Skip to main content

Full text of "The works of the Rev. William Bridge"

See other formats


Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 



THE WORKS 



REV. WILLIAM BRIDGE, M.A. 



FORMERLY FELLOW OK KMANL'EL COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AND PASTOR Ol' 
TUT CHURCH OF CHRIST IN GREAT YARMOUTH, NORFOLK. 



NOW FIRST COLLECTED. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES. 
VOL. III. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THOMAS TEGG, 

73, CHEAPSIDE. 
1845. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 



CHRIST AND THE COVENANT, THE WORK AND WAY OF 
MEDITATION, GOD'S RETURN TO THE SOUL OR NATION, TO- 
GETHER WITH HIS PREVENTING MERCY: IN TEN SER- 
MONS. 

Sermon 1. Christ's Personal Excellencies the Object of our 

Love. John ziv. 28 3 

Sermon 2. Christ Crucified the Object of our Faith. 1 Cor. 

ii. 2 20 

Sermon 3. The New Covenant of Grace Opened. Heb. xii. 

24 ..41 

Sermon 4. Christ the Mediator of the New Covenant. Heb. 

xii. 24 61 

Sermon 5. The Way and Spirit of the New Covenant, or 

New Testament. Heb. xii. 24. .. 80 
Sermon 6. The Blood of Sprinkling. Heb. xii. 24 . . 104 
Sermon 7. The Sweetness and Profitableness of Divine Me. 

dilation. Psalm civ. 34 124 

Sermon 8. The Work and Way of Meditation. Psalm civ. 

34 143 

Sermon 9. God's Return to the Soul or Nation. Psalm xc. 

13 161 

Sermon 10. Preventing Mercy. Psalm xxi. 2, 3. .. 179 

CHRIST IN TRAVAIL: THREE SERMONS ON ISAIAH LHI. 
11. 

Sermon 1. The Travail of Christ 199 

Sermon 2. Christ's Assurance of Issue 218 

Sermon 3. The Contentment that Christ doth and shall find 
in his Assurance of Issue. . . . . 248 

SEASONABLE TRUTHS IN EVIL TIMES: NINE SERMONS. 

Rev. W. Greenhill's Preface 278 

Sermon 1. Of Grace Growing and Increasing. 1 Thess. 

iv. 1 279 

Sermon 2. "The First and Last in Suffering Work. Matt. 

xix. 30 299 

Sermon 3, The Way to Obtain a Sure and great Reward. 

Matt. xix. 28 ..319 

Sermon 4. The Two Witnesses, their Testimony. Rev.xi.3. 

313 



2018123 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 



Sermon 5. The Uncertainty of the World should take off our 
Hearts from the Love of it. 1 Cor. vii. 30, 
31 365 

Sermon 6. Men's Wrath, against God's People shall turn to 
God's Praise. Psalm Ixxvi. 10. . . 387 

Sermon 7. Comfort to Mourners for the Loss of Solemn 
Assemblies. Zeph. iii. 18 407 

Sermon 8. The Evil of Unbelief in Departing from God. 
Heb. iii. 12 426 

Sermon 9. A Warning to Apostates. Luke xviii. 32. . 441 



CHRIST AND THE COVENANT, 

THE 

WORK AND WAY OF MEDITATION, 
GOD'S RETURN TO THE SOUL OR NATION, 

TOGETHER WITH HIS 

PREVENTING MERCY. 

DELIVERED 

IN TEN SERMONS. 

1667. 



VOL. III. 



TO THE READER. 



COURTEOUS READER, These Ten Sermons, lately taken by an expert hand, 
as they fell from the mouth of the sweet preacher of them, contain so great a 
variety of heavenly matter, so much of the very marrow and quintessence of 
the gospel, that thou wilt no sooner begin to read them, but wilt presently find 
that the heart of the reverend author of them hath lain long asoke in. the blood 
of Je-us, and that he hath been no stranger to his very bosom love. Buy them 
therefore with what speed thou canst, and read them over diligently, it will be a 
good bargain for thy soul, and one of the richest commodities that ever thou 
meetedst with at so cheap a rate. It is put into so small a letter and bulk, pur- 
posely for thy better accommodation, and that not only in the ease of thy purse, 
but principally that thou mayest make it as well thy pocket as thy heart's com- 
panion, wherever thou goest. Farewell. 



CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 



SERMON I. 

CHRIST'S PERSONAL EXCELLENCIES THE OBJECT 
OP OUR LOVE. 

" If ye loved me ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the 
Father, for my Father is greater than I." JOHN xiv. 28. 

THESE words are part of the last sweet sermon which our 
Saviour preached unto his disciples before his death and de- 
parture from them ; wherein he labours to allay their sorrow 
and grief upon the occasion of his departure : therefore he 
tells them at the 2nd verse, " In my Father's house are 
many mansions " and at the 3rd verse, t{ I go to prepare a 
place for you." 

Then he tells them at the 16th, 17th and 18th verses, that 
" he would send them another Comforter ;" and " I will not 
leave you comfortless, I will come unto you." 

Then he labours to persuade them unto comfort by their 
protestation of their own love unto him. " Ye say you love 
me (saith he), if ye loved me ye would rejoice, because I said, 
I go unto the Father, for my Father is greater than I." 

" If ye loved me ;" that is, if you loved me so much as 
you should. It is usual with Scripture to speak of things 
absolutely when they are meant comparatively. If you loved 
me so much as you profess, and so much as you should ; for 
they did love him. 

" If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I go unto my 
Father." 

Joy is the top of comfort as comfort is the top of peace. 
Joy is the cream of comfort. If ye loved me, ye would be so 
far from being troubled at my going, that you would be very 
much 'comforted, for I go unto my Father who " is greater 
than I ;" than I am as Mediator : who upon my coming to 
him will exalt me : and therefore if ye loved me ye would 
rather rejoice, " because I go unto my Father who is greater 
than I." From whence then I take up this doctrine : 
B2 



4 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 1. 

That true love unto the person of Christ will make us re- 
joice in his personal exaltment, though it may be in some 
respects unto our debasement or present loss. 

For the opening and prosecuting whereof, 

First, We must inquire what there is in Christ's going to 
the Father that is matter of our rejoicing. 

Secondly, I shall labour to shew you that it is our duty to 
rejoice in the personal exaltment of Christ, though in some 
respects it may be to our own loss and debasement. 

Thirdly, That true love to the person of Christ will enable 
us to do this. 

Fourthly, That it is possible that Christ's own and best 
disciples may be wanting in their love to Christ's person. 

Fifthly, What an excellent thing it is to love the person of 
Christ rather than the benefits of Christ ; to have our hearts 
drawn out in love to his person, more excellent than to have 
a love to him upon the account of benefits. And, 

Sixthly, What we should do that our hearts may be drawn 
out in love to the very person of Christ, so as we may be able 
to rejoice in his exaltment though to our own debasement. 

First, If you ask what there is in Christ's going to the Fa- 
ther that is matter of rejoicing, of a disciple's rejoicing. 

I answer, Much every way. Much in reference to our own 
concernments; much in reference to the concernments of 
Christ; much in reference to the concernments of God the 
Father. 

As for our own concernments. 

If Christ had not gone unto the Father, his satisfaction for 
our sins had not been accepted, nor our redemption perfected. 
" Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own 
blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained 
eternal redemption for us," Heb. ix. 12. It doth relate and 
allude unto the manner of the old testament : when the blood 
of goats and calves was poured out, the priest " took the 
blood and carried it into the holy of holiest, and sprinkled 
the mercy seat." But though the blood of bulls or calves 
had been poured out, yet if the priest had not carried it into 
the holy of holiest, the typical satisfaction and redemption 
had not been obtained. And so here, though the blood of 
Jesus had been shed, and poured out upon the cross, if he 
had not gone unto the Father, and carried his blood into 



. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 5 

heaven, into the holy of holiest, his satisfaction for our sin 
had not been accepted, and our redemption had not been 
perfected. 

If Christ had not gone unto the Father, he had not made 
the application of his death and blood and merits unto our 
souls. He came into the world that we should have repent- 
ance and remission. Both were purchased by his death. 
But now if he had not gone unto the Father there had not 
been an application. Both were purchased by his death on 
earth. But was the business so left at a loose ? No, but by 
his going to the Father, what he purchased by his death, he 
doth apply. In Acts v. it is said, " Him hath God exalted 
with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give 
repentance unto Israel and forgiveness of sins." So that had 
he not gone unto the Father, there had not been an applica- 
tion of his blood and death and merit unto our souls. 

If Christ had not gone unto the Father, the Holy Ghost, 
the Comforter, had not come. " If I go not away the Com- 
forter will not come." But why might not the Comforter, or 
the Holy Ghost, come, though Christ had been here on earth, 
if he had not gone unto the Father ? 

I answer, the gifts, graces and comforts of the Holy Ghost 
were the dona regia which were given oat upon the coronation 
of Christ ; for by this going to the Father he was " crowned 
with glory and honour," as in Heb. ii. When the Holy 
Ghost comes, he doth bear witness to our spirits that we are 
the children of God, and God reconciled to us. But how 
should God give such a testimony of his reconciliation unto 
us, if Christ had not first gone into heaven and given up his 
accounts of what he had done here on earth. It is said ex- 
pressly in John vii. " This spake he of the Spirit, which they 
that believe on him should receive ; for the Holy Ghost was 
not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified." And 
if Jesus Christ had not gone unto the Father, and so sent the 
Spirit, how should we have known that he had so much care 
for us and love to us when he was in heaven as by the send- 
ing of the Holy Ghost. We are never more fit for the Holy 
Ghost than when we are weaned from the carnal presence of 
Christ. And therefore if Christ had not gone unto the Father, 
the Spirit, the Holy Ghost had not come. 

If our Lord and Saviour Christ had not gone unto the 



CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 1. 

Father, we should have had no advocate in heaven to plead 
our cause in heaven upon all occasions. It is a great matter, 
we say, to have a friend at court, an agent there that may 
plead for us. What a mercy is it to have an agent in heaven 
to negotiate our business there ! Why now, saith the apostle, 
" If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, 
Jesus Christ the righteous." If Christ had not gone unto 
the Father, we had not had this Advocate in heaven to plead 
for us upon all occasions. And, 

If Christ had not gone unto the Father, we should have 
no entrance into heaven. Heaven was locked up, the gates 
of paradise were shut, and kept by an angel with a flaming 
sword. This paradise was opened upon the cross : "This day 
shalt thou be with me in paradise." And we enter into it 
by Christ's going into heaven, by his going into the holy of 
holiest. " I go to prepare a place for you ; " not as sent 
before to take up your lodgings, but as one friend goes before 
another, to make a great entertainment for his friends. But, 
I say, if Christ had not gone unto the Father, we had had 
no entrance into heaven. Why now, is it not a matter of 
joy and of great comfort, that we have entrance into heaven ; 
that the Comforter is come ; that we have always one in hea- 
ven to plead our cause upon all occasions ? These and many 
other things we obtain by Christ's going to the Father. This 
for our own concemment. And, 

As for the concernment of Christ : by his going to the 
Father he was exalted and glorified (as Mediator I speak). 

And if you ask what was the glory and greatness that was 
put upon Christ, as Mediator, by his going to the Father ? 
It consists in two things : the royalty of his entertainment 
when he came unto his Father ; and the greatness of his 
advancement. 

And if you ask yet, what was the entertainment that he 
had when he came unto the Father ? 

Why, it was an entertainment suitable to such a Father, 
and to such a Son. When that great sinner, the prodigal, 
returned unto his father, " his father fell upon his neck 
and kissed him." Bring out the robes, kill the fatted calf, 
bring out the ring. And if such an entertainment for a 
prodigal son, what entertainment then for the natural Son of 
God, the obedient Son of God, that had been upon his 



. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 7 

Father's great concernment in the world ? Great was this 
entertainment surely, beyond all my expression. But now 
more particularly, 

1. No sooner did he come into heaven unto his Father, but 
he was justified in all that which he did and suffered for us ; as 
you have it in the 1 Tim. iii. 16, " God was manifest in the 
flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the 
gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory/' 

2. No sooner did he come unto the Father, but he was 
mightily declared to be the Son of God, as you have it in 
Rom. i. "Thou art my Son, this day (that is, upon the resur- 
rection) this day have I begotten thee." The apostle explains 
it concerning the resurrection in Acts xiii. 

3. No sooner did he come unto the Father, but he was 
anointed with a new and fresh anointing, with the oil of 
gladness above all his fellows. For as David, the type, had a 
double anointing, one by the hand of Samuel, after which he 
was thrust out into the wilderness, and another at the day of 
his coronation ; so Christ typified had a double anointing, 
one upon his incarnation, in which respects he saith, " The 
Spirit of the Lord is upon me, and he hath anointed me to 
preach," and another upon his coronation, when he was 
crowned with glory and honour. And therefore in Heb. i., 
" He is anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows," 
comes in upon his exaltation. And, 

4. No sooner did he come into the presence of his Father, 
but his Father said unto him, (< Sit thou down at my right- 
hand " the most honourable place in heaven : Sit thou at my 
right-hand, my Son. Why now is it not a matter of great 
rejoicing to us, that Christ going to heaven with our names 
upon his shoulder and heart, should have such an entertain- 
ment as this, such a welcome as this unto God the Father ? 

But, what advancement had he upon his going to the 
Father ? 

Why, great was his advancement as Mediator. 

For, 1. No sooner did he come unto the Father, but he 
was invested with all that glory that he had with God the 
Father from all eternity, which he had laid by and vailed, 
when he took our nature upon him ; and therefore in John 
xvii, saith he, " And now, O Father, glorify thou me with 
thyself, with the glory which I had with thee before tha 



8 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 1. 

world was." No sooner did he come into heaven unto his 
Father, but he was invested with that glory again, that he 
had vailed to take our nature upon him. 

2. No sooner did he come into the presence of his Father 
into heaven, but God commanded all the angels to worship 
him : " Worship him all ye angels." 

3. No sooner did he come into the presence of his Father, 
to heaven, but he was made executor and administrator to 
his own will, to see that performed. We die and leave 
legacies, but cannot administer ourselves, nor be the execu- 
tors of our own wills ; but Christ lives for ever. " I was 
dead, but am alive." And when he came into heaven, God 
the Father made him executor to his own will ; and therefore 
saith he, " Ask the Father in my name, and whatever ye ask, 
that will I give you." ' Him hath God the Father exalted 
to give remission and repentance." Executor of his own 
will and testament. 

4. No sooner did he come into heaven, into the presence 
of his Father, but he was made the great governor of all the 
world, and Head of the church. In Acts v., " Him hath 
God exalted with his right-hand, to be a Prince and a 
Saviour j" lord over all the world, and Saviour of the church. 
Agreeable to that in Eph. i. 20, " which he wrought in Christ, 
when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own 
right-hand in the heavenly places, far above all principalities 
and powers, and might and dominion, and every name that 
is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to 
come. And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him 
to be head over all things to the church, which is his body ;" 
Prince and Saviour, Lord over all the world, and Saviour and 
Head unto the church. 

5. And to say no more in it: No sooner did he come into 
the presence of God his Father, (that is, greater than he, as 
Mediator,) but God the Father did take him into fellowship 
in the matter of divine worship. Whether aye or no, Christ 
qua Mediator, or quia Mediator, be to be adored with divine 
worship, I will not now debate ; but whatsoever worship was 
due to God the Father, was given to Christ. " Confounded be 
all they that worship graven images ; worship him all ye 
gods." All divine worship due to God the Father, is given 
to him. Here is an advancement. Now is it not a matter 



SER. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 9 

of great rejoicing, that Christ our Head should be thus 
advanced ? Saith the emperor's wife, If thou be Caius, I am 
Caia ; and, if Christ be king, the church is queen, Ps. xlv. 
Is it not, I say, a matter of great rejoicing, that Christ our 
Head should be thus advanced ? Now thus he is advanced 
by his going to God the Father. Thus for the Son's con- 
cernment. But 

What matter is there of rejoicing by Christ's going to the 
Father, in reference to the Father's concernment ? 

Much ; saith Christ in John xiv. 13, " Whatsoever ye 
shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be 
glorified in the Son." That will I do ; I am now going from 
you, and if ye ask the Father in my name, that will I do. 
Why ? not that the Son may be glorified only, but that the 
Father may be glorified. 

Look when the great promise of the Father is fulfilled, then 
is the Father glorified. What is the great promise of the 
Father ? Acts i. The coming of the Holy Ghost. By Christ's 
going to the Father comes the Holy Ghost : therein was the 
Father glorified then. 

And look, when " Every tongue shall confess that Jesus 
is the Lord, to the glory of the Father," then is the Father 
glorified. Now by Christ's going to the Father, being exalted, 
every tongue doth confess, that Jesus is the Lord, to the 
glory of the Father, as in Phil. ii. 

And to say no more in it but this : look, when the great 
design of God upon the world is accomplished, and Christ 
the Son glorified, then is the Father glorified. Now by 
Christ's going to the Father, the great design of God is ac- 
complished, and the Son glorified. Thus we have cause ot 
rejoicing in reference to the concernment of God the Father: 
look where you will. Will you look into your own concern- 
ment ; will you look into the concernment of Christ ; will you 
look upon the concernment of God the Father ? there is 
matter of our rejoicing in Christ's going to the Father. And 
so I have done with the first thing. But then, 

Secondly, How ncay it appear that it is our work and duty, 
to rejoice in the personal exaltment of Christ, though in some 
respect it should be to our own debasement, or present loss ? 

Why you see what our Saviour saith here, " If ye loved 
me, ye would rejoice, because I go unto the Father who is 



10 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 1. 

greater than I." You lose by my going you think ; and in- 
deed in some respects you do. But however, it is your duty 
to rejoice, because it is for my personal exaltment : and you 
know what Paul saith in another case. Some preach Christ 
out of envy, and out of contention, and to add affliction to 
my bonds ; but however, saith he, Christ is preached, 
" Christ is exalted, and therein I will rejoice :" I will rejoice 
though I be debased, so Christ may be exalted, I rejoice. 

If that we are to praise God for the exaltment of Christ, 
then we are to rejoice therein ; for praise and rejoicing go to- 
gether in scripture. Now though I cannot praise God and 
be thankful that God loves me, I may praise God for this, 
that the Father loves Christ, and be thankful for his love and 
his goodness to Christ. Christ praised God for our glory 
and happiness, though to his own debasement, why should 
not we praise God for his exaltment, though it be to our 
debasement. 

If I am to mourn for sin, because it is a dishonour to God, 
though the sin be to my own profit, then I am to praise God 
and Christ for his glory, though it may be in some respects 
to my prejudice. 

But besides this, the more communicative any good is, the 
more we may and should rejoice therein. There is abundance 
of light in the sun, but if the sun be not up and ascended, it 
cannot give light unto all the world : so now, though there be 
light in Christ, able to enlighten all the world, yet if this sun 
be not up, he cannot give light to all the world : but being 
now ascended, he is able to give forth his beams of light unto 
all the world. 

But you will say ; how may it appear, that Christ will be 
as gracious and communicative in his love unto us now in 
heaven, as he would have been had he been here on earth ? 

You know what he said when he was here on earth, " And 
let him that is athirst come/' John vii. 37- " In the last day, 
the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying ; If 
any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink." Now he 
is in heaven, look into the book of the Revelation, which he 
speaks from heaven, he speaks more than that, " And let him 
that is athirst come," there is that, " And whosoever will, let 
him take of the water of life freely," here is more now he is 
in heaven. 



SEJI. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 11 

And I pray, when did our Lord and Saviour Christ, wash 
his disciples' feet ; give the glorious testimony of his condes- 
cending love unto his disciples, than when he was going to 
the Father ? f< Jesus knowing that the Father had given all 
things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and 
went to God : he arose from supper, and laid aside his gar- 
ments, and tok a towel and girded himself." Knowing that 
all power was given into his hand, he gives that reason : he 
did thus condescend in this way of love, knowing that all 
power was given into his hand. 

Now that he is in heaven, all power is given into his hand, 
and therefore now certainly he will be as gracious, and com- 
municative in his love and goodness, as if he had been here 
on earth ; and rather over and above. Surely therefore it is 
our work and our duty to rejoice in this exaltment of Christ, 
though in some respects it may be to our debasement, or 
present loss. But then 

Thirdly, How shall we do this ? 

Why, true love to the person of Christ will enable us to do 
this : it will enable us to rejoice in the personal exaltment of 
Christ, though it may be to our own present loss and abase- 
ment. It is a sweet thing to the lover, to suffer for the per- 
son loved : that is, where love is fixed upon the person, and not 
upon the benefits, if love be fixed upon the benefit, it is not 
so, but if upon the person it is so : so if our love be fixed 
upon the person of Christ, this love will enable us to rejoice 
in the exaltment of Christ, though it be in our own de- 
basement: Christ rejoiced in our exaltment, though it was 
to his own debasement. Why ? Because he loved our per- 
sons, " who loved us, and gave himself for us," so that true 
love unto the person of Christ, will make us rejoice in his 
exaltment, though it may be to our own present debasement. 

You will say then, How few are there that do love Christ 
indeed : Christ is hardly loved for Christ : Christ himself is 
hardly loved for himself: to love the person of Christ, 
how few are there that do that. And so I come unto the 
fourth thing. 

Fourthly, It is possible that Christ's own disciples may 
be wanting in their love to Christ's person. It is somewhat 
strange this : If a prince or nobleman should take a poor 
woman, a beggar off the dunghill, and marry her, it would be 



12 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 1. 

somewhat strange, that she should not love his person. If 
he should not love her, you would think it so strange : if 
Boaz should not love Ruth, you would not have thought it so 
strenge, but that Ruth should not love the person of Boaz, 
this may seem strange : so now, such beggars were we, when 
the Lord came and took us off the dunghill, and said, Now is 
a time of love. If the Lord Jesus should not love our per- 
sons, it would not seem so strange ; but that we should be 
wanting in our love to the person of Christ, this is strange : 
yea friends, it is possible that Christ's own disciples may be 
wanting in their love to the person of Christ. 

They may be wanting in the manner of their love to 
Christ's person. 

They may be wanting in the measure of their love to 
Christ's person. 

" If ye loved me," saith he, and yet they left all to follow 
him : possibly then, the best disciples of Christ, the best 
men may be wanting in their love to the person of Christ. 
To make this out a little to you. 

The more we love the person of Christ, the more 
diligent and observant we shall be in keeping Christ's 
commandments, that are properly his. " If ye love me, 
keep my commandments." Why now, how many are there 
of God's own people, that are too negligent in keeping 
Christ's commandments; the commandment of love, the 
institutions of Christ: and why so, but because they are 
wanting in their love to the person of Christ, " If ye love me, 
keep my commandments." 

If a good man may be wanting in his zeal for Christ, 
possibly he may be wanting in his love to Christ's person : 
what is zeal, but fired love, inflamed love, angered love ? 
Now possibly a man that loves Christ in truth, may be want- 
ing in his zeal. Old Eli loved God, without all doubt, and 
yet he was wanting in his love to God. Peter loved Christ, 
" Thou knowest that I love thee," and yet wanting in his 
love by denying of Christ. Good men may be wanting in 
their zeal for Christ. Why ? But because they are wanting 
in their love to the person of Christ. 

The more a man loves the person of Christ, the more he 
doth love the servants, the people of Christ. It was a good 
speech of Jerom, when there was a difference between Austin 



SER. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 13 

and him : I love Christ dwelling in Austin : even at that very 
time when there was a difference between them. And cer- 
tainly if we love the person of Christ, we shall love Christ 
dwelling in the saints. But now do not we find by woeful ex- 
perience, that even in good people, their love to the saints is 
wanting ? Why ? But because their love to the person of 
Christ is wanting. 

The more a man doth love the person of Christ, the more 
he will be speaking and thinking of him : love is busied and 
exercised in thoughtfulness about the person loved; and in 
speech. If a man love a person or thing, he will be thinking 
much on it, and speaking much on it. But now by our ex- 
perience, cannot we go a whole day together and have no 
thought of Christ? Do not we sit down at our meals fre- 
quently and not one word of Christ? Good conference, 
where art thou ? Good and holy conference, where art thou ? 
Come to professors' tables, one dish after another, one cup of 
wine after another, but nothing of Christ. It is gone, it is 
gone : what is the reason, but because we are wanting in our 
love to the person of Christ ? Certainly, if we were not 
wanting in our love to the person of Christ, we should be 
thinking more of him and speaking more of him. 

The more we love the person of Christ, the more we shall 
desire to be dissolved, that we may be with him in the enjoy- 
ments of himself and those heavenly embracements. " I 
desire to be dissolved," (saith St. Paul) why ? And to be 
with Christ," to have the person of Christ. But how many 
good people are there that cannot desire to be dissolved ; 
why ? Because there is a want in their love to the person of 
Christ. Possibly then you see by all these things, it is pos- 
sible that a good man, Christ's own and best disciples, may 
be wanting in their love to the person of Christ. But 

Fifthly, You will say, Suppose that my heart be riot drawn 
out in love to the person of Christ, but my love is rather 
fixed on Christ's benefits, spiritual benefits, is not that 
good ? Is it not good that I should have love for Christ in 
reference unto the benefits that I have from him. 

Good ? Yes. " I sat down under his shadow with great 
delight," saith the spouse, " and his fruit was sweet unto my 
taste." Fruit ; that is the fruit of justification, the fruit of 
sanctification, of consolation, " and his fruit was sweet unto 



14 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 1. 

my taste. It is good without all doubt, that our hearts should 
be drawn out to Christ, by occasion even of his benefits. 
But I pray do not mistake me ; I grant therefore, 

1. It is good, and a lawful thing to love Christ in reference 
to his benefits. But 

2. It is our duty to love Christ's person, to have our hearts 
drawn out with love to the very person of Christ. But 

3. The excellency of Christ's person is not the object of 
my faith, but Christ crucified. And 

4. Though Christ crucified be the object of my faith, yet 
the personal excellencies of Christ are the object of my 
love. Yea, it is a more excellent thing yet to love the person 
of Christ, than the benefits of Christ. A more excellent 
thing to have my heart drawn out in love to the person of 
Christ, than to have my heart drawn out in love to him for 
his benefits. 

But you will say, Wherein doth our love to the very person 
of Christ exceed or excel our love upon the account of benefits, 
though spiritual ? Many ways. 

First of all, If your hearts be drawn out in love to the 
very person of Christ, " by your loving him you make him 
your own." It is not so in other loves. By my loving gold 
I do not make it my own ; by my loving silver I do not make 
it my own ; but by loving his person I make him my own. 
It is not so in regard of benefits. By my loving the benefits 
of Christ, the comforts from Christ, I do not make Christ 
my own, but by my love unto the person of Christ I make 
Christ my own. 

2. The less of self in your love to Christ, the more pure 
and clean it is and so the better. Now if your heart be 
drawn out in love to the benefits of Christ, your love is more 
selfish, you love him in reference unto yourselves ; because 
you have such enjoyments and such benefits. But if your 
hearts be drawn out in love to the person of Christ, your 
love is less selfish ; so the more pure, the more holy and 
clean. 

3. If your heart be drawn out unto Christ himself and the 
person of Christ, you will more readily accept of " anything 
from Christ, though it be never so small ; " yea, though it 
be afflictive. If that your love be placed and founded upon 
the benefits of Christ, then you will not so easily and readily 



. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 15 

accept of anything from Christ, especially if afflictive. True 
love interprets all things in the best sense ; that is, love to 
the person, but love to the benefit does not. Love the person 
of Christ and you will interpret every dispensation in a good 
sense, for you love his person, but love to the benefit will not 
do so. 

4. If your heart be drawn out in love to the very person 
of Christ, then you will sympathize with Christ in all his 
concernments of the gospel, whether matter of joy or matter 
of grief. If your love be founded upon Christ's benefits you 
will not sympathise with him so, but love his person and you 
will sympathize with him in all his concernments. 

5. If your heart be drawn out in love to the very person 
of Christ, then you will abound therein. " The only measure 
of love, is to know no measure," that is, where the person is 
loved. But if love be placed upon the benefit, it knows 
stints, and limits, and measures. But if your heart be drawn 
out in love to the very person of Christ, you will be abundant 
therein, and you will never think you can love enough. 

6. If your heart be drawn out in love to the very person 
of Christ, then you will (( long after the presence of Christ, 
and you will be afflicted for his absence." Love Christ upon 
the account of benefits and it will not be so ; but love Christ 
upon the account of his person and then it will be so. You 
will long after his presence and you will be afflicted for his 
absence. 

7- The more your heart is drawn out in love to Christ and 
the person of Christ, the more you will love the seed of 
Christ, the posterity of Christ, the children, and the people 
of Christ. David loved Jonathan's seed, why ? for he loved 
his person, not his benefits. So, love but the person of 
Christ, and then you will shew kindness to the seed of 
Christ, arid be more loving to the seed of Christ. 

8, The more your heart is drawn out to the very person 
of Christ, the more will your love continue. That is per- 
petual that hath a perpetuating cause. The personal excel- 
lency of Christ is a perpetual cause of love, but the benefit 
that doth come from Christ is not so. Let the benefit be 
never so great, if your love be founded upon the benefit that 
doth come from Christ, as the benefit dies your love will die ; 
but if your love be founded upon the very person of Christ, 



16 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. fSEB. 1. 

and drawn out to the person of Christ, then will your love 
continue and never die. 

9. Lastly as to this : If your heart be drawn out in love 
to the very person of Christ, to Christ himself, then you 
have " gained the heart of God the Father for ever." Look 
into John xvi., saith Christ at the 27th verse : " For the 
Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me." Not 
because ye have loved my benefits, but because ye have loved 
me ; ye have gotten the heart of my Father, saith he. 
Therefore doth my Father love you, because ye have loved 
me, because ye love my person. Now is it not a blessed 
thing, friends, (e to have the heart of God the Father ? " 
Why, if your heart be drawn out in love to the very person 
of Christ, you have gained the heart of the Father for ever. 
Aye, and the Father loves you, and the Son loves you, and 
"they will come and make their abode with you." Oh, 
what a blessed thing is it then, for to have one's heart drawn 
out in love to the very person of Christ ! Certainly it is 
infinitely better to have one's heart drawn out in love to the 
person of Christ, than to have a love to Christ upon 
the account of benefits, although the benefits be spiritual 
benefits. 

And if these things be so, why should we not all labour 
for this love to the person of Christ ? To love Christ not 
upon the account of benefits, but for himself. Oh, that I 
could persuade people to fix upon the person of Christ in 
their love. Oh, that this day I could persuade you to this 
divine fixation of your love upon the person of Christ. I 
fear our love is not rightly placed ; I fear we have love for 
Christ beneath Christ himself. It is the great work of a 
minister to woo for Christ. A minister's work is to come 
a wooing for Christ ; can a soul be wooed over unto Christ, 
and won over unto Christ, and not love the person of Christ ? 
Now then, as ever you do desire that you may be espoused 
to Jesus Christ, that you may be married to Jesus Christ, 
set not your affections upon benefits, set not your affections 
upon your own concernments in your love to Christ ; be 
more raised Christians. Oh, that your love were rightly 
placed, fixed upon Christ himself, not on the benefits, but 
on the person of Christ himself. But 

Sixthly, You will say, What shall we do ? we have heard 



. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 17 

what an excellent thing it is to have love to the person of 
Christ, beyond all love to his benefits, though they be spi- 
ritual benefits, what shall we do that our hearts may be 
drawn out to the person of Christ, that so we may be able 
to rejoice in the personal exaltment of Christ, though to our 
own debasement ? 

What shall we do ? It is a great and a good question. 
What shall we do that our hearts may be drawn out in love 
to the very person of Christ ? 

Be sure that you be really, conjugally united unto Christ. 
There is a double union ; there is a union by way of juxta- 
position, laying one thing to another; so a man's arm is 
united unto bread, when the bread is bound to his arm. 
There is a union by way of intus-susception, by taking in ; 
and so a man is united to his bread and his bread to him 
when he eats it, they are made one. 

So there is a double union, as I may so speak, to Christ ; 
one whereby men are united to Christ by the external liga- 
ments of the gospel, concerning whom our Saviour may 
speak in John xv. : "Every branch in me that beareth not 
fruit, shall be cast out." And then there is another union 
with Christ, which is that he speaks of, " He that eateth my 
flesh and drinketh my blood, shall live," that is another kind 
of union, a closer union. Now if you be really, conjugally 
united to Christ, you will love not only his benefits, but you 
will love his person. Rest not therefore, I pray you, in this 
external union with Christ by the ligaments of the gospel, 
but labour more and more to be conjugally united to Jesus 
Christ. But 

If you would have your heart drawn out in love to Christ 
himself and the person of Christ, then study much the 
personal excellency and goodness that is in Christ's person. 
Good is the object of love. The more excellent the good is, 
the more suitable the good is, and universal and obtainable, 
the more lovely and commanding is that good. Christ is 
good, an excellent good, goodness itself; a suitable good, 
suitable unto all our wants. If you be poor, he is rich ; if 
you be foolish, he is wise ; if you be out of the way, " I 
am the way," saith he ; if you want a director in the way, 
" I am the truth ;" if you be in the dark, " I am the light;" 
a suitable good and an universal good he is. As all the 

VOL. in. c 



18 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 1. 

sweetnesses that are in the flowers of the field and in the 
garden, are brought in by the bee into the hive ; and all the 
sweetnesses of the flowers are there embodied in one hive ; 
so all the attributes of God and the sweetness of them all 
are hived in Christ, in whom all the fulness of the Godhead 
dwells bodily. And he is an obtainable good ; called the 
Rose of Sharon, the rose of the field, not of the garden, 
but of the field, that every one may come at ; called the 
desire of all nations. Do you then desire that your hearts 
may be drawn out in love to the person of Christ, study 
much the personal goodness and excellency of Christ. 

If you do desire that your hearts may be drawn out in love 
to Christ himself, to the very person of Christ, why should 
you not now stand still a little with me, and behold how 
Christ hath loved you and your persons ? Shall Christ love 
you and your persons and will not you love him and his per- 
son ? Consider a little with me, 

The more impediments that any love doth break through, 
the more it calls for love again. What impediments hath not 
Christ's love broke through to come to us ? Broke through 
all our unworthiness ; broke through the law ; broke through 
the justice of God ; broke through the wrath of God ; broke 
through the grave ; broke through hell ; broke through all 
our unbelief. 

And the more free any love is, the more it calls for love 
again. Three things there are that call for love likeness, 
benefit, love ; and where none of these are, the love is most 
free. 

Now Christ hath loved you, but you were not like unto 
him when he loved you. 

You could do him no kindness ; you had no benefits to 
bestow upon him. 

And you had no love for him. In the day when he said, 
" Now is the time of love ;" there was no love in your hearts 
for him : and therefore his love must needs be most free. 

But the more patient that love is, the more it calls for love 
again, the more taking it is. Now our Saviour Christ stands 
knocking at your door. Give me leave to say to you, had 
Christ come riding post through your city, and knocked only 
at your door, and said, Hasten after me or you are damned 
for ever ; it had been much : but to stand at your door and 



. 1.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 19 

knock, day after day, and year after year, with the unwearied 
hand of his love j oh, unspeakable patience, unexpressible love ! 
Yet thus hath Christ done for you, and thus hath Christ loved 
you, and loved your persons ; and shall Christ love you, and 
love your persons, and shall your love rest any where but in 
the person of Christ ? Do but consider how he hath loved 
you and your persons, and then your heart will be drawn out 
to love the person of Christ. 

But if you do desire that your hearts may be drawn out in 
love unto Christ ; if you do desire, I say, that your hearts 
should be drawn out in love to Christ, the person of Christ, 
then use Christ much. In any good thing you have, the 
more you use it the more you prize it, and the more you prize 
it the more you love it. If you have a good friend, the more 
you use him the more you prize him, and the more you prize 
him the more you love him. If you have a good horse, the 
more you use him the more you prize him, and the more you 
prize him the more you love him. If you have but a good 
knife, the more you use it the more you prize it, and the 
more you prize it the more you will love it. Would you love 
Christ, use him much, and then the more you will prize him, 
and the more you will love him. Indeed we do not use 
Christ enough : and what is the reason we do not love him ? 
but because we do not use him. Either your sins be great, 
or else they be small. If your sins be great, you are afraid 
to use Christ for them ; if your sins be small, you think you 
need not use Christ for them. Either your wants be great, 
or else they be small. If they be great you dare not use 
Christ for them, and if your wants be small you will not, you 
think it not worth your time to use Christ for them. Indeed 
we do not use Christ enough. Use Christ much, and then 
you will prize him much ; and if you prize him much you 
love him much. 

If you would have your hearts drawn out in love to the 
very person of Christ, go then to God, and beseech the Lord 
to circumcise your hearts for to love him. Mark how the 
promise runs : the Lord hath promised to unite our hearts to 
fear him, and he hath promised to circumcise our hearts to 
love him. Why, then, would you fear the Lord ? go to God 
to unite your hearts unto him to fear him. Would you love 
him ? go to God and beseech him to circumcise your hearts 
c2 



20 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 2. 

to love the Lord and to love himself. And, oh, that the love 
that now 1 have been speaking of, unto the very person of 
Christ, might this day be begotten in any one heart, or in- 
creased where it is wanting. I fear we are wanting in our 
love to Christ's person ; wherefore think on these things, and 
the Lord bless them to you. 



SERMON II. 

CHRIST CRUCIFIED THE OBJECT OF OUR FAITH. 

" For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus 
Christ, and him crucified." 1 COR. n. 2. 

HAVING spoken of the personal excellencies of Christ, the 
object of your love, there is a necessity upon me of speaking 
something concerning Christ crucified, the object of your 
faith, that your love and faith may go together ; and therefore 
have made choice of these words only for this time. 

Wherein the apostle Paul doth give an account of the rea- 
son of the plainness of his preaching : " And I, brethren, 
when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech or 
of wisdom ;" for, saith he, I am to preach Christ crucified. 
A gallant, eloquent speech, excellency of words, and plaited 
sentences do not become a crucified Christ. If I should 
speak at that rate, my speech would not be suited unto the 
subject that I have in hand, for I preach Christ crucified : 
saith he, " For I determined not to know any thing among 
you, save Jesus Christ and him crucified/' Some books read 
it, " I desire not to know any thing among you ;" but rather, 
" I judge it; I decreed, I determined not to know any thing 
among you." 

" Not to know any thing among you." Not to make any 
thing known unto you. I would preach as if I knew nothing 
else but Christ and him crucified. Christ and him crucified 
is the great thing I desire to make known and that ye should 
know. So that plainly then the observation is this : 

The knowledge of Christ .crucified is the most desirable 
thing in the world. The knowledge of Christ crucified is the 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 21 

most desirable knowledge and the most desirable thing in the 
world. 

That which the apostles taught and the churches learned, 
must needs be the most desirable. Now this is that the 
apostles taught, and this is that the churches learned, and 
therefore this knowledge of Christ crucified is the most de- 
sirable. But for the opening and prosecuting hereof, 

First, We must a little inquire what it is to know Christ 
crucified, and when a man may be said to know Christ cru- 
cified. 

Secondly, That it is our great work and business in the 
world to know Christ crucified. 

Thirdly, What there is in Christ crucified that is so desi- 
rable to be known. 

Fourthly, Whether a man may live under the gospel and 
not know Christ crucified. 

Fifthly, What are the benefits that we do get or gain by the 
knowledge of Christ crucified. And then, 

Sixthly, Wnat we should do that we may know Christ cru- 
cified in a right manner. And, 

Seventhly, In case we do know him, what is our duty that 
flows from hence. 

First of all, If you ask what it is to know Christ crucified, 
or when a man may be said to know Christ crucified, 

I answer shortly, A man is said to know a thing nakedly 
and barely, or else effectually and truly. Barely and nakedly 
a man knows God and Christ, when he doth understand that 
there is a God, and Christ a Saviour of the world. So the 
devil said : " I know thee whom thou art, the Holy One of 
Israel." 

But truly and effectually a man is said to know Christ cru- 
cified, when he doth know the mind and will of God the 
Father in Christ crucified, having a disposition and affections 
suitable thereunto. Words of knowledge note an affection, 
and words of affection in Scripture note an effect ; accordingly 
therefore in Scripture phrase, a man is said tc know, when 
he doth go round about a business, doth consider of it and 
look well into it; and so Christ saith, " Behold me ! behold 
me!" and saith the apostle, "Consider the High Priest of 
your profession." 

This knowledge of Christ crucified is not a bare knowledge 



22 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

of Christ crucified in the history, but it is a serious looking into 
the mystery thereof. In Scripture phrase a man is said to know 
when he doth approve ; approbation is put for knowledge : 
so at the last, Christ shall say, " Depart from me, for I never 
knew you ;" that is, I never approved of you ; knowledge 
being put for approbation. And so a man is said to know 
Christ crucified when he doth understand and know the mind 
and will of God the Father in that great mystery, and doth 
approve thereof. 

In Scripture phrase, again, a man is said to know God, or 
know Christ, when he doth believe or repose in Christ: so, 
" This is life eternal, to know thee, and him whom thou hast 
sent '" that is, to believe, knowing being put for believing. 

And in Scripture phrase a man is said to know, and to 
know Christ, when the power and the efficacy of the death of 
Christ is shed abroad into his heart, and upon his life ; and 
so Paul speaking to the Philippians saith, " I count all things 
dross for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ, that I 
may be conformed to his sufferings." So that 1 say, look 
when a man doth not only understand, but seriously look 
into, and consider this great mystery of Christ crucified, ap- 
prove thereof, rest and repose upon this crucified Christ, 
having the power and efficacy of his death shed abroad into 
his heart and life, then he is said for to know Christ crucified 
truly and effectually. But then 

Secondly, How may it appear, that it is our work, our great 
work, to know Christ crucified ? 

Why, if it be the work, and great work of preachers of the 
gospel, to preach Christ crucified ; then it is our work, our 
great work, to know Christ crucified. Now, saith the apostle, 
in 1 Cor. i., " We preach Christ crucified, (that is our work, 
saith he,) the power of God, and the wisdom of God/' When 
our Saviour Christ wrought any miracle, he said unto them, 
" Go, and see thou tellest no man ;" but when he died 
and rose again, " Go, preach the gospel/' saith he. And 
what doth the gospel hold forth but Christ crucified^ What 
is the gospel but a dead Christ ? and what is Christ but a liv- 
ing gospel ? Now I say, that if it be the work of the preach- 
ers, their great work, to preach Christ crucified, then it is our 
work, and our great work, to know Christ crucified. 

Look what that is, that all the ceremonies, sacrifices, and 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 23 

types of the Old Testament, and all the ordinances of the 
New Testament do hold forth, that are we to know especially. 
Now what do all the sacrifices, all the types of the Old Tes- 
tament hold forth, but Christ crucified ; and what do all the 
ordinances of the New; what doth baptism; what doth 
preaching; what doth the Lord's Supper hold forth, but 
Christ crucified ? Surely therefore this is our great work to 
know. But 

If Christ crucified be the great and proper, and next ob- 
ject of our faith, then certainly it must needs be our special 
work and duty for to know Christ, and him crucified. Now 
Christ crucified is the proper object of our faith, and being 
opened and preached, will both beget and increase our faith. 
It is the object of our faith, and therefore, saith the apostle, 
Rom. iii. 25, " Whom God hath set forth to be a propitia- 
tion through faith in his blood :" the blood and death and 
sufferings of Christ, is the next and immediate object of our 
faith. Four things there are that do bid for our faith, which 
men do ordinarily think we are to trust unto : the power of 
God, the promise of God, the personal excellencies and ful- 
ness of Christ, and their own graces. But though we do 
rest upon the power and all sufficiency of God, yet if you 
look into Scripture, you shall find that the immediate object 
of our faith is Christ crucified ? God is the ultimate, Christ 
the immediate object, " Ye believe in God, believe also in 
me," John. xiv. 1., in me nextly and immediately, and in God 
ultimately : and though we may and do rest on the promise 
or word of God, yet we do so far rest on it, as we do close 
with Christ therein : the promises are but the veins of 
Christ, whereby his blood is carried into all his body : it is 
with the promises as it is with the seals, or sacraments ; for 
what are the sacraments, but so many real promises made to 
the eye ? Now you do not rest on the sacrament itself, but 
you rest on Christ which the sacrament doth exhibit : so for 
the promise, though it stay up your heart, as it is the word 
of God ; and though it be objectum quo, the object by which 
you do it, yet Christ, and a crucified Christ is the objectum 
quod, the object which you do rest upon. And as for the 
personal excellencies, and fulness of Christ, though those ex- 
cellencies do draw out your love unto Christ, yet it is a cru- 
cified Christ that doth draw out your faith. The personal 



24 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SsR, 2. 

excellency of Christ makes him a fit subject for you to rest 
on, but it is Christ crucified that you build and lay the weight 
of your soul upon. The brazen serpent did not cure the Is- 
raelites by virtue of its excellent metal, but as lifted up ; so, 
saith Christ, shall the Son of man be lifted up on the cross, 
and as lifted up on the cross he is the object of our faith : and 
though our graces are, and may be a good help to confirm our 
faith of assurance, yet they are not the object of our faith of 
reliance : for God doth therefore sometimes put the sentence 
of death upon our graces, that we may not trust to or rest on 
them : Christ and Christ alone, and that as dying and cru- 
cified, is the object of our faith. And it is not with this ob- 
ject as it is with other objects : take another object, and 
though it be never so clearly spread before the organ or fa- 
culty, yet it cannot cause or beget the act. Suppose the most 
excellent colour be laid before the eye, will that cause the 
blind eye to see ? No. Or suppose the most excellent 
sound, or noise of music be laid before the ear, can that cause 
the deaf ear to hear ? No. Yet sound is the object of the 
ear hearing ; and colour the object of the eye seeing ; but if 
the true object of faith, Christ crucified, be opened and laid 
before an unbelieving heart, it will cause it to believe : yea, 
and it will increase faith ; and therefore if you look into the 
book of the Hebrews, you shall find, that the great design of 
that book, is to raise and increase faith, as appears by the 
therefores that are in that book, " Wherefore let us draw 
near with full assurance of faith," &c. But how doth the 
apostle labour to raise and increase our faith ? He doth it 
by opening the priesthood and sufferings of Christ ; and 
without doubt there is no such way to raise, beget and in- 
crease our faith, as to open and spread Christ crucified be- 
fore the soul. Now it is the great work of a minister to be 
serviceable to the faith of God's people ; surely therefore it 
is his work, and great work to make known Christ crucified : 
and accordingly Paul saith here, " I determined to know no- 
thing among you, but Christ, and him crucified." 

But the apostle saith, " Henceforth know we no man af- 
ter the flesh, no, not Christ himself: and though we have 
known him after the flesh, yet henceforth know we him no 
more," 2 Cor. v. 16, and if we are not to know Christ after 



SEB. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 25 

the flesh, how is this true, that it is our great work to know, 
and make known Christ crucified. 

Yes, very well ; for the apostle doth not there speak of the 
knowledge of Christ crucified, neither doth he say, that we 
should not know the body and flesh of Christ still : there 
have been indeed a generation of men, and still are, who 
thought, that when Christ died, rose, and ascended, his body 
was swallowed up of his Deity, and that he hath now no 
body, but is all spirit : but the apostle speaks the contrary ; 
for, says he to the Philippians, " Who shall change our vile 
body, that it shall be like to his glorious body ;" Christ then, 
though in heaven, hath a body still, and this we are stiU to 
know. And in this verse he saith, " Henceforth know we 
no man after the flesh," are we therefore to think, that men 
have no bodies of flesh here on earth ? The same is said of 
Christ, that therefore cannot be the meaning of these words : 
but we are not to know Christ after the flesh, that is, say 
some, upon any fleshly or carnal account, or in any 
fleshly or carnal manner ; but I rather think, that the apostle 
here speaketh in reference to the Jews: times where when 
we thought, that the Messiah, and salvation were by him, did 
belong to the Jews only; but now, saith he, we know that 
" God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself," not 
the Jews only, but the gentiles also, verse 19, and that Christ 
did not die only for the Jews, but for the gentiles ; and " he 
died for all, that they which live should not live unto them- 
selves, but unto him that died for them, and rose again ; 
wherefore (see how it comes in) henceforth know we no man 
after the flesh ; though we have known Christ after the flesh, 
yet now henceforth know we him no more, therefore if any 
man be in Christ he is a new creature," whether he be a Jew 
or a gentile, it is all one to us whatsoever he be, if he be in 
Christ lie is a new creature, " wherefore now know we no 
man after the flesh, no not Christ himself," upon any such 
Jewish and restrained account, for " he died for all," one as 
well as another, " wherefore henceforth know we no man af- 
ter the flesh, no, not Christ himself," upon any such Jewish 
arid restrained account, for " he died for all," one as well as 
another, " wherefore henceforth know we no man after 
the flesh, no not Christ himself." And thus this Scrip- 
ture being opened, the one place is not contrary, but a light to 



26 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

the other. And so much in answer to that objection, and for 
the second thing, namely, that it is our great work and busi- 
ness, to know Christ crucified. 

The third thing is, What is there in Christ crucified that 
is so desirable to be known ? 

I answer, 1. There is the conjunction of all the attributes of 
God. The power, the wisdom, the justice, the mercy, and 
righteousness of God. In the day that you know Christ 
crucified, that day do all the attributes of God pass before 
you, which is the glory of God. 

2. There also, in Christ crucified, you may see the wealth 
and riches, not only of the saints, but of the world. Christ's 
sepulchre is our treasury ; " And have made his grave with 
the rich," Isa. liii. Glassius reads it, He hath placed riches 
in his grave. For the wealth and riches of the saints lie in 
the grave and sufferings of Christ. 

3. There, in Christ crucified, you see the condescending love 
of God in the height thereof; the greatest condescension 
of divine love. There are two travails of Christ that we 
read of: Christ once "travailing in the greatness of his 
strength," Isa. Ixiii., and that is for the destruction of his 
enemies and the deliverance of the churches. Another travail 
which you read of in Isa. liii., " He shall see the travail of 
his soul and be satisfied," and that is, Christ travailing in 
the " greatness of his affections/' in the day of his sufferings. 
So that when you know Christ crucified, then you see him and 
know the greatest condescension of divine love that ever was. 

4. There also you may see the greatness, and the vileness, 
and the misery of sin j for which Christ the Lord of life 
and glory died. 

5. There you may see the greatest sacrifice for sin that 
ever the world did see. Four things, saith Austin, concur to 
a sacrifice : the thing sacrificed, the sacrificer, the person 
sacrificed unto, and those that he sacrifices for ; I will add 
a fifth, the altar. And all these meet in one in Christ upon 
the cross. He himself the sacrifice, the sacrificer, the person 
sacrificed to, as God ; and as man, the person for whom was 
the sacrifice, and the altar. So that here is the greatest 
sacrifice that ever the world saw. 

6. There you may see our great High Priest in all his robes 
and garments rolled in blood. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 27 

7. There, in Christ crucified, you may behold and see the 
covenant sealed, and all the promises confirmed, all the pro- 
mises being yea and amen in Christ. 

8. There you may see your reconciliation with God begun, 
and the day-break of your eternal happiness. " This is 
ethrnal life to know thee, and him whom thou hast sent." 

9. There you may see your right and title unto all your 
privileges, and the root of all your enjoyments. As the 
man being shewn a table full of silver, still had his eye under 
the table to see the root of it ; and being led to another 
table of gold, still he looked under the table to see the root 
of it. So here, see but Christ crucified, and you see your 
title to all the ordinances and the root of all your enjoyments. 

10. There you may see all your afflictions sanctified, all 
your curses turned into blessings upon the cross of Christ. 

11 There you may see the gates of Paradise opened afresh. 
" This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise," said Christ 
upon the cross. 

12. There you may see the ladder that the angels ascend 
and descend upon for your ministry, as in the first of John 
and the last. 

13. There you may see your desire upon all your spiritual 
enemies, law, sin, and Satan. It is not only a promise that 
you shall have your desire upon your enemies, but you shall 
see your desire upon your enemies ; look upon Christ cruci- 
fied, and you see your desire upon all these enemies. 

14. There you may see the foundation of your union and 
communion with God the Father. 

15. There you may see again, the accomplishment of that 
great contrivance between God the Father and Christ, in refer- 
ence to our salvation. 

What shall I say, there, in Christ crucified, you may 
see a full answer to all your wants, to all your fears, to all 
your doubts. What do you want, but you may see it in 
Christ crucified ? Do you complain of your own un worthi- 
ness ? Oh, I am a poor unworthy creature ; do but look 
on Christ crucified, you see him suffering without the gates ; 
Why, saith Austin, did he suffer without the gates ? not 
only to fulfil the scripture, " He was numbered among trans- 
gressors :" but he suffered without the gates, not in the holy 
city, because he suffered for the gentiles as well as the Jews ; 



28 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [ER. 2. 

he suffered for the ungodly, for the unworthy. Now look 
upon Christ crucified, and there you see him suffering with- 
out the gates for the most unworthy. 

Or will you instance in your own sin and guilt ? why, do 
but look upon Christ crucified, and you see that sacrifice for 
sin that the world never saw the like, and that before your 
sin was committed. 

Will you instance in the dominion of sin and your bond- 
age under it ? Look but upon Christ crucified and there you 
see your ransom : " Who gave himself a ransom for many," 
in whom we have redemption through his blood. 

Will you instance still in your own misery and ruins ? Oh, 
we lie like the ruins of London at this day, in regard of our 
state by nature : yet do but look upon Christ crucified, and 
there you shall see the repairer of the breaches, and the res- 
torer of paths to dwell in. Oh, what a blessed thing is 
it then to have the knowledge of this Christ crucified ? Who 
would not know Christ crucified. 

Fourthly, But you will say whether may a man live 
under the gospel, and not know Christ crucified. We all 
know Christ crucified we hope, for, is it possible that a 
man should live under the gospel, and not know Christ cruci- 
cified ? 

Surely it is possible a man may live under the gospel, and 
not know Christ crucified, as he ought to know ; for as in 
times of the law, some that were in the highest forms did 
not know God. It is said of the sons of Eli, they were chil- 
dren of Belial, that knew not God, yet priests, men of the 
highest form, and yet they knew not God. So now in the 
times of the gospel, men may sit upon the highest form of 
profession, and yet not know Christ crucified aright as they 
ought to know. You know how ignorant Nicodemus was, 
" Art thou a doctor in Israel, and knowest not these things ?" 
How unacquainted was he with Christ crucified ? yea, Christ's 
own disciples before Christ's death, how ignorant were they of 
a crucified Christ ? when he said, " Destroy this temple/' in 
John ii., they understood it not. So that possibly men may 
live under the gospel, and be in a very high form of profes- 
sion, and yet not know Christ crucified as they ought to 
know. 

And to clear it to vou. If we did know Christ crucified as 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 29 

we ought to know, why are we not more sensible of our igno- 
rance of Christ crucified. It is both recorded and reported 
of Bishop Usher, a learned and holy man, that in the midst 
of all his learning, still he would cry out of his ignorance of 
Christ. And that we know by experience, grace will make 
one sensible of the sin that is contrary unto that grace. Faith 
will make one sensible of one's unbelief, humility will make one 
sensible of one's pride, sincerity will make one sensible of 
one's hypocrisy, the knowledge of Christ crucified, will make 
one sensible of one's ignorance of Christ; yet how many are 
there that were never sensible of their ignorance of Christ 
crucified ; Why ? But because they do not know this cru- 
cified Christ, as they ought to know. 

If we did indeed know Christ crucified as we ought to 
know, why are we not more crucified to the world, and the 
things thereof ? Gal. vi. You know what Paul saith, " God 
forbid that I should glory in any thing save in the cross of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto 
me, and I unto the world." Did we know Christ crucified 
as we ought to know, certainly we should be more crucified 
to the world and the things thereof; but how few even 
among professors, are crucified to the fashions, ways and 
manners of the world? And why so? But because few 
there be that do know Christ crucified in a right manner. 

If we did know Christ crucified as we ought to know, then 
why do we prefer other things before Christ, when they come 
in competition with Christ ? In the general we do choose 
for Chnst, but in time of competition how often do men 
prefer other things before Christ, and the knowledge of other 
things before the knowledge of Christ ? Truly, saith Paul, 
" I account all things but loss ;" I did account and I do 
account all things loss and dross and dung, for the excellency 
of the knowledge of Christ ; not only loss and dross, but I 
account them dung, unsavoury. Time was when I gloried in 
my parts and in my privileges, but now how unsavoury are 
all these things unto me, in regard of the knowledge of 
Christ. So Moses chose affliction with the people of God 
in time of competition. Why ? Because he esteemed the 
reproach of Christ greater riches than all the treasures of 
Egypt. 

And if we did know Christ crucified as we ought to know, 



30 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

why do we boggle, startle at, and go back so often from the 
cross and persecution for the name of Christ, and not rather 
glory in the excellencies of Christ when they lie under the 
greatest reproach ? The wise men worshipped Christ in a 
manger. The disciples and children cried Hosannah, to 
Christ riding upon an ass. Many will honour Christ in a 
coach, but will not honour Christ upon an ass. Many cry 
up the kingdom and the government of Christ when he is 
upon the throne, but not when a crown of thorns is upon his 
head. Friends, it is one thing to glory in the kingdom and 
government of Christ when it is under glory, and another 
thing when it is under reproach. Many there are that glory 
in the kingdom and government of Christ when it lies under 
excellency and glory, few that do glory in the government of 
Christ lying under reproach ; and why, but because they do 
not know this crucified Christ in a right manner. 

If we did know Christ crucified as we ought to know, why 
are we not willing to take and receive all our mercies and 
blessings in the way that this crucified Christ hath purchased 
and bought for us ? What way is that ? Why Christ hath 
bought them for us in a way of contraries : heaven by the 
way of hell, mercy by the way of misery ; glory and honour 
by the way of reproach, victory over enemies by being over- 
come by enemies ; Christ overcame the world by being over- 
come by the world. This is the way that the crucified Christ 
went ; and if in truth we were acquainted with Christ cruci- 
fied, and did know Christ crucified as we ought to know him, 
why should we not be contented to take our mercies and 
blessings in the way that this crucified Christ hath bought 
them for us ? Joy by grief, hope by fear, mercy by 
misery, and overcoming by being overcome. But oh, how 
many are there that are unwilling to take these things thus : 
why ? because few there are that do know Christ crucified as 
they ought to know. But, O friends, shall we live thus long 
under the gospel, and not know Christ crucified as we ought 
to know ? 

But, fifthly, you will say Suppose yet that we do know 
Christ crucified as we ought to know, what shall we gain 
or what shall we get thereby ? What are the great benefits 
that we shall obtain or get by knowing Christ crucified in a 
right manner ? Those are many. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 31 

Thereby you shall know God, you shall know yourselves, 
and you shall know men. 

You shall know God. God is best known in Christ ; the 
sun is not seen but by the light of the sun. Christ (as one 
speaks) came from heaven with a Bible under his arm, to make 
known the will of God the Father to the children of men ; 
and, without Christ, there is no knowledge of God the 
Father ; he doth reveal the Father, thereby you know the 
Father. 

And thereby also you know yourselves : for three things 
are required to the knowledge of ourselves ; we must know 
our sins, our misery thereby, and our inability for to help 
ourselves. Know but Christ crucified, you know your sins, 
you know your misery thereby, and you know your inability 
to help yourselves. 

And thereby you shall know men : for the more I know 
the worth of a man, the more I know him ; and the more I 
know the difference between man and man, the more I know 
men : know but Christ crucified, and you know the worth of 
a man ; and you never know the worth of a soul, or of a 
man, but by knowing Christ crucified. Thereby you know, 
I say, God, and you know yourselves, and you know men. 

Thereby you shall have your hearts drawn out and engagxl 
to Jesus Christ : " When I am lifted up, I will draw all men 
after me." One would think that the scandal of the cross 
should drive men from Christ, but there is wisdom and power 
in Christ crucified which draws men unto Christ. Wisdom 
draws ; it drew the queen of Sheba to behold Solomon : a 
greater than Solomon is here. Love draws ; it drew Rebecca 
unto Isaac. Here is love indeed in Christ crucified. Christ 
crucified is the most drawing thing in the world ; where love 
and wisdom and power and strength and all meet ; thereby, 
I say, your hearts shall be drawn out and engaged to Jesus 
Christ. 

Thereby also your lusts and temptations shall be fully 
mortified and subdued. There are three sorts of lusts, (( the 
lusts of the eye, the lusts of the flesh, and the pride of 
life," that John speaks of. The devil tempted Adam and 
Eve by all these, by the lust of the eye they saw the apple 
that it was fair to look otf; by the lust of the flesh that the 
apple was good to eat ; and by the pride of life the devil 



32 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

told them, that if they ate, they should be " like unto God," 
and he prevailed witn Adam and with Eve. And accordingly 
he sets upon the second Adam, and thought to have carried 
him too, he tempted him by all these. He tempted him by 
the lusts of the flesh, " Turn these stones into bread ; " 
By the lusts of the eye, " He shewed him all the glory of 
the world;" he tempted him by the pride of life, " All this 
will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me ;" but 
here he missed his prize, and so shall he do when he comes 
and tempts you, if you do but keep close to a crucified 
Christ in the time of your temptations, "for by faith we 
quench all the fiery darts of the devil " and where are they 
quenched but in the blood of Jesus ? You blow out a 
candle and it is easily lighted again ; but if you quench it in 
blood, it is not so easily lighted again ; if you blow out a 
temptation or a sin by a resolution, it is easily lighted again, 
but quench it in the blood of Jesus, and it is not so easily 
lighted again. 

Thereby also you shall die unto all your own righteousness. 
There is no such way in the world to die unto our own 
righteousness as by the knowledge of a crucified Christ, as in 
that place of the Philippians, " I account all things loss. &c." 

Thereby also you shall be able to deny yourselves in all 
things, in one thing as well as another. Possibly a man may 
deny himself in one thing, that he may seek himself in 
another. I may deny myself in meats and drinks, that I 
may have the more money ; deny myself in prodigality, that 
I may seek myself in covetousness. It is possible that a 
man may deny himself in one thing, that he may seek him- 
self in another; a man may deny his pride in one thing, that 
he may be proud in another. But now the sight of a cruci- 
fied Christ will teach us to deny ourselves in everything. 
And therefore the apostle Paul, pressing the Philippians unto 
humility and self-denial, he opens before them the sufferings 
of Christ. 

By your knowledge of Christ crucified, you shall grow in 
grace, in one grace as well as in another, grow in assurance 
and yet in repentance ; grow in repentance, and yet in assur- 
ance. The sight of Christ crucified is a friend unto your 
repentance, and a friend unto your assurance. Saith the 
apostle, " Grow in grace," not in this or that grace, but grace 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 33 

in the general ; " Grow in grace and in the knowledge of 
Christ :" so that the knowledge of Christ crucified is that 
whereby you shall grow in one grace as well as in another. 

Thereby also your hearts shall be established in opposition 
to all sufferings and afflictions. It will encourage you to suf- 
fer, and it will enable you to suffer. Nicodemus came by 
night when he first came to Christ ; but after he had seen 
Christ upon the cross, and seen the sufferings of Christ, how 
boldly did he own Christ then. The sight of a suffering 
Christ will both encourage to suffer and enable to suffer. All 
our sufferings are either outward or inward : if my sufferings 
and afflictions be outward, the sight of a suffering Christ will 
make me suffer ; if my afflictions be inward and spiritual, 
what is there that will quiet the conscience of a poor trem- 
bling soul but Christ crucified ? Thereby, I say, you shall be 
established in opposition unto all your sufferings and afflic- 
tions, inward and outward. 

Thereby also you shall have boldness in all your addresses 
unto God the Father. " Wherefore (saith the apostle) let us 
come with boldness to the throne of grace." Why ? " For 
we have an High Priest." An High Priest, there is the suffer- 
ings of Christ. Thereby you have boldness in all your ad- 
dresses to God the Father. 

Thereby, even by the knowledge of Christ crucified, you 
shall be possessed of Christ. You know many things, and 
yet you do not possess them by your knowledge of them : 
but know Christ crucified, and you are possessed of Christ. 
Saith the apostle, " My little children, of whom I travail in 
birth again, until Christ be formed in you." Christ formed 
in you ; that is, till the knowledge of Christ be formed in 
you. The knowledge of Christ brings one into the possession 
of Christ. 

Yea, thereby you shall be furnished and prepared for every 
good word and work. For what is the death and suffering of 
Christ, but officina virtutum, the shop of virtues ? Do you 
want faith ? Christ crucified is the object of your faith, and 
the cause of it, as you have heard. Are you full of fears ; 
are you afraid because of the law and the avenger of blood 
that is following you at the heels ? Do but look upon Christ 
crucified, and there you see the city of refuge. So many 
wounds in Christ, so many cities of refuge. Are you impa- 

VOL. III. D 



34 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

tient and frovvard ? Why the sight of a patient Christ will 
make you patient. Are you proud ? The sight of a humble 
Christ, a crucified Christ, will make you humble. If I have 
gallant and brave clothes on, and go abroad and swagger with 
them, and a man comes and tells me, Sir, you owe for these 
clothes ; it is enough to take down my plumes. So now, 
though a man be proud of this or that good thing, yet if he 
do but see Christ crucified, he shall there be told that Christ 
hath paid for all ; and this will take down his pride. Do you 
complain of a hard heart ? The sight of a broken Christ will 
break your heart, or nothing will. So that the knowledge of 
Christ crucified is that that will furnish you and prepare you 
to every good word and work. And therefore, O friends, 
who would not labour to know Christ crucified ! Let me 
speak a little more. 

This is the knowledge that is the soul humbling knowledge. 
Other knowledge puffs up ; but if you know Christ crucified, 
you may glory in your knowledge without pride. fe Let not 
the wise man glory in his wisdom, nor the strong man in his 
strength, nor the learned man glory in his learning/' If I 
glory in my wisdom, I am proud ; if I glory in my strength, 
I am proud ; but if I glory in that I know Christ cru- 
cified, the more I glory in Christ crucified, the more humble 
I am. That is a soul-humbling knowledge. 

This is that knowledge which is the highest experimental 
knowledge in the world. A man may have the experience of 
his own sins, yet be a wicked man. Oh, I have such a proud 
heart, such a vain heart, may he say. Why ? For his sins 
are within him ; and he may easily, though a wicked man, have 
experience of what is within him by nature : but to have ex- 
perience of a crucified Christ is not by nature. This is the 
highest experience in the world Christ in me the hope of 
glory ; this is the most true experimental knowledge. 

This is that knowledge that will make a man wise indeed. 
Other knowledge may make a man wise, quo ad hoc, to this 
or that thing, but the knowledge of Christ crucified doth make 
a man wise at large. 

And therefore, I say, oh, what a blessed thing is it to know 
Christ crucified ; and who would not labour to know Christ 
crucified in a right manner ? 

Sixthly. You will say then, in the sixth place, What shall 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 35 

we do to know Christ crucified in a right manner ; for we have 
heard men may live under the gospel, sit upon the highest 
form of profession, and yet not know Christ crucified in a 
right manner : what shall we do then that we may know Christ 
crucified in a right manner ? Something I shall speak to the 
manner, and something to the means. 

As to the manner. If you would know Christ crucified in 
a right manner, you must look upon him as the great institu- 
tion and appointment of the Father. When God doth deal 
with us in a way of institutions, he hath not respect unto the 
strength of the means or the worth of the persons. When 
God deals with us in a way of nature there is respect had to 
the strength of the means or the worth of the person. As in 
physic God deals in a way of nature, there respect is had to 
the strength of the means. But when God deals with us in 
a way of institution, there he hath neither respect to the 
strength of means nor to the worth of persons. Now Jesus 
Christ is the great institution of God the Father, and so if 
we would know him rightly we must look upon him. For 
though the stung Israelite was cured by the brazen serpent, 
yet he was not cured by the brazen serpent in regard of the 
metal of the serpent, but as it was an appointment, and as 
an institution. So if a man would know Christ to purpose, 
he must know him and look upon him as the great institution 
and appointment of the Father ; Him hath God the Father 
sealed. And what is the reason that many go to and get no 
good by a crucified Christ, but because they never did to this 
day look upon Christ crucified as the great institution of the 
Father. 

If you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, you 
must then look upon him as sent, you must look upon this 
crucified Christ under the mission of the Father. There are 
three great missions that you read of in the New Testament. 
There is the mission of ministers : they are sent out to preach. 
There is the mission of the Highest : " I will send the Com- 
forter." There is the mission of the Son sent from the Fa- 
ther. Now the mission of Christ from the Father is the 
original of all the other missions ; and you cannot know the 
other missions rightly, if you do not know this original mis- 
sion. If you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, 
you must know him as sent. In the xviith of John, saith 
n 2 



36 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

Christ in his prayer to the Father, " But I have known thee, 
and these have known that thou hast sent me." So that if 
you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, you must 
know him arid look upon him as under a mission from the 
Father. 

If you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, you 
must look well unto the design, drift and scope of the Father 
in the sufferings of Christ. Then you know Christ when 
you know the Father, and you know the Father when you 
know the Father's design. What is the great design of the 
Father in sending Christ to die, but to magnify his love, to 
save poor sinners, to justify the ungodly ? Would you know 
Christ crucified aright ? be sure you have an eye to the design 
of the Father in the matter of a crucified Christ. 

Be sure of this, That you look as well upon the testamen- 
talness cf Christ's sufferings, as the greatness of his sufferings. 
Some look much at the greatness of the sufferings of Christ, 
as the friars and monks, and never look at the testament al- 
ness of Christ's sufferings. Oh, say they, Christ's death 
was a painful, reproachful, and a lingering death, and thus 
they aggravate, as truly they may, the sufferings of Christ; 
but not one word of the testamentalness of his sufferings. 
But Christ's death was to seal the covenant ; therefore if 
you would know Christ crucified rightly, you must as well 
look upon the testamentalness of his sufferings, as the great- 
ness of his sufferings. Thus in regard of the manner, if 
you would know Christ rightly. 

And for the means, I shall speak two or three things. 
If you would know Christ crucified in a right manner for 
means, then go unto God the Father to create this knowledge 
of Christ crucified in you. All light was at the first by a word 
of creation, Cf Let there be light." And as in the old crea- 
tion, the creation of the world, so in the new creation, Let 
there be light, let there be knowledge : " God that com- 
manded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in 
our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory 
of God, in the face of Jesus Christ." This light comes 
into the soul in a way of creation ; go then to God to create 
this light. 

And be sure that you set open all your windows that the 
light may come in. There are some sickly and weak who 



S ER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 37 

would fain have the light to come into their chambers, but 
they are afraid of the cold air, and so dare not open their 
windows. So here, some would fain have more light and 
knowledge of Christ, but they are afraid of the cold, and 
so dare not open their windows to receive the light. But 
pray, friends, why should we be afraid of new lights ? for 
why should there not be new lights found out in the firma- 
ment of the scripture, as well as the astrologers find out new 
stars in heaven ? Be not afraid to set open your windows 
for any light that God shall make known unto you. 

If you would know Christ crucified in a right way and 
manner, then study much, think much upon this crucified 
Christ : meditate much, insist and dwell much upon Christ 
crucified. It is not slight and superficial thinking of Christ 
crucified that will bring in this knowledge. If I would know 
a man, I must be conversant with him. So if you would 
know Christ crucified, you must be conversant with him, 
you must sit down and consider and dwell upon Christ cru- 
cified in your thoughts and meditations. Now there are 
four times wherein it will be good for you especially to think 
of Christ crucified much. Four cases : In case of some 
revelation or vision that you may be under. When Christ 
was transfigured, and Peter said, "It is good to be here," 
Christ turns him off and reads a lecture to him about his 
sufferings ; why, but to shew that in such times of raptures 
and revelations is a fit season to think of Christ crucified. 
Another time or season is, The time and case of spiritual 
pride. In case your heart be lifted up within you in refer- 
ence unto any privilege, gift, or performance, then is a fit 
time to think on a crucified Christ. The disciples were 
speaking who should be greatest, "that one might sit on 
Christ's right hand, and the other at his left hand ;" then 
said Christ, " Are ye able to be baptized with the baptism 
that I am baptized with, and to drink of the cup that I shall 
drink of?" "The son of man must suffer," saith he. He 
turns them about from those thoughts to a crucified Christ; 
why? but to shew thus much, that when at any time our 
hearts are lifted up upon any account, then is a fit time and 
season to think on a Christ crucified. The time of dissen- 
tion and difference among professors and brethren is a fit 
time and season to think on a crucified Christ. When one 



"38 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 2. 

disciple desired to sit at Christ's right hand and the other at 
his left, the rest of the disciples took it ill, and all quarrelled 
one with another. Christ now tells them of his sufferings ; 
Is this a fit time for you to have differences among you ? 
think of my sufferings. Never more seasonable time to 
think of a crucified Christ than when professors are at 
variance. Times of dissension call for thoughts of a crucified 
Christ. Again, In case that a man be in any great affliction, 
or danger, or fear thereof, then is a good time to think of 
the sufferings of Christ. Nicodemus comes by night unto 
Christ out of fear, and Christ first preaches to him the 
doctrine of regeneration, and when he had done so, saith he 
in John iii. 14, ff As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wil- 
derness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up/' Nico- 
demus was afraid to suffer for Christ, now Christ turns him 
over to his sufferings. The Son of man must be lifted up ; 
why ? but to shew thus much, that when we are afraid of 
sufferings, when we meet with afflictions and troubles, and 
are in fear thereof, then is a fit time for us to think of Christ's 
sufferings. It is a good thing to think of Christ crucified 
at all times; but when you have revelations and visions, 
when your hearts are lifted up, when you are in any dissen- 
tion, when you are under any any affliction, trouble, or in 
fear thereof, then is a good time, especially when you are 
under spiritual temptations. And thus now you see the second 
thing; if you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, 
study and meditate much on him, and insist much thereon. 
But then, 

If you would know Christ crucified in a right manner, 
make it your work and your business to know Christ crucified. 
Solomon gives you a promise in Prov. ii. 3, "If thou 
criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for under- 
standing ; if thou seekest her as silver, and searchest for her 
as for hid treasure, then shalt thou understand the fear of 
the Lord, and find the knowledge of God," verse 5. 
How do men seek for hidden treasure ; how do men seek for 
gold and silver ? They dig into the bowels of the earth 
and spare for no pains. So, saith the Lord, If you dig and 
search for it, you shall have this knowledge. And you know 
how it is with those that do dig for gold and silver ; though 
they do not meet with a mine presently, possibly they may 



SER. 2.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 39 

meet with several springs of water that may stand them in 
more stead than the mine. So digging in the Scripture, 
though a man do not presently reach the mine, yet he may 
meet with such springs of comfort in the way, as may be a 
a refreshment to him all his days. Now therefore, friends, 
do you desire to know Christ and him crucified ? then re- 
member these three things : Go unto God the Father to 
create this light in you. Dwell and insist much upon Christ 
crucified in your thoughts and at some times especially. 
And then make it your work and business to know Christ 
crucified. Dig in the mines for this knowledge. 

But suppose I do know Christ crucified, what is my duty 
then? 

Why then if you do know Christ crucified, certainly it 
doth not become you to conform unto the world, and to be 
uncrucified in your affections to the world ? 

It doth not become you to be the servants of men, espe- 
cially in the worship of God. Ye are bought with a price, 
be ye not the servants of men. 

Certainly it doth not become you to walk proudly. What, 
shall Christ humble himself, and shall we be proud ? Cer- 
tainly it doth not become you to walk proudly. 
But what shall I do then ? 

Go and resign and give up yourselves to Christ. Shall 
Christ give down himself unto us, and shall not we give up 
ourselves unto him ? Resign and give up yourselves unto 
him. 

And then if indeed you do know Christ crucified, take 
heed that you do not doubt of your interest in God, or sal- 
vation by Christ. What, know Christ crucified and yet 
doubt ? Why, saith the apostle, " If when we were enemies 
we were reconciled by the death of his Son, much more being 
reconciled we shall be saved by his life," Rom. v. And, viii. 
32, " He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up 
for us all, how shall he not with hirn also freely give us all 
things ? " If God the Father did give his Son to death for 
you, will he deny you other things ? 

Go away and look no more sorrowful, let it appear that 
you know Christ, and that you know Christ crucified. 

In case at any time any temptation doth arise upon you, 
presently turn and look wishly upon Christ crucified, and 



40 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 2. 

there fix. If a man be in a great temptation, possibly the 
temptation may be put by by way of divertisernent, turning 
to another object ; but if that other object be engaging, then 
he is helped thereby, not only by way of divertancy, but by 
way of assistance. Now if a temptation do arise at any 
time upon any of you, presently turn your eye, fix it upon 
Christ crucified, there stand and there look, and thus shall 
you be helped, not only in a way of divertancy, but in a way 
of assistance. 

If you do indeed know Christ crucified, then why should 
you not hold forth the virtues of this Christ, the death of 
Christ, in your dying unto all things below, and say with 
Paul upon all occasions, " Henceforth let no man trouble 
me, I bear about in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus." 
You come to tempt me to such a sin, do not trouble me, I 
know Christ crucified. Henceforth let no man trouble me, I 
know Christ crucified. Answer all your temptations thus, 
and be peremptory and resolute, Let no man trouble me, do 
not trouble me, I know Christ crucified. 

Go away and communicate that knowledge of a crucified 
Christ unto others ; your knowledge is nothing unless you 
make others to know what you know. There is a twofold 
revelation of Christ ; Christ revealed to men, and Christ 
revealed in men, as Paul speaks, " When it pleased the Lord 
to reveal Christ in me." When a man hath a revelation of 
Christ within him, he will communicate that knowledge. Ye 
see how it is with the sun shining upon the wall, and with a 
candle in a lanthorn ; the sun shines upon the wall, and the 
wall enlightens nobody, why, because the sun is not in it : 
but there is a candle in a lanthorn, and that enlightens others, 
why ? because the candle is within it. So when a man hath 
a revelation of Christ upon him, it falls dead, as upon a mud 
wall, and he communicates not that light unto others ; aye, 
but if Christ be in me the hope of glory, then certainly I 
shall communicate this knowledge of Christ unto others 
also. 

And to end all, if you do know Christ and him crucified, 
then go and place yourselves before the Lord, as David did, 
when the Lord had made known his mind unto him : " Then 
went king David in and sat before the Lord, and he said, 
Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that thou 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 41 

hast brought me hitherto ? " &c. " And what can David say 
more unto thee, for thou Lord God knowest thy servant ; for 
thy word sake, and according to thine own heart hast thou 
done all these great things, to make thy servant know them/' 
So I say, go you and place yourselves before the Lord and 
say, What am I, Lord, oh what am I, poor ignorant creature 
as well as others, that Christ crucified should be made known 
to me ? Oh the riches and the greatness of the grace of 
God ; according to thine own heart, Lord, hast thou done 
this, to make these things known unto thy poor servant: 
wherefore glory and honour unto God the Father, and unto 
the Lamb that sitteth upon the throne for ever. 

And thus now I have spoken something concerning a cru- 
cified Christ, as the object of your faith ; the former time 
concerning the excellency of Christ to draw out your love : 
now then let your faith and love meet together ; and may 
your love be quickened and your faith strengthened, I have 
enough. 



SERMON III. 

THE NEW COVENANT OF GRACE OPENED. 

" And to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel." HEB. 
xii. 24. 

IN this scripture you have the difference between the law 
and the gospel ; the excellency of the state of the church 
under the new testament, above the state of the church under 
the old testament: for, saith the apostle at the 18th verse, 
" Ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, 
and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness and darkness 
and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of 
words : but ye are come unto Mount Sion, (verse 22,) and 
unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and 
to an innumerable company of angels," &c. 

So that first, look how much mount Sion doth excel mount 
Sinai ; the city of the living God doth excel the wilderness ; 
and the heavenly Jerusalem doth excel the mountain that 



42 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 3. 

might be touched, from whence the law was given : so much 
doth our state now exceed and excel that of the Jews. 

And, saith he, ye are also come " to an innumerable com- 
pany of angels." The law was given at mount Sinai by the 
ministration of angels. Look therefore, how much our com- 
munion now with an innumerable company of angels, doth 
exceed that ministration which was by the ministration of 
angels then, so much doth our gospel state now exceed 
their's. 

And, ye are also come " to the general assembly and 
church of the first-born." Look how much the catholic 
church, drawn out of all nations, doth exceed the Jewish 
synagogue ; so much doth our gospel, church state now exceed 
their's. 

And, " Ye are come unto God the Judge of all." Look, 
therefore, how much the manifestation of God, as the Judge 
of all the world, doth exceed the manifestation of God as a 
Lawgiver upon mount Sinai unto the nation of the Jews 
only ; so much doth our gospel state and church exceed 
their's. 

And, " Ye are come to the spirits of just men made 
perfect." It is true in regard of the saints in heaven, for we 
are fellow citizens with the saints there. Or if you under- 
stand it of the spirits of just men made perfect with gospel 
perfection, by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, 
it is true. So that look as the state of heaven doth exceed 
the state of earth, and as gospel perfection doth exceed the 
imperfect state of the law, so doth the state of the church 
and gospel now exceed that of the Jews. 

And " ye are come to Jesus the Mediator of the new cove- 
nant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better 
things than that of Abel." Look therefore as Jesus Christ 
the Mediator of the new covenant exceeds Moses the media- 
tor of the old ; and as the blood of Christ, the blood of 
sprinkling, doth excel and exceed the blood of all sacrifices in 
the time of the old testament, so doth our gospel church state 
now exceed that of theirs. 

I shall not run through all these differences, or privileges, 
only fall in with this verse 24. 

" And to Jesus/' that is, ye are come to Jesus the Media- 
tor of the new covenant, and " to the blood of sprinkling/' 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 43 

that is, ye are come " to the blood of sprinkling that speak- 
eth better things than that of Abel." From which two privi- 
leges with their connection, I take up these observations. 

Observation I. That there is a new covenant stricken with 
the children of men. 

II. That Jesus is the Mediator of the new covenant. 

III. That now in these gospel times, we are not come to 
Moses the mediator of the old, but unto Jesus the Mediator 
of the new covenant. And 

IV. That thus coming unto Jesus the Mediator of the new 
covenant, we are also come unto the blood of sprinkling, that 
speaketh better things than that of Abel. 

I shall begin with the first ; there is a new covenant 
stricken with the children of men. 

It was always God's way to deal with man in the way of a 
covenant ; that is the most suitable to man, the most hon- 
ourable for man, and the most amicable and friendly : from 
the beginning therefore so it was ; no sooner was man made, 
but God entered into covenant with him, " In the day that 
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die the death ;" and then a 
covenant he made with the world by Noah ; and then a cove- 
nant he made with Abraham ; and then a covenant he made 
with the Jews at mount Sinai. It hath always been God's 
way to deal with man in the way of a covenant, but now in 
these latter days he hath stricken a new covenant with the 
children of men : " A new covenant will I make with the 
house of Israel, saith the Lord," by way of promise, Jer. xxxi. 
A new covenant hath the Lord made with the house of Israel 
by way of fulfilrrent and accomplishment, Heb. viii. So that 
there is a new covenant stricken with the children of men. 

For the opening of which argument : 

First, We must inquire what this covenant is. 

Secondly, Why, and upon what account it is called a new 
covenant. And 

Thirdly, What are the ways and properties of this new 
covenant. 

Fourthly, Who are the subjects of this covenant, and per- 
sons that God doth strike this covenant with. 

Fifthly, We will a little inquire into the benefits thereof. 

Sixthly, Labour to show you, what a man should do to get 
into covenant with God: and in case he be in covenant with 



44 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 3. 

God, how he should walk as becometh one that is in cove- 
nant with the great God. Here is matter enough to discourse 
on many exercises ; but, though with difficulty, I shall dis- 
patch all in this one. 

And First of all, if you ask me what this covenant is, take 
this description of the covenant that now we are in. 

It is that mutual agreement between God and man, 
whereby God the Father doth engage himself to shew mercy, 
love and kindness, to Christ and to his seed ; Christ engaging 
both for himself and for his seed, to be obedient unto God 
the Father. 

I say, it is a mutual agreement, and herein a covenant dif- 
fers from a law. A law properly is a commandment with pe- 
nalty. No sooner was man made, but he was under a law, 
to be obedient unto God his Maker : and in case he broke it, 
God by the law of nature might punish him : but then when 
God said unto him, " In the day that thou eatest thereof, 
thou shalt die the death," then God entered into covenant, 
man accepting thereof. The child is obliged by the law of 
nature to obey his parents ; yet this is no covenant, but a 
law of nature, for here is no agreement. But the wife is 
obliged to obey her husband, and this is a covenant ; Why ? 
Because it is a mutual agreement ; so that I say, this cove- 
nant, first, is a mutual agreement between God and man. 
But 

It is that agreement whereby God the Father doth engage 
himself to shew kindness, grace and mercy, to Christ and to 
his seed. 

Unto Christ himself he doth engage, Isa. xlii., " I the 
Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine 
hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the 
people, for a light of the gentiles/ 3 If thou wilt undertake 
the work of the Mediator, I do engage and promise to thee, 
" I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and I will 
hold thine hand, and I will keep thee." 

And the Father doth engage unto Christ, and his seed too ; 
for saith he unto Christ, " If thy children forsake my law, 
and walk not in my judgments ; if they break my statutes, 
and keep not my commando: ents, then will I visit their 
transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes : 
nevertheless, my loving kindness will I not utterly take 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 45 

away :" which is plainly spoken unto Christ, as you read in 
Psalm Ixxxix. 26 30. So that I say, it is that agreement 
whereby God the Father doth engage himself to shew kind- 
ness, grace and mercy, unto Christ and his seed. 

On the other side, Christ engages both for himself and for 
his seed, to be obedient unto God the Father. 

Christ engages for himself, and therefore, saith he in Psalm 
xl. 6. " Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, &c. 
Then said I, Lo I come, in the volume of the book it is writ- 
ten of me, I delight to do thy will, O my God, yea, thy law 
is within my heart." They are the words of Christ ; " then 
said I," that is, then promised I. Paulus Fagius observes, 
that the Hebrew hath no one proper word for promise ; but 
where God is said to promise, the word in the Hebrew is 
only so, God said, God spake ; and indeed if any man will 
take the pains to consult the Hebrew, and our English trans- 
lation together, he shall find it true. I will give you some 
instances, and so pass over, Deut. i. 11., " The Lord God of 
your fathers make you a thousand times so many more as ye 
are, and bless you as he hath promised you," (Hebrew, as he 
hath said). So in Kings viii. 56., " Blessed be the Lord 
that hath given rest unto his people Israel, according to all 
that he hath promised," (Hebrew, according to all that he 
hath said). So in 2 Chron. vi. 10., " The Lord therefore 
hath performed his word, that he hath spoken, for I am 
risen up in the room of David my father, and am set on the 
throne of Israel, as the Lord hath promised," (Hebrew, as the 
Lord hath said). So at verse 16, " Now therefore O Lord 
God of Israel, keep with thy servant David my father that 
which thou hast promised him," (Hebrew, that which thou hast 
said to him). So here in Psalm xl., " Then said I," that is, 
then promised I, then engaged I unto the Father, saying, 
" Lo I come, in the volume of the book, it is written of me ;" 
here Christ engages for himself. 

And he engaged also for his seed ; therefore Psalm xvi., 
" O my soul, thou hast said unto the Lord, (said, by way of 
promise,) O my Lord, my goodness is not for thee, but for 
the saints that are in the earth, and in the excellent in whom 
is all my delight." And so our Saviour Christ promises to 
the Father in John xvii., " Therefore do I sanctify myself^ 
that they also may be sanctified." And if you look into the 



46 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

Hebrews, you shall find that Christ is called the " Surety of 
the covenant ;" Why ? Because he doth engage for God 
the Father to perform to us, and he doth engage for us, that 
we shall perform to God : so that, do you ask what the cove- 
nant is, plainly then it is, That mutual agreement between 
God and man, whereby God the Father doth engage himself 
to shew kindness, love and mercy to Christ and his seed, 
Christ engaging both for himself, and for his seed to be obe- 
dient unto God the Father. 

Secondly, But then why is this covenant called a new cove- 
nant ? 

Not only because it is an excellent covenant, as in Scrip- 
ture phrase, excellent things are called new ; a new song &c. 

Nor only because it brings a new heart, which is pro- 
mised in the covenant. 

Nor only because it is always fresh and green and new, 
upon which account Austin thinks, that the commandment 
of love is called a new commandment. 

Nor is it called new only because there is no other cove- 
nant to succeed and follow, which is the reason in Heb. viii. 

But it is called a new covenant in opposition to the cove- 
nant that was made with Adam, and with us in the state of 
innocency; and in opposition to the covenant which was 
made with the Jews in the time of the Old Testament. 

New in opposition to the covenant that was made with 
Adam in the state of innocency ; for then, though God out 
of free love and grace was pleased to condescend to enter 
into covenant with man, yet then God did deal with us in 
a way of supremacy and of righteousness : and therefore there 
is mention made only of the threatening, " In the day that 
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die the death." But now 
God deals with us in this covenant in a way of grace, and of 
great compaision ; and therefore in this covenant there is 
mention made only of the promise. 

Though God did enter into covenant with Adam, and so 
with us, and promised eternal life in heaven ; not eternal 
life in this world only, as some would. For hell was threat- 
ened in these words, " In the day that thou eatest thereof 
thou shalt die the death," and therefore heaven and salvation 
was promised on the contrary ; yet I say (although God 
when he entered into covenant with us then, did promise 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 47 

heaven and salvation) it was upon condition of our personal 
and perfect obedience, and therefore called a covenant of 
works. But now our covenant runs upon no such terms. 

Then in that covenant, acceptation began in the work, and 
so to the person, and therefore saith the Lord to Cain, " If 
thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted ? " speaking to 
him as belonging to the covenant of works. But in the 
covenant now made, the acceptation begins in the person, 
and so to the work, and therefore, saith the Lord concerning 
Abel, the Lord accepted Abel (his person) and then his 
sacrifice. 

Then also the Lord gave Adam and us an ability to stand, 
but he did not give a promise of perseverance in standing. 
But now the Lord doth, " I will put my fear into your hearts, 
that you shall not depart from me," saith the Lord. 

Then in that covenant there was no room for repentance, 
no room for remission. But as in a court of mere justice 
the question is not whether a man doth repent of his fact 
or no, but whether, aye or no, hath such a fact been done ? 
So by the covenant of works, the first covenant, there is no 
question whether a man doth repent or no, but whether the 
work were done, whether the sin were done. But now in 
this covenant there is room both for repentance and for 
remission, as by and by you shall hear. And then, 

Though when God made that covenant with Adam and 
with us, " the tree of Life " might be some shadow of Christ, 
yet " then there was no Mediator, for there was no need," 
God and man was not at variance, and so no need of a Me- 
diator. But in this covenant that is now stricken there is 
a Mediator, a Mediator of the new covenant. So that thus 
you see this covenant is new, in opposition to the covenant 
that was made with Adam and us in the state of innocency. 

And as it is new in opposition to the covenant that was 
made with Adam, the covenant of works ; so it is new also 
in opposition to the covenant that was made with the Jews 
in the time of the Old Testament. For the clearing of this, 

First of all, we must inquire whether there be any differ- 
ence between the covenant made with the Jews in the day 
of the Old Testament, and the covenant made with us now. 
And in case there be, what is the difference and wherein 
it lies. 



48 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

And if you ask whether there be any difference ? 

If I should answer, with divines ordinarily (wherein they 
speak the truth), I must say, that the covenant which God 
made with the Jews, was for substance the same, though 
different in administration ; but give me leave to express my 
own sense in my own terms thus, 

It is plain and clear that the Jews that were saved in the 
time of the Old Testament, were saved by the same covenant 
that we now are saved by ; for they were saved by the cove- 
nant that God made with Abraham, so are we, Luke xi., 
Rom. iv., Gal. 3. Circumcision then was the seal of the 
covenant : and what was circumcision but a seal of the 
righteousness of faith? The ceremonies, types, and sacri- 
fices, did not belong to the covenant of works, they were 
types of Christ, and therefore it must needs be the same 
covenant, if it was a covenant of works that was made with 
the Jews, God should have brought them from better to 
worse, for the covenant of grace was made with Abraham ; 
"but though the law was added after the promise, it could not 
disannul the promise," saith the apostle, Gal. iii. So that it 
is plain and clear, the Jews that were then saved were saved 
by the same covenant that we now are. But, 

Though those Jews that were saved were saved by the 
same covenant that we now are saved by, yet notwithstanding 
the covenant of works was declared and promulgated among 
the Jews ; " Wherefore then was the law added ? " saith the 
apostle. Added then it was. As Sarah and Hagar, made 
types of the two testaments by the apostle, were at once in 
Abraham's house ; so the old covenant of works, and the 
new covenant of grace were at once in the Jewish church. 
But 

Though both these covenants were at once in the Jewish 
church, the one declared and the other made with them ; 
though Hagar was in the same house, yet it was in subservi- 
ency unto Sarah ; and though the covenant of works was 
declared and was there at the same time, yet it was in sub- 
serviency unto the covenant of grace ; u It was added, where- 
fore ?" saith the apostle, because of transgression, to be a 
school master to bring to Christ. It was there in subser- 
viency, and upon a gospel design. But then, 

Though both these covenants were thus joined together, 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 49 

the covenant of works and the covenant of grace both joined 
together in one state, yet both together did not make a third 
and distinct covenant ; I am no ways of Camero's mind, that 
there were three covenants, but of the apostle's mind clearly, 
Gal. iv., where he speaks expressly that there are two Tes- 
taments and no more ; so that though both were upon the 
ground together (one declared then to make them sensible 
of their sins, and to bring them to the other covenant) yet 
both did not make up a third and distinct covenant. But 

Because the commandment lay uppermost the whole dis- 
pensation was called law, although the promise and the gospel 
lay at the bottom ; as now, because the promise lies upper- 
most the whole of the covenant is called the promise, though 
the commandment lies at the bottom. 

Well then, if these things be so, wherein lies the difference 
between that of the Jews and ours ? 

Thus, although the Jews that were saved, were saved by 
the same covenant that we now are saved by : yet then the 
covenant had a special eye unto the commandment, and 
therefore it is called the law. Now the covenant hath a 
special eye to the promise, and therefore it is called the 
promise. 

Then, though the covenant of grace was made with the 
Jews that were saved, yet it was given more darkly and 
obscurely ; there was a veil upon Moses that he could not 
see to the end of things. " But now we all with open face 
behold as in a glass the glory of the Lord," saith the apostle, 
as speaking of the difference between the one and the other, 
Cor. ii. 3. 

Then also the ministration of that covenant was very 
burthensome, now more easy ; "Take my yoke upon you,'' 
saith Christ ; it is spoken in opposition to Moses too, " for 
my yoke is easy, and my burden is light," Matt. xi. 

Then also the covenant was made with that nation of the 
Jews only, but now it takes in all the world, Jew and gen- 
tile. That scripture, Isa. Ivi., is spoken in regard ot gospel 
times, "Let not the eunuch say, &c., nor the son of a 
stranger, that I am separated from the Lord, only let him 
take hold of my covenant." The stranger now may do it, 
it belongs to the gentile as well as the Jew. And 

Then the dispensation was more terrible and brought forth 

VOL. in. E 



50 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SEB. 3. 

fear and bondage ; but now we are not come unto mount 
Sinai, where was fear and trembling, but we are come unto 
mount Sion, which brings forth love and faith and sweet- 
ness and thankfulness. 

Then also the covenant was confirmed by promise, and 
by the blood of bulls and goats ; now it is confirmed by 
oath, and by the blood of Jesus. 

Then also the mediator was Moses, that stood between 
God and them ; now Jesus the Mediator. 

Then the law was a schoolmaster to bring to Christ, the 
covenant of works was upon the ground, and the law was a 
schoolmaster, it is not so now. 

Then Christ was in the hand of Moses, now Moses is in 
the hand of Christ. Now the bond-woman is cast out of 
doors ; there was a time when the bond-woman and Sarah 
were in the house together, but now the bond-woman is 
gone. 

Then the commandments were more carnal, as the apostle 
speaks, and the promises worser, but now the commandment 
is spiritual and the covenant founded upon better promises, 
saith the apostle, Heb. vii. 

And, to say no more, look what difference there is between 
the letter and the Spirit in regard'of efficacy, for that is the 
meaning of it, such a difference there is between that and 
this. "We are not ministers of the letter/' as in the days 
of Moses, "but we are ministers of the Spirit," 2 Cor. iii. 
So that thus you see why this covenant is called a new 
covenant. New in opposition to the covenant that was 
made with man in the state of innocency, and new in oppo- 
sition to the covenant that was made with the Jews in the 
times of the Old Testament. 

Thirdly, But then what kind of covenant is this ? And 
what are the properties of it ? 

To name but three, 

It is a covenant of grace in opposition to works, or to all 
our own worth or worthiness. 

A covenant of grace, for it is made with sinners. The 
covenant that was made with Adam in the state of innocency 
was made with a saint, having the image of God upon him, 
and therefore a covenant of friendship. The covenant that 
God makes now, he makes with sinners, and it is a covenant 



SEB. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVILXAXT. 51 

of reconciliation, and therefore a covenant of grace. Then 
by ttat covenant that God made with Adam, there was no 
room for repentance, or for remission, now room for both. 

For repentance, " I will take away the heart of stone, and 
I will give an heart of flesh," saith God. 

For remission, "I will remember your sins no more," 
saith the covenant ; yea, the covenant of grace doth so deeply 
engage for remission of sins ; that whereas the covenant of 
works would own no such things, the covenant of grace doth 
so deeply engage for remission of sins, that it is made 
the chief, and the reason of all the other, " I will write my 
law in your hearts, and ye shall all know me ;" why ? " for 
I will remember your sins no more," Heb. viii. By that 
covenant, if we had sinned, we should have provoked God 
thereby to damn us and to destroy us. By this covenant, 
when a man that is in covenant sins, he doth thereby provoke 
God to pity him and to have compassion on him. In the 
covenant of works the Lord gave a man strength to stand, 
and left him to himself ; But now the Lord hath promised 
in this covenant to cause us to walk in his ways. When 
the Israelites had to do with the Egyptians, the Egyptians 
enjoined them their tale of brick, and gave them no straw. 
Now we have to deal with so good a Lord in this covenant, 
that our tale of brick is lessened ; we have straw and 
strength, and not only strength but God himself a co-worker 
with us. Yea, what grace is there that you want, or do 
complain for the want of, but it is promised in this covenant? 

Do you complain that you are not converted ? " I will 
write my law in your hearts," saith God now. 

Do you complain that you are ignorant ? " They shall 
all know me, from the least unto the greatest of them/' saith 
the covenant. 

Do you complain that your heart is hard ? " I will (saith 
God) take away the heart of stone, and give you an heart 
of flesh." Grace, grace, this covenant then is a covenant of 
grace, it is a gracious covenant. 

As it is a gracious covenant, so .it is a free and incondi- 
tionate covenant. Free in opposition to all conditions to 
be performed by us ; pray do not mistake me, I do not say 
there is no condition in the new covenant ; but the condition 
is performed by Christ our second Adam. 



52 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

Nor do I say, that faith, obedience and repentance are not 
required, but I say, faith, obedience and repentance are re- 
quired in the new covenant as duties, but not as conditions. 

This I say then, it is a free covenant, in opposition to all 
conditions to be performed by us ; for when the covenant of 
grace is mentioned in Scripture, where do you find any condi- 
tion annexed to any thing that is there promised. Saith the 
Lord, " I will remember your sins no more :" upon what 
condition ? None mentioned ; " I will write my law in your 
hearts ;" upon what condition ? None mentioned ; " You 
shall all know me from the greatest to the least," &c., upon 
what condition ? None mentioned. Where do you ever find 
the covenant mentioned with a condition ? 

And plainly thus ; if there were a condition, the condition 
must be a distinct thing from the thing promised. If I pro- 
mise to go a journey with a man upon condition that he 
shall bear my charges ; his bearing my charges and my go- 
ing the journey are distinct things. Now what condition 
then can there be ? What faith repentance or obedience ? 
Why ? these are all promised in the covenant, therefore they 
cannot be the condition ; for the thing promised in the cove- 
nant, and the condition that \\e are to perform, must be dis- 
tinct. I say, if there be a condition, it must be distinct from 
the thing promised ; but there is nothing that we can perform 
but is promised in the covenant, therefore there can be no 
condition. The prophet Isaiah tells us, that this covenant is 
after the nature of that covenant that God made with Noah, 
lhat the world should be drowned no more ; and that is ab- 
solute, and upon no condition. Junius thinks, that upon 
this account, this covenant of grace is called a testament, for, 
saith he, a testament is without condition. A man makes 
his last will and testament; and though now and then 
a man may hang a condition upon a rebellious child, yet or- 
dinarily, a man then gives, and he gives freely, without all 
conditions ; and so this covenant is called a testament : 
Why ? Because no condition is to be performed by us. 
That is the second thing, it is a free covenant in opposition 
to all conditions to be performed by ourselves. 

As it is a free covenant, in opposition to all conditions to 
be performed by us, so it is an everlasting covenant, a cove- 
nant of salt that cannot be broken, " which my covenant 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 53 

they brake," saith God, speaking of the former covenant ; 
and, saith he, in that place of Zechariah, " I took my staff of 
beauty, the covenant, and brake it." God brake it, that is the 
former covenant. But now this covenant of grace is an ever- 
lasting covenant, " ordered in all things and sure," an everlast- 
ing covenant that cannot be broken. And thus you see what 
kind of covenant it is ; it is a covenant of grace, in opposition 
to all works and worth in us ; a free covenant in opposition 
to all conditions to be performed by us : and an everlasting 
covenant. Lo, this is the covenant that is stricken with the 
children of men. 

Fourthly, But then, who are the subjects of this cove- 
nant, and who are the persons that God doth strike or make 
this covenant with ? 

This covenant of grace is not made or stricken with all the 
particular men in the world ; a new covenant will I make 
with the house of Israel, not with all the particular men in 
the world. If this new covenant of grace were made with all 
the particular men in the world, then all the particular men 
in the world should have the law of God written in their 
hearts, and should all know God, and all have their sins par- 
doned, for so saith the covenant, by an absolute promise 
which must be fulfilled. 

And upon this account it follows, that Christ did not die 
for every particular man in the world, for Christ is the Me- 
diator of the new covenant; therefore if the new covenant be 
not made with every particular man, Christ did not die for 
every particular man ; but the new covenant is not made with 
all the particular men in the world as you have heard. 

As this new covenant is not made with all the particular 
men in the world, so neither is it made with all that live un- 
der the gospel. Though Ishmael lived in Abraham's house, 
and so the skirt of the covenant might be thrown over him, 
yet, " in Isaac shall thy seed be called," saith God. A man 
may be be in a church, yet not of the church ; as a man may 
be in a house and yet not of the house. This covenant is not 
made with all particular men that live under the gospel. 

But who is it stricken with ? 

Plainly thus ; if the law of the gospel be written in your 
hearts, so that it is natural for you to do the work of the gos- 
pel ; as it is natural to an heathen to do the work of nature, 



54 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

because the law of nature is written in his heart ; then is 
this covenant made with you : for thus runs the covanant, I 
will write my law in your hearts. 

If that you are taught of God, having an holy instinct unto 
what is good As the bee being taught of God finds the way 
home to the hive by an instinct ; and the lamb being taught of 
God finds out his dam amongst a thousand sheep. So I say, 
If you be taught of God, having an holy instinct unto what is 
good, then are you in covenant with God ; for thus runs the 
covenant, " You shall all know me, and every one shall be 
taught of God." 

If an heart of stone be taken away and a yielding heart 
be given unto you, whereby you yield to God's impressions, 
to God's instructions, and to God's corrections, then are you 
in covenant with God ; for thus runs the covenant, " I will 
take away the heart of stone, and give an heart of flesh ;" a 
heart of flesh is a yielding heart. 

If you are begotten again to God by the promise, espe- 
cially the absolute promise, then are vou in covenant with 
God. There were two sons of Abraham, the child of the 
bond-woman, and the child of the free-woman, saith the 
apostle these were types, and wherein did they differ ? Why, 
the child of the bond woman was born after the flesh, but the 
child of the free-woman was born by the promise, only by 
the promise, an absolute promise ; and therefore I say, if you 
be born again by the promise, the absolute promise, then are 
you in covenant with God. 

And to sav no more in it but this, if you be the seed of 
Christ, then is this covenant made with you, for it is made 
with Christ and his seed ; and if you be Abraham's seed, 
then are you the seed of Christ ; for you may see how they 
go together, in Galatians in., "Now to Abraham and his seed 
were the promises made : he saith not, unto seeds, as of 
many, but as of one, and to seed, which is Christ." And if 
you do believe as Abraham did, then are you Abraham's 
seed. So that thus briefly you see, who this covenant is 
stricken with, and who are the subjects of it. 

Fifthly, But then suppose I be in covenant with the Lord, 
or suppose I be not ; if I be not, is there any great hurt ? 
suppose I be, is there any great good ? 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 55 

Much every way ; give me leave to give you a little taste 
of it. 

If you be not in covenant with God, how can you expect 
any blessing, mercy, or deliverance from God ? For do but 
look into the Scripture, and you shall find, that all blessings, 
mercies and deliverances come to the people of God by vir- 
tue of the covenant, and according to the covenant. Will 
you instance in outward deliverances, the world is not drown- 
ed again ? Why but because of the covenant. Will you in- 
stance in spiritual deliverances ? Saith the Psalmist, " He 
commandeth redemption, he remembereth the covenant." He 
maketh redemption effectual by remembering the covenant. 
Or will you instance in both together ? see what is said 
in Zech. ix. 11., " As for thee also, by the blood of thy cove- 
nant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein 
is no water." It includes both outward and spiritual deliver- 
ances : so that now if you be not in covenant with God, 
what deliverance can you expect, or what mercy, seeing 
they all come by virtue of the covenant, and according to the 
covenant. 

