in 
gODond tlkO b<flt for Cf,ihmr, llum^h gj'eat (iidiitcn; iinitA 
boUi in thdr |*racticc, according to tiko chfLnict«r of 
ttLetr EUlijeoL llie flrat method J» uGVor [utraitcd in 
coloiu" \nii by iufeiior pjiinlere. Il U, ne;-ortheli>ita, of 
great im|K)rtaiii;o U^ make atudiea of c^bi^nMcunj tii llii« 

first fnaaaor for eotne time, as a pro^mialiHTi for colanr 
ing ; and thia for inAny reosciie, whEch It would taktt 
too ]ottj^ b> Bbitfi now. I »!luI1 t-xjx^t vuu ki liA^-e OOD- 
fidttnrtf tn tne wUen I fi^iiri' viiu nf tlm ms'unut]; of tliti 
itiic^y, »[id flslc yoti to mako ^^mxl lud of tbo oxamplM 
&om Uie Liber Studioruin which I ha\% placed id toot 
EiIuoHlioital lieHeiL 

171. riL WliotLer in fcirrinl or aorial cLifli'oaeiin]^ 
it is optional wIUi iJie Btndeut to uiJiUe tLe local colou) 
nf objects a part of his ahadow, or to oonsideT the tiigh 
ligUta of ovcrj oolour as white. For intttaiicet a chiaro- 
Bc^uriatp of Liuiiardo^B st^titHilf ilrAvriiig » lci>prird» w<.>u]d 
luko no notico wLatevor of the B|.«otfl, but only ^vo tbe 
ebadowa wbioh exprei<«ed tlie an^tf^mv. And it la uiil«cd 
imretiHary to ho Jible to du this, mid tfi niakt*. flrawiiign 
of tho forme of things ns if tboy wore acnl|>tiirod^ ttn<l hi*d 
no coloiir> But in goner^T *^d uiire CBpeciaUj in the 
I'ractice which is (o gtiido you to oolour, it la better to 
regard the local colour m |iart of tho goncml dark and 
light to he imitated ; aiid^ il^ I told you nt iint, to oon* 
sidtfr all iifttnre merely its n irniBHte 'if difFcrP»t colonm, Co 
ho imitttled one hy one in wmpliuity. Uut ;^x>d arttsta 
\hry Uielr lu^thixlfl a*?ci>rdiug tu thfir aiibji^:!. Hiid lualt^rial. 
In gcneralj Dilrer takes Httlc at^c^uiit of local colour* 
but in wtwdciits of amorial bearings (one with poaoock*« 
fnutliej*^ 1 shnll got for yon sr)ine ilay) lakes groat delight 
In it ; while one of the diief mcriU of Bewick la the oas9 
and vigcmr with which he iiaca hi^ hlnck and white fun tht 


imini oC plnfnee, ATao, cv^rv gn>nf ttrtiitt Wike for, AtiA 
exprc€ec^ that cJiarjictcr of hk subject vliicU U bett to be? 
rendered bj the iiutrumcnt m liis bani], Aud tliiT mnlvrml 
lie works ou. Give Velasquez or Vemii^se n lfirii«ird to 
l^uint, tlio firet tiling tlioj" tblijk of will l>o iia epotfl ; givo 
it to Dilror to engmve, aui lie will «t hiniiwlf at tlio 
fur iin*l whiskers; givo it a Greek ti> wiriT*, anil he will 
only think of its jawa nnd IIitibA; each doing \rh&t la 
ibsolutol}^ beat with the means at hi? diepos&L 

172. The details tif praciioe in thwe vaHoiia metbodi 
I ttUI ondoa^'our to explain to yoo Ly distinct i>xamp]cft in 
yuuT Eduoiflciiial BQi'lce, aa wo [jmrurd iii our wr4'k ; f^>r 
tJ^e present} let me, !n closing, Teciomincnd to yon onoQ 
IBOro with great canieetiic^ th« patient cndcavowr to ron* 
dor the chiarogcuro of Ijvnd&eapo in tlic maniitir of lh<3 IMmr 
Studiorum ; aud thia tiio rather, bocAuae yon uii;;hi cutfily 
Buppoeo tliat tba facility of obtainJog ph'-td^roplis which 
render nucdi sfFectA, oa it soeinaj with aTwjInte truth 
and npith nnappro6cliablesnbrleij',ftnix*[^eded fJie Qecenity 
o£ fttndy, and the use ci el<ctching. Let mc assure yon, 
oiioc for all, Umt ph(jt'jgm|*h» &uj*r-r>-rde no single qiialSty 
nor liso of fine Jirf, and have bo mnch in c»jmmoa with 
Nature^ that thoy c^xin ^arc her tonipcr of porftimony, 
ajul will Uiemeelves gi^e y.ut nothiug vuliiabl^ lliut yini 
do not work for. Th<jy eiipereed* no good arr, for tho 
dofinili^jn of art is *hiimrui labour regulated by hnroaii 
desigEi,' ftitd tills dosi^, urcvidirnt^ <if a<?tiT«i intirt!pct in 
eboico and arrangomont, is the oeeontial part of the woi^s ; 





wliluh, ao loog ta yiiii tjufimit pert^rivo, you jjarcrivo n% 
art wluittfijexxjr; wliich, when onco yoii do peroo^ro, vott 
will i>creciv9 also l<i be rcplnconblc by no mochanlflm, 
Itnr, farthar, plioTiprap^js will gire you nothing ym do 
not work fop. Thoy are invaluablo for rD»!ord of aotiie 
]imd« of fa^, and fur f^lviug tr&nBcrlpCa of drawing by 
^^raat masters; but uelUier 111 tlje ]>liutL^raph»l AL-eti^. photographed dm^viug, will you see any true ffood, 
Tn'fre tbnn in tlic tliitig:* thenieclveftj until yoa haro gircn 
tliG upjtdiiil^id pni;e in ytmr owu Atteiittoii Atid toiU And 
vrhcn onco you Lavo paid thia price, you Vfill not caro 
for plioiogra|ilii of lajidscapo* Tliey arc nut truc^ lUougli 
they aeem so. They an? merely &puiled njituj-e. If it 
ift uot human dottign you Jiru luoUiiig ftir, tboro is more 
b«auty in the next Tr^j^dc bonk tlian in alt tbc suo- 
blAclconod pnijor you could collect in 9. lifcdme. Go 
and look at tho roal huidscapo, and take caro of it; dn 
not tliiuk jou ;:au get the giud of it ill a bluck bluiii 
portable in a folio. But if you cai'e for human thought 
and ptLAeiot, then leara yonreoKo^ Ur watdi tlie coumo 
and fall of the light by whi.^ iiiflLicnce yaxt llvi>, and 
bi blianj 111 ilw joy ikf buriLhu E]>irita in thu huaveidy 
cf eunT>oam aitd elinde. For 1 tell you tnily, 
to a qui«t bcarE} anrJ bealtliy bnun, and indiietnouf 
[ t)van wimin' (Might, atid use, In rhu dnpplingof oa^ 
woini-glndo wiih Howort and sTniehino, tlian to tho rort-" 
\tm, hcartlcse, and idle uuiild btj hrou^lit by a paitonun* 
of a belt oi the wurld, ph<.itMgni]>1iud round tlic equator 

Jcrturc 2. 


178. To^AT I iDUBt try to complete onr ei*?Tnontai7 
^etcb of ecHoola cf art., hy tracing the ci>ur« of tlioec 
wbich were distiTtgtiiahed bv fittnltj of otloiir, atui after- 
tVM^A to dcdtico from tho eittiro Kbomo iKlviAablo tno- 
thods of immcdi&tc practico. 

Ten: remember that^ for tb^ type «f the early schoota 
oE colour, I choeo thotr work in ^ftBA ; na f*>r tliftt of diQ 
earl^ acLoola of cluarudMint, I cLiitMS tlicir work m day. 

1 Had tvr> reasons for tliiu. Fimtj that the pccJiUar 

lU of Cf^bjoinste lb £i:cu m<tft intoUigibly in tlioir 
k in gla«6 or in enamel ; eecundly, tJiat Naturvt 
heisclf produces all her loveliest ooloara iB eome l^ind 
of aolid CT lic|iiid gliifs or crystal. The rainbow ]« 
j«ii)b<tT iiTi a shuwer of ntdlcd gTa^, arid Xhx^ Cfilonri 
of tbe opal are produocd in ritrocus dint mixed triU> 
vikter; the preeu find blue, and gtfldcn or amber 
bro«ii of fUtwing water ia In aiirfiice glt^', and lit 
DaoCioo, ' *plDu<iulic>r vitro.' And tfic lovt^lioit c»Ioun; over 
granted to huirdn sight — tboec of morning and cvoniug 
cU^Eidji Iwforct <>r afwr miu — are prtjducod oi\ \uuiMto \fta 



tioloe of tincly-dividod M-ator, or pc^rbnpB fiomctiinei^ loa 
Uni mora than tliis. if voa c3:&iiiiuo with & Igus ftoma 
of th^ Hcbest trtloni'^ of flowers, as, for iu^tauee, tlioee of 
Dio ;^iitiuQ aad dJantiinft, you will ^id their texture is 
j)nx]iicLHl by A crjuUiMlnct uv siigurj frtiM-vrurk n^ioii 
thoQL In thd tycbnie r>f the high A1p«, die red and 
rfaite have a kind of eiij-ary blcujm, aa ritih aa it is 
JltilitAUi, !l [A iridrAcriWblt? ; Uiii if you cAn fanc^ very 
powdery and ory«ta11ine tnow mixed with the eofteet 
ere&m, aud ttioQ dafihed H'itJi caxnune, it may fflvo yon 
ftoii]L> trli'ii of tlie U)ok of if. There fire nf> colemra, either 
in tlitimm-o of abc1l£s or lliQ |4]miO£ of Mrdn und iiisocti;, 
ivhicli arc *ci pure tts tJ^-sc oF clouds, opal, or fiowcra; 
hnt the -J^rcff of purple and bhie in «ome biitt^rfliea, and 
the niotUode -rf yloudhig, and fctivtigth of bumi^cd liibtrc, 
in plmimgit ]i1(.e iJie ptracritck'sj (^ivr Uiem mc^)-(< niiivRndil 
i»t«rcKt; in fi(>Tii(< liirdv, nlfto, au in onr o^vu kingfLihtrr, 
tbo colour nearly rcadice a H^.^ral pi<ocioiiCTic«e. IIjo JiiBtre 
in uwet, k^^M-cvor. i« mctalJic rather than vitreous; aad 
tbe vitroonfi alwap pives tJje purest hue, Entirely com- 
mon hxi'X Mjl>:<Lr compared witJi ihe^, yet to La noticed 
rj4 <n>m]»lutiz7g Lla? i^t^-^tullinti ur vitreous e^teiii, ive l^ava 
the uolonn of genis. The green oJ the emomM ia the 
rimt o£ thcae; but at it8 bc&t ia a& vulgar m houae- 
juintiikg hi'-*Ido thp s^i-cpti i.f birds' plunui^ or of clvar 
wati'r. Nil diaTn<:rtid th )Wt colour so ptire sg a dewdnop ; 
the ruby ia like the pbik of au ill-dyed and lialfwaahed- 
it pniit, t7iiin|Hm'i1 In ihn diauUuiPt; mid tlm »irbuui*ld 



IB nattallv qtiit«> ^^arJ rniUaji iH^t witfi n foit, and iitvD^ti then 
is not |>rettlGr than tho Bocd of a ponio^^nknato, TJio o]>a] 
M, however, an cxt^pU^m, Wbrri piirrr itDcl LnidUt in iiji 
tiatiTO roc*lc, it pre^iiU llie tixMt lovely ooloun thai (uui 
bo wjcn in liie world, exccjjt Ihwc of doads. 

Wc have thus in rnvtiLrc, chiefly obtAjncd bjr oystalUne 
coDditJcDS, a eeriefl of f^ronp^ of i^ntirE^ty ddicioiu huee; 
and it ia odo of tho boet si^a that tlio bodily sTBteni 
f a ta a Lealtliy aUle when wa con sea tbcao dearly In 
theb- moBt delicAto tinu, and tmjoy tliero fully and alinpl}', 
^rilh tho kind of unjo^'nic^it tliat chiUlr«u havo in eating 
■woct tliingH. I shall placir a pknc of rock oi^nl on 
tbo table m your wurking ivxnn : If on fin© d^yn you 
vill eomotitDeA dip it in votor, take it into sixTmliine, 
and ojcamuie it witli a Ioqa of niod^j-ate powers yon may 
altraya toet your progresg in een«Ibility to colour by thd 
degree of pka&uro it givce you. 

174. Kow, t]i<i cciuntc af our main niliiEir prlionlit 10 
briefly tliis:—Fi»tj wo liavc, rottirmi^ t-iour li^xa^nal 
acbcnie, line; thou ffpa<va liilod with pnro oolt>nr; and 
tlien VKuiAeg oKpir»od or Piiinded with pars ruluur. And 
dnring tke«e two etago« tlie inasioK of colour do1ig:ht in 
tbo purest tints, and CDdoavour aa far as pML^blc to nnil 
|]K«e of ojmlft and flowent^ In «ii}'itig 'iJm pitrr>&t tints' 
I do not tnc'un tlio iimplcvl tyfio; i>f red^ bluo, and 
jdlovr, bttt the mo«t pure tiuta ohtatiiabli} by their gdid* 

175. You remerolMr I told )h>ii, wtwn tiio oo^onnfti 



pft!titfid muMi or projecting ftpnces, tliey, ftuiiing ftlwap 
at colour, pcrooivcd from t^ lirEt and huld to Uio last 
tho i&ct that eJiadcwB^ thongti of coutbo darker than 
the UgbU witli reference to wliich they at^e ahadowi^ 
Aro not Uiorefcrro noooEsanty ieas vi^rooa culoure, but 
perhaps itKrre vigorouB. Suiiie af tlie iit^at bcaiitif ol hlufw 
aiid pctrjjioa in nature, for iostance, are tliose of monn- 
(auu in ehadov againet amber filcy ; and tho darknoes of 
the hollow in Uio oantio I'i a wUd rose is one ^jlow o£ 
oran^ fire, owin^ to the qiiantitf of its j^llow atamens. 
Well, the Vonotians always e&w thie, imd all f^roat 
eolourifitd eeo it, and ano thus eeparaicd from the non- 
cuIuurifiU <jr acliooU of mere cblarusfuroj Eot by dliFdrenca 
ta Btyio merely but by being right while tho gtbci^ oro 
wrong. It u on ftbsoluto fact tJiat aliadowa aro as nLUeh 
colonra fls lights are; A&d whoever repraaonu tliem by 
merely, tho eubdaod or darkoncd tint of the li^t, repre- 
fieuU them fftl&ely. I particjJtti-iy want yi*ii to olmorvo 
that this ifi CO matter of tAGto^ but fact If you are eepe- 
cially flobormmdcd, you may iodood clkooae eobor oolourt 
,.%here YBnetiaiiB would have ch<«en gayonea; di&tUa 
matter of taste : yon may thiiUc it proper for a hero to 
"wenr a di'csB withotit putU^ma on it, rathtr tli&n ao 
embroidtir^ one; that is elmilnrly a matter of tiu«t«: 
but, though you may alflL> thiulc it would bd dij^fiod 
for A heroV Umba to be all block, or brown, on tho 
•bad^d ^de of tlienij yel, if you are ufliiiv i»loiu' at all, 
Tou cauuot 90 ha^'e him to your mind, exeopt by falu> 



hood; he ncror, ijndor any dranniBtancce, cotild be en- 
tire]/ biftuk or Itnjwn on one sidB of him. 

176. In thifi, tbon, tke Yened&iiA are Bcparat^ from 
Milioolfl bj' HghtBcaa^ and tbej &ro &o to their laet 
d&jn, VuEiellaa puintiitg itt hi iliiA lUAitvT lUwBjA H^Lu 
But abo, in Uieir early dayi, the colouriats arc eeporHt^ 
from othor Bcboole bj thdr uouteutmfint with traufjuil 
clicerfiilnEiu of ligbt; by their never wiuiUiig U> be 
d&sdod. None of iheLr li^htg are SoEhin^ or blindinj* ; 
ihej ar6 Boft, winning,; Uglita of pear!, not of 
liine: imlj, yon know, on tliis (iuinlition tl;ey ciuuuit have 
ecnahine: thoir day is the dny of Pamdico; thoy nw>d 
no candle, neither light of tlio eun, in di^ir i^Itlea; and 
everything !» ^nen ckor, as through orj'iul, far or near. 

This holds to tiie cud of the Ilftccnth ccntnry. Then 
(htiy \y^^n to eeo that T,Uia, bcautiFul wf it may be, is Btill 
a make-beliGvo liji^ht ; iJiat we do not live in the Insids 
of a pear! ; but in an atmoepbero ihroTij-h wUich a burning; 
aiia aliitiefi lliwflrte*3ly, atid <tvi'r whlt-Ji a. TMJrfuwful niglit 
must far prevaiL And thon Uio chiavoHJuri^ enceood 
ID pereaading them d tho fact tliat there ib mystery 
in the day as in the ntght^ and show them how oonBlantly 
to eea tntly, ia to bco dimly. And aUo ilioy teach them 
the brilliancy of Itght^ and the degree in whidi it Iv ruined 
from tho darkness ; and, instead of tJieir sw(«t aiid ]>ear1)r 
peooef tompt thetn to look for the stnm^th oi Home and 
•onecation of lightning, and ilaah of sunshine on armova 
ftnd on points of spears. 



177. T}ie nolile iinintcra iake iJie Icaon nohly, iJike fi j 
gloom or fiflin©. Tir.ian wiili flt?!iberatG sfrcTipIi, Tiiitorol 
with Btormy pft^on, nMicI it, sido by sido, Titian iloopoiif 
tlie liLiee of his Araumpdon, fa oi his Entombn^cnt, into 
B solemn twilight; TinfJiret inviilvee his eartli in coils erf 
vokonio cloud, luid withdraws, through oirclo flAmi]i£ 
aboTQ circle, the dbtaitt U^lit of PaiAdiae. Both of them, 
baoouaiiig untunLliAt &Ti(i IzvtniftTi, ndd tlie verai-Jry of 
Hblboin*A iiiteaao partroititro to tlxe glow aud ike dignity 
they hod themBcJvoa inheritHcd from the U^tuitcn of Fcnoo; 
at the enme momont another, lu strong w tlioy, and in 
puro folidty of art-facnity, ov*cn greater than tlioy, but 
trained uva lower acbool,— Vclasqiioz, — produced the mirft- 
dca of colour and filmdow-palntiuj^, ivltieh made Ko^iiolda 
of hitn, ' What wo dl do ^-ith tatiour, he doce with 
Aiid one m4>re, Cnrroggio, uniting i}n) ten&ual 
ol<tmeiit of the Greek schfiol* with their gltiom, and 
thoir iiglit inth thoir beauty^ and aU ih.cM> witli the 
Lomhaiilic colour, became, aa twve I Ihiuk it hua h&tm 
admitted without quoitloD^ th« captain of i)io paiuter'f 
art £U4 ftnch. Other men havo nobler or inuro niuncroiu 
gift*, Init t%» a piunt^^T, iniuirri fif thi? art ^>f Uj^ing coloiii 
BO as to bo lovely, Con'cggio u alono. 

179. I faid the noblo men Icamt tbcir Ic&8on nobly. 
Tho hade men al^o, and ncecs^nly* leain it haifely. TliC 
great men riii^fpom cobnr to ftTuiligbt. 'iTio baM on«i 
fall from oolonr to candlcliglit. To-day, ' Uon ni^cuiam 
di lor/ but let iia nee wliat tJiJa grtuiL diangL* wliiiJi perfeeta 



tJiOArt of piiuitii^ injuiily C4>ndd:(tii in, and mtuifl. Fof 
ilioiigh wc ATo or^jr at present frpcakiug of tcclmica] 
niaitcrff, tsvery one of th^nn, I can scarcely too o&eD 
repeat, is tho outoome ftud ei^ of a TiioittAl uharactar, 
aDil you «aD only underataud Ibe fuld* uf tUe wU, by 
th*^"ie of tlie fonu it veil*, 

ITf}. Tho comploto pAiutcr^t wo find, havo bronght 
dlnnKtfs liud mystery into tlimr mef1i<ti] of colouring. 
Tliat tneftna that tho world dl lonnd ilioni h^ rtaoli'od 
to dreani, or lo believe^ uo more; but to l<i:ow, and to 
SUL And IiiHlarttljr all lbuuwl»i!gii Hrtd niglit iin- givtn, my 
ttioro wt in tlio GoLlito timoit, through a window of ^Iojw, 
brightlv, but tu ihrongh a tclcioopo^IsM, darklj. Your 
cAtliHlml wiinU»w ehnt you from the tme sky, and 
iUiiminod ywt vnlh a vim<m ; yoitr telo^oopo IcudB yriu 
to tbo ftk)*, but daikcJia its li^ht, and revcalfi ncbtiln 
he^i^iid nebula, far and fmlher, and tu no coiic^ivflble 
faTth6St~unF€d[t)vAbl«. Thfli in wlmt tlie mj-fitory ni«ana 

\S0^ Next, what df>u» Timt drcck oppoutioa of blauk 
Kml vhilQ vicanl 

In tho swoct cr^.^tallinc time of &:ilour, tho ptuntcra, 
whether on gla^a or cauvaa, omi'l'iyrTtl ititricikl» pntN^niAf 
lb Older to udngle huetf h<.-uutifnUy witli <mch otb«ir, and 
nakaone perfoot mdwiy of Ihcm all- JJut xu the ^reat 
ualumliAt nobool, thi^ liko thojr pattei7ia tii o-mm lu 
Ow Grctt way, duKhftd diirk on lipht,^gloamiTtj^ lig'it 
frut <>i dark. That mcntia nido tliut tliQ WL^rld round 
tJiom has agam rotuntcd to llio Gre«*k con«iclJiHi| tb 

S.U uature, efpecUUy haman naturo, U not enttnlr mblo 
dioiu nor lumiucini; but i\ barred nnd btxiken tfaiEifr; 
ttikt uainU Imve thoir foible«, hiitiotii tTv*lr foiviesj Uimt 
tlio mofit iTiminociB \irtcio ie often tmlv a flaah, and tlio 
bl&ckoBt'looking fmilt is ^*meliuic« onlj & at&in ; nad, 
wiUiuut (^Tifitaiiig in tlus leAjtt blnck widi vhltc^ th«y 
can forgivfi, or ovi^n tikko Uelight in tluu^ lli&t ftro liko 

ISl. Ygii have then — flret^ rnvBtery. S^ondly , ojipo- 
BiUc^n of dork and Vii^ht Xhon, lutly, v]iato\%i truth of 
foncj tlic ijnrk ftiiil Kgbt cAti iliow. 

Thjit i» tn fifty, tnith nllnji^tlkfir, and reeignatioQ to 
it, and quiot reef:'1vc to mako the be&t f>f it And thftn^>n^ 
jMjrtniiturK t}( living im*.n, WiiniL-ii, mid rhiUnm^ — nn mmre 
of aainta, clieraba, or dt^mous. So here I have brought 
for jour BtandardA of pczfcct ai-t, a little maiden c^ tiio 
Strom family^ with lif^r dog, h^ Titian; and a HUJo 
prijicoee of tlio house of Savoy^ by Vandvke ; and Cbai4ea 
the Fiftli, ]>>- Titian; and a queeu, hy Vi*]a«qaG£; am] 
nu EngLieli girl in a liroi-adtfil girwn, hy Itr^'iif ilif* ; and 
an Kni^lish phy^ieiaii in hiA plain c^>at, and wi|;^, by 
Bejnolds: and if yon do not like thcmj I cannot bolp 
myself, for I can find nolhirg tetter for yon. 

189. Better f— I must paiieo at the vrord. Nothing 
Btrongor, certainly, nor §o Btncmg, Kothing ("o wcnderfnl 
eo inimitable, ec keen in nnprejndlced and nnlnflnod 
L eight 
^^ Yot belier, jitirlmpH, the idght that w&6 g'.udoil bj 


• trnit^ will ; Ilia power thftt c<:>uld lie iaught Ut \\\ 
lin&ds; the worlc thivt was fj^Lilikai, tbough not ini) 
tables brigLt witli fclid^ of huait, luid con^uminAra 
fa a i)jfi(^i]>1ini.xl ititd €oiii|iAiLinnRbW M\L Yon >rill 
fliifl, whtin 1 can plnc^o in yncir bands the nested OQ 
Vorona, which I read at tiic lioyai Institution, Hat 1 
liAve vOTitiired to vnaM tlie ffim of [>ali]tiiif; re|>mieiiUfi] 
bj JoUu Bolliiii, the time 'of iho M*al«».' Tnily 
thcj' deserved tho namci who did nutljiii^ but whitt 
WAA Icivfrly^ aiul tanglit; nnly tvbat whm ri^lit TIkwo 
ini^^htier, who sncce^cd them, <tron-D^d, but closed, tho 
djnasti» of art, aud aimje their day fiutiitin^ liaa never 
iTonrUhed mT>Ttt_ 

ISS. There wore many rcA«on« for this* without fatilt 
of thcire. Tlioy wero cJExxft]eDt0> ia the £ret placi^ of tlift 
cluuigti in nil rnctn'fl tninde frtim civil tind r&lf]^na 
tu moroly doni»ti<^ pa«»on ; tbo ]ovt of tlicir ^od* and 
their country had contracted iUelf now intr> ih&l of thdr 
"lomwitic circle, which waa little more tlian the halo of 
tJiemai>l70A. Toa wUl eoo the itdloctica: of i\ih chaiifro 
in painting nt oiiccb hy CiLi]n[innug ibi? l-h't^ Mailunaaa 
(8. S7, John IVlHni'u, ana Itsi^liju^rx, csilW^ 'dolla Eeg- 
^ola '). iJallini'g Madonna cai*c« for al I croatnn» tluwigh 
her child; liapliaers^ for 1 er diild only. 

Agaft, tli« world Tt>tind tlie^e paEiitora liad leooiDO 
Bad and proud, iirnkjid of h'%ppy and humblo; — Ita 
domestic |peacG waa darki^iicd by irrvU^oii, and ninde 
roAllead by prtde. And tltc Hyuic[i, whoco itntiio thij 



f<.imi(t, ard then Imm tho oonvsntLonal and li^raUIe ex 
prco^ons of thdTQ ; tbeti ;r« will uko exainplsA of ih« 
iUlingof oTjmnicntnl fmin* witli flfttwlour in HgrptinTi, 
ftrf'cW. strnJ (Jntbii? dwign : aiul rhen wo will i»tv-ni}cr tr 
animal forms tronU^ iii tJia Bamo cevi>re way, and bo to 
Uio pailcnia and ci'luiir dedgos on aiiiioalA thcuj^lv-^. 
And wbtin we are auw of mir finniiues of liand and 
accui«<^ nf eye ^e it'iU go on into iigUt «nd ftlukd& 

180. In proccM of time, tlvcce »cni» i>f cxcrcifoo will, 
I hopo, be Biifiicienily complete and e^-stemiiilc to ihow 
its pm-pcee at a glance. But during the pro^eiit year, 
I fluill ccmt4?ut ni^vscli ^vit^i pladng n Few <TX(unplrift uf 
tlie^o dlfTorcnt kiiuU of pnujti'rd in your ihxihw for work, 
explaining in the cat«li>gac ibo pofliti<*o they will ulti- 
niatcljr f^eciipy, and flio U^t-JiaJt^al puInU of pK.cow into 
which it ia of no ubo to $nter In & |»onera1 It^etnm Altoz 
a Uttio time epcut in cupyii>g ihcee, your qwd prodiloo 
tnionn mnut i]rt(tninnfi your futmi* t'iuinsn (.f titiiily; only 
remember, whatovor k'Iioo] yon folkiw, it must bo only to 
Icaro method, jiot ta imitate result, and to acquaint your- 
Milf with thn minds of other inen^ but not to adopt them 
as your own. Ite asanred that no j^ood can eonie of your 
vroi k bnt fta it ariaes simply out of your own tnie natarea 
nud ihu ueooaaitiw of tU» tifni* arfnind yini, tlioitjfU in 
miUiy ivfipc<^ im ovil one. Von livo in an 0{^ of bajao 
C4iccit aiid baAcr scn'ilily — an a^ whoao iutellcct if 
"Vchii'lly fonnad by ]»illHfr(^ luid (Mrt^iipied in rli'vf^ititf im ; 
me day tnirnirking, tlic ne:tt (ItiflT^jiu;;^ the works of all 



)ble peieona vrho made ita intallQ(tiin.l or vt 1if« 
iL« to it: — ftn age witlioiit hunfl&t coniideaice onongh 

^^th imriLctnct^ oiK^uf^h to ubolUh tJia «D)arft}'MUTmf ff 
allowed to meddle with it In the mid^t of nil 
you have to bocoiuQ iowlj and *tTc»iig; lo recogruim 
powett of ctbem and to fulfil vour own. I iha'J tiy 
jiing l>ufiiro jou GA'ery htrm r>f niicHTttt nrt, tlii^t yon 
reiul and i>n>fit l>y it, not imiTalc it, Yrjtj ihalt 
^w Eg>f 'tiari kingia dressed m colours like tie minbow* 
vd Di-'rii: ^t^b, atjd Riiuic llllltI^lJi^H» mid Golldc riirjitiv — 
tt ilial you may draw liko Egy]>tjaufl w Hcjndmon, nor 
hid youreclvcft paasiTclj' to be bound by the derali<ai 
r iiifecvfed w]t}i tEio deliriimi of ihf* )>a^t, but tbiit; you 
ly kiiuw truly what ctbcr men bn\o folt dunug Xhtit 
wpUJX of life ; imd open yoar own hcartt to wlint tho 
tTCn« ard enrtli nxny have fo tell yon in youra. 
\o aot be auq^ria&d, therefore, nor provoked, If I g^vfl 
at ti»t fttrange thiii^ aud rude, to dnt^. As aoou 
you fry tliem, you will (iiid ibey are diflicult viinitgli, 
with care, entirely pce^ible, Aa you go en drawing 
they will beconto interceting, ard, aa toon u you 
id tliem, yon will ho on rJjo way to tU]<tur»1and 
1700 alec 

190l In cloain^ tliiB tint cootso oE loctuiue, 1 have one 
vcird more to gay rcftjus^^tiirg tiie |x^b1o <vjDMX|ueno0 of tbo 
introduction of art umoEg tbe viudEe* of die CTiireralty. 
^Vbat &rt may do for aoholanbi^i^ I bavc do tight to 

coujecture; but wimt ecLuInnJifp Jiiaj ^o for art, 
ID tkll msjdttity tcU 3on, ILthcrtLs gnat iu1itft£, thcu^^h 
always gentlemen, liarc jct been loo «xclu0iv«lj- crmft^ 
men. Art ba^ been less thoughtful than wo injipcao ; 
haa Unght much, but mudi, tilao, f alecly. Uimy of tbo 
^rcnUst pktnree are cnigmn^; olber^ lH<«iEiUful tij}^} 
OtLcTE, bflrmful and corrupting toya. In tbo loveltoitt 
there 10 eometbing weak ; in the greatest there u soxncUiing 
guilt;. And this^ geutlenk^n, if you will, i» the new thing 
that may Qom& to pBaB^^thai th« Echolara of K&gland omy 
resolve t^) te&ch alao with the silent power of the arts; 
and that &otilo among you inay bo leani and iiee tbeni, tlmt 
pictiiree may bo paiiiled which &haU uot ]>o emgnua any 
moT€, bitt open to&chings of what cmi no otlicrwiso be 
BO well eliowii ; which fihall uot be feverod or brokiiii 
visions any more, bat shall be filled wi:h the indwelling 
light of eclfpoaacBBcd imagination; which ebail not be 
stuned or oTtfeebled any more by evil pardon, but gloricne 
with the fitrengih and chastity of noble human Io\ e ; and 
which elmll no moro degrade or di^uieo the work of God 
in heaven^ but testify of Iliin aa here dwellmg with 
men, and walking with them, not angry, in the garden 
of the GRTth. 




TnK title of XhU bi>ok,-'-or, more occuratclirT cf ita labjects; 
—for no ftuiLor wiu over !«» likvl/ Ibun I liava htoly l>acona«p 
to Ijopo fui' imrviJiiiril ]ik-naun- tu Iiih re:uTi^iH fiiiui ythal hM 
coat Liin;»clf lli« most fninci, — will be, pcrbip*, taio^wtcd hf\ 
ioni« ns llie Ii4st clauno of ihit Hue tboA«tL from K4AU lij ttM' 
good fulkii of MaucbtAtirr, to 1>o wHiUei in leiienct goUi 
tbo coraioc^or UcLy food, of tho gro^t Exhibition vrhicli Ji 
SJigui-ntcd iho cj^nmtr of «o ni&n^, — tinoo cr{,'aniitwl, b^ boltf 
farcigD gi)vvi'[]in«iii* lh^ tmv own, to cnroiirst^c the produc* 
tion of vrarks of «rt, vrbicb tho prodaciii^ untit'iie, no fnr 
from tnicndint; t^ bo Iboir '*jo? for «vot," onTr hope to seJl 
_w_80on M jioMLblt. Yet tbo inotptc w<* cboncn wiiti unoom* 
mdoil felicity : for ihoto nover *ro*, nor onn bis »f 7 **• 
vodIlaI bvftniy |iO(«QaBod by n work of art, wlich b not bMod] 
ou Ui0 cipiL<:«]iUou of itft UuuoiueJ p«rDitU)ctiGrf atid local iii< 
flaoaof?. M a pnrt of appoinUd iMid precious furniture, oithorj 
In tlio cMbo^rnl, tho Lonfc«, or iho JD^fiil Uiomn^fifnrdT 
iinliotii wliiub i-tilcr Uieir gilca with ^LAbk^iiiL^ ikuil 
courto ffitb pnu»c> 

"Tlieir" coiiriB— or "His" courtfi ; — in ilio minil or mpIi 
Tui^f^j ibc expr^aions are «yDO[i) mcae ; and iLiG h&Uu <ff 

lir<: Wllii:b tt'CO^nrsC the flt'liglitfLllnelL', rOtlfl-U FiUq lIlO i^£- 

cre^lness, of homes ceeted xouud Uic ecflt of a woraJii^* uu- 
i^iiaki^it by jnsoleot theory: tbtmsQlveB founded on id abiding 
aftV'clio" for iLo jimi, and care for the future; am] ajiprDAched 
by piilli^ open ooly lo tho activkiea ci hoDtsty, And traFCTfted 
only by the footflteps cf peace, 

T!ie oxposiiiim of ihtte Imllis, to wlilch 1 liave given tlio 
ciiiL-f eiiorgy of cuy own lifo, aiiI be fuunJ in Ibo following 
[mgL'H Ili'ftl uijiieriake" sy^lcniftticaMy and in logii^fd scqutnco; 
aud wlrit I li:ivc siiKO wrilk'n on the polilifal iullvieiict of llic 
Alts liah U't^Ti liUk- moro tl}jiii r)jc expansion Ol' th^.'^o lirtt 
lectures, in the R'piiut of which not a sentence is omiUcJ or 

Thu supplementary papers adJcl contain^ in briefest funn, 
the aphonama r^'spccting principles of art-teai^hiuj^ of ^^liich 
th(! ^ttCiilJon 1 i^'aro to lliin sulyoct during llio continiiaiiLO 
of niv P^ufLSftl^r^l^ip ai Oxford confirins ine in Uie eannjst and 
contented ro-assLTtioii, 

JonN Hi. PKIN. 

Bramwood, April Mfi, IBtiO. 


Jbrm in wliich it naa read nt MaiiclmUr; but tJ;& moto fAWtlutf 
pMiAgM orit,which v«ro tru»t«d to cxtumporo delivery, tin v« be^ 
tinet ynlU-n with grcHt,Hr explI^ItnrM And fiiliitfuv Uiati I cnoldj 
gir« ih«ni in Dpc&kiT^; And a ccnndcrablc namber of Dotc^aro 
Add«(I,tj> cupkm the pomtAvhicib eoald not "be nufEdentlj con- 
iMeml In tbe tima 1 lind nt mj^ rlEpijiof«l In iho loct»ro-ri>ojr. 

fiomo upolo^ mnj bo thouKlit duo to tho ixadcr, fcr fto <ill- 
dOAVOor to ongag^ bii Attention ^n > aubjoct orvhkl nc proroiuii 
\j teonta o^iiipuLi'blo with tlio work in wl)^ I &iu uauidly viu- 
plojfid. Bat profound ttady i* not, io thie ou^ □ocnaoiy cHhcr 
bo wHtar or ruder, while accurale audy, np lO a ceriain point, h 
wt^tuary for ki% nil. Polfti^ eronom; meiini, in i^lain Englbh, 
0»Oiing more tfian "citTxeca' economy f And it« flr»t ^rhijiplot 
otigltt, iljorvfore. to be andontood by aJI wlio mean t^ Ul^9 lJi« 
~tupaaail'i]itj of dlusciisv la thoae of houwjboli] economy by ill 
vLo tolce the rcipoiuiibilily of heatohoJdef^ ^ot ore lU fini 
pnncipletiii tbatcaitobaeuro! tkey ore, nuuiycf llierri, {^fLgrecAbte 



ttirjr r-jiiinc4 uiii^rrttniitl, bMUiiiw Uic/ito imwilltii^ Io oluy ti«m 
or TBtlier, bj linbitii«] di»olicd)oiio<v dtAlroy llclr espuFiy of nn 
donstanjing Uiom, But Uii^ra w not quo of iLe vfttAfy grcni j>rJ9 
cIpW of Utc fiCionco whuli M niLlior oLN!nr« ot diAputflLli^— wlildl 
niglit not tc lAiLght to * ^ovitli ju toon u he gaq bo truitod witl 
an anijuiil oJbuAni^o, «r to a ytFung lid y ai noon ■■ i]io U of Nflt t4 
1>6 i^Vvn into counsel l^ iJie houai?lioi?pi]-r. 

I migbtr with tnorc ftppoArniLCC of ja»tico, be bJamod for thtok 
ing it nvcuAaiy to onforca what ovorybody in vippoMd to know, 
But tbi« Ijiu-lt will Uitr^tly be fouiitl rnhh rots wliilc the oommttrdi 
ctcnb recorded duly m otir jouraAli, Add atil) mot« the cipf&Q 
tjonp attcmpUti la be giroir of th«[n, nhow t)jai a Uign numbflr 
out BOH;Al]t)d EurTri:Lh[i1a &ri3 u iguoriiijl uf tJio unture of mannjr 
tboy oro rooklon, vojiut, An<I unfoitunnU in ita Dmplojtnoiit. 

TbaMUUmontftof occnonucalpricdplogi^'cn in th« loxt^ tJiouj 
1 know that mcj^t, if not nl\ cf lh«m iirp *ii;c«jitwl by tfiiflting au- 
tlkoritia on Uio llci'^n<:^ ^ti not >upportccI by reference*, bcCAUM 1 
bivo nsvor load any author on political nconomy, oxcvpL AdwD 
SmiHi, tw«inty years Ngo. Wlioncver I l&ve UketJ up any mudim 
book upon tills aubject, I Lftvo caualjy fotinJ it oncuTxtbcrod irjlb 
in4]nirioft IdIo necidootal or minor comraorciaL tcbqIu, for tlid pdrauil 
of rrhkU Ml orltiniry Tviulct cuiilj Luvd no li^Jkiiir^ and, by th* 
complicalionof vlicb, h fcrmtul tome, the aut)tontbnnsoU«ftliad 
b«9n not nnfroquflnily prwontod from sco&ngto tbe root of 


9ro tlic vfii-ioiia cbamctorivUc* of tb* i^ In which n< lEn^^ 
u comjHirvd with other age* o( tbu nat /ot iwry oipcH 
«orl<), on« of UiQ raottt noUU« appears to me to btj l1i« just 
Aad wlii^I^hJino c-iTilcmpt !r ^lilcti iro holcl po'Ti^rlv, 1 rD|kCAtttbe 
juti and ur^fuDFTif ccjinUnipt ; tlioagb t *ce thit some of mr h«ftT- 
en took sarprucd At Ihc expTesBloTL. I assure Uicm. I uso it la 
^iccrity; Bfui I slcmU nol lave venliirnl to mk joii Kj !l»t^ 
to uo thin cvi^nin'j^, nnlcu I hajl caUrluiir>4 a pro'ouTtd rvpcct 
for w«n]Lli— tnio wualtli, tlmt U to «ny ; fur, of courvc, vc ->LX^ht 
to rfF-pci?t rcitliur wealth nor nnvthiEj^ clw thiil i* fjilM of its 
kind: Aoi tZio 'JiLtim^tiaTi bvl^rvun ru&l ail J f&bo wo&lth U oua 
of Uio pomb on which I fthftll huva a fow wonii pr^Aontly to 
tnj to you. Bat tnio w^ltli I hoi J, u I mM, in i^cnt honouf ; 
and ftyrnpntliiKLV for tbo iii»«t pArt> <«i1h lh;iC ^^uraoMlnjiry 1^»«l- 
itig of the preic^t Atje which puhliply pay* thia hanoLir lo richok 
I CAiTiott huwurf»r, Wp noiiuing how cttnkoi^fnury rt f«. nni] hov 
l)i(» epoch of onn ililf^i^ fkim nil by^fina cpac^ha in having no 
philmaphifnt nor fv!i^otit wf>nljfpncri of llio rflgff*fl gojihip flf 
poverty. Id t)ia clt^mct} iigt% not only Here tJtero pifopla who 
^fO'cntarlly Irvfut tri Enha. ?in'I ivhn nmnii grftvitTy to iniininln tha 
riority of tuh-jif« to towi^-lifrv biU tlic^ Grcv;1:a Wiv^ UtAJAva 


t ecoontnc. 

CftpiulLAla find Undcd pro^cicton; u> thai rcal]T,in tb<i«ct dftjvit no 

^vottd. And &o loan dwUncl thitn tJio borioar which tln»c cuHom 
Greek pccpio pftv to tlicir coni^oitod p^or, ia tlk« disreipcotAil nuiti- 
iL«r b ithbli tlity spc^k of ttio licli S fto ^tX oM <«ftnot ibua 
long citlicr io lUcni, or to lUo H<kinan htiIoib vho imitated tbon^ 
without tinding odcmIT obUkaglcd m fJI oorU of plftiuibtc Abaordi' 
tic*; bard upon bdni; ^onriccixl of the luoIcwiiosb <if oollooiilif 
that hcflvv yellon- siib&t«Tii;u wLioh wo onll go1<], «nd lod gvc^rBOf 
|i>di>»b['idLt]iu mo»t i^tuUytcd muimiof pditicnt ecoDotnj. N 
■TO mutton coucli better in tiio middli> «gw. For tbo Ortoka and 
K'>fTi«in« tfwntuntoJ UianBiotvoi vith mdc^lnn^ at ricb pooploi, asd 
cctJftntctm^ moiTT <l]alo([iica bt.'twecn Cbnn>Ti vul I>iog«*cc «kr 
Uimippa*, in whjoh lb« r>>m(ncin nnjj tli« ovn)« njofoad ti(^Ub«r 
ie tli^j iflw \iiiigA ttTid rich Tacn coming dovn t4> Ibo tbKfn of 
Acheron, in liLmcttling; &nd InnioDtablc croii'd*, «tftirig ihefr 
CTO«» into tto durk wj4ti*n, UTid loxrohlng, Raiiietini«« in v>In, fin 
ihA Ijwt M»in ont <ff all thmr trcmiirr* lliat eoiild twr bi* pf ute t» 
th«tm. But tfipbf Pagan tiuAft of Uii^ mutter vfra indtilgont^ 
oompftrerl wkli ihona whlofi wora beld ^n tbe mUcIte ng^ 
when nnnlili Bpftnm Irt huva ht^et \--*fikn<\ iipan hx tJin bwil of mm 
fiot finly w rjintnmptiblr, but nx criminii!, Thn pnrac round ihq 
Tiuck SS| tlien. (iiw of tLu [>HT}Ci;nd ligiisuf coTtrleiDnuVton Ifi tli4 
piQlun>d lnf[>T»n; ami iTje Spirit of Pi>vi»fty U r^v^rtticwl wrlh 
HiVjJiwiion of bt^Tt^ m\(\ fHir,1tfki1n(44 nf AflVirtinn, hka ihit]. of ft 
I[>)ral kujr^Ut fur bU Ud/, or ■ lujid uibjticl fbr hj» qatwo* 
And Ind;', it rvqiiir^A boujc boldtiew to qritt ounclvttt of tJjCM 
Ib^lin^ and la confi^u ihcir pnrtialit; or tkair ciTor, whirb, 
noicitlivlcsK, no kjv cviUinly bound lo do. F ir vrcalUi a iiinpl^ 
OAc of tliu t^L^atmt pow«rB wbtch c«ii be «fitra«l^ to liiunin 
ItRjuJn: ■ j>ui¥ur, uot iDiItjed to bo «DTicd| biKJiatc Utcddooi 


UtCT. L\ 



lulat « 1i*ppf : bat «titl lo« to be &bdic*it«4 or d^v^k^; 
while, in tKcw thLj\ »&d b tJ;li fotinirf, it hu t«ooai« ■ 
[)ov«r dr tlifi mm noublv. In ihM ibo pati<««iori« c4 % rnh mtn 
■n* tkot re pT c t PlcdL w Ukoy i>i«d Ia b^ tnr vredgvi oT ^<1d ni 
cofRiv 4t( JflBcli, bat l»^ muiu* of in«o Tarnnilj ctTifikvod, 4»ci 
KboK bndiitt ud tniAd* ill* wMliti, ftctoRlIn^ to tt* itiinrtkih, 
ucrtaev liinnM or belfft] inElannci% and brcnraoi. In lb«£ Ahci 
MC^i'fV Muninoa e^i«r of 17iiri^1il«ottnaa or<ir KaglilMimnai. 

2foa, k K^notl lo mo tliAt alnc», in iktt name jou har« gtvMi 
to du» gnart ^ihcnng of Brititb pictiirn, jon recoguio ikcu v 
TVcnum— iLj4 i\ 1 uippoBe, a put Kail pwod vf ibc ml vwltik 
of tbc oousljy— jou iiitghl nut i« unintcralLtl 'at Incnig c«ri«ii 
romnerdd qoolMnt coitiieciDd will; tli'd imrliGDliu' fenn of 
WBftllL kfo»t penoDC etpnn Uicmdvo a> Mrprvcd at iU 
qoMilil;^; sol b^Tirg kn««n Wore tovbat an «it«ri| good a/t 
had boM >ccaanktpJ in £d^hk] : and it «ill, ikeicforc^ I ilio«U 
tUak, b« beld a vortby Mbjvoi of «oiteidvr»L)Ofe» whaH tn tbs 
poiiti<AJ blctccs* infol'od m mkIi aoeomaUlMDS ; nfcttTldvd tif 
lifcoqr lie; rcf raon^ md boir \hk Inboor nmj in g«Mnl to 
■Iflttd and oeeiDoiBia4 "^^^ prodaeo tli« hcbe4 mmiIUw 

Now, jon mwt tov* pntionoo vidi hm^ >f i» vpproaduDit Uic 
f of ibit t&bjod, 1 dvall a liltl* oa cvnain fviala of 
potid«a3 tcictiec alnjdj known or oUbliibod : ftr tbo«^ 
tbmv aa 1 bdiovt^ ciUUiUiod, aove Tbkb 1 ^U bave occanos to 
rett arfpODOnii oa ■» ttot fOt I7 aftv moam aniftnalJjr ac««plal; 
and Ut«rvf(>r«s iboogb I wil not bjo> tin* in a>j dvtaitc*d Mitten 
of Uiem, it m poo f air tlut 1 iboold dsdvetir teU too in nbat 
fivfU I rtcHve, acd vkb Bo ar^oe froai tbL-m; aiiij tb« tie tnon^ 
biowii* tbcto mmy pctbapa bo a part of woj aiufionov vlw bavt 
■ot tfttatttU^ tbfflBHlw in polhind aconcof, n it b«an oa 
onJiavy fl4dd« of laboor, bcA mar yei «iA Id b«9r fa vliat w^ 
ha priB<^<ft «u be af^M 10 An. I ifcal^ tb«f«m^ tafce l«av« 
tft trrapan o« fO«r patioiMfi mOt • ftrw ilwuiiHai^ aiajwiwiii ^ 


rcunoAL soDKo&r or akt. 


Ulic oiAMt, ani witJi tlic eiprceicn of coma gniCTftJ pi 
^h^n ikttd X^aiKf in Uio conrfo «f txjT particular U)<|iury. 

Tb bcpn, Uiciv with on« dT tfawo D«c««*axT iraiHni; bI 
^criomj, wfc«li«- or i^lhtM, bonMljoLi^ or incUvidaiilK may h* 
'dctiiied lo be tlie art of niaoi^n^ litbour. Thr^ woriJ ii mi rpgi*-, 
lal«d f>y t1j« Uw« of PiavlilcDa?, lliut a »ii»itV laWr. Vkill ftppll 
iiiftlffntK nmplj BiiflUiuat \ft pi^viiie him Ju/ing Lis lia iiitL 
iLrngB nccvlfiil tit likiu* uiii iitil vn\y wj[li UiiMtt bul willk uiaLii^ 
^M»<iut objuctft vt Imurj; hiid ^cb farllii^r, to proi.:urc liim Ui^c 
ktciiftlfi of Icullliful rrel and &rr*icw*lilo L-ieOK'* Ai>d ftiuAkni^ 
^JaIjoiU'. woII ikpplioil, i« in liko manner iimplr nifilciciit to pn>ri<li 
whole popTilati^/u nilli co<Td fcod &Dd ooml'orlallo liAbs'totion;! 
td nob wit]i Ulosc oiLly, but witli sood cdiioation Wyosi Ukd 
ttj^^b of liiaiiry, an tri;u»htrn» »utli m tlitao jou Kji'c AKnin4 j<>« 
low. But l^ Ihotc NUE1C lawft Qf Nnturu anil I'rctrftlcuci^ if Uio 
'tbour of lJ>c iiatifjT: or of Uic indJ«iJi.iaI bo iiiiMpi^li^, and viucJli 
Horo if il bfl ftumfHcicEit, — if tbv ualir^n or vuhn ho indcJcnt iid4 
An^^'ito,^^(^^'I*^^iTt£ jLbd uniit rcauJlf oi;acily in proportion to Ut^ 
Snibloiioo and imprcviJunoOt — tc tbc rcfuAnl of bil>our, or Ut Utm 
itappIii?Atii>n O'fiu \Vi;cic%'ci' yon «cc want, or miftcrj, ov dn^iii^ 
in thin warid about yatt, thur*, bo Muris, q^^ot Wmtiy Kl 
iraDtin;;;, Oi induvLy bua bt«Tt ta onoTp U U iiot aceldoot, 
not IIoftV*n-oom(i»anJod Mhraily, it ii nol tb<s oripiml artd ino* 
ifitsblo ovd of iimn\ rmlTiro, wbicb fill ymv Mrci-lHwifb kmoiv 
tMion, antJ jonr grai';^ w^tlk proj. Ic m only tlint, vhcn l1i«nt 
ahonM b«vo bct^n pmvtJL'ni^L^ tbcro liiu bvcn vm1«; uIihii ibera 
•lioitb] havii Wii laltoitr, ilicra liiu hcf-n law tviouuitM ; and 
ruwv wbcri llicrii hlioulr) btivo bi-cu kubonliuutiuii.' 

Now, we Lavo wttijtfJ tbt vjfd ^'vccuomy'' in our EnglTi 
laji^iiAj^ into a miaTiiitg vhitjli il bw no butiutva wbati-'vcr tc 
Lour. In our ubo of it, it cob^Utdly nigrjifius nionjly aj«ring «r 

■ pK^virba riti, 3^ " MncOi food 1i in tlj« IUEjtj.*? of Ui# pHtt, luit Ihi^ Il 
flut i*d«iitrorrd for yrvni of jt:cfemvDL" 

iMCU %l 

rouncAi. scovoMT or 4it. 


ovThg^ OMn^miy of moTic^y moAfu uriTig monaj— >«c(>mva^ of 
iimr, djyiniLg i^m*i, at\A m on. Hiii U^hI i* a vUoWx ImrbiiPnii* tutc 
of th« word^— bArb&roiii in p doiiblo utiac^ fer it ui not Htij^liih^ 
Hul tt t» buJ Grvck ; VHrlmroD^ in & ireLli* ivrrihv, for it is iml 
Engli^bf it i& bul Qriii^ aiM lL ih hejcj^c M^nhii. Hi^^nHJin^ rn^ mum 
UKftUA »iiinif luouoy tli&u it iuijhus Bpi-nditii; luoiiuy. It miir^iui 
t^c RAlcuuuAtntionof flhomw; iUatGn'iuJ»)ii|>; tiJUndiiigorMviug 
tliAL Ls "LuUiur mousy or titjic* orarjytbjngcLi^ to tlic bu*t pot- 
vJblo 0(ivftiit«g<^ In tiic ajjfi^lc»t auJ duJiro»t duGdUivB cf jU 
eoonomj, wbctLcr public or priutt^, iQ^^nn* tl^i^ wi*^ uianAp^incnt 
of labour; anJ it lucttri^ tliU maiuljr in tJiruu ■L^^i^^|| ; [lUEncIji tnU 
ttpfrlyia^ jonr Iflbonr rnticriftfiy; tcconilly, prt«frvin_^ tU pL-oJuoA 
eiju\f\iliy ; Inallr, j/Mfriiufia/ ita produao BCEi»nably. 

X Huy UnU *^V\*^y^^^S y^^^f JuU>ur mtioNAlly ; Ibut i«, so da to <»b* 
Uif^ tbo tDOst procLDiiE thin^i yoa ctkn, nnd tLo [OMt Iv^tivi^ tlungs^ 
by it : not l?^'">i^ff <"^^ i" Ivi<) wbcro you c^ii ffroiv wheat, hot 
pulling fin* «£ab[\>utvry on a titiiQ' tJut vill uot woar, SouonJIy, 
imwornng iu produce oar^l'ally; tbnt tt to lay, Uying up your 
wLdl nimbly ia iWruLoiutis for ttio tiin« of fAminc, And keeping 
your uubix^idcry natoHfuIty from thi^ mtflh ; vad loAtly^ iliiirLbnt- 
Ing ill gti'oiliLco Miuk'jimhiy; thnt :h to«ay, bvinj- nbl» ti> CAny ycnir 
cora Atonco to tbo pUcu ubcn; l1i« people nro liangry, Wid your 
wnbroidcnut tj> lb« plac^a vrh'^ro tJii.-)' nrij guy \ «o fntfliliiig In ftLl 
wyA tli« WiiM Mau^a dcflcrjptiorr, vhoilier of t!ie ijuoonly hoiu»- 
trifa or qneanly nntion: ''Sba rkctb vthilD it i* yot njgbt, And 
|;ivcth tni?al to Uor bou«.1iolii, »ii»<l u poriioii b> bcr luiiidun*, S!io 
mAjfi^th bvnotf 4?rii'(!rii]^ of t^pixtry, Itur rk-ibing In ulk and pur- 
|de, Strefigtli And honour Am in bcT dotliliig, and iho iliall 
ff^oicft In timo lo cnm? " 

TTqw, you wiiJ oliBorrc Uiid hi tliis diVfrifition of the pcrfocl 
•ooMomiMtt or iiiWt«'« uf a horihOioM, ib«ru ia a Undied r^iprvo- 
■lon at tho biUjini^oil dlviAVin rf b^r cniv bi^tririivn tZi<» tlFOglwil 
nlJRCUof iililiiy nnd iplpiiduiit; in Iut T\^i\t^vw\\^W^\ftlA Vai^ 


poimcAt icosovT or Aivt, 


tar life NTi'I rJfllliing ; In hnr l^f^ iiAHf!, tho ^rpk a^tf t]^« TiopfllVi 
work, for honour auJ for bnauiy. AU p^HivE licnv^rBirorj ot 
imlionni vcu^ioiiij- iti kiiumi by tiicvj l^ij iltvixIuOEt; vbcruvei 
•itJiGf i» wanljn;^, th« occziQJiiy ii imporiocU If Uie miitlritof pcrtn 
piuml*. and tliu i:nrc ijf tL« ii.atiirctjhl ci^oaomwL i» dir&;tod oahf h 
tlio Jw:cuiu4Uli'>rx of gold, atij uf plctuns, vtd of ulk nod nvbli 
JOQ bton nt onco t^nt tlio tiniu miut »oou coiiu wkcn all lLc*i 
troiwiinfl ehitll lie fcnlUrcU tin^ blutod ia &Mjdiu] ni;ii. U <»i 
die cottr^T ^0 cIcmcnT. of aillily piXTftR^ vid UiO njOiois ^m 
duns to ocQupy ibcif in Any itim witb the atu of bcAutj (> 
4J«llEhU ni^t o)il.f c^'rUin ^ttiuitity of ite energy calQUlAtod fa 
t9iCTi^«o in tlioji: Artd ^lonc miut bo cntirtLy i^imtod, whiiJi ii b« 
«<]CDomy, but aIbo Uio j>nMioDA connoat^iJ with Lha titiliiiw of pro 
p«r^ iMcoRiC morbidly iXrcng, ktid a moATi lust of MCtamalfttMl! 
nMNiy for the u3eo of ftocumuhtioiit or oven of luboiir, raordy €» 
tli« iuk4 of Utbour, vilt bihnl»h at l«wl tiio Mranity and tba monJCM 
^fUfg^ iLacoiiiplvtoty,Hndp0rbFipcimoro Ignobly, t]}An«To.ntIic Uvvli 
ncnof prid?, ft&d ^o li^htncw of plciLViira. Aod (imilArly, &i 
iddoli mor^ v^Hlbly, iii [ri^sUi niL<t liutmhold ooonomy, yon mfti 
Jinlgrt filmiy* of il» perfflclncwi by lU fiir baljincA bctnoftn tho 
mnd tb L> pliMUure of iis paouuIoniL Yon wltl »« the wIm rottii^ar?i| 
ghnl«ti Iriirily diviJ«JbKtffi>onlTi*w4>n-MlTflgpUblw,*iidiwfrigP«lli 
Howors ; yoti nill •«!;« rhn gnoil ItoiKr^Tife talHng prfdo In bi>r prftt^ 
tnbTo*doth, nnil hi^r gTittj^riii^ bTicIvis, no \vm titnn In Iict wfdb 
droMcd dIaJi, Aii^J li^t fiiCI Atoreroofn ; ibe fAr& \n ht^x (^oa[tUnaac4 
*ill altcrnalu Kith ^icty ; imd llioic^fb you will rt^vorouce lier IJ 
htr !u-riouBi)[y^ vo<i will kuoiv Iilt 1>t^9l by litjr «uiilt\ 

Now. M yon >vJU Lhvo AnLii^^pstml, I aih g^ing lo »ddrcMi yi 
on thji And onr nacc^codiitj; or«iiinj;, cliiedy on tbo vialjoet <4 
cconoiay nlUch reUtca rfltLer to ^e gardon Hknn clio f^rm^yfti 
I slioll Mb you to ooTiJiidc? witb me t]t« kind of biw» by vliich 
•b^ b«at difttTkbiit« tlie bciJa of our natiouol gar^on, «k1 nkise in 
tli« evTKt^at Buccouion of troM pIcAamt to tlu3 ii|cb(,afid (in i 

£■■€9; •.] 

votmCAV tco3E<»itr cr aut. 

iSdiiUdoD seuM) U> ^m di^^Inxl to aihVti d» v\re, Tiut, Dtforv pr<r- 
cccdiftg to Opi^Tj tltu vpccijilty of our »i;bjccl, let mc paiiK« fjjr ft fow 
Qiociicnt* tu p[<si4 villi jwt for tli» Acctptnioe of tliAt pnncfplc ol 
goircninidut or aullonty whicL oiOAt be »l tlic rootof uJI o?onc>m7a 
wheeler (<fi UM or fn^t plcojurc I Mid, a few minutt^ ifo, thftt m 
EUltioD's labour, rfcU S]ip1)0ili ivu unplr sujfiot^ul to f>rovidtf 1I4 
wKoiu poptilitW withj^oi foodiCOinforlAblR clothiTi^. bJid plcMfinl 
Inxurr* But the good, infitnnt» and o<»ncUnt fippiicftlion is ovoij* 
Ujiiijf. W* latist not. wlicu onr »tronj* IkandA rto liirown out «f 
wofl^ Icok TrilJIj nbotvt f>r want of Kmiotiiii^ Xc do vith tbocn, 
U OTOT wo ft^ol that viintf it ifl a H;fn tliat oU our boiuvhold I* onl 
oTcrdor* Kincy a fjirir^i^r's wire, lo vhom ono or two of Iiot veis 
vnnt4 aIioiiU como At twclvo o'cloolc U noan, oryicf tlmt Uicj tad 
pit notkiin^ to do; thfti tho^did not know iffhatlodo ffcxt: and 
bnoj atjJl rartb«r, iUq uid fnnDQT'B Tifo [ookitijjf bopoiouSj nboot 
Imf roonv kud yard, tlivy b«tcig all tli« TrhiJo ooiiuUoruMy in dSl 
oHf^r, not kDowiog nliort} to ^t thtt «]ur« baiiti-uiJiidu^A to work, 
uid at lott comjJftiijiTtg biturlv tlmt tbe bad bt^cm obliged to g^r^ 
th^rn thttir dinner fcF no^n^, Thnla tho t}rpi> of th« kind of 
polilicji) of^notcir wn pnurtiM loo oltcn in Knglnnd. Wonld yoa 
not ftt oncv uauri of iii^li ft mEiirCtt tliftl idic kocv cctbin^ o( h«f 
(loltMl unci would yoii nut bn cpnaln, if ibo hoiio^bold it#t« 
rigbllf mftHJLgod, the inBlrr» would b«onIy loo g^od nl nny mo* 
metit to linvc llio br^lri of nny iiLimlH^r of vipHrr^ IiiuiJs; Uint diA 
wuuH kih^v ifl ftik LiiitUiit wbil Vt BCit \\iaxi to ;— in aii itiKaiii wbtU 
pnrt nf tci-momrKV »<»rk nJghl l« luuol wrviuAMy fonrnnlwd, 
ntiit fttrt of uuxt uiuiitli^B ncrk luoat wImIj provided fuf, vi nrlmt 
iiLtH iMffk of utattt proAtftble Mnd ondcrtAkcn! and wbcn lliu qv-^* 
iing CJLUW, uid >he dbuiWcil her vnrvftiits Ur {htar rrcrvntion ot 
ibini rcct, or g&diorod Ibem to Um midtBg TWiml tJie work-uUev 
Dbdor tbe cavrji in Uie cuum^ wodd yo^ cot be tare to find ibnt 
ik04)C of ih'Na bod beon ovoTtMkod try Lar.jpit b?cftnt« dcil« bnd 
been left idl«; that crerjtbbg bftd boea <AWT^'v^v^'=^^'=^™^^ 



[U0IL I 

htd bcrit cmplojotl; that lf)c kini)ni^j« of the mfibrm had WiM 
brr |>rcAcacc <^ lalnd, vid titc aliglu Inlxnir hud boon cJiinutod l« 
tlic h<«k, Aiid llie JoruiidrtUo to Itic stroug; And thftt n» ROif« IxhJ 
bocn diaJioitDurcd bj inncLivit^, «o aonc Ithd t«en bcDk^n t^ toj[| 
NOY^. (Lo prcciBo couEitcrparl of Bucli ft houacbotd vroald b« 
Men in a n&tioa in wbich poltlic^d ccononjjr wm ii^liily unilor- 
•tood. Vau L'omplaja of ika difJiculty of findi^f ^vork for joc 
ttWt Depun^i uprju it tho lual dJlltculi^r lathcJ^ U to find mcfi 
Vi^ur WL>fk. TEio soTii>ii» j)oo«tion for fou in not licir many 7V1I 
hftvo to feed, but bo^v mnch yoM Iinvc U do ; it i* oar ifiictiril 
not Q\\t hunjfcr, tUnt ruirts m : lot iib n^tcr roar Hint our 
tbonld bate u f:v>oi uppc^tit^^— ottr tvunrLli is in Uioir titrari^b, not 
in thtrir ttnrvntion. Look nroa&d tliB isla^id of yoatv, and 
what you hnvo to do in iu Tiio km loarm e^hituI your hi 
lou diffi — j-'OLi bav^ tc build tfao broAkf^tor, And dig U19 port 
rofig«*j tEko Tiri^^l^Aii pcstilonca nLiioH tn ]X>rt tirooU^ymi Unvc to 
hHn|i; UkC full fctrcam from tbo billi, nnd to «(md tho frca wind* 
thTVuj^b tbc thorotTgbfurv ; tbo fu^iiiriv Uiinohoft your Lip* nnd cHts 
»wnj your Unh — you have to dig tbo moot uid dry tli« manh, 
bid tho morftiia give forth in»t«ftd of ODgulpbing^ and lo wring 
boTicy »nd oil out cf Uic rock. Tb<*«e tbirigt, and LhoTu&ndft 
wo huTG 10 do, AfliJ fthftll hftrn tn ^n r.rtnRUiiitly, on th^ givjit 
of oun; for do not Mippoce tins it h iinythin^ elw Uian Ihi 
Prvt^isply t}ic tumo luu* of t^'orromy wliictj Apply to tijt) ouLtii 
tlon of a fiimi or »n ot.ftU J^j'ply tt> lb ft cultivutioii <if & proHi 
or of an ialftiiJ. Wlialcver n-biikt you would iiddtu» to the 11 
iTTo^iduut LiiJ»trr <jf H[i ill'Jtiai^n^^tnl piitniuvnyi jiruciaoly iLat 
bake wo iJiotild ftddrcM to oundrc*, *o fftt u ite UaTo oar popu- 
ktiou ill ijlcijow and our country In diwrdcrp What would yi 
Mj Vr tliv l^rJ of an raiatv who coitipUincd to yoii of }il» po^i 
and disotiilitici, And, when you pointed out to biia that b» h 
ftM baif of it overrun with wccdn, and tb&t hu fdcoa wore all 

U3CT. t] 



liig tioOcr lliu liO(Jg«« fiUDt for wnnl of foorl. I14 Hit»wi:rul lo y«a 
iLm it uouli] mia him to wccij Lin fAnd or to n>of hi> hIiih]*— 
lb»t tliQ«c vrvre too ccbII^ ojitjnlicitB for him to uittJcrtiki^ «iL<f 
Ibftt bo kiteff Tint Low to f^cd Iia UWjiom>or pny lli^nif WdliM 
tjoa Dot injttantlr answer, thnt inilc^d of niininj; him to ivccrj ti» 
fi«fdi, it woijlU tavD him ; Uist Uia inactivity wa* Uia il<etnicticrti| 
^J tluit to >cl lib lalxhTiron to vork wn» to fe«d thcrn f Noit 
joti may add Aore to »or«v and c«Ute to ottatot m for u j<^ii like, 
liiit}oa vil] luivor r«ftcb * oonipaA of gfound whiuli tLall o»chpo 
from tJi* fluttoritjftf thcao sTTupIc Ihifii. "fho priTicijil** wUch 
^re n^lil ici Xhv nrJininiBtrutJon of « fijvr Ijddit, are rifjbt iklio in 11)4 
*.^niifiiiHtriiCJaii of a groat country froia horaon to horiion : id]»> 
nott do«« not cftiM to f>o TuSnoiu b«<raufl« it li eit«caS7«i nor lattour 
to bo prodoclEvo bmMiTiKa h U tinWonftl 

Kftjv bnt yo(i mplj, Uifsro i« ono Tjut dlfj>renae botwcen tbo 
lifttlon*B C^TMHiv ftnd ihn f^rivRtn nian'n: the fArm&r hw f^ill ai^ 
UiontT over !i5k kliouri^rK; bv cuin direct tlimn to do vrlint la 
n<-Dd«d to tw df>ni\ wliulhor Utey like it or not; and liu can turn 
Utom AWiiy if tTicj rcfuw to voxk, cr impi^do c^i^n in thctr 
worldii^C, ur nto dbobodicnt. or qnnrrclwnic* TLorv ■> tliis gnMl 
difluri;nvc ; it ia prccfridy lliw dlflt^ftiDtJC on wtitdi I viaJi to fix 
^oiir utC'iTitioni foi it i* pncuiely tiiii diSbrcnce whjch jou Lato to 
do iisay *rilh. Wo knov tho nccttoity of nathodtj In ia.rm, or 
111 fl«et> or in .-ii'tTij ; l^tit «o t-'omrcionly r^fiiBo to ^tiLJt il ta >bo 
body of tho nation. Let 0:1 oon»id«T tbi* point ft Itttle. 

[ti tlio vnrions airkwftrd and QRfortunatO tiToTla urbkli t&o 
Freucli bnvc inndf at tlio d&vcTofiincnt of & tociftl >j«lom, tkcy 
k«vo At Icfuit MAtod ono tmo pnnoiplo, thMof &atoTnitJ«rbrotho^■ 
hoo'h Do not hi aljirmod ; tlicj got aJ) wronjr in tJi<iir «ipoH- 
tDc^U^ boc.iiw<> thoy <^t]itflfc>q{oitbAtthi« &<Jtof fmltrmty implio'l 
inotfa«T fA^t qiiElo AA impoTtiLnt — ittAt of pfltartiicy, or fotboHiood 
That ift to Wy, if tboy vom Xo rr^rd thr nttion u or;* family, 
tlui condilton of unity in that fumily ooaiidtttrd na lc*i&((\ UvaW V>wt< 


voLinrTiT. tcoxomr nr avt. 


ing A buad, or ft fAlhcr, tKon ta Ihcif bcinj; teUiful aad R0velioit 
fttc maubcra, or iTcthcrr. ISntwo nigst not f^rgcl tiia^ for «( 
bikvc loDg ooaiijaafij. it vviUx our lipt* Ukjijj^Ii vo rofiM» !« coafuM 
it in ova Iev«& For Wf m liour every Suniaj wo expect « 
uiftn in A bZjxJc i^owti, icppoacd to bo tolIis|; m Uttth, to oditrcia 
ue IK tirutUruci, thoLigli vt aljotitd bo frbockad aI t^a notion of ojtj 
trotborbood C3ii»titig ftmong a% out of oburoli. And wo oftit 
budly nad ■ fow ioiit<]nGQa on anv polJtlc«.1 vnljnei vrlthcct nin> 
biog ft clianco of crooun^ Uxo fbniM ■pntcriuil govfrmmont," 
thoi^b wo *hould bo utterly horror-*tnick ■! Ujo Weft of go*en>- 
noaU cl&tining i^nvt^i^n^ llk^ h rutbt^r'a niultorhy ovor diu Now, 
1 bolii^vo tboM> two fftrmflJ piiniHpfi nnt In Ixith initftnoM parfcctl/ 
binding and tcotinto, ftml lliiit tJio tiangtf of tbit fknn ftiid Hft A«T* 
TftidA mLIcIi 1 bavo liilliorto nM^d, na tajrrc^jkirLg ■ nLoU^i^rn^ 
nationul oT^nimticrn, fi\iU niilv nf <1oiiig ko, not Ix-^iLUrv it in ton 
dflmcstic, but Iwi^Jiiuo iL U uol duiimtic; enough ; bvcuiiMi tbo nad 
typti u^ !i K^ll'ur^iJi,cmJ iintiuL in'Mi bv iiitsuulud, iiot by n tatvi 
ciLltivnU^l by nervivub wbo wroiiglit f^r hht^ tuni ini^jlil hi; tuniod 
flfAT if ibcy r^fuBc-d lo lubuur, but by n fiirni in «b]cb tbo innHcr 
ivu ft fatJjtrt antl tii wLJcL all tbc MJTAiito wijrt,' v>nj ; wbicb iia* 
ptivd, tbvrvforc, )ii uLl iu rffifalatiouf, not moruly tbo or4&tof oxpo- 
dtoncy, but tli» bondB of fdf«ot;on ftnd rMpoTwibUitioe of rdjUii^n- 
nhip ; and tn nblch nil luta and ivmcOA ^oro not only to bo Bifoot' 
enisd by brothcrij' coiicorJ| butlo booHoforoilby fhtlioHyrtiitborilj*,' 
Obuf^rv^, 1 do not tii«jiq in ihh Icut tliat wv oufiht to plftoo ondi 
iin atrtlionty in iha hnridn of any ono penon, or of ftny ^hm, or 
body of pi>rHO(i>. But I do mean to toy Lhkt lu an individuAl v\te 
oondurti bimKnlf vSaoIv must ihjlIxl]! laMn f^ir hhiutclf wbirdi ftl 
ft?uie Ijiim or alHor mny a|>pciLr irlwmc or InjaHoan^ but wbkJi, 
prcii'LH^Iy At Ow \\mii tb«y Ap|^r Tiiont irLiom^ it is moii nocoi- 
•ttfj ho ftliutiJd vboy, ao a cation wlilcL meftCft to i^onduot ItMlf 

Rm not* 1^ b AddvndiL 

niuAjt luuBl «*ub1iBfi nutliortty over liwlf, votiAl dilior Eii LLngH, 
eovnoilit O" la*^^ wMcTi it mtwb rc«<4to to «l>oji etrnn «t limn 
ntcn Ihc In" cr nutJinnlj u|ii>i:Uii irkKiiiie to tlm tioitj of th« 
jjuujtCc', or ]iijunoii» ki ctiTt-tiii eiiwmm ijf iL Ainl iLje UikI vf 
iMltcnal Uw liu hJtliurto boi-'H ijaly jvuiidal; ojijIl-hUiJ, tlmt 1^ 
ailIl an uDtioaTonr lo prctcut wid puuiiti vjolonco and crime; but. 
M yt 9fi*%tW! in our »ocittI kui^trludgv, w« mIjnII cfi<lMTuur u 
in&k« oEir gOTcmaoDt p«t«tiul a* veil » jmllcijtl; liiAb )^ to 
otabliab iiiicli b^rs ^i^d nuttjoniiw n* nux/ 4l onoc direct lu in our 
oooapMioUft poiGol uM 4gaj]iflt oar f^Uc*, &iid viavli us in our du- 
IccMn: » £OireruDt«tit vhkh >1iall rtprcM dttloiiMly. ta now ii 
pnipuhca tli^ft ; which sLnll 6hov how Lbo dbaipliac of Utv moMca 
ntajbtf l>roit£Ut toniU the toiUof poMC^wtliocipiinvof tlMtmAMM 
hu LHUerlo koil lh« lirtcvr* of tMtttlo; i B;ovomnietLt wtkioli eJittll 
hftvo it> oolJict* o^ tito filon^hilLuc n» vdl n iU «oMfcr« of U^o 
ftwovd, Aud «hkU Bbali diatribnto more proudly ito goldo& cmMM 
of IndfMtrj — ^ld«n n* [ha glow of tbo Ittvurt, than now It ^nc» 
ito brotiM croBCO of boaonr— braiUMd vriUi tba oriutBoa of blood, 
1 tiaro DOlt of «oiin^ time to Siiiiiit on tlio ouUra or <lc<ini]ii of 
go<nimtDoat of Lhi> kind; oxAj I viftb to p!<9ad for your hgvenU 
ftad ftitnro coniicTuruciOn of thiji one irutii, thjit tho notion of 
tHiiofpltne And Iniorfi'reTico lie* at tha Ti*ry root of Ji!1 humnn pro- 
gra»i or powf r ; tluil tJic " I-«l dlono" printiplo i^ iti sU tJiin^-^ 
hIiuIj rnitn 1;u Id di> witb, Lh« ptinHpJi* of df«th ; ihtil It tv ntin 
to liiiii, r^^rtHiti Ttnd Lotid, If Im L^u UU Wid aJoofr— if ho )«ti !iia 
felloW'Enr'n aliijw — if hn l^t* h\% nwti »ouI ftlorn\ Tluif. hid whoU 
liTe, on the cxiiitmrj', rimit* jf it ia healthy life, hu coriLiriunlly otn 
of ploiif^hjrj^ and priLiting. iiibLikiijir hikI lirlpiiif^ gorvrmrig and 
piiuuhiijg ; and lliat Ihorvlbra it ia only in tho conccffJon nf JCfi»« 
gn:al principle of restraint nrnl lnt«rforuiict> ici nnlional Lii:(iuri tlt^t 
bo caa ever hopo lo find the ^crti of iirotcction agniiifhl nalitfEml 
degndalioD. I bolicro ilj&t iho mad«oi ]iav« a rigLt to claim eda- 
Mtm from tlicir f^ovornmont ; bat oaly to tux «ia >!ei^ nJybvA^' 



lidicYP Uiti^ bnvtft ft right t/i dnim •m]>l<>TiTHT(jL fnvii tbutr ^offr 
cm ; bttt only ca Cv wi Lbcj yicU tf> tiio go^cniuT Uio dinctkft 
Atid irrM'ipliDO of Uicrr lubour; «fh9 It Ib onlj k> Eu » Ui«7 
Id lie: incn vihaia ttcv iiirh^ mC over thwn tlw btbei^ 
to dioux i\to cluiiliiliEiQA of n.ui^nal fiuiity, and direct 
w4r(Jiii>« ot TLHtioiinJ cnergj\ Uu«t Ujuy havo a r!ghl to »>k Ui&t 
Douc of Uioir distKoeca &1koaild be unrdiercd, iKtno of ikeir voak 
iiCM(^ft unTmUhcd; &nil th«t no g^IoA cor DAicdnow, oor |>cii 
thould ct^A for tlicm, n^nit ifhich tli« fAtiicr^A tutd vju aol 
oabtft]Uli«'l. or tli« &t!Lor*t tthiohl vpUIUd.' 

