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DOWN TO A.D. 325. 
































A Declaration of Faith, ...... 5 

A Metaphrase of the Book of Ecclesiastes, ... 7 
Canonical Epistle concerning those who, in the Inroad of the 
Barbarians, ate Things sacrificed to Idols, or offended in 

certain other matters, ..... 30 

The Oration and Panegyric addressed to Origen, . . 36 


A Sectional Confession of Faith, .... 81 

A Fragment of the same Declaration of Faith, accompanied by 

Glosses, . . . . . .97 

Fragment from the Discourse on the Trinity, ... 99 

Twelve Topics on the Faith, . . .. . .103 

Topical Discourse on the subject of the Soul, . . . Ill 


1. On the Annunciation to the Holy Virgin Mary, . 118 

2. On the Annunciation to the Holy Virgin Mary, . 125 

3. On the Annunciation to the Holy Virgin Mary, , 137 

4. On the Holy Theophany, or on Christ's Baptism, . 142 
A Fragment on the Gospel according to Matthew, . . 152 
A Discourse on all the Saints, ..... 153 


INTRODUCTORY NOTICE, . . . . . .157 



1. From the Two Books on the Promises, in opposition to 

Noetus, a Bishop in Egypt, . . . .161 



2. From the Books on Nature against the Epicureans, . 171 

3. From the Books against Sabellius, . . . 188 

4. Fragments of a Second Epistle to Dionysius of Rome, . 189 
Epistle to Bishop Basilides, . . . . 196 


1. To Domitius and Didymus, .... 202 

2. ToNovatus, ...... 204 

3. To Fabius of Antioch, . . . . . . 205 

4. To Cornelius the Roman Pontiff, . . .216 

5. To the Pontiff Stephen, ..... 217 
0. To Pope Sixtus, . . . . . .218 

7. To Philemon Presbyter of Sixtus, . . .219 

8. To Dionysius, at that time Presbyter of Xystus, and 

afterwards his Successor, . . . .221 

9. To Pope Sixtus n., ..... 221 

10. Against Bishop German us, .... 222 

11. To Hermammon, ...... 230 

12. To the Alexandrians, ..... 235 

13. To Hierax, a Bishop in Egypt, . . . . 238 

14. From his Fourth Festival Epistle, . . .240 


A Commentary on the Beginning of Ecclesiastes, . . 242 

An Interpretation of the Gospel according to Luke, . 251 

Another Fragment on Luke xxii. 42, etc., . . . 257 

Another Fragment of an Exposition of Luke xxii. 4G, etc., 262 

A Fragment on John viii. 12, . . . . 264: 

A Fragment, probably by the Alexandrian Dionysius, on 

the Reception of the Lapsed to Penitence, . . 265 



Acts of the Disputation with the Heresiarch Manes, . . 272 

A Fragment of the Acts of the same Disputation, . . 417 


Index of Texts of Scripture, .... 421 

Index of Principal Matters, ..... 424 



IE are in possession of a considerable body of testi- 
monies from ancient literature bearing on the life 
and work of Gregory. From these, though they 
are largely mixed up with the marvellous, we gain 
a tolerably clear and satisfactory view of the main facts in his 
history, and the most patent features of his character. Thus 
we have accounts of him, more or less complete, in Eusebius 
(Historia Eccles. vi. 30, vii. 14), Basil (De Spiritu Sancto, 
xxix. 74 ; Epist. 28, Num. 1 and 2 ; 204, Num. 2 ; 207, 
Num. 4 ; 210, Num. 3, 5, Works, vol. iii. pp. 62, 107, 303, 
311, etc., edit. Paris. BB. 1730), Jerome (De viris illnstr. 
ch. 65; in the Comment, in Ecclesiasten, ch. 4; and Epist. 
70, Num. 4, Works, vol. i. pp. 424 and 427, edit. Veron.), 
Rufinus (Hist. Eccles. vii. 25), Socrates (Hist. Eccles. iv. 
27), Sozomen (Hist. Eccles. vii. 27), Evagrius Scholasticus 
(Hist. Eccles. iii. 31), Suidas in his Lexicon, and others 
of less moment. From these various witnesses we learn 
that he was also known by the name Theodoras, which 
may have been his original designation ; that he was a native 
of Neo-Caesareia, a considerable place of trade, and one 
of the most important towns of Pontus; that he belonged 
to a family of some wealth and standing ; that he was born 
of heathen parents ; that at the age of fourteen he lost his 
father ; that he had a brother named Athenodorus ; and 
that along with him he travelled about from city to city in 


the prosecution of studies that were to fit him for the pro- 
fession of law, to which he had been destined. Among the 
various seats of learning which he thus visited we find 
Alexandria, Athens, Berytus, and the Palestinian Csesareia 
mentioned. At this last place to which, as he tells us, he 
was led by a happy accident in the providence of God he 
was brought into connection with Origen. Under this great 
teacher he received lessons in logic, geometry, physics, ethics, 
philosophy, and ancient literature, and in due time also in 
biblical science and the verities of the Christian faith. 
Thus, having become Origen's pupil, he became also by the 
hand of God his convert. After a residence of some five 
years with the great Alexandrian, he returned to his native 
city. Soon, however, a letter followed him to Neo-Caesareia, 
in which Origen urged him to dedicate himself to the 
ministry of the church of Christ, and pressed strongly upon 
him his obligation to consecrate his gifts to the service of 
God, and in especial to devote his acquirements in heathen 
science and learning to the elucidation of the Scriptures. 
On receipt of this letter, so full of wise and faithful counsel 
and strong exhortation, from the teacher whom he venerated 
and loved above all others, he withdrew into the wilderness, 
seeking opportunity for solemn thought and private prayer 
over its contents. At this time the bishop of Amasea, a city 
which held apparently a first place in the province, was one 
named PhsBdimus, who, discerning the promise of great 
things in the convert, sought to make him bishop of Neo- 
Csesareia. For a considerable period, however, Gregory, 
who shrank from the responsibility of the episcopal office, 
kept himself beyond the bishop's reach, until Phsedimus, 
unsuccessful in his search, had recourse to the stratagem 
of ordaining him in his absence, and declaring him, with all 
the solemnities of the usual ceremonial, bishop of his native 
city. On receiving the report of this extraordinary step, 
Gregory yielded, and, coming forth from the place of his 
concealment, was consecrated to the bishopric with all the 
customary formalities ; and so well did he discharge the 
duties of his office, that while there were said to be only 


seventeen Christians in the whole city when he first entered 
it as bishop, there were said to be only seventeen pagans in 
it at the time of his death. The date of his studies under 
Origen is fixed at about 234 A.D., and that of his ordination 
as bishop at about 240. About the year 250 his church was 
involved in the sufferings of the Decian persecution, on 
which occasion he fled into the wilderness, with the hope of 
preserving his life for his people, whom he also counselled 
to follow in that matter his example. His flock had much 
to endure, again, through the incursion of the northern bar- 
barians about 260. He took part in the council that met at 
Antioch in 265 for the purpose of trying Paul of Samosata; 
and soon after that he died, perhaps about 270, if we can 
adopt the conjectural reading which gives the name Aurelian 
instead of Julian in the account left us by Suidas. 

The surname Thaumaturgus, or Wonder-worker, at once 
admonishes us of the marvellous that so largely connected 
itself with the historical in the ancient records of this man's 
life. He was believed to have been gifted with a power of 
working miracles, which he was constantly exercising. He 
could move the largest stones by a word ; he could heal the 
sick ; the demons were subject to him, and were exorcised by 
his fiat ; he could give bounds to overflowing rivers ; he could 
dry up mighty lakes ; he could cast his cloak over a man, 
and cause his death : once, spending a night in a heathen 
temple, he banished its divinities by his simple presence, and 
by merely placing on the altar a piece of paper bearing the 
words, Gregory to Satan enter, he could bring the presiding 
demons back to their shrine. One strange story told of him 
by Gregory of Nyssa is to the effect that, as Gregory was 
meditating on the great matter of the right way to worship the 
true God, suddenly two glorious personages made themselves 
manifest in his room, in the one of whom he recognised the 
Apostle John, in the other the Virgin. They had come, as 
the story goes, to solve the difficulties which were making 
him hesitate in accepting the bishopric. At Mary's request, 
the evangelist gave him then all the instruction in doctrine 
which he was seeking for ; and the sum of these supernatural 


communications being written down by him after the vision 
vanished, formed the creed which is still preserved among 
his writings. Such were the wonders believed to signalize 
the life of Gregory. But into these it is profitless to enter. 
When all the marvellous is dissociated from the historical in 
the records of this bishop's career, we have still the figure of 
a great, good, and gifted man, deeply versed in the heathen 
lore and science of his time, yet more deeply imbued with 
the genuine spirit of another wisdom, which, under God, he 
learned from the illustrious thinker of Alexandria, honouring 
with all love, gratitude, and veneration that teacher to whom 
he was indebted for his knowledge of the gospel, and exer- 
cising an earnest, enlightened, and faithful ministry of many 
years in an office which he had not sought, but for which he 
had been sought. Such is, in brief, the picture that rises up 
before us from a perusal of his own writings, as well as from 
the comparison of ancient accounts of the man and his voca- 
tion. Of his well-accredited works we have the following : 
A Declaration of Faith, being a creed on the doctrine of the 
Trinity ; a Metaphrase of the Book of Ecclesiastes ; a Pane- 
gyric to Origen, being an oration delivered on leaving the 
school of Origen, expressing eloquently, and with great 
tenderness of feeling, as well as polish of style, the sense of 
his obligations to that master; and a Canonical Epistle, in 
which he gives a variety of directions with respect to the 
penances and discipline to be exacted by the church from 
Christians who had fallen back into heathenism in times of 
suffering, and wished to be restored. Other works have 
been attributed to him, which are doubtful or spurious. 
His writings have been often edited, by Gerard Voss in 
1604, by the Paris editors in 1662, by Gallandi in 1788, 
and others, who need not be enumerated here. 



(Gallandi, Veterum Patrnm Bibliotli., Venice 1766, p. 385.) 

|HERE is one God, the Father of the living Word, 
(who is His) subsistent Wisdom and Power and 
Eternal Image ^apaicrrjpo<; di'oYoi/) : perfect Be- 
getter of the perfect (Begotten), Father of the 
only-begotten Son. There is one Lord, Only of the Only 
(/Ltofo? etc (j,6vov), God of God, Image and Likeness of Deity, 
Efficient Word (\6<yo<; tvepyos), Wisdom comprehensive 
(TrepteKTiicij) of the constitution of all things, and Power 
formative (Troi^ri/o?) of the whole creation, true Son of true 
Father, Invisible of Invisible, and Incorruptible of Incor- 
ruptible, and Immortal of Immortal, and Eternal of Eternal 
(ai'Sto? at'StW). And there is One Holy Spirit, having His 
subsistence (yTrap^iv) from God, and being made manifest 
(Trefyrjvos) by the Son, to wit to men : 2 Image (elxcov) of the 
Son, Perfect (Image) of the Perfect; 3 Life, the Cause of 

1 The title as it stands has this addition : " which he had by revelation 
from the blessed John the evangelist, by the mediation of the Virgin 
Mary, Parent of God." 

2 The words B>jXa<$sj roi? dvSpuTrotg are suspected by some to be a gloss 
that has found its way into the text. 

3 So John of Damascus uses the phrase, tlx.uv rov Tlctrpo; 6 T/oV, x*l rov 
Tlov, TO HviiJpcc, the Son is the Image of the Father, and the Spirit is 
that of the Son, lib. 1, De fide orthod. ch. 13, vol. i. p. 151. See also 
Athanasius, Epist. 1 ad Serap. ; Basil, lib. v. contra Ennom. ; Cyril, Dial, 
7, etc. 



the living; Holy Fount; Sanctity, the Supplier (or Leader, 
%op?7709) of Sanctification ; in whom is manifested God 
the Father, who is above all and in all, and God the Son, 
who is through all. There is a perfect Trinity, in glory 
and eternity and sovereignty, neither divided nor estranged 1 
(aTraXXorpiov/jLevr)). Wherefore there is nothing either 
created or in servitude (8ov\ov) in the Trinity ; 2 nor any- 
thing superinduced (eVeio-a/croz/), as if at some former period 
it was non-existent, and at some later period it was intro- 
duced. And thus neither was the Son ever wanting to the 
Father, nor the Spirit to the Son ; 3 but without variation 
and without change, the same Trinity (abides) ever. 

1 See also Gregory Nazianz., Oral. 37, p. 609. 

2 Gregory Nazianz., Oral. 40, p. 668, with reference apparently to 
our author, says : Oi/feii rijj TjO/aBoj SovAoy, owie X.TIVTOV, ovbs Ivtiaxx-Tov, 
yxovaa. TUV <ro$av Ttvof heyoi/Tog In the Trinity there is nothing either in 
servitude or created, or superinduced, as 1 heard one of the learned say. 

3 In one codex we find the following addition here : ovrt at,v,i-rai ponds 
it; Sy3, ovbe Bvj tig rpioibce. Neither again does the unity grow into 
duality, nor the duality into trinity ; or = Neither does the condition of the 
one grow into the condition of the tico, nor that of the two into the con- 
dition of the three. 


(Gallandi, BiUioth. Vet. Patr. iii. 387.) 


jjHESE words speaketh Solomon, the son of David 
the king and prophet, to the whole church of 
God, a prince most honoured, and a prophet most 
wise above all men. How vain and fruitless 
are the affairs of men, and all pursuits that occupy man ! 
For there is not one who can tell of any profit attaching to 
those things which men who creep on earth strive by body 
and. soul to attain to, in servitude all the while to what is 
transient, and undesirous of considering aught heavenly with 
the noble eye of the soul. And the life of men weareth 
away, as day by day, and in the periods of hours and years, 
and the determinate courses of the sun, some are ever com- 
ing, and others passing away. And the matter is like the 
transit of torrents as they fall into the measureless deep of 
the sea with a mighty noise. And all things that have 
been constituted by God for the sake of men abide the 
same : as, for instance, that man is born of earth, and de- 
parts to earth again ; that the earth itself continues stable ; 
that the sun accomplishes its circuit about it perfectly, and 
rolls round to the same mark again ; and that the winds 1 
in like manner, and the mighty rivers which flow into the 
sea, and the breezes that beat upon it, all act without forcing 

1 T wfvftitTcc, for which some propose pevftctrx, streams, as the 
are mentioned in their own place immediately. 



it to pass beyond its limits, and without themselves also 
violating their appointed laws. And these things, indeed, 
as bearing upon the good of this life of ours, are established 
thus fittingly. But those things which are of men's de- 
vising, whether words or deeds, have no measure. And 
there is a plenteous multitude of words, but there is no 
profit from random and foolish talking. But the race of 
men is naturally insatiate in its thirst both for speaking and 
for hearing what is spoken ; and it is man's habit, too, to 
desire to look with idle eyes on all that happens. What can 
occur afterwards, or what can be wrought by men which has 
not been done already ? What new thing is there worthy 
of mention, of which there has never yet been experience ? 
For I think there is nothing which one may call new, or 
which one, on considering it, shall discover to be strange or 
unknown to those of old. But as former things are buried 
in oblivion, so also things that are now subsistent will in 
the course of time vanish utterly from the knowledge of 
those who shall come after us. And I speak not these 
things unadvisedly, as acting now the preacher (vvv e/c/cX?/- 
aidfyov). But all these things were carefully pondered by 
me when entrusted with the kingdom of the Hebrews in 
Jerusalem. And I examined diligently, and considered 
discreetly, the nature of all that is on earth, and I perceived 
it to be most various (TrotKtXfordTrjv) ; (and I saw) that to 
man it is given to labour upon earth, ever carried about by 
all different occasions of toil, and with no result of his work. 
And all things here below are full of the spirit of strange- 
ness and abomination, so that it is not possible for one to 
retrieve them now ; nay, rather it is not possible for one at 
all to conceive what utter vanity (aroTria) has taken pos- 
session of all human affairs. For once on a time I com- 
muned with myself, and thought that then I was wiser in 
this than all that were before me, and I was expert in 
understanding parables and the natures of things. But I 
learned that I gave myself to such pursuits to no purpose, 
and that if wisdom follows knowledge, so troubles attend 
on wisdom. 



Judging, therefore, that it stood thus with this matter, I 
decided to turn to another manner of life, and to give myself 
to pleasure, and to take experience of various delights. And 
now I learned that all such things are vain ; and I put a 
check on laughter, when it ran on carelessly ; and restrained 
pleasure, according to the rule of moderation, and was 
bitterly wroth against it. And when I perceived that the 
soul is able to arrest the body in its disposition to intoxication 
and wine-bibbing, and that temperance makes lust its subject, 
I sought earnestly to observe what object of true worth and 
of real excellence is set before men, which they shall attain 
to in this present life. For I passed through all those other 
objects which are deemed worthiest, such as the erecting of 
lofty houses and the planting of vines, and in addition, the 
laying out of pleasure-grounds, and the acquisition and 
culture of all manner of fruit-bearing trees ; and among 
them also large reservoirs for the reception of water were 
constructed, and distributed so as to secure the plentiful 
irrigation of the trees. And I surrounded myself also with 
many domestics, both man-servants and maid-servants ; and 
some of them I procured from abroad, and others I pos- 
sessed and employed as born in my own house. And herds 
of four-footed creatures, as well of cattle as of sheep, more 
numerous than any of those of old acquired, were made my 
property. And treasures of gold and silver flowed in upon 
me ; and I made the kings of all nations my dependants and 
tributaries. And very many choirs of male and female 
singers were trained to yield me pleasure by the practice of 
all-harmonious song. And I had banquetings ; and for the 
service of this part of my pleasure, I got me select cup- 
bearers of both sexes beyond my reckoning, so far did I 
surpass in these things those who reigned before me in 
Jerusalem. And thus it happened that the interests of 
wisdom declined with me, while the claims of evil appetency 
increased. For when I yielded myself to every allurement of 


the eyes, and to the violent passions of the heart, that make 
their attack from all quarters, and surrendered myself to the 
hopes held out by pleasures, I also made my will the bond- 
slave of all miserable delights. For thus my judgment was 
brought to such a wretched pass, that I thought these things 
good, and that it was proper for me to engage in them. At 
length, awaking and recovering my sight, I perceived that the 
things I had in hand were altogether sinful and very evil, and 
the deeds of a spirit not good. For now none of all the objects 
of men's choice seems to me worthy of approval, or greatly 
to be desired by a just mind. Wherefore, having pondered 
at once the advantages of wisdom and the ills of folly, I 
should with reason admire that man greatly, who, being borne 
on in a thoughtless course, and afterwards arresting himself, 
should return to right and duty. For wisdom and folly are 
widely separated, and they are as different from each other 
as day is from night. He, therefore, who makes choice of 
virtue, is like one who sees all things plainly, and looks 
upward, and who holdetli his ways in the time of clearest 
light. But he, on the other hand, who has involved himself 
in wickedness, is like a man who wanders helplessly about in 
a moonless night, as one who is blind, and deprived of the 
sight of things by his darkness. 1 And when I considered 
the end of each of these modes of life, I found there was no 
profit in the latter ; 2 and by setting myself to be the com- 
panion of the foolish, I saw that I should receive the wages of 
folly. For what advantage is there in those thoughts, or what 
profit is there in the multitude of words, where the streams of 
foolish speaking are flowing, as it were, from the fountain of 
folly ? Moreover, there is nothing common to the wise man 
and to the fool, neither as regards the memory of men, nor 
as regards the recompense of God. And as to all the affairs 

1 The text is, -rv^Ao'f T uu TJJV irpooo-fyiv x.ed i/iro rov ax-orovg run 
fidruv dtpyp'uft.ivos, for which it is proposed to read, rvtyhos rs uv x.oc.1 rqii 
Trpoacrfyiv V-TTO rov ffx&Vof ?, etc. 

2 Or, as the Latin version puts it : And, in fine, when I considered 
the difference between these modes of life, I found nothing but that, by 
setting myself, etc. 


of men, when they are yet apparently but beginning to be, 
the end at once surprises them. Yet the wise man is never 
partaker of the same end with the foolish. Then also did 
I hate all my life, that had been consumed in vanities, and 
which I had spent with a mind engrossed in earthly anxieties. 
For, to speak in brief, all my affairs have been done by me 
with labour and pain, as the efforts of thoughtless impulse ; 
and some other person, it may be a wise man or a fool, will 
succeed to them, I mean, the chill fruits of my toils. But 
when I cut myself off from these things, and cast them 
away, then did that real good which is set before man show 
itself to me, namely, the knowledge of wisdom and the pos- 
session of manly virtue (dvSpeias). And if a man neglects 
these things, and is inflamed with the passion for other 
things, such a man makes choice of evil instead of good, and 
goes after what is bad instead of what is excellent, and after 
trouble instead of peace ; for he is distracted by every 
manner of disturbance, and is burdened with continual 
anxieties night and day, with oppressive labours of body as 
well as with ceaseless cares of mind, his heart moving in 
constant agitation, by reason of the strange and senseless 
affairs that occupy him. For the perfect good does not 
consist in eating and drinking, although it is true that it is 
from God that their sustenance cometh to men ; for none of 
those things which are given for our maintenance subsist 
without His providence. But the good man who gets wis- 
dom from God, gets also heavenly enjoyment ; while, on the 
other hand, the evil man, smitten with ills divinely inflicted, 
and afflicted with the disease of lust, toils to amass much, 
and is quick to put him to shame who is honoured by God 
in presence of the Lord of all, proffering useless gifts, and 
making things deceitful and vain the pursuits of his own 
miserable soul. 



For this present time is filled with all things that are most 
contrary 1 to each other births and deaths, the growth of 
plants and their uprooting, cures and killings, the building up 
and the pulling down of houses, weeping and laughing, mourn- 
ing and dancing. At this moment a man gathers of earth's 
products, and at another casts them away ; and at one time he 
ardently desireth (the beauty of) woman, and at another he 
hateth it. Now he seeketh something, and again he loseth it ; 
and now he keepeth, and again he casteth away ; at one time 
he slayeth, and at another he is slain ; he speaketh, and again 
he is silent ; he loveth, and again he hateth. For the affairs 
of men are at one time in a condition of war, and at another in 
a condition of peace ; while their fortunes are so inconstant, 
that from bearing the semblance of good, they change 
quickly into acknowledged ills. Let us have done, therefore, 
with vain labours. For all these things, as appears to me, 
are set to madden men, as it were, with their poisoned stings. 
And the ungodly observer of the times and seasons is agape 
for this world (age), exerting himself above measure to 
destroy the image (7rXao>ia) of God, as one who has chosen 
to contend against it (or Him) from the beginning onward 
to the end. 2 I am persuaded, therefore, that the greatest 
good for man is cheerfulness and well-doing, and that this 
shortlived enjoyment, which alone is possible to us, comes 
from God only, if righteousness direct our doings. But 
as to those everlasting and incorruptible things which God 
hath firmly established, it is not possible either to take aught 
from them or to add auht to them. And to men in 

1 The text reads fvecvnuT^rtav, for which Codex Anglicus has ev 


2 The Greek text is, xa/pou-xoVoj Ssj TI; vavripf^ rov a.iuva. -TOVTOV ^tpix.k- 
WJttii dQctviaott i>7rtpl)iotTtiii6{<.fi>os TO rov got/ wAoto^*, f% clpx,ij tui/ry 
/us%pi TtXoff 7roA^<j/,^ii>os. It is well to notice how widely this 
differs from our version of iii. 11 : "He hath made everything beautiful 
in his time," etc. 


general, those things, in sooth, are fearful and wonderful ;* 
and those things indeed which have been, abide so ; and 
those which are to be, have already been, as regards His 
foreknowledge. Moreover, the man who is injured has God 
as his helper. I saw in the lower parts the pit of punish- 
ment which receives the impious, but a different place allotted 
for the pious. And I thought with myself, that with God all 
things are judged and determined to be equal ; that the 
righteous and the unrighteous, and objects with reason and 
without reason, are alike in His judgment. For that their 
time is measured out equally to all, and death impends over 
them, and (in this) the races of beasts and men are alike in 
the judgment of God, and differ from each other only in the 
matter of articulate speech ; and all things else happen alike 
to them, and death receives all equally, not more so in the 
case of the other kinds of creatures than in that of men. 
For they have all the same breath (of life), and men have 
nothing more ; but all are, in one word, vain, deriving their 
present condition (a-va-raatv) from the same earth, and des- 
tined to perish, and return to the same earth again. For it 
is uncertain regarding the souls of men, whether they shall 
fly upwards ; and regarding the others which the unreasoning 
creatures possess, whether they shall fall downward. And 
it seemed to me, that there is no other good save pleasure, 
and the enjoyment of things present. For I did not think 
it possible for a man, when once he has tasted death, to 
return again to the enjoyment of these things. 


And leaving all these reflections, I considered and turned 
in aversion from all the forms of oppression (vvKofyavnwv) 
which are done among men ; whence some receiving injury 
weep and lament, who are struck down by violence in utter 
default of those who protect them, or who should by all 

1 The text is, &J TIVI wv, tAX' Za-riv, lx.ilva. Qofifpoi rt opov net] 6v 


means comfort them in their trouble. 1 And the men who 
make might their right (^eipoSUai) are exalted to an emi- 
nence, from which, however, they shall also fall. Yea, 
of the unrighteous and audacious, those who are dead fare 
better than those who are still alive. And better than both 
these is he who, being destined to be like them, has not yet 
come into being, since he has not yet touched the wicked- 
ness which prevails among men. And it became clear to 
me also how great is the envy which follows a man from his 
neighbours, like the sting of a wicked spirit; and (I saw) 
that he who receives it, and takes it as it were into his breast, 
has nothing else but to eat his own heart, and tear it, and 
consume both soul and body, finding inconsolable vexation 
in the good fortune of others. 2 And a wise man would 
choose to have one of his hands full, if it were with ease 
and quietness, rather than both of them with travail and 
with the villany of a treacherous spirit. Moreover, there is 
yet another thing which I know to happen contrary to what 
is fitting, by reason of the evil will of man. He who is left 
entirely alone, having neither brother nor son, but prospered 
with large possessions, lives on in the spirit of insatiable 
avarice, and refuses to give himself in any way whatever to 
goodness. Gladly, therefore, would I ask such an one for 
what reason he labours thus, fleeing with headlong speed 
(TrporpoTrdB'rjv) from the doing of anything good, and dis- 
tracted by the many various passions for making gain 
(Xpr]fj,aTlaa<r6ai). Far better than such are those who have 
taken up an order of life in common (icowtoviav apa fiiov 
eWetXavTo), from which they may reap the best blessings. 
For when two men devote themselves in the right spirit to the 
same objects, though some mischance befalls the one, he has 

1 The text is, /3/ Kotrxftsft^/^suoi TUV lirapwovTav j i'A<y<r 

aoftiv&iv O.VTOVS waaqs ifctvcu.^&iv x,oe.Ttx,ov<nris etTrooi'ot,;. The sense is not 
clear. It may be : who are struck down in spite of those who protect 
them, and who should by all means comfort them when all manner of 
trouble presses them on all sides. 

2 Following the reading of Cod. Medic., which puts rtSiftwoz for 


still at least no slight alleviation in having his companion by 
him. And the greatest of all calamities to a man in evil 
fortune is the want of a friend to help and cheer him 
(dvaKTr)(Top,6vov). And those who live together both double 
the good fortune that befalls them, and lessen the pressure 
of the storm of disagreeable events ; so that in the day they 
are distinguished for their frank confidence in each other, 
and in the night they appear notable for their cheerfulness. 1 
But he who leads a solitary life passes a species of existence 
full of terror to himself ; not perceiving that if one should 
fall upon men welded closely together, he adopts a rash and 
perilous course, and that it is not easy to snap the threefold 
cord. 2 Moreover, I put a poor youth, if he be wise, be- 
fore an aged prince devoid of wisdom, to whose thoughts 
it has never occurred that it is possible that a man may 
be raised from the prison to the throne, and that the very 
man who has exercised his power unrighteously shall at a 
later period be righteously cast out. For it may happen 
that those who are subject to a youth, who is at the same 
time sensible, shall be free from trouble, those, I mean, 
who are his elders. 3 Moreover, they who are born later 
cannot praise another, of whom they have had no experience 
(8ia TO erepov direipcnws e^etv), and are led by an unrea- 
soning judgment, and by the impulse of a contrary spirit. 
But in exercising the preacher's office, keep thou this before 
thine eyes, that thine own life be rightly directed, and that 
thou prayest in behalf of the foolish, that they may get 
understanding, and know how to shun the doings of the 

1 The text is, *< vvx-T-upatpvoT-mi a=pvvvt<jd*i, for which certain codices 
read a^^vLr^i Qat^ovvsadcu, and others Qtuipmrrl at[*wvto6u,i. 

2 Jerome cites the passage in his Commentary on Ecclesiastes. 

3 Iws oaot irpo'/fi/ioTipoi. The seuse is incomplete, and some worJs 
seem missing in the text. Jerome, in rendering this passage in his Com- 
mentary on Ecclesiastes, turns it thus : ita autem ut sub sejie rege vemati 
slnt ; either having lighted on a better manuscript, or adding something 
of his own authority to make out the meaning. 



Moreover, it is a good thing to use the tongue sparingly, 
and to keep a calm and rightly balanced (eva-radova-rj) heart 
in the exercise of speech (ev rfj irepl \oyovs aTrovBrj). For 
it is not right to give utterance in words to things that are 
foolish and absurd, or to all that occur to the mind ; but 
we ought to know and reflect, that though we are far sepa- 
rated from heaven, we speak in the hearing of God, and 
that it is good for us to speak without offence. For as 
dreams and visions of many kinds attend manifold cares of 
mind, so also silly talking is conjoined with folly. Moreover, 
see to it, that a promise made with a vow be made good 
in fact. This, too, is proper to fools, that they are unre- 
liable. But be thou true to thy word, knowing that it is 
much better for thee not to vow or promise to do any- 
thing, than to vow and then fail of performance. And thou 
oughtest by all means to avoid the flood of base words, 
seeing that God will hear them. For the man who makes 
such things his study gets no more benefit by them than to 
see his doings brought to nought by God. For as the mul- 
titude of dreams is vain, so also the multitude of words. 
But the fear of God is man's salvation, though it is rarely 
found. Wherefore thou oughtest not to wonder though 
thou seest the poor oppressed, and the judges misinterpreting 
the law. But thou oughtest to avoid the appearance of 
surpassing those who are in power. For even should this 
prove to be the case, yet, from the terrible ills that shall 
befall thee, wickedness of itself will not deliver thee. But 
even as property acquired by violence is a most hurtful as 
well as impious possession, so the man who lusteth after 
money never finds satisfaction for his passion, nor good- 
will from his neighbours, even though he may have amassed 
the greatest possible wealth. For this also is vanity. But 
goodness greatly rejoiceth those who hold by it, and makes 
them strong (dv&peiows), imparting to them the capacity 
of seeing through (xadopav) all things. And it is a great 


matter also not to be engrossed by such anxieties : for . 
the poor man, even should he be a slave, and unable to fill 
his belly plentifully, enjoys at least the kind refreshment of 
sleep ; but the lust of riches is attended by sleepless nights 
and anxieties of mind. And what could there be then more 
absurd, than with much anxiety and trouble to amass wealth, 
and keep it with jealous care, if all the while one is but 
maintaining the occasion of countless evils to himself ? And 
this wealth, besides, must needs perish some time or other, and 
be lost, whether he who has acquired it has children or not j 1 
and the man himself, however unwillingly, is doomed to 
die, and return to earth in the selfsame condition in which 
it was his lot once to come into being. 2 And the fact that 
he is destined thus to leave earth with empty hands, will 
make the evil all the sorer to him, as he fails to consider 
that an end is appointed for his life similar to its beginning, 
and that he toils to no profit, and labours rather for the 
wind, as it were, than for the advancement of his own real 
interest, wasting his whole life in most unholy lusts and 
irrational passions, and withal in troubles and pains. And, 
to speak shortly, his days are darkness to such a man, and 
his life is sorrow. Yet this is in itself good, and by no 
means to be despised. For it is the gift of God, that a man 
should be able to reap with gladness of mind the fruits of 
his labours, receiving thus possessions bestowed by God, and 
not acquired by force. 3 For neither is such a man afflicted 
with troubles, nor is he for the most part the slave of evil 
thoughts ; but he measures out his life by good deeds, being 
of good heart (evOv/Jiovpevos) in all things, and rejoicing in 
the gift of God. 


Moreover, I shall exhibit in discourse the ill-fortune that 
most of all prevails among men. While God may supply a 
man with all that is according to his mind, and deprive him 

1 Job xx. 20. 2 Job i. 21 ; 1 Tim. vi. 7. 

3 ae,f7ra,x.rtx. in the text, for which the Cod. Medic, has 



of no object which may in any manner appeal to his desires, 
whether it be wealth, or honour, or any other of those things 
for which men distract themselves ; yet the man, while thus 
prospered in all things, as though the only ill inflicted on him 
from heaven were just the inability to enjoy them, may but 
husband them for his fellow, and fall without profit either to 
himself or to his neighbours. This I reckon to be a strong 
proof and clear sign of surpassing evil. The man who has 
borne without blame the name of father of very many 
children, and spent a long life, and has not had his soul 
filled with good for so long time, and has had no experience 
of death meanwhile, 1 this man I should not envy either his 
numerous offspring or his length of days ; nay, I should say 
that the untimely birth that falls from a woman's womb is 
better than he. For as that (birth) came in with vanity, 
so it also departeth secretly in oblivion, without having tasted 
the ills of life or looked on the sun. And this is a lighter 
evil than for the wicked man not to know what is good, even 
though he measure his life by thousands of years. 2 And the 
end of both is death. The fool is proved above all things 
by his finding no satisfaction in any lust. But the discreet 
man is not held captive by these passions. Yet, for the most 
part, righteousness of life leads a man to poverty. And the 
sight of curious eyes deranges (eft'oT^cri) many, inflaming 
their mind, and drawing them on to vain pursuits by the 
empty desire of show (rov o<j>df)vai). Moreover, the things 
which are now are known already ; and it becomes apparent 
that man is unable to contend with those that are above 
him. And, verily, inanities have their course among men, 
which only increase the folly of those who occupy themselves 
with them. 

ov Xa./3<aj/, for which we must read probably 

2 The text gives, %7rtp T$ woi/>j/s . . . oivxf*STp^aoi:f4.iyy etyetSoTYirot 
q, for which we may read either qvtp ry 

tTri'/vu, or better, . . . dvatf<>tTpYt<Tfchy 



For though a man should be by no means greatly ad- 
vantaged by knowing all in this life that is destined to befall 
him according to his mind (let us suppose such a case), 
nevertheless with the officious activity of men he devises 
means for prying into and gaining an apparent acquaintance 
with the things that are to happen after a person's death. 
Moreover, a good name is more pleasant to the mind 1 than 
oil to the body ; and the end of life is better than the birth, 
and to mourn is more desirable than to revel, and to be with 
the sorrowing is better than to be with the intoxicated. For 
this is the fact, that he who comes to the end of life has no 
further care about aught around him. And discreet anger 
is to be preferred to laughter ; for by the severe disposition 
of countenance the soul is kept upright (Karopdovrai). The 
souls of the wise, indeed, are sad and downcast, but those of 
fools are elated, and given loose to merriment. And yet it is 
far more desirable to receive blame from one wise man, than 
to become a hearer of a whole choir of worthless and miser- 
able men in their songs. For the laughter of fools is like 
the crackling of many thorns burning in a fierce fire. This, 
too, is misery, yea the greatest of evils, namely oppression 
(calumny, avKo^avria) ; for it intrigues against the souls of 
the wise, and attempts to ruin the noble way of life (eWracrtz/) 
which the good pursue. Moreover, it is right to commend 
not the man who begins, but the man who finishes a speech ; 2 
and what is moderate ought to approve itself to the mind, 
and not what is swollen and inflated. Again, one ought 
certainly to keep wrath in check, and not suffer himself to 
be carried rashly into anger, the slaves of which are fools. 
Moreover, they are in error who assert that a better manner 
of life was given to those before us, and they fail to see that 
wisdom is widely different from mere abundance of posses- 

1 Prov. xxii. 1. 

2 Koyuv $i, etc. But Cod. Medic, reads, hoyov S, etc., = it is right to 
commend a speech not in its beginning, but in its end. 


sions, and that it is as much more lustrous 1 than these, as 
silver shines more brightly than its shadow. For the life of 
man hath its excellence (Trepvylyverat,) not in the acquisition 
of perishable riches, but in wisdom. And who shall be able, 
tell me, to declare the providence of God, which is so great 
and so beneficent ? or who shall be able to recall the things 
which seem to have been passed by of God I And in the 
former days of my vanity I considered all things, (and saw) a 
righteous man continuing in his righteousness, and ceasing 
not from it until death, but even suffering injury by reason 
thereof, and a wicked man perishing with his wickedness. 
Moreover, it is proper that the righteous man should not seem 
to be so overmuch, nor exceedingly and above measure wise, 
that he may not, as in making some slip, (seem to) sin many 
times over. And be not thou audacious and precipitate, lest 
an untimely death surprise thee. It is the greatest of all 
good to take hold of God, and by abiding in Him to sin in 
nothing. For to touch things undefiled with an impure 
hand is abomination. But he who in the fear of God sub- 
mits himself (yTreiicwv), escapes all that is contrary. Wisdom 
availeth more in the way of help than a band of the most 
powerful men in a city, and it often also pardons righteously 
those who fail in duty. For there is not one that stumbleth 
not. 2 Also it becomes thee in no way to attend upon the 
words of the impious, that thou mayest not become an ear- 
witness (auTT^/coo?) of words spoken against thyself, such as 
the foolish talk of a wicked servant, and being thus stung in 
heart, have recourse afterwards thyself to cursing in turn in 
many actions. And all these things have I known, having 
received wisdom from God, which afterwards I lost, and was 
no longer able to be the same (o/ioto?). For wisdom fled from 
me to an infinite distance, and into a measureless deep, so that 
I could no longer get hold of it. Wherefore afterwards I ab- 
stained altogether from seeking it ; and I no longer thought 
of considering the follies and the vain counsels of the im- 
pious, and their weary, distracted life. And being thus dis- 

1 <pvfpaTfp, for which (pctvoripet is proposed. 

3 1 Kings viil 46 : 2 Chron. vi. 36 ; Prov. xx. 9 ; 1 John i 8. 


posed, I was borne on to the things themselves ; and being 
seized with a fatal passion, I knew woman that she is like a 
snare or some such other object. 1 For her heart ensnares 
those who pass her ; and if she but join hand to hand, she 
holds one as securely as though she dragged him on bound 
with chains. 2 And from her you can secure your deliverance 
only by finding a propitious and watchful superintendent 
in God (eVoTTTT/y) ; for he who is enslaved by sin cannot 
(otherwise) escape its grasp. Moreover, among all women 
I sought for the chastity (a-ax^poavvrjv) proper to them, and 
I found it in none. And verily a person may find one man 
chaste among a thousand, but a woman never. And this above 
all things I observed, that men being made by God simple 
(upright, aTrXot) in mind, contract (eirwiruvTaC) for them- 
selves manifold reasonings and infinite questionings, and while 
professing to seek wisdom, waste their life in vain words. 


Moreover, wisdom, when it is found in a man, shows itself 
also in its possessor's face, and makes his countenance to 
shine; as, on the other hand, effrontery convicts the man 
in whom it has taken up its abode, so soon as he is seen, as 
one worthy of hatred. And it is on every account right to 
give careful heed to the words of the king, and by all manner 
of means to avoid an oath, especially one taken in the name 
of God. It may be fit at the same time to notice an evil 
word, but then it is necessary to guard against any blasphemy 
against God. For it will not be possible to find fault with 
Him when He inflicts any penalty, nor to gainsay the de- 
crees of the Only Lord and King. But it will be better and 

1 The text is evidently corrupt : for T)JV -/waiKa,, yqv rt, etc., Cote- 
lerius proposes, TJJ yvvxtxoi, attykniv TIV, etc. ; and Bengel, itcny/iv 
Tiva, etc. 

2 x*Tf%i $ el. This use of q il is characteristic of Gregory Thauma- 
turgus. We find it again in his Panegyr. ad Orlg. ch. 6, j el *l vetpei 
ireivTct;, etc. It may be added, therefore, to the proofs in support of a 
common authorship for these two writings. 


more profitable for a man to abide by the holy command- 
ments, and to keep himself apart from the words of the 
wicked. For the wise man knows and discerneth before- 
hand the judgment, which shall come at the right time, 
and sees that it shall be just. For all things in the life 
of men await the retribution from above ; but the wicked 
man does not seem to know verily (kiav) that as there is 
a mighty providence over him, nothing in the future shall 
be hid. He knoweth not indeed the things which shall be ; 
for no man shall be able to announce any one of them to 
him duly: for no one shall be found so strong as to be 
able to prevent the angel who spoils him of his life (^v^v) ; 
neither shall any means be devised for cancelling in any 
way the appointed time of death. But even as the man 
who is captured in the midst of the battle can only see 
flight cut off on every side, so all the impiety of man 
perisheth utterly together. And I am astonished, as often 
as I contemplate what and how great things men have 
studied to do for the hurt of their neighbours. But this I 
know, that the impious are snatched prematurely from this 
life, and put out of the way because they have given them- 
selves to vanity. For whereas the providential judgment 
(vrpovoia) of God does not overtake all speedily, by reason 
of His great long-suffering, and the wicked is not punished 
immediately on the commission of his offences, for this 
reason he thinks that he may sin the more, as though he 
were to get off with impunity, not understanding that the 
transgressor shall not escape the knowledge of God even 
after a long interval. This, moreover, is the chief good, to 
reverence God ; for if once the impious man fall away from 
Him, he shall not be suffered long to misuse his own folly. 
But a most vicious and false opinion often prevails among 
men concerning both the righteous and the unrighteous. 
For they form a judgment contrary to truth regarding each 
of them ; and the man who is really righteous does not get 
the credit of being so, while, on the other hand, the impious 
man is deemed prudent and upright. And this I judge to 
be among the most grievous of errors. Once, indeed, I 


thought that the chief good consisted in eating and drinking, 
and that he was most highly favoured of God who should 
enjoy these things to the utmost in his life ; and I fancied 
that this kind of enjoyment was the only comfort in life. 
And, accordingly, I gave heed to nothing but to this conceit, 
so that neither by night nor by day did I withdraw myself 
from all those things which have ever been discovered to 
minister luxurious delights to men. And this much I 
learned thereby, that the man who mingles in these things 
shall by no means be able, however sorely he may labour 
with them, to find the real good. 


Now I thought at that time that all men were judged 
worthy of the same things. And if any wise man practised 
righteousness, and withdrew himself from unrighteousness, 
and as being sagacious avoided hatred with all (which, 
indeed, is a thing well pleasing to God), this man seemed 
to me to labour in vain. For there seemed to be one end 
for the righteous and for the impious, for the good and for 
the evil, for the pure and for the impure, for him that 
worshipped (i\a<TKoiJ,evov) God, and for him that worshipped 
not. For as the unrighteous man and the good, the man 
who sweareth a false oath, and the man who avoids swearing 
altogether, were suspected by me to be driving toward the 
same end, a certain sinister opinion stole secretly into my mind, 
that all men come to their end in a similar way. But now 
I know that these are the reflections of fools, and errors and 
deceits. And they assert largely, that he who is dead has 
perished utterly, and that the living is to be preferred to the 
dead, even though he may lie in darkness, and pass his 
life-journey after the fashion of a dog, (which is) better 
at least than a dead lion. For the living know this at any 
rate, that they are to die ; but the dead know not anything, 
and there is no reward proposed to them after they have 
completed their necessary course. Also hatred and love 
with the dead have their end ; for their envy has perished, 


and their life also is extinguished. And he has a portion in 
nothing who has once gone hence. Error harping still on 
such a string, gives also such counsel as this : What meanest 
thou, O man, that thou dost not enjoy thyself delicately, 
and gorge thyself with all manner of pleasant food, and fill 
thyself to the full with wine ? Dost thou not perceive that 
these things are given us from God for our unrestrained 
enjoyment? Put on newly-washed attire, and anoint thy 
head with myrrh, and see this woman and that, and pass thy 
vain life vainly. 1 For nothing else remaineth for thee but 
this, neither here nor after death. But avail thou thyself of 
all that chanceth ; for neither shall any one take account of 
thee for these things, nor are the things that are done by 
men known at all outside the circle of men. And Hades, 
whatever that may be, whereunto we are said to depart, has 
neither wisdom nor understanding. These are the things 
which men of vanity speak. But I know assuredly, that 
neither shall they who seem the swiftest accomplish that 
great race; nor shall those who are esteemed mighty and 
terrible in the judgment of men, overcome in that terrible 
battle. Neither, again, is prudence proved by abundance of 
bread, nor is understanding wont to consort with riches. 
Nor do I congratulate those who think that all shall find 
the same things befall them. But certainly those who in- 
dulge such thoughts seem to me to be asleep, and to fail 
to consider that, caught suddenly like fishes and birds, they 
will be consumed with woes, and meet speedily their proper 
retribution. Also I estimate wisdom at so high a price, that 
I should deem a small and poorly-peopled city, even though 
besieged also by a mighty king with his forces, to be indeed 
great and powerful, if it had but one wise man, however 
poor, among its citizens. For such a man would be able to 
deliver his city both from enemies and from entrenchments. 
And other men, it may be, do not recognise that wise man, 
poor as he is ; but for my part I greatly prefer the power 
that resides in wisdom, to this might of the mere multitude 
of the people. Here, however, wisdom, as it dwells with 
1 The text gives, x,<x.x.tivw It PCCTKIVS, etc. 


poverty, is held in dishonour. But hereafter it shall be 
heard speaking with more authoritative voice than princes 
and despots who seek after things evil. For wisdom is also 
stronger than iron ; while the folly of one individual works 
danger for many, even though he be an object of contempt 
to many. 1 


Moreover, flies falling into myrrh, and suffocated therein, 
make both the appearance of that pleasant ointment and the 
anointing therewith an unseemly thing; 2 and to be mindful 
of wisdom and of folly together is in no way proper. The 
wise man, indeed, is his own leader to right actions ; but 
the fool inclines to erring courses, and will never make his 
folly available as a guide to what is noble. Yea, his thoughts 
also are vain and full of folly. But if ever a hostile spirit 
fall upon thee, my friend, withstand it courageously, know- 
ing that God is able to propitiate (JXaaavOai) even a mighty 
multitude of offences. These also are the deeds of the 
prince and father of all wickedness : that the fool is set on 
high, while the man richly gifted with wisdom is humbled ; 
and that the slaves of sin are seen riding on horseback, 
while men dedicated to God walk on foot in dishonour, 
the wicked exulting the while. But if any one devises 
another's hurt, he forgets that he is preparing a snare for 
himself first and alone. And he who wrecks another's 
safety, shall fall by the bite of a serpent. But he who 
removeth stones, indeed shall undergo no light labour; 3 and 
he who cleaveth wood shall bear danger with him in his own 
weapon. And if it chance that the axe spring out of the 
handle, 4 he who engages in such work shall be put to trouble, 

a.Tu,(pp6yyi7os 3j ; so the Cod. Bodleian, and the Codex 
Medic, read. But others read wohv = an object of great contempt. For 
Kteretipf>4irro{ the Cod. Medic, reads ivxccTcttppovnTo;. 

2 The text gives W'HSIV, for which Cod. Medic, reads MWIV, use. 

3 Reading XX pyv for AX pq. 
* ffTifaov, for which others read 


gathering for no good (OVK eV aya$&> o-iry/co/u'a)i>), and 
having to put to more of his iniquitous and shortlived 
strength (ZTTCLV^WV avrbs rr)v eairrov a&iicov KCU aucvfjiopov 
Svva/jiiv). The bite of a serpent, again, is stealthy ; and the 
charmers will not soothe the pain, for they are vain. But 
the good man doeth good works for himself and for his 
neighbours alike ; while the fool shall sink into destruction 
through his folly. And when he has once opened his mouth, 
he begins foolishly and soon comes to an end, exhibiting his 
senselessness in all. Moreover, it is impossible for man to 
know anything, or to learn from man either what has been 
from the beginning, or what shall be in the future. For 
who shall be the declarer thereof I Besides, the man who 
knows not to go to the good city, sustains evil in the eyes 
and in the whole countenance. And I prophesy woes to 
that city the king of which is a youth, and its rulers gluttons. 
But I call the good land blessed, the king of which is the 
son of the free : there those who are entrusted with the 
power of ruling shall reap what is good in due season. But 
the sluggard and the idler become scoffers, and make the 
house decay ; and misusing all things for the purposes of 
their own gluttony, like the ready slaves of money (dpyvpia 
aYayyt^toi), for a small price they are content to do all that 
is base and abject. It is also right to obey kings and rulers 
or potentates, and not to be bitter against them, nor to utter 
any offensive word against them. For there is ever the risk 
that what has been spoken in secret may somehow become 
public. For swift and winged messengers convey all things 
to Him who alone is King both rich and mighty, discharging 
therein a service which is at once spiritual and reasonable. 


Moreover, it is a righteous thing to give (to the needy) of 
thy bread, and of those things which are necessary for the 
support of man's life. For though thou seemest forthwith 
to waste it upon some persons, as if thou didst, cast thy 
bread upon the water, yet in the progress of time thy kind- 


ness shall be seen to be not unprofitable for tliee. Also 
give liberally, and give a portion of thy means to many ; for 
thou knowest not what the coming day doeth. The clouds, 
again, do not keep back their plenteous rains, but discharge 
their showers upon the earth. Nor does a tree stand for 
ever ; but even though men may spare it, it shall be over- 
turned by the wind at any rate. But many desire also to 
know beforehand what is to come from the heavens ; and 
there have been those who, scrutinizing the clouds and 
waiting for the wind, have had nought to do with reaping 
and winnowing, putting their trust in vanity, and being all 
incapable of knowing aught of what may come from God 
in the future, just as men cannot tell what the woman with 
child shall bring forth. But sow thou in season, and thus 
reap thy fruits whenever the time for that comes on. For 
it is not manifest what shall be better than those among all 
natural things. 1 Would, indeed, that all things turned out 
well ! Truly, when a man considers with himself that the 
sun is good, and that this life is sweet, and that it is a 
pleasant thing to have many years wherein one can delight 
himself continually, and that death is a terror and an end- 
less evil, and a thing that brings us to nought, he thinks 
that he ought to enjoy himself in all the present and ap- 
parent pleasures of life. And he gives this counsel also to 
the young, that they should use to the uttermost (icaia- 
Xpfja-Oai) the season of their youth, by giving up their minds 
to all manner of pleasure, and indulge their passions, and 
do all that seemeth good in their own eyes, and look upon 
that which delighteth, and avert themselves from that which 
is not so. But to such a man I shall say this much : Sense- 
less art thou, my friend, in that thou dost not look for the 
judgment that shall come from God upon all these things. 
And profligacy and licentiousness are evil, and the filthy 
wantonness of our bodies carries death in it. For folly 
attends on youth, and folly leads to destruction. 

ctitTav force! otpfivu ruv (pvivruv, perhaps = which of those 
natural productions shall be the better. 



Moreover, it is right that thou shouldest fear God while 
thou art yet young, before thou givest thyself over to evil 
things, and before the great and terrible day of God cometh, 
when the sun shall no longer shine, neither the moon, nor 
the rest of the stars, but when in that storm and commotion 
of all things, the powers above shall be moved, that is, the 
angels who guard the world ; so that the mighty men shall 
cease, and the women shall cease their labours, and shall flee 
into the dark places of their dwellings, and shall have all the 
doors shut ; and a woman shall be restrained from grinding 
by fear, and shall speak with the weakest voice, like the 
tiniest bird ; and all impure women shall sink into the earth ; 
and cities and their blood-stained governments shall wait for 
the vengeance that comes from above, while the most bitter 
and bloody of all times hangs over them like a blossoming 
almond, and continuous punishments impend like a multi- 
tude of flying locusts, and the transgressors are cast out of 
the way like a black and despicable caper-plant. And the 
good man shall depart with rejoicing to his own everlasting 
habitation; but the vile shall fill all their places with wailing, 
and neither silver laid up in store, nor proved gold, shall be 
of use any more. For a mighty stroke l shall fall upon all 
things, even to the pitcher that standeth by the well, and the 
wheel of the vessel which may chance to have been left in the 
hollow, when the course of time comes to its end 2 and the ablu- 
tion-bearing period of a life that is like water has passed away. 3 

i%ft 7rXiyj. CEcolampadius renders it, magnus enim fons, evi- 
dently reading Tnjyjj. 

2 The text is, kv TU xofoa/*Ti irotvaotftsvYis xpcivov re x-fpfipopijf, for 
which we may read, t T&> x,oi^uf/t,on^ netwetfiiitvis %po.vuv TI TrtpriipoftqS' 
Others apparently propose for irctvactpfviis, li&ptvqs = at the hollow of 
the cistern. 

3 The text is, xetl rys 5/ t/da-ro? ays vctpolltiiaavTos rov hovrpotpopov 
uluvo;. Billius understands the age to be called Kotn-poipopov, because, 
as long as we are in life, it is possible to obtain remission for any sin, or 
as referring to the rite of baptism. 


And for men who lie on earth there is but one salvation, 
that their souls acknowledge and wing their way to Him by 
whom they have been made. I say, then, again what I 
have said already, that man's estate is altogether vain, and 
that nothing can exceed the utter vanity which attaches to 
the objects of man's inventions. And superfluous is my 
labour in preaching discreetly, inasmuch as I am attempting 
to instruct a people here, so indisposed to receive either teach- 
ing or healing. And truly the noble man is needed for the 
understanding of the words of wisdom. Moreover, I, though 
already aged, and having passed a long life, laboured to find 
out those things which are well-pleasing to God, by means 
of the mysteries of the truth. And I know that the mind 
is no less quickened and stimulated by the precepts of the 
wise, than the body is wont to be when the goad is applied, 
or a nail is fastened in it. 1 And some will render again 
those wise lessons which they have received from one good 
pastor and teacher, as if all with one mouth and in mutual 
concord set forth in larger detail the truths committed to 
them. But in many words there is no profit. Neither do 
I counsel thee, my friend, to write down vain things about 
what is fitting, 2 from which there is nothing to be gained 
but weary labour. But, in fine, I shall require to use some 
such conclusion as this : O men, behold, I charge you now 
expressly and shortly, that ye fear God, who is at once the 
Lord and the Overseer (eTroTrr^) of all, and that ye keep 
also His commandments ; and that ye believe that all shall 
be judged severally in the future, and that every man shall 
receive the just recompense for his deeds, whether they be 
good or whether they be evil. 

a,. The Septuagint reads, Ao'yo/ ao<f>u ag rat, 
>cxl a; sj/.o< KiQvtivp.ivoi, like nails planted, etc. Others read 

igniti. The Vulg. has, quasi clavi in altum defixi. 
2 iripl TO 7rpoafi>tov, for which some read, irotpa TO irpwUjzoy, beyond or 
contrary to what is fitting. 





(Gallandi, lii. p. 400.) 


HE meats are no burden to us, most holy father, 
if the captives ate things which their conque- 
rors set before them, especially since there is one 
report from all, viz. that the barbarians who 
have made inroads into our parts have not sacrificed to idols. 
For the apostle says, " Meats for the belly, and the belly for 
meats : but God shall destroy both it and them." l But the 
Saviour also, who cleanseth all meats, says, " Not that which 
goeth into a man defileth the man, but that which cometh 
out." 2 And this meets the case of the captive women 
defiled by the barbarians, who outraged their bodies. But if 
the previous life of any such person convicted him of going, 
as it is written, after the eyes of fornicators, the habit of 
fornication evidently becomes an object of suspicion also in 
the time of captivity. And one ought not readily to have 
communion with such women in prayers. If any one, how- 
ever, has lived in the utmost chastity, and has shown in time 
past a manner of life pure and free from all suspicion, and 
now falls into wantonness through force of necessity, we have 
an example for our guidance, namely, the instance of the 
damsel in Deuteronomy, whom a man finds in the field, and 
1 1 Cor. vi. 18. 2 Matt. xv. 11. 



forces her, and lies with her. " Unto the damsel," he says, 
" ye shall do nothing ; there is in the damsel no sin worthy 
of death : for as when a man riseth against his neighbour, 
and slayeth him, even so is this matter : the damsel cried, 
and there was none to help her." 1 


Covetousness is a great evil ; and it is not possible in 
a single letter to set forth those scriptures in which not 
robbery alone is declared to be a thing horrible and to be 
abhorred, but in general the grasping mind, and the dis- 
position to meddle with what belongs to others, in order 
to satisfy the sordid love of gain. And all persons of 
that spirit are excommunicated from the church of God. 
But that at the time of the irruption, in the midst of such 
woful sorrows and bitter lamentations, some should have 
been audacious enough to consider the crisis which brought 
destruction to all the very period for their own private 
aggrandizement, that is a thing which can be averred only 
of men who are impious and hated of God, and of unsur- 
passable iniquity. Wherefore it seemed good to excom- 
municate such persons, lest the wrath (of God) should come 
upon the whole people, and upon those first of all who are 
set over them in office, and yet fail to make inquiry. For I 
am afraid, as the Scripture says, lest the impious work the 
destruction of the righteous along with his own. 2 " For for- 
nication," it says, 3 " and covetousness (are things) on account 
of which the wrath of God cometh upon the children of dis- 
obedience. Be not ye therefore partakers with them. For 
ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the 
Lord : walk as children of light (for the fruit of the light 4 
is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth), proving 
what is acceptable unto the Lord. And have no fellowship 
with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove 
them ; for it is a shame even to speak of those things which 
are done of them in secret. But all things that are reproved 

1 Deut. xxii. 26, 27. 2 Gen. xviii. 23, 25. 

3 Eph. v. 5-13. 4 rot/ $UTC,S for the received 


are made manifest by the light." In this wise speaks the 
apostle. But if certain parties who pay the proper penalty 
for that former covetousness of theirs, which exhibited itself 
in the time of peace, now turn aside again to the indulgence 
of covetousness in the very time of trouble (i.e. in the 
troubles of the inroads by the barbarians), and make gain 
out of the blood and ruin of men who have been utterly 
despoiled, or taken captive, (or) put to death, what else 
ought to be expected, than that those who struggle so hotly 
for covetousness should heap up wrath both for themselves 
and for the whole people ? 


Behold, did not Achar 1 the son of Zara transgress in the 
accursed thing, and trouble then lighted on all the congrega- 
tion of Israel ? And this one man was alone in his sin ; but 
he was not alone in the death that came by his sin. And by 
us, too, everything of a gainful kind at this time, which is 
ours not in our own rightful possession, but as property 
strictly belonging to others, ought to be reckoned a thing 
devoted. For that Achar indeed took of the spoil ; and 
those men of the present time take also of the spoil. But 
he took what belonged to enemies ; while these now take 
what belongs to brethren, and aggrandize themselves with 
fatal gains. 


Let no one deceive himself, nor put forward the pretext 
of having found such property. For it is not lawful, even 
for a man who has found anything, to aggrandize himself 
by it. For Deuteronomy says : " Thou shalt not see thy 
brother's ox or his sheep go astray in the way, and pay no 
heed to them ; but thou shalt in any wise bring them again 
unto thy brother. And if thy brother come not nigh thee, 
or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring them together, 
and they shall be with thee until thy brother seek after them, 
and thou shalt restore them to him again. And in like 

1 Josh. vii. 


manner shalt thou do with his ass, and so shalt thou do with 
his raiment, and so shalt thou do with all lost thing of thy 
brother's, which he hath lost, and thou mayest find." 1 Thus 
much in Deuteronomy. And in the book of Exodus it is 
said, with reference not only to the case of finding what is 
a friend's, but also of finding what is an enemy's : " Thou 
shalt surely bring them back to the house of their master 
again." 2 And if it is not lawful to aggrandize oneself at the 
expense of another, whether he be brother or enemy, even in 
the time of peace, when he is living at his ease and deli- 
cately, and without concern as to his property, how much* 
more must it be the case when one is met by adversity, and 
is fleeing from his enemies, and has had to abandon his pos- 
sessions by force of circumstances ! 


But others deceive themselves by fancying that they can 
retain the property of others which they may have found as 
an equivalent for their own property which they have lost. 
In this way verily, just as the Boradi and Goths brought 
the havoc of war on them, they make themselves Boradi 
and Goths to others. Accordingly we have sent to you our 
brother and comrade in old age, Euphrosynus, with this 
view, that he may deal with you in accordance with our 
model here, and teach you against whom you ought to 
admit accusations (&V Set ra? tcaTijyoplas irpo(riea6ai) : and 
whom you ought to exclude from your prayers. 


Concerning those who forcibly detain captives (who have 
escaped) from the barbarians. Moreover, it has been reported 
to us that a thing has happened in your country which is 
surely incredible, and which, if done at all, is altogether the 
work of unbelievers, and impious men, and men who know 
not the very name of the Lord ; to wit, that some have gone 
to such a pitch of cruelty and inhumanity, as to be detaining 
by force certain captives who have made their escape. Dis- 
1 Deut. xxii. 1-3. 2 Ex. xxiii. 4. 


patch ye commissioners into the country, lest the thunderbolts 
of heaven fall all too surely upon those who perpetrate such 


Concerning those who have been enrolled among the 
barbarians, and who have dared to do certain monstrous 
things against those of the same race with themselves. 
Now, as regards those who have been enrolled among the 
barbarians, and have accompanied them in their irruption 
in a state of captivity, and who, forgetting that they were 
from Pontus, and Christians, have become such thorough 
barbarians, as even to put those of their own race to death 
by the gibbet (fuXp) or strangulation, and to show their 
roads or houses to the barbarians, who else would have been 
ignorant of them, it is necessary for you to debar such per- 
sons even from being auditors in the public congregations 
(aKpodaea)?}, until some common decision about them is come 
to by the saints assembled in council, and by the Holy 
Spirit antecedently to them. 


Concerning those who have been so audacious as to invade 
the houses of others in the inroad of the barbarians. Now 
those who have been so audacious as to invade the houses of 
others, if they have once been put on their trial and convicted, 
ought not to be deemed fit even to be hearers in the public 
congregation. But if they have declared themselves and 
made restitution, they should be placed in the rank of the 
repentant (rwv 


Concerning those who have found in the open field or in 
private houses property left behind them by the barbarians. 
Now, those who have found in the open field or in their own 
houses anything left behind them by the barbarians, if they 
have once been put on their trial and convicted, ought to fall 
under the same class of the repentant. But if they have 


declared themselves and made restitution, they ought to be 
deemed fit for the privilege of prayer. 


And they who keep the commandment ought to keep it 
without any sordid covetousness, demanding neither recom- 
pense (/jLijwrpa, the price of information), nor reward 
(awcrrpa, the reward for bringing back a runaway slave), 
nor fee (evperpa, the reward of discovery), nor anything else 
that bears the name of acknowledgment. 


Weeping (Trpoo-tcXava-iS) penance) takes place without the 
gate of the oratory ; and the offender standing there ought 
to implore the faithful as they enter to offer up prayer on 
liis behalf. Waiting on the word (anpoa(n<$\ again, takes 
place within the gate in the porch (ev ru> vapdrjici), where the 
offender ought to stand until the catechumens (come in), 
and thereafter he should go forth. For let him hear the 
Scriptures and doctrine, it is said, and then be put forth, and 
reckoned unfit for the privilege of prayer. Submission, again 
(yTTOTTTwcriv), is that one stand within the gate of the temple, 
and go forth along with the catechumens. Restoration 
((rva-Tacris) is that one be associated with the faithful, and 
go not forth with the catechumens ; and last of all comes the 
participation in the holy ordinances (ayiaa-fjidTow). 1 

1 There are scholia in Latin by Theodoras Balsamon and Joannes 
Zonaras on these canons. The note of the former on this last canon 
may be cited : The present saint has defined shortly five several posi- 
tions for the penitent ; but he has not indicated either the times appointed 
for their exercise, or the sing for which penance is determined. Basil 
the Great, again, has handed down to us an accurate account of these 
things in his canonical epistles. Yet he, too, has referred to episcopal 
decision the matter of recovery through penalties. 



(Gallandi, Opera, p. 413.) 


1. For eight years Gregory has given up the practice of oratory, being 

busied with the study chiefly of Roman law and the Latin 

2. He essays to speak of the well-nigh divine endowments of Origen 

in his presence, into whose hands he avows himself to have been 
led in a way beyond all his expectation. 

3. He is stimulated to speak of him by the longing of a grateful mind. 

To the utmost of his ability he thinks he ought to thank him. 
From God are the beginnings of all blessings ; and to Him ade- 
quate thanks cannot be returned. 

4. The Son alone knows how to praise the Father worthily. In Christ 

and by Christ our thanksgivings ought to be rendered to the 
Father. Gregory also gives thanks to his guardian angel, because 
he was conducted by him to Origen. 

5. Here Gregory interweaves the narrative of his former life. His 

birth of heathen parents is stated. In the fourteenth year of his 
age he loses his father. He is dedicated to the study of eloquence 
and law. By a wonderful leading of Providence, he is brought to 

6. The arts by which Origen studies to keep Gregory and his brother 

Athenodorus with him, although it was almost against their will ; 
and the love by which both are taken captive. Of philosophy, 
the foundation of piety. With the view of giving himself therefore 
wholly to that study, Gregory is willing to give up fatherland, 
parents, the pursuit of law, and every other discipline. Of the 
soul as the free principle. The nobler part does not desire to be 
united with the inferior, but the inferior with the nobler. 



7. The wonderful skill with which Origen prepares Gregory and Atheno- 

dorus for philosophy. The intellect of each is exercised first ia 
logic, and the mere attention to words is contemned. 

8. Then in due succession he instructs them in physics, geometry, and 


9. But he imbues their minds, above all, with ethical science ; and he 

does not confine himself to discoursing on the virtues in word, 
but he rather confirms his teaching by his acts. 

10. Hence the mere word-sages are confuted, who say and yet act not. 

11. Origen is the first and the only one that exhorts Gregory to add to 

his acquirements the study of philosophy, and offers him in a 
certain manner an example in himself. Of justice, prudence, 
temperance, and fortitude. The maxim, Know thyself. 

12. Gregory disallows any attainment of the virtues on his part. Piety 

is both the beginning and the end, and thus it is the parent of all 
the virtues. 

13. The method which Origen used in his theological and metaphysical 

instructions. He commends the study of all writers, the atheistic 
alone excepted. The marvellous power of persuasion in speech. 
The facility of the mind in giving its assent. 

14. Whence the contentions of philosophers have sprung. Against those 

who catch at everything that meets them, and give it credence, 
and cling to it. Origen was in the habit of carefully reading 
and explaining the books of the heathen to his disciples. 

15. The case of divine matters. Only God and His prophets are to be heard 

in these. The prophets and their auditors are acted on by the same 
afflatus. Origen's excellence in the interpretation of Scriptxire. 

16. Gregory laments his departure under a threefold comparison ; liken- 

ing it to Adam's departure out of paradise, to the prodigal son's 
abandonment of his father's house, and to the deportation of the 
Jews into Babylon. 

17. Gregory consoles himself. 

18. Peroration, and apology for the oration. 

19. Apostrophe to Origen, and therewith the leave-taking, and the 

urgent utterance of prayer. 

excellent 1 thing has silence proved itself in 
many another person on many an occasion, 
and at present it befits myself, too, most espe- 
cially, who with or without purpose may keep 
the door of my lips, and feel constrained to be silent. For 
I am unpractised and unskilled 2 in those beautiful and 

1 xot^oy, for which Hoeschelius has y.dov. 
for which Hceschelius has 


elegant addresses which are spoken or composed 'in a regular 
and unbroken 1 train, in select and well-chosen phrases and 
words ; and it may be that I am less apt by nature to cul- 
tivate successfully this graceful and truly Grecian art. Be- 
sides, it is now eight years since I chanced myself to utter or 
compose any speech, whether long or short ; neither in that 
period have I heard any other compose or utter anything in 
private, or deliver in public any laudatory or controversial 
orations, with the exception of those admirable men who have 
embraced the noble study of philosophy, and who care less for 
beauty of language and elegance of expression. For, attach- 
ing only a secondary importance to the words, they aim, with 
all exactness, at investigating and making known the things 
themselves, precisely as they are severally constituted. Not 
indeed, in my opinion, that they do not desire, but rather that 
they do greatly desire, to clothe the noble and accurate results 
of their thinking in noble and comely 2 language. Yet it may 
be that they are not able so lightly to put forth this sacred 
and godlike power (faculty) in the exercise of its own 
proper conceptions, and at the same time to practise a mode 
of discourse eloquent in its terms, and thus to comprehend 
in one and the same mind and that, too, this little mind of 
man two accomplishments, which are the gifts of two dis- 
tinct persons, and which are, in truth, most contrary to each 
other. For silence is indeed the friend and helpmeet of 
thought and invention. But if one aims at readiness of 
speech and beauty of discourse, he will get at them by no 
other discipline than the study of words, and their constant 
practice. Moreover, another branch of learning occupies my 
mind completely, and the mouth binds the tongue if I should 
desire to make any speech, however brief, with the voice of 
the Greeks ; I refer to those admirable laws of our sages by 
which the affairs of all the subjects of the Roman Empire 
are now directed, and which are neither composed 3 nor 

, for which Bengel suggests xoAoi^<>>. 
s'i, for which Ger. Vossius gives d-fysv&Ct. 
3 ffvyx.n'ftsyoi, which is rendered by some conduntur, by others con- 
fectse sunt, and by others still componantur, harmonized, the reference 


learnt without difficulty. And these are wise and exact 1 
in themselves, and manifold and admirable, and, in a word, 
most thoroughly Grecian ; and they are expressed and com- 
mitted to us in the Roman tongue, which is a wonderful 
and magnificent sort of language, and one very aptly con- 
formable to royal authority, but still difficult to me. Nor 
could it be otherwise with me, even though I might say that 
it was my desire that it should be. 2 And as our words are 
nothing else than a kind of imagery of the dispositions of our 
mind, we should allow those who have the gift of speech, like 
some good artists alike skilled to the utmost in their art and 
liberally furnished in the matter of colours, to possess the liberty 
of painting their word-pictures, not simply of a uniform com- 
plexion, but also of various descriptions and of richest beauty 
in the abundant mixture of flowers, without let or hindrance. 

II. But we, like any of the poor, unfurnished with 
these varied specifics (tpap/^d/ccov) whether as never having 
been possessed of them, or, it may be, as having lost them 
are under the necessity of using, as it were, only charcoal 
and tiles, that is to say, those rude and common words and 
phrases ; and by means of these, to the best of our ability, 
we represent the native dispositions of our mind, express- 
ing them in such language as is at our service, and endea- 
vouring to exhibit the impressions of the figures of our 
mind (xapaKrfjpas TWV r?}? "^f%^5 TVTTCOV), if not clearly or 
ornately, yet at least with the faithfulness of a charcoal 
picture, welcoming gladly any graceful and eloquent ex- 
pression which may present itself from any quarter, although 
we make little of such. 3 But, furthermore, 4 there is a third 

then being to the difficulty experienced in learning the laws, in the way 
of harmonizing those which apparently oppose each other. 

1 ccxpifaH;, for which Ger. Vossius gives sws/Ss??, pious. 

2 el Kcti /3oi/x-/5To', etc., for which Hoeschelius gives ol/rs POV^YITW, etc. 
The Latin version gives, non enim aliter sentire out posse aut velle me 
unquam dixerim. 

3 dtrKKffoipsyoi qltia;, ttti zal KtpiQpoyqvc&yTfs. The passage is con- 
sidered by some to be mutilated. 

4 The text is, dKhtx. yp Ix, rptrav ctZSu; aAAaj xaAt/s/, etc. For 


circumstance which hinders and dissuades me from this at- 
tempt, and which holds me back much more even than the 
others, and recommends me to keep silence by all means, 
I allude to the subject itself, which made me indeed am- 
bitious to speak of it, but which now makes me draw back 
and delay. For it is my purpose to speak of one who has 
indeed the semblance and repute of being a man, but who 
seems, to those who are able to contemplate the greatness of 
his intellectual calibre (TO Se iro\v TTJS e^ew?). to be endowed 
with powers nobler and well-nigh divine. 1 And it is not his 
birth or bodily training that I am about to praise, and that 
makes me now delay and procrastinate with an excess of cau- 
tion. Nor, again, is it his strength or beauty ; for these form 
the eulogies of youths, of which it matters little whether the 
utterance be worthy or not (wv TJTTCW <j>povrls nar alav re 
KOI /AT), \eyopevcov). For, to make an oration on matters 
of a temporary and fugitive nature, which perish in many 
various ways and quickly, and to discourse of these with 
all the grandeur and dignity of great affairs, and with such 
timorous delays, would seem a vain and futile procedure. 2 
And certainly, if it had been proposed to me to speak of any 
of those things which are useless and unsubstantial, and such 
as I should never voluntarily have thought of speaking of, 
if, I say, it had been proposed to me to speak of anything 
of that character, my speech would have had none of this 
caution or fear, lest in any statement I might seem to come 
beneath the merit of the subject. But now, my subject 
dealing with that which is most godlike in the man, and that 
in him which has most affinity with God, that which is in- 
deed confined within the limits of this visible and mortal 
form, but which strains nevertheless most ardently after the 

Hoeschelius gives xx ay. Bengel follows him, and renders it, sed 
rursum, tertio loco, aliud est quod prohibet. Delarue proposes, d'h'hoi */<x.p 
tv rpirov otiidig oiKhus xuhvu. 

1 This is the rendering according to the Latin version. The text is, 
ei~iax.svetyft.iyov ;dj ftii^ovt voipuaxsvYi f^irxvetarciaeus rsjf Kpos TO deioit. 
Vossius reads, pir dyocoTtiasus. 

2 The text is, ^ x.*\ $vxpci> % -z-ip-x-ipov , where, according to Bengel, 
AVI has the force of ut non dicam. 


likeness of God ; and my object being to make mention of 
this, and to put my hand to weightier matters, and therein 
also to express my thanksgivings to the Godhead, in that it 
has been granted to me to meet with such a man beyond 
the expectation of men, the expectation, verily, not only 
of others, but also of my own heart, for I neither set such 
a privilege before me at any time, nor hoped for it ; it 
being, I say, my object, insignificant and altogether with- 
out understanding as I am, to put my hand to such subjects, 
it is not without reason 1 that I shrink from the task, and 
hesitate, and desire to keep silence. And, in truth, to keep 
silence seems to me to be also the safe course, lest, with the 
show of an expression of thanksgiving, I may chance, in my 
rashness, to discourse of noble and sacred subjects in terms 
ignoble and paltry and utterly trite, and thus not only miss 
attaining the truth, but even, so far as it depends on me, 
do it some injury with those who may believe that it stands 
in such a category, when a discourse thereon is composed 
which is weak, and rather calculated to excite ridicule than 
to prove itself commensurate in its vigour with the dignity 
of its themes. But all that pertains to thee is beyond the 
touch of injury and ridicule, O dear soul ; or, much rather 
let me say, that the divine herein remains ever as it is, un- 
moved and harmed in nothing by our paltry and unworthy 
words. Yet I know not how we shall escape the imputation 
of boldness and rashness in thus attempting in our folly, and 
with little either of intelligence or of preparation, to handle 
matters which are weighty, and probably beyond our capa- 
city. And if, indeed, elsewhere and with others, we had 
aspired to make such youthful endeavours in matters like 
these, we would surely have been bold and daring; never- 
theless in such a case our rashness might not have been 
ascribed to shamelessness, in so far as we would not have 
been making the bold effort with thee. But now we shall be 
filling out the whole measure of senselessness, or rather indeed 
we have already filled it out, in venturing with unwashed feet 
(as the saying goes) to introduce ourselves to ears into which 
1 But the text reads, oix, 


the Divine Word Himself not indeed with covered feet, as 
is the case with the general mass of men, and, as it were, 
under the thick coverings of enigmatical and obscure 1 say- 
ings, but with unsandalled feet (if one may so speak) has 
made His way clearly and perspicuously, and in which He 
now sojourns ; while we, who have but refuse and mud to 
offer in these human words of ours, have been bold enough 
to pour them into ears which are practised in hearing only 
words that are divine and pure. It might indeed suffice us, 
therefore, to have transgressed thus far ; and now, at least, 
it might be but right to restrain ourselves, and to advance no 
further with our discourse. And verily I would stop here 
most gladly. Nevertheless, as I have once made the rash 
venture, it may be allowed me first of all to explain the 
reason under the force of which I have been led into this 
arduous enterprise, if indeed any pardon can be extended to 
me for my forwardness in this matter. 

III. Ingratitude appears to me to be a dire evil ; a dire 
evil indeed, yea, the direst of evils. For when one has 
received some benefit, his failing to attempt to make any 
return by at least the oral expression of thanks, where aught 
else is beyond his power, marks him out either as an utterly 
irrational person, or as one devoid of the sense of obligations 
conferred, or as a man without any memory. And, again, 
though 2 one is possessed naturally and at once by the sense 
and the knowledge of benefits received, yet, unless he also 
carries the memory of these obligations to future days, and 
offers some evidence of gratitude to the author of the boons, 
such a person is a dull, and ungrateful, and impious fellow ; 
and he commits an offence which can be excused neither in 
the case of the great nor in that of the small : if we sup- 
pose the case of a great and high-minded man not bearing 
constantly on his lips his great benefits with all gratitude and 
honour, or that of a small and contemptible man not prais- 

1 daetipuv. But Ger. Voss has aafaxiv, safe. 

2 Reading ora, with Hoeschelius, Bengel, and the Paris editor, while 
Voss reads ott. 


ing and lauding with all his might one who has been his 
benefactor, not simply in great services, but also in smaller. 
Upon the great, therefore, and those who excel in powers 
of mind, it is incumbent, as out of their greater abundance 
and larger wealth, to render greater and worthier praise, 
according to their capacity, to their benefactors. But the 
humble also, and those in narrow circumstances, it beseems 
neither to neglect those who do them service, nor to take their 
services carelessly, nor to flag in heart as if they could offer 
nothing worthy or perfect ; but as poor indeed, and yet as of 
good feeling, and as measuring not the capacity of him whom 
they honour, but only their own, they ought to pay him 
honour according to the present measure of their power, a 
tribute which will probably be grateful and pleasant to him 
who is honoured, and in no less consideration with him than 
it would have been had it been some great and splendid offer- 
ing, if it is only presented with decided earnestness, and with 
a sincere mind. Thus is it laid down in the sacred writings, 1 
that a certain poor and lowly woman, who was with the rich 
and powerful that were contributing largely and richly out of 
their wealth, alone and by herself cast in a small, yea, the very 
smallest offering, which was, however, all the while her whole 
substance, and received the testimony of having presented 
the largest oblation. For, as I judge, the sacred word has 
not set up the large outward quantity of the substance given, 
but rather the mind and disposition of the giver, as the 
standard by which the worth and the magnificence of the 
offering are to be measured. Wherefore it is not meet even 
for us by any means to shrink from this duty, through the 
fear that our thanksgivings be not adequate to our obli- 
gations ; but, on the contrary, we ought to venture and 
attempt everything, so as to offer thanksgivings, if not ade- 
quate, at least such as we have it in our power to exhibit, as 
in due return. And would that our discourse, even though 
it comes short of the perfect measure, might at least reach 
the mark in some degree, and be saved from all appearance 
of ingratitude ! For a persistent silence, maintained under 
1 Luke xxi. 2. 


the plausible cover of an inability to say anything worthy of 
the subject, is a vain and evil thing ; but it is the mark of 
a good disposition always to make the attempt at a suitable 
return, even although the power of the person who offers 
the grateful acknowledgment be inferior to the desert of the 
subject. For my part, even although I am unable to speak 
as the matter merits, I shall not keep silence ; but when I 
have done all that I possibly can, then I may congratulate 
myself. Be this, then, the method of my eucharistic dis- 
course. To God, indeed, the God of the universe, I shall 
not think of speaking in such terms : yet is it from Him 
that all the beginnings of our blessings come ; and with Him 
consequently is it that the beginning of our thanksgivings, 
or praises, or laudations, ought to be made. But, in truth, 
not even though I were to devote myself wholly to that 
duty, and that, too, not as I now am to wit, profane and 
impure, and mixed up with and stained by every unhal- 
lowed l and polluting evil but sincere and as pure as pure 
may be, and most genuine, and most unsophisticated, and 
uncontaminated by anything vile ; not even, I say, though 
I were thus to devote myself wholly, and with all the purity 
of the newly born, to this task, should I produce of myself 
any suitable gift in the way of honour and acknowledgment 
to the Ruler and Originator of all things, whom neither men 
separately and individually, nor yet all men in concert, acting 
with one spirit and one concordant impulse, as though all that 
is pure were made to meet in one, and all that is diverse from 
that were turned also to that service, could ever celebrate in 
a manner worthy of Him. For, in whatsoever measure any 
man is able to form right and adequate conceptions of His 
works, and (if such a thing were possible) to speak worthily 
regarding Him, then, so far as that very capacity is concerned, 
a capacity with which he has not been gifted by any other 
one, but which he has received rom Him alone, he cannot 
possibly find any greater matter of thanksgiving than what 
is implied in its possession. 

1 /7!/ye7, which in the lexicons is given as bearing only the good 
sense, all-hallowed, but which here evidently is taken in the opposite. 


IV. But let us commit the praises and hymns in honour 
of the King and Superintendent of all things, the perennial 
Fount of all blessings, to the hand of Him who, in this matter 
as in all others, is the Healer of our infirmity, and who alone 
is able to supply that which is lacking ; to the Champion 
and Saviour of our souls, His first-born Word, the Maker 
and Ruler of all things, with whom also alone it is possible, 
both for Himself and for all, whether privately and indi- 
vidually, or publicly and collectively, to send up to the 
Father uninterrupted and ceaseless thanksgivings. For as 
He is Himself the Truth, and the Wisdom, and the Power 
of the Father of the universe, and He is besides in Him, 
and is truly and entirely made one with Him, it cannot 
be that, either through forgetfulness or unwisdom, or any 
manner of infirmity, such as marks one dissociated from 
Him, He shall either fail in the power to praise Him, or, 
while having the power, shall willingly neglect (a supposi- 
tion which it is not lawful, surely, to indulge) to praise the 
Father. For He alone is able most perfectly to fulfil the 
whole meed of honour which is proper to Him, inasmuch 
as the Father of all things has made Him one with Him- 
self, and through Him all but completes the circle of His 
own being objectively, 1 and honours Him with a power in 
all respects equal to His own, even as also He is honoured ; 
which position He first and alone of all creatures that exist 
has had assigned Him, this Only-begotten of the Father, 
who is in Him, and who is God the Word ; while all others 
of us are able to express our thanksgiving and our piety 
only if, in return for all the blessings which proceed to us 
from the Father, we bring our offerings in simple depend- 
ence on Him alone, and thus present the meet oblation of 
thanksgiving to Him who is the Author of all things, acknow- 
ledging also that the only way of piety is in this manner to 
offer our memorials through Him. Wherefore, in acknow- 

1 szvsptuv in the text, for which Bengel gives i*.ir!.piiuv, a word used 
frequently by this author. In Dorner it is explained as = going out of 
Himself in order to embrace and encompass Himself. See the Doctrine 
of the Person oj Christ, A. II. p. 173 (Clark). 


ledgment of that ceaseless providence which watches over all 
of us, alike in the greatest and in the smallest concerns, and 
which has been sustained even thus far, let this Word (\6yos) 
be accepted as the worthy and perpetual expression for all 
thanksgivings and praises, I mean the altogether perfect 
and living and verily animate Word of the First Mind Him- 
self. But let this word of ours be taken primarily as an 
eucharistic address in honour of this sacred personage, who 
stands alone among all men ; and if I may seek to discourse 1 
of aught beyond this, and, in particular, of any of those 
beings who are not seen, but yet are more godlike, and who 
have a special care for men, it shall be addressed to that 
being who, by some momentous decision, had me allotted to 
him from my boyhood to rule, and rear, and train, I mean 
that holy angel of God who fed me from my youth, 2 as says 
the saint dear to God, meaning thereby his own peculiar one; 
though he, indeed, as being himself illustrious, did in these 
terms designate some angel exalted enough to befit his own 
dignity (and whether it was some other one, or whether it was 
perchance the angel of the Mighty Counsel Himself, the 
Common Saviour of all, that he received as his own peculiar 
guardian through his perfection, I do not clearly know), he, 
I say, did recognise and praise some superior angel as his own, 
whosoever that was. But we, in addition to the homage we 
offer to the Common Ruler of all men, acknowledge and praise 
that being, whosoever he is, who has been the wonderful guide 
of our childhood, who in all other matters has been in time 
past my beneficent tutor and guardian (for this office of tutor 
and guardian is one which evidently can suit 3 neither me 
nor any of my friends and kindred ; for we are all blind, and 
see nothing of what is before us, so as to be able to judge of 
what is right and fitting ; but it can suit only him who sees 
beforehand all that is for the good of our soul) ; who still at 
this present time sustains, and instructs, and conducts me ; 

1 The text gives pshnyoptiv, for which others read ft^/m^yopttv. 

2 Gen. xlviii. 15. 

3 The text gives I^<H, etc., . . . ovptptpov tUvai Kctrafsu'virtni. Bengal's 
idea of the sense is followed in the translation. 


and who, in addition to all these other benefits, has brought 

' ' O 

me into connection with this man, which, in truth, is the 
most important of all the services done me : and this, too, he 
lias effected for me, although between myself and that man 
of whom I discourse there was no kinship of race or blood, 
nor any other tie, nor any relationship in neighbourhood or 
country whatsoever (things which are made the ground of 
friendship and union among the majority of men). But to 
speak in brief, in the exercise of a truly divine and wise 
forethought he brought us together, who were unknown to 
each other, and strangers, and foreigners, separated as tho- 
roughly from each other as intervening nations, and moun- 
tains, and rivers can divide man from man, and thus he made 
good this meeting which has been full of profit to me, having, 
as I judge, provided beforehand this blessing for me from 
above from my very birth and earliest upbringing. And in 
what manner this has been realized it would take long to 
recount fully, not merely if I were to enter minutely into the 
whole subject, and were to attempt to omit nothing, but even 
if, passing many things by, I should purpose simply to men- 
tion in a summary way a few of the most important points. 

V. For my earliest upbringing from the time of my 
birth onwards was under the hand of my parents ; and the 
manner of life in my father's house was one of error (TO, 
Trdrpia edrj ra 'jreifKavrj^eva), and of a kind from which 
no one, I imagine, expected that we should be delivered; 
nor had I myself the hope, boy as I was, and without 
understanding, and under a superstitious father. Then 
followed the loss of my father, and my orphanhood, which 1 
perchance was also the beginning of the knowledge of the 
truth to me. For then it was that I was brought over first 
to the word of salvation and truth, in what manner I cannot 
tell, by constraint rather than by voluntary choice. For 
what power of decision had I then, who was but fourteen 
years of age ? Yet from this very time this sacred Word 

1 Reading $ B"/?. Others give ? ^ ; others, fan ; and the conjecture 
3 ?/3n, " or my youth," is also made. 


began somehow to visit me, just at the period when the reason 
common to all men attained its full function in me ; yea, 
then for the first time did it visit me. And though I thought 
but little of this in that olden time, yet now at least, as I 
ponder it, I consider that no small token of the holy and 
marvellous providence exercised over me is discernible in this 
concurrence, which was so distinctly marked in the matter of 
my years, and which provided that all those deeds of error 
which preceded that age might be ascribed to youth and 
want of understanding, and that the Holy Word might not 
be imparted vainly to a soul yet ungifted with the full power 
of reason ; and which secured at the same time that when 
the soul now became endowed with that power, though not 
gifted with the divine and pure reason (\6yov), it might not 
be devoid at least of that fear which is accordant with this 
reason, but that the human and the divine reason (Word) 
might begin to act in me at once and together, the one giving 
help with a power to me at least inexplicable, 1 though proper 
to itself, and the other receiving help. And when I reflect 
on this, I am filled at once with gladness and with terror, 
while I rejoice indeed in the leading of providence, and yet 
am also awed by the fear lest, after being privileged with 
such blessings, I should still in any way fail of the end. 
But indeed I know not how my discourse has dwelt so long 
on this matter, desirous as I am to give an account of the 
wonderful arrangement (of God's providence) in the course 
that brought me to this man, and anxious as nevertheless I 
formerly was to pass with few words to the matters which 
follow in their order, not certainly imagining that I could 
render to him who thus dealt with me that tribute of praise, 
or gratitude, or piety which is due to him (for, were we to 
designate our discourse in such terms, while yet we said 
nothing worthy of the theme, we might seem chargeable 
with arrogance), but simply with the view of offering what 
may be called a plain narrative or confession, or whatever 
other humble title may be given it. It seemed good to 
the only one of my parents who survived to care for me my 
1 The text, however, gives 


mother, namely that, being already under instruction in 
those other branches in which boys not ignobly born and 
nurtured are usually trained, I should attend also a. teacher 
of public speaking, in the hope that I too should become 
a public speaker. And accordingly I did attend such a 
teacher ; and those who could judge in that department then 
declared that I should in a short period be a public speaker. I 
for my own part know not how to pronounce on that, neither 
should I desire to do so ; for there was no apparent ground for 
that gift then, nor was there as yet any foundation for those 
forces (am<yz>, causes) which were capable of bringing me to 
it. But that divine conductor and true curator, ever so watch- 
ful, when my friends were not thinking of such a step, and 
when I was not myself desirous of it, came and suggested 
(an extension of my studies) to one of my teachers under 
whose charge I had been put, with a view to instruction in 
the Roman tongue, not in the expectation that I was to reach 
the completest mastery of that tongue, but only that I might 
not be absolutely ignorant of it ; and this person happened 
also to be not altogether unversed in laws. Putting the 
idea, therefore, into this teacher's mind, 1 he set me to learu 
in a thorough way the laws of the Romans by his help. And 
that man took up this charge feealously with me ; and I, on 
my side, gave myself to it more, however, to gratify the 
man, than as being myself an admirer of the study. And 
when he got me as his pupil, he began to teach me with 
all enthusiasm. And he said one thing, which has proved 
to me the truest of all his sayings, to wit, that my educa- 
tion in the laws would be my greatest viaticum (e<oStoi>) 
for thus he phrased it whether I aspired to be one of the 
public speakers who contend in the courts of justice, or 
preferred to belong to a different order. Thus did he ex- 
press himself, intending his word to bear simply on things 
human ; but to me it seems that he was moved to that 
utterance by a diviner impulse than he himself supposed. 
For when, willingly or unwillingly, I was being well in- 
structed in these laws, at once bonds, as it were, were cast 
1 Heading rovry i~l vovv fiahuy. 



upon my movements, and cause and occasion for my jour- 
neying to these parts arose from the city Berytus, which is 
a city not far distant 1 from this territory, somewhat Roman- 
ized (^Pa)/jiaiKO)Tpa 7r<w9), and credited with being a school 
for these legal studies. And this revered man coming from 
Egypt, from the city of Alexandria, where previously he 
happened to have his home, was moved by other circum- 
stances to change his residence to this place, as if with the 
express object of meeting us. And for my part, I cannot 
explain the reasons of these incidents, and I shall willingly 
pass them by. This however is certain, that as yet no neces- 
sary occasion for my coming to this place and meeting with 
this man was afforded by my purpose to learn our laws, since 
I had it in my power also to repair to the city of Rome itself. 2 
How, then, was this effected ? The then governor of Pales- 
tine suddenly took possession of a friend of mine, namely 
my sister's husband, and separated him from his wife, and 
carried him off here against his will, in order to secure his 
help, and have him associated with him in the labours of 
the government of the country ; for he was a person skilled 
in law, and perhaps is so still. After he had gone with him, 
however, he had the good fortune in no long time to have 
his wife sent for, and to receive her again, from whom, 
against his will, and to his grievance, he had been sepa- 
rated. And thus he chanced also to draw us along with 
her to that same place. For when we were minded to 
travel, I know not where, but certainly to any other place 
rather than this, a soldier suddenly came upon the scene, 
bearing a letter of instructions for us to escort and pro- 
tect our sister in her restoration to her husband, and to 
offer ourselves also as companion to her on the journey ; in 

1 The text is oLvo^iovaet. Hoeschelius gives aw-s^ovo-a. 

The text is, ovftiv OVTU; dvu.'yxotiov qv o<rov ITTI TO?J vciftoig ypuv, vvvetTOv 
on xetl tiri ryu 'Puftotiuv a^oSi^sjffa; KciKiv. Bengel takes oaov as Kctpth- 
KOV. Migne renders, nullam ei fuisse necessitatem hue veniendi, discendi 
leges causa, siquidem Romam posset projicisci. Sirmondus makes it, 
nulla causa adeo necessaria erat qua possem per leges nostras ad Ro- 
manorum civitatem projicisci. 


which we had the opportunity of doing a favour to our 
relative, and most of all to our sister (so that she might not 
have to address herself to the journey either in any unbe- 
coming manner, or with any great fear or hesitation), while 
at the same time our other friends and connections thought 
well of it, and made it out to promise no slight advantage, 
as we could thus visit the city of Berytus, and carry out there 
with all diligence 1 our studies in the laws. Thus all things 
moved me thither, my sense of duty (ev\oyov) to my sister, 
my own studies, and over and above these, the soldier (for 
it is right also to mention this), who had with him a larger 
supply of public vehicles than the case demanded, and more 
cheques (o-y/i/SoXa) than could be required for our sister 
alone. These were the apparent reasons for our journey ; 
but the secret and yet truer reasons were these, our oppor- 
tunity of fellowship with this man, our instruction through 
that man's means 2 in the truth 3 concerning the Word, and 
the profit of our soul for its salvation. These were the real 
causes that brought us here, blind and ignorant, as we were, 
as to the way of securing our salvation. Wherefore it was 
not that soldier, but a certain divine companion and benefi- 
cent conductor and guardian, ever leading us in safety through 
the whole of this present life, as through a long journey, that 
carried us past other places, and Berytus in especial, which 
city at that time we seemed most bent on reaching, and 
brought us hither and settled us here, disposing and direct- 
ing all things, until by any means he might bind us in a 
connection with this man who was to be the author of the 
greater part of our blessings. And he who came in such 
wise, that divine angel, gave over this charge (oiKovoplav) 
to him, and did, if I may so speak, perchance take his rest 
here, not indeed under the pressure of labour or exhaustion 

1 The text gives fnvoy/iaoivn;, Casaubon reads ixTro 

2 li UVTOV. Bengel understands this to refer to the soldier. 

3 The text is, TVJ ot^rtdyi B/ UVTOV iripi rat. TOV ho*/ov /A a 0q para. Bengel 
takes this as an ellipsis, like TYIV iavroiJ, rqv Ipyv pictv, and similar 
phrases, yvupw or odiv, or some such word, being supplied. Casaubon 
conjectures xeti aA0sj, for which Bengel would prefer ret 


of any kind (for the generation of those divine ministers 
knows no weariness), but as having committed us to the 
hand of a man who would fully discharge the whole work 
of care and guardianship within his power. 

VI. And from the very first day of his receiving us (which 
day was, in truth, the first day to me, and the most precious 
of all days, if I may so speak, since then for the first time 
the true sun began to rise upon me), while we, like some 
wild creatures of the fields, or like fish, or some sort of birds 
that had fallen into the toils or nets, and were endeavouring 
to slip out again and escape, were bent on leaving him, and 
making off for Berytus or our native country, he studied by 
all means to associate us closely with him, contriving all 
kinds of arguments, and putting every rope in motion (as 
the proverb goes), and bringing all his powers to bear on 
that object. With that intent he lauded the lovers of philo- 
sophy with large laudations and many noble utterances, 
declaring that those only live a life truly worthy of reason- 
able creatures who aim at living an upright life, and who 
seek to know first of all themselves, what manner of persons 
they are, and then the things that are truly good, which man 
ought to strive after, and then the things that are really evil, 
from which man ought to flee. And then he reprehended 
ignorance and all the ignorant : and there are many such, who, 
like brute cattle (dpefji^drwv\ are blind in mind, and have no 
understanding even of what they are, and are as far astray 
as though they were wholly void of reason, and neither know 
themselves what is good and what is evil, nor care at all to learn 
it from others, but toil feverishly in quest of wealth, and 
glory, and such honours as belong to the crowd, and bodily 
comforts, and go distraught about things like these, as if 
they were the real good ; and as though such objects were 
worth much, yea, worth all else, they prize the things them- 
selves, and the arts by which they can acquire them, and the 
different lines of life which give scope for their attainment, 
the military profession, to wit, and the juridical, and the 
study of the laws. And with earnest and sagacious words 


he told us that these are the objects that enervate us, when 
we despise that reason which ought to be the true master 
within us. 1 I cannot recount at present all the addresses 
of this kind which he delivered to us, with the view of 
persuading us to take up the pursuit of philosophy. Nor 
was it only for a single day that he thus dealt with us, but 
for many days, and, in fact, as often as we were in the 
habit of going to him at the outset ; and we were pierced 
by his argumentation as with an arrow from the very first 
occasion of our hearing him 2 (for he was possessed of a rare 
combination of a certain sweet grace and persuasiveness, 
along with a strange power of constraint), though we still 
wavered and debated the matter undecidedly with ourselves, 
holding so far by the pursuit of philosophy, without how- 
ever being brought thoroughly over to it, while somehow or 
other we found ourselves quite unable to withdraw from it 
conclusively, and thus were always drawn towards him by 
the power of his reasonings, as by the force of some superior 
necessity. For he asserted further that there could be no 
genuine piety towards the Lord of all in the man who de- 
spised this gift of philosophy, a gift which man alone of all 
the creatures of the earth has been deemed honourable and 
worthy enough to possess, and one which every man whatso- 
ever, be he wise or be he ignorant, reasonably embraces, who 
has not utterly lost the power of thought by some mad dis- 
traction of mind. He asserted, then, as I have said, that it 
was not possible (to speak correctly) for any one to be truly 
pious who did not philosophize. And thus he continued to do 
with us, until, by pouring in upon us many such argumenta- 
tions, one after the other, he at last carried us fairly off some- 
how or other by a kind of divine power, like people bewitched 
with his reasonings, and established us (in the practice of 
philosophy), and set us down without the power of move- 

1 The text here is, rct.vff amp *!/&; dviatis,'hKj-ra, "htyuv x,etl fidget 
TI^UIX-US, rov xvpiurttTOV, (pYiai, iuv iv qf&iv Ao'yov, dfti'hJiaeiVTec.;, 

2 The text gives tx. Trpimn; faixiets, which Bengel takes to be an 
error for the absolute Ix. ^pa-ms, to which qpfpcts would be supplied. 
Casaubon and Rhodomanus read 


ment, as it were, beside himself by his arts. Moreover, the 
stimulus of friendship was also brought to bear upon us, a 
stimulus, indeed, not easily withstood, but keen and most 
effective, the argument of a kind and affectionate disposi- 
tion, which showed itself benignantly in his words when he 
spoke to us and associated with us. For he did not aim 
merely at getting round us by any kind of reasoning ; but 
his desire was, with a benignant, and affectionate, and most 
benevolent mind, to save us, and make us partakers in the 
blessings that flow from philosophy, and most especially 
also in those other gifts which the Deity has bestowed on 
him above most men, or, as we may perhaps say, above all 
men of our own time, I mean the power that teaches us 
piety, the word of salvation, that comes to many, and sub- 
dues to itself all whom it visits : for there is nothing that 
shall resist it, inasmuch as it is and shall be itself the king 
of all ; although as yet it is hidden, and is not recognised, 
whether with ease or with difficulty, by the common crowd, 
in such wise that, when interrogated respecting it, they should 
be able to speak intelligently about it. And thus, like some 
spark lighting upon our inmost soul, love was kindled and 
burst into flame within us, a love at once to the Holy Word, 
the most lovely object of all, who attracts all irresistibly 
toward Himself by His unutterable beauty, and to this man, 
His friend and advocate. And being most mightily smitten 
by this love, I was persuaded to give up all those objects or 
pursuits which seem to us befitting, and among others even my 
boasted jurisprudence, yea, my very fatherland and friends, 
both those who were present with me then, and those from 
whom I had parted. And in my estimation there arose but 
one object dear and worth desire, to wit, philosophy, and that 
master of philosophy, this inspired man. " And the soul of 
Jonathan was knit with David." l This word, indeed, I did 
not read till afterwards in the sacred Scriptures ; but I felt 
it before that time, not less clearly than it is written : for, in 
truth, it reached me then by the clearest of all revelations. 
For it was not simply Jonathan that was knit with David ; but 
1 1 Sam. xviii. 1. 


those things were knit together which are the ruling powers 
in man their souls, those objects which, even though all 
the things which are apparent and ostensible in man are 
severed, cannot by any skill be forced to a severance when 
they themselves are unwilling. For the soul is free, and 
cannot be coerced by any means, not even though one should 
confine it and keep guard over it in some secret prison-house. 
For wherever the intelligence is, there it is also of its own 
nature and by the first reason. And if it seems to you to 
be in a kind of prison-house, it is represented as there to 
you by a sort of second reason. But for all that, it is by no 
means precluded from subsisting anywhere according to its 
own determination ; nay, rather it is both able to be, and is 
reasonably believed to be, there alone and altogether, where- 
soever and in connection with what things soever those actions 
which are proper only to it are in operation. Wherefore, 
what I experienced has been most clearly declared in this 
very short statement, that " the soul of Jonathan was knit 
with the soul of David ; " objects which, as I said, cannot 
by any means be forced to a separation against their will, 
and which of their own inclination certainly will not readily 
choose it. Nor is it, in my opinion, in the inferior subject, 
who is changeful and very prone to vary in purpose, and in 
whom singly there has been no capacity of union at first, that 
the power of loosing the sacred bonds of this affection rests, 
but rather in the nobler one, who is constant and not readily 
shaken, and through whom it has been possible to tie these 
bonds and to fasten this sacred knot. Therefore it is not the 
soul of David that was knit by the divine word with the soul 
of Jonathan ; but, on the contrary, the soul of the latter, who 
was the inferior, is said to be thus affected and knit with the 
soul of David. For the nobler object would not choose to 
be knit with one inferior, inasmuch as it is sufficient for it- 
self ; but the inferior object, as standing in need of the help 
which the nobler can give, ought properly to be knit with 
the nobler, and fitted dependently to it : so that this latter, 
retaining still its sufficiency in itself, might sustain no loss 
by its connection with the inferior; and that that which is 


of itself without order (arafcrov) being now united and fitted 
harmoniously with the nobler, might, without any detriment 
done, be perfectly subdued to the nobler by the constraints 
of such bonds. Wherefore, to apply the bonds is the part 
of the superior, and not of the inferior ; but to be knit to the 
other is the part of the inferior, and this too in such a manner 
that it shall possess no power of loosing itself from these 
bonds. And by a similar constraint, then, did this David of 
ours once gird us to himself ; and he holds us now, and has 
held us ever since that time, so that, even though we desired 
it, we could not loose ourselves from his bonds. And hence it 
follows that, even though we were to depart, he would not 
release this soul of mine, which, as the holy Scripture puts 
it, he holds knit so closely with himself. 

VII. But after he had thus carried us captive at the very 
outset, and had shut us in, as it were, on all sides, and when 
what was best (TO TrXetov) had been accomplished by him, 
and when it seemed good to us to remain with him for a time, 
then he took us in hand, as a skilled husbandman may take 
in hand some field unvvrought, and altogether unfertile, and 
sour, and burnt up, and hard as a rock, and rough, or, it 
may be, one not utterly barren or unproductive, but rather, 
perchance, by nature very productive, though then waste and 
neglected, and stiff and untractable with thorns and wild 
shrubs ; or as a gardener may take in hand some plant which 
is wild indeed, and which yields no cultivated fruits, though 
it may not be absolutely worthless, and on finding it thus, 
may, by his skill in gardening, bring some cultivated shoot 
and graft it in, by making a fissure in the middle, and then 
bringing the two together, and binding the one to the other, 
until the sap in each shall flow in one stream, 1 and they shall 
both grow with the same nurture : for one may often see a 
tree of a mixed and worthless (yodov) species thus rendered 
productive in spite of its past barrenness, and made to rear 
the fruits of the good olive on wild roots ; or one may see a 

1 The text gives wju^SXvwMVK ij, for which Casaubon proposes wft- 
tyvactrra, fi$ j, or uf tv. Bengel suggests avftftpvacc'sret us h. 


wild plant saved from being altogether profitless by the skill 
of a careful gardener ; or, once more, one may see a plant 
which otherwise is one both of culture and of fruitfulness, 
but which, through the want of skilled attendance, has been 
left unpruned and unwatered and waste, and which is thus 
choked by the mass of superfluous shoots suffered to grow 
out of it at random, 1 yet brought to discharge its proper func- 
tion in germination (reXeiovcrdai Be rfj /3\d<TTij), and made to 
bear the fruit whose production was formerly hindered by the 
superfluous growth (vir 1 a\\rj\wv). In suchwise, then, and 
with such a disposition did he receive us at first ; and survey- 
ing us, as it were, with a husbandman's skill, and gauging us 
thoroughly, and not confining his notice to those things only 
which are patent to the eye of all, and which are looked upon 
in open light, but penetrating into us more deeply, and probing 
what is most inward in us, he put us to the question, and made 
propositions to us, and listened to us in our replies; and when- 
ever he thereby detected anything in us not wholly fruitless 
and profitless and waste, he set about clearing the soil, and 
turning it up and irrigating it, and putting all things in 
movement, and brought his whole skill and care to bear 
on us, and wrought upon our mind. And thorns and thistles 
(rpifioXovs), and every kind of wild herb or plant which our 
mind (so unregulated and precipitate in its own action) 
yielded and produced in its uncultured luxuriance and native 
wildness, he cut out and thoroughly removed by the pro- 
cesses of refutation and prohibition ; sometimes assailing us 
in the genuine Socratic fashion, and again upsetting us by 
his argumentation whenever he saw us getting restive under 
him, like so many unbroken steeds, and springing out of the 
course and galloping madly about at random, until with a 
strange kind of persuasiveness and constraint he reduced us 
to a state of quietude under him by his discourse, which 
acted like a bridle in our mouth. And that was at first an 
unpleasant position for us, and one not without pain, as he 
dealt with persons who were unused to it, and still all un- 
trained to submit to reason, when he plied us with his argu- 
1 The text gives i*, for which Hceschelius and Bengel read tix.%. 


mentations ; and yet he purged us by them. And when he 
had made us adaptable, and had prepared us successfully 
for the reception of the words of truth, then, further, as 
though we were now a soil well wrought and soft, and 
ready to impart growth to the seeds cast into it, he dealt 
liberally with us, and sowed the good seed in season, and 
attended to all the other cares of the good husbandry, each 
in its own proper season; and whenever he perceived any 
element of infirmity or baseness in our mind (whether it 
was of that character by nature, or had become thus gross 
through the excessive nurture of the body), he pricked it 
with his discourses, and reduced it by those delicate words 
and turns of reasoning which, although at first the very 
simplest, are gradually evolved one after the other, and skil- 
fully wrought out, until they advance to a sort of com- 
plexity which can scarce be mastered or unfolded, and which 
cause us to start up, as it were, out of sleep, and teach us 
the art of holding always by what is immediately before one, 
without ever making any slip by reason either of length 
or of subtlety. And if there was in us anything of an in- 
judicious and precipitate tendency, whether in the way of 
assenting to all that came across us, of whatever character 
the objects might be, and even though they proved false, or 
in the way of often withstanding other things, even though 
they were spoken truthfully, that, too, he brought under 
discipline in us by those delicate reasonings already men- 
tioned, and by others of like kind (for this branch of phi- 
losophy is of varied form), and accustomed us not to throw 
in our testimony at one time, and again to refuse it, just at 
random, and as chance impelled, but to give it only after 
careful examination not only into things manifest, but also 
into those that are secret. 1 For many things which are in 
high repute of themselves, and honourable in appearance, 
have found entrance through fair words into our ears, as 
though they were true, while yet they were hollow and false, 
and have borne off and taken possession of the suffrage of truth 
at our hand, and then, no long time afterwards, they have 
1 The words aXAa x.Kpvp,f<,fvx are omitted by Hoeschelius and Bengel. 


been discovered to be corrupt and unworthy of credit, and 
deceitful borrowers of the garb of truth ; and have thus too 
easily exposed us as men who are ridiculously deluded, and 
who bear their witness inconsiderately to things which ought 
by no means to have won it.- And, on the contrary, other 
things which are really honourable and the reverse of im- 
positions, but which have not been expressed in plausible 
statements, and thus have the appearance of being para- 
doxical and most incredible, and which have been rejected 
as false on their own showing, and held up undeservedly to 
ridicule, have afterwards, on careful investigation and exa- 
mination, been discovered to be the truest of all things, and 
wholly incontestable, though for a time spurned and reckoned 
false. Not simply, then, by dealing with things patent and 
prominent, which are sometimes delusive and sophistical, but 
also by teaching us to search into things within us, and to 
put them all individually to the test, lest any of them should 
give back a hollow sound, and by instructing us to make sure 
of these inward things first of all, he trained us to give our 
assent to outward things only then and thus, and to express 
our opinion on all these severally. In this way, that capacity 
of our mind which deals critically with words and reason- 
ings, was educated in a rational manner ; not according to 
the judgments of illustrious rhetoricians whatever Greek 
or foreign honour appertains to that title (el' rt 'EX^viKov 
rj ftdpfiapov eVrt rfj (jxovfj') for theirs is a discipline of little 
value and no necessity : but in accordance with that which is 
most needful for all, whether Greek or barbarian, whether 
wise or illiterate, and, in fine, not to make a long statement 
by going over every profession and pursuit separately, in ac- 
cordance with that which is most indispensable for all men, 
whatever manner of life they have chosen, if it is indeed the 
care and interest of all who have to converse on any subject 
whatever with each other, to be protected against deception. 