But on the other side, if you be in covenant with the 
Lord, then are you exalted and honoured, yea greatly hon- 
oured. For if it be an honour to be in a league and cove- 
nant with a great prince, what an honour is it to be in cove- 
nant with the great God ? When God did speak to Abra- 
ham of striking a covenant with him, he falls down upon his 
face ; as if he should say, Who am I, that the great God 
should be in covenant with me. 

Again, if God be in covenant with you, look whatever ex- 
cellency there is in God, that is made over to you for your 
use. And as that king said to him that was in a league with 
him, My horse is thine, and my men are thine, and my mo- 
ney is thine ; so when God enters into a covenant with a 
poor soul, he saith, My wisdom is thine, and my power is 
thine, and my love and mercy is thine : whatever excel- 
lency there is in God is made over to you, being in covenant 
with him. 

And if that you be in covenant with the Lord, then all his 
retinue, his creatures, and his servants also are in covenant 
with you, Hos. ii. 21., " It shall come to pass in that day, I 
will hear, saith the Lord, I will hear the 1-c-vens, and they 



56 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 3. 

shall hear the earth, and the earth shall hear the corn and the 
wine, and the oil, and they shall hear Jezreel." Why ? verse 
19., " I will betroth thee unto me for ever ; yea, I will be- 
troth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in 
loving kindness and in mercies ; and then it shall come to 
pass, that I will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the 
earth," &c. So that if you be in covenant with God, then 
all his retinue, all his creatures and all his servants are in 
covenant with you too. 

And if you be in covenant with the Lord, then he is in 
covenant with you and your soul and your body both ; not 
only with your body but with your soul, and not only with 
your soul, but with your body, with your whole man ; and 
therefore if you die, the covenant is not dissolved between 
God and you. The covenant may be dissolved between a 
man and his wife at death, but this covenant can never be dis- 
solved, and though you sin, and break with God, God will 
not break with you ; I hate putting away, saith he. 

And then, you may go to God as upon a throne of grace, 
and look upon God as sitting in a rainbow. Oh what a 
mercy, what a blessing is it to be in covenant with the 
Lord? 

Sixthly, But in case I be not in covenant with God, what 
shall I do to get into covenant with him ? And in case I be 
in covenant with God, how shall I walk so as becometh one 
that is in covenant with the great God ? Here are two ques- 
tions, I shall speak briefly to them and conclude. 

Do you ask what you shall do to get into covenant ? Are 
you afraid any of you, that you are not yet in covenant with 
the Lord, and would you be in covenant with the Lord ? 

Why then be sure of this, that upon a right and good un- 
derstanding of the nature of this covenant, you go to God, 
and make your choice of this covenant of grace, to stand and 
fall by. The word Berith in the Hebrew for covenant, some 
think comes from a root that signifies to choose ; a man is 
in the covenant that he chooses, and every man is indeed as 
his choice is. 

But then go and renounce the other covenant of works, 
&c. As the way to have a part in Christ's righteousness is 
to renounce all your own righteousness ; so the w r ay to have 



SEH. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 57 

a share in this covenant of grace, is to renounce the cove- 
nant of works. 

Then go to Christ as the Mediator of the covenant, and 
desire him to put you into this covenant ; he struck the 
covenant with God the Father at the first, and he must put 
you into this covenant, for he is the Mediator of the cove- 
nant; go then to him, as to the Mediator of the covenant, to 
put you into covenant. 

Then leave the weight and stress of your guilty soul upon 
this covenant of grace, bear upon this stream of grace, here 
lay the weight of all, for the promise is made ours by resting 
on it ; and what is this covenant, but an absolute promise ? 
there then rest, and leave the weight of your souls. 

And to say no more but this ; then go unto the Lord, and 
give your hand unto God, and yourself up to God, as one 
willing to be led by him into all the things that the covenant 
shall require. In the times of the old testament when they 
made a covenant, they struck hands together. In Ezra x. 
19., it is said they " gave their bands " to put away their 
wives ; and in the former verse, they made a covenant to do 
it, " They rose and made a covenant to put away their 
wives :" and we find in 1 Chronicles, that when David was 
dead, that all the people came together, (xxiv. 24.) " And 
all the princes, and the mighty men, and all the sons like- 
wise of king David, submitted themselves unto Solomon the 
king ;" the word in the Hebrew is, They gave the hand under 
king Solomon ; they gave their hand by way of covenant, 
and they gave their hand under king Solomon in a way of 
submission. So when we enter into covenant with the Lord, 
we give our hand under God and therefore if you desire to 
get into covenant do these things. 

Well, but suppose I be in covenant with God, as I hope I 
am, what should I do that I may walk as becometh one that 
is in covenant with the great God ? 

I answer, If you be in covenant indeed with the Lord, 
then God hath honoured you, he hath exalted you, and 
honoured you greatly ; arid if God have honoured you, why 
should not you honour God ? 

Now the more you fall down at the feet of the fulness of 
Christ, in the sense of your own unworthincss, inability and 
insufficiency, the more you honour God : " There is one 



58 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

(saith John) who is mightier than I, whose shoe latchet I am 
not worthy to unloose." 

The more you cry up those ordinances and ways of God 
that are decried by the world, the more you honour God. 

The more you keep close to God in declining times, the 
more you honour God. 

The more you trust God at a dead lift, when all means 
fail, and when a sentence of death is upon all the means, the 
more you honour God. 

The more you serve God, contrary to your own disposi- 
tion, and reach the services of God over the head of your 
own dispositions, the more you honour God. 

And the more that you do prefer the things of God in time 
of competition above other things, the more you honour 
God. 

And the more you part with your much for God's 
lesser, the more you honour God. What is honour ? Ho- 
nour is a testimony of another's excellency. Now when I 
can part with my much for God's little, his little truths and 
things, I do testify an excellency in God. I say, the more 
you can part with your much for God's little, the mere you 
honour God. 

And the more you do keep close to the name and faith of 
God in Christ, even where Satan's throne is, the more you 
honour God. Now then hath the Lord honoured you, and 
taken you into covenant with himself ? then surely it is your 
duty for to honour God, and by these several particulars you 
may honour God. 

If the Lord have made and stricken a covenant with you, 
then, friends, give me leave to say to you, Why should you 
be solicitous for your own things ? If you be in covenant 
with the Lord, and God in covenant with you, God will take 
care of your things ; therefore why should you be solicitous 
about your own things ? God is in covenant with you, he 
will take care of yours. 

And upon this account, in case there be any loss upon the 
things of God, why should you not be as much affected for 
that loss as for your own losses ? For if you be in covenant 
with God, and God with you, God's things are your's, and 
your things are God's. God's things are your's : why then 
should you not be as much touched with the loss of any 



SER. 3.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 59 

thine; that concerns God, as with any thing that concerns 
yourselves ? 

Yea, why should not God have the use of all your's? 
God is in covenant with you, and you have the use of God's 
things, his wisdom, his power, his mercy ; why ? because he 
is in covenant with you, and you are in covenant with him. 
Why then should not God have the use of your things also, 
your name and your estate and your body and your time ? 
If you be in covenant with God, and God be in covenant 
with you, your's are God's and God's are your's ; why should 
not God have the use of your's, as you think to have the 
use of God's. 

If God be in covenant with you, and you be in covenant 
with God, then why should you not live at an higher rate 
than the best of the Jews did ? You are in a better covenant 
than the Jews were, though for substance the same, as you 
heard, yet you are in a better covenant, and shall not your 
lives be better ? 

You have a better Mediator, and shall not your lives be 
better ? 

You have better promises, and shall not your lives be 
better ? 

Your state now is called grace to that ! " The law was 
given by Moses, but grace and truth comes by Christ," John 
i. Look therefore upon the Jews, look into the Old Testa- 
ment, and look upon the best of them, and think with your- 
selves, Am I in a better covenant ? oh then, how am I en- 
gaged to live better. Oh, that our lives were more exalted 
upon this account. Why should not our lives be better, and 
we live at a higher rate ? 

If you be in covenant with the Lord, and the Lord in 
covenant with you, then be sure of this, that you be true to 
God, be true to God in the matter of his worship. The 
covenant stricken between God and you is a conjugal cove- 
nant. A woman, though she will admit another man into 
the house with her husband, yet she will not admit him into 
the bed, that is a breach of covenant. Now the worship of 
God is the bed wherein Christ doth bed with a soul ; and 
therefore if you look into the Old Testament, you shall find 
that idolatry is accounted adultery and harlotry : why ? be- 
cause they took idols and men into the bed with God. 



60 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 3. 

Would you walk then as those that are in covenant with the 
Lord, away with every thing of man's out of Christ's bed. 
Remember it is a conjugal covenant. Whatsoever is of man's 
coming unto the worship of the Lord, which is the Lord's 
bed, is against your covenant. When God speaks of a 
covenant, he saith, " Thou shalt be for me, and I will be for 
thee," Hos. iii. 

And to conclude all, if you be in covenant with the Lord, 
and the Lord with you indeed, go away and walk humbly and 
be very thankful. When the Lord made a covenant with 
Abraham, Abtaham, saith he, go throughout the land, and 
behold it in the breadth thereof, and in the length thereof: 
so say I, Hath the Lord entered into covenant with you, go 
into the land of the covenant, behold the length thereof and 
the breadth thereof; and what God hath promised in that 
covenant, behold it in the length thereof and the breadth 
thereof; and thus will your heart be affected and raised to 
thankfulness. Thus David's heart was raised, for, saith he, 
" Lord, though thou makest not my house to grow, this is 
my salvation ;" I am in covenant with thee. And so you may 
say, Lord, thou makest not my family to grow, I have never 
a child ; this is my salvation, I am in covenant with thee : 
though thou makest not my house to grow, but I am poor, 
and my house is pulled down or burnt down ; this is my 
salvation, the Lord be praised, the Lord is in covenant with 
me. Thus do and you shall be thankful. 

And this is the last thing, If you be in covenant with the 
Lord, go away, walk humbly, and be thankful that God 
should ever enter into this great covenant, this covenant of 
grace with you, even with you. 

And so now I have done with the first argument, that there 
is a covenant stricken with the children of men : the second 
follows, Jesus is the Mediator of this covenant. 



SEN. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 



SERMON IV. 

CHRIST THE MEDIATOR OF THE NEW COVENANT. 

" And to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel." HEB. 
xii. 24. 

I SHALL now come unto the second observation raised 
from the words, namely, 

Observation II, That Jesus is the Mediator of the new 
covenant. 

For the opening and prosecuting whereof, 
First, We must inquire what is the proper work of a me- 
diator, that is, a mediator between God and us. 

Secondly, I shall labour to she w you that Jesus was and is 
the fittest person in the world to meditate between God and us. 
Thirdly, That Jesus hath undertaken this work of me- 
diation, and will certainly carry it on unto due perfection. 

Fourthly, How and in what respects Jesus is said to be 
the Mediator of the New Covenant. 

Fifthly, What are the benefits that we do gain by Jesus his 
being Mediator of the new covenant. 

Sixthly, Give you some doctrinal corollaries and practical 
duties that do flow from hence. 

First. If you ask what is the proper work of a Me- 
diator, that is, a Mediator between God and us, 

I answer, It is to make peace and reconciliation between 
God and us. At the first, in the state of innocency, there 
was peace and friendship between God and man, there was no 
enmity in God's heart towards his creature, nor no enmity 
in man's heart towards his Creator; but upon the fall, a 
breach or separation was made between God and us, inso- 
much as we are all by nature the children of wrath, God is 
angry, and an enmity is in us towards God. " The wisdom 
of the flesh is enmity against God," saith the apostle. Now, 
therefore, the work of a Mediator is to reconcile God to us, 
and to reconcile us unto God, both which you have in 2 Cor. 
v. 18, 19. " All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to 
himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of 
reconciliation, to wit, that God was in Christ reconciling the 



62 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 4. 

world unto himself." There is reconciliation on God's part, 
for it is said, " He was in Christ reconciling the world unto 
himself: not imputing their trespasses unto them." Then, 
at the 20th verse, you have reconciliation on our part, " Now 
then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did be- 
seech you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead be ye recon- 
ciled unto God." Here is both reconciliations. 

Only you must know, that we do not find in express terms 
in Scripture, that God is said to be reconciled to us, but we 
are said to be reconciled to him, because we are the parties 
offending, and God the party offended. Now the Scripture al- 
ways speak so, that the party offending is to reconcile himself, 
or to be reconciled, as in the vth of Matthew, " If thy brother 
hath aught against thee, leave thy gift, and first be reconciled 
to thy brother." Thou that hast offended go and be reconciled 
to thy brother. And so we say in ordinary speech, if a man 
hath justly provoked another, go and reconcile yourself unto 
him, that is, do that whereby he may be pacified and satisfied. 
And so God is reconciled unto us, when we do that whereby 
his anger may be turned away, and he pacified, which is the 
work of a Mediator. 

But what need a Mediator for this work, say the Socinians, 
for God was always willing to be reconciled to us ; " God so 
loved the world that he gave his Son :" he loved them first, 
before Christ j what need a Mediator then ? say they. 

And say the Arminians, to invalidate and enervate election, 
If we be elected, and so loved from all eternity, what need a 
Mediator to bring about actual reconciliation in time. 

To all which I answer, 

Yes, very much. For, 

1. You must know that affections are given to God in 
Scripture according to effects and dispensations sometimes. 

Sometimes God is said to love or hate in reference to his 
eternal decree. So Rom. ix., " Jacob have I loved and Esau 
have I hated," before they had done good or evil. 

Sometimes God is said to love, or to be angry, or to hate 
in reference to his dispensations. And so the elect, that are 
loved from all eternity, are born the children of wrath, in re- 
gard of legal dispensation. Elect we are, and so loved, in 
regard of God's eternal good will, and yet under wrath when 
we are born, in regard of legal dispensation. 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. G3 

2. You must know that this reconciliation with God, or 
God being reconciled to us, doth not make a real change in 
the inward affection of God, but in the outward dispensation 
of God. 

3. You must know this, that God may be willing to be re- 
conciled unto us, in regard of his eternal good will, and yet not 
be actually reconciled in regard of his eternal good will. As 
David was willing to be reconciled to Absolom, but he was 
not actually reconciled, and therefore Joab comes as a me- 
diator between them, to bring about the actual reconciliation. 
And if you look into the last of Job, you will find, as Maco- 
vius doth well observe to the purpose in hand, that when God 
was very angry with Eliphaz and his friends, insomuch as the 
Lord said to Eliphaz, at the 7th verse, " My wrath is kindled 
against thee, and thy two friends -" that yet notwithstanding 
then God puts them upon a means of taking away his dis- 
pleasure : " Therefore take unto you now seven bullocks and 
seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for your- 
selves a burnt offering, and my servant Job shall pray for 
you/' and mediate for you. So that God was angry, and his 
wrath kindled, yet he was willing to be reconciled, and finds 
out a mediator to bring about this actual reconciliation. And 
so here, although God be angry with his own elect, in regard 
of the dispensation, yet notwithstanding he may be willing to 
be reconciled in regard of his eternal good will. But, 

4. You must know this also, that God may and doth will 
this for that sometimes, and yet not for this will that, as 
Aquinas speaks. 

For example : God doth will rain for corn, and rain is the 
cause of corn willed ; he doth will rain for corn, yet corn is not 
the cause of his will willing the corn. So here, God doth will 
Christ's mediation for reconciliation, and the mediation of 
Christ is the cause of reconciliation, but yet, notwithstanding, 
the mediation of Christ is not the cause of God's will willing 
reconciliation. So that thus now you see what the proper work 
of a Mediator is, that is, to mediate between God and us ; it 
is to reconcile God to us, and to reconcile us unto God. That 
is the first. 

Secondly, Jesus was and is the fittest person in the world 
to mediate between God and us. There was no creature fit 
to umpire the business between God and us ; and therefore 



64 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 4. 

Job saith well, " Neither is there any days-man betwixt us, 
that might lay his hand upon us both," chap. ix. 33. Man 
was not fit to mediate, because man is the persou offending ; 
angels not fit to mediate, for the shoulder of an angel could 
not bear the weight of mediation work, neither could an angel 
satisfy ; God the Father not fit for this work, the first person 
in the Trinity, for he was the person offended ; the Holy 
Ghost not fit for this work, for it is his work to apply the blood 
of this mediation ; so then there is none other fit, but Christ 
is fit, Jesus is fit, the fittest person. 

For, first of all, he is the person appointed by the Father. 
If a man will undertake to mediate between two, and be not 
chosen thereunto, he is not fit for it ; but if chosen, then he 
is fit. Why, Jesus is the person chosen ; " Mine elect servant 
(saith the Father) whom I have chosen, I have given him for 
a covenant unto the people," Isa. xlii. 

He was and is the fittest person to mediate between God 
and us, for he is a middle person, partaking of God's nature 
and of man's. Extremes are joined together by a middle. 
Who more fit to mediate between two, than he that is a mid- 
dle between them ? 

He is the fittest person, for he is the fittest to make recon- 
ciliation between God and us, to reconcile God to us and us 
unto God. 

He is the fittest to reconcile God to us ; for that God might 
be reconciled he must be satisfied, his justice satisfied and 
his anger satisfied. Now Jesus Christ was God and Man ; 
as man he ought to satisfy but could not, as God he could 
satisfy but he ought not, but as God-man he both could and 
ought, and so the fittest. And again, 

Who more fit to reconcile God unto us, than he that was 
the most fit to intercede, that had credit and favour and love 
with the Father ? Now Jesus lay in the bosom of the Father ; 
"This is my beloved Son ;" and, I was the Father's delight," 
saith he, in the viiith of Proverbs. Therefore the most fit to 
intercede and so to reconcile God unto us. 

Who more fit to reconcile God to us, than he that was fit 
to be a surety to undertake for us. If a man come to mediate 
with a person offended for another ; saith the person offended, 
But will you undertake he shall do so no more ? Yes. Why, 
then I am willing. Now Jesus is called our Surety in the 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 65 

viiith of Hebrews. He undertakes that though we have 
broken with God already we shall break no more ; and there- 
fore the fittest person to reconcile God to us. 

But, again, the fittest person also to reconcile us to God. 

Who more fit to reconcile us to God than he that can 
change our natures ? Now Jesus is able to change our na- 
ture. " I find (saith Paul) a law in my members rebelling 
against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity 
unto the law of sin which is in my members : oh, wretched 
man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this 
death ?" then, " I thank God through Jesus Christ/' And, 
Rom. viii. 2, " The law of the Spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, 
hath made me free from the law of sin and death/' And, 

Who more fit to reconcile us to God than he that can be- 
get good thoughts in us concerning God ? So long as a man 
hath hard thoughts of God he will never be reconciled to 
God. Now Jesus Christ lay in the bosom of his Father, and 
can tell the soul what volumes of love there were and are in 
the bosom of the Father for it, from all eternity, and so can 
beget love in the soul towards God, and so able to reconcile 
the soul to God. You have it clearly in John i. 18, he lay in 
the bosom of the Father, &c. 

And then, to say no more but this, who more fit to recon- 
cile us to God than he that can give the Holy Ghost into our 
souls ? For as God is reconciled to us by the blood of Christ, 
so we are reconciled to God by the Spirit of Christ. Now 
Jesus gives the Spirit: " I will send the Comforter," saith 
Christ. So that he, he is the fittest person in all the world 
to reconcile God to us, and to reconcile us to God, and so the 
fittest person in all the world to mediate between God and us. 
And so you have the second thing. 

Thirdly. But then, as Jesus is the fittest person to medi- 
ate between God and us, so he hath undertaken this work of 
mediation, and he will certainly carry it on unto due perfec- 
tion. 

I say, he hath undertaken it, and therefore he is called the 
Mediator : " For there is one God, and one Mediator between 
God and man, the Man Christ Jesus," 1 Tim. ii. 5, and he 
alone is the Mediator. I confess, indeed, the word /x^tr^c is 
given to Moses, and Moses in the iiird of Galatians is called 
a mediator : " The law was ordained by angels in the hand of 



66 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 4. 

a mediator," verse 19 ; that is not Christ. But the law was 
ordained by angels in the hand, that is, by the ministry of a 
mediator. Christ was not the minister of angels, Moses was, 
and therefore Moses is to be understood here. The same 
word that is used concerning Christ is used here. 

But now, although Moses was a mediator, a typical media- 
tor, and did stand between God and the people, as in Deut. 
V., to deliver out the law unto them ; " I stood between the 
Lord and you at that time to shew you the word of the 
Lord/ 3 verse 5 ; though, I say, Moses is called a mediator, 
because he stood between God and the people, to give and 
deliver out the law to them ; yet you never find that Moses 
is called a mediator in a way of redemption, or satisfaction, 
or paying of any ransom. So Jesus only is. " There is one 
God, and one Mediator between God and man, the Man 
Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all," 1 Tim. ii. 
And so also in the ixth of Hebrews : " For this cause he is 
the Mediator of the new testament." For what cause ? Why, 
verse 14, " How much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
through the eternal Spirit offered up himself without spot to 
God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the 
living God." And for this cause is he the Mediator. It is 
never said so of Moses ; no, but Christ the Mediator, and he 
only the Mediator in a way of satisfaction, and redemption, 
and paying of a price. Well, thus he hath undertaken the 
work. 

And certainly he will carry on his work of mediation unto 
due perfection ; for, saith the apostle, he is faithful in all his 
house, as Moses was : Moses as a servant, he as a Son. Moses 
the mediator was faithful in all the house of God to a pin ; 
surely Jesus the Son will be faithful in this work of media- 
tion, and carry it on to the uttermost. 

But then you will say, What assurance have we that Jesus 
will carry on this work of mediation unto the uttermost, unto 
due perfection. 

First of all you have the assurance of the first great pro- 
mise that was made, " The seed of the woman shall break 
the serpent's head." Gen. iii. Saith the Lord to the serpent, 
" I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between 
thy seed and her seed." If there be enmity between Satan 
and us, there will be peace between God and us ; where God 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 07 

saith, he will put enmity between the devil and us, he doth 
there promise that there shall be peace and reconciliation be- 
tween God and us. Now this here he saith, and how shall this 
be done ? " It shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his 
heel." It shall be done by him whose heel in his sufferings 
is bruised by Satan and his instruments. It shall be done by 
Christ. 

As you have the assurance of the first promise, so you have 
the assurance of what Christ hath done already ; he will not 
lose what he hath done, he will not lose his work. If Jesus 
Christ did not boggle, nor start at, nor fly back from the 
hardest piece of mediation, which was to satisfy for our sins, 
surely he will not give in and start back from the easier part, 
which is, to intercede in heaven : " Seeing he ever lives to 
make intercession for us." 

As you have the assurance of what he hath done, so you 
have the assurance also of his delight in this work of media- 
tion. If a man undertake a work, be able to carry it through, 
and take delight therein, he will certainly carry it on. Now 
our Lord Jesus Christ hath undertaken this work ; he is able, 
God and man ; and he hath a delight in this work : " I de- 
light to do thy will," saith he, in the viiith of Proverbs. " I 
was by him as one brought up with him, and I was daily his 
delight, rejoicing always before him, rejoicing in the habitable 
part of his earth, and my delights were with the sons of 
men." Christ's heart was much in this work of mediation, 
insomuch as if you look into the iiird of Malachi, you shall 
find he sits by it ; " And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier 
of silver, and he shall purify the sons of Levi." Why? 
"That they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteous- 
ness : then shall the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem be 
pleasant unto the Lord, as in the days of old, and as in former 
years." Who is this that sits thus at it ? Why in the former 
verse it is said, < even the Messenger of the covenant," that 
is, Christ Jesus. " Behold I will send my messenger, and he 
shall prepare the way before me ;" there is John the Baptist. 
" And the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his 
temple, even the Messenger of the covenant, (here is Christ) 
whom ye delight in." Behold he shall come. And what 
shall he do ? Why he shall sit at this work ; his heart is 



68 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 4. 

much in this work, his delight is in it ; and therefore you 
have the assurance of his delight, that he will carry it on. 

As you have the assurance of his delight, so you have the 
assurance of his name and title Jesus, Jesus the Mediator 
of the covenant. Why Jesus ? Why not Christ ? Why not 
Jesus Christ, as in other scriptures ? 

Look into the book of the Hebrews and you will find 
frequently that Christ is called Jesus, why ? because this title 
was more suitable to the priestly office of Christ, which the 
apostle is opening in the book of the Hebrews. It notes 
also the Deity of Christ ; Jesus signifies Saviour ; they go 
here together, Jesus the Mediator, why ? because as he is a 
Mediator in order to our salvation, so he is a Saviour in the 
way of mediation ; therefore they go here together. And 
therefore as Jesus is able to save to the uttermost, so as 
Mediator he will perform this work of mediation to the 
uttermost. And thus now I have done with the third thing, 
namely, [that Jesus hath undertaken this work to mediate 
between God and us, and he will certainly carry it on unto 
due perfection. 

Fourthly, How, and in what respects is Jesus said to be 
the Mediator of the new covenant. 

Upon a threefold account. 

Upon the account of stipulation. Upon the account of 
confirmation. Upon the account of suretiship. 

He is the Mediator of the new covenant upon the account 
of stipulation, for he it was that did strike the covenant for us 
with God the Father. See what is said in 2 Tim. i., " Who 
hath saved us (saith the apostle) and called us with an holy 
calling, not according to our works, but according to his own 
purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus 
before the world began." So that there was a treatment 
between God the Father and Christ concerning us ; and 
Christ received grace for us before the world began. And as 
the first Adam did strike the covenant of works with God 
the Father for his seed, so Jesus did strike the covenant of 
grace for his seed with God the Father, and so called the 
second Adam. A Mediator therefore of the new covenant 
he is, in regard of stipulation, he it was that struck up the 
covenant first with the Father. 

As he is a Mediator of the new covenant upon the account 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 69 

of stipulation, so upon the account of confirmation ; for he 
hath confirmed the covenant. He confirmed the covenant 
by his active obedience while he lived, and by his passive 
obedience when he died. 

By his active obedience while he lived, Dan. ix. 27, " He 
shall confirm the covenant with many for one week." La- 
rabbim, you read it with many, but rather he shall confirm 
the covenant/or many ; not for all, but he shall confirm the 
covenant for many for one week. 

And he did confirm the covenant also by his passive obe- 
dience in his death, Heb. ix. a For this cause he is the Me- 
diator of the New Testament, that by means of death for 
the redemption of the transgressions that were under the 
first testament, they which are called might receive the 
promise. For (the apostle explains it by a similitude) where 
a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of 
the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead ; 
otherwise it is of no strength at all, whilst the testator liveth." 
So that plainly then, the Lord Jesus Christ did confirm the 
covenant by his death. 

Only the question is, how Christ did confirm the covenant 
by his death ? 

The Socinians would make the world believe that Christ 
did confirm the covenant by his death, in the way of testi- 
mony and witness-bearing only; for say they, Christ preached 
the gospel while he lived, and when he died, he did by his 
death seal it and confirm the truth thereof. Thus they say, 
that Christ did confirm the covenant by his death only in a 
way of witness-bearing, in a way of testimony. 

But surely this cannot be it, for if Christ did confirm the 
covenant by his death ; he confirmed not the covenant only 
by witness-bearing to the truth, for so the apostles might be 
said to confirm the covenant, for in Heb. ii. 3 : " How shall 
we escape if we neglect so great salvation, which at the first 
began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us 
by them that heard him." 

And if our Lord and Saviour should only confirm the 
covenant by his death in a way of witness-bearing, then the 
martyrs that died for the truth, should confirm the covenant 
by their death too, for they by their death did seal to the 
truth, and did bear witness to the truth, and so they should 



70 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 4. 

be said to confirm the covenant ; but far be it from us to 
think any such thing. 

But Jesus Christ did confirm the covenant by his death 
thus, by performing the condition of the covenant, and by 
laying down his blood a price for the mercies and blessings 
promised in the covenant. 

He did confirm the covenant by his death, I say, by per- 
forming the condition of the covenant. If a man be in 
captivity, and he that hath him in captivity promises upon 
the payment of so much money that he shall be delivered ; 
when the money is paid down the condition is performed ; 
why now Jesus when he died, he gave himself a ransom for 
many, \VT%OV yea, am\vrpov and upon this account he is called 
a Mediator, 1 Tim. ii. 5, " There is one God, and one Me- 
diator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus, who 
gave himself a ransom," avriXv-rpov, a ransom in the room, a 
ransom for, or in the room of us. 

As the first Adam should have confirmed the covenant 
and did not, so the second Adam did confirm the covenant. 
How should the first Adam have confirmed the covenant ? 
Why, the first Adam should have confirmed the covenant 
by performing the condition thereof. So now our Lord and 
Saviour Christ, being the second Adam, did confirm the 
covenant. How ? By performing the condition of the co- 
venant. Thus he is the Mediator of the new covenant, upon 
the account of confirmation. 

He is the Mediator of the new covenant upon the account 
of suretyship, by being bound unto God the Father that we 
shall perform to him, by being bound to us that God the 
Father shall perform to us. In Heb. vii. 22, you shall find 
he is called our Surety j by so much was Jesus made a Surety 
of a better testament. And why so ? but to shew that where 
he is Mediator, he is Surety. You knew what a surety is ? 
he is bound for the debtor to perform. Saith Judah unto his 
father Jacob, Gen. xliii. 9, when he would have Benjamin 
down with him to Egypt, " I will be surety for him, of my 
hand shalt thou require him." So Christ saith unto the 
Father, I will be Surety for these men and of my hand shalt 
thou require their performance ; and saith he to them again, 
I will be Surety for God the Father, and of my hand shall 
you require his mercies. So that thus now he is a Mediator 



SKB. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 71 

of the new covenant upon an account of suretiship, upon a 
threefold account; upon the account of stipulation, upon 
the account of confirmation, upon the account of suretiship. 

Fifthly, But what are the benefits that we do gain or get 
by Jesus being the Mediator of the new Covenant ? 

Much every way. First of all is it not a great matter that 
God the Father should be reconciled unto us ? If God be re- 
conciled, you are brought near unto him, into oneness with 
him. Union is the ground of communion, and communion 
is the ground of communication ; surely therefore it is no 
small matter. Now I say, if Jesus be the Mediator of the 
new covenant, God is reconciled to us. 

If Jesus be the Mediator of the new covenant, then you 
may go with boldness, and look the justice of God in the 
face. With boldness, for your debt is satisfied. So long as 
a man is in debt, he steals by the prison door in the dark ; 
but if his Surety have paid the debt, he dares come, as you 
say, and whet his knife at the Compter door. Now Christ 
being your Mediator, the Mediator of the new covenant, he 
is your Surety, the debt is paid, and you may go with bold- 
ness and look justice in the face, and the devil, and all those 
sergeants of hell. 

But is it not a great matter for Christ to be your King, 
Priest and Prophet ? Consider it a little. If you observe it, 
you shall find that all the blessings that came to the Jews or 
Israelites in the time of the old testament, came through 
these three offices, king, priest, prophet; why? but as a type, 
to shew that all our spiritual mercies must come through the 
hand of these three offices in Christ. Now if Christ be the 
Mediator of the new covenant, then he is your King, your 
Priest, your Prophet, for all these three offices of Christ grow 
upon the mediation of Christ. 

For if he be your Mediator, then he will be a Prophet ; a 
Prophet to declare the mind and will of the Father to you. 

If he be your Mediator, he will be your Priest, to satisfy 
the Father's anger for you. 

If he be your Mediator, he will be a King to subdue all 
your enemies, for he is a Priest after the order of Melchize- 
dek, King of Salem. Now is it not a great matter to have 
Christ our King, our Priest, our Prophet ? surely it is. But, 

Is it not a great matter that all the blessings and mercies 



72 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 4. 

of the new covenant should belong unto you ? Friends, have 
you duly considered what are the blessings of the new cove- 
nant ? I will tell you briefly : 

They are all those spiritual blessings which you want, and 
complain for the want of. There are seven or eight spiritual 
blessings that a poor drooping soul doth complain for the 
want of. 

Oh, saith he, I am afraid I am not the child of God j or I 
fear my sin is not pardoned ; and I do not find an inward 
constant frame of soul to what is good; and I am a poor 
ignorant creature ; and I have a hard heart ; and I want the 
Spirit of the Lord within me ; and I cannot walk with God 
as I ought to do ; and I fear I shall fall away, and go to hell 
at last. Why now in the covenant of grace there is supply 
promised against all these fears. 

Dost thou say, I am afraid I am not the child of God ? 
Why, saith the Lord here in the covenant, " I will be a God 
unto you, and you shall be my people," There is adoption 
for you. Heb. viii. 

Do you say, I am afraid my sin is not pardoned ? Then 
saith the Lord in the covenant, tf Your sin and your iniquity 
will I remember no more," Heb. viii. 

Do you say, Oh, but I do not find that constant frame of 
heart unto what is good ? Why, saith the Lord in the cove- 
nant, " I will write my law in your heart." 

Do you say, Oh, but I am a poor ignorant creature ? 
Why, saith the Lord in the, covenant, u You shall all know 
me from the greatest to the least, and you shall be taught of 
God." 

Do you say, Oh, but my heart is hard ? Why, saith the 
Lord in the covenant, " I will take away the heart of stone, 
and give an heart of flesh." 

Do you say, Oh, but I want the Spirit of God within me ? 
Why, saith the Lord, " I will put my Spirit within you." 

Do you say, J cannot walk with God as I ought ? Why, 
saith the Lord in the covenant, " I will cause you to walk in 
my ways." 

Do you say, I fear I shall fall away, and go to hell at last? 
Why, saith the Lord in the covenant, " I will put my fear 
into your hearts, and you shall not depart from me." These, 
even these, besides heaven, and besides the blessings of this 



SSR. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 73 

earth, so all these blessings are promised in the covenant of 
grace ; and if Christ be the Mediator of the new covenant, 
then do these blessings belong to you, for he is Surety as 
well as Mediator. But, 

Is it not a great matter to have the Lord Jesus to interpose 
between God the Father and you, to take up all differences 
as they may arise ? Why, if Jesus be the Mediator of the 
covenant, so it is : " If any man sin, we have an Advocate 
with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, who is the pro- 
pitiation for our sins." 

Is it not a great matter for you to enter into the holy of 
holiest, and to have all your duties carried in to God the Fa- 
ther by the hand of Jesus ? If he be your Mediator, so it is, 
Rev. viii. 

Is it not a great matter in case that you have to deal with 
enemies, either for soul or body to have one by, that can and 
will interpose and rebuke them ? Why, if Jesus be the 
Mediator of the covenant, thus shall it be. He interposed 
between Laban and Jacob ; when Laban followed Jacob, he 
rebuked Laban. He interposed in the case of Joshua, when 
" Satan stood up at his right hand : the Lord rebuke thee," 
as in Zechariah iii. The same word in the Hebrew, that Job 
useth for days-man, conies from a root that signifies to re- 
buke. 

And then to say no more in it but this, Is it not a great 
matter for one that is in trouble, or affliction of spirit, to 
have Christ to interpose between God the Father and him, 
when he lies under the sense of God's wrath and displeasure ? 
Why, if Christ be the Mediator of the new covenant, then 
thus it is ; look into Job xxxiii., and see what a scheme and 
mould of conversion- work there is, verse 14, u God speaketh 
once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not :" here is man in 
his natural state and condition, going on in the way of his 
sin, living nnder the means ; and God speaking once and 
twice, and he perceives it not. Well then verse 15., " In a 
dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon 
men, in slumberings upon the bed, then he openeth the ears 
of men, and sealeth their instruction." Here comes a work 
of conviction and conversion, suddenly, unexpectedly, and 
what then ? then trouble of conscience, at verse 19., " He is 
chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of 



74 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 4. 

his bones with strong pain, so that his life abhorreth bread, 
and his soul dainty meat ; his flesh is consumed away that it 
cannot be seen, and his bones that were not seen stick out ; 
his soul draweth nigh unto the grave, and his life to the des- 
troyers :" what then ? why then at verse 23., " If there be a 
messenger; (Christ is the messenger of the covenant,) if 
there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, (an advocate) 
if there be a messenger with him, (or an advocate by him,) 
one of a thousand, (as Christ is,) to shew unto man his righ- 
teousness," where his righteousness lies ; what then ? why 
" then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from 
going down to the pit, I have found a ransom." And then, 
" his flesh shall be fresher than a child's, he shall return to 
the days of his youth, he shall pray unto God, and he will be 
favourable unto him, and he shall see his face with joy, for 
he will render unto man his righteousness." Thus now it 
shall be, if Jesus be the Mediator of the new covenant. Oh, 
what a comfortable thing therefore it is, for Jesus to be this 
Mediator of the covenant. And thus you see in the fifth 
place what those benefits are that we do gain thereby. 

Sixthly, But then what are those doctrinal corollaries, or 
practical duties, that do flow from hence ? 

If Jesus be the Mediator of the new covenant, what an evil 
thing is it, and unreasonable, for men to think, or speak, or 
do any thing that may reflect upon this Mediator of the new 
covenant, or to sin against this new covenant ? There are 
some opinions that do reflect and cast a black reflection upon 
Jesus the Mediator of the covenant. 

The Socinian tells us, that Jesus is a Mediator such a one 
as Moses was to declare the mind of God unto us ; but not a 
Mediator in a way of satisfaction, to satisfy God's wrath. 

They say he is a Mediator, but not a Surety, to merit for 
us, or to pay our debt for us. 

They say he is a Mediator, but deny the Deity of Christ, 
and so root up the very mediation of Christ ; they cast a very- 
black reflection upon this Mediator. 

The Papists they say, that Christ is a Mediator, and our 
only Mediator in a way of redemption, but we have many 
mediators in a way of intercession, saints and angels. 

They say that Christ is Mediator, but according to his 
human nature only, whereas the apostle saith expressly, that 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 75 

" he offered up himself through the eternal Spirit :" thus they 
reflect upon this Mediator. 

And for practice, is it not a great reflection upon this Me- 
diator for us to think, that we ourselves by our own tears and 
fastings, and humiliations, can reconcile God unto us, or pa- 
cify God's anger, or make an atonement for a nation. 

Is it not a very great reflection upon this Mediator to say, 
Oh, my sins are greater than can be forgiven ? Is not this a 
very blameable reflection upon this Mediator of the new 
covenant ? 

But there are four or five ways especially wherein we do 
sin against the covenant. 

By not looking into it, not studying it, not being acquaint- 
ed with it. Shall the Lord Jesus be such a Mediator of such 
a covenant, and shall we not look into the covenant, and be 
acquainted with it. Yet Lord, how many poor souls are 
there that are ignorant of this covenant ? What unthankful- 
ness is this, what a sin against the covenant is this, that Je- 
sus should be the Mediator of the covenant, and men should 
not look into it, not study it, not be acquainted with it ? 

Sometimes we sin against the covenant, by altering the 
mould and the frame of the covenant, by hanging our condi- 
tions upon God's covenant, our padlock upon God's door. 

Sometimes we sin against the covenant, by slighting that 
great ordinance of the Lord's supper concerning which Christ 
hath said , " This cup is the New Testament in my blood :" 
to slight it, saying, these are low things, we are above ordi- 
nances, and these are carnal things, now thus to slight it is 
to sin directly against the covenant. 

Sometimes we sin against the covenant by our unbelief and 
doubting. 

But sometimes we sin against the covenant by turning the 
grace of this covenant into wantonness. Is this true, that the 
Lord hath promised mercy upon no condition to be performed 
by us ; then why may we not live as we list ? say men : thus 
turning this grace of God in the covenant into wantonness. 
But is this true, that Jesus is the Mediator of the new cove- 
nant ? Why then should we think, speak, or do any thing 
that may reflect against this Mediator, or sin against this co- 
venant ? 

If Jesus be the Mediator of the new covenant, why, then, 



76 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 4. 

why should you not trust in the Lord for ever, build upon 
him, and be secure as to the mercies and blessings promised 
in the covenant ? If you come to a chamber to lodge in, 
and you see that it is laid upon weak, or lathy props, that 
the foundation be not sure, you say, I will not venture to 
lodge here ; but if you come to a chamber that is laid upon 
a good foundation, you say then, I durst venture to lodge 
here. Why this new covenant is founded upon the blood of 
Christ. The blood of Christ is the foundation of the new 
covenant ; And therefore why should you not rest and be se- 
cure, confident, as concerning the mercies and blessings pro- 
mised in the covenant ? 

Oh, but you will say, I cannot be persuaded that 
Christ is my Mediator; I know that Christ is a Mediator of 
the new covenant, but I cannot think that he doth mediate 
for me. If indeed I were persuaded that Jesus were my 
Mediator, or that he did mediate for me in particular, Ah, 
then I should trust in the Lord indeed for the blessings of 
the covenant. But I cannot be persuaded that Christ is my 
Mediator ; I grant he is the Mediator of the new covenant, 
but I cannot say that he is my Mediator, or that he doth 
mediate for me, and therefore I cannot be satisfied. 

No, what, the Father satisfied, who is the person offended, 
and you not satisfied, who are the person offending ? 

No, Why if the Jew had sinned, and the high priest had 
offered an offering, or a sacrifice for him, the sinning Jew 
would not say, this was not for me, and therefore I am not 
satisfied, for the sacrifice was not for me ; He would not say 
so, but he would say that he was satisfied. And shall Jesus 
be our great High Priest, and shall He make an offering of 
himself for us, and will you say, it is not for me ? 

But to come a little nearer to your objection, that I may 
bring this great doctrine home unto our hearts. 

The apostle hath said, ff If any man sin we have an Advo- 
cate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous ;" what think 
you, are you not within the compass of those words, " if any 
man sin," will not those words reach you ? 

But if God be reconciled unto you, then Christ hath 
mediated for you; now God the Father is reconciled to you ; 
for if you be reconciled to God and the things of God, then 
God is reconciled to you. Pray tell me, were you not an 



SER. 4.J CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 77 

enemy once to the good ways of God and the things of God ? 
Yes; And are you not reconciled now to the things of God? 
Yes, I confess I am. Well, if you be reconciled to the 
things of God, God is reconciled to you; and if God be 
reconciled to you, I am sure Christ hath mediated for you. 
Luther was wont to say, The only way to make God our 
friend, is to cast ourselves into his arms when he seems to 
be our enemy. Thus have you done, poor soul ? When God 
have seemed to be our enemy, then have you cast yourselves 
into the arms of God ? Surely then God is reconciled 
unto you, and Christ is your Mediator. 

Again, if you be the seed of Christ, then Christ is your 
Mediator, and Christ hath, and doth mediate for you ; for he 
is a Mediator for his seed. Now mark it, there are but two 
seeds, the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent ; 
" I will put enemity between thy seed and the seed of the 
woman." There are but two seeds : how think you, are you 
the seed of the serpent? Either you are Christ's seed, or 
the seed of the serpent, and that is an hissing seed, an 
opposing seed. Do you think you are the seed of the 
serpent? No, I hope I am not the seed of the serpent; 
why, then you are the seec of Christ, and Christ doth 
mediate for you. Now then humble yourselves for all your 
unbelief, and lay the wait of your guilty soul upon this sweet 
covenant of grace, for Jesus is the Mediator of it. 

This doctrine methinks looks very wishly upon all sorts ; 
It looks wishly upon those that are good, and upon those 
that are bad; It looks wishly upon those that are godly, 
and upon those that are ungodly ; upon those that are con- 
verted, and upon those that are not converted. 

Upon those that are bad, wicked, ungodly, unconverted, 
and to them it saith, why should not you, even you come 
unto God for the grace of this new covenant, which is con- 
firmed by Christ the Mediator ? Why should not you, you 
that are unconverted, go unto God the Father, and press 
him to give out the grace of this covenant to you ? Hath 
not the Lord said, " Let not the eunuch say, I am a dry 
tree ; only let him take hold of my covenant. Neither let 
the son of the stranger, that hath joined himself to the 
Lord, speak, saying, The Lord hath utterly separated me 



78 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 4. 

from his people ; Only let him take hold of ray covenant, 
and do the things that please me." 

This new covenant confirmed by Christ Jesus the Mediator, 
either it is confirmed for saints only, or for sinners also, that 
are sinners for the present. 

If for saints only, why doth the Lord say, " I will write my 
law in your hearts }" Surely, therefore, it is for some in 
whose heart God's law is not yet written. And if this cove- 
nant doth extend to such, who as yet have not the law written, 
the law of grace written in their hearts, oh, what encou- 
ragement is here for a poor sinner to go to God, and say, 
Lord thou hast made this covenant, and Christ hath con- 
firmed it, and he is the Mediator of it ; now this law is not 
yet written in my heart ; oh, make good thy covenant, and 
write thy law in my heart. 

And for you that are saints, this doctrine looks upon you, 
and it saith thus : If Christ be the Mediator of the new 
covenant, and your Mediator that God hath provided for 
you, then go away, and be ashamed of your sins, and of 
all your doings, the pardon whereof requires such a Mediator, 
and the blood of the Mediator ; " Then shall you be ashamed/' 
saith the Lord, " when I am pacified towards you." If 
Christ be your Mediator, and God be pacified, oh, then be 
you ashamed. 

And to you it speaks thus : If the Lord Jesus Christ be 
the Mediator of this new covenant, your Mediator, and 
mediates for you, then why should not you appear for Christ 
on earth upon all occasions ? Shall Christ interpose with 
the Father, and appear for you, and mediate for you in 
heaven upon all occasions, and will not you appear for Christ 
on earth ? What, Christ appear for you in heaven, and me- 
diate for you in heaven, and will not you appear for Christ 
on earth ? Yea, unto you it saith, Why should not you all 
go away with your hearts full of love and thankfulness, both 
to God the Father and to Jesus Christ ? If you were going 
to the prison for a debt, and a man should meet you, and 
undertake to be your surety, and pay your debt, you would 
love him as long as you lived. Here is the case : we were 
all going to prison, Christ comes, undertakes to be our 
Surety, pays our debt ; then will not you love Christ the 
Mediator of the new covenant ? Will you not love him, and 



SER. 4.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 79 

be thankful to him, and to God the Father ? For though 
the performance of this mediation be Christ's, the contri- 
vance is God the Father's. God the Father did contrive 
this covenant, and God the Father did send Christ this 
Mediator ; " I have given thee for a covenant," saith the 
Father; and saith Christ, " Lo, I come to do thy will." 
Friends, it was the will of God the Father that Jesus 
should be the Mediator of this new covenant. Oh, the 
freeness of the grace of God the Father ! He was the 
person offended ; and yet, that he himself should find out 
such a Mediator of such a covenant, what grace is here ! 
Now therefore blessed be God the Father for this Medi- 
ator, let us all say ; and blessed be this Mediator Jesus, who 
hath mediated us into this new covenant. 

Go away, I say, you that are saints with your hearts full 
of love, both unto God the Father, who hath contrived this 
mediation, and unto Jesus who hath performed this media- 
tion ; and now let your hearts be confirmed, let your hope 
be confirmed, let your love be confirmed, let your joy be 
confirmed, let your thankfulness be confirmed, let your graces 
be confirmed. A confirmed covenant calls for confirmed 
Christians. 

I have done, I cannot say whom we should love most and 
be thankful most unto, the Father or the Son ; but this I 
say, love the Father with all your heart, and be thankful to 
him in reference to his contrivance ; love the Son with all 
your heart, and be thankful to him in reference to his per- 
formance, for Jesus is the Mediator of the new covenant. 

And thus I have done with the second doctrine, namely, 
that Jesus is the Mediator of the new covenant. The third 
follows, and that is, that now in these gospel times we are 
not come to Moses the mediator of the Old, but unto Jesus 
the Mediator of the New Testament. 



80 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 5. 

SERMON V. 

THE WAY AND SPIRIT OF THE NEW COVENANT OR NEW 
TESTAMENT. 

" And to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel." HEB. 
xii. 24. 

THE third observation follows, which is this : 

Observation III. That in these gospel times we are not 
come to Moses, the mediator of the Old ; but unto Jesus, 
the Mediator of the new covenant or the New Testament. 

The latter part of the doctrine you have in the words of 
the text, and the former part in the context ; for, saith the 
apostle, "Ye are not come unto the mount that might be 
touched/' to mount Sinai, "but ye are come unto mount 
Sion, and ye are come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new 
covenant." So that now in these gospel times, we are not 
come to Moses, the mediator of the old covenant ; but to 
Jesus, the Mediator of the New Testament. 

For the opening and prosecuting whereof, 

First, We must inquire what is here meant by coming unto 
Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant, in opposition to 
Moses, the mediator of the old covenant. 

Secondly, Whether it be possible for a man that doth pro- 
fess Christ, the Mediator of the new covenant, to have 
recourse unto Moses, the mediator of the old covenant or 
the Old Testament ? That is, whether a man may possibly 
be legal and Mosaical in these gospel times ? 

Thirdly, When so. 

Fourthly, The danger of it. And, 

Fifthly, What we should do that we may stand clear from 
Moses, the mediator of the old covenant; and come fully 
off unto Jesus, the Mediator of the new. That we may 
walk with a gospel, not a legal spirit ; and be found in a 
gospel, not a legal way, in these gospel times. 

First of all, If you ask what is here meant by coming 
unto Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant, in opposition 
to Moses ? 

I answer in the general, It doth signify and note out that 
evangelical and gospel state that we are now brought unto, 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 81 

by Jesus the Mediator of the New Testament ; in opposition 
to the legal state that they were in, in the days and times of 
the Old Testament. But because this is general and common 
unto that which goes before, therefore you must know more 
particularly : 

That a man is said to come unto Jesus the Mediator of 
the New Testament, in opposition to Moses, when now in 
these gospel times, upon all occasions, he hath recourse unto 
Jesus, as in the times of the Old Testament, upon all 
occasions, they had recourse unto Moses. As now for ex- 
ample. 

In the times of the Old Testament they came to Moses 
for the law, under God, and they received the law from his 
mouth. What saith Moses ? was the saying then. So now 
in these times of the gospel we are to have recourse unto 
Jesus, and to receive the law at his mouth. What saith 
Jesus ? And therefore saith our Saviour, " It hath been said 
unto you, Thou shalt not kill " and, " Thou shalt not com- 
mit adultery; but I say unto you, and I say unto you." 
Why ? What, because (as the Socinians would) Christ made 
any addition to the law ? No : but because now, as for 
other reasons, we are to receive the law from his mouth, from 
the mouth of Jesus. 

Arid, as in the times of the Old Testament, they had re- 
course to Moses for their church and their church state. 
He it was that did give the tabernacle, under God, and the 
way of the tabernacle. So now in the times of the New 
Testament, we arc to have recourse to Jesus. What saith 
Jesus to a church-way ? not, What saith Moses ? now. And 
therefore saith Christ, " If thy brother offend thee, tell him 
of it ; and if he hear not, call two or three ; and if he mind 
not, then tell it to the church ; and if he hear not the church, 
let him be as a heathen or publican to you ; for where two 
or three are gathered together in my name, I am in the midst 
of them," Matt, xviii. We are to hear what Jesus saith in 
this matter, and not what Moses. 

And, as then, in the times of the Old Testament they had 
recourse to Moses, under God, for their ministry; and 
Moses did direct them unto priests and Levites for their 
ministers : so now in the times of the New Testament, we 
are to have recourse to Jesus for our ministry ; and therefore 

VOL. in. o 



CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SttR. 5. 

saith the apostle, " He hath set in the church pastors and 
teachers." And in Ephes. iv., " He hath ascended up on 
high, and he hath given gifts unto men, pastors and teachers^' 
and the like. We are to hear what Jesus saith now, and 
not what Moses, for our ministry. 

And as in the times of the Old Testament they had then 
recourse unto Moses for the ordinances, for their Sabbaths, 
for their sacraments, and for their woiship; so now in the 
times of t ]> e New Testament, we are to hear what Jesus 
saith, and to have recourse to him for these things. " Go," 
saith our Saviour Christ, "and teach all nations, baptizing 
them, and teaching them to observe and do what I command 
you," Matt, xxviii. And for the Lord's supper, " What I 
received of the Lord, that delivered we unto you," saith the 
apostle. And for the Sabbath. " The Son of Man is Lord 
of the Sabbath." Go to him for your Sabbath ; not to 
Moses, but unto him. And for worship, saith our Saviour 
Christ unto the woman of Samaria, John iv. 23, "The hour 
cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship 
the Father in spirit and truth ; for the Father seeketh such 
to worship him." You that are Samaritans, you have wor- 
shipped God; but you have not worshipped God according 
to his own appointment, you have not worshipped him in 
truth. The Jews, they have worshipped God according to 
God's appointment, but not with the Spirit. But now, the 
hour cometh, when men shall worship the Father " in spirit 
and in truth." In truth, in opposition to the Samaritans, that 
did not worship according to appointment. And in spirit, in 
opposition to the Jews, that worshipped God legally and 
without the spirit. Thus we must hear what Jesus saith. 

And as then in the times of the Old Testament they had 
recourse to Moses still; when they wanted bread, he, under 
God, gave them manna, and he gave them water out of the 
rock ; so now, in the times of the New Testament, we are 
to have recourse to Jesus for our bread. In John vi. saith 
Christ, " Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for 
the meat that endureth to everlasting life, which the Son 
of man shall give unto you, for him hath God the Father 
sealed." 

And as in the times of the Old Testament, they had much 
recourse to Moses for their faith : if they could not believe, 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 83 

Moses wrought miracles before them, and they believed. 
Insomuch as it is said in Exod. xiv. 31., " And Israel saw 
that great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and 
the people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord, and his 
servant Moses." But now what saith Jesus ? " Let not your 
heart be troubled, ye believe in God, believe also in me." 
Not in God and in Moses ; but, " ye believe in God, believe 
also in me." 

And to say no more in it but this : in the times of the Old 
Testament, they had recourse to Moses for their rest. Mo- 
ses was to lead them up to Canaan, and the land of rest : and 
so now in the times of the New Testament, we are to have 
recourse to Jesus for our rest ; for saith he himself: " Come 
unto me all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I will 
give you rest." 

Thus, as in the times of the Old Testament, they were 
upon all occasions to have recourse to Moses : so now in the 
times of the New Testament, upon all occasions, we are to 
have recottrse to Jesus, the Mediator of the new testament ; for 
saith the Lord by Moses, in Deut. xviii. 18., " I will raise 
them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto 
thee," rather, as thee, that is, as I raised up thee ; " and will 
put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them 
all that I shall command him." Which the apostle applies 
unto Christ," Acts iii. 22, " For Moses truly said unto the 
fathers, a prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto 
you of your brethren like unto me," rather, as me, w<? ept, 
as me, that is, as he raised up me, not like unto me, as the 
Socinians would argue from hence ; that Christ must be but 
man like to Moses : " For Moses truly said unto the fathers, 
a prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your 
brethren, like unto me," rather as me : that is, as he raised 
up me ; " him shall ye hear in all things, whatsoever he shall 
say unto you." So that thus, as they had recourse to Moses 
upon all occasions, in the time of the Old Testament ; so 
now we are to have recourse unto Jesus; and thus we see 
what it is to come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new 
covenant, in opposition unto Moses the mediator of the old 
covenant. 

Secondly, But then whether is it possible for a man that 
doth profess to come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new 
G 2 



84 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 5. 

covenant, still to have recourse to Moses ; that is, whether 
it is possible for a man to be legal and mosaical, in these gos- 
pel times ? 

Without all doubt it is : and I wish, if it were the will of 
the Lord, that too many were not found upon legal 
ground among professors. What think you of the Galatians ? 
Did not they live in gospel times ? Did not they profess to 
come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant ? Yet, 
see how the apostle treats them and reproves them again and 
again, for their being too legal, too mosaical : " Ye are fallen 
from grace, (saith he) my little children, of whom I travail 
in birth again, till Christ be formed in you/' Ye are so much 
for Moses and the law, that I travail in birth again, till 
Christ be formed in you. 

As there was a mixture of the gospel in the time of the 
law ; so there may be too great a mixture of the law in the 
times of the gospel. 

And I pray what think you, are there not very many that 
live under the gospel, in whom sin reigns ? Yes, many live 
under the gospel in whom sin reigns : and, saith the apostle, 
" Let not sin reign in your mortal bodies, for ye are not un- 
der the law, but under grace." If you be under the law, then 
sin will reign in you : and what is the reason that sin reigns 
in many that live under the gospel, but because they are un- 
der the law. As there were two in Abraham's house, the 
bond-woman, and the free-woman, Hagar and Sarah, so in 
these gospel times, there will be some that shall be freely for 
the grace of God, and the covenant of grace ; some again, 
that will turn into the covenant of works, and be legal and 
mosaical. 

And if that we be legal and mosaical in these gospel times, 
we shall be more legal, and more mosaical than before. As 
when a servant was bound, and the year of freedom came, 
and he might go free, and would not, then his ear was bored, 
and he was to be a servant for ever : so now ; for what is our 
gospel time, but a time of spiritual freedom : and if men will 
be servants still, and under the law still, their ears are 
bored, and they are more mosaical and more legal than be- 
fore. 

But, friends, this ought not to be : for you know what the 
Lord saith from heaven concerning Christ, " Hear ye him/' 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 65 

Once iu Matt, iii., ye have those words from heaven over 
Christ, " This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleas- 
ed." And a second time ye have those words at the trans- 
figuration, in Matt. xvii. 5., (e This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased, hear ye him." Why are those 
words, hear ye him, added here ? In Matt, iii., these words 
are not added, but only thus ; " This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased/' There it is not said, " hear ye 
him ;" but in Matt, xvii., it is said, " This is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased, hear ye him." Why is " hear 
ye him," added here ? Why, if you look into the former 
verse, ye find, " Peter answered and said unto Jesus, Lord, 
it is good for us to be here ; if thou wilt, let us make here three 
tabernacles, one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for 
Elias." Moses gave out the law, and Elias restored the 
law : now they being present ; now conies the voice, ie hear 
ye him :" that is, not Moses, not Elias, but now, " hear ye 
him," in opposition to Moses, in opposition unto Elias, 
" hear ye him." 

And if you look into Rom. vii., you shall find that now in 
these gospel times, we are to be dead unto the law ; which 
the apostle clears by a very great similitude : saith he, 
" Know ye not brethren, how that the law hath dominion 
over a man as long as he liveth : for the woman which hath 
an husband, is bound by the law to her husband, so long as 
he liveth ; but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the 
law of her husband : so then, if while her husband liveth, she 
be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress ; 
but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law, so that 
she is no adulteress, though she be married to another man : 
wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law, 
by the body of Christ, that ye should be married to another, 
even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should 
bring forth fruit unto God." 

Ye are married to another, therefore ye are dead to the 
law. Dead, how dead ? Why, ye are freed from the law ; 
he expresses it so elsewhere, freed from the law. How so ? 
What are we freed from the commandment of the law? From 
the precept of the law ? No, saith the apostle : " The com- 
mandment is holy, and just, and good." How then are we 
freed from the law ? 



86 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 5. 

Why you are free from the vail of the law, 2 Cor. iii. And 
you are free from the dominion of the law : " Ye are not 
under the law, but under grace, Rom. vi. 

And ye are free from the pedagogy of the law, the law is 
not your school-master to bring to Christ, Gal. iii. 

And ye are free from the covenant of the law, as a cove- 
nant. And thus are ye in these gospel times, dead to the 
law, and free. But now though we are thus dead, and be 
thus free, yet possibly a man may be too legal in these gospel 
times, that is the second. 

Thirdly, But then when may a man be said to be legal, or 
mosaical, in opposition to this Mediator, Jesus the Media- 
tor of the new covenant ? And when may a man be said to 
be evangelical in opposition to Moses, the mediator of the 
old covenant ? Or, in short, what is the way and spirit of 
the old, and of the new testament, and wherein do they 
differ ? 

An old testament legal spirit, is a servile spirit, that serv- 
eth God upon the account of wages, or reward; mostly, 
chiefly, or only. An evangelical gospel spirit, is a filial spi- 
rit. Moses therefore, the head of that covenant, is called a 
sen^ant; and Jesus the head of this covenant is called a Son: 
" Moses as a servant, Christ as a Son/' Heb. ii. And if you 
look into Rom. viii., you shall find it is said there by way of 
difference : " For ye have not received the spirit of bondage 
again unto fear :" so you read it, but the words are irtnvpa 
$ov\eia.<, ye have not received the spirit of servitude again, 
or a servile spirit, or the spirit of servants : " But ye have 
received the Spirit of Adoption, whereby we cry, Abba Fa- 
ther." Compare this with Gal. iv., and you shall see the 
opposition doth lie between the spirit of adoption, and bon- 
dage, but servitude, verse 6, " Because ye are sons, God hath 
sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba 
Father; wherefore thou art no more a servant but a son." In 
verse 1., " Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child, 
differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all ; 
but is under tutors apd governors, until the time appointed 
of the father. But when the fulness of the time was come, 
God sent forth his Son made of a woman, made under the 
law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might 
receive the adoption of sons : and because ye are sons, God 



SEK. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. H7 

hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, 
Abba Father ; wherefore thou art no more a servant/' So 
that it is a servile spirit, and the spirit of a servant, that is 
here opposed to this adoption : and would you know the dif- 
ference between the spirit of a servant, and the spirit of a 
son ? 

Why, a servant serves for wages, and a son serves out of 
love and duty : and are there not many in these times of the 
gospel, that do serve God only, or mostly upon the account 
of wages and reward. Ye know what men ordinarily say, 
What need ye be so strict in your life ? you may go to heaven 
with less ado. So then it seems, it is heaven that is their 
measure of obedience. Why ? Because men are legal and 
serve God upon the account of wages : it is heaven and re- 
ward, and wages, that is the business. Why? because men 
are legal. 

I grant it is lawful to have an eye to the recompcnce of re- 
ward, Christ himself had. All love of reward is not merce- 
nary. But for a man to serve God, mostly, chitrly, only, 
upon the account of wages, and for reward, this is plainly 
legal. A man of a gospel spirit, kncws that he lives upon 
a better purse than all his own earnings can amount unto. 
But, 

A legal spirit also is a fearing spirit, put on rather by the 
threatening than by the promise ; a gospel spirit rather by 
the promise than the threatening. In the times of the Old 
Testament the threatening reigned. And if you look into 
Deuteronomy, you shall find that when Moses the mediator 
of the old covenant, preached and declared the mind of God 
unto the people, he begins with curses and threatening*, 
Oeut. xxvii. They were upon two hills, and verse 14 : "The 
Lcvites shall speak, and say unto all the men of Israel, with 
a loud voice, Cursed be the man that maketh any graven 
or molten image, an abomination unto the Lord. Cursed be 
he that sctteth light by his father or his mother/' And 
"Cursed be lie that rernoveth his neighbour's land-mark/' 
and so he goes on with curses. In the xxviiith. chapter then 
come the blessings : " It shall come to pass if thou shalt 
hearken diligently unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to 
observe and to do all his commandments, which I command 
thee this dav ; that the Lord thy God will sc-t thce on high, 



88 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 5. 

above all nations of the earth ; and all these blessings shall 
come on thee and overtake thee : blessed shalt thou be in 
the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field ; blessed shall 
be the fruit of thy body, and the fruit of thy ground, and 
the fruit of thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, and the 
flocks of thy sheep." Mark how the blessing comes after. 
First comes the curse, when Moses the mediator of the old 
covenant preached. But now look into Matt, v., and ye 
find that when Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant 
comes to preach, that he begins with blessing. "Blessed are 
the poor in spirit, and blessed are the meek, and blessed are 
those that hunger and thirst after righteousness," and blessed, 
and blessed. First comes the blessing, and then afterwards 
in the following part of the chapter comes the law and the 
curse. And if you look into this Scripture you find the 
difference also; for, saith the apostle here, "We are not come 
unto the mount that might be touched, that burned with fire, 
nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, and the 
sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words which they could 
not endure, so terrible was the sight thereof; but ye are 
come to mount Sion." Would you know the difference 
between the dispensations ? The one is terrible, the other 
comfortable. The one is fearing, and the other comforting. 
Look in Rom. x. The apostle there also makes the differ- 
ence between the spirit of the law and the gospel. ft Moses 
(saith he, verse 5,) describeth the righteousness which is of 
the law, that the man which doth those things, shall live by 
them/' Do and live ; but at verse 6, " The righteousness 
which is of faith, speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine 
heart, who shall ascend into heaven ; that is, to bring Christ 
down from above, or who shall descend into the deep." 
But what saith it, " The Word is nigh thee, even in thy 
mouth, and in thy heart." The righteousness which is of 
faith speaketh on this wise ; say not in thine heart who shall 
ascend into heaven. It does not hold the soul in suspense, 
and anxiety, and fear, and trouble. " Christ hath ascended," 
and "Christ hath descended." 

But you will say, May not a man that is of a gospel spirit, 
and that is come to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, 
be full of fears ? May not a good and gracious soul be full 
of fears about his condition ? 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT 89 

I answer, He may ; but his fears do arise from the weak- 
ness of his adherence and faith. The other's fears do rather 
arise from the weakness of the ground he stands upon. As 
for example : Two men are afraid of drowning ; one stands 
upon a rock, and he is afraid of being drowned ; the other 
stands upon a quicksand, and he is afraid of being drowned ; 
both are afraid. He that stands upon a rock is afraid of 
drowning, why ? because he is afraid he shall be washed off; 
his fear arises from the weakness of his adherence. But the 
other's fear arises from the unsoundness of the ground he 
stands upon, for it is upon a quicksand. So here are two 
fears : a gracious, gospel heart fears, and a legalist fears. 
One fears from the weakness of his adherence: I am upon 
the rock, but I am afraid I shall be washed off. But the 
other's fears arise from the weakness of the ground he stands 
upon ; he stands upon the quicksand, upon his own duties, 
and his own works ; so that a legal spirit is a fearing spirit. 
He is put on rather by the threatenings than the promise; 
the other by the promise rather than the threatening. The 
one is kept from evil by his delight in good, and the other is 
put on to good by his fear of evil. 

In the times of the Old Testament they did very much 
measure the love of God by outward things : for the promises 
(as you know) then were mostly concerning temporal things ; 
and so they measured the love of God much by those out- 
ward things. But now in the times of the New Testament, 
our promises are mostly spiritual, and therefore a New Tes- 
tament spirit measures the love of God most by spiritual 
things, and not by these outward things. 

A legal old testament spirit trades much, or most, or 
altogether, with conditional promises ; for the old covenant 
promises were most conditional, and ran conditionally. But 
now when God promises the new covenant, he gives out 
an absolute promise ; and therefore a new testament spirit 
trades much with absolute promises. For he knows, and 
you may know, that though a promise be conditional, J;he 
Lord hath promised the very condition in another Scrip- 
ture, and that without a condition. And he knows, and you 
may know, that when God gives a promise with an oath, 
though the promise do run conditionally, it shall be fulfilled 
absolutely. 



90 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 5. 

In the time of the Old Testament they came unto Christ 
by the promise, for Christ was not yet come, but promised. 
But now in the times of the New Testament we come first 
to Christ, and so unto the promise ; for all the promises are 
yea and amen in Christ. 

In the time of the Old Testament they came unto Christ by 
the law, and without the law they might not come to Christ ; 
for the law was a schoolmaster for to bring to Christ. But 
now in the time of the New Testament, the law is not our 
schoolmaster for to bring to Christ. And though seldom 
any go to heaven, but come by the gates of hell ; and seldom 
men do come to Christ now, but they have some workings of 
the law first; yet notwithstanding, if I will lay a necessity 
upon such a precedency of a legal work, before I do come to 
Christ, then I am too legal. 

In the time of the Old Testament, men did then upon any- 
great discovery of God, fly from God ; as when God gave 
out the law they fled from God. And when Christ did a 
great work before Peter, " Lord (saith he), depart from me, 
for I am a sinful man." But now in the gospel, the greater 
the discovery is, the more a gospel spirit doth draw near to 
God. Oh, it is good for me to be here, saith he. 

The time of the Old Testament was a time of the letter. 
And therefore if a man of a legal spirit can but perform his 
duty according to the letter of the commandment, he is 
satisfied. But the times of the New Testament are the 
times of the Spirit : " We are not ministers of the letter, 
but of the Spirit." And therefore a gospel spirit, though he 
can perform his duty according to the letter of the command, 
yet if he does not attain the Spirit in it he is unsatisfied. 

To say no more in it but this : In the times of the Old 
Testament, God spake by visions, and dreams and signs ; 
but now in these latter days, he hath spoken by his Son ; 
and we have a more sure word of prophecy, whereunto we 
do well that we take heed. So that thus you see that there 
is a^ difference, and what the difference is between the way 
of the Old and New Testament, between an Old Testament 
and a New Testament spirit. 

Fourthly, But then suppose I have recourse too much to 
Moses in these gospel times, and not enough unto Jesus the 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 91 

Mediator of the new covenant ; suppose I be legal in these 
gospel times, is there any great danger in it ? 

Much, very much. And I pray consider it, that we may 
be all found upon gospel ground, in this gospel day. Danger ? 
I say much. For, 

The more legal you are in gospel times, the more sinful 
you will be, and the less able for to live unto God. 

The more sinful you will be ; for, saith the apostle, " Let 
not sin reign in your mortal body, for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace." 

And the less able you will be to live unto God ; for, saith 
the apostle, Gal. ii. 19, " I, through the law, am dead to the 
law, that I might live unto God." Till ye be dead unto 
the law, you will never live unto God. And in Rom. vii., 
" Ye are become dead to the law, by the body of Christ, that 
ye should be married to another, even to him, who is raised 
from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God." 
Dead unto the law that ye may bring forth fruit unto God. 
Never think of bringing forth fruit unto God while you are 
upon a legal ground, and come not off fully to Jesus the 
Mediator of the new covenant. It is observed that the law 
was given out twice in tables of stone. And the first time 
that they were given out, God did cut out the tables of stone, 
and lie himself did write the law with his own finger in those 
tables. The second time Moses cut out the tables of stone, 
and Moses wrote the words of the commandment upon those 
tables. In Exod. xxxiv., " Hew thee two tables of stone, 
like unto the first," saith God. Well, so he did. At the 
28th verse, "And he wrote upon the tables, the words of the 
covenant, the ten commandments." The first tables were of 
God's own making, and the writing was of God's own finger. 
The second tables were of Moses's framing, and Moses's 
writing, and yet the first were broken, the second kept. 
What should be the reason ? One would think tlmt the first 
tables should have been kept as a holy thing rather than the 
second ; but the first were broken and the second kept. 
Why ? For a good reason, saith Austin, because when the 
commandment was given in the first tables, then God ap- 
peared in a dreadful way, with thunder and lightning. When 
God gave out the commandments again, the Lord appeared 
in a way of grace: "The Lord proclaimed unto Moses, The 



92 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 5. 

Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, 
and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for 
thousands/' Exod. xxxiv. Thus God proclaims himself as a 
"gracious and merciful God," and when the law comes out now, 
it is kept. No such way to keep the commandments of the law, 
as from the consideration of the free grace and mercy of God. 
When the law comes out with a gospel hand, aye, then it is 
kept, and the commandment not broken. So that I say, the 
more legal you are, the more sinful you will be, and the less 
able you will be for to live unto God. 

The more legal you are, the more opposite you are to your 
own assurance ; to a full settled assurance of your interest in 
God and Christ : " We have not received the spirit of bond- 
age (you read it) again to fear ; but the spirit of adoption, 
whereby we cry, Abba, Father." Assurance is a work of the 
Comforter ; but the spirit of servitude, it is opposite to the 
spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father ; it is a 
great enemy unto true assurance. Now is it not a miserable 
thing for a man or woman to be always fluctuating, and never 
to have assurance settled. The more legal you are, the more 
opposite to your own assurance. But 

Though you do serve and worship the true God, yet if 
you worship him in a legal way, your worship will be anti- 
christian. For what is antichrist, and who is antichrist ? 
The apostle John tells you in the 1st Epistle iv. 3, " Every 
spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the 
flesh, is not of God; and this is that spirit of antichrist, 
whereof you have heard that it should come." 

But shall antichrist deny Christ to be come in the flesh in 
so many terms ? No. 

He shall not deny the Incarnation of Christ ; for he shall 
sit in the temple of God. 

How then shall antichrist deny Christ to be come in the 
flesh? 

He shall set up such a worship as was before Christ came 
in the flesh. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 
in the flesh, there was an outward, glorious, and a pompous 
worship ; so shall antichrist have. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 93 

in the flesh, there was a temple and a great cathedral ; so 
shall antichrist have. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 
in the flesh, there was a high priest, and priests, and Levites ; 
so shall antichrist have. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 
in the flesh, there were copes, and ephods, and linen coats ; 
so shall antichrist have. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 
in the flesh, there were candles, and tapers, and music in the 
temple ; so shall antichrist have. 

As in the time of the Old Testament before Christ came 
in the flesh, there were altars; so shall antichrist have. 

And as in the time of the Old Testament before Christ 
came in the flesh, there were sacrifices ; so shall antichrist 
have his unbloody sacrifices. 

As then they turned into a covenant of works, so shall 
antichrist also do. Thus, the more legal and of an Old Tes- 
tament stamp your worship is, the more antichristian it is. 
Now is it not a dangerous thing to have our worship anti- 
christian worship in these gospel days ? 

But again. The apostle Paul tells us that the inheritance 
is not to the bond woman ; there were two women in Abra- 
ham's house, Hagar the bond woman, and Sarah the free 
woman ; and these were types of the law and the gospel, saith 
the apostle. The inheritance is not to the bond woman, cast 
her out; but the inheritance is to the free woman and to 
her children. So then, the inheritance is not to the legalist ; 
no, the inheritance is to the free woman. 

Yea, friends, what is this, but a plain apostacy, or that 
which tends to apostacy, now, after we profess we are come to 
Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant, to have recourse 
to Moses, the mediator of the old covenant ? " All flesh is 
grass, and withercth, but the word of the Lord endures for 
ever," and what is that ? The gospel that I preached unto you, 
that will hold, saith he. " Whose house ye arc, (saith the 
apostle,) if ye hold fast the confidence of your rejoicing stcd- 
fast unto the end." Where lies our confidence but in Jesus 
the Mediator of the new covenant? yea, saith the apostle to 
the legal Galatians, " Ye are fallen from grace;" because they 
were returned to Moses, and had recourse to Moses. Oh, 



94 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 5. 

what a dangerous thing then is it for a man to be legal in 
these gospel times. 

But yet may not possibly a godly, truly gracious soul, be 
too legal even in these gospel times ? 

Possibly he may ; for as there is no duty which a good 
man doth perform, but a wicked man may perform the same 
for one act; so there is no sin that a wicked man doth 
commit, but a godly man may commit the same for one act ; 
and therefore this of legality he may fall into as well as 
others. 

Yet, let me tell you this, though a good and gracious soul 
may be overgrown with legality too much, yet he is very sen- 
sible of his own legality; a mere legalist is not, he thinks 
it strange that we speak of a legal spirit in a gospel time. 

And though a good man may be too much overgrown, be 
too legal, and too mosaical ; yet notwithstanding he doth not, 
he cannot wish that there were no law, because the law is 
written in his heart ; another that is under the power of the 
law, could wish with all his soul, that there were no law, be- 
cause he is under the power of it. 

Again, Though a good man may be too much overgrown 
with legality, yet he doth most favour the things of the gos- 
pel, spiritual things ; for every man is according to what he 
favours. Three men come to a sermon. One is an affection- 
ate man. Another an expressionate man, a man of parts. 
Another a spiritual man; and the preacher hath, it may be 
all three. He hath affection, he hath expression, he hath 
spiritual matter : the affectionate man is most taken with the 
affectionate part ; the expressionist, the man of parts is 
most taken with the expressions of the sermon ; and there he 
hangs, such and such rare expressions there were. But the 
spiritual man is most taken with the spiritual matter of the 
sermon ; for every man is according to the thing that he fa- 
vours. Now, I say, a good man, though he may be over- 
grown with legality, yet he favours spiritual and gospel things 
most. 

And then again, though a good man may be too legal, yet 
notwithstanding, he does not, he cannot oppose those that 
are spiritual, and evangelical, and of a gospel spirit. Though 
a spark of fire be not so great as the flame, it will not oppose 
the flame ; and though a good man be too legal, he will not 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVEANNT. 95 

oppose and persecute them that are evangelical, a legalist 
will ; saith the apostle, " But the son of the bond wo- 
man, persecuted the son of the free woman." And truly, the 
more legal we are, the more we are apt for to persecute. So 
that thus then we see what a dangerous thing it is to be legal 
and mosaical in these gospel times. 

Fifthly, But what shall we then do, that we may stand 
clear from Moses, and come off clearly unto Jesus, the Me- 
diator of the new covenant ? 

This I must speak unto : only by the way give me leave to 
say three or four things unto you. 

If we are not come to Moses the mediator of the old cove- 
nant, but unto Jesus the Mediator of the new ; what a bles- 
sed, and happy condition are all the saints in now in these 
gospel times ? It was a comfortable thing for the Jews to 
have Moses with them, that mediator, that upon all occasions 
he might interpose between God and them. But alas, what 
was that Moses, to this Jesus, this Mediator of ours. Though 
Moses was the mediator of the old testament, and did stand 
between God and the people : yet 

He was but a typical mediator ; and therefore look how 
much the thing typified goes beyond the type, the substance 
goes beyond the shadow: so much doth our Mediator go 
beyond theirs. 

Again, Though Moses was a mediator between God and 
them, yet he was but mere man ; but Jesus the Mediator of 
the new covenant, is God and man ; very God and very man. 
In Rom. ix. 5. " Whose are the fathers, and of whom as 
concerning the flesh, Christ came," there is his manhood. 
" Who is over all, God blessed for ever, Amen." God, truly, 
not nuncupatively ; truly God, and truly man. 

Again, though Moses was a mediator, and did stand be- 
tween God and them in the time of the old testament, yet 
notwithstanding he was unwilling to undertake the work : 
" Send by whom thou wilt," saith he : but now this our Je- 
sus saith, " Lo, I come, I delight to do thy will." 

Again, though Moses was a mediator then between God 
and them, and stood between God and them ; yet he was not 
able to do that work of mediation perfectly ; I am not elo- 
quent, saith he ; and I am not able to bear all this people, 
saith he : but now saith Jesus, " he hath given me the tongue 



96 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SEB. 5. 

of the learned, that I may administer a word in due season, 
to them that are weary:" he hath borne us, and he hath borne 
our griefs. 

Again, though Moses stood between God and them, and 
was a mediator between God and them, and did sometimes 
make an atonement, as in the case of the golden calf, when 
they had sinned; yet notwithstanding, he destroyed three 
thousand of them : " Peradventure, (saith he, after he had 
done it) I shall make an atonement for your sin." Exod. 
xxxii. 30., and he steps in to God for them : " And the Lord 
said unto Moses, whosoever hath sinned against me, him 
will I blot out of my book :" and I have heard thee (saith 
he), " nevertheless, in the day when I visit, I will visit their 
sin upon them." Now Jesus he makes an atonement, slays 
none, neither doth God the Father make any reserve with 
him, he freely forgives those that he makes atonement for, all 
at once without any reserves, or after-reckonings. . 

Again, though Moses was a mediator of the old covenant, 
stood between God and the people, yet notwithstanding he is 
dead ; he did intercede, but he is dead, and intercedes no 
more : but Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, he ever 
liveth to make intercession. 

And though Moses was a mediator between God and them, 
stood between God and them ; yet they were not able to be- 
hold his face, after he had been in the mount, but a vail was 
put upon it : but now as for Jesus, " We saw his glory, as 
the glory of the only begotten of the Father." And, " We 
all with open face behold as in a glass, the glory of the Lord." 
What a glorious Mediator have we now ? What a blessed 
condition hath God brought his people to now ? Friends, 
will you not be thankful for this Mediator, will ye return to 
Moses now ; what, having such a mediator, will ye now re- 
turn to Moses, and be legal now ? Consider what a a blessed 
state ye are now brought unto. 

But, If we are now come unto Jesus the Mediator of the 
new covenant, and not unto Moses : why then should we go 
to men for the worship of God, and for the ordinances of 
God ? What, may we not have recourse to Moses, and shall 
we have recourse to men ? Moses spake from God. and 
spake the words of God unto the people ; and, may we not 
have recourse now to Moses for the ordinances, and worship, 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 97 

and shall we have recourse to men for our worship and ordi- 
nances ? As Gersom out of Austin observes : One com- 
mandment from a fellow-servant, is more burdensome than a 
hundred from the master; and Moses spake the words of 
God : if Moses' tool doth defile our Christian altar, how much 
more doth the tool of man defile our altar ? That is the se- 
cond. 

If we be come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new cove- 
nant, why then should we despair of any, and not go to God 
for the worst of men, for we are come to Jesus the Mediator 
of the new covenant. Mark, how it is brought in, 1 Tim. ii. 
5., " There is one God, and one Mediator between God and 
man, the man Christ Jesus." What then ? " I exhort 
therefore that supplications, prayers, and intercessions, be 
made for all men : for kings," even for Nero, a persecutor. 
Why ? " For there is one God and one Mediator between 
God and man, the man Christ Jesus :" and therefore you 
may go to God for the worst of men, " For there is one Me- 
diator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus." Three 
sorts there are that do greedily snatch at this scripture, the 
ISocinian, and the Arminian, and the Papist. 

The Sociniaii thinks that here is something for him against 
the deity of Christ, because it is said, " the man Christ Je- 
sus." Whereas in verse 3., it is said, this is good and accep- 
table in the sight of God our Saviour. 

The Arminian thinks that there is some ground here for 
his universal redemption : for it is said, " There is one Me- 
diator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus, who 
gave himself a ransom for all:" whereas the apostle here 
doth explain himself, what he means by this all ; that is, all, 
both Jews and gentiles: for saith he in the next verse, 
" Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, a 
teacher of the gentiles, in faith and verity :" explaining his 
word all, to be meant both Jews and gentiles. 

The Papists also think they have something here for their 
opinion, who hold that Christ is our Mediator only according 
to his human nature : for it is said the " man Christ Jesus." 
But if we observe how these words are brought in ; we find 
it is an encouragement to pray for the worst of men. Why ? 
" for there is one God, and one Mediator between God and 
men, the man Christ Jesus." Be not discouraged, go to 

VOL. III. II 



98 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 5. 

God for the worst of men, (f for there is one Mediator be- 
tween God and men, the man Christ Jesus." 

But then, if we are come unto Jesus the Mediator of the 
new covenant, why then, why should you not come to Jesus? 
If you be come, why should you not come ? That is, if you 
be come in regard of your state, why should you not come in 
regard of act, in a way of believing. You are come unto him 
in regard of your state ; why should you not come unto him 
in regard of your faith, come unto him in a way of believing. 
Some think, oh it is presumption to come to Christ, and to 
believe and lay hold on Christ : but friends, it is no pre- 
sumption for any man to do that act, that is suitable to his 
state ; it is no presumption to act according to my state that 
God hath brought me to : now this is our state ; in regard of 
state we are come to Jesus, and therefore why should we not 
come to Jesus also in a way of believing. Especially seeing 
he hath said, " Those that come unto me, I will in no wise 
cast out." 

If we be come unto Jesus the Mediator of the new cove- 
nant, and not unto Moses : why then should we not all stand 
clear from Moses, and come fully off to Jesus the Mediator of 
the new covenant. 

But you will say, What shall we do that we may be found 
upon gospel grounds, with a gospel spirit. I confess I have 
been too legal ; legal in my performances, legal in my obedi- 
ence, legal in the matter of my comfort ; what should I do 
now that I may stand clear from Moses, and come fully off to 
Jesus this Mediator of the new covenant. 

Improve all your former legal workings and fears, unto 
your dying to them ; improve them so as by them, to die to 
them. Many it may be of you here, have been under le- 
gal workings and terrors. Either you have, or you have not; 
if you have not been under any legal workings of terror, thou 
art one of a hundred. 

If you have, why should you not improve those legal work- 
ings, so as by them, to die unto them : saith Paul, " I through 
the law, am dead unto the law." What is that ? " I through 
the law, am dead unto the law, that I might live unto God." 
I through affliction, am dead unto affliction. I through the 
disappointment of friends, am dead unto my friends. I 
through sin, am dead unto my sin. I through the law, and 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 99 

the terrors of the law, am dead unto the law. Now then, 
improve your former terrors, so as by them to die unto them. 
You have been under them : aye, but have you improved 
them, have you so improved them, as thereby for to die unto 
them ? 

Observe what those things are that are commanded by 
Moses in the Old Testament, and go unto Jesus the Media- 
tor of the New Testament, for grace to perform them. There 
is nothing commanded in the Old Testament, but it is pro- 
mised in the New. There is nothing commanded by Moses 
in the Old Testament, but Christ the Mediator of the New 
Testament is engaged to perform it for you, and to give you 
grace to do it : the law commands and grace helps : " The law 
was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ." Observe therefore, what that is that is commanded 
by Moses in the Old, and go to Jesus the Mediator of the 
New, for grace and strength to do the same. 

Then be sure that you stand where the Spirit breathes : 
now the Spirit breathes in the pure and clean preaching of 
the gospel : " Received ye the Spirit by the works of the 
law, or by the hearing of faith ?" Would you be brought off 
from Moses and stand clear from Moses ; choose to stand 
under such a preaching, where the Spirit breathes, and that 
is a gospel preaching. 

Then put your selves upon the stream of the free-grace of 
God without having any foot on your own bottom : some 
men will learn to swim, and they are loth to lean themselves 
upon the stream of the water but keep a foot at the bottom ; 
and they never learn to swim, till they take up the foot : 
some would fain be evangelical, but they cannot lean them- 
selves upon the stream of grace, but keep a foot at the bot- 
tom still, upon something of their own. 

Some there are that do, and work> and when they can 
work no further, then they eke it out with Christ's mediation. 
So indeed they make the mediation of Christ but anekement 
to their own working : but away with these ekements : oh, 
let Christ be all, let Christ be all. And therefore, 

Study much the body of Jesus and the all sufficiency of the 
mediation of this Jesus the Mediator of the covenant. The 
sight of God's all-sufficiency, will draw one off from the crea- 
ture : and the sight of the all-sufficiency of the mediation of 
H 2 



100 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 5. 

Christ, will draw one off from Moses. Put thyself often 
unto this disjunction : come, O my soul, either there is 
enough in the mediation of Jesus, or not : if not enough, why 
do I go unto Christ at all ; if there be enough, why should I 
not stand clear from Moses, and upon pure gospel ground ? 
Thus therefore do. 

But suppose I have come to Jesus the Mediator of the 
new covenant, what shall I do that I may walk up unto this 
condition ? What should I do, and how should I so walk, 
as one that is indeed come unto Jesus, the Mediator of the 
covenant ; that yet I may stand upon gospel ground, and not 
touch at all upon Moses ? 

If you be indeed come unto Jesus, this Mediator of the 
new covenant, and would walk suitably thereunto : why then 
should you not still throng and press after the appointments, 
institutions and ordinances of Jesus ? " The law and the 
prophets were until John, but from John the Baptist, the 
kingdom of heaven suffers violence ;" that was suitable to the 
gospel. And what was the suffering violence, but peoples 
pressing after the gospel : so now, to press after the kingdom 
of heaven, suits with a gospel state ; to press after the ordi- 
nances and appointments of Jesus suits with a gospel 
state. 

But labour more and more for to know your Christian li- 
berty, in conjunction with strictness of life. Some there are 
that are very strict in their lives, but they do not know their 
Christian liberty ; some again know their Christian liberty, 
yet abate in their strictness of life. But blessed is that know- 
ledge of our Christian liberty, that is in conjunction with more 
strictness of life. Oh blessed, blessed is that knowledge of 
our Christian liberty, where strictness of life and holiness, 
grow up together with it. Therefore I say, labour more and 
more to know your Christian liberty in conjunction with 
strictness and holiness of life, this suits a gospel state; 
then shall you do as those that are come unto Jesus. But 
then. 

In regard of your faith : be sure that you close with Christ 
himself, the absolute promise ; and live in continual depen- 
dence upon Christ, this Jesus, this Mediator. For as living 
upon an old stock, and a stock received, suited with a cove- 
nant of works : so living in continual dependence upon Je- 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 101 

sus for fresh grace, suits with this covenant of grace whereof 
he is Mediator. 

In regard of your repentance and sorrow for sin, the more 
your hearts do melt and thaw under a sense of love, that you 
have sinned against God : for the law rends and tears ; but 
the gospel melts and thaws. The more that you grieve for 
sin, and rejoice in God together. The more you grieve for 
sin that is pardoned, and because it is pardoned : for a legal 
spirit grieves for sin, only that it may be pardoned ; but a 
gospel spirit because it is pardoned. And the more you 
grieve for sins that are secret, the sins of your spirits, espe- 
cially unbelief; for saith Christ, " I say unto you, he that 
looketh upon a woman," &c. The more I say you are found 
doing these things in reference to your repentance, the more 
your repentance suits with the gospel, and with a gospel 
state. And then, 

As to the matter of your obedience. 

The more gracious you are upon the account of grace, the 
more evangelical. And, 

The more free you are in your actings towards God, the 
more evangelical ; those that Jesus makes free, are free 
indeed. Free, not from duty, but free in duty ; free from 
sin, but not free to sin. A legal spirit is restrained from evil 
and constrained to good. Labour to be free in all your 
actings towards God. And, 

Then again. The more you are conformed unto God the 
Father who hath given you this Mediator, and to Jesus this 
Mediator; the more evangelical you are, and the more you 
suit with this gospel state unto which you are come. Now 
a man is conformed unto God the Father when he doth 
good to men for evil ; bless them that curse you, so shall ye 
be the children of your Father. Then a man is conformed 
to Jesus this Mediator, when his life is enamelled with 
meekness and humility; "Learn of ire (saith Christ), for 
I am meek and lowly." Friends, the law frets, and the gos- 
pel sweetens. 

And then, In case that you have to deal with the things 
of the world. The more you are estranged from the world 
by faith, and can forsake the things thoreof for Christ and 
his ways and truth, bearing witness to his truth and ways ; 
the more you comply and comport with a gospel state: " If 



102 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 5. 

thou wilt be perfect, (saith Christ to that legalist) go and sell 
all that thou hast, and come and follow me, and thou shalt 
have treasure in heaven/' And, 

In case that you meet with sufferings, look upon all your 
sufferings as part of Christ's purchase for you. Your suffer- 
ings are your servants ; for all things are yours ; for you are 
Christ's, who is the head of the covenant. 

And in case that you are under any spiritual desertion, 
then praise God for his love to Jesus, when you cannot praise 
God for his love to you. A true gospel spirit will praise 
God the Father for his love to Christ his Son, when he 
cannot praise God for his love to himself, because he wants 
assurance. 

Again, if you would yet walk up unto this condition of 
the gospel, whereunto now ye are come, then whatsoever you 
do, be sure that you do it upon gospel principles : principles 
of love, principles of thankfulness, principles of ingenuousness ; 
principles are the springs of actions. If your principles be 
evangelical, your actions will be evangelical ; if your princi- 
ples be legal, your actions will be legal. Stock, therefore, 
and store yourselves with gospel principles : principles of love, 
principles of thankfulness, and principles of ingenuousness ; 
doing all in the name of Jesus, this Mediator of the cove- 
nant. 

And when you have wrought and done all, rest upon Jesus 
this Mediator, as if you had done nothing. Yea, repent 
work and do, as if you had no such Mediator ; I say, Work, 
and pray, and read, and meditate, and confer, and repent, 
as if you had no Mediator for to rest upon, but only your 
works ; and yet rest upon this your Mediator, as if you had 
done no work at all. Thus do, and thus shall you comply 
and comport with your gospel state. 

Which that you may do, consider this is that you are now 
called unto ; you are now come to Jesus, not to Moses ; you 
are now come to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant. 
Why then, as in the time of the Old Testament they had 
recourse unto Moses, so now in the times of the New Testa- 
ment ye are in all things to have recourse unto Jesus. What 
saith Jesus to this business ? Here is worship. What saith 
Jesus to it ? Here is an ordinance. What saith Jesus to it ? 



SER. 5.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT 103 

Here is an officer of the church. What saith Jesus to it ? 
This is suitable unto the state that now ye are come unto. 

And thus shall all your convictions, graces, and your duties 
be refined; you shall have much in a little room. A legal 
work may be great for the bulk, yet be but little ; a gospel 
work though but little, hath a great deal in it, for it is re- 
fined. 

And thus also shall you have the wedding garment on. 
For pray what is the wedding garment but a gospel disposi- 
tion, suitable to a gospel dispensation ? this is the wedding 
garment. Not faith, nor repentance, nor this, nor that par- 
ticular grace, but a gospel disposition, suitable to a gospel 
dispensation, is the wedding garment ; and thus you shall be 
clothed with it. 

Thus also your only shall stand in its proper place ; for 
mark where the apostle places your only : " Only (saith he) 
let your conversation be as it becomes the gospel ;" there 
stands a Christian's only, upon a conversation becoming the 
gospel. 

Thus also shall you please the Father : The more that you 
come to Jesus the Mediator, whom the Father hath ap- 
pointed ; and the more your conversation suits thereunto, 
the more you please the Father. You can never please the 
Father more than in coming to the Son. 

Now therefore, as ever you do desire that you may please 
the Father ; 

As you do desire that your only may be found in a right 
and proper place; 

As you do desire that you may be found having the wed- 
ding garment on ; 

As you do desire that all your convictions, graces, duties, 
may be more refined, and so preserved and kept ; 

As you do desire to be found doing according to the state 
whereunto you are called ; so let it be your work and busi- 
ness to stand clear from Moses, and to stand upon clear 
gospel ground, and to come off fully unto Jesus the Mediator 
of the new covenant. For, saith this doctrine, in these gos- 
pel times, we are riot corne unto Moses, the mediator of the 
Old Testament or of the old covenant, but unto Jesus the 
Mediator of the new covenant. And so I have done with 
this third Observation. There is a fourth thing yet behind 



104 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 6. 

which concerns the " blood of sprinkling, that speaketh 
better things than the blood of Abel." 



SERMON VI. 

THE BLOOD OF SPRINKLING. 

And to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than 
that of Abel."HEB. xii. 24. 

When I made entrance into these words, I took up four 
observations from them, and having gone through three of 
them, I now come unto the fourth ; which more largely runs 
thus, 

Observation IV. That it is a very great privilege which in 
these gospel times we are partakers of: To come unto the 
blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that 
of Abel. For the clearing and prosecuting whereof, 

First, I shall shew you what this sprinkling of blood is, 
what are the grounds and use of this sprinkling. 

Secondly, That this blood of sprinkling is a speaking blood, 
and speaketh better things than that of Abel. 

Thirdly, That we are now come unto this blood of sprink- 
ling. 

Fourthly, What are the privileges of coming to this blood 
of sprinkling, and of being sprinkled with this blood of 
sprinkling. And then, 

Fifthly, What we must do that we may get our hearts 
sprinkled with this blood of sprinkling. 

First, If you ask what this blood of sprinkling is ? 

I answer, That it is no other than the blood of Jesus the 
Mediator of the new covenant ; called the blood of sprink- 
ling, because it was, and is, the thing specified in all the 
sprinklings of water and blood in the Old Testament. In 
the days of the Old Testament, it was their way and manner 
then to mix water and blood together, and to sprinkle it 
upon persons and things ; which was a pattern and type of 
this blood of Jesus, as you read from the 13th verse unto 
the 24th of the ixth of Hebrews. When our Lord and Saviour 
Christ died upon the cross, there came water and blood out 
of his side, saith John. And if you look into 1 John v., 



SER. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENAXT 105 

you shall see that John, his beloved disciple, insists much 
upon it, verse 6 : " This is he that came by water and blood, 
even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and 
blood." Again, "This is he, even Jesus Christ, that came by 
water and blood ;" which blood of sprinkling is the blood of 
Jesus, saith Peter expressly in his 1st Epistle i. 2: "Elect 
according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through 
sanctifi cation of the Spirit unto obedience and sprinkling of 
the blood of Jesus Christ." So that plainly then, and briefly, 
this blood of sprinkling is the blood of Jesus. Called the 
blood of sprinkling in reference unto those types and ceremo- 
nies of sprinkling blood, in the time of the Old Testament. 

For our better understanding whereof I shall labour to 
shew you briefly, what were the grounds and reasons of their 
sprinkling blood in the times of the Old Testament, and 
how that is applicable to the blood of Jesus. 

If you look therefore into the Old Testament you shall 
find that they sprinkled blood upon a fourfold account. 

To confirm and ratify the covenant between God and them. 

To make an atonement for their sin. 

For the sanctification and purification of their persons arid 
things. 

And, for the preservation of their persons. 

Accordingly, therefore, saith the apostle, Heb. ix. 19, the 
book was sprinkled; so in Exod. xxiv. 7j the meaning of it 
is given : " And he took the book of the covenant and read 
in the audience of the people ; and they said, All that the 
Lord hath said we will do, and be obedient : and Moses took 
the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold 
the blood of the covenant." And the ixth of Hebrews tells 
us that he sprinkled the blood itself. And why so ? But to 
shew thus much, that it is the blood of Jesus that doth ratify 
and confirm the covenant now made between God and us ; as 
at large in that ixth of Hebrews. 

Then, also, in those times of the old testament they sprin- 
kled blood to make an atonement for the sins of the people, 
as you have it in Lev. iv. fi, 20 : " And the priest shall dip 
his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times 
before the Lord, before the veil of the sanctuary." The 
mercy-seat and the altar were sprinkled ; the reason is given 
at the 20th verse : " And he shall do with the bullock as he 



106 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 6. 

did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with 
this ; and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and 
it shall be forgiven them." And why so ? But to shew that 
it is the blood of Jesus whereby we have atonement, as in 
Rom. v. 11. 

Again, In the times of the old testament they did sprinkle 
blood for the purification of men's persons, and of things, as 
you have it in Lev. xiv. 7? " And he shall sprinkle upon him 
that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall 
pronounce him clean." And why so ? But to shew that it 
is the blood of Jesus that doth cleanse us from all iniquity, 
as in 1 John i. 

Then in those times they did sprinkle men's persons for 
preservation from the destroying angel : when the destroying 
angel came to destroy the Egyptians, the posts of the Israel- 
ites were sprinkled that they might be preserved. And why ? 
But to shew that it is by the blood of Jesus that we are pre- 
served from the destroyer. In the 1st verse of Jude's epistle 
it is said, " Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of 
James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and 
preserved in Jesus Christ ;" or preserved by Jesus Christ : 
and " Christ our passover is sacrificed for us," saith the apos- 
tle to the Corinthians. So that thus now you see, briefly, 
what were the grounds and reasons of their sprinkling blood 
in the times of the old testament, and how all this is applica- 
ble to the blood of Jesus. 

And if you look wishly into the Scripture, and compare 
things with things, you shall find that Moses in the times of 
the old testament did divide the blood of the covenant, part 
whereof was sprinkled upon the altar, poured down at the 
foot of the altar, to oblige God to the covenant ; and part of 
it was sprinkled upon the people, to confirm their souls in the 
certainty of the covenant, and to oblige them to observe and 
keep covenant with God. So with the blood of Christ. And 
therefore when our Lord and Saviour Christ speaks at the 
Lord's supper, he saith, " This cup is the new testament in 
my blood, shed for many, for the remission of sins." The 
first part of the words " This cup is the new testament in 
my blood ;" hath regard to us, shewing that our souls are to 
be confirmed in this, that we are in covenant with God. The 
second part of the words " shed for maoy, for the remission 



SEK. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 107 

of sins ;" relates unto God, shewing the use of Christ's blood 
to satisfy God for our sins and to obtain our remission. 

And if you would know what is the use of this sprinkling ; 
I say, sprinkling of the blood notes application. What are 
we the better for the blood of Christ, if it be not applied to 
us and sprinkled on us ? -There are two great attributes of 
God that we have to deal withal in the great matter of our 
redemption ; the justice of God and the mercy of God. 
That the justice of God might be satisfied, Christ was made 
a sacrifice on the cross, and his blood shed on earth, that the 
favour of God might be obtained. Christ carries, as our 
great High Priest, his blood, the virtue of it, into heaven, and 
sprinkles the mercy-seat seven times. 

And that we might be sanctified and reconciled to God, this 
blood is sprinkled upon us too. As it is sprinkled upon the 
altar and the mercy-seat, that God may be reconciled to us ; 
so it is sprinkled upon us that we might be sanctified and re- 
conciled to God, and that thereby we might be assured that 
God is in covenant with us. As when the Je\vs were sprin- 
kled with blood, the priest saying, " This is the blood of the 
covenant ;" they were assured, thereby, that they were in co- 
venant with God : so when we are sprinkled with the blood 
of Jesus, we are, or may be assured that we are in the cove- 
nant of grace with God. And thus now, you see, what this 
blood of sprinkling is, upon what account it is sprinkled, and 
what is the use of the sprinkling thereof. And so I have 
done with the first general. 

Secondly, This blood of sprinkling, which is the blood of 
Jesus, is a speaking blood, and speaketh better things than 
that of Abel, or than Abel. 

It speaketh in regard of its continual and perpetual virtue 
and operation. But here are two things. 

What this blood of sprinkling speaketh. 

How and in what sense it speaketh better things than that 
of Abel. 

What this blood of sprinkling speaketh. 

It speaketh a necessity of satisfaction, for " without blood 
there is no remission." 

It speaketh the righteousness of God. If God have burnt 
down such a city as this to declare his righteousness, how 
much more doth the shedding of the blood of Jesus declare 



108 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 6. 

the righteousness of God : " To declare, I say, his righteous- 
ness/' saith the apostle in the iiird of Romans. 

It speaketh the highest obedience that ever the sun saw. 
That the Son of God should be obedient unto death, laying 
down his blood, is the highest obedience. As the disobedi- 
ence of the first Adam was in the matter of the tree, so the 
obedience of the second Adam was in the matter of the tree : 
lf Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the 
tree/' saith the apostle. As the disobedience of the first 
Adam was in the transgressing a positive commandment, 
which was the symbol of obedience to the whole moral law ; 
so the obedience of the second Adam doth consist in being 
obedient unto a positive commandment, which was the sym- 
bol of his obedience to the whole law of God ; " This com- 
mandment received I of my Father/' saith he. And as Moses 
the head of that covenant was " faithful in all his house," in- 
somuch as it is said of him, " As the Lord commanded, so 
did he :" so Jesus, the head of this second covenant, was 
faithful in all his trust, and as the Lord commanded, so did 
he : " As the Father gave me commandment (saith he), even 
so I do/' John xiv. 31. So that the blood of sprinkling 
speaks the highest obedience in the world. 

It speaketh also the worth of souls. If a physician have 
a patient ready to die, and nothing will work his cure but 
the heart blood of the physician, and the physician should 
vouchsafe thereto, and let him have his heart blood to drink ; 
would it not argue that the physician thinks this man's life 
is of great concernment and of great worth ? so it is here. 
And what doth this argue, but that Jesus did look upon the 
souls of men as of infinite worth and concernment. 

This blood of Jesus and the blood of sprinkling speaketh 
the evil of sin, the heinousness, the sinfulness, the evil of 
sin. There are many things that do speak the evil of sin, 
but of all things methinks the blood of sprinkling, the blood 
of Jesus, speaks the evil of sin loudest. Give me leave to 
name some, that so you may compare them and this to- 
gether. 

The separation from God and union with Satan speaks the 
evil of sin. As by grace we are united unto God, made one 
with God, and separated from the devil ; so by sin we are 



SER. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 109 

separated from God, and united unto Satan, and made one 
with him. 

The condemnation of the whole world by the sin of Adam, 
speaks the evil of sin. If the eating of the apple, commit- 
ting that one sin, brought condemnation upon all the world, 
how great must the evil of sin be. 

The fire of hell speaks the evil of sin, for what is the fuel 
that the fire of hell feeds upon, but sin ; take sin away, and 
the fire of hell will die, it will be quenched. 

The spoil of cuties speaks it. One sinful thought is 
enough to spoil a prayer, to spoil a duty, to spoil a sermon. 
And if one drop of ink shall blacken a whole glass of milk, 
how black is that ink. 

The horror of conscience speaks it : for if but one sin set 
on upon the soul by God, doth put a man into such horror 
of conscience, how great is the evil of sin. 

The troublesomeness of the relics of sin in the saints 
speaks it. Sins in the saints are but wasps without their 
sting ; and if the wasps without their sting be so troublesome, 
how troublesome are the wasps that have their stings in 
them : how troublesome is sin in itself. 

But above all, the blood of sprinkling speaks the evil of 
sin. For if the guilt of sin be so great, that nothing can 
satisfy for it but the blood of Jesus ; and the filth of sin be 
so great, that nothing can fetch out the stain thereof but the 
blood of Jesus ; how great, how heinous, how sinful must the 
evil of sin be. The blood of sprinkling speaks the evil of 
sin. And then, 

As the blood of sprinkling speaks the evil of sin, so it 
speaks the riches and the freeness of the love of God. It 
was love in Jonathan to part with his garment for David. 
What love is it in Christ to part with his blood for us. It 
was love that made Christ weep over Lazarus ; they said, 
" Behold how he loved him." And if his tears speak his 
love, what doth his blood ? It is love to give a cup of cold 
water to a disciple, what is it then to give one's warm blood 
unto enemies. 

Three things there are that do make a gift greatly free. 

1. The greatness of the gift given. 

2. The un worthiness of t.ie person given unto. And, 

3. The greatness of the person that gives. 



110 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiH. G. 

1. As for the gift itself, what greater than the blood of 
Jesus ? 

2. As for the persons given unto, who more unworthy than 
sinful men ? 

3. As for the person that doth give, who greater than God 
in the three Persons ? The Father gives Christ to die ; the 
Son dies and gives his blood ; and the Holy Ghost comes 
and sprinkles it, for it is the work of the Holy Ghost to 
sprinkle. This is another thing that the blood of Jesus 
speaks ; it speaks the riches and the freeness of the love of 
God. These are the things that this blood of sprinkling 
speak eth. 

And now if you ask, How and in what respects it speaketh 
better than -Abel's, or than that of Abel : for it may be 
translated both ways, according to the several copies; but 
take it according to our translation, better than that of Abel, 
or than the blood of Abel : How and in what respects doth 
the blood of Jesus speak better things than the blood of 
Abel? 

Why, it speaks better things than the personal blood of 
Abel; and it speaks better things than the sacrificed blood 
of Abel. 