IfoWa I haio i^iTOMcd tlt«~npciii you n\ maro ){m|^ thui i* 
Alt or pr<9portic»nv<l to mit prvKnt pviTp«M9« of UKfrniy, beoii 
iTAql^l not for Ojc tint ti:fic <q>CAk l<xroti on t^iafuljo^ of 
CaI oc-onoiny aitlL->i1i donrly >taEtnj^ what 1 b*Bor« U> bo 
fint Jtrnnd |«rini:iplc. Bui iE» bvAriD;; on tlio mitlcr En TiMi 
clii^Hy lo pT^vcnt voa from At ocica loo viobnlly diiftocil 
from nxo vh^ nlftt 1 any «tAto to you u ulviaUo ccono 
ia iLit opptMirn t/^ \mi^\j ton miicli nHifKini or 1 nicest ftfico wiifc Uio 
froodom of i]i(i patron or Artiit. We «n « tilde b|% tliooigh ca 

■ OaiDpam l^onSawtinli'* Ett«y oa Uiq FiKt-lAW JbotoduKut DRL I 
qooie 01^ liup^nihiit |aBsf«i— But:, jf Ub* not •>& to looab Um •bitnai 
qtiatlliBi of loin'* ftieliL ta > imliJ eUIv to lirip hinudf urva In \\k tut vjt* 
Imn^Ly, may *v not *tiJI «>uti>bl Anr ilio duLr bf a ChrirrLtiia ^ovcffnin^ci 
VUidlfig tn Inni jhirm^u i.-nniJjA 411 lU MilijK'tJV 19 tnnka writ fffiviid pmV 
riot: tUt bo i>rtv r^lidl bv m ianjiw orp<nalibff f<ll^«*r lbi«ufli tbr aqilMft a 
liiRMirwc/ ^u U^Utfofi? Hr, wiving ihlj^ bi It not IndlupQiiiU* thai tb« 
cUbb of tJin 6tV-4 Vo ibti allfgi^nn^ lavolvo* Urn ^BhUm (f tti» M^dT 

lowi fatl ibii rig:lit oi Hm &\^ia to nxjiiir« Uio «rTi:!C« of £ili avaiibcr% 
|» thk Jivpiriljnff t>t XhvirUie^ in iTi* commaiv JcAcn^ a«mUlibc« t t^nlit 
ii> ptofdn |not bt> U c»1»m1A by nliUladan* a;»d Monomltli] l» piAEo 
prt whoti, Rom any mom^ Ibc; Txnj M nukblo lo B^^ort rtgOMlfifc' 
I9m m^ ta^ lu AddoiidL) 

roitncAt itcwotfT 09 awp. 

liiijmltpsy cVL-n in irmUutfl iTii-ri;!^ comriK<rriiil ; i^mnli mriri) i>^ 
l]it>M invoIvHig coniiTiiiAl HppimU to oar Innd^iL Hon iVr, tlierr-' 
fcffV the pTvponRQ •v*lcni* ©t rciimJiitii niny Im mtviwMc, ic i» fuf 
/ou to juJgUi iiikl/ I prny yuu iioi tu Iw vlTvuJftd niclj U^irN 
mcraljf ivCMiM Hicy orv iyaXvum AnJ rciUaiTii«^ Do joa at ftU 
reooUccl llijit tntuiiwiliig ptHagRof Cmlylo, in nLli.-li lj« t:om-' 
pveii m tJii* coLiiitrj inti at llim dnx, llic utidorfttnoil ADit 
comioercinl ratuo of niAii And lorsu; aihJ iu uLldi Lo wi^iiden 
Uiftt tbc hoEw^ With it* iTifcHgr brAJii* hq<1 iU airknAri) IrpoBncfffv 
irritfad of li4i^dinr*w nhoalct hrj xWxra vn^tth AO xaiaxy tcnft or 
tcom of poQtii* in tLo nfurV^l, while tlic man. ao (ar froia alviji 
coutrriAniling Iii« prii:o in ihc cnAflt^t, v^ild oAcn lo tbooglit Ut 
confrr A B'lrrico &n lJi« BomiiJutiiLy It ninip^y kilLiDtf bimMlf <m%. 
«r tticir wii^f Wcllt Cnfljlo <Iou not Answer hi* own iincvliocH 
becanu b« Bupponea wo iliAf] )it onoo no tht; nDflwcr llic vafoo 
^t Uio hf>no co(i«i«U «imp1y in ih^ fuai cf your boinj* Aiblo to put 
» bridio on LiiD. llic vjtluc of th« mftTt conviiti pixdioly in tba 
•uno thiDf;. If yon cAb bridle Liiii, or whk'li \t Lwtter, if bo era 

;bHdl« bfaiUftlf h? ttf[l bo A v^iijibla crDiKtro direct It. Othstwko^ 
b\ a Mfcmorcia) pottit of x'wv, bie vAhi# U fithAr ixirhlfig, or tt/ctU 
donuU OTilj. OnTj, of oounv, l}ia propm- bndlo of mftn 1« not A 

iknthcm oii«; whtil kinil «if lAitnra it » rightly irtatlv of, wc find 
from ifint i^outrnand, '' Re yt uoi HH tlio liorw or uh Uii* inula 
wbicb hAvo Tio niiilrrHlaiulSii^, wlm*^ moiittii miti^t bo )iobl Sn 
witli Inl miitl bridlL'," Voti An? iiul to bo wiLiiout ita riain^ 
kiiiecd; but UiL'y aro tu be(>f KuuLhirr Lin4; "I «iill ({»»]« iLi^v 
wiUi mine Eyn."* So Hiq hr'M: itf iii.*n m to tc tlio Kj h of ikjti l 
■ad if he rcjeeu tbia |riii<|Aiici^ ibcQ (ho iictl bt&l for blm w '±m 
Jion*«'A &nd ibo riinfi]\ *]s\kU Iiavc ito iiTKkn£AOiJlRg; AOfl il 
ngoctit Uiit, (inii tkkc* tlic l^it f^iily in bu tectb, tUcn tlicro 
fe sotliin^ more loft for bim tbui Ebe Uc^xl tl^ut comco o-it of lb« 
flity, ap to the borMbridlo^ * 


([OvorDOionl — or n^«r tiringiTig thom down to cviir owti btiMi 
in Lam.! — w< Lato tOCon«4er iLroe fioinUof diinciplic^ ii» 
(iartioi}lAr .bnuifllt of huuifLU lakcur nbidi U coti««niei^ not «i 
pi'fi^ariiitf of fooJ, belt t^»> evproMiau of omriiion; wo hftr« 
00MAiL(f^r ro«p«i:iing irt ; fln^t, hoir to apply our Inbortr lo it ; Ui«qe 
how to ftccumulaU or prca^rvu tb« rutu^U of Inbcur; aM Ui*4i 
bow to dktnbutd tlit^in. Uut wik^o !n nn ttiv labonr vliicli wi 
have to vmploj^ li tho liil>aitr of n pfttticulor qIav of mc^a — mcH 
who linvc upeciAl ^ijIua fbr tho b»ii]L«ti% wo L&v^ not OQH 
to ooTiiider liow lo «]iptj 'lia UboiTr, bnl llM nf nSl liow tO 
proJiuui tb(T InliaLErer; Jirtd tLi» the quotlon in tbu iinrtjuii* 
Iftr c^uiu btL'iiiuc^ii fuurfum ; Gnitt Iiijw to gut your lu&ii ofl 
gi?n1ai; l^vn, Ijow to om|j3oy your man of ^niun; tiion^ lio* 
lo acciiiutiliili! mid p(t9i;rva bU wcuk in the jfrutcst qiuulit}*] 
ard luftly, lioff to ditittibuta hU work to tlio best caUon>] »JiftiM 
Ugv* Let UB lake up tlic«« quc«tioi^ In aacccuiotr. J 

L Dfa(?ovHnr. — How nn wo to pet our men of gen;«» : tbat NJ 
lo uj, ^j wliat in«AnB uuiy we prodiico among iin, at asj gifvq 
lUni^ tbi^ grvnti^t q^innlJly of dTecllic ort-iJiUillectt A wlild ^aesi 
tbii, ;au tay, iuvuNJtig uu uTaunt of nil Uio beat nsmru of Mf 
>)iiCHtion. Ye^ but I Jo trol lut^an U> go Into Uiu couBidDr&tkia i^ 
tlioBc ; I want onljr to »tAlQ llie fun pnudpica nlilcb bo at tlii 
rouadcktiiTn of tbv mailer. Of tlieno, tbe Hiitt u tlinl von bavt 
alwaya tu IliiO ;raiir a£ti»% not lo iiink« liiui ; you can't nuioufa'jluiia 
bioj, any iitoic iI^hji you cHti maJLLifftutuiv gold. You can Snd 
hiiHf and Tcflric l^im : yon di^ Iiiio out wt he liw nnggtt-f^u^ljiou in 
llio mounlftin-ftlrpam; yoo brinif bim tome: kikI jou makclilia 
into ctUToQl coin, or hoUMhold pUtc^ bat not ono grain of lum cai| 
you orif^inndy produce. A ocrtAU* (|uantlty of nrt'intelWt Et lota 
anr^oallj m ^vcry iiatiorti gTcnt«T or looa accii-rding to tho naluri 
narl cultWjilion of tbc nation, or raco of men; but a porfoctlj fijtej 

uccm 1. 


ijimotity uiDi^Ally, not incrrttulilF l 

it, or j^oy ina_v gHlIicr it; jou mttj ] 

«jij buriod iu llta wndii^ or you amy miko kin^' tUmiMi of i^ i^J 

orotiftj tcEUpIv gnt«« wltli it. aa jrou ctiooM ; l>dt tLf bnt 7M m 

do «iUi it » ftivAjft muoly lifkiuf, molUaf, boiiuncriB^ ymn^f^ 

— DCvef creating. And thor« =» uollitr UiiD(f doUUv «boU tkia 

ArCutJc^ gold ; not vtiJy i« it limited ia qnuititj, km m mi^ T*« 

need DOtDukc ibronu or ^Iclua gutoa witli ii onlett yoal^lflA 

oarorodiy yoa c&uH do t&ytbitif; oIm with it Yob en\ »il» 

kriivM <rt ii, Tior arnioiir, iior mlroEidi. Ttio gold ^euti mt }t^ 

Atid it v«ii*t ciUTy )'oa ; put it to u mtnjli&nic*! uk^ uuI yoo 4iMMPf 

iiaiOD0«» Uiaqmco UiiO UiaI lit tli* grMkl«Uutafa,lkflryM9i« 

ftrtiftticfll &{idtyia umlatl vith 07017 other; '^ 7^ VvrsHi 

QMof Lho albor focultieA, nod lot tlio ftrtiMMii amv ^Ai^m^ 

tor uisbt I tcnow Ui«ro m^y ba two or Urn* J^Mi^to ^ ^^^ 

tfnpEoyad fit tliui moment in yoiti barbonn 

are not cniptojirj^ tin-ir (A'C>njLni'.'i(jiu; or p 

Htv only oppntt-ing and dt'stroyiitg IL Am 

awmgo mffn » nol jointxl uitli ollien; 

don't Tnftkfl n pjtiultfr of liiiik, woe't W 

Uvycr; At ilU crvt^nU^ nltnttsTcr b« 

li nncmployid liy you ; wad ia w «v 

UuaM(*H^ do I;en9 joij Vsfo 1 

qI LTiUi|ti|*0[icr% produced Jut 

vhicli jon Giin only nuLc ^ 0' »^< 

ttork. Hiiii wliicli any 

dnul lun of Ml madi 

Mh t» employ h, Lov 

Gnorl It IB vttAj 

it LB to <1iuOT«T k Jj 

tmy unportast fes^ ■ 
ik^T naanUn ar>v 


roLmoAti aoovouT or abt. 


UIIaiV 'preTLt&r(«» «h« ftr« fltvisji fiTtfTiing tho «Iwrffl in wrong 
WHT iipw^rdi, m»y hitvr n try nc lliU ollit^r irmin; only thi« toliool 
of Irial iiiu»i uol be eiiUitl^v re^iUtwi ty fortrjal lnwa E>f jwi 
pilncatJon, but inml ulllrriarr^ly Iw Uii» wtirlsliop of a gocKl iruuicf 
paJEiUr, ^vbi> «]11 Iry tUu lad» ^iih nnia kind erf Ml iLn4 Anotlicr, 
till IiQ OiiiIb uut wbaL tiiL^y ntv fit for. Ncxl, nftrr your trial 
Mhool, you vrBQt your evy «nd •ccura cmplo;^jnent, wlucJi le |]l« 
matter of cbiflf IrDportance^ Tor, even on iJ^c [jrctcnt f»y»l<^n^ llic 
boy« iwbo bflv« rtalJy iijl^'risn ait cA}iiKr]1yt Evncnilly oi&Lc |>iiiotcn 
of tlcniKlTCi; but ibco, tbo be*! biilf of Utcir- <vr]j «oorgy ii 
lovt in Hie Wll\^ of tifj. Before a ^ikkI pnintor CAn ^t cmp'oy* 
mon^ hi« ruitiii hiu dJwat* been cnibittcr^J, ELTid lia fitniut dit-, 
toTtod. A oomiiion mind UHiinliy stoops^ in pbutio dtiti, to wJ 
tffOf b ultod of iti tmil Kni\^K or tJbijl>4 itp. wny ccmpla^cntly |] 
piiblio favour.' But your jL^cnt r>cD fjiinn^l vitli y<!U, and yo« 
ri^i'^iigo yoiiroalvi!s 1>y •taning Uiem for tha £nt liolf of tbtti 
Uvea, P^cffiely tn the i»gr«^ in vrhicb nny pnial«r poMSSUt 
original geniu*, U at prreftflnl Uio incffpao of moral certainly tLftI 
Ourlrig b[fl oafly yein Ilq will bavo a Lard bntllo to A^t ; imd 
tliAt jriM at lie time wbon hifl ^^i^ncepti^nia ongbt tO bn Aill and 
bftppy, bia tamper gantin, ntirl bU bopoi cntliiiftiajitie — jnni at tlia( 
mo«tcrilJcal period, bi* hi^n k fuU of HmiL'tlw ntid fionHoliold 
canui ■ bn la riti[]rd by dii^ppninlnit^iiif, and Vi^ind Iht ItiJiaabTQ 
he \^*^^irt^\^ obntftmtfl i[i !iis uririm, tkt leu tTiun in bia virtue 
ftckil lIii; fLrrow8 of bit nlma nm tilttntvilr aa ttio ivoiU of bb lrutfl| 
■re broken. 

Wbat vn lUAiiily vtnul, Lliureion% !b a titi^attH of Aiifliciarit anil' 
una^UtcO tiUiploj'iiLCOt: vvl loMin^ ovrt ^ti'ni pri£i.'B fur wbicb 
young pniritor« arc to scramble ; but fumi»liiii|r tA\ with Adcqual 
iupport, and oppotliKiitf t*) iI)"pUy aucU power *» thrr p<>s*«i' 
vHlioat njootiod or mortificaticn. I need not my tbnt Uto ht\ 

Dul« 41b, b AddG-nda, 

UCT* t.J I. OT»in/r¥tLT. 

Hold of Ivbour of tUi* kind would b« pKAGTitod by llie coriunt 
progroiM of |in1*lic worki involving voriorn dpi**>rat!Q[it ; &tij wf 
vHU prcaentlj uxuminc wLul kmJ of puUic vorl:^ mny tliii«, ckI 
ranlAgitiOiiiity lor ill* DAtl^n, be In coiiAinnt }irogn«i. TEtil n mnrt 
limporUnt fnatlfT ovon ilinn this of idtnd^ umpEojiirifnt^ u tlia 
kind uf cHtintiiti uiEh whidi yon, tlio imLrli^ n^ftriTn Uii* U'orim of 
ihcjoaiig men AiitmUtiicI lo yvm, Yoti m«y ilo mucb liarnj by 
iii<Ii»icrL*cL jirmsi^ axtd ^ty iridi»Lr&*t LIjjiic ; hut mneiiAlier, tlia 

jounf mai/ii work cAunol be perfect It mwC be more or loi 
ijfiiwaut; it uiiebI be Jii4>ic or W f^cUo; it a tikvlj- UiAt it iiiaf 
be more or W vJ}»ii(tLrLi;alf oik] if tiipcruiittitd, Uvr^ vid lliuiv 
mistaken. If^ therefore, yc^a aIIow yovivclf to himcb out hib? 
•uddcD bnrkin^ at the firaL faiilta you »c tbe probability U that 
JOD nro bbuving tbe youUj for Jtouii? dofir^t natunJIy an^ icicvitAblj 
belonging Ut thftt atAgc of bin pi-ogr^'4« } And Ui«l jou lof^'ht jutt 
H rnlivTialty tiiid faalt witb a child for not b^in^ w prurient oa p 
privy GOAinoillor, or viiU a kitten I«t uoC UtjtJig *» ^*mvo «» n uAt. 
J^ut there m one fault vhii^h you luiiy bo <juito turo in unnocwaary, 
■nd tburuforu a rual and blotcK^abU funit: tbal it biuU, involTiT]^ 
1i«glig«D0ii. A\ hunevor yoa ft»ii tlmt a voting tsAii't work b vilbcr 
bold 01 «JovonIy, tb«Ti you mny i^ttu^k h Ib-ciily ; Biiru of b«i[i|j 
tigliL If iii« work i« bold, it U iutobnt; raptvui bin iniutloncti : 
if it ifl fttovc^ntv, il U indotcnt ; rcprciv bj« iT>jto](^ri<.v?. So Icn^ un 
li« work* 1(1 tljHt riivthing i^r iirrpninmiK wfty, tltn Is^h bo^<» for him 
U lit yonr nonutrnpt : suid ii h only by rim ^-t of bin »j<jning ikol 
to wsfik your njiprobntioti ilmi yon may r.oiijucturu bn dtM-rvua iL 
But if bu dc>e?i dt-nerv^ iT, b(< flurn Ih&l yi^ii giVL^ It hint ^l^i-' yoa 
oot only run a cbxncc of drivinj; biiu fkjin tbe riglit mad by want 
of t*nc«)iin>^finRiiV but ycm di*p['iv<r yinifiiolTi* of Uic bnt-jiiol jiiv 
vilt^u you will «vvr Uhvu uf rrMurding bir labour. Fur il U otdj 
lliv yiniiig v\i9 can reccire mucli rcvrard (raia mt^v ^wn\ '^M' 
oJd; vltoa they jirc ^rvat, g^t loo fe \;c5oq4 wi4 ibVi?*^ y^ ^^ 


potmcAt tconour o» am- 

KW ivhal jou tliink cf Lbcm. Yoj may UT^ tb««i tlivQ irHfc 
lyiDf n^y, und fturronnii th«ra then Fitb accUmnCiooi ; b^ii tbti^ 

ntll <Jotibt vour pltaaurN and ^<«p]B« ycur pnu>v. Toifl ni!slit 
linvo cl;ctTo>J Uifiiii in tbt:ir cure llir^n^li tb« uphold mcadavrs 
of their jouth ; jou mi^cht haro broutrltt Ui« proud, bright xarict 
kto thi^rr (acca, if yoii bod but onod onoo to Ui«tm *^ W<II doACt* 
ta thoy duJic^ up to the ^rst ifoaJ of their mtIj vnbitioii. Bat 
7i4>w, t}i«ir |)1uiL^nro w ia momory, tm^ tJioif Mubitioo u in b««vcn. 
Tltcy OUT) be kind to 5<mi, but rf>i] never man am bo k^ii<J td 
th«n], Vou luo}' b» f>f(l uiih ihn 1'niit «n<) f]lt>tM of liuir old 
Kffo, but yoa warn m tb« i^tppirt^ blii^Kt t« tt<iin in tlioiv Mmmv- 
ing, Arj<| Tour fratic i* onlf JU Itic wnrm wiwU of flutufnii to tfc# 
d^in^ br0nt]lcft. 

Tb«T« U ono iJjonglit Uill, Iho HidJ«^t d" sll, boaHrig «li tkb 
uithbcilclitg ^f ottriy li*lp- It Ik pownblc, in hfinm noMo nutiinwi, 
thai tbc wnrnilh nncl ilic uffccli^ni of cbiMhocd mnv rcniBin un- 
cbfllM^ llifkiigh iinHriHnf'ir'f] ^ nrri that't nlH ntanV b<»r1 mft^ 
fitill hti f.ftpiibln of plscltir»> wfirn thi? lon^'WitliliclJ nj'mpathT ia 
(fiTcn hi lut Pvil in llnrw rn>blw iiMliin-n k nenrlv wlAHyN jiap- 
p^^nA, tliiit llje clitof iric^tivD cf mrL-hly iiTJibftioii Itn* nnl tK^m Ia 
^V(i rleli^hl U> tbamtoItcBi but to tliair parenb. Evcrj noble 
]r43itlb loukfi Imdt, HB to tba GbwfvBt joj? «'L:cb tLk» world's lioautir 
«vi"r i^nvc iiim, (o tho moment wbcn Gi>L he **w hjB fallicrV ejoi 
iWh widi pndc, ouJ bis inotLer turn away )i«r head, Teal bo 
■houlii laltc b<jf ti^Jirn ff»f t^xm of aofTi>w- Ei-^n tho lf»*<t'» joy, 
when HfTMc worthinpn* of his ii acfcTnjwledgi>l bcfori; hi> mifftrno^ 
3a not ao s^L^at aa tliat* for it is not »o pn^o — 'thti doiirc t»vaalt 
himnolf in bcr o^ca naixcfr with thnt of pvinif her <]oIi}:ht ; bitt be 
doc* not need lo M»lt himaclf xti bin pnrunla' aye* : it le witli tba 
pnra bopa of ^rvlni^ tbi.*m pUvfliira tlial b« cornea to toN thctn 
whnt ho hit* dofiB, or wbM bn* buon mid of biiu ; and thorofora 
ho bu a poror pl^'iunm of Iilh own. An^i ihia j^i^rvat anij bnl of 
rawarji you b«cp from bim if you can: you focd bim m bit 

LKT, L] 


ro»<f«T yoiilh with ikIioi tnc! diiVononr; unj Uicl ir^u com* 
him, oluiHjiibiift, Wt ti'ify Ut«, whh yvriir fcltirp \tmpil cii>ae, thf~ 
Jew all drify] from cfl'tts Tcnvoji; nJid yon thrurt U mlohinlflfiffiiH 
Ijniii?. and ]i« 1ouk» at yuu wivlAiDy. Whnt ihuJI he do with it' 
Wbirt <^»ii lo (In, but go und ky ir, on bk mrff.hnr'H grarn f 

IIlui^ iLtiu, yuu tttiu tbnt you Li;Lrc to pru;Ma fcir ymjr yoiuij 
men: flrnt, tic tcHTc^tiJiig or it]*cov«nii^ jich(K>1; tlivn tlia oJatl 
enplopncat ; tlicni tiiejuilicrDrprniw: : one tUinj^ iddto yonhAie' 
to do fbt t)K*m ill |>fv|>Miti^ Uicin fur full Bervic^y^nantdj', to 
iDvkc, m the noblo ■erne «l the word, ^nticmaD of thoin ; that m 
to uy, to Iflkci Care flint tLoir miaJs r^^ccire augIi iramiitjf. tliAt ia 
^L licy point they fJiAll mho ftnti fed tbo noblo»t thlnt;;^, 1 &jq 
tony to Any, tUat of all parts of an nrtjut^s education tJiin ik tiii 
tnOHl Qc^EccluiI ftinonf[ us; mxl that cvco vhc^v the natural tvlai 
And fcdinj; of Uic youth Llilvc b<;cn j>tiri^ tkud tni<v wliorv th«r«^ 
WW ttii right Atnii' la him to moke a scnticmaa of, you may too] 
frcqoctitly disdorti same j&rrini; rcntn in hi* mind, and olcmcnU of* 
dogrfblalion in Wo, tn^Htuicnt <t1 wibjt^i^tf oviing to ivnut of ^utld^ 
tminiTi^, ani of the hb4}nd influonijo of literature Thii ia qailo 
TuibTo ID our t^L'AUtit artfd^i own in iti<-n liko 'X\irnvr and Guitih- 
borougb; whil* in tho common t;rud#<if our MCOdii-ralo puiul«Ti 
tho «vil Mtt«ini K pilch which ia hr loo itdly imtnifcit to nocd tti^' 
dwelling u|Lon \U Now, no l>r]ini:h of art vcouoiuy ia nor* tm* 
poTtflTt than thnt of making thn intn11«jrt at yoardiMpoiul pnreaa 
well M puvetfnl ; w tliat it ni^y nlwnyn gntlier far you tbo awoct* 
Mt and itdrvst. thlngx. Tltn aamn qitantliy of labour fhwn Iho unii 
ixuuj*a bjiEiJ. wilL aci^urdrtig aa you have trairit]^! hitii, prorluco 
Jovvly and iiKfiil work, «ii h Iwm itiid hurtful oiii^; and du^K^nJ' 
vpoa it vhalviur valno it may poauw, by rcawn of (ho pAiiiler'il 
tkiWt it* olitcf ami filial valu^, to any DfttroD. dcpcnda upon lid 
ht^ng AU to ui.ilt and tctinc, ai well aa to p!ea»«; and that (lit, 
picturo vEiich miMl tndy d-^4«rvoa lh« nama of An att-troAAaro, k| 
thAt ivhich hw bcorj juunlcd by A t^o4 m^n. 



idoAK oKftTMwd, ftud then td finitb fJio pi{>mioa of llivn ; mnd 
th« Djcn) «]ii^rg7 Uiim hrcnj^lit to l>i'xr on iLc iimU«t fjnidcuav 
am] lljcirfum ciit^|ioTiA. llio |itu<lui'tiou iti » moti taiportnal 
l»^;-ii?u. 8ir Hjoiejiu Pruiiu; Htv aii^ltilout of ^ Dcv &[uji»tiirr a| 
CbfijrJ, [A>id iJie, tw I pAiB«4 tLtcn^-h OAfuiil vi^ niy y/A\ licrv. rJiat 
he found tliB^ <rwing to Utift ouiiQ nloiic', cApitnlfl of r4rio(ui dcHi^ 
cooLd btt wecatod cheaper th&n cafiT^I* of KinkJlw dcsi^ (ilic 
monnt of linnd Ijiboor id «b<b bcin^ the Mm«] by ftWut SO pci 


WiU, Oial in the firit wny, thou, in vrhich you will cnnpbT yoor 
iQtdEcct nrdl ; B-nd the *iiiiplo oburvanc<i of thi» pl&in mlu of po- 
iiticd Monomy wid tiff^ol a nobU ravobtion in jonr ftn;l>it«ctQra» 
iach oA you CADiiot 4t proctLt >o nmch m colllcoi^'a, Tbca the 
iii>ci>Q'l way in which w« »nj to ^ithl z^^itiTiHt wn»t« Is b)r tttttio^ 
oLtr tu«n 10 th« «uiWi, and th<ir«fnro tUo qinirkctt, work wh*fli 
yrWl answer ihu purpoic. Marble, for tnftinco> IaiU qriito Bi long 
u gnnito, iLud ii much lolUr to work ; thvruToro, whon joa gal 
hold of > good sn:lpt>r, gi^o him mArblo to rar^fl — nol fi^nviilvb 
That, yoii uiy, ]» obvioun ttio(i|(h. Yp*; but it 11 not na otyrlon* 
hotf much of yoiir «orkrji«ik'M lima joli wtuie arnnally in miking 
thim flit gTnj»« aftr.r it has got tmrtlf ^Emn ynii on^ht to mak« 
tliom mniild ii utiUa it jji uift It it imt hn ahvimii how mach 
Gxpvium )'oii wilBtv 111 uuttiufj; diHriioiida keiJ rulJlt!t^ which uv tha 
bardi^ tiling /oil oiu flrult tiitA »hjip<'j cltiil. mean miihing. vrbva 
the oatuo men might be ctittli^i£ uii^etoiio jiiid rreealona into 
aiiapea that ni<An K>mclhiiig. U ia not ao obviona how much of 
the nrtttb* time in luly y>u uute, by fbrcing tbf^m io ma^ 
vntched little pictures for you out ^f cnimbo of btono gliu4 
toffcth«r At onormona «ift, when the tenth of tho time would 
nako good and noble ptcturM lor you out of watcr^^oloar. I 
contd 20 on tifiviiL^ you JiliniM EiuiuWrJuaa JiurUuoM of tliu 
soittincrcjal fnifitakc; bnt 1 ahculd only weary And eocrrpao 
I thercf^ro i»ommeud d*o this lioad <( our euljciet to your 

huw Lo ftpply our gQjiiiu; utd wo vent to tjc it u cconi>nii»^ ii. 
iJimc Wflvt:— 

To^s work; 

IbM^ vork; 

Tlibi kftMng of iho Boric, ih«T), ia onr finAl qn^tion, 
Mhny of you riiAy, pcrhftpn^ rotiicrnl»r ihut Mi^^UftisI Atigslo «u| 
<nif!i» fYirntimnJ^'jl by Piwiiri ili MtiJid k^ moulHl m iUiti** out <if< 
PHOT, «rji) tliJiL he olxf^ej Uja nnnimmH].* [ am ^Ind, und ortj 
bare nil ri!«Kiri to ba i^bd, liijit tuch a TAiicy irvcr CAinu iiila tl 
miml of ii;a uimorlli V pnni^p, aiiil for IhU OHti)>o : tLnt l^laLro ill 
MdJici tbcii £ii^c« uL ttcf pcHod of oitc gtuHt cpocti of coimuju* 
matt! powLT In ilia Jirlo, LIlo putfuct, HCUumLQi anil irjUuwat {Wteiblo 
typ« of Ui? j^TcotcAt oTTor vhich nAtioiir^ and princes cftn ctJimniti 
Trtpecting the pcuftdr of ^niuA cntruBtcJ lo llicii" E»ii}anc«. Yen 
Jia4 clicr^ obMi'vc, tlio strottt^'«t ^niiiA iu Ihv luoit porfoct 9h^ 
dieneo ; oipablo «f iron indflp^aj^neia, ret wLoJIv BubmiKiv« to Ihi 
^^ pBtroaVirill; nt onca Ui« itKwi Jii^lilv ncc^omplji^iod and tho int 
^^V ori^nAV c«pnblQ of doing pa ina«b a* inaii Dould do, in anv dJrc( 
V tioD UxELt nuo oa<ild ftdk, AnJ iu g<>vomor, &nd j^iido, on 

■ pMcoQ vtH it to build n eCAtUQ in now — to pnt iucif TDto tbo mf 

I fjfiaof AaatliiUtioQ — to mftl^va cJoud of itMi^ AiiJ pi« Kviy ^r 

I t]i4 etrth. 

I Now ihia, 1^ pfwimly Rod complotAl V Jotio bv PJclro At MeJici, 

I H what WQ iTv hit -loinp, ^niOtly In ibi^ -Jcgnie \y \rhkb wo diivn 

I llie genliw iindor onr imtrona^n to work ii^ raonk or Irvu pflriib* 

I ftLIt* TnAlpriilj So far an wo imJiiw piitnt^rs lo nurk in fiutingj 

I colDiir\ ur an:biteT^l« to buili w^i iiiii>Drrot;l H^t.jauro, or isj 

I «ny cthcT wvy LUirnull uiilf iiuiui'iliBLis oatti huiI vbunpuosa iu |] 



?ounciL iccMtour or avp. 


f^TrjJitction of wbnt wo waiLt, io Ujo •Kuliiwon nf provident tliouRfit, 
M io iU fwnn Lric?hit.^i> «nil iorricffMblflHtfM in jiflcr nfcn ; «« iir tr« 
Biv fori^iiig our Mi-'hiufl Angi-lo** U» C8Tr4» In wiow. The finl dutj 
of Uia ccoDomitt in urt i«, to lOC thai no fnlcTloct tha}] thm gllttM 
men'Iy in ilm mftni^i^r of Wi^rr^*t ; hut tJuit H ih>M l«? w«J| ritri*^ 
flwi, like A iminli^d wiuiJow, auiJ nhHll bn a^t so bftiTfvn ithiiAii t)t 
Btono and linncU of iron, tlml h fUmW bear ilie Minihine open H, 
imii KEiJ tha »i]Tkiilj)[iiT iLrcriigli it, fiom ^nnnratiaii Ca i^ncmtSoii. 

] Oil] (Xiucdvi^ ti^wovur, buiDta |io]ilk<iU i.*c<ti}OTnUt to mlrrnipl 
luu buns. Will ea}', " It vou rnaki} votjr nil wv^r loo vrvj], yuu wil; 
•ooTi bare loo maiib of it; yui: will tlifo* vonr wtirti qoilo out of 
work, Tti^tt^r allow tor a littio whuli.i«i>mo D?Ani;jicciiCft— Wn«^ 
cent <]cAtniction : lot cncb n^o provide Ait for lU^rlf, or wc »hfl)l 
luivQ BO Mmnv good |>icturua ttmt wo bb&ti not know ifbat io 

villi ihcm/' 

Rorncmbcr, my clear honrorn, who arc tJiiiM Uiiiikini-, tlitt poTiti- 
obI oootiomj, bkii ovary otb«r siibjofit, cfmnot bo dealt wiLh dFoo< 
tivolj if wo Iry to »olvo t*0 qiiOflllniis al ft tl»n.^ iTi*t«d of nnv, H 

ono qtioiliotj, bow to (fat plonty of a t^in^; ^i^^l anothor, 
fbetbor pieoty of it wil) b» goorf for im. O"*idop Uioa* tvo 

ttora fttf[v*r*liily; tiovop cofifa*o yountlf U' idlorwonvjag o«m 
rith tbtf otliur. It It ono qiiruUitn. brtw tJi th<Hf' your fl«1dft«o u 
tA ^ H good hnrvraC ; jinntliL<-r, whrliiorroii wiihIl Io Em^-o MfCiuiil 
hftrvfnU or would frtrlii^r Iik*i tii kw(i up llitf |H'iiw of com. U b 
onu (|Utfhlitin^ bow to gmftyonr trhc* i<ui wt to ^^x^v niocLa^pW; 
Hnd qiiiiunTiolbur, vbet}i«T baring buqL n huBp ofapplu ia tiui 
MtorRroom will not iii»ki- ibuiu dl ruU 

Ntiw^, lln-Tururi^ llmt wu atu bilking unit aliual ^ml^ug arij 
growing, priy do nnt vex j^onntolv^ villi tiiiriLing what ymi W9 
tn ilo witb ibc pippin*, !t luny bo di«ii»l>lc for ub to L*to raocli 
■rt, or litllo — »o will ciaiiji»'J tbnt by And by ; but jurt now, lot 
d koep W tbc flmpU conwdorftlioii how to get plenty of good art If 

WAttl it. PcrhApa h tnigixt be jnsl aa well that a mun of mod* 

ni« iiicvnntf fthouUI bo rUa to pnamvi a ^od pfi'tiin, » llint &nfH 
work of It^il merit kIioitI'' t^tul AOOr. t^r lOClfj/. ; At ttll Dvvmi, 1| 
» CorULiTilv <>Rif cjf l\iu Ijra ji;It<T9 of [ioNir-iE t^cuiioiTiy to ■■(^i.-rtwq 
hrjw, if wo likc^ wc can p:l Uiing* Iri ijiiHiitltlitt — |»l«^tj cf col 
|jk>iil^ of wiui-. plunly off^M, cr {ilf^ntjr arplctiirct. 

It liM yni bt^:n MLiilt iHnt llio first grcnLeL-urtiLii^ to jinxiiic^i^ n^-iicl 
Ihfti \ril\ losL Now, Uic cf^nditioni of work JjUitln^ Mm ivoil-lrj ;i 
k IDU*C noC only bo in iikAtcHitle tl>At nill Imt, but It ntirat bv rUch 
of n qnolitjr tknt will Inat— it iHMfct bo goo'l c^^Mijrb to bear Htc Unt 
of time If it u not ffood, vo tbftlJ tiro <if it qiiicklv, lud tbroir 
it OMdc— wo bJijiLI Iiato no ploiuxrrc in the AcenmuIcitioTt <jf it 
thftt 111* flrtt ijijwiion ofa (jood itrl-flconcwniM ir(«ipciijtii>^ my work 
|i^ WJI it 1oB<i iu flnvonr bf kdopingV Jt ni«y bo vory nmuiirj^ 
find lock tiiLicti iiko a work of ^d^j^ Bui whntvill bg iu 

You cAnoot olim^ AAccrlAin Lhiii. Ton riA}' get wfcrit you fanojr] 
to bo work of tbo b«st ^TimlHy, und y«t find to your utoniibmciit' 
tbut It won^t koAp. But of ono tbing yon Dmv ^^ wJirvit ihat Art- 
vrhicb U prorhcwd hiitiiW wilJ aIio pt^Hih biwtily- And tl^At wbAt.j 
b climpoAt to you now^ U likvly to b« lii^HTMt in 1J^e end, 

I Atn lOtfT irt MIT, ihc gpi^At irtml^npy »f t1»ift Ag^ In ffi pujiend Iia 
^in» lit [wri<H]]ub^c Alt uf [ijin Wind, aa if iL vpit A Iniuijpb to 
burn its thoiig1tT» HVf.j tn bonni^^H Tticro j» a VA«1 qtiaTilily of] 
lT)i4^1l<ict Aiid of UboLir coD>iimtii ntiiiUAlly in onr ch«Ap illuAtrntcd 
f tiMlfjittonh ; yna uiaroph iil tiicin; ciuJ you tbicik ittogruid n 
thing to get Ao iriAny waadt-utA for n poniiy. ^'by. wooduutii 
|H-rin^ »)J h1I> hz'o m ntucii lo^l to ytjo m if yon IlmI irii\>tC4) jxnir 
wouoy ill govuajcri Morv toiU for thiL- gouaiitt^r i^ciiJd only tickle 
four Ahxv )Ui<J utiUor in your eyes; Si c<-u]d uot cntcL your fptt 
and trip yoii up : tnit tlic bA<) art cai^ And d<i«A ; for yoa cahH like 
fffnd woodcuto OH loD^ Ebt you look at Ike bad onca. If we w<rr 
■t tbi» momant to <oino acrow a TiliAn woo^Jcut, or a Dim v<ts,^ 
cat, wo A^ould POt iiiic il — thoK of ua At^corA^^MU^^'^'^:'^'^^™'^ 



roimoAL icovoUT or Ant. 

[net. 1 

t) tho tib«4p world of iJic dAT. Wn don't lilci% and ciio't }iki*, thtt 
long ; but tthon wc nro tin^ of oiip luul dinqj^ ibiug, wc lliToit ir 
Uiiir* ELQil Iiuv huoEihtT bful i^liciaji tbiii(< ; Mid to )iW[t locking ad 
liAil tiling All oiir livi'A. Now. iheterv wfi\ vliodo nil llmt ^ulrk 
bftd work fbr uh Htc cnpublu of doing purfvct vtou'L Otilj* |H»rto 
work u!ifi*i Iw tiurri«J. nnd lli^jefore it chii'i Iw cliw|4 bujtifiJ a 
ctrftAJu imiiU liM ■iJ|i^Q /Of] pAT Ivoltc tiincA u mucli jm joj 
do Do«, nijJ 7GU iuivu am) vroudi:iit furaehiUiu^ iatttowJ of twisilvQ ; 
4xid tJlc onr* waodrui fot a liiiUiEig ib us gooJ u art utii Ix^ tp tjiat 
)'Uu wtU uu¥vr lire i>r looking at Jt; »nt] iv fltruck «n p>od pApor 
vilb good ItiIc, to UiAt jou will ncvor wwr it out by tkAudiiiiif it ; 
vUilc you ara udc of yjjur \nn\iy «w;li cul» by tJ]« &uiJ of tlio w«ck 
md li&vc Wni tic][u moetl j m half too, lanH ycuz ikilling't ir<iria 
tliu btiBt l»r<,^iit 

II i« not, licwiTver, onU in getting prlula or woodcut* of the btti 
kind thiA you will prjw;tjw economy, Jhtntu io ei ccrtnia <jL»li^ 
h\>o%l tui orif^lrml druwjng whidi you ciuiuut gtit in » woodciit* ODd 
tbc bcAl put of tbc goniiu of Any mjia i» only Qxppn»L>lo in ori> 
ffinnT work, wln^thor witli pun and ink — ^iiail or <joloark ^^0 i* 
iiot jilwA)^ ili« Gftao; Uit in ^ciictiil tUc bcAt nion arc tLo«o wbo 
<An only cxprc^ tiiomeelvca 00 paper or cauvum: and you will. 
Ibcrcfoic, in ti^o lon^ ruti, gel moct for your mon«y by buyiLg 
ori^icAl work ; procct!ding on tho prinoiplo already lojd down, tint 
th« bnt is [iktily to ba tbo Glt«Ap««t in Iho ond. Of QOiATM^oHi^na^ 
work cannot be produpcd under a pcrUin co»L If you wont a 
man to mnbo you n drawifi^ wlndk takv« biin tiv dity»i you aiuC, 
at all oventi^ koop birti for aix dnya in briwd Hud wAt«r, fir* an > 
lodging ; diaC is tbo lowest pri?4 at wbich be c vi do it for yon, hv 
that la uot very dnor: and tho beit bui^ir wh:cJi c^n poudbly to 
PUKto liOTKWtly in iLr^'the v^ry tdnal of a cbrnp pnrt^UaDA lo Ui* 
purcfijuior — Is thii orifflnai work of a grut man fed for m thohj 
dayi na nfxttvy on bread arid wnl^r, or pf-rbnpft w« cnay tfy 
rj'ti aj jrum^ ouicina «& wWl kto^i )Am ^iv w^A liw-'Ewur. That i^ 

IliG vAy bj vhicb 7011 will itlwnp K^t ttK^st fkir yom mouoy ; iio 
B)CoiiAf»ii:aJ multiplication or iftf^nuilj of ooiuin«rciftl arrar^mi 
will «vfir ^t jou ft botur pono;'* trorik of Art Ui^n UioL 

WilLoal, liowov«4^, puiLin^ our cak-nUtioni ^iiit4 to llii* pnnac 
^ificJpTiL>e oxtrcm^ wo may I*y it doum » t miff in ^it^ecoTiom} 
IliiLlorigitiAl work Li^ oil thawbolA, choap^tt ami b^t itonh k^Hng 
ftnt prcriKcly in f roportion Ut ihc imtui- of ic ■« a prodndtiuti, 
biteoma iLa iinporlikno* of bivtitg \l mlv^iiUmI mi pL'rrti^iiont jjesIi> 
rialv. Auil bori; we comit to iioici iJte Hi>i:r>n4 niftlu ^-rnrr vC lfa« 
di^, that wn nob onlf auk our workTitcn for biui art, but mu ittMko 
llivfD put JL mbj baJ euliirtiLJou. Wc buiVt for «iatiip]i^ put « jfncnL 
qufintitj of ficniiui, witUin the Iwt Iweiitj ytart, itilo Itfttcrcoloiff 
■IfAviii^ «ikI ive bate JoDC tliEH wiUi lUo uiveL rudtluea 4liar«|{«i4 
wbcthcr «Ttbcr tlic coloum or the pji|>cr will iiUtiil. In mo%X invtMr 
00l» Doitbor will. By nccjJcnl. it may liMppea llial tLu colours in 
ih|^i«sn drKwio^ tiAv-o been of ifood quality, nndiUpnpcrubmJLirc^ 
by okttmio&l prccouc*. hut you t4k« not tlio but cnn> to diAU'a 
lh<M boinfE Ro; 1 Ju^'0 myai-Jf «oi]i tb« rno«t (itHructirq dmngot 
Uko placo in mattr^olonr drawitigt nitbtn twenty yovi nfWr Iboy 
««n» piiiitvJ ; nrkl from all 1 cu) j;pi[t[crrc4pootinf ibo rocklfiMUVM 
of woilurn pnpor m*»Li&;ctiiT&» my b<ili»f ifl, th»t thoogh yoti loij 
«tiil bundle an Albert Diiror co^rntitig, ivro hundred fcnr* oM, 
fonrloialy, not on<hbdf of tbmt tirno will bat* puMVl ovor yonr 
modvim walrr-oolonn., bdbra moit of tbfftu m\\\ bo rodiLco'l to Ki«r« 
vtbito or bruwn ms^ ; nnd your ^IrMCDndBTitx, twitditng Ibi^in oon* 
toinpinoiiftly \nui fn^mfUtik hnxw^nn flngnr Aurj ibuml^ will ninilcir 
t^nst yni], luJf lu HCnru nnd bnlf iii xn^r, "TIicbq nrntrb^ft 
nincki'iitli c!i-iiTiJTy pwplp! thvy Iq^i Tn^Kuiriitg Mid fiiminif nbout 
|b« TarM, doing vhbal Lljoy cAlictI biDuiica*, anil tlkoy couldn't inaka 
a >ltgi:lcif papur tbul iriuti't rott^a-*" And note timt thin it no 
cfiljELportAiil pijiijoii of your art economy t/l iJiii* limr. Ymir 
wiktcr^oloiir paintcn ard bocomin^ every dty capable of c[i.^T«tfti> 
isf j^rcatci and belter tbiagv; ixnd tbcVr nuSjcnok ^ vhi^\^^ 



roun^AL xcOQcovr of amt. 

Iu<^t. I 

I I' 

fidnpbiil to Uto ttm of your fimt »rlitU' rniiHlib Tlie value «likl» 
jov could fti^c^nintEbiU' jti wnik of this kint) ircntM woii bo<o«iio i 
rum; iniportuil turni In llio njitioiial art^wcKlUi, if i>nljr >vu woold 
take tiic little paint tiDi^cHary lo Mcaru lU pennai>«im. I «cb 
iuuliccd Ut Uiink, mj>i-1f. tlut wj^ler-coTuur ou^lt iiot io b« >»mI 
an pi]>c;r m all, but ociljr ctl vtllnm, Anif then, if propcrlr tJikcn 
axe of, tbo drawing aouIi] be JtTmosi impurubkbliT. Siill, |«apfT ii 
ft mucL tncira ^-i^Ttvonicnt tnikt^TiAl for r&^ijd work; mxI it tt «i 
irrfititlv ahfinrditj not Io nocnro the ifDodnu* of itB qimlilj, wbcn 
wo could tJo po vtthout th« alij*btctt troubia Among iUt nrmtj 
favours which I am ^ing to ^k ^m onr pnt«ninJ i^DTuriimciil 
whc^D nc siol it, will be Ihnt it witl supply iu litllo boiTH «i1b ffood 
paper. Too hxvo nothinic to do but to tut tlie govonitnirnt Mbi* 
bliiih n piL[<oririunt]f^Li;tory,iiTL^vr IUl^ «iiporini«nd«Qoeof jiil; oTiMir 
loputih^ chmniptf, who ihoald bo atiiwomblo for tbo tefctf and 
Gt>irip!<il<.m<wi of ill tho proooMTA of tlio rnaimriiGti;r(>. 'n^o 
gDVGttimE^ut itamp on tho comor of voiir ahoot of <iPAwing-pjip<ic 
iiia^e ill tbo piTftict iv»y, «)iodi1 ^^o«t ynu « sbilliri^, which wouM 
&dd ftonimhin^ to ttio n-'vennc; iind wbtfn yoii bon^ht > wnt^ri^ 
cotnnr dr.iwing for fif\y or a huTidrvd gnineHs. yon wo>]fd havA 
nirimSy to look in the comer fi>r your itampi &ud [imi yaut ntm 
Jnllihg for din Mmii-iiy ihnt your Kundred giiiuer* were ghmi 
really foi n dniv-iu^', imd noi fur a eolourpd rag. 'Ihvtv ntwd Us 
no monopoly or nwtrii-tSon in tt& mutCor; let tbo papi?r m&na- 
fni^liiTiin compete ni^ the govcriimcnl, and if pcApTc like toiato 
liitir Bliillinjj, aud lain thi-ir tUaiicc. l#l ibtfiu; clIt, tbo artist ind 
purulnwr au^lil Ujom be aoro of gfoud mntoiialt if tb<-y Ukcd, nod 
fii^w tbcycntmot bo. 

1 »t)otdd likv hIbo to ImvG n govcrnruouL coIolj rnaniifaotorf ; 
though tbikC ia not m nccct«uy, rub titc (Quality 'f co]our u mom 
vitltin tbo nrtiF^t'n powur of IfMliiig, aird I btkvc no duiibt that any 
pjiintf^r tuAf i^ci pcrtnanunt «j1otir tWiti ibc rcn^K^cfjiblc manufi^ 
tiuvn^ if bo ohooevti. 1 wUl not attonipt to bll&ts' tUo Mjbjoct out 

tMtn. I. 

tl. AlTt.lL*4tlOlf. 


nt nil u it reepecte pn:liiti;claro, hnj <>iLr inotto<^ of nh^dttO 
tuiidjnf-; rci^wat^ng ivliicl^ 1 bn^c li>i occasion to ipcftk bcTort 

But 1 cannot p«M vtlhoiit ^omo briof notioo our tinbit — con* 
tSnoall^, 00 it BQoiEU to mi?, jcaitjing stronj^ -of pultiujc a Iai^^V 
^uitutitT of UtoiJgbt anJ woxk, Aimi^dly, iaU> tbtiipi wliiub ara 
Aithtf] m Ihv'iT nhtitni n^ctuMkrjIy porutliflUo^ a* ^rnea ; or aU^ into 
ccDipliMico* «iUi Uio &wtiioD of UkO d^T, iiito thtTi^botaeccccantj 
|Krriibilil«v ^ pl^t^*- 1 ^ra nfMid almoflt iZti^ £nL itJ<>a of m ^nnng rich 
cccpio ivttifLg up hoiuc in London, », Ui[lC Ikcj mitt havij new 
plutc. Tbcir fktliur\ plut.; iiiny bo vi^ij h%tiilm\nt^ ttiic xhe fnAfiLon 
U chfkT>g«KL Tb«y will linve ^nnv ft^rvir^A lh>m Ihe loJirtlng mAnu- 
fftcturcr, and tbo old plnte, tfXfrcpt a few nponib ipooiu, jtnil a cup 
w}iic|i Charity thb f^i-'COTuI driLTkk a 1i«lIiIi into tltvir pnilty Jinuef^ 
trfw, IK tetil to U« mc'lt(>il down, Hiid iiiiuIia up wllli n^iw 11ciim*)i<A 
MTid froili liiElrn, Now, ui lorig m t]LU is llio Ckw — mo bu^ 4ib- 
^<rve. iw fft-^iion Iia? icifU^tiitx! oti lUa uianufuct'irti uf plailv— vo 
long prjn ennititl htti-e a irviiUriiilh^i iirl in Ihrt cmottry. Do JOVJ 
iiiip|jc«& A'l^ workinitn worthy tlic nnni'^ will put Iii» bnuEJA Jrto 9 
GM^t or aij urn, wliii;li Ic lnu#a is to i;<j t^ t|]« nif^llirig put in li&lf 
ft sooro yvnnj Uu ivill »Lit ; yuu i]<;ii^t a\L or vtpixt il of Liiiu 
ToLi HAk vf tLJED noUiing baC A liltlo quick himdictaAr-— ft dcttf 
tw»t at n bnntllc ticti^ n^d a foot tliurc, A couvolvulu* fivui tbc 
ucwoht M'lioul of dvAit;^ a pUco-iAUl frooi LcmdN«r'9 gjLtnv carti*; 
m foupio of u^tititnantnl tigrirca fur dappo^tc^^ in tbo itylo of tho 
■»f^a of rneuranoe o(Ki:r\ ihan n clever iaach vt'wh tho 1tiimi»1icra 
ftnd ihcro'ci roar cpcrgnc, tbc admirntiotL of ali tho footmon at tho 
v<diim^-broiLk£ut, and tho lomii^nt of Mania unfortnonte yonth 
who cftnnoi Ri^a tbo protiy girl oppccito to bim, tbrangb it» l^rikn- 
Dous bL-onchoA. 

BitL yon iJon'l »nppi>fl« tbat thaC* goIiJunitbV work I G<>Jd- 
RDiilbV work ia modo to Iflit, and tnado witb tbo moi*! «bt>l« 
faooit and wul U it; Lnie gotd«milli'i votV, ^^ksu '"^ «^\«^Js^^ 



j^criklly the meftiiK of cducatioa oT ili« grttAtsA pidolon ant 
VM^liton d^ tho da;. Fmncia ^rna a iEold$anXk \ ynmoA wu *9( 
Ilia 0*0 TiaiD<s but tlibt of Lid injMtcr Utb j«wollor; And bo ^cned 
hiipi?turc« nlmofct Al<rayf^ " trnncu, lli« g^oldivnith,' for Lor^ol 
)»!« nniitar; Ghiriudiyo vtm % f^Eduuitb, nntl «ai Ui» iuMer«f 
Miohftd An^lo; Vomx^io waa s goMsinilh. jiti4 vu tb« viMUr 
^ L«4>nardo di VinoL Ghibefti diib d f^dJHtjklL mid boat otii 
tho broEun gain vhit^h Mioh»4 Angalo wud mfght Mrve for fpM 
of runidiitD.* But if ^vi-r yon vrnnt work Tilca ttnini Upt^ JM 
(i)iibl kt^vp it, iJiufij^li it frljthilc] }ijivp ilm rttmFortiini* 10 booomo (^d 
Awhioni^, Ynii imiKt not hrnAk it np, nor mnli tt aoj moM 
Tlicrv U nu vcitrioniy in tliot ; ynu cotiM not p.!w\y twW {nl«ne«i 
mure i^ rluvijiiBl^. Kiluru luny lut-ll ttvr g^tdnuiiUjV »ork ■tcraij 
iiifucl if tilm cUfHum; ntd bcuL it out into disflvd btfv <^n wX 
tjvry >JurlH(^ ; Lut yow imuit tioU l*li« wk^Id Fiavo a tni/ Dob(o 
service cf pbto, ik to keep ad<ling to kl, iiijt Luoltiiij^ \u At einar; 
mnrriuect and at every iirtli, got a novr picco of ^d or vhrtr H 
joa will, Uit with iioblii workuiAbsliip on it» done for all time; ftnd 
put it amouf ;^our li'ovtiTW ; tlut ib cjti« of tLo cliiL'f UiiiigB wbidi 
gold w«* mjido for, And mndn incorncftlblc for. Whfji we Loow 
fl bttlc more of political (.-ooriomy, ve nbnll find tUnt none bat p4^ 
ti«1Ijr Mva^o nnlioim need, impcrnlivcly, f<>1d fcr tKoircnrTCOcy 
but f;olJ huB beun i^ivi^n tic% anionf^ otLor Uirii^s, that ve ob\ 
putboaniifuL work into iu impoi-iitbAblo ftplondccr, and llat 

' 8cTDniJ n>n«ana may MOJuntnir Llio Wt tJial ffuliijumLli^ work b 
vrholoHino Ibr jcujih artbitR ; flnt, Uial it pvoi gn4t firvmoM of Land to 
rl<!ul fi>r nunio tiitiv ffUli a huUJ eubiUinas >^i, ilml \l luiIunwcauUiMiaiid 
^tudiflMB — ft lioj* inifl^ with ^IlhR tad pnpvr fluflTtfi* «o Iniini^Jinto tM*^ 
aiV)a br> Ecnwl upon It Dud ploj virh K but tw dan?! not nmwl on goU, 
tiLd l]i> caniiJti p^y wEtli it; uuil, LuU/^ tiut It |iciv«|;T«iA dcUucj uJ prv 
^ilim ofiitncli fi> ^«rkupf:ininLni]t<k formii, ftnillonini ■! pmlnrlng fWiPim 
uii3 tlEjijli uf UtAKu oonapQiuliuL to lUo pTr<;ii>iuiim« of ibe tuiTrrMj 

* 8» dXq In Ac!dcnL]ii on thn noinr^ of proport;^. 

Licr. l] 



■rtifl* vlio have llio mott ivilfaL fAncico mnj hare a nmUriftl vchhh 
will dng ouCt aiTt) lijui out, tu di<ir drconiB r^]mr«, and will LoU 
iUolf togdiier wilb fkntutic tciuictty, vrbfttcvcr ra/e afiJ dultcfttf 
tcrviM they mI it upon. 

So bcro it one branch of dccorAtfvo nrt in wbieb rich ^topk 
icAj ioilulico IhcmHlvcB nnicMibij ; if tticj uk br jpod Art in Jt| 
tb«7 mnj bo Buro in bujiTi;^ sold and silver pUtc tliuttfi<^T &ro 
crvfordnf; ui^AiL oJiscation on young irtii*lA, Biitth^r« \n mioUior 
bruivh of d«coralivo B.rt in which 1 nn 9^Trr to lay ^vo cncuot, at 
I«Mt txtaUr aiiRlmif ciTOumAltLnocfl, indalj^ oum^Itve, witli t1^« lu>po 
Oif doEn([ f^od to ATiybc-rfy, Imcati tJiogreAt>tidftiiblJ« Rrt<)f drrac 

Ahit iiorti 1 TTiEtit irltrrupt tbo pimnit of our nttjoct for ft mo 
mont or two, in onSor lo lUU one of tho prlncf[J«ft of potJtlcsJ 
ooonomv. wtiHi, lliongh It Ii, I belfevo, now ftuftidentlr T[nH1^N 
ctood atid nucrtod by thebAdin^tnD^tcriQf tbo fcic&co, i* cot yot, 
I gritivv to «ny, fi'TOil iiprin by Ujo flirrallty of tlioto who hAve iHo 
iTnnngi^inixur, nf rit^h™. WhnnffVrr wo dpend monev, wft of noutun 
Hfl proplo 1o wortc : il\ni i« Ifiu inoJiTimg of «^iDTiLling moroy ; wa 
injiyi iiJiIo4id, ]o»c It wilJiniit employing Aiiyljody; hut, w}]i*never 
ire vptnd it^ wc itot n numbi^r of puDptn to ivorlE, gn^Uri ar Iqm^^ 
of coDtM, sccording to tlic mtij of ^agi.^ tul, In llic lung nitv 
pvopottioncd to the ftam vo »pciid. ^Vcll, your vhnlW ]>coplo, 
bcmnao they ko iLat tiowwct tUcy »poad moccy iUcy xk uIwavh 
employing vomolHHly, And, therefore, Joiii^ (Oinu ^oJ, tliiiilc anJ 
0fty lo thcm^clvcA. Ihnt :l u nil cknc Aoif thoy i-pcnd it — th»t &0 
tiitir nppATOiitly volAfth luxury ^ in rcuJily, uoMlfiAk, nnd Ia dojng 
)wt 9M maeh £ot>d An if tlicy gcato aII tbvir money awav, or por- 
bftpa cnor« jfood ; snd I havt) haard fbotult pooplo oron docJftfc il 
Rf A principfo of pohticTJil ntTonomy, thftt vhoovnr invontod a now 
wAol* «oiiforrod ^ ^oi:><i on tbo roinmuoTty. I ht?o not f?orJ* 
ftrong anougb — At JoAst I conJJ n4>E, vritUotiL «hoching you, nw 


Aid noco 5t1i In AAilanAA, 


pvtni?AL ■coirovT or a^t. 



tli« word* which voiild hi. stiong «no<T^1i — lo «ipr«K my «tfml> 
of the abcurditjr arij l1k« »tl«r1ii«vruimi?>t« of U'h j^ipciinr (»i}uj 
S<^ putting n givar nttraiiit i]|m>ti mj'iiolf, btiJ uvng m> liisrd uorh 

1 will diitjply Irj to nIaUf fJja TTulurL* of it, aikI Ui« vaIvoI of Vtt 

tir&utvd, tltnl wlLuiicwr tno npuirJ mutual 1i>r ubatcn'irr pti 

quwlicti vhcllitjc ibo wvrk wo b«i tlfta lo b ^1 oijcaII/ ji«ftltiij 
anti £oy>J for thciiH wo nlll «Mume that wJ^cncTcr wo apcoii i 
guincA wo proviii<i an »(^iiaI MimLcr of pcoplo wiUi IkaIUit tiuJo- 
tcaauccf for ■ Civcn liiue. But, by Uio way ixk vhicL wo »po»4 i^ 
17)3 cnlirclj direct tbo Ubour of thou people during lli^t givw 
tiiii<\ Wo l(ioDiu« thvir ruuUin or iDMtrovta, cttd wo OAatpd 
tlioiu to protlii&oi, wlUiin • aorUin period, a corUin «Hid«. Nowa 
tLiiLt artifilu maj b<j n useful oiLd Uitiag ono, or it nuj bo a taaoSoM 
ftiid poriHlinblo ono—it nmj bo ono unoTuI to tbo whol* coram 
or mcrfiil otty to oonvIvoL And cur (wJftalinHW %ud foUy, ct. 
virtim AEid prudvTif^o, niv kIjowh, not by our «ponding noncjj 
bjourspptidingitfoTthew'fongof lltflHgljtlhiHg; ftnd wo»f« 
■nd kind, not in m&inl«i]iih){ & t!crUvm number of pL^dplc for ft gtrMi 
[ierioil» ijut i'uly in rr-rjuii'iiL); tht-m to jtroituci^t during Utttt p«riud, 
LliL-kmdurtEuujp ivhidi aJtuli buUMifui Uf EuduLj, ifivteador 
wLiclj aro only nwfid to ourvolvt«. 

TliUB, fur idbUlicu : if you fire u young My, wid employ & oo^ 
tftin number of »omjirtn»«L^» ftrr ^ given tJuic^ &a making a i«ircii 
nuinWcf DJmpSo i^ni scrviceablo drf«w^ Buppi>ic,>oron;of wkich 
you \-M\ wear one Toiiftclf f&r liiilf tlio wlnkx, Hcd givo m away 
to poor tcirifl who bavo none, you are apcndin; your monoy ujjoclf 
uTily. Btil if you omploy Ibv mmio aumbur ol ^'inpBtnnw for tbo 
lamo number of dflVf, in mAkiuff four, or lirosor tix UnALttiful 
duiiric-M for your owu Lnll-ireKc— UounteB uiiidi wtll doQu oc 
one but youn«f^ and which you will yoiinkolf Uj unablo to w«oi 
ai more t})An one ball^you sro omployinj your money HlfUUly 

i.Bor- t.J 

II- APr-LICATlf>!<. 


You kt^o maialnirind, inda^^d, in ^lu-h i^mo, tti« swno 'Triimlrtf r ^ 
pM^tft ; bul in the ono cmo you bavo dimetod thdr labcmr to tia 
ttftpi^aof ibo commLimir; in the ^'I't^^r (mv jon hiti^f con«annvd 
It wbollj upon j'ount^lf, 1 douH toy joii an* never to do ao ; ] 
diHi'l m^ jou ought not RonnrtlmoA to tliink of jaanelvt* only, 
ftud to unite jDum-lvo m pretty » ytnt t^mi ; oulj" do tiol roufiiM 
CiX|U0Llia1i[ii;w witli beriavoti^iJCtf. uur i^UciL voui'advA tuti> tllluk- 
in^ tliil m1\ the flucry you ran wi^r i» w nmvh put Into lli« 
lujugTj uioutli? of tliObo Vuiii^atlj you : it ia nul tio ; it is vital you 
joiimrlrcvi whcUi<ir yon «vill ci i!o, ntii«t nomctiinc* inntinrtivcl^ 
fed It to be — it u irliat those who »land *tiv«nDj in the elrcclis 
foTtiiinf a lino to vat^'li t<Mi aA r-iii «tq) oct of ymir carringM, 
Jrra^u it to bo; iLobc fiuo JroHt« tic not lacan that *c mxn-h 
has b«{^n jmt into tlioir rnoiilht, but tlint h> niui!h hu Iwoq 
IkkonouC of Ihoir iDoutha* Tbo roi^ poUtico^oQononiicfll vignit- 
wtioa of evwy on& of ihoao buovitilul toilctlwi, is jiwt tlii*; that 
jou havo had n ot^rlain nTimhar of pcopto put for u oi^rtain nnmbor 
^f <kyi wtiolly nndor jour mtbority, by Ibc rtemert of alaro- 
,ra^ — hunj^rc:'r nnd coM ; axuI you hav» vaiii to tb^m, "1 will 
voUf indcctd, and clothe you, and ^\vc you i\iti\ for w Tuany 
daya; but diLririg l1iiiu> inyn ymi thuW vorlc for mo only: yniir 
lJttI«hmriipir» np.n^ doilins, but you nhill lualca uoue for ihcui: 
your Mvk incnd [iituJb ulutlu^ l>iil vun bbnll ujhLv tiono for her : 
yon yourh«]f wilt noon need nncthuri aTid a Aanuer drrjoe ; but yoo 
ahalt mnke nono for jcnntr:]f. Von fiball make nothing Imt Ijico 
aud rosea for mo ; for this A3rtmj:ht tc cotno, you ^faail vcrk at 
tbo palt«ma and ^K^talSt and than I irill eroih and con«Linic llicm 
away [n an hour." You flH!) psrhapi anower -'*lt mwr not bo 
particolnrlj ticn«vo]out to do lJlt^ Hiid vij won't catl it ^o ; t>i>l at 
any ratu wo do no wrong in tfikTUjT their labonr whcQ wo pay 
thoro Ihoir wajjoa : if wfl pay for ihcir wrvrk vv h4v>» a n;jhf le 
H." NoJ^a Ihouttrid lJm«t no. The laUur which yf>ti havo 
paui ft>r, doc* md«od bocomcy by iho act of pur*:ha»>, yonr own 


TOUTICAhI. ftc«*OUT or aut. 

tu»T. I 

fnltnor: ymi hnva lioiiglit tlie bAntU A[i4 tJjc limo nf Uioaa v«tk 
en; they !vr(% li^' iigliL uriij jiiBCku, jour onti liaii^ls youT ova 
tiae. 1)1)1, huvfi 7on n right Lo ApcnJ ygiir own llnu^ u> wort 
wiUi your owu ImutjEW ouljr for ^ur owit «id*&aUi|*ef — iDocb 
lutjiu, wli^ii, tiy purcitHM, yon Ji^tu invcMoJ youi «/^*n iMjnKia 
'Ailh tb« fltrcQgUi of other*; and acUci^ to ytfut own liJe^ a inri 
of lIi« life of orient Y^n uiay, iTJ(l(>vd, to h (citAiu tjrtonUQM 
tiioif labour iot your JcUght; rcmflniLcr, I am mokinjc ik> ifoir^ 
ral MMrlior^ ogniaat epI^TnL^Lir of drijMf^ or ftoa^p t>i MoOMsrict 
of Ufo ; on tbc ooDtrKry, Uior« oro toKay rcoKitJ* for tttinkinfc iAiaI 
vo (Jo ui>t At pruoiit »tUcU <raough impoitAQco lo l7«»iitifhJ drai^ 
m otut of tl]« iDGAiift of mfluoELCing gDacril butQ *ud chnructor. 
Bat I do leiy, that you tnust volgh ih« valooof wliAt yon mk 
thow vorLcn to prudiifu Cctr ynn in ita own dUlinci bAlMnca ; th«t 
on it* own worthmou or doHirnbltttinu nsu tho (^DimtJoa of jonr 
Idndocu, »nd net moroly ori tiic fii.'t of your bavio^ <?niployed 
people In piixlni^ii^g hi And I my farthor, rhftt m Inng am titers 
ira cold unci nakcdDO* in tli« IniifJ luxtujid you, mt Igng thcra 
o&n bo no i|LJOKtlL)n hI, :h1l lal timt »}>li;itdour of drOM h a ciiin«k 
la Jun tiiiJi^ whtn wc ItiLvc [lotlLiitg Iruttcr to mi pcopio to work 
Att it may b« ii}^bl to Ut tliotu make \bc9 uii) cut jiiMrdi ; butt M I 
long a* llicro arc any wlio Ziavs oo llaukcta for tbcir bcdi, ftud 
no rii^ for tlicir bodicBi ao loug it is blazJtul'iii&bLng aihJ tailoring 
wc muat *ct pcoplu t> woik a^— not Uc& 

And it VfoM bo atrnngCt if at nny grcnt M^cmbly vUidi, wLiU 
it doxtlol tbc yomig and thu ibott^^btlesB, bvgujlud tiio gontlot 
bciirt* titut boAt bimctuti tbo crabroidijry, witt a p]«cid MUftt^n 
of Jaxurioua bonovoicnoo — m if by all tbftt tiioy woro in waywirl' 
ncM of boniity^ comfort hoJ baan lirut givon lo Ilia d^nt r < « aj» uid 
^d to tb« indigent ; it voald be BtTonKiii t wy* i^r f^' ^ momrtjt, 
Iba tpintiof TriTth ftnd of T«rror, wbich walk inviiibly wnong th« 
muBc^tie* of Uio cartel, would lift iba dimnci* from our orrirg 
tlioLjgbl^ arid hIjuw iia liow — iiuttmaoh u lbs «UTn4 axb;tu«|»l fol 

LBCT. I.] 


tbftt niignSfc«rce wonZd hftvo f^veo bftuk tii« fAiling brMtb to 
Qunj- An Miuln^llerpJ out^uurt oti moor anj utett — ihcy who wew 
H bHV« iilomlly vnterrMl lub) parlnenJiip witti Di>nth ; artnl rlrMsnj 
thmmdviw m yih *f oiR Y««, if tho vdl could ba lifteil not <tn\y 
from ,your ilioughla, buL froin >oiir liumau siglit* joa wuuld hhj — 
the in^jol* <iv ftee^on lliu*ii gJij wliitc Jftwiwi of y^iira, slran;^ 
dluk BpjK ftud ciiuibgiL pAltcniH tliut jqu Ildcit not of— apoU of 
tbc incxtin^Tiuliiiblv rud tliut nJl tb« Jwu c&nnut woab «vk/ : jea. 
nod nm^nff the pl«biiniit lowers Uuicravn your Gur hvadB, buJ 
glov oil jroar vr«Htliod L^ir, you would aoq tfi&t odq weed vm 
atirajv tviitod wbioh no ono thcui^bt of— tlio gruia th^t grovs on 

It WM not, howevor, tljin ln«t, tliU oleoTMt ftad moot appni- 
Ucg vieiv oE OUT ■iibJD<;tt tJiat 1 ^iitoiided to nak yon to uJcti ihiM 
tVQTiia^l only it is iiDpoeaibh lo eot unv jinrt of tlio mcLltcr in iu 
tTiLc light, iiDtil wt> go to lh« root of It. But tha point vrbich It 
In onr <pe4;i»] T>ii4in«M to convidt^r \*, not wliutber coctlinfiM of 
drcMi i» to»i(r;irv lo chnrity; btii whctlicr it ia ii&t ponirwy to 
mura worldly uimfoTn: wbelbvr, awn ftUfijiuniTi^ wo kiiuw rhnt 
•plondgar o^ dtaw did not <x«t KulTcnng or hungor, wn might 
not put lh*i ftplundutir li«tiur iu ulUor iLitjgH tlnut lIawi, Aad, 
ftLippo^n^ our luodo of drcM wcro rcnlly grAcofiil o: bcfiulJful, 
thi* mrght bo A y<ry doubtful E|uuBtjun; for I bu1i«ve true 
uobWiitsu uf druB to to «T] imporUnt niojtrjn of cJLii:ftt]oD, as It 
c«rt«itily is fr TicccMJty to any noliotj wbicL wisJioi to po^svM living 
KCt, oonocmcd with portraituro of liujuan batoro. No good bj*- 
lorioftl pninlJT»g *vor yet ciirtcd, or c'cr can cjiihl, where tbo 
dr»M* of the p^plo of xhn timo aro not bo&ittiJuL : and iud it 
not Uwn for tbo lovoiy and fftnfuto drctAjng of the ISth to 
tbo lUtb contnricR, nuithor Frcncb, aor tnorentiriOt tor Vowiian 
art oootd havv riioti lo unytbirif^ hke Lbti runl: )l rvtvcbcd. 8lil], 
even thm, tb« ba»t drwoting va£ bovor tba OMlliciit; iud ita cffbol 
dapcndf'd tnacb i&ore on ibt b^uitifnl ft»d, in oar^y ifn.«& 



TQuncAL KCOKOvr cr xttf. 