VIII. Nor did he confine his efforts merely to that form 
of the mind which it is the lot of dialectics to regulate j 1 but 

1 The text is, x.a.1 ft?) Twff oirfp fflios 8;AXT;xij xctropdovv pony 


he also took in hand that humble capacity of mind, (which 
shows itself) in our amazement at the magnitude, and the won- 
drousness, and the magnificent and absolutely wise construc- 
tion of the world, and in our marvelling in a reasonless way, 
and in our being overpowered with fear, and in our knowing 
not, like the irrational creatures, what conclusion to come to. 
That, too, he aroused and corrected by other studies in natural 
science, illustrating and distinguishing the various divisions of 
created objects, and with admirable clearness reducing them 
to their pristine elements, taking them all up perspicuously 
in his discourse, and going over the nature of the whole, and 
of each several section, and discussing the multiform revolu- 
tion and mutation of things in the world, until he carried us 
fully along with him under his clear teaching ; and by those 
reasonings which he had partly learned from others, and 
partly found out for himself, he filled our minds with a 
rational instead of an irrational wonder at the sacred ceco- 
nomy of the universe, and the irreproveable constitution of 
all things. This is that sublime and heavenly study which 
is taught by natural philosophy a science most attractive to 
all. And what need is there now to speak of the sacred 
mathematics, viz. geometry, so precious to all and above all 
controversy, and astronomy, whose course is on high ? These 
different studies he imprinted on our understandings, train- 
ing us in them, or calling them into our mind, or doing with 
us something else which I know not how to designate rightly. 
And the one he presented lucidly as the immutable ground- 
work and secure foundation of all, namely geometry ; and by 
the other, namely astronomy, he lifted us up to the things 
that are highest above us, while he made heaven passable to 
us by the help of each of these sciences, as though they were 
ladders reaching the skies. 

IX. Moreover, as to those things which excel all in im- 
portance, and those for the sake of which, above all else, the 
whole 1 family of the philosophical labours, gathering them 
like good fruits produced by the varied growths of all the 
1 vAv TO <p<Ao'ao<poi'. Hoeschelius and Bengel read TU$, etc. 


other studies, and of long practised philosophizing, I mean 
the divine virtues that concern the moral nature, by which 
the impulses of the mind have their equable and stable sub- 
sistence, through these, too, he aimed at making us truly 
proof against grief and disquietude under the pressure of 
all ills, and at imparting to us a well-disciplined and stedfast 
and religious spirit, so that we might be in all things veri- 
tably blessed. And this he toiled at effecting by pertinent 
discourses, of a wise and soothing tendency, and very often 
also by the most cogent addresses touching our moral dispo- 
sitions, and our modes of life. Nor was it only by words, 
but also by deeds, that he regulated in some measure our 
inclinations, to wit, by that very contemplation and observa- 
tion of the impulses and affections of the mind, by the issue 
of which most especially the mind is wont to be reduced 
to a right estate from one of discord, and to be restored 
to a condition of judgment and order out of one of confu- 
sion ; so that, beholding itself as in a mirror (and I may say 
specifically, viewing, on the one hand, the very beginnings 
and roots of evil in it, and all that is reasonless within it, 
from which spring up all absurd affections and passions ; 
and, on the other hand, all that is truly excellent and rea- 
sonable within it, under the sway of which it remains proof 
against injury and perturbation in itself 1 ), and then scruti- 
nizing carefully the things thus discovered to be in it, it might 
cast out all those which are the growth of the inferior part, 
and which waste our powers (eV^eovra ^/ia?) through intem- 
perance, or hinder and choke them through depression, such 
things as pleasures and lusts, or pains and fears, and the whole 
array of ills that accompany these different species of evil : 
that thus, I say, it might cast them out and make away 
with them, by coping with them while yet in their beginnings 
and only just commencing their growth, and not leaving them 
to wax in strength even by a short delay, but destroying and 
rooting them out at once ; while, at the same time, it might 
foster all those things which are really good, and which spring 
from the nobler part, and might preserve them by nursing 
1 The text gives up itn%, for which Bengel reads \$ i 


them in their beginnings, and watching carefully over them 
until they should reach their maturity. For it is thus (he 
used to say) that the heavenly virtues will ripen in the 
soul : to wit, prudence, which first of all is able to judge 
of those very motions in the mind at once from the things 
themselves, and by the knowledge which accrues to it of 
things outside of us, whatever such there may be, both good 
and evil ; and temperance, the power that makes the right 
selection among these things in their beginnings ; and right- 
eousness, which assigns what is just to each ; and that virtue 
which is the conserver of them all fortitude. And there- 
fore he did not accustom us to a mere profession in words, 
as that prudence, for instance, is the knowledge (eVtcm^j 
science) of good and evil, or of what ought to be done, and 
what ought not : for that would be indeed a vain and profit- 
less study, if there was simply the doctrine without the deed ; 
and worthless would that prudence be, which, without doing 
the things that ought to be done, and without turning men 
away from those that ought not to be done, should be able 
merely to furnish the knowledge of these things to those who 
possessed her, though many such persons come under our 
observation. Nor, again, did he content himself with the 
mere assertion that temperance is simply the knowledge of 
what ought to be chosen and what ought not ; though the 
other schools of philosophers do not teach even so much as 
that, and especially the more recent, who are so forcible and 
vigorous in words (so that I have often been astonished at 
them, when they sought to demonstrate that there is the same 
virtue in God and in men, and that upon earth, in particular, 
the wise man is equal 1 to God), and yet are incapable of 
delivering the truth as to prudence, so that one shall do the 
things which are dictated by prudence, or the truth as to 
temperance, so that one shall choose the things he has learned 
by it ; and the same holds good also of their treatment of 
righteousness and fortitude. Not thus, however, in mere 
words only did this teacher go over the truths concerning 

1 T TrpuTot Qit? l<rov flvcti TO* <ro(po 


the virtues with us ; but he incited us much more to the prac- 
tice of virtue, and stimulated us by the deeds he did more 
than by the doctrines he taught. 

X. Now I beg of the philosophers of this present time, 
both those whom I have known personally myself, and those 
of whom I have heard by report from others, and I beg also 
of all other men, that they take in good part the statements 
I have just made. And let no one suppose that I have ex- 
pressed myself thus, either through simple friendship toward 
that man, or through hatred toward the rest of the philo- 
sophers ; for if there is any one inclined to be an admirer of 
them for their discourses, and wishful to speak well of them, 
and pleased at hearing the most honourable mention made of 
them by others, I myself am the man. Nevertheless, those 
facts (to which I have referred) are of such a nature as to 
bring upon the very name of philosophy the last degree of 
ridicule almost from the great mass of men ; and I might 
almost say that I would choose to be altogether unversed 
in it, rather than learn any of the things which these men 
profess, with whom I thought it good no longer to associate 
myself in this life, though in that, it may be, I formed an 
incorrect judgment. But I say that no one should suppose 
that I make these statements at the mere prompting of a 
zealous regard for the praise of this man, or under the 
stimulus of any existing animosity 1 towards other philo- 
sophers. But let all be assured that I say even less than 
his deeds merit, lest I should seem to be indulging in adula- 
tion ; and that I do not seek out studied words and phrases, 
and cunning means of laudation I who could never of my 
own will, even when I was a youth, and learning the popular 
style of address under a professor of the art of public speak- 
ing, bear to utter a word of praise, or pass any encomium 
on any one which was not genuine. Wherefore on the pre- 
sent occasion, too, I do not think it right, in proposing to my- 
self the task simply of commending him, to magnify him at 

for which (pihoviut is read. 


the cost of the reprobation of others. And, in good sooth, 1 
I should speak only to the man's injury, if, with the view of 
having something grander to say of him, I should compare 
his blessed life with the failings of others. We are not, 
however, so senseless. 2 But I shall testify simply to what 
has come within my own experience, apart from all ill-judged 
comparisons and trickeries in words. 

XI. He was also the first and only man that urged me to 
study the philosophy of the Greeks, and persuaded me by his 
own moral example both to hear and to hold by the doctrine of 
morals, while as yet I had by no means been won over to that, 
so far as other philosophers were concerned (I again acknow- 
ledge it), not rightly so, indeed, but unhappily, as I may say 
without exaggeration, for me. I did not, however, associate 
with many at first, but only with some few who professed to 
be teachers, though, in good sooth, they all established their 
philosophy only so far as words went (a\\a yap Traa-t ^XP 1 
pq/jidrcov TO (J3i\oa-o(j)eiv crrijcracnv). This man, however, was 
the first that induced me to philosophize by his words, as he 
pointed the exhortation by deeds before he gave it in words, 
and did not merely recite well-studied sentences ; nay, he did 
not deem it right to speak on the subject at all, but with a 
sincere mind, and one bent on striving ardently after the 
practical accomplishment of the things expressed, and he en- 
deavoured all the while to show himself in character like the 
man whom he describes in his discourses as the person who 
shall lead a noble life, and he ever exhibited (in himself), I 
would say, the pattern of the wise man. But as our dis- 
course at the outset proposed to deal with the truth, and not 
with vain-glorious language, 3 I shall not speak of him now 
as the exemplar of the wise man. And yet, if I chose to 

1 The text is, % xaxav v tfoyov, etc. The Greek % and the Latin out 
are found sometimes thus with a force bordering on that of alioqui. 

2 <ppa,ti>ofiw. The Paris editor would read d$p*iva ft,e. 

8 The text is, A.A' tvtl othqduotv tiftw, ov}/sta. iwyyefaetTO 6 Ao'yo? 
uvudsv. The Latin rendering is, sed quia veritatem nobis, non pompam et 
ornatum promisit oratio in exordio. 


speak thus of him, I would not be far astray from the truth. 1 
Nevertheless, I pass that by at present. I shall not speak 
of him as a perfect pattern, but as one who vehemently 
desires to imitate the perfect pattern, and strives after it 
with zeal and earnestness, even beyond the capacity of 
men, if I may so express myself; and who labours, more- 
over, also to make us, who are so different, 2 of like character 
with himself, not mere masters and apprehenders of the bald 
doctrines concerning the impulses of the soul, but masters 
and apprehenders of these impulses themselves. For he 
pressed 3 us on both to deed and to doctrine, and carried us 
along by that same view and method (0ea)pia), not merely 
into a small section of each virtue, but rather into the whole, 
if mayhap we were able to take it in. And he constrained 
us also, if I may so speak, to practise righteousness on the 
ground of the personal action of the soul itself, 4 which he 
persuaded us to study, drawing us off from the officious 
anxieties of life, and from the turbulence of the forum, and 

1 The text is, KCIITOI ys ttTrilv Wt'huv tTvai TI A0?. Ben gel takes the 
TE as pleonastic, or as an error for the article, r dhydis. The iHva.i in 
iS&uv tlvai he takes to be the use of the infinitive which occurs in such 
phrases as ryu Trpuryv ilvcti, initio, iivxt, libenter, TO 8e vvv fivcti, nunc 
vero, etc. ; and, giving lOi'huv the sense of piKhuv, makes the whole = And 
yet I shall speak truth. 

2 The text is, xai iipx; sripovf. The phrase may be, as it is given above, a 
delicate expression of difference, or it may perhaps be an elegant redun- 
dancy, like the French a nous autres. Others read, xi iiftoi; xxt srepovs. 

& The reading in the text gives, ov "hoyuv tytpxTsj; xa.1 iirtaTtipovcts 
TUV yripl opf&uv, TUV opfAuv otvTuv' kir\ TO. fpyot xotl hoyov $ y%av, etc. 
Others would arrange the whole passage differently, thus : vspi oopav, 
TUV B opftav O.VTUV Itrl TOC, ipyai xoti TWf \6yov; diyxav. K<, etc. Hence 
Sirmondus renders it, a motibus ipsis ad opera etiam sermones, reading 
also olyuv apparently. Ehodomanus gives, impulsionum ipsarum ad opera 
et verba ignavi et negligenles, reading evidently dpyuv. Bengel solves the 
difficulty by taking the first clause as equivalent to ov Xc/V<u< t*/$ 
xxl fTTKTrqf&ovx; . . . oiinuv TUV 6p/nuv lyxpaTHS xa.1 iTriaryftovot;. We 
have adopted this as the most evident sense. Thus eLy^uv is retained 
unchanged, and is taken as a parallel to the following participle fKiQtpuv, 
and as bearing, therefore, a meaning something like that of dva.yx.ti > uv. 
See Bengel's note in Migue. 

4 It* TJIV lliQvpyia.v rijj ^v^s, perhaps just " the private life." 



raising us to the nobler vocation of looking into ourselves, 
and dealing with the things that concern ourselves in truth. 
Now, that this is to practise righteousness, and that this is 
the true righteousness, some also of our ancient philosophers 
have asserted (expressing it as the personal action, I think), 
and have affirmed that this is more profitable for blessedness, 
both to the men themselves and to those who are with them 
(eavrois re ical Tot9 Trpocriova'iv), if indeed it belongs to this 
virtue to recompense according to desert, and to assign to 
each his own. For what else could be supposed to be so 
proper to the soul? Or what could be so worthy of it, as 
to exercise a care over itself, not gazing outwards, or busy- 
ing itself with alien matters, or, to speak shortly, doing the 
worst injustice to itself, but turning its attention inwardly 
upon itself, rendering its own due to itself, and acting thereby 
righteously? 1 To practise righteousness after this fashion, 
therefore, he impressed upon us, if I may so speak, by a sort 
of force. And he educated us to prudence none the less, 
teaching to be at home with ourselves, and to desire and en- 
deavour to know ourselves, which indeed is the most excellent 
achievement of philosophy, the thing that is ascribed also to 
the most prophetic of spirits (o 8?; teal Saipovcov ru> pavTiKw- 
TO'TW avarlOerai) as the highest argument of wisdom the 
precept, Know thyself. And that this is the genuine function 
of prudence, and that such is the heavenly prudence, is 
affirmed well by the ancients; for in this there is one virtue 
common to God and to man ; while the soul is exercised in 
beholding itself as in a mirror, and reflects the divine mind 
in itself, if it is worthy of such a relation, and traces out a 
certain inexpressible method for the attaining of a kind of 
apotheosis. And in correspondence with this come also the 
virtues of temperance and fortitude: temperance, indeed, 
in conserving this very prudence which must be in the soul 
that knows itself, if that is ever its lot (for this temperance, 
again, surely means just a sound prudence) : 2 and fortitude, 

1 The text is, ro vrpo; ta.wrw tivxt. Migne proposes either to read 
Si Of to supply T^J* v^t/^sjj/. 
typwv-jriv, aua.v Tii/ (ppwwiv, an etymological play. 


in keeping steclfastly by all the duties (eTrtrrjBevaea-iv) which 
have been spoken of, without falling away from them, either 
voluntarily or under any force, and in keeping and holding by 
all that has been laid down. For he teaches that this virtue 
acts also as a kind of preserver, maintainer, and guardian. 

XII. It is true, indeed, that in consequence of our dull 
and sluggish nature, he has not yet succeeded in making us 
righteous, and prudent, and temperate, or manly, although 
he has laboured zealously on us. For we are neither in real 
possession of any virtue whatsoever, either human or divine, 
nor have we ever made any near approach to it, but we are 
still far from it. And these are very great and lofty virtues, 
and none of them may be assumed by any common person, 1 
but only by one whom God inspires with the power. We are 
also by no means so favourably constituted for them by nature, 
neither do we yet profess ourselves to be worthy of reaching 
them ; for through our listlessness and feebleness we have 
nol done all these things which ought to be done by those 
who aspire after what is noblest, and aim at what is perfect. 
We are not yet therefore either righteous or temperate, or 
endowed with any of the other virtues. But this admirable 
man, this friend and advocate of the virtues, has long ago 
done for us perhaps all that it lay in his power to do for us, 
in making us lovers of virtue, who should love it with the 
most ardent affection. And by his own virtue he created 
in us a love at once for the beauty of righteousness, the 
golden face of which in truth was shown to us by him ; and 
for prudence, which is worthy of being sought by all ; and 
for the true wisdom, which is most delectable ; and for tem- 
perance, the heavenly virtue which forms the sound consti- 
tution of the soul, and brings peace to all who possess it ; 
and for manliness, that most admirable grace ; and for 
patience, that virtue peculiarly ours; 2 and, above all, for 

1 The text is, ovdi TU tv-^ilv. Migue suggests ovlti ru dipt; Tv-^tiv = 
nor is it legitimate for any one to attain them. 

2 The text is, inroftovys qpZiv. Vossius and others omit the ypuv. 
The Stuttgart editoi- gives this note: "It does not appear that this 


piety, which men rightly designate when they call it the 
mother of the virtues. For this is the beginning and the 
end of all the virtues. And beginning with this one, we 
shall find all the other virtues grow upon us most readily : 
if, while for ourselves we earnestly aspire after this grace, 
which every man, be he only not absolutely impious, or a 
mere pleasure-seeker, ought to acquire for himself, in order 
to his being a friend of God and a maintainer l of His 
truth, and while we diligently pursue this virtue, we also 
give heed to the other virtues, in order that we may not ap- 
proach our God in unworthiness and impurity, but with all 
virtue and wisdom as our best conductors and most sagacious 
priests. And the end of all I consider to be nothing but this : 
By the pure mind make thyself like 2 to God, that thou 
mayest draw near to Him, and abide in Him. 

XIII. And besides all his other patient and laborious 
efforts, how shall I in words give any account of what he 
did for us, in instructing us in theology and the devout 
character? and how shall I enter into the real disposition 
of the man, and show with what judiciousness and careful 
preparation he would have us familiarized with all discourse 
about the Divinity, guarding sedulously against our being in 
any peril with respect to what is the most needful thing of 
all, namely, the knowledge of the Cause of all things ? For 
he deemed it right for us to study philosophy in such wise, 
that we should read with utmost diligence all that has been 
written, both by the philosophers and by the poets of old, 
rejecting nothing, 3 and repudiating nothing (for, indeed, we 
did not yet possess the power of critical discernment), except 

should be connected by apposition with di/lpsixs (manliness). But 
Gregory, after the four virtues which philosophers define as cardinal, 
adds two which are properly Christian, viz. patience, and that which is 
the hinge of all piety." 

1 The word is -jrpoqyopw. It may be, as the Latin version puts it, 
familiaris, one in fellowship with God. 

2 i%e,ficnadyiTt irpoat'b.dilv. Others read t^^iu&kvra. wpw&Oiiv. 

3 ftylisv fxTroiovfttvovf. Casaubon marks this as a phrase taken from 
law, and equivalent to, nihil alienum a nobis ducentes. 


only the productions of the atheists, who, in their conceits, 
lapse from the general intelligence of man, and deny that there 
is either a God or a providence. From these he would have 
us abstain, because they are not worthy of being read, and 
because it might chance that the soul within us that is meant 
for piety might be defiled by listening to words that are con- 
trary to the worship of God. For even those who frequent 
the temples of piety, as they think them to be, are careful 
not to touch anything that is profane. 1 He held, therefore, 
that the books of such men did not merit to be taken at all 
into the consideration of men who have assumed the practice 
of piety. He thought, however, that we should obtain and 
make ourselves familiar with all other writings, neither pre- 
ferring nor repudiating any one kind, whether it be philo- 
sophical discourse or not, whether Greek or foreign, but 
hearing what all of them have to convey. And it was with 
great wisdom and sagacity that he acted on this principle, 
lest any single saying given by the one class or the other 
should be heard and valued above others as alone true, even 
though it might not be true, and lest it might thus enter 
our mind and deceive us, and, in being lodged there by 
itself alone, might make us its own, so that we should no 
more have the power to withdraw from it, or wash ourselves 
clear of it, as one washes out a little wool that has got some 
colour ingrained in it. For a mighty thing and an energetic 
is the discourse of man, and subtle with its sophisms, and 
quick to find its way into the ears, and mould the mind, 
and impress us with what it conveys ; and when once it has 
taken possession of us, it can win us over to love it as truth ; 
and it holds its place within us even though it be false and 
deceitful, overmastering us like some enchanter, and retain- 
ing as its champion the very man it has deluded. And, 
on the other hand, the mind of man is withal a thing easily 
deceived by speech, and very facile in yielding its assent ; 
and, indeed, before it discriminates and inquires into matters 

1 The text is, %g oiovrott. "We render with Ben gel. The Latin inter- 
preter makes it = Even those who frequent the temples do not dceui 
it consistent with religion to touch anything at all profane. 


in any proper way, it is easily won over, either through its 
own obtuseness and imbecility, or through the subtlety of 
the discourse, to give itself up, at random often, all weary of 
accurate examination, to crafty reasonings and judgments, 
which are erroneous themselves, and which lead into error 
those who receive them. And not only so ; but if another 
mode of discourse aims at correcting it, it will neither give it 
admittance, nor suffer itself to be altered in opinion, because 
it is held fast by any notion which has previously got possession 
of it, as though some inexorable tyrant were lording it over it. 

XIV. Is it not thus that contradictory and opposing tenets 
have been introduced, and all the contentions of philosophers, 
while one party withstands the opinions of another, and 
some hold by certain positions, and others by others, and one 
school attaches itself to one set of dogmas, and another to 
another? And all, indeed, aim at philosophizing, and pro- 
fess to have been doing so ever since they were first roused 
to it, and declare that they desire it not less now when they 
are well versed in the discussions than when they began 
them : yea, rather they allege that they have even more love 
for philosophy now, after they have had, so to speak, a little 
taste of it, and have had the liberty of dwelling on its discus- 
sions, than when at first, and without any previous experience 
of it, they were urged by a sort of impulse to philosophize. 
That is what they say ; and henceforth they give no heed to 
any words of those who hold opposite opinions. And accord- 
ingly, no one of the ancients has ever induced any one of the 
moderns, or those of the Peripatetic school, to turn to his way 
of thinking, and adopt his method of philosophizing; and, on 
the other hand, none of the moderns has imposed his notions 
upon those of the ancient school. Nor, in short, has any 
one done so with any other. For it is not an easy thing to 
induce one to give up his own opinions, and accept those of 
others; although these might, perhaps, even be sentiments 
which, if he had been led to credit them before he began 
to philosophize, the man might at first have admired and 
accepted with all readiness : as, while the mind was not yet 


preoccupied, he might have directed his attention to that 
set of opinions, and given them his approval, and on their 
behalf opposed himself to those which he holds at present. 
Such, at least, has been the kind of philosophizing exhi- 
bited by our noble and most eloquent and critical Greeks: 
for whatever any one of these has lighted on at the outset, 
moved by some impulse or other, that alone he declares to 
be truth, and holds that all else which is maintained by 
other philosophers is simply delusion and folly, though he 
himself does not more satisfactorily establish his own posi- 
tions by argument, than do all the others severally defend 
their peculiar tenets ; the man's object being simply to be 
under no obligation to give up and alter his opinions, whether 
by constraint or by persuasion, while he has (if one may 
speak truth) nothing else but a kind of unreasoning impulse 
toward these dogmas on the side of philosophy, and possesses 
no, other criterion of what he imagines to be true, than (let 
it not seem an incredible assertion) undistinguishing chance. 1 
And as each one thus becomes attached to those positions 
with which he has first fallen in, and is, as it were, held in 
chains by them, he is no longer capable of giving attention 
to others, if he happens to have anything of his own to offer 
on every subject with the demonstration of truth, and if he 
has the aid of argument to show how false the tenets of his 
adversaries are ; for, helplessly and thoughtlessly and as if 
he looked for some happy contingency, he yields himself to 
the reasonings that first take possession of him. 2 And such 
reasonings mislead those who accept them, not only in other 

1 The text is, OVK. xxi!/ rivd (si %ti T* A>j0ej tlvtit) \x,uv % TIJJ/ 

T'ij? (pthoffotptx; firl TOS.OS TX, ^oyfAXTCt aihoyov 6p{t'/iv' KMI Kffftf uv 
ethySuv (fty Trttpti^o^w t'nrtiv y) ovx. ctKhriv *j TJJ <Z>tptTOv TV-^HV. Vossius 
would read, -z-pof -ryu Qi'hoaoQi/*!' xxt M rafts ret, tioyftetTec. Migne makes 
it = nulla ei erat alia sententia (si verum est dicendum) nisi csecus il'e 
stimulus quo ante philosophise studium in ista actus erat placita : neque 
aliud indicium eorum quse vera putaret (lie minim sit dictu) nisi fortunes 
temeritas. Bengel would read, -xrpo TJJJ <pAo(7o<p/j. 

2 The text is, 'co-it xotl d/Bo^Syiros, soiVTov %piveiftvos xecl ixSt^ooj 
fix,vi aairsp foptaiov, TO?? irpox.anot'hetfiovaiv etvrov Xo'yo/f. Bengel proposes 

v, as =: lucrum insperatum. 


matters, but above all, in what is of greatest and most essen- 
tial consequence in the knowledge of God and in piety. 
And yet men become bound by them in such a manner that 
no one can very easily release them. For they are like men 
caught in a swamp stretching over some wide impassable 
plain, which, when they have once fallen into it, allows them 
neither to retrace their steps nor to cross it and effect their 
safety, but keeps them down in its soil until they meet their 
end ; or they may be compared to men in a deep, dense, and 
majestic forest, into which the wayfarer enters, with the idea, 
perchance, of finding his road out of it again forthwith, and 
of taking his course once more on the open plain, 1 but is 
baffled in his purpose by the extent and thickness of the 
wood ; and turning in a variety of directions, and lighting 
on various continuous paths within it, he pursues many a 
course, thinking that by some of them he will surely find 
his way out : but they only lead him farther in, and in no 
way open up an exit for him, inasmuch as they are all only 
paths within the forest itself ; until at last the traveller, 
utterly worn out and exhausted, seeing that all the ways he 
had tried had proved only forest still, and despairing of 
finding any more his dwelling-place on earth, makes up his 
to abide there, and establish his hearth, and lay out for his 
use such free space as he can prepare in the wood itself. 
Or again, we might take the similitude of a labyrinth, which 
has but one apparent entrance, so that one suspects nothing 
artful from the outside, and goes within by the single door 
that shows itself ; and then, after advancing to the farthest 
interior, and viewing the cunning spectacle, and examining 
the construction so skilfully contrived, and full of passages, 
and laid out with unending paths leading inwards or out- 
wards, he decides to go out again, but finds himself unable, 
and sees his exit completely intercepted by that inner con- 
struction which appeared such a triumph of cleverness. But, 
after all, there is neither any labyrinth so inextricable and 

fpxsf. Sirmondus gives puro campo. Rhodomanus, reading 
dtpi, gives puro aere. Bengel takes tpzof, septum, as derivatively = 
domus, fundus, regio septis munita. 


intricate, nor any forest so dense and devious, nor any plain 
or swamp so difficult for those to get out of, who have once 
got within it, as is discussion (Xo709), at least as one may 
meet with it in the case of certain of these philosophers. 1 
Wherefore, to secure us against falling into the unhappy 
experience of most, he did not introduce us to any one 
exclusive school of philosophy ; nor did he judge it proper 
for us to go away with any single class of philosophical 
opinions, but he introduced us to all, and determined that 
we should be ignorant of no kind of Grecian doctrine. 
And he himself went on with us, preparing the way before 
us, and leading us by the hand, as on a journey, whenever 
anything tortuous and unsound and delusive came in our 
way. And he helped us like a skilled expert who has had 
long familiarity with such subjects, and is not strange or 
inexperienced in anything of the kind, and who therefore 
may remain safe in his own altitude, while he stretches forth 
his hand to others, and effects their security too, as one 
drawing up the submerged. Thus did he deal with us, 
selecting and setting before us all that was useful and true 
in all the various philosophers, and putting aside all that was 
false. And this he did for us, both in other branches of man's 
knowledge, and most especially in all that concerns piety. 

XV. With respect to these human teachers, indeed, he 
counselled us to attach ourselves to none of them, not even 
though they were attested as most wise by all men, but to 
devote ourselves to God alone, and to the prophets. And he 
himself became the interpreter of the prophets (vTrotyrjrevcov) 
to us, and explained whatsoever was dark or enigmatical in 
them. For there are many things of that kind in the sacred 
words ; and whether it be that God is pleased to hold com- 
munication with men in such a way as that the divine word 
may not enter all naked and uncovered into an unworthy 
soul, such as many are, or whether it be, that while every 
divine oracle is in its own nature most clear and perspicuous, 

1 The text is, * TI; tiq XXT ai/ruii Tui^i nvav Qthoaotpav. Bengel 


it seems obscure and dark to us, who have apostatized from 
God, and have lost the faculty of hearing through time and 
age, I cannot tell. But however the case may stand, if it be 
that there are some words really enigmatical, he explained all 
such, and set them in the light, as being himself a skilled and 
most discerning hearer of God ; or if it be that none of them 
are really obscure in their own nature, they were also not 
unintelligible to him, who alone of all men of the present 
time with whom I have myself been acquainted, or of whom 
I have heard by the report of others, has so deeply studied 
the clear and luminous oracles of God, as to be able at once 
to receive their meaning into his own mind, and to convey it 
to others. For that Leader of all men, who inspires (vTnj^atv} 
God's dear prophets, and suggests all their prophecies and 
their mystic and heavenly words, has honoured this man as 
He would a friend, and has constituted him an expositor of 
these same oracles ; and things of which He only gave a 
hint by others, He made matters of full instruction by this 
man's instrumentality ; and in things which He, who is 
worthy of all trust, either enjoined in regal fashion, or 
simply enunciated, He imparted to this man the gift of 
investigating and unfolding and explaining them : so that, 
if there chanced to be any one of obtuse and incredulous 
mind, or one again thirsting for instruction, he might learn 
from this man, and in some manner be constrained to 
understand and to decide for belief, and to follow God. 
These things, moreover, as I judge, he gives forth only and 
truly by participation in the Divine Spirit : for there is 
need of the same power for those who prophesy and for 
those who hear the prophets ; and no one can rightly hear 
a prophet, unless the same Spirit who prophesies bestows 
on him the capacity of apprehending His words. And this 
principle is expressed indeed in the Holy Scriptures them- 
selves, when it is said that only He who shutteth openeth, 
and no other one whatever j 1 and what is shut is opened 
when the word of inspiration explains mysteries. Now that 
greatest gift this man has received from God, and that 
1 Isa. xxii. 22 ; Rev. iii. 7. 


noblest of all endowments he has had bestowed upon him 
from heaven, that he should be an interpreter of the oracles 
of God to men, and that he might understand the words of 
God, even as if God spake them to him, and that he might 
recount them to men in such wise as that they may hear 
them with intelligence. 1 Therefore to us there was no for- 
bidden subject of speech (apprjrov) ; for there was no matter 
of knowledge hidden or inaccessible to us, but we had it in 
our power to learn every kind of discourse, both barbarian 
(foreign) and Greek, both spiritual and political, both divine 
and human ; and we were permitted with all freedom to go 
round the whole circle of knowledge, and investigate it, and 
satisfy ourselves with all kinds of doctrines, and enjoy the 
sweets of intellect ; and whether it was some ancient system 
of truth, or whether it was something one might otherwise 
name that was before us, we had in him an apparatus and 
a power at once admirable and full of the most beautiful 
views. And to speak in brief, he was truly a paradise to us, 
after the similitude of the paradise of God, wherein we were 
not set indeed to till the soil beneath us, or to make our- 
selves gross with bodily nurture (a-coitaTOTpofalv Tra-^yvofie- 
vou?), but only to increase the acquisitions of mind with all 
gladness and enjoyment, planting, so to speak, some fair 
growths ourselves, or having them planted in us by the 
Author of all things. 

XVI. Here, truly, is the paradise of comfort ; here are true 
gladness and pleasure, as we have enjoyed them during this 
period which is now at its end no short space indeed in it- 
self, and yet all too short if this is really to be its conclusion, 
when we depart and leave this place behind us. For I know 
not what has possessed me, or what offence has been com- 
mitted by me, that I should now be going away that I 
should now be put away. I know not what I should say, 
unless it be that I am like a second Adam and have begun 
to talk, outside of paradise. How excellent might my life 

1 The text gives u; AMWUCIV, with Voss. and Bengel. The Paris 
editor gives 


be, were I but a listener to the addresses of my teacher, and 
silent myself ! Would that even now I could have learned 
to be mute and speechless, rather than to present this new 
spectacle of making the teacher the hearer ! For what concern 
had I with such a harangue as this? and what obligation was 
there upon me to make such an address, when it became rne 
not to depart, but to cleave fast to the place ? But these things 
seem like the transgressions that sprung from the pristine de- 
ceit, and the penalties of these primeval offences still await me 
here. Do I not appear to myself to be disobedient 1 in daring 
thus to overpass the words of God, when I ought to abide in 
them, and hold by them ? And in that I withdraw, I flee 
from this blessed life, even as the primeval man fled from 
the face of God, and I return to the soil from which I was 
taken. Therefore shall I have to eat of the soil all the days 
of my life there, and I shall have to till the soil the very 
soil which produces thorns and thistles for me, that is to say, 
pains and reproachful anxieties set loose as I shall be from 
cares that are good and noble. And what I left behind me 
before, to that I now return to the soil, as it were, from 
which I came, and to my common relationships here below, 
and to my father's house leaving the good soil, where of old 
I knew not that the good fatherland lay ; leaving also the 
relations in whom at a later period I began to recognise the 
true kinsmen of my soul, and the house, too, of him who is 
in truth our father, in which the father abides, and is piously 
honoured and revered by the genuine sons, whose desire it 
also is to abide therein. But I, destitute alike of all piety and 
worthiness, am going forth from the number of these, and 
am turning back to what is behind, and am retracing my 
steps. It is recorded that a certain son, receiving from his 
father the portion of goods that fell to him proportionately 
with the other heir, his brother, departed, by his own deter- 
mination, into a strange country far distant from his father ; 
and, living there in riot, he scattered his ancestral substance, 
and utterly wasted it; and at last, under the pressure of 
want, he hired himself as a swineherd ; and being driven to 
Bengel and Hoeschelius read dTrt^ila^ withdraw. 


extremity by hunger, he longed to share the food given to 
the swine, but could not touch it. Thus did he pay the 
penalty of his dissolute life, when he had to exchange his 
father's table, which was a princely one, for something he 
had not looked forward to the sustenance of swine and 
serfs. And we also seem to have some such fortune before 
us, now that we are departing, and that, too, without the 
full portion that falls to us. For though we have not re- 
ceived all that we ought, we are nevertheless going away, 
leaving behind us what is noble and dear with you and be- 
side you, and taking in exchange only what is inferior. For 
all things melancholy will now meet us in succession, tumult 
and confusion instead of peace, and an unregulated life in- 
stead of one of tranquillity and harmony, and a hard bondage, 
and the slavery of market-places, and lawsuits, and crowds, 
instead of this freedom ; and neither pleasure nor any sort 
of leisure shall remain to us for the pursuit of nobler objects. 
Neither shall we have to speak of the words of inspiration, but 
we shall have to speak of the works of men (a thing which 
has been deemed simply a bane by the prophet 1 ), and in our 
case, indeed, those of wicked men. And truly we shall have 
night in place of day, and darkness in place of the clear light, 
and grief instead of the festive assembly ; and in place of a 
fatherland, a hostile country will receive us, in which I shall 
have no liberty to sing my sacred song 2 (for how could I sing 
it in a land strange to my soul, in which the sojourners have 
no permission to approach God?), but only to weep and 
mourn, as I call to mind the different state of things here, 
if indeed even that shall be in my power. We read 3 that 
enemies once assailed a great and sacred city, in which the 
worship of God was observed, and dragged away its inhabit- 
ants, both singers and theologians, 4 into their own country, 

Migne refers us to 
Ps. xvii. 

2 Ps. cxxxvii. 8 2 Kings xxiv. xxv. 

4 &oAo'yov?, used probably of the prophets here, namely of Ezekiel, 
Daniel, and others carried into exile with the people. On this usage, see 
Suicer's Thesaurus, under the word 0oX</'yo, where from the pseudo- 


which was Babylon ; and it is narrated that these captives, 
when they were detained in the land, refused, even when 
asked by their conquerors, to sing the divine song, or to play 
in a profane country, and hung their harps on the willow- 
trees, and wept by the rivers of Babylon. Like one of these 
I verily seem to myself to be, as I am cast forth from this 
city, and from this sacred fatherland of mine, where both 
by day and by night the holy laws are declared, and hymns 
and songs and spiritual words are heard ; where also there is 
perpetual sunlight; where by day in waking vision 1 we have 
access to the mysteries of God, and by night in dreams we 
are still occupied with what the soul has seen and handled 
in the day ; and where, in short, the inspiration of divine 
things prevails over all continually. From this city, I say, 
I am cast forth, and borne captive to a strange land, where 
I shall have no power to pipe: 2 for, like these men of old, 
I shall have to hang my instrument on the willows, and the 
rivers shall be my place of sojourn, and I shall have to work 
in mud, and shall have no heart to sing hymns, even though 
I remember them ; yea, it may be that, through constant 
occupation with other subjects, I shall forget even them, 
like one spoiled of memory itself. And would that, in going 

Areopagite Dionysius he cites the sentence, ruv faohoyav tig, o 
and again, tripos ruv Oiohoyvv 'lsix,tfa. 

1 The text is, xa.1 <pu; TO fo.iet.x.ov x.ot.1 TO f>iYivix.ts, qftipeis virtp 
irpoooftthovvTUV To7; 6110; ftvaTYipioti; x.etl vvxrog uv tv '/ifitpct tp)i T 
firpa%ev q -^/v^ Tttls Qctvretaioti; XCCTI^O/^IUUV. Bengel proposes 

for fate, so as to keep the antithesis between qftipot; v^xp and VVX.TO; 
(pxvTuaieiis ; and taking ti/nepu.; and VVX.TOS as temporal genitives, he 
renders the whole thus : cum interdiu, per visa, divinis aderamus sacra- 
mentis: et noctu earum rerum, quas viderat de die atque egerat anima, 
imaginibus detinebamur. 

2 a.v'htlv. The Jews had the harp, and so the word i^XA/ is used of 
them in the preceding. But here, in speaking of himself, Gregory adopts 
the term oi/rt Aen/, ne tibia quidem canere. Bengel supposes that the 
verb is changed in order to convey the idea, that while the Jews only had 
to give up the use of instruments expressive of joyful feeling, Gregory 
feared he would himself be unable to play even on those of a mournful 
tone, for in ancient times the pipe or flute was chiefly appropriated to 
strains of grief and sadness. 


away, I only went away against my will, as a captive is wont 
to do ; but I go away also of my own will, and not by con- 
straint of another ; and by my own act I am dispossessed of 
this city, when it is in my option to remain in it. Per- 
chance, too, in leaving this place, I may be going to prosecute 
no safe journey, as it sometimes fares with one who quits 
some safe and peaceful city ; and it is indeed but too likely 
that, in journeying, I may fall into the hands of robbers, and 
be taken prisoner, and be stripped and wounded with many 
strokes, and be cast forth to lie half-dead somewhere. 

XVII. But why should I utter such lamentations ? There 
lives still the Saviour of all men, even of the half-dead and 
the despoiled, the Protector and Physician for all, the Word, 
that sleepless Keeper of all. We have also seeds of truth 
which thou hast made us know as our possession, and all 
that we have received from thee, those noble deposits of 
instruction, with which we take our course ; and though we 
weep, indeed, as those who go forth from home, we yet carry 
those seeds with us. It may be, then, that the Keeper who 
presides over us will bear us in safety through all that shall 
befall us ; and it may be that we shall come yet again to 
thee, bringing with us the fruits and handfuls yielded by 
these seeds, far from perfect truly (for how could they be 
so?), but still such as a life spent in civil business makes 
it possible for us to rear, though marred indeed by a kind 
of faculty that is either unapt to bear fruit altogether, or 
prone to bear bad fruit, but which, I trust, is one not destined 
to be further misused by us, if God grants us grace. 1 

XVIII. Wherefore let me now have done with this ad- 
dress, which I have had the boldness to deliver in a presence 
wherein boldness least became me. Yet this address is one 
which, I think, has aimed heartily at signifying our thanks 
to the best of our ability, for though we have had nothing 

1 The text is, t>tt<p6atp[s.tVBt.g fttv rr, ^vvdftet, y ux-otpvu j x.ocx.ox.tip'Try 

rifl, /*y xcti x-po<r%iq>dxpY!aoft.fiiy %i n-etp qp av, etc. Bengel reads piv rot 
for put Tf, and takes ^/j / as = utinam ne. 


to say worthy of the subject, we could not be altogether 
silent, and one, too, which has given expression to our re- 
grets, as those are wont to do who go abroad in separation 
from friends. And whether this speech of mine may not 
have contained things puerile (or) bordering on flattery, or 
things offending by excess of simplicity on the one hand, or 
of elaboration on the other, I know not. Of this, however, 
I am clearly conscious, that at least there is in it nothing 
unreal, but all that is true and genuine, in sincerity of 
opinion, and in purity and integrity of judgment. 

XIX. But, O dear soul, arise thou and offer prayer, and 
now dismiss us ; and as by thy holy instructions thou hast 
been our saviour when we enjoyed thy fellowship, so save 
us still by thy prayers in our separation. Commend us and 
set us constantly before thee in prayer (TrapaBlBov Kal irapa- 
rldea-o). Or rather commend us continually to that God 
who brought us to thee, giving thanks for all that has been 
granted us in the past, and imploring Him still to lead us by 
the hand in the future, and to stand ever by us, filling our 
mind with the understanding of His precepts, inspiring us 
with the godly fear of Himself, and vouchsafing us hence- 
forward His choicest guidance. 1 For when we are gone from 
thee, we shall not have the same liberty for obeying Him 
as was ours when we were with thee. 2 Pray, therefore, that 
some encouragement may be conveyed to us from Him when 
we lose thy presence, and that He may send us a good con- 
ductor, some angel to be our comrade on the way. And 
entreat Him also to turn our course, and bring us back to 
thee again ; for that is the one thing which above all else 
will effectually comfort us. 

qfriv TOV 0tiov (Qofiov ecvrov, Trxi^a.-yu'/oit oLptarov taof 
The Latin version makes the saouivov refer to the Qofiov : divinumque nobis 
timorem suum, optimum psedagogum immittens, = and inspiring with the 
godly fear of Himself as our choicest guide. 

2 ov yoip iv TYI fierii oov ihsvdspfif xxi axgA^oWsj inretKovaoftii/ cti/ry. 
Bengel paraphrases it thus: hac libertate quse tecum est carebo diyressus ; 
quare vereor ut Deo posthac paream, ni timore saltern munilus fuero. 



(Edited in Latin by Gerardus Vossius, Opp. Greg. Thaum., Paris 1662, 
in fol. ; given in Greek from the Codex Vaticanus by Cardinal Mai, 
Script. Vet. vii. p. 170.) 

OST hostile and alien to the apostolic confession 
are those who speak of the Son as assumed to 
Himself by the Father out of nothing, and 
from an emanational origin (ol TOV Tiov e ovic 
ovra>v fcal oTrocrTeXXo/xez/??? ap^rj^ elvat, eTriKTrjrov Xeyoi/re? 
rat HarpL) ; and those who hold the same sentiments with 
respect to the Holy Spirit ; those who say that the Son is 
constituted divine by gift and grace, and that the Holy 
Spirit is made holy ; those who regard the name of the Son 
as one common to servants, and assert that thus He is the first- 
born of the creature, as becoming, like the creature, existent 
out of non-existence, and as being first made, and who refuse to 

1 Vossius has the following argument : This is a second Confession of 
Faith, and one widely different from the former, which this great Gregory 
of ours received by revelation. This seems, however, to be designated 
an fx6-<Tis TV$ X,O.T fttpo; w/imw?, either because it records and expounds 
the matters of the faith only in part, or because the Creed is explained 
in it by parts. The Jesuit theologian Franc. Torrensis (the interpreter 
and scholiast of this ix.dtaii) has, however, rendered the phrase v> Kotr 
fttpo; vriaris, by the Latin fides non universa serf in parte. And here we 
have a fi Ics non universa sed in parte, according to him, a creed not of 
all the dogmas of the church,- but only of some, in opposition to the 
heretics who deny them. 


admit that He is the only-begotten Son, the only One that 
the Father has, and that He has given Himself to be reckoned 
in the number of mortals, and is thus reckoned first-born ; 
those who circumscribe the generation of the Son by the 
Father with a measured interval after the fashion of man, 
and refuse to acknowledge that the aaon of the Begetter and 
that of the Begotten are without beginning ; those who in- 
troduce three separate and diverse systems of divine worship 
(aicoivwviJTovs xal |eva? ela-dyovres \arpe ia<i), whereas there 
is but one form of legitimate service which we have received 
of old from the law and the prophets, and which has been 
confirmed by the Lord and preached by the apostles. Nor 
less alienated from the true confession are those who hold 
not the doctrine of the Trinity according to truth, as a relation 
consisting of three persons, but impiously conceive it as im- 
plying a triple being in a unity (Monad), formed in the way 
of synthesis (ez> novdSi TO Tpnr\ovv acre/3co9 Kara crvvQeaiv), 
and think that the Son is the wisdom in God, in the same 
manner as the human wisdom subsists in man whereby the man 
is wise, and represent the Word as being simply like the word 
which we utter or conceive, without any hypostasis whatever. 

II. But the church's confession, and the creed that brings 
salvation to the world, is that which deals with the incarna- 
tion of the Word, and bears that He gave Himself over to 
the flesh of man which He acquired of Mary, while yet He 
conserved His own identity, and sustained no divine trans- 
position or mutation, but was brought into conjunction with 
the flesh after the similitude of man ; so that the flesh was 
made one with the divinity, the divinity having assumed the 
capacity of receiving the flesh in the fulfilling of the mystery. 
And after the dissolution of death there remained to the holy 
flesh a perpetual impassibility and a changeless immortality, 
man's original glory being taken up into it again by the power 
of the divinity, and being ministered then to all men by the 
appropriation of faith (tV rfj T?}<? triarew^ 

III. If, then, there are any here, too, who falsify the holy 


faith, either by attributing to the divinity as its own what 
belongs to the humanity progressions (7rpo/co7ra<?), and 
passions, and a glory coming with accession (&6%av rrjv 
e-TriyivofjLevrjv) or by separating from the divinity the pro- 
gressive and passible body, as if it subsisted of itself apart, 
these persons also are outside the confession of the church 
and of salvation. No one, therefore, can know God unless 
he apprehends the Son ; for the Son is the wisdom by whose 
instrumentality all things have been created ; and these 
created objects declare this wisdom, and God is recognised 
in the wisdom. But the wisdom of God is not anything 
similar to the wisdom which man possesses, but it is the per- 
fect wisdom which proceeds from the perfect God, and abides 
for ever, not like the thought of man, which passes from him 
in the word that is spoken and (straightway) ceases to be. 
Wherefore it is not wisdom only, but also God; nor is it Word 
only, but also Son. And whether, then, one discerns God 
through creation, or is taught to know Him by the holy Scrip- 
tures, it is impossible either to apprehend Him or to learn 
of Him apart from His wisdom. And he who calls upon 
God rightly, calls on Him through the Son ; and he who 
approaches Him in a true fellowship, comes to Him through 
Christ. Moreover, the Son Himself cannot be approached 
apart from the Spirit. For the Spirit is both the life and 
the holy formation of all things (/iop^xwcrt? TWV o\cav) ; and 
God sending forth this Spirit through the Son makes the 
creature (rr/i> KTUTIV) like Himself. 

IV. One therefore is God the Father, one the Word, one the 
Spirit, the life, the sanctification of all. And neither is there 
another God as Father (oure @eo<? erepo? &>? FLaTijp), nor is 
there another Son as Word of God, nor is there another Spirit 
as quickening and sanctifying. Further, although the saints 
are called both gods, and sons, and spirits, they are neither 
filled with the Spirit, nor are made like the Son and God. 
And if, then, any one makes this affirmation, that the Son is 
God, simply as being Himself filled with divinity, and not as 
being generated of divinity, he has belied the Word, he has 


belied the Wisdom, lie has lost the knowledge of God ; he has 
fallen away into the worship of the creature, he has taken up 
the impiety of the Greeks, to that he has gone back ; and he 
has become a follower of the unbelief of the Jews, who, sup- 
posing the Word of God to be but a human son, have refused 
to accept Him as God, and have declined to acknowledge 
Him as the Son of God. But it is impious to think of the 
Word of God as merely human, and to think of the works 
which are done by Him as abiding, while He abides not 
Himself. And if any one says that the Christ works all 
things only as commanded by the Word, he will both make 
the Word of God idle (dp^6v\ and will change the Lord's 
order into servitude. For the slave is one altogether under 
command, and the created is not competent to create ; far 
to suppose that what is itself created may in like manner 
create other things, would imply that it has ceased to be like 
the creature. 1 

V. Again, when one speaks of the Holy Spirit as an 
object made holy (rjjiaa/LLevov Troika), he will no longer be 
able to apprehend all things as being sanctified in (the) 
Spirit. For he who has sanctified one, sanctifies all things. 
That man, consequently, belies the fountain of sanctification, 
the Holy Spirit, who denudes Him of the power of sanctifying, 
and he will thus be precluded from numbering Him with 
the Father and the Son ; he makes nought, too, of the holy 
(ordinance of) baptism, and will no more be able to ac- 
knowledge the holy and august Trinity (Trias). For either 
we must apprehend the perfect Trinity in its natural and 
genuine glory, or we shall be under the necessity of speaking 
no more of a Trinity, but only of a Unity (Monas) ; or else, 
not numbering (<rvvapi0/Aeiv) created objects with the Creator, 
nor the creatures with the Lord of all, we must also not num- 
ber what is sanctified with what sanctifies ; even as no object 
that is made can be numbered with the Trinity, but in the 

1 This seems the idea in the sentence, ov '/dp t^taua Swsrott TU cri 
O.VTO X.CC.T olivet TpoTroy, 5V u$ iiv txiivov tx-rHrroit, ovra X.KI OLVTO 


name of the Holy Trinity baptism and invocation and worship 
are administered. For if there are three several glories, 
there must also be three several forms of cultus with those 
who impiously worship the creature ; for if there is a distinc- 
tion in the nature of the objects worshipped, there ought 
to be also with these men a distinction in the nature of the 
worship offered. What is recent (ra irpoa^ara) surely is not 
to be worshipped along with what is eternal ; for the recent 
comprehends all that has had a beginning, while mighty and 
measureless is He who is before the ages. He, therefore, 
who supposes some beginning of times in the life of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit, therewith also cuts off any possibility 
of numbering the Son and the Spirit with the Father. For 
as we acknowledge the glory to be one, so ought we also to 
acknowledge the substance in the Godhead to be one, and 
one also the eternity of the Trinity. 

VI. Moreover, the capital element of our salvation is the 
incarnation of the Word. We believe, therefore, that it was 
without any change in the Divinity that the incarnation of the 
Word took place with a view to the renewal of humanity. For 
there took place neither mutation nor transposition, nor any 
circumscription in will (7rept/cX,et<ryu,o9 ev vevfian\ as regards 
the holy energy (&vvctfu&) of God ; but while that remained 
in itself the same, it also effected the work of the incarnation 
with a view to the salvation of the world : and the Word of 
God, living (-TroTureucrayaeyo?) on earth after man's fashion, 
maintained likewise in all the divine presence, fulfilling all 
things, and being united (o-iry/ce/tpa/ieVo?) properly and indi- 
vidually with flesh ; and while the sensibilities proper to the 
flesh were there, the (divine) energy maintained the impas- 
sibility proper to itself. Impious, therefore, is the man who 
introduces the passibility (TO irdOos) into the energy. For 
the Lord of glory appeared in fashion as a man when He 
undertook the ceconomy * upon the earth ; and He fulfilled 
the law for men by His deeds, and by His sufferings He did 

1 Meaning here the whole work and business of the incarnation, and 
the redemption through the flesh. MIGNE. 


away with man's sufferings, and by His death He abolished 
death, and by His resurrection He brought life to light ; 
and now we look for His appearing from heaven in glory 
for the life and judgment of all, when the resurrection of 
the dead shall take place, to the end that recompense may be 
made to all according to their desert. 

VII. But some treat the Holy Trinity (Trias) in an awful 
manner, when they confidently assert that there are not three 
persons, and introduce (the idea of) a person devoid of sub- 
sistence (avviroa-TaTov). Wherefore we clear ourselves of 
Sabellius, who says that the Father and the Son are the same. 
For he holds that the Father is He who speaks, and that 
the Son is the Word that abides in the Father, and becomes 
manifest at the time of the creation (STjutovpyias), and there- 
after reverts to God on the fulfilling of all tilings. The 
same affirmation he makes also of the Spirit. We forswear 
this, because we believe that three persons namely, Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit are declared to possess the one God- 
head : for the one divinity showing itself forth according 
to nature in the Trinity (<ycrfc<u5 ev TpidBi, paprvpov^ivrf) 
establishes the oneness of the nature ; and thus there is a 
(divinity that is the) property of the Father, according to 
the word, " There is one God the Father;" 1 and there is a 
divinity hereditary (Trarpaiov) in the Son, as it is written, 
"The Word was God;" 2 and there is a divinity present 
according to nature in the Spirit to wit, what subsists as 
the Spirit of God according to Paul's statement, " Ye are 
the temple of God, and the Spirit of God dwelleth in you." 3 

VIII. Now the person in each declares the independent 
being and subsistence (TO elvai ainb KOI vfacrTavai, 877X04). 
But divinity is the property of the Father ; and whenever the 
divinity of these three is spoken of as one, testimony is borne 
that the property 4 of the Father belongs also to the Son and 

1 1 Cor. viii. 6. 2 John i. 1. 3 1 Cor. iii. 6. 

4 By the RIOTYITX TCI/ Tlar/: o'f is meant here the divinity belonging to 
the Father. 


the Spirit: wherefore, if the divinity may be spoken of as one 
in three persons, the trinity is established, and the unity is not 
dissevered ; and the oneness which is naturally the Father's is 
also acknowledged to be the Son's and the Spirit's. If one, 
however, speaks of one person as he may speak of one divinity, 
it cannot be that the two in the one are as one (OVK e&Tiv o>9 
ev TO, Bvo ev T&5 evi). For Paul addresses the Father as one 
in respect of divinity, and speaks of the Son as one in respect 
of lordship : "There is one God the Father, of whom are all 
things, and we for Him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom 
are all things, and we by Him." 1 Wherefore if there is one 
God, and one Lord, and at the same time one person as one 
divinity in one lordship (a$' o $60x779 /ita? KvpLorrjTos), how 
can credit be given to (this distinction in) the words of whom 
and by whom, as has been said before ? We speak, accord- 
ingly, not as if we separated the lordship from the divinity, 
nor as estranging the one from the other, but as unifying 
them in the way warranted by actual fact and truth ; and 
we call the Son God with the property of the Father (TW 
IScwparL Toy Uarpo?), as being His image and offspring; 
and we call the Father Lord, addressing Him by the name of 
the One Lord, as being His Origin and Begetter. 

IX. The same position we hold respecting the Spirit, who 
has that unity with the Son which the Son has with the 
Father. Wherefore let the hypostasis of the Father be 
discriminated by the appellation of God ; but let not the 
Son be cut off from this appellation, for He is of God. 
Again, let the person of the Son also be discriminated by 
the appellation of Lord ; only let not God be dissociated 
from that, for He is Lord as being the Father of the Lord. 
And as it is proper to the Son to exercise lordship, for He 
it is that made (all things) by Himself, and now rules the 
things that were made, while at the same time the Father 
has a prior possession of that property, inasmuch as He is 
the Father of Him who is Lord ; so we speak of the Trinity 
as One God, and yet not as if we made the one by a synthesis 
1 1 Cor. viii. 6. 


of three : for the subsistence that is constituted by synthesis is 
something altogether partitive and imperfect (/mepos yap CLTTUV 
areXe? TO a-vvOeaew; vfacrTd/Aevov). But just as the designa- 
tion Father is the expression of originality and generation, 
so the designation Son is the expression of the image and 
offspring of the Father. Hence, if one were to ask how there 
is but One God, if there is also a God of God, we would 
reply that that is a term proper to the idea of original causa- 
tion (apxfjs), so far as the Father is the one First Cause 
(ap%ij). And if one were also to put the question, how there 
is but One Lord, if the Father also is Lord, we might answer 
that again by saying that He is so in so far as He is the Father 
of the Lord ; and this difficulty shall meet us no longer. 

X. And again, if the impious say, How will there not be 
three Gods and three Persons, on the supposition that they 
have one and the same divinity? we shall reply: Just 
because God is the Cause and Father of the Son ; and this 
Son is the image and offspring of the Father, and not His 
brother ; and the Spirit in like manner is the Spirit of God, 
as it is written, "God is a Spirit." 1 And in earlier times 
we have this declaration from the prophet David : " By the 
word of the Lord were the heavens stablished, and all the 
power of them by the breath (spirit) of His mouth." 2 
And in the beginning of the book of the creation (Koa/jio- 
TToa'iz?) it is written thus : " And the Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters." 3 And Paul in his Epistle to 
the Romans says : " But ye are not in the flesh, but in the 
Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you." 4 And 
again he says : " But if the Spirit of Him that raised up 
Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ 
from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by His 
Spirit that dwelleth in you." 5 And again : " As many as are 
led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For ye 
have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear ; but 
ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, 

1 John iv. 24. 2 Ps. xxxiii. 6. 3 Gen. i. 2. 

* Rom. viii. 9. 6 Rom. viii. 11. 


Abba, Father." l And again : " I say the trutli in Christ, I 
lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy 
Ghost." 2 And again: "Now the God of hope fill you with 
all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, 
by the power of the Holy Ghost." 3 

XI. And again, writing to those same Romans, he says : 
" But I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, 
as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to 
me of God, that I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the 
Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up 
of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the 
Holy Ghost. I have therefore whereof I may glory through 
Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God. For I 
dare not to speak of any of those things which Christ hath 
not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word 
and deed, through mighty signs and wonders, by the power 
of the Holy Spirit." 4 And again: "Now I beseech you, 
brethren, for our Lord Jesus Christ's sake, and by the love 
of the Spirit." 5 And these things, indeed, are written in the 
Epistle to the Romans. 

XII. Again, in the Epistle to the Corinthians he says : 
" For my speech and my preaching was not in the enticing 
words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit 
and of power; that your faith should not stand in the 
wisdom of men, but in the power of God." 6 And again he 
says : " As it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, 
neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which 
God hath prepared for them that love Him. But God 
hath revealed them unto us by His Spirit : for the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what 
man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him ? Even so the things of God knoweth no 
man, but the Spirit of God." 7 And again he says: "But 

1 Horn. viii. 14, 15. 2 Rom. ix. 1. 8 Rom. xv. 13. 

4 Rom. xv. 15-19. * Rom. xv. 30. 6 1 Cor. ii. 4, 5. 

7 1 Cor. ii. 9-1 1. 


the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of 

XIII. Seest thou that all through Scripture the Spirit is 
preached, and yet nowhere named a creature ? And what 
can the impious have to say if the Lord sends forth His dis- 
ciples to baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Spirit? 2 Without contradiction, that implies 
a communion and unity between them, according to which 
there are neither three divinities nor (three) lordships ; but, 
while there remain truly and certainly the three persons, 
the real unity of the three must be acknowledged. And in 
this way proper credit will be given to the sending and the 
being sent 3 (in the Godhead), according to which the Father 
hath sent forth the Son, and the Son in like manner sends 
forth the Spirit. For one of the persons surely could not 
(be said to) send Himself ; and one could not speak of the 
Father as incarnate. For the articles of our faith will not 
concur with the vicious tenets of the heresies ; and it is right 
that our conceptions should follow the inspired and apostolic 
doctrines, and not that our impotent fancies should coerce 
the articles of our divine faith. 

XIV. But if they say, How can there be three Persons, 
and how but one Divinity ? we shall make this reply : 
That there are indeed three persons, inasmuch as there is 
one person of God the Father, and one of the Lord the 
Son, and one of the Holy Spirit ; and yet that there is but 
one divinity, inasmuch as the Son is the Image of God the 
Father, who is One, that is, He is God of God ; and in 
like manner the Spirit is called the Spirit of God, and that, 
too, of nature according to the very substance (^ucrt/cw? KOT 
avrrjv ryv ovffiav), and not according to simple participation 
of God. And there is one substance (oiaia) in the Trinity, 
which does not subsist also in the case of objects that are 

1 1 Cor. ii. 14. 2 Matt, xxviii. 19. 

3 The text is, OVTU yeip (TO 7roffAXov) x,a.l TO oi.'n 
a,v TriffTti'OiTO, xff o, etc. 


made ; for there is not one substance in God and in the things 
that are made, because none of these is in substance God. Nor, 
indeed, is the Lord one of these according to substance, but 
there is one Lord the Son, and one Holy Spirit; and we speak 
also of one Divinity, and one Lordship, and one Sanctity 
in the Trinity ; because the Father is the Cause (apxy) of 
the Lord, having begotten Him eternally, and the Lord is 
the Prototype (irpcoTorvTros) of the Spirit. For thus the 
Father is Lord, and the Son also is God ; and of God it is 
said that " God is a Spirit." ] 

XV. We therefore acknowledge one true God, the one 
First Cause, and one Son, very God of very God, possessing 
of nature the Father's divinity, that is to say, being the 
same in substance with the Father ; 2 and one Holy Spirit, 
who by nature and in truth sanctifies all, and makes divine, 
as being of the substance of God. 3 Those who speak either 
of the Son or of the Holy Spirit as a creature we anathe- 
matize. All other things we hold to be objects made, and 
in subjection (SouXa), created by God through the Son, (and) 
sanctified in the Holy Spirit. Further, we acknowledge that 
the Son of God was made a Son of man, having taken to 
Himself the flesh from the Virgin Mary, not in name, but 
in reality ; and that He is both the perfect Son of God, and 
the (perfect) Son of man, that the Person is but one, and 
that there is one worship (TrpoGKvvya-iv) for the Word and 
the flesh that He assumed. And we anathematize those who 
constitute different worships, one for the divine and another 
for the human, and who worship the man born of Mary as 
though He were another than the God of God. For we 
know that " in the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God." 4 And we wor- 
ship Him who was made man on account of our salvation, 
not indeed as made perfectly like in the like body (laov ev 

1 John iv. 24. 

2 Note the phrase here, afterwards formulated, oftoovatov ru nrpi. 

3 noc.1 QtOTTGi&v kx. T'/is ovatei; TOV Qsciv farti 

4 John i. 1. 


yevofj.evov ra> croyiart), but as the Lord who has taken 
to Himself the form of the servant. We acknowledge the 
passion of the Lord in the flesh, the resurrection in the 
power of Plis divinity, the ascension to heaven, and His 
glorious appearing when He comes for the judgment of the 
living and the dead, and for the eternal life of the saints. 

XVI. And since some have given us trouble by attempting 
to subvert our faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, and by affirming 
of Him that He was not God incarnated, but a man linked 
with God ; for this reason we present our confession on the 
subject of the afore-mentioned matters of faith, and reject 
the faithless dogmas opposed thereto. For God, having been 
incarnated in the flesh of man, retains also PL's proper energy 
pure, possessing a mind unsubjected by the natural (tyv%iKO)v) 
and fleshly affections, and holding the flesh and the fleshly 
motions divinely and sinlessly, and not only unmastered by 
the power of death, but even destroying death. And it is 
the true God unincarnate that has appeared incarnate, the 
perfect One with the genuine and divine perfection ; and in 
Him there are not two persons. Nor do we affirm that there 
are four to worship, viz. God and the Son of God, and man 
and the Holy Spirit. Wherefore we also anathematize those 
who show their impiety in this, and who thus give the man 
a place in the divine doxology. For we hold that the Word 
of God was made man on account of our salvation, in order 
that we might receive the likeness of the heavenly, and be 
made divine (OeoTroirjOwpev) after the likeness of Him who 
is the true Son of God by nature, and the Son of man accord- 
ing to the flesh, our Lord Jesus Christ. 

XVII. We believe therefore in one God, that is, in one 
First Cause, the God of the law and of the gospel, the just 
and good ; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, true God, that is, 
Image of the true God, Maker of all things seen and unseen, 
Son of God and only-begotten Offspring, and Eternal Word, 
living and self-subsistent and active (evepyov), always being 
with the Father ; and in one Holy Spirit ; and in the glo- 


rious advent of the Son of God, who of the Virgin Mary took 
flesh, and endured sufferings and death in our stead, and 
came to resurrection on the third day, and was taken up to 
heaven ; and in His glorious appearing yet to come ; and in 
one holy church, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of 
the flesh, and life eternal. 

XVIII. We acknowledge that the Son and the Spirit are 
consubstantial with the Father, and that the substance of 
the Trinity is one, that is, that there is one divinity accord- 
ing to nature, the Father remaining unbegotten, and the Son 
being begotten of the Father in a true generation, and not in 
a formation by will (jroirja-et, e /SouX^o-ew?), and the Spirit 
being sent forth eternally from the substance of the Father 
through the Son, with power to sanctify the whole creation. 
And we further acknowledge that the Word was made 
flesh, and was manifested in the flesh-movement (icivtfaei) 
received of a virgin, and did not simply energize in a man. 
And those who have fellowship with men that reject the 
consul stantiality as a doctrine foreign to the Scriptures, and 
speak of any of the persons in the Trinity as created, and 
separate that person from the one natural divinity, we hold 
as aliens, and have fellowship with none such. There is one 
God the Father, and there is only one divinity. But the Son 
also is God, as being the true image of the one and only 
divinity, according to generation and the nature which He 
has from the Father. There is one Lord the Son ; but in 
like manner there is the Spirit, who bears over (StaTre/iTnoi/) 
the Son's lordship to the creature that is sanctified. The 
Son sojourned in the world, having of the Virgin received 
flesh, which He filled with the Holy Spirit for the sanctifi ca- 
tion of us all ; and having given up the flesh to death, He 
destroyed death through the resurrection that had in view 
the resurrection of us all ; and He ascended to heaven, exalt- 
ing and glorifying men in Himself ; and He comes the second 
time to brincj us acain eternal life. 


XIX. One is the Son, both before the incarnation and 


after the incarnation. The same (Son) is both man and 
God, both these together as though one ; and the God the 
Word is not one person, and the man Jesus another person, 
but the same who subsisted as Son before was made one with 
flesh by Mary, so constituting Himself a perfect, and holy, 
and sinless man, and using that oeconomical position for the 
renewal of mankind and the salvation of all the world. God 
the Father, being Himself the perfect Person, has thus the 
perfect Word begotten of Him truly, not as a word that is 
spoken, nor yet again as a son by adoption, in the sense in 
which angels and men are called sons of God, but as a Son 
who is in nature God. And there is also the perfect Holy 
Spirit supplied (^opr}<yoi)fjievov) of God through the Son to the 
sons of adoption, living and life-giving, holy and imparting 
holiness to those who partake of Him, not like an unsub- 
stantial breath (irvoijv) breathed into them by man, but as 
the living Breath proceeding from God. Wherefore the 
Trinity is to be adored, to be glorified, to be honoured, and 
to be reverenced ; the Father being apprehended in the Son 
even as the Son is of Him, and the Son being glorified in 
the Father, inasmuch as He is of the Father, and being 
manifested in the Holy Spirit to the sanctified. 

XX. And that the holy Trinity is to be worshipped with- 
out either separation or alienation, is taught us by Paul, who 
says in his Second Epistle to the Corinthians : " The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the com- 
munion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all." l And again, 
in that epistle he makes this explanation : " Now He which 
stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is 
God, who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the 
Spirit in our hearts." 2 And still more clearly he writes thus 
in the same epistle : " When Moses is read, the veil is upon 
their heart. Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord, the 
veil shall be taken away. Now the Lord is that Spirit ; and 
where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all 
with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, 
1 2 Cor. xiii. 13. 2 2 Cor. i. 21, 22. 


are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even 
as by the Spirit of the Lord." l 

XXI. And again Paul says : tl That mortality might be 
swallowed up of life. Now He that hath wrought us for the 
selfsame thing is God, who also hath given unto us the 
earnest of the Spirit." 2 And again he says : " Approving 
ourselves as the ministers of God, in much patience, in afflic- 
tions, in necessities," 3 and so forth. Then he adds these 
words : " By kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned, 
by the word of truth, by the power of God." * Behold here 
again the saint has denned the holy Trinity, naming God, 
and the Word, and the Holy Ghost. And again he says : 
" Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the 
Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple 
of God, him shall God destroy." 5 And again : " But ye are 
washed, but ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus, 
and by the Spirit of our God." 6 And again : " What ! know 
ye not that your bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost 
which is in you, which ye have of God?" 7 "And I think 
also that I have the Spirit of God." 8 

XXII. And again, speaking also of the children of Israel 
as baptized in the cloud and in the sea, he says : "And they 
all drank of the same spiritual drink : for they drank of 
that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was 
Christ." 9 And again he says: "Wherefore I give you to 
understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth 
Jesus accursed : and that no man can say that Jesus is the 
Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. Now there are diversities of 
gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of ad- 
ministrations, but the same Lord. And there are diversities 
of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in 
all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every 
man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the 

1 2 Cor. iii. 15-18. 2 2 Cor. v. 4, 5. 3 2 Cor. vi. 4. 

4 2 Cor. vi. 6, 7. 5 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. 6 1 Cor. vi. 11. 

7 1 Cor. vi. 19. 1 Cor. vii. 40. 9 1 Cor. x. 4. 


word of wisdom ; to another the word of knowledge by 
the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to 
another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit ; to another 
the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another 
discerning of spirits ; to another divers kinds of tongues ; to 
another the interpretation of tongues : but all these worketh 
that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man 
severally as He will. For as the body is one, and hath many 
members, and all the members of that one body, being many, 
are one body ; so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we 
all baptized into one body." 1 And again he says : " For 
if he who comes preaches another Christ whom we have not 
preached, or ye receive another spirit that ye have received 
not, or another gospel which ye have not obtained, ye will 
rightly be kept back " 2 (tca\w$ av et^eade). 

XXIII. Seest thou that the Spirit is inseparable from 
the divinity? And no one with pious apprehensions could 
fancy that He is a creature. Moreover, in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews he writes again thus : " How shall we escape, if 
we neglect so great salvation ; which at the first began to bb 
spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that 
heard Him ; God also bearing them witness, both with signs 
and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy 
Ghost?" 3 And again he says in the same epistle : " Where- 
fore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day, if ye will hear His 
voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the 
day of temptation in the wilderness; when your fathers 
tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years. 
Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, 
They do always err in their heart ; for (Siort) they have not 
known my ways : as I sware in my wrath, that they should 
not enter into my rest." 4 And there, too, they ought to give 
ear to Paul, for he by no means separates the Holy Spirit 
from the divinity of the Father and the Son, but clearly sets 
forth the discourse of the Holy Ghost as one from the person 

1 1 Cor. xii. 3-13. 2 Referring perhaps to Gal. i. 8, 9. 

8 Heb. ii. 3, 4. Heb. iii. 7-11. 


of the Father, and thus as given expression to (elpqft&rrjv) by 
God, just as it has been represented in the before-mentioned 
sayings. Wherefore the holy Trinity is believed to be one 
God, in accordance with these testimonies of holy Scripture ; 
albeit all through the inspired Scriptures numberless an- 
nouncements are supplied us, all confirmatory of the apostolic 
and ecclesiastical faith. 


(From the book against the Monophysites by Leontius of Jerusalem, 
in Mai, Script. Vet. vol. vii. p. 147.) 

From Gregory Thaumatrirgus, as they say, in his Sectional 
Confession of Faith. 

To maintain two natures (<j)va-ei<i) in the one Christ, makes 
a Tetrad of the Trinity, says he ; for he expressed himself 
thus : " And it is the true God, the unincarnate, that was 
manifested in the flesh, perfect with the true and divine 
perfection, not with two natures ; nor do we speak of wor- 
shipping four (persons), viz. God, and the Son of God, and 
man, and the Holy Spirit." First, however, this passage is 
misapprehended, and is of very doubtful import. Neverthe- 
less it bears that we should not speak of two persons in 
Christ, lest, by thus acknowledging Him as God, and as in 
the perfect divinity, and yet speaking of two persons, we 
should make a Tetrad of the divine persons, counting that 
of God the Father as one, and that of the Son of God as 
one, and that of the man as one, and that of the Holy Spirit 
as one. But, again, it bears also against recognising two 
divine natures ((/wcret?), and rather for acknowledging Him 
to be perfect God in one natural divine perfection, and not 
in two ; for his object is to show that He became incarnate 
without change, and that He retains the divinity without 



duplication (aSi7r\ao-iao-Te09). Accordingly he says shortly: 
" And while the affections of the flesh spring, the energy 
(SiW/u<?) retains the impassibility proper to it. He, there- 
fore, who introduces the (idea of) passion into the energy is 
impious ; for it was the Lord of glory that appeared in human 
form, having taken to Himself the human oecouomy." 


(Mai, SpiciL Rom. vol. iii. p. 696, from the Arabic Codex, 101.) 

csesai'eia in Pontus, 1 near successor of the apostles, 
in his discourse on the Trinity, speaks thus : 

I see in all three essentials substance, genus, 
name. We speak of man, servant, curator (curatorem), 
man, by reason of substance ; servant, by reason of genus or 
condition ; curator, by reason of denomination. We speak 
also of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit : these, however, are 
not names which have only supervened at some after period, 
but they are subsistences. Again, the denomination of 
man is not in actual fact a denomination, but a substance 
common to men, and is the denomination proper to all men. 
Moreover, names are such as these, Adam, Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob : these, I say, are names. But the Divine Persons are 
names indeed : and the names are still the persons ; and the 
persons then signify that which is and subsists, which is the 
essence of God. The name also of the nature signifies sub- 
sistence ; 2 as if we should speak of the man. All (the persons) 
are one nature, one essence, one will, and are called the Holy 
Trinity ; and these also are names subsistent, one nature in 
three persons, and one genus. But the person of the Son is 
composite in its oneness (anita est), being one made up of 
two, that is, of divinity and humanity together, which two 

1 The Arabic Codex reads falsely, Csesarese Cappadocise. 

2 Or, the name signifies the subsistence of the nature Nomen quoque 
natural significat subsistentiam. 


constitute one. Yet the divinity does not consequently re- 
ceive any increment, but the Trinity remains as it was. 
Nor does anything new befall the persons even or the names, 
but these are eternal and without time. No one, however, 
was sufficient to know these until the Son being made flesh 
manifested them, saying : " Father, I have manifested Thy 
name to men ; glorify Thou me also, that they may know me 
as Thy Son." 1 And on the mount the Father spake, and 
said, " This is my beloved Son." 2 And the same sent His 
Holy Spirit at the Jordan. And thus it was declared to us 
that there is an Eternal Trinity in equal honour. Besides, 
the generation of the Son by the Father is incomprehensible 
and ineffable ; and because it is spiritual, its investigation 
becomes impracticable : for a spiritual object can neither be 
understood nor traced by a corporeal object, for that is far 
removed from human nature. We men know indeed the 
generation proper to us, as also that of other objects; but 
a spiritual matter is above human condition, neither can it 
in any manner be understood by the minds of men. Spiri- 
tual substance can neither perish nor be dissolved ; ours, 
however, as is easy to understand, perishes and is dissolved. 
How, indeed, could it be possible for man, who is limited 
on six sides by east, west, south, north, deep, and sky 
understand a matter which is above the skies, which is beneath 
the deeps, which stretches beyond the north and south, and 
which is present in every place, and fills all vacuity ? But 
if, indeed, we were able to scrutinize spiritual substance, its 
excellence truly would be undone. Let us consider what 
is done in our body ; and, furthermore, let us see whether it 
is in our power to ascertain in what manner thoughts are 
born of the heart, and words of the tongue, and the like. 
Now, if we can by no means apprehend things that are done 
in ourselves, how could it ever be that we should understand 
the mystery of the uncreated Creator, which goes beyond every 
mind ? Assuredly, if this mystery were one that could be 
penetrated by man, the inspired John would by no means have 
affirmed this: "No man hath seen God at any time." 3 He, 
1 John xvii. 6. 2 Matt. iii. 17. * John I 18. 


then, whom no man hath seen at any time, whom can we 
reckon Him to resemble, so that thereby we should understand 
His generation ? And we, indeed, without ambiguity appre- 
hend that our soul dwells in us in union with the body ; but 
still, who has ever seen his own soul ? who has been able to 
discern its conjunction with his body 1 ? This one thing is 
all we know certainly, that there is a soul within us con- 
joined with the body. Thus, then, we reason and believe 
that the Word is begotten by the Father, albeit we neither 
possess nor know the clear rationale of the fact. The Word 
Himself is before every creature eternal from the Eternal, 
like spring from spring, and light from light. The vocable 
Word, indeed, belongs to those three genera of words which 
are named in Scripture, and which are not substantial, 
namely, the word conceived (TO /car evvotav), the word 
uttered (Trpotyopi/cov), and the word articulated (apOpi/ccv). 
The word conceived, certainly, is not substantial. The word 
uttered, again, is that voice which the prophets hear from 
God, or the prophetic speech itself; and even this is not 
substantial. And, lastly, the word articulated is the speech 
of man formed forth in air (aere efformatus\ composed of 
terms, which also is not substantial. 1 But the Word of 
God is substantial, endowed with an exalted and enduring 
nature, and is eternal with Himself, and is inseparable from 
Him, and can never fall away, but shall remain in an ever- 
lasting union. This Word created heaven and earth, and 
in Him were all things made. He is the arm and the power 
of God, never to be separated from the Father, in virtue of 
an indivisible nature, and, together with the Father, He is 
without beginning. This Word took our substance of the 
Virgin Mary ; and in so far as He is spiritual indeed, He is 
indivisibly equal with the Father; but in so far as He is 
corporeal, He is in like manner inseparably equal with us. 
And, again, in so far as He is spiritual, He supplies in the 
same equality (cequiparat) the Holy Spirit, inseparably and 
without limit. Neither were there two natures, but only one 

1 On these terms, consult the Greek Fathers in Petavius, de Trin. 
book vL 


nature of the Holy Trinity before the incarnation of the Word, 
the Son ; and the nature of the Trinity remained one also 
after the incarnation of the Son. But if any one, moreover, 
believes that any increment has been given to the Trinity 
by reason of the assumption of humanity by the Word, he 
is an alien from us, and from the ministry of the catholic 
and apostolic church. This is the perfect, holy, apostolic 
faith of the holy God. Praise to the Holy Trinity for ever 
through the ages of the ages ! Amen. 



(Works of Gretser, vol. xv. p. 434, Ratisbon 1741, in fol., from a 
manuscript codex.) 


IF any one says that the body of Christ is un- 
created, and refuses to acknowledge that He, 
being the uncreated Word (God) of God, took 
the flesh of created humanity and appeared in- 
carnate, even as it is written, let him be anathema. 


How could the body be said to be uncreated ? For the 
uncreated is the passionless, invulnerable, intangible. But 
Christ, on rising from the dead, showed His disciples the print 
of the nails and the wound made by the spear, and a body 
that could be handled, although He also had entered among 
them when the doors were shut, with the view of showing 
them at once the energy of the divinity and the reality of 
the body. (Yet, while being God, He was recognised as man 
in a natural manner ; and while subsisting truly as man, He 
was also manifested as God by His works. 1 ) 


If any one affirms that the flesh of Christ is consubstantial 
with the divinity, and refuses to acknowledge that He, sub- 
sisting Himself in the form of God as God before all ages, 
1 This sentence is wanting in a very ancient copy. 


emptied Himself and took the form of a servant, even as it 
is written, let him be anathema. 


How could the flesh, which is conditioned by time, be said 
to be consubstantial (o/Aooi/<no<?) with the timeless divinity? 
For that is designated consubstantial which is the same in 
nature and in eternal duration without variableness. 


If any one affirms that Christ, just like one of the pro- 
phets, assumed the perfect man, and refuses to acknowledge 
that, being begotten in the flesh of the Virgin, 1 He became 
man and was born in Bethlehem, and was brought up in 
Nazareth, and advanced in age, and on completing the set 
number of years (appeared in public and) was baptized in 
the Jordan, and received this testimony from the Father, 
" This is my beloved Son," 2 even as it is written, let him be 


How could it be said that Christ (the Lord) assumed the 
perfect man just like one of the prophets, when He, being 
the Lord Himself, became man by the incarnation effected 
through the Virgin ? Wherefore it is written, that " the first 
man was of the earth, earthy." 3 But whereas he that was 
formed of the earth returned to the earth, He that became 
the second man returned to heaven. And so we read of the 
lt first Adam and the last Adam." 4 And as it is admitted 
that the second came by the first according to the flesh, for 
which reason also Christ is called man and the Son of man ; 
so is the witness given that the second is the Saviour of the 
first, for whose sake He came down from heaven. And as 
the Word came down from heaven, and was made man, and 
ascended again to heaven, He is on that account said to be 
the second Adam from heaven. 

1 Reading IK. Kotpdivw for I* ^octfoWoj. 2 Matt. iii. 17. 

8 1 Cor. xv. 47. 4 1 Cor. xv. 45. 



If any one affirms that Christ was born of the seed of 
man by the Virgin, in the same manner as all men are born, 
and refuses to acknowledge that He was made flesh by the 
Holy Spirit and the holy Virgin Mary, and became man of 
the seed of David, even as it is written, let him be anathema. 


How could one say that Christ was born of the seed of 
man by the Virgin, when the holy Gospel and the angel, 
in proclaiming the good tidings, testify of Mary the Virgin 
that she said, "How shall this be, seeing I know not a 
man ? " l Wherefore he says, " The Holy Ghost shall come 
upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow 
thee : therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of 
thee, shall be called the Son of the Highest." 2 And to 
Joseph he says, " Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy 
wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy 
Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and they shall 
call His name Jesus: for He shall save His people from 
their sins." 3 


If any one affirms that the Son of God who is before the 
ages is one, and He who has appeared in these last times is 
another, and refuses to acknowledge that He who is before 
the ages is the same with Him who appeared in these last 
times, even as it is written, let him be anathema. 


How could it be said that the Son of God who is before 
the ages, and He who has appeared in these last times, are 
different, when the Lord Himself says, " Before Abraham 
was, I am ; " 4 and, " I came forth from God, and I come, 
and again I go to my Father ? " 5 

1 Luke i. 34. 2 Luke i. 35. 8 Matt. i. 20, 21. 

4 John viii. 58. * John xiii. and xvi. 



If any one affirms that He who suffered is one, and that 
He who suffered not is another, and refuses to acknow- 
ledge that the Word, who is Himself the impassible and un- 
changeable God, suffered in the flesh which He had assumed 
really, yet without mutation, even as it is written, let him be 


How could it be said that He who suffered is one, and 
He who suffered not another, when the Lord Himself says, 
" The Son of man must suffer many things, and be killed, 
and be raised again the third day from the dead ; iJl and again, 
" When ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of 
the Father ; " 2 and again, " When the Son of man cometh 
in the glory of His Father ?" 3 


If any one affirms that Christ is saved, and refuses to 
acknowledge that He is the Saviour of the world, and the 
Light of the world, even as it is written, 4 let him be ana- 


How could one say that Christ is saved, when the Lord 
Himself says, " I am the life ; " 6 and, " I am come that they 
might have life ; " 6 and, " He that believeth on me shall not 
see death, but he shall behold the life eternal?" 7 


If any one affirms that Christ is perfect man and also 
God the Word in the way of separation (Siatperw?), and 
refuses to acknowledge the one Lord Jesus Christ, even as it 
is written, let him be anathema. 

1 Matt. xvi. 21. 2 Matt. xxvi. 64 ; Mark xiv. 62. 

3 Matt. xvi. 27. * Isa. ix. ; Matt. iv. ; John i. iii. viii. ix. xii. 

John xi. 25, xiv. 6. 6 John x. 10. 7 John viii. 51. 



How could one say that Christ is perfect man and also 
God the Word in the way of separation, when the Lord 
Himself says, " Why seek ye to kill me, a man that hath told 
you the truth, which I have heard of God ? " l For God the 
Word did not give a man for us, but He gave Himself for 
us, having been made man for our sake. Wherefore He 
says : " Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise 
it up. But He spake of the temple of His body." 2 


If any one says that Christ suffers change or alteration, 
and refuses to acknowledge that He is unchangeable in the 
Spirit, though corruptible (or, and incorruptible) in the flesh, 
let him be anathema. 


How could one say that Christ suffers change or altera- 
tion, when the Lord Himself says, "I am, and I change 
not ; " 3 and again, " His soul shall not be left in Hades, 
neither shall His flesh see corruption ? " * 


If any one affirms that Christ assumed the man only in 
part, and refuses to acknowledge that He was made in all 
things like us, apart from sin, let him be anathema. 


How could one say that Christ assumed the man only 
in part, when the Lord Himself says, " I lay down my life, 
that I might take it again, for the sheep ; " 5 and, " My flesh 
is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed ; " 6 and, " He 
that eateth rny flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal 
life?" 7 

1 John viii. 40. 2 John ii. 20, 21. Mai. iii. 6. 

4 Ps. xvi. 10 ; Acts ii. 31. John x. 17. 

6 John vi. 55. 7 John vi. 56. 



If any one affirms that the body of Christ is void of soul 
and understanding (a-^rv^ov teal avorjrov), and refuses to 
acknowledge that He is perfect man, one and the same in 
all things (with us), let him be anathema. 


How could one say that the body of the Lord (Christ) is 
void of soul and understanding ? For perturbation, and 
grief, and distress, are not the properties either of a flesh 
void of soul, or of a soul void of understanding ; nor are they 
the sign of the immutable Divinity, nor the index of a mere 
phantasm, nor do they mark the defect of human weakness ; 
but the Word exhibited in Himself the exercise of the affec- 
tions and susceptibilities proper to us, having endued Him- 
self with our passibility, even as it is written, that " He hath 
borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows." * For perturba- 
tion, and grief, and distress, are disorders of soul ; and toil, 
and sleep, and the body's liability to wounding, are infirmities 
of the flesh. 


If any one says that Christ was manifested in the world 
only in semblance, and refuses to acknowledge that He came 
actually in the flesh, let him be anathema. 


How could one say that Christ was manifested only in 
semblance in the world, born as He was in Bethlehem, and 
made to submit to the circumcising of the flesh, and lifted 
up by Simeon, and brought up on to His twelfth year (at 
home), and made subject to His parents, and baptized in 
Jordan, and nailed to the cross, and raised again from the 

Wherefore, when it is said that He was " troubled in 
spirit," 2 that " He was sorrowful in soul," 8 that " He was 

1 Isa. liii. 4. 2 John xi. 33, xii. 27, xiii. 21. 8 Matt. xxvi. 38. 


wounded in body," l He places before us designations of 
susceptibilities proper to our constitution, in order to show 
that He was made man in the world, and had His con- 
versation with men, 2 yet without sin. For He was born in 
Bethlehem according to the flesh, in a manner meet for 
Deity, the angels of heaven recognising Him as their Lord, 
and hymning as their God Him who was then wrapped in 
swaddling-clothes in a manger, and exclaiming, " Glory to 
God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will among 
men." 3 He was brought up in Nazareth ; but in divine 
fashion He sat among the doctors, and astonished them by 
a wisdom beyond His years, in respect of the capacities of 
His bodily life, as is recorded in the Gospel narrative. He 
was baptized in Jordan, not as receiving any sanctification 
for Himself, but as gifting a participation in sanctification 
to others. He was tempted in the wilderness, not as giving 
way, however, to temptation, but as putting our temptations 
before Himself on the challenge of the tempter, in order to 
show the powerlessness of the tempter. 

Wherefore He says, " Be of good cheer, I have overcome 
the world." 4 And this He said, not as holding before us 
any contest proper only to a God, but as showing our own 
flesh in its capacity to overcome suffering, and death, and 
corruption, in order that, as sin entered into the world by 
flesh, and death came to reign by sin over all men, the sin 
in the flesh might also be condemned through the selfsame 
flesh in the likeness thereof; 5 and that that overseer of 
sin, the tempter, might be overcome, and death be cast 
down from its sovereignty, and the corruption in the bury- 
ing of the body be done away, and the first-fruits of the 
resurrection be shown, and the principle of righteousness 
begin its course in the world through faith, and the king- 
dom of heaven be preached to men, and fellowship be 
established between God and men. 

In behalf of this grace let us glorify the Father, who has 
given His only begotten Son for the life of the world. Let us 

1 Isa. liii. 5. 2 Baruch iii. 38. * Luke ii. 14. 

4 John xvi. 33. Kom. v. 12, viii. 3. 


glorify the Holy Spirit that worketh in us, and quickeneth 
us, and furnisheth the gifts meet for the fellowship of God ; 
and let us not intermeddle with the word of the gospel by 
lifeless disputations, scattering about endless questionings 
and logomachies, and making a hard thing of the gentle and 
simple word of faith ; but rather let us work the work of 
faith, let us love peace, let us exhibit concord, let us preserve 
unity, let us cultivate love, with which God is well pleased. 

As it is not for us to know the times or the seasons which 
the Father hath put in His own power, 1 but only to believe 
that there will come an end to time, and that there will be 
a manifestation of a future world, and a revelation of judg- 
ment, and an advent of the Son of God, and a recompense 
of works, and an inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, so 
it is not for us to know how the Son of God became man ; 
for this is a great mystery, as it is written, " Who shall de- 
clare His generation? for His life is taken from the earth." 2 
But it is for us to believe that the Son of God became man, 
according to the Scriptures ; and that He was seen on the 
earth, and had His conversation with men, according to the 
Scriptures, in their likeness, yet without sin ; and that He 
died for us, and rose again from the dead, as it is written ; 
and that He was taken up to heaven, and sat down at the 
right hand of the Father, whence He shall come to judge 
the quick and the dead, as it is written ; lest, while we war 
against each other with words, any should be led to blaspheme 
the word of faith, and that should come to pass which is 
written, " By reason of you is my name (or the name of 
God) continually blasphemed among the nations." 3 

3 Acts i. 7. a Isa. liii. 8. * Isa. lii. 5. 




OU have instructed us, most excellent Tatian, to 
forward for your use a discourse upon the soul, 
laying it out in effective demonstrations. And 
this you have asked us to do without making use 
of the testimonies of Scripture, a method which is open to 
us, and which, to those who seek the pious mind, proves a 
manner of setting forth doctrine more convincing than any 
reasoning of man. You have said, however, that you desire 
this, not with a view to your own full assurance, taught as 
you already have been to hold by the holy Scriptures and 
traditions, and to avoid being shaken in your convictions by 
any subtleties of man's disputations, but with a view to the 
confuting of men who have different sentiments, and who do 
not admit that such credit is to be given to the Scriptures, and 
who endeavour, by a kind of cleverness of speech, to gain over 
those who are unversed in such discussions. Wherefore we 
were led to comply readily with this commission of yours, 
not shrinking from the task on account of inexperience in 
this method of disputation, but taking encouragement from 
the knowledge of your good-will toward us. For your kind 
and friendly disposition towards us will make you under- 
stand how to put forward publicly whatever you may approve 



of as rightly expressed by us, and to pass by and conceal 
whatever statement of ours you may judge to come short of 
what is proper. Knowing this, therefore, I have betaken 
myself with all confidence to the exposition. And in my 
discourse I shall use a certain order and consecution, such 
as those who are very expert in these matters employ towards 
those who desire to investigate any subject intelligently. 

First of all, then, I shall propose to inquire by what 
criterion the soul can, according to its nature, be appre- 
hended ; then by what means it can be proved to exist ; 
thereafter, whether it is a substance or an accident ; then 
consequently on these points, whether it is a body or is in- 
corporeal ; then, whether it is simple or compound ; next, 
whether it is mortal or immortal ; and finally, whether it is 
rational or irrational. 

For these are the questions which are wont, above all, 
to be discussed, in any inquiry about the soul, as most 
important, and as best calculated to mark out its distinctive 
nature. And as demonstrations for the establishing of these 
matters of investigation, we shall employ those common 
modes of consideration (eWouu?) by which the credibility of 
matters under hand is naturally attested. But for the pur- 
pose of brevity and utility, we shall at present make use 
only of those modes of argumentation which are most 
cogently demonstrative on the subject of our inquiry, in 
order that clear and intelligible (evTrapaBe/cra) notions may 
impart to us some readiness for meeting the gainsayers, 
With this, therefore, we shall commence our discussion. 

1. Wherein is the criterion for the apprehension of the soul. 

All things that exist are either known by sense (alaOrjaei) 
or apprehended by thought (vorjaei). And what falls under 
sense has its adequate demonstration in sense itself ; for at 
once, with the application, it creates in us the impression 
(fyavraffiav) of what underlies it. But what is apprehended 
by thought is known not by itself, but by its operations 
(eVe/yyetwi/). The soul, consequently, being unknown by 
itself, shall be known properly by its effects. 


2. Whether the soul exists. 

Our body, when it is put in action, is put in action either 
from without or from within. And that it is not put in 
action from without, is manifest from the circumstance that 
it is put in action neither by impulsion (a)dovfj,evov) nor by 
traction (e\Ko^evov\ like soulless things. And again, if it 
is put in action from within, it is not put in action according 
to nature, like fire. For fire never loses its action as long as 
there is fire ; whereas the body, when it has become dead, is 
a body void of action. Hence, if it is put in action neither 
from without, like soulless things, nor according to nature, 
after the fashion of fire, it is evident that it is put in action 
by the soul, which also furnishes life to it. If, then, the 
soul is shown to furnish the life to our body, the soul will 
also be known for itself by its operations. 

3. Whether the soul is a substance. 

That the soul is a substance (ova-la), is proved in the 
following manner. In the first place, because the definition 
given to the term substance suits it very well. And that defini- 
tion is to the effect, that substance is that which, being ever 
identical, and ever one in point of numeration with itself, is 
yet capable of taking on contraries in succession 1 (TWP evav- 
rla>v Trapctfiepos elvai, SGKTIKOV). And that this soul, without 
passing the limit of its own proper nature, takes on con- 
traries in succession, is, I fancy, clear to everybody. For 
righteousness and unrighteousness, courage and cowardice, 
temperance and intemperance, are seen in it successively; 
and these are contraries. If, then, it is the property of a 
substance to be capable of taking on contraries in succession, 
and if the soul is shown to sustain the definition in these 
terms, it follows that the soul is a substance. And in the 
second place, because if the body is a substance, the soul 
must also be a substance. For it cannot be, that what only 
has life imparted should be a substance, and that what 
imparts the life should be no substance : unless one should 
f, here apparently = in turn, though usually = out of turn. 



assert that the non-existent is the cause of the existent ; or 
unless, again, one were insane enough to allege that the de- 
pendent object is itself the cause of that very thing in which 
it has its being, and without which it could not subsist. 1 

4. Whether the soul is incorporeal. 

That the soul is in our body, has been shown above. We 
ought now, therefore, to ascertain in what manner it is in 
the body. Now, if it is in juxtaposition with it, as one pebble 
with another, it follows that the soul will be a body, and also 
that the whole body will not be animated with soul (e^ijnr^oi/), 
inasmuch as with a certain part it will only be in juxtaposi- 
tion. But if, again, it is mingled or fused with the body, 
the soul will become multiplex (TroXv/ie/j^'?), and not simple, 
and will thus be despoiled of the rationale proper to a soul. 
For what is multiplex is also divisible and dissoluble ; and 
what is dissoluble, on the other hand, is compound (crvvOerov) ; 
and what is compound is separable in a threefold manner. 
Moreover, body attached to body makes weight (oytcov) ; but 
the soul, subsisting in the body, does not make weight, but 
rather imparts life. The soul, therefore, cannot be a body, 
but is incorporeal. 

Again, if the soul is a body, it is put in action either from 
without or from within. But it is not put in action from 
without ; for it is moved neither by impulsion nor by trac- 
tion, like soulless things. Nor is it put in action from 
within, like objects animated with soul ; for it is absurd to 
talk of a soul of the soul : it cannot, therefore, be a body, 
but it is incorporeal. 

And besides, if the soul is a body, it has sensible qualities, 
and is maintained by nurture. But it is not thus nurtured. 
For if it is nurtured, it is not nurtured corporeally, like the 
body, but incorporeally ; for it is nurtured by reason. It 
has not, therefore, sensible qualities : for neither is righteous- 
ness, nor courage, nor any one of these things, something 

1 The text has an apparent inversion : TO lv u rqy vx-otp&v ly^v xai ov 
vit> elveii [A-ti ^vvotfASvov, eti'nov txtivnv tlvoti TOV lu u tart. There is also a 
variety of reading : xctl 6 aivw TOV that py Qvt/f*.ivov. 


that is seen ; yet these are the qualities of the soul. It 
cannot, therefore, be a body, but is incorporeal. 

Still further, as all corporeal substance is divided into 
animate and inanimate, let those who hold that the soul is a 
body tell us whether we are to call it animate or inanimate. 

Finally, if every body has colour, and quantity, and figure, 
and if there is not one of these qualities perceptible in the 
soul, it follows that the soul is not a body. 

5. Whether the soul is simple or compound. 

We prove, then, that the soul is simple, best of all, by 
those arguments by which its incorporeality has been demon- 
strated. For if it is not a body, while every body is com- 
pound, and what is composite is made up of parts, and is 
consequently multiplex, the soul, on the other hand, being 
incorporeal, is simple ; since thus it is both uncompounded 
and indivisible into parts. 

6. Whether our soul is immortal. 

It follows, in my opinion, as a necessary consequence, that 
what is simple is immortal. And as to how that follows, 
hear my explanation : Nothing that exists is its own cor- 
rupter ($6ap-riicov\ else it could never have had any thorough 
consistency, even from the beginning. For things that are 
subject to corruption are corrupted by contraries : wherefore 
everything that is corrupted is subject to dissolution ; and 
what is subject to dissolution is compound ; and what is 
compound is of many parts ; and what is made up of parts 
manifestly is made up of diverse parts ; and the diverse is 
not the identical : consequently the soul, being simple, and 
not being made up of diverse parts, but being uncom pound 
and indissoluble, must be, in virtue of that, incorruptible and 

Besides, everything that is put in action by something 
else, and does not possess the principle of life in itself, but 
gets it from that which puts it in action, endures just so 
long as it is held by the power that operates in it ; and 
whenever the operative power ceases, that also comes to a 


stand which has its capacity of action from it. But the 
soul, being self-acting, has no cessation of its being. For it 
follows, that what is self-acting is ever-acting ; and what is 
ever-acting is unceasing ; and what is unceasing is without 
end ; and what is without end is incorruptible ; and what 
is incorruptible is immortal. Consequently, if the soul is 
self-acting, as has been shown above, it follows that it is 
incorruptible and immortal, in accordance with the mode of 
reasoning already expressed. 

And further, everything that is not corrupted by the evil 
proper to itself, is incorruptible ; and the evil is opposed to 
the good, and is consequently its corrupter. For the evil 
of the body is nothing else than suffering, and disease, and 
death ; just as, on the other hand, its excellency is beauty, 
life, health, and vigour. If, therefore, the soul is not cor- 
rupted by the evil proper to itself, and the evil of the soul 
is cowardice, intemperance, envy, and the like, and all these 
things do not despoil it of its powers of life and action, it 
follows that it is immortal. 

7. Whether our soul is rational. 

That our soul is rational, one might demonstrate by many 
arguments. And first of all from the fact that it has dis- 
covered the arts that are for the service of our life. For 
no one could say that these arts were introduced casually 
and accidentally, as no one could prove them to be idle, and 
of no utility for our life. If, then, these arts contribute to 
what is profitable for our life, and if the profitable is com- 
mendable, and if the commendable is constituted by reason, 
and if these things are the discovery of the soul, it follows 
that our soul is rational. 

Again, that our soul is rational, is also proved by the fact 
that our senses are not sufficient for the apprehension of 
things. For we are not competent for the knowledge of 
things by the simple application of the faculty of sensation. 
But as we do not choose to rest in these without inquiry 
(eVet fjujSe arrival irepl avra OeXofiev), that proves that 
the senses, apart from reason, are felt to be incapable of 


discriminating between things which are identical in form 
and similar in colour, though quite distinct in their natures. 
If, therefore, the senses, apart from reason, give us a false 
conception of things, we have to consider whether things that 
are can be apprehended in reality or not. And if they can 
be apprehended, then the power which enables us to get at 
them is one different from, and superior to, the senses. And 
if they are not apprehended, it will not be possible for us at 
all to apprehend things which are different in their appear- 
ance from the reality. But that objects are apprehensible 
by us, is clear from the fact that we employ each in a way 
adaptable to utility, and again turn them to what we please. 
Consequently, if it has been shown that things which are can 
be apprehended by us, and if the senses, apart from reason, 
are an erroneous test of objects, it follows that the intellect 
(vovs) is what distinguishes all things in reason, and discerns 
things as they are in their actuality. But the intellect is 
just the rational portion of the soul, and consequently the 
soul is rational. 

Finally, because we do nothing without having first marked 
it out for ourselves; and as that is nothing else than just the 
high prerogative (df/w/ia) of the soul, for its knowledge of 
things does not come to it from without, but it rather sets 
out these things, as it were, with the adornment of its own 
thoughts, and thus first pictures forth the object in itself, and 
only thereafter carries it out to actual fact, and because the 
high prerogative of the soul is nothing else than the doing of 
all things with reason, in which respect it also differs from 
the senses, the soul has thereby been demonstrated to be 


(Works of Gregory Thaumaturgus by Ger. Voss, p. 9.) 


JJO-DAY are strains of praise sung joyfully by the 
choir of angels, and the light of the advent of 
Christ shines brightly upon the faithful. To- 
day is the glad spring-time to us, and Christ the 
Sun of righteousness has beamed with clear light around 
us, and has illumined the minds of the faithful. To-day is 
Adam made anew, 2 and moves in the choir of angels, having 
winged his way to heaven. To-day is the whole circle of 
the earth filled with joy, since the sojourn of the Holy 
Spirit has been realized to men. To-day the grace of God 
and the hope of the unseen shine through all wonders tran- 
scending imagination, and make the mystery that was kept 
hid from eternity plainly discernible to us. To-day are 
woven the chaplets of never-fading virtue. To-day, God, 
willing to crown the sacred heads of those whose pleasure 
is to hearken to Him, and who delight in His festivals, 
invites the lovers of unswerving faith as His called and His 
heirs ; and the heavenly kingdom is urgent to summon those 
who mind celestial things to join the divine service of the 

1 The secondary title is : The First Discourse of our holy father Gregory, 
surnamed Thaumaturgus, bishop of Neocsesareia in Pontus, on the Annun- 
ciation to the most holy Virgin Mary, mother of God. 

8 iiyxx,SK,tx.iyt<jTt>ti ; others >axxjT/, recovered. 



incorporeal choirs. To-day is fulfilled the word of David, 
" Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad. The 
fields shall be joyful, and all the trees of the wood before 
the Lord, because He cometh." l David thus made mention 
of the trees (v\a) ; and the Lord's forerunner also spoke 
of them as trees (SevSpa) "that should bring forth fruits 
meet for repentance," 2 or rather for the coming of the 
Lord. But our Lord Jesus Christ promises perpetual glad- 
ness to all those who believe on Him. For He says, " I will 
see you, and ye shall rejoice ; and your joy no man taketh 
from you." 3 To-day is the illustrious and ineffable mystery 
of Christians, who have willingly 4 set their hope like a seal 
upon Christ, plainly declared to us. To-day did Gabriel, 
who stands by God, come to the pure virgin, bearing to her 
the glad annunciation, "Hail, thou that art highly favoured! 5 
And she cast in her mind what manner of salutation this 
might be. And the angel immediately proceeded to say, 
The Lord is with thee : fear not, Mary ; for thou hast found 
favour with God. Behold, 6 thou shalt conceive in thy womb, 
and bring forth a son, and shalt call 7 His name Jesus. He 
shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest; 
and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His 
father David, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob 
for ever : and of His kingdom there shall be no end. Then 
said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know 
not a man ? '" Shall I still remain a virgin ? is the honour 
of virginity not then lost by me ? And while she was yet in 
perplexity as to these things, the angel placed shortly before 
her the summary of his whole message, and said to the pure 
virgin, " The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the 
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee ; therefore also 
that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called 
the Son of God." For what it is, that also shall it be called 
by all means. Meekly, then, did grace make election of 
the pure Mary alone out of all generations. For she proved 

1 Ps. xcvi. 11-13. 2 Matt. iii. 8. 8 John xvi. 22. 

4 Others oai'a;, piously. fi Luke i. 28. 6 Or, 8, wherefore. 

7 Or, xuKtaovai, they shall call 8 Luke i. 29, etc. 


herself prudent truly in all things ; neither has any woman 
been born like her in all generations. She was not like the 
primeval virgin Eve, who, keeping holiday (%6pevcra) alone 
in paradise, with thoughtless mind, unguardedly hearkened 
to the word of the serpent, the author of all evil, and thus 
became depraved in the thoughts of her mind; 1 and through 
her that deceiver, discharging his poison and infusing death 
with it, brought it into the whole world ; and in virtue of 
this has arisen all the trouble of the saints. But in the holy 
Virgin alone is the fall of that (first mother) repaired. Yet 
was not this holy one competent to receive the gift until she 
had first learned who it was that sent it, and what the gift 
was, and who it was that conveyed it. While the holy one 
pondered these things in perplexity with herself, she says to 
the angel, " Whence hast thou brought to us the blessing in 
such wise ? Out of what treasure-stores is the pearl of the 
word despatched to us ? Whence has the gift acquired its 
purpose 2 toward us ? From heaven art thou come, yet thou 
walkest upon earth ! Thou dost exhibit the form of man, 
and (yet) thou art glorious with dazzling light." 3 These 
things the holy one considered with herself, and the arch- 
angel solved the difficulty expressed in such reasonings by 
saying to her : " The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and 
the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. Therefore 
also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be 
called the Son of God. And fear not, Mary ; for I am not 
come to overpower thee with fear, but to repel the subject of 
fear. Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God. 
Question not grace by the standard of nature. For grace 
does not endure to pass under the laws of nature. Thou 
knowest, O Mary, things kept hid from the patriarchs and 
prophets. Thou hast learned, O virgin, things which were 
kept concealed till now from the angels. Thou hast heard, 
O purest one, things of which even the choir of inspired 
men (deofyopuv) was never deemed worthy. Moses, and 

1 Or, Ty raj? x.plfet$ (ppovtiftart, in the thoughts of her heart. 

2 vndiffiv ; others inrw-fcaiv, the promise. 