It speaks better than the personal blood of Abel : for the 
blood of Abel cried for vengeance against his own brother : 
but the blood of Jesus cries for mercy and for remission for 
his enemies : " Father, forgive them, they know not what 
they do," said Christ, when their hands were embrued in his 
blood. 

But others think rather that these words are to be under- 
stood of the sacrificed blood of Abel. And because Abel is 
the first that stands upon record in Scripture for offering a 
sacrifice with blood, it is as if the apostle should say, The 
sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, and the blood of Jesus, 
speaketh better things than the sacrifice of Abel, or of all 
the sacrifices in the Old Testament. And indeed this is more 
suitable to the scope of the apostle here, for the design of 
the apostle here is, to shew the excellency of new testament 
sacrifice, and of the way of the new testament, above the 
old. And if you look into the Scripture you find, that 
though in Gen. iv. it is said, " Abel's blood cried ;" yet not- 
withstanding it is not said that Abel or his blood speaketh : 



SEE. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. Ill 

but in Heb. xi. it is said that, in point of sacrifice, by faith, 
Abel speaketh : " By faith Abel offered unto God a more 
excellent sacrifice than Cain, and by it he being dead yet 
speaketh." In point of sacrifice by faith he yet speaketh. 

And would you know how the blood of Jesus speaketh 
better things than the sacrificed blood of Abel, or than all the 
sacrifices of the Old Testament. Thus : 

The blood of Jesus, and the sacrifice of Christ on the 
cross, doth give efficacy unto all those sacrifices. What are 
all the types and ceremonies but dead things, without the 
thing typified ? 

And though Abel offered an excellent sacrifice, he did not 
offer his own blood : but Jesus did, he offered up himself by 
the Eternal Spirit, as in Heb. ix. 

And though Abel and the fathers of the old testament 
offered excellent sacrifices, yet they offered often, and so 
those sacrifices could not make the comers thereunto perfect, 
saith the apostle, " But Christ offered himself once for all : 
and so he hath for ever perfected them that are sanctified," 
Heb. x. 

Though Abel and the fathers in the Old Testament did 
offer excellent sacrifices, yet their sacrifice was after their sin 
committed ; when they had committed a sin, then they were 
to get a sacrifice, and possibly they might have died before 
the sacrifice was offered ; but the sacrifice of Christ is before 
our sin is committed ; we cannot die between the sin and the 
sacrifice. 

And though Abel and the fathers of the Old Testament 
offered excellent sacrifices, the blood whereof was sprinkled 
on the people, yet that was but to the purifying of the flesh, 
for, saith the apostle chap. ix. 13 : ' If the blood of bulls 
and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the un- 
clean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, &c." But the 
sprinkling of the blood of Jesus, purgeth our consciences 
from dead works. " How much more shall the blood of 
Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without 
spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to 
serve the living God." Upon which words, saith Capellus, 
you have here the excellency of this offering above all other 
offerings in the world ; above the offerings of the heathen, 
above the offerings of the Jews, above the offerings of the 



112 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 6. 

Christians. Above the offerings of the heathen ; for they 
sacrificed to devils, but he offered himself without spot to 
God. Above the sacrifice of the Jews; for their blood of 
sprinkling sanctified to the purifying of the flesh, but this 
to the purging of your " conscience from dead works." Above 
the offering of the christians ; for though Christians offer up 
spiritual sacrifices to God, as prayers and thanksgivings, yet 
"not without spot;" but he offered himself through the 
eternal Spirit without spot to God. 

And then, though Abel offered an excellent sacrifice, and 
so the fathers of the Old Testament, yet notwithstanding 
those were for themselves and for those times. Abel offered 
for himself, and the Jews for themselves, for that time only ; 
but Christ offered a sacrifice for all the world, " He is the 
Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world," and 
" a Lamb slain from the beginning of the world." 

Again, though Abel offered an excellent sacrifice, and the 
fathers of the Old Testament offered excellent sacrifices, and 
the blood thereof was sprinkled ; yet it was not sprinkled 
upon all things, but in Heb. ix. it is said : " Moreover he 
sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels 
of the ministry, and almost all things are by the law purged 
with blood." It was but almost, but now by the blood of 
Jesus all things are purged and cleansed, not almost, but all 
things are purged and cleansed. Thus now you see what 
this blood of sprinkling speaketh, and how it speaketh better 
things than the blood of Abel; better than his personal 
blood, and better than his sacrificed blood, and that is the 
second general. 

Thirdly, Now unto this blood of sprinkling are we come 
in these gospel times. We are not come unto the blood of 
bulls and goats and heifers, but we are come unto the blood 
of Jesus the blood of sprinkling. 

For what is the dispensation we are now under but the 
dispensation of a crucified Christ ? There are two comings 
of Christ mentioned in the Scripture. A coming in a way of 
meanness, riding upon an ass ; his first coming is in a way of 
humiliation, riding upon an ass, and accordingly his kingdom 
is a kingdom of patience. And there is a second coming of 
Christ, when he comes riding upon the clouds in power and 
great glory, and accordingly his kingdom then shall be a 



SER. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 113 

kingdom of power and glory. When Christ comes the second 
time we shall be under glorious dispensations, but now we 
are under the first coming of Christ, and therefore what is 
the dispensation that now we are under, but the dispensation 
of a crucified Christ? What doth preaching signify and 
hold forth, but Christ crucified ? " W T e preach Christ cru- 
cified," saith the apostle. What do the sacraments hold 
forth? Why: "This cup is the New Testament in my 
blood/' saith he. So that now we are under the dispensation 
of a crucified Christ. In the times of the old covenant, 
they did believe in God, and God himself was the first ob- 
ject of their faith, and so they came to Christ ; now, in these 
times of the New Testament, the first and immediate object 
of our faith, is the blood of Christ, " Faith in the blood of 
Christ," Rom. iii. So that, I say, it is the blood of Jesus 
that now we are come unto. 

Well, but though in these gospel times we are now come 
to the blood of Jesus, the blood of sprinkling, yet, it may 
be, this blood of sprinkling may not be sprinkled upon my 
soul. When may the blood of sprinkling be said to be 
sprinkled upon a man's soul ? How shall I know whether this 
blood of sprinkling be sprinkled upon my soul in particular ? 
That is a question of great concernment. Thus therefore, 

If it be your great work in all your temptations and upon 
all occasions to apply yourselves unto the blood of Jesus, 
then is the blood of Jesus applied to you, and so sprinkled 
on you. The blood of Jesus is sprinkled on us by the Spirit 
of God, and when it is sprinkled by the Spirit of God, it is 
applied. If you do make applications of yourselves to Christ, 
certainly Christ hath made applications of himself to you ; 
for all our grace is but a reflection of his grace ; we love him 
because he loved us first, and we choose him because he 
chose us first, and we apply ourselves to him because he hath 
applied himself unto us first. If therefore in all temptations 
and upon all occasions, it be your great work to make an 
application of yourselves unto the blood of Jesus, then hath 
the blood of Jesus been applied to you and sprinkled upon 
you. 

If you ever have had such a sight of the blood of Christ 
as that thereby you are purged from an evil conscience, then 
hath this blood been applied to, and sprinkled on you ; they 

VOL. III. I 



114 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 6. 

go together. In Heb. x. 22, it is said : " Let us draw near 
with a true heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts 
sprinkled from an evil conscience," or purged, Heb ix. calls 
it purged ; " having our hearts sprinkled from an evil con- 
science." What is that ? Why an evil conscience is an 
evil conscience two ways; either because it is a sluggish 
conscience, and does not stir us up unto our duty and accuse 
for sin ; or else because it is a clamorous and despondent 
conscience. Now if you have had such a sight of the blood 
of Jesus as hath quickened your conscience, and wakened 
your conscience, and yet pacified your conscience at the same 
time, then have you been sprinkled with this blood of Jesus. 
You see how they go together in the xth chapter 1, 2, 3. 
But, 

If you have a continual sight and remembrance of the 
blood of Jesus in all your goings out and your comings in, 
then hath the blood of Jesus been sprinkled upon you. 
When the destroying angel passed over the houses of the 
Israelites, the posts were sprinkled with the blood of the 
lamb. The posts; and why their posts'! But that in all 
their goings out and their comings in, they might have an eye 
thereunto. So now how is it with me ? Do I not only find 
the virtue of the Lord Christ within me ; but that in all my 
goings out and comings in, I have an eye unto his blood ? 
Then is his blood sprinkled upon my posts, and applied 
unto me. 

If that you do walk in the light, as God is in the light ; 
then the blood of Jesus hath been, and is, sprinkled upon 
you, and applied to you ; 1 John i. vii. : " But if we walk in 
the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with 
another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us 
from all sin." If we walk in the light as he is in the light ? 
What is that ? How is God and Christ in the light ? Why 
he is in the light certainly in regard of grace and holiness. 
So he is in the light, and to that purpose the apostle speaks 
here. So then, although you cannot walk in the light of 
comfort, but as a child of light walking in darkness; yet 
if you do walk in the light of holiness, walk in the light as 
God is in the light; then certainly the blood of Jesus Christ 
hath cleansed you, and so hath been sprinkled upon you. 

If you are indeed separated and set apart for God, and for 



SER. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 115 

the work and service of God, then is the blood of Jesus 
sprinkled upon you. He that is dipt in this blood of sprink- 
ling, is separated. You shall observe that when the priests 
were consecrated, the tip of the right ear was sprinkled with 
blood, and the thumb of the right hand, and the toe of the 
right foot. And not only the priests when they were con- 
secrated were so sprinkled; but when a man was cleansed 
from his leprosy, he was so sprinkled also. You have them 
both in Leviticus concerning Aaron. Lev. viii. 23 : " He 
slew the ram, and Moses took of the blood of it, and put it 
upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of 
his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot." 
Thus in regard of Aaron. In regard of the leprosy, you 
have it in Lev. xiv. : " And of the rest of the oil that is in 
his hand, shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear 
of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his 
right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon 
the blood of the trespass offering." And so in regard of 
blood as well as of oil. What is the meaning of this, that 
the tip of the right ear was to be touched with blood, and 
the thumb of the right hand was to be touched with blood, 
and the toe of the right foot with blood, both when the 
priest was consecrated, and when the leprosy was cleansed ? 
But to shew thus much, that the whole man is to be set 
apart for God. The ear of his understanding and knowing 
part is to be set aside for God. The thumb of his right 
hand, the believing part (by faith we lay hold), is to be set 
apart for God. And the great toe of the right foot, the 
practical part of life and conversation ; the whole man is to 
be set apart for God where this sprinkling comes. So that 
look therefore, when a man is set apart for the worship and 
service of God, ear, and hand, and foot, set apart for the 
worship and service of God ; then he is said to be sprinkled 
with this blood of sprinkling. 

Once more, If that you have had such a prospect of Christ 
crucified, and have seen what great and wonderful things 
Christ hath done and suffered, insomuch as your hearts have 
been astonished therewithal ; then have your souls been 
sprinkled with this blood. See how they go together, Isa. 
lii. 13, 14, 15 : "Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, 
he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high, (speaking 



116 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 6. 

of Christ). As many were astonied at him, (his visage was 
so marred, more than any man's, and his form, more than 
the sons of men,) so shall he sprinkle many nations ; the 
kings shall shut their mouths at him, for that which had not 
been told them, shall they see, and that which they had not 
heard, shall they consider." Where this blood is sprinkled 
there comes astonishment at the mirror, and wisdom and 
mystery of a crucified Christ. So that thus now you see 
that we are come unto this blood of sprinkling : and how a 
man shall know whether his own soul be sprinkled with 
this blood of sprinkling in particular. And is this a small 
matter ? 

Fourthly. The fourth thing tells us it is a privilege, and a 
very great privilege to come unto the blood of sprinkling ; it 
is a very great privilege to be sprinkled with this blood of 
sprinkling. 

It was a very great privilege for the Jews to have a sacri- 
fice at hand when they had committed sin, to have the blood 
of sprinkling by them. But, alas, what is that to this ; what 
was that sacrifice to this of Christ, and what was that blood 
to this of Christ, and what was that sprinkling unto this 
sprinkling of the blood of Jesus ? Look what difference is 
between the type and the thing typified ; look what differ- 
ence there is between the blood of bulls and goats, and the 
blood of Jesus ; look what difference between carnal and 
spiritual things : so great a difference is there between the 
coming to the blood of bulls and goats, and the coming to 
and being sprinkled with the blood of Jesus. 

Let me open this a little to you, if you be indeed come 
unto this blood of sprinkling, and be sprinkled with the blood 
of Jesus, 

Then look whatsoever benefits 'do flow from the blood of 
Jesus : all those do belong to you. And do you well consider 
what are the benefits that do flow from the blood of Jesus. 
Let me name some to you. 

Thereby, in the general, we have redemption : " In whom 
we have redemption through his blood," saith Paul, Eph. i. 

Thereby the covenant of grace is ratified and confirmed, 
Heb. ix., at large. 

Thereby the church of God is purchased, Acts xx. pur- 
chased by his blood ; by the blood of God. 



SER. 6.J CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 117 

Thereby the wall of partition made between Jew and gen- 
tile, God and us is broken down. Eph. ii. 13. 

Thereby all things in heaven and earth are reconciled. 
Col. i. 20. 

Thereby are your souls justified and your sins pardoned : 
" In whom we have redemption through his blood, the for- 
giveness of our sins," Eph. i. 

Thereby are you washed and cleansed and sanctified : " The 
blood of Jesus cleanseth from all iniquity," 1 John i. 

Thereby is your great adversary, Satan, routed and over- 
come and spoiled : " They overcame him by the blood of the 
Lamb," Rev. xii. 

Thereby Christ is made welcome by his Father when he 
comes into heaven in your name to intercede for you. In 
the times of the old testament the high priest went into the 
holy of holiest, and carried blood, and sprinkled the mercy- 
seat seven times ; but the high priest did not sit down. Now 
in Heb. x. 11, it is said, " And every high priest standeth 
daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, 
which can never take away sin ; but this Man, after he had 
offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down at the right 
hand of God the Father." The high priest did not, then, sit 
down ; but now when Christ comes into heaven with your 
names upon his heart, to sprinkle the mercy-seat with his 
blood ; Come my Son, saith the Father, sit down and welcome 
upon this account. 

And thereby, also, have you entrance into the holy of ho- 
liest, as in Heb. x. 

And if, indeed, you be sprinkled with this blood of sprin- 
kling, then are you at one with the mercy-seat. It is the 
same blood that is sprinkled upon the mercy-seat in heaven 
that is sprinkled upon your souls here on earth. The same 
blood, in the time of the old testament, that was sprinkled 
upon the people was sprinkled upon the altar and the mercy- 
seat ; so the same blood that is now in heaven, sprinkled 
upon the mercy-seat, is sprinkled upon your hearts. 

If you are sprinkled with this blood of sprinkling, then all 
the promises are yours, for all the promises are yea and amen 
in Christ ; and if Christ's blood be sprinkled on you, and 
applied to you, then may you apply the promises to yourselves. 

And if, indeed, you be sprinkled with this blood of sprin- 



118 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SEB. 6. 

kling, then are all things clean unto you ; for as the blood of 
sprinkling is sprinkled upon your souls, so are all your enjoy- 
ments to be sprinkled with it. 

And if you be indeed sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, 
then may you go away and say, Now are all the blessings of 
the covenant mine. The day that you are sprinkled with the 
blood of Jesus, you may say, Now know I that my sins are 
pardoned : mercy is mine, and pardon is mine, and adoption 
is mine. As when the psalmist had a sight of God, he cried 
out and said, " Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine ;" so 
the day that you have this sight of God, in being sprinkled 
with the blood of Jesus, you may cry out and say, not, Gilead 
is mine, and Manasseh is mine ; but, Pardon is mine, and 
adoption is mine, and heaven is mine, and God is mine for 
ever. Oh, who would not labour to get his soul sprinkled 
now with the blood of sprinkling ! 

Fifthly. You will say, in the fifth and last place, It is a 
great privilege to be sprinkled with the blood of sprinkling. 
We grant it. But what shall we do that even we may get 
our souls sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, the blood of 
sprinkling ? 

First of all you must know that there is a twofold sprin- 
kling with the blood of sprinkling. There is an initial sprin- 
kling, and a renewed sprinkling. As there is an initial 
repentance and a renewed repentance, so there is an initial 
sprinkling and a renewed sprinkling. 

An initial sprinkling, and that is a man's first conversion, 
when he is justified, according to that in 1 Cor. vi. 1 1, " Such 
were some of you ; but you are washed, but ye are sanctified, 
but ye are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by 
the Spirit of our God." Here is the initial sprinkling. 

The renewed sprinkling is upon a twofold account ; upon 
the account of some great sin committed, and upon the ac- 
count of some special duty to be performed. 

A fresh sprinkling there must be upon some great sin com- 
mitted. So in the list Psalm, saith David, "Wash me 
throughly from mine iniquity " He had sinned a great sin, 
but his sin was pardoned. Psalm li., title : " A Psalm of 
David when Nathan the prophet came unto him " that was, 
after Nathan came to him. And what did Nathan say ? He 
told him his sin was pardoned. Yet saith David, " Purge me 



SEE. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 119 

with hyssop ;" I must have a fresh sprinkling : after some 
great sin committed there must be a fresh sprinkling with the 
blood of Jesus. 

And upon duty to be performed, especially some great duty 
to be performed, there must also be a fresh sprinkling. In 
Heb. x. 22, Paul saith, " Let us draw near with a true heart, 
in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from 
an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water." 
Why our bodies washed with pure water ? It relates to the 
washings in the old testament : when the priests were to come 
to offer a sacrifice, there was a laver, and they were then to 
wash themselves ; so saith the apostle, " Let us draw near to 
God, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and 
our bodies washed with pure water," because upon a new 
address to God, a fresh sprinkling with the blood of Jesus is 
to be had. It is not enough to have an old sprinkling with 
the blood of Jesus, but upon all our approaches to God, es- 
pecially after some great sin committed or some special duty 
to be performed, we must come and get a fresh sprinkling 
with the blood of Jesus. 

You must know also that though you have been very great 
sinners, yet you are not incapable of this sprinkling with 
the blood of Jesus. The apostle saith in that place of the 
Corinthians : " Such were some of you." What such ? ver. 
9 : " Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God, be not deceived, neither fornicators, nor 
idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of them- 
selves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drun- 
kards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom 
of God. And such were some of you ; but ye are washed," 
how ? why "ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus, 
and by the Spirit of our God," which sprinkles, which applies 
the blood of Christ. So then, though ye have been great 
sinners, yet you are not incapable of being sprinkled with 
this blood of sprinkling. 

You must know this also, that there is nothing not this 
side the blood of Jesus, this blood of sprinkling, that can 
cleanse you. If any thing should bid for our cleansing, 
methinks it should be our sufferings and persecutions for the 
name of God. But look into Rev. vii. 14, it is said : "These 
are they which came out of great tribulations, and have 



120 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 6. 

washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of 
the Lamb/' They have washed their robes. How? what 
with their " great tribulations ? " No, they came out of 
great tribulations, but their tribulations do not wash them. 
"These are they that came out of great tribulations, and 
have washed their robes and made them white in the 
blood of the Lamb." Nothing on this side Christ, and this 
blood of sprinkling, can cleanse your souls. But, 

Though there be nothing on this side Christ that can 
cleanse your souls but the blood of Jesus ; yet it is the Spirit 
of Christ that must sprinkle it. The blood of Jesus is then 
sprinkled when it is applied ; now this is the work of the 
Holy Ghost, " I will sprinkle you with clean water," I will 
wash you with water. As it is a derogation to the blood of 
Christ to go to any else for cleansing ; so it is a derogation 
to the Spirit of Christ to go to any else for sprinkling, or to 
go to any else for that application of the blood of Christ. 
It is only the Spirit of Christ that must sprinkle this blood 
upon your and my soul. 

Though this sprinkling must be done only by the Spirit ; 
yet notwithstanding this blood of Jesus is sprinkled by the 
ordinance in the hand of the Spirit, by the preaching of the 
gospel. He preaches not, that sprinkles not the blood of 
Christ in preaching ; and especially by that great ordinance 
of the Lord's supper. You may observe therefore, that the 
same words that were used in the Old Testament when they 
sprinkled the blood, " This is the blood of the covenant," as 
in Heb. ix., are used by our Saviour Christ at the Lord's 
supper : This cup is the New Testament in my blood, &c." 
Why so ? but to shew thus much, that this ordinance of the 
Lord's supper is the hyssop in the hand of the Spirit, whereby 
the souls of believers are sprinkled with a fresh sprinkling. 
Oh, therefore, who would not come to this ordinance of the 
Lord's supper in a right way and manner. 

But then again, you must know also that you must come 
for sprinkling with the greatest sense of unworthiness that 
may be. If you look into the xixth of Numbers, you shall 
find that he that sprinkled the blood, was to be unclean 
until the evening, verse 7- " Then the priest shall wash his 
clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward 
he shall come into the camp, and the priest shall be unclean 



SER. 6.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 121 

until the evening/* At verse 6 : "The priest shall take cedar 
wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of 
the burning of the heifer ; and then the priest shall wash 
his clothes, and come into the camp, and shall be unclean 
until the evening." And at verse 8 : "He that burneth her 
shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, 
and shall be unclean until the evening. And a man that is 
clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them 
up without the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept 
for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of 
separation ; it is a purification for sin, and he that gathered 
the ashes of the heifer, shall wash his clothes, and be un- 
clean until the evening/' What is all this ? but to shew 
thus much, that they might not come to this sacred expia- 
tion, but with the greatest sense of their unworthiness. 
Plainly shewing thus much : that there is no meddling with 
this blood of sprinkling but with the greatest sense of our 
unworthiness of the blood of Jesus. Now therefore, do you 
desire that you may be sprinkled with this blood of sprink- 
ling; then, whensoever you go to the blood of Jesus, and 
look upon it, go with the greatest sense of your unworthiness 
of this blood; then go to the Spirit of God, whose work 
above it is, to apply and sprinkle, and then stand and wait 
where the Spirit stands with his hyssop to sprinkle the souls 
of men. And so shall you be made partakers of this great 
privilege. 

But suppose that I be sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, 
and that this blood of sprinkling hath indeed fallen upon my 
soul, what is my duty then ? 

Then, " Go away and doubt no more." When the sinning 
Jew was sprinkled, do you think he doubted whether he were 
pardoned or no ? No surely, he did believe that he was 
pardoned, and that he was in covenant with God. For those 
words were used, This is the blood of the covenant. And 
shall you be sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, and will you 
doubt whether you be in covenant with the Lord by grace 
or no ! &c. 

This blood of sprinkling speaketh, and you have heard 
what it speaks. Now then I pray take heed that you do not 
refuse him that speaketh from heaven. Mark how it follows 
in the very next words to the text : " We are come to the 



122 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 6. 

blood of sprinkling that speaketh better things than that of 
Abel. See that ye refuse not him that speaketh, for if they 
escaped not who refused him that spoke on earth, much 
more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that 
speaketh from heaven." Why, man or woman, it is Jesus 
that speaketh to thee, Jesus the Mediator of the covenant 
that speaks unto you to believe. What, are you sprinkled ? 
go away then and doubt no more ; but take heed that ye 
refuse not him that speaketh from heaven. 

And then also conclude and say, Now know I that I shall 
be preserved from the destroyer. When the Israelites* posts 
were sprinkled with the blood of the Lamb, they could say, 
Now know I that I shall not be destroyed by this destroying 
angel. Art thou sprinkled with the blood of Jesus ? say 
then, Now know I that I shall not be destroyed, but that the 
angel shall pass over me in the destroying day. 

Then also go away and be contented with your condi- 
tion whatever it be. And well you may. If you be sprinkled 
with the blood of Jesus, you are made partakers of the 
greatest privilege that can be, and will you not then be 
contented with your condition ? Go away and be con- 
tented with your condition, saying, I have now received the 
greatest privilege, for I am sprinkled with the blood of 
Jesus, therefore will I be contented with my condition what- 
ever it be. 

And then go away and praise God and be very thankful. 
Be very thankful to God the Father, and to the Lamb with 
whose blood you are sprinkled. Look into Rev. v., and you 
shall find there are three choirs of praisers, and all praising 
upon the account of this blood. And when he had opened 
the book, verse 9, " the twenty-four elders fell down before 
the Lamb, and they sung a new song." The four and 
twenty elders (these are men) saying, Thou art worthy to 
take the book, and to open the seals thereof, for thou wast 
slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood." By thy 
blood ; here is the foot of the song. 

Then comes in the angels, another choir, praising God, 
verse 11. K And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many 
angels round about the throne, and the beasts, and the elders, 
and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thou- 
sand, and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, 



SEB. 6.]] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT 123 

Worthy is the Lamb that was slain." See the foot of the 
song still; "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain." Men 
praise upon this account, angels praise upon this account also. 

There is a third choir, and those are other creatures, verse 
14 : <e And every creature which is in heaven, and on the 
earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and 
all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, honour, glory 
and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and 
unto the Lamb." The word slain is not there, but " To the 
Lamb," that is all one. Now shall there be such praising 
God upon that account, for the Lamb's being slain ; and are 
you indeed most concerned, and sprinkled with this blood of 
Jesus, this Lamb, and will not you praise God ? Oh, go 
away and be for ever thankful. 

Go away and sin no more ; be not defiled with sin, for 
you see it cost dear to cleanse you : the blood of sprinkling, 
the blood of Jesus. 

And go away and honour God yet more in believing. It 
may be there are some here, that never honoured God to this 
day with a believing smile. Man, woman, art thou sprinkled, 
indeed sprinkled with the blood of Jesus ? Go away then, 
and honour the Lord with one smile of faith this day. 

And to conclude all. Art thou indeed sprinkled with the 
blood of Jesus ? then go away and be sure that you never 
sell your birth-right for a mess of pottage. Mark how this 
text comes in. In Heb. xii., the apostle speaking of profane 
Esau, " Take heed (saith he) lest there be any fornicator or 
profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his 
birthright : for ye know how that afterwards, when he would 
have inherited the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no 
place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears : 
for ye are not come to mount Sinai, but ye are come to mount 
Sion, and ye are come to Jesus, the Mediator of the covenant, 
and to the blood of sprinkling." What then ? Oh, take 
heed you do not sell your birth-right for a mess of pottage. 
What is your birth-right ? The gospel is your birth-right, 
you are born thereto, through grace. And what is your little 
estate, but a rness of pottage ; and what is your great estate, 
but a great bowl of pottage. Oh, do not sell your birth-right 
for a mess of pottage. You are sprinkled, and the blood of 
sprinkling is upon you ; then hold fast, keep your birth-right, 



124 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 7- 

and never sell it for a mess of pottage : " For ye are come 
unto Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the 
blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than the 
blood of Abel." And thus now I have done with the fourth 
argument, and with this text. 

Think on these things, and the Lord bless them to you. 



SERMON VII. 

THE SWEETNESS AND PROFITABLENESS OF DIVINE 
MEDITATION. 

" My meditation of him shall be sweet." Psalm civ. 34. 

THE psalm is a psalm of thanksgiving, wherein the psalm- 
ist doth call upon and provoke himself to praise the Lord, 
upon the account of his greatness. " Bless the Lord, O my 
soul ; O Lord my God, thou art very great, thou art clothed 
with honour and majesty," verse 1. 

Which greatness of God is illustrated by the work of 
creation and preservation. 

By the work of creation, from the 2nd verse unto the 25th. 

By the work of preservation, from the 25th unto the 33rd. 

Having called upon himself thus to praise the Lord, he 

resolves to do it : "I will sing unto the Lord as long as I 

live, I will sing praise unto my God while I have my being." 

And, saith he, " My meditation of him shall be sweet, I 

will be glad in the Lord." 

" My meditation of him shall be sweet." 
Take the words as they lie in themselves, and you have 
this doctrine presently : 

That it is a sweet thing for a gracious soul to meditate on 
God. Meditation work is sweet work. A gracious soul 
doth find sweetness in meditating on God. David was a 
gracious man, and he found sweetness in this work of medi- 
tation on God. It is the property then of a gracious soul, 
to find sweetness in meditating on God. 

For the opening and prosecuting of which argument : 
First, We will inquire what this meditation is ; what is the 
true nature and notion of meditation. 



SER. 7-] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 125 

Secondly, How and in what respects a man may be said to 
meditate on God. 

Thirdly, How it may appear, that it is a sweet thing to 
meditate on God and the things of God. 

Fourthly, I shall answer unto some objections. 

Fifthly, And then show how the work of meditation 
is to be carried on with sweetness ; which is my design in 
the choice of these words. 

First, As for what the work of meditation is, what is the 
true notion of it ; it is several ways expressed in Scripture. 

Sometimes it is called, a remembering of God. In Psalm 
Ixiii., ft When I remember thee upon my bed," which is ex- 
plained by that which follows, " And meditate on thee in the 
night watches." 

Sometimes it is called, a thinking on God. So in Psalm 
xlviii. 9, " We have thought of thy loving-kindness, O God." 

And sometimes it is called a musing on God. And so in 
Psalm cxliii., " I remember the days of old, I meditate on 
all thy works, I muse on the work of thy hands." Thus it 
is severally expressed in Scripture. 

Great authors do describe it several ways. 

It is a vehement application of the soul unto a thing, for 
the investigation and experimental knowledge thereof. So 
Gerson and others. 

It is a studious action of the mind, whereby a man labours 
to find out some hidden truth. So Austin. 

It is the exercise of a man's soul, whereby calling to re- 
membrance what he doth know already, he doth further think 
on it, and debate on it within himself, for his own profit and 
benefit. So Mr. Greenham. 

But plainly and briefly thus : 

It is the vehement or intense application of the soul unto 
some thing, whereby a man's mind doth ponder, dwell and 
fix upon it, for his own profit and benefit. 

There must be the application of the soul to some thing ; 
and therefore sometimes it is expressed by laying of a thing 
to heart : " The righteous are taken away, and no man lays 
it to heart ;" no man considers on it. " If ye will not lay 
these things to heart," &c. Mai. ii. 2. 

And as there must be an application, so there must be a 
vehement and intense application of the soul unto a thing, 



126 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. f. 

for every consideration does not make meditation : consider- 
ation heightened makes meditation. 

Meditation is the work of the whole soul. The mind acts, 
and the memory acts, and the affections act. " Let the 
words of my mouth, and the meditations of my heart :" it is 
an intense and a vehement application of the soul unto truth. 

But there must be also a fixation of the soul upon the 
thing. It is not every slight and transient thought that 
makes meditation : " My meditation shall be of thee all the 
day," Psalm cxix. It is Actio cunctabunda, saith Alvares. 
A man may think on God every day, and meditate on God 
no day. There must be a fixation of the soul upon some 
truth ; a dwelling and fixing of the soul upon some thing. 

But then this must be in reference to one's own profit and 
benefit. Though I do think, and think much of sin, if I do 
not think thereof to leave it, it is not meditation. Though I 
think on the life and the death of Christ, if it be not to con- 
form unto him, these thoughts will not amount to meditation. 
Though I think on the love and goodness of God, yet if it be 
not to get my heart inflamed with love thereby, it will not 
amount to meditation. 

Plainly, then, meditation, for the true nature and the 
notion of it, is a vehement, an intense application of the soul 
unto a thing, whereby a man's mind doth dwell and insist 
and abide upon it for his profit and benefit. That is the first. 

Secondly. But, then, how and in what respects may a man 
be said to meditate on God ? 

Why look when a man doth meditate on the name, na- 
ture, titles and attributes of God, then he is said to meditate 
on God. 

On the nature of God. So in the Ixiiird Psalm : " When 
I remember thee upon my bed, and meditate on thee in the 
night watches." 

And look when a man doth meditate on Christ the Son of 
God, then he is said for to meditate on God, for Christ is 
God ; and therefore saith the apostle, " Consider the High 
Priest ot your profession, looking unto Jesus." 

And look when a man doth meditate on the word of God, 
the law and statutes of God, then he is said to meditate on 
God. Psalm i., " He delighteth in the law of the Lord, and 
therein doth he meditate." 



SER. 7-] CHRIST AND THE COVEANNT. 127 

And look when a man doth meditate on the works and 
concernments of God, then, in scripture phrase, he is said to 
meditate on God. And so in the Ixxviith Psalm: " I will 
remember the works of the Lord ; I will remember thy won- 
ders, and I will meditate also of all thy works." So that, 
briefly, then a man is said to meditate on God, not only when 
he doth meditate on the nature of God, but when he doth 
meditate on the Son of God, meditate on the word of God, 
meditate on the works and concernments of God. And that 
is the second. 

Thirdly. But how may it appear that it is a sweet thing 
to meditate on God ; that meditation work is sweet work, and 
that it is a sweet thing to a gracious soul to meditate on God? 

Something first in the general and then more particularly 
in reference to a gracious soul. In general, 

It is a sweet thing to meditate on God. Will you instance 
in the nature, name and attributes of God ? 

Is it not a sweet thing to enjoy God ? Enjoyment of God 
is the life of our lives. And how do we enjoy God ? God 
doth come down to us, and we do ascend and go up to him. 
Sometimes God doth come down into our souls ; sometimes 
there is an ascent of the soul unto God. And what is the 
ladder whereby we ascend unto God, and take our turns in 
heaven with God, but believing meditation ? 

The more perfect any thing is, the more sweet it is to lay 
out one's thought thereon. Now God is all perfection, there 
is nothing not perfect in God. If you have a nosegay made 
up of flowers, and but one weed, the sweetness of the nose- 
gay is spoiled ; there are perfections in God, and no weeds 
among them. If there be a musical instrument, and one 
string out of order, all jars ; there is no string out of order 
among God's perfections ; perfections and nothing not perfect 
in God. You account it a sweet thing to see your lands and 
your estates lie together, a sweet thing to see all your children 
together ; do but look and meditate on God, and you see all 
your wealth lie together. 

And if the names, titles, attributes of God be your relief 
in all conditions ; then it must needs be a sweet thing to me- 
ditate on God, in this respect. Why now ; " The name of 
the Lord is a strong tower, the righteous fly thereunto and 



128 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SBR. 7- 

are safe." A sweet thing it is therefore to meditate on God 
in this respect. 

Will you instance in the meditating on Christ the Son of 
God ? You know what is said by the spouse in the Can- 
ticles : " I sat under his shadow :" sat down, how ? It is 
meditation sets the soul down under the shadow of Christ. 
And then his fruit, whether justification be the fruit, or sanc- 
tification, or consolation j then his fruit was sweet unto my 
taste. 

And if Jesus Christ be our standing relief against all temp- 
tations, and desertions ; then it must needs be a sweet thing 
to meditate and think much on him. Now he is our bra- 
zen serpent, our standing relief against all our temptations, 
and our desertions. 

But will you instance in meditating on the word of God ? 
It is a sweet thing to behold the light ; and the word is a 
light, and a lanthorn unto our feet. Is it not a sweet thing 
to taste honey ? David saith, " The word of the Lord was as 
honey and the honey comb." And the more it is meditated 
on, the more fully tasted. 

And if the consideration, and the meditation of the word of 
God be our great relief against all the scorns and reproaches, 
and oppositions of the world, then certainly it is a sweet thing 
to meditate on the word of God. Now do but look into Ps. 
cxix., and you shall find David speaking thus ; " Remove 
from me reproach and contempt ; princes did sit and speak 
against me." What relief l:ad he ? " But thy seivant did 
meditate in thy statutes." Here is his relief, princes, great 
men ; they sate and spake against me, and they reproached 
me, and they opposed me, but here was my relief, I did me- 
ditate in thy word. 

But will you instance in the works of the Lord ? There 
are three sorts of God's works. 

There is the work of creation. 

And the work of providence. 

And the work of redemption. 

As for the work of creation : if it be a sweet thing to be- 
hold and to consider the .workmanship of the finger of human 
wisdom : what a pleasure and sweetness is it to behold the 
workmanship of the finger of infinite wisdom ? 

And as for the works of providence: if the meditation and 



7-] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 129 

the consideration of the providence of God be our great help 
against the pain of unbelieving thoughts ; then it must needs 
be as\veet thing to meditate on God in this respect. Friends, 
ye that know God, have experienced how painful unbelieving 
thoughts are ; great is the pain of unbelieving thoughts. 
Well, but what help against this pain ? The consideration 
of the providence of God : saith our Saviour in Matt. x. 
" The very hairs of your head are all numbered, fear ye not 
therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows." What 
then, " take no thought," here lies your relief. The consi- 
deration, and the meditation of the special providence of God, 
is your help against painful unbelief. 

And as for the work of redemption, there all the attributes 
of God do meet : there is wisdom, there is power, there is 
mercy, there is righteousness, there is faithfulness : and if it 
be a sweet thing to behold the beams of the sun, what a 
sweet thing is it to behold all the beams of God's glorious 
attributes, meeting in one work ; which work the very angels 
desire to look into, where the glory of God is : certainly, it is 
a sweet thing then to meditate on God, in regard of his 
works ; these things more generally. 

But now more particularly, as to our case. 

How may it appear, that it is a sweet thing for a gracious 
soul to meditate on God : it will appear to you by divers 
arguments. 

It is a sweet thing for a good and gracious man to medi- 
tate on God and the things of God, because it is natural to 
him. Natural works are pleasant works. It is a tedious 
and an irksome thing to row against the stream of nature ; 
but natural works are pleasing works. Now as it is a natural 
thing for a worldly man to think and meditate on the world, 
and the things thereof; so it is natural to a gracious man, to 
think and meditate on God and the things of God. I pray, 
what is the reason, that wicked men take so much delight in 
thinking and meditating and musing on their sins and sin- 
ful ways, but because sin is natural unto them. Why, 
a good man being made partaker of the divine nature, it is 
natural to him to think on God, and the ways and things of 
God ; and therefore pleasant, therefore sweet. 

But as it is natural to a gracious man to think on God, 
and the things of God, so it is suitable to him. As it is a 

VOL. in. K 



130 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 7- 

natural work, so it is a suitable work : suitable things are 
pleasant ; the more suitable any thing is unto us, the more 
it pleaseth us, all pleasures and delights arise from the con- 
junction of suitables. If you have never so great an estate, 
if it be not suited to your heart, you have no delight in it. 
If you have never so small an estate, if it be suitable to your 
heart, you are delighted and pleased in it. Now, what in all 
the world, so suitable to a gracious soul as God ? Is the ob- 
ject of man's understanding truth ? God is truth. Is the 
object of his will good ? God is good. Is the object of his 
affections love ? God is love. Is the soul of a man immor- 
tal, immaterial ? God is so, an immortal, and an immaterial 
being. Is the soul of a man eternal, a parte post ? God is 
so, God is eternal and unchangeable. Are our desires infi- 
nite ? God is infinite. What is there that the soul of man 
can want, but it is answered in God ? A suitable good he is 
surely, therefore it must needs be a sweet thing to meditate 
on God, and the things of God. 

But especially, as it is a suitable thing for a gracious 
soul to meditate on God, so it is profitable. Gain is sweet. 
Now it is a very gainful thing, and very profitable for to me- 
ditate on God, and the things of God : meditation work is 
gainful work. 

For meditation is a great help to knowledge : the more you 
think and meditate on what you read and hear, the more you 
know ; and though you read never so much and hear never 
so much, if you do not meditate on what you read or hear, it 
will amount to little, you will be never the wiser: if a man 
doth meditate, he proves the wiser. Mark what David saith, 
Ps. cxix., " I am wiser than mine enemies," verse 98. " I am 
wiser than my teachers, I am wiser than the ancients," verse 
99. " Through thy commandments thou hast made me wi- 
ser than mine enemies." It may be so, they might be fools. 
But saith he, " I have more understanding than all my 
teachers." verse 99. Aye, but this teacher may be some 
young man, newly come to the university. I have more 
understanding than all my teachers. Aye, but, saith he, " I 
understand more than the ancients." Pray how ? " For thy 
testimonies are my meditation. Through thy command- 
ments, thou hast made me wiser than mine enemies; for 
they are ever with me. I have more understanding than all 



SER. 7-] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 131 

my teachers, for thy testimonies are my meditation," Medi- 
tatio sapientice parens, meditation is the parent of wisdom. 
If you read over a book, and there be many notions and 
good things in the book, yet if the notions be not made your 
own, if you be not master of the notions you read, you are 
never the better. If I read, and read, and find such and such 
notions in a book, if I be not master of those notions, I am 
little the better for my reading. It is meditation that makes 
you the master of the notions that you read, or that you 
hear, otherwise, it is but the book's notion still. By medi- 
tation after a sermon, a man may look further into a truth, 
than the preacher ever intended. Meditation is a great help 
to knowledge : that is the first. 

As meditation is a great help to knowledge, so it is a great 
friend to memory. Meditatio firmat memoriam. Meditation 
strengthens memory ; it fastens the things that we hear or 
read in the memory. Many complain they have bad memo- 
ries. Oh, their memories are very bad, they cannot remem- 
ber ; what is the reason that we remember no more what we 
read and what we hear, but because we meditate no more 
upon what we have heard or read ? Meditation is a great 
help to memory. 

As meditation is a great help to memory, so it is a heart 
warming work, a friend to warmth of heart. If a thing be 
cold, you chafe it, if a man's body be cold, you chafe it and 
rub it ; and by chafing and rubbing of a cold part, you put 
life and warmth into it ; meditation chafes the soul, and rubs 
the soul with a truth. And what is the reason that our hearts 
are no warmer by what we read, or hear, or observe, but 
because we meditate no more on it. Meditation is a heart 
warming work. 

As it is a heart warming work, so it is that which will 
keep your hearts and souls from sinful thoughts. When the 
vessel is full you can put in no more. If the vessel be full 
of puddle water, you cannot put in wine ; if the vessel be 
full of wine you cannot put in puddle water. If the heart 
be full of sinful thoughts, here is no room for holy and 
heavenly thoughts; if the heart be filled with holy and 
heavenly thoughts by meditation, there is no room for evil 
and sinful thoughts. And what is the reason that men's hearts 
are so full of sinful and evil thoughts, but because their 

K2 



132 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 7- 

hearts are no more full of God ; they think no more, they 
meditate no more of God. Thereby, 1 say, you will be kept 
from sinful thoughts. 

As it will keep you from sinful thoughts, so it will fit and 
tune your hearts for every duty. For prayer, for thanks- 
giving, for holy conference and communication of good things 
to others. 

For prayer, it is Orationis Mater, &c. 

As it is the sister of reading, so it is the mother of prayer. 
Though a man's heart be much indisposed to prayer, yet, if 
he can but fall into a meditation of God, and the things of 
God, his heart will soon come off to prayer. Meditation 
lies so near unto prayer, that 'in the Hebrew, the word that 
signifies to pray, signifies to meditate. And therefore you 
shall observe, that whereas in some books it is said that, 
'' Isaac went out to pray," in other books it is said that 
fi Isaac went out to meditate." Meditation is a friend to 
prayer. 

And it is a friend to thanksgiving ; and therefore saith the 
Psalmist here in the text, " I will sing praise unto my God, 
my meditation of him shall be sweet ;" they go together. 

And it is a great help unto holy conference, which I am 
afraid is too much wanting among us. Private meditation 
on God and the things of God, is a great help unto holy 
conference. Psa. xlv. 1 : "My heart is inditing a good 
matter." What then ? " I speak of the things which I have 
made touching the King : my tongue is the pen of a ready 
writer." When ? When the heart hath been at work in 
meditation, Psa. Ixxvii. 1^ : " I will meditate also on all thy 
works." What then? "and talk of thy doings." See 
how conference comes in : "I will meditate also of all thy 
works, and talk of all thy doings." So that thus then, me- 
ditation will fit and prepare you, and tune your hearts to 
prayer, thanksgiving, holy conference, and other duties. 

As meditation is a great friend to prayer and to other 
duties, so it is a help unto growth in grace, and the know- 
ledge of Christ. 

A help to grow : the more we meditate on what we read 
and hear, the more we grow. And what is the reason that 
men grow no more after all that they have heard and read, 
but because they meditate no more. The best scholar reads 



SEP. 7'] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 133 

and meditates, and meditates and reads. And the best 
Christian reads and meditates, and hears and meditates. The 
growing Christian doth. Suppose now you have a load of 
dung or marl to lay upon the ground, you lay it upon the 
ground to make it fat and fruitful ; but if it be laid upon the 
ground and not spread, will it make the grass or the corn 
grow ? No, it will hinder the growth of the grass ; the spread- 
ing of it makes the grass grow. So now, come and lay down 
a load of truth upon a poor soul, and let it lie unspread, it 
rather hinders his growth ; but the hand of meditation 
spreads it. And, I say, What is the reason that men grow- 
no more, but because it may be sermons, or truths, like 
loads, are laid down upon the soul, but no spreading by the 
hand of meditation. 

As meditation work is a great friend to growth in grace, 
so thereby also your hearts shall be kept savoury and spi- 
ritual in the midst of all your outward and worldly employ- 
ments. Oh, saith one, that my heart were but more savoury 
and spiritual in all my outward employments, and in my 
calling. Why meditation carries a still up and down in the 
soul, whereby it doth extract and distil the virtue and the 
juice of all the leaves of Providence, that it meets with in 
the calling. You see how it is with a cow, or with a 
sheep, though the grass that the cow or the sheep eats be 
green; yet by concoction and digesting of it, it turns white, 
and turns into milk; so now, though that which you read, 
that which you meet withal in your callings be but ordi- 
narily as the common grass, yet if you can digest it, it will 
be milk unto you. And how are these things digested but 
by meditation ? 

Friends, thereby you steal out of your calling to get unto 
God. 

Thereby your hearts are perfumed as you walk along in 
your calling and in your place. 

This is that that will keep your hearts savoury and spiritual 
in all your outward and worldly employments. 

Thereby also you shall fill up all the chinks and crevices of 
your lives and spend your spare times for God. There is no 
man but hath his spare times, more or less ; some more, 
some less, but all have their spare times. That, look as it 
is with a book, all books have their margins, some books 



134 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 7- 

have a greater margin, some a lesser and a narrower margin, 
but all books have their margins ; so all men have their mar- 
gins, their spare tiir.es; some have a greater margin, and 
more time to spare than others, some have a lesser and a 
narrower margin, and less spare time than others. But all 
men have their margins and their spare times. Some men 
know not what to do with their spare time, therefore they 
call in for dice, and call in for cards, and call in for vanity. 
Some when they are out of employment, they dare not be 
alone. Have but the skill of meditation to meditate on God 
and the things of God, and you will never be afraid to be 
alone ; your margins will be all rilled up, all the chinks and 
crevices of your lives shall be all filled up with God. There- 
fore, oh, what a profitable thing is this work of meditation. 

Thereby you shall be also able to draw good out of evil, 
i ere is the philosopher's stone. What a great ado hath 
tnere been in the world about the philosopher's stone, to get 
that. Why ? Because of the profit of it ; thereby lead is 
turned into gold, and other metals turned into gold. But 
here is the philosopher's stone indeed ; meditation will turn 
all into gold ; turn evils into good, bring good out of evil, 
grace out of sin. There is a deal of dirt lies at your door, 
%nd there is no flowers grow out of it ; but bring the same dirt 
into your garden, arid then flowers grow out of it. So now, 
if sin lie at your door, there are no flowers grow thereon ; 
but bring your sin, your dirt into your garden of meditation, 
and you shall have flowers grow out of your dirt. 

Thereby you shall converse with God and enjoy God. 
The happiness of our life lies in our enjoyment of God, and 
in our converse with God. There is a converse with God 
in this life, a TroXirtv^a our conversation is in heaven, our 
trade is in heaven. And how do we come to trade in heaven? 
Why, we go up to God in meditation, and there we take our 
walks with the Almighty; thus Ave trade with God, thus we 
converse with God. Surely therefore, this work of meditation 
is sweet, for it is profitable, as you have heard in these par- 
ticulars. 

Again, As the work of meditation is very profitable, 
natural, suitable, so it is very contentful, and satisfying to a 
gracious soul. What person in love is not satisfied in thinking 
and meditating on the person loved ? What gracious, loving 



SER. 7.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 135 

child is not satisfied in thinking on its father that is absent 
in another country ? See what David saith in the Ixiiird 
Psalm : (( My soul shall be satisfied, as with marrow and 
fatness." When? "When I remember thee upon my bed, 
and meditate on thee in the night watches/' I shall not 
only be contented, but my soul shall be satisfied. How ? In 
a way of meditation. It is meditation work that is soul- 
satisfying work. 

And as it is a soul-satisfying work, so this work of medi- 
tation to a gracious soul is a most delightful work. What 
greater delight than to think on that God in whom he doth 
most delight ? Is it delightful to a wicked man to sit and 
muse and meditate on his sinful ways ; and will it not be 
delightful to a gracious soul to sit, and think, and muse, and 
meditate on the Lord ? Certainly, it is a work that is most 
delightful to a gracious soul. 

But how can it be so delightful ; it is a hard work, medtia- 
tion work is hard work, and therefore how can it be so de- 
lightful to a gracious soul ? 

Yes, very well, for though it be hard in regard of its prac- 
tice, yet it may be sweet and delightful in regard of its profit. 
Is it not a hard work to the husbandman to plough, to sow, to 
reap ; and yet delightful in regard of its profit ? Is it not a 
hard work for a man to be digging in the mines, digging up 
of silver ; and yet delightful in regard of the profit ? Is it not 
a hard work for a man to make such ventures at sea, through 
all storms : and yet it is delightful in regard of its profit ? the 
profit of the voyage makes it delightful. Why, you have 
heard now the profitableness of the work of meditation. It 
is an help to knowledge, thereby your knowledge is raised. 
Thereby your memory is strengthened. Thereby your hearts 
are warmed. Thereby you will be freed from sinful thoughts. 
Thereby your hearts will be tuned to every duty. Thereby 
you will grow in grace. Thereby you will fill up all the chinks 
and crevices of your lives, and know how to spend your spare 
time, and improve that for God. Thereby you will draw good 
out of evil. And thereby you will converse with God, have com- 
munion with God, and enjoy God. And I pray, is not here pro- 
fit enough to sweeten thevoyage of your thoughts in meditation. 

But, hard work you say, and therefore how can it be de- 
lightful ? 



136 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 7- 

Friends, the harder the work is, the sweeter it is, being 
overcome : it is a sweet thing to overcome. It is a hard thing 
to fight, but it is a sweet thing to overcome. The harder 
the nut is to crack, the sweeter the meat when it is cracked ; 
the harder the scripture is that is to be opened, the sweeter 
is the kernel, the truth when it is opened. When God 
opened the rock, the waters that flowed out were as sweet as 
honey. Now meditation makes a conquest of the work. 

Though it be a hard thing to meditate on God and the 
things of God, yet notwithstanding do but consider why the 
work is hard, and you will say that the difficulty of the work 
is no impeachment to the suavity, or the sweetness thereof. 
There are two things that make meditation hard. 

The one is, because men are not used thereunto, men are 
not exercised therein : 

And another is, because they do not love God enough. 

Every thing is hard at the first : writing is hard at the 
first, painting hard at the first, and the getting languages hard 
at the first. A trade is hard at the first. So certainly the work 
of meditation will be hard at the first. There is nothing 
not hard to those that are unwilling. There is nothing hard 
to those that love, love makes all things easy. Is it an hard 
thing for a lover to think or meditate on the person loved ? 
Is it a hard thing for a child at a distance from his father to 
think or meditate on his father, and his father's love and 
kindness, is this hard ? Indeed to a rebellious child it is hard, 
to a child that is run away from his father it is hard ; but for 
a loving and an obedient child, it is not hard. And what is 
the reason that the work of meditation is so hard to many of 
us, hut because in truth we are not used thereunto, or because 
we are rebellious children, and do not love the Lord as we 
ought to do. 

But you will say, may not a wicked man meditate on God, 
and find sweetness in the work ? 

I answer, that it is possible that a wicked man may sepa- 
rate and sequester himself unto this work of reading, study- 
ing, and thinking on the word and law of God. 1 Sam. xxi. 
7. " Now a certain man of the servants of Saul was there 
that day, detained before the Lord, and his name was Doeg." 
He was there separated, cloistered for the studying of the 
law, and yet a Doeg, a great persecutor. And who doth not 



SER. 7-] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 137 

see it ? Friars and monks separate and cloister up them- 
selves at this very day, and spend much time in that which 
they call meditation. 

Yea, possible it is, that a wicked man may not only think 
and meditate on the law of God, but he may find some 
sweetness therein ; for if wicked men do delight in their ap- 
proach unto God, as in Isaiah Iviii. why may they not delight 
also and find a sweetness in their meditation concerning God ? 
But though a wicked man may meditate on God and the 
things of God, and find some sweetness in the work of medi- 
tation, yet with this difference. There is great deal of differ- 
ence between the sweetness that a wicked man finds in the 
work of meditation, and the sweetness that a good man 
finds in the work of meditation. For though a wicked man 
may meditate, and find some sweetness in the work, yet not- 
withstanding the sweetness doth arise from the satisfaction 
of his natural conscience, than from the con-naturalness and 
suitableness that is between his heart and the work. Possibly 
a Doeg, a wicked man may be convinced that he ought to read 
the Scriptures, and t^ meditate therein, and having done so his 
conscience is satisfied, and he finds sweetness therein. But 
this sweetness doth rather arise from the satisfying of his na- 
tural conscience, than from any con-naturalness and suitable- 
ness that there is between his heart and the work. 

It is one thing for a man to find a sweetness in this work of 
meditation in reference to his own employment, calling or 
livelihood ; another thing for to find a sweetness in it in re- 
ference unto God, to his own practice, and holiness of life 
and conversation. Suppose I be a preacher : it is my duty 
to study the Scriptures : and studying of the Scripture I me- 
ditate, and when things come off well, I have a sw< etness 
therein ; yet all this may be in reference to my calling, to my 
employment, and to my livelihood. But now a gracious 
man he meditates on God and the things of God in reference 
to God, to his holiness and practice. Mark what David 
saith, Psalm cxix., " I will delight myself in thy command- 
ments, which I have loved. My hands also will I lift up 
unto thy commandments, which I have lo^ed ; and I will me- 
ditate in thy statutes." " Lord, (saith he,) I love thy com- 
mandments:" and upon that account I meditate in thy com- 
mandments : and I do not only meditate, but " my hands 



138 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 7. 

also will I lift up unto thy commandments." For practice, I 
will not only lay my eye to reading, I will not only lay my 
head to studying, but my hands also will I lift up unto thy 
commandments ; to take hold on them, and to practise them. 
So that thus a gracious soul, as he meditates on God and 
the things of God, he finds a sweetness ; so it is in re- 
ference unto God, and to his own practice and holiness in 
conversation. 

But though a wicked man may meditate on God and the 
things of God, and find a sweetness in so doing; yet he doth 
also find as great, if not a greater sweetness in other things, 
and in meditating and musing upon his sins, and in the 
world, Job xx. 12., " Though wickedness be sweet in his 
mouth, though he hide it under his tongue, though he 
spare it, and forsake it not, but keep it still within his 
mouth," as a sweet pellet ; here is his great delight. Though 
he may meditate on God and the things of God, and find 
some sweetness there, his great delight is here, in his sin ; and 
he finds rather, more delight and pleasure in musing on his sin 
and sinful course, and meditating on the world and the 
things thereof, than he finds in meditating on God and the 
things of God. But now a gracious man delights in the law 
of the Lord, and therein doth he meditate : why, but doth he 
not also stand in the counsel of the ungodly ? No, " he 
walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, but his delight is 
in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate/' 
He standeth not in the way of sinners : possibly he may 
meet with sinners, and wicked men occasionally ; but he doth 
not walk with them ordinarily, he doth not stand with them, 
but his delight is in the law of the Lord, and therein doth he 
meditate. 

But to say no more. Take a wicked man, and though he 
may meditate on God and the things of God, and find some 
sweetness therein, he doth not do this ordinarily, meditate 
ordinarily, and continually, " God is not in all his thoughts." 
God may be in some of his thoughts, but God is not in all 
nis thoughts. But this meditation of God and the things of 
God is the ordinary work of a good man, he delighteth in 
the law of the Lord, and therein doth he meditate day and 
night. Meditation on God and the things of God is his 
ordinary work ; so that thus now you see the difference, and 



SER. 7] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT 139 

thus you see the doctrine cleared. It is a sweet thing to a 
gracious soul to meditate on God and the things of God ; 
meditation work is sweet work to a gracious soul. Sweet, for 
it is natural ; sweet, for it is suitable ; sweet, for it is profit- 
able ; sweet, for it is satisfying ; sweet, for it is delightful. 
And if these things be so, 

What shall we say of those that never spent any time yet 
alone in meditating on God and the things of God ? Never 
spent a day, never spent half a day, never spent an hour in 
private meditating on God and the things of God. Shall 
we say these are godly ? Why, in the time of the Old Tes- 
tament the beasts were unclean that did not chew the cud ; 
in the New Testament it is made the property of the highway 
ground, that the seed falls upon it, and it is not covered over 
with meditation and consideration. 

W T hat, is it the property of a gracious soul to meditate on 
God, and doth he find so much sweetness in meditating on 
God and the things of God ; and have I lived twenty 
years, have I lived thirty years, have I lived forty years, and 
never spent an hour yet in private in meditation on God and 
the things of God, how can I think I am godly ? 

If this doctrine be true, that a gracious, holy man finds a 
sweetness in meditating on God, and meditation work is 
sweet work to a gracious soul, then, friends, why should you 
not all labour to be found here, in this work of meditation ? 
I fear we are strangers hereunto ; many come and hear ser- 
mons, and write sermons one time after another, and after- 
wards they stand up upon dusty shelves, and are never 
meditated on. But is this true, that a gracious man finds so 
much sweetness in the work of meditation, and that it is so 
profitable a work ; why should we not all labour to be 
found herein ? 

You will say then unto me, Meditation is a sweet work we 
confess, and very profitable ; but what should I do that I 
may be able to carry on this work of meditation with sweet- 
ness ? I have found it hard sometimes, and after I have 
begun it I threw it off. Sometimes I have thought that the 
work of meditation is incumbent only upon preachers, but I 
see it is sweet, and profitable, and good for every one. What 
shall I do then that I may be able to carry on this work of 
meditation with sweetness ? 



140 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 7- 

That I shall speak to more largely. Only for the present 
give me leave to say something to it by way of premises ; 
I will only speak to four cases and so conclude this exercise. 

Would you meditate on God and the things of God with 
sweetness ? In case that you would meditate on the nature 
and attributes of God, be sure that you divide your thoughts, 
for variety is most refreshing. All the attributes of God are 
worthy of our thoughts ; do not therefore stand poring on one 
excellency, or upon one attribute ; but when you are most 
fearful, pat your thoughts upon that in God which is most 
cheerful ; when you are most cheerful, put your thoughts 
upon that in God which is most dreadful ; evermore divide 
your thoughts if you be to meditate on God, and the name, 
and nature, and attributes of God. 

And be sure of this, That you meditate, not in a way of 
reason only, when you come to meditate on God, but in a 
way of faith. For who can give the reason of the Trinity in 
Unity, and the Unity in Trinity ? How can men know and 
understand this : That the second person should be begotten 
of the Father from all eternity, and yet be co-equal with the 
Father ? Here reason halts. Saith one truly : Dispute not 
with God, lest you be confounded ; dispute nor with Satan, 
lest you be overcome. And I say, If you would not fail 
and miscarry in your work of meditation, be sure that when 
you are to meditate on God, the nature, the names, the attri- 
butes of God, that then your meditation be carried on in a 
way of faith, and not of reason only. 

And then be sure of this, that you never think of God out 
of Christ. " I thought upon God and was troubled/' saith 
the psalmist. Why ? He did not think of Christ too. " I 
thought upon God and was troubled." Aye, but think upon 
God in Christ and you will not be troubled. Never think 
of God but in Christ. It is an horrible thing, saith Luther, 
to think of God out of Christ. This is the first thing, in 
case that you would meditate on God, the nature, the names, 
and attributes of God ; divide your thoughts, meditate in a 
way of faith, and not in a way of reason ; and never think 
of God out of Christ. 

In case that you would meditate on Christ the Son of God, 
be sure of this, that you think on Christ, and meditate on 
Christ as your great example as well as your gift, and your 



. 7-] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 141 

gift as well as your example. There is both in Christ : when 
your hearts are most brisk, think on Christ as your example ; 
and when your hearts are most low, think on Christ as your 
gift. But if that you would meditate on Christ, carry on 
both ; think on Christ as well for your example as for your 
gift, and for your gift as well as for your example. 

And never think on Christ oat of the gospel; for as you 
may not think on God out of Christ, so you may not medi* 
tate on Christ out of the gospel : Christ is a living gospel and 
the gospel a dead Christ. 

And in all your meditations on Christ, be sure that you 
observe what that title of Christ is that is most suitable to 
your condition, and then meditate thereupon. 

But in case you would meditate on the word of God, know 
that there are four parts of the wcrd. There is the command- 
ment, the promise, the threatening, the example. These four 
divide the whole word of God : precept, promise, threatening, 
example. 

If you have to deal with a commandment, or precept, re- 
member this, that there is no precept or commandment but 
is backed and surrounded with several promises ; promises of 
assistance and promises of reward. 

In case you have to deal with a promise, know this, God 
is as punctual in performing as he is gracious in promising. 

In case you have to deal with a threatening, then remember 
this, that God threatens that he may not fulfil, but he pro- 
mises that he may fulfil : as God promises that he may fulfil, 
so he threatens that he may not fulfil. 

And in case you have to deal with an example, remember 
this, that there is no example but hath a promise or a threat- 
ening in the bowels or bosom of it. 

But if you would meditate on God in reference to his word, 
then look upon all the word of God as your Father's letter 
and your own evidence. If a child be beyond sea, and a let- 
ter come from the father, the child reads it; he reads it 
again and again, and thinks on it : another, that is a stranger 
to the letter, though he see it, he does not read it so often 
over, nor meditate so often on it, but the son doth. Why ? 
It is my father's letter, saith he, and so I will read it, and 
meditate on it, and think on it. So some men do not look 
upon the Scriptures as their Father's letters sent from heaven 



142 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 7- 

to them ; but those that are good, they look upon all the 
chapters there as their Father's letters : and I will read it over 
for it is my Father's letter, and I will think on it much for it 
is ray Father's letter. Thus, then, look upon the word as 
your Father's letter. 

And look upon the Scripture also as your own evidence. 
A man hath an evidence for land, and it may be the parch- 
ment is a dusty thing, yet he takes a great deal of pains in 
reading it over and thinking on it. Why, saith one that 
stands by, why will you spend so much time in reading of a 
dusty parchment ? But, O friend, saith he, friend, it is my 
evidence for my inheritance. So now, when men come to the 
word, and do not look upon it as their evidence for their land, 
they have no list to meditate on it; but when a man comes 
to the word, and can look upon it as his evidence for a great 
inheritance, then he loves to meditate on it. Remember, 
therefore, these two things, that all that is in the word is either 
commandment or promise, threatening or example. And 
look upon the word as your Father's letters and as your own 
evidence. And then, 

In case that you would meditate on the works of God, be 
sure of this, that you look upon all the works of God as en- 
amelled and embroidered with so many attributes of God ; 
for the more you see the attributes of God shining forth upon 
his works, the more sweetness you will take in the meditat- 
ing thereof. But if you do not see the attributes of God 
shining forth upon his works, you will take no sweetness in 
meditating thereon. 

Then be sure that you do not take things apart and sepa- 
rate from another, but take all together ; they are set one 
over against the other. If you part the works of God, you 
will find no beauty nor sweetness in the consideration of 
them ; but put all together, the design and end of the work, 
and the wholeness of the work gives a beauty to it. Take 
heed, therefore, that you do not separate between piece and 
piece, but carry all together, and the end thereof. 

If you would meditate on God in reference to his works, be 
sure of this, that you never go to read God's work but by 
God's candle. The work of God is a great book, but the 
work of God cannot be read but by God's word ; God hath 
a candle of his own to read his work by. When you go to 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 14.J 

read his work, be sure you carry his candle along with you, 
and so shall you be sure to read it the better. I have done. 

Be sure you look upon every work of God as coming out 
of the hand of your Father, that you may say, Oh, this is my 
Father's work, and this is my Father's work. London is des- 
troyed, but this is my Father's work. You have heard of that 
honest, good man of Chelmsford, when it thundered and 
lightened, insomuch as all the town were afraid that dooms- 
day was come ; how he got upon a stall in the street, and said, 
This is my Father's voice. And so when you look upon any 
work of the Lord, look upon it as your Father's work, and 
then yon will take a sweetness and contentment in the medi- 
tation thereof. 

And thus I have given you some taste. But how this work 
of meditation is to be carried on with sweetness I reserve for 
the next exercise ; only for the present you have heard what 
a profitable thing it is to meditate on the things of God. 
What now remains but to get up and be thinking and medi- 
tating on God and the things of God. 



SERMON VIII. 

THE WORK AND WAY OF MEDITATION. 
" My meditation of him shall be sweet." PSALM civ. 34. 

HAVING shewed how sweet and profitable the work of 
meditation is, to meditate on God and the things of God ; 
we came the last day to this question or objection : 

But if the work of meditation be so sweet and profitable, 
what shall we do that this work of meditation may be carried 
on \* ith sweetness and profit ? 

I am a stranger to this work of meditation : I have often 
read the Scriptures and not meditated on them ; I have often 
heard the word and not meditated thereon ; I have sometimes 
begun to meditate, but finding it a hard work I have left it 
off again. And sometimes I have thought that this work 
is incumbent only upon students and preachers. But if it be 
our duty to meditate on God, and the things of God, what 



144 CHRIST AND THE COVEXAXT. [SKR. 8. 

shall we do that the work of holy meditation may be carried 
on with profit and with sweetness ? 

For answer hereunto, four or five things I shall speak unto. 

First, I shall labour to shew you, that it is our duty to 
meditate on God and the things of God. 

Secondly, That this work of meditation is every man's 
work, and every day's work, and such a work as is consistent 
with every business and condition. 

Thirdly, I shall lay down some means for the right per- 
formance of this work. 

Fourthly, Give you some rules and directions, how this 
work of meditation should be carried on with sweetness and 
profit, in a right manner. 

And then draw forth some arguments or motives to press 
you all hereunto. 

First, It is our work and duty to meditate on God and the 
things of God. Will you instance according to our explica- 
tion at the first. 

Will you instance in the nature, titles and attributes of 
God ? Why, it is our work and duty so to meditate on God; 
for wicked men are blamed that God is not in all their 
thoughts. If they be blamed for this, that God is not in all 
their thoughts, then surely God is to be in all our thoughts. 

Good and holy men are commended and rewarded for 
this. " They that feared the Lord spake often one to an- 
other, and a book of remembrance was written for them that 
feared the Lord, and that thought on his name/' They are 
commended, and they are rewarded. In the day when God 
makes up his jewels, they shall be found among them. 
Mai. iii. 

And who doth not know that it is our duty to praise the 
Lord. Not only to be thankful to God upon the account of 
benefits received, but to praise the Lord upon the account of 
his own excellencies. And how should the heart be tuned 
and framed unto this praising of God, but by meditation on 
the name and nature and titles of God? " Great is the 
Lord, and greatly to be praised," Psalm xlviii. 1. How doth 
he tune his heart to this praise ? " We have thought of thy 
loving-kindness, O God." 

The more that the heart of any man is laid in with medi- 
tation, the more pregnant will his words be in the praises of 



SttR. 8.] CHRIST AND THB COVENANT. 145 

God. So that thus then, it is our duty for to meditate upon 
this account. 

But will you instance in Christ the Son of God ? As it is 
our work and duty to meditate on the nature, titles, and 
attributes of God ; so to spend and to lay out our thoughts 
upon Christ the Son of God. You may observe therefore, 
that this word " Behold," is oftener prefixed and set before 
the mystery of Christ, than before any other depth or mys- 
tery in Scripture. And why so ? But to show that this 
depth and this mystery is that especially that calls forth our 
consideration and our meditation. There are four things 
concerning Christ which do call for our meditation. 

The personal excellency of Christ. The offices of Christ. 
The life, and the death of Christ. 

As for the personal excellencies of Christ, you read what 
the apostle saith, Heb. vii. 4, " Now consider how great this 
man was," Melchizedek, the type of Christ ; and if the type 
were so great, Christ is greater. And if we are to consider 
the greatness of the type, much more to consider and medi- 
tate on the greatness and personal excellencies of Christ 
typified. 

And as for the offices of Christ, you read what the apostle 
saith in chap. iii. 1, " Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of 
the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of 
our profession, Christ Jesus." 

And as for the life of Christ, you know what the apostle 
saith, in chap. xii. 2, u Looking unto Jesus, the Author and 
Finisher of our faith." 

And for the sufferings of Christ, you read what follows : 
" Who for the joy that was set before him, endured the 
cross, despising the shame ; for consider him (verse 3) that 
endured such contradiction of sinners against himself," &c. 
So that thus then, we are to meditate on God upon this 
account ; laying out and spending our thoughts and medita- 
tions upon Christ the Son of God. 

But, will you instance in the word of God ? Why, as we are 
to meditate on Christ, the Son of God, so we are to meditate 
on the word of God. Psalm cxix. 15, " I will meditate on 
thy precepts." Verse 23, k Thy servant did meditate on thy 
statutes." Verse 48, " And I will meditate on thy statutes." 
At the 93rd verse, " Oh how I love thy law, it is my medita- 

VOL. HI. L, 



146 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 8. 

tion all the day." The word of God we are to meditate on ; 
to meditate on God, and the things of God upon this ac- 
count, Now here are four things that will lead you out to 
meditation : 

The exactness of the commandment. 

The faithfulness of the promise. 

The terror of the threatening. 

And the weightiness of the examples ; all which meet in 
the Scriptures, and in the word of God. And accordingly 
We are to meditate on the word of God, upon this account. 

Will you instance in the works of God ? Why, as we are to 
meditate on the word, so we are also to meditate on the 
works of God. The work of creation, the work of provi- 
dence, and the work of redemption. The works of God are 
sought out of all those that have pleasure in them. " I 
remember the days of old, I meditate on all thy works, I 
muse on the work of thy hands," Psalm cxliii. Thus David 
did, and thus should we also do ; so that thus then you see, 
that it is our work and our duty to meditate on God and the 
things of God, in reference to his nature, name and attri- 
butes ; in reference to his Son ; in reference to his word ; and 
in reference to the works of God. And that is the first 
general. 

Secondly, Now this work of meditation is every man's 
work, it is every day's work, and it is that work that is con- 
sistent with every business and condition. 

I say it is every man's work ; it is the work of the wicked, 
and it is the work, of the godly. 

It is the work of the wicked, for it is their first step unto 
conversion. The prodigal bethought himself, and returned 
unto his Father's house. The prophet Haggai calling upon 
the Jews to repent saith, " Consider your ways." f( I con- 
sidered my ways, and turned my feet unto thy testimonies," 
saith David. Consider your ways ; or, as in the Hebrew, 
set your heart upon your ways. And when doth a man set 
his heart upon his ways, but when he doth seriously ponder 
and meditate on his ways ? This work of meditation there- 
fore, I say, it is the work of the wicked, it is their first step 
unto conversion. 

And it is the work of the godly; meditation work is a 
godly man's work. For either he is weak or strong : 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 14? 

If he be weak, he hath need of it that he may be strength- 
ened. 

If he be strong, he hath need of it that he may be quick- 
ened. There is no man but hath need of meditation. 

If a man be a beginner, he ought to meditate that he may 
proceed. 

If he be a proficient, he ought to meditate that he may be 
perfect. 

If he be perfect with gospel perfection, he ought to medi- 
tate that he may hold on his perfection. Psalm i. it is made 
the general description of a good man, " He delighteth in 
the law of the Lord ; and in that law doth he meditate." 

And as it is every man's work, so it is every day's work. 
There are some special times, as you will hear, which are 
more fit for meditation. But this work of meditation is 
every day's work. " When I awake (saitfr the psalmist) I 
am ever with thee." How ? By prayer and meditation. 
" I have set the Lord always before me." How, but by me- 
ditation and prayer ? What time is there that is not fit for 
this work of meditation ? 

Is the sabbath day unfit for it ? No ; there is a prayer for 
the sabbath, Psalm xcii., to meditate on the works of God. 

Is the week day unfit for this work of meditation ? No. 
The sabbath day is our market day ; and then after we have 
bought our market on the sabbath, we should roast it by me- 
ditation on the week. We do not go to the market on the 
market day, to buy meat into the house only for the market day, 
but for all the time until the market day comes about again. 
Indeed Solomon saith of the sluggard, that he is so sluggish 
and slothful, that " he doth not roast what he hath taken in 
hunting." The sabbath day is the hunting day for souls 
wherein the venison is taken : on the week day we are to 
roast it, and to live upon it by meditation, and otherwise. 
And what is the reason that many do not live upon their 
venison, that they have taken on the Lord's day ? but because 
they do not roast it by meditation on the week day, and so 
are in the number of Solomon's sluggards : the sluggard 
roasteth not the venison that he hath taken in hunting. I 
am sure that David in the cxixth Psalm saith, that his medi- 
tation was at work all the day long : " It is my meditation 
all the day ;" not a piece of it, it is every day's work, it is 

L2 



148 CHRIST AM) THK COVKNANT. [SfiR. 8. 

all the day's work. Yea in Psalm i. he takes in the night 
too. " He delighteth in the law of the Lord, and therein 
doth he meditate day and night." So that that is the second 
thing, meditation work is every day's work. As it is every 
man's work, so it is every day's work. And, 

As it is every day's work, so it is that work that is con- 
sistent with every business and with every condition : a 
garment that will fit the back of every condition. What 
dunghill condition, but this flower of meditation may grow 
thereupon? In Judges v. 11, it is said there, " They that 
are delivered from the noise of archers, in the places of 
drawing water ; there shall they rehearse the righteous acts 
of the Lord." There, where ? Why in " the places of 
drawing water ;" when they are in the field drawing water : 
and if that be a fit place to rehearse the righteous acts of the 
Lord, certainly then it is a place fit for meditation. And if 
that the place of drawing water, then the very place of 
scraping trenchers, and sweeping the kennel, may be a place 
fit for meditation. If that the place of drawing water, be a 
place fit for rehearsing the acts of the Lord ; what place, what 
condition, what business, but meditation may accompany it ? 
Possibly a man may be sick, and he may be kept from 
books, or he may be kept from hearing ; but yet he may 
meditate on God and the things of God. 

Possibly he may be thrown into prison, and he may be 
kept from books and Bible, yet he cannot be kept from 
meditation. It is said of Mr. Glover, that great martyr in 
queen Mary's time, that lying in prison at Coventry, it was 
told him he should be removed to a close prison at Lichfield, 
and all books taken away from him. At that he was much 
troubled ; but, saith he, I sat down and considered, and 
meditated with myself, Is God the God of Coventry, and 
not of Lichfield ? is not God the God of Lichfield as well as 
of Coventry ? And when I had thought on this thing, and 
meditated thus, my heart was quiet within me. Surely there 
is no condition so sour, but sweet meditation may grow 
thereon. Now if this work of meditation be a work that is 
consistent with every business and every condition, every 
day's work and every man's work ; why should we not be 
found in the practice of it ? 

Thirdly, But you will say, What help or what means to 



SER. 8.J CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 149 

this work of meditation ? What shall I do, how and by 
what means should this work of meditation be performed ? 

If you could meditate on God rightly and duly, (to speak 
first by way of means, and then for the rules of direction 
afterwards ;) be very sensible of your want, and of your 
neglect herein. A man is never more fit for a duty, than 
when he is very sensible of his neglect therein ; sensibleness 
of neglect of former duty, fits one for future duty. If a man 
have very great possessions, and he lose them, he is very 
sensible of the loss thereof. Why now look into Job xvii., 
and you shall find there are thought-possessions : saith he, 
" My days are past, my purposes are broken off, even the 
thoughts of my heart." In the Hebrew, even the " posses- 
sions of my heart." As if he should say thus : Time was 
that I had very great thought-possessions, I thought on God, 
I enjo} ed God, I possessed God ; but now I have lost these 
my possessions of God, and the thoughts of my heart, the 
possessions of my heart are broken off. Thus sensible, Job 
was of the loss of his thought-possessions. And the more 
rich our thought-possessions are, the greater is our loss. 
And the more sensible we are of the loss of our thought- 
possessions, and of our meditations, the more fit we shall be 
for this work of meditation. First therefore be very sensible 
of your want and neglect of this work of meditation thus 
long. 

If you would meditate indeed on God and the things of 
God, labour more and more for a serious spirit; a frothy, 
light and giggling disposition, is never fit for meditation : 
labour therefore to be serious. And there are three or four 
things that will poise and make your hearts serious. 

The sight of the glorious majesty of God. 

The sense of your eternal condition ; eternity, eternity. 

Humiliation for sin. 

And converse with those that are serious. Be serious, and 
you will be more fit for meditation. 

If you would indeed meditate on God and the things of 
God, labour more and more for a fixed spirit : fixation of 
spirit is a great friend to meditation. An unsettled, an 
unfixed soul, cannot meditate : fix therefore first. And there 
are many things that may fix your spirits. 



150 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 8. 

The great and weighty judgments of God that are upon 
us, may help to fix us, and hang lead upon our heels. 

In case you are to come to meditation, or any other 
work, come free, and do not leave any business standing at 
the door ; for a hundred to one but your hearts will step out 
unto it, at the time of your work, whether meditation, or 
prayer, or any thing else. Therefore come free unto every 
duty, if you would be fixed. 

And labour for intenseness of affection. In meditation, 
prayer, or any other work, be intense. We used to say, 
When the candle burns, the mouse doth not nibble; but 
when the candle is out, then the mouse nibbles. When our 
hearts are warm and lively in prayer and meditation, we are 
free from distractions ; the mouse nibbles not. 

And in case you meet with any distraction in meditation, 
or other duty, do not stand to correct your heart in the time 
of the duty, but go on with your work. If a woman carries 
a child abroad among friends, and the child cries and makes 
a disturbance, the mother does not then correct the child 
there ; but calls the child to an account when she comes at 
home : for, saith she, else would my correction be a further 
disturbance to the company. So here, when you meet with 
distractions in duty, if you call your hearts to an account 
then, it will be a further disturbance ; but on with your pre- 
sent duty, correct afterward ; and thus shall your hearts be 
the more fixed, and fixation of heart is a great help to medi- 
tation. 

If you would indeed meditate on God and the things of 
God, be sure that you lay out such objects as may give en- 
tertainment to your thoughts. For if there be no corn in the 
quern, what grinding will there be ? Have therefore objects 
laid out to exercise your thoughts withal, upon all occasions; 
and so when you have any spare time, your objects lying by, 
you will be presently upon the work of meditation : only let 
those objects be such as are drawing, alluring, thought-beget- 
ting objects, and thought-entertaining objects : but then 

If you would meditate on God and the things of God, 
strengthen yourlove and delight; for meditation grows upon the 
stalk of love and delight : and the more a man doth love God 
and the things of God, the more he meditates thereon : Psalm 
cxix., Oh how I love thy law ?" What then ? It is my 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 151 

meditation all the day :" this was much ; his meditation all 
the day. What is the reason ? Why, his love was beyond 
expression ; " Oh how I love thy law, it is my meditation all 
the day." Love loves to be thinking on the person loved. 
It carries the picture of the person or thing loved up and 
down in its bosom ; the more you love, the more you medi- 
tate ; and the more you delight, the more you meditate. Can 
a woman forget her child ? No. Why ? Because she loves 
it. Can a worldly man forget the world, his money and his 
house or land, can he forget this ? No, why ? Because he 
loves them. What is the reason we meditate no more, but 
because we love God no more ? Do but strengthen your 
love to God and the things of God, and your delight in God 
and the things of God, and you will meditate more. Strength- 
en therefore your love to, and your delight in the Lord : and 
then 

If you would meditate on God and the things of God, then 
labour to get a deep impression of the things of God upon 
your heart and soul. It is a deep impression that calls for 
meditation. A man reads the word of God, and it may be 
he understands it, but he does not meditate. Why ? Be- 
cause the word made no impression upon his heart as he 
went along. But if he read it, and understand it, and hath 
an impression made upon his soul as he reads it, then he 
thinks on it afterwards : as in hearing the word of God, a 
man hears the word of God in public or in private, and he 
meditates not thereupon. Why ? why, because it has no im- 
pression upon him. Possibly a man may think of the free 
grace of God, yet if it make no impression upon his soul, he 
does not go away and meditate on it. If a man think on the 
wrath of God, and it make an impression upon him, he goes 
away, and is still in the thoughts thereof. What is the rea- 
son that many poor souls, troubled in conscience are always 
thinking of hell, and judgment, and wrath, but because the 
wrath of God hath made a deep impression upon their souls; 
and the more deep the impression is upon your soul, the 
more full will your meditation be. You see how it was in 
the former times, when they went in procession at the end of 
the parish, they would take up a boy and whip him. Why ? 
that he might remember the bounds of the parish : for, pas- 
sion is the best door-keeper of memory. And as passion is 



152 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 3 

the door-keeper of memory, so impression is the door-keeper 
of meditation. 

If you would meditate on God and the things of God, 
take heed that your hearts and your hands, he not too full of 
the world, and the employments thereof. The more full your 
hand is of worldly employments, the more you will think 
thereon ; and the more you think thereon, the less you will 
think of God and the things of God. And what is the rea- 
son that many meditate and think so little of God and the 
things of God, but because their hearts are so full of the 
world, " Where their treasure is, there will their hearts be." 

Oh, saith one, I would think on God, and I would medi- 
tate on God with all my heart, but meditation work is a work 
of time, it will cost time, and I have no time; my hands are 
so full of business, and so full of employment, I have no time 
for this work. Meditation is not a transient thought, but it 
is a work of time, and will ask time, and I have no time. 
Mark therefore what David saith in Psalm cxix., " Lord in- 
cline my heart unto thy testimonies," how so ? " Turn away 
mine eyes from beholding vanity." The way to have one's 
heart inclined to the testimonies of God, is to turn away 
one's eyes from these outward vanities. Would you there- 
fore meditate on God and the things of God, then take heed 
that your hearts, and your hands, be not too full of the world 
and the employments thereof. 

If you would meditate on God, and the things of God, go 
then to God for this skill of meditation. Friends, there is an 
art, and a divine skill of meditation, which none can teach 
but God alone. Would you have it, go then to God, and 
beg of God these things. 

Beg of God that he would change your nature : for if your 
soil be not changed, nothing but weeds will grow still, not 
the flowers of meditation, but the weeds of vain thoughts ; go 
first to God to change your nature, to change your soil. 

Go to God and beg of him that he would sanctify and se- 
quester your mind unto himself, that your whole mind may 
be under God's sequestration. Every man is as his mind 
is. A man's mind is a profuse thing, and it is as full of 
thoughts, as the sun is full of beams. If God do not take it 
in, and bring it under his sequesteration, it will be full of 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 153 

evil; go then to God, and desire him to sanctify your devi- 
sing, your thinking, and your projecting faculty. 

Go to God and beg of him that he would lay out drawing 
objects before you, that may draw out your thoughts, and 
your meditations. It is God that must present such objects. 
Go and beg of God your thoughts also, and beg of God 
these thought-possessions, that God would give you thoughts. 
And then, 

Beg of God a fixed heart : for fixation of heart is a great 
friend to meditation. And then, 

Beg of God the Spirit, for the Spirit is our remembrancer, 
to bring all things to our remembrance. Thus do, and you shall 
in some measure be able to carry on this work of meditation 
in a right way, M'ith comfort and sweetness. These things by 
way of means: by way of means; be sensible of your former 
want of meditation ; labour to be more serious ; get a fixed 
heart and spirit; lay out objects that may entertain your 
thoughts upon all occasions ; strengthen your love to, and 
delight in God; labour to get impressions, deep impress- 
ions made upon your souls to the things of God, and take 
heed that your hearts and hands be not too full of the world; 
and then go to God for this skill of meditation. 

Fourthly, But then what are those rules and directions 
that will help therein ? How and in what way and manner 
should this work of meditation be carried on, with sweetness 
and success ? 

In all your retirements, for the work of meditation is a 
work of retirement, in all your retirements, be sure that you 
retire in to God himself. Do not retire into your retirements 
as the monks and those do retire into a monkish devotion. 
But in all your retirements be sure that you retire into God 
himself. 

Take heed that you be not legal in this work of meditation. 
Legal work is sour work ; meditation work is sweet work. 
A man is legal in this work of meditation when he doth 
make it a mere task, when he doth in his meditation think on 
God out of Christ. " I thought upon God and was troubled ; J * 
to think upon God out of Christ is sour work ; I thought 
upon God and was not comforted, but was troubled, saith 
the Psalmist. So that to make our meditation work a mere 
task, is a legal work ; to think upon God out of Christ is a 



154 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 8. 

legal work ; and to pass through God unto Christ also is 
legal. For, in the times of the old testament they came to 
Christ through God, but in the time of the new testament 
we go to God through Christ. An old testament way is a 
legal way, would you therefore have this work of meditation 
carried on with sweetness ? take heed of a legal spirit in this 
work of meditation, which will sour all. 

Be sure of this, that nothing fall within the compass of 
your meditation, but what falls within the compass of the 
Scripture. It may be you may think of God, and you may 
think what God was doing before the world was made, this 
you have no Scripture for, therefore it is no work for your 
meditation. It may be you think you are a reprobate ; for 
say you, I have the marks of a reprobate upon me. But 
where doth the Scripture give any marks of a reprobate ? 
The Scripture gives marks of a wicked man that possibly 
may be converted. But now, if you would carry on the 
work of meditation in such a way as it may be done with 
sweetness, be sure that it be bounded with the Scripture ; and 
let nothing fall within the compass of your meditation, but 
what falls within the compass of the Scripture. 

In all your settled meditation, begin with reading or 
hearing. Go on with meditation ; end in prayer. For as 
Mr. Greenham saith well : Reading without meditation is 
unfruitful ; meditation without reading is hurtful ; to meditate 
and to read without prayer upon both, is without blessing. 

If you do read and not meditate, then you will want good 
affections. 

If you do meditate and not read or hear, you will want 
good judgment, and be apt to fall into some ill opinions. 

If you do read, or hear, or meditate, and not pray, you 
will want the blessing of the Lord upon both. Read or hear 
first; then meditate; and then pray upon both. I speak of 
settled meditation, and let one be proportioned unto another. 
There must be a proportion between the one and the other 
in a settled meditation; and therefore if that you would 
meditate rightly, I say, in all your meditations, begin with 
reading, go on with meditation, and end with prayer. 

If you would have this work of meditation carried on with 
profit and sweetness, join with your meditation the examination 
of your own souls; in case you meditate on God and Christ, 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 155 

think with yourselves by way of examination, But have I an in- 
terest in this ? I have been now thinking and meditating 
on the excellencies of Christ, but have I an interest in him ? 
Come, O my soul, thou hast been meditating on God, and 
on the excellencies of Christ, but hast thou any share, hast 
thou any interest therein ? Join examination with your 
meditation, then it will be profitable, then it will be sweet ; 
otherwise it is but contemplation, or but a study ; but join 
examination with your meditation, so it is sweet, and so it is 
profitable. 

Observe what those times and seasons are that are most 
fit for meditation, and be sure you lay hold thereon. Though 
meditation work is every day's work, yet there are some 
times and seasons that are more fit for meditation. Shall I 
name four or five : 

Look when the Lord hath made any deep impression upon 
your soul by word or work, then is a time for your medita- 
tion ; for impression calls for meditation. 

The morning is a fit time for meditation before the world 
come in. What more fit for God than the best of time ; 
the morning is the best of time, therefore a fit time for 
meditation on God. 

The sabbath day is a fit time also for meditation, therefore 
the xciind Psalm is appointed for the sabbath. A Psalm 
for the sabbath day, saith the title to the Psalm. 

The time of God's special dispensations is a fit time for 
it ; look when there is a special dispensation of God abroad, 
either of mercy or judgment, then is a fit time for meditation. 
In the ixth Psalm : " The Lord is known by the judgment 
which he executeth, the wicked is snared in the work of his 
own hands, Higgaion Selah." What is that ? It comes from 
the Hebrew Hagah, which signifies to meditate. When the 
wicked are snared in the work of their own hands, here is 
work for meditation. Look, I say, when there is a special 
dispensation of God either in mercy or judgment, that is a 
fit time for meditation. 

Look what time that is that lies next, or near, or close to 
any great work or service ; that is a fit time for meditation. 
As for example : Suppose we be to receive the Lord's supper ; 
the time that lies next before it is a fit time for meditation. 
Suppose a man be to be called out for some great service or 



156 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 8. 

employment ; the time that goes close before it is a 'fit time 
for him to sit down and meditate with himself upon the 
work ; for the more a man doth prepare for a work, the more 
likely he is in reason to perform it well. Now, meditation 
is a good preparation. Look therefore what that time is that 
goes immediately before or close to the work of the Lord, that 
is a fit time for meditation. Thus now you see what the 
special times are for the work of meditation. The time of 
impressions. The morning time. The sabbath day. The 
time of special dispensations, either of mercy or judgment. 
And the time that goes immediately, or next, or close before 
the great work and service of the Lord. And, if you would 
meditate rightly, observe what the fit times for meditation 
are, and be sure you lay hold thereon. 

I will name but one more. Though there is a great deal of 
profit and sweetness to be found in this work of meditation, 
and it is every day's work, yet take heed that you do not so 
meditate on one of God's excellencies as to neglect another ; 
nor do not so spend your whole time in the work of medita- 
tion, that this work of meditation should eat up other duties : 
God would have us rise from this work of meditation, as from 
any other duty, with an hungry appetite. Friends, God 
would have us rise hungry from every duty, and not glutted ; 
variety is refreshing; he hath given many duties that we may 
not pore upon one. In case, therefore, you have been at the 
work of meditation, either God hath come in upon you with 
his special influence or not : if he hath, praise the Lord for 
his assistance, it is a mercy that you have had one good 
thought of God, but meditation is more than a thought, me- 
ditation is thought upon thought; praise God, that is the way 
to have more. And in case that God hath not come in upon 
you in the work of meditation, then yet be not discouraged, 
for God would not have you glutted, and God would lead you 
to some other work; and one duty, one work is not to eat up 
and devour another. I say with one, Let not your time be 
the measure or rule of your meditation, but your meditation 
the rule of your time. Yet take heed that you do not spend 
so much time in musing and considering and meditating as 
that this work of meditation should eat up any other duty, 
but quicken thereunto. And thus you see some means, some 
helps to this work of meditation ; some rules and directions 



SKR. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 157 

for the right carrying it on sweetly ; what now remains, but 
that you up and be doing ; turn your hand to it. You have 
heard the duty proved ; you have heard the sweetness and 
profitableness thereof cleared; you have heard what objects 
we are to lay our thoughts out upon ; and you have heard 
some means as helps unto the work, and some rules and di- 
rections for the carrying of it on : oh, then, you that have 
never spent an hour in meditation all your days, if there be 
any such here, now bethink yourselves, and now give up your 
thoughts to God. You that have gone one year after another, 
and one week after another, and never spent any time in me- 
ditating on God or the things of God, oh, now bethink your- 
selves : and that you may do so, and be provoked hereunto, 
give me leave to lay down some arguments and motives to 
press both your souls and mine unto this great work of me- 
ditation. The arguments are divers. Thus, 

Friends, the more acquaintance you have with this work of 
meditation, the more time you will get, and the less you will 
lose. A man that hath the skill on it need never lose an hour. 
Who knows the worth of tince ? This little spot of time doth 
our eternity depend upon ; yet, Lord, how many are there 
that lose their precious hours and time ! But what is the 
reason ? They have no hand at this work of meditation : 
when their business is over they might, otherwise, turn their 
hand to this work, and lose no time. The more acquaintance 
you have with this work of meditation, the more time you 
will get, and the less you will lose. 

Hereby, even by this work of meditation, you shall get into 
the secrets of divine things. There is a secret and a mystery 
in every trade : a man does not know the trade till he knows 
the secret and the mystery of it : it is said, " The secret of 
the Lord is with them that fear him." Knowledge brings us 
to the door of truth, but meditation hath us into the house, 
and into all the rooms thereof : thereby, I say, you shall get 
into the inwards and the secrets of the things of God. 

Thereby, also, you shall suck out the sweetness of all those 
divine and precious things that you know. As a man by 
musing on his sins, sucks out the sweetness thereof; so by 
meditating on the things of God you suck out the sweetness 
of the things of God into your own souls. 

By this work of meditation you shall have a testimony in 



158 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 8. 

your own souls that you are truly godly. Every man is what 
he is most in private. A good man's work lies most under- 
ground, lies most out of sight. In the time of Moses, the 
beasts were clean that chewed the cud, and unclean that did 
not chew the cud. In the time of David it is made the des- 
cription of a godly man ; " He delighteth in the law of the 
Lord, and therein doth he meditate/' Hereby, then, you 
shall have a testimony in your own hearts that you are truly 
godly. But you shall not only have a testimony that you are 
truly 'godly, but practice it, and thereby you shall be very 
godly : for the more constant you are in godliness, the more 
godly you are. By the work of meditation, you will be 
constant in the work of godliness. The more extensive your 
godliness is, the more godly you are. Now by meditation 
you can extend your thoughts beyond your hands. As by 
sinful musings a man can extend his thoughts beyond his 
power to practice ; so by meditation on God and the things 
of God, a man may extend his thoughts concerning godliness 
beyond his power to act. As in sin, a man by his thoughts 
may be naught where he hath not an outward power to be 
naught; so by holy meditation, a man may be good where 
he hath not a power in his hand to practice. The psalmist 
saith in the xlvth Psalm : " The king's daughter is all glo- 
rious within, her garment is of wrought gold," verse 13. Her 
clothing is of wrought gold, is not that glorious ? clothing 
is outward, but saith he, " She is all glorious within ;" it is 
not the wrought gold without makes her glorious, but she is 
all glorious within ; though the garment, and though her 
clothing be of wrought gold, yet her glory lies within. Here 
lies the glory of a Christian, to be glorious within. And 
how can we have this inward holiness, grace, and goodness, 
and glory, unless we be versed in this work of meditation ? 
Thereby also, you shall oifer up yourselves unto divine 
embraces ; and upon this ground of meditation will God 
give out his loves unto you. In Cant. vii. 12, saith Christ: 
" There will I give thee my loves." There ; where ? " Let 
us get up early to the vineyards, let us see if the vine flou- 
rish, whether the tender grape appear, and the pomegranates 
bud forth/' Here is the public assembly. What is this to 
meditation ? Yes, in the former verse : " Come my beloved, 
let us go forth into the field, let us lodge in the villages ;" 



SER. 8.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 159 

places of retirement ; " There will I give thee my loves/' 
upon the ground of retirement. There will he give forth his 
loves. Oh, what a great mercy is here, by this work of 
meditation, you do not only offer up yourselves unto divine 
embraces ; but there, upon meditation ground, will God give 
out his loves unto you. 

Thereby also your souls and hearts shall be subdued unto 
God : as in sin, so here, friends, it is not a sinful thought 
that doth subdue my heart into sin ; it is not a sinful sugges- 
tion that subdues my heart into sin : but, a complacential 
dwelling of sinful thoughts in my heart, subdues my heart 
into sin. So it is not a transient good thought that will sub- 
due the soul, or the heart unto God ; but it is a complacential 
dwelling of good thoughts in the heart that doth subdue the 
heart unto God, and that is done by meditation. Thereby 
therefore, I say, your very hearts shall be subdued unto the 
Lord. Oh what a mercy is this. 

By this work of meditation on God, and the things of 
God ; you shall live on God. Possibly a man may come to 
the court where the king is, and not live upon the king, be- 
cause he does not stay there ; but those that stay at the 
court, they live upon the king, for they stay there. Now by 
a thought, I do not stay upon God ; but by a frequent 
meditation on God, I shall live in God ; for then I stay by 
God, and I do stay on him. 

Thereby also you shall have a constant relief against all 
your afflictions both inward and outward. 

Inward, Psalm cxliii., " Have mercy upon me, O Lord, 
(for saith he, verse 4.) My spirit is overwhelmed within me, 
my heart within me is desolate :" what then ? " I remem- 
ber the days of old, I meditate on all thy works/ 7 Here 
lies the relief against spiritual fears, and overwhelmings of 
soul, even to meditate on God as one ought to do in a right 
manner : I am overwhelmed, but I will meditate on all thy 
works, and muse on the work of thy hands. 

As for the outward afflictions, Psalm cxix., the place cited 
before verse 23. "Princes also did sit and speak against me, but 
thy servant did meditate in thy statutes." Reproach from an 
ordinary man, is affliction enough ; but for kings and princes 
to speak against one, this is a great matter. What relief then? 
" But thy servant did meditate on thy statutes." So that by 



160 CHRIST AND TUB COVKNA.NT. [SfiR. 3. 

this, you have a constant relief against both outward, and in- 
ward afflictions. And, 

Thereby also you shall be freed from that unkindness, that 
God will take at your hands if you do not meditate on God 
and the things of God. Friends, if you do not meditate 
on God and the things of God, God will take it very un- 
kindly at your hands. What man that is abroad beyond sea, 
hearing that his wife frolicks it at home and never thinks on 
him, will not take it unkindly ? We are absent now from 
God, and to frolick and be vain, and go up and down, and 
have no thoughts on God, no meditation on God ; how un- 
kindly must God take this at our hands ? It is a slight, if a 
man speak unto you, and you do not think of what he speaks, 
it is a slight to him. So to read what God saith, or see what 
God doth, and not think on it, not to meditate on it j what 
is this but a slight unto God ? 

Respect and meditation go together. Psalm cxix. 15, " I 
will meditate on thy precepts, and have respect unto thy 
ways." So then, the want of meditation and thinking on 
what God saith and what God doth, is a great slighting of 
him, it is a \*ant of respect, and God will take it unkindly. 
And what then ? Why he will deal by you as you deal by 
him : if you think not on him, he will not think on you ; and 
in the day of your extremity, when you call and cry to him, 
because you thought not of him, he will not think of you. 
But to end all. 

God knows, and your own souls know, how you have lain 
musing in the way of sin ; how sometimes you have lain 
devising mischief upon your beds ; how often you have 
chewed the devil's cud ; what swarms of unclean thoughts, 
of proud thoughts, of unbelieving thoughts, have possessed 
your hearts. Oh, friends, shall we lie musing upon our bed 
in a way of sin, and shall we not think and muse and medi- 
tate on God and the things of God ? What, shall we not be 
the same for God, that ever we have been for sin ? Oh, we 
have had our sinful musing times, therefore now why should 
we not have our holy musings also ? 

And to conclude all ; meditation, holy meditation, is a very 
great friend to heavenly conversation. Sweet meditation of 
God, is a very great friend to holy conversation ; private 
meditation, a great friend to an outward holy conversation. 



SER. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 161 

Now then, as ever you desire that the holiness of your con- 
versation may be advanced ; that you may be as godly now 
in your thoughts, as ever you have been ungodly ; that God 
may take nothing unkindly from you ; that you may have a 
constant relief against all afflictions, both inward and out- 
ward ; that you may live on God ; that your hearts may be 
subdued unto God ; that God may give out his loves unto 
you ; that you may be very godly ; that you may have a tes- 
timony in your own souls that you are truly godly ; that you 
may suck out the sweetness of all the things you know ; that 
you may be let into the secret of godliness, aud not stand at 
the door of knowledge only ; that you may never lose a pre- 
cious hour, but redeem your time : now to the work of medi- 
tation ; and you that have neglected it so long, be not 
ashamed to begin it at last. 



SERMON IX. 

GOD'S RETURN TO THE SOUL OR NATION. 

" Return, O Lord, how long, and let it repent thee concerning thy 
servants," PSALK xc. 13. 

THIS psalm is a " psalm of Moses the man of God," 
saith the title. 

Wherein he doth strengthen his faith, and the Israelites' 
faith in God ; shews the misery and frailty of man's life, 
and petitions God for his mercy. 

He sets down the misery and frailty of man's life, in the 
body of the psalm. But before, in the beginning of the 
psalm, he doth strengthen his own and others' faith in God. 

A man is never fit to look upon the troubles of this world, 
and the miseries thereof, until his heart be established in 
God by believing. This therefore he doth, in the first place, 
by several arguments of comfort. 

First drawn from their interest in God. Verse 1, " T.r>rd, 
thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations." As if 
he should sav, We are now in the wilderness, and so no 



162 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 9. 

abiding place ; well, " Thou hast been our dwelling place in 
all generations." 

Faith finds that in God which we want here below, and 
that is the way to true comfort. 

The second is drawn from the eternity of God's essence 
and being: "Before the mountains were brought forth, or 
ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from 
everlasting to everlasting, thou art God/' verse 2. 

The third is drawn from our resurrection. Though now 
we die, and are destroyed, yet, at verse 3, " Thou turnest 
man to destruction, and sayest, Return, ye children of men." 

Our resurrection is an easy work with God ; it is but say- 
ing, " thou sayest, Return, ye children of men." 

The fourth is drawn from the shortness of the time that 
lies between our death and the resurrection : for it will be 
said, there is a great deal of time between our death and the 
resurrection ; but, saith he, you must account as God ac- 
counts, for at verse 4, " A thousand years in thy sight are 
but as yesterday, when it is past; and as a watch in the 
night." These things being thus premised, now you may 
read over the miseries and troubles of this world, which you 
have at large from the 5th unto the 12th verse. 

But what then, what is the work and duty of the psalmist 
then ? Why, then he petitions God. 

He petitions first for wisdom ; that by all the troubles and 
miseries of this life, he may provide and lay in for eternity. 
" So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our 
hearts unto wisdom," verse 12. 

And then he petitions for the return of God's love. 
" Return (O Lord) how long, and let it repent thee concern- 
ing thy servants." Where you have the matter of the 
petition, the explication, and the reason thereof. 

The matter of the petition in those words, " Return, O 
Lord." 

The explication thereof, " And let it repent thee concern- 
ing thy servants." 

And the reason, "How long." Thou hast been long absent ; 
O Lord, how long wilt thou be absent, how long wilt thou 
be angry ? Return, O Lord ; how long ; and let it repent 
thee concerning thy servants. 



SEB. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 163 

God is said to return, when after some judgments for sin, 
he doth shew forth some fresh tokens of his love and favour. 

God is said to repent, when he doth change his dispensations 
of anger into love. And this is that which the psalmist doth 
here most desire ; from whence I take up this doctrine or 
observation : 

When God is in any measure departed from his people, it 
is their great desire that God would return unto them, and 
repent him concerning his servants. For the clearing and 
prosecuting of which, 

First, I shall labour to shew you, that God doth sometimes 
forsake, desert, and depart from his own people for a time. 

Secondly, That they are very sensible of such departures, 
and think it long. 

Thirdly, That then, in the time of those departures, their 
great desire is that God would return. And, 

Fourthly, That when God doth return unto his people, 
then he doth repent him concerning his servants. And, 

Fifthly, What we should do in case God should be in any 
measure departed from us, that he may return again unto us. 

First. As for the first : God doth sometimes desert and 
forsake and depart from his people for a time. Not in re- 
gard of their union, so he never departs ; but in regard of 
communion and manifestation, so sometimes he doth. 
Though nothing is hid from the heat of this sun, yet our 
souls may be hid from the light of this sun : God doth some- 
times depart from his own people. 

For he is the sovereign Lord of all. And what if God 
will, to make his power and sovereignty known among his 
own people, sometimes withdraw, forsake and depart from 
them. Twice you read in the book of the Canticles, that 
Christ withdraws from the spouse : once upon occasion of 
her sin and security, and then she meets with blows, Cant, 
v. ; once upon an account of his mere pleasure, Cant. iii. 

As whom God will he shews mercy to, and whom he will 
he hardens ; so whom God will he is present with, and whom 
he wil he is absent from. He is the sovereign Lord over 
all. But, 

What if God will that his people should have a taste of hell 
in this life, that so they may be sensible of and very thankful 
for their deliverance from hell and the wrath to come. There 



164 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SeR. 9. 

are three things in hell : torment of body, horror of con- 
science, loss of God. 

By our pains and torments, gouts and stone, we think of 
the torments of hell, or may think. 

By the horror of conscience that we meet withal, we may 
think of the horror of conscience there. 

And by God's withdrawing and God's departing from us 
here, we may think of the loss of God for ever there. 

These things are not in perfection here. In heaven there 
is nothing but the presence of God, and all the comforts there 
flow from that fountain. In hell there is nothing but the 
absence of God, and all the miseries there flow from that 
fountain. This life lies between both. And what if God 
will, that we may be sensible of the great deliverance from 
the wrath to come, give us a taste of hell, by his withdrawings 
and by his departings from us for a season. 

I am sure it is very fit that we should be conformed unto 
Jesus Christ. As Christ was conformed unto us, in reference 
to our ten: ptations, so it is fit we should be conformed to him 
in reference to his desertions. Christ was deserted, Christ 
was forsaken : " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken 
me ?" Surely the disciple is not above his Master. 

But I am sure of this, that God loves to see the workings 
of all our graces, our faith and love especially. There are 
some graces that do not open nor shew themselves but in the 
sun-shining day of God's presence. When the sun shines 
the marigold opens. When the sun shines, the fish that lay 
at the bottom of the water in a cloudy day, swim at the top 
of the water, and are seen. In the sun-shining day of God's 
presence, then, our thankfulness, our joy, our assurance float 
and are to be seen upon the top of the water. But there are 
other graces, that are best seen when God withdraws, and 
when God is absent faith in God, and love to God especially. 
Faith in God ; for faith works best when it works all alone, 
without the auxiliaries of comfort. It is no great matter for 
a wife to believe her husband's love when he is at home and 
daily and hourly shewing kindness ; but when he is abroad, 
and absent, and she hears not from him, then to believe his 
love is somewhat. So to believe the love of God toward us 
when he is present is no great matter, though it is good ; but 



SEH. 9.J CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 165 

when God is gone, when God is absent, then to believe his 
love, is faith worthy of God, as Parisiensis speaks. 