[UCIL t 

iBolut nrrtn^E^TTiciit, n-ttd on the »iibp]« uid Ivrdr moflMs cf ill 
boliiiir, tlian on pirg;i:ou»iiCA of rbnp or tE»bf9)icr7. Witclkfl 
«o CHO over r«ti]ni to nnj of tlicoe mora pcHkt ty^ Of Iodi 
b ^neiti^Dfeblo I lilt Ui^re caa fc« no qntMioa, tli«t ail llM 
nionoy vo •pcml on Uio totm*. cS dnm «t pTcMnt vora, i^ i< 
Tnr Ki any good puq^Mc i» i^one«mcd, whdijr lD«t. UiMt, ii 
tnpiig thii, I roclcon mnong good purpoua tho piirp«M trhkl 
foiing 1sdlc« Are ftiM HrtnietirnM to «rili-rt«iii — of Wing nus 
rirri; bat ihcy voitld Im mftrnod quitn «a adod («>d [tfotiAiJ 
in wlM*r »nd belkThimbftMiU) liir ilKw^ng ijiEiclly m b>' itr«<i«i 
bdllwi^tlj; and I bolbvo it wouTd onlv Ic ccodcd 1o by fiuri 
nud Ijtrj^dly Lttfrvnr l}iuiii Uio ntd ^ooJ mhitJi lui^Iil bij tfTucI 
by t!k« fum:i tlkcj rpcud in toilc^tcx to moke them tnut at o 
only to ihoir bright vye» linj li-oidcd Lair for a]) the a\ 
tlicf bavc a ditnd to. I v'uh nc oonld, for orico, gci 
■Uvtutiot of a London Muon. Hiore wna mucli oonipUiixiD;; 
in Parliament lut wook at the vont iiuni the nntion !ia« |:i~T«tt 
Utc but l^rnil VcroDcao in Venice- JL'HtOOO : I vonJ^r »bAt th 
nulict tnaannhilo tinii giTOn for iti bal]-dr«mut 8u^po«s v« 
»i*(t tlo London iiiiniii(ira* bitlt, limply for ufinacentry breciJlliii o 
»lip and AcmnE^n^ ftoni April loJnly; ! wnhdar v1ioih«r £N,nrii] 
VKOnld cover ih^m. But tlio brcauillii of tltp and flonniNM aru bj 
Ih^K tim*» fw mnrh \nnt nnA vanMu'd »w If«^ jpJiT'tanow; only ihftj 
hftvn dotiif li^sgfflMh but tills Taul Vtffoin'M.- wilt lint rorcffibiriu^ 
it «c Inke earn of it ; ard yot wc giiimbk nl T.lie i»rirfl given fof 
Urn p*intiiip, wbilt im one jjruuiblp* at thn prit:o of pndt:^ 

Tim« dots not periuit rno to go into any fHtthct illuBtnilioT] ol 
tltf vHivrnB mLH}r4 Jn wLicb vc baild our atatoe out of «now, atsil 
whslo tiut IftboTir on tbinpi tlmt vnnwh, I iiiuat hart you to fol 
lott out thi' Bu1>jti;t fur yuuniulvt^a, a« 1 baSiI T pIic^M, aniJ procfwli 
in oitr ni^xt 1cctu», to fTXiuaiiic the two otiicf branch^ of onr iub 
JMt^ luunplvi bou* to Aocuniuttita out elfI, and Jiow to dintribut* it. 
Bnt, h cloftin^, ai wo bavo been niucb on tiie topic of good 

Kovcmm^t, both of oamJ^M ftftJ olb«t^ lot mo jort gste jou 
QUO inOTv Ulnitnlioui of wljEht it meruit IVom tbftt old «it «f vliichi 
noxt ovobiv^ 1 alifllj try ^ oonvEnoo ytM tbul tbo vafuix botb 
morhl ftnd mvTCantifg^ n groator Uiaii wo nRudtf cuppoao, 

Ona of tl3« frauow b^ Ambroslo L(irL^r>£viti,jn lb» lovrnliail 
of Siofiik, f«f»tOk*ntj, bv moimB of ivmbolic^ fti-Ltraiv lh« pTLnci|JM 
of Gocd Civio Govorarnecit nnd af Good GovcrnuiQUC in jj^oncr^L 
Thn flgi^rA raprofuintJng ihia nobis Qric Gov^rnm^TiC U «rlhmci(H}, 
ind Kurroiindud b^ flgiirm n^presL^nting tlio Virtai^ vAri^tuiIy %\i\> 
|>or[,1hg or i«Tiir^n^KT,erin^ lIh uiklliurity- Ni^tf, oWrru vliHt work 
in ^Vfm to ftsrh of thrflo virtin* Thron wingcri onwi — Faith, 
flopn, nnc] C]»»rity— MirmiiiiJi^ tUa liMd of llie figure, not in 
mere ccnplmncc with tJio cyiminnn nnd lierftTdio Uvf* <if prefix 
■leoca anrKing VtrlJiV4k> Mii'-h m «« modnrniL fibniT.rvn huMtnally, Siil 
«iUi pAtTUlzAT purpou on tbr pmrt of tho pairtur. PujtEi, ua Lhi» 
nftrowntod, nilla^ \he Uiuugl'tBof this Oood tioicrHi^r, iJous not 
moAfi mcr*1y nelijfiou* fahb, andorvtood ia tt^oac tim?4 to bo ti(i^<»- 
•017 to aSi pot-MQA — p>T>:nioil iKi l^-M tfi^n ^*vrri)i:jrn— bijl ii 
neiini Uio fftilh whi^h enable* work to b« cnrHciJ out »tabii1r, m 
vfrito of ndvcno nppo&r&ncw tkod i:vfH^iaat:L««; tho fiiith in gn>a1 
pHnctplcf, by wliicli ft oino njl'^r looki pA&t oil tho immodiato 
obeolca and «hAJawi that woulJ Jaimt a ooumoii iuaT>t knowing 
thai uhdt i» n^litlv cI'Mjo viti have ft ru;bt iuti^ Artd holding: hit 
nay in fpito of pitUinp >.t bi« doiik Arid whiip<.<rit]|^ jn hia onr, 
endnnn;-, u huvtii;{ in him ■ fiLtlh wliicli It «rid4n«0 of ihCngf nn- 

[lipii At^cI Uo^ls in likv tamnci^r, ih ham net t1io hoAV^Tkwird hope 
wliich on^ht to unimkto the b«Rru of hU mon ; but tito iLttcndjt iipoi; 
Ooori OnvornniAnmc ftltnw Umtni' ^nirh goTftrrmnnt {t^fxp^iani u 
wdl M ^finxmnitivt ; tlint If it i^r^tM* xo hv luipcful of Wltr^r 
things H crauHv to (i« & u[iio ^nAiduiii of fri.vii.MiL tlilngn: llmi i( 
ought n«r«r, tut lon^ mi rJiA worM l^is* to bo nhoUv ooniL^ni with 
ftDf ctinting aUIc of iTinlitutian or pcivrHiuti. loit tif bo bop«ful 

butily, but fM^fin^' liiitt ita r«al Uh «on«i»t« in Mondj Me«nl 6aai 
high to liijflicr: cofUflrveitivfi, ijijo^l, and jcjiLoiifJy ooiu«fVAiJT« 
df old thingv, but eon>«rvativ« «f tU«im lui pSIInn eot «« [kiciiitct«l 
— lift ftid*, bat not ut Idolit; nrid liof>«fiil diio^', ftod flcCiv*, In 
l^TTi*** nf Tmtinrml trUF or dittreK, arponltn^ lo ttiow ftrvt maJ 
tiflfAtiln noTi^fl r1niv\r(}i{rtg th«i qn^ivitlv natTrin. "SKa ritntli, vAil* 
il £r yet wf/ht" Aik3 iifinfn, tbcf wiTigcd Chnriiy wMirh ii aUeiy 
daiit nn Good GoTurrin^ei^t ItJi^ Sn ^h\f^ frwco, a ji«ci]luLr ofllca 
Can ;ou )faiua tvh-atr If jou c-jaaidcr the djoractor of vcmtot 
ivTi'ldl BO ufbjli L&li^iL |>TElL-1^ AiiiQiij; I^Jri^ for iLt^ir cTOviiHi jiud lliO 
Btlfioh tiud tjr»noo[j* mpina thcr roimuonlj trtkc to niii^aniJise or 
s<Miorc (Ijoir poivtr, you vrill, p?fhnp\ bu siiqirieed <o hmr thai 
ihf. oflloc of Charity i* lo crnvtn tbc KiTi^% And f^t, tf yoii iJiiulE 
of it ft litUo, ^(-11 trill WM7 tLc bf*Aiity of tbo tJioiij^it uliich icta hor 
in thill functbn: bince in Hit tttt pUce, aH the &\)t})fintT of % 
tl^Dcxl fovontor nbould bo dcaircd by hini only (or titv i^o^id of lii* 
poi:i|)lai AO tbol it it oriEy Lovo tlmt niAkoA him aooept or guArd bit 
crown : in tbo ftccond pUco, Ui« cb]<jf f^rofitntviA conhiH!ii in tti« co^ 
oroko of tltia Joi«, and bo ii truly to bo rcs-crcd only io fitr m hw 
ftota and i)innQ]tU *rv tbow of kiniln^wt; lo tliM Lore Ic ib» Hght 
of bi« crown, cut voll m Uio |*ivoTof it: loftJy, b«f iiubo biistroiigUi 
dcponila on rb? iflf^^'tiortt of bit ptrApIt*, nnd ^t it only tbvtr Iotb 
whidi van Ka4>iiraly irrown blEU, kHiI fbr nrnr. So tbnt f/ivo la tfa« 
ftirvngtli of b>* (.^Town iw w<*ll ns tht» li;jbt of:!, 

Thon, Murnniiding tbo Kir^g, or in various €tiiv)ienco to him, 
ii|>prfjir the tlt^pdcni ^rtuoi, u PorLit^idc, Tdnpomnoc^ Tmth, 
and otiivr MtlirLitiaut epiritis of ull wbich 1 cMnuob uovf f^v^ k> 
count, iri^biuff you only to nvtkc ihc one to nhma oro «&tnnited 
Iho ^idanoc «nd adminirtration vf tlio public rev«na«a. C^n yon 
(pifp* wbicb Jt id likoly to be? Charity, ycu would bare thcmcbt, 
aboold bavo Aomvtbinf- to do with tJio bnsint^M^ bol not ho, for 
^ho i» too hot to attend t^ikrohilly to it. PnidcnrCi pArhap*, yon 
ihiok of in tb« ncit plik^u No, idio it too timid, Ami Iobci- of pof- 


luuitti* iu iiuikliiu up !ior inmc3. Ciui it ha Liliprjilhy iliAtif 
No: Liberality » ciitru»tod willi iv>iito KmHiJ hiiiriH; tml f.]jc it a 
biMl accounUiit. AnJ U allovud no imporUiit pluce m th« «Lictie- 
^Qcr, But tho trcasur^fl uq givvn in ckorge to a virtue of wliidi 
wa LcAi loo little in mchJvni timoat JU distinct ftoin oUion; 
Unfcnftsiniity i Inrgoti^a of boort : Qot sofbicM or wcaIc&cm of 
liftfcrtu mind yoo — but cttpiwity *>t hwirt — Ihc gpcol WKu/nn'ftj 
virtue, wliicli wcig^ia in hcuvQuly bal;uLU'a ni] Uitit ruhj be givoi^ 
And tl\ UiAt luay bo gaiiLcd; and scca how t> do noblc«t things tu 
notilcit wnyai vbiolt of two gAKk ccmprftb«ndE anO tLt^rcforc 
tLoofi«A Ui« j^vfttat: iphicb of two p«nionAl OAcri^u daroa aim! 
AOC«pt« lb* lArg«At; vbLcb, out of tbci BvcQaoa of beneficooce^ 
tTMid* AlwA^ft tbAt whicb opiMiG furtbott iiito Jha blu« fluid* of 
fbtunty; Ibnl cihann*tt*r, in fiiio, wliJcli, \n i1jM« words Uken I>y 
iu at fiiM for tlio doAcHptLon of d Quood UDong ili« oari^ut, looLa 
l««i to tfj« pnMjnt power than to the dtont premier; "Sttenglh 
uid bnii.iLir Afc in hor cIotLiijg, — And she ■hAti rcgoion i« ttttM 

to OOMJ!." 


^LmcAi vooMvy or a»t. 


Tub IihuIh of our mbjoft trhidi rriionin IW <Kir conrfilenixn 
tfil* eruitSiPg iTSt j-ua vill rviiR^Trittflr, ihe ucumaUtien tod tha 
dtptnbutJvD cif wrkfl of jut. Our ccim|iIcto m<|a]fy M Inlo Ami 
iJ(viMOT(» — flftl, bow to pel our gc'iiiiu; then, bow u> Apply om 
gvAios; tlicn» Low to ai:n.iiriiEjTiiLo it* (Tau^U; iinil IamUj. tdv lo 
diBtrlbutc tlicm. We con^dcrcd. ]jut cicniriK, bow to diMOvef 
1,111) Apply it; — wc hnve to-night to ciftmbo tbe mo(]<a of jia 
prescrvatJon ^nd dUtribution, 

ArtI now, in tho oiitact, it will b« well to fitCQ tltJtt objection 
irhich wa put Ml Jo A UltJ^ wbi]« pgo ; nAmolj, UikI puhAp« ii ii 
not n^ll lo bnvc a j^at ^Ioa] of gooJ )ut| *nd tl^ikt it ilicnild iu4 
Lv DiMla tiio fliiuap. 

" Kftj," 1 «ui iinrtgiiio *Oino of thfl moro goneroiw Ainorj* j^w<, 
csclftiminjc, " wo wiil not trouble j'oo to clbprovo itji obj^tion i 
of coiirtu il ]# n voIAaIi nri<i buna on« ; ^tyoiS art^ tu wdl] m otlior 
g'^od thing*, ought to bo Epado flu ch<^Ap an pouiblo^ ani put tt tkc 
ai we i^nii vitbio thu rtjnch of ovor}*t>9dy," 

Pardon mn, 1 am not prrparivl t^ arlmit UinL I rathoir 
with i\w Kulfltfb oljiM^.toTTiv and beliure lliJii art oiiglit irut 1a bo 
matin cbfap, bnj'ond a Enrtaln pomt ; for the Hiii<niT^t <if pIcMure 
lliRt yon ctm tv^ivc twm any grunt woik, depiiiids ivliolly an tho 
ijUHDtjljf of at.tfiTitUin aikI energy of mind yini uiti bilu^ 1i> War 
upon it. Now, that altcDtlon auJ energy di^puuJ much man oa 
tbo froilincM of tlk« ttitng ihnn yoii wontd at all «uppi>M ; iialwa 
yoD very CATcfully studied the moVDmonia of your own mrniii, ]f 
you Bcc tbiags of t]iO aain* kind and of oqt^al yaIqo itty fro 


iier. il] 

m. XCCDltTLATlOl'. 


quentlr, y*iMT TtTcrmiofr for tKrni » infjilLibly diminit^lteil, j^iir 
powcn of attoiitJou gel gmJuaJlj irearic<i. and jour iutcrwt aud 
nktbudoEm nom ont; ^ntl yoti catiTiot tu iJ^at sUle biin^ to nnj 
givon vork the cncrtcv noccvdry to enjo/ it If, indeed, t]i« 
«^u««tJOii wcrt onl^ lielwccii eijoying a great laany pictjit<» each ■ 
liltlo, or oho pictiirc tarj much* tHc aam of tiyOTUi^fit Wiiig ?n 
<sich €Dfrj tbo Mme, 70a might mtionalty dcnto to poMCM rtitet 
tlic Utgcr qanntit^'i Uiun lliiT ^iiull; loth Uicfliiw ono work of Art 
ft]wiLy> in i«iEio »oit illUf^trAtca anothi^r, find booanto qUAtitity 
dinnnu»hu tiic ohiLnc«« of dcetruction. BtiI tlic question fi not a 
idomI^ antl^raoiicftl on* oi Ihift kind. Your ft^^nidnU of bn>kui 
ftdmirajionft will not, when tbty pja put togotlicr, mitko it|> onf 
wboI« K-lrnEnvlion ; two und two, in tliiii ciBer ^J*^ ^^t make four, 
nor *iTytliing iito four. VMir good picinrp, or book, or work <A 
ATiof any kind, is ilnaiw m wuTiie di»gr4i« fbticM khd c1oi4Kl ttbtmi 
wMi difflpolty. Ton mny ihintcpf it iwnf ■ kind ofmcna-nni^with 
■cry rttiim tnt!icr *ti ni«i*ptidj' kIiuII, but good luilk aihd kL^TiflJ 
liiAjdA, Nuw, if j^uii [lOhni.'u twvtity L-riL:Da'i)ii1j\ itiid bi*in^ tbinAj, 
go impati<?]iLly iVoin oiift to the oihni, giving oid^v a isiiigli.' scratfli 
witJj tlio point of jour knife to tlie abcll of vack, you will get no 
milk froiu dll llio twuiily. Dut If yuu linv/tj u'luclKtiu af iLout 
tioncxiid ^ivv twoDiy cuIa to the ehcll of otic, you nil] get 
ihnraj^ it ^il >t ^^ >^^l^ <if ^1- -^^Jil ^^^ tcodcncy of tbo 
liLimat] iiiii'd i» AlnAy* to ^ct tirod boforo it hcu maidc ita tncnty 
citta; ftnd to try another iiul ; und monxivtir^ ovoQ if it hJM pat' 
■oventnco DDf>ugb tc crack iu nutf^ it is ftu» to try to cnt too 
iQAuy, And Kr cljoko itjclf. Uonci^ it is via4.-]y Mppoiiitod fi;^ ua 
iLftl fbw cf the ihin^ va doeire ciiri bo bivl ^tlioul conndi-rubla 

[^)^»oari and «t conniLlnn^bla intorvala of tinM. Wo eaiEnot gono- 
^hrait our di]LU(-r ^vitliunt wDrkln^ for it i^^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^'i ^^^ 'I^ 
fWWibr- it; vtt CAUEiot got our boti^lny v-ttbout waiting for it» 
and that gi^ca uc letl tot it ; Arid wp ought not to gRt our pii^iiiri 
«rittioiit j'C^yl'^g for it and tlut givv< ia a niiinl to took at iL 


[lbct. n 

Smyt I will ovou go bo br w to M^i Ui&t vo oogbl not to ^ 
booka too chcAj>]j. No book, [ bcliovc, m ertir vorUi luUT m 
luuoh to ita rcwlcr m one Utat hu bvtai oovolcd Ibr a jfl»r «i a 
boolcitall, And l>oui;l]t ont of M^cd hjLlf poaco; ^nd porba{)« a dftf 
or two's fiutiut;. Tlibla Um wnj lo j^t At Uio orojuu of a boot 
And 1 ahoEiId uy moro on tha mtLlt^rf And protcut flit otiot^^ot^eiHy 
M [ coold a^Eiinit the plif^e of theap Ihvrulur^ with vhlcL vo 
Aro juftt novr nflliclctl, but that I fcAr tout uilHng me to onin-, it 
b«irtg UEiprAiilicaE, b^rAitftu I d<in't quite keo lu^' iH>ij M preMni Itt 
nuiiTig everybody fittt inr Tr1ii<ir booki. Itut ono nuy •#• llitt ft 
thEng !« d^virnbt^ tnJ poflMiM^, t^vfni ihniigh mt. mxy not Ht oma 
know thu bst WAy to it — and in my itlnnd of BuvturiM, wb«ii I 
got il Hplt mlo onEar^ ! wuiira yoLL fio book flJiall be sold fer Um 
tliATi a poniiU fltii^rlin^; H it cail be publintLud cheaper tbmi tlAl, 
tlicnurplw nlmlE a)] i^i bto my trtiLAury, And ittve uty bubjvct* 
Uxntlon ilk citbei djrvctiirfJB ; only pL-opln r«Jk]ly Jiuor, w]io CAAfiot 
pny tbo poniid^ nbAll b» supplied whlj tlia book> tboy wnnt fbr 
notliing. in a ^1^^laiu liiQiU^d qujkiitJty, I bAVviiH nude up Utf 
mind About \hc number yist, xaA tlivrc Arc Acvcrml otbcr poiDta \m 
tha «jBtem yot niwotUcd; wbon tlivy arc all d4t«rmin4d, if ^oq 
will Allonr mr, [ vill Dome Abd ^to yoa ncotbor lootttre^ on tha 
political o<;cih<>my of IitorAturo.' 

Mirnnltrnp, Tetitniing to our tinm^Jijito titbjfict, I *ay to my j^t\^ 
roiu boAf«n^ vtbovant to ibon^or Titmt* nnd Turnan npoii va, 
)i^ blUog LoAvoa, ^^ Picture otight not to ba loo <^b«Ap;" bnt in 
much Atron^r tono t would lay to thoic who want to k^L^p up tho 
pfbwi at pt'torlA! pmpprty, t,h«t pictur** migbt nnt, to bn t/M> ii**r, 
tliAl in to uiy, not WL i]<Mir » tbny nrc For, w ifiultim aI ptuK-ul 
»tHiidt it Sh whdily tmpo»Lb1fl for iiJiy mnn in tlio ordittaivy GJh'iiiii* of EnglixS lifo to poMOH^ liiiniwlf of a |idoci of gi^'cat art 
A luoJfjru dnining uf avenigv mcdl, or a firtt-daa c»];ravit^ 

* Sm DOttt «th \tl Kddn^ 


ni. ACCnuiji'ATiatt. 

rruty pcrbflfM, not vttiout lOtnc nzIf-KproAcli, Ito f>i>rchtwl otit «t 
bift wvb|i£B bf A nifto of nvrcm' iaoomc ; but a MtiK&^ij oNom' 
pTo of flnt'TftU &r1— DQiMMr-liftjidH' work— ia wholly onX of iii« 
n»ch. And wo one to scctutomod td lock cpcD thk u tlio nntn* 
rol <oun« Aud nccvrflity of things, that wo nevor «ot onnolrc* in 
ftnj WLM to t^iminiHli tho ovil ; nnd yet it k An avil patfoclty c»fH( 
bio of diuiintili'ju- It it An evil prwfBcly wmilAi in ]dnd to tfa&l 
ttlUcfa eiivt^ in t^u mtiJdIo it^a, r^j^clmg gLX>d l>o<kk>, ctTid 
whicli flVetyboJy tiion, I mppow, ifjonght m nacuml »> w*j dft oa* 
oar MTiiall nii|]ji1)' of gof>d pii.-twi-r*. Yon i'*^iiJil nut llicn wtmly ihtt 
work of p grfl:ii InrtorijiH, or gr*?»l pott, tiiir mora tlmn i-oh con 
vow Bl^idy ibuL of Ik grout )>&jiiIlt, 1>ut ut Lcavy l^bU l£ yuu 
»&Dlcd m book, 7011 bud lo (^t it njillon onl lor yoii, or to wrilo 
it out for youiwlf- But pnutiTi;^ cniui^auj tlie poor niaa may 
read Lift DiiiLu Aiid Ilis OoiEiur ; and DahIu and Homer an itono 
the vottc for tlmt But it in only in liktnturc UsjA pHvAtc par* 
ecnt of modemiu foiiurio can pow HW And Bti:dT ^rtatncw ; Oicj 
otn itody «t liomc no j^pcatncM in vt; and the object of ih^t 
accumulatjon which fte vr^ nt prount aiimng at, u* our third 
«lj«Gt in political oconomy, in to bring groAt art in norno do^a 
intbin tli^ TiitKh of tb« mvilciluda ; %Tid, both in liLrgctr and moro 
i)iini«roi]» gallariu thitn wo now jiophl-v, and by dintiibQlion, 
ac«ortIin[f to hn we4i]t]j mud with, tn VHch »iui^'« hoin», lo reiidi^ 
ihc inflnonco of art Mmnwhat wirnHpondL-at in nit^snt to thwt of 
lit«rAiur0. HtfTO, th«r, b tho aliIjiIi: liEdance vhich yonr ocoMomlAl 
hiw to Mrilcfl r to lu'*^vlnluInt^■ ho jriTicU art wi to bo jiblc ti> ^^ivc tho 
wholi* iiatiuit a BUppl^' uf ii, n4:4^oiiJin}^ to it* nccO, find }«t to iv^- 
JmIq its dialriUrlion K>UiAttlicrc«hnli be no glut of it, uor conUiupt. 
A difficult IwiSftUcc, iodwd, fvr lu to liolil, if it wcfc left moi-dy 
to our piilJ t<r ponst ; bal tljo juH point 1>oiw(M^n poverty ami ph> 
fv&ioD ba* bcvn fixed for u» AccurMcly by th« viw iawn of IVoti 
donoc. If you carofoUy wut^li for all tho goniua you can dctoo^ 
apply it to gao^ aorviccg ood thoQ ro^rontly i^Toacrrc wh^t it pro 


roLtnoAL KGOHOur or art. 

I^UEcrt. n 

diweA, yon will ncvor have too Ifttb wt; tnd if^ on tb« oUwf 
fiam^ ynii hPV{*r forvo nn Aitrivt t4 voHc biirri^idtt-, for diilj tntBi^ 
lior impcrfjrilj', topiuJin yon wttnXd n.lhar have iiUawy wm-k> thai 
wmplMc oniA. you wQI fi«vf-r 1ibt« loo mucfh. Do not Ibrco tb« 
mtiltlplfcnlion 0/ silt, and ymi will not Jijivb St tr»o dii^ap ; <to TtOi 
Wttulonlj dmliM;- il, cuiJ ynu *JU not Uhtc it loo d«r, 

* Bat who wAiilonly ile»tray8 kT you will uk. Wliy, w*t all 
'■^Kk Perhaps yon thoutfht, fthcn 1 cnwi: to tfiik puit of our ffal>' 
]to(, Con^pOTtdin^ lo thitb «ct ivrlh iu our Loueuwif^a econorny 
by tli« '^ koq>!iiif Lvr cnil>roiclury from \hc caolh," tliat [ ha* iTcnBf 
to tuil yoa o»1v how I0 tptk^ bultor cAre of pictures, liow to c!«4Ut 
them, fliiJ ^nitiinh ihcm, nn*l vhcro to put tlirm Aw^y wMy w]i«n 
you wucit out of town, Aii. not nt cill. Ttto uUnont I bAv« to NOik 
of yoQ u, that you vill rtot pall thorn to pi<ic<di, Atid tTAmpU iboni 
nmkr your fj^rU " Wltnt," yon will my, "when do we do vach 
tMn^? Unvoii't vpo buift a perfectly U^nutifiJ irnllojy for all tho 
pititiiro* v» havo to toke capo of T* Y«»>, yoti hav^ for tho pic- 
tnrci whit^Ii arc dofinitcly uint to Manchutor to bo takoti earo oC 
But tlivr« arv 4}tuntitu'« of piutunt out of ManiihjMtGr wbjob it 11 
yoar buAinMA, and mino too, to tnkc oara of no low thnn of tbvM, 
wid wTihh wo nTi* at thft motnortt employifig ounclvot in palling 
tD pJPM* by HnpiTiy. f will Xx-W ynii what t.hny art*, nii^ wh*cii 
thoy arc, hi a minute; nnW lirxt let iiz< >Uto onn moro of thoM 
main prSrMljjl^h of |i»>lll,ii^Hl uconnmy on wlilrh ihv rTi*Ll*T hinj«, 

1 inunt bi'^rin n little [t[ipnri!nLfy wido of tho mart, and a»k jod 
to reflect if tlicre ia a»y iiny \a wbicb wo wanto monoy ntont In 
Bnglnnd. tbnn in buiMh^j fliit tuniU? Our rt'spoi^D for lla- dtnd, 
when tbfly v^juol dead, i» KmctUin; livonidful, aiiul Ul<; «ai wo 
thow it more wondorftil *till» Wo *how it with black fcatlitm and 
block borff:a; vro ihow it with !>bck drcso* and bright hcnildHco; 
mr *hi}v it with coitly obeliaka and «c(j]ptitre« of forrow, whicll 

Cnl iijilfof our mcHt Ix-jtitCifid oatWIiali^ Wc abow it with frif^hV 

Igmiin^ and vamii^ and tidi of diamal atone, ia iho midMofllit 

utct. n.] 

m, accumCiattot, 

to loll way nutnbat nf lin vn think itminhlo or trrtuiibU, in llip» vpl- 
taph, Tim rtiefiiig Iti r^mimoii lo t]j4} pour as ne)l u lb« rich; 
■Tid ITO h)l ItQow briv many a (tour fkiiiilj will i:cMrT; niln ttjcEO' 
MitviV Id liMiity llivir tis|h?i:L far lutae iiK-mlwr uf il iu Lii u>ina, 
wLoEti tJicy ncTur much c^icki fv ffliin )jc A^iM out of it; And fjuv 
oftct^ U buppccfl T^At n pi>or old voman will starve licnclf to Uoath, 

Nov, Uxift b«in(; one of tho mMt ooidploto ^nd «p<ci>] waj* of 
waiting monoj ; — no moiivj boinfl* \em productivo of good, or of 
ftfi; pcre«iil4^^ vhfttovoff U&n lliAt vbioii wo eb&ktj nvay Iroin iho 
audi of tiodartafcwi^ plum«i — it U of couno tha ^atj* of aU gM>d 
ooonomiHl^ And kind p»noTi«t to prove and proc^tairn roi^HiuiaJy, 
to ^0 poAT nd «^U -u tho rich, ibat rmpv^t for iFko iJc-aiI ii not 

rwlly »hown ]>y ^ftviig gJ**nt utonft* OTi lhj«rn To f-U ir^ wlitrv iJ*cj 
■ra IjiJd ; hnt hy rampmhetiag whnre Uicv nrc ldi] niUtmiL k bTohii 
to help iu; tniHliij^* ilium Lv ibi- KiCTvd gniw biid iwJ JmmJ Jlow»ri; 
miij iUl] ujotc, tEiat rcBpect Btid liive uia dljvnii to tlli;}m« uat hjr 
P'CAl niH^TiiimnTiU Kt tl^f:m which vc bfiifd vricJi oitr hncdji, but lij 
lottiii£ the moELnmcntB ktrnid, which Uicjr Uult ^tb M«ir oert. 
Anil ihU w tbc point tww in qin^^tioni 

Oboorvcy (hor? arc two f^uX rooiprocol dutieo ooncomii^ hdoft- 
trii', Ronntantly to bn ov^h^ii^^d bv^t^ii?ii liio liviiij; arift llio Jciid, 
W(^ ■■ wo livo and ^otk, ltc to bo alwap tbiiikiri|; of tho*o 
.rIio sm 10 coma aft«r U4 ; ihiit nbut «i> dc may h« a^rrjeuiibU, m 
fivr a* wo ^iLTi rnnk>> it tn. to tlivm, ui wvll ov (o ui. TIil^h, wli«ri 
Bc dii% it » tbfl duty of rhoM vho rnmc aft^^ir un to iiro<ipt thii 
■o^ of our» vkh UmMki luid mrnranhntiioo, tiot tlmntJcg ii aidda 
ar ir«nTi^' h down tlir i»t)iTioiit thiyj" tiilnh lln<y h»vp rio i»u fiir 3t 
And vaclj tcvrmmtbc nil] cndy bo happ^r or povicrful to tl<i pitch 
i1l)iI It OLi^bt to be; id MGI]ii>j- ihtuo two dulle* to Uiv Toit RXid 
the Fotnto. Itft own vi:irk will never bo rijj^htly doi^i;, uvuii foi 
ittotf— Li4jvor guod, or b>blo, or pkaeiirablo t« ila ova oyca — if il 




[lkct. IL 

doc« Dot prepare it rtUo for th& ojo* »f gooMJitJOM yet to OttiDo. 
And ^U <>vtti pti«Kw]oEi« will novor be onatifi^ for il, »nd jIa ow» 
iKiKlom nov«r cilod;;!! Gor it, lUitou it tt^iU lUelT j^kfUUjr BAil 
tfiiidvriy of tli« Iraiuur^d und Ibo visdom iKH^uvathod 1o h tj iU 

For, tro KAftiinxf, lUit ill tba bMt ibing* uiil Cf«MTir» of lUft 
vcdd ftTO iii» to bo pradni^od bj vHch ganomtioia for iuatf; bntVA 
%rb oil inU>i>(I«iT, Tiot tu cine otir work in Htiow tlibt will niislt, but 
each ujd a1| uf iu to bo coiiliuujilly rolling m ^o^t white gnlberiii^ 
tri^vvbil], bigtjFT ^riJ Uiglitir — krg«r »ad Jargor — idoug Uie Al|« of 
ULticj^n poAcr- lljUH the Ki^iLco of nAliQiia i» kr be Accumuluti* o 
&om Gdlicr lo son: cnuh IcornJngA Ijltlc mora >nd a litUe oiore; 
[.•ft«li rtceiving nil U^at wm kTt&vm, 4Dd tdding ili own gMk : llio 
iiiAUiry aad poetry of natJoni Are to be occamulntiTo; each geown- 
tion trviuiiriii^ tbo lii»Urv mid lli« rAH^^ of it« unc«elon> addilic 
h» own bUtory anJ tta own flon^^; and tho ut of Q&tiou* b to b« 
AOOTmulatiro, juBt u doifiDQo and hiatory ara; tLo vork of ^Tng 
noB not •aporH)di"^} but bui^iiof^ itt^jf upon iho work of Lb* pMt 
Kobily ovory grcAl ^nd intoUoataa] rtco of tiio world bni pn>- 
dnovd, >t evwy p«Hod of ^ti car«»T, in «n with voma pvontiiff mid 
procioua cliarid«r at>i»at it, vholly unfttlniiiiiblo by Any oLb«r nco, 
tod >t uny oUior time ; and th« Intention of Provtdenne ranocffl^ 
ing ihAi UTT, i« i^TlriniUy tbm it Khonid a13 gmvr UigDibnr into ono 
inigbry rumple; the rougb atonvA aitd tbe »rniM)lh mII fludtng UjpIi 
pI«co, and ri»ia]^, day bj day, in rkdtcr aud hi};1jc' pinuodc* to 

Now, jiwt fHhcy wliol a pfwltion the iri^ild, coHfodorcU w on« 
givat workroom— <»iio ^r<.'iil f?wtory Iti the form cf • glubo — vouM 
hATo b^fin in by tl;U timo, if it bod in tlio loiut uiiJt>niood Um 
dnty, or bifon capaUlo of it t^Hncy wbM vo tlioitld bavo ba4 
around u» no^, if, inktfud of f^nanvlling and fighting or«r tbiur 
work, ibo oatioEiB had iitdtvi tijii;h oliior in tb«ir work, or If «fMi 
in tlieir coii'jumta, iaiWad of offaoing tho momotiala of tlioao tb^ 

tiot, ilJ 



•iioc«#dAd ud ftiiWla^, tliof bail fpiftrJni lUa f^f^M* cT tloit tic 
torioi. FjtQi^j wbut Kuropo vonld bo timt, if the dcLu-ntc ilnUiiM 
•xmI t«iDplu of e)i4 Orc^bt, — if Ui« bro»u1 roiblH k'uI iheluv wtlU 
of th* RomftRft, — if ihft nnt^U and pDibottc Archilc^uro of th« 
lulcTdl^ Bg^ had uot bocn {{iintiuL U> duKt hy mor** hTii»aii ragih 
Yon tA k of tho m:^ the nf Tliii(% nnd iho u>ol}t ikf Timti : I UU 
jrtjit, Tiiuu it wiyUiulfaB nud tou-.liluu; it la we who gunw liko Uu! 
vomi — wg who wnilw lit* U;c ticjUit^ It l* oiTr*«lv*« who ftboltuli 
^-ouraclTc* who wn^iiiTJo : ho arc tlic milduvt. and Uio ilauiD, and 
tfic i^\d vf RiAn lA tu itn irifB wQik A» Uic motb, (IiaI frcU v-Lca it 
Gftii&ot dy, onU u the bitUcD fliunc that bluU trhcrc it CAtinot 
illmiiiuo. Ail UiOM iuet LrcMurea of bLtmAn itLlolIecl haro bocn 
whoUy dcrtrojiid b/ huniftn induttn' of duitniclion; Iha insrlla 
woii(d Lav« itood iU t^vo iboiiuinJ jciire n* ^oil iu Ui« poliAhoil 
laEAituc on IP tha j'annn cliff; lint vo inon bnva fffoucd it to pow* 
(Cvr, And mixud it witJi gur own nebot* 11)« valU and thn wayi 
voold bflvo ilood — it XA ve vbo bavc IcH not occ iV>ii4 upc-n an- 
otb«r, »id rMtcirvJ )U f^aUiU^unt-tfto tlji* d«*.'rt; ihtr great cathc> 
drsU cf M rDli;Eioti would liiivu itocv]— it ii wu ulm hme diuUeil 
ddwii tlw nirvi^v] Kork wtUi nxt^ and haiumcn, aiid bid tbo 
ii^uuiLluIu-gmu Uootti upuu ibv pnvtjuLciii, uuJ Uiv Ka-«MuI« 
diauut iu lliu g]|]li3L-i«ti. 

Yon will jx^flup* Uiink all tbia wwi soa^obow nmronary fcr tbo 
dcTutupDJciit of tlicj biJiiian tiicc. 1 cantjgt atny I'OV to difpnto 
itat, tlioii[jb 1 wuul'l ^tlliii^l; ; but do you tbink it U sfiif nacoi* 
Niiy for lljat dcvclopmctit \ lX> you thifjk Uiut in ibin TJnutixinth 
ctLtury it \b still rkx^i^^Mir)' Ittr liic Europtriii fiatioUB to turn all 
tfcc pincca wbcTc their pHncipnl arttrouunw aro into baCUo- 
livklB F F<»T tlim 14 wl^at tbay ar« doinj^ avaa ^vhJIo I ipcAk ; the 
f^itpt firm of tbr v>r[d la managing ila biuinMa at Uki»i momcTir, 
jTiht uit bM douo In pa^t tlm«a. Imaging vrbat vc>uld bo t}it 
tliriving drcuDiiEanPO of a trumtrai'turtir of aonin di^Hi/alc pn^ 
ijiio^— ^uppoHt* dLam, or diinj^in wbou; Torkilvu^ ilu^ <ftv\v^«^uv 


roMTtciT. vmimmr or aat. 



rooiiw «D tlio workmen ani cicrka bi^pu. A|^tin^ «t l«ait otkc* 
dfty, flnt blottinif olf tliublrAiit, >ti.1 Lnmlnitg ol! Ubo ma«fain«i 
tb«f ooulil ivach; nnd then iimkin}; fortrv*Mv of ail xha cap 
bonrtli^ nftd nttai^kidji ftii<1 dL*r<«nJii*g Uiu wliow-uWiai, the ticton- 
r>tii> pATtv lin.tUir throwing crvtrythfng tli«y couM gi*i hnM nf om 
of thu window^ b^ V4^ of mhowjfig ihfAr tnnmph, and ihn pOM 
oinnviTActtii^i' plclctog up nml putting «WAy at Ia*t » cap hen mnA^ 
ft hnndb Uict«. A Htm ['ircti|M.*rojft b<i»ir»eMi iJtni wmJi] W* woiiUj 
k T>ott htkI V'Tt lliitb U iimcifioly Uio wa; tha grc&t niaEiufmcinni 
tun of thn ^rorld rftrriex oii itb tiHlnfun. 

ll biu H) pirrHiijp?d iu poti^i:*! tp^iubblw for Uie lut vix oTj 
LuuJrvd juainv I'^'^l' »<> <*■>« of (bcio cotJd b« fbu^t out but hi' 
midjl Qf ilA tncnt pM*(^[ouB ml; Jutd It so artftngoA thcin to iJbn 
day. Tot cir^t"|'1t-, if 1 wnrv nAked to Uy mj flnircr, in a msp of 
tho w^ld, on tU« 9pnt of the worl(l*i aQHrnw wltiijh oontairtod si 
tbie motnotit tSe inoot etngiilar coacQntmtioo of tfrt-tcacliin^ antl 
fLrt-tiTJiAiiro, ] sViodlH Tfiv it on tlio nnmaof ti^o tonn of Vero-^L 
Otbcr «it]*^ i^ilk^l^l, conirwn mow wofk» of e«rri«f;^b]o iwt, but 
D0fk4 COfitmn «c uiiich of thti ^loHoiu local Art, and of tbo ApHti^ 
itid »onrp« of art, whii-h con by no mvonv hv made lubjoL't* €jf 
|io«ka)^ or pi>r1orii;^\ nor, 1 ^ovu lo vny, of HtlvHjj^^ Vcronti 
poatoMo*, m the Bntt nUct^ not Iho lari^l, bttl tbA moHt ptirfort 
and intelligible Boman amphtthoAEre thnt cxijtti, ttlll nnbrokon in 
ofrcl^ of tl/ip, *nd fltrong In «ncri>ttpon of vnnlt linrl ar^h : it con- 
tainii inmor R^^miin im>T»rijncnt4« pttcwnytt tlx^ntrva, biithif nrnfkf 
of ti>mplL'<t wbk'li givu (fie slrvt^tn aT ttJiiii^b^irbt a rbamrtef of 
imtlqn^Ty ntirin.mpl'^d flTwwh.Tr, rTi*t»pt \n Ut-ittii llwK Pju ii 
fTtnloinn, in djn nnut plwp, «b;tl Itomi* <!o«i not ffmT4ln^|ieTf<yi 
4fintnpl«a of lL« grurit ln<<irtb^'anltiry Loiiitiflnlie nrvbitcctarc^ 
vb1o>j VTHt ibu mnl 1/ nTI tin- ini>i|ifi>viiT nrt of Ttaly, rjtiiout mtuch 
no GiotTxw, no Aii}:e(Ji<:oa, no Raplijjc!l« would hnvn h^n pomTUo ; 
it conlniii* 1I14I hrcljit<icliinv tioI in nnlu (ornia, but in Uic tatitt 
ip^rfrLi auJ lo\uIii»t tjpu il over iltftinnd — wulalui thvta, lio4 ir 

cbarchoft p«rivct fiom porvh U> n^oc, vitb dl ttidr cjining firUi, 
llioir (liliAni lltiT), Uioir jomb iirjloo«cnoil, BcftiJai tljt«c, i| 
litctiidea tiarTipltB of tiw fiTt^st ll-ifl*o:itt and fourlccnUi-owitiiiJ 
GMbia of ItoJy, ii'>t mcrdf perfect, but dM.wlicre iitnlvulT^-d, Al 
Jtomu, tlio KdiiLAn -&i Vum, th« LornUird, Afobitccturo in«7 b« 
NOli ID :;^atnr or in oqiinl rinMi-rififtn ; Imi not &t lEi^rfnii, Tki>r i^iBa, 
nor FlorcDco, nor in ony pily of th-* worltf, ik ihore a j(r«at ta«di- 
ivvilI Gotblo IiIh tbv GotliiQ of V^vona. KU^whorai it b milior 
k«« piiro iQ typn or 1oi4 lovoly Iq compTotion : only ai VorooA may 
]POli vt* it in Ui« kimplidity of iu youtbrul pdwor, and thu tofiilaN 
itfMcf iM nrcompfithpid hojjtui'. And VfTunft |KiKP*jvrti, in th^ 
lut pfno^ tlT« lavelirftt !tflnfti«mni*i) ■rj.'lnti^t.^tii re cf ItnJVt not df*< 
tiirbi*rl by pnJi\ iii^r dpdlvd by lnvrjry. but Hvirig Stl filr fnlltlmrnt 
of «linnc>lic ftfinrJei*, fciffnity of riTdititMk gf**''*, nml nirf^r!«ity of 
lintm,* wcliiikin ; lU rJchcifi vsork j^vcn u> tlic wkOnwii tJint opifn 
vu Ujq fjutiJHcat atrvuLa Aud wvt-l t-W^al ^anlmu. AH iLm ab» 
|xj>b<M4?k tn ibc midjiC of haUjiiiI M:un^^LT iui:li m Hi^urrdJj ttxlirUi 
novUer? t^Iui iii the babiUibJo globe — a wild Alpiitu river ituuniag 
At LtjT fci^U fruni irLuno etioire tbo rocks Hm in ft great crcAC^tnE^ 
dark »u1j cyprtM, und miitty irith oHfc: illimiubly, fixita t>afi»« 
bor Boutliem jc^tc*. tlic tdW p]iuQ» of lUly avtvop &nd fiulo in 
IpjlJun h'JhXi atu^Lod Itor, rotlb and wfat, tbv Aljit cro'vd in 
crolod lri>o|>a, and die winda of Ikniurua bcjur to bcr the coulitcM 
of ibcir >nowa 

Afid thi' jfi the dcy — enr-.h, and po«u«Qn2 mob Uitn^ a^ tlicio 
— at tvbocc gttU« the decitivo battlot of Italy uro fought conlinti- 
ally : thret daj« bor tow«in tr«mbleJ witb tbo adio of Ibc cannon 
of Areola; hoapod pcbblosof tho Mindo dnido b«r field* to tbi« 
liour witb liut-4 of brok«ii runpurt, vrhuno* Uio tido uf wur roilfrd 
b«:k to NoTarn ; and now on tlut crcMcnt of b*r «aitDTn didEi^ 
«rhi<Ticv> tbo full mwn mp>>l to rito ilimngb tb«i bun of lliA 
C}pr«ft4M in 1t«r linrting s^nmnner iivil^i^^ toodt.Sin^ Vv5x ^fA 


poLirroAL KOOTrnitr or «itr 

pJtCT, ft 

be vHthi^ot iti inAmofi on yoii, vho bikvo bcon the Uni to ul u 
faM, Bud tbo flrvt Uf «how to m^ Utu troajturu* wLkili Uii« poor lot4 
Jtal; bit g^ivcQ to K&glAtuL Ramcrobur oil ihcto tiii^ UiM 
do%lit roi] lioro wijro bort— Lon vUkot in fact or in tesdbisf[l 
bfiis in fkct, Afo i^l Uio nioat pov«rM And most touching painiiDga 
of oM t;rn« ttinl iwvr glow npoii your w&llv; ben Tti Teaching art 
all thn l^Mt ftiut gnuiUKt of di^uu^aniUnt soiiLi^youT H^rnolda aad^ 
jourGiiimboroLigh iiL'i-cr <!oiiId hu^<i [>Kmf«<l bttt for Vbtiice; anct 
Uie ene;^i««b!nh )mve givt^u tliu (inly ui)« lifv lu jroijt exlAtiog 
ftrt worn t!r«t vtirn^ Ity vojdw of tlio duvl, tliftt hamilod th* 

We-U, nil tbuc motives for »oido dd^nito coisno of ACtiob OQ 
^UT p^rt toirar<:l« l<>toi|;n c(>uiitri«» rv«t upon v«ry torlouft fula; 
too Borio^ia, pi^rhnps you will think, to he interfered trith ; for wo 
lUD ail of \m 10 iliv Uubit of luiii tug t;rt4kt U^iti^'a uJon«, im if I'ro- 
vidcnoe would mind thorn, And alt^mJing oiintuJvi^ oulf to tiulo 
Uuri[^ ubivh WD know, frooticftlEy, I'rovidoDco docffii't mind unJMS 
vfe <Io. Wo arc T«ady odi^ufj^l) i^t pvo caro to tho growing of 
fnnoi vid lottucoi, knowing thnt thoy don*t jfrow rro^-idontuJI^ 
■WM or hr^a unloM we look AlUr th^^in; bnt we don^l givft, 
sny cvo to tho good of Italy or Gornintir, became vt thiu^ that 
t)iey will grow Prndd«niui1ly hAp|iy nithont Any of onr mstt 

Let iJA Wvn die grot thin^ tlioni and tlilnlt of little (htof^ 
not of the Utntrucliua of vihtAv proviiii;i» iu wftr> ivhich it au/ 
not ho iLiiy biuttncM of ovin to prcvoot ; but of tlic dc«lnictioa of 
floor iJttlo picturrfl lu pciuAfrom wliidi it surely wouM not be 
vuDcfi out of our vty to tavo thorn. Yon know I uiid, jiwt now, 
wo wore dll of iu ci]f£A(f(»i in pulling pictures to picccn by dopnty, 
on<J you did not hoticvo mo. Cotimdur, tboo, tiut AtimhCuiio of 
ounelviv. Happotc yon ua (iu I doubt not you ofton <to aeo) a 
pruditfit And kind rocng Indy tittiog nt work, iu tbu '^mer of a 
qui«t ro>vn. fanhliiig ^outfortt^rii for bvr ooittirtK, irnd tliut jurt Old 

LBOr. D. 

in. AcctnnjLATtr»:. 


tidi^ in llic htllt you WW a cat hud l^or Idltenn jit plnf ftmonf tbe 
fiuoUj pictaroA; Amufiag UiMafolriu opecmll^ vtUt tiic hc4t 
VuidTke*, by jtcUiiiif dd tbc to]« of tie fruuufti uid Uiun scram 
biin^ liowu ttm canvimn by tJi^'ir olawa; ftnd on tOiui^ oQo' 
iiifornaif]^ tbc yonn^ l^y of tliCAc proizccdinjfa of tfio cat vid 
kiltcuAf auppotua dia aniW11^^^d that it rtiasu\ hor cAt, biit h«i 
Msttft'j, ftnd th<» piot(ir«« wAiiJii't hun, but her unclo\ And «bo 
Goiildii*t Ic'uvo Lvr work, for ili4> li&l lo tiinke lo many pftin of 
Aomfonon U<(<>r« dinner W«>iil<i yon not uy ibat Ui« jimdoni 
ATxl kiT)(| yoitng Imly vk^ od Iho v/lictUv nTiHVi>raUe for tliu witili- 
tkinn! tnti^hflfc r)l" flftff on ih<» Vflndvlcnal Now, itmt U prflcU^Jy 
itLu,t w(- pru'ltiiL atjJ Icitic] EngtUb zLrv doing, oiity ou & lugvr 
i»]u. llvnc wo Alt ill Mmidicatcr. IjatlI nt woik, rciy propcirly, 
innLiiig comrort^iB fur our cotisjua aU w^r lite wurld, Jast ijri'^ 
^dc there i& (ha IiaII — that bcAutifLiI mnrllc bfill of It^Iy— -the 
cole ATid LJttciiB Aiid moukayft ara At |>lny junon^ tbc piuturts : 1 
usuro ycu, in tbo <>otirao of tha fi^cn yi^rji in which I have 
bH;<ti) voi-kifi^ ill tlioeo pliii;« in whiu>i tho ii]c#t prcc'ioti* re(nii*iiE4 
of £Tiroi>oan AVi «:tiBl> a Mnaation, irbotbor 1 vfotild or no, woi 
fCrnduAlly mmJc di»tmut tnJ d^p in my tninit, thai I vtA living 
■nd workrng in tb« midit of a darj of monkcyB ; — somotTmu ami- 
nblc ard AflcctbnDM nuinkeyK, witb all rniLnii&r of vlniihg wBy% 
and b^Tid intontionn; — mnro ftv(|u:^riLly ulAnh sind raaUdoin mon- 
kcyH, tiiJt, whurovur tlietr duipc^rlion, »<^a&I>blmg J^oiitmuidly nbout 
nui«. And tb« t)«Mt plAcen on tKo barren «Licka nt tree«; uhI 
tbni Fill thiH inoitkcyn' duu wma HIIimL by niiichnncr, witli pa^kiUH 
pcL-lurvBt und LLo «fUy atud mIIIuI LvEuta wm^i alwa^b wmpphig 
tLuii;Ki.-lvv« np and goinj; to mhvp it^ picture^ or tearioj^ hofus Jo 
Ilf«n to grin tLrougb; or taatinf OiWi «"d p|iiUiit|f tbuin gut 
tfpin, or twbtinxthcm npintoropca and making iiririjfii^f tbcm; 
•nd that tf-mct Line* only, by walcl»tjf;onci*»opportii]itly, and bi^ar- 
in^ a •crnCcb or a bite, odq evuld rvaona Uio comor of « 'Ho* 
Uaut, cff Taul V»r<»n«N^^ and pnih it tlirottgL tbtt bart itito A 

r ttfoly, TJlc^Iy, f MMiiv jon, t^k vwbl, mthI tbk ^ 
Qxfld improtuon on mj luiad of Iho fAikto of iiioUun in I 
AaJ stfi* kow- Th« pni>fnwrB oT nrt in lUlj, limvb^ long 
loirci B method of ktody peculiar U> i\i<iTVtth^ kavn aL ImI 
trrivvd St ft form of xri i>ocuti&r to iKenitaotrc* ; vety <lil1m(4 

tull^, tha ^rof«uor« IJto tl^ir own form the Uot; aiid, a* tJi« 
old pictQfCft fti« goDontllj oot ■<> «C*nlii^ t» tli* ajo w iJi« 
mMfirn onftc, di« dQkM and «oinii« who poatwi thNn, ittd wfc» 
til« to iti70 thc^fr ^Mr^rlc* look new iful Sno (md an potiDAidwd 
aTiu> T.liur. ft rnlitlinnfM rhflf^il'cpiiirm on^ht nlvrfLT* lo fmUh thu ova^^H 
4t :t c][iArti?r uf « nii[R rrfT), bptlctc tlia prT>fiwcir]i trhn fUl tJwm^H 
tliuLr eobdT jjicluntf aw qniti* 6iJchI, «»<! good for noltiiiig, miiI 
kWiIiI all bo biTKi^it bHglit ngftln; nnd noccHligljt gSre tke 
ftijbcir pictures to tbc [rrcrfaiicrnt ti> bo put fight bjr rmlcM ot art 
^«tittkc profi-BAOn ropfuiit Lho i^M piotuits in all tL« prin 
pal plAcw, Ir^ting porhapft onlj a bit of background t4> tot ofi- 
tiioiT owD vork. And thna iho porofcMtor* come Ui be cP^aanlly 
G(^ircd ill iry mind, at tlio monlcoyv wbc tMf hoica in (lu 
picturofl, to ^D t}in>a;;h. Hifoi tho pktt]r^j-<T(4Ui'ni, who lira hj 
Ui« piotaraCf cnnnot voll tlieia lo tiia Knjflkli in tlicir old a»d pai^ 
•tftto ; nil ^a ^nd work mnit Ha c«v«fad with iwv i^int, and tat- 
nlftbcd lo im f i> Ifxik like one of tli« profrtaor^nl pi^tiim in tbt 
gtvM gatlATj, hchn: it i« wieable. And UtOM iho doiirtfH ocn^ In 
bo iiTLflgtd, lu my nijiid, aa dia nioTik^jrs aliu nmkc ropca o# 
tlie piclonvb to >w\\'g \ty, Tlion, otot? now arid Uiuii, in •ucoe o1 
•tnbli?^ ar winc-ci^lLir, or t^robcr-vliedk boliind aoTii« forgoUra ra 
or CHf[gotRh vomobody And» a ffrca^ of P«ri:^i»c^« or 
bill doriiT>H tbink mni^ of it, jLnd hi* no idea of barib]^ poopio 
comiT>g into h\n collar, or boing oUll^d lo edovq hh i^Qpota; and 
ao bo whiUwaubci the frMCO, and pnta Ui« l^f^f^ola back acf^'csj 
and tbceo kind of pertonBt thorcforc^ oomo j^ncraUv to bo inufodl 
in toy ntiii<J, m \h9 rannkaj-n who tatto liio piduna^ and 


m, Accovm^Tiov: 


tbcm out, not CiuHn^ tliem dIc& "Wliilc, HnaJlj, th« squnbliliaic 
br tiiitfl ftud applM (called U lUJf '^bclla Ubcitl^) goc» on *ll 

Nov, ihll ihn idsUtOttl ba put nn oiid U^ if wo Enfflihl., wh« 
aro *o fond of ImnfiUinf; in the bod^, ttouM oIaq lrctv«l a l]itl« in ^ 
soqI ; Wo tblhk it & p^rout tnumiib to got our f>acl:Q|^i^ and oar 
|>«T«Oiiift cirrted nt > fast pae5» bul we never uk« tliO iligbtert 
troubto to pnt any pac^j )iilo our perci^j'tiorTB; wu ^uj uahaI^j id 
ixomo b Ihfiugbl, or if 're e*er mcuLBliy wc ilie world, it in hI EJie 
olil fUg»<ciFu.-]i or wHggoik r«K«L Do tint («nkjifi.<r w1»Ht nti ixlil 
sight it vroiild hr, if it vnro only qnlto drar lo ynu havt thingi iro 
rcull/ guiiig <Fii— !iow, hena iu Ki^glanJ, wc urn tH^kiiiy unuruioua 
aod uipe»sve effort* to proLtoi:« jvev «rl of all kiiid>\ knowing niuj 
ooafcBoing oil the whik cJiJil tljc greater part ^1 \l w bad. but 
■tngglijig <l^it to produce new pattcrim of wnlUpnper*, aud nu>r 
BJja|>Cii of ka-poUt tnd new picture*, and AlAtoch, and orchitcctaro; 
snd pliuning and caalc]iug if ovtrr n l^a^pctt cr n focturo ht>* Uko 
kftit good in it ; — all die while tAkini; no iboijgbt whatever «l tJie 
beet p<i«ibl« pictnrMi nnd Btatuoe, &nd vralL-puttoms elrNid^ in 
Oiittoooo, whieb ro<|uite DotbnG: but lo bo tnkcn common care of^ 
tcul icpt from d^uip az>d JuhU Itul wv b>t tho waIIa fill thai 
Giotto patttniod, and tfao cantnMC* rot tliat lintorci patntivV '^^^ 
lJi« archtlflf^tiiro bo <lwbr^J to '^iwtM that Sl LouIw buTIt, wbil« no 
an famUhiTig our drawing'roomi with pHfd npholnLor^, nnd 
writing ikctroi:Tibi of otir liAncUomo waraboiviua to lh« country 
papftp*. T>nn'r thInV f nan my woTii* ingivdy or gencnOlyt f 
Hpi-ak vt MitniihciJL GjutU-V frmiL:ai lA Aiuin a-re pHribliliig at 
lbk« momor^t (or want vf douunt care ; TiotcrotV pictuiva la Sut 
Sebaatiiu] At Vt-nicf^ juc at this iiulnnt roUing piL-CFEnofr) into |^y 
rajpi; St LohSj^'s cfiu|>4.'l, at €arcn»>o]ine» U at Uma momeut lying 
in «Lattored fro^noota in the mnrkfit-pUce. And here vo itro all 
oawinjc ir>d ^rowinff, poor little bal/-tici3^cd daw% na wo atv, aboal 
Ihf pruitv Mtiok* and wool iD out own nertj. 'Xiiero^ Jaanll| 

a Avf pfvttM, whan t tin *t bomcv but I got & IcUcr fn>m 
v^]|'u;i-ar]iTi^ <:miRtrf clvrg^in&n, decplf u>ikiMft about ihe 
«if IktH pEiri^ charch, nud brc^Wing hk Zi««rt to get nonoy togcUicc 
iJiat he mm/ bi>Id up some vrcitcb«d remnant of TVldor tmeorj, 
with ono nictio in the comer and no ■tatJ>o-~YhoR jJl the vbilc 
Uk nnlgbtiMt piles of rtli^oua arcbitccturc and KtiTpturo ih^ ora 
the world v^n atc bciaK blA9t<T<J and withorod «waj, whhocrt ons 
gloriuo of pity or rtf^rot- Tho coantrf dorf^'Oiavi dou t}ot cai* 
for lAAn— bo hoA ft K^^uk imigiiiAtkiD that ctttwotcrow chui&ol 
Whftt U It to him, if ^0 angolA of AmJaI fkdo Iron Its vftuH^ «r 
tho qtiovnt ftnd Itingt fyf Churtrci 6m from Ui«ir podaitftl* I Tb#f 
an not In hii poriih. 

^ WhAt ]" yon will uy, ** are »<» ni%t to proiitiot ftny f]«w trt, 
DOf iiko care of our puriih chntvhci T* " No, ceruinlr not, anlil 
jou Ijmvu T-'ikun projH^r csie i>f ih« ^n yuc Itavn gut ilnwl^t vi4 
cf thn bAm dinrcboi tmi of tJin pnHidi. Tmr flnt and propM 
pU:i(lliij7 IB not lu cLiin:]i4iirJi!E]H anj jinruib ovi^rvcn^ in an ib^ 
hj^ti [■■ULiiity. htit jw immiWi-H <}f Ihii^rvM Olinvtijtn L^rnnwaity of 
Europe And tu iTicfubcn cf that ooiumuuity (iii which ahiDe^ 
obsvrvp, piitv &nd [iii^uiouft hjjci^tjI art vaisbs tor thcro it iiono ia 
Ajui^tii^ iiurjG ill Axiftt n<'Tio In Afrcn), you conduct jonrwln* 
preoiAdy v a rDanufA<;turer voald^ who att^ndnl to hv loonus bnfc 
left hit waJ«bouao vithout a root Tho rain flood* jmtr wttn- 
boaXt 1h^ Tata frolio in it, tho «pidont spin in iu ttio chougfat hmlJ 
in it, tho wnli'pU^o TrotB o&d fvtcta in it, and ttilJ you k*«p 
WflAvc, ffr>(tiCt wewviiig St y<M]T wrr-tchod u'v(j*k and thinkii^ yott 
an growing rioh, wbi]« moro ii gnawod ont of yoiir war«ho«u« » 
an boitr than you can weav» \ii a twe!v«mr>nth, 

Bvnn tliEH limilitDdc ii nnt n.l»anl rnough truit nt rij^hUy fofth. 
Ttiu WLMV(-r woLiTd, or miglil, ai h-ani, 1iopo ttiDl tiU ticw woof wai 
aw iktout na the old onca, and that, thcruforo, in #pit« of ntln and 
raviu^ his would hare toinothing to wrap fainiMlf in nhon ha 
Qoodod il. hui our vtbs rot m wo tpin, Thv tei^ fact (hat ir« 

LBCt- 13.] 



ilttpUo thu grttU ftrt of tb« pvl shovi Ui&t v« canrot prMaM 
gie^ »rt now, If w% oould do fl, wo ihoM^c] lova H wh«t^ «a ka« 
it dono — if we reATIyrATcd for it, wc dioiild r^ogdiM) it nnrl kiM*|) 
tf . ; but w« Jon't rarf^ for It.. Tt ■« T\t-l Art thkt wn nftnt; it li 
luniiiemctit gmtiflmtion of pride, prteoiit gnin— aiijUiing tp llw 
worM tiijl Art: 1«l il rut, w nhjill aJwh^h Ijuvo tuon^ifi to lAlk 
■built fctid harig over «ur aidtbonrdiu 

You wiir(I ho[i«) AnnDy jutk me wltjtt ia the oulcoracoF lU) UuB 
preobicoblo to-ntarrovr mornini; by u&who&rc tilting hurol TLwti 
m bha m&in prftd.Lc»l outcome* of it: ]n tlie dnt pluoo^ donH 
grumblo wboa yoa hear of Micw pictiiro boiiig l>oui;bt t>y<<oirofii. 
CDont at ft ^arp} prico. TbnrQ nra many pictiinw lq Enro^o now 
tn duigar of dottniction which Hro, in Uiu true ^onw of t)itf word, 
pricden ; tlj« pmpor pri^o U »inip1y ibat whicli tt ia nueoftiAry to 
giro to ^ct nnd to nvo thL^TTi. If you <!nn ^lA xUi^m for 6fV^ 
|iniind«t do ; if not for Inu thvi a hundml, dn ; If nrt fnr Ion tbnn 
five tliotuAudr du ; if uuL fur bsi liiuu twenty tlioiis&ud. do; ]k«r«t 
mind b«Jri^ impoiinl upon: iliorc U notbltjg tUA^riK^rM in being 
impoicd upon; the i^rdy dln^piicc b iii iroptaiuK; and joucofi't 
in gCQoral gob anjtliirig inucb wOTtli having. En tJtc vrAy of Contl* 
ncntal art, but it mtuit l>o witb tho help or c&nnivancc of nujribcn 
of people, wh^ indcodf ODj^ht to huvo nothinn to do with iho 
mcktt^rt but who practicalty have, and alwoya wiU bavo, ov«rytliin|f 
to do with it ; and if you don^t choono to submit to b« i^hocilod by 
thom oat of a ducAt hore aod a seccbin tLorf.% yo(i vill b« oltQAitrd 
tj lljom oat of yoiir picturo; and wh«lb«r you ara mo«t impOAod 
upon in totir^ tLiLt, or tbc d^ocbina, I tTiink I rrmy Inva yon to 
judges ; Ibniigh 1 know t.hnrc am many political oronnmiitK, wbo 
wotild mtlier [<tav« a bog of p^old on a ^rrct'tablo, than gira a 
iwriftr ijipiiiicn ftitra to CArry il d^iwittitafix 

Tbatr then, U tJxo Ent pmr-tiiAl outcomr of tbo matter. Ncret 
giuuiliW, but he ^ad wimn yoii luiaruf a uew pji^lurv b«Lu^ buagbl 
ftt a lur^c price tn llic lon^ fun. the doaTMl picturea arc alwa^ 



politicju. sconokt or avu 

lJt« le4t lur^nt; Hi>d, 1 rvppBt (for eW fon mfght thUk I m±i1 
it in mnm hnrrj' nf Ulk« unci not detibcrMcl)^V thure ftn 
picLum wbicii JiTv witUiniL prict^ Vju iLi>iiJJ aUod. Aal^DiOr, 
M the cdgp of Doicr diffii — fihakd^Ntte^ — mad waff* Uvk 
cKequf« in the frre» of tUa iiuiou oo tJ>o «1^cf wdo <if llx «|ik 
Ircctj otfcf od, for »Eicb And such cacTPOoa of (h«tr>. 

Then ibo ttexl pr&cticAil onii^oinie of it li — Xcrcr tnf ft DO^ ^ 
pictnn^ nodor any aironiiKtiuJCw wliAtoror. AH oopka mrt bed ; 
119 fftiDlAT "who b wortii A straw arer t»ilf eopf. H« wUl 
Biftko ft itvdj of » piciun ho likos Ibr hu «w& cao^ m bit o«b 
way; but be voo't uid can't oopy; nlioiiavcr fOQ boj a oopj; 
jou boT KO much inif>iitid«nitftn4iii)g of Uio orig^n^ ftfid onooon^ 
ft dol] ponofi ^iL feitlovinf; n tiovnfM bo is not fil for, bmdit 
IncTi^riHln^ iitiiiuKKity ob^ of iniKtakft and inopottoh), and f«p> 
Ibcrin^, u ^liri^tly m money tan fartbor, Ibe ow«o of ignonnoa 
in nil diro4^tii>t]hH Yon may, tn fool, oonftMer joan«lf aa hfttEng 
purcliniHHl n cctU\ii (]iinTiliiy <if mSftak'^.K; «nd, according to jvmi 

I do Dot meant bovoror, djot oopic* ihould nerer b& cnndft 
A (M^rUin ftnruljcr of dul} ptrsoiiA slioold alvrjiya ba «&iploy«4 by 

GorenimoQC in maldnft ^^ ^^>l accurate copies pdisiblo of oD 
pEduroc ; tboo^ copios, tlioogh irtiAttcally rduclc^ vfonid be 

irti^Hcnlly and dor^itrnciTtarIyTa)uaUc,m tbo event of tbodcfttv^- 
tiou of ibA orj^iinf pic^iuro. The «tnd)eft a1»o inade tiy £:mat onisU 
tor their ovn utt* liiould l>o loaii-ht after vitb the greateot aa^tff- 
S«fli; th^y xro nflon lo bo Ik)I)^| cheap; and io cormooti^Mt trilh 

w^hviiiTftl c«ipie&t wouTd bNomo ivr^ predoiu; tracing from 
:m and nibor Intgtfi vorku nrrt all of grMt thIim; Ibr tliringh a 
tracjir^- is li^bTd lu Jtiat, an nmn^ niintuki^ lu a copy. Lhi? niiitnLca 
in a trivriiig nri3 of ono LtmJ o»]y, vhicb inny Iw nllowod for, but 
llie iiiietiktnof a commoii] eopy^ are of oil cctici:iv«!i]i- binda: 
flnnlly, engra/imp^ m m txr iv lJ»ty coffv*y ccruin fwt* ftln^il tbo 
^tnrcft are oftin acrvic7iibil« nud r^li^ablc. I caD% of coartc, 


utor. tL| 



ealtf into ddailB in thoc mattcn yuX now; only tliri unLQ pieoA 
of ftdvico I c*u aufcjlf jjiic j*m — iiavcr to buy copiuxrf piciiti^ 
(Air juur firivuM putAOMiun) vliich jireUnd to j^re ft/tf««J>ni/i« tbM 
nhftll bo 113 wiy irbo rcprcicntAtiTc <d, or cqudl tA, tho onsi^'^< 
Whenever jou do M, fou &ro otiIj' lowcnri^ rour tMtfi, ADii iv«it- 
Ldj^ yotir i&onuv. And if you Arc gcnoroiu ruid vrnc^ y^u y^W bo 
r««dr mtbcr to »tibwMibo ta macb euf yo^ii voM h»vo given ^ a 
copv o( a ^oflt picture, to<AaT<Jd iu purcbuct, or tlit) purcliiua of 
>onao oth«r lilco it, by tho naiion. Tb^ru cught to b« n gtcAt 
Kfttioaal£9oci«tjinbtJiutc4JroT Ui4 puKbaftoorpLcturo*; pr«Miiting 
tUftrn to tlio iforioiiK g-nllorieit in (mt grwit citi^ atid vatchin^ 
lbcr« cvvr tUdr ufi^Iy : but in tJie uiuuutiiLKT, you <!E4r) ftlwayt Mt 
■jf«ly tnrl bt^nt^f&ciibily by mortly (tllowmg yonr ftriikl friemU to 
bHT pirii]*™ for yoii, nlion llicy ina gnol onca. Never Imy for 
yourvfUr*, uorgo Xol\v3 foru^Ti ffcalcn ; briL lot any paintiT vlitim 
^n Vnow tm j^nirml'i!, v-ht^n he fliujn n M^gb>i:Liijl ijli pktnre irt 
in nlil h<tn%py to try if hn cnriTtot gnT. it ftir yon \ tlmn, if you liltA 
Ht k«L>p it; if not, %i*nA it ta tliQ bftmrnpr, blkI yon wiK llriil iJint 
you tli> not Er«i.i nuiney oit pictureft no piirdiueii* 

And lUv tLitd niid obicT prMtieal outcontn of tbc lunitrr » lliw 
^nvrci] oNo : Wljcruvec you go, wbutcvur you Ju, ju:l ujorv fur 
pmfrMj/ion wid Iww for jTrc^ucft^n. I owuic ji^u, tJic worlJ ist, 
goncr^aCly «pCA.1ciiii^% u\ fsiXnmlU>n* diBOitliir, anj jupi bcti^JkOM you 
bftvo ninruiifod to t^ivii^t vam^ of the lurabcr uidc^ nnd get an 
ftvaiiablft corner for yourecrlvw^ yoiL tlink y«u ftboatd (li> iiotliing 
bat itt •pinain^ ic it all day lonj^vliilci au bonMholdcn and 
Di^onomieU, your tlnsl Uionglil and ^flbrt should bo, to teK tbiiigp 
more VH^nflro a)l alont you. Try to ivt lti« ground floor* in ordor, 
and get Uio rottenuM* mil of yovr grarpno*, ^m vlt nod ipio, 
but i»oi till thnn. 

IV. DiHTRfPL-TioNi — And nty^, l«*tly, v» f'omv to l1i« foiiiUi 
|r«ttt boud of our inquiry, ^ha f^umtion of the wiiw Jiniribution of 

the art wc h«rc gHthcrci] wnd pn^ft^ncd. U mint ba cridoni to «% 
at ft mon)cnr» tliotjglii, ilmt lUi» w«y in viliich work* of nfl am 
on ihfl whdc lucwL iMufu) lo Uie lutliou to vibiub tLcY lidott^ 
jaunt be hy Ui^ix V(jllvi:t:un iu imbliu ipillurt^ tuppowug Ui(— 
|iiIlufiiiK projirily mftna^oil. J!ut there h DAe diMdvaiUigit 
altai;Ltd rmct-KHtnlj to u;nl]ory txlnblti<>n, bhinulyi tbo oxtent of 
miiiohiof wbioh may be Joao by oao foolish curator* Am Ioois «■ 
tbo pictvinu ^rtiich 1\>rm tbo DAtionaJ wwlUi am dvpoaod in pnnA* 
coIloctioiiK, tho chanoo iiilwAjitlial tha paopUvho buy tfaon viU 
bu jost tb(f poopli> wbo liTv ^nil of tbotn ; nad Uiftt U;f cotim of 
OTcJiflcgonblfi vitluc i» llic oommadity Uicy pauuHa, will bdoeo 
tborn, <;viJri if they do nvl tvipum h ^imn*o]v*i^ to t»k« »ucli c«re 
of it w wil] pivHAn'o it* voJuo nndimhiibod. At all ovk^riti, k> 
JoQg lu work.1 af nrt :LrL< iii'Alt;*ivd tlirouglioiit tfio iiAtion, no urn* 
veruJ dutmk'iuin of tlii^rii &■ iHvuilk*; a ourtiuii av«mga only ara 
l(Mt hy tc-o-McntM ftnm tima to Hnin. Itut wbAn ihey are ooca 
cvllvuti^l ill a largu publJo gullury, if tb« uppuintnicct of (Jirator 
bcct^incA in nny v»j a iJiAttur oC foniiAiity, or llje |)t>»t U ao Iqct^ 
tir« wt to be djflputvd by p]Lv;o'LuuUr7« let but oqd foolifb or cato^ 
kv* l>otv>Ti get iHJMf^won of it, AEid ^crb^jr^ yi>a noaj hurt all joor 
£n« pictures repainted, ^lA Uic national property dcitroyod, In a 
iiiOfith. i» o^tiiftlly ti;<i cnju^ lit tiiiii mooKiTLt in fcvcraj gftaX 
Furcj^n D;iilkric«k Jhvy ara iho pWu of oxecotzon cf pvotoira: 
ovct thcLf doon yoa oiity wont tbo DaiitoAqno in^cnpUon^ '^La^ 
civ.\x ogni cpi^rAUsn, voi chc ontnito/ 

Sappooing, however, thiR dnngor projrtfrly guarded againal, aa it 
would i« aSwayi by n nution which «ithor knew tlio valuo, or 
Bn.lnrW.iiiiJ Iho m^riining, of paiurfng,* arraugam^nt in a publioH 
gallnry » the i^cBt, u udl va iJio mosi Buniccablc^, motbod of 

# wu» ELj«lt jt itJc UiiU Jil L'fury utHumCkiu Uiujr luiilvrvtcu^ Ilia vnol^A 
^ irlui^ tlip^ Ubt* btMD n>-pBiiiba<i tluuJil ho iwut^AJ ia vrilio^ 

la^TT. n] 

IV, nnTvnrimov. 