David, and Isaiah, and Daniel, and all the prophets, pro- 
phesied of Him ; but the manner they knew not. Yet thou 
alone, O purest virgin, art now made the recipient of things 
of which all these were kept in ignorance, and thou dost 
learn 1 the origin of them. For where the Holy Spirit is, 
there are all things readily ordered. Where divine grace is 
present, all things are found possible with God. The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest 
shall overshadow thee. Therefore also that holy thing which 
shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God." And 
if He is the Son of God, then is He also God, of one form 
with the Father, and co-eternal; in Him the Father possesses 
all manifestation ($avipwcnv) ; He is His image in the per- 
son, and through His reflection the (Father's) glory shines 
forth. And as from the ever-flowing fountain the streams 
proceed, so also from this ever-flowing and ever-living 
fountain does the light of the world proceed, the perennial 
and the true, namely Christ our God. For it is of this that 
the prophets have preached : " The streams of the river 
make glad the city of God." 2 And not one city only, but 
all cities ; for even as it makes glad one city, so does it also 
the whole world. Appropriately, therefore, did the angel (or 
archangel) say to Mary the holy virgin first of all, " Hail, 
thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee ; " inas- 
much as with her was laid up the full treasure of grace. 
For of all generations she alone has risen as a virgin pure 
in body and in spirit; and she alone bears Him who bears all 
things on His word. Nor is it only the beauty of this holy 
one in body that calls forth our admiration, but also the 
innate virtue of her soul. Wherefore also the angel (or 
archangel) addressed her first with the salutation, "Hail, 
thou that art highly favoured (or gifted with grace), the 
Lord is with thee, and no spouse of earth ; " He Himself is 
with thee who is the Lord of sanctification, the Father of 
purity, the Author of incorruption, and the Bestower of 
liberty, the Curator of salvation, and the Steward and Pro- 

1 Or, inrolixov zal pdi/dctyt, and receive thou and learn. 
* Ps. xlvi. 4. 


vider of the true peace, who out of the virgin earth made 
man, and out of man's side formed Eve in addition. Even 
this Lord is with thee, and on the other hand also is of thee. 
Come, therefore, beloved brethren, and let us take up the 
angelic strain, and to the utmost of our ability return the 
due meed of praise, saying, " Hail (or rejoice), thou that 
art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee ! " For it is 
thine truly to rejoice, seeing that the grace of God, as he 
knows, has chosen to dwell with thee the Lord of glory 
dwelling with the handmaiden ; " He that is fairer than the 
children of men" 1 with the fair (virgin) ; He who sanctifies 
all things with the undefiled. God is with thee, and with 
thee also is the perfect man in whom dwells the whole ful- 
ness of the Godhead. Hail, thou that art highly favoured, 
the fountain of the light that lightens all who believe upon 
Him ! Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the rising of the 
rational Sun, a and the undefiled flower of life ! Hail, thou 
that art highly favoured, the mead (Xet/itov) of sweet savour ! 
Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the ever-blooming vine, 
that makes glad the souls of those who honour thee ! Hail, 
thou that art highly favoured ! the soil that, all untilled, bears 
bounteous fruit : for thou hast brought forth in accordance 
with the law of nature indeed, as it goes with us, and by the 
set time of practice, 3 and yet in a way beyond nature, or 
rather above nature, by reason that God the Word from 
above took His abode in thee, and formed the new Adam in 
thy holy womb, and inasmuch as the Holy Ghost gave the 
power of conception to the holy virgin ; and the reality of 
His body was assumed from her body. And just as the 
pearl 4 comes of the two natures, namely lightning and 
water, the occult signs of the sea; so also our Lord Jesus 
Christ proceeds, without fusion and without mutation, from 

1 Ps. xlv. 2. 

2 rov VOYITOV jA/ov jj ai/a-roAjf ; others, JjA/ov TSJJ- Jttxccioai/i/Yis, the rising 
of the Sun of righteousness. 

3 eiffKtjatus ; better w^atus, conception. 

4 There is a similar passage iu Ephrsem's discourse, De Margarita 
Pretiosa, vol. iii. 


the pure, and chaste, and undefiled, and holy Virgin Mary ; 
perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, in all things 
equal to the Father, and in all things consubstantial with us, 
apart from sin. 

Most of the holy fathers, and patriarchs, and prophets 
desired to see Him, and to be eye-witnesses of Him, but did 
not attain thereto. And some of them by visions beheld 
Him in type, and darkly ; others, again, were privileged to 
hear the divine voice through the medium of the cloud, and 
were favoured with sights of holy angels ; but to Mary the 
pure virgin alone did the archangel Gabriel manifest himself 
luminously, bringing her the glad address, " Hail, thou that 
art highly favoured ! " And thus she received the word, 
and in the due time of the fulfilment according to the 
body's course she brought forth the priceless pearl. Come, 
then, ye too, dearly beloved, and let us chant the melody 
which has been taught us by the inspired harp of David, 
and say, " Arise, O Lord, into Thy rest ; Thou, and the 
ark of Thy sanctuary" (dyida-fAaros). 1 For the holy Virgin 
is in truth an ark, wrought with gold both within and 
without, that has received the whole treasury of the sanc- 
tuary. "Arise, O Lord, into Thy rest." Arise, O Lord, 
out of the bosom of the Father, in order that Thou mayest 
raise up the fallen race of the first-formed man. Setting 
these things forth (Trpeafievoov), David in prophecy said to 
the rod that was to spring from himself, and to sprout into 
the flower of that beauteous fruit, " Hearken, O daughter, 
and see, and incline thine ear, and forget thine own people 
and thy father's house ; so shall the King greatly desire thy 
beauty : for He is the Lord thy God, and thou shalt wor- 
ship Him (or, and they shall worship Him)." J Hearken, O 
daughter, to the things which were prophesied beforetime of 
thee, in order that thou mayest also behold the things them- 
selves with the eyes of understanding. Hearken to me while 
I announce things beforehand to thee, and hearken to the 
archangel who declares expressly to thee the perfect mysteries. 
Come then, dearly beloved, and let us fall back on the memory 
1 Ps. cxxxil 8. 2 Ps. xlv. 10, 11. 


of what has gone before us ; and let us glorify, and cele- 
brate, and laud, and bless that rod that has sprung so mar- 
vellously from Jesse. For Luke, in the inspired Gospel 
narratives, delivers a testimony not to Joseph only, but also 
to Mary the mother of God, and gives this account with 
reference to the very family and house of David : " For 
Joseph went up," says he, " from Galilee, unto a city of 
Judea which is called Bethlehem, to be taxed with Mary his 
espoused wife, being great with child, because they were of 
the house and family of David. And so it was, that while 
they were there, the days were accomplished that she should 
be delivered ; and she brought forth her son, the first-born 
of the whole creation (irpwTOTOfcov Tracr*}? T% /mo-eta?), and 
wrapped him in swaddling-clothes, and laid him in a manger, 
because there was no room for them in the inn." 1 She 
wrapped in swaddling-clothes Him who is covered with light 
as with a garment. 2 She wrapped in swaddling-clothes Him 
who made every creature. She laid in a manger Him who 
sits above the cherubim, 3 and is praised by myriads of 
angels. In the manger set apart for dumb brutes did the 
Word of God repose, in order that He might impart to men, 
who are really irrational by free choice, the perceptions of 
true reason. In the board from which cattle eat was laid 
the heavenly Bread (or, the Bread of life), in order that He 
might provide participation in spiritual sustenance for men 
who live like the beasts of earth. Nor was there even room 
for Him in the inn. He found no place, who by His word 
established heaven and earth ; " for though He was rich, for 
our sakes He became poor," 4 and chose extreme humiliation 
on behalf of the salvation of our nature, in His inherent 
goodness toward us. He who fulfilled the whole admini- 
stration (or righteousness) of unutterable mysteries of the 
oeconomy (or the whole administration of the oeconomy in an 
unutterable mystery) in heaven in the bosom of the Father, 
and in the cave in the arms of the mother, reposed in the 
manger. Angelic choirs encircled Him, singing of glory in 
heaven and of peace upon earth. In heaven He was seated 
1 Luke ii. 4-7. 2 Ps. civ. 2. 8 Ps. Ixxx. 1. 4 2 Cor. viii. 9. 


at the right hand of the Father ; and in the manger He 
rested, as it were, upon the cherubim. Even there was in 
truth His cherubic throne ; there was His royal seat. Holy 
of the holy, and alone glorious upon the earth, and holier 
than the holy, was that wherein Christ our God rested. 
To Him be glory, honour, and power, together with the 
Father undefiled, and the altogether holy and quickening 
Spirit, now and ever, and unto the ages of the ages. Amen. 


The Encomium of the same holy Father Gregory, Bishop of 
Neo-Ccesareia in Pontus, surnamed Thaumaturgus, on 
the Annunciation to the all-holy Mary^ mother of God, 
and ever-virgin. 


It is our duty to present to God, like sacrifices, all the 
festivals and hymnal celebrations ; and first of all, the an- 
nunciation to the holy mother of God, to wit, the salutation 
made to her by the angel, " Hail, thou that art highly 
favoured !" For first of all wisdom (or, before all wisdom) 
and saving doctrine in the New Testament was this saluta- 
tion, " Hail, thou that art highly favoured !" conveyed to us 
from the Father of lights. And this address, " highly 
favoured" (or, gifted with grace), embraced the whole nature 
of men. " Hail, thou that art highly favoured" (or, gifted 
with grace) in the holy conception and in the glorious 
pregnancy, " I bring you good tidings of great joy, which 
shall be to all people." 1 And again the Lord, who came for 
the purpose of accomplishing a saving passion, said, " I will 
see you, and ye shall rejoice ; and your joy no man taketh 
from you." 2 And after His resurrection again, by the hand 
of the holy women, He gave us first of all the salutation 
1 Luke ii. 10. 2 John xvi. 22. 


" Hail I" 1 And again, the apostle made the announcement 
in similar terms, saying, " Rejoice evermore : pray without 
ceasing: in everything give thanks." 2 See, then, dearly 
beloved, how the Lord has conferred upon us everywhere, 
and indivisibly, the joy that is beyond conception, and 
perennial. For since the holy Virgin, in the life of the 
flesh, was in possession of the incorruptible citizenship, and 
walked as such in all manner of virtues, and lived a life 
more excellent than man's common standard ; therefore the 
Word that cometh from God the Father thought it meet to 
assume the flesh, and endue the perfect man from her, in 
order that in the same flesh in which sin entered into the 
world, and death by sin, sin might be condemned in the 
flesh, and that the tempter of sin might be overcome in the 
burying 3 of the holy body, and that therewith also the begin- 
ning of the resurrection might be exhibited, and life eternal 
instituted in the world, and fellowship established for men 
with God the Father. And what shall we state, or what 
shall we pass by here *? or who shall explain what is incom- 
prehensible in the mystery ? But for the present let us fall 
back upon our subject. Gabriel was sent to the holy virgin ; 
the incorporeal was despatched to her who in the body pur- 
sued the incorruptible conversation, and lived in purity and 
in virtues. And when he came to her, he first addressed her 
with the salutation, " Hail, thou that art highly favoured ! 
the Lord is with thee." Hail, thou that art highly favoured ! 
for thou doest what is worthy of joy indeed, since thou hast 
put on the vesture of purity, and art girt with the cincture 
of prudence. Hail, thou that art highly favoured ! for to 
thy lot it has fallen to be the vehicle of celestial joy. Hail, 
thou that art highly favoured ! for through thee joy is decreed 
for the whole creation, and the human race receives again 
by thee its pristine dignity. Hail, thou that art highly 
favoured ! for in thy arms the Creator of all things shall be 
carried. And she was perplexed by this word ; for she was 

1 Matt, xxviii. 9. 2 1 Thess. v. 16-18. 

8 iv TJ Toetp/i ; others, lv ry <pj5 = in the touch or union of the holy 


inexperienced in all the addresses of men, and welcomed 
quiet, as the mother of prudence and purity ; (yet) being a 
pure, and immaculate, and stainless image (aya\fjia) herself, 
she shrank not in terror from the angelic apparition, like 
most of the prophets, as indeed true virginity has a kind of 
affinity and equality with the angels. For the holy Virgin 
guarded carefully the torch of virginity, and gave diligent 
heed that it should not be extinguished or defiled. And as 
one who is clad in a brilliant robe deems it a matter of great 
moment that no impurity or filth be suffered to touch it 
anywhere, so did the holy Mary consider with herself, and 
said : Does this act of attention imply any deep design or 
seductive purpose? Shall this word " Hail" prove the cause 
of trouble to me, as of old the fair promise of being made 
like God, which was given her by the serpent-devil, proved 
to our first mother Eve ? Has the devil, who is the author 
of all evil, become transformed again into an angel of light ; 
and bearing a grudge against my espoused husband for his 
admirable temperance, and having assailed him with some 
fair-seeming address, and finding himself powerless to over- 
come a mind so firm, and to deceive the man, has he turned 
his attack upon me, as one endowed with a more susceptible 
mind; and is this word " Hail" (Grace be with thee) spoken 
as the sign of gracelessness hereafter ? Is this benediction 
and salutation uttered in irony ? Is there not some poison 
concealed in the honey ? Is it not the address of one who 
brings good tidings, while the end of the same is to make 
me the designer's prey? And how is it that he can thus 
salute one whom he knows not ? These things she pon- 
dered in perplexity with herself, and expressed in words. 
Then again the archangel addressed her with the announce- 
ment of a joy which all may believe in, and which shall not 
be taken away, and said to her, " Fear not, Mary, for thou 
hast found favour with God." Shortly hast thou the proof 
of what has been said. For I not only give you to under- 
stand that there is nothing to fear, but I show you the very 
key to the absence of all cause for fear. For through me 
all the heavenly powers hail thee, the holy virgin : yea 


rather, He Himself, who is Lord of all the heavenly powers 
and of all creation, has selected thee as the holy one and 
the wholly fair ; and through thy holy, and chaste, and pure, 
and undefiled womb the enlightening Pearl comes forth for 
the salvation of all the world : since of all the race of man 
thou art by birth the holy one, and the more honourable, 
and the purer, and the more pious than any other ; and thou 
hast a mind whiter than the snow, and a body made purer 
than any gold, however fine, and a womb such as the object 
which Ezekiel saw, and which he has described in these 
terms : " And the likeness of the living creatures upon the 
head was as the firmament, and as the appearance of the 
terrible crystal, and the likeness of the throne above them 
was as the appearance of a sapphire-stone : and above the 
throne it was as the likeness of a man, and as the appear- 
ance of amber ; and within it there was, as it were, the like- 
ness of fire round about." 1 Clearly, then, did the prophet 
behold in type Him who was born of the holy virgin, whom 
thou, O holy virgin, wouldest have had no strength to bear, 
hadst thou not beamed forth for that time (or, by His throne) 
with all that is glorious and virtuous. And with what words 
of laudation, then, shall we describe her virgin - dignity 1 
With what indications and proclamations of praise shall we 
celebrate her stainless figure ? With what spiritual song or 
word shall we honour her who is most glorious among the 
angels ? She is planted in the house of God like a fruitful 
olive that the Holy Spirit overshadowed ; and by her means 
are we called sons and heirs of the kingdom of Christ. She 
is the ever-blooming paradise of incorruptibility, wherein is 
planted the tree that giveth life, and that furnisheth to all the 
fruits of immortality. She is the boast and glory of virgins, 
and the exultation of mothers. She is the sure support of 
the believing, and the succourer (or example, fcaTopOoo/jia) 
of the pious. She is the vesture of light, and the domicile 
of virtue (or truth). She is the ever-flowing fountain, 
wherein the water of life sprang and produced the Lord's 
incarnate manifestation. She is the monument of righteous- 
1 Ezek. L 22, 26, 27. 


ness ; and all who become lovers of her, and set their affec- 
tions on virgin-like ingenuousness and purity, shall enjoy 
the grace of angels. All who keep themselves from wine 
and intoxication, and from the wanton enjoyments of strong 
drink, shall be made glad with the products of the life-bear- 
ing plant. All who have preserved the lamp of virginity un- 
extinguished shall be privileged to receive the amaranthine 
crown of immortality. All who have possessed themselves 
of the stainless robe of temperance shall be received into the 
mystical bride-chamber of righteousness. All who have 
come nearer the angelic degree than others shall also enter 
into the more real enjoyment of their Lord's beatitude. All 
who have possessed the illuminating oil of understanding, 
and the pure incense of conscience, shall inherit the promise 
of spiritual favour and the spiritual adoption. All who 
worthily observe the festival of the Annunciation of the 
Virgin Mary, the mother of God, acquire as their meet re- 
compense the fuller interest in the message, "Hail, thou that 
art highly favoured ! " It is our duty, therefore, to keep this 
feast, seeing that it has filled the whole world with joy and 
gladness. And let us keep it with psalms, and hymns, and 
spiritual songs. Of old did Israel also keep their festival, 
but then it was with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, of 
which the prophet says : " I will turn their feasts into afflic- 
tions and lamentation, and their joy into shame." 1 But our 
afflictions our Lord has assured us He will turn into joy by 
the fruits of penitence. 2 And again, the first covenant main- 
tained the righteous requirements (or, justifying observances, 
BtKai(i)fj,ara) of a divine service, as in the case of our fore- 
father Abraham ; but these stood in the inflictions of pain in 
the flesh by circumcision, until the time of the fulfilment. 
"The law was given to them through Moses" for their disci- 
pline; "but grace and truth" have been given to us by Jesus 
Christ. 3 The beginning of all these blessings to us appeared 
in the annunciation to Mary, the highly-favoured, in the 
oeconomy of the Saviour which is worthy of all praise, and in 
His divine and supramundane instruction. Thence rise the 
1 Amos viii. 10. 2 Cf. Jer. xxxi. 8 Cf. John i 



rays of the light of understanding upon us. Thence spring 
for us the fruits of wisdom and immortality, sending forth 
the clear pure streams of piety. Thence come to us the 
brilliant splendours of the treasures of divine knowledge. 
"For this is life eternal, that we may know the true God, 
and Jesus Christ whom He hath sent." 1 And again, " Search 
the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life " 
(or, ye will find eternal life). 2 For on this account the 
treasure of the knowledge of God is revealed to them who 
search the divine oracles. That treasure of the inspired 
Scriptures the Paraclete has unfolded to us this day. And 
let the tongue of prophecy and the doctrine of apostles be 
the treasure of wisdom to us; for without the law and 
the prophets, or the evangelists and the apostles, it is not 
possible to have the certain hope of salvation. For by 
the tongue of the holy prophets and apostles our Lord 
speaks, and God takes pleasure in the words of the saints ; 
not that He requires the spoken address, but that He delights 
in the good disposition ; not that He receives any profit from 
men, but that He finds a restful satisfaction in the rightly- 
affected soul of the righteous. Fi-r it is not that Christ is 
magnified by what we say ; but as we receive benefits from 
Him, we proclaim with grateful mind His beneficence to us ; 
not that we can attain to what is worthy therein, but that 
we give the meet return to the best of our ability. And 
when the Gospels or the Epistles, therefore, are read, let not 
your attention centre on the book or on the reader, but on 
the God who speaks to you from heaven. For the book is but 
that which is seen, while Christ is the divine subject spoken 
of. It brings us then the glad tidings of that reconomy of 
the Saviour which is worthy of all praise, to wit, that, though 
He was God, He became man through kindness toward man, 
and did not lay aside, indeed, the dignity which was His from 
all eternity, but assumed the oeconomy that should work sal- 
vation. It brings us the glad tidings of that ceconomy of the 
Saviour worthy of all praise, to w r it, that He sojourned with 
us as a physician for the sick, who did not heal them with 
1 John xvii. 3. 2 John v. 39. 


potions, but restored them by the inclination of His philan- 
thropy. It brings us the glad tidings of this oeconomy of the 
Saviour altogether to be praised, to wit, that to them who had 
wandered astray the way of salvation was shown, and that to 
the despairing the grace of salvation was made known, which 
blesses all in different modes ; searching after the erring, 
enlightening the blinded, giving life to the dead, setting free 
the slaves, redeeming the captives, and becoming all things 
to all of us in order to be the true way of salvation to us : 
and all this He does, not by reason of our good-will toward 
Him, but in virtue of a benignity that is proper to our Bene- 
factor Himself. For the Saviour did all, not in order that 
He might acquire virtue Himself, but that He might put us 
in possession of eternal life. He made man, indeed, after 
the image of God, and appointed him to live in a paradise 
of pleasure. But the man being deceived by the devil, and 
having become a transgressor of the divine commandment, 
was made subject to the doom of death. Whence, also, 
those born of him were involved in their father's liability 
in virtue of their succession, and had the reckoning of con- 
demnation required of them. " For death reigned from 
Adam to Moses." 1 But the Lord, in His benignity toward 
man, when He saw the creature He Himself had formed 
now held by the power of death, did not turn away finally 
from him whom He had made in His own image, but 
visited him in each generation, and forsook him not; and 
manifesting Himself first of all among the patriarchs, and 
then proclaiming Himself in the law, and presenting the 
likeness of Himself (onoiovpevos) in the prophets, He pre- 
signified the oeconomy of salvation. When, moreover, the 
fulness of the times came for His glorious appearing, He 
sent beforehand the archangel Gabriel to bear the glad 
tidings to the Virgin Mary. And he came down from the 
ineffable powers above to the holy Virgin, and addressed her 
first of all with the salutation, " Hail, thou that art highly 
favoured." And when this word, " Hail, thou that art highly 
favoured," reached her, in the very moment of her hearing 
1 Rom. v. 14. 


it, the Holy Spirit entered into the undefiled temple of the 
Virgin, and her mind and her members were sanctified to- 
gether. And nature stood opposite, and natural intercourse 
at a distance, beholding with amazement the Lord of nature, 
in a manner contrary to nature, or rather above nature, 
doing a miraculous work in the body ; and by the very 
weapons by which the devil strove against iis, Christ also 
saved us, taking to Himself our passible body in order that 
He might impart the greater grace (or joy) to the being who 
was deficient in it. And " where sin abounded, grace did 
much more abound." And appropriately was grace sent to the 
holy Virgin. For this word also is contained in the oracle of 
the evangelic history : " And in the sixth month the angel 
Gabriel was sent to a virgin espoused to a man whose name 
was Joseph, of the house and lineage of David ; and the 
virgin's name was Mary ; " l and so forth. And this was 
the first month to the holy Virgin. Even as Scripture says 
in the book of the law : " This month shall be unto you the 
beginning of months : it shall be the first month among the 
months of the year to you." 2 " Keep ye the feast of the holy 
passover to the Lord in all your generations." It was also 
the sixth month to Zacharias. And rightly, then, did the 
holy Virgin prove to be of the family of David, and she had 
her home in Bethlehem, and was betrothed rightfully to 
Joseph, in accordance with the laws of relationship. And 
her espoused husband was her guardian, and possessor also of 
the untarnished incorruption which was hers. And the name 
given to the holy Virgin was one that became her exceedingly. 
For she was called Mary, and that, by interpretation, means 
illumination. And what shines more brightly than the light 
of virginity ? For this reason also the virtues are called 
virgins by those who strive rightly to get at their true nature. 
But if it is so great a blessing to have a virgin heart, how 
great a boon will it be to have the flesh that cherishes 
virginity along with the soul ! Thus the holy Virgin, while 
still in the flesh, maintained the incorruptible life, and re- 
ceived in faith the things which were announced by the 
1 Luke L 26, 27. 2 Ex. xii. 2. 


archangel. And thereafter she journeyed diligently to her 
relation Elisabeth in the hill-country. " And she entered 
into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth," l in 
imitation of the angel. " And it came to pass, that, when 
Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leapt with 
joy in her womb ; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy 
Ghost." 2 Thus the voice of Mary wrought with power, 
and filled Elisabeth with the Holy Ghost. And by her 
tongue, as from an ever-flowing fountain, she sent forth a 
stream of gracious gifts in the way of prophecy to her rela- 
tion ; and while the feet of her child were bound in the womb 
(or, and with the bound feet of her child in the womb), she 
prepared to dance and leap. And that was the sign of a 
marvellous jubilation. For wherever she was who was highly 
favoured, there she filled all things with joy. " And Elisa- 
beth spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou 
among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And 
whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should 
come to me ? Blessed art thou among women." s For thou 
hast become to women the beginning of the new creation 
(or, resurrection). Thou hast given to us boldness of access 
into paradise, and thou hast put to flight our ancient woe. 
For after thee the race of woman shall no more be made the 
subject of reproach. No more do the successors of Eve fear 
the ancient curse, or the pangs of childbirth. For Christ, 
the Redeemer of our race, the Saviour of all nature, the 
spiritual Adam who has healed the hurt of the creature of 
earth, cometh forth from thy holy womb. " Blessed art thou 
among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb." For 
He who bears all blessings for us is manifested as thy fruit. 
This we read in the clear words of her who was barren ; 
but yet more clearly did the holy Virgin herself express 
this again when she presented to God the song replete 
with thanksgiving, and acceptance, and divine knowledge ; 
announcing ancient things together with what was new ; 
proclaiming along with things which were of old, things 
also which belong to the consummation of the ages : and 
1 Luke i. 41. 2 Luke i. 41. 8 Luke i. 42, 43. 


summing up in a short discourse the mysteries of Christ. 
" And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my 
spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour," and so forth. " He 
hath holpen His servant Israel in remembrance of His mercy, 
and of the covenant which He established with Abraham and 
wit-i his seed for ever." 1 Thou seest how the holy Virgin has 
surpassed even the perfection of the patriarchs, and how she 
confirms the covenant which was made with Abraham by God, 
when He said, " This is the covenant which I shall establish 
between me and thee." 2 Wherefore He has come and con- 
firmed the covenant with Abraham, having received mysti- 
cally in Himself the sign of circumcision, and having proved 
Himself the fulfilment of the law and the prophets. This 
song of prophecy, therefore, did the holy mother of God 
render to God, saying, " My soul doth magnify the Lord, 
and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour : for He 
that is mighty hath done to me great things, and holy is His 
name." For having made me the mother of God, He has 
also preserved me a virgin ; and by my womb the fulness 
of all generations is headed up together for sanctification. 
For He hath blessed every age, both men and women, both 
young men and youths, and old men. " He hath made 
strength with His arm," 3 on our behalf, against death and 
against the devil, having torn the handwriting of our sins. 
" He hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their 
hearts ;" yea, He hath scattered the devil himself, and all the 
demons that serve under him. For he was overweeningly 
haughty in his heart, seeing that he dared to say, " I will 
set my throne above the clouds, and I will be like the Most 
High." 4 And now, how He scattered him the prophet has 
indicated in what follows, where he says, " Yet now thou 
shalt be brought down to hell," 6 and all thy hosts with thee. 
For He has overthrown everywhere his altars and the wor- 
ship of vain gods, and He has prepared for Himself a pecu- 
liar people out of the heathen nations. "He hath put down 
the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree." 

1 Luke i. 46, etc. 2 Gen. xvii. 11 ; Rom. iv. 11. 

3 Luke i. 51. * Isa. xiv. 14. 5 Ib. 15. 


In these terms is intimated in brief the extrusion of the 
Jews and the admission of the Gentiles. For the elders 
of the Jews and the scribes in the law, and those who were 
richly privileged with other prerogatives, because they used 
their riches ill and their power lawlessly, were cast down by 
Him from every seat, whether of prophecy or of priesthood, 
whether of legislature or of doctrine, and were stripped of 
all their ancestral wealth, and of their sacrifices and multi- 
tudinous festivals, and of all the honourable privileges of 
the kingdom. Spoiled of all these boons, as naked fugitives 
they were cast out into captivity. And in their stead the 
humble were exalted, namely, the Gentile peoples who 
hungered after righteousness. For, discovering their own 
lowliness, and the hunger that pressed upon them for the 
knowledge of God, they pleaded for the divine word, though 
it were but for crumbs of the same, like the woman of 
Canaan; 1 and for this reason they were filled with the 
riches of the divine mysteries. For the Christ who was born 
of the Virgin, and who is our God, has given over the whole 
inheritance of divine blessings to the Gentiles. " He hath 
holpen His servant Israel." 2 Not any Israel in general, indeed, 
but His servant, who in very deed maintains the true nobility 
of Israel. And on this account also did the mother of God 
call Him servant (Son) and heir. For when He had found 
the same labouring painfully in the letter and the law, He 
called him by grace. It is such an Israel, therefore, that 
He called and hath holpen in remembrance of His mercy. 
u As He spake to our fathers, to Abraham and to his seed for 
ever." In these few words is comprehended the whole mystery 
of the O3conomy. For, with the purpose of saving the race 
of men, and fulfilling the covenant that was made with our 
fathers, Christ has once " bowed the heavens and come down." 3 
And thus He shows Himself to us as we are capable of re- 
ceiving Him, in order that we might have power to see Him, 
and handle Him, and hear Him when He speaketh. And 
on this account did God the Word deem it meet to take to 
Himself the flesh and the perfect humanity by a woman, the 
1 Matt. xv. 27. 2 Luke i. 54. 3 Ps. xviil 9. 


holy Virgin ; and He was born a man, in order tliat He 
might discharge our debt, and fulfil even in Himself (pe^pis 
eavrov) the ordinances of the covenant made with Abraham, 
in its rite of circumcision, and all the other legal appoint- 
ments connected with it. And after she had spoken these 
words the holy Virgin went to Nazareth ; and from that a 
decree of Caesar led her to come again to Bethlehem ; and 
so, as proceeding herself from the royal house, she was 
brought to the royal house of David along with Joseph her 
espoused husband. And there ensued there the mystery 
which transcends all wonders, the Virgin brought forth and 
bore in her hand Him who bears the whole creation by His 
word. " And there was no room for them in the inn." 1 He 
found no room who founded the whole earth by His word. 
She nourished with her milk Him who imparts sustenance 
and life to everything that hath breath. She wrapped Him 
in swaddling-clothes who binds the whole creation fast with 
His word. She laid Him in a manger who. rides seated 
upon the cherubim. 2 A light from heaven shone round 
about Him who lighteneth the whole creation. The hosts of 
heaven attended Him with their doxologies who is glorified 
in heaven from before all ages. A star with its torch guided 
them who had come from the distant parts of earth toward 
Him who is the true Orient. From the East came those 
who brought gifts to Him who for our sakes became poor. 
And the holy mother of God kept these words, and pondered 
them in her heart, like one who was the receptacle of all the 
mysteries. Thy praise, O most holy Virgin, surpasses all 
laudation, by reason of the God who received the flesh 
and was born man of thee. To thee every creature, of 
things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the 
earth, offers the meet offering of honour. For thou hast 
been indeed set forth as the true cherubic throne. Thou 
shinest as the very brightness of light in the high places of 
the kingdoms of intelligence ; 3 where the Father, who is 

1 Luke ii. 7. 2 Ps. Ixxx. 1. 

8 ii/ Toiy O.X.D6I; TUV vorrruii /Bxai^nuv. Otliers read vorav = in ths 
high places of the kingdoms of the south. 


without beginning, and whose power thou hadst overshadow- 
ing thee, is glorified ; where also the Son is worshipped, whom 
thou didst bear according to the flesh ; and where the Holy 
Spirit is praised, who effected in thy womb the generation of 
the mighty King. Through thee, O thou that art highly 
favoured, is the holy and consubstantial Trinity known in 
the world. Together with thyself, deem us also worthy to 
be made partakers of thy perfect grace in Jesus Christ our 
Lord : with whom, and with the Holy Spirit, be glory to the 
Father, now and ever, and unto the ages of the ages. Amen. 1 


The Third Discourse by the same sainted Gregory, Bishop of 
Neo-Ccesareia, surnamed Thaumaturgus, on the Annun- 
ciation to the all-holy Virgin Mary, mother of God. 

Again have we the glad tidings of joy, again the an- 
nouncements of liberty, again the restoration, again the 
return, again the promise of gladness, again the release from 
slavery. An angel talks with the Virgin, in order that the 
serpent may no more have converse with the woman. In 
the sixth month, it is said, the angel Gabriel was sent from 
God to a virgin espoused to a man. 2 Gabriel was sent to 
declare the world-wide salvation ; Gabriel was sent to bear 
to Adam the signature of his restoration ; Gabriel was sent 
to a virgin, in order to transform the dishonour of the female 
sex into honour ; Gabriel was sent to prepare the worthy 
chamber for the pure spouse ; Gabriel was sent to wed the 
creature with the Creator ; Gabriel was sent to the animate 
palace of the King of the angels; Gabriel was sent to a virgin 
espoused to Joseph, but preserved for Jesus the Son of God. 
The incorporeal servant was sent to the virgin undefiled. 

1 The close is otherwise given thus : To whom be the glory and the 
power unto the ages of the ages. Amen. 
3 Luke i. 26, 27. 


One free from sin was sent to one that admitted no corrup- 
tion. The light was sent that should announce the Sun of 
righteousness. The dawn was sent that should precede the 
light of the day. Gabriel was sent to proclaim Him who is 
in the bosom of the Father, and who yet was to be in the 
arms of the mother. Gabriel was sent to declare Him who 
is upon the throne, and yet also in the cavern. The subaltern 
was sent to utter aloud the mystery of the great King ; the 
mystery, I mean, which is discerned by faith, and which 
cannot be searched out by officious curiosity ; the mystery 
which is to be adored, riot weighed; the mystery which is 
to be taken as a thing divine, and not measured. " In the 
sixth month Gabriel was sent to a virgin." What is meant 
by this sixth month ? What ? It is the sixth month from 
the time when Elisabeth received the glad tidings, from the 
time that she conceived John. And how is this made plain? 
The archangel himself gives us the interpretation, when he 
says to the virgin : "Behold, thy relation Elisabeth, she hath 
also conceived a son in her old age : and this is now the sixth 
month with her, who was called barren." 1 In the sixth 
month that is evidently, therefore, the sixth month of the 
conception of John. For it was meet that the subaltern should 
go before ; it was meet that the attendant should precede ; 
it was meet that the herald of* the Lord's coming should 
prepare the way for Him. In the sixth month the angel 
Gabriel was sent to a virgin espoused to a man ; espoused, 
not united ; espoused, yet kept intact. And for what pur- 
pose was she espoused ? In order that the spoiler might not 
learn the mystery prematurely. For that the King was to 
come by a virgin, was a fact known to the wicked one. For 
he too heard these words of Isaiah : " Behold, a virgin shall 
conceive, and bear a son." 2 And on every occasion, conse- 
quently, he kept watch upon the virgin's words, in order that, 
whenever this mystery should be fulfilled, he might prepare 
her dishonour. Wherefore the Lord came by an espoused 
virgin, in order to elude the notice of the wicked one ; for 
one who was espoused was pledged in fine to be her husband's. 
1 Luke i. 36. 2 Isa. vii. 14. 


" In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent to a virgin 
espoused to a man whose name was Joseph." Hear what 
the prophet says about this man and the virgin : " This book 
that is sealed shall be delivered to a man that is learned." 1 
What is meant by this sealed book, but just the virgin un- 
defiled? From whom is this to be given? From the priests 
evidently. And to whom 1 ? To the artisan Joseph. As, 
then, the priests espoused Mary to Joseph as to a prudent 
husband, and committed her to his care in expectation of 
the time of marriage, and as it behoved him then on obtain- 
ing her to keep the virgin untouched, this was announced by 
the prophet long before, when he said : " This book that is 
sealed shall be delivered to a man that is learned." And 
that man will say, I cannot read it. But why canst thou 
not read it, O Joseph ? I cannot read it, he says, because 
the book is sealed. For whom, then, is it preserved ? It is 
preserved as a place of sojourn for the Maker of the uni- 
verse. But let us return to our immediate subject. In the 
sixth month Gabriel was sent to a virgin he who received, 
indeed, such injunctions as these: "Come hither now, arch- 
angel, and become the minister of a dread mystery which 
has been kept hid, and be thou the agent in the miracle. I 
am moved by my compassions to descend to earth in order to 
recover the lost Adam. Sin hath made him decay who was 
made in my image, and hath corrupted the work of my 
hands, and hath obscured the beauty which I formed. The 
wolf devours my nursling, the home of paradise is desolate, 
the tree of life is guarded by the flaming sword, the location 
of enjoyments is closed. My pity is evoked for the object of 
this enmity, and I desire to seize the enemy. Yet I wish to 
keep this mystery, which I confide to thee alone, still hid 
from all the powers of heaven. Go thou, therefore, to the 
Virgin Mary. Pass thou on to that animate city whereof the 
prophet spake these words : ' Glorious things were spoken of 
thee, O city of God.' 2 Proceed, then, to my rational paradise; 
proceed to the gate of the east; proceed to the place of 
sojourn that is worthy of my word ; proceed to that second 
1 Isa. xxix. 11. 2 Ps. bcxxvii. 3. 


heaven on earth ; proceed to the light cloud, and announce 
to it the shower of my coming ; proceed to the sanctuary 
prepared for me ; proceed to the hall of the incarnation ; 
proceed to the pure chamber of my generation after the 
flesh. Speak in the ears of my rational ark, so as to prepare 
for me the accesses of hearing. But neither disturb nor vex 
the soul of the virgin. Manifest thyself in a manner befitting 
that sanctuary, and hail her first with the voice of gladness. 
And address Mary with the salutation, l Hail, thou that art 
highly favoured,' that I may show compassion for Eve in 
her depravation." The archangel heard these things, and 
considered them within himself, as was reasonable, and said : 
"Strange is this matter; passing comprehension is this 
thing that is spoken. He who is the object of dread to the 
cherubim, He who cannot be looked upon by the seraphim, 
He who is incomprehensible to all the heavenly (or, angelic) 
powers, does He give the assurance of His connection with a 
maiden ? does He announce His own personal coming ? yea 
more, does He hold out an access by hearing? and is He 
who condemned Eve, urgent to put such honour upon her 
daughter ? For He says : ' So as to prepare for me the 
accesses of hearing.' But can the womb contain Him who 
cannot be contained in space ? Truly this is a dread 
mystery." While the angel is indulging such reflections, 
the Lord says to Him : " Why art thou troubled and per- 
plexed, O Gabriel? Hast thou not already been sent by me 
to Zacharias the priest ? Hast thou not conveyed to him the 
glad tidings of the nativity of John ? Didst thou not inflict 
upon the incredulous priest the penalty of speechlessness ? 
Didst thou not punish the aged man with dumbness? Didst 
thou not make thy declaration, and I confirmed it? And 
has not the actual fact followed upon thy announcement of 
good ? Did not the barren woman conceive ? Did not the 
womb obey the word? Did not the malady of sterility de- 
part? Did not the inert disposition of nature take to flight? 
Is not she now one that shows fruitfulness, who before was 
never pregnant? Can anything be impossible with me, the 
Creator of all ? Wherefore, then, art thou tossed with doubt?" 


"What is the angel's answer to this? "O Lord," he says, 
" to remedy the defects of nature, to do away with the blast 
of evils, to recall the dead members to the power of life, to 
enjoin on nature the potency of generation, to remove barren- 
ness in the case of members that have passed the common 
limit (yTrepoplois /ieXeo-^), to change the old and withered 
stalk into the appearance of verdant vigour, to set forth the 
fruitless soil suddenly as the producer of sheaves of corn, 
to do all this is a work which, as it is ever the case, 
demands Thy power. And Sarah is a witness thereto, and 
along with her (or, and after her) also Kebecca, and again 
Anna, who all, though bound by the dread ill of barrenness, 
were afterwards gifted by Thee with deliverance from that 
malady. But that a virgin should bring forth, without hav- 
ing intercourse with a man, is something that goes beyond 
all the laws of nature; and dost Thou yet announce Thy 
coming to the maiden ? The bounds of heaven and earth do 
not contain Thee, and how shall the womb of a virgin con- 
tain Thee 1 " And the Lord says : " How did the tent of 
Abraham contain me ? ' n And the angel says : " As there 
were there the deeps of hospitality, O Lord, Thou didst show 
Thyself there to Abraham at the door of the tent, and didst 
pass quickly by it, as He who filleth all things. But how 
can Mary sustain the fire of the divinity? Thy throne 
blazes with the illumination of its splendour, and can the 
virgin receive Thee without being consumed?" Then the 
Lord says : " Yea surely, if the fire in the wilderness injured 
the bush, my coming will indeed also injure Mary ; but if 
that fire which served as the adumbration of the advent of 
the fire of divinity from heaven fertilized the bush, and did 
not burn it, what wilt thou say of the Truth that descends not 
in a flame of fire, but in the form of rain ?" 2 Thereupon the 
angel set himself to carry out the commission given him, and 
repaired to the Virgin, and addressed her with a loud voice, 
saying : " Hail, thou that art highly favoured ! the Lord is 
with thee. No longer shall the devil be against thee ; for 
where of old that adversary inflicted the wound, there now 
1 Gen. xviii. 2 Ps. Ixxii. 6. 


first of all does the Physician apply the salve of deliverance. 
Where death came forth, there has life now prepared its 
entrance. By a woman came the flood of our ills, and by 
a woman also our blessings have their spring. Hail, thou 
that art highly favoured ! Be not thou ashamed, as if thou 
wert the cause of our condemnation. For Thou art made the 
mother of Him who is at once Judge and Redeemer. Hail, 
thou stainless mother of the bridegroom 1 of a world bereft ! 
Hail, thou that hast sunk in thy womb the death (that came) 
of the mother (Eve)! Hail, thou animate temple of God! 
Hail, thou equal (lo-oppoirov) home of heaven and earth alike! 
Hail, thou amplest receptacle of the illimitable nature !" 
But as these things are so, through her has come for the 
sick the Physician ; for them that sit in darkness, the Sun 
of righteousness ; for all that are tossed and tempest-beaten, 
the Anchor and the Port undisturbed by storm. For the 
servants in irreconcilable enmity has been born the Lord; 
and One has sojourned with us to be the bond of peace and 
the Redeemer of those led captive, and to be the peace for 
those involved in hostility. For He is our peace; 2 and of 
that peace may it be granted that all we may receive the 
enjoyment, by the grace and kindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; to whom be the glory, honour, and power, now and 
ever, and unto all the ages of the ages. Amen. 


A Discourse ly our sainted Father Gregory, Bishop of Neo- 
Ccesareia, surnamed Thaumaturgus, on the Holy Theo- 
phany (or, as the title is also given, on the Holy Liglits). 

ye who are the friends of Christ, and the friends of the 
stranger, and the friends of the brethren, receive in kindness 

1 vp<p<>T6x.t. The Latin version gives it as = sponsa, simul et mater. 

2 Eph. ii. 14. 


my speech to-day, and open your ears like the doors of hear- 
ing, and admit within them my discourse, and accept from 
me this saving proclamation of the baptism (/earaSuc-ew?) of 
Christ, which took place in the river Jordan, in order that 
your loving desires may be quickened after the Lord, who 
lias done so much for us in the way of condescension. For 
even though the festival of the Epiphany of the Saviour is 
past, the grace of the same yet abides with us through all. 
Let us therefore enjoy it with insatiable minds ; for insatiate 
desire is a good thing in the case of what pertains to salva- 
tion yea, it is a good thing. Come therefore, all of us, 
from Galilee to Judea, and let us go forth with Christ ; for 
blessed is he who journeys in such company on the way of 
life. Come, and with the feet of thought let us make for 
the Jordan, and see John the Baptist as he baptizes One 
who needs no baptism, and yet submits to the rite in order 
that He may bestow freely upon us the grace of baptism. 
Come, let us view the image of our regeneration, as it is 
emblematically presented in these waters. " Then cometh 
Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of 
him." l O how vast is the humility of the Lord ! O how 
vast His condescension ! The King of the heavens hastened 
to John, His own forerunner, without setting in motion the 
camps (or armies) of His angels, without despatching before- 
hand the incorporeal powers as His precursors ; but present- 
ing Himself in utmost simplicity, in soldier-like (subaltern) 
form (lv ry a-rpari(oriKfj /zop^), He comes up to His own 
subaltern. And He approached him as one of the multitude, 
and humbled Himself among the captives though He was 
the Redeemer, and ranged Himself with those under judg- 
ment though He was the Judge, and joined Himself with 
the lost sheep though He was the Good Shepherd who on 
account of the straying sheep came down from heaven, and 
yet did riot forsake His heavens, and was mingled with the 
tares though He was that heavenly grain that springs un- 
sown. And when the Baptist John then saw Him, recog- 
nising Him whom before in his mother's womb he had 
1 Matt. iii. 13. 


recognised and worshipped, and discerning clearly that this 
was He on whose account, in a manner surpassing the 
natural time, he had leaped in the womb of his mother, in 
violation of the limits of nature, he drew his right hand 
within his double cloak, and bowing his head like a servant 
full of love to his master, addressed Him in these words : 
I have need to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to 
me 1 l What is this Thou doest, my Lord ? Why dost 
Thou reverse the order of things? Why seekest Thou along 
with the servants, at the hand of Thy servant, the things 
that are proper to servants ? Why dost Thou desire to re- 
ceive what Thou requirest not? Why dost Thou burden me, 
Thy servitor, with Thy mighty condescension ? I have need 
to be baptized of Thee, but Thou hast no need to be baptized 
of me. The less is blessed by the greater, and the greater 
is not blessed and sanctified by the less. The light is kindled 
by the sun, and the sun is not made to shine by the rush- 
lamp. The clay is wrought by the potter, and the potter is 
not moulded by the clay. The creature is made anew by 
the Creator, and the Creator is not restored by the creature. 
The infirm is healed by the physician, and the physician is 
not cured by the infirm. The poor man receives contribu- 
tions from the rich, and the rich borrow not from the poor. 
I have need to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to 
me? Can I be ignorant who Thou art, and from what 
source Thou hast Thy light, and whence Thou art come ? 
Or, because Thou hast been born even as I have been (or, 
because for my sake Thou hast been born as I have been), am 
I, then, to deny the greatness of Thy divinity ? Or, because 
Thou hast condescended so far to me as to have approached 
my body, and dost bear me wholly in Thyself in order to 
effect the salvation of the whole man, am I, on account of 
that body of Thine which is seen, to overlook that divinity 
of Thine which is only apprehended ? Or, because on be- 
half of my salvation Thou hast taken to Thyself the offering 
of my first-fruits, am I to ignore the fact that Thou "coverest 
Thyself with light as with a garment?" 2 Or, because Thou 
1 Matt. iii. 14. 2 Ps. civ. 2. 


wearest the flesh that is related to me, and dost show Thyself 
to men as they are able to see Thee, am I to forget the bright- 
ness of Thy glorious divinity ? Or, because I see my own 
form in Thee, am I to reason against Thy divine substance, 
which is invisible and incomprehensible ? I know Thee, O 
Lord ; I know Thee clearly. I know Thee, since I have 
been taught by Thee ; for no one can recognise Thee, unless 
he enjoys Thine illumination. I know Thee, O Lord, 
clearly ; for I saw Thee spiritually before I beheld this 
light. When Thou wert altogether in the incorporeal bosom 
of the heavenly Father, Thou wert also altogether in the 
womb of Thy handmaid and mother ; and I, though held in 
the womb of Elisabeth by nature as in a prison, and bound 
with the indissoluble bonds of the children unborn, leaped 
and celebrated Thy birth with anticipative rejoicings. Shall 
I then, who gave intimation of Thy sojourn on earth before 
Thy birth, fail to apprehend Thy coming after Thy birth ? 
Shall I, who in the womb was a teacher of Thy coming, be 
now a child in understanding in view of perfect knowledge ? 
But I cannot but worship Thee, who art adored by the whole 
creation ; I cannot but proclaim Thee, of whom heaven gave 
the indication by the star, and for whom earth offered a kind 
reception by the wise men, while the choirs of angels also 
praised Thee in joy over Thy condescension to us, and the 
shepherds who kept watch by night hymned Thee as the 
Chief Shepherd of the rational sheep. I cannot keep silence 
while Thou art present, for I am a voice ; yea, I am the 
voice, as it is said, of one crying in the wilderness, Pre- 
pare ye the way of the Lord. 1 I have need to be baptized 
of Thee, and comest Thou to me? I was born, and thereby 
removed the barrenness of the mother that bore me; and 
while still a babe I became the healer of my father's speech- 
lessness, having received of Thee from my childhood the 
gift of the miraculous. But Thou, being born of the Virgin 
Mary, as Thou didst will, and as Thou alone dost know, 
didst not do away with her virginity ; but Thou didst keep 
it, and didst simply gift her with the name of mother : and 
1 Matt. iii. 3 ; Mark i. 3 ; Luke iii. 4 ; John i. 23. 



neither did her virginity preclude Thy birth, nor did Thy 
birth injure her virginity. But these two things, so utterly 
opposite bearing and virginity harmonized with one in- 
tent ; for such a thing abides possible with Thee, the Framer 
of nature. I am but a man, and am a partaker of the divine 
grace ; but Thou art God, and also man to the same effect : 
for Thou art by nature man's friend. I have need to be 
baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to me ? Thou who wast 
in the beginning, and wast with God, and wast God ; x Thou 
who art the brightness of the Father's glory ; 2 Thou who art 
the perfect image of the perfect Father (or, of the perfect 
Light; to wit, the Father); Thou who art the true light 
that lighteneth every man that cometh into the world ; 3 Thou 
who wast in the world, and didst come where Thou wast ; 
Thou who wast made flesh, and yet wast not changed into the 
flesh ; Thou who didst dwell among us, and didst manifest 
Thyself to Thy servants in the form of a servant ; Thou who 
didst bridge earth and heaven together by Thy holy name, 
comest Thou to me ? One so great to such an one as I am? 
The King to the forerunner ? The Lord to the servant ? 
But though Thou wast not ashamed to be born in the lowly 
measures of humanity, yet I have no ability to pass the 
measures of nature. I know how great is the measure of 
difference between earth and the Creator. I know how 
great is the distinction between the clay and the potter. I 
know how vast is the superiority possessed by Thee, who art 
the Sun of righteousness, over me who am but the torch of 
Thy grace. Even though Thou art compassed with the 
pure cloud of the body, I can still recognise Thy lordship. 
I acknowledge my own servitude, I proclaim Thy glorious 
greatness, I recognise Thy perfect lordship, I recognise my 
own perfect insignificance, I am not worthy to unloose the 
latchets of Thy shoes : 4 and how shall I dare to touch Thy 
stainless head ? How can I stretch out the right hand upon 
Thee, who didst stretch out the heavens like a curtain, 5 and 
didst set the earth above the waters ? 6 . How shall I spread 

1 John i. 1. 2 Heb. i. 3. 3 John i. 9. 

4 Luke iii. 16 ; John i. 27. s Fs. civ. 2. 6 Pa. cxxxvi. 6. 


those menial hands of mine upon Thy head? How shall I 
wash Thee, who art undefiled and sinless? How shall I 
enlighten the light ? What manner of prayer shall I offer 
up over Thee, who dost receive the prayers even of those 
who are ignorant of Thee ? 

When I baptize others, I baptize into Thy name, in order 
that they may believe on Thee, who comest with glory ; but 
when I baptize Thee, of whom shall I make mention ? and 
into whose name shall I baptize Thee ? Into that of the 
Father I But Thou hast the Father altogether in Thyself, 
and Thou art altogether in the Father. Or into that of the 
Son ? But beside Thee there is no other Son of God by 
nature. Or into that of the Holy Spirit ? But He is ever 
together with Thee, as being of one substance, and of one 
will, and of one judgment, and of one power, and of one 
honour with Thee ; and He receives, along with Thee, the 
same adoration from all. Wherefore, O Lord, baptize 
Thou me, if Thou pleasest; baptize me, the Baptist. Re- 
generate one whom Thou didst cause to be generated. Ex- 
tend Thy dread right hand, which Thou hast prepared for 
Thyself, and crown my head by Thy touch, in order that I 
may run the course before Thy kingdom, crowned like a 
forerunner, and diligently announce the good tidings to the 
sinners, addressing them with this earnest call : " Behold the 
Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world I" 1 O 
river Jordan, accompany me in the joyous choir, and leap 
with me, and stir thy waters rhythmically, as in the move- 
ments of the dance ; for thy Maker stands by thee in the body. 
Once of old didst thou see Israel pass through thee, and 
thou didst divide thy floods, and didst wait in expectation of 
the passage of the people; but now divide thyself more 
decidedly, and flow more easily, and embrace the stainless 
limbs of Him who at that ancient time did convey the Jews 
(or, the Hebrews) through thee. Ye mountains and hills, 
ye valleys and torrents, ye seas and rivers, bless the Lord, 
who has come upon the river Jordan ; for through these 
streams He transmits sanctification to all streams. And 
1 John i. 29. 


Jesus answered and said to him : Suffer it to be so now, for 
thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. 1 Suffer it to 
be so now; grant the favour of silence, O Baptist, to the 
season of my ceconomy. Learn to will whatever is my will. 
Learn to minister to me in those things on which I am bent, 
and do not pry curiously into all that I wish to do. Suffer 
it to be so now : do not yet proclaim my divinity ; do not yet 
herald my kingdom with thy lips, in order that the tyrant 
may not learn the fact and give up the counsel he has formed 
with respect to me. Permit the devil to come upon me, and 
enter the conflict with me as though I were but a common 
man, and receive thus his mortal wound. Permit me to 
fulfil the object for which I have come to earth. It is a 
mystery that is being gone through this day in the Jordan. 
My mysteries are for myself and my own. There is a 
mystery here, not for the fulfilling of my own need, but for 
the designing of a remedy for those who have been wounded. 
There is a mystery, which gives in these waters the repre- 
sentation of the heavenly streams of the regeneration of men. 
Suffer it to be so now: when thou seest me doing what 
seemeth to me good among the works of my hands, in a 
manner befitting divinity, then attune thy praises to the 
acts accomplished. When thou seest me cleansing the lepers, 
then proclaim me as the framer of nature. When thou seest 
me make the lame ready runners, then with quickened pace 
do thou also prepare thy tongue to praise me. When thou 
seest me cast out demons, then hail my kingdom with adora- 
tion. When thou seest me raise the dead from their graves 
by my word, then, in concert with those thus raised, glorify 
me as the Prince of life. When thou seest me sitting on 
the Father's right hand, then acknowledge me to be divine, as 
the equal of the Father and the Holy Spirit, on the throne, 
and in eternity, and in honour. Suffer it to be so now ; for 
thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. I am the Law- 
giver, and the Son of the Lawgiver ; and it becometh me first 
to pass through all that is established, and then to set forth 
everywhere the intimations of my free gift. It becometh me 
1 Matt iii. 15. 


to fulfil the law, and then to bestow grace. It becometh me 
to adduce the shadow, and then the reality. It becometh me 
to finish the old covenant, and then to dictate the new, and 
to write it on the hearts of men, and to subscribe it with my 
blood (or, with my name), and to seal it with my Spirit. It 
becometh me to ascend the cross, and to be pierced with its 
nails, and to suffer after the manner of that nature which is 
capable of suffering, and to heal sufferings by my suffering, 
and by the tree to cure the wound that was inflicted upon 
men by the medium of a tree. It becometh me to descend 
even into the very depths of the grave, on behalf of the dead 
who are detained there. It becometh me, by my three days' 
dissolution in the flesh, to destroy the power of the ancient 
enemy, death. It becometh me to kindle the torch of my 
body for those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of 
death. It becometh me to ascend in the flesh to that place 
where I am in my divinity. It becometh me to introduce 
to the Father the Adam reigning in me. It becometh me to 
accomplish these things, for on account of these things I have 
taken my position with the works of my hands. It becometh 
me to be baptized with this baptism for the present, and 
afterwards to bestow the baptism of the consubstantial 
Trinity upon all men. Lend me, therefore, O Baptist, thy 
right hand for the present osconomy, even as Mary lent 
her womb for my birth. Immerse me in the streams of 
Jordan, even as she who bore me wrapped me in children's 
swaddling-clothes. Grant me thy baptism, even as the 
Virgin granted me her milk. Lay hold of this head of mine, 
which the seraphim revere. With thy right hand lay hold 
of this head, that is related to thyself in kinship. Lay hold 
of this head, which nature has made to be touched. Lay 
hold of this head, which for this very purpose has been formed 
by myself and my Father. Lay hold of this head of mine, 
which, if one does lay hold of it in piety, will save him from 
ever suffering shipwreck. Baptize me, who am destined to 
baptize those who believe on me with water, and with the 
Spirit, and with fire : with water, capable of washing away 
the defilement of sins j with the Spirit, capable of making 


the earthy spiritual ; with fire, naturally fitted to consume 
the thorns of transgressions. On hearing these words, the 
Baptist directed his mind to the object of the salvation (or, 
to the Saviour's object), and comprehended the mystery which 
he had received, and discharged the divine command ; for he 
was at once pious and ready to obey. And stretching forth 
slowly his right hand, which seemed both to tremble and to 
rejoice, he baptized the Lord. Then the Jews who were 
present, with those in the vicinity and those from a distance, 
reasoned together, and spake thus with themselves and with 
each other : Was it, then, without cause that we imagined 
John to be superior to Jesus ? Was it without cause that 
we considered the former to be greater than the latter? 
Does not this very baptism attest the Baptist's pre-eminence? 
Is not he who baptizeth presented as the superior, and he 
who is baptized as the inferior ? But while they, in their 
ignorance of the mystery of the oeconomy, babbled in such 
wise with each other, He who alone is Lord, and by nature 
the Father of the Only-begotten, He who alone knoweth 
perfectly Him whom He alone in passionless fashion begat, 
to correct the erroneous imaginations of the Jews, opened 
the gates of the heavens, and sent down the Holy Spirit in 
the form of a dove, lighting upon the head of Jesus, point- 
ing out thereby the new Noah, yea the maker of Noah, 
and the good pilot of the nature which is in shipwreck. And 
He Himself calls with clear voice out of heaven, and says : 
"This is my beloved Son," 1 the Jesus there, namely, and 
not the John ; the one baptized, and not the one baptizing ; 
He who was begotten of me before all periods of time, and 
not he who was begotten of Zacharias ; He who was born 
of Mary after the flesh, and not he who was brought forth 
by Elisabeth beyond all expectation ; He who was the fruit 
of the virginity yet preserved intact, and not he who was the 
shoot from a sterility removed ; He who has had His con- 
versation with you, and not he who was brought up in the 
wilderness. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased : my Son, of the same substance with myself, and not 
1 Matt. iii. 17, xvii. 5 ; Mark i. 11 ; Luke ix. 35. 


of a different ; of one substance with me according to what 
is unseen, and of one substance with you according to what 
is seen, yet without sin. This is He who along with me 
made man. This is my beloved Son, in whom. I am well 
pleased. This Son of mine and this son of Mary are not 
two distinct persons ; but this is my beloved Son, this one 
who is both seen with the eye and apprehended with the 
mind. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ; 
hear Him. If He shall say, I and my Father are one, 1 hear 
Him. If He shall say, He that hath seen me hath seen the 
Father, 2 hear Him. If He shall say, He that hath sent me 
is greater than I, 3 adapt the voice to the oeconomy. If He 
shall say, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? 4 
answer ye Him thus: Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living 
God. 5 By these words, as they were sent from the Father out 
of heaven in thunder-form, the race of men was enlightened : 
they apprehended the difference between the Creator and 
the creature, between the King and the soldier (subject), 
between the Worker and the work ; and being strengthened 
in faith, they drew near through the baptism of John to 
Christ, our true God, who baptizeth with the Spirit and with 
fire. To Him be glory, and to the Father, and to the most 
holy and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and unto the ages 
of the ages. Amen. 

1 John x. 30. 2 John xiv. 9. 8 John xiv. 28. 

* Matt. xvi. 13. 6 Matt. xvi. 16. 


CHAPTER vi. 22, 23. 

(Gallandi, Vet. Patr. Biblioth. xiv. p. 119 ; from a Catena on Matthew, 
Cod. MS. 168, Mitarelli.) 

" The light of the body is the eye : if therefore thine eye be single, thy 
whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy 
whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is 
in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness ! " 

J1HE single eye is the love unfeigned ; for when 
the body is enlightened by it, it sets forth 
through the medium of the outer members only 
things which are perfectly correspondent with 
the inner thoughts. But the evil eye is the pretended love, 
which is also called hypocrisy, by which the whole body of 
the man is made darkness. We have to consider that deeds 
meet only for darkness may be within the man, while through 
the outer members he may produce words that seem to be of 
the light: 1 for there are those who are in reality wolves, 
though they may be covered with sheep's clothing. Such 
are they who wash only the outside of the cup and platter, 
and do not understand that, unless the inside of these things 
is cleansed, the outside itself cannot be made pure. Where- 
fore, in manifest confutation of such persons, the Saviour 
says : " If the light that is in thee be darkness, how great 
is that darkness ! " That is to say, if the love which seems 
to thee to be light is really a work meet for darkness, by 
reason of some hypocrisy concealed in thee, what must be 
thy patent transgressions ! 

1 The text is apparently corrupt here : &%tot ( OKOTOV; 

v taudtv' ^iac Be TUV f^u6fy f^touv (furog fivxi ^ox-ovvroe, 
Migne suggests twowpsv tw aud -zp 


(Published by Joannes Aloysius Mingarelli, Bologna 1770.) 

[RANT thy blessing, Lord. 

It was my desire to be silent, and not to make 
a public 1 display of the rustic rudeness of my 
tongue. For silence is a matter of great con- 
sequence when one's speech is mean. 2 And to refrain from 
utterance is indeed an admirable thing, where there is lack 
of training; and verily he is the highest philosopher who 
knows how to cover his ignorance by abstinence from public 
address. Knowing, therefore, the feebleness of tongue proper 
to me, I should have preferred such a course. Never- 
theless the spectacle of the onlookers impels me to speak. 
Since, then, this solemnity is a glorious one among our 
festivals, and the spectators form a crowded gathering, and 
our assembly is one of elevated fervour in the faith, I shall 
face the task of commencing an address with confidence. 3 
And this I may attempt all the more boldly, since the 
Father 4 requests me, and the church is with me, and the 
sainted martyrs with this object strengthen what is weak 
in me. For these have inspired aged men to accomplish 
with much love a long course, and constrained them to 
support their failing steps by the staff of the word (or, the 

1 The codex gives "b-fipwitvovaav, for which we read 

2 The codex gives TX3jj, for which tvT&fa is read by the editor. 

3 Reading Qappovvru; for 6xppovvrof. 

4 This is supposed by the Latin annotator to refer to the bishop, and 
perhaps to Phsedimus of Amasea, as in those times no one was at liberty 
to make an address in the church when the bishop was present, except 
by his request or with his permission. 



Word) ; and they have stimulated women to finish their course 
like the young men, and have brought to this, too, those of 
tender years, yea, even creeping children. In this wise have 
the martyrs shown their power, leaping with joy in the pre- 
sence of death, laughing at the sword, making sport of the 
wrath of princes, grasping at death as the producer of death- 
lessness, making victory their own by their fall, through the 
body taking their leap to heaven, suffering their members 
to be scattered abroad in order that they might hold 
(o-<j/y&>cri) their souls, and, bursting the bars of life, that 
they might open the gates (or keys) of heaven. And if 
any one believes not that death is abolished, that Hades is 
trodden under foot, that the chains thereof are broken, that 
the tyrant is bound, let him look on the martyrs disporting 
themselves (Kv/Sia-Tuvres) in the presence of death, and tak- 
ing up the jubilant strain of the victory of Christ. O the 
marvel ! Since the hour when Christ despoiled Hades, men 
have danced in triumph over death. " O death, where is 
thy sting ? O grave, where is thy victory ? " l Hades and 
the devil have been despoiled, and stripped of their ancient 
armour, and cast out of their peculiar power. And even as 
Goliath had his head cut off with his own sword, so also is 
the devil, who has been the father of death, put to rout 
through death ; and he finds that the selfsame thing which 
he was wont to use as the ready weapon of his deceit, has 
become the mighty instrument of his own destruction. Yea, 
if we may so speak, casting his hook at the Godhead, and 
seizing the wonted enjoyment of the baited pleasure, he is 
himself manifestly caught while he deems himself the captor, 
and discovers that in place of the man he has touched the 
God. By reason thereof do the martyrs leap upon the head 
of the dragon, and despise every species of torment. For 
since the second Adam has brought up the first Adam out 
of the deeps of Hades, as Jonah was delivered out of the 
whale, and has set forth him who was deceived as a citizen 
of heaven to the shame of the deceiver, the gates of Hades 
have been shut, and the gates of heaven have been opened, 
1 1 Cor. xv. 55. 


so as to offer an unimpeded entrance to those who rise 
thither in faith. In olden time Jacob beheld a ladder 
erected reaching to heaven, and the angels of God ascend- 
ing and descending upon it. But now, having been made 
man for man's sake, He who is the Friend of man has 
crushed witli the foot of His divinity him who is the enemy 
of man, and has borne up the man with the hand of His 
Christhood, 1 and has made the trackless ether to be trodden 
by the feet of man. Then the angels were ascending and 
descending ; but now the Angel of the great counsel neither 
ascendeth nor descendeth : for whence or where shall He 
change His position, who is present everywhere, and filleth 
all things, and holds in His hand the ends of the world? 
Once, indeed, He descended, and once He ascended, -not, 
however, through any change (yuera/Sacret) of nature, but 
only in the condescension (crj/y/cara/Sacrei) of His philan- 
thropic Christhood (or benignity) ; and He is seated as the 
Word with the Father, and as the Word He dwells in the 
womb, and as the Word He is found everywhere, and is 
never separated from the God of the universe. Aforetime 
did the devil deride the nature of man with great laughter, 
and he has had his joy over the times of our calamity as his 
festal-days. But the laughter is only a three days' pleasure, 
while the wailing is eternal ; and his great laughter has 
prepared for him a greater wailing and ceaseless tears, and 
inconsolable weeping, and a sword in his heart. This sword 
did our Leader forge against the enemy with fire in the 
virgin furnace, in such wise and after such fashion as He 
willed, and gave it its point by the energy of His invincible 
divinity, and dipped it in the water of an undefiled baptism, 
and sharpened it by sufferings without passion in them, and 
made it bright by the mystical resurrection ; and herewith 
by Himself He put to death the vengeful adversary, together 
with his whole host. What manner of word, therefore, will 
express our joy or his misery ? For he who was once an 
archangel is now a devil ; he who once lived in heaven is 
now seen crawling like a serpent upon earth ; he who once 
1 XJS;OT</'TTO?, for which, however, %pwrcTYjTQf, benignity, is suggested. 


was jubilant with the cherubim, is now shut up in pain in 
the guard-house of swine; and him, too, in fine, shall we 
put to rout if we mind those things which are contrary to 
his choice, by the grace and kindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, to whom be the glory and the power unto the ages 
of the ages. Amen. 




OR our knowledge of the career of this illustrious 
disciple of Origen \ve are indebted chiefly to 
Eusebius, in the sixth and seventh books of his 
Historia Ecclesiastica, and in the fourteenth 
book of his Prceparatio Evangelica. There are also passages, 
of larger or smaller extent, bearing upon his life and his 
literary activity, in Jerome (De viris illustr. ch. 69 ; and 
Prcefatio ad Lib. xviii. Comment, in Esaiam), Athanasius 
(De Sententia Dionysii, and De Synodl Niccence Decretis), 
Basil (De Spiritu Sancto, ch. 29 ; Epist. ad Ampldloch., and 
Epist. ad Maximum). Among modern authorities, we may 
refer specially to the Dissertation on his life and writings by 
S. de Magistris, in the folio edition issued under his care in 
Greek and Latin at Eome in 1796 ; to the account given by 
Basnage in the Histoire de FEglise, tome i. livre ii. ch. v. 
p. 68 ; to the complete collection of his extant works in Gal- 
landi's Bibliotlieca Patrum, iii. p. 481, etc. ; as well as to the 
accounts in Cave's Hist. Lit. i. p. 95, and elsewhere. He 
appears to have been the son of pagan parents ; but after 
studying the doctrines of various of the schools of philosophy, 
and coming under the influence of Origen, to whom he had 
attached himself as a pupil, he was led to embrace the Chris- 
tian faith. This step was taken at an early period, and, as he 
informs us, only after free examination and careful inquiry 
into the great systems of heathen belief. He was made a 
presbyter in Alexandria after this decision; and on the eleva- 
tion of Heraclas to the bishopric of that city, Dionysius suc- 



ceeded him in the presidency of the catechetical school there 
about A.D. 232. After holding that position for some fifteen 
years Heraclas died, and Dionysius was again chosen to be 
his successor ; and ascending the episcopal throne of Alex- 
andria about A.D. 247 or 248, he retained that see till his 
death in the year 265. The period of his activity as bishop 
was a time of great suffering and continuous anxiety ; and 
between the terrors of persecution on the one hand, and the 
cares of controversy on the other, he found little repose in 
his office. During the Decian persecution he was arrested 
and hurried off by the soldiers to a small town named Tapo- 
siris, lying between Alexandria and Canopus. But he was 
rescued from the peril of that seizure in a remarkably provi- 
dential manner, by a sudden rising of the people of the rural 
district through which he was being carried. Again, how- 
ever, he was called to suffer, and that more severely, when the 
persecution under Valerian broke out in the year 257. On 
making open confession of his faith on this occasion he was 
banished, at a time when he was seriously ill, to Cephro, a 
wild and barren district in Libya; and not until he had spent 
two or three years in exile there was he enabled to return to 
Alexandria, in virtue of the edict of Gallienus. At various 
times he had to cope, too, with the miseries of pestilence and 
famine and civil conflicts in the seat of his bishopric. In 
the many ecclesiastical difficulties of his age he was also led 
to take a prominent part. When the keen contest was waged 
on the subject of the rebaptism of recovered heretics about 
the year 256, the matter in dispute was referred by both 
parties to his judgment, and he composed several valuable 
writings on the question. Then he was induced to enter the 
lists with the Sabellians, and in the course of a lengthened 
controversy did much good service against their tenets. The 
uncompromising energy of his opposition to that sect carried 
him, however, beyond the bounds of prudence, so that he him- 
self gave expression to opinions not easily reconcilable with 
the common orthodox doctrine. For these he was called to 
account by Dionysius bishop of Rome ; and when a synod had 
been summoned to consider the case, he promptly and humbly 


acknowledged the error into which his precipitate zeal had 
drawn him. Once more, he was urged to give his help in 
the difficulty with Paul of Samosata. But as the burden of 
years and infirmities made it impossible for him to attend 
the synod convened at Antioch in 265 to deal with that 
troublesome heresiarch, he sent his opinion on the subject 
of discussion in a letter to the council, and died soon after, 
towards the close of the same year. The responsible duties 
of his bishopric had been discharged with singular faithful- 
ness and patience throughout the seventeen eventful years 
during which he occupied the office. Among the ancients 
he was held in the highest esteem both for personal worth 
and for literary usefulness ; and it is related that there was 
a church dedicated to him in Alexandria. One feature 
that appears very prominently in his character, is the 
spirit of independent investigation which possessed him. 
It was only after candid examination of the current philo- 
sophies that he was induced to become a Christian ; and 
after his adoption of the faith, he kept himself abreast of 
all the controversies of the time, and perused with an im- 
partial mind the works of the great heretics. He acted on 
this principle through his whole course as a teacher, pro- 
nouncing against such writings only when he had made him- 
self familiar with their contents, and saw how to refute 
them. And we are told in Eusebius (vii. 7), that when a 
certain presbyter once remonstrated with him on this subject, 
and warned him of the injury he might do to his own soul 
by habituating himself to the perusal of these heterodox pro- 
ductions, Dionysius was confirmed in his purpose by a vision 
and a voice which were sent him, as he thought, from 
heaven to relieve him of all such fear, and to encourage 
him to read and prove all that might come into his hand, 
because that method had been from the very first the cause 
of faith to him. The moderation of his character, again, 
is not less worthy of notice. In the case of the Novatian 
schism, while he was from the first decidedly opposed to the 
principles of the party, he strove by patient and affectionate 
argumentation to persuade the leader to submit. So, too, in 


the disputes on baptism we find him urgently entreating the 
Roman bishop Stephen not to press matters to extremity with 
the Eastern Church, nor destroy the peace she had only lately 
begun to enjoy. Again, in the chiliastic difficulties excited 
by Nepos, and kept up by Coracion, we see him assembling 
all the parochial clergy who held these opinions, and inviting 
all the laymen of the diocese also to attend the conference, 
and discussing the question for three whole days with all these 
ministers, considering their arguments, and meeting all their 
objections patiently by Scripture testimony, until he per- 
suades Coracion himself to retract, and receives the thanks 
of the pastors, and restores unity of faith in his bishopric. 
On these occasions his mildness, and benignity, and modera- 
tion stand out in bold relief ; and on others we trace similar 
evidences of his broad sympathies and his large and liberal 
spirit. He was possessed also of a remarkably fertile pen ; 
and the number of his theological writings, both formal 
treatises and more familiar epistles, was very considerable. 
All these, however, have perished, with the exception of 
what Eusebius and other early authors already referred to 
have preserved. The most important of these compositions 
are the following: 1. A Treatise on the Promises^ in two 
books, which was written against Nepos, and of which Euse- 
bius has introduced two pretty large extracts into the third 
and seventh books of his History. 2. A Book on Nature, 
addressed to Timotheus, in opposition to the Epicureans, of 
which we have some sections in the Prcepar. Evangel, of 
Eusebius. 3. A Work against the Sabellians, addressed to 
Dionysius bishop of Rome, in four books or letters, in which 
he deals with his own unguarded statements in the contro- 
versy with Sabellius, and of which certain portions have 
come down to us in Athanasius and Basil. In addition to 
these, we possess a number of his epistles in whole or part, 
and a few exegetical fragments. 






(Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vii. 24 and 25.) 

|UT as they produce a certain composition by 
Nepos, 2 on which they insist very strongly, as 
if it demonstrated incontestably that there will 
be a (temporal) reign of Christ upon the earth, 
I have to say, that in many other respects I accept the opinion 
of Nepos, and love him at once for his faith, and his labo- 

1 Eusebius introduces this extract in the following terms : " There are 
also two books of his on the subject of the promises. The occasion of 
writing these was furnished him by a certain Nepos, a bishop in Egypt, 
who taught that the promises which were given to holy men in the 
sacred Scriptures were to be understood according to the Jewish sense 
of the same ; and affirmed that there would be some kind of a millen- 
nial period, plenished with corporeal delights, upon this earth. And as 
he thought that he could establish this opinion of his by the Revelation 
of John, he had composed a book on this question, entitled Refutation 
of the Allegorists. This, therefore, is sharply attacked by Dionysius in 
his books on the Promises. And in the first of these books he states 
his own opinion on the subject ; while in the second he gives us a dis- 
cussion on the Revelation of John, in the introduction to which he 
makes mention of Nepos in these words : ' But as they produce,' " etc. 

2 As it is clear from this passage that this work by Dionysus was 
written against Nepos, it is strange that, in his preface to the eighteenth 
book of his Commentaries on Isaiah, Jerome should affirm it to have been 



riousness, and his patient study in the Scriptures, as also for 
his great efforts in psalmody, 1 by which even now many of 
the brethren are delighted. I hold the man, too, in deep 
respect still more, inasmuch as 2 he has gone to his rest before 
us. Nevertheless the truth is to be prized and reverenced 
above all things else. And while it is indeed proper to praise 
and approve ungrudgingly anything that is said aright, it is 
no less proper to examine and correct anything which may 
appear to have been written unsoundly. If he had been 
present then himself, and had been stating his opinions 
orally, it would have been sufficient to discuss the question 
together without the use of writing, and to endeavour to 
convince the opponents, and carry them along by interroga- 
tion and reply. But the work is published, and is, as it seems 
to some, of a very persuasive character ; and there are un- 
questionably some teachers, who hold that the law and the 

composed against Irenseus of Lyons. Irenseus was certainly of the 
number of those who held millennial views, and who had been per- 
suaded to embrace such by Papias, as Jerome himself tells us in the 
Catalogus, and as Eusebius explains towards the close of the third book 
of his History. But that this book by Dionysius was written not against 
Irenaeus, but against Nepos, is evident, not only from this passage in 
Eusebius, but also from Jerome himself, in his work On Ecclesiastical 
Writers, where he speaks of Dionysius. VALES. 

1 TV; woXAijf fyu.'hiAubiu.g. Christophorsonus interprets this of psalms 
and hymns composed by Nepos. It was certainly the practice among 
the ancient Christians to compose psalms and hymns in honour of 
Christ. Eusebius bears witness to this in the end of the fifth book of 
his History. Mention is made of these psalms in the Epistle of the 
Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata, and in the penultimate 
canon of the Council of Laodicea, where there is a clear prohibition of 
the use of i//A^o< i^iarmoi in the church, i.e. of psalms composed by 
private individuals. For this custom had obtained great prevalence, so 
that many persons composed psalms in honour of Christ, and got them 
sung in the church. It is psalms of this kind, consequently, that the 
Fathers of the Council of Laodicea forbid to be sung thereafter in the 
church, designating them ftiuriitoi, i.e. composed by unskilled men, and 
not dictated by the Holy Spirit. Thus is the matter explained by Ago- 
bardus in his book De ritu canendi psalmos in Ecclesia. VALES. 

2 renvr7i ^aXXoc y : it may mean, perhaps, for the way 
in which he lias gone to his rest before us. 


prophets are of no importance, and who decline to follow 
the Gospels, and who depreciate the epistles of the apostles, 
and who have also made large promises 1 regarding the 
doctrine of this composition, as though it were some great 
and hidden mystery, and who, at the same time, do not allow 
that our simpler brethren have any sublime and elevated 
conceptions either of our Lord's appearing in His glory and 
His true divinity, or of our own resurrection from the dead, 
and of our being gathered together to Him, and assimilated 
to Him, but, on the contrary, endeavour to lead them to 
hope 2 for things which are trivial and corruptible, and only 
such as what we find at present in the kingdom of God. 
And since this is the case, it becomes necessary for us to 
discuss this subject with our brother Nepos just as if he 
were present. 

2. After certain other matters, he adds the following state- 
ment : Being then in the Arsinoitic 3 prefecture where, as 
you are aware, this doctrine was current long ago, and 
caused such division, that schisms and apostasies took place 
in whole churches I called together the presbyters and the 
teachers among the brethren in the villages, and those of the 
brethren also who wished to attend were present. I exhorted 
them to make an investigation into that dogma in public. 
Accordingly, when they had brought this book before us, as 
though it were a kind of weapon or impregnable battlement, 
I sat with them for three days in succession, from morning 
till evening, and attempted to set them right on the subjects 

i.e. diu ante promittunt quam tradunt. The 
metaphor is taken from the mysteries of the Greeks, who were wont to 
promise great and marvellous discoveries to the initiated, and then kept 
them on the rack by daily expectation, in order to confirm their judgment 
and reverence by such suspense in the conveyance of knowledge, as 
Tertullian says in his book Against the Valentinians. VALES. 

2 Reading I^KI^IIV u.vot.'^tidoyruv for fhTTi^ofttva, icuQw-ruv, with the 
Codex Mazarin. 

3 \ ftev wv ri; 'Afwowrf, In the three codices here, as well as in 
Nicephorus and Ptolemy, we find this scription, although it is evident 
that the word should be written 'ApftMOTjjr, as the district took its name 
from Queen Arsinoe. VALES. 


propounded in the composition. Then, too, I was greatly 
gratified by observing the constancy of the brethren, and 
their love of the truth, and their docility and intelligence, as 
we proceeded, in an orderly method, and in a spirit of mode- 
ration, to deal with questions, and difficulties, and concessions. 
For we took care not to press, in every way and with jea- 
lous urgency, opinions which had once been adopted, even 
although they might appear to be correct. 1 Neither did we 
evade objections alleged by others ; but we endeavoured as 
far as possible to keep by the subject in hand, and to estab- 
lish the positions pertinent to it. Nor, again, were we 
ashamed to change our opinions, if reason convinced us, and 
to acknowledge the fact ; but rather with a good conscience, 
and in all sincerity, and with open hearts 2 before God, we 
accepted all that could be established by the demonstrations 
and teachings of the holy Scriptures. And at last the author 
and introducer of this doctrine, whose name was Coracion, in 
the hearing of all the brethren present, made acknowledg- 
ment of his position, and engaged to us that he would no 
longer hold by his opinion, nor discuss it, nor mention it, 
nor teach it, as he had been completely convinced by the 
arguments of those opposed to it. The rest of the brethren, 
also, who were present, were delighted with the conference, 
and with the conciliatory spirit and the harmony exhibited 
by all. 

3. Then, a little further on, he speaks of the Revelation of 
John as follows : Now some before our time have set aside 
this book, and repudiated it entirely, criticising it chapter 
by chapter, and endeavouring to show it to be without either 
sense or reason. They have alleged also that its title is 
false ; for they deny that John is the author. Nay, further, 

1 el Kul tpaivoivTo. There is another reading, x,l 

although they might not appear to be correct. Christophorsonus renders 
it : ne illis quse fuerant ante ab ipsis decreta, si quidquam in eis veri- 
tati repugnare videretur, inordicus adhsererent prsecavebant. 

2 iiKhupevMif Totis xotplietts. Christophorsonus renders it, puris erga 
Deum ac simplicibus animis ; Musculus gives, cordibus ad Deum expansis; 
and Rufinus, patefactis cordibus. 


they hold that it can be no sort of revelation, because it is 
covered with so gross and dense a veil of ignorance. They 
affirm, therefore, that none of the apostles, nor indeed any 
of the saints, nor any person belonging to the church, could 
be its author; but that Cerinthus, 1 and the heretical sect 
founded by him, and named after him the Cerinthian sect, 
being desirous of attaching the authority of a great name to 
the fiction propounded by him, prefixed that title to the 
book. For the doctrine inculcated by Cerinthus is this : 
that there will be an earthly reign of Christ ; and as he was 
himself a man devoted to the pleasures of the body, and 
altogether carnal in his dispositions, he fancied 2 that that 
kingdom would consist in those kinds of gratifications on 
which his own heart was set, to wit, in the delights of the 
belly, and what comes beneath the belly, that is to say, in 
eating and drinking, and marrying, and in other things under 
the guise of which he thought he could indulge his appetites 
with a better grace, 3 such as festivals, and sacrifices, and the 
slaying of victims. But I, for my part, could not venture to 
set this book aside, for there are many brethren who value 
it highly. Yet, having formed an idea of it as a composition 
exceeding my capacity of understanding, I regard it as con- 
taining a kind of hidden and wonderful intelligence on the 
several subjects which come under it. For though I cannot 
comprehend it, I still suspect that there is some deeper sense 
underlying the words. And I do not measure and judge its 
expressions by the standard of my own reason, but, making 
more allowance for faith, I have simply regarded them as 
too lofty for my comprehension ; and I do not forthwith reject 
what I do not understand, but I am only the more filled with 
wonder at it, in that I have not been able to discern its import. 

1 This passage is given substantially by Eusebius also in b. iii. c. 28. 

8 The text gives oveipoTrotelv, for which oveipoKo'hti or ai/sipon-fatt is to 
be read. 

8 S/ a futpYi/iioTepov Toiiirot a'/ifa TfopttiaSott. The old reading was ivdv- 
fnvripoii ; but the present reading is given in the MSS., Cod. Maz., and Med., 
as also in Eusebius, iii. 28, and in Nicephorus, iii. 14. So Rufinus renders 
it : et ut aliquid sacratius dicere videretur, krjaks aiebat festivitates rur- 
tum cekbrandas. 


4. After this, lie examines the whole book of the Revelation ; 
and having proved that it cannot possibly be understood ac- 
cording to the bald, literal sense, he proceeds thus : When 
the prophet now has completed, so to speak, the whole 
prophecy, he pronounces those blessed who should observe 
it, and names himself, too, in the number of the same : 
" For blessed," says he, " is he that keepeth the words of the 
prophecy of this book ; and I John (who) saw and heard 
these things." 1 That this person was called John, therefore, 
and that this was the writing of a John, I do not deny. And 
I admit further, that it was also the work of some holy and 
inspired man. But I could not so easily admit that this was 
the apostle, the son of Zebedee, the brother of James, and 
the same person with him who wrote the Gospel which bears 
the title according to John, and the catholic epistle. But 
from the character of both, and the forms of expression, and 
the whole disposition and execution 2 of the book, I draw the 
conclusion that the authorship is not his. For the evangelist 
nowhere else subjoins his name, and he never proclaims him- 
self either in the Gospel or in the epistle. 

And a little further on he adds : John, moreover, nowhere 
gives us the name, whether as of himself directly (in the 
first person), or as of another (in the third person). But the 
writer of the Revelation puts himself forward at once in the 
very beginning, for he says : " The Revelation of Jesus 
Christ, which He gave to him to show to His servants 
quickly ; and He sent and signified it by His angel to His 
servant John, who bare record of the Word of God, and of 
his testimony, and of all things that he saw." 3 And then he 
writes also an epistle, in which he says : " John to the seven 
churches which are in Asia, grace be unto you, and peace." 
The evangelist, on the other hand, has not prefixed his name 
even to the catholic epistle ; but without any circumlocution, 

1 Rev. xxii. 7, 8. 

2 ln^ctyay^s KiyoftivYi;. Musculus renders it tractatum libri; Christo- 
pliorsonus gives discursum ; and Valesius takes it as equivalent to olnotto- 

y, as 'onia.yot.'/tlv is the same as 

3 Hev. i. 1, 2. 


he has commenced at once with the mystery of the divine 
revelation itself in these terms : " That which was from the 
beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with 

O c" 1 ' / 

our eyes." l And on the ground of such a revelation as that 
the Lord pronounced Peter blessed, when He said : " Blessed 
art thou, Simon Bar-jona ; for flesh and blood hath not re- 
vealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven." 2 
And again in the second epistle, which is ascribed to John 
(the apostle), and in the third, though they are indeed brief, 
John is not set before us by name ; but we find simply the 
anonymous writing, The elder. This other author, on the 
contrary, did not even deem it sufficient to name himself 
once, and then to proceed with his narrative ; but he takes 
up his name again, and says : " I John, who also am your 
brother and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom 
and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called 
Patmos for the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus 
Christ." 3 And likewise toward the end he speaks thus : 
" Blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of 
this book ; and I John (who) saw these things and heard 
them." 4 That it is a John, then, that writes these things 
we must believe, for he himself tells us. 

5. What John this is, however, is uncertain. For he has 
not said, as he often does in the Gospel, that he is the disciple 
beloved by the Lord, or the one that leaned on His bosom, 
or the brother of James, or one that was privileged to see 
and hear the Lord. And surely he would have given us some 
of these indications if it had been his purpose to make him- 
self clearly known. But of all this he offers us nothing ; and 
he only calls himself our brother and companion, and the 
witness of Jesus, and one blessed with the seeing and hear- 
ing of these revelations. I am also of opinion that there were 
many persons of the same name with John the apostle, who by 
their love for him, and their admiration and emulation of him, 
and their desire to be loved by the Lord as he was loved, 
were induced to embrace also the same designation, just as we 
find many of the children of the faithful called by the names 
1 1 John i. 1. 2 Matt. xvi. 17. 8 Eev. i. 9. * Rev. xxii. 7, 8. 


of Paul and Peter. 1 There is, besides, another John men- 
tioned in the Acts of the Apostles, with the surname Mark, 
whom Barnabas and Paul attached to themselves as com- 
panion, and of whom again it is said : " And they had also 
John to their minister." 2 But whether this is the one who 
wrote the Revelation, I could not say. For it is not written 
that he came with them into Asia. But the writer says : 
" Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, 
they came to Perga in Pamphylia : and John, departing from 
them, returned to Jerusalem." 3 I think, therefore, that it was 
some other one of those who were in Asia. For it is said 
that there were two monuments in Ephesus, and that each 
of these bears the name of John. 

6. And from the ideas, and the expressions, and the 
collocation of the same, it may be very reasonably conjec- 
tured that this one is distinct from that. 4 For the Gospel 

1 It is worth while to notice this passage of Dionysius on the ancient 
practice of the Christians, in giving their children the names of Peter 
and Paul, which they did both in order to express the honour and affec- 
tion in which they held these saints, and to secure that their children, 
might be dear and acceptable to God, just as those saints were. Hence 
it is that Chrysostom in his first volume, in his oration on St. Meletius, 
says that the people of Antioch had such love and esteem for Meletius, 
that the parents called their children by his name, in order that they 
might have their homes adorned by his presence. And the same Chry- 
sostom, in his twenty-first homily on Genesis, exhorts his hearers not to 
call their children carelessly by the names of their grandfathers, or great- 
grandfathers, or men of fame ; but rather by the names of saintly men, 
who have been shining patterns of virtue, in order that the children 
might be fired with the desire of virtue by their example. VALES. 

2 Acts xiii. 5. 3 Acts xiii. 13. 

4 This is the second argument by which Dionysius reasoned that 
the Revelation and the Gospel of John are not by one author. For the 
first argument which he used in proof of this is drawn from the charac- 
ter and usage of the two writers ; and this argument Dionysius has pro- 
secuted up to this point. Now, however, he adduces a second argument, 
drawn from the words and ideas of the two writers, and from the collo- 
cation of the expressions. For, with Cicero, I thus interpret the word 
ovvrct^iv. See the very elegant book of Dionysius Hal. entitled Tlspi 
ouTii%tuf 6vof^u,Tav On the Collocation of Names; although in this 
passage avjiretfys appears to comprehend the disposition of sentences as 
well as words. Further, from this passage we can see what experience 


and the Epistle agree with each other, and both commence in 
the same way. For the one opens thus, " In the beginning 
was the Word ;" while the other opens thus, " That which 
was from the beginning." The one says : " And the Word 
was made flesh, and dwelt among us ; and we beheld His 
glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father." 1 The 
other says the same things, with a slight alteration : " That 
which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, 
which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of 
the Word of life : and the life was manifested." 2 For these 
things are introduced by way of prelude, and in opposition, 
as he has shown in the subsequent parts, to those who deny 
that the Lord is come in the flesh. For which reason he has 
also been careful to add these words : " And that which we 
have seen we testify, and show unto you that eternal life which 
was with the Father, and was manifested unto us : that which 
we have seen and heard declare we unto you." 3 Thus he 
keeps to himself, and does not diverge inconsistently from his 
subjects, but goes through them all under the same heads and 
in the same phraseologies, some of which we shall briefly men- 
tion. Thus the attentive reader will find the phrases, the life, 
the light, occurring often in both ; and also such expressions 
as fleeing from darkness, holding the truth, grace, joy, the flesh 
and the blood of the Lord, the judgment, the remission of sins, 
the love of God toward us, the commandment of love on our 
side toward each other ; as also, that we ought to keep all the 
commandments, the conviction of the tcorld, of the devil, of 
Antichrist, the promise of the Holy Spirit, the adoption of God, 
the faith required of us in all things, the Father and the Son, 
named as such everywhere. Arid altogether, through their 
whole course, it will be evident that the Gospel and the 
Epistle are distinguished by one and the same character of 
writing. But the Revelation is totally different, and alto- 
gether distinct from this ; and I might almost say that it 

Dionysius had in criticism ; for it is the critic's part to examine the 
writings of the ancients, and distinguish what is genuine and authentic 
from what is spurious and counterfeit. VALES. 

1 John i. 14. 2 1 John i. 1, 2. 3 1 John i. 2, 3. 


does not even come near it, or border upon it. Neither does 
it contain a syllable in common with these other books. Nay 
more, the Epistle (for I say nothing of the Gospel) does not 
make any mention or evince any notion of the Revelation ; 
and the Revelation, in like manner, gives no note of the 
Epistle. Whereas Paul gives some indication of his revela- 
tions in his epistles ; which revelations, however, he has not 
recorded in writing by themselves. 

7. And furthermore, on the ground of difference in diction, 
it is possible to prove a distinction between the Gospel and the 
Epistle on the one hand, and the Revelation on the other. 
For the former are written not only without actual error as 
regards the Greek language, but also with the greatest ele- 
gance, both in their expressions and in their reasonings, and 
in the whole structure of their style. They are very far 
indeed from betraying any barbarism or solecism, or any 
sort of vulgarism, in their diction. For, as might be pre- 
sumed, the writer possessed the gift of both kinds of dis- 
course, 1 the Lord having bestowed both these capacities upon 
him, viz. that of knowledge and that of expression. That 
the author of the latter, however, saw a revelation, and 
received knowledge and prophecy, I do not deny. Only I 
perceive that his dialect and language are not of the exact 
Greek type, and that he employs barbarous idioms, and in 
some places also solecisms. These, however, we are under 
no necessity of seeking out at present. And I would not 
have any one suppose that I have said these things in the 
spirit of ridicule ; for I have done so only with the purpose 
of setting right this matter of the dissimilarity subsisting 
between these writings. 

1 The old reading was, ro hoyoy, ryv yvaaw. Valesius expunges the 
TVI yvaoiy, as disturbing the sense, and as absent in various codices. 
Instead also of the reading, ros> rt TJJJ <m<pts, rov rs TJJ? yvuatus, the 
same editor adopts TOV Tt TSJJ -yi/uaeu;, TOP re TJJJ (pptiaiuf, which is the 
reading of various manuscripts, and is accepted in the translation. 
Valesius understands that by the fKrfpov Aoyov Dionysius means the 
Xo'yo? tv^tiiSiTOf and the Xo'yo? w^o@o/>/xoV, that is, the subjective dis- 
course, or reason in the mind, and the objective discourse, or utterance 
of the same. 



(In Eusebius, Prsepar. Evangel, book xiv. ch. 23-27.) 

1. In opposition to those of the school of Epicurus who deny the 
existence of a Providence, and refer the constitution of 
the universe to atomic bodies. 1 

Is the universe one coherent whole, as it seems to be in our 
own judgment, as well as in that of the wisest of the Greek 
philosophers, such as Plato and Pythagoras, and the Stoics 
and Heraclitus ? or is it a duality, as some may possibly have 
conjectured? or is it indeed something manifold and infinite, 
as has been the opinion of certain others who, with a variety 
of mad speculations and fanciful usages of terms, have sought 
to divide and resolve the essential matter (pva-iav) of the 
universe, and lay down the position that it is infinite and 
unoriginated, and without the sway of Providence (airpo- 
v6r)Tov)t For there are those who, giving the name of 
atoms to certain imperishable and most minute bodies which 
are supposed to be infinite in number, and positing also the 
existence of a certain vacant space of an unlimited vastness, 
allege that these atoms, as they are borne along casually in 
the void, and clash all fortuitously against each other in an 
unregulated whirl, and become commingled one with another 
in a multitude of forms, enter into combination with each 
other, and thus gradually form this world and all objects in 
it ; yea, more, that they construct infinite worlds. This was 
the opinion of Epicurus and Democritus ; only they differed 
in one point, in so far as the former supposed these atoms 
to be all most minute and consequently imperceptible, while 

1 Eusebius introduces this extract in terms to the following effect : 
It may be well now to subjoin some few arguments out of the many 
which are employed in his disputation against the Epicureans by the 
bishop Dionysius, a man who professed a Christian philosophy, as they 
are found in the work which he composed on Nature. But peruse thou 
the writer's statements in his own terms. 


Democritus held that there were also some among them of 
a very large size. But they both hold that such atoms do 
exist, and that they are so called on account of their indis- 
soluble consistency. There are some, again, who give the 
name of atoms to certain bodies which are indivisible into 
parts, while they are themselves parts of the universe, out 
of which in their undivided state all things are made up, 
and into which they are dissolved again. And the allegation 
is, that Diodorus was the person who gave them their names 
as bodies indivisible into parts (roov ap,epwv). But it is also 
said that Heraclides attached another name to them, and called 
them weights (07/^01/9) ; and from him the physician Asclepiades 
also derived that name. 1 

2. A refutation of this dogma on the ground of familiar 
human analogies. 

How shall we bear with these men who assert that all those 
wise, and consequently also noble, constructions (in the uni- 
verse) are only the works of common chance ? those objects, 
I mean, of which each taken by itself as it is made, and 
the whole system collectively, were seen to be good by 
Him by whose command they came into existence. For, as 
it is said, " God saw everything that He had made, and, be- 
hold, it was very good." 2 But truly these men do not reflect 
on 3 the analogies even of small familiar things which might 
come under their observation at any time, and from which 
they might learn that no object of any utility, and fitted to be 
serviceable, is made without design or by mere chance, but 
is wrought by skill of hand, and is contrived so as to meet 
its proper use. And when the object falls out of service 
and becomes useless, then it also begins to break up indeter- 
minately, and to decompose and dissipate its materials in every 

1 ex,^Yipov6ftYiai TO ovofta. Eusebius subjoins this remark : Totvr' ilvuv, 
|sjf *swxvW TO ^oyftot, S; KoKhav, uraip Bs S/ TOVTUV, = having said 
thus much, he (Dionysius) proceeds to demolish this doctrine by many 
arguments, and among others by what follows. GALL. 

2 Gen. i. 31. 

8 The text is, XX' oi/^s ociro teav fiixpuv TUV avvq&uv xcci Tfctpoi 7re-'3 
i/) etc. We adopt Viger's suggestion, and read 


casual and unregulated way, just as the wisdom by which it 
was skilfully constructed at first no longer controls and main- 
tains it. For a cloak, for example, cannot be made without 
the weaver, as if the warp could be set aright and the woof 
could be entwined with it by their own spontaneous action ; 
while, on the other hand, if it is once worn out, its tattered 
rags are flung aside. Again, when a house or a city is 
built, it does not take on its stones, as if some of them placed 
themselves spontaneously upon the foundations, and others 
lifted themselves up on the several layers, but the builder 
carefully disposes the skilfully prepared stones in their proper 
positions ; while if the structure happens once to give way, the 
stones are separated and cast down and scattered about. And 
so, too, when a ship is built, the keel does not lay itself, neither 
does the mast erect itself in the centre, nor do all the other 
timbers take up their positions casually and by their own 
motion. Nor, again, do the so-called hundred beams in the 
wain fit themselves spontaneously to the vacant spaces they 
severally light on. But the carpenter in both cases puts the 
materials together in the right way and at the right time. 1 And 
if the ship goes to sea and is wrecked, or if the wain drives 
along on land and is shattered, their timbers are broken up 
and cast abroad anywhere, those of the former by the waves, 
and those of the latter by the violence of the impetus. In like 
manner, then, we might with all propriety say also to these men, 
that those atoms of theirs, which remain idle and unmanipu- 
lated and useless, are introduced vainly. Let them, accord- 
ingly, seek for themselves to see into what is beyond the reach 
of sight, and conceive what is beyond the range of conception;' 2 
unlike him who in these terms confesses to God that things 

1 The text is, ex.etripct; avven.oft.iae xatpioi/, for which Viger proposes elg 
TOV iKxripot;, etc. 

2 The text gives, opunaaxv yeip rd; ecdidrovt ix.s7voi, rue.; IIOVITOV$ 
i/osi'ru(ret!>, WY> opoivs ixstva, etc. The passage seems corrupt. Some 
supply Qi/asif as the subject intended in the ee.9toe.Tov; and dvoyrovs ; but 
that leaves the connection still obscure. Viger would read, with one MS., 
ddiTovs instead of &XTOVJ, and makes this then the sense : that those 
Epicureans are bidden study more closely these unregulated and stolid 

v;) atoms, not looking at them, with a merely cursory and careless 


like these had been shown him only by God Himself: "Mine 
eyes did see Thy work, being till then imperfect." 1 But when 
they assert now that all those things of grace and beauty, 
which they declare to be textures finely wrought out of atoms, 
are fabricated spontaneously by these bodies without either 
wisdom or perception in them, who can endure to hear them 
talk in such terms of those unregulated (appvO^ov^) atoms, 
than which even the spider, that plies its proper craft of itself, 
is gifted with more sagacity ? 

3. A refutation on the ground of the constitution of 
the universe. 

Or who can bear to hear it maintained, that this mighty 
habitation, which is constituted of heaven and earth, and 
which is called Cosmos on account of the magnitude and 
the plenitude of the wisdom which has been brought to bear 
upon it, has been established in all its order and beauty 
by those atoms which hold their course devoid of order and 
beauty, and that that same state of disorder has grown into 
this true Cosmos (Order) ? Or who can believe that those 
regular movements and courses are the products of a certain 
unregulated impetus? Or who can allow that the perfect 
concord subsisting among the celestial bodies derives its 
harmony from instruments destitute both of concord and 
harmony ? Or, again, if there is but one and the same sub- 
glance, as David acknowledges was the case with him in the thoughts of 
his own imperfect nature, in order that they may the more readily under- 
stand how out of such confusion as that in which they are involved 
nothing orderly and finished could possibly have originated. 

1 Ps. cxxxix. 16. The text gives, TO dxXTipyetffTov <rov i'Outretv ol o'<p0A- 
ftoi ftov. This strange reading, instead of the usual TO tinctTepyotarov fiov 
fcFSoi/ (or <"&-,<) oi oQdcchftot <TOV, is found also in the Alexandrine exemplar 
of the Septuagint, which gives, TO axocripyaiiTov (rot/ sftotjctv oi 6<pdx^u.ot 
pov, and in the Psalter of S. Germanus in Calmet, which has, 
tuum viderunt oculi mei. Viger renders it thus : quod ex tuis operibus 
imperfectum adhuc et impolitum videbatur, oculi tandem mei perviderunt ; 
i.e. Thy works, which till now seemed imperfect and unfinished, my eyes 
have at length discerned clearly ; to wit, because being now penetrated 
by greater light from Thee, they have ceased to be dim-sighted. See 
Viger's note in Migne. 


stance (ovaias) in all things, and if there is the same in- 
corruptible nature (<ua-e&>9) in all, the only elements of 
difference being, as they aver, size and figure, how comes 
it that there are some bodies divine and perfect (a/crfpaTa), 
and eternal (alcavia), as they would phrase it, or lasting 
(fia/cpaiftiva), as some one may prefer to express it ; and 
among these some that are visible and others that are invisible, 
the visible including such as sun, and moon, and stars, 
and earth, and water; and the invisible including gods, and 
demons, and spirits ? For the existence of such they cannot 
possibly deny, however desirous to do so. And again, there 
are other objects that are long-lived, both animals and plants. 
As to animals, there are, for example, among birds, as they 
say, the eagle, the raven, and the phoenix ; and among crea- 
tures living on land, there are the stag, and the elephant, 
and the dragon ; and among aquatic creatures there are the 
whales, and such like monsters of the deep. And as to trees, 
there are the palm, and the oak, and the persea ;* and among 
trees, too, there are some that are evergreens, of which kind 
fourteen have been reckoned up by some one ; and there are 
others that only bloom for a certain season, and then shed their 
leaves. And there are other objects, again which indeed 
constitute the vast mass of all which either grow or are be- 
gotten that have an early death and a brief life. And 
among these is man himself, as a certain holy scripture says 
of him: "Man that is born of woman is of few days." 2 
Well, but I suppose they will reply that the varying con- 
junctions of the atoms account fully for differences 3 so great 
in the matter of duration. For it is maintained that there 
are some things that are compressed together by them, and 
firmly interlaced, so that they become closely compacted 
bodies, and consequently exceedingly hard to break up ; 
while there are others in which more or less the conjunc- 
tion of the atoms is of a looser and weaker nature, so that 

1 Kipaia., a sacred tree of Egypt and Persia, the fruit of which grew 
from the stem. 

2 Job xiv. 1. 

8 The text gives tiuVfopx;, for which Yiger suggests 


either quickly or after some time they separate themselves 
from their orderly constitution. And, again, there are some 
bodies made up of atoms of a definite kind and a certain 
common figure, while there are others made up of diverse 
atoms diversely disposed. But who, then, is the sagacious 
discriminator (<J3i\oKplva)v\ that brings certain atoms into 
collocation, and separates others ; and marshals some in such 
wise as to form the sun, and others in such a way as to 
originate the moon, and adapts all in natural fitness, and in 
accordance with the proper constitution of each star ? For 
surely neither would those solar atoms, with their peculiar size 
and kind, and with their special mode of collocation, ever have 
reduced themselves so as to effect the production of a moon ; 
nor, on the other hand, would the conjunctions of these lunar 
atoms ever have developed into a sun. And as certainly 
neither would Arcturus, resplendent as he is, ever boast his 
having the atoms possessed by Lucifer, nor would the Pleiades 
glory in being constituted of those of Orion. For well has 
Paul expressed the distinction when he says : " There is one 
glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another 
glory of the stars : for one star differeth from another star 
in glory." 1 And if the coalition effected among them has 
been an unintelligent one, as is the case with soulless 
(ai|r^&)i/) objects, then they must needs have had some saga- 
cious artificer; and if their union has been one without the 
determination of will, and only of necessity, as is the case 
with irrational objects, then some skilful leader (aye\dp^rj^) 
must have brought them together and taken them under his 
charge. And if they have linked themselves together spon- 
taneously, for a spontaneous work, then some admirable 
architect must have apportioned their work for them, and 
assumed the superintendence among them ; or there must 
have been one to do with them as the general does who loves 
order and discipline, and who does not leave his army in an 
irregular condition, or suffer all things to go on confusedly, 
but marshals the cavalry in their proper succession, and dis- 
poses the heavy-armed infantry in their due array, and the 
1 1 Cor. xv. 41. 


javelin-men by themselves, and the archers separately, and 
the slingers in like manner, and sets each force in its ap- 
propriate position, in order that all those equipped in the same 
way may engage together. But if these teachers think that 
this illustration is but a joke, because I institute a comparison 
between very large bodies and very small, we may pass to 
the very smallest. 