Thus, also, our love unto God doth and will appear. For 
when God is present with us, and shines upon us, then we 
see God's love to us ; but when God is absent from us, by our 
longings after him, then we see our love unto God. Now, I 
say, what if God will, to draw out all our graces, and that he 
may see the workings of our graces, faith and love especially ; 
what if he will withdraw and absent himself from his people 
for a time ? But, 

What if God will, for the good and benefit of others, with- 
draw and absent himself and depart from his own people ? 
In the book of Canticles we find that when Christ doth with- 
draw from his spouse, and she could not find him, chap. v. 6, 
she searches after him, inquires for him, makes great com- 
plaint. Then the daughters of Jerusalem say, " Whither is 
thy Beloved gone, O thou fairest among women ; whither is 
thy Beloved turned aside, that we may seek him with thee ?" 
So long as he was present others were not drawn on for to 
seek him with her ; but now he is absent, and she looks after 
him, and complains for want of him, now others are drawn to 
inquire after him. 

And why so ? But to teach us thus much ; that God wil 
so overrule the desertions of his people, that his withdraw- 
ment from them shall draw others to him. And thus now 
you see, there is reason, and good reason why God should 
sometimes depart from, forsake, and be absent even from his 
own people for a time. And that is the first thing. 

Secondly, The saints and people of God are very sensible 
of his displeasure. " How long, Lord?" They are most 
sensible of this, they look upon it as a very tedious thing, 
and most afflictive, to lie under God's departure. " How 
long, Lord ? " 

Words of expostulation note affection, especially if they 
come with an ingemination ; and so you have it in the xiiith 
Psalm : " How long wilt thou forget me, O Lord, for ever ; 
how long wilt thou hide thy face from me, how long shall I 
take counsel in my soul ?" Four how longs. How long, 
how long, how long, how long. It is a very tedious thing, 
and most afflictive to the people of God, to lie under God's 
departures. 



166 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 9. 

It was so with Christ: ye may measure the hearts of the 
saints by the heart of Christ. The first in every kind is the 
rule of the rest. Christ was the first of saints. Now though 
our Saviour Christ met with many afflictions and troubles in 
his death, you shall find he is most sensible of God's depar- 
ture : " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? " 
He doth not say, Oh, my disciples, why have you left me, and 
why have you forsaken me ; but, " My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ?" That is not the greatest affliction 
that weak men account the greatest : that is not the greatest 
burthen that a weak man accounts the greatest ; but that 
which a strong man accounts the greatest burthen is the great- 
est burthen. Why now that the Rock of Ages, Christ him- 
self should complain under this of God's forsaking, what 
doth this argue ? When Paul cries out, " Oh wretched man 
that I am, who shall deliver me from this body of death ;" 
will you not conclude thereby that the body of death was a 
great burthen, that the sin of our nature was a great burthen ? 
So when Christ himself shall cry out and complain of God's 
forsaking and departing, will you not conclude, then, surely 
this is a burthen indeed ? This is that the saints and people 
of God are the most sensible of. 

It is the property of a gracious soul to be most affected 
with the inside and the spiritual part of mercies and of deli- 
verances. Though God give them outward deliverances, they 
are not so much affected with the outward part as with the 
inside and the spiritual part of the deliverance. And there- 
fore, in Micah vii. 18, " Who is a God like unto thee, that 
pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the 
remnant of his heritage : he retaineth not his anger for ever, 
because he delighteth in mercy." It was an outward delive- 
rance that God gave them, but the church is most affected 
with the spiritual part of it. 

And as they are most affected with the spiritual part of a 
deliverance, so they are always most affected with the inward 
and the spiritual part of an affliction. What is that ? The an- 
ger of God, the displeasure of God, the desertion of God, the 
departing of God. This is the thing that the saints, there- 
fore, are the most affected with and the most sensible of. 

That is most afflictive to a gracious soul which is most con- 
trary to him and to his will : all that is affliction which is 



SER. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 167 

contrary to one's will. It was no great matter, in itself, that 
Mordecai did not pull off his hat and bow his knee to Ha- 
man ; it was no great affliction in itself, but it was contrary 
to Hainan's pride, and that is an affliction that is contrary to 
one's will. Now what is the will and what is the desire of 
the saints but the presence of God ? That they may ever be 
at their Father's knee, that they may ever be in his arms, and 
held in the embraces of his love, held in his smiles ; this is 
the thing that they do most desire. And therefore in the 
very beginning of the Canticles, " Kiss me with the kisses of 
thy mouth." This, therefore, being the thing that they do 
most desire, the contrary must be the most afflictive. 

That must needs be most afflictive which hinders them in all 
their enjoyments. Without the presence of God they have 
no enjoyment, their enjoyments are as no enjoyments : the pre- 
sence of God with them is the top of all their enjoyments. 
If the sun be down, it is not all the torches and candles 
lighted up that will give you a day ; and if God be gone, it is 
not all your creature comforts will give you joy. Take away 
the word my, take it away from the word God, you take away 
the comfort of the word God if you take away the word my. 
And therefore, whereas the Lord had used to call the Israel- 
ites his people, and God had a little forsaken them ; he saith 
to Moses, Thy people, and, the people ; but not, my people. 
But then, 

Thereby the saints and people of God are exposed to great 
temptations. When God goes the devil comes. And so far 
as God doth go, so much the devil comes. If God do for- 
sake and depart from a man as to final rejection, then the 
devil comes in a way of possession. If God departs from a 
man in a way of desertion, then the devil comes in a way of 
temptation. As God goes so the devil comes. Now is it not 
a grievous thing for the saints and people of God to be ex- 
posed to temptations ? Thus they are by the departure of 
God, and by the absence of God ; by the withdrawments of 
God. No wonder, therefore, that God's departure is the most 
afflictive to them. And thac is the second. 

Thirdly. But, then, as the departings of God are the 
most afflictive to a gracious soul ; so when the Lord is in any 
measure departed, it is the great desire of the saints and peo- 
ple of God that God would return. Not that God would 



*68 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SttR. 9. 

take away his hand, the psalmist doth not say so : We are 
afflicted, Lord, take away our affliction; no, but " Return, 
O Lord, how long/' They did not say, We are in this or 
that distress ; take away this distress and misery from us : 
no, but " Return, O Lord." This is the great thing that they 
do most desire. When God is gone in any measure, or de- 
parted from them, their great desire is that God would return 
unto them : and it must needs be so. For, 

What is the presence of God but the most desirable thing 
in the world : " When the days of refreshing shall come 
from his presence." It is the presence of Christ that will 
make the day of judgment, a day of refreshing. God's 
presence is the saint's pleasure. In it there is a filling up of 
our indigent nature. In it there is the obtainment of our 
last end, with the knowledge thereof. In it there is an uni- 
versal good. God's presence is the most desirable thing in 
all the world. No wonder then that when God is departed 
in any measure, the saints should above all things in the 
world, desire that God would return again. But, 

God never returns empty handed to his people. If a 
husband be long absent from his wife, he will not return 
empty handed ; I am sure God will not return empty handed 
unto his people. When he hath stricken them, he will let 
out more love unto them than ever before. It was a sad 
and a sharp dispensation, that the basket of good figs should 
be carried away captive with the basket of bad figs ; but 
see how God returns unto them, not empty handed, Jer. 
xxiv. : " The word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Thus 
saith the Lord, the God of Israel, like these good figs, so 
will I acknowledge them that are carried away captive of 
Judah, whom I have sent out of this place, into the land of 
the Chaldeans, for their good; for I will set mine eyes upon 
them for good, and I will bring them again to this land ; and 
I will build them, and not pull them down, and I will plant 
them, and not pluck them up ; and I will give them an heart 
to know me, that I am the Lord, and they shall be my peo- 
ple, and I will be their God ; for they shall return unto me 
with their whole heart." See how God returns ; when he 
returns, he doth not return empty handed unto his people. 
When God returns unto you, he will not only pay you the 



SEH. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 169 

principal of your enjoyment ; but will pay you all your for- 
bearance money too. But, and especially, 

Take the saints and people of God, and where do they 
live, but in the love of Christ's person, not of his benefits, 
not of his comforts, but they live in the love of his person. 
Look into the book of Canticles and you shall find, how 
the heart of Christ is drawn out in love to the person of the 
spouse ; " Let me hear thy voice," saith he, " for thy voice 
is sweet, and thy countenance is comely : how fair is thy 
love, my sister, my spouse ; thy lips, oh my spouse, drop 
as the honeycomb/' and so he goes on insisting in his love 
upon the person. 

So doth the spouse also towards him, "My beloved is alto- 
gether lovely," and as you read, " my beloved is white and 
ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand." And so she goes 
on. Thus love is drawn out towards the person of Christ. 
Now, if this be the spirit, and if this be the disposition of 
the saints and people of God, that they live in love to the 
person of Christ, then no wonder that when Christ is with- 
drawn, they do above all things desire that he would return 
again. This must needs be, for they live in the love of his 
person, and not of his benefits, not of his comforts ; there- 
fore above all things they say, Return, O Lore, return. 

Fourthly, When the Lord doth return unto his people, 
he doth then repent him concerning his servants. Return, 
O Lord, how long, and let it repent thee concerning thy 
servants. For the opening and clearing of this, four things 
briefly : 

What it is for God to repent. 

Whether God doth at any time repent, or will at any time 
repent. 

How it may appear that when God returns unto his peo- 
ple, that then he will repent him concerning his servants. 
And, 

How should we know in the day and time of God's de- 
parture from us, that God will again return unto us. 

If you ask what it is for God to repent, 

I answer, It is to change the dispensation of his anger. 
God doth not repent by the changing of his affecli >n, but 
he repents by the changing of his dispensation. As when 
a man is writing, and he blots out what lie hath, written, he 



170 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 9. 

repents that he had wrote such a thing ; so when God is 
writing hard things against his people in a way of dispensa- 
tion, and he shall blot out that dispensation, then God is 
said to repent. So it repented the Lord that he had made 
man, Gen. vi. 

If you ask, Whether God doth or will at any time repent ? 

I answer, Yes, expressly in Exod. xxxii. 14 : "And the 
Lord repented of the evil which he thought to do unto 
his people." It is a direct answer of prayer to the very 
words at the 12th verse, Moses prays : " Turn from thy fierce 
wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people." And 
at the 14th verse : " The Lord repented of the evil which 
he thought to do unto his people." God doth and will 
sometimes repent. 

Only you must know, God will more easily repent of his 
judgments than of his mercies. And you must know that 
the gifts of God are of two sorts : ordinary and common 
gifts, and so God repents of them, and he takes them away, 
"It repented the Lord that he had made man." Of the 
gifts of God that concern effectual vocation, so God repenteth 
not; for the gifts and callings of God are without repen- 
tannce. Those gifts that concern our effectual vocation, 
those God repents not of. 

But then, how may it appear that when the Lord doth 
return unto his people, that then he will repent him concern- 
ing his servants ? 

Why that appears by the thing itself. If a man say he 
will go from such a town and never return again, and then 
do return, he doth repent him concerning the thing, by his 
return ; and so concerning God. In Jer. xviii. : " At what 
instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning 
a kingdom, to pluck up, and to pull down, and to destroy 
it, if that nation against whom I have pronounced, turn 
from their evil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to 
do unto them." WeU, 

But then, how shall we know in case God be absent, or 
God be departed, how shall we be able in the time of God's 
absence, or departure, to know that God will return again. 
Suppose that God be withdrawn from my soul in particular, 
I am this day under a spiritual desertion, how shall I know 
that God will return again to me. Or suppose that God 



SER. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 171 

have forsaken, and departed much from the nation, how shall 
we know whether God will return again or no ? 

Indeed it is a very hard thing to bear the departures of 
God ; but yet if I did know that God would return again, 
I should be comforted ; how therefore shall I know, both in 
reference to my own soul in particular, and in reference to 
the nation, that God will return again ? 

Here are two cases, and I shall speak all along to both. 

If your question do relate unto your own particular case 
and soul. I answer thus ; 

You may know it by your relations. If you be in cove- 
nant with God ; God will return again to you though now he 
be absent; " Though he afflict you with rods, his loving kind- 
ness will he not take away, nor suffer his faithfulness to fail/' 
Will a father or mother leave their child ? no ; I am sure 
God will not. Joseph was under a great displeasure with his 
brethren, yet notwithstanding at the last he could hold 
no longer, but he bursts out, and saith " I am your brother 
Joseph." And so though you be under some great displea- 
sure from Christ, yet there is a time when Christ will break 
forth and say unto you, I am your brother Jesus. And I say, 
if you be in covenant with God, you may conclude it, for so 
doth the Psalmist, Psalm xlii. 11. "I shall yet praise him." 
My soul, thou art cast down and disquieted, but be quieted, 
for I shall yet praise him." Why, he is the health of my 
countenance, and my God." You may know it then by your 
relations. But 

Though God or Christ be gone, and in a great measure 
departed from your souls, yet if you cannot leave God, God 
cannot leave you. In our conversion, God comes to us be- 
fore we come to him. But in apostacy we depart from God, 
before he departs from us. How is it therefore with you ? 
Can you say truly, my soul cannot leave God, then con- 
clude and say, God will return again, and cannot leave you. 
But 

Though God be very imich gone, and departed from you in 
a great measure ; yet if in the time of his absence he doth 
send you letters and tokens of love you may know for certain 
he will return again. Possibly God or Christ may appoint 
an affliction to bring you a token, or to bring you a message 
of love in the time of his absence. Possibly, he may appoint 



1/2 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 9. 

or order some providence to bring you a token, or some mes- 
sage of love. Possibly he may order and appoint upholding 
mercy, to be a pledge to you of delivering mercy. And be- 
lieve it, upholding mercy is always a pledge of delivering 
mercy. How is it therefore with you, are you deserted, is 
Christ gone ; yet have you not had the upholding presence 
of God all this while ? then be of good comfort, Christ is not 
so gone but he will return again. 

If your case and condition be such that although you can- 
not find Christ, Christ is gone : though Christ be gone and 
departed from you and you cannot find him, yet if you can 
direct others to the finding of him when you cannot find him, 
then certainly he is not gone, but he will return again unto 
you. The spouse in the Canticles seeks after Christ : saith 
she, " He hath withdrawn himself and I cannot find him." 
(chap, v.) The daughters of Jerusalem say, " Whither is 
thy beloved turned aside, that we may seek him with thee ? 
My beloved is gone down into his garden to the beds of spices." 
Mark, she could not find him herself, and yet she can direct 
others to the finding of him. What doth this signify, but 
plainly teach us thus much, that though Christ be gone, and 
we cannot find him, yet if we can direct others to the finding of 
him, he is not quite gone, but he will return again. Now is 
it thus with you, when Christ is gone, cannot you direct 
others to the finding of him ": If you can, then build upon it, 
he is not so gone but he will return again. 

But then, suppose that the Lord be departed from this na- 
tion much ; we are under a very great displeasure of the Lord 
this day : God is departed from us, how shall we know now 
in the time of God's departure, that he will return again to 
this nation ? 

You know how it is with a man that doth leave his house : 
though he go away, yet if his children be there, and his goods 
be there, his plate and his jewels there, he will either come 
again to them, or send for them to himself. Believe it chris- 
tians, God hath a very great cupboard of plate in this nation, 
Christ hath much plate in England, as much as in any nation in 
the world, and he will not lose his plate. There are three 
things very precious in the eyes of God, his truth, his wor- 
ship, his children : such plate the Lord hath much of here, 
and he will not lose his plate, therefore he will return again. 



SER. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 173 

Though he may afflict, and afflict sorely, yet he will return 
again. 

God will never go while prayer stays. If there be a pray- 
ing spirit, and a spirit of prayer be up in this nation, conclude 
that God is not quite gone, but he will return again. 

You may know it by the providential pledges, that the 
Lord sends you. God was very much displeased with Jo- 
nah ; you know, he threw him overboard into the sea ; but 
then he appointed a whale to receive him, to give him enter- 
tainment : to provide a chamber of preservation, even in the 
belly of destruction. What did this signify ? It signified 
thus much, that God would deliver him afterwards ; this pro- 
vidence was a pledge for after deliverance. So David was 
hunted in the wilderness by Saul, but in the wilderness, God 
gave Saul into his hand. What did that signify ? That 
present deliverance did signify to David, an after deliver- 
ance. Now though God be gone and greatly departed from 
us here : have you not many providential pledges of his love ? 
What think you of the house that should have been blown 
up with fire lately? What doth it signify, but thus much, 
that God doth mind to restrain the remnant of their rage : 
How many pledges, providential pledges, have we had of 
God's return ; therefore let us say : yet God will return 
again. But, 

If your estate and condition be such, upon which the Lord 
will deliver for his name's sake, and with a notwithstanding ; 
then why should you not conclude that God will return 
again : friends, there is a time when God will deliver his 
people, for his name's sake; and with a notwithstanding all 
their sins, and notwithstanding all his own displeasures; 
" Nevertheless he saved them for his name's sake," Psalm, cvi. 
And when is that, that God will deliver a people for his 
name's sake and with a notwithstanding ? Look into Psalm 
xliv., and you shall see when. Look, when a people do suffer 
for his name's sake, then God will deliver them for his name's 
sake. " Arise for our help, and redeem us for thy mercy 
sake." Why ? at verse 22. " For thy sake we are killed all 
the day long, and accounted as sheep for the slaughter." 
Therefore, Lord, arise for thy name's sake. For thy sake are 
we killed. When a people suffer for God's name's sake, 
then God will deliver for his name's sake, then God will de- 



174 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 9. 

liver with a notwithstanding. How is it with you now ? You 
are in a suffering day, but are not all your sufferings for the 
name of Christ ? Be of good comfort then, though God may 
be departed, and your city destroyed, yet he is not quite gone 
but will return again. But then, 

Fifthly, What shall we do that God may return again ? 
In answer, I will still carry it on in answer to both the cases. 

If this question do relate unto your own particular souls ; 
if you say, God is now gone from me, what shall I do that 
God may return to my soul again ? 

I answer briefly, Be sure of this, that you keep your door 
open, the door of your hearts open for Christ's return. 
When the master is abroad, the servant sits up to keep the 
door open for his coming in. 

Be sure of this, that now in the time of Christ's absence, 
you neglect no duty, though very unsavoury to you. The 
more unsavoury the duty now is unto you through the 
absence of Christ, the more acceptable unto Christ. 

Be sure that you go and stand there where Christ uses to 
be. And let me tell you this, if you cannot find him where 
he uses to be, you shall find him where he uses not to be, as 
you read in Cant. iii. 

Then be sure of this, that you be not foolish with other 
lovers in the time of his absence, lest he hear thereof and 
come home no more. 

Be sure of this also, that you do gather in upon Christ by 
all those words and by all those things whereby he seems to 
put you away from him. As the woman of Canaan, " True, 
Lord, but the dogs eat of the crumbs." Which made Christ 
turn in again, u Oh, woman, great is thy faith, be it unto 
thee even as thou wilt." But then, 

Be sure that you send unto him one w r ay or other, and 
tell him that you are sick of love unto his person. Then he 
returns. And, 

Now say, Lord, though thou killest me, yet will I trust in 
thee. Friends, it was faith that brought Christ and your 
souls together at the first ; and it must be faith that must 
bring Christ and your souls together after a desertion. 
Whatsoever therefore the displeasure of the Lord be upon 
you, say, Lord, though thou killest me I will trust in thee ; 



SER. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 175 

though I cannot see thee, yet I will trust in thee, and wait 
upon thee. 

But then, suppose it be the case of the nation. 

God is departed in a great measure, who doth not see it ? 
What shall we therefore now do that God may return unto 
us again ? 

Friends, truly it is not an easy thing to bring God back 
again, when he is in a way of displeasure towards a people. 
The Lord was angry, and sorely displeased with Jonah ; the 
mariners prayed, Jonah confessed his sin, and yet the storm 
ceased not, yet God goes on. I say it is not an easy thing 
to bring God back to a nation, when he is once in a way of 
displeasure against a people. 

And sometimes the Lord will never return unto a people 
again. The case of the Gaderenes in the matter of their 
hogs. The whole city came unto Christ, and " besought him 
to be gone." And away he went, and we do not read that 
ever he came there again. 

Sometimes he will return again, but with reserves of after- 
judgments. In Exod. xxxii., Moses prayed, and the Lord 
repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people, 
verse 14. But, saith he, verse 34 : " Nevertheless, in the 
day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them." Never- 
theless ; for all I thus repent me, and for all I do thus return 
unto them, nevertheless in the day when I visit, I will visit 
their sin upon them. Sometimes, I say, he doth return with 
reserves of after-judgments, yet if you look into Deut. iii., 
the thing is expressed : " The Lord will judge his people, 
and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their 
power is gone, and there is none shut up or left." 

Well but then, what shall we do ? It is too manifest, God 
is in a great measure gone from us, and departed from us, 
what shall we do now that God may reiurn again unto this 
nation ? 

Be sure that you make your peace with Christ. Christ 
is this day offended, his gospel and institutions trampled 
upon. A prophet will the Lord your God raise up among 
you, hear ye him ; if not, he will not pardon you ; that is 
Christ. He that sins against the great remedy, shall be 
judged without remedy. Christ is the great remedy ; it is a 
dangerous thing to sin against Christ. " O Jerusalem," saith 



176 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB. 9. 

Christ, " how often would I have gathered you, and you would 
not be gathered ; your house is left unto you desolate." And 
in Matt, xxii., you read that after that great invitation to the 
supper, those that were invited refused, they made light 
of it, went their ways ; and the remnant took his servants, 
and intreated them spitefully, and slew them ; but when the 
king heard thereof, he was wroth, and he sent forth his 
armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burnt up their 
city. It is a gospel quarrel. And therefore, I say, Is the 
Lord gone and departed from us ? Oh, make your peace 
with Christ, it is Christ that is offended. Oh, make your 
peace with Christ, else never look the Father should return 
again. But then, 

Jf you desire that God may return again unto you, then 
let us all return unto the Lord with all our hearts, Joel ii. 1 2, 
" Therefore also now, saith the Lord, turn ye even to me 
with all your heart, with fasting, and with weeping, and 
with mourning : who knoweth if he will return, and repent, 
and leave a blessing behind him ?" Who knows if you will turn 
unto him with all your heart, but he will return to you, and 
leave a blessing behind him ? 

But look into Hosea vi., " Come, and let us return unto 
the Lord ; for he hath torn, and he will heal us ; he hath 
smitten, and he will bind us up ; after two days will he 
revive us, in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall 
live in his sight." God will return. 

Well, but what assurance have we of it ; are we certain 
God will return ? Yes, verse 3, " His going forth is pre- 
pared as the morning." As sure as a morning is after night, 
so sure will God return ; his going forth is prepared as the 
morning ; as certain he will return as the morning doth. 

Aye, but when will God return ? 

In due season : " He shall come unto us as the rain, as 
the latter and former rain unto the earth." That is, he will 
return in due season, his return of love shall be as the rain, 
as the former and the latter rain in their season. Would 
you now therefore that God should return to you. oh, now 
do you return unto God. 

And that you may do so, only thus, 

Be sure of this, that you pray and believe, believe and 
pray. Some pray, but do not believe ; some say they believe, 



R. 9.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 177 

but they do not pray. That which prayer cannot do, nothing 
can do ; and that which faith will not do, prayer cannot do. 
The prayer of faith shall heal the sick ; and who knows hut 
it may heal a poor sick nation also. And therefore, I say, 
pray and believe, and believe and pray. 

Be sure of this, that in all your addresses unto God in 
prayer, you come to the bottom in the matter of your con- 
fession. If you have days of fasting, and prayer, and hu- 
miliation, be sure that you come to the bottom in the matter 
of your confession, to confess the original sin of all the 
displeasure that is come upon us. Otherwise, though you 
fast, and pray, and confess, yet if you do not confess and 
bewail that sin which is the original of all our miseries, you 
do but cry lapwing cry, farthest off from the nest, and it 
will do us no good. 

Be sure of this also, that you put away the evil of your 
doings, and do the contrary good ; put away the evil of your 
doings, especially your Ashtaroth. Friends, though you 
fast and pray, and humble yourselves ; if you do not reform, 
all your fasting and prayer will not bring God back again. 
All the days of fasting and prayer that you keep, will do 
nothing unless there be reformation. Yet I confess still, 
God must have a latitude, and he will sometimes save and 
deliver before we are prepared for it ; but, I say, ordinarily, 
though you fast, and pray, and cry never so much, yet if you 
do not reform, all your prayers will not do. And though 
you do reform, yet if you do not reform and put away your 
Ashtaroth, that sin that hath brought this displeasure, your 
reformation will not do. And though you do thus also, yet 
if you do not do the contrary good, it will not serve. Look 
to that therefore. 

Be sure of this, that you go out of yourselves, and 
lay down all your worldly interests at the feet of the Lord, 
saying, Come Lord, return, O Lord : not, Return, O my trade 
return; not, Return, O our ships return ; not, Return, O our 
peace return : but, Return, O Lord, return, O Lord. Friends, 
the more you go out of yourselves, the more fit you are for 
God to return unto you. 

And to conclude it, If you desire that God should return 
unto you, and that you may return to God, go then to God, 

VOL. in. x 



178 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SKR. 9. 

and pray, and say, Turn us, O Lord, and we shall be turned. 
And thus I have spoken to this case. 

Yet there is one thing more. It is a tedious thing tu lie 
under God's departure. There may be hopes that God may 
return again ; but what shall we do in the interim till God 
returns again ? 

1 will briefly speak to it, and have done. 
If your question do relate unto your particular souls, and 
you say, God is now gone from my soul, what shall I do in 
the interim till God return again ? 

Be sure that you carry it as the afflicted spouse of Christ 
in the absence of your husband ; and for that you may read 
at large in the book of the Canticles. 

Be sure of this, that you maintain your interest, and let 
not the sense of your interest in God and Christ be dis- 
solved. Return, O Lord, how long ! and let it repent thee 
concerning thy servants. Still they keep their interest, thy 
servants still. And so the spouse, " I am my beloved's, and 
my beloved is mine/' 

Be sure of this, that you never come to say, God will 
never return again; though you say, Lord, how long ? yet 
never say, God is gone, and will return no more. Poor, 
drooping, afflicted, and deserted soul, be sure of this, that 
you never say, God will never return ; lo, he cometh leaping 
over the mountains, over difficulties to you; only be you wil- 
ling to go leaping over the mountains of difficulties for to meet 
with him. 

And if your question do concern the public or the nation, 
what shall we do till God do return again ? 

I answer, Then go and lament after God. Is God gone, 
and is God departed in a great measure from this nation ? 
now go and lament after God. Twenty years, when the ark 
was taken, the children of Israel lamented after God in the 
ark. How long, how long God may stay at a distance from 
us, God only knows ; in the interim let us all now go and 
lament after God. And 

Be sure that you keep his ambassadors with you. When 
he calls home his ambassadors, he proclaims war against a 
nation ; but so long as he hath any agents among you, he is 
not quite gone. And 

If ever God begins to return to us again, be thankful for 



SER. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 179 

the beginnings of his return. He that is thankful for little, 
shall have much ; and he that is thankful for the beginnings 
of return, shall have a whole return. Thus do then, and who 
know r s but that the Lord may yet return, and leave a blessing 
behind him ? That he may do so, let us now pray, and say 
with the Psalmist, " Return O Lord, how long, and let it re- 
pent thee concerning thy servants." 



SERMON X. 

PREVENTING MERCY. 

" For thou preventest him with the blessings of goodness. 

" Thou hast given him his heart's desire, and hast not withholden 
the request of his lips. Selah. For thou preventest him with the bles- 
sings of goodness." PSALM xxi. 2, 3. 

THIS psalm is a psalm of thanksgiving, wherein the psalmist 
doth profess, that he will joy in the Lord, verse 1., " The 
king shall joy in thy strength, O Lord, and in thy salvation 
how greatly shall he rejoice/' Why so ? because that the 
Lord had heard and granted his petition, " Thou hast not 
withholden the request of his lips," verse 2. Yea, more than 
so, " Thou hast given him his heart's desire," verse 2., yea, 
more than so, thou hast given him more than he asked, for 
" he asked life of thee, and thou gavest it him, even length 
of days for ever and ever," verse 4. Yet more than so, thou 
hast not only given him his heart's desire, an answer to his 
prayer, and more than he prayed for, but " thou hast pre- 
vented him with the blessings of goodness." As if he should 
say, Lord, I never asked a kingdom, I never thought of a 
kingdom, but thou hast prevented me with the blessings of 
thy goodness, and thou hast set " a crown of pure gold on my 
head ;" blessings of goodness, in the Hebrew, is put for good 
blessings, wherewith the Lord doth anticipate the psalmist ; 
for thou preventest him with the blessings of goodness ; in 
the consideration of which preventing love and grace, his 
heart was much warmed, and affected. 

From whence then I take up this note or doctrine. 

N2 



180 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SER. 10. 

That it is a sweet thing, and worthy of all our thankful 
acknowledgments to be prevented with the blessings of God's 
goodness, or God's good blessings. 

Preventing mercy is sweet mercy, soul refreshing mercy, 
which a thankful gracious heart doth well observe, and in the 
observation thereof is much refreshed therewithal. 
For the opening and prosecution of which argument, 
First, I shall labour to shew that it is no new thing for 
God to walk in the way of preventing mercy with the chil- 
dren of men. 

Secondly, How and in what respects God will prevent us 
with his mercies, or his blessings. 

Thirdly, What those choice blessings are, wherewith God 
will prevent the children of men. 

Fourthly, Why God will carry on the work of his mercy in 
a way of preventing love. 

Fifthly, What there is in this preventing love, that should 
be so sweet and soul refreshing to a thankful gracious heart. 
And 

Sixthly, In case that God hath prevented any of us 
with his love or mercy, what is our duty that doth flow from 
thence. 

First, It is no new thing for God to walk in a way of pre- 
venting love and mercy with the children of men. Thus he 
hath always dealt, doth deal, and will deal so ; thus he hath 
always dealt, so with the world, so with the nations of the 
world, so with great towns and places, so with families, and 
so with particular souls. 

As for the world ; did not God first come with his mercy to 
the world, before the world made after it ? " God so loved the 
world, that he gave his only begotten Son." But how did he 
give this gift ? Did we beg it first, did we seek it first, or 
did he first prevent us with it ? When Adam, and all the 
world in Adam had sinned, fallen, did Adam and the world 
first go to God for Christ, or for the promise of Christ ; or 
did God first give out the promise of Christ, before Adam or 
the world sought it ? " The seed of the woman shall break 
the serpent's head ;" God first gave out this promise of 
Christ, before Adam or the world sought it. Thus in regard 
of the world. 

And as he hath dealt thus with the world in regard of pre- 



SEP. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 181 

venting mercy, so with the nations of the world : with the 
nation of the Jews ; so in Ezek xvi., " When thou layedst in 
thy blood, and no eye pitied thee, I passed by thee, and said 
unto thee, live." So when the nation of the Jews shall yet 
be converted again : " He is found of those that seek him 
not :" it is spoken of the calling of the Jews. And as for 
the nations of the gentiles, says our Saviour Christ to his 
disciples, u Go, teach all nations." Did the nations of the 
gentiles come to Christ, and say, Lord, the nation of the 
Jews have rejected thee, now then let the gospel come to us, 
and we will receive it ? No, but says the Saviour Christ, 
" Go, feach all nations," whatever they be, rich or poor, high 
or low, whatever they be, " Go, teach all nations, and I will 
be with you," for their conversion, for their salvation, to the 
end of Ihe world. Thus in regard of nations. 

So, also, in regard of towns, great towns, places, corpora- 
tions. What worse town than that of Capernaum which 
afterward was exalted to heaven ? But did Capernaum first 
come to Christ, or did Christ first go to Capernaum ? Christ 
first went to them. Matt. iv. Ye read of several towns in 
the Acts of the Apostles that did receive the gospel by the 
hands of the apostles, Icqnium, Derbe, Lystra ; but did these 
towns first seek to the apostles, and say, Pray come and 
preach Christ to us ; or did the apostles first go to them ? 
The apostles first went with commission from God to them. 
Thus in regard of towns. 

And as God dealt thus with towns, preventing towns and 
corporations with the means of grace, when they never 
thought on it, so in regard of families. Who doth not know 
how God by his mercy did prevent the family of the jailor, 
converting that family by his preventing love ? Who dotli 
not know how God dealt by Zaccheus and his family : Zac- 
cheus got up the tree, may be in curiosity, among the multi- 
tude to see Christ go by; but Christ seeing him, invites 
himself to his house : " Come down, Zaccheus, for to day I 
must abide at thy house." Did Zaccheus first invite Christ, 
or did Christ first invite himself? Christ first invited him- 
self. Tims in regard of families. 

And as for particular souls, you know how it was with 
Matthew the publican, sitting at the receipt of custom ; 
Come and follow me, says Christ ; preventing of him. And 



182 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SflR. 10. 

you know how it was with Paul ; " I was a blasphemer, and I 
was a persecutor, but I obtained mercy." How so ? Did he 
seek it first ? No, says he, I went breathing out threatenings 
against the people of God, and God met me, and unhorsed 
me ; God prevented me with his grace and mercy. Thus 
Paul. And pray tell me what do you think of that whole chap- 
ter of Luke, the xvth ? There are three parables : the parable 
of the lost groat, of the lost sheep, and of the lost son. The 
woman lost her groat, and swept to find it; but did the groat 
make first towards the \toman or the woman make after the 
groat first ? The shepherd lost his sheep, but did the sheep 
make first after the shepherd or the shepherd after the sheep ? 
Indeed it is said concerning the lost son that he first takes up 
a resolution, <: I will return home to my father ;" but when 
his father saw him afar off, he ran and met him and embraced 
him and welcomed him home. Why ? But to shew that the 
work of grace and mercy shall be all along carried on in a 
way of preventing love. Thus it was with the world from the 
beginning, thus with the nations of the Jews and gentiles, 
thus with great towns and corporations, thus with whole fami- 
lies, and thus with particular souls. It is no new thing, 
therefore, for God to walk in a way of preventing love towards 
the children of men. That is the first. 

Secondly. Well but, then, how and in what respects will 
God prevent us with his mercies, or with his good blessings ? 

He will prevent us with his mercies in reference to our 
own deservings; when we deserve evil we shall receive good. 
Is it not a great prevention when a man shall deserve evil, to 
receive good ? Thus will God deal with men sometimes : 
" He hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us 
according to our iniquities." Did not Moses deserve a sharp 
chiding and to be beaten out of his excuses, when God sent him 
upon his work, and he stood excusing the matter so long ? 
Exod. iv. " He said, Oh, my Lord, send I pray thee by the 
hand of him whom thou wilt send : and the anger of the 
Lord was kindled against Moses." What was the issue of it ? 
Instead of blows, mercy; instead of chiding and threatening, 
a promise. " And he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy bro- 
ther? I know that he can speak well, and lo, behold he 
cometh forth to meet thee, and when he seeth thee he will be 
glad in his heart; and thou shalt speak unto him, and put 



10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 183 

words in his mouth, and I will be with thy mouth and with 
his mouth, and will teach ye what ye shall do." Here is good 
in the stead of evil. Thus God prevents us with his mercies 
in reference to our own deservings. 

As God doth prevent us thus in reference to our own de- 
servings, so he doth prevent us also in reference to his own 
proceedings of common providence. Look when God doth 
give in a mercy that is beyond the reach of the second cause, 
that is stronger or greater than the root of the second cause 
will bear, or beyond common providence, then God is said to 
prevent us with his mercy. Now thus God doth many 
times give in a mercy that the root of the second cause can- 
not bear. So he gave Elizabeth a child and Sarah a child 
when they were old. " With this staff came I over this 
brook (says Jacob), and lo I am become two bands." And 
thus Israel said, " A Syrian ready to perish was my father, 
(Deut. xxvi. 5,) and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned 
there with a few, and became there a nation, great, mighty 
and populous." A Syrian ready to perish was my father. 
As if a man should say, I came here to London, poor, having 
but my pen and inkhorn by my side, and now I am risen up 
to a great estate, beyond all my own parts, wits and endea- 
vours, for the Lord hath prevented me with the blessings of 
his goodness. Thus God doth sometimes prevent us with his 
mercy in reference to his own proceedings of common provi- 
dence, or the course of nature. 

And then, again, as the Lord doth thus prevent us with his 
rnercy in reference to his own proceedings of common provi- 
dsnce, so he doth prevent us with his mercy in reference to 
our own preparedness. Look when God doth give in a mercy 
that we are not prepared for, then God is said to prevent us 
with his mercy. Now was it not a great and choice mercy 
for the ark to be brought home again to Israel ? Yet, not- 
withstanding, you shall find they were not prepared for it ; 
before they were prepared God gave them in the mercy : the 
ark came back, 1 Sam. vi., but their preparation you read of 
in the viith chapter : " And Samuel said to all the house of 
Israel, If you do return unto the Lord with all your hearts, 
then put away the strange gods, and Ashtaroth ; and the 
children of Israel did put away Baalim and Ashtaroth and 
served the Lord only." This was after the ark come home ; 



184 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10* 

so then the ark returned before they were thus prepared. 
And you know what is said in the Iviith of Isaiah : " For the 
iniquity of his covetousness I was wroth and smote him, I 
hid me and was wroth, and he went on frowardly in the way 
of his heart." What then ? Verse 18, "I have seen his 
ways and will heal him ; I will lead him, also, and restore 
comforts to him and to his mourners " over and beyond all 
preparations, for he went on frowardly in the way of his 
heart, and he was not prepared ; but notwithstanding his 
want of preparation, I have seen his ways and will heal him, 
and will restore comforts to him and to his mourners. Thus 
God doth sometimes prevent us with his mercy in reference 
to our own preparedness for his mercy. 

As God doth prevent us with his mercy, in reference to 
our preparedness for his mercy ; so he doth prevent us with 
his mercy, in reference to all our prayers. Look when God 
gives in a mercy before we pray for it, then God is truly 
said to prevent us with his mercy. It is ordinarily said, God 
will not set in his mercy before our oven be hot; but if God 
should never set in his mercy, until our oven and hearts be 
hot in prayer, we had been an unredeemed people to this 
day. Though God will answer prayer, yet he will be found 
also of them that seek him not. Do ye say, Why then should 
we pray? I answer, that you are to pray, not only because 
it is your duty to pray, but, the more God works in an extra- 
ordinary way, the more it is our duty to be found in the use 
of ordinary means. And what if I say, that the same mercy 
may come as an answer to prayer, and yet in a way of pre- 
venting love too ? What say you to the case of Hezekiah ? 
When he was sick he prayed, and God heard his prayer, and 
health came as an answer of prayer ; and yet he was pre- 
vented, for fifteen years more God gave in to him, which was 
beyond his prayer. You know how it was with Zacharias ; 
says the Lord, " I have heard thy prayer," and gave him a 
child, yet he did not pray for a child, for he could not believe 
that he should have a child ; so that God gave him a child in 
a way of preventing mercy, and yet it was in answer of 
prayer too. So here in the text : " Thou hast given him his 
heart's desire, and hast not withholden the request of his 
lips, for thou hast prevented him with the blessings of thy 
goodness." Why ? Why although the mercy received may 



SttR. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 185 

be an answer of prayer in regard of the body of it, yet it 
may come in a way of preventing love as to the moreness of 
it. So it was with David, so with Hezekiah, and so with 
Zacharias. Thus God doth sometimes prevent, as in refer- 
ence to our prayer, giving in mercy beyond all our prayers. 

And then, as God doth prevent us in reference to our 
prayers, so in reference to our believing thoughts or expec- 
tancies. " When the Lord turned the captivity of Zion, we 
were like them that dreamed." Why were we as them that 
dreamed ? Why truly we never looked for it, nor expected 
it, we did not think on it, it was beyond all our expectations. 
Thus God doth prevent us sometimes in reference to our 
expectancies, to our faith, and to our thoughts. 

As he thus prevents us with his mercy in reference to our 
thoughts, and faith, and expectance^ so in reference to his 
own promises and the conditions thereof. If I promise a 
man a kindness upon a condition, and do that kindness for 
him when he hath not performed the condition, then I pre- 
vent him with kindness. Now the Lord hath promise] many 
a mercy upon a condition, and yet given the mercy when we 
have not performed the condition : " I said (says David) I 
would confess my sin, and thou, Lord, forgavest my iniquity." 
Lord, thou hast made a promise of forgiveness, upon condi- 
tion of our confession and humiliation ; I did not go so 
far, I did but say, I would confess my sin, and thou pre- 
ventedst me with thy forgiving love. Thus now you see, how 
and in what respects God doth prevent us with his mercy. 
He doth prevent us with his mercy in reference to our 
deservings, in reference to his own proceedings of common 
providence, in reference to all our prayers, in reference to 
our faith and expectance, in reference to our preparedness, 
and in reference to his own promises and the conditions 
thereof. That is the second. 

Thirdly, Well but then, what are those choice blessings 
wherewith God will prevent his people ? 

What not ? But the greater the blessing is, the more it is 
steeped in preventing love. There are outward blessings and 
there are inward blessings; there are temporal blessings and 
there are eternal blessings. Now though the preventing love 
of God doth shine forth in all, yet the greater the blessing 



186 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10. 

or the mercy is, the more it is irradiated with the beams of 
preventing love. 

Will ye instance ? 

Will ye instance in the great matter of our redemption ? 
What greater mercy or blessing, than our redemption in 
and by Jesus Christ ? that is of grace : " In whom we have 
redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our sins, 
according to the riches of his grace." And when Christ 
came into the world, in reference to our redemption to take 
our nature upon him ; do but see what a pack of wicked men 
were then extant upon the ground, in Luke iii. 1, " Now in 
the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Ceesar, (there is 
one,) Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, (there is an- 
other,) and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, (there is an- 
other,) and his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea, Annas and 
Caiaphas being high priests, the word of God came unto John 
the son of Zacharias in the wilderness." And why was 
Christ born in such a time as this, and among such com- 
pany ? but all to shew that the work of our redemption was 
to be carried on in a way of preventing love. 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our conversion ? 
What greater mercy or blessing than our conversion ? Yet 
look into Job xxxiii., and you shall see how that mercy comes 
swimming down the stream of preventing love. " God 
speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not." What 
then ? " In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep 
sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed, then he 
openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction." 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our justification ? 
What greater mercy or blessing than that of our justification? 
Yet this also comes swimming down the stream of preventing 
love, for " he justifies the ungodly." And in Rom. iv. it is 
said of Abraham, that he was justified not yet circumcised, 
for we say, " that faith was reckoned to him for righteous- 
ness," verse 9. How was it then reckoned, when he was in 
circumcision or in uncircumcision ; not in circumcision but 
in uncircumcision ? Why, why not in circumcision, but in 
his uncircumcision ? but to shew that this mercy of justifica- 
tion must be carried on in a way of preventing love. 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our sanctificatihn ? 
What greater mercy than to be truly sanctified ? Yet this 



SER. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 187 

also comes swimming down the stream of preventing love. 
" I will wash ye with clean water." u Such and such were 
some of you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified in the 
name of the Lord." This also in a way of preventing love. 

Will ye instance in the matter of consolation ? What 
greater mercy than for a poor drooping soul to be truly com- 
forted ? This also comes in a way of preventing love. " Or 
ever I was aware," before I was aware, saith the spouse, "my 
soul was as the chariots of Amminadib." I was unwilling to 
receive the promise, my soul refused to be comforted ; but, 
" Or ever I was aware, my soul was as the chariots of a 
willing people," of Amminadib, that is, of a willing people. 
When Christ was dead, how sad was Mary ; Christ did but 
come unto her, and say, Mary, and she was comforted. 

Will ye instance in the revelation of the truths of the 
times ? What greater blessing than for a man to be well 
acquainted with the truth of the times, in opposition to anti- 
christ ? Now says John in Rev. i., when these truths were 
given out, " I heard a voice behind me ;" before I was aware, 
God prevented me, acquainting me with these truths of the 
Revelations. 

Or will ye instance in outward blessings or mercies ? Then 
I will appeal to you, in the great turnings of your lives, hath 
not God prevented you with his blessings ? It is true we are 
to trade in a way of prayer to gain outward blessings and 
mercies ; but, I say, when ever did you meet with any great 
turn of your life, but it was cast by preventing love before 
prayer came in ? So that do ye ask, what are those choice 
blessings wherewith God will prevent his people ? you see 
here what they are. So I have done with the third thing. 

Fourthly, Now why will God carry on the work of his 
mercy in a way of preventing love ? 

Because the heart of God is full of love to the children of 
men. Ordinary love will shew kindness upon kindness ; but 
when the heart is full of love, it delights to prevent the per- 
son loved with kindness. Now the heart of God is full of 
love for the children of men. 

God will so carry on the work of his grace and mercy, 
that all his mercies and blessings now may be conformed 
to the womb that bare them. The child follows the womb 
that bare it ; the first in every kind is the rule of the rest. 



188 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10. 

Now election is the womb of all our mercies ; and doth not 
preventing love sway there ? " I have loved Jacob, and hated 
Esau," before they had done either good or evil ; there is 
preventing love. Now I say, God will so carry on the work 
of his mercy, that all his mercies and blessings may be con- 
formed to their first original election, and there preventing 
mercy is very sweet. 

But God will so carry on the work of his mercy, as it 
may be most taking and effective upon the souls of the 
children of men ; and what is more taking than preventing 
love ? What more operative, what more powerful, what 
more taking I say ? You know the parable ; some were 
invited to the supper, and some not invited ; some came and 
some came not; who were those that came ? who were those 
that came not ? those that came not were such as were 
invited; those that came were such as were in the lanes, 
highways, and hedges, compelled to come in. Aye, pre- 
venting love is the most taking ; now God will so carry on 
the work of his mercy^ as it may be most taking, and most 
effective upon the souls of the children of men. 

Again, God will so carry on his mercy, as that it may 
be holding and sure. The more any mercy is laid upon 
that which is in God himself, and the less laid upon that 
which is in us, the more holding and sure it is. Now 
mercy laid upon grace is sure, and therefore God will 
carry on the work of his mercy in a way of preventing love, 
that his mercy may be sure, that it may be holding. 

Again, God will so carry on the work of his mercy, as 
that it may be most engaging, and most obliging with the 
hearts of men. What is there in all the world that is more 
engaging to an ingenuous spirit than grace ? And what is 
there more gracious than preventing love ? Thereby a soul 
is engaged to God. Aye, says a poor soul, I was going on 
in the way of my sin, lay snorting in my sin, and never 
thought on the good ways of God, unless it were to oppose 
them, and speak against them ; but then, before I was aware, 
I know not how, God did reveal himself and his ways to me ; 
oh, now what shall I do for God ? I will spend and be 
spent for God ; " anything for Christ," who hath thus over- 
come me with his preventing love. Of all those that are 
called the ancients, Austin did most magnify the grace of 



SER. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 189 

God ; Bradwardine called him the son of grace ; and of all 
in those days, none that we read of tasted so much of the 
preventing mercy of God as he. When he was young he 
prayed for the mortification of his sin, and yet he confesses 
that he secretly desired that God would not grant his prayer, 
yet God prevented his prayer. Another time being alone, 
he heard a voice saying, Tolle lege, tolle lege, take and read, 
take and read ; and he opened the bible, and pitched upon 
some words in the first of John, that proved the beginning 
of his conversion. Another time going a journey, he misses 
his way, and missing his way he escaped his enemies that 
lay in the way for him ; several times God prevented him, 
insomuch that he brake out into this expression : Lord, I did 
not first come to thee, but thou didst first come and stir me 
up to come unto thee. And who ever magnified the freeness 
of the riches of the grace of God like Paul ? And why ? 
Of all the men in the world, he lay under the greatest 
preventions of divine love; no wonder therefore Paul of all 
men magnified the free grace of God, for he of all other lay 
under the preventions of divine love. 

Again further, God will so carry on the work of his grace 
and mercy, that no flesh may glory in itself, that we may 
not rest upon any thing that we do, or have, or suffer. When 
we are to come to duty, we are unwilling to it; after we have 
performed it, we are as apt to rest upon it, as before we 
were unwilling to come unto it. What is the reason ? but 
because men think that they do come to God before God 
comes to them ; but let a man be once fully convinced of 
God's preventing love, and he rests no more upon what he 
doth, but says he then, If God hath prevented me in reference 
to my prayer, why should I rest on my prayer, if God hath 
prevented me in reference to my duty, why should I rest 
on my duty ; says Paul to the Corinthians, " He calleth 
things that are not, that no flesh may glory in his sight ;" 
And in Job xxxiii., says Elihu there, " In deep sleep, in a 
dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon 
men, in slumberings upon the bed, then he openeth the ears 
of men, and sealeth their instruction ;" why ? " That he 
may withdraw man from his purpose, and hide pride from 
man." There is no such way in the world to take down the 
pride of man, to keep him from resting upon duty, as to be 



190 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10. 

well seen, well experienced, in the preventing love of God. 
And therefore God carries on the work of his grace and 
mercy in a way of preventing love, that no flesh may glory 
in itself. 

God will so carry on the work of his mercy, and goodness, 
and of his grace, that men may be made most gracious, and 
in case they sin against him, they may be reduced to true 
repentance. What is there in all the world will make one 
so gracious as a sight of grace ? And what gives one a greater 
sight of grace than preventing love ? And what is there in 
all the world that will reduce a soul to true repentance, 
having sinned, like preventing love ? It is said of Peter, 
" He went out and wept bitterly ;" all his tears came out 
of the eyes of preventing grace; Christ looked upon him 
first, it was preventing love that brought forth that repen- 
tance. I say, no such way to reduce a poor soul that hath 
sinned to true repentance, as the consideration of God's 
preventing love. Do you therefore ask why God is pleased 
to carry on his mercy thus, in a way of preventing love? 
For these six or seven reasons. And so you have the fourth 
thing. 

Fifthly, Well but then in the fifth place, What is there in 
this preventing love that is so sweet to a gracious soul, to a 
thankful heart ? 

The more immediately that any mercy doth come out of 
God's hand, and the less it runs through ours, the more 
sweet it is. Water is sweetest out of the fountain. Now 
preventing mercy comes immediately out of the hands of 
God, and runs not through our hand at all, nor through the 
hand of the second cause at all, therefore must needs be very 
sweet. 

But the more costless, or less costly to us any mercy is, 
the sweeter it is. Possibly a kindness may cost more to keep 
it than it is worth. Suppose a man promise me or give me 
wood ; the cutting down of the wood, and bringing it home, 
may cost me more than the wood is worth. So a kindness 
may cost one more care than the thing itself doth amount 
unto. But now preventing mercy cost me nothing, it is cut 
down to my hand, it is brought into my hand, it is costless 
mercy, it cost me nothing, surely therefore it is very sweet. 

But then again, the more perfect, and complete, and 



10.J CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 191 

entire any mercy is, the sweeter it is. Half-mercies are not 
so sweet as whole. Preventing mercy is complete and entire. 
In Ezek. xvi. you may see what a complete mercy is there 
given : " I washed thee with water (verse 9) I thoroughly 
washed away thy blood, and I anointed thee with ointment, 
I clothed thee also with broidered work, and shod thee with 
badger's skin ; and I girded thee about with fine linen, and 
I covered thee with silk ; I decked thee also with ornaments, 
and I put bracelets upon thine hands, and a chain on thy 
neck, and I 'put a jewel on thy forehead, and ear-rings in 
thine ears, and a beautiful crown upon thine head ;" and so 
he goes on. What mercy was this ? It was preventing mercy. 
" I passed by thee, and saw thee polluted in thy own blood, 
and said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, live, yea, 
I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, live." So 
then, preventing mercy is the most complete mercy ; and it 
must needs be so, for it comes immediately out of God's 
hand, and not through the hand of the second cause. That 
that comes immediately out of God's hand, not running 
through the hand of the second cause, is most complete. 
Upon this account our justification is more perfect and com- 
plete than our sanctification, because it comes immediately 
out of the hand of God, and not out of our own hand. 
In justification our guilt is removed, in sanctification OUT filth 
is removed ; our guilt is offensive to ourselves, our filth is 
offensive to God. Now one would think, God would rather 
take away all our filth that is offensive to himself, than all 
our guilt that is offensive to us ; no, but our justification 
is perfect, our sanctification not perfect ; why ? because our 
justification comes immediately out of the hand of God, 
and doth not run through our own hand ; for though we be 
justified by our faith, yet it is as faith is God's instrument, 
not as our act. Now the more immediately that any mercy 
comes out of the hand of God, and the less out of our 
hand, the more perfect and complete it is. So doth pre- 
venting mercy do, and therefore must needs be very sweet. 

Again, The more that any mercy doth correct difficulty 
and sweeten duty, the sweeter is that mercy. Now prevent- 
ing love doth correct difficulty, and it doth sweeten duty. 
See it in Zaccheus; what an hard and great work was he 
upon ! " Lord," says he, "the hah' of .my goods I give to 



192 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10. 

the poor." Stay then : suppose his estate was a thousand 
pounds, he would have but five hundred pounds left ; and 
" Lord," says he, " if I have taken any thing from any man 
by false accusation, I restore him fourfold." Suppose he had 
wronged men to the value of a hundred pounds, there is 
four hundred pounds more gone, so there is but a hundred 
pounds left of a thousand. What an hard work is this ! 
Yet mark how easily he comes off to this hard work, " Be- 
hold Lord ;" why he had drunk deep of preventing love. 
"Zaccheus, come down," says Christ, "for to day I must 
abide at thine house." Christ doth not come and say, Zac- 
cheus, give half thy goods to the poor, and if thou hast 
wronged any man, restore him fourfold, and then I will come 
to thy house ; no ; but : " Zaccheus, come down, for this day 
I must abide at thy house," preventing him with his love, 
and then this hard work comes off easily. There is nothing 
will correct difficulty and sweeten duty more than preventing 
love, therefore preventing love must needs be sweet. And 
thus now you see what there is in preventing love, that is so 
sweet to a gracious soul. That is the fifth. 

Sixthly, But now lastly. You will say, Suppose I have 
tasted of preventing love and mercy, suppose I have had 
experience of it, for I must needs say, this is my case ; for 
I was going on in the way of my sin, and God prevented 
me many a time with his preventing grace. I have been 
backward to, and dull in duty, and God hath many a time 
prevented me with assisting grace. I have been full of un- 
belief, and said : I am cast off, and shall never see the face 
of God again, but the Lord hath prevented me with his 
comforting grace, and with the shines of his face. I was 
galloping to hell as fast as I could, but God hath prevented 
me with his saving grace. And as for my outward estate in 
the world, I was low and knew not what to do, and God 
prevented me with such a gift, such a house and land ; what 
hath my life been but a bundle of preventing mercy; if any 
have drank deep of this preventing grace, I may say, I have 
much more. Now what is my duty that doth flow from 
hence ? 

If you have tasted of God's preventing love and mercy, if 
God hath indeed prevented you with the " blessings of his 
goodness," why then should not your hearts be filled with 



. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 193 

the sense thereof; why should not your thoughts be much 
thereupon ? How God hath prevented you at such a time, 
in such a thing. The more sense you have of God's prevent- 
ing love and mercy, the more humbly you will walk with 
God, and the more closely, especially considering that God 
will not upbraid you. If a man takes a beggar from the 
dunghill, and makes her his wife, prevents her with his love 
and kindness, the sense of his preventing love, will make 
her walk humbly all her days, unless the man upbraid her 
with it; if he upbraids her with it, it will not make her walk 
humbly; but unless he upbraids her with it, the sense of it 
will make her walk humbly all her days. Friends, God doth 
prevent us with his love, and will not upbraid us with his 
preventions ; and therefore why should we not walk humbly, 
and why should we not think much thereon, and have our 
hearts filled with the sense thereof. The more necessary 
and useful any mercy is, the more we are engaged to think 
thereon. Some mercies are more necessary, and some less 
necessary. Those mercies and blessings we put God upon 
the giving of with our own desires, we may suspect are less 
necessary; but those that God gives us in a way of pre- 
venting love, we may think them most necessary. This is 
the way of preventing love, surely therefore we are engaged 
to think much thereon ; thus ye become God's darlings by 
his preventing love. The world hath its darlings; such a 
one lies long in bed, takes little pains, yet the world flows in 
upon him, the world prevents him, he is the world's darling ; 
another man is up early and late, takes a great deal of pains, 
and yet is poor; but here is a man do what he will, yet he 
grows rich, for he is the world's darling. So now you have 
blessing upon blessing, and in a way of prevention, what 
doth this argue, but that you are God's darlings ? And 
will you not think much of this ? Oh, think much thereon. 

If you have tasted of this preventing love and mercy, go 
away and be very thankful to God upon this account. Shall 
David be thankful to the Lord for preventing him, taking 
him from the sheep-fold, and will not you be thankful for 
preventing mercy ? Shall Ruth be thankful to Boaz for 
preventing her with his kindness, spreading his skirt over 
her, and will not you be thankful to the Lord for his pre- 
venting love to you ? Why should ye not all say with 

VOL. nr. o 



194 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiB, 10. 

David here : " He hath prevented me with the blessings of 
his goodness." Indeed I was a great sinner, but he hath 
prevented me with his justifying mercy ; and I was a wan- 
dering creature, as a lost sheep, but he hath prevented me 
with his redeeming mercy ; God spake once, and twice unto 
me, and I heard it not, but in the deep sleep of my soul, 
then did he open mine ears, and seal instruction on me be- 
fore I was aware ; therefore all that is within me bless the 
Lord. Oh, you that are thus prevented, bless the Lord for 
this his preventing mercy, his sweet mercy. 

But if you have tasted of God's preventing mercy, and 
have indeed been prevented with the blessings of his good- 
ness, even your very prayers have been prevented with the 
blessings of his goodness ; why then should ye not be early 
up, and sooner at your prayers, that if it may be, you may 
prevent God's mercy with your prayers, as God hath pre- 
vented your prayers with his mercy. When a master comes 
into the chamber where his servant lies, and finds him in bed, 
what says the servant if he be ingenuous ? This my master's 
coming into my bed-chamber before I was up, is a plain re- 
buke to my sloth, I will be up the sooner hereafter. So says 
a gracious, ingenuous soul, God's preventing my prayer with 
his mercy, is a plain rebuke to my prayer ; wherefore awake 
prayer, up prayer, through the grace of God I will never be 
so tardy again with my prayer and duty, but as God hath 
prevented my prayer with his mercy, so through grace I will 
prevent his mercy with my prayer for the time to come. 

If you have tasted of God's preventing mercy, and God 
hath indeed prevented you with the blessings of his goodness, 
why then should ye not all labour to be like unto God in your 
dealings with men, preventing them with your loving kind- 
ness. You think it a great matter to forgive a man that hath 
injured you upon acknowledging of his fault, but God pre- 
vents us with his forgiveness before we acknowledge and be 
humbled ; therefore why should you not labour to be like to 
God therein ? If a^man hath done you a wrong or injury, 
do not stand upon it to have his acknowledgment, but say, 
I will be like to God 5 God prevents me with his love before 
my acknowledgment, therefore through grace I will prevent 
this man with my kindness before his acknowledgment, I will 



. 10.] CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. 195 

forgive him. Thus labour to be like unto God in all your 
dealings with men. 

But, If you have tasted of this preventing love, and 
God hath indeed prevented you with the blessings of his 
goodness, why, then, why should ye not trust in the Lord for 
ever ? Whatsoever your condition be, trust in the Lord, and 
believe for ever now, for your souls, for your bodies. Some 
there are that doubt of their salvation, of the salvation of 
their souls. Ah, says one, I am afraid I shall not be saved 
because my prayer cannot be accepted. But will the Lord be 
found of those that seek him not, and will he not be found 
of you that seek him, though your prayers are poor prayers ? 
Ah, says another, I am afraid the Lord will not receive me 
when I come to him, he will not receive me. No ; but if the 
Lord comes to us first, and makes a tender and offer of his 
grace to us ; if he seeks us, will he not receive them, think 
you, that seek him ? Surely he will. Some there are that 
doubt in reference to their outward condition, and say they 
shall want provision, shall want estates to maintain them ; but 
hath the Lord prevented you with his mercy in the great 
turns of your life, why, then, should you not trust in the 
Lord though you see no means at all how you should be sup- 
plied ? Heretofore God hath prevented you with his mer- 
cies ; and why should you not say, God hath prevented me 
heretofore, therefore now I will trust in him though I see no 
means of supply ? Whatsoever your condition be, trust in 
the Lord now upon this account ; believe, believe. Let me 
say this to you, Would you believe ? Do you desire to be- 
lieve ? Yes, I desire to believe. Do ye ? then let your eye 
be fixed on God's preventing love. What is the reason that 
men do not believe ? but because their eyes are fixed no more 
steadily upon preventing love. The more you know God is 
willing to help you, the more you will believe ; J believe that, 
you will say. Now I pray then, tell me, suppose a man comes 
to a beggar, and before the beggar asks, the man gives him 
money ; will not the beggar conclude that the man was willing 
to relieve him ? Yes. Thus now it is, we beg and we beg, but 
it is as no begging, then comes the Lord and prevents us with 
his mercy ; will you not say the Lord is willing to shew 
mercy ? surely he is. Now, therefore, seeing God is thus 
willing to shew mercy, oh, then, believe ; you that have gone 
o 2 



196 CHRIST AND THE COVENANT. [SfiR. 10. 

doubting and fearing and trembling all your days, for shame 
now believe. Have you tasted of God's preventing mercy 
time after time, in the matter of your justification, in the 
matter of your sanctification, in the matter of your consola- 
tion, and in reference to our outward concernments ? Oh, 
trust in the Lord for ever upon this account, and magnify the 
riches of his grace. Now go away, and say, through free 
grace, I will doubt no more. Upon all occasions trust in the 
Lord, O you that have been made partakers of preventing 
mercy. 



CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 

WHEREIN IS SHEWED, 

-THE TRAVAIL OF CHRIST, OR CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 2. HIS 
ASSURANCE OF ISSUE. 3. THE CONTENTMENT 
THAT HE DOTH AND SHALL FIND THEREIN. 

IN THREE SERMONS. 

1656. 



CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 



SERMON I. 

" He shall see of the travail of his soul and be satisfied." 
ISAIAH LIU. 11. 

IN this chapter we have a full treatise of the sufferings of 
Christ, wherein the prophet Isaiah speaks with such clearness, 
as if he rather were an apostle after Christ than a prophet 
before him. Bernard tells us that there are three things 
which we are especially to mind and behold in the sufferings 
of Christ the work, the manner, and the cause thereof: in 
the cause he was innocent, in the manner patient, and in the 
work excellent, saith he. But the prophet Isaiah doth insist 
on four things : 1. The greatness of Christ's sufferings, which 
he expresseth in many words ; that " he was despised and 
rejected of men, a man of sorrows and acquainted with griefs;" 
that " we hid our faces from him, despised and esteemed him 
not," verse 3 ; that " he was stricken, smitten, and afflicted of 
God," verse 4 ; " wounded and bruised," verse 5 ; " oppres- 
sed, afflicted, and brought as a sheep to the slaughter," verse 
7 ; " imprisoned and cut off from the land of the living," 
verse 8 ; " bruised by his Father and put to grief," verse 10 ; 
" in travail of soul and numbered among transgressors," ver- 
ses 11 and 12. 2. The cause of his sufferings, which, as the 
prophet tells us, was for our sins : " He was wounded for our 
transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities," verse 5. 
3. The manner of his sufferings : " He is brought as a lamb 
to the slaughter ; and as a sheep before the shearers is dumb, so 
he opened not his mouth," verse 7. 4. The fruit, issue and 
success of his sufferings : " For he shall see his seed, and the 
pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand," verse 10 ; 
and " he shall see of the travail of his soul and be satisfied," 
verse 11. So that these words do plainly hold forth the fruit 

and issue of our Lord's sufferings, and the certainty thei-eof. 

The sufferings were great, for they are here called a travail, 



200 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 1. 

and the travail of his soul. The word Vnp signifies a toil- 
some, painful and wearisome labour ; such a labour, say some,* 
as is used by those who grind in a mill ; such a labour, say 
others,f as Adam was to use in the sweat of his brow after 
the fall as a curse for sin, unto which the Holy Ghost doth 
here relate, because our Saviour in these sufferings was made 
a curse for us ; such a labour, say others, J so great, so pain- 
ful, as women do endure in their sore travail, and indeed the 
word signifies as much, and so it is used in Psalm vii. 14, 
" Behold he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived 
mischief," alluding to the pains of a woman in travail; and 
so it may be well translated in this place ; for the word soul 
is a feminine term, as if the Holy Ghost would decipher the 
sufferings of Christ by the pangs of a woman in travail. 
Now this travail is also said to be the travail of the soul, not 
only because it was a great and sore travail, but because it 
did extend to his soul. The word soul is indeed sometimes 
used for one's life, and sometimes for the person of a man ; 
but then it doth not exclude the soul, but include it rather. 
So here, " He shall see of the travail of his soul ;" that is, that 
travail which is not only in his body but his soul too. This 
he is promised to see : "He shall see of the travail," that is, the 
fruit thereof. So Psalm cxxviii. 2, " Thou shalt eat the la- 
bour of thine hands," that is, the fruit of thy labour, what 
thine hand hath laboured for. Seeing doth note enjoyment, 
and the enjoyment of the thing desired; so Psalm liv. 7j 
" Mine eye hath seen its desire upon mine enemy." The word 
desire is not in the Hebrew, but the original runs thus, Mine 
eye hath seen upon mine enemies. We add desire because 
that is the sense thereof; for seeing notes enjoyment of one's 
desires, and therefore in that the prophet saith, " he shall see 
of the travail of his soul and be satisfied ;" the meaning is, that 
Christ shall so enjoy the issue and fruit of his sufferings as 
he shall have full content and delight therein. And so the 
doctrine from the whole is this : 

That Christ shall certainly see the travail of his soul and 
be satisfied. 

He did not lay down his life at a venture, nor suffer so 
many things at uncertainties ; but he had assurance of suc- 

* Mercerus. f Avenarius. J Forerius Esa. liii. 

English Annotations. 



. 1.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 201 

cess. " He shall see," saith the Lord, by way of promise, 
both to him and us, " of the travail of his soul, and be satisfied." 

For the opening and clearing hereof, three great arguments 
will fall under our consideration. 

First, The travail of Christ, or Christ in travail. 

Secondly, His assurance of issue. 

Thirdly, The contentment that he doth and shall find 
therein. 

First, As for the travail of Christ. His sufferings were 
very painful ; a travail and a hard labour. Acts ii. 24. It is 
said that he was sometimes in the pains of death ; some 
books read it, in the pains of hell : but the word rendered 
pains, signifies the pains and pangs of a woman in travail. 
It is the same word that is used by Paul, Gal. iv., " My little 
children, with whom 1 travail in birth ;" and it signifies, not 
only the travail of the woman in the birth of the child, but 
the painful bearing thereof before the birth. These pains 
and pangs did as it were fall on Christ in his sufferings.* So 
that in all the sufferings of Christ, ye may see Christ in tra- 
vail. He was in travail for us, and this travail was a hard 
labour. For it was, 

I. A sore trouble. 

II. A long and a tedious travail. And 

III. An helpless travail. 

I. It was a sore travail, both in regard of his soul and 
body. 

1. As for his body. His sufferings were very painful; for 
they w r ere universal, extreme and lingering. 

They were universal, for he suffered from all hands, 
Something he suffered from the Jews, and something from 
the Gentiles; sometimes from men, and sometimes from 
women ; from and by the hand of magistrates, kings, and 
princes ; from and by the hand of priests ; from and by the 
hand of the comrron people and the soldiers. " Why do the 
heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing ? the kings 
of the earth stood up, and the rulers took counsel against the 
Lord, and against his Christ," Acts iv. 25, 26. He did not 
only suffer by the hand of strangers, but from his own friends 
and familiars ; according to that of the psalmist, " Thou hast 

* Hrec vox ufiwu et partum significat et dolorem parturientem. Viet. Strigil. 
Perk. Gal. iv. 



202 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 1. 

put mine acquaintance far from me : he that eateth bread 
with me, hath lifted up his heel against me," Psalm xli. 9 ; 
John xiii. 18. Amongst his own disciples, one betrayed him, 
another denied him, and they all forsook him. Thus were 
his sufferings great and universal, in regard of the persons by 
whom and from whom he suffered. Universal also they 
were, as Aquinas observes, in regard of the things which he 
suffered. Will ye instance in his goods ? he is bereaved of 
his clothes, and they cast lots for his garments. Will ye 
instance in his name and honour ? he is crucified, the death 
of the cross was a shameful death ; therefore saith the apos- 
tle, " He endured the cross, and despised the shame," Heb. 
xii. Yea, he was not only crucified, but as matter of further 
shame, he was crucified between two thieves ; and as if all 
this were not enough, they reproached and jeered him ; yea, 
and he was reproached by all, by Jews, soldiers, and the thief 
on the cross. The Jews spit in his face before he came to 
the cross, as if Christ's face were the foulest place for their 
spittle; and when he was on the cross, they jeeringly put a 
reed into his hand, and said, Hail, master, king of the Jews, 
with an inscription on the cross, " This is the king of the 
Jews." Or will ye instance in his comforts ? He was trou- 
bled, saith the gospel, began to be afraid, and his soul was 
heavy unto death. Thus were his sufferings great and 
universal, in regard of the thing suffered. Universal also 
they were, in regard of the parts and members of his body 
wherein he suffered. For what part was there, or member of 
his precious body, which suffered not ? His hands pierced 
with nails, and his feet also ; his back whipped and scourged ; 
his side run through with a spear ; and on his head was a 
crown of thorns. All his senses suffered also, and that at 
the same time : for in regard of his feeling, he was whipped, 
pierced and wounded ; in regard of his taste, they gave him 
vinegar and gall to drink ; in regard of his smell, they cruci~ 
fied him in a filthy place, the place of dead men's skulls, 
Golgotha ; in regard of his hearing, he was wearied with the 
blasphemies and derisions of the wicked ; and in regard of 
his sight, he saw his mother and his disciple whom he loved 
weeping.* Thus were his sufferings universal, both in regard 
of the things that he suffered, in regard of persons from 

* Aquin. Sum. par. iii. q. 46. Art. 5. 



SER. 1.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 203 

whom he suffered, and in regard of his own parts and mem- 
bers wherein he suffered. Surely? therefore, his suffering was 
very great, it was universal. 

As it was universal, so it was most extreme. The school- 
men tell us, that his grief was greater than all other griefs.* 
And indeed how could it be otherwise, for the more excellent 
and worthy the person is that doth suffer vile things from 
those that are vile, the more afflictive is his affliction to him. 
Now Christ suffered vile things from the vile, and he was 
the most excellent person in the world, the Lord of life and 
of glory, who thought it no robbery to be equal with God. 
And the more healthful that any man is, the more afflictive 
is his death to him. Sickness doth sometimes benumb a 
man, and takes away the sense of his sickness : but Christ 
suffered a painful, cruel death, in his full strength and health, 
being more free from sicknesses and diseases than any man ; 
yea, the more sensitive the parts are wherein a man suffers, 
the more extreme is his pain. Now those that were crucified, 
were nailed to the cross by their hands and feet, which parts 
and places are the quickest and fullest of sense, because there 
is a meeting of all the ligaments and sinews ; and to be racked 
in those parts where our sense dwells, what extreme torment 
is it.f Those that were crucified, though they had something 
to stay their feet, did hang by their hands. Now to have the 
whole weight of one's body hanging thus on our pierced 
hands, and so to die by degrees, what extreme torment 
must it needs be ? The less succour the inferior part of man 
hath from the superior part of his will and understanding, 
the more doleful is the pain in the senses. Now when Christ 
suffered, he did willingly suspend those comforts from his 
sense, which by way of sympathy might naturally have flowed 
in from his understanding, or supernaturally from the love of 
God ; and therefore his sense being left alone as it were, to 
conflict with those pains, they must be exceeding great, and 
very dreadful, exceeding doleful, and extremely painful.J 

* Dolor passionis Christi fuit major omnibus doloribus. Aquin. par. iii. Art. 6. 

t Optima complexionatus erat cum corpus ejus fuit formarum miracuiose ope- 
ratione spiritus sancti. Aquin. par. iii. Art. 6. 

t Duin pars inferior in nobis patitur superior compatitur, et dolorem quantum 
potest lenit, et tolerabiliua sit ; in Christo autem qui dominus naturae erat, ex 
voluutate sua fuit ista discontinuatio sell, ut vires inferiores perfectissime et ama- 
rissime paterentur et partes superiores intdlectus sci). et voluntas totaliter fini- 



204 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 1. 

As the sufferings of his body were extreme, so they were 
long and lingering ; crucified persons died a lingering death, 
they were two or three days a dying ; indeed our Saviour 
gave up the ghost sooner ; but he suffered from the cradle ; 
and though he sweat drops of blood in the garden only, yet 
he never was fully out of that agony till he gave up the 
ghost ; for a little before his death he cried out : " My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? " Now if his suffer- 
ings were universal, extreme, and lingering, then surely his 
travail was a sore travail in regard of his body. 

2. As for his soul. His travail was a sore travail, in re- 
gard of that, his travail was a soul-travail. It is here in 
special manner called, "The travail of his soul;" the soul, 
and life, and spirit of his sufferings, was in the sufferings of 
his soul, there was the vial of the wrath of God poured 
out, and there especially. The papists would persuade us 
that Christ did not suffer in his soul ;* of the same mind 
also are the Socinians,f and others J (not a little their friends 
fighting, though it may be ignorantly, with their weapons 
and arguments) who are risen amongst us. 

For the clearing therefore of this profitable truth (Christ 
suffering in his soul) I shall deliver myself in these four 
propositions : 

1. That Christ did truly suffer in his soul. 

2. That he did suffer in his soul immediately. 

3. That he did suffer and encounter with the wrath of 
God. 

4. That he did suffer and endure the very torments of 
hell in this life. 

1. Our Lord and Saviour Christ did truly suffer in his 
soul; for "it pleased the Father to bruise him, and hath 
put him to grief," Isa. liii. 10. || And saith Christ himself, 

rentur et nulla consolatio a deitate vel ab intellectu saltern naturaliter redundabat 
illo tempore in partem sensitivam, et tune potentise sensativse soli dolori vacantes 
acerrimum dolorem patiebantur ideo nullus homo tantum dolorem sensit in pjena- 
litatibus sicut Christus. Abulens. in Epist. D. Hieron. ad Paulinum, Cap. vii. 
pag. 41. Tom. i. in Gen. 

* Bellarmin. de Christ! Anima, Cap. viii. 

j" Socinus de Christo Servatore, pars ii. pag. 3. 

+ Crellius contra Grotiutn, Cap. i. p. 25. 

II Perspicuum est, sicut corpus flagellatum, ita animam vere doluisse, ne ex 
parte veritas, et ex parte mendaciuro credatur in Christo. Hierom, in Esa. liii. 



SER. 1.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 205 

"My soul is heavy unto death;" he was in great agony, 
Luke xxii. 42, insomuch as he " sweat great drops of blood." 
Now an agony, a-yona, signifies the sorrows of combaters enter- 
ing the lists with the sense of their utmost dangers of life. 
Matthew tells us that he began to be very sorrowful; ?rp\v7roc 
to be berounded, or besieged with sorrow ; chap. xxvi. 36, 37, 
" My soul," saith Christ, " is exceeding sorrowful, (rSaf*/3q9) 
even unto death." Mark tells us that he was, wXapeia, sore 
amazed;" amazement notes an universal cessation of the 
faculties of the soul from their several functions ; he was 
afraid, and he was sore afraid ;* the apostle says, that (< he 
was heard (Heb. v. 7) i n the thing that he feared. The 
word tv\ftfia here used, doth sometimes signify reverence or 
piety ;t but so it cannot be taken in this place ; for it is 
said he was delivered, or heard, OTTO r/e tv\aeta from his fear.J 
But amazement is more than fear. Ajid Mark tells us, that 
he "began to be sore amazed," chap. xiv. 33. Yea, he was 
not only amazed, but he was very heavy ; " and he began 
to be very heavy," so we read it : but the english word is 
too short, rjpfclo aZrjpovftv, he began to be so aftected with evil, 
as that he was, as it were, disabled for the minding of any 
thing else ; the word is compounded of a privative, and %npo<;, 
people ; as if he began to be out of the body ; it is the same 
word that is used in Phil. ii. 26 : " And was full of heavi- 
ness." || Now if our Lord and Saviour Christ was thus sor- 
rowful, and exceeding sorrowful; amazed, and sore amazed ; 
heavy, and his soul heavy even unto death ; then surely, he 
did truly suffer in his soul. But it may be that Crellius, 
and the Socinians, with their friends, will tell us, that his 
soul suffered only by way of sympathy and fellow-feeling 
with his body. Therefore, 

2. I add in the second place, that as he did truly suffer 

* Timorem significat give mctum impendentis mali et vixaliter inveniri apud 
bonos authores vereque Grsecos. Chamier Cap. 16, Lib. v. Tom. ii. 

\ EuAa/BttSai O.VTI row ^oXarlfSai, ^>o/39cu. Hesychius. 

J Nam scopus loci est explicate infirmitates a Christo susceptas : et quamvis 
aliquando atro causam genitivo notat internam causam motus vel actionis qute 
significatur verbo regente, nunquam taraen significat causam externe impellentem 
ad actionein. Ames. Bellar. enervat. 

|| Abqftoveiv significat maximam consternationera, adeo ut nulln admittatur 
consolatio. Nicol. Arnold. Relig. Socinia, pag. 501. 



206 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiB. 1. 

in his soul; so he did suffer in his soul immediately : for 
look where the disobedience of the first Adam began, there 
the obedience of the second Adam did begin also. Now 
the disobedience of the first Adam, was not only in his body, 
in eating with his mouth, the forbidden fruit ; but in his soul 
likewise, and he did eat with his body, because he did affect 
with his soul to be like God : there did his sin begin, namely 
in the pride and unbelief of his heart ; and therefore the obe- 
dience of the second Adam was not only to be performed 
with his body, but with his soul, and to begin there : the soul 
is not properly said to suffer when the body suffers, and by 
way of sympathy ; but when a grief is taken, or an affliction, 
which doth first arrest the mind and heart of men.* Now 
Christ did truly suffer in his soul ; for as his active obedi- 
ence was spiritual in his soul, as well as corporal in his body; 
so was, and ought to be, his passive also : and if Christ's 
sorrow did not begin in his soul, why is it said, that he trou- 
bled himself ? John xi. 33., " When he saw her weeping, and 
the Jews weeping, he groaned in the spirit, and was trou- 
bled ;" but according to the original, and your margin, he 
troubled himself; t why so, but because this trouble of his 
did begin from within ? and upon this account he did sweat 
drops of blood, when his body was in good health, and free 
from every sickness : the body will not sweat, but when na- 
ture is oppressed, when it is under some outward burden, 
then it sweats.J Christ was under no outward burden of 
disease ; only death was now approaching, the fear of which 
alone, simply considered, could not make him sweat drops of 
blood ; for says he, " I have a baptism to be baptized with, 
and how am I straitened till it be accomplished." Luke xii. 
50. Surely there was some other evil, the apprehension 
whereof, did immediately fall upon his soul, which did run 
and flow over into his body. Christ did suffer in his soul 
immediately. That is the second proposition. 

* Et sane nisi psenae fuissit particeps anima corporibus tamen fuisset redemp- 
tor. Calvini Institut. Lib. ii. Cap. 16. 

f Kcu ETretpafcv tavlov. 

J Quara pudenda fuisset hsec mollities eousque torqueri ob communis mortis 
formidinem ut sanguineo sudore diffluerit, neque posset recreari nisi angelorum 
conspectu quod ilia precatio ter reperita, transeat cselix, &c., annon ex incredibili 
amaritudine animi profecta ostendit asperius et majus arduum fuisse Christi cer- 
tamen quam cum morte communi. Calvini Institut. Lib. ii. Cap. 16. 



SER. 1.] CHRIST IN* TRAVAIL. 207 

3. As Christ did suffer in his soul immediately, so he did 
suffer and conflict with the wrath of God. I do not say that 
the Father was wroth, or angry with his person ; some do 
here distinguish of the wrath of God ; sometimes it is taken 
for the hatred of persons, so the reprobates are called " Ves- 
sels of wrath/' Rom. ix. 22. Sometimes it is taken for the 
execution of corrective justice ; so God is said to be " wroth 
with his own people," Deut. iv. 21. Sometimes it is tor the 
execution of vindicative justice, and in this sense, say they, 
God is said to be wroth with Christ.* But I rather choose to 
say that Christ is considered two ways, either in regard of 
his own person ; or as he did stand for us, being our surety. 
There is a difference between the affection of God's wrath, 
and the dispensation of it. Now Christ standing for us, and 
in our room and stead, did suffer and conflict with the wrath 
of God : that is the vindicative dispensation of it : for he was 
" made a curse for us," and a curse is a vindicative dispensa- 
tion of wrath. It may be the Socinians, and their friends, 
will say that he was made a curse for us, because he died 
that cursed death on the cross for our good : but if ye look 
into the words, ye shall find that he was made a curse for us, 
so as that there was a translation of the curse from us unto 
him, which curse was due for our sin ; for says the apostle, 
Gal. iii. 13., " Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the 
law, being made a curse for us, as it is written, Cursed is 
every one that hangeth on a tree :" for it is written again, 
verse 10., " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things that are written in the book of the law to do them/' 
Which curse, saith the apostle, Christ is made for us, we be- 
ing thereby redeemed from it, verse 13. Now is it possible 
that Christ should thus be made a curse for us, but he must 
suffer, and conflict with the wrath of God, which was due to 
us ? and if he were smitten of the Father, then did he bear 
the dispensation of the Father's wrath, and anger. Now it 
is said expressly in Isaiah liii., " It pleased the Father to 
bruise him," verse 10. " He was smitten of God, and af- 
flicted," verse 4. 

* Neque tantum innuimus Deum fuisse unquam illi adversarium vel irratum, 
quando enim dilecto filio in quo animus ejus acquievit irasceretur sed hoc nos 
dicimus, divinae severitatis gravitatem euro sustinuisse, quoniam, manu Dei per- 
cussus et afflictus, omnta irati et punientis Dei signa expertus est. Calvin. Insti- 
tut. Lib. ii. Cap. 16. 



208 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 1. 

4. As our Lord and Saviour Christ did suffer and conflict 
with the wrath of God, so he did endure the torments of hell 
whilst he was in this life. I do not say with the papists that 
he descended into hell after his death, nor that whilst he lived 
here he was damned for us ; that were blasphemy ; for a man 
is said to be damned that doth for ever bear the weight of 
his own sins : nor do I say that Christ did bear all that mi- 
sery of hell which we should have born, and which the repro- 
bates do and shall bear in hell, for they lie blespheming 
and despairing ; but though Christ was in a great agony, yet 
he did not despair, for said he, "My God, my God;" 
and though God did forsake him, yet that was not in 
regard of union, as it is with the damned in hell, but only in 
regard of vision ; yet he did endure and suffer for us the very 
torments and misery of hell : for there are two things concur- 
rent to the misery of hell, the punishment of loss and the 
punishment of sense j now both these did our Saviour bear 
whilst he was in this travail.* The punishment of loss : for 
he did lose and was for a time suspended from that sweet and 
comfortable vision and fruition of God, therefore he cried out, 
" My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?" which 
cannot be understood of his outward afflictions, as being left 
to the violence of men, for says Paul, 2 Cor. iv. 9, " We are 
persecuted but not forsaken " they were left to the violence 
of men and persecutors, yet they were not forsaken ; and 
therefore when Christ saith, Why hast thou forsaken me ? he 
doth not mean, so as to be left to the persecutions of men, 
for thus, says the apostle, we may be, and yet not forsaken.f 
And as he did bear the punishment of loss, so of sense also, 
for he sweat drops of blood ; not blood only, but drops of 
blood, nor a few drops only, but many, insomuch as they fell 
to the ground in so great a quantity as ran through his clothes, 

* Christus mortem gehennalem pro nobis sustinuit. Calvin in Matth. xxvi. 
39, in cap. 27, 46. Institut. lib. ii. 16. Chamier, torn. ii. 1. 5, cap. 1220. 
Sib. Lubbertus contra Socinum, lib. 1, cap. 1. Jon. Piscator contra Vorstiutn 
notse ad Amic. duplicat, Sect. 1, 24. Ames. Bellarm. enervat,lib. 2, de Christo. 
Maccovius de Mediator, Disp. 17. Willet Synops. part 4, quests. Cartwright 
Harmon, page 985, 988. Nico. Arnold Relig. Socinian, page 502. 

t Est genus psenarum quod patiuntur damnati in inferno, qui omni solatio 
carent, quidam huic simile redemptor noster sustinere dignatus est, qui omni a 
se solatium et consolationis remedium in passione abdicavit. Medina in Thorn, 
part 3, q. 46, a, 6. 



SKR. 1.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 209 

as some conceive, to the ground. Now can we imagine that 
he should be in this agony, sweating these drops of blood, 
heavy in his soul unto death and to sore amazement, crying 
out, " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me," only 
from the fear of death ? What, was our Saviour more afraid 
of death than the martyrs ? They went triumphing and some 
of them singing to their more cruel deaths and clapped their 
hands in their flames; had they more courage, faith or reso- 
lution than our Saviour ? * If it were only a corporal death 
that Christ thus feared, then they should suffer with more bold- 
ness and courage than our Saviour : But come, says Gerard, t 
and I will tell you what is the reason that our Saviour was 
thus afraid, and they so bold : our Saviour, saith he, drank 
of the brook in the way : but their drink was sweetened with 
his death; Christ did conflict with sin, Satan, death and hell; 
enemies whose force was never broken before : but the mar- 
tyrs only grappled with death ; a broken troop of sorrows, 
that rallied again, but was broken, and overcame before. 
Christ did sustain the malediction, and curse of the law.J 
There was a curse in his death, but the curse was taken out 
of the death of martyrs. || Christ did not only conflict 
with a temporal, but eternal death ; but the martyrs knew 
that they were free from eternal death ; Christ bare all their 
sins : but when they came to suffer, the sting of death, which 
is sin, was taken out, and upon this account, one of the mar- 
tyrs said, when he came to suffer: Christ grieved at his death, 
that I might rejoice in mine ; he had my sin on him, and I 
have his righteousness, and merits on me. Yea, he did 

* Videmus alios homines non tamen sine dolore et raotu sed etiam cum 
magno gaudio et laetitia mortem obire ex quo sequitur aut Christum qui est 
Dominus cicli et terras, minus animi, minus roboris, minus fiduciae, minus fortu- 
dinis et minus constantise tabuisse quam gregarios homine, aut sustinuisse mor- 
tem multo acerbiorem horribiliorem quam quemvis martyrum, sed illud dicere 
est impiura : sustinuit itaque aliud genus mortis quam alii homines et atrocius 
et sita fuit ilia atrocitas in sensu irse Dei in propossione execrationis. Sib. Lub- 
bert contra Socinum, lib. 2, cap. 1, p. 115. 

f Gerardi Harm. 

J Quod autem ad pios attinet, sciendum est longe alia in arena versari quam 
Christus nara rem habent cum morte et inferis devicti et profligatis Chrislus 
autem cum illis jam vegetis et armatis ira divina luctatus est. Carlw. Har. p. 985. 

|| VniDS in mortibus suis. Isa. liii. 9. 

Christus dolebat ut ego esse hilaris et Isetus, ille habebat mea pcccata et ego 
vere illius merita et justitiam. Essen, de Satis. Christi, page 56. 
VOL. III. P 



210 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 1. 

then endure the torments of hell in his sufferings, that by our 
sufferings we might go to heaven. 

But is it possible that one may endure the very torments 
of hell in this life ? 

Yes ; for as a man may have a taste of heaven before he 
come there, so possibly a man may have a taste of hell even 
in this life also. The wrath of God in scripture, is compared 
to and called fire, Ps. Ixxxiv. 46. And if ye look into the 
parable of Dives and Lazarus, ye shall find that Dives cries 
out to Abraham, to send one with a drop of water to cool his 
tongue. Why, but, says Austin, the body of Dives is not yet 
in hell ; what fire therefore is this that doth so torment him ? 
to which he answers, Quails lingua tails flamma, as the eyes, 
wherewith he sees Abraham afar off, such is the fire ; and as 
his tongue, such is the fire that he is tormented in, the fire of 
the wrath of God : this fire of God's wrath, was our dear 
Saviour scorched with, whilst he was in his travail : for by 
way of reason and argument, whereby the former propositions 
also shall be the more fully proved, if Christ did bear our 
griefs, then whatever miseries were inflicted upon us, and 
our nature, by virtue of the threatening itself, under which 
we were, those Christ did bear, and endure for us. But he 
did bear our griefs, I do not say that he did bear and 
endure all that we should have done. Whatever misery or 
punishment we should have born, or the reprobates do, or 
shall bear in hell, doth either proceed from the threatening 
itself as the proper effect thereof; or it doth proceed from 
the disposition and condition of the person whom the execu- 
tion of the threatening doth fall upon : the threatening itself 
doth produce death, " The day that thou eatest thereof, thou 
shalt die the death." Therefore death, evil, and the wrath 
of God for sin, doth proceed from the threatening itself. 
Now when this falls upon man, he despairs, and blasphemes, 
and lies under the wrath of God for ever : yet despair and 
eternal blasphemy, is not the punishment of the threatening 
itself, proceeding from the threat in itself considered, but pro- 
ceeds from the disposition of man, upon whom the execution 
of the curse falls : for no sin comes from God's threatening 
in itself considered.* Punishment properly, is satisfaction 
for injury done, but sin is a continuing of the injury. Des- 

* Desperado nou est de essentia psense infernalis, paente author est Deus, 



SGI*. 1.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 211 

pair, blasphemy, and death in sin is an action, the action of 
man ; but punishment is the passion and suffering of 
man ; so that death in sin, despair and blasphemy, are not of 
the essence of the punishment threatened ; but the wrath of 
God, death, and God's withdrawing of himself from man, are 
of the essence of the punishment, proceeding from the threat- 
ening in itself considered. Now look what the threatening 
in itself doth produce, that Christ suffered for us, but it will 
not therefore follow, that he should despair, blaspheme, or die 
in sin, because these do proceed from the condition, arid dis- 
position of our persons, that the curse of the threatening falls 
upon : as ye see it is with the beams of the sun ; if they fall 
on wax, they soften that ; but if they fall on the clay they 
harden that. So the wrath of God, and his withdrawance 
frilling upon us, there doth ensue, despair, blasphemy, and 
dying in sin ; but falling on Christ, it is not so"; Why ? be- 
cause these do not proceed from the threatening in itself con- 
sidered. Now, I say, look what we should have borne as due 
to us from the threatening itself, that Christ did bear for us : 
for saith the prophet Isaiah, chap, liii., " He hath borne our 
griefs;" that is, those griefs that were due to us from the 
threatening in itself considered. But if we had perished, and 
gone to hell ourselves, we should have suffered in our souls, 
and in our souls immediately, the wrath of God, and the very 
torments of hell, upon the account of the threatening : and 
therefore all these things did Christ suffer for us. 

Look what Christ delivered us from, that he endured for 
us ; for he delivered us by suffering ; he delivered us from 
death, and he endured that; he delivered us from Satan, 
and his temptations, therefore he endured them ; he deli- 
vered us from the law, therefore he was made under the 
law ; he delivered us from sin, and he bare our sin ; he deli- 
vered us from the wrath of God, therefore he did conflict 
with that ; and from the torments of hell therefore he did 
suffer them.* 

Diabolus et peccator desperationis, peena est hominis passio desperatio eat hominis 
actio. Ames. Bellar. enervat. lib. ii. de Christo, cap. 2. 

* Quod cairn, nos pro nostris debebamus sceleribus sustinere ille pro nobis 
passus cst, &c. 

Ut quod propter itnbecillitatem virium ferre non poteramus pro nobis ille 
portaret. llierom. in Esa. liii. 

TD1D quidam codices in plurali legunt 11'OlBn ut sit caatigatio 
P2 



212 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. I. 

Our Lord and Saviour Christ, did establish the law by his 
death. So says the apostle, speaking of Christ's death in his 
being made a propitiation for sin. " We do establish the 
law," Rom. iii. 31. Look therefore, whatever the law did re- 
quire of us, for whom he died, that hath Christ done, and 
performed, and suffered for us ; but according to the law, we 
were to suffer in our souls, and that immediately, yea, the 
wrath of God, with the torments of hell, and therefore here- 
in and thus hath Christ suffered for us. 

Either Christ hath suffered the wrath, and justice of God 
for the elect denounced against sin, Gen. ii. 17.; or God 
doth dispense with the execution thereof; or the elect are 
still to suffer it. But the elect are not still to suffer it, and 
God doth not, will not, cannot, by his ordinate power, dis- 
pense with the execution of it, and therefore Christ hath suf- 
fered it for them : but the execution of that law, did extend 
to the wrath of God, and torments of hell upon soul and 
body ; certainly therefore, our Lord and Saviour Christ, hath 
not only suffered in his body, but in his soul to, and that 
immediately. Neither can the strength of these arguments 
and reasons, be waved, by saying that Christ did or might 
satisfy the law, by enduring somewhat equivalent to the pun- 
ishment due, according to the letter of it. For 

The law is not satisfied, unless the thing be paid, or endured 
in the kind which the law doth require, although something 
be paid, or endured, which is equivalent to the damage made 
by the trespass : as in case, the law requiring an eye for an 
eye, and a tooth for a tooth, that a Jew did strike out his 
brother's tooth, and the judge did order that his eye should 
be put out for it ; though the eye be equivalent to a tooth, yet 
the law should not be satisfied with that judgment: and in case 
that a man stole an ox from another, five oxen being to be res- 
tored by the law, if the judge had given the wronged person 



retributionum nostrarum (uti illud plurale nomen usurpatur, Psalm Lxix. 23 ) h. e. 
costigatio quse peccatorum nostrorum est justa retributio seu quse justse retribu- 
tionis ac paense loco ob peccata nostra super nos venire debebat venit super eum 
sett. Christum Glass. Philolog. Sacr. lib. 3, tr. 1, p. 107. 

Disciplina ictributionis nostrse super eum id est supplicium, quod nos retri- 
buere ac rependere debuimus pro peccatis nostris super eum imposuit Deus, 
id est quicquid paenarum Deus a nobis exigere debuit pro peccatis, id ab inno- 
cente filio pater exegit. Sanctius in Esa. liii. 5. 



1.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 213 

one ox every way as good as his own, yet the law should not 
have been satisfied : so that an equivalent may be paid or 
endured, yet the law not satisfied. 

The punishment which the law, " The day that thou eatest 
thereof thou shalt die the death," doth threaten, is death and 
the wrath of God, pana sensus, et poena damni. Now those 
those that oppose the truth in hand, say that Christ did not 
bear the wrath of God, nor was forsaken by God as to his 
soul : and is an outward forsaking, being left to the malice of 
men, equivalent to the wrath of God. 

Either Christ did bear the wrath of God, or not ; either he 
did endure the punishment of loss and sense upon his soul 
and body, or not ; if he did, then he did endure the same 
punishment in kind, that we should have done ; if he did not, 
but somewhat equivalent, then there is some evil that is equi- 
valent to the wrath of God. But there is no evil equivalent 
to the wrath of God, surely therefore he did endure our pun- 
ishment in kind, even the wrath of God, and the torments of 
hell for us : so far as they were due to us by the threatening 
in itself considered. And if Christ have thus suffered for us, 
both in his soul and body, then his travail was a sore travail. 
But, 

As the travail of Christ was a sore travail ; so it was a long 
and tedious travail ; he was in the pains of this travail from 
his cradle, to the last breath of his cross ; not only in his 
death, but in his life all along : upon which account Matthew 
doth apply those words of the prophet Isaiah, " Surely he 
hath borne our griefs, and carried our sins" unto what Christ 
did, and suffered in his life ; for, saith the gospel of Matthew, 
chap. viii. 16., " When evening was come they brought unto 
him, many that were possessed with devils, and he cast out 
the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick :" 
Mark tells us, that " all the city was gathered together at the 
door," chap. i. 32, 33. So that he did cure, and heal them 
with his own trouble; according to that of John xi. 33., when 
Lazarus was dead, and he saw them weeping, he groaned and 
he wept, and so he raised Lazarus : well thcrefoie might the 
evangelist apply that of Isaiah to this occasion ; for he took 
away the diseases of the people by his own suffering with them, 
and cast out the devils by his conflicting with them ; and so 
though he did not come into the extremity of this travail, till 



214 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 1. 

the last, yet he had many pains and pangs all along whilst he 
lived. He wept, and he wept, and he wept again : three 
times we read of his weeping ; once at the raising of Lazarus, 
those were his regal tears ; once at his coming into Jerusa- 
lem, when he said " Thy house is left to thee desolate," 
those were his prophetical tears ; once at the last in his 
agony, when he " prayed with cries and tears," Heb. v., those 
were his priestly tears : his whole time was a weeping time, 
a sorrowful time ; and therefore the apostle counts of his suf- 
ferings from the time of his coming into the world, Heb. x. 
5., " Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, he saith, 
Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast 
thou prepared me." This travail then was a long and tedious 
travail.* 

III. As it was a long and tedious travail, so it was an 
helpless travail ; helpless in regard of men, " and they all 
forsook him," saith the text. When a woman is in travail, 
friends come, and midwife comes, and helpers come. But 
when Christ was in travail, even his very friends forsook 
him, yea, God himself did forsake him : no friend, nor mid- 
wife, nor helper, but in this matter he trode the wine-press 
of his Father's wrath alone. Oh, what an hard labour was 
here ! yet thus, thus in regard of his body, thus in regard of 
his soul, Christ was in travail for us. 

But suppose that Christ was in travail, and thus in travail 
for us, what then ? 

Then it is our duty to come in, and behold this hard and 
sore labour. When Moses saw the bush burning that was 
not consumed, he said, I will stand still, and behold this 
wonder. But behold a greater wonder is here, Christ bearing 
our sins in the fire of the wrath of God, and yet not con- 
sumed ; shall we not then stand still, and behold this wonder 
of love ? 

t Locus Esaise dicitur ad impleri avaywyiKUQ avaywyrj enim docet quid 
speres, uti Lyranus ; litera gesta docet ; quid credas, allegoria, moralis, quid 
agas ; quid speres anagogia ; cum enim multa miracula edere incipiebat Christus 
fieri potuisset ut vulgus existimasset Christum tamen excellentem et mirificum 
esse chyrurgum, ad hoc precavendum. Mattheus hominum mentes elevare per 
avaXwyijv de Christo altius quid sperare voluit. 

Chemnit. Harmon, sic Rupertus Ferus, Flaccius in glos. super 8 c. Matth. 1 /. 

Per sanationes corporis animae sanationem representavit. 

fiaoaleiv autem absolute significat onerose portare, Apoc. 2, 3, cum molestia 
portare, Matt. xx. 12. Konick Disp. 25, loc. 83. 



SER. 1.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 215 

Hereby you see all the attributes and divine perfections 
of God in conjunction, and meeting as in their dwelling 
place ; ye may see much of the wisdom, power, justice, and 
goodness of God, scattered up and down in the creatures. 
There is an honey in every flower, which the bee can find 
and discern ; but in the hive doth the several homes of the 
creatures meet and dwell, that is the house thereof. So there 
is a sweet taste of the several attributes of God in all the 
creatures ; but in Christ doth his fulness dwell bodily ; 
and in his suffering you may see the wisdom, power, justice, 
and mercy of God in conjunction, and so know God indeed ; 
which knowledge was more worth to Paul than all other 
knowledges, for, saith he, " I desire to know nothing but 
Christ, and him crucified." 

Hereby also, I mean by the consideration of this great 
and sore travail, you will prize and value Christ more, and 
have your hearts drawn out with love to him ; for shall I 
not prize him that suffered the wrath of God and the tor- 
ments of hell for me ? The more you see his love to you, 
the more will your hearts be inflamed with love to him. 
Now the greater his sufferings for you do appear to you, the 
more you see his love to you : " When I am lift up (saith he) 
I will draw all men after me ;" that is, when I am lift up on 
the cross ; he doth not say, when I am transfigured at mount 
Tabor, I will draw all to me ; yet there was a drawing glory, 
which made Peter say, It is good for us to'be here. But his 
love is the most drawing object, and that was glorious in 
suffering. 

Thereby you will learn to prize all your enjoyments ; for 
thus you will see what they cost, what rate they are at in 
the king's book ; there is no blessing or mercy which we do 
enjoy, but was bought in by Christ ; he laid down his life 
for you, and in him are you blessed with all spiritual bles- 
sings. But did Christ suffer such hard things for my enjoy- 
ments ? Oh, what infinite cause have I then to prize them 
all! 

Hereby also, you will be made willing to suffer any thing 
for Christ, to become low and mean for him, to endure the 
reproach, anger, and wrath of men for him. For shall Christ 
suffer so hard a labour for me in his body, in his soul, and shall 
not I suffer in mv estate and name for him ? Shall he suffer 



216 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SEK. 1 

the wrath of God for me ; and shall not I be willing to suffer 
the .wrath of man for him ? Shall he endure the very tor- 
ments of hell for me ; and shall not I be willing to suffer a 
little on earth for him ? 

Thereby you will be made unwilling to put him to a new 
suffering for you ; those that fall away and decline, do " cru- 
cify the Lord afresh (saith the apostle) and put him to an 
open shame ;" when professors walk scandalously, they put 
Christ to an open shame, to a new suffering. But is this 
true, that Christ hath suffered so great things for me, and 
shall he now suffer by me ? What ! hath he not suffered 
enough already ? He hath suffered in his body, in his soul, 
the wrath of God, the very torments of hell, and is not this 
enough ? God forbid that ever I should so walk, that Christ 
should yet suffer by me, who hath suffered such things 
for me. 

Hereby also, you shall be able to overcome your tempta- 
tions, corruptions, and to be more fruitful, and profitable, 
and gracious in your lives ; here is the shop of virtues, Officina 
virtutum ; whatever grace or virtue you want, you may have 
in this shop, if you will come for it. Dost thou want hatred 
of sin ? Here you may see it in its own colours, and the 
reward thereof. For if God spared not his own Son, but he 
endured the wrath of God, and the very torments of hell, 
when sin \vas but imputed to him; oh, what an hell, and 
flaming fire shall 'those endure, who have sin of their own, 
and must bear it themselves ! And, says Gerard, would you 
see the torments of hell, the true punishment of sin ? Ito 
ad montem Calvarite, go to mount Calvary. Or dost thou 
want patience in thine afflictions? Behold the travail of 
Christ, as a lamb he opened not his mouth before the shearer. 
Or dost thou want a tender, broken heart ? Truly his heart 
is hard indeed which the sight of these breakings of Christ 
will not break. 

Hereby, also, you will be engaged unto his commandments 
and ordinances. For what are the ordinances which now 
we enjoy, but the representation of a suffering Christ, where- 
by we hold forth the Lord's death till he come ? What is 
all our preaching and your hearing, but of Christ crucified ? 
What is baptism, the Lord's supper, or any other ordinances, 
but that bed wherein we have communion with a suffering 



SER. 1.] CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. 21? 

Christ? And shall Christ suffer such bitter things for us 
in his soul and body; and shall we throw up those ordinances 
whereby we are to have communion with him in these suffer- 
ings ? God forbid ! 

And hereby also, you that are of a fearful heart, may 
fully conclude the willingness of God to save sinners. For 
if God the Father had not been very willing, he would never 
have put his own only Son to so great a suffering for their 
salvation. What can be more abhorrent from the heart of 
a tender Father, than to put his own, only, and obedient 
Son unto death ? It goes to the heart of a tender father to 
see his child die ; " I will not see the death of the child," 
said Hagar, " and she sat down over against him, and lift up 
her voice and wept," Gen. xxi. 16; but to lay his own hands 
upon him, in reference to his death, this is a grief beyond all 
expression ; yet this did God the Father do, for he bruised 
his Son, he put him to grief, he smote him, and he laid on 
him the iniquities of us all. Surely, if God the Father had 
not been infinitely willing to save sinners, he would never 
have done a thing so contrary to him ; and if Christ himself 
were not willing, he would never have suffered such hard 
things for their salvation. What is not a woman willing to 
do for that child, whom she hath had a sore travail for ? 
Now Christ's travail was a sore travail ; surely therefore, 
he is infinitely willing to save sinners, and if God the Father 
be willing, and Christ be willing, then why should not every 
poor, doubting, drooping soul say, " Lord, I believe, help 
thou mine unbelief;" I once doubted of thy love, because 
I doubted of thy willingness to save such as I am, yea, often 
have I put an if upon thy willingness, saying with the leper, 
" Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean." But now 
I see thou art willing to save sinners ; why should I then 
doubt again ? 

And upon this account, all poor sinners may be encouraged 
to come to Christ ; for if Christ did come down from heaven 
for you, will he refuse you when you come to him ? If lie 
have suffered such hard and bitter things for sinners, do ye 
think he will cast them away that do come to him ? Surely 
he will not. Oh, what great encouragement doth this doc- 
trine proclaim unto all poor and great sinners for to come to 
Christ. 



218 CHRIST TN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

And hereby also, your faith may be established, and your 
hearts comforted and settled, when you have come to Christ ; 
for the more fully the suffering of Christ, which is the object 
of your faith, is spread before your eyes, the more will your 
faith be raised and established ; and if Christ have suffered 
such great things for you, even the very wrath of God, and 
torments of hell, then you may be assured that he will never 
forget you. Can a woman forget her child ? No. Why ? But 
because she hath travailed for it. But behold, here is a 
travail beyond all travails ; Christ travailing in the greatness 
of his love for poor sinners, travailing under the wrath of God 
his Father, and will he forget you that are his seed ? "Though 
a woman forget her child, yet will not I, saith the Lord." 
Oh, what comfort is this for all the seed of Christ ; Christ 
hath had a sore travail for you, therefore assure yourselves 
he will never forget you. And thus I have done with the 
first argument of this doctrine, Christ in travail. 



SERMON II. 

CHRIST IN TROUBLE AND HIS ASSURANCE OP ISSUE. 