(>xhibilin^ p6clunH; a^d k h^t ooij moJo h vltkh ihvlf laiecori 
C^ taIqc c&q bo bronfEht oitt, And lh«ir hiiZoricjU n^c^ninj; mot^e 
dcftT. But CT^ot good IB mW to be doDQ by <]iicoiin|fiD|- ibe pri- 

more bci&e ^Ivjiy* dii6ar«f«d in «tiv work of on bj & ptnon who 
liu it ptrp^lt^allj rem- him hj ona ivbo ctlj »«• it from 
time lo time,) And «l(c M m moiuu of refinn^ llio habits ftii'I 
toaching th» boiTti of thv nuttoi of Uio im^d id tiioir doxnoitir 

For t>keii« lut pnrpcM* tho nnc«t ««mcMU> urt i« th» EVii^ «rt 
<if Uio time ; iho particiihr tAnUa of tHo jwoplo will bo btMA ta^ 
»<l tJkcilr f Mti?vt*r 1gno«*fic«t ban oonvcCKlf b^ p«Sni«tii tttboni - 
fing in tht mUii of Aom, Tnoro orloM giild«d to tho knowlndga of 
vh>t i» vsTiTvd lij tlie il^gr4<e of ajfnpAE^iy with which ifaeir WDtlc 
k wrHvnd. So ihftn. ^nnitrallr, it Bhrinld bo ihvt n1j«rt of grw 
vumiucii, ani) of ill patmuB of sri, lo njllecl. as Air u nmy bt% 
tho norlui nf dr«l Jit*nt^r« in public gnlliTlrf^ arrviij^ng llivm bo 
M to inastrnto tljc hiATorr of nvttkfiu^ And the pro^rcM nnd iu9n- 
ODC« of IlifTir Mrtf ; and to cEii^oantgc tlio prlvaio pMMMioii of Lha 
woilc» of tiviMfi maKtcn, And tho Snt vtd beni wftj* in wtich to 
enoooni:* «uch pnvato ygoBcwaon b, of coutw, to kfq» down th« 
pciee oftbcra acIot u joa eon. 

1 bopo thore tittt not A frF«jtt TiuiTiy paintfrv in tho Ttxm; if 
Aon OT, I ontrMit ihvir patien«« for xto next qaart«r of ah ho«r; 
(f Ihof will boar vit^ ni« fiar w> long, I bopo tha^ wilj b-^i^ IIqsJI^, 
bo 4dtodod b^ what I urn if^tyg to uj, 

I ffrpAK, ttcMin^ ut ibtfir indnlgvrro hi tho klpHni, that tho 
Arat objeot of oar national ei^onom}'. ai rvfpcota tho dtstrttnitioD 
of iDodom utt tfaoiiIJ be ti4<»}ily aiu] ntiiofudly to llmtL ita pric«% 
ainoo by doing ao^ yoa vill prc>duDfl tua dTccIa; 70Q wUt maka 
ibo piunten prodaoe mars fncturm, two cr throe indud c/ ocmv 
if thoy w«h to inaLe mouoy ; ami yutt wlU, \^ tjT^iki^tv^ v^^^ 
pictonv vrthia the reach ofpoojile of mo4oraleu«m3uai,«a^A»'^Ai 



i»oLiTicji EoOKOKr or Avr, 

tVCT tL 

(general intctot or tHu n^tiou m tlciu, tnorvue B UiovMUKUbM tin 
clcnnaad fur tlm coinniiMJitT, ftnid Uicrtlara Its vholoaoms and 

Tkntnml production, 

I Icnovr Low rnitny olijectton* niuet aHi« Id yotrr minds tt iLli 
moment to ^hat 1 wy ; but you niunt bu niA'iir^ tlmt H tt not , 
pOttlb.a for mo in no buur lo <!ip1iun nil iTicmoml nfd Gommorvtol 
bMringv <>f fluuli A prini^i|^lQ u tliia. Onlr, boliovo mo, 1 do not 
■pttlk Illicitly ; 1 Uiicilc I hiLva «oiundor^ idL tlio otJMtiont vliioli 
eoT)!d ho rnlJonally brouglil fiiru'^pd^ rli^ugh I bnv* tSmn «t ptp***nt 
only to grUn^e at tic niaiQ one, tinmely, Uio idea UitX tio high 
prices p^ii for modem pictnrfff are either lifnioitniblo, or ■erno^ 
ftW*, Ic tWo p*Tfitur. So ftif from llil> twing •i\ I ^>«ri«re ono of 
the prind[>ftl ohaUu*lo« to tho progrofti of modern *rt to tc tlio 
Tii^h pri('i>f given for good modorn pitrfira. For nbftcrro fint Iho 
)Kt)ori (if tKii li^i^li romurir.'riirir>Pi on thv orLiif* mind. U ko 
■*grta on* m it in mlli'il, fsli-bf*) l)n* *iyft nf tho puMw-^ nnd 
mjitcmlly tjf tbc publio of tbo iippnr <<I/iuns ^^'^i^ >■ h»rd3y nnjr 
limit to Llifl furliiim h^^ Ttiny n<!<[i]irL>; nu that^ tii Titt (itirly yisrv, 
liift miud in nittnriLlly Ici3 to dwctl on ihin wnrlilly lUid wfAltliy 
ommcncc aa ilia uiain Uung to Im mvrliei] by )in *Jt; if be Gndt 
tbftt be ie iJiit^m<luj4lly rifting t<iwM<]» it, be thinks thorv Ubcmi^- 
tbing yrong in his wor)c; or. if be in (or> proud to llunk tbott 
tii]) the bribe of wcnitb jmd borotir fi&rp bim from hie ko^ost 
labour Into dforta to MtfACt ftttcntton; And h« f;r«dn»i1ly Iom« 
botK hia power of mind nnd hii roctitndo of puipo*c. Uliiv 
Acc<>r<1iEi^ to tUo do^<i of Avarico or nmbitinn which udita in 
anypai&tor'o mind, in Ibo ntwcuiMt? intLoonf<o iTpos bim of 
hopo cf ^TQ4tt wmIiU And roputittion. But Ih^ bunn k titil 
prtBlcp, in tft fnf nn ibo pf>*Mibil)ly of HlUinintj fortune ofthi* fairul 
lompU pooplo continnnliy to bocomo paiutcn «rbo havo no rod 
j^ift f>r tbo MTorV ; and on vbom thoM motivoi of more worldrf 
int4»r«H havo oxdii^ivo indu^noiy ;— <moii vho tonnsnt Ar^ afaiuq 
the patiunt irorlfWB, wlt^o op liimit ttaidc all dtfUuto uid 

I in I 

i«or. n>J 

tv. T>wrnnivncv 

tl)fl piit>li«, BD'l 4o Uic HTcalcat Amount of mitdiic'i' to the tchooLi 
of ftrt m ihcifclaj vrhicli it ui poafriblo l4]rtK«ircaLt:«vUi(» to effect; 
liTid it » <[i»tfl wondcrFdl bov much nii»:liicf nift» be <Jotc cicu 
, by tjanll 0Ap«cTty< If jou oould bjr hcv iiit^n» suo^evxl ta lEovp- 
in}£ the pricei of ['ictaru dowD, joa would thrt>w nil tlt(40 di*- 
tviilii>iv out o1 lJji> wjij id onuo, 

Vou mpf pcriaiw think tlint tbb (cvcra tr«&txiiont vouJii do 
itii^r« Imrm tlinTi gooJ> by nUtii)r&4T<i^ ih^ wbolcvoiuQ oirmont of 
♦iTiolBtion, diKi giving t>o mimuluii to ciottjon ; bwt I Am Kmy to 
uiy tli&t artuT^ siJI itlwnyi hv tullicivntly jonloiift cif ciiiQ Ancthcr, 
whflJii>r T<*n phv xhi-m hirge f»f I<>w [n-l<'*ft; fltiri at for slinuilm lo 
•lertion, b?[i<Tvc m*, no good work in llii« world wjj* *Tor don« 
fur JMOtrriy, nor wbllv ibti hTfgEit^sl tbotigbt of Dionoy tt]Toi^l«d tbe 
pftitittirV miud, WIiwIcvlt iilrji of pflcuniiiry ralHc cntcn- into Iiin 
tboughlA AA bv worliB, ^ill, ill prc'|iui-liciij to tli« dibtluctihctti of iui 
ph^Mncc^ ftbortcn hi« power. A rcnl painter will vorL for yoti 
wtiaMiLtclj. if yon gWo biiii, ha I luld jou a littlv wLjIo A{^\bivwJ 
And v^AtCT AnrJ «all ; nrni * bwl pAintcr yn\i work badly snd 
IrAttiiv, tlioujicb yoti fEi%-c biin a pAlucc lo IJvo »u, and a jiriurvdom 
to live upon, Tiirnor f^ot, in hi« onrlicr jtan, half a crikwn n dfty 
And biMAuppcT (not bed pAT, ndthcr); and bo kora^ to paini 
opaa tbAt. And 1 bclio^o tfiot tltvnj w no i;bAnco of arC« traly 
flouritkijig in iinv country, imtii Yon mnko it n iimple Aitd plAJn 
ba^D<«i, proTidin^ itA mitfltvra willi bl «BAy conipet«iice, b\it r^^ri^fy 
with Anytliing nioro. Arid 1 luy ibisi not bccaUHS I dcvpifo Ibo 
grpnt pA^ntcr, but bco&uAu I bononr hjni ; utiJ I vbould hi> [nore 
thiiilc of adding Ui hk maportAbiHty or linppinfw by giving btm 
fii^[ic*(. thnn^ if Stinlctpi^rv or MiEion v^-rc Hlive^ I tdiould tltink 
we ji*Mi3il ri^ lhi-4r rrh\>vfta\n\\Xyt *>^ *"™ liliidy to ffil bolUr wtrrk 
(mm ihijiiiy by QJAking lliviu iiiiliiojiAimL 

]fnl,otBflr>i*,tt is not 4jrjly tlj« fiaintcr binivdf nboni yvu lijurc, 
tiy giving biiii tipt> bi^h pricce; ycu injure aII tbo lafcrior i^niiitcrv 



toicoflr ot iftT, 

tit thr^ Aity, If ihoy nri? ruoiluC, tlitry (till trc dwcoimgied 
dL'pr«!H.vl by tlitr feoLtdg UiuL tbrir iWn^ aro worUi «J tluJ«^ ooi 
pjtmtimlj, 7ii your eyta; — if proud, flll Uiofr wonC pwion* ^U 
afouw<J, jinJ lIlc iii*uh or oppiohriotii ^rliicli tbcj ytitl try to 
o(L tltiir flLiucivibful I'ivftl win uot onir nfflict ftnd «ouq4 Ukm, 
\t lut wur and WUcn bim : he HAnuot pioi Uttovgk su<li a tfi«t 
w lib oat (^nuvoDB ^mi». 

Thiitt dicn, IB tiic cfTcot roa produce on the pikintcr of nurl 
and oa tlto iiiforiur on« of iiiA ovw ttni]<lin^. Knt tou 4o 
thATi lhi« ; yon drph/n j<'nT*dvc«, hj yihai you pre for tb<f 
fiMhioQaUc pi<3turo. of ihtt powur of liolpinj^ thu youvgar mon ttb^ 
Aro coming forworJ, Be it liUtniLtixl, fc>r ttrgtiin<j[i;'« «ftko, if you 
ikr« not convinced by what I bavo uid, Uiat yon do no hnnn Co 
tho grcAt man by paying liLni veil ; yul oort^iily you do brm no 
■p«cUl good- Hift ri>paUtbn i« MtAbllti1t«4,aiicI }jiftfbit&no mndo; 
ha doa« not care whether yoa bay or not; ho ihinkt hf » nUior 
dofng yon a favour than othctviAu by lotting yoa hftva ono of )ii« 
pianrvt «t alL All th« j*otxI yoa do htm li to h«lp him to haj 
now pjur of carricigo Unrnoa ; whorxai^ nith that «nnio mm vIim 
IIlu yoQ fA-it nwny, you miglit havii rctlpvi>] ihe li^arta and 
*Mved thn hcMi nf twenty young pnintf^rA ; atk) if among ib^ 
ttfonty, yon but vhancicil on onn in nhoiii a true laUiii iwvcr fcadi 
WiL liiiiflvii^ hy hie puvui-ly, )iib(. cutEtiiltr ^^1]Ht a far-Lnuidiini 
fjLTcinbincitig j^ooJ yuu havo wtMir^ht w^itli tbut »|it-nrlitai 
of youn, I uy, ^'Ouoaidcr il" io rain; you canTml cvrsidor 
tor you cannot concetto tho ucknCM of the hoart with which 
ytrtiag paiotor of docp fcoliitff 1oi)» tbtoiisK hla flirt obncnrily 
hia «OT]«o of tho rt4'ong voice tvttiiin Iiini, ktliich you wttl 
hoar ; — hifl vniTi, foii'i, wondcrinflj witnon* lo tbc lliiiip* you wi| 
not sec;— hi* far awiiy perception of lljitiip tbat he coaU ftoeom< 
pliah if bo hji'l biLl prAt^LT jLnd tiriH% kH tin»ppro»chahlo and 
ing inrm bim, bcoaimr no one niil toavo him pcaca or qjaeiC him] 
time : all his ftiotaU iaiWn^ back from him ; thoM whom he n- 

moet TcvCTwiUy obey robitk(n]|^ aiifl prirnlyafnij tim ; nnd To^t M<1 
worst of »U. tbfmn viit> liolit*r» JQ Intn iJic nioot fiutLfulIj" niitf«riTig 
tiv ktm tlio moat Uilterir; — tfMwUi^ftoyo«,Ti}tik&ir*wovtnmhlian| 
ilifnlJi^ trightor la tl>u cbu«le wmIs hwbv ; and th« little li|i« 1} 
lii« fli<U ptrchod an<3 pnle vhich cn« dAy, I14 kiiown, th(iu(-1j Ld 
idAj tkover pao it* wilt luivcr >o pioadl^ vheu Uj«y name Lift umiio^ 
ealllng lifm ■onrfclhor" Ton d^privo jouroWm^ by j'our Urg« 
eipefMtitiire for pif?lnre« cf nark, of tbe power of mlit^ving »nd 
twiQemin^ thii rHutRWit; yuii injunr tTic jimrilvr ttliom jou pjiy m 
Inrgirly; — ami wHaI^ afW all, bfttn jon di>nA for yrmupkw^ at 
gut foi joUi^vlvijK \ U dutH uul ill ih** Iqu^I fullow tItHL ihc Imr 
n^ vrork of * finhioimlrki paiiitcr v'iU ojiitttlii ntvtv fur ^oui 
motley tliiin tlie ^uiet work of eomtj unkiiQwu man. In all pro- 
bability, voii will find, if yoii raibly ptifyhftm^ wbut ii poj^Hittr &t a 
liigli prioe, Ibfrl jou har^ ^l ono pictaro yoa don't ore fcir, Ibr 
a snm whicli ifoiild bare toiijjlil twctity ymi wonH harcdcIi^bUd 
in. I'or rzmriiibcr nknys Hmt tbo |*ii^ ef a picturo by a l;viQji 
ajtist, noTQT roprodcnU, nc^or fdrt r«prc«cntf tho ^^uantity of Inbour 
Of valu4 in it I10 pHoft r«pT«i«Tita, for tlio nott parr, tlio cJegna 
of d«atie wbicb Iho Hfh ptmpio of ibe tountry bavn tn pOMc™ it 
Onco got iho v«nltby cZmuu to [mngino Lb^t tbv pouL<uTon of 
piirtaT^t by n ^Wvn nrrlitt wld« m iht-tr "gentility," And ihnrfl fn 
^^* pr*c# vHich bU work tnnT Tint tmnii?diaDo]y rra^h, ind for ycir« 
nininlAiTi; nrid in Im^iiii^ 4t rbNt i>r'fAf^ yaii ftr« not giuUng vaUw 
ff>r ymir moiify, but inftnly d inj'uti u^^ far vic^tory m n contctt of 
oiilfniatirin. And it i« hardly pn»ible to »pPiiJ y6tar rnoriFj in h 
wonc or iuuro wmtU-Ail »)iy; for tbouyii lov may not be doin^ it 
for owtcutHtioTi yonniclf, yoo arc, by year pcitiniicity, nouriiliing 
tbo (>st<ut»tioit of otbctn; yoa meet Utem in their gtaxic of viciiltb, 
Ahd oontrnuc it f<>T tliviii; Sf tbcy bvd not tbinkd an o{ipoNin 
plnycr, tliv ^Amc would hnvc bccri doAo ; for a prourl tatai can 
find no cnjoymoiit in p^^OK^rrtf^ hinuvlf of vb&t nobody dinputca 
vitb Kim. So Ibat by *i\*try htihin^ you i^ivo for a piututo b^9iHf 


roLtncAii scoHQHr or jiiet. 

[iMCt U 

itt fair price — Tlinl i« to t^y^ th» prii?o wlimh vii] po^ Lb4» paii4«ff fo< 
ii» tjm»--ycu oTD not oai; chcBtiiig jounotf ftnd bnvmp TAiiity, Irat 
you NTO stimuUlint^ lU^ vanity of oiLffn; pajin^ Eitvndlj, foi tiie 
eT^tivAtion ci pnda. Vol] riat coni^iiJar o^^ry pound tbat joia 
ftp«rtd *bov<j iIk^ jnii price of ft work of irt, ii> an invcsbncot tn a 
rargo of ini^Tital qiilc'k-TlmQ or giiATtn, vMrh, bt-ing laid mi Lb* 
fiaidf, of hiiinaii itnttin^T i« to grow a hiirv-oiit of pHdoL Yoin an la 
face |ibiig1jt(ig Hi»d Imrrovlng, En a tii«Ht vhIili&LIu part of joitf 
land, ill ordrr to ivnp tlic wliirluimJ i you aic MttlJn^ jrour lianil 
al^ull/ U> iTolAi ikf^ricultuiif. '*Lul tJj»Uvb^row mHtiMcl of wLeai, 
antl cockle in*tujid of borloy.'' 

W*ll» Uit you ftill Mj, tliori* ia one advaoUfo in bi^h pncfj^ 
wbich inivc Uian countcrLalAncc* nl! tidft mitcH>e£ Danalyt tl^ 
by iTi'si^t Kward wc bnlli ar|fo and enable a fnjtintcr io prodLioo 
nitlivT odu pcrfvct picluru Umn nmny iHcricr obca; and oviQ [>cr> 
feet pkturo {m yon Ull lus and to l»cIicvo it] i» wonh a grcsl 
Tuimbcrof iiifohor onas. 

Uift*io; but yciH cftimot got it by paying for It, A gttaX frork 
in only doae wlion tlio pninUr gcU into tho bumcmr for il, likoa dia 
mbjcct, and dQtvmtiaoii to pnint it aft vc^EI ua he can, whothfir bi» 
fe p»id for it or not ; but hnd vrork, and g«ii«nil]y tli« vont aofft 
of bad work, it dono wlnan tic U trying to pioduco n ibony pic- 
tnr^, nr rino thfii fJinll n^iprAr fj^ bavo aa nucli laboar In It ai iksJl 
hfi worUi a bigb prict,* 

* "VTbcD tlili IccUrv wu dtljvcrfll. 1 e^vq hon »nMt data Atf iiqifiislniite 
vMimaiai cf the Aucra^ voJijo of^oi irodoni plcluroa ordimrml davov; 
bai thr flub^L la too mmplloh^d to bn tii1cqnatf»ly V9tiUA hi nrntiii;, vith 
out blfoducJEr; toon dijtall tliAa tbc rvaJor tri[] huva patioon Jbr. Dot 1 
ma^ Biate rmigjlily, ilml prlp« aIitjvi* a Irnndrrpd gulnoaa tMt ia gcnatal «iti^ 
Tifaal fvr itMicroaloui^ flntl uhort Gyo IiuacIfaJ fut uOn* Ad trtbl 
Mlviiwt fllrniyi <aoei vmn^ w»uj pnDi more Trrk nwin il^oiv pnro* w3] noii^ 
u«iil« him lor luio tJij aioiJe cnavou— liia ultrjt Vntutu be beilar nij|dr7tid 
is palriUn^ tit'O pU^i^r^ llivn oqq » tlnbomtc. Tho valcr-colonr piiblMri 



Hkfc ii, hnwftrvr, jm^tht^r poiDtt adiI a itjll more impjiunl 
oniv Inuring i^u tliJn iiiHtU^r cf [lun^iHWi Uihej iIjc Lcupin^ doiro 
<■/ price* to ft nkt;cijLut itUudAnl. Aiid llinl u, Uiftt you pbj yout 
pHcca into tbo haiuls of living mcu, ami lio not pour Uitun into 

Vor otscrro tLat, lu wc arrange our pajmsab of pictiim al 
prvcnt* no artiAt's wi^rk te woKb Wf Jte proper v^no while he ii 
•Lyc, Tha moiucjit bo dicAt bU pjctiirv«t if ihoy urc good, rcAob 
double tliuir foniior mluo ; but that two of price ropr«#c»t» ^hxt^Xy 
ft proftt rntda by iIlq intcUiji^cDt dealer or puTobooor ou bit pajit 
parcliR«t«. tk> that the tval fauto of the tnatUr ai\s ttiat tho Bri* 
1i»h public, tpjjiidmg a certain «um anDU&Il^ in aH, di^t^nninca 
thatt of ovory tbouMnd it p^yti ouly fivu hundrod aliall go to tfao 
ps^Ttl^r, or vIiaII bfi nt all coni^erD«d in th« prodiicti^Ti of art; and 
that dio oihor flvD hundred iJiall b» paid merely a* a tcttJmomal 
to diQ intclli){ent dtNilcr, wh£) kr»ew wliat to biij> Now, b^trrno- 
nS*U ar« Tuiy prpuy and pKipi>r tliing«, wilhin di^o limiu ; hnt 
toatimoiiiaJ to the nmonut of a hundred pnr cant, on tlio total 
erp«ndilura Is ni>tgo^ poHtiuil economy. Do nolt thtreforv, m 
gi^ncral, itnkj« }\ni t^<c il lo lie [i<!i^-i:4PL!^ry for ila pri-^c^nntion, buy 
Uiv piuluru trf a JlaiI artisl. If you (uar lliat il luiiy Lu uipuMii to 
contempt or neglect, buy it ; it# price will their, probAbly. not ba 
hi|;b : if yon wAiit to put i^ into a |niblic gnlEvry. buy it ; yoa ve 
antc^ ^cn, tliat joii do not apciid yoor money iclGnbly : or, if yon 
h)vod tltffman'D work vhJo bi^ wn Aliv«, and boii^lit Jt then, buy 
it also now, i( yn^ can kc no living; work ci^tiAl to it. fiat if you 
did Tigi buy it wbilo the tnau waa livinjc novcr buy it aflar ho ia 

aUo nf* fti»itrrp||: 1nU> ttm hjit)1t of malfTn^ ttiolT rlrtwing* too lurfps ">'t ^^ ■ 
Vtbtitn ttlikdiiiij; ttiiir prito mUiflj bo brudlli bhiI «tlcint af laucb thno ^o 
Ihfii^tfbl hiscnir, Qf auma maffrMi ^TOfpCHnia oemir h^n mu] tKcn^ u 
bi Ha «i» oT John LcwbL wboM drawtcBa an mwof til wiih imniLJlnf fr* 
viuoa ihrviighMit wLdUict thoir Katsh Giknlly aa^ phco ou be ramuiifr 

itunne y> yanrtclt L<wlc imunJ roj Sen jiktuita t1;Ai yo 
Jlke, ami tt; bQ^ltig whlcU yon t-an li«lp »Dia« gnniiw yci nnp^ 
TBJiL*.!— Umt i» tlxc hrii nLMiemcnt yoa oin tuftk« to llie on« y«l 
liave iii'glutteU— Hiid givn to lli« livjug nnd BLnigjfliiig (tuoUr at 
once wHLgus »nJ iCMliJnciurtl. 

3a far Ujcd of lite motive uliich nhould lEiducc Uft to ki 
dowtt tLo pricv^ of luudi-rD arl, »Dd tUiu njiidrr JE, «« a pri'at« 
posoCBftion, Attai'nAble by^ttftlor Tjqnjl>ora«f people thoLf hi prcacct. 
But irc shchild airiva to r(M]d«r it AOCOfliUo to ihrut id otljcr vrar* 
Alao — chiedf by tho poraiancnt dccorn-tion of public buildinjp; 
add it ii in tiiit liuM liiat L tbiiiJ^ wo mtiy look fot Ihu j^rolilablo 
moAbB of proTidin^ tliat conilaut otnploymoTit Ibr youTig pninU^ 
of vbioh vo vflro vpi^akitjg Init evening;. 

The Eir«l an't mohl iri]|wrtAni kiTid of jviblic buildtii^ wbkb 
ftre plwNjfl »urv to wurt, ara «chooJ0 : nud I vio\t)d uk Toa to 
tHtjrtery carefully, wb«t1iurn'c mny rkct viEcly intiVNJuM 
^rwi dmrgcA ^r tbo wsy of school dui'orHtion, HiiJi^rtrp, u <kr 
I koov. it bju either been ao dtf^cnlt Ia give «!! tfa« edtii'otion «« 
Wftfitetl to i^ir Ipiils, ili^ti v/e tiHve l>»Ljti obligud to do It, If at ^1), 
wish chftap flirniriirfl ir^ bare «»!!■; or *il*n wo liaTc crtimTdcw^, 
that diunp furnitin'o nnd bnru wnllx atq ii pra|)L-r piLrt ofll^c im 
i>f uduL'ulimi ; Hud KLippuHL-i tbnl \n>ya luariivd bvel ;^1jvii tlicry 
ou Lkid fomif, niuJ hikil iiolliing but bUuk pljmkr kbout «^d aboT»' 
Ihem ttbi.'r«upon lo t?ji>pToy iht'ir spare attvntion ; alao, that it wm 
ftB w«II llicy nhoiild be a«cQ»ton)ed to rough ftDd ii^lj corditioni 
of thin|£!v paitlj by way of ptcpnring tbi!!m for the bardnbipn .^- 
Ufo, and partly tJiat tlicre migbt be ibt* UabI p<i(»iblQ dama^ don< 
to tfoon and fortni^ m the event of lTioJt bocomiiti;^ duniig liA 
uxMBtera abauucct tbi* fidds or i^slnjiciCTiU cf bnttlis All U)» v 
io &r woll and nooowBiy, ta it ivlatea to the trami:^^ :>f M>untfy 
Ud4, and lIi« fitAt training of boy* in gnnoraL Itiit thorn corlainly 
corner a pctriod in the life ^f n udU vduL-ntvil youtb, id «hicb ona 

L19P. n. 

IT, t>mf nrn^fidir, 

«f the jiimrJpftl nbmnnu of hU niiimtion ia, nr nnghl lA 1m\ ti p;l\« 

biHlily seDAJUlitj' p-iiJ n:(lncmciit, nci'l hIiijW tiiiu %iich minll niut- 
t«r» a» \L*3 vsv of I;dii*]lJfi^ iLld*^ prufwrlj, aiijil LrL'ulijig lbi;iTi 
<0DBi(ienitel5. Kot otily >o, bat I bo)icTOtLc notion of fixing; il>c 
Attention W k«i>iiig tlio room ciTijvty, i» ft «li<*!lr iniBTiiVijii i^nc I 
iLhiok itiflju&t in the cniplint rci>ni ittot tbc mind irAndcn in»t 
for it gi^Ui rortlcse, liko ft UikI, fc^ wniit of s porcli, i^rv} i^iatA nhoax 
for &ny ixtuiUv mcan^ of getting out nnd Avny, And ovori if it 
b* fixod, by an afforE, on tli< b^wiKfa in hATicI, Uiat bii«in«« 
b«coTnea it*olf ropultivc, more tfcan it ccod be, by ihc vilun«* ol 
TU ftiaiocuticma; ftiid Tnnny n »tiuiy tpptsr* dull or palnfitl t^a 
boy. ub«n it iK ])iTnnr>L3 on a blnittvl (Ti?nl dctV, nn^c^r a will vllb 
notlitcg on il but mrrKlr.liiK Hnd peg*, w}n<-b wonhl Ijjivn Ik^hn juir- 
ULttl pliywAiiily cnoui^h in k cnrtftTticd romcr uf biifatbM'ilibraiy, 
ur ai till* liittictf wijiilow oT bfs oultii(!i% Kuy, uiy own En^lit^r »t 
xhnX thij i)f*l fcLiniy of nil ijl iln- inont K«Hliful; *inl lli^iln H quSi?t 
glnJe of fon.'flt, oc tlic nook i>^ <l biXe »l]oi(^ aic vortb aII lh» 
frclioolrooiiift in Cb^i»1cnOc>JI^ vfhrn oii<« ion nr? |<h^ t}ir.- UTuilipli- 
cetioQ Ul>Ia ; l> be diat u it may. 1.h«Tc^ ia no t^tic^tioD it aIJ but 
tliat a time ought to cotno in Uie lir« <il n w<J1 tininod yodtlii 
irlicn bo »il ut ikt « writiuE tnbJa witlioiit WAntmir to tbrow tbo 
fE^tand ftt li» iioigtibonr ; »nd wli«n a^«o ]i« vtilJ fvtit irt>i« cnpa' 
blc cif ccTtAin offorta <if oiind vStb bcAtitiful «Li>d rcHnc^ fomit 
ftb^Tt btrn tbjin \ftih iij^ly (>nc4iH When tJjAt lini« uOtDCS Lv 
ougbt to b? fidvbnotd into Ibc dccomtcd ichtiob; in^ tbiR iidvanc* 
oiigbt to }>9 on^ of iLo iinportsnt ftn>I bonoiinLble <pochi of bit 


I bare Ttot tiiTii?, Iiuuvvr^r, to innJBt on iJir xncro M!rvicf?ub1cnu» 
to onf yonfb of ivfiiK'rl arrbilPHnml dc^r-onitloTv, tu mrrb; for J 
vraot you to txrDHldvr the pruUblt iitJlLic!n[7c of Lite jiHiticular kiiid 
of Jtiuor«1.Jt;n »Jii<b I ftinli \0M to gi'i for tbtm, uwuvly, hitto»*— ' 





pvntip^, Vou know vo bavo httbfldo t«ou in tho }x%\a\ of ooi 
voting All ou£ hi«toncA] Icnowlaid^a, audi u it it, bj Uio oar tM)ifJ 
»v«r by Ui« uyo; All our notion of things twing oifUtiMl 
ilarlvad fKvru vi>rlml d^it^riptJor, itt>t from »i^hL Ncw^ 1 faftvo so 
douSt th&. lu w^ gT'')^' ifriblunlly wi«Dr— and vo &r« {|j;atig vo 

tlinri tht^ oar; jind Utnl Uiraugli ihc nye vc miut, in rodkf, 
obthjti, ur [lut Lirtci fnnii, uimrtj nit tlia unt-fii) {iifuniLiiliuit we mn 
to htvo ftbunl UjIs wovUi. B%un sa |L« i^nLiu-r nUu^K yaa v[|) 
find tbjit th« knowledgQ nhidi n Ix^ in sappoud ti> tvotjra frcm 
votWl il«»criptioii 16 only Av^Ubli: to him m f^r m in aiij undM^. 
bukd way be gcU a eight cf iha tLIng jou ace Ulking AboaL I^ 
nmauiW t^ell liiittt fur xn&ny yvar* of my tifo. lijc ouly notion T 
b%d of tlto look of a Qrcok kniglit vru oompHcAlcd botnccn rccol- 
Iriotion of n email otigruving ia my pocket Popo*a Hotoor, and 
rovc^eDt f^tudy of ihc Horto Ouanlik. And thoiisb i bcliovo ibat 
niost boya coJIuct Iboir iJ^vu from inorv voi'iod AfvuruM) and 
ftmuig« thcia moro carefully tlmn I did; ttill, vliatorer tourcoi 
tbty BL'ulc mutt tUvchyA bu tx^ohtr: if tl3t>y atv dovor boy*, th«7 
will go nnd took nt Lho iir^nlc vaixa and scutptnrc-Ji in tha Brltkb 
Iduicitni, And elL iho wi:iipoii>i U) our ami»»rii4*^T.iiity vftll W4 
what r»»1 Armour k like in hiA^ro, Hiid wh^I OriirJ: nnnoiir waj 
Hkfl \n form, and «i jiul a fnirly truu image togtilmr, but ilill nnl, 
hi onllniiry uutof, u wiy liviJtg or iNlcn^liiig om^^ Nuk* llio iMQ 
of your diteofhlive ]>fttiitirig woLild be, iu myrijuU of wayi^ 
atiiHioLc tbcir LiesLory for iLi^tn, aud t<j pul iht living »ppocl of' 
patl iJiliiga Wfi.ii'G Uj^ii cyca a£ fnillifiilly pa intclEit^cnt invcntic^i 
MP; BO tliat ^10 matSAt nhxW buvc nothing to do bnt onoo to 
point to the Mboolroom wol[%iLiid for vvLTiLitarwarvUthonwmiof. 
of ftny word would bo lii<d in a boy'& mmd in Ui« boit pottibltf] 
way. Ja It a <^ui»tion of oloHical dr^ts — what a l^nic waa \xk^ 
or a<hlfniiyB| ar a po|<][iif At ihiA day, y*>iL haV4 to point to 
i«ai« vile woodcut, in tb« middla of a dJctionar} pAgc, leproMOfr 



iDt; the thine ^ ^i^K "^P^" * ^'^'^^ '• ^^^ Iheu, }<^ vnM pnint U> r 
luiiitirv^ ^gunivt ^vi>Aring thft actual drowi, in itH Ei^tr^ ooloiira, ^i 
ftll i}i« fution* of iftmui »Ut«Iiric« or Atronffth ; jou would tmdta^ 
tlAnd al on^i* hovr ii ri>Il ronnii iIjo pi^ojilo'a Itrntu m Lb«T «looil, 
how it drifUd from tb<.'ir iliouUL^n u tbi-y wcml, bov it voilvd 
Ui«ir fiicm M rJioy w«[it, hnv It txtvArod ih^ir haiiAn in ih« d«^ ol 
h&uln, ^ff», if jou want tn »c Kihftt n wc-upon a like, jcn mfcr, 
in lika nxtoiact, to a niitiibcLifd piH(L\ in wliii^li ilii*rv art' qiun^ 
}im^ In K>tts^ Aud frword'liLIU In i^^niEiiatnual gronp*; aikI 
gnduftJly ttj« hiiy g('lj* R iliiii iiiutiiLimjLlii^a] nniion lufw nna 
•cymiUr a bookuJ to tlitt rIgbL nad a^iodivr lu Ui« IfiFk, hJiii du« 
J&vuLu liuji ai Limb lo Jt aiiJ unuiiiur uui^u : wtijJu c/uv |^uuc« aX 
your good picture vuuld djow hiui,' — and tLo Si>t minj ift«fiii>oii 
lit th« Kh<H>liuotu n^M fur uvi^r Hx in hiM inJi^dt— tij« Li>r>k of tb« 
««ord xuil kpoar a» tbcy fell or flvw ; and bow tbcy [icrccd, or 
tont, or aliailcTL^d— ^Low men vkldcd tliwi, And Luw meet died 
by tbcm. iJut Ihr more tbihn nil ibi^ i» it ft qi^(^«licij not of 
olwthcn or wtKkpous, but of mnul bow chc w*j stilltiicntly cntimftte 
tio ofloct on tho mind of 4 nobto joutb, «t ibo tiinu vJicn tii4 
^otM opciu to bim, of bftvii^^ fjulbfol and ttiLiehinj^ repr«Mint^ 
|J0ii4 put bulb nj biiii of tlio iLclniLnd prtH^urKcn of gnsat mtn — - 
bov many & rt^clLiiioti, whicb voutd nltor and oiak th& whd< 
ooano of bia nltor-lifo, mijf^it bo formed, wbnn in »oino drMiny 
tttiligbt bu Juvl, ibrouj^b bri own loartt tJio HihI oycc of tboM 
•hftdovk of tba gTPnt dead, nnoaoapablft and calm, f>i(in-,Sng to bit 
•oul; or fiinr.'icil ibat tlttir lipi nioL-utl in drood reproof or tOTHid* 
b^M iiiHortAlian. And if but for onn rni of mmy iIjU vitre mt^^ 
if yet, ID A fbvr, yoii 4!«uli1 be iiiiru that luch ifiRuom^n %nd Indud 
cluingfHl lb«ir ibougbu Hnil J'^hlinJn^ mid liirniNl tli^ '^'■ff^ i^nd 
nvklc^ }oiit|i> wbo ffciutd JiH^Q cut awa^ bi> cnerglci oeiaUm 
ran<vborH! iii lliu gihinUiiig'tAbli!, t^ tbikt iioblr lifo^we* ibftt bcJy 
bfi^'biiti'^ whicU Hbodi] win all glory to liiouwlf and all good 

rQtrncAif kosowt or akt. 

{txn B 

Lis ftmutiy'— T4>LiM not tfifti* to tome pitrpotw^ be 
e«dnoiny of Hi r 

And obncn't^ Uicrv could oc no monotony, no axhaiMjUoiaiit 
\i\ the Ki'nm nyjuirrnf k* be rliiin iwrtrHjrwL Eiwi W ih*»o wor^ 
bud j-oii wiiiilJTd fur every ichool m Uio kingdoin, one dctttli of 
I/fouidaa; OUI9 bKllJa uf MjimtLon ; oiiu dmiii of CIvobu sinJ 
BiU>; thcnt iioc^d noi Uivrcforo be mom; nionotcnv in yoiu htl 
iLitii liii^rc wiu in tbc rupctition of a gcvcui cjcle of »ubjur;b I7 
Ihe nli^otu pftii^ur* of lulj^* B^Jt w< ought rtol to admit a c^do 
Bt alL Tor tboDgb we hvA aa many srutV lUioolaaAW^ bsvo 
^iLt cities (otic dav I hc^po wc *Aafi have), ccriUiHcA of pttntiiig 
woutd not cxhauft, in all iLo number of thcci, tho noble and 
pikllctjc Buhji?elA Tthich mijiht ha chonvn from Lho tistory of ovca 
one roblo nation. Kut, botiJo ihii^ v^u %rill not, in a littlCE «bU«^ 
lirEiit your yoiUh«' tiudiw to no imrrov ficJdi u yuu do novr, 
llj^fA wiEl oo&ie a tim&— I ua «iiro of il^-irhon it will be found 
tlial the tame prarticnl roiulli^ botli in mtnlnl di**riplitic, and in 
t>oUttrjil philMn|khy, are lo be utiiiiii^i! tiy tiie ancumttf idady of 
mrdiAval and inoibni an of ani^ivnt hi^ti^ry; and that Ui«( &cti 
of nlL*'li:r^^'nl and moil^ni hirttory nro, 011 \}tv w!joh% i}ia most tat* 
porlnrt to na. And amon^'«^ noblr pmiipi of <^nKtdkt«d 
BchoolB wbbU I for^iMjQ ah^Ei^ iu uur ETi^laud, 1 fur^MM) At»o iJbjkt 
\vits »It] bu dt^iJcO fielJs vf Ujciight ; aitd thjit whUc ciach njll 

-c it» icholaiB a gtwit geii^'jal iJ&i of tlic wgrlJ'* hlntory, audi 
At aJl UI411 tibuuIJ |ioaHs^o — i:^:li will alfto tako ^pon ttaclf, aa ila 
9ffn tpocial duty, the closer Etudy of tti« coune of cvisnta in eoin« 
|[ivoti place or time. It will review tSkc rcAt of butoryf tml it will 
exhani^t it* own ^pccinl tiold of it; and found it* momt and 
poUtJcal tDiubiPi; on tbo mOBt ptrrfcct poraibLo aiinlysu of Ui< 
rotclU of Imman conduct in ono pU^^o, and At one cfwoh. Arid 
then, tbe ^nllcrioi of that «chool vill be pointed tritU the hiitoricaJ 
toOTkW buloTij^Ti^ to iIjo a^o wbu^tk it bu chowo for )l> *p4cift 

So fur, t1i«p, at art v yoc idait tpply it to thnt gttat MVIW ol 
public biLiUiini^ wliLi^h y«>iid4^oto to ikn mliicnlion cf yaaih. Tbt 
ncit rnrge oln^ of piibltc hiiildirigc fn wb)<^li wc i^bould lulrodiios 
It, » ouo wLlcb I lllink « few I'tuhin Tii>>nj of njillouHl ]irt>gTV«» wlU 
nrndcr more srrvitM'ftWi* t^ uh thun ilxcy liRVf bnon lAtcilv. I 
luuan, buiiiiiiigM ftir tbi! mcHilinfrj ^f giijbbi of traJw. 

Add Lur^ for tbc liml tiiiM% 1 iiiuAt ngHiu inltrriipt the conrM 
«f ouf iawst bquiry, in orJor to ttalo pud otbur principle cf 
folilical ocoiioitiv. wLlcL ie {wrfrctlj HLut|'Ta and in Jupntnblo ; bol 
whidt, noTcrthdcw, ire c&ntinLiAily get into oommcrcial cmbarrjucf 
In9i)1» fov iir&itt of undontitndini; 1 and not oiilj to, but i>\i^ct 
much Kindnui«« in our commercial ducovctiM, becoiwo many of 
our bu»iaon id«ii do oot iiracticalljr aJmh tt- 

Sap^oDiTi^ bnir a doion or a d<>Ron mon v^ltc cmj^I Anboro from 
a vrtook on an uninhabited inJand, and left to tbi^ir own ruAoureM, 
Oii« of coun«, according to bi» CApacftj, woaid b« «at to on« 
buim^^M and onb lo anolber; tho itrocgMtto dr^ nnd ti^cut wood^ 
and to build hiit« for Uio rvit : tlie inoit d^mrcna to m^ke nVioei 
ont of bark and coata out of aktna; tba btat cdneatcd to look fbl 
iron or V>iu! En ibv rockn, Knti to ]>hn tl^u cbanNi^ln iVir [Jlo ifrlgft 
tlon cf till flvldic But tlicinffb tlinir labmira wurc tlit* natnrallj 
aetarvd, Lliat binall ^n>uj> of a1i)}>^r4:ok«<] laud vrould nndcraund 
well unnn^lj thut the mpciiyliofHl pro^fiM nna to he mnAtt hy help- 
in^ oich i7LLor,-— not by opptwuf each other: and lla-y woold 
fci*o*T Oiat ihi* bclp coiiM ordj b« propaHf (pvcn m> lon^r sji Ucj 
were frank and open in tbcir reUiious, ai^d tbc JifficulUi-s which 
tach laj nndo projHjrly oxplaii^vd tit Uio roL £o ibftt any 
Appcamnco of wcrca}' or trphrAtcnoii in Ibo actions of anj of 
tlivm wodd in*tanllj\ and junlly, bv looted npon witb •wpieiot 
by thu n«t, M the §'t^ of nonie aoIEiii or fboliib proc*4jdiiig ofi tho 
part oF lh« iTidividimL If, for inatance^ th« acieniific mau wore 
found to tiavc gono oat at ni^bt, nnlcnown to xlio ri*at, to aTi*r ilia 


rouniuL ccovovT or aut* 

luiCT. ft 

iLat li« vftntcd bo set Iho but viif plj of wntcF to hk owm liekl ; 
ud if lit* AbooEDtkftT MfoMd to sbov iLttia ^bcro li* bwk gnv 
vhiob hft taada Iho Mndnl* oC tboy woold oAturiUf xkitik, and in 
ftli proluUIity riglttv lliinl;^ thul bv di*ltt\ want llwci to mm ko« 
mudi Uicra wu of it. a.wX tUaC lie tuonnt to lulc frorn tb«iii man 
c^m iviil jmraU'AH fn evoljAigi- for hkuni1»U than thi^ trotihla ot 
making tlitin cicurrtid. And tlui, alUiough 4«cb man wimJiI 
btvH a portion of tjiiie lo lihiuMstf in whirh lio wiia allowal U> ilo 
vbat h« cl]0«o aiib^LJt Ulor jnt^iiirj, — hu loriff m !ia vm woriing 
iu that pMFticijUr liu»iric3JB vrliidi ]>e bwl LtnJKrLakcn fur the oocn* 
cion bvoofilt a[ijr Kcnnr ou lia prtit noitU b« iruuivdiaUrlj au^ 
|>MicU lo invao tuindjjur ^ aiiO wouJi) rvijmTQ ta ba aoconntod br, 
or put mi euJ to ; and Uiu all ihc more bcca^jw, aluOerer tba 
vcjrlc nii^bt be ccrUinlv iWro would bo diflk-ultioi )tl)uiil it whJcL, 
wbco ones tbo7 wen wol[ osplvnod, migbt bo tiio7c or low cbtw 
awAj wiib bj Uio hdp of tbe ro«i; »o tbat aMUMdljr c*trj one M 
tbdn would ai^rancc wilb hU labour not o&Iy it>oro liappaLy, but 
more protitAliIj and cjuiGkij* by bavinj^ no accrcU, and bf frnaU^ 
tMtowin^ and frankly rvooiriog, »acb hulp aa iny n bia waj lo 
llct or to fi^^o. 

Ai>d, jont tib Ihv beat aud hchuit tMult <if tftsnUh and 1;ap|nnaM 
to tbo wtioU <>f tlifrni, would follow on t^oir peravTomnc« io mc^ 
■ cyitviTi of fntik romm^iiLicNtwiL and of bcTplVil Inbotir;--^ pr^ 
d«i»1v Oja wont and |>ocrfwt ruult vouki bo ohiainod by a ayOoni 
of >«L*GToii^' BTid of etiruity; and viich manV liappiocM atid wfalth 
would ftwuroilli' bo diiuirdiijod w propoiliuii lo tbo degree in 
w!iidj jL-jkEuut^' and coni^ujiEirjL'iil bucamu llioir BocltJ and econouia- 
omI priTtci^lcjh It would t>gt, ia iJko long run, bring good, but oolj 
CTiL to llio man of iwionco, if, iiiflcaJ cf CdJliog op«ntx vlrtVt Ut 
btt<' found good ii'on, Lc can^fulI.T concealed cvot7 n«w bod of i^ 
tbol bo mijflit aik, in cialian|;o f»r tiifl rare pJoogbahflrOi >nor9 
com *xiva Uio ranu«r, oT in cxobaogo tor tb« mdo &«frd]<\ inor« 
tebour bom tho Acuprtrow : and it wotdd not ultiinatoly bnnj[ 

IT. ciunu&UTiov. 
gcMh], but odIv tvW^ Uf tlo fiuui«[m, if tboT ftouglit lo buni tflcfc 

^ if tha «nmpBtrmioH irlod to bninic oftch othiir^i noadle&, tl^At«nc1i 

mi^ht f^<!l aII till* fltiti:l]mg lo hi^rnclf. 

N<fW, tUiUfi IjkAX itf liitiimjj Mi:r,ii>]i «ro pircW^ U BUtJiciWutii^ 
ill Ui«ir AppliE^HJti lo tliQ conduct of a miUion of mnn, u Id thM 
of Atji or twolvvh All vtuLiit^, JL^Ivuifj, oppu^ilion, &ui] necrimy kru 
wbotija ftjid in dl oircmiLiiUixci^ ilatrijctivi: hi tiicir naiur^^— uot 
prodactivo; anj nil lunilncnv fcl)gw»]ii(\ oBtl commumcBUvcncw 
arc inv»rint*l/ f'lodtictivo in ^lior <*|i«nilion, — ii<ft dm1ruulf*c \ acii 
ib« «vil pHrid|))v« of cppDsitJoii end cxclunvcncu ore not rcn- 
d^rcti IcM fiitAl, bill iiioore StiUl, ty their acccptju^ amons EaT|[o 
nuwwt of ntun; uiorc fivUl, 1 m>\ cxocth in froporticri «« their 
3AlLv«DCti 14 tnCTQ fiocruL ^ur Ut<iti^k iJiv i>fipu0ilii>ik doev tklwar* 
its own iimp?e, noccBury, dirocl qauitity of harm, nnd ivitljdraw« 
ftlvaji iu own e:mpT(»^ ii<ioi«^ry, nn (rA»tLirut>l« <|t]A[;iil)' of wonJtL 
from llio Hiim jiOK[*»d by Ific cunimaaity, jcl, in proporticm to 
ll]« w;£c df th« cnnnniiTLiI^, !t rioca annihor «nd toors rvAncJ mic- 
chliif t^iftn tlitK^liy froni^eiilEiig its 4)wn fflialiiy Wlcrr Mpncla oTmo^ 
CJiiittIc coriiplicjftUoii tiuA i^t^M^tWvwcy, miil ^vlng Hkl- to iLUjltttudoit 
tii fabu iLiwrii^* husvd cv n iiiidii lirilii^r in tarr^iv nnl imm&dlaio 
ppptfupucui uf fjcul ilune U^ru njitl lUcrv Vy Uiings nliSdi liAVo 
die amTcrml ain\ cvur(jt»tin^ nalnrc of cviL So tijal ttju Luii« hihI 
powvra of tlio natjoi] aJcr ^antv-O, tol only jb wrclclittl etmggliug 
ijftuuBb catli uLbur« b^it lit vaiu couiplaiitK ATid ^rouriiJlcn diecou' 
TAf^mciili^ Aiiii timpty invc«ti|rAtion»t und OMlcfli cipcrltiic^tib in 
Unp, aii<3 uUaionsi uiiJ invcnliont; witli Lopo nl«fty» tf> pull «]«- 
4lom tJiroutcb flomo now-olkapifd slit 'd a balJoVbox, ''^^ ^ ^'o^ 
prohponly Jown <i)t of llio cloudn Along Homo new Icriol of oluetfic 
wiru ; vhiltf aU thu witil« Wudoin itandB catJinff jit iho cofncn of 
tb« Dtrovbv and iho LltutTig of hoavon wfljla roaily to rajn d«vrii 
upon Qs, docp<ir Uihq ibo rivdfv and bmadar tlLan tlic d«v, if only 
it'o will oboy tbo firil pCnin ^Hi]<.'Jj;>1i<* of iunwiivvj ^ lavl Uva %raik 



pUin pre«pptB of the skiw ; *^ KuccnU Mw jvd^ou, 
morcy an-j compaeeioc, cvct^r maa to tm btotiicr; «id Id 
you iraB^ino oril ftjc«u«t bb brdlJi«r iu yotir Jic«rL^** 

Therefore, I l>i;^ii>ri> idmI Cinixly, lb»t u Iko Uva of Hi 
|iro«|writy gvl fnroilfiLr to ur, wa t\M aior« and men cm& o 
ipCd vooirI diM L!oiiimutiioAtiv« ijktONu ; an^ tliAt bQaoif tJl 
inoHii« of our doitig »(>, will bo tli4 ra^sUblvli^Dg goiLia of 
iiafioriauit trodo in » Fital, uot fcmud, conditicn; — tbnt llioi 
b« B ^TQjit council ur ](oi'»rQuit-nt tioUA? for tJio iiwinbon of 
Indc^ htnli in wlmteipaf to«a af tho kingdom oocnfioi iudf 
QifNJIj IQ Midi tm4<^, with miimr o^uncil hnlU in oUi^r dtioa 
lo ea^ Govnotl'bjJI, of1lo«n hliu^UuiI, ^h<m> H\>i buftlnvcan 

* Jt woiitri h* Willi j(^ mHUinil af prMirtiitip conllnutUj iibgut 
of AaiUi uid ifixpkl wtrrk^ (jui di^rKfii^^u wouJil olmfit^ cnplaiu to 
o liLtJft vTjht jj<iAiJ wnrka tnvtm. I'hiirv u iii>t 4oliaj>:i^r m ail tlio 

•ttoobd of IbbokkEik. ^ad t fici^orb all mj li£o bw^aooofila 

pfttUlicd fNm. 1 lUiiiMHU Uiu cliifK>nii:u tiv 4II niViJd. ud kuu* 
fiookfti wbllo tti<7 vlll Bit *iult^ polildj to ^cor B]:I]i>fiBini <nii of liw 
totlii> IComuui, ttv^ld got rntlvo dinvidj If thpj«ri*r pnsved a 
tost luMue ic thorn. Ijut w« »hould hBTo no nHrooDtUo OAtwlroplcih 1 
(UdnaAil pkupvilm, IT wv onlf fwd oftoc and took to ta^ui, tho« 
wufd*: "Ye^ olw, becouac tio b « prouJ juku. osiUi^ kccfivth *t 
Vi)A onkr^tMh f^kdadr**! hoU, ■nil f^nnrit. I>i- luuxllftl, — ^l\riU not &11 
luki; Hit ft [kvibtu uaikiuAt Liiii, uTLi] 11 taunuiJK fiicpvoib a^ilurt Iiha, uw 
■Wo« To Mm tliiU L^rit-a^-lli thu whirti it not liui: nnd ta him Ihit 
hrn«pif wlk (JiKk dtti/. ' " {Vt'lal a ^turluiv hbEt^ty, in ucm Dffla|ibora 
JiTu uT Ik frmn grwdj' 4F rirtoritf,) " Wou la bicu llijLt iKTOtvtii id ovU 
luiuutw L^nt ]ii^ tmy nt 1th AWt uii tjigTi. Wup ig bin thai 
jsqa R'Eih blrvHl a^^d at^iblirilj^Ih ■ iHy by luii^u^IJ. Bvl^uH f« it hOt 
Ljrd ur IliihU Lliikl [liii pu*^]!!- hLuU liiUiui m Ciiu lurjr dii^ huC Uia 
»IiiiiI wuurjF iLn-iiuulffM* tut vcfjt vudily." 

"Fhi: JiiTn^rlc^mfc wlvt la^c b<--<jii KudlQf oai vhlpavEUjidiiiii) Uult 
Ibdr tttnUfiL cud oolj- half ihclf bd^ vij luodllaic on Uhg " 

to ei&iuin« ttito tti< dmioutaiic«e cT every o|>eTiitir«^ in iIaI tiwt«i 
vha oboohcii lo rcporl bimAolf to Uiom whcii out of vc>rk, tin<l to 
wL iim to uork, if bv ia indooJ Mt Eini wi]Iiii|[, ftt a Inod mU of 
vigt«t dotofniiTii^d at iv^nlar periods kn tli« ^oimcii'iuciaiioip; 
vxl vho«o noit dutr loay bo to brini; roporu bcforo Uio oonuotl 
of til iiaprovaii]«iit]i made in the biuinutft tud mwirv of tIh ntXan 
uoa : not Altowing private pntCQtA of any kind^ but mabio^ aEI 
UDproTom^ti ivkilBb]« to wory membiLr of Ui« g>Jtl<lt fy^i^Y &iIot- 
thtg, afU<r titf^£(«&ru] IrinI of th^m, a cvruiii rowanil to Ui« &nvuK 

For tb«<ff, iTid iDAtiy otlitr lucli purpoict^ tiitli biitli we|[ \tt 
BgR^n, T trrui, t\A\j ivi\Ah\\Hhi*i\, artil fh^rt, in tVie palntingt and 
tkHuirationii of tlmm, ecprdal vflbrtuu^t toboiniidc tocetpr^u Ui* 
vori!iJtt'W9 Aiid borj[MirH)jk'Tit«H of tite tnido for wliote meinWrt 
IliflV an* fi-itintlniT. For X Imlinvn one of tins worst Bynj[jlonia nf 
inodprn swivly U> be, iu noiiou of grail infi^rinrity, nnd uii^iitlt^ 
niaiilii)i:#>, ha imot^??ari1y bviW|:iii{; totJio cliaracterof a Inulwinniu 
I boljeuc inulcuiitii mny be, oti^bt to be — ofiut arc* niorc^ gnnbfo* 
mvn \hjui idli> and luwlcm pioplo; acJ 1 Wlievti tliiit art may da 
noUo work by rricor^Kiii; in tb« b-ill of «acb traJv* Lh© nurricui 
wliob mon bdongiti^ toUiAt Uvlti bpTC doaofc'r Uicir country, 
iMHh prcurricj* ttic f>ortrait[s and raconJinj^tlio imfiorlAnl tncidonta 
iu tfao livu^ of t]]0«u who hnvo mado j^rcat aJvanooA m ctommorcc 
and civiliealion. 1 Ofinnot follow ont tbi» mtgoct, it brnncbci^ too 
fftr, and in too many dLrcotiom; bt^dva, I bai« no doubt yoQ will 
at cnco toe nrid ncucpt Ibo Imili of the main prineiplo, and be able 
to tlnnk i1 out for yourm'Tvi'h. I voiilr] fnlu aIho hnvc toid >omo> 
tiling f f vban nlgTil bn rlnnv^ In ibn wimA mannor, Ibr almdiouu* 
and hoiipittlt, ai»*3 for ivhat, flu I »ball try to riplain in nnl** lo 
till* Il^cIdfo, wa may h^iijji^ to k-o, viTue ilay, <wtaM!<li»l vnTh % 
illlfifrrijt mi-anrnff in thiflr namn tlinn that tb^iy nov bi^ar — uTirk* 
bmnn; biU ] bnve dctaii^cd yua luo hug alniELdy, and p-annnl 
pvrtnilmi^trlf li> tJ^npw» riirtlior i>n your (taticucu«aj.x-pt,on1y lo 



[l.iVT. R 

rocapituTalr, in oIo«ui£, U3« limf^le principle rc«}>«<olmg amIi 
utucb vm hava ^thorei diiring tZia ^ui>oof our in^cuir; pn«i 
ciplcn wUicU (iro uolliiii;; loaro Uinti Uic lilwrnl !U»d Eii»rti<:*il adCfp- 
ol* Llia savinj^ whioh U in hII gowl En«ii^ rooQ^i; nam^'y 
II thflv Arc fttgiAnr^i oe minUtci* of 4'batvt-cr UlotiU ant 
ODtmetuJ U) ibc'Tn. Ouly, i» il not > Hlrfni^ ih\u^ lUtX vlifU we 
mon <ir lou jwcupi tliQ moftnUg of uy^tig, ic long rs it u 
cDDMidcrcy] Miriuphi^nfiil, vd never w^ropt iU fm^anlng in fti 
owu Lvnjinf Vuii know lUa \vmon in ^^run un umJor tlio fonii of ti 
Atory abnui, inrhTif^^. Nfonnj writ giv:?n tn thn urrnTita In make tm 
uf: tlifl utt|iroBuli]a Buriaut UufC b ilm oiLrtl], auU hid hia LoM's 

Nky, UiAt of couno tiioacy iI^hwu'i tnciiii mtiuoy, it mcauv nil, it 
oiMij* iutcllotiU il intT^iTis infludiii^o tu lii-jh Tjimrurv, it iTujAns t^iity- 
Uivp^ in lh« world cicojit iuclfl And do i^oi jtra aoovIiM a 
prifttjr Add pIcuMUit coinc-off tljcio i» (ox rnoAt of ok in tlii* fifirStu&l 
applicAtioD V or coiiiTc, if n-c had wit, wo would un it fbr t^o 
good of our fdfu^v-ctvutuiT^ Uitt wm Iiavcu't wil, Qf courau^ if 
va hfld infiuoDCc with tlio LLiliopis v« would uius il for tbo p>od of 
llii^ Cljuruli 1 bi.Lt He Imvcii'V nny iufluou^o with llto l;i»bopB- 
coar»C| if vfo Lfid poltli<;aJ powor, no would uho it for tho ifood 
thcDntiap; bat wo bViTi^ i>o poUti'^al pow^r; tvQ Layq no lalucti 
uritruetuJ to u« of ntiy wort or kind, It i* trvio we liavo a litlto 
laono/i Ifnt tbo pornbla can't pouibly nuati nnyiliing b> vulgv 
■a iDonoy ; our mouc'v't mir L>un. 

1 bvUovo, if yon Uiinlc iiflrionEkly of ^ii matter, you trill fbcl UiM 
tlu ftnt and moit liloral application ih ji]»t ua fi»;v«H(>y a ono m 
any oAer— lljat the suiry doe* veiy apo^'mlly tnmtn what it iayft^ 
plain money \ and tliat iJic rvaMii wa don't at oil«o bdicve Tt doct 
bV ■■ <> ■o^ i^f tRcit ii^c^a lliiit while tlioiif^Tit, witk auJ ijit«lU-irt« 
Mnd ii\ pottur uf liirtb and iH^^iiiori, hio Midcitd jTivr-u U> ua, aihJ, 
tiiAntfTfra, Ui Iki laid out for tiio Oivcr,'-«ur wraith bna not b^iiQ 
gtron to aa; but wc have wcri^uO Tor \\ and Uai'u a ri^bt tv Apuij.^ 

UCT. ri.] 

IT. DWrxnii'TTClTf. 

H Hfl wc sbooA?. I IhinJc joa ml\ Giid tliot Li Iho real aubilacov 
of <mf nndonljiridint; in tliiji multor. Boaoly, vo mt, » ^u^iicn h} 
GimI— (I U ft ulwnl; sirt-tigtli ii givtr^ by God— it m ii thlu^it; po- 
titiooi b given bf Gcd — Jt k t ul^nt ; bnt m^nnf fa propvr wngoi 
(or our dny'i work — it a n<>t p Ukut. h i* n due. Wc mmy jiMily 
■|ienJ it on otifwlve*. if w« Nftvo workp<i for tt 

And th«ff» wontd be s^nie tWlow of eiRTJ** for thS», woro U ni>t 
tbat tiiD very jwivct of mikkin^ tlic monny u iUf'lf anlj ono of 111* 
■fijilicalic»ii» of dial iutolleut or ftfrrHTigtli wliidi hu oiTiTr-ai lo b« 
Ulento. Wliy u ona nmn fichnr tlitti Etnnthnr' Hi^r^jw he ia 

wbo in*3c bim in*jn; jjnFC^vi;f)riy hhiJ mvii> s-ig*:i</vn» thiin ollicnl 
^jU power of cmJurnni^ Lbat qmckniw of nppntlicmjoii, dint »lm* 
DCn of judginctit, vlildi vtinlTo Iijju lu ae'it^ ibo opportiiiittioi tliat 
utlien lose, aiiJ iTiiiitt jn Lbo Ixiilo oT cotidiiol la wbji;b oth«ni 
fail — AT? tbc?to i>ot tzklcobi !— ato tlicy not in the picwnt *i«tc 
of lL« Wur1']| amoi}^ tbe mo«t Jistti^f mp^cJ snd Tntftiontinl of m«D- 
Ul gifUf And ifl ii not wondcifnl^ tlml wbiTo wo *honTil b« Mt^r- 
fy vJibmod to uao a piipcnonly of body, in oni«r to liinist our 
WB&W OOmpanioiJA ai^ido froru »oir)ti plnco of advaiiU^», V4 
nrkhcdUiUii^t^ nut oiir niipnrloritifv ctC mtnd to tlitmt them back 
from wbatoTor |(ood that itrcnfctb of tnind cam otUin. You ironl4 
ba indi^&ot if TOO a&w m •trong atau walk Inio a. Uioatro or m 
-room, and, ^uTmly ohooabi;^ tho bcit plneo, Uko hn foebt« 
■Wgfabour by tJio ihouldor, %ni\ larn him out of it into tb« bwk 
aaata, or lb» atroM. You voold bo or^iiiilly indrgnanl If yon uv n 
■Umt foUotr thttiat himaelf up to a tobk nhora aoma bun^ry t'liil* 
4r»n ware Mti^ fed, and toiteh lib aim ov«r lli4/r boftU and lako 
tboir bra>d from tJiam, Itnt yon an* not lh« ln«t imli^^rmit if 
trhftnmmftnhna ttonlnsaof ibcuffht nnd.vfftmai cf capntuiy, and, 
iniLlt^l of hc\n^ lonj^rtno'l aii1i\ hna tJio iimj*1i ^ator gift Af 
bang lon^'finiutod — yon Mnk h pnHWily Jiiac that hit nhontd vm 
hi* intelltfcl to take tho hrvmd oil of tbe taoOthtot »1J Dto Otbct 



^t^UTtcu. teaatiUT or akt. 

ni«u ill tlio Lown vba nt of Lli« Mine trade vtUk Lini ; or n 
brrudlli and awr^p of eiglit to fpXhet (cmo br»acJi <tf Uio 
xncrcc of the ooanl/r irtto ono pont cobvcU of vlud) bo U 
*«ir tu bo the i:<iiiUftt «pi<lori m«kb^ «vfirj tiif^»d Tit^nhU wit 
paiiLUo(l3»cTavc,AiLUcominADdingOY«rj ftixtnuv «^lli the 
tiLi oj'OA, Yoi3 A«o 110 injuHtioff in ihlib 

But Uicni ii injuitico; nad, lot oj muV ona cf KLicb bo 
ftblo iDCD uill at no vory JUtncit period diKTajn to b« ^ilQK 
»oni« d«g[VAt liov«Tor^u it Jndnoil not nvjiihi; in %<tma dpgmt 
nesoMuyAnd int«nd«d- Tt U lUBinrdlyjuBt tlial id]L-nen thwi 
«urpn*(M*J by eii«rf^' ; thul fJio wiilr^tt infln^mi;!* Hbould Iw JXhsI 
hy thrH« w])r» m ht«t nHo ta v\qU\ it] and thnt a vUm m 
ih« «rKl of h\% tATWT, nhoEiIil htt boUj>r ttW iJian a fooL B' 
iJiftt rciuon, k tho fool to be wn-wheil, uttftiy CTnalinl d 
left fu nil lJii> tnlTdHiig whicli lii« oondocl &iid C4|i>dty a 
InfliirL?— Not lo. AViiat do ynu iii]p|jH« fooU vinnt mjtdal 
That yua iui|{bt IthiuJ ii{)uii them, «»d sUrre ibuia* vid| 
Uio bcltur uf thuut Jij tivery pnjnibla w*y f Dy du iiivsiu. 1 
fron made tbnt hisc pi^iplu luigliL tnke cure of tlcm. Tu 
tljD true «ikd plftitL fact cou^ruing tbo rvUcigii* of ervrj »liioii0 
wixo mtii to tbi) vrorlJ ^boLii biia. lie h» 1ii»ittrtiigxb gir^i 
not tLut be tDAV oriuli :bc woak* but tlial be mrxy aupport 
gujii« Ihcm. Jn his own liouacUotd lift u to be tbo gtn^e «nd 
»ii|jporl of hin cbilJnn ; out of lii» liou«choM ho l« »lill to bl 
fatlicr, that \n, the jfuidc and luppoft of the ncak and tlic p 
Doi morcly of Uiv mcritoriouBly w<ak and tbe innocently poow 
of tlin j^iiiltily ar^ puiLialuibly poor; n( tha n)4:n vnbo ought to I 
known better - of the poor who onjflit to be niibarncd of IboicMi 
It U nothing* to f;ivo punhion nod aottflf^ to tLo wxlow whi>i{ 
JiHt her ton ; it i> nothing to giva food and modioino to tbo m 
iiiHD who hiu bTok<iTi bit umi, or tho docrropit woman 
iiL'knui^ Itiil It iH «orn«thirig to otv your ttrnv nnd ntrcTi^ 
vitb tba ffflywardncB and ihon^hllcui] 

£SCT. Fl] 

IT. DnTBimrrivA* 

the crrii>g voikman in jour icrvicc tUI yau knvij mule hria au 
uiiorring«hu- »iuJ to clir«ut y'>ur felbtv-morcLaul lotL«t>pfH>rtui3ii^ 
vhicli bin dnlnott WDotd have lout Thin in mudi ; but it U }r«t 
iui>re,wlir'n^ua liHVofull/tchi^ail Ilia tiijitrionty wljirTi Ij^Jhii Io 
you, sirir) u^nircd die vnnlth wKicli is ilif. tltung nnvnrd of joiir 
iiagucily, if joumiitfmtily aiictf^t Uic rcApoiutibilily uf it, m iL i* ills 
huini ukJ {piida of IslMLir fnr utid n«ar. Fur yen vho kava il lu 
yoiir EijuiJb, tatt in ivulidj Otc pitoU of Ui« povtjr Hud oflurt of tlie 
Suiv, Il 11 cntniBLcd to jraa u nu nuLJiurity to Lc uoud Air gotid 
or otilft jUit M oouipl«tu)/ u kiij^ly aulUorlty wu uf «r gii rii lo a> 
pr.nct^ or niilitAry coTumand to a cnfitAin. And, AccoM^iijf to tliit 
quantity of it thai jou Lave in jouf tmtdft, you nro tlfl arbiten of 
tlio will &ud work of EiiglADd ; aud lLo wboLe iB•U1^ nhotbcr lli^ 
work of the SUto jdinll »»ffico Cor the Idtattr or not^ depend* apgn 
jrou. Vou uiH^ sLrt'loii oitt your scoptre ovor tbe beads of the 
l^jfUtfa Irtbi^urcnk^and say to tJichi, m ^cy Uoop to iU Vflvin^ 
'^SubduQ (JiJtt ctbatacio tbtt boA buJUud our IklhL'ir, put iway tbn 
pEi^QU thnt i^oDHUinw oar cbiMrcn ; w*tor thu^ dry |r}Acci, plougb 
tbe«e d»«rt onoi, *:utTj Uiii food to lho*« wlio aph In htLngor; 
rarr^ tbJR b|;bl lo 0)Cfto wbo uti* in dArlcnfuu; i^arry tbia lifo Ia 
tboftc who are in dflnlb ;*' or on tJio other »ido yoa uiuy way to bor 
Imbourt'rn; "Utr<* Jitn 1; tbid fwwcr is fn my band; c<>mi>, bn^TJ * 
mound hero for TnotflbRibri>ncd npoti, bigb and widt*; ccnii-, nuko 
o^whh fer my bend, tbat men may r,fv Lla^rrL Kliinit frorr^ far nwjty ; 
come^ weHYi* up^i^trJrt for aiy fei-i, ibat I nmy tic*ul ipoftly oh Lbo 
ulk and purple; cmni^ dmic^t! Iffiforu itie» tbnt I may Lv giiy ; nnd 
»ing flwvcLly to luvi, iJiaL 1 iiinir »bujtbvr; »o tJjttll 1 bv<i in joy, ftnd 
dia »i bonotir." And bctt«r thnn lucb nn bonouralrlo dtoLhi it 
were tliAt tbc day }i&d pc-rnLt'd wbctciTj wo wcrv born, and tbv 
Dl^bt iri wbic:li it v^m ft'iid iberc h A diJld conoel^ed. 

1 tnirt tbat in a lltJ*; wliil<\ tbcrr wjII le fo^ of out ricb mob 
wbo, tbruugb CftfoIcwfU'M or covet^nni^uw, tbiu forftal tbc giftnon 
office jKbicb is intotidcd for tboir liAuda. J Mid, just ticw. tbM 

rOLltlC^L E00:VOHT t>F ART. 

wcjillh ill-QBed vai sa tho not of the flpider, enUngting 
di.-^troviri^: but vrc&lth wdl usod, is rs the net of the i 
Rslier '^hogiithers boijIi of men out of the deep. A i\mi 
come— 1 do not think ovon now it » far from tm—- wheb 
golden net of the vnrM*a woaltfa in[t be spread abroad ^ 
Homing meshea of morning etoud are over the *tv; l*eanng 
them the joy of light and the devr of tlie morning, aa veil | 
BumrnoTis to honournble and peaceful toil, WLat lese cao wo 
from ymir w^nlth tbau iLia, nch men of England, when una 
fci^l fully Ijo^, by the Ktrengtb of your po^sGsaion&— not, L4jaen 
tlie ciliniistion, but by tlio admin If tratJou of thera and the | 
■ — jou csD direct the acU,-— tomuianJ Lbe GnergiT*- inrorn 
ignorance, — prolong the eiistuncc, of the whole hum'.n ri'ic 
how, oven of ivorldly wiaddm, vhiijh umn einplovs f-.itlifullv 
true, not oi:ly thjit her ways nri; pliJiisnhlrjLS.'^, iut ibal Let patl 
peuuo; and tJiat» for all tJio chlhlrcn of iiicn, A.^,wi;Li aa fox 
to whom the U gi^'tn, Loiiirtli of dnys are in Jot right li u»d, 
her iufl It ind Ktchea and Honour f 


Tan ftUicmeut could not, of cmit-v, be h»u^ vtllifriit 'lUjilfafUti 
hj A Gi^rUtiii clit^ iff polit^ciaDA: and in one of tlic notitxa of thwo 
jDanrca gi^n in the MaTichoitcr jounudn jU th« timo, «iid«iLvour 
*:»« fnail« lo grt qnit of It Ij rufwinng u< lhi> Dinncs n»dioHtj, ah 
tliv cnty Fatcmiil powur vritU nppoct lo uLiali uwu veto truly 
■tyltj " brwlLrcn." Of a&\inv it li w^ imd, i^'HiuIly nf co»r<u\ all 
h^iiii^M ^ovcninJuiil \n HiAhln^ cl*c ttijtn tlic ciccutiro oiiprcBici] 
of ihn Bivino autboHt;^ Tho tnoznont ^voromciit aantct to b« 
lJ»i> practlwil ftiifui'Wfm'iitof Pivjiiy Uw, it i» tjmrjnj ; and the 
moKiiiig wiiitli 1 uUfidk to tho vorLtf^ " pKlcrual ^,'ftV4'riitnonl," u 
m iiiur* t'jtu.iinlvd Urni% simpK this — "Tl'ti WKucnlivi* fuiniiiwMti 
by fbniLELt tuiEaan tuciLo^lB, of Ui<; vrill of llie FatLvr of inauLiiid 
respecting Hit cliildreu." I cciilIiJ riot giv^ tncb ■ Juflfiition of 
Ot>vifMimunt a» lEtU in n jrcrpdjM' kctutc; xnd even lu wtitUn 
fbrini it wiLl noctfdfaiily iiii;fs«t 1110115 otjoclionfi, of whidi 1 ton^l 
Dtilic^ fthd an«wiif Uiii hiokI prt^ljiLiTc. 

Only, ia ordur !<> tt\o\d tJiQ rocurr^nco of «Licti liroftome pbfMoa 
V "it iDAy bv AiiiiWAn'rl \\\ iho ^^{'otiH pW^," anj 'Mt mIH ba 
objected ilk lb'? Uiird place," Jtf., ! will tuk itc Mttidcr's lc«v* to 
utrofijjo iho diieuuion in tbc form of aiiiipb dia^o^'uv, lolling O 
hVUiA Ci>i oMji-xU-ir. and R. for :\?j>riEEM?. 