Then we have what follows : But if neither the word, nor 
the choice, nor the order of a ruler is laid upon them, and 
if by their own act they keep themselves right in the vast 
commotion of the stream in which they move, and convey 
themselves safely through the mighty uproar of the collisions, 
and if like atoms meet and group themselves with like, not 
as being brought together by God, according to the poet's 
fancy, but rather as naturally recognising the affinities sub- 
sisting between each other, then trulv we have here a most 

O ' * 

marvellous democracy of atoms, wherein friends welcome 
and embrace friends, and all are eager to sojourn together 
in one domicile ; while some by their own determination 
have rounded themselves off into that mighty luminary the 
sun, so as to make day ; and others have formed themselves 
into many pyramids of blazing stars, it may be, so as to 
crown also the whole heavens ; and others have reduced 
themselves into the circular figure, so as to impart a certain 
solidity to the ether, and arch it over, and constitute it a vast 
graduated ascent of luminaries, with this object also, that 
the various conventions of the commoner atoms may select 
settlements for themselves, and portion out the sky among 
them for their habitations and stations. 

Then, after certain other matters, the discourse proceeds 
thus: But inconsiderate men do not see even things that 
are apparent, and certainly they are far from being cog- 
nisant of things that are unapparent. For they do not seem 
even to have any notion of those regulated risings and set- 
tings of the heavenly bodies, those of the sun, with all their 
wondrous glory, no less than those of the others ; nor do they 
appear to make due application of the aids furnished through 
these to men, such as the day that rises clear for man's work, 



and the night that overshadows earth for man's rest. "For 
man," it is said, "goeth forth unto' his work, and to his 
labour, until the evening." 1 Neither do they consider that 
other revolution, by which the sun makes out for us deter- 
minate times, and convenient seasons, and regular succes- 
sions, directed by those atoms of which it consists. But even 
though men like these and miserable men they are, how- 
ever they may believe themselves to be righteous may 
choose not to admit it, there is a mighty Lord that made 
the sun, and gave it the impetus for its course by His words. 
O ye blind ones, do these atoms of yours bring you the 
winter season and the rains, in order that the earth may 
yield food for you, and for all creatures living on it ? Do 
they introduce summer-time, too, in order that ye may gather 
their fruits from the trees for your enjoyment ? And why, 
then, do ye not worship these atoms, and offer sacrifices to 
them as the guardians of earth's fruits (rat? 7riKap7rois) ? 
Thankless surely are ye, in not setting solemnly apart for 
them even the most scanty first-fruits of that abundant bounty 
which ye receive from them. 

After a short break he proceeds thus: Moreover, those 
stars which form a community so multitudinous and various, 
which these erratic and ever self-dispersing atoms have con- 
stituted, have marked off by a kind of covenant the tracts 
for their several possessions, portioning these out like colonies 
and governments, but without the presidency of any founder 
or house-master ; and with pledged fealty and in peace they 
respect the laws of vicinity with their neighbours, and abstain 
from passing beyond the boundaries which they received at 
the outset, just as if they enjoyed the legislative admini- 
stration of true princes in the atoms. Nevertheless these 
atoms exercise no rule. For how could these, that are them- 
selves nothing, do that ? But listen to the divine oracles : 
" The works of the Lord are in judgment ; from the begin- 
ning, and from His making of them, He disposed the parts 
thereof. He garnished His works for ever, and their prin- 
ciples (ap%d<i) unto their generations." 2 

1 Ps. civ. 23. 2 Ecclus. xvi. 26, 27. 


Again, after a little, he proceeds thus : Or what phalanx 
ever traversed the plain in such perfect order, no trooper out- 
marching the others, or falling out of rank, or obstructing 
the course, or suffering himself to be distanced by his com- 
rades in the array, as is the case with that steady advance 
in regular file, as it were, and with close-set shields, which 
is presented by this serried and unbroken and undisturbed 
and unobstructed progress of the hosts of the stars ? Albeit 
by side inclinations and flank movements certain of their 
revolutions become less clear. Yet, however that may be, 
they assuredly always keep their appointed periods, and 
again bear onward determinately to the positions from which 
they have severally risen, as if they made that their de- 
liberate study. Wherefore let these notable anatomizers of 
atoms (rwv drofjuwv ro^ei?), these dividers of the indivisible, 
these compounders of the uncompoundable, these adepts in 
the apprehension of the infinite, tell us whence comes this 
circular march and course of the heavenly bodies, in which 
it is not any single combination of atoms that merely chances 
all unexpectedly to swing itself round in this way (ovrco 
afavSovia-devTos) ; but it is one vast circular choir that 
moves thus, ever equally and concordantly, and whirls in 
these orbits. And whence comes it that this mighty multi- 
tude of fellow-travellers, all unmarshalled by any captain, 
all ungifted with any determination of will, and all unen- 
dowed with any knowledge of each other, have nevertheless 
held their course in perfect harmony ? Surely, well has the 
prophet ranked this matter among things which are impos- 
sible and undemonstrable, namely, that two strangers should 
walk together. For he says, " Shall two come to the same 
lodging unless they know each other ? " l 

4. A refutation of the same on the grounds of the human 

Further, these men understand neither themselves nor what 
is proper to themselves. For if any of the leaders in this 

1 This sentence, which is quoted as from the Scriptures, is found 
nowhere there, at least verlatlm et literatim. 


impious doctrine only considered what manner of person he 
is himself, and whence he comes, he would surely be led to 
a wise decision, like one who has obtained understanding of 
himself, and would say, not to these atoms, but to his Father 
and Maker, " Thy hands have made me and fashioned 
me." 1 And he would take up, too, this wonderful ac- 
count of his formation as it has been given by one of old : 
" Hast Thou riot poured me out as milk, and curdled me as 
cheese ? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and 
hast fenced me with bones and sinews. Thou hast granted 
me life and favour, and Thy visitation hath preserved my 
spirit." 2 For of what quantity and of what origin were the 
atoms which the father of Epicurus gave forth from himself 
when he begat Epicurus ? And how, when they were received 
within his mother's womb, did they coalesce, and take form 
and figure ? and how were they put in motion and made to 
increase ? And how did that little seed of generation draw 
together the many atoms that were to constitute Epicurus, 
and change some of them into skin and flesh for a covering, 
and make bone of others for erectness and strength, and 
form sinews of others for compact contexture? And how 
did it frame and adapt the many other members and parts 
heart and bowels, and organs of sense, some within and 
some without by which the body is made a thing of life ? 
For of all these things there is not one either idle or use- 
less : not even the meanest of them the hair, or the nails, 
or such like is so; but all have their service to do, and 
all their contribution to make, some of them to the sound- 
ness of bodily constitution, and others of them to beauty of 
appearance. For Providence cares not only for the useful, 
but also for the seasonable and beautiful. Thus the hair is 
a kind of protection and covering for the whole head, and 
the beard is a seemly ornament for the philosopher. It was 
Providence, then, that formed the constitution of the whole 
body of man, in all its necessary parts, and imposed on all its 
members their due connection with each other, and measured 
out for them their liberal supplies from the universal re- 
1 Ps. cxix. 73. Job x. 10-12. 


sources. And the most prominent of these show clearly, 
even to the uninstructed, by the proof of personal experi- 
ence, the value and service attaching to them : the head, for 
example, in the position of supremacy, and the senses set 
like a guard about the brain, as the ruler in the citadel ; and 
the advancing eyes, and the reporting ears; and the taste 
which, as it were, is the tribute-gatherer (e'SwSr/ wairep (fiopo- 
\oyovcra) ; and the smell, which tracks and searches out its 
objects ; and the touch, which manipulates all put under it. 
(For at present we shall only run over in a summary way 
some few of the works of an all-wise Providence ; and after a 
little we shall, if God grant it, go over them more minutely, 
when we direct our discourse toward one who has the re- 
pute of greater learning.) Then we have the ministry of 
the hands, by which all kinds of works are wrought, and all 
skilful professions practised, and which have all their various 
faculties furnished them, with a view to the discharge of 
one common function; and we have the shoulders, with 
their capacity for bearing burdens; and the fingers, with 
their power of grasping ; and the elbows, with their faculty 
of bending, by which they can turn inwardly upon the 
body, or take an outward inclination, so as to be able either 
to draw objects toward the body, or to thrust them away 
from it. We have also the service of the feet, by which 
the whole terrestrial creation is made to come under our 
power, the earth itself is traversed thereby, the sea is made 
navigable, the rivers are crossed, and intercourse is estab- 
lished for all with all things. The belly, too, is the store- 
house of meats, with all its parts arranged in their proper 
collocations, so that it apportions for itself the right measure 
of aliment, and ejects what is over and above that. And so 
is it with all the other things by which manifestly the due 
administration of the constitution of man is wisely secured. 1 
Of all these, the intelligent and the unintelligent alike enjoy 

1 The text is, xai r AXa 8< couv tftQavas ij tonaig rqt; 
ftiftYiXtiiiYiToit ^ixvoftiis. Viger proposes d/a^ofijj for Sfafo^sjf, and 
renders the whole thus : " ac caetera quorum vi humanae firmitatis et 
conservation's ratio continetur." 


the same use ; but they have not the same comprehension 
of them. 1 For there are some who refer this whole ceco- 
nomy to a power which they conceive to be a true divinity, 2 
and which they apprehend as at once the highest intelli- 
gence in all things, and the best benefactor to themselves, 
believing that this oeconomy is all the work of a wisdom 
and a might which are superior to every other, and in 
themselves truly divine. And there are others who aim- 
lessly attribute this whole structure of most marvellous 
beauty to chance and fortuitous coincidence. And in addi- 
tion to these, there are also certain physicians, who, having 
made a more effective examination into all these things, 
and having investigated with utmost accuracy the disposi- 
tion of the inward parts in especial, have been struck with 
astonishment at the results of their inquiry, and have been 
led to deify nature itself. The notions of these men we 
shall review afterwards, as far as we may be able, though 
we may only touch the surface of the subject. 3 Meantime, 
to deal with this matter generally and summarily, let me 
ask who constructed this whole tabernacle of ours, so lofty, 
erect, graceful, sensitive, mobile, active, and apt for all 
things ? Was it, as they say, the irrational multitude of 
atoms ? ^ay, these, by their conjunctions, could not mould 
even an image of clay, neither could they hew and polish a 

1 The text is, u cpioiu; TO?J (ppo<riv t^vrtf ol ootyol TVJV uphill, oi>x 
I<TXOV<H TW yvuaiv. We adopt Viger's suggestion, and read xpwiv for 


2 We read, with Viger, &drvrr<*> for ddtc>rmoe.. The text gives o! ft,s 
yeep fig y & oivduaiv dOsoTYirot, etc., which might possibly mean some- 
thing like this : There are some who refer the whole ceconomy to a 
power which these (others) may deem to be no divinity, (but which is) 
the highest intelligence in all things, and the best benefactor, etc. Or 
the sense might be = There are some who refer this most intelligent and 
beneficent oeconomy to a power which they deem to be no divinity, 
though they believe the same oeconomy to be the work of a wisdom, 

3 The text is, iift,t7; %s va-npoy ug &v oloi rs "/tvafiidot, x.a.v Iw/TroAijj-, 
dvctOiupviaoftsv. Viger renders it thus : " Nos earn postea, jejune for- 
tassis et exiliter, ut pro facilitate nostra, prosequemur." He proposes, 
however, to read ivl TroAXo/f (sc. pqpsuri or Xo'yo'j) for IWVTTOAJJ?. 


statue of stone ; nor could they cast and finish an idol of 
silver or gold ; but arts and handicrafts calculated for such 
operations have been discovered by men who fabricate these 
objects. 1 And if, even in these, representations and models 
cannot be made without the aid of wisdom, how can the 
genuine and original patterns of these copies have come into 
existence spontaneously ? And whence have come the soul, 
and the intelligence, and the reason, which are born with the 
philosopher ? Has he gathered these from those atoms which 
are destitute alike of soul, and intelligence, and reason ? and 
has each of these atoms inspired him with seme appropriate 
conception and notion ? And are we to suppose that the 
wisdom of man was made up by these atoms, as the myth 
of Hesiod tells us that Pandora was fashioned by the gods ? 
Then shall the Greeks have to give up speaking of the 
various species of poetry, and music, and astronomy, and 
geometry, and all the other arts and sciences, as the inven- 
tions and instructions of the gods, and shall have to allow 
that these atoms are the only muses with skill and wisdom 
for all subjects. For this theogony, constructed of atoms 
by Epicurus, is indeed something extraneous to the infinite 
worlds of order (/eooyituz'), and finds its refuge in the infinite 

5. That to work is not a matter of pain and weariness 
to God. 

Now to work, and administer, and do good, and exercise 
care, and such like actions, may perhaps be hard tasks for 
the idle, and silly, and weak, and wicked ; in whose number 
truly Epicurus reckons himself, when he propounds such 
notions about the gods. But to the earnest, and powerful, 
and intelligent, and prudent, such as philosophers ought to 
be (and how much more so, therefore, the gods!), these 
things are not only not disagreeable and irksome, but ever 
the most delightful, and by far the most welcome of all. 

1 The text is, xfipovpyi'xi rwruv vv dv6puTrav f'vpnvTott oufiotrovp'/uv. 
Viger proposes <ra[t,/zTovp~/oi, " handicrafts for the construction of such 
todies hare been discovered by men." 


To persons of this character, negligence and procrastination 
in the doing of what is good are a reproach, as the poet 
admonishes them in these words of counsel : 

" Delay not aught till the morrow." 1 

And then he adds this further sentence of threatening : 
"The lazy procrastinator is ever wrestling with miseries." 2 

And the prophet teaches us the same lesson in a more 
solemn fashion, and declares that deeds done according to 


the standard of virtue are truly worthy of God (OeotrpeTrrj), 
and that the man who gives no heed to these is accursed : 
" For cursed be he that doeth the works of the Lord care- 
lessly" 3 (a/ieXw?). Moreover, those who are unversed in any 
art, and unable to prosecute it perfectly, feel it to be weari- 
some when they make their first attempts in it, just by 
reason of the novelty 4 of their experience, and their want 
of practice in the works. But those, on the other hand, 
who have made some advance, and much more those who 
are perfectly trained in the art, accomplish easily and suc- 
cessfully the objects of their labours, and have great pleasure 
in the work, and would choose rather thus, in the discharge 
of the pursuits to which they are accustomed, to finish and 
carry perfectly out what their efforts aim at, than to be made 
masters of all those things which are reckoned advantageous 
among men. Yea, Democritus himself, as it is reported, 
averred that he would prefer the discovery of one true cause 
to being put in possession of the kingdom of Persia. And 
that was the declaration of a man who had only a vain and 
groundless conception of the causes of things, inasmuch as 
he started with an unfounded principle, and an erroneous 
hypothesis, and did not discern the real root and the common 
(law of) necessity in the constitution of natural things, and 
held as the greatest wisdom the apprehension of things that 
come about simply in an unintelligent and random way, and 

1 Hesiod's Works and Days, v. 408. 

2 Hesiod's Works and Days, v. 411. 8 Jer. xlviii. 10. 

4 The text gives, S< TO 7% Trftpx; d^dif. "We adopt Viger's emenda- 


set up chance (TV-J^V) as the mistress and queen of things 
universal, and even things divine, and endeavoured to de- 
monstrate that all things happen by the determination of the 
same, although at the same time he kept it outside the sphere 
of the life of men, and convicted those of senselessness who 
worshipped it. At any rate, at the very beginning of his 
Precepts (yiro6i]Kwv) he speaks thus : " Men have made an 
image (eiSotXov) of chance, as a cover (Trpocfraaiv) for their 
own lack of knowledge. For intellect and chance are in 
their very nature antagonistic to each other. 1 And men have 
maintained that this greatest adversary to intelligence is its 
sovereign. Yea, rather, they completely subvert and do 
away with the one, while they establish the other in its 
place. For they do not celebrate intelligence as the fortu- 
nate (evTvxfj), but they laud chance (fortune, rv-fflv) as the 
most intelligent (e^poveffTar^v)" Moreover, those who 
attend to things conducing to the good of life, take special 
pleasure in what serves the interests of those of the same 
race with themselves, and seek the recompense of praise and 
glory in return for labours undertaken in behalf of the 
general good ; while some exert themselves as purveyors of 
ways and means (rpe^oi/re?), others as magistrates, others 
as physicians, others as statesmen ; and even philosophers 
pride themselves greatly in their efforts after the education 
of men. Will, then, Epicurus or Democritus be bold enough 
to assert that in the exertion of philosophizing they only 
cause distress to themselves? Nay, rather they will reckon 
this a pleasure of mind second to none. For even though 
they maintain the opinion that the good is pleasure, they will 
be ashamed to deny that philosophizing is the greater plea- 
sure to them. 2 But as to the gods, of whom the poets among 
them sing that they are the " bestowers of good gifts," 3 these 

yap yvuftyi rvxy ftx^rxi. Viger refers to the parallel in 
Tullius, pro Marcello, sec. 7 : "Nunquam temeritas cum sapientia com- 
miscetur, nee ad consilium casus admittitur." 

2 The text gives, sjSw Sv oti/Tol; slvxi TO (fi^oao^tlv. Viger suggests 

for *j3i) Sv. 

3 (tarijpx; luy. See Homer, Odyssey, viii. 325 and 835. 


philosophers scoffingly celebrate them in strains like these : 
" The gods are neither the bestowers nor the sharers in any 
good thing." And in what manner, forsooth, can they de- 
monstrate that there are gods at all, when they neither per- 
ceive their presence, nor discern them as the doers of aught, 
wherein, indeed, they resemble those who, in their admiration 
and wonder at the sun and the moon and the stars, have 
held these to have been named gods (Qeovs), from their run- 
ning (8ia TO Oeeiv) such courses : when, further, they do not 
attribute to them any function or power of operation (8?7/u- 
ovp<yiav aurot? f) naraaKev^v), so as to hold them gods (6eo- 
iroir](TW(jvv) from their constituting (e/c rov 6elvai\ that is, 
from their making objects (Trot^o-at), for thereby in all truth 
the one maker and operator of all things must be God : 
and when, in fine, they do not set forth any administration, 
or judgment, or beneficence of theirs in relation to men, 
so that we might be bound either by fear or by reverence 
to worship them? Has Epicurus then been able, forsooth, 
to see beyond this world, and to overpass the precincts of 
heaven ? or has he gone forth by some secret gates known to 
himself alone, and thus obtained sight of the gods in the 
void? 1 and, deeming them blessed in their full felicity, and 
then becoming himself a passionate aspirant after such plea- 
sure, and an ardent scholar in that life which they pursue 
in the void, does he now call upon all to participate in 
this felicity, and urge them thus to make themselves like 
the gods, preparing (a-v^Kpor&v) as their true symposium 
of blessedness neither heaven nor Olympus, as the poets 
feign, but the sheer void, and setting before them the am- 
brosia of atoms, 2 and pledging them in (or, giving them to 
drink) nectar made of the same ? However, in matters 
which have no relation to us, he introduces into his books a 
myriad oaths and solemn asseverations, swearing constantly 
both negatively and affirmatively by Jove, and making those 
whom he meets, and with whom he discusses his doctrines, 

1 The text gives, ov$ in T xotTttit dtwg. Viger proposes TOVS for 

2 For ecTtpuv Viger suggests xrpuv, " of vapours." 


swear also by the gods, not certainly that he fears them him- 
self, or has any dread of perjury, but that he pronounces all 
this to be vain, and false, and idle, and unintelligible, and 
uses it simply as a kind of accompaniment to his words, just 
as he might also clear his throat, or spit, or twist his face, or 
move his hand. So completely senseless and empty a pre- 
tence was this whole matter of the naming of the gods, in his 
estimation. But this is also a very patent fact, that, being 
in fear of the Athenians after (the warning of) the death 
of Socrates, and being desirous of preventing his being 
taken for what he really was an atheist the subtle char- 
latan invented for them certain empty shadows of unsub- 
stantial gods. But never surely did he look up to heaven 
with eyes of true intelligence, so as to hear the clear voice 
from above, which another attentive spectator did hear, and 
of which he testified when he said, " The heavens declare 
the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handi- 
work." 1 And never surely did he look down upon the 
world's surface with due reflection ; for then would he have 
learned that "the earth is full of the goodness of the Lord," 2 
and that "the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof;" 3 
and that, as we also read, " After this the Lord looked upon 
the earth, and filled it with His blessings. With all manner 
of living things hath He covered the face thereof." * And 
if these men are not hopelessly blinded, let them but survey 
the vast wealth and variety of living creatures, land animals, 
and winged creatures, and aquatic ; and let them understand 
then that the declaration made by the Lord on the occasion 
of His judgment of all things 5 is true : " And all things, in 
accordance with His command, appeared good." 6 

1 Ps. xix. 1. Ps. xxxiii. 5. 

3 Ps. xxiv. 1. 4 Ecclus. xvi. 29, 30. 

5 The text is, lirl TJJ irxvray x.piaii. Viger suggests xTt'ati, "at the 
creation of all things." 

c The quotation runs thus: votvrei. xarar'/jv KVTOV wpoVraf/v -xtfywi 
xaCha.. Eusebius adds the remark here: "These passages have been 
culled by me out of a very large number composed against Epicurus 
by Dionysius, a bishop of our own time." 



(In Eusebius, Pr&par. Evanyel. book vii. ch. 19.) 
On the notion that matter is ungenerated. 1 

These certainly are not to be deemed pious who hold that 
matter is ungenerated, while they allow, indeed, that it is 
brought under the hand of God so far as its arrangement 
and regulation are concerned ; for they do admit that, being 
naturally passive (Tradrjnjv) and pliable, it yields readily to 
the alterations impressed upon it by God. It is for them, 
however, to show us plainly how it can possibly be that the 
like and the unlike should be predicated as subsisting together 
in God and matter. For it becomes necessary thus to think 
of one as a superior to either, and that is a thought which 
cannot legitimately be entertained with regard to God. For 
if there is this defect of generation which is said to be the 
thing like in both, and if there is this point of difference 
which is conceived of besides in the two, whence has this 
arisen in them ? If, indeed, God is the ungenerated, and 
if this defect of generation is, as we may say, His very 
essence, then matter cannot be ungenerated ; for God and 
matter are not one and the same. But if each subsists 
properly and independently namely, God and matter and 
if the defect of generation also belongs to both, then it is 
evident that there is something different from each, and older 
and higher than both. But the difference of their contrasted 
constitutions is completely subversive of the idea that these 
can subsist on an equality together, and more, that this one 
of the two namely, matter can subsist of itself. For then 
they will have to furnish an explanation of the fact that, 
though both are supposed to be ungenerated, God is never- 
theless impassible, immutable, imperturbable, energetic ; 

1 Eusebius introduces this extract thus : " And I shall adduce the 
words of those who have most thoroughly examined the dogma before 
us, and first of all Dionysius indeed, who, in the first book of his 
Exercitations against Sabellius, writes in these terms on the subject in 


while matter is the opposite, impressible, mutable, variable, 
alterable. And now, how can these properties harmoniously 
co-exist and unite ? Is it that God has adapted Himself to 
the nature of the matter, and thus has skilfully wrought it ? 
But it would be absurd to suppose that God works in gold, 
as men are wont to do, or hews or polishes stone, or puts His 
hand to any of the other arts by which different kinds of 
matter are made capable of receiving form and figure. But 
if, on the other hand, He has fashioned matter according to 
His own will, and after the dictates of His own wisdom, 
impressing upon it the rich and manifold forms produced 
by His own operation, then is this account of ours one both 
good and true, and still further one that establishes the 
position that the ungenerated God is the hypostasis (the 
life and foundation) of all things in the universe. For with 
this fact of the defect of generation it conjoins the proper 
mode of His being. Much, indeed, might be said in con- 
futation of these teachers, but that is not what is before us 
at present. And if they are put alongside the most impious 
polytheists (77-^09 row aOewrarov^ jro\vdeov<;) ) these will seem 
the more pious in their speech. 



From the First Boole. 

1. There certainly was not a time when God was not the 

And in what follows (says Athanasius) he professes that 
Christ is always, as being the Word, and the Wis- 
dom, and the Power : 

2. Neither, indeed, as though He had not brought forth 
these things, did God afterwards beget the Son, but because 
the Son has existence not from Himself, but from the Father. 

And after a few words he says of the Son Himself : 

3. Being the brightness of the eternal Light, He Him- 


self also is absolutely eternal. For since light is always in 
existence, it is manifest that its brightness also exists, because 
light is perceived to exist from the fact that it shines, and it 
is impossible that light should not shine. And let us once 
more come to illustrations. If the sun exists, there is also 
day ; if nothing of this be manifest, it is impossible that the 
sun should be there. If then the sun were eternal, the day 
would never end ; but now (for such is not really the state 
of the case) the day begins with the beginning of the sun, 
and ends with its ending. But God is the eternal Light, 
which has neither had a beginning, nor shall ever fail. 
Therefore the eternal brightness shines forth before Him, 
and co-exists with Him, in that, existing without a begin- 
ning, and always begotten, He always shines before Him ; 
and He is that Wisdom which says, " I was that wherein He 
delighted, and I was daily His delight before His face at all 
times." 1 

And a little after he thus pursues his discourse from the 
same point : 

4. Since, therefore, the Father is eternal, the Son also is 
eternal, Light of Light. For where there is the begetter, 
there is also the offspring. And if there is no offspring, 
how and of what can He be the begetter? But both are, 
and always are. Since, then, God is the Light, Christ is 
the Brightness. And since He is a Spirit for says He, 
" God is a Spirit " 2 fittingly again is Christ called Breath ; 
for " He " [scil. Wisdom], saith He, " is the breath of God's 
power." 3 

And again he says : 

5. Moreover, the Son alone, always co-existing with the 
Father, and filled with Him who is, Himself also is } since 
He is of the Father. 

From the same First Book. 

6. But when I spoke of things created, and certain works 
to be considered, I hastily put forward illustrations of such 
things, as it were little appropriate, when I said neither 

1 Prov. viii. 30. 2 John iv. 24. 3 Wisd. vii. 25. 


is the plant the same as the husbandman, nor the boat the 
same as the boatbuilder. 1 But then I lingered rather upon 
things suitable and more adapted to the nature of the thing, 
and I unfolded in many words, by various carefully con- 
sidered arguments, what things were more true ; which 
things, moreover, I have set forth to you in another letter. 
And in these things I have also proved the falsehood of the 
charge which they bring against me to wit, that I do not 
maintain that Christ is consubstantial with God. For 
although I say that I have never either found or read this 
word in the sacred Scriptures, yet other reasonings, which 
I immediately subjoined, are in no wise discrepant from this 
view, because I brought forward as an illustration human 
offspring, which assuredly is of the same kind as the be- 
getter ; and I said that parents are absolutely distinguished 
from their children by the fact alone that they themselves 
are not their children, or that it would assuredly be a matter 
of necessity that there would neither be parents nor children. 
But, as I said before, I have not the letter in my possession, 
on account of the present condition of affairs ; otherwise I 
would have sent you the very words that I then wrote, yea, 
and a copy of the whole letter, and I will send it if at any 
time I shall have the opportunity. I remember, further, that 
I added many similitudes from things kindred to one another. 
For I said that the plant, whether it grows up from seed 
or from a root, is different from that whence it sprouted, 
although it is absolutely of the same nature ; and similarly, 
that a river flowing from a spring takes another form and 
name : for that neither is the spring called the river, nor the 
river the spring, but that these are two things, and that the 
spring indeed is, as it were, the father, while the river is 
the water from the spring. But they feign that they do not 
see these things and the like to them which are written, as 
if they were blind ; but they endeavour to assail me from a 
distance with expressions too carelessly used, as if they were 
stones, not observing that on things of which they are igno- 
rant, and which require interpretation to be understood, 
1 From Atlmn. Ep. de decret. Nic. Syn. 4. 18. 


illustrations that are not only remote, but even contrary, will 
often throw light. 

From the same First Book. 

7. It was said above that God is the spring of all good 
things, but the Son was called the river flowing from Him ; 
because the word is an emanation of the mind, and (to speak 
after human fashion) is emitted from the heart by the mouth. 
But the mind which springs forth by the tongue is different 
from the word which exists in the heart. For this latter, 
after it has emitted the former, remains and is what it was 
before ; but the mind sent forth flies away, and is carried 
everywhere around, and thus each is in each although one 
is from the other, and they are one although they are two. 
And it is thus that the Father and the Son are said to be one, 
and to be in one another. 

From the Second Book. 

8. The individual names uttered by me can neither be 
separated from one another, nor parted. 1 I spoke of the 
Father, and before I made mention of the Son I already 
signified Him in the Father. I added the Son ; and the 
Father, even although I had not previously named Him, 
had already been absolutely comprehended in the Son. I 
added the Holy Spirit ; but, at the same time, I conveyed 
under the name whence and by whom He proceeded. But 
they are ignorant that neither the Father, in that He is 
Father } can be separated from the Son, for that name is 
the evident ground of coherence and conjunction ; nor can 
the Son be separated from the Father, for this word Father 
indicates association [between them]. And there is, more- 
over, evident a Spirit who can neither be disjoined from 
Him who sends, nor from Him who brings Him. How, 
then, should I who use such names think that these are 
absolutely divided and separated the one from the other I 

After a few words he adds : 

9. Thus, indeed, we expand the indivisible Unity into a 

1 Ex Athau. Ep. de decret. Nic. Syn. 4. 17. 


Trinity ; and again we contract the Trinity, which cannot 
be diminished, into a Unity. 

From the same Second Book. 

10. But if any quibbler, from the fact that I said that 
God is the Maker and Creator of all things, thinks that I 
said that He is also Creator of Christ, let him observe that I 
first called Him Father, in which word the Son also is at 
the same time expressed. 1 For after I called the Father the 
Creator, I added, Neither is He the Father of those things 
whereof He is Creator, if He who begot is properly under- 
stood to be a Father (for we will consider the latitude of 
this word Father in what follows). Nor is a maker a father, 
if it is only a framer who is called a maker. For among 
the Greeks, they who are wise are said to be makers of 
their books. The apostle also says, "a doer [scil. maker] 
of the law." 2 Moreover, of matters of the heart, of which 
kind are virtue and vice, men are called doers [scil. makers] ; 
after which manner God said, " I expected that it should 
make judgment, but it made iniquity." 3 

Athanasius adds, 4. 21, that Dionysius gave various 
replies to those that blamed him for saying that 
God is the Maker of Christ, whereby he cleared 
himself, saying, 

11. That neither must this saying be thus blamed ; for 
he says that he used the name of Maker on account of the 
flesh which the Word had assumed, and which certainly was 
made. But if any one should suspect that that had been 
said of the Word, even this also was to be heard without 
contentiousness. For as I do not think that the Word was 
a thing made, so I do not say that God was its Maker, but 
its Father. Yet still, if at any time, discoursing of the Son, 
I may have casually said that God was His Maker, even this 
mode of speaking would not be without defence. For the 

1 Ex Athan. Ep. de decret. Nic. Syn. 4. 20. 

2 Rom. ii. 13 ; Jas. iv. 12. The Greek word TTO/JJT^ meaning either 
maker or doer, causes the ambiguity here and below. 

8 Jsa. v. 7. 


wise men among the Greeks call themselves the makers of 
their books, although the same are fathers of their books. 
Moreover, divine Scripture calls us makers of those motions 
which proceed from the heart, when it calls us doers of the 
law of judgment and of justice. 

From the same Second Book. 

12. In the beginning was the Word. 1 But that was not 
the Word which produced the Word. 2 For " the Word was 
with God." 3 The Lord is Wisdom ; it was not therefore 
Wisdom that produced Wisdom ; for " I was that," says He, 
"wherein He delighted." 4 Christ is truth; but "blessed," 
says He, " is the God of truth." 

From the T/iird Book. 

13. Life is begotten of life in the same way as the river 
has flowed forth from the spring, and the brilliant light is 
ignited from the inextinguishable light. 5 

From the Fourth Book. 

14. Even as our mind emits from itself a word, 6 as says 
the prophet, u My heart hath uttered forth a good word," 7 
and each of the two is distinct the one from the other, and 
maintaining a peculiar place, and one that is distinguished 
from the other ; since the former indeed abides and is stirred 
in the heart, while the latter has its place in the tongue and 
in the mouth. And yet they are not apart from one another, 
nor deprived of one another ; neither is the mind without the 
word, nor is the word without the mind ; but the mind makes 
the word and appears in the word, and the word exhibits the 
mind wherein it was made. And the mind indeed is, as it 
were, the word immanent, while the word is the mind breaking 
forth [emanant]. The mind passes into the word, and the word 
transmits the mind to the surrounding hearers ; and thus the 

1 John i. 1. 8 Ex Athan. Ep. de decret. Nic. Syn. 4. 25. 

3 John i. 1. 4 Prov. viii. 30. 

8 Ex Athan. Ep. de decret. Nic. Syn. 4. 18. 
6 Ex Athan. ibid. 4. 25. 7 Ps. xlv. 1. 


mind by means of the word takes its place in the souls of the 
hearers, entering in at the same time as the word. And in- 
deed the mind is, as it were, the father of the word, existing 
in itself ; but the word is as the son of the mind, and cannot 
be made before it nor without it, but exists with it, whence 
it has taken its seed and origin. In the same manner, also, 
the Almighty Father and Universal Mind has before all 
things the Son, the Word, and the discourse, 1 as the inter- 
preter and messenger of Himself. 

About the middle of the treatise. 

15. If, from the fact that there are three hypostases, they 
say that they are divided, there are three whether they like 
it or no, or else let them get rid of the divine Trinity alto- 
gether. 2 

And again : 

For on this account after the Unity there is also the most 
divine Trinity. 3 

The conclusion of the entire treatise. 

16. In accordance with all these things, the form, more- 
over, and rule being received from the elders who have lived 
before us, we also, with a voice in accordance with them, will 
both acquit ourselves of thanks to you, and of the letter which 
we are now writing. And to God the Father, and His Son 
our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, be glory and 
dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

Of the work itself Athanasius thus speaks: 

17. Finally, (Dionysius) complains that his accusers do not 
quote his opinions in their integrity, but mutilated, and that 
they do not speak out of a good conscience, but for evil in- 
clination ; and he says that they are like those who cavilled 
at the epistles of the blessed apostle. Certainly he meets 
the individual words of his accusers, and gives a solution to 
all their arguments ; and as in those earlier writings of his 

1 Sermonem. 2 Ex Basilic, lib. de Spir. Sancto, ch. 29. 

3 Hid. cap. penult, p. 61. 


he confuted Sabellius most evidently, so in these later ones 
he entirely declares his own pious faith. 




Dionysius to Basilides, my beloved son, and my brother, 
a fellow-minister with me in holy things, and an obedient 
servant of God, in the Lord greeting. 1 

You have sent to me, most faithful and accomplished son, 
in order to inquire what is the proper hour for bringing the 
fast to a close 2 on the day of Pentecost. 3 For you say that 

1 There is a Scholium in the Codex Amerbachianus which may be 
given here : It should be known that this sainted Dionysius became a 
hearer of Origen in the fourth year of the reign of Philip, who succeeded 
Gordian in the empire. On the death of Heraclas, the thirteenth bishop 
of the church of Alexandria, he was put in possession of the headship of 
that church ; and after a period of seventeen years, embracing the last 
three years of the reign of Philip, and the one year of that of Decius, 
and the one year of Gallus and Volusianus the son of Decius, and twelve 
years of the reigns of Valerian and his son Gallus (Gallienus), he de- 
parted to the Lord. And Basilides was bishop of the parishes in the 
Pentapolis of Libya, as Eusebius informs us in the sixth and seventh 
books of his Ecclesiastical History. 

2 a.Trovriarl^ada.t Id. Gentianus Hervetus renders this by jejunandus 
sit dies Paschte ; and thus he translates the word by jejunare, " to fast," 
wherever it occurs, whereas it rather means always, jejunium solvere, 
" to have done fasting." In this sense the word is used in the Apostolic 
Constitutions repeatedly: see Book v. ch. 12, 18, etc. It occurs in the 
same sense in the 89th Canon of the Concilium Trullanum. The usage 
must evidently be the same here: so that it does not mean, What is 
the proper hour for fasting on the day of Pentecost ? but, What is the 
hour at which the ante-paschal fast ought to be terminated whether 
on the evening preceding the paschal festival itself, or at cockcrowing, 
or at another time? GALL. See also the very full article in Suicer, s.v. 

8 I give the beginning of this epistle of Dionysius of Alexandria also 


there are some of the brethren who hold that that should be 
done at cockcrow, and others who hold that it should be at 
nightfall (a<j) ecnrepas). For the brethren in Rome, as they 
say, wait for the cock ; whereas, regarding those here, you 
told us that they would have it earlier. And it is your 
anxious desire, accordingly, to have the hour presented 
accurately, and determined with perfect exactness (TTO.VV 
/Lte/ieT/377/iV7?i/), which indeed is a matter of difficulty and 
uncertainty. However, it will be acknowledged cordially 
by all, that from the date of the resurrection of our Lord, 
those who up to that time have been humbling their souls 
with fastings, ought at once to begin their festal joy and 
gladness. But in what you have written to me you have 
made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding 
of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to 
be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the 
evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties 
who came to the sepulchre one after another (Kara Kaipov? 
evrjXkayfjievov^j and all have declared that they found the 
Lord risen already. It was " in the end of the Sabbath," as 
Matthew has said ;* it was "early, when it was yet dark," as 
John writes ; 2 it was " very early in the morning," as Luke 
puts it ; and it was "very early in the morning, at the rising of 
the sun," as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly 
the exact time when He rose. It is admitted, however, that 
those who came to the sepulchre in the end of the Sabbath, 
as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week (rfj 
eTrKJxaaKova-r) fiia a/3/3aT(ui/), found Him no longer lying in 
it. And let us not suppose that the evangelists disagree or 
contradict each other. But even although there may seem 
to be some small difficulty as to the subject of our inquiry, 

as it is found in not a few manuscripts, viz. Isrt'imAa; pot . . . ri? 
-xcivx,*. vfpihvast, the common reading being, -ryu rov ira.a-x.ct yf 
And the Tnpfavai; TOV, denotes the close of the paschal fast, as 
Eusebius (Hist. Eccles. v. 23) uses the phrase T? TUV uainuv i-xiKvait^ 
the verbs xspi'h.ittiv, ecTrohvitv, f-Trfavuv, xxTcthiistv, being often used in 
this sense. COTELERIUS on the Apostolic Constitutions, v. 15. 
1 Matt, xxviii. 1. 2 John xx. 1. 


if they all agree that the light of the world, our Lord, rose 
on that one night, while they differ with respect to the 
hour, we may well seek with wise and faithful mind to har- 
monize their statements. The narrative by Matthew, then, 
runs thus : " In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn 
toward the first day of the week (rfj eTriffxaa-Kovay 619 plav 
Safifidrav), came Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, to 
see the sepulchre. And, behold, there was a great earth- 
quake : for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, 
and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. And 
his countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as 
snow : and for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became 
as dead men. And the angel answered and said unto the 
women, Fear not ye : for I know that ye seek Jesus, which 
was crucified. He is not here; for He is risen, as He 
said." 1 Now this phrase "in the end" will be thought 
by some to signify, according to the common use (KOWO- 
TIJTO) of the word, the evening of the Sabbath ; while others, 
with a better perception of the fact, will say that it does not 
indicate that, but a late hour in the night (vvfcra /3a#e/az>), 
as the phrase "in the end" (o^e, late) denotes slowness 
and length of time. Also because he speaks of night, and 
not of evening, he has added the words, "as it began to 
dawn toward the first day of the week." And the parties 
here did not come yet, as the others say, "bearing spices," 
but "to see the sepulchre;" and they discovered the occur- 
rence of the earthquake, and the angel sitting upon the stone, 
and heard from him the declaration, "He is not here, He 
is risen." And to the same effect is the testimony of John. 
"The first day of the week," says he, " came Mary Magdalene 
early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth 
the stone taken away from the sepulchre." 2 Only, according 
to this "when it was yet dark," she had come in advance (frapa 
TOVTO . . . irpoeXyXvOei). And Luke says : " They rested the 
Sabbath-day, according to the commandment. Now, upon 
the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they 
came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had 
1 Matt, xxviii. 1-6. 2 John xx. 1. 


prepared ; and they found the stone rolled away from the 
sepulchre." 1 This phrase "very early in the morning" (opQpov 
(3a6eos) probably indicates the early dawn (jrpovTro^atvofjievrjv 
avrrjv evdivrjv efj,<j>aviei) of the first day of the week ; and 
thus, when the Sabbath itself was wholly past, and also the 
whole night succeeding it, and when another day had begun, 
they came, bringing spices and myrrh, and then it became 
apparent that He had already risen long before. And Mark 
follows this, and says : " They had bought sweet spices, in 
order that they might come and anoint Him. And very 
early (in the morning), the first day of the week, they come 
unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun." 2 For this 
evangelist also has used the term " very early," which is just 
the same as the " very early in the morning " employed by 
the former; and he has added, "at the rising of the sun." 
Thus they set out, and took their way first when it was " very 
early in the morning," or (as Mark says) when it was " very 
early ;" but on the road, and by their stay at the sepulchre, 
they spent the time till it was sunrise. And then the young 
man clad in white said to them, "He is risen, He is not here.' r 
As the case stands thus, we make the following statement 
and explanation to those who seek an exact account of the 
specific hour, or half-hour, or quarter of an hour, at which 
it is proper to begin their rejoicing over our Lord's rising 
from the dead. Those who are too hasty, and give up even 
before midnight (Trpo VVKTOS eyyvs ijBrj neaovarjfi awei/ra?), 
we reprehend as remiss and intemperate, and as almost 
breaking off from their course in their precipitation (to? 
irap oXiyov TrpofcaTaXvovras rbv Spo/iov), for it is a wise 
man's word, " That is not little in life which is within a little." 
And those who hold out and continue for a very long time, 
and persevere even on to the fourth watch, which is also the 
time at which our Saviour manifested Himself walking upon 
the sea to those who were then on the deep, we receive as 
noble and laborious disciples. On those, again, who pause 
and refresh themselves in the course as they are moved or as 
they are able, let us not press very hard : for all do not carry 
1 Luke xxiii. 5G, xxiv. 1,2. 2 Mark xvi. 1, 2. 


out the six clays of fasting l either equally or alike ; but some 
pass even all the days as a fast, remaining without food 
through the whole ; while others take but two, and others 
three, and others four, and others not even one. And to 
those who have laboured painfully through these protracted 
fasts, and have thereafter become exhausted and well-nigh 

' O 

undone, pardon ought to be extended if they are somewhat 
precipitate in taking food. But if there are any who not 
only decline such protracted fasting, but refuse at the first to 
fast at all, and rather indulge themselves luxuriously during 
the first four days, and then when they reach the last two 
days viz. the preparation and the Sabbath fast with due 
rigour during these, and these alone, and think that they do 
something grand and brilliant if they hold out till the morn- 
ing, I cannot think that they have gone through the time on 
equal terms with those who have been practising the same 
during several days before. This is the counsel which, in 
accordance with my apprehension of the question, I have 
offered you in writing on these matters. 2 


The question touching women in the time of their separa- 
tion, whether it is proper for them when in such a condition 
to enter the house of God, I consider a superfluous inquiry. 
For I do not think that, if they are believing and pious women, 
they will themselves be rash enough in such a condition 
either to approach the holy table or to touch the body and 
blood of the Lord. Certainly the woman who had the issue 
of blood of twelve years' standing did not touch (the Lord) 
Himself, but only the hem of His garment, with a view to 
her cure. 3 For to pray, however a person may be situated, 
and to remember the Lord, in whatever condition a person 
may be, and to offer up petitions for the obtaining of help, 

1 That is, as Balsamon explains, the six days of the week of our Lord's 

2 To these canons are appended the comments of Balsamon and 
Zonaras, which it is not necessary to give here. 

3 Matt. ix. 20 ; Luke viii. 43. 


are exercises altogether blameless. But the individual who 
is not perfectly pure both in soul and in body, shall be inter- 
dicted from approaching the holy of holies. 


Moreover, those who are competent, and who are advanced 
in years, ought to be judges of themselves in these matters. 
For that it is proper to abstain from each other by consent, 
in order that they may be free for a season to give them- 
selves to prayer, and then come together again, they have 
heard from Paul in his epistle. 1 


As to those who are overtaken by an involuntary flux in 
the iiight-time, let such follow the testimony of their own 
conscience, and consider themselves as to whether they are 
doubtfully minded (Siafcpivovrai) in this matter or not. And 
he that doubteth in the matter of meats, the apostle tells 
us, " is damned if he eat." 2 In these things, therefore, let 
every one who approaches God be of a good conscience, and of 
a proper confidence, so far as his own judgment is concerned. 
And, indeed, it is in order to show your regard for us (for 
you are not ignorant, beloved,) that you have proposed these 
questions to us, making us of one mind, as indeed we are, 
and of one spirit with yourself. And I, for my part, have 
thus set forth my opinions in public, not as a teacher, but 
only as it becomes us with all simplicity to confer with each 
other. And when you have examined this opinion of mine, 
my most intelligent son, you will write back to me your 
notion of these matters, and let me know whatever may 
seem to you to be just and preferable, and whether you 
approve of my judgment in these things. That it may fare 
well with you, my beloved son, as you minister to the Lord 
in peace, is my prayer. 

1 Referring to the relations of marriage, dealt with in 1 Cor. viL 5, 

2 Rom. xiv. 23. 




(Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, vii. 11.) 

1. But it would be a superfluous task for me to mention 
by name our (martyr) friends, who are numerous and at the 
same time unknown to you. Only understand that they 
include men and women, both young men and old, botli 
maidens and aged matrons, both soldiers and private citizens, 
every class and every age, of whom some have suffered by 
stripes and fire, and some by the sword, and have won the 
victory and received their crowns. In the case of others, 
however, even a very long lifetime has not proved sufficient 
to secure their appearance as men acceptable to the Lord ; as 
indeed in my own case too, that sufficient time has not shown 
itself up to the present. Wherefore He has preserved me for 
another convenient season, of which He knows Himself, as 
He says : " In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and 
in a day of salvation have I helped thee." * 

2. Since, however, you have been inquiring 2 about what 
has befallen us, and wish to be informed as to how we have 
fared, you have got a full report of our fortunes ; how when 
we that is to say, Gaius, and myself, and Faustus, and 
Peter, and Paul were led off as prisoners by the centurion 
and the magistrates, 3 and the soldiers and other attendants 

1 Isa. xlix. 8. 

2 Reading 'fz-ttlv irwdoiytaSf, for which some codices give ivtl KVV- 

3 cTpttTwyuy. Christophorsonus would read <rrpa.rny.v, in the sense 
of commander. But the word is used here of the duumviri, or magis- 
trates of Alexandria. And that the word arpotTYiyos was used in this 
civil acceptation, as well as in the common military application, we see 
by many examples in Athanasius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and others. 
Thus, as Valesius remarks, the soldiers (arpetrtu-ruv) here will be the 
band with the centurion, and the attendants (uv^ptrui) will be the 
civil followers of the magistrates. 


accompanying them, there came upon us certain parties 
from Mareotis, who dragged us with them against our will, 
and though we were disinclined to follow them, and carried 


us away by force j 1 and how Gaius and Peter and myself have 
been separated from our other brethren, and shut up alone in 
a desert and sterile place in Libya, at a distance of three 
days' journey from Parsetonium. 

3. And a little further on, he proceeds thus: And they con- 
cealed themselves in the city, and secretly visited the brethren. 
I refer to the presbyters Maxim us, Dioscorus, Demetrius, 
and Lucius. For Faustinus and Aquila, who are persons 
of greater prominence in the world, are wandering about in 
Egypt. I specify also the deacons who survived those who 
died in the sickness, 2 viz., Faustus, Eusebius, and Chse- 
remon. And of Eusebius I speak as one whom the Lord 
strengthened from the beginning, and qualified for the task 

1 This happened in the first persecution under Decius, when Dionysius 
was carried off by the decision of the prefect Sabinus to Taposiris, as 
he informs us in his epistle to Germanus. Certainly any one who com- 
pares that epistle of Dionysius to Germanus with this one to Domitius, 
will have no doubt that he speaks of one and the same event in both. 
Hence Eusebius is in error in thinking that in this epistle of Dionysius 
to Domitius we have a narrative of the events relating to the perse- 
cution of Valerian, a position which may easily be refuted from Dio- 
nysius himself. For in the persecution under Valerian, Dionysius was 
not carried off into exile under military custody, nor were there any men 
from Mareotis, who came and drove off the soldiers, and bore him away 
unwillingly, and set him at liberty again ; nor had Dionysius on that 
occasion the presbyters Gaius and Faustus, and Peter and Paul, with 
him. All these things happened to Dionysius in that persecution 
which began a little before Decius obtained the empire, as he testifies 
himself in his epistle to Germanus. But in the persecution under 
Valerian, Dionysius was accompanied in exile by the presbyter Maximus, 
and the deacons Faustus, and Eusebius, and Chaeremon, and a certain 
Roman cleric, as he tells us in the epistle to Germanus. VALESIUS. 

2 h TYI VWQ. Rufinus reads ir<<rp, and renders it, " But of the 
deacons, some died in the island after the pains of confession." But 
Dionysius refers to the pestilence which traversed the whole Roman 
world in the times of Gallus and Volusianus, as Eusebius in his Chroni- 
con and others record. See Aurelius Victor. Diouysius makes mention 
of this sickness again in the paschal epistle to the Alexandrians, where 
he also speaks of the deacons who were cut off by that plague. VALES. 


of discharging energetically the services due to the con- 
fessors who were in prison, and of executing the perilous 
office of dressing out and burying 1 the bodies of those per- 
fected and blessed martyrs. For even up to the present day 
the governor does not cease to put to death, in a cruel 
manner, as I have already said, some of those who are 
brought before him ; while he wears others out by torture, 
and wastes others away with imprisonment and bonds, com- 
manding also that no one shall approach them, and making 
strict scrutiny lest any one should be seen to do so. And 
nevertheless God imparts relief to the oppressed by the 
tender kindness and earnestness of the brethren. 

(Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. vi. 45.) 

Dionysius to Novatus 2 his brother, greeting. 

If you were carried on against your will, as you say, you 
will show that such has been the case by your voluntary retire- 
ment. For it would have been but dutiful to have suffered 
any kind of ill, so as to avoid rending the church of God. 
And a martyrdom borne for the sake of preventing a divi- 

\x-n\tlv. Christophorsonus renders it : "to prepare the 
linen cloths in which the bodies of the blessed martyrs who departed 
this life might be wrapped." In this Valesius thinks he errs by looking 
at the modern method of burial, whereas among the ancient Christians 
the custom was somewhat different, the bodies being dressed out in full 
attire, and that often at great cost, as Eusebius shows us in the case of 
Astyrius, in the Hist. Eccles. vii. 16. Yet Athanasius, in his Life of 
Antonius, has this sentence : " The Egyptians are accustomed to attend 
piously to the funerals of the bodies of the dead, and especially those 
of the holy martyrs, and to wrap them in linen cloths : they are not 
wont, however, to consign them to the earth, but to place them on 
couches, and keep them in private apartments." 

2 Jerome, in his Catalogris, where he adduces the beginning of this 
epistle, gives Novatianus for Novatus. So in the Chronicon of Georgius 
Syncellus we have Aiovixrios NavetTiavy. Rufinus' account appears to 
be that there were two such epistles, one to Novatus, and another to 
Novatianus. The confounding of these two forms seems, however, to 
have been frequent among the Greeks. 


sion of the church, would not have been more inglorious 
than one endured for refusing to worship idols ; l nay, in my 
opinion at least, the former would have been a nobler thing 
than the latter. For in the one case a person gives such a 
testimony simply for his own individual soul, whereas in the 
other case he is a witness for the whole church. And now, 
if you can persuade or constrain the brethren to come to be 
of one mind again, your uprightness will be (held to be) 
superior to your error ; and the latter will not be charged 
against you, while the former will be commended in you. 
But if you cannot prevail so far with your recusant brethren, 
see to it that you save your own soul. My wish is, that in 
the Lord you may fare well as you study peace. 

(Eusebius, Hist. Eccks. vi. 41, 42, 44. 3 ) 

1. The persecution with us did not commence with the 
imperial edict, but preceded it by a whole year. And a cer- 
tain prophet and poet, an enemy to this city, 4 whatever else 
he was, had previously roused and exasperated against us the 
masses of the heathen, inflaming them anew with the fires 
of their native superstition. Excited by him, and finding 
full liberty for the perpetration of wickedness, they reckoned 

1 We read, with Gallandi, xi %y ovx. d^o^oripx rijs tv&tsv rot/ /t*j /( 
"honpivaati (sz'c) "/ivof*,iYi;, j 'ivix.iv TOIJ py a^lacti ftetprvpia. This is sub- 
stantially the reading of three Venetian codices, as also of Sophronius on 
Jerome's De vir. illuslr. h. 69, and Georgius Syncellus in the Chronogr. 
p. 374, and Nicephorus Callist. Hist. Eccles. vi. 4. Pearson, in the 
Annales Cyprian. Num. x. p. 31, proposes 6wu.i for axlaau. Rufinus 
renders it : " et erat non inferior gloria sustinere martyrium ne scindatur 
ecclesia quam est ilia ne idolis immoletur." 

2 Certain codices read Fabiauus, and that form is adopted also by 

3 Eusebius introduces this epistle thus: "The same author, in an 
epistle written to Fabius bishop of Antioch, gives the following account 
of the conflicts of those who suffered martyrdom at Alexandria." 

4 xxl $! 6 XXKUV, etc. Pearson, Annales Cyprian, ad ann. 249, 
1, renders it rather thus : " et picevertens malorum huic urbi vates et 
auctor, quisquis ille fuit, commovit," etc. 


this the only piety (and) service to their demons, 1 namely, 
our slaughter. 

2. First, then, they seized an old man of the name of 
Metras, and commanded him to utter words of impiety; and 
as he refused, they beat his body with clubs, and lacerated 
his face and eyes with sharp reeds, and then dragged him off 
to the suburbs and stoned him there. Next they carried 
off a woman named Quinta, who was a believer, to an idol 
temple, and compelled her to worship the idol; and when 
she turned away from it, and showed how she detested it, 
they bound her feet and dragged her through the whole city 
along the rough stone-paved streets, knocking her at the 
same time against the millstones, and scourging her, until 
they brought her to the same place, and stoned her also 
there. Then with one impulse they all rushed upon the 
houses of the God-fearing, and whatever pious persons 
any of them knew individually as neighbours, after these 
they hurried and bore them with them, and robbed and 
plundered them, setting aside the more valuable portions of 
their property for themselves, and scattering about the com- 
moner articles, and such as were made of wood, and burning 
them on the roads, so that they made these parts present the 
spectacle of a city taken by the enemy. The brethren, how- 
ever, simply gave way and withdrew, and, like those to whom 
Paul bears witness, 2 they took the spoiling of their goods 
with joy. And I know not that any of them except pos- 
sibly some solitary individual who may have chanced to fall 
into their hands thus far has denied the Lord. 

3. But they also seized that most admirable virgin Apol- 
lonia, then in advanced life, and knocked out all her teeth, 
and cut her jaws ; and then kindling a fire before the city, 
they threatened to burn her alive unless she would repeat 
along with them their expressions of impiety. 3 And although 

1 svoifinat.v rr,v 6pYi<Tx.;tciv iietiftovuv. Valesius thinks the last three 
words in the text (= service to their demons) an interpolation by some 

2 Heb. x. 30. 

* to. TSJ; dasfaiot; xyptyftxTct. What these precisely were, it is not 


she seemed to deprecate (or, shrink from) her fate for a little, 
on being let go, she leaped eagerly into the fire and was con- 
sumed. They also laid hold of a certain Serapiori in his own 
house; 1 and after torturing him with severe cruelties, and 
breaking all his limbs, they dashed him headlong from an 
tipper storey to the ground. And there was no road, no 
thoroughfare, no lane even, where we could walk, whether 
by night or by day ; for at all times and in every place they 
all kept crying out, that if any one should refuse to repeat 
their blasphemous expressions, he must be at once dragged off 
and burnt. These inflictions were carried rigorously on for a 
considerable time (eViTroXu) in this manner. But when the 
insurrection and the civil war in due time overtook these 
wretched people, 2 that diverted their savage cruelty from us, 
and turned it against themselves. And we enjoyed a little 
breathing time, as long as leisure failed them for exercising 
their fury against us. 3 

4. But speedily was the change from that more kindly 
reign 4 announced to us ; and great was the terror of threaten- 
ing that was now made to reach us. Already, indeed, the 

easy to say. Dionysius speaks of them also as St/afp^a py/uetTi* in this 
epistle, and as oidtot Quvui in that to Germanus. Gallandi thinks the 
reference is to the practice, of which we read also in the Acts of Poly- 
carp, ch. 9, where the proconsul addresses the martyr with the order : 
hoiiopwon TO* XpiaTov Kevile Christ. And that the test usually put to 
reputed Christians by the early persecutors was this cursing of Christ, 
we learn from Pliny, book x. epist. 97. 

i/, for which Nicephorus reads badly, 'EQeaiov. 

But Pearson suggests $AOV?, = "when insurrection and 
civil war took the place of these persecutions." This would agree better 
Avith the common usage of d/ad^o^a/. 

3 oJff^oX/av TOV vrpo; ii/actc 6v t uov hetfioyrcay. The Latin version gives, 
"dum illorum cessaret furor." W. Lowth renders, "dum non vacaret 
ipsis furorem suum in nos exercere." 

4 This refers to the death of the Emperor Philip, who showed a very 
righteous and kindly disposition toward the Christians. Accordingly 
the matters here recounted by Dionysius took place in the last year of 
the Emperor Philip. This is also indicated by Dionysius in the begin- 
ning of this epistle, where he says that the persecution began at Alex- 
andria a whole year before the edict of the Emperor Decius. But 
Christophorsonus, not observing this, interprets the 


edict had arrived ; and it was of such a tenor as almost per- 
fectly to correspond with what was intimated to us beforetime 
by our Lord, setting before us the most dreadful horrors, so 
as, if that were possible, to cause the very elect to stumble. 1 
All verily were greatly alarmed, and of the more notable there 
were some, and these a large number, who speedily accom- 
modated themselves to the decree in fear (OLTT^VTCOV SeSiore?) ; 
others, who were engaged in the public service, were drawn 
into compliance by the very necessities of their official duties; 2 
others were dragged on to it by their friends, and on being 
called by name approached the impure and unholy sacrifices ; 
others yielded pale and trembling, as if they were not to offer 
sacrifice, but to be themselves the sacrifices and victims for 
the idols, so that they were jeered by the large multitude 
surrounding the scene, and made it plain to all that they 
were too cowardly either to face death or to offer the sacri- 
fices. But there were others who hurried up to the altars 

as signifying a change in the emperor's mind toward the Christians, 
in which error he is followed by Baronius, ch. 102. VALES. 

1 In this sentence the Codex Kegius reads, TO vpopfadtv J/TO rov Kvpi'ov 
qpuv -Tretpctftpx^v TO (pofliparetTov, etc. = " the one intimated beforetime 
by our Lord, very nearly the most terrible one." In Georgius Syncellus 
it is given as % vetpci ftpet^v. But the reading in the text, dvoQcrivov, 
" setting forth," is found in the Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., and Savilii ; 
and it seems the best, the idea being that this edict of Decius was so 
terrible as in a certain measure to represent the most fearful of all times, 
viz. those of Antichrist. VALES. 

2 o! B $Yi/Aoo'itivoi'Tfs i>iro ran 7rpd%eu v^/ovro. This is rendered by 
Christophorsonus, " alii ex privatis sedibus in publicum raptati ad de- 
lubra ducuntur a magistratibus." But Ivftwisvorref is the same as 
ret ?>Yifx.oaitit vrpatTrovres, i.e. decurions and magistrates. For when the 
edict of Decius was conveyed to them, commanding all to sacrifice to 
the immortal gods, these officials had to convene themselves in the court- 
house as usual, and stand and listen while the decree was being publicly 
recited. Thus they were in a position officially which led them to be 
the first to sacrifice. The word irpii%ei$ occurs often in the sense of the 
acts and administration of magistrates : thus, in Eusebius, viii. 11 ; in 
Aristides, in the funeral oration on Alexander, T B' fig Trpet^et; re x.l 

etc. There are similar passages also in Plutarch's lidhirin* 
ei, and in Severianus's sixth oration on the Hexameron. 
So Chrysostom, in his eighty-third homily on Matthew, calls the decu- 


with greater alacrity, stoutly asserting 1 that they had never 
been Christians at all before; of whom our Lord's prophetic 
declaration holds most true, that it will be hard for such 
to be saved. Of the rest, some followed one or other of 
these parties (already mentioned) ; and some fled, and some 
were seized. And of these, some went as far (in keeping 
their faith) as bonds and imprisonment ; and certain persons 
among them endured imprisonment even for several days, 
and then after all abjured the faith before coming into 
the court of justice ; while others, after holding out against 
the torture for a time, sank before the prospect of further 
sufferings. 2 

5. But there were also others, stedfast and blessed pillars 
of the Lord, who, receiving strength from Himself, and ob- 
taining power and vigour worthy of and commensurate with 
the force of the faith that was in themselves, have proved 
admirable witnesses for His kingdom. And of these the first 
was Julianus, a man suffering from gout, and able neither to 
stand nor to walk, who was arraigned along with two other 
men who carried him. Of these two persons, the one im- 
mediately denied (Christ) ; but the other, a person named 
Cronion, and surnamed Eunus, and together with him the 
aged Julianus himself, confessed the Lord, and were carried 
on camels through the whole city, which is, as you know, a 
very large one, and were scourged in that elevated position, 
and finally were consumed in a tremendous fire, while the 
whole populace surrounded them. And a certain soldier who 
stood by them when they were led away to execution, and 
who opposed the wanton insolence of the people, was pur- 
sued by the outcries they raised against him ; and this most 
courageous soldier of God, Besas by name, was arraigned ; 

rions TOVS T ^-oX/T/xot "a-peirTovretf. The word ?>/ift,ooiei><wT;, however, 
may also be explained of those employed in the departments of law or 
finance ; so that the clause might be rendered, with Yalesius : " alii, 
qui in publico versabantur, rebus ipsis et reliquorum exemplo, ad sacri- 
h'candum ducebantur." See the note in Migne. 

1 laxvpifyftivu here for ttiwxvptfyp.tvoi. VALES. 

2 Kpos TO iqs a.Ki~nroy. It may also mean, " renounced the faith in 
the prospect of what was before them." 



and after bearing himself most nobly in that mighty conflict 
on behalf of piety, he was beheaded. And another individual, 
who was by birth a Libyan, and who at once in name and 
in real blessedness was also a true Macar (a blessed one 1 ), 
although much was tried by the judge to persuade him to 
make a denial, did not yield, and was consequently burned 
alive. And these were succeeded by Epimachus and Alex- 
ander, who, after a long time 2 spent in chains, and after 
suffering countless agonies and inflictions of the scraper 
(gvarrjpas) and the scourge, were also burnt to ashes in an 
immense fire. 

6. And along with these there were four women. Among 
them was Ammonarium, a pious virgin, who was tortured 
for a very long time by the judge in a most relentless man- 
ner, because she declared plainly from the first that she 
would utter none of the things which he commanded her to 
repeat ; and after she had made good her profession she was 
led off to execution. The others were the most venerable and 
aged Mercuria, and Dionysia, who had been the mother of 
many children, and yet did not love her offspring better than 
her Lord. 3 These, when the governor was ashamed to sub- 
ject them any further to profitless torments, and thus to see 
himself beaten by women, died by the sword, without more 
experience of tortures. For truly their champion Ammo- 
narium had received tortures for them all. 

7. Heron also, and Ater, 4 and Isidorus, 5 who were Egyp- 

1 Alluding to Matt. v. 10, 12. 

2 ptT iro^M. But Codices Med., Maz., Fuk., and Savilii, as well as 
Georgius Syncellus, read fttr oi> TTOAW>, " after a short time." 

3 Here Valesius adds from Rufinus the words ' Aftpaviiptov trtpx, 
" and a second Ammonarium," as there are four women mentioned. 

4 In Georgius Syncellus and Nicephorus it is given as Aster. Rufinus 
makes the name Arsinus. And in the old Roman martyrology, taken 
largely from Rufinus, we find the form Arsenius. VALES. 

5 In his Bibliotheca, cod. cxix., Photius states that Isidorus was full 
brother to Pierius, the celebrated head of the Alexandrian school, and 
his colleague in martyrdom. He also intimates, however, that although 
some have reported that Pierius ended his career by martyrdom, others 
say that he spent the closing period of his life in Rome after the per- 
secution abated. RUINAKT. 


tians, and along with them Dioscorus, a boy of about fifteen 
years of age, were delivered up. And though at first he 
(the judge) tried to deceive the youth with fair speeches, 
thinking he could easily seduce him, and then attempted also 
to compel him by force of tortures, fancying he might be 
made to yield without much difficulty in that way, Dioscorus 
neither submitted to his persuasions nor gave way to his 
terrors. And the rest, after their bodies had been lacerated 
in a most savage manner, and their stedfastness had never- 
theless been maintained, he consigned also to the flames. 
But Dioscorus he dismissed, wondering at the distinguished 
appearance he had made in public, and at the extreme wis- 
dom of the answers he gave to his interrogations, and de- 
claring that, on account of his age, he granted him further 
time for repentance. And this most godly Dioscorus is with 
us at present, tarrying for a greater conflict and a more 
lengthened contest. A certain person of the name of 
Nernesion, too, who was also an Egyptian, was falsely ac- 
cused of being a companion of robbers ; and after he had 
cleared himself of this charge before the centurion, and 
proved it to be a most unnatural calumny, he was informed 
against as a Christian, and had to come as a prisoner before 
the governor. And that most unrighteous magistrate inflicted 
on him a punishment twice as severe as that to which the 
robbers were subjected, making him suffer both tortures and 
scourgings, and then consigning him to the fire between the 
robbers. Thus the blessed martyr was honoured after the 
pattern of Christ. 

8. There was also a body of soldiers, 1 including Ammon, 
and Zeno, and Ptolemy, and Ingenuus, and along with them 
an old man, Theophilus, who had taken up their position in 
a mass in front of the tribunal ; and when a certain person 

1 arpixriuT.-xuv. Rufinus and Chiistophorsonus make it 
turmam militum. Valesius prefers manipulum or contubernitim. These 
may have been the apparitors or officers of the prsefectus Augustalis. 
Valesius thinks rather that they were legionaries, from the legion which 
had to guard the city of Alexandria, and which was under the authority 
of the prsefectus Augustalis. For at that time the prsefectus Augustalis 
had charge of military affairs as well as civil. 


was standing his trial as a Christian, and was already inclin- 
ing to make a denial, these stood round about and ground 
their teeth, and made signs with their faces, and stretched 
out their hands, and made all manner of gestures with 
their bodies. And while the attention of all was directed 
to them, before any could lay hold of them, they ran 
quickly up to the bench of judgment l and declared them- 
selves to be Christians, and made such an impression that the 
governor and his associates were filled with fear ; and those 
who were under trial seemed to be most courageous in the 
prospect of what they were to suffer, while the judges them- 
selves trembled. These, then, went with a high spirit from 
the tribunals, and exulted in their testimony, God Himself 
causing them to triumph gloriously. 2 

9. Moreover, others in large numbers were torn asunder by 
the heathen throughout the cities and villages. Of one of 
these I shall give some account, as an example. Ischyrion 
served one of the rulers in the capacity of steward for stated 
wages. His employer ordered this man to offer sacrifice ; and 
on his refusal to do so, he abused him. When he persisted in 
his non-compliance, his master treated him with contumely; 
and when he still held out, he took a huge stick and thrust 
it through his bowels and heart, and slew him. Why should 
I mention the multitudes of those who had to wander about 
in desert places and upon the mountains, and who were cut 
off by hunger, and thirst, and cold, and sickness, and robbers, 
and wild beasts 1 The survivors of such are the witnesses of 
their election and their victory. One circumstance, how- 
ever, I shall subjoin as an illustration of these things. There 
was a certain very aged person of the name of Chffiremon, 
bishop of the place called the city of the Nile. 3 He fled 

1 pdpo. Valesius supposes that what is intended is the seat on which 
the accused sat when under interrogation by the judge. 

2 Opictfifavovros ccvrovg. Eufinus makes it, "God thus triumphing in 
them ; " from which it would seem that he had read 3;' KVTQVC,. But 
tipiKftfitvuv is probably put here for 6pta,ft.l$ti/ii -xoiiiv, as /SewAfi/e/v is also 
used by Gregory Nazianzenus. 

3 That is, Nilopolis or Niloupolis. Eusebius, bishop of the same seat, 
subscribed the Council of Ephesus. READING. 


along with his partner to the Arabian mountain, 1 and never 
returned. The brethren, too, were unable to discover any- 
thing of them, although they made frequent search ; and they 
never could find either the men themselves, or their bodies. 
Many were also carried off as slaves by the barbarous 
Saracens 2 to that same Arabian mount. Some of these were 
ransomed with difficulty, and only by paying a great sum of 
money ; others of them have not been ransomed to this day. 
And these facts I have related, brother, not without a pur- 
pose, but in order that you may know how many and how 
terrible are the ills that have befallen us; which troubles 
also will be best understood by those who have had most 
experience of them. 

10. Those sainted martyrs, accordingly, who were once with 
us, and who now are seated with Christ, 3 and are sharers in 
His kingdom, and partakers with Him in His judgment, 4 and 
who act as His judicial assessors, received there certain of 
the brethren who had fallen away, and who had become 
chargeable with sacrificing to the idols. And as they saw 
that the conversion and repentance of such might be accept- 

1 TO 'Ap/3to Spof. There is a Mons Arabicus mentioned by Herodotus 
(ii. 8), which Ptolemy and others call Mons Troicus. VALES. 

2 This passage is notable from the fact that it makes mention of the 
Saracens. For of the writers whose works have come down to us there 
is none more ancient than Dionysius of Alexandria that has named the 
Saracens. Ammianus Marcellinus, however, writes in his fourteenth 
book that he has made mention of the Saracens in the Acts of Marcus. 
Spartianus also mentions the Saracens in his Niger, and says that the 
Roman soldiers were beaten by them. VALES. 

3 As to the martyrs' immediate departure to the Lord, and their abode 
with Him, see Tertullian, On the Resurrection of the Flesh, ch. xliii., and 
On the Soul, v. 55. 

4 That the martyrs were to be Christ's assessors, judging the world 
with Him, was a common opinion among the fathers. So, after Dionysius, 
Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria, in his fifth book, Against the Novations. 
Photius, in his Bibliotheca, following Chrysostom, objects to this, and 
explains Paul's words in 1 Cor. vi. 2 as having the same intention as 
Christ's words touching the men of Nineveh and the queen of the south 
who should rise up in the judgment and condemn that generation. 

5 ov^iKK^ovTi;. See a noble passage in Bossuet, Prefac. sur VApocal. 


able to Him who desires not at all the death of the sinner, 1 
but rather his repentance, they proved their sincerity, and 
received them, and brought them together again, and as- 
sembled with them, and had fellowship with them in their 
prayers and at their festivals. 2 What advice then, brethren, 
do you give us as regards these ? What should we do ? 
Are we to stand forth and act with the decision and judg- 
ment which those (martyrs) formed, and to observe the same 
graciousness with them, and to deal so kindly with those 
toward whom they showed such compassion ? or are we to 
treat their decision as an unrighteous one, 3 and to constitute 
ourselves judges of their opinion on such subjects, and to 
throw clemency into tears, and to overturn the established 
order ? * 

11. But I shall give a more particular account of one 
case here which occurred among us : 5 There was with us 
a certain Serapion, an aged believer. He had spent his 
long life blamelessly, but had fallen in the time of trial 
(the persecution). Often did this man pray (for absolu- 
tion), and no one gave heed to him ; 6 for he had sacrificed to 

1 Ezek. xxxiii. 11. 

2 Dionysius is dealing here not with public communion, such as was 
the bishop's prerogative to confer anew on the penitent, but with private 
fellowship among Christian people. VALES. 

3 atiixov irornoufttQx. is the reading of Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., and 
Savil., and also of Georgius Syncellus. Others read ei^xrov Kor/iaopida, 
" we shall treat it as inadmissible." 

4 The words x.a.1 TOV sw wetpoZvvoftfv, " and provoke God," are some- 
times added here ; but they are wanting in Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., 
Savil., and in Georgius Syncellus. 

5 Eusebius introduces this in words to the following effect : " Writing 
to this same Fabius, who seemed to incline somewhat to this schism, 
Dionysius of Alexandria, after setting forth in his letter many other 
matters which bore on repentance, and after describing the conflicts of 
the martyrs who had recently suffered in Alexandria, relates among 
other things one specially wonderful fact, which I have deemed proper 
for insertion in this history, and which is as follows." 

6 That is, none either of the clergy or of the people were moved by his 
prayers to consider him a proper subject for absolution ; for the people's 
suffrages were also necessary for the reception into the church of any who 
had lapsed, and been on that account cut off from it. And sometimes the 


the idols. Falling sick, he continued three successive days 
dumb and senseless. Recovering a little on the fourth day, 
he called to him his grandchild, and said, " My son, how 
long do you detain me ? Hasten, I entreat you, and ab- 
solve me quickly. Summon one of the presbyters to me." 
And when he had said this, he became speechless again. 
The boy ran for the presbyter ; but it was night, and the 
man was sick, and was consequently unable to come. But 
as an injunction had been issued by me, 1 that persons at the 
point of death, if they requested it then, and especially if 
they had earnestly sought it before, should be absolved, 2 in 
order that they might depart this life in cheerful hope, he 
gave the boy a small portion of the Eucharist, 3 telling him to 
steep it in water, 4 and drop it into the old man's mouth. 

bishop himself asked the people to allow absolution to be given to the 
suppliant, as we see in Cyprian's Epistle 53, to Cornelius, and in Ter- 
tullian, On Chastity, ch. xiii. Oftener, however, the people themselves 
made intercession with the bishop for the admission of penitents ; of 
which we have a notable instance in the Epistle of Pope Cornelius to 
Fabius of Antioch about that bishop who had ordained Novatianus. 
See also Cyprian, Epistle 59. VALES. 

1 In the African Synod, which met about the time that Dionysius 
wrote, it was decreed that absolution should be granted to lapsed persons 
who were near their end, provided that they had sought it earnestly 
before their illness. See Cyprian in the Epistle to Antonianus. 

2 eiQieaGeii. There is a longer reading in Codices Fuk. and Savil., 
viz. : ruu dtluy ^upuv ry; fiiTcitioofUS eifciovadstt Kotl ovrog eitpiiaSai, "be 
deemed worthy of the imparting of the divine gifts, and thus be ab- 

3 Valesius thinks that this custom prevailed for a long tune, and 
cites a synodical letter of Katherius, bishop of Verona (which has also 
been ascribed to Udalricus by Gretserus, who has published it along 
with his Life of Gregory vn.), in which the practice is expressly for- 
bidden in these terms : " And let no one presume to give the com- 
munion to a laic or a woman, for the purpose of conveying it to an infirm 

4 diroppiZctt. Rufinus renders it by inf under e. References to this 
custom are found in Adamannus, in the second book of the Miracles of 
St. Columla, ch. 6 ; in Bede, Life of St. Cuthbert, ch. 31, and in the 
poem on the life of the same ; in Theodorus Campidunensis, Life of St. 
Magnus, ch. 22 ; in Paulus Bernriedensis, Life of Gregory vn. p. 113. 


The boy returned bearing the portion ; and as lie came near, 
and before he had yet entered, Serapion again recovered, 
and said, "You have come, my child, and the presbyter 
was unable to come ; but do quickly what you were in- 
structed to do, and so let me depart." The boy steeped 
the morsel in water, and at once dropped it into the (old 
man's) mouth ; and after he had swallowed a little of it, he 
forthwith gave up the ghost. Was he not then manifestly 
preserved? and did he not continue in life just until he 
could be absolved, and until through the wiping away of 
his sins he could be acknowledged l for the many good acts 
he had done 1 


(Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. vi. 46.) 

In addition to all these, he writes likewise to Cornelius 
at Rome, after receiving his Epistle against Novatus. And 
in that letter he also shows that he had been invited by 
Helenus, bishop in Tarsus of Cilicia, and by the others who 
were with him namely, Firmilian, bishop in Cappadocia, 
and Theoctistus in Palestine to meet them at the Council of 
Antioch, where certain persons were attempting to establish 
the schism of Novatus. In addition to this, he writes that it 
was reported to him that Fabius was dead, and that Deme- 
trianus was appointed his successor in the bishopric of the 
church at Antioch. He writes also respecting the bishop in 
Jerusalem, expressing himself in these very words : " And 
the blessed Alexander, having been cast into prison, went to 
his rest in blessedness." 

Langus, Wolfius, and Musculus render it confiteri, 
"confess." Christophorsonus makes it in numerum confessorum referri, 
" reckoned in the number of confessors ;" which may be allowed, if it 
is understood to be a reckoning by Christ. For Dionysius alludes to 
those words of Christ iu the Gospel: "Whosoever shall confess me 
before men, him will I confess also before my Father." VALES. 



Understand, however, my brother, 2 that all the churches 
located in the east, and also in remoter districts, 3 that were 
formerly in a state of division, are now made one again ; 4 
and all those at the head of the churches everywhere are of 
one mind, and rejoice exceedingly at the peace which has 
been restored beyond all expectation. I may mention Deme- 
trianus in Antioch ; Theoctistus in CaBsareia ; Mazabanes in 
^Elia, 5 the successor of the deceased Alexander ; 6 Marinus in 
Tyre ; Heliodorus in Laodicea, the successor of the deceased 
Thelymidres ; Helenas in Tarsus, and with him all the 
churches of Cilicia ; and Firmilian and all Cappadocia. For 
I have named only the more illustrious of the bishops, so as 

1 In the second chapter of the seventh book of his Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, Eusebius says : " To this Stephen Eusebius wrote the first of his 
epistles on the matter of baptism." And be calls this the first, because 
Dionysius also wrote other four epistles to Xystus and Dionysius, two 
of the successors of Stephen, and to Philemon, on the same subject of 
the baptizing of heretics. GALLANDI. 

2 Eusebius introduces the letter thus : " "When he had addressed 
many reasonings on this subject to him (Stephen) by letter, Dionysius 
at last showed him that, as the persecution had abated, the churches in 
all parts opposed to the innovations of Novatus were at peace among 

3 KMI tTi KpoauTfpa. These words are omitted in Codices Fulk. and 
Savil., as also by Christophorsonus ; but are given in Codices Reg., 
Maz., and Med., and by Syncellus and Nicephorus. 

4 Baronius infers from this epistle that at this date, about 259 A.D., 
the Oriental bishops had given up their error, and fallen in with 
Stephen's opinion, that heretics did not require to be rebaptized, an 
inference, however, which Valesius deems false. 

5 The name assigned by the pagans to Jerusalem was jElia. It was 
so called even in Constantine's time, as we see in the Tabula Peutin- 
gerorum and the Itinerarium Antonini, written after Constantine's reign. 
In the seventh canon of the Nicene Council we also find the name ^Elia. 

6 The words xotfivdivTo; 'AXs|i/S^of are given in the text in connection 
with the clause Mjon/o? l Tvpu. They must be transposed, however, as 
in the translation ; for Mazabanes had succeeded Alexander the bishop 
of JElia, as Dionysius informs us in his Epistle to Cornelius. So Rufinus 
puts it also in his Latin version. VALES. 


neither to make my epistle too long, nor to render my dis- 
course too heavy for you. All the districts of Syria, how- 
ever, and of Arabia, to the brethren in which you from time 
to time have been forwarding supplies l and at present have 
sent letters, and Mesopotamia too, and Pontus, and Syria, 
and, to speak in brief, all parties, are everywhere rejoicing 
at the unanimity and brotherly love now established, and are 
glorifying God for the same. 


Dionysius mentions letters that had been written by him as well to the 
Presbyters Dionysius and Philemon as to Pope Stephen, on the 
baptism of heretics and on the Sabellian heresy. 

1. Previously, indeed, (Stephen) had written letters about 
Helanus and Firmilianus, and about all who were estab- 
lished throughout Cilicia and Cappadocia, and all the neigh- 
bouring provinces, giving them to understand that for that 
same reason he would depart from their communion, because 
they re-baptized heretics. And consider the seriousness of 
the matter. For, indeed, in the most considerable councils 
of the bishops, as I hear, it has been decreed that they who 
come from heresy should first be trained in (catholic) doc- 
trine, and then should be cleansed by baptism from the filth 
of the old and impure leaven. Asking and calling him to 
witness on all these matters, I sent letters. 

And a little after Dionysius proceeds : 

2. And, moreover, to our beloved co-presbyters Dionysius 

1 Alluding to the generous practice of the church at Eome in old tunes 
in relieving the wants of the other churches, and in sending money and 
clothes to the brethren who were in captivity, and to those who toiled in 
the mines. To this effect we have the statement of Dionysius, bishop of 
Corinth, in his Epistle to the Pontiff Soter, which Eusebius cites in his 
fourth book. In the same passage, Eusebius also remarks that this com- 
mendable custom had been continued in the Roman church up to his 
own time ; and with that object collections were made there, of which 
Pope Leo writes in his Sermones. VALES. 


and Philemon, who before agreed with Stephen, and had 
written to me about the same matters, I wrote previously 
in few words, but now I have written again more at 

In the same letter, says Eusebius, 1 he informs Xystus of the 
Sabellian heretics, that they were gaining ground at that 
time, in these words : 

3. For since of the doctrine, which lately has been set 
on foot at Ptolemais, a city of Pentapolis, impious and full 
of blasphemy against Almighty God and the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ ; full of unbelief and perfidy towards 
His only begotten Son and the first-born, of every creature, 
the Word made man, and which takes away the perception 
of the Holy Spirit, on either side both letters were brought 
to me, and brethren had come to discuss it, setting forth 
more plainly as much as by God's gift I was able, I wrote 
certain letters, copies of which I have sent to thee. 


I indeed gave attention to reading the books and carefully 
studying the traditions of heretics, to the extent indeed of 
corrupting my soul with their execrable opinions; yet receiving 
from them this advantage, that I could refute them in my 
own mind, and detested them more heartily than ever. And 
when a certain brother of the order of presbyters sought to 
deter me, and feared lest I should be involved in the same 
wicked filthiness, because he said that my mind would be 
contaminated, and indeed with truth, as I myself perceived, 
I was strengthened by a vision that was sent me from God. 
And a word spoken to me, expressly commanded me, saying, 
Read everything which shall come into thy hands, for thou 
art fit to do so, who correctest and provest each one ; and 
from them to thee first of all has appeared the cause and the 

1 Lib. vii. cb. vi. 


occasion of believing. I received this vision as being what 
was in accordance with the apostolic word, which thus urges 
all who are endowed with greater virtue, " Be ye skilful 
money-changers." l 

Then, says Eusebius, he subjoins some things parenthetically 
about all heresies : 

This rule and form I have received from our blessed 
Father Heraclus : For thou, who came from heresies, even 
if they had fallen away from the church, much rather if 
they had not fallen away, but when they were seen to fre- 
quent the assemblies of the faithful, were charged with going 
to hear the teachers of perverse doctrine, and ejected from 
the church, he did not admit after many prayers, before 
they had openly and publicly narrated whatever things they 
had heard from their adversaries. Then he received them 
at length to the assemblies of the faithful, by no means ask- 
ing of them to receive baptism anew. Because they had 
already previously received the Holy Spirit from that very 

Once more, this question being thoroughly ventilated, he 
adds : 

I learned this besides, that this custom is not now first of 
all imported among the Africans alone ; but moreover, long 
before, in the times of former bishops, among most populous 
churches, and that when synods of the brethren of Iconium 
and Synades were held, it also pleased as many as possible, 
I should be unwilling, by overturning their judgments, to 
throw them into strifes and contentions. For it is written, 
" Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, which thy 
fathers have placed." 2 

1 1 Thess. v. 21. 8 Deut. xk. 14. 



He teaches that Novatian is deservedly to be opposed on account of his 
schism, on account of his impious doctrine, on account of the re- 
petition of baptism to those who came to him. 

For we rightly repulse Novatian, who has rent the church, 
and has drawn away some of the brethren to impiety and 
blasphemies; who has brought into the world a most impious 
doctrine concerning God, and calumniates our most merciful 
Lord Jesus Christ as if He were unmerciful ; and besides 
all these things, holds the sacred laver as of no effect, and 
rejects it, and overturns faith and confession, which are put 
before baptism, and utterly drives away the Holy Spirit from 
them, even if any hope subsists either that He would abide 
in them, or that He should return to them. 


Of a man who sought to be introduced to the church by baptism, 
although he said that he had received baptism, with other words 
and matters among the heretics. 

For truly, brother, I have need of advice, and I crave 
your judgment, lest perchance I should be mistaken upon 
the matters which in such wise happen to me. One of the 
brethren who come together to the church, who for some 
time has been esteemed as a believer, and who before my 
ordination, and, if I am not deceived, before even the epis- 
copate of Heraclus himself, had been a partaker of the 
assembly of the faithful, when he had been concerned in the 
baptism of those who were lately baptized, and had heard 
the interrogatories and their answers, came to me in tears, 
and bewailing his lot. And throwing himself at my feet, he 
began to confess and to protest that this baptism by which 
he had been initiated among heretics was not of this kind, 
nor had it anything whatever in common with this of ours, 
because that it was full of blasphemy and impiety. And he 
said that his soul was pierced with a very bitter sense of 
sorrow, and that he did not dare even to lift up his eyes to 


God, because he had been initiated by those wicked words 
and tilings. Wherefore he besought that, by this purest 
laver, he might be endowed with adoption and grace. And 
I, indeed, have not dared to do this ; but I have said that the 
long course of communion had been sufficient for this. For 
I should not dare to renew afresh, after all, one who had 
heard the giving of thanks, and who had answered with 
others Amen, who had stood at the holy table, and had 
stretched forth his hands to receive the blessed food, and had 
received it, and for a very long time had been a partaker of 
the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. Henceforth 
I bade him be of good courage, and approach to the sacred 
[elements] with a firm faith and a good conscience, and be- 
come a partaker of them. But he makes no end of his wail- 
ing, and shrinks from approaching to the table ; and scarcely, 
when entreated, can he bear to be present at the prayers. 

(Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. vi. 40, vii. 11.) 

1. Now I speak also before God, and He knoweth that I 
lie not : it was not by my own choice, 1 neither was it with- 
out divine instruction, that I took to flight. But at an earlier 
period, 2 indeed, when the (edict for the) persecution under 
Decius was determined upon, Sabinus at that very hour sent 
a certain Frumentarius 3 to make search for me. And I 

In Codex Fuk. and in the 
Chronicon of Syncellus it is *' tftuvria. In Codices Maz. and Med. it 
is ITT' spxvTov. Herodotus employs the phrase in the genitive form 
/SaXXo'^sKoj lip' tavTov -TTiTrpinx,*, i.e. seipsum in consilium adhibens, sua 
sponte et proprio motu fecit. 

2 AX x.a.1 irpvTtpov. Christophorsonus and others join the x-porepov 
with the S;<yy,c4ot/, making it mean, " before the persecution." This is 
contrary to pure Greek idiom, and is also inconsistent with what fol- 
lows ; for by the atrijj upas is meant the very hour at which the edict 
was decreed, S/wy^oV here having much the sense of " edict for the per- 
sec ution . " VALES. 

3 There was a body of men called frumentarii milites, employed under 
the emperors as secret spies, and sent through the provinces to look 
after accused persons, and collect floating rumours. They were abo- 


remained in the house for four days, expecting the arrival of 
this Frumentarius. But he went about examining all other 
places, the roads, the rivers, the fields, where he suspected 
that I should either conceal myself or travel. And he was 
smitten with a kind of blindness, and never lighted on the 
house ; for he never supposed that I should tarry at home 
when under pursuit. Then, barely after the lapse of four 
diys, God giving me instruction to remove, and opening 
the way for me in a manner beyond all expectation, my 
domestics 1 and I, and a considerable number of the brethren, 
effected an exit together. And that this was brought about 
by the providence of God, was made plain by what followed : 
in which also we have been perhaps of some service to certain 

2. Then, after a certain break, he narrates the events which 
befell him after his flight, subjoining the following statement: 
Now about sunset I was seized, along with those who were 
with me, by the soldiers, and was carried off to Taposiris. 
But by the providence of God, it happened that Timotheus 
was not present with me then, nor indeed had he been appre- 
hended at all. Reaching the place later, he found the house 
deserted, and officials keeping guard over it, and ourselves 
borne into slavery. 

3. And after some other matters, he proceeds thus : And 
what was the method of this marvellous disposition of Provi- 
dence in his case ? For the real facts shall be related. When 
Timotheus was fleeing in great perturbation, he was met 2 by 
a man from, the country. 3 This person asked the reason for 

lislied at length by Constantino, as Aurelius Victor writes. They were 
subordinate to the judges or governors of the provinces. Thus this 
Fruinentarius mentioned here by Dionysius was deputed in obedience to 
Sabinus, the prsefectus Auyustalis. VALES. 

1 01 Ts-etllif. Musculus and Christophorsonus make it " children." 
Valesius prefers "domestics." 

2 otTrvvTtTo rig ruv %upirui>. In Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., and Savil., 
dKvivTce. is written ; in Georgius Syncellus it is &Trwr*ro. 

3 xapiruv is rendered indigenarum by Christophorsonus, and incolarum, 
" inhabitants," by the interpreter of Syncellus ; but it means rather 
" rustics." Thus in the Greek Councils the ruv yuouu irpiepiiTtpoi, pres- 


his haste, and he told him the truth plainly. Then the 
man (he was on his way at the time to take part in certain 
marriage festivities ; for it is their custom to spend the 
whole night in such gatherings), on hearing the fact, held on 
his course to the scene of the rejoicings, and went in and 
narrated the circumstances to those who were seated at the 
feast ; and with a single impulse, as if it had been at a given 
watchword, they all started up, and came on all in a rush, 
and with the utmost speed. Hurrying up to us, they raised 
a shout ; and as the soldiers who were guarding us took at 
once to flight, they came upon us, stretched as we were upon 
the bare couches (da-Tpwrav a-Kifnro^xav). For my part, as 
God knows, I took them at first to be robbers who had come 
to plunder and pillage us ; and remaining on the bedstead 
on which I was lying naked, save only that I had on my 
linen underclothing, I offered them the rest of my dress as 
it lay beside me. But they bade me get up and take my 
departure as quickly as 1 could. Then I understood the 
purpose of their coming, and cried, entreated, and implored 
them to go away and leave us alone ; and I begged that, if 
they wished to do us any good, they might anticipate those 
who led me captive, and strike off my head. And while I 
was uttering such vociferations, as those who were my com- 
rades and partners in all these things know, they began to 
lift me up by force. And I threw myself down on my back 
upon the ground ; but they seized me by the hands and feet, 
and dragged me away, and bore me forth. And those who 
were witnesses of all these things followed me, namely, 
Caius, Faustus, Peter, and Paul. These men also took me 
up, and hurried me off l out of the little town, and set me 
on an ass without saddle, and in that fashion carried me 

byteri pagorum, are named. Instead of xupnav, Codices Maz., Med., 
and Fuk. read xuptxuv ; for thus the Alexandrians named the country 
people, as we see in the tractate of Sophronius against Dioscorus, and 
the Chronicon of Theophanes, p. 139. 

1 (popB/)f ffcyyuyov. The tpoputiw may mean, as Valesius puts it, in 
sella, " on a stool or litter." 


4. I fear that I run the risk of being charged ith great 
folly and senselessness, placed as I am under the necessity 
of giving a narrative of the wonderful dispensation of God's 
providence in our case. Since, however, as one says, it is 
good to keep close the secret of a king, but it is h nourable 
to reveal the works of God, 1 I shall come to close quarters 
with the violence of Germanus. I came to ^Emilianus not 
alone ; for there accompanied me also my co-presbyter Maxi- 
mus, and the deacons Faustus and Eusebius and Chseremon ; 
and one of the brethren who had come from Rome went also 
with us. uiEmilianus, then, did not lead off by saying to 
me, " Hold no assemblies." That was indeed a thing super- 
fluous for him to do, and the last thing which one woult. 
do who meant to go back to what was first and of prime 
importance : 2 for his concern was not about our gathering 
others together in assembly, but about our not being Chris- 
tians ourselves. From this, therefore, he comman ded me to 
desist, thinking, doubtless, that if I myself should recant, the 
others would also follow me in that. But I answered him 
neither unreasonably nor in many words, u We must obey 
God rather than men." 3 Moreover, I testified openly that 
I worshipped the only true God and none other, and that 
I could neither alter that position nor ever cease to be a 
Christian. Thereupon he ordered us to go away to a village 
near the desert, called Cephro. 

5. Hear also the words which were uttered by both of us 
as they have been put on record (vire^vripaTLa-dri), When 
Dionysius, and Faustus, and Maxinms, and Marcellus, and 
Chffiremon had been placed at the bar, ^Emilianus, as pre- 
fect, said : " I have reasoned with you verily in free speech 
(tt7/3a<&>9), on the clemency of our sovereigns, as they have 
suffered you to experience it ; for they have given you 

1 Tobit xii. 7. 

2 TO T&ivTwov (vl TO vptoTov dvaTp!%ovT<, i.e. to begin by interdicting 
him from holding Christian assemblies, while the great question was 
whether he was a Christian at all, would have been to place first what 
was last in order and consequence. 

a Acts v. 29. 



power to save yourselves, if you are disposed to turn to 
what is accordant with nature, and to worship the gods who 
also maintain them in their kingdom, and to forget those 
things which are repugnant to nature. What say ye then 
to these things ? for I by no means expect that you will be 
ungrateful to them for their clemency, since indeed what 
they aim at is to bring you over to better courses." Diony- 
sius made reply thus : " All men do not worship all the gods, 
but different men worship different objects that they suppose 
to be true gods. Now we worship the one God, who is the 
Creator of all things, and the very Deity who has com- 
mitted the sovereignty to the hands of their most sacred 
majesties Valerian and Gallienus. Him we both reverence 
and worship ; and to Him we pray continually on behalf of 
the sovereignty of these princes, that it may abide unshaken." 
-ZEmilianus, as prefect, said to them : " But who hinders you 
from worshipping this god too, if indeed he is a god, along 
with those who are gods by nature ? for you have been com- 
manded to worship the gods, and those gods whom all know 
as such." Dionysius replied : " We worship no other one." 
^Emilianus, as prefect, said to them: "I perceive that you 
are at once ungrateful to and insensible of the clemency of 
our princes. Wherefore you shall not remain in this city ; 
but you shall be despatched to the parts of Libya, and 
settled in a place called Cephro : for of this place I have 
made choice in accordance with the command of our princes. 
It shall not in any wise be lawful for you or for any others, 
either to hold assemblies or to enter those places which are 
called cemeteries. And if any one is seen not to have 
betaken himself to this place whither I have ordered him 
to repair, or if he be discovered in any assembly, he will 
prepare peril for himself ; for the requisite punishment will 
not fail. Be off, therefore, to the place whither you have 
been commanded to go." So he forced me away, sick as 
I was ; nor did he grant me the delay even of a single day. 
What opportunity, then, had I to think either of holding 
assemblies, or of not holding them ? l 
1 Germanus had accused Dionysius of neglecting to hold the assera- 


6. Tlien after some other matters he says : Moreover, we 
did not withdraw from the visible assembling of ourselves to- 
gether, with the Lord's presence (ata&frifl pera rov Kvplov 
avvayayfjs). But those in the city I tried to gather together 
with all the greater zeal, as if I were present with them ; for 
I was absent indeed in the body, as I said, 1 but present in 
the spirit. And in Cephro indeed a considerable church 
sojourned with us, composed partly of the brethren who fol- 
lowed us from the city, and partly of those who joined us 
from Egypt. There, too, did God open to us a door for the 
word. And at first we were persecuted, we were stoned ; but 
after a period some few of the heathen forsook their idols, and 
turned to God. For by our means the word was then sown 
among them for the first time, and before that they had never 
received it. And as if to show that this had been the very 
purpose of God in conducting us to them, when we had ful- 
filled this ministry, He led us away again. For -ZEmilianus 
was minded to remove us to rougher parts, as it seemed, and 
to more Libyan-like districts ; and he gave orders to draw all 
in every direction into the Mareotic territory, and assigned 
villages to each party throughout the country. But he issued 
instructions that we should be located specially by the public 
way, so that we might also be the first to be apprehended 
(r)/u.a<; Se fiaXXov ev 6Sc5 KCLI TrpatTovs /caraA^^O'o/Aei/oi;? 
eTagev) ; for he evidently made his arrangements and plans 
with a view to an easy seizure of all of us whenever he 
should make up his mind to lay hold of us. 

7. Now when I received the command to depart to Cephro, 
I had no idea of the situation of the place, and had scarcely 
even heard its name before ; yet for all that, I went away 

blies of the brethren before the persecution broke out, and of rather 
providing for his own safety by flight. For when persecution burst on 
them, the bishops were wont first to convene the people, in order to 
exhort them to hold fast the faith of Christ ; then infants and catechu- 
mens were baptized, to provide against their departing this life without 
baptism, and the Eucharist was given to the faithful. VALES. 

1 us tl-Trov. Codices Maz. and Med. give fineiy, "so to speak;" 
Fuk. and Savil. give ug &KIV 6 aTroWoAo?, " as the apostle said." See 
on 1 Cor. v. 3. 


courageously and calmly. But when word was brought me 
that I had to remove to the parts of Colluthion, 1 those pre- 
sent know how I was affected ; for here I shall be my own 
accuser. At first, indeed, I was greatly vexed, and took it 
very ill ; for though these places happened to be better 
known and more familiar to us, yet people declared that the 
region was one destitute of brethren, and even of men of 
character, and one exposed to the annoyances of travellers 
and to the raids of robbers. I found comfort, however, when 
the brethren reminded me that it was nearer the city ; and 
while Cephro brought us large intercourse with brethren of 
all sorts who came from Egypt, so that we were able to hold 
our sacred assemblies on a more extensive scale, yet there, 
on the other hand, as the city was in the nearer vicinity, we 
could enjoy more frequently the sight of those who were the 
really beloved, and in closest relationship with us, and dearest 
to us : for these would come and take their rest among us, 
and, as in the more remote suburbs, there would be distinct 
and special meetings. 2 And thus it turned out. 

8. Then, after some other matters, he gives again the fol- 
lowing account of what befell him: Germanus, indeed, boasts 

?, supplying ftspn, as Dionysius has already used the 
phrase T fiipv TJJ? Aifivyf. This was a district in the Mareotic prefec- 
ture. Thus we have mention made also of T* Bovx6?.ov, a certain tract 
in Egypt, deriving its name from the old masters of the soil. Nice- 
phorus writes KoAoi^;ov, which is probably more correct ; for KoAAot/0/i> 
is a derivative from Colutho, which was a common name in Egypt. 
Thus a certain poet of note in the times of Anastasius, belonging to 
the Thebaid, was so named, as Suidas informs us. There was also a 
Coluthus, a certain schismatic, in Egypt, in the times of Athanasius, 
who is mentioned often in the Apologia ; and Gregory of Nyssa names 
him Acoluthus in his Contra Eunomium, book ii. VALES. 

2 xotrei pipes avv.yuytx.L When the suburbs were somewhat distant 
from the city, the brethren resident in them were not compelled to 
attend the meetings of the larger church, but had meetings of their own 
in a basilica, or some building suitable for the purpose. The Greeks, 
too, gave the name ffpoa.aTtiov to places at some considerable distance 
from the city, as well as to suburbs immediately connected with it. 
Thus Athanasius calls Canopus a irpoowriioy ; and so Daphne is spoken 
of as the irpotiaTftov of Antioch, Achyrona as that of Nicomedia, and 


himself of many professions (of faith). He, forsooth, is able 
to speak of many adverse things which have happened to 
him ! Can he then reckon up in his own case as many con- 
demnatory sentences (aTro^ao-et?) as we can number in ours, 
and confiscations too, and proscriptions, and spoilings of goods, 
and losses of dignities, 1 and despisings of worldly honour, and 
contemnings of the laudations of governors and councillors, 
and patient subjections to the threatenings of the adversaries 
(TWV evavTio)v aTreiXwv), and to outcries, and perils, and per- 
secutions, and a wandering life, and the pressure of difficul- 
ties, and all kinds of trouble, such as befell me in the time of 
Decius and Sabinus, 2 and such also as I have been suffering 
under the present severities of JEmilianus? But where in 
the world did Germanus make his appearance ? and what 
mention is made of him ? But I retire from this huge act of 
folly into which I am suffering myself to fall on account of 
Germanus ; and accordingly I forbear giving to the brethren, 
who already have full knowledge of these things, a particular 
and detailed narrative of all that happened. 

Septimum as that of Constantinople, though these places were distant 
some miles from the cities. From this place it is also inferred that in 
the days of Dionysius there was still but one church in Alexandria, 
where all the brethren met for devotions. But in the time of Athana- 
sius, when several churches had been built by the various bishops, the 
Alexandrians met in different places, X.U.TIX, pipo; x.l S/jj/s^eva?, as 
Athanasius says in his first Apology to Constantius ; only that on the 
great festivals, as at the paschal season and at Pentecost, the brethren 
did not meet separately, but all in the larger church, as Athanasius also 
shows us. VALES. 

1 Maximus, in the scholia to the book of Dionysius the Areopagite, De 
ccelesti hierarchia, ch. 5, states that Dionysius was by profession a rhetor 
before his conversion : 6 yovv fit-yet; &.IWVUIQS o ' Ahsj-xufipsav tiriffitOTro;, 
o <*7ro pyropav, etc. VALES. 

2 This Sabinus had been prefect of Egypt in the time of Decius ; it is of 
him that Dionysius writes in his Epistle to Fabius, which is given above. 
The ^Emilianus, prefect of Egypt, who is mentioned here, afterwards 
seized the imperial power, as Pollio writes in his Thirty Tyrants, who, 
however, calls him general (rlucem), and not prefect of Egypt. VALES. 


(Eusebius, Hist. Eccks. vii. 1, 10, 23.) 

1. But Gallus 1 did not understand the wickedness of 
Decius, nor did he note beforehand what it was that wrought 
his ruin. But he stumbled at the very stone which was 
lying before his eyes ; for when his sovereignty was in a pros- 
perous position, and when affairs were turning out according 
to his wish, 2 he oppressed those holy men who interceded 
with God on behalf of his peace and his welfare. And con- 
sequently, persecuting them, he persecuted also the prayers 
offered in his own behalf. 

2. And to John a revelation is made in like manner : 3 
" And there was given unto him," he says, " a mouth 
speaking great things, and blasphemy ; and power was 
given unto him, and forty and two months" (e^ovvia Kctl 
fAijves Tearo-aparcovraSvo).* And one finds both things to 
wonder at in Valerian's case ; and most especially has one 
to consider how different it was with him before these 
events, 5 how mild and well-disposed he was towards the 

1 Eusebius introduces this extract thus : " In an epistle to Her- 
mammon, Dionysius makes the following remarks upon Gallus" (the 

2 xa,T vwv is the reading in the Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., and 
SaviL, and adopted by Kufinus and others. But Robertas Stephanus, 
from the Codex Regius, gives x-ma, poiJ, " according to the stream," i.e. 

3 Eusebius prefaces this extract thus : " Gallus had not held the go- 
vernment two full years when he was removed, and Valerian, together 
with his son Gallienus, succeeded him. And what Dionysius has said 
of him may be learned from his Epistle to Hermammon, in which he 
makes the following statement." 

4 Rev. xiii. 5. Baronius expounds the numbers as referring to the 
period during which the persecution under Valerian continued : see him, 
under the year 257 A.D., ch. 7. 

5 The text is, xetl TOVTUV p.a.'Mvrv. T vpt etvrov a$ oSru; toff avv- 
vouv to; tjvios, etc. Gallandi emends the sentence thus : x.eil UVTOU r 
pctKta-ra, vpo rovrav, ag oi>x ovrug fffxs, ovvyotw, tag fjTMft etc. Codex 
Regius gives a$ qvio;. But Codices Maz. and Med. give tag 
while Fuk. and Savil. give ta$ -/p q 


men of God. For among the emperors who preceded him, 
there was not one who exhibited so kindly and favourable a 
disposition toward them as he did ; yea, even those who 
were said to have become Christians openly 1 did not re- 
ceive them with that extreme friendliness and graciousness 
with which he received them at the beginning of his reign ; 
and his whole house was filled then with the pious, and it was 
itself a very church of God. But the master and president 
(dpXiavvd'ywyosJ of the Magi of Egypt 2 prevailed on him 
to abandon that course, urging him to slay and persecute 
those pure and holy men as adversaries and obstacles to 
their accursed and abominable incantations. For there are, 
indeed, and there were men who, by their simple presence, 
and by merely showing themselves, and by simply breathing 
and uttering some words, have been able to dissipate the 
artifices of wicked demons. But he put it into his mind to 
practise the impure rites of initiation, and detestable jug- 
gleries, and execrable sacrifices, and to slay miserable chil- 
dren, and to make oblations of the offspring of unhappy 
fathers, and to divide the bowels of the newly-born, and to 
mutilate and cut up the creatures made by God, as if by 
such means they 3 would attain to blessedness. 

1 He means the Emperor Philip, who, as many of the ancients have 
recorded, was the first of the Koman emperors to profess the Christian 
religion. But as Dionysius speaks in the plural number, to Philip may 
be added Alexander Severus, who had an image of Christ in the chapel 
of his Lares, as Lampridius testifies, and who favoured and sustained 
the Christians during the whole period of his empire. It is to be noted 
further, that Dionysius says of these emperors only that they were said 
and thought to be Christians, not that they were so in reality. 

2 Baronius thinks that this was that Magus who, a little while before 
the empire of Decius, had incited the Alexandrians to persecute the 
Christians, and of whom Dionysius speaks in his Epistle to Fabius. 
What follows here, however, shows that Macrianus is probably the 
person alluded to. 

3 futictiftov/iaoiiTots. So Codices Maz., Med., Fuk., and Savil. read 
others give iiia.ipQvwet,vri*s. It would seem to require tHaipoyqaovTct. 
"as if he would attain ;" for the reference is evidently to Valerian 


3. Afterwards he subjoins the following : Splendid surely 
were the thank-offerings, then, which Macrianus brought 
them 1 for that empire which was the object of his hopes ; 
who, while formerly reputed as the sovereign's faithful public 
treasurer, 2 had yet no mind for anything which was either 
reasonable in itself or conducive to the public good, 3 but 
subjected himself to that curse of prophecy which says, 
" Woe unto those who prophesy from their own heart, and 
see not the public good!" 4 For he did not discern that 
providence which regulates all things ; nor did he think of 
the judgment of Him who is before all, and through all, 
and over all. Wherefore he also became an enemy to His 
catholic church ; and besides that, he alienated and estranged 
himself from the mercy of God, and fled to the utmost pos- 
sible distance from His salvation. 5 And in this indeed he 
demonstrated the reality of the peculiar significance of his 
name. 6 

4. And again, after some other matters, he proceeds thus: 
For Valerian was instigated to these acts by this man, and 
was thereby exposed to contumely and reproach, according 

1 By the TO<? some understand ro7; Pxaifowt ; others better, TO<V 
laifioai. According to Valesius, the sense is this : that Macrianus having, 
by the help and presages of the demons, attained his hope of empire, 
made a due return to them, by setting Valerian in arms against the 

2 tvi -run xaOfaov Koyav. The Greeks gave this name to those officials 
whom the Latins called rationales, or procurators summx rei. Under 
what emperor Macrianus was procurator, is left uncertain here. 