" He shall see of the travail of his soul, and be satisfied." ISAIAH 
liii. 11. 

HAVING spoken to the first argument, Christ in travail, 
we are now to proceed to the second, His assurance of issue ; 
though he had an hard labour of it in the day of his suffer- 
ings, yet he was sure and certain that he should not miscarry ; 
many women do miscarry in travail, few or none have assur- 
ance that they shall not miscarry j but before our Saviour 
Christ fell in travail, the Father did assure him, that he should 
see his seed and be satisfied ; accordingly he hath seen the 
travail of his soul, for, saith he, Heb. ii. 13 : " Behold, I, and 
the children whom God hath given me/' and he shall yet see 
his seed ; he did not lay down his life at uncertainties, nei- 
ther was it left in suspense whether he should have issue or 
not, but he was assured of it, and so he died for sinners. 

For the opening and clearing whereof we must inquire, 



SER. 2.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 219 

I. What this issue is which Christ did travail for. 

II. What assurance he had of it. 

I. As for the issue of Christ's travail, which he travailed 
for, it is all that fruit and effect of his sufferings, which he did 
travail for. There are some immediate next effects and 
fruits of Christ's death and sufferings, which I may call the 
first birth of the death of Christ. There are other effects 
which are more remote, and I may call them the latter birth 
of the death and sufferings of Christ. But look whatever 
fruit or effect that is which Christ did travail for, that 
he was assured of. The first he did see presently, and the 
latter he doth and shall see daily. 

What are those first, next, and immediate effects and fruits 
of the death of Christ, which he presently saw ? 

Those are many; and because there are so many opinions 
of men about them, I shall answer to this question, both 
negatively and affirmatively. 

1. Negatively. 

Some think that the first and immediate effect of Christ's 
death was, to make God reconcileable to mankind ; for " God 
was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself;" but the 
world was not actually reconciled at his death ; and therefore, 
say they, the first effect of Christ's death was to make God 
reconcileable. But this cannot be the next and immediate 
effect of the death of Christ; for God was reconcileable 
before Christ died, and had not only a velleity, but a full will 
to shew mercy to us ; for, John iii. : " God so loved the 
world, that he sent his only begotten Son." Now if the 
love of God to mankind were the cause of Christ's coming 
into the world, then he was reconcileable before the death of 
Christ. 

Others think that our actual reconciliation is the next and 
immediate effect of the death of Christ. But this cannot 
be, for our Saviour tells us, That he which believeth not, 
abidcth under wrath ; " The wrath of God doth abide on 
him." Now if the wrath of God do abide upon a man, so 
long as he abideth under unbelief, then is he not reconciled 
to God actually, till he believeth. When a man is actually 
reconciled to God, then he is justified ; but " we are justi- 
fied by faith," Rom. v. 1, and therefore a man is not actually 



220 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

reconciled till he doth believe actually. Those that are 
without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, 
and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, 
and without God in the world, cannot be actually reconciled 
to God ; but so were the converted Ephesians before their 
conversion, Eph. ii. 12. The apostle Paul saith expressly, 
that whilst the Corinthians were unrighteous and wicked, 
they were not justified, 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10, 11 : " Know ye not 
that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God ; 
be not deceived, neither fornicators, nor adulterers, nor 
thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, &c., shall inherit the 
kingdom of God ; and such were some of you : but ye are 
sanctified, but ye are justified," &c. Therefore they were 
not justified, and so not actually reconciled unto God before 
their conversion. As glorification follows our justification, so 
our justification follows our vocation, Rom. viii. 30, actual 
reconciliation therefore, and justification, is not the next 
effect of Christ's death. 

But we are then discharged from our sins, when they are 
charged on Christ, and they were charged on Christ, when 
he died for them. 

True, when Christ died, then were our sins charged on him; 
but it doth not follow that we were then discharged : for 
there is a great difference between a man's paying of his debt 
himself, and the payment of the surety. If a man be arrested 
for a debt of his own, and do pay it himself, he is then dis- 
charged from the debt, but if the debt be charged on the 
surety and he pay it, the debtor is not presently discharged 
from the debt, in regard of the surety, but to be discharged 
when the surety pleaseth. Now our sins were charged on 
Christ, as our Surety, and he did pay our debt; look there- 
fore, when he pleases, we are discharged from them, and that, 
saith he, is upon your believing not before, being "justified 
by faith, ye have peace with God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ," Rom. v. 1. 

Some think that Christ died to reconcile man to God, so 
far as that Salva Justitia, or noti obstante Justitia Dlvina ; 
God might have a power to shew mercy to the children of 
men, which he was willing to do, but was bound from it by 
his justice ; and that by the death of Christ, he was free to 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 221 

give unto man what law he pleased ; which liberty, or power 
of God, say they, was the next effect of Christ's death.* 

But this cannot be, for then Christ died to redeem the 
power of God, out of the hand of his justice; for that which 
is delivered by the death of Christ, is redeemed ; but where 
do we find in Scripture, that Christ is said to redeem God, 
or any thing of God's ? This doth suppose that God was 
willing to shew mercy to man, and to do that for man which 
he could not do ; but that cannot be with God : man may 
be willing to do that which in justice he cannot do, because 
his will may be unjust, but God's will cannot be unjust ; 
and therefore he cannot will that which he cannot do in 
justice. This makes void the death of Christ, according to 
the maintainers of this opinion ; for they say, That God 
could pardon the sin of man without the death of Christ ; 
and therefore if Christ died to procure such a power and 
liberty to God, then he died for nothing ; for according to 
themselves he had this power before.f This opinion doth 
suppose that there is a velleity, and voluntus in God ; an 
half and a full will ; and if God's will may be imperfect and 
perfect, then his knowledge also may be plena et semiplena, 
perfect and imperfect; and so imperfection will be charged 
upon God. The apostle Paul tells us, Heb. 9, that Christ 
died as Mediator of the new covenant, therefore not to set 
God free to make what covenant he pleased with the children 
of men. What state shall redeemed man be in presently 
upon this account, not under the gospel, for God is left free 
by the death of Christ, they say, to appoint what covenant 
he pleases, and not under the law, for he was by Christ 
redeemed from the law.J If the confirmation of the new 

* Christum tnerito mortis suse Deum patrem universe generi humano hactenus 
reconciliavit, ut pater propter ipsius meritum salva justitia et veritate sua novum 
gratia fsedus cum peccatoribus inire et sancire potuerit ac voluerit. Sententia 
Remonstrantium circa secundum Articul. 

Act. Synod. 280. Arrain. Perkins. Oper. Armi. page 675. 

t Si potestas et jus salvandi in Deo consideretur absolute Deus si voluisset 
potuisset nos salvare citra satisfactionem Christi sed non voluit id facere. Cor- 
nivus contra Molin. p. 43C. 

Deus potest de suo jure quantum vult dimittere instar. regis creditoris, Matt, 
xviii, nisi velimus Deo minus quam nobis licere Sores Vorstianns, p. 4, 5. 

Mirabilis ille status in quern homines restitui dicunt per Christum neque est 
status gratice evangelice quse non fluit ex ftedere gratite neque potest esse status 
legis neque ullus alius status in quo homines stare solent. Ames. Antisynodal 
de more Christi, cap 4, p. 149. 



222 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

covenant, were the next effect of Christ's death, as ap- 
pears by Heb. ix. 14, 15, then Christ did not die to pro- 
cure such a power and liberty to God, that he might 
appoint what covenant he pleased. Surely therefore, this 
power or liberty in God is not an effect of Christ's death, 
much less the next effect of it.* 

Some think that the next and immediate effect of the 
death of Christ, is the forgiveness of original sin unto all 
the world ; none, say they, are damned only for original sin ; 
this by the death of Christ, was immediately forgiven to all 
the children of men. 

But this cannot be, for then all the world should be actu- 
ally reconciled unto God, and justified ; for according to their 
own opinion, justification and forgiveness of sin are one and 
the same thing ; but the apostle tells us, that " Whom God 
justifies, them he also glorifies/' Rom. viii. Then also, there 
should not only be an impetration of redemption and grace 
for all, but an application unto all, which they deny. Then 
the children of heathens and pagans should be in a better 
state and condition than the godly, who live under the gospel ; 
for according to their opinion, the godly living under the 
gospel may fall away and be damned ; and so, though they 
be godly, they have no assurance of their salvation; but if a 
pagan's child die, he is sure to go to heaven, because his sin 
is pardoned, and he is justified. The apostle Paul tells us, 
2 Cor. vii., that the children of believers are clean and holy, 
and upon the account of the parents' faith ; but if original 
sin be pardoned to all the world, then the children of infidels 
and unbelievers also are holy ; and if so, why doth the apos- 
tle tells us, that our children are holy upon the account of the 
parents' faith ? The apostle Jude tells us, that the Sodom- 
ites endured the vengeance of hell; surely there were some 
children in the town and place ? " The wages of sin is 
death," saith the apostle Paul, and death reigned from Adam 
to Moses, even upon them that had not sinned after the 
similitude of Adam's transgression. And if the wrath of 
God do abide upon all until they do believe, then surely 
original sin is not forgiven unto all the world by the death of 
Christ. 

* Remonstrantes sic declaratio sent, circa 2. Artie. Acta Synod. 286. So- 
ciniani sic Crellius contra Grotium, p. 304. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 22.5 

Others think that the obtainment of this decree, namely, 
Whoever believes shall be saved, and whoever believeth not 
shall be damned, is the next and great effect of the death 
of Christ. 

But this cannot be the effect of Christ's death ; for we 
read of no such general decree of God in the Scripture. We 
read of this gospel truth, Whoever believes shall be saved, 
and whoever believes not shall be damned ; but every gospel 
truth is not a decree of God. Christ is the Son of God, is 
a gospel truth ; the Lord will write his law in your hearts, is 
a gospel truth and promise ; but this is not called God's de- 
cree. Such a general decree doth exclude and deny election 
of particular persons.* The Scripture tells us plainly of the 
election of particular persons : Eph. i., (f Who hath chosen 
us ;" Rom. viii., " W T hom he hath predestinated, them he 
hath also called ; the foundation of God standeth sure, he 
knoweth who are his." But now if there were such a gene- 
ral decree as this, Whoever believes shall be saved, and 
whoever believes not shall be damned ; there would need no 
election of particular persons, but only an execution of that, 
general decree. By that general decree God doth will no 
more to one than to another; but Rom. ix. God doth will 
more to one than to another, for " Jacob he loved, and Esau 
he hated."f If there were such a general decree, and none 
else, as some say,J then the will of God should be undeter- 
mined as to the salvation of this or that particular man until 
he believed, and so should be determined by some act of 
man. But the will of God, as Braclwardine || demonstrates, 
is the first agent ; primum liberum, primum agens, et primum 
determinants ; first free, the first mover, and the first deter- 
miner ; the serious consideration whereof was, as he profes- 
seth, the first beginning of his conversion to the grace of 
God, from the error of Pelagianism and Manicheism. 

* Electio est alicujus particularis cum rejectione alterius, hoc sic ante jacta 
mundi fundamenta, ergo datur aliquid plusquam decretum generale. Ames. 
Antisin. 

t Decreto isto general! Deus nihil magis velit uni quam alter! sed Rom. 9, 
magis vult uni quam alteri. Ames. Antisin. 

Totum et integrum predestinationis decretum. Act. Synod, p. 48. 

11 Ego autem stultus a scientia Dei et vanus, &c., postea vero videbar mihi vi- 
dete a longe gratia Dei omnia bona precedentem tempore et natura ; sicut aniina 
in omnibus motibus primus motor. Bradward. de Causa Dei, Lib. i. cap. 3">, 
pag. 308. 



224 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

Neither can the death of Christ be the cause of any such 
decree; for the decrees of God are eternal, the death of 
Christ was in time ; and that which is in time, cannot be the 
cause of that which was from all eternity. Surely therefore 
this general decree is none of that issue, wherewith our Lord 
and Saviour Christ was in travail. 

Some think again, that the next and great effect of Christ's 
death, was to bring all the world into the covenant of grace ; 
that whereas before they had broken the covenant of works 
by the first Adam, now all are brought into a covenant of 
grace by the second Adam, 

But this cannot be ; for as the covenant of works was 
made with the first Adam and his seed only ; so the covenant 
of grace was made with the second Adam and his seed only. 
But the whole world are not the seed of Christ, for the Lord 
promising him to see his seed, doth not promise him to see 
all the world. The apostle tells us, that the Ephesians before 
their conversion, were aliens from the commonwealth of 
Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, being 
without hope, and without God in the world, Ephes. ii. 12; 
which could not be, if all the world were taken into the 
covenant of grace by the death of Christ. If God deal with 
all mankind in a covenant of grace, then all mankind should 
certainly be saved : for, if whatever God requires on man's 
part, God doth by that covenant undertake that man shall 
perform ; then all must needs be saved, if the covenant be 
made with all ; but whatever by this covenant God requires 
on man's part, he undertakes to perform. Doth God require 
that we should act from an inward principle of grace? " I 
will write my law in your hearts," saith he. Doth he require 
of us to know him ? this he undertakes for us by this cove- 
nant, " Ye shall all know me, from the greatest to the least," 
Heb. viii. Doth he require us to fear him ? " I will put my 
fear into your hearts." Doth he require faith and repentance 
at our hands ? " I will take away (saith he) the heart of 
stone, and give you a heart of flesh ; and I will circumcise 
thine heart," Deut. xxx. 6. Doth he require obedience at 
our hands ? he undertakes for us also that we shall perform 
the same : " I will put my Spirit into you, and cause you to 
walk in my ways," Ezek. xxxvi. 27. So that if God should 
deal with all the world of mankind according to the covenant 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 225 

of grace, then all the world should be saved ; but all the 
world are not saved, surely therefore this is none of those 
effects which our Lord and Saviour Christ travailed for. 

Some think that Christ by his death hath obtained a suffi- 
ciency of grace for all men, so that all men may or may not 
believe if they will ; and this obtainment of this sufficiency 
of grace for all, they think is the great and next effect of the 
death of Christ. 

But this cannot be, for the thing is not true, namely, that 
all men have a sufficiency of grace by Christ to believe on 
him : for if all the men of the world have such a power from 
Christ to believe on him, then the Jews had a power to ab- 
stain from their unbelief, in putting Christ to death, and yet 
they had this power from the death of Christ ; and if so, then 
it was possible that Christ should not have died by the hand 
of their unbelief, and yet possible, by virtue of Christ's death, 
for them to abstain from the putting him to death, which is a 
contradiction : neither can it be said, that they had this power 
given them upon the the foresight of Christ's death, for the 
same foresight did foresee that Christ should be put to death 
by the hand of their unbelief. If all men have such a power 
to believe in Christ, then either they must have an inward 
principle of grace and faith, or they can act without an inward 
principle ; but they have no inward principle of faith and 
grace, for then they should be believers, for it is the inward 
habit and principle which denominates the man, and not this 
or that act, for a man is a believer though he be asleep : nor 
can any creature put forth an act without an inward principle 
suitable to the act; the eye cannot act in seeing without an 
inward principle of sight, nor the ear hear without an inward 
principle of hearing; the herb cannot grow without an inward 
principle of growth, nor the beast move without an inward 
principle of motion, nor any creature act without a precedent 
inward principle : but all the men of the world have not an 
inward principle of faith and grace, and therefore all the men of 
the world have not a power to believe. The apostle Paul tells 
us plainly that u a natural man receiveth not the things of 
God, neither can he," 1 Cor. iii. 14, but if he have a power 
to believe, then he can receive them, for receiving is our be- 
lieving, 1 John 12 : neither can it be said that by the natural 
man we are to understand the weak Christian, for if the weak 

VOL. III. Q 



226 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

Christian cannot receive the things of God, much less the 
wicked and the pure natural man : nor doth the apostle speak 
of a natural man as he is merely considered in the state of 
nature, abstracted from all gospel grace and the means of grace, 
for then he should speak to no particular case in the world, for, 
according to our adversaries, there is no man in the world but 
hath some gospel grace or means of grace. Our Saviour Christ 
tells the Jews, John x.26, " Ye believe not because ye are not 
of my sheep ;" it seems, then, that all the world, are not the 
sheep of Christ, for saith he, Ye are not of my sheep ; and the 
reason why some do believe is because they are of Christ's 
sheep, and why others believe not is because they are not of 
his sheep : now if the reason why some believe and others 
not, is because some are his sheep and others not, then all the 
world have not a power to believe ; for if all the world have 
a power to believe, then those that are not of the sheep may 
believe ; and if those that are not of the sheep can believe, 
why doth our Saviour give this as a reason why they did not 
believe because they were not of his sheep ? The apostle 
Paul saith, Rom. x. 14, " How shall they believe in him of 
whom they have not heard ; and how shall they hear without 
a preacher ; and how shall they preach except they be sent ?" 
but now all the particular men in the world have not heard of 
a crucified Christ by the preaching of the gospel. And if it 
be said, Yes, but the sun, moon and stars do preach Christ, 
as the apostle saith in the same chapter, " Their sound and 
words is gone forth into all the earth ;" I answer, It is true, 
indeed, that the apostle doth here allude to that xixth Psalm, 
where it is said that the voice of the sun, moon and stars is 
gone forth unto all the earth ; but the apostle doth not con- 
tradict himself, for he saith, " How can they believe in him 
of whom they have not heard ; and how can they hear with- 
out a preacher," and a preacher sent ? If men can hear of 
Christ by the preaching of the sun, moon and stars, then they 
can hear of Christ without the preaching of one sent, which 
he denies in the 14th and 15th verses. And if the sun, moon 
and stars do preach Christ crucified, then is the matter of the 
gospel no divine revelation : and then why might not Adam 
believe in Christ in the state of innocency ? the sun, moon 
and stars preach the same doctrine now that they preached 
.then, and then the same that they preach now ; if, therefore 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 227 

they do preach Christ crucified now, then also they preached 
him in the state of innocency; and so Adam in the state of inno- 
cency had a power to believe on Christ, which the maintainers 
of th^s opinion deny : neither can it be said that if all men 
have not a power to believe then God should be unjust in 
punishing so many for unbelief, for, besides that all had a 
power in Adam, God doth punish and damn men for their 
will, not for their want of power ; for as Hugo observes well, 
When a man cannot if he will, for the will the impossibility 
is not imputed, but if he will not ; for impossibility the will 
is not excused.* 

Some, again, do think that Christ died to obtain a power, 
dominion and lordship over all things, especially a power to 
forgive sins, which he had not before his death ; and that the 
next effect of his death was the obtainment of this power 
and dominion.t 

But this cannot be, for if Christ had this dominion, power 
and lordship over all, by virtue of the hypostatical union, 
then it was not merited by his death ; but this he had by that 
mysterious union, and therefore as soon as he was born the 
angel said unto the shepherds, " For unto you is born 
this day in the city of David, the Saviour, which is Christ 
the Lord," Luke ii. 11. Christ did not merit for himself, as 
the protestants speak against the papists, for if Christ should 
merit such a glory and dominion for himself, then the love of 
Christ to man in his death would be much lessened ; it is said, 
indeed, that upon his suffering, as a consequent thereof, or by 
way of declaration, say some, J God gave him " a name above 
every name," &c. Phil, ii., but that relates to the former words 
also, " Who thought it no robbery to be equal with God, yet 
took on him the form of a servant," verse 7> which notes the 
hypostatical union. If Christ bought in this power and do- 

* Quando homo non potest, si volit, propter voluntatem impossibilitas non 
imputatur ; si autem non vult, propter impossibilitatem voluntaa non excusatur. 
Hugo de St. Viet. L. 2. de Sacr. par. xiv. cap. 6. 

Cornel. Jansen. August. Lib. iii. de Gratia Christ! Salvatoris. 

t Smalcius Catechis. Racov. de Officio Christi Regio. 

Theses Francis. Davidis Thes. v. 

t Dio nou causam sed ordinem et co::sequentiam notat, Acts xx. 20 ; Heb. 
iii. 7 ; 2 Peter i. 10, sic Luc. xxiv. 26, oportuit ilium pati et bic iutntrc ; sic 
sancti per multos tribulationes debent reguum ingredi qusc tamem liujus nuu sun'- 
causa-, Quistorp, Annot. Bibl. in Ps. ex. 
Q2 



228 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [$ER . 2 

minion by his death, then he purchased it with his blood, but 
his blood is propitiatory and satisfactory, not procuring lord- 
ship and dominion. The power, lordship and dominion which 
Christ hath is either essential, or dispensatory and mediato- 
rial : his essential power and lordship was not merited by his 
death, for he hath that as he is God, and he had it before his 
incarnation, for Isaiah saw his glory, and did see him; chap. 
vi. 5, " For mine eyes (saith he) have seen the King :" What 
king ? " Even the Lord of Hosts," verse 5 ; the " holy, holy, 
holy" Lord of Hosts, which the evangelist John doth apply 
unto Christ, and tells us plainly that this Lord whom Isaiah 
saw was Christ; chap. xii. 41, "These things said Isaiah 
when he saw his glory and spake of him :" his mediatorial 
power and lordship could not be merited by his death, for he 
was Mediator before he died, and therefore had his mediato- 
rial power before his death. We find him actually possessed 
of this power and lordship over all before his death; witness his 
casting out of devils, commanding winds and seas, which obey- 
ed him : and his answer to the owner of the ass, which he sent 
for; " Say, The Lord hath need of him." And as for his power 
to forgive sins, as if he would on purpose obviate the doctrine 
of the Socinians, he doth declare it in so many words : " But 
that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth 
to forgiye sins," &c., Matt. ix. Now if he had this power on 
earth, then the obtain ment of it was net the great and next 
effect of his death ; no, nor any thing which his soul travailed 
for jn his death. 

If these things be not the next and immediate effects and 
fruits of Christ's death and sufferings, what are ; and what is 
that issue of his death which he did presently see and was 
possessed of? 

2. Affirmatively. Look what the first Adam destroyed, 
that the second Adam did build up again for his seed : the 
second Adam recovered and gained that in a better edition for 
his seed which the first Adam lost from his seed. Therefore, 

As the first Adam by his sin and disobedience, did break 
the law of God, affront his justice, and provoked the anger 
and wrath of God, against his posterity ; so the second Adam 
did by his obedience and death, satisfy the law and justice 
pf God, for all his seed whom he died for ; which satisfaction 
he did perform immediately. For, when he died, our sins 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 229 

were imputed to him, and laid and charged on him ; for " he 
was made sin for us, who knew no sin," I Cor. v. 21., that 
is, the guilt of our sin was imputed to him ; the meaning of 
the words is not he was made a sacrifice ; for it is said, that 
" he knew no sin." Now it cannot be said, that he who 
knew no sacrifice, was made a sacrifice for us ; indeed it fol- 
lows by consequence, that he was made a sacrifice for us, 
which he was on the cross ; " For he offered up himself once 
for all," saith the apostle, Heb. ix. 26, 28., which cannot be 
understood of his appearing in heaven for us, for that he ever 
liveth so to appear for us, " seeing he ever liveth to make in- 
tercession for us," Heb. vii., and when he gave himself unto 
God for us, then he was " made an offering, and a sacrifice 
to God for a sweet smelling savour," Eph. v. 2. But when 
he died for us, then he is said to give himself for us," Gal. ii. 
20, " Who loved me and gave himself for me ;" that is, who 
loved me and died for me : yea the very same word that is 
used for the sin offering, Levit. xvi., is attributed unto Christ, 
Isa. liii. 10., " When he shall make his soul an offering for 
sin :" the word is CDITK a sin offering. Now the sins of the 
people were laid on the head of the sin-offering, and Christ 
being our sin offering, when he died on the cross, our sins 
were then laid on him, and imputed to him. As our sins 
were charged and laid on him, so they were laid on him by 
the hand of the Father, Isa. liii. " It pleased the Lord to 
bruise him, and he hath put him to grief," verse 10. " And 
the Lord hath laid on him the iniquities of us all," verse 6. 
The word JTJD doth sometimes signify to pray and inter- 
cede : but so it cannot be taken here, for then the words 
should be read thus ; he hath made our iniquities to pray or 
intercede on him, or by him, or with him ; but there is no 
good sense in that ; neither can it be said that the words here 
signifies to obviate, as if the sense should run thus ; he hath 
marie him to obviate our sins, or our sins to be obviated by 
him, which is that interpretation which the Socinians do 
most adhere unto, for the word is in Hiphil, noting an effi- 
cacy, and causality, without any preposition before the word 
?1P sin; and therefore according to the interpretation 
of the word, the words must be translated thus ; He hath 
made our sins to obviate by him, or on him, which is no 
sense : but rather than men will lose their own sense and ap~ 



230 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

prehension, they will make the Scriptures to speak no sense : 
the true translation, and reading of the words is thus ; " He 
hath made our sins to meet on him," and so our sins were 
laid on Christ by the hand of the Father.* As the Father 
laid, and did charge our sins on Christ on the cross, so he 
laid them on by way of punishment, our sins being the meri- 
torious cause of his sufferings, and his sufferings being the 
punishment of our sins ; for what is a punishment, but a just 
inflicting of some natural evil, for some sinful evil.f It is the 
inflicting of the evil of suffering for the sinful evil of doing. 
Now when Christ died on the cross, " he was wounded for 
our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities," Isa. liii. 
5. And where do we read either in scripture, or any author, 
that a man is said to be scourged, wounded or afflicted for a 
fault, but it notes a punishment, and that such a fault is the 
meritorious cause thereof ? When God threatens to punish 
men for sin, he threatens them with the bearing of their sin. 
So Levit. xx. 17. " He shall bear his iniquity," is the same 
with, " he shall be killed," verse 16. and " he shall be cut 
off," verse 18. So Numb. xiv. 33., " Your children shall 
wander in the wilderness, and shall bear your whoredoms/' 
that is, the punishment which is due to them. Ezek. xviii. 
30, " The soul that sins shall die, and the son shall not bear 
the iniquity of the father ;" that is, the son shall not be 
punished for the father's sin. So that in scripture language, 
to bear the sin of another is to be punished for another : so 
the goat did bear the sins of the people, and Christ who was 
our sin-oftering, did bear our sins on the cross, Isa. liii. ; 1 
Pet. ii. 24. " Who himself bare our sins, in his own body on 
the tree :" Why so, but because he did bear the punishment 
that was due thereunto ? As he did then bear our sins on 
the cross, so he accepted thereof, and did willingly under- 

* Verba prophetse sunt 11 PUSH. Secundum Socini interpretationem orat 
pro illo i. Christo, sed hoc absurdam, hac interpretatione itaque rejecta, dicit So- 
cinus, vertendum ease Jehova occurrit per eum sive cum eo iniquitati omnium 
nostrum, sed neque haec interpretatio consistere potest; nomini enim fltf nulla 
prepositio apposita est quae tale quicquam innuat docendura enim esset, 1173 
{!# 11 tf'JQH nin', ut autera absolute positum ita accipiatur neque ratio sua- 
det neque syntaxis patitur, nee simili exemplo ostendi potest. Sib. Lubbert. de 
Jes. Christo Servatore contra Socin. Lib. ii. cap. 5. p. 162. 

t Ptena vel supplicium est malum passiouis quod infligitur propti-r m.ilum 
actiouis. 



. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 231 

go this task ; for, saith he, Lo, I come to do thy will, thy law 
is within my heart, I delight to do thy will ; which he speaks 
in reference to these sufferings, Heb. x. ; Psalm xl. 8., and 
John x, he saith, " I lay down my life, no man taketh it from 
me, but I lay it down of myself," verse 17, 18., yea, and 
when our sins were thus charged on him, he did accept of 
that charge, and calls those sins his, Psalm xl. 11., " Mine 
iniquities have taken hold of me, so that I am not able to 
look up :" which words are the words of Christ as appears 
plainly, by the former verses. And so again, Psalm Ixix. 5., 
" O God, thou knowest my foolishness, and my sins are not 
hid from thee :" which psalm, is a psalm of Christ, who stan- 
ding in our room and stead, speaketh thus, as being made 
sin for us. So that as the Father charged our sins on him, 
so he did accept of that charge.* As he did willingly accept 
of this great charge, bearing our sins for us, so when he 
died on the cross, he did stand in our room, and stead ; not 
only dying for us, that is, for our profit, good and benefit ; 
but for us, that is in our room, and place, and stead; for he 
laid down his life for us, as a ransom. Now when one dies 
for another in way of ransom, he doth not only die for the 
benefit, and profit of the ransomed, but in the place and room 
and stead of the ransomed. So did Christ die for us, as 
himself speaketh, Matt. xx. 28; Mark x. 45. Avrpov am 
TroXXwj/. " The Son of Man, came to give himself a ransom 
for many :" and if Christ did die for us, as only for our profit, 
then why should Paul say, 1 Cor. i. 13, " Was Paul crucified 
for you, or were you baptized into the name of Paul ?" It 
seems by this speech, that none can die for us in that sense 
that Christ died for us, but such as whose names we^ may 
be baptized into ; but one man may die for another's profit 
and benefit, as the martyrs have done, and yet the other may 
not be baptized into his name : and the apostle Paul saith in 

* Longe a salute mea verbe delictorum meorum. Longe hie divinitus loquitur 
verba delictorum meorum quia nostra peccata reputat sua. Hierom. in Ps. xxi. et 
xlt. Sana animam quamvis peccaverim tibi; quamvis ego sum omnium maximus 
peccator imputative, imo pcccatum, 2 Cor. v. ult., et phrasi Hebnca peccaverim 
tibi, ratione officii, quod sustineo rederaptor, non persona: quando sum integer et 
peccatum nulluni feci. Tarnov. in Psal. passional, p. 233, in Ps. xli. Quod igitur 
ad Deum Patrem spcrtat, se non u.-se ratione officii innocentcm fatetur, O Pens 
Pater inquit qui ratione humanaa naturtc es Deus meus, Ps. xxii., tu novisti stul- 
titiam uicaui hoc est peccatum. Chribtus peccator. Tarnov. in Ps. Ixix. p. 203. 



232 CHRIST fN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

Rom. v.j " Christ died for the ungodly, (verse 6.) scarcely for 
a righteous man will one die ; yet peradventure for a good 
man, some will even dare to die/ 5 verse 7- Now Christ did 
so die for us, and in that sense that he saith, scarcely for a 
righteous man will one die j and in that sense did Christ die 
for the ungodly, that he saith, peradventure for a good man, 
some will even dare to die. But when the apostle speaks of 
one's dying for a righteous man, and for a good man, he 
doth not mean, that one will scarce die for the benefit or pro- 
fit of a righteous, or good man ; but he speaks of dying in 
their place and stead ; and therefore when he speaks in the 
former verse of Christ's dying for the ungodly, he must needs 
mean for them, as in their room and stead ; else he had not 
spoken ad idem in verse 6., to what he had spoken in verse 
5. But the apostle did certainly speak ad idem, and there- 
fore when our Lord and Saviour Christ died for us, he did 
not only die for our good and profit, but, in our room, place 
and stead. And as when he died for us, he did give himself 
a ransom for us ; so that price and ransom was most fit and 
suitable, being in itself sufficient to pay all our debt, a price 
beyond all compute ; for saith the apostle Peter, " We are 
not redeemed with silver and gold, but with the precious 
blood of Christ ;" as if he should say, with such a price as is 
beyond all compute, in respect whereof, all the silver and 
gold in the world, are of no value ; a price in itself infinite, 
and of infinite value ; not only satisfying the debt by way of 
acceptation, but by that intrinsical worth and value that was 
in itself; for if Christ's death and obedience should only sa- 
tisfy God for our sin by way of divine acceptation, then it 
should satisfy no more than the blood of bulls and goats 
might have done, for such blood might satisfy by way of ac- 
ceptation. But the scope of the apostle in Hebrews ix., is 
to shew that the blood of Christ, is more efficacious in itself, 
than the blood of all the bulls and goats ; and therefore it 
was not satisfying in a way of divine acceptation only, but in 
a way of intrinsical worth and merit. Now, if the price that 
Christ laid down for us, was in itself sufficient to satisfy, and 
this was not wrested from him, but he did freely offer it up 
unto God for us, and he did pay, and suffer all this in our 
room and stead, as a punishment due to us, and inflicted on 
him by the hand of the Father, then God the Father must 



. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 233 

needs be satisfied with this great payment ; which indeed he 
was, as appears by that entertainment which he gave unto 
Christ, when Christ came into heaven, saying, " Sit thou on 
my right hand :" surely therefore, the satisfaction of divine 
wrath, and justice, was an immediate effect of the death of 
Christ, which he saw presently.* 

As he did satisfy the law and divine justice for all his 
seed ; so he did by his death sanctify and set them apart for 
God, consecrating them, even all those that he travailed with, 
to the use and service of the Lord ; for as the first Adam 
did profane, debauch, and defile all his seed by his disobe- 
dience ; so the second Adam did by his obedience, consecrate, 
sanctify, and set apart his seed for God ; for, says the apos- 
tle, Heb. x. 10, " By the which will, we are sanctified through 
the offering of the body of Christ;" and again, verse 14, 
" For by one offering, he hath perfected (that is, consecrated, 
saith Calvin) for ever, them that are sanctified." And saith 
our Saviour, " For this cause do I sanctify myself ;" That is, 
saith Maldonate,f according to all the authors that I have 



* Nullus alius fuit covnpetentior modus, quia nullus morbus competentius cu- 
ratur quatn per suura contrarium oportuit cnim quod sicut purus homo voluit 
ascendere ad excelsa Dei per superbiam suam ita purus et verus Deus ascenderet 
usque ad infima hominis sell, usque ad mortem crucis, et sic per contrarium facta 
est perfectio curationis humanse. Altissiod. in Sent. Lib. iii. tract. 1. cap. 8. 

Sicut ergo Adam per furtum et rapinam factus est quasi dives, cum nihil habe- 
ret ; sic oportuit ut Deus fieret quasi pauper cum omnia haberet. Et videtur justa 
compensatio per adsequationem contrariorum complexorum, ut mors a-terna ejus 
qui temporalis erat, morte temporal! ejus qui seternus erat, redimeretur. Paris- 
iens. de Causis cur. Deus Homo, cap. 7. 

Christi satisfactio non solum ex divina acceptatione sed ex proprio valore quatn 
habebat ob dignitatem persona satisfacientis icqualis fuit divina oifenste compen- 
sandse Aquinas par. iii. q. 48. art. 2. Altissiodorens. Lib. iii. tract. 1. cap. 
8. Parisiens. lib. cur. Deus Homo. Asturicens. de Christi Gratia sect. iii. dub, 
3. Abulens. in Exod. cap. 37, q. 7, p. 277. Anselm. cur. Deus Homo, lib. ii. 
cap. 14. Ruiz, de voluntate Dei disput. liii. 5. Greg, de valent. de Chnsto 
Mediatore, cap 4, 5. Bart. Medina in pnrt. iii. thorn, i. q. art. 5, conclus. 3. 
Vasquez. disput. v. cap. 2, in 3 part. tho. torn. i. Suarez. disput. 4, 3, ubi sit 
conclusio haec certa est et contraria nee probabilis nee pia nee fidei consentanea. 

Quo spectat etiam illud apostoli ad Heb. impossibile est sanguine taurorum 
auferri peccata ubi ex antithesi apparet sermonem esse de aequali satisfactione, 
nam per modum satisfactionis imperfectse adeoque ex acceptatione divina etiam 
sanguis hircorum et taurorum satisfacere poterat ad auferenda peccata. Tannerus 
de Incarnar. quest. 2, dub. 2, in 3 partem. Tho. torn. iv. Chrysdst. horn. 10, 
in Epist. ad Roman. Cyprian de ascens. pretii. magnitude superat negotium. 

t Omnes prorsus authores quos ego legerim interpretantur pro iis ego me in 



234 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [ 

read, I do consecrate and offer myself up a sacrifice, that 
they also may be sanctified or consecrated in truth and not 
in ceremony, as the people were by the sacrifices of the Old 
Testament, which were but a shadow of the great and true 
sacrifice of Christ on the cross. And if our Lord and 
Saviour Christ when he died on the cross, was then offered 
unto God as our first fruits ; then all the crop and lump 
must be sanctified thereby; but when he died, he was 
offered up unto God as our first fruits ; and therefore, says 
the apostle, Heb. ii. 11, "For both he that sanctifieth, and 
they who are sanctified, are of one," as the first fruits and 
the crop or lump were of one; plainly therefore, when 
Christ died for us, he did then sanctify and set apart all 
those whom he died for; and so the consecration and sanc- 
tification of his seed, is another fruit and immediate effect of 
his death. 

As he did consecrate all his seed by his death ; so he did 
merit heaven and eternal salvation for them, opening the 
gates of Paradise, I mean the celestial Paradise, for them 
again ; for as the first Adam by his sin and disobedience, 
did bring death and eternal condemnation upon all his seed, 
and did cause the gates of Paradise to be shut against him 
and all his posterity ; so the second Adam did by his death 
and obedience, open the gates of Paradise and salvation for 
all his seed ;* and therefore when he was on the cross he 
told the thief, " This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise ;" 
why did he not rather say, This day shalt thou be w r ith me 
in the third heavens ? for our Paradise is the third heaven, 
as appears plainly by comparing the 2nd and 4th verses of 
the xiith. of 2 Cor. But because, as I conceive, he was 
performing his obedience on the tree as our second Adam, 
and so opening heaven and our Paradise, in opposition to 
that hurt and rrischief the first Adam did by his disobedience 
in eating of the forbidden tree; and if ye look into Heb. 
x. 19, 20, ye shall find that the apostle Paul saith thus : 



sacrificium offero, et cum dicit, ut sint ipsi sanctificati in veritate, significat ini- 
tiari consecrarique sacrificio. Maldonat. in Joan. xvii. Calvin in Heb. x. 

* Humilitas passionis Christi meruit nobis apertionem januse quod per earn 
datum est sufficiens pretium redemptionis nostrae, quia tanta fuit humilitas in 
redemptore, quanta fuit superbia in prevaricatore. Altissiodor. lib. 3, tract 1, 
e. 7. 



SlSR. 2.] CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. 235 

"Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the 
holiest by the blood of Jesus by a new and living way, which 
he hath consecrated for us, through the vail, that is to say, 
his flesh/' So that the opening of this way to life for his 
seed, was the proper and immediate effect and fruit of Christ's 
death and sufferings. 

As he did merit eternal life and salvation for his seed, 
opening the gates of Paradise again for them ; so he did by 
his death recover the image of God unto all his seed. For 
as the first Adam by his sin and disobedience did then lose 
the image of God, which loss he saw as an immediate fruit 
and effect of his sin; so the second Adam, Christ, did by his 
death and obedience, merit the repair and recovery of the 
image of God for his seed ; which purchase he did then 
obtain presently, and did see the right thereunto immediately 
settled upon his seed and children whom he died for ; for 
saith the apostle, Heb. ix. 12 : "But by his own blood, he 
entered in once, into the holy place, having obtained eternal 
redemption for us." So that before he entered the holy 
place, he had obtained" our redemption; look therefore what 
that is which we in Scripture are said to be redeemed 
from, that he obtained presently for his seed. Now we are 
not only said to be redeemed from the wrath to come, but 
from all iniquity, Tit. ii. 14, or from our vain conversation, 
and that by his blood, 1 Peter i. 18, 19. This purchase 
therefore he obtained presently by his death. Neither can 
it be said, that then all his seed should be immediately freed 
from their vain conversation ; for as Parisiensis doth observe 
well,* As the sin of the first Adam doth not hurt his seed, 
but in that they are his : so the grace of the second Adam 
doth not actually profit his seed, but in that they are his. 
But the seed of Adam are his, as they receive flesh from 
him when they are born ; so the seed of Christ are not his 
but as they receive the Spirit from him, and when they are 
born again ; but though the seed of Christ have not this 
image actually stamped on them till they do believe, yet they 

* Quern admodum non transit adse damnatio nisi per generationem incar- 
naliter ex eo generates, sic non transit Christi gratia et peccatorum remissio nisi 
per regenerationem spiritualiter per ipsum regenerates ; sicut delictiim adae non 
nocet, nisi suis, in eo quod sui sunt ; sic nee gratia Christi p rudest ; nisi suis, in 
eo quod sui sunt. Parisicns. de Causis cur Deus homo, cap. 1), 



236 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

have a right both to salvation and sanctification, immediately 
settled on them by the death of Christ, as a child may have 
a right to a land by the purchase of his father, before he 
comes of age, though he be not actually possessed of the 
land till he do come of age. This right therefore, and the 
settlement of it upon the seed of Christ, is another fruit 
and immediate effect of his death and sufferings. 

As he did recover the image of God by his death ; so he 
did spoil and destroy the power of Satan, which Satan had 
over all his seed.* For as by the sin and disobedience of 
the first Adam, Satan got a power over all his posterity ; so 
by the death and obedience of the second Adam, this power 
was broken in reference to the seed of Christ : for saith the 
apostle, " He also himself took part of the same, that through 
death he might destroy him that had the power of death, 
that is the devil," Heb. ii. 14 ; and again, " And having 
spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them 
openly, triumphing over them in it," Col. ii. 15, that is, the 
cross. So that when Christ died on the cross, he did then 
break and rout the forces of Satan, insomuch as all the forces 
that he can draw up together against the seed of Christ, are 
but some rallied troops : then was his field army broken, and 
Christ triumphed over them all upon the cross. Surely 
therefore this breaking of the power and force of Satan, is 
another fruit and immediate effect of the death of Christ.t 

As Christ did break the power of Satan by the power of 
his death ; so he did thereby also sanctify all things to his 
seed, insomuch as when they should come of age, all things 
should be then clean unto them. For as the first Adam by 
his sin and disobedience did defile all things, insomuch as all 
things were to be unclean and accursed to his posterity ; so 
the second Adam did by his death and obedience sprinkle, 
cleanse, and sanctify all things to his seed : for saith the 
apostle, " When Moses had spoken every precept to the 

( Nunc judicium est mundi nunc princeps hujus mundi ejicietur foras, Joan. 
12, justitia Dei hoc efficere debuit, ut ab eo pateretur Diabolus quod ille inique 
intulerat soil, ut ab eo ligaretur, quern inique ligaverat, seu ligati procuraverat 
ab eo ejiciretur de mundo quern ipse et spiritualiter et corporaliter injuste ejece- 
rat. Paris, cap. 9. 

* Dicitur Diabolus duas habuisse manus unam attrabentem qua trahebat omneg 
ad inferos quse amputate est et ei, quantum ad bonos per passionem Christi ; et 
manum flagellantem qua? debilitata est, qiue vexat tamen bonos ad exercitium. 
Altissiod. lib. 3, tract. 1, cap. 8. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 237 

people, he took the blood of calves and goats, and sprinkled 
both the book and all the people. Moreover he sprinkled 
with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the 
ministry ; and almost all things are by the law purged with 
blood ; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacri- 
fices than these/' that is, with Christ's own blood, Heb. ix. 
19, 21, 23. And if you ask why the law, tabernacle, and the 
vessels of the ministry, which were holy, should be thus 
sprinkled with blood ? Calvin gives two reasons,* namely, 
Because though these things were in themselves holy, yet 
being used by man (in regard of that pollution that is in him) 
they might be profaned ; and though the book and word of 
the Lord be holy, yet it will not, it cannot be efficacious and 
profitable to us, nisi sanguine Christi dedicata, unless it be 
sprinkled by the blood of Christ. Now this sprinkling of 
the vessels, book and all things, was performed when the 
sacrifice was offered, and when the testament was dedicated ; 
but the new testament was confirmed by the death of Christ, 
his blood being the blood of the new testament, and he was 
sacrificed on the cross : and therefore though his seed are 
sanctified with inherent holiness when they do believe ; yet 
there was a sprinkling of all things, ordinances, afflictions, 
dispensations, and all conditions to them, by the death ot 
Christ ; so that this sanctification or sprinkling of all things, 
in reference to his seed, was another fruit and immediate 
effect of the death of Christ. 

As Christ did sanctify all things to his seed, so by his 
death he did confirm the covenant of grace. For as the 
first Adam did break the old covenant by his sin and diso- 
bedience ; so the second Adam, by his death and obedience, 
did confirm the new; for, saith the apostle, Heb. ix. 16, 
" Where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the 
death of the testator ; for a testament is of force, after men 
are dead, otherwise it is of no strength at all, whilst the testator 
liveth," verse 17- And again, Gal. iii. 15, " Brethren, I speak 

* Non quod prophanum in se quicquam haberet ftedus, sed quod nihil tarn 
sanctum est quod non homines sua immunditia prophanent, nisi Deus ipse facta 
omnium innovatione occurrent, omnes cultus vitiosi sunt ac impuri nisi Christus 
sanguinis sui aspersione eos mundet. 

Ubi Christus cum sanguine non apparet, nihil nobis esse cum Deo : sic neque 
doctriua ipsa nobis ac in nostrum usum efficaverit nisi sanguine dedicate. Cal- 
vin Heb. ix. 20, 21. 



238 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR- 2. 

after the manner of men, though it be but a man's covenant, 
yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth 
thereto ; and this I say, that the covenant that was confirmed 
before of God in Christ," &c,, verse 1 7. So that the cove- 
nant of grace was confirmed by Christ in his death ; only 
the question is, How this covenant was confirmed by the 
death of Christ ? The Socinians say,* That Christ' s death 
did confirm the covenant by way of testimony,, or declaration 
of the truth of the gospel ; the Lord, say they, hath pro- 
mised in the gospel, that all those who repent and believe, 
shall be justified and saved. Now Christ preaching this 
truth and dying in it, hath confirmed this truth and the 
gospel ; and therefore, say they, Christ is called the true 
and the faithful witness. But though Christ by his death 
did bear his testimony to the truth of the gospel, yet where 
do we find in Scripture that his death did confirm the cove- 
nant by way of testimony ? Where doth it appear that the 
covenant which he confirmed by his death, was this, If you 
repent and believe, you shall be saved and justified ? The 
thing is true, and a gospel truth, but the covenant which 
Christ confirmed, ye read of in Heb. viii., where the Lord 
doth promise both faith and repentance also. If the death 
of Christ did confirm the covenant by way of testimony, 
testifying the truth of the gospel ; then the death of the 
martyrs should confirm the covenant, more than the death 
of Christ; for the Socinians deny the deity of Christ; and 
if Christ were only man, then the death of thousands, some 
dying more painful deaths than Christ did, should give a 
greater testimony to the truth of the gospel, and so confirm 
the covenant more than the death of Christ. But where 
do we find in all the Scripture, that the death of the martyrs 
is said to confirm the new covenant ? The death of none, 
but of the testator, can confirm the testament; but Christ 

* Quest. Qui vero sanguis aut mors Christ! nobis voluntatem Dei confir- 
mavit ? 

Resp. Duplici ratione primum quod nos manifesto de ingenti in nos Dei 
charitate certus reddiderit, idque adeo quod Deus volit nobis id donare, quod in 
N. Fcedere promittal, unde sanguis novi faederis est dictus et ipse Christus testis 
verus et fidelis. Catechis. Racovise de Prophetico Christi munere, cap. 8. So- 
cinus de Christo Servatore pars prima, de Justif. Synops. ii. Volkillius de Vera 
Religione, lib. iii. cap. 18. Crellius ad Librum Hug. Grot. Respons. ad cap. i. 
partic. 16. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 239 

only, and not the martyrs, is the Testator, Heb. ix. 17.* 
Then also the miracles that Christ wrought and the apos- 
tles' preaching^ with the gifts that Christ gave to them upon 
his ascension, should confirm the covenant ; for, saith the 
apostle, Heb. ii. 3, " How shall we escape if we neglect so 
great salvation ? which at the first began to be preached by 
the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard 
him ; God also bearing them witness, both with signs and 
wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy 
Ghost," verse 4. It seems then, that the truth of the gos- 
pel was confirmed to us by miracles, and the apostles' 
preaching ; yet the miracles and preaching of the apostles, 
are not said in Scripture to confirm the covenant, which yet 
might very well be said, if Christ's death should confirm it 
by way of testimony. If the death of Christ, doth confirm 
the covenant by way of testimony, then the blood of bulls 
and goats, might have confirmed the covenant ; for when 
God testified the truth of his promise to Abraham, Gen. xv., 
he said to him, " Take thee an heifer of three years old, and 
a she goat of three years old, and a turtle dove, and a 
young pigeon ; and he took them, and divided them in 
the midst," verse 9, 10. But the apostle tells us plainly, 
Ileb. ix., That the blood of bulls and goats could not con- 
firm the covenant. The ordinance of the Lord's supper 
doth testify God's willingness to forgive sinners ; " That cup 
is the New Testament in Christ's blood, shed for many for 
the remission of sins." But though the Lord's supper be 
a seal of the covenant, sealing to us, evidencing, testifying, 
and assuring us of God's love by Christ ; yet it is not a seal 
of the covenant, as Christ's blood was, which did not only 
seal to us, but was a seal of the covenant itself, as it lay 
between God the Father and him. But if Christ's death 
did only confirm the covenant by way of testimony, then the 
Lord's supper might as veil be said to confirm the covenant, 
which is no where affirmed in the Scripture. Look how the 
obedience of the first Adam should have confirmed the cove- 
nant, in case he had stood ; and look how he broke that 
covenant by his disobedience ; so did the death and obedi- 

* Vide Essenii Triumph. Crucis, p. 353, lib. ii. i. cap. 1. Sib. Lubbert dc 
Jesu Christo Servatore contra F. Socinum, lib. i. cap. 3. Nicol. Ariicld. do 
Morte Christi, cap. 8. 



240 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

ence of Christ, the second Adam, confirm the new covenant. 
Now if the first Adam had stood and confirmed that cove- 
nant, he had confirmed it by performing the condition of it ; 
and he brake it by not observing, and not doing the condi- 
tion of it ; so the second Adam, Christ, did confirm the new 
covenant by his death, and in that, by his obedience, he did 
perform the condition of the new covenant for his seed. 
Thus, I say, he confirmed the covenant of grace, even by 
performing the condition of it ; and this confirmation of the 
covenant was the next, and most immediate fruit and effect 
of his death. And thus you have seen both negatively and 
affirmatively, what are not and what are, the next and imme- 
diate effects of the death of Christ. 

As for the remote effects of the death of Christ, they 
are many. As : Freedom from the law, curse, and the wrath 
of God, Gal. iii. 13, 1 Thess. i. 10. Our effectual vocation 
or calling, 2 Tim. i. 9. Our justification and actual recon- 
ciliation with God, Rom. v. 1, Ephes. i. 8. Our sanctifica- 
tion and holiness of soul and life, Ephes. v. 25, 26, 27> Heb. 
ix. 14, 1 John i. 7- Our adoption and all those spiritual 
privileges which belong to the sons of God, Gal. iv. 4, 5. 
Our peace, comfort, and freedom from fears, Luke i. 74, 
Heb. ii. 14. And to name no more but this : Our salvation 
in the world to come, Heb. ix. 15. All which I call the 
more remote effects of the death of Christ ; which though he 
did not immediately see the obtainment of, yet he shall surely 
see them. And so I come to the second thing propounded, 
to be cleared and evidenced, viz. The assurance of his issue, 
and the sight thereof. 

II. Having therefore seen what are the fruits and effects of 
the death of Christ, How may it appear that Christ shall 
certainly see the obtainment of these last effects ; and what 
assurance had or hath he thereof? 

He had the assurance of the pre-salvation of many thou- 
sand souls ; for when Christ died on the cross, many thou- 
sands were in heaven upon the account of his death ; God 
the Father took Christ's word, promising to die for sinners, 
and so saved many aforehand. As the Son died, and took 
the Father's word for the salvation of many after his death ; 
so the Father took the Son's word, and saved many before 
his death upon the account thereof. Now when Christ died, 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 241 

this pre-salvation of so many thousands, was a great assur- 
ance to him of the accomplishment and obtainment of all 
those things which he travailed for. 

II. He had the assurance also of his own merit and his 
Father's faithfulness. For 

1. He did not only merit heaven and salvation for those 
whom he died for, but he merited grace, holiness, and regen- 
eration for them ; for whatever God gives in time, he gives 
upon the account of Christ's merit; but in time, he doth 
give grace and holiness, for he doth " bless us with all spirit- 
ual blessings in Christ." Now grace and holiness are spirit- 
ual blessings, and therefore God doth bless us therewith in 
Christ. Look what the Father promiseth, that he doth give 
out upon the account of Christ ; for " all the promises are 
yea, and amen, in Christ " grace and truth comes by Christ; 
and the fulfilling of the promise is truth ; but God the 
Father hath promised grace as well as glory ; " I will write 
my law in your heart, I will take away the heart of stone, 
and give you an heart of flesh, I will give you a new heart, 
saith God." Whatever grace is derived from Christ, and 
communicated by him to us, he merited for us ; " But of his 
fulness, we do all receive, even grace for grace." We pray to 
God for the conversion, and regeneration of sinners, and we 
beg this in the name of Christ ; therefore Christ hath merited, 
not only glory, but grace and holiness. And the apostle tells 
us expressly in 1 Tim. i. 9. That we are called with an holy 
calling, in and by Jesus Christ ; " W T ho hath saved us, and 
called us with an holy calling ; not according to our works, 
but according to his own purpose, and grace, which he hath 
given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began." As God 
doth work all natural things by second causes, so he doth 
work-all supernatural things by Christ. By Christ he did 
make the old creation, as he was the eternal son of God ; and 
by Christ he makes the new creation, as our Mediator. Now 
look what the Father worketh by him, that did he merit for 
us; but our new creation is wrought by him, and therefore he 
did not only merit heaven and happiness, but all our grace 
and holiness for us.* 

* Merita Christ! sunt causae omnium auxiliorum et totiu.s gratia; quse in natura 
lapso conferuntur hominibus, et idem dicendum de omnibub dispositionibus, tatu 
proximis quam remotis justificantem gratiam antecedenlibos, et de auginento gra 

VOL in. a 



242 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 2. 

2. He did not only merit the impetration of our redemp- 
tion, but the application of it also, the application of the 
means of grace, and the application of his own merit; for his 
death is made the reason of this application, Isaiah liii. 11. 
" By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many, 
for he shall bear their iniquities :" so again, Heb. ix. 14 
" How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through 
the eternal Spirit, offei-ed up himself, purge our consciences 
from dead works, to serve the living God ; and for this cause 
is he the Mediator of the new covenant."* Now if Christ 
shall therefore justify many, because he did bear their sins, 
then he did merit this application for all those whom he died 
for. If Christ did not merit this application, then there is 
some grace which is not from Christ, or this application is no 
grace, but the application of grace, and of Christ's merits, 
and redemption is grace, and there is no grace which we 
have, but is all from Christ.f Our other adversaries tell us, 
that no child perisheth, or is damned only for original sin, 
but that sin is taken off from all, by the death of Christ ; 

tise. Meruit gratiam et gloriam. Thorn. Aquin. quest, q. 29, de Gratia Christi. 
art. 7, ad arg. 8. Scotus, lib. iii. dist. 19, qu. unica. Altissiod. lib. iii. tract. 
1, quest. 7. Alvarez, de auxil. disput. 29, conclus. 1. Molina de Lib. art. 6, 
concord, qu. 23, art. 4, disp. 5, conclus. 2. Vasquez. in 3 part. Thorn, torn. i. 
disput. 77, cap. 2, 3,4. Suarez. in 3 part. Thorn, disput. 1, 2, 3. Astunicens. 
de Gratia Christi. q. 5, conclus. 2. Raph. Aversa pars prima, qu. 23. 15, 
Aureolus, lib. iii. in sent. dist. 20, q. 1. Roder. de Ariaga in part. 3, Thorn, 
torn. 6, p. 477. Zumel. in 1 part. Thorn, qu. 23, art 5. Banner, in 1 part. 
Thorn, qu. 23, art. 5. Tannerus disput. de incarnat. q. 6, dub. 5, torn. iv. T. 
B. Medina, in 3 part. Tho. ix. q. 19, art. 4. Ferrariens in Aqu. contra Gent. lib. 
iv. cap. 55. 

Si quis dixerit eandem gratiam Dei per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum 
propter hoc tantum nos adjuvare ad non peccandum quod per ipsam nobis revelatur 
et aperitur intelligentia mandatorum nt sciamus quid appetere quid vitare debea- 
naus noii autem per illam nobis prestari ut quod faciendum cognoverimus etiam 
facere diligamus atque valeamus anathema sit ; cum enim dicit apostolus scientia 
inflat charitas vero edificat valde impium est, ut credamus ad earn quse inflat nos 
habere gratiam Christi, ad earn qua? edificat non habere, cum sit utrumque donum 
Det, et scire quae facere debeamus et diligere ut faciamus. Concil. Milevitan, 2 
can. 4 bin. torn i. 

* Meritum Christi sumcienter operatur ut causa universalis salutis humanae, 
sed opertet hanc causam applicari per scripturam et per fidem formatum, et ideo 
requiritur aliquid aliud ad salutem nostram prseter meritum Christi cujus tamen 
meiitum Christi est causa. Thorn. Aquin. ques. 29, de Gratia Christi, art. 7. 

t Hsec applicatio est maximum Dei donum et maxime necessaria ad salutem sed 
Christus meruit nobis omnia Dei dona et omnia media necessaria ad salutem, ergo 
haac applicatio est ex meritis Christi. Suarez. disput. 41, 2. 






SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 243 

therefore the death of Christ, and his merits are applied unto 
all infants ; and if so, then he hath merited the application of 
redemption for all, or else he did not die equally for all, as 
they say.* Look what God hath promised, that Christ hath 
merited; but he hath promised the application of Christ's 
death and merits, for saith he, " My servant shall deal pru- 
dently, he shall be exalted, so shall he sprinkle many nations," 
Isaiah lii. 15. And if he did not merit the application 
as well as the impetration of our redemption, then he merited 
no more for those that are in heaven, than for those that are 
in hell ; no more for those that are saved, than for those that 
are damned. For he merited the impetration of redemption 
for all the particular men of the world, say they. But he 
did merit more for the saved, than for the damned; else 
those in heaven have no more cause to praise God, and to be 
thankful unto Christ, than those that are in hell. Surely 
therefore, our Lord and Saviour Christ, when he died, did 
not only merit the impetration, but the application also, of 
our redemption.* 

3. He did not only merit a sufficiency of grace for us, but the 
efficacy of grace also : for look what grace the Father gives in 
time that the Son merited, for he blesses with all spiritual 
blessings in him ; but the Father doth not only give forth a 
sufficiency of grace, but the efficacy of it ; for saith the apos- 
tle, he worketh in us, TO SeX.su/, the will, and the deed. J Look 
what grace the Father promiseth us, that Christ merited for 
us ; but the Father promiseth not only a sufficiency, but the 
efficacy of grace, " I will put my Spirit into you, and cause 
you to walk in my ways, saith God." Christ is the the Me- 
diator of the new covenant, upon the account of his death, 



* Nemo propter solura peccatum originis damnatur. Arininius contra Perk. 
Arnold. Coruinus contra Tilen. p. 391. 

f Alias non perfectius meritum Christi esset causa salutis predestinatorum quam 
non predestinatorum, quia quod attinet ad sufficientiam meriti, sequaliter respicit 
omnes homines sed differentia est in hoc quod quibusdam applicatur illud meritum 
quibusdam non, ergo si heec applicatio non cadit sub merito Christi meritum 
Christi sequaliter respiceret predestinates et non predestinates. Zumel. quest. 
23, art. 5, 

J Hoc etiam salubriter profitemur et credimus quod in oinni opere bono nos 
non incepimus, et postea per Dei miserecordiam adjuvamur. sed ipse nobis nullis 
prsecedentibus meritis et fidem et amorem sui inspirat. Concil. Arausican 2, 
Can. 25. 

R 2 



244 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

Heb. ix. 14, 15., therefore whatever grace is promised in the 
new covenant, his death is the meritorious cause of; but the 
efficacy of grace is promised in the new covenant; " I will 
write my law in your hearts," Heb. viii. The death and obe- 
dience of Christ is more meritorious for us, than the sin and 
disobedience of the first Adam, was against us, Rom. v. But 
the sin and disobedience of the first Adam, did not only 
merit a sufficiency of evil, but the efficacy of evil upon our 
nature ; and therefore the death and obedience of the second 
Adam, did merit the efficacy of grace for us. And if Christ 
did not merit the efficacy of grace, he should merit no more 
for those that are saved in heaven, than for those that are 
damned in hell ; for he merited a sufficiency of grace, say the 
adversaries, even for those that are in hell : but that is an 
ugly assertion, even in the eyes of moderate papists.* But 
do we not pray for the efficacy of grace, and of Christ's 
death ? When David said, " Incline my heart to thy law, 
and not unto covetousness ;" when he said " Open mine 
eyes, that I may see the wonders of thy law ;" did he only 
pray for the sufficiency of grace ? No, but the efficacy of it ; 
therefore we may, and do still pray so, and that upon the ac- 
count of Christ's merits : surely therefore, Christ hath not only 
merited the sufficiency but the efficacy of grace. 

4. He did not only merit some blessings of the covenant 
but that which is commonly called the condition of the cove- 
nant.f He died to procure faith and repentance, he did not 
only die to merit a power for us to believe, but by his death 
he did also merit faith and repentance ; for look what the 
Father worketh in us by him, that he merited ; but the Fa- 
ther worketh faith and repentance by him ; " For he worketh 
in us, that which is well pleasing in his sight by Jesus Christ," 
Heb. xii. 21. Now faith and repentance, are well pleasing in 
his sight. Christ merited all that grace which the Father hath 
promised, for all the promises are yea and amen in him ; 
but the Father hath promised, not only to give us a power to 
believe, but to " take away the heart of stone," that is, actual 



* Al 

qua 



Alias non perfectius meritum Christi esset causa salutis predestinatorum 
m reproborum, quia quod attinet ad sufficieatiam merit! sequaliter respicit 
omnes tum reprobos quam predestinates, &c. Banuez. 1 part. Aqui. q. 23, a. 5. 
t Cujus oppositum est erroneum maxime si negatur Christum nobis meruisse 
fidem. Bannez. 1 part. q. 23, art. 5. Zumel. 1 part. q. 23, art. 5. 



SER. 2.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 245 

resistance, and to " give an heart of flesh ;" that is a yielding 
heart, and what is faith but a yielding unto God ? " And 
ye shall all know me," saith God. Christ merited for us, 
that which he works in us ; but he works faith in us, for " he 
is the author and finisher of our faith/' Heb. xii. We pray 
to God for faith, and repentance ; " I believe, Lord, help my 
unbelief;" and Christ prayed for Peter, " that his faith might 
not fail." We also pray for the faith and conversion of infi- 
dels, and that in the name of Christ, do we only pray, that 
God would give them, and us a power to believe ? that (it is 
said) we have already : we pray for faith and repentance, in 
the name of Christ, therefore Christ hath merited faith 
and repentance. And the apostle tells us expressly, that 
the TO -m^tvuv the very work of believing is given us upon the 
account of Christ; " Unto you it is given for Christ, not 
only to believe on him, but to suffer for him," Phil. i. 29. 
Some would read these words otherwise, being much pinched 
with the strength of them : but the old Syriac translation 
reads them thus, through Grotius either consulting with the 
Latin translation, or his own declined judgment, makes these 
words, for Christ, to be a pleonasm ; but councils, fathers, 
and others, read them thus ; Unto you it is given for Christ, 
not only to believe on him, and so the words ought to be 
read ; for the wt^ is to be read in the first clause of the verse, 
as it is read in the last ; but in the last part of the verse, it 
is read for to suffer for Christ; what is that ? is that in the 
behalf of Christ ? No, but for his sake. So therefore, the 
same words in the former part of the verse, are to be read, 
for Christ, that is, for the sake of Christ, to you it is given 
to believe for Christ's sake : Now look what the Father gives 
as an act of free grace, that he gives upon the account of 
Christ's merit ; for free grace and Christ's merits go together 
in the language of Paul's epistles ; but the TT^VHV the work 
of faith is given us as an act of free grace ; for says the 
apostle, vpiv t-xap&r) and look, what the Father gives for 
Christ's sake, that Christ hath merited; but as the Father 
hath given us viri% avrov vax^v, to suffer for him, that is, 
for his sake ; so saith the apostle, he hath given us vntp \^<n<>v 
TrtfT-eimv, for Christ, that is, for his sake to believe. So that 
when Christ died for us, he did not only merit a power to be- 
lieve, and repent, but he did merit faith and repentance. 



246 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 2. 

Now if Christ did merit all these things, then knowing that 
the Father is faithful, in paying and performing what the 
Son purchased, he must needs know, and be fully assured 
that he should see and enjoy all those effects of his death, 
which he travailed for, when he died.* 

If these be the effects of Christ's death, and he had such 
full assurance to obtain them all, then surely Christ did not 
die for all the particular men in the world ; for he did not 
only merit eternal life and salvation ; but grace and holiness, 
faith and repentance, for all those whom he died for ; and he 
shall surely obtain all the ends and effects of his death ; but 
all the particular men in the world shall not be saved, nor 
believe and repent, and therefore certainly he did not die 
for every particular man in the world ; but of this more in 
the next exercise. Only as a concluding word, 

Let comfort be to whom comfort belongs, here is much 
comfort for all those that are the seed of Christ, whom he 
died for, and travailed with. You shall see the travail of 
Christ's soul accomplished in your salvation, sanctification, 
and consolation ; for he hath purchased and merited your 
glory, therefore you shall have the same ; it was your justifi- 
cation that he was in travail for, therefore you shall see the 
same; it was your sanctification and holiness that he did 
travail for, and he shall not miscarry ; it was your comfort, 
and consolation, and salvation, that he was in travail for 
and therefore in due time you shall see the same. 

But I fear that I am none of his seed, that he did not die 
for me. 

I answer : He died for his sheep ; " I lay down my life for 
my sheep/' saith he ; a sheep is an harmless creature, it can 
be hurt by any, but it can do hurt to none ; it is a prey to 
all, but doth prey upon none. So are the sheep of Christ, 
innocent, harmless, and without horns, as the word is, be 

* Si quis sicut augmentutn its, etiam initium fidei, ipsum credulitatis affectum 
quo in eum credimus, qui justificat impium et regenerationem baptismatis perve- 
nimus non per gratiae donum id est per inspirationem spiritus sancti corrigentem 
voluntatem nostram ab infidelitate ad fidera ab impietate ad pieta torn et natura- 
liter nobis inesse dicit apostolicis dogmatibus adversarius approbatur. Concil. 
Arausican. 2, Can. 5. 

Qui orat et dicit ne nos iuferas in tentationes. non utiqne id oral ut homo sit, 
quo est natura, nequf orat id ut babeat liberum arbitrium quod jam accepit cum 
crearetur ipsa natura neque orat remissionem peccatoru quia hoc superius dicitur 



SER. 2.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 247 

innocent as doves, or without horns as doves m^moi;* a sheep 
is an useful, profitable creature, nothing not useful in it; 
the flesh, the wool, the very dung thereof profitable. So are 
the sheep of Christ, and his sheep hear his voice, but know 
not the voice of a stranger; and if you be in your life harm- 
less, profitable, hearing the voice of Christ in the gospel, 
then are you his sheep, and he did die for you. If you can 
leave the bosom of your sweet relations, and suffer for Christ, 
then did he leave the bosom of his Father, and suffer for 
you ; for we love him because he loved us first, all our grace 
is but the reflection of his. If he intercedes for you in 
heaven, then he died for you on earth ; now he ever liveth 
to make intercession for all those that come unto God by 
him; you come unto God by him, therefore l:e goes unto 
God for you, and therefore died for you. He died to recon- 
cile God to us, and us unto God ; if you be reconciled to God, 
and the things of God, so as you do now love the truths, 
ways, and things of God which you once hated, then is God 
also reconciled to you. Now thus it is with you ; you can 
say, through grace I do love those truths, and ways, and 
things of God which I once hated ; therefore you are recon- 
ciled to God, therefore he is reconciled to you, and therefore 
Christ died for vou. If you can fulfil the law of Christ, then 
hath Christ died for you ; for those that he died for, he 
satisfied and fulfilled the law for; and if you can fulfil his 
law, you may safely say he hath obeyed and fulfilled the law 
for me ; now the law of Christ is to bear one another's bur- 
dens : " Bear ye one another's burdens," saith the apostle, 
" and so fulfil the law of Christ ;" this you do and can do ; 
therefore he hath fulfilled the law for you, and so hath died 
for you. If you be the seed and children of Christ, then 

demitte nobis debita nostra, neque oral ut accepiat mandatum sed plane orat mt 
faciat mundatum. Concil. Milevetan. Epist. Familiaris, B. in. 

Et hoc a Deo ipso datum eat vobis ut non solum credendo credatis in ipaunt 
Christum. Fabr. Boderian. 

Et luc a Deo ipso datum est vobis ut non solum credendo credatis in Meschi- 
cho, Quiodmanst. 

an>tyD nnfan'nn nono nn"?3 Vi \^h rarpn Versio Syriaci. 

Concil. Arausican. 2 can. 5, 25. Milevitan. ad Innocent, in Epist. 95. Aus- 
tin, lib. de Predest. Storu, cap. ii. Arabros. Anselm. Comment. Vide Jus- 
tinian. Velasquez, in Locum. Vasquez. in 3 part. torn. i. q. 19, art. 4, c. 2. 

* Absque cornibus, translatio Grseci vocabult a placidis animalibus sumjita 
videtur, quae natura nullis cornibus armavit ad depellendam injuriam aut si armavit 
cornibus ad id non utuntur. Luc. Brugens. in Matt. x. 16. 



248 CHRIST IX TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

did he travail and die for you ; the children of Christ are 
such as are willing to be instructed by him, ira.ihvtiv to in- 
struct, comes from ^me a child, because it is the property 
of a child to be willing to be instructed ; a child doth obey 
his father without whys and wherefores, merely because the 
father commands; his command is the child's reason, For 
my father bid me, &c., the child is contented with the father's 
carving, goes to school about its business, and leaves its 
provision to the father, living in dependance on him. Now 
thus it is with you ; you do depend on Christ, leave your 
condition to him, and obey, arid do, because Christ or God 
commands, and are willing to be instructed by him ; surely 
therefore you are the seed of Christ, and therefore Christ 
died for you, even for you in particular ; and therefore though 
the great effects of his death may yet be hidden from you, 
yet he shall obtain all his ends upon you in your justification, 
sanctification, consolation, salvation ; for he hath merited all 
these at the hand of the Father, and the Father will surely 
give out what Christ hath purchased, for he is faithful ; 
wherefore comfort yourselves in these things, oh all ye seed 
of the Lord. 



SERMON III. 

CHRIST IN TRAVAIL, AND THE CONTENTMENT WHICH HE 
DOTH AND SHALL FIND IN HIS ASSURANCE OF ISSUE. 

" He shall see of the travail of his soul, and be satisfied." ISAIAH 
liii. 11. 

HAVING spoken to the second branch of the doctrine, 
viz. Christ's assurance of issue and his sight thereof; the 
third branch now follows, which is, The contentment, delight, 
and satisfaction which he doth and shall find therein.* 

Satisfaction or delight is nothing else but that sabbath or 
rest, which the soul finds in the fruition of the thing desired ; 
and as the thing is less or more desired so the delight and 

* Delectatio se habet in assectibus sicut ques naturalis in corporalibus est 
enim aliqua convenientia seu connaturalitas. Aquin. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 249 

satisfaction in the fruition of it is less or more ; now Christ 
did very much desire to see the fruit of his travail ; " I 
thirst," said he on the cross, which is the strongest of de- 
sires ; and what did he thirst after, but the salvation of 
mankind, the fruit and issue of his travail ? "The bread of 
the labouring man is sweet," saith Solomon ; and the word 
^nr here used for the travail of Christ, signifies such a toil- 
some labour, as the poor man doth exercise in the sweat of 
his brows to get his daily bread ; it is much contentment 
and satisfaction which the thirsty man doth find in his 
drink, or the hungry man doth find in his meat or bread. 
Now the word pat* here used, and translated satisfied, is the 
same that is used in Psalm cvii. : " The hungry he will satisfy 
with bread ;" and is it not a great satisfaction, delight, and 
contentment, which the woman finds in the sight of her 
child, which she hath had a sore travail for? Our Saviour 
tells us that " she forgets her labour and travail, for joy that 
a man-child is born into the world." Such a travail was 
that of Christ's sufferings, and such contentment doth and 
will he find in his issue; and therefore as Jacob said, "These 
are the children which God hath given me;" so doth Christ 
say, " Behold, I and the children which God hath given me," 
Heb. ii. Only ye know that the delight and contentment 
will be proportionable to the travail ; the greater the conflict 
is, and the sorrow of it, the greater will the joy be in the 
conquest ; * and the lower Christ did descend in his sorrows 
and travails, the higher he will and shall ascend in his de- 
lights and satisfactions. Now when he suffered, he did 
conflict with the wrath of God, and did endure the torments 
of hell. Surely therefore , as he did lie low in his sufferings, 
so his heart doth and shall arise to the highest contentment 
and satisfaction in the sight and fruition of the fruit of his 
travail. 

But wherein doth or did Christ express this height and 
greatness of contentment in the sight of his issue ? 

The issue of his travail is either that which he travailed 
with, namely, his seed ; or that which he travailed for, namely, 
the fruit and effect of his death. 

I. As for the issue that he travailed with, his seed. 

* Quanto majus erat periculum in prelio tauto majus erit gaudium iii trium- 
pbo. Austin. 



250 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 3. 

Is it not a great expression of delight and contentment 
in them, to suffer such hard things for them ; will a man 
suffer an ordinary death for another whom he doth not de- 
light much in ? It is an argument of the martyrs' delight 
in and love to Christ, that they suffered such hard things 
for him with delight.* Oh, said one, suffering for Christ, 
I am in heaven already, before I come in heaven ; I have so 
much joy in my prison, that I have found a nest of honey 
in the lion's body. Some sung in their prison, and some 
clapped their hands in the flames. Why ? But to shew 
their delight and great contentment which they did find in 
Christ; and did their cheerful suffering for Christ argue 
their satisfaction in him ; and doth not Christ's cheerful 
suffering for them argue his contentment in them ? " I de- 
light to do thy will, thy law is within my heart ; " said he 
when he came to this suffering work, yea, now this is my 
hour, "The hour of the Son of man ;" and again, when he 
went out to suffer, " Now/' said he, " is the Son of man 
glorified." Surely he could never have borne those sufferings 
with such delight, if he had not great delight and content- 
ment in those whom he suffered for. 

Is it not an argument of great delight and contentment 
in his seed, that he doth draw them into communion and 
fellowship with him in his royal dignities ? I do not say, 
that the saints are by Christ, deified, Christed, or that they 
are made Christs like him ; there are some excellencies and 
prerogatives of Christ, which are not communicated; for 
though we are made partakers of the divine nature, yet our 
nature was never manifested in the Godhead. Gud was 
incarnate, and manifested in the flesh ; and so Christ is 
truly called man, for the Word was made flesh, but flesh was 
not made the Word, nor was flesh manifested in the God- 
head ; and therefore man cannnot be called God or Christ.f 
But though the seed of Christ are not drawn into this fel- 

* Amasti me Domine plusquam te, quia mori voluisd pro me. Austin. 

f Humana natura nunquam per se seorsim existebat neque habuit in se ratio- 
nem personae, atque adeo non potest proprie dici assumpsisse divinam naturam 
aut personam, sicut divina natura et persona dicitur assumpsisse huraanum, 
neque potest bumana natura tarn proprie dici deificata, quern admodum diviua 
natura et persona dicitur incarnata legimus enim Deum manifestatum fuisse et 
visibilem factum fuisse in carne, id est in humana uatura, et eodeni sensu 
legimus sermonem factum esse carnem, 1 John xiv., sed nusquam legitnus carnem 



SER. 3.] CHRIST TN TRAVAIL. 251 

lowship with him, yet he hath taken therr into communion 
with him, in his blessed unctions, therein they are called 
partners, ju^ou* Heb. i., " He hath anointed him with the 
oil of gladness above his fellows" or partners. Is he the 
anointed of the Lord ? So are they said to be anointed, 
" Touch not mine anointed." Is he called a Prophet ? So 
are they called prophets, and " do my prophets no harm," 
Psa. cv. Is he called 'a King and a Priest ? So are they 
called also a royal priesthood, 1 Peter ii. 9 ; kings and priests 
unto God, Rev. v. 10. Is he called Ilephribo in whom I 
am delighted, Matt, iii., or my delight in him ? So are they 
called Hcphribah, in which I am delighted, or my delight in 
her, Isa. Ixii. 4.* Now what greater argument of true de- 
light and contentment can there be, than thus to draw them 
into this communion and fellowship with himself? 

Is it not a high expression of his love and delight, to have 
communion with them in all their sufferings ? Thus it is, 
they have communion with him in his comforts, and he hath 
communion with them in their sorrows ; once he bare the 
curse of their sin for them, and now he bears the cross of 
their sin with them ; they have cedar-wood and gold and 
silver from him, he hath dirty cities from them,t " In all 
their afflictions he was afflicted," Isa. Ixiii. 9 ; and as a tender 
wife is afflicted with her husband, and doth run up and down 
for him ; so doth Christ also, and therefore if ye look into 
Cant. vii. 10. ye shall find, that when the spouse saith, " I 
am my beloved's, and his desire is towards me :" it is the 



aut hum mum naturam esse invisibilem factum in Deo, aut carnem factum esse 
Deum. Ames. Sciagraph, domin. 6. 

* Ginned qui vera fide in Christum recumbunt participes fiuot suo modula 
dignitutis Christi. 

Participes sunt aliquo functionis propheticro quatenus spiritum Christi habent 
quo docentur de omnibus, 1 John i. 27, functionis et dignitatis sacerdoUlis 
quatenus datur illis offerre sacrificia oblationes, et semetipsos Deo, Rom. xli. 
Regise dignitatis limit participes in quantum dominum habens per Dei gratiain 
in scipsus. Ames. Sciag. p. G9. 

t Quod servus aliquis seu mancipium agere solet pro suo Domino, idem fecit 
servator pro nobis hominibus, ut enim ille tola die laborat in commodum sui 
Domini, ita ut quicquid lucretur id cedat suo Domino, sibi autem nihil preter 
membra totumque corpus lassum et defatigatum reservat sic et Christus noster 
ipse laboravit, ad uos autem merces laboris reddit hoc est pro nobis laboravit. 
Granatens. Compend. Catech. maj. lib. 3, de red. mysterio. 



252 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 3. 

same words that is used for the wife, Gen. iii. 16. " And 
thy desire shall be towards thine husband ?" Why so ? not 
because Christ shall be subject to the will of the saints, as 
the will of the wife is to be subject to the will of the hus- 
band ; but because (the word npiirn, coming from the root 
pptf, signifying to run up and down, to and fro, with solici- 
tude and carefulness) as the wife doth run up and down, 
looking to, and caring for her sick husband, being afflicted 
with him in all his afflictions. So Christ doth carefully ten- 
der, and is solicitous for the saints' good, his heart as it were, 
running up and down for them, and being afflicted with 
them in all their afflictions, she saith here, and his desire, or 
his running up and down aftection, is towards me. Now 
what greater argument of delight, and contentment can there 
be? 

Is it not an high expression of his delight and satisfaction 
in them, to spend and lay out his time and eternity for them, 
and on them ? Thus it is, before he came into the world, he 
saith, Prov. viii. 31., "I was by him, rejoicing in the habita- 
ble parts of his earth, and my delights were with the sons of 
men." When he came into the world, he came to, and for 
them, Isa. ix. e * For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son 
is given :" while he lived here, he lived for them, " Behold 
thy King comes to thee, meekly riding on an ass :" when he 
died, he died for them ; the just for the unjust ; he died for 
our sins : and when he rose again, he rose for them ; who died 
for our sins, saith the apostle, " and rose again for our justifi- 
cation : when he went to heaven, he went for them ; " I go 
to prepare a place for you" (saith he, John xiv.); when he as- 
cended, he did ascend for them, that he might give gifts unto 
men; and when he appeared before the Father, he did ap- 
pear for them, Heb. ix. 24. and now he continues in heaven 
for them ; " Seeing he ever liveth (saith the apostle) to make 
intercession for us," Heb. vii ; there he negotiates for them 
still, and doth transact all their business ; why should not we 
negotiate for him on earth, who doth negotiate for us in hea- 
ven ? why should not we spend of all our time for him, who 
hath, and doth spend of the days of his eternity for us ? 
But if Christ do thus spend, and lay out himself, and day, 
and time, and eternity for his seed ; then surely he doth, and 
must needs take much contentment and satisfaction in them. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 253 

Is it not a great argument of his delight and satisfaction 
in his seed, that he will not suffer a cold wind to blow upon 
them to hurt them ? When a mother is so tender of her 
child that she will not suffer a cold wind to blow upon it, 
you say, See how she loves and delights in that child. Now 
Christ hath said concerning his people : " He that toucheth 
you, toucheth the apple of mine eye," Zech. ii. The eye of 
man is the most tender part, you know, and men are the 
most tender of that : but I pray observe what kind of men 
they were that Christ was thus tender of: in Deut. xxxii. 10., 
it is said that God kept the people of Israel in the wilderness, 
" as the apple of his eye." There they were in a low and 
sad condition, yet there was the love of their youth expressed 
in following God ; but now these men were in Babylon, and 
they were that part of the people of the Jews which did 
stay behind, when others were gone to rebuild the temple ; 
and through unbelief did this part stay behind; therefore 
saith the prophet, verse 6. " Come forth, and flee from the 
land of the north ;" yet concerning these, even these rebel- 
lious and unbelieving residue, doth the Lord say, " He that 
toucheth you, toucheth the apple of mine eye," verse 8. 
Surely then, if Christ had such tender care of these, in 
reference to all that might touch or hurt them, I may truly 
say in regard of his seed, he will not suffer a cold wind for 
to blow upon them : herein is his delight, and love mani- 
fested. 

The neglect of himself (whilst he lived) in reference unto 
their good and salvation, speaks thus much also. If a child 
be fallen into the fire or water, the mother lays by all other 
business to pull it out, she lays by her very meat, and drink, 
and dressing ; forgets and neglects herself, till she have ob- 
tained the safety of her child, and this argues her delight in 
it. So it was with Chi 1st in the days of his flesh, he forgat 
and neglected himself altogether, till he had settled the great 
business of man's salvation ; I have meat to eat that ye 
know not of, saith he : he had not whereon to lay his head, 
and did not mind himself, but was restless till he had set all 
things in safety, in reference to the salvation of his seed ; 
why ? but because of that great delight and satisfaction which 
he took in his work, and their good. 

And when he went away, and could no longer stay here on 



254 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

earth, he left his seed a blessed token of love, which lie 
would have them wear in their bosoms till he come again, I 
mean the Lord's supper. " Do this as oft as ye do it (saith 
he) in remembrance of me." When a man goes from a 
place, and doth leave his friends, he bestows some token of 
love upon his best friends ; or if he die, he gives his choice 
and beloved friend a token of remembrance; he doth not so 
by those whom he loves not, but by such as he loves much, 
and delights in. Thus did our Saviour Christ, when he went 
away, and died, he left a crucifix, as I may so call it, this or- 
dinance of the supper, to be worn in the bosom of all the 
churches, as a memorial, or remembrance of him. The So- 
cinians,* who are enemies to the cross of Christ, tell us that 
the word a.va.i*vri(ns, remembrance, should rather be trans- 
lated, celebration ; do this in the celebration of me, and that 
the word doth signify celebration, and not remembrance : but 
if ye look into Heb. x. 3., ye shall find it is said, " But in 
those sacrifices, there is a remembrance again made of sin 
every year :" it is the same word that is used for the Lord's 
supper, and should it be translated a celebration there; 
should the words be read thus ; but in these sacrifices, there 
is a celebration of sin every year ? surely no : well then is 
the word translated in the institution of the Lord's supper, 
do this in remembrance of me, and in that Christ hath left 
such a remembrance for his seed ; what doth this argue, but 
that they should delight in him, as he doth delight in them ? 

And is it not a very great, and high expression of 
his love, and delight in them, that he carried all their names 
upon his heart, into the presence of God the Father, owning 
and interceding for them ? When the high priest went into 
the holy of holies, he carried the names of the twelve tribes 
upon his breast-plate, and with the blood of the sacrifice he 
sprinkled the mercy seat seven times, and prayed for them. 
So when our great High Priest went into heaven, he did 



* Ex istis Pauli verbis apparet graviter errasse illos qui existimarunt, verbutn 
(ut Vulgata et Erasmi interpretatio habet) commemorationem, quod in Grseco 
eat a.va.pvr\aiv mutari debere in recordationem, neque enim dicit Paulus mortem 
Domini recordamini, &c. Non est igitur quod quis ex verbo illo colligat csenam 
Domini in eum fincm institutum fuisse ut nobis suggerat et in memoriam revocet 
mortem ipsius Domini, id quod nulla alioqui sacrarum litterarum authoritate, 
nullave ratione probari potest. Faust. Socinus de usu et fine csense Domini. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 255 

carry the names of all those whom he died for, sprinkling 
the mercy seat seven times for them, and doth yet pray," and 
intercede for such of them, as are not in heaven ; and as if 
all this were not enough, he did presently send the Com- 
forter, another advocate to intercede within them, Rom. viii. 
that as he took their flesh upon him, and was made one with 
them, so they should take of his Spirit, and be made one 
with him. Now can this and all these things be, without 
great contentment, and delight in them ? Surely, the delight 
and satisfaction which Christ takes in his seed, is exceeding 
great and very full. In Prov. viii. he saith, his delights, in the 
plural number, are in them; and in Psalm, xvi. he saith, all 
" his delights is in them." 

But why, and upon what account doth our Lord and Sa- 
viour Christ, take such delight and satisfaction in his seed ? 

He hath travailed for them, saith this doctrine, and will ye 
ask, why a woman takes so much delight in the child, which 
she hath had a sore travail for ? without doubt, this delight 
is not raised from any worth in themselves considered. But, 

They are his own, and men do naturally delight in their 
own. Now they are not his own only as a man's goods are 
his own, but they are his own, as his wife is his own, and his 
own body.* 

They are given him of the Father : a man loves, and de- 
lights much in that which is given him by a most precious 
friend : such is the Father : and saith Christ, " Thine they 
were and thou gavest them to me." 

They are related to him, with all the relations of love ; 
they are his brethren, " He is not ashamed to call them 
brethren," Heb. ii. They are his children, Behold I, and 
the children whom God hath given me," saith he, Heb. ii. 
They are his spouse, Ephes. 5. A man loves, and delights 
in him that is related to him, but with one single relation ; 
but if one person could be invested with all relations of 
love, he would be much delighted in.f Thus it is with the 
seed of Christ, when they believe (for so I speak of them 
now) they are related to him with all the relations of love ; 
" If any man (saith Christ) hear my words, and do them, he 
is my mother, and brother, and sister." 

* Proprietas delectationis causa, 
t Unumquoilque in quautu auiatm efficilur eUlectabile. Aquin. 



256 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3 

Yea, they are one with him, he with them, and they with 
him ; one with the greatest oneness, of mutual in-being ; 
" I in you, and you in me," saith Christ. 

And they are very like him too, and suitable to him ; all 
delight arises from a conjunction of suitables.* Christ 
and his believing seed are not only joined into one, but in 
this union there is a conjunction of suitables, Christ suiting 
with them, and they with him again, being of the same 
mind and affection. Doth Christ say unto his spouse, Cant. 
iv. 10. "Thy love is better than w ine ?" so doth the spouse 
say to him, Cant. i. 2 : " Thy love is better than wine." 
Doth he say to his spouse, " Thou art all fair, my love, there 
there is no spot in thee ? " Cant. iv. 7? so doth she say of him, 
"He is altogether lovely," Cant v. 16. Doth he contemplate her 
beauty? Cant. iv. ; so doth she contemplate his beauty, 
Cant. v. Only herein he doth exceed, even as David ex- 
ceeded Jonathan ; yet there is an answerableness of affection 
between Christ and his seed. 

By them also, I mean his believing seed, he liveth, and 
his name is continued and borne up in the world unto all 
generations ;" He shall prolong his days," saith Isaiah liii. 
10. But how so ? " He shall see his seed and so shall pro- 
long his days : His name shall continue for ever," saith 
Ps. Ixxii. 17. But how so ? Even by the continual filiation 
of his seed and name. Now if he do yet live in them, and 
they only do bear up his name in the world ; then no won- 
der that our Lord and Saviour Christ, doth take so 
much delight, contentment, and satisfaction in them ; surely 
his delight in them is beyond all expression ; for, saith he, 
Cant. vii. 6 : " How fair and how pleasant art thou, O love, 
for delights ?"f 

II. As for the issue of Christ which he travailed for ; 
namely, The fruits and effects of his death, his delight and 

* Omnis delectatio oritur ex conjunctione convenientis cum convenient!. 
Aquin. 

f Da mihi filios quod si non, tnorior ego, Gen. xxx, morior, 1. e memoria 
mei plane emorietur et obliterabitur dum enim parentes post se relinqunt filios 
in illis quasi adhuc vivere et superesse videntur, unde vulgo apud Hebrseos jactata 
est sententia cui non sunt liberi perinde est ac si mortuus sit : et Hebraei dicunt 
qni non habet filios non est sedificatus sed quasi dissipatus. Paulus Fag. in Ch. 
Paraphr. in Gen. xxx. 

Psal. Ixxii. 17. TIDttf fa' filiabitur nornen ejus. Ar. Montan. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 257 

satisfaction must needs be great in the sight thereof. For, 
thereby he sees the good pleasure of God prosper in his 
hands, Isa. liii. 10 : " He shall see his seed, and the pleasure 
of the Lord shall prosper in his hands." A good man de- 
lights to see the work of God prosper in his hands ; and 
the greater the work is and the more it prospers, the more 
delight he hath and contentment ; and when doth the work 
of God prosper in a man's hands, but when it attaineth the 
ends and due effects thereof. Now the work that Christ 
undertook was the greatest work in the world, and it was 
God the Father's work, insomuch as Christ is called his 
Servant; and, saith Christ, "Lo, I come to do thy will." 
Whenever therefore he sees the travail of his soul in the 
saving effects thereof, then he sees the good pleasure of the 
Lord prospering in his hands, and so his heart is at rest. 

Thereby the reproach is rolled away from his sufferings ; 
great was the scandal of the cross, the greatest scandal that 
ever was, and the greatest reproach cast upon it that ever was. 
It was a reproach to a woman to be barren, but when she 
brought forth a child, her reproach was rolled away; so 
when the cross and sufferings of Christ do bring forth, then 
the reproach and scandal of the cross is rolled away; and 
therefore when Christ doth see the travail of his soul in the 
effects thereof, his heart is at rest, and he is fully satisfied. 

And thereby also he obtains the ends of his sufferings ; 
as it is a dissatisfaction to a man to miss his ends, so it is 
a satisfaction to a man to obtain the end of his labour. 
Now the effects of Christ's travail are the ends which he 
aimed at in his travail ; and therefore when he sees the tra- 
vail of his soul in the effects thereof, he must needs be at 
rest in his heart, and be fully satisfied. 

But how may it appear that Christ shall certainly obtain 
all those ends which he travailed for and aimed at ? 

I answer, This hath been cleared already ; yet further 
thus: The will of Christ, and the will of the Father 
are one : "I and my Father, (saith he,) are one :" they are 
one in nature, and therefore there is but one will between 
them. Now God the Father cannot be frustrated of his 
ends, for he is a simple Being, and a pure act, nothing can 
come between his executive power and his will.* The soul 

* Finis a Deo destinatus semper att'njitur. 
VOL. III. S 



258 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 3. 

of man is a compounded being, his faculties differing from 
his essence, and his acts differing from his faculties ; and 
therefore something can come between his will and the 
execution of it. But the executive power and the will of 
God being one, and his will and act being one, nothing can 
come between his will and his act ; and therefore look what- 
ever he wills, he shall certainly obtain, and cannot be frus- 
trated of his ends.* 

If you look into the Scripture, you shall find that the 
same things which are the effects of Christ's death, were the 
ends of his dying ; and the same things which were the ends 
that he aimed at in his death, are the effects of his death. 
For example, did he aim at the remission of our sins by his 
death ? Matt. xxvi. 28. Remission of sin is the effect of his 
death. Eph. i. 7 Did he aim at the washing and sanctifying 
of the church by his death ? Eph. v. 25, 26. This cleansing, 
washing and sanctifying, is the effect of his death. 1 Cor. vi. 
11. The ends and effects of his death are the same; why 
so ? but to shew that he shall certainly obtain all those gra- 
cious ends which he travailed for. 

If there be nothing that can keep our Lord and Saviour 
Christ from the obtainment of his ends, then he must needs 
see the same. Now the ends of his death and sufferings are 
many. He did not only die and suffer to deliver us from the 
wrath to come, and to reconcile us to God ; but he died and 
suffered to " bring us to God, and to deliver us from this 
present evil world/' Gal. i. 4. He died to sanctify, wash and 
cleanse those that he died for, Eph. v. 25 ; to destroy him 
that had the power of death, the devil, Heb. ii. ; and to " re- 
deem us from all iniquity," Titus ii. 14. Now what can 
hinder him from the obtainment of these his ends ? Can the 
devil ? he came to destroy him. Can the world ? he came to 
deliver us from this present evil world. Can our sin or un- 
belief hinder him ? he came to cleanse us, and wash us, and 
to redeem us from all iniquity. Why then are not those 
redeemed from all iniquity that he died for? Will ye 
say, because they will not, or because they do not believe ? 
He came to redeem us from those unbelieving will nots ; for 
that unbelief and that will not is a sin and iniquity, and he 
came to redeem us from all, not from some, but from all 
iniquity. Surely therefore, if he did die for all particular 
* Dr. Preston on the Attributes. The Simplicity of God. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 259 

men, he should redeem them all from all iniquity, and so 
from their unbelief. 

But when the apostle saith, that Christ came to redeem us 
from all iniquity, by that us we are to understand believers 
only, and not all the particular men in the world. 

Very true. But if he came to redeem believers only from 
all iniquity, and not others, then he did not die equally for 
all men, for he died to redeem some from all iniquity, and 
not others. But those that say Christ died for all, say also 
that he died equally, with equal intentions of love and mercy 
for all ; and if he did die to redeem all particular men from 
all iniquity, why are not all particular men redeemed from 
all iniquity ? Will it yet be said, because they will not ? why 
that will not is an iniquity. Will it be said, because of their 
unbelief? why that unbelief is an iniquity, and a soul dis- 
ease. Now if a physician come to cure all diseases, and he 
doth not cure the most because they have diseases, is this a 
good reason why he doth not cure them ? You send a ser- 
vant to wash and cleanse a pot from its filthiness, and he 
returns with it unwashed, uncleansed, and he tells you that 
he did not wash it, because there was filth in it ; will you 
take this for a good reason from him ? Surely no. Now 
Christ came to wash us and cleanse us from all iniquities, 
and will he not do it because of our iniquity ? Surely this 
can be no reason ; and seeing these are the ends of his death 
and sufferings, there is nothing that can hinder him from the 
obtainment of them : therefore he shall certainly see the 
travail of his soul in the ohtamment of all those ends which 
he suffered for. Now two things there are which do give full 
contentment and satisfaction to the soul. The obtainment 
of one's end, and the knowledge of that obtainment ; for 
though I have obtained my end, yet if I do not know that I 
have obtained it, I have not satisfaction ; but where fruition, 
and knowledge of that fruition do meet, there is full content- 
ment and satisfaction.* Now Christ shall not only obtain 
his ends, but he shall know and see the travail of his soul, 
and therefore he shall have full delight, contentment, and 
satisfaction therein. And so the main doctrine is now cleared, 
in all the three parts thereof. 

* Delectatio oritur ex adeptione boni convenient!*, et cognitione hujusmodi 
adeptionis. Aquin. 

s 2 



260 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 3. 

1. If Christ shall thus see the travail of his soul and be 
satisfied, then here you may see the reason why we cannot be 
satisfied with that doctrine of universal redemption. How 
can we be satisfied with that which is dissatisfying to the 
heart of Christ ? Now according to that doctrine, Christ 
shall see men damned for those very sins that he hath died 
and satisfied for. Corvinus is not ashamed to speak it out,* 
and it or worse must needs follow from that doctrine ; for 
many shall be damned, not only for their unbelief and sins 
against the gospel, but for their sins against the law. Rom. 
ii. 12; 2 Cor. vi. 9. Either then Christ satisfied for these 
sins, when he died for them, or not. If not, then it seems 
that men possibly may have their sins against the law par- 
doned, which Christ hath not satisfied for ; for the maintain- 
ers of that doctrine say, That it is possible that all may be 
saved, and so have their sins pardoned ; and if men's sins 
may be pardoned, which Christ hath not satisfied for, then is 
the satisfaction of Christ made void according to the doctrine 
of the Socinians. And if Christ did bear, and die, and satisfy 
for these very sins which men are damned for ; then shall 
God punish the same sin twice, which even a just man will 
not do. And then, wherein doth our great gospel sacrifice 
of Christ on the cross, exceed the sacrifices of the old tes- 
tament ? For the apostle tells us, that " in those sacrifices, 
there was a remembrance again made of sins every year," 
Heb. x. 3 ; but here shall be a remembrance again of sins 
made, not every year, but unto all eternity. Oh, how un- 
satisfying is this to the heart of Christ, that instead of seeing 
the travail of his soul, he shall see those damned that he 
died for, yea, damned for those sins that he satisfied for ; all 
which must needs follow upon ,the doctrine of universal 
redemption. According to that doctrine, Christ may miss 
the ends of his death and sufferings ; for he died not only for 
the salvation of those whom he died for, but for their sancti- 
fication. Ephes. v. 26 ; 1 Pet. i. 18 ; Tit. ii. 14. But all the 

* Quare cum talis fuerit satisfactio Christo, ut ea posita liberum fuerit Deo 
obtinendas salutis earn conditionem ponere quam vellet, ipse veto Deus posuerit 
conditionem fidei, sequitur, quandoquidem salva justitia per earn Dei voluntatem 
fidei ad salutem necessitas ponitur eorum respectum pro quibus Christus satis- 
fecit ; eandem justitiam non laedi cum damnantur increduli licet pro ipsorum 
peccatis sic satisfactum. Corvin. contra Molin. cap. 23, pag. 445. 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 261 

men of the world are not sanctified, cleansed, and redeemed 
from their vain conversation, and from all iniquity : surely 
therefore, if he should die for all particular men, he should 
miss his ends ; yea, according to that doctrine, Christ may 
not obtain that which he hath merited and purchased ; for 
he hath not only merited salvation, but grace and holiness 
for those whom he died for, as hath been proved already. If 
therefore he died for every particular man of the world, then 
all the men of the world must be gracious and holy, or Christ 
must never come into his purchase, nor obtain what he hath 
merited : and can that be satisfying to the heart of Christ ? 

But our Lord and Saviour Christ did die conditionally, and 
merited the blessings of the new covenant conditionally, to 
be given out upon condition of faith and repentance, which 
are the condition of the new covenant; and therefore though 
men do not obtain all the blessings of the covenant, yet 
Christ shall not lose his ends, nor the thing purchased by his 
death, because if men do not perform the condition, he never 
did intend they should have the blessing, or the thing pur- 
chased.* 

But did Christ merit grace and holiness conditionally ? 
The question now is, not about salvation or justification, but 
about our sanctification. If you speak of our salvation in 
remission of sin, you speak not to the matter in hand ; and 
if you speak of our sanctification, what condition can be 
performed before that ? And if Christ did merit and intend 
that our holiness and sanctification should be bestowed on 
us, upon condition of faith and repentance ; then a man may 
repent and believe before he be sanctified, and before he have 
any true saving grace and holiness. No condition can be 

* Sciendum est ita Christum Dominum pro peccatis totius generis bumani 
satisfecisse, donaque omnia gratia?, quee illi post lapsum primorum parentum 
couferuntur, infinitaque alia prorreruisse, et nihilomiuus applicationem effcctuum 
fuorum meritorum certis quibusdam legibus alligatam reliquerit. Molina, lib. 
arb. Concord, qu. 33, art. 45, disp. 2. 

Talis fuit gatisfactio Christi ut ea posita liberum fuit Deo obtineudas salmis 
earn conditionem ponere quam vellet, ipse vero Deus posuit conditionem fidei. 
Arnol. Corvin. contra Molinse. cap. 28. p. 442. 

Impetravit Christus omnibus reconciliationem et remissionem sed ea condi- 
tione. Remonst. Coliat. Haglens. art. 2. 

Licet satisfactio Christi sit prsestita reatus noster non statim aboletur nisi 
prius fidei et poenitenthe conditionem impleamus. Conr. Vorstius, schol. 
ad 51. 



262 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

performed before grace and holiness, but a work of nature ; 
and hath Christ merited that grace shall be bestowed upon a 
work of nature ? The apostle speaks directly contrary, 
" Who hath saved us and called us with an holy calling, not 
according to our works, but according to his own purpose 
and grace," 2 Tim. i. 9. And if Christ's merits were thus 
conditional, then the will of God the Father must be also 
conditional, for there is a correspondency between the merits 
of Christ and the will of the Father : the Father wills that 
to us, which the Son hath merited for us ; and as the Son 
merited, so doth the Father will the bestowing of the bles- 
sing. But the Father doth not will our grace, holiness and 
sanctification upon condition; for the maintainers of that 
doctrine of universal redemption say, That God's secret will, 
and his revealed will, are one and the same, nothing differ- 
ent : if therefore God doth will our sanctification and holiness 
upon condition, then when he commands us to believe, 
repent and obey, his commandment must be conditional; 
and when he commands us to forsake our sins, his command 
(for that is God's will) must be conditional ; and if those 
commandments be conditional, then they cannot be resisted, 
nor his will resisted, yea, then it will be no sin not to keep 
God's commandment ; for if his commandment be to be 
observed upon condition, then if I do not perform that con- 
dition, I do not transgress his commandment : as if you 
command your servant to do a thing if he will, if he will not 
he doth not transgress your commandment ; surely therefore 
the will of God and his commandments are absolute, such 
therefore is the merit of Christ. 

But if Christ's merits were thus conditional, relating to the 
performance of some condition, as of faith, repentance and 
obedience ; then faith, repentance, and our obedience were 
not merited by the death of Christ : the contrary hath been 
proved already. Look, whatever Christ laid down his life for, 
that he merited : but he laid down his life to redeem us from 
our vain conversation and from all iniquity ; therefore from 
unbelief, hardness of heart, and from all the disobedience of 
our lives; and therefore he merited our redemption from 
these. 

If Christ's merits were thus conditional, then the will of 
God the Father must be pendulous, wavering, uncertain and 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 263 

undetermined, until it be determined by some act of man's ; 
for if man do perform the condition, then he is to give out the 
blessing which Christ hath merited ; and if man do not per- 
form the condition he is not to give it out. When a man, there- 
fore, doth perform the condition, then is God's will determined. 
But as God is the first being, the first agent and the first 
mover, so he is the first determiner, and his will cannot be 
determined by any thing without himself: for as himself is 
the most perfect being, than which nothing can be imagined to 
be more perfect, so his will is the most perfect, than which no 
will can be imagined to be more perfect ; but it is a greater 
perfection to be determined by itself than by another, and to 
determine man's will is more perfect than to be determined 
by man's will. Bradwardine observes well :* A man, a king, 
or another, doth declare by public edict that he which doth 
such a good or evil shall receive this or that, and so he re- 
mains indifferent and undetermined in his will, until his in- 
differency be determined by some fact of his subjects. Non 
sic autem Deus ; buf it is not so with God, who of himself 
only, begging nothing of follo\vlng things, doth equally and 
determinately will or not will what he wills or not wills. 

If Christ did merit that the blessings of the covenant 
should thus be bestowed upon condition, then he did merit 
that we might merit at the hand of God, at least ex congruo, 
for what is merit ? Bellarmine is sufficiently able to tell us 
what merit is ; and saith he :f Promises are of two sorts, either 
absolute or conditional : absolute, as suppose a prince doth 
promise an hundred pounds freely to a poor man upon no 
condition ; it the prince give it the poor man doth not merit 
at all : but then there is another promise that is conditional ; 
as if a man do promise to give another an hundred pounds for 

* Homo, rex, vel alius publico edicto promulgat, quod qui fecerit tale quid bo- 
iium vel malum, recipiet hoc vel illud, manetque ipse indifferens et indeterminatus 
in voluntate sua, et per facta subditorum indifferentia ejus. determinatur. Non 
sic autem Deus, ex se solo, nihil a posterior bus mendicando, semper aeque deter- 
minate vult et non vult qusecunque. Bradward. p. 350. 

f Si promissio non requirat ullam conditionem operis, tune quidem nullum inde 
orietur meritum ut si rex egenti alicui promittut in singulos annos certum nuin- 
morum numerum sine ulla conditione, debebuntur egenti illi pecuniae regiee, sed 
absque ullo merito ejus ; at si promissio contineat operis conditionem, orietur inde 
meritum etiamsi opus illud alioqni non sit per se sequale mercedi ; vere mini qui 
opus illud fecerit, convenire poterit promissorem ac diccre, se meruisse preemium 
ab illo promissum. 



264 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SBR. 3. 

some work ; Now, says he, though the condition be short in 
worth of the hundred pounds, yet if he give it upon that 
condition here is truly merit ; for, says he, he doth merit ex 
congruo, cui debetur, unto whom the reward is due out of 
grace. But no protestant, unless tainted with popery, will 
say that Christ did merit for us that we might merit at the 
hand of God. 

When our Lord and Saviour Christ died, he laid down his 
life as a ransom, \vrpw. Now where do we find in Scripture 
that where any ransom money was paid there was any other 
condition of deliverance or of the redemption, besides the 
XVT ?O ^ itself, or the ransom money? When the mortgage land 
Mas redeemed, what was the condition of that redemption 
but the paying of the ransom money, the Xvr^ov? Num. 
xviii. 15, 16, ye read of the redemption of the first-born, and 
was there any condition of that redemption besides the pay- 
ment of five shekels ? five shekels was the ransom money, 
the Xwrpo^ and the payment of that alone was the condition 
of that redemption, and the privileges of that redemption 
were obtained upon the payment thereof. Now if our Lord 
and Saviour Christ did lay down his life as a ransom, a \vrpo } 
then all the privileges of our redemption are to be given out 
upon his payment of this ransom money : but to make ano- 
ther condition of our redemption besides the payment of the 
Ai/rgox, or ransom money, is directly contrary unto all those 
redemptions in the old testament which were types of this ; 
yea, contrary to the nature of all redemptions whatever. 