0. — Yoa di^ltn-t yf>nr pntcrnii] go^ornTnont U>boxlto«accnUvo 
fiTlIlidLVkt, Irv ftjiiiiul hiLiiinn mi^llM^ilis i^r lb» T^ivino ^\\\. Iti;t, 
vsuredljt ibat ^ill i^riti^ >4jxeiJ In tic^d of MJii ov crpnwioD from 
bnTnun Imwl !i canii£>l fp^tl of ItM TijIflliriMit 

iL — In the GnjiL >cn»o it uuicict; wid in ti^nt ujqm^ niun wb6 


rt>L|TtCAI, StiOMOHV or AttT. 

ftTc comiiiitl^ng mnrjlpT nnct KtMtling xra riMlh'g thu will of GcU 
M Diut'h w tlio LobL and kioJorl popb in tb« AcrEd. Uut iP tlio 
iSimtL-^l niiJ prL^Mnt »p»ic, tlia only Mrtm vrlth uhich w Jinvc ^nj- 
Ihiujf to dos Go<l\ ^rill concv[Din|£ mnii ib filflllcd bj itoroD nen^ 
und thAuHoJ hy othon. A»d tliojo mi^n ^ho oitlior ]>u»iin4« <tt 

A^intt it cxnctl^ in tho pcFtition i^f Ijiitlifiil rUiUlr<in in a fnniilv, 
yihitf khlii^n tliM fjitki^r w nut »^ "^^li'i ^illii^r cufirij'ol or ja^reumlc 
ttio rA»i to dij M Ujuir fjitJior VfoM bftve Uiom, nrcru he pr»«n1 ; 
aud in Hu lAr at thfiy ard 4ritpr4>Nd[k|{ and iiinintaintn^. for thA ttmOi 
ibe patcnrni antliocitr, they ctfiTcuc, ld the cxict at^itio in vludi I 
mc»niha }>h ruxfl tal70uniim'tIoo<VpAtAritA] gov«ni]n£i:il ovvrt)ji> t&i. 

0. — Ilritk if PtitviJ^nijrj \\m Iu1\ a liWl^ to Oiurj ju iiutuy iLliig* 
inohJijr to ^lovu Ui^r. ^v)iy vlLUnkl Lumai^ lin abiridgci iJint libcrtr, 
and l4ka ii|iot] itulf to coiti^icl vilxyit. iLd gnsit LinAgitcr ilom tiot 
eomptjT ? 

A— It 1« L'orifvwwd^ \n Uiu t'TinctmcTit of any Inw Tthnlflo^cf, 
IIielL htiiiiiLEi lnw_L{ivcni Ijuvt; n rif(lit to Ju rJilt^ For. if you havo 
no n^lit to ntridifo any of Die Uberty nhicb Frcvidcncc t** M 
to nmn, yon hnTo no right to ptmikh *riy one for tnnimrtling m«r» 
dcr or rotibcry. Viiii o:jglLl lo Iaavc thctn lo tlic piii^iAfaitiiTijt of 
Ood and Nature, llnl H' you ilihilc yi»fiPiclf nhJoroMijjulion to 
[iuhikIj, ua (jir as Iluhjuij Uvvs cah, tbu viufEtliuii iif tho ajU of GmI 
by thuc prcftt utik, you nre ccrti\inly imdcr the ftamu obHgation lo 
|mn!*h, w^th pMjvir^lfinrtTfllT liw* punidhinpnt, thn violaiinr of llii 
vjll in lues bjiin 

0, — No; you mimt rwt allciifpt t^ pTiiiinh ?(.■« ttnn by low, 
bc*uiiuio you ijjimioi pruptrly cli^S^u uor rt»tL*rUiin tbum, Eirfj- 
todj can dcUrminr ^vhctbcr mrirdor haft boon committed or nr>|, 
hilt you rAiJtifit- duii'niiiim how fRr |ioiiplfi hnvn bw-n iiTij^int or 
cruol )n ULtijor niaUorp, «[id tfic-rurvrv cnnnol iiinlco or t?iccuiu Uwa 
eonrj»rniHi- umtt*™. 

IL — If 1 pro|>oH; lo you to ptmiidi luiilL* wbjch canitoL be dc^n^d, 
OT to oxocnto EftWD nhiob cnnnol bo mndc Qcjtjitabto, roj«tt tho 
b»li|]jJ»^>iBt^. nul<Iti ntit gtiHurftllycbjpjjTilfilbej'ri^i^lpIu nf Uw, 

0,^Yce; [ i^Murally oljt^ct to iba principle <'f law u uppli^l 
fa> jninoT tlilngi; bL<caii»L\ if you could itiiccaed [whk'b you can* 



In rcgahtlug tho f»nt1r^ cc'mInK nfmnn hjrikw In ]|l||«1hln^ 
Fttll tt grvAt* yoa vouM tAkc awij from hamAfi life ill iU fnt- 
bftlioitHry disractor, iiiil r«adur moui^ viKuM »nd plutuiurut Impcii- 
frillc. Yuu tvuuTJ r^Juuo nrtue lo tlic icii>rDUi«ul of h )&at1i]ii«^ 
iiiitvud of tUc b(l of ■ (jttrit, 

A.^Vou lijirti JuhL i^aiiE, ]iiirciilbi:tLCt]ly, niict 1 Tiiil^r auJ ai]]' 
iniffy aJmit tt, tliAt il it imjiotAibic to rvi^alato all minor mnttcn 
by kv, U Lt not prohihlc, ilicrnforc, Uinl xhn ^vffron in whidi it 
i« poMthU to r^iilatc tJicii) by il, u aIao tlic decree in vhidt n U 
rijrAf to ro|;u|iitJ Ujvui Iry iir Or vhat tlt*it aiiA'M orjliJglli^nt 
wrtll \oii viitffTny, tii i.o|>ftnil4T the tJiingi vbich ought ia bo fbr* 
Diftlly rcfj^Uti^d fr^ni the ihnif^ which va^hi notF You Admit 
tbat gn?)it «nft vJinnld h* It^jfaTly rpprfwud ; but ^on my tbkl ftmatl 
*iti» blicull not bo IcgftMy rvprMwd. JJow ^o yt>n di»ti(i^Hh 
botwoon gTVftlKTi^ kiimll tiiiii; ami bow do yon inUtitt to d«t«T- 
miitiv cr Ju VQU ia prnclltv of d»i]y life ilclorinit^ts uti nlthl txs^ft 
•lOTi yoi; piiould conripcl people to do r^ffitX^ And on what ocavnoo 
voii hhoiild Ir-avA lltnii ilio npr:lon of doling vrong f 

Om — 1 tljiuk yon CATmot iiiaIco Any accamk or to^»] Jiatino 
iJon Ln Mich mAtt«nt^ hut tlmt o'liiirnoii *ei]tO And inMlinci liAVl^. in 
nil civili£od iiAtionii, iudicalFd cciliiii ctiiiiiA of gii:at h^cinl hann- 
fuhMMiC, iiiL'U H4 niitnler, Vm^ idultorv, tlanJur. Hrui tiicli liko, 
vhiuli it il propvi to teprou t«gAlty ; aiiiI tliAt comtcun wiiw j^nd 
bitVDot Mirutc also tbo kind of criraoH wbjah it iji fropcr iot 
Uwfi to 1f»t nlonc, nmli na niiwrUnow, iU-pAiiiml Hpt^Akin^, nnd 
luHoy of tliOAC conimcreiAl di«boTi;-*tiDA vhicb 1 Ju^o a notion jou 
want yoitr pAtomn! goT«mrn<>ni to initrfflr* wtlb. 

JE. — l*tiif do oot »Eanii ymiraclf abtmt what uiy pafprttiftl go* 
vcrnmoot is likii^y to intuHoro Mithf bttt b«ap to ttic matter in 
hAticl. You nAy ihn], "cumjiion viiim JiuJ inttinut" have, in a11 
civili/cd nDtioti^ diatifijfuinhed bHwccn tho noa thcit oa^Ut to bo 
IftgaHy d<-ill witlj niid thnt ought not. Tkt yon nn**n tliAt ih^ 
IftffTi of aII DiviliJEcd OAtioTifl flfo poHccbt 

O. — No ; opttfcltily Tint, 

iZ. — Or tLbt Ui«y kil- |wrf(*cL At )c!i»t in tlicirdiicriTnination ci 
wTiAt cHrnoB they ^ould deal with^ ai^ what oriinc* tlicj Ahonlil 
1«t Alone t 

cMted natioH; ahd thu, in diw ooun* «f Uhm^ BMnf&l 
■ad iMliDCt poittt oat llic taiUen Umj iAmmM W braogbt to 

flidJMt of isfiMy » ft pcvmoi iUflf ; foo «aAnM At vit gen 
piM^Jst •boQl wW •hoolj b« dcsit vjtli I«^1y* a:i<I 

B4 — 8 »jnwMiig it lo be KVh ^ 1^^ tfaaoik Ibsc on; uij 
IB vbkfc oar Ep^firii tegihlw^ » ««f«lik of amtfrdtDsM,' 
Wan OB oMEtmstvial Mod veofiMnMal >uattfn« \n lEk prwcl 

0^— OfooorAtldo, 

Aw— W^H, th«a, Wt oi dUMM dbne t«gKh«r ^iHly ; tnd if ib< 
poiUit tbftt ] '■uit upcAdcd ftMin to voq incipable of uneiidmMn^ 
or Dot in nroj of am^ndiiMft^ nj «o ; bvt 4oii^ object, ift nlaiti 
to thfl men propovtioa of ippljiiig Uv to ihingK vliicli 1iiit« 
hftd Uv ftpplkd to Ibcni bdWc Yoa Juto odmitlod tbe fi 
of mj toprM^^n, ** pdiUfnuil gmrrmm^nt :* IC oftlj bn 
and recuina « q-a«<iioo b«t«««D ix^ kow ^ aa^h ifovrraiDtfi 
hIioiiM cxuin J. PorbAfM von would liw it onN to rv^laU, «m<ifi| 
xJ>«cbildKii, ilifl tcn^cf llicirleiooiu; kdi] [^rrliM^t 1 Oioiild Ilka 
H &l» to rfrgi^ftlc Ujo tufdnAM of thoir cncbi.t bdti : biit canTiol 
joa aiit qoM>l1j tin ynii Vf\<tw w)x%l I watiI h to do, ttffoM qnpn 
rdlin^ i^ith tie tiling itoflff 

— No; I rannnt vwt tjitUtlj: in hex f dor/t mo uiy wo il 
b'^giniiiEi^' Mub a diHCunion at &!l brouw! [ aic quilo mr» ftni 
iJio ftnt, fJvAl you «&nt to modJ^tj vitfa ihTtij-i that jron liiiTt MJ 
buAdTi^AH witlit And IG iiitnrTcTc nJtli liciiltJiy tilKirty of scltnri Fn al 
oorto of «A^ii ; And 1 Imovr tlmt yi^a cjui'l firopotc ^ny Ifiwt iLal 
WOQU be or rrnt n«A,* 

* If Ibo mdftf ia dkploHcd nitli dio for pDltiuiE Uiu fSxhlifh ^Mcb i 
bb moutL I cntnMt bid ^Anlnn , tut Ua ci»j bo tffund llikt t( li ft vpeec& 

wMifh voij'l Iw ituulrt Ijjr [n>Lfiy pfniiln^ iujO Lhv MbAutn) i^f whLcji w^xild b| 
Innil^ ffW by mnof mori^, it iIlLj point cf Ehii diicuniloii- I li>t* rftiQl 
tfLod> Ofi to Uii« pitint, \jb nijikff div «bjft4lnr >« mto31ip«4)t a ptrKin na ft a 
pDwtljb fOr ui uUior t4 iniBiCLELCf inj-bodj >o Lx^ vha diEToia willi 1^ 



A. — ir TOT] indcoO knov tfiftl, y^n vatil<l ht wron^ ic b«ir iriQ 

AUr faiibDr. Dtit if yoti ATconly in pninfciJ dnnbt «bniil inc, ^l^iuh 
■niiktit jxnj niiwUiini:; to ni^ Uto riftb of »A><lvn]>; v->iir uiri'. I wUl 
ivJ] jou biffitri'ljaiiil wJiia 1 rvtMj do tliinlc utHiiit UiU niiii^ JalMrriy 
fir fu;XJ«i], rituu«1f, tlinl wtiauitvur "#» <an makt a [lOrfctAl)* c<^viU- 
' htc law ^Ejont iny malt^r, or ev«ii « Ittw tic<ninrif;, on the wbolci 
mora ju^i oon'laa ttan qirji^ vc cngbt Xg inaki^ thtU Uw; and 
tliMt t]ivr« will }').-% DEI Utt^Q coiiJitiont, bIwkvi Tt^roniri a tmntW 
of ms.ttctB ttflp(?rtiii^ ^vlikb iT-^nliAni arti firnnAliHm lirfi imjioMiUc; 
«noujth' and more UtAii ano^itfb, to atoNw<t aM httiaon powot* of 
iiRliT]<Iu8l ji^ii^mm*, gml (dTL-nl all Liirdit of fi^opi} to iniiiviilikAt 
€lLM«ct«r. I iKirik ttiw; liiii of tonnw it Km OTily be (ji-oi^eMl by 

•(■jmr*l<* i>xjimiiiii(mn of (hJi |»(»j«(i,Illi<>* ^rfnrrniil rpMraint '\n vttch 
givoa licld of ACliun; zkuJ thr«c; two Ivctiirui nrc noLJiirijf more 
IIiah b itcUili of iu<<li 1 <lvl&itiHl omriinntiofi ia oao JI0IJ, hknidj, 
tlmt of nrL Vou will find, liowcTcr, oue or two otJii^r loajjuLi on 
fDch pofu^ibilitice in tbe a«il ncto. 


N(il0 Iritl, p. %%^^ Ei^ht (0 ^iliih tupjtariJ 

!t did aol iippcAT lo me iji7»irzbblc in Hit cmitva of ^c nprjiknn 
IratDTc, to enter mt^ di^taila or oWnt fiii(^<:4tioEia on Uic <{iio«tifiTiit 
of tlift ra^d^niion of Ulionr nnd cniithhniii>n o^ ri'linf, m \i wo»U 
bavc bouri i'npOMJblo to do AO witlioul t>LtchIpg oa oiiwiy Ji^putoJ 
or (li>|mijibl0 point^ not eiully handltfJ b«tfbr» a ganurit andik^tiau* 
Hut 1 niiiftt now Mipply yhaX U wftiiiing Lo mako my geuisriJ 
<l4t«mcT)t i^loir 

T l>ftllBfc'fl, in thfl flint pU(*n, ihflt, nn Chrisninn natirm bnn nny 
biininwif to b(io ano of it» inriiibarH tu dutfu* witboul bdpin^^ liira, 
'hoiii^li. p<>r'1iiipt, At thtfk uiiTii> ihni^ pnnkliing hirrr : hi^tj^ of ooniu 
^iii niuc C4UC* out «f tan— mining ifaidnncD, iinicL [uoro iban 
giftf and, tfiflreforo, iiiCdtforDnc« with liborty* Wbcn & piMunnt 
tnoliior iHx» one <if ht^r cnielradi ehildnfH f>lt into a dib^Ji, lirr HtU 
prtK^GoJinj; in to put] liimont; her Mcond, to box liiii nAT*\ tici 
ihirtl, ordinnHlf, fo I'^nd h'nn ctnT^tnWy m littlft vay by i)i« h^nii 



or wad Lioi liome Tor Iho tot of tlio dftf, He cbild omtl) 
crio^ itid iror^ ofl^ noutd clenrlr pivTor T^nitlihtg Id Uift 
Aiiii if lie ttodcnbo0<f ftnr cf tJttf tennt «f politios wofild c«i 
<<icpro« raiKbtraoQt At th« iia«rfbr»nc4 vitb hk tndivadUBl libfittv? 
btit tJlh fDothor huk done her ^ut/. WLcrau the woaI cull of Ui* 
inolhor nalii^n to ati^ of li«r children, nnJur meb cinwtsUiiMWt 
htt liieiy b««ii DOthiVTjf mere tSitit the TAiliiiTkur'^ — "StAf *tUt 
tbcro; I kBaII dbtr vou^*' Mn\ if wc >lwa>« (ouU cknr tbffiD. 
thoir roqnoU ti> bo li>ft in intiJJy indL>potiil«i]M nifpl ht $aatt>' 
times hllowei] br kird pcitpl^v '>^ llt<^'' <''^ ^ liolp dinJMftfil b/ 
unkind oni<«. But vo caii\ cloAr tliom. ITio vbok riad'oo i^ te 
r»t, bonn'1 loj;el1ier| m mpii ara by ro^wn on a g1act«^— if oh 
ftlK th(^ ml i:iii*t cTL!tcr lift liiin of dmjf him fltonx wittt thnn* 
Mdood wfiigbt« not without much incrvaMiof dfliigtrlotb«iiui«lv9it 
Aud ihv luiT (jf rlghi bciii^ iiiatilftwtly tu llin* aa* i«lieLbvr naai- 
fWtlT or not, ft \b <J^vay^ Iho hv of prud«nco, the onlj' qaeetioin 
itt liow ditft n1iolr?»omo 1i«1|> mul inti*r1breno0 >ro (0 bo idi 

Till* flfit lEitDrTcreneo iJionld bo m orIfi<:Btioii. In <tr<lor that 
locn may be ftblc W supfiorL tlirjiNfcl/ci *be(i llcji atb gnwP* 
thoir itroni^ib inii«t t>o properly dov<>1op«<J wblla lh«f Bto toub;; 
ATuI tlio «t4t<T i^inuli H^HVA «ro to tJjiji — Tiot otlowinft tfirir hcAtUi 
to bo broken Ivr too cmly Inbmir, nor Ibcir powon la l>e waAdi 
for wwit of Vni^wtojlgrt. Somo qrH"«ir*nt wtufole^i wHh lliii 
niAltcr bjc ni>tLrod fjiitiicr tm iiiii]<ir tbu brrul " Iriul ddtuolt :" oao 
pcnnt I miut notico bciro^ timt t boliik^o nil j-oiitlio of whoConsr 
riTxIc. oojfbt lo Innrn m»iiit iDAVtiiHl UH<^> I.1ii>n>iiffHly ; fbr it it fjttitf 
won-iorfiil how much r; mnr's vjtw» cif tif? aio cleorod br lTt« 
ALrjjS!irii<<;it fif the capAi'.ity of domj^ iiny niL* tliifijf wrll v^h liU 
bnn<lA %n-\ nrma. For a loag tiii]c,vhixt rii-litlifc itioro nmir iho 
oppor ol»itM r>r Europe depondod in no noA]) (l*gr«o on tlw 

* It is Tcfj <xirLoiu to irikli Uiv DlTuito vt Ifnt BliEiidcwp^ra lu rutn 44ft 

otLcr DultbtT Imv^ii); thii liintK i^vm Ujki hUniliioil nditribouriniuifliviniJlj 
bn aiipiwri'^ U liLi omhi oipnnH, wrCli jui in^rtiiuv </ poor rmtM; and itiM 
Old ouriiiM bdiwi^Dii thL^m u not la ixnKlv wSicli thuM gat cvorjlUnf Iba 
hlinml^ but vlilah tflullJfnl uko upfpo lunrinirind blacuBtotutivlbttgnEii^ 
tout tnnhilepiuicio DftlifrCtU^^d 



Diroaiitf wLidj oach man w nn^dct of being aililc 1o fcnofi : a1 
Ibii dAjtllie inwt iinHuI iIjIii^ Hrliir.U bciyn K-vii m1 (LikLlif- ff-]iL»Ii 
KK, 1 bolic«^ ndiui:, rcwinj;, ■U'j criokvttiig. But it woulJ bo fat 

KlTihi^ht, Aii^l m^tko a htffrcehocv tbftn only to fo&thcr cant nu^tl^ 
or j»^uit fJioir locA prettily in itirrupiL Thca, in Hci^rHiir >if<<I 
sdptiLilic Miwbiii)^ tliv ^iu«it point of oi:ouuniv ia Co irivc U»c -ii^ 
ciplin« of tt thr«ij^'b kriovFtwi^ whicL will tiQQiC'li»l«Ij brar on 
prAclifMJ lifiv Our liU'rvy vork lijv* loti^' }ji<o» ooitfioiuit^lj 
qmIcu to a» bo4aiiAc i>o mcicii toucuriitil wilL dt-uicl Juiki^iinf^ob^ 
and oor Bciontili^ work will j"*t, ior kjioq time, bu 9i good djjui kwl, 
becAUK Bok-ritiflu int^n fiu too fijDii rrr too vaJii of ihaii ii^t«inE«, 
And wji&t« Ibu «tit<Iani'a tiiii« tn or]<344ivvi3mg to gtva Lim lar^ 
vJuiTB,, Hiiil niiku him pi'ii^uve iiittrrLiitin^ iXtVJLt'^lmiiJf nf itti:U\ 
AvhcD tlicro in cot ooo »luilc[it> nos nor one mitiii ia & tiictuMnti, 
«bo out fi?L^ tbo bp^LiLj of n ijidQni, or ovon Inkv il ckwOv into 
hkbiwi; but uvuil/ nil uic:l g&h UJiJonteml. aud )utni will be 
intuivitni iri« tJie Aiela wbiui bear on lUity Jifi>. Bobtiijita iuv4i 
iliiimvcrrHl ■out*? woiniurful connection birlufonn quHIm mucI (1^ 
wbii^h a cowboy who will ocnrr »cc a ripe tii; ii< bi* Itfo ncrj nol 
bo lit all ttOTibl^d fllmtit ; but it will bd intfri^lin^ lei him to knrtw 
wbat cQcct ncUilct Latc on buj. Add viUnX l;utc ibuy will girv to 
porridgo; mnd it viil giva bjm □oeirl)' a nov hfo if Lo c]U> 1>a ^1 
biJE> ODC:, Id a »pii]i^-liiiL(v tu look vtdl uL iha beauiLiful cii^lul of 
tb« white agVtU bkjMum, »ii4 wi>i'lc out wiUj lnv Kltoohnutcr tbo 
^urvKi of ]l» jifltBlit and liii- mh v it ib Hut on itit ittutral maaL So, 
tbc prindpb of dicmlool vquivahiiu^ beautiful nj it 14, Enatt<r» fm 
louCAafiCABantboy,antl uv^n tom'^atunf^organtkrancn, than tlidv 
iBOwiii^ bu^ &J nui) wii«tli«r the v*tor i» wb^Icaomv In iJiu ba^- 
'tttobcn i^iAiiim.or wti«tb«rtlk« MTflii-aorv Bold wuMt«iuinJoi*cb}ilk. 
Hiviii}^ Lliuii, dircL'tod ihu altiiiitd fif uirr }Xiiit]i h> w lo rimk« 
(b^in prrKticfLily urviccAbk- men at Llio t!iac of Ui^jf ontr:iiL4>i^ ii>bo 
]ir0,tJiat cntranoaabould MiMrayaba rcwiy for^L^rn in cinut wfacra 
iKeir privitt« circuiiMikiicc* pruionl no opctttn^- Titers oii^bt to 
bd i:<»nirTiii)(.nt vttkbJuitimuitiH for owry traJt^ trj wbidi all yonlbi 
■Lti (ItiiirL'O Jl sb^ul J he rvcuiiL-^ BH ap{in-nl!i:iB uEi llivif Wring 
Kltool ; And ttitu tbro^ru out of «oilc r^^cdvcid At aJl Ijmu. Al 


roLmc^L BTAVDwr or m. 

•nil Uii^ «-9L^^ M«A[J^, Mit vuriitg Kl sli is profkOftlM M 
ikmniid fiir the article, bui mljiu fif^-potlMD lo Um po^c? of A«ol 
th# cMiitiKKlitiw f^rpduood being IjvJ up in ntvro to minrt tuS'lJrt 
ilr^JvuLnili^ aiiij *uddi<ii llrii^Uimtiijni in [>rM.<«i pn-vcni^J ^^||ut^ 
dual 9Md Qoofttury lln^luAfioa onlj b«tnjf Allowed vhlcb i> pro 
pefly Ofin«eqi74^Tit on lir^ivr or more Itinitfij *'*P?'7 ^ >** mtoin 
■ad ot]]er-i>Atum1 cmitcji, '\Vbcn tlit^r« w«* ii viuMc Icodenej I 
produce B vE^ulof ftny commodity, ihxlt4a<l(inc^«tf>ukl beehock* 
bj iliffciJn^ tiiii jToiiih Kt l)io gi>v«rntiiaiL ncbooU Into otfra 
tnulo*; And Uio jvnrl^ vurpba of coniEuodiCMidiOttld bo tho pnn 
olpnl nii^TL^ of govtirnni«nt |iruVL&ic*() fbr (ha poor. I^rt proTinoq 
»Lou]d bo lar^fU. scitl not dnsrftcc^l Xc thorn- At pre*CDt thc^ 
»ra v«iy itnuitfc TiAtioim in tbe pttblic raiii<i TCftpofiiQg tho r00M«i 
iu^ of aln^: rngnt pi^ijjli; ue vfiUJii^; to Ukc liom ip dw Ibnn c 
• p«iiudii from ^vommonl, bnt anwiilin|; lo Uko tfiom in tht km 
of ftp«i]ai(>ii Trrini tJidrpHriiBfi«k TLorv mjiy bo niD« raiuozi (brtUI 
nngvJEkr preju<Iii:c. in the fitct of tlio tfor^mmcicit peiuion bciv^ 
QinAlLy given u £ definite «i?kiio'KZcJj^noDt of Botno Morvic* «l«n4 
to tLc coiHttr^ ; — but tbo gwrlfth |ie(^ek>u Ls i>r ou^hb lo bc^ gir«i 
prMi^aly Dii tb« Homtt lonn^ A lubouror wrvw bi« oowitrj iril| 
bii ipAilc, j»&t M n iniLn in tlio iriJdlif rank> ef lifa mrrec it vrilU 
his aworJ, p<. VI, <>r Uricct ; if llio ml-v^ico i> Ici** &nij ibflrofbro ibi 
wB|i(j« diim^r hrjjtllii Ikus tb«n iho r«w«Lrid, wli«n bonlib i* broilmi^ 
mny bu ttvi» but jjuW lLimlI'oiv, I«mi boiiouniblij ; uid il oagbt to 
bo quito M nntiir^ Aiid tLniLJghtforward « nintU^ fbr a Iftbourvr to 
uI:a Ilw prniitioii frnni bin p^ri^h» twtijLiiFW lie Lum lianxn^i v«ll of 
bJB pniiAbi MA fcrr A mnn iii higher rnnlc to Uke bi« pennon front 
]i» (^ouTitrji b(ioaEi(>4 ^i<^ hrw d(«err«ii veil <>f bin coitntty, K Ui«t^ 
l>n (iriydis^M^c jii coming to tbo pftriab. betauso it innj imp)^ 

bnpri^i'idoii«o iri early life, fnncb moro in tbcra dic^rftM in Mminf 
to tb« government; aitiro imf»r<>%'i^onco is Ikr 1m jnoifijibJLi in ft 
oiglily odacatcd tbui in An iiripcrfi^^'tly (*jLionlod man; an^l far 

UnJUAlit^blD in a bigfc rank, wiicro citriTftffiiv.'tf tnurt haf< bwfl 
lrrtur}\ tfmri In n lovr nkiik^ where il uiay ouly Lnvo boon cumlbrL 
Bo tliHt tbe tca] bet of tho mnttor ia, Uiat people wiU uke (Umt 
deli^btcjfUy^ c<iTt«(»it1ng of » f^arrlngn Atid fnntraen, bocfiiiK thoif 



dri not Utok like klinn to Uic pF<i|»tff iti Lie utrvift; ^ut djvy w\\ 
not uik« Alnw coruinting oqIt of brvjvl ftnd wotor tmil coal\ 
bccniiw Dvmybodv trnoM iLndc-natanJ vhii i>i<<«e iiit*)LiiL Mind, 
1 du tji>t >VHrit tny i>Tir U> rofiiM the OAriiA^ wti<i ought to Ljiic 
it; but nuitlitit do 1 want UiH»itJ to rvriM* tha coaIa. 1 tliould 
iiiil«ivl be lorry if 4iiy dmngo in oar vicwn ou iLumj eubjuciA 
invclred the lc<ut loea«nin^ of ulf-<l«p^fid«TicQ iu the KfiL^fvh 
mind ; bnt tho ooroTj^nn dbtinlsiTig of m*>n froin llie noc^pptanco ol 
public utiju-liy >s TiiJttwlMcpcnt.kTri'^ W mcfo l>*w ftnJ ^rtliJi 
pride. It u noi tbit tlioy arv unwilling tu hv« at th«ir noigfifcioiriV 
•sp«DM!| but tJifil thcj nri! [eutv^iIUei^ Lo cunfuw tlit-jr di^ ; Jl u i^ot 
d«pcndcnca Ihov viik to avi>id. t>Dt j^atitudo^ 'fli^y vilJ Uko 
plftO«* inwhli^h Ohtj Vnoff rhi>iT it nothing lo be ilnm? — Uji-y will 
borrow uiuimy tbcy k"Ow {Jiicy caJiHot rcpnj — ibey wiil vjirry on 
ft Toiiiif; buiiuoiGi viiii otbor pvopiya cftpiial— they MW <^1i(>nt tho 
fublia in tfaoir iliopi^ or qungc on tbuir frieuUa at tL«ir Iioumb ; 
but to My plainly tboy «ro poor ni«D, who need ilio natiou'e bulp, 
Btid go into nn nlmAboiinfk — lhh llioy l^flily rvpciriui^f and \irtu> 
ously prcfor Wiu^ tl^i«vn to being pujp<;t^- 

I titut tb&t tbM« d«o«ptiv« vSotvt of difthoiiott tnvn to t]^p» 
indi-p«ndoLl, mnd tbo c^oniidi]; tifforU of unforiuiiAlie mou bo 
rctUAiti icidopcTidcntt mny botJi Uo ia «o^« dcjZTdc cLoclcod bj ■ 
btftUrr ddrnirLUlruticii; jtnd unciorftUndiiig of Uxvk irxpc^i-iing tho 
poor. Bui the ordinnticca fot relief artii tho ordiimoccs Ibr iabout 
iniiiA go togntJii^r; othi<rwTw ilialrrvM r-iLij4mi hy mb^fortonih will 
ilwftjB bo MlifoJliidod, u it Id now, witii di^U^eM (»ii»od bj idloiiomi 
nnthrifl, nnd irii'x4. It in only whon tli« vlnto vnt^hu aad jpidw 
iho raiddlE! tifc uf mcii, tlmt il g;iih wlthnLit dUj^ac to ihcru, prio- 
t«at thdr old iip^ inkuonlcdtfin^ in t!)aD protection tbnt they 
hftrji donn thtrjr iluty, oi m Ivjwc i^^mo pnrllon of rht>ir t^nly, in 
b«(tor <liky«. 

J kni>« wgH hf^ff ntniTigo, fnnoiFLiI, or Iinpmcticabtd lbft»» aug^ 
gotiona will appuiU" to inuet uf ihu buuiien njun oftiiiB day ; mou 
nrho eoiU'aUti tlid prupur kLhIu of iho v*»rM lo bu mniTiIy tJint of a 
tkaI ftnd disorgaiiJ/Lvi triul^ Krambiiiig i-acb fut what bv can gut^ 
InnipltUjC down iu ^hilJroa niul old men ic tbo mire, And cloiofi 
vbiit«orkiLtindi miut betlona«it)i nny irregular H^undoCUwroft 

wttuntiu, vntmntr «v Attr. 

TUft k MC aft It ii Jttodl to nahm thA rbwtvrm aT at «d 
lUefa CVBM j^Mhm W BriiliVr tWir weaim. mJ to dOiUwuir to 

>^ tiuA WBJIitTl^ of >ou^ D«B da tW and Uot L-t &r 

aHMlMr<if bvwf utbto am ai«n «ka We nuiajJii^ iL^U 
K Tkm ^aaaXmr dramftMoc^ at mcdtn Vth^ wLi-L til 
'b<lvtbilsMl«ra7 local toibe «KbEof iW jwvtfaaca 
m/Amt h«r«a ft«lval lebddujr to ftU Unir iai^ctnatkiM uith 
ivwad idoB^and ih4£r mindstwithioqici^Mt ftcsrorn; ik* ino« 
lADfl of nxcbaeka] mploTfnciM, tiAm &l| 19 U bboM, 
WWfai to bt flagnaffiiifi wy aambm of jobai; m«n to boM^f^ 
piialcn^ ia llie mhm Ufnper io vkkli liny vrot^ calni ot ga in 
•c*; otkm, tkt >0B« «f an^vtfa Of vtiMt toogtit Oi^ boajov «< 
IWcRbj-UHitrporf-nt^Mnl horria; aa gift fb« it Ui«iM*lv<ii, roU»« 
ft la Ibe iiMaw of Imtibooii in «a igtt>U« pviicftoe ; o*-, U ukU- 
IkMa^ vck to atbaet Ngird, or diiunce ric«1i^, Ij fiintvtic, taait- 
tmaon, or rnpTcifniVflTtfiiT ^>pliaA3oin c/ dkor iaec2uuit^l B&ill; 
nfci* fiaaJjr, aMOf aw* aanoct in Aecliftf, and eoaooiocitiow in 
ptibcif^ mnulct ihck ilcnn to ba QM:ful fnr a Ioto of vt« iiul 
Um f«>okftN» of •iD<tt#« far ib capodir, and pov i^oir hr«m in 
paLatlnff nranlaadtaitnictlrtplcufti^uhlcfa mlglit aliDOftt juMi^ 
B* in Uikikukg aoltodj oodd bo a phinlor tnt a to^oc. Od iba 
otb«r band, 1 bdicvo diat oiiub of Iho bf«t nrnMica) inUiIloct h 
duly lose in uUitfr av^cauoni^ GvuwaUy, the iciii{icr ythUk MtniU 
naJco an adninUe anJM la bmibla ud obMrvant, capabto aT 
toliiy nucb Inienai la little tklag^ od of oniort&fnlng (tetf 
pUoMntlj in tke dnicot ctrctmattacciL Sufipos^ added to 
«liiira«4«r«, i MMdy i»o«dcirtiouiM« #bkb tMb to do fta dotj 
Hbvremr it nuqr bo pTicod, and tfio |iover, deiiiod to (bw 
iniiKlii, cf in^niciw TikTOUtioa ta oJmort watj pra«itf*] dtfNUtvont' 
of h^Tiinn fililL, \u'\ n nan batdly be donblvd ^&l llift tery 
liunDility nntl t^xiKtcu^oumtcv «rbidi wodU lavo pFif»cc«d t^o 
piQtvr, hi^va in niHTir liituniMa prevented bk beoitixilrig oho, 
^d tbot in tbc qmot lifeofoutflUadjorjLftiuKii — ugiickKU ma'athj 
fiuturefv,and onconpljuniiiff ctcrk«— ^oro iiuy froquvrrUj tfi eon* 
created more f^jmt UiJin nvcr ia raf u^(3 to tliv dinc<;Lliiu <>r our 
^r^ or to bo tio mvb of our piiUio pram. 



we thoold gftin bj t)iQ propuMJ tri&l tt'tiCKik For Tt ntig) I t)« 
tboaifbtt Uiftt Afl nuttcn »tAtiii At pr»cDt, vc U«v« more pAinUn 
tfcan weoufrlit lobnvv^ LnviDgtoipfttiybnd oiici, ftudthfllolWoniU 

wLo hi]A irius \MaUiT^ gcniiift ibi^ccd llipir wAy out of oWiirily. 

vtji?D k (mnmiacn tMtvredn fodlvlduaU whic-h mrifhH JL rnipo^c-rifht* K 
lo prvt'jo]^ Ui« Bin* dOfPM^ t^« «otjnd «<<jjittffi«l ooafiiijn it hi iui|inidiio 
4ro VUbiBflttoD bclWKti Cip individmils; and ir* Indo bvlireai ivru wluM 
wLkli sariohM one, lsjpoFi3r>ii<« t!i4 otiLer In tbo Bamc dc-j:T«v tbc touod 
MIMiHiin OJiuMnn ll tUJ uu^irtuJuc-lrnt Uad« iMlvnwi ihv tiuUrju^. It Lt 
nut 4 jTPiLcm qonUnn pr |ioUljai] cm^iiijioroy. btit ml; a fUftii^if qLiHliui; 
of IcidJ *ipuElii<ricy, K'Vii'Lhcr nn ■rlkiLj' tu ilMilTttitiKlta^ mj bvit ■ nine 
of ajco'iftn^ ia cr^LAaDiloua vJOi HiOft clliB' pulton, Th9 WSvota^i^ cod' 
tidoni oTil^ t^f nctunl isluv of tbo ttlbjc dttjfl or prodoM^ , ud if bt^ vnv n 
quiuticy vf luLuiir xikhjIi Ck lotliuu/o, lij tliit Swi^s In pujJiLcLr^h: wutKlHork 
lirAilv lo iLd l^turliiL Lu al once kU IQb ocmocTcLxJ LoipLnvrLituiwui oTtliQ 
Ka^liali [luniuitMir ii^iikil llHuuiiiimirdAl onnvhrnnitlof UiuSw^iwiiiii^lfr; 41-4 
AOtiBidonilliowhotatrim^^ionpKiduotjTOOnl/uliVUlli^ A^:olwor1i tt»]t'iia 
ftAl nJd^tiontiothtttnltij «f duvwld. Fortlio*rfwiicriD(<alurdtDluwvof a 
uitiuij no lut toprucurvtbafnatsta^malafmti? il^aiCi «ud litiv^ the luii Jlmt 
•UTuQUcn to olbcr nnlhu^ li not n pji-n oT tiic fdtbiv oT puliUoil Embimirt 
hilt niivi-ljr It tirtiHd ji[i|tNiq|]'in Lif iIih irinritv cif rmi'.iL CAtoihlan^d lliu* in 
lb« »LfltrftcM)iflCiiroi *r« nolKD ocbAttM U> tlwiDoaoiioiywafiiEhofUio world, 
«ic«pt la tl«if (uiiDunI of pbmn «r hulraodoa |i>kiog^out«f UtimdAjrbj 
Ahy : but tlu^ru in 4 curtdin prol4>cl]V« dITVcC nu vc4llJi (,ir«n.'Up<l by nifirLt 
of Uljth uit wlilcli luuic alwnyi \r*j luclail*^ lu t1i« aAlmtUr of lliclr tftJiU 
4}tiiinrn[ly (jn-n^Liiitf, friinviTu irtio dframlf* t}iitlr lnniHref wilU pk^lulTR, witl 
DVl ipoitd ta laxKh laoucy in pap«m sirpalJi ^rtQiim, «r otTiaf ixjiocu'v* ut^ 
|i*iuJiAblfl luxuTLMU tboy would rn>i4r«iM. Wcrt* uf fC[>i:i4 art,llkv bwH 
•Xtrdn « ooikwrvuliw «fl«l en (Jm rouin* llic/ nn lii:|it in ; duel tltt- vuLl 
of the UUruj or plcloro calltiy irEiibiu* vniliiturb<^ whfo Lljr'4 oT oi^**r 
rMftD u« m-piLjurvd or rtf-iianf i W Of totrv iIiW •'ff-'i.! ^* niFfl nji^ni cUvll- 
fiilt wIjvo thfl plcUlfo lion ilw tMht thgrnfttlfri, titlii-rciii ^advahi drcl^^nj 
InEo SK«d thapot 00 llwir jNinol^ crin Avooni invofTin^H oF <ciiirv, the pt^ 
KTTAtlcni oT tbn biiEliiii^ froRL dU uikiK^xtfurj and ca jirridmu alMiUitJiL And 
j[\^'VrJl7 ^tJOiUuir, Uja (riXUpaLiiJu tjf 4 luf U? u uiiiLai trf Ictujdo In pa^tlU|E 01 
■mlptUTD Id nJi^ iiudnia luay be ouimlilvrrt] u Icudhiie lu tlxv^ Um iJUpUbiUun 
lo ailliitjfij in jw"rtflh*biu Imarj, I do uoi, hfjmi¥er. In mj AHnmptlon ihai 
wwk* of art aro Irtiauniit tolcomaob Lrito coniidomtloo thta ooLlaionI monw 
Urj mule. T oomidflr lliom tPAajBurt& rnorcilr as a ponD4b«Dt in<fiu>« cd 
plouiktr v>d UncrnLHiuu; unJ li&ntiff At olhor tlinatrkd lo iLew tliv ivffn) 
Wara In v)lU'1i tiii.7 am plnm vil Unuli, uwnif bofr Ihjit Ulvjt aiv Ihut Uiv 
All : aiHl itiHt it i* JnifTkliLe to mute in nwiy palnton o^ wv cao. 



ri}|.iTroAL ftcayowT or AffT. 

Thift h t\oi to lb U ilbflflciili Uj minl)^ tfav diiir«!tifn of »'. 
vkkli CW3B« vouihft lf> Mti^uAic IIkit ri>i:«tioni aitd lo cn<Jra^Mir r^ 
b«ooni4 irtuU, wlton tliey linvu ni> inie artitt** gi^ H^il liid 
i^ tliai iDLtLii(zi-l» of voaojf nica do d:ii\ ttircl tiiat bv Itf 
^tcu^tor nuiribor of liviii^t ±r^ila arc tnon who tavo aiiiftUkvii LVtt 
vuiTKtLOiL TLv jHiCiilUr circtinMlAifCW of luiAlmi life, wliiiJj «ibW 
bit art ID nimotit every fcnn to Jxp fuj;lit cf llio yo»lbE la o«r |pn< 
citioA, Uai-o a nnlurr*] icTid*incy V> till ib«r iniii^iiHicioiu mitj bur* 
iwuJ idea^Hlllj Llieir iuind» ttilL ijiipcilcclBCMncA; lti« nmt di» 
hko or mi^abHriK'Hl crnplovmoiit*, «iili»r fell to ba irfctMn^ or 
M[4'vo<I to be lU^ymLliT)]^, Ttrgtft Tuinib-fn of youag rtii<n lo Uvtuw 
;aiijt«n^ hi l,bo Mmo toiripcr id vhicli tktr vgaid onlut o» go ta 
Ma ; otl:iAr\lho »t>nicf 4n^avni« oi' anii^U, l&n^t tlio bmijiWi oi 
Uk» aftliy Ujrjir|jnr(;nU,hud Wiiigoogifl for tt tltemseUcB^ fblbn 
)t PA Iho m^iT4 of hVoIihood, Jn sn ij^nobto pttioti«e; or, if Kiabf- 
tioiiK, «n^k to nttrnrt i-ogani, or <li:(lniLr:o ri\mTnr, b)P ftmtRA^^, in«r«- 
bidouif or unpL^ecci^cnhM npfi!i<:Ationa of tl^cir mcchauicftJ tkiD 
whilo flnatEy, mnry mcri fnrnwt b fL^!ltn|f, ind eana«tot£oilB Fft 
prindplcr rawtakc Uioir dwiro to tw uncfiU for a 3or« of fa% aiid 
thoir t^iclcaoH of omolion for tta cnpa^ if.yi and pau their Ivrm ic 
paititiiig vi^rttA wid iuBtrLEi^tiyif pitrlun^ uUi^b imglii nlmo-t jnvtify 
|}| iTi tbr»kii)[* T)i>!>ody could Ll' a pJiiiilor but & roi^Eh On li^o 
cthnrhftml, I bflliovo that mndi of tb4 best iLrtiitind int*^UiMl U 
dniij ]i>»t in otJicr ATociLlJonk G^noralij, tl;o temper wbich itould 
cirtkn nn ndtinrablc anivt ii biinihlo »ncl obtonnTil, rji^inble of 
Ukiii^ m^ii^h tntcirjit in btllu tLiii;^ nud uf onlurUifuini,' iUtflf 

p]«!UAtitli- tn tbo dallfMit ojrc "Uni'^*. fi^tippo^^*, Addinl b^ (tc«io 

ijmnickn^ a *lcAf]y <:ufjK;[trLljimtrjfw9 uLil'Ii seeki to do rt# tluQp 
vrb<jr<rv<ir it n^ny bu plfL<jod, and tli? po^^ denied lo fiv atliitiuft] 
niiitds I'f iiigL'tiiuUH itivontiun in Jiliricwt uny pmcticid dcpanrnvni 
of liarnan »kill, n^d it am hardl]^ bo doubted that the vorf 
bMrttJUiy nttd cttntii^iuotioiLBiiisi wljiL'h wtiuIrJ bft/i:i porlivctvd tlia 
pniuicr, iirix'c in iimiiy iriHUnr^ji ptv^cninl bia bvi^cuuing oui^^ 
lUjd tb«£in thc(^ii»«t lifaof onraioAdyoDLflsoicn— MpLciouEHnomi* 
Ikobiivrt, nnd imcoinpUinliig [?Urk« — ihna [Tiny frci^urrily bo doiv 
00al«d mora g;<LriiiiB thiku ovor u mi wl to tLc direction of ouf |«b 
tte woHea, or to Iw tlie mtak of our public putfiah 



AttotmA, 107 

It i* inclccil pPotmilD, thtO, ittUrMa dbpotition for «Pt will can 

ftr>T vrirli M n1 a)] lii pri^tifit tiifi iJ<:n u^ fti'^b tL-i^()urH W t!>tf iriiivJ : 

bcvii mon: tbau « nlitpliti^j-il, il' Ciiiijiliuo hnd iiul hj cb»iicc fouiid 
liint drawing; or Uinl ornons tlic ■JjciitictJitofUic A|4!riitiicft !Jicra 
tr^re no tnhor CJUlina, nni1I«ci)vvr«*i bf OJoMliiie. We Ar« loo 
pnncli in tHt; hnbit of couiidunTif ^■'■PPT Ai^i'^C(il> M wh^i are 
Cft]|c<l "^Ajwi/i^l frcn'^deiK'M ;" and iLirkii^ tlmt vhcn unv ^t«t 
vork hcoJb U> I« JoDr^ Uir man nhc u Ui ilo t; will ivrlaiiilj Lw 
poiTitod o\Lt bir I'rovidflnc*, tio lio *h«pli«rii or tca-Wj ; and prt>- 
pirmi for Hik «Drlc by nil Idnilt of minor protidancn^ in i)iq lt»ii 
pcwibln wAy. Wlirrrv^^ &!! tlio afiuJo|;iGf of Cod*» o|>crKUO(tt in 
otli^r »Tiriiu*rH pmvix ihe o*>Tklfmry or lliit; »• finJ iJiU "of 
tbouujid M!«ii^ H« ofluii brin^ bat otiv lo buir," oiVn uvl oii«; 
ftiid the oiiQ flr^d wiiciii Uo fippainU to bcivf i* iilk>wod to btMt 
cniiJo or [M^rfect frint AccorJlsg lo cliedcAliiig* oflliv bii«liAiiilinjiD 
with tc And thoro cannot l>c a donbt in Uio mipd of »n]r pcraoD 
BOL<i]itlorTiod to tnko brout mid r:iL;ii;.H] viotti ortli« woclii't Imtoi^, 
Utai iu ccEntA nrc mli^d by l^rovidcncc in prcciMly the xunc m»ii' 
bor M it* liikrrwti ; titu tho Bccdi of jcood nod ovil uc broailcul 
anionic Dieii« jnat «• iJio weda d Uii»tlc« wid fniiU v«; ailJ LbAb 
Racoi\ling tc Uio fofiio or our indiiitrj, nnd wit^lom of onr fan*- 
handiy, thn grcnind will hrijig forth lo ut fl^ or ihuilj^ 80 thftt 
vrbi;ii il Mcnti nowlod l)t!ib b oartoan work «boald b« dono fur tiie 
vorld. and no mtn h tJi«re 10 do ii, wo hiff« no right to Mj tJ>»t 
God did tiot <rish iL ti> Iw doiic; mid ^i«r^ro aont vo nuu oblp 
lo do iL Tba probability (if 1 wroU my own ocnvkcioi^fs ^ 
ilioitid my i^orttiiDty) i*, Uiat n« Airnb many in«ii| huiirlnidhof iiihj^ 
ftbte to do it; aod xhhl w« kaT« rtjcEttd tb«iia, or cr^tJiml tboin \ 
by oiir pravioita fbUy of candtK!t 01 of imlitulion, wi^ tiM'V r«iidorcd 
It ia]>o»ibIe lo diMtiTt^ujidi, or impottiblo to rtach tbcm; and 
nlion tha nnL^tl tor tbom 0<>nkca, and «a wdTtfr for ibo v&ot of 
tiifini, it in rtot [Ii4t (iod rvftiAue lo mikI iw duUvaran^ and >|)aeiat}y 
appoints all OUT <-fnsc<fUont auifon&gK ; bui tbat He ban mfjI^ and 
wc tiarc rdTitf^d, the d«tiTorot«; Jind tb« paid k ihtn wroitgtaoni 
by liik ctcraal law, aa fturdy a* famine i> wrou^t out by cteriid 



Unr for ftiiHl1i>ii n\Mi »J)! "i^iUiui pl^JLii"!! nijir^w. No 1o?» nn 
wo in Onor m ei]|-]>i>MM^, n# wo *o livqiuitilij Ao, thai if a inoii b€ 
fouiir], \iv is win.* to bf* in k\\ re^j*«r:t* lltTwJ fui lliei wnfk I4> Ix* 
tjonp, as tito kpr is to the iock ; and tJi«t cvory noLViJ^nl «rliii:h 
litppuned in thb forginff hiiOT only aJnptad hita laorr^ imly to ihf 
VAfdv. H i» pitiful TO Li>4i tiiAtctiJAnft bi^^ulii»£ tlicii^KJvc* and 
tlicir rtdidcrd, by trAcin^ in ibo ?4rLy Li^lcn; of grcji^ mco, tbe 
roiuor cirt:mnf»t)ii]Gt::t rtbich AttiM ltji:m for titn work titer diJ« 
wjtbout ever tiilcin^ DOtico of tbo otl»ur ci^cuiri»tJtu<;o« wLida m 
luHtiriidly UDfllt^ Llmrn Ibr- it; fto conuliirjin^ tliNt mb'n4:<t!</uB In- 
tcrpuaition prepared ihcin in clU pviiib for C^'<^'ythin^ aijJ liint 
Uii?y did ulE tliAt could Iluvu boco d^^rod or hoped for frv>in tbom : 
ivbviTtt^ lUi; c(:i1;»iiiiv uf llie iimllvr U ihjii, Lhiouglmtil tldr livotr 
lAicy u«rij lEiuiutM &ud corn^pt«d b^ iojuo tijm|;« u« o«rlAin]y m 
tJiey wore helped nitd idiu!rplri(?d h\ otli(?n; hnd tbat, in thv 
kiiidlLCAt uud uiCFiit rcvcrrnt y\cw wbicb c<in jii»tiy bu uL«ii of 
tlicm. thoy wcro t»Hl pfwr miiatAk<rn cr^jaiuru, struggling vixh a 
world niuiti prLiluviiidly luibtikL'ii lLal lLi!j' ; — 4MiiiitJly binnt-il 
AgnbBt, or ELnaing in tliutifnnda of way*, und briD^nj; out at Iwt 
ft Tndmod r^ult— n<it n-liAt thny might or ought lo liars dona, 
bol all tli«t conld b« done o^ninut tijo woi'Id'a ri>iManc«t and in 
«pitti of thdr ourn iorrowful laWjood U> tl^'mMlvva. 

Aud tijiB being m>. Jt is tins pracUu) duly vf a wehc tialiiin, lirvt 
to withdraw^ ad far u may bo, itd yuutii from dutruotivo intlu' 
mc«; — than Ut h-y it* mauHnl t& hr as pi>uibJt^ snJ to Iom lh« 
■DM of udDC Ibat h good* t do ut^t imcau by " viUidravinf; frocn 
deatruoti^« inflnj>nova" lb« kt^f^p^iig of y<»niha outcf irlat^; Xmi' 
the kei^pirtg iJkcm out of Uic; ^vay ul' tbju^ purely and abvolutdj' 
mifchiavoUB. t do not nicfin Ihat Vpu ■liould aliade our groan oi*m 
Ii all hfutt mid hlndl^r it in all fro%t, but oJily liint wc tbonld 
d^'ic out tliv idoudAtiun from tt, niiil drive the fowU nway fron 
It L«t yoiir y>^iit)t l«boiir and tuftVr; Imt do not l^t U lUrvc^ 
nor fttcnl^ nor blupLvme^ 

Jt LA not, ^»fGou^B^iIl my power bore to «iilcriiitodctaiU<dftelMaat 
of tducatlou ; nnd It w^lE be long tmforo thu n^ulUof vxpurwwnU^ 
in ^>griTm will givv data for t)io solution of th<j rnont diflicuH 
II conn«viod wilij th«» ftubjM'^ of urbi^h ibo princij-al od« > 



^ mo«1e ED whict the climif:<! of oJvArtccniL'nl in Wfv > Ia ttc cit 

Uadod to *]l, nrd vd mik^ic tcmputibic wiUi contemn iviiC in ihf 

(lii^m for tliv bi^lkcr. But Uto ^anoi-al f>niti;ip]o of trid BcbouLt 
Lira fit Lbi.' root »( lliu rrLullvv — (if »i]i<:i»K iHut ia to 4ay, in wiij-^t 
Uit knowlcdico otfercU ftiHJ duciplitii> oiilWtijd <liall b« alt a [huI 
of ft ^ot lUMAy of Uic buniiiu loul, and in wliich lliu o[jo tUnW h* 
iiLcn-jMi^i}, tbc viitvr dircctuJ, a* \hc ulvd hi^tut And hr^kJu vitl bat 
UUkT, «nJ Tto oU^crwiHc Uim tbiu^, however, I launi. my, iliot la 
tiiiH trial ) bulicvn all cniuljitioi] to br a fa.]Mi iiu>tlv'i\ 9(iJ iiJl giv* 
fn£ of pritOA ft fiilnQ monn^. AM U^iit roii cfin licfitiiLd i:p<'it ifi a 
boy, M dgntfiratlve of imo pftwor, liV/ily to i«ne in ^4ti»i fi-nil, i* 
hit will ti> work fi;r the vork a pjikc, n<>t his doire to «iirpii» bb 
ftdiooUrallowii; aikd ihoaim of tlto toooUin^ you giva him ought to 
bOk to provo to bini linJ KtiMrigiMii in liliu bin <>wn «vpara1« gilt, 
not to f^Litl birii int^ twoUoa rivalry ViHi tJicn^ wLo mv^ uvudut' 
JDj^k LTrL-Hl'<r tiihii lie. ttill Ij^u ought yoa to Uttn^ luvoiiri kdJ 
rilmi^d* atiout tbc nct^k of ihc crcAturu who i»tLc ^ilmivM,, minak^ 
tha nttt onvy bim. Try to mako tli^m lovo him mtd follow him, 
iiijt ntrii|^Ui wilh hUn, 

Thuro niiiDtt <i( {.'oiireo, bo oatniDalion to anof^rtnin ahJ iitU«t 
both j>ro|fTr'M niici rfIiiLivu<iapNritj ; hntOLtmtm nhotildbc lonmkA 
the Atudonta t^tthor look upon il j» a mt^nnn of Aiki^cTtjitiiiTij; their 
own triLo |>oAitL<>n» And pcnrom in tJio worlJ, tlinTi t» ah nroim in 
which lu CMLTy awuy b prtj«oiit VKkrry. 1 htt\« imt, purhu^ tn 
(ho (ourbo of tliu k'c'tEir.^ iuHiAtcJ viioii;;ii on ^lo uiitiirv of TvUtir» 
CApJurity urii.t iikiliviihinl cIiiLriu^tor, lu tim roolii of u\l rtsl tuttut in 
Art We are too mnoh in tho Imbil^ in thcao lUy^ of Aotiiijt a* if 
Art worth a prioo in tim ninrkc!t wcro a coicmodiiy wU'\ch [rcopk 
couM bt! gvtJtTully tA'i^ht to pruluco. *nd ha if Uivriui^Jfiv»of ilio 
Artist, QOt Liu <ia/huify, ^-o ihb ctarling vjduo to b^A vorl. No 
iinprmiun i'aii pomibly bo mure utvitin] or IaUa. Wb:itiiitr peo 
plo cbD tcivch nwib (tthcr to do, they will oiiirQatc, and ou^'ht to 
Citimal*, only n* common irdnitry ; DotUbg will over fvt^'h s high 
prioo hnt proi:ij«i^Iy timt vliich cAi^nitl butAu^lil« Jiii>i ^Liuh nobvily 
can~ do but tire man from vboiu )t u pftrthiLHCvl. No «tAt» of 
•ouivt), iLor Hugo vf kaoA]i;d^ ever dtm nwuf with thu Ji«luxa' 


rouTJoAi 1io$t 

or jhSTi 

iitiAficn r>f Ane mnn over nn'^thnr; and h m thaL pn-vraS^ 
SticCi Anti lliAl oniy, Tvliirh «il1 ^tvc wo^k lii|^b t^Iuc in Uic mju^ 
k«t or whicb oij^ln io <b VK U 1« A tairl «ig;n of (Ha jndgntont, 
uid bntl omen ^r tliL' pru^ruAi of a nitidis if it BJifijxiMft Ilnlf 10 
pOBinw many ar^Kts of <<'^iint merit. Ni>b]o art i» nHlting Iom Uimi 
l]m ctproswinn of a groat «oul; nriJ grirnl ailiU aii: u>l ix^minoii 
Uiin^ Jf «Fcr wo confaiind tbcir work vith that of oUivn, it k 
tiot trough liberality, bat ti^rough l>tindnML 

Not© *lTi, p. fll— " Pyllic /^t>ffarJ* 

Thftm fq prrnt dilBciiitj in mwliiHg any short or gnncrft! nUlf- 
nontof tL« <ijf1ormicu tctwoun ^rcat iind if^aoble ttiimln in tk«il 
behaviour to Iha ** [iiiblio.*' It iu br ho mtnan* nuiT^rmUt/ tlie c«m 
tluit ft inmn miiirlf a> ^tntod in tho t«iL, will Ijcnd itwif tn nliM 
you auk of it; on tha ooutr«rT, tburn in oiio kic<i of ntinJ. Uao 
meanest ofaU. nVwh pvtpKDJtlly 4N>iu]ilhiu» of ili» pubTi^ «oat«ni* 
plnCcp and procliiiai» itaclf ft* a '^ |C*^^^^^" rcfmiv* aII nbolcioinc rl»* 
ciplino or hombU ofE<;Cf and ondit in niLiii^nblo and rotoiifuvful nsiti; 
flbo^ ill* gre&tcM nmtih a^i^ rn;trl;ix) 9iy iM>tJiliig more ilktixHrU/ 
tiiDD an incMXCwiviibh hiimiirty, and ftcuuplAnco of nt^korituitnto* 
tloD in any forra, ancl tram iiny quarter. Thcj will iMm ftiom 
vtrurjbudj, sdJ ilo &itvt)iitiy tUal aiiyWIy )u1l« uf (liijiii. ao loii^ as 
it invoJvtB only toil, or ^hot otljor in«n wovifd tJiink dc^jro'latioiu 
hut iho point t>f ijuniTi^I, [iL'vi-tihilrjw, Ei*siiTt'dly hms saome day 
tctwccn Uic public nnd thcin, rcspci^trni; wimtj maltrr, not <pf Iio- 
miliation, but ,of FarL Vonr groat man flJtta^v ni lut oani«t to 
ae MomeUfinj^ lJi« pubtlr; <lor/t see. Tlib somr^tliriif^ be wiU 
tarodly punbl in suertin^. vbvtLcr with Ioti^^uq or pu[ici1, to be 
awa it, uoL na Mq/ Me it ; and nil lb* wnt-Ecl tii n L<^p on th« 
ctbor udOf will not fcet bim to my otbor«i>& Ibrtt, if ttio vrodi 
oJ^ncta to tlic <nyiitg, h* m»y huppLTTi to gat Etofkod or himt for ft, 
bat Cliat doca not in ihv IcAAt innttf r to liim : if iht irorld ban no 
fcrtioitlnr objiiotion to th« aayinL*, bv rnjvy j^t f^arQ to TnalMrUto 
bmiHflf tin b'- dintv and bv incii;!/ lakt-'n for nii iilint; thnl also 
niA njQttor to bim— tnuttor it t« «ill, nuooTiding to what h$ 



p^K^Wo* to bo tw^it Ai^<I "M «l ^1 pMordin;; to tlit^ ronri'iE oF Ut« 
w&llii uf RtfJ wa on ijiw riL'iil liwid i>r Idl of him. (IriK?!? ihn 
qtmrrcl, virt nt «naa litno or oth^, tc be 3Urt<4 bcluecc the p«>- 
Ik HncI liin; wbil* jour mcnn itiHTk^ iZioiit^h lunilUEjilandtcritlrii 
•l^iritcdlT A.V the publiis, iffhil« it il«c« rot iittciiiJ tu lim, will bovr 
1c it for iu ^Sap in AD^ <tir04;tion, And mj AnyU^tug wbon hu liBi 
gul i^j) vnr, wLiub lij tLiiiLi will liriug Uiia JUiulL«r cli^ \ jmUtliiUH 
41 itatod in the t«x\ ho and it so oa ttDOOthiy tottl^iLtT. 

Tbcra ftrt^ hoAcvar, dnma whtrn tha obstinacy of ibo nuAn mut 
looka Mr; like lL« oletiiiAcv of Hk £E<oat ODci; iot if jou look 
ilbwly iuto the mutLur, yon will olwiiyB tea thikt Uid obdiu^y of 
ikw flmt ift in itiG immuiif l&tkn of " I ;" aikI of tlic wouniL in iba 
pfonun^intioa of '* It." 

Kote 5ib, p, 41.—" /ftMftfiw y fl«v i«aji4*L*' 

U woutj hao^ bccQ iTripirt«iUu (ot politii^al Kori(imI»t» lofi^ 
hxvt «iidLir«<l liio vrror tpolcdo (»f k Ui^e li^i,* tuul liivy not buoa 

• r bbva ^v&n thfr policed NAQomtiti uo nudi owUt In Mylrifr thM 

AotuaJlj. vhllft th04» fhM>tT aJD fiB«itij( IbrfiiiBb Uiv prcw, Lbo l^lunl, bftn^ 
damitt^kUd fcil^;' "u cuubcuitvd, fbtmjdljr ud piwindjr, bj tbfi coamoii 
ftjutidinicji of y*v Toik, lo tbolr nfKiTt on Ibo pTMem coajoi«rd«l <;rUibL 
Him b IhtTir ojllnclit* uplbjuii. |jiiMiidiii1 lu llm flFrriv iiT Kijviuidwr ^Siit, 
Iflfil : — " Anothor GrroiiFOJii idu Is lEiaC lnmrlDiu UvIt^i- tiEraTJipnnt dr^B- 
Ing^ itplpndjiL liirr>-oiitJt luid ItnAhiiiu**, ■» thv oniuitDf dlHTntiB bi aTotiAfL 
Ko cnorv «roD<«ufl ImjiroaiLoa CDii3d tcrkt KvoTy cOElMia^no* IfaU lh< 
Cuaii of IDO^OUO cr t)Di)ai,OOOdoUart tadnl^in fiddslo ibo in»Dft thv np 
pQiti tbc H-t'niilj of k(j Of ftTiuudivd vIiqIw4 Jjttlr <^r natMnjc 4l*t bu£ tJ»ir 
jaiQur, Uid^T ipuillcvw or itiolr uita IT a oun of i,ooa,<Joa OoUcn ipuDda 
pnncipiil fentl inETfHt In uvi ymnt ud fliubi hlnvdf hVfflfK^ i1 ifi" Pi4<1 nf ' 
elat timiif b* liM aotujUlj- Eriodu n haair^6 who h&/* ««b«r«d to h£fl vxlmiE^ 
ffvwv «nplo7«(V or ciiiployc^d. to idqcL Hcbar bjr tho dtvU«t oT L&i vvidl^i. 
Ik iDAT l>p n]in«J, lui Uir unlioa i» twtur n J hjkI rli'biTr, fbr otiv l^iiiiiirffd 
ffilitdn HQd IiaAdk wlUi ICi«O0O dolb[« a^mcc. heu CW D)oro pf^iirUT« ihjia 
OBP with ihrt wtioK' 

y««, iruDllouiaD of Ilia comniaFi oauKtll ; 1>q< irbnf lu* b*«c ddn^^ b Um 
tfmc «f thfi tnukdlbr? T1i« Bpf^n^^ne of die fortuiiD biLn trihcn k oi^rtaio ngm 
b<« c^r T«ki> (BdppaM liai\ 4ad during tiut tiiov l,0uO,OiJi) duilim ««tkU 



OfrnfuK<ii 1>y an ii}c% in part yt\l founJoi, that the mtirf^ WKJ v# 

ftm^tntnttj !Vi wnll u tho rit^hcn of ^ririliiod Irfo, mrout froa inviglih 

»rj w»nt«. h i« qiLJie tnie^ t1J4t Uio fuvfi^ vbo kvova ud n««df 

^ut tliow or fci04f, alL^ICor, »»d Al«op, fttij t(Ur lie tiM uiveJ bd 

[Ttpiwvti mid piUchvi:! ihv. tviTtA »r tin liuL. iiksbhi llie rwloT bir 

'timc^^nmcnnl r^^pot^c, U m a lovrcr sUtc thAn UiQ rnftn wba Ubofiiv 

lnm«uirilly iJifit hr mnj- f rtv^HTn fiir him»lf thn loxurips of dv^ljjU' 

tiou ; ftiid Imu tdiitc)^ ihal tlie dilfuranco toiweon «iio ^nJ vnoiber 

lktitit>Ej ifi prrigreuiva pow«r rJitpvnilH in gre^ pvt on vtfn df«ir«« ; 

but lliijeo iJlv mutjvui jirv merely to be cousiilQrtfd d^ ^vjcig cjier* 

ciao t^tlio nntjoiiAl bixlyiLud minil ; tlji^;p jirc nott4>urt;caof vcAlUi, 

orrptMi far wi tfiiTgivi; ilui hnbi:»nf imhuTT; lUid AR<ii)ii^livpiicwu 

If a bo7 H diiin»7 aud l&sy, w« sSiull do i;i>od tf wo can fcniauj« 

lim to L^&rfu cb^rrvvConw Hnd fly kJtua ; And ihU UJe of bit fin^n 

id liiiiln Mihy owiiliuilU be tbv cniimi of hb t>Mxniii»g a vii»ltfajr 

ATid bn^'py mAH ; bLitw mu&t not thcrororo Arji^anthAtctLiirry-^tOttW 

8Je v»UiiiUrpropi'rty,<rf Uintkiti-'-flyiJig" « I'mQtableiriodc ofpwBt 

ing time* In like miinii«r» o nation alwnjnnjuito itn timtr and 

bboiir diftttltf, aboo it invcnU a ni>w vmnt of a ffiir^loua kiwlf 

and ji-^t ibe tJivi^iilifiii (if hiJif] K w^LTit mnv bv Ibe sigEi uf a Ltufthy 

E^tivity, arid tbo labour ucdnrjfono U> ratie;^ the n«w wnijt laay 

i\^ indirtetl^t ^ imofiil djitmtrirs or to noblo nru; m thai a 

latioQ 11 Hut to be 4i><^'0Li]«^d in lU faricjiui wbuci U la eitber loo 

trork btta b««D done by Lie pcop1c\ vhf> huro beeu {jul ttmt ituiu One IW 
^bbr« Ia tin iiruduul uf Uiitl wurkf By yuur own suntmcDl. wLollj ooa* 
: Tui' Chu Eiivn Ifir wlium It Iihh tuitn dtmu m nove il t»|Qtsr, Y^m bAVt 
given tlii]r4ri>r& u a irntLoa, 1,()(JO.OOO doikn wotUi cif wurk, uud ivn T^ara 
«f tiiiKV ood jrau liBw prc^Owvil, n« ultimabo r«u^i, one bi^KfEsrl K^Oftiki^l 
r« gtoUooitfa; t^ud sure la cuEkJ^jUTn in duo ti^Liuuu*, w t^» iCi>4u^ 
of fwra ttum uae bqo^. ?flrIintB Uid criitu-r mny bfi mv cu a»r id 
r, hy a inaN Ikrnlllu luiAAnrtt, IT « i^hmhinr gnf* - je in th« 
vftli rive iilitJliDjza in hia |cokD[. LTLd tfoiuM boukv at iii|^I ptDuOm^ 
naviof wpaat hit nU m lar^ ]jrw aijiol Aod bjlvroat iro iroce* nud [hiiiorDi 
■Dd baker avoenrtduil ^ inf tit fij<A. EuiniMxw* tb« vuhmU'oj, uiaIchI. 
b» bousbt ■ bjok and ■ kujfv » prLii(.-tpiJ itnd luiurmt an goa^ and bool^ 
MU•raaAcut]«raral^]^dllvL But tl-t< Mbixil boy is uiilclMd aiMtKUtimjtf 
^illblp bU HhodfoUows next ^7 vlUi kuifc aud book^ mibaul «r ]j;iig to M 
iooarTiDf a d*lrt to Ilia dvelo^ 

V4»fc Of foolUlk td 1m movffl to crortimt ly Anjliiirji; but fandofs 
or hsw Arijtni^LH t^ \u vwUna hnAiniuw llrti. If a TtA(^>^ will not 
fijrt^O iron, boC lii«ft dUliliJiif- ItK-R^CT, Ir xll m^-Arm ^no k Uvuiy 
der '^ ditti] ^ ohiy do nai ki iu eL'i>noi»ivU «vif potc tliat lBTot>(}«r 
b a> profiuUc bo it ae» uMcv ur Uiol it brlp piAir |ic\>plc to lito, 
any more Ibnn the mIiocILo/b kilc i>rov]\i» Lim hU dinaor. 
f^jiutirv, wlimlxcr niuionid or pnivknnE, tniM W ptiiii for bv labour 
wibljJi-AAii fnvn iHcftil tiiiiij^; fttid i>o tiMion htu ft n^lit to 
bkdjlg« b Uiiiin until all iu ^r^r »r« titiiJirorUt>ly huE;H<ul ^nij (ViJ, 
Hie tncrvotiiisiiilla^ico of luxury, and it» tuixJtiiidcatoiiLCtcwN! 
vice, u% poiiilA whiob 1 k«flp outiivly out of Goiiiidor^tian in tho 
pTfMrnt It**)' ■ hnt, »n Air AK Uiey hvnt on uny qn»tiOTi dtHiiiawiil^ 
Uk«y kncroly fumieb MldJtioul cvidaacc oa ll;« iid* vhtcb 1 bwa 
takon. TbuiL in tbti prewnt cava, 1 aauir;^ tl^at the loTuriM orf" 
oivalifcd life Ar« in ponMsoaiofi bonolin, arjj iu jv:(|Uin:mo]it« Mr* 
viconbb u a motivo for «icrticti ; And own on thv«o favouMbto 
UfnikH, w« Airivv aL tlm fAm^-biAion ib^t il\c itAlioa oilglit Dot to 
indal^ ia tbmt«xcupt tmdor *(ivcrc limitiitbniL Mucb Icm oisi^bl 
it 10 itii.bilge in ih^m if vJie tvinptAti^^n conu^qTinnf. on thi*h prMuv 
Kon. or faUbtj incident to tlioir luariitrjutitro* nioie Ui&n ooautet- 
balftnctjA tbu good dono by tli« «Qbrt to obtiLiu cLqid, 

Note fitb, p. fifi. — ** Eaanom'}/ i/ Lite^atun,'* 

1 bavn been miicfi imprcuod lately liy ont of tie ntoit* of tbo 

quantity of our bfKibt; namely, tJio nUni impo»<il>ililT of ^ottin^ 
arrvtlvirig itndi<Txrji(.iil) fJiAt n^f^ulri'd jd)rii!ncn lo iiliilriratHricU I 
oUcrrc *liray^ in tbe caa* of my own writing^ tliat if <jrer I 
iUtc bnytbtng ubii^h bu co<t ini? Hi)y iroiiMn to MC«rtAln,Aiij 
vliiidj, lln'icfofcw yf'iW pTt>laWy require n mftjiilo or tiro of rvfloo* 
UoTi from tiio rtador bflfcro it ctrn bo iwcoptud, — -xhtA tUitmuoiil 
will not only be LiiihiLnd^rntood. but in nil probability tako:i to 
fQ«fto BOmt'tlnrig rory Tii:iv]y tiio r<i7arM of «b«t it doo* moan. 
No*, m'hirtcvpr fault* thurr itimv be In my rnod«* of etpremio^i, I 
ki^uw ibut tbo word» 1 hm vill Alwnyn be foantJ, by J^bttwiuC* 4iA 

tioTiftr^^ l4> boftfr firit of all, Iho wa»o I Qifl iJiom \n^ mti J tW 

^lo« of jfrftTfinmr, (irar ro orh<-r irit^^rpriiHtjuin Iftiin Ihiit I Mmb 
tliuni Ui bi^r; notbiit tin* nii»nmii-i>1iLniHii^ of llivri must mnl^ 
ullrmntcEv, fmm the mcro &i:t that titcir mnlt^r MOinedibi^ rTX|«ire* 
a little fntii?t]c«. Amd r vii lli« wint* bnd of mUtotfrprvlaitiM 
jitilcii tljv wiifLlaof othut >rrit«r^ wLuiiovor Oicy TV(|iiirv Uiemnc 
ti>cl of tJi<^it<:;ht 

[ WA4 At flmt, R liitlp dnpoDflcnt :il>3Ttl thi'i; l^ut, «n the vrfioli^ 
I bclicTc ii «i!I hjtvc A good cficct upon mir litcntnn for tctuf 

paticMca a^T)> Foi ii'cHarrif^ it is cii:i<:lk*nt '<Iu«r|iTir« for an 
duUior t> focE that ii? muEb m^ all h^ hui to tay in tl)<; fc^'i?fli pon- 
diUn i™rc3i. Of liiJifTcarlnri* «inato aldp llicm; wnJ in th*- plabai 
pOitiblft woriJA, or lii» rcoiTtr vnEl ccTTamly iniftaTii)rr»lAii4 ihran. 
Gonomtly, *li*>, a ■lownriglil fact may bfi t^ld in a pUin naj ; »a4 
wc wwil dowiin^lit frhcU Ekt priwut ijiotd iLan aiijrtJiinj ul>«. Ami 
thoufcb J often Liiar tnoml pc^ofilt; complniriinf; of t]i« boil effort! 
of wnut of thouglLt, 1^ my part, it VKcnn To inu lliBt one af iha 
iTorvt rliM^iucs to wliicli the hiiman crcntirrc I* IJablo it it» itiiOM) 
of tlitiiUing. If it wonld only jnfit /vfut* at a ihbig Inht^nA of 
UlilLLititf nhjkt jl tuiiat Iw like, ur i/v a Lliiii;f« iuatcaii orUiinkin^ it 
caTitiot bcj done, w« thoulij all get on liir U'tt«r. 