3 ovfev tfaoyov ovSg xetdohinov ttHpovYiaty. There is a play here on the 
two senses of the word x0oX/xoV, as seen in the official title \ic\ TU 
x.a.dfaov "hdyuv, and in the note of character in ovls xadohixov. But it 
can scarcely be reproduced in the English. 

4 ovsti rots Trpotpyrfvovatv diro Kpbtg etitrav x.a.1 TO xet&faov fty /3Ae- 
wovaiv. The quotation is probably from Ezek. xiii. 3, of which Jerome 
gives this interpretation : Vae his qui prophetant ex corde suo et omnino 
non vident. 

5 Robertus Stephanus edits -7% tavrov ix,x.'hYia<;, " from his church," 
following the Codex Medicseus. But the best manuscripts give au- 

6 A play upon the name Macrianus, as connected with pxtpciv, " at 
a distance." 


to the word spoken (by the Lord) to Isaiah : " Yea, they 
have chosen their own ways, and their own abominations in 
which their soul delighted ; I also will choose their mockeries 
(e/jLTraiyfj-ara), and will recompense their sin." 1 But this 
man 2 (Macrianus), being maddened with his passion for the 
empire, all unworthy of it as he was, and at the same time 
having no capacity for assuming the insignia of imperial go- 
vernment (TOV ftacri\iov vTroBvvat tc6(r/j.ov), by reason of his 
crippled (avaTrijpa)) body, 3 put forward his two sons as the 
bearers, so to speak, of their father's offences. For unmis- 
takeably apparent in their case was the truth of that declara- 
tion made by God, when He said, " Visiting the iniquities 
of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth 
generation of them that hate me." For he heaped his own 
wicked passions, for which he had failed in securing satis- 
faction, 4 upon the heads of his sons, and thus wiped off 
(e'o>/iopaTo) upon them his own wickedness, and trans- 
ferred to them, too, the hatred he himself had shown toward 

5. 5 That man, 6 then, after he had betrayed the one and 
made war upon the other of the emperors preceding him, 
speedily perished, with his whole family, root and branch. 
And Gallienus was proclaimed, and acknowledged by all. 

1 Isa. Ixvi. 3, 4. 

2 Christophorsonus refers this to Valerian. But evidently the ovro; 81 
introduces a different subject in Macrianus ; and besides, Valerian 
could not be said to have been originally unworthy of the power which 
he aspired to. 

8 Joannes Zonaras, in his Annals, states that Macrianus was lame. 

4 av fai/xti. So Codex Regius reads. But Codices Maz., Med., and 
Fuk. give WTI>X 'I " in which he succeeded." 

5 Eusebius introduces the extract thus : He (Dionysius) addressed 
also an epistle to Hermammon and the brethren in Egypt ; and after 
giving an account of the wickedness of Decius and his successors, he 
states many other circumstances, and also mentions the peace of Gal- 
lienus. And it is best to hear his own relation as follows. 

6 This is rightly understood of Macrianus, by whose treachery Vale- 
rian came under the power of the Persians. Aurelius Victor, Syn- 
cellus, and others, testify that Valerian was overtaken by that calamity 
through the treachery of his generals. 


And he was at once an old emperor and a new ; for he was 
prior to those, and he also survived them. To this effect 
indeed is the word spoken (by the Lord) to Isaiah : " Be- 
hold, the things which were from the beginning have come 
to pass; and there are new things which shall now arise." 1 
For as a cloud which intercepts the sun's rays, and over- 
shadows it for a little, obscures it, and appears itself in its 
place, but again, when the cloud has passed by or melted 
away, the sun, which had risen before, comes forth again and 
shows itself : so did this Macrianus put himself forward, 2 and 
achieve access 8 for himself even to the very empire of Gallie- 
nus now established ; but now he is (that) no more, because 
indeed he never was it, while this other (Gallienus) is just as 
he was. And his empire, as if it had cast off old age, and 
had purged itself of the wickedness formerly attaching to it, 
is at present in a more vigorous and flourishing condition, 
and is now seen and heard of at greater distances, and 
stretches abroad in every direction. Then he further indi- 
cates the exact time at ivhich he wrote this account, as follows : 
And it occurs to me again to review the days of the imperial 
years. For I see that those most impious men, whose names 
may have been once so famous, have in a short space become 
nameless. But our more pious and godly prince has passed 
his septennium, and is now in his ninth year, in which we 
are to celebrate the festival. 4 

1 Isa. xlii. 9. 

2 icpwiag. But Yalesius would read vpwaTa.;, adstans. 

3 TrpoffTfreiaots is the reading of three of the codices and of Nice- 
phorus ; others give cr/sosreAaaoe?. 

4 AVho ever expressed himself thus, that one after his seven years 
was passing his ninth year? This septennium (eTrrocfTYipi's) must de- 
signate something peculiar, and different from the time following it. 
It is therefore the septennium of imperial power which he had held 
along with his father. In the eighth year of that empire, Macrianus 
possessed himself of the imperial honour specially in Egypt. After his 
assumption of the purple, however, Gallienus had still much authority 
in Egypt. At length, in the ninth year of Gallienus, that is, in 261, 
Macrianus the father and the two sons being slain, the sovereignty of 
Gallienus was recognised also among the Egyptians. And then Gal- 
lieiius gave a rescript to Dionysius, Pinna, and Demetrius, bishops of 



(Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. vii. 22.) 

1. To other men, indeed, the present state of matters would 
not appear to offer a fit season for a festival : and this cer- 
tainly is no festal time to them ; nor, in sooth, is any other 
that to them. And I say this, not only of occasions mani- 
festly sorrowful, 2 but even of all occasions whatsoever which 
people might consider to be most joyous. 3 And now cer- 
tainly all things are turned to mourning, and all men are in 
grief, and lamentations resound through the city, by reason 
of the multitude of the dead and of those who are dying 
day by day. For as it is written in the case of the first- 
born of the Egyptians, so now too a great cry has arisen. 

Egypt, to re-establish the sacred places, a boon which he had granted 
in the former year. The ninth year of Gallienus, moreover, began about 
the midsummer of this year ; and the time at which this letter was 
written by Dionysius, as Eusebius observes, may be gathered from 
that, and falls consequently before the paschal season of 202 A.D. 
PEARSON, p. 72. GALL. 

1 Eusebius prefaces the 21st chapter of his seventh book thus : 
"When peace had scarcely yet been established, he (Dionysius) returned 
to Alexandria. But when sedition and war again broke out, and made 
it impossible for him to have access to all the brethren in that city, 
divided as they then were into different parties, he addressed them 
again by an epistle at the passover, as if he were still an exile from 
Alexandria." Then he inserts the epistle to Hierax ; and thereafter, in 
ch. xxii., introduces the present excerpt thus : After these events, the 
pestilence succeeding the war, and the festival being now at hand, he 
again addressed the brethren by letters, in which he gave the following 
description of the great troubles connected with that calamity. 

2 oi/x ova; tuv tTft^v-Trav is the reading of Codices Maz., Med., and 
Savil.; others give, less correctly, JwAoiVyj<. 

3 The text gives, aXA' ov"S si' TU; z-spixctpvi; ov oiYidiliv |M7u<n-a, which 
is put probably for the more regular construction, Sv OI'OIVTO v ^.cthimac. 
Kipixctpi/i. Nicephorus reads, 11 ? xtpixotnvi; uv olydsim. The idea is, 
that the heathen could have no real festal time. All seasons, those 
apparently most joyous, no less than those evidently sorrowful, must 
be times void of all real rejoicing to them, until they learn the grace 
of God. 


" For there is not a house in \vhich there is not one dead." l 
And would that even this were all ! 

2. Many terrible calamities, it is true, have also befallen 
us before this. For first they drove us away ; and though 
we were quite alone, and pursued by all, and in the way of 
being slain, we kept our festival, even at such a time. And 
every place that had been the scene of some of the succes- 
sive sufferings which befell any of us, became a seat for our 
solemn assemblies, the field, the desert, the ship, the inn, 
the prison, all alike. The most gladsome festival of all, 
however, has been celebrated by those perfect martyrs who 
have sat down at the feast in heaven. And after these 
things war and famine surprised us. These were calamities 
which we shared, indeed, with the heathen. But we had also 
to bear by ourselves alone those ills with which they out- 
raged us, and we had at the same time to sustain our part 
in those things which they either did to each other or 
suffered at each other's hands ; while again we rejoiced 
deeply in that peace of Christ which He imparted to us 

3. And after we and they together had enjoyed a very 
brief season of rest, this pestilence next assailed us, a 
calamity truly more dreadful to them than all other objects 
of dread, and more intolerable than any other kind of 
trouble whatsoever ; 2 and a misfortune which, as a certain 
writer of their own declares, alone prevails over all hope. 
To us, however, it was not so ; but in no less measure than 
other ills it proved an instrument for our training and pro- 
bation. For it by no means kept aloof from us, although it 
spread with greatest violence among the heathen. To these 

1 Ex. xii. 30. 

2 Dionysius is giving a sort of summary of all the calamities which 
befell the Alexandrian church from the commencement of his episcopal 
rule : namely, first, persecution, referring to that which began in the 
last year of the reign of Philip ; then war, meaning the civil war of 
which he speaks in his Epistle to Fabius ; then pestilence, alluding to 
the sickness which began in the time of Decius, and traversed the land 
under Callus and Volusianus. VALES. 


statements he in due succession makes this addition : Cer- 
tainly very many of our brethren, while, in their exceeding 
love and brotherly-kindness, they did not spare themselves, 
but kept by each other, and visited the sick without thought 
of their own peril, and ministered to them assiduously, and 
treated them for their healing in Christ, died from time to 
time most joyfully along with them, lading themselves with 
pains derived from others, and drawing upon themselves their 
neighbours' diseases, and willingly taking over to their own 
persons the burden of the sufferings of those around them 
(avafjiao-cro/jievoi ra<? a\yrjB6va<; 1 ). And many who had 
thus cured others of their sicknesses, and restored them to 
strength, died themselves, having transferred to their own 
bodies the death that lay upon these. And that common 
saying, which else seemed always to be only a polite form of 
address, 2 they expressed in actual fact then, as they departed 
this life, like the offscourings (irepi-^fjia) of all. Yea, the 
very best of our brethren have departed this life in this 
manner, including some presbyters and some deacons, and 
among the people those who were in highest reputation : so 
that this very form of death, in virtue of the distinguished 
piety and the stedfast faith which were exhibited in it, ap- 
peared to come in nothing beneath martyrdom itself. 

4. And they took the bodies of the saints on their up- 
turned hands (uTm'ai? ^epo-t), and on their bosoms, and 
closed (fcadaipovvT<i) their eyes, and shut their mouths. 
And carrying them in company (opofopovvres}, and laying 
them out decently, they clung to them, and embraced them, 
and prepared them duly with washing and with attire. And 
then in a little while after they had the same services done 

1 Some make this equivalent to miligantes. It means properly to 
*' wipe off," and so to become " responsible" for. Here it is used ap- 
parently to express much the same idea as the two preceding clauses. 

2 {&MYI; QihotppoyiiiiYif s%tadat. The phrase Tripi'^/Yif^ec vxvruu refers to 
1 Cor. iv. 13. Valesius supposes that among the Alexandrians it may 
have been a humble and complimentary form of salutation, iyu tlpi 
z-tptyyifiti cov ; or that the expression -rfoiTj/yftx vmuv had come to be 
habitually applied to the Christians by the heathen. 


for themselves, as those who survived were ever following 
those who departed before them. But among the heathen 
all was the very reverse. For they thrust aside any who 
began to be sick, and kept aloof even from their dearest 
friends, and cast the sufferers out upon the public roads 
half dead, and left them unburied, and treated them with 
utter contempt when they died, steadily avoiding any kind 
of communication and intercourse with death ; which, how- 
ever, it was not easy for them altogether to escape, in spite 
of the many precautions they employed. 

(Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. vii. 21.) 

1. But what wonder should there be if I find it difficult 
to communicate by letter with those who are settled in remote 
districts, when it seems beyond my power even to reason 
with myself, and to take counsel with (or, for) my own soul? 
For surely epistolary communications are very requisite for 
me with those who are, as it were, my own bowels, my 
closest associates, and my brethren one in soul with myself, 
and members, too, of the same church. And yet no way 
opens up by which I can transmit such addresses. Easier, 
indeed, would it be for one, I do not say merely to pass be- 
yond the limits of the province, but to cross from east to west, 
than to travel from this same Alexandria to Alexandria. 
For the most central pathway in this city 2 is vaster 3 and 
more impassable even than that extensive and untrodden 
desert which Israel only traversed in two generations ; and 
our smooth and waveless harbours have become an image of 

1 The preface to this extract in Eusebius is as follows: " After this he 
(Dionysius) wrote also another paschal epistle to Hierax, a bishop in 
Egypt, in which he makes the following statement about the sedition 
then prevailing at Alexandria." 

2 ptau.rra.T-n TJjj irofoa;. Codex Regius gives -ruv -xfasuv. The sedi- 
tion referred to as thus dividing Alexandria is probably that which 
broke out when -<Emilianus seized the sovereignty in Alexandria. See 
Pollio's Thirty Tyrants. 

8 tZviipos. But Codices Fuk. and Savil. give ax-opo;, " impracticable." 


that sea through which the people drove, at the time when 
it divided itself and stood up like walls on either side, and in 
whose thoroughfare the Egyptians were drowned. For often 
they have appeared like the Red Sea, in consequence of the 
slaughter perpetrated in them. The river, too, which flows 
by the city, has sometimes appeared drier than the waterless 
desert, and more parched than that wilderness in which 
Israel was so overcome with thirst on their journey, that 
they kept crying out against Moses, and the water was made 
to stream for them from the precipitous 1 rock by the power 
of Him who alone doeth wondrous things. And sometimes, 
again, it has risen in such flood-tide, that it has overflowed 
all the country round about, and the roads, and the fields, as 
if it threatened to bring upon us once more that deluge of 
waters which occurred in the days of Noah. 

2. But now it always flows onward, polluted with blood 
and slaughters and the drowning struggles of men, just as 
it did of old, when on Pharaoh's account it was changed 
by Moses into blood, and made putrid. And what other 
liquid could cleanse water, which itself cleanses all things ? 
How could that ocean, so vast and impassable for men, 
though poured out on it, ever purge this bitter sea? Or 
how could even that great river which streams forth from 
Eden ('ESe/i), though it were to discharge the four heads 
into which it is divided into the one channel of the Gihon, 2 
wash away these pollutions ? Or when will this air, befouled 
as it is by noxious exhalations which rise in every direction, 
become pure again ? For there are such vapours sent forth 
from the earth, and such blasts from the sea, and breezes 
from the rivers, and reeking mists from the harbours, that 
for dew we might suppose ourselves to have the impure 
fluids (t^copa?) of the corpses which are rotting in all the 
underlying elements. And yet, after all this, men are 
amazed, and are at a loss to understand whence come these 
constant pestilences, whence these terrible diseases, whence 
these many kinds of fatal inflictions, whence all that large 

1 dx.poT6ft.ov. It may perhaps mean " smitten" here. 

2 Written Y-nuv in Codex Alexandrinus, but Ttuv in Codex Vaticanus. 


and multiform destruction of human life, and what reason 
there is why this mighty city no longer contains within 
it as great a number of inhabitants, taking all parties 
into account, from tender children up to those far ad- 
vanced in old age, as once it maintained of those alone 
whom it called hale old men (wpoyepovra^). But those 
from forty years of age up to seventy were so much more 
numerous then, that their number cannot be made up now 
even when those from fourteen to eighty years of age have 
been added to the roll and register of persons who are re- 
cipients of the public allowances of grain. And those who 
are youngest in appearance have now become, as it were, 
equals in age with those who of old were the most aged. 
And yet, although they thus see the human race constantly 
diminishing and wasting away upon the earth, they have no 
trepidation in the midst of this increasing and advancing 
consumption and annihilation of their own number. 


(From the Sacred Paralkls of John of Damascus, Works ii. p. 753 C, 
edit. Paris. 1712.) 


Love is altogether and for ever on the alert, and casts 
about to do some good even to one who is unwilling to 
receive it. And many a time the man who shrinks from 
it under a feeling of shame, and who declines to accept 
services of kindness on the ground of unwillingness to 
become troublesome to others, and who chooses rather to 
bear the burden of his own grievances than cause annoy- 

1 ix, TSJ? 3' fopTcurrtxys Iviaro^c:. In his Ecclesiastical History, book 
vii. ch. 20, Eusebius says : " In addition to these epistles, the same 
Dionysius also composed others about this time, designated his Festival 
Epistles, and in these he says much in commendation of the paschal 
feast. One of these he addressed to Flavius, and another to Domitius 
and Didymus, in which he gives the canon for eight years, and shows 
that the paschal feast ought not to be kept until the passing of the 
vernal equinox. And besides these, he wrote another epistle to his co- 
presbyters at Alexandria." 


ance and anxiety to any one, is importuned by the man who 
is full of love to bear with his aids, and to suffer himself 
to be helped by another, though it might be as one sustain- 
ing a wrong, and thus to do a very great service, not to 
himself, but to another, in permitting that other to be the 
agent in putting an end to the ill in which he has been 




(See, in the Bibliotheca Vcterum Putrum of Gallandi, the Appendix to 
vol. xiv., added from the manuscripts, after the editor's death, by 
an anonymous scholar.) 



JER. 1. " (The words) of the son of David, king 
of Israel in Jerusalem." 

In like manner also Matthew calls the Lord 
the son of David. 1 

3. " What profit hath a man of all his labour which he 

taketh under the sun ? " 

For what man is there who, although he may have be- 
come rich by toiling after the objects of this earth, has been 
able to make himself three cubits in stature, if he is natu- 
rally only of two cubits in stature ? Or who, if blind, has 
by these means recovered his sight? Therefore we ought 
to direct our toils to a goal beyond the sun : for thither, 
too, do the exertions of the virtues reach. 

4. " One generation passeth away, and another genera- 

tion cometh : but the earth abideth for ever " (unto 
the age). 

Yes, unto the age (et<? rov auura), but not unto the ages 
(64? Tou? at'eom?). 

16. "I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I 
am come to great estate, and have gotten more wis- 
1 Matt. i. 1. 


dom than all they that have been before me in Jeru- 
salem ; yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom 
and knowledge. 

17. I knew parables and science: that this indeed is also 

the spirit's choice (Trpoaipecn^. 

18. For in multitude of wisdom is multitude of know- 

ledge : and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth 


I was vainly puffed up, and increased wisdom ; not the 
wisdom which God has given, but that wisdom of which 
Paul says, " The wisdom of this world is foolishness with 
God." 1 For in this Solomon had also an experience sur- 
passing prudence, and above the measure of all the ancients. 
Consequently he shows the vanity of it, as what follows in 
like manner demonstrates : " And my heart uttered 2 many 
things : I knew wisdom, and knowledge, and parables, and 
sciences." But this was not the genuine wisdom or know- 
ledge, but that which, as Paul says, puffeth up. He spake, 
moreover, as it is written, 3 three thousand parables. But 
these were not parables of a spiritual kind, but only such as 
fit the common polity of men ; as, for instance, utterances 
about animals or medicines. For which reason he has added 
in a tone of raillery, " I knew that this also is the spirit's 
choice." He speaks also of the multitude of knowledge, not 
the knowledge of the Holy Spirit, but that which the prince 
of this world works, and which he conveys to men in order 
to overreach their souls, with officious questions as to the 
measures of heaven, the position of earth, the bounds of 
the sea. But he says also, " He that increaseth knowledge 
increaseth sorrow." For they search even into things deeper 
than these, inquiring, for example, what necessity there is 
for fire to go upward, and for water to go downward ; and 
when they have learned that it is because the one is light 
and the other heavy, they do but increase sorrow : for the 
question still remains, Why might it not be the very reverse ? 

1 1 Cor. iii. 19. 

2 slm, for which sIBs, " discerned," is suggested. 

3 1 Kings iv. 32. 



Ver. 1. "I said in mine heart, Go to now, make trial as in 
mirth, and behold in good. And this, too, is vanity." 

For it was for the sake of trial, and in accordance with 
what comes by the loftier and the severe life, that he entered 
into pleasure. And he makes mention of the mirth, which 
men call so. And he says, "in good," referring to what 
men call good things, which are not capable of giving life 
to their possessor, and which make the man who engages 
in them vain like themselves. 

2. " I said of laughter, It is mad (irepL^opdv) ; and of 

mirth, What doest thout" 

Laughter has a twofold madness ; because madness begets 
laughter, and does not allow the sorrowing for sins ; and also 
because a man of that sort is possessed with madness (Trepi- 
(freperai), in the confusing of seasons, and places, and per- 
sons. For he flees from those who sorrow. " And to mirth, 
What doest thou?" Why dost thou repair to those who are 
not at liberty to be merry? Why to the drunken, and the 
avaricious, and the rapacious ? And why this phrase, " as 
wine " (to? olvov) 1 Because wine makes the heart merry ; 
and it acts upon the poor in spirit. The flesh, however, 
also makes the heart merry, when it acts in a regular and 
moderate fashion. 

3. " And my heart directed me in wisdom, and to over- 

come in mirth, until I should know what is that 
good thing to the sons of men which they shall do 
under the sun for the number of the days of their 

Being directed, he says, by wisdom, I overcame pleasures 
in mirth. Moreover, for me the aim of knowledge was to 
occupy myself with nothing vain, but to find the good ; for 
if a person finds that, he does not miss the discernment also 
of the profitable. The sufficient is also the opportune (or, 
temporary), and is commensurate with the length of life. 

4. " I made me great works ; I builded me houses ; I 

planted me vineyards. 


5. I made me gardens and orchards. 

6. I made me pools of water, that by these I might rear 

woods producing trees. 

7. I got me servants and maidens, and had servants born 

in my house ; also I had large possessions of great 
arid small cattle above all that were in Jerusalem 
before me. 

8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar 

treasure of kings and of the provinces. I gat me 
men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of 
the sons of men, as cups and the cupbearer. 

9. And I was great, and increased more than all that 

were before me in Jerusalem : also my wisdom re- 
mained with me. 

10. And whatsoever mine eyes desired, I kept not from 
them ; I withheld not my heart from any pleasure." 

You see how he reckons up a multitude of houses and 
fields, and the other things which he mentions, and then finds 
nothing profitable in them. For neither was he any better 
in soul by reason of these things, nor by their means did he 
gain friendship with God. Necessarily he is led to speak 
also of the true riches and the abiding property. Being 
minded, therefore, to show what kinds of possessions remain 
with the possessor, and continue steadily and maintain them- 
selves for him, he adds : " Also my wisdom remained with 
me." For this alone remains, and all these other things, which 
he has already reckoned up, flee away and depart. Wisdom, 
therefore, remained with me, and I remained in virtue of it. 
For those other things fall, and also cause the fall of the very 
persons who run after them. But, with the intention of insti- 
tuting a comparison between wisdom and those things which 
are held to be good among men, he adds these words, " And 
whatsoever mine eyes desired, I kept not from them," and 
so forth ; whereby he describes as evil, not only those toils 
which they endure who toil in gratifying themselves with 
pleasures, but those, too, which by necessity and constraint 
men have to sustain for their maintenance day by day, labour- 
ing at their different occupations in the sweat of their faces. 


For the labour, he says, is great; but the art (re^vrj) by the 
labour is temporary, adding 1 nothing serviceable among 
things that please. Wherefore there is no profit. For where 
there is no excellence there is no profit. With reason, there- 
fore, are the objects of such solicitude but vanity, and the 
spirit's choice. Now this name of " spirit " he gives to the 
" soul." For choice is a quality, not a motion (TTOIOV ov 
Kiwr)<ri<;). And David says : " Into Thy hands I commit my 
spirit." 2 And in good truth " did my wisdom remain with 
me," for it made me know and understand, so as to enable 
me to speak of all that is not advantageous (Trepiacreia) 
under the sun. \ If, therefore, we desire the righteously 
profitable, if we seek the truly advantageous, if it is our aim 
to be incorruptible, let us engage in those labours which 
reach beyond the sun. For in these there is no vanity, 
and there is not the choice of a spirit at once inane and 
hurried hither and thither to no purpose. 

12. " And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and mad- 

ness, and folly : for what man is there that shall 
come after counsel in all those things which it has 
done?" (09 eXeva-erat OTT/O-GJ T?}? (3ov\rj$ <TV/jt,7ravTa 
oaa cTTOirjcrev avrrj ;) 

He means the wisdom which comes from God, and which 
also remained with him. And by madness and folly he de- 
signates all the labours of men, and the vain and silly plea- 
sure they have in them. Distinguishing these, therefore, and 
their measure, and blessing the true wisdom, he has added: 
"For what man is there that shall come after counsel?" 
For this counsel instructs us in the wisdom that is such in- 
deed, and gifts us with deliverance from madness and folly. 

13. " Then I saw that wisdom excelleth folly, as much as 

light excelleth darkness." 

He does not say this in the way of comparison. For 
things which are contrary to each other, and mutually de- 
structive, cannot be compared. But his decision was, that 
the one is to be chosen, and the other avoided. To like 
effect is the saying, " Men loved darkness rather than 
1 Beading vpooTtSilaa, for xptTtSiiaa. 2 Ps. xxxi. 5. 


light." l For the term rather in that passage expresses the 
choice of the person loving, and not the comparison of the 
objects themselves. 

14. " The wise man's eyes are in his head, but the fool 
walketh in darkness." 

That man always inclines earthward, he means, and has 
the ruling faculty (TO j^ye/io^/cov) darkened. It is true, 
indeed, that we men have all of us our eyes in our head, if 
we speak of the mere disposition of the body. But he speaks 
here of the eyes of the mind. For as the eyes of the swine 
do not turn naturally up towards heaven, just because it is 
made by nature to have an inclination toward the belly ; so 
the mind of the man who has once been enervated by plea- 
sures is not easily diverted from the tendency thus assumed, 
because he has not " respect unto all the commandments of 
the Lord." 2 Again : " Christ is the head of the church." 8 
And they, therefore, are the wise who walk in His way ; for 
He Himself has said, " I am the way." 4 On this account, 
then, it becomes the wise man always to keep the eyes of his 
mind directed toward Christ Himself, in order that he may 
do nothing out of measure, neither being lifted up in heart 
in the time of prosperity, nor becoming negligent in the 
day of adversity : " for His judgments are a great deep," 5 
as you will learn more exactly from what is to follow. 

14. " And I perceived myself also that one event happeneth 

to them all. 

15. Then said I in my heart, As it happeneth to the 

fool, so it happeneth even to me ; and why was I 

then more wise ? " 

The run of the discourse in what follows deals with those 
who are of a mean spirit as regards this present life, and 
in whose judgment the article of death and all the anomalous 
pains of the body are a kind of dreaded evil, and who on 
this account hold that there is no profit in a life of virtue, 
because there is no difference made in ills like these between 
the wise man and the fool. He speaks consequently of these 

1 John iii. 19. * Ps. cxix. 6. Eph. v. 23. 

4 John xiv. 6. c Ps. xxxvi. 6. 


as the words of a madness inclining to utter senselessness ; 
whence he also adds this sentence, " For the fool talks over- 
much " (e/c 7repia(revjjiaTo$) ; and by the " fool " here lie 
means himself, and every one who reasons in that way. 
Accordingly he condemns this absurd way of thinking. And 
for the same reason he has given utterance to such senti- 
ments in the fears of his heart ; and dreading the righteous 
condemnation of those who are to be heard, he solves the 
difficulty in its pressure by his own reflections. For this 
word, " Why was I then wise ? " was the word of a man in 
doubt and difficulty whether what is expended on wisdom 
is done well or to no purpose ; and whether there is no 
difference between the wise man and the fool in point of 
advantage, seeing that the former is involved equally with 
the latter in the same sufferings which happen in this 
present world. And for this reason he says, " I spake over 
largely (Trepicrtrov) in my heart," in thinking that there is 
no difference between the wise man and the fool. 

16. "For there is no remembrance of the wise equally 
with the fool for ever." 

For the events that happen in this life are all transitory, 
be they even the painful incidents, of which he says, "As all 
things now are consigned to oblivion" (KaOort, 77877 ra iravra 
eVeXTJcr^). For after a short space has passed by, all the 
things that befall men in this life perish in forgetfulness. 
Yea, the very persons to whom these things have happened 
are not remembered all in like manner, even although they 
may have gone through like chances in life. For they are 
not remembered for these, but only for what they may have 
evinced of wisdom or folly, virtue or vice. The memories of 
such are not extinguished (equally) among men in consequence 
of the changes of lot befalling them. Wherefore he has added 
this : " And how shall the wise man die along with the fool? 
The death of sinners, indeed, is evil : yet the memory of the 
just is blessed, but the name of the wicked is extinguished." 1 

22. " For that falls to man in all his labour." 

In truth, to those who occupy their minds with the dis- 
1 Prov. x. 7. 


tractions of life, life becomes a painful thing, which, as it 
were, wounds the heart with its goads, that is, with the 
lustful desires of increase. And sorrowful also is the soli- 
citude connected with covetousness : it does not so much 
gratify those who are successful in it, as it pains those who 
are unsuccessful ; while the day is spent in laborious anxie- 
ties, and the night puts sleep to flight from the eyes, with 
the cares of making gain. Vain, therefore, is the zeal of 
the man who looks to these things. 

24. u And there is nothing good for a man, but what he 

eats and drinks, and what will show to his soul good 
in his labour. This also I saw, that it is from the 
hand of God. 

25. For who eats and drinks from his own resources'?" 

(Trap aurotJ.) 

That the discourse does not deal now with material meats, 
he will show by what follows ; namely, " It is better to go to 
the house of mourning than to go to the house of feasting." 1 
And so in the present passage he proceeds to add : " And 
(what) will show to his soul good in its labour." And surely 
mere material meats and drinks are not the soul's good. For 
the flesh, when luxuriously nurtured, wars against the soul, 
and rises in revolt against the spirit. And how should not 
intemperate eatings and drinkings also be contrary to God? a 
He speaks, therefore, of things mystical. For no one shall 
partake of the spiritual table, but one who is called by Him, 
and who has listened to the wisdom which says, " Take 
and eat." 3 


Ver. 3. " There is a time to kill, and a time to heal." 
To u kill," in the case of him who perpetrates unpardon- 
able transgression ; and to " heal," in the case of him who 
can show a wound that will bear remedy. 
4. " A time to weep, and a time to laugh." 

1 Eccles. vii. 2. 

2 The text gives, irus "hi icccl oi/x, yrxpsx. Qsov daarait fipaftdrn. y nxl (tidy. 
8 Prov. ix. 5. 


A time to .weep, when it is the time of suffering; as when 
the Lord also says, " Verily I say unto you, that ye shall 
weep and lament." 1 But to laugh, as concerns the resur- 
rection : " For your sorrow," He says, " shall be turned 

* 91 3 

into joy. 

4. " A time to mourn, and a time to dance." 
When one thinks of the death which the transgression of 
Adam brought on us, it is a time to mourn ; but it is time to 
hold festal gatherings when we call to mind the resurrection 
from the dead which we expect through the new Adam. 

6. " A time to keep, and a time to cast away." 

A time to keep the Scripture against the unworthy, and 
a time to put it forth for the worthy. Or, again : Before the 
incarnation it was a time to keep the letter of the law ; but it 
was a time to cast it away when the truth came in its flower. 

7. " A time to keep silence, and a time to speak." 

A time to speak, when there are hearers who receive the 
word ; but a time to keep silence, when the hearers pervert 
the word ; as Paul says : " A man that is an heretic, after 
the first and second admonition, reject." 3 

10. " I have seen, then, the travail which God hath given 

to the sons of men to be exercised in it. 

11. Everything that He hath made is beautiful in its 

time : and He hath set the whole world in their 

heart ; so that no man can find out the work that 

God maketh from the beginning and to the end." 

And this is true. For no one is able to comprehend the 

works of God altogether. Moreover, the world is the work of 

God. No one, then, can find out as to this world what is its 

space from the beginning and unto the end, that is to say, the 

period appointed for it, and the limits before determined 

unto it; forasmuch as God has set the whole world as 

(a realm of) ignorance in our hearts. And thus one says : 

" Declare to me the shortness of my days." 4 In this manner, 

aad for our profit, the end of this world (age) that is to say, 

this present life is a thing of which we are ignorant. 

1 Luke vi. 25 ; John xvi. 20. 2 John xvi. 20. 3 Tit. iii. 10. 
4 Ps. cii. 24, TSJJ* 6X;y6T*jTc ruv ti^.puy ftov 



CHAP. xxii. 42-48. 

Ver. 42. " Father, if Thou be willing to remove (Trapevey- 
tcelv) this cup from me : nevertheless not my will, 
but Thine, be done." 

But let these things be enough to say on the subject of the 
will. This word, however, " Let the cup pass," does not 
mean, Let it not come near me, or approach me. 1 For what 
can " pass from Him," certainly must first come nigh Him ; 
and what does pass thus from Him, must be by Him. For if 
it does not reach Him, it cannot pass from Him. For He 
takes to Himself the person of man, as having been made man. 
Wherefore also on this occasion He deprecates the doing of the 
inferior, which is His own, and begs that the superior should 
be done, which is His Father's, to wit, the divine will ; which 
again, however, in respect of the divinity, is one and the same 
will in Himself and in the Father. For it was the Father's 
will that He should pass through every trial (temptation) ; 
and the Father Himself in a marvellous manner brought 
Him on this course, not indeed with the trial itself as His 
goal, nor in order simply that He might enter into that, but 
in order that He might prove Himself to be above the trial, 
and also beyond it. 2 And surely it is the fact, that the 
Saviour asks neither what is impossible, nor what is imprac- 
ticable, nor what is contrary to the will of the Father. It is 
something possible ; for Mark makes mention of His saying, 
"Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee." 3 And 
they are possible if He wills them; for Luke tells us that He 
said, " Father, if Thou be willing, remove (frapeveyfce) this 
cup from me." The Holy Spirit, therefore, apportioned 
among the evangelists, makes up the full account of our 
Saviour's whole disposition by the expressions of these several 
narrators together. He does not, then, ask of the Father 

1 oiix, lot i. Migne suggests OVKSTI : " Let it no more come near me." 

2 /AST O.VTW. May it be, " and next to Himself" (the Father) ? 

3 Mark xiv. 36. 


what the Father wills not. For the words, " If Thou be 
willing," were demonstrative of subjection and docility (eVtei- 
fcei'as^ not of ignorance or hesitancy. For this reason, the 
other scripture says, " All things are possible unto Thee." 
And Matthew again admirably describes the submission 
and the humility 1 when he says, "If it be possible." For 
unless I adapt the sense in this way, 2 some will perhaps 
assign an impious signification to this expression, " If it be 
possible ;" as if there were anything impossible for God to 
do, except that only which He does not will to do. But . . . 
being straightway strengthened in His humanity by His 
ancestral (7rarpiKrj<;) divinity, he urges the safer petition, and 
desires no longer that that should be the case, but that it 
might be accomplished in accordance with the Father's good 
pleasure, in glory, in constancy, and in fulness. For John, 
who has given us the record of the sublimest and divinest 
of the Saviour's words and deeds, heard Him speak thus : 
" And the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not 
drink it ? " 3 Now, to drink the cup was to discharge the 
ministry and the whole ceconomy of trial with fortitude, to 
follow and fulfil the Father's determination, and to sur- 
mount all apprehensions. And the exclamation, " Why 
hast Thou forsaken me ? " was in due accordance with the 
requests He had previously made : Why is it that death 
has been in conjunction with me all along up till now, and 
that I bear not yet the cup ? This I judge to have been 
the Saviour's meaning in this concise utterance. 

And He certainly spake truth then. Nevertheless He was 
not forsaken. But He drank out the cup at once, as His plea 
had implied, and then passed away (7rape\^\v6e). And the 
vinegar which was handed to Him seems to me to have been 
a symbolical thing. For the turned wine (e/er/joTna? otz/o?) 
indicated very well the quick turning (rpoir^v) and change 
which He sustained, when He passed from His passion to 

1 The text gives x,a. TOVTO -?rx/{/ TO e!x.rnt6v, etc. Migne proposes, x.. 
TOVTU -Tfet^tv TO tvx.Tix.6v = and Matthew again describes the suppli- 
catory and docile in Him. 

2 Reading OVTU; for o. 3 John xviii. 11. 


impassibility, and from death to deathlessness, and from the 
position of one judged to that of one judging, and from 
subjection under the despot's power to the exercise of kingly 
dominion. And the sponge, as I think, signified the complete 
transfusion (avafcpacnv) of the Holy Spirit that was realized 
in Him. And the reed symbolized the royal sceptre and the 
divine law. And the hyssop expressed that quickening and 
saving resurrection of His, by which He has also brought 
health to us. 1 

43. " And there appeared an angel unto Him from heaven, 

strengthening Him. 

44. And being in an agony, He prayed more earnestly ; 

and His sweat was as it were great drops of blood 
falling down to the ground." 

The phrase, " a sweat of blood," is a current parabolic 
expression used of persons in intense pain and distress ; as 
also of one in bitter grief people say that the man " weeps 
tears of blood." For in using the expression, " as it were 
great drops of blood," he does not declare the drops of sweat 
to have been actually drops of blood. For he would not then 
have said that these drops of sweat were like blood. For 
such is the force of the expression, " as it were great drops." 
But rather with the object of making it plain that the Lord's 
body was not bedewed with any kind of subtle moisture which 
had only the show and appearance of actuality, but that it 
was really suffused all over with sweat in the shape of large 
thick drops, he has taken the great drops of blood as an 
illustration of what was the case with Him. And accord- 
ingly, as by the intensity of the supplication and the severe 
agony, so also by the dense and excessive sweat, he made 
the facts patent, that the Saviour was man by nature and 
in reality, and not in mere semblance and appearance, and 
that He was subject to all the innocent sensibilities natural 
to men. Nevertheless the words, " I have power to lay 
down my life, and I have power to take it again," 2 show 
that His passion was a voluntary thing ; and besides that, they 

1 The text is, vn*&; vyiet fQu^iv. Migne proposes 

2 John x. 18. 


indicate that the life which is laid down and taken again 
is one thing, and the divinity which lays that down and takes 
it again is another. (He says, " one thing and another," not 
as making a partition into two persons, but as showing the dis- 
tinction between the two natures. 1 ) And as, by voluntarily 
enduring the death in the flesh, He implanted incorruptibility 
in it ; so also, by taking to Himself of His own free-will the 
passion of our servitude, 2 He set in it the seeds of constancy 
and courage, whereby He has nerved those who believe on 
Him for the mighty conflicts belonging to their witness-bear- 
ing. Thus, also, those drops of sweat flowed from Him in a 
marvellous way like great drops of blood, in order that He 
might, as it were, drain off (ava^pavrf) and empty the fountain 
of the fear which is proper to our nature. For unless this had 
been done with a mystical import, He certainly would not, 
even had He been 3 the most timorous and ignoble of men, 
have been bedewed in this unnatural way with drops of sweat 
like drops of blood under the mere force of His agony. 

Of like import is also the sentence in the narrative which 
tells us that an angel stood by the Saviour and strengthened 
Him. For this, too, bore also on the oaconomy entered into 
on our behalf. For those who are appointed to engage in 
the sacred exertions of conflicts on account of piety, have the 
angels from heaven to assist them. And the prayer, " Father, 
remove the cup," He uttered probably not as if He feared the 
death itself, but with the view of challenging the devil by 
these words to erect the cross for Him. With words of deceit 
that personality deluded Adam ; with the words of divinity, 
then, let the deceiver himself now be deluded. Howbeit 
assuredly the will of the Son is not one thing, and the will of 
the Father another. For He who wills what the Father wills, 
is found to have the Father's will. It is in a figure, therefore, 

1 This sentence is supposed to be an interpolation by the constructor 
of the Catena. 

8 The text is, TJJ? lovhtia.;. Migne suggests, rsj? $tt*iet; = " the feeling 
of our fear." 

3 The text is, ovfe jj aQolpu. os/A&YaTO?, etc. "We read, with Migne, el 
instead of aj 


that He says, " not my will, but Thine." For it is not that 
He wishes the cup to be removed, but that He refers to the 
Father's will the right issue of His passion, and honours 
thereby the Father as the First (ap^v). For if the Fathers 
style one's disposition yvcofirj (gnome), and if such disposition 
relates also to what is in consideration hidden as if by settled 
purpose, how say some that the Lord, who is above all these 
things, bears a gnomic will (OeXtjua ryvwpucov) ? Manifestly 
that can be only by defect of reason. 

45. tl And when He rose from prayer, and was come to 

His disciples, He found them sleeping for sorrow ; 

46. And said unto them, Why sleep ye ? Rise and pray, 

lest ye enter into temptation." 

For in the most general sense it holds good that it is 
apparently not possible for any man (/iaXtcrra to-eo? Travrl 
avdp<i)7r<p) to remain altogether without experience of ill. 
For, as one says, " the whole world lieth in wickedness ; " * 
and again, " The most of the days of man are labour and 
trouble." 2 But you will perhaps say, What difference is 
there between being tempted, and falling or entering into 
temptation 1 Well, if one is overcome of evil and he will 
be overcome unless he struggles against it himself, and unless 
God protects him with His shield that man has entered 
into temptation, and is in it, and is brought under it like one 
that is led captive. But if one withstands and endures, that 
man is indeed tempted; but he has not entered into tempta- 
tion, or fallen into it. Thus Jesus was led up of the Spirit, 
not indeed to enter into temptation, but to be tempted of the 
devil. 3 And Abraham, again, did not enter into temptation, 
neither did God lead him into temptation, but He tempted 
(tried) him ; yet He did not drive him into temptation. The 
Lord Himself, moreover, tempted (tried) the disciples. Thus 
the wicked one, when he tempts us, draws us into the tempta- 
tions, as dealing himself with the temptations of evil. But 
God, when He tempts (tries), adduces the temptations (trials) 
as one untempted of evil. For God, it is said, " cannot be 
tempted of evil." 4 The devil, therefore, drives us on by 

1 1 John v. 19. 2 Ps. xc. 10. 8 Matt. iv. 1. 4 Jas. i. 13. 


violence, drawing us to destruction ; but God leads us by the 
hand, training us for our salvation. 

47. " And while He yet spake, behold a multitude, and he 

that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before 
them, and drew near unto Jesus, and kissed Him. 

48. But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the 

Son of man with a kiss? " 

How wonderful this endurance of evil by the Lord, who 
even kissed the traitor, and spake words softer even than the 
kiss ! For He did not say, O thou abominable, yea, utterly 
abominable traitor, is this the return you make to us for so 
great kindness? But, somehow, He says simply "Judas," 
using the proper name, which was the address that would be 
used by one who commiserated a person, or who wished to 
call him back, rather than of one in anger. And He did not 
say, " thy Master, the Lord, thy benefactor ; " but He said 
simply, " the Son of man," that is, the tender and meek one : 
as if He meant to say, Even supposing that I was not your 
Master, or Lord, or benefactor, dost thou still betray one so 
guilelessly and so tenderly affected towards thee, as even to 
kiss thee in the hour of thy treachery, and that, too, when 
the kiss was the signal for thy treachery ? Blessed art Thou, 
O Lord ! How great is this example of the endurance of 
evil that Thou hast shown us in Thine own person ! how 
great, too, the pattern of lowliness ! Howbeit, the Lord has 
given us this example, to show us that we ought not to give 
up offering our good counsel to our brethren, even should 
nothing remarkable be effected by our words. 

For as incurable wounds are wounds which cannot be 
remedied either by severe applications, or by those which 
may act more pleasantly upon them ; l so 2 the soul, when it 
is once carried captive, and gives itself up to any kind of 3 
wickedness, and refuses to consider what is really profitable 
for it, although a myriad counsels should echo in it, takes 
no good to itself. But just as if the sense of hearing were 
dead within it, it receives no benefit from exhortations 

1 Some such clause as \a.6^vu.i IVVOCTUI requires to be supplied here. 

2 Beading ovru for ovre. z Reading ^iivtwv for 


addressed to it ; not because it cannot, but only because it 
will not. This was what happened hi the case of Judas. 
And yet Christ, although He knew all these things before- 
hand, did not at any time, from the beginning on to the 
end, omit to do all in the way of counsel that depended on 
Him. And inasmuch as we know that such was His prac- 
tice, we oujiht also unceasingly to endeavour to set those 

7 O O v 

right (pv6fji%etv) who prove careless, even although no actual 
good may seem to be effected by that counsel. 

That the Son is not different from the Father in nature, but 
connatural and consul stantial with Sim. 1 

The plant that springs from the root is something distinct 
from that whence it grows up ; and yet it is of one nature 
with it. And the river which flows from the fountain is 
something distinct from the fountain. For we cannot call 
either the river a fountain, or the fountain a river. Never- 
theless we allow that they are both one according to nature, 
and also one in substance ; and we admit that the fountain 
may be conceived of as father, and that the river is what is 
begotten of the fountain. 


(From the Vatican Codex, 1611, fol. 291. See also Mai, Biblioiheca 
Nova, vi. 1. 165.) 

But let these things be enough to say on the subject of 
the will. This word, however, "Let the cup pass," does not 
mean, Let it not come near me, or approach me. For what 

1 From the Panoplia of Euthymius Zigabenus in the Cod. xix. 
Nanianie Biblioth. 

2 This is given here in a longer and fuller form than in the Greek 
of Gallandi in his Billiotheca xiv., Appendix, p. 115, as we have had it 
presented above, and than in the Latin of Corderius in his Ca'ena on 
Luke xxii. 42, etc. This text is taken from a complete codex. 



can pass from Him must certainly first come nigh Him, and 
what does thus pass from Him must be by Him. For if it 
does not reach Him, it cannot pass from Him. Accordingly, 
as if He now felt it to be present, He began to be in pain, and 
to be troubled, and to be sore amazed, and to be in an agony. 
And as if it was at hand and placed before Him, He does 
not merely say " the cup," but He indicates it by the word 
"this." Therefore, as what passes from one is something 
which neither has no approach nor is permanently settled 
with one, so the Saviour's first request is that the temptation 
which has come softly and plainly upon Him, and associated 
itself lightly with Him, may be turned aside. And this is 
the first form of that freedom from falling into temptation, 
which He also counsels the weaker disciples to make the 
subject of their prayers ; that, namely, which concerns the ap- 
proach of temptation : for it must needs be that offences come, 
but yet those to whom they come ought not to fall into the 
temptation. But the most perfect mode in which this free- 
dom from entering into temptation is exhibited, is what He 
expresses in His second request, when He says not merely, 
" Not as I will," but also, " but as Thou wilt." For with God 
there is no temptation in evil ; but He wills to give us good 
exceeding abundantly above what we ask or think. That 
His will, therefore, is the perfect will, the Beloved Himself 
knew ; and often does He say that He has come to do that 
will, and not His own will, that is to say, the will of men. 
For He takes to Himself the person of men, as having been 
made man. Wherefore also on this occasion He deprecates 
the doing of the inferior, which is His own, and begs that 
the superior should be done, which is His Father's, to wit, the 
divine will, which again, however, in respect of the divinity, 
is one and the same will in Himself and in His Father. For 
it was the Father's will that He should pass through every trial 
(temptation), and the Father Himself in a marvellous manner, 
brought Him on this course ; not, indeed, with the trial itself 
as His goal, nor in order simply that He might enter into 
that, but in order that He might prove Himself to be above 
the trial, and also beyond it. And surely it is the fact that 


the Saviour asks neither what is impossible, nor what is 
impracticable, nor what is contrary to the will of the Father. 
It is something possible, for Mark makes mention of His 
saying, " Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee ; " 
and they are possible if He wills them, for Luke tells us 
that He said, " Father, if Thou be willing, remove this cup 
from me." The Holy Spirit therefore, apportioned among 
the evangelists, makes up the full account of our Saviour's 
whole disposition by the expressions of these several narra- 
tors together. He does not then ask of the Father what the 
Father wills not. For the words, " if Thou be willing," were 
demonstrative of subjection and docility, not of ignorance or 
hesitancy. And just as when we make any request that may 
be accordant with his judgment, at the hand of father or 
ruler or any one of those whom we respect, we are accus- 
tomed to use the address, though not certainly as if we were 
in doubt about it, " if you please ; " so the Saviour also said, 
"if Thou be willing:" not that He thought that He 
willed something different, and thereafter learned the fact, 
but that He understood exactly God's willingness to remove 
the cup from Him, and as doing so also apprehended justly 
that what He wills is also possible unto Him. For this 
reason the other scripture says, " All things are possible 
unto Thee." And Matthew again admirably describes the 
submission and the humility, when he says, " if it be 
possible." For unless we adapt the sense in this way, some 
will perhaps assign an impious signification to this expres- 
sion " if it be possible," as if there were anything impossible 
for God to do, except that only which He does not will to 
do. Therefore the request which He made was nothing in- 
dependent, nor one which pleased Himself only, or opposed 
His Father's will, but one also in conformity with the mind 
of God. And yet some one may say that He is overborne 
and changes His mind, and asks presently something different 
from what He asked before, and holds no longer by His own 
will, but introduces His Father's will. Well, such truly is 
the case. Nevertheless He does not by any means make any 
change from one side to another ; but He embraces another 


way, and a different method of carrying out one and tlie 
same transaction, which is also a thing agreeable to both ; 
choosing, to wit, in place of the mode which is the inferior, 
and which appears unsatisfying also to Himself, the superior 
and more admirable mode marked out by the Father. For 
no doubt He did pray that the cup might pass from Him ; but 
He says also, " Nevertheless, not as 1 will, but as Thou wilt." 
He longs painfully, on the one hand, for its passing from Him, 
but (He knows that) it is better as the Father wills. For He 
does not utter a petition for its not passing away now, instead 
of one for its removal ; but when its withdrawal is now be- 
fore His view, He chooses rather that this should be ordered 
as the Father wills. For there is a twofold kind (Suva/it?) 
of withdrawal : there is one in the instance of an object that 
has shown itself and reached another, and is gone at once on 
being followed by it or on outrunning it, as is the case with 
racers when they graze each other in passing ; and there is 
another in the instance of an object that has sojourned and 
tarried with another, and sat down by it, as in the case of 
a marauding band or a camp, and that after a time with- 
draws on being conquered, and on gaining the opposite of a 
success. For if they prevail they do not retire, but carry off 
with them those whom they have reduced ; but if they prove 
unable to win the mastery, they withdraw themselves in 
disgrace. Now it was after the former similitude that He 
wished that the cup might come into His hands, and promptly 
pass from Him again very readily and quickly ; but as soon 
as He spake thus, being at once strengthened in His humanity 
by the Father's divinity, He urges the safer petition, and 
desires no longer that that should be the case, but that it 
might be accomplished in accordance with the Father's good 
pleasure, in glory, in constancy, and in fulness. For John, 
who has given us the record of the sublimest and diviriest of 
the Saviour's words and deeds, heard Him speak thus : " And 
the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink 
it 1 " Now, to drink the cup was to discharge the ministry and 
the whole oeconomy of trial with fortitude, to follow and fulfil 
the Father's determination, and to surmount all apprehen- 


sions ; and, indeed, in the very prayer which He uttered He 
showed that He was leaving these (apprehensions) behind 
Him. For of two objects, either may be said to be removed 
from the other : the object that remains may be said to be 
removed from the one that goes away, and the one that goes 
away may be said to be removed from the one that remains. 
Besides, Matthew has indicated most clearly that He did 
indeed pray that the cup might pass from Him, but yet that 
His request was that this should take place not as He willed, 
but as the Father willed it. The words given by Mark and 
Luke, again, ought to be introduced in their proper connection. 
For Mark says, " Nevertheless not what I will, but what Thou 
wilt ;" and Luke says, " Nevertheless not my will, but Thine 
be done." He did then express Himself to that effect, and 
He did desire that His passion might abate and reach its end 
speedily. But it was the Father's will at the same time 
that He should carry out His conflict in a manner demand- 
ing sustained effort (AiTrapw?), and in sufficient measure. 
Accordingly He (the Father) adduced all that assailed Him. 
But of the missiles that were hurled against Him, some were 
shivered in pieces, and others were dashed back as with invul- 
nerable arms of steel, or rather as from the stern and immove- 
able rock. Blows, spittings, scourgings, death, and the lifting 
up in that death (rov Oavdrov TO in/reo/ia), all came upon 
Him ; and when all these were gone through, He became 
silent and endured in patience unto the end, as if He suffered 
nothing, or was already dead. But when His death was being 
prolonged, and when it was now overmastering Him, if we 
may so speak, beyond His utmost strength, He cried out to 
His Father, "Why hast Thou forsaken me?" And this 
exclamation was in due accordance with the requests Pie had 
previously made : Why is it that death has been in such close 
conjunction with me all along up till now, and Thou dost not 
yet bear the cup past me (Trapa^epeif) 1 Have I not drunk it 
already, and drained it ? But if not, my dread is that I may 
be utterly consumed by its continuous pressure (el Be ovtc 
CTTIOV avro 77877 Kal avY\^wcfa' aXXa Seo? fj,r) vir 1 avrov TrXrp^s 
KaraTTodeir^v) ; and that is what would befall 


me, wert Thou to forsake me: then would the fulfilment 
abide, but I would pass away, and be made of none effect 
(/ce/eeixw/zo/o?). Now, then, I entreat Thee, let my baptism 
be finished, for indeed I have been straitened greatly until 
it should be accomplished. This I judge to have been the 
Saviour's meaning in this concise utterance. And He cer- 
tainly spake truth then. Nevertheless He was not forsaken. 
Albeit He drank out the cup at once, as His plea had 
implied, and then passed away. And the vinegar which 
was handed to Him seems to me to have been a symbolical 
thing. For the turned wine indicated very well the quick 
turning and change which He sustained when He passed 
from His passion to impassibility, and from death to death- 
lessness, and from the position of one judged to that of one 
judging, and from subjection under the despot's power to 
the exercise of kingly dominion. And the sponge, as I 
think, signified the complete transfusion of the Holy Spirit 
that was realized in Him. And the reed symbolized the 
royal sceptre and the divine law. And the hyssop expressed 
that quickening and saving resurrection of His by which He 
has also brought health to us. But we have gone through 
these matters in sufficient detail on Matthew and John. 
With the permission of God, we shall speak also of the account 
given by Mark. But at present we shall keep to what 
follows in our passage. 

LUKE xxn. 46, ETC., 


(Edited in a mutilated form, as given by Gallandi, in his Bibliotlieca, 
xiv. p. 117, and here presented in its completeness, as found in the 
Vatican Codex 1611, f. 292, 6.) 

This prayer He also offered up Himself, falling repeatedly 
on His face ; and on both occasions He urged His request for 
not entering into temptation : both when He prayed, lt If it 


be possible, let this cup pass from me;" and when He said, 
" Nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt." For He 
spoke of not entering into temptation, and He made that 
His prayer ; but He did not ask that He should have no 
trial whatsoever in these circumstances, or l that no manner 
of hardship should ever befall Him. For in the most general 
application it holds good, that it does not appear to be possible 
for any man to remain altogether without experience of ill : 
for, as one says, " The whole world lieth in wickedness ; " 2 
and again, " The most of the days of man are labour and 
trouble," 3 as men themselves also admit. Short is our life, 
and full of sorrow. Howbeit it was not meet that He should 
bid them pray directly that that curse might not be fulfilled, 
which is expressed thus : " Cursed is the ground in thy 
works : in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy 
life;" 4 or thus, " Earth thou art, and unto earth shalt thou 
return." 5 For which reason the holy Scriptures, that indi- 
cate in many various ways the dire distressfulness of life, 
designate it as a valley of weeping. And most of all indeed is 
this world a scene of pain to the saints, to whom He addresses 
this word, and He cannot lie in uttering it : " In the world 
ye shall have tribulation." 6 And to the same effect also He 
says by the prophet, " Many are the afflictions of the right- 
eous." 7 But I suppose that He refers to this entering not 
into temptation, when He speaks in the prophet's words of 
being delivered out of the afflictions. For he adds, " The 
Lord will deliver him out of them all. " And this is just in 
accordance with the Saviour's word, whereby He promises 
that they will overcome their afflictions, and that they will 
participate in that victory which He has won for them. For 
after saying, "In the world ye shall have tribulation," He 
added, " But be of good cheer, I have overcome the world." 
And again, He taught them to pray that they might not fall 
into temptation, when He said, " And lead us not into 
temptation ; " which means, " Suffer us not to fall into temp- 

1 Beading % for % 2 1 John v. 19. 8 Ps. xc. 10. 

4 Gen. iii. 17. Gen. iii. 19. John xvi. 33. 

i Ps. xxxiv. 19 


tation." And to show that this did not imply that they should 
not be tempted, but really that they should be delivered 
from the evil, He added, " But deliver us from evil." But 
perhaps you will say, What difference is there between being 
tempted, and falling or entering into temptation ? Well, if 
one is overcome of evil and he will be overcome unless he 
struggles against it himself, and unless God protects him 
with His shield that man has entered into temptation, and 
is in it, and is brought under it like one that is led captive. 
But if one withstands and endures, that man is indeed 
tempted ; but he has not entered into temptation, or fallen 
under it. Thus Jesus was led up of the Spirit, not indeed 
to enter into temptation, but " to be tempted of the devil." l 
And Abraham, again, did not enter into temptation, neither 
did God lead him into temptation, but He tempted (tried) 
him ; yet He did not drive him into temptation. The Lord 
Himself, moreover, tempted (tried) the disciples. And thus 
the wicked one, when he tempts us, draws us into the temp- 
tations, as dealing himself with the temptations of evil ; but 
God, when He tempts (tries), adduces the temptations as one 
untempted of evil. For God, it is said, " cannot be tempted 
of evil." 2 The devil, therefore, drives us on by violence, 
drawing us to destruction ; but God leads us by the hand, 
training us for our salvation. 


(Edited from the Vatican Codex 1996, f. 78, belonging to a date 
somewhere about the tenth century.) 

Now this word " I am " expresses His eternal subsistence. 
For if He is the reflection of the eternal light, He must also 
be eternal Himself. For if the light subsists for ever, it is 
evident that the reflection also subsists for ever. And that 
this light subsists, is known only by its shining ; neither can 
there be a light that does not give light. We come back, 
1 Matt. iv. 1. 2 Jas. i. 13. 


therefore, to our illustrations. If there is day, there is light ; 
and if there is no such thing, the sun certainly cannot be 
present. 1 If, therefore, the sun had been eternal, there would 
also have been endless day. Now, however, as it is not so, the 
day begins when the sun rises, and it ends when the sun sets. 
But God is eternal light, having neither beginning nor end. 
And along with Him there is the reflection, also without 
beginning, and everlasting. The Father, then, being eter- 
nal, the Son is also eternal, being light of light ; and if God 
is the light, Christ is the reflection ; and if God is also a 
Spirit, as it is written, " God is a Spirit," Christ, again, is 
called analogously Spirit 


(This seems to be an excerpt from his works On Penitence, three of 
which are mentioned by Jerome in his De Script. Eccl. ch. 69. 
See Mai, Classici Auctores, x. 484. It is edited here from tho 
Vatican Codex.) 

But now we are doing the opposite. For whereas Christ, 
who is the good (Shepherd), goes in quest of one who wan- 
ders, lost among the mountains, and calls him back when 
he flees from Him, and is at pains to take him up on His 
shoulders when He has found him, we, on the contrary, harshly 
spurn such an one even when He approaches us. Yet let us 
not consult so miserably for ourselves, and let us not in this 
way be driving the sword against ourselves. For when people 
set themselves either to do evil or to do good to others, what 

1 Reading ^roXXoD ye B<. The text gives Wxy yt 1st. 

2 If this strange reading a-r^/j is correct, there is apparently a play 
intended on the two words "Kvivpa, and drptis, =. if God is a -Trvti/fix, 
which word literally signifies Wind or Air, Christ, on that analogy, 
may be called drftts, that is to say, the Vapour or Breath of that 


they do is certainly not confined to the carrying out of their 
will on those others ; but just as they attach themselves to 
iniquity or to goodness, they will themselves become possessed 
either by divine virtues or by unbridled passions. And the 
former will become the followers and comrades of the good 
angels; and both in this world and in the other, with the en- 
joyment of perfect peace and immunity from all ills, they will 
fulfil the most blessed destinies unto all eternity, and in God's 
fellowship they will be for ever (in possession of) the supremest 
good. But these latter will fall away at once from the 
peace of God and from peace with themselves, and both in 
this world and after death they will abide with the spirits of 
bloodguiltiness (roi<t 7ra\a/jivaiot<} Sat/iotri). 1 Wherefore let 
us not thrust from us those who seek a penitent return ; but 
let us receive them gladly, and number them once more with 
the stedfast, and make up again what is defective in them. 
1 Or, with the demons of vengeance. 



CERTAIN memorable Disputation, which was 
conducted by a bishop of the name of Archelaus 
with the heretic Manes, is mentioned by various 
writers of an early date. Thus Cyril of Jeru- 
salem, in the sixth book of his Catecheses, 27 and 30, 
tells us how Manes fled into Mesopotamia, and was met 
there by that shield of righteousness (oVXoi/ SiKaiocrvvr)?) 
Bishop Archelaus, and was refuted by him in the presence 
of a number of Greek philosophers, who had been brought 
together as judges of the discussion. Epiphanius, in his 
Heresies, Ixvi., and again in his work De Mensuris et Po- 
deribusj 20, makes large reference to the same occasion, 
and gives some excerpts from the Acts of the Disputation. 
And there are also passages of greater or less importance in 
Jerome (De vir. illustr. ch. 72), Socrates (Hist. Eccles. i. 
22), Heraclianus bishop of Chalcedon (as found in Photius, 
JBibliotheca,Cod. xcv.),Petrus Siculus (HistoriaManichceorum, 
pp. 25, 35, 37), Photius (Adversus Manichceos, book i., edited 
in the Biblioth. Coislin^ Montfaucon, pp. 356, 358), and 
the anonymous authors of the Libellus Synodicus, ch. 27, and 
the Historia Hcereseos Manichceorum in the Codex Regius of 
Turin. What professes to be an account of that Disputation 
has come down to us in a form mainly Latin, but with parts 
in Greek. A considerable portion of this Latin version was 
published by Valesius in his edition of Socrates and Sozomen, 
and subsequently by others in greater completeness, and with 



the addition of the Greek fragments : as by Zacagnius at 
Rome, in 1698, in his Collectanea Monumentorum Veterum 
Ecclesice Grcecce ac Latince ; by Fabricius, in the Spicilegium 
Sanctorum Patrum Sceculi, iii., in his edition of Hippolytus, 
etc. There seems to be a difference among the ancient 
authorities cited above as to the person who committed these 
Acts to writing. Epiphanius and Jerome take it to have 
been Archelaus himself, while Heraclianus, bishop of Chal- 
cedon, represents it to have been a certain person named 
Hegemonius. In Photius (Biblioth. Cod. Ixxxv.) there is 
a statement to the effect that this Heraclianus, in confut- 
ing the errors of the Manichseans, made use of certain 
Acts of the Disputation of Bishop Archelaus with Manes 
which were written by Hegemonius. And there are various 
passages in the Acts themselves which appear to confirm the 
opinion of Heraclianus. See especially ch. 39 and 55. 
Zacagnius, however, thinks that this is but an apparent dis- 
crepancy, which is easily reconciled on the supposition that 
the book was first composed by Archelaus himself in Syriac, 
and afterwards edited, with certain amendments and addi- 
tions, by Hegemonius. That the work was written originally 
in Syriac is clear, not only from the express testimony of 
Jerome (De vir. illustr. ch. 72), but also from internal 
evidence, and specially from the explanations offered now 
and again of the use of Greek equivalents. It is uncertain 
\vho was the author of the Greek version ; and we can only 
conjecture that Hegemonius, in publishing a new edition, may 
also have undertaken a translation into the tongue which would 
secure a much larger audience than the original Syriac. But 
that this Greek version, by whomsoever accomplished, dates 
from the very earliest period, is proved by the excerpts given 
in Epiphanius. As to the Latin interpretation itself, all 
that we can allege is, that it must in all probability have 
been published after Jerome's time, who might reasonably 
be expected to have made some allusion tc it if it was extant 
in his day ; and before the seventh century, because, in quot- 
ing the Scriptures, it does not follow the Vulgate edition, 
which was received generally throughout the West by that 


period. That the Latin translator must have had before him, 
not the Syriac, but the Greek copy, is also manifest, not only 
from the general idiomatic character of the rendering, but also 
from many nicer indications, such as the apparent confusion 
between dtjp and dvrjp in ch. 8, and again between Xoi/zo? 
and A/,/A09 in the same chapter, and between Tr^o-o-et and 
TrX^Wet in ch. 9, and the retention of certain Greek words, 
sometimes absolutely, and at other times with an explana- 
tion, as cybi, apocrusis, etc. 

The precise designation of the seat of the bishopric of 
Archelaus has been the subject of considerable diversity of 
opinion. Socrates (Hist. Eccles. i. 22) and Epiphanius 
(Hteres. Ixvi. ch. 5 and 7, and De Mens. et Pond. ch. 20) 
record that Archelaus was bishop Kaa-^dpmv, of Caschar, or 
Caschara. Epiphanius, however, does not keep consistently 
by that scription ; for elsewhere (Hceres. Ixvi. 11) he writes 
Kao-^dprjV) or, according to another reading, which is held 
by Zacagnius to be corrupt, Ka\%dpa)v. In the opening 
sentence of the Acts themselves it appears as Carchar, and 
that form is followed by Petrus Siculus (Hist. Manich. 
p. 37) and Photius (lib. i. Adv. Manich.), who, in epitomiz- 
ing the statements of Epiphanius, write neither Kaa-^dpwv 
nor KaX^dpfav, but Kap%dpa>v. Now we know that there 
were at least two towns of the name of Carcha : for the 
anonymous Ravenna geographer (Geogr. book ii. ch. 7) 
tells us that there was a place of that name in Arabia 
Felix; and Ammianus Marcellinus (book xviii. 23, and xxv. 
20, 21) mentions another beyond the Tigris, within the Per- 
sian dominion. The clear statements, however, to the effect 
that the locality of the bishopric of Archelaus was in Meso- 
potamia, make it impossible that either of these two towns 
could have been the seat of his rule. Besides this, in the 
third chapter of the Acts themselves we find the name Charra 
occurring ; and hence Zacagnius and others have concluded 
that the place actually intended is the scriptural Charran, 
or Haran, in Mesopotamia, which is also written Chaira in 
Paulus Diaconus (Hist. Misc. xxii. 20), and that the form Car- 
char or Carchara was either a mere error of the transcribers. 


or the vulgar provincial designation. It must be added, how- 
ever, that Neander (Church History, ii. p. 165, Bohn) allows 
this to be only a very uncertain conjecture, while others hold 
that Caschar is the most probable scription, and that the 
town is one altogether different from the ancient Haran. 

The date of the Disputation itself admits of tolerably 
exact settlement. Epiphanius, indeed (De Mensur. et Pond. 
ch. 20), says that Manes fled into Mesopotamia in the ninth 
year of the reign of Valerianus and Gallienus, and that the 
discussion with Archelaus took place about the same time. 
This would carry the date back to about 262 A.D. But this 
statement, although he is followed in it by Petrus Siculus 
and Photius, is inconsistent with the specification of times 
which he makes in dealing with the error of the Mani- 
clieans in his book On the Heresies. From the 37th chapter 
of the Acts, however, we find that the Disputation took place, 
not when Gallienus, but when Probus held the empire, and 
that is confirmed by Cyril of Jerusalem (Cateches. vi. -p. 
140). The exact year becomes also clearer from Eusebius, 
who (Chronicon, lib. post. p. 177) seems to indicate the 
second year of the reign of Probus as the time when the 
Manichean heresy attained general publicity (Secundo anno 
Probi . . . insana Manichceorum hceresis in commune humani 
generis malum exorta) ; and from Leo Magnus, who in his 
second Discourse on Pentecost also avers that Manichaeus 
became notorious in the consulship of Probus and Paulinus. 
And as this consulship embraced part of the first and part 
of the second years of the empire of Probus, the Disputa- 
tion itself would thus be fixed as occurring in the end of 
277 A.D. or the beginning of 278, or, according to the pre- 
cise calculation of Zacagnius, between July and December 
of the year 277. 

That the Acts of this Disputation constitute an authentic 
relic of antiquity, seems well established by a variety of con- 
siderations. Epiphanius, for instance, writing about the year 
376 A.D., makes certain excerpts from them which correspond 
satisfactorily with the extant Latin version. Socrates, again, 
whose Ecclesiastical History dates about 439, mentions these 


Acts, and acknowledges that he drew the materials for his 
account of the Manichean heresy from them. The book 
itself, too, offers not a few evidences of its own antiquity and 
authenticity. The enumeration given of the various heretics 
who had appeared up to the time of Archelaus, the mention 
of his presence at the siege of the city in ch. 24, and the 
allusions to various customs, have all been pressed into that 
service, as may be seen in detail in the elaborate dissertation 
prefixed by Zacagnius in his Collectanea Monumentorum 
Ecclesice Grcecce. At the same time, it is very evident that 
the work has come down to us in a decidedly imperfect form. 
There are, for example, arguments by Manes and answers 
by Archelaus recorded in Cyril (Catech. vi. p. m. 147) which 
are not contained in our Latin version at all. And there 
are not a few notes of discrepancy and broken connections 
in the composition itself, as in the 12th, 25th, and 28th 
chapters, which show that the manuscripts must have been 
defective, or that the Latin translator took great liberties 
with the Greek text, or that the Greek version itself did 
not faithfully reproduce the original Syriac. On the histo- 
rical character of the work Neander expresses himself thus 
(Church History, ii. pp. 165, 166, Bohn) : "These Acts 
manifestly contain an ill-connected narrative, savouring in 
no small degree of the romantic. Although there is some 
truth at the bottom of it as, for instance, in the statement 
of doctrine there is much that wears the appearance of 
truth, and is confirmed also by its agreement with other 
representations still the Greek author seems, from ignor- 
ance of Eastern languages and customs, to have introduced 
a good deal that is untrue, by bringing in and confounding 
together discordant stories through an uncritical judgment 
and exaggeration." 




JHE true THESAURUS (Treasury) \ to wit, the 
Disputation conducted in Carchar, a city of 
Mesopotamia, before Manippus 1 and .ZEgia- 
leus and Claudius and Cleobolus, who acted as 
judges. In this city of Mesopotamia there was a certain 
man, Marcellus by name, who was esteemed as a person 
worthy of the highest honour for his manner of life, his pur- 
suits, and his lineage, and not less so for his discretion and his 
nobility of character: he was possessed also of abundant 
means ; and, what is most important of all, he feared God 
with the deepest piety, and gave ear always with due rever- 
ence to the things which were spoken of Christ. In short, 
there was no good quality lacking in that man, and hence 
it came to pass that he was held in the greatest regard by 
the whole city ; while, on the other hand, he also made an 
ample return for the good-will of his city by his munificent 
and oft-repeated acts of liberality in bestowing on the poor, 
relieving the afflicted, and giving help to the distressed. But 
let it suffice us to have said thus much, lest by the weakness 
of our words we rather take from the man's virtues than 
adduce what is worthy of their splendour. I shall come, 
therefore, to the task which forms my subject. On a 
certain occasion, when a large body of captives were offered 
to the bishop Archelaus by the soldiers who held the camp 
in that place, their numbers being some seven thousand 
1 In Epiphanius, Hxres. Ixvi. 10, it is Marsipus. 


seven hundred, he was harassed with the keenest anxiety on 
account of the large sum of money which was demanded by 
the soldiers as the price of the prisoners' deliverance. And 
as he could not conceal his solicitude, all aflame for the 
religion and the fear of God, he at length hastened to Mar- 
cellus, and explained to him the importance and difficulty of 
the case. And when that pattern of piety, Marcellus, heard 
his narration, without the least delay he went into his house, 
and provided the price demanded for the prisoners, according 
to the value set upon them by those who had led them cap- 
tive ; and unlocking the treasures of his goods, he at once 
distributed the gifts of piety (pietatis pretici) among the 
soldiers, without any severe consideration of number or 
distinction, 1 so that they seemed to be presents rather than 
purchase-moneys. And those soldiers were filled with won- 
der and admiration at the grandeur of the man's piety and 
munificence, and were struck with amazement, and felt the 
force 2 of this example of pity ; so that very many of them 
were added to the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, and threw 
off the belt of military service, 3 while others withdrew to 
their camp, taking scarcely a fourth part of the ransom, and 
the rest made their departure without receiving even so much 
as would defray the expenses of the way. 

2. Marcellus, as might well be expected, was exceedingly 
gratified by these incidents ; and summoning one of the 
prisoners, by name Cortynius, he inquired of him the cause 
of the war, and by what chance it was that they were over- 
come and bound with the chains of captivity. And the person 
addressed, on obtaining liberty to speak, began to express him- 
self in these terms : " My lord Marcellus, we believe in the 
living God alone. And we have a custom of such a nature 

1 Nee numero aliquo nee discretione ulla distinguit. For distinguit, 
some propose distribuit. 

2 Beading commonentur, as in the text. Commoventur is also sug- 
gested, = " were deeply moved." 

3 On the attitude of the Christians of the primitive church towards 
warfare, see Tertullian's De Corona Militis, ch. 11, and the twelfth canon 
of the Nicene Council. 



as I shall now describe, which has descended to us by the tradi- 
tion of our brethren (in the faith), and has been regularly 
observed by us up to the present day. The practice is, that 
every year we go out beyond the bounds of the city, in com- 
pany with our wives and children, and offer up supplications 
to the only and invisible God, praying Him to send us rains 
for our fields and crops. Now, when we were celebrating 
this observance at the usual time and in the wonted manner, 
evening surprised us as we lingered there, and were still 
fasting. Thus we were feeling the pressure of two of the 
most trying things men have to endure, namely, fasting 
and want of sleep. But about midnight sleep enviously and 
inopportunely crept upon us, and with necks drooping and 
unstrung, and heads hanging down, it made our faces strike 
against our knees. 1 Now this took place because the time was 
at hand when by the judgment of God we were to pay the 
penalty proper to our deserts, whether it might be that we were 
offenders in ignorance, or whether it might be that with the 
consciousness of wrong we nevertheless had not given up our 
sin. Accordingly at that hour a multitude of soldiers sud- 
denly surrounded us, supposing us, as I judge, to have lodged 
ourselves in ambush there, and to be persons with full expe- 
rience and skill in fighting battles ; and without making any 
exact inquiry into the cause of our gathering there, they 
threatened us with war, not in word, but at once by the 
sword. And though we were men who had never learned 
to do injury to any one, they wounded us pitilessly with 
their missiles, and thrust us through with their spears, and 
cut our throats with their swords. Thus they slew, indeed, 
about one thousand and three hundred men of our number, 
and wounded other five hundred. And when the day broke 
clearly, they carried off the survivors amongst us as prisoners 
here, and that, too, in a way showing their utter want of 
pity for us. For they drove us before their horses, spurring 
us on by blows from their spears, and impelling us forward 
by making the horses' heads press upon us. And those who 

1 Reading cervicibus degravatis et laxis, demisso capite, frontem genibus 
elidit. The text gives demerso. 


had sufficient powers of endurance did indeed hold out ; but 
very many fell down before the face of their cruel masters, 
and breathed out their life there ; and mothers, with arms 
wearied, and utterly powerless with their burdens, and dis- 
tracted by the threats of those behind them, suffered the 
little ones that were hanging on their breasts to fall to the 
ground ; while all those on whom old age had come were 
sinking, one after the other, to the earth, overcome with 
their toils, and exhausted by want of food. The proud 
soldiers nevertheless enjoyed this bloody spectacle of men 
continually perishing, as if it had been a kind of entertain- 
ment, while they saw some stretched on the soil in hopeless 
prostration, and beheld others, worn out by the fierce fires of 
thirst and with the bands of their tongues utterly parched, 
lose the power of speech, and witnessed others with eyes 
ever glancing backwards, groaning over the fate of their 
dying little ones, while these, again, were constantly appeal- 
ing to their most unhappy mothers with their cries, and the 
mothers themselves, driven frantic by the severities of the 
robbers, responded with their lamentations, which indeed was 
the only thing they could do freely. And those of them 
whose hearts were most tenderly bound up with their off- 
spring chose voluntarily to meet the same premature fate of 
death with their children ; while those, on the other hand, who 
had some capacity of endurance were carried off prisoners here 
with us. Thus, after the lapse of three days, during which time 
we had never been allowed to take any rest, even in the night, 
we were conveyed to this place, in which what has now taken 
place after these occurrences is better known to yourself." 

3. When Marcellus, that man of consummate piety, had 
heard this recital, he burst into a flood of tears, touched with 
pity for misfortunes so great and so various. But making 
no delay, he at once prepared victuals for the sufferers, and 
did service with his own hand for the wearied ; in this imi- 
tating our father Abraham the patriarch, who, when he enter- 
tained the angels hospitably on a certain occasion, did not 
content himself with merely giving the order to his slaves to 
bring a calf from the herd, but did himself, though advanced 


in years, go and place it on his shoulders and fetch it in, 
and did with his own hand prepare food, and set it before 
the angels. So Marcellus, in discharge of a similar office, 
directed them to be seated as his guests in companies of ten ; 
and when the seven hundred tables were all provided, he re- 
freshed the whole body of the captives with great delight, so 
that those who had had strength to survive what they had been 
called to endure, forgot their toils, and became oblivious of all 
their ills. When, however, they had reached the fifteenth 
day, and while Marcellus was still liberally supplying all things 
needful for the prisoners, it seemed good to him that they 
should all be put in possession of the means of returning to 
their own parts, with the exception of those who were de- 
tained by the attention which their wounds demanded ; and 
providing the proper remedies for these, he instructed the 
rest to depart to their own country and friends. And even 
to all these charities Marcellus added yet larger deeds of 
piety. For with a numerous band of his own dependants he 
went to look after the burying of the bodies of those who had 
perished on the march ; and for as many of these as he could 
discover, of whatsoever condition, he secured the sepulture 
which was meet for them. And when this service was com- 
pleted he returned to Charra, and gave permission to the 
wounded to return thence to their native country when their 
health was sufficiently restored, providing also most liberal sup- 
plies for their use on their journey. And truly the estimate 
of this deed made a magnificent addition to (the repute of) 
the other noble actions of Marcellus ; for through that whole 
territory the fame of the piety of Marcellus spread so grandly, 
that large numbers of men belonging to various cities were in- 
flamed with the intensest desire to see and become acquainted 
with the man, and most especially those persons who had not 
had occasion to bear penury before, to all of whom this 
remarkable man, following the example of a Marcellus of 
old, furnished aid most indulgently, so that they all declared 
that there was no one of more illustrious piety than this man. 
Yea, all the widows, too, who were believers in the Lord 
had recourse to him, while the imbecile also could reckon 


on obtaining at his hand most certain help to meet their cir- 
cumstances; and the orphaned, in like manner, were all sup- 
ported by him, so that his house was declared to be the hospice 
for the stranger and the indigent. And above all this, he 
retained in a remarkable and singular measure his devotion 
to the faith, building up his own heart upon the rock that 
shall not be moved. 

4. Accordingly, 1 as this man's fame was being always the 
more extensively diffused throughout different localities, and 
when it had now penetrated even beyond the river Stranga, 
the honourable report of his name was carried into the terri- 
tory of Persia. In this country dwelt a person called Manes, 
who, when this man's repute had reached him, deliberated 
largely with himself as to how he might entangle him in 
the snares of his doctrine, hoping that Marcellus might be 
made an upholder of his dogma. For he reckoned that 
he might make himself master of the whole province, if he 
could only first attach such a man to himself. In this pro- 
ject, however, his mind was agitated with the doubt whether 
he should at once repair in person to the man, or first at- 
tempt to get at him by letter; for he was afraid lest, by 
any sudden and unexpected introduction of himself upon 
the scene, some mischance might possibly befall him. At 
last, in obedience to a subtler policy, he resolved to write ; 
and calling to him one of his disciples, by name Turbo, 2 who 
had been instructed by Addas, he handed to him an epistle, 
and bade him depart and convey it to Marcellus. This 
adherent accordingly received the letter, and carried it to 
the person to whom he had been commissioned by Manes to 
deliver it, overtaking the whole journey within five days. 
The above-mentioned Turbo, indeed, used great expedition 

1 At this point begins the portion of the work edited by Valesius 
rrom the Codex Bobiensis, which is preserved now in the Arnbrosiau 

2 The Codex Bobiensis reads, Adda Turbonem. This Adda, or Addas, 
as the Greek gives it below in ch. xi., was one of those disciples of 
Manes whom he charged with the dissemination of his heretical opinions 
in the East, as we see from ch. xi. 


on this journey, in the course of which he also underwent very 
considerable exertion and trouble. For whenever he arrived, 1 
as 2 a traveller in foreign parts, at a hospice, and these were 
inns which Marcellus himself had supplied in his large hos- 
pitality, 3 on his being asked by the keepers of these hotels 
whence he came, and who he was, or by whom he had been 
sent, he used to reply : tl I belong to the district of Mesopo- 
tamia, but I come at present from Persis, having been sent 
by Manichaeus, a master among the Christians." But they 
were by no means ready to welcome a name unknown 4 to 
them, and were wont sometimes to thrust Turbo put of their 
inns, refusing him even the means of getting water for drink- 
ing purposes. And as he had to bear daily things like these, 
and things even worse than these, at the hands of those 
persons in the several localities who had charge of the 
mansions and hospices, unless he had at last shown that 
he was conveying letters to Marcellus, Turbo would have 
met the doom of death in his travels. 

5. On receiving the epistle, then, Marcellus opened it, and 
read it in the presence of Archelaus, the bishop of the place. 
And the following is a copy of what it contained : 5 

Manichgeus, an apostle of Jesus Christ, and all the saints 
who are with me, and the virgins, to Marcellus, my beloved 
son : Grace, mercy, and peace be with you from God the 
Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ ; and may the right 
hand of light preserve you safe from this present evil world, 
and from its calamities, and from the snares of the wicked 
one. Amen. 

I was exceedingly delighted to observe the love cherished by 

1 Codex Bobiensis adds, ad vesperam, towards evening. 

2 The text gives veluti peregrinans. The Codex Bobiensis has quippe 

3 On the attention paid by the primitive church to the duties of hos- 
pitality, see Tertullian, De prsescriptionibus, ch. 20 ; Gregory Nazian- 
zenus, in his First Invective against Julian; also Priorius, De literis 
canonicis, ch. 5, etc. ; and Thomassin, De Tesseris hospitalitatis, ch. 26. 

4 In the text, ignotum ; in the Codex Bobiensis, ignoratum. 

5 This letter, along with the reply of Marcellus, is given by Epiphauius 
in his Heresies, n. 6, from which the Greek text is taken. 


you, which truly is of the largest measure. But I was dis- 
tressed at your faith, which is not in accordance with the 
right standard. Wherefore, deputed as I am to seek the 
elevation of the race of men, and sparing, 1 as I do, those who 
have given themselves over to deceit and error, I have con- 
sidered it needful to despatch this letter to you, with a view, 
in the first place, to the salvation of your own soul, and in 
the second place also to that of the souls of those who are 
with you, so as to secure you against 2 dubious opinions, and 
specially against notions like those in which the guides of 
the simpler class of minds indoctrinate their subjects, when 
they allege that good and evil have the same original sub- 
sistence (a?ro TOV avrov (frepeadat), and when they posit 
the same beginning for them, without making any dis- 
tinction or discrimination between light and darkness, and 
between the good and the evil or worthless, and between the 
inner man and the outer, as we have stated before, and with- 
out ceasing to mix up and confound together the one with 
the other. But, O my son, refuse thou thus thoughtlessly to 
identify these two things in the irrational and foolish fashion 
common to the mass of men, and ascribe no such confusion 
to the God of goodness. For these men refer the beginning 
and the end and the paternity of these ills to God Him- 
self, " whose end is near a curse." 3 For they do not believe 
the word spoken by our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ 
Himself in the Gospels, 4 namely, that " a good tree cannot 
bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth 
good fruit." 6 And how they can be bold enough to call God 
the maker and contriver of Satan and his wicked deeds, is a 
matter of great amazement to me. Yea, would that even 
this had been all the length to which they had gone with 

1 <p/SoV*j/o$. The Latin gives siibveniens, relieving. 

2 The Greek text of Epiphanius gave vrpos TO <x,li<ix.piToy. Petavius 
substituted vpo; TO py,x.pnov ; and that reading is confirmed by 
the Latin, uti ne indiscretos animos (/eras. 

3 ay TO TXoj x.ctTa,pa; fy/vg. Cf. Heb. vi. 8. 

4 The text gives \v TO?? ttpuptime fvcf/'/ihiotg, for which TO?? fipvpfoois 
lv TO?? vyyX/o/? may be proposed. 

5 Matt. vii. 18. 


their silly efforts, and that they had not declared that the 
only-begotten Christ, who has descended from the bosom of 
the Father, 1 is the son of a certain woman, Mary, and born 
of blood and flesh and the varied impurities proper to women 
(TTJ? aX\775 Svcra)$La<; rwv 'yvvatKoi)v)l Howbeit, neither to 
write too much in this epistle, nor to trespass at too great 
length upon your good nature, and all the more so that I 
have no natural gift of eloquence, I shall content myself 
with what I have said. But you will have full knowledge of 
the whole subject when I am present with you, if indeed you 
still continue to care for (falSrj) your own salvation. For I 
do not " cast a snare upon any one," 2 as is done by the less 
thoughtful among the mass of men. Think of what I say, 
most honourable son. 

6. On reading this epistle, Marcellus, with the kindest 
consideration, attended hospitably to the needs of the bearer 
of the letter. Archelaus, on the other hand, did not receive 
very pleasantly the matters which were read, but gnashed 3 with 
his teeth like a chained lion, impatient to have the author of 
the epistle given over to him. Marcellus, however, counselled 
him to be at peace ; promising that he would himself take 
care to secure the man's presence. And accordingly Mar- 
cellus resolved to send an answer to what had been written 
to him, and indited an epistle containing the following state- 
ments : 

Marcellus, a man of distinction, to Manichseus, who has 
made himself known to me by his epistle, greeting. 

An epistle written by you has come to my hand, and I 
have received Turbo with my wonted kindness ; but the 
meaning of your letter I have by no means apprehended, 
and may not do so unless you give us your presence, and 
explain its contents in detail in the way of conversation, as 
you have offered to do in the epistle itself. Farewell. 

This letter he sealed and handed to Turbo, with instruc- 
tions to deliver it to the person from whom he had already 
conveyed a similar document. The messenger, however, 

1 John i. 18. a 1 Cor. vii. 35. 

* The text gives infrendebat ; the Codex Bobiensis has infringebat. 


was extremely reluctant to return to his master, being mind- 
ful of what he had had to endure on the journey, and begged 
that another person should be despatched in his stead, refusing 
to go back to Manes, or to have any intercourse whatever 
with him again. But Marcellas summoned one of his young 
men (ex pueris suis} 7 Callistus by name, and directed him to 
proceed to the place. Without any loss of time this young 
man set out promptly on his journey thither; and after the lapse 
of three days he came to Manes, whom he found in a certain 
fort, that of Arabion 1 to wit, and to whom he presented 
the epistle. On perusing it, he was glad to see that he had 
been invited by Marcellus ; and without delay he undertook 
the journey ; yet he had a presentiment that Turbo's failure 
to return boded no good, and proceeded on his way to Mar- 
cellus, not, as it were, without serious reflections. Turbo, 
for his part, was not at all thinking of leaving the house of 
Marcellus ; neither did he omit any opportunity of convers- 
ing with Archelaus the bishop. For both these parties were 
very diligently engaged in investigating the practices of 
Manichseus, being desirous of knowing who he was and 
whence he came, and what was his manner of discourse. 
And he (Turbo) accordingly gave a lucid account of the 
whole position, narrating and expounding the terms of his 
faith in the following manner : 2 

If you are desirous of being instructed in the faith of 
Manes by me, attend to me for a short space. That man wor- 
ships two deities, unoriginated, self-existent, eternal, opposed 
the one to the other. Of these he represents the one as good, 
and the other as evil, and assigns the name of Light to the 
former, and that of Darkness to the latter. He alleges also 
that the soul in men is a portion of the light, but that the 
body and the formation of matter are parts of the darkness. 
He maintains, further, that a certain commingling or blend- 

1 Epiphanius, under this Heresy, num. 7, says that this was a fort 
situated on the other side of the river Stranga, between Persia and 

2 The section extending from this point on to ch. xii. is found word 
for word in the Greek of Epiphanius, num. 25. 


ing (fu^iv Be J]TOI (rvytcpaa-iv) has been effected between the 
two in the manner about to be stated, the following analogy 
being used as an illustration of the same ; to wit, that their 
relations may be likened to those of two kings in conflict with 
each other, who are antagonists from the beginning, and have 
their own positions, each in his due order. And so he holds 
that the darkness passed without its own boundaries, and 
engaged in a similar contention with the light ; but that the 
good Father then, perceiving that the darkness had come to 
sojourn on His earth, put forth from Himself a power 1 which 
is called the Mother of Life ; and that this power thereupon 
put forth from itself the first man, (and) the five elements. 2 
And these five elements are wind, 3 light, water, fire, and 
matter. Now this primitive man, being endued with these, 
and thereby equipped, as it were, for war, descended to these 
lower parts, and made war against the darkness. But the 
princes of the darkness, waging war in turn against him, con- 
sumed that portion of his panoply which is the soul. Then 
was that first man grievously injured there underneath by 
the darkness ; and had it not been that the Father heard his 
prayers, and sent a second power, which was also put forth 

1%, avrov Ivvctptv. But the Codex Bobiensis gives pro- 
dnxit ex virtute, put forth from His power one, etc. The Codex Casi- 
nensis has produxerit et esse virtutem, etc. 

2 The text is simply xetl otvrqv wpoptfi'hYixeiieii TOI> vparoy eiv6ou7fo, fd 
KtvTt <rTotxsla. The Latin, with emendations from the Codex Bobiensis 
and Epiphanius, gives qua virtute circumdedit primum hominem, quse 
sunt quinque elementa, etc. = with which power He begirt the first man, 
which is the same as the five elements, etc. With slight differences the 
Codex Bobiensis reads qua circumdedit, and the Codex Casinensis, qua 
virtute. Petavius pointed out that there is probably an omission in the 
text here. And from a passage in Epiphanius, Hxr. Ixvi. n. 45, it has 
been proposed to fill out the sentence thus : T^o/3XA?/i> !fj ectvrov jtvvctfiiy 
ftYiripee, TJJJ ^Jj?, *i ctvryv irpofisfthYiKSvat rav KpuTW olvdpuTrov, a.l^r t v os 

TVSV ftYITtpCt TJJ? &>}? TOV Ti -TTpUTM atlldpUTTOV T "TTlVTt OTOI^llet. The SCHSe 

might then be, that the good Father put forth from Himself a power 
called the Mother of Life, that this Mother of Life put forth theirs* man, 
and that the said Mother of Life and the first man put forth (or consti- 
tuted) the five elements. See the note in Routh's Reliquiae Sacrae, v. p. 49. 

3 The Codex Bobiensis omits the ventus, wind. 


from Himself and was called the living Spirit, and came down 
and gave him the right hand, and brought him up again out 
of the grasp of the darkness, that first man would, in those 
ancient times, have been in peril of absolute overthrow. From 
that time, consequently, he left the soul beneath. And for 
this reason the Manicheans, if they meet each other, give the 
right hand, in token of their having been saved from darkness; 
for he holds that the heresies have their seat all in the dark- 
ness. Then the living Spirit created the world ; and bearing 
in himself three other powers, he came down and brought 
off the princes, and settled 1 them in the firmament, which 
is their body, (though it is called) the sphere. Then, again, 
the living Spirit created the luminaries, which are fragments 
of the soul, and he made them thus to move round and round 
the firmament; and again he created the earth in its eight 
species 2 (el<s ei&i] OKTOO). And the Omophorus 3 sustains the 
burden thereof beneath ; and when he is wearied with bear- 
ins it he trembles, and in that manner becomes the cause of 


a quaking of the earth in contravention of its determinate 
times. On account of this the good Father sent His Son 
forth from His own bosom 4 into the heart of the earth, 
and into these lowest parts of it, in order to secure for 
him the correction befitting him. 5 And whenever an earth- 
quake occurs, he is either trembling under his weariness, or 
is shifting his burden from one shoulder to the other. There- 
after, again, the matter also of itself produced growths (ra 

1 The Greek gives iartptuow \v ru arepiufturt. The Latin version has, 
"crucifixit eos in firmamento." And Routh apparently favours the 
reading hnxi/paaty = crucified them, etc. Valesius and the Codex 
Bobiensis have, " descendens eduxit principes Jesu, exiens in firma- 
mentum quod est," etc. 

2 The Latin, however, gives et sunt octo, " and they are eight ;" thus 
apparently having read V2 fa ox,ra, instead of tig <"B>? oxra. 

3 i.e. one who bears on his shoulders, the upholder. 

4 Reading ix. ruv x.o'hvuy^ de sinibus suis. But the Codex Bobiensis 
gives de finibus, from His own territories. 

5 The Greek text is, ovag U,VTU rysi Kpoatixovaxy IT in piety Sw. The 
Latin gives, " quo ilium, ut par erat, coerceret." The Codex Bobiensis 
reads, " quod ilium, ut pareret, coerceret." It is clear also that Petavius 
read correctly iv triplet* for iiri6vftiv in Epiphanius. 


<f>vra) ; and when these were carried off as spoil on the part 
of some of the princes, he summoned together all the fore- 
most of the princes, and took from all of them individually 
power after power, and made up the man who is after the 
image of that first man, and united 1 the soul (with these 
powers) in him. This is the account of the manner in which 
his constitution was planned. 

8. But when the living Father perceived that the soul was 
in tribulation in the body, being full of mercy and compas- 
sion, He sent His own beloved Son for the salvation of the 
soul. For this, together with the matter of Omophorus, was 
the reason of His sending Him. And the Son came and 
transformed Himself into the likeness of man, and mani- 
fested 2 Himself to men as a man, while yet He was not a 
man, and men supposed that He was begotten. Thus He 
came and prepared the work which was to effect the salvation 
of the souls, and with that object constructed an instrument 
with twelve urns (/eaSou?), which is made to revolve by the 
sphere, and draws up with it the souls of the dying. And 
the greater luminary receives these souls, and purifies them 
with its rays, and then passes them over to the moon ; and 
in this manner the moon's disc, as it is designated by us, is 
filled up. For he says that these two luminaries are ships 
or passage-boats (iropd^eia). Then, if the moon becomes 
full, it ferries its passengers across toward the east wind, and 
thereby effects its own waning 3 in getting itself delivered of 
its freight. And in this manner it goes on making the pas- 
sage across, and again discharging its freight of souls drawn 
up by the urns, until it saves its own proper portion of 
the souls. 4 Moreover, he maintains that every soul, yea, 
every living creature that moves, partakes of the substance 

1 &>wtv. The Codex Bobiensis gives, " vexit animam in eo." 

2 But certain codices read et parebat, " and was obedient," instead of 

3 otTroxpovatv. The Codex Casinensis has apocrisin; but the Codex 
Bobiensis gives apocrusin. 

4 The text gives rij? -fyvxns. But from the old Latin version, which 
has animarum, we may conjecture that ruv -^v-^uv was read. 


of the good Father. And accordingly, when the moon de- 
livers over its freight of souls to the asons of the Father, 
they abide there in that pillar of glory, which is called the 
perfect air. 1 And this air is a pillar of light, for it is filled 
with the souls that are being purified. Such, moreover, is 
the agency by which the souls are saved. But the following, 
again, is the cause of men's dying : A certain virgin, fair in 
person, and beautiful in attire, and of most persuasive address, 
aims at making spoil of the princes that have been borne up 
and crucified on the firmament by the living Spirit ; and she 
appears as a comely female to the princes, but as a hand- 
some and attractive young man to the princesses. And the 
princes, when they look on her in her splendid figure, are 
smitten with love's sting ; and as they are unable to get 
possession of her, they burn fiercely with the flame of amo- 
rous desire, and lose all power of reason. While they thus 
pursue the virgin, she disappears from view. Then the 
great prince sends forth from himself the clouds, with the 
purpose of bringing darkness on the whole world, in his 
anger. And then, if he feels grievously oppressed, his ex- 
haustion expresses itself in perspiration, just as a man sweats 
under toil ; and this sweat of his forms the rain. At the same 
time also the harvest-prince, 2 if he too chances to be captivated 
by the virgin, scatters pestilence 3 on the whole earth, with the 
view of putting men to death. Now this body (of man) is 
also called a cosmos (a microcosm), in relation to the great 
cosmos (the macrocosm of the universe) ; and all men have 
roots which are linked beneath with those above. Accord- 
ingly, when this prince is captivated by the virgin's charms, 
he then begins to cut the roots of men ; and when their 
roots are cut, then pestilence commences to break forth, and 

1 The Latin version has "vir perfectus," a reading which is due 
apparently to the fact that the author had mistaken the drip of the Greek 
for oivvip. 

2 o dspiapos oLpxav. The version of Petavius has, " Sic et princeps 
alter, messor appellatus." Perhaps the reading should be o dspiapw 


Other codices give/amem, as reading A/^&'v, famine. 


in that manner they die. And if he shakes the upper parts 
of the root mightily, 1 an earthquake bursts, and follows as 
the consequence of the commotion to which the Omophorus 
is subjected. This is the explanation of (the phenomenon 
of) death. 

9. I shall explain to you also how it is that the soul is 
transfused into five bodies. 2 First of all, in this process 
some small portion of it is purified ; and then it is trans- 
fused into the body of a dog, or a camel, or some other 
animal. But if the soul has been guilty of homicide, it is 
translated into the body of the celephi ; 3 and if it has been 
found to have engaged in cutting (depiaaa-a, reaping), it is 
made to pass into the (body of the) dumb. Now these are 
the designations of the soul, namely, intelligence, reflection, 
prudence, consideration, reasoning. 4 Moreover, the reapers 
who reap are likened to the princes who have been in dark- 
ness from the beginning, 5 since they consumed somewhat of 
the panoply of the first man. On this account there is a 
necessity for these to be translated into hay, or beans, or 
barley, or corn, or vegetables, in order that in these forms 
they, in like manner, may be reaped and cut. And again, if 
any one eats bread, he must needs also become bread and be 

1 ta.v 0* ret B.VU rijf /$/>)? irovu aa.'tevav). It may be also = And if the 
upper parts of the root shake under the exertion. 

2 TTUS pttTyy(mtt y -^v^vi <V KIV-TS auftarct. But the Codex Bobi- 
ensis reads transferuntur ; and the Latin version gives, " quomodo et 
animse in alia quoque corpora transfunduntur " = how the souls are 
also transfused into other bodies. 

8 The text gives xtte(pui>, which is spoken of in Migne as an unknown 
animal, though xfostpos (thus accentuated) occurs in ecclesiastical writers 
in the sense of a leper. It is proposed to read faeQctvTtuv, " of ele- 
phants ;" and so the Codex Bobiensis gives " elephantorum corpora," 
and Codex Casinensis has " in elefantia eorum corpora," which is pro- 
bably an error for " in elephantiacorum corpora." Routh suggests 

* vov$, tvvottt, tppovwis, IvdvfiYiaif, "hoyiaftos. The Latin version renders, 
niens, sensus, prudentia, intellectus, cogitatio. Petavius gives, mens, notio, 
intdligentia, cogitatio, ratiocinatio. 

5 TO?? &KP-XM$ oven* fl( ffKoros- But the Latin version gives "qui ex 
materia ovti," etc. who, having sprung from matter, are in darkness. 


eaten. If one kills a chicken (opviQiov), he will be a chicken 
himself. If one kills a mouse, he will also become a mouse 
himself. If, again, one is wealthy in this world, it is neces- 
sary that, on quitting the tabernacle of his body, he should 
be made to pass into the body of a beggar, so as to go about 
asking alms, and thereafter he shall depart into everlasting 
punishment. Moreover, as this body pertains to the princes 
and to matter, it is necessary that he who plants a persea l 
should pass through many bodies until that persea is pros- 
trated. And if one builds a house for himself, he will be 
divided and scattered among all the bodies (ei<? ra o\a 
a-(t)fj,ara). If one bathes in water, he freezes 2 his soul ; and 
if one refuses to give pious regard 3 to his elect, he will be 
punished through the generations, 4 and will be translated into 
the bodies of catechumens, until he render many tributes of 
piety ; and for this reason they offer to the elect whatever 
is best in their meats. And when they are about to eat 
bread, they offer up prayer first of all, addressing themselves 
in these terms to the bread : " I have neither reaped thee, nor 
ground thee, nor pressed thee, nor cast thee into the baking- 
vessel ; but another has done these things, and brought thee 
to me, and I have eaten thee without fault." And when he 
has uttered these things to himself, he says to the catechumen, 5 
"I have prayed for thee;" and in this manner that person 
then takes his departure. For, as I remarked to you a little 
before, if any one reaps, he will be reaped ; and so, too, if 
one casts grain into the mill, he will be cast in himself in like 
manner, or if he kneads he will be kneaded, or if he bakes he 
will be baked ; and for this reason they are interdicted from 

1 Explained as a species of Egyptian tree, in -which the fruit grows 
from the stem. The Codex Casinensis has the strange reading, per se 
ad illam, for perseam, etc. See also Epiphanius, num. 9. 

2 vtiaau. But the Latin version gives vulnerat, " wounds," from the 
reading irKwiret. 

3 fvoifaietv. But the Latin version gives alimenta. 

4 flf reef ytv&a.g. But the Latin version has " poenis subdetur gehen- 
nae " = will suffer the pains of hell. 

5 But the Latin version gives, "respondet ad eum qui ei detulit" = 
he makes answer to the person who brought it to him. 


doing any such work. Moreover, there are certain other 
worlds on which the luminaries rise when they have set on 
our world. 1 And if a person walks upon the ground here, he 
injures the earth ; and if he moves his hand, he injures the 
air ; for the air is the soul (life) of men and living creatures, 
both fowl, and fish, and creeping thing. And as to every one 2 
existing in this world, I have told you that this body of his 
does not pertain to God, but to matter, and is itself darkness, 
and consequently it must needs be cast in darkness. 

10. Now, with respect to paradise, it is not called a cosmos. 8 
The trees that are in it are lust and other seductions, which 
corrupt the rational powers of those men. And that tree in 
paradise, by which men know the good, is Jesus Himself, 
(or) 4 the knowledge of Him in the world. He who partakes 
thereof discerns the good and the evil. The world itself, 
however, is not God's (work) ; but it was the structure of a 
portion of matter, and consequently all things perish in it. 
And what the princes took as spoil from the first man, that 
is what makes the moon full, and what is being purged day 
by day of the world. And if the soul makes its exit without 
having gained the knowledge of the truth, it is given over 
to the demons, in order that they may subdue it in the 
Gehennas of fire ; and after that discipline it is made to pass 
into bodies with the purpose of being brought into subjection, 
and in this manner it is cast into the mighty fire until the 
consummation. Again, regarding the prophets amongst you, 5 
he speaks thus : Their spirit is one of impiety, or of the law- 
lessness of the darkness which arose at the beginning. And 
being deceived by this spirit, they have not spoken (truth) ; 

1 The text is, xetl vu.'Kiv tlolv iTipoi xoeftoi Tint?, TUV (puarqpuv 

KTTO TClVTOV roil X,6fff*OV, t% UV 06* 'OLTiKhWO I. RoUth SUggCStS 

deleting ! uv. 

2 Reading <irts, as in the text. Routh suggests e"n, = As to everything 
existing in this world, I have told you that the body thereof does, etc. 

3 But the Latin has " qui vocatur," etc. = which is called, etc. And 
Routh therefore proposes o? xetfahat for ov x.^theti. 

4 The text gives simply jj yvuotg. The Codex Bobiensis has et scientia. 
Hence Routh would read xul j yuat;, and the knowledge. 

* Retaining the reading vpl v, though Petavius would substitute qfilf, us. 


for the prince blinded their mind. And if any one follows 
their words, he dies for ever, bound to the clods of earth, 
because he has not learned the knowledge of the Paraclete. 


He also gave injunctions to his elect alone, who are not more 
than seven in number. And the charge was this: "When 
ye cease eating, pray, and put upon your head an olive, sworn 
with the invocation of many names for the confirmation of 
this faith." The names, however, were not made known to 
me; for only these seven make use of them. And again, the 
name Sabaoth, which is honourable and mighty with you, he 
declares to be the nature of man, and the parent of desire ; 
for which reason the simple 1 worship desire, and hold it to be 
a deity. Furthermore, as regards the manner of the creation 
of Adam, he tells us that he who said, " Come and let us 
make man in our image, after our likeness," or " after the 
form which we have seen," is the prince who addressed the 
other princes in terms which may be thus interpreted : 
" Come, give me of the light which we have received, and 
let us make man after the form of us princes, even after 
that, form which we have seen, that is to say, 2 the first man." 
And in that manner he (or they) created the man. They 
created Eve also after the like fashion, imparting to her of 
their own lust, with a view to the deceiving of Adam. And 
by these means the construction of the world proceeded from 
the operations of the prince. 

11. He holds also that God has no part with the world 
itself, and finds no pleasure in it, by reason of its having been 
made a spoil of from the first by the princes, and on account 
of the ill that rose on it. Wherefore He sends and takes away 
from them day by day the soul belonging to Him, through the 
medium of these luminaries, the sun and the moon, by which 
the whole world and all creation are dominated. Him, 
again, who spake with Moses, and the Jews, and the priests, 
he declares to be the prince of the darkness ; so that the 

;, in the Latin version Simpliciores, a name apparently given 
to the Catholics by the Manicheans. See Ducangii Glossarium media 
el injimse Grascitatis. 