If our Lord and Saviour Christ did merit the blessings of 
the covenant, to be given out conditionally upon the faith and 
repentance of all those that he died for; then if he died for 
all the particular men of the world, this truth should have 
been published to them, that they shall have salvation by 
Christ upon condition that they believe in him, and that if 
they do not, then they shall be damned ; but this gospel or 
truth was not always published to all the particular men of 
the world, for says the apostle concerning the gospel, Col. i. 
26, **' Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and 
from generations :" and saith the psalmist, " He sheweth his 
word unto Jacob, his statutes and his judgments unto Israel ; 
he hath not dealt so with any nation, and as for his judgments 
they have not known him." He doth not say they have not 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 265 

known them as Israel, but he saith, " The Lord hath not 
dealt so with other nations ; as for his judgments they have 
not known them/' Neither can it be said that God was 
ready to have made known this truth unto all the world, but 
did not because of their sin ; 'for then it should have been 
declared to them that such truths of the gospel should be 
made known to them if they did not sin ; but that hath not 
been declared to all the particular men of the world* and 
therefore Christ did not die for all men thus conditionally.* 

If Christ did die and merit thus conditionally for all men, 
then all the particular men in the world are under a covenant 
of grace ; for those that he died for are to receive the bless- 
ings of the new covenant upon the performance of the con- 
dition, saith this objection. Put all the particular men of the 
world are not under the covenant of grace, for the apostle 
saith of the Ephesians before their conversion, that they were 
" strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, 
and without God in the world," Eph. ii. 12. And God will 
write his laws in the hearts of all those that are under the co- 
venant of grace. Heb. viii. But all the particular men in the 
world shall not have the laws of God written in their hearts : 
therefore the covenant of grace is not made with them, and 

* Ex ore tuo, &c., medicus venditat se remedium habere adversus omnes 
segritudines, quod segris etiam omnibus communicare vellet ut ejus beneficio san- 
entur, interim vero nullo modo significat nisi paucissimis hujusmodo remedium 
ipsis paratum esse ; similiter potens aliquis princeps pecuniam se parasse dicit 
redimendis omnibus captivis et liberationem eorum ex animo desiderare, sed 
quamvis hoc prse se fert tamen certo apud se decrevit sinere ut nulli captivi, paucis 
quibusdam exceptis, certiores uuquain fiant vel intentionis vel praeparationis bujus 
benignse ; An gloriatio hujusmodi medici vel principis esset justa ? nihilo magia 
consistere potest quod Cbristus pro omnibus mortuus fuerit respectu voluntatis et 
intentionis divinse nii omnibus nota fiat haec tarn propensa voluntas. Sic Re- 
inonstr. Collat. Hag. art. 2, arg. 5, p. 175, Brand. 

Neque negatur simplicitur a propheta, Deum gentibus verbum suum annunci- 
asse, sed propheta loquitur comparative, scil. dicit non taliter Deum fecisse omni 
nationi quam populo suo Israeli. Corvinus contra Tilen. p. 99. 

Falsa omnia et citra modestiam concepta, nam quod tribuitur Jacobo negatur 
gentibus et tribuitur Jacobo quod Deus annunciavit ipsi verbum suum, ergo hoc 
negatur gentibus ; certe bi dixisset non sic annunciasse verbum suum gentibua 
quern ad modura Jacobo recte collegisset Corvinus ; et spiritus sanctus hoc pri- 
mum triburens Jacobo, quod scil. verbum ipsis curaret annunciari mox subjicit, 
non sic fecisse gentibus, quce nullum alium sensum induere possunt, quam ut 
negent verbum gentibus annunciari. Twiss in Corvini defens. Armin. contra 
Tilen. p. 66. 



266 CHRIST fN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

therefore Christ hath not merited that the blessings of the 
covenant shall be given out unto all the world upon conditions. 

If all the benefits of Christ's death and blessings of the 
new covenant should be given out upon some condition to be 
performed by us, as faith and repentance; then our faith 
should give us a right and title unto all those blessings and 
benefits. As if I sell a thing upon condition that a man pay 
me so much money, his payment of the money being the 
performance of the condition gives him a right and title to 
the thing. Or if I promise to give a man an hundred pounds 
upon condition that he go of such an errand for me ; if he 
go, his very going gives him a right and title to the hundred 
pounds, because he performs the condition. But though 
faith be our hand whereby we receive the benefits of Christ's 
death and blessings of the covenant, yet it doth not give us 
any right or title to them ; all our right and title is in Christ's 
blood, his death, his satisfaction and his obedience, and in 
that alone. 

This objection doth suppose the covenant of grace to be 
conditional; but the covenant of grace is free, absolute, and 
without all conditions to be performed by us. For, 

The Lord hath delivered it without all such conditions. 
We read of the covenant of grace in Jer. xxxi., in Ezek. 
xxxvi., in Heb. viii., but where do we find any condition 
annexed to it ? And if God make no conditions, why should 
we ? Shall I hang my padlock upon God's door of mercy ? 

This covenant, saith the Lord, is as the covenant which lie 
made with Noah. Did he promise Noah that the world 
should be drowned no more upon conditions of our faith or 
obedience ? No, but saith the Lord, " I will not again curse 
the ground any more for man's sake, although the imagina- 
tions of man's hearts be evil," Gen. viii. 21. It may be 
you will translate the Hebrew '3, because ; but it comes all 
to one. 

In the covenant of grace the Lord saith he will write his 
laws in our hearts ; there is converting mercy promised ; and 
that we shall all know him ; there is enlightening mercy pro- 
mised : both the habit_and the act of grace promised, and he 
gives this reason " For I will be merciful to your unrighte- 
ousness, and your sin and iniquity I will remember no more," 
Heb. viii. 11, 12. Now if forgiving mercy be the reason of 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 267 

sanctifying mercy, if our forgiveness be the cause of our ho- 
liness, then no act of our grace or holiness can be the condi- 
tion of our forgiveness or of the covenant. 

The Spirit of God is promised in the covenant. " I will 
put my Spirit into you," saith God. But faith and repent- 
ance are not before the in-being or gift of the Spirit. Surely, 
therefore, all the blessings of the covenant are not given out 
upon these conditions. 

If the covenant of grace should be thus conditional, then 
the covenant of grace should be harder than the covenant of 
works made with Adam in paradise ; for then the condition 
was to be performed by our common person who was strong 
and free from all sin ; but now we are weak and full of all 
sin, and therefore if the performance of the condition lie upon 
our hands, the terms of this covenant will be worse and harder 
for us than the terms of that covenant of works ; neither can 
it be said that if all men have a sufficiency of grace and power 
to believe, that the performance of the condition of this co- 
venant will be easier than of that ; for who doth not know 
that it is an harder thing for one of us sinful creatures to be- 
lieve, than for Adam to abstain from eating the forbidden 
fruit ? But surely the covenant of grace is easier and sweeter 
than the covenant of works, and therefore the condition 
thereof was performed by Christ our second Adam, and there 
is now no condition of the covenant to be performed by us. 
Yet it is our duty to believe and repent and obey, which we 
are commanded to do by the gospel ; but all our repentance, 
faith and obedience is a fruit of that covenant, not the con- 
dition of it. As in case Adam had stood, his seed should 
have obeyed, yet their obedience should not have been the 
condition but the fruit of the covenant; and as his posterity 
could not have had life unless they had obeyed, yet that their 
obedience was not the condition of that covenant. So though 
we cannot be justified unless we believe, nor be saved unless we 
repent and obey ; yet our repentance, faith and obedience is 
not the condition but the fruit of the covenant. Christ and 
Christ alone, our second Adam, did perform the condition ; 
as to us, the covenant of grace is free, absolute and without 
all conditions. 

But all divines say that faith and repentance are the condi- 
tions of the covenants. 



268 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

Not all : not so Luther, not so Zanchy, not so Junius, not 
so Dr. Ames, not so some of our own.* And those that do say 
so, say also that faith and repentance are also promised in the 
covenant ; which comes to the same in effect with what I now 
say. They mean, also, that faith is that grace whereby we 
are justified, and that we cannot be saved without faith and 
repentance, which I grant,t but they do not say that there 
is any condition in the will of God moving or determining it, 
but a condition in the thing willed. But the remonstrants 
make a condition of the covenant in reference to the will of 
God, which is the thing I deny and have disproved all this 
while. I grant there is a conditional promise, but then God 
hath promised that condition in some other scripture, which 

* Duplices snnt promissiones Dei, legales quae nituntur deorsum in nostris 
operibus, sicut illae, si feceritis, bona terrse comedetis ; aliae sunt promissiones 
gratiae, sicut Jer. xxxi., scribam legem meam in cordibus eorum ; hae promissio- 
ues non nituntur deorsum sed simpliciter bonirate et gratia Dei ; quid ipse velit 
facere Luther in Gen. iv. p. 88. 

II os. ii. Desponsabo te mihi in perpetuum : sine ulla interjecta vel penitentiae 
vel fidei conditione absolutissime ait desponsabo te, &c. hujusmodi autem abso- 
lutissimae promissiones ad solos veros et secundum spiritum Israelitas, i.e. electos 
pertinent, ergo haec est perfectissima et absolutissima evangelica promissio. 
Zanch. in Hos. ii. 21, 22. 

Statuens Dei gratiam eo luculentiorem hominibus explicatum esse, quod suis 
non faedus sed testamentum dedertt, quia faedus conditiones mutuus fuisset habi- 
turum, quas si altera pars non prestet, faedus est irritum, testamentum vero libe- 
ralitatis et gratiae citra ullam conditionem instrumentum est ; ex quo haeredes 
instituuntur citra contcmplationem ullius officii quod ab ipsis proficisci possit. 
Junius in Heb. viii. 

Sic Amesius Coron. de Perseverant. 

At ubi quaeso sacrarum literarum quoties nostra renovatio sanctificatio, ad pae- 
nitentiam revocatio spiritui sancto attribuitur vel levissima mentio sit conditionis, 
Jer. xxxi. hoc est faedus, &c. etiam omnem voluntatem Dei esse absolutam nullam 
autem conditionale>n demonstravit variis argument!;-. Tho. Bradward. de causa 
Dei, lib. 2. 

Twiss. Vindiciae Gratiae prefat. 8. 

t The manner of expressing the fore-mentioned promises of the new covenant 
is absolute , so as God undertaketh I o perform them all : I will put my law into 
your minds ; I will be to them a God ; All shall know me ; I will be merciful 
unto their sins. Hereby it is manifest that tha privileges of the new covenant 
are absolutely promised to be performed on God's part : " It is God that justi- 
fieth," Rom. viii. 33. Sanctincation is absolutely promised Ezek. xxxvi. 25, so 
the parts thereof: mortification, Rom. vi. 14 ; vivification, Rom. viii. 11 ; per- 
severance, 1 Cor. i. 8. Object. Is also the condition of faith and repentance 
required by the new covenant ? Mark i. 15. Ans. He that requireth the con- 
dition proiniseth also to work it in us. Dr. Gouge on Heb. viii. 

Naturae legum et conditionum prescriptarum omnino conveniens est ut volun- 
tatas judicis a conditione postulata et prestita moveatur ad premium. Grevin- 
chovius. 



SEE. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 269 

they deny. I grant that we are justified upon our believing, 
but then God hath promised faith too, which they deny. I 
grant a condition may be rei volita, of the thing willed, but 
nulla est conditio voluntatis divina, there is no condition of 
the divine will ; they affirm it. I grant that one benefit of the 
death of Christ doth follow another, and one may be the cause 
of the other ; but our Lord and Saviour Christ did not die 
conditionally, nor merit any thing for us conditionally ; those 
that he died for he merited grace and holiness for, to be given 
out to them without all conditions ; and therefore if he died 
for all men, he must needs lose his purchase, a thing most 
unsatisfying to the heart of Christ : yet this is the first born 
of that doctrine of universal redemption. Now, therefore, 
as you desire to stand free from all those opinions that are 
unsavoury to the heart of Christ, take heed of that doctrine 
of universal redemption. Yet further. 

2. If Christ will certainly see the travail of his soul, and 
be satisfied, then here you may see the reason why we cannot 
be satisfied with that opinion of the saints' apostacy ; this 
also is unsatisfying to the heart of Christ. Can a man be 
satisfied in seeing, and feeling one of his own members torn 
from his body ? Can a man delight in seeing that leg or 
arm, which was once the member of his body, burning in the 
fire ? Surely Christ cannot ; Christ's love is not like to 
ours ; Non amat tanquam osurus : Those whom he loves 
once, he doth love to the end ; once in Christ, and for ever 
in Christ ; once loved by Christ, and for ever loved by him : 
"Whom God hath called, them he hath also justified; and 
whom he hath justified, them he hath also glorified," Rom. 
viii. This is the Father's will (saith Christ, John vi. 39.) 
that of all that he hath given me, I should lose none ;" and 
verse 37, he saith: "All that the Father giveth me shall 
come unto me." It seems therefore, that there are some 
whom the Father hath given unto Christ, and that before 
they believe, their faith being the fruit and consequent of 
this gift ; therefore there is a particular election of some, 
and that election is not upon a foresight of faith, but a cause 
thereof. Our Saviour tells us here, "That all those that 
are given him, shall come to him ;" that is, they shall be- 
lieve ; therefore it is not in our power to resist the grace of 
God, with an overcoming resistance ; the converting grace 



270 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3. 

of God is irresistible. He saith here, That all those that 
are given him, shall come to him ; therefore all his seed and 
children whom he travailed wich and died for, shall come to 
him and believe on him; for those that the Father hath 
given him, are his children, Heb. ii. 13. But all the men of 
the world do not come to him ; therefore they are not his 
seed and children, therefore he never travailed with them, 
therefore he did not die for all particular men. Our Sa- 
viour tells us here plainly, that when men do come to him, 
he will lose none of them ; but saith he, " I will raise them 
up at the last day," verse 39. And lest any should doubt of 
this truth, he speaks yet more plainly ; tells us that those 
who do come, are such as believe on him, and then for more 
assurance repeats the promise, verse 40, saying, " This is the 
will of him which sent me, That every one that seeth the 
Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life, and I 
will raise him up at the last day." Surely therefore, that 
doctrine of the saints' apostacy is unsound, yea, all the four 
doctrines of the Arminians are, by this one scripture, plainly 
refuted ; but especially that of the saints' apostacy. It is a 
doctrine not only uncomfortable to the saints, but unsatis- 
fying to the heart of Christ ; " For he shall see of the travail 
of his soul and be satisfied." Seeing therefore that he tra- 
vailed for their salvation, he shall see their perseverance and 
salvation. 

3. But more practically : This doctrine looks wishly upon 
both godly men and ungodly. 

It calls upon those that are ungodly to delight themselves 
is the Lord, and to satisfy themselves in Christ, in the things 
of Christ, and in the seed of Christ. Doth Christ delight 
in his seed, and will you hate, despise, and scorn his seed ? 
Is he satisfied in seeing the travail of his soul in the saving 
effects of his death, justifying, sanctifying, and comforting 
the children of men ; and will you be displeased therewith ? 
Will you be pleased and satisfied in your sins and vain con- 
versation, when Christ is satisfied in the redemption of men 
from their iniquity and vain conversation ? The conversion 
of a sinner is the fruit of Christ's travail, wherein he rejoices 
and is delighted with a great delight, and doth it grieve you 
to see a sinner turned from the evil of his ways ? Take heed 
how you walk contrary to Christ ; for if you walk contrary 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 271 

to him, he will walk contrary unto you; and either he will 
rejoice and be satisfied in your conversion, or he will be 
satisfied in your damnation ; and if you do not convert and 
turn unto God, how can you think that you are the seed of 
Christ, whom he hath travailed with ? But, 

This doctrine looks wishly also upon the godly ; such as 
are the visible seed of Christ, and to you it saith : Why 
should you not be contented and satisfied with Christ alone ; 
all his delights are in you, why should not all your delights 
be in him ? Is he satisfied in you ? Why then should not 
you be satisfied with him, and with that condition which he 
carves for you? Through him the Father is satisfied for 
your sins, and he is satisfied in your person, why then should 
not you be satisfied about your condition ? Why should 
you not labour to convert and draw others unto Christ? 
Thereby he sees the fruit of his travail, which is his delight ; 
will you not do what you can to advance Christ's delights ? 
And if Christ be satisfied and delighted in you, why 
should you not improve his affection for the good of the 
church ? King Ahasuerus was taken with, and did delight 
much in Esther, and she improved his affection for the 
good of the church ; have you gotten the heart of Christ, 
the affections of Christ, and will not you improve them for 
the good of the church ? surely it is your duty. And 
upon this account why should you not labour to excel in 
virtue ? His delights are in his seed, and they are such, saith 
the psalmist, as do excel in virtue, Ps. xvi. Now therefore 
that you may in some measure answer the delights of Christ, 
oh, labour more and more to excel in virtue. 

What excellent things shall we (that are the visible seed 
of Christ) do, that we may answer the delights, content- 
ments, and satisfactions which he doth take in us ? 

Many. First in reference to Christ himself and his service. 
It is an excellent thing to have and bear the same mind to 
Christ, that he had and bare unto us ; he did neglect his own 
glory to procure our comfort ; so, for us to neglect our own 
comfort, to procure his glory, is excellent. In time of temp- 
tation to look upon Christ as our gift, and in time of pre- 
sumption to look upon him as our example ; to trust in Christ 
as if we had no works, and yet to work as if we had no 
Christ : I mean for a man to be so obedient to the com- 



272 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SfiR. 3, 

mandment, as if he would be saved by ne law ; and yet to 
rest on the promise, as if he would be saved by grace ; and 
in all our service to God in Christ, to walk by a law without 
us, and yet by a law within us by a law without us as our 
rule, and by a law within us as our principle : these are 
excellent things in regard of Christ and his service. 

As for the ordinance and means of grace. It is an excel- 
lent thing so to use the public ordinance, as we may be more 
fit for private exercise ; and so to use our private exercise, as 
we may be the more fit for public ordinances. To wait upon 
God in the use of all means, yet not to tie the workings of 
the Spirit unto any one particular; to observe what that 
ordinance is that is most decried and despised by the world, 
and to advance and honour that ; to worship Christ in a 
manger. These are excellent things in regard of the ordi- 
nances and means of grace. 

As for your graces, gifts and comforts. An excellent thing 
it is, for a man so to exercise one grace, as he may be fit for 
another ; so to exercise his faith, as he may be fit for repent- 
ance ; and so to exercise his repentance, as he may grow up 
into more assurance ; to make all your graces parents to 
your comforts, and your comforts handmaids to your graces ; 
that your gifts may beautify your graces, and your graces 
sanctify your gifts ; to be of high parts and a low spirit ; to 
know much, and yet to love, respect, and honour those that 
know less. These are excellent things in regard of our gifts, 
graces and comforts. 

As for your condition. It is an excellent thing for a man 
to be thankful for his present condition, and yet not to be in 
love therewith, nor to live thereon. It is ill to murmur in 
any condition, it is good to be content in some, but in every 
condition to be thankful is excellent. To fear the Lord in 
prosperity, and to love him in adversity : never to think that 
my condition is extraordinary ; to trust God with my condi- 
tion by experience, and yet to trust in God for my condition 
over and beyond all experience. These are excellent things 
in reference to your condition. 

As for your converse and dealing with men. An excellent 
thing it is to use no company but such as you may receive 
some good from or communicate some good unto j to take no 
offence and to give none, being very unwilling to give offence 



SER. 3.] CHRIST ix TRAVAIL. 273 

and very backward to take it ; to rejoice in another's graces 
and to grieve for another's sins ; to be a lamb in one's own 
cause and a lion in God's ; of a sweet and meek disposition 
yet zealous and active for God ; and in all our dealings with 
men, to deal with God through men, saying, If they curse or 
bless, God hath bid them do it ; and in case that any man 
offend you, to be more ready to forgive than he is to acknow- 
ledge his offence, that your forgiveness may rather draw out 
his acknowledgment than his acknowledgment draw out your 
forgiveness. These are excellent things in regard of our 
converse or dealings with men. 

As for your callings and outward estates. It is an excellent 
thing for a man so to use his particular calling as he may be 
fit for his general, and so to use his general as he may be fit 
for his particular ; to make your sail fit for your vessel, that 
your heart may not be too big for your business nor your 
work too big for your heart ; but yourself, par neffotio, being 
like the the ant or pismire, that doth rather abound in pectore, 
in the breast, ubi animus est, where the mind lies, than in 
ventre, in the belly, ubi stercus est, where the dung lies ; and 
if your estate be great, to account yourself God's steward, 
not his treasurer ; and if it be little, to study rather how to 
give an account of your little than to increase unto much. 
These are excellent things in regard of your callings and 
estates. 

As for your recreations and outward mirths. It is an ex- 
cellent thing for a man so to be merry as he may not grieve 
for his mirth afterwards ; to have your part and share in the 
saints' breakings as well as in their rejoicings ; so to rejoice in 
the creature as not to forget the Creator ; so to rejoice in the 
servant as not to forget the Master ; so to rejoice in your inn 
as not to forget your home ; so to recreate yourself as you 
may not take pleasure in your pleasure, but to rise from this 
table with an appetite, not with a glut, and to be a bungler at 
the best recreation, and to make all your recreations as so 
many engagements to serve God the more freely and cheer- 
fully. These are excellent things in regard of your mirths 
and recreations. 

As for the works of God and his dispensations. It is an 
excellent thing for a man to know what God's design is, yet 
to admire where you cannot understand ; to praise God for 

VOL III. T 



274 CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. [SER. 3. 

his judgments as well as for his mercies, for his hell as well 
as for his heaven ; and though the vial be poured out upon 
your relation, yet to bless God, and at least to be silent ; re- 
member Aaron. And in all God's dealings still to make a 
good and candid interpretation, for that will argue your love 
to God, which will argue his love to you; for that which ends 
in your love to him, came from his love to you. These are 
excellent things in regard of God's works and dispensations. 

As for truth and error. It is an excellent thing for a man 
so to mind the truth of the times as he do not neglect the 
power of godliness, and so to mind the power of godliness as 
he do not neglect the truth of the times ; an excellent thing 
for a man so to mind new truth as not to lose old truth, and 
so to keep the old truth as not to neglect new truths. And 
in all times to stand free from the monopoly of an opinion ; 
for it is the property of an error to monopolize the man, and 
to engross his thoughts, words and actions ; but he that plac- 
eth his religion in one opinion, hath no religion in truth, 
though his opinion be true : good, therefore, it is, to stand 
clear and free from these monopolies. These are excellent 
things in regard of truth and error. 

As for your death. It is an excellent thing for a man to 
desire to die and yet be contented to live ; to desire death for 
the enjoyment of God and to be contented to live for the 
work of God ; to give up your days to God as an act of your 
faith which you have received from him as an act of his love ; 
to say in truth, If my Father have any more work for me to 
do I shall live longer, if his work be done, I am willing to go 
home to my Father, though I ride behind the worst servant 
that he keeps in his house : an excellent thing it is to die 
standing or kneeling ; to die on that ground where I should 
live, and to live on that ground where I would die. These 
are excellent things in regard of death. Now excellent things 
do become those that are the seed, the visible seed of Christ. 
Are you, therefore, the visible seed of Christ ? Then these 
excellent things do become you ; for his delight is in the 
saints, and such as excel in virtue. Now, therefore, as you 
do desire to answer unto Christ's delights, oh, labour more 
and more to excel in virtue. 

And thus I have done with this great argument Christ in 
travail j the greatness of his travail, his assurance of issue, 



SER. 3.] CHRIST IN TRAVAIL. 275 

and his delight and satisfaction in the sight thereof. Christ 
shall certainly see the travail of his soul and be satisfied ; and 
if you do not yet see the issue of his travail accomplished on 
your soul, yet stay, wait and expect, for saith the text, " He 
shall see the travail of his soul and be satisfied ;" and in due 
time you shall see it too and be satisfied. Wherefore wait on 
the Lord, and again I say wait on the Lord. 



T 2 



SEASONABLE TRUTHS 

IN EVIL TIMES. 

1. OF GRACE GROWING AND INCREASING. 

2. THE FIRST AND LAST IN SUFFERING WORK. 

3. THE WAY TO OBTAIN A SURE AND GREAT REWARD. 

4. THE TWO WITNESSES THEIR TESTIMONY. 

5. THE UNCERTAINTY OF THE WORLD. 

6. MAN'S WRATH AGAINST GOD'S PEOPLE SHALL TURN TO 

GOD S PRAISE. 
7. COMFORT TO MOURNERS FOR THE LOSS OF THE SOLEMN 

ASSEMBLIES. 

8. THE EVIL OF UNBELIEF IN DEPARTING FROM GOD. 
9. A WARNING TO APOSTATES. 

IN NINE SERMONS. 

1668. 



TO THE READER. 



CHRISTIAN READER, 

THESE Sermons call none father but that reverend servant of God Mr. 
Bridge, whose labours have long praised and yet do praise him in the gates, which 
these also will not fail to do. If thon wouldest know how to grow in grace ; who 
shall be first and last in suffering work ; how to obtain a sure and great reward ; 
how to understand the testimony of the two witnesses ; how to take thy heart off 
the world : if thou wouldest find how man's wrath turns to God's praise ; what 
comfort attends those who mourn for solemn assemblies ; what is the evil of an 
unbelieving heart in departing from God, and what is the danger of apostacy, 
buy, try and improve this little treatise : so doing, thou wilt find treasure and 
sweetness in it, and from thine own experience confess that it is better than gold 
and sweet as the honeycomb : which that thou mayest do is the hearty desire of 
thy soul-friend, 

WILLIAM GREENHILL. 



SEASONABLE TRUTHS IN EVIL TIMES. 



SERMON I. 

OF GRACE GROWING AND INCREASING. 

" That as ye have received of us how ye ought to walk and to pleat e 
God, so ye would abound more and more." 1 THESS. iv. 1. 

THE apostle having exhorted the Thessalonians in the for- 
mer part of this epistle to perseverance in grace, as you read 
in the former chapter, at verse 8, " For now we live if ye 
stand fast in the Lord ;" and at verse 13 of the same chapter, 
" To the end he may establish your hearts unblameable iti 
holiness before God, even our Father :" he doth here, in this 
chapter, exhort them to Christian progression, growing and 
increasing in grace. So in this first verse of chapter iv. 

In this exhortation three things are considerable : 

First, The matter which he exhorteth them unto in the 
latter end of the verse, that they would " abound more and 
more in the work of the Lord." 

Secondly, The manner of this exhortation, and that is with 
much earnestness ; " We beseech you, brethren, and exhort 
you ;" and, " We exhort you by the Lord Jesus." 

Thirdly, The reason or motive that he uses to press this 
exhortation : " That as ye have received of us, how ye ought 
to walk and to please God." Ye cannot say that ye have not 
been taught, for both I and others have taught you, and " ye 
have received of us how ye ought to walk and to please God." 
Now, therefore, seeing that ye have received this of us, see 
that ye " abound more and more." 

" That ye abound more and more." Beza and others, they 
have the words read thus : " So that ye excel more and 
more." I will not dispute the translation. There is one 
great truth which the words at first view do hold forth unto 
you, and that is this : 

It is the earnest desire of those that are faithful in the work 
of the ministry, and ought to be the care of all the saints them- 
selves, to abound in the work of the Lord yet more and more. 



280 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SEE. 1. 

We are not only to have grace, but to abound and grow. 
So he exhorts them in the 10th verse of the same chapter : 
" But we beseech you, brethren, that ye increase more and 
more." The apostle is express in this exhortation : " But 
grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ/' And in 2 Cor. vii. 1, " Having, therefore, these 
promises, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the 
flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. 

In the text it is called " abounding more and more." In 
verse 10 it is called " increasing more and more." By the 
apostle Peter it is called " growing in grace." By the apostle 
Paul it is called " perfecting of holiness." Now this you will 
find, if you look into Eph. iv., the end of Christ's ascension, 
and the end of all our ministry, of all our preaching and your 
hearing, that ye may abound in the work of the Lord more 
and rr.ore, aud that ye may be made perfect. " He that de- 
scended, is the same also that ascended up far above all hea- 
vens : and he gave some apostles, and some prophets, 
and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers ; 
for the perfecting of the saints ; till we all come in the 
unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God 
unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ." Then in verse 15, " But speaking the 
truth in love, may grow up into him in all things which is the 
head, even Christ." So that you see this is to be our great 
care that do preach the word, and the endeavour of all those 
that hear it, that ye may abound in the work of the Lord 
yet more and more, that you may increase, that ye may grow 
in grace. And this you will find to be Paul's one thing, 
Phil. iii. 13 : " Brethren, I count not myself to have appre- 
hended ; but this one thing I do, (so you read it,) forgetting 
those things that are behind, and reaching forth to those 
things which are before, I press towards the mark," &c. 
" This one thing I do," so you read it ; but the words " I 
do " are not in the Greek, but thus : " This one thing." 
"Brethren,! count not myself to have apprehended; but 
this is the one thing, forgetting those things that are behind, 
and reaching forth to those things that are before." Our 
Lord and Saviour Christ, he had his one thing necessary; and 
David had his one thing too, " One thing have I desired ;" 
and here now Paul, he hath his one thing, one thing for the 
saints, and that is this, We forget what is past, and press 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 281 

on to that which is before ; labouring to increase and to 
grow in grace, and " perfecting holiness in the fear of God." 
And this you shall find to be the end of all those afflictions 
which we meet withal from God the Father. God the Fa- 
ther is unwilling to afflict his children, he would not do it 
unless it were necessary ; why the end of his affliction we 
find to be this, John xv. 2., " Every branch in me that bear- 
eth not fruit, he taketh away ; and every branch that beareth 
fruit he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit." 

And this you shall find to be the end of Christ's coming, 
as you read in John x. 10. "I am come that they might 
have life, and that they might have it more abundantly." 
There lies a poor soul, saith Christ, dead in trespasses and 
sins ; I am not only come to give life unto that soul, spiritual 
life, but that he may have it in more abundance. So that it 
is not only our duty to have grace, but we must " abound 
therein more and more ;" we must grow therein. And, my 
beloved, 

It is not only the duty of the saints to do so, but they will 
and they do do this. So saith David, " I will praise tliee yet 
more." And if you look into Revelations ii., you shall find that 
this was the commendation of the church of Thyatira, at verse 
19., that her works were " more at the last than at the first." 
Pray mind it ; it is a great and glorious commendation : oh, 
that it were the commendation of all the churches now being. 
With some it is contrary, their works are more at the first 
than at the last ; but saith he concerning the church of Thy- 
atira, " I know thy works and thy charity, and the last to be 
more than than the first." Where there is a truth of grace, 
there will be a growth. Read I pray what is said in Prov. 
iv. 18., " But the path of the just is as the shining light, that 
shineth more and more unto the perfect day." " That shin- 
eth more and more." Look how it is with the light of the 
day, so with the grace of God in the hearts of his people ; 
the light is small and little at the beginning of the day, but it 
shineth more and more, it grows brighter and brighter unto 
perfect day: and so though grace in God's people be but lit- 
tle at first dawning, yet that light and grace that is in them, 
it grows every day brighter and brighter unto perfect day. 

Aye, but there is a great deal of danger, through the great 
opposition that the saints meec withal, that their light should 
be quite put out : they are in great danger to lose all, for 



282 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SEB. 1. 

they meet with much opposition, yea and the rather, because 
that they do grow. But as the torch by being beaten burns 
the better : so the saints do by their oppositions, they grow 
stronger and stronger ; as in Job xvii. " Upright men shall 
be astonied at this/' &c. ; " the righteous also shall hold on his 
way, and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger and 
stronger." His opposition should make him grow more and 
more : when he is chidden from following Christ and the or- 
dinances and the ways of Christ, he will cry so much the 
more, " Jesus thou son of David, have mercy upon me." 
And if you look into Acts ix., you shall find that Paul did 
increase by the opposition he met withal : when he was much 
opposed by the Jews, it is said, verse 22., " But Saul increas- 
ed the more in strength, and confirmed the Jews." He in- 
creased the more. 

God hath a hand upon all the hands of opposition against 
his children ; and it is so far from putting out their light, 
that it makes their light to grow brighter and brighter. 

In the next place, the saints do not only increase and 
abound more and more, but they can do no other, they can- 
not but grow in grace ; for so the promise is, " To him that 
hath shall be given and he shall have it in more abundance." 
Now the godly they have grace, and therefore upon that ac- 
count of the promise, they shall have it in more abundance. 
And so in that place of Isaiah, " He that waiteth upon the 
Lord shall renew his strength, he shall mount up as with 
eagles' wings :" there shall be an addition of strength unto 
him, he shall increase and abound yet more and more. In 
scripture phrase, grace it is called life : indeed it is our spi- 
ritual life. Now you find that all your sublunary lives, where 
they are there is growth : the plant or the tree it grows, be- 
cause it hath life ; and the beast grows, because he hath life. 
The sun, moon and stars, though they move apace, they do 
not grow ; why ? because they have no life : they have light, 
but no life, and so they grow not : but all the people of God 
they have a spiritual life, and so they will, and do and must, 
and cannot but grow. They make God himself their utter- 
most and their last end. What a man makes his last and 
his uttermost end, that he labours to grow up unto more and 
more; he never hath enough of it. Some men make 
riches their last and their uttermost end ; and they never 
have enough. Some make God their end, and riches a means 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 283 

to serve God ; they can have enough : but when a man makes 
riches his last and his uttermost end, and never stints himself, 
he never thinks he hath enough. Now the children of God 
they make God himself their last and their uttermost end, his 
service and grace; and therefore they never have enough: 
they cannot have enough, but must labour to grow and in- 
crease and abound more and more. 

And besides, they look upon grace, and growth and in- 
crease in grace, as their greatest excellencies. What a man 
looks upon as his excellency, that he doth much desire. 
Some place an excellency in fine gardens ; and if they see 
a dainty flower in another's garden, they will never be at 
quiet till they have the like in their own garden, because 
therein they place an excellency. Now there are many 
increases in the world, wherein men place great excellency, 
and therein they labour to abound more and more. And 
now saith a godly creature, A rich man looks upon riches 
as his excellency, and therefore would yet have more ; an 
honourable man looks upon credit as his excellency, and 
therefore he would have more ; so do I look upon grace as 
my excellency, and therefore I must yet have more. A 
godly man having once tasted of the sweetness that is in 
the ways of God, Oh, saith he, it is so sweet, I must yet 
have more ; give me more of this ; though I die for it, yet 
give me more of this. He doth grow, and he cannot but 
grow and abound yet more and more. 

Aye but you will say to me, Then am I afraid that I never 
had any truth of grace, because I do not find that I do grow 
in grace ; where there is truth, there will be growth, and 
there will be increasing ; but as for me, I do not find any 
such growth and increase, and therefore I fear that I never 
had grace at all. 

For answer : As a man may have grace and not know it, 
so he may have grace and not perceive it ; his earnest desire 
of having more and more still, makes him forget what he 
hath. 

The more grace one hath, the more he doth see sin ; and 
the more a man sees his sin, the more his own grace will be 
hidden from his own eyes. Godly men do oftentimes mea- 
sure themselves by metaphors ; as sometimes we that are 
preachers of the word, we fall upon a scripture metaphor, 



284 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SER. 1. 

as where Christ is called a sun, a shield, or bread ; and we 

run the metaphor off its legs, further than the Holy Ghost 

did intend : so sometimes we do. So it is with Christians 

too : they fall upon a scripture ncetaphor, and they run it 

and themselves off their legs, beyond what the Holy Ghost 

doth intend. For example, increase of grace in scripture 

phrase is called a growth : now because a Christian cannot 

find his own spiritual increase answerable to all outward 

growth, therefore he thinks that he doth not increase in 

grace : whereas there is a great deal of difference between a 

spiritual increase, and an outward growth, in many things. 

As now, a man's body grows, but all the parts of his body 

do not grow out of his head ; but now in our spiritual growth 

it is so, as you read in Col. ii. 19 : " And not holding the 

head, from which all the body by joints and bands having 

nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth with 

the increase of God." Why here our spiritual increase in 

all the members comes from the head ; it is not so in our 

outward growth ; all the members of our body do not grow 

out of our head ; but in our spiritual growth it is so. And 

so many other differences might be given. But now because 

that Christians do not find their spiritual increase every way 

answerable to an outward growth, therefore they call all into 

question many times, and say, Oh, I do not grow in grace, 

and so I have no grace at all. Celestial bodies, as the sun, 

moon, and stars, they move apace, and may run hundreds 

of miles in an hour , yet when you look upon them, they 

seem to be fixt, and you see no motion ; but look now upon 

your terrestrial bodies, men or beasts, moving before you, 

you see them move. So now, when a man looks upon his 

increase in riches, he may perceive that ; but when you cast 

your eyes upon those celestial bodies, saints, you will think 

they are fixt, and they move not at all: and so you will 

think sometimes concerning yourselves, that you do not move 

at all, and yet move, and stir, and increase, and abound more 

and more. So that I say, first, As a man may have grace, 

and not know it ; so it is possible for a man to increase in 

grace and not perceive it. 

Oh, but I fear that I do not increase and abound more 
and more; for I do nothing now more for God than what 
I have done before, will some say. I pray now, and I did 



SER. 1.] ix EVIL TIMES. 285 

pray before ; I hear the word, and I did hear before ; I read 
the Scripture in private, and I did read before ; I examine 
mine own heart, and I did so before ; I find no addition at 
all made to my spiritual condition ; what I did before, that 
I do now ; and therefore I fear that I am not grown in grace, 
and therefore that I never had any grace at all ; for where 
there is truth, there will be growth. 

For answer to this, you must know that growth in 
grace doth not always consist in doing of other works for 
the kind, but in doing the same works over and over again 
better than before. As now, when one learns to write, when 
a man hath attained to a great perfection in writing, he doth 
not make other letters than he made at first ; he makes the 
same letters that he did, only he makes them better, and sets 
them closer. So now, in your growth and increase in grace, 
you must not think that you shall make other letters, or do 
other duties, but shall do the same duties now, and exercise 
the same grace now, as before ; only you will set your duties 
and graces closer together, and you will do the work better 
than you did before. 

But again it may argue more grace, to do the same 
work afterwards. Pray consider this : I say, it may some- 
times argue more grace to do the same work afterwards. As 
for example : suppose a person be an old man, or an old 
woman, when this person was young he prayed it may be 
an hour or two hours in a day ; now he is grown old, and his 
body is infirm and weak, to do the same thing now argues 
more grace now than before j and therefore if you look into 
Psalm xcii., you shall find that this is made the growing of 
those that are old, that they shall bring forth fruit still: 
" The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree j he shall 
grow like the cedar in Lebanon ;" he shall grow. " Those 
that be planted in the house of the Lord, shall flourish in 
the courts of our God." Well, and what shall he do when 
he is old ? At verse 14 :" They shall bring forth fruit in 
old age." He doth not say that they shall grow ; but this 
bringing forth fruit still in old age is his growth : ss> that 
sometimes it may argue more grace to do the same work 
afterwards than before. 

Oh, but yet some will say, I am afraid that I do not grow 
in grace, and so indeed that I never had any truth of grace j 



286 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SER. 1. 

for now I am much declined : atjthe first my heart it was migh- 
tily enlarged for God, and now it is straitened. Oh, what free- 
dom once I had ! I remember a time when I went to prayer, 
and wept, and mourned, and my heart broke and melted ; 
but now my heart is exceeding cold, and very dead, and there- 
fore I am even afraid that I am declined, and that I do not 
grow in grace, and so that I never had grace at all. 

Give me leave to fix here a little, and to answer this ob- 
jection, that I may speak a word of stay to those that are 
weary and troubled. And now as your objection arises, so 
shall my answer rise. Before, I said a man may grow in 
grace and not perceive it j now I speak further, a man may 
grow and increase in grace, and yet think he is much declined ; 
a man may increase and yet think that he is much decreased. 
For, my beloved, sometimes, yea often, good people do mea- 
sure themselves by that first affection which they had at 
their first turning to God ; and then the change was speci- 
fical, and afterwards the change is gradual. When a man is 
first converted and turned to God, then he is turned from 
sin to God, from sin to grace, from the world to Christ: 
afterwards he doth not change from the world to Christ, 
but he changes from grace to grace, from glory to glory ; 
it is but a gradual change afterwards ; and therefore the 
change at the first being a specifical thing, his affections 
were high then. At our first conversion and turning to God, 
all things are span-new ; and we are apt to be much affected 
with new things, and therefore the affections must needs be 
very much up and raised at the first, and when a man doth 
first convert and turn to God, and leave the world ; God 
the Father doth as it were take the poor soul into his arms 
when it is a babe, and he doth bestow many desires upon it ; 
and he gives out many encouragements, to weigh down those 
discouragements that the soul shall meet withal in parting 
with the world. But now afterwards, when a man is more 
able to go alone, possibly he doth not meet with these ; now 
shall a man think therefore that all is naught, and that he 
hath no grace at all, because he doth not feel what he had 
then ? Yet how often is this ! 

But besides, good people do mistake because of their igno- 
rance, whereby they call that sin which is grace, and that 
grace which is sin, Thus I mean : it is a great sin for a man 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 287 

to doubt of God's love, and to lie down upon his face, and 
to be discouraged, as if there were no hope for him in God : 
why many that are weak now, they look upon this as a great 
virtue, to doubt of their condition, and to call all into ques- 
tion : afterwards they are freed from these doubtings, and 
so they do grow in grace : but because they do look upon 
these doubtings as marks of virtue, they think because they 
have lost these, that now they are quite declined, whereas 
indeed they are grown in grace. 

But in answer to this, you must know that our Christian 
growth is fourfold. 

1. There is a growth of affection. 

2. Growth in extension. 

3. Growth in regard of firmness and rootedness. 
5. And growth in regard of spiritualness. 

A man grows these four ways spiritually. 

Sometimes his affection grows more intense hot than it was 
before : sometimes a man's growth is in regard of extension, 
his affections of love or joy extending to other objects than 
before. So in Hosea our growth is described to be a spread- 
ing of the branches. And sometimes a man grows when he 
is more firm and rooted in the way of God ; and so our spi- 
ritual growth in that place of Hosea is described by our " ta- 
king root downward." And sometimes a man is said to grow 
when he is more spiritual. Beloved, weak Christians look 
altogether at the intenseness of their affections ; and if they 
do not find their affections so intense as they were before, 
then they break forth and say, Oh, now I am declined, and 
now I am decayed, and I have lost my first love ; whereas 
there is a growth in regard of extension ; as a man or beast 
he may attain to his full tallness, and after that he may batten 
and spread more : so in grace, a man's grace may spread 
more afterwards, and yet possibly be not so intense in regard of 
some affections, as it was at the first. Now a fountain or 
spring that hath but one stream, and afterwards that one 
stream be divided in many streams ; if an unskilful man look 
upon it, he saith, How comes this to pass, that this fountain 
is dried up ? here was a full stream before, and now there is 
not. But now, saith a skilful man that stands by him, now 
there are many streams, and so there is rather the more wa- 
ter, now it is divided into more streams. And so it is in re- 



288 ' SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 1. 

gard of grace ; at the first a man's grace doth run out much 
in one channel, afterwards it is divided into more streams, 
and it spreads more; yet notwithstanding, those that are 
weak, because they do not find so full a stream in the same 
channel as before, though there be many streams now that 
there were not before, they question all, and they say they 
are abated, and they are declined, and they have lost their 
first love. 

But again, whereas thou sayest it is not now with thee as 
it was before ; I say to thee, poor doubting heart, wherever 
thou art or standest, I say unto thee from the Lord, Thou 
hast more now than thou hadst before ; as thus : for suppose 
a child that heretofore served his father for wages, and doth 
now serve out of love, and not for wages, it may be he doth 
not do so much work as he did before, yet I say to you, If he 
doth but half so much out of love, he doth more than he did 
before when he wrought for wages ; now the work is more 
out of love to God : heretofore you were much grieved and 
troubled for sin committed, and you were therefore grieved, 
that your sin might be pardoned ; aye, but now you grieve 
for your sin because it is pardoned : I tell you, one tear from 
you of these gospel tears, is more than a bottle-full of all 
those legal tears that you had before, man or woman, and 
therefore there is no reason why thou shouldest be dejected, 
and say thus, I am declined, and I have lost my first love, 
and I do not grow in grace, and therefore I never had any 
truth of grace at all. 

But you will say unto me then, If a man may grow and in- 
crease in grace, and yet think that he is decreased ; what cer- 
tain signs, are there, whereby a man may know that he 
doth grow in grace, and that he doth abound yet more and 
more ? 

Beloved, I shall not give you any negative signs, but I 
shall make mention of some things, which if you have, and 
can find, you may certainly say, you are grown in grace. But 
mistake not, I do not say that if you do not find these, that 
therefore you should conclude that you are not grown. I 
come rather to comfort and to lift up the weary soul, than to 
trouble it : but, I say, if you find these, you are certainly 
grown in grace. 

The great work of the gospel is to believe ; and if you can 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 289 

rely more upon Christ in the time of your temptations than 
heretofore, surely you are grown in grace. 

If you do find again a greater sweetness in the ways of 
God, than you have found heretofore, certainly you are 
grown : when we come and look upon a flower, we look at 
the colour of the flower, and the smell of the flower; but the 
bee doth not regard the colour of the flower, or the smell of 
the flower, but the bee regards the sweetness of the flower : 
so at our first coming into the ways of God, then we look at 
the colour, and how they appear; but afterwards, the more 
grace you have, the more sweetness you find; and if you find 
more sweetness, certainly you are grown more. 

Again, If that you are more able to turn from the exercise 
of one grace to another, and of one duty unto another, than 
you were, this argues you are grow r n, if you be able to min- 
gle graces together: a weak Christian is all for one work, 
humiliation for sin committed, and it is true, we ought to be 
much humbled : I say, a weak Christian is all for one work, 
but the stronger you grow, the more you will be able to min- 
gle graces together, and to turn from one to another. As 
now, if one learn to sing, when one hath but little skill, pos- 
sibly a man may sing one tune ; but the more a man grows 
in skill, the more he will be able readily to turn from one 
tune to another. So in grace a man may be able to mingle 
graces more; and therefore our growth is so described, as you 
shall hear by and by in that of Peter, " Add unto your faith 
virtue, and to virtue knowledge," &c. 

Again, If you be able to go on in the ways of God more, 
without whip, or rod, or without spur, it argues you are 
grown more ; give me leave to express it thus : a horse at the 
first, till he be acquainted with the road and way, he is ridden 
with a whip and with a spur; but afterwards when he is well 
used to the way, you may lay the bridle upon his head, and 
he need none of the spur and whip ; why ? because he is now 
used to the way : and so when Christians come on at the first, 
then they are whipped on with more fear ; but now when the 
reins seem to be laid upon the neck, they go the better and the 
faster : when they can go without that whipping and the rod, 
it argues that they are used more to the way of God than 
they were used before. 

But further, the more a man is able to go out unto others 

VOL. III. U 



290 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 1. 

for counsel, spiritual admonition, consolation, or apprehen- 
sion, the more he is grown, and he will grow in grace. 

I will propound you a parable : suppose three men that 
are sick and weak; one is extremely ill, and the physician 
comes to his bed-side, and he spits in his physician's face, 
and will take nothing. 

Another man he doth not deal so by the physician, he lies 
upon his bed, but he cannot stir off his bed ; he lies upon his 
bed, and he hears the counsel of the physician, and he takes 
his advice. 

A third man he is weak indeed, but he is able to go abroad, 
and he goes to the physician's house for his counsel and di- 
rection. I pray, which of all these three men are the most 
healthy ? Surely, you will say, the latter is more healthy 
than the second, and the second than the first. Beloved, 
there are these three sorts of people, one that when the spi- 
ritual physic is brought to them, they spit in the physician's 
face, and they will have none. Others they are not so bad, 
but yet notwithstanding they keep their beds, as it were, and 
do not go forth for counsel. 

But there is a third sort of sinners, that finding their souls 
ill at ease, they can go forth for counsel, and go out for ad- 
monition, and go out for reprehension. It may be that all 
these three conditions have past over some of you : you can 
remember the time when you did kick and fling, and spit in 
the physician's face, as it were, and you would none at all ; 
afterwards you lay more still, but yet sate, and did not stir 
out: aye, but now you are able, God be thanked, to go 
out to the physician, or to such and such saints, and to 
open your condition before them ; oh, thus it is with me, oh, 
thus it is with me, come, lay on some admonition, or lay on 
some healing plaster, some reprehension, some consolation ; 
good sir, pity me ; and the like. Now this argues more health 
than before. 

Again, the more you are able to do the work of the Lord 
without noise, the more doth it argue that you are grown in 
grace. Beloved, Jesus Christ was a perfect workman, and did 
the work of the Lord perfectly, and he made no noise ; it is 
said of him, that " he did not lift up his voice in the streets." 
Young Christians make a great noise in the work of God. 
One, he cries out, Oh, I am damned, I am damned ; and an- 



SER. 1.] ix EVIL TIMES. 291 

other cries out after the same kind, Oh, I am damned, I am 
damned, and wring their hands in the family, and make a great 
noise when there is a work of God upon their hearts ; like to 
your young scholars, when first of all they learn their books, 
they read with a great noise : afterwards, when they are grown 
men, and read better, they read silent, and make no noise. So 
now I say, thou man or woman, art thou able to do the work 
of the Lord in a more silent and sweet gospel way, than here- 
tofore thou didst ? this argues that thou art more grown than 
thou wert heretofore. 

And further, if you know Christ more, you are grown 
more ; the apostle puts them both together : " Grow in grace 
and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ." 

But take one more. If that you do as much as before, and 
deny your doing more than you did before, then you are 
grown in grace. One man doth much, and denies himself 
little ; another doth much, and denies himself much : who 
hath most grace of these two ? The husbandman will tell 
you, that when the ear of corn is not so ripe, it stands bolt 
upright; but when it is more ripe, then it hangs down its 
head, and looks to the earth : and so heretofore it may be 
you were much in prayer and in duty, you wept much ; and 
it was well that you were much in duty and humiliation for 
sin ; but, it may be, then you rested upon your duties, and de- 
nied yourself little. Aye, but now you are as much, but you 
have seen more of the free grace of God, and the love of God 
in Christ, and now you deny your duties more, and rest less 
upon them than you did ; this is a growth now ; and where 
these things are, you may conclude that you are grown. And 
I say to every soul here, Is there any one that doth find 
these things ? thou art the man or woman that doth grow in 
grace, and doth increase ; therefore, be of good comfort, 
thou art not declined, thou art not abated, thou hast truth of 
grace, thou hast growth of grace. 

Aye, but whether I have or I have not, you wall say, surely 
it is my duty to have; and what shall I do that I may grow 
in grace ? I hope the Lord hath begun savingly upon my 
heart ; but what shall I do that I may abound yet more and 
more, and increase in grace ? 

I must not be large here ; give me leave to say some things 
to you. 

u 2 



292 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. I. 

First of all, observe what those ways of God are, unto 
which he hath promised increase ; and oh, let your feet be 
found standing there ; he hath promised to those that exer- 
cise; "To him that hath shall be given." It is opposed to 
laying up the talent in a napkin. 

He hath promised increase to those that wait upon him : 
"Those that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength." 
He hath promised increase to those whose feet stand in 
the courts of the house of the Lord, in Ps. xcii. 12: "The 
righteous shall flourish like a palm tree, and shall grow like 
a cedar in Lebanon : those that be planted in the house of 
the Lord, shall flourish in the courts of our God." And so 
in Ps. Ixxxiv. 4 : " Blessed are they that dwell in thine 
house, they will be still praising thee." They that dwell in 
thine house they will be still praising thee. 

But suppose that a man's feet do not stand in the court 
of the Lord's house, suppose a man be not planted in the 
house of the Lord, can he not grow in grace ? 

Yes : mark what follows in verse 5, 6, 7j all growth of grace 
is not installed upon one condition : " Blessed is the man 
whose strength is in thee." He had said before : " Blessed 
are those that dwell in thy house : " but suppose a man be 
driven out, and cannot dwell in God's house, shall he not 
be blessed, and shall he not grow ? " Blessed is the man 
whose strength is in thee, and in whose heart are the ways of 
them, who passing through the valley of Baca, make it a 
well ; the rain also filleth the pools : they go from strength 
to strength, every one of them in Zion appeareth before 
God." They may grow too ; but then it is upon these three 
conditions. 

1. The ways of God must be in their hearts: " In whose 
heart are the ways of them." 

2. They must look upon that condition as a " valley of 
Baca," a mourning valley, verse 6. 

3. They must be abundant in private duty and exercise, 
digging up of pits; and then the rain falls, and fills those 
pits ; and thus " they shall go from strength to strength." 
But the great increase is promised to those whose feet do 
stand in the court of the house of the Lord. 

Again, would you know how you may grow in grace ? 
Beloved, let your eye be stedfast upon the greater and higher 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 293 

matters and objects of the gospel. The apostle for this end 
doth lay the great things of the gospel before the people, 
and prays for them, that they may be " filled with all the 
fulness of God." But, I pray, see what an expression 
he hath in 2 Cor. ix. 8 : " And God (saith he) is able to 
make all grace abound towards you, that ye always having 
all sufficiency in all things." All-sufficiency is a great attri- 
bute of God ; they have it in a kind : " That ye always 
having all-sufficiency in all things, may abound to every good 
work." Mark what great things he lays here before them. 
And if you look into chapter vi. of the Epistle to the He- 
brews, verse 6, you shall find that the apostle gives this plain 
direction that now I am upon for our growing in grace, and 
perfecting holiness in the fear of God : "Therefore (saith he) 
leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on 
unto perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance 
from dead works," &c. Good people, mark : " Let us go on 
to perfection," how? "not laying again the foundation of 
repentance from dead works." Some there are that are 
always laying the foundation, and all their life they are ques- 
tioning whether their work were right at the first or no : Oh, 
I am afraid I was never truly humbled at the first. Their 
whole life is nothing but a laying of the foundation work ; 
why saith the apostle, " Let us go on to perfection," &c. 
Be not always in this work of laying the foundation, if you 
would go on to perfection. And as for myself, saith he, I go 
this way to work, as you may read in chap. iii. of this Epistle 
to the Philippians : " Brethren, I count not myself to have 
apprehended, but this one thing : forgetting those things 
that are behind, and reaching forth to those things which 
are before, I press towards the mark/' Mark, it is a simili- 
tude taken from those that run in a race ; saith he, I do as 
those that run in a race ; they stretch out their bodies towards 
the prize, so do I : and, saith he, as it is with those that run 
in a race, they do not go backward for to measure the 
ground that they have gone over, but they forget what is 
past, and press on to that which is before : so now do I, I 
forget that which is past, not only so as not to rest upon it, 
but I forget what is past, I am not always laying the founda- 
tion of the doctrine of repentance from dead works, but I 
press on to that which is before. And so, would you be 



294 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SEB. 1. 

perfect and would you grow, let your eyes be upon those 
things that are before. 

Again, if you would grow in grace, cut off all those super- 
fluities that grow out of your heart, and give up yourselves 
wholly to the word of the Lord in this world. If you 
would have a tree grow, you slip off the lesser sprigs that 
grow out of the sides ; they will hinder the growth, you will 
say. So saith the apostle : " Wherefore laying aside all filthi- 
ness, and superfluity of naughtiness, receive with meekness 
the ingrafted word, which is able to save your souls." James 
i. 21. 

But again, if you would grow in grace, and abound yet 
more and more ; observe what gifts or graces God hath given 
you, and labour to improve them. Beloved, God doth give 
some gift or special grace to every Christian, and that gift 
or grace is as a spade or shovel to dig out more out of the 
mines of Christ. Every bird hath its bill, and by the bill 
it doth take in its meat, whereby it grows ; and every Chris- 
tian hath one gift or another whereby he doth excel ; and with 
that gift or grace you should now go unto Jesus Christ, who is 
the great ordinance, and fetch out more. Observe, I say, what 
that gift and grace is, and labour to improve it more and 
more. 

I will say no more in this ; but if you would grow in grace, 
study much of the love of Jesus Christ : and you shall find 
that these two are put together by the apostle, in Ephes. iii. 
" For this cause (saith he) I bow my knees unto the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. that he would grant you, ac- 
cording to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with 
might by his Spirit in the inner man, that Christ may dwell 
in your hearts by faith ; that ye being rooted and grounded 
in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is 
the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, and to know 
the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye might 
be filled with all the fulness of God." Mark how these go 
together : the more you see the love of Christ, the more you 
will love God ; and the more you love him, the more you 
will obey him, and the more abundant you will be in the 
work of the Lord. Therefore as ye desire to grow, study 
the free love of God in Jesus Christ, and hereby you will be 
able to grow and to abound yet more and more. And that you 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 295 

may do it, give me leave to speak here a little by way of en- 
couragement hereunto, and so I will wind up all. 

Beloved in the Lord when you hear of God's blessing any 
in scripture, he saith, " Increase and multiply." So then, 
the more you do increase in grace, the more your gifts and 
graces multiply, the more you do carry up and down with 
you a testimony of the Lord's blessing upon you. 

Besides, herein you glorify God the Father; " Herein i 
my Father glorified, (saith Christ,) in that ye bring forth 
much fruit." It is the glory of the husbandman, that the 
tree bring forth much ; it is the glory of God the Father 
that ye bring forth much, that ye abound more and more. 

And the more and greater our opportunities are, and means 
of growth, the more are we all encouraged for to grow in 
grace. Let me appeal to you a little ; have not your opportu- 
nities and means for growth been great here ? 

Communion of saints it is a great means for to grow in 
grace. Here you have time, here many saints meet to- 
gether; and in poor country towns, possibly a poor Christian 
may travel three or four miles before he can meet with one 
that may refresh his thoughts ; here you have the opportuni- 
ties which you have not in other places. Communion of 
saints, standing in the courts of the house of the Lord, is a 
great means for to grow in grace. 

Preaching of the gospel, and the word of God's grace, is a 
special and great means of growth : it is called the rain of 
plenty, or the plentiful rain. It is a true speech : It is the 
year, and not the soil, that doth make the fruit ; if the rain 
falls seasonably, and the sun shines seasonably, then you* 
have fruit. Now beloved, I appeal to you ; have you not 
had a fine time of it here ? Have you not had a sweet season 
of gospel preaching amongst you ? The Lord knows what 
plentiful rain hath fallen upon you. Oh, great engagements 
are upon you all for to grow in grace ; and if you, this peo- 
ple, shall not after all your engagements this way, and op- 
portunities to grow ; if you shall not grow in grace, oh how 
will you appear before God your Father at the great day, 
how, how will you give an account of those talents that you 
have had ? We read of him that had but one talent, he 
wrapt it up in a napkin ; but the parable speaks there were 
five left, and two left ; but it is not said that lie that had the five, 



296 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. I. 

or the two, wrapt them up in a napkin ; but he that had but 
the one talent, he wrapt it up, and you know what became of 
him ; but now when those that had five talents shall wrap them 
up in a napkin, oh what will become of them. Beloved, you 
have not had the one talent, you have not had the two ta- 
lents ; you have had the five talents : and if there was such 
a miserable end of him that wrapt up his one talent, oh 
what will become of us that have five talents, and wrap them 
up, and do not improve them. You know what the Lord 
Christ said to the church of Ephesus ; how he threatened that 
church : " I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast 
lost thy first love : remember therefore from whence thou 
art fallen and repent, and do the first works, or else I will 
come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out 
of his place." God knows whether your first love be not 
left or no ; I am sure the Lord hath taken away a burning 
and a shining light from among you ; and certainly, if you 
do not grow and thrive under all those opportunities of 
grace, and growth in grace that you have had, and still have ; 
how soon the Lord may quite remove his candlestick from 
you, and leave you quite in the dark, he only knows. 
Wherefore, beloved in the Lord, you have received much, oh 
much is expected from you, much is expected from you. 
And let me tell you for your encouragement, if you do grow 
in grace, and abound in the work of the Lord, then shall 
there be " an abundant entrance given unto you into the 
everlasting inheritance." 

And so I come to that place of Peter, which I shall but 
open before you, and so have done for this time ; and, I pray, 
consider it diligently. 2 Peter i. 5 : " And besides this, 
giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, and to virtue 
knowledge." But mark how he prefaces before he comes to 
the words : " Whereby (saith he) are given unto us exceeding 
great and precious promises, that by these you might be 
partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption 
that is in the world through lusts." Now besides this, there 
is something else to be done ; well, what is that ? it is such 
a matter as all diligence is to be given to it : " Besides this, 
giving all diligence, add unto your faith virtue." It is not, 
it is not enough that you believe, but you must have moral 
virtue also : " Add unto your faith virtue." Aye, but sup- 



SER. 1.] IN EVIL TIMES. 297 

pose we have a moral virtue, is not that enough ? No : 
" and to your virtue knowledge." You must not only have 
moral virtues, but you must know Jesus Christ. But suppose 
he hath knowledge, is not that yet enough ? No : " and to 
your knowledge add temperance," whereby you may be kept 
from the immoderate use of the things of this world. But 
suppose we have that, is not that enough ? No : " add to 
your temperance patience :" you shall meet with many afflic- 
tions and crosses, and therefore you must have patience. 
But suppose we have patience, is not that yet enough ? No : 
" and to your patience add godliness ;" there must be a right 
worshipping of God in his service. Well, but suppose we 
have godliness, and do worship God after a right manner, 
is not that enough ? No : " add to your godliness brotherly 
kindness;" you that are saints are brethren, and therefore 
it is not enough that ye have the worshipping of God in a 
right way, but ye must agree together as brethren ; add to 
your right worship and godliness brotherly kindness. But 
suppose we have that, is not that enough ? No : " add 
charity ;" brotherly kindness may be towards you that are 
brethren, but there must be charity towards all, to those that 
are not of the body. Well, but suppose we do these things, 
what then ? Read verse 8 : " For if these things be in you 
and abound, they make you that you shall neither be barren 
nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ." 
You complain that your hearts are barren, and that you lie 
as barren ground in the family; why if you would not be 
barren and unfruitful, you must grow and add one grace unto 
another : " And if these things be in you and abound, they 
make you that ye shall neither be barren nor unfruitful." 
Well, but suppose a man lack these things ? Read verse 9 : 
" But he that lacketh these things is blind, and cannot see 
afar off;" he may see some things in religion that are near, 
but those things that are afar off he is blind in them, " and 
hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins," that is 
by baptism. But suppose we do all this, what then ? Pray 
see what encouragement there is to this in verse 10 : 
" Wherefore the rather brethren give diligence to make your 
calling and election sure ;" this will be a sign to you of your 
election. " And if you do these things you shall never fall." 
Whereas those that are weak, and do not grow in grace, they 



298 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 1. 

stumble at all occasions ; " but if ye do these things ye shall 
never fall/' and not stumble as those that are weak do. And yet 
further, at verse 11, you shall not only have this benefit for the 
present but for the future : for so " an entrance shall be minis- 
tered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ/' Do you abound in grace, 
and grow in grace, and are rich in grace ? Why look as you 
abound, so there shall be an abundant entrance ministered 
to you into the everlasting kingdom. " Wherefore (he saith) 
I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance 
of these things." It may be you will tell me you knew these 
things before ; but mark verse 12 : "I will not be negligent 
to put you always in remembrance of these things, though 
ye know them, and be established in the present truth." 
Yea, at verse 13 : " I think it meet as long as I am in this 
tabernacle, to stir you up, by putting you in remembrance." 
And that you may see that it is a matter of great concernment, 
he doth not only say that he would put them in remem- 
brance as long as he lived, but he would take some course 
when he was dead that this exhortation should be pressed 
upon them, verse 15 :" Moreover, I will endeavour that you 
may be able after my decease to have these things always in 
remembrance." Oh, therefore what a necessity is there that 
we should grow in grace. Wherefore, brethren and beloved 
in the Lord, as you have been exhorted not only by me at 
this time, but by others of God's servants ; so now labour 
to abound in all well pleasing, to abound yet more and 
more. And for me I shall say to you and concerning you, 
as the apostle in Phil. i. : " This I pray, that your love 
may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judg- 
ment, that ye may approve things that are excellent : that 
ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ, 
being filled with the fruits of righteousness which are by 
Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God." 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 299 

SERMON II. 

THE FIRST AND LAST IN SUFFERING WORK. 

" But many that are first shall be last, and the last shall be first." 
MATTHEW xix. 30. 

AT verse 27., Peter doth propound a question unto Christ, 
saying, " Behold we have forsaken all, and followed thee : 
what shall we have therefore ?" 

Jesus answered him in the following verse ; and his answer 
is partly comfortable, and partly cautional. 

In the comfortable part he doth declare what great reward 
his disciples or any other should have, that did suffer, or 
leave any worldly interest for his name's sake. 

The first part concerns his disciples only, in verse 28. " I 
say unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regene- 
tion, when the Son of Man shall sit on the throne of his 
glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel." This shall be your reward. 

And as for others, though you make the question, I will 
give my answer so, saith he, as shall concern more than you : 
my promise shall be extended unto others also ; at verse 29., 
" And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or 
sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, 
for my name's sake, shall receive an hundred fold :" here is 
their reward, " an hundred fold." It is a very great improve- 
ment. We account ten in the hnndred a great matter; and 
if merchants can venture to sea, and gain twelve or ten in the 
hundred, and be insured of so great a gain, they account it a 
great matter : but here is " an hundred fold :" not ten or 
twelve, but an hundred for one ; and this insured too : " Ve- 
rily, I say unto you, (saith Christ) every one that hath forsa- 
ken, &c., shall receive an hundred-fold." 

And as for the cautional part, that follows at verse 30., 
" But many that are first shall be last and the last shall be 
first." 

Wherein he doth give a caveat, not only unto his disciples, 
but unto all those that should suffer, and forsake any worldly 
interest upon his account. As if he should say thus : It is 
true, you have indeed left all to follow me j thereupon you 
ask me what you shall have ; and I lay before you very great 



300 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 2. 

rewards : but I would have you for to walk warily, and to 
take heed how you walk in the matter of your sufferings : for 
though you suffer for my name's sake, and though those that 
do so in truth shall have very great rewards, an hundred-fold 
in this life ; yet many that are very forward, shall appear to 
be backward ; and many that are backward, shall appear to be 
forward ; and many that stand behind, they shall stand be- 
fore ; and many that stand before, they shall be set behind : 
" The first shall be last, and the last shall be first." Which 
being spoken in reference unto suffering and forsaking of our 
worldly interest for the name of Christ ; the doctrine then is 
this: 

" That many that are first shall be last, and many that are 
last shall be first/' in suffering work. 

For the clearing whereof, there were four things propound- 
ed. 

First, What it is for a man to be first that is last, and to 
be last that is first. 

Secondly, How it may appear that many that are first shall 
be last, and many that are last shall be first in suffering- work. 
Thirdly, How and in what respect that is true. 
Fourthly, What are the reasons on it. 
And then the application. 

First, What is it for one that is first to be last, and one 
that is last to be first ? What is this ? 

Some think this is to be understood in regard of the same- 
ness of reward; as if Christ had said thus: The first shall 
be as the last, and the last shall be as the first, in matter of 
reward. And for this, they have the next parable to shew, 
where this same speech is brought in. " A certain house- 
holder went out early in the morning to hire labourers into 
his vineyard, and agreed with the labourers for a penny a 
day: and he hired some at the first hour, and some at the 
last ; and those that came in at the last, received a penny as 
the first did." Whereupon the first they grumbled. The 
Master answered, verse 15. " Is it not lawful for me to do 
what I will with mine own ? is thine eye evil, because I am 
good ? So the last shall be first, and the first last." Why ? 
because the last had the same penny. As if the meaning of 
this therefore should be thus much, that there should be the 
same reward given to the one as to the other. But this can- 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 301 

not l>e the meaning on it : for it is not true ; for there shall 
not be the same reward given to all; some shall have more 
than others, some shall have greater degrees of glory than 
others. 

If there be degrees of torments in hell, then there are de- 
grees of glory in heaven. There are degrees of torment in 
hell ; for Christ hath said, " He that knoweth his Master's 
will, and doth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes," with 
more stripes than those that are ignorant and know it not. 
Now if there be degrees of torment in hell, there are degrees 
of glory in heaven : and therefore the thing is not true, that 
there shall be the same reward. 

And here in chap. xix. we see, that the apostles are set 
higher in their reward. " When the Son of man shall sit in 
the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 

And our Saviour Christ here, he doth not speak univer- 
sally, nor indefinitely : he doth not say that all that are first 
shall be last, and all that are last shall be first; neither doth 
he speak definitely, the first shall be last, and the last first : 
but he speaks thus, " That many that are first ;" he doth not 
say " all that are first shall be last ;" neither doth he say in- 
definitely, " The first shall be last," but, " many that are 
first shall be last, and the last shall be first." That is the 
meaning then. 

Others think therefore the meaning is this, and the words 
are to be understood in reference to men's conceit and 
opinion ; as if he should say, Be not conceited ; for though 
ye suffer much, and forsake a great deal for me, and for my 
name's sake, yet many that are first in their own conceit, shall 
be last : and many that are last in their own opinion and conceit, 
shall be first. This is true : but this is not all the meaning. 
Therefore we must know that a person or thing is said to 
be first or last, in regard of time, or in regard of dignity or 
chiefdom. 

In regard of time : so we say the last day is the first day 
of the week ; first in regard of time. 

In regard of chiefdom ; and so Paul saith, " Whereof I 
am chief." In the original it is : This is a true saying, that 
Christ came into the world to save sinners, whereof I am 
the first; but we read it chief, because the chief 'is the first. 



302 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 2. 

First is put for chief in scripture language ; and so it is true, 
many, many that are first in religion, ancient professors, 
shall be last at suffering for the name of Christ, when it 
comes to it ; and many that are last in religion, novices in 
religion, lately brought in, shall be the first in suffering for the 
cause, and for the name of Jesus Christ. And so many that 
are chief, and of great esteem in the world, that are first in 
esteem, shall be last at suffering work; and many that are 
last in esteem and of no account, shall be first to suffer for 
the name of Jesus Christ. 

A thing is said to he in Scripture, when it is declared to be, 
when it appears to be. So in Acts xiii., speaking concerning the 
resurrection of Christ : " According as it is written, This day 
have I begotten thee." Why this day have I begotten thee ; why 
was Christ begotten that day, the day of his resurrection ? 
Christ was the eternal Son of God ; how is this, " This day have 
I begotten thee," to prove the resurrection ? The apostle 
explains it in Rom. i. 4, by the resurrection he was mightily 
declared to be the Son of God. So that in scripture phrase, 
a thing is said to be, when it is declared to be and appears 
to be. And accordingly now, many that are first, that ap- 
pear to be first, shall in due time appear to be last in suffer- 
ing work ; and many that appear to be last, shall in due time 
appear to be first in suffering work for the cause of Christ, 
and for the name of Christ. 

Thus now in the general we hear what this means; more 
particularly afterwards. 

Secondly, But how may it appear that many that are first 
shall be last, and many that are last shall be first in suffering 
work, suffering for the name of Christ ? (For I am not now 
speaking of the thing at large, that many that are first shall 
be last, and many that are last shall be first, in the general, 
but in reference only to suffering.) How may that appear ? 
Thus: 

It is in the suffering part of religion, as in the doing part. 
In the doing part of religion, many that are first shall be 
last. Many that are great men in duty, and of great abilities 
and gifts, shall be last ; and many that are last, and weak 
and low in grace, that you would think had no grace at all, 
shall be first. It is said so in the next chapter, in the 
parable : there it is spoken in regard of doing, here in this 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 303 

Scripture it is spoken in regard of suffering. Now in re- 
gard of doing, so it is, I say. 

Is it not a great matter for a man to frequent the ordi- 
nances with delight ; to believe, and to repent, and to preach, 
and to prophesy, and do many wonderful works, casting out 
devils in the name of Christ? All these things in some 
sense a man may do, and yet may fall short of heaven. 

Possibly a man may attend upon the ordinances with de- 
light. In Isaiah Iviii., " Ye delight in approaching to me," 
ye unsound hypocrites. 

Possibly a man may in some measure believe, and yet be 
unsound. It is said of Simon Magus, that " he himself also 
believed," in the Acts. 

Possibly a man may repent in some sense, and yet be un- 
sound. It is said of Judas, in Matt, xxvii., when he saw 
what became of Christ, " he repented himself, and carried 
the money again." 

And in Matt, vii., they say, " Lord, Lord, have we not 
prophesied in thy name, and cast out devils in thy name, and 
done many wonderful works in thy name ? " And yet Christ 
shall say at last, " Depart, I never knew you/' So that 
many men go very far in the doing part of religion, and yet 
fall short of heaven. If then, the first may be last in the 
doing part of religion, why should it be a thing incredible to 
us, that the first may be last in the suffering part ? 

The second demonstration of it, to clear it, is this : 

If a man may spoil and lose all his former sufferings by 
his after sins ; and if a man may recover, repair, recompense 
his former backwardness to suffer, by his after faith and 
grace ; then presently the last may be first, and the first may 
be last in point of suffering. So it is. 

Possibly a man may lose all his former sufferings by his 
after sins. " Foolish Galatians (saith the apostle,) have ye 
suffered so many things in vain, if yet in vain ?" They fell 
from the doctrine of grace, to justification by works ; and 
they lost all their sufferings by their after sins. 

On the other side, Nicodemus was very backward to come 
to Christ ; he " came by night ;" he was afraid to suffer ; yet 
afterwards, when Christ died, he owned Christ openly : 
and the Holy Ghost sets a mark upon it, John xviii., " This 
is that Nicodemus which came to Jesus by night." He did 



304 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 2. 

recompence his former backwardness to suffer, by his after- 
faith. So that a man may lose his former sufferings by his 
after sins ; and a man may recover and recompense his for- 
mer backwardness to sufferings, by his after faith and grace. 

If a man may be a famous preacher of the gospel, and lose 
much upon that account, and yet prove an apostate, a per- 
secutor of the gospel ; and if a man be a notorious persecutor 
of the gospel, and yet afterwards prove a famous preacher of 
the gospel, and suffer much upon that account : then possibly 
the first may be last, and the last may be first in point of suffer- 
ing. So it is, that a man may be a famous preacher of the gospel, 
and lose much upon that account; and yet afterwards prove 
an apostate, a persecutor. So it was with Judas. When 
Christ sent forth his disciples, saying, " Take no purse, nor 
scrip," &c., Judas was among them, and left his purse &c., and 
was no doubt a famous minister; yet after, he became a 
most notorious persecutor, and headed the party that came to 
take Jesus. 

And always, as you may observe, the persecutors are head- 
ed with some apostate ; they have some apostate in the head 
of them. 

And on the other side, who doth not know what a notori- 
ous persecutor Paul was, insomuch as he saith upon that 
score, that he was sf the least of all the apostles, because he 
persecuted the church of God :" and yet who doth not know 
what a famous preacher of the gospel he was, and suffered 
much upon that score. So then, the thing lies clear and plain, 
that possibly the last may be first, and the first may be last in 
point of suffering. 

Thirdly, How and in what respect is this true ? 

It is true in regard of privileges and enjoyments : many 
that are first in regard of privileges and enjoyments, shall be 
last at the work of suffering for Christ ; and many that are 
last in privileges and enjoyments, shall be first in the work 
of suffering for Christ. 

Many that are first in privileges and enjoyments, 
shall be last in suffering. Here is a young man comes 
to Christ, arid Christ loved him ; and he saith unto 
Christ, What shall I do to inherit eternal life ? Keep the 
commandments, saith Christ. I have done it, saith he. 
Aye, but saith Christ, One thing thou lackest ; go sell what 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 305 

thou hast, and give to the poor, and come and follow me, and 
thou shalt have treasure in heaven." And saith the text, 
" He went away sorrowful, for he had a great estate " he 
was rich, he was a privileged man, and had great enjoyments, 
for he was a rich man ; and yet notwithstanding he was the 
most backward for to leave all for Christ. 

On the other side, the poor receive the gospel : and as the 
poor do receive the gospel, so they hold it, and keep it and 
suffer for it. So that it is true then in regard of privileges 
and enjoyments. 

This is true in regard of abilities : many that are first in 
regard of ability, shall be last in suffering for Christ ; and 
many that are last in abilities, shall be first in suffering for 
the name of Jesus Christ. 

Many that are first in abilities. So the disciples, when 
Christ said to them, " Are ye able to drink of the cop that I 
am to drink of; and are ye able to be baptized with the bap- 
tism that I am to be baptized with ? Yea, Lord, (say they,) 
we are able." But when Christ came to suffer, it is said, 
" They all forsook him and fled." First in point of abilities, 
and last in point of suffering. But Mary, and a company of 
weak women, cleaved unto Christ, and followed him to the 
very last : the first were last, and the last were first. And 
look into the Book of Martyrs : where do you find the mar- 
tyrs growing ? Do you find them growing upon universities ? 
Few were scholars and doctors that were martyrs, but growing 
in country towns and villages. So it is said of Origen, that 
when he was a young man, about sixteen or seventeen years 
old, his mother was forced to hide his very shirt from him, so 
that he was ashamed to go into the streets, for otherwise he 
would have gone to have suffered martyrdom. But after- 
wards, when he came to be a great doctor, then he offered to 
the idols ; insomuch as they cried out, Origen hath sacrificed ! 
While he was weak and young, very forward to suffer ; when 
he was grown strong, and had abilities, then backward. The 
last shall be first, and the first shall be last. 

This is true, also, in regard of action, professional action. 
Many that are first in profession, and of great performance, 
shall be last in suffering for the name of Christ, And many 
that have not been of so great profession and such high per- 
formance shall suffer when it comes to it ; they shall suffer 

VOL. in. x 



306 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [$ER. 2. 

for the name of Christ. You have an instance in the parable 
of the stony ground ; it " receives the word with joy :" yet, 
notwithstanding, when tribulation and persecution arise be- 
cause of the word, by and by they are offended. So they 
were high and first in profession, yea action too, and yet the 
last in suffering. 

So on the other side, you know the stories there that go 
together : a certain man comes to Christ, and saith, " Lord, 
I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest." Saith Christ, 
" The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, 
bnt the Son of man hath not whereon to lay his head." Then 
Christ comes to another, and saith to him, " Follow me. 
Lord (saith he), I must go bury my father. Why ? let the 
dead bury the dead." What is the meaning of this but to 
shew thus much, that the first shall be last and the last shall 
be first in forsaking their worldly interests for Christ, and for 
the name of Christ ! 

This is true also in point of resolution. Many that are 
first in resolving to suffer shall be last to suffer when it comes 
to it; and many that are last in resolving shall be first in suf- 
fering. "Lord (saith Peter), though all men forsake thee, yet 
will not I." Bravely resolved ! But though he was first in 
the resolve yet he was first in forsaking Christ. " The cock 
shall not crow before thou deny me." And you know how it 
was with those two * in the Book of Martyrs : the one was a 
very fat man, and he would burn, his grease should fry in the 
fire for the name of Christ ; the other was a lean man, and 
he cries out, Oh, I am afraid I shall never hold out ! But 
when it came to it, the lean man was the martyr, and the fat 
man would not burn. So that that is true in the point of 
resolution. 

And true it is, also, in the point of endurance and pain in 
the work of suffering. And in that, many that are first in 
the work of suffering shall be last in the reward, and many 
that are last in the work of suffering shall be first in the re- 
ward. " Though I give all my goods to feed the poor, and 
though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, 
it profiteth me nothing," 1 Cor. xiii. 3. Possibly a man may 
give his goods to the poor, part with his worldly interest to 
the poor, and give his body to be burned, and yet want love. 

* Pendleton and Sanders. 



SEU. 2.] IN EVIL. TIMES. 307 

So, then, the first in the very work of suffering may be last 
in the reward. It is true in that respect. And so I have 
done with that. 

Fourthly. But then what is the reason of this, and how 
comes this pass, that many that are first shall be last, and 
many that are last shall be first in suffering work ? There 
are two reasons for it. 

The first is drawn from God and his grace. 

The second is drawn from ourselves and sufferings. 

The first is drawn from God and his grace, thus : It is 
God's ordinary way in his dealings with his creatures, to set 
those things and persons before that do stand behind, and 
those behind that do stand before. As in printing, you do 
not take the letters and place that first that is first in the 
alphabet, but that which is first in the word ; as in zeal, z is 
the first, but it is the last in the alphabet. And so God in 
writing down the names of men in the book of life, he writes 
down them that stand behind; the last letter first and the 
first letter last. See it for instance. 

When the Lord had to deal with men and angels, which 
was the first in the creation ? The angels ; they were the elder 
brother to man, they stood first : but when men and angels 
had fallen, God he redeems man, and sets him before that 
stood behind, and takes the fallen angels and sets them behind 
that were first in the creation ; sets them behind, and man 
that was behind, he is brought before. So when God would 
take a people to himself, what people did God take to be his 
people ? A poor, forlorn, despised people, the people of the 
Jews ; and past over all the glorious nations of the world. 

And when God would take a family out of that people, 
what family did he take ? The family of Jesse. Arid when 
he would take a particular person, what person was it ? Da- 
vid the younger brother, that stood behind, and was among 
the sheep : he that stood behind was brought before, and he 
that stood before was set behind. That for the time of the 
old testament. 

So in the time of the new testament. The Jew stands 
first, he had the hansel of the market, he had the hansel of 
the gospel ; Christ was born of them after the flesh ; they 
had the oracles of God ; they stood first, the gentiles stood 
behind ; they called them dogs : " It is not meet to take the 



308 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 2. 

children's bread and cast it to dogs." Well, these gentiles 
that stood behind, they are brought before; and the Jews 
that stood before, they are set behind. 

And what nation did God take out of the gentiles ? Did 
he take any great continent in America, where the gold and 
the silver is ? No, but u the isles shall wait for thy law ;" and 
the u inhabitants of Kedar shall rejoice, and the inhabitants 
of the rocks shall sing." 

And when God would convert these, whom did he make 
use of to do it ? He makes use of Paul, Paul the last of all 
the apostles : the twelve apostles they stood first, but he that 
stood behind, that was brought in last, that was born out of 
time, he is taken to do the work. 

And who are they that are converted to him ? They are 
babes and sucklings. " Not many wise, not many noble," 
but babes and sucklings. " Even so, Father, because thou 
art so pleased/' This is the ordinary way of God : he takes 
those things that stand behind and brings them before, and 
takes those things that stand before and sets them behind. 
And why doth he do so ? Why, 

Because " he will shew mercy to whom he will shew mer- 
cy." Whom he will he shews mercy unto, and whom he will 
he hardens ; and he orders things in such a way that no flesh 
may glory. 1 Cor. i. " But God hath chosen the foolish 
things of the world to confound the wise, and God hath cho- 
sen the weak things of the world to confound the things 
which are mighty, and base things of the world, and things 
which are despised hath God chosen, yea and things which 
are not, to bring to nought things that are." Why ? " That 
no flesh should glory in his presence," verse 29. God will 
carry things in such a way as no flesh may glory either in 
their doings or in their sufferings. And how will he order it 
then? Therefore the first shall be last, and the last shall be 
first, both in doing and in suffering, that no flesh may glory, 
but that grace may be all in all. Whom he will he shews 
mercy to, and whom he will he hardens. This is the first 
reason, drawn from God himself and from his grace. 

The second reason is drawn from ourselves and from our 
sufferings, and it lies thus : 

If there be a great deal of suffering that will come to little, 
and if there be a little suffering that will amount to much, 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 309 

and come to much ; then many that are last shall be first, and 
the first shall be last in point of suffering. 

Now so it is that there is a great deal of suffering which 
will come to little, come to little account. Judas left all ; and 
it came to little. Alexander drawn out of the crowd in suf- 
fering for Christ, and it came to little : " Alexander the cop- 
persmith did me much evil ; the Lord reward him according 
to his works." His sufferings came to little. The poor 
Christians that are taken slaves by the Turks, they lie in sla- 
very ten years together rather than they will renounce, the 
Christian religion, yet when they come out, oh, what drunkards, 
and swearers, and enemies to God, and such as have nothing 
of Christ in them. Oh, they suffer much, but it comes to 
little ; they shall not be saved. So that I say there is a great 
deal of suffering that will come to little. 

On the other side, there is a little suffering that will amount 
to much. A cup of cold water shall have its reward ; the 
mite that the poor woman gave, more than all the rest, saith 
our Saviour. It was no great matter that Onesiphorus suf- 
fered for Paul : saith Paul, " Onesiphorus was not ashamed 
of my chains ; he sought me out diligently, and oft refreshed 
my bowels : the Lord shew mercy to the household of One- 
siphorus/' It was no great matter that he suffered, but it 
did amount to much. 

But you will say, How can this be, that there should be a 
great deal of suffering that will amount to little, and a little 
suffering that will amount to much ? 

Both ways I answer. 

If you ask now it can be that a great deal of sufferings 
should come to little ? 

I answer, It is possible that a man may lose that he may 
gain. I am a minister, and have a living ; and I may lose 
my living possibly, that I may get a livelihood another way. 
I may suffer and go to prison, that I may be maintained. I 
do not reflect upon any particular, but only to shew the 
deceitfulness of our hearts in such a case. 

And who doth not know, that a man may suffer from a 
natural boldness and courage ; and that he may suffer by 
crowding in among good people that are in a suffering way ? 

And who doth not know, that a man may suffer upon the 
strength of education ? As a Turk, a Jew, a papist, a pro- 



310 SEASONABLE TRUTHi [SER. 2. 

testa nt, may suffer in the religion that they are educated and 
brought up in. 

And who knows not that a man may suffer very much in a 
way of merit? It is recorded of one, that he invited a 
friend of his to dinner, that so he might show unto him his 
hounds. And when he came, he shewed unto him a company 
of poor people, and said unto him, These are my hounds 
with which I do hunt for heaven. In a way of merit he 
speaks. And we see how it is with a horse or a cow in pas- 
ture that is eaten down ; if there be herbs or pleasant flowers 
growing in the ditch that is full of water, the horse or cow 
will reach and reach many times so far, that it falls into the 
ditch. Truly there are many fine flowers grow in the suffer- 
ing ditch, and many an unsound heart may reach so far, until 
it falls into the ditch. As it is possible that a man may tread 
a great deal of ground, and never come to his journey's 
end ; so it is possible a man may tread a great deal of suffer- 
ing ground, and never come to heaven, for there is a great 
deal of dross cleaving to our best sufferings. 

In a suffering time, then we are apt to be very froward, 
and to be impatient, and to dwell more upon our own plea- 
sures than upon God's dishonour. 

In suffering times, then we are very apt to forget our 
former experiences, and to be unthankful for our present 
mercies. 

In suffering times we are very apt to boggle at the dispen- 
sation, to fall foul upon instruments j to complain of God's 
dealings with us, and not of our own unworthy dealings with 
God. 

In suffering times we are very apt to look to the smart of 
our sufferings, and not to the cause, or else to pitch upon 
the wrong cause. 

In suffering times we are very apt to wish that we had 
never begun in the work of God ; As Joshua and the elders, 
when they smarted before the men of Ai : " Would to God 
we had stayed on the other side Jordan," say they. So when 
men meet with the smart of afflictions in the way and work 
ot God, oh then, Would to God we had never meddled with 
the work of reformation ; would to God we had been content 
with our leeks and onions which we had before. 

In suffering times we are very apt to comply and corres- 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 311 

pond with our enemies, and with God's enemies ; and to usa 
unworthy shifts to get out of trouble, as Abraham did, " Say 
thou art my sister." It is true she was his sister, but she 
was his wife, and it was an unworthy shift for such a man as 
Abraham was. 

In suffering times we are very apt to tempt the Lord, and 
to " limit the Holy One of Israel," and to say, Can God 
provide a table now ? " Can God provide a table for me in 
this wilderness ? Thus there is a great deal of dross cleaves 
to all our sufferings, and therefore no wonder that a great 
deal of suffering comes to little. 

And on the other side, that a little suffering may amount 
to much. I can give no other reason of it but this, God 
hath a very gracious allowance for his people. As we use to 
say, we bear with children when it is their weaning time. 
Truly our suffering time is our weaning time : and God saith, 
Bear with such an one, it is his weaning time. " You have 
heard of the patience of Job." Why I have heard of Job's 
impatience ! True, but God did not measure Job in his 
wallops, but when he was cold. As we do not measure milk 
when it wallops and seethes, but when it is cold ; so God 
doth not measure Job in his passion, but when he was off the 
fire, when he was cool. You say, the best gold must have 
its allowance ; if it want a grain or two, it must have its 
allowance. So all the suffering people of God must have 
their allowance; and God hath a very great allowance for his 
suffering people; and therefore this is all the reason that I 
can give, why a little suffering shall go a great way. So then 
put all together, and you have the doctrine cleared in all the 
particulars of it. 

If many that are first shall be last in point of suffering, 
why then should we not all take heed how we suffer, look to 
the manner of our sufferings, look to our hearts in suffering ? 
He is a virtuous man, that doth what he should, as he 
should. So he is not a true sufferer, that suffers what he 
should, but that suffers what he should, as he should. 
When we hear how far a man may go in religion, arid yet be 
unsound, and go to hell, then we should say, Good Lord, I 
will then look to my heart in prayer, and look to my heart 
in duty. So in point of suffering if many that are first shall 



312 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SfiR. 2. 

be last, and the last first, then I will look to my heart in 
suffering, if ever I be called to suffer. 

If that many that are first shall be last in suffering work, 
why then should we not walk humbly under all our suffer- 
ings ? The first shall be last, and the last shall be first." 
A man who hath prayed a prayer, or performed a duty, he 
should do as one that hath written a letter ; why he will read 
over the letter, and then he mends it, and then he looks over 
the letter, and throws dust, dust, dust upon the letter. And 
so a man when he hath performed any duty, he should look 
over his duty, and throw dust, I mean humility and self- 
denial, upon his duties. So should we do in regard of our 
sufferings ; if ever we be called to suffer, read over our suf- 
ferings, and throw dust upon our sufferings, walk humbly 
under them ; " for many that are first shall be last," in 
point of suffering. 

Why should we rest in what we suffer, and not press on 
to that which lies before ? The life of a Christian is like the 
life of a man in a cook's shop, from one work to another. 
Like the life of a husbandman, he ploughs and he harrows, 
and he sows and reaps and threshes, and he never stands 
still. So the life of a Christian, always at work. You know 
what our Saviour saith, " If any man will be my disciple, 
let him deny himself, and take up his cross." What then ; 
take a stool and sit down ? No ; " Let him take up his 
cross and follow me." Follow me after sufferings, not sit 
down and rest there. When we have done all, still press 
on to that which is before. 

If many that are first shall be last in point of suffering, 
why should we not take heed that we do not give in if ever 
we be called to suffering ? as it is said of the French, they 
are fire at the first onset, but smoke in the issue. 

So there are many that are rare men at a charge, and they 
overcome in a skirmish, but they give in at the battle. But is 
this true, that many that are first in suffering shall be last ? 
Oh, then why should we not take heed that we do not give 
in if we be called to suffering ? 

If this be true also, that many that are last shall be first 
in the work of suffering ; why should we censure or despise 
some that are weak, that do drag, that do come behind, that 
are backward, as we think, unto the work of suffering ? We 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 313 

will not blame an apple-tree or a pear-tree that is winter- 
fruit, because it doth not come so soon as other trees that are 
suncmer fruit? So there are some men that are sooner ripe 
for sufferings, and they are summer fruit ; others that are 
backward, and they are winter fruit, they do not come so 
soon. The Lord hath many gusts of sufferings, and such an 
one may be reserved for the second or for the third part. 
Now as we do not blame the tree for bringing forth so late, 
because it is a winter fruit ; so why should we despise some 
that are backward in our eyes, that hang and flag as to the 
business of suffering ? Why " the first shall be last, and 
the last shall be first." 

Why should any be afraid or be discouraged, because they are 
weak and unfit to suffer ? As, many that are first shall be last, 
so many that are last shall be first. As there is a great deal of 
suffering that will come to a little, so there is a little suffering 
that will amount to much. Therefore though you be unfit, 
as you think, for this suffering work, yet be not discouraged. 

But you will say, I am not afraid of suffering upon this 
account, but I am afraid of my suffering because of my sin : 
for now suffering times are come, and we suffer for our sins ; 
and can any suffering that comes by sin, turn to a good 
account ? If I did know that my suffering should turn to a 
good account, I would never be afraid to suffer : but I fear 
my suffering will not turn to a good account, because my 
sufferings come by sin. Can any sufferings that come by sin 
turn to a good account ? 

I answer, Yea, through the grace of God. When the ark 
was taken, were not the people in a sad condition ? Yes, 
" they lamented after the ark twenty years/' And did not 
that condition come by their sin ? Yes. Did that turn to 
any good account ? Yes, for Dagon falls down before the 
ark, the Philistines' own hands brought it home again, and 
they give glory to God. So that it turned to a good account. 

But especially that instance of David. There was a pesti- 
lence, and many thousands died ; and did it come by sin ? 
Yes ; David numbers the people. Aye, but did it turn to 
any good account ? Yes, for then the Lord told David where 
his temple should be built. 2 Chron. iii. 1. David had a 
great desire to know where God's house should be built ; but 
never was it told until now. So that thus this suffering 



314 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 2. 

turned to a good account, although it came by sin. Possibly 
a suffering may come by sin, and yet, through grace, it may 
turn to a good account. 

But then the great question of" all is, suppose thus : Sup- 
pose there be such a great reward laid out for those that suf- 
fer for the name of Christ ; suppose there is a great deal of 
suffering will turn to a little account ; suppose there is a 
little suffering will turn to a great account : how shall I so 
order and manage my sufferings, as that my sufferings may 
turn to a good account ? Indeed this is a great question, and 
worthy of all our consideration. 

For answer unto this : 

If you would order and manage all your sufferings so as 
they may turn to a good account, be sure of this, that all 
your sufferings be underlaid with godliness, personal godli- 
ness and actual godliness. 

With personal godliness. For if your person be not 
accepted, your suffering will not : if you be not in Christ, 
your suffering will come to little. As the tree is, so is the 
fruit that grows upon the tree ; if the tree be a crab, all the 
fruit is but crabs. And if you be a crab, and not implanted 
into Jesus Christ, your suffering will not be accepted. 

And not only personal godliness, but actual godliness ; so 
as not to lie in any sin, either of omission or commission. 
For any sin is a hole in the bag of our sufferings. If there 
be a hole in the bag, all your money will run out. Surely if 
a man lies in any sin, that sin is a hole in the bottom of the 
bag, and all the profits of his sufferings will run out, though 
he suffers never so much for Christ and for religion. There- 
fore be sure that all your sufferings be underlaid with godli- 
ness, personal and actual godliness. 

If you would so order and manage your sufferings, as that 
they may turn to a good account ; then labour to get your 
understanding clear, and your will free, in the matter and 
business of sufferings. For though the thing that you suffer 
for be never so right, yet if you have not a clear understanding 
in what you suffer, your suffering will turn to little. And 
though you have never so clear an understanding, yet if your 
will be not free, it will turn to little. You know how it was 
with Moses ; it is said, " He refused to be called the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter, and chose rather to suffer affliction with 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 315 

the people of God." Why when was this ? When he came 
of years. Why when he came of years ? Because then he 
had discretion and understanding ; and the Holy Ghost would 
shew, that he did what he did under standingly in the point 
of his suffering ; and he did \ifreely in the point of his will ; 
for he " chose rather :" choosing is an act of the will. So 
that if you would have your sufferings turn to a good account, 
labour to get a clear understanding in the matter of your 
sufferings, and be very free in your will. 

You will say to me, How can I be freely willing to part 
with my house, or land, or liberty ? 

Yes, you may be very free, and freely willing to part with 
all in reference to the will of God your Father. Christ him- 
self said, u Father, if it be possible let this cup pass from 
me." He was unwilling in regard of the thing itself he suf- 
fered, but he was very willing in regard of the Father's will ; 
and therefore he saith, " Not my will but thy will be done." 
This is another thing: let your understanding be clear and 
your will be free in the matter of your sufferings. 

Take heed you run not into any suffering without a call, 
nor rush out of that suffering without the same call from God. 
Noah was in the ark ; and when the waters were abated from 
off the earth Noah would not stir out of the ark. Why 
would not Noah go out when the waters were abated ? Why 
as Noah had a call to go in, so he would have the same call 
to go out. A man must not run into a suffering without a 
call, and he must not rush out of it without a call. And 
therefore you shall find Christ and the apostles, and all the 
martyrs, that thus they acted ; they would hide, and go aside, 
and avoid their sufferings ; but when they were in hold they 
would not go out though the doors were open. So that that 
is the next thing : be sure of this, that you do not run into 
sufferings without a call, nor rush out of sufferings without 
the same call from God. 

If you would order and manage all your sufferings so as 
they may turn to a good account, then set all your losses upon 
Christ's head and upon Christ's score, which you may do if 
you do suffer for Christ's cause ; which you may do if you do 
suffer according to Christ's example; which you may do if 
you suffer with the same spirit and disposition that Christ did 



316 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SflR. 2. 

and suffer in the strength of Christ : set all upon the head 
and score of Christ. 

If you would so order and manage all your sufferings as 
that they may turn to a good account, then take heed that 
there be no contradiction found in the way of your suffering. 
A man may be very stiff, and stand out here, and yet he may 
yield there. Saith the apostle, " If I build again what I have 
destroyed I make myself a transgressor/' And, " Blessed is 
the man that condemns not himself in the thing that he al- 
lows/' It is possible I may build that with one hand that I 
may pull down with another. Possibly a man may be very 
stiff, and stand out at such a thing, and yet he may yield 
there. There may be contradictions found in the way of our 
suffering. And let me tell you this, If it be thus, your suf- 
ferings will come to little. Take heed that there be not con- 
tradictions therefore found in the way of your sufferings. 

If you would manage your sufferings so as they may turn 
to a good account, then let your eye be more upon the public 
good than upon your own private loss ; more upon God's 
design than your own detriment ; more upon God's dishonour 
than your own grievance or your own pressure. It is good for 
a man to be spiritual and savoury in his suffering. Our 
Saviour saith, " Such worshippers the Father seeks," &c. 
And truly, I say, such sufferers doth the Father seek that suf- 
fer in spirit and truth, whose spirits are savoury in their suf- 
ferings. And when is that ? When that vour eye is more 
upon the public good than your own private loss ; more upon 
God's design than your own detriment ; more upon God's 
dishonour than your own grievance and your own pressure. 

If you would so order and manage all your sufferings, as 
that they may turn to a good account, then let your eye be 
upon that, and observe what that is that you have most de- 
lighted in, and that your heart is most upon in this world ; 
and give that up to God the first thing you do, for truly no- 
thing is done till that be done. It is said of Abraham that 
" God tempted Abraham." Divines observe that Abraham 
met with ten temptations ; but it is never said before that 
God tempted him, until he spake to him to offer up his son 
Isaac. Why there was his heart and his love and his delight. 
And where doth a man's temptation grow, but where his 
Isaac is ? he shall be sure to be tried there. Here was Abra- 



SER. 2.] IN EVIL TIMES. 317 

ham's heart, here lay his temptation. And so, it may be, my 
heart is upon my house, or upon my land, or upon my trade ; 
and I cannot part with this : I can part with any thing else, 
but when it comes to this I am ready to say, The good Lord 
pardon me in this. Many say, I will not adventure to suffer 
any further for the name of Christ, than I can secure my 
trade, or my land, or relations ; but when it comes to this, I 
cannot part with these ; I must have my trade, &c. Here is 
a but comes in. Ananias and Sapphira they parted with a 
great deal, but it came to little, because they had a reserve. 
And so if we have our reserves with the Lord, our sufferings 
will come to little. So that observe that you give that up 
first to God that your hearts are most upon ; for nothing is 
done in suffering till that be done. 

If you would so order and manage your sufferings as they 
may turn to a good account, then let the load, and let the 
weight and the burden of all your sufferings be drawn upon 
the wheels of faith and love ; those two wheels, of faith to- 
wards God and love towards man. Saith the apostle, " By 
faith Moses chose rather to suffer afflictions with the people 
of God." How so ? Why, " by faith he saw him that is 
invisible ;" and so trampled upon visible things. And by 
faith he had an eye to the recompence of reward ; and so over- 
looked these things. And by faith he saw " greater wealth 
in the reproach of Christ than in all the treasures of Egypt." 
And so the three children, they suffered by faith, and it turned 
to a good account. 

And as for love, you know what the apostle saith, " If I 
give my body to be burned, and want love, it profiteth me 
nothing." So, then, as ever you desire your sufferings may 
turn to a good account, let your faith towards God and your 
love towards man be exercised. And let these be the two 
great wheels that all your sufferings shall be drawn upon. 

If you would order your sufferings so as they may turn to 
a good account, then labour to be serviceable in and by your 
sufferings. If ever God call you to a prison, labour to be as 
serviceable in and by your suffering as ever you can. Peter 
was in prison ; What came of it ? was there any converted ? 
No. Why so ? Peter slept. Aye but Paul and Silas they 
sang in the stocks, and they preached in the prison, and there 
is the jailor converted. They were serviceable in and by 



318 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 2. 

their sufferings and it turned to a good account. And there- 
fore if you would desire that your sufferings may turn to a 
good account, labour to be serviceable in and by your suf- 
ferings as God calls you into. 

When you have done all and suffered all, then say and 
think in truth, that you are unprofitable servants, and let 
your eye be wholly to the sufferings of Christ. Offer your 
own sufferings upon the sufferings of Christ in reference to 
your acceptance. For though you may have an eye to the 
recompence of reward to encourage you to suffer, yet you are 
wholly to look to the sufferings of Christ in reference to your 
acceptance. And therefore when you have done all, think 
and say you are unprofitable. Two men went up to pray, 
and the one he was a pharisee, and the other a publican. The 
pharisee he comes and praises God he was not as the publi- 
can : I thank God I am not as this publican ; I fast and pray, 
and I am not as this publican. Well, there comes the publican, 
and he smites himself upon the breast, and says, I am a poor 
sinner ; oh, the Lord be merciful unto me a poor sinner. 
So, say I, two men go up to suffer, and there is one stands 
and vaunts, and saith, I thank the Lord I am not so cowardly 
and dastardly as these poor spirited men that dare do no- 
thing; my flesh shall fry in the fire. But the other stands 
at a distance, and saith, Oh, I am a poor creature ; I am 
afraid to suffer, and I am afraid I shall betray the cause of 
Christ. Now, I tell you, this poor trembling soul that is last 
shall be first, and he goes away rather justified. 

If you would so order and manage your sufferings as they 
may turn to a good account, praise God over your suffering, 
and pray to God under your suffering. I put these two to- 
gether praise and pray. This is a certain thing, those suf- 
ferings shall turn to a good account that Christ blesses. How 
shall I know whether Christ will bless my sufferings ? Why 
if I can bless God over my sufferings, God will bless my suf- 
ferings to me. And then, are you called at any time to suf- 
fer ? go away rejoicing that you are counted worthy to suffer 
for the name of Christ. 

Yet, notwithstanding, not only bless and praise God over 
your sufferings, but pray unto God under your sufferings. 
And what should you pray for ? Pray unto the Lord that he 
would turn your sufferings unto a good account. There is an 



SKR. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 319 

old promise wrapt up in the apostle's prayer : u The God of 
all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ 
Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, 
stablish, strengthen, settle you," 1 Peter v. 10. So, then, have 
you suffered a while ? you may go, then, to God, as to the 
God of all grace, and say, Lord, through thy providence I 
have now suffered a while ; thou art the God of all grace, 
make me perfect, confirm me, stablish, strengthen and com- 
fort me, and let all these sufferings turn to a good account. 
Thus praise God under your sufferings, and pray over your 
sufferings, and so shall you manage and order all your suf- 
ferings as that they shall turn to a good account. 



SERMON III. 

THE WAY TO OBTAIN A SURE AND GREAT REWARD. 

" And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that ye which 
have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit 
in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judg- 
ing the twelve tribes of Israel. 

" And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, 
or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name sake, 
shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life." 
Matt. xix. 28. 

IN this scripture we have our Saviour's answer unto Peter's 
question propounded at verse 27, " Behold, Lord, (saith 
Peter,) we have forsaken all, and followed thee : what shall 
we have therefore ? " Our Saviour answers in the following 
verses, and his answer is partly comfortable and partly cau- 
tional. The cautional part I have spoken to among some of 
you, from verse 30, " But many that are first shall be last, 
and the last shall be first." The comfortable part I spake 
unto the last Lord's day in another meeting. And being 
now desired to speak the same things unto you, considering 
that they are of present and universal concernment. I shall 
do it as briefly and plainly as I can. 

The comfortable part of Christ's answer, you have in ver. 
28, 29, wherein our Saviour Christ doth shew what great 



320 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SEB. 3. 

reward those shall have that do suffer, or leave any worldly 
interest for him, and for his name sake. Which reward doth 
either relate unto the apostles or unto others. 

It relateth unto the apostles in verse 28, " Verily I say 
unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regenera- 
tion," that is, in the preaching of the gospel. Preaching of 
the gospel is a regenerating work. The preaching of the law 
is convincing work ; the preaching of the gospel is regenera- 
ting work. " Ye which have followed me in the regener- 
ation/' in the great work of preaching the gospel, " when 
the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also 
shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of 
Israel." That is their reward, peculiar and proper unto them. 

The reward which is more large, extending unto all, verse 29, 
and " every one," not every one of you shall be rewarded that 
are mine apostles ; but, " every one that hath forsaken 
houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, 
or children, or land, for my name sake, shall receive an hun- 
dred fold, and shall inherit everlasting life." From whence 
then I took up this observation ; and you may observe from 
the whole thus much : 

That whosoever shall leave any worldly interest for Christ, 
and for his name sake, shall be sure to be well rewarded. 