• Tlmm Mil bft nn ijTWKtm, howOTer. of thn mSidileTciiia tandiMUj 
harry of tho pirHnnt tluy, m (hir wni^ jM<npli< nml.^rlAVi' uiih viiry A>ab^ 
|pvi« ilirn> jvnn' duH auti inoudinuil luboor la lUa caomiDdUOa of IbO «lifO^ 
uu]>iKv uf t^LC art^tiitcoluiv of Vcntn l two lon^ vtuEvra baJD|t wbolfy ifienl 
Lb E^'. iJru Willi; <ifiii-UJI« 4n Uioriful; audyvtl 9*c oviaUuilj ilui or^itMi 
wUt ^lA^ llinv ur fi/ur tlvjrt III a guudala|^1luf upand doAU Uivj^-nuiltaui^ 
tbjbk liiut Uioir tint [mpreutonn up jiiit lut Itknly tn b* fnu* h .-nj pti»>it1 
WTOUjfhl cwttelrutcmL Mr, Sip»>i. for JuiUoa^ glbaoM hEutUy At tlio 
»r tiiA Ducal Paltw— eo bnalUy IhM hp d[-^# n<^t orKn tto wbat itc ^i 
bk aiid mLnce Cfa« allvmatlaD of red wl binch in the ocnlRfi of iu Kfaii 
and yobbo tnniujUy ponturvieon aa ojiIiiIod au tli« cbroDc^Lii^ oTltaail^tBA^ 
vrhlalt UoiMof Lli« inoiA onmpUoatri nrid ditniicU kuIiJliliIm in lliir wt'i>Jvtatjga 
of GotluD amhvohivy. It naj. ntvonhirtoai ha uwrmnrd with irry &» 
probubtUiy <d oanvnaSttm by any porwm vh« vill giw a aouikV lt»id ««t 
lo L^ but Si oftn bv aac rtuujil uo oihonvliift 

Noi» 7W». p. «a,-" pii^u <if tu 8ua».^ 

Whll<it bowlder, u»i](ftLLtod]y, \\\^m rcv^ninibilitin aIIacIi to 
orvry ponon potrowcH of wccllii, it b nccc34«ry boili u> avoM bmj 
fltrinf^nay ofMUtUtfniriii TnqiActLng Uja tjniK'ioIftiit nindtA I'i 9^%\A'* 
tTifE oioiicjv und to rkdmit A»d aj<prcic to mucii IfUrfty of ei>uii'^ 
iog it IbrioJfiih pk'Muri:i» ■« d;li)' duLinctlj niiliu vt^aJtli u jwrvoiTtf 
rtMjai-4 lur toil. Aui >ccutc ia Uiu ujioda vl all inon tJio rijfht d 
pr^parly. For allhouch, witliout doabU tbo purwt plwuura iL 
ca.n prorirrc nro fml u^ltlili, it is onlv u > rni^nni nf pcmoiijil ^r.t^i- 
Swuion lliat it will Ic Jctiniil by n Iftf^ niftjoritiT of irorltora ; and 
il voild bo no It-m TmW *Lliic« tJinn fniK* foliry lo*'ln'pt tfflir 
cn^r^y by any romu uf public «pipio«i wbiob boiv bardly ai^iiibl 
tho vauiofL uxpcmiituft of lioiQWIIy got vodllu II w&uJJ bo hanl 
if n iiiuiL vIiJi bail jimm<i-iI ihfi gnuktvr pnrt of bin llfu nt tbir i)iT«k 
or GouiiUr coitld not nt ImL innocontly grAtify s iiapricc; viiO ftU 
the Uvt And mcwt Nwr^ «nd« of nliOFigiviiig noitld tii« Nt f>nca di*- 
AppaiDtcci.iftbo Mf« of amoral dura tcck tbcp]*cfi of 4fi«ctioii> 
&U) f^nlitodc lit tbo icinii of tho roocivcr. 

8oiiiii iEihtn]i:tio:i ti- tEtwIo by \i% nMliiriilly 1» thw ri'Apu:L Wlwoon 
cariiW »iid mhoritod vvtkiUi; timt whidi ia thboi-ilfvl hpjinirjTig to 
involve ihit in'Mt di?AnlUL rvuponAthiliticu, Aipndally wbcTi r--nTi(iAUiig 
tn rcv«nuc« dcrivud froin iLe aolI, Ttiri li^rm of toi^ition vbicll 
ooiulhutot rvrttul of lundA pUt^M adDUklly a cariniti jHiition of tbo 
TiftLiciiial wcAltb iu llio baiuU of ibc [jnblL3< or (^{l^i^r projiritrtoni iif 
tlie ooil, up<Ior Goi]<libioiiK pconburEy ciibMlutcd to indiica tlicta to 
givo tlji'ir tMHl i^aru lo iui oflli^u-iit HEbninUtraf.ktn. Tbn want 
of infitrtii:tioD lu ovon tho aiiuplwt principW of GomratKC ard 
•c^nomy, wbii?b bitherii^ biw diiignicL'd our iclioob nhd Ul^Woni• 
tic^ boa indocd beco tbo c*uao of ruin or tolnl itLUtilily cf lifo to 
multitudes of our man of cctAlo; but tbii JoSdoiiDy in orir public 
tMliji;AUJEi cHTinol i:\hX mxifM longor, and \l appuam U> be bjj^lily 
advnuEji^' 01U for Uio Sutc tbat a certain number of pcncitu dii^ 
Ib^iiith^rrl by raco «tiould be pijimittM ic nift «;Arpplt« of wif^ 
upc^cLdituic, vheibcr io Ui« AdTanci»m«nt of «ci«ac«, or in paUim- 
a^ of art uid Ulctalurc; only tbojr miut ivw^^ ^^^ti.,*^viB,^ ^3£uL 


titeir rilglit «UtiJ) 

pc^uttcxi. seonouT oif jiitT. 


thiiti Uicx hni« ^D«4» 


forlfiQ pohilioTi i:f A n<lt rntn iri r«luticiii t« Uiom aroand bin 
itt, in our prmont Tvnl lilv, )tiid ii dtvi <;vi]tv<n|i1slu<. ^fmiunillj hj 

nnght tn bo. A rHi man cmgbt lo bo cantiniullr «i»JT]hiinjf bcm 
iio may inpcn^l hjjt money &)r tha AdTtnUffe of olbcm; il pTcacnt 
4)Ui«nt a.ra cAnluiimlU- ploUii^g bow tlioy may b^iii}« bim bU 
«|>«ndirj^ it jip|NiruulIj fur liu uvri, TlJo au4>ocLiiliHl be 
to ttxa cyw df tbo wi^tfd » f^ni>ni!Jr that of a f^no^ botdtig 
hng at nioiiej viUi a rtAiiiidi gm^p, ^rid rttuilvfvd to pur-l vitB' 
noiio of il odIcw ho k forced, nt^d oJl lb<; people kboi^t tiioi ^rt 
plotting how thay auty fofcc bim ; ihnt a to tny, how t\tcj may 
pcTMuuIu biiii lljjtt hi whejU tiu« tbmg k^r Utat; or how they Uit^ 
prodiico tiling UirC h4 will cotqc and buy, Ud« raiui i-noa CO p«r 

suailt hiin Ihnl lio nanrn [wrfiirtifv ; afidthcr tbnt bt' «aDta jttwd- 
kiy; ojiirftbcr that he nanlA itQjfKrjiluiLik ; anoUicr ibat bo wAiato 
roB«at CtiriitmiiJi, AnvWdy «bo csm invcnia fin« wrnit Ijt him 
ia *Lippo»ciJ lo be a t>eiK'fuct>jr tv feociet^ ; aud ibu» Um cncrgwt 
<i< tha pooror pt»'>i>]o aboitt biro nra udiiticQftlly diT«i:t*4 Ui lk# 
pmliicljou uf rovQtnbk^ initi^iid of tu-rvioujiblo tiling; and \hc rkJi 
man biv< tbo i^vnoral jupoct of a fool, plotted afC^^TDtt by ali tbo 
world, WhortM rbn rcnl lupoirl wbith he ought to b*ve h dut 
cf a p^reuu mstst Umu utiicn, onttiist&d ^vhb tb« naanagcOMaA «f 
a JaTf^r f|uii[it]ty of copilal, wbk.b be odminiaten r<>r tl^e pro&t <if 
ttll, diroctiii^ cnuU nan lo tlie tabuar wbicb » louat bwllUy far 
Lkn, and moat «cirviaeiLblc for Uie coEiunuTiity, 

]ft vaHouh pTacce tbrouf;hoi]t thcao rcotiir<M ] have tad to aIIoiIi 
In thn diilinc£ion bt^rwo^n prwb:rUv0 arid nnprrMla^^tivD fabOQl* 
atjd Wlvreou Ui\fi »iid ^v.hv lital^u 1 eLinlJ bete cijdcfltoui 
ol«ar]y w I i^an, to ot^Iluii the dittinctian I moan 

Property may bo dl»iiiii?d ;ri,-.npraHy iuto two kitid* ; that 
produce* lilc, nnd that wbich prodnc^^ ihi: 'itij^da of UA^ Tfai 
vlikh produr^m nr malnrAJna bfb conaiMA of food, in ao iir u lE 

oouriitiini; ; ol TimiUirc ftni) cloUim^ m m> fer a» UiOj ar« |>ra- 
toctiro or ehorifJiinf:; or fu«l ; vad of til InnJ, m«ln»ao»l^ OT 
Qiat«rii]f« n^ifUMLrj to ppoduce food, liatixM, cfotfiM, utd fuel. Il 
li ffpecviAlly and njtlttly oftltod tnc^l propertj'. 

Tbo proportj which pr^u><dA tho oLkfoctA of )ifb conaiiiU of ill 
^%l ^^^ pIcKSiD'O vr »u|;^i>Ij> aiii J {jrincrrUi tl^vUgliV^ uf fuuda 
fnriMtviris a&^l [un^l, io to fiir ob thejaro pluoinj; to tho PF^ttilc ot 
tliL^ u/b; of liixuricniH JrM#, jLiid all oTii^r kihJflof luxurin; of 
books, pictarctt, &nd ATl'hTtccture. Bnt the mode* of connoction 
of oQTtBin miDor fonns <if prap^rtj iritli liuintin Ubonr rftnder it 
dciimblo t» arr&nire them undur moro tlijia tlicAc Iao h«fulA. 
Propoity miy thorvloro be coT)Teni«ntIy <;on«idured w of ft'« 

Ifit. PropflTty noo<^BMry to lifo, but not producible by likboui^ 
Kfid lli<<TvfViTb 1u^!(»i|finf{ of ri[^»t, in a d»« mMAiirc^ to ettrj 
bumrLii b>^ir^ fu toon as he u borri* and roonHy innlinDalrlc;. At 
for imlAiioo, hh [rciper ihurc of the atmoDph^^rc, vriUioiit ubi*:!! bo 
CAEiijol bK'iiilic^ Jii<<i of W4U:r, wJitE:li hi; iiov^^U to i|u«iidi bi« xh'tniL 
Ab miioli Uod u ho n«iods to 1««<^ from u ft1«o tiutlmimbTo; but in 
■ri^ll i«gii1atu(t coji^nutiiiLii^ thu f|iiATiriLy of litmi tuny ofUn bo 
r«prcociTlcd by other powemiona, *jr itB uoed supplied by wago* 
ftnd prtvil^gfn. 

2. Propcrt; f>ov(W>arj to lifi^ but only pro^locibTo bjr labour, 
&ncl of wlikh iJio pow»wion u morally oorin»otcd wtUi Ubour, lo 
tliAl no pi«nu.iEi rtipiLlilif of iluJug lIio w^jrk D«ci4*iarj' for ito prcK 
diictJOTL Ijm a rij^ht to it until he hu done Ibot work ;— " ho th«i& 
will tiftt wort, noithfr ithftJild ho OM." Il pftmintn of limplo food, 
clotbitig. mid habiLAtjoiK trflti their Mods and r)iaLeiin]\ or iti«tru- 
monte bnd nvihSnory, und AiiimaU und for n«oeM«ry drwightor 
IfriomoUov, ^e. It ift U) be obAuriud of Hin kind of propi^rtr. 
thill iUt incrGOHti cannot iifluihlly be OAiricd boyond li ecttain |H>intt 
W^Aute h depend) not on Iftboi^r only, ]mt on lliingi r*i wluL^.h tbo 
»upply ialiiiuk4 by natutOi TIjo poio^iblc acctimnlAtJon of oorn 
dopcnds on the qunntitj of com jfrowiojE l&nj pouessod or com- 
mordally AT-etiulbb; And that of itimUhUiirlurly* on the tu^i^eraibk 
^tiantjt^ of ootlI nnti ironttonD. It follovi (n>m thia nAliirhl 
LirikiUiLSon of ftupply that iho accumulation of yrcv^vrU^ vA^ulVa^ 


FOuncAi. votMOMT w An. 

Tb^ w^\f hovrovtr, ttoecdMHIy in Mch eve iB«-oUc x 
•fUolilttfti^; ntiii ihrrrrfbra Ultn thdr plu^ in at K't^lit 
Ifam tJiat of lui;itri<fl oifTrtly. 

4, Tl»4f«inb kiini of pc^>Hti;C«tliniwliSrJiU4tow» int«II«ctiul 
or :;mDtional pli^Kin, oomMag of Uurl h4 apart Ibr 3>^.^hj*«» H 
^tHiglkt man tli(4ii for ■gricoltonv of Wo^ wovln of ut, t^i 
otiJrv::tft i>f TTitard liUlory. 

It i«b cY cwirM, TtupouibTd to fix us aocun(« liniU Wtw^n pro- 
pnty of the lnM «]au ari] of i\m f^trn^ flin^e l1>iTig« which an a 
■acre luxury to ccc {icnom Arc a incuw of iutclWctuol Docnpatigo 
lo «i>otiioF- Flowvr* in m London ball-rooiu arc a Inxcrj; in « 
botanlcaJ giinJen, k ddig^t of lL<i itit<>11^:t; ami In ilirlr imiit^ 
fictJa, lioUi ; white UiO niMX nolilo w»rk* of ari arc contiiiimllj 
ipado mftlcTinl of Tiilgsr Uixtiry or cf c^rirainu] priJ^ ; hni, wlt«a 
rijfht^v rw^d, pn^pcrt;' of thi« foirrlh clua » the otilj Lwd vhicli 
dMOn'OK the Fiitni^ of fos/ f-roporty ; it )« tha crnJy kiaj w 
IDWJ i:An iiiily Ijit mlM to *' pivw^M." ^hnl a miLn l«l^ or 
<Pl WMii^ M> \on^ fU) il i» only ^hat ia ni^ful for life, oui ro mora 
bo thoufflit of ai til powcMjon than Uic air ho brcatlwft. Tho air 
u ftf uci^dfiil to him M the food ; hut vie do not talk of ft ituia^ 
VftiJth of air, and whnt food or clothin^i man fomamm tnoro tkui 
he liimwrir rc^iiir^ luitf^t Iw fnr olHen to hm (and, to lilvu tL«r«» 
fore, not u rt-jkl proptrty iik itauH^ biit only a aioant of ohtaiotaj* 
ioma refll propcily io «4ii!hiutgc for \t). W^nrraa tlia Uiinp that 
gEvci iittclIcciUHtl or cuictioTtal cmjoymctt may be Acoanalaited ftnil 
<lt> tiot jinruih in uting; but cotitiniaally aiipply nov ploa*arc« and 
nuw iwwtrra t<f ^'It'ii'^ plvmtnr-'^ to otliftiv And Uiui^ Uicrefon^ 
Are tliv only tliinf!|ii whii:li can ri^*h()y Lu thoiii;fit of u ffivi^^ 
** ivoflkh " or " v<?ll lK*i[iij.'* FfiO'l tondni:*?* oaty to " be tng," hiil 
tliGBO tc " vf// boicff." ^nd there i* not any hroadei ^encral <tia- 
titietion batwoon lower And bi^^cr or^en of mon ll^^n rv^tlA ov 
tlji'ir |H>»tiHmti of thi» rual pro[>erly. T\m Lifiiian ij)'.« [iiay b« 
prtiticrEy divi'iL'd hv jEoolo^iBta i»to " m^u who havo f;nrdc?aA, libd- 
rifu, or work* of art; and vrho hiivo none :" find tbo ftirrriDr clani 
^11 iiLctuilc fill noble pf.mxu, cxatjtt only a few who riiako tlie 
woiM tIi'I!' ^^rdflTi rif mn«t'ifm ; Tl»nn t]><^ pf*C'p!<> wlio ba*« no^ 
or, which ia iLt Mut« ibiii^i do nut caro (ur gHrUuia or J 

tut CATU for iJuUuuj^ Wl luouL'y or lutiincc, uill mdutl« tntwts Imt 
ifpiobte pcrMQA! only it ianoomi^y lo uiHlcntAini ttiaL J lut^n t>y 
Uie tcnn ** ^fardcn " oa aiircli iIil* CurlliUAiiitrt |>lot of gitxttiJ diVco 
foet «qiMro between hit nioitrMtfiy hsitlttMr^t^ v I do tlic t^rouuja 
of ChRiABoith or Kow; nnJ I m**an by lie Intiii "nrt" «i mucli 
t|jO ulU w'lur'* (iriul vf llm ArttljtiNi LuMrin^f u{i t<> o(i)cn^ Uio 
Boite PwJ*! w I do Kd|)liiivra " Ditputi^" ubd i»i«n r«U^4}r iDore; 
TorvUctn abimdiuil, ticnuiiful [Hnueaium of iljis kiiiil ate alruott 
alvvnyA *jdoc]fttc«J wiili vul^nr luxury and become liicn ttiijtiiiujj 
but iidlcativQ of nobtn t-liurActor In Ut*fit p9«c<«orL Ths lAt*) of 
Utuiuui life UB uuioQ of Sj^iTtaii BiiupUuity orujrhmicti villi AiIj^ 
Dion KLUubibty and iiiui§;iualion, Uut iu aotual rMiill^ wf uv COI^ 
Uaually laivUkiug if^uvrtkDce fur »ituplidly, Jiud ci^Hualit/ tur 

B. Tlio fifth lind of proptrty U rppreipptntivo ppop^rtr, coniiiki* 
ing of docuimuU 01 ]f>0Tj<y, or ratLcr doj^iimcnU oidy, Us mono/ 
llMlf u on]/ a tn4iibf<<TMbto docurittnit curroni Riuong Mcleclu of 
uun, ^i^iug d&iiti, uL ^i^^liU to somo diJiiiiLe IwucCl hr adiuiXBg% 
nioat commoTiIylo a ooruinDUnroofrcal property cvbting in thoio 
acicEctitf!. Tlie inonoy in nnly gcniiiiLf^ wimn ihc propprt^ it givra 
clajiu to b Tt»I,<jr ibo a^ItauUgui it gUc* cIbuli tu cutlcui) ; olLc^ 
wbo. il &a IkUa inorwj, tad may be ooniidorod a* much "for^'Od'' 
vll4^Jl wucd bj& jfuvcru^Duo^ or a iiank, a* vhcit by un iitdividiuL 
'J hm, if a do4oiL of men. cant nahorc on a d?<ictt iLlan^J^ |Hck up t 
ntrmboF of dtonu, put n rud Hpot on i^ocli iitonn, nnd [xua a lav 
tiuit oveiy slono iiiarkod with a rod ^pot aIjhIL givo claim lo a peck 
of vboBt; — aa lunguTio wboat oxibts, or oan 03dU,on 1)lu \%lttmlt 
the BlODCB arc uol itiocicy. But tbo niDiactit >o mucTx hU^at cuila 
ni alfftll Toulor il poiublu fttr ilic »ocicly al*»yA to givK u pock lor 
«vnry upoltnd ftUipr> i}ic i,poixM LtotLf« noiLld hnvnnn mom^yi and 
nii^ht Lo cichan^^ Ly Lbtjir poM»»or* for vhakvor other com- 
fn*h]Ltlf« tlipy ftirt*^ lo tlio viJuo of tho ptck of wliCHt tl»e 
atODce rqireMukd. If moru siojiis wore jMUod Itnn tli? qnaulity 
of wbeat ootild aAtwor tliD domvid o^ tba roEuc of the «i->i;o 
ooinagQ would bo ilLspniriHEiHl, in ^in.>pLinIon Ea fiu Eiicri^H^ ilmvi) 
tho i^nanlity noodod to auAWur Iu 

Agtift, ftnpponiog a conaiii uitmber of tlto in«n m cut aHhf/n 


VOLlTtOAL 100 SOU T HP JkttT. 

w«tr »l ui«fo 1>7 lot* or Knj oUicr coDvcnticii, 1o do ibf 
luLojip ne^Muiry for ih^ aholc fcO':i<>iy, tboy tbcaw«lvcc 
mninUm^iJ by tJic tUily Allotment of k ccrtAin 4|iuiiut/ oT fooil 
Ag^ tht!\ij if ifn w<ifo ft^uc4l that Ibo »Utnot *pollOil mil 
be «ign« of ft Qov«ntTii>.-iii, onlor fur ll.t^ Ul«j^ir of 
mon ; nof] ll^nt anr ponon proft^ntiii^ a F^poltod rtonc at the «l 
of Uic Ubourvri., ilioiLlci be entitled to t man't irork fov a vi 
ut s Jay, liio ]c<l »tvi:c» vuuld b« tnonvj; «iiiii might — piuUiUj 
w<<uld,— tinrnixlint^lT pnsa cnrrcut in tlie Wtnd for lu iniKilj (xkI, 
or dotbrng. or imn, or mtit c^lhur mrtidi5 in ■ iiiau'h nork ftjr rti« 
pcrioil wciiTcd hv ibc alone vw worllj. BuL if IJifl Gfitcmmcnt 
iatiiM KG Tnany sjHiTl^J iliinni tljai It w&v iitiptMftibito for the body 
of tiiuii llitij' (!eu|71ovlh1 to comply wJtii llic ohIuib; ub, »ii{>p(&Ut if 
iLojOTtlycmployuJ twolvo iticn^ und jhuc^I cijcbUoB ipoUed Moncv 
4lail>', orLkrJii^ a JnyV nork nu'h, tTn?ii ilto nit pKtnt Htoncft wonU 
bfl f&i'jn?J or faJsff money ; and the i?ffert of forgcty "'0"^*J W 
ED dfjirci^iBtion of iJic \aiaa of ito wimSn coiniigo by ono-Uiifd, 
bein^ ^c period of Aliurti;o)idng nhldi wuulJ, on ^« iicngi^ 
^d}r oiiviio in ttio oxocutionof uffb oHar. Mucbi oooMional 
vorlt nui^ lie Lt{>nL? Ill n %uiii ur lARicrTr liy Krilp nf an !nan of AiIh 
money (or fnUc Yiromirv*) Vy w*y of Mimulauto ; Hid liic &dt of 
tbU work, if St i:cim<?« into the prouiiiwr*! Lnritkr mjiy MimQtimM 
enable tliQ faldCpruujiBTaftt lost lobe fulfiUod: bcnco ibo fre4|Dc»l 
k«ii« of faUc moDuy U- jfovcrnrntfirU and laukt, nnd tho not vnl 
quKTil. <%:aJ)iw froin (hi: Emtiiriil AiLii propter rortwijnttnc^ of ■!]! 
iaSkG iMUCiN »<> itA to Vifwtc A GviifuBoi concopllon lu moftt people* 
mhidft of vhal iiioiaiy iviiJy i^ I «m not laro wLcUilJ' ftomi 
quADtity of vucli fuloe iwuo may not rcnlij bo punnJwiUc in 
PAtiou, Accurotdy propoTtionod to tho niinlniEim &virntg« ptodni 
«f Uia Inbour it chjcIiia; IkiL &1I fiuch pr€!iiLH ai^i mtrru or !i 
HDsound; arid |1k iKjlion of uii!iiiuuil iisue of currency » funplj 
<in« tif tbi; Bbtunlwi imd laoftt monflrotu IkiC over CMtne into da- 
jointed hDitwn nita. 
. Ifio iiM) of objcctA of rool or srippovciJ tsJuo for curroiwy, ai' 
goll, J4*wi>l]cry, (ki\, U bzirbiiiouH; und il alwin-n oxprc^awtt eithOT 
Ihe modHCro of tliu dintnut in the locicty of it« own pzivcmmcnt, 
or xht piupoitioik cf JiitruiIfiiL or barbuoaa nabotu with wfaoou it 

mcdLbiD o( carroncy for Lhc mka of c]cJii:itm<-xt luid ooiivunicncri 
but wcTD it p<wMo to p^veiit (orgtvy, tbo inoro w^rthlrM tiio 
Ji\tjiii\ \uiAt, iltv Iwltor. Tliu itao of irurtLlcw rT)v<tm, iiiirmtniriuil 
by tho u«o of vftluuUo merlin, Ilu &]w«jb biLhcrto ini'otrcJ, ho^ m 
tJir^rvfortj >iipi>fi]H?tl to Siivolvc iioc'nuirily. unlimil«d« cr at IcMt 
mtpri:^j*i>r1y cxtcmlco, uuiio; but vc mi^ht aa well »^ippo>c thnl ft 
nuin miiflt nccc^ufiHCy laiinio imlimilcd proiniiiaft boCAiUo hiA ncnLi 
co«l notblng. [iiti;rix»itrw wiili fori^t^ii iintlotis iJiu«t, lodtcd, for 
agoa yut to como, at Iho «orU*q priawnt r«t« of pn>sre««t b« <ar- J 
ric^ on Liy vaIiiciIiIc r[invnL'if!it; lint luch IrantnritTonft arc notlung 
more tlmn foniui of bArtcr. 'Hlc golij iihciI nt pTcs^nt fu d ciiTii^ni^y 
i» notf in point of fnctf currency «t nil, dut tlio rn-tiX proporiy* 
irliicli llm currcucy (^ivi-a tlnitii to, sUrupod lo uir^itfiLirH iU quMn- 
tityi nod mio^Iinx with tUo rc4il currency oocjuionatly by bortcr. 

The ovili t»ii*cj*Arily rfsiilimg from tho nut of bjwelww ciuron* , 
Cio» liATo bc'CT) UrtilTtj ilhi^trHtct] irlillo rJicsc Ebect» bAr« bodfl 
|ia«i»^Tig tkLrc;iJ>^li 1}iO proM ; I hAve Rot bnfJ time to CHtnino tlie 
vttnoiu comlitiuuB tf di»buHTOt oc abttunl triJiiig wUitl hiw IlmI 
to th& lalo ^pbnio^ in Amcrcn wid Knglaod; ibinonly I know, 
Ihnt nf> mf rc-hjiTtt di^tcning ["ho nmiit oit|^bt to 1>« incirQ tiaMe ti> 
** pAQLc" tiLiLii n KiUlkt A^iojIJ ; tor hw fiiinic ibi>alil never l>o oa 
tniyn p^pcrr tliAn Ilo at nny iiutlnnt nic4^ iba call of, h^tpivrn 
w bat will. I liu uU euy tliia vritbaul fccbii^ at tbo mjiio tinio 
how ditUcult it IB lo inafk, Id cxintinj^ oommoroai iho juf^t bmitt 
iMtvrccn tba (|rtrit of irnUrprixQ otiti of tpvi^ul&lmi]. Suuiulliliig of 

• Of rfttliOf, oqulralent lo «icf» ronl propwty, liOPifKO •Tfir^'bodv hM bewi 
•MBiitoino4 to kflk murti jl ju vnIunUo ; uid lljcrplt™ ovpfrhody b willing 
lo uirv UUiurur ^-^Jinb Rji it. }i\A cttX prop^ttf dcva uitJuiiiUlj coJiHiot ouljr 
In lliliiEB UuLt uCKirLih Um \judy ur jjUdiI: u^ld tvuulJ l?v uaelm tv un if av 
TiiM ni\t p.t mnlUn <ir bcrfit* ftf It Ultlmiirlj all paminpfL'Inl muiUiLn 
■md vriiWnuuEnuuu r«<iEt rVom pyppip QX|)rcUn[r (njftgiixJiivEtlKiiit wfiik' 
lujE f->' (Itom, or wjinLin; llinn rfUir Lbvy h>ir« ipcit l^ffiu. A ddIIod yrliidi 
'febtiL^ns aud InkiTi cim v( Uju TniiU of Inljijur, mflM bo tk'h ud Imppy; 
Ihixjtfli tlhrrv iTHra no vol^ ^^ ^^^^ uuJvomx A imilon nhkit Is iilEfv nuj 
«riu<Ui4 tho pTadiiM 1/ wfinl vnrlc it diHt^) holiM >»<' paif ftnd m^mtli^ 
thoutEb nU iti iDuunUb« w^ro of gt^d, and buJ g|1<pM lillad wiib diambit 



tbc mmc temper wMcli ratket Uic Kns^vJi artdncr io «1innr« 

tliut is jjomiblc, Msd jU'.t'Kipl i»oic Iban » pottlli*, join» iU mfii 
Gi^ov aiUt Out »r mere uviijit^c hi ivmptlnf the Kn;> It^i iitordii 
into T»]i.n wliidi l^ cflriThc>t JiiHlifv, niid dl<>rt^ «1iich h* cam 
•im[nEi> ; Hri'l ihi^ tgLnLO ]i?iH>HJJi for «/Ivcriturc whkh uur trmTrlli 
gratify cvtjrv ^uEtaini^r cti pi^Hl&tia cuovr ivL-oaUis bd<J cl<KiL|-ca?oii 
piuuwd prc.iiii«L'p*, mrround* with ji Pwrittntic fjweiimilon tlia |[iil 
tcrrnfi! Qf n Lollon invc^Uo^nl. ftnd ^il^ii' ihc <:I<jaJ« UljU ciirj roui 
gnlft of niit). Xujt a bigtior and » mi>n> h^rioiu fudUng iV^qooi 
tiitnglm ill iIlp [ni.ill«j l(*m|iLstJi7U ; ituil nipii »ll^y ilii<uiBulrf» M 
tbo tiUkk of t^owiji^ vktii UH t'> & Intioiirof providential sppoinl 
m^^nF, from whltlr titey cannot pAiru witlioni cdtpnljintj, nor retii 
^thoijt OiAhoni>iLr> Our 1nr^-c iTJtdjD^; citicA bc«r to nfi vi 
iiiTArlj tho nspoot of TnoTtantic oBuUinhmcnta tn whicli Uio iDfir 
iha ruilI-i>]ii.-L-l ami iLe cruim Lthca tljc pIw;Q uf oUivr dcvo^i 
muaio : arid in wliJcli Uto vonLtp izrf MjiJiiinoTi uitJ Molocb U ccb*^ 
diictoJ witli A lcn*l<^r Tovercni^c anJ nn «irt jtropritly : tiic »tN 
chant riAin^ttr hiA Mammon mnlim^i^ftJL iLe Mlf-OcniHl of »n Aiid9<»- 
trtOi nud cxpiivling tJio fri^olitlis iiiio vhkb ho ihjlj bo bogulUd tQ 
tilt c^nii^^ of ibi) Jmv by lal^ aUenJanL'o ul MiLmmuu v<vpvni 
KuU ^'itli uvury hlJovvsiicQ iLnL cnii be itiftJo ibr tb»o o^nt^icB- 
tloiEJi Aiid ruiitnutiL' iH^noriH, tlic fnt-t tciriaJiu the vimcj iliul br &>' 
l^c giTJitcr rniEiiWr of the trAnMctii>nft vWh Iciul to llii>J> txi 
of oo(umor':i8] f>nibnrrAMiiii;ril ruy bu ran<;^ tiinfik nndt^r |v< 
gn^jLt Iivufa. — gnmUiijj; nntt stealitif;; Htn\ bulb cif tiitvc id ibeii 
moit cvlpAhIc fcrtd, oainctv, ^oniblin^ wiUl itioncy wZiLcb iR Dot 
niirn. »ricl nt^Mlina tVom Hiosf wbo InijiT. iir. 1 liiit-e Komoii'ineii 
thOHglit A daj- might cniiic, when thn nation trouUI pvrmvo iW 
R wcil T-o<l iir'aW mun ^vtiD^f^nig a Imndroil tliCKMn^J poutidti Ttivolv*j 
injf the entire uivaha of eubbitfcTK'v of a hiuidtcJ fiiruilH!jf diaicr 
on tho MrlioJe, a» »uvvi^ h (^imipbiTioot ar on ill cdncntod mnt 
frho A«»1b a mra»i froiii a pucli<t, or a mug from n puinrr, Itta 
witliotit bi>|>iiicf for ihifl tiicpcaa of eloflrji^-btcdno^ wc miy u 
Inifit b-iWiir for a MWlrinof giralcr HonrfiTT *pd litMiUM* bi lilt 
Miieior romiTJcrce <>f onr *iiiily lifi» ; Bince llio jfixnt d i^boncsd; <»r 
tlin gr^Ki ^(]y«n ati^I teller* ii notbrrg mora tlinn th« AAtiimT 
l^tuttlb auJ outcoiuij fnim tlic liitiia ^ivljoncity of iho bttJe bujcn 


iiiil nlTcrv Ever; [ivnvn wli^ tn'f^a to Iru/ tm airlJcI« for Idu lliftr 
lb proper vaIiic, or who thra t« vll tt At Dioni tlioo H* propoi 
riihio — G\nfry canKumcr vho k<u^a n iLiflv^fcTcuti^ vattlnf^ for h^ 
motxy, iiniJ crur^r tT«dc4mftn nhQ bribes & contunicr to extrtfii- 
gan«o tj onxirt, b bolpSng forward, A^MPtdin^ to bk own m«A«rr» 
of powu, R ijuLeiu of bHWjliw «iiil diidionottTitUca axiinieru% wiil 
fiMvitijf bin country dova into povcrtj ntnl ihAmo^ And poopio 
of nodomto nmnji And fiVorrtg<» powcim (»f mind woiiM rJn fnr mow 
luJ gooi) b; mcr«(y cAff^iEi;^' uut »t«rn priTkdpIca of jii«licc juiil 
lionvMy in common mHi;«rH of lr«J«, tban by lli« nio«t ingonlcu* 
«cli«iuw of eKti;iiJci pliUuULnj|ijr, or vucifvniut doclmikLioim of 
tboo1oj«io4il dootrino. Hioro ar« Lbrcc vfoijiLty toAtlcn oftho I&w 
^laiirr, nifT^y, Find Imth ; *nfl of :Jir»i> thfl Toachi't piiU ttiiin 
ln>U WauH! LhaL cnniiol Im IiiOkVii IdI ]>y a coni^ of jicU of )ii^ 
da« Htid tovc But m«fi fuiy in alt iJicir ofTjrUf imtti firvtt 
bocMiEJW ibcy mmn Uy it tlit^fr oVn o[i]itJi:iiia ; snd Uiius wliilc iLe 
worlil \\ti* niHTij pcofdo nlio would mitr<ir niAitjnloni in tljc caiim) 
of vrhstl ihi'y rftti iriih, ii lihn frtw «vho will titffor ovort h litUa 
Idcooicdioti&g id UiJtt of jiutici; kzii merer. 

I WILL not attempt ill tliia paper to outer int(» any j^cncrM 
oon^iI&ratJoD of tho )koaiiii>lc inftjeiioo of art on tl^o njutAi of 
tho poo^U. Tbo iiii^tirj U ooy org«nl Cfjrapkxity, involved 
vitU ihab into tlio u*ei »nd ilaiigon of liixtiiy ; nor \iU\it w4 
04 vf>t ifaia unoii^h Co Jiietlfy lis In o^nj<>i:iiitii]g lion- fir tlia 
prftciico of art mny be compiUbk wrih rude or m^cliAnkul 
ei}iplojmi<n<«i. Bru. i1u< ijocHtion, huwL^vor iJ'ifTloitU, H«s In tho 
BEimc light ntt iTiat of tho i:«0k of rt^nilmg nr vrhting: f^r draw* 
ing, HO fnr hm il Ik poMib1« lo iha murtruflo, m mninly to 

consUf^rM «> n ni«<]iDa of oljlftitiirg :iiid L^ommLinlTiiid^^ knowl 

^^B D(3gc- H<f hIio cnn ic-t-ar^rrly ivprp«i>rt£ thn form of An 0I 
^^^ ju(Jl. aivl inutcli ila nolour, hnn iinipieaLrctiMljIy n |ioKrtr 
I iKiLtiirrn itnd di>{^nption ]^r«Al>jr iik iinrhl tji^tAiirMH Uhnn! 

I uf "(Xil^; ttnd ibb fidcucfl of iiolati-jri ouifhL to t« nin|tTy 

^^K rcgacJcd M itifti which b coDcemnl viil iii<* n-corO of r^rii*, 
^^^r jut lu arithnivtU ts ci^nccnitj nitl) tkr noifril of number. 
F Of to«rBc abut«f> aii'l Uangera Mtcmd tl»e nci^mrvmett ^F ©very 

I powft, Wo bflvo ftll cl ufc v^*^^^^T \aaii>«'s^ '^•s^vi^ww ^w*v 

wltbotil Wiuc Able Uv rcAil [>i' wiiit, tlUct *f ffcd tlic ImporCaot 
duicQ of lilu «u<clj AnJ fjiitbfut^yi » w Imvo aliw -AiUjont 
doubt kri'>iyii itilicn Mt to r<i^ anl write, nho«c rcftiim^ 
did Jittk icood to tbtrnmlvcd, nnJ whovc writm[; latic (I^ochI Co 
any oan oUc. But ^i> tlo not tliciT^r'oro <k«bt lhn 4xpcdi«ncv 
of ^cquiri^g tboi« ari»; nortbor ought «o to doubt Utv ar< 
p<»d!enuy of ari^iDHng tfae art of druwing, if v« admit ttiKtl 
mnr in<l«od bocomo prnoLicAllr iiicfal. 

Ni»r iihoul'J WL* l<jng liotitiii? ifi idmiitin[f tliit, \t we iron 
not In the huhlz of conAiJc^Hns; InhirurtioQ In the ariA chM/ 
aji n mcAnvof piomalitij; wIjui wo eaW ••tsulif"Dr <tili.'ltimti«n3p 
auJ oUiur liJtljLfH of iniiul, wljidi, in tliefr rui^rc inodiirri i]frT«1* 
opmentA in Kump^, bavo r-crUiinJy not \wan adrnntjLgDoiH t3 
mutant*, or imlu^nlivtt of wurlHirutw in tht!m. NHir-rlhek^w, 
truv tA»U-, 4^r ihe iu^UtitBUijikUA pri-'firmi'^u ijt iW uublif Uiing 
to tlkv iguoblr, U a iicccnaarj BccompnuiiDcitt of bigli wonbfi* 
QCAa [(1 butb^is CT men; ouTy It U not to b« AcquiroJ by seek- 
ing it M our cUicf objc^c^t tiucc the (ini qtic^iion, Alit« &r 
ntjui abd fof multitudes, is net nt aU what llicy ire to like, but 
Avbat Uicy ^ro to tlo; And fortn^iitUl^ ao, since tru« twt«, w> 
fnr ii4 it dcpcnda on onginol inatipct, i« nnl ^i^itally Oon»> 
iruiiicaUo t^ all u^oii; and, eso &r u iidcpcad* on extended 
eompai-uon, \» unait^innbk bf Tinon cm|>lo7od ta nnrtow tiu1d» 
oflifij. Wo ehall not siia<?d<H ill milking n i>OiL«ant*« opinion 
good evjd('ije« on tbo mfirlta of tlic J^l:;in lud Lyeiun it»irb1««; 
nor JB Lt no?e*#firy icj dictate to h\m in his ffaidcr tbo prcf^N 
«tiol> or gllUllf^wcir or of roiii>; yoE I b«lrovd u'o niny iDHkeart 
a mr^DK of ^vmg Eiirn liQlpfitl sird hnppy [di^OHELri^, Jvnil of 
gaming for li'rin fleritoeablo Vnoftledge* 

TtiuA, ?n our wnijilfM. ™dofi of iHiool ln«lnioii<*n. I bojio 
BoHiL' day iti TV Ideal iialiiud li[Mm-y nwum*? n jtrincij^nl pkoe^ 
fto iliat ciir peni^Aiit ebilda^) may be lATrybt (lu Tiatufo And 
UKCA of till! [ji:rb« tftnt grow iu Uiii^r n^cAilows ^^^ ^^7 ^^ 



ietoTMt in oWrvlDs; ftnil cbprisfLtng, rnther \\\tn (n hiitttU{( 
or kilJing. tbd linniLlou iininiAk of ih«ir coumry. Buppntln^ 
\i ^<^tvrxn\^a<.\ tliHt this loml niLlJinil hUtor) s^thXfM 1h^ tkn^bt, 
ilrnuriug nii^lu in lur itsi^d in llic tint All^trjiii^iL, niul U^^i, ahil^ 
it, &ifli-d, itio Encmory. " 1>niw tucli fti>[l iu^^lv a 11>>itft la out* 
liEiUt wltb lis bnW townidk ^ja> Dr^w ti Kjiti jii »idc tuwar^t 
yoLj» Wini irUii ii|>ou upon it. Draw a tlucLV livml-^ber 
fijot. Koir ft robiu'n, — & Uirueb'v. — now tbc vpol* upon ibe 
thtu»b*Ji brciiU^' Tlic»o are tUc kiuJ of ln^k« wIiIoIj it tv^na 
to me «houid Us 0Ct lu ibtj young pi^^ieuint nUidciit Surely 
tLo (Kcapiilicn irouM no laora to tbougll <'ontctiip!i1Jc which 
Tvni thill Eit(>»cmcnt to knovliMifo nnd t<j compiviiiaD ; And 
pi^rhnpq iH: rhonU And in prucCM ci liuaa tbat Uio ItAliAu 
GOuziQxion of art ivith ^UcttOt of d«lij>ht, woj^ boib calui«^ltlt 
with, ftod ovon moiDly <oiiBcqiiout Qpan, a puro OlMk ooiq- 
noxioD of Mi vitli ort/ff, or virluo> 

It niAy f>Dr1iap Lu iLuiiglit ihU tho tow«r of rtprcKcntfn^ 
in ftr>y lulE^ipnt msinncr imlurMi obJoctB tuch i^ lhoi» abovo 
tsAiancfu) «^uU be cf too dilfiriilt AitaJnnicit lo bo ntmvd il 
in o]cii^«TiUry inflliudlon. Hiti 1 iiai> Iia<1 prnctlcAl proof 
tbat it U OQt MX From vorkincn u-liu UolI liitla trmi* to ifuin^ 
ftud liiHt only afti-Tllivy H*pt jidcd Lj llir da>'*»r,I hard 
cibt«iii«l, in il'iu <^oun« of Unco or fuur MonUi» froia (Lo'f 
flnt U\in^ « pencil In hniu^ pofccily nvcrul, nuit in man/ 
rapccUi aduiintVli", dn^wingi vt Q4luf>I obj^cia. It m, liov- 
vrvVT, iiiTCVt^HO- >■■ Older Lv B^uoro liik* rcanit, lL*t Uic Mi*- 
doni*» «ina ^hotild b« at«o1iilo[y realnctod to tlii* rcprcavnfntioEi 
ofvUild^ fjuf. All jjQorc vancd or plcvnt^d j^racticc ina>t bo 
4Jtftrrcd nnui th« poven of true ngjhl and jubI rcprv«cnUtion 
are ac^uir«d lo timplidly; aor, ia tlia C4^ of chiUrcn 
. loaging lo tho lovr<r cljuii«s doc* )t »ccm to ii» oiici adviv- 
aUe to aini at nrijlbui^ morE^, At oil ov^nU. t^ic ilr^vv^ 
l«<*M0 AborJd bo fload« aft TWiudUv^ t* ^m^^^ Xx-^^ii^ 


ion ^1 

199 ± JOT von nv^n^ 

thWil b» p&ihl'Uly intitaUd Lnio ompti»ym«nt« caJuuUyd for 
ih« r«'t4>f nf ii>i1. It i« or iiUlc caniiKiitviiiM* tfini ili^r^r duMM 
know iTio prEfirT|»(r?» of utI^ b'H of tnni^h t)i»t llirSp atlcDttoB 
ihmill hn plr^iMii'fllkly oiHiffil- ]ii our biglicr pubfTc iu4ioo]«, 
on tW i^urtinry, Jrnwjui; sboiilii 1m- t;tii;^it rglui> ; tlkai m to 
»»jr, with if^iu ftiicrij^tion anJ n^ruriLy of jimli mionr^ M(*|«,-*> 
it being iLfto of ItElZc raiini^cjucncc wliollicr tlin itu<leiit hiuUrm 
(freat or littli; okil]* ].'U& uf luii^li ihal \nt hliould }}vn»nii! di>> 
liDoily vthiL ilo^rre of akill Uc bn* AtUincd, revcrcfice iIm 
yihkh BMrpiiucH it, fliid knov tlio (>riiicip1?« of right jet whAt 
h€ Imn Ixjfln ftlle to AccompliKl*. It ia inipoMiMo lo ciako 
owrry boy ati arii*t or u {'onnoiMciif, but quit© p04»iUe to 
ittnlc.i him und^-rsUni l\v: inc:kiiitif(c-r ort i» ita Tudimtfcl«, and 
t> Eni^kc him mo4l<tfl ^noiiifh to forbt^r oiprv^ing, in afUr lift^ 
juJ^mcutfi wbidi bo lia» not kEWwl<jdgo tnixigb t* nbdcr joal 

TiK»fi> it, i*owcvcr, nt prL.-Mnt thin i^Tcnt drfllcit)ty in thr *f<y 
of Hucb f^ygCflTuitio tcuobin^ — tbai llic pulija do itot bdicvo 
ibu principica of nrt arn dctorminnblo, nnd in no wis« moHon 
i^f opiuioOi Tiioy do not bclioi'o that i^oH (Jr&wtTig h gno^ 
and ba-J iItowjdjj ii t»AJ, wluii*?vor mr numWr of ponom nuyr 
tbiitk or Otdaro to tlja eouli-nry — tb'il rhero h & ngM or bc«t 
Hut of Uyfn^ colour* to proda*?* a gwon t'H^M-U jiwt ft« tb«T* 
i* 1 rlf^Tit or Wfc! tmy of i^yi?lng rb^tb of a pvon i-i>lour, imd 
lliut Titiiri unci VvmtirMn aro not mt^rifty flccid^nuUy ddmi- 
r*ljl" luil oivrnally rlglit. 

Tlip jmblic, of (Yiiir*!?, cwnTiot b" ponvino^-d of iliiA unity 
niij ftUUilily of jirindftlo n»ti] cj^nr n.**iirrinn of it U inado lo 
tlwn by j^Amtem wbum tlicy /oiiHit^t. : aiirl liip pnlnrcni vtbom 
tbty HJflpcct urc goinni'ly lor» rrmdi-M, nml ^niiiutfmefi loo 
I pvoad iv uiakc H- I U?la-v«; llit* i^biitf i^iiHim for ilii-lr not 
Hihving I'ct t)i^cl«roii At k^nni tliu ^iindjiiiit^iiUl Uwv uf bboar M 



tite necvKtity of Inrd dar] Ky^trriiatixcd w<jrk> in orJcr la At- 
laiii wen llm luwvr ilr^'iuuH tji bkill, liiikt, li? iihtniully Hu|»pi>«cB 
if |>c<fplc uae HA dili^rtio* iu di'ftwm^, they do not cvo lo «?• 
qniro tliu powur of it, aiiJ tl*at the twl involved in *tiolt*#i*mo 
tlit^y Wm^ grtijiler ll»r m^i** of pcopk liftvo **cr givvn^ 
i» nJBi> grpukr Lbnn tlicy woutd ct6T be willing lo ^vc* t<;c]- 
iiic; also, JM nriy riuil iminUr fuoLh ih^t bi>i o^n vxcuTIoziijq Ii 
ft j^fl, iio Ic9« thoii the rownrd of toil, ptrhap* aLltghUy di»Uk- 
InR lo OonftMi the lubour \i hiiS oxt hini to purfuot it, nnd. 
Wbolly lioispitii'injEf of dvFJnf; fltiy ^jooJ hy lh« ci>nfouUi>i|, Im 
DWtleniptuoiniJy lunvei the dru'^iajpiTinitor to iJo liio bwt bo 
C&n fTi hJ« t«clvg LeHBonti, iiud wkh oounaont iioliodneM 
pormiti \Uc yoking vom«n of ICn^tnnd in rvmftin imdot tLi» 
imprvBdon that iljcy can Ioaml to Jrm» vtiili leut pftiiu thntt 
tliey can feftta lo dan<'0. T h»ve lia^f prfi^J^'il «ipeHeno«- 
CiiifXigli, 1iov^'*ir, TO flonvinctt tn** Ihit this tr<'nt">cnt of (lid 
arnjuciir nnrli'nt i* unjna;. Toting girla will wort Mfiib 
iTi*u'liuiiT ptrM!VL>niriCG wlioa irnce tliey imd* t^tnntJ the ncwl of 
InJioiir, ami nre oonvinc^d tliai iItrw fn^ i" a tind cf Ungnngo 
wlii-^h miijr for mdinnty pirrpowB bf* li^aruF-rl fu: fntily nil 
Fn-mli HikJ GcTinin ; thin JEingiingr*, uUo, linrinff it< gntmmnr 
arid Its pronnnrlHtiun, to li« ouDi^ui.^t'&l or Bcqiiir^d only Xiy 
jK'i"si*tftnr<: in irksorui' ('Trf-rriBO^An erjor in ^ foftn Tjcmg M 
tiiLiiply n\n} siriiply nu i^rmr a»u mituko in n tiiiw, suJ hu 
ill-drawn Iiui5 9A it^^rv\wm\\i{*i » a vtil|-ar a^^ciJul., 

And [ Attftfli ^rcAt tm|ii<rtAiio>^ t<> tlie >oniid odniriitioTi of 
oar J^mtjger ffmak-5 iu ntl, liiinkiiis thai Iti Kii|:Unil tin) 
nurwry nud tKc dia*int;-room aff periijipa Oic too«t if»6u*ii" 
ti'd of (Kn>kmL^'^ Wc midrvBf ourackE'.i in i-ain lo iKt tdO' 
CMion <if On> irtisL wbile the ikmaud fjr liis wfik i» nno^rr- 
tain or unintelligent ; nor cnn art be ei>n>.\d&iv.4 iiA^vt''^<^«r£^ 
000^39 in^a*!aaa on a nation vUilc g^V3cA y^v^'*'* ^*HTWl 'C&te ^'tw^ 



A JUT poa itrmu 

ciptl ipl^rdniir of the rit<^«ptton rwim, uid i11-wNHi.=r1^t thcHigfc 
GMtl)^ trmlcctM Inluf |irii;4^i|i]Ll vnt«rtninm(Trii> <>f t1ii> iKiiiilolr. 

It In fturvljr, lUerrfure, tu hv rrj^retled. lliut ttio mi-wlurv 
tion »f i>ui Gov(?i-Lrk<^nl k:Uikj]h i« adOifMcnl (>o <lr1lii;U.'ly to 
iho gai<Iarii^u of i)j« urti&m, au^ o tttcrrfarD »j> IhUtr nrkiiow)- 
c^JijtiJ hiclieiw bj lijo f^iTUtrral puUtc, L-spodttlly by iu iijiptfT 
clMft». I bnv« U'^l Ai;i]Uiuutaiico cni^u^lj vttlh the pntc^ionl 
vorkliig %>( Ujat bjiUm lu vutilui-e itn v c3ij>rcjvioi] of apiU'oa 
r0»ptpcuiig iU jipjncrAl cipcdivpcy ; but U It sny ooDvic^oo 
tLiit, 10 Ut tu nrorcpcrfi hva invoTTcti in it t^i ttiQ <lr>i|riiin£ 
of pnttcftiH vApflliJo of litiiig pifK^UGcJ by oKvciiticry, »ucf> itf- 
erotiiyft nm*t tnAtcrinLly (Jicuiuinh jta utiUl) considered as a 
|;0QcraL Byutcui «r i i^^ti-uctf on. 

W<i nro Hill, Ui<;ri^fc»ro, tiiivya to tLo *iimo pobt, — tht nteJ 
of tLa QUtiioriuitiv-o rccooimcrKUtton of nonir- in<il^oJ of vtu^y 
to Ll>o pubba; a cdh;Uio4 Jvtcmiii)^ upon by tUo ooncnrrcooo 
vftoma </i our hnAi }>i\iui«n. AaJ a?4><A'tidly M[>utivJt«4 bv th«ni, 
to t^b ti> kiEkvu 110 r>o[n tv>v baKiUiioEi in iu accvptnnco. 

Ni>r noad it ba thouglt iliat, bccaiw lU^ uUimut« 0K4bi>4i 
of VfQTk cmployoii l>r [inbli^ra vmy ncciinUug to ibo pailfciw 
Inr vfiTuoie pr<"luc4U b^ oachf ttvro uould bo Any JifliifaHy in 
obUiiiing ihoir colTcctivc uMit n» a syitl^m of Htmpnuiy 
pnoopl. Thu fiiL^u ofwIiii-U it Ia i]civ.t.tcry tlmt the siu^ltfai 
should bo otBiiTiHl in hU c^Hy rl]or[!i. nr« h> viujpK m) r«w, 
and »o well knoim to ill Hbl^ draut^liLMUi^n that, w I Ilbto 
JU«( tftid, it WOiili] )w T'-ilhcT dmibl of lUi; need uf hU:io^ vjilt 
«if(imi;il to ibcm nHf-rvidnriL, ihnii MuoIuiil^ to ipvalt AutLt-tl- 
Ulivety on puiatH i:aipubtH uf di^putf, tint would »uind in tho 
wfiy of ili<!tr giviii-;; fLjrm ti» a coilo of ircuural in^ttactioii. To 
Ukc merely two iuKlut^vA : It will pt^ilinpQ appear b^Hly 
cr^iliMt llihl HCioni; HriiNiUur Atnd^-ittfL, bowrer fai iidvascv4 
ID more khoviy Aco^mpliitbmeiiK thorv vill ric^ be foun<l on« 

<jf its rcftl *iw. Now, tbc miiccuracy i>f c;o •liiuii j-rovcfitt 
At^iLLcnt froid tjinwiiig W Acalu l« in &<:b nollitcic e\pc than ni 
ctkiifi; w«iit of Appiyciatioa of pivporti^ti, Aiid Uir<rdi/r« of 
COnT}>odJlto]t, JJ4t v^h-' a)tcr4 btic rvUUoiii of *ljiQtinMori| 
Cfloh oLhai' in biA copf, «hftW4 llat lie dov* iiot erjoy tbot* 
UtkfH* in tbo ori^niU — tliut u Is ul^, ait aj>|>roelHtiou of 
coblt deai^n (wh^eli u biitvi on iIlo iuqii «A<^uuit« rc];ition« 
oT nj^fnUtidtf) U impo-stiblo to hm. To givu him tiftbiU of 
mftlhiiQiLatk-al auotiraj-y ia it^nafvrauoo of tho oniliiEO c>f cum-j 
pivx fotra it, ihflrcfDN, unon^ tljo flr^l, nnd ovcei Hiiioiig ihi 
iQi^U lii^portunt. mL']iri4 of odiu'iiliof^ fiiu U4lC. A «lii<Umt ubi 
Cftn fii t*iLh procbMn tlis cardinal poLOtiiof n liinls wing, 
ttfnJisJ III nnj Ax«il p<hteloii, ftnil cah ih>n tlraw thi* irurvt^ 
iu iriiliviilnil [>liEiri(>4 iArkii;it]l lun^iKJvlali* «i^>r, ha% ntlvHJitiL'^lj 
furtlicr loitjinlt A jiawar of unrlrtvundiiig l[in dtuig'n nf Uii 
fpruiiL tii:iAL>iin Uijiit he oaulil by I'midiiiif iiMny lolumc^or crili- 
ciiiiL, or ija^in^ iei aty nioEitLs bi uuiliw.-l^lioi-ii vxAimria^lon vf^ 
vol k> t^r &ri. 

A|^)S il wjII b<r ruunJ tbcit timciii^ jiniiLlciir Viitlciirn LliL^ra 
n dmoit iviJTciLit <l>:Ji^Jv»vjr Jii \hv puwur uf txprrMinff ihij 
ri>UDdQ«»t of a auifaco. Th«y ffCijucnCly iJmw wiili coniidci 

of iboBO IDCiiJulAti»D» [Q foiin whlt;h cao oiilv U; UAiirvMi^l Wi 
gr44|Ation« in nlia^is Thoy Tenvc nhftrp «Ll<;m to ibcir bloiiol 
ooloui, tliarp aiirjlci in tbdr conioan of Hn^ hu(L corn 
fram LboErinelrot ttioir i'LCApncitj (?f coajpVtioTi by rcJdn< 
dAQOfl of oE)J6c!- Tb« iitinraitoo to fttich pcnotik lliAt no 
obj^oi cooUl bo rjflitty aooH or<tmvrii xintil the dvnHflhUmj\n 
hii'l iii*i^uir(><l ibo |i'MBrof modulate iiff mrfflM* by gr-.fjEtii^m 
WTougbl witli »t»mtf pi>inta1 iiietmrnonl (wlitathtr pcH, p^iiciV' 
ir chilk), woiiEJ nt oiire prcvont mncli vam kbour, nnd pnl 
mn end to rnnn^ nrMTs oT iliM «w«. Vv\4 'wV^^x xi<«\ wi^'c 


A JUT roil ft^Bll. 

Urd ibe ntuftfrnf, but blinO him ; wbii^b prer«iit Iiim from 
EUbvin»n£ c^-'<^n&Eic3« hiinacir, or un(K*r»iAi]ding it hi o^im. 

It ^a^Ui lj?» va»<y, (li<i tirno iidrmi it, to jiivc i 
<>ll»tff priijcifluA nbicti it ii ((]ti»llj ou(3;ha1 thtit Lha stodwa 
tbuuM know, fliul oflrtiln ihnt ArL ]iDi')t«n of caifiatie« woitl 
MDctioo; whilo ct<^ii ihoi^c r««pcicrLu^ ueljjoh •otna doubt mftj 
udit fu their apj»Ui'«tiou rif coiituiiiiu^»to [imatico^ itiv yet ih'r 
Ttdi^r doa^rniuinliltf, «o fair ju* lliiJj^ bl» iiuutl«ij lo ^ido A tio 
yinrn-r. It Tuny^ F»r iTi»tnni4', lua a i|i)it<tion lt»w fiir 1o^ 
(!fitour Uioiiti! bif iK'Ttmil &^ Hn dtiiiifi.t of cli]nro*ounro in m 
mjtitpr^A rlTAnrin^ of tho hiitnHn form Rut ilicre on be n 
qi:i4t^ciii tb^^t it ]im«t lie bu Uutt«d iii & bo^' '■ itiulr nf « tnl^ o 
■ iruuu 

A M\ mriTO imi^Qitinl [lulnt wov]i\ bv gstiiiod If &nlhorit4 
llvi; tf^bim^ay cl' tbc lUijjiu khid L'fmlil ba |^V4>ti V> llie mi*r!l 
KijJ viLduaiv-.' BuJlluiuuL^v of nii/ urU<H of oiiim]j1i!« i>f worlEK o 
art* Auub ji* Goul'i al oik^u Ll- put wiiSrn itiQ mncb of iniislcn oB 
ftGb'Ji>1(< For lIii; iLiL^tpra btuJenl bbutira under bcury ifi* 
i4(1vantHF^c<4 lit vlrU »l ^i>t itiv'Ul noL'ht up|j(.'ar »ii A^«t&ne« 
lo iJiji, n.'iMiely, lltiT nanifitr *>C exHut^hn of ra-Anj illEGeretni 
Mjlm ttliioli KiiiTcinnfl Itiin in gnflnrif^ or maMitmiL lVt| 
minfl h. di»nirlii*£j by llic fin'on»i»t*iH-i«< r»r v*rifiu» eiiwllcniw*i 

Mil] by bin own ]m'iJjh'i:liuii fur falK bu»iiLiv« In »i.n>nJil Ol 
tlilrii-rftie woiks, llo U lhn« provonl^'Ll fn>m otwpnin!; imy 
oil'' px^mplc lon^ i^H'iijh to HndcrtUinl lU inc i(. rr folloir- 
in;; Jkity oti4 inotlio^l Irn^ er^tui^li u* o^itzuii fj^ Illty tn its prw>> 
tico. ft Accii^is tbrrefoff, TOry cicairable tTmt Mraovuc^i bIsikI 
%-A rif nrt ifioclil t>o iixcJ Ibr nil oiir ttchooU,— a tiAndftc 
vbicli, it inLi%i liv rcmQiiiticrr^, nood mil iiu<^cMarily be th 
httclLd^t poawbic, pn4VH!«ti only it it tbc Ti|f1i(c»t piMibK U 
Dr>t t^ t>Q bo^ct! t)inK the nlihlcnt hboiild imilJiU] ii^orkft of rb 
moil cKFtltoil rii^ rtt« but rn^iob fo Vil> ^Ifttirccl Uiat he tfboulU 



coalJ tv Mt btfora j/oulh mij^hL be ftiuTid fc lUv ttDilcHt or 

Vid the ftTt of pboiogrjipljjr rniit4(4 lui to put rcadering* uf 
panh iiLijJit^a, rtLicb I'ur luobl piat^tK-ril ^urpu^L'k tao in f^Cfil 
8S ibo ori|;iiiftls on Ull? aviiIU of ovcr^ fcliiKrI irj ttic kin)ftlvaj. 
6uj>pci5iDg (I xuiricly uam« llii;x: un tx^implcs of vliat I menu) 
tbi^ uUuJ&Tvl of luiiLiucr 111 ]i|;lil'-A»<l-«liAiJe Jrnwirjjf ^%t*i bf 
lAon^r^l^'* atcidT, No, W, in the coUcctioti of pliot^groipbft 
Uuly puljlitbc<l from tlrnwinp ic the Florence Cftllay ; 
tl]« ilAndart of pi^n drawing uriih a wzub, fixed hf TliUn^* 
fekcldi ^';». 30 la tbo Mimo collection; tbot of clchinif, died 
by Kvaitiui^^ra fpoLtciI t^boU; nud tbat of point vot^ vilb 
UiQ puFQ bad, by Duror » cr«Ht nith l\\0 cock ; ovorf «ffon of 
iLo pDpii| fvbrituvcr tlio iocUumont in bL» bandflr wouM infftl- 
LiUl> toiid in 1 rif-ljt dirocLioD, xiinl tb-i pcroct^hon of Ihe mttiiu 
of ibtito fovr iffork», or of anir oibiro bko thom, odco Atlnmcd 
tliorou|:b]^', b}' «Il~orfMt howovvr iliKtuil or drtpairtHj^^ tf> <fpy 
ftorlioiiii of ib^m, notibf IitmI a^chtvIv tu duo ttmo to Um 
pn>c>Atii>il of their modn of ctcolUiKO. 

I Cflnnot, of oourftu, nitliin tbo llrrtits of ibU pfipnr, pmr^ 
1o U17 «liitcriionl of E,li4» pri^irut r^iiirvmAUtft of vhc Kiiglrfli 
oporAifvo M rv^fiLfl nrt «duajitJon, But, I do not rv^rui ibi*, 

fttv Jl H»6m( tck mo vvry di'M:iiM<^ ibrit out ihKvTLlbju ^1lOEl]cI for 
tho nn^^iont ht concifiilrEtti^d nn ihu iiuirtt imrrkirdJALc oLjcuL of 
gj^nArfll InHlmrtW, WbAtnvifT tbo public d«]iiiiiid Ibu artiil 
will noon proditrn; %iid ihi^ bvHt ^-dutvilioi^ wliKb tbc upeintiio 
can rot^i-ivu ih tbe rhfiiMul of Inid work nnU lUo iicknowJcdit- 
mpnl or cnoiL Thi-ro i* no wnnt of gvuias aiiioDi; i^MitiU 
I«n of iDduitry. Tbi; Iwial llml wo do U Uborioan, mud th« 
nnrvt i» wi^oderful, Dul lb<'ro iv a wAnt nmr>ng ils deep ii>d 
wide, of discretion in dircc^ng loil, and of dcli^bt 't\ Wins: ^od 
b^ inmifiiiatioii. h\ pwl Iluw, 1\4*jU4\\ Va^ niM4ft% *A'^iu*^«^»** 



Wtfro lt9» jTif inniM] iliiu ihe/ wc utm, tliey wera for Uiat very 
reoHoa fiirkfilf-r ju'lv«^» niiil liajtpkr ipucn ; it laiiM be i>iir« lo 
vubntLtulc bbc GJiKJoiui armpaihy of tii« undrntttDdbis for ibe 

for t'iioAftwtio Afo Jifbtlj pliNued or wbely diApk.i«od, but Ua 
cAQciot paint Ajr l!ioso irho lire doll ^d applnuae nud fabe Jd oob- 



It IB to W rciDcrTit-cml Uiiit tho giving of priD^ cwi only b* 
jiutifiMl on thu gTound of tliclr Icb^ ilx rcwMd oi tapon'or 
diliycDuo aiiJ (uoi'o obciilkijt AtUntic^it to T.bc Jiivijifoa* of iJi^ 
Icihchcr. Tliry oaupt niavpr be nuppoBcJ, bccdUAO pncticjilly th«y 
never oftti bcTCOtiJC, iiicli^ftiintia of »aporior ^eniiH; tinlov in so 
I^T $.% ^-iiLitt ia likfljy to be tiitifjcnt and obodicnt, bojr^ntl tho 
atrcngth and lompcr of rhu iluil. 

BLit It to friM^ucntly lmppl^na that tliA fUmulDfl of ranify, 
niOtin^ c»n mindft of inferior eAlft>ri>, produoco for n lime An io- 
diiBtry orjrptu^ifkg tl^i? M'nnj|ii]| and nulf-poutMiod exertion of 
roril pnW44r, that it mjtv ho qnoiLt^oit^d vh(>thor th>« crjitoiu of 
bestdwin^ prito* Ht xM miy imt idlirnpttl; cjoeiho in oar M^hor 
St'honl* of Art^ nnk*!* in :Ho form of ■tibetThOtivl iuii>liin«o 
gip^n tj d^icrviu^ »Tiid*^mi whn Binnd Jn Tn^i'd ftf ii : a ki»d 
of pri«e» thi? ckLm i/i whinh, In It* imtJirF, would d«pDod mora 
on (irriJf*Liiid rii'cnmfctancrj^fl, atnl gftTii'fnIly ^lod condui^E, Utui 
ou i|i''ijiii'<. 

Dul, without any iDforiinco lo the oploion cf otbon, nnil 

* Tlilt B'l<l''i?M wii nHfton ftir Ihi* KtX Mjlbt nnHs UdUAllfliJ, but uM 
dcllTPTCd by mt. In my fl^|'lcn^c t ronppt fwiiJ whiA rAUtr^ bcil locff- 
ltiLtil(^— kite Duhvui Bbp Albuia liuimiucil fmibj nvllutt tt. lo dm mv^ttn^ 

nitlioiit nny t Wico of p^rliniltr m jour own, tLcro ia ono 
by which vuti cun all dctcrrdinc the rntc i^f vour imL friri|;ii 
l^jKUiiiti^. afW wtr^ pfiJiLiJ of r&ffv«i<] tii<|ualrv, hew la 

Con^KivT bow inuvh cioro yon ouli hu^ to rcvi;j'Otic«| iiv 
»c>rk or inuUu'*; atid bov luuuh mi>r« t^ lc>v«, in tito v^ork ul 

Xbii H LUo only r^intlfiTit ami mfillibtu U-lt orj>r<igrv»t : tlJAt' 
faii'B<>n()>tr inor^ at Uin work nt'g^iva: nicti, ut*! ihftl jou ora' 
moTo for TEiturnl objccU, 

You biivf ofpn N'l'n l/iM by ynor l/^lt'liap* lO <*tpprt lW»- 
k«t tT«nit; but I frnr lltnl lb« i^ntlonrj- of mntJtrin ihrnigh^ 
i» to reJMi the itt«4 (kf tlinL nsL^ntlkl UiiTeronfa* %i\ rai^k LiL*twc«n' 
one Intvlioct xTiJ mtothcr, of uJiicb incieaHftg rairereiioe U tbo' 
vlw fiobnowliKl^mi^nt 

You may, « Iffflai In o*rly yeari, cc?« ao^'nmtrly ynnr pow«r' 
oF <I»iTE|; iinythin^ in Ibo Ivnu H^btljTr bjr 3'oiir incrrmKing i--on- 
vjrtltjii that iron nvvev will bu iibli- to (Id it an uvlj ha h \iM 
Wii Jouc \iy iillicTi. 

Tl>ai is a IrtfroTi, I repecitT vrhkU tliRini miicb, I Tciir, fr^m 
tbo onfr yon arc comnKmly Uui^ljt. Tl«' t i^ljjur &ui ineompsr-* 
al>ty in]K\ fuung of MacauUi**, tbat tlic iaicllcctual ^\KnU ot 
orioa^ bcct>Dae Uio iDtoIlscUul pi^iiiKaof tlu iieit, W Wn 
thn text of to^i niATiT fiction* Inirly ircaciini to yoii> 

You Uiiik you »n.- poinj- to Jo Imlt^r thinffft — each of you— 
iban Titiitn ati<] I'hidiae — write better th&a Vlr^l] — t^aak moro 
vUrly than Solofnon* 

My goorl \<t^%Jy^ pcoplo. tbb iiff tbn lbol»bo«t, qiaito pre-cm- 
iriontly — p«Hiap< nlmn*! Uio bftrmfullbftt — iiat^ou tlist oauIcI 
pottUily Ih9 pift brto jonr («m]>ty litt^v osBAholl* of booil*. 
ThofO M aot oim ih a miJlion of }'nti vho ^nn ^r^r b« gr*M i& 
Af»^ Ibitig- Tn bo f^T^nur tlun tbo grmlME tbal A<tiv ba«n, ia 
p«fBiIltod fi«'rli4j>i 10 on« mau laE^TCr^vu \W QCiJ<A.TVkifl\;*^^ 


A »&f POft KTcn, 

or throe culitiioA. D^tt IjL-csim! yon cnmiA he Hu»d«l nd 
HbCnrt — ]fl il iiny rcnf<?n wtj you ebuuld out Wani lo ting 

BecAtuc tt ]{irJ onahot Ic pitiiu d<»DJia iu cbe [ulan 0|H!r*, li 
ib any rv)M»b tbjtt ibi; ibvLild u<jt Icjitit 1o play ■ ji)£ for Ijor 
brolhcm &&d n«L;r» i» gi>c>d limt, or a wft Liillf< tune fur tier 
tinjd iiiMb^r, Qj that %hc *hu(ilj not tinjE to j^It-juc b^nuir 
ninuTig tho Jow, on n Muy tnomiti^? BoIjl'Vo cnOijciv, faflmil* 
ilr, »jiJ (iicfaJntJfc« nl«nv» ga tjgctlier ; x» ii<id^c4 i»Hb raW 
etVr inj Uioic bolb vrtb cicfltnicli.'unc**. Yon tnAf Tcaiii villi 
ftotiii IciKlirrv bciv to ibi^w down the Vc»<iOnia Colninn, «ad 
bum tho Lrfmvro, but ctvcr Jiow to Jny &o mwcli w one loiicb of 
^fo colour, or c-no liiy^r L>relvA^1y »tonor tin^i if ielucj^ ihcro ho 
muong yoti a youth of Ituo g«niii*, bo n&turfrd ihai ho w^II di»- 
thiffikmb bl]iiti<Tl' Ai--% n{>t liy ft^tiiUni-o or by diedoiiii bn; bjr 
dUuoining firmly ubnt to iidimTO, ami #bom to ob«v. 

It will, I liop«, be the Tviult of tLo ibtarvft Uttly 4vk-akoTi«d 
II nrl l1trT>iigh our provhiri'4^ to ttribMe vach bma of inp<>r- 
txiic^ to fjbtnin, in pcrmrdicnt pcinit'uion, n fev — hqO it i« di^ 
■iraVIo ih«fd ihoLild be T30 more tlmn a few — ox)itrrpl«> of oou* 
iiiinniuU? AnJ miitH^rfirl atlz Hn I'HjfriLvinjr or tvo by Dftrcr^ 
a ftliicflo ikfirl^rnir, by ItcynoIiJiA— n f^fWmtli-i'f^Dtiiry FWiNittln^ 
ilrrxwing: — x tliirtcimtb^ct>ntiir; FriJiJcJi piece of paiitlisi glim^ 
and tb« lik(< ; nnil lliat, Cii vvvry lovo oefTi3|jit-J in a given 
lrlAn11^^lOllln^oxall1[)f«6 iirMn<{ii[^albnaUociccl,i:>iico i^ ihxt maTi- 
ufncliiTo fiboul'l l>o dimJc c/ihily acci.'»i61v in Itn oivit: inijtvum. 

1 iikihL tt»k yu'i. TiowevL-r to ^ihiurvu wry c^ETfu)tf tbat I 
mG itio "Old inrinw/nt/wrp in lU ll^■r■l mjd p'op^r wunc- U' 
nicAiit the inMiinif of tIikii<:A /»r/ Mi3 Afirtri. It Joes Oct tneftn 
the Wikint; ibeiu by jnAcbincrv, And, wbiTc I pUafl wLib you 
for fl true bun^ility in i-tvnUbip with tbt workb of oih«r%l pknd 
with rnii also for ujust pruU in nvbalyon r«nlly cnu boncitiy tlo 


'ou icuKl ncUlirr lliiiik ymir uork Uio Ijprt i-wr ilone by 
li]iia;^u(>r, uii lli^ ulJjtT hniid, lliink UitiI thir to|](p< Ktiii |kjV 
cue iJo butler — nnd iLi'Lt, AJlhouj^h jon nrv. wj^t cljan Soloinoa^ 


IjcI mc uk«, for iciHLinao, the manufjicturfi of hoo^ for which, 
1 belicvo, your ni:tgUl^urin^ tovn of Xoiliu^liam <T>j<'-\» iva'>ROt 
Tlicni w *UI] tome dUlitiotioD tN^tvrccn mfwhinc-mado nnd lidtid* 
mndc IbCc^ I will sappoac tbat (tr>t|inotion ao £ir done Avay 
■wiUi, tlia% a }>ftLlcrn onco iiiVGrLlodt joa can «|>in looc ju iiuL m 
j©u iio*v *io llircfKl. Kvi-rrbody tUon mi^l woar. uol c»T*ly Id«c 
coflArB, bni Uco |*'>«nB. i)o you Uuhk tti^y woliM 1>o moto 
c&iueortdLlo in them Ulrq tlioy luc now id ptnm alulT— or tlu 
w^iou avdrybod]r' oo\i\d wear them, unyltolv vontii b« pronil i>' 
VGciL-irg ouft? A foliar n%y perhM|i]t Ue rjilioiiAlly proud of 
ItU ovn cobwobf even tbotigli fiU tbo ficUv in lli« moniirg &m 
COTen>d with th^ iLkts Tor hv miuJo il liiiiitoir — but ftiippnw 
mnrhinn Jipun it ht hsm 7 

Strppoic nil the jfati^Liner vtn Nai!ingb!iTii*inmlL>, wOiiIJ 
ii*iit'iiil*' *|i"b»r V ciiliijf prumlcr, <»r hA;>|it.'r, tWnk you ? 