2 The text gives 6 tarl fpuTo; eLvfyuiro;. Routh proposes o IOTI, etc. 



Christians, and the Jews, and the Gentiles are one and the 
same body, worshipping the same God : for He seduces them 
in His own passions, being no God of truth. For this reason 
all those who hope in that God who spake with Moses and 
the prophets have to be bound together with the said deity 
(per avrov cloven Sedfjvai), because they have not hoped in 
the God of truth ; for that deity spake with them in accord- 
ance with their own passions. Moreover, after all these 
things, he speaks in the following terms with regard to the 
end (eVi reXet), as he has also written : When the elder has 
displayed his image, 1 the Omophorus then lets the earth go 
from him, and so the mighty fire gets free, and consumes the 
whole world. Then, again, he lets the soil go with the new 
seon, 2 in order that all the souls of sinners may be bound for 
ever. These things will take place at the time when the man's 
image (dv&pids) has come. 3 And all these powers put forth 
by God (al Se -jrpo^o\al vrdcrai), namely, Jesus, who is in 
the smaller ship (TrXo/w), and the Mother of Life, and the 
twelve helmsmen (tcv/3epvf)Tai), and the virgin of the light, 
and the third elder, who is in the greater ship, and the living 
spirit, and the wall (rei^o?) of the mighty fire, and the wall 
of the wind, and the air, and the water, and the interior living 
fire, have their seat in the lesser luminary, until the fire shall 
have consumed the whole world: and that is to happen within 
so many years, the exact number of which, however, I have 
not ascertained. And after these things there will be a 
restitution of the two natures ; 4 and the princes will occupy 

1 The text is x.6ug uvro; typx-fytv 'O wpsa/St/rwf, etc. The Codex 
Bobiensis gives, "Sicut ipse senior scripsit : Cum maiiifestam feceris," 
etc., = As the elder himself wrote : When thou hast, etc. The elder 
here is probably the same as the third elder farther on. 

2 The Greek is, dtpiqat rov ftahov ^iu. rov viov ctlavos ; but the Latin 
version has the strangely diverse rendering, " dimittunt aniinam quse 
objicitur inter medium novi saeculi "=they let go the soul that is placed 
in the midst of the new age. 

8 But the Latin gives, " cum statuta venerit dies" = when the appointed 
day has come. 

4 ruv 3t/o tpi/asav. But the Latin version gives duorum luminarium, 
and the Codex Casinensis has luminariorum, the two luminaries. 


the lowei parts proper to them, and the Father the higher 
parts, receiving again what is His own due possession. All 
this doctrine he delivered to his three disciples, and charged 
each to journey to a separate clime. 1 The Eastern parts fell 
thus to the lot of Addas; Thomas 2 obtained the Syrian 
territories as his heritage ; and another, to wit Hermeias, 
directed his course toward Egypt. And to this day they 
sojourn there, with the purpose of establishing the proposi- 
tions contained in this doctrine. 3 

12. When Turbo had made this statement, Archelaus was 
intensely excited ; but Marcellus remained unmoved, for he ex- 
pected that God would come to the help of His truth. Arche- 
laus, however, had additional cares in his anxiety about the 
people, like the shepherd who becomes concerned for his sheep 
when secret perils threaten them from the wolves. Accord- 
ingly Marcellus loaded Turbo with the most liberal gifts, and 
instructed him to remain in the house of Archelaus the 
bishop. 4 But on that selfsame day Manes arrived, bringing 
along with him certain chosen youths and virgins to the 
number of twenty-two. 5 And first of all he sought for 
Turbo at the door of the house of Marcellus ; and on failing 
to find him there, he went in to salute Marcellus. On 
seeing him, Marcellus at first was struck with astonishment 
at the costume in which he presented himself. For he wore 
a kind of shoe which is usually called in common speech the 
quadrisole; 6 he had also a party-coloured cloak, of a some- 
what airy (aerina, sky-like) appearance ; in his hand he 
grasped a very sturdy staff of ebony- wood; 7 he carried a 
Babylonian book under his left arm ; his legs were swathed 

1 Reading x^i^xret, with Petavius, for xhqftetrct. 

2 The Codex Casinensis makes no mention of Thomas. 

3 Here ends the Greek of Epiphanius. 

4 The words, the bishop, are omitted in the Codex Bobiensis. 

5 But Codex Bobiensis gives duodecim, twelve. 

6 But the Codex Bobiensis gives trisolium, the trisole. Strabo, book 
xv., tells us that the Persians wore high shoes. 

7 Ducange in his Glossary, under the word E/3XA/j/o?, shows from 
Callisthenes that the prophets or interpreters of sacred things carried an 
ebony staff. 


in trousers of different colours, the one being red, and ths 
other green as a leek; and his whole mien was like that 
of some old Persian master and commandant. 1 Thereupon 
Marcellus sent forthwith for Archelaus, who arrived so 
quickly as almost to outstrip the word, and on entering was 
greatly tempted at once to break out against him, being 
provoked to that instantly by the very sight of his costume 
and his appearance, though more especially also by the fact 
that he had himself been turning over in his mind in his re- 
tirement 2 the various matters which he had learned from the 
recital of Turbo, and had thus come carefully prepared. 
But Marcellus, in his great thoughtful ness, repressed all zeal 
for mere wrangling, and decided to hear both parties. With 
that view he invited the leading men of the city ; and from 
among them he selected as judges (of the discussion) certain 
adherents of the Gentile religion, four in number. The names 
of these umpires were as follows : Manippus, a person deeply 
versed in the art of grammar and the practice of rhetoric ; 
.ZEgialeus, 3 a very eminent physician, and a man of the 
highest reputation for learning ; and Claudius and Cleobolus, 4 
two brothers famed as rhetoricians. 5 A splendid assemblage 
was thus convened ; so large, indeed, that the house of Mar- 
cellus, which was of immense size, was filled with those who had 
been called to be hearers. And when the parties who proposed 
to speak in opposition to each other had taken their places in 

1 The text is, " vultus vero ut senis Persae artificis et bellorum ducis 
videbatur." Philippus Buonarruotius, in the Osservazioni sopra alcnni 
frammenti di vasi antichi di Vetro, Florence 1716, p. 69, thinks that this 
rendering has arisen from the Latin translator's having erroneously read 
a$ JtYifAiovpyov x,etl arpotrifiyw instead of a; ^Yifteip^ov x.u.1 ffTpctTy/oiJ. Taking 
crpatTy/ov, therefore, in the civil sense which it bears in various passages, 
he would interpret the sentence thus : " His whole mien was like that of 
an old Persian tribune and magistrate." See Gallandi's note. 

2 The text is secretius factum, etc. Kouth suggests secretius factus, 

8 The Codex Bobiensis reads "JSgidius." 

4 Epiphanius gives KhtoflovKo;. 

5 Codex Casinensis reads rectores, governors. And Epiphanius, num. 
10, makes the first a professor of Gentile philosophy, the second a phy- 
sician, the third a grammarian, and the fourth a rhetorician. 


view of all, then those who had been elected as judges took 
their seats in a position elevated above all others : and the 
task of commencing the disputation was assigned to Manes. 
Accordingly, when silence was secured, he began l the dis- 
cussion in the following terms: 2 

13. My brethren, I indeed am a disciple of Christ, and, 
moreover, an apostle of Jesus ; and it is owing to the exceed- 
ing kindness of Marcellus that I have hastened hither, with 
the view of showing him clearly in what manner he ought to 
keep the system of divine religion, so that the said Marcellus 
verily, who at present has put himself, like one who has sur- 
rendered himself prisoner, under the doctrine of Archelaus, 
may not, like the dumb animals, which are destitute of intel- 
lect and understand not what they do, be fatally smitten to 
the ruin of his soul, in consequence of any failure in the pos- 
session of further facilities for setting about the right observ- 
ance of divine worship. I know, furthermore, and am certain, 
that if Marcellus is once set right, 3 it will be quite possible 
that all of you may also have your salvation effected ; for your 
city hangs suspended upon his judgment. If vain presump- 
tion is rejected by every one of you, and if those things which 
are to be declared by me be heard with a real love for the 
truth, ye will receive the inheritance of the age to come, and 
the kingdom of heaven. I, in sooth, am the Paraclete, whose 
mission was announced of old time by Jesus, and who was 
to come to tl convince the world of sin and unrighteousness" * 
(injustitia). And even as Paul, who was sent before me, said 
of himself, that " he knew in part, and prophesied in part," 5 
so I reserve the perfect for myself, in order that I may do 
away with that which is in part. Therefore receive ye this 

1 For primum the Codex Casinensis reads plurima, = he began a 
lengthy statement, etc. 

2 Thus far Valesius edited the piece from the Codex Bobiensis. 

3 Reading emendato. Codex Casinensis gives enim dato. 

4 John xvi. 8. This reading, de injustitia, may be due to an error on 
the part of the scribe, but is more probably to be referred to the practice 
pursued by Manes in altering and corrupting the sacred text to suit his 
own tenets. See ch. 53, and also Epiphauius on this heresy, num. 56. 

5 1 Cor. xiii. 9. 


third testimony, that I am an elect apostle of Christ ; and if 
ye choose to accept my words, ye will find salvation ; but if ye 
refuse them, eternal fire will have you to consume you. For 
as Hymenaeus and Alexander were " delivered unto Satan, 
that they might learn not to blaspheme," l so will all ye also 
be delivered unto the prince of punishments, because ye 
have done injury to the Father of Christ, in so far as ye de- 
clare Him to be the cause of all evils, and the founder of 
unrighteousness, and the creator of all iniquity. By such 
doctrine ye do, indeed, bring forth from the same fountain 
both sweet water and bitter, a thing which can in no possible 
way be either done or apprehended. For who ought to be 
believed ? Should it be those masters of yours whose enjoy- 
ment is in the flesh, and who pamper themselves with the 
richest delights ; or our Saviour Jesus Christ, who says, as 
it is written in the book of the Gospels, "A good tree cannot 
bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth 
good fruit," 2 and who in another place assures us that the 
il father of the devil (patrem diaboli) is a liar and a murderer 
from the beginning," 3 and tells us again that men's desire 
was for the darkness, 4 so that they would not follow that 
Word that had been sent forth in the beginning from the 
light, 5 and (once more shows us) the man who is the enemy 
of the same, the sower of tares, 6 and the god and prince of 
the age of this world, who blinds the minds of men that they 
may not be obedient to the truth in the gospel of Christ? 7 
Is that God good who has no wish that the men who are his 
own should be saved ? And, not to go over a multitude of 
other matters, and waste much time, I may defer 8 till another 
opportunity the exposition of the true doctrine ; and taking 
it for granted that I have said enough on this subject for the 

1 1 Tim. i. 20- 2 Matt. vii. 18. 

3 John viii. 44. 4 Referring, perhaps, to John i. 5. 

5 The text gives, "utinsequerentur. . . Verbum, etinimicum,"etc. The 
sense seems to be as above, supposing either that the verb insequerentur 
is used with the meaning of assailing, persecuting, or that the ut is put 
for ut ne, as is the case with the exc&cat ut at the close of the sentence. 

6 Matt. xiii. 25. 7 Eph. vi. 12 ; 2 Cor. iv. 4. 
8 Reading differens. But Codex Casinensis gives disserens. 


present, I may revert to the matter immediately before me, and 
endeavour satisfactorily to demonstrate the absurdity of these 
men's teaching, and show that none of these things can be 
attributed to the God and Father of our Lord and Saviour, 
but that we must take Satan to be the cause of all our ills. 
To him, certainly, these must be carried back, for all ills of 
this kind are generated by him. But those things also which 
are written in the prophets and the law are none the less to 
be ascribed to him ; for he it is who spake then in the pro- 
phets, introducing into their minds very many ignorant notions 
of God, as well as temptations and passions. They, too, set 
forth that devourer of blood and flesh ; and to that Satan 
and to his prophets all these things properly pertain which he 
wished to transfer (trans for mare) to the Father of Christ, pre- 
pared as he was to write a few things in the way of truth, that 
by means of these he might also gain credence for those other 
statements of his which are false. Hence it is well for us to 
receive nothing at all of all those things which have been 
written of old even down to John, and indeed to embrace only 
the kingdom of heaven, which has been preached in the gospel 
since his days; for they verily but made a mockery of them- 
selves, introducing as they did things ridiculous and ludicrous, 
keeping some small words given in obscure outline in the law, 
but not understanding that, if good things are mixed up with 
evil, the result is, that by the corruption of these evil things, 
even those others which are good are destroyed. And if, 
indeed, there is any one who may prove himself able to demon- 
strate that the law upholds the right, that law ought to be 
kept ; but if we can show it to be evil, then it ought to be 
done away with and rejected, inasmuch as it contains the 
ministration of death, which was graven (information), which 
also covered and destroyed the glory on the countenance of 
Moses. 1 It is a thing not without peril, therefore, for any one 
of you to teach the New Testament along with the law and 
the prophets, as if they were of one and the same origin ; for 
the knowledge of our Saviour renews (the one) from day to 
day, while the other grows old and infirm, and passes almost 
1 1 Cor. iii. 7. 


into utter destruction. 1 And this is a fact manifest to those 
who are capable of exercising discernment. For just as, 
when the branches of a tree become aged, or when the trunk 
ceases to bear fruit any more, they are cut down ; and just 
as, when the members of the body suffer mortification, they 
are amputated, for the poison of the mortification diffuses 
itself from these members through the whole body, and unless 
some remedy be found for the disease by the skill of the 
physician, the whole body will be vitiated; so, too, if ye receive 
the law without understanding its origin, ye will ruin your 
souls, and lose your salvation. For "the law and the pro- 
phets were until John;" 2 but since John the law of truth, the 
law of the promises, the law of heaven, the new law, is made 
known to the race of man. And, in sooth, as long as there 
was no one to exhibit to you this most true knowledge of our 
Lord Jesus, ye had not sin. Now, however, ye both see and 
hear, and yet ye desire to walk in ignorance, 3 in order that ye 
may keep 4 that law which has been destroyed and abandoned. 
And Paul, too, who is held to be the most approved (apostle) 
with us, expresses himself to the same effect in one of his 
epistles, when he says : " For if I build again the things 
which I destroyed, I make myself a prevaricator (prcevari- 
catorern)." 5 And in saying this he pronounces on them as 
Gentiles, because they were under the elements of the world, 6 
before the fulness of faith came, believing then as they did 
in the law and the prophets. 

14. The judges said : If you have any clearer statement yet 
to make, give us some explanation of the nature (or, standard) 
of your doctrine and the designation (titulo) of your faith. 
Manes replied : I hold that there are two natures, one good 
and another evil ; and that the one which is good dwells 
indeed in certain parts proper to it, but that the evil one 

1 Cf. Heb. viii. 13. 2 Luke xvi. 16. 

3 In inscitias ire vultis. It is proposed to read injicias = and yet ye 
desire to deny the truth. Routh suggests, et odistis et in inscitiam ire 
vultis = and ye hate it, and choose to take your way into ignorance. 

4 Supplying observetis in the clause ut legtm, etc. 

5 Gal. ii. 18. e Gal. iv. 3. 


is this world, as well as all things in it, which are placed 
there like objects imprisoned (ergastula) in the portion of 
the wicked one, as John says, that " the whole world lieth 
in wickedness" (or, in the wicked one), 1 and not in God. 
Wherefore we have maintained that there are two locali- 
ties, one good, and another which lies outside of this, 2 so 
that, having space therein (in his), it might be capable of 
receiving into itself the creature (creation) of the world. 
For if we say that there is but a monarchy of one nature, 
and that God fills all things, and that there is no location 
outside of Him, what will be the sustainer of the creature 
(creation)? where will be the Gehenna of fire? where 
the outer darkness ? where the weeping ? Shall I say in 
Himself? God forbid; else He Himself will also be made 
to suffer in and with these. Entertain no such fancies, whoso- 
ever of you have any care for your salvation ; for I shall give 
you an example, in order that you may have fuller under- 
standing of the truth. The world is one vessel (uas) ; and 
if 3 the substance of God has already filled this entire vessel, 
how is it possible now that anything more can be placed in 
this same vessel ? If it is full, how shall it receive what is 
placed in it, unless a certain portion of the vessel is emptied ? 
Or whither shall that which is to be emptied out make its 
way, seeing that there is no locality for it? Where then is 
the earth ? where the heavens ? where the abyss ? where the 
stars? where the settlements? 4 where the powers? where the 
princes? where the outer darkness? Who is he that has laid 
the foundations of these, and where ? No one is able to tell 
us that without stumbling on blasphemy. And in what way, 
again, has He been able to make the creatures, if there is no 
subsistent matter? For if He has made them out of the non- 
existent, it will follow that these visible creatures should be 
superior, and full of all virtues. But if in these there are 

1 1 John v. 19. 

2 The text gives "extra e?/m." Routh suggests Deum, outside of God. 

3 The text gives simply " quod Dei substantia," etc. We may per- 
haps adopt, with Routh, "quod si Dei," etc. 

4 Sedes. Routh suggests sidera, luminaries. 


wickedness, and death, and corruption, and whatever is 
opposed to the good, how say we that they owe their forma- 
tion to a nature different from themselves ? Howbeit if you 
consider the way in which the sons of men are begotten, you 
will find that the creator of man is not the Lord, but another 
being, who is also himself of an unbegotten (ingenitce) nature, 
who has neither founder, nor creator, nor maker, but who, 
such as he is, has been produced by his own malice alone. 
In accordance with this, you men have a commerce with your 
wives, which comes to you by an occasion of the following 
nature. When any one of you has satiated himself with 
carnal meats, and meats of other kinds, then the impulse of 
concupiscence rises in him, and in this way the enjoyment 
(fructus) of begetting a son is increased ; and this happens 
not as if that had its spring in any virtue, or in philosophy, 
or in any other gift of mind, but in fulness of meats only, 
and in lust and fornication. And how shall any one tell me 
that our father Adam was made after the image of God, 
and in His likeness, and that he is like Him who made him ? 
How can it be said that all of us who have been begotten of 
him are like him ? Yea, rather, on the contrary, have we 
not a great variety of forms, and do we not bear the impress 
of different countenances ? And how true this is, I shall 
exhibit to you in parables. Look, for instance, at a person 
who wishes to seal up a treasure, or some other object, and 
you will observe how, when he has got a little wax or clay, 
he seeks to stamp it with an impression of his own counte- 
nance from the ring which he wears ; x but if another coun- 
tenance also stamps the figure of itself on the object in a 
similar manner, will the impression seem like? By no means, 

1 The reference is to the ancient custom of using wax and certain 
earths and clays for the purpose of affixiug, by means of the ring, a seal 
with an impression on any object which it was desired to secure. Thus 
Herodotus, ii. 38, tells us how the Egyptians marked the pure victim by 
wrapping it round the horns with papyrus, and then smearing some 
sealing earth (yyv avp.a.vrpfttt) on it, and stamping it with a ring. See 
also Cicero, Pro Flacco, where he speaks of the laudatio obsignata cretd 
ilia Asiatica ; and Plautus, Pseudolus, Scene i., where he mentions the 
expressam in cera ex annulo suam imayincm, etc. 


although you may be reluctant to acknowledge what is true. 
But if we are not like in the (common) impression, and if, 
instead of that, there are differences in us, how can it fail to 
be proved thereby that we are the workmanship of the princes, 
and of matter? For in due accordance with their form, and 
likeness, and image, we also exist as diverse forms. But if 
you wish to be fully instructed as to that commerce which 
took place at the beginning, and as to the manner in which 
it occurred, I shall explain the matter to you. 

15. The judges said: We need not inquire as to the manner 
in which that primitive commerce took place until we have 
first seen it proved that there are two natural principles. 
For when once it is made clear that there are two unbegotten 
natures, then others of your averments may also gain our 
assent, even although something in them may not seem to fit 
in very readily with what is credible. For as the power of 
pronouncing judgment has been committed to us, we shall de- 
clare what may make itself clear to our mind. We may, how- 
ever, also grant to Archelaus the liberty of speaking to these 
statements of yours, so that, by comparing what is said by 
each of you, we may be able to give our decision in accordance 
with the truth. Archelaus said: Notwithstanding, the adver- 
sary's intent is replete with gross audacity and blasphemy. 
Manes said: Hear, O judges, what he has said of the adver- 
sary. 1 He admits, then, that there are two objects. Archelaus 
said : It seems to me that this man is full of madness rather 
than of prudence, who would stir up a controversy with me 
to-day because I chance to speak of the adversary. But this 
objection of yours may be removed with few words, notwith- 
standing that you have supposed from this expression of mine 
that I shall allow that there are these two natures. 2 You have 
come forward with a most extravagant 3 doctrine ; for neither 

1 The text is "quid dixerit adversarii ;" some propose "quod" or 
" quia dixerit," etc. 

2 The manuscript reading is, " tarn si quidem ex hoc arbitratus est se 
affirmaturum." For this it is proposed to read, as in the translation, 
' tametsi quidem ex hoc arbitratus es me affirmaturum." 

3 The text gives inyentem. Routh suggests inscientem, stupid. 


of the assertions made by you holds good. For it is quite 
possible that one who is an adversary, not by nature, but by 
determination, may be made a friend, and cease to be an ad- 
versary ; and thus, when the one of us has come to acquiesce 
with the other, we twain shall appear to be, as it were, one 
and the same object. This account also indicates that 
rational creatures have been entrusted with free-will, in 
virtue of which they also admit of conversions. And conse- 
quently there cannot be (two) unbegotten natures. 1 What 
do you say, then? Are these two natures inconvertible? or 
are they convertible ? or is one of them converted ? Manes, 
however, held back, because he did not find a suitable reply ; 
for he was pondering the conclusion which might be drawn 
from either of two answers which lie might make, turning 
the matter over thus in his thoughts : If I say that they are 
converted, he will meet me with that statement which is 
recorded in the Gospel about the trees ; but if I say that they 
are not convertible, he will necessarily ask me to explain the 
condition and cause of their intermingling. In the mean- 
time, after a little delay, Manes replied: They are indeed 
both inconvertible in so far as contraries are concerned ; but 
they are convertible as far as properties (propria) are con- 
cerned. Archelaus then said: You seem to me to be out of 
your mind, and oblivious of your own propositions ; yea, 
you do not appear even to recognise the powers or qualities 
of the very words which you have been learning. 2 For you 
do not understand either what conversion is, or what is meant 
by unbegotten, or what duality implies, or what is past, or 
what is present, or what is future, as I have gathered from the 
opinions to which you have just now given expression. For 
you have affirmed, indeed, that each of these two natures is 

1 Adopting the proposed reading, " et ideo ingenitse naturae esse 
non possunt." The text omits the duie, however ; and in that case the 
sense would be simply, And consequently there cannot be unbegotten 
natures ; or perhaps, And so they (the creatures) cannot be of an uu- 
begotten nature. 

2 Didicisti. But perhaps we ought to read dixisti, which you have 
been uttering. 


inconvertible so far as regards contraries, but convertible so 
far as regards properties. But I maintain that one who 
moves in properties does not pass out of himself, but 
subsists in these same properties, in which he is ever in- 
convertible ; while in the case of one who is susceptible of 
conversion, the effect is that he is placed outside the pale of 
properties, and passes within the sphere of accidents (aliena, 
of what is alien). 

16. The judges said: Convertibility translates the person 
whom it befalls into another ; as, for example, we might say 
that if a Jew were to make up his mind to become a Christian, 
or, on the other hand, if a Christian were to decide to be a 
Gentile, this would be a species of convertibility, and a cause 
of the same. 1 But, again, if we suppose a Gentile to keep by 
all his own (heathen) properties, and to offer sacrifices to his 
gods, and to do service to the temples as usual, surely you 
would not be of opinion that he could be said to be converted, 
while he yet holds by his properties, and goes on in them ? 
What, then, do you say ? Do they sustain convertibility or 
not ? And as Manes hesitated, Archelaus proceeded thus : If, 
indeed, he says that both natures are convertible, 2 what is there 
to prevent our thinking them to be one and the same object? 
For if they are inconvertible, then surely in natures which are 
similarly inconvertible and similarly unbegotten there is no 
distinction, neither can the one of them be recognised as good 
or as evil. But if they are both convertible, then, forsooth, 
the possible result may be both that the good is made evil, 
and that the evil is made good. If, however, this is the 
possible result, why should we not speak of one only as unbe- 
gotten, 3 which would be a conception in worthier accordance 
with the reckoning of truth ? For we have to consider how 

1 The text runs thus : " ut si dicamus, Judseus, si velit fieri Christiamis, 
aut si Christianas velit esse gentilis, hsec species est convertibilitatis et 

2 The text gives convertibilcs. Routh suggests inconvertibiles, incon- 

3 The text is unum dicamus inrjenilum. Routh suggests unum bonum, 
etc. = Why should we not speak of only one unbegotten good ? 


that evil one became so at first, or against what objects he 
exercised his wickedness before the formation of the world. 
When the heavens had not yet appeared, when the earth did 
not yet subsist, and when there was neither man nor animal, 
against whom did he put his wickedness in operation ? whom 
did he oppress unjustly ? whom did he rob and kill ? But if 
you say that he first appeared in his evil nature to his own 
kin, 1 then without doubt you give the proof that he comes 
of a good nature. And if, again, all these are also evil, how 
can Satan then cast out Satan ? 2 But while thus reduced to a 
dilemma on this point, you may change your position in the 
discussion, and say that the good suffered violence from the evil. 
But none the more is it without peril for you to make such a 
statement, to the effect of affirming the vanquishing of the 
light ; for what is vanquished has destruction near it (or, kin 
to it, vicinum habet interitum). For what says the divine word? 
"Who can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his 
goods, except he be stronger than he ? " 3 But if you allege 
that he first appeared in his evil nature to men, and only 
from that time showed openly the marks of his wickedness, 
then it follows that before this time he was good, and that 
he took on this quality of conversion because the creation 
of man 4 was found to have emerged as the cause of his 
wickedness. But, in fine, let him tell us what he under- 
stands by evil, lest perchance he may be defending or setting 
up a mere name. And if it is not the name but the sub- 
stance of evil that he speaks of, then let him set before us 
the fruits of this wickedness and iniquity, since the nature of 
a tree can never be known but by its fruit. 

17. Manes said: Let it first be allowed on your side that 
there is an alien root of wickedness, which God has not planted, 

1 The text is, "quod si suis eum dicas extitisse malum, sine dubio 
ergo ostenditur ilium bonse esse naturae." Routh suggests, " quia istis 
suis adversatur qui inali sunt," etc. = The fact that he is adverse to 
those who are of his own kin, and who are evil, would be a proof that 
he comes of a good nature. 

2 Mark iii. 23. 8 Mark iii. 27. 

4 The text is, " creati hominis causa invenitur exstitisse malitise," for 
which we read " creatio hoimuis," etc. 


and then I shall tell you its fruits. Archelaus said: Truth's 
reckoning does not make any such requirement; and I shall 
not admit to you that there is a root of any such evil tree, of 

/ / 

the fruit whereof no one has ever tasted. But just as, when 
a man desires to make any purchase, he does not produce the 
money unless he first ascertains by tasting the object whether 
it is of a dry or a moist species, so I shall not admit to you 
that the tree is evil and utterly corrupt, unless the quality of 
its fruit is first exhibited; for it is written, that "the tree 
is known by its fruits." 1 Tell us, therefore, O Manes, what 
fruit is yielded by that tree which is called evil, or of what 
nature it is, and what virtue it is, that we may also believe 
with you that the root of that same tree is of that character 
which you ascribe to it. Manes said: The root indeed is 
evil, and the tree is most corrupt, but the increase is not 
from God. Moreover, fornications, adulteries, murders, 
avarice, and all evil deeds, are the fruits of that evil root. 
Archelaus said: That we may credit you when you say 
that these are the fruits of that evil root, give us a taste 
of these things ; for you have pronounced the substance of 
this tree to be ungenerate (ingenitam\ the fruits of which 
are produced after its own likeness. Manes said: The very 
unrighteousness which subsists in men offers the proof itself, 
and in avarice too you may taste that evil root. Archelaus 
said : Well, then, as you have stated the question, those iniqui- 
ties which prevail among men are fruits of this tree. Manes 
said : Quite so. Archelaus proceeded: If these, then, are the 
fruits, that is to say, the wicked deeds of men, it will follow 
that the men themselves will hold the place of the root and 
of the tree ; for you have declared that they produce fruits 
of this nature. Manes said : That is my statement. A rchelaus 
answered : Not well say you, That is my statement : for surely 
that cannot be your statement; otherwise, when men cease 
from sinning, this tree of wickedness will appear to be un- 
fruitful. Manes said: What you say is an impossibility ; for 
even though one or another, or several, were to cease sinning, 
there would yet be others doing evil still. Archelaus said: 
1 Matt. vii. 16. 


If it is at all possible for one or another, or several, as you 
admit, not to sin, it is also possible for all to do the same ; 
for they are all of one parent, and are all men of one lump. 
And, not to follow at my ease those affirmations which you 
have so confusedly made through all their absurdities, I shall 
conclude their refutation by certain unmistakeable counter- 
arguments. Do you allege that the fruits of the evil root 
and the evil tree are the deeds of men, that is to say, for- 
nications, adulteries, perjuries, murders, and other similar 
things? Manes said: I do. Arclielaus said: Well, then, 
if it happened that the race of men was to die off the face 
of the earth, so that they should not be able to sin any more, 
the substance of that tree would then perish, and it would 
bear fruit no more. Manes said : And when will that take 
place of which you speak"? Arclielaus said: What 1 is in 
the future I know not, for I am but a man ; nevertheless I 
shall not leave these words of yours unexamined. What say 
you of the race of men? Is it unbegotten, or is it a produc- 
tion? Manes said: It is a production. Arclielaus said: 
If man is a production, who is the parent of adultery and 
fornication, and such other things? Whose fruit is this? 
Before man was made, who was there to be a fornicator, or 
an adulterer, or a murderer? Manes said: But if the man 
is fashioned of the evil nature, it is manifest that he is such 
a fruit, 2 albeit he may sin, albeit he may not sin ; whence also 
the name and race of men are once for all and absolutely 
of this character, whether they may do what is righteous or 
what is unrighteous. Arclielaus said: Well, we may also take 
notice of that matter. If, as you aver, the wicked one himself 
made man, why is it that he practises his malignity on him ? 
18. The judges said: We desire to have information from 
you on this point, Manichasus, to wit, to what effect you 
have affirmed him to be evil. Do you mean that he has 

1 The text gives " quoniam quod futurum est nescio, homo enim sum, 
non tamen," etc. Routh suggests " quonam ? quod futurum," etc. = 
What has that to do with the matter? The future I know not, etc. 

2 The text is, " sed homo a mala natura plasmatus manif estum est 
quia ipse sit f ructus," etc. 


been so from the time when men were made, or before 
that period ? For it is necessary that you should give some 
proof of his wickedness from the very time from which 
you declare him to have been evil. Be assured l that the 
quality of a wine cannot be ascertained unless one first 
tastes it; and understand that, in like manner, every tree 
is known by its fruit. What say you, then? From what 
time has this personality been evil? For an explanation 
of this problem seems to us to be necessary. Manes said: 
He has always been so. Archelaus said : Well, then, I shall 
also show from this, most excellent friends, and most judicious 
auditors, that his statement is by no means correct. For 
iron, to take an example, has not been an evil thing always, 
but only from the period of man's existence, and since his 
art turned it to evil by applying it to false uses ; and every 
sin has come into existence since the period of man's being. 
Even that great serpent himself was not evil previous to 
man, but only after man, in whom he displayed the fruit of 
his wickedness, because he willed it himself. If, then, the 
father of wickedness makes his appearance to us after man 
(has come into being), according to the Scriptures, how can he 
be unbegotten who has thus been constituted evil subsequently 
to man, who is himself a production ? But, again, why should 
he exhibit himself as evil just from the period when, on your 
supposition, he did himself create man ? 2 What did lie 
desire in him? If man's whole body was his own work- 
manship, what did he ardently affect in him ? For one who 
ardently affects or desires, desires something which is dif- 
ferent and better. If, indeed, man takes his origin from 
him in respect of the evil nature, we see how man was 
his own, as I have frequently shown. 3 For if man was 

1 Eouth, however, points differently, so that the sense is : Be assured 
that it is necessary to give some proof, etc. . . . For the quality of a 
wine, etc. 

2 The text is, " ex hominis tempore a se creati cur malus optendatur," 
which is taken to be equivalent to, "ex tempore quo hominem ipse 
creavit," etc. 

3 The reading adopted by Migne is, " si ergo ex eo homo est, mala 



his own, he was also evil himself, just as it holds with our illus- 
tration of the like tree and the like fruit ; for an evil tree, as 
you say, produces evil fruit. Arid seeing that all were evil, 
what did he desiderate, or in what could he show the be- 
ginning of his wickedness, if from the time of man's forma- 
tion man was the cause of his wickedness ? Moreover, the 
law and precept having been given to the man himself, the 
man had not by any means the power to yield obedience to 
the serpent, and to the statements which were made by him ; 
and had the man then yielded no obedience to him, what 
occasion would there have been for him to be evil ? But, 
again, if evil is unbegotten, how does it happen that man is 
sometimes found to be stronger than it ? For, by obeying 
the law of God, he will often overcome every root of wicked- 
ness ; and it would be a ridiculous thing if he, who is but 
the production, should be found to be stronger than the un- 
begotten. Moreover, whose is that law with its command- 
ment that commandment, I mean, which has been given 
to man? Without doubt it will be acknowledged to be 
God's. And how, then, can the law be given to an alien? or 
who can give his commandment to an enemy? Or, to 
speak of him who receives the commandment, how can he 
contend against the devil ? that is to say, on this supposi- 
tion, how can he contend against his own creator, as if 
the son, while he is a debtor to him for deeds of kindness, 
were to choose to inflict injuries on the father ? Thus 
you but mark out the profitlesshess 1 of man on this side, 
if you suppose him to be contradicting by the law and 
commandment him who has made him, and to be making 
the effort to get the better of him. Yea, we shall have to 
fancy the devil himself to have gone to such an excess of 

natura, demonstratur quomodo suus fuit, ut frequenter ostendi." Others 
put the sentence interrogatively = If man takes his origin from him, 
(and) the evil nature is thus demonstrated, in what sense was man his 
own, etc. ? Routh suggests ex quo for ex eo If the evil nature is de- 
monstrated just from the time of man's existence, how was man, etc.? 

1 The reading is inutilitatem. But Routh points out that this is pro- 
bably the translation of ^v^v surfatioiv, vilitatem, meanness. 


folly, as not to have perceived that in making man he made 
an adversary for himself, and neither to have considered 
what might be his future, nor to have foreseen the actual 

O I 

consequence of his act ; whereas even in ourselves, who are 
but productions, there are at least some small gifts of know- 
ledge, and a measure of prudence, and a moderate degree 
of consideration, which is sometimes of a very trustworthy 
nature. And how, then, can we believe that in the unbe- 
gotten there is not some little portion of prudence, or con- 
sideration, or intelligence? Or how can we make the con- 
trary supposition, according to your assertion, namely, that 
he is discovered to be of the most senseless apprehension, 
and the dullest heart, and, in short, rather like the brutes 
in his natural constitution ? But if the case stands thus, 
again, how is it that man, who is possessed of no insigni- 
ficant power in mental capacity and knowledge, could have 
received his substance from one who thus is, of all beings, 
the most ignorant and the bluntest in apprehension ? How 
shall any one be rash enough to profess that man is the 
workmanship of an author of this character? But, again, 
if man consists both of soul and of body, and not merely 
of body without soul, and if the one cannot subsist apart 
from the other, why will you assert that these two are 
antagonistic and contrary to each other? For our Lord 
Jesus Christ, indeed, seems to me to have spoken of these in 
His parables, when He said : " No man can put new wine 
into old bottles, else the bottles will break, and the wine run 
out." 1 But new wine is to be put into new bottles, as there 
is indeed one and the same Lord for the bottle and for the 
wine. For although the substance may be different, yet by 
these two substances, in their due powers, and in the main- 
tenance of their proper mutual relations (dominatione et obser~ 
vantice ws), the one person of man subsists. We do not 
say, indeed, that the soul is of one substance with the body, 
but we aver that they have each their own characteristic 
qualities ; and as the bottle and the wine are applied in the 
similitude to one race and one species of men, so truth's 
1 Matt. is. 17. 


reckoning requires us to grant that man was produced 
complete by the one God : for the soul rejoices in the body, 
and loves and cherishes it ; and none the less does the body 
rejoice that it is quickened by the soul. But if, on the other 
hand, a person maintains that the body is the work of the 
wicked one, inasmuch as it is so corruptible, and antiquated, 
and worthless, it would follow then that it is incapable of sus- 
taining the virtue of the spirit or the movement of the soul, 
and the most splendid creation of the same. For just as, 
when a person puts a piece of new cloth into an old garment, 
the rent is made worse ; x so also the body would perish if 
it were to be associated, under such conditions, with that 
most brilliant production the soul. Or, to use another illus- 
tration : just as, when a man carries the light of a lamp into 
a dark place, the darkness is forthwith put to flight and 
makes no appearance; so we ought to understand that, on the 
soul's introduction into the body, the darkness is straightway 
banished, and one nature at once effected, and one man 
constituted in one species. And thus, agreeably therewith, 
it will be allowed that the new wine is put into new bottles, 
and that the piece of new cloth is not put into the old gar- 
ment. But from this we are able to show that there is a 
unison of powers in these two substances, that is to say, 
in that of the body and in that of the soul ; of which unison 
that greatest teacher in the Scriptures, Paul, speaks, when 
lie tells us, that a God hath set the members every one of 
them in the body as it hath pleased Him." 2 

19. But if it seems difficult for you to understand this, 
and if you do not acquiesce in these statements, I may at all 
events try to make them good by adducing illustrations. 
Contemplate man as a kind of temple, according to the 
similitude of Scripture: 3 the spirit that is in man may thus 
be likened to the image that dwells in the temple. Well, 
then, a temple cannot be constituted unless first an occupant 
is acknowledged for the temple ; and, on the other hand, an 
occupant cannot be settled in the temple unless the structure 

1 Matt. be. 16. 2 1 Cor. xii. 18. 

1 Cor. iii. 17 ; 2 Cor. vi. 16. 


has been erected. Now, since these two objects, the occupant 
and the structure, are both consecrated together, how can 
any antagonism or contrariety be found between them, and 
how should it not rather appear that they have both been 
the products of subjects that are in amity and of one mind ? 
And that you may know that this is the case, and that these 
subjects are truly at one both in fellowship and in lineage, He 
who knows and hears 1 (all) has made this response, " Let us 
make man," and so forth. For he who constructs 2 the temple 
interrogates him who fashions the image, and inquires carefully 
about the measurements of magnitude, and breadth, and bulk, 
in order that he may mark off the space for the foundations 
in accordance with these dimensions ; and no one sets about 
the vain task of building a temple without first making 
himself acquainted with the measurements needed for the 
placing of the image. In like manner, therefore, the mode 
and the measure of the body are made the subject of inquiry, 
in order that the soul may be appropriately lodged in it by 
God, the Artificer of all things. But if any one say that 
he who has moulded the body is an enemy to the God who 
is the creator of my soul, 3 then how is it that, while regarding 
each other with a hostile eye, these two parties have not 
brought disrepute upon the work, by bringing it about either 
that he who constructs the temple should make it of such 
narrow dimensions as to render it incapable of accommo- 
dating what is placed within it, or that he who fashions the 
image should come with something so massive and ponderous, 
that, on its introduction into the temple, the edifice would at 
once collapse? If such is not the case, then, with these things, 
let us contemplate them in the light of what we know to be 

1 The reading is scit et audit. Routh somewhat needlessly suggests 
scite audit = he who hears intelligently. 

2 The codex gives " hie enim qui exstruis." It is proposed to read 
" sic enim qui exstruit " = For in this very way he who constructs. 

3 The text gives "quod si dicat quis inimicum esse eum qui plasma- 
verit corpus ; Deus qui creator," etc. The Codex Casinensis reads 
Deum. We adopt the emendation Deo and the altered punctuation, 
thus : " quod si dicat quis inimicum esse eum qui plasmaverit corpus 
Deo qui creator est animae," etc. 


the objects and intents of antagonists. But if it is right for 
all to be disposed with the same measures and the same 
equity, and to be displayed with like glory, what doubt 
should we still entertain on this subject ? We add, if 
it please yon, this one illustration more. Man appears to 
resemble a ship which has been constructed by the builder 
and launched into the deep, which, however, it is impossible 
to navigate without the rudder, by which it can be kept under 
command, and turned in whatsoever direction its steersman 
may wish to sail. Also, that the rudder and the whole body 
of the ship require the same artificer, is a matter admitting 
no doubt; for without the rudder the whole structure of 
the ship, that huge body, will be an inert mass. And thus, 
then, we say that the soul is the rudder of the body ; that 
both these, moreover, are ruled by that liberty of judgment 
and sentiment which we possess, and which corresponds to the 
steersman ; and that when these two are made one by union, 1 
and thus possess a unison of function applicable to all kinds 
of work, whatever may be the products of their own opera- 
tion, they bear a testimony to the fact that they have both 
one and the same author and maker. 

20. On hearing these argumentations, the multitudes who 
were present were exceedingly delighted, so much so, in- 
deed, that they were almost laying hands on Manes ; and it 
was with difficulty that Archelaus restrained them, and kept 
them back, and made them quiet again. The judges said : 
Archelaus has given us proof sufficient of the fact that the 
body and the soul of man are the works of one hand ; because 
an object cannot subsist in any proper consonance and unison 
as the work of one hand, if there is any want of harmony 
in the design and plan. But if it is alleged that one could 
not possibly have sufficed to develope both these objects 
(namely, body and soul), this is simply to exhibit the incapa- 
city of the artificer. For thus, even though one should grant 
that the soul is the creation of a good deity, it will be found 
to be but an idle work so far as the man is concerned, unless it 
also takes to itself the body. And if, again, the body is held to 
1 Beading "per conjunctionem " for the simple conjunctionem. 


be the formation of an evil deity, the work will also none the 
less be idle unless it receives the soul ; and, in truth, unless 
the soul be in unison with the body by commixture and due 
introduction, so that the two are in mutual connections, the 
man will not exist, neither can we speak of him. Hence (we 
are of opinion that) Archelaus has proved by a variety of 
illustrations that there is but one and the same maker for the 
whole man. Archelaus said: I doubt not, Manes, that you 
understand this, namely, that one who is born and created 1 
is called the son of him who begets or creates. But if the 
wicked one made man, then he ought to be his father, ac- 
cording to nature. And to whom, then, did the Lord Jesus 
address Himself, when in these terms He taught men to 

/ O 

pray: "When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in 
heaven;" 2 and again, "Pray to your Father which is in 
secret ?"' But it was of Satan that He spake when He said, 
that He "beheld him as lightning fall from heaven;" 4 so 
that no one dare say that He taught us to pray to him. 
And surely Jesus did not come down from heaven with the 
purpose of bringing men together, and reconciling them to 
Satan ; but, on the contrary, He gave him aver to be bruised 
beneath the feet of His faithful ones. However, for my 
part, I would say that those Gentiles are the more blessed 
who do indeed bring in a multitude of deities, but at least 
hold them all to be of one mind, and in amity with each 
other ; whereas this man, though he brings in but two gods, 
does not blush to posit enmities and discordant sentiments 
between them. And, in sooth, if these (Gentiles) were to 
bring in 5 their counterfeit deities under conditions of that 
kind, we would verily have it in our power to witness some- 
thing like a gladiatorial contest proceeding between them, 
with their innumerable natures and diverse sentiments. 
21. But now, what it is necessary for me to say on the 

1 Reading " natus est et creatus." The Codex Casinensis has " natus 
est creatus." 

2 Matt. vi. 9 ; Luke xi. 2. 8 Matt. vi. 6. * Luke x. 18. 

5 Codex Casinensis gives introduceret ; but, retaining the reference 
to the Gentiles, we read introducerent. 


subject of the inner and the outer man, may be expressed in 
the words of the Saviour to those who swallow a camel, and 
wear the outward garb of the hypocrite, begirt with blan- 
dishments and flatteries. It is to them that Jesus addresses 
Himself when He says: "Woe unto you, scribes and 
Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye make clean the outside of the 
cup and of the platter, but within they are full of unclean- 
ness. Or know you not, that He that made that which is 
without, made that which is within also?" 1 Now why did 
He speak of the cup and of the platter? Was He who 
uttered these words a glassworker, or a potter who made 
vessels of clay? Did He not speak most manifestly of the 
body and the soul ? For the Pharisees truly looked to the 
" tithing of anise and cummin, and left undone the weightier 
matters of the law ;" 2 and while devoting great care to the 
things which were external, they overlooked those which 
bore upon the salvation of the soul. For they also had 
respect to "greetings in the market-place," 3 and "to the upper- 
most seats at feasts :" 4 and to them the Lord Jesus, knowing 
their perdition, made this declaration, that they attended to 
those things only which were without, and despised as strange 
things those which were within, and understood not that He 
who made the body made also the soul. And who is so un- 
impressible and stolid in intellect, as not to see that those 
sayings (of our Lord) may suffice him for all cases ? More- 
over, it is in perfect harmony with these sayings that Paul 
speaks, when he interprets to the following intent certain 
things written in the law : " Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth 
of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for 
oxen ? Or saith He it altogether for our sakes ?" 6 But why 
should we waste further time upon this subject? Nevertheless 
I shall add a few things out of many that might be offered. 

1 Matt, xxiii. 25 ; Luke xi. 39. 2 Luke xi. 42. 

3 Matt, xxiii. 6 ; Mark xii. 38 ; Luke xx. 46. 

4 The Codex Casinensis gives a strangely corrupt reading here : 
" primos discipulos subitos in ccenis, quod scientes Dominus." It is 
restored thus : " primos discubitus in coanis, quos scieus Domiuus," etc. 

5 1 Cor. ix. 9. 


Suppose now that there are two unbegotten (principles), and 
that we determine fixed localities for these : it follows then 
that God is separated (dividitur), if He is (supposed to be) 
within a certain location, and not diffused everywhere ; and 
He will consequently (be represented as) much inferior to the 
locality in which He is understood to be (for the object which 
contains is always greater 1 than the object which is contained 
in it) : and thus God is made to be of that magnitude which 
corresponds with the magnitude of the locality in which He 
is contained, just as is the case with a man in a house. 2 
Then, further, reason asks who it is that has divided between 
them, or who has appointed for them their determinate 
limits ; and thus both would be made out to be the decided 
inferiors of man's own power. 3 For Lysimachus and Alex- 
ander held the empire of the whole world, and were able to 
subdue all foreign nations, and the whole race of men ; so 
that throughout that period there was no other in possession 
of empire besides themselves under heaven. And how will 
any one be rash enough to say that God, who is the true 
light that never suffers eclipse, and whose is also the kingdom 
that is holy and everlasting, is not everywhere present, as 4 is 
the way with this most depraved man, who, in his impiety, 
refuses to ascribe to the Omnipotent God even equal power 
with men? 5 

22. The judges said : We know that a light shines through 
the whole house, and not in some single part of it ; as Jesus 
also intimates when He says, that " no man lighting a candle 
puts it under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that it may give 
light unto all that are in the house." 6 If, then, God is a 
light, it must needs be that that light (if Jesus is to be 

1 Reading majus for the inept maltts of the Codex Casinensis. 

2 Routh refers us here to Maximus, De Natura, 2. See Reliquite 
Sacrie, ii. 89-91. 

3 The text is " multo inferior virtutis humanse," which is probably a 

4 Reading ceu for the eu of the Codex Casinensis. 

5 The Codex Casinensis gives "nee quse vellem quidem," for which 
" nee sequalem quidem," etc., is suggested, as in the translation. 

Matt. v. 16. 


credited) shall shine on the whole world, and not on any por- 
tions of it merely. And if, 1 then, that light holds possession 
of the whole world, where now can there be any ungenerated 
darkness ? or how can darkness be understood to exist at all, 
unless it is something simply accidental ? Archelaus said : 
Forasmuch, indeed, as the word of the gospel is understood 
much better by you than by this person who puts him- 
self forward as the Paraclete, although I would call him 
rather parasite than paraclete, I shall tell you how it has 
happened that there is darkness. When the light had been 
diffused everywhere, God began to constitute the universe, 
and commenced with the heaven and the earth ; in which 
process this issue appeared, to wit, that the midst (medietas), 
which is the locality of earth covered with shadow, as a con- 
sequence of the interposition 2 of the creatures which were 
called into being, was found to be obscure, in such wise that 
circumstances required light to be introduced into that place, 
which was thus situated in the midst. Hence in Genesis, 
where Moses gives an account of the construction of the 
world, he makes no mention of the darkness either as made 
or as not made. But he keeps silence on that subject, and 
leaves the explanation of it to be discovered by those who 
may be able to give proper attention to it. Neither, indeed, 
is that a very arduous and difficult task. For to whom may 
it not be made plain that this sun of ours is visible, when it 
has risen in the east, and taken its course toward the west, 
but that when it has gone beneath the earth, and been 
carried farther within that formation which among the 
Greeks is called the sphere, it then ceases to appear, being 
overshadowed in darkness in consequence of the interposition 
of the bodies ? 3 When it is thus covered, and when the 

1 The text gives a quo si, etc. Eouth suggests atqui si, etc. 

2 Reading objectu . . . creaturarum, instead of obtectu, etc., in Codex 

3 The text of this sentence stands thus in Migne and Routh: " cui 
cnim non fiat manifestum, solem istum visibilem, cum ab oriente fuerit 
exortus, et tetenderit iter suum ad occidentem, cum sub terrain ierit, 
et interior effectus fuerit ea quse apud Grsecos sphsera vocatur, quod 


body of the earth stands opposite it, a shadow is superin- 
duced, which produces from itself the darkness ; and it con- 
tinues so until again, after the course of the inferior space 
has been traversed in the night, it rolls towards the east, and 
is seen to rise once more in its wonted seats. Thus, then, 
the cause of the shadow and the night is discovered in the 
solidity of the body of the earth, a thing, indeed, which a 
man may understand from the fact of the shadow cast by 
his own body. 1 For before the heaven and the earth and all 
those corporeal creatures appeared, the light remained always 
constant, without waning or eclipse, as there existed no body 
which might produce shadow by its opposition or inter- 
vention ; and consequently one must say that nowhere was 
there darkness then, and nowhere night. For if, to take an 
illustration, it should please Him who has the power of all 
things to do away with the quarter (plagani) which lies to 
the west, then, as the sun would not direct its course toward 
that region, there would nowhere emerge either evening or 
darkness, but the sun would be on its course always, and 
would never set, but would almost always hold the centre 
tract of heaven, and would never cease to appear ; and by 
this the whole world would be illumined with the clearest 
light, in virtue of which no part of it would suffer obscura- 
tion, but the equal power of one light would remain every- 
where. But on the other hand, while the western quarter 
keeps its position, and the sun executes (ministrante) its 
course in three parts of the world, then those who are under 
the sun will be seen to be illuminated more brightly ; so that 
I might almost say, that while the people who belong to the 
diverse tract are still asleep, those former are in possession 
of the day's beginning. But just 2 as those Orientals have 

tune objectu corporum obumbratus non appareat?" The Codex Casi- 
nensis reads quod nunc oblectu, etc. We should add that it was held by 
Anaximander and others that there was a species of globe or sphere 
(ajsatipet) which surrounded the universe. 

1 Reading ex suimet ipsius umbra for exuet ipsius umbra, which is given 
in the Codex Casinensis. 

2 The text is ' ' Sicut autem ante," etc. Routh suggests, Sole adeunte, etc. 


the light rising on them earlier than the people who live in 
the west, so they have it also more quickly obscured, and 
they only who are settled in the middle of the globe see 
always an equality of light. For when the sun occupies the 
middle of the heavens, there is no place that can appear to 
be either brighter or darker (than another), but all parts of 
the world are illuminated equally and impartially by the sun's 
effulgence. 1 If, then, as we have said above, that portion of 
the western tract were done away with, the part which is 
adjacent to it would now no more suffer obscuration. And 
these things I could indeed set forth somewhat more simply, 
as I might also describe the zodiacal circle ; but I have not 
thought of looking into these matters at present. 2 I shall 
therefore say nothing of these, but shall revert to that capital 
objection urged by my adversary, in his affirming so strenu- 
ously 3 that the darkness is ungenerated ; which position, 
however, has also been confuted already, as far as that could 
have been done by us. 

23. The judges said : If we consider that the light existed 
before the estate of the creatures was introduced, and that 
there was no object in an opposite position which might 
generate shadow, it must follow that the light was then 
diffused everywhere, and that all places were illuminated 
with its effulgence, as has been shown by what you have 
stated just now ; and as we perceive that the true explana- 
tion is given in that, we assign the palm to the affirmations 
of Archelaus. For if the universe is clearly divided, as 
if some wall had been drawn through the centre of it, and 
if on the one side the light dwells, and on the other side the 
darkness, it is yet to be understood that this darkness has been 
brought accidentally about through the shadow generated in 
consequence of the objects which have been set up in the 
world ; and hence again we must ask who it is that has built 

1 Reading " ex sequo et justo, soils fulgore," etc. The Codex Casi- 
nensis has " ex ea quo solis fulgure." 

2 The text is altogether corrupt sed non inlui hunc fieri ratus sum ; so 
that the sense can only be guessed at. Routh suggests istud for intui. 

* Codex Casinensis gives "omui nisi," for which we adopt "omni nisu," 


tltis wall between the two divisions, provided you indeed admit 
the existence of such a construction, O Manichaeus. But if we 
have to take account of this matter on the supposition that 
no such wall has been built, then again it comes to be under- 
stood that the universe forms but one locality, without any 
exception, and is placed under one power ; and if so, then 
the darkness can in no way have an ungenerated nature. 
Archelaus said : Let him also explain the following subject 
with a view to what has been propounded. If God is seated 
in His kingdom, and if the wicked one in like manner is seated 

O ' 

in his kingdom, who can have constructed the wall between 
them? For no object can divide two substances except one 
that is greater than either, 1 even as it is said 2 in the book 
of Genesis, that " God divided the light from the darkness." a 
Consequently the constructor of this wall must also be some 
one of a capacity like that : for the wall marks the boundaries 
of these two parties, just as among people who dwell in the 
rural parts a stone is usually taken to mark off the portion of 
each several party ; which custom, however, would afford a 
better apprehension of the case were we to take the division 
to refer specially to the marking out of an inheritance falling 
to brothers. But for the present I have not to speak of 
matters like these, however essential they may appear. For 
what we are in quest of is an answer to the question, Who 
can have constructed the wall required for the designation of 
the limits of the kingdom of each of these twain "? No answer 
has been given. Let not this perfidious fellow hesitate, but 
let him now acknowledge that the substance of his duality 
has been reduced again to a unity. Let him mention any one 
who can have constructed that middle wall. What could the 
one of these two parties have been engaged in when the other 
was building ? Was he asleep ? or was he ignorant of the 
fact ? or was he unable to withstand the attempt ? or was he 
bought over with a price ? Tell us what he was about, or 
tell us who in all the universe was the person that raised the 

1 Reading utriusque majus. The Codex Casinensis has utrunque majus. 

2 The text is dicit, for which dicilur may be adopted. 
8 Gen. i. 4. 


construction. I address my appeal to you, O judges, whom 
God has sent to us with the fullest plenitude of intelligence ; 
judge ye which of these two could have erected the structure, 
or what the one could have been doing all the while that 
the other was engaged in the building. 

24. Tlie jnJges said: Tell us, O Manes, who designated 
the boundaries for the kingdom of each, and who made the 
middle wall? For Archelaus begs that due importance be 
attached to the practice of interrogation in this discussion. 
Manes said: The God who is good, and who has nothing in 
common with evil, placed the firmament in the midst, in 
order to make it plain l that the wicked one is an alien to 
Him. Archelaus said: How fearfully you belie the dignity 
of that name ! You do indeed call Him God, but you do 
so in name only, and you make His deity resemble man's 
infirmities. At one time out of the non-existent, and at 
another time out of underlying matter, which indeed thus 
existed before Himself, you assert that He did build the 
structure, as builders among men are wont to do. Some- 
times also you speak of Him as apprehensive, and sometimes 
as variable. It is, however, the part of God to do what is 
proper to God, and it is the part of man to do what is proper 
to man. If, then, God, as you say, has constructed a wall, 
this is a God who marks Himself out as apprehensive, and as 
possessed of no fortitude. For we know that it is always 
the case that those who are suspicious of the preparation of 
secret perils against them by strangers, and who are afraid of 
the plots of enemies, are accustomed to surround their cities 
with walls, by which procedure they at once secure themselves 
in their ignorance, and display their feeble capacity. But 
here, too, we have something which ought not to be passed 
over by us in silence, but rather brought prominently forward ; 
so that even by the great abundance of our declarations 
on the subject our adversary's manifold craftiness may be 
brought to nought, with the help of the truth on our side. 
AVe may grant, then, that the structure of the wall has been 

1 Reading " patefaceret " for the " partum faceret " of Codex Casi- 


made with the purpose of serving to distinguish between tLe 
two kingdoms ; for without this one division * it is impossible 
for either of them to have his own proper kingdom. But 
granting this, then it follows further that in the same manner 
it will also be impossible for the wicked one to pass without 
his own proper limits and invade the territories of the good 
(King), inasmuch as the wall stands there as an obstacle, 
unless it should chance first to be cast down, for we have 
heard that such things have been done by enemies, and indeed 
with our own eyes we have quite recently seen an achieve- 
ment of that nature successfully carried out. 2 And when 
a king attacks a citadel surrounded by a strong wall, he 
uses first of all the ballista 3 and projectiles; then he endea- 
vours to cut through the gates with axes, and to demolish the 
walls by the battering-rams ; and when he at last obtains an 
entrance, and gains possession of the place, he does whatever 
he listeth, whether it be his pleasure to carry off the citizens 
into captivity, or to make a complete destruction of the for- 
tress and its contents, or whether, on the other hand, it may 
be his will to grant indulgence to the captured stronghold on 
the humble suit of the conquered. What, then, does my 
opponent here say to this analogy ? Did no adversary sub- 
stantially which is as much as to say, designedly over- 
throw the muniment cast up between the two ? 4 For in his 
former statements he has avouched that the darkness passed 

1 The text gives sine hoc uno. But perhaps Routh is right in suggest- 
ing inuro for uno = without this wall. 

2 Some suppose that Archelaus refers here to the taking of Charrse 
by the Persians in the time of Valerianus Augustus, or to its recapture 
and restoration to the Roman power by the Eastern king Odenathus 
during the empire of Gallienus. 

3 The ballista was a large engine fitted with cords somewhat like a 
bow, by which large masses of stone and other missiles were hurled to a 
great distance. 

4 The sense is obscure here. The text gives, " non substantia id est 
proposito adversarius quis dejecit," etc. Migne edits the sentence with- 
out an interrogation. We adopt the interrogative form with Routh. 
The idea perhaps is, Did no adversary with materials such as the kings 
of earth use, and that is as much as to say also with a determinate plan, 
overthrow, etc. ? 


without its own limits, and supervened upon the kingdom of 
the good God. Who, then, overthrew that munition before 
the one could thus have crossed over to the other ? For it 
was impossible for the evil one to find any entrance while the 
munition stood fast. Why are you silent ? Why do you hesi- 
tate, Manichseus ? Yet, although you may hold back, I shall 
proceed with the task of my own accord. For if we suppose 
you to say that God destroyed it, then I have to ask what 
moved Him in this way to demolish the very thing which 
He had Himself previously constructed on account of the 
importunity of the wicked one, and for the purpose of pre- 
serving the separation between them ? In what fit of passion, 
or under what sense of injury, did He thus set about contend- 
ing against Himself ? Or was it that He lusted after some 
of the possessions of the wicked one ? But if none of these 
things formed the real cause that led God to destroy those 
very things which He had constructed a long time before with 
the view of estranging and separating the wicked one from 
Him, then it must needs be considered no matter of surprise if 
God should also have become delighted with his society ; l for, 
on your supposition, the munition which had been set up with 
the purpose of securing God against trouble from him, will 
appear to have been removed just because now he is to be 
regarded no more as an enemy, but as a friend. And, on 
the other hand, if you aver that the wall was destroyed by 
the wicked one, tell us then how it can be possible for the 
works of the good God to be mastered by the wicked one. 
For if that is possible, then the evil nature will be proved 
to be stronger than God. Furthermore, how can that being, 
seeing that he is pure and total darkness, surprise the light 
and apprehend it, while the evangelist gives us the testi- 
mony that " the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness 
comprehended it not?" 2 How is this blind one armed? 
How does the darkness fight against the kingdom of light ? 

1 The Codex Casinensis has " nee mirum putandum est consortio," etc. 
"We read with Routh and others, si ejus consortio, or quod ejus consortio, 

2 John i. 5. 


For even as the creatures of God 1 here cannot take in the 
rays of the sun with uninjured eye, 2 so neither can that 
being bear the clear vision of the kingdom of light, but he 
remains for ever a stranger to it, and an alien. 

25. Manes said: Not all receive the word of God, but 
only those to whom it is given to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of heaven. 3 And even now 4 I know who are ours ; 
for " my sheep," He says, " hear my voice." 5 For the sake 
of those who belong to us, and to whom is given the under- 
standing of the truth, I shall speak in similitudes. The 
wicked one is like a lion that sought to steal upon the flock of 
the good shepherd ; and when the shepherd saw this, he dug 
a huge pit, and took one kid out of the flock and cast it into 
the pit. Then the lion, hungering to get at it, and bursting 
with passion to devour it, ran up to the pit and fell in, and 
discovered no strength sufficient to bring him out again. 
And thereupon the shepherd seized him and shut him up 
carefully in a den, and at the same time secured the safety 
of the kid which had been with him in the pit. And it is 
in this way that the wicked one has been enfeebled, the 
lion, so to speak, possessing no more capacity for doing 
aught injurious ; and so all the race of souls will be saved, 
and what once perished will yet be restored to its proper 
flock. Archelaus said : If you compare the wicked one to 
the lion, and God to the true shepherd, tell us, whereunto 
shall we liken the sheep and the kid ? Manes said : The 
sheep and the kid seem to me to be of one nature : and they 
are taken as figures of souls. Archelaus said : Well, then, 
God gave a soul over to perdition when He set it before the 
lion in the pit. Manes said : By no means ; far from it. 
But He was moved by a particular disposition (apprehensus 
est hoc ingenio), 6 and in the future He will save that other" 

1 The text gives simply, sicut enim hasc. Routh suggests Jiie. 

2 Reading illzesis ocidis for the illius oculis of Codex Casineiisis. 

3 Matt. xix. 11. 

4 The text gives et jam quidemioi the etiam quidem of the Cod. Casin. 
John x. 27. 

6 For hue here, Routh suggests hie io reference to the ko ; so that the 



(the soul). A rclielaus said : Now, surely it would be an 
absurd procedure, my hearers, if a shepherd who dreaded the 
inroad of a lion were to expose to the beast's devouring fury a 
lamb that he was wont to carry in his bosom, and if it were 
then to be said that he meant to save the creature hereafter. 
Is not this something supremely ridiculous ? Yea, there is no 
kind of sense in this. For (on the supposition implied in your 
similitude) God thus handed over to Satan a soul that he 
might seize and ruin. But when did the shepherd ever do any- 
thing like that 1 l Did not David deliver a sheep out of the 
mouth of a lion or of a bear? And we mention this on account 
of the expression, out of the mouth of the lion ; for, on your 
theory, this would imply that the shepherd can bring forth 
out of the mouth of the lion, or out of the belly of the same, 
the very object which it has devoured. 2 But you will per- 
haps make this answer, that it is of God we speak, and that 
He is able to do all things. Hear, however, what I have to say 
to that : Why then do you not rather assert His real capacity, 
and affirm simply His ability to overcome the lion in His own 
might, or with the pure power of God, and without the help 
of any sort of cunning devices, or by consigning a kid or a 
lamb to a pit ? 3 Tell me this, too, if the lion were to be sup- 
posed to come upon the shepherd at a time when he has no 
sheep, what would the consequence be ? For he who is here 
called the shepherd is supposed to be unbegotten, and he who 
is here the lion is also unbegotten. Wherefore, when man did 
not yet exist in other words, before the shepherd had a flock 
if the lion had then come upon the shepherd, what would 

sense might be = But by this plan the lion was caught, and hereafter He 
will save the soul. 

1 The text is, " Quando enim pastor, nonne David de ore leonis," etc. 
We adopt the amended reading, " Quando enim pastor hoc fecit ? Nonne 
David," etc. 

2 Routh would put this interrogatively = Can he bring out of the 
mouth or the belly of the lion what it has once devoured ? 

3 This seems to be the sense intended. The text in the Codex Casi- 
nensis runs thus : " Cur igitur quod possit non illud potius asseris quod 
poterit propria virtute vincere leonern, si et pura Dei potentia," etc. 
For si et pura we nuty read sice pura, or si est pura, etc. 


have followed, seeing that there could have been nothing for 
the lion to eat before the kid was in existence ? Manes said : 
The liou certainly had nothing to devour, but yet he exer- 
cised his wickedness on whatever he was able to light upon 
as he coursed over the peaks of the mountains ; and if at 
any time food was a matter of necessity with him, he seized 
some of the beasts which were under his own kingdom. 
Arclielaus said: Are these two objects, then, of one substance 
the beasts which are under the kingdom of the wicked one, 
and the kids which are in the kingdom of the good God ? l 
Manes said : Far from it ; not at all : they have nothing in 
common either between themselves or between the properties 
which pertain to them severally. Archelaus said : There is 
but one and the same use made of the food in the lion's 
eatin^. And though he sometimes cot that food from the 

O o o 

beasts belonging to himself, and sometimes from those be- 
longing to the good God, there is still no difference between 
them as far as regards the meats furnished ; and from this 
it is apparent that those are of but one substance. On 
the other hand, if we say that there is a great difference be- 
tween the two, we do but ascribe ignorance to the shepherd, 2 
in so far as he did not present or set before the lion food 
adapted to his use, but rather alien meats. Or perchance 
again, in your desire to dissemble your real position, you will 
say to me that that lion ate nothing. Well, supposing that to 
be the case, did God then in this way challenge that being to 
devour a soul while he knew not how to devour aught? and 
was the pit not the only thing which God sought to employ with 
the view of cheating him ? if indeed it is at all worthy of God 
to do that sort of thing, or to contrive deceitful schemes. 
And that would be to act like a king who, when war is made 
upon him, puts no kind of confidence in his own strength, 
but gets paralyzed with the fears of his own feebleness, and 

1 Routh takes it as a direct assertion = It follows, then, that these two 
objects are of one substance, etc. 

2 The text runs, " sed aliud alio longe differre ignorantiam pastori 
ascribimus;" for which we adopt the emendation, "sed alium ab alio 
longe differre si dicainus, ignorantiam pastori ascribimus." 


shuts himself up within the walls of his city, and erects 
around him a rampart and other fortifications, and gets 
them all equipped, and trusts nothing to his own hand and 
prowess ; whereas, if he is a brave man, the king so placed 
will march a great distance from his own territories to meet 
the enemy there, and will put forth every possible exertion 
until he conquers and brings his adversary into his power. 

26. The judges said: If you allege that the shepherd 
exposed the kid or the lamb to the lion, when the said lion 
was meditating an assault 1 on the unbegotten, the case is 
closed. For seeing that the shepherd of the kids and lambs 
is himself proved to be in fault to them, on what creature can 
he pronounce judgment, if it happens that the lamb which has 
been given up 2 through the shepherd's weakness has proved 
unable to withstand the lion, and if the consequence is that 
the lamb has had to do whatever has been the lion's plea- 
sure? Or, to take another instance, that would be just as if a 
master were to drive out of his house, or deliver over in terror 
to his adversary, one of his slaves, whom he is unable after- 
wards to recover by his own strength. Or supposing that by 
any chance it were to come about that the slave was recovered, 
on what reasonable ground could the master inflict the torture 
on him, if it should turn out that the man yielded obedience 
to all that the enemy laid upon him, seeing that it was the 
master himself 3 who gave him up to the enemy, just as the 
kid was given up to the lion? You affirm, too, that the shep- 
herd understood the whole case beforehand. Surely, then, the 
lamb, when under the lash, and interrogated by the shep- 
herd as to the reason why it had submitted to the lion in 
these matters, would make some such answer as this : " Thou 
didst thyself deliver me over to the lion, and thou didst 

1 Migne reads irrueret. Routh gives irruerat, had made an assault. 

2 The text gives si causa traditus, etc. Routh suggests sive causa. 
Traditus, etc. ; so that the sense would be, For on what creature can the 
shepherd of the kids and lambs pronounce judgment, seeing that he is 
himself proved to be in fault to them, or to be the cause of their posi- 
tion ? For the lamb, having been given up, etc. 

3 Reading eum ipse for enm ipsum. 


offer no resistance to him, although thou didst know and 
foresee what would be my lot, when it was necessary for 
me to yield myself to his commandments." And, not to 
dilate on this at greater length, we may say that (by such an 
illustration) neither is God exhibited as a perfect shepherd, 
nor is the lion shown to have tasted alien meats ; and con- 
sequently, under the instruction of the truth itself, it has 
been made clear that we ought to give the palm to the reason- 
ings adduced by Archelaus. Arclielaus said: Considering 
that, on all the points which we have hitherto discussed, the 
thoughtfulness of the judges has assigned us the amplest 
scope, it will be well for us to pass over other subjects in 
silence, and reserve them for another period. For just as, if * 
a person once crushes the head of a serpent, he will not need 
to lop off any of the other members of its body; so, if we once 
dispose 2 of this question of the duality, as we have endeavoured 
to do to the best of our ability, other matters which have been 
maintained in connection with it may be held to be exploded 
along with it. Nevertheless I shall yet address myself, at least 
in a few sentences, to the assertor of these opinions himself, 
who is now in our presence ; so that it may be thoroughly 
understood by all who he is, and whence he comes, and what 
manner of person he proves himself to be. For he has given 
out that he is that Paraclete whom Jesus on His departure 
promised to send to the race of man for the salvation of the 
souls of the faithful ; and this profession he makes as if he 
were somewhat superior even to Paul, 3 who was an elect 
vessel and a called apostle, and who on that ground, while 

1 Reading si quis for the simple quis of Codex Casinensis. 

8 Reading " quaestione rejecta " for the relecta of Codex Casinensis. 

3 This seems to be the general sense of the corrupt text here, et non 
longe possit ei Paulus, etc., in which we must either suppose something 
to have been lost, or correct it in some such way as this : " ut non 
longe post sit ei Paulus." Compare what Manes says also of Paul 
and himself in ch. xiii. above. It should be added, however, that 
another idea of the passage is thrown out in Routh. According to this, 
the ei refers to Jesus, and the text being emended thus, etsi non longe 
post sit ei, the sense would be : although not long after His departure He 
had Paul as an. elect vessel, etc. The allusion thus would be to the 


preaching the true doctrine, said : l " Or seek ye a proof of 
that Christ who speaks in me?" 2 What I have to say, 
however, may become clearer by such an illustration as the 
following : 3 A certain man gathered into his store a very 
large quantity of corn, so that the place was perfectly full. 
This place he shut and sealed in a thoroughly satisfactory 
fashion, and gave directions to keep careful watch over it. 
And the master himself then departed. However, after a 
lengthened lapse of time another person came to the store, 
and affirmed that he had been despatched by the individual 
who had locked up and sealed the place with a commission 
also to collect and lay up a quantity of wheat in the same. 
And when the keepers of the store saw him, they demanded 
of him his credentials, in the production of the signet, in 
order that they might assure themselves of their liberty to open 
the store to him, and to render their obedience to him as to 
one sent by the person who had sealed the place. And when 
he could 4 neither exhibit the keys nor produce the credentials 
of the signet (for indeed he had no right), he was thrust out 
by the keepers, and compelled to flee. For, instead of being 
what he professed to be, he was detected to be a thief and a 
robber by them, and was convicted and found out 5 through 
the circumstance that, although, as it seemed, he had taken 
it into his head to make his appearance a long time after the 
period that had been determined on beforehand, he yet could 
neither produce keys, or signet, or any token whatsoever to 
the keepers, nor display any knowledge of the quantity of 
corn that was in store : all which things were so many un- 
mistakeable proofs that he had not been sent across by the 

circumstance that Manes made such a claim as he did, in spite of the 
fact that so soon after Christ's departure Paul was gifted with the Spirit 
in so eminent a measure for the building up of the faithfuL 

1 Reading aiebat for the ayebat of Codex Casinensis. 

2 2 Cor. xiii. 3. The reading here is, " Aut documentum quseritis," 
etc. The Vulgate also gives An erperimentum, for the Greek e?m, etc. 

3 The text is, " et quidem quod dico tali exemplo sed clarius." For 
sed it is proposed to read Jit, or siV, or est. 

4 Codex Casinensis has quicunque. We adopt the correction, qui cum nee. 
6 Reading confutatus for confitgatus. 


proper owner; and accordingly, as was matter of course, 1 he 
was forbidden admittance by the keepers. 

27. We may give yet another illustration, if it seems 
good to you. A certain man, the head of a household, and 
possessed of great riches, was minded to journey abroad for 
a time, and promised to his sons that he would send them 
some one who would take his place, and divide among them 
equally the substance falling to them. And, in truth, not 
long after that, he did despatch to them a certain trust- 
worthy and righteous and true man. And on his arrival, 
this man took charge of the whole substance, and first of all 
exerted himself to arrange it and administer it, giving him- 
self great labour in journeying, and even 2 working diligently 
with his own hands, and toiling like a servant for the good 
of the estate. Afterwards feeling that his end was at hand, 3 
the man wrote out a will, demitting the inheritance to the 
relations and all the next of kin ; and he gave them his seals, 
and called them together one by one by name, and charged 
them to preserve the inheritance, and to take care of the sub- 
stance, and to administer it rightly, even as they had received 
it, and to take their use of its goods and fruits, as they were 
themselves left its owners and heirs. If, moreover, any person 
were to ask to be allowed to benefit by the fruits of this field, 
they were to show themselves indulgent to such. But if, on 
the other hand, any one were to declare himself partner 
in the heirship with them, and were to make his demands 
on that ground, 4 they were to keep aloof from him, and pro- 
nounce him an alien ; and further, (they were to hold) that 

1 The text gives "et ideo ut consequenter erat," etc. Codex Casi- 
nensis omits the ut. Routh proposes, " et ideo consequenter thesaurus," 
etc. = and thus, of course, the treasure was preserved, etc. Comp. 
ch. xxvii. and xxxiv. 

2 The text has, " sedens ipse per se," etc.; for which we adopt, " sed 
et ipse," etc. 

3 The Codex Casinensis gives, "deinde die moriturus," which may be 
either a mistake for " deinde moriturus," or a contraction for "deinde 
die qua moriturus " then on the day that he was about to die, etc. 

4 The codex has, " Sin autem conderem se dicens, exposceret, devita- 
reiit persequi," etc.; which is corrected to, "Sin autem cohaeredem se 


the individual who desired to be received among them ought 
all the more on that account to do work (opus autern magis 
facere debere). Well, then, granting that all these things have 
been well and rightly disposed of and settled, and that they 
have continued in that condition for a very long time, how 
shall we deal with one who presents himself well-nigh three 
hundred years after, and sets up his claim to the heirship ? 
Shall we not cast him off from us? Shall we not justly pro- 
nounce such an one an alien one who cannot prove himself 
to have belonged to those related (to our Master), who never 
was with our departed Lord in the hour of His sickness, who 
never walked in the funeral procession of the Crucified, who 
never stood by the sepulchre, who has no knowledge whatso- 
ever of the manner or the character of His departure, and 
who, in fine, is now desirous of getting access to the storehouse 
of corn without presenting any token from him who placed it 
under lock and seal? Shall we not cast him off from us like 
a robber and a thief, and thrust him out of our number by 
all possible means ? Yet this man is now in our presence, 
and fails to produce any of the credentials which we have 
summarized in what we have already said, and declares that 
he is the Paraclete whose mission was presignified by Jesus. 
And by this assertion, in his ignorance perchance, he will 
make out Jesus Himself to be a liar j 1 for thus He who once 
said that He would send the Paraclete no long time after, will 
be proved only to have sent this person, if we accept the testi- 
mony which he bears to himself, after an interval of three 
hundred years and more. 8 In the day of judgment, then, 
what will those say to Jesus who have departed this life 
from that time on to the present period? Will they not 
meet Him with words like these : " Do not punish us rigor- 

dicens exposceret, devitarent atque," etc., which emendation is followed 
in the translation. 

1 The same sort of argument is employed against the Montanists by 
Theodoras of Heracleia on John's Gospel, ch. xiv. 17. 

2 It is remarked in Migne, that it is only in the heat of his contention 
that this statement is made by Archelaus as to the date of the appear- 
ance of Manes ; for from the death of Christ on to the time of this dis- 
cussion there are only some 249 years. 


ously if we have failed to do Thy works. For why, when 
Thou didst promise to send the Paraclete under Tiberius 
Csesar, to convince us of sin and of righteousness, 1 didst 
Thou send Him only under Probus the Roman emperor, and 
didst leave us orphaned, notwithstanding that Thou didst 
say, 'I will not leave you comfortless (orphaned),' 2 and after 
Thou hadst also assured us that Thou wouldest send the Para- 
clete presently after Thy departure? What could we orphans 
do, having no guardian ? We have committed no fault ; it is 
Thou that hast deceived us." But away with such a supposi- 
tion in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of every 
soul. 3 For He did not confine Himself to mere promises ; 4 
but when He had once said, " I go to my Father, and I send 
the Paraclete to you," 5 straightway He sent (that gift of the 
Paraclete), dividing and imparting the same to His disciples, 
bestowing it, however, in greater fulness upon Paul. 6 

28. Manes said: 1 You are caught in the charge you 
yourself bring forward. For you have been speaking now 
against yourself, and have not perceived that, in trying to 
cast reproaches in my teeth, you lay yourself under the 
greater fault. Tell me this now, I pray you: if, as you 
allege, those who have died from the time of Tiberius on to 

1 John xvi. 8. 2 John xiv. 18. 

3 Eeading " sed absit hoc a Domino nostro Jesu Christo Salvatore 
omnis animae," instead of the codex's " sed absit hanc a Domino Jesu 
Christo Salvatore omne animse." 

4 If the reference, however, is to 2 Pet. iii. 9, as Routh suggests, it 
may rather be = He was not slack concerning His promises. The text 
is, "non enim moratus est in promissionibus suis." 

5 John xiv. 12, xvi. 28. 

6 Reading " abundantius vero conferens Paulo," instead of the corrupt 
text in the Codex Casinensis, " abundantibus vero confitens Paulo." 

7 The opening sentences of this chapter are given in a very corrupt 
form in our Codex Casinensis. Its text stands thus : " Tuum et ipsius 
indicio comprehensus es ; haec enim versum te locutus, ignorans, qui 
dum, me vis probra conjicere majori culpse se succumbit. Die age mihi 
studias qua Tiberio usque ad Probum defuncti sunt, dicent ad Jesum 
nolite nos judicare," etc. We have adopted these emendations : tuimet 
for tuum et; adversum for versum ; ignoras for ignorans; in me for me ; suc- 
cumbis for se succumbit; s, ut cm, qui a, for studias qua; and noli for nolite. 


the days of Probus are to say to Jesus, " Do not judge us if 
we have failed to do Thy works, for Thou didst not send the 
Paraclete to us, although Thou didst promise to send Him ; " l 
will not those much more use such an address who have 
departed this life from the time of Moses on to the advent of 
Christ Himself ? And will not those with still greater right 
express themselves in terms like these : " Do not deliver us 
over to torments, 2 seeing that we had no knowledge of Thee 
imparted to us?" And will it only be those that have died 
thus far previously to His advent who may be seen making 
such a charge with right ? Will not those also do the same 
who have passed away from Adam's time on to Christ's advent? 
For none of these either obtained any knowledge of the Para- 
clete, or received instruction in the doctrine of Jesus. But 
only this latest generation of men, which has run its course 
from Tiberius onward, as you make it out, 3 is to be saved : for 
it is Christ Himself that "has redeemed them from the curse 
of the law ; " 4 as Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, 
that " the letter killeth, and quickeneth no man (nee quem- 
quam vivificat)" 5 and that " the law is the ministration of 
death," 6 and " the strength of sin." 7 Arckelaus said: You 
err, not knowing the Scriptures, neither the power of God. 8 
For many have also perished after the period of Christ's 
advent on to this present period, and many are still perish- 
ing, those, to wit, who have not chosen to devote themselves 
to works of righteousness; whereas only those who have 
received Him, and yet receive Him, " have obtained power 
to become the sons of God." 9 For the evangelist has not 
said all (have obtained that power) ; neither, on the other 
hand, however, has he put any limit on the time. But this 
is his expression: "As many as received Him." More- 
over, from, the creation of the world He has ever been 

1 Supplying missurum, which is not in the codex. 

2 Reading " noli nos tradere tormentis," instead of the meaningless 
" noli nostra de tormentis" of the codex. 

3 Reading ut ais instead of ut eas. * Gal. iii. 13. 

5 2 Cor. iii. 6. 6 2 Cor. iii. 7 7 1 Cor. xv. 50. 

8 Matt. xxii. 29. 9 John i. 12. 


with righteous men, and has never ceased to require their 
blood (at the hands of the wicked), from the blood of 
righteous Abel to the blood of Zacharias. 1 And whence, 

O * 

then, did righteous Abel and all those succeeding worthies, 2 
who are enrolled among the righteous, derive their righteous- 
ness, when as yet there was no law of Moses, and when as 
yet the prophets had not arisen and discharged the functions 
of prophecy ? Were they not constituted righteous in virtue 
of their fulfilling the law, " every one of them showing the 
work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also 
bearing them witness ? " 3 For when a man " who has not the 
law does naturally the things contained in the law, he, not 
having the law, is a law unto himself." 4 And consider now 
the multitude of laws thus existing among the several right- 
eous men who lived a life of uprightness, at one time discover- 
ing for themselves the law of God implanted in their hearts, 
at another learning of it from their parents, and yet again 
being instructed in it further by the ancients and the elders. 
But inasmuch as only few were able to rise by this medium 5 
to the height of righteousness, that is to say, by means of the 
traditions of parents, when as yet there was no law embodied 
in writing, God had compassion on the race of man, and was 
pleased to give through Moses a written law to men, since 
verily the equity of the natural law failed to be retained in all 
its perfection in their hearts. In consonance, therefore, with 
man's first creation, a written legislation was prepared which 
was given through Moses in behoof of the salvation of very 
many. For if we reckon that man is justified without the 
works of the law, and if Abraham was counted righteous, 
how much more shall those obtain righteousness who have 
fulfilled the law which contains the things that are expe- 
dient for men ? And seeing that you have made mention 
only of three several Scriptures, in terms of which the 

1 Matt. xiii. 35. 

2 Reading reliqui per ordinem for the quiper ordinem of the codex. 

3 Kom. ii. 15. * Rom. ii. 14. 

5 Reading " per hunc modum." But the Codex Casinensis give* 
" per hunc mundum " through this world. 


apostle has declared that "the law is a ministration of death," l 
and that "Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the 
law," 2 and that "the law is the strength of sin," 3 you may 
now advance others of like tenor, and bring forward any 
passages which may seem to you to be written against the 
law, to any extent you please. 

29. Manes said: Is not that word also to the same effect 
which Jesus spake to the disciples, when He was demonstrat- 
ing those men to be unbelieving : " Ye are of your father the 
devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do ? " By this 
He means, in sooth, that whatever the wicked prince of this 
world desired, and whatever he lusted after, he committed 
to writing through Moses, and by that medium gave it to 
men for their doing. For "he was a murderer from the 
beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is 
no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh 
of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it." 5 Arche- 
laus said: Are you satisfied 6 with what you have already 
adduced, or have you other statements still to make ? Manes 
said: I have, indeed, many things to say, and things of 
greater weight even than these. But with these I shall 
content myself. Arclielaus said: By all means. Now let us 
select some instance from among those statements which you 
allege to be on your side ; so that if these be once found 
to have been properly dealt with, other questions may also be 
held to rank with them; and if the case goes otherwise, I shall 
come under the condemnation of the judges, that is to say, 
I shall have to bear the shame of defeat. 7 You say, then, that 
the law is a ministration of death, and you admit that " death, 
the prince of this world, reigned from Adam even to Moses ;" 8 
for the word of Scripture is this : " even over them that did 

1 2 Cor. iii. 7. 2 Gal. iii. 13. 3 1 Cor. xv. 56. 

4 John viii. 44. 5 John viii. 44. 

6 The text is " sufficit tibi hsec sunt an habes et alia." Routh pro- 
poses " sufficientia tibi hsec sunt," etc. 

7 Routh would make it = You will come under the condemnation . . . 
you will have to bear: he suggests eris eryo for ero ego, andferas for 

8 Rom. v. 14. 


not sin." 1 Manes said: Without doubt death did reign thus, 
for there is a duality, and these two antagonistic powers 
were nothing else than both unbegotten (nee aliter nisi 
essent ingenita). 2 Archelam said: Tell me this then, how 
can an unbegotten death take a beginning at a certain time? 
For " from Adam" is the word of Scripture, and not " before 
Adam." Manes said: But tell me, I ask you in turn, how 
it obtained its kingdom over both the righteous and the 

O O 

sinful. Archelaus said : When you have first admitted that it 
has had that kingdom from a determinate time and not from 
eternity, I shall tell you that. Manes said: It is written, 
that "death reigned from Adam to Moses." Archelaus 
said: And consequently it has an end, because it has had 
a beginning in time. 3 And this saying is also true, that 
" death is swallowed up in victory." 4 It is apparent, then, 
that death cannot be unbegotten, seeing that it is shown to 
have both a beginning and an end. Manes said : But in that 
way it would also follow that God was its maker. Archelaus 
said: By no means ; away with such a supposition! "For God 
made not death ; neither hath He pleasure in the destruc- 
tion of the living." 5 Manes said: God made it not ; never- 
theless it was made, as you admit. Tell us, therefore, from 
whom it received its empire, or by whom it was created. 
Archelaus said: If I give the most ample proof of the fact 
that death cannot have the substance of an unbegotten 
nature, will you not confess that there is but one God, and 
that an unbegotten God? Manes said: Continue your dis- 
course, for your aim is to speak 6 with subtlety. Archelaus 
said: Nay, but you have put forward those allegations in 
such a manner, as if they were to serve you for a demon- 
stration of an unbegotten root. Nevertheless the positions 
which we have discussed above may suffice us, for by these 

1 Rom. v. 14. 

2 Routh, however, would read esset for essent, makiug it = and that 
death could be nothing else than unbegotten. 

3 Reading ex tempore for the corrupt exemplo re of the codex. 

4 1 Cor. xv. 54. 5 Wisd. i. 13. 

6 The text gives discere, to learn ; but dicere seems the probable reading, 


we have shown most fully that it is impossible for the sub- 
stances of two unbegotten natures to exist together. 

30. The judges said: Speak to those points, Archelaus, 
which he has just now propounded. Archelaus said: By 
the prince of the world, and the wicked one, and darkness, 
and death, he means one and the same thing, and alleges 
that the law has been given by that being, on the ground 
of the scriptural statement that it is "the ministration of 
death," as well as on the ground of other things which he has 
urged against it. Well, then, I say * that since, as we have 
explained above, the law which was written naturally on men's 
hearts did not keep carefully by the memory of evil things, 
and since there was not a sufficiently established tradition 
among the elders, inasmuch as hostile oblivion always attached 
itself to the memory, 2 and one man was instructed (in the know- 
ledge of that law) by a master, and another by himself, it easily 
came about that transgressions of the law engraved by nature 
did take place, and that through the violation of the com- 
mandments death obtained its kingship among men. For 
the race of men is of such a nature, that it needs to be ruled 
by God with a rod of iron. And so death triumphed and 
reigned with all its power on to Moses, even over those who 
had not sinned, in the way which we have explained : over 
sinners indeed, as these were its proper objects, and under 
subjection to it, men after the type of Cain and Judas ; 3 
but also over the righteous, because they refused to consent 
to it, and rather withstood it, by putting away from them- 
selves the vices and concupiscence of lusts, men like those 
who have arisen at times from Abel on to Zacharias; 4 
death thus always passing, up to the time (of Moses), upon 
those after that similitude. 5 

1 Reading inquam for the iniquam of the Codex Casinensis. But 
Routh suggests iniquse, in reference to what has been said towards the 
close of ch. xxviii. 

2 The codex gives, "cum eas inimica semper memorise ineresis sed 
oblivio;" which is corrected thus, "cum eis inimica semper memoriae 
inhsesisset oblivio." 

3 The text writes it Juda. 4 Matt, xxiii. 35. 

6 This would appear to be the meaning of these words, " transferee 


But after Moses had made his appearance, and had given 
the law to the children of Israel, and had brought into their 
memory all the requirements of the law, and all that it 
behoved men to observe and do under it, and when he deli- 
vered over to death only those who should transgress the law, 
then death was cut off from reigning over all men ; for it 
reigned then over sinners alone, as the law said to it, " Touch 
not those that keep my precepts." l Moses therefore served 
the ministration of this word upon death, while he delivered 
up to destruction 2 all others who were transgressors of the 
law; for it was not with the intent that death might not reign 
in any territory at all that Moses came, inasmuch as multi- 
tudes were assuredly held under the power of death even after 
Moses. And the law was called a " ministration of death" 
from the fact that then only transgressors of the law were 
punished, and not those who kept it, and who obeyed and ob- 
served the things which are in the law, as Abel did, whom 
Cain, who was made a vessel of the wicked one, slew. How- 
ever, even after these things death wished to break the 
covenant which had been made by the instrumentality of 
Moses, and to reign again over the righteous ; and with this 
object it did indeed assail the prophets, killing and stoning 
those who had been sent by God, on to Zacharias. But my 
Lord Jesus, as maintaining the righteousness of the law of 
Moses, was wroth with death for its transgression of the 
covenant 3 and of that whole ministration, and condescended 
to appear in the body of man, with the view of avenging 
not Himself, but Moses, and those who in a continuous succes- 
sion after him had been oppressed by the violence of death. 
That wicked one, however, in ignorance (of the meaning) of a 
dispensation of this kind, entered into Judas, thinking to slay 
Him by that man's means, as before he had put righteous 
Abel to death. But when he had entered into Judas, he was 

semper usque ad tempus in similes illius," if we suppose the speaker still 
to be keeping Rom. v. 12-14 in view. Routh suggests transiens. 

1 Referring perhaps to Ps. cv. 15. 

y Reading interitui tradens for the intent ut tradens of the codex. 

8 Reading pacti for the acti of the codex. 


overcome with penitence, and hanged himself; for which 
reason also the divine word says : " O death, where is thy 
victory ? O death (mors), where is thy sting ?" And again : 
"Death is swallowed up of victory." 1 It is for this reason, 
therefore, that the law is called a " ministration of death," 
because it delivered sinners and transgressors over to death ; 
but those who observed it, it defended from death ; and 
these it also established in glory, by the help and aid of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. 

31. Listen also to what I have to say on this other ex- 
pression which has been adduced, viz., " Christ, who redeemed 
us from the curse of the law." 2 My view of this passage is 
that Moses, that illustrious servant of God, committed to those 
who wished to have the right vision, 3 an emblematic 4 law, 
and also a real law. Thus, to take an example, after God 
had made the world, and all things that are in it, in the space 
of six days, He rested on the seventh day from all His 
works ; by which statement I do not mean to affirm that He 
rested because He was fatigued, but that He did so as having 
brought to its perfection every creature which He had resolved 
to introduce. And yet in the sequel it (the new law) says : 
"My Father worketh hitherto, and I work." 5 Does that 

1 1 Cor. xv. 54, 55. 2 Gal. iii. 13. 

3 Recte videre. But perhaps we should read "recte vivere," to' lead 
a righteous life. 

4 The phrase is imaginariam legem. On this expression there is a note 
in Migne, which is worth quoting, to this effect : Archelaus calls the Old 
Testament an emblematic or imaginary law, because it was the type or 
image of a future new law. So, too, Petrus de Vineis, more than once 
in his Epistles, calls a messenger or legate a homo imaginarius, as Du 
Cange observes in his Glossary, because he represents the person by 
whom he is sent, and, as it were, reflects his image. This word is also 
used in a similar manner by the old interpreter of Evagrius the monk, in 
the Disputation between Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, and Simon the 
Jew, ch. 13, where the Sabbath is called the requies imaginaria of that 
seventh day on which God rested. Hence Archelaus, in his answer to 
the presbyter Diodorus, ch. xli. beneath, devotes himself to proving 
that the Old Testament is not to be rejected, because, like a mirror, it 
gives us a true image of the new law. 

8 John T. 17. 


mean, then, that He is still making heaven, or sun, or man, 
or animals, or trees, or any such thing? Nay; but the 
meaning is, that when these visible objects were perfectly 
finished, He rested from that kind of work ; while, however, 
He still continues to work at objects invisible with an inward 
mode of action, 1 and saves men. In like manner, then, the 
legislator desires also that every individual amongst us should 
be devoted unceasingly to this kind of work, even as God 
Himself is ; and he enjoins us consequently to rest con- 
tinuously from secular things, and to engage in no worldly 
sort of work whatsoever ; and this is called our Sabbath. 
This also he added in the law, that nothing senseless 2 should 
be done, but that we should be careful and direct our life 
in accordance with what is just and righteous. Now this 
law was suspended over men, discharging most sharply its 
curse against those who might transgress it. But because 
its subjects, too, were but men, and because, as happens also 
frequently with us, controversies arose and injuries were in- 
flicted, the law likewise at once, and with the severest equity, 
made any wrong that was done return upon the head of the 
wrong-doer ; 3 so that, for instance, if a poor man was minded 
to gather a bundle of wood upon the Sabbath, he was placed 
under the curse of the law, and exposed to the penalty of 
instant death. 4 The men, therefore, who had been brought 
up with the Egyptians were thus severely pressed by the 
restrictive power of the law, and they were unable to bear 
the penalties and the curses of the law. But, again, He 
who is ever the Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ, came and 
delivered those men from these pains and curses of the law, 
forgiving them their offences. And He indeed did not deal 
with them as Moses did, putting the severities of the law 

1 Reading " invisibilia autem et intrinsecus." The Codex Casinensis 
has " invisibili autem et trinsecus." 

2 Absurdum, standing probably for TO-O!/, which may also be = 

3 The codex reads, " ultionem fecerat retorquebat." "We adopt either 
" ultionem quam fecerat retorquebat," or " ultionem fecit retorqueri." 

4 Num. xv. 32. 



in force, and granting indulgence to no man for any offence; 
but He declared that if any man suffered an injury at 
the hands of his neighbour, he was to forgive him not once 
only, nor even twice or thrice, nor only seven times, but even 
unto seventy times seven; 1 but that, on the other hand, if 
after all this the offender still continued to do such wrong, 
he ought then, as the last resource, to be brought under the 
law of Moses, and that no further pardon should be granted 
to the man who would thus persist in wrong-doing, even 
after having been forgiven unto seventy times seven. And 
He bestowed His forgiveness not only on a transgressor of 
such a character as that, but even on one who did offence to 
the Son of man. But if a man dealt thus with the Holy 
Spirit, He made him subject to two curses, namely, to that 
of the law of Moses, and to that of His own law ; to the law 
of Moses in truth in this present life, but to His own law at 
the time of the judgment : for His word is this : "It shall not 
be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to 
come." 2 There is the law of Moses, thus, that in this world 
gives pardon to no (such) person ; and there is the law of Christ 
that punishes in the future world. From this, therefore, mark 
how He confirms the law, not only not destroying it, but fulfil- 
ling it. Thus, then, He redeemed them from that curse of the 
law which belongs to the present life ; and from this fact has 
come the appellation " the curse of the law." This is the whole 
account (which needs be given) of that mode of speech. But, 
again, why the law is called the " strength of sin," we shall at 
once explain in brief to the best of our ability. Now it is 
written that " the law is not made for a righteous man, but for 
the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners." 3 
In these times, then, before Moses, there was no written law for 
transgressors ; whence also Pharaoh, not knowing the strength 
of sin, transgressed in the way of afflicting the children of 
Israel with unrighteous burdens, and despised the Godhead, 
not only himself, but also all who were with him. But, not 
to make any roundabout statement, I shall explain the 
matter briefly as follows. There were certain persons of 
1 Matt, xviii. 21. 2 Matt. xii. 32. 3 1 Tim. i. 9. 


the Egyptian race mingling with the people of Moses, when 
that people was under his rule in the desert; and when 
Moses had taken his position on the mount, with the purpose 
of receiving the law, the impatient people, I do not mean 
those who were the true Israel, but those who had been 
intermixed with the Egyptians, 1 set up a calf as their god, 
in accordance with their ancient custom of worshipping 
idols, with the notion that by such means they might secure 
themselves against ever having to pay the proper penalties for 
their iniquities. 2 Thus were they altogether ignorant of the 
strength of their sin. But when Moses returned (from the 
mount) and found that out, he issued orders that those men 
should be put to death with the sword. From that occa- 
sion a beginning was made in the correct perception of the 
strength of sin on the part of these persons through the 
instrumentality of the law of Moses, and for that reason the 
law has been called the strength of sin. 

32. Moreover, as to this word which is written in the 
Gospel, " Ye are of your father the devil," 3 and so forth, 
we say in brief that there is a devil working in us, whose 
aim it has been, in the strength of his own will, to make us 
like himself. For all the creatures that God made, He made 
very good; and He gave to every individual the sense of free- 
will, in accordance with which standard He also instituted 
the law of judgment. To sin is ours, and that we sin not is 
God's gift, as our will is constituted to choose either to sin or 
not to sin. And this you doubtless understand well enough 
yourself, Manes ; for you know that, although you were to 
bring together all your disciples and admonish 4 them not to 

1 This is one of those passages in which we detect the tendency of 
many of the early fathers to adopt the peculiar opinions of the Jewish 
rabbis on difficult points of Scripture. See also the Disputation between 
Theophilus of Alexandria and the Jew Simon, ch. 13. In accordance with 
the opinion propounded here by Archelaus, we find, for instance, in the 
Scemotli Rabba, p. 157, col. 1, that the making of the golden calf is 
ascribed to the Egyptian proselytes. See the note in Migne. 

2 The text is in quo nee scelerum poenas aliquando rependeret. 
" John viii. 44. 

4 Reading commcnens for communis ne. Communiens is also suggested. 


commit any transgression or do any unrighteousness, every 
one of them might still pass by the law of judgment. And 
certainly whosoever will, may keep the commandments ; and 
whosoever shall despise them, and turn aside to what is con- 
trary to them, shall yet without doubt have to face this law 
of judgment. Hence also certain of the angels, refusing to 
submit themselves to the commandment of God, resisted 
His will ; and one of them indeed fell like a flash of light- 
ning 1 upon the earth, while others, 2 harassed by the dragon, 
sought their felicity in intercourse with the daughters of 
men, 3 and thus brought on themselves the merited award of 
the punishment of eternal fire. And that angel who was 
cast down to earth, finding no further admittance into any 
of the regions of heaven, now flaunts about among men, 
deceiving them, and luring them to become transgressors 
like himself, and even to this day he is an adversary to the 
commandments of God. The example of his fall and ruin, 
however, will not be followed by all, inasmuch as to each is 
given liberty of will. For this reason also has he obtained 
the name of devil, because he has passed over from the 
heavenly places, and appeared on earth as the disparager of 
God's commandment. 4 But because it was God who first 
gave the commandment, the Lord Jesus Himself said to the 

1 Luke x. 18. 

2 We have another instance here of a characteristic opinion of the 
Jewish rabbis adopted by a Christian father. This notion as to the 
intercourse of the angels with the daughters of men was a current inter- 
pretation among the Jews from the times of Philo and Josephus, and 
was followed in whole or in part by Tertullian, Justin, Irenseus, Clemens 
Alexandrinus, Athenagoras, Methodius, Cyprian, Lactautius, etc. Con- 
sult the note in Migne. 

3 We give the above as a possible rendering. Routh, however, under- 
stands the matter otherwise. The text is, " alii vero in felicitate horni- 
num filiabus admisti a dracone afflicti," etc. Routh takes the phrase in 
felicitate as = " adhuc in statu felici existentes : " so that the sense 
would be, " others, while they still abode in the blessed estate, had inter- 
course," etc. 

4 Archelaus seems here to assign a twofold etymology for the name 
devil, deriving the Greek S;/3oAoj, accuser, from B/^/SscXAa, in its two 
senses of trajicere and traducere, to cross over and to slander. 


devil, " Get thee behind me, Satan ;'' l and, without doubt, to 
go behind God is the sign of being His servant. And again 
He says, " Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him 
only shalt thou serve." 2 Wherefore, as certain men were in- 
clined to yield obedience to his wishes, they were addressed 
in these terms by the Saviour : " Ye are of your father the 
devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do." 3 And, in fine, 
when they are found to be actually doing his will, they are 
thus addressed : " O generation of vipers, who hath warned 
you to flee from the wrath to come ? Bring forth therefore 
fruits meet for repentance." 4 From all this, then, you ought 
to see how weighty a matter it is for man to have freedom 
of will. However, let my antagonist here say whether there 
is a judgment for the godly and the ungodly, or not. Manes 
said : There is a judgment. Archelaus said : I think that 
what we 5 have said concerning the devil contains no small 
measure of reason as well as of piety. For every creature, 
moreover, has its own order ; and there is one order for the 
human race, and another for animals, and another for angels. 
Furthermore, there is but one only inconvertible substance, 
the divine substance, eternal and invisible, as is known to all, 
and as is also borne out by this Scripture : " No man hath 
seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in 
the bosom of the Father." 6 All the other creatures, conse- 
quently, are of necessity visible, such as heaven, earth, sea, 
men, angels, archangels. But if God has not been seen by 
any man at any time, what consubstantiality can there be 
between Him and those creatures ? Hence we hold that all 
things whatsoever have, in their several positions, their own 
proper substances, according to their proper order. You, on 
the other hand, allege that every living thing which moves 
is made of one (ex uno\ and you say that every object has 
received like substance from God, and that this substance is 
capable of sinning and of being brought under the judgment ; 
and you are unwilling to accept the word which declares that 

1 Matt. iv. 10. 2 Matt. iv. 10. 3 John viii. 44. 

4 Matt. iii. 7, 8. 5 Reading a nobis for tbe a vobis of the codex. 

6 John i. 18. 


the devil was an angel, and that he fell in transgression, and 
that he is not of the same substance with God. Logically, 
you ought to do away with any allowance of the doctrine of 
a judgment, and that would make it clear which of us is in 
error. 1 If, indeed, the angel that has been created by God 
is incapable of falling in transgression, how can the soul, as 
a part of God, be capable of sinning ? But, again, if you 
say that there is a judgment for sinning souls, and if you 
hold also that these are of one substance with God ; and if 
still, even although you maintain that they are of the divine 
nature, you affirm that, notwithstanding that fact, they do 
not keep 2 the commandments of God, then, even on such 
grounds, my argument will pass very well, 3 which avers that 
the devil fell first, on account of his failure to keep the 
commandments of God. He was not indeed of the sub- 
stance of God. And he fell, not so much to do hurt to the 
race of man, as rather to be set at nought 4 by the same. 
For He " gave unto us power to tread on serpents and 
scorpions, and over all the strength of the enemy." 5 

33. The judges said : He has given demonstration enough 
of the origin of the devil. And as both sides admit that 

1 The sense is obscure here. The text runs, " Interimere debes judi- 
cii ratione ut quis nostrum fallat appareat." Migne proposes to read 
rationem, as if the idea intended was this : That, consistently with his 
reasonings, Manes ought not to admit the fact of a judgment, because 
the notions he has propounded on the subject of men and angels are not 
reconcilable with such a belief. If this can be accepted as the probable 
meaning, then it would seem that the use of the verb interimere may 
be due to the fact that the Greek text gave dvxipiti/, between the two 
senses of which viz. to kill and to remove the translator did not cor- 
rectly distinguish. Routh, however, proposes to read interimi, taking it 
as equivalent to condemnari, so that the idea might be = on all prin- 
ciples of sound judgment you ought to be condemned, etc. 

2 The codex reads simply, Dei servare mandata. We may adopt 
either Dei non servare mandata, as above, or, Dei servare vel non servare 
mandata, in reference to the freedom of will, and so = they may or may 
not keep the commandments. 

3 The codex has preecedil, for which procedit is proposed. 

4 Reading u laederet illuderetur." But might it not rather be " Ise- 
deret iUideretur," not to bruise, but rather to be bruised, etc. ? 

* Luke x. 19. 


there will be a judgment, it is necessarily involved in that 
admission that every individual is shown to have free-will ; 
and since this is brought clearly out, there can be no doubt 
that every individual, in the exercise of his own proper 
power of will, may shape his course in whatever direction he 
pleases. 1 Manes said : If (only) the good is from (your) 
God, as you allege, then you make Jesus Himself a liar. 2 
Archelaus said : In the first place, admit that the account 
of what we have adduced is true, and then I will give you 
proof about the " father of him." 3 Manes said : If you 
prove to me that his father is a liar, and yet show me 
that for all that you ascribe no such (evil) notion to God, 
then credit will be given you on all points. Archelaus said : 
Surely when a full account of the devil has once been 
presented, and the dispensation set forth, any one now, with 
an ordinarily vigorous understanding, might simply, by turn- 
ing the matter carefully over in his own mind, get an idea of 
who this is that is here called the father of the devil. But 
though you give yourself out to be the Paraclete, you come 
very far short of the ordinary sagacity of men. Wherefore, 
as you have betrayed your ignorance, I shall tell you what 

1 This appears to be the general sense of the very corrupt passage, 
" Quo videntur ostenso nulli dubium est unusquisque in quamcunque 
elegerit partem propria usus arbitrii potestate." In Migne it is amended 
thus : " Quo evidenter ostenso, nulli dubium est, quod unusquisque in 
quamcunque elegerit partem, propria usus fuerit arbitrii potestate." 

2 Adopting the emendation, " si a Deo bonus, ut asseris, mendacem 
esse dixisti Jesum." In the Codex Casinensis it stands thus : " sic a 
Deo bonus ut as mendacem esse dixisti Jesus." But Routh would sub- 
stitute " si a Deo diabolus " = if the devil is from God. 

3 The argumentation throughout this passage seems to rest on the 
fact that, in support of the dogma of the evil deity, Manes perverted, 
among other passages, our Lord's words in John viii. 44, as if they 
were not only " Ye are of your father the devil," but possibly also, 
"Ye are of the father of the devil;" and again, "He is a liar, and 
the father of him (is the same)." Thus what Manes urges against 
Archelaus is this : If only what is good proceeds from the Deity, and if 
He is the Supreme Good Himself, you make out Jesus to have spoken 
falsely, when in John's Gospel He uses expressions which imply that the 
devil's father is a 'iar, and also the Creator of the lying devil. 


is meant by this expression, the " father of the devil." 
Manes said: I say so 1 . . . ; and he added : Every one who 
is the founder or maker of anything may be called the father 
(parent) of that which he has made. Archelaus said: Well, 
I am verily astonished that you have made so correct an 
admission in reply to what I have said, and have not con- 
cealed either your intelligent apprehension of the affirmation, 
or the real nature of the same. Now, from this learn who is 
this father of the devil. When he fell from the kingdom of 
heaven, he came to dwell upon earth, and there he remained, 
ever watching and seeking out some one to whom he might 
attach himself, and whom, through an alliance with himself, 
he might also make a partner in his own wickedness. Now 
as long, indeed, as man was not yet existent, the devil was 
never called either a murderer or a liar together with his 
father. But subsequently, when man had once been made, 
and when further he had been deceived by the devil's lies 
and craftiness, and when the devil had also introduced him- 
self into the body of the serpent, which was the most saga- 
cious of all the beasts, then from that time the devil was 
called a liar together with his father, and then 2 also the 
curse was made to rest not only on himself, but also on his 
father. Accordingly, when the serpent had received him, 
and had indeed admitted him wholly into its own being, it 
was, as it were, rendered pregnant, for it bore the burden of 
the devil's vast wickedness ; and it was like one with child, 
and under the strain of parturition, as it sought to eject the 
agitations 3 of his malignant suggestions. For the serpent, 
grudging the glory of the first man, made its way into 
paradise ; and harbouring these pains of parturition in itself 
(conceptis in se doloribus), it began to produce mendacious 
addresses, and to generate death for the men who had been 

1 There are some words deficient in this sentence. The text reads, 

" Manes dixit : dico : et adjecit, Omnis qui conditor est vel 

Creator aliquorum pater eorum condiderit appellatur." It 13 

proposed to supply jam before dico, and quie before condiderit. 