He shall be well rewarded, for he shall have an hundred- 
fold in this life, and everlasting life in the world to come. 
And he shall be sure to be well rewarded, for he hath put a 
verily upon it: " Verily I say unto you: and every one that 
hath forsaken houses," &c. So then the doctrine is clear, 
That whosoever shall leave or forsake any worldly interest for 
Christ, and for his name sake, shall be sure to be well 
rewarded. 

For the claaring of this, First, We must inquire what it is 
to leave any worldly interest for Christ, and for his name 
sake. 

Secondly, What the reward is that such shall have that do 
so, and wherein it consists. And, 

Thirdly, What assurance we may have of such a reward. 

And first of all, If you do inquire what it is to leave any- 
thing for Christ, forsake any worldly interest for Christ ? 

I answer, That a man may leave and forsake a worldly 
interest for Christ two ways : 



SER. 3.] FOR EVIL TIMES. 321 

Either by his own will, or the wills of others. 

We do leave and forsake a worldly interest by our own 
wills, when we do voluntarily and freely deprive ourselves of 
our commodity or satisfaction for Christ ; as the apostles left 
their ships and nets to follow Christ. 

We do leave or forsake a worldly interest by the wills of 
others, when through their oppression or persecution, we are 
deprived of our own commodity and satisfaction for Christ : 
and that is called suffering. 

Our Saviour Christ here hath respect to both, and in both 
these respects it is true, That whosoever doth leave any 
worldly interest for Christ, and his name sake, shall be sure 
to be well rewarded. 

But then still to clear it : 

What is it to leave any worldly interest for the name of 
Christ ? 

Th<i name of Christ is that whereby Christ is made known 
unto us ; as the name of a man; is that whereby a man is 
made known unto us. A man is make known unto us by his 
name ; so Christ is made known unto us by his name. That 
whereby Christ is made known unto us, that is his name. 

Now Christ is made known unto us by his Spirit and by 
the gospel. 

By his Spirit he is made known unto us. For as God the 
Father is made known unto us by Christ his Son, so Christ 
is made known unto us by the Spirit : " He shall take of 
mine and shew it unto you," saith Christ. And upon this 
account therefore, when a man doth suffer any thing for the 
Spirit, or for any working of the Holy Ghost upon his heart 
or soul, then he is said to suffer for the name of Christ. 
And upon this score it was that John the Baptist was ac- 
counted a martyr of Christ, and enrolled among the martyrs 
of Christ. John the Baptist, if you look into the story, did 
not suffer for any gospel truth : John the Baptist suffered for 
this, that he reprehended Herod's adulterous courses : true, 
but the Spirit of Christ put him upon it ; and therefore being 
stirred up thereunto by the Spirit of Christ, he is said to 
suffer upon the account of Christ. So that, I say, the Spirit 
of Christ is that whereby Christ is made known unto us ; 
and when a man doth therefore suffer for any work of the 

VOL. III. V 



SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

Spirit of Christ, then he is said to suffer for the name 
of Christ. 

But Christ also is made known unto us by the gospel, as 
by an outward means. The gospel is the name of Christ, 
whereby Christ is made known unto us. Every truth is not 
a gospel truth ; it is possible that a man may suffer for a 
truth, and yet not suffer for a gospel truth. But look when 
a man doth suffer for a truth, which is properly the truth of 
the gospel; then he is said indeed to suffer for the name of 
Christ, whereby Christ is made known. Would you there- 
fore know when a man may be said to suffer for the name 
of Christ ? Take altogether, thus : When a man doth suffer 
for that whereby Christ is made known unto us, then he 
suffers for the name of Christ. Christ is made known unto 
us by the Spirit; he is made known unto us by the gospel. 
Look therefore when a man doth suffer for the work of the 
Spirit, which is properly the work of the Spirit ; or suffer 
for the truth, which is properly the truth of the gospel ; 
then plainly he is said to suffer for the name of Christ ; 
and whosoever doth so, shall be well rewarded. 

And then what is this reward that those shall have that 
do leave any worldly interest for Christ, or for the name of 
Christ ; and wherein doth that consist ? 

The reward is great : and it will appear to be very great, 
if you look into and consider this text and Scripture well. 
For this reward it doth relate unto the apostles, or it relates 
unto us ; to all others that do leave any worldly interest 
upon the account of Christ. 

Now as for the apostles their reward is here set down, 
" That they shall sit with Christ on his throne." When 
Christ sits on his throne, " the apostles shall sit on twelve 
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel/' For the 
clearing of this, only these two things : 

1. What it is for the apostles to " sit on twelve thrones 
with Christ, judging the twelve tribes." 

And 2. whether are there any degrees of glory, seeing 
that the apostles here seem to have a degree of glory given 
them above other men. 

And as for the first briefly thus : 

When Christ shall sit upon the throne, they are said to 
sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes; to note 



SEB. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 323 

their communion and fellowship with Christ in his judicial 
kingdom. 

But whereas "the saints shall judge the world;" it is true, 
the saints shall judge the world, and shall have communion 
and fellowship with Christ in that great work of judging the 
world. The apostles they shall sit as assessors on that day ; 
at the great assizes the apostles shall sit on the bench as 
assessors, or as justices of the peace, by the judge ; and so 
shall have communion with him. It is true, that all the 
saints shall judge the world by their lives and by their con- 
versations : but the twelve apostles shall judge the world 
by their doctrine ; not only by consenting to the judgment 
of Christ as all the saints shall do ; but in Rom. ii. 16. it 
is said : " In the day when God shall judge the secrets of 
men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel." So that 
this is all that is here meant, That in the grand and great 
assize, that kingdom and glory of Christ, the twelve apostles 
they shall have a special fellowship and communion with 
him above others. 

But then, are there any degrees of glory ? For it would 
seem here that the apostles have some degrees of glory above 
other men. Are there any degrees of glory ? 

Yes, surely, there are degrees of glory. " For as one star 
differeth from another star in glory, so shall the resurrection 
be," saith the apostle. 

But though there be degrees of glory, all that glory that 
the saints shall have in heaven shall be of one piece ; for 
there is no envy there. Envy ! there is none in heaven. 
And whence comes envy ? We may see that among our 
children or among men. If you have four or five children, 
and make them clothes, if they be clothes made all of a 
piece, they do not envy though one's clothes be bigger than 
another's. But if they be not all made of a piece, or my 
brother's clothes are better than mine, or my sister's clothes 
are better than mine, there is envy ; but when they are all of a 
piece, they do not envy. So if you invite twenty men to dinner, 
and they all eat of the same dish, there is no envy ; but if you 
have a meaner dish for those that sit at the lower end of the 
table, say they, Indeed we sat at such a table but we had a 
meaner dish : and so they envy. But if one man eat more 
than another, yet if they eat of the same dish, there is no 
Y 2 



324 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

envy. Now in heaven there is no envy ; for though there be 
degrees of glory, yet it shall be all of a piece, and all of a dish. 
But now though this glory in heaven shall be all of a piece, 
and though there be degrees of glory in heaven, yet I do not 
think this scripture to be understood of the degrees of glory 
in heaven; for there is no judging of the twelve tribes in 
heaven : Christ shall then at last give up his kingdom unto 
the Father. This is spoken therefore of a glorious judg- 
ment on this side heaven ; and it is here promised unto the 
apostles above all others, as a reward suitable to them : for 
they were twelve, preached to the twelve tribes; some 
received the gospel, some did not ; and therefore here is a 
reward propounded suitable unto them. But thus much 
for the reward that concerns the apostles, by the way. 

Secondly, But then it will be said, What is the reward 
that doth concern all those that leave any worldly interest 
for Christ, or suffer for the name of Christ ? 

Why that doth either relate unto this life, or unto the life 
that is to come. 

It relates unto this life; and then, saith our Saviour, 
"There is an hundred fold." Look whatsoever that is that 
you do lay out for Christ here in this life, you shall receive 
an hundred fold for it even in this life. Here is a great 
matter, and it is well worth our considering. Look whatsoever 
you do lay out for Christ, whatsoever worldly interest you 
do part withal for Christ, or lay out for Christ, that you shall 
receive in an hundred fold even in this life. 

A.nd to make this out unto you ; I confess it is a great 
matter. 

But first of all, to clear it, is it not a great matter for us 
to be enriched with divine promises ? One promise is worth 
a world; he is rich indeed that is rich in promises. We 
say a man may be a rich man, though he never have a penny 
of money in his purse; he may have a great many bonds, 
and we say he is rich man. I am sure that Christian is rich 
indeed that is rich in promises. Well, when comes the 
promise ? Look when a man doth forsake any worldly 
interest for the Lord, then comes the promise. For that, 
look into Gen. xii. and you shall see what a great promise 
God makes to Abraham, verse 2 : " I will make of thee a 
great nation, and I will- bless thee, and make thy name great, 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 325 

and thou shalt be blessed." Well, but when comes this 
promise ? The first verse tells you : " Now the Lord said 
unto Abraham, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy 
kindred, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I 
will shew thee." 

Aye, but suppose that Abraham do so, what will the Lord 
then bestow upon Abraham ? 

Why I will make of thee a great nation. 

But if I go out of my country, Abraham might say, I 
shall be scattered, and come to nothing, I and my posterity. 

Nay, but " I will make of thee a great nation, and I will 
bless thee." 

Aye, but everybody will say, I am a fool to leave my 
country, and go I know not whither. 

Nay, but " I will make thy name great, and thou shalt be 
a blessing." 

Aye, but I shall meet with divers enemies abroad, and 
they will fall upon me and ruin me. 

Nay, saith the Lord, " And I will bless them that bless 
thee, and I will curse him that curseth thee." See what a 
great promise here is made. When did this promise come ? 
" So Abraham departed, as the Lord had spoken to him." 
Look when we do forsake any worldly interest for the Lord, 
then comes the prorrise. Now is not one promise better 
than any worldly interest, an hundred times better ? 

But is it not a great matter to have the favour of God 
the Father, the heart of God drawn out unto us, to be amiable 
and beautiful in the eyes of God the Father ? Now look 
when a man doth forsake any worldly interest for God, 
then he is beautiful in the eyes of God : never so amiable 
or beautiful in the eyes of God, as then. Take it thus : 

Beauty raises persecution, and persecution raises beauty ; 
they are mutual causes. 

I say, Beauty raises persecution. Persecution you shall 
find doth always fall upon the beautiful piece of religion, 
upon those that are the most beautiful pieces of religion. 
So long as Christ our Saviour lived, persecution lay upon 
him, and not upon the apostles : when Christ was dead, 
then the apostles were the most beautiful piece, and then 
the persecution lay upon them especially. When the apostles 
were gone off the stage, in the primitive times the pcrsecu- 



326 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 3. 

tion always fell upon the most eminent saints. Persecution 
always falls upon the beauty of religion. In Matt. xiii. we 
find that persecution is compared to the scorching of the 
sun: "And when the sun was up they were scorched;" 
speaking of the stony ground ; which is expounded in verse 
21, by persecution : " For when tribulation or persecution 
arises because of the word." The scorching sun here is 
interpreted to be persecution. And you shall find that 
the scorching sun falls with most prejudice upon the greatest 
beauty; the greatest beauty suffers most by the scorching 
sun. Truly so persecution falls upon the beauty of religion ; 
you may see it in Cant, i., there the spouse is described in 
her beauty : " If thou know not, Oh, thou fairest among 
women, &c. I have compared thee, O my love, to a com- 
pany of horses in Pharaoh's chariots. Thy cheeks are 
comely with rows of jewels, thy neck with chains of gold." 
But saith she, at verse 5 : "I am black but comely, O ye 
daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the cur- 
tains of Solomon." Here is her beauty : what then ? " Look 
not upon me because I am black, because the sun hath 
looked upon me." " The sun hath looked upon me :" what 
is that? Persecution: "My mother's children were angry 
with me." The scorching sun of persecution hath fallen 
upon my beauty. That is the thing I speak of, namely, that 
persecution always falls upon the beautiful piece of religion. 
And so on the other side, as beauty raises persecution, so 
persecution raises beauty. A man is never more beautiful 
in the eyes of God, than when he is persecuted for the name 
of Christ, and when he doth leave and forsake a worldly 
interest upon the account of Christ. You may see it in 
Ps. xlv. 10 : " Hearken, O daughter, consider, and incline 
ear; forget also thine o\*n people, and thy father's house : 
so shall the King greatly desire thy beauty." See where 
the beauty lies, in "forgetting of the father's house:" in 
leaving and forsaking a worldly interest upon the account of 
Christ, here is beauty. Now is it not an hundred times 
better to be beautiful in the eyes of God the Father and of 
Christ, than to have a worldly interest ? Certainly it is. 
But then, is it not a great matter for a man to have com- 
munion and fellowship with Jesus Christ in his sufferings ? 
" If ye suffer with him, ye shall reign with him," saith the 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 327 

apostle. Now we have communion and fellowship with 
Christ in his sufferings, either at the Lord's supper, or in our 
sufferings for Christ ; but with this difference : we have 
communion and fellowship with Christ in our sufferings for 
Christ, "by filling up the sufferings of Christ:" we have 
communion and fellowship with Christ in the Lord's supper ; 
but then we do not fill up the sufferings of Christ : but in 
our sufferings for Christ we have communion and fellowship 
with Christ, by filling up the sufferings of Christ. So that 
here is a specialty of communion with Christ, by suffering 
for the Lord Jesus. Now is it not an hundred times better 
to have communion and fellowship with Christ in his suffer- 
ings, than to have a worldly interest ? 

Is it not a great matter to have the Spirit of God and of 
glory rest upon us? You know what the apostle Peter 
saith concerning those that suffer for the name of Christ : 
" The Spirit of God and of glory shall rest upon you/' as 
the dove rested upon the ark ; she hovered upon the waters, 
but at last she rested upon the ark : so the Spirit of the 
Lord hovers over men, but rests upon the suffering saints. 
Now is it not an hundred times better to have the Spirit of 
God and of glory resting upon us, than to have any worldly 
interest ? Certainly it is. 

Is it not a great deal better to be filled and abound with 
divine and spiritual consolations ? Look when a man doth 
leave any worldly interest for Christ, or doth suffer for the 
name of Jesus Christ, then shall his heart be filled with 
consolations. You see what is said for that in 2 Cor. i. 5, 
saith the apostle : " For as the sufferings of Christ abound 
in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ." Why now 
is it not an hundred times better to be filled with inward 
consolations, then to have a worldly interest by one ? Cer- 
tainly it is. 

Is it not a great matter to us to have an assurance of our 
salvation and of our election, to be sealed to us ? Surely it 
is a great matter. Now look when a man doth suffer for 
the name of Jesus Christ, then comes the assurance, then is 
the sealing time. When we do bear our testimony unto 
Christ, then Christ bears his testimony unto us, that we are 
his children ; when we bear testimony to the truth of Christ, 
Christ bears testimony to the truth of grace in us. See 



328 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

what is said, Phil. i. 28 : " And in nothing terrified by your 
adversaries, which is to them an evident token of perdition, 
but to you of salvation, and that of God." A token, and 
of God ; it is God's token. But look into Acts ix. and you 
shall see what the Lord saith unto Ananias concerning Paul. 
The Lord said unto him, " Go thy way, Ananias ; for he is 
a chosen vessel unto me, to carry my name before the gen- 
tiles, and kings, and the children of Israel." Why ? "For 
I will shew him how great things he must suffer for my 
name sake." So that suffering for the name of Christ seals 
up our assurance, the assurance of our salvation, the assur- 
ance of our election. Now is it not an hundred times better 
to have the assurance of our election and of our salvation 
sealed, than to have some particular worldly interest lying 
by us ? Certainly it is. 

But is it not a great matter for us to reign with Christ a 
thousand years ? Such a thing there is promised in Rev. xx. 
I will not now debate how and in what manner it shall be 
made good ; but this is certain, there is such a thing pro- 
mised as reigning with Christ a thousand years. Who is 
that promised to ? verse 4, such as those that suffer for the 
name of Christ: "And I saw thrones, and they sat upon 
them, and judgment was given unto them. And I saw the 
souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, 
and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the 
beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon 
their foreheads, or in their hands ; and they lived and reigned 
with Christ a thousand years." Now is it not an hundred 
times better to live and reign with Christ a thousand years 
in the day of glory, than to have some particular worldly 
interest together for the present ? Sure it is. 

Now put all these things together ; why every one of 
them is a great matter, but put them all together, and you 
cannot but say we shall have a thousand fold in this life. 

Aye, but, mark, the apostle tells us we shall have an hun- 
dred fold in the same kind, in this life : how can that be ? 

Why if you look into Mark x. you shall find that Mark 
doth not say in so many words, that we shall have an hun- 
dred fold in this life, in the same kind ; but saith thus : 
" Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, that there 
is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sister, or 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 329 

father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake 
and the gospel's, but he shall receive an hundred fold new 
in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, 
and children, and lands, with persecutions" But he does 
not say he shall have in the same kind, an hundred fold in 
this life, and an hundred fold in the same kind. When 
Peter left his nets and his fishing for Christ, Christ made him 
a fisher of men ; now that was an hundred fold in this life, 
but not in the same kind. But to clear up this, take these 
four or five considerations. 

Consider this : Whatsoever God doth for us immediately, 
that is an hundred times better than what what he doth for 
us by means. Now look when a man doth forsake a worldly 
interest for Christ, and puts himself upon Christ, Christ 
will provide immediately for him. You may see it in Matt. 
xv., there were a company that had followed Christ, and 
had followed him so long that they were faint ; Christ would 
not send them away fainting, verse 32, " Jesus called his 
disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the 
multitude, because they have continued with me now three 
days, and have nothing to eat." " They have .nothing to 
eat :" they had left their houses, they had left their own 
victuals and their own provisions, and they had nothing to 
eat; and, saith he, " I will not send them away fasting, lest 
they faint in the way." Well, what shall be done ? Here 
Christ works a miracle : " And they took up of the broken 
meat that was left seven baskets full." Do you think now that 
ever these men made a better meal in all their lives ? I am 
persuaded it was an hundred fold better to them, than the 
best meal they had in all their lives. And to shew that 
Christ will rather work a miracle, than that those shall want 
which leave ought for him. What Christ doth for us imme- 
diately, that he doth fully and sweetly, and is an hundred 
times better than that he doth by means. 

Look what the Lord doth for our children and our pos- 
terity, that the Lord doth for us, in scripture language. 
In experience, what God doth do for our children and for 
our posterity, that God doth for us. Now look whatsoever 
that is that you that are parents shall leave for the name of 
Jesus Christ, Christ will give it an hundred fold ; it may be 
to your posterity. What shall we say to the second com- 



330 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

mandment ? The second commandment you know is this : 
" Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image :" that is, 
thou shalt not worship God by any means but that which 
God himself hath appointed. Here all the inventions of 
men are forbidden ; here all the institutions of God are 
commanded. Well, what doth God promise upon the 
keeping of this ? " I will shew mercy to a thousand genera- 
tions." Stay a little : before he saith he will punish them 
that break this commandment, to the third and fourth gene- 
ration : " I will punish them that hate me, to the third and 
fourth generation." " Them that hate me : " pray why, 
why are those that break the second commandment said 
to hate God ? It is not said upon the breaking of any other 
commandment, that it is a hating of God, but upon the 
breach of the second commandment. 

I conceive the reason essentially is this, because persecu- 
tion grows upon the second commandment. Those that 
hate the people of God, hate God. Now where doth the 
hatred and persecution grow? Upon the keeping the se- 
cond commandment ; not conforming to men's inventions, 
keeping close to the institutions of God ; here is persecution 
grows upon this commandment : well, saith God, " I will 
visit the iniquities of the fathers upon the children unto the 
third and fourth generation of them that hate me." But 
as for those that keep this commandment : " And shewing 
mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my 
commandments." Why doth he say commandments, and 
not this commandment ? 

The reason is this, because in the second commandment 
all institutions are commanded; all the inventions of men 
are forbidden. All the institutions of Christ come within 
the second commandment ; and therefore, saith he, " I will 
shew mercy to a thousand generations of those that love me, 
and keep my commandments," Now here is a hundred fold, 
in that mercy is shewn to a thousand generations. Well, what 
God gives to our children, and to our posterity, that he gives 
unto us. 

A third consideration is this. Look what that is which we 
have in effect, that we have in truth, though we have it not 
in the formality. Now look whatsoever you do lay out for 
Christ, whatsoever worldly interest you do part withal, and for- 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 331 

sake for Christ, that you shall have in effect. Why ? because the 
same affection doth still remain. I will express it thus : Sup- 
pose you have a crab-stock, and there you plant a harvie, or 
a pearmain, or a pippen ; why the pippen is an hundred 
times better than the crab would have been. Why it is the 
same stock still, under the harvie, or pippen, or pearmain ; 
only there is an apple planted that is an hundred times better 
than the crab was. So now, you have a delight in the things 
of the world ; well you leave this delight for Christ ; you 
leave not the affection, but there is a better object plant- 
ed upon the affection ; and there being a better object 
planted upon the same delight, thus you have the same thing 
you part withal for the name of Christ in an hundred fold. 

Look what that is that we have in a way of substitution, 
that we have in truth, and in effect, though we have it not in 
formality. Now look what that is that you do leave for the 
name of Christ, that you shall have an hundred fold in a way 
of substitution. The apostles they left their houses ; Peter left 
a house, it may be, or a fisher boat, for Christ : why he had 
an hundred houses in a way of substitution, he had an hun- 
dred men's houses open to receive him ; and happy was that 
Lydia that could receive the apostle. And this is that which 
you have in Psalm xlv. 10., " Hearken, O daughter, and con- 
sider ; incline thine ear : forget also thine own people, and 
thy father's house." What then ? Why then, at verse 16., 
" Instead of thy fathers, shall be thy children, whom thou 
mayest make princes in all the earth." Here now is the 
same, in a way of substitution. It is true, it is not the same 
in formality, but in a way of substitution ; here is that which 
is an hundred fold. 

Look what that is which we have in a way of satisfaction, 
that we have in truth and in effect, though not in formality. 
Look what that is that you do leave or forsake for Christ, 
that you shall have in satisfaction an hundred fold more than 
you had before. If you leave any thing for Christ, you shall 
have an hundred fold more satisfaction in what you have 
given for Christ, than what you keep for yourselves. So 
that an hundred fold in a way of substitution, and an hun- 
dred fold in a way of satisfaction. And thus you see how we 
receive an hundred fold in this life : that whatsoever you do 



332 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

lay out for Christ here, you shall be paid an hundred fold ; 
and how, and in what manner. 

But then, what is that reward that we shall have in the life to 
come ? Suppose a man do leave a worldly interest for the 
name of Christ, or that he do suffer for the name of Christ ; 
what is that reward that he shall have in the world to come ? 

Truly that reward is great, and I am not able to speak it ; 
it requires the unwearied hand and arm of eternity, to 
tell over all the wealth of glory that the suffering people of 
God shall have in the world to come. Only thus much I will 
say, and briefly. 

That reward you that are suffering saints shall have in the 
world to come, it shall be an open reward : for, saith Christ, 
" he that confesseth me before men, him will I confess also 
before my Father," &c. 

It shall be a comfortable reward : for saith the book of the 
Revelations, " Then all tears shall be wiped out of jour eyes." 
He doth not say, from your eyes, or from your cheeks ; no 
but they shall be wiped out of your eyes. So that the eyes 
shall be then such a womb as shall never breed a tear again. 
All tears shall be wiped not from your eyes, but out of your 
eyes. So in Rev. vii. 

As it shall be a comfortable reward, so an honourable re- 
ward : for, saith our Saviour Christ, " Be faithful unto the 
death, and I will give thee the crown of life." And 

As it shall be an honourable reward, so a proportionable re- 
ward, a reward proportionable to all your sufferings, You know 
wTiat the apostle saith, " These light afflictions which are but 
for a moment, work for us a far more exceeding and eternal 
weight of glory." 

Will you say, Aye, but our afflictions are exceeding heavy. 
Nay, saith the apostle, they are light. 

But grant they be ; to balance the account, you shall have 
a weight of glory. 

Will you say, They are long and tedious. 

Nay, saith the apostle, they are^but light. 

But grant they be long and tedious. 

To balance the account, you shall have " an exceeding and 
an eternal weight of glory." 

And then, as it shall be a reward proportionable, so it 
shall be a reward transcending : over and beyond proportion, 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 333 

over and beyond all expression, beyond all our apprehensions 
or thoughts. Who is able to think or apprehend what the 
" inheritance of the saints in light is ;" that inheritance that 
is incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away? 
Look into Rom. viii., " If ye be children, then are ye heirs, 
heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we 
suffer with him." See it hangs upon suffering ; " If so be 
that we suffer with him that we may be also glorified toge- 
ther." Now, " if children then heirs/' All our children are 
not heirs : well but all the children of God shall be heirs, 
" heirs of God." What is that ? Some think that is to be 
understood objectively, that they shall inherit God : and in- 
deed, they have all things, that have him that hath all things. 
" Heirs of God." But take it efficiently, shall be God's heirs, 
and " joint-heirs with Christ." He doth not say, joint-pur- 
chasers with Christ, but joint-heirs, " joint-heirs with Christ." 
What shall Christ inherit ? Why Christ is God the Father's 
heir; and he never displeased his Father; he will not disin- 
herit him therefore. Look what God the Father is worth, 
that Christ shall be worth : and look what Christ is worth, 
that the suffering saints shall be worth : for they be " joint- 
heirs with Christ." 

Lo here, here is an inheritance now, and here is the reward 
that the suffering saints shall have. What a large inheritance 
is here. This is that they shall have in the life to come. And 
so you see what their reward is that lose or forsake any thing 
upon the account of Christ, or suffer for the name of Christ. 
Thirdly, But then, what assurance is there of this reward ? 
I will go no further than the text : our Saviour Christ 
here puts a verily upon it : verily : you have the word of 
Christ for this reward. If an honest man make you a pro- 
mise, you will believe him, especially if he saith, I protest 
unto you. Why Jesus Christ hath protested this promise : 
" Verily, (saith he) you shall have an hundred fold in this 
life, and in the word to come, life everlasting." 

Well then, the question is, Why should those that suffer 
for the name of Christ have such a great reward as this ? 
Why should those that leave or forsake any worldly interest 
upon the account of Christ, why should those above all other 
people be so well rewarded ? 

I answer : these above all other people, that suffer for the 



334 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SKR. 3. 

name of Christ, these are those that do honour Jesus Christ. 
What is honour ? Honour, it is the testimony of another's 
excellency. When I testify of another man's excellency, 
then I honour him. Now look when a man doth forsake a 
worldly interest for the truth of Christ, then he testifies there 
is an excellency in Christ : and the greater the worldly inter- 
est is I do forsake, and the less the truth is I forsake it for; 
the more do I testify there is an excellency in Christ : Christ 
therefore will be sure to honour them, they shall be well re- 
warded. 

These people of all other people, are the people that do 
trust in the Lord before the sons of men : " Oh how great is 
thy loving kindness, which thou hast laid up for them that 
fear thee ; which thou hast wrought for them that trust in 
thee, before the sons of men.'" Some trust in God, and be- 
lieve in the heart, as they say, but they do not trust in God 
before the sons of men. But now, when a man forsakes a 
worldly interest, and doth suffer for the name of Christ, then 
he trusts in the Lord before the sons of men : and therefore, 
oh how great is the loving kindness of God that is laid up for 
them. 

But then, these above all other people that suffer for the 
name of Christ : these are those people that are firm and fast 
unto God. God loves a fixed spirit. God doth not love to 
see a man unsettled in points of religion. Now when a man 
will leave a worldly interest for the cause of Christ, and the 
name of Christ, there is a fixation in such a man. And 
therefore he of all other people shall be well rewarded. 

These people of all other people, are the most opposed by 
the grand enemy of Christ. Well, who is the grand enemy 
of Christ in these days ? Antichrist. Antichrist is the grand 
enemy of Jesus Christ. Now these that suffer for the name 
of Christ, are most opposed by the grand enemy of Christ : 
and Christ will be sure to love them that are most opposed 
by his grand enemy. 

These of all other people, they are the people that over- 
comers : how many promises are made to those that over- 
come, Rev. ii. iii., " To him that overcometh ; to him that 
overcometh :" a promise still is made to him that overcometh. 

But how do we overcome ? 

In Rev. xii. 11., " And they overcame him, (that is, the de- 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 335 

vil,) by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their tes- 
timony, and they loved not their lives unto the death." 
These of all other people, are the overcoming people. As 
Christ overcame the devil, by being overcome ; so men over- 
come, by being overcome. Those that suffer upon the ac- 
count of Jesus Christ, when they are overcome by the world 
in the view of the world, then they overcome. Now 
Christ will be sure to reward them well that overcome. And 
thus you see why these of all other people shall be so well 
rewarded. And thus you have the doctrine cleared. 

Now then by way of application. 

If this be true, that whosoever doth leave or forsake any 
worldly interest for Christ, and the name of Christ, shall be 
sure to be well rewarded : why should not we be willing to 
lose and to be lost for Christ ? 

Good friends, the time is coming when you may be called 
to leave your trades, to leave your shops, to leave any world- 
ly interest you have for the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
But is this true, that such shall be well rewarded ? Why 
should we not be willing then to lose and be lost, to suffer for 
the name of Christ ? Can you have a greater improvement 
of your money ? A man would think he improves his money 
well that hath ten in the hundred, six in the hundred now : 
but here is an hundred for one ; not ten in the hundred, but 
an hundred for one. If a merchant venture to sea, if he 
could be sure to gain twelve in the hundred, he would think 
he came to a good market. Why behold here is an hundred 
fold in this life, and all this insured by Christ ; " Verily, 
verily, I say unto you." It is insured by the word of Jesus 
Christ ; not ten, but an hundred ; not twelve in the hundred, 
but an hundred for one even in this life. Who would not be 
willing to suffer for the name of Christ ? It is recorded of 
Queen Elizabeth, that when she was in the Tower, she looked 
out of a window, and saw a milk-maid go by singing ; and 
seeing her, Oh, said she, that I were a milk-maid, then I 
should go singing. But when she came to the throne, she 
reigned forty four years. Now had she known that she 
should have been delivered from her imprisonment, and 
brought to the throne, and there have reigned forty four 
years ; she would not have wished herself a milk-maid ? 
Beloved, we are assured of a great reward in heaven, an hun- 



336 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

dred fold in this life, and a great and glorious reward in the 
life to come ; and therefore when we come to suffer, shall I 
peevishly say, Would I had been a milk-maid ; would I had 
been born in a mean condition ? Oh no, how willing should 
we be to suffer for the name of Jesus Christ ? 

But some will say, I am not unwilling to suffer for the 
name of Christ, so it be for the name of Christ, but there are 
many false glosses put upon our sufferings. 

Saith the adversary, man, friend, you do not suffer for the 
name of Christ and the truth of Christ ; but for sedition and 
rebellion, and because you will not be obedient to authority : 
and these and the like glosses are put upon the people of God. 
And how can I be willing to surfer now ? 

No indeed if these things be true : for the apostle saith 
that " we are not to suffer as evil doers." 

But I pray tell me, When did any of the people of God 
suffer for the cause of God, but there were such glosses as 
these ? saith Haman, " These are a rebellious people, and it 
is not for the king's profit to suffer them." And so when 
Christ himself suffered, he is not a friend to Caesar but an 
enemy. Well, then came the apostles, and when the apostles 
came, what a guise was put upon their sufferings ? These 
are seditious, and " these that turn the world upside-down 
are come hither." And do not you find in Scripture and 
experience, that it is no new thing for men to persecute re- 
ligion upon the account of religion ? Saith Christ, " For which 
of my good works go ye about to kill me ?" No, no, thou art 
mistaken, we go not about to kill thee for thy good works but 
because thou breakest the sabbath, &c. So that it is no new 
thing to persecute religion, even upon the account of religion. 

But then you will say, If it be so, how shall I be able to 
know that I do truly suffer for the name of Christ ? How 
shall I be able in the midst of all these blinds and disguises ? 
How shall I see through them all, that I may be able 
to say, Nay, but in truth, I do suffer for the name of Christ ? 

Why, you have heard it in the general already ; only a lit- 
tle more particularly to open it. 

If you do suffer for the work of the Spirit of God upon 
your heart, the work that the Holy Ghost hath wrought upon 
your heart ; if you do suffer for the truth, which is properly 
the truth of the gospel ; whatsoever disguises men put upon 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 337 

your sufferings, plainly you suffer for the name of Jesus 
Christ. 

Again, if you suffer for the cause of Christ, for the ways of 
Christ, for the ordinances of Christ, for the children of Christ, 
for the liberty which Christ hath purchased for you; then you 
do suffer for the name of Jesus Christ. 

But if you do suffer for the worship of Christ, as it is dis- 
tinguished from Jewish worship, from antichristian worship, 
from worldly worship, then you suffer for the name of Christ ; 
for the worship of Christ, is the name of Christ: and all na- 
tions go forth in the name of their God. Now if you do suf- 
fer for the worship of Christ, as it is distinguished from 
the Jewish worship, from antichristian worship, from 
worldly worship ; then you do plainly suffer for the name of 
Christ. 

The worship of the Jews, and the way of the Jews was 
national; but the worship of Christ and the gospel is con- 
gregational. 

The worship of Christ is distinguished from antichristian 
worship : for that is human, and by human inventions ; 
but the worship of Jesus Christ is divine, and from heaven. 

The worship of Christ is distinguished from the worship of 
the world, for that is pompous, that is ceremonious ; a carnal 
worship like unto the world itself; but the worship of Jesus 
Christ is plain and simple. Such worshippers doth the Fa- 
ther seek, as worship him in spirit and in truth. Now if you 
do suffer for the worship of Christ, as it is distinguished from 
the worship of the Jews, antichrist, and of the world ; then 
you do certainly suffer for the name of Christ. 

If you do suffer for the not doing of that, which Jesus 
Christ hath justified his own disciples for the not doing of 
then you suffer for the gospel, and so for the name of Jesus 
Christ. Now look into Matt, xv., and you shall see what 
Christ did justify his disciples in. And the scribes and the 
pharisees came to Christ, and they say unto him, " Why do 
thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders ?" What 
is that ? " for they wash not their hands when they eat 
bread." Why that is an indifferent thing ; surely the disci- 
ples would not stand off for an indifferent thing. Yes, that 
they did, aye, and Christ justified them in it. 

But this was hatched with the tradition of the elders of the 



338 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

church, and surely they would not stand off now. Yes, that 
they did, and Christ justifies them in it, for Christ said, 
" Why do you also transgress the commandment of God by 
your traditions ?" So that if you do suffer for not doing that, 
which Jesus Christ hath justified his disciples for the not do- 
ing of; then you suffer for the gospel, and for the name of 
Christ. 

If two things be laid before you, and there is sin on the 
one hand, and on the other hand there is suffering for Christ: 
sin on the one hand, and suffering on the other : if now you 
choose rather to take up the suffering, than to commit the 
sin ; you do plainly suffer for the name of Jesus Christ. And 
therefore look whatsoever the reward is, that great reward is, 
which they shall have that suffer for the name of Christ ; all 
that reward is yours. Be of good comfort, all that reward is 
yours. Oh, and if ever you be called to suffer for the name 
of Christ, go away rejoicing that you are accounted worthy 
to suffer shame, or any thing for the name of Jesus Christ. 
Oh, what great encouragement is here from this great re warder. 
Who would not be willing now to suffer for the name of Je- 
sus Christ. 

But you will say to me, What shall we do that we may be 
willing to suffer for the name of Christ ? for I confess I 
am very backward and unwilling to suffer for the name of 
Christ. 

Do you say so ? 

But it may be you are not convinced that is for the name 
of Christ. 

But are you sensible of your unwillingness ? Why, I used 
to say thus, he is not far from grace that is sensible of a con- 
trary evil : and that is a true speech, he is not far from hu- 
mility that is sensible of pride ; he is not far from faith that 
is sensible of unbelief. So he is not far from being willing 
to suffer for the name of Christ that is sensible of his own 
unwillingness. 

But now suppose that for the present you be very unwilling 
to suffer for the name of Christ. 

You may know this, that willingness to suffer for the name 
of Christ, is part of our suffering grace ; and suffering grace 
is given upon suffering ground : " Unto you it is given not 
anly to believe, but to suffer." The opportunity to suffer is 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 339 

is the gift of God. The will and heart to suffer is the gift of 
God. And the strength to suffer is the gift of God. These 
are three gifts in one gift. 

But when is this suffering grace given ? 

It is given upon suffering ground : in that hour there shall 
be wisdom given you : well, to be willing to suffer for the 
name of Christ is part of our suffering grace ; and therefore 
when you come upon the suffering ground, then you shall 
have the suffering grace. 

Aye, but you will say, Indeed I find my heart extremely 
backward to suffer for the name of Christ. Whall shall I do, 
that I may be willing now for the present to suffer for 
the cause or the name of Christ ? Here are divers directions. 

Whensoever you do receive any thing from God, when you 
do receive it, then engage your hearts to offer it up unto God, 
when God calls for it again, to lay it out for God. And if at 
any time you find your hearts willing, then pray to God and 
say, The Lord continue this in the thoughts of my poor heart 
for ever : whensoever you receive, then engage, and keep this 
engagement fresh upon your hearts. 

Train up yourselves in leaving and forsaking a worldly in- 
terest for the name of Christ ; the gospel calls for this work 
daily : for you know the parable : " A certain man made a great 
feast, and invited many ; and sent his servant at supper-time 
to say to them that were bidden, Come for all things are now 
ready. And they all with one consent began to make excuse. 
One said, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must go 
see it: another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, 
and I must go prove them : another said, I have married a 
wife, and therefore cannot come." All these were excuses. 
But we should daily be parting with a worldly interest for the 
gospel and name of God. It was a true speech of Mr. 
Greenham, He will never be able to suffer by a papist, that 
cannot suffer from a protestant. Train up yourselves every 
day ; daily you must meet with one temptation or another, 
therefore be daily training yourselves up in this work of 
leaving and forsaking your worldly interest for the Lord Je- 
sus Christ. 

Use the world as if you used it not, for the fashion of this 
world passeth away. He that is glued to the world, will 
never leave and forsake much of the worldly interest for the 
z 2 



340 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

name of Jesus Christ; the more a man's heart is glued to the 
world and the things thereof, the more unwilling he will be 
to parl^ with a worldly interest for Jesus Christ. Therefore 
let him that uses the world, be as if he used it not ; he that 
marries, as if he married not ; and they that weep, as if they 
wept not ; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not ; 
and they that buy, as though they possessed not ; and they 
that use this world, as not abusing it; for the fashion of this 
world passeth away. Witness the revolution of these latter 
times. 

Study Christ crucified much. Let me say this to you, and 
to myself, and I pray consider of it, the more frequently and se- 
riously we do think on Christ crucified, and what Christ did 
leave and forsake for us, the more willing shall we be to leave 
and forsake any worldly interest for Jesus Christ. I should 
think thus : What, shall Christ leave his heaven for me, and 
shall not I leave my earth for him ; what, shall Jesus Christ 
leave the bosom of his Father, and that sweet relation for me, 
and shall not I leave the bosom of my relation for him ; what, 
shall Jesus Christ suffer for me a cursed death, and shall not I 
be willing to suffer a blessed death for him ? The death of 
Christ hath blessed our death : Christ hath suffered a cursed 
death for us, and our death is made blessed by the death of 
Christ. And shall Christ suffer a cursed death for me, and 
shall not I be willing to suffer a blessed death far him ? 
Think much of what Christ hath left for you, and then 
you will be willing to forsake any worldly interest for him. 

Get your hearts filled with the divine sweetnesses of the 
ordinances. O Lord, saith Austin, when once thy sweetness 
came into my soul, how sweet was it to me to want my own 
sweetnesses. Oh, when the sweetness of God shall come in- 
to our souls, this begets love; and much water cannot quench 
love. Go therefore and labour to get your hearts filled with 
divine sweetnesses. 

Whatsoever you do now in a way of service, do it because 
your Father wills it. If you do therefore serve God now be- 
cause your Father wills it ; then when you come to suffer, you 
will willingly suffer, because your Father wills it. So that now 
use yourselves to this, to serve all your service upon this 
score, because my Father wills it. 

Take heed that you do not stand lessening of a sin, or of 



SER. 3.] IN EVIL TIMES. 341 

an error, and greatening of a suffering. What is the reason 
that many are so unwilling to suffer ? The reason of it is 
this : they lessen the error and the sin in the yielding ; and 
they aggravate and greaten the suffering. Oh, saith one, is 
this a great matter, to yield in such a thing as this, it is an 
indifferent thing; but if I do not yield, I am undone for 
ever. But take heed of this, that you do not lessen the sin, 
and aggravate your suffering : for you will never be willing to 
suffer for the name of Christ, if this be your way. 

If you would be willing to suffer for the name of Christ, 
then go unto God in prayer, and pray unto God for boldness ; 
and go to your friends, and beg of them to pray for you. I 
remember when Latimer was to suffer, he called upon his 
friends, Pray friends, pray for me; for sometimes, though I 
am as bold as a lion, yet at another time I am so afraid, as I 
could run into a mouse-hole. Therefore say, Come, oh my 
friends, I have a cowardly heart of my own, and am unwil- 
ling to suffer for the name of Jesus Christ : oh, friends, pray 
for me, and go to God and pray for boldness : for you see 
how it was in Acts iv., they told their own company what the 
priests said to them, " And now, Lord, (say they) behold 
their threatenings :" and what did they pray for ? * f Grant 
that with all boldness we may speak thy word." And what 
was the issue ? in the next verse : " The room was shaken, 
and they were filled with the Holy Ghost, and they spake the 
word of God with boldness." God answered their prayer pre- 
sently. Therefore if the enemies threaten, and you are afraid 
to suffer for the name of Christ, get together, and in the 
midst of all your petitions, put up this to the throne of grace, 
O Lord, give us boldness. 

If you would be willing to suffer for the name of Christ, 
oh, then read over the sufferings of others, and how others 
have offered up their worldly interests to the name of Christ; 
and by reading their sufferings, you will be made willing to 
suffer as they were : " having such a cloud of witnesses," 
saith the apostle ; he speaks of suffering-saints. 

Improve all your afflictions to the mortification of your 
mind, and of your will. Take this for certain truly, the more 
your own mind and will is alive, the more you will be unwil- 
ling to suffer for the name of Christ. Well, how shall I mor- 
tify my own will ? Afflictions will help you do it. Affliction ! 



342 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 3. 

What is affliction ? Affliction is all that that is contrary to 
one's will ; thereby God eats out the core of our wills. 
Whensoever therefore you meet with any affliction, pray over 
it, and beg that God would eat out the core of your wills 
thereby : and the more the core of your wills is eaten out, 
the more willing will you be to suffer for the name of Jesus 
Christ. 

And then to draw to a conclusion, that you may be willing 
to suffer for the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, lay these 
things and this great reward wishly upon your hearts, and 
thereby you will be made more willing. You see how it is 
with a man that is going to court, he rides through this 
plash, and the other plash ; I am going to court, and there 
I shall be made a man, if I get but thither. Why, truly we 
are going to the court of the King of kings, and these suffer- 
ings that we meet, are the plashes by the way. But chris- 
tians there is enough in heaven to pay for all. Luther said, 
Let him be miserable, that can be miserable. So you that 
suffer for the name of Christ, you cannot be miserable, 
Christ hath pronounced you blessed, and you shall be bles- 
sed : and you see what a reward here is in the text, " An 
hundred fold in this life, and in the world to come life 
everlasting." 

I shall only say, this is the parting speech, there is no 
loss in losing for Jesus Christ ; whatsoever you do lose for 
Christ, you shall find it infinitely in Christ : Christ and a 
little, is a great deal. The only way to have a mercy, is to 
be content to go without it. And the only way to prevent a 
misery, is to be willing to endure it. Now therefore, if you 
would prevent suffering, be willing to suffer for the name of 
Jesus Christ. 

And thus you see what the means are to be made wil- 
ling. And so I have done with this answer of Christ. 
In this part of the answer you see how we may be made 
willing to suffer for Christ ; and on the cautional part, some 
of you heard how we should so order our sufferings, as that 
they might turn to a good account. 

Now, " He that hath ears to hear, let him hear/ 5 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 343 



SERMON IV. 

THE TWO WITNESSES, THEIR TESTIMONY. 
" And I will give power unto my two witnesses," #c. REV. xi. 3. 

" AND I will give power unto my two witnesses f that 
is, unto the inner court, and those that worship there, spoken 
of before. The whole church of God under the name of 
the temple, speaking in the Jewish language. 

The whole church of God under the name of a temple 
is divided into the outer and the inner court. The inner 
court is measured, and the altar, and those that worship 
there, in verse 1. 

The outward court is left out and given unto the gentiles, 
and they tread down the holy city forty and two months, 
verse 2. But, saith Christ, " I will give power unto my two 
witnesses :" that is, unto the inner court, and those that 
were measured, of which he had spoken before, 

Called witnesses. No sooner is the holy city trodden under 
foot by the gentiles, but Christ's witnesses do begin to bear 
their testimony to Christ. 

The witnessing time is divided into three parts : A pro- 
phesying time. The time of their prophecy from the 3rd 
verse unto the seventh. 

The slaying time, from the 3rd verse unto the llth. 

The rising time and restoring time, from the llth verse 
unto the 14th. So that in this scripture that I have now 
read, you have the state of the church prophesying, or 
witnessing [in the days of antichrist, called witnesses : who 
are here described, 

By their number two. " I will give power unto my two 
witnesses." 

By their work and office : " And they shall prophesy." 

By their mournful and sad habit and condition, and the 
time thereof, "They shall prophesy 1260 days clothed in 
sackcloth." 

By their quality. "These are the two olive trees, and 
the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth," 
verse 4. 



344 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SflB. 4. 

By their guard and by their defence. " And if any man 
will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and de- 
voureth their enemies," verse 5. 

By the great things that they shall do in the latter end of 
their prophecy. " These have power to shut heaven, that it 
rain not in the days of their prophecy, and have power over 
waters to turn them into blood," &c. So that now from all 
this, I take up this one observation : 

Though the saints and faithful witnesses of Jesus Christ 
must lie in sackcloth 1260 days, or years, yet in that time 
they shall be very fruitful, and prophesy, and do great things 
in the end of those days. 

For the clearing whereof five or six things will fall under 
our consideration. 

First, Why the saints and people of God are called wit- 



Secondly, What these witnesses are ; more especially in 
respect of their number and quality. 

Thirdly, How and in what respect they are clothed in 
sackcloth, and how long. 

Fourthly, What this prophecy is, and how it comes to pass 
that they prophesy in the time of their sackcloth. 

Fifthly, What is their defence and guard wherewith they 
are guarded and defended in the days of their prophecy. 

Sixthly, What are the great things that they shall do in 
the latter end of their prophecy. I shall run through these 
particulars as briefly as I may, And, 

First, If you ask why the saints and people of God are 
here called witnesses, 

I answer, Because it is their work and business to bear 
witness to the truths and ways of Christ, in opposition to 
the ways of antichrist. If you look into this book of the 
Revelations, you will find they are so described, by bearing 
witness unto the ways and the truths of Christ, in opposition 
to the ways of antichrist. For look but a little into this 
book, and you shall find that there are two sorts of people 
that are marked. The followers of the beast are marked, 
and the followers of the Lamb are marked in their fore- 
heads. 

The followers of the beast are marked, in Rev. xiii. 16: 
"And he caused all, both small and great, rich and poor, 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 345 

free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in 
their foreheads." 

The followers of the Lamb are marked in their foreheads 
too, chap. xiv. 1 : " And I looked and lo a Lamb on the 
mount Zion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, 
having his Father's name written in their foreheads." But now 
though the followers of the Lamb are thus marked with their 
Father's name written in their foreheads, yet their mark doth 
not only consist in something that is positive, but in " refusing 
the mark of the beast," Rev. xx. Why, but to shew thus much, 
that they are witnesses upon this account, because they do 
bear witness unto Christ, the truth and ways of Christ, in 
opposition to the ways of antichrist. Thus they are con- 
formed unto Jesus Christ, who is the " True and the faithful 
witness," Rev. iii. " Write, these things saith the Amen, 
the true and faithful witness." That is, Christ ; Christ is 
the true and the faithful witness, and therefore those that 
are his, they must be witnesses too, that they may be con- 
formed to him. 

Thereby they also overcome, as you have it in Rev. xii. 
"And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by 
the word of their testimony." They overcome by the blood 
of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony, by wit- 
ness-bearing. So then, the saints and people of God, they 
are Christ's witnesses. In anti-christian times they are 
Christ's witnesses ; and if they be thus described, why then 
should not we look unto this work especially, bearing of 
witness to the truths and ways of Christ. 

This is the work that we are born for : For this cause, 
saith Christ, was I born, and for this cause came I into the 
world, that I might bear witness unto the truth. 

This is the work of our generation, witness-bearing to the 
truths of Christ in opposition to the ways of antichrist, in 
anti-christian times. This is the work of our generation. 

This is the work which there is a thousand years of glory 
and comfort promised unto above other things, as you read 
in Rev. xx. 

This is the work, witness-bearing to the truths of Christ 
in opposition to the ways of antichrist, this is the work that 
hath the crown and name of martyrdom. A irartyr, what is 
that but a witness ? Every witness more or less is a martyr. 



346 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 4. 

We take the word only for them that die, but every witness 
is a martyr. 

This is that work which sometimes is necessary to salva- 
tion. " For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, 
and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation/' Rom. 
x. 10. This is the work, I say, therefore, that sometimes is 
necessary unto salvation. 

And this is that work which Jesus Christ will own and 
acknowledge before all the world. " He that confesseth me 
before men, him will I confess before my Father and all the 
angels in heaven." 

And if this be the great work, why should we not all of us 
look to this work especially, this witness-bearing ? 

You will say, What shall I do that I may be found faithful 
in this witness bearing ; what shall I do that I may witness a 
good confession in these days of ours ? 

Something by way of rule ; something by way of means : 
and yet not long, because I must pass on to other things. 

Something by way of rule. Be sure that your testimonies 
do agrea. Though there be a hundred witnesses about a bu- 
siness, if their witness does not agree it will be of little 
worth. And now so it is, Christ's witnesses this day are 
divided into many opinions and persuasions, but they may 
agree in the main for Christ, they may all agree in opposition 
unto antichrist. If that you would have your witness valid and 
good, labour, you that are the witnesses, for unity in your 
testimony. " There are three (saith the apostle John) that 
bear witness in heaven," speaking of God's testifying of the 
truth of grace : " There are three that bear record in heaven, 
the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost :" these bear wit- 
ness of Christ, and their witness is good. Why ? " For 
these Three are One," 1 John v. 7- And saith he at verse 8, 
"There are three that bear witness on earth, the Spirit, and 
the water and the blood." The Spirit : I come to know that 
I am the child of God by the testimony of the Spirit bearing 
witness with my spirit that I am the child of God. And I 
come to know that I am the child of God by the witness of 
water, by the testimony of sanctification. And I come to 
know that I am the child of God by the testimony of blood, 
by the testimony of my faith relying upon the blood of Christ. 
And these three agree; and these three agree in one. The 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 347 

testimony is good because they agree in one. So in our tes- 
tifying of Christ, if our testimonies do agree, our testimony 
is good : that is the first thing. We have been too much 
divided, God knows we have, and he hath punished our divi- 
sions with divisions ; it is time to unite our testimony : if you 
would bear witness unite your testimony. 

Again, If you would witness a good confession in these 
days of ours, then you must be willing to own the truth of 
Christ, to own it whensoever you are called thereunto. It is 
said, our Saviour Christ he witnessed a good confession before 
Pontius Pilate. Pray what kind of witness was it ? Was it 
any long confession, or large ? No ; but the manner of it 
was this : when they called him before them to give an account 
of any fact, he left them to prove it. When they called 
him to give an account of the doctrine that he held, u Art 
thou the King of the Jews }" then he owned it. He left them 
to prove the fact, and he owned the truth ; so should we do. 
And, indeed, if that we be not willing for to own the truth 
when we are called thereunto, why, how can it be that the 
mark of the Father should be written upon our foreheads 
only. We read of the followers of the beast, that they re- 
ceived a mark in their right hands and in their foreheads both. 
Why in the forehead and why in the hand ? In the forehead, 
sometimes to wear it openly ; and in their right hands, to put 
it into their pockets, and to hide it. They can own it some- 
times, and sometimes they can hide it; but the followers of 
the Lamb, they have the mark of their Father only in their 
forehead. Therefore, I say, if we would witness a good con- 
fession, we must be willing to own the truth whensoever we 
are called thereunto. 

If you would witness a good confession in these days of 
ours, then you must be willing also for to suffer for the truth 
of Christ. Those that cannot suffer for the truth of Christ, 
and run the hazard of a suffering, they cannot bear their 
witness fully. See how they go together in Rev. xiii. 10. 
Here is the patience and faith of the saints. The faith of the 
saints and their patience do go together. So in Rev. xiv. 12. 
Here is the patience of the saints ; here are they that keep 
the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. Patience, 
and keeping the commandments of God and the faith of 
Jesus, they go together : and therefore that is another thing. 



348 SEASONABLE TRUTHS. [SfiR. 4. 

If you would witness a good confession, then take heed 
that when you have borne your testimony you may do nothing 
that may revoke the same, either directly or by consequence. 
Some bear a good testimony to the truths of Christ, but then 
they revoke their testimony by something that they do after- 
wards, either directly or by consequence. Mark what is said 
of John in John i. 20; it is said of him, " He confessed and 
denied not, but confessed, I am not the Christ/'" He con- 
fessed and did not revoke his testimony. " He confessed, 
and denied not, but confessed." I know there is an Hebraism 
in it, but there is more than so ; " And he confessed and 
denied not :" he bare his Testimony, and did nothing that 
might revoke that testimony, either directly or by consequence. 
And therefore if you would bear your testimony for the truth 
of Christ, take heed that when you have given in your testi- 
mony you do nothing that may revoke it, either directly or by 
consequence. Thus by way of rule. 

And now by way of means. If you would be faithful in 
bearing your testimony, in bearing witness to the truths of 
Christ in opposition to the ways of antichrist ; observe what 
the root is that a good confession grows upon, and labour for 
to strengthen that. 

Now what is the root that a good confession grows upon, 
but faith working by love ? 

As for faith : " I believed, and therefore have I spoken." 

And as for love : "Much water cannot quench love." Faith 
working by love is the root that a good confession grows upon, 
and therefore strengthen that. 

Labour in the work of self-denial, and use yourself now to 
deny yourself. There are two denials that you read of in the 
gospel, one commanded and the other forbidden, directly con- 
trary one to another. 

Self-denial, and denial of Christ. 

Self-denial is commanded : " If any man will be my dis- 
ciple, let him deny himself." 

Denying of Christ is forbidden : " He that denies me 
before men, him will I deny before my Father which is in 
heaven." The more you deny yourselves, the less you will 
deny Christ ; and the more you deny Christ, the less you 
deny yourselves. Will you not deny Christ, but witness fully 
to Christ, and the truths and ways of Christ ? abour now to 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 349 

be found in the ways of self-denial, that you may be kept 
from Christ-denial. 

In the next place, Take heed that you be not feared or 
scared too much with the scare-crows of the times, but go 
to God for boldness, that you may be emboldened with the 
boldness of the Holy Ghost. A timorous, fearful spirit, will 
shrink in witness-bearing, if God come not in with boldness. 
You may see how they would have made Nehemiah to have 
ceased from the work of God, even by scaring and fearing of 
him. In Neh. vi., Tobiah and Sanballat, they send unto him 
that they might make him cease from the work of God that 
was in his hand ; and they say unto him, It is reported that 
thou hast appointed to preach at Jerusalem, saying, There is 
a king in Jerusalem ; and now shall it be reported to the 
king, according to these words, verse 7 5 tere they cry out, A 
plot, a plot ; but while they cry out a plot upon Nehemiah, 
the truth is, it was their own plot. " Then I sent unto 
them, (at verse 8,) saying, There are no such things done as 
thou sayest, but thou feignest them of thine own heart." 
They cry, A plot, and they made a plot. 

Well, what was their plot ? It was to make him cease 
from the work of the Lord. And how did they lay the plot? 
Say they, at verse 9, " For they all made us afraid, saying, 
Their hands shall be weakened from the work." They all 
made us afraid, verse 13, speaking of false prophets, " There- 
fore was he hired, that I should be afraid, and do so and sin." 
And saith he, verse 14, " My God, think thou upon Tobiah 
and Sanballat, according to these their works, and on the 
prophetess Noadiah, and the rest .of the prophets that would 
have put me in fear." This was the way to make Nehemiah 
cease from the work of God that was in his hand, to put him 
to fear, to scare him. And therefore take heed of the scares 
of the time, but go to God for boldness, that you may be 
emboldened with the boldness of the Holy Ghost. And 
therefore do but read the ivth of the Acts, where you find, 
that when the apostles were threatened, they returned unto 
their own company, and fell to prayer, at verse 23. And 
being let go, they went to their own company, and there they 
fell to prayer ; and they lifted up their voice ; and what did 
they pray for ? the great thing that they prayed for in their 
prayer was, that God would give them boldness. et And 



350 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 4. 

now Lord," say they, verse 29, " behold their threatenings, 
and grant unto thy servants, that with all boldness they may 
speak thy word." And what was the answer? verse 31, 
" And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where 
they were assembled together, and they were all filled with 
the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with bold- 
ness." This was the petition put up, " Behold, Lord, their 
threatenings, now give boldness to thy servants." Presently 
God answered, and they were filled with the boldness of the 
Holy Ghost, and so they bare their testimony. And so I 
say, if you would bear your testimony in these days of cur's, 
take heed of being scared and feared with the scare-crows of 
the times : but rather go to God, and beg boldness of him, 
that you may be emboldened with the boldness of the Holy 
Ghost; and thus shall you do this great work, which is the 
work that we have to do in this day of our's, And so I 
have done with the first thing, why the saints and people of 
God are called witnesses ; namely, because it is their work in 
anti-christian times to bear witness to the truths and ways of 
Christ, in opposition to the ways of antichrist. 

Secondly, But then what are these witnesses more ex- 
pressly in regard of their number, and in regard of their 
quality ? 

In regard of their number, they are two : " And I will 
give power unto my two witnesses." 

Two is but a few, and yet it is enough to bear witness, for 
" out of the mouths of two or three witnesses shall every 
word be established." 

Two, a few, and yet enough. The note is this : 

Christ will always have enough to bear witness to his truth 
in the darkest times. When the Gentiles tread under feet 
the holy city, yet here are two ; it is but a few, and 
indeed Christ's witnesses they are not very many, they are 
but few. 

In the Old Testament : " Unless the Lord had left us a 
remnant, a very little remnant." 

And in the New Testament : " Nevertheless there are a 
few names in Sardis." Christ's witnesses are not very many, 
they are but few ; two. 

And yet they are enough. Two are enough to bear wit- 
ness unto a thing, they are enough. Christ, though he have 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 351 

but few to bear witness to his truth, he will always have 
enough to bear witness to his truth in the darkest times, in 
the darkest times of antichrist. 

What then,though many fall off, and go over unto antichrist's 
colours, Christ will have enough to bear witness. In Matt, 
xxiv. it is said, " Many shall be offended, and many shall be 
deceived, and the love of many shall grow cold ; but he that 
endures to the end." He doth not say, but they that endure 
to the end, but he. There is an he upon that. Many shall 
be deceived, and many shall be offended, and the love of 
many shall grow cold. But he that shall endure to the end ; 
but yet an he. 

Why should we be afraid and discouraged in reference to 
the cause of God, and the affairs of the church ? It may be 
we think a few or none will stand in this dark and gloomy 
day, few or none will stand. 

But I pray now, have you cast up the account, how many 
are wanting upon the muster ? In Rev. vii. 14., the saints 
are mustered before they go into the times of antichrist, verse 4. 
And I heard the number of them which were sealed, and there 
were sealed an hundred and forty and fonr thousand. And 
then in chap. viii. to xii. comes in the times of antichrist and 
bloody times. Now in chap. xiv. 1., they are accounted over 
after the times of antichrist ; and how many are wanting : 
" And I looked,and lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and 
with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Fa- 
ther's name written in their foreheads." Here is not one 
wanting ; Christ will lose not one ; not one lost. By all the 
persecution of antichrist, the church shall not lose one. In the 
latter end, here is just as many to a one, as was in the begin- 
ning. We think few or none will stand in these days. So 
Elijah thought, "And I only am left alone," but he was 
deceived : there are seven thousand men that will not bow 
the knee to Baal. And so we may think few or none will 
stand, but we may be deceived, God hath his seven thou- 
sands that we know not of. Though but few, yet enough. 
Christ will always have enough to bear witness to his truth 
in the darkest times. Two Witnesses. This for their number. 

But then as for their qualification. 

For their quality: "These are the two olive trees," at 
verse 4. I shall speak to all these things within the compass 



352 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 4. 

of my doctrine. " And the two candlesticks standing before 
the God of the earth." 

What is that ? These are the olive trees. Why, if you 
look into Zechariah from whence this is taken, you will find 
the two olive trees are the godly magistrates and ministers, 
by whose assistance the golden oil is emptied into the candle- 
sticks and lamps. Having spoken of the candlestick of 
gold at Zech. iv. 2, and of two olive trees by it, at verse 
3 ; at verse 1 1 : " Then answered I, and said unto him> what 
are these two olive trees upon the right side of the candle- 
stick, and upon the left side thereof? And I answered 
again, and said unto him, what be these two olive branches 
which through the two golden pipes, empty the golden oil 
out of themselves ? And he answered me, and said, knowest 
thou not what these be ? And I said, No, my Lord : Then 
said he, These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the 
Lord of the whole earth/' The two anointed ones ; what is 
that? Why, the magistrates were anointed, and the high priests 
were anointed. Zerubbabel and Joshua were the two 
anointed ones. 

" That stand by the Lord of the whole earth." What is 
that ? that are public ministers. So then, these two olive 
trees are the godly magistrate and the godly minister. 

But what are the two candlesticks ? These are the two 
olive trees and the two candlesticks. 

Our Saviour tells you that " the seven golden candlesticks 
are the seven churches." They were seven ; now in anti- 
christian times reduced to a lesser company, two candle- 
sticks. Though as I said before, Christ will lose none in the 
latter times, yet in anti-christian times reduced unto two. 

These are the two candlesticks. Christ tells you the candle- 
sticks are the churches ; so then put this together. Would 
you know what these two olive trees are, and the two candle- 
sticks ? They are the godly magistrate and godly minister 
in conjunction with the saints of God and churches of 
Christ. The two olive trees are the godly magistrate and 
the ministry. The candlesticks are the churches and saints 
of God. The godly magistrate and minister, in conjunction 
with the churches and saints of God. The godly magistrate 
alone, is not it ; nor the ministry alone, is not it ; nor good 
people and saints alone, is not it ; here are two olive trees 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 353 

and two candlesticks. So that would you know what these 
are ? They are the godly magistrate and minister in con- 
junction with the saints of God, and churches of Jesus 
Christ. 

And then if so, that these be the witnesses, 

Here we may see who those are that are fit to bear wit- 
ness of Christ in anti-christian times, to bear their testi- 
mony. They are to be a fruitful, profitable people, and a 
lightsome people, that can hold forth light unto others in some 
measure. What more fruitful and profitable than the olive 
tree ? There is nothing unprofitable ; the bark oil, the leaf 
oil, the body oil, the fruit oil ; nothing unprofitable. So the 
saints of God, they are the sons and daughters of oil, no- 
thing but profit. The wicked indeed are compared to the green 
bay tree ; barren, unprofitable. But the godly are compared 
in scripture to the olive tree, nothing not profitable. The 
wicked are compared to goats, the saints are compared to 
sheep : sheep, nothing not profitable ; their wool profitable, 
their flesh profitable, their very dung profitable ; nothing not 
profitable. And here, the witnesses of Christ, they are the 
olive tree ; fruitful and a profitable people ; and a people in 
some measure fit to give light to others, as the candlestick, 
to hold forth light unto others. 

Beloved, truly every one is not fit to bear witness to the 
cause, and the truths, and the ways of Jesus Christ. A man 
may be a protestant, in opposition to the papists, and yet an 
ignorant man ; a man may be a professor, in opposition unto 
others, and yet barren in his life. No, no ; none are fit to 
bear testimony to the truths of Christ and to the ways of 
Christ, in opposition to the ways of antichrist, but the olive 
and the candlestick: the profitable man and the lightsome 
man ; and therefore in evil times, that you may be fit to bear 
witness to the ways of Jesus Christ, in opposition to the 
ways of antichrist, labour to be sons and daughters of oil ; 
labour to be more fruitful and profitable in your life ; " And 
let your light so shine before men, that they may glorify your 
Father which is in heaven/' And so now I have done with 
the second thing, What these witnesses are, more particularly 
in respect of their number, two : in respect of their quality, 
they are two olive-trees and two candlesticks. 

Thirdly, But then it is here said that they shall prophesy 

VOL. III. A A 



354 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 4. 

1260 days, clothed in sackcloth ; that they shall lie in sack- 
cloth, and lie in sackcloth 1260 days. 

In sackcloth ; what is that? and how 1260 days ? 

If you ask what this sackcloth means ; it represents the 
sad and afflicted and mournful condition, that the saints and 
people of God shall be in in anti-christian times. When the 
Jews of old mourned and were afflicted, they put on sack- 
cloth : the princes put on sackcloth, and the priests put on 
sackcloth, and the people put on sackcloth. So here, the 
witnesses clothed in sackcloth; what doth this mean, but 
their sad and afflicted and mournful condition ? Such it is 
and must be in anti-christian times. 

For is it not a sad thing and mournful, for the holy city to 
be trodden under foot by the Gentiles ? so it shall be in 
anti-christian times. 

Is it not a sad and mournful thing for the church of God 
to be hidden, the inner court to be hidden ? Indeed a hidden 
church is a true church ; a scattered flock is a true flock ; 
and a scattered church is a true church : but is it not a sad 
thing for churches to be hidden, the church of God to be 
hidden ? Why so it must be in anti-christian times. I re- 
member Mr. Brightman saith, When the woman is in the 
wilderness, she must not think that there will be congrega- 
tions so visible ; but in a wilderness here and there, or in a 
forest, here and there is a house, and here and there you 
meet with a man ; but you meet not with great towns and 
corporations in a wilderness, or in a forest : so when the 
church is in the wilderness, here and there a knot of saints, 
and here and there a knot of meeting; but corporations and 
churches then are hidden. Is it not a sad thing now I say ? 
Yet thus it must be. 

Is it not a sad thing for the vessels of the temple to be 
defiled ? So it must be in ariti-christian times. 

Is it not a sad thing for the solemn assemblies to lie under 
reproach ? So it is and must be in anti-christian times. 

Is it not a sad thing for the saints and people of God, and 
the daughters and sons of Zion, to be persecuted to the very 
gates of Zion, yea, into the very gates of their trade ? So it 
js and must be in anti-christian times, and therefore no wonder 
that the witnesses lie in sackcloth. 
But then they lie in sackcloth 1260 days ; what is that 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 355 

That is 1260 years, a day being put for a year, as it is ordi- 
nary in Scripture. 

And if you ask, When doth this time begin or end, that 
we may know where we are ? 

I answer ; If you can find the beginning from whence this 
time doth commence, you will soon find the end. Now these 
1260 days or years, are all one with the forty-two months 
spoken of before, that the Gentiles shall tread down the 
holy city. They are all one with the forty-two months of 
the beast. Take a day for a year, and forty-two months 
come to 1260 years ; take a day for a month, and then 1260 
days comes to forty-two months. 

These forty-two months of the beast then, and the 1260 
days or years that the witnesses are clothed in sackcloth are 
all one. 

Now when did the forty-two months of the beast begin ? 

In likelihood about the year 400 or 406, 410 or thereabouts, 
for to speak to a year or so is not safe, chronologers have 
been deceived ; I say in the year of our Lord 400 or there- 
abouts. 

For look when that that hinders was taken away, then the 
man of sin was discovered. The mystery of iniquity did 
work in the apostle's time : in 2 Thess. ii. J, <( The mystery 
of iniquity doth already work ; only he who now letteth, will 
let until he be taken out of the way, and then shall that 
wicked one be revealed." When is that ? As Jerome and 
all agree, the Roman empire was the thing that let, and about 
those times was the Roman empire taken out of the way. 
In 410 the Goths and Vandals broke in upon Rome itself; 
about that time was that that let taken away. 

And (I do but touch upon this, and touch I must upon it,) 
look when the Roman empire did fall asunder into ten king- 
doms, then did the beast begin his forty-two months. "And 
the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have 
received no kingdom as yet, bnt receive power as kings one 
hour with the beast," Rev. xvii. 12. 

But when did the Roman empire fall asunder into ten 
kingdoms ? About the year 400. It is observed by good 
historians, and divers, that in the year 406, Brittany and these 
nations fell off from the Roman empire to be a kingdom 
standing by itself. Now, then, if the time did begin about 
A A 2 



356 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 4. 

400, surely the end of the time we must needs be about. I 
confess, indeed, it is a sad thing for Christ's witnesses to lie 
in sackcloth, and to lie in sackcloth 1260 years; but so it 
must be, not a day abated, but to a year, to a day. Why 
should you be offended, friends, then, at the sackcloth and 
mourning condition of the church and saints and people of 
God ? Why, is not this the habit of the witnesses, sack- 
cloth ; and will not you be content to be habited as 
they are habited, to wear the same clothes that Christ's 
witnesses do ? And if Christ's witnesses shall lie in sackcloth 
1260 years, will not you be contented to be in sackcloth three 
or four years ? Christians, will not you be contented to be 
in sackcloth three or four years ? Methinks we should ra- 
ther look to the duty of a sackcloth condition ; there should 
our hearts and our thoughts be. But we are very apt ever- 
more, and consider what I say, not only in reference to this 
point but to others, we are very apt to mind God's work and 
neglect our own. It is God's work to fulfil the promise, it is 
our work to apply the promise ; but we mind the fulfilling of 
it, and neglect the applying of it; mind God's work and neg- 
lect our own work. 

It is God's work to deliver his people, it is their work to 
be humbled under the mighty hand of God. But we mind 
deliverance, which is God's work, and neglect our own work, 
humiliation under the mighty hand of God. 

It is God's work, saith the martyr, to take care, it is our 
work to cast care : " Cast all your care upon God ;" there is 
your work : " for he careth for you ;" that is God's work. 
To take care is God's work, to cast care is our work ; but we 
mind God's work, and are taking care, and neglect our own 
work, which is to cast all our care upon God. 

It is God's work to take off our sackcloth, it is our work 
to wear it ; but we mind God's work, the taking of it off. 
When shall this sackcloth be off? and neglect our own work, 
to wear it handsomely. W 7 hy should we not, I say, mind our 
business ? What is the duty of a sackcloth condition more ? 

Why, then, when we are in sackcloth, surely then it is our 
duty for to lay by our ornaments : " Let the Bridegroom go 
out of his chamber," in the day of sackcloth ; if any body 
may rejoice, the Bridegroom may ; but let the Bridegroom go 
forth of his chamber in a sackcloth day. Lay aside your or- 



SEB. 4.] FOR EVIL TIMES. 357 

naments, friends, lay aside your ornaments. It is the time of 
sackcloth, it is our duty, then, for to fast and pray and cry 
mightily unto the Lord. 

Then it is our duty to put our mouths in the dust, if so be 
there may be hope. 

Then it is our duty for to bear our testimony. 

Then it is our duty for to wait on God ; though the wit- 
nesses wear sackcloth for a time, yet there are white robes 
provided for them, and they come out with palms in their 
hands. 

And the nearer the time of deliverance grows, the less time 
for waiting, the more we are engaged to wait. Why, now, 
according to the calculation there is not much of the time to 
come ; there is but a little of the sackcloth time to come, 
shall we not watch with him one hour, and wear sackcloth 
with him one hour? Wait a while; he that shall come will 
come and will not tarry. And so I have done with the third 
thing, namely, W T hat this sackcloth is, and their lying in 
sackcloth for 1260 years. 

Fourthly. But then it is said here that these witnesses did 
prophesy : " I will give power unto my two witnesses, and 
they shall prophesy." Prophesy; what is that; and how did 
it come to pass that they shall prophesy in the time of their 
sackcloth ? 

Prophesy : What is that ? 

Why prophesying is sometimes taken in Scripture for the 
revelation of the mind of God, whereby a man doth foretel 
things to come, and so Daniel and Ezekiel and others were 
called prophets. 

Sometime prophesying is taken more largely in Scripture, 
for preaching the word of God in a way of office ; preaching 
the word by office : and so the ministers and preachers of the 
word of God in office, they are called prophets in Scripture. 

But yet, more largely, prophesy is taken for a declaring 
and making known of the mind and will of God ; and so all 
those that do declare and make known the mind and will of 
Jesus Christ, they aie said to be prophets, and so I take it 
here. For I pray do but mark, this their prophesying and 
witness-bearing seems to be all one : " I will give power unto 
my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy." And when they 
shall have finished their testimony, their witness-bearing ; he 



358 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 4. 

should have said, When they have finished their prophesy. 
True, but he would shew that their witness-bearing and pro- 
phesy is all one; and so compare Rev. xix. and xxii. together, 
and you will find the same : " I fell at his feet and worshipped 
him ; and he said unto me, See thou do it not, I am thy fellow 
servant and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus." 
And chap, xxii., " I fell at his feet ; and he said unto me, See 
thou do it not, for I am thy fellow servant and of thy breth- 
ren the prophets." " Of thy brethren the prophets," here, 
in chap, xxii,, is all one with " thy brethren that have the 
testimony of Jesus," in the xixth chapter ; and saith he there, 
" Worship God ; for the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of 
prophecy." It is the same word that is used when they had 
finished " their testimony, or witness-bearing ;" " the witness 
of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy/' This bearing witness to 
the truths of Jesus, this is prophecy. And thus now the 
witnesses they are said to prophesy. 

Well, but how came they to prophesy in the times of their 
sackcloth ? 

" Behold I will give power unto my two witnesses, and 
they shall prophesy 1260 days clothed in sackcloth." How 
comes it to pass that they shall prophesy in sackcloth ? 

It is clearly answered, " I will give power," saith Christ ; 
" I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall 
prophesy in sackcloth." I will give power to them; they 
shall have their orders to preach from myself; they shall have 
power from me to preach, and to prophesy, and to bear their 
testimony. Some have their orders and their power to pro- 
phesy from men, from prelates, from the beast ; but, saith he, 
" I will give power unto my two witnesses to prophesy." It 
is said of the beast, that " power was given him." It is said 
of the witnesses, " I will give power unto my two witnesses." 
They shall have their orders, they shall have their power of 
prophesy and witness-bearing from myself: " I will give 
power unto my two witnesses." Plainly then thus much. 

There is none can bear witness to the truths of Jesus 
Christ but those that are empowered by Christ ; and if that 
Jesus Christ will give power unto his two witnesses for to 
prophesy, and to bear their testimony, then why should we 
not depend on God; why should we not go unto Christ and 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 359 

depend on Christ for our very power to bear witness to the 
truths of Christ. 

It may be you are afraid, and you will say thus : I am a 
poor weak creature, man or woman, and I shall never 
be able for to bear a testimony in these witness -bearing 
times ? 

Aye, but you know what the martyr, Alice Driver, said, I will 
set my foot against the foot of the proudest prelate of them 
all in the cause of Christ : but who gave power unto her ? 
Jesus Christ, that saith, I will give power unto my two wit- 
nesses, and he hath said so concerning all his witnesses : I will 
give power unto my two witnesses that they shall prophesy, and 
bear witness ; and he is faithful : and therefore why should you 
not go to Christ, and lay yourselves flat upon this promise, and 
say to him : O Lord, I am a poor weak creature ; I fear I shall 
never be able for to bear my testimony, but thou hast said, I 
will give power unto my two witnesses ; I am one of thy 
witnesses. Now then O Lord, give power to me, for I am 
poor ; oh, remember this promise, here is a gracious and a 
blessed promise : Christ saith himself, I will give power unto 
my two witnesses, and he is faithful, and will make it 
good. And so I have done with the fourth thing, namely 
what prophesying is, and how the witnesses come to prophesy, 
in the times of their sackcloth ; Christ gives them power. 

Fifthly, But then what is the defence and guard that these 
witnesses have, whereby they are guarded and defended in 
their prophesy ? 

The text saith, If any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth 
out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies. What is 
that ? Fire proceedeth out of their mouth ; it may relate 
unto Moses ; but especially it relates unto Elijah, a prophet, 
a minister, that when the captain and his fifty came to do 
him hurt, he called for fire from heaven, and destroyed the 
captain and his fifty ; fire came out of his mouth by his 
prayers : and when another captain came, and his fifty, Elijah 
prayed, and fire came down and destroyed him and his 
fifty : fire came out of his mouth ; plainly it relates to this of 
Elijah. 

What then is this fire that proceeds out of the mouth of 
the witnesses, but the scorching and devouring judgments of 
God, whereby the enemies of God's people are blasted and 



360 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 4. 

destroyed by the prayers and threatenings of the people of 
God, that come out of their mouth. 

But if any man will hurt them,, mind a little. 

It seems then that there will be always be some in readi- 
ness to hurt the witnessing people of Christ, though they be 
impowered to witness from Christ himself. Though the 
saints and people of God be impowered by Christ himself for 
to bear their testimony. There will always be some or other 
to hurt the witnessing people of God. If any man will hurt 
them : them that are witnesses. 

But though men do hurt the witnessing people of God, 
they shall not go unpunished : " If any man will hurt them, 
fire proceeds out of their mouths, and devoureth their ene- 
mies :" though the enemies may hurt the witnessing people 
of Christ, the enemies shall be hurt themselves, they shall 
not go unpunished. 

But they shall not only be punished that hurt the witness- 
ing people of God : but they shall be punished with a so ; 
he must in this manner, or so, he must so be punished : so, 
how so ? So, look in what way he thought to have hurt the 
witnessing people of God : so shall he be hurt, look by 
what means he sought to hurt the people of God, by the 
same hand and means shall he be hurt himself. 

But so, so by fire coming out of their mouth ; by the prayers 
of the people of God, they shall be blasted and consumed ; 
not by sword, not by might, nor by strength, but by fire 
coming out of their mouth, so, so he shall not only be 
punished, but be punished with a so, that hurts the witness- 
ing people of God. 

Oh, my beloved friends, why do you shut your mouths ? 
why should you not be much in prayer ? what, doth fire come 
out of the mouth of the witnessing people of God to devour 
their enemies, and will you shut your mouth and not pray. 

Oh, where will opposers appear; what will become of 
those that hurt the witnessing people of God, oh, woe to 
them? 

Oh, what a dangerous thing is it to oppose the prayers of 
the people of God ? This is the fire that comes out of their 
mouth, whereby those that hurt them are scorched : and 
therefore let men take heed how they hurt any of the witness- 
ing people of Christ; and let all those that are witnesses 



SER. 4.] ix EVIL TIMES. 361 

pray ; you that are witnesses now open your mouths, for fire 
proceedeth out of your mouths, to devour the enemies that 
hurt the witnessing people of God ; open your mouths wide. 
And so I have done with the fifth thing. The guard where- 
by the witnesses are guarded in the days of their prophecy. 

Sixthly, The next thing remains, and that is what are the 
great things that these witnesses will do, in the end of the 
days of their prophecy, and of their sackcloth ? 

Why briefly thus : in the general it is said ; " These have 
power to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they 
will :" that is, as I humbly conceive, pouring out the seven 
vials, Rev. xvi., the seven vials are poured out upon the 
earth : and why is it spoken of here, that they have power 
to smite the earth with all plagues ? But to shew that at 
least some of the vials shall be poured out, before the wit- 
nesses are slain : but not to fix there more particularly. 

These have a power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the 
days of their prophecy. What is that ? Certainly it must 
relate unto Elijah : that Elijah prayed and by his prayer he 
shut the heavens that it rained not for three years and an 
half: plainly it relates unto Elijah as can be : Elijah prayed, 
and by his prayer he shut the heavens that it rained not for 
three years and a half. 

Well, but what are the heavens here ? 

Those cannot be understood literally, but spiritually : as it 
is said in verse 8., " Their dead bodies shall lie in the street 
of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and 
Egypt :" the heavens here cannot be understood literally, 
but spiritually ; what then ; what are the heavens then, and 
what is the shutting of the heavens that it rain not ? 

The heavens are the highest power, so that look when the 
witnesses have power to restrain the highest power in church 
and state from their wonted influence ; then is this word 
fulfilled, that they have power to shut heaven that it rain not 
in the days of their prophecy : I say the heavens are the 
highest powers : look when the witnesses do restrain the 
highest power in church and state from their wonted influ- 
ence, then is this word fulfilled. 

They have power also to turn water into blood. What is that ? 
plainly it must relate to Moses, who turned rivers, and turned 
waters into blood. W T hat is that ? It cannot be understood 



362 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 4. 

literally, but spiritually still. What is that then ? Why 
thus : these waters are to be undestood spiritually, and so you 
read in Rev. xvi., " The sea, and rivers were turned into 
blood." Look therefore when the witnesses shall have power 
to turn the still waters of a state or nation into war and blood; 
then is this word fulfilled. 

But how came the witnesses to have power to do this ? 

It may be, not legally, for it is not said here, And I will 
give power unto them to shut the heavens ; but these have 
power to shut the heavens, and these have power to turn 
waters into blood ; it is not said here, I will give them power, 
as it is said before. It may be this may be done, and not 
legally. 

But when shall this be done ? 

It must be done immediately before their slaying. I pray 
mark the coherence here. They shall have power to shut 
the heavens immediately before they are slain, and to turn 
water into blood immediately before they are slain, just be- 
fore the three years and a half, that they lie dead upon the 
earth. For when did Elijah shut the heavens but immedi- 
ately before the three years and a half of drought. When 
did Moses turn the waters into blood, but immediately 
before the coming out of the children of Israel out of Egypt. 
So here, immediately before the witnesses are slain, and they 
lie three years and a half as dead, immediately before, they 
have power to shut the heavens that it rain not, and to 
turn waters into blood. 

Now therefore to draw to a conclusion ; whensoever you see 
all these things come to pass ; I will not apply them to 
times or places, this or that time or place ; but when you 
see all these things come to pass, one treading upon the heel 
of another; when you shall see that the witnesses have 
power to shut the heavens that it rain not ; to restrain the 
highest powers both in church and state from their wonted 
influence, and that they have power to turn water into 
blood, and turn still nations into war ; and then immediately 
upon it they shall be slain, and so lie dead, deprived of their 
functions and vital operations, as if they lay dead ; then 
lift up your heads and comfortably say, hopefully say, Now, 
now comes the three years and a half, which is the last time. 
Now is our salvation near, for God will bring near his righteous- 



SER. 4.] IN EVIL TIMES. 363 

ness, and his salvation shall not tarry. And he will place 
salvation in Sion, for Israel his glory. 

Only for the present, let me conclude and leave an ex- 
hortation with you, which I will draw up from all which hath 
been said. 

The first part of it is this : The saints and people of God 
in anti-christian times, they are witnesses. 

Therefore, be sure that you bear your testimony faithfully. 
Be faithful now in your witness-bearing, Christians. Christ 
will pay all the charge that you are at in witness-bearing. 
If a man have a suit at law, and have five or six witnesses, 
and carry them a hundred miles, he bears all the charge of 
their witness-bearing. Saith Christ, 1^ will give power to 
my witnesses, they are my witnesses. Ye are Christ's wit- 
nesses, and look whatsoever charge you are at, he will bear 
the charge, he will bear all the charge of your witness-bearing. 
And if your faith come not home enough, as it should be, 
yet Christ is faithful though we believe not, and therefore be 
faithful in your witness-bearing. 

Though you be but few, be not afraid, be not discouraged, 
for Christ will always have enough to bear witness to his 
truth in the darkest times. Comfort ye one another with 
those words. 

Be fruitful as the olive tree ; and be lightsome as the can- 
dlestick. Oh, that God would roll away the reproach of a 
barren heart from every one of you, and of a barren life. 
It is time now to be fruitful that you may be as the olive 
tree, and as the candlestick, to hold forth your light to 
others. 

Pray now have a care that you wear your sackcloth hand- 
somely. Truly these meetings that now we do enjoy, they 
have a sackcloth on them ; there is a sackcloth upon the 
loins of every such meeting as this. Christians, you have 
your sackcloth on, pray wear your sackcloth handsomely, 
for in due time you shall have robes, you shall come forth 
in white robes, having your palms in your hands, only for 
the present wear your sackcloth handsomely. I mean, carry 
your sad and mournful condition as you ought. 

If you find that you be not able for to bear your testimony 
as you would and as you should, go then to Christ, and re- 
member this promise, " I will give power unto my two 



364 . SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 4. 

witnesses." Oh, plead this promise, Christians, it is a great 
promise : " I will give power unto my two witnesses." 
Though men take away power from you for prophesy; they 
will not let you pray, nor prophesy, yet " I will give power." 
I will give power in opposition to your own weakness. And 
I will give power in opposition to men's malice. Therefore 
go to Christ and press this promise : Lord, I am one of thy 
poor witnesses, therefore give power according to thy word, 
for thou hast said, I will give power, and they shall pro- 
phesy. 

Let not your mouth be shut, but open in prayer ; for it is 
said here, If any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of 
his mouth. That was the prayer of Elijah, it brought down 
fire, scorching and blasting judgments. Christians, is there 
a fire, a fire in your mouth ? Oh, you that have any credit 
in heaven, pray now. If there were any here that I could 
speak to, I would say thus, You that never prayed, pray 
now. But I hope there is none such ; but if there should be any 
such, I would say, You that never prayed, pray now ; and 
you that have any credit in heaven, improve it in this day of 
trial for the poor witnesses. 

And to conclude all : If that you should see that the wit- 
nesses shall have done such great things, that they have shut 
heaven that it rain not; that they have turned water into 
blood, and yet immediately upon it they have been slain, 
and lie dead ; if you see all these things come to pass one 
after another, then lift up your heads, oh, ye saints, and wait, 
and wait ; for he that doth come, will come, and will not 
tarry. And when he comes, he will not only pay you your 
principal money, but he will pay you all your forbearance 
money too. And therefore what I say to one I say unto 
you all, and to my own soul, Let us wait upon the Lord and 
keep his way. And thus now I have done with the first time 
of the witnesses, their prophesying time, their slaying time 
follows. But that you will conjecture at something by what 
hath been said. 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 365 



SERMON V. 

THE UNCERTAINTY OF THE WORLD SHOULD TAKE OFF OUR 
HEARTS FROM THE LOVE OF IT. 

" But this I say brethren, the time is short. It remaineth, that 
both they that have wives, be as though they had none : And they that 
weep as though they wept not : And they that rejoice, as though they 
rejoiced not ; And they that buy, as though they possessed not : And 
they that use this world, as not abusing it ; for the fashion of this 
world passeth away." 1 COR. vii. 30, 31. 

" BUT this I say brethren, the time is short/' &c. In this 
scripture we have a great exhortation to use this world as if 
we used it not, which the apostle openeth by divers instances, 
and strengtheneth by divers arguments. The general exhor- 
tation brings up the rear, " They that use this world as if 
they used it not," or as " not abusing it." The instances 
march in the body and middle of the words ; " They that 
have wives, as though they had none ; and they that weep, 
as though they wept not ; and they that rejoice, as though 
they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they pos- 
sessed not." Which are enclosed with two reasons : 

One in the front, " The time is short ;" " This I say, bre- 
thren, the time is short, it remaineth," &c. 

The other reason in the close or rear of the words, " For 
the fashion of this world passeth away." From all which 
then I take up this doctrine or observation : 

That the consideration of the shortness of our time here, 
and that the fashion of this world passeth away, should move 
us to use the world in all our particular concernments, as if 
we used it not. For the opening whereof these several 
things will fall under our consideration : 

First, That a good man may make use of the world. 

Secondly, Though he may make use of the world, yet he 
must use the world as if he used it not. 

Thirdly, What are those particular concernments wherein 
we are to use the world as if we used it not. 

Fourthly, What there is in these reasons of the apostle, 
" The shortness of the time," and the " passing fashion of 



366 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 5. 

the world," that should move us so to use the world as if we 
used it not. 

Fifthly, When a man may be said to use the world as if 
he used it not. 

Sixthly, What is the issue and the consequence thereof, 
in case he do or do not. 

Seventhly, Wliat a man should do that he may get his 
heart into this holy frame, so to use the world as if he used 
it not. 

First therefore, We must grant that a good man may make 
use of the world ; he may make use of the world in refer- 
ence to the persons of the world, in reference to the things 
of the world. 

In regard of the persons of the world : so Abraham and 
Isaac did make use of Abimelech ; so Jacob did make use 
of Laban ; so the Israelites did make use of the Egyptians ; 
so the Jews did make use of the heathen Cyrus, Darius, 
Artaxerxes, for the building of the house of God. Plainly 
then, a good man may make use of the world, the persons of 
the world. 

And as he may make use of the persons of the world, so 
he may make use of the things of the world, for they are his 
own : "All things are yours, whether Paul, or Apollos, things 
present, and things to come ; life and death, all things are 
yours." And who may not make use of his own ? If a 
friend should send a man a gift, it would be accounted an 
incivility and unthankfulness not to make use thereof. Why 
truly, as for the things of this world, they are God's gift ; 
"The Lord giveth, and the Lord taketh." They are God's 
gift ; and will it not be accounted an incivility towards God, 
and an unthankfulness towards God, not to make use of this 
his gift that he hath given us. May not a traveller make 
use of those things in his journey, that are meet and neces- 
sary for him in his journey ? He may. We are all travellers 
to another country, we are upon our journey, so far therefore 
as things are necessary for our journey, we may make use 
thereof. The Lord would have Adam himself to be employed 
in the state of innocency, in the things of the world, " Six 
days shalt thou labour, and do all thou hast to do." And 
the apostle, 2 Thess. iii. II, shews that those are busybodies 
whose bodies are not busy : " We hear that there are some 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 367 

which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but 
are busy bodies " working not at all, but working in others' 
ground : " busy bodies, because their bodies are not busy." 
See how they go here together, working not at all, but are 
at work where they should not work ; those whose bodies 
are not busy, will be busy bodies. And is it not an evil 
thing to be a busy body ? It is so ; therefore we must work. 
How can we work if we do not make use of the world and 
the things thereof? So that plainly then we see the first 
thing cleared. A good man may make use of the world, 
both in reference to the persons of the world, and in refer- 
ence to the things of the world. A good man may make 
use of the world. 

Secondly, But though we may make use of the world we 
must use the world as though we used it not, not regard- 
ing it too much, not setting our affections upon it too much, 
not spending too much time upon the world, and the things 
thereof. 

For look as wicked men do use the things of God, and of 
the other world, so a good man should use the things of this 
world. Why now a wicked man doth use the things of God 
as if he used them not, pray, as if he prayed not, and hear, as 
if he heard not; why, because his mind is upon other things: 
why truly so the minds of the saints are or should be, upon 
other things. " Set your affections on things that are 
above." It is a good speech that an ancient hath, saith he, 
As good men are, where they yet are not, namely in heaven ; 
so they are not where they now are, namely on earth, for your 
conversation is in heaven : though your communication be 
here on earth, yet your conversation is in heaven ; and if hea- 
ven be our object, earth will be our abject : few I confess 
that live at this rate, to use the world as if they used it not : 
but is there not reason, good reason for it ? let us see the rea- 
sons : is there not good reason for it ? Yes. For 

If the world, and the things thereof be so our own, as if 
they were not our own ; then why should we not use the 
world, and the things thereof as if we used them not ? why 
now, though the things of the world are our own in regard of 
propriety, yet if you look into Luke xvi., you will find that 
they are called not our own, verse 11., " If therefore ye have 
not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will corn- 



368 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [^ EBt * 

mit to your trust the true riches ? and if ye have not been 
faithful in that which is another man's who will give you that 
which is your own :" that which is another man's, that is the 
same with the unrighteous mammon ; who shall give unto 
you that which is your own ? spiritual things are our own ; 
the things of God are here called our own ; properly that is 
our own which we can carry up and down with us, omnia mea 
mecum porto, that is our own which we can carry away with us, 
out of the world with us, that is truly our own. But now, as 
for the things of this world, they have wings, yea Solomon 
saith, " they make themselves wings :" if you clip their wings 
they will grow again ; they make themselves wings, and fly 
away ; and they have the wings of an eagle, strong wings for 
to fly away. Now if that the things of this world be so our 
own, as if they were not our own, why should we not use the 
world, as if we used it not ? 

If the things of this world be, and are as if they were not, 
why should we not use them as if we used them not ? In 
Prov. xxiii., Solomon saith that they are not, " Why should- 
est thou let thine eyes fly upon that which is not." They 
are not, and if that they be as if they were not, why should 
we not use them as if we used them not ? 

If it be not in the power of any creature in this world for 
to help us, or to hurt us, to do either good or evil to us, why 
then should we not use the world as if we used it not ? you 
know Psalm Ixii. 10., " If riches increase, set not your hearts 
upon them ;" why, " God hath spoken once, twice, and I 
heard it, that power belongs to God." It is not in the power 
of riches, or any creature in the world, to do us either hurt 
or help. In Isa. xli., it is made God's prerogative ; " Shew 
the things that are to come hereafter," verse 23., " That we 
may know that ye are gods, do good, or do evil ;" do good, 
or do evil : if ye will shew yourselves, oh ye idols, to be gods ; 
then do good, or do evil ; this is God's great prerogative, to 
to help, or to hurt, it is God's prerogative, it is not in the 
power of any creature for to help, or hurt ; now if it be not 
in the power of any creature for to help, or hurt, why should 
we not use the world, and the things thereof, as if we used 
them not. 

We are so to use the world, and the things thereof, as they 
are ; why now truly there is nothing in this world that is 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 369 

either good or evil morally, but as it is used ; prosperity in 
itself is not good, not morally good ; adversity in itself is not 
evil, it is not morally evil; all the things of this world are but 
indifferent, neither good nor evil in themselves, but as they 
are used : thus then, if all the things of this world are but 
in their own nature indifferent, neither good nor evil, why 
should not our hearts be carried out indifferently towards 
them, and so to use them, as if we used them not. 

All the things of this world, they are but to serve a turn, 
they are not to be enjoyed for themselves, only for to serve 
a turn ; there is nothing that you have to deal withal, but is 
merely for to serve a turn ; clothes are but to serve a turn, to 
cover nakedness ; good meat and drink is but to serve a turn, 
to serve our hunger, and our thirst ; money, and houses, and 
lands, are all but to serve a turn, only God is to be enjoyed ; 
God is not for to serve a turn, but all the things of this world 
they are only for to serve a particular turn. The schoolmen 
therefore have a handsome speech of a worldly man, they 
describe him, He doth enjoy what he should use, and he 
doth use what he should enjoy : God is to be enjoyed, and he 
uses him ; the world is to be used, and he enjoys that : but 
it is God alone that is to be enjoyed for himself; all things 
here are but to serve a turn, and therefore why should we not 
use the world as if we used it not. 

If the world do use us as if it used us not, and if the 
world do care for us as if it cared not for us ; why should 
not we use the world as if we used it not ? Paul reasons 
after this manner in Gal. vi. 14 : " God forbid that I should 
glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom 
(or whereby) the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the 
world." The world looks upon me as a man hanged, crucified, 
hanged out of the way, why truly I look upon the world so 
too, saith he ; the world looks upon me as a dry leaf, and I 
look upon the world as a dry leaf. Thus now it is : the 
world cares for us as if it cared not for us, and the world 
uses us as if it used us not; and therefore why should not 
we use the world as if we used it not. 

Aye, but Solomon saith, " Whatsoever thou findest in 
thine hand to do, do it with all thy might." 

True, and it is in our hand to use the world as if we used 
it not, and therefore this we are to do with all our might, 

VOL. III. B B 



370 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 5. 

even to use the world as if we used it not. And so I have 
done with the second thing, Though a good man may make 
use of the world and the things thereof, yet he is to use the 
world as if he used it not. 

Thirdly, Aye, but then what are those particular concern- 
ments wherein we are to use the world as if we used it not ? 
Why the apostle here doth instance in four. 

In the matter of our relations : " It remaineth that they 
that have wives, be as though they had none." 

In the matter of our grief: " And they that weep, as 
though they wept not." 

In the matter of our joy : " And they that rejoice, as 
though they rejoiced not." 

And in the matter of our possessions : " And they that 
buy, as though they possessed not/' I shall run through 
them briefly, that we may have the clear understanding of 
the case, and the matter before us. 

As for the matter of our relations : saith the apostle, " It 
remaineth, that both they that have wives, be as though they 
had none." A man may use his relations as if he had none ; 
his relations. 

Why, but is not a man to provide for his wife and children 
and family ? 

Yes, he is worse than an infidel that provideth not for his 
wife and for his family, for his relations. But when a man 
hath relations, he is very apt to be lost therein ; a man may 
be drunk with his own beer or wine. " I have married a 
wife, and I cannot come ;" therefore he is to use his relations 
as if he had none, in regard of his care to please God ; as 
diligent in frequenting the means of grace, as if he had no 
relations. For, saith he, verse 32. " But I would have you 
without carefulness, he that is unmarried, careth for the things 
that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord. He 
that is married, careth for the things that are of the world, 
how he may please his wife." In reference therefore unto 
the pleasing of God, frequenting of the means of grace, let 
him that hath relations be as if he had none, hindered no 
more by them, than if he had none. 

Let him be as zealous for the truth, as if he had none. 
Let him be as apt, and ready to suffer for the cause of 
Christ, as if he had none. We are apt to boggle at suffer- 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 371 

ings, because of our relations ; What shall become of my 
wife and children ? What shall become of my family ? It 
was a speech therefore of Origen, when he was young, unto 
his father, when his father was to go and suffer martyrdom 
for the cause of Christ; O my father, saith he, O my father, 
take heed that you do not baulk this suffering for my sake, 
that you may provide for me. We are very apt to baulk suf- 
ferings for the cause of Christ, upon the account of our fa- 
mily, and upon the account of our relations; but now, let 
him that hath relations be as if he had none, frequenting and 
using of the means of grace, praying, reading, hearing, as if 
he had none ; as zealous for the truth, as if he had none ; as 
apt and ready to suffer for the cause of Christ, as if he had 
none. Thus we are to use the world as if we used it not, in 
reference to this concernment. I must but touch upon 
things. 

As for the matter of grief, saith the apostle, " And they 
that weep, as though they wept not." It is lawful to grieve 
and weep, not only for our sins, but for the misery of the 
times. " Oh, that my head were waters, and that mine eyes 
were a fountain of tears, that I could weep day and night for 
the slaughters." " Mine eyes run down with rivers of tears," 
saith David, " because they keep not thy law." God hath a 
bottle to keep all these pearls in ; the tears of his people } 
they are precious, and too precious to be lost. As God 
hath a bag for all the sins of the wicked to keep them in, so 
he hath a bottle for all the tears of the saints ; but yet we 
must not weep too much, but grieve as if we grieved not. 

Or otherwise it will argue that we have too much love to 
the world: Love is the cause of grief; the more passionately 
you grieve for any outward thing, the more abundantly you 
shew your love thereunto, and it will in some measure reflect 
upon your God. It is a considerable speech that of a child, 
when the mother of the child had used to say upon all her 
losses, Yet my God lives ; when she had lost a child, she 
would say, Yet my God is alive; when she had lost a friend, 
Yet my God is alive. At last, losing a child she loved much, 
she wept very much, and another of her children came unto 
her and said, Mother, is your God dead ? mother, is not your 
God alive ? she used to say still, yet my God is alive, and 
now weeping much, and not saying so, the child said, Mother, 

BB2 



372 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 5. 

is not your God alive ? Truly this grieving much, it hath 
such a reflexion as this, is not your God alive ? Christians, 
is not your God alive ? you know what the apostle saith, 
" Rejoice in the Lord evermore, and again I say rejoice." 

If that we are to rejoice in the Lord evermore, then surely 
we are to weep as if we wept not, and to grieve as if we 
grieved not. And thus we are to use the world as if we 
used it not, in reference to this concernment, the matter of 
our grief. 

As for the matter of our joy, the apostle saith, " And let 
them that rejoice, be as though they rejoiced not :" it is law- 
ful to rejoice, even in the things of the world, " Rejoice in 
the wife of thy youth." God hath provided several delight- 
ful objects for every sense ; there is music for hearing, and 
there are smells, and sweet smells for smelling, sweet things 
for the taste. God hath so ordered things that every sense 
hath its delightful object : surely therefore it is lawful to take 
pleasure, and to rejoice in the things of this world. 

But still, though we do rejoice in the things of this world, 
we must rejoice as if we rejoiced not. 

For why should I joy much in that which I cannot enjoy ? 
why now the things of this world I may use, but I cannot 
enjoy them, God only is to be enjoyed. 

Who will rejoice with all his might in the blaze of a wisp ? 
a wisp of straw set on fire makes a great blaze, but it ends 
in black ashes : who rejoiceth much in the blaze of the wisp ? 
why truly the best outward thing, it is but the blaze of a 
wisp, and if we do not take heed, it ends in black ashes. 

Who would rejoice much in that which is but a tanquam, 
a quasi of good, which he cannot satisfy his soul in ? There 
is a crack in the finest crystal glass in this world, a crevice : 
what outward thing is there in all the world, but hath some 
crevice in it ? what beauty, but hath some wart grows upon 
the face on it ? Our Saviour Christ was at a wedding, and 
when he was there the wine was spent ; why ? for to shew 
that in the midst of all our fulness and joy, there is a defici- 
ency, and there is a want, bottles will be empty. 

And if it be the great work of a Christian for to moderate 
his affections, then should we not grieve as if we grieved not, 
and rejoice as if we rejoiced not ? 

The great work of a Christian, what is it ? why, the great 



SEB. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 373 

work of a Christian is not for to know much ; the great work 
of a Christian is not to have much ; he is a Christian indeed 
that grieves as if he grieved not, and rejoices as if he re- 
joiced not, that moderates his affections, that hath the com- 
mand and the true moderation of his affections, aye, he is a 
Christian indeed. So that thus then we see, that we are to 
use the world as if we used it not, in reference to this con- 
cernment, the matter of our joy. 

As for the matter of our possessions, the apostle saith, 
" And let them that buy, be as though they possessed not : 
it is lawful, and very lawful to buy and sell, and to possess. 

For else there would be no propriety, but there is a pro- 
priety in nature, the last commandment, " Thou shalt not 
covet thy neighbour's ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is 
his." The moral law, the law of nature tells us, that there 
is an his, that is, a propriety ; and the gospel tells us, and the 
law of the gospel tells us, that there must be liberality, 
surely then it is lawful to buy, and sell, and to possess : it is 
lawful. 

But though we may buy, and sell, and possess, yet we 
must possess as if we possessed not, buy as if we bought not, 
and possess as if we possessed not. For else, 

How can we be strangers here : it is said of Abraham, by 
faith, " he was a stranger in the land of promise." A 
stranger in the land of promise, certainly if a man would let 
out his heart upon any land, a good man would let out his 
heart to the utmost upon the land of promise. What, the 
land of promise, and yet a stranger to it. Yes, though it 
were the land of promise, yet a stranger to it. 

How can a man be patient in the loss of things, if he be 
not weaned from them while he hath them. Surely Job was 
weaned from what he had, by being so patient under his loss. 

And if that good men have other greater things and pos- 
sessions for to mind, and they cannot intensively mind both : 
why then a man must surely so possess, as if he possessed 
not. Why now a good man hath higher and greater posses- 
sions to mind, an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, that 
fadeth not away, reserved in the heavens. And both he can- 
not mind together, but he must love the one, and hate the 
other. The intenseness about the one, must be remissness 
about the other. Then surely it is our duty to use the world 



3/^4 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 5. 

as if we used it not, in reference unto this concernment ; 
namely, this concernment of our possessions. And so you 
see the thing now cleared by these four instances. We are 
to use the world as if we used it not ; in the matter of our 
relations ; in the matter of our griefs ; in the matter of our 
joys ; and in the matter of our possessions. 

Fourthly, Well, but then, what is there in these reasons 
of the apostle, The shortness of the time, And the fashion 
of the world passing away. What is there in these reasons 
that may enforce this exhortation, To use the world as if we 
used it not ? 

Much every way, still I must but touch at things. 

The time is short. Use the world as if we used it not ; 
for the time is short. 

The time of our life is short, it is but short. A great 
business we have to do in reference to our eternity, and our 
time to do it in is but short. Time rolled and trussed up as it 
were into a little bundle ; and therefore why should we not 
use the world as if we used it not ? If a country-man come 
to London upon some business that doth concern him nearly 
in his life, why, will he run up and down the city for to see 
things ; go and see the lions and the bears, and not mind and 
dispatch his business ? Or if a citizen go into the country 
about some business that concerns his life, will he run up 
and down the closes for to catch butterflies and to gather 
cowslips, when all his time is but little enough for to do his 
business in ? Surely no, we are upon our life, and we are 
upon our eternity, and upon this little spot and moment of 
time hangs our eternity. What shall we run up and down 
catching butterflies, gathering cowslips, running up and down 
to see the lions and the bears, and our business undone and 
our time but little ? All the time that we have is little 
enough to make our calling and election sure. 

All the time we have is little enough for the preparing for 
our great change. The devil doth improve his time upon 
this score. We read in the Revelations, that the devil is 
come down with great wrath, for his time is short. Shall 
the devil improve his time because it is but short, in a way 
of mischief; and shall not we improve our time seeing it is 
but short? Our time is short, therefore let us use the world 
as though we used it not. 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 375 

But then as for the second reason, use the world as if we 
used it not, we must, " For the fashion of this world passeth 
away/' The fashion of this world, it is but a scheme, it is 
but a piece of pageantry, it is but a stage, one goes off and 
another comes on. Take the world in the bravest dress, 
and it is but a fashion. And as that is a fashion to-day 
which was not yesterday, that is a fashion to-day which is 
none to-morrow ; fashions pass away ; so the fashion of the 
world passeth away. Joseph was in favour greatly with his 
father, and that favour passed away. His brethren sold 
him ; then he was in an afflicted condition, being sold down 
to Egypt; that fashion passed away, he came into Potiphar's 
house, and there he had favour. Well, there he had favour 
a little time, and that fashion passed away ; then thrown into 
the prison, and there he was in a sad condition again ; and 
that fashion passed away, he had favour with the jailor. And 
then he came to the throne, to be the great counsellor of the 
nation; and that lasted not long, but that passed away. 
What piece of the world is there, but the fashion thereof 
passeth away. 