A KcUAilflo Kpidiir! VotL (Cannot porhnp« imagine JiinK 
craaturta. Y«t uirely v. epiJuc U cEcver «i3uu|fli Ur \u% o 

VoiE tliLuk bini an iiiKftn^itlff rp^kT^only boi^anw he cAnoat 
uoilcr^tmid yoara — arid h npi ut impi^d-: your^. Weil, bo a»* 
Btucd of iliis : ftCEiHij in liuiiiriu criMdii^'i in hliuwu alsv, not Ly 
clovcrnc0 in prcKiDtiitj^ sht'i uitn vmU nnd inicicftls I'^it by 
^ni^jkncA in unJcr>lnndins otKpr pcoplv'* cnJi and ihtcreelsi 
And by puLtintr our owu W4'k aii<1 kcopirig oar o«in WLflT»c» in 
linrmoriy wilJi tlieire. 

But I rotnrn to my point, o^ cWii-ix-fv. V'ni d^n't UirEi 
tbat il woutd be G^invonicnt, or ct«b cKdiUblt, tvt wotdcm 
wuh tbo dix>ral«p« or ditih Lbn diuriorv in l»e« gowiiA f Ha 

TV t 

»r I 


A iTOT vtm ktbh. 

L liur u 

eveE for tire iroit liulyliko OOuui^tLont — r«^ii>(r, or wntik^, 
or p^>*jti"'g wiih l)cr <*M*>if<:n — do you iIiId1< a Ia** ^wis of 
cvoii a Unn colUr, mi Kroil uti ^tivmiti^ii or di^nky to ft 
tfoiiinn P If you xbhik uf it, i^ou will fttid tLe vhole virfnottf 

Tbnt tlic l>tirig iUclf In » |iri£t; — a tluug wUivh vv^r^body 
cannf'l linvc, TJml it ptovc* by the took of it* ihe ff^jViVy of Jtfl 

RTtfurfr^^lW ifctit alio hiii Lccn u> iatJo^tfi^Pft a* to 0«re 
mLiricy, wfiivTi cnti l>jy, 4fty, a ptcoo of jtwcllcnr^ offoU tiMue, 
or ifi llntj Ia';o — ox <i»r-, tiiAl klio u A noblu pcrp>a, tv n]i«m h«T 
rL^ic;ltboar« conooJc^ fu on bouour, ItLO pnvilcQ^ of vc*nag finer 

if Ukoy aII lIjooao lo bnvc Iilca Ic-d — if it 0«n«c» U bo K pfiso 
'-It b^comcN lUvi it Itoc. outy n ui>btfcb? 

T^o I'col ^od <>F a p^cco of lac^j tilting jou will fiu^, is tbat 
3l >Jion1d pbow, tirntr that lli« dL>^i);ncr of rt hud u ]>r«Uy fvioy; 
n>:xt. iliut tliti maker of H \ytiA ttii^ liDg«r«i JMtly, thitl tlio 
vou«r <kf it hnfl voithiiicn ot c[ii^ity ononghto obt&tQ vhnt 
iidifli-uZt lo obUii), qrJ rcmmon &^»o enoiigli aot to w«Br 
it (^n nil ooodfions J Innit tajraolf, iti ulii\t farlhur 1 b&va I9 
sfty^ to tbv qiioetxtn of tb« iminnrtoiiiM — &at, cf ono rtqubilt* 
in iho tnnmirncliiro : thni wUii^fi I hnvo jnitrdlod a protiv fitnu^. 

What t)w you diippono 1 inoirm by n pr*rtly func-v ? |)o fOfl 
tHink tbnFt by Wrurng to dmw, and loofcjnjf at flovoTi* yon 
wil[ tVLT j|cl tlia nbiltty t« 'IverLfd'n picco oi (:xco LmulifMllyT 
By iirt rOi-aiiM, ff tbat w^r* »o, ev*rjbo<Jy wcnid soon Wni to 
drnw— i*vrtyb<i*^y wotild d^ti^n Two prettily— anJ ib«i,— no- 
U»f]y would l>«* pnid for ^SiMtniug iL To pouw oitwit. Ihstt wOl 
iiiJi'ivl !i^ ibi^ r-'fcult of uindorn rnd>?ftvo«r to It-anti di^ign, Bot 
ngabit all «ut?b irnEionvotin, moUi^r-vil, in lha«nd, wilt bi^il 
bur uvvti. 

AAT 0ono<iT. jmnn. 


k Bat AD^bodf ttlio fuia th\% mc'lhcc-wJlt lusjr make tlie vxcr- 

p tato of it more pTcAsAbi Iq ihtaiftcivta, atiJ tnons iu<ful lu oliier 
I people ^7 iertraio? to Omw, 

^ Aq ti^ttinn Trorknr in c^old, or » Sonndinnviaii worker in iroi), 

or an old t'lciicU worker ja U^nad, couM produce Utlecd 

IlponvtjfLil ^f^i^n* otLt vf uotlitf)^ but giou|wof kauUflod a|ifr^ 
r\\i \ bul you, n lien you nro ri^btly cilucrhtrd, iiiAy rondor J^ir 
kiiolft Diid t'pifnU iiilinftoly mere iRtcrc»tmjt; l>y makt'i^ them 
. tugjG^Livo ofniilurELl formA, iiLd ridi id (fJoiuotiU of Iruo kaowl- 

I \'A\ Icnow, for iriAtrino'.'^ tbo pnltorn whicli for Q<?ntDii» hfii 

IbccEi tho bftiiH of ctruAmeia 11^ IrntiHH »hMwlfc— ilio LmEgiri|^ Wf 
ODdHg 4fi n apiroT. ll^c Indioit ptMUucai bonulifal d««i;^B with 
nothing bill tSinc hpiral Ymi o^onf)i Wlt^r liU power* of 
ilc^vJgQ, but \ou mak^i chom mor« civil nnd useful ly Adding 
1inowlf<dgi> of n«tar« to luvcntion. 
\ Suppiimi ynn Itmrn t'> drav rfglilly^ ftii<1, ihttT^f^r^, to Imntr 

convciSy th*? iplnita of nprirgipg fo-rtis — not tlinl you mny (jivfi 
uyly uiL^nc* tci all tie «<pi.-<:iuji uf tEieiii— but lliAt you iiiny uudcr- 
ftliiad the giHCc aiid vitality of v^^j hgiir ijf llivir cAii^lcnrc 
SujrjHiiw you have kilkc mid clcvrriivin tMiuugli tu Lr^iUBliitu llie 
vwtiutial dinnusUr of tUia btfiuly lulo forniM «iprc»»iblo by 
eimplj* llik<0 — tftorvfuiv mprewiUo by ilirrwl — you nigliL Ulch 
tiHvr A Kiioii €f rurc-pHttnTQi^ vLicl iToitld each coDialu puinU 
of dJBliThctivo inlorntt and bcnuU, ^nd of »(^^L'rkti^ ti'utljf and yol 
In inriutle-by iJtncy, tvjLb quili; m tuuvli c^^c fu tbc incaiung- 
1«M ludijui oiiu, SimiTarlj, l»Wv in no f^tm of leaf, t>f Acvkct, 
or of Inioel, u)iidi mi^dii not become tu/g^ltii to vou, uiid oX' 
pr«Mblo in tcrtDft of manufiicLuro, »ou to be tDt«rc*tiD^, and 
umsrni to otbctx 

LOaly doa'l ihiiil thjit tttiH kind of etudj will over *^ pay," in 
Lha viilgiir wnto. 
It will rjako you nisi^r and bappicr. Hut do you »appoio 

A JOT roft sm. 

tbftiiUft llio UwofCoJ. or naftjr^ that pni^pU kIiaII be pxl^ 
in mtiorj fir Wpomttip wiwr utid k-*|i|nur "i Tl*o>.*na su. by 
timt laiw, for Ijuiii.ii rti^rk ; md &h ill liuueot work luaktrs \tct>- 
|ik viser ftiid b«ppiur, llicy vi^ iudocd, ia noma tort, {xiid 
monuY fur b7«omiuiE wUe. 

But if you Hevk frinlom oeIjt ibat jrou maj got moooy* 
Hovo ai«, ^ou nro cxmU; on tho fooU»b«ftt or «ik fuolV 
nndd. "She >» more pr«ciou» than puW*'* — bat 4o you thin] 
Hut is ctilv UcAUse ^0 will lidp y^M to 6«y rulrim? 

^ AD the tliiiif^fl tboii c«iist >Jcaiic >rc not to b^ oooapar^ 
her/' Do yoLi ihmk thaiia onty l>oobUK r^^a »kil «tirtUo jtoq 
f;ot nlE tijo thiij;*^ you dcAtro ? She id olEcfoJ to to^ && a bjt 
in^f in hcrsiel/, &ic is tho reword oT kindacas ^^ mo^Mty* 
iri^iti^itry. Wio it tbo Fr)» of I'nzoa — and nlike in poi'crty of 
io ricLea— tbo LtrnngtU of your Lilb aow, Uie eoruvil of vr\ 
«T«r Life is to comu, 


It hnSt Etlwnyv ntcmct) to utr Umt Socl^lliu like t]iL« of oui 
'tap]>y in iuijtii'Jtu^ mcnbtira tiut a litll*; dlrerw in tbou] 
nnd TAnaUl in knonloilr^i*^ xatghi bv atarv uaofui lo tbe pabJi 
iHan porfiAp» they can fiirly he *?iiJ tj havo ftijjjrutod Ikoi 
iidIvm bitb^rlo, bj tiainu their vnricly of pow«r rvtber lo m] 
port intolfootanl ronclonioos by conc*:itric ptop^ than lo fthftl 
ibom with rotatory htonca of wit ; and modc^ltj ond^^nroutifii 

* I tmit 1^At tile Sui:|fT.f »[]] Dill contEiU^r t> prfrlt/ff* tJ»Ui<^ (i|r 
tiuhllDitToD ct flu Diuy, fljili^h. fur audi nU'llvtM; I vrMo viUi more 

ftte th« tiuililiDg of vraJU fi>r cli« Biidfit city of ScieooDi 
whicb oo initiiwitl Cfiro to idcctir'y ;ho parUt^^lar nLnn'^ lio T^ 
ntbor thifcti oompljin^ fEirtbor w^Ui Uio «iisliiLg pioliiro»^a«, bLit 
wmUfolt pnoUcc of OTvry knigbt to tliron up ft fbuiJal louQf 
of }hii oi«ti <^toiont, t«ur(bIo only b; tlic mcAt ftativo pu^ncit^, 
nod pi<jntud raihor vii\x nrritw-^ha from whkob to ftuioy faia 
Dui(;l>60iiri4f ihnn windowB lo xiilfiiit light or air 

TJio pHpor tiJAiJ at our la^L ntaetru^ wiu u]iqaa«11aDRbl3''f 
witliin tli« UmSts it* nrii«r hiu pr«Kn1>Md to himwif^ lo Lopi* 
floand, ihBl (oncourKgud alto U- Uia «iiggokLioc of M>mn of 
muMt inftueritiat memh^tii} I 4I111II ••nili^avoiii- toutiku tho 
inAtIrr of our 1o-1ligV^l delukiJ^ ronM^cmiit upon ti. And «iigue4* 
tiM cif fiomdbiT fnrthor nihuntiigcoun (IimIucUodh, 

It yriW hv r^m»mber(Ml Ibxl^ iu ref»<rt<noc 10 llie KUtoment In 
Lh»i Blubop flf Piii0rhor0ngb*ji Pap4«r, of ihi* uiontl liiiljfllVivnc« 
of iwrtAiv rourviv of contiui^ oa Ibi^ po^liiUtu of tbe pviaio 
ocjiy cff n MechniticjJ bnau of Mvinb, ii hiu* oLsuri'L^El Lj Dr. 
Adam Clarke lliai. rvpri (in bacli inHGb;iuk-»J tiHMiv, tb^ word 
"edotaI** niiglit sUII 1x1 ft|>pl1oi] 8|w<!ia1ly 10 any coante of 
at^tipEk wbioh tended lo ibn dRVR[opm«ot of Ili4 hiimnii reoft 
Wlitrvupun I iviLtuniil riyw^lf to iiiqnirn, in whR.t dinclioii 
•Qch licvoiojiawhl wm u> 1>v uiultrrBiuvJ ju ukinif i>lju^a ; mj 
tbv (fiacuBinii of tbli point bt'tni; tbcn Jropji^d foi' nunt 
tiTUL*, I would oak tbe Souicty'i ]Jo;tQiHioiL U> bnujfit agnin be- 
fore ibom tftia cTvnUg in a •omowbAt laorft «xt«nd«i feroi; for 
in rcftlity tba qiir^Ation rMpoctine tbo d^Tciopmccii cf odco U 
twofold^— fi'Ht. nflmolTf^n irfaat direction; ftuJ n;coD<3l7i Id 
vhflt Aoemi ^olAtioIt^ iL is to b« ioniibt. 

£ voulO ihcTfiroro at prc^nl H«k more delilMntt«l^ tbjui 1 
could 4t oar Iruii meeting;, — fimt, io wbnt dircetjc4t il u dcf^fmble 
tbflt tlto dov6lo{>ir;«[it ofliuninnitr tbould take placi? ? Bhould 
it> for icaUnoD, a« iii Ufcofso* be of pbjvical 1>c«utr,— emulation, 
(Dmod'fl aoooQd Enfl), — pugn&oit^ an^i pAtrictinn ? Of) it in 



A JOV roft SVKB* 

modoni KDgUnd, at pbj*tc«] ngln««B,— envv^ (Ho^otT* first 
Eru), — cowuvdioOr md ndfUlioivft ^ or, ha hv ft conceivably 
liumnno but liaberbj unt'tiimpJFd^^ddCEit loii iiii_^hl W AX' 
lL*t>ipt«d, f)f pbyiic-Al bmiTitj^f liamititr, cjiiirng^, and AflccUoo, 
vrhii-h *hoiilJ jnaka all the world end native ltnd,and jrA^t 

I do oot iloubt bui ibjLt Uic f!r»t huWumlic iinpulso of all our 
niitaiDalic Irivtiili \iiiv piwi^ot, on Ijcwinje tbt« vcDtcncs, vrill 
be &t]viiV9UBl>' Ui <J>-tiv tlio accui'H'^jr of mj dfrfitudod <jf Uic iuiki 
uf uji;Ut.'iii Ka^^linJj oducAlioD. WithuniaLtcaijjLiii^to flefcuU it, 
I VT'^nld oi^ty obuTvu iliat (hia AucoDaalio dcvolopni«Dt of »uUi 
caloric in «ciun[itic minJ» mnbl l>o ^ro^tndi-d oo an ^utoiBatMj 
ecnfUtbion of iiijuAiioo done tc thc^ mcmbcn of tUn School Bu^rd, 
OS irell M to inanj other antom&tioAlly wtU-mUMniae and in- 
geniouH pcnona; and that lU* etiiM of the iD)iin<-uBn«a» aod 
ofioDftkVcncH cif my drtitiuiori cnuziot powiblv bavi; an^ otJiti 
tMia (if 1 DiAf 1>L« (KrmiiUd to ccntuiui; my ffru&Monal Hmili- 
£ad») thftn llic fulttju ri-mimutA and £;ochLlf Bldno»t liotoaa Bloit 
loft on onotkcr, but atilL forming ao Dnromovabla ctimnJiv «f 
TTiin, nnd ctuniaL Kit« rfimrood, m it vor«i ou tb« site of tliu 
old belfrv of Chrirtinn niowlily, whoM lop kok«d onoa ut bk« 

For no ^IFl'iico ooqM b« talion at my doGnllioa, tinlMa tra«4- 
ablo to ftdnmnntino oo"viciion,— tt»!ii iiglbm», bowovor ladafiD- 
nblo. cniy, bow<ivcr iiotiiral, and cownrJii;c, homvvr coa»- 
iDorcially protilablo, /ire D*v*rthdo<i eternally dt«f;raccftil ; 
ooiitrttry. tbnt i» to wy^ to tha graco of onr fxinl Christ, if 
tJioro bfl among xlb aiiv Cbri^i: i^^ ibe pr»(w of tJv King'a M^* 
ctt>% if thcro bo amoojj "» *"J *^^^? i *■*•' 1° **"^ iT** •»">" of 
Ohri*tlv» and KicifteM Mnnhood, if tb^re b» niDong ii« aoj 

To thi« fixed conoepUcTi of a Hilfarcnco bducn Better ud 
Wone, or, irbcn caitIm] to the extteim^ botv^ecru goud aud e^U, 

Tine UMS OF MCUt* I-OLrCY. 143^ 

ill (lOndnirt, we 3.\^ ft ivwm« to mp, ini^tinctivrlir Mid tiicrufo 
ritttLily, BttA^^b the tvrni of Moral wiikv ;'*-tli« Hedao, for t 
iitnm«, thatk wonlO hv Iwtier if ttie iiienjbisrr^ oriliUStimt; 
ivhi> AT*" nhiJfJIy KUiomnljcdly ftlnnnl vi-ri^. iiktli'Adf nutuum 
cftlly pr««L*uc; or butUir. Uiai lliin Pajwr, il {wliidj it, fwrbft 
tuo likvly) il bo llkoti^TLt jvuioinaCicAlly iir|>cnmcijtt 1m<] bfto 
maOv^b^tbviiKilcuubf aciif-^n ci' mjoetvbrAtpartido9ipf;rticiei>L 
Truiting, llisrdorii, vi^tout more ado, to thv fttrvngtli of 
rampart In llii* Old Sarum of ihr Mnral iismc, howevci *iib' 
duci iDto ra^se b&Qlu uodcr tbe niodtra MtcAm-pfcu^b, 1 ntlL 
t«niurc to Mippnao the I3mt of ray two qnettioiu to have 
AQAVc^rcd by Uic cdoitw,- ou iho p*rl at lo^Alof n maprity 
our Coii'^oil* of t^o ihir^l diroolion of <lovoloptiLont, nbo' 
■pectticui A« boin^r tbo properly calkd '^ monl ** oiio; mnd wi 
f;q on to \hti fl«ooii4 Mjbjuot of inqalry, b^^tli iDOr« dlfflcLilt and 
of gr«M practical itaportaii&<» k tho j>a!itic&1 ciiii* through 
wbi^U Huropo in pneaing, — natncly. wlai rfldiioai livtwoeii aii.ll 
are tr> tie ^{uirj^il, rir wiib ro«ignfllbn uLlow^d, In tb« ConrM of 
ihoir Moml Dmvfllopinuht ? 

W*iM.ber, ihftt U ut wy, we ihonid try to itink© sovno m 
bRiiniifal at tba cohI of nglinojvt in othnpft, and unmn mun Hrt 
^^H Dtts ftt tbr> uo«l of TioB in othvni^^or rutbrr, iJl qh-h bt<HutifttT 
^^V and virUi4>u]i in tl)« dogn)d poiaihli^ tr> i<adi timjrr it tyiterri of 

■ o<|utub1o vJucntioii ? And cviil^^lly our Rn,l biiHiJicM i* to 
I LMunidbr in whal Uiiiis tin- ditiU^u i?i put to iir* by N;itu 
I Wbitl can «« don if wo would ? tVljat luuttl wy do, «■>»■- 
I wo «dll OL- not ? Hotr liigh cau wa tMiK- tbo level of a dtlfi 
^^K L»*nvng ADd Uciftlit? P and how far »lialt vt tw ootspcllv!, ir 
^^F xro Hnit, to cjioggerftte ih« admitA^ and injuric* of oar 
M ftyetcm ? And &re iro prvpArcd^ if tbo txircmity ht inflvitabli.^, 

■ to puali to tboir^n xhv rvlnilona implKvl vibon we cnlfo off 
B o^r hat» to «iicb oilier, and triple the tinra of U-^ V^^rx"^ 
I HoiiTon wl»il« wa iwivo tbo tiaticc b«Te^xtfA<A W ^io«fJ»>'* 




i* to 


hold thu principle uf liiciuibn ir iu uirnoit 'Uont; And to 

fiwailii^itj. I Hill il] %t raM^ for insUL^c^ iu ray miourtalot^ 

v*tki!lb<r iiur gr«i&llj rr^rettvU Oluiimutfi vrill «va-r be t'up^ or 

rliifltior MJiDti p«u|ilu aIjuku I tuuJd uiuutiou, (l;(r^ of cuurM^ 

iui;mbcrii iLvTour ftocieljr.) wilL ever be in Cocjijui, 

But Uiore » iu> aeoi, «/ wt couJil U cwiilid, lo ddbate tho 
pricK^iple ill th« vL^'teuccs of opfirAtioo, Aoy uorQ thaa ihtt 
proper mMhods of <iuttibuUcic rood, on the »iippO)il»>n llmt 

porriJ^ti itwul imyAy i\i.\i oac ImJf of moiikind ato to liio of 
cotipff, Abil thi^ rvHt of banaj; ELi^thi&K lo cnu 1 *iU, thon^ 
t6r(i| Udig for cxoiopJ^ )4 «il8C w ^Licli tbe dworiininhtJOEi it 
lofl* oondiuive. 

Whftu 1 stop vrrtinj; mctAphyMCA Ihiit morning, il will lio to 
UTvtiig* floinv drKwmi^ for u yctunf; ib^iy (o oopy. T^cy aro 
loAVoa of the boat illuminAidd U8S. 1 hnvo, luid L am ffoiug lo 
vpond roy whole aftcrnooa in eji[>buuibg to Iwr y/Uitl «ho iji lo 
aim at in or^pying th^m, 

Hovff I woiiUI DOL l^td th««o loAvofl to nny oUior jroang 
Udy ihii. [ know of; nrtr giv« rtp iriy ■lV-m4>ou lo. pefbapd, 
tTjnra than twn or thrna mhor yoiitig lAdiocthai I know o£ 
But lii ki-pp Lo tilt* llrHl-initJiikc^] ofio. I b-ntl ln^r my bookie 
anil |fivkj liiir, for uIihI tin') Are wortli, my tiuw ami tti'j«i curo- 
fil iDftcliing, bcicnu><f» thl^ at pnuont pninu biilledlLn& bwi«r 
tluui nuy v\}\vx ^rl I ku^w, und Uiii H perufiir oapmoiLy Ibr, 
the BOiVning I'f |ilhi(»e* mid fliivxiiJiif; nf Hniiihim^. Qnwt mil 
to btf A good Ic'aobcn and i^ranl bt^r dippcuilica] to be luoli a* 1 
«ii|}poa«, aiiJ ibv lOBult vriW bo wL&t wigiit aI Unl appiw aa 
indofonMLpIc iniquity, noiuedy^ tliHt tbiit i^iil. wlio hv altvody 
cxcoltcnl trifUt haviris aUo exo lent tcacbitL|[« *ill boooiuf 
porbaf^ the bo>t bRtlcrlly-pt«ih(<t fo Kngland; wfalta noyriadM 


TlUt WM9 &V MCUi. POLICt. 

of ott«t 2^tI«, h&iini: ori^lnAlly ii>forior powvrir aud hutjuii* 
iiig no AtltfiiUuiu Tivui lb? Slrhde I'cofvnor, will utu-r^ lofiu 
tlicir ni ]?To»^Jit ciihivabli; Urultti^ of ei^tuunjiupuil At% and 
link iiiiij iKo vul^nr career of w\y^^ ncd iDOtli^re, l« ivbicb ivi? 
h^^vv Mr. UjtJ'pT ai^Uiuni/ for loading it n Erkroit* ipjuntk^r 
tbal any i^ir] bi>vii]<j ]>c irruvocubt)- «oiid«iiiuuiJ. 

lliore i» DO ond that I *hoM be OAft^ul in eauini^raiitsg 
tb« vftrJooe iiiodcp, analojf^iia to tUts in wtk^li llio N^lctrnl 
wloolioi^ of utiioN 4« have UkJy heeril, ijuHmftH, aoinoirhai 
miJTo ihau 0ii9LiKlit [utwokcw ami Approve* tho I'rott^onal 
HoJoction wliioh I am 80 boirl [ia l« 'lakW ; and if the avio- 
uiMi^ iiiidaoti c^f «i]nit^ ifi ui^, wliieli f«t\olt agHit^it tlio k£r*ai 
t>rdiiiAii'!0 or ^aiuru iiniJ i>rHcik9 of Alan tliut ""'tc him tkat 
1iAth< thai) moTi^ be givoD,"«re ti> be lUt^'iicd to when thu 
powoiiftiona in quo^tJOn nrt only of wudom ftmt viri^^ Ut 
tboiD ftt Iwut prov« tlwir «ii)fOTiiir 1} coiTvL<iin);rT ^'*^ ^^^ i°- 
Jnittic« which liu utiat>lUtiu<i llwlf i^Kpi^-otrig more UrigibJo 
and iQorv ««EMiiniJd proporh'! atid t^rniii^Elug iho *hgiiUr 
arrhngcyni<.-nl ptevul^m in (^orninvrctAl Kiirf>|)i>, ttmt 1o every 
tnsLTi witli n hunilti'd poand* i» liU |>oi3krt Lli«Tfi hljnll snmmlly 
ba givon thrci\ 1CI every luftn wiili a UioiLuind. tlmiy, nnd lo 
fWry iuilii ^itli uuUj)"];, nunc. 

I «m c<ini(mt bervi to l««vo iin')«ir iho m-nuirLj of l]i« «v«TjlDg 
luy tfcni-rnl Ht^iUiiiKiiil thtnt m liiLmuii dnvi^Uipmcnl, vliob 
niorul, ia *iili ajr^cint tdfort iti a gifvm dirflclnn. su, *JU3ik 
moral. i1 U with hpocial vHoit In favoitr of a lindud cIsm; Wi 
I jct tTe»^a?»a for a few moircntA on your patience in "jidcf lo 
noLv d&t the Bc^«ptAuc« <4 t^iB hOuoiid j-iinctpEti btill Innrcs it 
to wLat |>OiiDi the dikfafViur of dtc reprobnto clav, or ibc privl* 
Itigce of tbc olcct, itiny adviublj cKtcu<J. Kor 1 camnot bat Tooi 
fcr my owa pari, at if tMe d»iiy Virca^J of inorai k*tn»«ioii 
iDijfbt at Iciu; \ft «o widely broli«ii amoojf tl>o mnJ^kiideii a< 
lo prworv* Hum from utt^rUntJiulio^i and pnupcnHtn in virtue ^ 

iriuq , 



that the eMay by one of our moat diBtioffQished members on 

the Creed cf Cbristeiidoni Heems to Bt&ad in need of eitplioil 
answer from oar Divmea; but if not^ and the commoD applica- 
tion of the terms " Word of God '^ to the books of Scripture be 
agaJQ&t all queatioas tenable, it becomes yet more impemtire 
on the [Dterprcteis of that Scripture to see that tbey are not 
made void by our traditjona,* and that the Mortal sina of Cov- 
etotieneM, Fraud, Uaury, and Contention be not the eaaenc© of a 
Nadonal life orally profesnag aubmiuion to the Uwa of Chriat, 
and Hatia^tion in Hia loTe, 

J. RuaKiK. 

* " Thou ah^t not caret ; bat tndLUoa 
ApprovH all ConuB oC Competition." 

Artqua ClouOH, 






It m^y bo proT«j, with mvicb aortiUct^^ tbat God idUikIs no 
man to livo va this world nitbout worLiug : bui It leoms %c 
me no lew eil^lont lliat He intcndu ftT*»ry mnn to ho Imppjr in 
hu work* ftiswriuenj "in tbo awoatof thy browv* tut U 
WAA n**vt?r writU'ii* '*m the br4<:ikl]ig uf thine be&rV' llion 
aTiaIl «at bri^Afl ; anil t fijt^l tJinL, on on ihfi ont* bniul, mflaitfl 
nriiicTy U (VinKi^cI by MIr proplu, who boilt f&ii iu ilvirig whftt 
was up|iOLj)ivi.l fur ibt-m to do, ttt\d set in nioliou rariotii 
epriiigs of iiiiM^ilcf ill m^ltcia m wbic^Ei tLi«y bIivuIlI bjtve lud 
DO ooQcorui ao oa tbo other hrukd, do wmaU mifcry i« ci»i«cd 
by ovcriworkcd and imkappy pyoplc, in the J:U"k vi^wa which 
lh*y noocflnanJy IaJco up tbcmsclircfl, nrtcl forco apan Olhcrv, of 
work ittfdtl Woro it not eo, I b«ii<>vi> tbu fact ol^ their bdng 
unbnppy in in il^rlf n vicilaiion of Oivino litn'^ an^] n n^ of 
*i>nio kinJ of tblly or lun m Ihcir wiiy of lii'v, J<ow In or<3cr 
IliAl people ni&y bo h^ppy in iheir work, iUiiw thr«6 Ihhiga 
uiu Diwdcd: Tb«y mtiEt h*^ tit for tt: I'b^y ai\ut not do too 
miich nf it ; ariil thny miiRt have a APnte of ttnc^ffJB in It^cot 
.ft doubtful HnnM%KUDU mt nvtitis nainK tcxUmonj of olltar ^trop\^ 
for \i» oonSrmAlioEi, bui ft sureaeiiet', or rnrber knijw1ei]gi«» 
t1i:it K) laiit^b work hu b^nn donn wi^Il, and frullfblly d<iiku, 
wliMleviv ibti woiiJ ijiajr Huy or ibhik abuiil it. So tliAt in 
ordvt that a m^in may lie happya It i« ntcv«iAry that hu «liutJd 
Doi odily be Oiip^ibk of bia work, but a good JLtd^c of ki4 

iprlilcd hy hit likings, >f lie ho nut iiIh» guMod hy hit pn^lu^, 
Pu(jj>)i4 luunlly r^tLaon in come aiiich IVIiSol as Uilft : '*I Jdifli 
M(im i^uiLit fil for' n lirml'tiiMiiugcr in rh<» Urni of ^ Cou^ 

thcrdbro, tit nil iirtiUuL-ility, I iiin Dl to be Oliaroirllor of Uiai 
Ejtiiit"iut'r.*' WliL'r«ia, lln.'y ou^Lt r»EUer Cu r&idvri iLua : "I 
dou*l fct.•^n i^Tiilir lit lu be Lc^l-tiuuuigcr In th« dnn vt — — - 

Jt CiX, bill I dftTo my I nilglit Jv aoiucUim^ iu a iinaJI gnroti- 
grot-»>ry bLiVmwaa ; I ti«cil li> bo a f^i^ jia J^ of p^aati ; " tliat 
10 to say« a1nny» trj^g lotfct itutcuil at' trying Ki^b^-r, until 
lK«y Kni boUoiu: ouc^ w<^ «et o& ihv grouud, n luuii wa/ 
baild »p by dcgrvc.s sar^ly* in^itcad of diMojbkg every on« 
iu iu0 iivij;hborbi>od by por|Jutii:U cAtn4itro|»kttt. But thid 
kind of huEnility is rcadvied vti}]cciiUly difflcuic in tb<tte dftyi^ 
by Uio counirrKjly tliiou'u <^n mvn m humble oxD] 
^Jbe very roinoval of t3id niASf^ b.irt4 wMi^b onoe sepatfttftd 

of ^ociviy Iroo vEtothur, luj rcndcrud it tvulbld mora 
ibEtDicful ill Jboliah ptfO}>]«'«, L & in mosi f voplv^i *y«S t<7 i«- 
auuu ill tb€ Iovv4.'r gruJ«« of it^ tbnii et^r it waa bvibfii- Wlieii 
a iiifui bon^ of no :ij-tiMa(i WM looked upon « id onttr«ty dif- 
Ibrent Mpo<-ic# of animal i^m n tn&n bora of ft noblv, It iniid« 
bliQ Qo mof^ imoomfonAbU or nsbam^d to rpnmin ihnt di^ 
ibrcmi «pec?i» of uiiirml, limn iL mnkiu a bono njdiiimod Ui r» 
in^Lin u liorM^. 4rii1 not to ^eoo11l« a giraffix Biil now tb»t «i 
in!iii miiy nitikf rimnt^^ AnJ rim in Ibt* wnrM, mid iuvic!iai« 
biiitMuZlf utitcjjmaolii-d, witli pL<4>jjle muv iki' ^bove biiu, tuA 
outy in ibe tiMiirj;! diiK^jiLtoMcdnrw Lif humanity dovdof^ftdlc 
an m]livnid<uf i-atv'ni> MJiatuvcr u man'a pociiigii, bui it bo 
comvA u viM'iUbk* oliiruo iv hJm to lomuin in tlif tiali^ bo vu 
bom ill, nnd tr^crybody thinkt it hiri <ittit/ lo try to bo a^ 
" ^ntl«nait" P<?nKrtja wli5 Lavu itny lufiucncc in thd miUL^if^ 
SOCiit of publio infllttiittouH for oliui itabk oducation know bov 


Viwy rL*ui-'ivc* lr<iUT» frum niotlivnt v,-\ni wimi nil iXiu'it n'kx or 
e\^\ti Hi.krm t^ j-o Lo ciilk'gi:', TiitJ makij iha gniiiii lAur in tha 
lonx vntTAtion, jutii wliu vliinit thvro u iKiji)otIiiu|[ wnmg in iha 
rouiiJ^ilJuuAof eociu^y, bucauAo Uii« i« uoC jjONoble. Outuf 
owry tell loiters pf tliix kind, nino will kUcses. ju tbo rcnton 
of lIlo wrilufV' import urii IV, Uiuir <lG8irc to kt^ip Xhvlr f&milica 
Uk Mich fti'iii fruch A *' A[,Atii>n of litb.'* Thcr« i« no rc^ ihuto 
for the anfi!lj, l3io duKUpEiiiv^ or ibe morflt £0<hI oi' the uliiidrcri, 
Onlj n piuiiu iiorror of the tnoxprcwibJy piuablo oalanuiy of 
their Lvir^i; n Ivdj^ or two lovrcr on Lhtj tnuldiill of tho inroFld 
— u oulAitiity to bo iiv«rti<ii ttl any oi»l whjktovor, of BtruggJc^ 
flTixioty> and nhortcning of Jifo it^iolf. I do AOl bolicrvo Uiat 
■ny ttrt-iitcr ii:o*>'l could bo iwhiuvud for iho counlry, tliin tbo 
Ghnrtj^A In pubho }l>titing on thia fat^ad, wldch niigbi bo bron^bt 
About by fl few bcDovoloDt xaeti^ undtauAbty in thu dnoi of 
** gentlemen," who wodd. on frinoipic^fntorlnuiBonieof oor 
coromnruBt trndvn, and miilca them honorublp ; showing Unit 
il WW poHublfi Ibr a tn:uk lo rviajii hiH digiiiiyi and n*iiuip1|], Ip 
the U?ht »enw, a gvnUpm;ni, tJiongh jjJirtof hii»litno w.i* every 
day ociTUpivd in nmuuul lubur, ur «vvji in aHrvnig customtini 
cvur a tfOLUitui'. I do uol in thu Icam >co why oouric«y, and 
^ra\iLy>njidiy]iipat1iy mtb tbc fL^vUiiti* "^^ <Jtl'vi% aud csouiuge, 
mid irtjth, j^ud piciy, aiiil what cUo |!oi.-» to mako up a gcutl^ 
Villi's cliar^otor, Hhculd not be found Ijcbbd a counter a» well 
as clii^nhorc, if tkcy v/ttna d«iauiidcdi or «vcn bopvd for, 

Let ns suppojrc, thon^ timt lh« nionV way of Mt jvid nuinocr 
of work >mvu boL^n diticrovtly uhot^oQ ; tb«n tho noxC thin^ to 
b<i ro^turod i#, tbiLt bo tlo not cvor-work ItiinKiIf ibarvin. I 
am not j^uin;^ to euy ojiytbtnj; horo abuDt iha vanoi]^ on-ora Ui 
cur aynU'ms of «ooi«Ly and ooinmoroo, wliicli appoar {I am not 
•iiT« If lb£*y frvor do rnoru tban appear ) U> t^jtaa irs to ot«t^ 
vijrk ouTiolvcA moroly Uiat vt« may livo; nor about Uiu atill 

marci frLiitrul enutf) of nnlinOtby toil— 'Lbo incnpabilltj, in 
unity intii, uf beiu^ ounlt'iLt >\iLli tlii< LilcJe tliitL u iBilend 
rjt'CtKiarjr Ui |}ivir liiiiifiiricft*. I huvt? thjIj- a nonl or IvtO tu 
u%f about onodpnunl cjiuitf- {>f oYvrwt>rk — tiio uuibitioiu d^ii* 
of (to'ing grixit OT cli.-vtr tliuj^ nnil this ki.<pc of ai:c(>r»]>lifi1i4n^ 
Jjcin by immense cflbrt:^ : hojjc na vain u if. it pcrtiicioii? ^ uot 
only making men ovcr-vork ihemacflvca. but rrndcri^iii nil iJ»o 
voi'k tlio7 ilo aixwtkol'^Acino to them. I h^y it i« a vadn liop^, 
find l&t tTic rf^iV(I<7 be ni^unJ of thU ( it u & trotfa ali-tir.pnrt- 
ant to tho botft bti^roala of hiinnAiiTtyJ. Sc grtat inUiUcf^tal 
Mriff ifiojt ever 4hm ^ ^c^t r^or^ ; & crcat thi&^ c«ii only Iw 
done by ft great thad, imd ho dotjs \\ miih^^ut cflbrt. NotMng 
U, nt pr«MDf, letfl undL^r^tood by ua thAQ Uii* — nMbing U moirtt 
novWMiry to bo uudcnt(^od, Lot mt try to vy it >■ dAuly, 
and explflin li u ftdly a» f mny. 

I liiivo uid ILO grunt intclt^ictuat tbing : fi>r I do cot fttMu 
the asMitlon 16 «Ttend to ihint^ moral On thu oootTvy, H 
Wf^^ukf; t't mi* ihnt Jiikt, bof^aiinit W4« urn Iniended, u Iciiff M WO 
liv(% lo bti in » vinl*^ of tnloiiEti* mortil ofTbrt, wo arc net ffr 
t^ni)ei.l lo 1>e En \iiieu»6 pbyHioal or Irii^tk^ctuul ^i>Tt. Oar 
full i*iirrjji«* nri; to hv givi-u to T,ho frours work— lo the ^imt 
%'Jit witli till? Dn^goii — tbe Liiking tho kingdimi of b*':ivpn by 
furce. But ihu bud}r'» ^ork uud liuud's work arv lo be dona 
ijtiler.l^-, ;Lrid comjmi^tivcly vitlioul effort. Xri|hi»i' Uin1>« nor 
brain fire over to bo {^iraLuijil to thoir utmost ; lli^it in not tlio 
way in which tb<i prcntost qn^fitkEy of work is t'> be got out 
of ihtMn ; they arc iievtT to be irorkud fuiiou^ly, bul with 
trnnquillity and ^^oiirttnroy. Wo nro to follow the jilcnigU 
from ffnnnso to tnititict, but not to puEl in i^Aco-bontA ni ibo 
twi[ight : wo ehftll ^t no fruit of that kind of work, only 
ilit^nw of the htmrt. 

Uowmnny pong^ would bo »part*d toUiouaiuidsif thtxcrcM 
triiUi and hiw wt-ra but onoo rincfirdy, hnmbly iin<l'jl^tOOili— 

tt If a groat thing ejin be il{>ne nt nil, it can b« done o«Aly; 


tliAf, vbon it >a rtoodcil to bo dono, thcro la p«rli»|>ft tfv^y om 
tRiiri Ln (ho ti'ni'ld who can clo it ; but hi; c>Ji do it without nny 
trouble — witb^ul aion trouble^ tliiLt u, tbtiii it cc>*tii mu^J 
|Mop]o todo Amitll tbiuga; iiay^ p<.'rlia|«4f nitU icta. And 5H 
^ai truth hofi more opi?nly on lh<r suHiwo of ftU buinan |ih«- 
ooniona ? Id not thn «vid<jn<-Q of KfLno on iho vary front of flU 
the greataet workii in uxiiit«riGv ? Do they qoi lay plhinly to 
ufl, not, " there has been n gr<uit r^jij-J hem/' but, '* tht^rc bn« 
becin 9 greitc jv>Trter hrro " ? It i« not tbn wtiirlnoi* ol" tnorlnlity, 
bill t)ie oli'cTtglh of Viivinity, which we hiwfi to rercgnino in 
al! mfghty^ thing* ; an-l That is juHt what vra now Bjn^rtr H'WJ 
li]si7« Ltit iIiuiIl ih^t ve irc tu du grrut lliiii^. bj hvlp jf irun 
burs And prnpiratiiHl : — ftbis! wu «]ial] ilif DOlhlug tli:tt wfty 
but lcj-iG ponic ikiuiliIa oi' ^ur ouii nti^ht- 

^'rti let. NIL' riul be uiisutiflvralood. nut ihU i^ivoi IruJi bt 
RuppoMvi «ihvTna? ro^olvable iiiLo thtt favonle d^uia or>oau^ 
men, thai they iiec?ij not work if iTicy liavc £«n)UEh The fiict 
its ^^A^ A mfta of fucains i« aJwjkva Tut more rtJtdy tij work 
thftii othtT pt«o(>lL*, juid jfcta ao mudi more good from th« work 
that ho dooa^ uid ifl often eo httio ooriisdoiu of tho inborcnA 
dimity in himsoU^ that he ia very apt to o^ribo &U hi* oipir* 
dty to falsi work, and to \et] tboHo who ask how hv oiLme to b9 
vfhH ho IB : ^* If J cm nnrthiiig, witiob 1 nnuch dovibt, I mthdtt 
mywlf so in«TOly by labor." Th't$ wa< Nowtnn'* wny of 
tftlUnj^, ind J *nppoB;> it wonld bo rho j!^en<<ral toii« of mva 
whoE4 g«QiiL« had b«oa d^^-otod to the phrnicol n:d«»««<^ 
O^nlut in the Art* miiAt t^f-n»noii]y bo mote (ii.'<[f-con«(iioDB, but 
la «diiit«v«r field, it will alwnyii hn dkf^tin^piinhQd by its per- 
pottinl, «*«dy, wc'lUdirLMSicd, happy, and fmLh5i1 labor in 
w^MLimiilnTin^ and dUdplirJin^ ha powers, » vrvW as by itt 
gig>uifii\ TM(^rf>minnijScailw fadliiy in eX4»rol»in£> thorn. Thflrfr 
flii^ litarally^ \t fa no nian*« bumncKd wh«thor h« ha* g^niuft op 
wftz work he murt, whatever ho Ifl, btit qtilvdy and tfleadily \ 
■Oil Ibe nnttir:il and tinforerd rosnlta of mjcb work iidll bt 


waya tbo tl^iin;^ Ihat OoiJ mouit him to do^ and vUl bo faif 
tcftU No A^ooiOH DOT- ]juArtTcii<Un;^ n-ill cnnblc tita to di> 
Dcy bettor. If ha bn & groat mAi), Uiey will b« gr^t U4ftg« ; 
LT a «miLll mAOf «niuH this^; but iiJway«, if Utuj* poAccfuJIj 
'loii*j, good and Hg^it; always, If rc-ttilv«ily and tunbitioudj 
cloui>^ fiiCrw, bollow, nud da«pi^bl«. 

Then the third iTiSng uuodi-d wiu(, I amd, that a mac iliould 
bn II good judge of liU work ; and t\iii cblefly Uiat he maj 
uol be d('jiiMido-nt iipcn popular opinion Tor tlio ouuiticr qI 
doing ll, but aIh> thut lie way hun* thi* juMt encouiag^mirot 
of thr Ao^rkHi> of progri^ju^, and an honont conflciou«noM of vli> 
Xar} : how idic con hn bouomo 

•That fcwfd ludppflfi^nl on tG-raDTTCw; 



I nm p(M-«uudvd tlitit ttiu rt-ul nonnUiincct oad help of such a 
feeling 08 lhi« 1h nKirlf nnVnooTi to half the u-i>rknn«D of tbo 
pttinuiit *lny. For w^iiitever Appvaraiie« of MlCcompbioODcjr 
Kh«ro may bo in tH<ir our.wnn^ b«uiring, it U vidblfl «DOtigb, 
by th<jf fovi!n«fa jcaloLiiy of vnch oibur, hour liiila oonfldcnos 
dicy lmv«T in tliH F^ttrlioj^ vaTue of lbi5jr ^e^crol doln^'H. Coii* 
e«-H ntn^ pnlf a mnn ap^ but iipi'ifr prnp him U]>; nnd th^iro 
U loo vif^n>h^ dintrfm nnd hu|it'h<!uiit<!u in rtien^s hm|h-i-u U> nd* 
niU iif thu dTi|tpuMtLiijn ili»t f.iioy have any t<tab1e siipporl of 
faitli in tli«mMlvi% 

I liriTr sUiti^d HiVAt! piiiidpl«e gvu^rally, bvcau^e tliere m no 
ItfniK'h of lalxii Oj wLich thoy do not apply : Itiit there is one 
in wlik'h rur i^omncc or fDrj^ctAilncM of them hucsusod 
ioirult'uEfkbli^ amount of PuflVrin;:; rini) 1 woulfl ^lodoavor now 
to n.vijn*idej- them with o*pooinl rofcrtnofi to it,— the branoh 
of the Ar(i(, 

hi ccnvrul, the men who aro cmjdoycd in tho Art4 liaf« 
frocly chosen their profcsnion, and »VLppoao thotneulv^e to liAvc 
iitl f'liculty for it ; y^% aa a boily, th«y aro not happy nua 


For which Utifl accinuiloinc thorennon, that thc7ftro«xpcclc<l|, 
And tlicmAclrc^ oxpuct, to m»lcu Uicir brosid ft^ ftflin^ o^^e^dr — 
not by al^ully or ijuiwl vuik j niiJ or<*, tberuloixi, for tho mo*t 
fiart, trying ta be el«vur, ftiid iO living in uri utturlf fulsu txa.l0\ 
of mind and ftoLUiiu 

Thttt IS the oaso, to the fame oiitODt, in no other prof««iiu(|i 
or employoicmt. A luwyor nuiy iiidtuJ diif»peot ihii, uulvii- 
lie hua morfi wil than those aronnil him, ha U non likrlf to 
fi(lrAnc9 in hi« profoasion ; but \w wl!] nril 1>u nlwuyii thmking 
bow )t« ii to dlbphiy liin uic. H^ will gen«rally nniierj^tftnil,. 
enr1^ \r\ hU mrc^r, that wil must hi* 1nf\ to tnkn earn nf luwlf^ 
Mild Uiut it ia bnnl ktiouludgu vf hw uriU v'tgrinnm ux]xin[ti;ttiiji 
and oollftiioi) of the facMof «Vijry«uei>irktni»Ledt<ilun^, whJnJ 
hia cllvuu vilT rrmlnly dernUTti] : itila It h wli&tl] h« hail to 
pnldfor; nnd thin i^ hrjitihy urn! mcuMiimbhf labcir, jmynbl* 
by tbi? hiJur. If he haijpi^n tu Lav« kci?u imtuiaJ jwitvpttoa 
wiO qui^k witt tftuHi witl u>iuo iuio ]>l£ty 1q tLclr dau tluio an^ 
p1ai'v% but ho will not think of llicm oji hi> chief poHcr i ftod 
if he haw tbum iiut^ he tu^iy blIU liopv thai indufitry aiid cuu- 
,0ci«flllouAieM may ensbk him to hm in hi* pr-otbwon witlioii^j 
them. Again m the caw of akrgymcn : timt lh<^y are merely 
trapt^ to dbplay their utoqiionco or wil. notiu -wLcr knov 
tlioir own hoartn will donf^ hut then ihcy h^oiff th]» to ^ aJ 
temptation : they never would »ui>po3C that clcvcmviu wnA all 
thut wntf to bo vxpuctC'i froiTi tlicni, or wotild ait d;>wu ddi- 
bcratply to viite ft dcvcr ncnnon : even the didlcat or viuncnt 
of tiiHB would lhri>vr «omj> veil over thftirvaaitft and protond 
>nio prolitaM('n<«; of pnrpofo in whfit tboy did.. Hi^y 
not opunLy nak of th«ir hcftrcrt — Did yon Uimk my 
ftflrmon ifigenEoiJa, or my t^n^ufi^ poi*Tl»alt Th*v wodld 
eurly uiidLTtinod llml tht-y vft^re not paid |I>r boTti^t in^tiiiottii, 
nor o-Atled co b9«o, biiltof>i'«Ach tmth vth^itlfthoy hiippon^i 
til jTOtHeB wh, c'1c)E|Uiiiiic, iir c^riffinaliry, tltose nt^uld npjK'itr 
iiid be of servit^e in due liiu'^ but were not to 


toiight ttHor or ovTijbitE^tl : Qtiil if it ibotttd li&ppco that tli«T 
l»!id litem DOT, iJif T mighT, mill fie finrviiN>ftble psutotn vrilhout 

Xoi u> with thounliappynrtUt. Ko onu expcfctn itci^ bonrst 
or u^tCul wi^rk of fjltii; Init t'Vvi'y ore ir]L|>ecM him la hn 

thiii^ iH iiskc'il of tiini eif i<[it what tAaac U Id \iv lirn) for imkiog 
— UoritAiy Mill ftouud work, :iiiil l]]« diie ditft^hHi^ of liol 
J^itiollciit M a |>.iintfr> ^Vhcit fiutction? ajiLh iIia riuiileir tii 
•oiEXB Miir|ii'bwf. Hit mujr wi^II Aik ; for I »^i|jpo9kC' Utv pmnicrt 
luivcf uriy lit**:! wLui tljvii fuiicliou le, or evea tW Uic^ bive 
«iiy ut nil. 

And jci Hurdy it itt aot ao difliault to Jiacover. The f^ural- 
tl^a, ivhlch wbeu a mnd flad« id LiMiwli^ he rcsolvca vo be a 
piuntcr, Arc, I mipposo, munscnoM of oltfcrvnUon and fftctlttj 
of imiutioii. Tlie mTLDiacitatcduiob^crrer and an imitator i 
«nd hia function iji to convoy Icnowlcdjfo to lu* foUow-mffit of 
ffi:th ttiinf^fl Od Cflnuot bo itiHi^bi otljvrviire tluui ooularly. Kof 
A long limo ihia funoiion rciunincd a rdijn<'Q^ ont ; it wtA 
Ic impiv«4 iipc]ii tho pnpubir mrnd tlia rct^ityof thoobjccUof 
fiulh, nod the truth of t))C hiatohiw of S(''H[hiure, by £ivIdj| 
vieiiblo form to both, ThnC function han now pajwoil nn^yj and 
non<j ha* aa yt»t taken iU p1u<% The piunict han no profi**ion, 
Jio pnT-poa«. Ifo ie an idlcf on t^o ourth, ohnaLng tho tbadowa 
of hU own fiuicioA. 

But hn n-.-jj never mwiiit to ha ihia. Tlio HiJdwi imd anl- 
voTtztl Natiintfiun, or iof^lhatlon lo copy ordlrinry nstnn^ 
ohjprTrt, -vh^fh Tnflnlfi**frd iunlfnmon^ihnpaimnt-taf Kui'op«, 
It tVct TiLoiiif!iit. wljrri till- iiiVi![iltori uf |in tiling HitpecM-iIi-il 

tht'ir l^geniWy t:t1inre, wm no ikiM Inednot* It wa^nii^- 
nTi'lor^too'l xml rniMipplit-iI. TjiiI t( cniiiR al ttic^ riglit time, niu) 
hu miunlHifiiU 'ii^v\C Llijoujjh nil Litjcta of abuM^ ; 
in the retwnt Mcbirolff ori4UidnoJipc%p«rhnp» only the fira fmu 
of it4 |NiW(!r That mtftiuct wa* ur|png cvory jiali^tfr m 

ruf Atfou^ f^ttfnioi thff^;<!iil; rpf rowmmknii snch utmTgl 
AL onon Au) t>ii> aftvnnco of tlitf ick^Liovi^ iLurl kt^ l^dihfVjl r 
corJ of pvurymocmmt-'Ht of puat age* wbJL'h was lilct*!}' to bo 

Thf» Infttin^n caTiii>. bh 1 'aid, ^flclly at ih* right niomota ; 
mill Id \.\\v uyx\\*T rontiiliTr v^hut cvmoriTit nii^l ktik<] of |((*iiC7nU 
kni^vIi^iljilL^ mi^'lit by UiU time have bvi-u |Hjmo»teil Hy tlie 
nalJOfiEt cf Kumpe*, liutl thrlr pnintr-rit iin<1nr«ln<iil ami cib<-}r<1 
il. SojijHJBe tli:iU tkftt'r dLKc'i|.i!iiit(B^ thtfiuMrKuA w> »» to be 
aSi\f. Xfj drLhw, niUi iiiLcniii^ pi'VuiHic;!!!, caoh thv* (isrlii^LjIar kind 
oTeubjed iii vluoh he luotil ddijchtcd, they bnl ^iTiJorutcd Inio 
two greflt ftrmiw of liBtorUu* mid iiiitumlisUi — ttal tlio Gr 
bikd pointod wibh nisohitc fruihfijnvs^ ctci; rdlGoo, €vcr 
city, evory battle'dcltJ, every Bccni- of dio sligbtCBt hUtoricnl 
int«rc9it, precisely arid complL-U'ly ron<!etit)f; tliutr a^pifot at 
t-bv^ time; and that Ihdr ciMDf-niJon^, according to tln^ir aetvo 
n^ powart> liad pnmtod vUh liko fidelity thu (>Ia»tii ami! 
AnimaUt tbc? nutunU iwtnicry, and tho atmoipliuric plit^nomnna 
of ov^ry ooiintry ori the uurtb— Biipp^ae lliat a ikithful aud 
complete rworti were no* in our muti^umi of cvory bitildiii^ 
<k*ilroy?il by war, or time. €r iTiri'>va5icn, fliirfng tb^iMj U*t 
200 yonr<i — Hrippo4t> that <iAQh rrnnns of tivcry mountain obnln 
of Kurnpo hiuJ Uvii putiutrai.<-nl, iirul Uh rocks driiwu witb mich 
awMiraoy tliar. tbi?* geologlst'ii di digram wa« no longer neooA' 
wiry — siipppftr tliat 4!VoTy inv of thr furniLl lirtd btcn dr^an 
ill ilH udbfc^ili :i74pf-i-l, t vviy bt'UHl of tljo lleM lu Itf^ TiciMigie 
lifit— iliat JkU iItert<T gaiJiering* wito already in onr iiaiiiyti 
ItTklkriiM* iunl tbnt, t-Iur pmnli-fft uTlW prtwii! duj neru labufv 
uijy. biijipily jiiiil «aviifTilly, lo muUiply Uikhi, ami put s-itt 
means of kijowlrd^ juoj e aiuI luoru villilii ri;au1i erf tLu jvu 
moa pi^pte — woqIiI not ibit be a njore bonnrililff lifo 
tbfiui, tliati gaining itreciiriotia bi\^ by *'b(vi(J^ «aCM:N»'\ 




Titrs'V. ir n in jTt»i. 

Thvy tKiDk not, pcrlja|>s. Thvy ihtmk it c«y, ntd thttrbCotc 
contCEiiptiblGi, 1o bo tnithrul; tb«j bftTO boon Uu^-Ll so all 
their lircB. Uui it ia uoL «o, tihuovor lauglit it 'Jt^tni. Ti li 
most diiffl^ultiimd worthy of tbogroatAKt invu^t ^rvaeuat «ffi>(% 
torcoiddri at it ihoiild bdrutiili>n>d, cbe&implMioriJitf itatuml 

itur^H of tho earth; but nloo bo it rcinciabonxl, no tDBn !■ 
Intuit iOAhtf [iiniijloHt; ejch may Took oui work fur hjnueJl 
wh«r« be ohofJ8(«t nrtd It will bo tcmngo if 1t<r caimot find 
•omdthiti^ liaf*3 onoiigb for hiiri. ITic t'lf-iise la^ boircT«r, ono 
ofthe ll|»a cm?) ; fi>r ^\-^ry \i-A\n\vr Vht*WH ihat wbtn bo drftWs 
bnck IV<]itn tlitr iittcrnpl to rfindiir nntijiu jw him In, it u ofWivr 
ID iMiwartUtw tb:iTi trj dt^fUiic. 

I matt LcAvo tltc u-Ailcr to pnrinie tliu buI^^ '^■r Luiiaclf ; 
I liAvu cot 9p&o« to »Uf:i;cab to bun the Iviith pttit of tlw 

}Ldv:tJit3}^V« tvhioli irtrulil fulktvr, both to tHt^ paliil^ lji:<ui audi 
4(1 uiicUrKtnndlik^ of hi* nii:u>ion^ nnd to the whotft [jcoj^Ks lit 
tbc recalls of hut lalior, Coueidcr b<iw iht mjui KipimU 
^ovld bo cl^vatod; hi>t^ o^]it</iil bo wouJtl btcomc, bov 
'tBrn««t, hoiv full of aX\ Aocuruta OEid nobk kooirlcdj^*-, bo^ 
free from o a vy— knowing cri'Htioti to ba b&dic, tVvlijiK ni 
onco the \iAav of whtt he d]<l, iwd yet tho nothit^tcnndf^. Con- 
■idvr ttitf advantti^c to ih^ ptf<o|jT«i vbii iiaui?JUur«l>l5 larifeF 
intnivjtt given to alt itsiiilf; tho cBtfy, plcdivutablci;, aivd porftfH 
pknowlixlgL* ooiivt'\«d by iu Ici o\*ry Bubjciot; tho fin grvstor 
number of men M'bo might hi? hr:k^hily and iiiv>fltably ocoii- 
pii-il with it \n a niVAn» oi' UvL^lihoud; Uw iihYuI lUrrrtion 
Af inyrJAdt nf iiilVirii>r i.iTf>iitfi^ ni>w lofV Yhdlng awaj- bi mli^ry, 
(Vjhpi'ivi.' ull UiiK, juid thfin Tonk iLmiind 9d.ntir oirbibiiiAn^ 
flTid fu'liiild IIk' "r^ttli* |iieci.-8/* ^uiit ^* M-a piwu.w,'' mid •* frmc 
inn^CflV" nnd "fiunilj pieciw;" the v^nml bronn vova 
illtdieftt^d wljitc-HullA In w^nalU, .uic] uliiT'C-d b-iii<irf»i»iMiici 
V)d Ibolub Cuatt in biniju-rb; — Aud Ir/ to fvel^biava 
aciJ irhAt 1VC ruijfht buto been. 
Take a aiuglo iiLtumcc is ono branch ofArc^iiL'olotfEy. 


ntB- K Art I A Eunui, 

iha%r- wUr) are ittlvrt-Ht^ !» the history of n-lrgloft urnnMoi 
whiit »L tiv:if^uii^ Wfl diould now have p'>jucM('il, if, uuilO;i4 
of finLnliug |>4jIat tuid vcgubiblvB, and ilniuken |>i.-;i4;inU7« tl 
mmtt BccuiAtr ]>n]iiU'r« of tlie »e^-eiUL-('iivii aiit) dgliU'CJiihcc 
liitittf L:ul bi^kra ect to oo|iy, line for Uur^» Uic rcti|c^onn and 
dQ[R<r9tiO iwtJpturo on tlio CvriDiiu, Fk'rfii«h( a»d Fruft 
v»l)ii!ilrAl« JUitl c^tic:* ; luid if evcrj IjuilJing dc?itr<^ynd in Uic 
Fri^iclj or Id onj otli^r eul-^tt|U(>nl rcrolitLioTt, Kftd Utt;« betm 
drawn ill aU ll* parU whh the i^mo pT«nK)ti& wllh nbicb 
Gtiard Dauw or J)licri« piiial bjurtlici? of Out>ida. Consider, 
evan now, wL&l Bic^Tt^iIikbU trcjuiuni i» tiiil] Jcfl to ojjt^enl 
bfta/^Uofs, full of cvury kinil ol' k^t^dnry intc^ri'^t^ oV ^ubtla 
exprcMioD, of pri««lM0 g^Jit«n<r-> M to tho chnractcT, /eolincfAi 
hftbiU, Iiiatoriof, of part gcn«rDliaiiJ, in [K*;rleeicil atid t|jnt1*rcd 
0blirtliVi4 aiid (tomoHlio buddm^-^, rfijiidly Oibn]i|Ki)img over 
tbo whole of Europ*: — trciuurc vhJdi, onoe k*t. 111* In 
of nl1 rni^n living t^njinoi bring biirtf nguln ; nii>1 then look 
thu myniuU of men^ u-itli akili unoiigh, if i.b^j- lud bm th 
oomjfionvfil ^cboolinj;, to nN.M?ri] alt thb tklrlil^ilEjr, who aro 
nukiiig thi'ir bivud Ijv lirTiwiiij^ dniiccK ol'iinkiTd kton^^ii from 

tmwli'jiij' uiodvlH, ur ItlcAlitiiAt of chivdry fitlL^d uut with 
Wardoiu' Street armor, or urtunul ectiiiesfi'oui flit Bijuv Dun 
Quixote, aud thu Viciir of Wnkdirld, or inoiinlnii) »'(<ncii«A 
vitli youD^' idJctA of LoudoiicrB we^rui^' lit^tiland bomiutA 
nnd braudinhmjE rifle* in iho fftr^'groiiTiii*. l>i> liit \h\n 
of thefeo tiling hi iIjo broiclih ortlioir tneit^rcwbtc iml] nullity, 
Bod ibuii gi> tad AtLtnd bt-furr tliat Lrok«-n biUfn;flRf in t)iu 
nutbero gittc of L»Kfh CnthcdrA nnd «t(x.iJ' thcrv is no nbra 
of tb« boart ill you that wUI broak loo. 
But is Uicro to bo no j>lnco li*i>, it v'iil bo inrljpinnlty 
for imH^innCion imd in^vntion, for |hCt(?ti(^U j-owvr, or I 
of idval bt^atity? Tm; thu hi^bubti the noUo^t )>U<to — tliat 
which tlu^i-* oidy con fltliiin wbcij tliiy :iri< nil nnoil ii< Th4 
MniM^ jLiid with the ^d of tTutb. Wliur^vtr iuuigiQ^Oivu and 

featlnMBi §n, tbcy will dllkcr sliow thcmR«h-<« vHlhoat fot^ 
ingi or, if enpAblo of nrtilictnl dcvdk>pQi«Qt, tbc kin-I of trAia- 
iiijC vhicb Krch a «ohool of nit would pivD lhvi» itouliJ lie tli# 
bctft Ibvy could rvcuivc, l^o infiiuUt nbmrdtijancl fulur* 
of our proH<Mit tmnin^ ooiif tfU iciunlf id thift, llut wo do uoi 
nmk ifnu^iiintioii tmd iuviftitioii liij-heui>ii];h,ui4Huppo«otb3it 
U»i:y can bo uugbt. Throuj(lioiit ev^ry 0«nLOiioo that I «Ter 
invo wi'iitui, the tcodvr wtll tmd tUe *smo riok uttHbutvd to 
IhviO |>owQra, — tbo rMxk of & pui^eLy dlvini* gilt, not to b4 
fiUain(<d, ini^rcftfii^dj or in urty wi«o modtfirfl by tc&chitig, only in 
variDiiH wHy-tczijinlik* of hcln^ (UTimi^od or qiiencbvd. Under* 
fitaiid thSiithorongbl^Y^know tmre for all, that a poot OQ cftitva^ 
in PxncLly Uic !^uk Bpctutn uf rirojituna w » (Kirt iti pud^, «od 
UL-nrly i-vtrrj vrrxjr tu our uititfiud« uf lisKclmig uifl b« dune 
ftw;ijf wUU> t*or wht> aciiong lw now tbmkc of bringing aien 
up to ln» pv«te ?^-or }JE:oduciiig povln b/ nuy kbd of ^ai;ral 
i^ipe or ukctliod of c»lbiv.^uon? S»jijiu«o ovoii thnX n o fc« 
in j'oulb ttiut wltkli wfl hope lu^y. in ita dcrclopmentt bcoomo 
S poM'tr of tklfl kind* dhoiild wc insiuiUji ftnppoa'ui^ tbat w« 
wfiiiW t«) ai:iko n poet of liiin, :ukd notbiug clso, forbtd him 
All quiet, «tcad}', mtionnL luborV Sboiild vte force hiai to 
porputunl Hi^qmiliiE ofticiv oniditic» out cf bia boybb brab, 
AJitl &ci Icforc hirii^as tho only object* of hU ft'acly, ibo birs 
of vcmdcixUon which oritidim hru vnppoiwd iUcU'todiMOTor 
in lliu workfl of provtoua wrilor«? WhaUv^r gStA tJio boy 
bod, would muuh bo tikd^ to c^mo of tbcm lo ti«atod? 
unit vif ^itdcod, ihoy were ho ;^r«iit um to broil: throu^^h ftIL 
saah Aunros ot fithijjiood mid vanity, on^ bLUJd tb^ir own foun- 
dation in tpito of ns ; trborciii if, as in cnica n^mbariiig milUoni 
igflinrt uDitK, UiouuLurBlgillB wor« too wont toi1oll>fc«, "^"^^ 
onj tbin^ conio "f "^ucb ti'sming; brit nViuT ift unity mid tpaH- 
ououtti of Uia u-Iiolo ninu ? 3uc If Wf^ bail wntu^ sbcmb] w« 
not intiicr rt^slrniu tind biiillo tbe fiiW, flainft of invimlion in 
mi'L/ youtb^ beapiiij^ iiijivrri:d on il mt onu uonld ua ihti llnil 




sparks anil tonga«5 of « fire whidi wc dcaif«ii to Fct^d into 
grratncu? Should w« ur>t oducalc ti^c whglo intt^ikct mU> 
^fitcrfj eireogttt ikikd ftll Iho ftfffictiona into warmth and 
honcitj, and look lo leaven P>r iho rout? Thia, I wf . wu 
should ba\'e flonna cnoit^h to do, in order to pruducv a pool 
in wordd : but, it bdu;; ro^iiir^^d lo produce a poet en cnnvtu;, 
whaCn is our u'af of setting to work? Wc begin, in nil prab«« 
Ulltyi hy t«UiDtt ttio yotJtli of fiUwo or itkto^i, tJisi Nature 
i« fall of faulu, iind tliat b« is to tinpro^'O h«T; hnt Lhnt 
RaphfLol ifl pQrlgetion, ind that tl« moro ho co]ncfl Raphuxd 
tbo btjttttr; thai sflor much po|n-iTi^ of Rftjthn^l, he !s to tiy 
VbAL he can do himn^If in a Rsijihnolri^rjiiP, hiit yiu rrrigin^il, 
inannvr ; that ii to lay, bo ic to try to do ftornething voiy 
t^uVGT, ull out of his own he»d. but jet this clever soDiuthln^ 

lu hti pmpsrty niiliJonU^d tn tiajhlinolcKija* mloj^ in t^i hiivn 
u prinoijitd li^kl oiv!upyi]>{f uiiv^tuveiiith of tin Tipuce,«Liid n 
piindpnl fthmhtir o(<c;iipvin^ nTiAlliW [>f tl^v vnnio; thai no 
tvo pt^op1e*fl hL<aihi lu ibi» pluiure sr« l4j h^ turned thesfLine 
w:iy, nnd tbnL oil thn periMjnngcK ivpr4«LTLtcd nrv lo poattam 
ilIvsI h^&iidy of tile lugheot ord^r. which id(?:il buauty couuAta 
psil1/ ill a Greek outline of nosot partly iu pr^poiuoiit ox 
projudljlo In decimal fisotioaa bctwMo the lipet JLiid obm ; but | 
piLrtly alio m tlint d«groo of unproromont vliicb the yoiicfa 
of ttixtccn it io Ixrftov^ ij]too God^ii work JB^norsl. Thu I 
myitftliokind of tooohinR whiob tliroiigh T^iriotu t^hiLnrivh, 
Kcjjal Acadoinj lootiirijijS^i, ]>rc:9« cnticiSiiM, patlio cDthiiAtfWn, 
niid net ](vv(l by aoliU wuigUl of gold, wc giro to <rur joang 
iiLtri). And vp wond'ir vo have no paJnterel 

But we do worvc than tbi*. Within tho IM ttw ytxu-t, jioni« 
i«4ise of the i^al lonJuooy i»f suoh t^iuiluug bss f^p4in.r«il iu 
of our youngor paictor0« It only coaid appear in the 
yotingor one^, our older lueu biiving beoomo 6uiiihan«nd with 
tli« faliHi fiyntpni, or nine having p]Vw>d Ihrongh \l and fori^oltcit 
hf not wdl IcDDwitijf tho dugrcQ of hami ihojr bad sinFtslnod 



Thld tu^ii^ ^Lppeai'fld, lunuug our yoiith9» — Iiicrtuc^.— tiiatureJ 
rciidkU ftution. Nccc«wiri!y, to ^int « all, it nce<l<xl ihm 
ion bolh of atro[i9 inBrliiicUi anJ of considerable solf 
riico, otFiorwi*c ti mi3:«t nt oiic« havo bccai Iwnift dowv 
hr tlic wdirhi of tc^^if^r^l authority and rocarcil canon Uw, 
Strong inDlbcU aru apt lo ni&ke inun Htmige, uij rude ; s^lf 
oonfi^jcnco, hotvcrcr veil (bna^cd, to jpvo miicb of vhat tJio^r 
do or auy tbo App^ttrniico of importboaoo. Look itt the self- 
O0&&d«nQ0 of W<>r-^KWOTth, Ftifr^^nm;^ over/ otiaorirontcDoo of 
hkprafiwc« into dvli&ai<d; tbcro in uo Tvoro ol' it lliu w 
&ec^dal.l to cnablo Inm to ^o Ii&a work, yoi It U noi a IliOe ud< 
griU3«liil horc nnd t1u*i'L>. Siijipoic iMi RtubboninoflU aikdMlf- 
^tnuit In A pvtth, lalforing In nn ar( of which tliO exoootir* 
pan U oonff'JHLHlTy io he bt-at Icarrl from moceore, nnil wt 
aliaJI hftnlly MondiT Tb-il niQr^h of liSr* work tiAS ft oert^n 
^»wkwnnlrLi^9» -ind lUfTboHi in it, nr lh*t ho itliiinlil bo iv^nrd^ 
with iliMravor by many, ev«a tlie uiunt tQrii|mrsle, of tli 
jaclfr<4 trained in the tyAtt^ii he uaa bivaktng Uiruugli. aii^ 
vtth otter couteiupt ind n?prciliuLiuii by th« ennoiiM imtl Ute 
duU. Coander, HirlLer, ib&l llie piirtkular ay^ti'm to tw ot«r 
Thrown witt« b thn prcucnt cxisc-, one of n'hicli the maiD cbft* 
mrtprii4.ifl W!W l>ie pTirnuit of l>wuiiy at tbc cxpenoo of tood- 
<Hdq»aaiI truth; and k will flccm lilcdyt 4 priori, tttat tbo 
men intcndcHl irucfcnAfnlly to rcn^t the influence ofsHoh ft 
eyalixn nhoriM bo ondowt?^ wilh litllonafurul ti(*ru« of buauty 
nod tbutt ronJL^rtfd duod to tho templation it prt^Aontod. Sn 
mio^ up ttii54& o^uiUtioa^, tht?rd i?i vnruly littlo 0A1UO for aiir|iri 
tlurt piciln'*H |»aiiilt»ii, in a |.>nijwi' U" r**i*iKUMaLS by oX' 
injfly vo;tn^ mon, of Mtiibbftm joMineiii and poiittvo ulC-W 
tnd wllb liltli> natuml fivrpoptbn of boniiiy, ftbonld not 
oalimlaiiHit at tho fnft glaiii.-e, to win m from worku rnHt^h 
by plaglnriffrn, potichcd by oonvention, invt<ted nith nil tht 
svnr»i":,iv4inf*i of ni-iificl:il K*^^*^* *"*' Tccommeudoil td 
rcvpetit by («uh!ixhnr1 anrhnrUy. 

ms-n A roAUjjmn. 


Wf *hrttilrl» howfivrr, on thn oiJi(?r hinwl, hint- *aiim\inii*A, 
|]i3t ill prijjiuvlion to till* alEvngtli uf <.i]mj'Ji<;[rVr n^iiulrvtl foi 
tli« «^Ouri, aiiil to iliv abwnce of dHLnt^tin^ u'nlhm'nt^, wht^ther 
rv-ipcct fur prucwlual, or nfleolioa for Ut^fU bcuiity, wuuU b« 
ihti tsavT^y oibibiled id tJic pursuli of lUc eii-uiLl olrJHL-l« vhich 
Ific j'omh4 prgpwcd lo tlicmacilTCd;, uirj their auqccu in Altcuri* 
IlLg th«iu. 

AW this Lu notuMly boon t^o coxc, bnt in ft dc^iio whicJi U 
vould have been imposiibld U> ftuticipate* Hut Ivo youtliai 
of iho rcd^<'cUvo «£:«:? of dshtccn and twcrity, ntionld haTv 
conccivc-U lor thuiuHclvoa n totally uidopvcd«ut and moocra 
method of tua^y *"^ «r<thiisbsucAlly p«r«>Ter«d b it AgAin^c 
Otory IdacI of diJUtiitiicio arid oppoMtion, ii tftrcm^ onou^-li ; 
tUut in ilie tlilrd or fourth y^ai of thoir ellbru lU^y ttioijld 
hnvo produced worlu m oiaaj' pirtM not inferior to tho botft 
of jVtbort Uiu'er^ this b p«rbnfi» not !««§ Mraojjo. Birt th 
loiidnftw and iinlvPT*aUry of thn )jnivl wliirh l.lm iviiDrnon 
criii{*A of llic pi't!» liivi! ruiird ag^iiMi tlipnt, the uTIit iib< 
Beiico of all g^^rkL'rouN help or cnoourAgemeat IVom ihoAe vhr> 
can bollj rntm-iarc tkcir toil »id appreciate thi-ir nucocio, and 
the vUilll. sballow lau^liLijr of ik^j^e who caft da ncithor tho 
one Qor the other, — tboAd aro Btran|:csl of al]'-*iimiiiAjn>^ubIc! 
unJeee tb^y bod boca cocpononced. 