2 Reading ct effectum for the ut effectum of the codex. 

8 Or it may be " cogitations," reading coyitata for agitato. 


fashioned by God, and who had received the gift of life. 
The devil, however, was not able to manifest himself com- 
pletely through the serpent ; but he reserved his perfection 
for a time, in order that he might demonstrate it through 
Cain, by whom he was generated completely. And thus 
through the serpent, on the one hand, he displayed his 
hypocrisies and deceits to Eve ; while through Cain, on the 
other hand, he effected the beginning of murder, introduc- 
ing himself into the firstlings of the " fruits," which that 
man administered so badly. From this the devil has been 
called a murderer from the beginning, and also a liar, because 
he deceived the parties to whom he said, '' Ye shall be as 
gods j" 1 for those very persons whom he falsely declared 
destined to be gods were afterwards cast out of paradise. 
Wherefore the serpent which conceived him in its womb, 
and bore him, and brought him forth to the light of day, is 
constituted the devil's first father; and Cain is made his 
second father, who through the conception of iniquities 
produced pains and parricide : for truly the taking of life was 
the perpetrating of iniquity, unrighteousness, and impiety all 
together. Furthermore, all who receive him, and do his 
lusts, are constituted his brothers. Pharaoh is his father in 
perfection. Every impious man is made his father. Judas 
became his father, since he conceived him indeed, though he 
miscarried : for he did not present a perfect parturition there, 
since it was really a greater person who was assailed through 
Judas ; and consequently, as I say, it proved an abortion. 
For just as the woman receives the man's seed, and thereby 
also becomes sensible of a daily growth within her, so also 
did Judas make daily advances in evil, the occasions for that 
being furnished him like seed by the wicked one. And the 
first seed of evil in him, indeed, was the lust of money ; and 
its increment was theft, for he purloined the moneys which 
were deposited in the bag. Its offspring, moreover, con- 
sisted of vexations, and compacts with the Pharisees, and 
the scandalous bargain for a price ; yet it was the abortion, 
and not the birth, that was witnessed in the horrid noose by 

1 Gen. iii. 5. 


which he met his death. And exactly in the same way shall 
it stand also with you : if you bring the wicked one to light in 
your own deeds, and do his lusts, you have conceived him, 
and will be called his father ; but, on the other hand, if you 
cherish penitence, and deliver yourself of your burden, you 
will be like one that brings to the birth. 1 For, as in school 
exercises, if one gets the subject-matter from the master, 
and then creates and produces the whole body of an oration 
by himself, he is said to be the author of the compositions to 
which he has thus given birth ; so he who has taken in any 
little leaven of evil from the prime evil, is of necessity called 
the father and procreator of that wicked one, who from the 
beginning has resisted the truth. The case may be the same, 
indeed, with those who devote themselves to virtue ; for I have 
heard the most valiant men say to God, " For Thy fear, O 
Lord, 2 we have conceived in the womb, and we have been 
in pain, and have brought forth the spirit of salvation." 3 
And so those, too, who conceive in respect of the fear of the 
wicked one, and bring forth the spirit of iniquity, must needs 
be called the fathers of the same. Thus, on the one hand, 
they are called sons of that wicked one, so long as they are 
still yielding obedience to his service ; but, on the other hand, 
they are called fathers if they have attained to the perfection 
of iniquity. For it is with this view that our Lord says to 
the Pharisees, "Ye are of your father the devil," 4 thereby 
making them his sons, as long as they appeared still to be 
perturbed (conturbari) by him, and meditated in their hearts 
evil for good toward the righteous. Accordingly, while they 
deliberated in such a spirit with their own hearts, and while 
their wicked devices were made chargeable upon (translatis 
in se) themselves, Judas, as the head of all the evil, and 
as the person who carried out their iniquitous counsels to 

1 The text gives parturies. Routh suggests parturiens. Tbe sense 
then might be, But if you repent, you will also deliver yourself of your 
burden like one who brings to the birth. 

2 Reading Domine for Dominum, which is given in the text. 

3 The quotation may refer to Isa. xxvi. 18. 

4 John viii. 44. 


their consummation, was constituted the father of the crime, 
having received at their hands the recompense of thirty 
pieces of silver for his impious cruelty. For " after the sop 
Satan entered into him" 1 completely. But, as we have said, 
when his womb was enlarged, and the time of his travail 
came on, he delivered himself only of an abortive burden 
in the conception of unrighteousness, and consequently lie 
could not be called the father in perfection, except only at 
that very time when the conception was still in the womb ; 
and afterwards, when he betook himself to the hangman's 
rope, he showed that he had not brought it to a complete 
birth, because remorse (pcenitentia) followed. 

34. I think that you cannot fail to understand this too, 
that the word father is but a single term indeed, and yet one 
admitting of being understood in various ways. For one is 
called father, as being the parent of those children whom he 
has begotten in a natural way ; another is called father, as 
being the guardian of children whom he has but brought 
up; and some, again, are called fathers in respect of the 
privileged standing accruing through time or age. Hence 
our Lord Jesus Christ Himself is said to have a variety of 
fathers : for David was called His father, and Joseph was 
reckoned to be His father, while neither of these two was 
His father in respect of the actuality of nature. For David 
is called His father as touching the prerogative of time and 
age (cetatis ac temporis privilegio), and Joseph is designated 
His father as concerning the law of upbringing ; but God 
Himself is His only Father by nature, who was pleased to 
make all things manifest in short space (velociter) to us by 
His word. And our Lord Jesus Christ, making no tarrying 
(nee in aliquo remoratus), in the space of one year 2 restored 
multitudes of the sick to health, and gave back the dead to 
the light of life ; and He did indeed embrace all things in 

1 John xiii. 27. 

2 The text gives, "inter unius anni spatium," for -which intra, etc., is 
proposed. With certain others of the fathers, Archelaus seems to assign 
but one year to the preaching of Christ and to His working of miracles. 
See ch. xlix. 


the power of His own word. 1 And wherein, forsooth, did 
He make any tarrying, so that we should have to believe 
Him to have waited so long (even to these days) before He 
actually sent the Paraclete ? 2 Nay, rather, as has been 
already said above, He gave proof of His presence with us 
forthwith, and did most abundantly impart Himself to Paul, 
whose testimony we also believe when he says, " Unto me 
only is this grace given" 3 (mihi autem soli, etc.). For this 
is he who formerly was a persecutor of the church of God, 
but who afterwards appeared openly before all men as a 
faithful minister of the Paraclete ; by whose instrumentality 
His singular clemency was made known to all men, in such 
wise that even to us who some time were without hope the 
largess of His gifts has come. For which of us could have 
hoped that Paul, the persecutor and enemy of the church, 
would prove its defender and guardian ? Yea, and not that 
alone, but that he would become also its ruler, the founder 
and architect of the churches? Wherefore after him, and 
after those who were with Himself that is, the disciples we 
are not to look for the advent of any other (such), according 
to the Scriptures ; for our Lord Jesus Christ says of this 
Paraclete, " He shall receive of mine." 4 Him therefore He 
selected as an acceptable vessel ; and He sent this Paul to us 
in the Spirit. Into him the Spirit was poured; 5 and as that 
Spirit could not abide upon all men, but only on Him who 
was born of Mary the mother of God, so that Spirit, the Para- 
clete, could not come into any other, but could only come upon 
the apostles and the sainted Paul. "For he is a chosen vessel," 
He says, " unto me, to bear my name before kings and the 

1 Referring probably to Heb. i. 3. 

2 Migne gives this sentence as a direct statement. We adopt the 
interrogative form with Routh. 

8 Eph. iii. 8. 

4 John xvi. 14. 

5 The text reads, "quern misit ad nos Paulum in Spiritus influxit 
Spiritus," etc. We adopt the emendation, " quern misit ad nos Paulum 
in Spiritu. Influxit Spiritus," etc. Routh suggests, " Paulum cujus in 
spiritum influxit Sp'ritus" = this Paul, into whose spirit the Spirit was 


Gentiles" (in conspectu regumet gentium}. 1 The apostle him- 
self, too, states the same thing in his first epistle, where he 
says : " According to the grace that is given to me of God, 
that I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gen- 
tiles, ministering (consecrans) the gospel of God." 2 "I say 
the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing 
me witness in the Holy Ghost." 3 And again : " For I will 
not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath 
not wrought by me by word and deed." 4 " I am the last of 
all the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle. 
But by the grace of God I am what I am." s And it is 
his wish to have to deal with (vult habere) those who sought 
the proof of that Christ who spake in him, for this reason, 
that the Paraclete was in him : and as having obtained His 
gift of grace, and as being enriched with magnificent honour, 
Le says : "For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it 
might depart from me. And He said unto me, My grace 
is sufficient for thee ; for strength is made perfect in 
weakness." 7 Again, that it was the Paraclete Himself who 
was in Paul, is indicated by our Lord Jesus Christ in the 
Gospel, when He says : " If ye love me, keep my command- 
ments. And I will pray my Father, and He shall give you 
another Comforter." In these words He points to the 
Paraclete Himself, for He speaks of another Comforter. 
And hence we have given credit to Paul, and have hearkened 
to him when he says, a Or (aui) seek ye a proof of Christ 
speaking in me?" 9 and when he expresses himself in similar 
terms, of which we have already spoken above. Thus, too, 
he seals his testament for us as for his faithful heirs, and 
like a father he addresses us in these words in his Epistle 

1 Acts ix. 15. 2 Rom. xv. 15, 16. 

3 Rom. ix. 1. * Rom. xv. 18. 

5 1 Cor. xv. 9, 10. Archelaus here gives " novissimns omnium apos- 
tolorum " for the i^d^iaros of the Greek, and the "minimus" of the 

6 Reading " magnifico Aonore" for the " magnifico hoc ore" of the 

7 2 Cor. xii. 8, 9. John xiv. 15, 16. 

8 2 Cor. xiii. 3. 


to the Corinthians : " I delivered unto you first of all that 
which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins ac- 
cording to the Scriptures ; and that He was buried, and that 
He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures ; and 
that He was seen of Cephas, then of the eleven apostles (un- 
decimapostolis): after that He was seen of above five hundred 
brethren at once ; of whom the greater part remain unto this 
present, but some are fallen asleep. After that he was seen 
of James ; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was 
seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. For I am 
the last of the apostles." ] " Therefore, whether it were I or 
they, so we preach, and so ye believed." 2 And again, in 
delivering over to his heirs that inheritance which he gained 
first himself, he says : "But I fear, lest by any means, as 
the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds 
should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. 
For if he that cometh preacheth another Christ (Christum), 
whom we have not preached, or if ye receive another Spirit, 
which ye have not received, or another gospel, which ye have 
not accepted, ye might well bear with him. For I suppose 
that I did nothing less for you than the other apostles " 
(nihil minus fed vobis a cceteris apostolis). 3 

35. These things, moreover, he has said with the view of 
showing us that all others who may come after him will be 
false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into 
the apostles of Christ. And no marvel ; for Satan himself is 
transformed, like an angel of light. What great thing there- 
fore is it, if his ministers also be transformed into the ministers 
of righteousness? whose end shall be according to their 
works. 4 He indicates, further, what manner of men these 
were, and points out by whom they were being circumvented. 
And when the Galatians are minded to turn away from 
the gospel, he says to them : " I marvel that ye are so soon 
removed from him that called you unto another gospel : 

1 1 Cor. xv. 3-9. 2 1 Cor. xv. 11. 3 2 Cor. xi. 3-5. 

4 2 Cor. ix. 14, 15. The text gives " velut angelum lucis," as if the 
Greek had read u;. So also Cyprian, in the beginning of his book on 
The Unity of the Church. 


which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, 
and would turn you away (avertere vos) from the gospel of 
Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach 
any other gospel unto you than that which has been delivered 
to you, let him be accursed." : And again he says : " To 
me, who am the least of all the apostles (infimo omnium 
apostolorum}, is this grace given;" 2 and, "I fill up that 
which was behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh." 3 
And once more, in another place, he declares of himself that 
he was a minister of Christ more than all others, 4 as though 
after him none other was to be looked for at all ; for he en- 
joins that not even an angel from heaven is thus to be received. 
And how, then, shall we credit the professions of this Manes, 
who comes from Persis, 5 and declares himself to be the 
Paraclete ? By this very thing, indeed, I rather recognise 
in him one of those men who transform themselves, and of 
whom the Apostle Paul, that elect vessel, has given us very 
clear indication when he says : " Now in the last times some 
shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, 
and doctrines of devils ; speaking lies in hypocrisy ; having 
their conscience seared with a hot iron ; forbidding to marry, 
and (commanding) to abstain from meats, which God hath 
created to be received 6 with thanksgiving of them which 
believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is 
good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with 
thanksgiving. " 7 The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also 
careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ : 
" Take heed that no man deceive you : for many shall come 
in my name, saying, I am Christ ; and shall deceive many. 
But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or 
there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, 

1 Gal. i. 6-8. 2 Eph. iii. 8. 

3 Col. i. 24. * 2 Cor. xi. 23. 

5 The Codex Casinensis gives, "de Persida venientem monet;" for 
which corrupt reading it is proposed to substitute "de Perside veni- 
entem Manem," etc. 

6 Reading percipiendum with the Vulgate. But the Codex Casinensis 
has perficiendum. 

T 1 Tim. iv. 1-4. 


and false apostles, 1 and false prophets, and shall show great 
signs and wonders ; insomuch that, if it were possible, they 
shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. 
If they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go 
not forth : if they shall say, Behold, he is in the secret 
chambers ; believe it not." 2 And yet, after all these direc- 
tions, this man, who has neither sign nor portent of any kind 
to show, who has no affinity to exhibit, who never even had 
a place among the number of the disciples, who never was a 
follower of our departed Lord, in whose inheritance we 
rejoice, this man, I say, although he never stood by our 
Lord in His weakness, and although he never came forward 
as a witness of His testament, yea rather, although he never 
came even within the acquaintance of those who ministered 
to Him in His sickness, and, in fine, although he obtains 
the testimony of no person whatsoever, desires us to believe 
this profession which he makes of being the Paraclete ; 
whereas, even were you to do signs and wonders, we would 
still have to reckon you a false Christ, and a false prophet, 
according to the Scriptures. And therefore it is well for 
us to act with the greater caution, in accordance with the 
warning which the sainted apostle gives us, when, in the 
epistle which he wrote to the Colossians, he speaks in the 
following terms : " Continue in the faith grounded and 
rooted (radicati), and not to be moved away (immoliles) 
from the hope of the gospel, which we have heard (audi- 
vimus) y and which was preached to every creature which 
is under heaven." 3 And again : " As ye have therefore 
received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in Him ; rooted 
and built up in Him, and stablished in the faith, as ye 
have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving. 
Beware lest any one spoil you through philosophy and vain 
deceit, after the rudiments of the world, and not after 
Christ. For in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the God- 
head." 4 And after all these matters have been thus care- 

1 These words falsi apostoli seem to be added by \vay of explanation, 
as they are not found either in the Greek or the Vulgate. 

3 Matt. xxiv. 4, 5, 23-26. 8 Col. i. 23. * Col. ii. 6-9. 


fully set forth, the blessed apostle, like a father speaking to 
his children, adds the following words, which serve as a sort 
of seal to his testament : " I have fought a good fight, I 
have finished my course, 1 I have kept the faith : henceforth 
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the 
Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day ; and 
not to me only, but unto all them also that love His appear- 
ing." 2 

36. None of your party, 3 O Manes, will you make a Gala- 
tian ; neither will you in this fashion divert us 4 from the 
faith of Christ. Yea, even although you were to work signs 
and wonders, although you were to raise the dead, although 
you were to present to us the very image of Paul himself, you 
would remain accursed still, O Satan. 5 For we have been 
instructed beforehand with regard to you: we have been both 
warned and armed against you by the holy Scriptures. You 
are a vessel of Antichrist ; and no vessel of honour, in sooth, 
but a mean and base one, used by him as any barbarian or 
tyrant may do, who, in attempting to make an inroad 
on a people living under the righteousness of the laws, 6 
sends some select vessel on beforehand, as it were destined 
to death, with the view of finding out the exact magnitude 
and character of the strength possessed by the legitimate 
king and his nation : for the man is too much afraid to make 
the inroad himself wholly at unawares, and he also lacks 
the daring to despatch any person belonging to his own 
immediate circle on such a task, through fear that he may 
sustain some harm. And so it is that your king, Antichrist, 

1 The text gives " circum cucurri," perhaps for " cursum cucurri." 
The Vulgate has " cursum consummavi." 

2 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. 

3 The text gives "ex vobis." But perhaps we should read "ex nobis " 
= none of us. 

* The Codex Casinensis has " Galatam facies vicit, o nostras feras," 
for which we adopt the correction, " Galatam facies, nee ita nos." 

5 The Codex Casinensis gives " anathema esse ana," which may be 
an error, either for '' anathema es, Satana," or for " anathema es et 

6 The text is legum ; for wh'ch reynm, kings, is also suggested. 

z \ 


has despatched you in a similar character, and as it were 
destined to death, to us who are a people placed under the 
administration of the good and holy King. And this I do 
not say inconsiderately or without due inquiry ; but from 
the fact that I see you perform no miracle, I hold myself 
entitled to entertain such sentiments concerning you. For 
we are given to understand beforehand that the devil him- 
self is to be transformed into an angel of light, and that his 
servants are to make their appearance in similar guise, and 
that they are to work signs and wonders, insomuch that, 
if it were possible, the very elect should be deceived. 1 
But who, pray, are you then, to whose lot no such posi- 
tion of kinship has been assigned by your father Satan? 3 
For whom have you raised from the dead ? What issue 
of blood do you ever staunch ? What 3 eyes of the blind 
do you ever anoint with clay, and thus cause them to have 
vision ? When do you ever refresh a hungering multitude 
with a few loaves? Where do you ever walk upon the 
water, or who of those who dwell in Jerusalem has ever 
seen you? O Persian barbarian, you have never been able 
to have a knowledge of the language of the Greeks, or of 
the Egyptians, or of the Romans, or of any other nation ; 
but the Chaldean tongue alone has been known to you, 
which verily is not a language prevalent among any great 
number of people, 4 and you are not capable of understand- 
ing any one of another nationality when he speaks. Not 
thus is it with the Holy Spirit : God forbid ; but He divides 
to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understand- 
ing of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that 
the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance. 
For what says the Scripture ? " That every man heard the 
apostles speak in his own language through the Spirit, the 

1 Matt. xxiv. 24. 

2 The text gives, " qui neque necessarium aliquem locum sortitus es," 
etc. Routh proposes " necessarii." The sense seems to be that Manes 
had nothing to prove any connection between him and Christ. 

3 Reading " quos luto," etc., for the " quod luto " of the codex. 

4 The text is, " quae ne in numerum quidem aliqnem ducitur." 


Paraclete." l But why should I say more on this subject ? 2 
Barbarian 3 priest and crafty coadjutor of Mithras, you will 
only be a worshipper of the sun-god Mithras, who is the 
illuminator of places of mystic import, as you opine, and the 
self-conscious deity (conscium) ; that is, you will sport as his 
worshippers do, and you will celebrate, though with less ele- 
gance as it were, his mysteries. 4 But why should I take all 
this so indignantly ? Is it not accordant with all that is 
fitting, that you should multiply yourself like the tares, until 
that same mighty father of yours comes, raising the dead (as 
he will profess to do), and persecuting almost to hell itself all 
those who refuse to yield to his bidding, keeping multitudes in 
check by that terror of arrogance in which he entrenches him- 

/ O 

self, and employing threatenings against others, and making 
sport of them by the changing of his countenance and his 
deceitful dealing "? 5 And yet beyond that he shall proceed 
no further ; for his folly shall be made manifest to all men, 
as was the case with Jamnes and Mambres. 6 The judges 
said : As we have heard now from you, as Paul himself also 
seems to tell us, and, further, as we have learned likewise 
from the earlier account given in the Gospel, an introduc- 

1 Acts ii. 6. 

2 The text gives " Quid dicabo," which may stand for " quid 
dicam ;" or perhaps the translator intends to use " dicare " in the sense 
of urge. 

3 Beading barbare, for which the text offers barba. 

* In this sentence the sense is somewhat obscure, in consequence of 
the corruptions of the text in the codex. We adopt the emendations 
" locorum mysticorum" for mysteriorum, and " apud eos hides" for India. 
In the end of the clause Migne gives, as in the translation, "et tanquam 
minus elegans," etc. But Routh reads mimus = and like an elegant 
pantomimist, etc. 

5 The Codex Casinensis gives the sentence thus : " . . . adveniat? sus- 
citans mortuos ? pene usque ad gehennam ornnes persequens, qui si ut 
obtemperare noluerit, plurimos deterrens arrogantise metu, Quod est 
ipse circumdatus, aliis adhibet minas vultus sui conversione circumdatio 
ludificat." The emendations adopted by Migne and Routh consist in 
removing these two interrogative marks, and in reading qui sibi for qui 
si ut, noluerint for noluerit, quo est for Quod est, adhibens for adhibet, and 
et circumductione ludificans for the last two words, 

6 2 Tim. iii. 8, 9. 


tion to preaching, or teaching, or evangelizing, or prophesy- 
ing, is not, in this life at least, held out on the same terms 
to any person in times subsequent (to the apostle's) : 1 and if 
the opposite appears ever to be the case, the person can only 
be held to be a false prophet or a false Christ. Now, since 
you have alleged that the Paraclete was in Paul, and that 
He attested all things in him, how is it that Paul himself 
said, " We know in part, and we prophesy in part ; but 
when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in 
part shall be done away ? " 2 What other one did he look 
for, when he uttered these words ? For if he professes him- 
self to be looking for some perfect one, and if some one 
must needs come, show us who it is of whom he speaks ; lest 
that word of his perchance appear to carry us back to this man 
(Manes), or to him who has sent him, that is to say, Satan, 
according to your affirmation. But if you admit that that 
which is perfect is yet to come, then this excludes Satan ; 
and if you look for the coming of Satan, then that excludes 
the perfect. 

37. Archelaus said: Those sayings which are put forth 
by the blessed Paul were not uttered without the direction 
of God, and therefore it is certain that what he has declared 
to us is that we are to look for our Lord Jesus Christ as 
the perfect one, who 3 is the only one that knows the Father, 
with the sole exception of him to whom He has chosen 
also to reveal Him, 4 as I am able to demonstrate from His 
own words. But let it be observed, that it is said that 
when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in 
part shall be done away. Now this man (Manes) asserts 
that he is the perfect one. Let him show us, then, what he 
has done away with ; for what is to be done away with is the 

1 The sense is again obscure throughout this sentence, owing to the 
state of the text. The codex gives us this clause, " nulli alio atque pos- 
terum," etc., for which " nulli alii seque in posterum" is proposed. 

2 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10. 

3 Reading " qui solus," for the sed, etc., of the codex. See also Luke 
x. 22. 

* Matt. xi. 27. 


ignorance which is in us. Let him therefore tell us what he 
has done away with, and what he has brought into (the sphere 
of our) knowledge. If he is able to do anything of this 
nature, let him do it no\v, in order that he may be believed. 
These very words of Paul's, if one can but understand them in 
the full power of their meaning, will only secure entire credit 
to the statements made by me. For in that first Epistle 
to the Corinthians, Paul speaks in the following terms of the 
perfection that is to come : " Whether there be prophecies, 
they shall fail ; whether there be tongues, they shall cease ; 
whether there be knowledge, it shall be destroyed : for we 
know in part, and we prophesy in part ; but when that which 
is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done 
away." l Observe now what virtue that which is perfect 
possesses in itself, and of what order that perfection is. And 
let this man, then, tell us what prophecy of the Jews or 
Hebrews he has done away with ; or what tongues he has 
caused to cease, whether of the Greeks or of others who wor- 
ship idols ; or what alien dogmas he has destroyed, whether 
of a Valentinian, or a Marcion, or a Tatian, or a Sabellius, 
or any others of those who have constructed for themselves 
their peculiar systems of knowledge. Let him tell us which 
of all these he has already done away with, or when he is 
yet to do away with any one of them, in this character of 
the perfect one. Perchance he seeks some sort of truce 
does he (inducias fortassis aliquas qucerit) ? But not thus 
inconsiderable, not thus obscure 2 and ignoble, will be the 
manner of the advent of Him who is the truly perfect one, 
that is to say, our Lord Jesus Christ. Nay, but as a king, 
when he draws near to his city, does first of all send on 
before him his life-guardsmen, 3 his ensigns and standards 
and banners (signet, dracones, labaros}, his generals and chiefs 
and prefects, and then forthwith all objects are roused and 
excited in different fashions, while some become inspired 

1 1 Cor. xiii. 8-10. 

2 Reading " non plane, non tarn obscure," etc., instead of the " non 
plane nota," etc., of the Codex Casinensis. 

8 "Protectores," on which term consult Ducangius in his Glossary. 


with terror and others with exultation at the prospect of the 
king's advent; so also my Lord Jesus Christ, who is the 
truly perfect one, at His coming will first send on before 
Him His glory, (and) the consecrated heralds of an un- 
stained and untainted kingdom : and then the universal 
creation will be moved and perturbed, uttering prayers and 
supplications, until He delivers it from its bondage. 1 And it 
must needs be that the race of man shall then be in fear and 
in vehement agitation on account of the many offences it has 
committed. Then the righteous alone will rejoice, as they 
look for the things which have been promised them ; and 
the subsistence of the affairs of this world will no longer 
be maintained, but all things shall be destroyed : and 
whether they be prophecies or the books of prophets, (they 
shall fail) ; whether they be the tongues of the whole race, 
they shall cease ; for men will no longer need to feel 
anxiety or to think solicitously about those things which 
are necessary for life ; whether it be knowledge, by what 
teachers soever it be possessed, it shall also be destroyed : 
for none of all these things will be able to endure the ad- 
vent of that mighty King. For just as a little spark, if 2 
taken and put up against the splendour of the sun, at once 
perishes from the view, so the whole creation, all prophecy, 
all knowledge, all tongues, as we have said above, shall be de- 
stroyed. But since the capacities of common human nature 
are all insufficient to set forth in a few words, and these so 
weak and so extremely poor, the coming of this heavenly 
King, so much so, indeed, that perchance it should be the 
privilege only of the saintly and the highly worthy to attempt 
any statement on such a subject, it may yet be enough for 
me to (be able to say that I) have advanced what I have 
now advanced on that theme on the ground of simple ne- 
cessity, compelled, as I have been, to do thus much by 
this person's importunity, and simply with the view of show- 
ing you what kind of character he is. 

1 Rom. viii. 21, 22. 

2 The text gives simply, sicut enim parva. We may adopt, with Routh, 
" sicut enim cum parva," etc. 


38. And, in good truth, I hold Marcion, and Valentinian, 
and Basilides, and other heretics, to be sainted men when 
compared l with this person. For they did display a certain 
kind of intellect, and they did, indeed, think themselves 
capable of understanding all Scripture, and did thus con- 
stitute themselves leaders 2 for those who were willing to 
listen to them. But notwithstanding this, not one of these 
dared to proclaim himself to be either God, or Christ, or the 
Paraclete, as this fellow has done, who is ever disputing, on 
some occasions about the ages (seculis), and on others about 
the sun, and how these objects were made, as though he were 
superior to them himself; for every person who offers an 
exposition of the method in which any object has been made, 
puts himself forward as superior to and older than the sub- 
ject of his discussion. But who may venture to speak of the 
substance of God, unless, it may be, our Lord Jesus Christ 
alone? And, indeed, I do not make this statement on the 
bare authority of my own words, but I confirm it by the 
authority of that Scripture which has been our instructor. 
For the apostle addresses the following words to us : " That 
ye may be lights in this world, holding (continentes) the word 
of life for my glory against the day of Christ, seeing that I 
have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain." 3 We ought 
to understand what is the force and meaning of this saying ; 
for the word may suit the leader, but the effectual work suits 
the king. 4 And accordingly, as one who looks for the arrival 
of his king, strives to be able to present all who are under his 
charge as obedient, and ready, and estimable, and lovely, and 
faithful, and not less also as blameless, and abounding in all 

1 Reading "sicutistius comparatione," for the "sicut istiusparatione" 
of the codex. 

2 Reading se ductores, for the seductores, etc., of the codex. 

3 Phil. ii. 13. 

4 The precise meaning and connection are somewhat obscure here. 
The text gives, " verbum enim ducis obtinet locum, opera vero regis." 
And the idea is taken to be, that the actual work of thoroughly doing 
away with the ignorance of men was something that suited only the 
perfect King who was expected, and that had not been accomplished by 


that is good, so that he may himself get commendation from 
the king, and be deemed by him to be worthy of greater 
honours, as having rightly governed the province which was 
entrusted to his administration ; so also does the blessed Paul 
give us to understand our position when he uses these words : 
" That ye may be as lights in this world, holding the word of 
life for my glory against the day of Christ." For the mean- 
ing of this saying is, that our Lord Jesus Christ, when He 
comes, will see that his doctrine has proved profitable in us, 
and that, finding that he (the apostle) has not run in vain, 
neither laboured in vain, He will bestow on him the crown of 
recompense. And again, in the same epistle, he also warns 
us not to mind earthly things, and tells us that we ought to 
have our conversation in heaven ; from which also we look 
for the Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 And as the know- 
ledge of the date of the last day is no secure position for us, 
he has given us, to that effect, a declaration on the subject in 
the epistle which he wrote to the Thessalonians, thus: " But of 
the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I 
write unto you ; for yourselves know perfectly that the day 
of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night." 2 How, then, 
does this man stand up and try to persuade us to embrace 
his opinions, importuning every individual whom he meets 
to become a Manicliean, and going about and creeping into 
houses, and endeavouring to deceive minds laden with sins? 3 
But we do not hold such sentiments. Nay, rather, we should 
be disposed to present the things themselves before you all, 
and bring them into comparison, if it please you, with (what 
we know of) the perfect Paraclete. For you observe that 4 
sometimes he uses the interrogative style, and sometimes the 
deprecatory. But in the Gospel of our Saviour it is written 
that those who stand on the left hand of the King will say : 
" Lord, when saw we Thee an hungered, or athirst, or naked, 
or a stranger, or in prison, and did not minister unto Thee ? '" 

1 Phil. iii. 19. 2 1 Thess. v. 1, 2. 8 Alluding to 2 Tim. iii. 6. 

4 Routh inserts interdum pcenilet = sometimes he uses the penitential 
style, which Migne omits. 
" 5 Matt. xxv. 44. 


Thus they will implore Him to be indulgent with them. 
But what reply is that righteous Judge and King repre- 
sented as making to them ? " Depart from me into ever- 
lasting fire, ye workers of iniquity." 1 He casts them into 
everlasting fire, although they cease not to direct their en- 
treaties to Him. Do you see, then (O Manes), what manner 
of event that advent of the perfect King is destined to be ? 
Do you not perceive that it will not be such a perfection 
(consummation) as you allege? But if the great day of 
judgment is to be looked for after that King, surely this 
man is greatly inferior to Him. But if he is inferior, he 
cannot be perfect. And if he is not to be perfect, it is not 
of him that the apostle speaks. But if it is not of him that 
the apostle speaks, while he still makes the mendacious state- 
ment that it is of himself that the said word (of the apostle) 
was spoken, then surely he is to be judged a false prophet. 
Much more, too, might be said to the same effect. But if we 
were to think of going over in detail all that might thus be 
adduced, time would fail us for the accomplishment of so 
large a task. Hence I have deemed it abundantly sufficient 
thus to have brought under your notice only a few things 
out of many, leaving the yet remaining portions of such a 
discussion to those who have the inclination to go through 
with them. 

39. On hearing these matters, those who were present gave 
great glory to God, and ascribed to Him such praise as it is 
meet for Him to receive. And on Archelaus himself they 
bestowed many tokens of honour. Then Marcellus rose up ; 
and casting off his cloak, 2 he threw his arms round Archelaus, 
and kissed him, and embraced him, and clung to him. Then, 
too, the children who had chanced to gather about the place 
began and set the example of pelting Manes and driving him 
off ; 3 and the rest of the crowd followed them, and moved 
excitedly about, with the intention of compelling Manes to 
take to flight. But when Archelaus observed this, he raised 

1 Matt. xxv. 46 ; Luke xiii. 27. 

2 The text gives the plural form stolas, perhaps for stolam. 
8 The text gives fmjere, apparently in the sense oijugare. 


his voice like a trumpet above the din, in his anxiety to re- 
strain the multitude, and addressed them thus : Stop, my 
beloved brethren, lest mayhap we be found to have the guilt 
of blood on us at the day of judgment ; for it is written of 
men like this, that " there must be also heresies among you, 
that they which are approved may be made manifest among 
you." 1 And when he had uttered these words, the crowds of 
people were quieted again. Now, because it was the pleasure 
of Marcellus that this disputation should have a place given 
it (excipi), and that it should also be described, I could not 
gainsay his wish, but trusted to the kind consideration of 
the readers, believing that they would pardon me if my dis- 
course should sound somewhat inartistic or boorish : for the 
great thing which we have had in view has been, that the 
means of knowing what took place on this occasion should 
not fail to be brought within the reach of all who desired to 
understand the subject. Thereafter, it must be added, when 
Manes had once taken to flight, he made his appearance no- 
where (there again). His attendant Turbo, however, was 
handed over by Marcellus to Archelaus ; and on Archelaus 
ordaining him as a deacon, he remained in the suite of Mar- 
cellus. But Manes in his flight came to a certain village 
which was at a considerable distance from the city, and bore 
the name of Diodorus. Now in that place there was also a 
presbyter whose name likewise was Diodorus, 2 a man of quiet 
and gentle disposition, and well reputed both for his faith 
and for the excellence of his general character. Now when, 
on a certain day, Manes had gathered a crowd of auditors 
around him, and was haranguing 3 them, and putting before 
the people who were present certain outlandish assertions 
altogether foreign to the tradition of the fathers, and in no 
way apprehending any opposition that might be made to him 
on the part of any of these, Diodorus perceived that he was 
producing some effect by his wickedness, and resolved then 

1 1 Cor. xi. 19. 

2 This Diodorus appears to be called Tryplio by Epiphaniua, on this 
Manichean heresy, n. 11. 

3 Reading concionaretur for contlnuarelur. 


to send to Archelaus a letter couched in the following 


terms : 

Diodorus sends greeting to Bishop Arehelaus. 1 
40. I wish you to know, most pious father, that in these 
days there has arrived in our parts a certain person named 
Manes, who gives out that he is to complete the doctrine of 
the New Testament. And in the statements which he has 
made there have been some things, indeed, which may har- 
monize with our faith ; but there have been also certain 
affirmations of his which seem very far removed from what 
has come down to us by the tradition of our fathers. For 
he has interpreted some doctrines in a strange fashion, 
imposing on them certain notions of his own, which have 
appeared to me to be altogether foreign and opposed to 
the faith. On the ground of these facts I have now been 
induced to write this letter to you, knowing the complete- 
ness and fulness of your intelligence in doctrine, and being 
assured that none of these things can escape your cogniz- 
ance. Accordingly, I have also indulged the confident 
hope that you cannot be kept back by any grudge (in- 
vidia) from explaining these matters to us. As to myself, 
indeed, it is not possible that I shall be drawn away into 
any novel doctrine ; nevertheless, in behalf of all the less 
instructed, I have been led to ask a word with your autho- 
rity. For, in truth, the man shows himself to be a person 
of extraordinary force of character, both in speech and in 
action ; and indeed his very aspect and attire also bear that 
out. But I shall here write down for your information some 
few points which I have been able to retain in my memory 
out of all the topics which have been expounded by him : for 
I know that even by these few you will have an idea of the 
rest. You well understand, no doubt, that those who seek to 
set up any new dogma have the habit of very readily pervert- 
ing into a conformity with their own notions any proofs they 
desire to take from the Scriptures. In anticipation, however, 
of this, the apostolic word marks out the case thus : " If any 

1 This epistle is also mentioned, and its argument noticed, by Epipha- 
nius, Heeres, 11. 


one preacli any other gospel unto you than that which you 
have received, let him be accursed." l And consequently, in 
addition to what has been once committed to us by the apostles, 
a disciple of Christ ought to receive nothing new as doctrine. 
But not to make what I have got to say too lengthy, I return 
to the subject directly in view. This man then maintained 
that the law of Moses, to speak shortly, does not proceed from 
the good God, but from the prince of evil ; and that it has no 
kinship with the new law of Christ, but is contrary and hostile 
to it, the one being the direct antagonist of the other. When 
I heard such a sentiment propounded, I repeated to the 
people that sentence of the Gospel in which our Lord Jesus 
Christ said of Himself: " I am not come to destroy the law, 
but to fulfil it." 2 The man, however, averred that He did 
not utter this saying at all ; for he held that when we find 
that He did abrogate (resolvisse) that same law, we are 
bound to give heed, above all other considerations, to the 
thing which He actually did. Then he began to cite a great 
variety of passages from the law, and also many from the 
Gospel and from the Apostle Paul, which have the appear- 
ance of contradicting each other. All this he gave forth at 
the same time with perfect confidence, and without any hesi- 
tation or fear; so that I verily believe he has that serpent as 
his helper, who is ever our adversary. Well, he declared 
that there (in the law) God said, " I make the rich man and 
the poor man ; " 3 while here (in the Gospel) Jesus called the 
poor blessed, 4 and added, that no man could be His disciple 
unless he gave up all that he had. 5 Again, he maintained 
that there Moses took silver and gold from the Egyptians 
when the people 6 fled out of Egypt; 7 whereas Jesus delivered 
the precept that we should lust after nothing belonging to our 
neighbour. Then he affirmed that Moses had provided in the 
law, that an eye should be given in penalty for an eye, and a 
tooth for a tooth ; 8 but that our Lord bade us offer the other 

1 Gal. i. 8. 2 Matt. v. 17. Prov. xxii. 2. 

4 Matt. v. 3. 5 Luke xiv. 33. 

6 Reading cum populus for the cum populo of the text. 

J Ex. xii. 35. 8 Ex. xxi. 24. 


cheek also to him who smote the one. 1 He told us, too, that 
there Moses commanded the man to be punished and stoned 
who did any work on the Sabbath, and who failed to continue 
in all things that were written in the law, 2 as in fact was 
done to that person who, yet being ignorant, had gathered a 
bundle of sticks on the Sabbath-day ; whereas Jesus cured 
a cripple on the Sabbath, and ordered him then also to take 
up his bed. 3 And further, He did not restrain His disciples 
from plucking the ears of corn and rubbing them with their 
hands on the Sabbath-day, 4 which yet was a thing which it 
was unlawful to do on the Sabbaths. And why should I 
mention other instances? For with many different assertions 
of a similar nature these dogmas of his were propounded with 
the utmost energy and the most fervid zeal. Thus, too, on 
the authority of an apostle, he endeavoured to establish the 
position that the law of Moses is the law of death, and that 
the law of Jesus, on the contrary, is the law of life. For 
he based that assertion on the passage which runs thus : " In 
which also may God make us (faciat Dens) able ministers 
of the New Testament ; not of the letter, bnt of the spirit : 
for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. But if the 
ministration of death, engraven in letters on the stones (in 
titterig formation in lapidibus), was made in glory, so that the 
children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of 
Moses for the glory of his countenance ; which glory was to 
be done away ; how shall not the ministration of the Spirit 
be rather glorious? For if the ministration of condemnation 
be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness 
exceed in glory. For even that which was made glorious had 
no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that ex- 
celleth. For if that which shall be done away is glorious, 
much more that which remaineth is glorious." 6 And this 
passage, as you are also well aware, occurs in the second 
Epistle to the Corinthians. Besides, he added to this 
another passage out of the first epistle, on which he based 
his affirmation that the disciples of the Old Testament were 

1 Luke vi. 29. 2 Num. xv. 32. Murk ii. 11. 

* Luke vi. 1. 2 Cor. iii. 6-11. 


earthly and natural ; and in accordance with this, that flesh 
and blood could not possess the kingdom of God. 1 He 
also maintained that Paul himself spake in his own proper 
person when he said: "If I build again the things which 
I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor." 2 Further, he 
averred that the same apostle made this statement most 
obviously on the subject of the resurrection of the flesh, 
when he also said that " he is not a Jew who is one out- 
wardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the 
flesh," 3 and that according to the letter the law has in it 
no advantage. 4 And again he adduced the statement, that 
" Abraham has glory, but not before God ; " 5 and that " by 
the law there comes only the knowledge of sin." 6 And 
many other things did he introduce, with the view of de- 
tracting from the honour of the law, on the ground that 
the law itself is sin ; by which statements the simpler people 
were somewhat influenced, as he continued to bring them 
forward ; and in accordance with all this, he also made use 
of the affirmation, that te the law and the prophets were until 
John." 7 He declared, however, that John preached the 
(true) kingdom of heaven ; for verily he held, that by the 
cutting off of his head it was signified that all who went 
before him, and who had precedence over him, were to be cut 
off, and that what was to come after him was alone to be 
maintained. With reference to all these things, therefore, O 
most pious Archelaus, send us back a short reply in writing : 
for I have heard that you have studied such matters in no 
ordinary degree ; and that (capacity which you possess) is 
God's gift, inasmuch as God bestows these gifts upon those 
who are worthy of them, and who are His friends, and who 
show themselves allied to Him in community of purpose and 
life. For it is our part to prepare ourselves, and to approach 
the gracious and liberal mind, 8 and forthwith we receive from 

1 1 Cor. xv. 46-50. 2 Gal. ii. 13. 3 Rom. ii. 28. 

4 Rom. iv. 1. 6 Eom. iv. 2. 6 ROID. iii. 20. 

7 Luke xvi. 16. 

8 Reading " prseparare et proximos fieri benignse ac diviti menti " for 
" prseparet proximus fieri benignae hac," etc., as it stands in the Codex 


it the most bountiful gifts. Accordingly, since the learning 
which I possess for the discussion of themes like these does 
not meet the requirements of my desire and purpose (for I 
confess myself to be an unlearned man), I have sent to you, 
as I have already said more than once, in the hope of obtain- 
ing from your hand the amplest solution to this question. 
May it be well with you, incomparable and honourable 
father ! 

41. On receiving this epistle, Archelaus was astonished 
at the man's boldness. But in the meantime, as the case 
called for the transmission of a speedy reply, he immediately 
sent off a letter with reference to the statements made by 
Diodorus. That epistle ran in the following terms : l 

Archelaus sends greeting to the presbyter Diodorus, his 
honourable son. 

The receipt of your letter has rejoiced me exceedingly, my 
dearly beloved friend. I have been given to understand, 
moreover, that this man, who made his way to me before 
these days, and sought to introduce a novel kind of know- 
ledge here, different from what is apostolic and ecclesias- 
tical, has also come to you. To that person, indeed, I 
gave no place : for presently, when we held a disputation 
together, he was confuted. And I could wish now to tran- 
scribe for your behoof all the arguments of which I made 
use on that occasion, so that by means of these you might 
get an idea of what that man's faith is. But as that could 
be done only with leisure at my disposal, I have deemed 
it requisite, in view of the immediate exigency, to write 
a short reply to you with reference to what you have written 
me on the subject of the statements advanced by him. I 
understand, then, that his chief 2 effort was directed to 

Casinensis. Routh suggests " prseparare proximos fieri benignse ac diviti 
menti et continue . . . consequemur " = to take care to draw near to 
the gracious and liberal uiiud, and then we shall forthwith receive 
steadily from it, etc. 

1 This epistle is edited not only from the Codex Casinensis, but also 
by Valesius from the Codex Bobiensis. The most important varieties 
of reading shall therefore be noted. 

2 Sumnium studium. But the Codex Bobiensis reads suum studium. 


prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law 
of Christ ; and this position he attempted to found on the 
authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not 
only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things 
which are written in it, by the same Scripture ; but we also 
proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New 
Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and 
that they form really one texture, just as a person may 
see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp 
together. 1 For the truth is simply this, that just as we trace 
the purple in a robe, so, if we may thus express it, we 
can discern the New Testament in the texture of the Old 
Testament ; for we see the glory of the Lord mirrored in 
the same. 2 We are not therefore to cast aside the mirror, 3 
seeing that it shows us the genuine image of the things 
themselves, faithfully and truly ; but, on the contrary, we 
ought to honour it all the more. Think you, indeed, that 
the boy who is brought by his psedagogue to the teachers of 
learning 4 when he is yet a very little fellow, ought to hold 
that psedagogue in no honour 6 after he has grown up to 
manhood, simply because he needs his services 6 no longer, 
but can make his course without any assistance from that 
attendant to the schools, and quickly find his way to the 
lecture-rooms? Or, to take another instance, would it be 
right for the child who has been nourished on milk at first, 
after he has grown to be capable of receiving stronger meats, 

1 Beading "ex subtegmine atque stamine," etc., -with the Codex 
Bobiensis, instead of " subtemine et, quse stamine," etc., as it is given 
in the Codex Casinensis. 

2 We read here, " gloriam enim Domini in eodem speculamur." The 
Codex Bobiensis is vitiated here, giving gloriam um Domini, which was 
changed by Valesius into gloriam Jesu, etc. 

3 Reading, with the Codex Bobiensis, "speculum, cum nobis ipsam 
irnaginem," etc., instead of " speculum nobis per ipsam imaginem," etc. 

4 Adopting " qui ad doctores a psedagogo," instead of " qui a 
doctore iis a psedagogo." 

5 " Dehonorare," or, as in the Codex Bobiensis, " dehonestare." 

G Reading " opera ejus uon indiget." But the Codex Casinensis gives 
" ore ejus," etc. 


then injuriously to spurn the breasts of his nurse, and con- 
ceive a horror of them ? Nay, rather he should honour and 
cherish them, and confess himself a debtor to their good ser- 
vices. We may also make use, if it please you, of another 
(kind of) illustration. A certain man on one occasion having 
noticed an infant exposed on the ground and already suffer- 
ing excessively, picked it up, and undertook to rear it in 
his own house until it should reach the age of youth, and 
sustained all the toils and anxieties which are wont to fall 
to the lot of those who have to bring up children. After a 
time, however, it happened that he who was the child's natu- 
ral father came seeking the boy, and found him with this 
person who had brought him up. 1 What ought this boy to 
do on learning that this is his real father? For I speak, of 
course, of a boy of the right type. Would he not see to it, 
that he who had brought him up should be recompensed 
with liberal gifts ; and would he not then follow his natural 
father, having his proper inheritance in view? 2 Even so, 
then, I think we must suppose that that distinguished ser- 
vant of God, Moses, in a manner something like this, 
found 3 a people afflicted by the Egyptians ; and he took 
this people to himself, and nurtured them in the desert 
like a father, and instructed them like a teacher, and ruled 
them as a magistrate. This people he also preserved against 
the coming of him whose people they were. And after 
a considerable period the father 4 did come, and did re- 
ceive his sheep. Now will not that guardian be honoured 
in all things by him to whom he delivered that flock ; and 
will he not be glorified by those who have been preserved 
by him? Who, then, can be so senseless, my dearly be- 
loved Diodorus, as to say that those are aliens to each other 

1 The Codex Bobiensis reads here, "accidit vero post tempus ut is 
qui . . . requireret," etc. The other codex has, "accedit vero post 
tempus is qui . . . requirere." 

2 Reading pro respectu with Codex Bobiensis. The other codex gives 

3 Reading invenisse. The Codex Casinensis gives venisse. 

4 Routh suggests pastor, the shepherd, for pater. 

2 A 


who have been allied with each other, who have prophesied in 
turn for each other, and who have shown signs and wonders 
which are equal and similar, the one to the other, and of like 
nature with each other; 1 or rather, to speak in truth, which 
belong wholly to the same stock the one with the other? 
For, indeed, Moses first said to the people : tl A Prophet 
will the Lord our God raise up unto you, like unto me." 2 
And Jesus afterwards said : " For Moses spake of me." 5 
You see 4 how these twain give the right hand to each other, 
although 5 the one was the prophet and the other was the 
beloved Son, 6 and although in the one we are to recognise 
the faithful servant, but in the other the Lord Himself. 
Now, on the other hand, I might refer to the fact, that one 
who of old was minded to make his way to the schools 
without the pedagogue was not taken in by the master. 
For the master said : "I will not receive him unless he accepts 
the psedagogue." And who the person is, who is spoken of 
under that figure, I shall briefly explain. There was a cer- 
tain rich man, 7 who lived after the manner of the Gentiles, 
and passed his time in great luxury every day; and there 
was also another man, a poor man, who was his neighbour, 
and who was unable to procure even his daily bread. It 
happened that both these men departed this life, that they 
both descended into the grave (infernurn), and that the poor 
man was conveyed into the place of rest, and so forth, as is 
known to you. But, furthermore, that rich man had also 
five brothers, living as he too had lived, and disturbed by no 
doubt as to lessons which they had learned at home from 
such a master. The rich man then entreated that these 
should be instructed in the superior doctrine together and at 
once. 8 But Abraham, knowing that they still stood in need 

1 Heading cognata, with Codex Bobiensis, instead of cognita. 

2 Deut. xviii. 18. 3 John v. 46. 

* We adopt the reading vides, instead of the faulty unde of the Codex 

5 Reading quamvis for quum. 6 See Heb. iii. 5, 6. 

7 Luke xvi. 19, etc. 

8 The reading of the Codex Casinensis is, "rogavit dives simul uno 


of the pedagogue, said to him : " They have Moses and the 
prophets." For if they received not these, so as to have 
their course directed by him (Moses) as by a psedagogne, 
they would not be capable of accepting the doctrine of the 
superior master. 

42. But I shall also offer, to the best of my ability, some 
expositions of the other words referred to ; that is to say, I 
shall show that Jesus neither said nor did aught that was 
contrary to Moses. And first, as to the word, " An eye for 
an eye, and a tooth for a tooth," 1 that is (the expression of) 
justice. And as to His injunction, that a man, when struck 
on the one cheek, should offer the other also, that is (the ex- 
pression of) goodness. Well, then, are justice and goodness 
opposed to each other ? Far from it ! There has only been 
an advance from simple justice to positive goodness. And 
again, we have the saying, " The workman is worthy of his 
hire." 2 But if a person seeks to practise any fraud therein, 
it is surely most just 3 that what he has got possession of by 
fraud should be required of him, most especially when the hire 
is large. Now this I say, that when the Egyptians afflicted the 
children of Israel by the taskmasters who were set over them 
in the process of making bricks, Moses required and exacted 
the whole at once, with penalties, within one moment of time. 
But is this, then, to be called iniquity? Far from it ! Surely 
it is the abstinence 4 of goodness, indeed, when one makes 
but a moderate use of what is really necessary, and gives up 
all that goes beyond that. Let us look, again, at the fact that 
in the Old Testament we find the word, "I make the rich man 

tempore ut edisceret majorem doctrinam." But the other codex gives, 
" uno tempore discere inajorem doctrinam ab Abraham" = entreated 
that he might learn the superior doctrine of Abraham. For edisceret 
we may read with Routh ediscerent. 

1 Matt. v. 32. 2 Matt. x. 10. 

3 The Codex Casinensis gives, " exige ab eo ilia quae fraudem inter- 
ceperat ; " the other Codex gives, " et exigi ab eo ilia quse fraude inter- 
ceperat." The correct reading probably would be, "exigi ab eo ilia 
quse per fraudem interceperat." 

4 We adopt the conjecture of Yalesius, viz. dbstinentia. The Codex 
Bobiensis gives absentia. 


and the poor man," * whereas Jesus calls the poor blessed. 2 
Well, in that saying Jesus did not refer to those who are 
poor simply in worldly substance, but to those who are poor 
in spirit, that is to say, who are not inflamed 3 with pride, 
but have the gentle and lowly dispositions of humility, 
not thinking of themselves more than they ought to think. 4 
This question, however, is one which our adversary has not 
propounded correctly. For here I perceive that Jesus also 
looks on willingly at the gifts of the rich men, when they 
are being put into the treasury. 5 All too little, at the same 
time, is it 6 if gifts are cast into 7 the treasury by the rich 
alone ; and so there are the two mites of the poor widow 
which are also received with gladness ; and in that offering 
verily something is exhibited that goes beyond what Moses 
prescribed on the subject of the receipt of moneys. For he 
received gifts from those who had ; but Jesus receives them 
even from those who have not. But this man says, further, 
that it is written, that " except a man shall forsake all that 
he hath, he cannot be my disciple." 8 Well, I observe again, 
that the centurion, a man exceedingly wealthy and well 
dowered with worldly influence, possessed a faith surpassing 
that of all Israel ; 9 so that, even if there was any one who 
had forsaken all, that man was surpassed in faith by this cen- 
turion. But some one may now reason with us thus : It is 
not a good thing, consequently, to give up riches. Well, I 
reply that it is a good thing for those who are capable of it ; 
but, at the same time, to employ 10 riches for the work of 

1 Prov. xxii. 2. 2 Matt. v. 3. 

3 Reading inflammantur. It may perhaps be inflantur= puffed up. 
* Rom. xii. 3. 5 Mark xii. 41. 

6 Reading et parum hoc est, with Codex Bobiensis, instead of the et 
pauperum hoc est of Codex Casinensis. We may also render it as = " but 
it is far from being the case that gifts are cast," etc. 

7 The Codex Bobieusis reads inferuntur; the other codex gives offerun- 
/>, offered. 

8 Luke xiv. 33. Matt. viii. 10. 

10 The text gives sed abuti, and the Codex Bobiensis has sed et abuti. 
But the reading ought probably to be sed et uti, or sed etiam uti. Routh, 
however, notices that abutor is found with the sense of utor. 


righteousness and mercy, is a thing as acceptable as though 
one were to give up the whole at once. Again, as to the 
assertion that the Sabbath has been abolished, we deny that 
He has abolished it plainly (plane) ; for He was Himself also 
Lord of the Sabbath. 1 And this (the law's relation to the 
Sabbath) was like the servant who has charge of the bride- 
groom's couch, and who prepares the same with all careful- 
ness, and does not suffer it to be disturbed or touched by any 
stranger, but keeps it intact against the time of the bride- 
groom's arrival ; so that when he is come, the bed may be 
used as it pleases himself, or as it is granted to those to 
use it whom he has bidden enter along with him. And 
the Lord Jesus Christ Himself gave His testimony to what 
we affirm, when He said with His heavenly voice, " Can ye 
make the children of the bride-chamber fast so long as the 
bridegroom is with them f" 2 And again, He did not actually 
reject circumcision ; but we should rather say that He 
received in Himself and in our stead the cause of circum- 
cision (in semetipsum causam circumcisionis excepit), reliev- 
ing us by what He Himself endured, and not permitting 
us to have to suffer any pain to no purpose. For what, 
indeed, can it profit a man to circumcise himself, if never- 
theless he cherishes the worst of thoughts against his neigh- 
bour? He desired, accordingly, rather to open up to us 
the ways of the fullest life by a brief path, 3 lest perchance, 
after we had traversed lengthened courses of our own, we 
should find our day prematurely closing upon us in night, 
and lest, while outwardly indeed we might appear splendid 
to men's view, we should inwardly be comparable only to 
ravening wolves, 4 or be likened to whited sepulchres. 5 For 
far above any person of that type of character is to be placed 
the man who, although clad only in squalid and threadbare 
attire, keeps no evil hidden in his heart against his neigh- 

1 Matt. xii. 8. 2 Mark ii. 19. 

3 The Codex Bobiensis gives, " vise compendiosum nobis tramitem 
demonstrare." We adopt the reading, "vi* spatia corapendioso nobis 
tramite demonstrare." 

4 Matt, vil 15. 6 Matt, xxiii. 7. 


hour. For it is only the circumcision of the heart that brings 
salvation ; and that merely carnal circumcision can be of no 
advantage to men, unless they happen also to be fortified with 
the spiritual circumcision. Listen also to what Scripture 
has to say on this subject : " Blessed are the pure in heart, 
for they shall see God." l What need, therefore, is there for 
me to labour (and suffer), seeing that 1 have been made 
acquainted with the compendious way of life (compendia 
mce\ and know that it shall be mine if only I can be pure 
in heart? And that is quite in accordance with the truth 
which we have learned now, to wit, that if one prevails in the 
keeping of the two commandments, he fulfils the whole law 
and the prophets. 2 Moreover Paul, the chief of the apostles, 
after all these sayings, gives us yet clearer instruction on the 
subject, when he says, " Or seek ye a proof of that Christ who 
speaketh in me ? " 3 What have I then to do with circum- 
cision, seeing that I maybe justified in uncircumcision ? For 
it is written : " Is any man circumcised ? let him not become 
uncircumcised. Or is any in uncircumcision ? let him not be 
circumcised. For neither of these is anything, but only the 
keeping of the commandments of God." 4 Consequently, as 
circumcision is incompetent to save any, it is not greatly to be 
required, especially when we see that if a man has been called 
in uncircumcision, and wishes then to be circumcised, he is 
made forthwith a transgressor 5 of the law. For if I am cir- 
cumcised, I also fulfil the commandments of the law with the 
view of being in a position to be saved ; but if I am uncir- 
cumcised, and remain in uncircumcision, much more in 
keeping the commandments shall I have life. For I have 
received the circumcision of the heart, in the spirit, and not 
that of the letter in the mere ink (atr amentum), in which 
former there is praise, not of men, but of God. 6 Where- 
fore let no charge of this kind be brought against me. For 

O CJ C? 

1 Matt. v. 8. - Matt. vii. 12. 

3 2 Cor. xiii. 3. 4 1 Cor. vii. 18, 19. 

5 Reading " prsevaricator " instead of " prsedicator." The sense would 
seem strictly to require, a deltor to the law. 

6 Rom. ii. 29. 


just as the man of wealth, who possesses great treasures of 
gold and silver, so that he gets everything which is necessary 
for the uses of his house made of these precious metals, has 
no need to display any vessel of earthenware in anything 
belonging to his family, and yet it does not follow from 
this circumstance that the productions of the potter, or the 
art of making vessels of pottery, 1 are to be held in abhor- 
rence by him ; so also I, who have been made rich by the 
grace of God, and who have obtained the circumcision of the 
heart, cannot by any means 2 stand in need of that most 
profitless (fleshly) circumcision, and yet, for all that, it does 
not .follow that I should call it evil. Far be it from me 
to do so ! If, however, any one desires to receive still 
more exact instruction on these matters, he will find them 
discussed with the greatest fulness in the apostle's first 
epistle. 3 

43. I shall speak now with the utmost brevity of the 
veil of Moses and the ministration of death. For I do not 
think that these things at least can introduce very much to 
the disparagement of the law. The text in question, 4 then, 
proceeds thus : " But if the ministration of death, engraven 5 
in letters on the stones, was made in glory, so that the children 
of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for 
the glory of his countenance ; which glory was to be done 
away; " 6 and so on. Well, this passage at any rate acknow- 
ledges the existence of a glory on the countenance of Moses, 
and that surely is a fact favourable to our position. And even 

1 The Codex Bobiensis gives, " figuli opus aufers aut fictilium." The 
Codex Casinensis has, "figuli opus et ars aut fictilium." "We adopt 
" figuli opus aut ars fictilium." 

- Adopting " nequaquam " for " nee quemquam." 

3 By this he means the Epistle to the Romans, to which the first place 
among the epistles of Paul was assigned from the most ancient times. 
In Epiphanius, under heresy 42, it is alleged as an offence against Mar- 
cion, that he put the Epistle to the Romans in the fourth place among 
Paul's epistles. See a note in Migne. 

4 Reading " propositus " for " propheticus." 

6 The Codex Casinensis has formatum ; the other codex gi\esjirmatum. 
2 Cor. iii. 7. 


although it is to be done away, and although there is a veil in 
the reading of the same, that does not annoy me or disturb 
me, provided there be glory in it still. Neither is it the case, 
that whatever is to be done away is reduced thereby under 
all manner of circumstances to a condition of dishonour. 1 
For when the Scripture speaks of glory, it shows us also that 
it had cognizance 2 of differences in glory. Thus it says: 
" There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the 
moon, and another glory of the stars : for one star differeth 
from another star in glory." 3 Although, then, the sun has a 
greater glory than the moon, it does not follow that the moon 
is thereby reduced to a condition of dishonour. And even 
thus, too, although my Lord Jesus Christ excelleth Moses in 
glory, as the lord excelleth the servant, it does not follow 
from this that the glory of Moses is to be scorned. For in 
this way, too, we are able to satisfy our hearers, as the nature 
of the word itself carries the conviction 4 (sicut et verbi 
ipsius natura persuadef) with it, in that we affirm what we 
allege on the authority of the Scriptures themselves, or 
verily make the proof of our statements all the clearer 
also by illustrations taken from them. Thus, although a 
person kindles a lamp in the night-time, after the sun has 
once risen he has no further need of the paltry light of 
his lamp, on account of that effulgence of the sun which 
sends forth its rays all the world over; and yet, for all 
that, the man does not throw his lamp contemptuously away, 
as if it were something absolutely antagonistic to the sun ; 
but rather, when he has once found out its use, he will keep 
it with all the greater carefulness. Precisely in this way, 
then, the law of Moses served as a sort of guardian to 
the people, like the lamp, until the true Sun, who is our 

1 The text gives, " neque vero omnigene in ignobilitatem redigitur," 
etc. The Codex Bobiensis has, " neque vero omni genere in nobilitate." 

2 Reading "scisse se differentias glorise," etc. Codex Bobiensis gives 
scis esse, etc. = you know that there are differences. 

3 1 Cor. xv. 21. 

4 Reading " natura persuadet." But the Codex Bobiensis gives demon- 
strut, demonstrates. 


Saviour, should arise, even as the apostle also says to us: 
" And Christ shall give thee light." 1 We must look, however, 
to what is said further on : " Their minds were blinded : for 
until this day remaineth the same veil in the reading of the 
Old Testament ; it is untaken away, because it is done away 
in Christ (non revelatur quia in C/iristo destruitur). For 
even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their 
heart. Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil 
shall be taken away. Now the Lord is that Spirit." 2 What, 
then, is meant by this? Is Moses present with us even unto 
this day? Is it the case that he has never slept, that he has 
never gone to his rest, that he has never departed this life ? 
How is it that this phrase "unto this day" is used here ? Well, 
only mark the veil, which is placed, where he says it is placed, 
on their hearts in their reading. This, therefore, is the word of 
censure upon the children of Israel, because they read Moses 
and yet do not understand him, and refuse to turn to the Lord; 
for it is He that was prophesied of by Moses as about to come. 
This, then, is the veil which was placed upon the face of 
Moses, 3 and this also is his testament; 4 for he says in the law : 5 
" A prince shall not be wanting from Judah, nor a leader 
from his thighs, 6 until He come whose he is ; 7 and He will 
be the expectation of the nations : who shall bind 8 His foal 

1 Eph. v. 14. 2 2 Cor. iii. 14-17. 

3 Ex. xxxiv. 33 ; 2 Cor. iii. 13. 

4 The text is, " hoc est velamen, quod erat positum super faciem 
Moysi, quod est testamentum ejus," etc. 

5 Gen. xlix. 10-12. 

6 The reading iii the text is, "non deficiet princeps ex Juda, neque 
dux de femoribus ejus usquequo veniat," etc. Codex Bobiensis coin- 
cides, only giving " de femore ejus." On the whole quotation, which is 
given in forms so diverse among the old versions and fathers, see Ter- 
tullian, De Trin. ch. 9, and Cyprian, Adv. Judseos, i. 21. 

7 The text gives, " veniat, cujus est," etc. Prudentius Maranus on 
Justin's Apology, i. 32, thinks this was originally an error of transcrip- 
tion for cui jus est, which reading would correspond very much with the 
l> dKOHStTai of some of the most ancient authorities. See Cotelerius on 
the Con$&lut. Apostol. i. 1, and the note in Migne. 

8 Qui alligabit. But Corlex Casinensis has " quia alligabit," and Codex 
Bobiensis " qui alligavit" 


unto the vine, and His ass's colt unto the choice vine ; He 
shall wash His garments in wine, and His clothes in the 
blood of grapes ; His eyes shall be suffused l with wine, and 
His teeth white with milk ; " and so on. Moreover, he indi- 
cated who He was, and whence He was to come. For he 
said : " The Lord God will raise up unto you a Prophet from 
among your brethren, like unto me : unto Him hearken ye." 2 
Now it is plain that this cannot be understood to have been said 
of Jesus the son of Nun. 3 For there is nothing of this cir- 
cumcision* found in him. After him, too, there have still been 
kings from Judah ; and consequently this prophecy is far from 
being applicable to him. And this is the veil which is on 
Moses ; for it was not, as some among the unlearned perhaps 
fancy, any piece of linen cloth, or any skin that covered his 
face. But the apostle also takes care to make this plain to us, 
when he tells us that the veil is put on in the reading of the 
Old Testament, inasmuch as they who are called Israel from 
olden time still look for the coming of Christ, and perceive 
not that the princes have been wanting from Judah, and the 
leaders from his thighs ; as even at present we see them in 
subjection to kings and princes, and paying tribute to these, 
without having any power left to them either of judgment 
or of punishment, such as Judah certainly had, for after 
he had condemned Thamar, he was able also to justify her. 5 
But you will also see your life hang (in doubt) before your 
eyes. 6 

44. Now this word also has the veil. For up to the time 

1 Suffusi oculi. Codex Bobiensis gives " effusi oculi." See, on the 
whole, Grabe's Dissert. De variis vitiis LXX. interpret. 19, p. 36. 

2 Deut. xviii. 15. 

3 We adopt the reading " Jesu Nave." But the Codex Bobieusis gives 
"Jesu Mane." See a discussion on this name by Cotelerius on the 
Epistle of Barnabas, ch. 12. 

4 For circumcisionis Routh suggests circumstationis, which might per- 
haps be taken as = these surroundings do not suit him. 

5 Gen. xxxviii. 26. We read " justificare." But the Codex Casinensis 
gives " justificari" = he (or she) could be justified. 

6 The text is, " sed et videbitis vitam vestram pendentem ante oculos 
vestros." The reference is apparently to Deut. xxviii. 66. 


of Herod they did appear to retain a kingdom in some sort ; 
and it was by Augustus that the first enrolment took place 
among them, and that they began to pay tribute, and to be 
rated (censum dare). Now it was also from the time when 
our Lord Jesus Christ began to be prophesied of and looked 
for that there began to be princes from Judah and leaders 
of the people ; and these, again, failed just at the approach of 
His advent. If, then, the veil is taken away which is put on 
in that reading of theirs, they will understand the true virtue 
of the circumcision ; and they will also discover that the 
generation of Him whom we preach, and His cross, and all 
the things that have happened in the history of our Lord, are 
those very matters which had been predicted of that Pro- 
phet. And I could wish, indeed, to examine every such pas- 
sage of Scripture by itself, and to point out its import, as it 
is meet that it should be understood. 1 But as it is another 
subject that is now urgent, these passages shall be dis- 
cussed by us at some season of leisure. For at present, 
what I have already said may be sufficient for the pur- 
pose of showing, that it is not without reason that the veil is 
(said to be) put upon the heart of certain persons in the read- 
ing of the Old Testament. But those who turn to the Lord 
shall have the veil taken away from them. What precise 
force all these things, however, may possess, I leave to the 
apprehension of those who have sound intelligence. Let us 
come now again to that word of Moses, in which he says : 
" The Lord your God shall raise up a Prophet unto you, of 
your brethren, like unto me." In this saying I perceive a 
great prophecy delivered by the servant Moses, as by one 
cognizant 2 that He who is to come is indeed to be possessed 
of greater authority than himself, and nevertheless is to 
suffer like things with him, and to show like signs and won- 
ders. For there, Moses after his birth was placed by his 

1 Reading " sermonem, et ostendere ut intelligi dignum est." The 
Codex Bobiensis gives a mutilated version : " sermonem, ut intelligi, 
dignum est." 

2 Reading " Moysi scientis," which is the emendation of Valesius. But 
Codex Casiiiensis gives "scientibus," and Codex Bobieusis has " scientes." 


mother in an ark, and exposed beside the banks of the river j 1 
here, our Lord Jesus Christ, after His birth by Mary His 
mother, was sent off in flight into Egypt through the instru- 
mentality of an angel. 2 There, Moses led forth his people 
from the midst of the Egyptians, and saved them ; 3 and 
here, Jesus, leading forth His people from the midst of the 
Pharisees, transferred them to an eternal salvation. 4 There, 
Moses sought bread by prayer, and received it from heaven, 
in order that he might feed the people with it in the wilder- 
ness; 5 here, my Lord Jesus by His own power satisfied 6 
with five loaves five thousand men in the wilderness. 7 There, 
Moses when he was tried was set upon the mountain and 
fasted forty days; 8 and here, my Lord Jesus was led by the 
Spirit into the wilderness when He was tempted of the devil, 
and fasted in like manner forty days. 9 There, before the sight 
of Moses, all the first-born of the Egyptians perished on ac- 
count of the treachery of Pharaoh; 10 and here, at the time of the 
birth of Jesus, every male among the Jews suddenly perished 
by reason of the treachery of Herod. 11 There, Moses prayed 
that Pharaoh and his people might be spared the plagues; 12 
and here, our Lord Jesus prayed that the 'Pharisees might be 
pardoned, when He said, " Father, forgive them, for they 
know not what they do." 13 There, the countenance of Moses 
shone with the glory of the Lord, so that the children of 
Israel could not stedfastly look upon his face, on account 
of the glory of his countenance ; 14 and here, the Lord Jesus 
Christ shone like the sun, 15 and His disciples were not able 
to look upon His face by reason of the glory of His counte- 
nance and the intense splendour of the light. There, 
Moses smote down with the sword those who had set up 
the calf; 16 and here, the Lord Jesus said, "I came to send 

1 Ex. ii. 2 Matt. ii. 13. 3 Ex. xiv. 

4 Mark viii. 15. 5 Ex. xvi. 

6 Adopting " satiavit.' The Codex Bobiensis gives " saturavit." 

7 Matt. xiv. 8 Ex. xxxiv. 9 Matt. iv. 2. 
10 Ex. xii. " Matt. ii. 16. 12 Ex. viii. 

18 Luke xxiii. 34. H Ex. xxxiv. 35. 15 Matt. xvii. 2. 

16 Ex. xxxii. 


a sword upon the earth, and to set a man at variance with 
his neighbour," l and so on. There, Moses went without fear 
into the darkness of the clouds that cany water ; 2 and here, 
the Lord Jesus walked with all power upon the waters. 3 
There, Moses gave his commands to the sea ; 4 and here, the 
Lord Jesus, when He was on the sea, 5 rose and gave His 
commands to the winds and the sea. 6 There, Moses, when 
he was assailed, stretched forth his hands and fought against 
Amalek; 7 and here, the Lord Jesus, when we were assailed and 
were perishing by the violence of that erring spirit who works 
now in the just, 8 stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and 
gave us salvation. But there are indeed many other matters 
of this kind which I must pass by, my dearly beloved Dio- 
dorus, as I am in haste to send you this little book with all 
convenient speed ; and these omissions of mine you will be 
able yourself to supply very easily by your own intelligence. 
Write me, however, an account of all that this servant of the 
adversary's cause may do hereafter. May the Omnipotent 9 
God preserve you whole in soul and in spirit ! 

45. On receipt of this letter, Diodorus made himself 
master of its contents, and then entered the lists against 
Manes. This he did too with such spirit, that he was com- 
mended greatly by all for the careful and satisfactory demon- 
stration which he gave of the fact that there is a mutual rela- 
tionship between the two Testaments, and also between the 
two laws. Discovering also more arguments for himself, he 
was able to bring forward many points of great pertinency 
and power against the man, and in defence of the truth. He 
also reasoned in a conclusive manner against his opponent 
on verbal grounds. 10 For example, he argued with him in 

1 Matt. x. 34. 2 Ex. xxiv. 18. 3 Matt. xiv. 25. 4 Ex. xiv. 

5 Reading "in mari." But the Codex Bobieusis has in navi=on a ship. 

6 Matt. viii. 26. 7 Ex. xvii. 

s The text gives in juslis. But the Codex Bobiensis has in istis = in 
those men. The true reading may be in injustis = in the unrighteous. 
See Eph. ii. 2. 

9 But the Codex Casinensis gives " Deus omnium " = the God of all. 
10 Ex nominibus. The Codex Bobiensis offers the extraordinary read- 
ing, ex navibus. 


the following manner : Did you say that the testaments 
are two I "Well, then, say either that there are two old testa- 
ments, or that there are two new testaments. For you assert 
that there are two unbegottens (ingenila) belonging to the 
same time, or rather eternity; and if there are in this way 
two, there should be either two old testaments or two new 
testaments. If, however, you do not allow this, but affirm, on 
the contrary, that there is one old testament and that there 
is also another new testament, that will only prove again that 
there is but one author for both; and the very sequence 
will show that the old testament belongs to Him to whom 
also the new testament pertains. We may illustrate this by 
the case of a man who says to some other individual, 1 Lease 
me your old house. For by such a mode of address does he 
not pronounce the man to be also the owner of a new house ? 
Or, on the other hand, if he says to him, Show me (prcesta) 
your new house ; does he not by that very word designate 
him also as the possessor of an old house? Then, again, 
this also is to be considered, that since there are two beings, 
having an unbegotten nature, it is also necessary from that 
to suppose each of them to have (what must be called) an 
old testament, and thus there will appear to be two old 
testaments ; if indeed you affirm that both these beings are 
ancient, and both indeed without a beginning. 2 But I 
have not learned doctrine like that; neither do the Scrip- 
tures contain it. You, however, who allege that the law of 
Moses comes from the prince of evil, and not from the good 
God, tell me who those were who withstood Moses to the 
face I mean Jamnes and Mambres (Jamnem dico et Mam- 
brem) ? For every object that withstands, withstands not 

1 "We read, with the Codex Bobiensis, " dicat homini, Loca mihi," etc. 
The Codex Casinensis has the meaningless reading, " homini diviti," 

2 The text of this obscure passage runs thus : " Quia ex quo duo sunt, 
ingenitain habentes naturam, ex eo necesse est etiam habereunumquem- 
que ipsorum vetus Testamentum, et fient duo vetera Testameuta ; si 
tamen ambos antiques et sine initio esse dicis." The Codex Bobiensis 
gives a briefer but evidently corrupt reading : " ex quo duo sunt ingenita 
luibeutes naturam ipsorum Testamentum, et fient," etc. 


itself, but some other one, either better or worse ; as Paul 
also gives us to understand when he writes in the follow- 
ing terms in his second Epistle to Timothy : " As Jamnes 
and Mambres withstood Moses, so have these also resisted 
the truth: men of corrupt mind, reprobate concerning the 
faith. But they shall proceed no further : for their folly 
is manifest unto all men, as theirs also was." l Do you 
observe how he compares Jamnes and Mambres to men of 
corrupt mind, and reprobate concerning the faith ; while 
he likens Moses, on the other hand, to the truth ? But the 
holy John, the greatest of the evangelists, also tells us of 
the giving and diffusing of grace for grace 2 (gratiam gratia 
prcestare et differre) ; for he indicates, indeed, that we have 
received the law of Moses out of the fulness of Christ, and 
he means that for that one grace this other grace has been 
made perfect in us through Jesus Christ. It was also to 
show this to be the case that our Lord Jesus Christ Him- 
self spake in these terms : tl Do not think that I will accuse 
you to the Father : there is one that accuseth you, even 
Moses, in whom ye hope. For had ye believed Moses, ye 
would indeed have believed me : for he wrote of me. But if 
ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?"' 
And besides all these words, there are still many other pas- 
sages that might be adduced both from the Apostle Paul 
and from the Gospels, by which we are able to prove that 
the old law belongs to no other one than that Lord to whom 
also the new testament appertains, and which it would suit 
us very well to set forth, and to make use of in a satisfactory 
manner. 4 Now, however, the evening prevents us from 
doing so ; for the day is drawing to its close, and it is right 
that we should now bring our disputation to an end. But 
an opportunity will be given you to-morrow to put questions 

1 2 Tim. iii. 8, 9. 2 John i. 16. 

3 John v. 45-47. 

4 The Codex Bobiensis gives, " exponere et a Patre ut convemt." For 
these meaningless words Valesius proposed to read, " exponere et aperire 
ut convenit." The Codex Casinensis, however, offers the satisfactory 
reading, " exponere et aptare convenit." 


to us on any points you are pleased to take up. And after 
these words they went their way. 1 

46. Next morning, however, Archelaus suddenly made his 
appearance at this residence (castellum) in which Diodorus 
was staying, before any one was yet stirring abroad. Manes 
accordingly, all unconscious of the fact that Archelaus was 
now on the spot again, challenged Diodorus publicly to 
engage in a disputation with him ; his intention being to 
crush him with a verbal display, because he perceived that 
he was a man of a simple nature, and not very deeply learned 
in questions concerning the Scriptures. For he had now had 
a taste of the doctrine of Archelaus. When, therefore, the 
multitudes had again collected in the place usually set apart 
for the disputation, and when Manes had just begun to reason, 
all on a sudden Archelaus appeared among them, and em- 
braced Diodorus, and saluted him with an holy kiss. Then 
truly were Diodorus, and all those who were present, filled 
with wonder at the dispensation of divine providence which 
thus provided that Archelaus should arrive among them at 
the very time when the question was being raised ; for in 
reality, as must be confessed, Diodorus, with all his religious- 
ness, had been somewhat afraid of the conflict. But when 
Manes caught sight of Archelaus, he at once drew back from 
his insulting attitude; and with his pride cast down not a 
little, he made it quite plain that he would gladly flee from 
the contest. The multitude of hearers, however, looked 
upon the arrival of Archelaus as something like the advent 
of an apostle, because he had shown himself so thoroughly 
furnished, and so prompt and ready for a defence (of the 
truth) by speech. Accordingly, after demanding silence from 
the people by a wave of his right hand (for no inconsider- 
able tumult had arisen), Archelaus began an address in the 
following terms: Although some amongst us have gained 
the honour of wisdom and the meed of glory, yet this I beg 
of you, that you retain (in your minds) the testimony of 
those things which have been said before my arrival. 2 For 

1 Here ends the section edited by Yalesius. 

* The text runs: "taraetsi prudentiam, gloriara etiam, nostrorum 


I know and am certain, brethren, that I now take the place 
of Diodorus, not on account of any impossibilities attaching 
to him (pro ipsius impossililitate)* but because I came to 
know this person here at a previous time, when he made 
his way with his wicked designs into the parts where I re- 
side, by the favour of Marcellus, 2 that man of illustrious 
name, whom he endeavoured to turn aside from our doctrine 
and faith, with the object, to wit, of making him an effective 
supporter of this impious teaching. Nevertheless, in spite 
of all his plausible addresses, he failed to move him or turn 
him aside from the faith in any one particular. For this 
most devout Marcellus was only found to be like the rock on 
which the house was built with the most solid foundations ; 
and when the rain descended, and the floods and the winds 
burst in and beat upon that house, it stood firm : for it had 
been built on the most solid and immoveable foundations. 3 
And the attempt thus made by this person who is now before 
you, brought dishonour rather than glory upon himself. 
Moreover, it does not seem to me that he can be very excus- 
able if he proves to be ignorant of what is in the future ; for 
surely he ought to know beforehand those who are on his own 
side : certainly he should have this measure of knowledge, 
if it be true indeed that the Spirit of the Paraclete dwells 
in him. But inasmuch as he is really a person blinded with 
the darkness of ignorance, he ran in vain when he journeyed 
to Marcellus, and he did but show himself to be like the star- 
gazer, 4 who busies himself with describing things celestial, 
while all the time he is ignorant of what is passing in his own 

nonnulli assecuti sunt, tamen hoc vos deprecor ut eorum quse ante me 
dicta sunt, testimouium reservetis." Routh suggests prudentia Although 
by their prudence some have gained glory, etc. 

1 But Routh suggests that the impossibilitate is just an inexact transla- 
tion of the etiv vet-riot = impotentia, incapacity, which may have stood in 
the Greek text. 

2 Reading " Marcelli viri illustris gratia." The Codex Casinensis has, 
"viri in legis gratia." 

3 Matt. vii. 524. 

4 The text gives " similis facere astrologo," for which Routh proposes 
" uimilis factus est," etc. 

2 B 


home. But lest it should appear as if I were setting aside 
the question in hand by speaking in this strain, I shall now 
refrain from such discourse. And I shall also give this man 
the privilege of taking up any point which may suit him best 
as a commencement to any treatment of the subject and the 
question. And to you, as I have said already, I only address 
the request that ye be impartial judges, so as to give to him 
who speaks the truth the proper honour and the palm. 

47. Then Manes, after silence had been secured among 

' O 

all, thus began his address : Like others, Archelaus, you too 
smite me with the most injurious words, notwithstanding that 
my sentiments on the subject of God are correct, and that I 
hold also a proper conception of Christ ; and yet the family 
of the apostles is rather of the character that bears all things 
and endures all things, even although a man may assail 
them with revilings and curses. If it is your intention to per- 
secute me, I am prepared for it ; and if you wish to involve 
me in punishment, I shall not shrink from it ; yea, if you 
mean even to put me to death, I am not afraid : " For we 
ought to fear Him only who is able to destroy both soul and 
body in hell." 1 Archelaus said: Far be that from me! 
Not such is my intention. For what have you ever had to 
suffer at my hands, or at the hands of those who think with 
us, even when you were disparaging us and doing us injury, 
and when you were speaking in detraction of the traditions 
of our fathers, and when it was your aim to work the death of 
the souls of men. that were well established in the truth, and 
that were kept with the most conscientious carefulness ; for 
which, in truth, the whole wealth of the world would not 
serve as a sufficient compensation ? 2 Nevertheless, what 
ground have you for assuming this position ? What have you 
to show I Tell us this, what signs of salvation have you to 
bring before us ? For the bare bravado of words will not 
avail to satisfy the multitude here present, neither will it be 
enough to qualify them for recognising which of us holds the 

1 Matt. x. 28. 

2 The text is, " quibus utique repensari lion possunt," etc. Routh pro- 
poses repensare. 


knowledge of the truth the more correctly. Wherefore, as 
you have got the opportunity of speaking first, tell us first to 
what particular head of the subject you wish us to direct the 
disputation. Manes said: If you do not offer a second time 
an unfair resistance to the positions which shall be stated 
with all due propriety by us, I shall speak with you ; but if 
you mean to show yourself still in the character which on a 
former occasion I perceived you to take up, I shall address 
myself to Diodorus, and shall keep clear of your turbulence. 
Archelaus said : I have already expressed my opinion that 
we shall be simply abusing the occasion by the mere bandy- 
ing of empty words. If anyone on our side is found to 
offer an unfair resistance, leave that to the decision of the 
judges. But now, tell us what you have got to advance. 
Manes said: If you do not mean a second time merely to 
gainsay the positions which are stated with all due correct- 
ness by me, I shall begin. Archelaus said: If not this, and 
if not that, are ways of speaking which mark out an ignorant 
man. You are ignorant, therefore, of what is in the future. 
But as to this particular thing which you do declare to be 
still future, to gainsay or not to gainsay is a matter in my 
own power. How, then, will that argument about the two 
trees stand, in which you place your trust as in a buckler 
of the most approved strength ? For if I am of the contrary 
side, how do you require my obedience ? And if, on the 
other hand, there is in me the disposition of obedience, how 
are you so greatly alarmed lest I should gainsay you ? For 
you maintain that evil remains evil always, and that good 
remains good always, in utter ignorance of the force of your 
words. Manes said : Have I employed you as the advocate 
of my words, so that you may determine also the intelligence 
that may suit my knowledge ? And how will you be able to 
explain what belongs to another person, when you cannot 
make what pertains to yourself clear? But if Diodorus 
now admits himself to be vanquished, my reasonings will 
then be addressed to you. If, however, he still stands out, 
and is prepared to speak, I beg you to give over and cease 
from interfering with the substantiating of the truth. For 


you are a strange sheep ; nevertheless hereafter you will be 
introduced into the number of the same flock, as the voice of 
Jesus 1 also intimates, that Jesus, namely, who appeared in 
the form of man indeed, and yet was not a man. ArcJielaus 
said: Are you not, then, of opinion that He was born of the 
Virgin Mary? Manes said: God forbid that I should admit 
that our Lord Jesus Christ came down to us through the 
natural womb of a woman ! For He gives us His own testi- 
mony that He came down from the Father's bosom ; 2 and 
again He says, " He that receiveth me, receiveth Him that 
sent me;" 3 and, "I came not to do mine own will, but the 
will of Him that sent me ; " 4 and once more, " I am not 
sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel." J And 
there are also innumerable other passages of a similar import, 
which point Him out as one that came, and not as one that 
was born. But if you are greater than He, and if you know 
better than He what is true, how do we yet believe Him ? 
ArcJielaus said: Neither am I greater than He, for I am His 
servant ; nor can I be even the equal of my Lord, for I am 
His unprofitable servant ; I am a disciple of His words, and 
I believe those things which have been spoken by Him, and 
I affirm that they are unchangeable. Manes said : A cer- 
tain person somewhat like you once said to Him, " Mary 
Thy mother, and Thy brethren, stand without ;" 6 and He 
took not the word kindly, but rebuked the person who had 
uttered it, saying, " Who is my mother, and who are my 
brethren ? " And He showed that those who did His will 
were both His mothers and His brethren. If you, however, 
mean to say that Mary was actually His mother, you place 
yourself in a position of considerable peril. For, without 
any doubt, it would be proved on the same principles that 
He had brethren also by her. Now tell me whether these 
brethren were begotten by Joseph or by the same Holy 
Spirit. For if you say that they were begotten by the 

1 Reading " sicut vox Jesu." The Codex Casinensis gives, " sicut vos 
Jesu." Routh suggests servator. 

2 John i. 18, iii. 13. 8 Matt. x. 40. * John vi. 38. 
5 Matt. xv. 24. Matt, xii. 47. 


same Holy Spirit, it will follow that we have had many 
Christs. And if you say that these were not begotten by 
the same Holy Spirit, and yet aver that He had brethren, 
then without doubt we shall be under the necessity of under- 
standing that, in succession to the Spirit and after Gabriel, 
the most pure and spotless virgin l formed an actual mar- 
riage connection with Joseph. But if this is also a thing 
altogether absurd I mean the supposition that she had any 
manner of intercourse with Joseph tell me whether then He 
had brethren. Are you thus to fix the crime of adultery also 
on her, most sagacious Marcellus ? 2 But if none of these 
suppositions suits the position of the Virgin undefiled, how 
will you make it out that He had brothers ? And if you are 
unable to prove clearly to us that He had brethren, will it be 
any the easier for you to prove Mary to be His mother, in 
accordance with the saying of him who ventured to write, 3 
" Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren stand without ? " 
Yet, although that man was bold enough to address Him 
thus, no one can be mightier or greater than this same 
person Himself who shows us His mother or His brethren. 
Nay, He does not deign even to hear it said that Pie is 
David's son. 4 The Apostle Peter, however, the most emi- 
nent of all the disciples, was able to acknowledge Him on 
that occasion, when all were putting forth the several 
opinions which they entertained respecting Him : for he 
said, " Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God ;" 5 
and immediately He names him blessed, addressing him 
thus : " For my heavenly Father hath revealed it unto 
thee." Observe what a difference there is between these 

1 The text gives, " Virgo castissima et immaculata ecclesia," = the 
most pure virgin and spotless church. But the word " ecclesia " is pro- 
bably an erroneous addition by the hand of the scribe. Or, as Routh 
hints, there may be an allusion, in the word ecclesia, to the beginning 
of the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse. 

2 From this it may perhaps be gathered that Marcellus had come along 
with Archelaus now to the residence of Diodorus. 

3 Scribere ausus est. Compare the end of the chapter. 

4 Matt. xxii. 42. We read Davidls esse for David Jesse, 
6 Matt. xvi. 16. 


two words which were spoken by Jesus. For to him who 
had said, " Behold, Thy mother stands without," He replied, 
" Who is my mother, or who are my brethren ? " But to 
him who said, " Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living 
God," He makes the return of a beatitude and benediction. 
Consequently, if you will have it that He was born of Mary, 
then it follows that no less than Peter, He is Himself thus 
proved to have spoken falsely. But if, on the other hand, 
Peter states what is true, then without doubt that former 
person was in error. And if the former was in error, the 
matter is to be referred back to the writer. 1 We know, 
therefore, that there is one Christ, according to the Apostle 
Paul, whose words, as in consonance at least (consonantibus 
duntaxaf) with His advent, we believe. 

48. On hearing these statements, the multitudes assembled 
were greatly moved, as if they felt that these reasonings gave 
the correct account of the truth, and that Archelaus could 
have nothing to urge against them ; for this was indicated 
by the commotion which arose among them. But when the 
crowd of auditors became quiet again, Archelaus made answer 
in the following manner : No one, truly, shall ever be able 
to prove himself mightier than the voice of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, neither is there found any name equal to His, as it 
is written : " Wherefore God hath exalted Him, and given 
Him a name which is above every name." 2 Nor, again, in 
the matter of testimony can any one ever be equal to Him ; 
and accordingly I shall simply adduce the testimonies of His 
own voice in answer to you, first of all, indeed, with the 
view of solving those difficulties which have been enunciated 
by you, so that you may not say, as is your wont to do, that 
these are matters which are not in harmony with the Person 
Himself (sibi ipsi). Now, you maintain that the man who 
brought the word to Jesus about His mother and His 
brethren was rebuked by Him as if he was in error, as 
the writer was in error (secundum id quod scriptorem fefellit). 

1 The text gives, " Quod si prior fefellit, causa ad scriptorem reji- 
cienda est." 
8 Phil. ii. 9. 


Well, I affirm that neither was this person rebuked who 
brought Him the message about His mother and His brethren, 

O O 7 

nor was Peter only named blessed above him ; but each 
of these two parties received from Him the answer that 
was properly called forth by their several utterances, as 
the discourse will demonstrate in what follows. When one 
is a child, he thinks as a child, he speaks as a child ; but 
when he becomes a mature man, those things are to be done 
away which are proper for a child: 1 in other words, when 
one reaches forth unto those things which are before, he 
will forget those which are behind. 2 Hence, when our 
Lord Jesus Christ was engaged in teaching and healing 
the race of men, so that all pertaining to it might not 
utterly perish together, and when the minds of all those who 
were listening to Him were intently occupied with these 
interests, it made an interruption altogether inopportune 
when this messenger came in and put Him in mind of His 
mother and His brethren. What then ? Ought He, now, 8 
yourself being judge, 4 to have left those whom He was 
healing and instructing, and gone to speak with His mother 
and His brethren ? Would you not by such a supposition at 
once lower the character of the Person Himself? When, 
again, He chose certain men who were laden and burdened 
with sins for the honour of disoipleship, 5 to the number of 
twelve, whom He also named His apostles, He gave them 
this injunction, Leave father and mother, that you may be 
made worthy of me; 6 intending by this that thenceforward 
the memory of father or mother should no more impair the 
stedfastness of their heart. And on another occasion, when a 

1 1 Cor. xiii. 11. 2 p ni i. ft. 13 . 

3 Reading " debuitne etiam " for the bad version of the Codex Casi- 
nensis, " debuit et etiam." 

4 The text gives, " se ipso judicante," for which " te ipso," etc., may 
be substituted. 

5 In the Codex Casinensis the sentence stands in this evidently corrupt 
form : " cum enim peccatis bonus et gravatus ad discipulatum diligit." 
We adopt the emendation given in Migne : " cum enim peccatis onustos 
et gravatos ad discipulatum delegit." 

Matt. x. 37. 


different individual chose to say to Him, " I will go arid bury 
my father," He answered, " Let the dead bury their dead." l 
Behold, then, how my Lord Jesus Christ edifies His disciples 
unto all things necessary, and delivers His sacred words to 
every one, in due accordance with what is meet for him. 
And just in the same way, too, on this other occasion, when 
a certain person came in with the inconsiderate message 
about His mother, He did not embrace the occurrence as 
an opportunity for leaving His Father's commission un r 
attended to even for the sake of having His mother with 
Him. But in order to show you still more clearly that 
this is the real account of the matter, let me remind you that 
Peter, on a certain season, subsequent to the time of his re- 
ceiving that declaration of blessedness from Him, said to 
Jesus, " Be it far from Thee, Lord (propitius esto, Domine) : 
this shall not be unto Thee." 2 This he said after Jesus had 
announced to him that the Son of man must go up to Jeru- 
salem, and be killed, and rise again the third day. 3 And in 
answer then to Peter He said : " Get thee behind me, Satan ; 
for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those 
that be of men." 4 Now, since it is your opinion that the 
man who brought the message about His mother and His 
brethren was rebuked by Jesus, and that he who said a 
little before, " Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living 
God," obtained the word of blessing, mark you that Jesus 
(may be said to have) rather preferred that person to whom 
He condescended to give the more gracious and indulgent 
answer ; whereas Peter, even after that benediction, now got 
no appellation expressive of indulgence addressed to him, by 
reason of his having failed carefully to observe the nature of 
the announcement that was made to him. For the error of 
that messenger was at once corrected by the tenor of the 
reply ; but the dulness of this apostle's apprehension was con- 
demned with a severer rebuke. And from this you may per- 
ceive that the Lord Jesus, observing what was proper and 
opportune with regard to the interrogations thus addressed 

1 Luke ix. 59, 60. a Matt. xvi. 22. 

8 Matt. xvi. 21. * Matt. xvi. 23. 


to Him, gave to each the reply that was worthy of it, and 
suited to it. But supposing that, as you say, Peter was 
pronounced blessed on the ground of his having said what 
was true, and that that messenger was reproved on account 
of the error he committed, tell me then why it is, that 
when the devils confessed Him, and said, " We know Thee, 
who Thou art, the Holy God," * He rebuked them, and 
commanded them to be silent 1 ? 2 Why was it not the case, if 
He does indeed take pleasure in the testimonies borne to Him 
by those who confess Him, that He recompensed them also 
with benedictions, as He did to Peter when he gave utterance 
to the truth ? But if that would be an absurd supposition, 
it only remains that we must understand the words spoken by 
Him always in accordance with the place, the time, the per- 
sons, the subjects, and the due consideration of the circum- 
stances (pro accidentium salute). For only this method will 
save us from falling into the error of pronouncing rashly on 
His sayings, and thus making ourselves liable to merited 
chastisement : and this will also help me to make it more 
and more intelligible to you, that the man who brought the 
tidings of His mother was much rather the person honoured. 3 
However, in forgetfulness of the subject which was proposed 
to us for discussion, you have turned off to a different theme. 
Nevertheless listen to me for a brief space. For if you choose, 
indeed, to consider those words somewhat more carefully, we 
shall find that the Lord Jesus displayed great clemency in 
the case of the former of these two parties ; and this I shall 
prove to you by illustrations suited to your capacity. A 
certain king who had taken up arms, and gone forth to meet 
an enemy, was earnestly considering and planning how he 
might subdue those hostile and foreign forces. And when 

1 Luke iv. 34, reading sanctus Deus. 

2 Reading silere. The Codex Casinensis gives sinire, which may be 
meant for sinere = give over. 

3 We have adopted Migne's arrangement of these clauses. Routh, 
however, puts them thus : And that it may be made more intelligible to 
yon, etc., . . . (for in forgetfulness, etc., you have turned off, etc.), listen 
to me now for a brief space. 


his mind was occupied with many cares and anxieties, after 
he had forced his way among his adversaries, and when, fur- 
ther, as he began afterwards to make captives of them, the 
anxious thought was now also pressing upon him as to how 
he might secure the safety and interests of those who had 
toiled with him, and borne the burden of the war, 1 a cer- 
tain messenger broke inopportunely in upon him, and began 
to remind him of domestic matters. But he was astonished 
at the man's boldness, and at his unseasonable suggestions, 
and thought of delivering such a fellow over to death. And 
had that messenger not been one who was able to appeal to his 
tenderest affections in bringing the news that it was well with 
those at home, and that all went on prosperously and success- 
fully there, that punishment might have been his instant and 
well-merited doom. For what else should be a king's care, 
so long as the time of war endures, than to provide for the 
safety of the people of his province, and to look after mili- 
tary matters ? And even thus it also was that that messenger 
came inopportunely in upon my Lord Jesus Christ, and 
brought the report about His mother and His brethren un- 
seasonably, just when He was fighting against ills which had 
assailed the very citadel of the heart, and when He was healing 
those who for a long time had been under the power of diverse 
infirmities, and when He had now put forth His utmost effort 
to secure the salvation of all. And truly that man might 
have met with a sentence like that pronounced on Peter, or 
even one severer still. But the hearing of the name of His 
mother and His brethren drew forth His clemency. 

49. But in addition to all that has been said already, I wish 
to adduce still further proof, so that all may understand what 
impiety is contained in this assertion of yours. For if your 
allegation is true, that Pie was not born, then it will follow 
undoubtedly that He did not suffer ; for it is not possible for 
one to suffer who was not also born. But if He did not suffer, 
then the name of the cross is done away with. And if the 
cross was not endured, then Jesus did not rise from the dead. 

1 Reading "pondus belli toleraverant," instead of the "pondus bel- 
lico tolerarant " of the Codex Casinensis. 


And if Jesus rose not from the dead, then no other person will 
rise again. And if no one shall rise again, then there will be 
no judgment. For it is certain that, if I am not to rise again, 
I cannot be judged. But if there is to be no judgment, then 
the keeping of God's commandments will be to no purpose, 
and there will be no occasion for abstinence : nay, we may 
say, " Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die." l 
For all these consequences follow when you deny that He 
was born of Mary. But if you acknowledge that He was 
born of Mary, then His passion will necessarily follow, and 
His resurrection will be consequent on His passion, and the 
judgment on His resurrection : and thus the injunctions of 
Scripture will have their proper value (salvo) for us. This 
is not therefore an idle question, but there are the mightiest 
issues involved in this word. For just as all the law and the 
prophets are summed up in two words, so also all our hope is 
made to depend on the birth by the blessed Mary. Give me 
therefore an answer to these several questions which I shall 
address to you. How shall we get rid of these many words 
of the apostle, so important and so precise, which are ex- 
pressed in terms like the following: "But when the good 
pleasure of God was with us, He sent His Son, made of a 
woman ; " 2 and again, " Christ our passover is sacrificed for 
us ; " 3 and once more, " God hath both raised up the Lord, 
and will raise up us together with Him by His own power?" ' 
And there are many other passages of a similar import ; 
as, for example, this which follows : " How say some among 
you, 5 that there is no resurrection of the dead ? For if 

1 1 Cor. xv. 32. 

2 Gal. iv. 4. The reading is, " cum autem fuit Dei voluntas in nobis." 
The Vulgate, following the ordinary Greek text, gives, " at ubi venit 
plenitudo temporis." And so Irenaeus, Tertullian, Cyprian, etc. 

3 1 Cor. v. 7. 

4 1 Cor. vi. 14. The text here inserts the words cum illo, which are 
found neither in the Greek, nor in the Vulgate, nor in Irenaeus, Adv. 
Hxres. v. 6, 7, nor in Tertullian, Adv. Marc. v. 7, etc. According to 
Sabatier, however, they are found in Jerome, Ep. ad Amand. 

5 Reading in vobis. But the Codex Casinensis seems to give in 
amongst us. 


there be no resurrection of the dead, then is not Christ risen : 
and if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain. 
Yea, and we shall be found false witnesses of God ; who 
have testified against God that He raised up Christ : whom 
He raised not up. For if the dead rise not, then is not 
Christ risen: and if Christ be not raised, your 1 faith is 
vain ; ye are yet in your sins. Then they also which are 
fallen asleep in Christ are perished. If in this life only we 
have hope in Christ, we are more miserable than all men. 
But now is Christ risen from the dead, the beginning (initium) 
of them that sleep ; " 2 and so on. Who, then, I ask, can be 
found so rash and audacious as not to make his faith fit in 
with these sacred words, in which there is no qualification 
(distinctio) nor any dubiety? Who, I ask you, O foolish 
Galatian, has bewitched you, as those were bewitched "be- 
fore whose eyes Jesus Christ was evidently set forth, cruci- 
fied ? " From all this I think that these testimonies should 
suffice in proof of the judgment, and the resurrection, and 
the passion ; and the birth by Mary is also shown to be in- 
volved naturally and at once in these facts. And what 
matters it though you refuse to acquiesce in this, when the 
Scripture proclaims the fact most unmistakeably ? Never- 
theless I shall again put a question to you, and let it please 
you to give me an answer. When Jesus gave His testimony 
concerning John, and said, " Among them that are born of 
women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist : 
notwithstanding, he that is less (minor) in the kingdom of 
heaven is greater than he," 4 tell me what is meant by there 
being a greater than he in the kingdom of heaven. Was 
Jesus less in the kingdom of heaven than John? I say, God 
forbid ! Tell me, then, how this is to be explained, and you 
will certainly surpass yourself. Without doubt (the meaning 
is, that) Jesus was less than John among those that are born 

1 But the Codex Casinensis seems to make itjides nostra, our faith. 

2 1 Cor. xv. 12-20. 

8 Gal. iii. 1. The word in the text is rescriptus est. The Vulgate 
gives prsescriptus est. The Vetus Itala gives proscriptus est. 
* Matt. xi. 11. 


of woman ; but in the kingdom of heaven He is grcntei than 
he. 1 Wherefore tell me this too, O Manichseus : If you say 
that Christ was not born of Mary, but that He only appeared 
like a man, while yet He was not really a man, the appearance 
being effected and produced by the power that is in Him, 
tell me, I repeat, on whom then was it that the Spirit de- 
scended like a dove ? Who is this that was baptized by John? 
If He was perfect, if He was the Son, if He was the Power, 
the Spirit could not have entered into Him ; 2 just as a king- 
dom cannot enter within a kingdom. And whose, too, was 
that voice which was sent forth out of heaven, and which 
gave Him this testimony, " This is my beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased ? " 3 Come, tell me ; make no delay ; who 
is this that acquires (jparat) all these things, that does all 
these things ? Answer me : Will you thus audaciously 
adduce blasphemy for reason, and will you attempt to find a 
place for it (inferre coneris) 1 

50. Manes said: No one, certainly, who may be able to 
give a reply to what has just been alleged by you need fear 
incurring the guilt of blasphemy, but should rather be deemed 
thoroughly worthy of all commendation. For a true master 
of his art (artifez), when any matters are brought under his 
notice, ought to prepare his reply with due care, and make all 

1 It would seem that Archelaus read the passage in Matthew as mean- 
ing, notwithstanding, he that is less, is, in the kingdom of heaven, greater 
than he. Thus, he that is less is understood to be Jesus in His natural 

2 Routh appends a note here which may be given. It is to this effect : 
I am afraid that Archelaus has not expressed with sufficient correctness 
the mystery of the Divine Incarnation, in this passage as well as in what 
follows ; although elsewhere he has taught that the Lord Jesus was con- 
ceived by divine power, and in ch. xxxiv. has called the Virgin Mary 
Dei genetrix, Q-OTOX.O;. For at the time of the Saviour's baptism the 
Holy Spirit was not given in His first communication with the Word 
of God (which Word, indeed, had been united with the human nature 
from the time of the conception itself), but was only received by 
the Christ tivdpuTrlyas and OIKOI/O/^IKU;, and for the sake of men. See 
Cyril of Alexandria, De Redd Fide, xxxiv. vol. v. 2, p. 153, cditio 
A uberti. 

3 Matt. iii. 17. 


clearly to understand the points that are in question or under 
doubt ; and most especially ought he to do so to uninstructed 
persons. Now since the account of our doctrine does not 
satisfy you, be pleased, like a thorough master of your art, 
to solve this question also for me in a reasonable manner. 
For to rne it seems but pious to say that the Son of God 
stood in need of nothing whatsoever in the way of making 
good His advent upon earth; and that He in no sense required 
either the dove, or baptism, or mother, or brethren, or even 
mayhap a father, which father, however, according to your 
view, was Joseph ; but that He descended altogether by Him- 
self alone, and transformed Himself, according to His own 
good pleasure, into (the semblance of) a man, in accordance 
with that word of Paul which tells us that " He was 
found in fashion as a man." 1 Show me, therefore, what 
thing He could possibly need who was able to transform 
Himself into all manner of appearances. For when He 
chose to do so, He again transformed this human fashion 
(hominem) and mien into the likeness of the sun. But if you 
gainsay me once more, and decline to acknowledge that I 
state the faith correctly, listen to my definition of the posi- 
tion in which you stand. For if you say that He was only 
man (as born) of Mary (hominem eum tantummodo ex Maria), 
and that He received the Spirit at His baptism, it will follow 
that He will be made out to be Son by increase (or, effect, per 
profectum) and not by nature. If, however, I grant you to say 
that He is Son according to increase (effect), and that He 
was made as a man, your opinion is that He is really a man, 
that is to say, one who is flesh and blood. 2 But then it will 
necessarily follow that the Spirit also who appeared like a 
dove was nothing else than a natural dove. For the two 
expressions are the same, namely, as a man and like (or 
as) a dove ; and consequently whatever may be the view you 
take of the one passage which uses the phrase as a man, 

1 Phil. ii. 7. 

2 Routh puts this interrogatively = Is it then your position that He 
really is a man, that is to say, one who is flesh and blood ? Well, but 
if so, then it will follow, etc. 


you ought to hold that same view 1 also of this other pas- 
sage in which the expression like a dove is used. It is a 
clear matter of necessity to take these things in the same 
way, for only thus can we find out the real sense of what 
is written concerning Him in the Scriptures. Archelans 
said: As you cannot do so much for yourself, like a thorough 
master of your art, so neither should I care to put this question 
right and with all patience to make it clear, and to give the 
evident solution of the difficulty, 2 were it not for the sake of 
those who are present with us, and who listen to us. For this 
reason, therefore, I shall also explain the answer that ought 
to be given to this question as it may be done most appro- 
priately. It does not seem to you, then, to be a pious thing to 
say that Jesus had a mother in Mary ; and you hold a similar 
view on certain other positions which you have now been 
discussing in terms which I, for my part, altogether shrink 
from repeating. Now, sometimes a master of any art 
happens to be compelled by the ignorance of an opponent 
both to say and to do things which time would (make him) 
decline ; 3 and accordingly, because the necessity is laid upon 
me, by consideration for the multitude present, I may give a 
brief answer to those statements which have been made so 
erroneously by you. Let us suppose, now, your allegation to 
be, that if we understand Jesus to be a man made of Mary 
after the course of nature, and regard him consequently as 
having flesh and blood, it will be necessary also to hold that 
the Holy Spirit was a real dove, and not a spirit. Well, 
then, how can a real dove enter into a real man, and abide 
in him? For flesh cannot enter into flesh. Nay rather, 
it is only when we acknowledge Jesus to be a true man, and 
also hold him who is there said to be like a dove to be the 

1 Reading " sicut homo, hac opinione," for the " sicut homo ac 
opinions " of the Codex Casinensis. 

2 The Codex Casinensis reads, " hanc qusestionem diffigenter aptare 
tarn manifestarem atque manifeste dissolverem." We follow the emen- 
dation, " hanc qusestionem diligenter aptatam manifestarem," etc. 