Will you instance in the strongest natural piece in the 
world, or the civil moral piece of the world, or the sinful 
fashion of the world, or the religious fashion of the world, 
or the comfortable fashion of the world ? 

For the natural piece, the fashion of the world ; what 
stronger piece of the world than the heavens and earth. 
Now read what is said in Heb. i. 10, 11 : "Thou Lord in 
the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth, and the 
heavens are the works of thine hands. They shall perish, 
but thou remainest, and they all shall wax old as doth a 
garment, and as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they 
shall be changed, but thou art the same ;" as the Hebrew in 
the Psalms : " But thou art he/' But thou art the same, 
and thy years shall not fail; but as for them, though these 
things be brushed over a little, as a vesture shalt thou fold 
them up, and they shall be changed. The nap of all these 
things, the fashion of all these things, it will pass away. 

Or will you instance in the civil moral part of the world, 
that fashion thereof? What more desirable thing is there 
in all the world than friendship, a true friend to an ingenuous 
heart, there is nothing in this world more desirable than 



376 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SBR. 5. 

friendship ? Will you see how that passeth away ? In Ps. 
Ixxxviii. 8 : " Thou hast put mine acquaintance far from me, 
thou hast made me an abomination unto them." It passeth 
away indeed; an abomination to friends; thou hast put 
mine acquaintance far from me, thou hast made me an abom- 
ination to them. See how it sticks upon his heart; he 
comes over again in verse 18 : " Lover and friend hast thou 
put far from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness." 
See how the fashion of this piece of the world passeth 
away. 

Will you instance in the sinful fashions of the world ? 
Why, it may be, the poor people of God they are in a 
mourning habit, in a mournful fashion, and the enemies of 
the people of God, they are in a very brave and a gallant 
fashion. You shall see how this fashion passes away, in 
Isa. li. 7 : " Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, 
the people in whose heart is my law ; fear ye not the re- 
proach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings, for the 
moth shall eat them like a garment." They are brave 
fellows, and they are in a very brave and a gallant fashion, 
but " the moth shall eat them up like a garment, and the 
worm shall eat them like wool, but my righteousness shall be 
for ever, and my salvation from generation to generation." 
As for the redeemed of the Lord, at verse 11:" But the 
redeemed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing 
unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall be upon their head : 
They shall obtain gladness and joy, and sorrow and mourn- 
ing shall flee away." That fashion, that, their mourning 
habit shall off, and that fashion shall pass away. 

Or will you instance in the religion piece and part of the 
world, and the fashion thereof? You know what is said in 
Heb. xii. 26 : " Once more I shake not the earth only, but 
also heaven ;" speaking of the Jewish worship, the religious 
part, " and this word, yet once more, signifies the removing 
of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, 
that those things that cannot be shaken may remain." cr In- 
deed," saith he, " we have received a kingdom, wherefore 
we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved." Indeed 
the kingdom of the gospel it cannot be moved, and the gates 
of hell shall never prevail against the church of God in the 
general, but the fashion of particular churches may pass 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 377 

away, and be broken. What a famous church was Colosse 
in the days of the apostles ; but oh, thou Colosse, where art 
thou now ? What a famous church was the church of the 
Thessalonians; where is the church of the Thessalonians 
now ? This tabernacle is pulled down, particular churches, 
though the kingdom of Christ shall go on, and shall prevail, 
particular churches may be scattered, and the fashion thereof 
may pass away. 

Or will you instance in that which you call the comfort- 
able part of the world ? What is that of all things you take 
the most comfort in ? Your relations, the husband in the 
wife, and parent in the child ; the fashion of these passeth 
away, children pass away, husbands pass away, and wives 
pass away, friends pass away, relations pass away. Thus 
the fashion of the world passeth away ; and therefore 
why should we not use the world as if we used it not ? 
Pray now, when a traveller comes to his inn, why, doth he 
set his heart upon his bed, or his stools, or any thing that 
he hath in his chamber ? No, for, saith he, I pass away, 
and these things they pass from me. If you have a fine 
silver stream of water run by your door, you do not set your 
heart upon it ; for, say you, this fine silver stream that glides 
by my door, it passeth away, why should I set my heart 
upon it ? Thus it is with all things here below ; the things 
of this world they pass away, the strongest natural piece of 
the world, and the civil piece of the world, and the sinful 
piece of the world, and the religious piece of the world, and 
the comfortable piece of the world, all pass away ; why then 
should we not use the world as if we used it not ? And 
thus you may see what there is in these reasons of the apos- 
tle to enforce this same, and that is the fourth thing. 

Fifthly, But when may a man be said then, so to use the 
world as if he used it not ? 

Why look, when a man doth so use the world, and the 
things thereof, as he doth walk with God in the use thereof, 
then he uses the world as if he used it not : when one man 
walks with another he turns as he turns ; so when a man 
walks with God in the world, he turns as God turns. When 
God calls to joy, he joys ; when God calls to grief, he grieves ; 
he walks with God, for he turns as God turns. I say, look 
when a man doth so use the world, as he doth walk with 



378 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 5. 

God in the use of the world, turning as God turns, then he 
doth use the world as if he used it not. 

Look when a man doth use the world and the things 
thereof, in subordination to the things of God, then he doth 
use the world as if he used it not, in subordination to the 
things of God. 

And look when a man doth make it his business for to 
serve the Lord, and doth the things of the world by the by, 
then he doth use the world as if he used it not: as if a man 
doth make it his business to get the world, and prays by the 
by, and reads the scriptures by the by, and doth good by the 
by : now when a man doth make it his business to get the 
world, and uses the things of God by the by, then he doth 
use the things of God as if he used them not. So on the 
other side. 

Look when a man is dead, and estranged from all the world 
and the things thereof, through the communion and fellowship 
that he hath with Christ, then he doth use the world as if he 
used it not ; for we die to the world, by living in God ; I say, 
we die to the world, by living in God : why now consider it, it 
is one thing for a man to be dead unto the world, and another 
thing to abstain from this or that particular comfort of the 
world, this or that particular way of the world, possibly I may 
abstain from this or that particular way or course of the world, 
because my inclination doth not like it ; some men's inclina- 
tions do not like drunkenness, some men's inclinations do not 
like this way or that way ; possibly a man may abstain from this 
or that particular thing of the world, and yet not be dead to 
the whole world ; possibly a man may be very negligent of 
the world, and slubber over the things of the world, and yet not 
be dead to the world : a prodigal man is not dead to the 
world ; it is one thing for a man to be negligent of the world, 
and slubber over the things of the world, and another thing 
to be dead to the world, saith Calvin; this philosophy is in 
every man's mouth, he is dead to the world, but few there are 
that are dead to the world, and estranged from tl:e world, 
through their communion and fellowship with God : But I 
say, look when a man is dead and estranged from the world, 
through communion and fellowship with God, then he uses 
the world as if he used it not. 

Look when a man can leave and forsake his worldly inter- 



SEB. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 379 

est, his own interest in the world, that he may please others, 
and be at peace with others, truly it argues, that a man doth 
use the world as if he used it not : thus it was with Abraham, 
Abraham gave Lot the choice ; Abraham was the elder, and 
the choice did belong to Abraham, but he gave Lot the choice, 
and he parted with his own interest for peace and quietness. 
Why, Abraham lived by faith, and he used the \vorld as if he 
used it not : thus should we do, for saith the apostle in Rom. 
xv., " We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities 
of the weak, and not to please ourselves ; let every one of us 
please his neighbour for his good to edification, for even 
Christ pleased not himself." See how the apostle presses 
it ; what more ordinary than this ? every man seeks for to 
please himself, especially in the matters of the world ; every 
man seeks for to please himself, Christ pleased not himself; 
would you therefore know when a man doth so use the world 
as if he used it not, if that you do so use the world, as you do 
walk with God in the midst of it : the things of the world in 
subordination to the things of God ; make it your business to 
serve the Lord, and other things by the by; estranged from 
the world, through communion and fellowship with God : you 
can part with your own interest for to please others, that are 
weak ones ; this doth argue then, that you do use the world 
as if you used it not. 

Sixthly, Why, but suppose I do or do not, what is the 
consequence ? Suppose I do not use the world as if I used 
it not, what then ? 

I will tell you what then. 

Then you do want this character of a good man. 

Then you are not dead to the world, and if not dead to the 
world, then not dead with Christ ; and if not in communion 
with Christ in his death, not in communion with him in his 
resurrection. 

Then you are defiled by the world, and the things thereof; 
use the world as if you used it not, and you are not defiled 
thereby ; but if otherwise you are defiled, by all the things 
that you meddle with, you are but defiled. 

And then your hearts will reproach you when you come to 
die; oh, when you come to die, and you lie upon your death- 
bed : I had the world, and the things of the world, but I did 
not use the world as if I used it not : as the mother said. 



380 SRASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 5. 

Where is the child in the cradle, when the house was on fire, 
and they had been getting out the goods, and pulling things 
out of the fire : but at last, where is the child in the cradle ? 
So at last, when we come to die, oh, where is my soul all this 
while? Your heart will reproach you when you come to 
die ; and blessed is that man or woman whose heart shall not 
reproach him when he comes to die. 

Yea, let me say this farther, you cannot more prejudice the 
thing you love, nor wrong yourselves more, than by loving 
it too much, and not using of it as if you used it not : a man 
leans upon a stick, and if that be too weak it breaks, he 
breaks the stick, and it runs into his hand ; the stick suffers, 
and his hand suffers : so when we come to lean upon a thing, 
and do not use it as if we used it not, it breaks, and it runs 
into our hands : look into Exek. xxiii., and you shall see 
there how the Jews' lovers, and what they rested on, run into 
their hands, verse 5., " And Aholah played the harlot when 
she was mine, and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians 
her neighbours," verse 7v " Thus she committed her whore- 
doms with them, with all them that were chosen men of 
Assyria, and with all on whom she doted, with all their idols 
she defiled herself." What becomes of her ? Read verse 9., 
" Wherefore I have delivered her into the hand of her lovers, 
into the hand of the Assyrians upon whom she doted :" where- 
fore ? Why she doted upon the Assyrians her lovers, and I 
have given her into the hand of Assyrians her lovers, upon 
whom she doted ? why, when a people shall dote upon this 
and that, God will give them into the hand of their lovers, 
and make them to run into their hands : it is a most preju- 
dicial thing to dote upon any thing in this world. 

And indeed, to say no more in it but this, how will you be 
able to suffer ? Suffering times are come, Christians ; not 
coming but come. How will you be able to suffer in these 
suffering times, if you do not use the world as it you used it 
not ? What makes the difficulty in suffering, but because we 
cannot part with this or that relation, or this or that comfort? 
Oh, this makes the difficulty in our sufferings ; do but use 
the world now as if you used it not, you will be the more able 
to suffer; but if you do not use the world as if you used it 
not, how will you be able to suffer in this suffering day ? 
Wherefore as you do desire that you may be able to suffer 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 381 

in this suffering day : as you do desire that you may not be 
whipt by your own lovers : that you may not be given into 
the hand of your own lovers : that that which you rest upon 
should not run into your hand : as you do desire that your 
own hearts may not reproach you when you come to die : as 
you do desire that you may not be defiled by the things of 
the world : as you do desire that you may have communion 
with Christ in his death, and in his resurrection : and as 
you do desire that you may have this mark and character of 
a good man, labour so to use this world as if you used it not. 

Seventhly, But you will say, What shall we do that we 
may get our hearts into this gracious and holy frame which 
indeed will fit us for every condition under grace ? what shall 
we do that we may use the world as if we used it not. 

I shall a little farther speak to this, and shew you what 
that man doth that doth use the world as if he used it not. 
And then give you some means. 

First of all for that, what that man doth, that doth use the 
world, as if he used it not. 

He will be sure to use grace in the use of the world, and 
in all his dealings in the world, and the things thereof. He 
is never satisfied unless he doth see that he doth use grace in 
the use of the world, and the things thereof. 

He is always ready to give up that part of the world unto 
God wherein his affections are most engaged: his Isaac; 
for saith he, God doth use to try his people in the things 
wherein they do most delight : and therefore still he is upon 
that, ready to give up that unto God wherein his affections are 
the most engaged. 

He will be sure to stand at a distance from the world and 
the things thereof, in the getting, as well as in the keeping ; and 
in the keeping as well as in the getting. There are some 
that are very worldly in the getting part, and are very free 
and prodigal as to the keeping. Some are not so worldly in 
the getting, but they are worldly in the keeping. A man 
that doth use the world as if he used it not, he doth stand at 
a distance from the things of the world in the getting as well 
as in the keeping, and in the keeping as well as in the get- 
ting. 

He doth not place his religion in a morning and in an 
evening duty, but in his walking with God in his place. Every 



382 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 5. 

man hath so much grace as he uses in his place. Con- 
sider what I say, he doth not place his religion, he that uses 
the world as if he used it not, in a morning and in an even- 
ing prayer, but in his walking with God. Adam's trial did 
not lie in the morning and in the evening prayer; but 
Adam's trial lay among the trees. So the trial of a man 
doth not lie in the morning and in the evening duty, but in the 
trees, and in his calling, and in his place. And he doth not 
place his religion merely in a morning prayer, or in an evening 
prayer, and all the day after muddling up and down in the 
earth. No, he that uses the world as if he used it not, he 
doth not place his religion in an evening, or in a morning 
duty, but in walking with God in the use of the world. 

A man that uses the world as if he used it not, he is 
sometimes more afraid of prosperity than of adversity. All 
men are afraid of adversity, but a man that uses the world 
as if he used it not, he is sometimes more afraid of pros- 
perity : I am sure of this, he will fear God in prosperity, 
and love God in adversity. Now therefore, would you use 
the world as if you used it not, remember these five things. 

But by way of means. If you would use the world and 
the things thereof, as if you used it not ; then labour to pos- 
sess your hearts much with God's all-sufficiency. In Psalm 
Ixii. " If riches increase, set not your hearts upon them, once 
and twice have I heard it, that power belongs unto God." 
And mercy also unto the Lord : God is all-sufficient, there is 
enough in God alone, come, O my soul, possess your heart 
with this, ah, there is enough in God alone. Still be pres- 
sing this upon your own souls, there is enough in God alone, 
God is all-sufficient. 

Look upon the things of the world, with the prospective 
of the scripture ; not with one of the world's glasses : not 
with the world's multiplying glass. The world, and the glass 
of the world ; if you look upon the world with the glass of 
the world, there you shall find that the things of the world 
are called goods, and they are called substance, an estate and 
substance. But look upon the world with the prospective of 
the scriptures, then they are called shadows, there they are 
called vanities, there they are called things that are not. 
What is the reason that people are so much in love with the 
things of the world, but because they look upon them with 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 383 

the multiplying glass of the world, and not with the glass 
and prospective of the scripture ? 

Never fall in love with any condition for itself, but for the 
good of the condition. Love not your condition for the 
condition itself, but for the God of your condition. I do but 
name things. 

Take all God's alarums of death, and mingle those with 
the consideration of the death of Christ, Christ crucified. 
There is never a death that doth pass before us, but it is 
God's alarm, and it calls off from the world and the things 
thereof. Truly this I must say, it is not all the deaths in the 
world will make us die to the world, only the death of 
Christ : take Christ crucified, and then you will die to the 
world. And therefore I say, take God's alarums of death, 
but be sure that you mingle those alarums with the considera- 
tion of the death of Jesus Christ. 

And then afford the world and the things thereof, so much 
of your love, as better things do leave. For, Christians, that 
which is too cold for God, is hot enough for the world ; I 
say it again, That which is too cold for God, is hot enough 
for the world ; and therefore afford the things of the world 
so much of your love, as better things do leave; for that 
which is too cold for God, is hot enough for the world and 
the things thereof. 

Let the name of the Lord be very precious in your hearts 
and in your eyes ; and then you will use the things of the 
world as if you used them not. Abraham had a very great 
regard unto the name of God, and he would not have it said 
that the king of Sodom made him rich ; not a shoe-latchet 
will he take from him ; it shall never be said that the king 
of Sodom made Abraham rich. He had a very high esteem 
of the name of God ; Oh, God alone shall have the honour, 
saith Abraham, of making Abraham rich ; it shall never be 
said that the king of Sodom made Abraham rich. He had 
a great care of the name of God. So if men would carry 
the sense of God's name with them into the world and the 
things thereof, they would use the world as if they used it 
not. It shall never be said that a base, unworthy way made 
me rich ; no, God shall have the honor of it, and faith shall 
have the honour of it, and prayer shall have the honour 
of it. 



384 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 5. 

Go to the Lord and beg of the Lord to fulfil his promises. 
Now God's promises are very many this way; but I shall 
only turn you unto that in Zech. xiv. 20, a promise spoken 
concerning the latter times : " In that day shall there be 
upon the bells of the horses, holiness unto the Lord." The 
bells of the horses ; upon the bells of the temple ? no, upon 
the bells of the horses, your carriers' horses. In that day 
shall there be holiness " upon the bells of the horses, holi- 
ness unto the Lord : And the pots in the Lord's house shall 
be like the bowls before the altar ; yea, every pot in Jerusa- 
lem and in Judah, shall be holiness unto the Lord of Hosts." 
Every pot in Jerusalem, every pot in your house, shall be 
holiness unto the Lord ; go to God to fulfil this promise ; 
oh, there is such a promise lies for the latter times, let us go 
to God to fulfil this promise, that holiness may be written 
upon all our pots, and then shall we use this world as if we 
used it not. 

Consider what a good thing it is to use this world as if we 
used it not. 

Thereby you shall be able for to want and to part with the 
world with ease : " I know how to want," saith Paul, and 
tf I know how to abound." Truly give me but this grace, and I 
will speak with Paul ; give me but this grace, to use the world 
as if I used it not, and I will say with him, Now I know 
how to want, and how to abound. If you use your relation 
as if you used it not, you will part with your relation more 
easily ; if you use your land as if you used it not, you will 
part with it more easily. Christians, parting times are 
coming, the Lord kno\* s how soon we may be parted from 
the bosom of our dearest relations, and from all our enjoy- 
ments that we have here; would you part easily when the 
parting blow shall come ? Now use the world as if you 
used it not ; now use the world as if you used it not. 

Thereby also you shall have more of the world, have it in 
more abundance, by using the world as if you used it not, 
you shall be no loser. I have sometimes stood and wondered 
at Abraham ; for we say that the rolling stone gathers no 
moss. Abraham went out of his own country ; God com- 
mands him in Gen. xii. to forsake his kindred and his 
father's house : so Abraham departed, verse 4, and Abraham 
came, and they went out to go into the land of Canaan, and 



SER. 5.] IN EVIL TIMES. 335 

and into the land of Canaan they came," verse 5. And at 
verse 10, " There was a famine in the land, and Abraham 
went down into Egypt." A famine in the land ! why, but 
did not God call him thither ? Yes, " Go unto a land that I 
shall shew thee," verse 1. God shewed him thither, yet 
there he met with a famine. 

So one may have a clear call from God and yet meet with 
a great deal of afflictions in the way that God calls them to ; 
he goes down to Egypt to sojourn there ; when he came into 
Egypt, " the Lord plagued Pharoah and his house with great 
plagues, because of Sarah Abraham's wife," at verse 17- 
" And Pharoah called Abraham, and said, what is this ? now 
therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way : And 
they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had," verse 
19. Well, away they go; "And Abraham went out of 
Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with 
him, into the south," verse 2, " And Abraham was very rich 
in cattle, in silver, and in gold." A strange thing to grow 
rich in cattle ; how could he drive his cattle up and down 
from Egypt to Canaan, and up and down the country ? 
Yes, thus removing at the command of the Lord, living in 
tents, and using the world as if he used it not ; thereby, I 
say, you shall have the world, and have it in more abun- 
dance. 

Yea, thereby you shall have it in a better edition, in a 
better impression, the world and the things thereof sanctified 
unto you ; use the world as if you used it not, and the 
things thereof as if you used them not, you shall have them 
in a better edition sanctified to you. 

Yea, thereby you shall have that which is better than all, 
you shall have the mind of Christ ; " And we hope we have 
the mind of Christ," saith the apostle; we believe we have 
the mind of Christ: who have the mind of Christ? Saith 
David, in Ps. cxix., " Lord," saith he, " I am a stranger in 
this earth, hide not thy commandments from me :" here is 
h's argument, in Isa. xxviii., " Whom shall he teach know- 
ledge ? " verse 9, " And whom shall he make to understand 
doctrine ? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn 
from the breasts ;" them shall he teach knowledge, and them 
shall he make to understand doctrine. 

I will say no more but this, thereby you shall be happy 

VOL. in. c c 



386 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [E R. 5. 

indeed ; use the world as if you used it not, and thereby you 
shall be happy. Who is the happy man in the world ? 
He is an happy man that can contemn, and be contemned, 
saith the heathen Seneca. He is the happy man in the 
world that can use the world as if he used it not. 

And yet again I will repeat that thereby you shall be fit 
to suffer in suffering times. Suffering times are upon us, 
and by using the world as if we used it not, you shall be fit 
to suffer. And therefore again I say, As you do desire that 
you may be fit to suffer in suffering times ; that you may be 
happy ; that you may have the mind of Christ ; that you 
may have the things of the world in a better edition ; that 
you may have them in more abundance ; that you may know 
how to want and part with all things easily : now use the 
world as if you used it not. 

And if nothing else will do, I beseech you take these two 
arguments that the apostle here uses, and lay them with all 
their weight upon your souls, lay them with your experience. 
Beloved, this I must say to you, the Holy Ghost doth never 
spend reasons in vain, the Holy Ghost hath no waste of 
reasons in scripture. Here are two reasons, " The time is 
short ;" use the world as if you used it not, " For the time 
is short." Use the world, for the fashion of the world 
passeth away. It is scripture reason, and there is no waste 
in it, and therefore lay it unto your own experience. And 
if you desire now to get this holy frame of spirit, and to use 
the world as if you used it not, go and say unto your own 
souls, Come, oh, my soul, why should I not use the world 
as if I used it not ? indeed the time is short, ah, the time 
of our opportunity is short; the time of our spiritual en- 
joyment is short ; the time of this life is short. The time 
is short, oh, my soul, and therefore why should I not use 
the world as if I used it not. 

And come, oh, my soul, the fashion of this world passeth 
away. And this I have experience of, witness all the revo- 
lutions of these latter times, how the fashion of all things 
hath past away. We have seen in these late revolutions the 
fashion of this world passeth away, and therefore, come, oh, my 
soul, why should you not use the world as if you used it not. 
You have now riches, it passeth away : relations pass away ; 
and friends pass away; and creature- comforts, they pass 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 387 

away. The fashion of this world it passeth away, and there- 
fore, oh, my soul, now use the world as if you used it not. 
Thus the apostle speaks, this is his argument, and these are 
his arguments ; and so say I, brethren and beloved, " the time 
is short, it remaineth therefore, that both they that have 
wives, be as though they had none ; and they that weep, as 
though they wept not ; and they that rejoice, as though they 
rejoic2d not; and they that buy as though they possessed 
not; and they that use this world as not abusing it; for the 
fashion of this world passeth away." 



SERMON VI. 

MEN'S WRATH AGAINST GOD'S PEOPLE SMALL TURN TO 
GOD'S PRAISE. 

" Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee, the remainder of wrath 
shall thou restrain." PSA. Ixxvi. 10. 

IN this Psalm we have a declaration of the majesty and 
glorious appearance of God, in and for his church and peo- 
ple. " In Judah is God known, his name is great in Israel, 
in Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in 
Sion," verse 1, 2. Where God appears as a Captain and 
General unto his people, and as a Judge. 

As a Captain and General ; therefore in verse 3 : " There," 
in Sion, " brake he the arrows of the bow, the shield, and 
the sword, and the battle. Thou art more glorious and 
excellent than the mountains of prey. At thy rebuke, O 
God of Jacob, both the chariot and horse are cast into a 
dead sleep." 

As a Judge, at verse 8 : " Thou didst cause judgment to 
be heard from heaven, the earth feared and was still : When 
God arose to judgment, to save all the meek of the earth." 

But if God do thus appear, to, and for, and with his peo- 
ple, why doth he suffer the wrath and anger of men to be so 
much against his people ? 

Why he answers it in verse 10. " Surely the wrath of 
man shall praise thee, the remainder of wrath thou shalt re- 
strain." Though God do suffer the enemies of his people 
cc2 



388 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

to be very angry and wrathful with his people, yet that wrath 
of theirs shall turn unto the praise of God, and the remain- 
der of their wrath God will restrain. From whence then I 
take up this observation. 

Though there be a great deal of anger or wrath in the 
hearts of men against the people of God : yet God will 
either turn their wrath unto his own praise, or restrain their 
wrath. 

For the clearing and prosecuting whereof, two things will 
fall under our consideration. 

First, That there is a great deal of wrath and anger in the 
hearts of men against the people of God. 

Secondly, That this wrath, God will either turn to his praise, 
or restrain the same. 

First of all, There is a great deal of wrath and anger in 
the hearts of men against the people of God. A great deal 
of anger ; so much anger as doth amount to wrath, for wrath 
is the height of anger. Now the men of the world, they are 
wrath with the people of God, not only angry, but wrath- 
fully displeased, Psalm cxxiv. " Had not the Lord been 
on our side when men rose up against us, then they 
had swallowed us up quick, when their wrath was kindled 
against us." 

There is not only wrath in their hearts against the people 
of God, but such wrath as doth amount to rage. For as 
wrath is the height of anger, so rage is the height of wrath. 
Now there is rage also in the hearts of men against the peo- 
ple of God. " Why do the heathen rage ?" Psalm ii. 
They rage. 

And there is not only rage in the hearts of the wicked 
against the people of God ; but such rage as doth amount to 
fury. For as rage is the height of wrath, so fury is the 
height of rage. Now there is fury in the hearts of men 
against the people of God. In Daniel iii. 13. Then Nebu- 
chadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Sha- 
drach, Meshach and Abednego, and they brought these men 
before the king, verse 19. Then was " Nebuchadnezzar full 
of fury." 

Yea, there is not only a fury in the hearts of men against 
the people of God, but there is a hatred in their hearts 
against the saints and people of God. For as fury is the 



SER. 6."] FOR EVIL TIMES. 389 

height of rage, so rage settled, is hatred. Hatred is the 
worst of all, it is settled anger, wrath, and rage, and fury. 
Now wicked men they do hate the saints. In Psalm xxiv. 
21. "Evil shall slay the wicked, and they that hate the righte- 
ous shall be desolate/' Yea, saith David, Psalm xxv. " Con- 
sider mine enemies, for they are many, and they hate me 
with cruel hatred," verse 19. So that thus then we see in 
the general, that there is a great deal of anger and wrath in 
the hearts of men against the people of God. 

Well, but for the opening of this a little further. It will 
be said, what kind of anger and hatred is there in the hearts 
of men against the people of God ? 

And how comes it to pass that they should so hate and be 
so wrathfully displeased with the saints and people of God, 
that do them no hurt ? 

To give you some account of this. If you ask what kind 
of anger and hatred, or wrath there is in the hearts of men 
against the people of God. 

I answer, it is a violent wrath and anger: proud and violent 
men are risen up against me. 

As it is a proud and violent wrath or anger, so it is a 
fraudulent and deceitful wrath : bloody and deceitful men 
shall not live out half their days ; speaking of the enemies of 
the people of God. Their wrath is not only violent, but 
there is a fraudulency that is joined therewithal. 

As it is a deceitful and a fraudulent wrath and anger, so 
it is a mortal wrath and anger that is in their hearts towards 
the people of God. A devouring, consuming and destroying 
wrath. " They eat up my people as they eat bread," Psalm 
xiv. " If the Lord had not been with us, they had swallowed 
us up quick," Psalm cxxiv. And they shall kill you, saith 
our Saviour Christ. So that this wrath and anger that is in 
the hearts of wicked men, it is a mortal, deadly, destroying, 
consuming and devouring wrath. 

As it is a mortal, deadly, destroying and consuming wrath, 
so it is a blaspheming wrath. How long shall foolish men 
blaspheme thy name ? Rabshekah was angry, and he did 
not only blaspheme the people of God, but God himself. 
" Where is now your God ?" 

As their wrath is a blaspheming wrath, so it is an unrea- 
sonable wrath. Why do the heathen rage ? Why ? Why, 



390 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

they have no reason for it. " Why do the heathen rage, and 
the people imagine a vain thing ? " It is a vain thing, they 
have no reason for it. The wrath that wicked men have 
against the people of God, and their anger it is most unrea- 
sonable. 

As it is an unreasonable wrath and anger, so it is an insult- 
ing wrath and anger, whereby they do insult over the poor peo- 
of God, Psalm cxxxvii., " By the rivers of Babylon we sat 
down, yea, we wept when we remembered Sion. We hanged 
our harps upon the willows, for there they that carried us away 
captive required of us a song : and they that wasted us, re- 
quired of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Sion ;" 
insulting over them. And so in Rev. xi. They will make 
merry, and send gifts one to another, rejoicing over the dead 
witnesses. It is an insulting wrath and anger that they are 
filled withal. 

And then further, as it is an insulting wrath and anger, so 
the wrath and anger that is in the hearts of wicked men to- 
wards the saints, it is an universal wrath and anger. For 
though they be angry with one person, their anger doth not 
stay there, but it riseth unto all the party of the saints. Ha- 
man's wrath began with Mordecai, Esther iii. 5., " And 
when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him re- 
verence, then was Haman full of wrath." What then: " And 
he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone, for they 
had shewed him the people of Mordecai : wherefore Haman 
sought to destroy all the Jews." So wicked men, they begin, 
it may be, to be angry with one saint; but from that one 
their wrath and anger doth arise to them all. It is an univer- 
sal wrath against all the seed of the godly. They take occa- 
sion from one, and fall upon all. 

And then as is is a universal wrath and anger, so it is an 
implacable, an un-appeasable never-dying, and everlasting 
wrath, Amos i. 11., Thus saith the Lord, For three trans- 
gressions of Edom, and for four, I will not turn away the pun- 
ishment thereof ; because he did pursue his brother with the 
sword, and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear perpet- 
ually, and kept his wrath for ever." It is an everlasting 
wrath, wicked men will not be appeased. 

This is a certain rule, the more there is of religious end 
that any evil work hath, the more lasting, holding and con- 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 391 

tinuing is that evil work. Now in John xvi. 2., our Savi- 
our saith, " They shall put you out of the synagogue ; yea, 
the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that 
he doth God service." The Syriac reads it so : That whose- 
soever killeth you will think that he doth bring a sacrifice 
unto God. In Exod. viii. 20., saith the Lord by Moses, un- 
to Pharoah, " Let my people go that they may serve me." 
Now this is the errand that Moses hath : Pharaoh answers it 
thus, verse 25., " And Pharaoh called for Moses and for 
Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice to God in the land." Mo- 
ses saith in the name of the Lord, " Let my people go that 
they may serve me :" Pharaoh understands it concerning sa- 
crifice, and therefore saith he, Go and offer sacrifice unto your 
God. And indeed the thing sacrifice hath the same word. 
The word that is used here in this xvith of John, " Whosoever 
killeth you, will think that he doth ~^.-rpw TT^^^V Qew." 
Now in Ephes. v., the sacrifice that Christ offered, hath the 
same word, " Walk in love, as Christ hath also loved us, and 
hath given himself" irpootyopav. KM Bvfftav, an offering and a 
a sacrifice. So that as good authors do observe, what Christ 
saith here, They shall think that they do God good service : 
it is as much as if he should say, They shall think when they 
kill you, they shall offer a great sacrifice unto God. But 
this is the thing I bring it for, the more religious end that 
any evil action hath, the more holding and continuing is that 
evil action. Now wicked men for their malice, they shall 
have a religious end ; they shall think they do God good ser- 
vice : their malice therefore, and their wrath against the peo- 
ple of God, is never-dying, and an everlasting wrath. Thus 
you see what kind of wrath it is. 

It is a violent anger : it is a fraudulent anger : it is a mor- 
tal anger : it is a blasphemous anger : it is an unreasonable 
anger : it is an insulting anger : it is a universal anger against 
all the people of God, upon one man's occasion : and it is an 
everlasting and a never-dying anger. 

But then how comes it to pass that there should be such a 
deal of anger and wrath in the hearts of men against the peo- 
ple of God ; for the people of God are a quiet and a peace- 
able people ? 

It is true so they are : but who more quiet and peaceable, 
and meek, than our Loid and Saviour Christ; he lift not up 



392 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. Q. 

his voice in the streets, and yet who ever bare more anger 
and wrath from men than he ? 

Yea, the saints are not only quiet, meek, and peaceable, but 
beneficial to the men where they live. The innocent delivers 
the land : yet notwithstanding, saith Solomon, Eccles. ix., " I 
have seen a sore evil under the sun, there was a little city, 
and few men within it : and there came a great king against 
it, and besieged it and built great bulwarks against it : now 
there was found in it a poor wise man, and he by his wisdom 
delivered the city, yet no man remembered that same poor 
man. Then said I, Wisdom is better than strength, never- 
theless the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are 
not heard." So though the saints and people of God do de- 
liver a nation, and are exceeding beneficial to the people 
where they live, and where they are, yet they shall be despi- 
sed, yet there shall be wrath and malice in the hearts of men 
against the saints of God. 

But you will say, how doth this come to pass, that there 
should be such a deal of wrath and malice in the hearts of 
men against the people of God ? 

The saints and people of God, and the men of the world, 
they are directly contrary one unto another : they are con- 
trary in their birth, and in their original. For the men of the 
world, they are of their father the devil, who was a mur- 
derer : but the saints and people of God, God is their Fa- 
ther. 

They are not only contrary in their original, but they are 
contrary in their principles. For the one are the seed of the 
woman, and the other the seed of the serpent, whose princi- 
ples are contrary. The seed of the bond-women at the best, 
and the seed of the free-woman. 

Yea, they are not only contrary in their principles, but 
they are contrary in their worship : for the worship of the 
world is a pompous and a carnal worship, but the worship of 
the saints is spiritual, " Such worshippers doth the Father 
seek, that worship him in Spirit and truth." 

And as their worship is contrary one unto another, so their 
deeds and their practices are contrary. For why, saith the 
apostle, " did Cain kill his brother Abel, but because his deeds 
were evil, and his brother's good ?" Now one contrary seeks 
to destroy another. Why, these are contrary ; they are con 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL TIMES. 393 

trary one to another, contrary in their original ; contrary in 
their principles ; contrary in their worship ; contrary in their 
lives and practices : and therefore no wonder that there is 
such a deal of wrath and anger in the hearts of the men of 
the world against the saints and people of God. 

But the saints and people of God, they do not regard the 
men of the world, and the men of the world they think so. 
Now for high and lofty men to be slighted and not regarded, 
this makes them angry. In Dan. iii., when the three chil- 
dren would not bow down to the image, " There are certain 
Jews, (say they to the king) that thou hast set over the af- 
fairs of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abedriego ; these 
men O king have not regarded thee." Why, they think now, 
that if the people of God do not bow down to their com- 
mandments, and to their idols, that they do not regard the 
magistrate, " These men have not regarded thee :" and the 
truth is, godly men that are the saints and people of God, they 
cannot regard them, " For blessed is the man, (saith the 
Holy Ghost) that regardeth not the proud, nor such as turn 
aside to lies." God hath given a blessing to those that 
regard not the proud. Now wicked men cannot bear this, 
that they should not be regarded ; high and great men of 
the world, that they should not be regarded : and there- 
fore no wonder that there is such a deal of wrath and anger 
in their hearts against the people of God. 

The saints and people of God, they do withdraw from the 
men of the world, and do separate from them ; " Come out 
from among them, and be ye separate, touch no unclean 
thing." Now when we withdraw from men, and from their 
worship, we do condemn their worship, and the men of the 
world do not love to be condemned. Noah condemned the 
world ; and by the separation of the saints from them, they 
do condemn them, and they do not love, I say, to be con- 
demned. To separate from them, and from their worship, 
this they cannot bear. The saints do separate from them, 
and therefore there is such a deal of anger and wrath in 
their hearts against them. 

As the saints and people of God do separate and withdraw 
from them, upon which they are much provoked, so the 
saints and people of God do hinder them in their proceed- 
ings. A man doth not love to be hindered in his proceedings ; 



394 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiB. 6. 

the saints and people of God, they do hold wicked men's 
hands that they cannot proceed, hold their hands by their 
prayers. I remember a story of Mr. Tyndale, that blessed 
first translator of the Bible into English, that died a martyr 
in Flanders, being then at Antwerp, and much respected by 
the merchants there : there was a great report of a certain 
juggler that could bring a dish of meat from any prince's 
table, and so set the table that they were at with several 
dishes, from several princes' tables : Pray, saith Tyndale to 
the merchants, will you let me be at your supper ? Yes ; and 
so they carried him. And when he was there, the juggler 
tried his skill, and sweat, and took a great deal of pains ; 
But, saith he, I cannot do it, there is some man here that 
doth hold my hands. And Tyndale only set himself to this, 
to believe that he should not do it. I speak it only to this, 
that the people of God, they hold their hands. And in this 
Ixxvith Psalm, " The men of might, they find not their hands, 
There brake he the arrows of the bow, the shield, and the 
sword, and the battle : The stout hearted are spoiled, they 
have slept their sleep, and none of the men of might have 
found their hands." Why ? Why, there brake he the bow 
and the arrow. There ; where ? In Salem. In the as- 
sembly of the saints, by their prayers. Now men cannot 
endure to be hindered in their proceedings. The saints do 
it, and therefore there is such a great deal of anger and wrath 
in the hearts of them against the people of God. 

But then further, As the saints and people of God do 
hinder them in their proceedings, which doth anger them ; 
so they do destroy their gods, destroy their idols. Men of 
all things cannot endure to have their gods destroyed ; how 
angry were they when Paul came and preached down the 
gods of Diana ! then they were in a rage, Oh, great is Diana ; 
Paul preaches down our gods, and destroys our gods. The 
people of God do destroy the gods of the wicked, no wonder 
therefore that they are so provoked against the saints and 
people of God. 

As the people of God do destroy their gods arid their 
worship, so they do destroy their sins and lusts. The saints 
are enemies unto all their lusts. Wicked men cannot endure 
to be kept from their lusts ; but if they be hindered from 
their lusts, kept in and restrained from their lusts, what say 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL TIMES. 395 

they then ? In Ps. ii., " Let us break their bands asunder, 
and cast away their cords from us/' These Puritans, they 
will not let us play upon the sabbath day, they will not 
let us have leave to dance about a May-pole, they put 
cords upon us, and bring us into bonds, and take away our 
liberty. "Why do the heathen rage, &c. The kings of the 
earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together 
against the Lord, and against his anointed/' Why, wherein 
is it expressed ? Why, they say : " Let us break their bands 
asunder, and cast away their cords from us." The people 
of God are great enemies to their wickedness, and therefore 
they are so angry ; full and furious against the people of 
God. 

As the people of God are enemies unto all their lusts, so 
the men of the world they are enemies unto the saints, unto 
all their ways, and duties, and graces. The saints are a 
praying people; the men of the world are enemies to 
prayer ; forms of prayer they can endure, but the power of 
prayer they cannot bear. 

The saints and people of God are righteous in their gene- 
ration. The men of the world cannot endure the truth of 
the generation, the grace of the generation, the righteousness 
of the generation, they cannot endure it. 

The saints and people of God, they have, and they are 
stampt with the image of God ; the image of Christ is 
stampt upon them : and the more that any man is stampt 
with the image of God, the more the men of the world hate 
him. Why there are the footsteps of God in the creatures ; 
man at the creation was made after the image of God, now 
being raised again by Christ, the very image of God is 
stampt upon the saints, and wicked men cannot endure to 
see the image of God ; the more they see the image of God 
shining forth in any man, the more angry they are. But 
now the saints, they have the image of God stampt upon 
them, and therefore no wonder that they are thus angry. 
And thus you see what kind of wrath it is that is in the 
hearts of the men of the world against the people of God ; 
and how it comes to pass that there is such a deal of wrath 
in the hearts of wicked men against the people of God. 

Secondly, But then will God let men wicked alone in this 
their wrath and anger against the people of God ? 



396 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

No, but saith the second part of the doctrine, the Lord 
he will either turn their wrath and anger unto his own praise, 
or he will restrain it. You have both here in the text ; thou 
wilt turn thy anger unto thy praise, O Lord, and the rem- 
nant of their wrath thou wilt restrain. Either God will 
turn their wrath unto his own praise, or he will restrain it. 
I use to express it thus : by the miller that lets the water 
run ; so much water as will serve his turn to grind the corn, 
he lets it run, the rest he doth restrain, and does not let it 
run. So the Lord doth let the wrath of man run so much 
as may grind his corn, so much as may serve his turn, so 
much as may work to his praise. The remnant he doth 
restrain, either he will work the wra'th and anger of men to 
his own praise, or he will restrain the same. 

Sometimes he will restrain it : in Isa. xxvii. 8, speaking 
of the afflictions of the people of God : "In measure when 
it shooteth forth wilt thou debate with it ; he stayeth his 
rough wind, in the day of the east wind." Consider that 
expression, " He stayed his rough wine, in the day of the 
east wind." The east wind is an obnoxious wind, a hurtful 
wind, a piercing wind, and a wasting wind. Why, now this 
east wind may blow but mildly, and it may blow roughly. 
Why, saith the Lord, when wicked men that are rough, and 
when they are very rough, God will stay his rough wind in 
the day of his east wind ; though it be a day of God's east 
wind, and wicked men are very rough, God will stay his 
rough wind ; the wrath and anger of wicked men is his 
rough wind, but God will stay his rough wind in the day of 
his east wind ; sometimes he will restrain it. 

Sometimes again he will turn their wrath and anger unto 
his own praise; and for that I will only turn to Dan. iii., you 
see how angry the king was when the three children would 
not bow down unto his image, verse 13. Then Nebuchad- 
nezzar in his " rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach," 
&c., at the 19th verse. Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of 
fury, and the form of his visage was changed against Sha- 
drach, &c., and he commanded the most mighty men that 
were in his army to bind Shadrach, &c., and to cast them 
into the burning fiery furnace. What was the issue ? God 
let this wrath go on ; but in the end see how it turned to 
God's praise; when Nebuchadnezzar saw what he had done, 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL TIMES. 397 

" Therefore," saith he, " I make a decree, that every people, 
nation, and language, which speak anything amiss against the 
God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, shall be cut in 
pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill, but there 
is no other God that can deliver after this sort." Thus the 
rage and wrath of the king turned to the praise of God. 

But you will say then, how will the Lord turn the wrath 
of men unto his praise ? it is a day of much wrath, and of 
great anger in the hearts of men. Wicked men are full of 
wrath and anger at this day against the people of God ; it is 
good news, that God will either restrain it, or turn it to his 
praise. But how will God turn the rage and wrath of 
wicked men unto the praise of God ? and what assurance 
may we have of this ? and what is our duty that flows from 
hence? 

If you ask what way God will turn the wrath of men 
against his people to his own praise : I answer, many ways ; 
I shall but name them. 

Thereby the holiness of God shall be the more exalted by 
the wrath of men. God spake in his holiness : I will divide 
Shechem, and measure out the valley of Succoth. The holi- 
ness of God, wicked men they are but dishclouts for to 
make clean the vessels of the sanctuary ; by their wrath, 
and by their anger and rage, they shall make clean the saints. 
These dishclouts shall make clean the saints. Thus God's 
holiness shall be thereby exalted, so many enemies, so many 
schoolmasters. 

Thereby also the power of the Lord shall be declared and 
manifested, by the wrath and anger of wicked men against 
the people of God. Is it not a great deal of God's power 
to preserve the poor saints in the midst of all their rage ; 
when wicked men have power, yet that the poor saints 
should be preserved ? hereby the power of the Lord is the 
more declared. 

By the wrath and anger of wicked men, thereby the anger 
and justice of God is justified. Who will not justify the 
anger of God against wicked men ? when wicked men are so 
angry with his children ; oh this justifies the anger of God 
against them : why, you are angry with my children, and just 
therefore it is that I should be angry with you. 

Thereby the patience of the Lord is magnified. If one 



398 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 6. 

should stand by, and see a man smite his child, be very 
angry and wrathful, and smite his child, and not meddle, 
would not you say, This man was very patient ? So that 
God should see so much anger against his own children : oh 
the patience of God is magnified, that can bear with wicked 
men in this manner ! 

Hereby also the mercy, grace, and goodness of the Lord is 
exalted. The free grace and mercy of God doth discover it- 
self, and is exalted both towards wicked men, and towards the 
saints. 

The free grace of God towards wicked men. God doth 
sometimes convert wicked men in the midst of their rage 
wrath and malice against the saints, witness Paul. 

Sometimes men are convinced by their very injurious deal- 
ings with the people of God. I remember in the book of 
martyrs, there is a story of James Abbes, that was cruelly 
handled by his enemies : and when he was dead^ the enemy 
was troubled in conscience, and cryed out, I am damned, I 
am damned ; James Abbes is saved, and I am damned ; 
James Abbes is saved and I am damned. Men sometimes 
snore so loud in their sleep, that they wake themselves ; 
sometimes men are converted, jailors converted, and jailors' 
relations converted by their unreasonable dealings with the 
saints and people of God. 

And hereby the grace and mercy of God is magnified to- 
wards his children : oh that they should be preserved in the 
midst of all the rage and malice of wicked and unreasonable 
men; here is the grace and mercy of God towards them. 
Thus the goodness, mercy and grace of God is exalted, both 
towards wicked men, and towards good men. 

Again, from the wrath and anger of wicked men against 
the people of God, thereby the providence of God is very 
much magnified. Haman was very angry with Mordecai, 
and then Mordecai should have been cut off; and that night 
the king could not sleep. Here is one providence. 

Well then, when he could not sleep, he calls for the re- 
cords, here is another providence, and there he hits upon the 
place were there was mention made of the good deeds of 
Mordecai ; and so Mordecai was spared. But thus the wrath 
and anger of men doth draw out the providence of God, and 
it is magnified thereby. 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL TIMES. 399 

Thereby also the faithfulness of God is declared, and mag- 
nified and manifested. The faithfulness of God : for God 
hath threatened to destroy the enemies of his people, and 
hath promised to preserve his people. When the enemies 
rage and are destroyed, God is faithful in fulfilling his threat- 
nings. When the people of God are preserved, God is faith- 
ful in his promise. Thus by letting out the rage and anger 
of wicked men against the people of God, the faithfulness of 
God is magnified. And now is the threatening fulfilled, God 
is faithful. Now is the promise fulfilled, God is faithful. 
And thus you see how the Lord doth turn the rage and an- 
ger and wrath of wicked men, and the men of the world unto 
his own praise. 

But then, what assurance have we of this ? It is a very 
comfortable thing, in the day of men's wrath and anger, 
that all this anger and wrath should turn to God's praise, or 
be restrained. But what assurance have we of this, that it 
shall be so? 

Assurance you have in the text. Surely the wrath of man 
shall turn to his praise. That same word, surely. Aye, but 
what assurance have we of it? 

It is very certain that God will be fearful in praises. It is 
certain, and very certain, that God will be above wicked men 
in the thing wherein they behave themselves proudly. But 
besides this, 

You have the assurance of Christ's death and merit. If 
you look upon the death of Christ, and the issues thereof, 
you may see it, and be assured of it. Was there ever more 
anger and malice let out upon any man, that upon Christ in 
his death ? They were angry to the utmost. And did ever 
anger or malice turn more to the praise of God ? What one 
thing was there that ever turned more to the praise of God 
than the death of Christ, and the anger and malice of those 
that brought him to death ? Why now Christ by his suffer- 
ings hath merited this, that if we be conformable unto him 
in sufferings ; as his sufferings, and as the wrath that brought 
him to suffer did turn to the praise of God ; so that wrath 
that brings us to sufferings, shall turn to the praise of God. 
This is a great matter, and here is much in it, and we may 
be assured of it, when we see and feel the wrath and anger 
of men, if we be conformable in our sufferings unto Christ's 



400 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. fi. 

sufferings ; then as the wrath of men in bringing Christ to 
suffer, did turn to the praise of God; so the wrath of men, 
in bringing the saints now to suffering, shall turn to the 
praise of God, you have the assurance of the death of Christ 
for it. 

As you have the assurance of Christ's death and merit for 
it, so you have the assurance of the Father's design. God 
would not suffer men to be so wrathful and malicious against 
his people, if he did not intend to turn it unto his praise ; 
God hath a design upon all their anger : God hath bid them 
to be angry, if I may so speak, and why, if he had not a 
design to turn it to his praise ? The Lord bid Shimei curse 
David : who was it that bid Shimei curse David ? God. 
And who was it that sent Joseph into Egypt ? God sent 
him. The wrath and anger and envy of his brethren indeed 
were instruments, but God sent him. God had a design 
upon their anger, and upon their envy and wrath. In Rev. 
xvi., you find that three unclean spirits that came out of the 
mouth of the false prophet, and dragon, and the beast, they 
stir up the kings of the earth to battle ; and they are the spi- 
rits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the 
kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to 
the battle of that great day of God Almighty. They go forth 
to stir up men to battle, but in verse 16., it is God that gath- 
ers them : " Behold I come as a thief, blessed is he that watch- 
eth and keepeth his garments," &c., " And he gathered them 
together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armaged- 
don :" God had a hand upon their hand; God gathered them. 
In Micah iv. 11., " Now also many nations are gathered 
against thee, that say : Let her be defiled, and let our eye 
look upon Zion." Let her be defiled, here is anger enough, 
but saith he, verse 12., " They know not the thoughts of the 
Lord, neither understand they his counsel ; for he shall ga- 
ther them as the sheaves into the floor." He shall gather 
them, inverse 11., it is said: "Now also many nations are ga- 
thered against thee, that say, Let her be defiled, and let our 
eye look upon Zion ;" but they know not the thoughts of the 
Lord : are gathering together against the people of God ; and 
God is gathering to thresh them : they gather together, God 
hath a design upon their gathering : God gathers them : so 
in Exek. xxxviii., you have there the story of Gog and Ma- 



SER. 6.] ix EVIL TIMES 401 

gog, that came up against the people of the Lord in a great 
multitude; and they came up to spoil:" therefore verse 14., 
" Son of man, prophesy, and say unto Gog, Thus saith the 
Lord God, In that day, when my people Israel dwelleth safely 
shalt thou not know it ? and thou shalt come from thy place, 
out of the north parts, thou and many people with thee, all of 
them riding upon horses, a great company, and a mighty 
army, and thou shalt come against my people Israel as a 
cloud, to cover the land, it shall be in the latter days : and I 
will bring thee against my land." Why ? " That the heathen 
may know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog, be- 
fore their eyes," verse 11. Thou shalt say, I will go up to the 
land of unwalled villages, I will go to them that are at rest, that 
dwell safely, &c., to take a spoil, and to take a prey ; but see, 
the Lord had another design, " Thou shalt come up against 
my people Israel, as a cloud to cover the land, it shall be in 
the latter days, and I will bring thee against my land :" Why? 
" That the heathen may know me, when I shall be sanctified 
in thee, O Gog, before their eyes :" and in verse 23., " Thus 
will I magnify myself and sanctify myself, and I will be 
known in the eyes of many nations, and they shall 
know that I am the Lord." Here is God's design, God 
doth let out the wrath and anger of wicked men against 
his people, and he hath this design that his name may 
be sanctified : so that you have this assurance also, the great 
design of God. 

You have the assurance of God's zeal ; the zeal of the Lord 
of Hosts shall do this : the God whom we serve is a zea- 
lous God. Zeal is angered love. Now there are three 
things that God doth love especially. He loves his truth ; 
he loves his worship ; and he loves his people. When wick- 
ed men do prevail against the people of God, they scorn the 
truth, they defile his worship, they persecute his people. I 
say, these three things God loves in the world. But now 
God will not suifer these things that he loves thus, to be al- 
ways trampled on : for he is a zealous God, and therefore 
you may build upon it, you may be assured of it, that either 
he will restrain the rage of men, or he will turn their wrath 
and anger unto his own praise. 

But then, suppose all this : what is our duty that doth 
flow from hence? 

VOL. III. D D 



402 SSEAONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

If that there be such a deal of anger and wrath in the 
hearts of men against the saints and people of God; wonder 
not at it, be not offended when you see it : it was always so 
from the beginning : God hath put enmity, and the enmity 
that God hath put between the seeds, shall stand ; Cain be- 
gan betime, and as Luther saith, Cain will be killing his bro- 
ther Abel to the. world's end : it hath always been so, and do 
you think there shall be less anger in the hearts of the men 
of the world against the people of God now in the latter 
days : no, rather, more ; in Rev. xii., it is said, " The devil 
is come down, having great wrath, because he knoweth that 
he hath but a short time." The shorter the devil's time is, 
the more his wrath will be in his instruments : why now we 
are fallen in the latter times and therefore his anger must be 
greater now. Austin thinks that the anger and wrath and 
persecution of the wicked, will be the greatest at the last : 
saith he, The persecution of the primitive times was very 
sharp, but afterwards there followed the persecution of the 
Arians, and that was sharp, but the last persecution, is the 
persecution of antichrist, and that shall be the sharpest : and 
we find in Rev. xi., speaking of the latter days, " That the 
nations were angry," verse 18., " And the nations were angry 
and thy wrath is come." That is well, God's wrath goes 
with their anger : but the nations were angry, speaking of the 
latter days. There are three or four things that will raise the 
anger and wrath of antichrist in the latter days. 

There is the prophesying of the witnesses : the witnesses 
prophesy, and when they have finished their prophecy, the 
beast shall kill them ; and being slain, they shall make 
merry over the witnesses that prophesied, verse 10., and re- 
joice over them, and shall send gifts one to another : why ? 
because these two prophets tormented them that dwell on the 
earth ; the protestants and reformed churches do torment by 
their prophecy. So that there is one thing that doth enrage 
them. 

Another thing that doth raise the anger of the anti-christian 
party in the world in the latter days, is the separation : for 
there shall be the greatest separation that ever was, " Come out 
of her my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and 
that ye receive not of her plagues." There shall be the great- 
est separation, and that provokes them. 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL TIMES. 403 

Another thing that shall provoke the anti-christian party in 
the latter days is this, that they shall pour forth the vials: 
the angels that come out of the temple, they shall have an 
hand in pouring out the vials : and what then ? Why then, 
the men of the world, they shall be tormented, and gnash 
their teeth, and bite their tongues for pain. The pouring 
out of the vials is another thing wherein they shall be 
instrumental for the angering of the bestial party. But then 
another thing shall be 

The setting up the kingdom of Christ. So you have it in 
Revelations xi. The seventh angel founded, and there were 
great voices in heaven, saying : The kingdoms of this world 
are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ, and 
he shall reign for ever and ever, &c. What then ? " And 
the nations were angry 7 /' When Christ's kingdom comes to 
be set up, then the nations are angry. It is the setting up of 
the kingdom of Christ that angers the nations : and therefore 
in the second Psalm, Why do the heathen rage, and the kings 
and princes take counsel together ? It follows, I will set my 
King upon his holy hill, I will set up my kingdom, and the 
kingdom of Christ shall be set up ; for all they are so angry 
at it, I will do it. But this is another thing that shall raise 
the anger of the men of the world in the latter days. Aye, but 
is this so, that there is such a deal of anger and wrath in the 
hearts of the wicked against the people of God ? Be not of- 
fended at it, it always was so, and it must be so in the latter 
days. 

If there be so much wrath and anger in tie hearts of 
wicked men against the saints, why should we not all make 
sure of the love of Christ ? oh, the love of God in Christ 
will weigh down men's anger, what need I care though men 
be angry, if God love me ; though men frown, so God smile : 
if God be angry, and wicked men angry too, how shall we 
bear that ? how shall we stand under that ? Wicked men 
are angry, and full of anger, and it is a persecuting time, and 
wicked men are very angry against the saints, if \ God be an- 
gry too, how shall we bear it ? Therefore labour to make 
sure of the love of God in Jesus Christ. 

If that the wrath and anger of wicked men shall turn to 
the praise of God, why should we fear when wicked men are 
angry ? why should we be afraid ? when men are angry, we 

D D2 



404 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

are apt to fear, but in Isaiah li., " Who art thou that art 
afraid of a man that shall die, and of the son of man that 
shall be made as grass : and forgettest the Lord thy Maker, 
that hast stretched forth the heavens, and laid the founda- 
tions of the earth ?" &c. Who art thou that art afraid of a 
man that shall die ? Is that all the argument ? There is 
another argument before, verse 7j " Hearken unto me ye 
that know righteousness, the people in whose heart is my 
law, fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of 
their revilings." Why ? " For the moth shall eat them |up 
like a garment." They shall eat out themselves, as the moth 
eats out herself. " For the moth shall eat them up like a 
garment, and the worm shall eat them like wool ; But my 
righteousness," the gospel of my righteousness, and the 
righteousness of Christ, that is my righteousness, shall be for 
ever, and my salvation, from generation to generation. Fear 
not, why, God will turn all their wrath and anger unto his 
praise. And therefore why should we fear ? 

If God will turn the wrath and anger of wicked men unto 
his own praise, why should we not be contented, satisfied 
and comforted under all the rage and malice of unreasonable 
men in such a day as this ? 

Will you say, oh but they are not only angry, but they are 
furious. Why, their fury shall turn to the Lord's praise. 

You will say, oh but they are not only furious, but they 
hate, and they are enraged and their rage ascends up to hea- 
ven. All this shall turn to God's praise. 

Their great design is to damp the spirits of the people of 
God. But they waxed bold by my bonds, saith Paul, speak- 
ing of the saints. 

Their great design is to scatter the people of God. But 
by the scattering of God's people shall his truth be scattered. 
They scatter God's people, and God's people scatter God's 
truth : it shall turn to his praise. 

Their great design is to destroy the gospel, to suppress the 
gospel. But, saith Paul, my bonds turned to the furtherance 
of the gospel. Thus God will work it to his praise. And 
therefore when you see the wrath, anger, and malice of wick- 
ed men, breaking out to such persecution ; be quiet, be con- 
tented, be satisfied, be comforted; all this shall God turn to 
his praise, or he will restrain it. 



SER. 6.] IN EVIL, TIMES. 405 

But then, if these things be so, why should we not now 
stand still and behold the salvation of God ? See what God 
will do, expect the fulfilling of all this, it is a day of anger, it 
is a day of great wrath, there is abundance of anger and 
wrath, and hatred and malice in the hearts of men against 
the people of God at this day, who doth not see it ? Well 
then, friends, stand still ; you know how angry Pharaoh was 
when he followed after the Israelites ; and saith Moses, Stand 
still and see the salvation of God. So say I, you shall see 
all this turn to God's praise. You shall see the restraining 
of prayer, turn to the enlarging of prayer. You shall see the 
seeking to suppress the gospel, turn to the furtherance of the 
gospel. 

Now in such a day as this, be righteous in your places, for 
saith the Lord : Say to the righteous, It shall go well with 
him. Say ! who should say it ? Why, ministers say it, 
christians say it one to another. Let every man say it to 
himself. Say to the righteous, " It shall go well with him ," 
therefore be righteous in such a day as this. 

And then, Fear before the Lord ; in such a day of anger 
be sure that you fear, and fear before the Lord. Look what 
is said in Eccles. viii., " Though a sinner do evil an hun- 
dred times, and his days be prolonged, yet surely I know 
that it shall be well with them that fear God, which fear 
before him." That fear before him ; what is that ? That is, 
a man that fears the Lord, walking up and down in the pre- 
sence of God. 

But what case doth he speak to ? 

Look into the 9th verse, "There is a time/' saith he, 
"wherein one man ruleth over another to his own hurt; 
and, saith he, because they rule thus, and sentence against 
wicked men is not executed speedily, but they go on and 
prosper in their rule and government; therefore the heart 
of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil." But saith 
he, " Though a sinner co evil an hundred times, and his days 
be prolonged, yet surely I know that it shall be well with 
them that fear God, which fear before him." Be sure there- 
fore that you fear the Lord, and that you fear before him ; 
and the more you fear God, and fear before him, the less will 
you fear men. 

But then again, and so I end. Now in such a time, give 



406 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 6. 

yourself much to prayer. In Ps. cix. 4 : " For my love they 
are my adversaries, but I give myself unto prayer." So you 
read it, but " I prayer." I give myself unto, is not in the 
Hebrew, but, " I prayer ;" the sense is good enough. For 
my love they are my adversaries, but I give myself unto 
prayer. Now in such a time as this, when they are angry, 
and their rage ascends up to heaven ; now do I go to prayer, 
now do I give myself to prayer. Now then, if it be an angry 
day with the enemies, now go to prayer. And in all your 
prayers in reference to men's anger and malice, when you go 
and spread their anger and malice before the great God, aim 
more at your duty, than at your safety. Look into Acts iv., 
there you find that they were angry : " Why do the heathen 
rage," verse 25. They bring Ps. ii. to their purpose, " and the 
people imagine a vain thing, The kings of the earth stood 
up;" being at prayer, at verse 29, "And now Lord behold 
their threatenings." They spread their threatenings before 
the Lord : ' f And now Lord behold their threatenings, and 
grant unto thy servants," What, grant safety ? No, " Grant 
unto thy servants, that with all boldness they may speak thy 
word :" it is matter of duty that they pray for. What then ? 
" And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where 
they were assembled together; and they were all filled with 
the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with bold- 
ness." Here was prayer answered presently ; they prayed, 
and in their prayer, their mind was more upon their duty 
than upon their safety. They go to God, and spread the 
threatenings of the enemies before the Lord. And now 
Lord, behold their threatenings. And what then ? Now 
grant that with all boldness ; let us beg grace to do our duty. 
They begged not for safety, but their great request was : 
that they might have grace to do their duty. So, I say, 
when men are angry : now let us go to God in prayer, and 
in all our prayers, spreading their anger and threatenings 
before the Lord. Yet let our mind be more upon our duty, 
than upon our safety. 



SER. 7-] IN EVIL TIMES. 407 



SERMON VII. 

COMFORT TO MOURNERS FOR THE LOSS OF SOLEMN 
ASSEMBLIES. 

" / will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn assembly, 
who are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was a burthen," ZKPH. 
Hi. 18. 

THIS prophet Zephaniah who lived not long before the 
captivity of Babylon, having threatened the people of God, 
the Jews, with that calamity, and exhorted them to repent, 
to return unto God, that they might prevent that imminent 
evil, doth at last conclude all, with a comfortable and gra- 
cious promise unto the people of God. 

First, he threatens, and then promiseth. God's threatenings 
usually do end in promises; sharpest threatenings in the 
sweetest promises. 

This promise here is sweet, and full, and large ; wherein 
you have the mercies promised, and the several branches 
thereof. 

The cause, fountain, and original of these mercies pro- 
mised. 

The persons upon whom these promised mercies are en- 
tailed. 

The mercies promised are very many : 

The Lord promiseth to return unto his people, verse 9. 
" For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that 
they may call upon the name of the Lord, to serve him 
with one consent." 

Then he promiseth to free them from their judgments, 
to bring them out of their captivity, verse 10: lf From be- 
yond the rivers of Jordan, my suppliants, even the daughter 
of my dispersed shall bring mine offering." And at the 
15th verse : "The Lord hath taken away thy judgments, he 
hath cast out thine enemy." 

He promises pardon, sanctification, verse 11, 12, 13. 

He promiseth to gather the poor exiles ; " I will gather 
them that are sorrowful." 

He promiseth to destroy all their enemies, verse 19: " Be- 



408 SEASONABLE TROTHS [SfiR. 7- 

hold ! at that time I will undo all that afflict thee." Thus 
you have the mercies promised. 

The cause and fountain and original of all these mercies : 
the mighty presence of the Lord and his love unto his 
people, verse 17: "The king of Israel, even the Lord, is in 
the midst of thee, thou shalt not see evil any more." Verse 
17 ' " The Lord thy God in the midst of thee is mighty, he 
will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy, he will rest in 
his love, he will joy over thee with singing. " 

As for the person that these promised mercies are entailed 
upon, they are poor afflicted people that trust in the name of the 
Lord : "The people of a pure language," verses 9 and 12; 
and here in this verse such as are sorrowful for the solemn 
assembly, unto whom the reproach of it was a burthen. " I 
will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn as- 
sembly, who are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was a 
burthen." 

From whence then I take up this observation. 

Though God doth sometimes suffer the solemn assembly 
to lie under reproach, yet if his people are fully sensible of 
that reproach, God will turn their former miseries into after 
mercies ; and he will cause their future comforts to run 
parallel unto their former troubles. For the clearing whereof 
three things fall under consideration. 

First, That God doth sometimes suffer the solemn assembly 
to lie under reproach. 

Secondly, That then those that are true members of the 
solemn assembly, those be very sensible of it, carry it as 
their burthen. 

Thirdly, That being so, God will turn their former miseries 
into after mercies, &c. 

First, God doth sometimes suffer the solemn assembly 
to lie under reproach. For the clearing whereof, 

We must inquire when the solemn assembly may be said 
to lie under reproach ? And 

Why God doth suffer the solemn assembly to lie under 
reproach at any time ? 

If you ask, when the solemn assembly may be said to lie 
under reproach ? 

I answer: Look when the presence of God is departed 
from the public ordinances, or solemn assembly, then the 



SER. 7] IN EVIL TIMES. 409 

solemn assembly doth lie under reproach. The presence of 
God in the public ordinances or solemn assembly, is the 
glory of the assembly, and when that glory is departed, the 
solemn assembly lies under reproach ; though the word of 
God be preached in an assembly, if the converting, sancti- 
fying, comforting presence of God be gone out of the 
ordinance, and be not there, it lies under reproach. And 
though there be government in a church, yet if God's pre- 
sence be not in that government, it lies under reproach, 
and the church lies under reproach. Look when the presence 
of God is departed from the solemn assembly, then it lies 
under reproach. 

Look when a reformation hath been intended, and cannot 
be accomplished, but is stayed and hindered, then the solemn 
assembly lies under reproach. Disappointment is reproach. 
" The children are come to the birth, and there is no strength 
to bring forth." What then? It is a day of rebuke, and 
blasphemy, and reproach. Look therefore, when a church 
or people have been travailing with a reformation, and that 
reformation proves abortive, stopped and hindered, then that 
church and people, or solemn assembly doth lie under 
reproach. 

And especially : Look when the ways of Zion mourn, and 
are unfrequented, then doth the solemn assembly lie under 
reproach, when the ways of Zion mourn and are not fre- 
quented. It was the case that this prophet speaks of; he 
speaks of the captivity of Babylon, the time of the captivity ; 
what then ? Why, saith the church in the Lamentations, 
the ways of Zion mourn, and are not frequented. When the 
ways of Zion mourn and are not frequented, the people of 
God are kept from coming together according unto God's 
appointment ; then the solemn assembly lies under reproach. 
You read in Josh, v., that when they were come unto Canaan, 
the first step Joshua circumcised the people, verse 9, " The 
Lord said unto Joshua, this day have I rolled away the reproach 
of Egypt from off you ; wherefore the name of the place is 
called Gilgal unto this day." "The reproach of Egypt;" 
What, were they not circumcised in Egypt ? Yes, the chil- 
dren of Israel were circumcised in Egypt, verse 5, " Now all 
the people that came out were circumcised, but all the people 
that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came 



410 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 7- 

forth out of Egypt, them they had not circumcised." They 
were circumcised in Egypt ; why then is this circumcision 
called the reproach of Egypt ? Though they were circum- 
cised in Egypt, it was at the pleasure of the enemy, they 
were under bondage, they were not free to the worship of God. 
But now when they came here into Canaan, the first step into 
Canaan and they were circumcised ; now they were a free peo- 
ple and had liberty not only for circumcision but for all the or- 
dinances, as they had not in the land of Egypt : they could not 
sacrifice there, but now they had liberty for all ; and now the 
reproach of Egypt was rolled away. So that look when the 
ways of Zion mourn, and are not frequented, and the people 
of God are kept from the public ordinances according to 
God's appointment, then the solemn assembly lies under re- 
proach. 

Again, Look when the saints and people of God, the mem- 
bers of the solemn assembly ; look when they are scattered 
and driven one from another that they cannot meet together, 
then the solemn assembly lies under reproach. Therefore, 
saith the prophet here, " I will gather them that are sorrowful 
for the solemn assembly : I will gather them to whom the 
reproach of it was a burden," as if the reproach lay in the 
scattering ; and at verse 20, " I will bring you again, even in 
the time that I gather you, and will make you a name and a 
praise in all the places where ye have been put to shame." 
So that the scattering of the members of the solemn assembly 
is a reproach, and then the solemn assembly lies under re- 
proach. 

And, again, look when the state and condition of the so- 
lemn assembly is such as that no man cares for it nor seeks 
for it, then it lies under reproach. Such a state sometimes 
the solemn assembly falls into. This is Zion whom no man 
seeketh after. This is Zion whom no man careth for. The 
magistrate doth not care for it to countenance it. It hath no 
friends for to help it. If you see a poor man in the streets, 
neglected, none cares for him, none countenances him, none 
looks after him to care for him and to help him ; you say, he 
lies under reproach : so when the solemn assembly is in such 
a case and condition that none cares for it, nor seeks for the 
welfare of it, those that are in place especially, then the so- 
lemn assembly lies under reproach. 



SKK. 7-] IN EVIL TIMES. 411 

But, then, why doth God suffer the solemn assembly to lie 
under reproach at any time ? 

He will sometimes suffer the solemn assembly to lie under 
reproach that he may roll away the reproach from off the 
assembly. There is a twofold reproach of the solemn assem- 
bly : there is a sinful reproach and there is a penal reproach 
of the solemn assembly. 

Sometimes the members of the solemn assembly are acces- 
sary to the reproach of the solemn assembly; as sometimes 
they walk and live so as that they are a scandal to the very 
ordinances. So it is said of the sons of Eli ; sinning at the 
door of the tabernacle they made the sacrifice of God to 
stink. Possibly professors may so walk as to make the sacri- 
fice of God to stink, and are so accessary unto the reproach 
of the solemn assembly. 

Sometimes, again, they are exceeding barren and unfruitful 
under the enjoyment of the solemn assembly. The Hebrews 
call the winter, sin } which signifies reproach, for, say they, 
the winter is the reproach of the earth, because there is no 
fruit, nothing but barrenness and unfruitfulness ; and there- 
fore they call the winter by such a name as signifies reproach. 
What a reproach was it to Hannah to be barren ; barren wo- 
men accounted it a reproach : so reproachful is a barren life 
among professors. 

Sometimes, again, the members of the solemn assembly, 
they do bear themselves out in their sins upon their enjoy- 
ment of the solemn assembly; crying out, The temple of the 
Lord, the temple of the Lord ; and are we not delivered to 
do all these abominations. There is a twofold bearing of 
ourselves upon the solemn assembly. There is a bearing of 
ourselves upon the solemn assembly and upon the public or- 
dinances in opposition unto false worshippers. So in 2 
Chron. xiii., Abijah bears himself upon the solemn assembly 
in opposition unto Jeroboam's false worship ; " But as for us, 
the Lord is our God, and we have not forsaken him ; and the 
priests which minister unto the Lord are the sons of Aaron, 
and the Levites wait upon their business : and they burn 
unto the Lord every morning and every evening burnt sacri- 
fices and sweet incense : the shewbread, also, set they in order 
upon the pure table, and the candlestick of gold with the 
lamps thereof to burn every evening; for we kept the charge 



412 SRASONABLE TRUTHS [8KB. 7 

of the Lord our God, but ye have forsaken him." Thus they 
did bear themselves, and this was not their reproach but their 
faith. In verse 18, "Thus the children of Israel were brought 
under at that time, and the children of Judah prevailed, be- 
cause they relied upon the Lord God of their fathers," They 
did bear themselves upon the solemn assembly, and their 
pure enjoyments therein, in opposition to false worship ; this 
was no reproach. But then there is a bearing of ourselves 
upon the solemn assembly, so as to bear us out in our sin, 
to cry, The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord ; 
sin and live wickedly, and bear ourselves out upon a solemn 
assembly, that we are members of a church, &c. This is a 
reproach ; this bearing one's self upon the solemn assembly 
is a reproach : and, saith Chrysostom, Who would not be 
moved to hear the blasphemings and revilings of the Jews 
against Christ ? But, oh, Christian, saith he, take heed thou 
beest not guilty of the same fault; for he that defiles the 
king's garment, and he that tears the king's garment offends 
alike. The Jews tear it, scandalous Christians they defile 
the garment of Christ, the sins are divers, but the reproach 
the same, saith he. Now then, you see that sometimes the 
members of the solemn assembly do bring a reproach ; they 
are accessary. God knows how to roll away a reproach by 
a reproach ; and God \\ill sometimes roll away sinful re- 
proach by a penal reproach ; and therefore he doth suffer the 
solemn assembly sometimes to lie under a reproach. 

What if God have some great design and work to bring to 
pass, which in an ordinary way he cannot bring to pass, but 
through the reproach of the solemn assembly ? Suppose 
that the Lord intend for to scatter and disperse the truth 
and the gospel; how will he do this, but by scattering 
his people that are of the solemn assembly ? The church 
was scattered in Acts viii. What then ? They went up and 
down preaching every where. They came to Antioch, and a 
great number believed and turned to the Lord ; and Paul 
and Barnabas stayed there a whole year preaching, and there 
those that believed were first called Christians. By their 
scattering, truth and the gospel scattered. 

But then, what if God will try his enemies and his friends 
both at once ? Sometimes he will try his enemies, whether 
they will dare to break open his house, to trample his holy 



SER. 7] IN EVIL TIMES. 413 

city under foot ; whether they will behave themselves 
proudly. Sometimes he will try them. Sometimes he will 
try his own children, how they will carry it in such a day ; 
whether they will lament after God ; how they will be affected 
for the want of the public assembly. God will try sometimes 
his own children ; and where doth God try his children but 
in that thing wherein they are much delighted ? What is 
that ? " One thing have I desired of the Lord, which I will 
for ever desire, that I may dwell in the house of the Lord." 
Here is their delight, here is their desire ; here God will try 
them. 

But what if the Lord will make the solemn assembly 
more glorious than ever it was ? He hath promised to do it, 
to make the place of his feet more glorious ; that the light of 
the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of 
one day as of seven days. He will make the solemn assem- 
bly more glorious. How so ? but by bringing one contrary 
out of another. When did God ever put any great life upon 
any business, but at first he put the sentence of death upon 
it ? When did God ever give any great repute or honour to 
Joseph, to David, to Mordccai, but first they were brought 
under reproach. Saith our Saviour Christ, " Unless the seed 
dies, it abides alone ; but if it die, it brings forth much 
fruit." So with Christ, so with the saints. In Isaiah xxvi., 
as with himself it was, so it shall be with his : " Thy dead 
men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise." 
Bodies once dead and raised again, are the most glorious. 
Now God doth intend to make the solemn assembly more 
glorious than ever ; no wonder therefore that he doth some- 
times, being this is his way and method, suffer the solemn 
assembly to lie under reproach. So then, you have the first 
thing cleared in these particulars. 

Secondly, But then. suppose the solemn assembly do lie 
under reproach, how will the members of the solemn assem- 
bly take it, or be affected with it ? 

Why the members of the solemn assembly are of two 
sorts ; there are false members, and there are true members. 

Some are true members of the church : " If ye continue 
in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed." 

Some are false members of the church : " They went out 
from us, because they were not of us," 1 John ii. 19. These 



414 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 7- 

latter, when the solemn assembly lies under reproach, they 
will not be much grieved, but rather say, Down with it, down 
with it, even to the ground, with the children of Edom. 

But the former, that are the true members of the solemn 
assembly, the saints and people of God, they will be much 
affected, saith the text, therefore I will gather them that are 
sorrowful for the solemn assembly, " who are of thee, to 
whom the reproach of it is a burthen." These will be much 
affected, and very sensible of the reproach of the solemn 
assembly. In Numb. ix. we read of some certain men that 
were defiled by a dead body, and they were mightily troubled 
that they were kept from the passover, from one ordinance, 
ver. 6, 7- Yet the solemn assembly stood. How would they 
have been affected, if the solemn assembly itself had lain 
under reproach. In Psalm xlii. you see David is much 
affected when he was kept from the house of God ; yet the 
solemn assembly stood. How would he have been affected if 
the solemn assembly itself had lain under reproach ? When 
the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, those that are 
the true members of the church and solemn assembly, the 
saints and people of God in truth, they will be much affected 
and sensible thereof, and carry the reproach up and down 
with them as their burden. 

You will say, How and why ? 

How will the saints and people of God be affected, when 
the solemn assembly lies under reproach ? 

I answer negatively first: They will not be so affected 
with the reproach of the solemn assembly as to be incapable 
of the teachings of God. It is said of Israel, that they did 
not hear Moses for anguish ; so the saints and people of 
God will not be so affected when the solemn assembly lies 
under reproach, but they will learn thereby. 

Neither will they be affected with the reproach of the 
solemn assembly, as to be unthankful for what they have ', 
it is thy mercy that we are not consumed. True, the solemn 
assembly lies under reproach, but it is a mercy of mercies 
we have that liberty we have. 

Nor will they be so affected with the reproach of the so- 
lemn assembly as if it were barely their own concernment. 
Not barely as their own concernment. It is true they are 
much more concerned in the reproach of the solemn assembly 



SEB. 7-] IN EVIL TIMES. 415 

than others, but they are not affected upon this account, 
merely because it is their own concernment. 

How then ; how are the saints and people of God affected 
with the reproach of the solemn assembly ? 

They are affected more with this evil than with any evil in 
the world; and they look more upon this as their great 
affliction, and are afflicted more at this than at any evil, than 
any other evil of their own that doth befal them. You 
know how it was with the daughter of Eli, " Ichabod, Icha- 
bod, the ark of the Lord is taken ;" her husband was killed, 
and she falls in travail, 1 Sam. iv. 21, and being delivered, 
she names the child Ichabod, saying, the glory is departed 
from Israel, because the ark of God was taken, and because 
of her father-in-law, and her husband ; and she said, the 
glory is departed from Israel, for the ark of God is taken ; 
she names her husband's death but once, and her father's 
death but once ? but that the ark was taken twice, for that she 
was most affected. " Is there any sorrow like -unto my 
sorrow?* 1 saith the church; why? the ways of Zion mourn 
and are unfrequented. Thus then the saints and people of 
God will be affected when the solemn assembly doth lie 
under reproach. 

This affection of their's will continue with them, and abide 
upon them ; they will not hang down their heads for a day, 
and frolic it afterwards ; hang down their heads for a day 
in a fast; but as it is said of Ahab, " He walked heavily," 
so they will walk. Saith David in Ps. xlii., " My tears have 
been my meat day and night, while they continually say unto 
me, Where is thy God ? When I remember these things 
I pour out my soul in me/' so you read it ; but it should be, 
upon me ; I pour out my soul upon me, as waters poured 
upon the ground : " For I had gone with the multitude, 
I went with them to the house of God, with the voice of 
joy "and praise, with a multitude that kept holy day." My 
tears have been my meat " day and night/* it is not for a 
day and there is an end, but " day and night." This affection 
doth continue with them, and abide upon them, wherever 
they go, they carry it as their burthen. 

Then also they will lay aside their ornaments, that they 
cannot rejoice in their former comforts as they did before : 
and the Lord said unto the children of Israel, that he would 



416 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 7' 

not go, would not go up with them ; I will send an angel 
before you, Exod. xxxiii., and drive out the Canaanite, and 
the Amorite, but, saith he, I will not go in the midst of thee : 
then the children of Israel stript themselves of their orna- 
ments : when the people heard these evil tidings, they mourn- 
ed, and no man did put on his ornaments ; " For the Lord 
said unto Moses, say unto the children of Israel, ye are a 
stiff-necked people, I will come up into the midst of thee in 
a moment, and consume thee ; therefore now put off thine 
ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee. 
And the children of Israel stript themselves of their orna- 
ments, by the Mount Horeb : and Moses took the taberna- 
cle, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, 
and called it the tabernacle of the congregation ; and it came 
to pass that every one which sought the Lord, went out unto 
the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the 
camp/' The presence of the Lord was removed : they were 
fain to go out unto the tabernacle : the presence of God was 
departed, and God said, he would not go with them ; and 
though he had promised them an angel, yet they fall a crying 
and weeping: oh, the presence of the Lord with us, else we have 
no comfort ; and then they laid by their ornaments : so that 
look when the solemn asembly lies under reproach, then the 
presence of the Lord is gone from the solemn assembly ; and 
therefore the saints and servants of God, will and must lay 
by their ornaments. 

The saints and people of God will search into their own 
ways, and turn from the evil of those ways that have a hand 
in bringing in this reproach upon the solemn asssembly : 
they will search and turn. In vain is the sense, when there is 
no emendation. " Is it such a day as I have chosen, for a man 
to hang down his head ? No, to relieve the oppressed, to take 
off the yokes and burdens " reformation : but what is it, a dull 
reformation ? No, but it is a reformation led on by prayer, and 
fasting, and it is such a prayer as is backed with reformation : 
and thus the people of God are affected under the reproach 
of the solemn assembly. 

But then you will say: what is there in this reproach of 
the solemn assembly, that the saints and people of God should 
be so much affected with it ? 
What, what not ? 



SER. 7] IN EVIL TIMES. 417 

The Lord himself is well pleased with, and the saints 
are well pleased in this sense, in the reproach of the solemn 
assembly. 

God himself is well pleased with it : " The sacrifices of 
God are a broken and a contrite heart;" a hard heart is 
God's curse, Lam. iii., you read it thus : " Give them 
sorrow of heart, thy curse unto them." It is not sorrow 
of heart, for that is a blessing, but obstinacy of heart, a 
hard heart, so the margin ; but in the Hebrew give them a 
heart with a shield upon it, that may fence off the blow : 
that when any thing is spoken they may fence it off; give 
them a fending heart, a hard heart; a hard heart is God's 
curse : a tender and a soft heart bleeding over the miseries of 
the church, it is God's sacrifice ; God is well pleased. 

And the saints and people of God, they are well pleased 
in this sense. It is recorded of Nazianzen, that knowing 
there would be freedom from sin in heaven, he desired to die : 
but then remembering that there would be no mourning for 
sin in heaven, nor for the miseries of the church, he desired 
to live : choosing rather to mourn for sin and the miseries 
of the church, than to be freed from sin : here was a spirit ! 
It is said of the true griever, he grieves and he doth rejoice 
in his grief. A man that doth truly grieve, he doth grieve 
and he doth rejoice in his grief: so that in this sense of the 
reproach of the solemn assembly, God himself is well pleased 
therewith, and the saints are well pleased therein. 

But do you ask what there is in the reproach of this so- 
lemn assembly, that the saints and people of God should be 
so much affected with it. 

I answer, There is a darkness falls upon the greatest organ 
of light : the greatest organ of light is eclipsed, all eclipsed ; 
and the greater vessel or organ of light that is eclipsed, the more 
dreadful is the eclipse : the sun eclipsed, that great organ of 
light, it is more dreadful. The great organ of light for the 
world, it is the solemn assembly : now when a reproach falls 
upon the solemn assembly, the greatest vessel and organ of 
light is darkened, and this is dreadful to those that look up- 
wards. 

But then the name of the Lord is dishonoured : " The re- 
proaches of them that reproached theehave fallen upon me:" 
and so the other way; the reproaches of them that reproach 



418 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SEU. 7- 

as, and the solemn assemblies, are fallen upon thee, O Lord, 
and upon thy name." There are three or four things that 
God doth much delight in, in the world ; his truth, his wor- 
ship, his people, his name. When the solemn assembly is 
under reproach, his truth is derided, his worship denied, his 
children persecuted, and his name dishonoured. Who can 
behold all these things and not bleed ; and not be affected 
therewithal ? 

Look when the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, 
then all the people of God, the whole generation of the righ- 
teous are afflicted, distressed, and as a lamp despised before 
him that is at ease : who would not grieve to see the necks 
of all the people of God lie upon the block together, ready 
to be cut off? Pray do but mind that place in Esther, it is 
said there, that when the decree came out upon the Jews, 
that their necks lay all upon the block, in Esther iii., " The 
decree was given in Shushan the palace, and the king and 
Haman sat down to drink, but the city Shushan was per- 
plexed :" the city Shushan, why the city Shushan ? It is 
not said the Jews : what was the city Shushan, Jews ? No, 
there were a hundred to one in the city, that were no Jews, 
aye, but the neighbours of the people of God were perplexed. 
Oh then, is the city Shushan perplexed in such a day ; and 
shall not the Jews themselves be perplexed ; shall they not 
be affected much with it ? Then all the saints, their necks 
lie upon the block. Look but into the Psalms, and you shall 
see that when the temple of God is defiled, the reproach of 
the house of God and the persecution of the saints go toge- 
ther, Psalm Ixxix. 1, 2. " O God the heathen are come in- 
to thine inheritance, thy holy temple have they defiled, they 
have laid Jerusalem on heaps ; the dead bodies of thy ser- 
vants have they given to be meat unto the fowls of the hea- 
ven, the flesh of thy saints unto the beasts of the earth, their 
blood have they shed like water round about Jerusalem, and 
there was none to bury them, we are become a reproach to 
our neighbours." Aye, these two go together, the defile- 
ment of the house of God, the reproach of the solemn as- 
sembly, and the persecution of the saints likewise. Now 
who can see these things and not be affected ? 

The schoolmen say, That power which cannot be resisted, 
is a cause of grief. If evil be coming, and I be able to resist 



SER. 7'] IN* EVIL TIMES. 419 

it, I am not much affected : but if evil comes like an armed 
man, and I cannot resist it, this causeth grief. Now when 
the solemn assembly lies under reproach, evil comes upon 
the people of God like an armed man : they cannot resist it, 
here is grief then. 

The schoolmen say, All grief doth arise from the want of the 
thing loved, and the loss of good. Now when the solemn 
assembly doth lie under reproach, their good things are lost ; 
the saints' good things : there is the presence of God in the 
solemn assembly : there is the chariot whereby Christ rides 
into the souls of sinners : there is the food of faith : there is 
all good things gone, and therefore no wonder they are so af- 
fected : but 

Look when the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, 
then the world is scandalized, and the world is offended. 
" Woe to the world because of offences," it is an evil thing 
that the world should be offended. When is the world of- 
fended ? when the solemn assembly lies under reproach ? 
Aha, so would we have it. Then they laugh. Saith Paul, who 
is offended, and I burn not ? We say, when the sick man 
laughs, the physician cries, He is distracted, saith he. Why 
now the saints and people of God, they are the world's phy- 
sicians to cure them, and heal them, by their lives and 
prayers and instructions. What, do they laugh ? what do 
they say : Aha, so would we have it ? But when the solemn 
assembly lies under reproach, then is the world offended. 
Then therefore is the time for the saints and people of God 
to be much affected. 

Look when the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, 
then the devil gets up again. The devil falls by the powerful 
preaching of the gospel, saith our Saviour Christ. Rejoice 
not that the devils fall down like lightning before you. What 
fall ? what, doth our Saviour Christ speak of the devils 3 first 
fall ? no surely, but of his fall by the preaching of the gospel. 
When the gospel is powerfully preached, then the devil falls. 
But when the solemn assembly lies under reproach, he gets 
up again. And what good man would not grieve, when he 
sees how the devil gets up again ; especially if he have seen 
the falling of the devil before ? 

Look when the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, 
then you have a certain presage of a famine of the hearing of 
E E 2 ' 



420 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 7- 

the word. If one could assure you, that for certain there 
would be a famine of bread, you would be much affected. 
Why, the reproach of the solemn assembly is a certain pre- 
sage of a famine of the word, and the hearing of the word ; a 
certain presage of it. 

The more that any good man hath any hand in any great 
evil that is come, the more he is affected therewithal. It 
is fabled of the eagle, that when the eagle was shot, looking 
upon her wound, she was troubled. But when she looked 
upon the arrow, and saw the feathers of the arrow; nay then 
saith she, I am killed, and am destroyed by some of my own 
kind, in regard of the feathers; and this wounded her again, 
and troubled her more, that she was destroyed by some of 
her own kind. And truly, when a good man looks upon the 
reproach of the solemn assembly, may he not see his own 
feathers ? Yes, this reproach of the solemn assembly have I 
had a hand in. No wonder therefore that it doth grieve him, 
and that he is much affected. 

When the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, God is 
departed. Take away God, and I am nobody, saith one. A 
good heart will always say so. Take away God, and I am 
nobody. Now when the reproach lies upon the solemn as- 
sembly, then God is gone. God is so much departed, and so 
much gone, as the solemn assembly lies under reproach ; so 
much we do bear the badges of God's departure. 

Do you then ask me, what there is in this reproach of the 
solemn assembly, that the saints should be so much affected 
therewithal? There are these two things, and judge you 
whether there be not cause, that all the saints and people of 
God should be much affected, and carry it as a burthen upon 
their souls, when the solemn assembly lies under reproach ? 
And thus I have done with the second thing, that those that 
are of them, those that are the true members of the so- 
lemn assembly, they will be very sensible of it. And you see 
the reasons of it. 

But suppose the solemn assembly do lie under reproach, and 
we have been, and are very sensible thereof, and carry it as a 
burthen. What then ? 

Then will the Lord turn your former sorrow into future 
comforts. Then will the Lord return unto you with joy. 
Then shall you certainly be comforted, and God will make 



SEB. 7] IN EVIL TIMES 421 

your after comforts, to run parallel with your former troubles. 
" Blessed are those that mourn, for they shall be comforted. 
Those that sow in tears they shall reap in joy." As surely as 
now you go forth, carrying precious seed : the sense of this 
condition upon your hearts, you shall return again with your 
sheaves of joy with you. 

But wherein lies this parallel, and how shall our after 
comforts run parallel with our former troubles, in case we be 
thus sensible ? 

The scripture tells you ; in case that you have been scat- 
tered in the day of the reproach of the solemn assembly ; in 
case you have been scattered, then the Lord will gather you ; 
your gathering shall answer to your scattering. I will gather 
them that are sorrowful; gather, he will gather you under his 
wing, as a hen gathers her chickens. " O Jerusalem, &c. 
How often would I have gathered thy children together, as a 
hen gathereth her chickens under her wings." Gather you, as 
a shepherd gathers his sheep into his fold, and he will gather 
you into his bosom ; and therefore saith our Saviour Christ, 
" I was a stranger, and ye took me in." The word is, you 
gathered me. " I was a stranger," and ye gathered me not. 
Why ? because when the Lord gathers, then he takes us in 
and receives us into his bosom. So that in case you have been 
scattered, then will the Lord gather you. 

In case that you have halted in the day of the solemn assem- 
bly, then the Lord will heal you. Behold, saith he. " I will 
save her that halteth, and gather her that was driven out." 
Mark, there is a great matter in it, if that you be sensible of 
the reproach of the solemn assembly : I will save her that 
halteth ; halting notes \veakness. I will strengthen you in 
opposition to all your weakness. Halting notes an uneven 
course : a man that halts, inclines this way and inclines that 
way; sometimes he bends to the right side, and sometimes 
to the left : so when men halt in matters of religion ; how 
long will ye halt between two opinions ; sometimes he bends 
this way to the truth, and sometimes that way against truth. 
Now in opposition to all this uneven course of yours, saith 
the Lord, I will heal her that halteth : though thou hast 
halted in the day of the reproach of the solemn assembly, 
yet I will heal thee, and I will save thee, saith the Lord. 

In case that you have suffered reproach in the reproach of the 



422 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [ER. "] . 

solemn assembly, saith the Lord, in the 19th verse, " I will 
get them praise and fame in every land, where they have 
been put to shame/' Have you suffered reproach in the 
day of the reproach of the solemn assembly*; have you suf- 
fered reproach ? " I will get you fame and praise ;" yea, I 
will get you fame and praise in the very place where you 
have suffered reproach, yea, in all the places where you have 
suffered reproach. 

And, saith he in the last verse, " When I turn back your 
captivity before your eyes." Sometimes a man's name is 
vindicated when he is dead. God vindicates him from 
reproach when he is dead. But saith he, " I will get you 
fame and praise even before your eyes ; in the very place 
where you have been put to shame/' there will I get you 
fame and name, and your eyes shall see this. So that thus 
then you see the parallel : if that the saints and people of 
God be sensible of the reproach of the solemn assembly, 
God will turn their former miseries into after mercies, and 
he will cause their after comforts to run parallel with their 
former trouble. 

By way of application then : 

If these things be so : rejoice not over us, oh, our enemies, 
for though we be fallen, yet we shall rise again. Speak no 
more arrogantly, oh, ye children of man, though the righ- 
teous fall seven times, he shall rise again. 

If this doctrine be true, what a mighty difference is here 
between a godly man and a wicked man, in reference to his 
dealings with God, and God's dealing with him. In refer- 
ence to his dealing with God, a wicked man looks upon a 
solemn assembly with an evil eye, and it is his burthen, he 
cries, The burthen of the Lord, the burthen of the Lord. 
A good man looks upon the reproach of the solemn assembly 
as his burthen. The solemn assembly itself is a burthen to 
a wicked man, the reproach of it is a burthen to a good man. 
Well now, as for the wicked, his laughter shall be turned 
into mourning; as for the godly his mourning shall be 
turned into comfort. 

But if this doctrine be true, what abundance of comfort 
is here, for all you that have been sensible of the reproach 
of the solemn assembly ! It cannot be denied, but this 
day the solemn assembly lies under reproach ; then you that 



SER. 7-] IN EVIL TIMES. 423 

have carried this reproach up and down with you as your 
burthen, and have been sensible of this reproach of the 
solemn assembly, be of good comfort, the Lord will turn 
your present miseries into future mercies ; the Lord will 
cause your after comforts to run parallel with your present 
troubles. 

You will say, this comfort doth relate to the future, but I 
have none for the present. 

Yes, you know it is said, the Lord comforteth in all our 
tribulations; it is not said after our tribulations, but in them. 
There is comfort in our tribulations ; " Blessed are the poor 
in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of God : Blessed are those 
that mourn, they shall be comforted : and blessed are the 
pure in heart, for they shall see God." But " blessed are 
the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of God." So 
that here is comfort for the present. 

But you will say, All this comfort hangs upon a condition ; 
this promise doth run conditionally. Here is a great promise 
of comfort indeed, but it is upon condition, being sensible 
of the reproach of the solemn assembly, and I have not been 
sensible, and / am not sensible. 

No, pray stay a little : Not sensible ! It may be you are 
not sensible of your sense. As a man may be sensible of 
his unsensibleness, so a man may be unsensible of his sense. 
As a man may not believe that he doth believe ; so a man 
may not be sensible of the sense that he hath of the cause 
and misery of the people of God. When a poor man comes 
first into the prison, he is sensible of the smell of the prison, 
afterwards he is not sensible of his sense, but he hath a 
sense still; so now it may be, you have been so used to bie 
sensible of the reproach of the solemn assembly, that it may 
be you are not sensible of your sense. 

But I pray tell me, if that you have borne the reproach 
of the solemn assembly upon your hearts before God in 
private ; have you not been sensible ? If you have fasted 
and prayed in reference to the reproach of the solemn as- 
sembly ; have you not been sensible ? Our Saviour Christ 
expounds the one by the other. There came to Christ the 
disciples of John, saying : Why do we and the Pharisees 
fast oft, but thy disciples fast not ? Jesus said unto them : 
can the children of the bride-chamber mourn? &c. Hje 



424 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 7 

expounds fasting by mourning : and if you have been more 
afflicted with the reproach of the solemn assembly, than of 
any other thing, and have walked heavily under the burthen 
of it; certainly you have been sensible. 

But whereas you say, This promise doth run conditionally, 
and this condition you have not attained ; give me leave 
to say to you, do you rightly understand a condition ? 
a condition properly is that upon the account whereof a 
thing is done, and without which thing it cannot be done. 

As for example, I sell my commodity for money, now upon 
the account you pay so much money, I give you the com- 
modity, and without that I do not give it. Now I pray, will 
you say, that your own sense at the highest is that upon the 
account whereof God will shew mercy; or will you say that 
God will not shew mercv unless you have sense ? We find 
that God doth return unto his people first, and afterwards 
he saith, then shall ye be ashamed, and then shall ye loathe 
yourselves ; it is very true, that he will shew mercy to those 
that have sense of the solemn assembly ; but where doth he 
say that he will shew mercy to those that have no sense ? 
No where; for his love and grace is free. But if any man 
be sensible of the reproach of the solemn assembly, lo, this 
comfort is laid up for you : Are you scattered ? The Lord 
will gather you. Have you halted in this day of the reproach 
of the solemn assembly ? God will heal your halting. Have 
you suffered reproach ? In the very place where you have 
suffered reproach, God will give you a name, and fame, and 
glory. I must say it, Lift up your heads, oh, ye saints, you 
that hang down and are sensible of the reproach of the so- 
lemn assembly. 

You will say now : But what should we do that we may 
be more sensible of the reproach of the solemn assembly ? 
It is clear, the solemn assembly doth lie under reproach, 
and God hath promised all this comfort to those that are 
sensible of it. I hope I have some sense ; what shall I do 
that I may be more sensible of the reproach of the solemn 
assembly, that this comfort and this promise may come upon 
my soul ? 

Get spiritual life, you must be living ; a dead man is not 
sensible. A living man is sensible of the scratch of a pin, 
a dead man is not sensible of the gash of a sword ; it is life 



SER. 7] 1N EVIL TIMES. 425 

that makes one sensible; never think to be sensible, and to 
be dead ; therefore go to God for spiritual life. 

Then strengthen your love unto God, and his ways, and 
children, and ordinances; Dolor amoris filia, grief is the 
daughter of love ; I grieve for the loss of what I love, and 
no further than 1 love. If you would grieve and be sensible 
of the reproach of the solemn assembly, strengthen your 
love : love to the ordinances, love to the solemn assembly, 
love to God. And 

Then take advantage from all those occasions that you 
meet withal, to enlarge your mourning, and your sense. 
When a man would leap far, he takes his rise upon a mole- 
hill, that he may leap the farther. Friends, you have many 
rises this day, for your mourning, and for your sense ; improve 
all those rises, as you meet with any occasion, look upon 
them as so many mole-hills, look upon them as so many 
rises for to go the farther in your sense of the reproach of 
the solemn assembly. 

Then observe what those evils are, those sins are, that 
have had a hand in bringing this reproach upon the solemn 
assembly, and do not meddle therewithal ; take heed you 
do not add any of them to the heap. If a man have a 
burden upon his shoulder, that he cannot stand under, and 
you go to lay any more upon him, saith he, I pray take heed, 
I have as much on me as my back will bear : and if there 
be company in a boat, that the boat be full, and another offer 
to come; Oh no, by no means, the boat is ready to sink already ; 
truly thus it is, the boat is ready to sink already, it is so 
full. And do you look upon the reproach of the solemn 
assembly as your burthen ? Oh, then, take notice what it 
was that brought the reproach, and take heed of that. 

Take heed of the immoderate use of any creature comfort. 

Friends, let me say this to you ; the more your hearts do 

soak into the comfort of the creatures, the less cause you 

will have of the reproach of the solemn assemblies. The 

more your hearts soak into the comforts of your own house, 

the less sensible you will be of the reproach of God's house. 

So that take heed of the immoderate use of any creature 

comfort that is before you. 

To end all, 

Above all things strengthen your faith ; for although sense 



426 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SfiR. 8. 

be an enemy to faith, faith is a friend to sense ; especially 
sense of sin, and sense of the church's miseries. The more 
you look upon the fulness, and the freeness, and the certainty 
of the promise of deliverance, the more your faith will be 
strengthened. Now this promise of deliverance here, is full, 
is free, it is large, it is repeated again and again ; in Micah iv. 
you have the same promise, and it is there repeated again 
and again. 

Why then should you say not thus? Well, through the grace 
of God, though I be sensible of the reproach of the solemn 
assembly, yet I will believe for deliverance, and though I do 
believe for deliverance, yet I will be sensible through grace, 
of the reproach of the solemn assembly. Do so ; only let 
your faith be the mother unto this sense ; therefore take this 
promise, read it over, work it, chafe it upon your hearts much 
when you are alone. I conclude reading it : saith the Lord 
here, " I will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn 
assembly, who are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was 
a burthen : Behold, at that time, I will undo all that afflict 
thee, and 1 will save her that halteth, and gather her that 
was driven out: And I will get them praise and fame in 
every land where they have been put to shame : At that time 
will I bring you again, even in the time that I gather you, 
for I will make you a name, and a praise among all people of 
the earth, when I turn back your captivity before your eyes, 
saith the Lord." 



SERMON VIII. 

THE EVIL OF UNBELIEF IN DEPARTING FROM GOD. 

" Take heed brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of 
unbelief, in departing from the living God." HEB. iii. 12. 

IN these words three things are the most considerable. 
A great disease that Christians are subject to, to depart 
from God. 

The cause of that disease, an evil heart of unbelief. 

The cure of that disease or the remedy against it; and 



SEE. 8.] IN EVIL TIMES. 427 

that is, watchfulness, or taking heed. "Take heed lest 
there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing 
from the living God." 

The disease is great indeed, a disease common unto the 
children of men to depart from God. 

And the disease is very dangerous ; for else, why should 
we take heed thereof? I shall speak something to all these, 
and not so much as to single out any doctrine : But thus 
from the first. 

It is a very dangerous thing to depart from God. 

When may a man be said to depart from God, or a people 
be said to depart from God ; and what is the danger of it ? 

For answer, There is a total departing from God, and a 
partial departing from God ; every sin that we do commit 
is a departing from God. For what is sin, but an avertency 
from the Creator, and a convertency to the creature. 

A total departure there is, and that is two-fold, either 
total in regard of the object, or total in regard of the 
subject. 

A man doth totally depart from God objective, when he 
doth depart from all the truths and ways of God, and turns 
heathen. 

But subjective, a man doth totally depart from God, when 
he doth with his own heart and soul depart from the Lord, 
though he may keep many truths ; as a man that breaks in 
his outward estate, he may keep something and yet be bro- 
ken ; so spiritually, a man may break and depart from God, 
and yet may keep many truths. Now it is this totally de- 
parting that is here aimed at; and it is a dangerous thing, 
either totally or partially; but especially a dangerous thing 
to depart from the Lord totally. 

Now that is the question : When may a man be said to 
depart from God ? 

Look when a man doth depart from the service and the 
worship of God, then he departs from God. In Isa. Ixv. 11, 
" But ye are they that forsake the Lord, that forget my holy 
mountain." When men do forget the holy mountain, the 
worship and service of God, and depart from that, then they 
depart from and forsake the Lord. And 

Look when a man doth depart from an holy conversation 
wherein he hath walked before, then he is said to depart from 



428 SEASONABLE TRUTHS [SER. 8. 

God, Job vi. 14. But he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty. 
" To him that is afflicted, pity should be shewed from his 
friend, but he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty :" it is not 
said, fe he forsakes the Almighty," but he forsakes the fear of 
the Almighty, which is all one : when a man doth forsake the 
fear of the Almighty, the good ways of God, a holy and a good 
conversation wherein he hath walked before, then he is said 
to depart from God : and 

Look when a man in time of danger and trouble doth not 
so much trust unto the Lord, as unto an arm of flesh for 
safety and deliverance, then he is said to depart from God, 
Jer. xvii. 5. Thus saith the Lord, " Cursed be the man that 
trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart 
departeth from the Lord." For a man in time of trouble to 
rest upon an arm of flesh, and not upon the Lord himself, 
why, this is to depart from God in scripture language. 
Now it is a dangerous thing so to do. 

For thereby a man doth depart from his life, in departing 
from God, he doth depart from his own life : for God is a 
living God, saith the text here : take heed lest there be in 
any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the 
living God : departing from God, then a man doth depart 
from his life : take away God and I am nobody, saith one : 
a true speech, take away the living God, and where is our life ? 
Thereby also a man doth depart from his own prosperity, 
2 Chron. xxvi. 5. It is said of Uzziah, " As long as he 
sought the Lord, God made him to prosper." Departing 
then from the Lord, is a departing from a man's own pros- 
perity. 

Thereby also in departing from God, a man doth depart 
from his refuge and shelter in the time of adversity : as he 
doth depart from his own prosperity, so by departing from 
God, a man doth depart from his shelter, and covert, and 
sanctuary in the time of adversity. You know what God 
hath said, " I will be a little sanctuary unto you :" in the 
want of a sanctuary, God will be a sanctuary to his people, 
" Fear not their fear, nor be afraid, sanctify the Lord of hosts 
himself, and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread, 
and he shall be for a sanctuary unto you." A hiding place, 
a shelter in the time of a storm When a man departs from 



SER. 8.] IN EVIL TIMES. 429 

God, then he departs from his sanctuary, from his relief and 
shelter in the day of his adversity. 

Thereby also a man doth depart from his own comfort ; 
from all his comforts : take away the sun, and it is not all the 
torches in the land can make a day, or can give daylight : 
God is the Father of mercy, and the God of all consolation ; 
depart therefore from the Lord, and we depart from all our 
consolation, we depart from all our comfort. 

Thereby also in departing from the Lord, a man doth de- 
part from his own being, and his own mercy : forsakes his 
own mercies, and cleaves unto lying vanities. The name of 
God you know is, I am, I am that I am : who is all-sufficient ? 
I am, saith God : who is gracious ? I am, saith God. The 
name of God is, I am, the name of the creature is, I am not : 
in departing therefore from the Lord, a man doth depart from 
his own being: in him we live, and move, and have our 
being, departing from the Lord, we depart from all : surely it 
is a very dangerous thing then to depart from God.