And aa If thctfc were not cncngh, privata outlico m nb iroik 
ftjfaiiMt them, in ita oivu arunlT, eliiny way. The vciy doy after 
1 bud wriltwi my iici.'c^nd it:1l'?r lo tho 'Rmon in ibo defence of 
Uio l^e-ltapltoditon, 1 i^eovivcd an untmynioun letter riMipu«tiu 
one vt lh«ui, Irom unio pi^r^on Api>arent1y hnrdly cnp^blu of 
fpi?I]in;!?« and about ua vilu tt Hpooimen of [s^^ty tuali^tiy Eii 
troL- blotu-d paper, T think it wt^W iliot tlio pnblJc vbould 
know ibi«, and »jo gs^ noiao tu«ight kto the fouit^oMof the 
(rpirh whk'h in at woi'k flgiiLD«t the^o men — how tii'ift roow;-! it 
U difKeull to Kiy, for ono would hardly have thongJil 
more ca:ctitrioii.y id young iiniita uould hava t'lultod im 







m^ttum ixLinsM, 

laU^ 0d delerounod tukd f o cni«-]; — hooUlity u^blcb bcnUtod 
■tP^Mmrlion, however impudenu Tbolof U»e "9faMno«of 
pcnpootivo " wa4 oav of ibe raott'oamoi piooM of tii« 
vtd cry whioh bogAn wtih tho Timoc, mid di«d nvij Ui M 
tnanndotirig in tbo Art Union ; I ooutnujiictocl It In 
TiintiB —I lusru coninulio^ it diw^Uy for lK« soootid U 
Tbor^ irsu not a wig]^ orroT in p4in9j>«otiv« in thnw OQt of tb» 
foar pictarcA in c|ijo*tioi]. But U oiitrwiw, would It b»v* 
beoQ unj Uiinf; rcmarkihble ljq tbc-m? 1 donbt^ if vhih 
excoptloti of ill* pietnr^ of Pavi-l Rnbort*, th«ro w^re o 
ttrdiilvcttiral drawbp in ficmpuetWe on lh« walls of i 
A<sn\^jny ; I never met but whli two mi?r> fn mjr Hfi* who 
pnotigh of jK^mpt^Jivip to drno- n ftnthio nrnh in » rvltn 
plino, ao that iia ULcnit dimminoni nnd oiirrntnrM rniglil Im 
Cjiloulau^ <o B<;a1& from ihe drawing. Our an>liiiwi« f^Tfflinl^ 
do Dot) mid it wj^ hut ihn ath^r dxy thnt, Tnlktri;^ ^ ooe of 
ihu tuoHt di^ftiti^nmlitiJ itiiitmj? IIktih, tlic; sutlinr of 
moflt valiiabid wolIh, I fomid lit' ^Liially iIiJ aoC know boir 
dmv a cirdc in («;ni|iwtiv«. Aud in thin ninto of gen 
Bowtiotf our ^TLtcta ibr t!m pren ukc it u|ioii Ibcm to loH 
lha,t tho fi>refrt ti'Oi-tt in Mr. Ilimt'd Syhia, and lira liunob 
of tllioA iu Ur. OoiJiua^t CVftL«nC TA^I^fAfd, are ool of 
It mtgbt not, 1 tliinkt In siidi rircamfilQnccTS linva bixm 

^^B ■ It wu not a lltUft ourlaoJ^ tlial In Cho *«f^ aATnbvr dI the Art Ual 

^^^ frtKA mpemod I2il# tHrmi OauriDal fcboui tlih Pfti.]UphiY*]itii Hgwtkrm 

^^^ ■■liDMr pOPTpfloli*©" {l>r-lh^lr^ Utf ncit Umo J. B, ipkca u|Kin liiia 

^^^L qink of Any nni o>vinrN-lj«il w^lh thfl UalTcnittc^ lia mtf ttt wtU 

^^^P Hcw^ia Uio dinkuxqin bLtwixtu i tirbiynta muj aq ITiidu^OmJEiaw), 

I vccnd |iIdEo ^w thoittrl luita bwn of > |4ahirv (/ BoDlojrtcoV 

F iiotul lumhmpfl iM^iilwr, cil«ffrT>\— fljrtJ]owiintrffl^-n'fl/por»p*«lTOio 

I Ibu Jtrt UfiioalBwir vfna diliffcj to fipolfiflt^ utd ia whldi tbv orlU 

I aioimllTivl hmtIj m mimy b1iindf*n in t4mHf pMip««tir« u Qu>f» tn Ham \ 

^^^ tbtpltturci 

gmrH^I or nnw^KO In ArjiilnniriiiriK (.hntiiKRlnai tu liatfl 
rlciftjnrl«d thr!r Voang |]TLpI|K, nt IcurU. bj lliir coiilHradlvlion of 

ftUteinviiiB din-cily faUu r4<»4|L«ciiiig iliem,* nml l^« dircrtioD 
of the inmd nnil «igta <if t)i^ p(i1>]tt> to mwh n-nA oicrii aa ibcjr 
p[Hm»k If 8ir CImrloi Ex«tJ;iki\ Muln^aJy, EJwiii n»d 
Cbarltw Laiiibeur, Cupc, auit D.^ce wo^^d cjLcb of them fnmiJf 

• Than ^B&auumtdntfl nuj' b« roliund lo thnM pftnd^ptJ h«ad^ uif 

Tha riTH TTiB onnvnl rdllflf7 of MiOLCtj M msll u of Ifca p«ai «u ^t 
tbv Fr>lUiiliadilc« imlULtl Ilia trnrm nf ttaij pklLitorft 

A Ibluliocitor lJi4 krnci eviiH not hflTfl <ibtriiiO(l erodpnM loy vbom hut 
Id BiiirUiLiL 0a» I^jk'i^i P^E^^Oh i^npiinLricclj, turiDs cnr veco « lilotoro 
of omIj ital^b tf bflUTL If Ihuj hnd thoj vxiuM lun^ knrtirTi Ihit t>i» T'r*' 
IU|11i>d1U plctune ira JmC H nipcrbr to Hid ukrlj lial\aa lu iklU of tniiib- 
puUticm, potter of dmffinjc, »(J koovlttdfE* of •flWt, m Inferior to ihoni lo 
gnoa oC di-«i;a ; auiI thit tu a wuriL tbtfa li dm h tAnf^aw at rc«MnUitLoa 
btftVOttL Iho tWDDt^lpA Tha Pre lUphAcl^l-n Imklnla DopiGturca: Ui^fphftt 
fhuniumraonl^ Dmibojbar^qipiMtflthffmjiplvcAU atod;. toiUtklDcl 
of Idchin^ i^Wn dctcrfbcd. whbU onlj be^^ tiler BapfiArl'* lliue , adJ 
Ihoj hAVA «ppnttd tlimutlirM u tlDmJy to Cho entire tMlin^ of tbr> lUnilv- 
Mu«e KtiCQb ; * feelEdit compeimdcd «f hodoloicev InildcJiC/, icnni&lif j, ood 
pF)«lliiw [iT^flfi. Thfimfbm tlio^ I»t« oallM itwtm^rm ]*r*-Rjip1iiitftlu^ tf 
Iber adb^ro W tltdr prtoolpleil vpd ptbi Daiurv u b U aroaTid llion, urtlb 
th« hprp f/ rnnd^m mifTio«^ vilh Uio Mmnitnvtt [if Lli« men of th* tlurta«nth 
•ud ibvtiwadi orikiuHov IhcT inlli jia I mid, foujid a a&n' and ucible vlunl 
ta Bo^Dd. IT tlidr «3FTrjpntbLM vith iho ouly orUct^ Und ttaom Into 
iDnllJDvalliELi or liomanEsm. tlicj wlUof ojuwrcomolObOltilTig. Bull Ulicvv 
Ih^nhno dan^ of tiiLi, ftt lermL fi^rlho vntnjftfl amctngibcRU lliarc dm^ 
boMma Teak oaci^ EVhoCD (he Tl-nru/tan licTDKlf* Tcof imch; but iTikK lb>7 
vill drop olT llbe locayod braODZia Ihirn a iirons mtoni, I b^ d] Uiicoi 

TliDBealud fiilHlKiat] vu, llitl tti? Pni'BajiliiwliUa did Dtit dtatt vdl 
TUa unu uuftcl, and i?oukt baio htup uifc*rtAl <knl/ by pvnnjit itbo bftd 
ouroi loohpil »L tjir |iEcttirtiL 

TUd llJnl fifclwhai>'l wtlh lfi"t iliay k*! ti'j njtE^rn of [[([hi aih! HliArtv, To 
frbiob it luoy ba ^m^Ty n^^ilinj thU l^iinr irrrtvm oMiiEliCfliid i1iiirJi?lfl4iHiiL'CJf 
lb«>U»aUiDl3Un'«; wliLcb u^ I bdkvo, llkd|'looiitlaiit thai ttniioJUiid* 
pbK^ binrovcr brilUinL 

tftnt^ UioIt own pi'^rato ^puiion rc«f»^'TLtiii; (hdrfodotiv^rigp 

It, aad publish it, 1 bclitvc tho net voold W or nwtc 

to Kit^luh urt lUim any thiii;^ tli« Acivk^ny liru Aooo tiatM 

WHA f'xmtJoiL Hut ikii I o(tntiot Nope fr>r Ihaf, I cfto onlv mk 

tli« public to ;(iv<} tli^ir pititurfti carcJtil osomilnatiOD, uid loolt 

Ml thon QC onoo ^ iiL itio iiiilulgvnoo and iJt« n«foc£ 

hwe^ ^Qiloar^rod t^ ^1)l»^ ih&y doMrr^. 

Y(,'l k4 mc iit>t lio mUundcfRtooH. I liavo ftflrluccd tfacm 
onl/ AS uxAm^Jv* of the kind of ittuJy whiob I would d6ctr« 
to iwa NijlitlitiilDd for tliAJl or aur modorn heIiooIi, nnd of 
(dngakr «(ic<-09i In c^rtrtln fhfti-sctor*, finlali of dotni!, and bril 
liancj of c^loi*, Whnl fiicruttii^, hi^hor thoD imilAiivf^ nuij 
bo m thvtfc mcQ, I dn not yt^l vrntaro to ujr ; but I do aajt 
Uia: If tlioy oxifll, euch foouIli«e viii muiifbet- lh«niMlvca ia 
rluc tirn« ail ttic more forcibly bccikUBO tbey have r9u«dT 
Xniiun^ so Fc\ytv. 

For Si m alwcLya to l>e rememlicr^d tliat no one m&»d b liko 
Sknothcr, citl^cr i» i\» powers or porc«ptioQ« ; and wbito tho 
nuuti pnn(!ipT<^ of trunm^ muxt bo the Mmo for aII, the rc9i:lt 
Id cucb ^vill be att t-iu-ioui aa the Idnda of truth which each will 
fi|>prchcTid ; Uigroforo, hEko, tho morlcd of ofibit, oven in mon 
vrho^o innoT prini-lplea and flaal ^tus nro i>!tA^t}- tbu ftanCb 
Siippoto, for mitfiricOf tvro toon, #f]ually hoitorl, o^uftlTy indtu- 
trioiL', oquHlIy impr<«(*L'd u'iili n bumblo di^iirv lo render sorao 
pnn of whftl they kw in nalixm failhftilly; and, oth 
irnitiod in ronviotioiiH kikJj i^ I h%vo ■Lore uii<lcuvf>Tcd 
IinIuo^ But onGiof chmn t>i4|n1eT in romper^m^nt, bnA ^ ^hU 
mcMUiry, no mv-'mJcfTi^ nnd mt(r3«ivHy k^^ii Kight. Tltr olhcr 
i* iiii|>jitior»t Jii Li^ii][HrnLziiv-MU I'^vi n i]](.'nior> wbicb nutbtii 
Wi3EpL'«^ Ml inirrrition u'bJL'Ji Jwvor rv^tD*, ;ind i« compiLtiilJve 

SvL ^\li^ix^ botVi frvc In l1k« niih^ IkLd in a motinUiui i aUL*y. 



L Ono eew evcryibinff, small luiil Jjiiirc, v\i\ aUucvi ibo same ] 



Mix'aru: but b« ctin rcmombcr nothvngrt nrid invoDl notbiA^c- 
J'nliciilly he ticXa himeiclf to liu miglitj l4»?lt ; abunJoiiin^r nt 
onco nil tbouj^hu of soiling trA:]«LOiit offccte, or giving goiiL^n-al 
hnproMicri^ of tUat which hu cyea pir^cnt to Ijini in miuriv 
ftcopiool ditttfction, he choceM botho bihuIJ portioti out of lb« 
iiidnitd Mono, and calcuktci vUh courage tho DUtnbcr of 
woukK wlkicli miut vlui>Hv 1>ofor« li« otiu do JubUcij to tlie 
iiiu«)4tf of Ul« pfirc«ptif)iiK^ or Uiiv nilticni of niAttur in hm 

^[i.->:mtlTno, tfie other haa Leen watching thf> cban^ of the 
clouds A»d the mnrch of the li^^t nlnrig ttin rnoiitttHin nidoM * 
ha hthnUU th« imiirc U'UTTr 1:1 broitd, w>ft mn»i4 uf irne gni- 
dutioTi, ttiid t!ie very foebk'itvta of hb algtit Ih iii 8urii<< iun »ri 
sidvani.igo M him, in midcing him tvnTv AfriMhln ol' thc^ Jirriil 
niystcTiy or dbluiicc, luiJ huJiuf^ from liitn thta nmiiitudiM of 
L'irctu]L«lanov« wLicb h would haw hveu uupitmuhlv Ibr hiiu 
to n^m^hont. L^ut ihtHc^ U not vuc cljnugtT hi i\ie c^Mbig et 
the j^iggird a}]!iidowTi i\\ong lliu buUowv uf t]iu hUU, but it id 
filed on bin n»nd fi>r ever; not a flnkc of iptrny has broko: 
from the tea of doad about their huAvt^ but he hu watcltcd 
it nn ib ru«1ta away, and could rvi^idl it to Its \oa% pincc in 
h«tvi») hy th« Kliglit^tft ti^ort ^f hk thoughts. Kot orilf no, 
but ihon^iindH anfl thousand* of anch imng^^ of oldtr kooul**, 
Tt'ftiulii L'uiigrc^'uLvd ill hU nihid, a^eh miiiglirg hi nt^w uk4i> 
ci»fioTiq with xhftOfi now vU]l>ly ps^^ng before httn, und th«Mf 
ngma ixitifuM^d with oitifi' im^i^UQf hi»t own oPHMlfo^ doep- 
k'St in^zi^rtjiilitfij, lliisliirkg hy in tfuddt^ri iroujiK. Funoy how 
his |Q|KTr will tm covvii'd wilh htiA^ nyD^hoU ami lluu^ luui 
nn(litTj]>fit?niye nhort'h^uifi : — a> fjr hirt nilting davn fo *'dr:itf 
fnmi Xia«if,"llicit w^iMK-louiTuf ihiMhiiitr* "l""-'h Itr wUbod 
Ut roi>rGJtonl iha; rta>XHl for*u oilu^ asfiv^ secondi tv^lhcr: 
bin noijo of iht-ui cauipvd, fur nil iIiaL: tUcy arv ^i.'.ilr-d up iu 
that btraugu AtDruliOuae of hia ; be nuiy tuLu oau of ibi^m onu. 




perbnpF, lbi0 (Inf tw«nly roarf^ and ptdnt ic in bui <lar)t 
Bir »wnjr, Kow, obnt-rvo, yon mny (til both of thno m«ni, 
whtrri tboy are joiiiig, tlmt ihpy ar<* lo bo lion^rt, ihic lb«y 
bav<» an iinpfirlnrt fiinoijon, and ibnt tboy :iTa not to car* 
whnt Kn|>Hiu?l did. Tliii you tiihj ^vbot^AOInl>!y fmin-MM oa 
ibero bciTh. Bm fhnof ih« ^^xqnUii^ aliEiirdh)' (>f ^vp?t<:tlag 
eilhpr f*f thrm to poui^K nny cit' ihi; ijimliliiv of ihr ochnr. 

I Imvv Kiipj>oKK] lilt fr¥tili?rii.«<!( of »igtiC ui tbr laat, uh] of 
biventloTi In the flr§t jiJifniirr, tbo contrast bfftw«<n tticni 
luLght t>u mtirt! sLrlkmg; but^ with wry eliglit UMili^Ctttioo, 
botli llie churm^ton urtr njul. GrBut lo lliu first <;oa^«rab7« 
,iav«ntivQ [Kiwcr^ with ci^iLtimc vcnii^i cpf ix>lor ; ufd ^v« to 
the «cooi]d, m additiou to ;ill hia otbcr ^licultic«t-l^o ^jro of m 
eagle; nml tlio fir^ &» Jobu Evcraii AIUUK tiie second 
JoAcph MallnL-il Wiliiam Tumrr. 

Tbej aiv nuiong tho fow wen who bav« d«fiod «U fiJM 
tcftchinc;, auij have-, thcroforc^ in f;roftt mooiturcv done jiMUCO 
U> tbo gilts wttb vhioh t]i«ir wore intrtutcd. 'Vhey tjUad u 
rppvaito potos mnrk-ing onhninAting point* of nrt tn bodl 
din;cti<:in« ; botneen tlietn, or in varioTi* rvUtiomi to tbcan, Wtt 
iniiy t'tou) ti\e or six nic^rcr liviii;^ urlitftii wbo, In lik^ naonOT'f 
tbvo doiiLL jiibtitiu to iHuir powon. I Itoft tbnt I may bt 
p;krdoDod for rmming tlicm, iit oixler tbat 1h« rnstdnr may 
know how the strong iixnuc? geiuuA in onoh hna bot'ji iuvft* 
linlily n<^ com pftiiied with the aam« hantlllty, oarn«ine«<^ftlMl^J 
Iridik^try in (tudy. ^H 

It 14 hjirdly nt^cswiry to point c»il the ©urayMnoaB <tT htiioL 
Tify bi th@ tt^<<rl;s of WillE^tm Hunt \ >>iit \l may bf* ui u> «ti^ 
gt*si tlio iiigh vahie t^cy jiriaMtfa wi rrcwrdrt ol" Kriglwh run] 
]Ul% and itilt tifb. Who 3a lh«r« who for a mcmcnc co« 
ciintt^iid with liim In xhv nnnlTcili'd, jH liumiirouh initb w 
wliiHi he hiiR pjiitiled /»[ir ]ir,i*aiil ibildnin? Who b U]«r« 
who ilocs not nyinputlitxu wbb hiiu io tliu EaQijiler love w 
»luu]i he dwellH oa tliu bri^litiLVU ajid bloont of our flo 

poiui thu Mime buiJcbL-s ol^ lLol-]iiJU>c yTBj><;v>, iui<l Jiuiii|jly 14 
UiD WttU^ Color Socittjr a AuccoeaiuD ul iiiucujjploB witli Ui« 
ru^Ld;u'it> of a CLrv^ut Gatdcn fraUvuii ? Uo bu ol' Ul4 
disu^^vort'd lljftl ^rmu'o«c baiik^ mxt hwly, but ih^re Arp 
other thiBgn giow wild bL<t>iilcti primrowtt; wliat uutlrooiut-of 
lovvliiivwi mi^lit hv not biui^ buck to utw )!' bu wuuld lo«9' 
biEiiActf for a Aummcr in HigUluid foro^i^tundt ; if be voold 
ytaal thij l«^;itbtr uh it grctwd, jjiJ tlie Ibx^flov^ imd tL« Lare- 
bull w ttu^ ikcatio iu iho clcitd of th<] rooUs^ imd tho incwofl 
Olid bn^ht ItchciiAof the rctoIcA IhcmidTcft. And thcn^ cro9« 
to tlic Jurci,aad biing bnalc [i pic^c ot^ Jura poaturo id Ajiriog; 
vitb Iho KCDtijuis tu Uieir cmUuet blu«, And ft aoMuquIIo 
bosido tint foding artovr ! And rotura «^aui| and p&uit a gra^ 
troll Df Qi|>iiie orng, witti buidioi; rote* crowning it like a 
wrcaili of ruLica, Ttiut u vbot b« tva« utiaut to do in thii. 
world i not to piiijil boik^juote in ohioa va«c«L 

I havo in vuhouH othor pUcea eiprctsvd my Aincvro mipcot 
G>r ibe worka of Sbomel Proui: his ebonxiveB of «igbc hai' 
DttogMirily pKvcntcd ihtitr poa^e^sing dedcacy of dniidi or 
fli]it«M of nili]or d*fif\\\ ; but I think tlint. tho«i^ of no othor 
living unitt nirmth an vxnmjilo io striking of Inn^iie and 
*]H*uisil insliniTt, itril to du ii piiri'ioiilur wotk ni tin? ciJicrt und 
U[»1y period H'litTi it wa* powubk^ Al ihL- uEHLiujt wb<«u p(*]LU43 
biid Iwpii eiHtnblifiHnd nil ov«r Knrope, but when iieEcherj 
ELiitJouul <!liurftc(ur tuir tuunmnl iiroliitrrturi! hrxl nji yei brcn, 
»i-i IuukI^' oWi;>i.'d lijr prumlMiioriB iQlvrcourui; vt inodom, 
^ itriproveraont;" svbetJ, botvf^vt'i', tii^Hrl/ i^vt-r)^ uiiet^Tit Uid 
bcmiblu) buitiUn^ hnd bncii long U^ in a fitatcof coiii|>hi'»- 
tive uoglvul, fco Uj^t lis *spt?ut of jrartiiJ i-uItiouBKiwa, ftrtd of 
»o^Khr,'iiioii Jroiii ti^L'viil active lltV, ^^jlvo t>j I'lufj t'diJloH a 
pcouliiur iiitorust — boll' Konuvrful, bill' aubliiuu ;^;li llml looij 
mwib Front wa4» croiuud atuoiig iLo lOugU rooke «^ vco^^^i^^ 


cottfLge* of Corawnl), until hia ejt iru wrtm*if*«iPt\ 1a fbnAH 
wUti dpilght the rmi.H luitl br^fnkis m"1 invgDliuilii-s whidi, 
to nncthtr mm^ would b»t« bt^m uflTirii^ivv ; auil tWii ^tftttd 
Willi mlirih? re.idiit4.'?ifl In comporiUoJi, Ivui aJw villi infiaito 
ufTevti'in foi' th« 1iiri<) i>f i^(il»]«ct» ho bftd to pottmjr. W waa 
ft-riE, Ui }-rG»ervL\ lu lui a1El]u^t miimii'-Tiblv series of drnwiiigfl* 
tnjcry otta Tiiade on cAe /tjjvl, iJiv a^prct b»rni?. at tbc bcgin- 
niijg of Utc Timctucuth cc^ntorjr, bj dtita wliicb, in a ftn yewa 
taurcv r«{.<il var?. or uncrx|)ectod pnMporiUof, vcro to 
mvA^, or roni>vnlr'-, iiitu notliiniTTirBs. 

It ect-ma atruugo to paa« Oom JVoiit to Joliti LcnUs btil 
tJiCro IH tluA fLiilowFkh:|t bctvcon th^ni, that ]>otb cccn to bftvc 
boon iiitciidcd tu ufij^rcciuic tliu t4i(iniotc-rtt of loreijp oouu- 
tri«« moi-o than ol' tli(*ir ohii — OAy, to Im^'O boon bom la ^g- 
IaocI cKiE-fly tbot tli« oaLDitumdQt cf Ktmiifroik^^M miffht «nhiuic« 
to tbOTu tho iiitert^t of tbo B0Ci3(ifi tliiy bud to ruprOHCnt. I 
b«lit>vd John LetrU to havQ don« moro ^tiro jmiico to dl 
InM ]R'Worf4 (and lh*y uro mnfCU^fioviiT. orio«) tbnn ODf Other 
iimii atiii>ngsi ns. HU miosion u'lt? &vi-U'nltyto porirsjtbe 
oompftrarivrly ATilmihl tlfo of tbo vouihcm <vnd r^ulnrn fkmiHiM 
of niurkiiitl. For tfiis lie a:ifi ])it'|>»rt'il in u MiincwIiHt utt^iw 
Ijir wa^— by 1>r-jri^ Ird to n.iLdy^ iind omloweil iHtli alto^etb^r 
ppiMiliiir uii|in:hL'iiHioii fjf^ lUti tnLMFr ■(]1>lin)i! rJiJirii>:t«rv of juii- 
iiial-i tbi.^iimErWi>«. ntrbErrift, RfnibrsindT', Snyiii'm, TEriloret, 
jLiid llliiUi, ZiJivi; a.]], ilk variouK wiiys iIr:twTt wild bniuit» mft^* 
nilifcui-lj ; bui ilify hiive in ^om<; surt li LjuiEitiUvd or Ucrnw- 
nuvd ihcm, QiakLiig iberu dUitr rAVL^iJOii« IV-iide or cdut^lvd 
b?a«U, tbut mould drnvr cars, vkd rc^poot for hormitai 
Hie 6u11c» i»o!utiui) of the bniuL i>utuni i tbe illgniiy aud 
^Liictnc^a of tlic mi^ht.v llinlM ; iHc *bn£:gf luoLintiUDOU 
powor, inb^L^J wicU ^ooc^ net of b flonin;; Mrc<nm ( tbfl 
etc:i]lhy TCfltfAiNt of >tnmjEUi CLnd WT;itb in (vrrj ioundlOii 
motion ol^ tliu ^^itio frame; nil thi^ nticmi ncvtr to huTO 
*ccn, mcicli Ic«h druwa, nuU \aWva dciiwi nn^ \i\MAl 

•ngravod a ftfrHcw of animttl mibjotHs, now mnoy ycari aj 
Since tlicn, he bns iltvolc^l hlmvolf trt tW p'vrtrnlturo ef tlioi 
Kiiropi>ftn na(\ Atintic mr«B, Eimnnfr whom tJm fp^minourB ^f 
oi\ Ulxril.ion ctiM. wilhout jiat Inu'M or lit i?ii«rg{<.% utkI bi whoi 
the l!erfr4.'ii»-»!«, lnf1o1enix\ and Aubdviy of anliiLa] nature m 
nHftn<'in!(*fl uilh brillinnt Tirniginntinfi ntt*T *froii^ ntnimlniii^ 
T<j llii* T:uk hi^ Ima bn^ui^ht n<]l unly lUKMiHcf p['ri'.i'pium ol 
T-lie Itiiul of oliftrr»f^u*r, liiiT powerg of anJMlral ciiiii1|»o«U1od 
like IIjo^c of tIk^ t^ri-at Vrititijinfl, ilin|iLiyiji|5. at iho »jimi 
t^ttii--, tt rtfiiivnicnt of Omwuiy :lIiuosI luEmcubtiH, and iijjpi 
usbic only, M ibo iii'inutiaT of HAtnre Jtfvlf aic fL)»i>rembli 
by tlio ficlp of iho micro»co|3i!. Tin; v»1uc\ llcTl■fo^^^, of 
vrorltfi, Wr record* of the n*pcct of the wccnorynnd utlmUl^il 
of tho south of Spiiia aiii of the EwBti in iho earlier port 
the njjiet«enth c*«iiiirj', l» <|uity above ail estimate* 

I hwrily kno-vr how to npenlc of JUiiIroiuly; io ddica^ 
oaraplciioii of drawic;;, tmd eplondor of colcir, bo take* p[i 
bo^dd John Lovifl And tb« pre^Unphaelitiu; hul lio hfls, 
tHrouphout hid career, dirptnyod no dutiLitcEicM io (fboii;o of 
Anbjeot. lie muat be nnm«d STTtoog th« pnlDt^^rt vho bav^ 
atndiod trith induKtry, imcl bmvc niftdd thoniMlvcM great bj 
doiTiff bo; but having <:btri.ineil % eDnHiiiiiTuui.e mctbod of 
ecceciitlon, he has ihronn it stnTij on siibjecifl either alco- 
geibor nntnt^TORting, i^t nbovn hU powar*, on* unfit ibr pfo* 
tonnl rt'prtMntiition. '^Tht? Cherry Woman/' oxLibitrd in 
tfinO, may be i)anif<1 aji »n rtJLnif'Ii^ of l]w firtt kiriil ; tliu 
"Btirt'lkfH atid So|iljin'' of the siwimcl (tlw dinnu^r of Sir 
WltlUiii TlioiEtLIIl i'viti'^ ulltfj-W mia»L-d] ; the ''Stvcu Ay<ja" 
cjf tilt? ihiri) ; fuT l\t» fiiibjrcl cannot bo fwiJnU^d. In U10 
irntien piiasa^, the tlLoii<«hiB ue pru^rt^raito mid eonnnrii-d; 
in ibo pirliirp they niu^t b<. co-cxUUtiU and yei se]>ai-aio; 
nor nan oil the chariutcTA of tlirr aji:^ lo icii<lGrf<) in painttiij^ 
ftt all- Ono tmy repreflcat tlit^ aoldierut l1ie4;a&u(tv\Vx^«)rv^H 
bu* ono cannot pairl the *^Viu\A)\c tc^'*^^"'*'^ ■'•?A*a^'>o» 

wliicTi coA be <tf tru« or «il«iiaJvo um. Bo ku, u^dccd. 
ud^lcrntoCKl liow to diH;ij>Iio<i but ^outuft, l>ut Dervr Iww lo 
dirt<ct it. 

Kdnin Londt^our \a iL« last tttintor Vul oue wbvm I diaJl 
nonio I I DCcd Dot point out to ni3j oaQ sciiiuiot^ with htf 
Vftrlii^T works, tlio liibor, or watcliiulnou of luUnre which 
tlicy involve, nor ncoii 1 do mom thfUi ailudo t« tbo pcoiUjir 
lkciUti«fl of liii nund, U uill ut oncv bu jfroolvii tLnt tho 
highaat moHts of hi» pictures aiv? tUroitg)ioui tl>iui-l iii tbotta 
ptinn of tbom vfhlch nva )cut liko wliAt lind bdbm boos 
at^i^ornpltsbeiJ ; nml lh:kl It waa not 1>^ tlip studjr of* I<9i|i1iiit4 
Uiiil ho nttiiinod hi» omincmt miccuv, Ijut b; si hunllh/ loie of 
8(rDtish l«rrierH. 

KoiiQ of tbo»« p.iirkti>r», liowcvr.r, ri uill ti« answered, nflt'td 
c'XHinjiIeA ciT the; ri»(< of tlir liiglit'^t liiULinnntivi? powsr 4>ot of 
dtiM? Hludj' of uiikLluni uf Caul, Be It ruini^ibcted, Tmwvwr, 
L^AL ibo jnin^'inniivi? power, in it* mogr^i ^u-ncc a not to be 
found v^vt}- iii}.^. Jjvw'a bus il uj tm mceiu dugnH!; but vo 
CMiJiiut lur[.'c to Gu-j it at iu M^Fkai uiort iIjau ouce iu »a itge. 
We Ante bud h oner, Jind inuit be content. 

Toivardfi tbo close i»f the luti cvtiUny, amon^ the Tonoot 
dnvrtngH ^vccutod, according lo tijL* quiet inauuer of tbo 
time, in gtcylnb blac, with brown iorcj^i^iind^ #omo bcgJkU 
to b*» iicliced m oxiiibitiiix ratbtT more th;ui ordinary dU^i 
lj*>n< • aiKl dcbwKiy, ai^ut^d \W Tnnior.* 'Jlicw wifl DOt^Iuft 
hov arcr^ in tbcm nt oU indivfitivo of jfrnioji^ or even of mor^ 
tliAfl ordinary mleiit, ui]]l<«« id fti>TriC' of tlio md>jo(*ttt a Ji^rn^ 
pO' oi*ptioir of iifiACtf, Aiid cK::castvc clprirncnit ■^ti dcoiirioti ju 
tbi nrmi^'t^niviit of mutH««. Gradually lutd cautioiuly tbo 
y te» boc^mt; mingled wUb ddk-ni« gi-«on, and Htw iviti 

»^4h]itijtuoLUfalLiki^-auliir«, J.ILV., wUL«;lmi4A^Pu l«ML 

riu^KAi'ii A JCLi^noy, 


geld; Ukc Lrowiii Id ttio fbr^[TOiuid btfamo firai n^oro poi^ 
tlv*. tn\t\ lli*Ti were dlighlly inlngTeH with nttier ](tva\ colorn; 
vbilo the toiiclj, A'Jiidi Imd al first licfii ]n*rivy imd kftikm, 
likv that rif ilii* onliiiELry dni*lijg iiiiMtem of tliti tlnit*, ^rt<w 
Enor^ and nmn^ rrlWd mid ripriuadvt^ tJEtLlI il li^rtc, iiMi^lf ui a 
tMi^tlkod of (rjcuuulioii ofudi too AcMatiie for Lhu «f« to fbDovr, 
riradviiiig, wiUi ;i prt-dmou tufun; uuvJUitEiplcMl, Inrlli iiif) 
temiro wi»l ill* form i>r evvrj olijcct, Tim *ljlr in.ij Imt 
considered ov jicrfeutlj fbriiied nbouL tlm yvar 1300, luid it 
nm^fd ujichArig«d for wcDiy yean. * 

During tliot period ttic pointer hud attmiftcd, uid witb 
morft or lu8a fluccfM bail naidor«d^ every order of londictipe 
aubjoct, but alwnya on the tame pi-inci^'K iubdiihig tlo ixjlun 
€f nalurtr into a tianut>uy of tvliitli tbc kcj-iiotc* tire grcjiipli 
green &n>il brotrn; puro IjJuoa nnd d^'lioato goMcu yollowH 
bciii^ udmitlod m naiiitl quaritLty, at the lovcst jukd bigh<st 
liiiiitE of vdmdc Aud Ijgbt: ^nd bright Jociii oolom in oxtrctncly 
«naU c^tuintiiy tn fi^urcv or other minor acot«4yiri<i& 

Fictur«« extwiilBtl on fcucdk A (ytilcm are not* proporly 
■iKudcingj worlu id t*oI<?r nt all ; tb^^j wq undiofc ul^ Ligitt iLnd 
ihad4<, ill i^hieJ] botb tb« tlindv Utid Uio diitULCo ura i'«nd«r«ij 
in tha g<<iier]d biiiT wTiuih brnh i^ilprra^es thf<lr nttributcft of 
4xio)iieui and truutipjhriTiioy; nnd the HgbLt nnd ihw foreground 
ani t^trt^utc-d in tbat uliieh be^t fiproHHe.i t1>i.*ir w^rmili iu4 
KcJiditfp TInEi fid\naUL|;c mair Juftt m ueU lie Irhkt'n n^ not, 
ill iliLdicjii nf lij^'bt ami hlirwlow tu bi- emeiitc^d wirb ilit- bnnd ; 
Lilt the iisu vf two, ibiAA or fi>ur uuloi'a, :dwu}.-« tii tlu^ x^nio 
rcbktiontt and plaoc.^, docs not in lEi<r )c»t GOij^titut^ tbo urork 
a study of roloi, Any mo)^ tban lie Iro^tu vjigruvb^^s of ilir 
libev Z^tudionu" ; nor would the idch cf coJvr bu In ;;tNii-ral 
mono prcsuut to tbo uiial'a luiad. wbea bo via at worL on 
one of ihi»9 drifc^in;^, llioo ^bon Iio iviu lUiin^ pure brown 
In the EnoRootiut engraving, Ifut x\i<s idea of H^atc^^ uiu^K^^Jtb^ 
fend (r^mcm hung a^i oxuxx^-aSi"^ ^x^^ifU-^^ \^ ^ <icn.^ 

tint, ind fcrfecTily expv««e«h]e by the wlmuMion of Itiree 
four, he oAkvs himnclf tKia ndronUftc vhcn tt b ponJbJ% 
without m tlio ](ii£l vmbarruMiJi^ hiouvlf viih U113 dccoaI 
c^lor of tbo objocU to bo r^pTo>cnt4Mi. A aIodo m ihi> lor^ 
gruuiitl niTKlit ia nnturo Iiilt« b'sca cold grey^ bm it will b< 
cimwo Titivcn-tbelttsa of & rkt browo, becouM it in m tbo hf^ • 
f^iHiml ; n hill in iho dJAtfkrioo might in iiuture bo purplo iritb 
buntli, or gotdt.-n witli fiiryc' ; hut it will bo Ura«ii tivvortbttkiv 
of a <]Qo] gTL*}S beoftiue it !« in tho cliAt&ncv. 

Thin At lesun A'AJi tho gnnm-iU th^orv.^-carri^d ont 
j[T-uat Hevtrily in many, liuth of llie ilnwuipi Bntl picturo* 

nti^il b^r him fliiihig ibnpoHml: In oiKi^n mniv or 1 

modincil lij t1io i^iitiniti hitrciiliit^irin (iri3i>bir, nx tbo pnia 

fblt hiFi liWity ruf.Triflsiri^ : I'ur ihi- njslvrii n^is vviiieully ticrvisr 

OOTiMdi^n^l ;u llfiitTf or as ^inylliint; mutrt Lh:Ln a inuun of pro< 

ir^^itM; the ci>uveiilloii:iI, easily mmtufftiible oolor, wu lisibt/ 

,'Adoptod, only that hif mind ini^ht be &t p^rfvcl Ubart/ M 

f»d<1io» Jlmdf to the M^uircm^nt of tho flnt uiiil luuttt ueoe»- 

riuy knowledge in uU art — that of form. Dot nn Ibmi, 

laHiUcapi.% iitLpUoti VAiit Uulk ;uiU ti|>iic^ tho bnv of the 

wU)i4i vitAblud liim b«M to cijintAS tlitm, uia AL'rLuji]|y Mim^ 

linry trO tho mors drawing ; nnd, thcTcftirt^^ not only pontile 

[:|ibb% but even uccie^?<flry, wliilu more briNUnt or Tjincd tuili, 

WCTC never mdHlp:^iJ in, <.'X4:q»l when they ini^t he iatro*\acKd 

witboiLt the 9li^ht(?«t hunger of diverting hw mind tor an 

istoTii l^^otii his |;irincipnl obj^oi. Aud, ihcr«1ori^, it will b« 

f^ei'Jitly found in tho worlta of thLt [rotiod, Umi exiLotly in 

firojh)rtiou to tho inipurtuuco and j^euoirul toil ul thi' ccmpOM- 

tjon, \* tho Mvvrity of iho tint ; irnd that Ibo pln^ uf u 

b<K;iiii to chew itw^Lffir't in flight uni irunll drntvinff*, wh«r^ 

ha Ibit th.ii li« cmild owily veuiirv iiU Tlut. )io x^antof) in bnn, 

Hiuii iha "CiouQiig lhi3 Bl*ool^" su)d Hiicb ntbor 4>hkbcrBlo 
■ml bu'gv eonipiHition*, ttrc !i<i,iittl]y fi-dnteJ bi nuthit^^ but 
gt9/j brovu, uid blue, witb u ^oinx. or *.«<* «iC w^or*. Uv 4] 


noloT id the fiffiiTM; but b the minor drawinp, ton^cr pt 
wi^rA of ccmplkntcd c^Ior octmr uot iin^cc^uently in camj^ 
plac«9 ; imd vran before ttio year 19CKI lie begins to i»irodu< 
il u'ith o^idont Joyfdlnoa* hii4 L>n^Liig in hU Tuda ftud ramp] 
ludicf^ jnat, lu a child, if it G»nM b? sup|>owd lo ^fdvcrti litK-M] 
by n lully dfjv<<lop(fd Liit<-LJ«rt, would caiJti->»8ty, but wiih inl 
nii<r pIpA^Lirn, fldd now and chon n tiny dish of fruit or ot3)i 
djmgcrous Iiuury it Oiv BiiTiplv onK-r of it* duily Ikrti. Thai^] 
In the foregrotutdK of Uib most severe drawing*, we not anfrt 
qucntly find htm imluJg'lDpr tii tlio liuiary of a poAcoelf ; nod 
ifl imposihie in rxprnM i.hc jojf\ilnr?*9 with v!ii(^b }n^ upr*! 
to d:!Jiign iu grjiuiifnl funa, and ditpeu wUIi hj[1 peudllirii 
die bloom of 1u blue, nfler he bse worked tbrorrgh tbe atei 
(leTiul of liin itTn^oH uotorlr.t;^ di'ivwini:. A i^izibow i* jLnottiai 
isf bin EuotiC &tjijU(^iiOy pt^nuilCt-'d iijilul-;^'uct^!a^ ojjd wtr fiii 
hI);Q Tury cni'ly JiIloivirL^ tbc cdgi?s ^f hxit cvnTtiTi); clondn to bi 
Loucbcd with floEl Toso-color or gold; whil*, wheiicwr thfl 
liuo« of riut^trf} in anywi*o f^dl inio bia tyatcm, and can bo 
GALight witKout a danj*croua dcjtnrtunj from it, lie ioHl^utl^ 
throws hi!( ^'liola pioiil into tho futhfiil n^ndorin^ of then). 
ThLi9 the uqujlI brown tODva of bis fon'^'round boooino U'arivi^d 
)uto Budden vigor, nnd nre vfttiod smd onhnnf^cd wjtii ind» 
soribablc d«Itf,'bi» tvli^a b« finds bini«(>(f by tb<j aboi-e ofa 
rxoorland strpam, wU^rn tfioy truly eiqirrsui the *ta3n of it 
gfiliUn roii.\t% and lbi.« darkii<«>A of \lf dear; Oidm^nrm-tilci 
pook, nrid ibfr iimml htrt^iily ofbiM ucrM blnn tJi iTnrif^bnd ini 
tb<t HofYiiesf* mid Otptb of Lbti Kippliire, rtlicu il ramleqwii' 
ilie tli^cLiLii^ nliiijjWr of Aoni<; HigMand Inke, or tr-mpcr tUfl 
l^loomy »hndow» orih<; crpuliig upon Its bllla, 

Tbe ityKtein of bi* oi^lor bcirit; tlm^ MmjililieJ, he coiili 
Ai]ilrc»» aJ) the tdi'cnsth of his mmd to the tLOi^umufotion 
ati f^lA of foitni btd cU<jicc of subject, iuid Ids ini-thodt 
of troatnunl, art tlitrufoi-o aa vuiiatw ua tU *ifiVit \v*flGft-\^*\ 
mid it U HOC a UuIq difiicult^ tt^'(*i\\i*i^w*^'= %\w.V>v\**. 

i>i(a-H Ai-iu Kunut, 

qnointcd with hi« vorlu, on idoa oitli<:r'of tltdr infiiuttida 
of aituft. )n lh<> ori^ hand^ or of th« kind of fb^ling irliicli i>«r- 
V3ad«t thora iill» on ibo oUior No wilyttl w-n too low or too 
li&i^L for Y\tn \ wo 1)ti4 him on$ dfty haM at work on n ooek 
•ti'l hon, with thoir IHmily of qlTicrk^n in a fiimi-yttrd ; sti'l 
bringfTig nil itii- rvltniMiii-iit of bU exvctJtSori into |>Uj to 
OxprciRn the Kixtnrnof thf» pliinnfl^ft; npitdfljrho l« drawing 
thv l>ragoa of CoIoIum. Oa<- hour \iv is rniiuh iutri-uateil in 
a (;uet oP nlnr] bloning nway ah oUl wonijuj^cap; tL^ Dei:t 
hii is [luiiitiiig the fiflb pl/igiic of Hlgytit. Ercry boidjtcipo 
|iAuilor bcforo liim bnd aoquircti di^Cinclion }>r cooliriiiig Lbs 
efforts to one vI*uH of subject. IlobbJniak painted ookji; 
Ruj«dael, wntcrialte ftnd copectf; Cuypi nv*sr or mcA<loir 
nocDca ia qiufrt nt^cmocnd ; SalvBtor tuid i\»u«D, null kinJ 
of tuouutaiii Hconory iis pocpio oc^uld ooaooiv^ who Uvod la 
towTW in tho t«vo])tottnih ecatMry, But J tun well f«jRindod 
thnt if all tho worka of Turner, up to ttio }'«ir 1830, wore 
divii^Qtl into ffiiumcv (lie h« Leu himit^Tlf divii)<.^ th«m in tli^ 
LIbcr Sti]dIortiTn),DO freponrii^r^noe i^iild boDftiigiiod tooito 
cl-tiii over another. Thar» ii; ftrchiu^trirtr^ mdndlng & lATgo 
number of furmiil ^* goiil1emi<n*i iii'Mt^,'* I Hiippovo dmwingf 
(jommimiotjpd by the omi^rB ; ihm lonliind p!uc|or«l scenery of 
ev*irj Uuil. iuduJiiig tieiirly jiU fanu iog upuutii^, — plough* 
injf, hATL'oiritiff hedging and dllchlrti^^ fchmg ifi'Cf^ iJie«|>> 
wuhin^, and I know uoi ^L^it d4«; thru ull kinds of tofto 
life — couit-ynrdj of tnii», nortiiig oi' moil cCAOhctf, inl«riora 
of*Jioj>B, houi^v-biuEdif^gfl, lUirs, clcoliuua, ^c; tbea all Iciodi 
of itmer dom&itti: lifo — intouora of room^T Bludiee of cofturoi^ 
of iUil lifV, mid tiortddry, itiduding miiliitudcflof vjmlraUoal 
ngnt^tlOA; thi^ri niiirijifi econery of «\>:ry ktrjd, fulJ o4* locuJ 
iBaidont ; avbvy kind of bout fuid mtrthod of tiflliin^ for pftr 
tioulnr finb, boln^ E|H>dlioal1^ imwii, round lb« whoU cot«t 
OfEiiglAitd; — pTlc^FmrJ fiB?LiTig jxt St. I vch, whiting fiidtmg M 
Uju^bU^ herring At Looh Fyn«< &nd ^E kindd uf ahi|k|*!og^ 

rnx-Kd r It AnLmAif . 


inolTirfing itt.Tii^l^ of every (iq>,ir;it« pin rtf tlin vrwitci!*, sni 
iimcy mnriuc bILlll(^p)cC4a^ tuu In ji:iilicuhkf uf Trtifulg 
botli olMiyi iii)j'OTia.n(;«, — uneof thir Vict.ury aOor ilie hatt 

in liLi uwu galli;ry ; Un'U all lunUs of uiuuuiaiii seciiwry, wj 
UvuLiw'd Lito CO ;ii]}0 Action V oiIicj^ of dcti»itc 1o«alitia»| 
Icgtihtj inEh clfkamcAl computtitioits Hoi»l'4 find Caitfuuroa 
Aud «ucb oilitrs, by the myriad, T^-ith mytljolo^col, hUtoric^ 
6r nUc^j-icii tigurcEt^ ^oymplui, tD<jiifetGr&, aud sj'Cctroa; 
borocft ftnd di\irtitki»L* 

Wbftt gcaoraJ fcvlxD^. it may be jukod incrodulouAly, 
poadUy pervade nil IhU ? Xhiti, tt« greatest of all f«^nga — 
■a utter Jbi^etfalnUtt of bci[£ Tbroujfboat tUi^ uZioU pvnoJ 
with wbich w« s^Tis ai prsAOJit coneerii«>!l, Tarner appean a« a 
man of tyiDpiitby ubnolutol/ indiutc — a tyiupatby nf> nll-anu 
brflcifkg, timt I kuoHT uotblng but Uiut of Sbukspoan* eo 
jmrnUc M'itli h. A noldiitrit wilVi rrmlng hy the roadil^le Ei 
not iMJiieiilh it; Iib|)ah llii? dttnjjliur of Aiuli, w;ildnng tho 
duad liodim of bur «on% not above ll. Killing eaji po^MtiLty 
beunncAa tka ibat U will Udl uilcrei^t bU wboli: niiEid^ Aail 
carry 4W^ biA ^vbuli: Leari ; uutUtuj^ 8l> ^ri^4it or biiWiiiu but 
that be cim rtujie hlniRcIi' into harmony with it ; And it it im- 
poMible La proj^bt»y of him at any Dioiucutk whether, tbtf 
uext^ be TviU be in kufhtcr or in tea ret. 

Tbia 10 the loot of the inajVn ^^rvatjio^; and it follows M 
iruittcr of coiino that thU «ympaihy mu^t j;;ivc hini a hijIiIo 
fKi^er of eaipruv^ori, even of Die «haraciera t>T mere in^t 
tbingt, inah ah no othc^r fmlnt^r over posMaod. The in 
Vbc <«D \Mtl foel ibe dfllbrvnco biftwv«u rQileiLem uitU tvnde 
ii«u In hiuuariity, ]>erce'iv(>« uUo inoi-r 'lilfijf^LJoe bic4w«en 
branehofl of an oak and a wilioT tJuui any odd cUe would 

* I ilKtll fWs a (dlAfupn fJHMAflf of tU trtM Ic tli« thtnl voli 






niK-iuriT A KLrmir. 

actdi thyrufort, ni^ccdKinljr the mcsit irtTiltbc cliaracler of tbt 
drawing ihi:n^«clvoa b tbo apecialiiy <*f whawivcr Uict rvpro 
AuiLt— tliv tbuivugb itillhcvsof whAi b utifl^ und t;r»M of tiIuU 
u grajHiTxtlf iLnd rft^tD^mofwbat 18 vast; but Uirongh nnj b«- 
yondull tbisihoconilitionof ihomind of the pnuitM' biioMlf it 
eiudly visou;;!! Ji«coverablu by oonijittrldon cf a large numbef 
cdf the dmwingi^ U i« aingularly ii«ir9nd and |>«ic«lbJ: in 
luclf qiiUv pzutionUai^ tbouj^ oiit«viaj« ivitb on>« into titn 
ext«i'nal pn«i4i<»D wtilch It c<jnt«mplaltfft, By ih« oflbrt of iU 
will i^ ityin|itLitiutu( witli tttniult or dittm^ rvun id Ui«>lr 
extfi?mr!ii4, liut tlipri.' U no iiiTnitU^ no ^orrcHr 1ii \iu<\f, trnly n 
clinMi'nrid j;nd ri'L^iiiiuU*]/ |iL<iif i^ftil ohi^L^hliUieiis, dL-(.<pty iiHTiti' 
taiivu; tL>ud]vd wUliOLit lusaor lift own t<<iiftfcl ioljiuoe, by 
ndiicM oil tlir oite itdr., ami stooping to pl»vf\jlMi»< upon tliQ 
Other. 1 ebull ui^vav ccieac tu n^grei tli« dcvtnicUon, bj fire, 
now acvoral ycajs ago, ofa drawing ^-liich always Sfcmod to 
mo tfi Le ibe perfect image of ti^« puctcr^s aund at ihu 
period* — the drawing of Bri^^nal Claurub near Hokebjr, 
of wluch a feeble idea may still be ^hcr^d Irom tho engrav- 
iDg {in tlio Yorkaliirv 0eriu«). 'Fha aputilfttor vt^irida on tho 
*' Ungual hiukV' looking down luto thoglcL at twili^tt ; tbo 
Nk J ia siill full of soft' ruyft, though the eiui Ia gone; Doil tho 
GrvlA ^tan^^a brightly la tho valley, ou^mg lu evon-flcitg | 
two while olonds, following each oihcr, movo witliout wind 
tl^rough tho holloviG of tlie ru^lno, aud otLi^Tx Iiu couched on 
tJie Ikr Away nioorlrLnds; vxpry IviLfnf the wochI* ii i^lill In tho 
dclioate nJr; n bi>y*i klu\ lucrupublv of H^tngf hn< boconio 
«ii1ui»gl('^ iit ihrlr bi^ancbffl, lip iii clhubing to i^^r^vw it; 
fUkd Jnnt bfhiiiil \l in tho picture*, nlmouL imlicattid by it. iho 
towly cVmrrh isttf-c'ri in il8 wHudnl tlL^ld tn'tueon ihe rocka 
and tlidhlriijini; ;liii1 urmmd it iho low chai\>hynril woU* nod 
dJ« fnw white' Hlomu whiciU lunrk ih** rmttiijf |jbi;L-a of lliuAd 
who<wi olinib Lhi< rock^ no uaor«t uur hear ifao tiv^ sag 

mc^r^ m A xlttts v. 


Then aw mnny oihi»r PtTming ilmft'Ini^ nJiiuTi inclliNite ibu 
■iitnp c?hari(^L*r of miiKl^ l.hiji»gli I tli'ntk )nJrpn *o luitrhing or 

llifin Uione which uTcprt^^n Jiw lytupalliy nittiMiliUmorornior* 
anUvi^ HLV'riQi; but iUvy Jiri' uLikmI dwa.vs nujkvd by a Un* 
ilt^rueM of ^xccuiitjn, and Imvo n look of bcmjf bc1i>%'ctl m 
every pari of tht*in,ivUcb ahowa ibew tobo lbulrue*t cq^rc*- 
Bjuii cf bU ovtn fcvlinfiH. 

(Jnc other chiLtootoriirttc of hia mind flt tlu§ |iori(xl rom^ni 
to be ii<rti(;cd— iM rcTcrcEico for tnlcnt in othora. Isot tho 
rcvorcnoo which iwt* upi?n the prxotioc* oF men na if thoy 
wt^ro Uio taws of iiatnro, b(itih«t wLioli ia ready to Approoiat^ 
thQ |>owor, luid rvoiiivo Uiu oAtLeilniicii', of every mind wbidi 
hiu booTi pro^'ioiuly cmployoi) in t)i« mnkd direction, bo f^r M 
lU torching iict^na lo ht ccuiciitt^iit with tbu great toxt-booh 
of iiitiifo \i»M Tiifiier thiift niidlcrl nlmon e\*ry piwwdlng 
IfiniUcapn puinior, rhirHy Cl.iUi^n, Ponndn, Vand«vpldfl, 
Louth vrboiirg, and Wllnun. It wu« prolKibly by l}i6 Sir 
Gi>org^i Buaumofitji and (itbcr f(K:Mu coTivci)Ui>nnIi^a of tbc 
[icriod, that bo wm pcnnadvd to d«vot« Lii aitvntUir to Ut« 
worbi of tbcso m^; and bia bavin; done »o will be thought, 
a fiM- icurots of )MMirs hcoioOi ^deno« of ptrL^Lji^ Ibe grecitcet 
[iLodc«ty cTcr thovrti by a nmn of oHscinftl power. Mode«ty 
at onoc nduur&bld uid unrortun^Le, fur iho !itiidy of tbt; worlc-i 
of Vandevolda nnd GlAude wju produotivo of iinmtxod mi«- 
chkf to him \ ha apoiluLl many of ht« mariuo potarvn, «« 1«r 
liiatanoe I^r^l Ktlesjuere's^ by imitation of ihe forniur; nnd 
from tbo !»ttt*r Iwinicd u fuJiw ii.lval, whioh oonfimi^d by th« 
uotlons of Qredk an piev^tl^nt in l^i^ndon In ih^ boglnoirg of 
lUiH ccittfttry, h.ii4 nmiLifoslM itsi-[f in runny vu^i^iiiirt^ In hU 
CoinpOHix3rkn pif^iELrvsi, vnl^^Lriu^i. wTiii^h m',iy jx'ihep^ ha butt 
ezpt^sSf^ by lUu gtiuenti term "T^v](1keuh(vn Ola^ddnn^** a« 

lyixihUticiy jjiiiK^ipjtUy ill i.i/m:4?jiUi^n* of Hnoi«iil ur of rriml liffl 
■udi AS Uav* iullutiuutfd liiu orcctiuu of moil of oui kabiirbaa 


rB»4unr A summ. 

Anhnrdinnti^ rli^mtMit m Uii* cDiitposkton; the autiOnail wim 
hunt i>r the ^rjLtilu? pruLuoiitoiiotfe lb« dull riOD« cotur of Uu 
vrnlli i-if llitT buiMirt^ c^Iciirly oppoud', rvcci ia iih:i<1«i, to lJ># 
gn^jr t>f Uiu iiiow vrruftttiA I]<;;ipeil a^iiinat tTieni. and Cbv faliii 
gnwna uil ^havtly Muc-' of the clm^cr icc^ iKing »!} ex|ii 
wIlIi do]lOJX(^ic« oflnkiisiliijuutirrly anexnxnf ]l«d in uiy |»r64ti 

Th<MC| 4C0ordk|;ly, oro tiic oUtcf cii^irncloi*iitic« of ilio worltl 
of Tuukt'o ttccond pL-riod, m ^LuUngxtUlto^l frt>ui Ui« firMt,— « 
nov on^i^ hihciTvDt in l.ho iniod of tho pftiiit«r, dimutiidiifig 
the ri-|>oK* ftnd uxaHlrfg iho forM and fire of Me ooiicoptuKUf 
aitd tho prti»eno4 of Color, u At IobjI Ma ooontbl, ini] <iAcn 4 
priucipftl, <»lnmant of d^'iign. 

KDt that \i U inipo«i«11)le, or «v«ii utiitmil, to fin^ dmwijigs 
of »pivna imbjii<?t, imd prrfr<n1y qitioc fi^oUncTt rnnnng tlie conw 
poaitlonsof tlii0|»e>riiul; Wt ihrj rtpoM ik in [hpiiii Juwt tu tb^ 
QUtir^ &nd tumiilb vram in thvi i^irr prnnd, itn <>xtj 
qmditjr^ wUcU the ikiidU'i lii]tLj*i<» liy an i-fforl uftlcti wiH: 
[>noIaognr»otmu«'UTinh(.T<nT, inijirniulf. ITio^'Uilw^tOT,^ 
iiL the Eng)iJ,nd sic^rioi, n one of ihouc wUch nre b moeit pur- 
ft^ol pi-acr : ui llie " Caww," tin' sJl^inja isonly Ifrvtkvn hy Um 
drwl* of the bont'* oar*, nnd in ino "Alnwick*' by u vtag 
drinking; but in at lubst nlno dravbigsont of tontcitli^r aky, 
wntrr, or tif^roi nrv in riipid motion, ruid the j^iuidfiit dm 
iiij^ am alm<v«t alvnys tbo^o wliiob hftvo «v«ii violent 
in oi»o or oihop, or in rII ; o, g, high forc« of Tw^ CoTonI 
JJunthciny^ SiEi-ibiiryf LTnnbi-riM, iiri<1 ^uf^b oilh^ic 

Th« oolr*r w» however, a nn>i« aWliito dijiiini?iion ; luid 
luiin r*tiirn to Mv, Pnwlcc-fl'h eolloptbn ia order to wo hoi 
lh«t r1trtii^L> in Ii wiia c^ffi'i-ii'ti Thai «iinh » f'hftTig^ wonTd iftko 
plfLMi nt one liin<? or olliiir wiLh of i^nitme tn iu- Hdfiitn^ly Anil- 
rlpat4>i1, t1ii» ftAUTr-nrion.ii «yiuo<Tii of The l^int ppiiod being, na 
nhavtT Hintcil, riK^rtly a ini'^tiiK of Sliidy. Bui lliii EmmedlsiM 
wuw w:u tliu Juuruej uf tW ^our JS20. Ab tiiiglil bv gmuaod 

ill: M 


from Oj* L-i^nd un tlit <]riHJi)|; bIktvv OncKLiei]. *' Pasting* 
€f MonX C«»^ Jariitibty 13tK 1820,** iW >Wwii^<,' r«pro!4CQt« 
whitt li.i^pctnt'^ on Uir dnj in qiicvLiou tc the pninUrr hiinjuilf. 
Iltt pvaitJ lh« Alps tJ>cri iti Uk- winlei' of tS20 ; atiJ 0Lt1i«r id 
Itio prci-iuiis or MkWii[iii-iit »^iiriimor, but on tho «ain» Joi«mcij« 
be mntlu a *oiic»i of «kcirhrai *>n t.bu Tlhuic, i» b^y col^r* noir 
ta Mr, Fawki'd^d coTI-^ctiun. E^crjr one of ihosu blcciolic^ li 
the JkliDOflt uiAtantnncoii" rcror4 of ±n ^«cf of color oralmo* 
npbcrc, taken ntricUy from nntarc, the clrawinff ind tUo detjuls 
of avtrf bubjoct b«ing oompanulvisljr «ijbor<liii&tOi oih^ Xh9 
color nearly na prindpi^ ns the lifibt urnl kh&do biul boon bo- 
ror«, — oortrdnly the leculiog funtnro, though Ui« light nml 
«Hnf)c nri^ EiH-ayn rxqiiihiinly h»rmonixod with it. And ll■tl^ 
rally, HE tlie oolor buoouKa thu luHjing obj^ot* tbot» timn of 
day aro chM^ in which It U tnc^t lovoly ; ttrni wborauiolbra^ 
ftt lotvt fivo out of rix of Tttmoi^t dniu'iui^ r«|iro«i-Dt4>d cr<!i- 
ntry dAyltght, w« now And hii; Hlfmiioii dir^^i^t^iJ ncmnnnnily 
to tho evening T »ncl, for tho first time, wa biTC lio*o rofliy 
Uj;tifA iipun t}i<> hiir^ t1i04^ gor^doUH fjillftof hum llirongh darn- 
ing livavonis thoiM) Hokmn tH i1ig}il«| Willi tlie hhia moon rifting 
an tli« w<^Mt4jru sky grows Jjin, ubicli lijive t-vvr tauim lufvu 
ihc themes of hill Tnijj^htic^t ihougbl«, 

t h&re iiij rioubi, thuL tht: iininttiiatc reatfon of tliia ohwijjfo 
vtiM the imi^rcAUon laatio upon Itrni by the ooloni nf ihr oon> 
tinait&l ftkios- When Lo Gr>it imvtHed ot tbe Continent 
^leOO). ho wiw oompftrntivcly n yoans Btfidcnt; not yU ahiti 
to draw form tu he wnntt^l, ho wiu Ibre^ to KivoflU his 
thouc:hT« nn'l atcoa^h to thta primary object* Hut now h*) 
wa<« fr«« to rcedvo other iinprc(«i>.iiiii ; tlio timo jrti9 oomo f(*r 
jitrfccting hU nil, uii<L tiic fii'tt ttuuiot which ho itnw on the 
MW tangV't him ihjit all pr«vioii« bini.U4'a|io art woe vahi 
wX vflIii«1c««T tbnt in ooTiipni'itum wiili natural oolor, tlie 
ihingi th.1t hiij) b4?en calk'l {Kunilngi wore naero iiik oaJ 
obaruMJ, utd tlutt ftll prvov-lt.'jit wad aM ncthority rauM b« 



tJn' lEirmorit'N (U' VuuJrciTMe nnil Cliuulu W4nt ni. ^kk* 
WCL'OvO QUt vf lEh- i^rrat aiijiU UiL-y Iiad tsicuoibc-iiHl ; llvrjr 
end a\] the ruU1>Uli of iLc <cUoolft Ur^tlirr ui;U iki^m; ihe 
HTAVcsor iho Rliitii? auvpt Uirm away for ci'ur; mnd ft 
dairti ro«& over tli« roclE« of ihe Sicbcngebir^*. 

TTicrc VM nrfcolbor mntivc at work, wltidi tvotlmtd ibi 
change still mi>rc complete. Tlu fellow artijiu <ivfo airexid 
«0li«ioiu «DOUf;li of hbt ftLipvnor |>ow«r in tlrawiDg, ani U 
bc:tt hope tfibS, th.^l he mi^Ht not be able lo color, T1i<rj I 
bi'gan to cxT>rv0s tbifl hope loudly cuouj;h for it to roach tdi 
cnnt. The cn^ravor or ouo of his inon importfttit mariti* 
]>ioturcfl told mo, not long tkgo, tlint one day about tlic period 
m qiiMibi^ Turner oano iiilo bie room to vxnmino tho 
|M^gn<tf of 1I112 phto, Rijt hflvinjs «opn Int ovd picture for 
seToral monthfk It wiui one of bin durk tftrljr piotorvc, but in 
tlio foreground vat 1 littlo pi«o« of luxury, ft pcmrly ttAfa 
vrrongbt intu hutM liku tho«c of anopu.1 Uu utood bcforo Uw 
|iIi^HiirnfiirKnTnnirnmonrA; tben UiigliniTp ami pointed Joyouid 
t(j ibe fi^h J — **Thyy aay llml TuniL-r cunt iM*lor !" imd ttt 

Uotlrr tb<f Cirrp of ihaut viiriomi iinpiiljic* Uin rliargn 1 
tOlaU Sirrry utif^Jft't Uioierfifrlh iwu jfrtmiirify oonorivMrJ 
Of}ti/r f atul nu i^n^invin^j uvur ^avo ibu bliglitisiit tdmW', 
dtAWinjc i>r tbijt ]x i-itkd. 

TUi.' ai'tttirfa uhu liad any poreqitioii of tlio tntlli wm? Id 
^eqHur; tbv DcMtmoikliltiif, eluflicnUitfli And *^owIfl|>ecIe»** i 
gctieral, iti aa moch bilij^nntion m tl^oir dnIncM wa« vnpab] 
of. Tbcy hii^ dcliWraicly olo^vd tTieir c_ve« to aH tKiriir<r, aji4 
littd ffotic ou in^utriiiir, ^^Whcro do you put yoLir browi; 
tree,*** A viM' r«voIatioD woh ntndc lo tlicon «l <]u»^, <;(iouf[1i 
tohftTftdAoIcd nnyonp; biLt to ^i<vn, licht uDcnd^ira1>1e aa 
iDooinprch9nstbk\ Tlivy ^* dii to iIlo nioon oomplom," in one 
vouil'iTouAi uu!iniiiLcn8, <«ntu^uous **Xu wLoo.** Sliri 



TOfQ Iron »U 4w''k plac«i tt tho «ini& icsum^ Juit the* uuu« 

Tboae gloriooB dd Aritlunn NIgliU, how true ihay ur^ I Mock 
ri^ HTiJ w1iif<|kt<nrt^, uni] ^bDHi^ lonrl ptrid low by lurnSt fVoBi 
:it[ tliu lihu'lt *ttjriti> kn^ilii tli<^ zi.»;ii), wlu^n one liking houI il 

toiling up tlu! kill to gi;?L lUugufdcu wutvr^ Mouktug itrd 

^^iibpcrliig, tkiL ]]« itiEty ]uf>k back, a»d boconicr a bkck «tono 

Turner loi^ked not b^L-k, btit ho w«nt ou m suoli it tviuper 
asftArong lu.iu mtiflt boivi, when he U IVrrccti to walk with 
hvB fin^ri ill liU tuxra. He rc1ir«'l into luctHclf ; bo couJU look 
no longer for help, or cc^unnol, or nymparliy from nny one; and 
tliO 8|jLi'it ot' >iviiuri<jv iu nbic}j Itc wha tbrood to luboc Icil him 
Komcumi9 into vJoluiicc?, trnm wtii^h tho «lightust cxj>romon, 
of Aym\mihy ^oat4 hat-o flavcd him. Tho new 4)n-«f)^y UjuI 
Wjw iip&n biir, ard tli? ntlar iioIatioD into wbioh Kn wtui 
drivtrri, wt-rc boUi iiUkv duiig*rt>u*^ aud umny drflwing* of ibo 
lime flhow tbo «vU efTtiut* of both ; some of tbom biding baary, 
wiVi, or L*iju*rink<^iktiLl, iind utbtirn liuli* more ihiux luugniflctoit 

eXJirt«^0l|HOril4?fiuilL-L< of pllblio Cl|lltltOlL 

But ttU bavB tbis coblt lirtut-^lbvy ntv bi tivcrytbbjj Liii 
own; there aic tio more T«miiii5c«noci of dead mii^LvrA, no 
mcktc tricil^ tii MH Li tJie niiumer of CUutle cr Pouamu ; crcry 
faculty Lif \iia Auu] lb fixvd u|iou u^Lurc only, jid bu fiaw bor, or 
M he rcniembcrcd her, 

1 haw fijMiki-'U ubovv of bu gigai^lb: memory : it is D^pccioHy 
n<^ovd3Ary to noiiec tiiJ*, in onJcx tljat wc may andcr«taiid tho 
kind of gTa«i> which a mn& of real imajcination txkc% of all 
ihiiif^ tbnt UTV ouov brou^'bt tvltbiu his roaoh— gro^ tbonG«- 
forth itot to bo ralftxgd for eviar. 

Onlockii^govct jiny eat&ki^ucflof biii wofki*,orof parti«jliit 
Mrtaof ih-m, voOiAll n»ii(^' ihi? r^nfronooof thoianto attK 
joot two, ihrtc, or<jvtfn many tJrnM. In nny othvrartUC ihif 
iroiild bo nothing remarkable. ^<oljnbly niodt mcxlom laiiJ 

,|mi jfttl^ Riiilllpty A fiitoHte Buljeet tveiitv« f 

p!aoo«t and "invouting," u tboj niv pl«uod t<» oall it, a qm 
**<floct'' O^Qfy titno^ Biit if wc ea:npriino llto #uc-c4>muHiA ol 
Turnor** vubjMU, n-6flkutl (idiI tLom cillk>»L* ih<> rocordu 7f i 
•acooflfilon of imprvsttijna notunlly porcc-U'cid b^ lilm At mum 
&vorite loi^ty, or «i0o rviviitiouj of one impnycAoo rccdTciI 
in vmrXy youth, nnd ngum And again r«jUi<^ tM kU innrpiiini;; 
powcrd cnAbbd bJm lo do bottor juttiuo to it. In ctithcr cMA 
we »hal1 find tliem rooordi of »m faeUj n^v^ compoMtion* 
in blft roOETi to Oil up a favoHi^ outlliic. 

For uiatiinwi, «rt?ry tmvclier, at haai ewry tfnvdfcr of 
thirty ;\Am' nijutdin^, miitat lovi; Cn1iu«, the phias vbcre b« 
lir*t fdt binisoIT in u Btmnjro worlj. l\injcr aviJt-otJj to 
it OlEeouivoIyi 1 bAvo nov-or cat-ilogiioil }m «tudi«» of CftI 
but I romomb^, At this moment, tivo: tboro in lint tb« ** 
de CalAiA,** A vory J:irg« oil p^itil»k^\ wliiob b whuC b« univ in 
broitd daytigbC as ho t^n^itvod over^ whc^Li bo Q^ot nvnr tbo 
Fraocb tide, tt U a cni^cl'id tftudy cf FiviH^b Ibiljiii^ booU 
ranning Ibr llie nhore befom tho uind, u'ith ili^ pictnr«B«f^i» 
old city in t!i(i di*ianoo. Then thtsrv u iJie "GiMsi Hnrboc" 
111 (ho LibcT Stuilbnita: ihrtt Is whut lii' ftiur jTt«t as be wm 
going \nu> thn bnrbrtr,— « bwtvy brig warping ont, and tery 
likuly to j^-t in hi* wuy, iir nni nffiiinni ibo ptcr, snd hnd 
wcHtber ijiiijuIdi; on. TIil'Ii lliei'o lu thtr '* CilIjiU Pii*r,'* ftbu^ 
pointing, en^riLv«(] florn^^ yETADi n^ by Mr. Ijfpurn.'^ tb«l li 
wfiiil lie Miw rt bt'H lie bud luiidt^d, 4111] rin Iwu'-k diruclly to tbn 
pEvr I't wt wh;iTj ir^if.1 bvromv vf the brr-^. Thtr ^^utli^ iuid 
^ol «til) wofsci tho tinbwomcn auro bcii^^ blowi nboul in t 
distruMi'ii! in^htiiitr oil lUu [tivT lit-jiJ, Jtiid !ic>uti.- monr fiAbing 
boAta ut-n' I'linitliig ia with aJI Hpocil, Tli>.-n tlictt id tbe 
H Pj^jy rAntfp^ •> Coljtia ^ ttni ia what be juw aflcr bv bod bcoi 



bomcton<«miinXanrldLnad, anil wool out ni^iniu tUo<rv«inuig 
io wftik on the laandN, lh« ti<Jo ht'mft dowo. He hnd novoi' mmi 
ftucli a w:LBi<>of ]4;»irlH boror«, aiwJ k inftdti an iiiipraiAiGij oithinu 
Tb^shtimp giib wei'Q All scAtlorod ov^r thom too, nofl nK'V«d 
about in wlilte ipou on tli« wild >b(jn>; md tlio otorm had 
lullM A little, SEiil there wm n minset — sucli a sunset, — utid tIlu 
bitre r>f Fortrongft fii;!on agiiinit il, nkdoton-wiA^, He did not 
p^nt th&l direuily ; tliouglit over It,— palui^d il a lung ^hil« 

Thf^Ei lliure h ilie vigni-*ttn in lEie illuHtnttioim tn Si^it. 
Tbal la what he t^w as Ite wah ^oiiig liomu, uii^OiUtit^lj ; mid 
the rtToK'Uijf li^bihoiinc u^imv bluAiuj; anl [i\ion Itini MiiMi-idy, 
jUid dHturL«d IkJm. llo did not. Iiki; tli:it M) iruKb ; mihdt^ a 
vignette ol" it, however, when ho was a»kod to do a bk of 
CftlflW, twenty or thirty yean al^erwArdt, Imviiig tdrondy dono 
all ilio reel. 

Tarncr never told mc nil thi^^ but Aiiy ono may soc U If ti9 
will comparrj th« pictiircH, Tiivy might, po±»bly, not bo 
LmproeetijTi^ of'n Kinglc dny, biU of two dayg or llirco; thuuj^b 
in iilL human probability thuy Wire wen ju»t tut 1 bjivc ilutcd 
ibom^* but ihey ar^ records of auaoeBaiv« ui)|ir<NdHit>aA, u 
prdfily wrJttOD sxa ever trxLvoller'u diury. All of lb«m puro 
vurilcktiea. TlK^rvforo irumoiTttl. 

1 oould muUiply those Merica almoA indorinit4dy froru tb« 
rflrt ofhin works- Whnr. is curiam, •om** nf ihom havn n kind 
uf prtvati> inEirk mnzitrij^ through alX thv luVij^ctn. TZluh I 
know three (Tniwlng* nf Sfapborough, wkI »II of thetu bavo a 
■isiiflrih in ibfl rori';^']"rtitiul ; I do iimt. n»m«mb[jrnny othem of 
tuK m;iniio Mi]bji.'<'t^ i^'liirli ImTu il h[]ii'13h1i. 

Tho other kinil of i'ii|i«iiiion — tlw r«?urr«ico to one early 
impir^on — U bnwevi^r nllU nioro rt-'inurknbTr. In thii colhM» 

• Aid C p fiijirri i^wiliBihlr hocniiiui ItinioT «m unvnr ftii^ff rf tbrfinj; lrtii|f 
it AQ7 |ilncc, Afii iTuA J'^ut or«li likvty to iiiak»« pvne «f Iwo «r iljrof dijr 



ffiB-KA^OAAUnsM. , 

tint] nf V. IT. Buli% Kfiq,^ ihirm u a na»ll ilnwing of IJuilbony 
AUm/. Tt b in hii IkjjjhIi luiuiier, aU duiv |m>tidMy ulwul 
]79fi; triidriilly a hWu.h frcm nivlurc, 1imihc4 at btim^u I^ 
luJ been ft slion-ciy 4iiy ; the killa virn* parti&lty ooncealfid 
liy tfio r^iut