3 The text gives tempus recusat. Routh proposes tempus requirit = 
which the occasion requires. 


Holy Spirit, that we shall give the correct account according 
to reason on both sides. For, according to right reason, (it 
may be said that) the Spirit dwells in a man, and descends 
upon him, and abides in him ; and these, indeed, are things 
which have happened already in all due competence, and 
the occurrence of which is always possible still, as even 
you yourself (admit, inasmuch as you) did aforetime pro- 
fess to be the Paraclete of God, you flint, 1 as I may call 
you, and no man, so often forgetful of the very things 
which you assert. For you declared that the Spirit whom 
Jesus promised to send has come upon you ; and whence can 
He come but by descending from heaven ? And if the Spirit 
descends thus on the man worthy of Him, then verily must 
we fancy that real doves descended upon you ? Then truly 
should we rather discover in you the thieving dove-mer- 
chant (columbarium furerri), who lays snares and lines for the 
birds. For surely you well deserve to be made a jest of with 
words of ridicule. However, I spare you, lest perchance I 
appear to offend the auditors by such expressions, and also 
most especially because it is beside my purpose to throw 
out against you all that you deserve to hear said about you. 
But let me return to the proper subject. For I am mindful 
of that transformation of thine, 2 in virtue of which you say 
that God has transformed Himself into (the fashion of) a 
man or (into that of) the sun, by which position you think 
to prove that our Jesus was made man only in fashion 
and in appearance; which assertion may God save any of 
the faithful from making. Now, for the rest, that opinion 
of yours would reduce the whole matter to a dream, so far 
as we are concerned, and to mere figures ; and not that 
only, 3 but the very name of an advent would be done away : 

1 This is a purely conjectural reading, " ut dicam silex," etc. The 
Codex Casinensis gives, " ut dicam dilere non homo." But Routh, in 
reference to ch. xv., throws out the idea that we should read delire = 
thou dotard, or, lunatic. 

3 The text gives *#. Routh suggests tux. 

3 The text is, " non solum autem, sed adventus nomen delebitur." It 
may perhaps be = and not the foundation, but the name, of an advent 
would be done away 


for He might have done what He desired to do, though 
still seated in heaven, if He is, as you say, a spirit, and 
not a true man. But it is not thus that il He humbled 
Himself, and took the form of a servant;" 1 and I say 
this of Him who was made man of Mary. For what? 
Might not we, too, have set forth things like those with 
which you have been dealing, and that, too, all the more easily 
and the more broadly? But far be it from us to swerve one 
jot or one tittle from the truth. For He who was born of 
Mary is the Son, who chose of His own accord to sustain 
tliis 2 mighty conflict, namely, Jesus. This is the Christ 
of God, who descended upon him who is of Mary. If, how- 
ever, you refuse to believe even the voice that was heard from 
heaven, all that you can bring forward in place of the same 
is but some rashness of your own ; and though you were to 
declare yourself on that, no one would believe you. For 
forthwith Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to 
be tempted by the devil ; and as the devil had no correct know- 
ledge of Him, he said to Him, " If thou be the Son of God." 3 
Besides, he did not understand the reason of this bearing of 
the Son of God (by Mary), who preached the kingdom of 
heaven, whose was also (or perhaps, = which was also, quod 
erat tabernaculum, etc.) indeed a great tabernacle, and one that 
could not have been prepared by any other : 4 whence, too, 
He who was nailed to the cross, on rising again from the 
dead, was taken up thither where Christ the Son of God 
reigned; so that when He begins to conduct His judg- 
ment, those who have been ignorant of Him shall look on 
Him whom they pierced. 5 But in order to secure your 

1 Phil. ii. 7. 

2 The text gives " quo magnum," etc., for which we adopt " quod 
magnum," etc. 

3 Matt. iv. 3. 

4 The Codex Casinensis gives, " Ignorabat autem propter qui genuisset 
Filium Dei prsedicabat regnum coalorum, qui erat," etc. We follow gene- 
rally the emendations adopted in Migne : " Ignorabat autem propter quid 
genuisset Filium Dei, qui prsedicabat regnum ccelorum, quod erat habita- 
culum magnum," etc. Routh would read " genitus esset Filius Dei," etc. 

6 John xix. 37. 

2 C 


credence, I propose this question to you : Why was it, that 
although His disciples sojourned a whole year with Him, not 
one of them fell prostrate on his face before Him, as you 
were saying a little ago, save only in that one hour when His 
countenance shone like the sun ? Was it not by reason of 
that tabernacle which had been made (for Him) of Mary ? 
For just as no other had the capacity sufficient for sus- 
taining the burden of the Paraclete except only the dis- 
ciples and the blessed Paul, so also no other was able to 
bear the Spirit who descended from heaven, and through 
whom that voice of the Father gave its testimony in these 
terms, " This is my beloved Son," l save only He who was 
born of Mary, and who is above all the saints, namely, 
Jesus. But now give us your answer to those matters 
which I bring forward against you. If you hold that He is 
man only in mien and form, how could He have been 
laid hold of and dragged off to judgment by those who 
were born of man and woman to wit, the Pharisees seeing 
that a spiritual body cannot be grasped by bodies of grosser 
capacities ? But if you, who as yet have made no reply to 
the arguments brought before you, have now any kind of 
answer to offer to the word and proposition 1 have adduced, 
proceed, I pray you, and fetch me at least a handful or some 
fair modicum of your sunlight (pugillum plenum solis mild 
offer aut medium plenum). But that very sun, indeed, inas- 
much as it is possessed of a more subtle body, is capable of 
covering and enveloping you; while you, on the other hand, can 
do it no in jury, even although you were to trample it under foot. 
My Lord Jesus, however, if He was laid hold of, was laid 
hold of as a man by men. If He is not a man, neither was 
He laid hold of. If He was not laid hold of, neither did He 
suffer, nor was He baptized. If He was not baptized, neither 
is any of us baptized. But if there is no baptism, neither 
will there be any remission of sins, but every man will die 
in his own sins. Manes said : Is baptism, then, given on 
account of the remission of sins? Archelaus said: Cer- 
tainly. Manes said: Does it not follow, then, that Christ 
1 Matt. iii. 17. 


has sinned, seeing that He has been baptized? ArcJielaus 
said : God forbid ! Nay, rather, He was made sin for us, 
taking on Him our sins. 1 For this reason He was born of 
a woman, and for this reason also He approached the rite 
of baptism, in order that He might receive the purification 
of this part (partis), and that thus the body which He had 
taken to Himself might be capable of bearing the Spirit, who 
had descended in the form of a dove. 

51. When Archelaus had finished this speech, the crowds of 
people marvelled at the truth of his doctrine, and expressed 
their vehement commendations of the man with loud out- 
cries, so that they exerted themselves most energetically, and 
would have kept him from his return. 2 Thereafter, how- 
ever, they withdrew. After some time, again, when they 
were gathered together, Archelaus persuaded them to accede 
to his desire, and listen quietly to the word. And among 
his auditors were not only those who were with Diodorus, 
but also all who were present from his province and from 
the neighbouring districts. When silence, then, was secured, 
Archelaus proceeded to speak to them of Manes in the follow- 
ing manner : You have heard, indeed, what is the character 
of the doctrine which we teach, and you have got some 
proof of our faith ; for I have expounded the Scriptures 
before you all, precisely in accordance with the views 
which I myself have been able to reach in studying them. 
But I entreat you now to listen to me in all silence, while 
I speak with the utmost possible brevity, with the view of 
giving you to understand who this person is who has made 
his appearance among us, and whence he comes, and what 
character he has, exactly as a certain man of the name of 
Sisinius, one 3 of his comrades, has indicated the facts to me ; 
which individual 4 I am also prepared, if it please you, to sum- 
mon in evidence of the statements I am about to make. And, 

1 2 Cor. v. 21. 

2 The text is, " et ultra ei non sinerent ad propria reineare." Kouth 

suggests ultro for ultra. 

a Reading ?<//.v, instead of "ros, comitibus," etc, 
4 Heading " quern etiam " instead of " qua; etiam." 


in truth, this person did not decline to affirm the very same 
facts which we now adduce, 1 even when Manes was present ; 
for the above-mentioned individual became a believer of our 
doctrine, as did also another person who was with me, named 
Turbo. Accordingly, all that these parties have conveyed in 
their testimony to me, and also all that we ourselves have dis- 
covered in the man, I shall not suffer to be kept back from 
your cognizance. Then, indeed, the multitudes became all 
the more excited, and crowded together to listen to Arche- 
laus ; for, in good sooth, the statements which were made by 
him offered them the greatest enjoyment. Accordingly, they 
earnestly urged him to tell them all that he pleased, and all 
that he had on his mind ; and they declared themselves ready 
to listen to him there and then, and engaged to stay on even 
to the evening, and until the lights should be lit. Stimulated 
therefore by their heartiness, Archelaus began his address 
with all confidence in the following terms : My brethren, 
you have heard, indeed, the primary causes (superiores 
quidem causas Domini, etc.) relating to my Lord Jesus, 
I mean those which are decided out of the law and the 
prophets; and of the subsidiary causes also relating to my 
Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour, you are not ignorant. And 
why should I say more? From the loving desire for the 
Saviour we have been called Christians, as the whole world 
itself attests, and as the apostles also plainly declare. Yea, 
further, that best master-builder of His, Paul himself, 2 
has laid our foundation, 3 that is, the foundation of the 
church, and has put us in trust of the law, ordaining 
ministers, and presbyters, 4 and bishops in the same, and 
describing in the places severally assigned to that purpose, 
in what manner and with what character the ministers of 

1 The Codex Casinensis gives, " ipse quidem me dicere recusavit," etc. 
We adopt the correction in Migne, " sed ne ipse quidem dicere recu- 
savit,'' etc. 

2 Eeading " sed et optimus architectus ejus, fundamentum," etc. 
The Codex Casinensis has the corrupt lection, "sed et optimos archi- 
tectos ei fundamentum," etc. 

3 Cf. 1 Cor. iii. 10. 4 Cf. Acts xiv. 23. 


God ought to conduct themselves, of what repute the pres- 
byters ought to be possessed, and how they should be con- 
stituted, and what manner of persons those also ought to be 
who desire the office of bishop. 1 And all these institutions, 
which were once settled well and rightly for us, preserve 
their proper standing and order with us to this day, and the 
regular administration of these rules abides amongst us still. 
But as to this fellow, Manes by name, who has at present 
burst boastfully forth upon us from the province of Persia, 
and between whom and me a disputation has now for the 
second time been stirred, I shall tell you about his lineage, 
and that, too, in all fulness ; and I shall also show you most 
lucidly the source from which his doctrine has descended. 
This man is neither the first nor the only originator of 
this type of doctrine. But a certain person belonging to 
Scythia, bearing the name Scythianus, 2 and living in the 
time of the apostles, was the founder and leader of this sect, 
just as many other apostates have constituted themselves 
founders and leaders, who from time to time, through the 
ambitious desire of arrogating positions of superior import- 
ance to themselves, have given out falsehoods for the truth, 
and have perverted the simpler class of people to their own 
lustful appetencies, on whose names and treacheries, how- 
ever, time does not permit us at present to descant. This 
Scythianus, then, was the person who introduced this self- 
contradictory dualism ; and for that, too, he was himself in- 
debted to Pythagoras, as also all the other followers of this 
dogma have been, who all uphold the notion of a dualism, 
and turn aside from the direct course of Scripture : but they 
shall not gain any further success therein. 

52. No one, however, has ever made such an unblushing 
advance in the promulgation of these tenets as this Scythianus. 
For he introduced the notion of a feud between the two un- 
be^ottens, and all those other fancies which are the conse- 


1 Cf. 1 Tim. iii. 1. 

? Various other forms are found for this name Scythianus. Thus we 
lind Scutianus and Excutiaiius, forms which may hare arisen through 
mere clerical errors. The Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. gives Stutianua. 


quences of a position of that kind. This Scythian us himself 
belonged to the stock of the Saracens, and took as his wife a 
certain captive from the Upper Thebaid, who persuaded him 
to dwell in Egypt rather than in the deserts. And would 
that he had never been received by that province, in which, 
as he dwelt in it for a period, he found the opportunity for 
learning the wisdom of the Egyptians! 1 for, to speak truth, 
he was a person of very decided talent, and also of very 
liberal means, as those who knew him have likewise testified 
in accounts transmitted to us. Moreover, he had a certain 
disciple named Terebinthus, 2 who wrote four books for him. 
To the first of these books he gave the title of the Mysteries, 
to the second that of the Heads (Capituloruin), to the third 
that of the Gospel, and to the last of all that of the Treasury 
(Thesaurus). He had these four books, and this one dis- 
ciple whose name was Terebinthus. As, then, these two 
persons had determined to reside alone by themselves for 
a considerable period, Scythianus thought of making an 
excursion into Judea, with the purpose of meeting with 
all those who had a reputation there as teachers ; but it 
came to pass that he suddenly departed this life soon after 

1 This seems the general idea meant to be conveyed. The text, 
which is evidently corrupt, runs thus : " in qua cum eum habitaret, 
cum ^Egyptiorum sapientiam didicisset." The Codex Eeg. Alex. Vat. 
reads, " in qua cum habitaret et ./Egyptiorum," etc. In Migne it is 
proposed to fill up the lacunae thus : "in qua cum diu habitaret, depra- 
vatus est, cum JSgyptiorum sapientiam didicisset." Eouth suggests, "in 
qua cum ea habitaret," etc. 

2 The Codex Casinensis reads Terbonem for Terebinthum. But in 
Cyril of Jerusalem, in his Catechesis 6, as well as in others, we regularly 
find Tepfttvdoi/, Terbinthum, or Terebinthum, given as the name of the 
disciple of Scythianus. The form Tereventus is also given ; and the 
Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. has Terybeneus. The statement made here as 
to these books being written by Terebinthus is not in accordance with 
statements made by Cyril and others, who seem to recognise Scythianus 
alone as the author. As to the name Terebinthus itself, C. Ritter, in 
his Die Stupa's, etc., p. 29, thinks that it is a Grecized form of a predi- 
cate of Buddha, viz. Tere-hintu, Lord of the Hindoos. Others take it 
simply to be a translation of the Hebrew r6tf, the terebinth. See a note 
on this subject in Neander's Church History, ii. p. 166 (Bohn). 


tli at, without having been able to accomplish anything. 
That disciple, moreover, who had sojourned with him had 
to flee, 1 and made his way toward Babylonia, a province which 
at present is held 2 by the Persians, and which is distant 
now a journey of about six days and nights from our parts. 
On arriving there, Terebinthus succeeded in giving cur- 
rency to a wonderful account of himself, declaring that he 
was replete with all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and that 
he was really named now, not Terebinthus, but another 
Buddas, 3 and that this designation had been put upon him. 
He asserted further that he was the son of a certain virgin, 
and that he had been brought up by an angel 4 on the moun- 
tains. A certain prophet, however, of the name of Parcus, 
and Labdacus the son of Mithras, 5 charged 6 him with false- 
hood, and day after day unceasingly they had keen and 
elevated contentions (animosa exaggeratio) on this subject. 
But why should I speak of that at length ? Although he 
was often reproved, he continued, nevertheless, to make de- 
clarations to them on matters which were antecedent to the 
world (ante seculuni), and on the sphere, and the two lumi- 
naries ; and also on the question whither and in what manner 
the souls depart, and in what mode they return again into the 
bodies ; and he made many other assertions of this nature, 
and others even worse than these, as, for instance, that war 
was raised with God among the elements (or, in the origins 
of things, in principiis), that the prophet himself might be 
believed. However, as he was hard pressed for assertions 

1 The Codex Reg. Alex. Yat. inserts here, " omnibus qusecunque ejus 
fuerant congregatis" = gathering together all that was his. 

2 Reading " habetur." But Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. gives habitatur, 
is inhabited. 

3 The Codex Casinensis gives, " sed aliud cujusdam homine." "We 
adopt " sed alium Buddam nomine," with which the narratives of Cyril, 
Epiphanius, and others agree. Routh proposes " alio Buddam nomine " 
= by another name, Buddas. 

4 The text gives "natum esse, simul et ab angelo." The Codex Reg. 
Alex. Vat. reads, " natum se esse simulabat et ab angelo." 

s On these Persian priests, see Epiphanius on this heresy, num. 3. 
6 Reading arguebant, with Routh, for argitebat. 


like these, he betook himself to a certain widow, along with 
his four books : for he had attached to himself no disciple in 
that same locality, with the single exception of an old woman 
who became an intimate of his (particeps ejus). Then, 1 on 
a subsequent occasion, at the earliest dawn one morning, he 
went up to the top (solarium quoddam excelsun\) of a cer- 
tain house, and there began to invoke certain names, which 
Turbo has told us only the seven elect have learned. He 
ascended to the housetop, then, with the purpose of engaging 
in some religious ceremony, or some art of his own ; and he 
went up alone, so as not to be detected by any one : 2 for he 
considered that, if he was convicted of playing false with, or 
holding of little account, the religious beliefs of the people, 
he would be liable to be punished by the real princes of the 
country. And as he was revolving these things then in 
his mind, God in His perfect justice decreed that he should 
be thrust beneath earth by a spirit (suit terras eum detrudi 
per spiritum) ; and forthwith he was cast down from the 
roof of the house ; and his body, being precipitated lifeless 
to the ground, was taken up in pity by the old woman 
mentioned above, and was buried in the wonted place of 

53. After this event all the effects which he had brought 
with him from Egypt remained in her possession. And she 
rejoiced greatly over his death, and that for two reasons : 
first, because she did not regard his arts with satisfaction ; 
and secondly, because she had obtained such an inheritance, 
for it was one of great value. 3 But as she was all alone, she 
bethought herself of having some one to attend her; and she 

1 Reading tune for nunc. 

2 The Codex Casinensis gives, " ut inde ab aliquo convinci possit." 
But the Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. reads, " ut ne ab aliquo," etc. We 
adopt, therefore, " ne ab aliquo," etc., taking the idea to be, as is 
suggested in Migne, that Manes went up alone, because he feared that, 
if observed by Parcus and Labdacus, the priests of Mithras, he might 
expose himself to punishment at the hands of the Persian rulers for an 
offence against their religion. 

3 But the Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. reads, " erat enim multuin pecunia 
arida " for she had a great greed for money. 


got for that purpose a boy of about seven years of age, named 
Corbicius, 1 to whom she at once gave his freedom, and whom 
she also instructed in letters. When this boy had reached 
his twelfth year the old woman died, and left to him all her 
possessions, and among other things those four books which 
Scythianus had written, each of them consisting of a moderate 
number of lines (versuum). When his mistress was once 
buried, Corbicius began to make his own use of all the pro- 
perty that had been left him. Abandoning the old locality, 
he took up his abode in the middle of the city, where the 
king of Persia had his residence ; and there altering his 
name, he called himself Manes instead of Corbicius, or, to 
speak more correctly, not Manes, but Mani : 2 for that is the 
kind of inflection employed in the Persian language. Now, 
when this boy had grown to be a man of well-nigh sixty 
years of age, 3 he had acquired great erudition in all the 
branches of learning taught in those parts, and I might 
almost say that in these he surpassed all others. Nevertheless 
he had been a still more diligent student of the doctrines 
contained in these four books ; and he had also gained three 
disciples, whose names were Thomas, Addas, and Hernias. 
Then, too, he took these books, and transcribed 4 them in such 
wise that he introduced into them much new matter which 
was simply his own, and which can be likened only to old 
wives' fables. Those three disciples, then, he thus had at- 
tached to him as conscious participants in his evil counsels ; 
and he gave, moreover, his own name to the books, and 
deleted the name of their former owner, as if he had com- 
posed them all by himself. Then it seemed good to him 
to send his disciples, with the doctrines which he had com- 
mitted to writing in the books, into the upper districts of that 

1 But Cyril, Epiphanius, and others, make the name Cubricus (Koi/- 

2 This may express with sufficient nearness the original, " nee Manem 
sed Manes." 

3 The Codex Casinensis gives sexaginta regularly. The Codex Reg. 
Alex. Vat. reads septitayinta, seventy. 

4 Tranafcrt eos. It may be also " translated them." 


province, and through various cities and villages, with the 
view of securing followers. Thomas accordingly determined 
to take possession of the regions of Egypt, and Addas those of 
Scythia, while Hermas alone chose to remain with the man 
himself. When these, then, had set out on their course, the 
king's son was seized with a certain sickness ; and as the 
king was very anxious to see him cured, he published a decree 
offering a large reward, and engaging to bestow it upon any 
one who should prove himself capable of restoring the prince. 1 
On the report of this, (all at haphazard,) like the men who are 
accustomed to play the game of cubes, which is another name 
for the dice, 2 Manes presented himself before the king, declar- 
ing that he would cure the boy. And when the king heard 
that, he received him courteously, and welcomed him heartily. 
But not utterly to weary my hearers with the recital of the 
many things which he did, let me simply say that the boy died, 
or rather was bereft of life, in his hands. Then the king 
ordered Manes to be thrust into prison, and to be loaded with 
chains of iron weighing half a hundredweight (ferri talento)t 
Moreover, those two disciples of his who had been sent to 
inculcate his doctrine among the different cities were also 
sought for with a view to punishment. But they took to 
flight, without ever ceasing, 8 however, to introduce into the 
various localities which they visited that teaching of theirs 
which is so alien to the faith, and which has been inspired 
only by Antichrist. 

54. But after these events they returned to their master, 
and reported what had befallen them ; and at the same time 
they got an account of the numerous ills which had over- 
taken him. When, therefore, they got access to him, as I 

1 The text gives, " edictum proposuit in vita," etc. For in vita it is 
proposed to read invitans ; and that is confirmed by the Codex Keg. 
Alex. Vat. 

2 We adopt the reading, " qui cubum, quod nomen est tali, ludere 
solent." The text gives, " qui cibum quod nomen est tale eludere solent." 
The Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. seems to read, " qui cubum quod nomen 
est alese ludere solent." 

3 The text gives, " quique fugientes licet nunquam cessarunt," etc. 
Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. has, " licet nunquam cessarent," etc. 


was saying, 1 they called his attention to all the sufferings 
they had had to endure in each several region ; and as for 
the rest, they urged it upon him that regard ought now to be 
had to the question of safety ; 2 for they had been in great 
terror lest any of the miseries which were inflicted on him 
should fall to their own lot. But he counselled them to 
fear nothing, and rose to harangue them. And then, while 

C' O / 

he lay in prison, he ordered them to procure copies of the 
books of the law of the Christians ; for these disciples 
who had been despatched by him through the different 
communities were held in execration by all men, and most 
of all by those with whom the name of Christians was 
an object of honour. Accordingly, on receiving a small 
supply of money, they took their departure for those dis- 
tricts in which the books of the Christians were published 
(conscribebantur) ; and pretending that they were Christian 
messengers, 3 they requested that the books might be shown 
them, with a view to their acquiring copies. And, not to 
make a lengthy narrative of this, they thus got possession of 
all the books of our Scriptures, and brought them back with 
them to their master, who was still in prison. On receiving 
these copies, that astute personage set himself to seek out all 
the statements in our books that seemed to favour his notion 
of a dualism ; which, however, was not really his notion, 
but rather that of Scythianus, who had promulgated it a 
long time before him. And just as he did in disputing with 
me, so then too, by rejecting some things and altering others 
in our Scriptures, he tried to make out that they advanced 
his own doctrines, only that the name of Christ was attached 
to them there. That name, therefore, he pretended on 
this account to assume to himself, in order that the people 
in the various communities, hearing the holy and divine 
name of Christ, might have no temptation to execrate and 

1 Reading " dicebam." But the Codex Casinensis gives " dicebant," 
and the Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. has " decebat" as became them. 

2 Reading " convert! ad salutem," for u conventi," etc., as it is given 
in the Codex Casinensis. 

3 Nuntios. But Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. gives " novitios," novices, 


harass 1 those disciples of his. Moreover, when they 2 came upon 
the word which is given us in our Scriptures touching the Para- 
clete, lie took it into his head that he himself might be that 
Paraclete ; for he. had not read with sufficient care to observe 
that the Paraclete had come already, namely, at the time 
when the apostles were still upon earth. Accordingly, when 
he had made up these impious inventions, he sent his disciples 
also to proclaim these fictions and errors with all boldness, and 
to make these false and novel words known in every quarter. 
But when the king of Persia learned this fact, he prepared 
to inflict condign punishment upon him. Manes, however, 
received information of the king's intention, having been 
warned of it in sleep, and made his escape out of prison, and 
succeeding in taking to flight, for he had bribed his keepers 
with a very large sum of money. Afterwards he took up his 
residence in the castle of Arabion ; and from that place he 
sent by the hand of Turbo the letter which he wrote to our 
Marcellus, in which letter he intimated his intention of visit- 
ing him. On his arrival there, a contest took place between 
him and me, resembling the disputation which you have 
witnessed and listened to here ; in which discussion we 
sought to show, as far as it was in our power, that he was 
a false prophet. I may add, that the keeper of the prison 
who had let him escape was punished, and that the king gave 
orders that the man should be sought for and apprehended 
wherever he might be found. And as these things have 
come under my own cognizance, it was needful that I should 
also make the fact known to you, that search is being made 
for this fellow even to the present day by the king of Persia. 
55. On hearing this, the multitude wished to seize Manes 
and hand him over to the power of those foreigners who were 
their neighbours, and who dwelt beyond the river Stranga, 3 
especially as also some time before this certain parties had 

1 The text gives " fatigarent." But Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. gives 
" fugarent" expel. 

2 The text gives " invenientes." The Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. more 
correctly has " inveniens" when he came upon. 

3 But Codex Keg. Alex. Vat. reads "Stracum fluviuin." 


come to seek him out ; who, however, had to take their leave 
again without finding any trace of him, for at that time lie was 
in flight. However, when Archelaus made this declaration, 
Manes at once took to flight, and succeeded in making his 
escape good before any one followed in pursuit of him. For 
the people were detained by the narrative which was being 
given by Archelaus, whom they heard with great pleasure ; x 
nevertheless some of them did follow in close pursuit after 
him. But he made again for the roads by which he had 
come, and crossed the river, and effected his return to the 
castle of Arabion. 2 There, however, he was afterwards ap- 
prehended and brought before the king, who, being inflamed 
with the strongest indignation against him, and fired with the 
desire of avenging two deaths upon him, namely, the death 
of his own son, and the death of the keeper of the prison, 
gave orders that he should be flayed and hung before the 
gate of the city, and that his skin should be dipped in cer- 
tain medicaments and inflated ; his flesh, too, he commanded 
to Jbe given as a prey to the birds. 3 When these things 
came under the knowedge of Archelaus at a later period, 
he added (an account of) them to the former discussion, 
so that all the facts might be made known to all, even 
as I, who have written the narrative of (inscripsi) these 
matters, have explained the circumstances in what precedes. 
And all the Christians, therefore, having assembled, resolved 
that the decision should be given against him, transmitting 
that as a sort of epilogue to his death which would be in 
proper consonance with the other circumstances of his life. 
Besides that, Archelaus added words to the following effect : 
My brethren, let none of you be incredulous in regard to 
the statements made by me : I refer to the assertion that 

1 The text gives, " evadere potuit dum nemo eum insequeretur. Sed 
populus, cum Archelai quern libenter audiebant relatione teneretur," etc. 
The Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. reads, "evadere potuit dum ne eum in- 
sequeretur is populus, et Archelai quern libenter audiebant relatione 
tenerentur." Routh suggests, " dum eum nemo insequeretur, sed populus 
Archelai," etc. 

2 The same Codex Vat. reads Adrabion here. 

3 The Codex Reg. Alex. Vat. ends with these words. 


Manes was not himself the first author of this impious dogma, 
but that it was only made public by him in certain regions 
of the earth. For assuredly that, man is not at once to be 
reckoned the author of anything who has simply been the 
bearer of it to some quarter or other, but only he has a right 
to that credit who has been the discoverer of it. For as the 
helmsman who receives the ship which another has built, 
may convey it to any countries he pleases, and yet he remains 
one who has had nothing to do with the construction of the 
vessel, so also is this man's position to be understood. For 
he did not impart its origin to this matter really from the 
beginning ; but he was only the means of transmitting to 
men what had been discovered by another, as we know on 
the evidence of trustworthy testimonies, on the ground of 
which it has been our purpose to prove to you that the inven- 
tion of this wickedness did not come from Manes, 1 but that it 
originated with another, and that other indeed a foreigner, 
who appeared a long time before him ; and further, that 
the dogma remained unpublished for a time, until at length 
the doctrines which had thus been lying in obscurity for a 
certain period were brought forward publicly by him as if 
they were his own, the title of the writer having been deleted, 
as I have shown above. Among the Persians there was also 
a certain promulgator of similar tenets, one Basilides, 2 of more 

1 Codex Casinensis reads, " non ex Manen originem mali hujus 
Manes esse." We adopt the conjecture, " non ex Mane originem mali 
hujus manasse." 

2 The following note on this Basilides may be given from Migne : 
"Although Eusebius (Hist. Eccles. iv. 7) tells us that the Basilides who 
taught heresy shortly after the times of the apostles was an Alexandrian, 
and opened schools of error in Egypt, the Basilides mentioned here by 
Archelaus may still be one and the same person with that Alexandrian, 
notwithstanding that it is said that he taught his heresy among the 
Persians. For it may very well be the case that Basilides left Alexan- 
dria, and made an attempt to infect the Persians also with his heretical 
dogmas. At the same time, there is no mention among ancient authori- 
ties, so far as I know, of a Persian Basilides. The Alexandrian Basi- 
lides also wrote twenty-four books on the Gospel, as the same Eusebius 
testifies ; and these do not appear to be different from those books of 
Tractates which Archelaus cites, and from the Excrjclics, from the twenty- 


ancient date, who lived no long time after the period of our 
apostles. This man was of a shrewd disposition himself, and 
as he observed that at that time all other subjects were pre- 
occupied, he determined to affirm that same dualism which 
was maintained also by Scythianus. And as, in fine, he had 
nothing to advance which was properly his own, he brought 
the sayings of others before his adversaries. 1 And all his 
books contain some matters at once difficult arid extremely 
harsh. The thirteenth book of his Tractates, however, is still 
extant, which begins in the following manner : " 111 writing 
the thirteenth book of our Tractates, the wholesome word fur- 
nished us with the necessary and fruitful word." 2 Then 
he illustrates how it (the antagonism between good and evil) 
is produced under the figures of a rich principle and a poor 
principle, of which the latter is by nature without root and 
without place, and only supervenes upon things. 3 This is 

third book of which certain passages are given by Clement of Alexandria 
in the fourth book of his Stromateis. It is not clear, however, whether 
that Gospel on which Basilides wrote was the Gospel of the Apostles, 
or another which he made up for himself, and of which mention is 
made in Origen's first Homily on Luke, in Jerome's prologue to his 
Commentary on Matthew, and in Ambrose's prologue to the Gospel of 
Luke." We may add that Gieseler (Studien und Kritiken, i. 1830, p. 
397) denies that the person meant here is Basilides the Gnostic, specially 
on account of the peculiar designation, Basilides quidam antiquior. But 
his objections are combated by Baur and Neauder. See the Church 
History of the latter, ii. p. 50 (Bohn). 

1 The text is, " aliis dictis proposuit adversariis." Perhaps we may 
read, "aliorum dicta," etc. 

2 The text is, " uecessarium sermonem uberemque salutaris sermo 
prsestavit." May it be = the word of salvation furnished the word 
which was requisite, etc. ? 

3 The text is, " per parvulam divitis et pauperis naturam sine radice 
et sine loco rebus supervenientem unde pullulaverit indicat." The 
reading seems defective. But the general intention of this very obscure 
and fragmentary sentence appears to be as given above. So Neander 
understands it as conveying a figurative description of the two principles 
of light and darkness, expressed in the Zoroastrian doctrine immediately 
cited, the rich being the good principle, and the poor the evil. He 
also supposes the phrase " without root and without place " to indi- 
cate the "absoluteness of the principle, that springs up all at once, 


the only topic (capnt) which the book contains. Does it not 
then contain a strange (alium) word ; l and, as certain parties 
have been thus minded, will ye not also all be offended with 
the book itself, which has such a beginning as this? But 
Basilides, returning to the subject after an introduction of 
some five hundred lines (versibus), more or less, proceeds 
thus : " Give up this vain and curious variation (varietate), 
and let us rather find out what inquiries the foreigners 
(larbari 2 ) have instituted on the subject of good and evil, 
and what opinions they have been led to adopt on all these 
subjects. For certain among them have maintained that 
there are for all things two beginnings (principles), to which 
they have referred good and evil, holding that these begin- 
nings (principles) are without beginning and ungenerate ; 
that is to say, that in the origins of things there were light 
and darkness, which existed of themselves, and which were 
not merely declared to exist. 8 While these subsisted by 
themselves, they led each its own proper mode of life, such 
as it was its will to lead, and such as was competent to it ; 
for in the case of all things, what is proper to any one is 
also in amity with the same, and nothing seems evil to itself. 
But after they came to know each other, and after the dark- 
ness began to contemplate the light, then, as if fired with a 
passion for something superior to itself, the darkness pressed 
on to have intercourse with the light." 

and mixes itself up with the development of existence." See Church 
History, ii. 51 (Bohn). Eouth confesses his inability to understand 
what can be meant by the term parculam, and suggests parabolam. 

1 Routh adopts the interrogative form here, so as to make the con- 
nection stand thus : But is this the only topic which the book contains ? 
Does it not also contain another discussion, etc. ? 

2 By the barbari here are evidently meant the Persians. 

3 The text is, " non quae esse dicebantur." Routh proposes, "non 
quse factse, or genitse, esse dicebantur," = which were not declared to 
have been made. 



(From Cyril of Jerusalem, Catecheses, vi. 27-29.) 

The fragment is introduced by Cyril in the following 
terms: He (Manes) fled from prison and came into Meso- 
potamia; but there he was met by that buckler of right- 
eousness, 1 Bishop Archelaus. And in order to bring him to 
the test in the presence of philosophical judges, this person 
convened an assembly of Grecian auditors, so as to preclude 
the possibility of its being alleged that the judges were 
partial, as might have been the case had they been Chris- 
tians. Then the matter proceeded as we shall now indicate: 

1. Archelaus said to Manes : Give us a .statement now of 
the doctrines you promulgate. Thereupon the man, whose 
mouth was like an open sepulchre, 2 began at once with a 
word of blasphemy against the Maker of all things, saying : 
The God of the Old Testament is the inventor of evil, who 
speaks thus of Himself : " I am a consuming fire." 3 But 
the sagacious Archelaus completely undid this blasphemy. 
For he said : If the God of the Old Testament, according to 
your allegation, calls Himself a fire, whose son is He who 
says, "I am come to send fire upon the earth ?' H If you 
find fault with one who says, " The Lord killeth and maketh 
alive," 5 why do you honour Peter, who raised Tabitha to life, 6 
but also put Sapphira to death? 7 And if, again, you find 
fault with the one because He has prepared a fire, 8 why do 
you not find fault with the other, who says, " Depart from 
me into everlasting fire?" 9 If you find fault with Him who 
says, " I, God, make peace, and create evil," 10 explain to us 
how Jesus says, "I came not to send peace, but a sword." 1 

1 Beading OTT^OU "bix.x.twvvng. Others read oVxa = Archelaus met him 
with the buckler of righteousness. 

2 Ps. v. 9. 8 Deut. iv. 24. 4 Luke xii. 49. 
5 1 Sam. ii. 6. * Acts ix. 40. 7 Acts v. 10. 

8 Deut. xxxii. 22. 9 Matt. xxv. 41. ao Isa. xlv. 7. 

11 Matt. x. 3i. Various of the MSS. add, Jid rr,v yw-> upon the -earth. 

2 D 


Since both persons speak in the same terms, one or other of 
these two things must follow : namely, either they are both 
good 1 because they use the same language; or, if Jesus 
passes without censure though He speaks in such terms, you 
must tell us why you reprehend Him who employs a similar 
mode of address in the Old Testament. 

2. Then Manes made the following reply to him : And 
what manner of God now is it that blinds one ? For it is 
Paul who uses these words : " In whom the God of this 
world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, 
lest the light of the gospel should shine in them." 2 But 
Archelaus broke in and refuted this very well, saying : Read, 
however, a word or two of what precedes that sentence, 
namely, " But if our gospel be hid, it is hid in them that are 
lost." You see that it is hid in them that are lost. " For it 
is not meet to give the holy things to dogs." 3 And further- 
more, is it only the God of the Old Testament that has 
blinded the minds of them who believe not ? Nay, has not 
Jesus Himself also said : " Therefore speak I to them in 
parables : that seeing, they may not see?" 4 Is it then because 
He hated them that He desired them not to see ? Or is it 
(not) on account of their unworthiness, since they closed their 
own eyes ? For wherever wickedness is a matter self-chosen, 
there too there is the absence of grace. " For unto him that 
hath shall be given, but from him that hath not shall be 
taken away even that which he seemeth to have." 6 

3. But even although 6 we should be under the necessity 
of accepting the exegesis advocated by some (for the subject 
is not altogether unworthy of notice), and of saying thus, that 
He hath actually blinded the minds (vorj^ara, thoughts) of 
them that believe not, we should still have to affirm that He 
hath blinded them for good, in order that they may recover 
their sight to behold things that are holy. For it is not said 

1 The text gives xX6/. Routh seems to prefer xxxot, evil. 

2 2 Cor. iv. 4. 8 Matt. vii. 6. 
4 Matt. xiii. 13. The text is, "tva. /SAfVomj f**l phexooi. 

fi Matt. xxv. 29. 

c For < Si oil x.a.1 a;, etc., various codices read J os t>tx.ui'u, etc. 


that He hath blinded their soul (^y^'y), but only that 
He hath blinded the minds of them that believe not. 
And that mode of expression means something like this: 
Blind the whorish mind of the whoremonger, and the 
man is saved ; blind the rapacious and thievish mind of 
the thief, and the man is saved. But do you decline to 
understand the sentence thus? Well, there is still another 
interpretation. For the sun blinds those who have bad 
sight ; and those who have watery eyes are also blinded 
when they are smitten by the light : not, however, because 
it is of the nature of the sun to blind, but because the 
eye's own constitution (uTrocrrao-t?) is not one of correct 
vision. And in like manner, those whose hearts are afflicted 
with the ailment of unbelief are not capable of looking upon 
the rays (of the glory) of the Godhead. And again, it is not 
said, " He hath blinded their minds lest they should hear the 
gospel," but rather " lest the light of the glory of the gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ should shine unto them." For to 
hear the gospel is a thing committed (e^/erat) to all ; but the 
glory of the gospel of Christ is imparted only to the sincere 
and genuine. For this reason the Lord spake in parables to 
those who were incapable of hearing, but to His disciples 
He explained these parables in private. For the illumina- 
tion of the glory is for those who have been enlightened, 
while the blinding is for them who believe not. These mys- 
teries, which the church now declares to you who are trans- 
ferred from the lists of the catechumens, it is not its custom 
to declare to the Gentiles. For we do not declare the mys- 
teries touching the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit 
to a Gentile ; neither do we speak of the mysteries plainly in 
presence of the catechumens; but many a time we express 
ourselves in an occult manner, so that the faithful who have 
intelligence may apprehend the truths referred to, while 
those who have not that intelligence may receive no hurt. 





P. 4GB 



civ. 2, 124, 144, 146 

i. 2, . . .88 

vii., ... 32 

civ. 23, . . 178 

i. 4, . . . 317 

cv. 15, . . . 335 

i. 31, . . . 172 


cxix. 6, . . 247 

iii. 5, ... 345 

ii. 6, ... 417 

cxix. 73, . .180 

iii. 17, . . . 263 

xviii. 1, . .54 

cxxxii. 8, . . 123 

iii. 19, . . . 263 

cxxxvi. 6, . 146, 247 

xvii. 11, . . 134 


cxxxvii., . . 77 

xviii., . . . 141 

iv. 32, . . . 243 

cxxxix. 16, . . 174 

xviii. 23-25, . 31 

viii. 46, . . 20 

xxxviii. 26, . . 378 


xlviii. 15, . . 46 
xlix. 10-12, . . 377 

xxiv. and xxv., . 77 

viii. 30, . 190, 194 
ix. 5, . . . 249 



x. 7, . . . 248 

ii., . . .380 

vi. 36, . . . 20 

xx. 9, . . .20 

Triii ^QO 

xxii. 1, 19 

Vlll.j OOU 

xii., . . .380 


xxii. 2, . 364, 372 

xii. 2, . . . 132 
xii. 30, . . 236 

i. 21, . . . 17 

x. 10-12, . . 180 


xii. 35, . . 364 

xiv. 1, . . . 175 

i.-xii., 7-29, 242-250 

xiv., . . 380, 381 

xx. 20, . . 17 

vii. 2, . . . 249 

xvi 380 

xvii 381 



xxiv. 18, . . 381 
xxxii 380 
xxxiv., , . 380 
xxxiv. 4, .33 
xxxiv. 33, . . 377 

v. 9, . . . 417 
xvi. 10, . . 107 
xviii. 9, . .135 
xix. 1, . . . 187 
xxiv. 1, . . 187 

vii. 14, . . 138 
xiv. 14, . . 134 
xxii. 22, . . 74 
xxvi. 18, . . 346 

xxxiv. 35, . . 380 

xv. 32, . 337, 365 

iv. 24, . . . 417 
xviii. 15, . . 378 
xviii. 18, . . 370 

xxxi. 5, . 246 
xxxiii. 5, . .187 
xxxiii. 6, .88 
xxxiv. 19, . . 263 
xiv. 1, . . . 194 
xiv. 2, . . . 122 
xiv. 10, 11, . . 123 
Ixxii. 6, . . 141 
Ixxx., . . 124, 136 

xxix. 1], . . 139 
xlii. 9, . . 234 
xiv. 7, . . . 417 
xlix. 8, . . 202 
Iii. 5, . . 110 
liii. 4, . . . 108 
liii. 5, . . . 109 
liii. 8, . . .110 
Ixvi. 34, . . 233 

xix. 14, . . 220 
xxii. 1-3, . 33 

Ixxxvii. 3, . .139 
xc. 10, . 255, 263 


xxii. 26, 27, . 378 

xcvi. 11-13, . .119 

xxxi., . . .139 

xxii. 32, , . 417 

cii. 24, . . 250 

xlviii. 10, . . 184 








x. 10, . 

. 371 

xiv. 62, . .iOli 

i. 22, 26, 27, . 128 

x. 28, . 

. 386 

xvi. 1, 2, . . 199 

xxxiii. 11, . . 214 

x. 34, . 

381, 384 

x. 37, . 

. 391 



x. 40, . 

. 388 

i. 26, 27, . 132, 137 

viii. 10, . . 129 

xi. 11, . 

. 396 

i. 28, . . . 119 

xi. 27, . 

. 356 

i. 29, etc., . . 119 


xii. 8, . 

. 373 

i. 34, . . . 105 

iii. 6, . . ' . 107 

xii. 32, 

. 338 

i. 35, . . . 105 

xii. 47, 

. 388 

i. 36, . . . 138 


xiii. 13, 

. 418 

i. 41, . . 133 bis 

iii. 38, . . . 109 

xiv., . 

. 380 

i. 42, 43, . . 133 

xiv. 25, 

. 381 

i. 46, . . . 134 


XV. 11, 

. 30 

i. 51, . . . 134 

i. 13, . . . 333 

xv. 17, 

. 364 

i. 54, . . . 135 

vii. 25, . . 190 

xv. 24, 

. 388 

ii. 4-7, . .124 

xvi. 26, 27, . . 178 

xv. 27, 

. 135 

ii. 7, . . . 135 

xvi. 29, 30, . . 187 

xvi. 13, 

. 151 

ii. 10, . . . 125 

xvi. 16, 

151, 389 

ii. 14, . . . 109 


xvi. 17, 

. 167 

iii. 4, . . . 145 

xii. 7, . . .225 

xvi. 21, 

106, 392 

iii. 16, . . . 146 

xvi. 22, 

. 392 

iv. 31, . . . 393 


xvi. 23, 

. 392 

vi. 1, . . . 365 

i. 1, . . . 242 

xvi. 27, 

. 106 

vi. 25, . . . 250 

i. 20, 21, . . 105 

xvii. 2, 

. 380 

vi. 29, . . 365 

ii. 13, . . . 380 

xvii. 5, 

. 150 

viii. 43, . . 200 

ii. 16, . . . 380 

xviii. 21, . 

. 338 

ix. 35, . . 150 

iii. 3, . . .145 

xix. 11, 

. 321 

ix. 59, 60, . . 392 

iii. 7, 8, . . 341 

xxii. 29, 

. 330 

x. 18, . . 311, 340 

iii. 8, . . . 119 

xxii. 42, 

. 389 

x. 19, . . . 342 

iii. 13, . . .143 

xxiii. 6, . 

. 312 

x. 22, . . . 356 

iii. 14, . . . 144 

xxiii. 7, . 

. 373 

xi. 2, . . . 311 

iii. 15, . . . 148 

xxiii. 25, 

312, 334 

xi. 39, . . 312 

iii. 17, 100, 104, 150, 

xxiv. 4, 5, 23-26, 352 

xi. 32, . 312 

397, 402 

xxiv. 24, 

. 354 

xii. 49, . . 417 

iv., . . .106 

xxv. 27, 

. 135 

xiii. 27, . . 361 

iv. 1, . . 255, 264 

xxv. 29, 

. 418 

xiv. 33, . 364, 372 

iv. 2, ... 380 

xxv. 41, 

. 417 

xvi. 16, . 296, 366 

iv. 3, . . . 401 

xxv. 44, . 

. 360 

xvi. 19, . . 370 

iv. 10, . . 341 bi8 

xxv. 46, 

. 361 

xx. 46, . . 312 

v. 3, . . 364, 372 

xxvi. 38, 

. 108 

xxi. 2, . . 136 

v. 8, . . . 374 

xxvi. 64, . 

. 106 

xxii. 42, . . 257 

v. 10, 12, . . 210 

xxviii. 1, 

. 197 

xxii. 42-48, 251, 257 

v. 16, . . . 313 

xxviii. 1-6, . 

. 198 

xxii. 46, . . 262 

v. 32, . . . 371 

xxviii. 9, 

. 126 

xxiii. 34, . . 380 

vi. 6, . . . 311 

xxviii. 19, . 

. 90 

xxiii. 56, . . 199 

vi. 9, . . . 311 

xxiv. 1, 2, . . 199 

vi. 22, 23, . . 152 


vii. 6, . . . 418 

i. 3, . 

. 145 


vii. 12, . . 374 

i. and ii., 

. 150 

i. 1, 86, 90, 146, 

vii. 13, . . 373 

ii. 11, . 

. 365 

167, 194 

vii. 16, . . 303 

ii. 19, . 

. 373 

. 1, 2, . . 169 

vii. 18, . . 279 

iii. 23, 

. 302 

. 2, 3, . . 169 

viii. 10, . . 372 

viii. 15, . 

. 380 

. 5, . . .320 

viii. 26, . . 381 

xii. 30, 

. 252 

. 9, . . .146 

ix. 16, . . . 308 

xii. 38, 

. 312 

. 12, . . . 330 

ix. 17, . . . 307 

xii. 41, . 

. 312 

. 14, . . . 169 

ix. 20, . . . 200 

xiv. 36, 

. 251 

i. 16, . . . 383 






i. 17, . . . 129 

xiii. 5, . . 168 

xiii. 11, . . 391 

i. 18, 100, 230, 341, 3S8 

xiii. 13, . . 168 

xv. 9, 10, . . 349 

i. 23, . . .145 

xiv. 23, . . 4U4 

xv. 11, . . 350 

i. 27, . . . 146 

xv. 12-20, . . 396 

i. 29, . . .147 


xv. 32, . . 395 

ii. 20, 21, . . 107 

ii. 13, . . . 193 

xv. 39, . . 355 

iii. 13, . . 388 

ii. 14, . . . 331 

xv. 41, . .176 

iii. 19, . . 247 

ii. 15, . . . 331 

xv. 45, . . 104 

iv. 24, . 88, 90, 190 

ii. 28, . . . 366 

xv. 46-50, . . 366 

v. 17, . . . 336 

iii. 20, . . 366 

xv. 47, . . 104 

v. 39, . . . 130 

iv. 1, . . . 366 

xv. 50, . . 154 

v. 45-47, . . 383 

iv. 2, . . . 366 

xv. 54, . . 333 

v. 46, . . . 370 

v. 12, 14, . . 335 

xv. 54, 55, . . 386 

vi. 38, . . 388 

v. 14, . 131, 332, 333 

xv. 50, . 330, 332 

vi. 55, . . . 107 

viii. 9, 88 

vi. 56, . . 107 

viii. 11, . . 88 


viii. 12, . 106, 264 

viii. 14, 15, . . 89 

i. 21, 22, . . 94 

viii. 40, . . 107 

viii. 21, 22, . . 358 

iii. 6, . . .330 

viii. 44, 332, 339, 341, 

ix. 1, . . 89, 349 

iii. 7, . 330, 332, 375 

343, 346 

xii. 3, . . . 372 

iii. 13, . . 377 

viii. 51, . . 106 

xiv. 23, . . 201 

iii. 14-17, . . 377 

viii. 58, . .105 

xv. 13, . . 89 

iii. 15-18, . . 95 

x. 10, . . . 106 

xv. 15, 16, . . 349 

iv. 4, . . . 418 

x. 17, . . . 107 

xv. 15, 19, . . 89 

v. 4, 5, . . 95 

x. IS, . . . 253 

xv. 18, .. . 349 

vi. 4, . . .95 

x. 27, . . . 321 

xv. 30, . . 89 

vi. 6, 7, . .95 

x. 30, . . . 151 

vi. 16, . . . 308 

xi. 25, . . . 106 


viii. 9, . . 124 

xi. 33, . . . 108 

ii. 4, 5, . . 89 

ix. 14, 15, . . 350 

xii. 27, . . 108 

ii. 9-11, . . 89 

xi. 3-5, . . 350 

xiii. and xvi., . 105 

ii. 14, . . . 90 

xi. 23, . . . 351 

xiii. 21, . . 108 

iii. 6, . . .86 

xii. 8, 9, . 349 

xiii. 27, . . 347 

iii. 6-11, . . 365 

xiii. 3, . 326-349, 374 

xiv. 6, . 106, 247 

iii. 9, 10, . . 356 

xiii. 13, . .94 

xiv. 9, . . 151 

iii. 10, . . 404 

xiv. 12, . . 329 

iii. 16, 17, . . 95 


xvi. 15, 16, . . 349 

iii 17, . . 308 

i. 6-8, . . 350 

xiv. 28, . .151 

iii. 19, . . 243 

i. 8, . . .364 

xvi. 8, . 293, 329 

v. 3, . . . 227 

i. 8, 9, . 96 

xvi. 14, . . 348 

v. 7, . . . 395 

ii. 18, . . 296, 3G6 

xvi. 20, . 250 bis 

v. 12, . . . 109 

iii. 1, . . . 396 

xvi. 22, . 119, 125 

v. 21, . . . 403 

iii. 13, 330, 332, 336 

xvi. 28, . . 329 

vi. 11, . . 95 

iv. 3, . . .296 

xvi. 33, . 109, 263 

vi. 13, . . 30 

iv. 4, . . . 395 

xvii. 3, . .130 

vi. 14, . . 395 

xvii. 6, . .100 

vi. 19, . . 95 


xviii. 11, . . 252 

vii. 18, 19, . . 374 

ii. 2, . . . 381 

xix. 37, . . 401 

vii. 35, . . 280 

ii. 14, . . . 142 

xx. 1, . . 197, 198 

vii. 40, . . 95 

iii. 8, . . 348, 351 

viii. 3, . . 109 

v. 14, . . . 377 


viii. 6, . 83, 87 

v. 23, . . . 247 

i. 7, . . . 110 

ix. 9, . . . 312 

ii. 6, ... 335 

x. 4, . . .95 


ii. 31, . . . 107 

xi. 19, . . . 362 

ii. 7, . . 398, 401 

v. 10, . . . 417 

xii. 3-13, . . 96 

ii. 9, ... 390 

v. 29, . . . 225 

xii. IS, . . 308 

ii. 13, . . . 359 

ix. 15, . . 349 

xiii. 8-10, . . 357 

iii. 13, . . 390 

ix. 40, . . 417 

xiii. 9, . . 293 

iii. 19, . . 360 








i. 23, . 


iii. 6, . . . 360 

i. 13, . . 255, 264 

i. 24, . 


iii. 8, 9, . 355, 383 

iv. 12, . . . 193 

ii. 6-9, 


iv. 7, 8, . . 353 

v. 1, 2, . . 360 

iii. 10, . . . 250 

1 JOHN. 
i. 8, . . .20 
v. 19, . 255, 263, 297 

v. 16-18, . 



v. 21, . . 


i. 3, . . . 146 


ii. 3, 4, . . 96 

i. 1,2, . . 106 


iii. 5, 6, . . 370 

i. 9, . . . 167 

i. 9, . 


iii. 7-11, . . 96 

iii. 7, . . .74 

iii. 1, . 


vi. 8, . . . 279 

xiii. 5, . . 230 

iv. 1-4, 


viii. 13, . . 296 

xxii. 7, 8, . 166, 167 

vL 7, . 


x. 30, . . . 206 


ADAM, the fall of, and its conse- 
quences, 131. 

Advent, the glorious second, of 
Christ, 357, 358. 

.^Einilianus, the prefect of Alexandria, 
Dionysius brought before, 225, 226. 

Agony, the, and bloody sweat, of 
Jesus, 253, 254. 

Alexandria, persecution of the Chris- 
tians in, 205-216 ; the effects of 
sedition in, described, 235,238-240; 
pestilence in, 236, 237 ; conduct 
of the Christians and heathen in, 
during the pestilence, contrasted, 
237, 238. 

Ammonarium, a virgin confessor, at 
Alexandria, 210. 

Anathemas, twelve, pronounced 
against twelve different sorts of 
errorists, 103, etc. 

Angel, the guardian, of Gregory 
Thaumaturgus, 46. 

Angels, the fall of, 340. 

Annunciation, the, of the angel to 
the Virgin Mary, 119, etc., 125, 
etc., 131, etc. 

Apollonia, a Christian virgin of Alex- 
andria, the barbarous treatment 
of, 206, 207. 

Apostasy, the, of Christians in per- 
secution, 208, 209. 

Archelaus, bishop of Cascar, a sketch 
of the life and writings of, 267, 
etc. ; the disputation of, with the 
heresiarch Manes, 272, etc., 292, 

etc. (see Manes) ; having vanquished 
Manes, he restrains the multitudes 
from doing violence to him, 361, 
362 ; letter of Diodorus to, asking 
help to enable him to encounter 
Manes, 363 ; letter of, in reply to 
Diodorus, 367, etc. ; suddenlymakes 
his appearance in the assembly 
where Diodorus and Manes are met 
for disputation, 384 ; engages a 
second time in dispute with Manes, 
384, 385, etc. ; gives an account 
of the origin and adventures of 
Manes, 401-412 ; fragments of the 
disputation of, with Manes, 417, 

Atheists, the writings ol, alone, pro- 
hibited by Origen, 69. 

Atomic theory, the, of the Epicu- 
reans, as to the formation of the 
universe, 171 ; a refutation of, on 
the ground of familiar human ana- 
logies, 172 ; refutation of, on the 
ground of the constitution of the 
universe, 174 ; refutation of, on 
the ground of the human constitu- 
tion, 179, 180, etc. 

Atoms, what are they ? 

BALLISTA, the, 319. 

Baptism, the, of Christ by John, 

Basilides, Bishop, epistle of Diony- 
sius to, 196 ; the heresiarch, 414 
and note, 416. 



Blinding the minds of those who be- 
lieve not, 418, 419. 

Body and soul, their adaptation to 
each other, illustrated by a temple 
and its image, 308, 309 ; illustrated 
by a ship and its rudder, 310 ; this 
mutual adaptation proves that they 
are from the hand of the same 
God, 312. 

Book, the sealed, of the prophet 
Isaiah, the Virgin Mary explained 
to be, when betrothed to Joseph, 

CAIN, a father of the devil, 345. 

Callistus, the messenger of Marcellus 
to Manes, 281. 

Captives, a canon respecting the 
forcible detention of those who had 
escaped from the barbarians, 33. 

Cascar, Caschar, or Caschara, the 
bishopric of Archelaus, where situ- 
ated, 269. 

Oephro, the banishment of Bishop 
Dionysius to, 226, 227. 

Cerinthus, the Apocalypse attributed 
to, by some, 164, 165 ; the doc- 
trines taught by, 165. 

Chseremon, 212. 

Christ, the two natures of, 97 ; those 
who assert His body to be uncre- 
ated, anathematized, 103 ; those 
who assert that His body is con- 
substantial with His divinity, ana- 
thematized, 103 ; those who assert 
that He is like one of the prophets, 
anathematized, 104 ; various other 
errors respecting, anathematized, 
105, etc. ; really and actually, not 
in semblance only, manifested, 
108-110; birth of laid in a manger, 
124 ; redemption through, 131 ; 
baptism of, by John, 142, etc. ; the 
voice from heaven respecting, 150, 
151 ; the victory of, over Hades 
and the devil, 154, 155 ; His prayer 
respecting the " cup," 251, 252, 
257-262, 262-264; His mild rebuke 
of Judas, 256; the "I am" and 
the Light, 264 ; the length of the 
ministry of, 347 ; the glorious se- 
cond advent of, 357, 358 ; Manes 
denies that He came in the flesh, 
388 ; and Moses, points of resem- 
blance between, 379, 380. 
Circumcision, spiritual, the real, 373, 


Colluthion, Bishop Dionysius banished 
to, 228. 

Constitution, the human, urged in 
refutation of the atomic theory of 
the formation of the universe, 179- 

Constitution of the universe, an argu- 
ment against the Epicurean theory 
of the formation of the universe, 

Consubstantiality, the, of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit, 93, 257, 

Coracion, induced by Dionysius to 
give up his chiliastic views, 160. 

Corbicius, the original name of Manes, 

Cornelius, the Roman Pontiff, an 
epistle of Dionysius to, 216. 

Covetousness and rapine, canons re- 
specting, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 

Cup, the prayer of Jesus respecting 
the passing away of, 251, 257, etc., 
262, etc. 

DEAD, the state of the, 23, 24. 

Death, the law the ministration of, 
375 ; the reign of, from Adam to 
Moses, 332, 333, 334. 

Deities, the two, of Manes, and their 
mutual opposition, 281, etc. 

Democritus, his estimate of the worth 
of the knowledge of a true cause, 

Devil, the, nonplussed and vanquished 
by Christ, 154, 155 ; the fall of, 
155, 340 ; origin of the name, 
340 ; origin of the being himself, 
342 ; the father of the, 294, 332, 

Diodorus, presbyter, a letter of, to 
Archelaus respecting Manes, 362, 
etc. ; Archelaus' reply to, 367, etc. ; 
enters the lists of controversy with 
Manes, 381, etc. ; Archelaus cornea 
to the help of, against Manes, 384, 

Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, a 
sketch of the life and writings of, 
157-160 ; his care, moderation, and 
diligence in investigating the truth, 
163, 164 ; relates how he and others 
were taken and led off as prisoners, 
202, 203 ; apologizes for reading 
heretical books, 219 ; asks advice 
respecting a lapsed Christian man 
who wished to be introduced to 
the church by baptism, 221 ; de- 
fends himself against Germanus 
giving an account of his appre- 
hension, his conduct before the 



prefect, and his banishment, 223- 

Dioscorus, a youthful martyr at Alex- 
andria, 211. 

Discipline for offenders, 35. 

Divinity, belongs equally to the Fa- 
ther, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, 
86, 87. 

Domitius and Didymus, epistles of 
Dionysius to, 202, etc. 

EARTH, the stability of the, 7. 

Earthquakes, how caused, according 
to the system of Manes, 383, 386. 

Ecclesiastes, a metaphrase on, 7-29 ; 
a commentary on the beginning of, 

Egyptians, among the Israelites, set 
up the golden calf, 339 ; the, com- 
pelled to refund their unjust exac- 
tions on Israel, 371. 

Elisabeth, her salutation of Mary, 133., 

Epicureans, an argument against the 
views of the, in relation to the 
formation of the universe, 171, etc. 

Eye, an evil and a single, 152. 

FABIUS, bishop of Antioch, an epistle 
of Dionysius to, respecting the per- 
secution in Alexandria, 205-214. 

Faith, a confession of, 5, etc. 

Fast of Pentecost, the, the hour for 
bringing to a close, 196-200. 

Father, various applications of, and 
modes of understanding the term, 

Father, God, the, 5, 83 ; co-eternal 
with the Son, 189, 190 ; the Spring 
or Fountain, the Son, the Stream, 
192 ; and the Son essentially one, 

Father of the devil, 294, 332. 

Friendship, the advantages of, 14, 
15 ; of Origen for Gregory Thau- 
maturgus, 55. 

GABRIEL, the salutation of the Virgin 
Mary by, 131 ; the message given 
by, to Mary, 139 ; the hesitation 
and doubt of, respecting the in- 
carnation of the Son of God over- 
come, 140, 141. 

Gallienus, the emperor, 233, 234. 

Germanus, an epistle of Dionysius 
against, refuting the calumnies of, 
222, etc. 

Glad tidings, 131. 

God, no finding fault with the pro- 
vidence or judgments of, 22 ; work- 

ing, not a matter of pain or weari- 
ness to, 183 ; the eternal Father 
with the eternal Son, 189 ; how 
He blinds the minds of some, 418, 
419 ; of this world, the, 418. 

Gregory Thaumaturgus, a sketch of 
the life and writings of, 1-3 ; refers 
to his boyhood, and relates how he 
was brought under the instruction 
of Origen, 47, etc.; the influence 
of Origen over, 52, etc. ; the friend- 
ship of Origen fr, 54, etc. 

Guardian angel, the, 46. 

HADES, vanquished by Christ, 154. 

Happiness, not to be found in earthly 
good things, 154. 

Hermammon, an epistle of Dionysiua 
to, 230. 

Hierax, an epistle of Dionysius to, 
respecting a sedition in Alexandria, 
238, 239. 

Holy Spirit, the, 5; not made holy, 
but the source of sanctitication, 84, 
85 ; the doctrine of, as declared in 
Scripture, 88-90; given through 
the Son, 94. 

Human constitution, the, a refuta- 
tion of Epicurus' atomic theory of 
the foundation of the universe, on 
the ground of, 179-183. 

"I AM, "264, 265. 

Incarnation, the, of the Son of God. 

82, 85. 

Ingratitude, 42. 
Ischy rion, a martyr at Alexand ria, 212. 

JAMNES and Mambres, 382. 

Jews and Gentiles, the extrusion of 
the one, and the admission of the 
other, 135. 

John the Baptist, Jesus comes to, to 
be baptized, 141-144; the hesita- 
tion of John to baptize Jesus, and 
his speech on the occasion, 144-148; 
reply of Jesus to, and the hesita- 
tion of, overcome, 148-150. 

John the Evangelist, not the author 
of the Book of Revelation, 166-170. 

John Mark, 168. 

Joseph, the husband of Mary, the 
" learned " man, to whom the 
" sealed book " (Mary) is delivered, 

Judas, betrays Jesus mildly rebuked 
by Jesus, 256 ; a father of tha 
devil, 345, 346, 347. 

Judgment, a, 341. 



LABDACTTS and Manes, 407. 

Lapsed Christians, 208, 209; the re- 
storation of, 213; peculiar case of 
Serapion, oneof the, 214-210; prayer 
on the reception of, 265. 

Laughter, 240. 

Law, the, the consonance of, with the 
New Testament, 368 ; the, the mi- 
nistration of death, how, or in what 
respect, 332, 333, 334-375 ; the, the 
strength of sin, 338. 

Liar, the devil a, and the father of 
it, 332. 

Light, Christ the eternal, 264. 

Light of the body, the, 152. 

Light and darkness, in the system of 
Manes, 281, 282. 

Love, 240, 241. 

MACRTANUS, his course, and miserable 
end, 232-234. 

Magi of Egypt, the, the evil influ- 
ence of the president of, over the 
mind of the Emperor Valerian, 231. 

Man and beast, how alike and how 
unlike, 13. 

Manes (or Manichaeus), the heresi- 
arch, designs to inveigle the wealthy 
and good Marcellus, 277; sends a 
messenger to Marcellus, 277, 278; 
an epistle of, to Marcellus, 278-280; 
reply of Marcellus to, 280 ; the mes- 
senger of, gives Marcellus and Ar- 
chelaus an account of the system 
of, 281-291 ; arrival of, at Carchar, 
291; a description of, 291, 292; a 
disputationbetween Archelausand, 
arranged, 292 ; first speech of 
claims to be the Paraclete, 293 ; 
attributes the law and the prophets 
to the evil one, 295, 296; asserts 
two independent natures, a good 
and an evil the evil, in the world 
which he created, 296, 297 ; reply 
of Archelaus to, in refutation of the 
two independent natures, 299, 300- 
325 ; Archelaus exposes the claims 
of, to be the Paraclete, 325, etc., 348, 
351; severely castigated by Arche- 
laus, 353, etc. ; is driven away, 361; 
proceeds to Diodorus to publish his 
opinions, 361; Diodorus, the pres- 
byter, writes to Archelaus for in- 
struction so as to be able to meet, 
363 ; Diodorus disputes with, in 
public, 381 ; Archelaus suddenly 
appears at the residence of Dio- 
dorns, again disputes with, and 
routs, 384 ; Archelaus gives in 

public a history of, 405, etc. ; was 
preceded by Scythianus and Tere- 
binthus in his heresy, 405 ; the 
adopted son of an old woman, the ad- 
herent of Terebinthus, and changed 
his name, 409; disciples of, 409, 
410; is thrown into prison by the 
king of Persia, because he pretends 
to be able, but fails, to care his son, 
410 ; perverts the Christian Scrip- 
tures, 411; corrupts the jailors, and 
escapes from prison, 412, etc. ; is 
afterwards apprehended and put to 
death by the king of Persia, 413 ; 
fragment of the dispute of Arche- 
laus with, 417, etc. 

Manes, the system of, expounded by 
Turbo, 281-290. 

Marcellus of Carchar, or Chascar, in 
Mesopotamia, his character, 272 ; 
ransoms certain captives, 272, 273; 
influence of his benevolent charac- 
ter upon the rough soldiers who had 
the captives, 273 ; Cortynius relates 
to, how the captives were taken, 
and their sufferings, 273, 274; mu- 
nificently entertains the captives, 
and sends them back to their own 
country, 275-277 ; Manes designs 
to inveigle, writes an epistle, and 
sends a messenger to, 278-281 ; con- 
gratulates Archelaus on his victory 
over Manes, 361. 

Martyrs, the triumph of the, 154; of 
all classes, 202; at Alexandria, 209- 

Mary, the Virgin, the angelic annun- 
ciation to, 119, 125, 131; compared 
with Eve, 120; eulogized, 122-128, 
136, 143 ; privileged above patri- 
archs and prophets, 123 ; the ark 
of sanctity, 123 ; meaning of the 
name, 232; ever virgin, 132, 133; 
visit of, to Elisabeth, 133; her song 
of praise, 134 ; her visit to Beth- 
lehem, 136 ; invocation of, 137. 

Meats, offered to idols, a canon re- 
specting the eating of, 30. 

Metras, a confessor of Alexandria, 206. 

Mighty, the, put down from their 
seats, 135. 

Ministration of death, the law a, 332, 

Miser, the, 14. 

Moses, no written law before, 338 ; 
idolatry in the camp while he is 
in the mount, 339 ; his care of the 
people, 369 ; and Christ, points of 
resemblance between, 379, 380. 



Mother and brethren, the, of Jesus, 

288, 289. 

Mother of God, 134, 135, 136, 348. 
Mystery of the Trinity, the, 100, 101. 

NAMING of children, the custom of 

Christians in regard to, 168, and 

Natures, the two, in Christ, 97 ; 

the two independent, asserted by 

Manes, 296-298. 

Nepos, an Egyptian bishop, 161, 162. 
New, nothing, under the sun, 8. 
Novatian, 222. 
Novatus, an epistle of Dionysius to, 


OMOPHORTTS, in the system of Manes, 
283, 284, 290. 

One event to all, 23. 

Origen, a panegyric on, 37, etc. ; the 
almost divine endowments of, 40 ; 
how Gregory Thaumaturgus was 
brought into connection with, 47- 
52; the influence of, on Gregory, 
52, etc. ; the friendship of, for 
Gregory, 54 ; prepares Gregory for 
philosophy, and instructs him in 
many branches of science, 56, etc. ; 
as an expositor, 73, 74 ; invocation 
of, 80. 

PANEGYRIC, a, on Origen, 37, etc. 

Paraclete, Manes' claim to be the, re- 
futed, 325, etc. ; sent by Christ with- 
out delay was in Paul, 348, 349. 

Parcus and Labdacus, 407. 

Pearl, the, how produced, 122. 

Pedagogue, 368. 

Pentecost, the time for bringing the 
feast of, to a close, 196-200. 

Perfect, the, which is to come, 356, 

Persecution, the, in Alexandria, the 
account of, given by Dionysius, 205- 
214; cases of barbarity in, 205-207; 
cases of apostasy in, 208; instances 
of heroic stedfastness in suffering 
martyrdom in, 209-212; soldiers in 
the midst of, profess themselves 
Christians, 211, 212; of the recep- 
tion of some who had lapsed in, 213, 
214; the peculiar case of Serapion, 
who had lapsed, 214-216. 

Pestilence, a, in Alexandria, 236, 237; 
the conduct of Christians and hea- 
thens during the, contrasted, 137, 

Pharaoh, a father of the devil, 345. 

Philemon, a presbyter, an epistle of 
Dionysius to, 219. 

Philosophers, the contentions of, 

Poor, the sort called by our Lord, 
blessed, 372. 

Prejudices and preconceived opinions, 
the slavish influences of, set forth, 
and illustrated, 71, 72. 

Prophet, the, like Moses, 379, 380. 

Prudence and temperance, as incul- 
cated by Origen, 62, 66. 

QUINTA, a Christian woman in Alex- 
andria, the barbarous treatment she 
suffered, 206. 

REDEMPTION through Christ, 131. 

Resting, how understood as predi- 
cated of God, 336. 

Revelation, the book of, rejected by 
some, and attributed to Cerinthus, 
164, 165; Dionysius will not reject, 
but does not understand, 165; writ- 
ten by some John, but not by John 
the son of Zebedee, 166 ; argu 
ments alleged againstthe Johannine 
authorship of, 166-169; the bar- 
barisms of, 170. 

Riches, the lust of, 16, 17; the vanity 
of, 17, 18. 

Righteous, many, before Christ, 

Righteousness, as inculcated by Ori- 
gen, 65, 66. 

SABBATH, the, 373. 

Sabellianism, exploded, 86; an epistle 
of Dionysius respecting, 219. 

Saints, prayer to, and the interces- 
sion of Origen invoked, 80. 

Scythianus, a forerunner of Manes, 
405; and Terebinthus, 406. 

Sealing, 298 and note. 

Serapion, a lapsed but penitent 
Christian, the peculiar case of, 214- 

Serpent, the, the father of the devil, 

Siege, an ancient, described, 319. 

Sixtus, Pope, epistles of Dionysius to, 
218, 221. 

Soldiers at the tribunals in Alexan- 
driaduringpersecution, avowthem- 
selves Christians, 211, 212. 

Son, the, of God, 5 ; not assumed out 
of nothing, nor constituted by di- 
vine gift, 81, 82 ; the incarnation 
of, 82 ; the wisdom of God, 83 ; 



the incarnation of, implies no 
change in His divinity, 85, 92 ; 
one Person, 94 ; eternal with the 
Father, 189, 190; the Stream from 
God, the Fountain, 192 ; essen- 
tially united with the Father, 192; 
not different from the Father in 
nature, 257. 

Soul, the, 55 ; the criterion for the 
apprehension of, 112 ; whether it 
exists, 113; is it a substance? 
113 ; is it incorporeal? 114; is it 
simple or compound? 115; is it 
immortal ? 115, 116; is it rational ? 
116, 117. 

Stephen, Pope, an epistle of Dio- 
nysius to, 217. 

Study of universal literature, the, 
encouraged by Origen, 68, 69. 

TEMPERANCE and prudence, as in- 
culcated by Origen, 62. 

Temptation, 255. 

Terebinthus, a forerunner of Manes, 
406, 407; the death of, 408; an 
old woman, an adherent of, inherits 
the effects of, and adopts a boy 
called Corbicius, who afterwards 
calls himself Manes, 408, 409. 

Thomas, Addas, and Hermes, dis- 
ciples of Manes, their mission, 409, 

Time, a, for everything, 12, 249, ?50. 

Tongue, the proper regulation of, 16. 

Trinity, the, 5, 6, 81, 82, 83, 84; 
Sabellian misrepresentation of, 86 ; 
the Persons of, discriminated by 
distinct appellations, yet one, 87, 
88; does not imply three Gods, 88; 
how, if there are three persons, is 
there but one divinity? 90, etc.; 
further statement of the doctrine, 
91, 92 ; the Son and the Spirit in, 
consubstantial with the Father, 
93 ; to be worshipped without 
either separation or alienation, 94; 

three names and three Persons, 99; 
the truth respecting, not known 
till the incarnation of Christ, 100 ; 
incomprehensible, 100. 
Turbo, the messenger of Manes to 
Marcellus, 277, 278 ; gives Mar- 
cellus and Archelaus a lucid ac- 
count of the opinions of Manes, 
281-291 ; ordained a deacon, 362. 

UNCLEANNESS, various sorts of, 
canons respecting, 200, 201. 

Universe, the, constitution of, urged, 
against the Epicurean theory of 
the formation of, 174. 

VEIL, the, on Moses' face, 377, 378, 

Valerian, the emperor, first favours, 

but afterwards persecutes, the 

Christians, 230, 231. 
Vanity, the, of human affairs, 8, 9. 
Virgin Mary, the (see Mary). 
Virginity, 132. 
Voice from heaven, the, which came 

to Jesus at His baptism, 150, 151 . 

WEALTH, the vanity of, 16, 17, 18. 

Wine, new, to be put into new 
bottles, 307. 

Wisdom, 20, 21, 24 ; and folly, 25. 

Wisdom of God, Christ the, 85. 

Woman, the bad, 21. 

Women, in their separation, may 
not enter the house of God, 200 ; 
captive, canons respecting the 
forcible defilement of, 36. 

Word, the, the First-born, 45 ; eter- 
nal one with the Father, 101, 194, 

Words, to be restrained, 16. 

Work, not a matter of pain or weari- 
ness to God, 183, 184. 

XYSTUS, an epistle of Dionysius to, 
on Sabellianism, 219. 




iiHESE Documents were selected by the late Dr. 
Cureton, from manuscripts acquired by the 
British Museum from the Nitrian Monastery in 
Lower Egypt, of which the first portion arrived 
in 1841, the second in 1843, and a third in 1847. The pre- 
paration of them for publication occupied the closing days 
of his life. It is to be regretted that his death occurred 
before he was able to write a preface : the more so because, 
to use the words of Dr. W. Wright, the editor of the 
posthumous work, " he had studied the questions connected 
with this volume for years and from every point of view." 
In a note occurring in the preface to his Festal Letters of 
Athanasius, p. xxiii, he says : "I have found among the Syriac 
MSS. in the British Museum a considerable portion of the 
original Aramaic document which Eusebius cites as preserved 
in the archives of Edessa, and various passages from it quoted 
by several authors, with other testimonies which seem to be 
sufficient to establish the fact of the early conversion of the 
inhabitants of that city, and among them of the king him- 
self, although his successors afterwards relapsed into paganism. 
These, together with accounts of the martyrdom of some of 
the first bishops of that city, forming a most interesting 
accession to our knowledge of the early propagation of Chris- 
tianity in the East down to about A.D. 300, I have already 
transcribed, and hope to publish." " He was himself firmly 
persuaded," adds Dr. Wright, " of the genuineness of the 



Epistles attributed to Abgar, king of Edessa, and our Lord : 
an opinion which he shared with such illustrious scholars as 
Baronius, Tillemont, Cave, R. Mountague (Bishop of Nor- 
wich), and Grabe." 

Without attempting here to decide what degree of historical 
value belongs to these Documents, it may be proper to observe 
that the several matters contained in them are so far dis- 
tinct from one another that they do not necessarily stand or 
fall together. Such matters are : the celebrated Epistles, the 
conversion of King Abgar Uchomo, the visit of Thaddasus, 
and the early prevalence of Christianity at Edessa. With 
regard to the letters said to have passed between Abgar and 
our Lord, it seems sufficient, without referring to the internal 
evidence, to remark, with Lardner and Neander, that it is 
inconceivable how anything written by Christ should have 
remained down to the time of Eusebius unknown to the rest 
of the world. 1 The conversion of Abgar is a distinct matter 
of inquiry. But on this again, doubt, to say the least, is 
cast by the statement that Abgar Bar Manu, who reigned 
between the years 160 and 170 A.D., is the first king of Edessa 
on whose coins the usual symbols of the Baal-worship of 
the country are wanting, these being replaced in his case by 
the sign of the Cross. 2 If this refers to a complete series of 
the coins of Edessa, the evidence afforded must be considered 
very strong. For although, to take a parallel instance, " we 
seek in vain for Christian emblems on the coinage of Con- 
stantine, the first Christian emperor," 3 this may readily 
be accounted for by his preference of military distinction to 
the humbler honours conferred by his new faith, whilst it 
does not appear that anft'-Christian emblems are found, and 
on the coins of his son and successor Christian emblems do 
make their appearance. The other two subjects referred to 
do not lie under the same suspicion. There is nothing in 
the nature of the case to disprove the visit of ThaddaBus (or 
Addseus) nothing improbable in the fact itself, whatever 

1 Hist, of the Church, vol. i. p. 109 (For. Theol. Lib.). 

2 Bayer, Historia Edessena e nummis illustrata, 1. iii. p. 173. 

3 Humphreys' Coin- Collector's Manual, p. 36i. 


judgment may be formed of the details of it presented to us 
here. If, however, the visit of Thaddaeus also should have 
to be ranked among apocryphal stories, this would not affect 
the remaining point that with which we are chiefly con- 
cerned in these Documents. "It is certain," says Neander, 
" that Christianity was early diffused in this country." How 
early, is not so certain. But the evidence furnished by the 
later portions of these Documents, which there is nothing to 
contradict and much to confirm, proves that early in the 
second century Christianity had already made many con- 
verts there. The martyrdoms of Sharbil and Barsamya are 
said to have occurred A.D. 113 (it should have been 115), 
the year in which Trajan conquered the Parthian kingdom, 
of which Edessa was a part ; and, whilst the pagan element 
was plainly predominant, we find the Christians sufficiently 
numerous to have a bishop and presbyters and deacons. 
This sufficiently falls in with the proof already adduced of 
the conversion of even a king of Edessa about fifty years 

To the Documents which are presumably of the ante- 
Kicene age, Dr. Cureton added two Metrical Homilies by 
Jacob of Serug, who lived in the next century. But, as 
they are so closely connected with the most interesting por- 
tions of the rest, the martyrdoms, and are besides of con- 
siderable merit as compositions, the decision of the editors to 
insert them will, it is presumed, be approved by most readers. 
The two supplemental portions, one from the Latin of 
Simeon Metaphrastes, and the other from Le Vaillant de 
Florival's French translation of Moses of Chorene, have 
also been inserted. 

The translation of the Syriac portions, although made with 
Dr. Cureton's version constantly in sight, may fairly be con- 
sidered as independent. The only matter in which his autho- 
rity has been relied on is the supply of the necessary vowels, 
for the text is vowelless, in the case of proper names ; and 
even to this one exception occurs, in the Martyrdom of Bar- 
samya, where " Evaristus " has been adopted instead of his 
" Erastus." In regard to the sense, it has been frequently 


found necessary to differ from him, while a style somewhat 
freer, though, it is hoped, not less faithful, has been employed. 
The Metrical Homilies also have been arranged so as to pre- 
sent the appearance of poetry. The results of Dr. Wright's 
collation of the text with the MSS. have also contributed to 
the greater correctness of the work. 

The translator desires very thankfully to acknowledge his 
obligations to Dr. R. Payne Smith, Regius Professor of 
Divinity in the University of Oxford, 1 the progress of whose 
Thesaurus Syriacus is regarded with so much satisfaction and 
hope, for his kindness in furnishing much valuable informa- 
tion respecting matters on which the lexicons are silent. 

The notes in square brackets are by the translator. The 
others, where the contrary is not indicated, are, at least in 
substance, Dr. Cureton's: though their citation does not 
always imply approval. 

[The translator takes the opportunity of correcting the 
error by which the preparation of Tatian's work in vol. iii. of 
this Series was ascribed to him. The credit of it is due in 
the first instance to his lamented friend Mr. J. E. Ryland, 
at whose request, and subsequently by that of the editors, he 
undertook to correct the manuscript, but was soon obliged 
by other engagements to relinquish the task.] 
1 Now Dean of Canterbury. 







|OW the story relating to Thaddaeus was on this 
wise : 

When the Godhead of our Saviour and Lord 
Jesus Christ was being proclaimed among all 
men by reason of the astonishing mighty-works which He 
wrought, and myriads, even from countries remote from the 
land of Judaea, who were afflicted with sicknesses and diseases 
of every kind, were coming to Him in the hope of being 
healed, King Abgar 3 also, who was renowned among the 

1 The MS. from which this extract from Eusebius is taken is numbered 
14,639, fol. 15 b. It is described in Cureton's Corpus Ignatianum, p. 350. 

2 [Properly Urrhoi, or Orrhoi (_C7l5o |). It seems probable that the 
word is connected with Osrhoene, the name of the province in which 
Edessa held an important place, the correct form of which is supposed 
to be Orrhoene. The name Edessa (tCDjj) occurs only once in these 
Documents, viz. in the " Acts of Sharbil," sub initJ] 

3 " By this title all the toparchs of Edessa were called, just as the 
Roman emperors were called Caesars, the kings of Egypt Pharaohs or 
Ptolemies, the kings of Syria Antiochi." Assem. B'M. Or. vol. i. p. 
261. Assemani adds : " Abgar in Syriac means lame.''' 1 Moses of 
Chorene, however, with more probability, derives it from the Armenian 
Avag-a'ir, " grand homme, a cause de sa grande mansuetude et de sa 
sagesse, et, de plus, a cause de sa taille." See below the extract from 
his History of Armenia, Book ii. ch. 26. 



nations on the east of the Euphrates for his valour, had his 
body wasting away with a grievous disease, such as there is 
no cure for among men. And when he heard and was 
informed of the name of Jesus, and about the mighty works 
which He did (for every one alike bore witness concerning 
Him), he sent a letter of request by a man belonging to 
him, 1 and besought Him to come and heal him of his disease. 

But our Saviour at the time that he asked Him did not 
comply with his request. Yet He deigned to give him 2 a 
letter [in reply] : for He promised him that He would send 
one of His disciples, and heal his sicknesses, and give salva- 
tion 3 to him and to all who were connected with him. 4 Nor 
did He delay to fulfil His promise to him : but after He was 
risen from the place of the dead, and was received into 
heaven, Thomas 8 the apostle, one of the twelve, as by an 
impulse from God, sent Thaddseus, who was himself also 
numbered among the seventy 7 disciples of Christ, to Edessa, 
to be a preacher and proclaimer of the teaching of Christ ; 
and the promise of Christ was through him fulfilled. 

Thou hast in writing the evidence of these things, which 
is taken from the Book of Records 8 which was at Edessa : 
for at that time the kingdom was still standing. 9 In the 

1 Eusebius has 8/ T/<7ToA>!p<>pot>. [See note on rxv8fc'feev, on next 

2 [Lit. " deemed him worthy of."] 

3 [Gr. auTYipiav : and so the Syriac word, meaning " life," is generally 
to be translated in this collection.] 

4 Syr. "near to him ; " Gr. TUV Trpovyxovrav. 

5 His real name was Judas Thomas : see p. 8. 

The name is taken from Eusebius, but in the original Syriac treatises, 
which follow, he is called Addseus. 

7 In The Teaching of the Apostles he is said to have been one of the 
" seventy-two apostles." His name, like that of Thomas, seems to have 
been the very common one, Judas. 

8 These were kept in the archives of the kingdom, which were trans- 
ferred by Abgar from Nisibis to Edessa when he made it the capital of 
his dominions. See Moses Chor. B. ii. ch. 27, infra. The archives 
appear to have been still kept at Edessa in A.D. 550. 

9 The kingdom of Edessa was brought to an end and entirely sub- 
jected to the Romans in A.D. 217 or 218. 


documents, then, which were [kept] there, in which was 
contained whatever was done by those of old down to the 
time of Abgar, these things also are found preserved down 
to the present hour. There is, however, nothing to prevent 
our hearing the very letters themselves, which have been 
taken by us * from the archives, and are in words to this 
effect, translated from Aramaic into Greek. 

Copy of the letter which was written by King 2 Abgar to 
Jesus, and sent to Him by the hand of Hananias, 3 the 
Tabularius, 4 to Jerusalem : 

" Abgar the Black, 5 sovereign 6 of the country, to Jesus, 
the good Saviour, who has appeared in the country of 
Jerusalem : Peace. I have heard about Thee, 7 and about 
the healing which is wrought by Thy hands without drugs 
and roots. For, as it is reported, Thou makest the blind 
to see, and the lame to walk ; and Thou cleansest the lepers, 
and Thou castest out unclean spirits and demons, and Thou 
healest those who are tormented with lingering diseases, 
and Thou raisest the dead. And when I heard all these 
things about Thee, I settled in my mind one of two things : 
either that Thou art God, who hast come down from 

1 The extract from the archives was probably made by Sextus Julius 
Alncanus, and copied by Eusebius from his Chronographia. 

2 Gr. Ti/Vj5^of. 

3 Called Hanan in the original Syriac document ; and so in Moses 
Chor. : Eusebius has ' Avetvi'x;, which is copied here. 

4 Gr. rx%vt)p6f<,oi*. But the post held by Hananias must have been 
one of more dignity than that of a courier. He was probably a Secre- 
tary of State. In The Acts of Addseus, p. 35, he is called, in connec- 
tion with the name Tabularius, a sharir, or confidential servant. [It 
would seem that Tabularius has been confounded with Tabellarius (a 

5 Or " Abgar Uchomo." The epithet was peculiar to this King 
Abgar. He was the fourteenth king : the eleventh was called Abgar 
Sumoco, or " the Red." [The occasion of the name " Black " is doubt- 
ful : it can hardly have arisen from the fact that Abgar was suffering, 
as Cedrenus asserts, from the black leprosy.] 

6 ["Head," or "chief."] 

7 Comp. Matt. iv. 24 : " And His fame went throughout all Syria," 
etc. See also Moses Chor. B. ii. c. 30. 


heaven, and [therefore] doest these things ; or that Thou art 
the Son of God, and [therefore] doest these things. On 
this account, therefore, I have written to beg of Thee that 
Thou wouldest weary Thyself to come to me, and heal this 
disease which I have. [And not only so :] for I have also 
heard that the Jews murmur against Thee, and wish to do 
Thee harm. But I have a city, small and beautiful, which 
is sufficient for two." 

Copy of those things which were written 1 by Jesus by the 
hand of Hananias, the Tabularius, to Abgar, sovereign of 
the country : 

" Blessed is he that hath believed in me, not having seen me. 
For it is written concerning me, that those who see me will 
not believe in me, and that those will believe who have not 
seen me, and will be saved. But touching that which thou 
hast written to me, that I should come to thee it is meet 
that I should finish here all that for the sake of which I 
have been sent ; and, after I have finished it, then I shall 
be taken up to Him that sent me ; and, when I have been 
taken up, I will send to thee one of my disciples, that he 
may heal thy disease, and give salvation to thee and to those 
who are with thee." 

To these letters, moreover, is appended the following also 
in the Aramaic tongue : 

After Jesus was ascended, Judas Thomas sent to him 
Thaddaeus the apostle, one of the Seventy. And, when he 
was come, he lodged with Tobias, son of Tobias. And, 
when the news about him was heard, they made it known 
to Abgar : " The apostle of Jesus is come hither, as He sent 
thee word." Thaddaeus, moreover, began to heal every dis- 
ease and sickness by the power of God, so that all men were 
amazed. And, when Abgar heard the great and marvellous 
cures which he wrought, he bethought himself that he was 
the person about whom Jesus had sent him word and said to 
him : When I have been taken up, I will send to thee one of 
my disciples, that he may heal thy disease. So he sent and 
called Tobias, with whom he was lodging, and said to him : 
1 Gr. dyrr/pctgivrx, "written in reply." 


I have heard that a mighty man has come, and has entered 
in and taken up his lodging in thy house : bring him up, 
therefore, to me. And when Tobias came to Tbaddseus he 
said to him : Abgar the king has sent and called me, and 
commanded me to bring thee up to him, that thou mayest 
heal him. And Thaddseus said : I will go up, because to 
him have I been sent with power. Tobias therefore rose up 
early the next day, and took Thadcleeus, and came to Abgar. 
Now, when they were come up, his princes happened to 
be standing l there. And immediately, as he was entering 
in, a great vision appeared to Abgar on the countenance of 
Thaddasus the apostle. And, when Abgar saw Thaddaeus, 
he prostrated himself before him. 2 And astonishment seized 
upon all who were standing there : for they had not them- 
selves seen that vision, which appeared to Abgar alone. And 
he proceeded to ask Thaddaeus : Art thou in truth the dis- 
ciple of Jesus the Son of God, who said to me, I will send 
to thee one of my disciples, that he may heal thee and give 
thee salvation ? And Thaddseus answered and said : Be- 
cause thou hast mightily 3 believed on Him that sent me, 
therefore have I been sent to thee ; and again, if thou shalt 
believe on Him, thou shalt have the requests of thy heart. 
And Abgar said to him : In such wise have I believed 
on Him, that I have even desired to take an army and 
extirpate those Jews who crucified Him; [and had done 
so], were it not that I was restrained by reason of the 
dominion of the Romans. 4 And Thaddaeus said : Our Lord 
lias fulfilled the will of His Father ; and, having fulfilled it, 
has been taken up to His Father. Abgar said to him : I too 

1 [Cureton, "were assembled and standing ;" nearly as Euseb.: vet-pov- 
TUV x.*l WTUTUV. But in 2 Sam. xx. 1, the only reference given by Castel 
for the word, _i5oAV| is used for the Heb. K"lp3, " he chanced."] 

2 [,_ML_CD, like the 7rpoffzx.i>vws of Eusebius, may be rendered " wor- 

3 [Aj|)5o5; Gr. ftf/d^as, lit. "greatly;" C. "nobly." But 
nothing more than intensity is necessarily denoted by either word. Com- 
pare, for the Syriac, Ps. cxix. 107, 167 ; Dan. ii. 12.] 

4 Compare the letters of Abgar and Tiberius, p. 26 


have believed in Him and in His Father. And l Thaddasus 
said : Therefore do I lay my hand upon thee in His name. 
And when he had done this, immediately he was healed of 
his sickness and of the disease which he had. And Abgar 
marvelled, because, like as he had heard concerning Jesus, 
so he saw in deeds [wrought] by the hand of Thaddasus His 
disciple : since without drugs and roots he healed him ; and 
not him only, but also Abdu, 2 son of Abdu, who had the 
gout : for he too went in, and fell at his feet, 3 and when he 
prayed over him he was healed. And many other people of 
their city did he heal, and he did great works, and preached 
the word of God. 

After these things Abgar said to him : Thou, Thaddseus, 
doest these things by the power of God ; we also marvel at 
them. But in addition to all these things I beg of thee to 
relate to me the story about the coming of Christ, and in 
what manner it was ; and about His power, and by what 
power He wrought those things of which I have heard. 

And Thaddseus said : For the present I will be silent ; 4 
but, because I have been sent to preach the word of God, 
assemble me to-morrow all the people of thy city, and I will 
preach before them, and sow amongst them the word of life ; 
and [will tell them] about the coming of Christ, how it took 
place ; and about His mission, 5 for what purpose He was 
sent by His Father ; and about His power and His deeds, 

1 In the next piece, The Teaching of Addwts, i.e. Thaddseus, we have 
a portion of the original Syriac from which Eusebius' translation was 
made. The only portions that correspond are : in the present piece, 
from this place to u accept that of others," near the end ; and, in 
the following one, from the beginning to " that which is not ours." 
Some of the variations are worthy of notice. 

2 See note 1, p. 14. 

3 This answers sufficiently well to the Greek : 6; x.a.1 etinos Kpw&du-j 
info rovs wo'Saj UVTOV tTTiotv ; but, as the original Syriac, p. 12, reads 
" he too brought [presented] his feet to him, and he laid his hands 
upon them and healed him," the Greek translation must have been at 

4 The original Syriac has " I will not hold my peace from declaring 

6 So Euseb. The orig. Syr. has " His sender." 


and about the mysteries which He spake in the world, and 
by what power He wrought these things, and about His new 
preaching, 1 and about His abasement and His humiliation, 
and how He humbled and emptied and abased Himself, and 
was crucified, and descended to Hades, 2 and broke through 
the enclosure 3 which had never been broken through [be- 
fore], and raised up the dead, and descended alone, and 
ascended with a great multitude to His Father. 4 

Abgar, therefore, commanded that in the morning all the 
people of his city should assemble, and hear the preaching 
of Thaddaeus. And afterwards he commanded gold and 
silver to be given to him ; but he received it not, and said : 
If we have forsaken that which was our own, how shall we 
accept that of others ? 

These things were done in the year 340. 5 

In order, moreover, that these things may not have been 
translated to no purpose word for word from the Aramaic 
into Greek, they are placed in their order of time here. 

[Here] endeth the first book. 

1 The orig. Syr. has "the certitude [or, unerring truth] of His preach- 
ing." The error seems to have arisen from the Greek translator con- 
founding |Z.oA_A^ with l^r-*^- [More probably with fZoZ,^, " new- 
ness (of his preaching)," which was freely translated by him (vtpl) rij; 
xotivTif U.VTOV X,YIOV%SUS ; and this, again, was by the Syrian re-translator 
rendered literally, as in the text.] 

2 Or " Sheol," as in Hebrew. The orig. Syr. gives " the place of the 

3 Eph. ii. 14. 4 Comp. Matt, xxvii. 52. 

5 Valesius says that the Edessenes commenced their era with the [be- 
ginning of] the 117th Olympiad, the first year of the reign of Seleucus. 
The year 340 corresponds, therefore, with the fifteenth year of Tiberius. 


Addseus 2 [said] to him : Because thou hast thus believed, 
I lay my hand upon thee in the name of Him in whom thou 
hast thus believed. And at the very moment that he laid 
his hand upon him he was healed of the plague of the 
disease which he had for a long time. 3 And Abgar was 
astonished and marvelled, because, like as he had heard about 
Jesus, how He wrought and healed, so Addaeus also, without 
any medicine whatever, was healing in the name of Jesus. 
And Abdu also, son of Abdu, had the gout in his feet; 
and he also presented his feet to him, and he laid his hand 
upon them, and healed him, and he had the gout no more. 
And in all the city also he wrought great cures, and showed 
forth wonderful mighty-works in it. 

Abgar said to him : Now that every man knoweth that by 
the power of Jesus Christ thou doest these miracles, and lo ! 
we are astonished at thy deeds, I therefore entreat of thee 
to relate to us the story about the coming of Christ, in what 
manner it was, and about His glorious power, and about the 
miracles which we have heard that He did, which thou hast 
thyself seen, together with thy fellow-disciples. 

Addseus said : I will not hold my peace from declaring this ; 
since for this very purpose was I sent hither, that I might speak 
to and teach every one who is willing to believe, even as thou. 
Assemble me to-morrow all the city, and I will sow in it the 
word of life by the preaching which I will address to you 
about the coming of Christ, in what manner it was; and 
about Him that sent Him, why and how He sent Him ; and 

1 This fragment, extending to the lacuna on p. 14, is contained in 
the MS. No. 14,654, at fol. 33. It consists of one leaf only, and is 
part of a volume of fragments, of which the age is certainly not later 
than the beginning of the fifth century. 

2 [See note 1 on p. 10.] 

3 Moses Chor. says that he had been suffering seven years from a 
disease caught in Persia. 


about His power and His wonderful works ; and about the 
glorious mysteries of His coming, which He spake of in the 
world ; and about the unerring truth l of His preaching ; and 
how and for what cause He abased Himself, and humbled 
His exalted Godhead by the manhood which He took, and 
was crucified, and descended to the place of the dead, and 
broke through the enclosure 2 which had never been broken 
through [before], and gave life to the dead by being slain 
Himself, and descended alone, and ascended with many to 
His glorious Father, with whom He had been from eternity 
in one exalted Godhead. 

And Abgar commanded them to give to Addseus silver 
and gold. Addaeus said to him : How can we receive that 
which is not ours ? For, lo ! that which was ours have we for- 
saken, as we were commanded by our Lord [to do] ; because 
without purses and without scrips, bearing the cross upon 
our shoulders, were we commanded to preach His gospel in 
the whole creation, of whose crucifixion, which was for our 
sakes, for the redemption of all men, the whole creation was 
sensible and suffered pain. 

And he related before Abgar the king, and before his 
princes and his nobles, and before Augustin, Abgar's mother, 
and before Shalmath, 3 the daughter of Meherdath, 4 Abgar's 
wife, 5 the signs of our Lord, and His wonders, and the 
glorious mighty-works which He did, and His divine exploits, 
and His ascension to His Father ; and how they had received 
power and authority at the same time that He was received 
up by which same power it was that he had healed Abgar, 

1 " The certitude." C. 

2 Eph. ii. 14. 

3 The vowels supplied in this word are conjectural, as is the case with 
most of the proper names in these Documents. Perhaps the name of 
this person is to be read Shalamtho, as there is a Sa^a^^a, the wife of 
Phasaelus, mentioned in Jos. Antiq. b. xviii. c. v. 

4 Who this was, does not appear. He may have been some connection 
of Meherdates king of the Parthians, of whom Tacitus, Ann. xii. 12, 
speaks as having been entertained at Edessa by Abgar. 

5 According to Moses Chor. b. ii. ch. xxxv., the first, or chief, wife 
of Abgar was Helena. 


and Abclu son of Abclu, the second person l of his kingdom ; 
and how He informed them that He would reveal Himself at 
the end of the ages 2 and at the consummation of all created 
things ; [he told them] also [of] the resuscitation and resur- 
rection which is to come for all men, and the separation 
which will be made between the sheep and the goats, and 
between the faithful and those who believe not. 

And he said to them : Because the gate of life is strait and 
the way of truth narrow, therefore are the believers of the 
truth few, and through unbelief is Satan's gratification. 
Therefore are the liars many who lead astray those that see. 
[Liars they are :] for, were it not that there is a good end 
awaiting believing men, our Lord would not have descended 
from heaven, and come to be born, and to [endure] the suffer- 
ing of death. Yet He did come, and us did He send 3 

of the faith which we preach, that God was crucified for 4 
all men. 

And, if there be those who are not willing 4 to agree with 
these our words, let them draw near to us and disclose to us 
what is in their mind, that, like as in the case of a disease, we 
may apply to their thoughts healing medicine for the cure of 
their ailments. For, though ye were not present at the time 
of Christ's suffering, yet from the sun which was darkened, 
and which ye saw, learn ye and understand concerning the 
great convulsion 5 which took place at that time, when He 

1 Probably one of tbe second rank. Tacitus, Ann. vi. 31, 32, men- 
tions a man named Abdus, perhaps the same as this one. as possessing 
great authority in the Parthian kingdom. 

2 [Or " times."] 

3 The remainder of " The Teaching of Addieus" is taken from another 
MS. of the Nitrian collection in the Brit. Mus., Cod. Add. 14,644. It is 
one of those which were procured in the year of the Greeks 1243 
(A.D. 931) by the abbot Moses during his visit to Bagdad. It appears 
to be of the sixth century. 

4 Both " for" and "willing" are conjectural, the MS. being damaged. 

5 [Possibly " earthquake," for which sense see Mich., p. 161 ; and so 
on p. 17.] 


was crucified whose gospel has winged its way through all 
the earth by the signs which His disciples [my] fellows do in 
all the earth : yea, those who were Hebrews, and knew only 
the language of the Hebrews, in which they were born, lo ! 
at this day are speaking in all languages, in order that those 
who are afar off may hear and believe, even as those who are 
near. For He it is that confounded the tongues of the 
presumptuous in this region who were before us ; and He 
it is that teaches at this day the faith of truth and verity 
by us, humble and despicable l men from Galilee of Pales- 
tine. For I also whom ye see am from Paneas, 2 from the 
place where the river Jordan issues forth, and I was chosen, 
together with my fellows, to be a preacher. 

For, according as my Lord commanded me, lo! I preach 
and publish the gospel, and lo ! His money do I cast upon 
the table before you, and the seed of His word do I sow in 
the ears of all men ; and such as are willing to receive it, 
theirs is the good recompense of the confession [of Christ] ; 
but those who are not persuaded [to accept it], the dust of 
my feet do I shake off against them, as He commanded me. 

llepent therefore, my beloved, of evil ways and of abomi- 
nable deeds, and turn yourselves towards Him with a good 
and honest will, as He hath turned Himself towards you 
with the favour of His rich mercies ; and be ye not as the 
generations of former times that have passed away, which, 
because they hardened their heart against the fear of God, 
received punishment openly, that they themselves might be 
chastised, and that those who come after them may tremble 
and be afraid. For the purpose of our Lord's coming into the 
world assuredly was, 3 that He might teach us and show us that 
at the consummation of the creation there will be a resus- 
citation of all men, and that at that time their course of con- 
duct will be portrayed in their persons, and their bodies will 

1 [Properly " miserable." Compare Rom. vii. 24 ; 1 Cor. xv. 19.] 
8 [Otherwise Csesarea Paneas, or C. Philippi : now Banias.] 
G [Cureton : "the whole object of our Lord's coming into the world 
was/' But OT-^D is= omnino.] 


be [so many] volumes for the writings of justice ; nor will any 
one be there who is unacquainted with books, because every 
one will read that which is written in His own book. 1 

Ye that have eyes, forasmuch as ye do not perceive, are 
yourselves also become like those who see not and hear not ; 
and in vain do your ineffectual voices strain themselves to 
deaf 2 ears. Whilst they are not to be blamed for not hearing, 
because they are by 3 nature deaf and dumb, yet the blame 
which is justly incurred falls upon you, 4 because ye are not 
willing to perceive not even that which ye see. For the 
dark cloud of error which overspreads your minds suffers 
you not to obtain the heavenly light, which is the under- 
standing of knowledge. 5 

Flee, then, from things made and created, as I said to 
you, which are only called gods in name, whilst they are 
not gods in their nature ; and draw near to this [Being], who 
in His nature is God from everlasting and from eternity, 
and is not something made, like your idols, nor is He a 
creature and a work of art, like those images in which ye 
glory. Because, although this 6 [Being] put on a body, 
[yet] is He God with His Father. For the works of 
creation, which trembled when He was slain and were dis- 
mayed at His suffering of death, these bear witness that 
He is Himself God the Creator. For it was not on account 
of a man that the earth trembled, 7 but on account of Him 
who established the earth upon the waters ; nor was it on 
account of a man that the sun grew dark in the heavens, 

1 A few lines are wanting here in the MS. 

2 The greater part of the word rendered "deaf" is conjectural. 
WRIGHT. [The "your" looks as if it were impersonal: " it is useless 
for any one to talk to the deaf."] 

3 ["By " (2) is not in the printed text.] 

4 [Lit. "the blame in which justice is involved (prop., buried) is 

5 [Comp. Prov. xix. 25.] 6 " This " is doubtful. WRIGHT. 

7 I have very little doubt that we should substitute \^\ Ai1 [the 
earth trembled] for ]$] <_k)5 [who is from the earth]. WRIGHT. 


but on account of Him who made the great lights ; nor was 
it for a man that the just and righteous were restored to life 
again, but for Him who had granted power over death from 
the beginning ; nor was it for a man that the veil of the 
temple of the Jews was rent from the top to the bottom, 
but for Him who said to them, " Lo, your house is left deso- 
late." For, lo ! unless those who crucified Him had known 
that He was the Son of God, they would not have had to 
proclaim 1 the desolation 2 of their city, nor would they have 
brought down Woe ! upon themselves. 3 For, even if they 
had wished to make light of this confession, 4 the fearful con- 
vulsions which took place at that time would not have suffered 
them to do so. For lo ! some even of the children of the 
crucifiers are become at this day preachers and evangelists, 
along with my fellow-apostles, in all the land of Palestine, 
and among the Samaritans, and in all the country of the 
Philistines. The idols also of paganism are despised, and 
the cross of Christ is honoured, and [all] nations and creatures 
confess God who became man. 

If, therefore, while Jesus our Lord was on earth ye 
would have believed in Him that He is the Son of God, and 
before ye had heard the word of His preaching would have 
confessed Him that He is God; now that He is ascended 
to His Father, and ye have seen the signs and the wonders 
which are done in His name, and have heard with your own 
ears the word of His gospel, let no one of you doubt in 

1 [Lit. " have proclaimed."] 

2 [Cureton renders : " They would not have proclaimed the desolation 
of their city, nor would they have divulged the affliction of their soul 
in crying Woe ! " Dr. Wright pronounces the two words whose equiva- 
lents are given in italics to be very doubtful. Dr. Payne Smith, instead 
of the latter of the two (^^1), conjectures (yCXTl ^J)^ *>}. This 
conjecture has been adopted. " Brought down " (. A.^.felO) is lit. 
" caused to drop."] 

3 The ancient Syriac Gospel, Luke xxiii. 48, gives : " And all those 
who were assembled there, and saw that which was done, were smiting 
on their breast, and saying, Woe to us ! what is this ? Woe to us for 
our sins ! " 

4 [i.e. Christianity.] 



his mind so that the promise of His blessing which He sent 
to you may be fulfilled l towards you : Blessed are ye that 
have believed in me, not having seen me ; and, because ye 
have so believed in me, the town 2 in which ye dwell shall be 
blessed, and the enemy shall not prevail against it for ever. 3 
Turn not away, therefore, from His faith : for, lo ! ye have 
heard and seen what things bear witness to His faith 
[showing] that He is the adorable Son, and is the glorious 
God, and is the victorious King, and is the mighty Power ; 
and through faith in Him a man is able to acquire the eyes 
of a true mind, 4 and to understand that, whosoever worship- 
peth creatures, the wrath of justice will overtake him. 

1 [Or " confirmed."] 

2 [Perhaps " town " will not seem too insignificant a word if it be 
taken in its original sense of a fortified place, which the Syriac term also 
denotes. It seemed desirable to distinguish, if possible, the two words 
which have been rendered respectively "city" and "town" in these 
pages. The only exception made is